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Major-Gen. H. T. ROGERS, R.E. 




All rights reserved 

" It has been the unique destiny of the Greek language to have 
had, from prehistoric times down to our own, an unbroken life. 
Not one link is wanting in this chain which binds the New Greece 
to the Old." — Modern Greece, by Professor Jebb. 


The object of this book is to give the English student a 
knowledge of pure modern Greek, as it is now written and 
spoken by educated people, and also to make him ac- 
quainted with the more or less corrupt forms of the language 
which have prevailed at different times and in different parts 
of Greece, and which still linger in secluded localities where 
the peasantry have not been in a position to take advantage 
of the gratuitous education now provided by the State. The 
subject of the purification of the Greek language from the 
barbarisms which at one time disfigured it, is well explained 
in a letter of the celebrated scholar Philippos Johannou which 
forms the opening chapter. 

Modern Greek, like many other European languages, has 
only in comparatively recent times assumed the form of a 
single fixed and definite language understood by the whole 
nation, and in this form it differs so little from ancient Greek 
that were a foreigner to address a Greek in the language of 
Lucian, he would be readily understood ; in fact many of my 
pupils, reading with me a passage from a good modern author, 
have asked me whether it was ancient or modern Greek, and 
were not a little astonished when they were told that they 
might regard it as either. It is not too much to say that any 
one who has a competent knowledge of ancient Greek can 
learn to speak the modern language in a month, though of 
course fluency can only be acquired by constant practice. 

The pronunciation of Greek presents no difficulty, being 
perhaps easier to acquire than that of any other language, 
and since the accent of every word is marked, it is impossible 


to pronounce a word with the accent on the wrong syllable. 
Unfortunately Englishmen pronounce ancient Greek like 
English and totally disregard the accents, so that when they 
take up the modern language, they have before them the 
disheartening task of unlearning what they have been taught. 

Although the book has been written for the use of English- 
men, it is hoped that Greeks will derive advantage from it in 
the study of English. The translation has been very carefully 
made as literal as possible with due regard to the difference 
of idiom in the two languages. 

I have to express my thanks for the assistance rendered 
by H.E. Mons. J. Gennadius, who very kindly perused the 
proof sheets and suggested emendations which were of great 




A letter of Philippos Johannou upon the modern Greek language . 1 

Arrangements for a journey from London to Athens . • 17 


At Victoria railway station — From Victoria to Dover — From 

Dover to Calais . . . . . . .20 


From Calais to Paris — A letter of Corais about the French Revolu- 
tion ........ 24 


At Paris — Dinner — Notre -Dame — The Emperor Julian about . 
Lutetia — The Bois de Boulogne — An extract from Hamlet with 
modem Greek translation by Demetrius Bikelas . . 34 


Departure from Paris — Chambery — The vitality of the Greek Ian- - — 
guage ; its decline — The ancient and modern versions of the 
Greek Bible compared — A passage of Corais upon the gi'eat 
length of time required to form or to change a language — A 



remark of Gibbon upon the Greek language — An extract from 
the Lausaicon of Palladius, 408 A.D., describing the generosity 
of Father Ammonius — An extract from the Great Limonarium, 
490 A.D., relating how three robbers attacked the hermit 
Theodore— An extract from the works of Johannes Moschus, 
614 A.D., describing how a sinner, through the intercession of a 
saint, obtained relief by standing on a bishop's head when im- 
mersed in a river of fire in hell — An extract from the Chronicon 
Paschale, 610 A.D., relating how Bonosus was killed — A passage 
from Leo Grammaticus, 1013 a.d., narrating how King Leo was 
assaulted at the church of St. Mocius . . . .51 


Extracts from the preface of S. Zampelius to the Songs of the People, •**" 
containing examples of the vulgar Greek language — ^th Century, 
the emperor Copronymus and the nun — ^th Century, a trick 
played by the emperor Michael the Stammerer on Gazarinus 
the governor of Saniana — The greeting of the people at the 
horse-race to the emperor Theophilus — The empress Theodork 
and her sacred images — The execution of Nicephorus, chief of 
the eunuchs, by order of the emperor Theophilus — Caesar Bardas 
and Basileius — Cross-examination of the patriarch Photius — 
10^^ Century, a passage from the Tactics of the emperor Con- 
stantine Porphyrogenitus — Extracts from the preface of Corais 
to the second volume of his Miscellanies giving specimens of the -"^ 
vulgar Greek of the \lth Century — ' ' "Words of advice of Alexius 
Comnenus to his nephew Spaneas" — The patriarch Michael 
Cerularius and the emperor Isaacius Comnenus — Extract from 
the first volume of the Miscellanies of Corais, vulgar Greek of - 
the 11th Century, a passage from the poems of Ptochoprodromus 
describing his poverty as a scholar— Extract from Ellissen's 
edition of the Chronicles of the Morea, 12th Century, containing 
a description of the conquest of Peloponnesus by the Franks — . 
nth Century, a passage from the poem about Bertrand the 
Roman and the beautiful Chrysantza — Arrival at Turin . 65 


From Turin to Genoa — Italy the refuge of Greek literature in the 
14th and 15th centuries — Stu dy of Gre eJLiiL Italy : Boccaccio ; 


Petrarch — Reviva l of Greek literature iii_Jtalv^ due^tq^Greeka ^( 
from Byzantium and Greece : Manuel Chrysoloras ; extract of \ 
a letter from Coluccio Salutati to Demetrius Cydonius, the com- 
panion of Chrysoloras ; extract from a work by Leonardo Bruni 
of Arezzo, relating how he became a pupil of Chrysoloras — The 
family of the Medici : Cosimo and Lorenzo de Medici ; great 
assistance given by them to the study of Greek — Nicolo Nicolio 
of Florence to whom Boccaccio bequeathed his library — Arrival 
at Genoa ........ 81 


A short account of the life of Dante— Extract from the Inferno with 
Constantine Musurus' Greek translation and Dr. Carlyle's 
English translation— Two extracts from the Purgatorio with 
Musurus' Greek translation and Mrs. Oliphant's English transla- 
tion — The metres of modern Greek poetry — The Political metre 
— A passage from Rangabes' modern Greek translation of the 
Odyssey, with tl\e original and an English version by S. H. 
Butcher and A. Lang . . . . . .94 


A Greek clergyman from Constantinople — Rule regarding marriage 
among the Greek clergy — Greek monks and nuns — Clerical 
titles — Special title of the archbishop of Cyprus — Decline of 
the Byzantine empire from the 11th century ; attacks made 
upon it by the Seljouks, the Wallachians, and the Normans — 
Salonica captured by the Normans (1185) — Peter the Hermit — 
The emperor Alexius Comnenus — The Crusades — A passage 
from the Greek History of Constantine Paparregopoulos about 
the origin of the Crusades — Passage from The Church and the 
Eastern Empire, by the Rev. H. F. Tozer, describing the 
character of the fourth Crusade — Events preceding the Council 
of Florence — The Palaeologi — Departure of the emperor John 
Palaeologus from Constantinople (1437) ; his magnificent re- 
ception at Venice as described by Sylvester Syropulus ; his 
arrival at Ferrara ; his reception by the Pope — The Council of 
Florence ; its decree — Arrival at Florence . . 116 



Florence — A letter of Bessarion regarding the education of the yV 
children of Thomas Palaeologus, 1465 — An inscription on a 
tomb at Landulph in Cornwall in memory of a certain Theodore 
Palaeologus, 1636 — Plethon, Gazes, and George of Trebizond, 
teachers of Greek in Italy — Thereianos on Lascaris and Aldo 
Manuzio ; on Marcus Musurus ; on Vlastos, Callierges and the 
Cretan printers at Venice — A stanza by Zalocostas describing 
the dawn — Some verses on Italy and Rome from The Wanderer 
by Alexander Soutsos — Arrival at Rome . . .140 


Departure from Rome — A passage from Athenaeus about Rome — 
A passage from Plutarch about the disputed derivation of the 
name of Rome — Three extracts from the Physiologos of D. Stu- 
dites (1568), about the spider, the weever-fish, and the dolphin 
— Extract from a translation into vernacular Greek of the Battle 

\f of the Frogs and Mice, by Demetrius Zenos, 16th century — 
Glossary to the translation — An extract from a poem by Joseph 
Bartselis of Zante, 16th century — Arrival at Naples . . 170 


Departure from Naples — Father Gregorio Rocco ; how he convicted 
hypocritical penitents ; his reasons for there being no Spaniards 
in paradise — The destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum — 
Dion Cassius' account of it — An extract from the Pastor Fido 
of Guarini with the Greek translation of Michael Summakes of 
Zante made about the end of the 16th century — Extract 
from the Rhetoric of Francisco Scouphos, published in 1681, 
describing the calming of a storm by St. Nicholas — A verse by 
Zalocostas in praise of the month of April — An extract from 
the Tiri-Liri of Theodore Orphanides explaining how the word 
coccyx became couccos — Extracts from two sermons of Elias 
Meniates, 17th century: "Behold, thou shalt conceive"; 
"A little drop of honey " — Arrival at Metapontum . . 193 





Departure from JHetapontum — Two passages from the Eliaca of 
Pausanias describing the oft'erings from Metapontum in the 
sacred treasury at Olympia — Metapontum, in common with 
many other Greek cities in Magna Graecia, destroyed — Sybaris 
destroyed by the Crotonians — A description of the luxurious 
habits of the Sybarites— A Sybarite's visit to Sparta — Taranto 
— A poem on the violet by G. Staurides — A description of 
Taranto — Archytas of Tarentum, the great philosopher and 
statesman — The three dialects now spoken in Taranto — The 
Greek-speaking inhabitants of Italy — Some stanzas of a Greek 
song of Calabria from the collection of Professor Domenico 
Comparetti, with an Italian transliteration showing the pro- 
nunciation — Three Greek songs of Southern Italy ; a short tale 
in prose ; some Greek proverbs of Calabria ; with English 
translations by the Rev. H. F. Tozer — Some modern Greek 
proverbs — Some ancient Greek riddles from Athenaeus — Some 
modern Greek riddles — Arrival at Brindisi . . . 225 


Departure from Brindisi — Animated character of the conversation 
of the people of Southern Europe — The Italian Navy — The 
battle of Lepanto — The Austrian Navy — Lines on the sea from 
'— The Wanderer of A. Soutsos — Modern Greek poets': Alexander 
Soutsos and his brother Panagiotes ; Count Dionysius Solomos, \f 
author of the Ode to Liberty — Specimens of the Cretan dialect 
of the 17th century : extracts from the Erotocritos, a ^ 
poem by Vincenzo Cornaro ; extract from the Erophile of ' 
George Khortatzi ; extracts from the Boscopoula, a pastoral • 
poem by Nicolas Drimyticos — An extract from a treatise by 
S. C. Oeconomos (1843) upon the constant care given by the ^ 
Greeks to the education of the young — A sketch of the life of 
Alexander Maurocordatus and that of his son Nicolas — Greek 
of the 18th century — The barbarous style of the Capuchin 
Thomas of Paris ; extracts from his introduction to the 
Thesauros of Alexius Sommevoir — The modern Greek of 
]\Ieletius, archbishop of Athens ; an extract from his Geography 
— An explanation of the first of the Aphorisms of Hippocrates 
in popular Greek by ^larcus of Cyprus— The Greek spoken by 


Levantines — Levantine interpreters — Importance of a correct 
pronunciation of Greek — Extract from the Tiri-Liri of 
Orphanides, ridiculing the pronunciation of Greek employed by 
foreigners — Three modern Greek Love-songs from the Voyage 
Litteraire de la Grece, par M. Guys (1750) : Franjeskesa, an 
acrostic ; The Tree of Love ; The Sea of Troubles . . 259 


A boating-party of Greek students — Intellectual progress of the T" 
Greek nation in the l7th and 18th centuries — A sketch 
of the life of Eugenius Bulgaris : specimens of his modern 
Greek ; an extract from his letter to the deposed patri- 
arch Cyrillus ; an extract from one of his sermons (18th 
century) — A sketch of the life of Nicephorus Theotokes : two 
extracts from his Sunday Commentaries (18th century) — 
A sketch of the life of Lampros Photiades ; his portrait presented 
by himself to the celebrated Greek patriot George Gennadius, 
now in the possession of the latter's son H.E. Mons. J. Gen- 
nadius, the Greek envoy in London — Adamantius Corais : D. 
Thereianos on his character and work ; some notes on his life ; 
a passage from his preface to Plutarch's Parallel Lives; a 

I passage about Equality from his introduction to the second 
edition of Beccaria ; a passage about the rhetorical ability of 
Socrates, from his introduction to Xenophon's MemoraUlia; 
Xjh some remarks of his upon wealth and education ; on th e educa- 
tion o£ women ; on music ; his description of the village priest 
of Bolissos, P apa Trechas ; his Pattern of a Lexicon (19th 
century) — Arrival at Corfu . . . . .311 


Departure from Corfu — Passengers on board the steamer from 
Epirus and upper Albania — Sol omos' Ode to Liberty with 
English translation by Miss M'Pherson — A sketch of the life of 
Solomos — Poets and scholars of the Ionian islands : Andreas 
Mustoxydes of Corfu ; his letter to Constantine Simonides, the 
notorious literary forger — Corfu the lovely Scheria of Homer — 
Homer's description of the gardens of Alcinoiis, with English 
translation by S. H. Butcher and A. Lang — A passage from 



Xeiiophon's Hellenica describing tlie ravaging of Corfu by the 
Lacedaemonian admiral Mnasippus — The palace of the Empress 
of Austria in Corfu, called the "Achilleion " ; the statue of the 
poet Heine in its gardens. — The river Thyamis — Leukimme 
where the Corcyreans erected their trophy after the sea-fight 
between them and the Corinthians — the Sybota, where the Corin- 
thians erected their trophy on the same occasion — The moun- 
tains of Epirus the refuge of the Greek warriors who refused to 
submit to the Turks — The Armatoles and Klephts — Klephtic \/ 
songs : the soiig,.^ofSterghio ; the young Klephtic warrior ana ~ 
his mother, with translation into ancient Greek by Philippos 
Johannou, and English translation by Edward H. Noel ; the 
song of Nannos ; the last command s^ of Demos — The Suliots : 
the mountain stronghold of Suli ; thefrequent and unsuccessful 
attempts of the Turks to capture it ; attempt of Ali Pasha to bribe 
the Suliot chieftain Tsima Zerva, and the latter's noble reply ; Xy 
the fall of Suli through treachery ; the brave monk Samuel ; re- 
treat of the Suliots with the women and children ; attack upon 
them by an irresistible force of the enemy ; their desperate posi- 
tion ; heroic death of the women ; escape of a small remnant of 
the Suliots to Parga — A sketch of the history of Parga : its sale 
by the English to Ali Pasha ; a song about the sale of Parga and 
its evacuation by the Greeks — Some lines on the moon by 
Panagiotes Soutsos from his Agnostos — The blind singer — The 
song of Liacos — The death of Athanasios Diacos, with English 
translation by Miss M'Pherson — Lord Byron : extract from 
the G ^our, ^ h modern Greek translation by Catherine C. 
Dosios — "The Isles of Greece," with Greek translation by a 
Scotch philhellene ; Byron's journey to Mesolonghi as related 
in the Hellenic Chronicles ; the freedom of the city of Meso- 
longhi conferred upon Lord Byron — The three sieges of Meso- 
longhi by the Turks : the two first unsuccessful ; its fall — The 
funeral oration of A. R. Eangabes upon the Greek patriot George 
Gennadius : the poem of The Tears by Zalocostas on the death 
of George Gennadius, with English translation by Mrs. Ed- 
monds ; two epitaphs on the tomb of Gennadius — Arrival at 
Patras — Departure for Athens; the olive -grove of Athens — 
Colonos ; lines upon it from the Oedipus Coloneus, with Eng- 
lish translation by Lewis Campbell — Arrival at Athens . 364 




"The Recognition," a poem believed to belong to the 10th century 438 


Specimens of the dialect of the Cypriot peasants : The Song of the 
Stag ; The Song of the Cledon ; St. George and the Dragon ; 
The Story of the Ghoul . . . . . .442 


Answers to Riddles, pages 252 to 258 .... 470 




<f>iA€ KvpL€ Maplve n. Bp€T€, 

'Atto oktm ijSr] SeKacTrjptSiov, 
d(f> ov TO 'EAAr^i/iKov yevos 
rip\L(T€. va €^epxy]Tai oltto ttJs 
fiaKpas €K€ivr]S TrvevfxaTLKrjs 
vdpKi]^^ ets i]v 6 /Sapvs rrj^s 
SovAems )(^€ifJiMV €?_)(€ fSvOtcrrj 
avTo, Kat, oTov veov r/5r/ eapos 
dp)(op,kvov, vkav TrvevfxaTiKrjv 
^(orjv €15 rd Sta^opa yueA^; eav- 
Tov vd alcrOdvrjTai StaxeofJLevijv, 
TO TTCpl KOLVr]<s TiJov 'EAA>yvwv 
•yAwcro-rys {VyT7y/xa ttoAAcikis 
dveKLvyjOi) vtto tiJov Xoyiiav 

OpLOyevQiV Kal €7r/3€7r€ (f>V(TiK(^ 

TO) Aoyo) v' dvaKivy]dy. Uoa-ov 
TO ^7yT>//za TOVTO efvat (rTrovSatoi/ 
Kat TToa-yjv rj TotdSe i) rotdSe 
Averts €\eL iTTipporjV iirl rrjs 
7rv€V{xaTiKyj<s tov yevovs rj/xoiv 
avaTTTv^eois, euKoAws KaraXap,- 
fidv€L ocTTts dvaXoyLdOri on t) 






Dear Mr. Marinos P. Vretos, 

During the eighty years which 
have now passed since the Greek 
nation began to awake from that 
long intellectual torpor into which 
the terrible winter of subjection 
had plunged it, and, as if on the 
advent of a new spring-time, to 
feel a new intellectual life run- 
ning through its various members, 
the question of a common Greek 
language was often raised by the 
learned of our nation, and it was 
natural that it should be raised : 
for how important this question 
is, and how great an influence 
this or that solution of it has 
upon the intellectual develop- 
ment of our nation, any one 
readily understands who reflects 
that language is not only an 
instrument for the communica- 



yXCi(T<Ta Sev efvat fxovov ro 
opyavov t^s ets aAA^^Aoi^s /xera- 

86(T€0)<S TWl/ rjlX€T€pO)V ivVOLMV, 

aAXot Ktti fxka-ov Kvptutrepov 
Trjs dvaTTTv^eio'S rov rjfieTepov 


SLcvKpivqcreios twv r]jJL€T€piov 
yvuxreiov. A tot twv Ae^ewv 
ovx^ P'Ovov opt^ovrai rot aAAw? 


aAAco? peovra (rrot^eia t^s 
rjfX€T€pa<5 crvveiSi^a-eios, aAAol Kai 
SievKoAwerat rot /xeytcrra o^ 
TTOLKiXr] Twv evvoiwv TT/ao? 
aAA^/Aas (TvyKpia-LS, eTro/jicvMs' 
r] €v peer IS rQ>v ttolklXmv avTOjv 
avaffiopiov. Ovto) Se evpvverai 

fXeV O OpL^UiV TtOV rjlJL€T€p(x)V 

yviocreMV, KaropOovTat 8k rj 
a-va-Tfj/JLaTLKr] ai'rwv Sidra^LS 
Kat rj dvayioyr] avTMV ets fxiav 
evorr/ra. Ai Ae^eis xPW^f^^^- 
ovcTLV ds rots 8iavorjTLKd<s kp- 
yacrtas tov Trvev/xaTos, w? el<s 
rds dpiOfxrjTLKas ol dpafSiKol 
XO'PO^KTrj pes, 8i S>v -q a-vyKptcriS 

Kol (TVVaXpLS TWV dptdpCOV Kal 7] 

evpea-is t(ov ttoAi^ttAokcov avrwv 
TT^os dXXyjXovs dvacfiopiov i^€V- 
fxapt^erai OavfiacriOiS. 'H eTrt- 
o-TrjfioviKr) dpa dvaTTTV^ts dvev 
yX(Jo(rcrr]s €7rtT>y8etas eivat dSiJva- 
Tos ' rj Se yXiJocra-a TrapiarrdveL rov 
jBaBpov Kal TOV xapaKrrjpa rrjs 
k'JTi(Trr]p.ovLKrjs rwi/ re Xadv Kal 
Twv KaO' €KacrTov dvdpioTrcDV 
p.op^(x)(T€OiS. 'Ek rQ)V prjdevToyv 
KaTacf)aLV€TaL ttoctov dvayKaia 
elvat rj ryjs yXiocra-rjs iinixeXeia 
Kat 7rapacrKeva(TLS ms {mctov 
7rpoa.7raLTOVfX€Vov Trda-yjs Trepl 

tion of our thoughts to each other, 
but also the principal means for 
developing our intellect and in- 
creasing and analysing our know- 
ledge. By means of words, not 
only that which would otherwise 
be undefined becomes defined, 
and the elements of our percep- 
tions which would be otherwise 
unstable are fixed, but also the 
comparison in various ways of 
our ideas with each other is im- 
mensely facilitated, and conse- 
quently the elucidation of their 
various relations with each other. 
Thus the horizon of our percep- 
tions is widened, their systematic 
arrangement is effected, and they 
are brought under one head. 
Words are of service for the 
intellectual work of the mind, 
just as the Arabic figures are for 
arithmetical work, for by means 
of these the comparing and con- 
necting of numbers and the dis- 
covery of the complex relations 
they bear to each other are 
marvellously facilitated. Conse- 
quently, scientific development 
without a suitable language is 
impossible. Language represents 
the decree and the character of 
the scientific training of nations 
and individuals. From what I 
have said it is evident how 
necessary it is to give the utmost 
attention to a language in pre- 
paring it as an instrument which 
is indispensable before any 
scientific study can be pursued, 
and consequently how important 


Tijv e;ri(rT7//xryv (T7rov8rj<Sj kiro- 
fM€V(i)<s TTOcrov Xoyov a^LOV KO^t- 
(TTorat TO (yjTyj/xa Trept rrjs 
TrapaSeKTeas kolvtJs tov ^fX€T€pov 
Wvovs yXciHTcrrjs. 

UXrjpiov TTjV vfiercpav Ittl- 
Ovfiiav €Kcfi€p(x) kvTavda, /xera 
7rdcnf]<i a-vvTOfJLias avTocrxeSiov 
Tvepl TOV prjOevTO^ {V/rvy/uaTOS 
yvioariv ryrt?, w? TOiavrrj, etvai 
ITefJaiios €V TToAAoi? .aTeA^)? /cat 
iTTiScKTLKrj dvaTTTV^eo)'? re koI 
>\§Lop6iocr€(x><i, aAAa Kara ras 
j3a.(r€L<s [JLOt ^atverat tKavm 
CTTcpea, TeOep^eXnofxevt] iirl rrjs 
Trerpas rov opOov Aoyov. 

Ile/otTTryv Kpivo) ivravda tyjv 
la-TopiKrjv iKdecTLV tmv 8La(f>6pu}v 
yviofxiov, atVive? vtto Siacfiopwv 
ek kva-LV rov ^7]Trj/xaTos Tr/aoera- 
9r](Tav P'^xpi' TovSe' dpKet 8e 
va eiTTto, on rpets KvptioTepac 
yvoi/xaL, u)v eKOLCTTrj iTTiSe^^erat 
8La(jiopds TLvas XeTrrorepas, 
Statpova-L vvv tovs Aoytovs tov 
yivovS' 01 p.\v avrQiv TricrTevov- 

(TLV OTt rj KOiV-)] TOv'^^Wt^VLKOV 

yevovs y\(i)(rcra virdp^ct ^8r] 
oypLcrpev)], Kar €l8o<s TovXd\L(r- 
rov, VTT avrov rov 'EAAryvtKov 
Aaov* elvai St^Aovoti avrrj rj 
Xv8ata yXwcrcra, biroia vtto tov 
'EAA^yviKOu Aaov avTO/xaTtos 
pop(fnoO€i(Ta AaAeiTat. Ot 8e, 
KaTa<f)povovvT€S Trjv pyjOeia-av 
yXtocrcrav ws 7rT(0)(r)v Kal ttoXv 
f^ap(iapi(pvG-aVj 8o^d(ov(TL tov- 
VaVTLOVj OTt KOLVrj T(oi/*EAA>Jvwi/ 
yXCkra-a Trpevret vd 8oyfMaTLcr0rj 
-q dp^aia 'EAAryvtKr^* wottc 
TavTYj^i yj ;)(/3rJo"ts aTratTetTat vol 

is the question of the comiiion 
language which is to be accepted 
for our nation. 

Complying with your desire, 
I here set foj?th as briefly as 
possible a rough statement of 
my view of the question, a view 
which, so expressed, is certainly 
in many respects susceptible of 
development and emendation, 
but which appears to me suffi- 
ciently firm on its foundation, 
resting, as it does, upon the rock 
of reason. 

I think it superfluous to give 
here an historical exposition of 
the different opinions which have 
been advanced by difi'erent people 
for the solution of the question 
up to the present day : it is 
sufficient for me to say that 
three principal opinions, each of 
which admits of ce'rtain more 
minute differentiations, now di- 
vide the learned men of our 
nation. One section holds that 
the common language of the 
Greek race is already defined, 
specifically at least, by the Greek 
people themselves, that is to say, 
that it is the actual vulgar tongue 
which, spontaneously formed, is 
spoken by the Greek people. 
Another section, despising this 
language as poor and utterly bar- 
barous, think on the contrary that 
ancient Greek should be laid 
down as the common language 
of the Greeks : in this case its 


€KTaOrj jSaO/x-qSov Kal Karaa-Tfj 
yevLK-j. 01 8e, Kpivovres ttjv 
fiev ;)(v8atav yXiocrarav aveirLrrj- 

SetOV €IS T-qV €7rL(TTr]fJL0VLKrjV TOV 

yevovs dvaTTTv^Lv Std re rrjv 
7rT(x))(^etav rrjs vXtjs koc to 
OLKavovLorrov kol dopiCTTOV tov 
JSap^apL^ovros clSovs, Tr]V 8e 
dvd(TTa(Tiv rrjs dp^aias 'EA- 
Xr]VLK7Js Kal rrjv elcrayioyrjv 
avrrjs els rds Siacfiopovs rov 
KOLViovLKov f^LOV (T^ko-eis d^vv- 
arov, d(nrd^ovTai fiea-rjv Ttva 
Twv prjOeicriov 8vo yvw/xr^v, 
aTTO^aivo/zevot ort aTratTetrat 
vd SiaTrXacrOrj KOLvrj tis tov 
yevovs yAwo-cra, jurj fxaKpyvofievT] 
jJirjT€ Ka6' v\r]v fi-qT€ KaT elSos 
diro Trjs x^^"''^^ €7rt toctovtov 
(ocTTe V dTTo/Satvr) els tov Xabv 
dKaTaXrjTT-TOS, Stopdovfievr) 8e 
KOL pvO/xi^oixevT], oa-ov evSexerat, 
Kara tov tvttov ttJs dp^oi-iOiS 
Kal eK TOV Orja-avpov eKeivrjs 
TrXovTL^ofJievrj. '^As e^erda-iofjiev 



"^H vpiOTrj TiZv prjBeia-Q>v yvia- 
fXMV etvai Kad' rjfids dirapd- 


a') AioTi TjBeXev efXTroStcreL 
Kal avTrjv ttjv SvvaTYjV Kal 
evKoXov Trpos tov dp-^^atov tvttov 
ryjs yX(oa-(rr]S Trpocreyyta-iVj KaO- 
lepovcra irdvTa TV^aiov j3ap- 
jSapia-fMOV errl fxovo) tw Xoyo) 
OTi evptiTKeTaL yjSr] els to, o-to- 
fxaTa TOV Xaov eirapy^tas rivos 
rj vqcrov ^EAAt^ viktJs. 

employment would liave to be 
extended by degrees, and ulti- 
mately become general. The 
third section, considering that 
the vulgar tongue is unfit for the 
scientific development of the na- 
tion, on account both of the pov- 
erty of the material and the want 
of regularity and precision in its 
ungrammatical style, but that the 
restoration of ancient Greek and 
its adaptation to the various re- 
lations of every-day life is im- 
possible, embrace an opinion mid- 
way between the two which have 
been mentioned, declaring that 
some common language must be 
formed for the nation which does 
not depart either in substance 
or form from the vulgar tongue 
to such an extent as to be un- 
intelligible to the people, but 
corrected and harmonised, as 
far as it allows of this, on the 
model of the ancient Greek and 
enriched by its wealth. Now 
let us examine each of these 
opinions separately. 

The first of the above-men- 
tioned opinions, according to my 
judgment, is inadmissible : 

1st. Because it would hinder 
the actually practicable and 
simple process of approximating 
the language to its ancient type, 
for it sanctions every casual bar- 
barism for the sole reason that 
it happens to be found at the 
present day in the mouth of 
the people of some Greek pro- 
vince or island. 


i)fxa<s els XafSvpLvdovSvcre^LTrjTOV 

TrOlKtAwTttTWl/ ^I'Sai'tOV TVTTOiV 

Kot els d^LaXiWovs eptSas. 'Eav 
8eu TTpeirri vd eirLyeipy^a-uiixev to 
d^vvarov^ ttjv dvda-Taa-tv S-qXov- 
OTt Trjs VTTo TO, epeuTTia tov 
dp^aiov Koa-pov irpo aiojvwv 
ra^elcr-qs TrpoyovtKrjs r}p.ojv 
yAcixrcrr^?, Start vd dpeXy](r(x)pi€v 
Kal avTov Tov SvwaTOv Kal evKo- 
X.OV, Trjs ecfiLKTTJs orjXovoTi 
SiopOiixreiDS T7]S ;(v8aias yAwcr- 
(rrjs Kal ttJs evKaTopOiOTOv 
StaTi'TTWcrecos avTfjs Trpbs Trjv 
dp^atav ypap,p.aTLKi]V ; Atart 
vet Ka$iepco(ro)p€v 7rap€(f>6ap- 
p,evovs TLvds Kal f3ap/3dpovs 
TVTTOvs., oiTtves evKoAcos StopO- 
ovvraL Kal evKoXoys slcrdyovTai 
StiopOiopevoi els rd (rro/xara tov 
Aaov, (u? pyj SiacfiepovTes ttoAv 
Toiv crvvyjdoyv, ■^ ms cukoAws vtt' 
avTov evvoovpevoL ; Atart tt. x- 
vd Xeyuipev Kal ypdcfxsjpbev rj 
ypyjd, y y py a ts — rj ttoAt^, rrjs 
TToXrjS — 6 KopaKas, rov KopaKa 
— 6 fSaa-iXtds, TOV /3a(ri\id — 
eKetos, eKCLOV — Tras, Tra/xev, Trare, 
Trdv — Acs, Acre, Ae/xev, Aev — 
cAeyoyLtovv, eAeyoo-ow, cAeyo- 
Tovv, eXeyop^acrOe^ eXeyocraa-Oe, 
eXeyovTOvv — Kat aAAa ttoAAo, 
roiavra /3dp/3apa Kal irapa- 
KeKopp,eva, y Kal en f3ap/3ap(o- 
Tepa, evM 8vvdp,e6a dvT avTMV 
vd Xeyiopev Kal vd ypd(f)(i)p,ev 
opdorepa, els 8e tov Aaov eTrt<jys 
KaTaXrjTTTd, rj y palatal ypaiai — 
7} TToAt?, T?]S TToAews — o Kopa^, 
TOV KopaKOS — 6 fSacTLXevs, tov 

2d. Because it would involve 
us in an inextricable labyrinth 
of all sorts of vulgar forms and 
in endless disagreement. If we 
are not to undertake the impos- 
sible, that is to say, the restora- 
tion of our ancestral language, 
buried ages ago under the ruins 
of the ancient world, why should 
we neglect what is practicable 
and simple, namely, the readily 
effected correction of the vulgar 
tongue and the easy process of 
making it conform to the ancient 
grammar 1 "Why should we sanc- 
tion certain corrupt and barbar- 
ous forms which could be easily 
corrected and easily introduced, 
so corrected, into the vernacular 
of the people, as they differ 
but little from those now in 
use and would be readily under- 
stood by them? Why, for ex- 
ample, should we say and write 

V ypy^i V ypv^^'^ — v ''^oXy, Tyjs 

TToX-qs — o KopaKas, tov KopaKa 
— 6 fSaa-iXtds, TOV fSa(TiXid — 
€KCtos, eKeiov — 7ra§, Tra/xev, 
Trare, irdv — Acs, Acre, XepLev^ 
Xev — lAeyo/xow, eXeyocrovv, 
cAeyorovv, eXeyopiacrde^ eAcyo- 
(raorOe, eXeyovTovv — and many 
other such barbarous and mutil- 
ated expressions, and some even 
yet more barbarous than these, 
when we can, in their stead, speak 
and write forms more correct 
and equally well understood by 
the people, rj ypata, at ypalai — 
rj TToXis, TTJs TToAews — 6 KO/oa^, 
TOV KopaKos — o /Jao-tAcvs, tou 


/?aO-tA.€(09 €K€LVO<S, €K€LVOV 

vTrdyeLS, vTrdyofxev, vTrdyere, 
VTrdyova-LV — Aeyeis, Xkyoii€V, 
Xeyere, Xeyovcriv — f Aeyo/x7/v, 
kXeyecTO, eXeyero, iXeyofieOa, 
kXkyecrde, kXkyovro ; Kat av Se 
Tt? d7T0(f)a(rLcry kvavrlov tov 
opdov Xoyov vd dvcndcry roa-ovs 
T-v7rovsT7]S apx^tas ypafjLfxartKrjs-, 
8vvafjL€Vov<s evKoAw? Kat evKara- 
At^tttws vd €l(Ta^BQi(TLV els rrjv 
Kotvrjv TOV '^^XX'qviKOv yevovs 
yAwcro-av, vd KaOiepcixrr) Se rovs 
(TwyOets f^ap^aptcTfJiovs, fi€V€L 
TrdXiv TO €^y]S ttoXXwv 8v(r)(€p- 
€twv Kat dSiaXvTMV epiSayv eyKvov 
^TjTrjjxa. 'EttciS^ rj ^vSata 
yXQxTcra Sev etVat /xia Kat ojjlol- 
6fxopcjio<s, aAAa Stai/aetrat et? 

StacfiOpOV'S TOTTtKOt? StaAcKTOV?, 

otov rrjv TLGXoTTOvvycnaKrjv, rrjV 
'^^TrravrjCTLaKrjVj rrjv 'UTretpo)- 
TLKrjv, TTjv Qea-a-aXtKrjv, tyjv 
XtaK7)v Kat J^VTrpiaKYjV k.t.A. 
7rco5 bpia-rkov ttjv KOivrjv rtov 
'EAAt^vwv yAwo-crav / Upos rb 
epMTrjfia tovto rpets 8id(f)opoL 
aTTOKpicreiS eivat Svvaral, at 

a') AvvdfieOa vd Kadtepcjo-oi- 
fxev (OS KOLvrjV tmv 'EAA>yvcov 
yXiocTcrav fxiav rivd t(ov 8ta- 

(fi6pO)V rOTTLKiOV SiaXeKTMV, 

aTToSoKLfxdlovTes rots AoiTras. 
^AAAa Tore rtva tovt(dv 

7rpOTLfM7JT€OV ', IIwS OcXoVO-L 

o-vp.(f)(DV7j(T€L CIS T'^v eKXoyrjv 
avTTJs ol Stacfiopovs StaXeKTovs 
XaXovvTcs 'EAAr^vtKot XaoL ; 
rj Sid rivos vofxodecrtas OeXei 
(TTrjpi^drj rj kKXoyt) ; €7rl tt/s 

^acrtAews — Ikcivos, ckclvov — 
■UTrayets, vrrdyoixev, hrdyere, 
VTrdyova-LV — Aeyets, Xeyopev, 
Aeyere, Xeyovcnv — iXeyoprjVj 
eXeyecTO, lAeyero, eXeyopeOa, 
eAeyeo-^e, lAeyovro ? And if 
any one, -in defiance of common 
sense, should decide to sacrifice 
so many forms of the ancient 
grammar which could be easily 
and intelligibly introduced into 
the common language of the 
Greek nation, and should sanc- 
tion the ordinary barbarisms, 
there still remains the following 
question which teems with difii- 
culties and with disagreements 
impossible to settle. Since the 
vulgar tongue is not one uni- 
form language, but is divided in- 
to many local dialects, such as 
that of the Peloponnesus, of the 
Ionian islands, of Epirus, of 
Thessaly, of Chios, of Cyprus, 
etc., how are we to define the 
common language of the Greeks ? 
To this question the following 
three different answers are pos- 

1st. We can sanction as the com- 
mon language of the Greeks some 
one of the different local dialects, 
rejecting the others. But then 
to which of them are we to give 
the preference ? How will the 
Greeks speaking different dialects 
agree to the choice ? Or by 
means of what legislation will 
the choice be confirmed ? By 
a majority of votes ? Nothing 
could be more absurd than this. 


7rX€iovo\f/y)cfiLas ; ovBev tovtov 
(XTOTTioTepov. *H KpLcn<s Trepl 


TTys €7rtcrT7///.7^? opyavov, ottolov 
eivat rj yAwcrcra, ei5 fiovov dvyJKet 
TOl/ VOVV VOUS 6jX(i)S Kttt dpi6fxo<s 
erp'at TvavT-q ^kva tt/oo? (xXXrjXa 

KOL (IXXoTpta. 'EtTI Tt]? yU,€- 

yaX€iT€pa<g 7rpo<i rovs tvttovs 
Tijs dp)(^aLa<s ypaixfiaTiKrj<s (tv/x- 
(/xovta? ; dXXa t6t€ Stari va 
fir] StaTviroiOy y] kolvi] nov 
'EAAvyvwv yAwo-o-a ert o-v/x- 
(fi(x)V0T€pa 7rpb<s ryv dpyaiav, 
direKSvofxevrj 6(tov TrXeiovas 
f3ap/3apL(TiJLov<s Smarat v' dircK- 
SvOrj x^/5^5 ^*^ Karaa-rfj 7rpb<s 
TOV Aaoi/ ^€1/1^ Kttt dKardXn^TTTOs ', 
13') Avvarov va SoOrj Kvpos 
urov els Tracra? to,? TOTrtKot? 
StaAcKTOi'S Kttt d(fi€$rj €ts Travra 
iXevOepat) cKAoyr) rrjs StaAcKTOv 
ev 7J 6^€A€t va XaXfj Kal ypdcfirj. 
'AAAa Tore to *EAAryviKov 
y€VO?, Kttt /XOVOV TO *EAAryvtKov 
yevos, ovSefitav OeXu e'xet 
yA(oo-crav KOivrjv, €7ro/x€V(jos 
ovSefxiav dkXu €)(€l yXQxrcrav 
tKavw^ TrAovcrtav koX 7rpo(Tr]K6v- 
Tws ScaTeTUTTw/xevv^v^ CTrtTi^Setav 
€ts irXrip-q irapdu-Tacnv tov 
fieydXov kol Kad' yj/xepav 
av^avofxevov dpiOfiov tmv tc^- 

l/tKWV, €7rL(TTYjfM0ViKi))V K.T.A. 
€VV06WVj et's SiaKpLCTiV TtOV 

AeTTTOTctTtov avTwi/ Stacfiopwv Kal 
a7ro^pojo-€wv tt/jo? aAAvyAa?, €is 
irX-Z^pi] Kttt dKpifSrj fxerdcfipacnv 

pqToptKiov, cfyiXocrocfiLKiov, IcTTOpL- 


The decision regarding the most 
suitable instrument for the mind 
and for scientific knowledge, 
which language really is, is 
the province of the intellect 
alone ; but intellect and numer- 
ical superiority have nothing 
whatever to do with each other. 
By its closer agreement with the 
forms of the ancient grammar ? 
But in that case why should not 
the common Greek vernacular 
be brought more into accord- 
ance with the ancient language, 
throwing off as many barbarisms 
as it can get rid of, without 
becoming strange and unin- 
telligible to the people ? 

2d. It is possible for equal 
authority to be given to all the 
local dialects, and a free choice 
permitted to every one of the 
dialect in which he shall speak 
and write. But in that case 
the Greek nation, and the Greek 
nation alone, will have no com- 
mon language, and consequently 
will have no language sufficiently 
rich and properly formed, capable 
of expressing fully the ideas of 
the great and daily increasing 
number of arts, sciences, etc., of 
distinguishing the minute and 
subtle shades of difference be- 
tween them, and of supplying a 
complete and accurate translation 
of select poems and of the best 
oratorical, philosophical, histor- 
ical, or scientific works of 
civilised nations. The forma- 
tion of such a language is a 



yrj/jLOLTWV TWJ/ 7re7roAiTio-/x€vwv 
iduiov. 'H 8fca7rA,ao"6S yXiocr- 
(Trjs TOtavT'qs etvai fxeya kol 
8v(r\€p€(rTaT0V epyov, aTrat- 
Tovv €7r' aiwvas rrjv (Tvvep- 
ytav Trdvroiv rwv Xoyioiv /cat 
(TocfiMv Tov eOvovs' Kadia-Tarai 
Se a8vvaT0<i, orav at TrvevfiaTi- 
Kal TOVTOv 8vvd/M€i<s Sev (Tvvep- 
yd^iovrai Trpos eVa Kat tov 
avTov (TKOTTOV, dXXd SiatpoiVTaL 
Kat KararepLVbiVTai do-\oXov- 
fJLevat et's 8ta7rAao-tv ttoAAwi/ 
ofiov SiaXeKTOJV edv fjbdXia-ra 

(1)? TO r)/Ji€T€pOV^ Kat ol (Tocfiol 
avTou oXiydpiOfjiOL. 

y ) AvvaTov vd (Tvyx^iapr^Oy 
Tj dvajM^ XPW'''^ ™^ 8La(f>6p(i)V 
SiaXeKTLKOJv TVTTCov, Oedipov- 
jxevoiv TrdvTOiV iTrta-qs opBQtv koI 
€vxpi](rTO)v • dXXd Tore ttccs 
Aoyos TrpocfiopLKos "^ ypa7rTo<s 
OeXet eta-Oat yeXotov (fivpap^a 

aV0p.0L(iiV TVTTWV, TToXvfXiyqS TLS 

Kat ay)8rjs (fiMvojv kvk€(ov. "KvcKa 
8e T7J<i fi€ydXr]<s TroiKuXias tcov 

Xv8aLK0}V TVTTiOV, &V €Ka(TT0S 

Xoyt^cTai €xoiv lq-ov SiKaiw/xa 
€V TTj 8-qp.OKpaTLa, Trj<s yXiocrcryj'Sj 
yjOeXc KaTaa-Trj ^ (rvvTa^L<s 
^FiXXrjvLKrjs ypap.p.aTLKrjs kol 
6 K-arovto-yu.09 T7y? 'EAATyVtK'J^S 
-yXMO-cr-qs d8vvaT0'i. Kat o/>to)s 
avayKT] irdcra vd €)(r) rj 
^XXrjViKr] yXQ)(T(Ta, cos TrdcraL 
T(i)v TreTToAtTtcryLtevwv Wvoiv at 
yAtuo-o-at, KOLV-qv TLva ypafxp,a- 
TLKrjv, 7r€pL€Xova-av tovs Kavovas 
7rpo<s ov<s d^eiAet va pvdp.L^-qTai 
Trds 6 OeXiov vd XaXrj Kal vd 

great and most difficult task, 
demanding for a very long time 
the combined labour of all the 
learned and able men of the 
nation, and it becomes an impos- 
sible one, when its intellectual 
forces do not co-operate to one 
and the same end, but are 
divided and subdivided, in the 
effort to form several dialects 
at the same time ; especially 
when the nation is so small as 
ours is, and its learned men but 

3d. It is possible for the pro- 
miscuous use of the different dia- 
lectic forms to be permitted, all 
being regarded as equally accurate 
and serviceable ; but in that case 
every sentence oral or written 
will be a ridiculous mixture of 
incongruous forms, a confused 
and disagreeable medley of 
sounds. On account of the 
immense variety of vulgar 
forms, each of which is con- 
sidered to have equal rights in 
the democracy of the language, 
the construction of a Greek 
grammar, and the regulation of 
the Greek language by rules, 
would be impossible. And yet 
there is every necessity for the 
Greek language to possess, like 
all the languages of civilised 
nations, some common grammar 
comprising rules to which every 



ypdcfiy 6pdii)<s Tr]v yA,wcro-av, etVe 
ojioyevip, €LT€ dWoyevqS' 

'Ek twv pijOevTiDV (TVvdyeTaL 
oTfc at SidcfiopOLTOTrLKaL 8ta AeKTOt, 
eh as >} )(y8aia twv 'EAAt^vcov 
yAwo-(ra StaLpeuTaL, SvvavraL pXy 

vd ■)(^p-)JCLfJi€V(T(ji)(TLV CI? ^(TfiaTa 

ory/xoTt'v'a, eis KCopnoSias, ets 
fjivOovs Kal SirjyTjfxaTa^ wpta-fxeva 
TT/aos SiSacTKaXiav kol repx^cv 
Tov 6)(^Xov, OV)^l 0/X(OS Kat €tS 
(TTTOvSaiav KOL vxj/r^X-qv TroLrja-LV, 
€ts eTTLa-TrjiJiovLKd (TvyypdfifJLara, 
eis vofJLodecTLav, ScKi^yopiav k.t.X. 
Ilacrat rtov fxeydXiov Kal Trecfio}- 
TLo-fievdiV rrj<s EvpwTrrys Wvcov 
at yAwtrcrat €)(^ov(Tiv, w? Kat i^ 
r)fi€Tepa, 8La(f)6povs dSiairXdcr- 
Tov<s SiaXcKTOvs, dXXrjv iv dXXy 
kirap^ia, vtto tov 6)(^Xov XaXov- 
fi€va<s, o)v yiverai XPW^^ ^^'^ 
^(Tfiara Srj/jLortKd, Ktu/xwStas 
K.T.X. ovSels 0/XW9 ovSefJLLav rcuv 

pi]d€L(TMV SiaXiKTOiV [XiTayiLpi- 

^erat cts a-vvTa^iv TroL7J/xaTo<s 
(TTrovSaLov, (TvyypdpLfJiaTOS eiri- 
(TTyjfxovLKov, ^ (u/Dtcr/xevov ets 
XprjcTLV KOL dxfieXeiav rwi/ 
7rai8etas /xero^cov 1} yeypafx- 
p^aTLo-fxevoyv dAAa ra rotavra 
"TTOirjpaTa Kal (rvyypa/iyuara 
(rvi/Tao-crov'Tat els tyjv Koivrjv 
TOV Wvovs Kal ypafjifiaTiKOis 
K€Kavovi(riievr]V yAwo-crai/. 

Kpxojj.eOaijS'q els rr/vl^eracrtv 
Ttjs SevTepas twv pijOeicriov yvco- 
ftwv, Ka^'rjv 17 KOtn) tov rj/uieTepov 
yevovs yXokrcra Trpeirei vd opLcrOjj 
17 dpxoiLa '^EXXyjvLKy). 'Eav rj 
dpxai6TT]s €KXy](f>6fj evTav6a 

Grgek or foreigner, who wishes 
to speak and write the language 

From what has been said it 
may be gathered that the various 
local dialects, into which the 
vulgar language of the Greeks 
is divided, may be useful for 
popular songs, comedies, fables 
and tales, matters confined to 
the instruction and entertain- 
ment of the common people, but 
not for serious and lofty poetry, 
scientific works, legislation, 
advocacy, etc. All the languages 
of the great and enlightened 
nations of Europe have, as 
ours has, various crude dialects, 
different in different provinces, 
spoken by the common people, 
of which use is made for popular 
songs, comedies, etc. : but no one 
employs any one of those dialects 
in the composition of a serious 
poem or of a scientific work, or 
one intended for the use and 
advantage of cultivated and 
educated people, but such poems 
and writings are composed in 
the language common to the 
nation and regulated by gram- 
matical rules. 

We now come to the con- 
sideration of the second of 
the above-mentioned opinions, 
according to which ancient Greek 
ought to be fixed as the common 
language of our race. If by the 



Kara re rrjv vXrjv kol to eiSo?, 
'^roi Kara re to Xe^LKov kol 
Kara rrjv ypafXfiaTLKrjv, ivvoov- 
fX€V d/JLecroiS, on ol rrji^ prjOeicrav 
yvMiJ.rjv d770(f)aLv6fi€VOL oltto- 
cfiatvovTaL n aSi^i^aTOV. To 
Ae^tKov rrjs dp^aLa<i 'EAA>yvtK^9 
yXdocra-Yjs elvai oXoiS dv€TTapK€<s 
els irapdcTTacnv twv iroXvapW- 
jji(i)V evvoLMv fie ocras r] diro 
T(ov dp^aioiv al(jjv(DV fie^pi twv 
rjixepCdV rjfxoiv yevofxevr) TrpooSos 
TMV rexvMV /cat eTncTTrjixojv eir- 
XovTLcre TO dvOpMirtvov irvevpLa' 
dvdyKTj Se Trdcra vd SrfiXLOvpyrj- 
Ookri TroXvdpiOfJLOi veat Ae^ets 
els TrapdcrracrLU riJov V€(j)rep(i)v 
eKeivoiv evvoiOiv. 'AAA' ovrois 
rj dp^ala ^^XX-qvtKr] yXcJkra-a 
Sev fievei wXeov dXrjdoys dp^ala' 
OeXec 6/xo ta^et dp)(^atov dyaXjxa 
evSeSvfievov Kara rds dTrairijcreiS 
rov veov crvpfxov^ ■^ (07rAia-/A€Vov 
fie rrfXe/SoXov, rj rrfXea-KOTTLOv, 

^ flLKpoa-KOTTLOV K.T.A." dvdyKTf 

dpa vd vorfOfj evravda dp)(^ata 
EAAt^j/ikt) yAwo-o-a fiovov Kara 
ro elSos, TfroL Kara rrjv ypafi- 

'AAAa Kal dv Kara rrjv irept- 
(i)pi<Tfievr)v ravrrjv crrffiacTLav 
voTfOy, rf KOLvrj avrrjs XP^^'''^ 
fievei dKaropOioros. IIoAAot 
rvTTOL rrjs dp^acas ypafifiarLKrjs 
Karecrrrfcrav dir' atwvwv els rov 
Aaov irdvrrf ^evoi kol dKard- 
XrfTrroL, ttoXv 8e dXXorpnnrepa 
Karecrrr) els avrov yj dp^ala (tvv- 
ra^iS' StoTt Yj vea twv 'EAA7yva>i/ 
yAwo-o-a fxifielrai to dveirrvy- 
fievov T(ov vecarepiov rrjs ^vpdoTrrfs 

ancient language is here meant 
both the substance and the form, 
that is to say, both the vocabulary 
and the grammar, we see at once 
that those who put forward this 
opinion propose an impossibility. 
The vocabulary of ancient Greek 
is utterly insufficient to express 
the innumerable ideas with 
which the progress of the arts 
and sciences from ancient times 
to the present day has enriched 
the human intellect : there is 
therefore an absolute necessity 
for the creation of innumerable 
new words to express those 
modern ideas. But in this case 
the ancient Greek language re- 
mains no longer really ancient : 
it will resemble an antique 
statue which has been clothed 
to meet the requirements of 
modern fashion, or furnished 
with a gun, a telescope, or a 
microscope, etc, : by the ancient 
Greek language, then, we are 
obliged to understand that only 
its form is here meant, that is to 
say, its grammar. 

But even if we take it in this 
restricted sense, its universal 
employment remains an impos- 
sibility. Many forms of the 
ancient grammar have been for 
ages altogether strange and 
unintelligible to the common 
people, far stranger to them 
the ancient syntax ; for the 
modern language of the Greeks 
imitates the diffuse style of 
the more modern languages of 



yXiiXTcrC^Vy €Kif)pd^ov(ra Slol Trpo- 
Oe(r€(i)v TToAAtts dva(fiopa<s S^]X.ov- 
/xevas eu rfj dp\aL(^ yXaxra-yj Slol 
rrjs KaraAvy^ews, dvaXvovcra 6e 
(TvvrjdeorTepov ra? /xeTO^as ets 
7r/30Tao-€ts dva(f)opLKd<5, atTioXo-» 
yuKaSj v7ro6€TiKd<;, ivavriMfxaTL- 
KOLS K.T.X.' rj 8e dKpif3rj<s )(^pyjcri<^ 
Twv kyKXicrebiV ryjs evepyijTtK'Tj's 
Kal fX€(ri]<i (fiOivrjs T(Ji)V pr^fxaroyv 

Kol €TL TToAAwV fJbOpLdiV aTTaiTet 

Sia/cptVets ovTO) XeirTas oTrolai 
virep/Saivova-L rryv Svvafjuv Trjs 

TTVeVfJbaTLKTJS TOV AttOV 6pd(T€(t)^. 

ToiavTrj ovcra rj dpyala 
^KXXrjVLKy] yXu)(T(ra Kal Toaov 
Tou Xaov aAAoT/Dta, €?vat diria-- 
TCVTov OTt deXei ttotc KaTacrT>y 
KaTaXtjirrrj et? avrov, dSiVarov 
§€ va ela-a^Brj ets to, o-TOfiaTa 

aVTOV. "0 Tt Kttt ai/ eLTTOiCTL 

TLves, d(f)ap7ra(6fJL€VOL fidXXov 
VTTO Tijs' ^iorjpds (f>avTaa-Las rj 
oS-qyov/JicvoL vtto T>y§ KptVew?, 
1^ dp^aia 'KXXrjVtKr] yXMcrcra 
Bcv Svvarai vd iyepOrj Ik tov 
rd(jiOv KOI KaracTTrj {wcra top 
Aaov yAwcro-a. 

"0^€V o^eiAoi'crt yxev ot veot 
o/xoyeveis, oVot Oyjpevovatv Iv 
Tois yv/Mva(rLOL<s kol iv tw Ilav- 
€TrL(TTy]fJLUp dvo)Tepav TratSetav, 
1*0, Kara/^aAAwcrt Trao-av (TTroi^Sryi' 
7r€/06 Tvyv dTrapdfjiiXXov yXojcrcrav 
TWi/ rjfieTepwv irpoyovoiv Kal 
aa"KWVTat €7rt/zeAws ct's to ypct- 
^€tv avrr/v ev^^e/ow? Kat Kop,^- 
tos, tVa pi€TaX€ipi(iovTai avrrjv 

€l'8oKi/XW5 OTTOV Ot (TOcf)ol T7/9 

Ev/)W7r7ys yaera^ctpt^ovTat T'^v 

Europe, expressing by means 
of prepositions many relations 
which in the ancient language 
were shown by the termination, 
more usually resolving jjarticiples 
into relative, causal, hypothetical, 
adversative and other clauses : 
the correct use of the moods of 
the active and middle voice of 
verbs, and also of many particles, 
demands an amount of subtle 
discrimination which is beyond 
the power of the mental percep- 
tion of the common people. 
The ancient Greek language 
being of this character, and so 
strange to the common people, 
it is impossible to believe that it 
will ever become intelligible to 
them, and out of the question that 
it can become their vernacular. 
And whatever some may say, 
who are carried away by their 
vivid imagination rather than 
guided by their judgment, the 
ancient Greek language cannot 
rise from its tomb and become 
the living language of the 

Therefore our young fellow- 
countrymen, who in the colleges 
and the university are pursuing 
a course of higher education, 
should exert themselves to the 
utmost to acquire the unrivalled 
language of our ancestors, and 
carefully exercise themselves in 
it, so as to be able to write it 
with facility and elegance, in 
order that they may employ it 
with success where the scholars 



'^FoifiatKrjV, els TrotT^/zara SrjXov- 
OTL Kol (TvyypdfJbfxara crvvTaa-cro- 
fjieva Slol tovs crocj^ovs' d\X 
IttciSt) rj VTTO TrdvTOiv CKfjidOrjcrLS 
/cat rj KOLVrj xprjcns tt^S dp^aias 
EAAt^viktJs yXwcTcrrjS eivai 
d^vvaroSy /JLevei dvajKaia Kal 
dirapatrrjTOS rj StaTviroiCTLS kolvtJs 
TWOS yXuxrcrrjs \pr](Tip.ov els 
TO, \oL7rd (rvyypdfJLpiaTa Kal 
TTOiyjfJiaTaj els Tr)v aTro rov 
dfjbfSojvos SiSaa-KaXiaVj els rrjv 
vo/JLo6e(TLav, els ras kolvo/3ovX- 
LaKas (TV^7]T'^(T€LS, els rd StKacr- 
TrjpLa,els rrjv ecfirjfiepiSoypacfiLai', 
Kal els rds 8ia<p6povs rov 
KOLV(i)VLKOV fSiov (TX'^creLs. 

Avrrj Se elvairj Tplrr] y vtu/xr^ els 
rjs rrjV e^eraa-iv /JLerajSaivo/Jiev. 

Trjv rpirr^v yvcojjirjv Kad' r)v 
dvdyKT) vd ^iaTrXaa-Bfj ws KOivrj 
Twv ^EAA^yj/wv yAwcro-a ixecrrj rts 
ixera^v rov )(v8aL(Tfiov Tiov Kara 
TOTTOV 8iaXeKT(i)v Kal rrjs KaOapo- 
TYfTOS Kal ypajJLfxaTLKrjs dKpi- 
fSeias Trjs dp^aias '^^XXrjviKrjs, 
dorird^ovrat ws eAAoywT€/)av ot 
TrXeicTTOL rwv Xoy'nav rov eOvovs' 
dXXd 8ev aviicfiMvovcrL Trdvres 
irepl Tov rvTTOv avrrjs, Trepl rov 
/SaOfJLOV T^s KaOapoTTjTOS Kal 
Trjs 7r/)o? TYjV dp^aiav ypafifxa- 
TLKrjveyyvrrjrosK ^tvacffjavepov 
OTL Yj KOLvr) avTT] yXQi(T(Ta TrpeweL 
vd exij fSda-iv tyjv vvv XaXov- 
fJLevrjv^ I'va fir] KaTaa-Trj tov Xaov 
dXXorpta' dXX' evravri^ Trpeirei 
vd KaOapicrOy tQ>v Kara tottovs 
TTOLKiXoyv ^vSaicr/xfov Kal pvO- 
p-io-Orj Kara tov kolvov tt^s 
dp)^aLas ypafifxariK'^s tvttov eirl 

of Europe make use of Latin, 
for poetry for example, and for 
such works as are composed for 
the use of the learned : but since 
it is impossible for all to master 
.ancient Greek and make a com- 
mon use of it, it still remains 
absolutely and indispensably 
necessary to create some com- 
mon language which can be 
employed for other works and 
poems, for the teaching from 
the pulpit, for legislation, for 
parliamentary debates, for the 
courts of justice, for the daily 
press, and for the various rela- 
tions of social life. 

We now pass to the examina- 
tion of the third opinion. 

The third opinion is the one 
which the majority of the learned 
men of the nation embrace as 
being the most reasonable, which 
lays down that for the common 
use of the Greeks there must be 
formed a language which is mid- 
way between the vulgarity of 
local dialects and the purity and 
grammatical accuracy of ancient 
Greek ; but they do not all agree 
about the form that this language 
must take, nor about the degree 
of purity and approximation to 
the ancient grammar. It is 
evident that this common lan- 
guage should have for its basis 
that which is now spoken, in 
order that it may not be strange 
to the common people ; but at 
the same time it must be purified 
from various local vulgarities, 



TO(rOVTOV €(f) 6(T0V y) f)vdlXL(TL<i 

co'tti Svvary], yroL ecfi 6(tov tj 
KaraAryi^tS Kal t) Kara jxiKpov 
€is Koiv-qv \prjcriv eicraywyT) tt]? 
ovTdiS €ppvdfJii(r/JL€vy]S yAwo-crrys 
Skv virepf^aivet rrjv voy]TLKr]v tov 
\aov SvvafXLV. *0 Kavwv ovTo<g 
aTrAws ovTOi TLOe/xevos etVat 
6p66s' d\M Tj k^apjxoyr] avTov 
els ra KaO' eKaxTTOV irapk^ei 
TToAAas hva-KoXlas koX y^vv(^, 
veav SiatpecTLV twv y vco/xtov. 'Att' 
dpxrj<s rrjs Trapova-qs CKarovra- 
€Tr)pi8os TToAAo, Trepl tovtov 
iyponfirjcrav. Upb Trj<s 'EAAr^vi- 
Krjs /xaAto-ra €7ravacrTdorews b 
K.opayjs, b KoS^iKas, Neoc^vros 
6 ^ovKa<5, 6 Fa^T^s, 6 ^apixaKi8r]<s^ 
6 larpos KaveAAos Kat aAAot 
KaTecTTrjcrav to 7re/ot tt^? vca? 
*EAAr^i/tK7^S ^ryrry/za vTrodecTLV 
cnrovSatiov ^larpifiCiv koX ttoA- 

AwV <j)iX€pL(rTLKO}T€pO)V eV TtttS 

^lAoAoytKais i(f)rjp,€pL(TLV dpd- 
p<DV' VTTcpevLKa 8e ly yvw/zv^ tov 
Koparj, 7r/3o? 7)1/ ot TrAeicrTot twi/ 
Aoyiwv aTreKAtj'ov. 'AAA* 17 
€7ravacrTao-ts twv 'EAAt^vwv 
KaTCTravcre tov Tre/at yA(u(rcr7^S 
CK€tvov Sta ypacfiiSos kol fieXavos 
TToXcfiov 6v SteSe^^ry 6 vttc/) 
7roAtT(.K>]S du€^apTrj(rLa<s Sid 
^icfiovs Kal aifiaros' cxTro 6e t'^? 
7r€paTio(re(i)<s tovtov eiTLKpaTet 
€is Tas 7r€/)t yAw(r(r>y9 So^acrtas 
Twv Aoytwv 6/xoy€Vtuv dXrjOyjs 
avap)(^ia, twv /xev aTro/cAtvovTtov 


T(ov 8e dvappi-^iapLkvoiv Trpb'S tov 

ttp^ttlOV, TWV 8k Kpd/Jid Tt TVTTWV, 

dpyaiiiiv Kal vewv, €kA€KTWV Ka6 

and adjusted in accordance with 
the ordinary form of the ancient 
grammar, as far as such adjust- 
ment may be practicable, that is 
to say, as far as it can be carried 
without the language, so adjusted, 
being unintelligible to the com- 
mon people, and its gradual 
introduction as their vernacular 
beyond their mental capacity. 
This rule, thus simply stated, is 
correct ; but its adaptation to 
every detail presents many diffi- 
culties, and gives rise to fresh 
differences of opinion. From 
the beginning of the present 
century much has been written 
upon this subject. Before the 
Greek revolution especially 
Coraes, Codricas, Neophytos 
Ducas, Gazes, Pharmacides, 
Canellos the physician, and 
others, made the question of 
modern Greek the subject of 
important essays, and of many 
contentious articles in the philo- 
logical journals, but the opinion 
of Coraes, to which most of the 
learned inclined, was gaining 
the ascendency. The Greek 
revolution, however, put a stop 
to that pen-and-ink war about 
language, and its place was 
taken by the sword-and-blood 
war for political independence : 
after the termination of the 
latter there has prevailed among 
our learned fellow-countrymen 
a veritable anarchy in their 
opinions about the language, 
some inclining to the more 



■)(^v8aL(jiV, OLKptTWi dcr7ra{bjU,ev(ov, 
Kot iv TW avTW (TvyypdfJiixaTL, 
KOi kv TW avTW KecjiaXaco) kol 

TToXXoLKLS iv TTj aVTYj 7r€pi68o) 

dpxo-tovs rvTTOvs p^era vewv 
Xv8aL0)V dy]8<jjs pnyvvovTcov. 
lidvres ala-OdvovTai tyjv dvdy- 
Ky]v TTJs diro rrys dvapx^o.s 
TavTYjS d7ra\Xayrj<5' aAAol ttw? 
Karopdovrai avry; ; *H cjivcrts rj 
'q Tvxr] Tov 'EAAi^vtKOi) ykvovs 
etvau TrapdSo^o's. ^Q^s eirl tov 
virep TTJs TroXiTiKrjs tov dve^ap- 
Ttjcrias dyojvos TroAAot /xev yev- 
vatOL KOL el<5 T'i^v TraTptSa 
d(f)(i)(rL(i) pivot dv8pe<s dv€(f)dvr]- 
o-aVy pLcydXa KaTopOix)aravT€S 
e'/aya Kal peydXoiV kiralvijiv d^na- 
Bevres, ovSels o/xws dveSecxOr] 
virep^x^iiv TCtJV aAAwv virepox^v 
T0LavT7]V oirota rJTO iKavrj vd 
eXKVorr) 7r/)6s avTov Trjv Kotvrjv 
7rdvT(t)v ipTTia-Toa-vvrjv, kol tov 
KaTacrTija-Y) KevTpov evoTiyros 
Ty]<s oAt^s tt/oos to;/ (tkottov kvcp- 
yetas tov Wvovs^ ovtu) kol els 
TOV 7rvevp,aTiKov virlp ttjs Siair- 
Aao-ews Koti/7/? TOV eOvovs yXioa- 
(Tr]S dywva, TroAAot /xev Aoyov 
d^LOi €(f)dv7]a-av dywvto-rai, ttoAv 
Tt r) oAtyov CIS tyjv SiopOoionv 
KOL TOV TrXovTio-pLov avTrjs (TVV- 
TcAeo-avTes, ovSels o/xws to-^vo-e 
vol iVMcry virep ttJs yvcopirjs tov 
Tracras twv Aoytwv o/xoyevwv Tcts 
xpr^^ovs^ Kal Sid tmv ISiiov tov 
fSrjpdTiov vd X^P^^V '''V^ o8ov 
i]v t'jOeXov fSa8i(T€L TrdvTes 't^ 
ot TrAetcTTOfc Aoytoi "EAAr^ves* 
Oi;tw twv TrpaypdTOJV I^ovtwv 
Tts eATTig I'TToAeiVeTai, oTt ri 

popular form ; otliers clambering 
upwards to the ancient form ; 
some lieecllessly accepting a sort 
of mixture of forms ancient and 
modern, select and vulgar, and 
in tlie same work, in the same 
chapter, often in the same sen- 
tence, mixing ancient forms with 
modern vulgar ones in a disgust- 
ing manner. All recognise the 
necessity of a deliverance from 
this anarchy : but how is it to 
be accomplished 1 The nature 
or the fate of the Greek nation 
is peculiar. As in the struggle 
for its political independence 
there came forward many brave 
men who devoted themselves to 
their country, performing great 
deeds and gaining high praise, 
yet no one displayed a superiority 
above the rest so marked as to 
attract the confidence of all, and 
make him the common centre 
of all the efforts of the nation 
towards the end they had in 
view ; so in the intellectual 
struggle for the formation of a 
common language for the nation, 
many noteworthy combatants 
came forward who contributed 
more or less to its correction 
and enrichment, yet no one was 
able to unite all the votes of 
our learned fellow-countrymen 
in favour of his opinion, and 
by his own footsteps mark out 
the track which all, or the 
greater part of the learned 
Greeks, would follow. In this 
state of affairs what hope is 


irpofiaXXo^kvi] kvravOa vtt i/xov 
yvio/iy BkXii d^LwOi] 7rAeiOTC/)as 
fTTtSoKLfxaa-Las; Ov8e/xia TotavTrj 
iXirU yOekev vrrapx^t €av ■>} 
yviofxrj avT^] "^to ISia rt? iTTivota, 
a A A' €VTav6a 8iv €K(f>€po} yviofx-qv 
i^iav, fiaXXov Se rb crvvayojJLivov 
T/'/'s TrapaT^jpya-ctDS Tov rpoirov 
rov ypd<f)€LV ov ot TrXeta-TOL Kal 


po)V Tii'wv Siacfiopijjv i^aipov- 
fjLevwv, (Tno7n]Xu)<i Trapa^k^ovrai. 

HapaT7)pOVVTaL pXv €KKXl(r€L<S 

TiV€S Kal 6KT/307rat diro tt/? 
(TX^^ta^ofxevr^S ivTavOa T/aoxta?, 
Trap' aAAois Aoyiots ciAAaf 
aAAa TavTa<5 Aoy wrreov (os ras 
8iaTapd^€L<s €KeiVas twv klvov- 
yJkvdiV ovpaviuiv (TonxdriDV^ as 
rv^oXaL Kol ficra/SXr^Tal kiri^pd- 
(rets aAAwv rtvwv (TiDfxdTiov 
TTapdyovcTL, kol as d<fi%LpovvTes 

01 dcTTpOVOfXOi €Vpi(TKOV(TL TTjl' 

KavovLKrjv avriov rpoy^Ldv. 

Ka^oAov irapahkyofxaL tov 
VTTo TOV aet/Avryo-TOV Ko/aaT^ eV 

TtO-t TWV €7rtO-ToAwi' TOV T€.dkvTa 

Kavova OT6 cKao-TO? o^eiAei 
ypd(f)0)V va ypdffirj ovtws &a-T€ 
€K Twv vtt' avTOv ypacfiOfxkviov 
va yvaL SvvaTov vd k^o-X^lJ 
ypa^ixfiaTiKy] rts Trj<5 yXcocra-t^s' 
TOVTO (ryjfxaLVCL ort oc^eiAet 6 
ypd(f>(ov vd yvai TOTjAa;;(to-Tov 
frvix(f)Wvo<s 7r/3os lavrov, ryrot i/' 
aKoXovOrj o-Ta^€/3ws /cai/oi'as 
Ttvots, cTTo/xevws va /ut) /xeTaxet- 
pi^i]TaL ciAAore aAAoi's Twrovs, 

left that my opinion here ad- 
vanced should gain any greater 
approbation ? There would be 
no such hope, were this opinion 
an original idea of my own ; 
but here I do not proffer my 
individual opinion, but rather 
the conclusion I have come to 
from observing the style of 
writing which the majority, as 
well as the more critical of 
our scholars, with the exception 
of some slight differences of 
opinion, tacitly accept. There 
are certainly observed certain 
deflections and deviations from 
the orbit here traced, in differ- 
ent directions among different 
scholars ; but these must be re- 
garded in the same light as 
those perturbations in the move- 
ments of the heavenly bodies 
which the accidental and vari- 
able influences of certain other 
bodies produce, and by the elim- 
ination of which astronomers 
discover their normal orbit 

On the whole I accept the rule 
which has been laid down by the 
famous Coraes in some of his 
letters, that every one, when he 
writes, ought to write in such a 
way that from his writings some 
kind of grammar of the language 
might be deduced : this means 
that a writer ought at least to 
agree with himself, that is to say, 
that he ought to follow steadily 
certain rules, and consequently 
not employ different forms at 
diflferent times, and one kind 



TOL^eoiS, ore fxev alpofxevos vttott- 
repos et? rds vir€pve<^eU Kopvcfias 
rov apyaiov 'EAtKtovog, aXXore 
8e KaraTTLTTTCov els ra yOajxaXa 
TreSta ariva yecopyei 6 6)(^Xos 
Trpos vXiK-jv Tov rpoffiyjv' ore 
jiiev avrXiJov Ik ttJs KacrraXtas 
T^ '^I'mroKpi^vrjs tov dp^aiov 
^EAA-^^vicr/xov, dXXore Se Ik 
Twi/ IXvinhQiV TivayQiv tov 
)(y8aLcr/JL0v. Tov Kavova rov- 
Tov deXo) €>(et i)7r o^tv of^eSta- 

^<i)V Iv TOtS l^ryS TOV TWOV TTys 

KoivT^S t}/xwv yXuxro'Tj'S. 'FtirecSi) 
Se CTTt T'/'ys yXwo-o-T^s Oeiopovv- 
rat 8vo Ttva, i^ uA-jy Kat to etSo?, 
^cAw XaXycrei Trepl eKarepiav Iv 
aAAo) dpOpo). 

'Ev 'A^T^vats 31 Avyovo-Tov 

of syntax at one time and one 
at another, now soaring on 
wings up to the heights of 
ancient Helicon above the 
clouds, now suddenly descend- 
ing to the low-lying plains 
which the vulgar cultivate for 
their material sustenance ; at 
one time drawing water from 
the Castalia or Hippocrene of 
ancient Hellenism, at another 
from the muddy swamps of 
vulgarity. This rule I shall 
keep in sight when, in what is 
to follow, I sketch out the form 
of our common language. Since 
in a language there are two 
things to be considered, the 
material and the form, I will 
speak about both in another 

Atheus, 31 August 1860. 

'0 cjiiXoS V/XOiV 

*IAinn02 IflANNOY. 

Your friend, 



Kvpios 'Av8poK\rj<i ; 

MaXtarra. Avvafxai va (tols 
epioryjcru) jxk ttolov e^w Trjv Tt/xryi/ 
va o/xiAw ; 

'Ovo jxd^o fxai OvtX.(T0)V' etfiat 
81 Ka6yjyy]Tr)<5 rrjs *EA.A7;vtKr)9 
€V KavTa/Sptyiu.. Kvrrj t) i-m- 
(TToX-i] elvai 8l vfias irapa tov 
evravda Trpecr/SeoiS r^^'EAAaSo?. 

Ka^tVare irapaKaXC). ITAry- 
crLa(Tar€ els rrjv (fiCDTidv, 8l6tl to 
\pv)(^o<s (rqjxepov ea'at Spifxv. 

"E^^ere SiKaiov. "E^w ttvUl 
xpv^poTaros dvaToXiKos dve/xos. 

*0 7rp€a-^€VTr]<s fJ-ol ypdcfiet on 

(TK07r€V€T€ 7rpO(Te)(^0)S vd eiTL- 

a-K€(f)OyJT€ TTjV *EAAa5a. 'ETretSrj 
8k Kol eyo) TrpoTiOcfxaL vd irpd^io 
to avTo Kara tov 7rpo(r€)(yj 
KTTpiXiov TToXv Od X^P^ ^^ 
ords €\(i) cruvTa^eL8uoTr]V. 

TovTO ^a Tyi/at ttoXv €i'^a/3t- 
(TTov eis lfx€, StoTt 6d fxdOo) 
TToXXd Trap' vpMV irepl 'EAAaSos 
Kai tStws Trepl tt^s *EAA7yviKrJ? 
(i)S o/xtAetrai Kai ypdf^erai vvv. 

Ga /x€ €vprjT€ irpodvpLOV vd 
o-as Stucrw Tracrav 7rXy]po<f)opLav. 

Good-morning. Are you Mr. 
Androcles ? 

Yes. May I ask you whom I 
have the honour of addressing ? 

My name is Wilson. I am 
professor of Greek at Cambridge. 
This letter is for you from the 
Greek ambassador here. 

Pray take a seat. Come near 
the fire, for it is bitterly cold to- 

You are right. Out of doors 
there is a very cold east wind 

The ambassador whites me 
that you intend shortly to visit 
Greece. Since I also propose 
to do the same next April, I 
shall be delighted to have you 
as a fellow-traveller. 

This will be very pleasant 
for me, for I shall learn a great 
deal from you about Greece, 
and especially about the Greek 
language, as it is now spoken 
and written. 

You will find me quite ready 
to give you every information. 




Atot TTOtas oSov vofii^ere da 
rjvai KaXXiTcpov va Ta^etSeva-o)- 

'Eav eras Treipd^rj rj OdXaa-cra 
TrpoTijJLOTepov vd virdyoipLCV Sta 
l^pevrrjCTLov' lav o/zco§ o;^''^ ^7^^ 
TrpoKpivid T7]v 8ta MacrcraAtas 

EvTi';(a)5 1^ 6dXa(T(ra Sev fxe 
evo>(Ae6* €7rei8>) o/xw9 ttoAv 
eiTLdvfJLOj vd i8o) rrjv KcpKVpav^ 
lav Sev eras fxkXei, as vivdydifxev 
Sid ^pevrrjcTLOv. 

TLoXv KaXd. ^VfXfjuiiv^ ttXt]- 
pk(rraTa, KaO' ocrov /xaAicrra ^ot 
SvvrjOio vd lSo) dp)(^aLOvs rtvds 
(f)tXovs Iv l^epKvpa. 

AvvacrOe vd [xoi SiocrrjTe 
TrXrjpo^fiopLas Tivas irepl twv 
aTTOo-Tacrewv r?}? oSov tt^v oTroiav 
fieXXo/iiev vd Xdf^ioimev ; 

MaAto-ra. "Eav tls Sev 
^larpixprj KaO' 68ov Svvarai vd 
<fi$da-r} €K AovSivov ets BpevTi^- 
(Tiov els k^rfKovra copas. 'E/cei^ev 
Se ei§ }^€pKvpav 8i' drfiOTrXotov 
els 8eKark<T(rapas copas. 'Ek Ke/)- 
Kvpas elsTldrpas els ScKae^ lopas. 
'Ek IlaT/owv Se SvvaraL ns vd 
fxeraf^fj els 'A^ryvas els okto) 
(o/aas 8ta rov cTLSijpoSpofxov. 

Ev^^apwTTw. Kat TTore vo/At- 
^ere ^a T^o-^e eroLfMOs Sid to 
Ta^etSiov ; 

Eis Tas eTTTo, 'ATrptXiov eXTri- 
^0) va ')^/>tat eToifios, &(TTe dv 
dyaTrdre direp^oixeOa eKeivqv 
■rrjv rjfxepav. 

^Eyo) Kal TMpa ef/xat eTOLfxos, 
io(TTe TTpoOv pujys crvpcfiOivo) vd dir- 
eXOoifxev els rds eirrd ' KTrpiXtov. 

By which route do you think 
it will be better for us to travel ? 

If the sea disagrees with you 
it will be preferable to go by 
Brindisi: if not, I prefer the 
Marseilles route. 

Fortunately the sea gives me 
no trouble : but as I am- very 
anxious to see Corfu, if you do 
not mind, let us go by Brin- 

Very good, I am quite agree- 
able, especially as I shall have 
the opportunity of seeing some 
old friends in Corfu. 

Can you give me any in- 
formation about the distances 
along the route we are going to 
take 1 

Certainly. If one does not 
stop on the way, starting from 
London, one can arrive at Brin- 
disi in sixty hours : and thence 
by steamer to Corfu in fourteen 
hours : from Corfu to Patras in 
sixteen hours : and one can go 
by rail from Patras to Athens in 
eight hours. 

Thank you. And when do 
you think you will be ready 
for the journey ? 

I hope to be ready by the 
seventh of April, so, if you like, 
we will start on that day. 

I am quite prepared even 
now, so I readily agree to start 
on the seventh of April. 




Ho Lav ypafifJLrjv Aeycre va 
XdjSioixiv ; 

'ETretSi) hkv fxoL apk(TK€i va 
ra^etSevo) ryv vvKTa TrpoTetvo) 
va XdfS(j)/xev tyjv ypafifxrjv Tcra- 
Tafx Kat AojSep. 

'SvfJLcfuovoj. Et^ev/0€Te Troiav 
u)pav dva)(^Oi)p€L rj Sid HapurtoVi 
d/JLa^ocrTOLXta ; 

p]t§ rds OKTO) Kat Tptdvra to 
irpcot, Kal cf)6dv€t els Hapicrtovs 
el<s rds TTiVTe koI TptavTaeTTTa 

Ets KaXrjv iiipav Bd (fiOdxTiofiev 

€L<S HapiO-LOVSj SiOTL Bd €;((o/xev 

Kaipov vd dvaTrav BiOfxev oAtyov 
Kat vd SetTTvr^o-w/xev. 

Kara tt/v y^p.kpav Ty]<s dva- 
Xa)/3>/o-€W9 TTpeTret vd r^/xeBa els 
Tov crraBfxbv BtKTW/atas Kara 
rag oktw, Sid vd i^inp^ev Kaipov 
vd (f)povTLcro}fM€v Bid Tct Trpdy- 
/xara fxas Kal vd Xd/S(t)fX€V 

Ets TcLs OKTO) aKpt/SoiS Bd 
rjixat €K€i. Xatpere. 

M^ Xrj(rixov7](T7)T€ vd Xd^rjTC 
KaXov irpoyevp^a irplv i^eXBrjre 
TTJs OLK tas eras, 8l6tl Bev Bd 
€;(w/xev Kaipov els tov (TTaBpiov 
vd Aa/^w/xev riTTOTe. 

Ilept rovTOv Bd XdjSio KaXrjv 
(fipovTiSa. Xai/)€T€ Kat TraAtv. 
KaAvyv Ivrdpuxriv. 


What line do you say we 
should take ? 

As I do not like to travel 
by night, I propose we should 
take the Chatham and Dover 

Agreed. Do you know at 
what o'clock the train for Paris 
starts ? 

At half -past eight in the 
morning, and it arrives at Paris 
at five thirty-seven p.m. 

We shall arrive in Paris in 
good time, and so shall have 
leisure to rest a little and get 
some dinner. 

On the day of our departure 
we must be at Victoria Station 
about eight o'clock, so as to have 
time to look after our luggage 
and get our tickets. 

I will be there at eight 
punctually. Good-bye. 

Do not forget to eat a good 
breakfast before you leave your 
house, for we shall have no 
time to get anything at the 

I will take very good care 
about that. Good-bye again. 
Au revoir. 


AIAA0r02 B' 


KaA-^ y/xepa eras. BAeTTW 
yjXOeTe Trpo i/mov. IIoTe e<^- 
Oda-are ; 

Et9 Tcts OKTO) TTapa rkrapTOV. 

'^TrrjpaTe ela-LT-qpiov ; 

"0;!(t oLKOfxr]. Heptfjieva vfxa<s 
va e\Or]r€, Slotl Sgv €L^€vpov 
TTotas Oecreois etcrtr-^/Dia OeXere 
va XajSoyfiev. 

^Eyo) 7ravT0T€ ra^eiSevd) tt/oco- 
rrjv decTLV, dXX' dv dyaivdre vd 
Xdfiii)jx€V SevTcpas Oecreo)?, etfiai 

"OxL, KaXXtrepa vd Aa/3o)/>i€V 
7rpiOTr)<s Becrecos, Slotl to ra^et- 
8lov 9d rjvai fiaKpov. 

Aore fJLOL, TTapaKaXQ>y Svo 
ela-LT'rjpta irpMTrjs O^creios Std 
Bpivrt^t. Ilocra Od ads ttXtj- 
ooKTiii 8i' eKacTTov ; 

AwScKa Xtpas, OKTO) Kal e^. 

'18ov €iKO(TL Tecrcrapes Xipau 
Kal SeKaewTa o-eXXcvta Std rd 

'\!iopa TrpcTTCi vd KVTTd^ii>/xev 
Sid rd Trpdyixard fxas. To, 
ISiKa fiov etvai eSw. Hov etvat 
rd ISiKa (rag; 

'0 d^dof^opos rd €>(€t eK€t. 
"Akovctc (TV. 2eva Atyw. "EAa 
eSw. Ta Trpdyixara rov Kvptov 

Good -morning. I see yon 
have come before me. When 
did you arrive ? 

At a quarter to eight. 

Have you taken your ticket ? 

Not yet. I was waiting for 
you to come, because I did 
not know what class tickets you 
wish that we should take. 

I always travel first-class, but 
if you like us to take second- 
class tickets, I am quite willing. 

No. Better to take first-class, 
because the journey will be a 
long one. 

Please give me two first-class 
tickets for Brindisi. How much 
have I to pay you for each ? 

Twelve pounds eight and six. 
Here are twenty- four pounds 
seventeen shillings for the two. 

Now we must look after our 

luggage. Mine is here. Where 
is yours ? 

The porter has it there. 
Here ! I say ! Come here. 
Take care to put this gentle- 




TovTov Kal ra ISlkol /xov cfipovTccre 
va TO, /SdXyjs ojxov els KaXrjv 

dkdlV. 'ISoi' KttTt Tt 8ia (T€. 

^vyapLcrrCi Kvpte. M-q (ra? 
fJLiXr), eyo) ^a kvttol^w va ra 
T07ro$€Trj(Tiii KaXcJos. 

Mera Trevre AeTrrot KLVov/xev, 
ioa-TC as e/x/Siofxev els ttjv afxa^av. 
Fiifxeda Tvx'f]poi, Slotl da rjfxeda 


TovTO efi'ttt evTV)(r]fia. 'AAAot 
TTOv erj/at TO eTravoxpopt aas ; 

KaAot Kal ixoL TO evdvpiio-are. 
*Eya) evreAws to eXrjcrfiovrja-a. 
l^TvaL els TTjv aWovcrav tov 


^irevcrare va to Xd/S-qre' Svo 
fiovov AeTTTot jxas ixevova-c. 

BAtTTO) 6 dv$po)Tros TO (jikpei. 

"E^CTC xpiXd ; aXXd^are fxoi 
TOVTO TO (reXXlvLov Slol va 
Sio(T(t) e^ TTcvas els toi^ dvOpcD- 


*0 KwStov ^x^'* 'EKtv^(ra/>iev. 

'AKpifStos els T7)i/ w/aai/. 
"HSr; eTrepdcrafJiev tov Ta/zecrtv. 
Ba a-TaOdixev els Kavev jxepos ; 

"O^to *H Tttxeia afxa^o- 
cTTOL^ia Trrjyaivet KaT evdelav 
els Ao^ep X^P'''^ ^^ (TTaOy KaS' 

GlAcTe va i^i]Te Tots Tr/acoiVas 
ufiijiJiepLSas; "E^w Tovs Kat/aovs, 
Tii)v/ ^-qixaiav Kal Ta ^Hfiep-qcna 

AoT€ ^01 TO, 'H/xepYja-ta Nea, 
1) av OeXeTe tijv ^rjixaiav jxol 
elvat dSidffiopov av 7yvat crvvTrj- 
pijTiKov rj (fiiXeXevOepov <f>vXXov. 

man's luggage and mine together 
in a good place. Here is some- 
thing for you. 

Thank you, sir. You need not 
be anxious about it, I will take 
care to have it properly placed. 

We shall start in five minutes, 
so let us get into our carriage. 
We are lucky, for we shall be 
by ourselves. 

It is a piece of good-fortune. 
But where is your overcoat ? 

A good thing that you re- 
minded me of it. I quite 
forgot it. It is in the waiting- 

Make haste and get it ; we 
have only two minutes left. 

I see the man is bringing it. 

Have you any change ? 
Change me this shilling, so that 
I may give sixpence to the 

There goes the bell ! We 
are off. 

At the exact time. 

We have already crossed the 
Thames. Are we going to stop 
anywhere ? 

No. The express goes straight 
to Dover without stopping any- 
where on the road. 

Would you like to see the 
morning papers ? I have Tlie 
Times, The Standard and The 
Daily News. 

Give me The Daily NewSy or, 
if you like, The Standard. It is 
indifferent to me whether it is a 
Conservative or a Liberal paper. 



"E^efc TL7roT€ cnrovSaiov ; 

Aei/ /SXiTTO) TLTTore a^cov 

Eis rpvs K-atpovs fSXeiro) fiiav 
fxaKpav dXXrj\oypa(f)iav Ik 

TJepl Tivos ; 

TLepl Trj<s AvroKpaT€tpa<s ^pe- 
SeptKov, rjTis evptCTKeTaL Tiopa 


Aev 7rL(TT€Vix) va eTrirv\rj ei? 


IxerkfSr^ els HapccrLOVs. 

OvT iyo) TncTTevo) . . . aAAol 
^Xeiro) €cfiOdcra/x€v eis Kavrep- 
f^ovpiav. '^7r€(TK€cf)0r]r€ Trore 
TOV Trepicfirjfxov avTrjs KaOeSpiKov 
vaov ; 

Tov irreo'Kecfidrjv 8l<s. ETvat 
T(^ ovTL fieyaXoTrpeTrh KTiptov. 

Ilot'av wyaav ^ot (fiddcroifjiev els 

Ets rds SeKa Kat reraprov 
aKpifSois. "E;(o/x€V aKOfx-q 8eKa- 
eTTTot fiiXia vd Siarpe^iDfxev. 

Akv €/JL€iV€ TToXv. TloCTOV yprj- 

yopa Tpex^t ^ dfxa^ocTTO ixta ! 
Sev 7rpo(fi6dv€L rts vol i'St; ttjv 
T^ept^ ^iopav. 

'18ov, ^AcTTw Tr]V ddXacra-av. 
' 12 OdXacrcra, OdXacra-a, ttoctov ere 

'Ficf)Oda-afJL€v els Ao/Sep. Ef- 
fxeda €V TW crraOfK^. Akv 
Od k^eXOisifxev ; 

"Oxt. 'H dixa^o(TTOi\ia 6d 
fMd<s virdyrj fik\pi rov dr/Jio- 

Ei/xe^a cTTt TTjs TrpoKv/JLatas. 

Does it contain anything 
important ? 

I see nothing of any import- 

In The Times 1 see a long 
correspondence from Paris. 

About what 1 

About the Empress Frederick, 
who is there now. 

I do not think she will 
succeed in the object for which 
she went to Paris. 

Nor I either . . . but here 
we are at Canterbury. Have 
you ever paid a visit to its 
famous cathedral? 

I have been to see it twice. 
It is indeed a magnificent build- 

At what o'clock shall we ar- 
rive at Dover ? 

At a quarter past ten exactly. 
We have still seventeen miles to 

There is not much left. What 
a pace the train goes at ! One 
has not time to see the country 

Look ! there is the sea ! The 
great sea, how fond I am of 

Here we are at Dover. We 
are in the station. Shall we 
not get out ? 

No. The train will take us 
up to the steamer. 

We are on the pier. Take 



AdfSere tov <tu.kkov eras. Ilov 
€LvaL TO pa/SSi fjiov ; 

Ets W/v yiovLav, oirixrdkv era?. 

Eto-6^e €TOifjio<i ; /X7y7rcus €\rj(r- 
fiovi'j(TaT€ TtTTore; ^X^"^^ "^^ 

MaAtcrra. "^As ila-kXdiaiJLev 
€is TO aTixoTrXoiov. 'H 6d\a(T(Ta 
cTvab rja-vxos. 

Ill copa elvaL ; 

Ae/ctt KoX rerapTov. 

IIoTe ttTTOTrAeet to drjxo- 
ttXolov ; 

McTo, TrevTe AeTTTct. 

'^As CTTrevcrwyuei' Aoittov Sta m 
KaTaAa^w/xev KaXi]v Oecnv. 

To 7rA>y^os" Tw;/ iiri/SaTMV Sev 
eri'ttt fjLLKpov. 01 Trepio-a-oTepoL 
fJLol (fiatvovTai ws ' A/xcpiKavoL 

MaAto-Ta, ervac 'AfxeptKavoL 

At iii^\avaX rip^KTav vd klvmv- 
Ttti. 'ISov dirodvpovcTt rijv kXi- 
jxaKa, eXvcrav rd o-^otvta. 
'ATTOTrAeo/xev r/Svy. 

llotrov iJi€yaXo77p€7rrjS ^aiVe- 
Tttt 17 TrpoKv/xaia tov vavap^^ecov! 

ETvat /vteya epyov tw oi/Tt. 
*H oikoSo/xt) avTyj<s rjpxtcre Kara 
TO €T0S 1847 Kfxt eSaTravt^drjcrav 
Si avT7jV eTTTaKOCTLai TrevTTjKOVTa 
^(tAtaSes Xipat. ^EKTetvcTat Se 
ei'Tos T'))? daXdcTcrrjs vTrep Tor'9 
;(tAious Trei/Ta/cocrtovs TroSas. 

"^As V7rdy(x)fji€v vd KaOUrbifxev 
iKil els T7]V Trpujpav, ottws ava- 
TTveioficv KaOapov depa. 

¥iV)(^api(TT(DS. 'H av/aa t^? 
daXd(Tcn]s €LvaL evdpecTTos. 

your bag. Where is my 
stick 1 

In the corner, behind you. 

Are you ready ? Take care 
that you have forgotten nothing. 
Have you got your umbrella ? 

Yes. Let us go to the steamer. 
The sea is calm. 

What o'clock is it ? 
A quarter past ten. 
When does the steamer sail ? 

In five minutes. 

Let us make haste then, so 
as to get a good place. 

There are a good many pas- 
sengers. The greater number 
seem to me to be Americans. 

Yes. They are Americans. 

The engines have begun to 
move. Look, they are drawing 
away the steps ; they have let 
go the ropes. We are under 
weigh now. 

How grand the Admiralty 
pier looks. 

It is indeed a fine work. It 
was begun in 1847, and it cost 
seven hundred and fifty thousand 
pounds. It extends into the 
sea more than fifteen hundred 

Let us go and sit there, in 
the bow, so that we may inhale 
the pure air. 

By all means. The sea-breeze 
is pleasant. 

AiAAoro2 r 


Tlocrov Ta;(€a)S €cf)6d(rafi€v els 
KaAat/ ETvai a/cpt^w? fiecrrj- 

*ETot/xao-aT€ TO ^laf^arrjpiov 
eras, Slotl fSXeiro) eirl ryj's diro- 
/Sddpas VTraXXyjXovi rrjs d(TTV- 

Hoiav copav ava^toyaet rj 
dixa^oa-TOLXtoL gk rrjs irpoKV- 
/xatas ; 

Eis ras SwScKa koX cro.pdvra, 
axTTe €)(ojx€i' Katpov vd Trdpoyfiev 
Kan Tt, Stort eyw e;!((o rpopiepdv 

Kat eytt) Tretvw. '^ As elcreXOo)- 

pi€V els TO kcTTiaTOpLOV. 

^epe fias Svo TrtvdKia ^oi/xov 
TrpojTov, Kat KaTOTTLV p^iav p^epiSa 

xJ/yjTOV ^(x)8lV0V Sid SvO. Xo/OTtt- 

piKa 8ev OeXop^ev, 'OXtyov rvpl 
els TO TcAos Kat p,Lav (^idX-qv 
Kpaa-l Twv 8vo (^pdyKtav. 

No, 7rdp(]}fX€V Kat diro p^lav 
Kovirav Ka(f)€ ; 

Nat* dXX e^op^ev Katpov ; 

'Ktv\C)S 8ev e^op^ev, lao-re as 
cnrev(TiiipLev cis T'^v dpa^av. 

MoAts e(f)6d(rapLev els tov 
CTTa6px)V rrjs ttoAcws Kat evBvs 

How soon we have arrived 
at Calais ! It is exactly mid- 

Get your passport ready, for 
I see the police-officers at the 

At what o'clock does the train 
start from the pier ? 

At forty minutes past twelve, 
so that we have time to take 
something, for I am frightfully 

And I too am hungry. Let us 
go into the refreshment-room. 

Bring us two plates of soup 
first, and afterwards one portion 
of roast beef for the two of us. 
We do not want any vegetables. 
A little cheese to finish with, 
and a two-franc bottle of wine. 

Shall we each have a cup of 
coff"ee ? 

Yes. But have we time ? 

Unfortunately we have not : 
so let us make haste and get 
into the carriage. 

We have hardly arrived at 
the station in the town, and 
we are off again. 



Kal (TapavTaeTTTd. E19 Ty]V 
jj/iav Kal TptavTaTTiVTc (fiOdvo/xev 
els HovXiovqv, €ts Bk ras rpeis 
Kal cIkoctloktw els 'A/jaevrjv, Kal 

its raS TTiVTC Kol TpiaVTaeTTTO, 

els UapuTLOvs. 

KvTV)(^(DS ec/xeOa TrdXiv /xovol 
eV Trj ajULUL^y, wcttc Svvdfxeda 
v' dvayvixXTiofxev Kavev ^ifSXlov 
T/y? NeoeAAvyviKTys, Kal ovriti irplv 
(fiddoro) els T-qv^EXXdSa vd /3e\- 
tlclxto) rds yviocrets jjlov els Trjv 

'Aveyvoyre ttotc rds eTrwTToAas 
Tov K.oparj ; 

Oyi TToAAas. ri/aoTtvos dvk- 
yvojv Trjv ^Loypa(f)Lav tov, koI ev 
"■>'Trj /xepr] nvd eK tiov eTrtcTToXuiv 
TOV a-0(fiOv TOVTOv dvSpos Kal 
TToXv fjLOi ripea-av. 

'YiVvoeiTe TYjV virb tov K.vpiov 
A. Oepetavov dpTiios eKSodetcrav ; 

J^iaAicrra. To a-{)yypa/xfxa 
TovTo elvat tc3 ovtl ttoXvtlhov 
Kttt eK T-QS avayviixreojs avTOv 
KaTafftatveTai ov)(l fxovov rj tov 
(rvyypa<f)€ij)S TroXvfJidOeLa, dXXd 
Kai TO (^lXottovov tov dvSpos 
KOLL o aKpaicfivrjS avTov TraTpna- 
TiCTfios. To d^toAoyov tovto 
TTOvrjpa TrepnroLet jxeyicTTyv tl~ 
fir)v ets TYjv veoeXXr^viKrjv cfaXo- 

Xat/aw oTt e(T\r^p.aTLcraTe 

opurjv Kol SiKaiav ISeav irepl 

'^ \ \ / / / 

TOV KaAALcrTov TOVTOV pvrjfxeiov 

oTTep dvi^yetpev els tov 'A8a- 

jUKVTLOv Koparjv 1) (fnXoirovta 

TOV TroXvp.a6ovs O'vyypa<fieo)s 

• . . aAA' eXdeTe irXyjo-LOv /xov 

It is exactly forty - seven 
minutes past twelve. At one 
tliirty-five we arrive at Bou- 
logne, at three twenty-eight at 
Amiens, and at five thirty-seven 
at Paris. 

Fortunately we again have 
the carriage to ourselves, so that 
we can read some modern Greek 
book, and so before I arrive 
in Greece, I may improve my 
knowledge of the language. 

Have you ever read the letters 
of Corais ? 

Not many. Some time ago I 
read his life, and in it some ex- 
tracts from the letters of this 
great scholar, and I was greatly 
pleased with them. 

Do you mean the one lately 
published by Mr. D. Thereianos ? 

Yes. This work is indeed a 
valuable one, and on reading it 
one sees clearly not only the 
deep learning of the author but 
also his industry, and his pure 
patriotism. This remarkable 
work reflects the greatest credit 
on modern Greek literature. 

I am glad you have formed a 
correct and just idea regarding 
this noble monument which the 
industry of the learned author 
has raised to Adamantios Corais 
. . . but come close to me, that 
you may better hear the words 




Stot va oLKOvrjTe KaWtrepa rets 
Ae^eis T7J<^ eTTLCTToXrjs rrjv oirolav 
da eras avayvMcrd). 

^V)(^apL(rTO)<S. Mo6 KdfJiV€T€ 

rrjv xdptv vd /xol ehvr^r^ ttotc 
KOI CIS TTOLOv 'iypaxpe ravT-qv 
Trjv iTTiCTToXyiv 6 J^opayjs ; 

Tt^ SeKdrrj Trefnrrrj Noe/x/5?/)iov 
rov erovs i79^ ^'^ HaptcrLOJV els 
'EfjLvpv'qv els rov (fiiXov rov Upio- 

ArjXaSrj a/</)i/?w? Trpo eKaTiov 
eriov. ETyUat irepUpyos va lSo) 
TTMS eypd(f)€ro rj ^eoeXXrjvtKyj 
Kar eKeivrjV T'rjv e7ro)(rjv. 'Ap- 
y^i(rare Xolttov TrapaKaAw, ewi- 
rpexpare jjlol va fSXeiro) Kal eyw 
els TO fSifSXiov. 

of the letter whicli I am going 
to read to you. 

By all means. Will you do 
me the favour to tell me when 
and to whom Corais wrote this 
letter ? 

On the fifteenth of November 
of the year 1791 from Paris to his 
friend Protopsaltes at Smyrna. 

That is to say exactly a 
hundred years ago. I am 
curious to see how modern 
Greek was written at that time. 
Begin then. Pray allow me 
too to look at the book. 

'E/c Uapia-ioov, 15 l^oe/x^plov 1791. 

^iXrare fiov XI/OdOTO^aAra, 

'UdeXrja-ev rj tv^yj fJLOV va 
evpeOio els ttjv TaXXtav els rov 
Tvapovra Kaipov, Sta vol yevio 
avTOTTT-qs. Kal avry^KOos roiavT'qs 
TToAiTiKT/s jJberafioXrjs, OTTOtas 
fjLoXiS evpifTKOvrai TrapaSety/xara 
els rrjV 'EAATyvt/cr)^ Kal 'Pw/xai- 
KTjv IcrToptav. 

Ai (rvy)(ya'eLs ttjs FaAAi'as 
^(Tav cr)(e8ov Trpos to TeXos twv 
rrjv elKoa-Trjv Trpiorr^v rov TrapeX- 
dovTos 'lovvLOV, Kal oXoi rjXTTt^a- 
fxev on eirXyjCTLaa-ev 6 Katpos va 
eXevOepoiOMfiev aTrb rovs KaO-q- 
fieptvovs KLvSvvovs Kal fSdcrava, 
oTTorav 6 /SacnXevs, i) a^' eav- 
Tov, rj KaKMS Trap dXXoyv avp.- 
^ovXevdets, to p.e(rovvKTLOV Tr)s 

Paris, 15th November 1791. 

My dear Protopsaltes, 

It was the will of fate that I 
should find myself in France at 
the present juncture, so as to 
see with my own eyes and hear 
with my own ears everything 
regarding a political change, of 
which examples are scarcely to 
be found in the Greek or Roman 

The disturbances in France 
were almost at an end on the 
twenty-first of last June, and we 
were all in hope that the time 
was near for us to be delivered 
from our daily dangers and suffer- 
ings, when the king, either of 
his own accord, or ill-advised by 
others, at midnight, between the 
20th and 21st, took his children, 



K. 7rpo<s Tr)i^ Ka. Aa/x^ai/et to, 
TiKva Tov, rrjv (iaa-'tXida-av koI 
Wyv dSeXffiyjv tov, Kal (fjevyet 

Trjs ISa(riX.i(r(Trj<s, r] oirola eXafSev 
ovofxa TrXaa-Tov jxtas KOfxr]- 


lopas, ol (jw/xaTo^vAa/ceg, fjirjv 
at(rdav6iJL€V0L irapovcriav dvdpio- 

TTiOV, pyT€ €t§ T1]V KOLpLepaV TOV 

/Jao-iAews, /xT^re els rbv ddXapLov 
TTys ySacrtAtVo'?;?, €jx/3aLV0V(TLV 
et5 vTTO^Lav, dvoiyova-L tols Ovpas 
Kol Sev evptcTKOvv ovSeva. 'A^ivw 
(re vd CTTOXC-o-dys rrjV Tapa\r]v 

KoX TOV$6pvl3ov6Xl]<i T/ySTToAeWS. 

. . . ^€vyo)V 6 l3aarLX€v<5 diro 
UapLcrtovs d(f>rJKe fiiav iTrtcTToXrjv 
(r(f)payL(rp.€V't]v tt/oos t')]v 1,vvo8ov, 
eh Ty]v oTTotav TrapeTrovelro Kal 
eXeyev ort acTtov rijs (fivyrjs tov 
^Tov, eTretSrj rj 2vvo8os irapefSi] 
TO, opid TYjS, 0T6 6 Aaos iXa/^ev 
VTrepf^oXiKi^v i^ova-iav Kal av- 
OaSiaa-e Kar avrwi/ t(3i/ Seo^Tro- 
Toli/ TOV, Kttt aAAa ToiavTa, 
X^opls o/xcos vol (f)av€pio(Ti] fxrjTe 
TL i/xeXeTa vd KapLrj, /xryre ort 
€?>(€ CTKOTTov vd k^kXOrj TravTa- 
irojcriv diro ttjv FaAAtav. 

ElS Td (TVVOpa T^TOV €K TTpOiT- 

Tayrj<s tov eVas (TTpaTr]yos /xe 
/xc/oiKcls (fidXayyas (TTpaTtwTwv 
Slot va 8€)(^9rj TOV f^aaiXka Kal 
va TOV 7r€pd(Trj d(T(fiaXios €is T7)v 

Toiai'T^yv (fiof^epdv t)p€pav, (os 
TT^v Ka', 8ci/ cr^^ov iSetv vroTe /xoi^, 
/M>/T€ tcrws ^cAw ISeiv eh to 
€7riAot7roi/ ttJs ^(nys fiov. "OAos 

the queen, and his sister, and 
fled in the disguise of a servant 
of the queen, who took the ficti- 
tious name of a countess. 

On the morning of the 21st, 
at eight o'clock, the body-guard, 
observing that there seemed to 
1)6 nobody either in the king's 
apartment or in the queen's 
bedroom, began to have suspi- 
cions, and on opening the doors 
found no one. I leave you to 
imagine the confusion and up- 
roar throughout the city. 

. . . When the king fled from 
Paris he left a sealed letter 
addressed to the Assembly, in 
which he made complaints, and 
said that the reason of his flight 
was that since the Assembly had 
exceeded the limits of its author- 
itj'-, the people had obtained too 
much power, and were insolent to 
their very rulers, and so forth ; 
without however disclosing what 
he intended to do, or whether 
his object was to leave France 

On the boundary, by the 
king's command, a general with 
some companies of soldiers was 
waiting to receive him, and pass 
him safely into Germany. 

Such a fearful day as the 
21st I never witnessed, nor 
probably ever shall as long 
as I live. All the populace 



6 Xaos (TKop7rL(rfM€V0L els rots 
irXareMS kol pvfxas rrjs TrdAecos, 
avSpes, yvvaiKes, TratSia, Xeyov- 
res aAAos to /xaKpv tov Kal 

akXoS TO KOVTO TOV, f3Xa(Tcfi7]- 

fiovvTes KOL XoiSopovvTes Kal 
jSaxTiXea Kal f^aa-LXtcro-av, ovo- 
fid^ovTes ovTos 7rpo86Ty]v, eKetvos 


ocra eVri/xa eTTi^era Svvaa-ai va 

'H 'ZvvoSos, (f)of3r)d€La-a to, 
€v8€)(^6fji€va SeLva (xtto tyjv dya- 
voLKTrjo-LV TOV Xaov, eTrpooTTa^e 
irapevdvs va ottXictB^ctiv oXol 
01 TToXiTat, Kal ovTOJS GTrepdara- 
fiev oXrjV TYJV 'Qfiepav Trjs Ka\ 
Kal Trjv €7rop.€vrjv vvKTa, ets 
T-qv OTTolav a-^e^ov Kavels Sev 
eKOLfJL'qOy], dXXos diro <^6fiov, 
Kal dXXos diro TrepupyeLav tov 
TL fxcXXet vd (TVfxf^y €K tovtmv. 

"^H HiVVoSos €KpdTr)crev oXrjv 
€K€Lvrjv TTjV rjfJL€pav, Tr)v eiro- 
fxevYjV vvKTa^ Kal Tr)v aKoXovOov 
rj/xepav, k/S', Kal tyjv vvKTa Trjs 
Kf3\ TecrcrapdKOVTa (r)(^e8ov w/oa?, 
f G-vpi^ovXevo/jbevoL tl TrotrjTeov 
els TOtavTrjv SeivrjV TvepicrTaa-iv. 

"E^w aTTo TYjV ^vvo8ov 'rjcTav 
(TvvaOpoia-pLevoi wcravTW? els 
piepLKrjv l!,vvo8ov Kal twv Hapc- 
(TLWV ot 8r]p.oy€povTes Trpocr- 
pL€V0VT€S Kara 7rd(rav (TTiypir]v 

dTTOKpiO-iV (XTTO TOVS 8Lac}i6p0VS 

Ta)(v8p6/Ji0vs, ocrovs €t)(av TrepL- 
\peiv els oAa to, p^ep-q Trjs 
fSaa-iXetas, Stot vd Trida-(M(TiV, dv 
rJTO 8vvaT6v, tov fSacrcXea. 

Eis ras eiKOcrtSi'o Xolttov tov 
pir^vos, iop(^ ev8eKdTrj Trjs vvktos, 

scattered throughout the squares 
and streets of the city, men, 
women and children, some say- 
ing one thing, some another, 
cursing and abusing both the 
king and the queen, one calling 
the king a traitor, another a 
perjurer, and bestowing on him 
as many complimentary epithets 
as you can imagine. 

The Assembly, being afraid of 
the terrible consequences likely 
to arise from the rage of the 
populace, ordered all the citizens 
to arm themselves forthwith. In 
this way we passed the whole of 
the day of the 2 1 st and the follow- 
ing night, when scarcely any one 
went to bed, some from fear, others 
out of curiosity as to what would 
be the result of these events. 

The Assembly sat all that 
day, the following night, and 
the next day, the 2 2d, and the 
night of the 2 2d, nearly forty 
hours, consulting as to what 
ought to be done in such a 
dreadful state of affairs. 

Besides the Assembly, the 
Notables of Paris were also col- 
lected in a subordinate assembly, 
awaiting every moment a reply 
from the different couriers whom 
they had despatched to every 
part of the kingdom, in order, 
if possible, to seize the king. 

Accordingly, on the 2 2d, at 
11 o'clock at night, instead of 



ai^Tt VOL KOLfxrjOt) virrjyov k iyo) 
€15 TO KeWiov tt]? )(^copa<i, o/xov 

fJL€ TOl' (filXoV fJLOV (eiS TOV OTTOlOl) 

rbv otKov ci'/DtcTKO/xai) /cat icrTo.- 
dijfxcv aKpoarai, Ka^ws kciI aXXot 

TTokkoi, T7y§ ^Ol'A^S TU)V Srj- 

fioy€p6vTO}v. Mera fitav wpav, 
TO /x€(rovv/<Ttov SrjXovoTLj fxrjv 
v7ro(fi€povT€S Tr]V Kavcrtv, Kal to 
virepfSoXiKov ttXtjOo^ tov Xaov, 
ijTotfxa^o/jieOa va eirLcrTperl/io/xev, 
oTTorav Trap' (XiriSa ISov dve- 
cfidvrj evas Ta-^v8p6jj,o<s jX€ Trjv 
€iS-)j(TLV OTL 6 ^ao-tAevs /A€ Tryv 
(fiafx-qXiav tov yvo}pL(rO€L<s iirt- 
dcrdrj et? eVa puKpov ttoXi^vlov 
di'Dfia^ofJicvov Bapevvas, ttcvtc 
A,€vyas /xovov [xaKpav otto to, 
(Tvvopa. 'Acf)LV(D (T€ vd (TTo^acr- 
6y^ els TTOfrr^v ^apdv ixanf^X'qOy) 
ri Xviri^ Kal rj Karrjcfieia oXrjs 
T^S TToAew?, XiDpls 0/XW5 va 
fxcTajSXyjOij ->) ayavaKTiyo-ts. 
'A/co/xr; Sw w/aas /^paSvTepov, 
Kal 6 /SaonXivs rJTO e^ aTravros 
€^0) (XTTo TO, cnVo/Da. *AAAa 
KaOix)<s air' dp-)(r}s ol crvfx/SovXoL 
TOV koTTddiqa-av rjXidLOL, ovtu) 
Kal els TavTYjv Trjv Trep'uTTaoriv 
ISft^av Ty]V d<f>poa-vvr]v twv. 
Efvai 7revT€ Aevya? jxaKpdv dirb 
Ttt (Tvvopa, Kal dvTl vd ^taaoxrt 
Tovs i'ttttovs, va TeAetcuo-wcri Kat 
ras vTToXoiTrovs 8vo lopas, KaTa- 
fialvova-LV els TravSo^^eiov, 8ta 
va dvaTrav^wcriv oAiyov. 

Ets at'TO TO 7ravSo;(€?ov, els 
Ty]V KdfJLepav oirov 6 fiao-iXevs 
dv€7rav€T0, '^tov fxta ctKwv tov 
Paa-iXews Kpeixaa-fxevrj els tov 
Toi^^ov. *0 TravSoxevs fiXeiriov 

going to bed, I too went to the 
town hall, in company with my 
friend (in whose house I am 
staying), and we stood there 
listening, like many others, to 
the debate in the council of the 
Notables. After an hour, that 
is to say at midnight, not being 
able to bear the heat and the 
excessive crowd, we were think- 
ing of returning, when unex- 
pectedly, all of a sudden, a 
courier appeared with the news 
that the king with his- family 
had been recognised and cap- 
tured in a small village called 
Varennes only five leagues from 
the boundary. I leave you to 
imagine into what joy the sorrow 
and dejection of the whole city 
was converted, without, however, 
its anger undergoing any change. 
Two hours later and the king, 
most assuredly, would have been 
outside the boundary. But his 
advisers, just as they had shown 
themselves stupid from the 
beginning, so on this occasion 
they displayed their imbecility. 
They were only five leagues 
from the boundary, when, in- 
stead of urging on the horses, 
so as to finish the two remaining 
hours' journey, they alighted at 
an inn, to take a little rest. 

In that inn, in the room 
where the king was reposing, 
there was a picture of his 
majesty hanging on the wall. 
The innkeeper observing that 



TO TrpocriDTTOV Tov /^ao-tAews 
ofxoLOV fxk Trjv etKova, virojTTTevOr] 
TO Trpayfjba Kal reXos TravTwv 
dcfiov €TrXr]po(f)op'q6y], dvaKa- 
XvTtTei TYjV Kecj^aX^v tov, kol 
T7Xr\(TL(X(Ta<i fJL€ (Te/Sas^ " Std 
TTOtav atTtav evpicrKecrai ISw, (3 
^ao-iXev" TOV Xeyei. '0 /Saari- 
Xev<s cfiO^rjOeis, evdvs tov Aeyet 
vol (TLiJiTr'qcrrj. Tov TrapaKaXet 
KOL avTos Kal rj fSaa-tXtcrcra • 
tov t'Troo-^^ovTat TroXXa Kal 
fxeydXa. 'AXX avrbs dSvcTM- 
TrrjTOS, 'Sev yivofiat, tov<s avre- 
KpiOr], TrpoSorrjs ttJs 7raT/oi8o9 
p.ov dv rj f^aa-iXela crov e^eXOys 
aTTo rrjv TaXXiav, o^/xeis d(f)avi- 
^ofieda. 'K^vTvvL^ei 7rap€vOv<i 
rrjV ttoXlv oXrjv (eTreiSrj -^ro vv^ 
/SaOela), a-rjfxaivei rds Kafnrdvas 
Kol avvd^eL oAa to, irkpi^ ^lapia 
els /SoyjOetav, Sid vd fxrj (j^vyrj 
diro Tag -^etpds twv, Kal SiSei 
rrjV €i8r)a-LV Trpos rrjv ev Uapi- 
(TiOLS ^vvoSov. 

. . . EtS rds 25 AoiTTOV TOV 

firjvos [xerd to pbeo-qiieptov ifx^rj- 
K€V 6 l3ao-iX€vs €15 toi;s TLapLo-L- 
ovs o-wwSev/xevos diro ttoAAo,? 
fxvpidSasXaov, dvSpojv, yvvaiKiov, 
TratStwv, OL oTTOLOi TOV rjKoXov- 
Oyjcrav (xtto Stacfyopovs ttoXcls. 
Upoa-des et? avTds Kal dXXas 

TToXXds /JLVptdSaS HapKTLVMV, ot 

otto 10 1 e^yjXOav eis dTrdvTtjcTLV 
TOV, 6^1 8id vd TOV So^da-oxTi 
Kadois dXXats (fiopais, dXX 
dXXoL pikv diro dyavdKTrjcriv otl 
€8pa7r€Teva-€, Kal dXXot (xtto 
\apdv OTL €7rida6r], oXoi ojjlms 
fjb€ CTiOiTrrjv fJLcydXyjv Kal 6d[i- 

the king's countenance resem- 
bled the picture, conceived sus- 
picions, and at last, when he 
was quite sure, uncovering and 
approaching respectfully, he said, 
" How is it that you are here, 
your majesty ? " The king, 
alarmed, at once told him to 
keep silence. Both king and 
queen entreat him and make 
him many splendid promises. 
But he was inexorable and 
replied, " I will not be a traitor 
to my country. If your majesty 
leaves France it is all over with 
us." He at once rouses the 
whole town (for it was the dead 
of night), he rings the bells, and 
collects the inhabitants of all 
the villages around to help him, 
so that the king may not escape 
from them, and sends the news to 
the Assembly in Paris. 

On the 25th of the month, 
then, in the afternoon, the king 
entered Paris accompanied by 
many thousands of people, men, 
women and children, who had 
followed him from various cities. 
Add to these many thousands of 
Parisians who came out to meet 
him, not to do him honour as 
at other times, but some enraged 
against him for his flight, others 
rejoicing that he was ca23tured, 
but all in profound silence and 
amazement, and with downcast 



/ios, Acat KaTr;</)etav tov Trpocrio- 


Kat evTavOa (Tvv€/3rj Trpayfxa 
cri] fie uo(T coy's ol^lov, to OTrotov 

d7ro8€LKVV€L, OTL TWJ/ cf>U)TL(T/X€VOiV 

€6vu)V Kol avTOL ot yv/xvoTToSes 
(fiaivovTai els TroAAa? Trepiard- 
(r€LS (TVveTOL. " KyKaXa koX rj 
WviK-t] 'ZvvoSos eix^ 8a)(T€iV /xe- 
ydXas IT pocrr ay d<s eh tov Aaov 
m fxy] 7rpd^o)(Ti Kaveva oltottov 
els TOV ^acrtXea, 6 Aao? ofxios 


dyavaKTrjfievos, cjcTTe, av eT)(e 
yvwfxrjv vd tov aTLfxacrr} rj vd 
TOV KaKOTTOiryo-T^, p.7]T€ 6eol fx-qre 
Saijxoves 7y8uvavTO vd tov efiiro- 

SiVoKTlV. "Evas AotTTOV (XTTO 

avTOVs Tovs yx^fivoTToSas ypdcfiei 
els \apTLov pie pieydXa ypdp.- 
p^ara, Kal 7rpo(TKoX\a, avTo els 
eva TOL)(^ov, els rd p^eprj odev 
€L)(€ vd Trepdcrrj 6 fiacnXevs, Std 
vd dvayvo)0-9o)(Ti irapd ttcivtcov 
TttVTa Ta d^LOcryjpeuora Aoyia* 

^' '0 /Saa-iXevs ep^jSatvei els 
llapta-Lovs-, ocTTiS eKJSdXXei to 
KUTreXov tov Sid vd tov X*^" 
peTya-y, BeXei ^vXacfiopyjOy] ' dXX' 
6a-TLS ToXfiy'icrrj vd Trpd^rj els 
avTov oTTotav S-qiroTe v/3pLV rj 
aTipiiav, OeXet Kpep,a(r6rj." 

i'as ei'^apto-TW ttoAv. At 
XeiTTopLepe tat avTac wepl Trjs 
TaXXiKyjs cTravacTTacrews /xot 
^](rav evTeAws dyvoxrroL. 

IIws evptcTKeTe Ty]v yXiocrcrav; 

S^eSov 6/xoiav p,e Trjv vvv 

' Avey v(Jo(TaTe TroAAd crvy- 

Aiid now an occurrence took 
place, worthy of remark, which 
shows how, among civilised 
nations, even the very lowest of 
the people display intelligence 
on many occasions. Although 
the National Assembly had given 
strict orders to the people not 
to be guilty of any unworthy 
conduct towards the king, the 
populace was in such numbers 
and so enraged that if they 
had been inclined to insult or 
outrage him, neither gods nor 
demons could have prevented 
them. One then of the actual 
mob wrote upon a paper in large 
letters and fastened it on a wall 
upon the route by w^liich the 
king had to pass, so that the 
following remarkable words 
might be read by all : 

" The king is now entering 
Paris ; whoever takes off his hat 
to greet him will be flogged; 
but whoever shall dare in any 
way to insult or abuse him will 
be hanged." 

Thank you very much. These 
details regarding the French 
revolution were quite unknown 
to me. 

What do you think of the 
language ? 

It seems very nearly the same 
as is written now. 

Have you read many works 



ypdfJiixaTa rrjs KaO' rj/xas ^EAAt/- 

"OXt TToWd' TaKTiK(0<S O/XW? 

dvayiviocTKO) Trjv " Neav *H/xe/)- 
av" Trj<s Tepyeo-TTjs Kal rov 
'^'NeoXoyov" rrjs Kcovcrravrt- 

'H eKXoyq o-as efi/at dpLO-Trj, 
SiOTi rd 8vo ravra cfivWa elvat 
€K TMV a^ioAoycoTarwv ttJs^EA- 
XrjVLKTJs 8r)fJbocnoypacf)Las. 

'¥iK07rLd(TaT€ TToXv vd /jidOrjTe 
Trjv (rrjixepLvrjv'^^XXyjVLKi^v ; 

Aev dTrr]VTr](Ta rrjv lAaxtcrrr^v 
Sva-KoXtav. "Orav yvoypi^rj ns 
KaAws rrjV dpx^-to-^ 'EAAr/i^iKr^v 
Svvarat va P'dOrj rrjv a-rjixepLvrjv 
els oAiya fxad-q/JiaTa, 8l6tl rj 
Stacfiopd etvat aor^/xavTos. To 
fjLOVov TO oTTOtov kiriOvp-M rdjpa 
etvat vd a-vvrjOta-rj to avri pLOV 
ets TTjv opuXiav. 

Go, irpocnraOrjcro) vd (rds fSorj- 
Orjcro) €19 TOVTO ' aAAot TrpcTret 
Ktt^' oAov TO Ta^ciScov /xa? vol 
6yu.iAco/xcv 'EAAi^vtKa. 

Eiyuat irpodvpLO'S els tovto' 
dXXd (fiofiiovpLaL pLT^TroiS crd<s 
KapLio vd dySida-qre /xe rrjv 
KaK-qv pLOV 7rpo(f>opdv. 

M.r) €)(^€T€ TOiOVTOV <p6/3oV' 

as Kdpni)p.ev Xolttov KaXrjv 

2a§ irapaKaXQi o/iO)? vd puc 
8Lopd(i>vrjT€ oVav irpo^kpoi rds 
Ae^etS KaKW?. 

TovTo $d TrpdrTii) TrpoBvpnas. 
KvTTct^aTe irapaKaXQ) ri. lopa 
eTi/ai, StOTt vopLi^d) etpieda ttXt]- 
(TLOV T7]S 'Ap,ievrjs. 

ETvat rpeis kol €tKoa-67revT€, 

in the Greek of our own 
time ? 

Not many ; but I read 
regularly the Nea Hemera of 
Trieste, and the Neologos of 

Your choice is an excellent 
one, for these two papers are 
among the best in Greek 

Did you take much pains to 
learn modern Greek ? 

I did not find the least 
difficulty. When any one has 
a good knowledge of ancient 
Greek, he can learn the modern 
language in a few lessons, for 
the difference is trifling. All I 
want now is to accustom my ear 
to conversation. 

I will endeavour to help you 
in this : but we must talk Greek 
during the whole of our journey. 

I am quite ready to do this : 
but I am afraid that I shall 
make you disgusted wdth my 
bad pronunciation. 

Do not be afraid of that. Let 
us make a good beginning then. 

But I beg you will correct me 
whenever I pronounce the words 

I will do so willingly. See 
what o'clock it is, please, for I 
think we are near Amiens. 

It is twenty -five minutes past 



(ii(rT€ €ts rpia AeTrra da ijfxeOa 
€ts 'Afxuvqv. — 'l8ov e<fiOd(raiJ.€V. 
Eis Trevre AeTrra ava^wpov/xev. 

"Ox^, «i^ '<at TToAv eiredv/JLOvv ' 
StOTt TToAAaKts i]KOV(Ta VOL iirai- 
vCkn Tov KadeSpiKov avTrjs vaov. 

Eo'at XanTTpov OLKoSo/jL-qixaf 
dpia-TovpyrjfJLa TotOlktjs oLp^^i- 


atwvo?. Ilept TOV davfxacriov 
TOVTov vaov 6 Viollet-le-Duc 
Aeyet on efvat yvqcrtov Kal 
dfxcfnrrov VotOlkov pvdp.ov kol 
Svvarac va ovofxacrdrj 6 TlapOe- 

VWV T^S ToT6LKrj<S dp^lTeKTOVL- 

'F,VTavOa, €av Sev aTrarw/xat, 
Kara Ma/ariov tov i8o2 vire- 
ypdcfirj rj ovofxa^ofjievr] '' Ei/)7^vry 
T-)}? 'AfXL€Vt]s" ore dveyvcDpicrOr] 
Kal rj SrjfJiOKpaTLa twv 'loviwv 

three, so we shall be at Amiens 
in three minutes. — We have 
arrived. In five minutes we 
shall start again. 

Have you ever visited Ami- 
ens ? 

No, though I have much 
wanted to do so, for I have often 
heard people praising its cathe- 

It is a splendid edifice, a 
masterpiece of the Gothic archi- 
tecture of the thirteenth century. 
Eegarding this wonderful church, 
Viollet-le-Duc says that its style 
is pure and faultless Gothic, and 
that it may be called the Parthe- 
non of Gothic architecture. 

It was here, if I am not mis- 
taken, that in March 1802 was 
signed the so-called " Peace of 
Amiens," when the republic of 
the Ionian islands was also re- 



'E(f)ddorafi€v reAos ets Uapt- 


At, crei/a Xeyw, XdjSeraTrpdy- 
fiard fias kol cfxova^e ixiav afia- 

Eis TTotov ^evoSox^'i^ov 6a 
VTrdyrjre Kvpioi ; 

El's TO Meya ^evohoyelov. 
*AAAa TTOcra ^o, ere 7rXrjp(Jocro)fJL€V ; 

T/Dia (jipdyKa Kal Kan Tt ws 

IIoAv KaXd. Kayue yprjjopa^ 
SioTt OeXojxev va irpocfiOda-oiixev 
els TO yev/xa. 

*0/Dtcr/x6s eras Kvpiot' eis Se- 
KttTrevTe Acttto. ^ot rifxeOa ets to 
^cvo5o)(€tov. — ^'ISov ^(fiOdaafJLev. 

Jlov elvai 6 Stepfxyjvevs tov 
^€VoBoX€iOV ; 

Tt dya7raT€ Kvpioi; 

GeAo/xev Svo KaAot Sw/ACXTia 


Ta ^eAcTe Sta ttoAAols rj/xepas; 

0;(t, /xovov 8ia 8w vvKras. 

Aci^e CIS Tovs Kvpiovs rd W 
dpLdfiov 24 Kai 25 Soy/xdr ta. 

Eu/at eypv^oypa Kal evdepa 

IIoTc dp^L^iL TO yevtKov yeu- 

Here we are at last at Paris ! 

Here ! I say ! take our luggage 
and call a cab. 

To what hotel are you going, 
gentlemen 1 

To the Grand Hotel. But 
how much are we to pay you ? 

Three francs and something 
as a present. 

Very good. Make haste, for 
we want to be in time for dinner. 

All right, gentlemen. We 
shall be at the hotel in a quarter 
of an hour. — Here we are ! 

Where is the interpreter of 
the hotel ? 

What do you wish, gentlemen ? 

We want two good bedrooms 
on the second floor. 

Do you want them for long ? 

No. Only for two nights. 

Show the gentlemen rooms 
number 24 and 25. 

They are spacious and airy 

When does the table d'hote 
begin ? 




Et's TttS eTTTa Kol rkraprov. 

^€pe /xas (raTTOvvL kol Kadapa 

ETvai €TOLfxa 67ri tov VL7rTrjpo<s. 
'ISov (xas 'icfiepav /cai ^€(ttov 

'H XeKOLVT] etvaL ttoXv fxiKpd 
— Siv evpuTKU) TO (Tffioyydpi fjLov 
— 8iv el^ivpiii TTOv e^aAa to 
Krkvi fxov — TTOV vd -^vac rj ifnJK- 
rpa fMov; — a, rcopa IvOvfjLOVfMat. 

Tot €)(^C0 els TO Kil3(0TL0V. 

'AKOfXYj Sev evL<fiOr]T€ ; 

"O^^t, dXX €IS TrkvT€ AeTTTO, 

^a rifxat erotfxos. 

0a eras Trept/xevo) eh rrjv 

'l^KTV7rrj(rav tov KtoSwva ; 
ETvat TO yevfxa eVot/xov / 

MaAto-Ta KvptoL. 'Ftvrevdev, 
TrapaKaXio. Upos rd Se^id eras 
6d evprjre to co-TcaTO/acov. 

Uov 6d Ka9 Lcro)fxev ; ecf)v- 
kd^are 8vo Oecrets Bt r^fxas ; 

Ta 8uo Tavra KaOicrp^aTa 
€Lvai Bl vfids. Mt^ttws (ilct- 
Odvea-Qe to pev/xa tov depos ; 
BeXeTe vd KXetariD to urapddvpov ; 

Oct />tas VTToy^peuio-rjTe. 

Tt 6d TrdpeTe TrpQtTov ; BeXeTe 
<Tap8eXXa<s aAaTwrTcts rj tov 
XaBcov ; Tot peiravdKia eri/at 
Tpv(f>epd, At KapiSes eivat t^s 
rjfxepas. To \avytdpL eu^at 


Aos /xot, TrapaKaAw, Tcts eAai- 
as. Me oAiyov AaSt kol Xefxovt 

yiVOVTaL VO(TTLp(i)TaTaL. AoKt- 

fidcraTe vd cBrjTe dv Od eras dpe- 

At a quarter past seven. 

Bring us some soap and clean 

They are ready on the wash- 
ing-stand. Here is some hot 
water they have brought for 

The basin is very sraalL I 
cannot find my sponge. I do 
not know where I put my comb. 
— Where can my brush be? — 
Ah ! I remember now, I have 
them in my box. 

Have you not yet washed ? 

No, but in five minutes I 
shall be ready. 

I will wait for you in the 

Have they rung the bell ? Is 
dinner ready ? 

Yes, gentlemen. This way, 
if you please. You will find 
the dining-room on your right. 

Where shall we sit? Have 
you kept two places for us ? 

These two seats are for you. 
Do you feel the draught ? Would 
you like me to shut the window ? 

You will oblige us. 

What will you take first? 
Would you like some salted 
sardines or in oil ? The radishes 
are tender. The shrimps were 
caught to-day. The caviare is 
of the best quality. 

Give me the olives, please. 
With a little oil and lemon 
they become most delicious. Try 
them and see if you will like 


UepdcraTG [xoi to aAas irapa- 
KaXQ) — 80T6 />tot TO TTCTrept — 
aAAa^aTC to, ixayaipoirepova. 

'H crovTTa eu/at a^ioXoyos — 
a^vat oXiyov aXpuripd — e^vat dvd- 
Xaros — etVai ttoAi; (ecmi]. 

Tt ^a e^w/xev pberd T7]v crov- 
irav ; 

Upo/SeLOV fi€ cnravaKia kol 
yeixifx-qXa TrjyavLCTTd. 

^epere jjlol opvtOa pik pv^t "^ 
/x€ TTL^eXia. 'OXcyov xpiap^i, 

Aev €^(0 KaOapbv Trepovi — 
SoT€ p.0L eV aAAo pLLKpoTepov 

^epe p,Lav piLKpdv pLTroTiXiav 
Kpaal Sta tov cjiiXov p.ov, kol 
p^iav pLTTOTiXiav ^vOov 8l e/>te. 

*0 ^vOos 5ev a^i^et — elvai 

H craXdra etvai voorTifJLiDTaTrj 
— (TvyKUTai €K TroXXQ>v (TaXaTi- 
KMV — 7re/3t€)(€6 piapovXia, avTiSi, 
KOKKLVoyovXi KOL oXlyov /xatSa- 

To KaKov TTJs (TaXdras etVat 
oTt eivai TToXv opeKriKr] kol 
Kdp^vet TOV dv9p(i)7rov vd rpMyy 

E^eTe SiKatov els rovro ' dXX 
oTav Ta^eiSevrj ns TrpeTret vd 
KaXorpiayrj hid vd elp^iroprj evKo- 
Aws va VTTOfJievrj to us kottovs' 
iO(TT€ as Trdpoifxev Kal (xtto ev 



opTVKi ' cpatvovTat ttoj 


^epe /xas to yXvKvcrfxa. 
E;)(eTe Kavev ^vpLapiKov / 

^€p€ /XaS TVpOTTTJTa. 

Avo Kovrras Ka^e, TvapaKaXQ). 

Pass me the salt, please — give 
me tlie pepper — change the 
knives and forks. 

The soup is excellent. It is 
a little salt — it is without salt — 
it is very hot. 

What have we got after the 
soup ? 

Mutton with spinach and fried 

Bring me some fowl with rice 
or peas. A little bread, if you 

I have not got a clean fork. 
Give me another knife, a smaller 

Bring me a small bottle of 
wine for my friend, and a bottle 
of beer for me. 

The beer is not good : it is 

The salad is most delicious. 
It consists of many vegetables. 
It contains lettuce, endive, beet- 
root, and a little parsley. 

The worst of salad is that it 
is very appetising, and makes 
one eat a great deal. 

You are right in this ; but 
when any one travels he should 
feed well, that he may easily 
bear the fatigue : so let us take 
also a quail each ; they look very 

Bring us the sweets. 
Have you any pastry .? 
Bring us some cheese-pie. 
Two cups of coffee, please. 



TLov €LvaL TO KaTTVLcrWjpLov ; 
Avvaa-de, av ayaTTttxe, va 

Tocrov TO KaWiTepov, 

QeXcTC VOL (ras ^e/jw (TtyapkTTa 
'/) cnydpa ; 

"0;>(t, ei'xapto-Tw, i^opiev. 

Ka7n/tcraT€ cV criyapkTTOV €K 
rtov IBtKiov pLOV. EtVat dpta-rrjs 
TTOLOTtjTOS. Tot €<j)ipa pier' epLOV 
€K AovSiVOV. IIws o^a? ^at- 
I'ovTat / 

Eu'ttt Tw ovTt Ka\d. HoOev 
ra 7]yopdcraT€ ; 

Tot r^yopacra kv AovdiVM Ik 
Tov KaracrT'qpiaTOS 'ASeX-cfiiov 
A. HaTraSoTTovkov Leadenhall 

11/30 €LKO(TLV €TWV 8v(TKdAa>5 

€vpt(rK€ Ti<s ev AovSiVo) KaAct 
(TLyap^TTa, Slotl 6 KocrpLOS ^Kd- 
TTi^t^e (Tiydpa pLOVOV ■)) TrtVa?. 

'H w/aa TraprjXBe /cat rip^Lda 
va vvo^Tci^w irapaKaXd vd pie 
(Tvyxiiipy'jory^Te v d7ro<Jvp6(a els 
rrjv kXlvi^v pLOV. 

Kat eya> ^ct Trpd^o) to avTO, 
5i0Tt er/xat TToAv KovpacrpLevos. 

Hoiav lopav vd (T7]K(joOmpl€V to 
TTpiiit ; 

Ets Tots kvvka. — KaAi^v vvKTa. 

KaA7)v rjpi€pav eras. IIws 
iKOLpL-QdrjTe T>)i/ vvKTa; 

IIoAv cv^dpuTTa. Evil's a/jta 
CTTCO-a €15 Ti^v kXlvtjv /x' eiTTJpev 

6 VirVOS. To Kp€^0dTL tjTO 


Kat €yw €KOLpLYjdl]V TToXv 

Kakd, Kttt Scv ala-ddvopiai t^v 
e\a\L(TTy]V Kovpaa-tv. 

Where is the smoking-room ? 

You can smoke here if you 

So much the better. 

Would you like me to bring 
you cigarettes or cigars ? 

No, thank you, we have some. 

Smoke one of my cigarettes. 
They are of the best quality. I 
brought them with me from 
London. How do you find 
them ? 

They are indeed good. Where 
did you buy them ? 

I bought them in London at 
D. Papadopoulo Brothers in 
Leadenhall Street. 

Twenty years ago one had a 
difficulty in getting good cigar- 
ettes in London, because everyone 
used to smoke only cigars or pipes. 

It is late and I am beginning 
to feel sleepy. I beg you to 
excuse my withdrawing to bed. 

And I shall do the same, for 
I am very tired. 

At what o'clock shall we get 
up in the morning ? 

At nine. — Good-night. 

Good-morning. How did you 
sleep last night ? 

Very well indeed. The mo- 
ment I lay down on the bed I 
fell asleep. The bed was a very 
comfortable one. 

And I too slept very well, and 
I do not feel the least fatigue. 



"^ As vTToiyojfxcv TW/oa va Trpoyev- 
fMaTiCTiofJiev KOi hr€LTa c^e/^X^" 
/>te^a eis TrepiTraTov. 

To Trpoyevfia efvat '4tol/iov. 
Atera^a avyot rrjyavLarTa /xe 
yoLpojx^pt Kat Kacf)€. 

'EKa/X€T€ TToXv KaXd. — IIat86, 
<^e/)e ixa<5 Kat Svo v€cf)pa xj/rjfxeva 
'a-TYjv '(Txdpav. 

IlpoOvfJi(i)S Kvptoi. 

^ep€ /xa§ Kat aWo ydXa' 
Tovro Sev dpKet. liov etvai to 
^dyapt ; — ^l^ov Kvpioi. 

ETo-^e 'dTOipiOS vd i^eXOco/Jiev ; 

M-dXicrra. IIoiov Spo/xov vd 
TrdpiiijX€.v ; GeAere vet virdyiofiev 
ets TO AovfSpov ; 

To Aov/3pov TO €7re(TKe<f>6rjv 

"As vTrdydjfxev vd iSw/zev t'>)v 
Ilavaytav twv na/3io-twv. ETvat 
Travapx^tov OLKo86fJi7]fJia. 'O 
vaos, ws €>(€t vvv, etVat aTro tov 
6<o8eKaTOu aituvos. *H v^cros 
Itti r7J<s oTTOias eiVat i^KoSofxrj- 
fjL€Vos ovofxd^eTai " N-JJcros toi; 

'EttI *P(o/>taicov cKaAetTO Aov- 
TeTtaTWvIla/JKrtwv. 'O 2T/oa/?a)v 
dvo/za^€t avTYjV AovKOTOKiaV 
6 §€ 'lovAtavos AovK€Ttav. To 
XOipLOV iv T<^ OTTOtW yiv€Tat 

Aoyos 7re/3t tt^s vt^o-ov TavTT^s 
dvrkypaxpa irpo Ttvwv rjfjLepcov 
ets TO (TrjiJL€HiiixaTdpi6v jjlov ki< rov 
Mto-OTTtuywvos Tov 'loi^AtavoO 
Kat av deXeTe vd o-as to ava- 

IIoAv Od fJL€ v7ro)(^pe(i)crr]Te. 

" 'ETuyxavov eyw x^'^/^^i^wv 

Let us go now to breakfast, 
and afterwards we will go out 
for a walk. 

Breakfast is ready ; I have 
ordered fried eggs with some 
ham, and coffee. 

You did quite right. Waiter ! 
Bring us two kidneys cooked on 
the gridiron. 

Certainly, gentlemen. 

Bring us some more milk : this 
is not enough. Where is the 
sugar ? — Here it is, gentlemen. 

Are you ready to come out ? 

Certainly. What road shall 
we take ? Shall we go to the 
Louvre ? 

I have often been to see the 

Let us go and see Notre Dame 
de Paris. It is a very ancient 
building. The church, as it now 
stands, dates from the twelfth 
century. The island on which 
it is built is called " lie de la 

In the time of the Romans it 
was called Lutetia Parisiorum. 
Strabo calls it Lucotocia ; but 
Julian, Lucetia. The passage in 
which mention is made of this 
island I copied a few days ago 
in my note-book, from Julian's 
Miso2?ogon, and if you like, I will 
read it to you. 

You will greatly oblige me. 
" I happened to be passing the 



irept TTjV (^>i\i]V AovKiTcav ovo- 
jid^ovcrt 8' ovTU)^ ol KeArot twv 

liapKTLOJV TYjV iroXi\Vli]V' iCTTL 

8' ov fxeydkr] vrj(ros €yK€LfX€V7] 

TW TTOrafMip, Kttfc aVTrjV KVKko) 

Tvacrav ril\o^ KaraAa/x^avei, 
^vAtvat 8' kir' avTtjv d/xcfiOTe- 
pciiOev ilcrdyovcTL y€(f)vpat, Kal 
oAtya/cts 6 TTora/jtos lAaTTourat 
Kot fxei^iDV yiVerat, rot ttoAAo, 8* 


Xeifjiiovos, vBoyp y^Sicrrov Kal 
KaOapcoTarov opdv Kal Trivetv 
kdkXovTL Trapk\iiiv. "Are yap 
V'T^arov oIkovvt€<s vSpevea-dai jxd- 
Aio-ra IvOkv^e XPV- Ttverai 8e 
Kal 6 ^(et/xwv €K€L Tvpaorepos etre 
VTTO T^s 6€piJi,rj<s TOV WKCaVOl', 
(TTciSta yol/o a7r€;(ct twv Ivi'a- 
KO(rt(j}v ov TrAetw, /cat StaStSorat 
Tv;(ov AcTTTTy rt? avpa rov 
vSaros, €tvaL 8e Sokci OepfxoTepov 
TO OaXdmov rov yXvKeos' etre 

OVV €K TaVTr]<S €tT€ €K riV05 

aAArys atTia? d(fiavov<s Ifxoi, to 
Trpayfjbd k(TTi roLOvroVy aAeeivd- 
Te/3ov e;^ova-t oc to \oypiov ol- 
KovvTe? toi/ "x^eifJiMva^ Kal <^iWat 
Trap avTot? a/xTreAos dyady^, Kal 
(rvKois yjBrj Ttm eiViv ot e/xry- 
Xav7yo-avTO, crK€7rd^ovT€<s avTd<s 
TOV \€LfJL(i)vos locnrep tfxaTLOL<s ry 
KaXd/xy TTVpov Kal roiOTJTOL<5 
TicTiV, ocra etuiOev eipyeiv t>)v €k 
Tou d€po<s eTTtyLyvofxcvrjv Tots 
8ei/8/3ois l3Xdf3i]v. *Ey€i/€TO 

87) Ol'l' 6 )(^eifX(hv TOV €L(d06to<s 
a-cfioSpoTepos^ Kal 7rap€(f)€p€v 6 
TTOTa/xo? wcTTTC/) fiapfidpov irXd- 
Kas' i(TT€ 8rJ7rov Toy ^pvytov 
At^ov, w €0)K€fc p-dXia-Ta tov 

winter in my beloved Lucetia : 
this is the name which the Kelts 
give to the town of the Parisians, 
It is a small island lying in the 
river and a wall entirely sur- 
rounds it, and wooden bridges 
lead to it from both sides, and 
the river seldom falls and rises ; 
generally it is the same in 
summer and winter, supplying 
water very pleasant to drink 
and bright to look at, for any 
one who wants it. As the 
people live on an island, they 
are of course obliged to draw 
their water from it. The winter 
there is rather mild either from 
the heat of the ocean, for it is 
distant not more than nine 
hundred stadia, and perhaps 
some light sea-breeze distributes 
itself, and sea-water is supposed 
to be warmer than fresh water ; 
either from this cause or from 
some other which is not known 
to me, it is a fact that the 
inhabitants of the place have a 
rather warm winter, and the 
vine grows well on their land, 
and some of them have now 
contrived to rear fig-trees, cover- 
ing them up in the winter (just 
as if with clothes) with wheat- 
straw and similar substances, 
such as possess the power of 
protecting the trees from the 
injury they sustain by exposure. 
Now the winter happened to be 
more severe than usual, and the 
river brought along with it ice 
like slabs of marble : you know, 




jX€yaXa koI eiraWr^Xa (pepofxeva' 
Kal St] Kal (Tvvexq Troiecv 7]8r} 
Tov TTopov efieXXe Kal to pevfia 

y€(f)VpOVV. 'i2s OVV €V TOVTOLS 

dypiMTepos rjv tov (rvv-jOovs, 
WdXTreTO 8e to Sw/xartov ov8a- 
/xa)Sj ovTTcp eKaOevSov, ovirep 
CtW^et TpOTTOV VTTO Tttl? Ka/xivoi§ 

Oep/JLevea-Oat, koI TavTa exov 
evTrpeTTMS Trpos to TrapaSe^aa-Oau 

TtjV €K TOV TTVpOS dXeaV ' (TVVG^rj 

5* oTfiai Kal Tore 8id (r/catoTT^ra 
TTjv ifxrjv Kal ttjv ets avTov 
TTyowTov, (OS eiKOS, aTravOpiDTTLav' 
ifSovXo/JLTjv yap kOi^eiv i/xavTOV 
dvex^crdai tov depa TavTrjs 
evSews e'xovra T7]<s f3o7]9€ta<s. 
'i2s 81 6 x^LfMMV eTreKpaTCL Kal 
del fiet^wv iytvcTO^ Oepfjbrjvat 
fxev ov8' ws eTreTpexpa tois VTrrj- 
p€TaiS TO oiKT^/xa, SeStws KLvrjcrai 
TrjV kv TO IS TOLXOiS vypoTTjTa, 
KOjxicraL 8' ev8ov kKeXcvcra Trvp 
K€KavfJi€Vov Kal dvOpaKas Xajx- 
Trpovs dTToOkfrdai TravTcAws p.c- 
Tptovs. 01 8e. Katirep ovTes ov 
TToXv TrapbTrXyjOets diro tmv 
ToixoiV dTpL0v<5 kKLvrjcrav, vcfi 
5v KaTk8apdov. 'E/x7rt7rAa/xev7^? 
8k pLOi TTJs K€cfiaXrj<s i8kr](ra pxv 
diroTrvLyrjvai^ Koptcrdels 8' e^w, 
Ttov laTpdv irapaivovvTOiV dirop- 
pixpai Tr)v kvTiOda-av dpTc Tpo- 
(fi'QV, ovTi pid Ala TToXXrjv ovcrav, 
e^k/SaXov Kal kyev6p,'qv avTCKa 


I suppose, the Phrygian stone — 
the ice very much resembled it 
in whiteness, large pieces of it 
being brought down heaped one 
over the other ; and indeed 
almost made a continuous pass- 
age so as to bridge the river. 
Meanwhile the weather was 
more inclement than usual, and 
the room where I slept was 
not heated at all, in the usual 
way, by the stoves underneath, 
as most of the houses were, 
although it was properly pre- 
pared to receive the heat of 
the fire. This too happened, 
I suppose, through my stu- 
pidity, and my want of hu- 
manity towards myself, of 
course, in the first place : the 
fact was that I wished to 
accustom myself to bear the 
cold atmosphere without the 
help of these appliances. Per- 
sistent as the winter was and 
constantly increasing in severity, 
still I did not allow the servants 
to heat the house, fearing to 
bring out the moisture in the 
walls, but I ordered them to 
bring inside some dull fire with 
a very small quantity of red-hot 
charcoal. Although there was 
but little, it set in motion the 
vapour out of the walls of the 
room where I was sleeping. As 
my head became filled with it, 
I was nearly suff"ocated : but 
being carried out and advised 
by the doctors to throw up what 
I had lately eaten, which, by 



To (TTTOvSaiOV TOVTO ^oipiov 
eivai TrXyjpes evSia^epovTOS • ev- 
Tpeiro/xaL 8c va eras etTro) on 
ovScTTOTe dveyvoiv to, a-vyypdfx- 
para tov 'lovXiavov. "Orav 
eTravekdii) els Kavra/^pi-yt'av 7) 
TrpioTi] pov cfipovTLS Od r^vat vot, 
rd SteXOii). 

2as (TvpLfSovXevu) v' dvayvw- 
crryre Kat to irepl 'lovXtavov 


oTTotov eT/xat fSe^aios otl 6d 

€Vpif]T€ TToXv a-TTOvSaiOV. 

0a Trpd^io ws pioi (rvp^/SovXev- 
€T€. — 'AAAcl Tiopa TTOV vd vird- 
y(i)p.€V ; Ta d^LoXoytorepa p^eprj 

TOV VaOV Ttt €L8op.€V. 

GeAeTC va vTrdyiopev els to 
8aa-os Trjs BovAtuvv^s; 

Ei};(a/3to-TWS. — 'A/>ia^a, els to 
8d(ros tt}? ^ovXwvrjs. 

'FiifiOdcrapev els Tyv Kwp^rjv 
Auteuil. 'FiVTavOa eTx^ov Tas 
KaTOLKias T(DV 6 BoaAo) Kat 6 
MoAi€/305. WtpieOa irapd Tr)V 
eLa-o8ov TOV 8dcrovs. 

^Tacrov dpLa^d. 0a KaTafScapLev 
cvTav^a. "^As Trpo\iDpy^(riDpev 
Trpos Ta e8Q>. — *Ks vwdyoipev 
els TO yaAaKTOTTwAeiov eKelvo 
va TTLiopev oXtyov ydXa. — Avo 
TTOTrjpLa ydXaKTOS Tra/aa/caAw. 

To BeXeTe Bepphv 1) \pv)(p6v ; 

"^vxpov. A6t€ Kal 8vo 
Tra^t/xaSia. Tl BdcrdsTrXrjpioo-o); 

' HpiLO-V <f)pdyKOV, KVptOL. 

Twpa as TrepvTraTrjfroipev oAt- 

Jove ! was not very much, I 
vomited and immediately felt 

This important passage is full 
of interest, but I am ashamed 
to say that I have never read 
the works of Julian. When I 
go back to Cambridge my first 
care shall be to go through them. 

I advise you also to read 
Gibbon's chapter about Julian, 
which I am sure you will find 
highly interesting. 

I will do as you advise me. 
But where shall we go now? 
The more interesting parts of 
the church we have seen. 

Shall we go to the Bois de 
Boulogne ? 

By all means. Coachman ! 
To the Bois de Boulogne. 

Here we are at the village 
of Auteuil. It was here that 
Boileau and Moliere lived. We 
are at the entrance of the wood. 

Stop, coachman ! We will 
alight here. Let us go this way. 
Let us go to that milk-shop and 
drink a little milk. Two glasses 
of milk, if you please. 

Do you wish it hot or cold ? 

Cold. And give us two 
biscuits. Wliat have I to pay 

Half a franc, gentlemen. 

Now let us walk about a 



yov. — ^As (TTpa<f>Q>ii€V Ttpos ra 
Se^bd. — Tt iipaioi 8id8po/JiOi. 
Hocrov Spocrepov cfyaLverat to 

v8(x)p rOV p^LKpOV TOVTOV pvaKLOV. 

Kvrra^aTe tov KarapaKT-qv 
eKeLvov TToo-ov ;)(a/3i€VTCt)s to 


KaraSpocTL^ov rds Trripcis. — ^As 
KaTaf3(j)fJi€V Sid rrjs drpaTTOV 
TavTTjS Trpo's rrjv puKpav kKCivrjV 
Xipiviqv. GeAcTe vet KaOicr(i)p.€V 
VTTO rrjv TTTeXeav TavT7]v ; 

"Eivxoi-ptcrTOis. *H roTTodecTia 
etVat Kapirpd. IIoo-ov evpop(f>a 
KoXvp^/Sa 6 KVKVos ovTos. 'Hkov- 
(rare ttotc kvkvov vet KeXaSy ; 

Eyw ovScTTOTe rjKovcra^ ovhl 


dv /cat X6yo<s virdpyei oVt efvai 

'KXX as a^T^crw/xev tovs kvk- 
vovs /cat TO, o^crpard tcov e;>(eTe 
/cavev /SifSXiov ets tt^v NeoeA- 
XrjVLKYjv V dvayv(o(r(i)p.€v Std vd 
Trepda-Yj v^ lopa ; 

Nat, e^w €ts TO ^vActKiov pov 

TOV *A/xA6T0V CIS T>)v OpiXoV- 

pikv-qv *EAA>^viK7Jv. GeAcTC va 
o-as avayvwo-w oAtyov; 

2as irapaKaXQ). 

'Akovctc AotTTOV. 

"'Opdrios. AvOevra, KaXm (r 


'A|j,\6tos. KaAws TOVS / — 
Eo-u €«rai, 
Opdne ; '^ m<s k' lyw k^k^acra 
TTOtos ef/jtat ; 
*OpaT. *0 tStos, — SovAos 
(TOV TTio-Tos, avdkvTa^ Sid 
'Ap,X. *0 <^tAo? Aeye />tov, 

little. Let us turn to tlie right. 
What beautiful paths ! How 
cool the water of this little 
brook looks ! Look at that 
waterfall ; how prettily the water 
falls among the rocks, refreshing 
the ferns ! Let us go down 
this path to that little pond. 
Shall we sit under this elm 

Certainly. The situation is 
a splendid one. How grace- 
fully this swan swims ! Have 
you ever heard a swan sing ? 

I have never heard it, and I 
do not believe that swans do 
sing, although it is said that 
they can sing. 

But let us drop the swans 
and their singing. Have you 
any book in modern Greek for 
us to read, so as to pass the 
time ? 

Yes, I have in my pocket 
Hamlet in vernacular Greek. 
Shall I read you a little of it ? 

If you please. 

Listen, then. 

Horatio. Hail to your lord- 
ship ! 

Hamlet. I am glad to see 

you well : 
Horatio, — or I do forget myself. 

Hor. The same, my lord, and 
your poor servant ever. 

Ham. Sir, my good friend ; 




Kadw<5 K €yw ere Aeyw 

Tt or' €cfi€p€V^^OpdTL€, aTTO TTjV 

BLT€fif3€pyr]v ; 
2v, Ma/)KcAAc ; 

MapK^XXos. KvOkvra fxov — 
'A|iX. Mero, \apas ere 

pXeTTO). (Il/aos Tov Bep- 

KaXrj kdirkpa Kvpie. *AAAa fxd 

rrjv dXnjdeLav, 
Tt (T €Ka/x€ Kol d(f>r](T€S rr)v 

BiTefji/Sepyr^v cfitXe ; 
'Opar. Tda-LS tvxo8l(i)KTLK7], 

dyaTnjTe avdkvra. 
'AjJtX. AvTo Sev Od fxov 

yjpea-Ke k k^Opos crov vd 

TO Xcyrjj 
Kai fxrj ^Ld^rj<; ovre crv t avrid 

fjiov vd T aKova-ovv, 
Na KarafxapTvpfj'? kcrv Kara rov 

eavTOv (TOV. 
To ^evpu) 'yw Sev earat crv tv- 

XoSiMKTrjs. ''0)(^i ! 
*AAAd V TTjV 'l^Xa-LVoprjV fxas tl 

0-' cKafxev vd 'iXOy^ ; 
Uplv (jivytj'i Od (T€ fxdd(x)ix€V vd 

TTivys (05 TOV Trdro ! 
'Opar. ^HA^a va iSw rrjv 

€Kcf)opdv, avBkvra^ tov ira- 

Tp6<s o-ov. 
'AjiX. Ila/aaKaAcu, cri^/x/xa- 

Orjrd, vd firj fxe 7re pnraL^rjS ' 

\ HA^€S VOfXL^Oi vd l8fj<S TOVS 

ydfxovs ttJ? ix-qrpos fiov. 
'Opar. 'OAtyov KaTaTToSt- 

ao-To, rjcrav rd 8vo tco ovtl. 
'A|aX. OlKOVofxtas, (^tAe 

fXOV, OLKOVO/XiaS X'^P''^ 


Xv(3a ef^av Kpva. 


I'll change that name with 

And what make you from 

Wittenberg, Horatio 1 
Marcellus ? 

Marcellus. My good lord — 
Ham. I am very glad to 

see you. (To Bernardo) 

Good even, sir. 
But what, in faith, make you 

from Wittenberg ? 

Hor. A truant disposition, 

good my lord. 
Ham. I would not hear your 

enemy say so. 
Nor shall you do mine ear that 

To make it truster of your own 

Against yourself: I know you 

are no truant. 
But what is your affair in Elsi- 

nore ? 
We'll teach you to drink deep 

ere you depart. 

Hor. My lord, I came to see 
your father's funeral. 

Ham. I pray thee, do not 

mock me, fellow-student ; 
I think it was to see my mother's 

Hor. Indeed, my lord, it 

followed hard upon. 
Ham. Thrift, thrift, Horatio ! 

the funeral baked meats 
Did coldly furnish forth the 

marriage tables. 



KaAAiT€/oa va irrjyaiva 'a rovs 

ovpavovs VOL evyow, 
Opdru fxov, Tov k\9pov rov 

da-irovSoTepov /xov, 
Uapd TTore pbov vd tSw iKeivTjv 

T^v rjjxepav ! 
Tlarepa /jlov, Trarepa fxov ! — 

'Opar. "12/ Uov KaXe! 
'AjjlX. Me T^9 ^^Xl'^-) 

^Opdrte, Tct ^ p-dr la. 
*OpaT. K' lyo) TOV etSa /xta 

(fiopd. Ti jSacnXevs yev- 

vaios / 
*A|JiX. "12/ tJto dv8pa<5 . . . 

na/)e TOV eis oAa tov ev 

€V C7a tow €7rt tt^s yi^? ttotc 

TOV O/XOtOV tov/ 

'Opar. AvOevra fiov, /xov 
cfiaLverai rov etSa X^^^ 


'A|xX. ErSes; Hotov; 
'Opar. Tov irarepa o-ov, rov 
f^acTiXka Aeyco, 
Tov €iSa. 

'AjjlX. Tov Trarepa p.ov ; 

Tov ^aa-tXea ; 
' Opar. 2Tao-ot'_, 

XaAtvwo-e TOV Oavp.aa-p.ov pLe 

Trpo(TO)(rju oXiyyjv, 
Na (TOV eiTTM /xe pidprvpas avrovs 

rovs Svo (piXovs, 
To OavpLa rovro. 

'A|jiX. A eye pLOv, Bl ovo/xa 

'Opar. Avo vvKTials Kara o-€l- 
pdv ol ovo Twv, 6 Be/ovapSos 
K'6 Ma^KeAAos, ets rrjvcfipovpdv, 
els rrjs vvKros rd jSdd-q^ 

Would I had met my dearest 

foe in heaven 
Ere I had ever seen that day, 

Horatio ! 
My father ! — methinks I see my 


Hot. 0, where, my lord ? 
Ham. In my mind's 

eye, Horatio. 
Hor. 1 saw him once ; he 

was a goodly king. 

Ham. He was a man, take 
him for all in all, 
I shall not look upon his like 

Hor. My lord, I think I saw 
him yesternight. 

Ham. Saw 1 who 1 
Hor. My lord, the king your 

Ham. The king my 

father ! 
Hor. Season your admiration 
for a while 
With an attent ear, till I may 

Upon the witness of these gentle- 
This marvel to you. 

Ham. For God's love, 

let me hear. 
Hor. Two nights together 
had these gentlemen, 
Marcellus and Bernardo, on their 



T^v etSav /x€ Ttt '/jLOLTLa Tiov : 
TO (TXTj^a Tov Trarpos 


Me 7ravo7r\iav ivTeXrj crtSepo- 


'E/;t7r/)os Twv ifX({>avi^€TaL Kal p.€ 

TTO/xTTcoSes fi'?]ixa 
'Apya Kal /xeyaAoTr/acTrws Trepv^ 

'2 TO, 'pLOLT la TWV TO, €K^a/x/?a 

e/ATT/Dos, TO, </>o/?t(r/xeva, 
'ETT/yye k' TyA^e T/3€t? cf)opai<s 

Tocrov 7rA>ycriov, locTe 

ToVS '>i77''C^ TO (TKyjlTTpOV TOV 

'AKLvrjTOi Kal aXaXoL, Xvoipkvoi 

OLTT TOV (fiofSoV^ 

Akv TOV oipiLXrjcrav. AvTa Ta 

eTrrav €i§ kpkva 
Me oLKpav p^vcTTLKOT-qTa K eyo) 

T7)v TpLTrjV VVKTa 
Ma^^ T(OV €^€VVKTtO-a, Kttt OTTWS 

/xov TO etTrav, 
T'y^v tStav w/jav t>^s vv/ctos Kat 

/jI€ to tStov a-xyjpa 
Ai^LV TT/OO? Ae^iv Kct^e Tt, TO 

<f)dvTa(rpa l<j>dvri ! 
Tov ^evpoi TOV TraTepa crov ' Tova 

pLOV X^pt TaXXo 
Aev 'poid^ei Trcptcra-oTepov. 

A\l\. IIAr/v TTov (Tvvkf^rj 


MapK. 'Ekci ttou €ixapLev 
(fipox^pdv, 'cr TOV TTpopa\Q)V 

AjiX. Kat TTws; Sev tov 
coptXrjcres ; 

Opar. Tov 'ptXrja-a, dXX' 


'ATTOK/aio-cv Sei/ eSwKC. Mtav 
(fiopav /a' €cj>dvrj 

In the dead waste and middle of 

the night, 
Been thus encountered : a figure 

like your father, 
Armed at point exactly, cap-a-p^, 
Appears before them and with 

solemn march 
Goes slow and stately by them : 

thrice he walked 
By their oppressed and fear- 
surprised eyes, 
"Within his truncheon's length ; 

whilst they, distilled 
Almost to jelly with the act of 

Stand dumb and speak not to 

him. This to me 
In dreadful secrecy impart they 

And I with them the third night 

kept the watch : 
Where, as they had delivered, 

both in time. 
Form of the thing, each word 

made true and good. 
The apparition comes. I knew 

your father ; 
These hands are not more like. 

Ham. But where was this ? 

Mar. My lord, upon the plat- 
form where we watched. 

Ham. Did you not speak to it ? 

Hor. My lord, I did ; 

But answer made it none ; yet 

once, methought, 
It lifted up its head and did address 



"Otl Kivei rrjv K€(f)a\r}V kol otl Itself to motion, like as it would 

Kafivet vevjxa speak ; 

'fio-av vet €TOLixd^€TaL va 6/xi- But even then the morning cock 

Xrjo-r), orav crew loud, 

Net Kpd^r] n€yaX6(fiO)va 6 ttc- And at the sound it shrunk in 

retvos rjKovo-Or], haste away, 

K' CIS T^v (Ji(i)vy]V Tov 'i^acfiva [xe And vanished from our sight. 

jStav aTrecrvpOr) 

K' k^dOt) diT rd '/xarta /xas. 
'A|xX. UapdSo^ov. 
' Opar. AvOevra, 

*Av dX.y]9evr} on fw Kal tovto 

dXrjBevet I 
KadyJKov evojjitcrafiev avrd vd 

crov rd Vov/>t€v. 
'A|J.X. Kat f^e/Sata, Kal 

fSe/Sata ! HXrjv tovto fxe 

ETa-de KL diro^e V Tr]v (f)pov- 

pdv ; 
MapK. Kal Bcpv. Got yjixeOa 

*Ay.\. Kai evoirXov fxov 

€LrraT€ ; 
MapK. Kal Bcpv. Nat, eVo- 

ttXov av^evra. 
*A|aX. 'Atto to, VTJ^ia 'cr ttjv 

Kop^riv ; 
MapK. Kal Bcpv. 'Atto kirdv 

d)S Kara). 
'A|jlX. Tore Xolttov to irpo- 

aroiTTOV Sev eiSes. 
•Opar. Nat, to efSa. 

Ti^v 7r€pLK€<fiaXaiav tov tyjv 

€?>(€ Cr7]K0)p.€V7]V. 
*A\lX. IltOS -^TO; "^TO CTKV- 

OpoiTTOv ; 
*OpaT. 'H eKcf)pa(rts tov ^to 

'H XvTrr] p,dXXov r) opyi^. 
*A|iX. XAcoyito 7) dvap.fX€Vo; 
'Opar. KaTa;(Aw^o. 

ITam. 'Tis very strange. 

Hor. As I do live, my 
honoured lord, 'tis true ; 
And we did think it writ down 

in our duty 
To let you know of it. 

Hami. Indeed, indeed, sirs, 
but this troubles me. 
Hold you the watch to-night 1 

Mar. and Ber. We do my 

Ham. Armed, say you ? 

Mar. and Ber. Armed, my 

Ham. From top to toe 1 

Mar. and Ber. My lord, 

from head to foot. 
Ham. Then saw you not his 

Hor. O, yes, my lord ; he 

wore his beaver up. 

Ham. What, looked he 

frowningly ? 
flbr. A countenance more 

in sorrow than in anger. 
Ham. Pale or red ? 
Hor. Nay, very pale. 



'A(iX. 'Eirdvio ora§ €(rTv\ov€ 

Tot 'fjiOLTLa ; 
'Opar. "OXrjv Ty]v topav, 
'AfJiX. "H^eAa irapotiv eKCi 

va rjfxrjv ! 
'Opar. Ga e/xeves ififSpov- 

' A\l\. UiCTTevii). Nat, TTt- 

CTTeVO} ! — 

'12? 7r6(T7]V oypav e/xeii^e ; 

'Opar. tiipiTTOV ocrov 6k\u 
No, dp(,Ofiyj(Trj<s €Kar6v X^P'''* 
peydXrjv /3iav. 
MapK. Kttl Bcpv. TLXeLorepov, 

'Opar. "Oral/ rov efSa, 

*A(J.X. '^Ho-av ra yeveta rov 

xpapd, rj pavpa ; 
'Opar. "Ottws T^o-ai/ 

"Orav Toi/ erSa ^wvravov, aAev- 

poifxeva p,avpa. 
*A(i\. "Epxo/x dTTOxj/e V T^v 

(jipovpdv. "lo-CDS ^av^y Kat 

'Opar. To eyyvovfxaL, 6d 

'AjJiX. Tov euyevovs Trar/aos 


'Eav ^ot exij TTjV fxop(fiy]V^ eyw ^a 

Tou AaAry(ro), 
'AKOfxr^ Kb dv fM OpOdvOLKTO TO 

(TTOfia Tov 6 "J^8r)<s 
Mod €7rLf3d\rj cniOTrrjv ! — Avttjv 

T';^]/ oTrrao-tav 
Eav rrjv €L)(^eT€ Kpvcfirjv kl ol 

T/3€ts eras 6(09 Tiopa, 
TlapaKaXo) KpaT7](raT€ Trjv (rto>- 

TTrjV aKOfxr]. 
Kai o Tt aAAo dv (TVfi/Srj ttjv 

ep^ofxev-qv vvKTa, 

Ham. And fixed his 

eyes upon you ? 
/for. Most constantly. 
Ham. I would I had 

been there. 
Hot. It would have much 

amazed you. 
Ham. Very like, very like. 

Stayed it long ? 

Hor. While one with moder- 
ate haste might tell a 

Mar. and Ber. Longer, longer. 

Hor. Not when I saw't. 

Ham. His beard was 

grizzled, — no ? 
Hor. It was, as I have seen 
it in his life, 
A sable silvered. 

Ham. I will watch to- 

night : 
Perchance 'twill walk again. 
Hor. I warrant it will. 

Ham. If it assume my noble 

father's person, 
I'll speak to it, though hell itself 

should gape 
And bid me hold my peace. I 

pray you all. 
If you have hitherto concealed 

this sight. 
Let it be tenable in your silence 

still ; 
And whatsoever else shall hap 

Give it an understanding, but 

no tongue : 



'2 Tov vovv (ras va to e'x^Te, 

dXXa 'cr rrjv yAwcrcrav 6)(^l. 

'H cfuXiKyj dydirrj eras Od Xdfirj 


'Avdfxeaa 'cr rds evSeKa Kal 

SutScKa 6d eXOo) 
'2 TOV TTpofxa^Qiva. Xa/)oeT€ / 

ndvT€s. ToTaTT€Lv6v fias(r€l3as 

'AjiX. T^v dydir-qv eras Kal 
OreiS TTjV ISLKrjv fxov ! 
"Q,pa KaXrj eras." 

Ums eras ^ati/€Tat rj fxerd- 
cf)pa(TLS ; 

IIoAi) KaXrj' dAAa TrpeTrec vd 
ofjLoXoyqcro) otl Ae^ets TLvds Kal 
(f)pd(T€LS Sev ivorjcra KaXojs. 

ToUTO ^TO cfiVCrtKOV, SiOTi 6 

fX€Ta(f)pd(Tas TO Spdfia e^et ws 
(3d(TiV TTjv XaXovfJievrjv Kal o^t 
TYjV VTTO Twv Xoyioiv ypacf^ofxevrjv 
yXioa-crav' ot'ov o/xcos fMdOrjTe 
KaXiJos djJicfiOT^pas 8ev 6d evp7]T€ 
fieTa^v avTWV fxeydXr^v SiacfiO- 

'Ytto Ttvo? eyetvev r^ fxeTdcfipa- 
(TLS ; 

'Ytto tou K.vptov AyjixrjTptov 
BiKcAa, ocTTLS fxeTecfipacrev els 
TTjV AaAov/ACVT^v 'EAAr^viK^v Kal 
Sidcfiopa dXXa SpdfiaTa tov 


fxol etvai yvwo-TOV, StoTi dveyvo)v 
€v la-TopiKOV TOV 6t')^y7y/i,a, to 

OTTOLOV TToXv fJLOi y]p€(T€. 

^EvvoeiTC TOV AovKTJv Adpav ; 


€7rLTvxios fJi€T€cf)paa-€v els TIJV 
'AyyXiKTjv yXQxTcrav 6 kv Aov- 

I will requite your loves. So, 

fare you well : 
Upon the platform, 'twixt eleven 

and twelve, 
I'll visit you. 

All. Our duty to your 

Ham. Your loves, as mine 

to you : farewell. 

What do you think of the 
translation ? 

Very good : but I must con- 
fess that there were some words 
and phrases which I did not 
understand very well. 

That was natural, for the 
translator of the play employs 
principally the vernacular and 
not the language as it is written 
by the learned : but when you 
have thoroughly learnt both, 
you will not find much differ- 
ence between them. 

By whom was the translation 
made ? 

By Mr. Demetrius Bikelas, 
who has translated into vernac- 
ular Greek several other plays 
of Shakespeare. 

The name of Mr. Bikelas is 
familiar to me, for I have read 
an historical tale of his, which 
23leased me very much. 

Do you mean Loukis Laras ? 

Yes. The work which was 
translated into English so suc- 
cessfully by the Greek am- 




Stvii) 7rp€(T/3€VTr)<i Tr]<s 'EAAaSos 
KvptO'S T€Vvd8L0<S. 

BXeTTw 6 ovpavbs yjpx'-fJ'^ ^^ 
KaXvTrTrjrat airb crvvvccfia Kal 
<f>o/3ovfiai pyTTOJS f^p^^XI- 

Nat, vopi^o) 6 Katpbs KXivei 
eis fBpo\y]V, loare as GnrevoriD/xev 
els TO ^evo8o)(^eLov. 

'ISov, rjpy^KTiV ijSrj va xj/rj- 
^aAt^ry. 'Avoi^are irapaKaXd 
TO aXe^LJ^po^ov (ras, Slotl lyw 
Sev eirrjpa to l8lk6v fxov vofxi^isiv 
OTfc ^a €X(i)fxev KaXbv Kaipov. 

'AAAa Sev clvai dvdyKrj. ^Hto 

flOVOV TTCpaa-TLKOV (TVVV€cl)OV ' 6 6' 

^Atos cXajJLXpe TrdXtv ^a/atevTws. 

ToVTO jX €vdvfJLL^€t TO *Ava- 

"'A<^eA(os 8' e'Aa/xi^e TiTav, 
Ne^eAwv (TKial Soi'ovvTat." 

Kai yMtt Tr]v aAry^etav KaAa 
KdjXVOV<JL Kal 8ovovvTaL' 8€V 
diM(j)if3dXXii} 8e on iropcvovTai 
Trpos TO Aov8lvov^ rrjv Trarpt8a 
T(i)V. rioo-oi' xp'qcrLjXMTepaL 6d 
ria-av av fxeTi^atvov et's ttjv 
'EXXd8a ! 

T6(Tov XoiTTov Trepc^'qTrjTOL 
eTvai €Ket; 

''0;(i fxovov Trepi^-qTrjTOi, aAAa 

Kol 7r€pLfxd)(rjT0Ly (OS TOVTO ytv€- 

Tttt KaTctSryAov ck ttJs "*Y7re/o 
ovov o-Ktas" TrapoLptas. 

'Eav 0UTW9 €;(et to irpdypa^ 
da Kdpiopev KaAa tt/oiv (ftOda-io- 
pev els T7)v'EAAaSa vd dyopd- 
(Tiopev TTtXovs irXarvyvpovs Kal 
KaXd dXe^yXia. 

*As vTTCty co/xev Aoittoi' evOvs TUh 
pa vd Tot dyopd(T(x)pev, StoTi perd 
TO yev/xa Scv 6^a c^^w/xcv Kaipov. 

bassador in London, Monsieur 
Gennadi us. 

I see the sky has begun to 
be overcast, and I am afraid 
that it will rain. 

Yes, I think the weather is 
turning to rain, so let us hasten 
to the hotel. 

There, it has already begun to 
drizzle. Put up your umbrella, 
please, for I did not bring mine, 
as I thought we should have 
fine weather. 

There is no occasion. It was 
only a passing cloud, and the sun 
has shone out again charmingly. 

That reminds me of the 
passage attributed to Anacreon — 
" The Titan shone out softly, 
the cloud-shadows are moving." 

And upon my word it is a 
good thing they do move : and 
I have no doubt that they are 
going towards London, their 
native land. How much more 
useful they would be if they 
went to Greece ! 

Are they then so much desired 
there ? 

Not only desired but quar- 
relled about, as is clear from the 
proverb " For the shade of the 

If that is so, we should do 
well, before arriving in Greece, 
to buy broad-brimmed hats and 
good sun-shades. 

Let us go then now at once 
and buy them, for after dinner 
we shall have no time. 





'0 ttlXos ovto<5 era? Tr^^yaivet 
TToAv KaXd. Tw/aa KfiatvecrOe 
(OS dXrjdrjS 7r€pLr]yrjT')^s. To, 
dXe^y^Xia ravra etvai eTriTrjSes 
Bid Oepfxa KXifiara. "As iVa- 
y(DfjL€V TMpa vd yev/xarta-co/zev. 

Tfc u>pa dva-)(^(i)povfi€v ; 

Efcs Tcts OKTO) Kttt (rapdvra 

"E;(o/xev AotTrov Stjo wpas ets 
rrjv SLdOecTLV fxas. 

"As etcreX^w/xev eis to aTre- 
vavTL ecmaTopLOV. EiVat Trepc- 
(fiTjfJbov 8td rd xj/yjrd rov. . . . 

Tiopa as virdyoifxev ets to 
^evoBo^ciov fxas vd 7rXr}p(iXT0)fMev 
Tov ^€i/oSo)(ov Kal vd dTrkXBdifxev. 

Tov XoyaptacTfiov /xas irapa- 
KaXd. — ^KfSSofiyjvra <ppdyKa. 

HXrjpiocrare vfxets kol eyo) eras 
8t8a) TO. rptavraTrevTe cftpdyKa 
orav <^^acr(o/>t€V ets tov a-radjuiov. 

^H dfia^a eiVat kroLpirj. "As 
€7rif3(opev. — Ets tov (TTaOpidv 
TOV Avwv. — IIoAij KaXd. 

This hat suits you very well. 
Now you look like a real 
traveller. These sun-shades are 
on purpose for hot climates. 
Now let us go and have our 

At what o'clock do we start ^ 
At eight forty precisely. 

We have then two hours at 
our disposal. 

Let us go to the restaurant 
opposite. It is famous for its 
roast meat. . . . 

Now let us go to our hotel 
and pay the hotel-keeper and be 

Our bill, if you please. — 
Seventy francs. 

You pay, and I will give you 
the thirty-five francs when we 
arrive at the station. 

The carriage is ready. Let 
us get in. — To the station for 
Lyons. — All right ! 


AIAA0r02 E' 


'E^^acra/zev iyKaipoys els rbv 
(TTadfxov. Kl OLTroa-Kcvai '^/xiov 
irWrja-av d(TcfiaXw<s els rrjv <fiop- 
Trjyov afxa^av, Tiopa fxkvei va 
€vp(DlM€V^ el Svvaroi'j fiiav Kevijv 
a/xa^av. ']8ov fxta. lEila-eXOere. 
*Y^eis Xd/Sere eKeivqv ttjv 
ywviav, Slotl el^evpoi on irpo- 
TLfxare m exrjTe rrjv pd\iv npos 

7rAw6'tu cSw, Stdrt et)u,at rpofiepd 
Kovpaa-p^evos. *I6ov rj dp,a^o- 
(TroL\ia KLvelr at. 'Kva^Mpovpev. 

GeAere vd KXeta-o) to irapd- 
Ovpov ; 

YiapaKaXCi' Stort 6 dr^p rrjs 
vvKTos elvai \}/vxp6<5. 

"^Xei kuXms. WipeOa iroXv 
dvaTravTiKa. Ei5;(0/jtat va p.r) 
/xas evoxXyjcry Kavels tyjv vvkto.. 

"As KOipijOojpev Tw/ja, Slotl 
eyo) TToXv vv(TTd(o). 2as ev)(op,at 
KaX-ijv vvKTa. 

KaXy]pLepa aas. 'KKOtp^yj- 
drfpiev TToXv KaXd. EvTv;^a)S 
Kavels 8ev /xas rjva)xX7](Te ttjv 
vvKxa, Tt wpa er^at ; 

"E^ Trapd reraprov. *AAA' as 
dvoL^oipev TdirapdOvpaoTTUiS dva- 
TTvevfTLopev oXiyov KaOapov depa. 

We have arrived in good time 
at the station. Our luggage has 
been safely put in the luggage- 
van. It now remains for us 
to find, if possible, an empty- 
carriage. Here is one. Get in. 
You take that corner, for I know 
that you prefer having your 
back to the engine. I shall lie 
down here, for I am dreadfully 
tired. There now^ the train is 
moving. We are off. 

Would you like me to shut 
the window ? 

If you please : for the night- 
air is cold. 

That is all right. We are very 
comfortable. I hope no one will 
disturb us during the night. 

Now let us go to sleep, for I 
am very sleepy. I wish you 

Good - morning. We slept 
very well. Fortunately no one 
disturbed us in the night What 
o'clock is it ? 

A quarter to six. But let us 
open the windows, so as to get a 
little breath of fresh air. 



Tl XafJi7rpo<s Kaipos ! Uocrov 
cv-x^apiCTTOS etvat -q Trpmvrj avpa. 
'H KoiXas Sta Trj<i oTroias Siep- 
yojxiOa etvat ypacfuKwrdT-r]. 
KvTTa^are 7r6(rov xapikvTi)i<i 
peet 6 TTora/JLOS Aatacris / Ai 
o^dai avTOV eivai KaTd(f>vTOi. 
*H /xLKpa eKeiVT] 7re86as efvafc 
TrX-QprjS capLVWv dvOe(j)v. "OAry 
-^ Trept^ X^P^ etvai repTrvoTaTT]. 

TLXrja-Ld^ofJiev vo/jll^m ets crraO- 
fxov Ttva, 8iOTfc rjXarrwOr] rj 
raxvrrjs ttJs dfJia^o(TTOL)(^ias. 

Efvat 6 crraOpos rrjs KO)fio- 
TToXeoiS 2a/z/?epv. Xlevre p.6vov 
AeTTTot fxevofxcv ivravOa. 'I8ov 
TrdXiv kKivrja-ajxev. Haperrjprj- 
crare et? rov u-radfjiov to 7rX'rjdo<s 
Twv Oearoyv ; Akv vofxi^cre 
on ot TrXeio-TOL oi/xota^ov /xe 
'IraXovs ; 

Ets ravra rd P'Spr] rd 8vo 
WvT], ot FaAAot Kal 'IraXoi, 
cTvat oAtyov dvafxefxtyfJievoL^ 
dXX' eTTtK/oaret fiefiaiiii<i to 
VaXXiKov a-TOi^ciov. "Icrw? ol 
€v Tw (TTad/xM rjaav ra^etSiwrai 
€K Tr]<5 l^opcLov 'IraXtdf^. 

IIoAl^ TTiOaVOV. 'AAA' €LT€ 

'IraXol etvai^ etre FaAAot^ 07 
yAwo-cra d/x(f>0Tep<ji)V etvat rpavov 
reKjjL'qpLOV Trj<s [xeydX-qs 8vvd- 
/xeo)? Tov dpyaiov '^Fio/JLaiKov 

Ot 'Pw/xatot €r;)(ov tu? Kvptov 
avTCov fxcXr^/xa vet eTTLKpary rj 
yXu)a-ad tcov ets rot />te/9i7 rot 

OTTOia V7r€K€LVT0 €IS TT^V KVpt- 

ap^iav Twv, Kat w? Ik tovtov 
7re/)t Tol rkXr] Trjs Terdprr^s 
lKaTOVTaeTr]pi8o<s "q AartvtK^ 

What splendid weather ! How 
pleasant the morning breeze is ! 
The valley through which we 
are passing is most picturesque. 
See how gracefully the river 
Laisse flows. Its banks are 
covered with vegetation. That 
little plain there is full of spring 
flowers. The whole of the 
country around is most delightful. 

We are approaching some 
station, I think, for the train 
has lessened its speed. 

It is the station of the little 
town of Chambery. We only 
stay five minutes here. There, 
we are on the move again. Did 
you notice in the station the 
number of spectators ? Don't 
you think the majority looked 
like Italians 1 

In these parts the two nations, 
the French and Italians, are 
rather mingled, but the French 
element decidedly prevails. 
Perhaps the people in the sta- 
tion were travellers from North 

Very likely : but whether 
they be French or Italians, the 
language of both is clear evi- 
dence of the great power of the 
ancient Roman empire. 

The Romans took especial 
care that their language should 
prevail in those parts which 
were under their sway ; con- 
sequently about the end of the 
fourth century the Latin tongue 
became general in the Roman 



yXmraa KaTecTTi] yeviKr) ivTus 
rov *P(o/Aat/cou Kpdrovs, ck twv 
aKTtov rr}? 3p€TTavia<s {J-^XP'' 
TWJ/ TTapaXibiV TTJS ' ASpiaTLKrjs 

Efi/at Oavfia ttws 8c v cttc- 
KpdTy](T€ Kal els to avaroAtKov 
TfxyjfMa Tov ^Foy/JLaiKov KpaTOVS. 

'O Aoyos €ivai OLTrXovGrTaros. 
To, ev T7/ k(T7r€pt(^ ¥ivp(x>7rrj Wvi) 


Krjv (jiiXoXoyiav €i\ov rore^ Kal 
coS€K TovTovrj yXu)(T(Ta rQv Kara- 
KT-i]T(ov ai'Tcov, ws Kal TO. -ijOrj Kal 
eOifxa avTiJov, ci'koAojs elcr'qyovTO 
Trap' avTOt<i' iv rfj 'AvaroXyj 
o/x(jos to TrpayfJia iiX^^ aAAws. 
'Ev avT'^ 6. 'EAAr^vcKo? ttoAi- 
Ti(Tixo'^8-)]fiLovpyrjO€l<i €V*EAAa8i 
Kal eTTCKTaOels Sea tov MeyaAov 
'AXe^dvSpov Kal twv 8ta8o;((ov 
avrou €cf) oAwv Ttuv )(w/9wv cis 
6 Ma/ceSwv ovTOS SopvKrrJTOjp 
KaT€KTr](T€V, €?>(€ (BaOelas pi^as, 
■Q Se 'EAAryi/iKT) yAwcro-a 7yT0 to 
KOLVov opyavov TrdvTOiV et's t€ 
rrjv cfuXoXoytav Kal to efXTToptov. 
01 ^Foifxatoi Slot TravToioiV pea-(jov 
7rp6cr€7rdOyja-av ottws Kal kvTavOa 
VTrepLcrxvajj rj yXiocra-a avTOJV, 
dAA'ov fxovov ovSev KaTcopdoxrav, 
aAAot Kal ei9 avTrjv aKOfx-q Trjv 
'Pw/xr^v ela-yjXde TpoTratocfiopos 
■^ ^KXXr]VLK7] Kal eis tolovtov 
f^aOpiov KaT€yoy']T€va-€ toi'S 
*Poj/xaioi'?, o>o-T€ oi'Set? TroAtVrys 
€$e(op€LTO ws €>^a)V app.6^ovcrav 
Kal KaXrjv dvaTpocfiyjv idv Sey 
€yi/(o/ot{€ TT/i' 'EAAryvtK>yi/. 

"Oo-a etVeTe efi^at dXyjOea-TaTa' 
Sloti Kal vvv €TL €Lvai cfiavepa rj 

empire, from the cliffs of Britain 
to the shores of the Adriatic. 

It is a wonder that it did 
not prevail also in the eastern 
division of the Eoman empire. 

The reason is very simple. 
The nations in western Europe 
had in those days neither any 
civilisation nor any national 
literature, and consequently the 
language of their conquerors, as 
well as their manners and cus- 
toms, were easily introduced 
among them ; but in the East 
the case was different. Here 
the Hellenic civilisation, which 
originated in Greece, and was 
disseminated by Alexander the 
Great and his successors through- 
out all the countries which this 
Macedonian conqueror subdued, 
had taken deej) root, and the 
Greek language was the common 
medium for everybody, both in 
literature and trade. The Rom- 
ans tried by every kind of means 
to make their own language pre- 
vail also here, but not only had 
they no success at all, but the 
Greek language made a tri- 
umphal entry into Rome itself, 
and cast its magic spell upon tlie 
Romans to such a degree that no 
citizen was considered to liave le- 
ceived a befitting and really good 
education unless he knew Greek. 

What you say is very true, 
for even at the present day the 



SvvafXLS Kol rj dOavaoria tyjs 
'EAAt^viktJ? yAcoGTcr^?. *H Aa- 
TiVLKT] yAwcro-a ws Ka\y) fxi^Trjp 
€y€vvr](Te kol avkBp^xpe TroAAas 
yAwo-o-as, rr]v 'IraAtKiJi/, rr]V 
VaXXiK-qv^ rrjv 'Io-7raviK7Jv, ttjv 
HopToyaXiK-qv Kal rrjv 'Pov- 
[xovvLKTJi/, aAA* avrrj ws yAtoo-- 
cra ^(ocra tt/oo ttoAAwv a'novMV 
dirWavev. "YTrdpx^i^ et? Kavev 
fxepos TTJs yyjs iOvos to ottolov 
vd XaXy AanvLKd ; 'H *EAAi^- 
viKYj yAwcrcra, TOvvavTiOV, aTTo 

Trj<s cri]fJLepov fievet ^oicra. Uepi- 
eXdere crvjXTTaa-av Trjv kXevdkpav 
• *EAAa8a, TT^v re rjTreipoirLKrjv 
KOL rds v^crovs' VTrdyere eis 
rrjv "UTreipov, MaKeSoviav Kai 
Qpj.Kr]V' fierdjSrjTe els rrjv Kwv- 
o-TavTiVovTroXiV' e7ri(TKe(fidr]T€ 
Trd(ra<s ras TrapaXiovs ttoXcls 
tt)? MiKpas *Acrta5 kol rot? iutto 
T-^v TovpKtav vrjcrovs' TravTa)^ov 
6d dKOvcnqre tov5 iyx^uyptovs 
XaXoVVTaS TTjV '^XXt^vlkii^v. 


Twv Twv TvepL-qyrfrQiV ' Sev 8v- 
va(r9e ofXMS v dpvrjOrjre on rj 
a-yjfiepLvrj ^EAAt^vikt) Sev eTvat 
Ka^' oAa ojjioia /x€ t^i/ dp^aiav. 
MtJttws 'qfiets Xeyofiev on 
€tvai; 'H *EAAi^vtK^ yAoxrcra, 
a>9 Kat Tracra dXXrj^ €V toj [xaKpo) 
ai'T^js /?to), VTrea-TTj /-lera/^oAa? 
Ttva§ Kat aAAotwcreis, aiSrat o/xws 
§€1/ VTTTJp^av opyaviKat, aAAa 
/i.oi'oi/ €^(i)T€pLKai. 'H yAwcrcra 
Tov '^Op-qpov Trapa^aXXopevT] 
Trpos rrjv rov UXdrcDVO'S Kat 

tQv Orvy)(^p6vO)V TOV, €K TTpddTTJS 

power and imperishable nature 
of the Greek language is manifest. 
The Latin language, like a good 
mother, gave birth to and fos- 
tered many languages, Italian, 
French, Spanish, Portuguese 
and Roumanian, but she herself, 
as a living language, has ceased 
to exist for many ages. Is there 
in any part of the world a nation 
which speaks Latin ? The Greek 
language, on the contrary, from 
the earliest ages down to the 
present day remains a living 
tongue. Travel all over in- 
dependent Greece, both the 
continent and the islands ; go 
to Epirus, Macedonia and Thrace ; 
pass to Constantinople ; visit 
all the maritime cities of Asia 
Minor, and the islands under 
Turkish rule : everywhere you 
will hear the inhabitants speak- 
ing Greek. 

This is acknowledged by all 
travellers ; but you cannot deny 
that the Greek of the present 
day is not in all respects like 
the ancient language. 

But do we say that it is 
so 1 The Greek language, like 
every other, has in the course 
of its long life undergone certain 
changes and alterations, but these 
were never fundamental but only 
external. The language of 
Homer, when compared with 
that of Plato and his contem- 
poraries, at first sight appears 



o^ews (jiaiveTaL ovcrnoSios 8id- 
^o/oos, d\X' orav tls c^eracr^ 
avTr)V KttAws €vpL(rK€L oTfc eivai 
ri avTy]. *H aTTLKy] SiaAcKTOS 
€7rfc ' AXe^dvSpov tov ixeydkov 
Kal T(3v StaSo^wi/ TOV, Karacr- 
rd(Ta TrayKOcr/xiO'?, aTrefSaXe fieya 
fiepo'i tt}? dp)(^tKrj<s avT?]'i Aevr- 
Torr^Tos* i-TrV^iofxaiOiV €Ti Trepucr- 
(Torepov' €7rt Se Bi^^avrii'wv 1} 
8ia(fidopd avTTy? vrryjp^e fieytcTTy] ' 
ovSets o/xws €T6\pt](T€ TTore vd 
iLTTTj) OTt 17 yAwcrcra twv Bv^av- 
Tivwv (Tvyypa(fi€(DV Siv ctvat 
*EAAr;viKr/. Tr^v 'EAA-j^viKryv 
yAwcrcrai/ Swarat tis va Trapa- 
jSdXy /xe dvOpcoTTOV TrAoixrtov, 
oo-Tts aTTwAecre TrActtrTov p,€pos 
Try? TrepLova-tas tov, a A A* o;(t 

*H 7rapofxoto)(rL<s e?vat KaraA- 

'H TrapaKpirj o/xw? t^s *EA- 
XrjVLKTJ's yXaxTCTrjS ^aiverat evap- 
yk(JTara Kal Trpo Trjs Bv ^avrtv^S 
eTTox"*}?. liapa^dXere tt. x- 

TO 7r/9C0TOV K€(fidXaiOV T^9 

Feveo-ews KaTO, TOV<S€/S8op,rjKOVTa 
p,e TTjV vvv ypa(f)op.€vr]v'^^XXr]VL- 
KYjv Kal 6d evprjTe p^eydX-qv 
opoLOTrjra. "E^j^w/xct e/xoij eV ar- 
TiTVTTOV Trjs IlaAatas ^tadrjKrjs. 
'I80V TO TrpwTov K€ff>dXaLOV. Ha- 
paKaXd Kdpiere pot T7]V X^P''^ 
vd poL dvayvijocrrjre /xe/Dos avTov 
p(.Ta^pd^ovr€S avrh (Tvyxpov{i}<s 
ds T-t]v a-t}p€pivr}v 'EAAr/viKrJf. 

materially different, but if 
any one examines it carefully, 
he finds that it is the same. 
The Attic dialect, in the time 
of Alexander the Great and his 
successors, having become uni- 
versal, lost much of its original 
subtlety ; in the time of the 
Romans still more ; and in the 
time of the Byzantines its cor- 
ruption was very* great ; still no 
one ever ventured to say that 
the language of the Byzantine 
authors was not Greek. The 
Greek language may be com- 
pared to a wealthy man who 
has lost a great part of his 
property, but not the whole. 

The comparison is appropriate. 

The decay, however, of the 
Greek language can be seen 
very clearly even before the 
Byzantine epoch. Compare, for 
instance, the first chapter of 
Genesis according to the Septu- 
agint with the Greek language 
as now written, and you will 
find great similarity. I have 
with me a copy of the Old 
Testament. Here is the first 
chapter. I beg you to do me the 
favour to read me a part of it, 
translating it at the same time 
into modern Greek. 

With pleasure. 

1. 'Ep ipxv iiroiri<T€v 'Ev dpxv iirolrjaev 6 In the beginning Qotl 
6 Oebs rbp ovpavbv Kal 9ebs rbv ovpavbv koL rrjv created the heaven and 
TTJV yrjv. yrjv. the earth. 



2. 'H 5^ 777 9jv ddpa- 
Tos Kul dKaraaKevaaTos, 
Kai (Xk6tos eTrdvcj ttjs 
d^tjaaov ' Kai irvev/xa 
deov €Tre(p4p€T0 eirdvoj 
Tov vdaros. 

3. Kat €L7r€P 6 Beds 
TevrjdrjTU (pQs, Kai iyi- 
V€TO (pQs. 

4. Kat elSev 6 debs to 
(pQs 6tl KoKdu. Kai 5te- 
Xi^pt'Crep 6 debs dvd fxiaov 
TOV (})WTbs Kai dvd fi^aov 


5. Kai eKoXeaev 6 
debs TO (pds Tjix^pav, Kai 
TO (TKOTOs CKoXeae vdKTa. 
Kai eyiveTO eawipa Kai 
eyheTO irput, ijfiipa fj,ta. 

6. Kai elirev 6 debs 
Tevrjdrp-O} cTTep^ufia tv 
/ji^crii} TOV vdaTOS Kai ^(Ttio 
dLaxojpi^ov dvd fiicrov 
v5aT0S Kai vdaros. Kai 
eyiveTO oijTCJs. 

7. Kat eTToirjcrev 6 
debs Tb aTepeco/xa ' Kai 
dtexi^pi-crev 6 debs dvd 
fxeaov TOV vdaTos, 3 fjv 
vTTOKdTO) TOV (jTepewpLa- 
Tos, Kai dvd fx^aov tov 
vdaTOS TOV eVdvw tov 

8. Kat eKoXeaev 6 
debs Tb crrepewyua ovpa- 
vbv ' Kai eXdev 6 debs otl 
KaXbv Kai eyiveTO ea- 
iripa, Kai eyiveTO irpm, 
7)fM^pa devT^pa. 

9. Kat eXireu 6 debs, 
'ZvvaxdrjTCO Tb iidojp Tb 
VTTOKdTO} TOV ovpavov els 
(Tvvaywy7)v jxlav, Kai 6(p- 
drjTO} 7) ^r)pd, Kai eyheTO 
ouTO}s ' Kai avvrjxdi] Tb 

ijd0}p Tb VTTOKdTO} TOV 

ovpavov els rds avva- 

'H 5^ yrj ^To dbpaTos 
Kai dKaTaaKe^acTTOs, Kai 
ckStos eTTavo} ttjs d^6a- 
aov ' Kai TTvevixa deov 
e(pepeTO eTTavu tov v8a- 


Kai eiTTev 6 debs, *As 
yelvrj <pCos, Kai 'iyeive 

Kai eldev 6 debs Tb 
0WS 6'ti ijTo KaXbv, Kai 
8iex'^pi-crev 6 debs Tb (pQs 


Kai eKdXeaev 6 debs 
Tb (pws r}fi^pav, Kai Tb 
CKbTOS eKdXeae vvKTa. 
Kai ^Yetj'ev eaTTepa, Kai 
'^yeive Trp<j}t,i]fi4pa TTpJjTT]. 

Kat elTrev 6 debs, "As 
yeivy crTep^u/xa ev fx^acp 
TOV v8aT0S, Kai as dia- 
XO}pi^r) vdaTa dTrb v5d- 
TO}v. Kai ^yeivev ovtus. 

Kat eTToirjcrev b debs 
Tb aTep4(>}fj.a ' Kai die- 
X^pi-ffev b debs dvd fiiaov 
TOV vdaTos, Tb ottoIov 
^TO VTTOKaTOJ TOV ffTepeu}- 
fiaTOS, Kai dvd /xeaov tov 
vdaTOS TOV eTrdvo} tov 

Kai eKdXeaev 6 debs 
TO aTepicjfjLa ovpavbv • 
Kai eldev 6 debs otl ^to 
KaXbv ' Kai ^yetvev ea- 
iripa, Kai ^yeive Trpoj't, 
7]/ji.4pa 8evT€pa. 

Kai elTTev b debs, *As 
crvvaxdrj Tb v8o}p Tb vtto- 
/fdrco TOV ovpavov els 
avvayooyijv fxlav, Kai ds 
(pavrj 7] ^rjpd, Kai eyeivev 
oC/Tws • Kai <Tvv7}xdy}(rav 
rd v8aTa rd vTTOKdTCo 
TOV ovpavov els rds avva- 

And the earth was 
without form, and 
void ; and darkness 
was upon the face of 
the deep. And the 
Spirit of God moved 
upon the face of the 

And God said, Let 
there be light : and 
there was light. 

And God saw the 
light, that it was good : 
and God divided the 
light from the dark- 

And God called the 
light Day, and the 
darkness he called 
Night. And the even- 
ing and the morning 
were the first day. 

And God said. Let 
there be a firmament 
in the midst of the 
waters, and let it di- 
vide the waters from 
the waters : and it was 

And God made the 
firmament, and divided 
the waters which were 
under the firmament 
from the waters which 
were above the firma- 

And God called the 
firmament Heaven : 
and God saw that it 
was good : and the 
evening and the morn- 
ing were the second day. 

And God said, Let 
the waters under the 
heaven be gathered to- 
gether unto one place, 
and let the dry land 
appear : and it was so : 
and the waters under 
the heaven were gath- 



7a>7as avrCiv, koL d^drj 

10. Kal iKdXea-ev 6 
debs Tr)v ^rjpau yrjv, Kal 
t6 avarrj/xa tCov vMtojv 
eKaXecre daXdaaas. 

7aJ7aj avrQu Kal i<pdv7} 
V ^Vpd. 

Kal iKaXeaev 6 debs 
T7]v ^7]pdv yrju, Kal to 
avaTTjfxa rCov vddrojv 
iKdXeae daXdaaas. 

ered together unto one 
place, and the dry land 

And God called the 
dry land Earth : and 
the gathering together 
of the waters called he 

ToUTO VOfJil^(ji) dpK€L €K TT/S 

Tevccreios. ^A<s dvayywcrw/xei/ 
Tiopa KOL fiepo'S Tt €/c T^s K.aivrjs 
AiaByKTjs. 'AvoL^are to IA' 
KecfidXaLOV Trj<s 'ATTOKaXvxpeios. 
'K7rLTp€\faT€ fxoi, eytt) v dvayi- 

VIOCTKO) TO dp)(^aiOV K€lfl€VOV, 

ryotets 8e /x€Ta(f)pd^eT€ avro 
Kara Xi^tv els rrjv a-qfxcpivrjv 

I think this is enough from 
Genesis. Now let us read a 
portion from the New Testa- 
ment. Open the 14th chapter 
of the Apocalypse. Allow me 
to read the ancient text, and 
you translate it word for word 
into modern Greek. 

14. Kal eldov, Kal 
Idoif vecpiXr} XevKT), Kal 
iirl TT}v ve(f)iX'r)v Kadrj/xe- 
vos 6fJ.oios vicj) dvdp(J)irov, 
^X^v fTTi rris K€<paXris 
avTOv (TT^cfyavov xp^<^ovv, 
Kal Iv TTj x^'-P^ avTOV 
bpiiravov 6^6. 

15. Kal dXXos ^776- 
Xos e^riXdev iK toO paou 
Kpd^oju ev fxeydXri (pcovy 
Tip Kadrj/n^vip iirl ttjs 
ve<f)iXT]s, " 11^ fx\}/ou Tb 
dp^vavbv crov Kal dipLCOv, 
6tl ijXde aoL i] wpa tov 
depiaai, 6t(. i^rjpdvdr] 6 
depKTfxbs TTJS yrjs." 

16. Kal ^^aXeu 6 Ka- 
67)fieuos iirl Tqu v€<p4Xr]v 
Tb bpiwavov avrov iwl 
TTTjv yrjv, Kal idepiadrj i] 

17. Kal dXXos &y- 
yeXos i^rjXOeu ^k tov 

\ vaoO TOV ev Tip ovpavip, 
fx^" fai avTbs Spiiravov 

18. Kai dXXos dy- 

Kal eWov, Kal l8ov 
ve4>iX7} XevKYj, Kal iirl 
TTJS ve(f)iXr}S eKddT)T6 tls 
6/uioios ixk vlbv dvdpdnrov, 
^Xwv iirl TTJs KecpaX^s 
avTov crr^(f)avou xpvo'ovv, 
Kal iv TTj xetpi avTou 
dp^wavov d^v. 

Kal dXXos dyyeXos 
i^rfXdev e/c tov vaov Kpd- 
^(jjv fJL€Td fxeydXrjs (puvijs 
TTpbs Tbv KaO-qp-evov iwl 
TTJs ve(f>lXr}s, "H^fxtj/ov 
Tb dplwavbv aov Kal di- 
piaov, 8i6ti aol 9jX6ev ij 
ibpa vd depLays, iTreidT] 
i^Tjpdudri 6 depia/xbs ttjs 

Kal 6 Kad-qp-evos iirl 
TTJs ve<piXT]s ^jSaXe Tb 
bpiwavov avTov iirl ttjv 
yrjv, Kal idepiadrj ij yi). 

Kal dXXos dyyeXos 
e^rjXdev eK tov vaod tov 
iv Tip ovpavip, ix^*' x^'-^ 
avTos dpiiravov 6^ij. 

Kal dXXos dyyeXos 

And I looked, and 
behold, a white cloud, 
and upon the cloud one 
sitting like unto a son 
of man, having on his 
head a golden crown, 
and in his hand a sharp 

And another angel 
came out from the 
temple, crying with a 
great voice to him that 
sat on the cloud. Send 
forth thy sickle and 
reap : for the time has 
come to thee to reap, 
for the harvest of the 
earth is over-ripe. 

And he that sat on 
the cloud cast his 
sickle upon the earth ; 
and the earth was 

And another angel 
came out from the 
temple which is in 
heaven, he also having 
a sharp sickle. 

And another angel 



7e\os e^rfKdev e/c tov 
dvcriaaTTjpiov, ^xwj' e^ov- 
alav eiri rod Trvpos, /cat 
ecpdlivrjae Kpavyy fieydXy 
Tip ^xofTi rb bp^wavov 
rb 6^6, " Uefixl/ov aov rb 
dpenavov rb 6^^, Kal 
Tpvyrjaou toi)s ^brpvas 
TTJs yrjs, oTi i^Kfiaaav al 
<TTa<pv\al avTTJs." 

19. Kal ^^aXev 6 &y- 
yeXos TO bpirravov avrou 
els TTjv yr/v, Kal irpvyTjcre 
T7]u dfXTreXov ttjs yijs, 
Kal ^^a\ev els t7]v Xrjvbu 
TOV dvjxod TOV dead t7]v 

20. Kal ewaT-rje-n tj 
Xrjvbs ^^cj TTJs TToXews, 
Kal e^TjXdev al/Jia e/c ttjs 
Xrjpov &XP'- '''^^ X'^^''^^^ 
tG)v LTTTrwp, dirb aTadiwv 
XtXiojv e^aKocricjp. 

i^rjXOev e/c tov dvcnaaTTj- 
piov, ^xajv e^ovaiav i-rrl 
TOV TTvpbs, Kal e(p(hv7](je 
fieTOL Kpavyijs fieydXrjs 
irpbs Tbv ix^^"^^ "^^ 
bpiiravov to o^v, " Ile^u- 
\pov Tb bpeiravov aov Tb 
6^6, Kal Tpijyrjcrop toi)s 
^bTpvs TTJs 7^s, SiSti 
iJKfjiacrav al (jTa<pvXal 

Kal '^^aXev 6 dyyeXos 
Tb dpeiravov avrov els 
TTjv yrjv, Kal irpvyTjae 
T7]p dfjiTreXov ttjs yrjs Kal 
^/3a\e TO. TpvyrjdivTa els 
Tbv Xrjvbv tov deov Tbv 

Kal kiraT-fjOt] 6 Xyjvbs 
^^w TTjs irdXecos, Kal i^ijX- 
dev alfia e/c tov Xrjvov 
ews TU)v xaXiJ'uJv tQv 
iwTTwv, els didaTTjixa 
Xi-XI(j3v e^aKoaicov aTad- 

H IlaAata ^laO-qKr) Kara 
Tovs epSofx'qKOVTa eypdcfirj Itti 
UroXefxaiov tov Adyov Kara to 
eros 283 TT.X., rj Se 'ATroKaAv^tS 
'lijodvvov irepl ra rkX-q rrjs Trpco- 
T)75 fji. X. kKaTOvraer-qplhos^ Kal 
ofjicos, av Kal TrapyjXOov €ktot6 
Tocroi atwves, Sev /JAcTret rts fxe- 
yaXrjv Siaffiopav fxera^v Trj<i t6t€ 
Katrrjs vvv ¥iX.X'qvLK7]S, ovre els 
ras Ae^ets, ovre ets rot? KXicrets 
Tiov ovo/xdroiv^ ovre els rovs 

O-Xrjp-aTLCTfJLOVS TWl/ pr]fxdTO)v, 

ovT€ els TiTTore aXXo cnrov- 
Saiov, TO oTTOiov va dXXoiot rrjv 
cfyvoTLV TYJs yX(o(r(rr]s. 'ATTopei 
Tis T(^ ovTL els TL vd aTToSiocrr) 
T7]v eK7rXr]KTLKrjv ravrrjv 6/jlol6- 


came out from the 
altar, lie that hath 
power over fire ; and 
he called with a great 
voice to him that had 
the sharp sickle, say- 
ing. Send forth thy 
sharp sickle, and gather 
the clusters of the vine 
of the earth ; for her 
grapes are fully ripe. 

And the angel cast 
his sickle into the 
earth, and gathered 
the vintage of the 
earth, and cast it in- 
to the great winepress 
of the wrath of God. 

And the winepress 
was trodden without 
the city, and there 
came out blood from 
the winepress, even 
unto the bridles of 
the horses, as far as 
a thousand and six 
hundred furlongs. 

The Old Testament according 
to the Seventy was written in 
the time of Ptolemaeus, the son 
of Lagus, in the year 283 B.C., 
and the Revelation of St. John 
about the end of the first 
century after Christ, and yet, 
although so many centuries have 
passed since then, one sees no 
great difierence between the 
Greek of that time and the 
present, either in the words or 
the declensions of the nouns or 
the conjugations of the verbs, or 
in any other important particular 
such as w^ould alter the character 
of the language. In fact one is 
at a loss to know to what cause to 
ascribe this astounding similarity. 



'Eai^ ry IlaAaia Aiadi^Krj 

fX€T€(fipd^€TO KOL T) Katn) Altt- 

ByKyj lypacf>€To eh to v(fiO<s rojv 

Tore ttXTlKlCTTWV t) 6yU,OlOT>^9 

/?e/^ai(us Sev da '^)T0 toctov 
fxeydXr]^ dkX! €VTVX<iiS to. Upa 
/3L/3kta iypdcfirjarav ov)(l els ttjv 
TOT€ eTrLTertjSevfJLCvrjv yAawrcrav 
Twv Aoyiwv, aAA' ei's ttjv tov 
A(Xov, TT/v KaTaXr]7rTrjv els irdv- 
Tas' 17 6€ TOiavTf] yXoxra-a 8ev 
dAAotourat c^koAws vtto tov 
Xpovov. 'O KopaT;? Aeyct ttov, 
'' rAw(ro-a ovVe Syj/XLOvpyetTai 
ovre fxera/SdkXeTaL eh oAtywv 
€T(OP' Sida-Trifxa. MaKpos ^(/oovos 
TT^i/ 7rAacro-et, Kat fxaKpos xpoi'os 
TT^v ixerairXd(T(Tei^ ovS' ijHTropeT 
va rrjv e^akeLij/r) oAoreAa, av 
Sei' e^aXetiprj Trporepov avrb to 
eOvos." 'Ektos T07JT01' TO 'EAAr;- 
vtKoi' eSvos dv Kttt aTToSAeafe ti^v 
avTOVOfxiav tov Kal ttjv dpyaiav 
avTov evKXetav, ovSeiroTe ofXdDS 
e^€/3apl3apa>$yj TcAew?, aAAa 
Toi'vavTiov Kat ev Ty ea-^dTy 
avTov KaTaTTTuxret SieTi^pei irdv- 
TOTe ^(j)irvp6v TL TOV dpyaiov 
avTOV TroXiTia-fMOV. Aoytoc dv- 
Spes €K TOV '^YtWrjVLKOv eOvovs 
ovSeTTOTe e^eXiTTOv fxapTvptov 
8e Tpavov TovTov Tct (Tvyypdfi- 
fxaTo. avTfjiv divep dTTOTeXovcrt 
(Teipdv dSidKOTTOv dwo Tioi/ dp- 
^(aioTaTWV )(p6vu}V fJ^expi Trjs 

Toi'TO o/xoAoyet Kat 6 Fi^/^wv 
Acywv, " Ot vir-qKOOL tou Bv^av- 
Ttvov Opovov Kal ev Ty ecrxaTrf 
avTwv BovXeL^ Kat TaTretvtixret 
KaTeL^ov €Tt XP^'^1^ KAetSa 

If the 01(1 Testament had 
been translated and the New 
Testament written in the style 
of the Atticists of the time, 
the similarity certainly would 
not have been so great, but 
fortunately the Holy Scriptures 
were written not in the affected 
language of the learned of those 
days, but in that of the people 
which was intelligible to all : a 
language of tins kind does not 
readily undergo any change from 
the effect of time. Corais says 
somewhere, "A language is 
neither created nor changed in 
the space of a few years. A 
long time is required to form 
it, and a long time to effect any 
change in it, but it cannot en- 
tirely efface it unless it first 
effaces the nation itself." Besides, 
the Greek nation, although it 
lost its independence and its 
ancient glory, never lapsed com- 
pletely into barbarism, but, on 
the contrary, even in its ut- 
most prostration, always kept 
alive a spark of its ancient 
civilisation. Learned men were 
never wanting in the Greek 
nation, as is plainly testified by 
their writings, which form an 
unbroken chain extending from 
the earliest times down to the 
present day. 

Gibbon acknowledges this 
when he says, " In their lowest 
servitude and depression the 
subjects of the Byzantine throne 
were still possessed of a golden 



dvoLyov(rav rovs dpx^atovs Orj- 
cravpovs ivapfxaviov kol yovLfxov 
y\(ocrcrr]<i, 't]TLS els piev rot alcr- 
B-qra SiSet C^'QV, els Se ra votjtol 

'AAA' aTv;((05 rrjv TroXvTLpov 
ravr-qv KXetda oXtyicrTOL r^v 

p.eT€^€Lpi^OVrO KOL €K€iVOL dSc- 

^LO)S. Kat 6(701 pikv e^ avrcov 
KariopOovv va elarSvcraxTi irois 
els rot evSorepa tov Orjcravpo- 
<fiv\aKiov, ovTOL Karayo-qrevo- 
yuevo6 Ik tov KaXXovs rwv dp- 
^aioiv KeipnqXiiiiV TrpocTeTrdOovv 
va /xt/xr/^wo-tv avra Kat eypacf^ov 
els yXiJocrcrav TrX-qp-q p.ev dm- 
Kc3v (f)pda-e(x>v Kal Xe^eojv, dXXd 
Trapacrdyyas oXovs dTroXenropLe- 
vqv roiv TrpoyTOTVTrojv' o(tol 8e 

pLOVOV €K pLLKpds OvpiSoS eV€- 

Kvxpav els TOV Orja-avpov, kol 
8ev ycrOdvOrja-av tyjv payevTi- 

KrjV TMV €pi77€pie\Opi€V0)V Iv avTw 

^vvapbiv^ €ypa(f)ov dve7rLT7]8evT(DS 
els TYjv Tore yXwacrav tov Xaov. 
ToLOVTOL eivat 6 Ila^w/xto?, 6 
rtaAAaStos, Kv/otAAos 6 ^Kvdo- 
TroXiTTqs-, 'O Evayptos, ^liadvvqs 
6 Mocr;(os Kttt 6 ypdxpas to 
Meya Aeipnavapiov. 

HoTe r/K/zacrav ovtol ; kol 
Trepl TLVos eypaxj/av ; Slotl Trpe- 
Trei vd opoXoyyja-o) otl irpwTi^v 
(popdv T(s)pa dKovoi rot dvo/xara 

'Akplj3o)S vd eras ecTTO) 8ev 
8vvap.aL, vopii^d) o/xw? otl tjk- 
pLacrav Kara to ^povcKOv 8id- 

O-TT^/Xa TO pLeTa^V tov TCTdpTOV 

key that could unlock the treas- 
ures of antiquity — of a musical 
and prolific language, that gives 
a soul to the objects of sense, 
and a body to the abstractions 
of philosophy." 

But unfortunately this valu- 
able key very few employed, 
and they unskilfully. And those 
of them who managed somehow 
to penetrate into the interior of 
the treasury, enchanted with the 
beauty of its ancient treasures, 
attempted to imitate them, and 
wrote in a language full indeed 
of Attic phrases and words, but 
miles behind the original ; but 
those who only peeped into the 
treasury through a little window 
and did not feel the magic 
power of its contents, wrote in 
an unstudied style in the lan- 
guage of the people of their day. 
Such are Pachomios, Palladius, 
Cyrillus the ScythojDolitan, Eu- 
agrios, Johannes Moschus, and 
the author of the Great Limo- 

When did these authors 
flourish'? and what did they 
write about ? For I must 
acknowledge that this is the 
first time I have heard their 

I cannot tell you exactly, but I 
think that they flourished in the 
period between the fourth and 
the eighth century after Christ 



Kai oySooi' atwvo? /x.X. Svveypa- 
xj^av 6e f^Lovs fxaprvpiov^ dcrxr^Ttov 
Kal ay i(DV. 'ISov TTcptKOTrat Ttves 
€K rov MeydXov Aei/xwva/aiov, 

OTTC/) KOIVWS 7rt(TT€V€Tafc OTt 

crvveypdcfirj Kara to €TO<s 490 
/x.X. 'Avreypaif/a avrd ei? toi5to 
TO T€Tpd8Lov irpb TToXXov CO? Scty- 
/xara tt}? totc KOLvy]S yXiiXTcrrjs. 

'AAAo, /SXeTTO) OTt Skv TTCpLO)- 

pi(TOy)T€ fxovov €is Tttura, dXX' 
€;^eTe p,€ydXr]v (rvXXoy')]V Sety- 
/xdrojv TTJs yXiocrcrrjs rov irapaK- 
/xd^ovTO's '^^XXy]VL(rfJiOv. 

OeXere vd o^as dvayviocro) nvd 
€^ ai'T(5v/ 

IIoAv 6d ix€ vTTOXpeiocrrjTe. 
TLapaKaXM o/xcu? T7]pt](raT€ 
XpovoXoyiKyjv rd^tv ottw? yetvy 
(fiavcpd Yj fSaOpLtata Kard-rrriaa-LS 
rrj'i yXaxTcnjs. 

'I80V fxia TrepiKOTi-r] Ik rov 
AavcraiKOv tov TLaXXaStov aK- 
p.d(ravTOS Kara to 408 /jt.X. 
"• KiSofiev KOi irarkpa nvd Ttov 
Ik€l'Aij.p.<jovlov ovojxaTL i^aipera 
KcXXta e^ovTa Kal avXrjv Kal 
cf)p€ap Kal Tcls XoL7rd<s xP^ias. 
'E A^o VTo? 8k Trpos avTOV tlvos 
dSeXcfiOv (TMdrjvaL o-7rev5ovTOS 
Kal AeyovTos avTW cTrtvoet;/ avTW 

KcAAt'oi/ TT^OS OLKYja-LV^ (US tTTt 

TOVTW e^cXOoyv TrapyjyyetXev av- 
TW /at) ava)(w/3€ti' avTov Ik twi/ 
KeAAtwv, d)(pLS dv €vpi] avrco 
iTTLT'tiSiiov KaTay (liyiov. Kai 
KaTaXiTTiov avTw Trdvra oVa 

€6^^ ^^l' aVTOtS TOtS KcAAlOl?, 

iavTov ei's p^cKpov n kcXXlov 
paKpdv iKcWev aTrtKAeicrev." 

They wrote the lives of martyrs, 
ascetics, and saints. Here are 
some extracts from the Great 
Limonarium, which is commonly 
believed to have been written 
about 490 a.d. I copied them 
into this note-book a long time 
ago as specimens of the ordinary 
language of those days. 

But I see that you have not 
confined yourself entirely to 
these, but that you have a large 
collection of specimens of the 
Greek language in its decline. 

Would you like me to read 
some of them to you ? 

You will oblige me very 
much. But I beg you to keep 
to the chronological order so 
that the gradual decline of the 
language may be apparent. 

Here is an extract from the 
Lausa'icon of Palladius who 
flourished in 408 a.d. "We 
saw also one of the fathers who 
lived there, by name Ammon- 
ius, who had excellent cells 
and a courtyard and a well and 
other accommodation. When 
one of the brethren came to 
him who was anxious to be 
saved, and begged him to find 
for him a cell to live in, he 
went out as if for this purpose, 
after telling him not to leave 
the cells until he had found for 
him a fitting residence. Then 
leaving to liim everything he 
possessed, cells and all, he went 
and shut himself up in a little 
cell far away from there." 



*H €^rjs TrepLKOTri] eTvat Ik tov 
MeydXov Aet/xwva/otov, 490 />t.X. 
(Oeo5to/)0§). "'^HA^ovTTore iirdvo) 
avTov rpets Xycrrai, KxtX ol Svo 
eKpdrovv avrov, 6 Se eis €kov- 
l3d\€L rd cTKevT] avrov. *12s 8e 
e^rjV€yK€ rd jSi/SXta Kal tov Ae- 
/Sirojva ^^Oeke Xaf^etv. Tore 
Aeyet avTOts, ' rovro dcfiUTcJ 
01 Se ovK rjOeXov. Kai KivrjO-as 
rots "yeipas avTOv 'dppixpe rovs 
Svo. Kal l86vt€S €(f)o/3'q9'r]a-av. 
Kai Xeyei avrots 6 yepojv, ' /xrjSev 
S€Lixd(Tr)T€' TTOtrycrare avrd els 
recrcrapa fiepr], Kal XdfSere rd 
rpta Kal d<fi€re rd eV/ Kac 
ovr(j)S CTTOtT^crav 8id rd Aa/^eiv 
rd fxepos avrov rdv Xe^tnova 
rdv crvvaKriKov." 

To 8e aKoXovOov eivat ck 
T(ov rov 'Iwdvvov Moo->(oi', 614 
/>t.X. " Tepojv eKaOe^ero e^o) rrj<s 
TToAecos 'AvTcvw, jjLeyas, TrotrjO-as 
els kcXXlov avrov 'irrj irepl rd 
kjSSofxrjKovra. Erj^cv 8e fxaOrjrds 
8eKa' eva Se eo-^ei^ Travv a/xe- 
Xovvra kavrov. ovv ykpiov 
TToXXaKiS evovderet Kal Trape- 
KaXei avrov Xeycav, ' aSeA^e 
<f>p6vri^e rrjs eavrov xl/v)(rj<s' 
e)(€t? diroOaveLv Kal els KoAacrtv 
(XTreA^etv.' '0 Se dSeXf^os Tvdv- 
rore Trapy^KOvev rov yepovros 
firj Sexd/J-^vos rd Aeyd/xeva vtt 
avrov. ^vvifir] ovv /xerd riva 
Xpdvov reXevrrja-ai rdv dSeXcfiov 
TToXv 8e iXviTTjOr] kir avr<^ 6 
ykp(jiv' rj8r) ydp on €V iroXXfj 
ddvfXL(^ Kal dfxcXiL^ i^rjXdev 
rov KocTfiov rovrov. Kal ijp- 

Tlie following extract is from 
the Great Limonarium, 490 a.d. 
(Theoclorus). " Three robbers 
once attacked him, and while 
two of them held him, the 
third carried off his effects : and 
having taken away his books he 
also wanted to take his surplice. 
Then he said to them, ' let that 
alone.' But they would not. 
And with a movement of his 
arms he threw the tw^o men 
down. Seeing this they were 
frightened. Then the old man 
said to them, ' do not be afraid, 
divide the things into four parts, 
take three and leave one.' And 
they did so, by his taking as 
his portion the surplice which 
he wore at mass." 

The following is from the 
works of Johannes Moschus, 614 
A.D. " An old man was seated 
outside the town of Antino, a 
great man, who had passed about 
seventy years in his cell. He had 
ten discijDles, and he had one who 
was utterly careless about him- 
self. So the old man used often 
to admonish and exhort him, 
saying, ' brother, take thought 
for your soul ; you will have to 
die and go to the place of 
punishment.' But the brother 
always disobeyed the old man, 
not accepting his advice. It 
happened that after some time 
the brother died ; and the old 
man was very sorry for him, 
for he knew that he had departed 
from this world in entire des- 



AeyetP', ' Kv/ate 'liia-ov X/9t(rT€ 
o dXr]6Lv6<s 'ijfXiji)V ^eo?, aTTOKct- 
XviJ/ov fxoi Ta Trepl rrjs ^^XV^ 
avTov Tov dSeA^ov.' Kac Srj 
deojpei, €V €K(TTa(TeL ycvo/xevos, 
TTOTafxov 7rvp6<s Kol TrXr]dos kv 

aVT(^ TW TTVpl KOi fXeorOV TOV 

d6eX<fi6v jSe/SaTTTLcrixevov ews 
T/)a;(7yAov. Tore Acyet avTO) 6 
ye/ocuv, ' Ov 8ta ravrr;!/ tt)i/ 
TLfMuypLav TrapcKaXovv ere tVa 
cf>povTi(rrjs T-qs tSta? ifvxrjs., T€k- 
vov ;' 'ATreKpiOr) 6 aSeA</)os Kat 
cfTre T^ yepovTL, ' ei'^^apto-TW 
T(^ ^c<i>^ Trare/a, on Kav i} Kc^aAr; 
ju,ov avecriv e^ef Kat ya/o ras 
cv;(as o-ov iirdvo) Kopvcfirjs t'cTTa- 

/jtat tTrtCTKOTTOV.' " 

'Ek tov XpovtKoi; Ilao-^aAtov 

6lO /U.X. " ToVTW TW €T€t /XryVt 

VTrepfSepcTatio, Kara 'Pw/xatov? 
'OKTio/^piov T\ '}/>tf/>a Z' dva- 
cfialvovTai TrAoia tKava Kara to 
o-T/3oyyi;AoDi/ Kao-TcAAtv, €v ot? 
Tyv Ka6 'H/aaKAetos o mos^H/aaK- 
Xetov. Kat TOT€ ila-kpyer at 

^lOKaS KttT aVTYjV TTjV rjfi€pav 
diro TOV 7rpoK€(T(rov ToO'E/?8oyuov 
Trept kcnrkpav^ Kal e/a^^cTat Ka- 
fiaXXdpis €1? TO TraAdiTtv t?}? 
TToAcws. Kai T^ e^^? rjfxcp^, 

T01'T€0-TIV T^ KVpLaKt), TrAr^CTt- 

ao"dvTa>v twi/ ttAoiwi/ tt^ TroAet, 
BovoKTOS, oa-Tis Ta TrdvScLva kv 
KvTLO\€.ia. Trj p^eydXyj KaT kin- 
TpoTrr^v 4>(oKa Suirpd^aTO ela"q- 
yqcrec Geo^dv-ovs tou rrjs dvacr- 
Ka<j)Ov /xvr;/z7y9, totc wSe wv €v 

pondency and carelessness. And 
the old man began to pray, say- 
ing, ' Lord Jesus Christ, our true 
God, rev.eal to me all about the 
soul of this brother.' And he 
actually saw, while he was in a 
state of ecstasy, a river of fire 
and a crowd of people in the 
lire itself, and in the midst of 
them the brother sunk up to 
his neck. Then the old man 
said to him, ' Did I not, my 
child, exhort you to take thought 
for your soul on account of this 
punishment ? ' Then the brother 
answered and said to the old 
man, ' I thank God, father, that 
my head at least is at ease, for 
through your prayers I am 
standing on the top of a bishop's 

From the Chronicon Paschale^ 
610 A.D. "In this year, in 
the month of Hyperberetaeus, 
or, according to the Romans, on 
the 3d of October, on the 7th 
day of the week, a great many 
ships appeared off the round 
castle, and in one of them was 
Heraclius, the son of Heraclius. 
And on the same day towards 
evening Phocas entered the city 
on his return from his procession 
to Hebdomon, and came on 
horseback to the palace there. 
And on the following day, 
that is to say on Sunday, 
when the ships had approached 
the city, Bonosus, who had per- 
]ietrated such atrocities in Great 
Antioch, as a viceroy under 



ry TToAet, fiera to (^aXelv avrov 
irvp TrXrjcTLOv twv Katcrapiov Kat 
ao-TO^^CJjcrat, €cf)vy€V, Kal eXOuyv 
fjbera KapdfSov eh rov 'lovXtavov 
Xtfxeva Kara ra Xeyofxeva Mav- 
pov^ (TT€V(j)Bels eppcxpev iavrov 
els TYjV OdXacrcrav kol XafScbv 
fxera cmaBtov TrXrjyrjv diro €v6<s 
i^KOvfSiTopos, ws T^v eh BdXacr- 
(rav, aTTeOavev. Kat eKJ3Xr]- 
OevTOS Tov crKr)va>/JiaTOS avrov 
ecTvpr) KOL dirrive^dr] els rov 
Bot'i/ Kat eKavOt]." 

To e^rjs Tefid^iov etvai Ik twv 
TOV AeovTOS rov ypafxixariKov^ 
1013 />t.X. "'Ev rfi TTpoeXeva-ei 
8e rrjs TlevrrjKOcrryjs rov f^acrt- 
Aews AeovTos direXOovros els rov 
dyiov MwKtoi/ Kat eiaoSevovTO?, 
ore r^XOe irXy^a-Lov rrjs (roXeas 
e^eXdoiv ris €k tov dixj3o)vos 
SeScoKev avrov Kara KecfiaXrjs 
[xerd pd/38ov lo-^v/oas Kat 7ra- 
;)(eta?. Kat el fxrj rj cf>opd rrjs 
pdf38ov els 7roXvKdv8r]Xov efirro- 
8t(rOeto-a 8Le)(^avvio6r] irapevdv 
dv rovrov dir'qXXa^ev" 

Phocas, at the instigation of 
Theophanes of accursed memor}^, 
and who was then in the cit}', 
after attempting to set fire to 
the neighbourhood of Coesarium 
and failing in his design, took 
to flight, and coming in a ship 
to tlie harbour of Julian, in what 
is called the Maurus quarter, was 
so hard pressed by his pursuers 
that he threw himself into the 
sea, and being wounded while 
in the water by the sword of a 
life-guardsman, died then and 
there. And when his body 
was cast ashore, it was dragged 
off and taken to the Bull and 

The following passage is from 
Leo Grammaticus, 1013 a.d. 
" In the royal procession dur- 
ing Pentecost, when King Leo 
went to St. Mocius, and while 
making his solemn entry was 
approaching the dais, somebody 
coming out of the pulpit struck 
him on the head with a strong 
and thick stick, and if the force 
of the stick had not been dead- 
ened by its coming in contact 
with the chandelier, it would 
have killed him on the spot." 



'H yXoycrcra rtov TrepiKOTrwv, 
as dprtios fMot dv€yvo)T€, KacTrep 
aTrXrj /cat evXrjiTTOs, SiaTrjpet 

6fl(i>S €1/ TToAAotS TOV TVTTOV Trj's 

apxatas. 'Ek€lvo to ottolov 
TToXv iTredvfxovv va p^ddo) eivat 
TTore rjp)(^L(T€ v dva(^aivr]rai els 
Tov ypaiTTov Xoyov rj '^^XXtjvlky] 
u)S ofMLXelrat vvv. 

Na opia-rj rt? dKpi/3(j)<s tyjv 
iTTOXTjV Kad' rjv rj ^EXXrjViKr] 
yX(.dcr(ra eXajSe toi/ tvttov Trj<s 
(TrjfxepLvrjs Sev eTvai irpdyfxa 
evKoXov. 'Atto tov oySoov 
atcovos dp^i^ovcrt v' dvac^aivdiv- 
rai €ts Tcl (Tvyy papLfxara Tiav 
^v^avTLVOiv (Tvyy pacf)€0)v tck- 
pL'/jpta T7y5 yXuxra-rjS tov Xaov, 
Kal Sia va (T)(rjpLaTLcnjT€ iSeav 
Ttva TTcpl avT<j)v dvdyv(i)T€ rot? 
e^vys TrepLKOTras €K t(ov irpoXeyo- 
p.kv(iiv TOV 2. Ztt/xTreXtou ei9 to, 
A>;/xoT6Ka "Ao-/xaTa ('Ev Ke^ 
Ki'p^^, 1852). 

"'Eoti/ Kar' cuTv;(tai/ ei)(ov 
8La(T(j)drj TToAXa Ka6 6ie^o5tKa 
T€Kp,TJpia yAwcrcrr^S dyopata<s iv 
Tats 8taSo;)^tKars t^s IcrToptas 
€7ro)^aLS, i)dkXop.€v €Vi(T)(^v6yj Slol 

The language of the extracts 
which you have just read to 
me, though simple and easily in- 
telligible, preserves nevertheless 
in many respects the character 
of the ancient language. What 
I should very much like to 
learn is, at what time the Greek, 
as it is now spoken, began to 
make its appearance in the 
written language. 

To fix exactly the epoch when 
the Greek language assumed the 
character which it has at the 
present day is not an easy matter. 
From the eightli century there 
begin to appear in the writings 
of the Byzantine authors signs 
of the popular language ; and in 
order that you may form some 
idea about them, read the fol- 
lowing extracts from the preface 
of S. Zampelius to the Songs of 
the People (Corfu, 1852). 

"If by good fortune many 
extensive examples of the vulgar 
tongue had been preserved in 
the successive historical epochs, 
we should have been more com- 


(rvyKpcTLKTJs fJLeXerrjs va crvfx- 
TrepdvMfjLiV t6(tov Tvepl twv kSvo- 
AoyiKwv atTLiov, ocra orvvef^aXov 
els TTjV dXXoio}(riV r^ys dp\aias 
yXdocrcrrjS, ocrov kol Trept tmv 
dXXiov aiTiiov, diTrep Trpoe^ivrjcrav 
TTjv (Tvy)(^(jL>V€V(TLV Tu)v Stacfiopoiv 
dp^aioiv 'EAAi^vtKwv SiaAeKTWV. 
AvcrTv;^(os o/>c(os crTravis Kvpievec 
lieyixTTT] TTcpl rd rotavra Kad' 
oAas Tots €7roxd<s, koI e^atp^rois 
irapd roLS Bv^avrtvots crvyypa- 
<f)€vcrLV,d6€V eifxeOa KaTrjvayKacT- 
jxkvoL vd 7rpo<T(f)vy(i)iJi€V ets riva 
f^pa^ka^ da-vvdpTrjTa, kol iviore 
vrrd TMV KardKatpovs cfaXoXoyiov 
vevoOevfJLeva reKfxijpLa, eK Se 
Tovroiv TMV oAtywv kol areAcov 
Sety/xarwv vd i^€LKdcro)/Ji€v rrepl 
Twv (fid(r€wv KOL TrepnrereLiov rrjs 
veoeXX-qvLKTJs rjfx(jiv SiaXeKTOv. 
*^H dp^aiOT'q's KOL 6 fxea-atujv 

d-^^pc T7]S IB' €KaTOVTa€Tr]pL8o<5 

VTTO SiaXeKToXoyLKrjV ciroxptv 
oXiyta-ras 7rape)(ov(rLV elS-qcrecs. 
^ofSovfieOa Se firj to K€v6v tovto 
P'^iVY) 8 id TravTos dirX-qpiorov (us 
€K rrj<s d/AcAetas rtov \povoypd- 
cf)Ct)V. MercTreiTa eTrerat rj riov 
Ko/^tv-jyvwv €7ro)(r), ^s Seiypara 
StaAeKTiKo, TTidavov ttoAAo, vet 
dvaKaXv<jid<j}crLV els rots /St- 
fSXioO-^Kas rrjs 'EiVpa>777]s, Sia- 
TeXkcravra p^^xpt rrjs (r7]p.€pov 
avcKSora. '^TretSrj 8e irpoTidk- 
p^eOa vd (r)(e8tacr(u/xev icfie^rjs 
p,k6o86v TLVa 8LaX€KToXoyLK7Js 
epevvqs, KvpioiS tov yuecratcovos, 
Kpivofxev evXoyov vd Kara- 

Xlt)pi(TO)pL€V €7rt TOV TTapOVTOS 

oXlya TLvd \iopLa tyjs iSiwrtSos 

petent, by means of comparative 
study, to come to a conclusion, 
both as to the ethnological causes 
which contributed to the alter- 
ation of the ancient language, 
and as to the other causes which 
produced the amalgamation of the 
different ancient Greek dialects. 
But unfortunately the greatest 
scarcity of such examples prevails 
throughout all the epochs, and 
especially among the Byzantine 
authors, and we are therefore 
obliged to have recourse to 
certain short unconnected ex- 
amples, sometimes garbled by 
the scholars of the day, and 
from these scanty and incom- 
plete specimens to make our 
conjectures regarding the changes 
and vicissitudes of our modern 
Greek dialect. The ancient 
times and the middle ages up 
to the twelfth century afford 
very little information from a 
dialectological point of view. 
We fear that this gap will re- 
main for ever unfilled owing 
to the negligence of the chroni- 
clers. After this period follows 
the epoch of the Comneni, of 
which it is probable that there 
will be discovered in the lib- 
raries of Europe many dialectic 
examples which have remained 
unpublished to this day. Since 
we propose hereafter to sketch H 
out a plan of dialectological 
research, especially with regard 
to the middle ages, we think it 
right, just for the present, to 


y Xioa-arj^y dvayofxeva els rr^i' H', 
()', I', I A', KatlB', eKaTOVTaerrj- 
f)L8a, ^(bipia direp criropdSi^v 
(rvveXi^afxev TroAAa^ov, ottws 
^^prjCTL paver uKTiV cos vXrj paXkrip 
Tvpos Tovs mpl TO, TOiavra Kara- 

TcKpirjpLOV TTJs H' eKarovrae- 
rrjpt8o<s. 'O KoTT/owi/v/xo? irpoa-q- 
vkyOr] dTTpCTTios Trpos KaXoypaidv 
Tiva TrpofiefirjKVLav pXv rrj rjXc- 
KL(^, TrXrjv wpatoTdT-qv ^ImriKov 
8e dyopikvov^ eKpa^ev 6 SrjpLos €/x- 
pkrpois evioTTLOv tov /SacriXeios — 

^'H 'AydOr] /-tas eyt'jpacre, 

Kat (TV TTjv avavecocras 

Tyjs ivdrrjS' Mt^^ai^A 6 

TpavXos TToXiopKiov Trjv ^avL- 
dvav^ -i^Trdrrjcrc Std pkcrov rov 


Ta^apivov, 8L0LKrjTr]v avryjs-) diro- 
(TTecXas dv8pa rtva dypoiKov 
viro TOL rei\ri^ xj/dXXovra to 
e^^s ^i-jpoTiKov <^icrp.a Trpos tov 
aVTOl' OiKovopov — 

'"Akovctov Kvp OtKovope 
TOV Vv/Sepriv tl crov Aeyef 
"Av pov So)? T7]v ^avidvav 

M.r)TpOTroXf,T1]V (T€ TTOlCrii) 

NeoKaicrcra/aeiav a-ov Swo-w.' 
O ^acriAeis 6coc/)tAo5 dcfii- 

KOpeVOS €t? K(i)V(TTaVTiVOViroXLV 

■qpLcf)i€crp.€Vos €i5 to fSeveTov 
)(piopa^ ^atpeTaTat vtto twv 
SrjpioVj 0)9 €7r€Tat — 

insert some passages in the 
vulgar language belonging to the 
eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, 
and twelfth centuries, whicli we 
have picked up here and there 
from many sources, that they 
may serve as material for study, 
for those who devote themselves 
to such matters." 

8th Century. "The emperor 
Copronymus behaved improperly 
to a nun who was advanced in 
age but very beautiful : accord- 
ingly during a horse-race the 
people shouted in the presence of 
the king the following verse — 
' Our Agatha had grown old, 
and you made her young again.' " 
9th Century. " The emperor 
Michael the Stammerer, when he 
was besieging Saniana, played 
a trick upon the governor 
Gazarinus through the agency 
of the Oeconomos (rector) of the 
city, by sending a rustic boor to 
the foot of the wall, who sang 
to the Oeconomos the following 
song in the vulgar language — 
* Hear, reverend Oeconomos, 
what Gyberes says to you : 
if you give me Saniana, 
I will make you a Metropolitan, 
I will give you Neocaesareia.' " 
" The emperor Theophilus, 
when he returned victorious to 
Constantinople, and celebrated 
a horse -race dressed in the 
colour of the Blues (one of 
the two factions of the circus), 
was greeted by the people with 
the following address — 



' KaAws /xas rjXO^^ da-vyKptre 
(fiaKTovapyj /' 

'H^afriAtcrcra OeoSiopa Stap- 
Kova-q^ TTJs iiKovofia^ias, Sterr]- 

peCTO /ZVCTTtKWS 6p668o^O<S. Mttt 

Se Twv rjfxepiov 6 yeAwroTTOio? 
ttJ? avXyjs AevSepry?, Kpvcfuos 
Karda-KOTros rov avroKparopos, 
(Tv\X.af3o)v avTYjV €7r' avTocf)(i>po) 
7rpo(TKVVov(Tav etKovtcr/xara, epio- 
rq. avrrjv tl t avTiKet/JLeva 
€KeLva' rj 8e fSacrtXicra-a rov 
y € A WTOTTO 10 V aTTarwcra, diro- 
Kpiverai ' ' TO, KaXd fiov rot 
vtvi'a, Kat ayaTTO) ra TroAAa/ 
(To, vtvta ravra t-^? €V(r€/3ov<s 
QeoSwpas SiaTrjpovvTai els to 
opos "AOo)<s, €V TTj P'Ovfj rov 

'Ettc QeocfitXov /SacrtXeMS, 
±^LKrjcf)6pos Tfc? II/oatTrojo-tTOS 
d(f)7^]p7ra^€ Kovp^f^apiav {irXoiov 
P'^yoi) XVP^'^ yvvaiKos. Avrr] 
Se Karecfivyev eis rovs Traty vtcora? 
Tov '^iTTiroSpop.tov^ oiTLves virk- 
cr\ovTO avTYj StopOaycraL rrjv 
dSiKiav Sid Ttvos p.rj)(avrj<s. 
TloLTfja-avTes 8k ol avrol irai- 
yvtwrat KovpfSapCav piKpdv iv 
(T)(yjfxaTL ttXolov p^erd appevov 
Kat 6kvTi<i avTr)v l<^' dpd^7]S 
p.€Td Tpo)(^(jiv, yevopL€Vov LTnrtKov, 
eirrrjcrav epTrpocrdev rov fSaa-iXt- 
Kov (TTdpaTos cfioivovvres aAAry- 
Aots • Xave, KaraTTte avTO ' 6 8' 
eXeyev Ov8€V 8vvap.aL I'va ttolcto} 
TOVTO' Kol TrdXiv 6 eT€po<s' *0 
^ LKrj(j)6pos Kareirie ykpov rb 
ttXolov Try? XVP^'^i '^^^ ^^ 
ov8€v L(T)(y€i<s iva cfidyr)s avro ; 
'AKOvcras ravra 6 fSaa-cXevs 

'You are welcome, incom- 
parable chief of charioteers.' " 

" The emjDress Theodora, dur- 
ing the iconoclastic strife, re- 
mained covertly orthodox. One 
day Denderes the court-jester, 
who was a secret spy in the 
service of the emperor, caught 
her in the act of adoring images, 
and asked her what those objects 
were. The empress, to deceive 
the jester, replied : ' They are 
my pretty dolls and I am very 
fond of them.' (These dolls of 
the pious Theodora are preserved 
on Mount Athos, in the mon- 
astery of Batopedion.) " 

" In the time of the emperor 
Theophilus a certain Nicephorus, 
the chief of the eunuchs, took 
away from a widow a cumbaria 
(a large ship). She went for 
redress to the players of the 
hippodrome, who promised by 
some contrivance or other to 
set right the injustice. These 
players, having made a little 
cumbaria in the fashion of a 
ship with sails, placed it on a 
wheeled cart, and, when the 
horse-races took place, stationed 
it in front of the emperor's 
stand, calling out to one another : 
' Open your mouth and swallow 
this ' ; the other said, ' I cannot 
do it,' and then again another 
said, ' Nicejjhorus swallowed the 
widow's ship cargo and all, 
aud you cannot swallow this ? ' 


€Kav(T€ (f)pvydvoi<i tov Upai- 


*0 Kato-a/j Btt/oSas SaKvofievos 
TM (fiOovco on o BacrtAcL'? c^et- 
Kvv€v dyaTT-qv irpo^ tov Bacrt- 

AeiOV, €L7r€ Tot's avXLKOL<s aVTOV 

TO c^T/? dyopalov TrapoLfiiaKov ' 

' 'EStW^a/X€V 'AAwTTCKa, Kttt 

€1(T€/3t]K€ AeovTaptv.' 

'AvdKpi(TL<S TOV IlaTpLdp)(ov 


{"Y(fios oTTioa-ovv vevoOevfxevov 
€7rl TO dp^aioTipov^ KaTo. to 
a-vvYjOcs, VTTo Ttov xpovo - 

*Av8p6as 6 AojieoTiKos. Vviopt- 
^€t?, w Seo^TTOTa, TOV 'AfS/3dv 
OeoSdipov ; 

4>(6tios. 'Aj3/3dv 0edSw/3ov ou 

Aoji^oT. Tov 'A/S/^dv Geo- 
Soypov TOV ^av8afSap7]v6v ovSev 
yvtopi^ets ; 

#<oTtos. rvo;/ot^w p.6vov 

Toi/ p^ova^ov QeoSiopov, dp\L- 
€7rL(TK0TT0V OVTa Ev;(atT(ov. 

Ao|i€'<rT. 'A^^a 2ai/5a- 

fSapyjve, 6 /^acrtAevs IpinT^ (re' 
TTOV eicrt TO, ^^pypiaTa Kal to. 
TrpdypLciTa Trj<s ^aoriAeias /xovy 

SavSap. "Ottov eSwKev 

avTO. 6 fSaaiXev's' vvv Se €7ret 
TO. Cv^^h ^^ova-iav €;(ct I'va 
dva\d/3r) avTa. 

Aoft^oT. EtVe, TLva ^^eAe? 
TTOLijcraL /5ao-tAea vTrodepevos €i5 
Tov TTaTepa p.ov I'va pk TVffyXwcrrj ' 
aov (TvyyevTj, r) tou IlaT/ota/o- 

When the emperor heard this 
he had the chief eunuch burnt 
with brushwood." 

" Caesar Bardas, eaten up 
with envy because the emperor 
displayed affection for Basileiup, 
repeated to his courtiers the 
following popular proverb — 

* We drove away the fox and 
the lion entered.' " 

" Cross - examination of the 
patriarch Photius. 

(Style in some measure gar- 
bled by the chroniclers, as 
usual, to assimilate it to the 
more ancient type.) 

Andreas the Domesticus. My 
lord, do you know the abbot 
Theodore ? 

Photius. I do not know any 
abbot Theodore. 

Domest. Do you not know 
the abbot Theodore Sandabar- 
enus ? 

Photius. I only know the 
monk Theodore who is arch- 
bishop of Euchaita. 

Domest. Abbot Sandabarenus, 
the emperor asks you : 'Where is 
the money and the property of 
my majesty ? ' 

Sandah. Where the emperor 
gave them : now that he de- 
mands them, he has the power 
to take them back. 

Domest. (for the emperor). Say 
whom yofi wanted to make 
emperor when you suggested to 
my father to blind me. Some 
relation of yours ? Or of the 
patriarch ? 



SavSap. Ov yva>/)t^w wepl 
TLVU)V KaTTjyopetTe jxe. 

Md-yKTT. Kat ttws e/XT^vvoras 

TovTOv rov 7rarpiap\rjV ; 

2av8ap. 'O/OKt^cu o-e, Secr- 
TTora, Kara tov Geov, tVa irpOtTOV 
TTonjcrys rrjv KaOaipecnv fxov, 
Kttfc Tore yvfivov ovra rrjs 
Uptacrvvrj's, a<s fxe KoXdcraxTLV ws 
KaKOvpyov ov yap eSi^Awo-a 
ravra ets rov /SacnXea. 

^WTIOS. Mot TTjV (TOiTrjpiav 
rrjs xjyvxrjs /xov, Kvpt OeoSoype, 
ap\Leiria-KOTro<s et kol ev t(^ vvv 
aiwvt Kat iv tw fxcXXovTu. 

Ao(jt4(rT. (OvfuoOets). OvSev 
efx'^vvcra's, 'AjSf^a, Sl' e/xov ets 
Tov fiafTiXea, on I'va lAey^w tov 
iraTpidp^-qv els tovto ; Kal t.X. 

Trjs AeKctTT^?.^ 'Ek T7^? TaK- 

(fivpoyevvi^Tov, vlov BacrtAciov 
TOV BovAyapoKTOvov OLTroa-Tracr- 

^Apfio^cL Se, o-Tparrjye, av 
KOvpcr€V(r(x)a-Lv ol ^apaKYjvol 
evOev TOV opovs Tavpov, i'va 
eiTLTrjSevcry Kar avTMv ets ras 
(rTevd<s KXeio-ovpas tov opovs, 
€^aip€T(i)S OTav kivicrTpk^oiWi Kal 


/cat TT/DtttSa? rj kttjvmv rj Trpay- 
fiaTiov. T6t€ yap d<^eiAet§ dva- 
f3if3d^€LV et? vxprjXovs tottovs 
To^oTas Kal (r(j)€v8ovol3oXLa-Tas 

^ An epic idyll called 'H dvayvibpiais, which 
Appendix, belongs to this century. 

Sandah. I do not know what 
you are accusing me of. 

Magister. And how is it that 
you sent a message to the 
emperor for me to cross-examine 
the patriarch about this affair 1 

Sandah. {addressing the patri- 
arch). I conjure you, my lord, 
before heaven, first to depose 
me, and then when I am de- 
prived of my priestly office, let 
them punish me as a criminal : 
for I did not give this informa- 
tion to the emperor. 

Photius. By the salvation of 
my soul, my lord Theodore, you 
are archbishop both in the pre- 
sent life and in the life to come. 

Domest. -{in a passion). Did 
you not send a message through 
me, Abbot, to the emperor, for 
me to cross-examine the patriarch 
about this ? " etc. 

10th Centiiry. Extract from 
the Tactics of the emperor Con- 
stantine Porj)hyrogenitus, son 
of Basileius Bulgaroctonus. 

" It is necessary, general, if 
the Saracens make a raid with- 
in Mount Taurus, for you to con- 
cert measures to oppose them in 
the narrow passes of the moun- 
tain, especially when they are 
on the road back, and have 
undergone fatigue, and ]Derhaps 
having with them booty of cattle 
or property. For it is then 
that you ought to send archers 

will be found in the 



I'va fnTTTOjart Kar avTOJV. Kat 
ovT(D<i i'va TTOiys Kal 6ta tmv 
Ka^aWaptiiiV ras 7r/30cr/?oAas 
KdT avrQ)V' 7] los e^€t a7raiT€tv 
r] XP^ia, r) 8t' eyKpvfxfidriiyv 7) 8t' 
aAAcoi/ €7rLTy]S€ViJidT0)V otov iva 
Kv\i(Tr)S Tvkrpav €ts tov? k/o/;- 
lxvov<i, 7} iVa <^pd.^ri<i Ta<s oSovs 
aTTO 8ei/8/)tov Kttt TroLrjcrr)'^ avTols 
dSidlSaTOV. ..." 

Tavra apKoOcrtv eK rwv a^io- 
Aoywv 7rpoX€yofM€V(i)v tov ZafxTre- 
Xiov. To, e^Ty? eo'at elXr^fJifJieva 
€K TaJp- TOV Ko/)ary TrpoXeyofxeviov 


avTov' cr^ai Se dirocnracrfJidT ta e/c 

TWV " 'ZvfJi/SovXeVTLKOJV X6y(x)V 

1 *AAe^tov Ko/zv>yvou 7r/9o? tov 
dvexj/iov avTov ^Travcav" ev tto- 

AtTtK0t5 aVO/XOlOTcAeVTOt? (TTL- 

XOL<;. Ilt^avcoTaTa Se dv/jKov(TLV 
ct*j TOV cvScKaTOV atwva. 

To TTOL-qfxa TOVTO (ficpei eiriypa- 
cfiijv (TTLXovpyrjfX€VY]V TYjv k^yjs — 
" 'E^ 'AAe^iov Kojxvrjvov, rov 


AoyoL xpryo-TOt, fSovXcvTiKol, 

Trdvv a)/)ato/x€voi, 

Upos TOV dvexj/iov avrov, ^Tra- 

vea? TO eTTtKAyyv." 

"FiTretra ap^i^et (Xtto tovs 


" IlatSt /xoi' TTO^etvoTttTOV, Trai^i 
fjLOv rjyaTrr]fjb€VOV, 


a-dp^ €K TTJs a-apKos fiov" 
KOL k^aKoXovBil TrapaivQiV — 
"Yt€ /xou av c'x??^ p.epLfJLvav 
7) evvotav ei's vouv crov 

and sliiigers up 011 the heights 
to discharge missiles upon them. 
And so that you may also make 
attacks upon them with cavalry ; 
or, as the exigency may demand, 
by ambuscades or other con- 
trivances: such as by rolling 
boulders over the cliffs, or barri- 
cading the roads with trees and 
rendering them impassable for 
them. . . ." 

This is sufficient of the ex- 
cellent preface of Zampelius. 
The following is taken from 
the preface of Corais to the 
second volume of his Miscel- 
lanies : they are short extracts 
from the "Words of advice of 
Alexius Comnenus to his nephew 
Spaneas" in jjolitical blank verse. 
Most probably it belongs to the 
eleventh century. 

This poem has the following 
heading in verse — 
"From Alexius Comnenus of 
blessed memory, 

good words of advice and most 

to his nephew surnamed Spa- 

Then he commences with the 
following lines — 
" My child, dearest and best 

bone of my bone, and flesh of 
my flesh," 

and he proceeds with his advice — 
"My son, if you- have any 
solicitude, or purpose in your 



No, KOifJirjs irpayixa rtVoTe? oirov 

BAcTre fir] Aeyets cfyavepMS tov 
XoytcTfJiov (TOV oAov." 

" Yte />toi), iSe av ecfiayes ^evov 

TiTTOTLS Trpayfia, 

Kai TTTJpes KOL KareXvcres Kare- 

8a7rdvy](T€S to, 

Mt) KpVll/YjS, TOVTO fxr) dpv7]0rjS 

p.r] TO dWrjXoyyjcrrj?. 

AfcttTt ovK €t)(e fidpTvp€<s, arj/xd- 

Slv kve^vpov." 

" Yce p-ov dv e'xi^? yetrova, 

/cat e;>(|y o^e KaKtav 

Ka6 pLatverac crov iyKapSiaKa, 

yvpeVTj TO KttKO o^ov, 

Kat P'dOrjs Kttfc yvoipiarrj^ tov, 

vli pOV Trp6o-€^€ TOV 

Kai /^AcTre /z^ ipLTrua-TevOys Kal 
TTOLCTY] (re ^yjp.Lav." 

" Yte /xov, av €;(275 yeiVovav 

■^ (Tvyyevrjv rj (ficXov, 

Kat TTOtcrcTe SiKdcnpbov Kal p^d- 

)(rjv dpLffiOTepoig, 

BAevre, ei' Tt cTrto-Tacrat Kat t^v 

ets kvTpoTrr]V twv, 

Mt) (fiavXaTLo-ys, p^y] to irys 

pyjSe 8y]pioa-L€va-rjS.'' 

TeAeuTct Se to Trocrjpa els tovs 

i^rjs (TTtxovs — 

"'ETret 8' 6 Aoyos o /3pa)(ys 

KOVcfiOS iCTTlV T0t5 TrdcTLV, 

'ApKOVv KOL cre a ere eypax/za. 

'^Av TavTa vd Trpoa-k\rj<s, 

Kat irpos TOV vovv tov ypdppLa- 

Tos TOV vovv (TOV vd TOV Oecrrjs, 

to do anything you set your 
heart on and desire, 
see that you do not divulge en- 
tirely your plans." 

"My son, see, if you have de- 
frauded a stranger of anything, 
and taken and consumed and 
expended it, 

that you do not conceal it, nor 
deny it, nor prevaricate about it, 
because he had no witnesses or 
any pledge of security." 

" My son, if you have a neigh- 
bour and he wishes you ill, 
and he rages passionately against 
you, and seeks to injure you, 
and you have learnt and under- 
stand him, my son, beware of 

and see that you do not trust 
him, lest he do you harm." 

" My son, if you have a neigh- 
bour or relation or friend, 
and you do anything to make 
you go to law and contend with 
each other, 

see, if you know anything and 
it be to their shame, 
that you do not babble or talk 
about it, or make it public." 

The poem ends with the 
following lines — 
" Since a short speech is agree- 
able to all, 

what I have written to you is 
enough for you. If you heed it, 
and give your mind to the 
meanincr of this letter. 



'KvrcvOe (fj<s crcofiaTLKC)'^ rbv 

fiiov kv elpijvr), 

Kal T^]v xj/vyjiv crov cno^eis 8e 

ei? \vKd/3as alu)va<s." 

M.i)(^arjX 6 K.ypov\dpio<5 ira- 

rpidp^ri<i KwvoTTavTtvoi^TToAews 

dv7;yo/3evo-€ jSacrikia 'laadKLOv 

Tov Kofxvrjvov dXXa /xertTretTa 

o/)ytcr^etS Kar avrov eiirev ev 

Tco TraTpiapyiiia ttjv k^rjs Si]- 

jJLioSy] wapoi/XLav — 

''Eyw or cKTLcra cf)Ovpv€ /xov 
Kol iyo) vd (T€ ^aAa(r(o.' 

^EKarovTaerrjph 1B\ Tck- 

fxrjpLa y\(ji}(T(TLKa TavTr]<s tt^s 

€KaTOVTa€Tr]pt8os e'^ofxcv ra 

TTovqixara rov TlTwxoTrpoSpo- 

fJLOv Ttt VTTo TOV Koparj 8r]- 

fjioo-LevdcvTa iv tw irpioTO) to/xw 

Twv 'AraKTWV. To k^rj'^ diro- 

(TTracrixa iX'/jffiOr] e^ avTwv. 

"•'Atto fxiKpoOev fjb eXeyev 6 

yepojv 6 Trarrjp fiov, 

' TeKVov fxov fxdOe ypdfxjjiaTa, av 

OeXys vd (ficXiarjS' 

BAeTrets tov Seiva, t^kvov fxov ; 

Tre^os €7re/9t7raTet • 

Kat Twpa (/i?Ae7rets) yeyovev 



Autos ovrav kfxdvOaveVy vTroS-q- 

(TLV OVK €i)(€V' 

Kal Tiopa (jSXeTreLS tov) <f)opeL 


AvTos fiLKp6<i ovSev tSev tov 


Kat Twpa XoVTpiKt^CTaL TpCTOV 

Tr]V k(38o/jid8a. 

Ka/?aSlV €?>^€V (TTOVTrTTLVOV T^av- 

you will pass your life here 

bodily in peace, 

and save your soul for endless 


"Michael Cerularius, patri- 
arch of Constantinople, invested 
Isaacius Comnenus as emperor ; 
but afterwards, being angry with 
him, he repeated in the patri- 
archal palace the following 
popular proverb — 

' I built you, my oven, now 
let me destroy you.'" 

I2th Century. As specimens 
of the language of this cen- 
tury we have the poems of 
Ptochoprodromus published by 
Corais in the first volume of 
his Miscellanies. The follow- 
ing extract is taken from 

" From my boyhood, my old 
father used to say to me : 
' My child, get yourself educated 
if you wish to be of any use. 
Do you see that man, my child ? 
He used to walk on foot, 
and now (you see) he has golden 

he rides a horse with three breast- 
straps, and mounts a fat mule. 
This man, when he was study- 
ing, had no shoes : 
and now (you see him) he wears 
boots with long pointed toes. 
When he was young, the fellow 
never saw the threshold of a bath, 
and now he goes to the baths 
three times a week. 
He used to have a ragged hempen 



Kat (fioprjv TO fjbovdXXayos X^^' 

fiov Kat KaXoKaipiv, 

Kat TW/oa (fSk^Trets) yeyovev 

XajXTT poTTOVKafxicrdTOS, 

UapayefiiCTTorpax't^Xos kol jxop- 


Ueta-OrjTL ovv yepovrcKols Kat 

TrarpLKOLS (rov Xoyois' 

Kat /xdOe rd ypafXfiaTtKd dv 

OkXrjS vd (peXea-rjs^ 

"^Av yap 7r€icr9f]s rats (Tvp.f3ov- 

Xats Kal TOLS SiSdy/JLacrt fxov, 

2v fiev XoLTTOv vd TifJirjdrj'g, /xe- 

ydXiOS €VTVX'^0-€L<5 • 

^E/xe Se Tov Trarepa crov Kav ev 

rots reXevTOLS ptov, 

Na OpexJ/Yjs ws dSvvarov Kal vd 


12? 8' yJKOvcra rov yepovTos, 

SecTTTora, tov Trarpo^ p.ov 

(Tots ydp yovevcn TretOecrdai 

cfiTjcrl TO ^etov ypd^Lp^a), 

"Efiada TO, ypafifjLariKd, izXrjV 

/XeTtt KOTTOV TTocrov 

'Acf>ov Se rd)(a yeyova y/oa/x/xaTt- 

Kos re^VLT-qSt 

'ETTt^u/xw Kat TO xj/coplv Kal KV- 

TaXov Kal xpL^av 

Kat 8ta Trjv Treivav ttjv rroXX-qv 

Kat Tiqv (TTivoyjbipiav 

^Y^pi^oi TTjV ypap.p,aTLKrjV Kal 

KXaiyoi Kal (pojvd^o)' 

'Avd6€pLaTdypdp,p.aTa! Xpto-Te, 

Kat TTOV Ttt OeXet ! 

'Avddefxav Kal tov Kaipov, Kal 

K€iv)]v TYjv ^/xe/aav, ' 

'OttoO yae TrapeSwKao-tv els to 

CTKoAiov cjxevav! 

Td\a vd p,dO(D y/)a/x/xaTa, Ta^a 

vd ^w aTreKeiva. 

and wore it as his only suit in 
winter and summer, 
and now (you see) he has come to 
be clothed in a splendid tunic, 
with a fat neck and a sleek face. 

Give heed then to the words of 
an old man who is your father ; 
and get yourself educated if you 
wish to be of any use, 
for if you follow my advice and 

then you yourself will be hon- 
oured and very hapj)y, 
and me, your father, at least at 
the end of my life, 
you will su^Dport in my feeble- 
ness and take care of my old 

And when I listened, my lord, 
to my aged father, 
(for the Holy Scripture tells 
us to obey our parents) 
I learnt literature, but with 
what trouble ! 

And now that I have in a way 
become expert in letters, 
I long for bread, crust or crumb, 

and from excessive hunger and 


I abuse grammar and weep and 

exclaim : 

'A curse on learning! Christ, 

and on any one who likes it ! 

Cursed be the time and that day, 

when they handed me over to 
the school 

to be educated forsooth and for- 
sooth to gain my living.' 



Av fx eXcLTTav to. ypa/x/xara, 
Kal fxdOava T€\VLTi)<i 


KXairoTa kol ^ovctlv, 
Xa fxa9a T€)(^vyjv KXaTrorrji^ Kal 

vd^OVV fX€T €K€ivy]V' 

Me TavT7]V ydp ti)v /cAaTrorryv 

TTyV 7r€pL(T0p€lX€Vr]V, 

Na avoiya to dpfidpiv /xov, vd 

TO fSpL(TKa ye/xdrov 

'^ioixlv Kpaa-lv TrXyjOvvTCKOv, Kal 


Kat TraXa/xiSoKOfifxaTa, Kal r^v- 

povs Kal (TKovpLTrpia, 

Uapov OTL Tiopa dvo lyo) to, 

jSXeTTO) Tovs TrdTOvs oXovs, 

Kat /^AcTTW xapToa-dKKOvka 

yefidTa ra ^apTia^ 

"IcTTafxai t6t€ KaT-)]cfirj<s Kal diro- 


Atyo^i'/jtci), Xiyoxpv^Ci drro ttoA- 

Arjs fxov Treivas' 

Kat 6ta TTjV TTCLvav Trjv TToX\y]v 

Kal TTjV (TTeVO)((DpiaV 

'ApvovfxaL Ta ypapLfxaTLKa to, 

KXarroTa TrpoKpiVO)." 

IF' *EKaT0VTaeT7^/)t?. '12s 

yXo)a-arLKov T€KfX'Qptov tov aloovos 

TovTov ecTTO) TO €^^s aTrdo-TTacT/xa 

ilXrjixiikvov eK toh/ *•' X/aovtKwv 

TOV Mcopeo)?," KttTa t^]V eK^ocrti' 

TOi" "EAAio-o-ev. He p ty pd(f)€T at 

61 rj KaTdKTrfCTLS t?]S IleAoTrov- 

viYtov vtto Tiov ^pdyKiov. 

"'A(/)6tov ydp c/jLta-evcrev 6 

p'rjya<i ^aXovLKif]s, 

*Ev€/x€tv' 6 jjLLcrep y^T^Gffiph p,€Td 

TOV Kajj.7rav€(Ti]V, 

Tovs a/0)(ovTas ipioTijcre, tovs 

TOTTtKovs *Pco/Aatovg, 

If I had left letters alone and 
learnt to be a craftsman, 
like those who work at gold- 
brocade and live by it, 
I would have learnt the gold-bro- 
cade trade and got my living by it ; 
for with this gold brocade which 
is so highly regarded 
I should have opened my cuji- 
board and found it full, 
bread and wine in plenty, and 
cooked tunny-fish, 
and slices of the small tunny- 
fish, and dried mackerel-fry and 

while, when I open it now, I see 
all the bottoms (of the drawers), 
and I see bags filled with papers, 

and then I stand downcast and 
overwhelmed with trouble, 
my heart sinks and my soul 
faints with excess of hunger ; 
and from this great hunger and 

I disown letters and prefer gold- 

13^/t Century. As an ex- 
ample of the language of this 
century let the following extract 
serve, taken from the Chronicles 
of the Morea, according to Ellis- 
sen's edition. It is a description 
of the conquest of Peloponnesus 
by the Franks. 

" Now after the departure of 
the king of Salonica, 
Monsieur Geoffrey remained with 
De Champagne, 

and he inquired from the local 
Greek noblemen, 



'Ottov tov<s tottovs yj^evpav, ra 

KacTTpa Koi rat? ;((o/oai§, 

"OXr)<s rrj^ tleXoTrovvqa-os, ocrov 

Kparei 6 Mw/oeas, 

Tov vol Tov StepfJLrjvevcrova-i tov 

KaOevos rrjv irpa^tv^ 

Kt* wcrav epcoTrjcre KaXa Kat 


Tov Kajxiravecrrjv XdXrjcre Kal 

Trpos €K€ivov Xeyei' 

' Avdcvrrj, eyo) ws ^evtKos av- 


'E/)WTJyo-a Tovs apxovTa<i ottov- 

vai pLera creva' 

K' d)S €7rXr)po(f>oprjOrjKa (xtt av- 

TOi'S T^v aAT^^etav, 

Kai erSa 6(f)0aXpLO(f)av(os to 

Kacrrpov t?]? YiopivOov^ 

Toi) "Apyovs Kat TOV 'AvaTrAiov, 

T'qv SvvapLLV tyjv e^ovv, 

"Av OeXys va Kadk^ea-ai, va ra 


Xaveis TO, €7re^€i/)7^o-€S, aTre/oyw- 

pL€VOS etcraL. 

To. KOLO-Tpa etVat SwaTo, KaAol 


K' ovSev TO, Svveo-at ttoctojs yue 

TToAe/xov va Ta)(rj<s. 

'Eyw ya/3 'ipiaOa KaXa diro 

KaXovs dvdpwTTOvs 

Atto rrjv Hdrpav epiTrpocrdev 

//.e^ptS et§ T'qv Kopwvtjv 

*^ ^(opats €v aTrAwTepai?, Ka/z- 

TTOt Se Kat SpvfXioves, 

N' direpx^a-ai kXevOepa [x oAa 

o-ov TO, <^ovcrdTa. 

K' ac^ov K€p8L(rr]'i tol ^to/ota, Kat 

va o-e 7rpoo-Kvvryo-ovv, 

Ta KdcTTpa dv ipLp^etvovo-LV cos 

7roT€ va f^acTTd^ovv ; 

who knew the country, the forts 
and the towns, 

of all Peloponnesus, which the 
Morea comprises, 
that they might explain to him 
the condition of each of them, 
and as he questioned them 
closely and received informa- 

he spoke to De Champagne and 
said to him : 

' My lord, I, as a stranger resi- 
dent in the place, 
questioned the (native) noble- 
men who are with you : 
and as I have received accurate 
information from them, 
and have seen with my own 
eyes the citadel of Corinth, 
and of Argos and of Nauplia, 
and the strength they have, 
if you wish to sit down and in- 
vest them, 

you will fail in your attempt 
and lose your labour. 
The forts are strong and well 

and you cannot at all get pos- 
session of them by war. 
For I obtained reliable informa- 
tion from competent men 
that from beyond Patras as far 
as Corone 

the towns are rather scanty, but 
plains and forests prevail, 
so that you may pass freely with 
all your forces. 

And when you gain the villages 
and they submit to you, 
if the forts stand firm, how long 
will they hold out 1 




"i)f>Lcr€ yap to. TrXevTiKa va 

VTrdyovv rrjs $aXd(r(rr]S, 

K' ly/xet? a? V7ray€voj/x€v oAoi 

(XTTO T7y§ (TTepeas' 

Kat tt(/)o{' (T(JO(TO}fl€V eK€L, OTTOV- 

X€LS rov Xaov crov, 
Tov roirov ottov cKe/aSitre?, cA- 

TTt^O) *S pi^iKOV (TOV 

K' €ts Tou Geoi' TO eXeos rov 

^^Xy^ ^i'0'-4'op'qa-y' 

*i2s TO yJKOvo-ev 6 €vy€vr)<s 

avTos o K-afxiravea-rfi, 

^leyaAws €v\apLcrTy](T€ tov tt/dw- 

ToarpaTopd rov. 

"12/3t(r€ K i(TLrdp)(Ti^(Tav rrjv yoipav 

rri<i Kopivdov 

4'oi'O'aTa aifiy]K€ KaAa tov tottov 

va (fivXdrrovv. 

K' ws TO erTrev 6 fJLtcrep NT^ec^pe?, 

Kat €Ka^toS7^yevo-e to, 

OvTW? Kat TO eirXy^^poxre, k eir^jpe 

r-)]v 686v rov. 

Atto rrjv Tldrpav -I'jkOaa-L, 's rr]V 

'AvSpafStSa (Two-av, 

Ek€i ottov 7yo-av ot ap^ovTes tov 

KdpTTOV rov M(0/3€(09. 

Etotc 6 fiia-kp Nt^cc^^/dcs, cos 


'Eo-i'va^e Toi's ap;(0VTas, Kat 

Aeyct 7r/3os €K€lvovs. 

^''Ap)(ovr€S, (^tAot, k' d5€A</)0t 

KaAot Kat /zou (rvvrp6(fiOL, 

Eo-eis 6/DttT€, [iXkirere Irovrov 

rov avOevryjv^ 

*07r0vX6€V €tS TOVS TOTTOVS Q-aS, 

8ta va TOt'S Kip^icrrj. 

Mr^Scv (TKOTretTc, a/a^^ovTCS, oVt 

Sta Kovpcov rjXBi^ 

\ No, Tra/Dry ^wa, ^ov^^a t€, Kat tot€ 

va Trayatvt;. 

Order now your navy to go by 


and let all of us go by land : 

and when we arrive there, where 

you have your people, 

at the land which you have won, 

I have faith in your fortune 

and in the mercy of God that 

you will be successful.' 

When the noble De Champagne 

heard this, 

he heartily thanked his general. 

He gave the command, and they 
provisioned the town of Corinth ; 
and he left a strong force to 
guard the place, 
and just as Monsieur Geoffrey 
told him and showed him the 
so 1) 

They passed by Patras and ar- 
rived at Andravida, 
where the chiefs of the plain of 
the Morea were. 
Then Monsieur Geoffrey, like 
the prudent man he was, 
assembled the chiefs and said to 
them : 

' Cliiefs, friends, brethren, and 
my good comrades, 
you see, you behold this lord, 

who came to your lands to gain 

possession of them. 

Do not think, chiefs, that he 

came for plunder, 

to carry off cattle and clothes, 

and then go away. 



*0/oa> eras yap a)§ (^povt/xoi'S, 

KOL KaOapa aras AeyW 

Ocw/jeire rot (fiovcrdTa rov, tyjv 

Trapprjo-tai^ rrjv e;)(€i' 

AvOevTrjs elvai /JacrtAevg, Kal 

deXet va KepSicrr]. 

'Ecrets avOevTrj ovk '^X^re rov va 

era's f^oyjOrjcrrj, 

K' av Spd/JLOvv TO, cfiovcraTa /^as, 

Tov Toirov eras Kovpcrevovv, 

No, al\ixaXoiTi(TOVv ret x^pta, 

Kal va (Tcfiayovv dvOpojiroL, 

"Ycrrepov ri vd Trotcrere, orav 

era? p.€Tavorj(jrj ; 

AoLTTov €/x€va (patverai Stot KaXyj- 

repov o-as 

No, TroL(r<ji)fJi€v (TVfxf3ifSa(riv, vd 

Xelxj/oicrLV ol cfiovot, 

Tot Kovpcrr) k at at^/xaAwtriais 

ttTTO TO, yOVLKd CTttS * 

K' eaets OTTOV et(r9e (jypovLfJLOLj 

K rj^evpere TOV<i dXXovs 

Tiov (TvyyeveLS eras /SpiorKovrai, 

cf>LXoL (Ta<s Kal (TwrpocfiOi 

Upd^LV vd TTOLcreTe 's avrovs, 

8id vd TrpocTKVvrjcrovv.' 

*f2s T yJKovcrav ol dp^ovTes^ 

oXoi TOV IT poo- Kvv overt' 

KaraTravTodev eWetAav tovs 


"Kvd' "ij^evpav ot' rjcraa-L cf^iXoL 

Kal crvyyevets rovs' 

To TrpdyfJLa tovs eSrjXoia-av k 

kirX-qpo^opr^a-dv rovs' 

'A(f)povTL(rtdv Tovs eWetAav diro 

TOV Ka/ATTavecrr^v, 

' 0(TOL deXy](TOvv vd eXdovv, vd 

kxovv Trpoa-Kvvya-et, 

I see you are sensible men and 

so I speak openly to you : 

you see his forces and the 

splendour he has : 

he is a sovereign lord and his 

desire is to make conquests. 

You have no lord to help you, 

and if our forces set out and 

plunder your country, 

and enslave your villages, and 

people are killed, 

what good will it be to you 

afterwards, when you repent 1 

So I think it is better for you 

that we make an arrangement, 
and that there should be no 

no carrying off plunder and 
prisoners from your property ; 
and you who are wise, and 
know the others, 
where they are to be found, 
your relations, friends and com- 

use your efforts with them that 
they may submit.' 
When the chiefs heard this, 
they all submitted to him : 
in all directions they despatched 

wherever they knew their 
friends and relations were : 
they made the matter known to 
them and gave them informa- 
tion : 

they sent to them from De Cham- 
pagne a promise of security, 
for as many as would come in 
and submit. 


Ta yovLKOL Tov<s va)(^ov(rLV, koI 
ttX^ov va Toy's SuxTrf 

"0(roL d^La^ovv k McfieXovv, 
TL/xrjv jxeydXrjv vd)(ovv. 

*12s T TJKOvaav ol dpxovTe<s 

KOi TO KOivbv o/xotwg, 

"Ap^tcrav Kol €p)(^6vTY](rav, k 

iTrpoa-Kvvovcrav oAot. 

K' a^oTov €(TVvdx6r](Tav CKet 's 

TTjV 'AvSpafSiSa, 

T' ap^ovToAoyt tov Mwpeo)? k 

oXrjs TTJs Mecrapeas 

'Kirotyjo-av (rvfif^ifSacTLV fxera tov 


lA' 'KKaToVTaeTi]pL<s. "Atry- 

yr](TL<s e^ai/DCTOs JieXOdvSpov tov 

*Pw/xaiov, OS Sio, dXtxpLV ijv ct^xev 

€/C TOV TTttT/aoS ttl'TOV, d7r€^€V(x)0r]^ 
€<f)Vy€V €K Trj<S yOVLKTjS TOV\Mpa<S, 

Koi irdXiv eiravecTTpexpev. "KXajSe 
Sk X.pv(TdvT^a, OvyaTepa p-qyos 
Trj<i fX€ydXr]<s 'AvTto^^eias, ttAt/i/ 
Kpy^fitMS TraTpos Kal fxrjTpo<s av- 

McTo, TTjv fxaKpav TavTr]v kiri- 
ypa(fir)v a/)^eTat to Trotrjixa ws 

'^AevTC TrpoarKapTepyjcraTe /xl- 

Kpov ojpaLOL 7ravTC9, 

GcAo) Q-as d({iy]yy]a-aa-OaL Aoyovs 


YTTO^eo-tv 7rapd^evy]V iroXXa 

TrapyjXXay fi€vrjv, 

' OcTTis yovv OkXiL €^ avTy]<i dXi- 

/Syjv T€ Kat xaprjvat 

Kat vot Oavfida-y VTroOeo-iv Trjs 

ToA/xiys Kat dv8p€ia<s. 

AoLirov TOV vovv i(rTy](raT€, v 

aKova-yjTe tov Xoyov, 

that they should keep their 
property and he would give 
thein more, 

that as many as were worthy 
and proved of use would re- 
ceive great honour. 
When the chiefs heard this and 
the people likewise,' 
they began to come in and all 

And as soon as they were col- 
lected there in Andravida, 
the nobility of the Morea and 
of all Mesarea 

made terms with De Cham- 

1 4:th Century. " The remark- 
able story of Bertrand the Roman, 
who through the affliction he 
suftered from his father, went 
abroad, and abandoned his native 
land and afterwards returned. 
He took to wife Clirysantza, 
daughter of the king of Great 
Antioch, but without the know- 
ledge of her father and mother." 

After this long title the poem 
begins as follows — 

" Come now, my gentle 
readers, have a little patience, 
I am going to relate to you a 
most delightful tale, 
a strange subject with much 
variety of incident, 
so whoever of you wishes to feel 
grief or joy at it, 
and admire a story of daring 
and heroism, 

pay attention, that you may give 
heed to the tale, 




Kat va Oav/xda-eTe ttoWol' xpev- 
(TTr]<i ov fxr] <j)avovixai." 

'Ev Tois e^i^s (TriyoiS Trept- 
ypd(f>eTaL to KaWos rrjs Xpv- 

"'O^S/JvSta Kardfiavpa ecjiva-r]- 

crev rj rkyvy)^ 

TvoifivpLa KarecTKevaa-ev diro 

TToWrjs (TOcfiLas, 

At Xa/)tT€S €)(^dXK€V(Tav rrjv 

lxvTi]V rrjs (u/aata?, 

Sroyaa Xa/)tTa)v Xayotre?, oSovTia 

fxapyapLT dp la, 

MayouAa poSoKOKKcva, avTO- 

fBairra rot, yeiX-q^ 

'KfxvpL^e TO (TTo/xa Trjs X^P^^ 


^rpoyyvXo/xopffiOTri^yovvos, v- 


KevKofSpayioiV^ Tpvcfiepd . . ." 

and be lost in admiration : I 
shall not disappoint you." 

In the following lines the 
beauty of Chrysantza is de- 
scribed : 

" The spirit of art inspired her 
jet-black eyebrows, 
traced their arches with great 
skill ; 

the Graces modelled the nose 
of the beautiful one, 
her mouth the Grace of Graces, 
her teeth pearls, 
her cheeks rose -red, her lips 
with nature's dye, 
the fragrance of her mouth be- 
yond dispute, 

with beautifully rounded chin ; 
erect and stately, 
white-armed and delicate . . ." 

Me a-vyxixypetTe vdt eras StaKo- Excuse my interrupting you, 

xj/oi, StoTi /SAeTTO) €cfj6d(Tafi€v eh for I see we have arrived at 
Tovptvov. Turin. 



OeAere va e^eA^w/xev va irdpo>- 
fiev Kavev dvaxf/vKTCKou ; 

Ilocrryv (opav /xcvet kvravBa rj 
ct/xa^ocTTOt^ia ; 

^H/xL(r€Lav lopav. 

"^A? i^eXOiofxev Xolttov. 'Kyio 
6d Trdpo) eV ^ 8vo Tra^t/xdSca 
Kat 'iv TTorrjpdKL Kpaa-L 

Kai eyo) to avro ^a Trpd^d). 

IIws (ras <f>atv€TaL tovto to 
Kpacrt ; 

To evpiCTKO) vocTTLfMOV. Efvat 
yi'T^crtov Kpacrl rrys 'IraAtas. 

''As vTrdyiDfiev Tiopa vd kpia- 
Ti](r<j)ix€v dv SvvdfieOa fxe rd 
eicrtrijpia ra oTrola 'i^ojX€v vd 
TrepdcTiDlxev 8td ^XwpevTLas, 

StOTi TToXv €7rL$V/X0} vd tSo) TTjV 

Tr€pi(f)yjnov Tavrr]V iroXiv. 

Aev clvai Kapbfxia dvdyKr] vd 
epuiTrjcTiofxev, Slotl eyoi el^evpo) 

TTokv KaXd OTfc €7rtT/De7r€Ta6 

TOVTO' dXX! as elaeXdiOfiev ets 
TTjv d/xa^av, Slotl 6 kwSwv ^/X^? 
Sid Ty)v dva^ioprjcrtv. 

ITore 6d cfi6da-o)p.€V ets ^Aw- 
pcvTiav ; 

OXiyOV TL fX€Td TO p,€(TOVV- 

KTLOV. Kara tov (TL8rjpo8popLKov 
XpovoTTLvaKa €ts rots 4.14 
<f>6dvoiJ,€V ei's 'AXc^dvSpetav, 

Shall we get out and take 
some refreshment ? 

How long does the train stop 
here ? 

Half an hour. 

Then let us get out. I will 
take a biscuit or two and a 
small glass of wine. 

And I will do the same. 

How do you like this wine ? 

I think it is very nice. It is 
genuine Italian wine. 

Let us go now and ask if we 
can, with the tickets which we 
have, pass through Florence, for 
I very much wish to see that 
famous city. 

There is not any occasion for 
us to ask, for I know very well 
that this is permitted : but let 
us get into the carriage, for the 
starting-bell is ringing. 

When shall we arrive at 
Florence ? 

A little after midnight. Ac- 
cording to the railway time-table 
we arrive at 4. 14 at Alessandria, 
where the train stops 7 minutes. 



€vOa rj a/xa^ocTTOt^ia fxevet kirra 
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Uicrav, Kal ets rot? 12.40 els 

Ilocrov XeyeTe va /xeiviDfiev ev 
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"Icra tcra Kal eyo) avro Ste- 
voovjxrjv vd eras TrpoTeivui, ^lotl 
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TovTo elvai dXrjdes, 8l6tl tls 
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aKovoiv TO ovojxa rrjs ^Xiopevrtas 

At 6.4 we shall be in Genoa, 
where we shall have time to 
dine, for the train stops 38 
minutes. At 10.50 we arrive at 
Pisa, and at 12.40 at Florence. 

How long do you say we 
ought to stay at Florence ? 

I wish that it were possible 
for us to stay several days, but 
as we have to visit Rome also, 
we must perforce content our- 
selves with one day. 

You are quite right and it 
must be so. Now, if you like, 
let us continue our reading. I 
think I interrupted you while 
you were reading the description 
of the beauty of the white-armed 
and delicate Chrysantza. 

Yes, you interrupted me there, 
and you did well, for I must 
confess that I never read in my 
life a more stupid poem. 

Then let us spend our time 
in talking or reading something 
about Florence. 

Just the very thing I was in- 
tending to propose to you, for I 
know that the name of this 
splendid city affords many re- 
miniscences to every educated 

This is true, for what Greek 
of any education, when he hears 
the name of Florence, does not 



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KvOv/meicrOe Tts i/TO 6 SiSa^a? 
€IS TOV H€Tpdp)(r]V Trjv 'EAAt^- 
viK7^v ; 

recollect that in the clays of 
aflliction she M'as the refuge 
and the home of the Greek 
Muses ? Many learned Greeks, 
in the middle of the 15th cen- 
tury flying from their enslaved 
country, took shelter in Italy 
and especially in Florence, 
where they were hospitably 
entertained and received every 

I believe that the vital spark 
of the revival of Greek literature 
was brought to Italy before the 
taking of Constantinople, so that 
it may be justly said that the 
learned Greeks who sought safety 
in Italy after the capture of 
that city did not absolutely 
initiate but rather completed 
this intellectual regeneration. 

This is true and not to be dis- 
puted. The study of the Greek 
language in Italy commenced in 
the time of Boccaccio and 
Petrarch, but its votaries were 
very few. Petrarch writing 
to Boccaccio in the year 1360 
says that in Italy there were 
not to be found more than ten 
persons who could read Homer 
in the original, and that half of 
these were in Florence. 

Do you remember who it was 
that taught Petrarch Greek ? 




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yaAws (TvveTeXecrev eh rrjv 
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^^XXrjVLKTJs yXiocra-qs Karop- 
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Oovras "EAAryvas. 

ToVTO OVT(i)S €;)(€f Ov8€ls 

If my memory does not be- 
tray me, his name was Bernard 
Barlaam, who was a native of 
Calabria but studied Greek in 
Thessalonica and Constantinople, 
and soon became distinguished 
as a philosopher, mathematician, 
and astronomer. 

Had Boccaccio a good know- 
ledge of Greek ? 

Certainly Boccaccio had a 
more complete knowledge of 
Greek than Petrarch. He learnt 
it in Calabria under Leontius 
Pilatus, who translated Homer 
into Latin. This translation 
Boccaccio copied for his friend 
Petrarch. Boccaccio greatly 
contributed to the advancement 
of the study of Greek, having 
succeeded in securing the found- 
ation of a special chair in 
Florence for the teaching of that 
language, so that perhaps they are 
right who say that the revival 
of the study of ancient Greek is 
not entirely due to strangers. 

Modern critics may have this 
or that idea about the revival of 
Greek literature in Italy, but 
the learned Italians of the 
15th century do not attribute 
it to their own countrymen, 
but to the Greeks who came 
from Byzantium and Greece. 

This is so : but no one can 



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deny that at that time there 
prevailed in Italy a kind of 
intense and, so to speak, inspired 
ardour for the study of Greek 
literature, so that when the 
learned Greeks came there, they 
found a good and fertile soil 
ready to receive the seed of 
their instruction, and so the 
crop was abundant : but who is 
considered the first and most 
distinguished of those learned 
men who sowed the seed ? 

Manuel Chrysoloras. He 
was born at Constantinople in 
the middle of the 14th cen- 
tury and belonged to a dis- 
tinguished family. Being by 
nature talented and having been 
excellently brought up and edu- 
cated, he became a very learned 
man and an accomplished orator. 
In the year 1391 he was sent 
by John Palaeologus as am- 
bassador to Richard II. of Eng- 
land and to other princes of the 
West to ask for help against the 
Turks, who were then threaten- 
ing Constantinople. But his 
words fell on ears that would 
not listen, and he was compelled 
to return unsuccessful to Con- 
stantinople. Here he did not 
remain long, for his friends in 
Italy, and especially those in 
Florence, persistently invited 
him to go to them. He accepted 
their invitation and sailed for 
Venice, having with him Deme- 
trius Cydonius, who was one of 




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the learned Greeks of that time. 
The reception they met with in 
Italy was most cordial, and to 
form a faint idea of What it 
was like, one must read the 
following letter written by 
Coluccio Salutati to Demetrius 
Cydonius when the latter landed 
at Venice with Chrysoloras. 
". ... At a time when the 
study of the Greek language 
has almost been abandoned, and 
the minds of men are wholly en- 
grossed by ambition, voluptu- 
ousness, and avarice, you have 
made your appearance before 
us as messengers from the di- 
vinity, bearing the torch of 
knowledge in the midst of our 
darkness. Happy indeed shall 
I esteem myself (if this life can 
afford any happiness to a man 
who to-morrow will close his 
sixty -fifth year) if I can by 
your assistance imbibe those 
principles from which all the 
knowledge which this country 
possesses is wholly derived. 
Perhaps, even yet, the example 
of Cato may stimulate me to 
devote to this study the re- 
mainder of my life, and I may 
thus be able to add to my 
acquirements a knowledge of 
the Grecian tongue." 



"Ot€ 6 Xpvcro\(Dpa<5 ■^kOev 
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p€VTi(^ ; 

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Trj<s AoyiKTys Kal Trjs pi]TopLKy]<5 

When Chrysoloras came to 
Italy, who occupied the chair 
of Greek literature in Flor- 
ence ? 

No one, for the chair which 
was founded in Florence by the 
efforts of Boccaccio continued 
vacant for thirty years. The 
first who taught in it, Leontius 
Pilatus, left it very soon and 
went to Greece ; and the chair 
remained empty for want of a fit 
and competent teacher. Hence, 
when Chrysoloras came to Flor- 
ence and commenced his lectures, 
people of every degree flocked to 
him from all parts of Italy, and 
listened with indescribable en- 
thusiasm to his learned dis- 
courses. The majority and the 
more distinguished of the learned 
men of that age were his 
hearers and disciples. Not only 
scholars but the prominent nobles 
attended the lectures of the elo- 
quent Greek. Leonardo Bruni 
of Arezzo, in one of his works, 
gracefully relates how he decided 
to become a disciple of Chryso- 
loras. This is verbatim what 
he says : "At that time I was 
a student of the law ; but my 
soul was inflamed with the love 
of letters, and I devoted a portion 
of my labours to the study of the 
science of logic and rhetoric. 
On the arrival of Manuel, I be- 
gan to hesitate between the con- 
siderations, whether I ought to 
abandon my legal studies or 
throw away this golden oppor- 




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tunity; and in tlie ardour of 
youth I said to myself : ' Wilt 
tliou then prove so unworthy of 
thyself and thy fortune ? Wilt 
thou refuse to be admitted to 
close association and familiar 
intercourse with Homer, Plato, 
and Demosthenes ? with those 
poets, philosophers and orators, 
of whom such wonders are re- 
lated, and who are for all ages 
celebrated as the highest teachers 
of the sciences ? Professors and 
students of law will always be 
found in our universities ; but 
a teacher, and such a teacher, of 
the Greek language, if he once 
escape us, can never perhaps be 
afterwards replaced.' Convinced 
by these arguments, I gave my- 
self up to Chrysoloras, and the 
strength of my passion increased 
to such a degree that the lessons 
I imbibed by day were the con- 
stant subjects of my dreams by 
night." At this time Giovanni 
of Eavenna, a very learned man, 
occupied the chair of Latin at 
Florence, and hence from these 
two schools came the most il- 
lustrious men of that age. 




'EkTOS TOV dv(DT€pOi fXVl]fXOV€V- 

OevTo<i AeovdpSov IBpovvov Kal 
ol €^y]<s ilvai €K Twi/ Sta7r/D€7r€- 

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\o)pd KdpoXos Mapa-ovTnrtvos, 

I laAAa? ^V/30Tt09, 0(TTLS VTTTJp^eV 

o dra/zo/a^cuTiys tov TraveTTta-Trj- 
fXLov rrjs ^XwpcvTLas, 'AfifSpo- 
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6 e/c Be^wvr^?, Ildyyto? 6 
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vrys Kol 'Iwavi/>^S 6 Kvpicnras 6 
Ik StKeAias. 

X.pv(ToX(Dpas evAoyojs 8vva- 
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X>/9 Kat 6 BoK/CaKKtO?, KOI 6 

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Twv EAAt^vikwv ypa/JifxdTiov iv 
ry Av(r€i. 

O/JLLXovvTis Trepl Trj<s TTpoayo)- 


'^XiopevTic^ Sev TrpeTret vd Xijcr- 
fxavya-iofxev tov €v8o^ov olkov 
Tiov MeStKODV. 'H 8ia7rp€7rrj<s 
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Toi/ IE' atcova x/^eoxrTet Tr)v 
dp)(^LKrjv avTTJ^ (jiYip.r]V eh to 
efXTTopLOV. Uepl tcLs ap^cts tou 
IF' aiwvos yaeAyy TavTrjs Trys 
oiKoyevems rjp^^^icrav vd Xap-^d- 
vuxrc fj,€po<5 els tt/v Kv/Sepvyjcrtv 

TTjS 7raT/3l8o9 TWV. KaTO, TOV 

lA' auova 8i€Kpt6y] cttI irXovTOi 
Kal 8vvdfX€L iv tyj 8r]fjiOKpaTi<ji. 

Besides the above-mentioned 
Leonardo Bruni, the following 
are among the more distinguished 
pupils of Chrysoloras : Carole 
Marsuppini, Palla Strozzi who 
was the reformer of the Uni- 
versity of Florence, Ambrosio 
Traversari, Guarino of Verona, 
Poggio Bracciolini, Francesco 
Filelfo, Vittorini Rambaldoni, 
Pietro Paulo Vergerio, Gregorio 
daTiferna,and Giovanni Aurispa 
the Sicilian. 

Chrysoloras may rightly be 
regarded as completing the work 
which Petrarch and Boccaccio 
began, and as the first who 
laboured with success for the 
diffusion of Greek learning in 
the West. 

While on the subject of the 
progress of classic studies in 
Florence, we must not forget 
the glorious house of the Medici. 
This illustrious family, which 
rose to supreme power in the 
Florentine Eepublic in the 15th 
century, owes its early renown 
to commerce. About the be- 
ginning of the 13th century, 
some members of the family 
began io take part in the govern- 
ment of their country. In the 
14th century Giovanni was dis- 
tinguished for his wealth and his 
influence in the republic : he was 
succeeded by his son Cosimo. 




6 'loidvv'q's Tov OTTOLOV SceSexOrj 
6 vib<s avTOv Kocr/xas. 

*0 f^tos TOV Kocr/xa VTrrjp^ev 
'ivSo^os. KarcopOojcre va exj) 
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fxoviDV, va 8iaTr]pfj Se kol tyjv 
ttoXlv dcrracrtacrTOV, kol outw? 
i^Svvrjdr) vd a-Tpexj/rj rrjV Trpocr- 
O'X'qv avTOv els Trjv dvaTrrv^LV 
T(ov re^vcov kol iTrtCTTrjiJuov ev 
ry TraTpi^i avrov, SaTraviov 
d</)et6(os e^ ISlojv. ' AveSeixdr] 
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viKcov ypajUjULarMV Kat KaTcarrj- 
(T€V ovTCi) TYjv ^XojpevTtav kcTTiav 
T(av KXa(TiK(X)V crirov^MV. Tov 
Kocrpidv SieSexOrj 6 vlos avrov 
TJcrpos ocTTt? "^To da-devrjs ov 
fiovov Kara to crMfia, aAAa Kat 
Kara to Trvevfia' dAA' evrv^MS 
6 vlos avrov A.avpevrios rjTO 
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Trarepa rov iv rrj Kvf^epvqcreL 
Tr]<s TToAeco?. OvTOS etvat 6 
fierd ravra eTTLKX-qOels Aavpev- 
TLOS 6 MeyaAoTT/ocTTT^S. MeTot 
TOV ddvarov tov irarpos avrov 
SiaSexdel's avrov dveSetxOr] d^tos 
(XTToyovos TOV ev86^ov Trdinrov 
avrov. '^Kv/3epv7]o-€ tyjv 7ra- 
rptSa avrov fierd StKatoa-vvrjS 
Kal fJLerpLorrjros. "YTryjp^e fxeya- 
XoSoypos 7rpo(rrdrrjs tcov (opatcov 
rexvoiv Kal twv ypaix/xdroiv. 
'Hto 8k Kdro^os evpeias fxaOq- 
crews Kat Wepdirevev evSoKt/xw? 
Tols Movo-as, StOTt eypaxpe yAa- 
<f>vpd XvptKa TTOiTjixara. 'Eav 
€7re;>(€t/)et Tts va, Tzepiypaxprf kv 
kKrd(T€i rd Srjfxoo'La Karaarril]- 

The life of Cosimo was a 
glorious one. He succeeded in 
allying himself with powerfvil 
princes, and in keeping the state 
free from revolution, and so was 
enabled to turn his attention 
to the development of the arts 
and sciences in his native country, 
spending much of his private 
fortune for this purpose. He 
was conspicuous as the great 
patron of Greek literature, and 
thus made Florence a focus of 
classic study. Cosimo was suc- 
ceeded by his son Pietro, who 
was feeble not only in body but 
in mind ; but fortunately the 
latter's son Lorenzo was endowed 
with many gifts, and assisted his 
father in the government of the 
state. It was he who was 
subsequently called Lorenzo il 
Magnifico. After his father's 
death, he succeeded him and 
showed himself a worthy de- 
scendant of his celebrated grand- 
father. He ruled his country 
with justice and moderation. 
He was a munificent patron 
of the fine arts and of litera- 
ture. He was a man of exten- 
sive learning and successfully 
cultivated the Muses, for he 
wrote elegant lyric poems. If 
any one were to attempt to give a 
detailed description of the public 
institutions, the colleges and uni- 
versities which were founded at 
his cost, and to recount the livea 



fxara, ra kKirai^€vry]pia koi to, 
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'AyyXtav kol tyjv Tepixavtav. 
'E/c TTacrojv tovtojv twv ^w/dwv 
^XOov TToXXol (TTTOvSacrTal els 
^XoypevTiav Kal evrevBev direp- 
)(6fJi.evot fxereStSov rd (fiMra riy? 
TraiSeias els rr)V XotTrrjvKvpiioTryjv. 


Kiov ofjieiXeTai TrXeicTTr] evyvw- 
fiO(Tvvi] Kal Sid TYjV iSpva-LV 
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TToXXovs Kare/SaXov kottovs 
7rpo9 (TvXXoyrjv *EAAryvtKwv 
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eveirvkero, ovrias elirelv, vrrh 
lepds fxavLas oVws c-^^^yo"!] en 

fldXXoV TOV dptd/JLOV TWV TToXv- 

ri/xcov xetpoypd(fi(i)V, fx-ij ^eiSo- 
fievos ovTe ttovcov ovre SaTrdvrjS. 
K.a6i8pv(re 8e IScav f^c^XLoOy'jKrjv 
iv ry eavTov oIkl(^, Kal ottws 

of the celebrated painters, sculp- 
tors, architects, philosophers and 
poets, by whom he was sur- 
rounded, it would be the same 
thing as if he undertook to write 
the history of the Kenaissance. 
Lorenzo de' Medici was tlie first 
who established in Florence an 
academy, from which, as from 
the Wooden Horse, emerged the 
leaders in Greek literature, who 
disseminated Greek philosophy 
not only throughout all Italy, but 
through France, Spain, England 
and Germany. From all these 
countries there came to Florence 
many students, who going forth 
from there imparted the light of 
learning to the rest of Europe. 

But to the house of the 
Medici the deepest gratitude is 
also due for having founded 
public libraries. Cosimo and 
his son Pietro took great pains 
to collect Greek manuscripts, 
and Lorenzo was inspired, so to 
speak, with a divine frenzy to 
increase still more the number 
of valuable manuscripts, and 
spared neither labour nor ex- 
pense. He established a private 
library in his own residence, 
and, in order to enrich it, des- 
patched John Lascaris twice to 



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Kol TO OVOfXa TOV ^\(i)p€VTLVOV 
ijJLTTOpOV NtKoAoV NcKoAtO, €1? 

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r-^v fSif^XioO'JKrjv rov. Ovtos 
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Kovra e^ X'-^'-^^^'^ SovKdra Kal 
Aa/jtov TO. (^ifiXia rd evaireOr^Kev 
els rrjv (Bt^XLoOqKrjv tfv ISta, 
Sairdvy (^KoSofxtjaev ev rw fxova- 
a-rr^pii^ rov 'Aytov Map/cov. 

IIw? Trapepxerai rj copa orav 
TLS StaXey-qrat Trepl (TTTOvSatwv. 
*I8ov €(fiOda-afX€v els Vevovrjv. 

A? e^eXBoifxev Xolttov vd 
yevfMarL(T(i)fMev, Siort eyu) exfti 
(jiofSepdv irelvav. 

Kai eyo) At/xwrrco. 'I2s (fiaive- 
rai al evxdpicrroi a-vvopLiXtai 
avoiyovcTLV ope^tv. 

Greece. On his second mission 
Lascaris brought to Florence 
about two hundred manuscripts, 
among which were eighty works 
till then unknown in Italy. 

I think that while we are on 
the subject of books and libraries 
it is unjust not to mention also 
the name of the Florentine mer- 
chant Nicolo Nicolio, to whom 
Boccaccio bequeathed his library. 
It was he who, before the time 
of the Medici, conceived the idea 
of founding a public library, and 
laboured with the utmost en- 
thusiasm to carry out his design. 
He formed accordingly a library 
of eight hundred volumes, which 
he bequeathed to the public for 
their use : but as his creditors 
laid claim to it, Cosimo de' 
Medici paid them thirty-six 
thousand ducats, and taking pos- 
session of the books deposited 
them in the library which he 
erected at his own expense in 
the monastery of St. Mark. 

How the time goes by when 
one is engaged in serious con- 
versation ! Here we are at 

Let us get out then and have 
some dinner ; for I am dreadfully 

And I am starving. Appar- 
ently pleasant conversation 
sharpens the appetite. 


At 5e Svcrdpca-Toi Kal av exjj And an unpleasant one blunts 

Tt9 opi^tv T-qv KOTTTova-Lv. the appetite, if one has one. 

BAcTTO) oTt ^xovcTLv €1? TO I sce that they have dinner 

iu-TLaTtjpiov €TOLfiov yivjxa 8ia ready for travellers in the dining- 

Toi's ra^etStwra?, as (rir€vcrbi[xev room, so let us make haste and 

koLTrbv va KaTa\d/3(o/x€v Oicreis. secure places. 



'HpwTrycrare rov crrad ixapyrfv 
dv da €)(^o}fi€V v' dXXd^oifjiev d- 
Ixa^ocrroiy^Lav Iv Utcrri ; 

MaAtcrra^ Kal jjloI etTrev ort 
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fjia^av €V fj etfJieOay Stort orav 
<f)6dcr(i)fJLev eKet, at Trpwrat e^ 
dfia^ai Od dTTOcnracrdiJocnv €k 
TTJs dfJia^oa-TOi\LaSy Kal ovro}<s 
dv€v6)(^Xr]T0i Od TpaTrQjJiev Tvpos 

"E^et KaXios. Tcopa as dv- 
dij/iofjiev Tot (Tiydpa jxas Kal d<s 
i^aKoXovSr^a-oiliev t^v ofxiXLav 
Trepl Twv MeSiKOiv, Stort aiV- 
OdvopLai (Trip.epov ws vol rj piai 
Kvpievpievos vTrb MeStKO/xavias. 

Kai eyo) Trao-^w to avro, 
aAAa vojullIo) ort 6(f)€iXofJi€V vd 
6fMiXrj(Tii)p.€V Kal Trepl dXXov 
defxaTos Sia vol firj KaTavri^crrj 
rj o-vvStaAe^ts rjpcov /xovorovos. 

"Eo-T(o ws Aeyere, Stort ^ 
TTOtKtAia Travrore Kat ev Travrt 
€Lvai €V)(^dpi(TTO's' Trepl tlvos 
XoLTTov OeXere vd oyut Aiyo-co/xev ; 

'Eai/ (rvvef3aive vd ra^etSevo)- 
p.ev Trpo<i rrjv Xtov rj rrjv ^pLvp- 
vrjv, Trepl tlvos vo/xt^ere rjOeXo/xev 
crvvofxiXeL ; 

"lo-cos Trepl TToAAwv p^ev Kal 

Did you ask the station- 
master whether we shall have 
to change our train at Pisa ? 

Yes, and he told me that we 
must remain in the carriage 
where we are, because, when we 
arrive there, the first six carriages 
will be taken off from the train, 
and thus without being disturbed 
we shall turn off to Florence. 

That is all right. Now let 
us light our cigars and continue 
our conversation about the 
Medici, for I feel to-day as if 
I were possessed with Medico- 

And I have the same feeling, 
but I think we ought to talk 
upon some other subject, in 
order that our conversation may 
not become monotonous. 

Let it be as you say, for 
variety in everything is always 
pleasant : what shall we talk 
about then 1 

If it had happened that we 
were travelling to Chios or 
Smyrna, what do you think 
we should have talked about ? 

Possibly about many things, 



da KaTe.l\€. rrjv TrpiJoTrjv dka-tv 
T»ys (TWOfJuXia'^ rjfxiov. 


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cTvac SUaiov v dc{)Lepai(ro)fX€V 
fJLcpos Trj<s o/xiAia? rj/xwv els rbv 
Oeiov doiSov T^s €v86^ov ravrrjs 
TToAews ; 

AiKaioraTov. IIpeTret o/xa>s 
VOL eras etTTOi oVt Sev yvoipt^io 
TToAAo, Trepl rov AdvTov, ware 

(fioftov/xat oAoV TO cjiOpTLOV TWV 

Trepl avTov TrX-qpocf^opiiJov 6a 

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(rds €L7ru) ocra cl^evpo) Trepl Aav- 
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€Vpi<TK€TO eV (rdXlO ifXffivXLlOV 

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dvyKOiV els to KOfxfxa twv 
roveA<^wv eXa/Se fxepos els tols 
Kara tmv VifSeXXtviov eKcrrpa- 

but certainly Homer would have 
held the first place in our con- 

So then, as we are travelling 
to Florence, do you not think 
it right that we should devote 
some part of our conversation 
to the divine bard of this cele- 
brated city ? 

Quite right. But I must 
tell you that I do not know 
much about Dante, so that I 
am afraid all the burthen of the 
information regarding him will 
fall on you. 

I undertake the task of telling 
you whatever I know about 
Dante, and first of all listen to a 
short account of his life. He 
was born in Florence, of a dis- 
tinguished family, in the year 
1265, and was carefully brought 
up and educated. Being by 
nature impetuous and ambitious, 
he soon mixed in politics. At 
that time Italy was in a turmoil 
of intestine wars and foreign 
intrigues. Most of her cities, 
having shaken off the imperial 
yoke, had now become republics, 
among which was Florence, 
whose inhabitants were divided 
into two factions, the Guelphs 
or partisans of the Pope, and 
the Ghibellines or imperialists. 
Dante, belonging to the faction 
of the Guelphs, took part in the 
campaigns against the Ghibel- 
lines and distinguished himself 
in many battles. In the year 
1300 he began his political life, 




retas Kal ^ikirpixpev els Sia- 
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Twv AevKMV Kal Twv MeAai/wv. 
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yTiiovTO Trepl tovtov ot evavTLOt 
Tov AavTT^v aAA' eKeivos ev- 
Aoyws avreAeyev on 8ev rjro 
Tore dp^oiv. 

Kara to Tvpocre^s eros (1301) 
<f>7Jfxrj SLeSodrj ort 6 Ka/)oAo9 
BaAoot yjpx^eTO [xerd (rrparov 
OTTOiS Karaydyrj els ^XcopevTiav 
Tovs dpxrjyeras r(ov MeAavwi/. 
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OTTOLOV ev-qpyet 6 KapoAos BaAo- 
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firj, 6 KdpoXos BaAoa, vtto to 
irpoa-^ixa elprjvoTTo tov, el(rrj- 
Xaa-ev els ^Xiopevrtav, Kal ev- 

wliicli resulted in many misfor- 
tunes for him. He was appointed 
a prior of the state with seven 
others, but this office of prior 
only lasted two months. At 
that time the republic was dis- 
turbed by the contentions of two 
powerful parties, the White and 
the Black. Dante, desirous of 
pacifying the state, introduced 
a law by which the chiefs of the 
two factions were to be exiled, 
and this was carried out. But 
as after a short time the chiefs 
of the White faction were per- 
mitted to return to the city, the 
opposite faction threw the blame 
of this on Dante ; he however 
argued with reason that he was 
not then a prior. 

In the following year (1301) 
a report spread that Charles of 
Valois was coming with an army 
to reinstate in Florence the 
chiefs of the Black faction. 
Accordingly, those who then 
held the government immedi- 
ately sent Dante as ambassador 
to Boniface VIII., under whose 
inspiration Charles of Valois 
was acting. From this embassy 
he never returned to his native 
land, for while he was perform- 
ing the duties of ambassador at 
Eome, Charles of Valois, under 
the pretence of acting as a peace- 
maker, marched into Florence, 





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McAaV€5, KOi TOV<S 'i]TTll]OkvTa<i 

dvTiO'Taa-noTas /x€T€\€ipt(TOr](rav 

/XCTa TToWyjS (TK\y)p6T1]TO<5, StOTL 

Tovs fJilv €^ avTMV Karkorcfia^t 
Tov<S 8e e^efSakoVj rots Se Trep 
(Tias avTiov iSi'ifieva-av. *0 Adv- 
Tfjs KareSiKdcrOi] ipy'jjxrjv els det- 
(f)vyiav, 8t]iJi€vd€L(Ty)s kol Trj<s 
7r€pL0vcria<i avTOv. Mer oAtyovs 
fxyjvas 8€LV0T€pa KaraSiKr^ ^4^']' 
(fiL(rOi] Kar avrov. KareSiKaa- 
$7] VTTo rrjs evavTtas cfiarptas vol 
Karj ^(ov idv (TweXafx/SdveTO. 
*H KaTa8LKy] avrrj iiraveXyjcfiOrj 
Kara to 'iro'i 1311, TrpocrtTt 8e 
Kal Kara to 13 15. 

ToVTO 8€LKVV€L OTfc OL €V ^Xo)- 

p€VTi<^ i(rxvovT€'i €cf)of3ovvTO av  

TO v. 

'AvafX(l>L^6Xu)S, 8l6tl 6 AdvTi]'^ 
Kar dp)(^ds iravra XiBov eKivqcrev 
O7I0JS kiravkXdrj kv dpidfifSio ets 
ryv TrarptSa avrov' tTreiSi) o/xws 
TrdcraL at aTroTret/aat ai'TOv dir- 
efSrjo-av ixdraiai, drreXTTLcrdcU 
iTpaTTt] et? fiiov vrAavr^Ta. Ovtw 
Sc iv k^opLc^ SiaTcAwv a-vvcypaij/e 
To jieya avTov epyov, ti]v irepL- 
fSoijTov TpiXoytav, v^Tts diroTe- 
XcLTat €K ToG"i^5oi', ToG Kadap- 

TYjpLOV Kal TOU Jlapa8€t(T0V. 

'EvdvfX€La-Oe T-)]v ^povoXoylav 
Tov davdrov avrov Kal rbv 
roTTov OTTOV crvvkf^rj ; 

MaAio-Ta, dTtkOavev kv eVet 

and all who belonged to the 
Black faction at once joined 
him, and a fearful battle took 
place between the two parties, 
which lasted three days; but 
at last the Blacks got the upper 
hand and treated with great 
cruelty their defeated opponents, 
for some of them they butchered, 
others they banished, and con- 
fiscated their property. Dante 
was condemned by default to 
perpetual exile and his property 
was confiscated. After a few 
months a more terrible sentence 
was passed upon him : he was 
condemned by the opposite 
faction to be burnt alive if 
captured. This sentence was 
repeated in 1311, and again in 

This shows that the party in 
power at Florence was afraid of 

No doubt ; for Dante at first 
left no stone unturned to come 
back in triumph to his native 
country. But as all his attempts 
resulted in failure, in his despair 
he took to a wandering life. 
Thus it was in exile that he 
composed his great work, the 
far-famed trilogy, which con- 
sists of the Inferno, the Purga- 
torio, and the Paradiso, 

Do you recollect the date of 
his death, and the place where 
it occurred ? 

Yes, he died in the year 13-21 




132 1 ev '^Fa/SewTj Kara fxrjva 
SeTTTe/x^/Oiov kol erdcjir] iv avrfj 
/xera fi€yd\r)<s 7ro/x7rrj<s vtto tov 
(fiiXov KOL TTpoa-Tarov avTOV 
Vovt^ov ^o^kXXov TOV IIoAey- 


'EyKa/oStws evxo-piCTTio vfxas 
Sfcot ra? 7rXr]po(fiopLas as /xol 
eScuKare Trepl AdvTOV, Slotl iyco 
eXd)(^LcrTa /jlovov, (09 Trpb oXtyov 
(rds iiTTov, eyvMpt^ov Trepl avrov. 

QeXere vet eras dvayvMcro) 
Kavkv aTroa-TracTfJia Ik T-Jys rpi- 
Xoyias avTov ; ws fSXeTrere €;)(w 

fl€T kfXOV eV dvTlTVTTOV TOV AttV- 
TOV ev Ty TrpCDTOTVTTM yXli>(TG-rj, 

TrpocreTL 8e kol ttjv dKpif3rj jxeTd- 
cfipacTLV TOV Ai8aKT0/)0S Kap- 

Kara KaXrjv (TvyKvpiav eyoi 
KaX eyv) fxeT efxov ttjv *EAX>^vt- 
Krjv fieTd<fipacriu, tyjv vtto Kwv- 


^AveyvMV els rots ecfirjixepLSas 
KOL eh Tot TrepLoSiKOL Kpia-eis Trepl 
avTTJs, aAX' ovSeTTOTe ei8ov to 


'\8ov, TOVTO eivai ro f^ifSXiov. 
Eytu et^ov TTjV ISeav otl rjTO 


TpetS TOjXOVS, TTpO eVOS 6flO)S 

eTovs eyecve vea eK^ocris avare- 
deuyprjfxevrj koi SnopOio/xevif], tJtls 
els eva to/jlov 7re/)tAaya/?avei oXrjv 
Trjv TpiXoytav tov AdvTov. 

KaAws eTToiija-ev 6 ^lovo'ovpos 
vd 87]fxo(rLeva-rj to /Sl^Xlov eh 
eva TOfxov, Slotl ovto) /carecmy- 
(rev avTo ov [xovov evcovov, dXXd 
KOL evfxeTaKoixta-TOV. *AAA' el- 

at Eavenna, in the month of Sep- 
tember, and M-as buried there 
with great ceremony by his 
friend and protector Gnido 
Novello da Polenta. 

I am heartily obliged to you 
for the information you have 
given me regarding Dante, for 
I knew only a very little about 
him, as I told you just now. 

Would you like me to read to 
you an extract from his trilogy ? 
As you see, I have with me a 
copy of Dante in the original, 
and moreover the accurate trans- 
lation of Doctor Carlyle. 

By a lucky coincidence I also 
have with me the Greek transla- 
tion by Constantine Musurus. 

I have read in the newspapers 
and periodicals some criticisms 
upon it, but I have never seen 
the book. 

Here, this is the book. 

I had an idea that it was in 
three volumes. 

The first edition was in three 
volumes, but a year ago a new 
edition appeared, revised and 
corrected, which contains in one 
volume the whole of Dante's 

Musurus did well to publish 
the book in one volume, for thug 
he made it not only cheap but 
also portable. But do you knoi;* 
that many people in Englanc 


^evpere on ttoWoI iv 'AyyXi^ 

€v6fXL^0V OTi 6 MoV(TOVpO<S qTO 

Tou/3/cos ; 'Kvdvixovfxat ore ijy- 
ykXBt) Sia TMv iifiyjfxeplScDV yj 

€k8o(TL<S T7^9 /X€Ta(f)pd(T€(OS, Kadyj- 

yrjTrj's ns tov Sudvovs SiKatov 
€V crvvava(Trpo(f>yj eXcyev ev a- 
TrXoTr^Ti KapStas' "" Akv TrpeTret 
va KaTy^yopCyfiiv tov<s TovpKov<5 
Itt dfjLadcLa., Slotl €k Trjs /xera- 

(f)pd(T€(t}S TOV AdvTOV €1? TTjV 

^KXXy]VLKr]v yXio(T(rav vtto tov 
MoiKTOvpov ITaora KaTa<^atV€Tat 
OTL cnrovSaloL Kal iroXvjxad^ls 
avSpes evpia-KOVTaL ets to Wvo^ 


KaTrjyop€.iTai cos fSdpfSapov." 
*' 'A7ro/3w," vireXafiev aAAos, 
*' Sid TTolov Aoyov fX€T€(f)pa(r€ 
TOV AdvTyjv ets ttjv yXioa-crav 
Twv VKiaovptSiov KOi ov)(l els 
rriv TovpKLKrjv -t] ttjv 'Apa/3i- 
Ky'jv ;" ""Icra L(ra kol eyw tovto 
Siv €i.fjL7ropio vd KaTaXdfio)^' 
TrpocrkdrfKev dXXos, " aAA' 
to-ws TO €Ka/x€ Sid vd ScL^yj 
TToXvp^dOeiav ets tov? crocfiovs 
T>]s'AyyAtas." T6t€ 8ev rjSvvy]- 
Oyjv vd KpaTy]6ii) ttAcoi/ koi eTirov 
fX€i8L0)v 7rpo<s TOV<s irapovTas' 
" GeAcTe vd crds etTrw 5ta ttolov 
Adyov eypaxj/ev 6 Mov(TOvpos 
'^FiXXrjVKTTL ; Sid TOV dirXovcTTa- 
Tov Adyov OTt "^TO "EAAr^v kol 
oxi TovpKos." 'AKOva-avT€S Tav- 
Ttt €Tpd7ry](Tav els dXXas ofxiXtas. 
As eTraveXdoifxev T(opa els tov 
AavTryv. Oa a-ds dvayviocro) Se to 
€7reL(To8iov TOV 8v(rTv\ovs Ovyo- 
Xlvov, octtls eK8uo^as tov Ntvov 
TOiv Bio-KovTojv eK Hlo-yjs dveXa- 

thought that Musurus was a 
Turk ? I remember that when 
the publication of the translation 
was announced in the news- 
papers, a certain professor of in- 
ternational law, at an entertain- 
ment, said in the simplicity of 
his heart : " We must not accuse 
Turks of ignorance, for from 
the translation of Dante into 
Greek by Musurus Pasha it is 
quite clear that there are dis- 
tinguished men of great learning 
in this nation, which is so un- 
justly blamed as barbarous." 
" I cannot make it out," rejoined 
another ; " why did he translate 
Dante into the language of the 
Giaours, and not into Turkish 
or Arabic ?" " That is precisely 
what I too am at a loss to under- 
stand," added another, " but 
perhaps he did it to display his 
great learning to the scholars in 
England." Then I could no 
longer restrain myself, but said 
with a smile to the company : 
" Shall I tell you why Musurus 
wrote in Greek 1 For the very 
simple reason that he was a 
Greek and not a Turk." As 
soon as they heard this, they 
changed the subject. 

Let us now go back to Dante. 
I will read to you the epis- 
ode of the unfortunate Ugolino, 
who after driving Nino de' Vis- 
conti out of Pisa, himself as- 




fSev avTos Tr]V dpx'qv' dXX 6 
dp-x^teiricrKOTros ^Poyrjpos €K twv 
Ov/SaXSiviDV Ik cf)66vov klvov- 
fxevos Su^yeipe rov Aabv Kar 
avTOV Kttt KpaTMV €65 rr]v X^^P^ 
(TTavpov (TVvkXaf^e kol KaO^ip^ev 
avTov kv Tu> Kara tt)]/, TrAareiav 
Tcuv 'AvTtavwv TTvpyo) fxera tmv 
8vo avTOV vloiv Kal Svo iyyovojv. 
Mera riva xP^'^ov at irvXai tt}? 
elpKTTJs KadrjXwOrjcrav Kal 6 
Svcrp^oipos OvyoXtvos eiSev aTro- 
OvqcTKOVTas TOv<s vlovs aVTOV 
Kal eyyovovs d(f)OV v7r€(TT7](rav 
Tovs (fipiKTOVs aytoj/as rr^s 
TretvrjS' tcAos Se Kat ai^rbs dire- 
6av€V. Aev TtpeireL o/xcas va 
Xtjct pov-qa-Mpev on Kal 6 Ovyo- 
Atvos €Trpa^e TVoXXa KaKO. kv tw 
/5iw avTOv, St' o Kttt (Ti've/coAa- 
{■fTO /zero, rov Bavaa-lpLOV avrov 
ex^pov TOv'^Foyyjpov. 'O Aav- 
TT^S d(f>r]yeLTat on etSe Svo dfiap- 
T(i)Xovs kv Tw Trayw, (Sv 6 efs 
eSaKve rbv rpdx'fjXov rov krepov 

Kal KaT€/3Lf3p(j)(TK€ TOV eyKc- 

(fiaXov avrov. 'Hpiiorrja-i Xolttov 
rovrov ris >^to Kat 8ta ti IttoUl 
ravra. Tore 6 a/xaprwAbs 
KaraAtTTWV rrjv cftpLKioSt] (3opav 
Kal v\pM(ra<s rrjV kavrov KecfiaXrjv 
icnroyyia-e to arofia rov 8ia rwv 
rpLXO)V T7/5 rjjJLilBpiorov Kec^aAv/s 

suraed the government : but the 
archbishop Kuggieri de' Ubal- 
dini, actuated by envy, raised 
the people against him, and 
holding a cross in his hand 
arrested him, and imprisoned 
him in the tower of the Piazza 
de' Anziani with his two sons 
and his two grandchildren. 
After some time the gates of 
his prison were nailed np, and 
the ill-fated Ugolino saw his 
sons and his grandchildren 
dying after suffering the ter- 
rible agonies of hunger : at last 
he too died. But we must not 
forget that Ugolino also com- 
mitted many wicked actions 
during his life, and that it was 
on this account that he was 
being ' punished in company 
with his deadly enemy Eug- 
gieri. Dante relates that he 
saw the two sinners in the ice, 
one of whom was biting the 
neck of the other and devour- 
ing his brains. He asked him 
who he was and why he was 
doing this. Then the sinner 
leaving his horrible meal and 
raising his head, wiped his 
mouth with the hair of the 
half-eaten head and replied : 

" Tu dei saper ch' i' fui 1 Conte Ugolino, 
E questi 1' Arcivescovo lluggieri : 
Or ti diro perch' i' son tal vicino. 
Che per 1' etfetto de' suoi ma' pensieri, 
Fidandomi di lui, io fossi preso 
E poscia morto, dir non h mestieri. 

DANTE 101 

Per6 quel, clie noii puoi avere inteso, 

Cioe, come la morte mia fu cruda, 

Udirai ; e saprai, se m' ha offeso. 
Breve pertugio dentro dalla muda, 

La qiial per me ha '1 titol della fame, 

E 'n che conviene ancor ch' altri si chiuda, 
M' avea mostrato per lo suo forame 

Pill lime gia ; quand' io feci '1 mal sonno, 

Che del fiituro mi squarci6 '1 velame. 
Qiiesti pareva a me maestro e donno, 

Cacciando '1 lupo e i lupicini al monte. 

Per che i Pisan veder Lucca non ponno. 

In picciol corso mi pareano stanchi 

Lo padre e i figli ; e con 1' agute sane 

Mi parea lor veder fender li tianchi. 
Quando fui desto innanzi la dimane, 

Pianger senti' fra '1 sonno i miei figliuoli, 

Ch' erano meco, e dimandar del pane. 
Ben sei crudel, se tii gia non ti duoli, 

Pensando ci6, che '1 mio cor s' annunziava : 

E se non piangi, di che pianger suoli 1 
•Gia eran desti ; e V ora s' appressava, 

Che '1 cibo ne soleva essere addotto, 

E per suo sogno ciascun dubitava ; 
Ed io senti' chiovar 1' uscio di sotto 

All' orribile torre : ond' io guardai 

Nel viso a' miei figliuoi senza far motto. 
Io non piangeva ; si dentro impietrai. 

Piangevan' elli ; ed Anselmuccio mio 

Disse : Tu guardi si, padre : che hai 1 
Percio non lagrimai, ne rispos' io 

Tutto quel giorno, ne la notte appresso, 

Infin che 1' altro Sol nel mondo uscio. 
Com' un poco di raggio si fu messo 

Nel doloroso carcere, ed io scorsi 

Per quattro visi lo mio aspetto stesso ; 
Ambo le mani per dolor mi morsi. 

E quei, pensando ch' io '1 fessi per voglia 

Di manicar, di subito levorsi, 
E disser : Padre, assai ci fia men doglia, 



Se til mangi di noi : tii ne vestisti 
Qiieste misere carni, e tii le spoglia. 

Quetami allor, per non fargli piii tristi : 
Quel di, e 1' altro stemmo tutti miiti. 
Alii dura terra, perch e non t' apristi ? 

Posciaclie fummo al quarto di veniiti, 
Gaddo mi si getto disteso a' piedi, 
Dicendo : Padre raio, che non m' aiiiti ? 

Quivi mori. E come tii me vedi, 
Vid' io li tre cascar ad imo ad iino 
Tra '1 quinto di e '1 sesto : ond' i' mi diedi 

Gia cieco a brancolar sovra ciascuno, 

E tre di gli cliiamai, poich' e' fur morti : 
Poscia, pill die '1 dolor pote il digiuno. 

Quand' ebbe detto cio, con gli occlii torti 
Riprese '1 tescliio misero co' denti, 
Clie fiiro air osso, come d' un can, forti." 

Inferno, xxxiii. 13> 

Translation hy Musurus. 

" ' ]^6fxrjTd jui OvyoX.LVOV tcrOi 

TTOT ovra. 

Ap)(^i€7rt(rK07ro<s 8' ecrO' oSe 


'E/3W (TOi 8e vvv, 7rto§ roLoaS' 

elfu yetrwv. 

'12s rais TTOvrjpats avrov fSovXais 

VTret Kiov 

KavTw TTicTTLV 8ovs, crvveXi!](f)0>]V 

En-a Odvarov, Aeyeiv ovk ecrri 

AAA o7re/) to"(os ovk o^KOVcras 

"0(rOV 8rj (TK\7]pO'i VTTTJp^' 6 

Odvaros jxov, 
Ae^w, KoX yvaxry iroa-ov rj8iKr](re 

MtK^ov Tt 8LavyL0V rrjs elpKTyjs 

Translation hy Dr. Garlyle. 

" ' Thou hast to know that I was 

Count Ugolino, 

and this the archbishop Ruggieri : 

now I will tell thee why I am 

such a neighbour to him. 

That by the effect of his ill 

devices I, 

confiding in him, was thereafter 

put to death, it is not necessary 

to say. 

But that which thou canst not 

have learnt, 

that is, how cruel was my death. 

thou shalt hear, and know if he 

has offended me. 

A narrow hole within the mew 



"EkTOT (XTT ifXOV Ka\0VfX€V)]'s T'fl^ 

"Kvd' €TL Ka6€Lp\6y]vai irpoa-i^Kii 

Aia tt]? otttJ? bpav iTreTpexj/e fxe 

IIoAAas (TeXyvas, or €t8ov kukuv 


Thv To{! ixkWovTO's 8La(T\L(rav 

fJiOL TTCTrAov. 

OvTos avOkvTi]'^ €cf)aiV€T6 fxoi 


Qrjpeviov XvKOV Kal AvKtSei? 

7r/3os opos, 

"Oirep KioXvec Iltcrafcovs opav 


which from me has the title of 

and in which others yet must 
be shut up, 

had througli its opening already- 
shown me 

several moons, when I slept the 
evil sleep 

which rent for me the curtain 
of the future. 

This man seemed to me lord 
and master, 

chasing the wolf and his whelps 
upon the mountains 
for which the Pisans cannot see 

Ml/C/DW 8' V(TTepOV iSoKOVV K€K- 

HaTYjp KOL TCKva, Kal Tovs o^ets 


"E/JAcTTOV avTMv ax^C^VTa's rots 


"Ore 8' 7)y€pdi]V e/c koittjs Tvpo 

rri<i €(0, 

KAaiovr' '^Kovcra rot TrecfivXa- 


Mct' e/xov T^KV kv vttvol^ Kaprov 


SkAi^Pos av €t-i]<^, el prj 8rj /xot 


Skottwv oi' iv Kap8t(^ (Twycr- 

OavojXYjv ' 

Ei 8i pi] K'Aaiet?, TTOT ap' eiioSas 

KXaUiv ; 

*Avr)y€pOr](rav ijSy] Kayyvs 


'0 KaLp6<i, KaO^ OV €cf)€pOV TO, 

irpos fSpQcTLV, 

EKaOTOS 8' YlpMV TOVVap €ix' €V 
V<^ T/36/A(OV, 

After short course, the father 

and the sons 

seemed to me weary, and me- 


I saw their flanks torn by the 

sharp teeth. 

When I awoke before the dawn 

I heard my sons who were with 

me weeping 

amid their sleep and asking for 


Thou art right cruel if thou 

dost not grieve already 

at the thought of what my heart 

foreboded ; 

and if thou weepest not, at what 

art thou used to weep ? 

They were now awake and the 

hour approaching 

at which our food used to be 

brought us, 

and each was anxious from hia 



"Or' yJKOvcr' vtt' e/x' rjXovfievrjv and below I heard tlie outlet 

rr)v Ovpav 

Tov (fipLKaXeov irvpyov. Sccdttwv of the horrible tower locked up : 

Tore whereat 

'EtiSov els TO 7rp6(TO)7rov to)v I looked in the faces of my sons 

ifiiov T€KV(ov  without uttering a word. 

OvK e/cAaiov, dW evSov ciTreAt- I did not weep, so stony grew I 

9(x)9'qv. within. 

AvTot S' cKXaLov 6 8' 'Acre A- They wept and my little Anselm 

fJiOVKLOS /xov 

EtTre- "IIws pXeireis ovtw, said: " Thou lookest so ! Father, 

Trdrep ; ri Trao-xets ; " what ails thee ? " 

Oi' fir)v eSaKpvcr, aAA' ovt' dire- But I shed no tear, nor answered 


^Hjxcpav oXrjv, ovt' eTTiovorav all that day, nor the next night, 


Mexpi-s yjXtos eTraveretA' iv till another sun came forth upon 

Koo-fio). the world. 

McKpds 8' aKTLvos TOT €v8ov Whcii a small ray was sent into 


Trjs ijipLKTrjs elpKTrjs €T8ov Iv the doleful prison, and I dis- 

TOLs TrpocTMiroLS cerned 

Twv T€cr(rdp(j)v ttjv ifxrjv dOXiav in their four faces the aspect of 

oxpLv, my own, 

'E/c XvTT-qs eSaKov piov tols x^^/oas I bit on both my hands for 

dfjL(fi(i) ' grief ; 

Ot S' gjLiot TraiSes v7roXaf36vT€s and they, thinking I did it 


*0s 7r€iv7]s opfjirjv dv€(TTr]crav from desire of eating, of a sudden 

e^aicfivrjs rose up 

Aeyovres * "-^Hrrov dXyeuvov and said, " Father, it will give us 

r]p.iv ecrrai, much less pain 

"Hv (fidyrjs rjjjLMv, iraTep- av yap if thou wilt eat of us ; thou 

o ratcrSe didst put upon us 

OiKTpats crap^lv (v8vcras, irv this miserable flesh, and do thou 

Td(r8' d(f>atp€i" strip it off." 

Tot* €7rpavvdr]v ws p.r] ttAcoi/ Then I calmed myself in order 

XvirnjcTM. not to make them more un- 

^H/A€i/ (TLyqXol KetvYjv rjpepav That day and the next we all 

KaXXrjv. were mute. 



At/ yrj (TKX-))pd, TTws ovK av€- 

<^x6ti]<5 tot€; 

'AvaT€iAtto-r;s rrjs rerdprTj^s 


Aeywv TTiKpios' ^'^12 wdrep, ov 
/3orj6ets P'OL ;" 

/jie /3X.eTr€L<i, 

FtSov 7r€(roi/Tas tovs t/0€6? 

aAAous Ka^' €va 

Rl'TOS ttJ? 7r€ fXTTT-qS Kat TT/S 

CKTrys rjfi€pas. 
'Kxl/r]\d(f>o)v €KacrTOV TVcfiXb<s wv 

'E<^* Tjixepas Tp€LS Oavovras dve- 

KdXovv ' 

*H Treiv' cTretra KaTiaxvcre rrjs 


TavT eiVwv Ao^ot? 6[xiia(ri to 


Kpavtov TraAtv 'iXafSev, iirc- 


*H (TKYjvr) i]v Tra/atcTTtt to eTret- 
a-o8tov TOVTo c^vat (jio/^epoiTdrr], 
wcrre avayvwTC Kavei/ repirvov 
jxipos TO oTToiov va Trpo^evy 
(fiaLSpoT-qra Kat oij^^t KaTy]<:f)€iav. 
F.v)(^api(rT(DS. "As dcfiya-iopev 
AoiTTov Tov "ASr^v Kat as /x€Ta- 
I3u)fx€v €is TO KaOapTrjpLov. '0 

Attl'TV^S /XCTO, TOV (TVVTpocfiOV 

avTov k^kp\€rai kv cnrovSy Ik 
Tou '^Soi' Kttt KaTa^eAycTat 
aTcvt^cov 7r/3os tov Stavy?} aidkpa. 

Ah, hard eartli, why didst thou 

not ojien ? 

When we had come to the fourth 


Gaddo threw liimself stretched 

out at my feet, 

saying, " My father, why helpest 

thou me not ? " 

There he died ; and even as 

thou seest me, 

saw I the three fall one by one, 

between the fifth day and the 


when I betook me, already 

blind, to groping over each ; 

and for three days called them 

after they were dead. 

Then fasting had more power 

than grief.' 

When he had spoken thus, with 

eyes distorted, 

he seized the miserable skull 

again with his teeth, 

which, as a dog's, were strong 

upon the bone." 

The scene which this episode 
presents is most horrible, so read 
some pleasant part, conducive 
to cheerfulness and not sadness. 

With pleasure. Let us leave 
the Inferno then, and pass to 
Purgatory. Dante, with his 
companion, comes in all haste 
out of Hell and is charmed as 
he gazes at the clear air. 

" Dolce color d' oriental zaffiro, 

Che s' accoglieva nel sereno aspetto 



Deir aer puro infiiio al primo giro, 
Agli ocelli miei ricomiiicio diletto, 

Tosto ch' io fuori usci' dell' aura morta, 

Che m' avea contristato gli occlii e '1 petto, 
Lo bel pianeta, ch' ad amar conforta, 

Faceva tutto rider V oriente 

Velando i Pesci, ch' erano in sua scorta." 


i. 13. 

Tw/oa vixecs avayvwre rrjv 
'^KkX.7]VLKr)v fxerdcfipaa-LV tov 
M.ovaro-upov Kal iyoi da diray- 


XiDptov 'AyyXia-Ti Kara rrjv 
fieTayXioTTLcrLV T7J<s Kv/Jta? 

" 0ea yXvK€ia xpwfJLaros craTV- 


'Ev Trj yaX-qvTj tov Scavyovs 


'^TTLcfiaveicra P'^XP'' '^^^ Trpiorov 


"Hp^ar avOiS rjSvveiv tcls e/xas 


"A/x' e^eXOovTos tov veKpcKov 


Tov KaKOxravTOS o/x/xara p.ov 

KOL a-Tr]Oos. 

*0 Twv kpiiiTiav TrepiKaXXrjs 


AtayeActv IttoUl ttjv ew Tracrav 

Tovs Trapairop^TTOvs olttoo-^cvvvs 
' O Aavrr^s /xera tov ^evayow- 
T0<^ avTov BipytXtov a7ro/xa- 
KpvvBeU Twv </)o/3e/5tov kcv^/xw- 
vwv TOV "ASov €7rop€veTo Slot 
T€pTrvyj<i KOL TravTaxoOev evioSlav 
dva8i8ov(rY)s TreSidSos ew? ov e^- 
daxrev eis Ta§ o^Oas Spoa-cpov 

Now you read the Greek trans- 
lation of Musurus, and I will 
repeat to you from memory the 
passage in English as rendered 
by Mrs. Oliphant, 

' ' The sweetest blue of eastern 

sapphire, spread 

O'er the serene sweet breathing 

of the air. 

High to the first great circle 


Woke new delight within my 

heart whene'er 

Out of the dark, dead sphere of 

ill I came. 

Which eyes and heart had so 

weighed down with fear. 

The lovely planet, in whose 

tender flame 

Love comfort finds, made all the 

orient laugh, 

Veiling the constellation in her 


Dante, with Virgil as his 
guide, leaving behind him the 
horrible gulfs of Hell, passed 
through a delightful plain every- 
where exhaling perfume, till he 
came to the banks of a cool 
brook, of which the transparent 





pvaKLov^ Tov OTTOLOV Tot Siavy^j 
vSara eppeov xapL€VT<x)S. 'Kv- 
ravda SiaKo^as rr^v Tropeiav tov 
7rap€T7]pei tovs irkpav tov 
pvaKLov Aet/xwva? davpd^iov to 
TTOLKiXavdes TOV )(^\o€pov Maibi'. 
Ai^vvy? €7r€(f>dvi] yvvvy, i]TL<s 
TTcptTraTovcra p^ovrf (rweAeyev 
dvBi] Kol expaXXiv. *0 Aavrry? 

ilTLdvpiJoV v' OLKOVY) Kul TOLS 

Xe^iiS TOV (i.crpaTO'S TrapeKaXecrev 
(LVTrjv vd 'iXdrf TrXi]G-L€(TT€pa' rj 
6€ €;^oi'cra tovs 6(fidaX/xovs kcitw 
KCKXipevovi €^ alSovs ifSdSio-ev 
da-p,€V(i)S Trpos avTOV ' oVe €(f)Oa(T€ 
irapd TrfV 6yBy]V tov pvaKLOv 
r]v86Kr](r€ v' dvaTCLvr) toL 6p,paTa 
Trpo<s Thv TTOLrjTriVy koL yj yXvKcta 
avTMV eKcfypaoTL'? KaT€fxdyev(T€V 

pvaKtOV ■^TO fXOVOV TpiU)V ^7]- 

fjidTiov 6 AdvTy]<s op.(D<s Skv eToXpa 
vd TO Tr€ pdcrr]. 'Q,vop,d^€TO 8e 
pva^ T?is A-qOr]<s. *H Se ywty, 
T/Tis iKaXeiTO MaTfcASa, vre/ot- 
ypd(fi€L €ts avToi' €k TTJs aTrevavTt 
("X^^? T^v (f)i'a-LV Trj<s t€pd<s 
XW/3as iv y kir^KpdTii dtStov 

cap KOL ol KaTOLKOVVTe<i €V CLVTrj 

^crav d$(^OL Kal dyvoi. 'EvTav^a 
6 Bi/3yiAtos i/j.€L8ia(r€v. *H Se 
7Jp)(L(r€ TrdXtv vd ^Sy ws ko/dt; 
€p(i}T6Xr]7rTo<5 Kal TrepieTrdTei p€ 
ftrjfxa /SpaSv irapd to -^€lXo<; 
TOV pvaKOS Trpof^alvovcra Trpbs 
Ttt dvo) TOV pcidpov, Kal 6 
AdvTrjs Trap-qKoXovOec avTrjv 
KaTa TYjv dirkvavTi 6\0yv. 
Ai(f>vi]'? a-Tpa<f)€i(ra tt/oos aiVov 
Trpo(r€<fnov'i]cr€v, *' ^ASeXcfic, /SXeire 
Kal ttKore." Kat ISov Xdpxj/LS 

stream flowed gracefully. Halt- 
ing there, he observed the 
meadows beyond the brook and 
admired the wealth of flowers of 
the verdant May. Suddenly a 
woman appeared, who walking 
alone gathered flowers and sang. 
Dante, wishing to hear the words 
of the song, begged her to come 
nearer to him : and she, with 
her eyes modestly cast down, 
gladly came towards him : when 
she arrived near the bank of 
the brook, she condescended to 
raise her eyes to the poet, and 
their sweet expression enchanted 
him. Though the width of the 
brook was only three paces, 
Dante did not venture to cross 
it. It was called the brook of 
Lethe. The woman, whose name 
was Matilda, describes to him 
from the opposite bank the 
nature of the sacred country, 
where perpetual spring pre- 
vailed and the inhabitants were 
innocent and pure. On this 
Virgil smiled. She began again 
to sing like a girl in love, and 
walked with a slow step along 
the edge of the brook, going up- 
stream, and Dante followed her 
on the opposite bank. Suddenly 
she turned to him and said : 
"Brother, look and listen." 
And lo, a bright light shot in 
every direction across the great 
forest, and a sweet melody was 
heard, and seven beautiful lamps 
appeared flashing and approach- 
ing him with an imperceptible 




SuSpa/xe Tvavra-^oOev tov fxeyd- 
Xov Spvfxiovos, Kol fxeXcoSta 
rjKOveTO yXvKeca, kol CTrra irepi- 
KaWels Xyx^^o-L eTrecfidvrjcrav 
(f)€yyo^oXov(Tai kol Kivovfxevai 
p,€T' dviTraidO-qrov fSpaSeias klv- 
rjcreoys Trpos avrov. 'O AavT>;s 
eKdafjifSos Tr\r](Tid^ei eVt fxaXXov 
Trpos TO peWpov ottms j^Xkirrj 
KaXXiov rd yivofxeva Kara ty]v 
dirkvavTi 6)(6riv. 'Affiov irap- 
TjXBov at iTTrd Xv)(VLai, €(f)dvy]- 
crav eiKoa-irecrcrapes 7rp€(r/3vTat 
Xev)(^eLpovovvT€S kol ia-TCfJi- 
fievoi Sid Kpiviov 7rdvT€S 8e 
erpaXXov. 'Eyyvs avrdv iivo- 
pevovTO Tecrcrapa ^wa eo-reyu/Aeva 
Slot Trpaa-iVOiV BaXXdv kol i- 
■7rTep(i)jJi€va St' e^ Trre/ouycDV, 
atVtves T^o-av 7rXi^p€L<; o/a/xcxtwv. 
'Ev fJi€(TO) TovToyv r^TO Sirpo^ov 
dpfia eXKOfxevov viro ypv7ro<i 
KaXXnrrkpov. Hapd tov Sc^lov 
Tp0)(0V €7rop€VOVTO T/octs TTapOk- 
voL xpdXXova-ai kol ^(opevovcrat ' 
^crav Se avTai at rpets dpeTai^ 
IItVTt§_, ^EAvrts Kai 'Aydirrj, at 
OTTO tat a,8ova-aL eppiTTTOv dvOrj 
CTTt wpatas yvvacKos Ka07]pL€vy]<g 

CTTt TOV dpfJiaT0<S. AvTTJ Se ^TO 

rj BeaT/oiKT^. 'AAA' a? dvayvio- 
(Tio/Jbev oXtyovs q-tlxovs €k ttJs 
A mSyjs tov YLaOapTrfpLOV. 

slow movement. Dante, amazed, 
went still nearer to the stream 
that he might better see what was 
taking place on the opposite 
bank. When the seven lamps 
had passed by, there appeared 
twenty-four elders clad in white 
and crowned with lilies, and 
all were singing. Near them 
went four beasts crowned with 
green boughs, and having six 
wings which were full of eyes. 
In the midst of them w^as a 
two-wheeled chariot drawn by 
a griffin with beautiful wings. 
By the right wheel were walking 
three virgins singing and danc- 
ing : these were the three vir- 
tues, Faith, Hope, and Charity, 
who, while they were singing, 
threw flowers over a beautiful 
woman seated in the chariot. 
This was Beatrice. But let us 
read a few lines from the 30th 
canto of the Purgatory. 

" lo vidi gia nel cominciar del giorno 
La parte oriental tutta rosata, 
E 1' altro ciel di bel sereno adorno, 

E la faccia del Sol nascere ombrata. 
Si che, per temperanza di vapori, 
L' occhio lo sostenea lunga f iata * 

Cosi dentro una nuvola di fiori, 


Che dalle mani angeliche saliva, 
E ricadeva giii deiitro e di fiiori, 
Sovra caiidido vel cinta d' oliva 

Donna ni' apparve sotto verde manto 
Vestita di color di fianima viva. 
E lo spirito mio, clie gi^ cotanto 

Tempo era stato, cli' alia sua presenza 
Non era di stupor treniando affranto, 
Sanza dagli occhi aver piii conoscenza, 
Per occulta virtii, che da lei mosse, 
D' antico amor senti la gran potenza. 
[ Tosto clie nella vista mi percosse 

I L' alta virtu, clie gia m' avea trafitto 

I Prima ch' io fuor di puerizia fosse, 

I Volsimi alia sinistra col rispitto, 

\ Col quale il fantolin corre alia mamma, 

I Quando ha paura, o quando egli ^ aflflitto, 

Per dicere a Virgilio : Men che dramma 
;= Di sangue m' e rimasa, che non tremi ; 

I*- Conosco i segni dell' antica fiamma. 

Ma Virgilio n' avea lasciati scemi 
Di se, Virgilio dolcissimo padre, 
Virgilio, a cui per mia saluta die' mi : 
Ne quantunque perdeo 1' antica madre, 
Valse alle guance nette di rugiada, 
Che lagrimando non tornassero adre." 

Purgatorio, xxx. 22. 

'Eav ratpa dvayvioa-yjTe t^]v Now if you will read Musurus' 

fi€Tdcf)pa(TLv Tov Mova-ovpov, 6d translation, I will repeat Mrs. 

aTrayyeiXio kol eyw ry]v rrjs Oliphant's, which I think is a 

Kvpta? "OAt^avT, iJTts vofxi^o) successful one. 

oTL cti-at €l'8oKt/>tOS. 

" ETSov €v dp^fi ryjs rj/xepas ttot' "As I have seen in dawning of 

t)8ri the day 

'Tyjv 6(0 irda-av kpvOpoxpovv^ tov The rosy orient and the blue 

T aAAov serene 

Ovpavov a-ToXrjv Kvavavyyj cj)o- Of tlie surrounding skies, and 

povvra, rising ray 

*HAiou T dvar^Wov to ^ws Of the great sun, all tempered 

cTKicoSe?, in their sheen 



"Q,(TT oixixaa-Lv aT/JLtSMV TTj crvfx- By vapours and soft clouds, that 

7rvKV(x>(T€L so the eye 

AvvacrO' dvTcx^LV kirl ttoXv Might long endure their glowing 

T^v aiyXr]v. splendour : seen 

^Ytt dyyeXiKiov ;>(ei/)a)v dvvxfyo)- 

YLdXiV €VTos €kt6s re Kara- 


'KttI KaXvirrpa'S XevKrj'^ (fjepovcr' 


Thus 'mid a cloud of flowers, 

thrown up on high 

From those angelic hands, and 

dropping down 

In showers of bloom within, 

without ; so I, 

Under a snowy veil and olive 


2Te/x/>i'_, ccfidvr) fxoi Aeo-TTOiv' viro Saw now a lady with a mantle 

7rpacr6\povv green, 
UcTrXov Kal (TToXrjv x/ow/xaro? And shining like the living 

(fiXoyos (locrrjs. flame her gown — 
To S' ifjiov TTvevfxa, to ttoXvv At which my spirit, that so long 

7]8r] xpovov had been 
Ov KarajiXrjBlv kirl rrjs Trapov- Thrilled by no tremor from her 

o-ias presence fair, 

Avrrjs €K 0d/x/3ovs, €K7rA.7J^ea>s While yet the eyes discerned her 

Kal rpofiov, not, though seen — 

Uplv rj /SXe/jL/xacnv avrr]v dva- Felt, even though undiscerned, 

yvoypLcrr), some spell was there 

KpvTTTrj Swd/jLet, Trap' avT7J<5 Which potency of ancient love 

eKpeova-y, renewed, 

"Epoyros (Tcfio8pdv lcr)(vv ycrOer Soon as my heart was touched 

dpxatov. by movement rare 

"A/xa 6e 7rpocrl3aXov(TY]<s rds ifxds Of that high virtue which had 

oi/'eis deep imbued 

T^s Oavfxaa-rrjs dperrjs, 17 fx And pierced my soul while yet 

erpoya-' -^Srj in childhood's hand, 

n^tv TTJs TratSLKTJs rjXiKLas e^eA- I turned me swift to my left 

0(1), side, as would 

'E(rTpd(f)r]v €7rt Aatot fxed' ol'ov A child in fear or trouble, to 

Odppovs the hand 

T/ae^et TraiSiov tt/oos rrjv avrov Where stood the mother, rush- 

fxr^repa ing to her breast — 

"Or c'xct cf)6/3ov 7] TTc/otTTtTTTet To Say to Virgil, ' Nothing can 

AvTrai?, command 

"Iv etTTw BipyiAiO)* '*Pai/ts ov My heart to still its throbbing; 

fji€V€L thus confest, 





Al'fxaT0<5 aTpofiy^TO^ iv rrj crapKt 


' Ap)(^aias (fi\oyo<s ala-Odvo/xac 


'AAA' ovK yv Bi/)ytAios' Kare- 

At7r€ /X€, 
*I*€U, BtpyiAtOS O yXvKLCTTOS 

Trarrjp fiov, 
J3i/3ytAios, OS '^v €fxy (ThiTi^pia' 

OuS' o Tt Trep aTTcuAecr' 7} Trpiorn] 

'KkmXvct' e/xas Tra/oeiots ra? €k 


Ka^a/oas rov //.>) V€(f>o}67JvaL 


IIws eras (fiatverai r^ *EA- 
\t]ViKy] /xera^/aacrts tot; Mov- 
o-Qupov ; 

' AKpLfSca-TOLTr) • Slotl ov fXOVOV 
eivac o-Tt;(os Trpos crrlyov fxe 
TO 'IraXiKov TT/acoTOTVTTov, aAAa 
crx^^ov KOI Ae^ts tt/oos Ae^tv. 
To {)^os o/zws fJLol ^atVcrat 

'H irapaTy]pi^(Ti<i vfxQiv eTvai 
dk-q9y]<s, aAA' 6 /.lera^pa^wv ep- 
yov TOtavTv;? o-TrovSaiorr/ros Sei^ 
Svvarat va €i'/3>7 KaTaAA7yAoi'S 
Ae^cts Kttt cfipdcreLS ev rrj \aXov- 
fiiVY)], kol i^ dvdyKrj'^ 
7r/D€7r€i va Karaffivyr) els Ttjv dv- 
€^dvT\y]Tov Tnjyrjv ttJs dp^aias 
'EAAryvtK'^S, rfj fSoy^Oeii^ rijs 
oTTotas eivat KUTopOwTov vd fxer- 
€V€xOoxTLV al vxj/yjkal eVvotac 
Tov AdvTOV els TTjV Kad^ ^P'ds 

"Ei/ Trpdyfxa to ottoiov 8ev 
Svvafxai, KaAws va voy'jCTO) etvai 
ri (TTL\ovpyia ryjs fxeTacf)pd(reii)s. 

I feel the burning of the ancient 


But Virgil, lo ! to whom my 

heart addrest 

Its inmost sighs — Virgil, the 

dearest sire — 

Virgil, to whom I gave me up 

— had stole 

Himself from me. Nor wonder, 

nor desire, 

Of all that our first mother lost, 

my soul 

Could comfort for this loss, or 

dry the dew 

That wet my cheek for such 

unthonght-of dole." 

What do you think of the 
Greek translation of Musurus ? 

Most accurate : for not only 
does it agree line for line with 
the Italian original, but it is 
almost word for word. Yet his 
style seems to me to follow the 
ancient language. 

Your observation is correct, 
but the translator of a work of 
such a high class as this cannot 
find suitable words and phrases 
in the vernacular language, and 
of necessity he must have re- 
course to the inexhaustible 
fountain of ancient Greek, by 
the help of which it is jjossible 
for the sublime conceptions of 
Dante to be transferred to the 
Greek of our day. 

One thing which I cannot 
clearly understand is the metre 
of the translation. "Will vou do 




Mot Kafivere rrjv X^P''^ ^^ /^^ 

'0 M.ov(rovpos Aeyet ev Tc^irpo- 
^6y<j) rrjs fterac^/oacrews on fxer- 
ex^LptcrOr] fxerpov ScoSeKaavA- 
XafSov Xrjyov eis Ttapo^vrovov 

Xe^LV, OjXOiOV IX€V TW la/xyStKW, 

k<mpri}ikvov 8e tov ^/aovtKOTj 
pvOfiov. 'AXX ovTos 6 pvO/jl6<s, 
ws d^evpere ttoXv KaXd, Trpo 
TToXXojv atwvwv aTTOiXka-Or]^ kol 
(fiojSov fiat aTViaXkcrOrj avein- 

UoLov elvai rb crvvrjOkcrrepov 
fxkrpov iv rrj NeoeAAryviK?; ttol- 

Oi veiorepoL yjfxwv Trotryrat 
ypd<f)OV(rL rd TroL^fMara avTMv 
o-^eSov KaO' oAa rd fxerpa' 
6 (TVvrjBka-Tepo^ ofioys Trap yj/ixiv 
(TTLXOS etvat 6 SeKairevTaa-vX- 
Xa/3os els ov k-n-otr^d-qcrav rd 
TrXeLorepa kSvLKd rjfxwv cio-yLtara, 

WS TT. X- TO €^'>)S* 

"^ KaAorv)(a xJ/yjXd /Sovvd kol 

KafXTTOL fSXoyy^fxkvoi 

Hov X^P^ ^^^ Travrkxere, X^P^ 

SiV KapT€p€LT€.'^ 

TToXv fxe TOV k^rjs (ttlxov €K twv 
Necj^eAwv TOV 'Apca-Tocfidvovs' 
" So^corarov; croc^wrarov y' e- 

K€LV0V; W Tt (T etTTO)/" 
'Ev T(^ (TTLX^ TOVTO), 6v fJLOL 

dTT'^yyetXaTe, (TViif^aivei vd (tv/jl- 

TriTTTTj 6 TOVOS €776 T^S dp(r€0)S, 
0)5 KOL kv TOIS e^^S (TTLXOfS kK 

'''12s yjSofxai Kal repTTo/xat Kat 
/SovXofJLat xopevcrat 

me tlie favour to enlighten nie 
on this point ? 

Musurus says, in the preface 
to the translation, that he em- 
ployed the twelve-syllable metre 
ending in a paroxytone word, 
similar, in fact, to the Iambic, 
but without its rhythm of 
quantity. But this rhythm, 
as you know very well, was 
lost many centuries ago, and I 
fear lost beyond recovery. 

Which is the metre more 
usually employed in modern 
Greek poetry ? 

Our modern poets write their 
poems in almost every metre : 
but the more usual among us 
is the metre of fifteen syllables, 
in which the greater part of 
our national songs has been 
composed ; as for example, the 
following : 

" Fortunate are ye lofty hills, 
and blessed are ye plains, 
who expect not Charon's coming, 
nor have to wait for death." 

These verses are very similar 
to the following line from the 
Clouds of Aristophanes. 
" The wisest ? Do you say he is 
the wisest ? O, what shall I 
call you ! " 

In this line which you have re- 
cited to me it happens that the 
accent coincides with the arsis, 
just as in the following lines 
from the Plutus of the same poet, 
" How pleased and delighted I 
am, and I should like to dance, 



Mifxovfievo'i Kal toIv ttoSoIv u)8i 

"Q,(TT€ 7rpoa-(f>L\.-l)<S (TTtXOS €l<» 
T0U5 Vfl€T€pOVS TTOirjTaS eiVUL 6 

SeKaTTevTacrvWaf^os, oo-rt? vo- 
fii(io Kal TToAtrtKos Aeyerai. 
MotAwTTa, Kal l(To8vvafX€i /xe 

TOV dpXOitOV 'lajJif^LKOV (TTL\OV, 

SrjXaS^] rov rcTpd/xeTpov Kara- 


TLoLovvTai xprjcriv tov 8aK- 

TvXtKOV €^afJiiTpOV ol TTap VfMLV 


^TravnoTara. *fis evSoKLfiyj- 
(rai'TC? iv tv; xpyjaret tov {xcTpov 
TovTov OeujpovvTaL 6 A. P. *Pay- 
Ka^r^5, 6 6. 'Opcf>avL8r]<s, 6 'Av- 
T(i)VLd8rjs Kal Ttves aAAot. *A- 
Kovcran oXiyovi (rrt^ovs e/c t-^? 
cupX'j'^ T^S TrpioT'Q'^ pa^<i)8t'as 
ttJ? OSvcrorei'as Kara tt))/ /xera- 
tfipaa-LV TOV *P(xyKa^7y. 

imitating [the Cyclops] and kick- 
ing up my heels in this way." 

So that the favourite metre 
with your poets is the one of 
fifteen syllables, which I believe 
is also called the political metre. 

Quite so, and it is equivalent 
to the ancient Iambic metre, 
that is to say, the tetrameter 

Do your poets make use of the 
dactylic hexameter ? 

Very rarely. Those who are re- 
garded as successful in the use of 
this metre are A. R. Rangabes, 
Th. Orphanides, Antoniades, and 
a few others. Now listen to a 
few lines from the commence- 
ment of the first rhapsody of 
the Odyssey according to the 
translation of Rangabes. 

" '\FaAAe TOV dv8pa, Bed, tov iroXvTpoTrov, octtl's to(tovtovs 
TOTTOvs 8l7J\0€, TTop^rycras TTJs Tpotas TTjV €v8o^ov ttoXlv 
\wpa<s 6e ciSev dvdp(07ro)V TToAActs, k ifxeXeTrja-ev ^'jOrj, 
K ets OaXa(T(TLa<s 7rAavr/o-€t? vTreffyepe Xv7ra<s pLvpias^ 
OeXiov avTos va doidy Kal tovs (ftiXovs tov dkX(av va (rio<rrj. 
mXrjV 8€V Tov<s 'icroxrev, dv k cTre^v/xet €K fSddovs KapSias 
'AAA' €^ iStas avTWi/ d<f)po(rvv'qs aTrwAovTO 7rai/T€S." 

ToaOVS fJiOVOV (TTL)(0V<S €V- 


'AAA' OVTOt dpKOVCTL VOL 8ei^(i)- 

KaXXuTTa vd €v8oKi-/xrj(rtj iv Trj 
(rtjfxeptvy ws Kal ev Ty dp)(^at(^ 
^XXyvLKij. GeAere rw/aa va 
aTTayyeiAw Kal eyw tov<s avT0v<s 
OTt;(ov9 €V Ty yXioarcry tov 

I only recollect so many lines. 

But these are sufficient to 
show that this metre can be 
most successfully employed in 
modern just as well as in ancient 
Greek. Would you like me 
now in my turn to recite the 
same lines in the language of 
Homer ? 



6a yue vTTOXpei^a-iqTe- eras 
irapaKaXa 6[jhds va totjs diray- 
yeik-qre fie ttjv 'EXXyjvcKrjv 

Be/^aiorara. Mdvov tov 

Tovov Od fJLOL kTTLTpkxpyfre va 
fxeTafSi^d^o) els rrjv dpcnv ottov 
elvai dvayKT]. 

TovTO TrXrjpecTTaTa SiKaLOVcrOe 
va Trpd^rjTe, Slotl kol ly/xets 
TToXXdKLs ev rfj Syjixotlkyj Trotiy- 
tret ixerafSif^d^ofxev tov tovov els 
dXXrjv (TvXXa/3rjV ydpiv tov 
fxeTpov. *I2§ Seiyfia tov tolovtov 
fieTaf^L/Saa-fJiOv ecTTWcrav ol e^rjs 


'-'Avoi^av TO, ovpdvia, kol fSyyj- 

Kav 8vo dyyeXoi 

KL 6 Mfc;)(a7)A ' KpydyyeXos avTa 

Tovs TrapayyeXXet." 

'Ev Trj ofxiXia, at Ae^eis avoi- 

^av Kol dyyeXoi Trpo^epovTai 

dvoL^av Kal dyyeXoi. Kat els 

TO, (TTi\ovpy'i'jixaTa tov /xecratw- 

vos fSXeiret tls to tavTas irapaX- 

Xayds, d)S crvfJifBaLvei ev rw e^rjs 

(rTL)((s) TOV JlTM)(OTrpo8p6p.ov , 

o(TTLS els Tr^v Xe^tv irpovoiav 

KaTaf^L^d^et tov tovov els tyjv 

7rapaXrjyov(rav, Xeycov 

"'FiV (Tol yap ey KaTOLK-qcrev rj 

TOV Oeov Trpovo la." 

Kat TavTa fiev ev TrayodSw Trepl 

Trjs KaO' '^fxds l!^eoeXXr]VLKrjs 

(TTLXOv pyias' edv o/jlojs OeXeTe 

va Xd/3r]Te irX-qpea-Tepas TrXrjpo- 

(fiopias Trepl avTrjs, avayvwTe to 


'ArravTcov tov A. P. ^FayKa/Srj, 
Kal Tas " TpapLfxaTLKas Tzapa- 
Trjp-qa-ets " tou E. A. So^okAcoi's 

You will oblige me : but I 
beg you to recite them witli tbe 
Greek pronunciation. 

Most certainly. Only you 
will allow me to transfer the 
accent to the arsis w^henever 

You are quite justified in 
doing this, for in popular poetry 
w^e ourselves often transfer the 
accent to another syllable for 
the sake of the metre. Let the 
following lines serve as an ex- 
ample of such a transfer of 
accent : 

" The heavens opened and two 
angels came forth, 
and the Archangel Michael gives 
them these commands." 

In conversation, the words 
avoi^av and ayyeAot are pro- 
nounced dvoi^av and ayyeAot. 
And in the verses of the middle 
ages such changes may be 
noticed, as is the case in the 
following line of Ptochopro- 
dromos, who in the word Trpo- 
voia throws forward the accent 
to the penultimate, saying : 
" For in you abode the provi- 
dence of God." 

So much then for a passing 
description of our modern Greel 
versification ; but if you wish t( 
obtain more complete informa 
tion about it, read the prefaci 
to the fifth volume of the Com 
plete Works of A. R. RangabcE 
and the Grammatical Observation 
of E. A. Sophocles in his intrc 




c'l' rr; cla-ayiDyrj rod Bv^avrivov 
avTOv Ae^tKov, kol 6a /xa^ryre 
ovK oXiya k^ avrCiv. 'AAA' 
aTrayyeAAerc TU)pa to ap^alov 

K€LfJL€VOV Kal Od /X€ €VprjT€ cfilX'/j- 

Koov oLKpoaryv. 

duction to his Byzantine dic- 
tionary, and you will learn a 
great deal from them. But 
recite now the original text and 
you will find me an attentive 

"AvSpa fxoL €i'V€7r€, fJLovaa, TToXvTpOTTov, o? fxdXa TToXXd 
7rXdy)(^9y], cTret TpoLijs Upov iTToXUdpov eirepo-^v, 
ttoXXmv 8' dvdpioTTMV iSev ucrTea Kal voov eyvw, 
TToXXd S' 6 y €V TTOvTii) irddiv dXyea ov Kara Ovfxov, 
dpvvfievo'i yjv re i^v;(7)v Kal vocttov kralpoiv. 
dXX ovS' ws erdpovs ippvcraro Ufievos irep' 
avTol yap crcfieTepy(TLV dTacrOaXiycnv oAovto." 

"Tell me, Muse, of that man, so ready at need, who wandered 
far and wide, after he had sacked the sacred citadel of Troy, and 
many were the men whose towns he saw and whose mind he 
learned, yea, and many the woes he suffered in his heart upon the 
deep, striving to win his own life and the return of his comj^any. 
Nay, but even so he saved not his company, though he desired it 
sore ; for through the blindness of their own hearts they perished." 
— S. H. Butcher and A. Lang. 

*H /x€Ta<^/3a(rt? p.ol (fiaiveraL 
d^toAoyos KOI dKpt(^€(TTd.rr], Kal 
8kv a/x0t/?ttAA(o OTt ot kyKV- 
TTTovTe? €1? Tr]V fieXkrrjv rov 
Ojxijpov "AyyXoL ^vpla-Kovcnv 
avTijV )(^prj(TiiiwTdTy]V. 

TovTO o/xoAoyetrat Trapd irdv- 
ro)v, Slotl al p-k^pf- rovSe yevo/xe- 
V(LL kpLpLCTpoL pLeTaffipdo-eLq tov 
'Opypov cts Ty]v 'AyyAtK7)v 
cKTos oAtywv k^aLpk(T€(i)v aTrkrv- 
^ov. 'AAAtt ftXkirui k(f)Od(Tap,€v 
€is Utcrav, Kal civ dyairaTe as 
k^kX6(i)pLev rot Kayaw/xev eva r) 
8vo yvpov^ els to KprjirLSiopia. 


The translation appears to me 
ver}-- good and most accurate, 
and I have no doubt that those 
Englishmen who devote them- 
selves to the study of Homer 
find it of the greatest use to 

This is acknowledged by all, 
for the metrical translations of 
Homer into English which have 
hitherto been made are, with a 
few exceptions, failures. But I 
see we have arrived at Pisa, and 
if you like, let us get out and 
take a turn or two on the plat- 

With pleasure. 

AIAA0r02 9' 


"12, Tt KaXrj (TvvTv^ia I BActtw 
cfiiXov fjiov rtva KXrjptKov €K 
KcovcrravTivovTroAews ^rjTovvTa 
va €vpr} K€vrjv a/jia^av. Hav- 
o(TioXoyi(i>TaT€ 'Kp^nxav^pira^ 
eXOere els ravrrjv rrjv afia^av, 
Slotl virap^ei dkcris 8i' vpLas. 

Xatpco ey/cayaStcus ort eras 
eTrai/a^AcTTW va-repou dirb rdcra 
errj. *H pLopcji-q eras ovSoXms 
r/AAa^€, Kol 8ta rovro evOvs eras 

'^TTLTpexpare jxoi va <TV(rTi^a-o) 
els v/xa? Tov K.vpLOV OvtXcroiva. 
Et^vat KaOrjyyjTrjS rwv 'EAAt^- 
VLKiov ev Kavraf^pcyta- yvcopt^et 
Se KaAAtcrra ttjv Ka6' rjfxas 

"E;^(o fieydXyjv evxapta-ryjorLV. 
Ka6 TTOV fxera^atvere, crvv 

Et9 TYjv *EAAa8a* eKptvaixev 
ofxois evXoyov ^lepxojxevoi hi 
'IraAtas va €7r L(TK€(f)6{ojjLev rrjv 
^XcopevTtav /cat '^FiofJLrjv, fxkvov- 
Tes ev avrals dvd pLtav rjfxepav. 

Kat eyw fxiav rjfxepav 6d 
fxetvii) ev ^XiopevTta.' avptov 8e 
Trjv kcnrkpav aTre/j^o/xat els 
^Pu)fji7]v, OTTOV dd ^Larpixj/ii) vrrep 
Tiqv jxtav efSSofxdSa. 

0, what a happy coincidence ! 
I see a friend of mine, a clergy- 
man from Constantinople, who 
is looking for an empty carriage. 
Most reverend Archimandrite, 
come into this carriage, for there 
is a place for you. 

I am heartily glad to see you 
again after so many years. Your 
appearance has not changed at 
all, and so I recognised you at 

Allow me to introduce Mr. 
Wilson to you. He is professor 
of Greek at Cambridge ; and 
he has a perfect knowledge of 
modern Greek. 

It is a great pleasure to me. 
And where are you going, God 
willing ? 

To Greece ; but we thought 
it would be right, on our road 
through Italy, to visit Florence 
and Rome, staying one day at 

I too am going to stay one 
day at Florence, and to-morrow 
evening I am off to Rome, 
where I shall spend more than 
a week. 



0tt €Xw/x€v koLTrhv ryv repxj/iv 
va (Tvvo^onropy](T(jiix€v fxed' vfxijjv 
fJi^XP'' 'Pw/XT^S. MeT€l3y]T€ Kal 

<xAAoT€ €K€L ; 

UpO TToWo^V €TCOV €7r€(rK€(fidr]V 

<ivTyjv €7rav€p\6fJi€vo<; €k Tcp- 
jiavias, OTTOV (TWCTrX-qpioara rag 
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€cr7ret'8ov va (f)dd(r(x) (us Ta^icrTa 
€ts Kiova-TavTLvovTroXtv, fxovov 
oXtyov )(^p6vov SteTpLxj/a ev 

Jlepl TOV VfX€T€pOV KX'/jpOV €V 

'AyyAi^ €XOfM€v (TvyK€.yyiJikva<i 
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ttXt] po<f)op la^ TLvas irepl avTOv. 

lEiifxai Trp6dvixo<s. 

'K-n-cOvixovv va fiddoy eav ot 
Upoifikvot rrj'^ v/xerepas ckkXt]- 
(Ttas €LvaL eyyajJLOi rj dyafxoL. 

Ot Tvarpidp^ai^ ol Ittlo-kottol 
Koi ot fMova^ol elvat aya/xoi, ot 
ic/^eis o/x(os kv ykv€L efvai 'kyya- 
fiOL. Kara t^v kv Nt/catct 
crvvoSov kykvero dTroireipd rts 
OTTWs /xr) kirLTpkirrfraL els rbv 
KXijpov 6 eyyapLos /3io<5, dXX 
aTrkrvx^V elvat 8k Xtav irepi- 
epyov oTt 6 kv rrj crvvoSco fJ-er' 
€7rtTi')(ias KaTaTToXifiyjcras ttjv 
-n-poTacTLV TavTTjV 'fjro 6 k^ 


^YTrdpxov(Ti Trap' vfjiLV ttoAAoi 
fxovaxol (I)s kv TTj Ava-€L ; 

2x€TtKtt)9 6 dpiOfxh<s avT(ov 
Bkv €Lvat fxkyas, Kal ol TrXeia-roi 
fxovd^ova-Lv kv tols iJ.ova(rri]pLOLS 

rOV "Add), 6(TTLS Sid TOVTO 

We shall liave then the 
pleasure of travelling in .your 
company as far as Rome. Have 
you ever been there before ? 

I visited it many years ago 
on my way back from Germany, 
where I had completed my 
studies ; but, as I was on that 
occasion anxious to reach Con- 
stantinople as soon as possible, 
I spent only a short time in 

We in England have confused 
ideas about your clergy, and, if 
you would allow me, I would 
beg you to give me some in- 
formation on the subject. 

I am quite willing. 

I should like to learn whether 
those of your church who are in 
holy orders are married or un- 

The patriarchs, the bishops, 
and the monks are unmarried, 
but the priests are generally 
married. At the Council of 
Nice an attempt was made to 
prohibit the married state among 
the clergy, but it failed ; and 
it is very curious that tlie one 
who successfully fought against 
the proposal in the Council was 
the Aegyptian bishop Paph- 
noutios, a man of the most 
ascetic habits. 

Are there among you many 
monks, as in the West ? 

Comparatively their number 
is not great, and most of them 
pass their monastic life in the 
monasteries of Athos, which 



€kX'{]6i] "Kyiov 6po<i. Moi/a- 
orTypta yvvacKiov^ St'i'arac rts 
eLTretv, on crx^^ov Sev virapyovdi^ 
Tocrov etvat evdpi.Oixa. 01 
ixovayol ovofxa^ovrat vtto tov 
X.aov KaXoyepoL^ dkX' rj Trpoono- 
vvfMia avrrj KaT7]VTrj(T€ CTTjixepov 
vd IxO 7r€pi(fipov7]TLKrjV crrjixa- 
(Tiav, Kal TOVTO eivai KaXov vd 
TO yvioptd] Tt9 Sid vd /xr) 
Trpo^evy SvcrapGcrKe tav els rovs 
fiovay^ovs. "Orav Tvpocrayopevy] 
Tts avTovs 7r/5e7rct vd /xera^^et/at- 
^rjTat rds Ae^ei9, Trdrep, ocrtoj- 
Tare, r) TravocriMTaTe, Kara tw 
f3ad[xov avTMV. Twv dvcoTcpiov 
KXrjpcKMv OL tltXol etvaL ttol- 
KiXoi. To, Tcp^-qriKd iTTiOeTa 
Travayiwraros-, fxaKapLMTaros, 
(TefSaa-fiLoWaTOS, TravupMraros 
Kal 6eocf)LX€(TTaTOS eStSovTO Kar 
dpyds dStaK/)§ kiridKoirovs 
kv y€V6t, vvv ofxiiis rj )(^pyj(Tis 
avTMV eivai KaO(jL>pL(Tp.€V7]. Tov 
tltXov iravay LioTaTos cf^epet 


dp\t]<s-, ocrns etVat Kal dpy^^ce- 


ol Se a/\Aot rpcLs Trarpidp^ai, 6 
'AAe^avSp€ta§, 6 '^lepoa-oXvpnav 
Kal 6 'AvTLO-x^eias rirXocfiopovv- 
Tat fxaKapiMTaTOL. 01 dp^Leirt- 


Sta TOV kiridkrov (re/Saa-fMnoTa- 
Tos, ol iTria-KOTroL irpoa-o.yopevov- 
Tat TTaviepwraroi, ol Se \oipo- 
eTTiCTKOTTOi deocpiXeo-TaTOL. 



ts etvat o TLTAos rcov lepeojv 
Kal Twv UpoSiaKoviDV ; 

Ot ie/)€t5, €t /X€V eyyapiOL^ 

on this account has received the 
name of the Holy Mountain. 
Convents for women may be 
said scarcely to exist, so small 
is the number of them. The 
monks are called by the people 
" calogeri " (good old men), but 
this epithet has now come to 
have a contemptuous significa- 
tion, and it is a good thing 
to know this, so as not to occa- 
sion unpleasantness with the 
monks. In addressing them, 
one must employ the terms 
" father," " most holy," or " all- 
sanctified," according to their 
grade. The higher clergy 
have various designations. The 
honorific titles, " all - holy," 
" most  beatified," " most vener- 
able," " all sacred " and " most 
beloved of God," were at first 
given indiscriminately to the 
bishops in general, but now 
their use is restricted. The 
title " all-holy " is only borne 
by the Oecumenical patriarch, 
who is also archbishop of Con- 
stantinople. The other three 
patriarchs, of Alexandria, of 
Jerusalem, and of Antioch, are 
entitled "most beatified." The 
archbishops or metropolitans are 
honoured with the epithet of 
" most venerable " ; the bishops 
are addressed as "all-sacred," and 
the suffragan bishops as " most 
beloved of God." 

What is the title of priests, 
and of deacons ? 

Priests, if married, have the 



TLT\o(fiopovvTai alSea-LiMoWuTOL, 
ei Se ayafioi TravocrnoTaTOL' ot 
8k UpoSLaKOVOL UpoXoyuoTaTOL. 
01 ap^Lfiav^pirat Se iravocrio- 

'Ev^i>/xo{;/>tttt, ore Trpo 8vo 
Itmv eTrecTKecfidrj Tr]V 'AyyAtav 
6 ap^^ieTricTKOTTO? Kvtt/dov at 

€(fiyfJL€pt8€'i €TLTko(f)6pOVV aVTOV 

IxaKapiMTUTOV €;(€i opOcos 6 
T4tAo9 oiiro? ; 

MaAicrra, kuI vo, era? eiTTU) Stot 
TToiov Adyoi/. *H vrj(ro<s Kvtt/do? 
€1/ rr/ iKKXy^(TLa(TTiKrj aiVrys Stot- 
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aAAa Kara tov oySoov Kavova 
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€7r€KVp(j}(T€ KOL 6 AvTOKpOLTiOp 

'Iov(TTLVLav6<s, KarecTTrj rj o.p^i- 
€7rL(TK07rrj avryjs avTOK€<f)a\os, 
€ts Se Tov Tore ap^wrrtcTKOirov 
KvTTpou ' KvdkpLLOV iSodrj TO 
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tyypa^fi 8ta KOKKtvr^'i /xeAavr^s* 
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a-KOTTos T>ys vrycrou TLrXocfyopetTai 

* OfioXoyo) vfitv TrXetcTTas 
^aptTas 3itt Tots ttXt] pocjiop tas 
Kol 18l(ds 8ia Ttts d(f>opiiKra<i ttjv 
'KKKXl](TLaV tt}? Ki'TT/aov dAA' 
cotv 8ev 6iS(o €ts i>/xas ttoAvv 
KOTTOV jueyaAws ^a /xe VTro\p€- 
(oa"qT€ dv p.oi ctTrryTe Kat oAtya 

title of " most reverend," if 
unmarried, that of " all-sancti- 
fied." Tlie deacons are called 
" sacred and most learned." 
The archimandrites "all-sancti- 
fied and most learned." 

I remember, when two years 
ago the archbishop of Cyprus 
visited England, the newspapers 
gave him the title of "most 
beatified " (his beatitude) : is 
this title correct ? 

Yes, and I will tell you why : 
the island of Cyprus, in regard 
to its ecclesiastical government, 
was at first subject to the 
patriarch of Antiocli, but by 
the eighth canon of the Council 
of Ephesus, sanctioned by the 
Emperor Justinian, its arch- 
bishopric was made independent, 
and to the then archbishop of 
Cyprus, Anthemius, was granted 
the privilege of writing his 
signature to public documents 
in red ink ; and this privilege 
was afterwards confirmed by the 
Emperor Zenon, and is retained 
to this day. As being inde- 
pendent, the archbishop of the 
island is designated "most 

I am very much obliged to you 
for this information, and especi- 
ally for that which regards the 
Church in Cyprus : but if I am 
not giving you too much trouble, 
you will put me under great 
obligation if you will also tell 



TtVOt TTCpt TTJS €V ^\(J)p€VTLa 

Afcot vot Svvr)6y ns va ivvo-ja-rj 
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vd KO)Xvcrii)(TLV eirl eva alojva 
Trjv 7r/)09 rd Karoi poirrjv rrjs 
avTOKparopias. "Ore o/jtw? 

me a little about the Council of 

To be able to understand 
thoroughly the object of this 
Council and the reason why its 
decisions were not carried into 
effect, it is necessary to go 
through the political and eccle- 
siastical history of the Byzantine 
empire from the time of Photius 
the patriarch of Constantinople 
to the taking of that city by the 
Turks. The object of this 
Council was to unite the two 
churches, the Eastern and the 
Western. The motives however 
which actuated the Greeks in 
their endeavour to effect the 
union were not religious but 
political, for, being threatened 
with complete destruction by 
the daily increasing power of 
the Turks, they were compelled, 
against their will, to have re- 
course to the Pope, in order that 
through him they might secure 
assistance to avert the impend- 
ing danger. The Byzantine em- 
pire began to show signs of de- 
cay from the time of the Com- 
neni, yet three emperors of this 
dynasty, Alexius, Johannes, and 
Manuel (1081-1180), were en- 
abled, by their political capacity 
and their individual courage, to 
arrest for a century the down- 
ward tendency of the empire. 


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TttTOV Tpavpa KaTijve.y Kov KaTa 

But when the incompetent and 
profligate Andronicus assumed 
the reins of the empire (1183- 
1186), its decline began to be 
apparent in every quarter : trade 
had passed into the hands of the 
Venetians and Genoese, the im- 
perial treasury was empty, the 
army without discipline, the sea 
rendered unsafe from being 
infested with pirates, and every- 
thing was going from bad to 
worse. At this time the empire 
was being attacked in Asia 
Minor by the Seljouks ; and in 
Europe by the Wallachians, 
who became masters of part of 
Thrace and Macedonia : more- 
over the Normans coming from 
Sicily often invaded and ravaged 
the provinces of the Byzantine 
empire. One of the most famous 
of these invasions was that which 
took place in 1185, when the 
Normans came with a large 
army and besieged Thessalonica 
by land and sea and captured it, 
treating the inhabitants with 
great severity and inhumanity. 
A detailed account of the siege 
and capture of this wealthy city 
has been written by Eustathius, 
whose name is very familiar to 
every student of Greek litera- 
ture. But the most terrible blow 
to the Byzantine empire was 
inflicted by the Crusaders, who 




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under pretence of Christian 
enthusiasm against the infidels 
destroyed the only bulwark 
there was in the East against 
the irreconcilable enemies of 
our religion. 

But many of the Western 
historians insist that the first 
Crusade owed its origin to the 
solicitations of the Greeks, and 
assert that Peter the Hermit 
went as a pilgrim to Jerusalem, 
and, returning to Europe, 
brought letters from the then 
patriarch of Jerusalem to the 
Pope and to the princes of the 
West, in which were described 
the terrible sufferings of the 
Christians and an appeal was 
made for help. They alsa 
maintain that the Emperor 
Alexius Comnenus himself 
begged for aid against the Turks- 
from the princes of Euroj^e. 

I do not undertake to dispute 
the letters of the patriarch of 
Jerusalem, though the way in 
which the Crusaders behaved to 
him renders their genuineness- 
open to suspicion. But the 
letters which are ascribed to the 
Emperor Alexius are forged,, 
for not only do the Byzantine 
historians make no mention 
wdiatever of them, but they 
represent the first Crusade as 
an event entirely unexpected 
and as of a hostile character : 



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" Alexius," says Constantine 
Paparregopoulos in his excellent 
liistory, "not only had no urgent 
reasons for seeking the assist- 
ance of the West, but he had 
many reasons for not asking 
for it ; from this it follow?, 
beyond dispute, that the reports 
about the letters and embassies 
sent by him to procure help, 
which were current among the 
people of the West, were fabri- 
cated simply to afford some pre- 
text of justice for this enter- 
prise which was undertaken 
against the Eastern empire rather 
than against the Mahomedans in 
Syria. This great movement of 
the West against the East, which 
was to last for nearly three 
centuries, and which constitutes 
one of the principal events in 
the history of tlie world, owed 
its origin, as already explained, 
to various political and religious 
interests of long standing, and 
especially to the persistent 
claim of the Roman Pontitis to 
impose their authority upon the 
Eastern Church. It may be 
readily understood that, as is 
always the case, many secondary 
causes contributed their influ- 
ence ; but among these secondary 
causes we have assuredly no 
sufficient reason to include the 
supposed letters and embassies 
of Alexius." However this may 
be, certainly no one can deny 
that the warriors of the first 
Crusade greatly contributed to 



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rerdpT-Qs Xeyofxevrjs ^ravpo- 
(fiopias Tt va €LTrr} rts; 

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tSeav €Kcfi€p€L TTcpl avTrjs 6 
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the expulsion of the Seljouks 
from the Byzantine provinces; 
but these pious soldiers of the 
cross thought it just and right 
to pillage the people whom they 
had come to help, and accord.- 
ingly, when they returned from 
the pursuit of the enemy, they 
carried oif whatever they could 
from the country which had 
hospitably entertained them. 
This conduct of the first 
Crusaders excited a feeling of 
hatred and indignation against 
them in the hearts of the people 
of the East, so that in the second 
and third Crusades, at every 
opportunity and in every 
manner, they showed their 
hostility to these Western 
robbers. About the so-called 
fourth Crusade what are we to 

Would you like me to tell 
you what opinion about it the 
Rev. H. F. Tozer expresses in 
his little work published two 
years ago, entitled The Church 
and the Eastern Empire ? 

You will oblige me very much. 

Here is what he says at page 
24. "The mutual animosity 
that was thus generated at last 
came to a head in the disgraceful 
buccaneering expedition, which 



T€tas^ ryrt? Tifxarai 6ta tov 
ovo/xaTO'i T>}s TerdpTij'i ^ravpo- 
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ra dvaXd/Sy." 


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(TOt tov Alyaiov ircXdyovs -^(rav 

is dignified witli the name of 
the fourth Crusade, when a 
force, which was assembled for 
the purpose of fighting the 
infidels, turned its arms against 
the most important Christian 
city of that time, and, after 
having stormed and captured it, 
partitioned its dominions be- 
tween the nations who took part 
in the attack (1204). From this 
blow Constantinople never re- 

The reverend author is de- 
serving of all praise for his 
impartiality, but unfortunately 
all the historians of the Crusades 
are not inspired with a sense of 
justice. But let us return to 
the narration of the events 
which preceded the Council of 
Florence. The Latin empire 
which was established in the 
East had but a short existence, 
for about sixty years after its 
foundation it was destroyed by 
Michael Palaeologus, the founder 
of the last dynasty which ruled 
over the Byzantine empire. 
But what an empire ! The 
north coast of Asia Minor 
constituted a separate kingdom 
under the sway of the Comneni 
in Trebizond : in Epirus and 
in Thessalonica independent 
principalities were formed : the 
islands of the Aegaean Sea were 
in the power of the Venetians 
and other Italian states : the 



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greater part of tlie Peloponnesus 
was held by the Franks ; Athens 
and the north of Greece was 
under the rule of the family of 
De la Koche. Afterwards others 
came to get a share of the 
plunder. The Catalans came 
as allies, but they pillaged those 
who ex^Dected helj) from them. 
The Knights of St. John took 
possession of the island of 
Rhodes ; the Servians established 
a dominion of their own, under 
the government of Stephen 
Dushan, which lasted till the 
year 1389, when it was over- 
thrown hj the Sultan Amurath. 

It is curious how the Palae- 
ologi succeeded in preserving 
for nearly two hundred years 
an empire which was in such a 
state of paralysis, especially 
when we take into consideration 
that all, except the last of them, 
Constantine Vlll.who heroically 
fell at the taking of Constanti- 
nople, were selfish, desj)otic, and 

The Byzantine empire was 
certainly very feeble in the 
time of the Palaeologi, but its 
opponents also, at first, were 
not strong : when however 
the Turks had jDassed through 
Phrygia and established their 
authority at Brusa in Bithynia 
and afterwards crossing the 




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Hellespont had made them- 
selves masters of the greater 
part of Thrace, then it became 
quite evident that tlie old em- 
pire of Byzantium ran extreme 
risk, and there is no doubt that 
it would have been overthrown 
by the powerful Sultan Bajazet 
if he had not been worsted and 
taken prisoner by Timour tlie 
chief of the Tartars at the battle 
of Angora (1402). When John 
Palaeologus ascended the throne 
in 1425, his dominions consisted 
of his capital, Constantinople, 
with the country surrounding 
it, of Thessalonica and a small 
part of the Peloponnesus. A 
state so weak could not stand 
its ground before the daily in- 
creasing power of the Turks. 
Seeing his empire in this terrible 
condition, wliat could the un- 
fortunate John VI. do? The 
only hope left to him was to be 
brought into friendly relations 
with the West through the 
union of the Churches. 

But I am afraid that the 
situation was not all favourable 
to a union of the two great 
Churches of Christendom, be- 
cause a great ecclesiastical 
Council had been sitting at 
Basel since the year 1431, the 
object of which was the reforma- 
tion of the Western Church and 



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the limitation of the power of 
the Pope, who was watching 
with great uneasiness the course 
of events, and proposed Bologna 
as a more suitable city for the 
Council. "If the fathers assemble 
in this city," he said, " it will 
be easy for representatives of 
the Eastern Church also to 
come to the Council, so that 
the much-desired union of the 
Churches may be effected : " but 
the fathers rejected the Pope's 
proposal, declaring that the 
Council had higher authority 
than the Pope. While, then, 
the Latin Church was thus 
divided into two conflicting 
authorities, do you not think 
that any attempt at a union 
with the Eastern Church was 
absurd ? 

You are right ; it appears to 
us absurd : but the state of 
affairs at that time was such 
that all were desirous of the 
union. So we see that the 
fathers of the Council of Basel 
sent ships and money to Con- 
stantinople to bring the repre- 
sentatives of the Eastern Church, 
but the Pope's ships arrived 
before them, for he wished by 
every means to attract the 
Greeks of Constantinople to his 
side. The Emperor John was 
undecided which of the two 
invitations to accept, but at 
last he determined to sail to 
Venice in the Papal ships, 
promising the delegate from 


irXeva-tj £t9 BevcTiai' Sia TixJv 
TraiTLKuiv irX-OLiov, v7ro(rxofJ^€Vo<s 
els Tov oLTrea-Takfievov r^js kv 
BacrtAei^ (tvvoBox^, oTav <f>6dcnj 
els 'IraXiav va Trepifxevy €(os ov 
eireXdrj (rv/Ji/SifSacrfjLOS tls fiera^v 
TOV IlaTra kol rdv kv Bao-tAetct 
Trareptov. Tlepl to, xeAry Xolttov 
TOV erovs 1437 KaTaXiTrcDV ev 
Kwvo-Tai/TtvovTToAec 6 AvTO- 
KpoLTuyp TOV eavTov dSeXcfiov 
KiovcrTavTivov ws avTi/Saa-iXea 
oLTreTrXevcTe 8i' 'IraXlav irapa- 
Xaf3o)V fxed' eavTOV tov eTepov 
dheXfjiOV TOV AyjfiyjTpLOV Kal tov 
y7;/)atoi/ IlaTpidpxyjv 'lioo-rjcfi 
fieTOL TToXvirX-qOovs (rvvoScas 
a/3;(t€7ricrK07ra>v, eTTiCTKOTriov, U- 
peo)V Kal ixovayjov. McTa^u 
TOVTOiV rjcrav iroXXol Ik tCHv fxd- 
XiCTTa ^laKeKpifxevoiV lepapyCtv 
Trfs 'AvaToXiKrjs 'EKKAryo-ta?, 
eTTicfiavecrTaToi twv ottoi'wv "^crav 
MdpKos 6 'lEicfiecrov, Alovvo-los 6 
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aapiiov. TlapetTreTO 8e Kal 6 
lx'i]TpoTroXiTH]S K.te/Sov 'lo'tSoypos 


'EKKXqa-Las. SwaTrcTrAei^o-av 

TTpoa-eTi Kal ol TOTroTrjprjTal 
Toiv 7raTpLap)(^u)V 'AXe^avSpeias, 
'AvTioxeias Kal '^lepoa-oXvpnov 
Kal TrdvTes o-^eSov ot eTria-yjuovs 
decreis KaTe)(^ovT€S kXtjpckoi, ev 
OLs Kal 6 fxeyas CKKAryo-ca/j^vyS 
iXftecTTpos 6 ^vpoirovXos^ (xttls 
(Tweypaxj/e Tr]V la-Toplav tyjs 
^X(i)pevTiVi]S o-woSov. McTa^v 
Twi'' direXOovToyv els ttjv (tvvoSov 
lyo'av Kai ovk oXiyoc XaiKot, 8ta- 
irpeTrea-TaTOL twv ottoliov ecvat 

the Council of Basel that, when 
lie arrived in Italy, he would 
wait till some kind of agreement 
had been effected between the 
Pope and the fathers in Basel. 
About the end then of the year 
1437, the Emperor, leaving his 
brother Constantine in Con- 
stantinople as regent, sailed for 
Italy, taking with him his other 
brother Demetrius and the aged 
Patriarch Joseph, with a numer- 
ous retinue of archbishops, 
bishops, priests and monks. 
Among these were many of the 
most distinguished prelates of 
the Eastern Church, of whom 
the most illustrious were Marcus 
of Ephesus, Dionysius of Sardes, 
and Bessarion of Nicaea. Isidore 
the metropolitan of Kieif also ac- 
companied them as a delegate of 
the Russian Church. There sailed 
with them moreover representa- 
tives of the patriarchs of Alex- 
andria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, 
and almost all the clergy who 
held important offices, among 
whom was the great ecclesiarcli 
Sylvester Syropulus who wrote 
the history of the Council of 
Florence. Among those who 
went to the Council were also 
not a few laymen, of whom 
the most eminent were George 
Scholarius, afterwards called 
Gennadius, who was appointed 
the first (Ecumenical Patriarch 
after the capture of Constanti- 
nople by the Turks, and George 
Gemistos, better known by the 





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VTTO T(ov TovpKcav, KOL VecopyLos 


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kiriTVOVOv ttXovv e/SSo/Jn^KOvra 
eTTTOL rjfJL€p(^v €(fi6a(T€V els TO 
ov TToXv rrjs BeveTias aTvexov 
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vTToSox^? Tov AvTOKpdropos Koi 
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TYjV €^rj<s TTcpiypacfiijv Ik t-^s 
la-Toptas rrjs ^X(j)p€VTLvrjs (rvv- 
680 V. 

" Mrjvl ^efSpovaptCi)^ efSSopby, 
dirripaixev diro tov TiapkvT^ov 
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fSaartXiKrj rpirjprjs ra^vrkpa 
o^ara, Trpoe/Sy] twv aA-Acov els 
BeveTLav, kol ecTMcrev els tov 
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oySor; rov /x-qvos irepl oypav 
Sevrepav ttJs rjjxepas, at 8e 
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fSacTiXeitiS, KOL TocrovTov ■Tjv, 
locTTe (T'x^eSov eiTretv fxr) (fiaive- 
aOai rrjV OdXacarav vtto rrjs 
a-vixiryj^eoys avTMV. yXOe 8e 
fxyvvfia ctTTo TTJs avOevTiaSj fXTj 
e^eXdetv rov (iau-iXea ews Trpm, 
OTTCDS '^XOrj 6 8ov^ fxerd Trdcrrjs 

name of Pletlion. This numer- 
ous and illustrious company 
sailed from Constantinople on 
the 27th of November, and after 
a long and fatiguing passage of 
seventy - seven days arrived at 
Parenzo not very far from 
Venice. Regarding the mag- 
nificent reception given to the 
Emperor and his companions at 
Venice, allow me to read to you 
the following description taken 
from the history of the Council 
of Florence. 

" On the seventh of February 
we sailed from Parenzo with all 
the ttiremes together, but the 
royal trireme, being swifter, 
went ahead of the others on 
its way to Venice, and ar- 
rived at the port of S. Nicolo 
del Lido on the eighth of the 
month about the second hour of 
the day, the rest about the 
fourth hour : then a crowd of 
boats came out from Venice to 
meet the king, so numerous 
that it might almost be said 
that the sea was hidden from 
view by the compact throng. 
A message was delivered from 
the senate for the king not to 
disembark till the morning, in 




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Kal dT-rjXdev 6 5ov^ /xera twv 

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' aVTOV Kttt €T€pa pi€(T0KdT€pya^ 

order that the Doge might come 
with all the senate and pay fit- 
ting honour to the king : this 
arrangement was followed ; and 
after a short time the Doge 
arrived with the senators, and 
made obeisance to the king who 
remained seated, and in like 
manner the senators, all bare- 
headed. On the right of the 
king was seated his brother, 
his Highness Prince Demetrius, 
on a little lower level than the 
royal throne : then the Doge 
took his seat on the left of the 
king, and they greeted each other 
with complimentary speeches 
and held some private conversa- 
tion : after this, the Doge said 
to the king : ' We shall come in 
the morning to pay becoming 
and due respect to your sacred 
majesty, and receive you with 
proper ceremony, and thus you 
will enter Venice : ' the Doge 
with his senators then took his 

On the morning of Sunday 
the ninth of February, at the 
fifth hour of the day, the Doge 
arrived in great pomp with his 
senators and councillors and a 
great many other noblemen, in 
his splendidly decorated state- 
barge which was shaded with 
scarlet awnings and had golden 
lions at the stern and gilded 
tracery, and was ornamented 
throughout with paintings, and 
variously decorated and most 
beautiful. With it there came 




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otlier boats of a smaller size 
called gallons, about twelve in 
number, and these also were 
covered within and without 
with ornamentation and paint- 
ings, in all respects similar to 
the Doge's barge, and in which 
were many noblemen, and all 
round them they had golden 
standards, and innumerable 
trumpets and all kinds of 
musical instruments. And they 
had a particularly splendid 
gallon, most marvellous, bearing, 
forsooth, the name of ' the royal 
trireme,' and they had rendered 
it very beautiful with various 
decorations ; for below, the 
sailors rowed in apparel of gold- 
mail and bearing on their heads 
the badge of St. Mark and be- 
hind it the emblem of royalty ; 
then the Jagratores had dresses 
and banners of a different ap- 
pearance : and that smaller 
vessel had royal standards all 
round it, and at the stern numer- 
ous golden flags, and four men 
wearing gold- embroidered gar- 
ments, with white and gold hair 
on their heads : in the midst of 
these four, a handsome man 
sometimes sat down and some- 
times stood up, arrayed in 
splendid robes woven of gold, 
and holding a sceptre in his 
hand as admiral : and other 
nobles could be seen, having 
the appearance of foreigners, 
wearing clothes of a diff'erent 
kind much variegated, as 



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though attending upon him 
with great deference. In 
front of the stern a man stood 
upright, like a lofty pillar, and 
on the top of that [human] 
pillar a sort of square table less 
than six feet, and on that table 
stood a man armed from head 
to foot, flashing like the sun, 
and holding in his hand a 
fearful weapon, and on his right 
and left were seated two boys 
dressed as angels, and having 
wings like angels, and these 
were not representations but 
really human beings who moved ; 
and at the stern it had appar- 
ently two golden lions and 
between them a golden two- 
headed eagle, and it had many 
other fantastic decorations which 
are impossible to commit to 
writing. It was very swift, 
and sometimes went in front of 
the royal trireme, and sometimes 
by the side of it, and circling 
round it with cheering and 
sounding of many trumpets : 
other vessels and boats also 
came, which could not be num- 
bered, for as no one can count 
the stars of heaven, or the 
leaves of the trees, or the sand 
of the sea, or the drops of the 
rain, so it was impossible to 
count the boats on that occasion. 
Not to be prolix then, the 
Doge, having arrived, approached 
the royal trireme, attended by 
the nobles of his senate, and 
went on board and made his 



Ik Se^iwv, (OS Tr/ooeipyrat, rov 
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Merot pLLKpov Se ilar^p^ovTO 
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obeisance to the king wlio 
remained seated, having on his 
right, as was said before, his 
brother seated on a lower level 
than the royal throne : the king 
then seated the Doge on his 
left, upon a seat on the same 
level as that of the prince, hold- 
ing him by the hand while they 
conversed in a very friendly 

After a little while, they began 
to make their entry with great 
ponip, to the sound of trumpets 
and all kinds of music, into 
brilliant and marvellous Venice ; 
and indeed wonderful and 
most wonderful, wealthy, pro- 
fusely ornamented and gilded, 
with every kind of carving and 
decoration, and worthy of never- 
ending praise is Venice, the 
most intellectual of cities. If 
any one were to call her another 
Land of Promise, he would not 
be wrong : for I believe that it 
is of her that the prophet says 
in the 23d Psalm [24th of 
English version], 'For God 
founded it upon the seas and 
established it upon the floods.' 
For what will any one seek 
and will not find there ? On 
this account she is worthy of 
the highest praise and honour. 
It was about the fifth hour of 
the day when we began to make 
our entry into Venice and we 
were sailing till sunset, when 
we arrived at the palace of the 
Marquis of Ferrara. 



Kai k^rjXOiv €is air dvTrja-LV rov 

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The whole city was in move- 
ment and came out to meet the 
king, and the applause and 
cheering was tremendous ; and 
on that day there was to be 
witnessed an entrancing spec- 
^tacle, the marvellous church of 
St. Mark, the magnificent palace 
of the Doge, and the spacious 
mansions of the nobles, orna- 
mented with bright red colouring 
and profuse gilding, beautiful 
and more than beautiful : those 
who have not seen her will 
perhaps not believe, while we 
who have seen her are unable 
to describe in writing her beauty, 
her situation, her arrangement, 
the intelligence of the men and 
women, the immense crowd of 
people who all stood and 
witnessed with unanimous joy 
and delight the entry of the 
king : for we were perfectly 
lost in admiration when we 
beheld such magnificence, so 
that in our ecstasy we said : 
' To-day the land and the sea 
have become heaven.' For as 
no one can comprehend the 
creations and the works of God 
in heaven, but is only struck 
with amazement, so we were 
amazed at what we saw on that 
day. When we arrived at the 
great bridge which they call the 
Rialto, they raised it, and the 
trireme passed under it. There 
too a great mass of people was 
collected, and there were golden 
standards, and trumpets, and ap- 




dXaXay/JLOi, kol (xttAw? enreiv, 
arovel /xol 6 vovs ypa<^etv kol 
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To dTToa-Traorfia tovto €K T7J<s 
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rrjV eTTOX^y eKetvi^v, eirLrpexj/aTe 
/xot V dvayvaxrii) v/jllv cttio-toA-^v 
Tiva dTToSiSojjievTjv els tov l^rja-- 
(Tapcojva- eTrea-TetXe 8e avTrjv 

plause and cheering, and, in 
short, ability fails me to de- 
scribe in writing or in words 
the spectacle of that day, and 
the acclamations and the atti- 
tude of the people, and the 
deep respect and the hearty 
welcome with which they greeted 
the king. And we went, as I 
said before, to the palace of the 
Marquis of Ferrara, for it was 
there that they stationed the 
trireme : it was then sunset : 
and the Doge and his senators, 
taking their leave, went away 
home on Sunday the ninth of 
February in the year 1437." 

This extract from the History 
of the Council of Florence is ex- 
tremely interesting, not only 
from an historical but from a 
philological point of view, for 
it shows the state of the Greek 
language as it was written in 
the 15th century by educated 
men of that day, whenever they 
condescended to express their 
ideas in a simple and unstudied 
style : when I say a simple style, 
I do not mean the vulgar lan- 
guage spoken by the common 
people, but that which, to a 
certain extent, is written in ac- 
cordance with grammatical rules. 

If you would like to see in 
what condition the vernacular 
Greek language was at that time, 
allow me to read to you a letter 
attributed to Bessarion : he wrote 
it to the tutor of the sons of 
Thomas Palaeologus. 



€tg rov TraiSaytoyoi' rtov reKVOJV 
Oiofia Tov ^laAatoAoyo^^ 

IIoAu 6d fxe v7ro)(^p€(i)cn]T€ av 
d(f)y](rrjT€ tijv avdyvuxTtv Tyj<s €7rt- 
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aKo\ovdy(Ty]T€ r-qv a^ryyr^o-tv 
v/xwv TTcpt ryjs cv ^Xiopcvrta 

El) )(^apL(TT ID'S' (fiofSoVfJiaL OjXiOS 

on 6 cfiikos /xov KvpLO<s 'Av- 
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Aei/ €)(^€L ovTws; 

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S^v f^XeTTO) oTt €tVat dvayKf] v 
d I'aTTTV^rjrc o Aas ras SoyfxaTLKas 

T1]V (TVVoSoV 7raT€pii)V. ^VVOTTTL- 

KiordTT) dcfiT^yrjCTLS irepl avrOtv 
dpK€i. Tt Aeyere kol vjxeis 
Kv/ote OvtAcrwv; 

2i'/x^(ov(u TrXrjpecrraTa pX rrjv 
yv(opy]v eras. 

Kat eyo) Aoittov ^o, Trpd^io 
(Tvp^oiva pk rrjv kTriOvpLtav cas. 
— ^'O AvTOKpdriop KOL ol Trepl av- 
Thv epetvav €V Beverta rjpcpas 
BeKairevTe Kad' a? TroAAat wept- 
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^TreBaxpiXevdrjcrav els avTOv<s. 
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rrjv iropcLav avrajv ei's ^eppdpav, 
ol KdroiKOL TTjS oTTotas (Tvvk^pa- 

pOV OTTWS V7roS€)(^0<l)(rLV avTovs 

perd TTopTTyjs p.eydXr]';. *0 Av- 

TOKpdriOp CKdOyjTO €7rt LTTTTOV 

pkXavos r)VTp€7rL(Tp,€V0V pierd 
kpvdpov KoX Xpva-oiJcfidvTOv )(^a- 


Xpva-ovs deToi'5 'ixcDV Itti tov 
•\a<r8L0v €7rop€V€TO epLTTpocOcv 

You will much oLlige me if 
you will defer the reading of 
the letter till to-morrow and 
continue your account of the 
Council of Florence. 

With pleasure : but I am 
afraid that my friend Mr. 
Androcles has no great inclina- 
tion to listen to religious ques- 
tions. — Is this not so ? 

Your conjecture is correct. 
But I do not see that there is any 
necessity for you to relate in de- 
tail all the doctrinal disputes of 
the fathers who attended the 
Council. A very concise account 
of them is enough. And you, 
Mr. Wilson, what do you say ? 

I entirely agree in your opin- 

I will do then according to 
your wish. The Emperor and 
those who were with him re- 
mained a fortnight in Venice, 
during which time every atten- 
tion and the highest honours 
were lavished upon them. After 
this they continued their journey 
to Ferrara, the inhabitants of 
which flocked in crowds to re- 
ceive them with much pomp. 
The Emperor rode a black horse 
with scarlet and gold trappings, 
another horse, a white one, with 
its apjDointments decorated with 
golden eagles, went in front of 
the Emperor without a rider. 
The Pope, seated in his palace 



TOV AvTOKpaTOpOS fJ^r] €)(^0)V €7ri- 

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Tu) TraXario) avrov fxera Travros 
TOV KX-qpov. "Ore 8e efiadev 

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eTTCTpexl^e va dcnraaSy rrjv 
Xdpd TOV. "ETreira eKdOtcrev 
avTov €^ dpca-Tepwv avTov. 

'AXX 6 JlaTpLdp)(r]S TL aTT- 

'^Keivos "^XOe f3pa^vTepov Kal 
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rjo-Trda-dr] avTov ei's Trjv irapetdv^ 
ot Se irepl avTov dp^iepels 
r)(T7rd(r$r](Tav Trjv Se^tdv avTOV. 
"Ews ISw TO, irpdyp^aTa ef^auvov 
KaXios' dXX dcf>ov TrdaraL at 
e7rL(Tr)p.0L Se^twaet? Kat at eopTol 
iXa/Sov Trepas Kal rjpxt-o-av djx- 
^OTe/Da Ta picpr] va (TKkiTTOiVTai 
Trept Twv 6p(i)v v(ji ovs eVpeTre v 
dpxicrri -q crvvoSos., TroXXal Svcr- 
KoXiai dv€(fidv7j(rav, Trepl twv 
OTToiwv Sev €LvaL dvdyKYj va Kdfxo) 
Xoyov kvTavBa. 

^rjv kvdT-qv 'ATTpiXiov 1438 
€y€LV€ /x€Ta fieydXrjs Tro/JLirrjs rj 
evap^iS TTJs o-vvoSov, dXX' al Ta- 
KTiKttt (TvveSpida-eLS rjp^^^LO-av Trj 

€KT7) 'OkTDdPpiOV. 'Ev ^CppdpCX 

€y€ivav SeKae^ (rvveSpidareLs ' Trj 
§€ 26 ^e^povapiov tov eVovs 
^439 fJ^ereTeOi] yj avvoSos eis 

and surrounded by all his clergy, 
awaited liis arrival. When he 
heard that the Emperor was near 
the gate, he rose and walked 
about till he entered. 

I should like to know if he 
knelt to the Pope. 

He wanted to kneel, but the 
Pope would not allow him ; but 
he embraced him and let him 
kiss his hand, and then seated 
him on his left side. 

But what became of the 
Patriarch ? 

He arrived later, and on 
being presented to the Pope 
kissed him on the cheek, and 
the prelates with him kissed his 
right hand. So far everything 
went well ; but when all these 
forms and ceremonies of recep- 
tion were completed, and both 
sides began to consider the con- 
ditions under which the Council 
was to be opened, many difficul- 
ties arose ; about which it is not 
necessary for me to say anything 

On the 9th of April 1438, the 
Council was inaugurated with 
great ceremony, but the regular 
sittings commenced on the 6 th 
of October. Sixteen sittings 
took place in Ferrara ; and on 
the 26th of February 1439 the 
Council was transferred to Flor- 



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ll€TiV€\diLS €tS TO 'EAAj^VtKOV 

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rjfMClS €IS TO aVTO ^€Vo8o)(^€LOV 

8id vd yjixeOa oXol ojxov. Avpcov 
Se d<f)Ov iiTLcrKecfiOujixev rd fxdX- 
Xov d^LoOeara TTys TroAews direp- 

IIoAv KttAa. 

ence, and after lengthened dis- 
cussion the union was effected, 
but the Eastern Church never 
acknowledged it as genuine. 
The decree by which the terms 
of the union were defined was 
drawn up in Latin, and, after 
being translated into Greek by 
Bessarion, was signed by our 
people on the 5th of July 1439. 
But Marcus the Archbishop of 
Ephesus refused to sign the 
decree ; and when the Pope 
heard of this, he exclaimed : " Tf 
this is so, we have done nothing." 

I was going also to ask you 
what happened in Constanti- 
nople after the Council, but I 
see that we have arrived at 
Florence. At what hotel do 
you intend to put up ? 

At the hotel Minerva. 

Then we too will come to the 
same hotel, so that we may all 
be together. To-morrow, after 
we have visited what is most 
worth seeing in the city, we 
will start for Rome. 

Very good. 

AiAAoros r 


OTt €7ri reAovs ecfjieda Ivtos T'/Js 
(rtSrjpoSpojJiiKyjs afxd^rjs koI dva- 
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dv Kttt (TT€vai, cTvai 6jxio<s KaO- 
apiiiTarai, €V0> at toi; ^avapiov 
Kat TToAAwv aAAwv fxepoiv rrjs 

I am very glad that at last 
we are in the railway carriage 
and are on our road to Rome, 
for I am exhausted with fatigue. 
My friend Mr. Androcles, who 
is indefatigable, insisted on our 
seeing everything of interest in 
the city in one day. 

He got this habit, you see, 
from London, where the dis- 
tances are so great, and one is 
compelled to walk for many 
hours every day without feeling 
it. But what did you think of 
Florence ? 

Its large buildings of solid 
stone and its narrow and gloomy 
streets at first made me melan- 
choly, but by degrees this feeling 
passed away, especially when 
there came to my recollection 
the Phanar quarter of Constanti- 
nople where I spent many years 
of my life. The streets of 
Florence, I said to myself, 
though narrow, are neverthe- 
less very clean, while those of 
the Phanar, and of many other 
parts of Constantinople, are ex- 



K.(i)V(rTavTLVOvTr6\€0)'5 elvac pv- 
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crets i7ryj\$ov eh 7rdcra<s avTrjs 
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'¥i7r€(TK€<fidY)Te TTjV A€0)(^0/30V 

Viale dei Colli ; 

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ra ai/(o €K Trj<s 7rvXr]s 'Aytot) 
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^Aa>/3€VTtav Kal irdvra rd kv 

cessively dirty, and in rainy 
weather impassable. 

But in Florence all the streets 
are not narrow, for since Italy 
has been united into one inde- 
pendent kingdom, many im- 
provements have been effected 
in all its cities, and especially 
in Florence when it became the 
capital of all Italy. Did you 
see the high-road, Viale dei 
Colli 1 

Yes. It goes up-hill from the 
Porta San Niccolo to the historic 
church and cemetery of San 
Miniato, and then inclines down- 
wards to the Porta Romana. 
From the highest part of the 
main road the view is most charm- 
ing. The panorama of Florence, 
with the Arno and the surround- 
ing hills, and the Apennine 
mountains in the distance, form 
a unique and very lovely picture. 

What other places did you 
visit ? Did you go to the 
cathedral ? 

Most certainly. But I do 
not remember by name all the 
places we saw to-day, for they 
were so many ; my friend Mr. 
Androcles however knows each 
and all of them, so that I leave 
to him the duty of explaining 
to you everything in detail. 

Mr. Wilson knows Florence 
and everything in it much better 
than I do, so that it is super- 



avrrj, oxttc elvat TreptTTOi' va 
Tov Trapa^aXicrioixev jxe rrjv irepi- 
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vfxets Kvpte OvtXcriov Scv fias 
eiTreTe ttws SiijXdere rrjV rjfxepav. 

€is eTTtcTKei/'iv (rvyyevoiv nvdyv, 
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rrjs dvaxajpija-eois kol evOvs e- 
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TTWS X'^^f^^'^^'' T^dcrav (TTiyix-qv 
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vos ^o-vxd^eL eyo) 6d dvayvuxriji 
els vfids T'i]V eTTLfTToXrjV. 

AiVao-^e vd pLOi eLTrrjTe oXcya 
TLvd Trepl TOV ^rjO'cra p toivos ; 

lEiv x^ p lo-T ix)S ' a-ds TTapaKaXw 
ofnos vd fxoi e7rLTp€xl/rjTe vd 
TTOL-qa-dii TOVTO fxeTa tyjv dvd- 
yvu)a-LV ttJs cTrto-ToA-^S. 

HoAv KaAa. 

ISov rj aTToSiSofievrj t(^ Bryo"- 
araployvL eTria-ToX-q. 

" l^vyevea-TaTe dvep koX r^fxQiV 
^lATttTe cfilXiov, eSe^dfXTjv kol 
irpoTepov Kol vvv 6td tov *Ep- 

fluous to trouble him with 
a description of what we have 
seen. — But you, Mr. Wilson, have 
not told us how you passed the 

Very pleasantly. I went to 
visit some relations who live 
about four miles outside of the 
city, and stayed with them 
nearly all the day. When I 
returned to the hotel it was 
time to start, so I hastened at 
once to the station to meet you. 
You see then that I did not 
fatigue myself so much as you, 
and I am quite ready to listen 
to the letter of Bessarion to the 
tutor of the children of Thomas 
Palaeologus, if his reverence will 
take the trouble to read it. 

Let us not incommode him, 
poor man. Do you not see how 
he is yawning every minute and 
blinking? While then he is 
taking his rest, I will read you 
the letter. 

Can you tell me a little about 
Bessarion ? 

With pleasure : but I beg yon 
to allow me to do so after read- 
ing the letter. 

Very good. 

Here is the letter attributed 
to Bessarion. 

" Most noble, and dearest of 
my friends ; I have, on former 
occasions and at this present 



lii^Tiavov ypafXfiaTa rr^s cvycvtas 
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rearardpiav to oAiywre/aov, Kal 
€is poyav rOiV avrdv vTroxeipLOJV, 
Kol €19 evSvfxara twv avdevro- 
TTOvXoiV^ vd eivat KaAot cvSv/xara, 
Kol Kdirov vd 7r€pi(ra-€vrf Kal 
Ti7roT€S TOV KaO' €va, Sid vd 
fSoy]drj6(ocri KctTrcos et? d(r6€V€idv 
Tovs r) ets aAATyv dvdyKi^v Kal 
TOVTO dkXii vd ykvy e^ aTravToSj 

time, received letters from your 
nobility tliroiigli Hermitianos, to 
which I did not reply, as I was 
waiting till a settlement was 
made about a provision for the 
princes. But since this has now 
been effected, I now write to you. 
This is not the time for me 
to console you and the princes 
in your insupportable grief for 
the sacred prince [the brother 
of the Emperor Constantine 
Palaeologus] of happy memory, 
so I shall pass over this sub- 
ject for the present. Know 
then that his Holiness the Pope, 
at the solicitation of certain 
friends and from his own be- 
nevolence, has promised to give 
three hundred ducats a month 
to the princes, the same amount 
as he gave to the sacred prince. 
His Holiness the Pope wills and 
decrees that each month two 
hundred ducats intact are to be 
for the three children equally, 
and that they are to be expended 
on their own maintenance and 
that of their inferior dependents, 
six or seven for each, and upon 
the purchase and keep of four 
horses at least, and for the salar- 
ies of those dependents, and the 
apparel of the princes ; they are 
to have handsome clothes, and 
now and then something to re- 
main over for each of them, so 

^ This expression i) evyevla aov in the Greek of the present day is 
simply a polite paraphrase for you like the Italian vossignoria, and 
possibly it has the same meaning in this letter, although in the English 
translation it is literally rendered your nobility. 



Kol va fi-qSev y^vrj aAAews. Ta 
5e Xonra kKarov SovKara rov 
firjva, TJyovv yJiXia kol SiaKocrta 
Tov xpovov, va e^oSid^cDVTaL eis 
Tovs apyovra^ koX KaXa 7rpo(r- 
iiiira, OTTOV va elvai fxer avrcov, 
va Tot SovXevovv kol va ra (tvv- 
Tpocj^id^ovv Kal va rd (fivWar- 
TovcTiV. 'AK0V(Ta<s 8e 6 dyno- 
Taros IlaTras to 7ro(rot etvai 
avTOv vTrepedavfiacre Kal Kara- 
yivioa-Kerai fxas. Kai yap idv 
els TOV avdkvTTjV rov ixaKapiar- 


iOavfxa^ov ttws €t)(^ev eSw rocrovs, 
Kal cKarrjyopovv rov on els rryv 
^evireiav va rpecfir) Toaovs fie 
^eva SovKOLTa koI ^eva? eXTTtSas, 
TTOcro) [xdXXov Tiopa, ottov -^XOov 
Kal dXXoL TrXetOTepot irapd ottov 
'rjarav eSw, Karay iviiicrKOVTai nav 
Kal Kar-qyopova-L rcov, Kal fxa- 
Xio-ra els avOevTOTTOvXa vea Kal 
6p(f>avd, OTTOV ovre d^LOifxa ovTe 
ovofxa ovTe (Ji-qfirjv e)(OV(Ti. 




Tovs, dXX' ov8e fBovXovTai va 
e^o^id^oio-iv eva ropvea-LV ttXcov, 
Kal dfXTTores fids to era^av va 
TO (fivXd^CDo-i TeXeiOiS Kal vd 
fxrfSev fxera^XrfOojcrLV^ wo-Trep 
eTTOirjcrav Kal dXXoTe. At' avTO 
eTvai XP^^^ ^^ S^povTt^i^ rj 
evyevia crov fxerd rov dp^ovrov 

that tliey may have something to 
help them in sickness or for any 
other exigency : he wishes this 
to be done without fail, in this 
way and no other. The remain- 
ing hundred ducats a month or 
twelve hundred a year are to be 
expended upon the noblemen 
and gentlemen who are to be 
with them, and attend upon 
them, and bear them company 
and take care of them. When 
his Holiness the Pope heard how 
many people there are over 
here, he was astounded, and 
lays the blame upon us. For if 
they were astonished that the 
late prince, who was such a 
great man, had so many attend- 
ants here, and reproached him for 
maintaining, while in exile, so 
many persons on the money of 
others, and on hopes foreign to 
those others, how much more 
now, when many more have 
come over than were here be- 
fore, do they censure and blame 
them, especially in the case of 
princes who are young, and 
orphans, and have no official 
position nor name nor reputa- 

And not only do they censure 
them, but they are unwilling to 
spend a halfpenny more ; and 
would that they would com- 
pletely perform what they 
promised us and not change 
their minds as they have done 
at other times ! Consequently 
your nobility, with the dis- 




Tov KptTOTTOvXov Tov larpov 
TouTO, OTTov Kara to Trapov 

€X^T€ T^l^ ff>pOVTL8a TO)V avOiV- 

'E7ravLa-T/j(Tii)fX€V T6s va ra 
SioLKy^ 17 Tts eTvai dvayKaios 
va KparrjOy' koI jxeTo. ravra 
dkXovcTL fxepLo-Orjv fiera jSovXyj^s 

€8LKrj<S p^aS €t? €K€tVOV<S OTTOV 

OeXovcTLV d7rop.€V€LV. 'E/xeva 
yovv Trporjyovpievios cfiaiverat pie 
ws dvayKatoTaTov ottov 8ev 
ripLTTopel va Xu\}/ri^ irpCirov 6 
laTpos-, Sevrepov 6 StSacrKaAo? 
"FiWrjv, TpiTOv 6 SiSao-KttAos 
AaTLVOs, TeTapTov 6 Spayov- 
p.dvos. OvTOL yovv elcnv 
dvayKatoraTOL /cat Sev iqpTropei 
va Aci^oxrtv. "Ert Se /cat cfs 
r) 8vo TTttTraSes Aartvot eTvau 
dvayKaLoraroL Std va ifdXXiaa-L 
XeiTOvpyiav AartVLKrjv crwe^w?. 
FtTvat yap Xpeia va ^Ckn ra 
TraiSia AartvtKws, (ocr7re/3 efSov- 

Kat o pLaKapta-pievos Trarrjp 
T(ji)V. Kai ot ap;)(ovTcs ottov 
^cAovo-tv ela-dai per eKeivovs, 
elvat xpei-a va 7rpo(T€X<J>o'LV els 
rovro, va p.rj8ev (fyevyoxTiv diro 
ri]V €KXXy](Ttav Sta pLvyjpocrvvov 
rov IlaTra, axrdv to eTrotrjo-av 
els TTjV crrpdrav ottov ijpx^o-Oe, 
8toTt dv (f>evyo}<TLV diro rrjv 
eKKX-qcTLav, eTvai XP^^^ ^^ 
ff>vy(}XrL KOL diro rr)V ^payKtav, 
Ov8e rtvas yap deXei dvOpoiirov 
OTTOv rov ovopia^et aTTLarov Kai 
alperiKov Kai dTToarpecfieraL rov 

'Ac/)' OTOV yovv TOVTOt ot 

I dvayKaiOL, ov5 eLirapLev, Kara- 

tinguished physician Critopoulos, 
who at present have the care of 
the princes, must give heed to 
this matter. 

Let us settle who is to look 
after them, and who must 
necessarily be kept : afterwards, 
in consultation with us, this 
[money] will be divided among 
those who will remain. First 
of all it appears to me that those 
who on no account can be left 
out are, firstly, the physician ; 
secondly, the Greek master ; 
thirdly, the Latin master ; 
fourthly, the interpreter. These 
then are absolutely necessary 
and cannot be dispensed with. 
Further, one or two Latin priests 
are most essential, to chant the 
Latin service regularly. For 
the princes must adopt the 
Latin mode of life, as was the 
wish also of their late father. 
And the noblemen who will be 
with them must pay attention 
to this point, that they are not 
to leave the church at the men- 
tion of the Pope's name, as they 
did on your road here, for if 
they keep leaving the church, 
it will be necessary for them to 
leave also the land of the Franks. 
For no one likes a person who 
calls him an infidel and a heretic 
and openly detests him. 

When, then, these indis- 
pensable persons whom we have 



ara^wo-i, Kol (TTrjBrj to jxepriKov 
Tcov TTOdov OeXet etarOatj (tovto 
Se deXo) TO Kvrra^CLV lyo) eSw 
Kol 6eX(j) Karaa-Trja-eiv) totc 
deXere ISeiV to {'TroAofcTrov ttoo'ov 


ra 0.0-' cfiXcDpia. Kat Tore rj 
€vy€VLa (ras oXol avrafxa OeXere 
OLTTOKaracrT'i^creLV rts vol dirofxeivrj 
KOL Ti va €)(^r) 6 KaOels fxera 
j3ovXrj<s r]iJ.erepa<5. 'E/xeva ovv 
(fiatveraL fxov, on ocrov elvai 
TrXeioves kol eXacf^porepoi^ ottov 
[xkXXovv va dpKecrOovv //.€ oXiyov 
6 KaOcLS, etvai Be dXX(DS xprjcri- 
fJLOL, rocrov dkXu etcrOaL KaXXiov, 
SiOTi OkXovcTLV e\eL Tot TratSla 
TrXeiova (rvvrpocfiiav kol TrXeiova 
SovXo(rvvr]v Kal irXdova tl/jl-Jv. 
"OfJLOis TOVTO OeXopiev to CTKe- 
xj/aa-OaL dvTOLfia, kol deXofxev 
TTOLi^areiv TO KaXXiov. 

'H evyevia a-ov eti/at KaTct to 
irapov coa-irep StoLKrjTrjs twi/ 
7rat8ta)V fieTa tov KpiT07roi)Xov • 
ecvat yovv dvdyK-Q Trpo TravTwv 
va ^/oovTt^cTe tyjv TratSeva-Lv 
Ttov Kat TO, tJOt] twv, vol ycvovv 
KaXd KOL 7re7rat6ev/x€va, dv 
OeXeTe vd e)(^ovv Tt/Ar)v eSw* 
CiSe p.-q^ OkXovv TO, KaTa<f)po- 
V7](T€iv Kol avTa KOL €0-as eSw, 
/cat ovSe (TTpacfirjv deXovv vd 
ads ISovv. Me tov p.aKapiTrjv 
TOV avdkvT-qv tov TraTcpa tovs 
k(TVVTv\ap.ev Trepl tovtov' kol 
€K€ivos €/3ovXeTO vd TCl kvBvcTrj 
KOI vd TTOi-ja-rj vd ^ovv ^pdyKiKa 
TravTcAws, ijyovv vd aKoXovdova-L 
TY)v cKKAryo-tav KaTO, TravTa 

mentioned are settled [as regards 
their number], and what their 
share [of the money] is to be 
has been fixed (I shall look 
after this here and arrange it), 
then you will see how much 
the balance is, and how much 
remains of the 1200 florins. 
And then your nobilities, all of 
you together, will decide who is 
to remain, and what each is, 
with our sanction, to receive. 
My opinion is that the more 
there are of those who have less 
pretensions and will be satisfied 
with a small salary each, but 
will also be useful, the better ; 
for the children will have more 
people about them and will be 
better attended upon and will 
receive more respect. But we 
will see about this together and 
will do what may be best. 

Your nobility at present is 
like a governor to the children, 
in conjunction with Critopoulos. 
It is necessary then before everj^- 
thing that you should take heed 
to their training and manners, 
so that they may be well-con- 
ducted and properly educated, 
if you wish them to be respected 
here ; otherwise, people here will 
despise both them and you, and 
will not even turn round to 
look at you. I had a conversa- 
tion with the late prince, their 
father, on this subject : he too 
wished to dress them and make 
them live altogether after the 
manner of the Franks, that is 



u}(rav AaTLvoL Kal ov)(l aAAew?, 
VOL ci/SiVwi'Tat Aarti/tKws, va 
jxaBovv va yovart^ovv tovs 
VT7epk^ovTa<;^ kol TLaTrav Koi 
KapSivaAtov? Kal TOV<i aAAovs 
avOivras, va dTrocrKeird^wvTai to 
Ki^dXi rovs, KOi vd Tifioxn 
Tovs xaiperoiVTas avrovs. "Orav 
vTTayovv vd ISovv KapStvdXiV 7} 
aAAov avBkvrt^v, vd firjSkv 
KaOi^ovv TTOcrcij?, dix-q vd yova- 
TL^ovv Kal aTTCKet orav rovs 
eLTzri €KeLV0S vd a-qKUiOovcnv. 
*0 Se fJLaKapLTTjs €K€lvos cAeyev 
oTt Kal avTOS TToAAaKts avTOVs 
TO €L7re vd fxrjSev KaSc^wcnv. 
Avrd ovv oAa ivOvfidcrOe ra vd 
Tov<s vovOerrjcreTe Kal vd tovs 
TratSeiVeTC KaXd. 

"Etc TTOLrjcreTe on to ^dSia-fid 
Tovs vd eu^at a-efxvbv Kal Ti/xtov, 
•q ofXiXia Tovs XprjO-Lp.ijiTdr'r] Kal 
Yj cfiOivi] TOVS vd eivai fxerpia Kal 
t)pkiiri, TO jSXeixfxa tov<s irpocre- 
KTiKov, vd fxrjS^v xda-KOia-LV eSw- 
div KaKeWev. "As tl/jlovv irdv- 
ras, d<s dyaTrovv Travras, as 
(rvvTvxaLVioa-L Trdvras Kal tovs 
iSiKovs Tiov Kal TOVS ^evovs 
jxeTd TLixrjs' vd firjv etVat aAa- 
^ovLKoij as €tva6 TaTretvot Kal 
ijpeixoi' Kal /xr^Sev evOvfiovvTau 
OTi eivat /^acriAews aTroyovot, 
ap.ij as evOvfiovvTat oVt eivat 

Opc^avol, ^€VOL, oAoTTTW^Ot, OTt 

av Sev €Xov(rLV dpeTyjVy dv Sev 

€LVaL (ftpOVLfJLOL, dv ScV €LVaL 

TaTretvot, dv 8iv Tt/xwcrt TravTas, 

to say, attend church like the 
Latins in all respects without 
any deviation, dress in the 
Latin fashion, learn to kneel 
to their superiors, the Pope 
and the cardinals and the 
other princes, and bare their 
heads to them, and behave 
with respect to those who 
might greet them. When they 
pay a visit to a cardinal or 
other prince, they should on no 
account sit down, but should 
kneel, and rise from that posi- 
tion when he tells them. The 
deceased of happy memory used 
to say that he also himself often 
told them not to sit down. 
So bear all this in mind, in 
order that you may advise them 
and bring them up well. 

Again, take care that their 
way of walking is modest and 
dignified, their conversation 
sensible, their voice soft and 
quiet, their regard attentive, 
and that they do not look 
round about them with a vacant 
stare. Let them honour every 
one, like every one, and con- 
verse respectfully with all people, 
whether of their own household 
or strangers ; let them not be 
haughty but humble and gentle ; 
and let them not consider 
that they are of royal descent, 
but let them remember that 
they have been driven from 
their own country, that they 
are orphans, foreigners, and in 
utter poverty ; that if they have 



ovSe Tov<s deXovv Ti/xT^crecv ol 
aXXoL, dfirj OkXovv rovs airoarTpe- 
cf)e(T6ai Travres. Avra ovv oAa 
ippovTtcrere ra KaXa r] evyevia 
(Tov fxera rov K/)tT07rovAov, 
iireidrj to yofxapt eTrdvu) eras 

Upos rovTOLS as eTTifieXovvTai 
vd fxadovv y pap^fxaTa, vd irpo- 
Koxpovv^ vd p.rjv kvdvpLOVvrai otl 
€tvaL evyevLKOi' ^ evyeveta 
XOipls dperrjs Sev etvat riirores 
KoX elsTrdvras p^ev tovs avdevras, 
OTTOv €Xovv KOi /xeyctAa? avdev- 
Ttas KOL dpxds, Kal pidXXov els 
avTOvs OTTOV exao-av oAa. Ato 
as cnrovSd^ovv vd pidduyriv, as 
expvv evireideiav kol virorayrjv 
Kal v7raKoy]v els rrjv evyevtav 
aroVf Kal els rov larpov ottov 
Tovs eveOpeij/e, kol els tov 
StSao^/caAov t(uv, Kal as eras 
VTraKoviiiui, Kal as ttolovv to 
Tous Xeyere e^ diravTOS' as 
P'dOrj 6 KaOels drr' avrovs eK 
(TTrjOovs eva 7rpoa-(fnovr]p.a to 
TrXeov p,tKpov els rov TLaTrav, vd 
TO etTTWO-t TOV IlaTrav yovaTto^TOi 
Kal aTroa-KeTTaa-TOL oVav eXOoicriv 
iSo), Kal vd pLtjSev yevrj dXXeois. 

"Orav Trepnrarovv els tyjv 
(TTpdrav Kal ol dvOpinTToi avro- 
(T/ceTra^wvTat tovs Kal rip^ovv 
TOVS, as a7roa-K€7ra^(ovTafc Kal 
avTOt TO Kaird<TL twv tj oXoreXa 
Tj irXeiov ■>} oAiywTe/Jov u)s tt^os 
TOVS dvOp(x)Trovs. '0/xotws Kal 

not talent, if they are not 
prudent, if they are not humble, 
if they do not pay respect to 
every one, neither will others 
respect them, but all men will 
dislike them. Your nobility 
will then, together with Crito- 
poulos, pay great attention to 
all these things, for the burthen 
rests upon you. 

Moreover, let them take care 
to prosecute their studies, that 
they may make progress in them 
and forget that they are of high 
birth : high birth without talent 
is worthless even in all those 
princes who have great power 
and authority, far more so in 
those who have lost everything. 
Therefore let them zealously 
apply themselves to their studies, 
let them show obedience, subor- 
dination and submission to your 
nobility, and to the physician 
who brought them up, and to 
their teacher, and let them obey 
you, and do what you tell them 
without fail : let each of them 
learn by heart ^n address to the 
Pope, one of the shortest, and 
let them recite it to him, kneeling 
and uncovered, when they come 
here, and let this be done in no 
other way. 

When they walk in the street 
and people take off their hats to 
them, and pay them respect, let 
them take off their hats in 
return, either completely, or a 
little more or less, in proportion 
to the person's grade. In the 



av ipxiovrai ^evot eh to (nrrjTL 

TlfXlOL avSpiDTTOL VOt TOl'9 fSXk- 

rrovcTLv, as tov<s TrpocrrjKovovvTai, 
d<s Tovs oLTTOCTKeTrd^iavTaiy as 
Tovs 7rap(EK^dvov(TL Kara tovs 
dvdpi07rov<s. "^As (rvvTV\aiV(j)criV 
oXiya fM€V, €VTt/xa 8k Kal €V)(a- 
picTTLKa Kal raTreivd, vd fxrjv 
yeAwo-t TTOo-wSj va firjv Sta^e- 
roiVTat, dAAa /xctoI KaBeorTrj- 
KOTOS Kal cro/3apov (fypovrjfJLaros 
CIS TOVS orvvTvxcLtvajcrLV. 

Eis TTjV Tpocf)ijV Tdiv as efvat 
TvpocreKTLKol Kal kyKparels' €ts 
TO rpaire^L twv as KdOcovTai 
/lerd 7rpocro)(rjs koI TratSevcTeoiS ' 
du OeXeTe vd etVat TreTratSev/Acvot 
€is TOVS 6^0), 7roLy]craT€ vd elvai 
TreTraLSevfievoL els tovs eSiKOvs 
Tiov. '^As fJ^rfv dvata-xwTovv 

TLVay (TVVr]6i(TeT€ TOVS aTTO T(x)pa 

KaXd yjOrj Kal TaTrecvd Kal 
yj/xepa. "As fxavOdvcixriv avro 
Tiopa vd yovaTL^ovv eTTiTy^Seia 
Kal €Vfiop<f>a, Kal vd fxrjv to 
€;(a>o-iv cvTpoTT-qu, oVt jxeydXot 
py]yd8es Kal /Saa-iXets to ttol- 
ovcTLV. 'OTav a-e^atvovv els 
eKKXi^criav AaTLViKif^Vy as yova- 
Tt^ow Kal as ev\oiVTaL iocnrep 
ot AaTLVOi. "^YirayeveTe tovs 
(rvvex^s ets Tas eKKXyjcrtas, 
eis Ttts XeuTOvpyiaSy Kal as 
(TTeKWVTai /x€Ta evXajSeias Kal 
Trpoo-ox^s X^pts yeAwTos, X^P''^ 
AaAtas. "As yovaTt^bvv Kal 
as a7ro(rK€7ra^(jovTat uKnrep ot 

AttTtl'Ol Kttt as IXLfXOVVTai 

eKeivovs. "Av ovtws Trotwort 
^eAovcrt l3oy]9y]6i]V, deXovv 
^x^i-v TL/xyjv Trapd irdvTas^ deXoi 

same way if strangers, who ape 
people of consideration, come to 
their house to see them, let 
them rise to them, let them 
uncover, let them accompany 
them to the door, according to 
their rank. Let them talk 
sparingly but in a becoming, 
pleasant, and modest manner, 
without any laughter, and not 
be effusive, but converse with a 
calm and serious demeanour. 

At their meals let them be 
careful and moderate ; let them 
when sitting at table demean 
themselves with attention and 
propriety ; if you wish them to 
behave well to people outside, 
make them behave well to their 
people at home. Do not let 
them show impudence to any 
one, accustom them henceforth 
to elegant, subdued, and gentle 
manners. Let them learn for 
the future to kneel becomingly 
and gracefully, and not be 
ashamed to do so, for great 
kings and emperors do it. 
When they enter a Latin 
church, let them kneel down 
and say their prayers like the 
Latins. Take them frequently to 
church, to the services, and let 
them comport themselves with 
reverence and attention, without 
any laughing and talking. Let 
them kneel and uncover like 
the Latins, and let them imitate 
them. If they do this, they 
will receive help and meet with 
respect from all, and I too shall 



8vvr]0y]V koL eyo) vol tov<s 
crvvepyo). Et 8k rdvavTia 
TTOLovcTLV, cyo) Sev BeXo) SvvrjOrjv 
va Tovs fSorjOqcro) ovSe oAco?, ol 


(TTpacfiTJv, KOi Tivot? Sev BkXei 
rov<i ripLrjcreLV ov8\ irocrcos. 

Tavra 8ev Aeyo) ypdcfiCDV r-qv 
evyevtav crov Kal rovs dWovs 
fxk Toa-yjv TvoXvXoyiav evKacpa 
Kal fxaraia' dXXd 8icl vd rot 
Aeyere cri^vexws to, avOevro- 
TTOuAa, va Troir^a-y]Tk rovs vd rd 
dvaytviJocrKr} (Tvv€)(^b)s 6 StSaor/ca- 
Xos Tdiv, vd rd dypoLKOvv KaXd 
Sta vd rd Trotwcriv. '^kcivovs 
rd yjOeXa ypdij/eiV' dAA' cTreiSi) 
e/ceivot (OS veoi aKOfxrj 8ev rd 
dypoLKOvv KaXdj St' avrh ypd<f)(j) 
ra rrjv cvyevtav aoVj vd rovs 
Trapacvyjre kol dirh Xoyov /xov 
Kal (XTrb €8iKov eras vol ttoloxtlv 
oxTotv ypd(f>oiiev. 

'^vravda elvat OavartKov 
Kard ro irapov 8l avrh ecfidvr] 
KaXov fierd fSovXrjv riov dp-)(^6v- 
ro)V OTTOV etvat e8o}, Kal fie rh 
deXrj/xa rov dytiordrov IlaTra 
vol firjv 'iXOovv rd avOevroirovXa 
e8o) 8ta rov klvSvvov. *AAA' 
ov8' avrov els rov 'AyKMva vd 
€LvaL, eTTCtS'^ ov8e avros o r ottos 
eivai yepos, dp.rj vd Sta/^T^re va 
wayere ets aAAr^v \<i)pav rrjv 


KaXos drjp, vd crr€K€r€ €K€i ews 
rov ^€TTr€p./3pLov rj 'OKroifSpiov 
fi€ rovs avOevroTTOvXovs Kal rrjv 

be able to assist tliem. But if 
tliey take an opposite course, 
I shall not be able to be of any 
service to them, not any what- 
ever ; people will dislike them, 
and no one will pay them any 
respect, not the slightest. 

In writing to your nobility 
and to the others at such great 
length, I do not utter idle re- 
marks without any object ; but 
that you may repeat them con- 
tinually to the princes, and that 
you may make their master 
constantly read them to them, 
so that they may thoroughly 
understand them in order to 
jDut them in practice. I would 
have written this to them, but 
since they, as they are as yet 
young, cannot well understand 
my remarks, I write them to 
your nobility so that you may 
exhort them, both on my part 
and your own, to do as I 

We have the plague here now : 
consequently, after consultation 
with the noblemen who are here, 
and with the concurrence of his 
Holiness the Pope, it appeared 
advisable that the jorinces should 
not come here on account of the 
danger. Neither should they 
remain in Ancona, since that 
place itself is not uninfected, but 
you must go to another town 
which they call Cigole, where 
there is a good climate, and re- 
main there till September or 
October with the princes and 



avdevTOTTOvXav.^ ^Kcrpacrde 

ccret? €V TO) fxea-co, av Trpemj va 
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CLuat tSw. *0 fxaKapnoraros 
IlaTras kol cyw ypdcfiOfjLev rbv 
XeyoLTOv TTJ's fJidpKa<s oirov va 
was (^oy]6i](rrj kol va (ras (rvv- 
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TOV etvai Kttfc Tt? €7rL(TKOirOS 

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Xov efi'at kvopid rov, Kal i)(€i 
KaXov oonrqTLOV, Kal OkXei era? 

t5 SoXTCtV vol KaT0LKT^a"qT€ iKei, 

Kal OkXiL eras crvvepyqcreLV els 
oTfc €LvaL Svvarov. 

'Eic 'Pu)/xr]s Avyo6(TTOv 6', ^av^e' 


*0 Bi](ro'api(DV KapSivdXis Kal 
7raTpidp)(rjs KwvcTTavTiVOVTro- 

2as €vxapi(TT(Jd TToXv Sta tov 
pot dvayvcoa-7]T€ ttjv irepUpyov 
TavTrjv eiTLcrToX'qv. Etvat tto- 
XvTtpov XcLxf/avov Trjs opLiXov- 
/xevrys yXiocra-qs tov IE' alojvos' 
p,ol cfiaiveTai o/xtos TrapdSo^ov 
7rco5 dvrjp otos 6 ^rjcrcrapiwVj 
ocTTt? €t^€ ^aOeiav yvwo-ti/ ttJs 
dp^alas ^EAAiyviKr}?, -qro Svva- 
Tov vd ypdxfnj els yAwcrcrav toctov 


Kat €t9 TToAAovs aAAovs €cf)d- 
vi] TOVTO irapdSo^ov Kal vTrto- 

^ Thomas Palaeologus had also 
* before he and his family took refuge 

the princess. Meanwhile con- 
sider whether it would not be 
a good thing for them to remain 
there altogether, as is the wish 
also of the nobles who are here. 
His Beatitude the Pope and I 
are writing to the legate of the 
Marches to help you and give 
you assistance in whatever you 
require : there is also a bishop 
there who is my suffragan, who 
belongs to Como and was more- 
over in the service of the sacred 
prince: Cigole is in his diocese, 
and he has a fine house and 
will give it to you for your 
residence, and he will render 
you every assistance in his 

Rome 9th August, 1465, 

Bessarion cardinal and patri- 
arcli of Constantinople." 

I am very much obliged to 
you for the trouble you have 
taken in reading to me this 
curious letter. It is a valuable 
relic of the vernacular language of 
the 15th century : but it seems 
to me extraordinary how it was 
possible for a man like Bessarion, 
who had a profound knowledge 
of ancient Greek, to write in 
such a strange style. 

And to many others also this 
has appeared extraordinary, and 

another daughter who was married 
in Italy. 



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Ikc Aevcre rti'a twv irepl avrov 

OTTWS ypdxpY] aVT>)v €IS T'J^V t6t€ 

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o-as" dAA* OTTWS Kat av e^^; to 
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Trj<s GTTia-ToXyjs, ra kv avry o/xws 
ctvat Atav ivScacfiepovTa. 2(u- 
^erat apdye to ^cipoypa^ov ; 

Aev el^evpo) dv crw^erat -i^ oX''* 
ToiJTO fiovov Svvajxai vd eras 
eiTTO) oTt evptcTKCTaL els ra 
^poviKaVcoipyiov ^pavr^' rb 
Se dvTcypacfiOV rovro eyetvev €k 
rrjs €K86(Te(DS rov 'E/>t. BeK/cepoi;. 

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vd fxoi €L7ry]r€ oXtya rtvd irepl 
rov ^r]a-a-apL(ovos' SvPa/JLat vd 
ads TrapaKaXe(ro) vd fiot rd 
etirrjre rcopa; 

Evxapio-Tws. *0 Brja-(Tapi(t}V 
eyevv-qOrj kv ^paTre^ovvri Kara 
TO eVos 1395' ^Uro, w? yvajpt- 
^ere, dvrjp pLeydX-qs cKavorrjros, 
Kal Karo^^os vxl/rjXyjs TraiSetas. 
Kara rrjv kv ^Xiopevrii^ (rvvo- 
8ov elpydcrOr) 8pa(rrrjpL(i)s ottws 
KaropOcocy rr]v evoio'iv twv 'Ek- 
kXtjo-lmv Kal pierd ravra d(T7ra- 
crSels rd 86yp.ara ryjs AanviKrjs 
'FtKKXrjo'Las TTpoa-eKoXX-qOrj els 
avrijv, 8l' o Kat kripu-qOrj vtto 
rov IlaTra 8ta rr\s dXovpyiSos 

tliey had doubts about its being 
genuine. Perhaps it was not jjtj 
written by himself, but beyond I 
doubt it was sent by him to the 
tutor ; so I conjecture that he re- 
quested some one of his people 
to write it in the language spoken 
at the time, and that he simply 
put his signature to it. 

Your conjecture is not an im- 
probable one : but whatever may 
be the e^se about the letter being 
genuine or not, its contents are 
very interesting. I wonder if 
the manuscript is still in exist- 

I do not know whether it is 
extant or not : I can only tell 
you that it is found in the 
Chronicles of George Phrantzes : 
this copy was made from the 
edition of M. Bekker. 

A little time ago you promised 
to give me a few particulars 
about Bessarion : may I ask you 
to give them to me now ? 

With pleasure. Bessarion was 
born in Trebizond in the year 
1395. He was, as you are aware, 
a man of great ability and highly 
educated. At the Council of 
Florence he worked energetically 
to bring about the union of the 
Churches, and he afterwards 
adopted the doctrines of the 
Latin Church and attached him- 
self to it, on which account he 
was honoured by the Pope with 
the purple robe of a cardinal. 



KapSivdXcios. *Hto Se 6 Bvycr- 
crap'uDV ov fxovov dvrjp (rocfios, 
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Tovs 7rpo(TTp€XovTas €ts avrov. 
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M.avov'qX, Kal 8vo O-qXea, rj 
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MaAwrra, Tycrav T€(r(rapa' 


<TVV(.^€V')(6ri jxeTa Aa^dpov Secr- 
TTOTOv ^epfSias, rj Se 2o<^ia juerot 
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ijXvTeva-cocTLV avTov, iTravrjXOev 

CIS K.(i}V(rTaVTLVOV7roXLV koI €TV- 

\€V evpevovs irapd M.u)dfX€9 t(^ 
Hf VTToSox^'S' o Se 'Av8pea<s, 

CKTTtS -^jTO dvrjp KOV<f>OS KOL 

8vcrTpo7ro<i, da-Traa-dcls to 86yixa 

Bessarion was not only a learned 
man but also very charitable 
and liberal, willingly assisting 
those who had recourse to him. 
His palace on the Quirinal was 
the refuge of the helpless and 
the place of meeting of the 
most distinguished scholars of 
that da)^ It was with him that 
the brother of the last emjDeror 
of the Greeks, Thomas Palaeo- 
logus, sought shelter. When the 
latter died Bessarion took his 
children under his protection, 
as is evident from the letter 
which he wrote to their tutor. 

Do you know what became of 
the children of Thomas Palaeo- 
logus ? I think there were four, 
two boys, Andreas and Manuel, 
and two girls, Helena and Sophia. 

Yes, there w^ere four : of these, 
Helena was married to Lazarus, 
prince of Servia, and Sophia to 
the grand duke of Muscovy, Ivan 
Basilovitch : of the male children, 
Manuel, after he grew up, unable 
to bear the annoyance caused by 
the Roman Catholics who in- 
sisted on converting him, went 
back to Constantinople and met 
with a gracious reception from 
Mahomet II : Andreas, who was 
a frivolous and peevish man, 
having embraced the doctrines 
of the Roman Catholics, re- 
mained in Italy. He died at 



Twv AartVcov e/xetvev Iv 'IraXia. 
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kv T(^ vaw Tov ^Ayiov TLerpov. 

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yXLKrjv SpdoypacfiLav. GeAere 
vd (ras ttjv dvayvMcroj; 

Ea5 TrapaKaXQ). 


Kome and was buried in the 
church of St. Peter. 

In a sepulchral inscription 
upon a brass tablet found in a 
tomb inside the parish church of 
the village of Landulph in Corn- 
wall in England, it is mentioned 
that Thomas Palaeologus had 
also a third son called John : 
how can one reconcile this with 
history ? 

And I too do not know what 
to tell you. But where did you 
see this inscription ? 

In the eighth volume of the 
Proceedings of the Society of Anti- 
quaries in London. I made a 
copy of it, as being very curious, 
and fortunately I have the copy 
with me. It is written with the 
old English spelling. "Would 
you like me to read it to you"? 

I beg you to do so. 





CLIFTON, YE 21ST JAN. 1636. 

'H iTTLypacjir) avrrj eivai 
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evxapiCTTOJ eyKapSito? Sua toi^ 
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ev fxev rats evTv\LaL<s Kocrfxos 
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Siort els avTTjV pieTe/Srjarav Kal 
eStSa^av ov jxovov 6 Xpi'cro- 
Xiopdsj aAAa Kal 6 UXt]d(DV^ 6 

This inscription is full of 
interest, and I thank you 
heartily for the trouble you 
have taken to read it to me. 
After that ill-omened day when 
Constantinople was taken by the 
Turks, a very great number of 
noble and learned Greeks took 
refuge in the West, and were 
scattered in almost all the more 
important cities there, gaining 
tlieir bread by teaching the 
ancient Greek language, in 
which almost all the Greeks of 
that time, who had been well 
brought up, were proficient. In 
the most practical manner, to 
the fugitive Greeks of those 
days, the ancient Greek maxim 
applied : " In prosperity, educa- 
tion is an accomplishment, in 
misfortune, a refuge." Even 
before the taking of Constanti- 
nople, in Italy the road to the 
study of Greek was made smooth 
by learned Greeks, for not only 
Chrysoloras went there and 
taught, but also Plethon, Gazes, 
George of Trebizond and others : 
but those who went there after 
the capture were much more 



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ovTos TOV AacTKapeois, to 


kykveTO kvStaLTrjfia TTpayfxaTLKy^s 
KOL dvoOevTOV '^FiXXrjVLKTJs Trai- 
Sevcrews. 'O IlaTras Aewv 6 

numerous than tliose who went 
there before that event : among 
them Janus Lascaris of Ehyn- 
dacus in Phrygia holds a con- 
spicuous place, whose superior 
education was on a par with his 
pure patriotism. At the ex- 
pense of the great Lorenzo de' 
Medici, Lascaris preserved from 
destruction many Greek manu- 
scripts : he did not however 
confine himself only to this, 
but in the presence of emperors 
and kings he warmly advocated 
the cause of the liberty of the 
Greek nation. But allow me to 
continue the account of Lascaris 
and the other scholars of that 
day with a quotation from the 
Introduction of the learned 
Dionysius Thereianos to his life 
of Corais, about which we have 
already had some conversation : 
" When the most illustrious son 
of Lorenzo became Pope, one of 
his first cares was, at the instiga- 
tion of Lascaris, to establish a 
' Hellenic College ' at the foot of 
the Quirinal hill, where studious 
Greek youths were to be taught 
their ancestral language and 
every branch of general educa- 
tion. With Lascaris as principal, 
this historical college became 
the home of real unadulterated 
Hellenic learning. Pope Leo 
X., a man holding lofty and 
liberal views regarding the arts 
and sciences, an irreconcilable 
enemy of the Turks, and a 
sincere lover of Greek learning, 



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which he had acquired in the 
Platonic Academy at Florence, 
intended to make this college 
a fertile nursery of Hellenism. 
As the first-fruits of this course 
of Hellenic education, the more 
prominent students of the college 
collected and published in 1517 
and 1518 the ancient scholia to 
Homer's Iliad, and to the 
tragedies of Sophocles, and the 
Homeric Questions of Por- 
phyrius ; but unfortunately at 
this time Pope Leo died and 
Lascaris removed from Rome to 
Paris, where, with the famous 
Budaeus, he founded the library 
of Fontainebleau. . . . And in 
Venice, Lascaris (shortly before 
the establishment of the college 
in Rome) was the prime mover 
in the ever-memorable typo- 
graphical enterprises and achieve- 
ments of Aldus. The celebrated 
printing establishment of Aldo 
Manuzio, set up at Venice in 
the vicinity of the church of St 
Augustin at about the end of 
the fifteenth century, became a 
mighty armoury of Hellenism, 
and at the same time a place 
where all the learned Greek ex- 
iles met for consultation and for 
work. Greek critics took charge 
of those splendid and precious 
editions which even at this day 
command admiration as mucli' 



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"AXSos eijyvw/xovws tt/oos tov 
ixkyav tov 'EAA-jyviKOv yevoi'S 
VTrep/xaxov ' kv KecfiaXiSt tov 
7rp(x>T0V TOfxov tQ>v ^EAAryvcov 
T€\voypd<^(jiV {€K8oOevTO)v Kara 
Noe/x^pioj/ Toi" 1508) dva(fi(j)V€t 
6 ' AX80S' ' KXetve KOi cro</)e 
Ada-Kapi, yiV(0(rK(x) /xed' ottoctt^? 
^a/oas ^0, tS|79 iKTVirov/xeva Trap' 

coveted treasures of typograpliic 
art. At the beginning of tlie 
sixteenth century Lascaris was 
ambassador of King Louis XII 
at Venice, but the Greek exile 
was as inexperienced in political 
affairs as he was acute and well- 
versed in Greek learning. . . . 

Imperishable monuments of 
the literary attainments of Las- 
caris are the edition of the GoreJc 
Anthology of Planudes printed 
in capital letters, which he dedi- 
cated to Pietro de' Medici, the 
Hymns of Callimachus with 
Greek scholia, four tragedies of 
Euripides, the Argonautica of 
Apollonius Khodius, and some 
other small works, among which 
are some maxims written in 
monostichs. The first edition of 
the tragedies of Sophocles Aldus 
gratefully dedicated to the great 
champion of the Greek race. At 
the head of the first volume of 
the Greeh Writers on Rhetoric 
(published in November 1508), 
Aldus exclaims: ' Illustrious and 
learned Lascaris, I know with 
what delight you will see, 
printed at my establishment, 
the treatises on rhetoric : for 



c/xot Ttt Trepi ijrjTopLK'ijS crvv- 
ray fxdr la' Siort, ovtco, Kara 
TOV<i (TOV<i TTO^OVS, dva^ioTTvpeLTai 

cnrovSaLiov kol twi/ cfukofxaOiov 
ri 'EAAt^vikt) yAto(ro"a, 7} o-^c6ov 
KaTa(TTpacfi€i(Ta €K twv liriBpo- 
pLMV TWi/ fSap/Sdpiov Kol Trj<s 
ein^petas twv Kaipdv. 'AAAa 
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(TV TrpocrrjXdes dpiayos kol avn- 
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Kttt/oo) Kal TOTTi^ i<al 8rj /cat 
ravvv kv 'Everi^, ottov fiera 
TO(ravTt]<s crvv€(r€(o<s p^eO' oa-qs 
Kal €vdvTr]TO<s eTTtreAets Trjv 
evToXrjv Tzpea-f^evTOV tov XP'-^~ 
nav LKiDrdrov /SacnXeiDS. Ov 
fiovov TTapeSiDKds piOL dvTLypa(f>a, 
&v (SpiOei 1) (TYj ^ifiXLodrjKH], 
aAAo, Kal evSeAe^^ws or/avveis pie 
els €KTV7ro)(rLV twv KvpiOirdnav. 
Eis ae AotTTov dvaTtOrjpLL T7]V- 
Se Ti]v jSl/SXov, TTcpuxova-av 
(TvXXoyrjv €K Tcov (Tiov dvnypd- 
(j)(x)V. 2v eAKCfc? TO yevos €k 
TOV Wvovs Ttuv 'EAAr/vtov, oTrep 
lykvvi](Te TOL's pLeyiaTOVS twv 
dvSpojv, Karayeo-at €k tou av- 
TOKpaTOpLKOV Ttov AacTKdpeuiv 
otKov, eicrat Se rJJs 'EAAaSos 
(TepLvo)p,a KOL dyXd'C<jp.a, Xatpe 
MatK7yva twv Ka^' 77/>ta9 X/^^' 

TOiJ Aaa-KdpeoiS ^rjXiDTrjS 
Kal p,adr]Ty]S Ma/DKos Movcrou/jos 
St€7rAa(r€ Kal aveTrrv^e tou 
tfiiXoTrdTpiSos *Pw8aK7yvov ras 
VTTo^ryKas. Avtos 6 Moiicrov/aos 

thus, iu accordance with your 
desires, the Greek language, 
almost destroyed by the incur- 
sions of the barbarians and the 
ravages of time, is gaining fresh 
life and is being disseminated 
for the benefit of the learned 
and the studious. But I must 
acknowledge that in my labori- 
ous and long career you afforded 
me support and assistance both 
by your advice and your contri- 
butions always and everywhere, 
and actually at this present 
moment at Venice, where with 
as much ability as integrity 
you are performing the duties 
of ambassador of the Most 
Christian king. Not only have 
you supplied me with manu- 
scripts, with which your library 
is loaded, but you unceasingly 
urge me to publish the more 
important ones. To you then I 
dedicate this book, containing a 
collection of your manuscripts. 
You derive your lineage from 
the nation of the Greeks which 
has given birth to the greatest 
of men, you are descended 
from the imperial house of the 
Lascares, and you are an object 
of reverence and an honour to 
Greece. Hail ! The Maecenas 
of our times ! ' 

Marcus Musurus, the zealous 
admirer and the pupil of Las- 
caris, put into shape and de- 
veloped the suggestions of the 
patriot of Rhyndacus. Musurus 



ival3pvv6jJL€vos Xkyei on rvrdov 
ovra TTcpikdaXxj/iV 6 Ada-Kapts 
w? (fiLXrarov vlov kol eSet^ev 
avTW TTjv 68ov TTjV ayov(Tav 
7r/3os T'^v 'A-^au8a fMovcrav. '^O 

MapKOS, vloS '^FldvflVLOV e/XTTO- 

pov, cKAtTTtov TrarptSa Kal yov€i?, 
drreSi^fxyjcre vewraros Ty rjXtKia 
€ts 'Evertav, orrov icnrovSacre 
irepl TYjv XaTLVtSa SidXeKTOV kol 
eyevero etirep tls dXXos kyKpa- 
recrraTOS riov KAacrtKwv yAtocr- 
(Twv. "AKpa cfiiXofidOeia, crvv7]/Ji- 
fievrj Trpos (XKpav (faXoTrarpiav, 
SteKate rr)V (faXonixov xj^vyjiy 
rov veov K/ot^to?. KTr^cra/>tei/os 
fxer' ov TToXv (firjprjv Trept^rjXov 
cXXrjVLo-Tov ^teSe^aro tw 1490 
Tov "AX80V (OS SiSacTKaAos rov 
TrpiyKLTVos 'AX/SepTov ttJs J^dp- 
TTOv, Trap w (XTreAave depfxrj<^ 
Se^noareios Kal 7rpo(TTa(TLa<s. *0 
€vyv(opLO)V padrjTys, 6 vcrrepov 
aocfios 7rpocrayop€v9eis, Trepl 
TrAetcTTOV TTOiovpevo'^ tyjv CTrt- 
crrrjpLTjv rov "EAAt^vos StSaa-Kd- 
Xov,i7r€LpdOrj7rd(rr) P'^JX^^jj o'l'ws 
TreLory tov Movcrovpou vd ep,p.€tvr) 
Trap avT<^ 8l oAov tov f^tov, Kal 
8r) Kal Trpoa-qv€yK€ tw XP'^^^^ 

'Pl^V/AVlfi) fXlKpOV pXv dXK €V(fiO- 

pov KTTJpa aTTOcjiepov (tltov, 
f3p6/XL0v Kal e'Aatov. 'Fivravda 
6 Mov(TOvpos rj8vvaT0 vd 8Ldyy 
ycrvxov Kal dfupip^vov fSiov ' Ka- 
raKXivopevos eirl o-ptXaKos Kal 
uvpLOV Kal TToas cvwSovs ' dcTYO- 
Xovp^vo^ 81 TTcpl TYjv avdyvoiCTLv 
Kal pieXeryv twj/ 'EAAt^vwv Kal 
AartVcov TTotrjTOJV Kal Tre^oypd- 
<fi(i)V' da yvpoipu 8\ Kal dpiCTTCov 

himself relates with pride that 
Lascaris cherished him in his 
tender years like a most beloved 
son, and pointed out to him the 
road which leads to the Achaean 
muse. Marcus, the son of a 
merchant of Eithymnos, leaving 
his native country and his par- 
ents, migrated in his earliest 
youth to Venice, where he 
studied the Latin language, and, 
in a manner surpassed by none, 
mastered the classic tongues. 
The most. ardent love of erudi- 
tion joined to the loftiest patriot- 
ism fired the ambitious soul of 
the young Cretan. Acquiring, 
after a short time, the reputation 
of a Hellenist in great request, 
he succeeded Aldus in 1490 as 
tutor to prince Albert of Carpi, 
with whom he enjoyed a warm 
welcome and protection. The 
grateful pupil, who was after- 
wards surnamed ' the learned,* 
setting the highest value on the 
erudition of the Greek professor, 
endeavoured by every contriv- 
ance to persuade Musurus to re- 
main with him all his life, and 
he actually offered the worthy 
Rithymnian a small but pro- 
ductive proj)erty yielding wheat, 
oats, and oil. Here Musurus 
could have passed a tranquil 
and untroubled life, 'reclining 
on the bindweed, the thyme, 
and the sweet -smelling grass,' 
and engaged in the perusal and 
study of the Greek and Latin 
poets and prose authors ; he 



ycwpywj/, oLTLves xapL^o/xevoc av- 
Tw, €/xeAAov va KOfxi^toa-L ttoWo. 
Kal TrXovcTLOTrapo'^a BQtpa ' ttotc 
pikv da-Trapdyovs evpieyWcis, ttotc 
8c TrrjKTov ydXa, ttotc oe dprt- 
roKa <x)d.' 'AAA,' 6 (fnXoTTOvos 
Ma^Kos ov8a/xoj<s (TTcpyei Tavri]V 

Tl]VVU)0pO7rOiOV SiaLTaV 'ElO-€Tt 

Siv eyrjpacra (cTrtAeyet)* eirl tov 

77ap6vTOS TTpOTldefiaL VOL StaTpt- 

x/yoj iKavov -x^povov iv 'IraAt^t, 
Kal dv fXT] SvvtjOu) vd TrepLTroLrja-u) 
evK-Aetav Trj Trar/DiSi, Od Trpocr- 
~aO/j(Tio ofiiDS, ocry] fxoL SvyafXLS 

Kd.l (TTTOvSq, vd T^^p'q(Tli) TOV 

\)lxripov vofjLov, TOVTO 8' ecTTfc va 
fj.1] KaTaL(T\vvo} TMV Trarcpojv to 
yevos* TeAeuTtttoi/ 8e Siavoovfxat 
vd dvaa-Tpexj/u) otKaSe ottcos y)]- 
poTpo(f>y](T(i} Tovs yevvrja-avras 
Kol KaTaXvcro) tov /iJtov eirl tov 
iroOeLVoraTov €8dcf)ovs.' 

"Ot€ Trepl TO TeAo9 ttjs 7revT€- 
Kat5cKaT>ys eKaTovTa€TT]pL8os 8vo 
Trdvv cf)LXo7rdTpi8es K/3>]t€S, 6 
NiKoAaos BAao-Tos kol 6 Za^^a- 
pias KaWte pyri<s, crvvkcrry]crav 
kv 'Ev€T6^ TV7roypacfi€iov avro 
Kad' eavTo 'EAAt^vikov, ottws 

8L0.TpaV(i)(Tlx)(TL TOLS ^VpiOTTatOLS 
OTL 01 "EAA7^V€9, KOL 6V fX^O-Cp 
TWV 68vV7]pU)V aVTlOV (TVIJ.(f>Op(i)V, 

€KTV7rov(TL Tcl dOdvaTd Twv Trpo- 
yoviiiv Trov'/jfiaTa iv l8L0KTrJTip 
TV7roypa(fiLKip epyacTTrjpup, 6 
Movcrovpos viryjp^ev 6 Kvpios 

(TvXXlJTTTMp TOV WviOcficXovS 

"AASo? Te Kal KaXXupyrjs^ 8irj- 
yov 7r/3os dAA-^yAous ev d8€X(fiLKrj 

would have been well off for 
excellent 'farmers who, to please 
him, would have brought him 
many rich presents, *at one 
time, well -grown asparagus, at 
another, curdled milk, at another, 
new-laid eggs.' But the in- 
dustrious Marcus had no love 
for this lazy kind of life. *I 
have not yet grown old,' he 
adds ; ' for the present I pro- 
pose to spend some time in Italy, 
and, if I cannot acquire glory 
for my country, nevertheless I 
will endeavour, as far as my 
power and my zeal permit, to 
observe Homer's precept, that is, 
not to disgrace the race of my 
fathers : at last I intend to re- 
turn home to support my parents 
in their old age and end my life 
on the soil that I so long for.' 

When, about the end of the 
fifteenth century, two great 
Cretan patriots, Nicholas Vlastos 
and Zacharias Callierges, estab- 
lished in Venice a press which 
was essentially Greek, in order 
that they might make evident 
to the inhabitants of Europe 
that the Greeks, even in their 
painful misfortunes, had so much 
proper pride as to print the 
immortal works of their an- 
cestors in a press of their own, 
Musurus was the principal sup- 
porter of this establishment so 
iDcneficial to the nation. Aldus 
and Callierges conducted them- 
selves towards each other with 
fraternal unanimity, for there 




OfXOVOta, SiOTL 7rpoeK€i,To ovx^' 
Trepl )(^prjiMaTL(TfJLOv, aAAa Trepl 
w^eXeia? twv 'EAAtJi/wv /cat 
Twv 'EAAryvtKWV ypapLfxaTOiV' 6 
Se M.ov(rovpos Sirffiepeve, ttoA- 
AaKts Se StevvKTepevev IvaAAa^ 
ev djx<j>OTkpoi'S tol<s rviroypa- 
cji€LOLS, dvTLypd(fiO)V, SiopOoiv Kal 
KaOaip(i)V Si aTpvTdiV ttovwv tovs 
els €KTV7r(ii(TLV Trpo(opL(rfi€vovs 
KcoSiKas. '0 KaXXupyrjs rjro 
(XTra/aa/xt AAos rexvtrrjs ' avros 

(TTOiyeia 'EAAT^i/tKa, e^a/xtAAa 
Kara Ty]v KaXXovr]v irpos to, tov 
"AXSov. To "Meya 'Erv/^to- 
XoyiKov " TO TT/owrov wo KaA- 
Xtepyov, KpLTLKrj eincrTaa-i^- tov 
M.ov(TOvpov, eKTV7r(io$€v TO) 1499 
f3i[iXiov^ etvaij w? Aeyet 6 AiSo- 
Tos., TVTToypacfitKov dpLCTTOvpyy]- 
/xa, ^apd^av vkav bhbv kv rots 
XpoviKOis TTjs rvTToypacfiias. 'H 
TVTrOXTtS Se TOV 'ETv/xoAoytKov 
ireXecrdr] dvaX(si[xa(Ti rov cJdlXo- 
jJLOV(TOv Kol dcfiavojs Kol kv irapa- 
jSvarro) <f)LXoyevovs, NtKoAaov 
BAao-TOU, TTcpl ov Aeyet o Mov- 
(rovpo<s, oTi rJTO nea-ros ^EAA^^vt- 
Kov cfipov-qfiaros kol kSairdvi^cre 
Tovs drjaravpovs tov (XTro/^AeTrcov 
ets rrjv kolvyjv tov ykvovs w^e- 
Aetai/. *H K/DT^Tr; /xera Tr)i/ kv 
Bv^avTLO) KaTa(TTpo(f>r]v dire- 
SetxOr) avTOXpi^P'OL *EAAaSos 


efJLTreSos a/c/)07roAts * TrepiKXeets 
Xoyioi, Tpif^hives KaXXLT€)(yai, 
fMov(roXrj7rTOL doiSoL, Oav/xacTTol 
rjpoies, kKeiOev cAkovtcs to yevos, 
irpoarijXOov Trjs 8v(ttvxov(T7]S 

was no question of profit, but 
of a service to be rendered 
to the Greeks and to Greek 
literature. Musurus passed the 
day and often the night alter- 
nately in one or other of the 
printing-houses, with indefatig- 
able exertion copying, correct- 
ing, and rendering free from all 
imperfections the codices des- 
tined to be printed. Callierges 
was an unrivalled artist : he 
himself with his own hand en- 
graved and cast Greek letters 
which in beauty were a match 
for those of Aldus. The Ety- 
mologicum Magnum, the first 
book printed by Callierges in 
1499 under the critical super- 
vision of Musurus is, as Didot 
says, a masterpiece of typo- 
graphy, tracing a new path 
in the annals of printing. The 
printing of the Etymologicum 
was executed at the expense of 
that lover of the Muses and un- 
ostentatiously and unobtrusively 
patriotic Nicholas Vlastos, of 
whom Musurus says that he 
was full of the Hellenic spirit 
and spent his wealth with a view 
to the general advantage of the 
nation. It was Crete which, after 
the disaster at Byzantium, became 
absolutely the Hellas of Hellas 
and the firm stronghold of Hel- 
lenism : far - famed scholars, 
skilled artists, muse - inspired 
bards, admirable heroes, who 
from there derived their nation- 
ality, came forward as the de- 



'EAActSos dpoiyol /cat i-TriKovpoL. 

To €V 'Kv€Tt(^ TV7roypa(f)€tOV TOV 

KaWtepyov yjro ovofxan Kal 
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arvvilpov tol ^aAKta, K/a/yres 
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TOV KaXXupyov fX€T€KOfXLa-dr], 
€i(Ti^yi]cr€i TOV Aao-Kctpew?, ets 
Pw/X7yv, eyevcTO Ka6 €K€6 ttoA- 
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XrjvurpAjv Sta t^s ckSoo-cws twv 
ets IItV8a/3ov o-;(oAta>v, twv 


Tois TraAatots o-;(oAtoi9, twv 
'E/cAoycov Qcofxd tov M.ay tcTTpov 
Kal TOV ^pvvL)(^ov, Kal aAAwv 
(rvyy pa/xfiaToyv." 

TavTtt dpKova-LV €K toiJ ttoAv- 
TifjLov o-vyypdfJifxaTos tov (ro<f)ov 
Qepuavov. 'H5uva/xryv ci'Tav^a 
. V ava(^kpiti els vjJids to. ovofxaTa 
Ktti TrAeio-Tcov aAAwv *EAA7yvo>v, 
oiTives /act' d<f)O(ri(i>cr€0)s elp- 
yda-dfjcrav VTrep Trj<s 8ta86a-€(x)<s 
T<uv 'EAAt^vikwv ypafMfidT(ji)V cV 

fenders and allies of suffering 
Hellas. The press of Callierges 
at Venice was in name and in 
fact a Cretan workshop : Cretans 
executed the carving, Cretans 
fitted the brass work, Cretans 
cast the lead, Cretans examined, 
prepared and corrected the 
printers' proofs, Cretans took 
into their consideration the 
publications suitable for the 
enlightenment of the race, and 
Cretans contributed liberally 
the funds required for printing 
tlie Greek poets and prose 
writers. From the press of 
Callierges, and by means of the 
lavish expenditure of Nicholas 
Vlastos, a great number of 
Greek authors were for the 
first time brought to light, and 
with them also some explana- 
tory commentaries. When the 
press of Callierges was removed 
to Kome, at the instigation of 
Lascaris, there too it did good 
service to Hellenism in many 
ways by publishing the Scholia 
to Pindar, the Idyls of Theocri- 
tus with the ancient Scholia, 
the Eclogues of Thomas Magister 
and of Ph-ynichuSf and other 

This is enough of the valuable 
work of the learned Thereianos. 
I might have here mentioned 
to you the names of a very great 
number of other Greeks who 
laboured devotedly for the 
diffusion of Greek literature 
both in eastern and western 



re Ty ecnrepta. Kal rrj dvaroXiKYj 
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"12, Ti XapLirpa Trpiataf YLxmd- 
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pavos! To yXvKv cf)(os rrjs av- 
yrjs KaTaOeXyet rrjv xj/v^r^v /xov. 

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Europe, but I see it is late, 
and I think we should do well 
to imitate our friend there and 
abandon ourselves to the soft 
embrace of Morpheus. 

I entirely concur in your 
opinion, for if we pass the night 
in conversation, to-morrow we 
shall have neither the will nor 
the power to visit the more im- 
portant parts of Rome. 

Do not let us lose time then. 
I wish you good-night. 

And I wish you the same. 

O, what a splendid morning ! 
See how cloudless the sky is ! 
The sweet light of dawn enchants 
my soul. 

Your exclamations remind 
me of a beautiful stanza of a 
charming poem by a favourite 
poet of modern Greece, Zalo- 
costas : 

"0 sweet hour of joyful dawn, 
when nature embalms 
the flowers, the leaves and the 
boughs ! 

Joy to that heart 
which no cares distress ! " 

Splendid poetry ! faithfully 
describing precisely this hour of 
the morning when "the rosy- 
fingered dawn brings sweet light 
both to mortals and immortals." 

But do you not think that 
the last line of the stanza may 
very well be applied to our still 



€t<> TOV €Tt KOtlXlOfX€VOV rjfJilDV 

cfiikov ; KvTTa^arc iroa-ov 
dfX€pLiJ,v(o<s KOLfxaraL ! 

Kal Slol tl va e)(rj <f>povTt8as; 
' Acf)L€pio(ra<s eavTov ci's rrjv 
SiaKovtau TTjS 'FiKKXrjcrias oltt- 
Wero rraa-av rrjv /3i(ji)TtKr]v 
/xepiixvav, Kal vop^i^in SiKaiOVTaL 
va KOLfxarai, av OeXy, vttvov 

'AAA' tyo) ^a TOV e^vTrvtVco, 
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/SaOvv Kal vrjSvjxov vttvov, ocrrts 
ere Kpanl toctov (rcfuyKra els ra 
Sea-fid tov; 'AvereiXev "qSr] 6 
i^Ato? Kal 8ev aTTexofiev ttoAv 
T7/S 'Pw/Arys. 'YiyepOrjTL. 

2as ev\apL(TTO) ttoXv oti fxe 
e^vnrvLO'aTe, Slotl eTrLdvfxw vd 
lSm to. Trepiyjiiipa ttJ? Atwvtas 

'^v6vpL0vp.aL ore yj/xeOa veoL, 
TToAAciKts p,OL dirrjyyeXXeTe 
irepLKOTvds eK tQ>v iroLijjxdTOiV 
TOV 'AXe^dvSpov ^ovTo-ov, Kal 
evavXoL €TL TvapapLevovcTLV els to, 
toTci fiov at Trepl 'IraAias, ISlins 
Se at Trepl ^Ftojxrjs crTpo^al av- 
Tov. ^A/oa ye Ta5 evdvpela-Be 
aKoprj ; dv exy ovto), Bd <rds 
TrapaKaXea-d) vd fxds dTrayyel- 
XijTe avTds, Slotl t<^ ovtl elvaL 
XapLTTpaL ET/xat Se /3el3g.LOS 
OTL $d ev\apL(TT-q6fj v' aKovcry 
avTas aTrayyeXXofJievas Kal 6 
Kvptos OvtXa-iov. 


AAA' at Trepl 'IraAi'as crTpo- 
(f>aL TOi ^ovTcrov eypd^ricrav 
KaO' i]v eTro)(rjv rj co/aata avTtf 

sleeping friend ? See how free 
from care he sleeps ! 

And why should he have any 
anxieties ? Having devoted 
himself to the service of the 
Church, he has put away from 
him all the cares of life, and I 
think he has a right to sleep, if 
he likes, the sleep of Epimenides. 

But I will awaken him, for 
in a short time we shall arrive 
at Rome. — Will you not shake 
off the deep sweet sleep which 
holds you so fast in its bonds ? 
The sun has already risen, and 
we are not far from Rome. 
Wake up ! 

Thank you very much for 
waking me, for I wish to see 
the environs of the Eternal 

I recollect, when we were 
young, you used frequently to 
recite to me passages from the 
poems of Alexander Soutsos ; 
and his stanzas about Italy and 
especially those about Rome even 
now ring in my ears. I wonder 
now, do you still remember 
them 1 If so, I will ask you to 
repeat them to us, for they are 
really splendid. I am certain 
that Mr. Wilson too will be 
glad to hear them recited. 

Most certainly. 

But Soutsos' stanzas about 
Italy were written at the time 
when this beautiful country was 



^vyov. Nvv TO, TTOLVTa -^AAa^av 
8l6tl ov fxovov aTr-qWdyrjcrav ol 
'IraXol Tiov KaraTTte^ovTCDV av- 
Tovs ^€V(ov SccrTroTwv, dAAot Kak 
Siavoovvrai vd Sea-fxevcroxTi rrjv 
iXevOeptav ctAAwv e^vwv, a/xvT^- 
yuov'OvvTes ovto) tmv 6.p^MV v(f) 
S)v i/xTTveofjievot e^eSiio^av tov<s 
Tvpdvvovs €K rrjs lavTwv Trarpt- 


dyaOwv rrjs Oeias eXevOepias. 

TovTO elvai dXXo ^rJTrjixa' 
-qfiets ttTrAw? deXofiev v dKov- 
<T(j}fJL€V TL eAeyev 6 "EXXtjv 

TTOirjTTjS TTCpl T"^? ScSovAw/^CVry? 


'AAAa (rets irapaKaXCi fx'q fxe 
/SLd^ere v' dTrayyetXio TroL-q/xaTa, 
Slotl Sev dpjJLO^et to tolovtov 

€19 Up(i)fJi€VOV. 

"12, Sei/ TTCLpd^ei TOVTO' KdfX€T€ 

jxiav k^aip^ariv arrjfiepov aAAws 
T€, Kara to kolvov Xoytov, 
" aa-Qevrjs koI oSonropos dfxap- 
Tiav ovK e'xet." 

Ata vet ards cvyapLcrT-qcroi Xoi- 
TTOV, as o-cts aTTayyetAo) oAtyas 
(TTpo(f)ds Ik tov ' ri€/)t7rAav(o/ze- 
vov' tov 'AXe^avSpov ^ovtctov 
" 'NiKTjTrjs €ts TO MapeyKOV, 
epatrdeh to, BkXyrjTpd tyjs, 
"HpTra^e tyjv 'AcfipoStTrjv Upa^t- 
TeXovs 6 TaXaTrjs, 


(i7r' kpaa-TOv dyKaX-qv 

*0 T-^s TepfjLavias Kata-ap tyjv 

Oedv direcnra TrctAtv. 

AvTr/s €)(Ovcra to koiAAos, €ts 

Tcts x^^/^iTas oixoia, 

groaning under a foreign yoke. 
Now everything is changed : 
for not only have the Italians 
been freed from the foreign 
masters who oppressed them, 
but they contemplate fettering 
the liberty of other nations, 
thus forgetting the principles 
with which they were inspired 
when they drove away the 
tyrants from their own father- 
land and so now enjoy the 
blessings of heavenly liberty. 

That is another question : we 
simply want to hear what the 
Greek poet said about enslaved 

But I beg you not to press 
me to recite poetry, for it is not 
fitting for a man in holy orders 
to do so. 

0, that does not matter : 
make an exception to-day : 
besides according to the common 
saying, " Invalids and travellers 
are not charged with sin." 

To please you then, let me 
repeat to you a few verses from 
" The Wanderer " of Alexander 
Soutsos : 

" Victor at Marengo, enamoured 
of her charms, 

the Frenchman carried off the 
Venus of Praxiteles ; 
and from his arms, as from a 
lover's embrace, 

the German Kaisar in his turn 
tore away the goddess. 
Possessing her beauty, with 
similar charms 



"EAa^cs ojxoiav rv\'i)V koI av 
Kwpts 'IraAta, 
Kat (Itto €Vos €tg aAAov 

riiTTTeis BecrjJLLos tov<s koAttovs, 
rj AvcTTpiaKOV rj rdtAAov. 

"KTrpeirev oltto t7]v ^v(tlv va 

7rX.a(rdrj<s, (5 'IraAia, 

'OXiyioTcpov (jipaia, rj TrAeto- 

T€pov dvSpeta. 

Tas 6p€^€LS TMV Tvpdvviov 7} 8ev 

yjdeXes ^Aoyt^et, 

"H TO dpCLfldvLOV (TOV avTov<s 

rjOeXi cf)o^L^€L' 

'AAAa ^lOTTvpov oypalov alwvtiDV 

TToOiOV CLcraL, 

Kat Kara tov ^evov ^evrjv 8vva- 

fXLv i-mKaXeicraL. 

^LKrjOrjs "i] Kol VLKijarrj^^ 

[\ov kyOpdv ri (SorjOdv crov /x€V€ls 

\d(fivpov iTTta-rjs" 

At €^^s rpeis crrpo(f>aL, as 

jxfWio vd (XTrayyetAw els vfMds, 

cfvat t8iws TTcpl ^F<x>p.7js. 

" K^oa-fxov /xeyav ocrTts "^ro 

aAAoT€ Kat KaTea'rpdcf)r], 

MapTVpOV(TLV Ot T'JJs *Pw/X7^S 

Tra/x/xeye^cts Tocrot rd^oi. 

Tfirjixara /xapfidpoyv Ketyrat eis 

Tr)v y7]v dTreppLfXjxeva, 

*i]s oo-ra KOLfirjT-qpLOV eis to 

)(iJ^fjLa €(nrapfX€va, 

Eis TTcSiov P'd^rjS r]Xdov o Kaipos 

6 TravSafxartop 

Kat 6 vovs 6 d/3;)(tT€/cT(ov, 6 ttJs 

vAr^S TravTOKpdriop, 

Kat ttJs 7rdXy]<5 tcov (rrifxeLa 

Ta KoXo/3(i)6evTa ravra Kat 

-^jxidaTTTa fxvr]fi€ia. 

you met a similar fate, you too, 

Italy the Venus, 

and from the embrace of one into 

that of another 

you fall, the prisoner of the 

Austrian or the Gaul. 

You ought to have been made 

by nature, O Italy, 

less beautiful or more brave : 

you would not have inflamed 

the lust of tyrants, 

or your martial fury would 

have daunted them ; 

but you are a living spark of 

beauty kindling eternal desire ; 

and against the stranger you 

invite the stranger's power, 

and whether you conquer or are 


of your enemies or your allies 

you are equally the prey." 

The following three stanzas 
which I am going to repeat to 
you refer especially to Rome. 
" That there was once a big 
world which is now destroyed 
the tombs of Rome so numerous 
and so colossal testify : 
shattered blocks of marble lie 
dispersed upon the ground 
like bones scattered in the soil 
of a cemetery. 

There came upon the battle-field 
all-subduing Time, 
and Mind, the architect, the 
conqueror of matter ; 
and the signs of their contest are 
these mutilated and half-buried 



Trjv fieydXrjv K€cfiaX.7Jv tov fX€ 

TTjV TrjfSevvov o-KCTrdcras, 

Twv cf)0V€(ji)v TOV 6 Katcrap ras 

7rXr)ya<s k^ixBr] irdcras' 

El's TTOpffivpav KOL rj 'Pw/x>; 

crrjfxepov TervXiy/JLevrj 

Toi'S TpavixaTLa-fMOVs rov xpovov 

€va eVa vTrofxevef 

'H TO TTttAat IJ'€Xpi' NeiAoi; crr-q- 

Xas crri^cracra rpoTraioiV, 

^'HS^y crvveu'rdX'q Tracra els crcopov 

Trerpiov dpyaiiov 

Kat ^i6/3y] 7r€Tpo)$€tG-a, 

Et? OprjVioSes cr)(rjfJia /xevei, Aacov 

r€KV(ov a-Tcp-qOdora. 

'Ek TWV Cr(Ji)^OfJL€V0)V OyUWS hopLdiV 

TTjS Kal avSpLavTiov 

*Y7r07rT€V€lS OTt TToAtS T^TO 

ccAAore ytyavra)V_, 

Kat voeis eK Twv/AcyaAwv cfiopojv 

ry]S KOL TTpoirvXaioiV^ 

"On dXXore els ravrrjv e^r] eOvos 


'Ek tov K.oXoa-(raiov, Xeyets, 

irrepvyas piaKpds (XTrAwvwv 

"Kcfivyev 6 VLKrjcfiopos deros rcov 


El? rd v\py] Twv darrepoyv 

Trjs aXvcreoiS tov KocrpLov rjpa- 

OpaVCTTOVS KpiKOVS (f)ep(i)V." 

*0/xoAoy(u vpLLV TrXeia-Tas 
xdpiTas Sid Trjv Xap.7rpdv 
dirayyeXiav rcov irepi 'iTaXtas 
oipaiiMV crTpo(f)(ov tov Sovtctov. 
"Orav (f)Oda-(o els 'AO^jvas 8ev 
6d Xrj(TpLOvrj(TiiD v' dyopda-co ra 

TTOirjpiaTa tov pLQV(ToXrjTTTOV TOV- 

Tov 7roLr)TOV' a A Act f3 XeTro) 
ecf>ddo-apLev els 'Pw/at^v. Ei's 

Covering his noble head with 
his toga, 

Caesar received all the stabs of 
his assassins, 

and Eome to-day wrapped in 

suffers one by one the wounds 
of time : 

she, who once as far as the Nile 
raised the pillars of her trophies, 
is now all reduced to a heap of 
ancient stones ; 
and a Niobe petrified, 
she stands in her attitude of woe, 
bereft of the nations who were 
her children. 

But from her buildings still 
preserved and her statues 
you discern that she was once a 
city of giants, 

and you judge from her vast 
forums and her gateways 
that once there lived in her a 
race of kings : 

from the Colosseum, you think, 
spreading his wide wings, 
the victory-bearing eagle of the 
legions fled 
to the starry heights, 
carrying with him the half- 
broken links of the chain that 
bound the world." 

Very many thanks for your 
splendid recitation of Soutsos' 
beautiful stanzas about Italy. 
When I arrive at Athens I will 
not forget to buy the works of 
this muse-inspired poet : but I 
see we have arrived at Kome. 
AVhat hotel do you propose to 
go to ? 



TTotov ^€vo8o\€lov TTpoTiOeade 
va v7rdyr]T€ ; 

El? TO 'HTretpwTtKov >S7evo- 
(So^^etor. 2as d(fitvu) Xolttov 
vyelav iXirt^O) Se, idv ttotc 
i7rL(rK€ifid?jT€ TTjV K(i}V(rTavrL- 

VOVTToXlV, 6d tX6l]T€. vd fJ.€ 

tSr^TC. 'YaTtlt pixf/ark /xot vd ads 
Siocro) TO C7riorK€7rTry/)iov fxov. 

2a9 €v\api(TTO} TToXv. 'ISov 
Kal rh 18lk6v jjlov. 0a X^P^ 
TToXi) vd (rds tiSw eV KavTa/Sptyiy.. 

2aS €V\api(TTC). Xai/3€T€ 

Xolttov Kal TrdXtv. 

KaXrjV €VTdp.(D(TiV. 

Twpa, cjiiXe 'AvS/ookAcis, as 
d<^y](Ti)iix€V Tot Trpdyfjiard fxas iv 
Til) (TTa9p.M Kal as VTrdyiofxiv 
evdvs vd 7rpoy€VfxaTi(ro}/x€V eis 

TO ^^€Vo8oX€LOV BptCTToXrjS ' 

iKeidev Se ix€Ta/3aivo/x€v ottov 

TLoLav wpav dva\(op€L evrev- 
dev rj rax^ta a/xa^oaTot^ia Bid 
BpevT^CTLOV ; 

Eis TTpf fxiav Kal S^Ka. 

ToTe Xolttov dev 7r/3€7ret va 
Xdvo)fX€v KaLpov. 00, TTpocf)9d- 
<r<i)fxiv dpd ye vd €TTLa-K€(f)6o)iJL€V 
rbv vabv tov *Ayiov UcTpov Kal 
TO KoAoo-crtaiOV y 


"As iTTLJSioixev Xolttov els 
ravrrjv tyjv dfia^av. — Eis to 
SevoSoxdov Bpio-ToAiys. 

IIoAv KaAa, KVpLOL. 

To the Continental Hotel. I 
wish you good-bye then : I 
hope, if you ever visit Constan- 
tinople, that you will come and 
see me. Allow me to give you 
my card. 

Thank you very much. And 
here is mine. I shall be very 
glad to see you at Cambridge. 

Thank you. Good-bye then 

Au revoir. 

Now then, friend Androcles, 
let us leave our things at the 
station, and go at once and get 
some breakfast at the Hotel 
Bristol ; and from there we will 
go wherever you like. 

At what o'clock does the 
express start from here for 
Brindisi 1 

At ten minutes past one. 

Then we must not lose any 
time. Shall we have time, I 
wonder, to pay a visit to St. 
Peter's and the Colosseum 1 

Most certainly. 

Let us get then into this cab. 
—To the Hotel Bristol. 

All right, gentlemen. 

AIAA0r02 lA' 


^cf)o/3ovix7]v on Stv Oa irpo- 
cf)6dcro)ix€V T-qv afxa^ocTTOiX^av, 
d\)C eiJTu^ws ov fJLOVov yjXOoiJLev 
kyKalpois els rov crradixov, dXX 
k\o/JL€v Kal rjjjLicreLav oipav els 
TY)v SLaOecTLV fxas. 

Tiopa 7r/3€7ret va KVTrd^oijxev 
vd €vp(Ofi€v TrdXiv fxtav Kevrjv 
dfxa^av, ottws kv aveo-et SwrjOQ- 
fi€V vd e^aKoXov07](T(t)ix€v rds 
a-vvStaXe^eiS '^/xQv Trepl ttJs 
^eoeXXrjvLKTJs cfaXoXoyias ews 
ov cfiddcriofxev els B/aevr^crtov. 

BAeTTco ISw fxtav ' dXXd Tvpewei 
va ofXLX'QO'O) els rov oSrjyov vd 
TYjV cfivXd^r] 8l '^fxds. 

Mrj Xrja-ixovrja-qre vd f^dX-qre 
Kai Kan n els to xept rov, Scon 
" TO, Swpa Kal TOLS deoLS evirpocr- 

Mrj eras p^eX-rj, Scon ttoXv 
KaXd el^evpo) on dvev cfiiXoSojpy]- 
/xarwv ovSev ylveTat twv Seovrcov. 
. . . ^''12 y^pvo-e, 8e^i<i)p,a KdX- 

7ravTo8vvap.os ! 0a e^w/xev a- 
/xa^av aTTOKXeiornKMS 8t' rjpids 


eKeivqv, tyjv TrporeXevraiav, els 
TTjv oTToiav, ois pXerrere, Oerova-t 
ra TTpdyp^ard 

I was afraid that we should 
not catch the train, but fortun- 
ately we have not only arrived 
in time at the station, but we 
even have half an hour at our 

Now we must try to find 
an empty carriage again, so that 
we may be able to pursue at 
our ease our conversation about 
modern Greek literature till we 
arrive at Brindisi. 

I see one here ; but I must 
speak to the guard to keep it 
for us. 

And do not forget to put 
something into his hand, for 
"presents are acceptable even 
to the gods." 

Make your mind easy about 
that, for I know very well that 
without presents nothing that is 
wanted can be done. ..." 
gold, the most welcome of all 
things to mortals !" How om- 
nipotent thou art ! We shall 
have a carriage exclusively for 
our two selves ; not this one 
though, but that one, the 
last but one, into which, as 



vevfMa va cio-eA^w/xev els Tr)V 
afia^dv fxas' /xa§ TrcpifxevcL, ws 
(^aiVerat, vol cyu^wyucv 6ia va 

KkciSiiXTY) TTjV OvpaV. 

"^As claeXBiofxev Aoittov. Tco/)a 
Sev i^^ofxev Trkeov (fiofSov va /xas 
kvo\k'i](Tri Tts. Erva, oAa /xas 
Tol Trpdyixara evTos ttJs afxd^rjs; 

No/xt^w, StoTt Sev jSXeTTO) va 

XeLTTT) Tt. 

Ti iopa e^vat ; 
• Kara to MpoXoytov tov (rra- 
^/xov €LvaL fjLia Kal kvvka, ware 
lx€Ta tv AcTTTOV dva^j^wpovyucv. 
*I8ov, 6 KwSwv ^X^^ ^ dfia^o- 
aTOi\ia Kivdrai, direp^oixeda. 

*Kv Ktti oAtyas jxovov wpas 
kfxeLvafxcv kv '^^(jdjxri fieydXios 
6fX(j)<s i]vyapL(Trr]6r]V ck ttJs Ittl- 
(rK€xp€(tiS ravTrfS. IIoAAcov atw- 
vwv IcTTopia dveXicrcreTaL ets tov 
voijv TOV eTTto-KeTTO/xevov Ta /xeya- 
Xo7rp€7rrj avrrjs p^vq/xeta. ^YiTrjp- 
^ev €7rox>y, Ka^' 7)v rj'^Fcopy] rJTO 
7] (iacriXi(r(Ta twv ttoAcwv. 'ISov 
Tt Aeyet 6 'A^ryvatos 7re/)t avTiJ?, 


ro^eviDV Aeyoi T-^v'Pw/xryv TroAtv 
eTTLToptjv rrj<5 otKov/ievTj?, ev t; 

(TUVlSeiV IcTTlV Ot^TO) TTttcras TOt? 

TToAets i8pvp.evas, Kal Kar' IStav 
Sk TOLS TToXXds, m'AXe^avSpkoyv 
/X€V T7)v \pv(Tyjv, 'AvTio^ecov Se 
TT^v KttAvyv, yi iKopr]8€(i)V 8k rrjv 
TrepiKaXXrj, Trpoa-kri re. ' rrjv 
XapTT poTdrrjv TrdAewv Tracrwv 
OTTocras 6 Zevs dva^atvet,' Tas 
*A^7^vas Aey(u." 

you see, they are putting our 

I think the guard is making 
a sign to us to enter our carriage. 
He is waiting, it seems, for us 
to get in so that he may lock 
the door. 

Let us get in then. Now we 
are no longer afraid that any one 
will disturb us. Are all our 
things in the carriage 1 

I think so, for I do not see 
anything missing. 

What o'clock is it ? 

By the station clock it is 
nine minutes past one, so 
that in one minute we start. 
There goes the bell : the train 
is moving : we are off. 

Although we only stayed a 
few hours in Eome, I derived 
great pleasure from this visit. 
The history of many ages is 
unfolded to the mind of any- 
one who visits her magnificent 
monuments. There was a time 
when Rome was the queen of 
cities. Here is what Athenaeus 
says of her : " Not far from the 
mark would he be who should 
call the city of Rome an epitome 
of the inhabited world, for in 
her one may see all cities in a 
manner established, and especi- 
ally the celebrated ones, as golden 
Alexandria, beautiful Antioch, 
surpassingly lovely Nicomedia, 
and in addition to these * the 
most splendid of all the cities 
which Zeus renders illustrious' 
I mean Athens." 




'^Av Kal 6 'A0i]vaLOS TO irapa- 
KOLfivei oXiyov v7r€peyK0)fMid^(ji)V 
rr]v ^Tiofxrjv^ d/A^t^oAt'a ofiMS 
Skv V7rdp\ei on rb /xeyaAeiov 
avrrjs €V rrj dp^aior-qTi VTTTJp^e 
fxovaSiKov. Uept 8e rrjs irapa- 
yoyyyjs tov ovofxaros avTT^s 
eyeivav TroAAat dfxcfiLO-fSrjT'qcreLS. 
'O UXovrapxos €v ^twTtu/xvAov 
Aeyei, " To /xeya ttJs ^Fiopajs 
ovopLa KOI 86^rj 8id TtavTOiV dv- 

6p(l)TTlMV KeX<'ipy]K0S dcfi OTOV Kal 

8l' rjv alrtav rff TroAci ykyov€V, 
ov^ MpLoXoyrjTat Trapd tols a-vy- 

'AXX rj ^Fiiopirj 8ev VTrrjp^e 
pLOVOv kv Trj dp^aiorriri evSo^os, 
dXXa Kal Kara tov<s /xerayeve- 
crrkpovs alcovas. 'Ek tQv Treptrj- 
ytjTUiv ocTOL €7rt(r/<€7rTOVTat av- 
TTjV vvv ot TrXetcTTOi /BefSaiois 
epyovrai ovyl toctov Bid to 
KoAocratatov Kal rd dXXa dp- 
yala avTrj<g pLVTjpLeia, ocrov Sid 
tov "AycOV IT €T/)OV, TO BaTLKa- 
vov Kal Sid Tcl d7C€Lpdpidp.a 
KaAAire^VT^/vtara, direp kv avTrj 
eivai dTroTed'r](ravpL(Tp.kva' ot 5e 
eyx^^ptOL, €V S> pLerd pLeydXrj's 
dStacfiopLas irapepyovTai ra pLvq- 
//.eta ry]S dp)(ai6TTi^TO<5, tt/oo tov 
p.€yaXo7rp€7rov^ oyu-cos vaov tov 
'Ayiov TLcTpov kXlvovctl yovv 
Kai pi€ o-TO/xa )^aLvov aTevL^ova-L 
Trpos avTov. 

'AAA' as dcfi-qa-ojpLev to, Tre^ot 
^Fwp-TjS Kal as tSaypiev edv iv Ty 
vp.€T€p(^ (TvXXoyfj a7roo-7racr/xa- 
Titiv virap-yrf ti d^tov dvayvia- 
o-ecos. Tt €Lvai tovto ; 

E^vat aTTocnraa-pia Ik fSijSXiov 

Although Athenaeus overdoes 
it a little, in his excessive praise 
of Rome, yet there is no doubt 
that its magnificence in ancient 
times was unique. Regarding 
the derivation of its name many 
controversies have arisen. Plu- 
tarch, in his life of Romulus, 
says: "The great name of Rome, 
which through its glory made 
its way among all men, whence 
and why it came to be given 
to the city historians are not 

Rome however was not only 
glorious in ancient times but 
also in subsequent ages. Most 
of the travellers who now visit 
it certainly go there not so 
much for the sake of the Colos- 
seum and its other ancient 
monuments, as for the sake of 
St. Peter's, the Vatican, and 
the numberless works of art 
which are stored there ; and 
the natives of the place, while 
they pass by the monuments of 
antiquity with great indifference, 
yet bend the knee before the 
magnificent church of St. Peter 
and gaze at it with open mouth. 

But let us leave the subject 
of Rome and let us see if there 
is in your collection of extracts 
anything worth reading. What 
is this ? 

It is an extract from a very 



Xiav TTcpupyov, oirep ovofxa^erac 
" «i>v(rtoAdyos •" crvveypd^rj h\ 
Kara to €T0S 1 568 vtto Aafia- 
(TKtjvov Tov SrovStTOv, firjTpOTTO- 
AtTovNai'TraKTOi', els rrjv XaXov- 
fiivrjv yXiocrcrav twv ijfxepMV tov. 

ToT€ XoLTTOV tt§ TO SlcA^tO/XCV, 

TOV 3rj(Tarapio)vos fieTafSaLVOfxev 
€ts Ttt yXioa-a-LKa Seiy/xara tov 
IS' atwi'09. "*H apd^VYj elvai 


v(f)a(rjJLa els tovs tol^ovs. E?vat 
81 T€\VLKhv C^oVj 8l6tl efSyd^ei 
aTrh Ti)i/ KoiXtav tov Actttov 
i'<^ao-/xa, Kat o-T€V€t to fxe Te^- 
VYjv els TOV depa wcrav /cvkAov 
Kat ets Tats aKpais Tavv^ec aAAa 
vrjfxaTa, Sid vd CTTepecocrrj KaXd 
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els TO fxea-ov, kol eK8e;(€Tat ttotc 
va TTiaa-O^ /xvta, i) aAAo puKpov 
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v(f>aa-/xd T'qs, Sid vd p^rjv SvvaTai 
vd (fivyrj, kol ovtcos to Tpcoyec. 
IIA^)v oTav yevvy']a-rj diroOvija-Kef 
Slotl ttjv Tpiiiyovv to, TratSta 
Ty)S. Vevvi^ 8e ri dpd\vrj Svo, 
Kat TO jXLKpoTepov KadeTat els 
TTjv fiea-rjv tov kvkAov, Kat 
Kvvqya, ^0}vcf>La, OTt eu^at fXL- 
Kpov Kat 8ev ^atVcTaf to 8e 
aAAo, t5 [xeyaX.eLTepov, KdOe- 
Tat els TTjV aKprjV tov vcf)da-/xa- 
Tos, Bid vd fXYjv TO (ikeTTOva-i Td 
^ii)V(fiLa Kat (fievyovv. 

*0 SpaKiov eivac xj/dpt els tyjv 

OdXaa-aav, kol ot dvOpcoiroL to 

AcyoDV S/DcxKatvav, Kat to cftayi 

» TOV er^at yAvKov Kat w</)€Ai/jiov • 

curious book called The Natural- 
ist. It was written in the year 
1568 by Damascenus Studites, 
bishop of Naupactus, in the 
vernacular language of his day. 

Let us go through it then, for 
thus after the letter of Bessarion 
we pass to the specimens of 
the language of the sixteenth 
century. " The spider is that 
animal which makes its web on 
the walls. It is an ingenious 
animal, for it sends out a delicate 
web from its belly and constructs 
it artistically in the air, in the 
form of a circle ; and it stretches 
other threads to the outer parts 
so as to make its web thoroughly 
firm. Then it sits in the midst 
of it and waits till a fly is caught, 
or any other small flying insect ; 
and then it goes and binds it 
round with its web, so that it 
cannot escape, and so eats it. 
But when it gives birth to young 
ones, it dies ; for its children 
devour it. The spider pro- 
duces two young ones, and 
the smaller one sits in the 
middle of the circle and hunts 
insects, because it is small and 
cannot be seen. The other, the 
larger one, sits at the extremity 
of the web that the insects may 
not observe him and take to 

The weever is a fish in the 
sea, and men call it the she- 
dragon, and its flesh is sweet 
and wholesome : but it has in 




TrXrjV €)(^ei ets to, TroSdptd t-qs 
<f)apfxaK€pov Kevrpl fil to ottoiov 
eotv K€VTpLcrr) dvdpoiirov diroOvq- 
(TK€L. ^hai Se iarpeta tov vd 

TOV 0-;^lVj7S €K€LVOV TOV SpaKovTa 
vd ^dXyS TO (TVKiOTl TOV €7rdvo) 
ets TTjv TrX-qy-qv. A to, tovto 
Trpo(rk\ovv ol xf/apdSes, Kal Sev 

TOV TTidvOVV fXe TO X^/Ot T0V<5 €0>? 

vd xpocfi'qcrrj. EtVat 5e ttXov- 
yu,to-Tos wo-Tre/) ex^Sva Kal fjLaKpvs 
(OS 6(f>LS, TrXrjv elvat TrAarvs. 

*0 SeXcfiivas €vpLcrK€TaL €is 
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aKoXovOet fX€T eKelvo els ttoXvv 
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dvOpiOTTOL vd TOV dd\J/OV(TLV. *0 

Se v7rvo<s tov €Lvai TeVotos* 
(XTrAwveTac eis to KVfxa Trjs 
daXd(T(rr]Sj Kal (XTroKot/xaTai, 

Kat €T(TL KOLfl(i>IX€VO<S, KaTa/3atV€L 

eis TO /3ddos ttJs OaXdcrcrrj'i' 
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dfiixov, e^vTTV^ Kol TrdXiv dva- 
fiaivei €7rava), Kat TraAtv aTro- 
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direpv^ 8vo T/aet? lopais, Kal 
avTos eivat 6 vttvos tov. "OTav 
Se do'Oev'qcrrj Tvpos ddvaTov, Tpu>- 
yet eva xj^dpi ottov AeycTat 
TTtOr^KOS, Kal eivat ofxoLov t>}s 
fxat/jLovs, OTTOV evpia-K^Tai eis 
TT^v y-^v, Kat €TO-t laTpeveTac. 
*0 Se OtjXvkos SeXffiivas yevva. 

its fins a poisonous sting, with 
which if it stings a man, he dies. 
But it is a cure for it if you 
slit up the self-same weever and 
put its liver on the wound. On 
this account fishermen are care- 
ful, and do not take hold of it 
with their hand till it is dead. 
It is spotted like a viper, and 
long like a snake, but it is flat. 

The dolphin is found in 
every sea, and is an animal 
which is fond of men. And 
when it hears people singing on 
board a ship, or playing instru- 
ments, it follows after it for a 
great distance : and if it finds 
a man drowned in the sea, 
it takes him out by rolling him 
to the land with its snout, 
so that people may find him and 
give him burial. Its sleep is in 
this fashion : it extends itself 
on the waves of the sea, and 
goes to sleep, and while thus 
asleep it descends into the 
depths of the sea, and when it 
touches the sand below, it wakes 
up and rises again to the surface, 
and again goes to sleep, and in 
this manner it passes two or 
three hours, and this is its sleep. 
When it is sick unto death, it 
eats a fish called the ' monkey,' 
and it is like the monkey which 
is found on land, and in this 
way it is cured. The female 
dolphin gives birth to only two 
young ones, and suckles them 



fjLOVov 5vo TratSta, Kat rot /Bv^dveL, 
ws ra T€T/)a7roSa ^(tja. Tocrov 

Sk €lVaL (f)L\.6T€KV0<S, OTL ioLV 

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Kovrdpt^ KOi rv)(r) €K€l -q fxdvva 
Tov TTtt/aov, Sev cf>€vy€L, aAAa 
7recfiT€i Kal eKCLvrj €7rdvo) et's to, 
TratStd rrjs, ew? ottov ktvttovv 
Kal €K€Lvrjv, Kal ctkotiovovv rrjv. 
" Orav Se Trtaa-Orj els to Slktvov 
6 SeAc^tv rj(TV\d^€L €(09 oirov 
(Tvpvovv TO StKTVOi/ Ol dvOpioiroij 
Slotl €is Tb I3d0o<s TOV vepov 
avTos Tp(x>y€L oora xpapta ilvat 
Tnacrfji€va /zt'aa €ts to Slktvov. 
" OTav Se f3\i7rrj ttws €<f>6aa-€V 
€1^ oAtya v€/oa, totc (TX^C^i- H-^ 
rriv /xvrrjv rov to SiKTvov, 
Kat <f)€vyeij Kal Starl Sev €;(et 
cnrdpaxva Sia tovto dirri^a. 

SwaTO. €tS TO V€/30V, StOTt 

/>ta^w^'€t TOV dvaa-a(Tfx6v tov 
Kal pt^vcTat UKrav craytTa. 
"E^oi'cri Se o-vvT^^etav oi S^Xcfti- 
V€s, Kal OTav 7rA€0v<rt ttoAAoc 
l3dkkov(rLV€fX7rp6<i tovstol TraiSta 
T0v$, Kat KaTaTToStv Tovs 6r]X.v- 
Kov<s, Kal vcTepov aKoXovOovv 
Kal ot dpo-evLKoL" 

*0 ^TOvStTz/s vofXL^o) TTpkirei 
vd €yvcopL^€V dirb crT-qOovs tcLs 
Trept ^o>wv T€paTo\oytas tov 
AtAtavou' eti'at o/xw9 d^t€- 
7raivo5, StoTt €ypa\p€V ei's i'^os 

ttTrAoVV Kat BrjIXOTLKOV, fl€Td 

Ttvo? yXa(f)vp6Tr]T0S. 

'ISov Kal €T€pov Sety/xa Tr]s 

TOTe 8rjfxoTtKrjsyX(oa-o">]<i. Eivat 

j) 8€ ii€Td<^pa(Ti<i r>Js BaTpa^^o/xvo- 

like the quadrupeds. It is so 
fond of its young that if it happen 
that the fishermen strike one 
of its little ones with a harpoon 
or other lance of any kind, and 
if its mother chance to be 
present there, she does not make 
her escape but throws herself 
over her young, till they strike 
her also and kill her. When 
the dolphin is caught in the net, 
it remains quiet till the men 
drag the net, because in the 
depth of the water it eats as 
many fish as have been caught 
in the net. When it sees that 
it has reached shallow water, 
then it slits the net with its 
snout and escapes, and, owing 
to its not having gills, it leaps 
powerfully in the water, because 
it collects its breath and darts 
like an arrow. The dolphins 
have a custom, when many of 
them swim together, of putting 
their young ones in the front of 
them and the females behind, 
and the males follow last." 

Studites, I think, must have 
known by heart the prodigious 
tales about animals of Aelianus ; 
but he is deserving of praise for 
having written in a simple and 
popular style with a certain 
amount of elegance. 

Here is another specimen of 
the popular language of that 
time. It is a translation of the 


fxaxMs €ts Tt)v \a\ovfi€vr]V Battle of the Frogs and Mice into 

yXoxrcrav tov IS'aiwvos. the vernacular language of the 

16th century. 

'Eil^evpere vtto tivos eyetvev rj Do you know by whom the 

Ixerdcfipaa-LS ; translation was made ? 

MaAtorra • dXXa 0' dcfyrja-M Yes : but I will leave the 

avTov TOV fX€Ta(f)pa(rTr]v vd crds translator himself to tell you 

eiTrr) to ovopid tov kv Trj dyyeXia. his name in the notice which 

7]V7rpoTdor(T€i€ls TTjv fieTdcfypaa-iv he prefixes to his translation. 

TOV. ETvat 8e avTYj kv etSet It is in the form of a dialogue 

^LaXoyov fieTa^v cfuXofSijSXov between a certain bibliophile 

TLVos /xrj elSoTO'S Tr]v dp^aiav unacquainted with ancient Greek 

'EAA-T^vi/oyv, Kol f^i/SXiOTTtoXov. aud a bookseller. 

Mrj ^paSvvcTe Xolttov vd Do not delay then to read it 

fioi Trjv avay vwar/T€, Scotl etiiai to me, for I am impatient to 

dyvTropLovos vd tyjv dKova-(D. hear it. 

'AKov(raT€ Xolttov ' Listen, then. 

#iX6pipXos. M-^ vdxys TtTTore jStfSXio veo vd jxov 7rovX7]crys ; 
BipXioTTwX-qs. Nat', €\(i) €va €VfJLop(fiO^ K IScs TO dv bpicrrjs. 
«l>iXdpipXos. EiTre piov ttws to Xkyova-i, t\ TW/oa 8\v aSeta^w, J| 

"E^w SovAeta (TTTOvSa/vTiKTy, 8ev CTTeKO) vd Siaf^d^o}. 
'Bi^\ioir<a\r\<s. ^Ofxrjpov tov crocfiWTaTOV ^aTpa)(^ofxvo/JLa)(La. 
•^iXdpipXos. Aev Kaixvei tovto 8l ifxe, otl 'fiiXet f^adeta. 
BipXioTrwXtis. MaAAov '/xtAet aTrAovcTTaTa, yiaTt fxeTayXiOT- 


Kat diro a-Tcypv e/xfieTpov T(opa kp'qjxapiddrj. 
#tXdpipXos. ' 2e prjfxa etvat to Xolttov, 80s fJLOv to, jxrjv dpyya-rj<5y 

Kat €7Tape fJLOV els avTo 6 tl io-v optorys. 
* AAAa €TOVTO cr l/otoTW, TTapaKaXio ere *7re to, 

Tts €LS Trjv prjiia T&fSaXe kol fjL€TayX(OTTL<r€ to ; 
BipXiOTr«Xr]s. 'SevpeLS tov kol yviopi^cLS tov, ^lAos crov eTvat 


Etvat aTTo TYjv TidKvvdov, Ar^firJTpLOS 6 Zrjvos. 

Translation of the above Dialogue between a Bibliophile and a Bookseller 

Bibliophile. Have you any new book, I wonder, to sell me ? 
Bookseller. Yes, I have a nice one : have a look at it if you| 




Bibliophile. Tell me what they call it, for I have no leisure 

now : I have pressing business and cannot stay to 

read it. 
Bookseller. It is the Battle of the Frogs and Mice of the most 

learned Homer. 
Bihliophile. This will not do for me, for his language is too 

deep for me. 
Bookseller. On the contrary, the language is most simple, for 

it has been translated ; and from metrical verse it 

has now been turned into rhyme. 
Bibliophile. Is it then in rhyme ? Give it to me : do not 

delay, and take from me whatever you want for it ; 

but I ask you this, and I beg you, tell ine who 

put it into rhyme and translated it ? 
Bookseller. You know him and are acquainted with him, he 

is a friend of yours : it is Demetrius Zenos of 


fX€Tacf)pa(TTrj<s yvioa-TOTrout €ts 
Tovs (fitXavayvio(TTa<s to /StjSXtov 
Tov. "Eyctvav €ktot€ kol 
aAAat fX€Ta({€t<5 rrjs Bar/aa- 
■)(^ofxvofJLax^oi<s el<S rrjv XaXov/xevqv 
^KkXyjVLKTfjv ; 

MdXi(TTa,€y€LvavakkaL Tpets, 
at €^7^S' '^ VTTO TOV €K K.p'qTrjs 

AvTiovLov TOV^TpaTrjyoVj tvttw- 
Oeicra kv Beveri'^ irapa N. 

FAvKet TO) 1745,17 VTTO ViOipytOV 

TOV " 0(rTof3r]K, TrpiOTOVOTapiov 
€V T(f) 7raTpiap)(^€toi KwvcTTavTt- 
vovTToAews, rvTroydetcra IttiVt^? 
6V Bei'CTi^ TTapa N. VXvkcc 
T<i 174^5 '^^^ V ^^^ 'loiOLVOV Bry- 
\apa yevoixevT) irepl rrjv Sev- 
rkpav SeKaerrjptSa tov TrapovTos 

0a irpo(nradri(TOi oVav <fi6d(Tio- 
1/A€i/ €is Trjv 'EAAaSa va evpo) 
IfTauTas Ttts €K8ocrcts* a A A' a? 
I ' N 

The translator from Zante 
very cleverly makes his book 
known to people fond of reading. 
Have there been since then any 
other translations of the Battle 
of the Frogs and Mice into ver- 
nacular Greek ? 

Yes, there have been three 
others, the following : that by 
Antonius Strategus of Crete, 
printed at Venice by N. Glykys 
in 1745 ; that by George Osto- 
vitch, chief notary in the 
patriarchate of Constantinople, 
also printed at Venice by N. 
Glykys in 1746 ; and the one 
made by Johannes Belaras about 
the second decade of the present 

I will endeavour, when we 
arrive in Greece, to find these 
editions; but let us now go 



SieXdio/xev Tiopa [ikpos rrjS 
fieraippda-eio'S rod Z'qvov. 

Aev vofxi^ere otl da rfvai KaX- 
Xlrepov v* dvayvixKTcofxev 7rp6- 
repov TO dp^aiov K€i/Jievov ; 

Be^aiorara. 'Eyw Xolttov 
6' dvayvuxTOj ro dp)(^aLOV k€l- 
fxevov KOi v/x€LS rrjv fJi€Td(f>pa(rLV. 

through part of Zenos' transla- 

Do you not think that it 
would be better for us to read 
first the ancient text ? 

Most certainly. I will read 
then the ancient text and you 
the translation. 

I agree. 

^KpyjOiloV ^KWtJVIKOV K6L/116V0V 



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Kat TOLOV cfidro fxvdov, diro crrdyU-aTOS 8' dyopevcrev, 

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Tav/30s, ot' Ev/oojttt^v 8ia KVfiaTos "^y' ctti K.pijrr]v, 
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BdtT/oa^os v\p(ji(Ta<s di^pov Se/xas i^Sart Aev/cw. 80 

"Y8pos 8' €^a7rLvr)<s avec^atVero, Setvov opafxa 
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UayKpariia re, TrdXrj re, Kal els 8p6pLov, dXXd TrXaviljcras 95 
Eis v8(jL>p p/ eppixpas' e;(et debs €k8lkov o/>t/x.a, 
IIotv7)i' 8' av TLO-eis crv p.vQ>v crT/oarw, ov8' viraXv^eis ' 

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Mera^/oacrt? t^9 ^aTpa^opLvopLa'^La<; 

eh Tr)v Xa\ovpL6vr)v 'KXXrjvc/crjv 

VTTO A. Z?;z/of. 

Tiporov V dpxycroi 8kopiai tov vxpurTov rbv Ata 
Naf/A* dTToa-TetXr) PorjOovs (TTOVTrjv rrjv tcrTopua 


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' Evav Kaipbv 6 7rovTLKo<s rj^pWi]V tS/ow/xevo?, 
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*0 ^opdaKas TOV kpiMT^, ''• ^kv€. jjlov ttoios etcrat; 
Kat TToOev '^Xde'S e6to7ra; /x€ /x€v' ^tAia ivolcri. 
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Tt? eTvttt TTOV pL eyevvv^cre Kal Trotavat -q ptjTepa ' 
IlryAov TOV ovo/Att^oiio-t Kat Ketvrjv *Yy/3a(ria, 
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2tov *P7y8avov TOV TTOTa/xov €K€L eyvoipiCTTrJKav 
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EtTTc Kat o^ TO ytvos (TOV Kat va yevov/xe ^lAof 
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ToTC tov diroKptdt^Ke 6 ttovtlkos Kat erTre, 
" Tt TO ^yjTy.'S TO yevo? /xov ; to ovo/xd /xov Acittc • 
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Tots 7r€T€tvots TOV ovpavov, ^€ots Kat Tots dv^pwTTOts. 40 

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To ovo/xa TOV yevovs /xov Kat o-v vd to KaTCxys, 
McTa >(apds vd crov to Vw, dKOi'o-e ttws KaAov/xat, 


'*Ft)(a/37raya {xe Xeyovcri kol Sev ro aTrapvovfiai. 

Ylo<s Tov fMeyaXoxJ/yxov ei/xat rov '^iDfxo(f)dyov 45 

^Ottovj/ to ^61/66' rov fxaKpv TrapofJLOLOv rov rpdyov. 

*H pL-qr-qp p.ov evyevLKr) rrjv Kpd^ovv A^iypp^vX-q, 

Toi/ TrAetov Kaiphv evpio-Kerat Karacnrp-q et's to, xeiX-q. 

Tov Aap8o4>dyov rov pr]yo<s Xkyerai Ovyarepa • 

'EiKetVYj fjL '€cf)€p€v ct? <f>o}<s KGiS TOV yXvKvv dcpa. 50 

Kat Ve KaXv/Sy] p.€KapLe 6)(^l p.' oXtyov kottov, 

Kat pi€ rpocfiaLS /x' dveOpexpe oTTOvve twv dvOptoTTiov 

Me crvKa, /xe KapvSta kol pik rd Xec^roKdpva^ 

Kat pX KaXd dpvySaXa, e/cetva rot KaOdpta. 

Kat Tiopa dXXa Trepicrcrd yept^o) riyv KoiXid pLOV 55 

Kat TTWS ecrv ^va-cyvaOe vd exiJ'S tyjv (pcXid pLOv, 

Hov Sev opLOid^ei rj cfivcrt pLa<s ela-e Kaveva rpoirov ; 

*H eScKH] pov hiana bpoidvai tcov dv6p(x)7r(DV 

'Kav TO v8o)p KaTOtKCts Kat eluat rj ^wyy crov^ 

'Ek tov vepov Ta f^oTava ytVcTat -q 6po(f)'q crov. 60 

'Eyo) aTTOo^a f^piarKOVTai (TTa cnriTia twv dvdpwTTiav, 

'Kw oAa Tpojyo) Oapperd )(^u)pls Kavkva kottov. 

Aev /x,€ XavOdveu to ^w/xi to KaXo^vp,(opevo, 

OvS' MpLop<f)0 cfiaXdyyiov p,e /xeAt yevapevo, 

OvSe KaXals avyoTrrjTaLS y TToXvcrov(Tap.dTaiSj 65 

OvSe CKeiVats ^7 AevKats OTTOi^vat ^a\apdTai<s^ 

OuSe veoTTTjKTO Tvpl TTOV KdpLVOvv pik TO ydXa, 

Ov8e piv^'q9pai<i dwaXals kol toI Tvpia TaXXa' 

Aev //,€ Aav^avet yXvKvorp.a oir oXoi t' dyaTTOvon 

Kat ot ovpdvLOL Oeol aTravTe? to TvoOovcn' TO 

OuS' ctAAa ocra (fiayrjTd, ttov fipd^ovv pik T^ovKdXta 

Ot pidyetpoi TTOV ^€vpov(TL Kat KdvovcrL Ta KaAAia^ 

Kat /xecra o-' avTot ftdvovcn Tats KaAAtats pLvpojScaLS 

Hov (fiepVOVV €K TYjV "IvTLa KOL KdpLVOVV d/OTV(riats. 

'Eyio K els pid^o^LS eTv^a, 8kv 'icfivya ttotc yuov To 

Tov ^(xvaTov TTOV pueXXeTai vdXOy eK tov TroXepiov, 

Kat xpeia dvevai TrovTrcTes Skv Tpc^o) crT'qv crKOVTeXa, 

AXXd KCivovs ka-piyopat ocr etvat cTTrjv irpoo-TeXa, 

Kat vol crov ttw iropa-oTepo dvdpoiTTOV 8kv (f>ol3ovpiaL 

Kat Towo eV dXrjOivo kol Skv to kiraivovpiai. 80 

YTzdyoi els to a-TpcopLd tov eKet ottov KOt/xaTat, 

AayKwvw TOV (tto BdKTvXo Kat Skv dvavoaTai, 

AayKavo) Kat tyjv (fiOepva tov, TiiroTes Skv to XP^C^h 

'ApLYj KOipLOLTai v6(TTLp.a TOCTO TC pOX^'Xl^et. 


'ATTOO-a Ppi(TKOvraL a-Tyv yrjv riiroTa Biv ra raxTcriJi^ 85 

Toi/ ydrov kuI tov yepana Trepia-a-ia tovs Tpo/xda-oiy 

Ka6 K€.Lvt)V rrjv ^vXoyara oXol /^as ttjv fXLo-ovpe, 

Me 86X.OV SiScL Bdvarov yia tovto tijv ^o/3ovfxaL. 

Trjv ydra oirov t^jv 18m Kal K€t ttov rrjv ypoLKqcro), 

'Atto tov (f>6/3ov fx €pxofJi%L(r)(^e8ov va ^€\pv)(7^(T(x), 90 

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Kat vd/3pii) Tpvira kcl Kovrd va (t(Jo<t(d va T/sovTraxro), 

MvyTTW? Kal KaraXd/^rj /x€ Kal criiKrrj Kal fie Trvi^rjj 

K' €LS TOVTO TMfXOpcfiOV KOpfxl TO, VV)(^ia Tr]<S VafXTTTj^y. 

AvTOL TO, T/ota fdpia-KovTai cr\ KdjxTrovs Kal ets o/)7;, 95 

'Kjxeva Kal tov yevovs /xov kySpol davaTrjcfiopoL. 

Ma crv (fio^acrai d-jravTa jJbCKpd re Kat jxeydka, 

^vpvofieva, Treroi'/xeva, dvOptoTrovs Kal ra aAAa, 

Kiwcrav TO Aeyet 17 Trapotfiid, tov lctklo (tov cfyo/Sacrai, 

Moj/' 7} (fi(x)V->^] (TOV r] (tkXi]P')] (T€ 8eL)(^v€t KaTL vaxrai. 100 

'Eyo) 8\v Tpioyo) Aa^ava, t^s XifJLvrj<s to, fSoTdvLa, 

Ov8€ Kpap,Tnd, ov crkXcva, ov Trpdcra kol pairdvia' 

AvTTjva oAa T/30jyeT€ etrei? Kat t dyaTTctTe, 

"Ocrot ei's XipLvrfV crT€K€(TT€V, Kal fxecra KaTOCKaTe." 

Kat TOTC o ^ua-tyva^05 /xe TavfMopcf>d tov rjdrj 105 

Tov "^ L)(^ap7rdKT7]V i/SXeTre, XeyovTas t aTroKplOr]' 
"■ IIoAAa Kav^da-at, ^tAe [xov, icrv (TTrjv XaLfiapycav 
TLctJs aTTo vocTTifJLoyXvKa ye/xi^cts Trjv KoiXiav. 
Kat €ts rjjxds evpidKOVTai ^ayta yta ti^ ^(n-q jxas, 
K' eis Tct vepd Kal cis t>)v yv/v yevvaTat 7} Opocfirj fias. llO 

X.dpLV SittA^v /xa§ eScuKev 6 Zcvs va )(aLpofj,d(TO€ 
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Kal /xeo-a k 4'^w 4'xo/xev otKoi's ttoG KaTotKovp-e, 
"Av OeXrjS V dXOys Kal icrv dvTa/xa va ep^rrovp^e 
'Avkfda els Trjv pd^i p,ov evKoXa va arepLTrda-o), 115 

'AA7y^eia KpdTCL p,€ (TffiLKTa p,r] Trecnjs Kal (re ^do-oj, 
Kat o-dv kpLTTOvpie TricrTcvcrov OkXeis X^PV '^^P^O'^'tdj 
K' cts TofSya vdxys \dpL(Tp.a^ Kal e/xop^a KavicrKia." 
Tovs Aoyovs TOVTOvs eTTa^e, T7yv pd^i'V tov yvpi^eij 
K't 6 TTOVTtKos eXevdepa aTrdvov tov KaOt^ci, 120 

KtaTTOKOTa Ta X^pta tov o"Tov TpdxyXo t aTrAwvei, 
*0 fSopOaKos dpxtvrjcre v' dnrXitivrj vd ^apa>vr), 


IIws €KoXvp,7ra €piop(f)a Wavp.a^€ Kiairopie. 

'AAAd axrdv dpx^vyjcrav kttjv yyv vd ^epaKpkvovv 125 


Kat a-e vepa ISadvrara r^s Xifivrjs va ifxiraivovv, 

'Epxovrav fiavpa KVjxara kol tov €KOVKOvXC)vav 

Tore va rpcfxy a/ax^cre, to, 'fxaTta tov fSovpKcovaVj 

Meravo/xevos y^rave, Sev er^e tl ua ttolo-yj, 

FtaTt Sev ^Tov Svvaro ottlcto) va yvpta-rj. 130 

Move ra TroSta Troo-^tyye crroG (iopdaKOv ra TrXdyyj, 

Su^va (TV)(^ua ecrreva^e, Skv yj/SXeTre ttov irayet. 

"OffiLS effidvY) <f>o^€pos ixk(ra els to TrordfXL, 

*0 /SopOaKos €T/oo/xa^€ Sev eix^ ri va Ka/xr/, 

Ets TO vepo efSovTL^e va (f>vyrj tov Ovfxov tov, 135 

Tov "^f^ lyapiraKTriv d(j>T]K€ vd TrXkyrj piova^ov tov. 

Etj^vs waotv TOV d<j)r]K€, ctto vSoyp e^aTrAw^Ty, 

KtaTTO TOV <f)6(3oV TOV TToXvV oXoS d7r€V€Kp(jo6r], 

To, X^P''^ iKaTao-cfiLyye, eV/oi^e Kat to, SovTta^ 

Trjv 8vvap.LV tov e'xao-e Kat T/oe/xav tov toL TroSta, 140 

rEoAAai? cfiopals ejSvdi^e, Kat TraAt dvTpefSeTOV 

KAoT^wvTas Q-av rjpLTropiC, Kiairdvov kcrTpe^kTOV 

Aev T^TOve piTTopovpievov vd yXva-y to Koppit tov, 

Ov8e vd (fivyy OdvaTOV, vd aiocrr] ttjv ^lorj tov 

*12o-av KOVTTt et's to veph ecrepve ttjv opd tov, 145 

Kat Tovs Oeovs ISecTov va cfivyrj tov OavaTov' 

Tovs Aoyovs TOVTOvs eXeye /xe X^^^V TrtK/^ayueva • 

'^ TcTOias Aoy^s Sev e/SaXe 6 fSopdaKas kp^kva 

^TYjV pdxi'V TOV a-dv 'kjSaXe 6 Zev? oVav eytvrj 

Tavpos Kol kcf>opTcoOr)K€ q-tovs viop.ov<s TOV eK€ivr] 150 

EvpwTTT^v TTOV T-^^v dpiTa^e aTTO TTjV StSoviav, 

Kat ^aAao"a-ats eTrkpaa-e /xeyaAats Kat yae fSiav, 

K' eis TO vryo-t T'>)v eySyaAe tt^s }^py]T7]S rrapavTCKa, 

FtaTt 6 Zevs 6 davp.aa-Tos o-eKetvo cKaTotKa." 

To, Aoyta TavTa 'ipLTraxJ/e, yiaTt dpx'fJo-G vd kXivti 155 

T'i^v KecfiaXi^v tov ^a/xryAa k' ci? to ve^ob va Trtvy 
*]^ T/3t)(€5 TOV kfipdxv^c^v Kat fSdpos TOV eKavav, 
Kat KctTov TOV €Tpd^y]^av, o^Ta ^a^>^ tov ijSdvav. 
^(ov^^v pLLKpd rjdkXyjcre p.€ fSta vd kfBydXrj, 

KtayaAt yaAt e'Aeye, Kat TaTretva lAaAet* 160 

Tov /36p0aKa epikpicfieTO ottovtov ^ atTta 
No, Tove /3dXri dvoXiriarTa ere TCTOtav aTTwAeia. 
" Aev OkXcis ^vyet," e'Aeye, " ov8e Trocrws va yAw^ys, 
'^12 KaKLo-TC ^va-iyvade, ovSe ^co^ va ^r](TrjS' 
*AAAa va SMa-rjs BdvaTOV KaKoL Kat rrriKpap^kva, 165 

FtaTi jue e^avaTWcres ^e irovqpLd e/xeva. 



^TOV (J)fx6v (TOV /Z€ C^aAcS, K€tS TO V€ph ifX7ryJK€<? 

KtaTreKct fxk dirokva-es kol va Trvtyoi fx' d^firjKes. 

Aiv rj(rovv KotAAtos fJ'OV ttotI <tt'i]v yrjv va 7ro\€fxi^(TrjS 

Kat vol ira\k^rj<i crav kfxk kcls fJ^o-^rj va VLK7j(Ty<?j 

OvSg va Spafiys KaAAta /xov, Kat va fjLOVOixa^rj(rr]<s^ 

'2 aAAo Skv ija-ovve KaXhs fi6v€ vd [xk TrXavi](Tris. 

BAeTTCfc Geo? T7)v dSiKtot Kat Kcivet ^LKaiocrvvrj, 

Kat TLfxiopel TOv<s aSiKovs x.o)pl<s iXerj/xocrvvrj. 

Thv iSiKov fxov Odvarov rov dkXei eKSiK-qcreL 

To (TTpaTCVfJia T(ov TTOi'TtKwv Kat ^a (T€ TLfMoyp-qcry." 

Tov<s Aoyov? rovTOVs eVavo-e Kat yaSt^v r^ (jnnvq tov, 

Kat oAo? e^aTrAw^ryKe k efSyrJKev rj irvorj rov. 


'O 'E/AtAtos AeypavSos Aoyov 
7roLOVjX€vos irepl rrjs fxeracfipd- 
cretus TavTy]S tov Zrjvov VTrep- 
€7raLV€L avTi)v Kat t^]v OeMpec 
dpfxovLKO)rdrr)V Kat pkovcav ' 
SpaTTO/JLCvo'i 8k Tvys 7r€/)to^Tao-€0>s 

ptTTTCi Kat 'iv l^kkoS " €Xe7!'€VK€s" 

Kara t^9 vvv ypacfiOfxkvrj^s 


TrXacrrrjv yXwcra-av' aAA' rjpieis 
Skv TrpkircL v dvaofxcOa Std rds 
Totavra? iK(f)pd(T€LS rov dyaOov 
TovTOv Kat (f)iXo7r6vov Xoylov, 
d(j)Ov Kat fxera^v twv 'EAAt^vojv 
ivpia-KOVTai Ttves €;^ovt€9 Tot- 
avras tSeas, av Kat orav ypdcf)(i)(Tt 
Xr^crfMovovcTL vd icfyap/JLocrcxXTLV 
avras. 'AAA' as k7ravkX6o}/jL€v 
cts Tr)v fJLeTd(f>pacrLV tov KaXov 
fJLas Zrjvov. Aev vofxi^ere ort 
KAiVet oAtyov et? TroAvAoyiav ; 
' Ava/jL(fiLf36X(i)S, Slotl tovs 
€V€vr]K0VTa OKTO) (rTL)(^ovs tov 
apyaiov KCLfikvov i^v^rjcrev iv Trj 
p.€Ta(fipd(r€L ei5 eKaTov kf38ofJLy- 
KovTa OKTO) 6ta Trpoa-dkcrewv, 
TrapaXXayQv Kat /xera^ecrecov • 
TOLavTH) 8k /xerac^pacrts, ws />tr) 

Emile Legrand, in speaking 
of this translation by Zenos, 
gives great praise to it, and 
considers it very harmonious 
and flowing : but he also seizes 
the opportunity to discharge a 
"bitter "shaft at the Greek as now 
written, calling it an artificial 
language : but we ought not to 
be annoyed at such expressions 
from this excellent and laborious 
scholar, since even among the 
Greeks there are found some 
who hold similar opinions, 
although, when they write, they 
forget to put them into practice. 
But let us return to the transla- 
tion of our good friend Zenos. 
Do you not think that he is a 
little inclined to diffuseness ? 

Undoubtedly, for in the 
translation he has increased the 
ninety-eight lines of the ancient 
text to a hundred and seventy- 
eight, by additions, alterations, 
and transpositions : such a trans- 
lation, as it does not render 




aTToStSovcra aKpcfSiJos ra kv tw 
TrpiiiTorviTio, ^ev e_)(€t 7roAAr)v 
d^iav. "Orav o/>ta>s dvayiVioa-Krj 
TL'S avTTjV ov)(l (0? fi€rd<f)paariv, 
dW aTrAws (OS yXid(T(TiKOV 
yueAerr^/Att, rore 97 dvaKpifSeia 
avrrjs Sev fSXaTrret, 

"K)(^er€ StKatov aAAol f^Xkirtm 
i(rvpaT€ 8td rov fxoXvf:^8oKov8v- 
\ov ypafifids viro TrAeiVras 
Ae^e6S Tou dvTLypd(f)OV' Trpos 
Ti €KdfX€Te rovTO ; jut^ttojs Sei^ 
rots li/voetre; 

Ttvas fxev 1^ avTwv Sev li/i/ow, 
Tivds 8e Oeoypoi) fx-q 6pOo)S 
yeypafxfxevas, kol Sta tovto rots 
ia-rjfxetiocra ottws era? ipoyr-qcro), 

'H 6pdoypacf)La twv SrjfjLo- 
TLKOiv rjfiMV Ae^etov Scv etVat 
arv^ws ert uipuTjxkvqj kol ^s €K 
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f^ovXeTai ' TYjV Xe^LV P'O-Ch 
7rapa8eLyfxaTO<s \dpLv, 01 pikv 
ypdcfiovcTi Sio, Tov iwra ws 
dvwTe/oco, ot 5e Stot tov ^ra, 
aAAot 6e 8id rov v xj/iXov, kol 
ovTWs exofJiev rpets 8iacfi6pov<i 
ypacfias rrjs avryjs Ae£e(o? — 
fia^i, P'Oi^yj, P'O^iv' ^ 5e TToiKiXia 
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acfiaipeortv kol rrjv crvvi^rjcriv 
TWV 8r]jX0TlKQiV Xk^eoiv, KOt Stot 
TOVTO dvTGypaxpa rrjv jxeTacfipa- 
(Tiv TOV Zyjvov a-^eSbv ws et)(€V 
€v TOLS " ^iXoXoytKOLS dvaXcK- 
TOts' TOV dpy^Leiria-KOTTOv Za- 

exactly what is in the original, 
has not much value. When, 
however, any one reads it, not 
as a translation, but simply 
as a linguistic study, its inac- 
curacy does no harm. 

You are right, but I see you 
have drawn lines in pencil 
under many of the words of the 
copy : why did you do this ? 
Is it that you do not under- 
stand them ? 

Some of them I do not 
understand, and some I think 
are not rightly written, and on 
this account I marked them, so 
as to ask you about them. 

The orthography of our 
vernacular words is unfortun- 
ately not as yet fixed, and 
consequently every one writes 
as he likes : the word /xa^'t, for 
instance, some write with iota 
as above, others with eta, and 
others with y-psilon, and thus 
we have three different ways of 
writing the same word, pia^i, 
pia^yj, pLOL^v : this variety in the 
way of writing it proceeds from 
ignorance of the derivation of 
the word : besides, there prevails 
no little confusion also with 
regard to the elision, crasis, 
aphaeresis and synizesis of 
vernacular words, and for this 
reason I have copied Zenos' 
translation nearly as it was in 
the Philological Selections of 
Nicholas Catrames, bishop of 
Zante (Zante 1880). 


KVvOov ^iKoXdov Karpafxij ('Ei/ 
ZaKvvSo) 1880). 

Ev)(^cipL(TT{o • Tuipa ^€ (Ta<s Thank you. Now I beg you 

TrapaKukoj vd fxoi c^r;y/yo-ryT€ to explain to me such words as 
TCLs Ae^ets oo-a? ev no dvTL- I have marked in the copy with 
ypdcfiio €(rr)p.€L(D(Ta Sid StTrAvJs a double line. 

Upodvfxtos. By all means. 

1-5. — (TTovT'ijv = €is TavTi]v, 111 this. — ctt' = €ts TO tji the. — 
ytaTi = StoTt, because^ for. 

6-10. — TraXiKapt or 7raAAtKap6 = veavias a young man, also a 
brave man. — vd^^re tyjv vycid era's = vd ^x^jre rrjv vyUtdv eras, muy 
you have good health ! Long life to you ! — </)Tta = avrta = wra the 
ears. — iirotKav = kiroiria-av, they made. — (3op9aK6s = /Sdrpa^^^os^ a 
frog. — ifXTTTJKav = ip/SrJKav = evef^rja-av, they went into. 

11-15. — Tovs avS/3€s = Tovs ttvS/oas, the men. — kl ^BcraL — Kal 
a8€Tai, and it is currently reported. — -^(Spedrjv = evpWrj, he found 
himself he was. — k ■^TOV€ = KaL "^ro, and he icas. — va /3yd\rj = vd 
iK/3dX.rj, to drive away, to quench (his thirst). 

16-20. — 7n]yovvi = ykvvs, the chin. — rov^pe^e = tov e/Spe^e, he 
wetted his (chin). — eScoTra = JJSe Trrj, ivravOa, here. — fxev' = ifxeva = 
€/x€, me. — TTotcre = Troii^crov, make. — TtTroTes = tlttotc, anything at 
all. — TO 7rorcrav = o kiroii](Tav, what they did. — 01 Slkol (tov = oI 
ISiKOL (Tov, ol (Tvyyevets (tov, your relations. 

21-25. — Kca = Kal av, and if — Oes — ^eActs, you, u'ill. — pirda-u) = 
€fxj3da-ii) -— epfSijSdcro), subj. aor. / may make you go in. — iSys = t^ys, 
you may see. — )(^api(rfxaTa = Swpa, presents. — Tdcrcroi = v7rL<r\vovfxaL 
I promise. — wdXiv 6p7rpo<s ottiVo) = ttciAcv I/xtt/jos ottiVw, back home 
again. — Oiop€i<s = dcojpels = op^s, you see. — Kvpievo) = e^oi'o-ta{o), I 
am lord of 

26-30. — oTTou 'v' 18(3 = 01 oTToiot eTvat ivravOa, who are here. — 
fil Kpd^ovcri = /A€ KaAovo-t, tliey call me. — vd ttw = va eiTrto, that I 
may say. — Troiavai = Trota eTvau^ who is. — K€Lvr)v = €K€Lvr]v, her. 

31-35. — o-Toi/ = eis tov, in the. — iyviopLO-rrJKav = eyvaypia-drfcrav, 
they made each other's acquaintance. — icfuXevryjo-av = €</)tA€i'^7;crav, 
they regaled each other. — totcs = totc, the^i. — efxeva = c/te, me. — 
TO. )(^€lX.t] = Tas ox^«s, the bajiks. — va y€vo{'/x€ = va yctvw/x€v, tluit 
we may become. 

36-40. — pop({iLdv = €Vfxop(fiiav, beauty. — Tt rh ^tjT^s ; = tl rh 
(qreis ; why do you inquire about it ? — AetTre = a<^€S, leave it alone. 


41-45. — OvfirjcTLV = ivOvfiTjoTLV, fxyi^fjiriv, memory. — Kare^y^^ 
€i^evprjs, ^I8fj<s, you may know. 

46-50. — OTTOvv TO yevet' rov jjbaKpv = ottov eTvac to yevetov rov 
fjiaKpov, ov TO yeyetov juaKpov €(ttl^ whose heard is long. — TrAetbv 
Katpov = TrXetova x/^ovov, the greater part of her time. — KaTaonrpt] 
ets TO, X^^^V — xaTaXevKos eis rot ^etAi^, very white about the lips 
(from eating flour). — AapSocfidyos, the lard-eater. — p.' '(i(ji€p€v = pX 
'icfiepeVj yjveyKe pL€, she brought me. — Kels = kol els, and into. 

51-55. — '(r€ = el<Si ev, in. — pb€KapL€ = p,€ cKape = iyevvqa-e pie, she 
gave birth to me. — birovve = ottov elvai = atrtves eu/at, which are. — 
kecjiTOKapva = XeirTOKapva, hazel-nuts. 

56-60. — eiVe = ets, ^7^. — Kav€va = Kav eVa, even one, any at all. 
— opLOLavat = 6/xota eivai, is like. — Ik tov vepov to, ^orava = €k twv 
Tov vSaTos /SoTavoiv, from water-herbs. 

61-65. — a7ro(ja = a7ro ocra — k^ ocrwv, of as many things as. — 
l3pL(TK0VTai = evpca-KovTat, are found. — cttol = els tol, in the. — 
OappeTa = 6appovvT(os, boldly. — KaXo^vpLMpLevo = KaAw§ k^vpnapkvov, 
well kneaded. — w/x,o/3^o = evpiopcfiov, beautiful. — <^aAa,yy tov = TrAa- 
KovvTiov, a cake. — avyoirrjTais, nom. pi. of avyoTrr^ra, a cake made 
ivith eggs in it. — y = al. — TroAvo-ovo-a/Aarats, nom. pi. fem. of 
TToXvcrovcrapLaTos, made with plenty of sesame i7i it. 

66-70. — (axo-paTacs, nom. pi. fem. of ^axapaTos, made with sugar 
in it. — Ka/xvo w = Kct/x vouo-fc, they make. — pLv^ydpa, a kind oi fresh 
cheese, cream-cheese. 

71-75. — T^ovKaAia = xyTpc-h cooking pots, saucepans. — irov 
^evpovori = OL OTTO to I el^evpovcTi, who understand. — Kavov(rt = 
KapLvova-L, TroLovart, they make. — KaAAta = KaAAtovws, better. — pLca-a 
or' avTct /3dvova-i = yuecra ets avTot /SdWovan, they put into them. — 
rats KaAAiats = ras KaXXiovs, the better, the superior. — pLvpoDStats = 
pLvpevdiSias — dpii)p.aTa, spices. — cfiepvovv = (^epvovcrt = (fiepovcn, they 
bring. — "IvTta='Iv8tav, India. — dpTva-iaL<s = dpTvpcaTa, sauces. 

76-80. — vdX9y = vd '^XOy, to come. — dvevaL = dv y, if there be. — 
TTovTTOTes = TTOv TTOTc, evcT auywhcrc. — a-KovTeXa = Ital. scodella = 
^vXivY] Xoirds, a wooden boivl. — Tr/Doo-reAa = /x€TW7rov, in front. — 
7rop(TOT€po = irepLcra-OTepov, more. — ev = eVt = Icrrt. 

81-85. — SayKiovio or SayKctvo) = Sa/cvw, I bite. — avavoaTat = 
alcrOdveTaL, he perceives. — (fidepva = TTTepva, the heel. — Sev to XP^'C'^h 
he cares nothing about it {dxp^C^ = d^i^o), to be worth). — /ao^aAtfci 
= p€yK€L, he snores. — TtVoTa 8kv Tot Taarcroi = Oeotpo) avTot icra TOi 
p^ySevi, I make no account of them. 

86-90. — TOV yaTov = tlie Ital. gatto, a tom-cat, tov alXovpov. — 


rov ykpaKa = rhv upaKa, the hawk. — Tpo/xdcrd) = rpond^u}, <f>o/3ovfJLaL, 
I am afraid of. — ^vkoyara = ^vXtvi] yaXrj {a ivooden cat) = Trayi?, a 
trap. — K€i = 6K€t, there. — ypoiKd (ew) = KaraAa/x^ava), aKovtiy, I 
perceive^ I hear. — fi = jxov. — ^c\^v;(a> (cto, aw) = ckttvcw, aTroOvrjcTKiOy 
I expire. 

91-95. — 8a> Kol K€i = €5(o Kttt €K€?, hcTC and there. — yXvT(oj'(o = 
aTraAAacrcro/xat, AuT/aov/xai, io escape from. — vdf3po) = va evpw, to find. 
— (r(jocro) = 7rpo(jiOdcno, I may he in time. — va T/30irn-oxr(u = va 
rpvTriocrui = va elaeXdoi ei's t^v o7rr)v, <o (/o into the hole. — tovto 
Tbip.op<\iov KopfXL = TOVTO TO €Vfjiop<{>ov (Tioixa, this beautiful body. — 
TO. vv)(^La = Td ovr^ia, tJie claws. — vafnri/j^rj = vd ^P'Tryj^y, to force 
into. — (re Ka/xTrovs = €ts TreStaSas, ev TreStot?, in plains. 

96-100. — /xa, Ital. but. — <^o/3aa-at = ^o/?eto-at, you are afraid of. 
— (TvpyofXiva = cpTreTa, reptiles. — ireTovfieva = Trereiva, birds. — Ktw- 
crav=Kat wo-av, Kal w?, and just as.^TOV lctklo = tov lo-klov = ttjv 
o-Ktdv, the shadow. — fxov' = fiovov, only. — Kctrt vd(TaL= kotl tl va 
7)(rat, f/i«i you are something^ somebody. 

101-105. — TO, ^0Tavta = Tas /Soravas, </ie herbs. — K/3a/z7rta = 
Kpafxf3 t'a = Kpdfx/Sas^ cabbages. — paTrdvia = patftaviSaSj radishes. — 
(LVTyva = avTct, those things. — icreis = v/xeis, you. — crTe/cecrTcv = 
crT€K€(rO€ = L(TTa(rd€, fX€V€T€, you stay. — KarotKare = KaToi/ceire, you 

106-1 10. — (fiaycd = ISecr/xaTa, eatables, dishes. — yid = Sea, for. — 
Opocfrq = Tpocj>yj, nourishment, food. 

111-115. — va yaipoixd(TBi = vd ;)(at/oa>/>t€V, va aTroAavw/xev, </iai 
we may enjoy. — y tot va = 8ia va, in order that. — vet Kpy/Sopida-de = 
vot Kpi'TTTCij/xe^a, to hide ourselves. — /xea-a = ecrw, cvtos, inside. — k c^w 
= Kal e^w, a?wZ outside. — KaToiKov/xe = KaToiKovfxev, we inhabit. — v' 
d\Orjs = vd €X.6r]<s, to come. — dvTdfjLa or evTdfxa = ojxov, together. — 
vet e/x7ro{'/x€ = vot e/x/?t3/xev, io gfo w. — dv€J3a = dvd/3ir]di, get up. — ttjv 
pd\L — Trjv pd^LV, the back. — vot cr€fi7ra(ro) = va cr' ifif3d(r(o = va cr' 
e/x/^t/?do-(o, that I may convey you in. 

116-120. — dXt^Oeia, but really. — (TcfjLKTd = (T<fiiyKTd, (r(f)LyKTws, 
tightly. — ixrj ere )(^d(ro} — fxr) ore aTroAeo-w, lest I lose you. — trciv = orav, 
as soon as. — Trepto-o-ca = TrepLaa-ios, cr(^o8/oa, very much. — To/Sya = cv 
T(^ €Kf3aLveLv, in going out. — vdx??5 = va €)(yjs, you are to have. — 
Kavto-Kta = Sw/oa, presents. — eiraxpe = eTravcre, he finished, ended. — 
yvpL^€L = a-Tp€cf>€L, he turns. — kl 6 = Kal 6, and the. — d7rcivou = 
€7rdva), upon. 

121-125. — KiaiTOKOTa = Kal diroKOTa = koI d<f>6l3(i)S, and fearlessly. 
— V aTrAcovy va ^apv^vrj = vot €KT€LvrjTaL koI vet (rvcrT€kX.r]TaL,to stretch 


himself out and draw himself in (in swimming). — ecfipaiverov = -qv- 
<f>paLV€TO, he was delighted. — 6wpL€ = eO€Mp€L, kiopa, he saw. — €ko- 
XvfjLTra — eKoXvfJL^a, kvrjX'^TO, he was swimming. — KLa7r6pu = Kal 
rjTTopeij and he was at a loss. — kttjv yrjv = €K ttJs yr\s,from the land. 
— va ^efxaKpevovv = vol aTro/xaK/ovi^wvrat, to get far away. 

126-130. — ere = CIS, into. — kpypvrav = rjpxovro^ came. — tov 
€KovKovXiovav = eKaXviTTov auTov, they covered him. — fSovpKcovav = 
(jjyKovvTO TrXrjpr] SaKpviov, they ivere swelling with tears. — ficTavo/jievo'? 
= lJi€ravevo7]ixevo<s, repentant. — vol Troia-y = va Troujcrr), to do. 

131-135. — jjLove = fiovov, only. — 7rd(r(/)tyy€ = ottot; ea-cfuyyc, that 
he tightened. — ra TrXayrj = ra TrXdyta, the sides. — kfdovn^e. = ijSv- 
Oio-dy], he dived. 

136-140. — va TrXcyr) = va ttAct^, vol VT^^^i^rat, to siuim. — fiova)(6v 
= fjLovov, alone. — eKaracrc^tyye = KaT€cr</)6yye, he clenched. 

141-145. — dvTp€/3€Tov = rjv8pL^eTo, he summoned up his courage. 
— /cAoT^wvras (rdv rj/xTropie KtaTrdvov IcTT/De^eTov = AaKTt^wv ocrov 
iSvvaro Kal eTrea-rpe^ev avw, and kicking out with all his might, he 
returned to the surface. — tJtovg = '^ro, it was. — fxTropovfjievov = Swarov, 
possible. — va yXvcry = vd yXvTcocryj to set free, save. — to Koppbi rov = 
TO (TM/Jid TOV, his body. — ecrepve = ecrvpe, he dragged. — tyjv opd = 
TYjv ovpdv, the tail. 

146-150. — TCTOtas Xoyrfs = ovTOiS, in this way. — e/xeva = e/xe^ me. 
— o-av = (oo-av, cos, like as. — orav kyivq — 6t€ eyetve, lohen he became. 
— viofiovs = cofxovs, the shoulders. 

151-155. — dp7ra^€ = 'r]p7ra^€, -i^pTracre, he carried off. — €/3yaX€ = 
k^k^aXe, he brought ashore. — cre/cetvo cKarotKa = els eKetvo KarwKei, 
he dioelt in that place. — 'ip.iraxj/e = eVavo-e, he finished, ended. 

1 56-160. — cKavav = eKafiov, irroirjcrav, they made. — Acarov = 
KaTW, dow7i below. — eTpd/Srj^av = 'icrvpav, they dragged. — efSdvav = 
ef^aXov, they cast. — va efSydXy = va cKf^dXy, to send forth. — KiaydXi 
ydXi = Ka6 dyaAia ayaAta = /?paSeo>s Travv fSpaScoys, slowly very 

161-165. — OTTOVTOV = biTov rjTO, who was. — va Tove fSdXy = vd 
TOV ^dXr), to put him. — avoATrtcTTa = aveATTio-Tw?, imexpectedly. — 
TCTOtav = TOLavTYjv, such. — va yXva-rjs = va yAvTwo-v^s, vol aTraA- 
Xayrjs, to escape. — va Sc^ays OdvaTov., to pay the jJenalty of death. 

166-170. — 7rovripid = 7rovypia, cunning. — KiairkKei — kol (xtto 
Ikci, and after that. — aTroAvcres = dTrkXvcras = d^r\Ka<^, you abandoned* 
— ri(rovv = ^cro, '^jcrOa, you were. — KaAAto? = KaAAiwv, afxetvaiv, 
better. — va 7raX€xl/y<s = vd iraXaio-ys, to wrestle, to fight. 

171-175. — KdXXia fjLOv = KaXXiov ifxov, better than I. — y(Tovv€ = 



'?^l(ro, ^j(r6a, you were. — /xove = novov, only. — Kavet = Kayxi/€i, he doeSf 
' cutes. — iXcYj/JLoa-vvy] = eAeos, jf^iYy. 
176-178. — xa.dr]V = kxdd-i]^ aTrwAero, v:as lost. — €^aTr\i!i6t)K€ 
= €^rj7rX(i>0y), he stretched himself out. — k e^yyJKev = Kal eK^rJKiv 
= Kal e^e/Srj, Kal k^rjXBev^ and it went out. 

Ev^a/JICTTW V^LV €yKap8i(DS. 
Tiopa, eav 8cv €L(t6€ /cov/Dacr/x€VOS, 
as SteXOiofxev Kal to e^rj'^ airo- 
(r7ra(r/xa to (ftepov CTriypac^ryv, 
" ^TL^OL rjdiKot, Kara rroWa 
KaravvKTLKoi^ els tov fxaraLov 
KocTfJiov." Et^et'pere viro tcvos 
Kal TTore iypd(f)i](Tav ; 


xj/as crvat 6 €K ZaKvvdov Upev^s 
'IcDorrjff) BapTcreAr^S, dxyuacras 
TTcpl TO, TeXf] TOV IS' aiwvo?. To 
v<f>os avTov €ivaL aTrXovv Kal ev- 
Xr)TrTOV, ol Se (TTL^oi ^ojrjpol Kal 
/jeovT€9, wcrre eai' Trpocrk^rjTe 
KaAws oTav lyw avaytvoxrKw to 
TronjfJia, itpiai /?e/?atos ^a cv- 
vorj(rrjT€ iracrav Xk^LV. 

" Tt Oav/JLa^eis, S> jSpoTe, 


Kat Kav^acrat els tov ttAovtov 
IloxctS ei's TOV Koa-fjiov tovtov ; 
Kal opi^ets KacTTpaj tottovs, 
Zwa, ^(sipaLS Kal dvOpayirovs ; 
K' e'x^'^^ Toar^v e^ovcrtav, 
Kat pcydXr^v avBevTiav ; 
AovXovs 's TO. 6eXy)paTd dov 
Kat TTO A Aovs 's T7)v (rvvTpo(f)Ld arov , 
IIoAAa (TTriTca Kal d/JLTreXia, 
SkAci^ovs, SovXovs Kal KOTreAAia; 
Kai ava7ravo-€S fieydXaLS, 
KaXopot^LKals Kal dXXais ; 
E^ciS direipov ^oi'craTov 
Kat 6 Kocrpos (re cfiofSaTov ; 

Thank you very much. Now, 
if you are not tired, let us also 
go through the following extract 
entitled, " Moral verses, greatly 
conducive to contrition, about 
this vain world." Do you know 
by whom and when they were 
written ? 

The writer of these verses is 
Joseph Bartselis, a priest of 
Zante, who flourished about the 
end of the 16th century. His 
style is simple and intelligible, 
and the lines lively and flowing, 
so that if you listen attentively 
while I read the poem, I am 
certain that you will understand 
every word. 

" What see you to admire, 
O mortal, ever in your life ? 
That you boast of the wealth 
which you have in this world 1 
That you are lord of castles, lands, 
animals, countries, and men 1 
And that you have such power, 
and great authority ? 
Servants at your bidding, 
• and many in your retinue 1 
Many houses and vineyards, 
slaves, servants, and pages ? 
And great comfort, 
and every kind of good fortune ? 
That you have an immense army, 
and the world fears you ? 



Kat oXoi rpefJLOvorLV kjnrpos crov, 
K' ecvai els tov 6pto-/xov crov^ 
Kai ofJLTrpocTTd aov 8ev ToXfiovcTi^ 
Aoyov Kttv va (rov etTrovat. 
"0\oL (re 7ro\v)(povt^ovv 
Kat TToXXa (T€ fxaKapi^ovv 
UoXXovs xpoi^ovs yea va ^y](Tr)S 
IlatSag k eKyova v' dcfi-jcrys, 
Tov Oeov TrapaKaXwcTi, 
'Veidv, elprivrjv vd crov Saxrr). 
^12 TTrjXk, Kol Tt Kav\d(TaL, 
Ulov a oXiyov /xeAAeis vdarat 
Xw/xa ytd vd ae TrarovcrL 
Kat va ere Karacfypovovcn ; " 

2a5 jSef^atio 8kv evorjcra ttws 
6 Kaipos TraprjXOev. 'I8ov e- 
cfiOdcrafiev ets Ti)v NeaTroAtv. 
*H (o/ja eivat dKpi/Sws e^ Kat 
T/)iavTaSvo. 'H ajaa^ocTTOt^ta 
/xevet evravOa fitav copav, cocrre 

€)(^OjX€V KaipOV vd y€VjXaTLG-(i)/JL€V 

iv dv€(T€i. '^A<s a^?yo-o)/xev Aoittov 
rd Trpdyixard fias els to aTTo- 
(TKevocf)vXdKtou KOL a? vwdyo)- 
fxev vd yevOojixev rd Treptcfuj/xa 
TYJs NeaTToAew? fiaKapovca, " ra 
Kal fxaKapes TroOeovcnv." 

And all tremble before you, 
and are under your command, 
and to your face they do not 
dare to say one word to you. 
All wisli you a long life and 
shower on you every blessing, 
to live for many a year, to leave 
children and descendants : 
they offer prayers to God 
to give you health and peace. 
thing of clay, why do you 
boast, who in a little time will be 
earth for men to tread on 
and show you their contempt ? " 
I assure you I did not notice 
how the time has gone by. Here 
we are at Naples. It is exactly 
thirty -two minutes past six. 
The train stops here for an 
hour, so we have time to dine 
at our ease. Let us leave our 
things in the cloak-room then, 
and go and taste the famous 
Neapolitan macaroni, " which 
even the Gods are eager to 



Aia TL ovTW /3pa8€Ci)<s irpo- 
X^P^^ '>] a/Jia^oa-TOiXta / tl 
(TV/xf3aLV€L apd ye ; jx-qTTOiS 
eVa^e fSXd/^rjv tlvol r^ drfiofirj- 
Xavr^ ; 'H/xiVeta w/aa TraprjXOev 
d(fi oTov d(pr]Kafiev rov crraOfMov 
Kat dKOfxi^ etfxeda evros Trjs 

To, TWV (TL8rjpo8p6fM(OV €V 

'IraAt^ Sev efvat clcriTi Tocrov 
KaAw? TaKTOTreTTOtrifjieva ocrov Iv 
'Ayy\i<^, 6xrT€ Sev vo/xl^o) vd 
(TVvkfSr] Tt ets tt^v ix-qx^t-v-qv ' 
tcrws 17 ypafjifXYj Sev eiVat lAev- 
^€/3a, SioTt oAiyov irpocrwTepo} 
VTrdpx^L Kajxirr], €v6a crvvevovv- 
Tat 8vo ypafxfjLai, /cat Trt^avov rj 
d/xa^O(TTOtx^a jxas dvayKd^erau 
vd TTeptiikvYj 8id vd Trcpdcrrj 
dWr] TT/Do avrrjs. 

TovTO eivat, ttoXv Trcdavov, 
Kat l8ov j3\€7ru) jxiav €pxop^kvy]V 
€K Tov dvTidcTOV fxepovs' I80V 
Trapy^kdev rj ypa/jL/xr) efvat 
kXevOkpa' €7rt rkXovs KLVovpieda. 

K.VTTd^aT€ Trpos to, Se^ta era's, 
TToorov topaios Kat /x€yaAo7r/3€7n)s 
efvat 6 koAttos rrj<s NeaTroAcws / 
E?vat fX0Va8LK0S €V tw koct/xoj' 
17 Se roTTodecTLa rrjs d/o^atas Kat 
•jr€pi<f>7Jixov TavTrj's TroAews €?vat 

Why is the train going so 
slowly ? What is the matter, I 
wonder ? Has anything gone 
wrong with the engine ? Half 
an hour has passed since we 
left the station and we are still 
inside the town. 

Railway matters in Italy are 
not yet so well arranged as in 
England, so I do not think 
anything has happened to the 
engine : perhaps the line is not 
clear, for a little farther on 
there is a curve where two lines 
join, and probably our train is 
obliged to wait for another to 
pass before it. 

That is very likely, and 
there I see one coming from 
the opposite direction : there, it 
has gone by : the line is clear : 
at last we are moving. 

Look to your right, how 
beautiful and magnificent the 
gulf of Naples is ! It is unique 
in the world : the situation of 
this ancient and celebrated city is 
unrivalled. Nature has lavished 



oLTTapdixiXXos. H <f>v(rLS erre- 
Saxj/iXevcrev avrfj a(^et8tos Kat 
dcfi66v(i)S irdvTa avT7]S rd dyaOd, 
okrTe vo[xt^o} on Skv €)(ovcrLV 
dSiKov ot NeaTToAirat Xeyovres, 
"'ISe Trjv NedtTToAtv Kal eTretra 

Trjv yvMfiTjv ravTrjv twv 
KttAwv /xa<s NeaTToAtrcov Sev e'x^ 
TT/aos TO Trapov TroXXrjv ope^tv 
vd TYjv irapa^e^Bd, Stort Itti- 
OvfXM Kot dXXa p^eprj tov Kocrpov 
vd l8(j)' €kto? tovtov Sev rr)V 
etSov 8d Kal ttoXv KaXd. "Av 
TTLCTTevcry] ns ocra cypaxj/av Kal 
ypdcf^ovcTL Trepl avTrj's ot Trepi- 
rjyrjTai, to ecriiirepLKov avryjs 
KdXXos 8ev dvra7roKpiV€TaL ws 
hrpeire fxerd tov k^oirepiKov 
peyaXetov OTrep TrcptfSdXXeL 

M-^ SiSeTC Trpocrox'^y et? ocra 
XeyovcTLV ol TrepLrjyrjraL, Slotl 
ol TrXeia-TOL 1^ avTWV TrapaSo^o- 
Xoyov(TL Trepl twv x^P^^ ^^ 
€7rfc(7K67rT0VTat €7ravaXap/3dv- 
OVTCS TToXXdKLS dj^aoravLCTTias 
iraXaids TrpoX-qxl/eis Kal Xiyovres 
"6 TL K€v kir' dKatptpLav yXQxrcrav 
'iXOy" OTTWS TrXcLOvas kXKvcruxrLV 
dvayv(oa-Tas ei? TotslwAov? avT(ov 
Kal dvova-LOVs 7repLypa(f>ds. *H 
NectTToAts vvv Skv etvat o'la r^TO 
€7rt ^ovp/SovoiV Slotl T0T€ p.€V 
€7r€KpdT€L iv avTjj rj dpdOeia, y 
Seta-tSaipovLa Kal r] Siacfidopd, 
vvv Be TravTa^oTJ f^Xerrci Tt5 kv 
avrfj (Tijpida 7rpo68ov Kal fSeX- 

Xatpo) f.yKap8i(x)<s oti ot 

1 "YediNapoli 

upon her unsparingly and pro- 
fusely all lier riches, so I think 
the Neapolitans are not wrong 
when they say " See Naples 
and then die." 

I have no great inclination 
for the present to adopt this 
opinion of our good friends the 
Neapolitans, for I want to see 
other parts of the world as well : 
besides after all I did not see it 
very well. If we are to believe all 
that travellers have written and 
still write, about her, her internal 
beauty does not correspond, as 
it should, with the external 
magnificence which surrounds 

Do not pay attention to all that 
travellers say, for most of them 
relate strange things about the 
places they visit, often repeating 
old prejudices without testing 
them, and saying "whatever 
comes to the ill-timed tongue," 
in order to attract more readers 
to their stale and insipid descrip- 
tions. Naples is not now what she 
was in the time of the Bourbons ; 
for then there prevailed in her 
ignorance, superstition and cor- 
ruption, while now one sees in 
her everywhere signs of progress 
and improvement. 

I am heartily glad that the 
e poi mori." 




KaroLKOi ry)<s lopaias Tavrrjs 
)(^a>pa<s evptcTKOVTai iv 68a> 
TTpooSov d\X rj Kara rhv 
TrapeXOovra aldva dfxdOeLa av- 
TiJjv /cat Seio-LSaLiMOVta cfiatverai, 
€L)(^ov (fidda-y els to KaraKopvcfiOV 
avTwi' cr>;/x€tov. 'FtvOvpiOVfJLai 
dveyvojv ttov Trph ttoAAwv ir^v 
aTTOCTTTcur/xaTa €7rL(TTo\(i)v Tep- 
fxavov Ttvos KdpX yieijep KaXov- 
pikvov, ocTTLS ^triyklrai TrXeicrTa 
ao"T€toTaTa dveKdora irepl twv 
KaTOLK(DV T7J<s NeaTToAcws Kal 
18lu)<s Trepl AopLLVLKavov tlvos 
fjLova)(^ov, ocTTiS, €av Sev /xe 
dirar^ rj ^vry/xry, (uvo/Aa^ero 
ndrep TprjyopLos ^Pokkos' '^to 
8k Trayya-apKOS, TrpoydcTTOjp, 
epvOpoTrpoa-iOTTos, ^(i)r)pbs Kal 
KaO' VTrep/SoX-rjv crKioTrriKhs Kal 
opytkos. Ka^' €KdcrTr]V Trept- 
-qpXero rds oSovs OL^dxTKfjiv, 
vovderOiVj eTrnrX'qrTOiv Kal kviore 
(lacrr tydv tovs p^y) irpoa-kyovTas 
its rds vovOea-ias avrov. *H 
larxvs avrov iirl tov o^^Aov 
Tyro aTToAvTos, koI ovSels 
€T0 A/xa vd dvT€LTrr) els avrov. 
"Ore yjOeXe vd k^aXei^rj Kard- 
Xpy]o-LV rtva eTriKparovcrav iv 
rfj TToAet, p^erefSaivev <ls ya/'av 
ru)v TroXvTrX-qOea-repiov TrAaretwv 
Kal dva^ds C7rt Tvpoyeipov rivhs 
l3rip,aros, oirep (rvvrjOios rjro ira- 
Aatds Tts KdSos dv€(Trpapp,€vos, 
eKyjpvrrev eKeWev Sud (fiO)V7J<s 
/SpovrioSovs €is Ta Kexrjvora 
TrXYjOi^, Kal TToXXdKis Sid rrjs 
TrpaKrtKiordrr]^ avrov SiSacTKa- 
Xia<s eOepdrreve rd /at) KaAws 

inhabitants of this beautiful 
country are in the path of pro- 
gress ; but their ignorance and 
superstition in the last century- 
had reached, it appears, their 
culminating point. I remember 
reading somewhere, many years 
ago, extracts from the letters of 
a German named Karl Meyer, 
who relates many very witty 
anecdotes about the inhabitants 
of Naples and especially about 
a certain Dominican monk whose 
name, unless my memory plays 
me false, was Father Gregorio 
Rocco : he was a burly and 
corpulent red-faced man, full of 
animation, excessively given to 
ridicule, and of a passionate 
temper. Every day he used to 
go about the streets teaching, 
warning, rebuking, and some- 
times whipping those who did 
not attend to his admonitions. 
His power over the crowd was 
absolute, and no one dared to 
contradict him. When he 
wished to abolish any abuse 
prevailing in the city, he used 
to go to one of the more 
frequented public squares, and 
mounting some handy platform, 
which was usually an old tub 
turned upside down, preach 
from that position in a voice of 
thunder to the gaping crowd, 
and often, by means of his 
exceedingly practical mode of 
teaching, cured what was evil. 




^lEivdvfJieicrde Kavev €K Tt3v 
Trepl avTov acrreiwv dveKSoToyv ; 

MaAio-Ta_, KOL av ayairare, 
ef/xat TrpoSvfxos va eras Si-q-yrjOo) 
€V r] ovo €^ avT(ov. 

Qd fxi evprjTe cf)iXrjKOOV 

'^Hfxepav Tivd cK-qpyrrev iv 
/xecro) Trj<s 8r)fJL0(rias dyopds Kal 
fxeya 7rXrj6o<s Xaov crvveppevcrev 
eK€L oTTws aKovarj Trjv SuSa- 
(TKaXiav Tov. AicfivrjS pixpas 
fBXo(Tvpov /^Ae/x/za kirl twv 
aKpoarMV tov, dvecfaovrjo-e /xera 
(fxovrjs (TrevTopetov, " ^^fxepov 
deXo) vd fief^anadd dv dXyjOios 
fieravorjre €k twv a/xaprtcov 
vfiQv, rj dv ^evSws VTroKpivo- 
fjLcvoL ix€ aTTarare." Tavra Se 


Xoyov TTcpl fxeravoias, koI Tray- 
re's KXivavTGS Ta yovara irph 
avTOV eSaKpvov iv crvvTpif3y 
KapSta^s KOL ervTTTOv rot crTrjdrj. 
TovTO I8(x)v 6 Tldrep ^Pokkos 
dv€cf)(x>vr]<je Trpos to irXrjOos, 
""Ocroi e^ v/xwv dXrjOios [xere- 
vo>^(raT€, v\p(o(TaT€ rds \eipas" 
IlavTes dveretvav d/xcfiOTepovs 
Tovs ppaxtovas. " M.Lyay]X 
'ApxdyyeXe " e^€cf)(ovr)(re Tore 

6 ^PoKKOS jSXeTTiOV Trpbs TOV 

ovpavoVj ^' (TV ocms Kparwv 
cfiXoyivrjv pofxf^aiav LcrracraL 
Trapd TOV Opovov tov deov, cXBe 
TavTTjv Trjv a-TLy/xrjv kvravda^ 
Kttt KaTaKOxpov Trda-av X^^P^ 

rJTLS VTTOKpLTLKOiS Vlj/lodY)." Ev- 

$v^ 0)9 aTTo fXLas opixrjs TrdvTes 
KaT€/3if3aa-av toIs x^^P^'^} '^^'' 
r)KOV(rav Tot e^ djJLd^rjs Trapd 

Do you recollect any of the 
witty anecdotes about him ? 

Yes, and if you like, I am 
quite willing to relate to you 
one or two of them. 

You will find me an attentive 

One day he was preaching 
in the middle of the public 
market-place, and a great multi- 
tude of people flocked there to 
listen to his teaching. Suddenly 
casting a stern glance upon his 
hearers, he shouted in a sten- 
torian voice : " To-day I want to 
be assured whether you truly 
repent of your sins, or deceive 
me by falsely pretending to do 
so."^ After saying this, he began 
a very touching discourse upon 
repentance, and all, kneeling 
down before him, wept in the 
contrition of their hearts and 
beat their breasts. Seeing this. 
Father Rocco cried to the 
crowd : "As many of you as have 
truly repented, hold up your 
hands." All extended both arms. 
"Archangel Michael," then ex- 
claimed Father Rocco, looking 
up to heaven, " thou who hold- 
ing a flaming sword standest by 
the throne of God, come here 
this moment, and lop off every 
arm which is hypocritically 
raised." Immediately, as if by 
a single impulse, all of them 
lowered their arms, and they 
heard some hearty abuse from 
the austere preacher about their 
sham repentance. 



TOV aV(TTr)pOV KT/^pVKOS Sio, Trjv 
\p€v8rj avTwv ficrdvoLav. 

^OCTTLfXiOTaTOV dv€K8oTOV' t5 

8k dXXo Trepl TLVOS cTvai ; 

ETvat 7r€/9t AoyoyMtt^ia? rivh^ 
fxera^v'^Icnravov KaXoyrjpov koI 


8ia^e/?aiovvTos ort €V rw irapa- 
Seicro) 6ev cvptcTKOVTO ^Icnravol 

'•• TovTO Sei/ cu/ai dAr^^e?," 
dv€Kpa^€ fier' ayavaKTT^crew? o 
e^ * IcTTravta? />tova;^os, "eu/at 
(TTp€fiX.(jXTLS ttJs iKKkrja-iacrTLKrjs 

"OvSoAws" dTnjvTrj(r€V d- 
Tapd\(i}S o Tldrep * Pokkos, 
"Kat av OcXys va fxadrj'S rrjv 
alriav rov Trpdy/xaros, aKovarov • 
KaT dpx^as €vpi(TKovro oXiyoL 
Tivcs dyiOL c^ * Itrvravtas ev to> 
TrapaSeto-w, aAA' kTr€i8ri dirav- 
(TTiDS kKOLTTVL^ov, "^ Ilavayta Kat 
at AoiTrat ay tat Trapdkvoi eKafxov 
Trapdirova els rbv dyiov Yikrpov^ 
©(TTt? o-vyKaAe(ras avrov? rots 
dv-fiyyecXiv on to KaTrvLo-fxa 
aTrrjyopeveTO €ts to €^>J? ev t<^ 
TrapaSeio-w. 'AAA* ot KaAot 
^as ^lo-Travot /u'>) Sovtc? irpocr- 

0\V]V €1? TOT'S AdyoVS TOV 

dyiov Tierpov k^-qKoXovOovv va 


Et/zat TrepUpyos va fxddta 
TTMS d7njXXdyr](Tav twv (fyo^epcjv 


At' aTrAoDo-TaTov rpoirov. 
"Kr;/3VK€S avreo-TaArycrav eis oAa 
TO, fte/3>; TOV 7rapa8€L(TOv" i^rjKO- 
Xovdri(T€V 6 UaTep 'Pokkos, 
" otTives €K-qpv^av otl e^u) twv 

A capital anecdote : and what 
is the other one about ? 

It is about a controversy 
between a Spanish monk and 
Father Rocco who persistently 
maintained that there were no 
Spanish saints in paradise. 

" That is not true," cried the 
Spanish monk indignantly, "it 
is a perversion of ecclesiastical 

" Not at all," calmly replied 
Father Rocco, " and if you want 
to learn the reason of the matter, 
listen : at first there were a few 
saints from Spain in paradise, 
but as they smoked incessantly. 
Our Lady and the other holy 
virgins made complaints to St. 
Peter, who, calling them to- 
gether, announced to them that 
henceforth smoking was pro- 
hibited in paradise. But our 
good friends the Spaniards, pay- 
ing no attention to what St. 
Peter said, went on with their 

I am curious to learn how 
they got rid of those dreadful 

In a very simple way. 
"Messengers were sent to every 
part of paradise," continued 
Father Rocco, " who proclaimed 
that without the gates of the 





€fxeXXe va reXecrdy dycbv rav- 
pofJLa)(^ias. Hovro aKovcravres 
ol *I(r7ravot ay tot 'd^pajxov 
dOpooL €^(0 TOV irapaodxrov oirias 
tSwcrt TO 7rpo(T<fiiXe<s avT0i<5 
Oeapia' dXXa fioXts i^yjXdov 
Kol evdvs 6 kX€l8ovxos €KAeio-e 

TOtS TTvXaS KOi €KX€i8(i}(T€V 

avTOvs e^o), kol cktotc Travres 
ot 'loTTravoi ay tot efieivav els ra 
Kpva TOV XovTpov." 

E^ye HaTcp *Pokk€, evye, 
KaAa Trjv KaT€(f)€p€S et's tov 
* Io-7ravov • aAAa fSXiTTO) kirX-qcL- 
dcrafiev els tyjv UofiTrytaVy 7]Tls 
fietvacra €7rl deKaeTTTa alotvas 
VTTO Trjv Te(j)pav tov ^ecrov/Siov 
dve(fidvr] TrdXiV ottws eXKvrj 
Trpos eavTYjV tovs TrepiTjyYjTds 
oXrjS TTJs olKovfxevrjs. '^TrecrKe- 
cfi6r)v rot fieyaXoTTpeTrrj epeiTTia 
Tr\s Kv^LKOVj elSov rot Xecxj/ava 
Trjs ev TM 'A8pafxvTTr]V(2 koXttco 
"Acraov, ev y eyeivav too-ov 
eTTtTv^eis dvacrKa(fial ov Trpo 

TToXXoiV 6TCUV VTTO T^S ' Afiepu- 

KaviKTJs 'Ap)(^aioXoyLKrjs erai- 
petas KOL dveKaXvipBrjcrav rj 
dyopd, TO BeaTpov kol to 
fSovXevTTJpLOV Trjs TToXeoys koI 
TrXeLo-Tac dXXat dypLoa-tai oIko- 
Soyuat, dXX ovSev SvvaTai vd 
Trapa/SXydfi tt/jos to, epetTria 
Trjs TLoixTrrjtas. " OTav irepi- 
ep^rjTat tls toIs oSovs Kat Tots 
7rAaT€ias Trjs Treptcfyrjfiov TavTv/s 
TToAews, Kat /SXeTTj) Tots ev avTrj 
oIklus twv dpyatijiv avTrjs ttoAi- 
Twv Kat TO, 8r)fi6(T ta olKodo/xy- 
/xaTa, KaTaXapif^dveTai virh 

holy place there was going to 
be a bull-fight. Hearing this, 
the Spanish saints ran in a 
crowd outside of paradise to 
witness their favourite S23ectacle ; 
but they had hardly gone away 
before the keeper of the keys 
shut the gates and locked them 
out, and from that time all the 
Spanish saints have been left 
out in the cold." 

Well done. Father Eocco ! 
Bravo ! You gave it the 
Spaniard well — But I see we 
are approaching Pompeii, which, 
after remaining for seventeen 
centuries under the ashes of 
Vesuvius, reappeared in order to 
attract to her the travellers of 
all the world. I have visited 
the magnificent ruins of 
Cyzicus : I have seen the 
remains of Assos on the gulf 
of Adramyti, in which such 
successful excavations were 
made not many years ago by the 
American Archaeological Society 
and there were discovered the 
market-place, the theatre and 
the senate-house of the city, and 
very many other public build- 
ings ; but nothing can be com- 
pared to the ruins of Pompeii. 
When any one wanders about 
the streets and squares of this 
famous city, and sees there the 
houses of its ancient citizens 
and the public buildings, he is 
seized with a strange feeling, 
and fancies that he is, not in 




TrapaSo^ov alo-O/jfxaTOS kol 

VO/lt(€L OTL €VpL(TK€TaL OV)(l Iv 

fxecTio ipeLTTiioVf d\X' kv rrj 
ap^aic^ HofXTrrjti^ w? ci^e irplv 

ArjXaSr) ws TrepuypaxJ/ev av- 

yovLpLOs (f>avTacrLa rov XopSov 


IxvOia-TopriixaTi "At reXevTalaL 
rjfX€paL rrjs UofXTrrjtas." 

MaAwrra, Slotl Trpdy/xaTL 
Tci ipya TMV fx^yaXoiV crvy- 
ypa(f>€(j)v XprjO-Lfxevova-LV et's 
Tov dvdpojTTLVOv vovv d)S oSrjyoL 
Ttves 7ro8rjy€TovvT€<s avrhv els 
Ta<s Xa/SvpcvOioSets 66ovs rrjs 
(f>avTa(TLa<s. ' AvayivcocrKOiv tls 
Tas "TeAevraias -q/xepas T7J<s 
IlofX7ry]ta<i" vo/xL^ei t<^ ovtl otl 
^ij €v T<^ TrapeXOovTL^ otl (tvv- 
Tpii>y€L, (rv/jL7rLV€i, (rvvevOvpLeL 
Kal (TvyKOjfxd^ei fxerd twv del 
evTpv(fiO}vroi)v rrjs Jlo/x7rrjta<s 


i^ioov dKTjSea Ovfxov e'xovTes" 
Kot " Tepirovr kv OaXtrjCTL kukcov 
(KToardev dTrdvTiov." 

'AAA' 6 v\l/LlSp€fjL€Trj<s Zevs 
"€/xrj(raTo avrols Ki'^Sea Xvypd" 
Sloti rrj 23TJ AvyovcTTOv Tre/ot 
T7)v jitia;/ lopav fx. p.. rov kjSSo- 
fxif]Koa-rov kvdrov erovs fxerd 
X/oicrrov ^o/^epo. cKp^j^ts rov 
Becrovf^LOV Karea-rpexj/e rrjv 
evSaifxova ravrrjv ttoXlv ofiov 
ficrd rov ^UpaKXeiov Kal dX- 
X(j)v TrapaKCLfxevojv KOifxwv. * Av€- 
yviore ttotc rrjV eTriaroXr^v IIAi- 
viov rov viiorepov tt/dos rov 
l(rrop coy pd(fiov TaKtrov, kv y 

the midst of ruins, but in 
ancient Pompeii as it was before 
it was destroyed. 

That is to say, just as the 
prolific imagination of Lord 
Lytton has so happily depicted 
it in his brilliant novel The Last 
Days of Pompeii. 

Quite so, for in fact the 
works of great writers serve in 
a way as guides to the human 
mind, directing its steps in the 
labyrinthine paths of imagina- 
tion. A reader of The Last 
Days of Pompeii fancies that he 
is really living in the past, 
eating, drinking, enjoying him- 
self and revelling in the 
company of the ever luxurious 
inhabitants of Pompeii, who 
"like gods lived with no care 
upon their minds," and " beyond 
the reach of every ill take 
delight in the feast." 

But Jove, the Thunderer on 
high, "meditated for them 
grievous harm," for on the 23d 
of August, about one o'clock in 
the afternoon, in the seventy- 
ninth year after Christ, a 
fearful eruption of Vesuvius de- 
stroyed this prosperous city to- 
gether with Herculaneum and 
some adjacent villages. Did 
you ever read the letter of Pliny 
the younger to the historian 
Tacitus, in which he describes 




Trepty pd(t>€L XeTrTOfiepccrrara rd 
Tyjs fJbGydXrjs ravrrj^ Kara- 
crrpocfirjs ; 

IIoAAaKts* edv 6e 8ev /xe 
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e7n(TToX.rj avrr) ix€r€cf)pd(r6r] els 
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Trjs €V ^fxvpvrj IkSiSo/xcvt^? ttotc 
" ' Kirod-qKris Ttov (o<^eAt/>twv 
yvwcrewv." 'Er rfj <^ofiepa. 
ravrrj KaTa(rrpo<f>y aTrWavev i^ 
d(r<f>v^ias IIAtvtos 6 irpeorjSvTe- 

pOS, OCTTtS '^TO OeiOS TOV V€(aT€- 


"Eyetve Ovjxa ttJs cTTbcrTTjfxovL- 


ov xpovov Travres 'i^evyov 
S/oo/Atttot 7rpo(rTraOovvT€<s v 
dTrofxaKpvvdcikn rov klvSvvov, 
€K€Lvo<s ifi^ds et? Tpirfpri eVAevo-e 
Trpbs TO ^Pt^tivov kol tol dXXa 
cTraTTCiAov/xeva TT/ooacrreia, kol 
KaTea-Koirei €k tov crvvcyyvs rd 

kv T<^ OVpaVi^ KOL TTf yfj (TVfX- 

f^aivovTa' dXX ijSrj ttvkvyj 

T€<fipa 7]p)(^L(r€ vd KaXvTTTTI TO 

Karda-rpiapLa ttjs vews kol rjvay- 
KdcrOrj vd Karacf^vyy els ^ra/Sids' 
Yf Karaa-rpoffir} o/xws CTre^eTei- 
v€TO €7rt pidXXov Kal p.dXXov kol 
(f)€vy(ov p^erd ttoAAcov aAAwv €k 
2Ta/?twv dirkOave Ka6' 686v. 

T'j^v €Kpr]^tv Tavrrjv rov 
Becrov/^toi; Str^yetTat ypacjuKU)- 

TttTtt KOL AtWV 6 KaO-Q-tOS StSwV 

€is avTr]v Kal pivOoXoyLKrjv riva 
\poidv, Slotl Xeyei otl Trpb toJs 
cfioftepds €K€LV7]s Oeop.rjvias ecfiai- 
vovTO " dvSpes TToAAot Kal 

most minutely tlie incidents of 
this great catastrophe ? 

Often : if my memory does 
not betray me, I think the 
letter was translated into the 
Greek language by J. Isidorides 
Skylitzi, and was published in 
the sixth volume of the Magazine 
of Useful Knowledge, issued at 
one time in Smyrna. In this 
frightful catastrophe Pliny the 
elder, who was the uncle of the 
younger, died from suffocation. 

He fell a victim to his scien- 
tific curiosity; for at the time 
when all were rushing off in 
their endeavour to get far away 
from the danger, he embarked 
in a trireme and sailed for 
Ketinum and the other threatened 
suburbs, and was observing in 
close proximity what was taking 
place in the sky and on the 
earth ; but already dense ashes 
began to cover the deck of the 
ship and he was compelled to 
take refuge in Stabiae : the cata^ 
strophe however extended farther 
and farther, and, while making 
his escape with many others from 
Stabiae, he perished on the road. 

Dion Cassius also relates this 
eruption of Vesuvius in a most 
graphic manner, giving to 
moreover a somewhat mytho- 
logical tinge, for he says that 
before that terrible visitation, 
"many huge men, surpassing 



St I 



/xcyaAot Tzacrav rrjv dvdporrrtvqv 
<f>v(rLV I'Tre/o^e^Ar^KOTCS, ofot oi 
yLyavT€<i ypd<j>ovTaL," aAAore 
/xev €7rl Tov 'S>€(rov(Siov^ aAAore 

6€ eV TTj TTCpl aVTO X^P^ TT€pi- 

cfiipofjievoL ' iviOTC 8k k^aivovro 

Koi iv TW dkpi 8La<{iOLTC)VT€<S. 

" Kat fxird TovTO avxfxoL re 
Seivol Kal (T€UT[xoi €^aicf)vr]S 
<T(fio8poL iytvovTO, wcrre Kat to 
TTcSiov iK€ivo irdv dvafSpaTTC- 
crdai, Kol TO, d-Kpa dvaTrrjSdv. 
rjX^^ T€, al fikv vTToycLoi, /3pov- 
rats coLKvlai, at Se cTrtyetot, 
lxvKt]dp.ois o/xotat (TvvkfiaLVOv' 
KoX ri re OdXacra-a o-we^/ae/xe, 
Kat 6 ovpavhs arvveTn^xet' kcik 


c^aTTtvaicos, (os Kat twv o/dwv 

O-V/XTTtTTTOVTWl/, i^rjKOVCrdrj ' KOL 

dvWopov Trpdrov fxkv XlOol 
VTrep/xeyWcLS, worre Kat i<s avra 
TO, (XKpa €^iK€(rdaL' cVetTa 7rv/3 
TToAv Kat KaTTVOs OLTrXeTOS, (ixrre 
Trdvra pXv tov dkpa crvcrKLaa-drj- 
vai, Trdvra 6e tov tJXlov (TvyKpv- 
(fidrjvaL, KaOdirep CKAeAotTroTa. 
Nv^ T€. ovv €^ rj/JL€pa<s, Kat 
(TKOTos Ik <^a)T09 €yev€T0' Kat 
e8oKovi/ ot /x€V T0V9 ytyavTas 
kiravia-TacrBai (TroAAa yap Kat 
TOTC €t8(oAa avTwv kv tw KaTrvw 
8u(f)aLV€To, Kat TrpocreTi Kal 
(ra\7riyy(DV Tts /^O"^ r^KoiWo), ot 
Sc Kat €S xaos 1^ Kat rrvp tov 
KocTfJLOV Trdvra dvaXta-KCcrSaL ' 
KOL Sid ravTa 'kcftevyov, ol pkv €k 
Twv otKtwv €s Tag 68ovs, ol 6e 

t^toOiV €L(riO' €K T€ T^S ^ttAatT- 

<n]<s €<s rrjv yyjv, Kal k^ kKtivi)^ 
€S TT^v ^aAao-0-av aAAot raparro- 

all human nature, like the 
giants are painted," made their 
appearance, going about some- 
times on Vesuvius, sometimes 
in the country surrounding it, 
and occasionally they even ap- 
peared frequenting the air. 
" And after this, severe droughts 
and violent earthquakes suddenly 
took place, so that the whole of 
that plain heaved, and the 
heights leaped ; and noises 
occurred, some subterranean, 
like thunder, others above 
ground, like bellowings ; and 
the sea at the same time roared 
and the sky resounded ; and 
after this an ominous crash was 
all of a sudden heard, as if the 
mountains were falling one upon 
another ; and first enormous 
stones leaped up, so as even to 
reach the very heights ; then a 
great volume of fire and an 
immense cloud of smoke, so 
that the whole atmosphere was 
obscured, and the sun entirely 
hidden as if it were eclipsed. 
Night came out of day and 
darkness out of light : some 
thought that the giants had 
revolted (for many likenesses of 
these too were at that time dis- 
cerned in the smoke, and more- 
over a sort of sound of trumpets 
was also heard) :- others that all the 
world was perishing in chaos or 
even in fire ; and on this account 
they fled, some from their houses 
into the streets, others from 
outside went inside ; others, in 


jjLevoi^ Kol irav to (XTro cr<fi(ov 
(XTTOV a(T<^aXk(TTepov rov Trapov- 
Tos ^yov/xevoL' ravrd re ayu,a 
kyiyviTO kol rccfjpa d/xvdrjro'S 
icjiVcrrjOr]^ Kal tt^v re yyjvy r-qv 
re OdXacra-av kol rov dkpa 
Trdi/ra Karecr^^e • kol ttoAAo, {xev 

KOL CtAAa, WS TTOV KOL 'iTV)(€, Kal 
dvOpiOTTOLS KOL )(^COpaLS KOi /?0- 

crKTJfiacnv eXvpLyvaro, rovs Se 
L\dvas^ rd T€ opvea irdvra 
Sucfideipe' KOL irpocrkri kol tto- 
Aets 8vo oAas, TO t€ '^JipKov- 
Xdveov KOi Tovs HofXTT-qtovs, €V 
dedrpio Tov o/jllXov avTrjs 
KaOrjfjLevoVj KaT€)(^(D(7€' TOcravTr] 
yap rj Trdcra kovls lyevcTO, wo-t 
aTT avTrj<s ^XOe pXv Kal Is 
'A(f)pLKYjv Kal ^vpiav Kal es 
AiyvTrrov, iary^Xde Se Kal h 
'^Fiofxrjv, Kal TOV depa rov virep 
avrrj^ kTrXrjpoicre^ Kal rov rjXiOV 
eirea-Kiacr^' Kal crvvef^rj Kdvravda 
hkos ov fiLKpov iirl TroAAais 
rjfiepaLS ovr elSocn- rois dvdpio- 
TTOis TO yeyovos, ovr eiKdcrai 
8vva/M€V0L<S' dXX' ivofiL^ov Kal 
€K€LV0L Trdvra dvo) re Kal kcito) 

'A^ioXoyos irepiypaf^rf dXX 
iopa vofii^u) vd k-rravkXOoifxev ets 
Tct TrpocrcfiLXrj rjjuLiv dvayv(i>- 
(Tfiara • KaTot KaX-qv fxas rvxi^ 
ol <f>avol Twv dfxa^iov TrkpjrovcrL 
XafXTrphv (^ws Kal Svvarai ris v 
avayivoxTKy ^co/jis vd Kovpd^rj 
TOVS 6(f)daXfxovs rov. Tt iroir]- 
fxa ctVat TOVTO ; elvac Trpoyrorv- 
TTOV ^ fX€rdcf>pa(TLS J 

their confusion, from the sea to 
the land and from that to the 
sea, thinking every place distant 
from them safer than the one 
near them : all this took place 
at the same time that an amount 
of ashes, impossible to describe, 
was blown about and took 
possession of all the land and 
the sea and the air and, amidst 
much other destruction of what- 
ever it came across, played havoc 
with men and countries and 
cattle, and destroyed the fish 
and all the birds ; and in ad- 
dition to this buried two entire 
cities, Herculaneum and Pom- 
peii, while the population of the 
latter were seated in the theatre ; 
for all the dust became so great 
in quantity, that part of it 
reached Africa and Syria and 
Egypt, and even arrived at Rome 
and filled the air above it, and 
obscured the sun, and here too 
great terror fell upon the people, 
who for many days neither 
knew nor could conjecture what 
had happened, but they also 
thought that everything was 
being turned upside down." 

An excellent description : but 
now I think it is time to return 
to our favourite readings : by 
good luck the lamj)s of the 
carriages give a bright light, 
and one can read without tiring 
one's eyes. What poem is this ? 
Is it original or a translation ? 



Klvat fierdcjipacrts rov " Ilt- 
arov TTOLfievos" rov Tovaptvov 
y€VOfX€vyj Trcpi ra reAr; tou IS' 
alQvos VTrh Mi^arjk ^ov/jl/xolkt] 

ZaKwdlOVy 6(TTL<S €v8oKLfX(i)S C^>)- 

(TK€t rh larpiKhv kirdyy^Xfia kv 
Beveri^ koX crvve^kiro (faXiKiJiys 
/zera twv 67rt<^ai'eo-TaTa)V iirl 
TratSci^ dvSpiov ttJ? eTro^T}? rov 
€i\€ Se (TT€vriv (fiiXtav Kal yaera 

TOV Tovaptvov. 'H fX€Tdcf)pa(TLS 

avTTj dv Kal eyeive irepX rd rkXt) 
rov IS' alCdvo<s, eStjixoa-ievdr) 
dfjiws Kara rh 1658 ev Bcvert^ 
(OS Aeyet 6 B/oerbs €V T17 '' NeoeA- 
ky^VLKYj (faXoXoyi^ " rov. To 
irapov dvriypa^ov eycLvev €k twv 
" ^tAoAoytKtov avaAcKTWv Za- 
Kvv6ov" V7rh rov 'Ap^ieTrtcrKo- 
TTOV ZaKvvSov N. J^arpafxyj. 

Th ovofxa rov 'loidvvov BaTr- 
TKTToG Fova/aiVov Kara rhv IS' 
Kttt IZ' aliova €\aLpe. pieydXrjV 
(fi^jfirfv ttTToSet^iS §€ toi'tov 
cfi/at oTt 6 "■ Uicrrhs ttol- 
fxrjv " avrov reacrapaKovrdKLS 
ervTTioOy] ^(ovros en rov (Tvy- 
ypa(f)€(os. Th vcfios avrov eTvai 
yX.a(j>vphv Kal \apUv^ TroAAaKts 
o/jIWS at iroiririKal avrov €Ik6v€<s 
8iv cfiaivovrau cfivcrLKai. Svy/xepov 
oXtyicrroL utcds dvayivioa-Kovcri 
TO TTOLrjfxa TOUTO, €ts ttAcicttous 
8€ oijSe TO ovofia avrov elvai yvo}- 
(rrov. *As hieXdiap^ev Trpdrov 
rh 'IraXiKhv Ketfxevov Kal perd 
ravra dvay LV(ocrKop,€v rrjv perd- 
(f)pa(rLV rov 'Zovpp.dKrj p.€dep- 
prjvevovres avrrjv iv ravr<^ Kara 
Ac^ii/ €ts rh *AyyAiKov, 8ioTt 

It is a translation of Guarini's 
Faithful Swain, which was made 
at about the end of the 16th 
century by Michael Summakes 
of Zante, who successfully prac- 
tised the profession of a phy- 
sician in Venice, and was con- 
nected by ties of friendship with 
the men of his day who were 
most distinguished for their 
learning, and was on terms of 
intimacy with Guarini. This 
translation, although it was made 
at about the end of the 16th cen- 
tury, was published in Venice in 
1 658, as Vretos states in his Neo- 
hellenic Literature. The copy 
I have here was made from 
the Literary Selections of Zante, 
by N. Catrames, Archbishop of 

The name of Giovanni Bat- 
tista Guarini enjoyed great 
celebrity in the 16th and 17th 
centuries, and a proof of it is that 
his Faithful Swain was printed 
forty times while the author 
was yet living. His style is 
elegant and graceful, but his 
poetical similes often seem un- 
natural. In these days very 
few perhaps read this poem, 
and to most people even its 
name is unknown. Let us first 
go through the Italian text and 
after that we will read the 
translation of Summakes, ren- 
dering it at the same time 
word for word into English, 
for here it is not a question 
of the language of Guarini, 

204 IL PASTOR FIDO . xii 

evrav^a Scv irpoK^irai Trepl rrjs but of that of the Greek trans- 
yAwo-o-rys rod Tovaptvov^ dXka lator. 
irepl Trj<s tov "EAAryvos fxera- 



Silvio. Linco. 

Silvio. Ite voi, che chiudeste 

L' horribil fera, a dar 1' usato segno 

De la futura caccia. Ite svegliando 

Gli occhi col corno, e con la voce i cori. 

Se fu mai ne 1' Arcadia 

Pastor di Cintia, e de' suoi studi amico, 

Cui stimolasse il generoso petto 

Cura, gloria di selve, 

Hoggi il mostri, e mi segua, 

La dove in picciol giro, 

Ma largo campo al valor nostfo, e chinso 

Quel terribil Cinghiale ; 

Quel mostro di natura, e de le selve ; 

Quel si vasto, e si fiero, 

E per le piaghe altrui 

Si noto habitator de V Erimanto, 

Strage de le campagne, 

E terror de i bifolchi. Ite voi dunque, 

E non sol precorrete, 

Ma provocate ancora 

Co' 1 rauco suon la sonnachiosa Aurora. 

Noi, Linco, andiamo a venerar gli Dei, 

Con piu sicura scorta 

Seguirem poi la destinata caccia, 

" Chi ben comincia, ha la meta de 1' opra ; 

Ne si comincia ben, se non dal Cielo." 

Linco. Lodo ben, Silvio, il venerar gli Dei 


Ma il dear noia a colore, 

Che son ministri de gli Dei, non lodo. 

Tutti dormono ancora 

I custodi del Tempio, i quai non hanno, 

Pill tempestivo, o lucido Orizonte 

De la cima del monte. 

Silvio. A te, che forse non sh desto ancora, 
Par, ch' ogni cosa addormentata sia. 

Linco. Silvio, Silvio, a die ti die natura 
Ne' pill begli anni tuoi 
Fior di beltk si delicato, e vago, 
Se tu se tanto a calpestario intento ? 
Che s' havess' io cotesta tua si bella, 
E si fiorita giiancia, 
Adio, selve, direi ; 
E seguendo altre fere, 
E la vita passando in festa, e 'n gioco, 
Farei la state a 1' ombra, e '1 vemo al foco. 

Silvio. Cosi fatti consigli 
Non mi desti mai piii : come sh hora 
Tanto da te diverso ! 

Linco. " Altri tempi, altre cure." 
Cosi certo farei se Silvio fussi. 

Silvio. Ed io se fussi Linco ; 
Ma perche Silvio sono, 
Oprar da Silvio, e non da Linco i' voglio. 

Linco. O garzon folle : a che cercar lontana, 
E perigliosa fera, 
Se r hai via piii d' ogni altra, 
E vicina, e domestica, e sicura ? 

Silvio. Parli tu da dovero, o pur vanneggi ? 
Linco. Vaneggi tu, non io. 
Silvio. Ed h cosi vicina ? 
Linco. Quanto tu di te stesso. 
Silvio. In qual selva s' annida ? 
Linco. La selva sfe tu, Silvio : 
E la fera crudel, che vi s' annida, 
E la tua feritate. 

Silvio. Com ben m' avvisai, che vaneggiavi ! 
Linco. Una Ninfa si bella, e si gentile : 
Ma che dissi una Ninfa ? anzi una Dea, 


Piii fresca, e piu vezzosa 

Di mattutina rosa ; 

E pill moUe, e piu Candida del cigno ; 

Per cui non e si degno 

Pastor hoggi tra noi, che non sospiri, 

E non sospiri in vano ; 

A te solo da gli huomini, e dal Cielo 

Destinata si serba, 

Ed hoggi tu, senza sospira, e pianti 

troppo indegnamente 

Garzon aventuroso ! haver la puoi 

Ne le tue braccia, e tu la fuggi, Silvio : 

E tu la sprezzi ? e non diro, die 1 core 

Habbia di fera, anzi di fero il petto 1 

Modern Greek Version of the above. 

Upa^iS TrpMrr], — ^Krjvr] rrpMrrj. 

2IABI02. AirKOS. 

2iX. "AfieT €cr€t5, ol^lol [Soctkol, Troi^^ere crcj^aktcr/JLevo 

T5 (fio/ScpMTaTO Oepto, ro ttoAA.' dypKofievo, 

Kat Kara to (Tvvrjdi fxas Swcrere to cn^fMaSi 

Tou Kvvrjyiov 7r(o)(et vdpOrj, Kal KaficT^ 6\ol 6juid8L 

Th fSovKivo vd Krv777jOrj, rd '/xdrta vd ' ^v7rvL(Tovv, 

Kat Tats KapStals /xe Tats (f^wvats Kd/mere v' dypvTTVi^crovv. 

Kat dv etv' /c* evptcrKerai fSo(TKO<s fiecra '<s rrjv 'ApKaSta 

'Uov vdvat cfiiXos tt]? Beds Kal yd\rj Trpodvfxta^ 

K' iTTiOvfia. vd So^aa-rrj Kal dvSpetd vd Set^y, 

^yfxepov as dpfJLaroidy k kfxkv' as aKXavOijcry 

'EKet ^S Tov kvkXov tov o-Tevov, oTTOvvc or^aAt<T/xevo, 

Ma 's rrjv 'SlktJv /xas tyjv dvSpetdv AtySaSt TrXaTV/iievo, 

To dypL(i>TaTO depio, 'ttov yvoyptcrfjicv' iytvrj 

'2 TYJV '^pvjxdvO' €T(TL TToAAa ytot Tats ^rjfjLLaL<s 'ttov 8lv€l, 


^6f3o^, rpofxapa twv /Soctkojv koI tojv (cvyLr' 6fxd8L 15 

Tov KOide KufXTTov ^aAacT/x^s Kal Spocrepov X.i/3oiSi. 
^vpre irplv ttJs dvaToXrjs rh fX€pos vd poSia-y 
Thv KOL/xLcrfxev' avyepivhv Kafxere vd '^vTrvtiry 
Mc rrjs fipa)(^v?]S rov fSovKLVov AaAta? yta vd cnrovSd^y 
To <f)Q<s t's r^iikpas yp-qyopa 's Tof Kocrp-o vd XC-pd^rj. 20 

'Mets, AtyK€, as 7rr]yaLVU)p,€V irpojTov €ts tovs deovs /xas, 
Na Tovs €7rpo(TKvvr)(Tcop.€v k' €\u)p,€v ^OTjOovs /xas. 
'ATTOKcig dkXoiiiv 8La/3yj oXol p.a<5 's rb KW-qyt' 
'Q,8r]yrjp,€V0i e^ avrovs eirecTa 's iopa 'Xtyrj. 
"Ottoios apxt^^i- p-^ KaXov €ts rrjv VTr-qpecndv tov 25 

'M-TropeL vd 'ttj] 'p,L(r6(^TLa(TTr]V ttcos e^^et ttjv SovXadv rov. 
Myyre Kaveis Sev elpLTropet ttotc KaXd v' dp^J-o-rj^ 
*Av h\v Cw^Wl) Tovpavov oyuTT/oos vol TOV fSo-qdijcry. 
At^K. 'Ilatvw va Trapse 's TOV'i Qeovs ytd vd 7rpo(r€v\r)0ovp.€V 
Mot aiVovs 'ttov tov<5 XaTpevova-L vd tov? f3apvyopLOvpL€V 30 
Aev t5 Vatvw, ovSe Tr/aevrov etvai, yiart Koip-ovvTai 
TovTi]V TTjv liipav 6X.0L Tovs, K i ovBi iro(rCi<^ ' ^virvovvTai 
Yiapd TTjV iiipav pLova^d birov *^v7rvovcrtv ovAa, 
K't orav TOV i^'Atov (iXkirova-iv eis tov ^ovvov ttjv TOvpXa. 
SiX. FtaT* (OS Ooypw 'x "^^ 'pidTca aov KaOios ecrv vvcTTct^cts, 35 
To TTWS oAa Tct TrpdypcaTa KoipLovvTat Xoyapid^eis. 
Ai-yK. ^12 2iA^t€, IilX/Slc pLOV, yiaTL 's tovs xP^vovs tous 
'StKovs crov 


Na (3dXr) TOO"' kiripLeXitd t^s e/awTtas 17 <^iVt, 

'2 TO Trp6(TU)TT0 toot' evpLopcfud vd $€ vd a-ov xapLO-rf^ 40 

'Avev Kttt o-i; />te TrpoOvpud ^a/xov *s tt^v y*)v ti^v /St^i/ets, 

K't dxdpia-T0<5 T€TOLOV KaXov 's TOV Koa-p^ov 6X0V 8€LXV€LS ; 

'Q,Xov ! k'l as r/^eA' e'x' eyw avTvvo t' dvOia-pLkvov 

To 7r/30o-w7rov (tov TMp.op(f>o TO po8o7rXovp,La-pi€vov ! 

"HOeXa Vet /xe t^v KapStdv, '^ 'yeia eras d(f>LV(i) Saa-rj, 45 

KwT^yta o'vpTe '<s to KaAo, Kat o"as aAAos as Trtacrr^. 

K't aAAa Oepid *p,opffiy]T€pa yjdeXa Trpoa-TraOya-rj 

'2 TO, St^Tva /-tov va ' piTrepSevTovv, k\ dv T^\a Kvvr]yr]<rr) 

Ilaa-a Kaipov ^e^avTWcrtv /xe SavT' rjOcXa Vat^vw, 

Kat t5v x^tiw-wva 's T7)v (juaTidv KaXi] ^oirj vd cficpvoi, 60 

'2 Tovs tcTKtovs TraAe twv SevSpiov, oAov t5 KaXoKaipi, 

A/ooo-tais Kat Tre/aiSta^ao-ats irovpvo Kal pLearjpLipL. 

SiX. AtyKC, Sev p.ov8ioK€S ttotc TCTOtats /3ovXaLS ttotc (TOV, 

Kat Tw/oa TTWS aAAa^acrt y yvw/xais 7} 'SiKats crov / 


Ai-yK. "AAAot Katpol aAAat? yevvovv fSovXais k eyvotats 
dvrdfXLy - 55 

M' dv yjjxovv 2tA^60S lyw, 'crdv (Tovira 'BkXa Ka/X€t. 
2iX. AtyKOS dv Tfixovv kol eyw, Kd^i ^I^a Vav k' ecreva, 
Kat Karex^ to to AotTrov r' e;>(w Vo<^aa-to-/>t6va, 
'2av 2tA^6os vo, Kv^epvrjdiOj k l ws Aty/cos va /x-jyv Kavw 
K't ws 2tA/?ios crT€K(j) (TTa^epo? wo-re Voi} v' (XTro^avw. 60 

A17K. KoTTcAAfc TreAcAov, yiari rocrov ttoAAo, yi>^€V€is 
Oeptd /A€ Too-ov KtVSwov 's rd Sdcrr) vd (fiovevys, 
'Av€V k' €vpL(rK€Tai o"t/xa 's €(X6 Tov lSlov €va 
Qepi' dypio k\ avrj/xepo Trapd Bepto Kavkva ; 
SiX. To Aeyets, AiyK, dXrjdivd, ^ Td)(^a fxerpid^eLS ; 65 

Ai^K. TLtcrre^' dX-qOeta XeyiD (rov, /xd crv 8ev to Vet/cadets. 
StX. ^ries fxov T dv iji/' eVo^t cnfJid, vd ^rjo-rjs diraTOS crov. 
Ai-yK. Et^i^at Kovrd u)S eicrat crv (Tifid '<s tov efxavrov crov. 
SiX. '2 TTotov Sdcros efvat Sei^e /xov ttov 'uaL KaTOiK7]p,evov. 
AtYK. ^lX/Slc, to Sao-os cfo-at o-v, ""Ketvo t' dypufievov 70 

Qepto €Lvai r] dcnrXay^vid k rj dirovid cr' r^ TrX-qcna. 
SiX. IIws fxl yeAas Kat Trai^ets /xe, to Adytao-a Trcplcra-ta. 
A17K. Mta Kop?^ TOO-' eTjyevtKT^, vepatSa TrXovixurjxevr]^ 
"AvTLs ^ fxTTopQ) vd TYjv eiVw Bed )(apLT(ofJi€vrj, 
Mta Xvyeprj ttov TrXeiorepov irapd to X''^^' dcnrpL^ei^ 75 

K't ttTTO TO /^dSov TTJ's avyrjs ttXclo rov ^pocropLvpl^iL^ 
Vid rrjv oTTOidv ^€v etv' Kavels ^octkos 's rrjv 'ApKaSiav 
Too-' d^LOS K evyevLKos vd jJLrjv fSacrra, KapStav 
M.avpr]v KOL TrX-qcria (f>Xoy€prjv kol vd jxrj Sev BpT^vdrat^ 
N' avao-Teva^T^ to crvxyo fxe St^ws va '<^eAaTat, 80 

Kat fiovov ets eaevave vdvac fJL€XeT7]fJLevr], 
K t ox TOV 0e6v ywatKa o-ov/s tov ovpavov y pafx/xevq^ 
Kat o"v, KOTreAAt TreAeAdv, ava^to TCTOtas X^P'^'^y 
He/ot^povets, 8ev rrjs ^7^<^cts, 8ev BeXeis vd rrjv 7rdprj<s. 
Hws ^eAets va fXTj Sev etTrovv ttws KapSt' dypnapikvov 85 

Qepiov /3acrTa,s {xe crK€Trao-LV 'vos (tttJBovs crcSepevLOV ; 


English Translation of the modern Greek Version. 

Act I. — Scene I. 

Silvius. Lincus. 

Silvius. Go, you worthy shepherds, who have shut in 

the most fearful wild beast and most savage, 

and according to our custom give the signal 

for the hunt that is to come, and all together make 

the horn to sound, and eyes to wake from sleep, 5 

and the hearts with your shouts make to keep on the alert. 

And if there is and can be found a shepherd in Arcadia 

who may be a friend of the goddess and have zeal, 

and desires to be made glorious and display his courage, 

this day let him arm and follow me lo 

there into the narrow circle where is enclosed, 

(but for our valour a wide meadow,) 

the most savage beast who has become notorious 

on Erymanthos so greatly by the damage that he does, 

the fear and dread of the shepherds, and the ploughmen too, 15 

the destruction of every field and dewy meadow. 

Go before the eastern quarter puts on a rosy hue, 

awake the drowsy morning star, 

with the hoarse voice of the horn, that she may hurry 

the light of day quickly to dawn upon the world. 20 

We, Lincus, let us first go to our gods, 

to adore them and have them for our allies. 

From there we will go, all of us, to the hunt, 

conducted by them, after a little while. 

He who begins with a pious act his business 25 

can say that he has his work half-done ; 

nor can any one ever make a good beginning, 

unless he first begs Heaven to help him. 

Lincus. I approve that we should go to the Gods to pray to 

them ; 
but that we should annoy those who serve them 30 



I do not approve, neither is it seemly, for they are asleep 

at this hour, all of them, and do not awake at all 

except only at that hour when all things wake, 

and when they see the sun on the crest of the hill. 

Silvius. Because, as I see from your eyes, you are sleepy, 35 

you conclude that all things are asleep. 

Lincus. O Silvius, my Silvius, why, at your years, 

in the tender, very sweet years of your youth, 

should nature take such care of your attractiveness 

to wish to bestow on you so much beauty in your face, 40 

if you with readiness throw it down upon the ground, 

and show yourself to all the world ungrateful for such a boon ? 

Ah ! would that I had in all its bloom 

your lovely face adorned with roses ! 

I would say with all my heart : " Woods, I bid you farewell ! 45 

Game, go where you will, and let some one else catch you." 

And I would attempt other more beautiful animals of the chase 

to entangle in my nets, and, if I had caught them, 

all the time I would make revel with them, 

and in the winter by the fire I would lead a happy life, 50 

and in the shade of the trees again all the summer 

in coolness and pleasant walks, at morning and midday. 

Silvius. Lincus, you never before gave me such advice, 

and now how your ideas have changed ! 

Lincus. Other times bring other counsels, and also other cares, 55 

but had I been Silvius, I should have done as I told you. 

Silvius. And had I been Lincus, I should have done as you, 

and know this then, what I have decided, 

to conduct myself as Silvius, and not to do as Lincus, 

and as Silvius I stand firm till I die. go 

Lincus. Foolish youth, why do you want to kill 

so many wild beasts in the woods with so much danger, 

while there is quite close to yourself one 

wild beast, savage and untamed, beyond any beast ? 

Silvius. Do you mean what you say, Lincus, in truth, or are 

you joking ? 65 

Lincus. Believe me, I speak the truth, but you do not guess 

my meaning. 
Silvius. Tell me if it is so near, please do {lit. that you your- : 

self may live long). 
Lincus. It is close by, as near as you are to yourself. 



Silvius. Show me in what forest it is, where it lives. 
Lincus. Silvius, you are the forest, that savage 70 

beast is your inhumanity and your great cruelty. 
Silvius. I understand very well that you are laughing at me 

and joking with me. 
Lincm. A maiden so noble, a nymph adorned with many charms 
whom surely I may call a graceful goddess, 
a dear girl who is whiter than tlie snow, 75 

and has a fresh perfume more than the rose of the morning, 
for wliom not a single shepherd in Arcadia 
is so worthy and so noble that he should not carry a heart 
distressed and all in flames, and should not weep, 
and sigh continually, without it helping him, 80 

and she is intended to be only for you, 
and by God inscribed in heaven as your wife, 
and you, foolish youth, unworthy of such favour, 
despise, care nothing for her, and do not wish to take her. 
How do you want people not to say you carry 85 

under the cover of an iron breast the heart of a wild beast ? 

Tavra vofxt^co dpKov<rLV Ik Tr]<s 
lx€Ta(f>pdcr€OiS rov '' T1l(ttov 
HoLfih'os" yJTLS ixeO' oXiov twv 
eXaTTioixdroiv avTrjs eTvat d^to- 
Aoywrarov yXuxra-iKov Setyfxa 
rov IS' alo)vo<s. EKaAtVare 
TW/oa va €vpr]T€ TtVore d^iavd- 
yvo}(rTov dvi^KOv els rrjv YL' CKa- 

"K)(^iD cV dTTocnraa-fia ck t^9 
" ^¥t]TopLKrjs " ^payKtCTKOV 

^KOVcfiOV TOV €K K.p7]Tl]<S, i]TiS 
€^€86dy] TO TT/OCOTOV CV BeVCTl^ 

vofiL^u) Kara to ctos 1 681, Kal 
S'VO €K TWV StSa^wv *HAtov 
Mr^vidrov rov Ik KechaWijvtas. 
At 8i8a)(al TOV 7r€pLc{)7^ixov 
TOVTOv pyjropos eTVTrwdrjcrav 
.TToWdKis' dpicrTTj o/xtos Tracrwv 
TWJ/ iK^oa-eiiiv efvat 7} yevofxevt] 

* KttTa TO €TOS 1849 ^^^ 'AvdifMOV 

I think that is enough of the 
translation of The Faithful 
Swain, which, with all its 
defects, is an excellent specimen 
of the language of the 16th 
century. Now make a search 
and find something worth read- 
ing which belongs to the 17th 

I have an extract from the 
Rhetoric of Francisco Scouphos 
of Crete, which was first pub- 
lished in Venice, I think in 
1681, and two from the sermons 
of Elias Meniates of Cephallonia, 
The sermons of this celebrated 
orator have often been printed ; 
but the best of all the editions 
is the one brought out in 1849 
by Anthimus Mazarakes. It is 
from this edition that I have 




M.a^apa.K-Y]. ^Ek ravrr^s rrjs 
cKSocrews dvreypaxpa to, iv rw 
TerpaSio) fxov a7rocr7ra(r/zaTa. 
'AfXffiOTepoL ovTOi ol avSpes r}(Tav 
KOLTOXOL vil/rjXrjs TraiSeta?, yvcu- 
pt^ovres irpos Trj ^^XXrjVLKjj Kal 
Tr)v AaTLVLKTjv Kal 'lTaXLKr]V 
yXMCTcrav' eypaxj/av 8e eh rrjv 
Tore XaXovjxevrjv 'EAA^^viK-jyv 
O7rto5 Tot vtt' avTUiv ypa^o/xeva 
(ocrt TOt? 7rao-i KaraXr^Trrd. To 
e^^§ dTroa-TTaa-jxa eiVat Ik t:^s 

^^ ' Pt^TO/OIKT^S " TOV ^KOV(f>OV ' 

dva<f)€peraL 6e eis tov "Aytov 
NtKoAaov ^aAacroroTTO/Joi'vra • 

aAA* OTTWS €VVO'q(TrjT€ KttAcOS TO, 

€V avTW Trpkirei vd eras eiiro) ort 
6 $avjJLaTOvpyo<s ovtos dycos 
Trapd rots vvv "EXXtjctl KaTe^ei 
TTjV avTr)V OkdLV, tjv Trapd rots 
dp)(^aLOLS ^r^ev 6 UocreiSoyv, 
SyjXaSr] elvai Kvpiap^os rrjs 
6aXd(T(TY]S', w(rT€ €v wpa KtvSvvov 
ot vavrat TrefXTrovcriv €l<s avrbv 
TrXeiorkpas iKecrtas r^ els rov 
Srjfjiiovpyov rov KocrfJiov 6e6v. 
KiJTTa^aTe fxerd Trocrrjs xdpiTOS 
Kal evyX(i)TTLas Tre pLypdcf>eL 6 
^K0V(f)0S TYjv ev daXd(T(rr] 
yaXrjvrjv Kal rrjV ^ia^eyop.kvy]v 
avTY]V cf)o/3epdv TpiKvpLcav. 

"'l^Tov yaX7]v6fxop(f>os 6 
ovpavos, lyeAa dvecf^aXos 6 
depas, errvee irpdos Kal (fnXiKos 
6 ^ecfivpos, Kvp-a 8ev ecfiOvcrKMye, 
d(f)pos Sev ecfiatvero, kol to 
TTcAayos oAov raTretvov eSet^ve 
rr]V evXdfSeiav ottov ecfiepve Trpbs 
Tov dyiov • Kal dv Kafxfxiav cf)opdv 
oXcyov (jiovcTKOifxevov vireprj- 
f^avevero, rh eKave fxovov Siarl 

copied the extracts in my note- 
book. Both these men were 
highly educated, knowing Latin 
and Italian in addition to Greek ; 
and they wrote in the Greek 
language spoken at that time, so 
that their writings might be in- 
telligible to every one. The 
following extract is from the 
Rhetoric of Scouphos : it relates 
to St. Nicholas when he was 
making a sea-voyage ; but, that 
you may thoroughly understand 
its contents, I must tell you that 
this miracle-working saint holds 
among the Greeks of the present 
day the same place as Neptune 
held among the ancients, that is 
to say, that he is lord of the sea, 
so that in the hour of danger 
sailors address more prayers to 
him than to God, the creator of 
the universe. See with what 
grace and eloquence Scouphos 
describes the calm at sea and 
the frightful tempest that suc- 
ceeded it. 

" The sky w^as serene, the air 
smiled without a cloud, the 
zephyr blew gentle and friendly, 
not a wave was heaving, no 
foam was to be seen, and the 
whole ocean in humility dis- 
played the reverence which it 
felt for the saint ; and if now 
and then by heaving a little it 
showed its pride, it did so only 



Ifidcrra ei? tovs w/xots tctoiov 
I'lpoya. ^A/zt) av -^tov r)(rv\La 
€1? T^v OdXacra-av, d6pvf3o<s Kal 
Tapa\r] rjrov kolto) els rhv ^8r)V' 
Kal dv 'i-rrai^av rpiyvpov ci's eVa 

^vXoV TO, KVfMUTa, dcfipL^aV €L<S 

TO. KoiTw cnnjXaLa ot Sat^uoves, 
K'at ot (rarartKot oAot Ki^KAwTres, 
oTTou ci5 eKCLvrjv rrjv d/Svcrcrov 
KUTOLKovcrL. ' Kttt Tt OeXo/xev 
Ktt/xet,' e'Aeyev 6 *Ea)(r(/)0/oos, ' rt 
uTTocfiacri^ojJieVj w crvvrpocfiot ; 
Affiivoficv Tov NtKoAaov I/O, 
TrAevo-y; /xe €VTi;;)(i'av, Kat vycrjs 
I va cf)6da-y eis tov Xifxeva ryjs 
'■ lSlos tov iTTLOvfXLas, TOV Xipikva 
T'ljs 'lepoi'o-aAvy/x; GeAw va 
X'^^JI ^^5 TOV Spofiov rtjv (TTpd- 
Tttv ;(coy3ts eXiriSa va (fiddcrrj els 
ttAAov Ai/xeva, Trapa €is t5 
vai'aytov Kat t^v aTrwAetav et's 
Kd6^€ peWpov 6e\(o dvoL^ei 
(idpaOpa^ dfxrj Toaov f^adeid 


povov ctTTO Tr)v ^dXy]v, Kat ets 
Tu V6<^/^ ^eAw TrXdcTY) jSpovrds, 
dcTT/oaTras Kat /3po)(rjv Tocrryv, 
OTTOU vd crvvdecro) dXXy]V /Aiav 
^dAao-o-av, Sid vd tov f^vdiCTOVV^ 
dv Sev efvat apKcrr} -q /xta, Kav 
Kat at Svo dvTa/xa.' 

'Eto-i e/AtAvyo-e 6 *E(i>cr<^d/30S* 
7rv€0VTas KaTTVOv? Kat ^Adyaig 

ttTTO TO (TTO/Xa* Kat €L'^VS 

pavpc^cTat 6 de/aas /xe Td crKOTr] 
oAa Tou ^'8ov, Td OTTOta dpird- 

^OVTUS TO <^(U? Kat TOV I'^AtOV 

(rK€7rd^ovv t-^v Xap,7rpo(f)6pov 
rjpepav p€ €va 6Ao/x6o-dvi'KTOV • 
(rvppa^iovovi'Tai pavpa Kal ttvk- 
V0(TvvdiTa veffiy], twv ottolidv 

because it carried on its shoulders 
such a hero. But though there 
was cahn upon the sea, there 
was turmoil and riot down in 
hell ; and tliough the wav^ were 
sporting round a ship, down in 
the caverns the demons and all 
the Satanic Cyclopes who live in 
that abyss were foaming with 
rage. ' And what shall we do ?' 
said Lucifer : ' What determina- 
tion shall we come to, my com- 
rades? Shall we let Nicholas 
have a prosperous voyage and 
arrive safely at the harbour of 
his wish, the j)ort of Jerusalem 1 
I want him on his road to lose 
his way, without hope of reach- 
ing any other haven than ship- 
wreck and destruction. In every 
current I will open chasms, but 
so deep, that all will fall into 
them only from giddiness ; and 
in the clouds I will create 
thunder, lightning, and such 
rain that I shall make another 
sea to sink him, if one is not 
enough, at least the two to- 

Thus spoke Lucifer, breathing 
smoke and flames from his 
mouth : and in a moment the 
sky is obscured with all the 
darkness of hell, which carrying 
away the light and the sun, 
wraps the brilliant day in one 
entire midnight : dense black 
clouds collect, whose entrails 



TO, (T7rXay\va ^€(r)(i^ovTas fj 
dcTTpaTrals kol to. dcrTpoTreX^Kia, 
TvcfyXiovovv Ta o/A/jtara KaOevbs 
/xe TY)v Xd/xxJ/LV, Kal fie tov 
KTVTTov (^ofBepL^ovv Kade dvSpei- 
to/xevr^i/ KapStav, wcrav ottov 
Tovra p.ayefxevai'? (ratrais rov 
Oavdrov 7rX7]yiovovTas dXXdcr- 
o'ovv €ts crraKTrjV oXov tov 
dvOpoiTTOv ' TTLTrrovarL /?yoo^ats 
dpK€Tals vd TTVL^OVV €va k6(t/jlov, 
o;)(t vd jSvOicrovv eva KapdfSiov^ 
fj OTTOiaLS dvdfxecra els rocrrjv 
(SpovTrjv Kal Toa-rjv Xdjixpiv 
Trayiovovras drrb rov cjio/Sov^ 
€(f)6avav xafxal ^tov6 r) kol 
\dXa^a' <f)vcrov(TL (XTTO KdOe 
tSttov dyptOL ave/xot, oXoi crvvaX- 
XijXo)S eyOpol kol ivdvrioi, kol 
CIS Tovro fjiovov (fyiXoL kol €V(d- 
fjbcvoL vd KaraTTOVTio-ovv Kal vd 
pi^ovv els rd f^dOi] to ^vXov 
^ov(rKU>veL TeXos Kal rj ^aXacrcra, 
Kal (f)OV(TK0)ixev7] OvjuLMveraL, 
d(f>pi^eL ttTTO TOV Ovfiov, Kal 
dcjipi^ovras vxpiavei yiydvTeta 
KVfxaTa' fie TOVTa ms fxe iroXe- 
/jLLKats jxriyavais TroXe/Jia to 
TrXeovfjLevov^ to ktvtto., to Sepvei^ 
TO vxpbivei els tovs da-Tepas, to 
KaT€/3d^€L els TOi/ a'Sr^v, to 
(TTp-qcfioyvpL^eL, XdfTKOVTasTrdvTa 
Kal dvoiyovTas x^-^^a f3dpadpa 
Sid vd TO pov(firj(TYj ' ^'JKOves totc 
vd KTV7rOV(TL o-vvaXXijXoiS TO, 
KaTapTia' e/^AcTres vd ^ea-\L- 
^(jovTaL diro tovs dvepLOVS rd 
dpfieva, Kal fSpe/xp^eva pie tovs 
d(\>povs Trjs dyptcopevyjs daXdcr- 
a"qs vd KXaiovcTi ttjv kolvyjv 
Sva-Tvxiav Kop^pievaLS rats yov- 

tlie lightning- flashes and the 
thunderbolts rending asunder, 
blind the eyes of every one 
with their glare, and with their 
crash terrify every brave heart, 
as when these, striking him with 
their magic arrows of death, 
change a whole man into a 
cinder : there fall showers of 
rain, enough to drown a world, 
not merely to sink a ship, and 
these, in the midst of such 
thunder and such lightning, 
chilled with fear reach the 
ground in the form of snow or 
hail : from every quarter wild 
winds are blowing, all hostile 
and opposed to each other, and 
only friendly and united in the 
sole intent to sink the ship and 
plunge it down into the depths. 
At last the sea too swells, and 
in swelling becomes enraged : 
foams with passion and in foam- 
ing lifts ujD gigantic waves : with 
these as with engines of war it 
attacks the vessel, strikes it, 
lashes it, raises it up to the 
stars, lowers it down to hell, 
twists it round, incessantly gap- 
ing and opening thousands of 
chasms to ingulf it ; and then 
you might have heard the masts 
crash against each other : you 
might have seen the sails torn 
by the wind and, soaked with the 
spray of the savage sea, weep- 



lJL€vai<s, xavfxevaLS rais ayKvpats ' 


^^pvovcTL TO, Kv/xara, iKcivovs 
ya/xat €ppLix€vov<s, kol vol fi€- 
Ovovcri airh t^]V ^dX-qv aAAovs 
jxk (TT^vay p-ovs kol pik SaKpva va 
TrapaKaXovcTL ^oyjdeto.v diro tov 
ovpavov, Start 6 (f>6l3os tcdv €?>(€ 
Secrtj TTjv yAwcro"ar, kol twp' €t_)(e 
dpirdcrrj oAoreAa r^v <f>(ovy]V' 
Kttt Tovs vauTttS va rpepovoTL 
Toarov el<s Trjv KapSiav, ocrov els 
TOV? TToSa?, Kat va <^kpvovv ets 
TO Trpoo-WTTOV ^wy/)a</)to"/x€VOv 
rbv OdvaTov. Movovo NtKoAaos, 
8ta t5v oTTotov eytVcTO too->; 
rapax^J €ts Tot o-Tot;(eia, dvdpbecra 

€19 TOO-OVS <^o'/?OV5 Kat TpopOVS 
€CrT€K€ drpop^OS KOL X^P^'^ (f)6^0V, 

Starl ap/xarw/xevos /xe t?)v ekTriSa 
Trpos rhv Qebv eyeAa t>)i' Svva/xtv 

oAl^V T0i5 ^8oV' TOV OTTOLOV did 

vd crvyxya-rj kol TrepLcrcroTepov 6 
ayto9 (TrjKiov€L TaTretvws Tas 
Xetpas Kat Kavet oAtyi^v dpr] 
evdeppLOV Trpoa-eu^^yv, Kat pe 
TovTi]v 0)5 /xe ovpdvtov fiayeiav, 
TOV dcfiavL^eu to. ctkottj, tov 
crKop—L^€L Ta V€cfi-q, TOV a-/3vv€i 
TciLS da-Tpairais, kol /xera/xo/x^w- 
V€t ets yaArjt'i^v t>)v TpuKvpitaVy 
€19 r^crvxiav ttjv Tapaxt]v, els 
yXvKelav avpav Thv (rK\r]pov 
dvep^ov criOiirovcTL ra aT0t^€ra, 
Travovv ra KV/xaTa, Tri/eovo-i 
(e<f>vp0L, XdpLTTOva-L els tov 
ov/oavciv ot da-Tepes, cr<f)Ovyyt(eL 
Kadevas Ta Sdnpva, ^virv^ 6 
dXXos aTTO T-qv ^dXr]V, Kat Th 
d7rrjXTrt(Tp,evov KapdjSiov cfiddvet 
\ (r<ii)ov Kat i'yi€9 €i9 t6v XLp,eva, 

iug over the coniinon calamity, 
the cables cut, the anchors lost, 
the waves swallowing some of the 
men and disgorging them again, 
some struck down and dazed with 
giddiness, others with groans 
and tears beseeching help from 
heaven, for fear had tied their 
tongues, and robbed them of all 
power of speech : the sailors 
quivering as much in their hearts 
as in their feet, and bearing death 
pictured on their faces. Alone 
Nicholas, for whom arose all this 
turmoil of the elements, in the 
midst of all this terror and con- 
sternation, stood fearless and un- 
daunted, for, armed with hope in 
God, he laughed at all the powers 
of hell, and to enrage it still 
more, the saint humbly raises his 
hands and utters a short but 
fervent prayer, and with this, as 
with a divine spell, disperses its 
darkness, scatters its clouds, 
extinguishes its lightning, and 
changes the storm into a calm, 
the riot into peace, the cruel 
wind into a gentle breeze : the 
elements are silent, the waves 
cease, the zephyrs blow, the 
stars glitter in the sky, every 
one wipes away his tears, another 
recovers from his dizziness, and 
the ship, which was given up 
for lost, comes safe and unharmed 
into port, victorious over two 



ViKYjcfiopov 8vo /xeyaAwv drjptoiv, 
rrjs da\dcr(Tr]<9 Koi rov 'Ewcr- 

'0 'ZKovifiO^ av Kot typaxpev 
€V yXdiXTcrrj Kotvrj Trpkirei va 
o/xokoyrjarr] ns o/xw? ort Kanop- 
Oiocre VOL Sdocrrj eis tov Xoyov rov 
ov fJLLKpav X^P''^ '^^^ yXacjivpo- 
TYjTa' eTretSr] 8e e^cTratSevO'r] Iv 
'YraXia 8ev elvai irapaSo^ov ort 
TO Vcf)OS aVTOV €LVai K€Kapv- 
K€VfX€VOV Sua prjTOpLKMV €K- 

<:f)pd(r€(i)V Kal crxr]fJLdTcov Trpoep- 
XOfi€V0)V i^ 'IraXiKiov ir-qyoyv. 
ToLOVTOv elvai Kal tov M>y- 

ViaTOV TO Vif)0<5, SlOTL KOi €K€LVO<S 

€^€TraL8ev67] ev ""iTaAta. KaTO, 
rrjv €7ro)(rjv eKeivrjv to 'EAAt^vi- 
Kov edvo<s ea-T€va^ev vtto (3apvv 
^vyov SovXeias, Kal edv Tts eire- 
OvfJiei va XdjSrj vxpriXr^v CKTrat- 
SevcTLv iJL€T€f3aLV€v €ts Trjv 'Ira- 
Xiav OTTOv kKarovrd^es^^XXr^visiv 
e^eTraiSevovTO. OeXcTe nopa 
va dvayv(i)(TO) els vfjids Tot 8vo 
aTrocnrda- [xaTa ck twv SiSa^^wv 
TOV M.r)VLdTov ; 

Mr] efxf^aiv€Te et? toutov tov 
KOTTOV aTroipc, Slotl etvat dpyd- 
fSXeTTO) Se Kal to <^ws tmv cfiavQv 
eyeLvev dfxvSpov, wa-re as dvairav- 
BQifxev Tiopa oXtyov Kal to Trpwt 
fi€ vkav ope^iv dvayLVMTKOfJLev 
ov fxovov TavTa, aAAot Kal dXXa, 
8l6tl €^ 6cr(t)V /SXkiro) to, ev tw 
TerpaSioi vp-Mv aTv oo-k da- piar a 
elvai dve^avrXr^ra. 

'^As y€ivrj XoLTTov ws AeycTC. 

huge monsters, the sea and 

Scouphos, although he wrote 
in the vulgar tongue, must be 
acknowledged to have succeeded 
in imparting to his language no 
little grace and elegance ; and 
as he had been educated in 
Italy there is nothing strange 
in his style having a season- 
ing of rhetorical jjhrases and 
forms derived from Italian 

Such also is the style of 
Meniates, for he too was edu- 
cated in Italy. At that time 
the Greek nation was groaning 
under a heavy yoke of slavery, 
and if any one wanted to receive 
a superior education, he went to 
Italy where hundreds of Greeks 
were receiving instruction. 
Would you like me now to read 
to you the two extracts from the 
sermons of Meniates ^ 

Do not go to this trouble 
this evening, for it is late : I 
see too that the light of the 
lamps has become dim, so let 
us rest now a little, and in the 
morning we shall read with a 
fresh appetite not only these but 
others also, for, from what I 
see, the extracts in your note- 
book are inexhaustible. 

Be it as you say. 

'Eyepdrjre, cfyiXe, kyepOrjre v Wake up, my friend, wake 




avaTTvevcnfjTe Tyv apoj/xaTiKi^v 
avpav rrjs 7rpiota<s, 7]Tt<s ^iooyovet 
rh (Tw/za Kal TrXr^poi ryv KapSiav 
dv€Kcf)pd(rTov ayaAAiatrew? / *0 
ijXios ^TL Sev averctAe, rd Trrryva 
Ofiios y'jSrj KarkXiTTOv ras kavrdv 
<f>ioX€d<i Kal TrepLTrero/xcva titl- 
^OlHTL ^aptci'TWS. 

Haw TTOLrjTLKOJS p.€. i^Tjyeipa- 
€K Tov VTTVov, Kal 6/xoXoyw 
Vfxlv TrAeicrras \dpLra<i. ETvat 
Tio oi'TL MpatordTr] Trpiata. Kara 
ravrriv rrjv lopav tov ctovs cv 
'AyyXii^ ol dvaToXiKol dvc/JLOL 
KaTa7rr]yvvov(TL Kal KaraKaiovcrt 
rd TravTtt, iv to kvravda kiri- 
Kparci dXi^Oh €ap. 

AKovcrare jxiav (jjpaiav (rrpo- 

<j>11V TOV ZaXoKiOCTTa, 6(TTl<S fM€Td 

TToXXrj^ )(^dpiT0<5 TrepiypdcfieL toi/ 
'KirplXiov firjva €v'EAAa6f 

up, to inhale the fragrant morn- 
ing-breeze which revives the 
body and fills the heart with 
inexpressible delight ! The sun 
has not yet risen, but the birds 
have already left their nests and 
are chirping pleasantly as they 
fly about. 

You have awakened me very 
poetically from sleep, and I 
return you very many thanks. 
It is really a most lovely morn- 
ing. At this period of the year 
in England the east winds freeze 
and parch everything, while here 
true spring prevails. 

Listen to a pretty verse by 
Zalocostas, who very gracefully 
describes the month of April in 
Greece : 

"'A7r/3iAr;s elvat' yvpov /xa? 

TLcTovv TO, ;)(€At8ovta, 

K't dvBrj Kal (fivXXa Kal KXaSid 

"OAa fxocrxofSoXdve' 

TXvKa XaXovv TdyjSovia, 

Kat ^€vyap(i)v i) TrepSiKa 

K' ot KOVKKOL KcAaSave." 

" It is April ; around us 

the swallows are flying, 

and flowers and leaves and 

boughs all shed their fragrance : 

the nightingales warble sweetly 

and the partridge takes its mate 

and the cuckoos are singing." 

*Av Kat ot KOVKKOL ScV KcAtt- 

8ova-LV, dAAa kokkv^ovctl, Trpkirei 
oiJL(o<s vd ojxoXoyria-bi ort 7; 

(TTpO(f)r) aVTl] TOV ZaXoKUKTTa 

€tVat Oipaia Kal KaTdXXrjXos eis 

TYjV 7r€pt(TTa(TLV' TTWS O/XWS Ot 

aTToyovot twv dpyaiiDV KXaa-iKoyv 
KOKKvyuiv fJLCT-qXXa^av ovo/xa 
Kal KaXovvTai vvv ev 'EAAaSt 


Trapo.KaXC) vd fxot to i^rjyrjanfjTe, 

Although cuckoos do not sing 
but cry "cuckoo," I must con- 
fess that this stanza of Zalo- 
costas' is pretty and suited to 
the occasion ; but how the 
descendants of the old classic 
KOKKvyes changed their name 
and in Greece are now called 
KovKKoi, I do not understand, 
and beg you to explain to me. 



'Eav €7rt)(eip7ycrco va €^rjyrj(ro) 
els v/xa§ TTcos 6 kokkv^ eyetve 
KOVKKO's Oa TrpoKaXicTiii to Trepl 
7rpo(fiopas r(ov ^EkXrjvtKiov 
ypapLfiaToyv {i^T7^/xa* Stot v diro- 

cf)Vy(x) XoLTTOV TOVTO €7r6T/)€^aT€ 

fjLOL V* avayi/wo-O) vjjllv irept- 


Tov TTOL-qixaTOs TOV SeoSiopov 
'Op(f>ayi8ov, oirep ovo/xa^erat 

" TcpL-AtpL" KOi €^€t WS VTTO- 

Beariv €va kovkkov 6(ttls KaTkcTTrj 
7repL(f>'qiJL0'i ev Tjj KaO' o^/xas *EA- 
Xr^vLKj) cfiiXoXoyta ' etfxai 8k 
f^e/Sacos OTL 9d eras dpea-y, 8l6tl 
6 770Lr)Tr)S ifMTrai^oiv rets Trepl 
Xe^etSiOiv dTcXevT'qTovs Xoyofxa- 

^t'aS KOVcf)(i}V CrXoXaCTTLKiJoV €V- 
(j^VCOTTaTa 8i8d(TK€i TTtUS 6 KOKKV^ 

yiverat kovkkos. 'I8ov to aTro- 
cnraa-fxa • 

If I attempt to explain to you 
how coccyx became couccos I 
shall call up tlie question of 
the pronunciation of the Greek 
letters ; to avoid this then, let 
me read to you a passage from 
the very witty poem of Theo- 
dore Orphanides, which is called 
Tiri-Liri, and has for its sub- 
ject a cuckoo which has become 
famous in modern Greek litera- 
ture : I am sure it will please 
you, for the poet, while making 
fun of the endless disputes about 
little words among silly pedants, 
very cleverly explains how coccyx 
becomes couccos. Here is the 
extract : 

^^'PaTTTat Twr cftpdcreojv Ka/coi, 

Kal KTiO-Tat 7re/3to8wv 

Kat Kap(fiOiTat ixe(TO(rTLyp.Civ, /cat 

(TKv/SaXa T/otoSwv, 

M-^TTws 6 KOKKV^ 4'yetve yat8apos 

Tj xotpos, 

i2s (T€LS, dv KOVKKO'S €y€LV€V 

a^wws Kat TT/Ooxet/Ows ; 
Mt^ttws to (T)(rjiJia rjAAa^e, tovs 

TToSa?, TOt TTTepd TOV, 
To pdjXffiOS TOV, TO \pU)/JLd TOV, 

rj TO KeXdSrjfxd tov ; 


fjidOrjTe (7]TeLT€, 

Kat Sta TOVTO fxatvecrOe, k 

ato-^jows f3aTToXoy€LT€ ; 

"Ottws dcfi-qcrys dOXte cr^oAa- 

<TTLK€ Trjv TrXdvqv 

" You bad tailors of phrases and 
builders of sentences 
and nailers of colons, you sweep- 
ings of the streets, 
did the coccyx turn to an ass or 
a pig 

like you, if it changed into a 
couccos harmlessly and readily ? 
Did it alter its form, its feet and 
its feathers, 
its beak, its colour or its song ? 

But is it because you want to 
learn how it became couccos 
that you rage over it and stutter 
and splutter disgracefully'? 
That you may dismiss, you 
wretched pedant, your erroneous 




^cfi^jva \af3e et? \€tpd'S crov, 

KOTTiSa Kal (TKaTrdvr]V, 

"E/zySaAe Sid TTys o-(/)ryvo5 '<s rrjv 

(TvWafiijv Trjv jxiav 

ToV KOKKV^ €Va VlplXoV TO 

KOKKV^ fi evKoXlav 

6a yeivri KOVKKV^' dcjicke //,€ 

TTjV KOTTtSa TrdXiv 

To rrjs Xr]yov(Ti]S vxpiXov, fxk 
T€)(vijv 8€ fxeydXrjv 

2</>7yi/wo-ov eh rov tottov tov eV 
ofXLKpov 6d yeivy 


dydTTTj Koi elpr'jvrj. 

Xtt)/3ts vd X^^V^ '^^^ Kaipov 

(TTpexj/ov rd T-qXcjSoka 

Kara rov ^v' dW eTrecSrj at 

crcfyatpaL twv /x€ oAa 

To, TrdvTy 7rpo(f>vXaKTiKd Kal 

a-vverd (tov [xkrpa 

'Ev5€)(€Tat vd yetvoicn fxiKpd 

(TKavSdXov irkrpa^ 

No, crvvTapd^ojoTL to Trdv vd 

evprjs Trap' iXiriSa 

'AvtI TTT-qvov kXk^avra fx ovpdv 

Kal 7rpof3o(TKL8a, 

Eu'at (fipovtfJLov i8lov fxe ttjv 

KOTTtSa TraAtv, 

l!')]v K€(jiaXr]V Kal rrjv ovpdv vd 

KOxpiQS TTjv fxeydXr]v 

Tov T7cX(x)piov TovTov ^v, vd 

rpexj/rjs 8k to fxevov 

Mepos €is a-ty/xa tcXlkov (rrpoy- 


"Htoi to ^v KaOb SlttXovv, to 

KaTTTTa xai^€t fxovov 

Avvafxet 'AttocttoAikwv ypajx- 


Ml) (rvyx(iipovvT(ov i'va fxrj 
Trrjydcrji KaKrj e^ts, 

take a wedge in your hands, a 
cliopijer and a mattock : 
drive with the wedge into the 
first sylhable 

of coccyx an y-psilon : coccyx witli 

will become couccyx : take away 
again with the chopper 
the y-psilon of the last syllable, 
and with great skill 
wedge into its place an o-micron ; 
then will 

coccyx become couccox, in perfect 
love and peacefulness : 
without losing time turn your 

against the xi ; but since its 
balls, with all 

your precautions and wise meas- 
ures in every respect, 
are capable of becoming small 
rocks of oftence 

to upset everything, so that you 
may unexpectedly find 
instead of a bird an elephant 
with a tail and a trunk, 
it is the part of a prudent man 
with the chopper again 
to cut off the head and the big 

of this monstrous xi, so that you 
may turn the remaining 
part into a round-curved final 
sigma : 

that is to say, as an) is a com- 
pound letter it loses only the 
cappa by force of Apostolical 
grammatical rules, 
which do not allow the evil 
custom to arise 



No, €)(r) KctTTTra Tecrcrapa StcrvX- 

'ISov k^Bpol Twv yvwcrewv, l^ov 
fxk iroiov rpoTTOv 

*0 KOKKV^, KOVKKOS y LveTat 

X^oypls fieyaXov kottov, 

X(o/)t9 TToAe/xot'S Kparepovs, 

X^p^i^S poas alfxaroiv, 

'H K rj d^LOirpeTreia va irddy 

tQ)v ypafi/jidTOiV. 

Euye / Merot TroXXrjs rw ovtl 
^vXovpyiKrj<s rexvrj<s kol Se^LO- 
Tryros /JberefJiopcfuocrev 6 TroLrjTrjS 
Tov KOKKvya eh kovkkov. '^Av 
dyaTrdre as dvayviixrcoixev ra>pa 
rd 8vo aTTOCTTracr/xaTa Ik riov Sl- 
8a)((x}v TOV Mr^viarov. 

'I8ov TO TTpQiTOV. 

"Ilpof^atvet aTTo ttjv XapLirpdv 
7rvXr)v Trjs cjpatoTdT-qs avaroAry? 
€K€Lvr] rj XevKOfjiopcfiOS /JLrjvvTpia 
TOV rjXiov, rj poSoSdKTvXos, 
Xeyo), Koi (f)aea-cf)6pos avy-q. 
Kai ev9vs OTTov dp^ia-rj ets to 
dpyvpoxpvo'ocTvvOeTOU Trpocra)- 
TTOV TOV ovpavov vd ^oiypa^i^Tj 
TOV €p)(piji6v TOV ^avBov 'AttoX- 

X(DV0'S, t6t€ 8rj t6t€ 6 TToXv- 

fjiopcjios X^P^^ '^^^ dcTTepoiv 
cnrov8d^ei to oyXrjyopioTepov vd 
<f)vyrj. 'A<f)avL^€TaL TravreAws 

TTjS <TK0T€LV7J<i VVKTOS TO ^0(^€/OW- 

TaTOV a-KOTos. *H acrucTTaTOS 
Ktti K€paT(jo8rjs a-eXrjvYj, fxrj viro- 
(fiepovcra rerotav dyXao/MOpcfiOV 

XdlXXpLV, oA?/ ttTTO TYjV kvTpOTTiqV 

TYjs crK€7ra{eTat. 'E i/ap/Aovtog 
fxova-LKrj p.\ Td iieX(jo8LKd opyava 
8La(f)6pa)v TTT-qvMV a-vvdepikvri els 
rd xpva-oirpda- iva 8da-r) ypoiKa- 

of any word of two syllables 
having four cappa-s. 
Behold, you enemies of know- 
ledge, behold in what fashion 
coccyx becomes couccos without 
great labour, 

without long- continued wars, 
without streams of blood, 
or the respectability of letters 
suffering any loss." 

Bravo ! Really with great 
skill and dexterity in carpentry 
the poet changed coccyx into 
couccos. If you like, let us 
now read the two extracts from 
the sermons of Meniates. 

Here is the first one. 

" From the bright gate of the 
beautiful East comes forth the 
fair herald of the sun, I mean 
the rosy -fingered and light- 
bearing dawn. And as soon as 
she begins to paint uj)on the 
gold-and-silver face of heaven 
the coming of the fair-haired 
Apollo, it is then that the troop 
of stars of many forms hurries 
with all speed to take its flight. 
The murky darkness of the 
gloomy night is entirely dis- 
pelled. The fickle and horned 
moon, unable to bear so bright 
a light, completely covers herself 
through her bashfulness. Har- 
monious music composed of the 
melodious voices of the various 
birds is heard in the gold-green 
woods. Human beings, who 
have been immersed in deep 




Tttl. O4 avdpiOTTOL^ /3v6L(TfX€VOL 

eh /SadiWarov vttvov, kyeipovrai 
€is Siacf)6pov^ tTTayycAtag, kol 
TcAo?, (US yapua-raros fxrjvvTyjs 
els 6\ov Tor TiTpairepaTOv Kocr- 
fiov evayycAt^erat • ''18ov 7) 
rffxepa ryyyc/cev, Ihov k^kXapxj/e! 

Teroias AoyT/s, W/i/ a-yjpepov 
•qfxcpav, Trpo^aivei oltto iK€Lvr)v 
T^]V riXioa-TdXaKTOV ttvX-qv tov 
ovpavov 6 ayXao7rvpa-6p,op(\)OS 
To{) Geov 'A/axayyeAos, 6 Aa/A- 
TT/Dos, Aeytu, Kttt KaOapbs 
VafSpiT^X^ Kol ev6v<s OTTOV fxe 
TOV xatpeTKTfiov, ' X^^P^ ^^" 

^apiTOip.kvi] 6 Kv/3tO? /XCTO, 

crov/ ^(nypacfiL^et €19 Tvyv apuapov 
yaa-T€pa ttJs 6^€07rttt8os Ma/atot/x 

TOV kp\Op-OV TOV aSvTov T^S 
Si/caioo-tVr^s' HAtov, tot€ dp\L^€L 
TO oyXriy op(i)T€pov va (^evyij y 
avrWeos TroXvOeta tmv SoXtiov 
€iSwAwv. 'A(f)avi(ovTai Trav- 
TcAcus Tou TraAaiov vo/xov to. 
O-KOTCtVOTttTa (TV/x/3oXa. 'H 
acriVTaTOS \opeia tmv dirtcrriiiv, 
fxy] VTro(f)€pov(ra to TryAavyecTTa- 
Tov Tr}s dXijdetas <^w§, KpvTrrei 
fX€ rrjv (rL(i)777]v to da-efSecTTaTov 
7rp6(T0)7rov. Tot crTo/xaTa twi/ 
tepwr StSaoTKaAwv Sei' Trat'ovcrt 
to K€Xd8'i]/xa fxids dKaTairava-TOV 
So^oXoy tas. To y€vos, /3v6i(rp.€- 
vov els TOV {'ttvov ttJs dyvwo-tas, 
eyeLperai els tyjv \pt(Trixivvp,ov 
TToXiTeiav rrjS opOoSo^ov ttlct- 
reois' Kal reXos pe Tr]v Beoirvev- 
CTTov (rdXTrcyya evbs \apLe(TTd- 
Tov evayyeXtcrp-ov, els tov koct- 
pov oAov ci'ayyeAt^bvTai • ' 'I8ov 
(rvXXi]\prj €V yaa-Tpiy 

sleep, awake to their different 
pursuits, and at last, like a most 
gracious herald, she proclaims 
the glad tidings to the four- 
quartered world : * Behold the 
day is at hand, behold, the light 
has come.' 

In the same manner on this 
very day there comes forth from 
that sun-stalactite gate of heaven 
the bright-flaming archangel of 
God, I mean the lustrous and 
pure Gabriel, and as soon as, 
with the greeting ' Hail ! thou 
that art highly favoured, the 
Lord is with thee,' he marks on 
the chaste bosom of the God- 
bearing Mary the coming, of the 
never-setting Sun of Righteous- 
ness, then the sacrilegious poly- 
theism of the deceitful idols 
begins with all speed to take to 
flight. The dark symbols of 
the old law completely disappear. 
The fickle band of infidels, 
unable to bear the far-shining 
light of truth, in silence hides 
its impious face. The mouths 
of the sacred teachers never 
cease to sing one endless song of 
praise to God. Our race, sunk 
in the sleep of ignorance, wakes 
up to join the community which 
holds the orthodox faith and takes 
its name from Christ ; and at last, 
by the trumpet sounded from 
heaven, giving a most gracious 
message of welcome news, to all 
the world are announced the 
glad tidings : ' Behold thou shall 
conceive in thv womb. 



To Sevrepov dTToa-Traa-fia Itti- 
rpexpare fxoi eyw va to avay vwcrco. 


"""YxpLCTTe Tvafx/Saa-LXev rwj/ 
aiwvwv OTTov, Kadcos ro Aeyets o 
iStos, Kparets rov ^8ov ra 
/cAetSta, 86s /^e ra rrjv copav 
TavTYjV va dvoL^o) tyjv ^o(j)€pav 
€K€ivY)v ifivXaK'qVj OTTOV elvai 
aTTOcfiacricriJLevoL ek aliovLOV 
Odvarov ol TrapafSdrai twv 
ivToXojv crov. 'Eyw Sev €;)(W 
yvidfirjv VOL (pepo) t) fSaXcrapLOV 
ets Tcts irXrjyds tovs, rj vepov 
el's ras ^Adyas rovs, ©xf p-ovov 
OeXo) vd ipcoTijcrct) pitav diro 
€K€Lvas rds 8vcnv\i(rpLeva<s 
\pV)(d<i. KOL vd rrjs cittco* Bao"- 
avL(Tp,evr] ^v)(t^, aTrdyyeiXov p^OL 
Tfc iTTOLTjaras. Tt eKapes kol 
f^adavi^ecrai €T(TL (^ofBepd ; Tt 
eTTTaicres kol KoXd^ecrac ercri 
aliovia ; Tt ere i)(f)€p€v ets toctov 
(T KOTO'S ; Tt Q-e epptxpev ets 
rkrouav KdpLLvov ; Tt €7rotryo-as/ 
TtVores aAAo irapd Trio's yeva-d- 
pievo<s iyeva-dpLYjV pikXi fipayy' 
/xta yevo-ts /xtas (mypiyjs eivai 

oXoV TO TTTatO-t/xdv /XOVj /xot 

efvat Kat oXrj rj dc^oppJq twv 
I3aa-dvii)v pov. 'Ek€iv7] rj 
TepxpLSy OTTOV iSoKipLacra ets 
KpaiTrdXiqv kol piWr]v, els rpa- 
Tre^ta Kat yopovs, els ^ecf)dvTO)a-es 
Kat '^(^apaLS., ets TraiyvtSta Kat 
OeaTpa, Trocrr] rjrov; p^eXi f3pa-)(y. 
*H X^P^ OTTOV eXafSa orav 
eKap.a eKetvqv Trjv eKSiKrjorLV, 
orav etSa tov ttXtjo-lov tyjv 
8va-TVXiav, kol eKarr^yop-qara rrjv 
TiprjV Stot vd evxapia-TTjcriii to 

Allow me to read the other 
extract myself. 

With pleasure. 

"Most High, Supreme Lord 
of Eternity, who according to 
Thine own word holdest the 
keys of hell, give them to me at 
this hour, that I may open 
that gloomy prison where those 
who transgress Thy commands 
are condemned to eternal death. 
I have no thought to carry 
balm to their wounds, or water 
to their flames : no, I only wish 
to put a question to one of those 
wretched souls and say to it : 
'Soul in torture, tell me what 
thou didst. What didst thou do 
to suffer such fearful torments ? 
What sin didst thou commit, and 
art thus punished for eternity ? 
What brought thee into such 
darkness ? What cast thee into 
such a furnace ? What didst thou 
do ? ' — ' I did nothing else but 
taste, just taste, a little drop of 
honey : one taste for one 
moment is all my sin, yet it is 
the whole source of my tor- 
ments. — That pleasure which I 
experienced in revelry and 
drunkenness, in feasts and 
dances, in amusements and 
pleasures, in sports and theatres : 
— what was it ? — A little drop 
of honey. The joy I felt when 
I took that revenge, when I 
saw my neighbour's distress and 
attacked his honour to gratify 
my evil passions and my envy : 
— what was it ? — A little drop 




'7rd6o<s /xov Kol TOV (fiOovov flOV, 
iroa-y] -qTov ; /xeAt (ipa\v. Ma 

iKilVa TO. K€p8rj OTTOV €KaV€V 7) 

<f)iX.dpyvp6s jJ-ov iTTidvfXLa, Sia 
Tr)v oTToiav kfidpvva rrjv avv- 

€i8rj(TLV JXe to (f)OpTLOV tt7rCl/3(OV 

dSLKLCJV KOL Trpay/xdriDV Trapa- 
vofXiDV, TTOcrt] ^Tov; p^kXi /3pa)(y. 
Kat €K€tvr] Yj 86^a, rj rt/zv^, r] 
dvd7rav(TL<s ottov k^dpr^Ka els 
e^ovarias, els d^tw/xaTa, els 
TrAovrry, fxe Toa-rjv VTreprjcfidveLav, 
jxe Toar-qv aTrtuAeiav, jxe xocrov 
oXtyov (fio/Sov els tov Geov, 
7r6(ri] -^Tov ; /xeAi f^pa^v. "OAa, 
oAa peXi I3pa)({\ Kal eKeivo 
cfiapfiaKev/xevov fxe rocrovs k6- 
TTODS, fxe Toaas (ftpovriSas, fxe 
rocrovs <^o^ov§, fxe TO(ras daSe- 
veias. . . . "12ot/xe, tovto evdv- 
fxovfJLat Kal SoKtpd^o} piiav 
(f>X6ya, OTTOV fxov ^aa-avi^ei rrjv 
evdrfirjarLV, fieyaXrjrepav diro 
€KeLV)]v oTTOv pov KauL TO crCypa. 
M.ids CTTiyp/qs dp^apriav eKcip^a 
KOi KoXd^opbai al(JovLa ! "A^ / 
Karrjpapevov peXt irpocrKaipoiV 
r^^ovQiv ! e(TV pov etcraL cf)appdKL 
alojVLOiV /3aa-dviov ! Zm] Trepacr- 
pievr] TT poo- oyp ivy] I ecrv pLov eTaaL 
d(f)oppir] dreXevT'qTOV KoXda-eios! 
ZioTj fipa^vTarti ! Mot Siari ere 
Xey(x) /3pa)(yTdT7]V ; eav pLov 
e(TTdd-qs p.aKpd^ Kal ttoXXo. 
paKpd Bid Tr]v (TbirripLav p.ov. 
"E^ryo-a Too-ovs \p6vovs eirdvo) 
els Trjv yrjv^ Kal eTxa els rd 
X^pid pLov rd KXeiSia tov 
HapaSeto-ov. "H^evpa ttios eTvai 
KoXacTLS Slot eva dpLapnoXov 
UKrdv €p,e' t)^evpa ri vd Kdp,o) 

of honey. But those gains 
which my covetous desires 
brought me, through which I 
weighed down my conscience 
with the burthen of endless 
wrong and injustice : — what 
was it 1 — A little drop of honey. 
And the glory, the honour, the 
luxury I enjoyed in power and 
authority and wealth, M'ith such 
arrogance and such profligacy, 
with so little fear of God : — 
what was it ? — A little drop of 
honey. All of it, all of it, a 
little drop of honey, and that 
poisoned with so many troubles, 
with so many anxieties, with so 
many fears, with so many in- 
firmities. . . . Alas ! I recollect 
this, and I feel a flame which 
tortures my memory greater 
than that which bums my body. 
For a single moment I sinned 
and I am punished for all 
eternity ! ! The cursed honey 
of fleeting pleasures ! Thou art 
to me the poison which gives 
eternal torment ! my transi- 
tory life now past ! Thou art 
the cause of my never-ending 
punishment ! life so short ! 
But why do I call thee so short? 
Thou wert long enough, and 
ainj)ly long enough, for my 
salvation. I lived so many 
years upon the earth and held 
in my hands the keys of 
Paradise. I knew that there 
was punishment for a sinner 
like me : 1 knew what I had to 
do to escape it : I could easily 



Sta va Ty]v cfivyo)' rjfXTTopovcra 
evKoXa va to Kct/xw koX Sev ro 
CKafxa. "HfMOvv iyoj avOpdoTTOS, 
yjfjLovv eXevOepos, yjfiovv XoyiKos. 
Tl<5 fxe eTV(f)Xo)a-€ ; Ti? /xe 
€7rXdv€(T€v ; "Ax I C^^ Tvepacr- 
/Luevr), 7] (TTOxaa-dQt rrjv f^paxy- 
T-qTa (Tov, r] crvXXoyiC-dCi to 
fxoiKpo'? (TOV, Lcra fxov elvai rriKpa 
i) evOvjJLr](rLS crov. 'A^ / ;>(^ovot 
XpvcroLj Tj/jLepat TroXvTijxoi oirov 
ISia^T^KaTe / 'Eyw o-a? €Xoi.cra 
Kai €Xo-o-a oAa. Iloto? /xe SlScl 
Tiopa fxiav dirb CKeiVa? toL? copas 
oTVov pov k(f>aiVOVTO rocrov 
paKpai ; Tts /^te 8t5et oXiyov 


e^ioStacra els dp^aprias, ^ d(f)Lva 
vd Tpexy €t? p^araioTT^Tas ; 
IToto? //.ov StSet /xt'av p.ovax'^v 
(TTiyp')]v va p.€Tavoq(Tio ; Ma 
8ev etVat irXkov Katpos. '0 
Kaipos ISia/??;, /cat eyw p,6vov 
TOV kiriOvpOi /xaTaia, xat e^^w va 
TOV G7rL0vp.yj(T(j) a'novia. ^12 
Kovrdpi OTTOV p.ov XafSoveis Tr)v 
€vdvp.r](Tiv ! 'OXtyov pukXi ro 
TTTatVt/xov /xov Kat KoAao-ts 

attovios ">) Tipoipia pov . 


ev6vp.r]o-i<5 TriKpordTTj ! '^12 
pLerdvoca avw(^eA7^s / " 

IIws o-as (fiatverai rj 7rpo<f)opd 
piov ; efScXriMOrj oXiyrjv ; 

IIoAv • Kat av peivrjre ev'A6ij- 
vats oAiya? efSSopidSas Od irpo- 
<^kpr]T€. rd 'E AAiyvtKa a)s"EAAry v. 

ToVTO TToXv pb€ KoXaK€V€L' 

aAAa /^AeTTO) icfiOda-apev els 
McTaTTOVTtov. "^As e^kXOinpev 
vd TrdpiopLev oXiyov wpoyevpLa. 

have done it and I did not do it. 
I was a man, I was free, I had 
my reason. Who blinded me ? 
Who led me astray ? Ah ! my 
life that is past ! whether I 
reflect upon thy shortness, or 
consider thy length, equally 
bitter is my recollection of 
thee. Ah ! ye golden years, ye 
precious days, that have gone by ! 
I have lost you, and I have lost 
all. Who will now give me 
one of those hours which seemed 
to me so long ? Who will give 
me a little of that time which I 
either spent in sin, or allowed 
to pass in vain pursuits ? Who 
will give me one single moment 
for repentance 1 But there is 
no longer time for it now. The 
time is past, and it is but in vain 
that I long for it, and have to 
long for it to eternity. spear 
that pricks my memory ! My 
sin a little drop of honey, and 
eternal hell my punishment ! 
most bitter memory ! use- 
less repentance !' " 

What do you think of my 
pronunciation "? Has it improved 
a little 1 

Very much : and if you stay 
in Athens a few weeks, you will 
pronounce Greek like a Greek. 

That is very flattering to me ; 
but I see we have arrived at 
Metapontum. Let us get out 
and take a little breakfast. 

By all means. 

AIAA0r02 ir' 


'Kv T(^ (TTaOfJiip Tov Mera- 
TTOVTLOV, -q oLKpifSea-repov ciTreti' 
, TOV Toppefxdpe, rj a/xa^ocTTOi^ta 
SiV k\povoTpL(iri(T€.v ov^l cV 
XoTTov irXiLOTtpov TOV hipia- jxkvov 
\p6vov, Slotl (0? /^AeTTCTC dva- 
X(opovp€v OLKpifSios els Tas Trevre 
Kol eiKoariSvo. "E)(eT€ 7rp6\ii- 
pov TOV xpovoTTLvaKa ; KvTxa- 
^are irapaKaXo) /cara iroiav 
u)pav cf)OdvofX€v els Bpevrrycriov. 

Ets Ttts OKTO) Ka6 TptavTae^. 

Sra/zar^ /^ dpa^o(TTOi\ia KaO' 
68ov els Kaveva dXXov (rTaOp,6v, 
rj Tn^yaivei kut' evOelav eKei 
Xiopls va eyyia-Tj irovBevd ; 

El's eva fxovov crTadp-ov eyyi- 

^€t, €1? TOV TOV Tct/ja VTOS, OTTOV 

/iei'Ct ScKtt AcTTTa. E?vat o^ 
TrpioTrj (fiopd Kad' t]V ^lepxecrOe 

Sid TMV fXepUXV TOVT0)V 'q Ta 

e7r€(rK€(f)0yjTe kol dXXoTe ; 

OvBeiroTe dXXoTe e7re(Tke(fiOi]V 
Ta fieprj TavTci Ta oirola to 
TrdXai direTeXovv Tr]v MeyaAvyv 
EAAaSa^ TTjV Tocrov evSo^ov ev 
Ty EXXl]VLKrf^I(TTOpLa. 'Ekcu'o 
TO OTTOtov eiridvfxo) eivai vd €\w 
Bvo rj Tpeis fxrjvas els Trjv Sid- 
decriv fxov Kal ovtw va 8vvt]6i»} 
vd TrepieXdio oXrjv Trjv fxecnjp,- 

At the station of Metapontum, 
or, to speak more correctly, of 
Torremare, the train did not 
stay even one minute more than 
the fixed time, for, as you see, 
we are starting exactly at five 
twenty-two. Have you got the 
time-table handy ? Look and 
see, please, at what o'clock we 
arrive at Brindisi, 

At eight thirty-six. 

Does the train stop at any 
other station on the road, or 
does it go straight there with- 
out pulling up anywhere ? 

It stops only at one station, 
at that of Taranto, where it stays 
ten minutes. Is this the first time 
you have been through these 
parts, or did you ever visit 
them before 1 

I have never before visited 
these parts, which in ancient 
times constituted Magna Graecia, 
so celebrated in Greek history. 
What I want is to have two or 
three months at my disposal 
and so to be able to go through 
all southern Italy and Sicily at 
my leisure, for when any one 



/SpLvrjv 'IraAiav kol ^iKcXiav 
kv dvecrei, 8i6tl orav Sccpx^jTai 
TiS Sia x<^P«,s Tivos cnrevSoiv 
Sta Tov (rtSrjpoSpofxov (SXkivei 
jxovov Tovs crradpiovs kol to, 
TTpoda-reia tQ>v TroAetov kol 
TiTTore dXXo. Upb oXtyov 8l- 
r^XOofxev 8td rov Toppcfxdpe ottov 
e/xeiVa/xev 8eKa XcTrrd fxovov 
aAAo, TL eiSopiev ; TiVore. 'Eav 
o/>i(05 €iXo/x€v TrXciorepov xpo^ov 
et9 TYjV SiddecTLv /xa? ^a rjSvvd- 

fXeOa vd klTL(TK€^d^fl€V TOt €- 

peLTTia TOV Tre pL(f:)rj/Jbov Kara rrjv 
dpx<^iorrjTa MeraTrovTiov. 

'H TToAts avTT] TT/jeTret vd ctx^ 
ovxt' p-iKpdv (TTTOV^aLorriTa ro 
irdXab, SiOTL (rvv€-)(^b)s dvacficpeTaL 
VTTO TWV dp)^aLO)V 'EAAi^vwv 
(Tvyypa(f)€0)v. *0 UavcravLas iv 
rrj Trpe^TTj 'HAta/ctoi/ Trepiypd- 
cf)u>v rd ev 'OXvfXTrii^ dvadq/Jbara 
Twi/ ^EAAi^vtKtov TToAewv Acyct * 
" II/DoeA^ovTt 8e oAtyov Zevs 
ia-Ti Trpos aviV^ovra Tcrpajx- 
fievos rov 17A10V, derbi' e^^wv rov 
opviOa KOL rfj €T€pa twv y^^etpMV 
Kepavvov eTTLK€LTaL 8e avTCo €7rl 
TYj Ke(f>aXy (n€^avo<i, dvdr) rd 
Kpiva, MeTaTTOVTtvfov 6e ka-nv 
dvdOriixay 'Ev Se ttj 6evTepa 
Twv 'HAiaKwv TO, €^rjs, "*Ev 
Se TW MeraTTOVTivwv Orjcravpi^, 
TrpocrexV^ jdp t(^ SeAivovvTiwv 
ecTTiv ovTos, ev tovtw TreTTOir)- 
fxevos ea-rlv 'EvSv/xiwV ttAt^v Se 
ecrOyjro's ecm rd Xonrd tw 'Ev- 
Su/xio>VfceAe<^avTos. MeraTrovrt- 
vovs Se 't]Tis fiev kirkXaf^ev 
aTToXkardai Trpo^acrc?, ovk otSa' 
CTT e/Aou 8e on /^^ Okarpov kol 

goes through a country in a 
hurry by rail, he sees only the 
stations and the suburbs of the 
cities and nothing else. A little 
while ago we passed through 
Torremare where we stoj)ped 
only ten minutes, but what did 
we see ? Nothing. But if we 
had had more time at our 
disposal we could have visited 
the ruins of Metapontum, a city 
of renown in olden days. 

This city must have been a 
place of no little importance in 
bygone times, for it is frequently 
mentioned by the ancient Greek 
writers. Pausanias, in the first 
book of his JEliaca, describing 
the offerings of the Greek cities 
at Olympia, says : "As you go a 
little farther, there is a Jupiter 
facing the rising sun, holding 
an eagle, his bird, and with a 
thunderbolt in the other hand ; 
on his head there is a garland, 
the flowers of which are lilies. 
It is an offering of the people of 
Metapontum." In the second 
book of the Eliaca he says as 
follows : " In the treasury of 
the Metapontians, for it is next 
to that of the Selinuntians, there 
is constructed a statue of Endy- 
mion : except the clothes the 
rest of the Endymion is of ivory.f 
But what happened to the 
Metapontians to cause theii 
destruction I do not know j ii 




TrepifioXoL T€i-)(ov<i aXXo kXuiriTo 

i)V6lv yiiTaTTOVTLOV.^' 

ToLavTYj vTrqp^ev rj Tvxrj Kal 


TToAewi/ €V rrj MeydXy 'EAAaSt 
Kd.l kv aAAais ■)(jb)pat<i. IIoAeis 
lurtves iJKjjiaa-dvTroTe IttI 7rAoi'T<^ 
Kal 8vvdfx€L, TT/oo alu>v(i)v Kare- 
(rTpd(fii](Tav Kal o-i^fiepov jjlovov 
uLKpd TLva Xeixpava avTWV /xev- 
ni'CTL (09 jxapTvpia Tov dp^aiov 
uvrdv fieyaXecov Tivks Se Kal 
TcAccos €^rj(f>avL(TOrj(Tav ws 
crvvkfit) ets t7)v 2v/?a/3tv '>]Tts, 
u)S Aeyet 6 ^rpd/Siov, " TeTrdpcDV 
pXv Wvdv rQ)v TrXrja-Lov iTrrjp^e, 
7revT€ Se Kal €lko(tl TroAet? VTrrj- 
Koovs €0"X^5 rpidKovra Se /JLvpid- 
atv dvSpiov €7rt K/Dorcuvtaras 
(arpdreva-e, 7revTi]K0VTa Se 
crraSttov kvkAov a'W€7rA'>y/Dovv 
otKoi;i>T€S €7ri rw K-pdOiSt ' vtto 
/xevTOL Tpv(f)YJs Kal v/Speois dira- 
(Tav Tr)V €v8aL/xovtav d(^rjpk6i](Tav 
VTTO KpoTOiVLaTMV €V r^jxipats 
€/38op.i/jKOVTa' cAovres yap ttjv 
TToAiv iTT-qyayov tov Trorafiov 
Kal KareKXvcrav." 

"Av Kal rj ttoXls tujv "Zv/Sapi- 
TMV Kar€crTpdcf)r] IvreAws, to 
ovojxa o^w? avTMV StaTcAei 
aOdvarov^ 6toTt ov fxovov ai 
aperaL, aAAa Kal at KaKiai 
rdv kOvdv 8iani>VL^ovrai kv rrj 
la-Topt^. To ovofxa tmv dpya'nnv 
^TrapTiaTWV Karea-rrj TrepLcfiijixov 
€V€Ka T>)s dTrapafxiXXov dvSpcias 


Tos Trept T7)v StatTttv, to Se twv 
^v/SapLTWV €V€Ka TOV dfSpoSiaL' 

my time, except the theatre and 
the circuit of the wall nothing 
else was left of Metapontum." 

Such was the fate also of 
many other Greek cities in 
Magna Graecia and elsewhere. 
Cities which were once at the 
height of wealtli and power 
were ages ago destroyed, and 
to-day only some scanty remains 
of them are left as evidence of 
their ancient magnificence : some 
even completely disappeared, as 
was the case with Sybaris, which, 
as Strabo says, " ruled over four 
neighbouring nations, possessed 
twenty - five dependent cities, 
sent an expedition of three 
hundred thousand men against 
the Crotonians, and the inhabi- 
tants of which living on the river 
Crathis occupied a circle of fifty 
stadia. Owing however to their 
luxury and arrogance they were 
deprived of all their aftiuence 
in the space of seventy days by 
the Crotonians, for these, after 
capturing their city, turned the 
river into it and inundated it." 

Although the city of the 
Sybarites was entirely destroyed, 
still their name continues im- 
perishable, for not only the 
virtues but the vices of nations 
are perpetuated in history. The 
name of the ancient Spartans 
became famous on account of 
their unrivalled courage, and 
the unique simplicity of their 
way of life, and that of the 
Sybarites owing to their luxuri- 




Tov KOI rrjs VTrepf^aXXova-rjs 
avTMV (XKoXacTias. 

Aev vo/xt^w 6/JL0)S on etvat 8l- 
Katov va KaT-qyopcovTaL fxovoi ol 

^v/3apLTaL €771 TpV(j)fj Kttt OLKO- 

Aao-ia, StOTi Kara re rovs dp- 
XO.LOVS xpovovs Kal rovs vewre- 
povs VTTTJp^av Xaol rpvcfirjXol Kal 
aKoAacTTOi 7rpo<s rovs ottolovs 
Trapa/SaXXopievoL ol ^vjBaplrai 
(paLVovrat Xcrol Kal o-(jO(fipov€<5. 

Tovro ovSels Svvarai va to 
dpvqOfi, StOTfc Kal iv rols KaO' 
Tjpbds XP°^^*5 TrAetcrrot oo-ot 
v7rdp^ov(TiV oirtves Trepl ovSevbs 
dXXov (fypovr trover LV, el pirj ttcos 
va ^ikp\ijivrai rov /3lov iv rpv<f)rj 
Kal aKoXacria ' ol ^vfiapZrai 
o/xws Trdvrorc 9a Kareyoiort rrjv 
Trpiarrjv Oea-iv, Siort Trap avrois 
r] rpv(f)r} Sev ^ro dropuKT], aAAa 
yevLKrj ' rjro v6p.os rrjs ttoAcws. 
Tot evaca-drjra vevpa twv ^v/Sapt- 
TWi/ 6ev iirerpk-Trero va Siarapdar- 
(rojvrat ov8' vtto rov kXayta-rov 
Kporov, Kol Stot rovro iravres ol 
\aXKeLS-, ol ortSrjpovpyol Kal ol 
^vXovpyol rjvayKa^ovro vd e^wo-t 
rd kpyao-rripia avriov paKpdv 
rrjs 7roAeo>9. "Ottws Se pirj dia- 
rapda-a-Yjrai 6 Trpmvos avriov 


rpvov(ov eh ovSeva TroXirrjv eire- 
rpeirero vd rpecfirj rotavra evo)(- 
XrjriKa ovra evros rrjs TroAews. 
'O evTTopos ^vjBapirrj<s ore p.ere- 
fiaivev els rov dypov rov, dv 
Kat e<f> dpd^rj<s 7ropev6pevo<s, 
rrjv rjpLeprjo-Lav Tropetav el<s rpeis 
tjpepas SiT^i/vev TroAAai Se twv 
eh rovs dypovs <fiepovoro)v oSiov 

ous mode of living and tlieir 
excessive licentiousness. 

I do not think however that 
it is just for the Sybarites alone 
to be accused of luxury and 
licentiousness, for both in ancient 
and more recent times there 
have been luxurious and licen- 
tious nations compared with 
whom the Sybarites apj)ear 
frugal and temperate. 

This no one can deny, for 
even in our own times there are 
very many people who think 
of nothing else but how to go 
through life in luxury and 
licentiousness ; the Sybarites, 
however, will always hold the 
first place, for with them luxury 
was not individual but general ; 
it was an institution of the city. 
The highly sensitive nerves of 
the Sybarites were not allowed 
to be agitated even by the least 
noise, and for this reason all the 
coppersmiths, blacksmiths, and 
carpenters were compelled to 
have their workshops far away 
from the city. In order that 
their morning sleep might not 
be disturbed by the crowing of 
the cocks, no citizen was per- 
mitted to keep such troublesome 
creatures inside the city. The 
well-to-do Sybarite, when he 
went to his estate, although 
conveyed in a carriage, took 
three days to accomplish the one 
day's journey ; and many of the 
roads leading to the fields were 
roofed in. In Sybaris public 


ycrav KaTacmyoL. 'Ev ^v/Sdpet 
lyivovTO avve^d^ SrjjxoaLa Set- 
TTva KOI ot \op^)yovvT€<i Ty]v 
Sairdvrjv rrjs €o-Ttacr€ws crt/xwy- 
To Slo. y^pva-QiV crrecfidviov vtto 
T/y? TToAcw? Kal TO. ovofiara 
avTitJv €K^]pvTTOVTO Kara, tov? 
8i]po(Tiov<s dyuivas. 

Kar iKeivovs tovs ^(/dop'ov? 
0T€ ouT€ dr/iOTrAota v7rrjp\ov 

OVT€ (TL8r]p68pOIXOL., KOi at KaK- 

ov\iai rdv oSoLiropLMV -^(rav 
TToAAat, Oa ■^TO (TTTOvSatov 
^'i]Tr]fJLa ei's rhv d/^poStaiTov 
^vf^apiryjv vd Ta^eiSevo-y. 

Be/^atdrara • dAA' ol KaXoi 
fxa<s ^v/3apLTaL ottcos d7ro(f>vy(j}(TL 
Ta9 avLa^ Tcoi/ oSonropiiov cvpov 
I TpOTTOv aTrXovcTTaTov, SyjXaSrj 
ovSeTTore iTa^eiSevov Kareye- 
Awv Se Toi;s dTroSyyyaovvTas €K 
ryjs 7raTpi8o<s twv /cat ea-efxvv- 


eavTiov /3lov kv ry vrdAet twi/ 
Xw/3t? va dTrofiaKpvvtovTat ttotc 
€^ ai'TT/s. 

'AAA' €7ret5r) ovSets Kavwv 
dvev e^aLpi(T€ios, Aeyerat ort 
ffs e/c Twv 6u8atyu,6v(ov tovtwv 
TToAtrtov Tvy? ^v/3dp€ii)<5 eXa/Se 
TO 6dppo<s 7roT€ va Tag€i8ev(Ty 
€15 ctAAr/i/ ^(w/aai'. Kat ttov 
vo/xt^ere vTrT^ycv ; ets ^Trdpryv ! 

'12 ttJs evavTtoTJ^TOS / 'EA- 

j TTt^co va TOV jrpoa-eKdXca-av et's 

ra (rv(T(TLTid twv ot ^TrapTidrai. 

Ile^t tot'tou /xry djxtjiLfSdXXeTe, 

SlOTt ot dirkpiTTOL (TVpTToXtTaL 

TOV AvKoi'/oyov ecre/xvvvo^TO €7rt 
T^ AtT7; auTwv 8iaiTYj, Kal ore 

dinners frequently took place, 
and they who defrayed the ex- 
pense of the entertainment were 
honoured by the city with golden 
crowns and their names were pro- 
claimed at the public games. 

In those times when there 
were no steamboats nor railways, 
and the discomforts of travelling 
were many, going on a journey 
must have been an important 
question with the effeminate 

Most assuredly : but our good 
friends the Sybarites found a 
very simple way of avoiding 
the inconveniences of travel- 
ling, that is to say, they never 
travelled at all : they used to 
laugh at people who left their 
native land to go abroad, and 
prided themselves on passing 
their lives in their own city 
without ever going far away 
from it. 

But since there is no rule 
without an exception, it is said 
that one of these happy citizens 
of Sybaris once took courage to 
travel to another country. And 
where do you think he went ? 
To Sparta ! 

Oh, the contrast ! I hope the 
Spartans invited him to their 
general mess. 

Do not have any doubt about 
that, for the frugal fellow-citizens 
of Lycurgus took pride in their 
simple mode of life, and when 



TjpyjeTO Tis €T7L(ry]iJios ^evos els 
ry]V TToXiv T(x>v e(f)iXo^evovv av- 
Tov Kal TOP 7rap€XdfjLf3avov ottws 
a-vvSenrvqcrrj fxer avTO)v ev rots 

evpev €K€L ovT€ rpa-rrk^as TroXvre- 
Aet5, ovT€ KXtvas /xaAttKcis, ovre 
ttXtjOos OepaTTOVTMV, ovre avXrj- 
rptSas, ovre n aXXo TrpoSiSov 
TroXvTeXetav' 8ev dfX(f)Lf3dXXu> 
8e on Tov eKadio-av els ^vAivov 
Tfc KaOiCTfJLa Kal rw Trapedecrav 
TTLvaKLOV irXyjpes fieXavos ^(HfJiov 
Kttfc TOV dcfirJKav vd KXalrj rrfv 

TovTO TTpeirei vd crvvefSy], 
SiOTL fjLerd TO SetTrvov rjKova-drj 
Xeycov 6 rpvcf^riXos '^vfSapir-qs, 
^^Tvporepov p.ev eOavfxa^ov dKovMV 
on ol ^Trapndrai Trepie<f>povovv 
TOV ^avaTOV koI aTreSiSov tovto 
els Tr]V dvSpetav twv, dXXd vvv 


L on Kai 

o SecXoraros 

Twv dvOpMTTCov T^OeXe TrponfX'qcrrj 
fxdXXov V dTToOdvrj i) vd ^rj 
SidyoiV j3iov ea-reprijxevov Trdcrrjs 


KaAa T7)v eiraOev 6 HivfSapi- 
Tr^5, StOTt Tt SovXeid et^e v 
d({)7]arr) rds Tpv(f>ds rrjs TrarpiSos 
TOV KOL vd ^rjTrj vd 8oKLfxda-r} 
TOV fxeXava ^w/xov twv ^irapTia- 
Twv ; 'AAA' as dcfi-qcroyfjiev tt/)©? 
o-Tiyix-qv TO, irapeXdovra /cat as 
t8(o/xev av eTrXr^cridcrajxev els 

Aev vojJiL^oi V aTre^w/xev iro- 
Xv, 8l6tl at oiKtat Trjs TrdAews 
ijSr] SiaKpivovTai. 

KvTTa^aTe ttoctov wpata eTvai 

any distinguished stranger came 
to their city, they received him 
hospitably and took him to dine 
with them at their public meals. 

The Sybarite certainly did 
not find there either costly 
tables, or soft couches, or a 
crowd of attendants, or flute- 
playing girls, or anything else 
betraying extravagance : I have 
no doubt that they seated him 
on some sort of wooden stool 
and offered him a plate full of 
black broth, and left him to 
bewail his fate. 

This is what must have 
happened, for after dinner the 
dainty Sybarite was heard to 
say : " Formerly I used to be 
astonished when I heard that 
the Spartans despised death, and 
attributed this to their courage, 
but now I am convinced that 
the most cowardly of men would 
prefer dying to living a life de- 
prived of all luxury." 

The Sybarite got what he 
deserved, for what business had 
he to give up the luxuries of 
his native land and want to try 
the black broth of the Spartans ? 
But let us put aside the past for 
a moment, and see if we have 
come near to Taranto. 

I do not think we are far off, 
for the houses of the city can 
already be distinguished. 

See how beautiful that 




CKeiVv/ rj €7ravAt? Trpo? ra dpi- 

(TTepd' TO TTVKvhv €K€LVO SdcTOS 

Sev dfxcfulSdkXo} dv/jK€L ci's av- 
T'/jV. TL6(T0V )(^apLeVTiOS pkoviTL 

TO. {'Sara rov pvaKiov Ik€ivov' 
ij XMpa 8i T^s Supxa/xeSa Tiopa 
(fiaiveTat oAws dKaWupy^^ros, 
SioTL CLvac KardcfiVTOS e^ dpKiV- 
6ii)V, fivpiKiav KoX po8o8dcf>vr]S. 
'ISov k<j>dd(Tap.€v els tov<s dypovs, 
TOL's a/xTTcAwva? Kttt Tov<s eXai- 
wi^as rrjs ttoAcw?. Ei/xe^a iv 
Til) CTTaOflM TOV TdpavTos. Ti 
Xeyere, OkXere vd c^eA^w/xev; 

^O/XL^U) Od Tyvat KaAAtT€/30V 

lot pr) €^eA^(o/xev, Stort /JAeTrco 

TToAu 7rXrj6o<i Ta^€t8t(OT(3l' 

€1/ Tw (rra^/xo) Kat (fiof^ovpat 
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'iXd())(jL Kol KaTaXd/^uxTi rots 
OicreLS p,as. 

IIoAv KttAa* aAA* as (fiiovd- 
^cu/xei/ TO ttcilSlov €K€LV0 to 6- 
TTOioi'' TTwAet yaAa, 8iOTt St^w. 

Aos /xas 6i;o irorripia ydXa- 


Ei»;^apto-T(os KvpLoi. . . . Ge- 
A€T€ Kat aAAa 6w ; 

"O^^i, TaVTtt dpKOVCTL. 

Aev ^a dyopd(Ti]T€ oXiya 
dvOrj ; KVTTa^aTC ttoctov wpata 
Kat Tpvcfiepd efvat TavTa Ta ta / 
TT/oo puKpov at dScXcftac p.ov rd 
(TVViXe^av €K TOV T7apaK€ip.kvov 
Sdcrovs ' €LvaL Spocrepd kol evtoSrj ' 
dyopdarare Kvpiot Kat Skv 6d 

Aos auTas Ta? 8vo dv- 
6o8(:a-p.a<s, Kat etTre /xas Tt va 
(re TrXi^paxTwpev. 

country-house is on the left : 
that thick wood, I have no 
doubt, belongs to it. How 
gracefully the water of that 
brook flows ! The country 
through which we are now 
passing appears entirely un- 
cultivated, for it is overgrown 
with junipers, tamarisks, and 
oleander. Here we have come to 
the fields, the vineyards, and 
the olive -groves belonging to 
the city. We are in the station 
of Taranto. What do you say, 
shall we get out ? 

I think it would be better 
for us not to get out, for I 
see a great number of travellers 
in the station, and I am afraid 
that in our absence they may 
come and take our places. 

Very good ; but let us call 
that boy who is selling milk, 
for I am thirsty. 

Give us two glasses of milk. 

With pleasure, gentlemen. . . . 
Would you like two more 1 . . . 

No, tliese are enough. 

Will you not buy a few 
flowers ? See how beautiful 
and delicate these violets are ! 
A little while ago my sisters 
gathered them in the neigh- 
bouring wood : they are fresh 
and fragrant : buy them, gentle- 
men, and you will not repent it. 

Give us those two bouquets, 
and tell us what we have to 
pay you. 



"O Ti ayairare Kvpioi. 

'ApK€i ev (^pdyKov St oAa; 

"12, apK€L KvptOL Kat fie rh 
7rap€7rdvo). 2as ev^apKnOt 
TToXv. "Q,pa KaXrj eras Kvpioi. 

UepiTraOios ayaTrw rot ta* 
eivai ot yXvK€L<s dyyeXou Trj<s 
dvoL^eojS. KvTTa^are ttoctov 
yXvKv etvat Vo ^/Dw/xa twv 17 
evwSia Twv jxol Trpo^evet yXvKV- 

OeAere v' dKov<T7]T€ ev utpaiov 
TroLTjfJidTiOV Ttepl Twy dyair-qTiJiV 
rovrixiv dv$€0iv ; 

Aeyere irapaKaXOt koI $d fie 
€vpr]T€ Trpodvfiov dKpoaTrjv. 

'I80V TO TrOLrjfldTLOV' 

" Se 7rpo(T(jni)vo}, rov TrpoSpofiov 

Tov eapos, <j) Lov, 

"Ottov cKXeyeis €i<s 8pvfxov<s tov 


Kat VTTO Odjxvovs (f)aXaKpov<5 

jSdXa-afJLOv )(yveis Oeiov, 

K't (OS Kopr^ <fi€vy€L<9 TttTreiv?) to 

(rkfSas tQ)V dvOpdoirojv. 

'12s €V€py€T'q<^ cvyevrjs ottov 

TravTOv o-KopTTL^et 

^Iva-TTjpuoSe IS xapiras k'l ovSets 

avrov yvMpt^ei, 

Kat (TV 7rape\€is Siopedv to, fjivpa 


"Ot eurat Kav)(r]fxa SacrMV Kat 

TWV dvOkoiV KOpO)VL<i. 

''EXOe vd yetV^^s jSacnXevs rov 
KrJTTov fxov, c5 tov 

"Q, d(f>€S TYjV fXOVOTOVOV TOV 8d- 

(Tov^ fjiova^tav. 

'EA^e, eA^e dvOo^ o-e/xvov, Keyo) 

KdOe Trpmav 

Whatever you like, gentlemen. 

Is one franc enough for the lot ? 

0, enough, and more, gentle- 
men. Thank you very much. A 
pleasant journey to you, gentle- 
men ! 

I am passionately fond of 
violets : they are the sweet 
messengers of spring. See what 
a charming colour they have : 
their perfume produces in me a 
feeling of calm enjoyment. 

Would you like to hear a 
pretty little poem about these 
favourite flowers ? 

Recite it, I beg, and you will 
find me an eager listener. 

This is the little poem : 

" Thee I address, violet, fore- 
runner of the spring, who makest 
thy choice in the thickets of a 
home safe from harm, 
and under the bare bushes 
sheddest thy heavenly perfume, 
and like a maid, in thy humility, 
dost shun men's admiration. 
Like a noble benefactor who in 
all directions scatters 
secret benefits and no one knows 

thou too offerest as a gift thy fra- 
grance, and dost forget that thou 
art the boast of the woods and 
the crown of the flowers. 
Come and be the king of my 
garden, O violet ! 
O, leave the monotonous solitude 
of the wood. 

Come, bashful flower, come, and 
every morning 



Go, (T€ TTOTL^iD [xk vcpov KpvcrrdX.- 

X.LVOV Kal Bilov. 

'EA^€ . . . ttAt^v Krjiro'i '^^X^V 

rhs 7roo-w9 Set/ (re rj8vv€i. 

Mcve XoLTTov 's Th Sdcro'S crov, 

dyaTrrjTov fxov lov. 

Ei'Sat/xwv ocTTis Ka6u)<s crv rots 

y6.pLTa<i 7rpo)(yv€L 

Kal els Ka\vf3^]V dcfiavij ocrtov 

KpV7rT€L fSiOV." 

Upaiov TTOit^fxdTLOV dAAa 

SiV p,OL €?7r€T€ TO OVOJXa TOV 

'Ovo/j,d^€Tai r. ^TavplSrjS, 
ocTTLS iypaxj/e Kal ttoXXo. aAAa 
KOfixpa TToiyjfxdria irepl dvdkiov 
aAAa /SXeiro) dva^iopovp^ev e/c 

TdpaVTOS. 'E7r€(TK€<f>6lf]T€ TTore 

rrjv TToAiv ravTY]v ; 

MaAto-ra, dAAa Trpkirei va 
ads etTTW OTL Bev jxol ■>]p€(re ttoXv. 

H TToAts €)(^ov(ra reo-a-apaKOvra 
TrepiTTov ^cAtdSa? KaTotKcov etVat 
(OKoSofiyj/jLevr] eirl fXLKpds vqa-ov 
Kal Karcx^L tyjv Oecriv rrjs 
dp^aias dKpoTToXeios' at oSol 
avrrjs eiVai crrevai Kal pvirapai' 
(Tvvk\€.TaL Se Bid rrjs ^yjpds Trpos 
f3oppdv Kal voTOV Sid Svo 
dpyaioiv y€(f)vpci)v. *0 Icrwre/ot- 
kos Xifxrjv rrjs TroAews ovofxd- 
^€Tai MiKpd ddXacrcra, 6 Se 
i^ioTcpiKhs MeydXrj BdXacra-a' 
afjLcfiOTepaL Se Trapdyovcriv d- 
<f>6oviav ixBviiiV Kal da-Tpkinv. 

Apxcua ipeiTTia Sev aco^ovTai 
TToXXd. 'H Trpos (^oppdv yi<f)vpa 
Kal TO /xeya vSpayioyeiov oTrep 
<fi€p€i els TTjV TToXiv dcfiOovov Kal 
KaAAtcrrov vSw/o, eivai epya Tiov 

I will give thee water like crystal 

and fresh from heaven. Come . . . 

but a garden made by art in 

no way gives thee pleasure : 

stay then in thy forest, my 

beloved violet. 

Happy whoever like thee pours 

forth his gifts 

and in a cabin hides unseen his 

holy life." 

A pretty little poem : but 
you did not tell me the poet's 

His name is G. Staurides, and 
he has written many other 
elegant poems about flowers : 
but I see we are leaving Taranto. 
Did you ever visit this city ? 

Yes, but I must tell you that 
it did not please me much. 
The city, which has about forty 
thousand inhabitants, is built 
upon a small island and occupies 
the site of the ancient acropolis : 
its streets are narrow and dirty : 
it is connected with the main- 
land on the north and south 
sides by two ancient bridges. 
The inner harbour of the city is 
called Mare Piccolo, and the 
outer one Mare Grande : both of 
them produce abundance of fish 
and oysters. Not many of the 
ancient ruins are preserved. 
The bridge on the north side, 
and the great aqueduct which 
conveys into the city abundant 
and excellent water, are works 
of the Byzantine times. In tlie 




Bv^avTiVOJV xpoviov. Kara to 
'iros 967 /x.X. 6 avTOKpoLTitip 
±^ LKrjcf)6po<s 6 ^(DKas dcXiov va 
irpocfivXd^rj rot P'€prj ravra ck 
Twv €<f)68(i)v Twv HapaK-qviov 
eVe/A^e ^ LKr](p6pov tov Maytcr- 
rpov els Tdpavra, octtis ov fxovov 
TO, TeL)(rj rrjs ttoAccos dveKaiVLcre, 
dXXd Kol TO,? y€(f)vpas Kal to 
/zeya vS/oaywyeiov Karea-Kevacrev. 
'Ek twv Ipenriiov tov dpyaiov 
TdpavTos TL (Tio^eTaL vvv ; 


rJK€V els rhv vaov tov Iloa-etSw- 



Hepiepyov vd p.r] cno^iovTaL 
TrepifTaroTepa Aet^ava tov dpyai- 
ov fxeyaXeLOV t^s 7rept(f)rjp.ov 
TavTi]s TToXeois, "tJtls er^e ttotc 
Ixeyio-T-qv 8vvap.LV Kal Stacfiepov- 
TW9 eSo^da-Oy] errl 'Ap)(yTOV tov 
irepK^-qpLOV p^aOi^TOV tov Ilv^a- 


p,a$rjp.aTLKOs Kal epLiretpos els 
TTjV pL-qyavLKrjV^ wpos 8e (fiiXoa-o- 
<fi0s fSaOvs Kal p,ey as ttoXltlkos ' 
ijKpiaore 8e KaTot to TeTpaK0<TL- 
ocTTOv eTOS Trph ^piaTov. '0 
TToAtTlKOS aVTOV /3tos vTTrjp^ev 
evSo^os ' eTTTdKLS e^eXe^Oy] 
(TTpaT7]yos TTJs TToAews Kal e^ 
oXiDV Twv eKOTTpaTeiiov eTTavTJXde 
VLKr]Tr]S Kal Tpo7raLov)(os. Aei/ 
SteKptveTO 8e pLOVov eTrl TroXiTiKrj 
LKavoTT^TL Kal Itti avS/DCt^, aAAa 
Kai eiTL (TOif^pocrvvrj, pLeTpioTrjTL 
Kai (^iXavOpiHTTLi^. ^vvkypaxpe 
ovK oXiya orvyy pdpip^aTa, dXX 

year 967 a.d. the Emperor 
Nicepliorus Phocas wishing to 
protect these parts from the 
inroads of the Saracens sent 
Nicephorus Magister to Taranto 
who not only renewed the walls 
of the city but also constructed 
the bridges and the great aque- 

Of the ruins of ancient Taren- 
tum, what is there now existing ? 

Only one column of the 
Doric order, which very pro- 
bably belonged to the temple 
of Neptune, the guardian-god of 

It is curious that there have 
not been preserved more remains 
of the ancient magnificence of 
this famous city, which once 
possessed very great power and 
was especially renowned in the 
time of Archytas, the celebrated 
disciple of Pythagoras. 

Archytas was an excellent 
mathematician and expert in 
mechanics, and moreover a pro- 
found philosopher and a great 
statesman. He flourished in 
the four hundredth year before 
Christ. His public life was a 
glorious one : seven times he 
was selected to be the general 
of the state, and from every 
campaign he returned victorious 
and triumphant. He was not 
only distinguished for political 
capacity and for courage, but also 
for prudence, moderation, and 
benevolence. He wrote several 




dTV\lOS €^ aVTUJv jXOVOV /xiKpd 

TLva T€ixd\ia crw^ovTat Trpayfia- 
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ETt'ttt TrepUpyov ttw? dXkdcr- 
crovcTL TO, irpdyixaTa kv tovt<^ 
T(o Koa-fiw ! Kara rov^s \p6vov<5 
Tov Hvdayopov kol 'Ap)(VTOv 6 
Tdpas ^To ecTTia Trj'5 (fnkocroffiLas 
KOi TMV ypafXfxdTOJV, vvv Be, ws 
Aeyet "^ 'lavera *Pci)ss iv t(^ 
d^LoXoyo) avTT]^ TrovT^/xart ''*H 
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f^i/SXtoTrtoXeiov vTrdpy^ei iv avT(^. 
Ew Ttt rpia fxcydXa Tyu.>//xaTa €is 
a StaT€/xi/eTat 8ta rpiCiv fxaKpiov 

68u}V "q vvv TToXlS bjJLiXoVVTai 

rpeis ivTeXds vrpos dXX-jXas 
I SiacfiepovaraL StaAcKTOt. Ot 

Trapd Tijv €^iD OdXacra-av oIkovv- 

(Tcs o/xtAoucrt SidXeKTOV rJTLS 
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Kal 'IraAtKwv Ae^ewv ot t^v 
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NeaTTOyXew? • ol Se iv ry dTrkvavri 
Ti]<s MtK/aa? 9a,Xd(r(T')]'S 65(5 tov 
VapifSdXSrj oIkovvt€S ofJuXovcrc 
SidXcKTOV iv y iirLTroXd^ovaL 
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<fjpd(T€is. ^Apd ye vd ■^vai Aet- 
\^ai'a TU)V dp^aiordTiov ^(pdvwv, 
r) T>/9 Tiv^avTivy]<; i7ro)(rjs ; 

To ^-/jTy/xa TOVTO Sev cTi'at €k 
Twv €vXvTit)V' Sev TrpoKeirai 6c 
/xovov Trepl twv Ae^ewv Kat 
(fipdcreiov twv ev T7/ 68(^ Fapi- 
f:idX8ri oiKovvTiov TapavTtV(ji)V, 
dAAot Kat TTC/Ot TToAAtov )(tAta- 
8tov KttToiKOjv r^? iJL€crt]/ix/3pLvrjs 
'IraAias oiVti^es 6/xiAovat ert 

works, but unfortunately only a 
few fragments of them have 
been preserved, -treating of logic, 
ethics, and metaphysics. 

It is curious how things 
change in this world. In the 
times of Pythagoras and Archy- 
tas, Tarentum was a focus of 
philosophy and letters, but now, 
as Janet Ross says in her 
excellent work The Land of 
Manfred, there is not even a 
bookseller's shop in it. In the 
three great sections, into which 
the present city is divided by 
three long streets, three dialects 
quite different from each other 
are spoken. Those who live 
along the outer sea speak a 
dialect which is a medley of all 
kinds of foreign and Italian 
words. Those who occupy the 
central street speak a vulgar 
idiom of Naples. Those who 
reside in the Strada Garibaldi 
opposite to the Mare Piccolo 
speak a dialect in which very 
many Greek words and phrases 
crop up. I wonder now, are 
they relics of the most ancient 
times or of the Byzantine epoch? 

This question is not one of 
those which are easy to solve ; 
it is not only a question of the 
words and phrases employed by 
the Tarentines living in the 
Strada Garibaldi, but regarding 
many thousands of the inhabi- 
tants of southern Italy who 





yXiocrcrav rrjv ^^XXrjvtK'qv. 
Be^atcos Oa rjKOV(raT€ on els 
ra fX€crrjiJil3pLvoavaToX.LKa jxkprj 
rrjs xepa-ovqa-ov^ rjv Suepxo- 
/JLeOa TavT7]v tyjv crriy/JLi^v, Trepl 
TO 'OrpdvTov, Kal els ttjv 
KaXafSptav Trepl to aKpiDT-qpcov 
^HpoLKXetov virdpypvo-L iroXXa 
\ii)pia KaroLKOvp^eva viro 'EA- 
X'qviov^ oiTLves Sev (f^aivovraL va 
'qvai Aet^ava riav dp^aiiav 
KaroLKiov rrjs MeyctAT^s *EAAa- 
8o<s, aAAa p^er ay evecTTe pot olttol- 
KOL eXOovres Ik Stacf^opojv pLcpCjv 
Trjs 'EAAaSos ol p,ev Trpo, ol 8e 
p^era tyjv dXwcriv rrjs K.o)V- 

'Av€yv(x)v Trpb 8vo erwv €V tw 
TrepLoSiKi^ Tov kv AovStvo) 2i;A- 
Xoyov TMV 'EAAt^vikwi' HiTtovSojv 
d^LoXoyov TrpaypLaTeiav irepl 


KaroLKiov Trjs pLecrrjpfSpLVYJs 
'IraAta? yeypap^pLevrfv vtto rov 
At8e(rLp.ov 'E. ^. T6(ep, -ijr ts 
evOvpiOvpiai puol IvcTrotT^cre /x-e- 
ydXrjv ivTVTTMorLV. Efvac Oavpia 
TO. ovTi TTWS rjSvvi^O-qa-av ol 
diroLKOi ovTOi vd StaTrjp-qa-iocri 
TYjv iOvLKrjv avTcov yXwa-crav eirt 
Tocrovs aL(ova<s iv yrj dXXoTpia 
KOL aAAoyAwcrcro). 

"K)(^eT€ StKatov, elvai Oavpia' 
aAAa Trapd rots "EAAt^o-* to 
WviKov aXa-d-qpLa elvai la-)(yp6- 
TaTov, Kal OTTOV yrjs dv evpt- 
(TKoyvTaL TTpo(nra6ov(Ti TravTt 
(rOkvei vd pirj X-qa-pLOvCkri ty]v 
edvLKTjv avTwv yAwo-orav I/ctos 
toi;tov 01 Iv TYJ pLecrrjpLlSpivfj 

even now speak Greek as tlieir 
motlier-tongue. Of course you 
have heard that in the south- 
eastern parts of the peninsula 
which we are at this moment 
traversing, in the neighbourhood 
of Otranto, and in Calabria 
about Cape Spartivento, there 
are many localities inhabited by 
Greeks who do not apj)ear to be 
remnants of the ancient inhabi- 
tants of Magna Graecia, but 
later colonists who came from 
various parts of Greece, some 
before and some after the cap- 
ture of Constantinople. 

Two years ago I read in the 
London journal of the " Society 
for the promotion of Hellenic 
Studies" an excellent paper 
upon these Greek - speaking 
inhabitants of southern Italy, 
written by the Rev. H. F. Tozer, 
which, I recollect, made a great 
impression upon me. It is 
really a wonder how these 
settlers were able to preserve 
their national language for so 
many centuries in a foreign 
country with a foreign tongue. 

You are right, it is a wonder ; 
but among the Greeks tlxe 
national sentiment is very 
strong, and, in whatever part 
of the world they find them- 
selves, they try with all 
their might not to forget their 
national language ; besides, the 



'IraAt^ "EAAryves olttolkol ol- 


/xeprj diroKevrpa koi fxrj crvy- 

KOLViiiVOVVTiS 0-W€;((iJS [XiTO. 

tQ>v ly\(i)pL(ov ov8' €7rtya/Aias 
TTOiovvTcs [xer avrOiV Kariop- 
6(i)(Tav fX€Ta oAtywre/aas 8v(T- 

KoAl'aS vol cf)v\d^O}(TL €V fX€Tpii) 

TLvl fJ-^XP'' ''"ovSe r^]v yAwcr- 
(rav Tiov irarkpiiiv r(s)V. 

^ofSovjxai 6fX(i}<s on et5 to 
jxeXXov Bd T^vat 8v(tkoXov va 


du€(TTdTii)(r€ rd Trdvra, Od 
cirevepyijcry kol Itt avrCiv kcu 
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Tiov Trept^ KaroLKdjv. ^l^evpere 
TTOtos etvuL 6 crvniras avTMV 
7rXr]0v(rixos vvv ; 

*0 Kv/)t05 T6^€p, OCTTLS eTTC- 

CTKctpOr] Ta yoipia rwv Kara to 
(fiOivoTTiopov Tov 1887, Aeyet 

OTt oAoS 6 TrXTf]dv(TfJLOS aVTOiV 

8ev virepfSaLvei toLs €lko(tl X'^'" 
dSas. HevTi xiXidSes k^ avTwv 


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raloL ovTOL, Kairot iroXvTrXrjde- 
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Ta^^'Tepoi' ^ot k^LTaXicrdiacri, 
SioTt 6 (rL8y]p68po/jLOS elcre/SaXev 
tJSi^ els TYjv \(j)pav TOiV. 

To KaKov elvai OTt ovScfxiav 
(TvyKOLV tov tav ex^vcrtv ovtol 
fxerd tt]"? *EAAa8o5, ovSe o^ttov- 
Sa^OVCrt TTOQ-WS t^v 'EAAvptK^v 
yAwo-o-aV ypdcf)0VT€<s 8c irpos 
dXXiljXovs fxeTaxetpL^ovTai rovs 
AaTLVLKOvs xapaKTTJpas' tovto 

Greek settlers in southern Italy, 
living as they did in their own 
villages and in out-of-the-way 
parts, and not holding continual 
intercourse with the native 
inhabitants, and not intermarry- 
ing with them, managed with 
less difficulty to preserve in some 
measure the language of their 
fathers up to the present time. 

I fear however that in the 
future it will be difficult for 
them to do this, for communi- 
cation by railways, which has 
revolutionised everything, will 
also have its effect upon them, 
and will soon amalgamate them 
with the surrounding inhabi- 
tants. Do you know what 
their total population is now ? 

Mr. Tozer, who visited their 
villages in the autumn of 1887, 
says that their whole population 
does not exceed twenty thousand. 
Five thousand of them live in 
Calabria and fifteen thousand in 
the province of Otranto. The 
latter, though more numerous 
than those in Calabria, will 
perhaps be sooner Italianised, 
because the railway has already 
invaded their country. 

The worst is that they have 
no communication with Greece, 
and they do not at all study the 
Greek language, and in writing 
to each other use the Latin 
characters, a benefaction for 
which they are indebted to the 




Se TO evepyeTrjfjia o</)etAeTai ets 
rrjv '^FoifJLa'iKrjv €KKXr](riav, tJtls 
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c7re/3aAev els avTovs rrjv ^prjariv 
tQ>v AariviKQ>v ypapLfidrMV dvn 
Twv ^^XXrjVLKU)v dnva iiereyet- 
pi^ovro p^^xpi' TMV dpxMV rov 
irapovTOS aliovos. 01 Kara rov 
IE' Kol IS' alcova KaTacfivyov- 
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"EWyjves /xeravacTTat 'i^aipov 
eKKXrjcTTacrTLKd nva 7rpov6/xia 
Trapa^oiprjdkvra avrols vtto twv 
Kara Katpovs /SacnXecov Kal 
Kv^epyqcreoyv Trj<s NeaTroAews • 
rd TrpovofJLLa o/xw? ravra, 8l' S)V 

7rpO€(TTaT€V€TO Y] TC OpY](TK€La KOi 

^ yAwcrcra twv *EAA?yv(ov /xera- 
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eTrerpeTrero TrXeov els avrovs vd 
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'IraXovs lepiofxevovs rrjs 'Pw- 
fia'iKrjs (KKXtjCTLas TcXovvras 
TTOcras rots lepoTeXea-Tias els 
AaTLVbKrjv yXtoGTcrav' ovroi 8e 
aTTwAecrav r^v TrtVrtv rwv 
Trarepiov tcdv, kol rj yAwcro-a 
avrwv 8Le<f)ddpr] els tolovtov 
(3aOix6vy axTTe rj reXeia avrrjs 
€^acf>dvi(TLS eivat [xovov ^^Trj/xa 

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TO) TeTpa8L(j) vfJiQv diroa-irdcrixara 
el8ov OTi fiera^v avTiov virdp- 
Xova-L KOL ovK oXiya rpayov8ia 


fJiea-rjfjiPpivrjs 'IraAtas* TToOev to, 
dvTeypdxj/are ; 

Ttm p.ev €K rr\s d^ioXoyov 

Churcli of Rome, which, actuated 
by maternal affection, imposed 
upon them the employment of 
the Latin instead of the Greek 
letters which they used up to the 
beginning of the present century. 
The Greek emigrants who took 
refuge in southern Italy in the 
15th and 16th centuries enjoyed 
certain ecclesiastical privileges 
granted them by the kings and 
governments for the time being of 
Naples ; but these privileges, by 
which both the religion and the 
language of the Greek emigrants 
were protected, were gradually 
abolished little by little, and 
they were no longer permitted 
to invite priests from Greece, but 
were compelled to have Italian 
ministers belonging to the 
Roman Church, who performed 
all the religious ceremonies in 
the Latin language. They thus 
lost the faith of their fathers, 
and their language has been 
corrupted to such a degree that 
its complete disappearance is 
only a question of time. 

The day before yesterday, 
when I was looking over the 
extracts in your note -book, I 
saw that among them there are 
several songs of these Greeks of 
southern Italy. AVhere did you 
copy them from ? 

Some from the excellent 




(TvWoyrj's ^ r'yv 6 (TOcf>b<; KaOrjyrj- 

Tlp AofXrjViKO'i KofJL7raf)€TT1]<i 

€8r][xo(Ti€V(T€V €V Ili(ry Kara rh 

€TO<i 1866, aAAa 8c €K TYjS 

7rpoX€xO€tcry]<s tt pay fxare tas rov 
Kvpiov To^€/). 'Ek tt}? reXiv- 
Tatas TavTip^ ayTkypaxf/a koI 
r^]V 'AyyXiKrjv /xera^/aacrtv, 
wfTTC avev ttoXXov kottov Svva- 
fx^da va €Vvorj(riofxev to. 8v(Tv6r]Ta 
ravra TpayovSia. Ai €^y]S T/oeis 
crTpo(f)al €ivaL elXrjjjifjievat €K t?)s 
(TvXXoyrjs Tov KofiTrapcTTT] ' 
€L(tI 8e y^ypafxpikvat ^lttms, 
8y]XaS^] 8i' ^EAAt^vikwv Kal 
AanvLKiov xapaKTijpiDV ' Sto, 
Twv TcXevraiiDV irapio-raTai ^ 
TrpO(fiopa Twv Ae^ewv ws €)(€t 
vuK 'AvT€ypaxpa los /^AeTrere 

Kttt T7)v 'IraAtKl)!^ pATd<fipa(TLV 

TOV Kopi7rap€TTrj, rjrts /xeyaAws 
fSot^Oet €ts T-^v oiKpi/Srj Kard- 
Xiy^j/iv TOV TpayovSiov tovtov 
Tiov KaTotKOiv TV/9 cv KaXa/:ipt<^ 

""HAto TTov yia oAo to Koa-p-o 


'Att' to levanti ^s t^ ponenti 


'EK6IV17 TTOV 'yaTTaw cyo) ai/ <ri) 

Tt) ^(0/37^ 

Xat/0€Ta juou t>; Kai /8/d€ av crov 


*Av €Keivr] ytoL */xeva (t' ipiOT-qcrrj 

'He Try Vt cyw patcvw ttoAAo, 

"Av €K€ivr} TTOv Sk (t' epioTrja-y 

collection which the learned 
Professor Domenico Comparetti^ 
published at Pisa in the year 
1866, others from the paper 
of Mr. Tozer that I mentioned. 
From the latter I have also 
copied the English translation, 
so that we shall be able without 
much trouble to understand 
these difficult songs. The fol- 
lowing three stanzas are taken 
from Comparetti's collection : 
they are written in two ways, 
that is, in Greek and in Roman 
characters : by the latter the 
pronunciation of the words, as 
it is now, is represented. I 
copied also, as you see, Com- 
paretti's Italian translation, 
which is of great use for the 
accurate comprehension of this 
song of the inhabitants of P>ova 
in Calabria. 

" Ilio pu ja olo to cosmo parpati. 

An do levanti 'sto ponenti pai, 

Ecini pu gapao ego essu ti ghori, 

leretamuti ce vre a su jelai. 

An ecini ja 'mmena s' arotisi 
Peti ti ego pateguo podda guai ; 

An ecini pu de s' arotisi 

^ Saggi dei dialetti Greci del Italia meridionale, raccolti ed illustrati da 
Domenico Comparetti. Pisa, 1866. 

^ This distinguished Italian scholar, so well known for his extensive 
erudition, was lately raised to the rank of a senator. 



Consulamento va jxr} exy mai. Consulamento iia mi echi mai. 

0, Sun, who wanderest over all 
the world, 
who goest from the east to the 
if you see her whom I love, 
greet her from me and see if she 
smiles at thee. 
If she asks thee about me, 
tell her that I suffer many woes ; 
but if she never asks you, 
may she never have comfort ! 

'Kv TO TTLcrTevii) 'tl 
Manco 'n Kavec 

fM dXrj- 



Malucrianza dir' i/xe ev 7]vpe mai 

Manco Sev rjvp€ fitav d)(^apo 


M.OV dispiacevet Vt patevet guai, 

Me TO yepo ^ KepSaivec vtto- 

XovSp la 

Kai oAo Tovvo TO spasso dX-q- 


Tot suspiria ' VTaacrevovv rd 

I do not believe that you will 

forget me, 

nor yet that you exercise this 

tyranny ; 

you never met with rudeness 

from me 

nor yet any ungracious act. 

Sole che per tutto il mondo 


Da levante a ponente vai, 

Quella che amo io se la vedi 
Salutamela e vedi se ti ride ; 

Se quella per me ti domanda, 
Dille che io soffro molti guai ; 
Se quella non ti domanda, 
Consolazione non abbia mai. 

En do pisteguo ti me addis- 


Manco ti canni tundi tirannia, 

Malucrianza a ze me en ivre mai 

Manco den ivre mian acharo 


Mu dispiacegui ti pategui gviai ; 

Me tu jeru jendonni apocondria 

Ce olo tundo spasso addismonai, 

Ta suspiria (a)ntasseguo ta dichia. 

Non Io credo che mi dimenti- 


Neanche che fai questa tirannia, 

Malacreanza di me non vedesti 

mai cattiva 

I do not like you to suffer woes, 

with old age you will acquire 


^ fik rb y^po should probably be /u.^ to Kaipo. 


Neanche vedesti 


Mi dispiace che soffri guai, 

Colla vecchiaja acquisti malin- 



and will forget all this sport. 
Sighs burst open walls. 


E tutto questo spasso dimenti- 


I sospiri schiantano le mura. . 

Tt o-wKa/xav eyo) koI €v fiov 

platevet / 

GeAo) vol fiov V^ yta tl Sev /xe 

Kat senza tittotc €(tv /a' abban- 

Ma €v TO cuT€V(D VOL patcixrw 


Kdfxe TTWS deXiL Vt 8ev /xov 


Kai yia t^ i^^Xl ''"^^ ^^ 'yaTraet 

Fta TTOcro rr) Kavy oAa support- 


If I but knew why you do not 
love me, 
what I have done to you that 
you do not speak to me ! 
I wish you would tell me why 
you do not love me 
and without any cause abandon 
But I make no account of suffer- 
ing woes, 
do as you will, for it is of no 
moment to me ; 
and as to the one who loves 
whatever you do to him, he 
bears it all." 

Ta €^r}s TpayovSia eivai t(uv 
EAA.7^vo^(ova)i/ KaroLKCDV rrjs 
€7rap^La<5 tov 'OrpavTOV dvT€- 
ypaxpa 6e avrd, ws ilirov Vfxlv 
Trpo oXiyoVj €K rijs Trpay/xaretas 

An izzera jati demme gapai 

Ti socama n'ego ce en mu 

plategui ! 

Thelo na mupi jati demme 


Ce senza tipote esu m' abban- 


Ma endi cureguo na patezo guai, 

Came po theli ti den mumpor- 


Ce ja tin zichi pu se gapai 

Ja posso ti canni ola support- 


Sapessi perchfe non mi ami, 

Che ti ho fatto che non mi 

parli ! 

Voglio tu mi dica perchfe non 

mi ami 

E senza niente (senza cagione) mi 


Ma non euro di soffrir guai. 

Fa come vuoi, chfe non m' im- 

porta ; 

E per r anima che ti ama 

Per quanto gli fai tutto 8up- 

The following are songs of 
the Greek-speaking inhabitant* 
of the province of Otranto : I 
copied them, as I told you a 
little while ago, from the paper 




TOV KvpLOV To^ep, OCTTiS icTTa- 
\voX6yrj(r€V avra €k rrjs d^uo- 
Xoyov (TvXkoyrjs tov KaB-qy-qrov 
Mopocrr] kK^oddo-qs Kara to 
'iros 1870 iv A-qKKTj. To rpa- 
yov^iov TOVTO OTrep jxeWofxev v 
dvayv(jdG-o)fxev T(opa eTvat Xiav 
TraSrjTLKOV. M.7JTr)p 6Xo<fivpo- 
jjL€vrj a-vvSiaXeyeraL //-era Trjs 
aTrodavovcrrjs avTrjs dvyarpos. 

by Mr. Tozer, who gleaned 
them from the excellent collec- 
tion of Professor Morosi pub- 
lished at Lecce in the year 1870. 
This song which we are now 
going to read is very pathetic. 
A lamenting mother is convers- 
ing with her departed daughter. 

'^"Apre 'ttov ere x^o-a', checcia 

T6S (TOV (TTp(x)VV€i O Kpo/3- 

jSaTaKi ; 
M.OV TO (TTpiavveL 6 fiavpo rdvaro 

yid pLid vv(f>Ta iroSSv fidXq. 
Tts a-ov <^Tia^€i a capetaAta 
vd 'rj vd TrXwa-T) rpv^ipd ; 

Mov TO, cfiTtd^ei 6 jxavpo rdvaro 
fx' d XiddpLa rd <j><Tripd. 

"E^ei vd jxe KXava-rj, checcia fxov, 
e'xefc vd fJL€ 'vofxaTLcry • 

'^ r abbesogna o-ov />t' ^o-cAe, 

Vo{5 *s TO petto /xov v' 
X-varepeSSa, )(var€p€B8a /xov, 

Tocrov ^pya yevo/xevr], 
Tt KapSta TTOV Kdv€L rj fxdva crov 

vet (T€ 'Sy d7r€(rafxfi€vrj ; 

Translation hy the Eev.H. F. Tozer. 

"Now that they have buried 

thee, my darling, 

who will make thy little bed ? " 

" My bed, dark death makes it 

for me, 

for a long, long night." 

" Who will arrange thy pillows, 

that thou mayst be able to sleep 


" Dark death arranges them for 


with the bare stones." 

"Thou must weep for me, my 


thou must call me by my 


in thy troubles thou wert wont 

to desire me, 

that thou mightst lean here 

upon my breast. 

My dear daughter, my dear 


that wert so beautifully formed ; 

what must thy mother's feelings 


at seeing thee dead ! 



Tts ecrea <fi(Tvvv^, \varipa fiov, 

fjLOTL rj rj/Jiepa €V d<fxT7]\.ij ; 
'Ktov Kaov € Travrav vttovvo 


T' ijav' cjprja tovy) ^varkpa fiov, 

fjLOTi jxov €^yr] 's TT) Cantata. 

Spiandurifave at colonne 

KOI deralampt^e oXrj rj 

To l^>}9 (^a-fiaTLov €Lvai 
*' Tra/oayyeAtat diroBvqcTKOVTOS 

""Ave 7r€(rdvii) re Aw vd jxe. 


escappeddata /xeo-a 's tt^v 


Kat (rvp€ TCL fiaSBia arov dcfxre 


KOL KovfJbf3a fjLOV ra irdvov 's 

TTj cfxrv^-q. 

Too"0 fxe 7r€pvovv€ '<s r^v a- 


KoAovo-a, dydirrj fxov, ere 


Kat fSXecfxre vd fiov vdfjxrov ra 


dvov *s TO 'vyjfia ttov \io vd 


Kai poi 's TO )(^p6vo 'TTifiov put 


KoX poi *s Tov 5vo Kaveva 


Kat T7)v rjpepa tws d7r€(Tapp.€vio 

invia /aov Va suspiro Kav/xivo. 

Who will wake thee, my daughter, 

when the day is high ? " 

" Here below there is evermore 


evermore murky night." 

"How beautiful was this my 


when she went forth to the high 

mass ! 

Then the columns gleamed, 

and all the street was filled with 


The following little song is 
"The dying Lover's Injunc- 

" Love, when I die, I will that 
thou l)ewail me 

Down in the court-yard with 
uncover'd head, 

And with the mantle of thy 
tresses veil me 

Over my heart in silken folds 

When to the holy Church my 
corpse they carry, 

I pray thee follow in the 
mourners' line. 

And o'er the grave, where thy 
true love they bury. 

See that the funeral tapers 
duly shine. 

When one year 's past let mass 
be celebrated, 

And after two years chant a 
litany ; 

And when the spirits are com- 

Breathe burning sighs in 
memory of me. 



Too-o TTOV oka Tova rd 'x^is 


voL(f)(Te TO 'vrjfxa k' 'ififSa €K€l 

jxa /xeva." 

To €^rj<s eTvai (TV/xISovXr) el's 
irpoTidefxevov^ va vvjx^evdQxri 

'' ' AKairrja-o, OLKaTr-qoro, a rkXrj 

v' OLKairrja-rj, 

fia xvarepeddsL '<fxr' etKoa-L 


""Av €xy eiKocmrevre, firj TeX-qa-y, 

Ves T17 Vt e Staf^rjfxevo to 

Kaipo ' 

*A, reXrj irLaKy 6 p68o va fJLvpicrr), 

w > 

(TVp€ TO flOT €V r]/JLL(r 


When these kind offices accom- 
plished are, 

Open the tomb and come my 
grave to share." 

The following is " Advice to 
young Men intending to Marry." 

" If you would wed, then choose 

A maid of twenty years : 

At twenty-five, refuse, 
Say she too old appears : 

Half-blown he culls the rose, 

"Who for its fragrance cares." 

To e^-^s Sirj-yrjixdriov eTvac els 
TTC^ov Aoyov /cat 6fxoid(ei ttoXv 
fxe rr]v ev 2a/xa) Srjjxrjyopiav rov 


" Mta <fiopa. eL)(€ fxia ywatKa, 
TTOV TrdvTa eTrpaydXei ro Teo 
va 6 p^a CTTacry KaXo. Kai" 
avrpcoTTOL etTrave 's rb prja 
TOVTo irpa/JLaj Kat o prja ttjv 
€<f)(ova(re Kat t^ fxarrjcre yiarl 
eirpaydXei rocro yta cravTO. Kat 
Kecvrj ervre, ' 'E/^w irpayaXo) ro 
Teo va /xeivYjs vyto vravTa, ytaTt 
ecrv fids escoTcevcre, Kat a ire- 
oraCvrj €(rv, epxerai ev addo ttov 
e^ei vd xopTMcrr) rrjv Treivd 
Tov! " 

'I80V Kat TrapoifJiiai Ttves ck 
Bovas rrjs K^aXafSptas €k tyJs 
crvXXoyrjs rov M-opocr-q p^erd rrjs 
fxeracfipdcredys tov To{e/3. 

The following little tale is in 
prose, and much resembles 
Aesop's speech in Samos. 

" There was once a woman who 
prayed to God continually that 
the king miglit keep in good 
health. Certain men reported 
this matter to the king, so the 
king summoned her and asked 
her why she prayed so much 
for him. And she said, ' I pray 
God that you may continue in 
life for ever, because you have 
flayed us, and, if you die, another 
will come who will have to 
satisfy his hunger.' " 

Here too are some proverbs 
from Bova in Calabria from 
Morosi's collection, with Mr. 
Tozer's translation. 




1. Atpl TTj TTOVpprjy 
K€VTa 's T^ flOV'/] ' 

Xcpl TTj ^paSia, 
Kivra 's Tr)v BovXeia. 

2. To, ^vka ra (rrpa/Sdy 
ToL Va^et TO lucisi. 

3. *0 o-Kijddo TTOv Bkv dAecTTaei 
SayKOLvet Kpv(}id. 

4. Tt Sev e'xet ({)ovppo Slkov tov, 
8c TO xopratvei to ^(Ofxi. 

5. Tts k<nrkpp€i *s to a/ayo, 
TpioycL ^opro, 8\v Kapiro. 

6. ^H yXuxra-a 'a-rea Sev €)(€l 
KOi 'area Kkdvei, 

2aj^€Tat Kafifiia l/c tovtwv 
Twv Tra/oot/xicov €V 'EAAaSt "i^ Iv 
TovpKL^ ; 

'Ektos tt]? Trp(iiTr]<i TTaa-ai at 
aAAat (TW^ovTai Kat Tra/aa TOts 
kv ^EAAaSt Kat TovpKiO. "EAAr^- 
(nv, aAA' €KTr€<fipa(TfX€vaL St 
dAAwv TavToa-qpusiv Ae^ecov • 
"^•X- V '^f^"^^ TrapoLfiLa €^€1 Trap' 
rjfiiv ws €^rjs ' 

"'H yAwo-o-a KOKKaAa 8kv 
e_Y€t Kat KOKKaAa (TTravei." 

^Y7rdp\€L KajJLfiia KaXrj Kat 
TrXrjprjs orvkkoyr) NeoeAAr^vtKcoi/ 
Trapoifiiiov ; 

MaAio-Ta, vTrdpx^L rj tov 
K. I. Bevt^eAov eKSoOelcra kv 
'AOy'jvats T(-^ 1846, Kat 17 tov 
n. ' ApafiavTLVov rvTrojBetara t^ 
1863 €V 'Iwavvtvots • TTt^avov 8k 
CKTOTC vd cyetyav Kat aAAat o^vA- 
Aoyat VTTodXXtDV^^XX'qvioVfTds 
oTTotas €yw Sev yviopi^io. *0 
'EAAt^vikos Aa5s ixerax^Lpi^iTai 
dvapLdixTjTovi TrapoifxiaSy rj 

A rainbow in the morning, 

hasten to your dwelling ; 

a rainbow in the evening, 

hasten to your work. 

Bent timbers 

are straightened by the fire. 

The dog that does not bark 

bites stealthily. 

If a man has no oven of his 

own, his bread does not satisfy 


He that sows nntilled land, 

will eat grass instead of corn. 

Though the tongue has no 

bones, it can break bones. 

Are any of these proverbs 
extant in Greece or in Turkey ? 

Except the first, all of them 
have been preserved both among 
the Greeks in Greece and among 
those in Turkey, but expressed 
ill other words with the same 
meaning ; e.g. the sixth proverb 
runs as follows with us : 

"The tongue has not bones 
and yet it breaks bones." 

Is there any good and com- 
plete collection of modern Greek 
proverbs ? 

Yes, there is the one by C. J. 
Venizelos published at Athens 
in 1846, and the one by P. Ara- 
vantinos published at Janina 
in 1863 ; and it is probable 
that since that time other col- 
lections liave been made by 
other Greeks, of which I have 
no knowledge. The Greek 
people make use of innumerable 



(TVva0poi(TL<5 Twv oTTOtiov Sev 
eivai evKoXov epyov. *Ev t(^ 
rpiTii) To/xo) rrjs IlavSwpas, 
TrepLoSiKOv d^LoXoyiOTOLTOv, eSrj- 
[X0(rL€v9rj(Tav ovk oAtyat ivapoi- 
fxtaL, as crvveXe^ev 6 TroXv/xaOrjS 
tar/DOS I. Ae KtyaAAas koI at 
oTTOtai 8ev virrjpxov iv rfj 
(rvXXoyfj Tov Bevt^eAoi'. 

'Y/xei? (OS "EXXtjv 6a ivOvfiet- 
(rOe /3€f3ai(jos TroAAots Trapoifitas 

€K TWV Iv KOLvfj )(^prj(r€L' fiol 

KOLfJLveTe rrjv X^P*-^ ^^ /^^^ eiTTT^Te 
Ttvas Ik twv crvvr]$€(rT€pii)V ; 
eyo) 8e da TrpocnraO-qo-it) va evpu) 


Ev^a/3lVTWS. 'A/COVO-ttTC Aoi- 
TTOV Ttva?. 

proverbs, the collection of which 
is not an easy task. In the 
third volume of the Pandora, 
a most excellent periodical, a 
good many proverbs have been 
published, which the learned 
physician I. de Cigallas collected, 
and which were not included in 
the collection of Venizelos. 

Asa Greek, you must certainly 
recollect many proverbs among 
those in ordinary use : will you 
do me the favour to repeat to 
me some of those which are more 
commonly employed '? And I 
will endeavour to find the corre- 
sponding English ones. 

With pleasure. Listen then 
to some of them. 

G7'eeJc Version 
KdXXto Tivre Kal 's 

TO X'^pi- 
Hapa 8^Ka Kal Kapr^pt. 

"Oirov \a\ovv voWol 
irereLVoi, dpyei va '^rj- 

01 iroWol Kapa^o- 
KvpaloL irpLyovai to 

' A7r6 duOpuirov <nravhv 
Tpixo. d^v ' fXTTopeh vci, 

'Els Trjv dva^poxtd, 
Ka\6 Kal t6 xaX'^i't. 

"OTav 7) ai)\-f) aov 8i.\pq, 

'0 ydhapos <hv6fia<xe 
Tbv ireTeivov K€<pdXa. 

Literal Translation 

Better five and ii 
the hand 
than ten and delay. 

English Equivalent 

A bird in the hand 
is worth two in the 

Where many cocksy 
crow, it delays to dawn. I 

I Too many cooks spoil 

Many commanders | the broth, 
sink the ship. J 

You cannot pull a You cannot get blood 

hair from (the chin of) out of a stone. 
a smooth-faced man. 

In drought even hail Half a loaf is better 

is good. than no bread. 

When your court- Charity begins at 

yard is dry, do not home, 
throw water outside. 

The donkey called The pot called the 

the cock big-head. kettle black. 




"Ottoios Kvvrryg. ttoX- Whoever chases Jack • of - all - trades 
\oi)s Xayoiis Kaviva 5kv many hares does not and master of none. 
mdveu catch one. 

TSiKoyop 'trod cov Do not look at the 

Xapi^ovv els ra 86uTia teeth of the horse that 

fXTjy rb ^Xivys. they make you a 
present of. 

Too Ti.dvvr} dCjpov They gave a present 

ToOduKuv to John and he found 

Ki' avrbs /JLTTOfiiraTs fault with it. 
ToO evpKTKe. 

Do not look a gift- 
horse in the mouth. 

U^Tpa 'ttoD KvXdei 
defx^Xio d^v iridveL. 

A stone that rolls A rolling stone 
does not acquire firm- gathers no moss. 

'0 aKvXos 'ttoO yavyi- 
fet d^y bayKavei. 

*H irairat iravai, fj 

'Mdrta 'ttoO 5kv <f)al- 
poprai yX-qyopa XrjcrfMO- 

'Apyvpb rb '/uUXTjfxa 
Xpvab rb aniiira. 

"Ottoios ^ret Tbv oipa- 
vbv <pT€t TO. /xovrpd rov. 

The dog that barks 
does not bite. 

His bark is worse 
than his bite. 

Let a priest be a Let the cobbler stick 
priest, and a plough- to his last 
man a ploughman. 

The eyes which are Out of sight, out of 
not seen are soon for- mind, 

Speech is silver, 
silence is gold. 

Speech is silver but 
silence is gold. 

Who spits at the Curses come home 
sky spits in his own to roost, 

Sr/)aj36s ^eXbvi y^peve 
IjActu 's rbv dxvpQva. 

KopaKas KopdKov 'fidrc 
d^v '^ydvei, 

A6s Tov poffKov ydXa. 

T6 alSepo irvpwixivo 

'"Eiva xfX'56j't dvoi^Lv 
5h (p^pvei. 

The blind man To look for a needle 
looked for a needle in in a bottle of hay. 
the hay-loft. 

A crow does not peck 
out a crow's eye. 

Give milk to the 


when hot 

One swallow does 
not bring spring. 

Hawks do not peck 
out hawks' eyes. 

To carry coals to 

Strike while the iron 
is hot. 

One swallow does 
not make a summer. 




T6 (TTafivi 'ttou Vdet 
crvxfo. 's TT] ^p{)<XL fua 
fiipa (Xirdvei. 

M^ fua pi\J/La 5vb ttou- 

\td XTJyTTTJO-e. 

The pitcher 
goes often to 



one day is 

With one throw he 
hit two birds. 

The pitcher that 
goes often to the well 
is broken at last. 

To kill two birds 
with one stone. 

Merot Tots TvapoLfJiLas KardX.- 
XrjXo<i vofJLL^oi 7rapov(rid^€Tai 
ets 17/xas evKaipia va eLTTiD/xev 
oXiya TLva kol Trepl alvty- 
fidroiv. Jlapa rots ap;(atots 
"EXXyjcTi, ws Aeyet 6 'Ad-qvatos, 
at Trepl alvtyfJidTiov crv^rjT'qar eis 
8ev WeojpovvTo aXXorptai <f>LXo- 
cro^i'as' (TwelOi^ov Se vot tt/oo- 
fSdXXoionv avrd Trapd tovs tto- 
Tovs '^Tr)V TTJs TratScias cxTroSet^tv 
€V rovTOL<s TroiOV/xevoL." 

*H Trporacrts vfiQv elvai KaXrj 
Kttt aTro^kyoixai avTrjv evyapi- 
(TTWS' e^w 8e ovyjL €VKara(jip6- 
v-qrov crvXXoyrjv atvcy/xartov, 
dpxatiov T€ Kal vewre/jcov, kol 
Svvd/xeOa vd 8l€X0o)jjl€V nva k^ 
avTcov. Kat TrpQtrov fiev as 
a/o^iorw/^ev €k twv dp^aiiiiv. *0 
'A(rKXr]7ndSrj'^ Trap 'AOrjvaiiJi 
Aeyet ort to t>Js S^tyyos 
atVty/ia cr^ev ws e^^s* 

""Ecrrt Slttovv ctti y^ys /<at rerpd- 
TTov, ov fica cjidivrj, 

Kat TptTTOV, dXXd(T(T€L 8e ^VT^V 

/>tovoi/, ocro-' €7rt yatav 

'E/)7r€Ta Kivetrat ava t' aWkpa, 

KOL Kara ttovtov. 

AAA,* OTTorav 7rAei(XT0t(rtv epet- 

8o/A€Vov TTOcrt f^aivrj, 

After the proverbs, I think a 
good opportunity presents itself 
for us to say a few words also 
about riddles. Among the an- 
cient Greeks, as Athenaeus says, 
discussions about riddles were 
not regarded as foreign to 
philosophy ; and they were 
accustomed to propound them 
at their drinking-parties, " mak- 
ing in them a display of their 

Your proposal is a good one, 
and I accept it with pleasure. 
I have a by no means despicable 
collection of riddles, both ancient 
and modern, and we can go 
through some of them. And 
let us first begin with the 
ancient ones. In Athenaeus, 
Asclepiades . says that the riddle 
of the Sphinx was as follows : 

" There is on the earth an animal 
two-footed and four-footed, but 
it has one voice ; it is also three- 
footed, and the only one that 
changes its nature of all the 

that move upon the earth and 
in the air and in the sea, 
but whenever it goes supported 
on most feet, 




"Evda Toixos yvLouTLv d(f>avp6- 

TUTOV TTtAet avTov." ^ 

To atVLy/xa rovro Ty]<s 2</)6yyos 

(f>€p€TaL irapa tols dp)(aLOL<s Kal 

els Tre^hv Aoyov Kara Stacjiopovs 

rpoTTOvs' dW as fxera^Cjfiev 

y)8rj els rbv *AvTL(j>dvqv octtls 

TTOULTrjV ^a'7r(f>o} Trpo/3dXXov(Tav 

alviyixara. i) w? ovo/xd^et avrd 6 

'AOy]vaios ypLcf>ovs' 

""Eo-Tt <j)V(TLS O'qXcLa I3p€(f>r] 

ccu^ovo"' VTrb koXttols 

AvTTjS. "Ovra 8' d(f)(j}va fSorjv 

la-TTja-L yeyiovov, 

Kttl Slot TTOVTLOV OlS/Aa Kttt 

'QTreipov Sid TrdcrrjS, 

Ots WiXet dv-qrcov' tols 8' ov 

wapeovcTLV (XKovetv 

"E^€(rTll/* KdxfirjV 8* dKOTJs 

ata-Brfcriv €)(ov(tlv." 

Ti alvLO-a-erai 6 ypL<^os ovtos 
8\\> kvvoia ' 8vva(r0€ v/xeis vd fxoi 

€L77r]T€ TTiOS eTTlAueTttt / 

"^Av Xd/37]T€ 6Xiyr)v VTTO/Movrjv 
avTYj rj 2a7r^a) ^a kiriXvcrri 
avTov els vfids i/JL/xcTpcos' irplv 
6/x(j}S yeivrj rovTO dKova-are ttws 
eTTcXvcrev avrov €k twv dp^atiav 


"'H fxev (fivcTLS yap rjv Aeyeis, 
ccttIv ttoXls ' 

Bp€(f)r) S' iv aVTYj Tp€(f>€L TOVS 

OvToi KCKpayoTcs Se rd 8ia- 


TaK Trjs 'A(7ta9 Kat aTTo Op^K-qs 


EAkovo-i 8€vpo. ^cfiofJiiViov 8e 


then its speed with its limbe is 

most feeble." 

This riddle of the Sphinx is 
mentioned among the ancients 
also in prose, in various fashions ; 
but let us now go to Antiphanes 
who represents Sappho pro- 
pounding riddles, or ypi<f)Oi as 
Athenaeus calls them : 

"There is a female creature, 

keeping children under its bosom. 

Though dumb they send a loud 


over the swell of the sea and 

over every continent 

to any of mortals that they wish : 

it is not possible for those present 

to hear, but they have their 

sense of hearing deaf." 

I do not understand what 
mystery this riddle conveys : can 
you tell me how it is solved ? 

If you will have a little 
patience, Sappho herself "will 
solve it for you in verse ; but 
before this takes place, hear how 
one of the ancients solved it in 
a rather comical manner : 
" The creature that you mention 
is a state : 

she fosters children in her, the 

These, by their shouts, the trans- 

revenues from Asia and from 

draw hither. While they are 

^ Atheuaeus, x. 




AvTWV KaOrjTai Xoi8opovfX€V(ov 
T aet 
*0 Syj/Jios, ovSev ovV aKoviov 
ova opoiv. 
'AKovcraara ttjv Xvctlv ravriqv 
rj ^aTTcfiO) dva(f>(ji)V€L' 
" IIws yevotr' av, u> Trdrcp, 
^FrJTiop a^wvos, i^v fir) dAw rpls 
Trapavopniiv /'* 

"ETretra kiriXvei rov ypi<^ov 


*' Si^Acia /xev vvv eo-rt (f>v(Ti<s 

iTTLcrroX'q ' 

^pe<f>rj S' €V cLvrfj irepK^kpei rd 

ypd/x/xara ' 

"A<f)(ii)va 8' oVrtt ravra rot? 

TToppo) AaAet, 

Oh ^ovXeO' ' eVe/oos 8' dv rvxy 

TfcS TtXtjO-LOV 

'Eo-Tws dvaytvwcTKOVTos ovk 
aKovcrcTat. ^ 

Ev^veo-raros ypL<po<s ' 6<f)€L- 
Xofxev 81 irXeL(rrr)v evyviofxo- 
crvvrfv els rr]v TroLYjTpiav 2a7r<^a) 
OTt fids dirrfXXa^e rov kottov 
rrfs Avcrews avTov. 

AiKaiorepov etvai vofii^d) vd 
€K(^pd(T(Mfi€.v rrfv evyvoifxocrvvrjv 
rffidv els rov 'AvTicjidvrfVj Slotl 
eK€iVos 'rJTO 6 TToirfo-as rov re 
ypi<pov KOL TTjv Xvctlv avTov. 

Tiopa ds dvayv(0(ro}fiev Kat 
TLva alvLyfiara ttJs NeoeAAi^vt- 
Krjs (fiiXoXoyias, Slotl avrd fioL 
€v8La(f)€pov(TL TrepLcra-oTepov. 

Uplv fiera/SiofLev els ravra 
eTTLrpexpare fioL v' dvayviixro) 
vfiLV /cat TO e^yjs oirep dvreypaxpa 
eK rov 'KBrfvaLov ocrrLS XeyeL' 

and for ever abusing, near them 
is seated 

the populace which neither hears 
nor sees anything." 

On hearing this solution 
Sappho exclaims : 
" How can an orator, father, 
be reduced to silence, unless 
he has been thrice convicted 
of illegal acts ? " 

Then she solves the riddle 
" The female creature is a letter : 

she carries children about in 

her, the characters : 

though dumb they speak to 

those far away, 

to whomever they wish : if 

another happen to be standing 

near to him who reads it, he will 

not hear." 

A very clever riddle ; and we 
owe the greatest gratitude to the 
poetess Sappho for saving us the 
trouble of its solution. 

I think it is more just to 
express our gratitude to Anti- 
phanes, for it was he who com- 
posed both the riddle and its 

Now let us read also some 
riddles which belong to modern 
Greek literature, for these 
interest me more. 

Before we go to these, let me 
read to you also the following 
which I copied from Athenaeus 
who says : " Euripides appears 

^ Atheuaeus, x. 72. 



Tr]V eyy pdfJifxaTov iotKC TroLrjaaL 
prjcTLu, Borrjp 8' iarlv aypdjx- 
fiaros avTO^i, Cr^Awi/ Tovvofia 
Tov Gryfrews iTrtyeypaix/xivov, 


*'Eya) Tr€(f)VKa y/oa/x/xarwv p.€V 

OVK t8/3t9, 

Mop^a? §€ Ae^w Ktt6 (ra<firj 


fierpovfxevos ' 

OvT05 8' €\ei (rr)fi€Lov kv p^(Ti^ 


To SevTcpov 8c TT/owra /xev ypo.P'- 

p.a\ 5vo, 

Tavra? SLCtpyei S' iv fiea-at'S 

aAAr^ /xta. 

T/DtTov §€ /Socrrpvxos rts ws 


To 8' av rkraprov 'qv pXv eis 
opdov fiia, 

Ao^al 8' €7r' aVTT/S T/3€t§ KttT- 


WiiTLV. To Tre/XTTTOV 8' 07;K €1/ 

evfxapei (fipa.(raL' 

Tpafifxal yap elcnv Ik 8t€(rTioT0)V 


Avrai 8e (Tvvrpkypva-iv eh p^tav 


To XoLcrdLov 8\ T<^ rpLTO) Trpocr- 

€fJi<fi€p€S.' " ^ 

' Ottws €vvo>^cry Tts KaAws rqv 
Trepiypacf>r)v tov evcftvovs /3ov- 
KoXov TrpeTTCL va Xd/Sy vtt' o^et 
OTt ets TOV Katpov tov Ev/oittiSov 
Ta 61/ )(^p->^G-€L ypdpfiaTa '^(rav to, 
Kc^aAaia, wcTTe to ovofia tov 
AOrjvaiov rjpwos iypd<f)€TO totc 

to have composed in his Tlieseus 

a passage descriptive of written 

characters. There is in it a 

herdsman who cannot read, who 

describes the name of Theseus on 

an inscription thus : 

' I am not skilled in written 


but I will tell you their forms 

and clear indications. 

A circle as if measured by the 

compasses : 

this has a clear mark in the 


The second is first two lines, 

then another one between them 

keeps them apart 

The third is like a twisted curl. 

The fourth again was one line 


and crosswise upon it three 

firmly fixed 

are there. Now the fifth is not 

easy to explain, 

for there are two lines from 

separate points, 

and these meet upon one base. 

The last is like the third.' " 

In order that one may well 
understand the clever herdsman's 
description, one must keep in 
view that in the time of Euri- 
pides the letters in use were 
capitals, so that the name of the 
Athenian hero was at that time 
written thus : thkseu& 

^ Athenaeus, x. 80. 




Katpos T(opa va /iera^w/xev 
€K T(ov ap\a'nDV €19 TO, alvL-y/JLara 
Trj<s (Trjfi€pLvrj<s ^KXXrjVLKrjs. 

Evxct/oto-rtos, fxera ttJs (Tvpu- 
<f)(avia<s oficos va itpocnra6rj(Tr]Te 
v/Jb€ts va €vpr]T€ TTjv Xvcruv 

*Eav o/>t(os Sev SvvrjOoi va ra 
€7rLX,v(T0i 6a e>((o va vttoctt^ 
TLfioypiav Tivd; Slotl ws el^evpere 
ol ap^aioi els tovs /xt) 8vva- 
fievovs va cTrtAvwo-t to, Trpo- 
fiaXXofMeva els avrovs alviyfxaTa 
€7r€/3aXXov TTOLvrjv ov)(l evdpe- 
(TTOV dv€jXLyvvov Tov oTvov 
avrCiV fied' dXfxrj'S /cat 'qvdy- 
Ka^ov avTOvs va iriiodiv oXov to 

€jX7r€pLe)(0fJL€V0V TOV TTOTrjpLOV 


Ml) cfiofSeia-Oe otl 6d 7rd6r)T€ 
roiovTov Tt Trap' kjxov^ Slotl lyo) 
ov fjiovov Sev da a-ds dvayKocro) 
va TTL-qTe otvov dXfxvpov idv 8ev 
Xva-rjTe ra alvly/xaTa, dXXd da 
eras 8(0(7(1) Kal ^Lopiav va fxoL 

€LTrY]T€ T-qV XvdLV €LS TO TcAoS 

TOV Ta^€ lSlov fias. 

'Ytto to lOVTOvs opovs 8e)(^ofxaL 
7rpo6vfJi(os Kal d(fi6^(i)<s v' aKovcrd) 
TO, at vty/xara • dvayLV(i>(TK€Te 
XoLTTov Kal fxrj f3pa8vv€Te. 

*Y/xets 8c Trpoa-ex^Te oVcos 
evprjTe to VTroKpvTTTOfievov. 


Et/A dxpV^OV, €LfX d(f)(OVOV' 

'AX)C dfjia (TV d(.Xrj(T'QS^ 
^(jivrjv Kal yovLfioTrjTa 

Mot XO/0>?7€tS €7rL(Tr]S. 

It is now time for us to go 
from the ancient to the modern 
Greek riddles. 

With pleasure, but on the 
understanding that you are to 
endeavour to find the solution 
of them. 

But if I am unable to solve 
them, shall I have to undergo 
any penalty ? For, as you know, 
the ancients used to impose upon 
those who were unable to solve 
the riddles propounded to them 
a punishment not at all pleasant : 
they mixed their wine with salt 
water and compelled them to 
drink the whole contents of the 
cup at a draught. 

Do not be afraid that you 
will suffer any such infliction 
from me, for I will not only not 
compel you to drink salt wine 
if you do not solve the riddles, 
but I will even allow you time to 
tell me the solution up to the 
end of our journey. 

On these terms I willingly 
and fearlessly agree to hear the 
riddles : read them then to me 
and do not lose any time. 

And you give your mind to 
discover what is hidden. 


I am lifeless, I am dumb, 
but as soon as you wish, 
voice and fecundity 
you equally afford me. 

^ The answers to these riddles are given in Appendix III. 




Kat Ta)(VTepov<s fSeXovs 

*EK7re/x7ra) tovs cK-ydvov? fxov 

KaTacrTpo<f>rjs dyyekovs. 

AvTOl fXOI) Se ol €KyOVOL 

*Av Kal 'Slkol fiov yovoL 
*AAA' o/iws airof^aivovdi 
IIoAAaKts iraTpoKTovoi' 

'Aoparos, ciepio? 

*0 aypLos ro)v 8/od/xo?. 
Fiiv' rj TTVO-q jxov Odvaros 

Kat rj cf>o)VQ /J.OV rpofxos. 

Ata<^O/0ov TO fieyedos 
Trjv dvvafXLV to a-^^rffxa^ 

IIoAAwv dvOpcoTTiov dvoL^a 
'Attoi'-qtI to /JLvyj/Jia. 

*Eai' fX€ ^e^LorrjTa 

Me K6\l/rj<^ €K Trj<s fx€crr]s, 
llvp Kal yaAKov TrapdyovcTiV 

At Svo 8Laipeo-€i<s. 

Kal dv TOVS Svo TToAovs fiov 

^FjV(o(rrj<s eh €v oAov, 
llapdSo^ov, 77\r)v dX-qdh, 

Fevvw TO!/ €va ttoAov. 
(n.av8iJL>pas TOfx. A (T. 484.) 


Ilotov ef/xat to yvwpt^ets* 
Tt, iTTLO-rjs TO el^cvpcLs. 

Ottov pt^jjs €1/ (Tov ^Ac/x/xa 
Et'vai evKoAov I'd /x' evpyz. 

dk.vo (jiiXoi dSeXcfiOL fiov 

^VfJL(f>(DVOVV, TOt o-v/A^tjSa^ovv, 
Kat et's Tot? ai'Aots tcov ^evwv 

K.ddr]VTaL Kat fxe cfxavd^ovv. 

I give birth to my mother, 
and swifter than a dart 
are my offspring I send forth, 
emissaries of destruction. 

My very children 

though they are my own offspring 

yet they become 

often parricides : 

invisible, aerial 
is their wild course. 
My breath is death 
and my voice terror. 

Differing in size 

in power and in form, 

of many men I have opened 

without trouble the tomb. 

If with dexterity 
you cut me in half, 
fire and copper 
the two halves produce. 

And if my two extremities 
you join in one whole, 
marvellous but true 
I form one end. 

{Pandora, vol. i. p. 484.) 

Who I am you are aware ; 
what too you equally know. 
Wherever you cast a single glance, 
it is easy for you to find me. 

Two dear brothers of mine are 
in harmony, agree in their affairs, 
and in the halls of strangers 
sit down and call me. 



M€ Toi'S evXafSeis fx aKOvovv 
Kat fik fiXkirovcTi Kvpiios' 

M' cvepyerrjv ttXtjv Kavkva 
Aei/ fxe /SXeirovcTL reAeiw?. 

EvayyeAta 6 M.dpKOS 
Kai 6 'Iwavi/Tys €^ow, 

K' €ts avra fx' olkovovv Trdvra 
"0(TOL dv$p(D7roL Trpoo-kyovv. 

Merot Sia/^oXojv rpk^ia 

Kai perd to)v fSpvKoXaKoyv, 

Kat (f)(i)vd^ui) TTOLOV €ip,ai 
'Atto TaKpa ToUv avXdKiov, 

Et«s rrjv KoXvpLJSijdpav pL€(ra 
M' dXXovs SeKa e^airrLcrOrjv, 

Me XptcTTtavbv Kavkva 
II(07roT€ Sei/ ecrx^TLO-Oyjv. 

^evyo) TrdvTore tovs vavras' 
Tovs vavdp)(^ov'S cf)LXovs e^^to* 

Ets TO, TrXoid Twv Sev e^at 
Me rets XepfSovs oAas Tpe^in. 

Tioiov etpai, ere to Aeyet 
'Fiv dpxy 6 FvpnTt8r)S. 

"HKOvcres ; UXrjv pLrj ^'qr'qa-YjS 
'Ev avTM KOL vd pie tSys. 

With the pious, people hear me 
and especially they see me ; 
but with any benefactor 
they see me not at all. 

Gospels Mark 

and John possess, 

and in these people always hear 

me as many men as pay attention. 

With devils I take my course 
and also along with ghosts, 
and I proclaim who I am 
from the edges of the channels. 

Inside the font, 

with ten others I was baptized, 
but with any Christian 
never had I ought to do. 

Sailors I alway shun : 
I have admirals for friends : 
I am not in their ships, 
with all boats I travel fast. 

What I am tells you 
in the beginning Euripides. 
Did you hear ? But do not seek 
in him to see me too. 

Av(TKoX€V€(TaL aKOpLTJ / 

"lS,pif3a vd ISfjs TTOV KGtpLaf 

K'i dv (jiO)vd^ri<s, "-(t' evpov cr' 


Ats 0' aKova-ys ttolov up^at. 

2. K. K. 

(IlavSw/aas to/x. A' o". 532.) 

Are you in difficulty still ? 

where I am go in to see ; 

and if you cry : " I have found 

you, I have found you," 

twice your ear will tell you what 

I am. S. C. C. 

{Pandora, vol. i. p. 532.) 

E'? Tot vwra Tri<5 OaXdcra-yjs 
*l(rTapL€vrj 8ev (raXevio, 


On the surface of the sea 
standing I do not move, 



IlXr]V fi€Ta tCjv 6ir\o<^6ptov 

UepirpiX^ Ta fSovva' 
Kat av fx€ d7roK€(fiaXi(Tys 

El's Thv "Okv/XTTOV t7nr€V(U, 

"Ottov v€os olvoxoos 

QeloV V€KTap fX€ K€pv^. 

(n.av8<x>pa<s TOfx. 6' (r. 368.) 

Et)aat €7riT/)07ro9 tov rjXtov 

CTTt Trj<s (r(fiaLpa<s rrjs vSpoyeiov 
Er/xat jxovdpxyjs kv6povL(T[ikvos, 
pX XapLTTpov (TTe/A/xa cnecfiavio- 
pikvos ' 

TviOpi.^U) TtXtJOoS T0)V pLV(TTlKO)V 



2;)(e8ov TO y^picrv Trj<s ^(orjs crov 
itpat 6 (^tAraros rrjs ^v\rj<i 


Kai /x' oAa ravra /xe Kara- 

6 Xl fie IS, 

p.' dyviopLoa-vvTjV /xe avT- 


M' oAoV TOr dpOVOV KOL Trjv 

(TToXrjv p,ov, 

TToXXaKiS TkpiV€LS TTjV K€(f)a- 

Xrjv pov. 
KaO' 6(T0v rkp^vcLS yevvdrai 
rj X^ip (TOV 8' avOL<s tyjv Kara- 
Ti (fiXoya Tpk(f)(i) els ttjv KapSiav 

Sid TocravTTjv dxaptxrriav ! 
At* o KOL rrjKopai kol \(JiV- 

»Kal KUT oXiyov diroveKpovpat, 
(TTkp.p.a TTtTTTCC TTph r(oV 
iro^iav px>v 

but with armed men 
I run about the hills ; 
and if you cut my head oflf 
I ride away to Olympus, 
where a young cup-bearer 
hands me divine nectar. 

{Pandora^ vol. ix. p. 368.) 


I take the place of the sun 
on the terraqueous globe ; 
I am a monarch enthroned, 
with a bright diadem crowned, 

I know a number of your secrete, 

I am the most trusted of your 

confidants ; 

for nearly half your life 

I am the closest friend of your 


And with all this you afflict me, 

with ingratitude you requite me. 

With all my throne and my 


often you cut off my head. 

As often as you cut it oflf, another 

is produced, 

your hand again destroys it 

What a flame I nourish in my 


for such thank lessness ! 

And for this I melt away and 


and in a little while I die ; 

my crown falls at my feet 


KOL tot' evpia-Kit) tov OdvaTov and then I meet my death. 


I. P. 'PayKa/?7Js J. R. Rangabes 

('Ek TTJs 'A7ro07JKr}<s Twv ox^eAt- (From the Magazine of Useful 
/xoDv yvwcrewv, to/a. B' cr. lOo). Knowledge, vol. ii. p. 100). 


Etyotat /xeo-a ets Tr)v 'P(6/>t7yv Kat o-vy;;(poy(us ets t?)v Kwv, 
SiaTpi/So) €is Mcopeav ti)i/ 'P(oo-(rtai/ KaTOCKWv. 

EtS TO Sw/Att (TOV (TV)(vd^(Ji}, €tS TOV Ot/COV orOV TTOTC. 

els TOV Tpd)(7]Xov Se/xevov fie KpaTovv at 7ro)Xy]TaL. 
'Eyu) d-^v^ov pikv etfxai kol ;((o/ots dvaTrvo'^v, 

ofxios et/xat dvayKalov els e/cao-TOV tyjv ^co-qv. 
Kat 6 tSios 6 epws d(f)avL^€T' ev TaT5T(^, 

av TO vTroKeLfievov /xov Sev VTrdp-^y ev avTM. 
Zw jxaKpdv (XTTo Tot SdcTT], irXrjv fxe ^<x>a KaTOfcKw* 

€is T7)v yrjv 7roT€ Sev €?/zat Kat fx' dvOpoyirovs (TVVOLKO). 
"Ottov rj 7rT(x))(0<5 r) yepiov, aSio-TaKTWs 7rpo;)(a)/)(3, 

av Se TrAowfcOS "^ veos, Trapevdvs dva)(^o)pio. 

ElS TOV KOCTfJLOV ScV /x' evpL(TK€LS oVoV Kttt ttV CTTOyacrByS' 

TrXrjv av T^vat <^(os /x€ /^AcTrets €is to fxe(Tov irapevOvs. 
Ets To{; KWVWTTOS TO (Tw/xa ev/3v>( 60/30)9 elcrx^bipi^^ 

€V0> et/xat Too"ov fxeya, c^ctt' ov8' ets to 7rav ;)(wpa>. 
Tt aKOfXT] Sev fx' evpiarKeis ; Tt dKOfxr) diropeis ; 

ets TO (TTpw[Jid crov vd fx' evpys X^P'''^ kottov ei/x7ropets. 
II(os €69 CKO-Tacnv Tocravrrjv, dvayvioa-Ta, ae kivw; 

€19 Tryv yA(oo-(Tav o^ov Ittccvw attovt{09 Tpiyvpvo). 

I. P. '^FayKa/S-rj's 
('Ek t^9 'ATTodi^K'qs Tc3v a>^eAt)a(ov yv(ocr€cov, t6/x. A' o". 128). 


I am in Rome and at the same time in Cos. 

I reside in the Morea while I inhabit Muscovy. 

I am often on your roof but never in your dwelling. 

Fastened to their neck shopkeepers hold me. 

I am without life and without breath 

but I am necessary to the soul of all ; 

and love itself in a moment disappears 

if my substance be not in it. 

^ A very slight freedom of translation has adapted this riddle to the 
English language. 




I live away from thickets but with their occupants I dwell. 
I am never on the earth but with mortals still I live. 
I present myself freely where the poor are and the old, 
but if a rich man or a lad be there I quickly go away. 
You do not find me in the universe, however much you think : 
but if there be a glow of light, you straightway find me in its 

I enter the mosquito's body and have much room to spare, 
while I am so big that in all space I have no room at all. 
Why have you not yet found me ? Why are you still at fault ? 
Without trouble you can find me on your cot ; 
Why, reader, do I move you to such a trance of wonder ? 
I am always going here and there for ever on your tongue. 

J. R. Rangabes 
(From the Magazine of Useful Knowledge, vol. i. p. 128). 

EyW et/l,' €K€LVO TO TTOvXl 

' OTTOv yevv^ oltt' tt] fxvTr] ' 

Uov €;(et fxavprj rr) (fxoXr^a 

Pk'l apa^vLa(Tix€VO o-ttltl. 
Tpcts /xe Kparovv orav yevvio, 

fx' dX.7]0 eta TTpioTa TrtVw, 
El's acTTTpovs KapLTTovs TOL yevvo) 

k'i OTriVw p,ov t' dcfiLVO}' 
Kai oAa K€iva rot TTOvXia 

dvdpojTTLva AaAovcrf 
IloLol Tct ypoLKovv oTav AaAovv 
Kttt TTotol Sev TO, ypoLKOva-L. 

(Ek t^s 'Ef38opid8os, 1884.) 

2as o/xiAw xoypls va c^^ crropa' 
IleptTraTa) X'mpl'i Kav va Kivwyutai* 
Y7rdp)(^ii), ^0) ^((jD/ots va e^^co o-w/xa* 
K't ov8e7roT€,ovS€7roT€ Koi/xw/xat  
At^^ws avTia aKoi;o> KaOe ktvtto, 
^(ovd^TC pL€ Keyo) da eras rh eiTrw. 
' ('Ek T-;is'E/?8o/xa5os, 1884.) 


I am that bird 

that gives birth from its beak ; 

which has a black nest 

and a house all full of cobwebs. 

Three hold me when I give birth, 

but truly first I take a drink ; 

on white plains I give them birth 

and behind me then I leave them : 

and all those birds 

speak the words of men : 

some understand them when 

they speak and some do not 

comprehend them. 

(From The Week, 1884.) 

I speak to you without having 
a mouth ; I walk without as 
much as moving ; I exist, I live, 
without having a body, 
and never, never do I sleep : 
without ears I hear every sound, 
call me and I will tell it you. 

(From The Week, 1884.) 




IleTetvos 'vvxaTOSf 
TLepiraTeL Kal Kpiveu 


(^ArjjjLOTLKov atVty/xa.) 

lEws eras Tjpea-av to, NeoeA- 
XrjViKa alvLyfJLara ; IvoT^o^are Tt 
VTroKpvTrrovcriv ; 

Mot yjpecrav VTrepfSaXkovTiDS 
Kal vofJLi^o) on el^evpo) rrjv 
Xvartv avTiov, dXX' eTreiSr] ws 
/^AeTrere effiOdcrafxev els B/aev- 
TrjO-Lov, kTriTpexpark fxoL Kara ra 
crviJL7r€<fnovr)jJL€va va eras etTro) 
avTTjv els TO TeAos tov ra^etSiov 

Tiov 6d VTrdyiofiev va Xdf^dh 
fxev oXcyov TrpoyevfMa ; 

Aev e\oixev Kaipov va vird- 
yoifxev els Kavev fiepos, Slotl drr* 
evdeias TrpeTvei va p^eTa/Soy/xev 
els TO aTfioTrXoLov, ottov 8ev 
dp,(fiLf3dXX(j) Od evpio/xev to 
Trpoyevfia eTOtixov eTrl Trjs Tpa- 

Et ovTiDS e'xet as a-irevcroyfiev 
OQ-ov rax terra els to aT/AOTrAotov, 
Slotl e'xw v7rep/3oXiKr]v Tretvav. 

A cock with claws, 
with clawed feet, 
walks about and judges 
with justice. 

{Popular riddle.) 

How do you like the modern 
Greek riddles ? Did you find 
out what they hide ? 

They pleased me excessively, 
and I think I know the solution 
of them, but since, as you see, 
we have arrived at Brindisi, 
allow me, according to the 
agreement, to tell it you at the 
end of our journey. 

Where shall we go to get a 
little breakfast ? 

We have not time to go any- 
where, for we must go straight 
off to the steamer, where I have 
no doubt we shall find breakfast 
ready on the table. 

If that be so, let us hasten as 
fast as possible to the steamer, 
for I am excessively hungry. 

I AIAA0r02 lA' 

To Trpoyevfia cTeAettoo-c' ti 
Aeyere, dvaf^atvofxev els to 
KaTd(TTpu)fia V dvairv€V(rij)fJi€v 
oXiyov Kadapov dkpa ; 

Ev;>(a/3ia-TW5, Stori 17 ar/AO- 

(Tc^alpa e8w /carw Sei/ efvat ttoAi; 

[ €vdp€(TTO<s' ireptfxeLvaTe opaos 

t /Aiav (TTiypLr)v vd virdyo) vd 

Xd/3(0 €K TOV KOLTiavlxTKOV /iOV 

liapcLKaXQi, dv h\v (rds Sl&tj 
KOTTOi/, cficpere Kal rds ISuKds 
p,ov' Od rds evprjTe €7rt Trjs 
KXtvrjs piov. 

JloXv KaXd . . . TW/aa as 
dvaf^Mpev els to KaTatrT/aw/xa. 
"Q, TL XapTrpos Kaipos ! '•'AWpua 
pev rd dvoydev^ aKvpavrov 8c 
Kol yaXi]viov dirav to irkXayos, 
opoLOv (i)S elrreLV KaroTrTpu)." 

Kttt Tw ovTi CLvai Xapirpora- 
ros Kaipos, Kal evyop,ai vd 
e^aKoXovdrj vd ^vai tolovtos 
€7rt TToAi^, StOTt dv Kal Sev pe 
Treipd^ei rj ddXaa-cra Kal kv 
peyia-TQ rpiKvpiCf.^ Trporip-Ci 6p.(os 
Kaipov yaX'qvtov. 

^vp(fnt)vu) irX-qpecnara pie 
vpas^ StoTL orav 6 Kaiphs €?vat 
KttAos 8L€p)(^eTai Tis Tots oipas 
kov ev\apL(jTi)iS ev t(^ TrAoty 


Breakfast is finished : what 
do you say, shall we go up on 
deck and take a little breath of 
fresh air ? 

With pleasure, for the atmo- 
sphere down here is not very 
pleasant : but stay a moment 
till I go and get the glasses 
from my cabin. 

If it gives you no trouble, 
please bring mine too : you 
will find them on my berth. 

All right . . . now let us 
go up on deck. Oh, what 
splendid weather ! " Bright up 
above, without a wave too and 
calm all the sea, like a mirror, 
so to say." 

And indeed it is most splendid 
weather, and I hope it will 
continue to be such for a long 
time, for though the sea does 
not incommode me even in the 
greatest storm, nevertheless I 
prefer calm weather. 

I quite agree with you, for 
when the weather is fine, one 
passes one's time pleasantly on 
board ship : one can walk abont 




SvvaTac va TrepLTrary ctti tov 
KaTao-rpwjaaTos, SvvaraL va 
(TvvofXiXrj fji€Ta cj^lXmv, SvvaraL, 
av rjvai ^tAavayvwcTTT^S, va 
kKXk^Tj fitav yja-vxov yiaviav koI 
€K€t vol ivTpvcfiO, dvayLvioaKiDV 
KOi dvaTTveoiV rrjv Spocrepav 
avpav Trjs 0aXd(ra"r)<5. 

Tfc Aeyere, 8ev vopLL^ere on 
da 'i^vat KaXov va eKXe^oy/xev 
KOL rjfji€LS p^iav ijcrvxov ytoviav, 
Kttt va k^aKoXovOr^a-iOfxev rds 
7rpo(T(f>LX€LS rj/JiMV avay vwcrets y 

Be/^atorara' dXXd ttov va 
KaOta-oifJLev*; ISw /SXeTTO) Trdcra 
OecTiS eivat KaTetXyjixfievrj' et§ 
€Ketvr]V rrjv aKpav eivat Svo 
Kadta-jxara, dXX' Ikc? ttXtjctlov 
KdOrjVTai ot Svo AaAot Vepixavol 
ot OTTOtot /x€ ras <^(ovas rwv 
/ua? KaT€K(i>cf)avav Kara Tr]V &pav 
TOV Trpoyev/xaTos. ^AAAol kvt- 
rd^are eSw irpos rd dpta-repd 
eras TOV? T€(T(Tapa<s rovrov^s 
'IraXovs, vop.L^€L ri<s otl o/jll- 
Xovv 9-apdvTa dvOpcoiroi' dv 

^TO T6S vet KpiVfJ €K TWV <^CUVWV 

Kal Twv yeLpovofxiMV Twv ^a 
ivofxi^ev on /xaXXiovova^i Kal 
on Ta^ew5 ^a 'iXOoio-tv etg 
X€Lpa<s, €V(3 ovSev toioutov 
(rvfif^aiveL • o-wSiaAeyovrat 8e 
(jiiXiKiiiraTa '(e\ovn.<i €lp7]VbK(i>Ta- 
Tov Oefia 6/xtAia9. 

Ol KdrOLKOL TWV p.€(Tr]fifipLvQ>v 
KXifxdroyv clvac ^oj-qporaroL els 
Td<s o-v^rjn^a-eis t(ov, Kal eTretSr) 
€Ka(rTos avTiov TrpocnraOei vd 
€L7rrj TTjv iSeav tov Tryowros, 
TToXXdKLS a-vpi/SaLvei vd 6/xtAco- 
(Tiv oXoL (Tvyxp6v(x)S Kal yLverau 

on the deck : one can converse 
with one's friends : one can, if 
fond of reading, choose a quiet 
corner and there enjoy oneself 
with a book while breathing the 
fresh air of the sea. 

What do you say, do you not 
think it would be a good thing 
for us too to choose a quiet 
corner and pursue our favourite 
reading ? 

Certainly : but where shall 
we sit ? Here I see every 
place is occupied : at that end 
there are two seats, but the two 
loquacious Germans are seated 
near there, who deafened us with 
their voices at breakfast-time. 
But look at those four Italians 
here to your left, one would 
think that forty men were talk- 
ing : if one were to judge by 
their voices and their gestures, 
one would suppose that they 
were quarrelling and that they 
would very soon come to blows, 
while nothing of the sort hap- 
pens : they are talking together 
in the most friendly manner and 
have an exceedingly peaceful 
subject of conversation. 

The people of southern climes^ 
are extremely animated in their 
discussions, and, since each of 
them tries to be the first to 
express his ideas, it often hap- 
pens that they all talk at the 
same time and there arises a 



(ri;y>^V(rt5 Kol ftorj (os va Siiokoxtl 
KoXotov eirl tcAovs fxera 
TToAAas (fiiovao-KLas Kal TravTO- 
ttSets fiop(f)a(T/xov<s vlk^ TroAAa- 

K6S €KeLVO<S OCTTt? Sl^VaTttt Vtt 

if)U)vd^y SvvaTiOTepa twv oiA- 

'EStD VOflL^O) TOV (TT€<}>aVOV 

T//9 viKr^S 6^a Aa^27 ^ dpeLfidvLOS 
ovTO<s KaAa^pos, oo-ri? /z€ t^i' 
^iVevro/ociov aurov (fiojvrjv Ka- 
rtopduKrev ')]8rj va Kafiy tovs 
dAAovs vol yu-T^ aKoviovTai. 

E?vat Toj oVrt " f3or)v dyados" 
MS TirXocfiopei 6 "Ofxrjpos tovs 
ijpiods Tov, Kal T(^ a/3/xd^et to 

dpi(TT€iOV . . . 'AAAa Tt 0"U/>1- 

(3aLV€L ; (iXkiroi irdvris Tpk\ov(TL 
irpos rrjv irp^pav. 

Kart TT/oeTret va o-vfxjSacvy^ 
iocrre as v7rdyo)fX€v Kal rjfjLels va 
t5(o/xev Ti rpk^ei. 

"OXt] rj (tttovStj Kal 6 djOtcrixos 
irpos rrjv 7rpQ>pav riro Bed rd 
TToXefiLKa ravra TrXoia to, OTrota 
I'jpifxa 8ta(T)(^L^ova-L rd vSara 
TOV 'ASpiov. 

l7rou€T0) va civat ra airra 
axrep ctSofxev a-jqiiepov t6 tt/dwi 
€ts ra aj/otKTo, c^w tov koAttov 
TOV Ta/)avT05. 

IIoAv irtdavov' fSXeTTO) ofxios 
Sev dvqKOva-iV els rb 'IraXtKov 
vavTLKov^ (OS kvofXLcrafiiv to 
Trpait, dXX €IS TO AvCTTpLaKOV' 
ifiaivovTat Se oAa uypala Kal 
la-xvpd irXola. "AAAotc 6 
CTToAos T'^s Kvcrrpias (.irpo^kviL 
\ <f>6l3ov Kal rpofxov els tovs 
iTttAoiJS, /xcTot TT^v (fio/Sepdv 

confusion and clamour just as 
if they were chasing a jackdaw : 
at last, with much bawling 
and every kind of gesticulation, 
it is often the one who can 
shout the loudest that gains the 

Here, I think, the crown 
of victory will be gained by 
that desperately warlike Cala- 
brian who, with his stentorian 
voice, has already succeeded in 
preventing the rest from being 

He is indeed " great with the 
war-shout," as Homer entitles 
his heroes, and the meed of 
valour is his due. . . . But 
what is happening ? I see 
every one running to the bow. 

Something must be happen- 
ing, so let us too go and see 
what is going on. 

All the hurrying and pushing 
to get to the bow was on account 
of these men-of-war which are 
calmly cleaving the waters of 
the Adriatic. 

I suppose they are the -same 
that we saw this morning in 
the open sea outside the Gulf of 

Very probably : but I see 
they do not belong to the Italian 
navy, as we thought this morn- 
ing, but to the Austrian. They 
all seem handsome and ]>owerful 
vessels. Formerly the Austrian 
fleet produced fear and trem- 
bling in the Italians, but after 
the terrible reverse the latter 




o/xw? KaTacrrpo^riv r^v virka-rf]- 
crav €^(t) T7]S Aicr(rr)S Kara to 
€Tos 1866 arvv€TLcr6evT€S ck tov 
7ra6rifxaro<i iTreSoOrjcrav 8pa- 
crT7]pi(i)<s €ts TrjV vavTri/jy rjo-LV 
(TToXov icr^v/Dov, Kol tJ^tj ov 
ixovov ilvai icroTraXoi Kara 
OdXacrcrav jxk rovs AvcrrpiaKOvs, 
dXXa Kal vTTeprepoL avTMV. 

'El^evp€Te TV Ota elvac (os cy- 
yL(TTa rj vavTiKt] 8vva/xLS tyjs 
'IraXtas vvv ; 

No/xt^a> (TvvLcrTaraL €K 18 
^(D/ar^KTCov, 1 9 7r€<f)paypevo)V 
KaraS/oo/xiKtov, 9 Ta^ySpo/xiKiov, 
6 TopTTiXXocfioptDV KaraSpofiL- 
Kwv, 8 KavovLOfpopiov Kal 128 


(TKa<f>o)V' Svo Se Ik twv Oioprj- 
ktSv avrrjs, rj 'IraXia kol rj 
NavTraKTos, cTvai wrws to, 
fjLcyurra OoypyjKrd c^ oo-<ov P'^XP^ 
Tov^e. evavir-qyijOrjcrav. 

'AA,Aa Sid ri vd Siocriooriv ol 

'IraXol €49 €V €K TMV pbeytCTTiiJV 

avTiav 6ii)pr]Kr(Jiv to 6vop.a 
pLLKpd<s ^^XX-qvLKTJs TToAew?; 

Upos dvdpivrja-LV Trtarrevoi rrjs 
TrepL(f>i^p,ov vavp^axtoLS ryjs yevo- 
p€vy]S irapd Trjv NavTraKTOV Kard 
TOV IS^ aloivaj KaO' 'i]v at Xpt- 
CTTtaviKai 8vvdpL€L<5 yjpavTo Xap- 
irpav VLK7JV Kard twv Totj/okwv. 

'Ev^v/xo{;/xat dviyviov irpo 
ttoXXmv irojv Kan tl irepl rrjs 
vavpaxioL<s ravT-qs, dXX' at 
AcTTTo/xcyoetat twv KaT' avTT^v 
(Tvp^fSavTiou Sei/ p,kvov(rL irXkov 
kv rrj pvrjpiy p^ov &(tt€ ttoXv 
Od //,€ VTToxp^iixTrjre dv p.01 
etTrrjTe Ttva irepl avT^s. 

sustained off Lissa in the year 
1866, learning wisdom from 
what they had suffered, they 
set themselves energetically to 
the construction of a strong 
fleet, and now they are not only 
a match for the Austrians on 
the sea, but are even superior 
to them. 

Do you know as nearly as 
possible what the naval power 
of the Italians now is ? 

I think it consists of 1 8 iron- 
clads, 19 protected cruisers, 9 
despatch - boats, 6 torpedo - 
cruisers, 8 gunboats, and 128 
torpedo-boats and other craft. 
Two of her ironclads, the 
Italia and the Lepanto, are 
perhaps the largest ironclads of 
all that have been built up to 
the present day. 

But why should the Italians 
give to one of their largest iron- 
clads the name of a small Greek 

In memory, I believe, of the 
famous naval action which took 
place off Lepanto in the 16th 
century, in which the Christian 
powers gained a brilliant victory 
over the Turks. 

I recollect reading many years 
ago something about this naval 
engagement, but the details of 
what happened at it no longer 
dwell in my memory, so you 
will greatly oblige me if you 
will tell me something about 




lEtV)(api(TT(j)<s. *H NavTraKTOs, 
av Koi fXLKpa kol d(T'qfiavTO<s vvv^ 

iV TY) larTOpi<^ O/XCDS €LVaL TTCpt- 

cfi7jfjio<s. Kara tov IleAoTroi/- 
vrjCTLaKov TroAe/zov -^jto ef? €K 
Tuiv KVpL(JiTa.T(aV vavTLKiZv (TTad- 
p,(av Twv 'AOr]vaLU>v. Kara 
Tov<s ix€(rov<s aliDvas ISodr] virb 
ru)V }iv^avTLV(i)V els tovs 'Ei^e- 


rocrov KaXtos (j)(Tr€ Kara to €T0S 
1477 -qBvvqOr) v' dvTt(TTy Kar' 
lcr)(^vpas 8vvdfi€io<s TovpKiov 
otTives TToXLopK-qa-avTes avrrjv 
€7rl rkcTcrapas firjvas yjvayKaa-dr]- 
crav eirl reXovs va dTrekOoxTLV d- 
TrpaKTOi' €KvpL€v67]8e Tore p.6vov 
oT€ Kara to 1499 Trpocrkf^aXev 
avrrjV Bayta^^T 6 B' €7rt K€^a- 

Xrj<S 150,000 dvSpUiV. 'El/ €T€t 

157 1 at Kara Tr)v Mecroyetov 
^ptCTTtavLKal Svvdfxeis fSXe-rrov- 
cai rrjv dKarda-^erov irpooSov 
T(ov '06o)fxavLK(ov ottAwv (XTre- 
reXea-av a-vvSecrfiov Kara Ttov 
aTTto-Tcov Kat hrepLxj/av aroXov 
i<j\vpbv Kar' avToiv' at Se 
a7roTeAoi;crat t^v (njv8e(r/xov 
TOVTOV Swdpets ■^crav rj 'ItrTravta, 
17 'EvcTtKry SrjpoKparia Kat o 
IlaTras Iltos 6 E'. '0 (ttoAos 
erWy] vtto Tr)v dp\rjyiav tov 
Aov 'Iwavvov T>}s AvcTTptas, 

vlov K.ap6XoV TOV E'. Tl^ €KT>^ 

(TVvrjVT'qO'qa-av ot Svo dvTCTraXoL 

CTToXoL T(tjy X/OtO-Ttai/WV Kat T(i)V 

TiOvpKiov TrXtjCTLOV Trjs NavTraK- 
Tov Yj <j}s o Aapov Aeyet Tra/oa 
Tots 'E^ti'aSa'S i/yyo-ovs. *0 Tovp- 


With pleasure. Lepanto, 
though a small and insignificant 
place now, is nevertheless cele- 
brated in history. In the 
Peloponnesian war it was one 
of the most important naval 
stations of the Athenians. In 
the Middle Ages it was given by 
the Byzantines to the Venetians, 
who fortified it so well that in 
the year 1477 it was able to 
resist a powerful force of the 
Turks who, after besieging it for 
four months, were at last com- 
pelled to retire unsuccessful 
It was only taken when, in the 
year 1499, Bajazet II. attacked 
it at the head of 150,000 men. 
In the year 1571 the Christian 
powers on the Mediterranean, 
seeing the irresistible advance 
of the Ottoman arms, formed a 
league against the infidels and 
sent a powerful fleet to oppose 
them. The powers which con- 
stituted this alliance were Spain, 
the Venetian republic, and Pope 
Pius V. The fleet was placed 
under the command of Don 
John of Austria, son of Charles 
V. On the sixth of October of 
the same year the two opposing 
fleets of the Christians and 
Turks met near Lepanto or, as 
Daru says, off the Echinadea 
islands. The Turkish fleet 
consisted of 230 galleys and that 


Tpir)pij)V, 6 Se Twv XptcrTtavwv 
^To cr;>(e5ov la-dptdfios. *H 
fia-XV ■L'TTT^p^e Kparepa kol <f)ovi- 
KoyTOLTY]' cTTt TeA-ovs Icfiovevdrj 6 
TovpKos vavap)(os 'AX.rj<5 Kat 
eirl T7]<s KvpievO€i(r7]<s vavapx^So^ 
v\p(^drj 7] o-rjfjLaia tov crravpov. 
'Ev ry aluarrjp^. ravrrj vav- 
P'O.yjiq. OL fxev Xptao^Ttavot aTrw- 
Xecrav 6KraKLcr')(^iXiov<s avSpas 
Kat 15 rpii^peLS^ ol 8e TovpKOi 
VTrka-TTjcrav TravoiXeOpiau ivreXq^ 
SiOTL ov fjiovov dTroiXecrOrja-av rj 
€KvpL€v6rj(rav Tracrat cr)(^e8ov at 
rpL'qpeiS avroiv, aAAot Kat 
eiKoa-LTrevraKia-xiXiOL e^ avrcov 
ecfiOvevOrjcrav, TrXetcrroL 8k y\- 
fj.aXo)TtcrOr)(Tav. 'Evro? tcuv 
KvptevOeLcriov rpLrjpiav evpedrjcrav 
15,000 X/atcTTtavot SovXoi kcott- 
rjXaTat SeSe/xevot St' aXvcreoiv 
Trapa Tcts KWTTas* Travres ovtol 
dp.e(Tii)<s rjXev6€p(o9y](rav. 

2as ev^apLO-Ti^ TToXv Stot 
Tots 7rXr]po(f)opLa<s as /^lot eSw- 
Kare Tre/ot t-^s Treptcjirjfjbov rav- 
rrj<s vav/Aa^ias" aAA* Ik tcov 
TrapeA^ovTwi/ as iTraveXOiofxev 
€ts TO, Trapovra. Upb oXiyov 
fiol et'Trere Troia eti/at t^ vvv 
vavTLKrj SvvafjLLs rrjs 'IraAtas, 
fxol KdfJLvere rrjv X^P^^ ^^ /^°' 
8io(Tr)T€ Tiopa TrX-qpocf^opta^ tl- 
vas Kat Trepl tov AvcTTpiaKOv 
vavTLKOv ; 

Ilpo6vfJi(j}<s. Upo recra-dpcDV 

€TU)V (1887) TO VaVTtKOV Ty<S 

Ava-Tpias (TVVLcrraTO €k 10 
6ii)prjKTU)Vy 7 KaraSpo/xtKcov, 6 
TO pinXXocfiOpiov TrXoLOiv, 34 Top- 
7rtAAo/?dA(ov, Kat 16 aKratwpwy 

of the Christians was of a nearly 
equal number. The battle was 
an obstinate and very bloody 
one : at last the Turkish admiral 
Ali was killed, and on the 
captured flagship was raised 
the standard of the Cross. In 
this sanguinary naval engage- 
ment the Christians lost eight 
thousand men and fifteen galleys, 
and the Turks were utterly 
annihilated ; for not only were 
nearly all their galleys destroyed 
or captured, but twenty-five thou- 
sand men were killed and a 
very large number taken prison- 
ers. In the captured galleys 
were found 15,000 Christian 
slaves employed as rowers and 
fastened alongside the oars with 
chains, all of whom were at once 

Thank you very much for the 
information you have given me 
about this famous sea-fight : but 
from the past let us return to 
the present. A little while ago 
you told me what the present 
naval power of Italy is : will 
you now do me the favour to 
give me some information also 
about the Austrian navy ? 

By all means. Four years 
ago (1887) the Austrian navy 
consisted of 10 ironclads, 7 
cruisers, 6 torpedo - ships, 34 
torpedo-boats, and 16 vessels 
for coast defence : but since 




dptOfios at'TWV. 

EvTv;((us (rqfiepov ovScls 
c})6f3os virdpyei (Tvy Kpov(T€Oi<i 
jxera^v Avcrr/aia? kol 'IraAtas* 
iav o/xa>9 crvve^atve tolovtov rt 
dfi<f)tl3dXX(t) dv rj SdcfjVT] Trjs 
VLKrj<s Od eStdero els tovs OpLa/x- 
jSevcravras irapd ttjv Atcrtrai/. 

"Io-(os e'x^''^^ SiKaiov dkXd rd 
Tocavra " ^ewv ev yoT^vacrt 
Kctrat." Tto/)a as vTrdyiofxev 
irdXiv els TYjV Trpv/xvav toO 
TrAotov Kat tcrws evpayfiev Kevyjv 
rtva yuivtav vd Kadia-iofxev. 

KaAot Xeyere' as (nrevcriofxev 
A vTrdyoyfiev Trplv TrpocjiOdcroycrL 
Kara XdfS (OCT L irdvra rd 
KaOiG-jxara ot aAAot. 

Ad^a TO) Gew, evpojxev Itti 
TeAovs Svo Kci/a KaOLcrfxaTa els 
Trapdixepov kol 'qcrv^ov fiepos. 
Kadia-are TrX.t](TLov p,ov kol as 
dpxL(T(i)jX€V TTjv dvdyvoxrcv 
vojjLL^ii) oTt evpuTKOfxeOa els toi/ 
IZ' attova. 

MaAto-ra, dAAo, 7r/3tv ap^tcr- 
(o^€i/ rryv avayvwo-tv eirirpexj/aTe 
jxoL vd eras avrayyetAo) oAtyas 

(TTpO(f>ds CK rOV TrpWTOV ^(TfiaTOS 

Tov " ILepnrXavojfJLevov " tov A. 
^ovT(Tov, at oTTOiat TavTYjV rrjv 
(TTtyixrjv ^\6ov els tyjv p.vqfirjv 

IIoAi; Od fxe vTro\pe<ji(rqre. 

Me (Tvy^(3ipeiTe fxiav (TTLyfxrjv 
vd evSvfJirjOi^ t^v ^PXl^ • • • 
aKovcraTe riopa. 

"*0 TOV TTovTov 5ta^ar>ys ^XeTret 
eKdafxlSos t6 Actov, 

then perhaps their number has 


Fortunately in these days there 
is no fear of a conflict between 
Austria and Italy : if however 
anything of the kind occurred, 
I doubt whether the laurel of 
victory would be given to those 
who triumphed off Lissa. 

Perhaps you are right : but 
such things "are at the dis- 
posal of the gods." Now let 
us go back to the stern of the 
ship and perhaps we may find 
an empty comer to sit down 

You are quite right : let us 
make haste and go before the 
others anticipate us and get 
possession of all the seats. 

Thank God, we have found 
at last two empty seats in a 
retired and quiet part. Sit near 
me and let us begin our reading : 
I think we are at the 17 th 

Yes, but before we begin the 
reading let me recite to you a 
few verses of the first canto of 
The Wanderer^ by A. Soutsos, 
which have this moment come 
to my recollection. 

You will greatly oblige me. 

Excuse me for a moment till 
I recollect the beginning . . . 
now listen : 

"The traveller on the sea beholds 
amazed the level plain 



To ^(u/9ts ^PXV^ '^^^ TeAos 
(OKeavetov TreStoV 


oa-ns TravTore av^ai/et, 

IIwTroTe TTjV (fievyova-dv rov 

7re/)i^€/0€tav 8ev (fiOdveu' 

Tov voo<s €K€i 8ev €;(et irkpas r] 


OtjS' opi^ovra ejxTrpos tt^s drrav- 

Tct 17 cfiavracria' 

*H \^vx^ ''^^^ iXcvdepa 

AiaTpe^ei rots eKrdcreLS vtto 

ovpiov depa. 

KvXie Tot KVjxard <jov OdXacrcra ! 

. . . fivpcoL (TToXoi 

"Ep^ovrai, virdyovv, Tpk\ovv ds 

TOV Tpd)^rj\6v (TOV oAofc. 

^€L€(raL, Koi Twv fieXiov crov t(5v 

/3ap€(i)V Kttfc />(,eyaA(jov, 

Kat 6 efs k\ 6 aAAo5 ttoAos 

(TvvaLcrOdvovTai tov crdXov. 

QdXacrcra I 6 dfxeTpos (rov kol 

dyr^paTOS (ipa^idiv 

'EyKoATTovTat Trjv yrjv oXrjv m 

17 /J''qTrjp TO TratStov, 

Kat (XTt^ao-os, dypta, 

Ma^eo-at tt^os tov? TV(f>6)vaSj 

fid)(^e(TaL 7r/)05 rot o-TOt;>(eta. 

T:^v yJJv oA^yv rj Opa(TVTr]<s tov 
dvdp(i)7rov /xeraAActTTet, 

*AAA* €VpL(rK€L opid T7JS TttVaA- 

Aotwra (TOV KpdTYj. 

"Ore r])(rj(rev rj 7rp(0Tr] Sipa Trjs 


Nea 'ippevcras, kol vka p€V(r€i<s 

P'^xpi' (rvvTeXeias. 

Trjv iraXippoiav ttJs tv^^^S Kat 


TLapicTT^ TO vtt' dve/xtov Trepc- 
StvrjTov (TOV pevfxa, 

of the ocean that has no beginning 
and no end : 

staying in the centre of a circle 
which ever is expanding, 
never does he reach the border 
that flies at his approach : 
there the rapid course of thought 
has nothing to confine it, 
no horizon in front of her 
imagination ever meets : 
his soul in perfect freedom 
travels over space with a breeze 
that speeds its course. 

Roll thy waves, sea ! . . . 

myriads of fleets 

come and go, all tread upon thy 


Thou movest, and of thy huge 

and ponderous limbs 

both the one pole and the other 

feel the shock. 

O sea ! Thy measureless and 

ever-youthful arm 

embraces all the earth like the 

mother her child, 

and untamable and fierce 

thou fightest with tempests and 

warrest with the elements. 

All the earth man's audacity 


but it meets as its limits thy 

unchangeable dominions. 

When the first hour of creation 


youthful thou didst flow, and 

youthful thou wilt flow for ever. 

The tide of fortune and its 

unstable breath 

thy stream represents, whirled 

about by the winds, 




Kat €i<5 (T€ rj Tov airiipov 
"EKTacrts oivravaKXaTaL ws €i9 

KOLTOTTTpOV (TaTr(fi€tpOV." 

*E^ai/D€Tos 7roLrjcrL<s' ov fxovov 
at tSeat tov Troirjrov eivai vxjz-q- 
Xai, aAAo. Kat r^ yXdcrcra avrov 
Kadapa kol evpvOfios, oia ap- 
/x()^et CIS TOiavrrjV irolrjcrLV. 

"E;(€T€ SlKaiOV, Mi 6X.0VS 

Tov<s Kpii}yfJLOv<i dcrrjfxdvTiov rivwv 
Kat €<f)'qfxep(ji)V (rTL)(OvpyQ)V ot- 
Ttres KaraKAv^ovo-t vvv rrjv 
kXevOkpav 'EAAaSa /xe to. dvov- 
(Tia avTwi/ CTTt^ov/ayry/xara, 6 
' AXe^avSpos ^ovT(ro<s Kat 6 
tt5eA<;^os aiJTOv rEavaytwTT^S 
cirat ot dXrjOeis TroL-qral rov 
* EAAi^ viKOv eOvovs Kara toi/ 
jrapovTa aliova' aAAa Aeywv 
ravra Sci/ evvow va vTrof^t/Sda-o) 
Trjv d^tav twv aAAwv fxas fJi€- 
ydXoiV eOviKoHv TroLYjTiiiiV. *0 
" "Y/Jivos €ts TTjv eXevOeptav " ov 
iypaxj/e Kara ras a^^^^ '^^ 
^EiXXtjvlktJs €7rava(TTd(T€0)S 6 
Kofxrjs Aiovvcrtos 2oA(u/xo?, 8ta 
TO v\po<s Ty]<s avTiA-j^^ew? Kat 
TO fxeTdpcriov Kat ^loypov rwv 
TTOi-qTiKiJov avTOV CLKOvoiV civat 
KOL Od rjvai €S aet Ti/xaA<^69 
WvLKov KTYjixa. ETvat TrepLTTOV 
vd ads dya(f)€p(D ivravda Trdvra 
rd 6v6p.ara rdv dpia-ThiV ttolt)- 
Twi/ Trj<5 dvaycvvrjdeLO-rjs *EAAa- 
Sos' cXttl^io ofxios OTL 6d 8vvr]6w 
vd Trpd^d) TOVTO, €v jJLcpet rov- 
Aa>( icTTOV, 7r/30o-€^ws, dirayyeX- 
X(t)V ets v/xas Kat Tti^a ck twj/ 


UStj as (rw€;!(t(r(u/i€i' Tas ava- 
* yv(o(T€LS 'Qixiov €K T^s (TvXXoyrjs 

and in thee the wide expanse 
of space reflects itself as in a 
sapphire mirror." 

An excellent poem : not only 
are the i^oet's ideas elevated, but 
his language is pure and musical, 
such as suits poetry of this kind. 

You are right. Amidst all 
the croakings of certain insig- 
nificant and ephemeral poetasters 
who now inundate independent 
Greece with their insipid versifi- 
cations, Alexander Soutsos and 
his brother Panagiotes are the real 
poets of the Greek nation in the 
present century : but, in saying 
this, I do not mean to depreci- 
ate our other great national 
poets. The Ode to Liberty^ which 
Count Dionysius Solomos com- 
posed at the beginning of the 
Greek revolution, from the sub- 
limity of its conceptions and the 
lofty and vivid character of its 
poetical images, is and will 
always be a valuable national 
possession. It is superfluous for 
me to mention to you on this 
occasion all the names of the 
best poets of regenerated Greece : 
but I hope that I shall be able 
to do so, partly at least, by and 
by, reciting also to you some of 
their more select poems. Now 
let us continue our readings 
from my collection. I have 




fxov, '^vravBa e^ia aTTOcnra- 
crfMard riva Ik Svo Troirj/xdriav 
Tov YZa atwvos' eivat Sc dfJLcf)6- 
T€pa yey/ja/x/xeva ets rrjv t6t£ 
KprjTLKYjv SidXeKTOV, iJTLS 8ev 
StacfiepeL ttoXv Trj'S vvv o/jllXov- 
pikvi-jS ev KpijTrj. To irpCiTov k^ 
avTiov elvai kiriKov koI ovo/xd- 
^erat '^ '^pioroKptros" kypdcfi-q 


8e dWo Spa/xaTLKov kol (jiepet 
TO ovofia "'¥ip(i>(fiL\r]" clvat Se 
epyov TOV TeiDpytov l^oprdKr] 

TOV €K '^FeOvfMVOV Trj<i K.prjTYJS. 

*H vTroOeats tov "'^pcoTOKpi- 
Tov " eivai dWoKOTOs, Slotl 6 
7rotr)Trj<5 Ivw Aeyet ot4 to cttos 
avTOv dva(fi€peTai els tols dp- 
^atas 'AO-qvas, 

'^'Stovs Trepa^o/xevovs Kaipovs, 
Vov "EXXrjves (jjpL^av 


OefJbeXiMfxevrjv pi^av" 
Trepty pdcfiCL Tot 'qOr) kol to, Wifxa 


dvayLV(ocrKO)v tis tov "'EpwTo- 

KpiTOV " VO/JLi^€L OTL SuepX^Tai 

jjLvdta-Toprjfxa irepX tTTTroTWV tov 
fL€(raL(ovo<s. "H/ows tov ttoit^- 
/xaTos etvat uypalos kol dvSpetos 
V€OS, vtos TOV TrpoidvTTOvpyov 
Tov fSacrtXeiDS tcov ' K6r]vQ>v 
^UpaKXeovs 6 oTTOios /?e/3aia)s 
ovSeTTOTe VTrrjp^ev. Ovtos Xol- 
TTov 6 *H/DaKA7ys efxev (Jipaio- 
TctTT^v OvyaTepa ovofJLa^opievrjv 
' Ap€Tov(rav, 17T6S 
"M' oAaisTais xdpaisKi dpcTais 

"qTOVe (TToXL(TfJ,€Vrj, 
YiVyeVLKY) KOi TttKTlK^, 

TToXXd Xf^pLTiDjJievrj" 

here some extracts from two 
poems of tlie 1 7th century : 
they are both written in the 
Cretan dialect of the time, which 
does not differ much from that 
now spoken in Crete. The first 
of them is an epic called Ero- 
tocritos, and was written by 
Vincenzo Cornaro : the other 
is a play which is entitled 
Erophile, and is the work of 
George Khortatzi of Rethymnos 
in Crete. The subject of the 
Erotocritos is a strange one, for 
the poet, while he says that 
his epic refers to ancient 

" in the days gone by 
when Greeks held sway, 
and when their faith possessed 
no firmly founded root," 
describes the manners and 
customs of his contemporaries, 
so that any one reading the 
Erotocritos fancies that he is per- 
using a romance about knights 
of the Middle Ages. The hero 
of the poem is a handsome and 
brave youth, son of the prime 
minister of Heracles, king of 
Athens, who certainly never 
existed. Now this Heracles 
had a very beautiful daughter 
named Aretusa, who 

"with every grace and virtue 
was embellished, 
noble and of decorous mien, 
endowed with many charms." 



TavTi^s rjpaxrOrj efMfiavios 6 
'EpojTOKpiTOS ' dWa (f>o/3ovix€- 
V05 vtt eKcfipdcrr) </)av€/3(09 to. 
€po)TLKd avTov aL(r6y]/xaTa fxere- 
jSaivev €t? t6 (tk6to<s ttJs vvKTcis 
VTTO TO. TrapdOvpa twi/ avaK- 
r6p(i)v, Kal €K€t 
""EAeye k\ dvcOi/Save 

tt]? epiOTids TO. irddrj^ 
Kat TTws 's dydirr] c/xTrepSe^e, 

k' kxpvyq k ifiapdOrj." 

*0 /Saa-iXevs koI rj /?acriAicr(ra 
erepTTovTO dnovovTes rot i^Sv- 
(fidoyya TpayovSia tov c/owto- 


" M' (xtt' oAovs k'i oAai9 ttXci^ 

T^CraV 's T7)v 'Ap€TOV(Ta, 

Kat Ttt T/3ayov8ta ^V7rvT(]Tr} 
crvx^d Trjv €KpaT0vcra." 

'FiTTlOvfliOV 6 /3a(TLX€V<S €K 

7r€pupyia<i vd pidOy tl<s ^to 6 
(^8(j)V e7r€/x;^e ScKa dvSpas rovs 
OTToiovs Stera^e vd a-yXXajSiocrL 
Si €V€8pa<s TOV dyviocTTov rpa- 

yOvStCTTVyV, dAA' 6 'E/3(0T0K/DtT0? 

Kat 6 (rvvTpo(fi€V(Dv avTOV els 
rds vvKTepLvds €/cS/30/xas TrwTTOS 
avTov <^tAos IIoAvSwpo? 8vo 
/x€V €^ avTWV €<f>6vev(Tav, tov<s 
Se aAAovs CIS (fivyrjv erpexf/av. 

'0 'EpWTOKptTOS (XTT^A^eV €tS 

Trcpirjyrja-tv Kat Kara t^v aTTov- 
crtav TOV 17 'ApcTorcra cA^ovcra 

€tS €Tri(TK€\f/LV TtJ? fXr]Tp6<S TOV 

KaTO, Tv;(ryv at'eKctAvj^ei/ oTt 6 
TpayovSwv to, e/awTiKa eKciva 
acrp^ara TyTo 6 vt^s tov TrpoiOvTV- 
ovpyov. "Ektotc 6 e/ows eyeivev 

Erotocritos fell madly in love 
with her, but being afraid to ex- 
press openly his amorous senti- 
ments, he went in the darkness 
of night under the windows of 
the palace, and there 

" he told and he recounted 
the sufferings of love, 
and how in love he was entangled 
and was frozen and was withered." 

The king and queen were 
delighted when they heard the 
sweet songs of the enamoured 

"but sweeter than to all men 
and women 
were they to Aretusa, 
and the songs in wakefulness 
often kept her." 

The king, out of curiosity, 
wishing to learn who the singer 
was, sent ten men whom he 
ordered to lie in ambush and cap- 
ture the unknown songster, but 
Erotocritos and his faithful friend 
Polydoros, who accompanied him 
in his nocturnal excursion?, 
killed two of them and put the 
rest to flight. Erotocritos went 
away on a journey, and during 
his absence Aretusa, going on a 
visit to his mother, discovered 
by chance that the singer of 
those love-songs was the prime 
minister's son. From that time 
the love became mutual, so that 
when Erotocritos returned from 
his journey he became aware 




a/jiot^atos, (lidre ore aravriXOiv 
€K Trj<5 7r€pir]y'q(r€(ljs rov o E/ow- 
TOKpiTos ivorja-ev on dvTrjparo 
VTTO Trj<s KoprjS. 'AAAa to ttolt]- 
/xa ilvai jxaKpov koX rj avaAvo-ts 
avTov diraiTel iroXXrjv &pav' 
Trpos Tov CTKOTTOV fxas ofxios dp- 
KovcTi 8vo rj Tpia aTrocnracrfMaTia. 
To €^rj<s elvai €k rov W fiepovs 
TOV 7roiy]fxaTos €V w TrepuypdcfieTai 
[xovopLa^ia 8vo rjyefioviov, tov 
K.prjTO'i ^aptS'^fiov KOL tov 
^KXaf3ovvov TpiTToXe/xov, tJtl'S 
eyetve Kara tovs LTnrLKovs dyco- 
va? Tovs TeXeordevras kv' Kdrjvai<i 
Ty TrpocTKX'qa-ei tov ^UpaKXeovs^ 
KaO' ovs rjyo)Vtcr67]a'av ol wept- 
(firjfjLoraTOL twv Tore rjye/xovayv. 
*0 TroLr]Tr]<s toi/ dycova tovtov 
ovofid^eu KovrapoKTvirrjixa. 

" * A/0/x.aTWO-av r^v KecfiaX-qv, to 

T/ae^t/xov dp)(rj(Tav, 

^(^iyyova-L to. KovTapia tws, 

KoX TO. '(^iapia Kivrjorav. 

*12o-av TO p,avpo v€<f>aXo, tt ave- 

/xos TO fxavL^ei, 

Kat /A€ f^povTals KOL fx d(TTpa- 

Tvals TOV Koa-fxo (fio/Sepl^eL, 

^va-a. TO ttTr' tyjv dvaToXrjv, Kal 

Vayet to 's Trjv 8va-L, 

Kavet TO 'q dvaKaTioa-i va 

'EScT^t da-TpaTTofSpovTiqa-e Trj<5 

Kp'qTrj<5 TO XtovTapt^ 

"OvTe €ts Tr]V jJiaa-)(dXrjv tov 

'i)a-(fiL^€ TO KOVTapi. 

'EfxovyKpL(T€ TTJs ^KXaf3ovvLd<s 

6 SpaKos K k^povyaTO^ 

Aoyid^€i 7r/3WT7y KOVTapca va 

rove pri^yj kutw. 

that the damsel was enamoured 
of him. But the poem is a long 
one, and its analysis requires a 
great deal of time ; two or three 
short extracts however are enough 
for our purpose. The following 
is from Part II. of the poem, in 
which is described a single com- 
bat of two princes, the Cretan 
Charidemos and the Sclavonian 
Tripolemos, which took place at 
the tournament held in Athens 
on the invitation of Heracles, 
and at which the most celebrated 
princes of those days contended. 
The poet calls this contest a 

" They armed their heads, they 

began the charge, 

they put their spears in rest and 

set their steeds in motion. 

As the sombre cloud which the 

wind drives mad 

and with thundering and with 

lightning it terrifies the world, 

it blows it from the east and it 

drives it to the west, 

and the tossing up and down 

makes it rain and snow : 

so thundered and lightened the 

Cretan lion 

when under his arm he clutched 

his spear. 

The dragon of Sclavonia bellowed 

and roared, 

he tries at the first spear-thrust 

to hurl him down. 




'^vvaTravraivovv to, dcpcd, kol 

TO. Kovrdpta 'iryjyav 

Ets T^v depa (oorav cf)T€pd, k i 

uio-dv TTOvXdKLa (fivyav. 

'^TO KovreX' 6 T/atTToAe/xo? tyjv 

Kovrapidv rov SiSct, 

K' -q/SyaXi o-Trt^ats cKarhv rh 

a-iSeph KaortSt. 

TdXoyov iyovdricre, fxa ^a/uat 

Sev ecTTpdcjirj 

Kat TO ^rjfJLiOv iir-qSy^^ev 

oXopBo 'crdv TO 'Xd(f)L. 

"AXXo KttKO 8ei/ yJKafxev rj kov- 

Ttt/otot 17 fxcydXr], 

Tloltl fxk (TtSepa StTrXd 

OTKiird^eL TO K€(fidXl' 

Ai8et KL 6 [xavpos Koiravidv jxg 

rh I3apv Kovrdpi, 

TaAoyo pri^V€i dvda-KeXa p.' 

oXov Thv Kaf3aXXdprj. 

Jv't wcrdv aTTO 'ipr^Xo /Sovvt X^^' 

Tpo yapdKi Trkarj 

Kai Soxrry p.\ rov ^povna-phv 

els Tov 'ycaXov rrjv P'^crrf, 

AvaKaruHTy rd vepd Kal Kdp,rj 

d(f>pov<s KvpidroiV^ 

Fevry p.€ydXrj Tapa^y) 's t^? 

6dXa(ro-a<s tov Trdrov, 

"ETOtas Xoyyjs i/SpovT-qcre 's Tr]v 

Trecr/xaTtotv €K€lvy) 

K' 6T^t p.€ydXr) rapa^r] rrjv 

iopa eKiivrj kyeivr]." 

The mighty warriors meet and 

their spears went 

like feathers in the air, and like 

birds they flew. 

Tripolemos delivered his epear- 

thnist on the forehead, 

and the steel casque threw out 

a hundred sparks. 

The horse knelt down but did 

not roll upon the ground 

and in a moment leapt upright 

like a deer : 

no other harm did the great 

spear-thrust do, 

for with double steel he protects 

his head ; and he gives, 

in his turn, the brave fellow, 

a thrust with his heavy spear, 

throws the horse upon his back, 

with his rider and all ; 

and as from a lofty cliff a mass 

of rock falls down and plunges 

with a sound of thunder in 

the sea upon the shore, 

flings up and down the water and 

makes foam like of the waves, 

and great turmoil arises at the 

bottom of the sea, 

in such a way he thundered in 

that fall 

and such great turmoil at that 

time arose." 

A€v TrapyjXOe ttoXvs Kaipb<s 
fierd Tov<s Ittttlkovs aytovas Kat 
6 fSaa-LXevs tov Bv^^avTiov 
j TTf/x^as TT/acor/Jets €^>yT€t TTapd 
TOV 'H/aaKAeov? ti]V 'Aperova-av 
ios a-v^vyov Bed rov vlov tov* 
dAA' 7} Kop-T] rjpveiTO 7rpo<j>a(TL- 
^opevi] OTL Sev 'ijdeXe v' diro- 

No long time had passed after 
the tournament when the king 
of Byzantium sent ambassadors 
and asked Heracles for Aretusa 
as a wife for his son ; but the 
damsel refused, urging as a pre- 
text that she did not wish to 
go far away from her dearest 




[xaKpvvdfi Ttuv (faXraTiov yovecov 
T7]<s' TOVTO 8e crcf)68pa Trapiopytcre 
Tov *H/oaKAea rov biroiov r) 
^v)(^rj krapdydr] koX e/Spa^ev rj 
KapSta TOV 
"*2av TO OepfJLo 's ra KapjSovva, 

TTOV 6 X'^X'^^^ '^^ (^OVCTKCUVei, 

Kat 'iraipvei ro air' ra fSadrja 

KL airavoi rb (rrjKiovet' 
Kat TraAt rj Xavpa Trj<s (fxnTia^ 

TO ' ^avaKaTatfSd^ei 
Kat Sev evpLCTKei avaTra^tv 

TTore 6(r' (Itpa f^pd^ei" 

'ETretS^ o/xo)§ kKeivq kirkpLevev 
dpvovjxevT], 6 '^UpaKXrj'S ttc/x- 
^as OTTlVco TOV<S 7r/0€O-^eis, €Tt- 
p^ioprjcrev avTrjv dvi]\eio<s' iKOxj/e 
TTjV ^avdrjv avTrjs KOfirjv kol 
€v8v(ras avTrjv evSvfiaTa TTevi\pd 
Trjv cKActcre /Aero. ttJs Trtcrr^s 
avTTJs Tpo<f)Ov ^po(T-vvr)S €IS 
" '2 Ti)v7rAeta ^eipoTeprj (f)v\aK7j, 

's T^v TrAeta a-KOTetvLacrfxevrjj 
"OTTOviTav fSovpKa Kat TrrjXd, 

T^v €Ka/x€ k' €/jt7ratvei, 
Kat j3LyXaT(i)povs 'imttlcttlkovs 

vd j^Xkirovv V^ €^(o fSdvcL^ 
M' oyKta ^(o/xt K^t oyKta vepov, 

ooro ya /A^ Vo^av>y." 

*0 'Ep(OTOK/)tTos SiereAct Tore 
e^opicTTOs €v ^vjSoL^, Kat Ikci 
cfiaOe TTjV (^vXdKLCTLV Trjs 
'ApeTOva-as. *H OXixpts tjtis 
KaT€KvpLevcr€v avTov 8ev Tre/Ji- 
ypdc{)€Tai, Slotl 6 dTv^rfs 
" /^\v er/acoye, 8\v cTrtvev, 

Ol^Se 7rOT€ KOLfXaTO, 
'2 TOV Xoyia-fXOV €KpiV€TO, 

parents. This greatly enraged 
Heracles, and his soul was dis- 
turbed and his heart boiled 

" like hot water upon coals 
when its boiling swells it, 
and takes it from the depths 
and raises it above, 
and back again the fire's heat 
brings it down below, 
and it does not find repose 
ever as long as it boils." 

But since she persisted in her 
refusal, Heracles, after sending 
back the ambassadors, punished 
her without mercy : he cut off 
her golden hair and, putting 
shabby clothes on her, shut her 
up in prison w4th her faithful 
nurse Phrosyne, 

" into the worst prison, 

into the darkest, 

where mire was, and mud, 

he made her enter, 

and trusty guards he places - 

to watch from the outside, 

with an ounce of bread and an 

ounce of water, 

as much as not to die." 

Erotocritos was at that time 
exiled in Euboea and there he 
heard of Aretusa's imprison- 
ment. The grief that took 
possession of him cannot be 
described, for the unfortunate 

" ate nothing, drank nothing, 
nor ever slept, 
in thought he was being tried. 



9 Tov VOW €TvpavvaTO. 
1,v\vd, (Tvxv' dva(rr€va^€, 

rd /xeAr; tov Kpvalvav, 
Boraiua Sev rove '(fickovv, 

ytarpol 8ev tov vytaivav, 
'OAdreAa aTro/a/aiKTryKe, 

Tr]v vetoTrjv dirapvyjOrj, 
-Mtttv (o/aav €ts dvdira-^iv 

7roT€ ^\v iypoiKT^Orj. 
MuKpatvovv yeveta Kai /xaXAia, 

dAAacra' 17 'cTToprja-L tov, 
Kdv' dXXrjv oxj/ dcrova-ovfir) 

KOI XvU>V€t 7] 'Slkt/J tov. 

'KfxavpLo-ev, ao-;(7^/xi(re, 
'■s TO, ^€va Vov yvpL^ct, 

K't OTTOIOS K^l aV TOV €KaT€;(C 

TrAetb 6ev tov€ yvuypi^ei." 

OvTO) TraprjXdov TpCa trr) koL 
rjp^ero to rcrapTov ot€ ^i^p^y) 
tcfidaacv els tov 'EpwTOKptTOV 
oTt 6 la-^vpos ftacriXevs Trjs 
BAa;(ias BAavTto-T/aaTOS Krjpv- 
^a? TToAe/iOV KttTa tov *H/9a- 
kAcovs ^A^€ /x€Ta fxeydXov 
(TTpaTOv KOI eiroXiopKei Tot? 
'A^yjvas. Xwpts vet X^^ Kaupov 
rpkxet €t? /Atav [xdyicra-av^ y]Ti<s 
BiSei avTW 8vo (f>iaXi8ia' rh ev 
c£ avTWv Tre/oiei^ev vypov Ti 
8vm/x€V0v va fieTafiaXXy kv 
aKapei rh XP^I^^ tov TrpocroWov 
KOI Tiov ^et/acov €is /xeAav, to 
8e ttAAo (Tepov vypov e^ov Tryv 
6vva/xtv va eTravafftepy to ^v- 
criKov ^pw/vta. Nt^^etS 6 'Epw- 
roKpiTos Sid TOV TrpwTOv vypov 
cyctvc fxeXas ws KlOioxj/, koX 
onrXicrOeis (f>6dv€L Ta^ews Tra/oa 

TO 0-T/)aT07r€8oV TWV TToAtO/QKOVV- 

T(ov Ttts 'A^-^vas BAa^wv kol 

and in his fancy he was tortured. 
Often, often did he groan, 
liis limbs were chilled, 
herbs did him no good, 
doctors did not cure him, 
he utterly abandoned himself, 
and renounced his youth, 
a single hour in repose 
he was never observed. 
His beard and hair grew long, 
his appearance was changed, 
he assumed another and strange 
look and his own melted away. 
He became dark, he became ugly 
while he wandered in foreign 
lands, and any one who knew him 
no longer recognised him." 

In this way three years passed, 
and the fourth was beginning 
when a report reached Erotocritos 
that Vlandistratos, the powerful 
King of Wallachia, had declared 
war against Heracles and had 
come with a large army and 
was besieging Athens. Without 
losing time he runs to a sorceress 
and she gives him two flasks : 
one of them contained a liquid 
which had the power of changing 
at once the colour of the face and 
hands to black, and the other 
another liquid which had the 
power of restoring the natural 
colour. Erotocritos, washing 
himself with the first liquid, be- 
came as black as an Aethiop, 
and having armed himself, soon 
arrives at the camp of the Wal- 
lachians who were besieging 
Athens, and hides himself in 



KpvTTreraL €is airoKevrpov tl 

fi€pos' iKeWev Se 

" Kdde Taxrj^ (rrjKwvero, 

Ki MS ijOeXe ypoLK-qa-y 
N' avTtAaA^^cr' rj a-dXTTLyya, 

/SovKivov vd KTVTT'qcry, 
'FiKa/SaXXUeve ws aeros 

a^ovBd^ovras rrjv (rrpdra, 
Ktti yu,€ T^v w/)av €(f)6av€ 

'ttov (T/JLtyav ra cf>ov(raTa. 
K' €Kav' dv€jJL0cnp6^iXa 

KOL Tapaxr) fJLeydXrj, 
K' efSoTjOa irdvra fxid<s /xe^tas, 

k' eTrAi^ywve rqv aXX-q. 
*2av 8pdK0<s ecfio^ept^e, 

'ardv AeoPTttS T^rj 7roAe/x.a, 
K' 01 BXdxoi vd Tove O(i)povv 

(XTTO fiaKpds eT/06/xa." 

(TTparov TOV Ka^' ckcjicttt^v eAar- 
Tov fxeuov d7r€<^acrio-€ vol awa- 
BpoLO-rj oAas Tols Svvdfxeis tov 
Kal vd Kd/XY) yevLK-qv e^oSov 
Kara T'Jys ttoAcws* 6 o-Tparb? 
AoiTTov lopfJLYjcre Xlav Trpiot Kal 
(Tvvy]cj:)6rj e^co ttJs ttoAcws /^d^r] 
alfJLaTrjpd Kad' y]V Trap' oXiyov 
€(f>ovev€TO 6 ^UpaKXrjs eav 
cfiOdcras eyKat/ows 8ev eofw^'ep' 


BAa^ot rjrrr^OevTes ecfivyov 
KaKr]v KaKMS, 6 Se epaarrrjs rrjs 
'Ap€Tov(ras viifiOeh 8id tov vypov 
TTJs dXXrjs <fiLdX'Q<s dvkXafBf. ttjv 
dp\aiav avTov /xop(f>rjv Kal dva- 
yvdipLcrdels rj^i(Jo9r] Itti reXovs 
vd vvficfievdy avTrjV Iv /xeo-w 
peydXr]^ X^P^'^ '^^^ ayaA- 

T6 Trotrjfia tov l^opvdpov 6ev 

some out-of-the-way place : from 


" every morning he arose ; 

and as soon as he heard 

the trumpet resounding, 

the bugle blowing, 

he rode like an eagle 

in haste along the road 

and arrived just in time 

when the armies met, 

and he made a whirlwind 

and a great turmoil, 

and he always helped one side 

and did harm to the other. 

Like a dragon he frightened 

them, like a lion he fought them, 

and the "Wallachians, to see him 

at a distance, trembled." 

Vlandistratos, seeing his army 
daily decreasing, determined to 
collect all his forces and make a 
general attack upon the city : 
the army accordingly advanced 
very early in the morning, and 
there was fought outside the 
city a sanguinary battle in 
which in another moment 
Heracles would have been killed 
if Erotocritos had not oppor- 
tunely arrived and saved him. 
The Wallachians, defeated, fled 
in. utter disorder, and Aretusa's 
lover, washing himself with the 
liquid of the other flask, re- 
covered his original appearance I 
and, being recognised, had at last 
the satisfaction of marrying herj 
in the midst of great rejoicing | 
and exultation. 

The poem of Cornaro is not| 



ilvai €VKara(f>p6v7)Tov' r) Se 
Kp^jTiKY) SidkeKTOs Sev /JAeTrw 
va Siacficpy ttoXv t-JJs kaXov- 

fliVr^S ^KX.X.7JVLKTJS TOV IS' Kttt 

IZ' aliovo<s. Tiopa KOLfiere /jlol 
TYjv X^P''^ ^^ P'^'' OLvayviocrrjre 
Kav€v oLTrocrTraa-fxaTLOV Ik rrjs 
'KpoxfytXrjs TOV X.opTaK'q, d(f>ov 
TT^WToV fJLOi €L7rrjT€ oAtya TLvd 
Trepl rrjs vTrodkcTtios jov 8pd- 

¥iV)(^apLarTO)<i. *H VTToOecriS 
€X€i (US e^yjs' ^tAoyovos 6 
^acrtAevs ttJs Me/x^tos KareXafSe 
rhv Opovov cfiovevcras tuv irp^cr- 
l3vT€pov avTov d8e\<f>ov fxeTo, 
Twv Svo TeKVOiv TOV. 'Ev fidxi) 
TLvl Kara t^v "Arw AiyvTrroi/ 
uTreKTetve tov fiaa-iXka rrjs X^^/aas 
exemys Kat toi^ luov avrou 
namperov eXa^ev alxf^dXiDTOV ' 
€7r€iSrj Se oStos €cfidvr) dv8p€L0<s 
Kat TTto-Tos €ts avTov, /Ltera 
Tra/aeAei^o-tv Kaipov Kareo-Tryo-ev 
avTov dpxi'O'TpdT-qyov 7rao-a>v 
auTou Twi/ 8wa/>ie(ov. 'O $tAo- 
yov'os €t)(€ Ovyarepa wpaLOTdrrjv 
6voixa^oix€vr]v 'Epit)(f)iXr]v rjv, 
X^pi'S avTos VOL yviopL^y rt, 
ivvix<^€vdr] 6 IIavdp€TO<s. Aei^ 
irapyjXOe ttoAvs Katpbs Kat 8vo 
lyye/Aoves yetTovevoi'Twv KpaTcov 
^r]Tov(ri rrjv X^^P* '^'?^ /Saa-iXo- 
iratSos* TOT€ fiado)v on 17 
Bvydrrip tov yj8rj -^ro v€VVfX(f>€v- 
fifvr) fxcrd tov Xlavaperov, 

CU^V5 <fiOV€V€t aUTOV, Kat KOfXt^€L 

€is T'^i' dvyaT€pa tov evrbs 

AcKavrys ras X^^P^^ '^^^ ''"*?*' 

KapStav TOV dyaTTi^Tov avTrj'S 

dvSpos. *H 'Epax^iAry aTToretVei 

at all to be despised : the 
Cretan dialect does not, I see, 
ditt'er much from the colloquial 
Greek of the 16th and 17th 
centuries. Now do me the 
favour to read me some short 
extract from the Erophile of 
Khortatzi after telling me first a 
little about the subject of the 

With pleasure. The subject 
is as follows : Philogonos, King 
of Memphis, took possession of 
the throne after murdering his 
elder brother with his two 
children. In a battle in Upper 
Egypt he killed the king of that 
country and took his son Panare- 
tos prisoner ; and since the latter 
showed himself brave and faith- 
ful to him, in course of time he 
made him commander-in-chief 
of all his forces. Philogonos 
had a very beautiful daughter 
named Erophile, whom, without 
his knowing anything about it, 
Panaretos married. No long 
time passed before two princes 
of the neighbouring kingdoms 
sought the hand of the princess : 
then, learning that his daughter 
was already married to Panaretos, 
he immediately killed him and 
carried to his daughter the 
hands and the heart of her 
beloved husband in a basin. 
Erophile addresses a long dis- 



fxaKpov Xoyov eis rov crKXrjpo- 
KfipStov irarepa Tr)<s koI hreira 
(f)OV€V€i eavTYjv evcoTTiov rov 8ta 
^LcfiiSiov. Ai 8c rov ^opov 
a7roT€Ao{;(rai 6epa7raLvi8€<s rrjs 
'E/oox^iA^^S €v9vs opfxCicrL Kar' 
avrov KOL ws (ppevqrLiocraL Mat- 
vaSes Kara(nrapd(T(TOV(Tiv avrov 
dvrjXeiJ^s. Mera ravra cf)atv€raL 
TO cfida-fjia rov cj^ovevOevros 
dSeXffiOV Ttarovv ev dpcdp^fSo) Itti 
rov TTTco/xaro? rov ^acrtXew?, kol 
ovro) X-jyet r^ rpayoi8La. T5 
€^rj<s (XTroo-Tracr/xa ecvat Ik t^s 
dp)(rjs €7r€LG-o8tov rov 8pdjxaro<5 
rovrov, TrapicrraraL Se Saiyncov 
ofiiXwv Trpo'S dXXov<i 8at/xovas, 
€K 8k rov rpoTTov ryjs o/xtXLas 
rov (fiaiverau ort efvat 6 *Ea>- 

" nvev^ar' aTrb rov ov/oavdv 
*S Tov"A87^ '^(j)pi(rp.iva, 

'2 TT^l/ KoXaCTL aVVrpOcfiOL fJiOV 

KOI 8ovXoi 'adv KOL fxiva, 
K/otVo) Tras eVas (xtto eras 

KaXiorara Ovfidrat 
IIws /xera /xeva /xtol <^opa 

yu.e 8o^a KaroiKare 
2 Tct v^' €7ravw Tov/oavou, 

Kat TTcus 's T^ H'^XV CKetVr/ 
Tr)v ijio^eprj 'ttov fierd p,as 

Kol Twv ^etov eyeivrj, 
To)(a '^o/xef dvrt8iKr) rrjv rv\r) 

ott' oAot o/xa8c 
KctTw /xe TocTTy /xas \rp07rrj 

p,d<s €ppi]^€ '? TOV "AS?; • 
K't dvT6S Try '/x6/3a r^ Xapjrpd 

KOI rov KaddpLov ijXio, 
K't dvris rr) XdfxxpL Kal rh <fi(jjs 

(j!)ix6p(f> da-rcpd) ;(6At(u, 

course to her hard-hearted father 
and then kills herself in front of 
him wdth a dagger. The hand- 
maidens of Erophile, who form 
the chorus, at once rusli upon 
him and like frenzied Maenads 
mercilessly tear him to pieces. 
After this there comes upon the 
scene the apparition of his 
murdered brother trampling in 
triumph upon the body of the 
king, and so ends the tragedy. 
The following extract is from 
the beginning of an episode of 
this play : a demon is represented 
talking to other demons, and 
from the style of his conversa- 
tion it appears that he is Lucifer. 

" spirits from heaven 

expelled to Hades, 

my companions in Hell 

and slaves like me, 

I imagine every one of you 

very well remembers 

how with me at one time 

you lived in glory 

on the heights above Heaven, 

and how at that battle, 

the fearful one, which between us 

and the gods took place, 

then we had Fortune against us 

so that all together 

down with so much shame I 

she cast us into Hell ; 

and instead of the bright day 

and the pure sun, and instead 

of the brightness and the light 

of a thousand beautiful stars, 



w TULKTaffia KOLTO) (TTiKOfXat 
t' "-^Stj (TKOT€LVLa(Tfl€Va, 

AT a/xerpais Ao;^ttts Kal (fxDTtat^ 

irdvTa TvpavvLor/xeva' 
Ivat K€iv airovvat TrXcLorepo 

'Sere Trjv ope^tv tov, 
'^ rh Odvaro yid \6yov fias 

eSojKe rh irai^iv rov 
K' ripde K €Kpov(r€\l/€ ^rj/jnb 

Tov "A5>; K €y8v(T€ pa<s 
Kat pova)(^ds T^rj KoAa(rts 

Tt] X6)(rj dcfy-qKi jxas' 
Kat viKrjTrjs iyvpicre 

TrepLCCTLa Ttfxrjfievo'S 
*^ rhv ovpavo Kal crrkK^Tai 

Trao-' (lipa So^ao-yuevo?. 
Ma yidvra r^rj Trakyov^ Kavfiovs 

Kal TO TraXijo fxas ttovo 
Tiopa ' ^avaOvfJLL^ovTas 

'5 oXovs o-a$ Kaivovpycovd) ; 
To, Trepaa-fxev as 7ra^(o/xe, 

Kat K€iva 'irov fids KOLvet 
Th (r,]fM€po Tra? eVas jmas 

*S TO \oy Lcr poi' t a? /Sdvy, 
ITws Trao-xet Kat (TTO^a^cTat 

fi '4va Kal fjb aAAo t/dotto 
To TrX7]0o<s oAo fier avTW 

va (rvprj twv dvOpwmo. 
*AiT€ \ rd Tepoa-okiJfia 

TTWS efvat pa^o}fx€vot 


Kal Trd(T\ov Bvpnap^kvoL 
T^rj (f)tX.ov<i /xas T^rj 'p^ttlcttlkovs 

T^y TovpKovs V d<fiavicrov 
K' iXevdeptd r^Tj X/ato-Ttavovs 

T^ €)(^Opovs /Aas vd yvpLcrov." 

'FtV TOIS €^'>)s oAiyOtS (TTL\OLS 

6 xopo-s Trpoa-ayopevei tov ^Atov • 

I am staying down below 

in the gloomy abyss of Hell, 

with endless heat and flames 

always in torture ; 

and what is more, 

see his whim : 

on account of us, to death 

he gave his son ; 

and he came and quickly raided 

Hades and stripped us 

and only left us 

the heat of Hell ; 

and a victor he went back 

superlatively honoured 

to Heaven and remains 

for ever glorified. 

But why our ancient sufferings 

and our ancient trouble 

now recalling,. 

do I repeat them to you all ? 

Let us quit the past ; ^ 

and what he does to us 

this day let each one of us 

fix in his mind, 

how he strives and aims 

in one way ^nd another 

all the multitude of men 

to draw to his side. 

See, in Jerusalem 

how there are collected 

so many faithful generals of his, 

and they strive with rage 

our trusty friends 

the Turks to annihilate, 

and to give back liberty 

to our enemies the Christians." 

In the following 

few lines 
the chorus addresses the Sun : 

'AKTtva Tovpavov xapiT(t)fX€vr]^ " gracious ray of heaven 



'AtTOV /X€ T^ (jUiiTld (TOV TY) /XC- 
'S oXt] Xapi^eiS ^WS TTjV OLKOV- 


Tov ovpavb (TToXi^et 's fxia k 

€t? aXXr] 

Mepid, k'l oXy] ty] yTJTropTrarrj^id 


At^ws TTore t:^ a-rpdra t^y] vd 
Merct rY]v'Ep(D4>tXr]V fjiera- 
^aivofiev els ttjv Boctkottov- 
Aav, y]TLS etvat oypacov ttoljxc- 
viKov TTOirjfia rov YL' aiMVos ' 
€ypd(f)r] Be vtto tov e^ 'Attoko- 
piavoiv rr\<i Kprjrrjs Ni/coAaov 
ApLfJbVTLKOv Kal krvTrtaOrj to 
TT/owTOV €V BeveTt^ TW 1627. 
'AAA' €KTOT€ dvcTvirtiiOr) TToXXd- 

K6S, 6tOTt €Tt Kat VVl^ eiVttt 

7rpo(TcfiLX€<5 dvdyva)crfjia irapd tw 
*EAA7^vtK<p Aaw. 'H vTroOea-LS 
TOV TTOL'qfJiaTO's etVat (XTrAovo-TaTiy' 
TTOLfJirjv veapos Ivw Trpmav nvd 
€^o(TK€ rd Trpo/^ara avrov €VTo<s 
T€pTrvordT7]S KOtAaSos, 

" Meo-a 'o-e S^vSpr), 'o-€ At^aSta, 

'o-€ TrordfJiLa, 

'2€ Spocrepd Kal rpvcf)€pd KaXd- 


Metra '9 to, SevSpr] Ketva r dv- 

'IIov fSocTKav rd 'Aa^aKia Tot 


'2 T^ yr} Ti) Spocrepv) 's to. 


'II0V yAvKOKeAaSovo-av to, ttov- 

XdK ta," 

d-TravT^ KaXXifiopcfiov iroLfieviSa 
f^ocTKovcrav rd Trot/xvta tov 7ra- 

which with thy great flame 

givest light to all the world, 

thy path adorns Heaven from 
one end to another 
and all the earth, 

without ever its course erring." 


After the EropMle we pass 
to the Boscopoula, which is a 
beautiful pastoral poem of the 
17th century: it was written 
by Nicolas Drimyticos of Apo- 
corona in Crete, and was first 
printed in Venice in 1627 ; but 
since then it has been several 
times reprinted, for it is even 
now favourite reading w^ith the 
Greek people. The subject of 
the poem is a very simple one : 
a young shepherd, while he was 
grazing his sheep one morning 
in a most charming valley, 

"among trees, meadows and 


in cool and fresh beds of reeds, 

among those flowering trees 

where the dear little fawns were 


on the cool ground and in the 


where the birds were sweetly 


meets a beautiful shepherdess 
feeding the flocks of her father, 




^fl€pa<S €?X^^ dTTiXOii €tS AttTO- 

fuiov va Koxpy Xidovs 5ta tov 
V€pifSoXov ttJ? jxdvSpas tov. 
*H (TvvavTjyo-ts §€1/ VTTTJp^eV dv€V 
aTTOTeAecr/xaTO?, StoTt 6 Travra- 
)(0V 7rap(i)V "E/Dws ero^cucrcv 
d/xcfiOTcpiov ras KapSias, Kal jxer 
oAiyas rjfiepas ■qppafSujVLordrjaav 
KpvcfiL(D<s. Kara tyjv ripikpav 
6t€ e/xeAAe va €7r Lo-rpeilrrj €k tov 
kaTOfietov 6 iraTr^p ttJs vlas, 6 
ipaoTTTjS avTrj<i aTrep^o/xevos tt^ 
V7r€(T\€0rj va kTravkXBrj /xera eVa 
/*^va Kai vet (rjTy'^a-Yj avTrjv ws 
crv^vyov Trapot tov Trar/oos rrys* 
dAA' 6 aTVxrjs ao-^ev^cras ev to) 
fUTa^v Seu y)8vi^y]0rj va (fivkd^y 
irhv Aoyov tov, Kal yXOe /xovov 
*~' aveAa/?€V Ik tt^s d(r6€veia<i. 
*I8ov TTws 7r€pLypd(f>€L Trjv (Tvvdv- 
■IV avTOu /xera tov Trar/oos 


who at that time had gone to a 
quarry to hew stones for tlie 
enclosure of his sheepfold. The 
meeting was not without conse- 
quences, for omnipresent Cupid 
shot his arrows into both their 
hearts, and after a few days they 
became secretly betrothed. On 
the day when the young girl's 
father was about to return from 
the quarry, her lover, going 
away, promised her to come 
back after a month and ask for 
her from her father as a wife ; 
but the poor fellow, falling ill 
in the interval, was unable to 
keep his word, and only came 
when he had recovered from his 
illness. Here is the way in 
which he describes his meet- 
ing with the father of his be- 
trothed : 

»"'2 evov f^ovvov Kopcjiijj^s cva 

lavoiyu) Kal Ooypu) eVa yepov- 
Ta KL, 
c^AcTre KOLTTOLa irpofiaTa 6 
*ASt;va/xos Kal fjiavpo(f>op€fx€vos. 

" Upon the top of a hill, on a 


I look and see a little old man, 

and he was tending some sheep, 

poor fellow, 

feeble and dressed in mourning. 

^<f>vpi^o) Kal ^(ova^w, ^atpcTw 


Kai y la ttjv BocTKOTTOvAav IpwTw 


Me <f>6f3ov Kal /xe Tpofxov tov 

I Kai TO. Scv i^^cAa aKovetv €<f>ov- 
m Kpovfiovv. 


I whistle and I call, I greet 


and ask him about Boscopoula, 

with fear and trembling I ex- 
plained to him 

and listened to what I did not 
like to hear. 



VpoLKUi Tov yepov' '/xTrpos Kat 
TopL^tKo TTJs P'OLpa'STOvdrifJid^eL, 
Kai KAat'ovras fJLOv Xeyei, ' H 
'ireOvfJiid (TOV 
'KiroBave, Sev elv TrXetd Kovrd 


At' avTrjvT] 'ttov 'pii)T^<s ■^tov 
TratSt pLov, 


7ravT0)(i^ piov, 

Mot 6 xdpos TTjV irrrjpev (XTt' 

opiTrpo's pov, 

Kat OdpL7r(i)(T€ Tot 'pLaTta kol to 

<^ws /xov. 

KaAoKa/3(5r^ •^tov Trdvra koi 

X^P^ P'OV, 

'Avavra^ts iiroXXr^ 's to, yepaTud 


Ma 6 Xoyio-pLos OTTov^e irdcra 


IlapdKatpa ttjv ef^aXe 's tov 

■X- * -^ * * 

Ta 'vrjdpepd Ttys ^Tav €i/'€S vte 

Trjv w/aa ttov ^^^xj^vya kp.tX'qcrk 

HapayycXid pi d(f)rJK€, " Ila '5 to, 

" Evas KttAbs ^oo-Kos ^eAei Tre/oa- 

McAax/ootvos, Atyvos Kat yeAa- 


Neos Ktti pavpopLpLdrrjSf *Siw/xa- 


Kat ^eAet cr' epojTi^o-ri oyid vd 

Via Kiivr] TTOV dTridaveKot xddr], 

1 hear the old man and at first 

he groans, 

he reviles the destiny of his fate 

and weeping he says to me, 

' The object of your desire 

is dead, she is no longer near 


She whom you ask after was 

my child, 

my courage in my poverty and 

my hope, 

but death took her from before 


and darkened my eyes and my 


Good -hearted she was always 

and my joy, 

a great comfort to my old age, 

but the anxiety which she had 

every night 

untimely cast her into Hades. 

Last night was the ninth day 

[since she died], my son. 

At the time when she expired 

she spoke to me : 

she left me a message : " Here 

in the woods 

a handsome shepherd will pass, 

dark-complexioned, slight, and 

youthful and black-eyed, talka- 

and he will ask you, that he 
may learn about her who died 
and was lost. 



Kai va Tov '7rf}<i ttw? etv diro- 

Mot Sev TOV k-rja-fiov^ ttot r) 


Kai a9 ryv Xv7n]dy kol as ryv 


To, povya TOV yid Xoyov rr^s va 


i'rjv dcfiop/xyjv tov Ve Trws ttjv 

'^crdv ilSev i^/xc/oai? kol Tre/jacre, 

ZrjjXib dX-qcr/xovrjorc Ttfv Tyv 


Fia K€ivo WavaTioOrj ircKpa- 

Kat aTTo TO, (rovcrovfXLa ckcivos 


Kat KAatyet ae 17 KapSid fiov 

KOL TTOVel 0-€, 

Ftar ^y^eAa TratSt /xov va ere 


Kat ^r^^a * p.iXri[xkva yta tov 

yd/xo.' " 

Taura a/covo-as 6 aTvX'*)^ 
jSooTKhs KaTkcTTiq dTraprjyoprjTO'i^ 
Kai /xera^as els tov Ta<^ov rr/s 
dyainjTrj'i tov opKi^eTat va /ca- 

TaklTTYj TO TTOtfXVLOV Kol VO, /Oll/'>y 

Tbv avAov TOV, Kat €;)(wv (os 
fxovov (rvvTpo<f)ov to Acvkov 
apviov, oTTcp eAa/?ev ws 8w/3ov 
Tra/Qo, ttJs dyaTTT^TTjs tov, va 
vepLipeprjTaL ets to, Sao-iy Kat 
tovs Spvfiovs. 'I80V 6 6pK0<5 
avTov ' 

and you are to tell him that 

she is dead 

and never forgot him, the poor 


and let him grieve for her and 

let him weep for her, 

and dye his clothes [black] on 

her account. 

Tell him that the cause why he 

lost her 

was that as she saw the days 

passing, and that he soon forgot 

her, poor girl, 

through that she died in sor- 

And from your looks you are 


and my heart weeps for you and 

feels for you, 

for I wanted to make you my 


and I had talked about the 

wedding.' " 

On hearing this, the unhappy 
shepherd was inconsolable, and, 
going to the tomb of his beloved 
one, takes an oath to abandon 
his flock and throw away his 
flute and, having as his only 
companion the white lamb which 
he had received as a present 
from his darling, to wander 
about in the woods and the 
thickets. This is his oath : 

" K't OVTaS jSpOVT^ KL da-TpdffiTi] 

" and when it rains and lightens 
and snows, 


Kavels fSocTKos 's ra opt] 8ev 

Tores eyo) ets rot fSovva kol els 

ra op-q 

Not KXaiyo) avT'qvrjv TrjV irav- 

c^pya Koprj. 

K'l orav 6 yjXios Katrj Trer/aais, 

K'l oXoL (TLp^iOVOVV 's TOV ScvSpOV 

TO, (fivWa, 

Kat 'Trdyy 6 fBocrKos Spocna 


'Eyw vd 'fiai '<s rov yjXto vd fX€ 


Tavra vofMc^u) dpKovart Trpos 


Sety/xaTa rrjs }Lpr]TLKrj<; Sia- 
XeKTOv yjris vtto 7roXXd<s ctt- 
6\p€is efvat Xiav evSiacfiepovcra 
KOL d^ia ISiKrjs fxeXkrrjS. To 
EAAt^vikov Wvos Kairoi dXtfBo- 
fxevov VTTO f^apvrarov ^vyov 
fSSeXvpas Tvpavvias, ovScTrore 
kireXdOero twv Trarpiaoiv avrov 
aperdv. *H yrj^ tJtls VTrrjp^ev 
€7rl aiwvas karria twv (fiMTiov 
Kol TOV TroXLTLa-fxov, Sev e^eySap- 
f3ap(j!)$rj TcAecos, cos VTreXa/Sov 
TToXXol €V rrj Avo-ei, dAA* vtto 
to ^ocficpov (TKOTOS ttJs a/Aa^€tas 
OTTC/Q €7re/caAi;7rTev avrrjv 8l€- 
r-qpet dcrfSecTTov kol koiov to 
^(jiTTvpov T7J<s 'EAA'/yviK-^g Trat- 
Sctas. Ot rvpavvoi p^errjXOov 
Travra ra /xecra ottws Kara- 
CTTpexpuxri rriv Wvlktjv OprjcrKetav 
Kttt yAwo-crav twv vttoSovAw- 
dkvriiiv 'EAAt^j/wi/' YjpTracrav 
Tovs vaoi'S avrwi/ Kai fxere/^aXov 

and no shepherd wanders on 

the mountains, 

then on the hills and on the 


to weep for that most lovely girl. 

And when the sun burns the 

stones and the timber 

and all draw near to the leaves 

of the tree, 

and at that time the shepherd 

goes and seeks a cool retreat, 

to be in the sun for it to burn 


I think these are sufficient 
for our purpose as linguistic 
specimens of the Cretan dialect 
which under many aspects is 
very interesting and worthy 
of special study. The Greek 
nation, though crushed under 
the heavy yoke of a hateful 
despotism, never forgot the 
virtues of their ancestors. The 
land which had [been for ages 
a focus of enlightenment and 
civilisation did not lapse com- 
pletely into barbarism, as many 
people in the West supposed, 
but, in the deep darkness 
of ignorance which overspread 
her, she preserved unextin- 
guished and burning the vital 
spark of Greek learning. The 
tyrants pursued every method 
to destroy the national religion 
and the language of the en- 
slaved Greeks : they took away 
from them their churches and 


ttl)T0l>5 €IS T€/l€Vy], CKXeuTav 
TO. TToXvdpiOjxa avTWV (ryoXela 
OTTiDS KaracrW^o'oxrLV avTOV<s afia- 

Oii'S Kol TaTTCtVOTJS* €tS TfcVttS 

€7rap)(^Las Kal ras yXiocrcras 
TToXXatv aTTiKOxj/av ottws <f)6(^ov 
e/JLTTvevcroxTiv els tov<5 aXXov<s 
"KXXrjvas va fxr) o/jllXwctl rrjv 
/xrjTpLKrjv avTuyv yXOxrcrav ' aAAa 
irdvTa ravra ra cfio/^epa /cat 
KaradXiTTTLKa pkrpa ov^^v lct- 
\v(rav oTTfos dva)(^ai,Ticr(x)(TL ttjv 
TTpos Tot Trpocro) opixrjv ruiv 
'EAXt^vwv, wcrrc ol KaTaOXi- 
ftovT€S avTovs d(firJKav errl 
TcXovs TO. Trpdyiiara va ^aivuxTL 
rhv (f)V(TLKov avToiv povv. "Ev 
riVL SiaTpi/Sy Sr^poa-tevOeLO-r) 
T(p 1843 ^^ '^'^ 'Ao-kAt^ttiw, 
d^ioAoyo) laTpLKi^ 'irepioSiKt^ 

€kSl8oP€V(i) T0T€ €1/ 'A^T^Vttl?, 6 

2. K. OlKOVopos Xeyer " Kat 
rvpavvovpivoi Kal TroXvTpoTrtos 
KaTaTpv\6pevoi ol "EAAryve? 
ovSeTTore SteAiTTov t^pvovres Kal 
piKpd Kal p€t(ova cfipovrLcrTT^pia 
TraiScvovTes ev tovtol<s tovs veovs 
Kal KocpovvTiS rd<5 \pv)(^ds. 
"KvOcv p\v yap rj kolvy] tov 
opOoSo^ov irXrjpiopaTOS rpocfios 
*KKKXrj(Tiay Kal ol rrapa ry 

€^OVa-t<^ V7ryjp€T0VVT€S ov /xovov 
€7rl Tov dotSipov MavpoKopSd- 
Tov Kal €cf>€^7J<i evSo^oL yevopevoL 
Kal rjyepovLKol dvSpes, dXXd Kal 
01 TrpOTCpOV ttTTO Tivos KOLvrjs 
VTrrjpecTLas Kara tottovs ytvo- 
p€VOL yviiKTTol TTapd TO IS 6vm- 

O-TatS, oToV TrpO€(TT<i)T€<S €7rap)(^- 

iwv Kal dXXoL, kripiodiv TrdXtv 
dvSpes IpiropiKol Kal (fnXaTroSr]- 

turned them into mosques : they 
closed their numerous schools 
so as to render them ignorant 
and subservient. In some pro- 
vinces they even cut out the 
tongues of many of them, in 
order to inspire terror in the 
other Greeks and so deter them 
from speaking their mother- 
language : but all these terrible 
and oppressive measures had no 
power to check the onward 
movement of the Greeks, so that 
at last their persecutors allowed 
matters to take their natural 
course. In a treatise published 
in 1843 in the Asclepios, an ex- 
cellent medical periodical in cir- 
culation at that time in Athens, 
S. C. Oeconomos says : " Though 
living under a tyranny and in 
many ways enduring abject 
sufferings as the Greeks were, 
they never left off establishing 
schools, some small, some larger, 
and in these educated their 
youth and adorned their minds. 
On the one hand, the Church, 
the common nurse of the ortho- 
dox communion, and those in 
the service of the government, 
not only those who at the time 
of the celebrated Maurocordatus 
and subsequently became fam- 
ous and rose to princely rank, 
but also those who in former 
times by some service to the 
state in different places had 
become known to their rulers — 
for example, the leading men 
in the provinces and others ; 


fjLOi Kol evKT'qfxoves, ofioOv/xaSov 
ol TravTcs 6pfJiu>jJievoL^ Kat Xoyots 
KOL TrpocTTaarLai'S Kal 8a7rdvaLS 
aSpats a-vvereXovv els avcTTaa-tv 
€KTraL6evTtK(j}V KadiSpv/xaToyv. 
'Atto t'^s }^(DvcrTavTLV0V7r6X.e(ii<s 

KOL 7rpO<S €0) KOL 77/309 8vcrfMa<i 

Trjs '^ISiXXrjVLKTJs 7^s, p^^XP^ '^^^ 
avTwv r<jiv a/c/owv t^s 'ETrra- 
vqa-QV, ovSepita ttoXls vTry^pyev 
iTTLcryjpLos (TTepovpikvy) crxoXeiov. 
Kat avTol at TT/awrat (xp)(aL tt^s 
Karaxp'qcrrLKioTepov rov Aay- 
Kacrrkpov KaXovpLevrj-s peOoSov 
VTTTipyov TrpoTraXai kolvol kv 
TTj 'EAAaSt, KaXov Kal tovto 
KX-qpovopL-qpca Sta/xetvav uTrh twv 
XapLirpojv rrjs *EAAa8os XP^^^^- 
Kat rvTToy pacfiia ^ Karecrrr^ eis 
TYJv Kcovo-ravrtvovTroAtv €7rt 
Tov IIaTpta/o;>(ou KvptAAov rov 
AovKdp€ij)<s. 'Eicet pCerd ravra 
KOL 6 doiStpLos X.pvcravdo<5 Nora- 
pas 6 lleXo7rovvrj(rLO<^ Kal 
varepov IlaT/otap^^i^S rcot/ *Ie/3o- 
(ToXvpnov, 6 (rvyypa<fi€vs tov 
aa-rpovopLLKov u-vvrdypLaTOS, dvyj- 
yeipev da-repoa-KOTreLov Kara tov 
FaAarav. 'Ekci Kat 6 (ro(f>o^ 
' AyKvpapLos KaT€a-K€va(r€ ktJttov 
fBoTaviKov. 'O XapLTrpo'S irepl 
TTjv KaXXikpyeiav tcov ypapi- 
p^droiv (rjXos Kal twv aAAwv 
^EAAr^vtSwv ^(jo/0(3v Kat t-^s 
/Ai^T/oos rjpi<jjv GecrcraAias, •^s 
at cfivcTLKal KaXXoval KaraOkX- 
y overt Twi/ TrepLYjyy^Toiv rrjv 
irepLcpyeLav, crvve^cu/o/xa Kai tt^v 

on the other hand, again, persons 
engaged in trade and accustomed 
to reside abroad, and men of 
property, all animated by the 
same spirit, by their exhortations 
and patronage, and with lavish 
expenditure, contributed to the 
establishment of educational in- 
stitutions. From Constantinople 
towards both the east and the 
west of the Greek country as 
far as the very extremities of 
the Seven Islands there was no 
town of any note without a 
school. And the very first 
principles of what is rather 
wrongly called ' Lancaster's 
system' were long ago common 
in Greece, a noble heritage 
which had remained existing 
from the days when Greece 
was in its splendour. A press 
also was established in Con- 
stantinople in the time of the 
Patriarch Cyrillus Lucaris. It 
was there too that in later 
times the celebrated Chrysanthus 
Notaras the Peloponnesian, 
afterwards Patriarch of Jeru- 
salem, the author of the treatise 
on astronomy, erected an obser- 
vatory at Galata. It was there 
also that the learned Angyramos 
laid out a botanical garden. 
The splendid zeal for the culti- 
vation of literature exhibited by 
different Greek provinces and 
by my native Thessaly, whose 

1 This press was brought to Constantinople from London in 1627 by 
Nicodemus Metaxas, a monk of Cephallonia, but owing to the intrigues of 
the Jesuits it was afterwards suppressed. 


ifHXoTi/JLordrrjv MaKeSoviav^ Kac 
TYJv crvvevdovcTiwcrav "H-Treipov 
6 IS a-va-racriv crxoAciwv, 7) tcHv 
i'7rap\6vTO)V ^eAri'dJcrtv, ev oTs 
<u KapSiat T(Zv V€(i)v k^lovro 
t7j<s TrarpoTrapaSoTOV evcre/^eias 
rh (TUiT^'iptov xpia-fiaU) kol Trape- 
dyjyovTO €is T'^S '^FiW-qvtKTJs 
fM€yaXo<fivta'S to. dpLcrrovpyq- 
fxara €KKaio/x€Vot virb rov kv- 
0kpp.ov ^r^Xov rov 7raTpi(i)Ti(rfiov. 

Tb KapTCpCKOV KOL dTp6fXr)T0V 

yjOos Twv Q€a-(raXoiV, oiVtves €T6 
uTrh Tov IE' aliovos KaTrjvdy- 
Kaarav tov hopvKrrjTopa va 
(Te/Saa-Oy rh yevvalov avT(s)V 
f^povrjpa, aTreySatj/e kol irapa- 
fxvOta KOL TrapdSetyfxa Kaprepias 
Kal yevvaioTrjTO'S €ts re rds 
7rXr](rLo\ii>pov<5 kol eh rds diru)- 
T€/3as eTrapx^o-S. Kat expaXXov 
ol 6peo-LTpo(f>OL dv8p€<s /cAea 
fiayj/muiv dvSpoiv, kol dvTCipOcy- 
yovro rd op-q irpos ra? wSas, 
KOL dv€Tp€(f)e TOV<S V€OV<S yXvK€La 

trepl xpr^cTTorkpov jxeXXovros 
cAttis. Ovto) ScaT'qpovp^evov 
rov WvLKov cf)pov7]fxaro<s i] re 
TratSeta SteStSero Kat tcov Aoyiwv 
ofxoyevijjv 6 dpid/jibs -qv^ave, Kal 
(Tvyy pdp.p.ara eSrjfxoa-ievovro, 
Kal TToXXt) Ik rovriov irpoeKvirrev 
7] w^eAeia. Kat TroAAa fxev Kal 
7rXov(ria Kal rrjv XafXTrpdv rrjs 
reXeiorrjros evSeSvfxeva iropf^v- 
pav ovK rja-av rd crvyy pdp,/xara 
Twv dotSifxinyv €K€tV(ov TOV yevovs 

natural beauties captivate the 
traveller's curiosity, incited at 
the same time ambitious Mace- 
donia and ardent Epirus to 
establish schools, or to im- 
prove those already existing, in 
which the hearts of the young 
were anointed with the saving 
chrism of hereditary piety, and 
they had their intelligence 
sharpened by the masterpieces 
of Greek genius and were in- 
flamed with the burning zeal of 
patriotism. The hardy and 
fearless character of the Thessal- 
ians, who even from the 15th 
century had compelled the con- 
queror to respect their noble 
spirit, became a consolation and 
an example of endurance and 
courage to the people both of 
the neighbouring and the more 
distant provinces. And these 
mountaineers sang the glories of 
warriors, and the hills echoed 
their songs, and the sweet hope 
of a better future nurtured 
their young men. While the 
national spirit was thus pre- 
served, education spread and 
the number of the learned men 
of our nation increased, and 
works were published and great 
benefit resulted from them. 
Not numerous, nor brilliant, 
nor clothed in the purple robe 
of perfection were the works 

^ In Moschopolis in Macedonia there was a college where many cele- 
brated Greek scholars held professorships, and there was also a press in 
that town, but these institutions excited the envy of the Albanians, who 
destroyed them in 1780. 


StSacTKaAwv • aA-A,' o/xcos ixkvovcri 
ravTa Sety/xara rpava rrjs iroX- 
Xrjs avTijiv dperrj<s kol (faXo- 
yevetas, i]Ti<s (TVV€i)(€ xat 
orvveKpareL rovs Xoytovs eis 
Trjv TrpooSov kol ^KiraLSevanv 
rov Wvovs KOL a-vvTyjprjG-Lv tov 
opOoSo^ov'^lSiWrjvicriJLOv. "OfJirj- 

pOS Kol Ot XoLirol TWV €v86^0}V 
TrOLTjTOiV KOL (TVyy pa(fi€OiV VTTTJp- 

Xov Yj jSda-LS Trjs ypafjLjxaTiKqs 
avT(Ji}V 7ratSeta§. '^FrjToptKr) kol 
XoyiKrj KOL fxaOrjfxaTLK'q Kat 
OeoXoyca (TvvaTrrjpTi^ov ws iirl 
TO 7rAet(rTov ras (faXocrocfiLKds 
avTOiv yi/(ucrefc?* Kat ol eKKXrjcn- 
aa-TLKol Tiov Oeioiv Trarepcov 
XoyoL (TvvuiSevov tov<s fiaOrj- 
T€VOfi€vov<s oltt' d,p)(rj<5 d^pi 
TcAous TOV o-Ta8toi' T/ys 8i8a- 

(TKaXta'^ d\hipi(TTOL, TVTTOVVTeS 

kv Tats \l/v\ai<i avTcov dve^cTrjXa 
TO, Soy/JLara kol riqv -qOiKrjv 
Trj<s TraT/owas eucre^etas. Kat 
k^rip^ieTO €K Twv a-;>(oAetcov rj 
veoAata ov)(l fiev TroXvfxaOrj'i 
Kara rrjv TravToSaTr^v twv veo>- 
repoiv TToXvixdOetav, dXX o/acos 
(rocfuordrr] irepl T'qv kincrrr^p.'qv 
r(ov \pr](TLp.biv^ KOI dKpif^m 

YiXX'qVlK'q, OvTliiS ot fJLaKdpiOL 

€K€ivot SiSdcTKaXoi /xcTeAa/XTTa- 
Bevov eis tovs aTroydi'ovs rrjv 
Trarptov TratSetav Kat apcT^^v 
7rpb<s eV Kat [xovov d(f)opuiVT€<s, 
rrjv e/x<fiVT€V(rLV twv arojTrjptiov 
Kat 7r/3os TrJv KOtv^v ox^eAetav 
ai'ayKatoTaTwv yvwo-ewv^ ets 
aTTocTKopdKLcnv Tcuv 1^ dfxaOeias 
KaKcov. Akov€ Tt Aeyct 'AAe- 
^av8po<5 6 MavpoKopSdros 6 e^ 

of those celebrated teachers 
of the race, but nevertheless 
these remain as conspicuous ex- 
amples of their great virtue and 
patriotism which united and 
kept together the learned for 
the. advancement and enlighten- 
ment of the nation and 
the preservation of orthodox 
Hellenism. Homer and the 
other celebrated poets and 
writers formed the basis of 
their literary education. Rhe- 
toric, logic, mathematics and 
theology constituted for the 
most part their philosophical 
attainments ; and the homilies 
of the Fathers were the insepar- 
able companions of the students 
from the beginning to the end 
of their course of instruction, 
impressing on their souls in- 
delibly the doctrines and the 
morals of the piety of their 
ancestors. And there issued 
from the schools a body of 
youths, not indeed very learned 
in the various subjects studied 
by those of a later day, but yet 
thoroughly versed in the know- 
ledge of useful things, and who 
were essentially Greek. Thus 
those teachers of happy memory 
passed to their descendants the 
torch of their ancestral enlighten- 
ment and virtue, having but 
one sole object in view, that 
of implanting that salutary 
knowledge which is most 
necessary for the common good, 
in order completely to dissipate 




aTroppy'iTiiiV Tr€fH /xa6^7yo-cws. 
' 'Atto ya^ T'ij'^ a/xa^eias eis 
Trail' €l8o<s Ktt/cta? dvapTrd^ovTat 
ol Twv fJLaOrjfxdTiov d^ioLpoi' kol 
TrdXiV €^ Ivavrias rj TratScta top' 
di'SpioTrLVov vovv els dperiju 
kTri\piiivvvcri^ Koi TravToSaTrwv 
dya^wv virdp^^et StSao-KaAos Kat 
8r//xfcov/3yos, €t /xovoi^ dvOpoiTros 
etr] 6 (nrovSrjv Kal irat^eiav 
d(nra^6p,€vos, kol /jlt) Travrdiraa-LV 
rvyxdvoL dTr€(TK\7]prjKii)<s kol €k 
<fiV(r€(i>s ^xoi deva-oTTOLOv Kal 
dvaTroirXvTOV paaptav.^ " 

Kara iroiav ctto^'^i/ rjKfiacrev 
6 ' AX.€^avBpo<s MavpoKopSdros ; 

Kara rrjv \7I eKaTOvraerr)- 
pcSa ' eyevv-qOr] 8e ev KwvoTavrt- 
voviroXei tw 1636 Ik Trarpos 
pXv YiavTiXri MavpoKopSdrov 
Xiov, fMrjrpbs Sk Ao^dySpas 
^Kapkdrov €k J^CDVCTTavTLVOvTro- 
A.t(os. *H Ao^dvSpa ^To yvvrj 
ev(f)V€(TTdTr) kol KdTO)(os vxl^rjXrjs 
iratSeias' " ttjv ydp 'EAAaSa 
^wvr^v," ws Aeyei 'laKw/Jos 6 'Ap- 
ycios, " oiSrtos dKpifSds eTrcTrai- 
SevTO, wcrre toLs pvBpua TrcTrot- 
r)ix€va<s Kal Ipp^erpovs Troi-qcreis, 
TOV<s T€ Kara pi^ropas koyovs 
Kal rds KaraXoydSrjv irdvv 
yX.a<f)vp(ji)s Kal €VTe;(i'a>? crvvTe- 
Beca-as t(rropias paStcos Kat 
voetv /cat e^7/y€i(r^at • ov8' 17 
GovKvStSto? (Tvyypa^-q^ ov8* 1^ 

TOlJ ^€VO(^tOVTO? l(TTOpia TO O^V 

T^S iK€Lvrj<s SiavoLas Ste^vye, ov 
/M^vaAXa Kat cfiiXo(ro(f>ias rjxj/arOy 

the evik of ignorance. Hear 
wliat Alexander Maurocordatus, 
the [Sultan's] confidential secre- 
tary, says about learning : ' For 
it is by ignorance that those 
who are destitute of learning 
are dragged into every kind of 
evil ; and on the contrary, edu- 
cation steeps the human mind 
in virtue, and is the teacher 
and creator of all kinds of good, 
if only he who devotes himself to 
study and learning is a human 
being and does not happen to 
be altogether hardened, and does 
not naturally possess ingrained 
and indelible impurity.' " 

At what period did Alexander 
Maurocordatus flourish ? 

In the 17 th century. He 
was born in Constantinople in 
1636. His father was Panteles 
Maurocordatus of Chios, and 
his mother was Loxandra of 
Constantinople, daughter of 
Scarlatus. Loxandra was a 
woman of very great ability 
and highly educated ; " for she 
had been taught the Greek lan- 
guage," as Jacobus Argeius says, 
" with such accuracy as to under- 
stand and explain without diffi- 
culty rhythmical and metrical 
compositions, speeches of ora- 
tors, and histories written very 
elegantly and artistically in 
prose ; nor did the work of 
Thucydides nor Xenophon's 
narrative elude the grasp of her 
acute intellect. Moreover this 
woman, if we may call a woman 




€7rXovTr]cr€V rj yvvi^, ei ye XPl 
Xeyeiv y waiKa Tr)v appevocfypova 
Kal (fipcvas dvSpos K€KTr)p.€vr]V 
iv ry rod O'qXeos <f)vcr€L." 'O 
Se Kaicrdptos Aairovres oltto- 
KaXet avrrjv crocfxoTdrr^v Trpocr- 
TiOels ort, '"' Tocrov kirpo^Mpii- 
arev els rd 'EAAryviKO, Kal eyetvev 
ovo/JLaa-rrj^ ottov rjpx^ovTO Trept- 
rjytjTal diro rrjv Etj/owttt^v kol 
(rvviOfitXovarav fxa^i tyjs kol Wav- 
pia^ov TTjv (ro(f)iav TTjs" TocavTr] 
XoLTTov evTratSevTos yvvr) i^ro 
cTTO/xevov vol dvaOpcipy kol 
iKTTaLSevcrr] irpocr'qKOVTOiS tov 
iHov avrrjs 'AXe^avSpov, ov 
SoiSeKaerrj eTrcpLxj/ev els to Tore 
Trepicjiyjpiov 7rav€7ri(Trrjp,Lov rov 
HarajStov ottws cnrovSdcrrj rrjv 
<fiiXo(ro(fiLav Kot rrjv tarpiKi/jv. 
'0 veapbs "EAAt^v rax^ois €K- 
paOwv rrjv AartVLKrjv iireSoOrj 
perd ^rjXov els rrjv (nrovSrjv twv 
€7ri(rrrjpicov kol rrjs larpLKrj<s, 
KOL els SeKarea-crapa errj dive- 
Trepdrojae rd<s o-7rov8ds rov 
d^LOiOels riov v\picrriiiv aKaSrj- 
yaatKwv ripiMV. 'Ev erei 1664 
eSrjpioa-tevarev ev Bovwvtct AanvL- 
(rrl Scarpi^rjv^ irepl kvkXo- 
(jiopias rov aipiaros, 17x19 ov 
piiKpds <f>rjpbr)S rj^iixiOrj Trapd rois 
rore cro(f>OLS, kol dverv7r(o6rj 
pierd ev eros ev ^payK0cf)6prrf, 
KOL TM 1682 evAeixj/L^. ^ETraveA- 
Oiov els J^iova-ravrLvovTroXiv e^rj- 
(TKei TO larpiKov eirdyyeXpia Kal 
p.eydX<os enpidro vtto twv rore 

^ InstrumentuTn pneumaticum 
usu pulmonura. Bolognae, 1664. 

one who had a masculine mind 
and though of the female sex 
was endowed with the mental 
power of a man, had studied 
philosophy and enriched her 
mind with ontology." Caesarius 
Dapontes calls her "most 
learned," adding that " she was 
so advanced in Hellenic studies 
and had become so famous that 
travellers from Europe came 
and conversed with her and 
were amazed at her erudition." 
It naturally followed then that 
a woman so highly educated 
should also have her son Alex- 
ander properly brought up and 
instructed, and she accordingly 
sent him at twelve years of age 
to the then celebrated university 
of Padua to study philosophy 
and medicine. The young 
Greek, having rapidly mastered 
Latin, applied himself zealously 
to the study of science and 
medicine, and in fourteen years 
completed his course, having 
gained the highest academical 
honours. Tn the year 1664 he 
published at Bologna a treatise 
in Latin on the circulation of the 
blood, which, acquired no little 
celebrity among the learned of 
those days, and was reprinted a 
year afterwards at Frankfort and 
in 1 682 at Leipsic. Returning to 
Constantinople he practised the 
medical profession, and was held 
in high esteem by the Turkish 
circulandi sanguinis sive de modo et 



ttA-ovtw Kal BvvdfJL€L i^€\6vTiOV 
TovpKiov fxiytcrTdvlov' virrjp^e. 
8c €7rt 67rTa eVvy Koi (T)(o\dp-^rj<i 
rrjs llaTpLap)(^LKrj<s (T)(^oX.rj<i kv y 
lx€Ta ^yjXov TToWov cStSa^ev. 
'AkoXovOcos dkXoiV va ela-ekOy 


Oy) tov larpLKov cTrayyeA/zaros 
Kal eTreSoOy] ets ttjv arTrovSrjv 
^€V(j)v yXoio-crCiV, koI evros 
fipa^ko^ ^povov i^efiade tyjv 
TovpKiKyjv, TTjV 'ApafStK-qVj rrjv 
Tlepa-LK-qv, TrjV TaXXiKrjv koi. 
rr)V ^Xal3o)VLKY)V yXcoa-crav. 
Kara to Itos 1 67 1 cyetve ypap.- 
fxarevs rov UavayiiJoTov NtKov- 
(Tiov, 6(TTts TOT€ ^TO Mcya? 

Ai€pfX-qV€VS Tijs JlvXr)<S. McTCt 

TOV ddvarov tovtov (1673), eis 
rrjv vxp-qXriv Tavrrjv dkcriv SaopL- 
(rOrj 6 ' AXi^avSpos MavpoKopSa- 
Tos Kal 8i€)(^eLpL(T6r) to TTCpL- 
(nrovSacTTOv dXXa Kal Xiav 


fxovaSiKrjs iKavoTrjTOS €7rt ttoX- 
Xd irrf tyjjiv Se (xeydX-qv 
L<r)(vv irapd TOts Tov/D/cots 
k\p'r](TiixoTroUL avTYjV tt/oos dva- 


ofxoeOveU avrov c7rao-;(ov. Ei's 
TYjV OLKiav avTOV irpoa-krpiyov 
TrdvTes o(TOi elyov^pdav l(TXvpds 
iipo(TTa<Tias' TToAAovs X/ot(rT6a- 
I'oi's ctroxre TroAAa/cts €K tov 
davdrov, ov aAAws "^to dSvva- 
Tov v' d7ro(f)vy(ji)art, Slotl Kar 

€K€tVOVS T0V9 XP^VOVS ot TovpKOi 
€<l)6v€V0V TOV<S X/>tO-TtaV0VS Kul 

8ia TO cAa^icTTOV TTTaicr/xa, kviore 
h\ Kal xdptv 8{a(TK€8d(T€0}S ottos 
SoKLfid^ixHTL Tols fxayatpa'i twv. 

dignitaries of the day, who by 
their wealth and influence held a 
prominent position. He was also 
for seven years headmaster of 
the Patriarchal School, in which 
he was a most zealous teacher. 
Subsequently, wishing to enter 
the political arena, he renounced 
the medical profession and 
devoted himself to the study of 
foreign languages, and in a 
short time acquired a thorough 
knowledge of Turkish, Arabic, 
Persian, French and Slavic. In 
the year 1671 he became sec- 
retary to Panagiotes Nicousios, 
who was then Grand Dragoman 
to the Porte. After the death 
of the latter in 1673 Alexander 
Maurocordatus was appointed to 
this high position and discharged 
with singular ability the duties 
of the much-coveted but very 
perilous office for many years. 
Having gi'eat influence with the 
Turks, he made use of it to al- 
leviate the sufferings which his 
fellow-countrymen endured. It 
was to his house that all rushed 
who had need of powerful pro- 
tection. He frequently saved 
many Christians from a death 
that they could not otherwise 
have escaped, for in those days 
the Turks used to kill Christians 
for the slightest fault, and some- 
times simply for amusement^ to 
try the temper of their swords. 



Moi cfiaiverat TrapaSo^ov ttws 
6 M.avpoKop8aTos rjSvvqOy] va 
SiareXio-y eirl ttoAAo, eVr^ Meyas 
Aiepfir^vevs X^P^^ ^^ ^^^J^^PV 
Ka6' eavTOv to Ka^vTroTrrov twv 

TovTO 6(fi€ tXeTau els rrjv 
fxeydXi^v avTOv LKavorrjTa' 8ev 


Tov (ttolSlov av€V KLvSvvov. 
Merot Trjv d7roTV)(^Lav ttJs eKTrop- 
drj(T€0)S Trjs Bt€vvr^s kol ttjv 
TcAeiav ■^rrav tov TovpKCKov 
(TTpaTov, ore 6 ^ovXtolvos fxevea 
7rv€(i)V SteTa^e Kal direKef^dXurav 
TOV fxkyav fScltprjv Ka/aa Mov- 
crra^av, 17 ^(orj tov MavpoKopSd- 
Tov evpWr) 67rt ^vpov aKfxrjs, 
8l6tl ov fiovov avTo<s KaSeip^dri 
€V ' ASpiavovTroXet, aAAol Kal 


ecfivXaKia-Orjcrav iv Ktovo-Tavrt- 


IIo)S dir'qWdyrj tov (f>oj3€pov 


dyx6vr]s ; 

Aid TOV jxovov Tore fxeydXoiS 
L(T)(V0VT0<5 fJL€a-ov, TT^S TrXrjpojfirjs 
VTrepoyKcov XvTpoiV, Slotl rjvay- 
KdorOr] vd TrXrjptocrrj T/otaKocria 
TTOvyKca ■)(^pva-ov irpos iXevdepo)- 
(TLV eavTov kol ttjs a-v^vyov tov. 
*H 8va-TV)(rjS avTOV p^'qT'qp fxrj 
Svvr^deicra vd VTrofieivr) ras Ka- 
Kovx^as TTJs elpKTrjs aTrWave 
Kara tov €ktov [xrjva Trjs Ka- 
6€ip^€(i)<s^ avTos Se KOi r] crvp^ 
/3ios avTov efxetvav kv Tfj <fiv- 
XaKy cvScKa p.rjva's. 

'EAtti^^w fxeTaTTjv drro^uAaKt- 
criV TOV vd 'icfivyev €k TovpKtas 

It seems to me extraordinary 
how Maurocordatus could have 
remained for many years Grand 
Dragoman without exciting 
against himself the easily 
aroused suspicion of the Turks. 

This was owing to his great 
ability ; but he did not pursue 
his political career without 
danger. After the failure to 
capture Vienna and the com- 
plete defeat of the Turkish army, 
when the Sultan, in a transport 
of fury, gave the order and they 
beheaded the Grand Vizier 
Mustapha, the life of Mauro- 
cordatus was in extreme jeo- 
pardy, for not only was he him- 
self imprisoned at Adrianople, 
but his wife and his mother were 
put in jail at Constantinople. 

How did he escape the terrible 
danger of the sword or the 
gibbet ? 

Through those means which 
alone at that time were all-power- 
ful, the payment of an enormous 
ransom, for he was obliged to 
expend three hundred purses of 
gold to gain his liberty and 
that of his wife. His poor 
mother, unable to bear the 
hardships of imprisonment, died 
in the sixth month of her in- 
carceration, but he and his wife 
passed eleven months in jail. 

I hope that after his libera- 
tion he escaped from Turkey 



eis Kav€v ^pia-TiaviKov Kpdro<5 
rrjs KvpioTT-qs. 

McTol TY)v aiTOfjivXaKLcrLV rov 
iirrj(T€V aSetav va VTrdyrj els 
KiovcTTavTLVovTroXiv va iSy 
Ty]v (Tv^vyov rov kol ra tckvu 

TOV ttAAa JJLoXlS €cf>Oa(r€V €K€i 

Kal /jL€Ta fxtav rj/jiepav iXa/Se 
StaTayrjv va aravkXOrj els 
'ASpiavovTroXcv, kol evdvs 6 
Meyas Bc^ip-qs rip^iore va rov 
lx€.ra^€ipi^r]Tai els fxv(rTtKa<s 
v7rod€(r€LS TOV Kparovs, /cat /xera 
8vo p/qvas €7rapov(Tia(r€v avrbv 
ets TO p,€ya /SacnXiKov Si/Sdv- 
lov, €v6a dvayopevdeh irdXtv 
Meya? AL€pp,r)vevs TrcpLc/SXydr] 
TOV €7rLcn]p.ov p.av8vav tov d^L(o- 
juaros. *0 KUTOL twv Tepp^aviov 
Kal TU)v orvpip,d)(^u)v avTUiv ttoAc- 

flOS i^rjKoXovdcL €V TOVTOtSj dXX 

ot TovpKoi vTroa-TdvT€<s TToAAas 
iJTTas dirccfida-KTav va KAettro)- 
(TiV elp-qvYjV^ Kal Trpbs tov ctko- 


MaV/30KO/oSaTOV, OO-TtS /iCT* 

d<f)0(rLii>(T€U)S Kol p.€yd\rjs. 8i- 

TrX<Dp.aTLK7J<s LKaVOTTJTOS 8l€^^]- 

yay€ Tr)v dvaTedeia-av avT(^ 
dKpo(r<fia\yj TavTrjv aTroo-ToAryv. 
H elp-qvrj avTY) (rvviDp^oXoyrjOr] 

€V KapXofSiCTLO) €V €T€t 1 699, 

Kai vmypd<jirj a-vvOrJKr] KaO' i^v 
rjTovpKtav7r€)(^p€wO'q v aTroSworr; 
€ts Trfv Ava-Tpiav Kal ets Tas 
(rvpp,axrj(Td(ras avTy 8vvdp,€LS 
iracras Tots \u)pas as 'qpTracre 
KttTa Kat/oovs Trap avTMV. 
'A/x^oTC/oa TO. (Tvpif^Xy]6kvTa 
fikp-q k8k\$r)(Tav iv\apla-Tii)S 

to some Christian state in 

Nothing of the kind took place. 
After his liberation, he asked 
permission to go to Constanti- 
nople to see his wife and children, 
but the very day after his 
arrival there he received a 
summons to return to Adria- 
nople, and the Grand Vizier at 
once began to employ him on 
secret business of the state, and 
after two months presented him 
at the grand imperial divan, 
when he was again proclaimed 
Grand Dragoman and invested 
with the robe which was the 
badge of that office. The war 
against the Germans and their 
allies had in the meantime been 
going on, but the Turks, having 
sustained many defeats, deter- 
mined to conclude a peace, and 
with this object they despatched 
Maurocordatus, who with great 
devotion and considerable politi- 
cal skill carried out the delicate 
mission entrusted to him. This 
peace was arranged at Carlovitz 
in the year 1699, and a treaty 
was signed by which Turkey 
was obliged to restore to Austria 
and the powers allied with her 
all the countries which she had 
from time to time taken from 
them. Both contracting parties 
willingly accepted the terms of 




Tovs 6pov<5 Trjs (TVvO'qKrjS, Kal 
eTLfXTjcrav Scot Travrotwv ei^Set^ewv 
€vap€(rK€ia<s tov Kvpiios crvvreXe- 
(ravra Trpos tov a-vfMf^LJSaa-jJLov 
M.avpoKop8aTOV. Kat 6 />t€v 
^ovkravos aTTcvet/xev ets avTov 
TOV TiVAov Me;)(pe/xt-'Ecrpa/3, 

TOVTCO-TIV 1^ aTTOpprjTOiV^ 6 Se 

AvTOKpdiTiop AeoTToASos €7re/jt^€V 
avTW p€ya\o7rp€7r€(TTaTa Siopa' 
Xcyerai' p^dXicrTa on cTLprjirev 
avTov KOi Stot TOV titAov Ko/xt;- 

T09, OTTC/O O/XWS CTTt TToAAo, €Tr/ 

SuTrjpT^Or] fjiva-TLKov ev t?} oiko- 
yeveia,. ' Airkdave ^\ 6 Mavpo- 
KopSaros €V €T€t 1708. *0 
vlhs avrov Nt/coAaos IslavpoKop- 
SttTOS VTTTJp^ev e7rt(rr]S evSo^os 
(OS 6 Trarrjp avTOV. AteTcAeo-c 
Meyas Aiepprjvevs t^s 'O^w/xa- 
vcK-^S avTOKparopias IttJ, ttoAAol 
€T7^. T(^ 1707 Siw/)iV^>y rjyepoyv 
MoXBavtas, aAA' dvaKXrjOeh 
perd €V €Tos SuDpLcrOrj 7rdX.1v 
Kara t5 ctos 17 ii. McTa 
TTCVTC eT>7 pererWr] ets BAaxiav, 
aAAot Ta;)(ew? (rrparos AvcrTpta- 
Kos ela-eXdcras XaBpaiois ets 
avTi}v KttTeAa^e t6 BovKovpe- 
CTTtov Kat rjyayev avTov at^- 
pdXfoTOV. MeTo, Svo eV^y eAtv- 
depiodels dveXajSe TraAtv tt^v 
^PXV^ W B^^Tr^prfa-e p^XP'' ^ci^«- 
Tov (1730). '0 Ni/coAaos 
JS/lavpoKopSaTOS virrjp^ev efs e/c 
Twv l^o^wTaTcov Xoytojv 'EA- 
At^vcov tov IH' atwvos" "^to 5e 
(OS 6 TraTYjp avTov elSi^piDV 
TToAAtov yAoxrcrcov Kat eypaxl/ev 
ovK dXtya crvyypdppara crvv- 
TtAecras peydXios els rrjv SidSo- 

the treaty, and they honoured 
with various tokens of their satis- 
faction Maurocordatus who had 
chiefly contributed to the agree- 
ment, and the Sultan awarded to 
him the title of Mechremi-Esrar, 
that is to say, Confidential 
Secretary ; and the Emperor 
Leopold sent him most magni- 
ficent presents ; indeed it is said 
that he also honoured him with 
the title of Count, which was 
however kept secret in the 
family for many years. Mauro- 
cordatus died in the year 1708. 
His son Nicolas Maurocordatus 
was equally celebrated with 
his father. He was Grand 
Dragoman of the Ottoman 
empire for many years. In 
1707 he was appointed Prince 
of Moldavia, but was recalled 
and re-appointed a year after- 
wards, in 1711. After five 
years he was transferred to 
Wallachia, but in a short time 
an Austrian army stealthily 
entered that principality and 
captured Bucharest and took 
him prisoner. At the expira- 
tion of two years he was liber- 
ated, and resuming his govern- 
ment retained it till his death 
(1730). Nicolas Maurocordatus 
was one of the most distinguished 
scholars among the Greeks of 
the 1 8th century : like his father, 
he knew many languages and 
wrote several works and greatly 
contributed to the diffusion of 
Greek learning. Into the two 



Ets TttS 8vo rjyejJLOVtas BAa^^tas 

KOL MoASaViaS, aLTiV€<S '€KT0T€ 

fJ'^XP'' "^^^ /xecrtoi/ Tov TrapovTOS 
aliovos kKvfiipvdvTO vtto *EAA>^- 
viav rjye/JLOvwv StopL^ofxevojv virh 
TTJs HvX.y]<s, (Tvveppevcrav ttoAAoi 
"EAAr^ves oiTLves fxeydXios crvve- 
/SaXovTO els Tr]v SiavorjTLKrjv kol 

vkiKrjV dvaTTTV^LV TWl/ x^P^^ 
€K€LVU)v. 01 kyxjsipioi evpt(TKOV- 
ro els TTVKvbv o^kotos dfxaOeias 
irpo Ttjs eXevaews twv'EAA/^vwv • 
Sta rrjs aKajxaTov o/xcos evepyeuas 
TovTcov dveTrTV\dy] kv Ty X^W 
avToyv rj yewpy ta kol to efnropiOVj 


SoOrj Travraxov. 'Ev BovKovpe- 
(TTLoy rjKfxao-ev kirX iroXXd ert] vtto 
rr)V irpocrTadiav twv 'EAAi^vwv 
T^yc/iovwy crxoA"/) 'EAAt^vikt) kv y 
kStSa^av ol dpuxTOL kol ot aro<f)(i>- 
TaroL Twv ^EXXyvwv BtSaa-Ka- 
Xiov Twv xpoi'wv eKetviov. 'Kv 
avry kSLSda-Kero irdw TeXecrcfio- 
pws 17 *EAAr;vtK^ KOi rj AaTLVi- 
KT] (^tAoAoyta, irphs 8e kol Trdcra 
rj creipd twv kyKVKXiiov jxaOrj- 
fmT(t)v. nAetcTTOt €K Twv Kara 
rds dpxds TOV irapovros aiwvos 
SiaTT/ae^avTWv kirX TraiSei^ koX 
iraTpnoTur/xi^'^ EXXyjv(j)v vTrrjp^av 
Tp6<f)Lixoi rrjs TTcpLcfiT^fjiov eKeivys 

'AX)C ol BAa^otj y] *Pov- 
[xovvoL, (OS ovofid^ovTUL vvv, Sev 
vopt^d) vd aya7rtoo-6 iroXv tov? 

Aev elvat d(Tvvqdks n Kal 
vkov ot €vepyeTovp.evoL vd dyvio- 
povdiTi KOL vd (f>€piovTai kxOpL- 

principalities of Wallachia and 
Moldavia, which from that time 
up to the middle of the present 
century were governed by Greek 
princes appointed by the Porte, 
Greeks flocked in crowds, and 
these greatly contributed to the 
intellectual and material de- 
velopment of those countries. 
The natives were enveloped in 
the dense darkness of ignorance 
before the arrival of the Greeks, 
but through the indefatigable 
efforts of the latter the agricul- 
ture and trade of their country 
were improved and Greek civilis- 
ation spread in every direction. 
In Bucharest there flourished 
for many years, under the 
patronage of the Greek princes, 
an Hellenic school, in which the 
best and most learned Greek 
teachers of those times gave in- 
struction. Here Latin and Greek 
philology was taught with entire 
success, and also a complete 
course of general know^ledge. 
Many of the Greeks who in the 
beginning of the present century 
were distinguished for learning 
and patriotism were pupils at 
that famous school. 

But the Wallachians, or 
Roumanians as they are now 
called, are not, I think, par- 
ticularly fond of the Greeks. 

It is not unusual or novel for 
those who have received benefits 
to be ungrateful and act as 



KW? TT/OOS T0V9 €V€py€Trj(TaVTa^. 

To ^FiXXrjvLKov Wvo<s fJLdXi(Tra, 
kv Tw fJiaKp<2 avTOV /^t(^, ttoA- 
Aa/cts 'ikafSev (os dvTafJLOif^r)V 
Twv Trpos aAAovs evepyecrtwv ai;- 
Tov TrpoTT'qXaKLa'/xovs Kal v^pcis. 
Tovro ofJLoXoyeLTaL vtto irdv- 
TOiV riov dp.€poXr]7rTiDS t7]V 
IcTTopiav dvayLvoiCTKOvTcov dX)C 
iQ-CDS 6d ^jvaL KaXXirepov v' 
dcfiT^croifJiev to ^'qT-qfia rovTO 
Trpos TO Trapov kol vd Tpa- 
TTW/xev et? Ta dcfiopQvTa tov 
rjfieTepov ctkottov. Ka/jtere /xol 

TYjV X^P''^ ^^ /^°* €LTrrjT€ CIS 

TTOtov vc^o? €ypa(f>ov crvvrjOoys 
ot Xoyioi "EAAr^ves tov IH' 

Kara rots Tr/ocora? SeKacTTjpi- 
8as Tov TrapeXOovTos atwvos 

€7r€K/)aT€t TO TTaTpOTTapdSoTOV 

v<f)OS Twv Bv^avTivtov (Tvyypa- 
(f>e(t)V' Tiv€S 6/x(i)S TMV Xoytiov 
€ypa(f)0v Ivtore kol €t5 tt^v 
KOLVYjv yXddo-av tov Xaov 
OTTios TO, epya aiJTwv ytVwvrat 
KaTaXrjTTTd ets Travras* dAA' ly 
8T]p(i)8r]<i avTT] y X(i)cr(Ta fSaO/xrjSov 
Kal KaT oXiyov dirof^dXXovcra 
Tots ^evas Ae^ets Kat Tas (Sap- 
^dpovs KaTaXyj^eis 8l' S>v ckiv- 
8vv€V€ vd y€Lvr} aAAoKOTOV 
cjivpajxa 8L€(f)0app.€vov l8nopaTos, 
Kol TrXovTi^op.€vr] Kad' €Kd(rTr]V 
€K TOV dK€V(i>TOV OrjCTavpov Trj^ 
dpyaia^i ^EAA?yvtK^S KaTea-Tr] cTrt 
TeXovs Ota etvai vvv ' dXXd Trpos 


r)y(avi(r6rj(Tav ot Aoytot tov 
Wvovs Kara re tov TrapeXdovTa 
aliova Kal Kara ras dp^ds tov 

enemies to their benefactors. 
The Greek nation especially, in 
the course of its long life, has 
often met with outrage and 
insult as a return for the good 
it has done to others. 

This is acknowledged by all 
who read history impartially : 
but perhaps it will be better for 
us to leave this question for 
the present, and turn to those 
subjects which regard our pur- 
pose. Do me the favour to tell 
me in what style the learned 
Greeks of the 18th century 
usually wrote. 

In the first decads of the last 
century there prevailed the style 
of the Byzantine writers which 
they had received from their 
fathers ; some of the learned how- 
ever used to write occasionally 
also in the common language of 
the people in order that their 
works might be intelligible to all ; 
but that popular language gradu- 
ally threw off little by little the 
foreign words and barbarous 
terminations through which it 
was in danger of becoming a 
strange medley of corrupt idioms, 
and, being daily enriched from the 
inexhaustible treasury of ancient 
Greek, eventually became what 
it now is ; but to secure this 
result the scholars of the nation 
had a hard struggle both in 
the past century and in the 
beginning of the present one* 



TrapovTOS. 'l^v w ovTii)<s ot 

"]V€<S Ov8€VO<S KOTTOV €cfi€L- 

SovTO o7rw5 /ScXTLUxroxTL rrjv 
WvLKTjv avTO)v yXio(T(rav, ev ry 
'Eo-7re/)t^ ^€VOL TLV€S OLTTofiXkirov- 

T€S €IS irpoa"r)XvTLKOV<i (TKOTTOVS 

€^€8i8ov fSipXia yeypafxjxeva 
iv ISiiOfJiaTL eis tolovtov f3a9fiov 
fXL^ofSapl^dpo}, oicTTe kol 6 
dfxaOeo'TaTO'i Tiov 'EAAi^vwv 
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T-qv TepaTioSt] yXwcrcrav dSvvarov 
va fXTj iKcfmyvqcrr]^ ''5ot€ pLOt 
XeKavrjV." 'ISov Seiyp^ard TLva 
TYjS ^payKo - ypaiKO - fSapfSdpov 
TavTi]S y\(jo(Tcrif]'s clX-qp^pLiva €k 
Trjs eL(Tay(i)yrjs tov KaTrovcrivov 
Q(Dp.d TOV HapiCTLVOv els tov 
Qrjcravpbv tov TdXXov Ka- 
TTOva-LVOV 'AXc^tov 2o/i/jta/?€/3a 
(Paris 1709). 

"'Etovto cTvat TO TrAeio. 0)<j>€- 
At/xov OTTOV TTOTe Siv €(fidvr]Ke 
T€TOLa<s Xoyrjs tpyoV €^oSta(7€ 
KOL evKaLpocre kottov kol irodov 
(rapdvTa xpovC)v koI -qXvoycre^ 
£T^dKl]Cr€ VOVV KOi \pv)(rjv cvov 
TOV TrAeta evSo^ov Kal ivapeTov 

dvdpiOTTOV, OTTOV vo. i/SpidrjKCV 

dvdp,€(Ta €19 oAoi»9 Tovs ttXcov 
a^iofs aTTOCTTcAAoyDtSes twv FaA- 


iJTov va (TTaBy ttoAAovs xpovovs 
OT^v ndAtv, ytot va etvat 
TiTa/CTt/cog TTvevfiaTiKos kol Ka- 
OoXtKO's deoXoyos a-rj/ia ci's T07^s 
v^ryAoTaTOVS ' ATTOKpicrdpLSis 
(rav Kal 8ta Tct kirtXonra Wvrj 
Twv Xpto-Ttavwv. 'A/xr) cTOUTa 
TO, dvtoOev Sev eras criovovv Sea 
VOL a7rtKacr€T€ t5v dSi-qyi/jTOV 

Thus, while the Greeks spared 
no labour to improve their 
national language, some foreign- 
ers in the West, with the view 
of making proselytes, published 
books written in an idiom 
adulterated with barbarisms to 
such a degree that even the most 
uneducated Greek, on hearing 
such a monstrous language read, 
could not refrain from exclaim- 
ing, " Bring me a basin." Here 
are some specimens of this 
Franco-graeco-barbaric language 
taken from the introduction of 
the Capuchin Thomas of Paris 
to the Thesaurus of the French 
Capuchin Alexius Sommevoir 
(Paris 1709): 

" This is the most useful work 
of the kind that ever appeared. 
It consumed and exhausted the 
labour and zeal of forty year?, 
it enfeebled, it broke do"WTi the 
intellect and the mind of one 
who was the most celebrated 
and the most virtuous man to 
be found among all the most 
able of the missionaries belong- 
ing to the French Capuchins. 
He was in a position to reside 
for many years in Constantinople, 
to be chaplain, confessor, and 
catholic theologian to their 
highnesses the ambassadors as 
well as for the other Christians 
of different nations. But the 
above does not suffice for you to 
understand the inexpressible 




[XKrOov €KeLVov rov alSecnfJiOTa- 
rov irarkpa. 'H^eu/jere irdXai, 
IX oAa Tovra, ttws d^iCoOrj kol 
oAas, orav evas eTTLT-qSoios 8d- 

(TKaXoS VO, Kv/ScpV^ KOL VOt €p- 

firjvevrj rot euyevaia cTKoXiapo- 
'^pdvr^as OTTOV ^dpovv vd fxaOi- 
vovv rd TovpKLKaf eis ret X^P''^ 
T(3v KairovT^LViov, Kara Trjv 
KaXoa"Qvr]V Kal opicrfJibv tov 
^puTTtavoTdTOV fias ^acrtAecos, 
OTTOV opeyeraL vd t dxy Trdvra 
eroi/xa et? to X^P'' "^^^ ^^^ ^^ 
Spoyfiavt^ovv els oXa rot jxeprj 
rrjs SwaoTTias tiov TovpKoiv. 

Kat dir' eK€i, oX-q rj fxeydXr] 
kyvia ottov etx^v droa-rov avros 
6 8d(TKaXos vd [xdOrj rd ^Pco^atKa, 
rj irapd^evq XaKrdpa vd aTTiKdair) 
rrjv (f>vcrLKrjv yXixxrcrav, Kal rj 
eTnOvfiia rov vd d^avy^y Kal vd 
^erpcTTocrr) rrjv 8Lacf)opdv tcov 
StaAcKTcov, vd yvpevTj (rv^vats 
(fiopats rr)V etSija-LV dirh rovs 
irXetd cf)0)rLcrfX€Vovs Kal rovs 
TrXeid TrpoKO/xevovs dvdp(^7rovs 
rrjs 'AvaroXfjs' reAos vvra Kal 
ri 7r€pL(TO-6repo vd eras ttw Trapd 
rrju ^aOvdv rov yvcocrrjv Kal 
ryv oXaKaLprjv rov wpd^rjv ottov 
'^X^^ ^^^ TToto-a Trpdyjxa rocrov 
€ts rvjv JloXiVj crrrjv ^fxvpvrjv, 
crrrjv Xtco, orrrjv K.pyrr]Vj (rrrjv 
'AOyvav, (rrrjv Mcopcav, ocrov 
Kal els rd eTriXoiira vrja-id rrjs 
dcnrprjs ddXacrcras iravrov J/cet 
OTTOf ecrrdOrjKe irpioecrros ; oXa 
rovra Xeyo), r d^icofiara, Ka- 
pLiopiara, irpd^es Kal irpoKOxpes, 
rhv €K0vvrja-av Kal rov ecrdXexpav 

services of the most reverend 
father. You know again how, 
with all this, he had the honour 
besides, as a capable teacher, to 
govern and instruct the high- 
born pupils and young nobles 
of France who were accustomed 
to learn Turkish at the hands of 
the Capuchins, in accordance 
with the goodness and the com- 
mands of our Most Christian 
King who desires to have them 
always ready to his hand to be 
dragomans in every part of the 
Turkish empire. 

And hence all the great care 
which this teacher himself took 
to learn Romaic, and his strange 
anxiety to understand the ordin- 
ary language, and his desire to 
see and discover the difference 
of the dialects, and frequently 
ask for information from the 
most enlightened and the most 
accomplished men of the East : 
finally what and what more 
should I tell you besides his 
profound knowledge and his 
complete experience which he 
possessed in everything, as much 
in Constantinople, in Smyrna, 
in Chios, in Crete, in Athens, in 
Morea, as in the remaining 
islands in the AVhite Sea 
[Aegaean], everywhere where he 
was Superior ? All these things, 
I say, his offices, his abilities, his 
labours, his actions and attain- 
ments, stirred and incited him 
to compose [the Thesaurus] with 



va TO crvvOyjoy jxk rodov vxj/rjXov 
fxaOij/JLa, oTTov Sei^ jSokcl irapa 
va uxpekiOova-i ttoXXo. ^pdyyot 
Kal Pw/xaiot. . . . 
MepcKats xf>€ia^oi;/x,€vats 


UpojTa Kal apx^j'S, earovras 
OTTOV €tvaL TToXXats piofMaLKais 
Ae^€S, y OTTO tats o^w aTre to 
ifiVCTLKov Tovs (TTj fxaiv 6 p.evov 
'iyovv aKOfjir) 'iva fX€Ta(f)opLK6vj 
Koifxe va ^€py<s ttws, d(f>6vTy<i 

/3dv€i iK€LVO OTTOV (rr]/MaLV€L 

(fiva-LKa Kal KaOoXuKa, ^dvei 
uKOfxa (KCivo OTTOV (Tr]jxaiv€i 
/xeTa<^optKWS' Aoyov \dpLV, 
irovTT] rj Ae^ts (ktvttio) yj oTTOta 
(jT^/xatvet (fivcTLKd Kal KaOoXiKa 
(batto) /?av€t vcrTcpa Kal aTreKcto 
TTtos a-qfiaiveL aKojxa peTa<jiopt- 
Kws (bevo) /3dvovTa<s 5ta crrj/xdSL 
Tovri]v TTjV /xwroAe^tav cficyov- 
Tas Kol €va ^ojxttXl, outcos, 
€KTVTT7ja-a/x€V T/Dcis, T€(rcre/3es 
oKttSes Kpaa-L, habbiamo bevuto 
tre 6 quattro oche di vino ; /cat 
iT^i Sid TO, aAAa/* 

TavTa vofXL^io apKovcrtv cos 
Setyfia tov VpaLKo/3apf3dpov 
vcjiovs €ts o €ypa<f>ov ot UpaTTO- 
CTToAot rys AvcreuiS Kara rrjv 
iTTOxyv iKeivrjv. 'O KaAos /xas 
KaTTovcrtvos ov fxovov dSXiios 
€ypa(f>€ rrjv totc SrjfuoSrj 'EAAt^- 
VLKrjv yXojo-crav, dXXd Kal 

€Xa)(^i(TT'l]V yV(x)(TtV eL)(€ TlOV 

Kav6v(j}v rrjs opOoypa^fitas Kal 
TOV opdov Tovicr/JLOV T(j3v Ac^ewv. 

*As dcf)/j<T(i)/JL€V XoLTTOV TOVS 

\ ^€Vov<; Kal as iSoifxev ttws eypa- 

<f>OV ol TOT€ "EAAr/VeS TYjV 

such lofty learning that it cannot 
be otherwise than that the 
Franks and Greeks will be 
greatly benefited. . . . 

A few useful Explanations 
First and foremost, as it is a 
fact that there are many Romaic 
words which, besides their natural 
meaning, have also a metaphorical 
one, learn that after he puts that 
which shows the natural and 
general meaning, he puts also 
that which shows the meta- 
phorical meaning : for example, 
this word (ktvttw) which means 
naturally and generally ' I beat,' 
afterwards and besides that, he 
puts that it means also meta- 
phorically ' I drink,' putting as 
a token this secondary meaning 
and adding also an example, 
thus : €KTVTT'q(rafjL€v T/jeis, Teo-- 
crepes OKaSes K/aacrt, ' we had 
drunk three or four okas of 
wine,' and so for the rest." 

This is, I think, sufl&cient as 
a specimen of the Graeco-bar- 
baric style in which the mission- 
aries of the West wrote at that 
time. Our good Capuchin not 
only wrote wretchedly the 
popular Greek of the day, but 
he had very little knowledge of 
the rules of orthography and 
of the correct accentuation of 
words. Let us leave then the 
foreigners and see how the 
Greeks of that period wrote the 
pure modern Greek freed from 



aTrr^XXayixkvqv ^evLKWv crrot- 
)(eL(j)V KaOapevov(Tav NeoeAAr^- 
viKTjV yXoxr(Tav. To e^^s elvat 
aTToa-iraa-fxa €k rrj's y€(Dypa(f>La<s 
Tov apy^ieTTLCTKOTrov 'Adrjvwv 
MeAertov (rvyy pa(fi€Lcrr]<5 fikv 
Kara ttjv irpuiT'qv SeKaeTrjpiSa 
TOV IH' aicovo?, 8r]fxo(TL€vOeL(Tr]<s 
Se €v Beverta tw 1728. 

"*H 'EAAa?, TO fieya Kal 
TToXvOpvXrjTov ovofjia els tovs 
dp)(^aL0vs KaLpovs, to a-fiLKpov 
Kal Sva-TV)(es els tovs vvv, 

TpaiKia KaXetTaL iVo twv 

lEivpi07ra[o}v twj/ firj 'EAAi^vcdv, 
Xa/Sova-a Trjv ovofxaa-cav aTro 
TOV ^a(TiX€va-avTO<s kv avTrj 
VpaiKov, ioanrep Kat /EAAots aTro 


AevKaAiwvos koX ttjs Tlvppas, 
KOLVios Se Tavw AeycTat virb 
Tcov TovpKiov Kal aAAwv 'Pov- 

fJicXrj, OLTTO TWV *P(0/>tai{OV T'^S 

veas *Pw/x>ys, i^Tot oltto tov 
fieydXov J^iovcrTavTivov tov 
fi€Tayay6vTos tyjv avTOKpaTO- 
ptav €K Trjs TraXatds *P(o/xr^s els 
TTjV veav *Pa>/Aiyv, i^Tot ttjv 
K.o}V(rTavTivov7roXiV, kv eVet diro 
X/Oio-Tov 335. n^wTOv *EAAas 
CKaAetTO rf l8i(D<s ^EAAots Kal -q 
Qea-a-aXia fxe kolvov ovo/xa, 
&cnrep fxla kirapyj^a^ at oTrotat 
va-Tepov dir aXXiffXiav k\{)ipL- 
o-drja-av, odev Kal 6 "O/av^/dos 
"EAAi^vas KaAet fiovov tovs 
^OiioTas' 6 8e *H/ooSoTo? tov- 
Tovs Kal TOVS IleAaa-yov?, 6 
Se 'KdrjvaLos Tpia ykvrj twv 
^EAAt^vwv dpi6/JL€Lj TOVS Aw/Jteis, 
TOVS AioAets, Kal tovs "liovas' 

foreign elements. The following 
is an extract from the Geography 
of Meletiiis, archbishop of Athens, 
written in the first decad of the 
18th century, but published at 
Venice in 1728. 

" Hellas, that great name, 
universally celebrated in ancient 
times, insignificant and ill-fated 
at the present day, is called 
Greece by those Europeans who 
are not Greeks, and received that 
name from Graecus who reigned 
in it, just as it derived the name 
Hellas from Hellen, the son of 
Deucalion and Pyrrha ; but by 
the Turks and others in these 
days it is commonly called 
Roumelia, from the Romans of 
new Rome, that is to say, from 
the great Constantine who re- 
moved the seat of government 
from old Rome to new Rome or 
Constantinople in the year 335 
A.D. At first Greece proper and 
Thessaly were called by the 
common name of Hellas, as one 
province, but these were after- 
wards separated from each other, 
whence Homer designates only 
the Phthiotae as Hellenes : 
Herodotus the latter and also the 
Pelasgians : Athenaeus enumer- 
ates three nations of the Hellenes, 
the Dorians, the Aeolians, and 
the lonians. Afterwards Pelo- 
ponnesus also received the name 
Hellas, and likewise Epirus and 



v<TT€pov Se 'EAAas iKXridrj kcu 
"q TLcXoTTOvvija-os, ofjioiios Kol 17 
"HTret/DO? KOL airaa-a rj MaKC- 
8ovia, TeAevTaiov'EAAas €KX-^6r) 
Kol r] Kpi^TY] KOL al koLTrai rov 
Alyaiov IleAayov? vrj(TOt' Su/Srj 
TO ovofxa T7]s 'EXAaSos fxera 
Til. era €LS T€ rrjv 'IraXiav /cat 
^LKcXiaVj KOL fxeya ixkpo<i rrjs 
'IraAtas coi^ofidcrOr] MeyaA?/ 
'EAActs. '0/jiot(05 €(f)da(r€ KOI 
€is rrjV 'Acriav 17 oTroia l)vo- 
fiaxrdrj 'AcnaTtKr} 'EAAas. 

'OAt/cw? Xoiirov Xajx/Savofjucvq 
rf 'EAAas TreparovTai oltt' dva- 
To\(ov VTTO Tov Alyaiov IleAa- 
yoi's, OLTTO fieo-rjfifSpias vtto tov 


*Ioviov TleXdyovs, dirb ^opcws 

VTrb TO)V ^KapSLKWV OpUiVj St' (01/ 

)(^u)pi^eTaL TOV 'IkXvpiov kol 
rrjs Moia-Las, Kal tov Nearov 
TTOTafxov, 8l' ov SiaLpeLTaL Trjs 

UpOTCpOV TWV aAAwV /X€/)t3l/ 

rrjs EvpwTTTys €KaTOiKyjdy) -q 
EAAa? W dvOpioTTOiV, (txrav 
OTTov avrry elvai 7rXr](ri€(rT€pa 

€19 TTJV 'A(TiaV, KOL €?)(€ TO 

TraAat fjieydkrjv kol davyKptTOV 
So^av /cat XafXTrpoTYjTa fis oAas 
Tas TT/oa^cis KOI TO, l/aya tt^s* 

SlOTt kcTTdSri aVTTJ to KaTOlKYj- 

TTjpiov T7]S crocfiLas, KOL dir' avTTJs 
SieSoO-r^a-av at iTriCTTrjfxaL /cat ets 
ra AoiTTct /jte/3>/ t^? Ev/DcoTrr^? Kat 
aAAcov TOTTCov a7r' aiJT^S Trj<s 
*EAAa8os €7r€fX(f>0'r]a-av aTrotKiat 
'EAAt^vwv els Siatfiopovs tottovs' 
•iOToXta-dyja-av to, yj6rj twv 
av^/DcoTTWV 8ia tmv vo/xa>v twv 

the whole of Macedonia; and 
finally Crete and the other is- 
lands of the Aegaean Sea were 
called Hellas. The. name Hellas 
subsequently passed into Italy 
and Sicily, and a great part of 
the former was called Magna 
Graecia. In like manner it 
went to that part of Asia which 
was called Asiatic Hellas. 

Taken as a whole then, Hellas 
is bounded on the east by the 
Aegaean Sea, on the south by 
the Cretan Sea, on the west by 
the Ionian Sea, and on the 
north by the Scardian mountains, 
by which it is separated from 
lUyria and Mysia, and by the 
river Nestus, by which it is 
divided from Thrace. 

Hellas was inhabited before 
the other parts of Europe 
because she was nearer to Asia, 
and had in olden times possessed 
great and incomparable fame 
and splendour in all her actions 
and achievements ; for she was 
the home of learning, and it was 
from her that science spread to 
the other parts of Europe and 
elsewhere. It was from Hellas 
that colonies of Greeks were 
sent to different places. The 
habits of mankind were im- 
proved by the legislation of the 
lawgivers of Hellas, and in a 
word Hellas was resplendent 




vofJLoderQv rrjs 'EAAaSos^ kol 
€Vt Aoyo> eiVetv eXaixxpev rj 

'EAAotS els oXoV TOV KOarflOV KOL 

Slot Twv Aoycov Ktti 5ta twi/ 
epyoiv KOL Sia rwv eKcrrpa- 
TCttOV. . . ." 

^vvkypa-^e kol ciAAa crvy- 
ypdfMfxara 6 MeAertos ; 

MaAto-ra, aAAa Sev Itvttw- 
6r)(rav iravTa. 'A^LoXoycorepa 
rij)V epyiov avTov etvat r^ yeto- 
ypacfita, i^ ^s iX.7](f)6rj to a^'to- 
T€po) airocrirao-piaj koX rj ttoXv- 
TLfio'S €KKXr](riaarTiKr) avTOV 
i<TTopLa, yJTLS (TvyypacfieLora els 
TO dp)(^aLov ^^XXrjvLKOv IStto/xa 
fX€T€(fipdcrOr) aKoXovOcos kv Kwv- 
o-TavTtvovTToAet els rrjv Syj/xc^Sr] 
'^^XXrjViKrjv VTTO *l(i)dvvov Ua- 
XaioXoyov kol ervTriodrj ev 
l^LevvTj els 3 TOfxovs t(^ 1783-4 
Si' eTTLCTTacrias TLoXv^wt] tov e^ 

To e^rjs d7r6or7ra(T/Jia dvre- 
ypaxj/a €k tov Neoi; 'Ao-kXtj- 
TTLOV' etVat 8e 6 TrpioTos €k twv 
d(f>opL(Tfxiov TOV ^IinroKpdTOVS 
fieO' eppn^veias els SrjfuoSr] 
^KXXrjViKYjV yXCd(T(Tav (f)iXo7rovrj- 
Oeta-rjs vtto M.dpKov tov K.v7rpL0v 
ocTTLs vrrrjp^e crvyxpovos 'AAe- 
^dvSpov TOv MavpoKopSdTOv ' 
e^TjfjLoa-ievOy] 8e to TrpcoTov ev 
T(^ elpr)fJievu> laTpiK^Z TrepioSiKi^ 
T(^ 1843 eK \eipoypd<fiOV (XTroKet- 
fxevov Trapd 2. K. Oikovo//^. 
'Ap)(^aLov K^eifxevov 

"'0 ^Los f3pa)(^vSf 17 Se 
Te^vrj iiaKprj^ 6 Se Katpos 
o^vSy rj Se Tretpa (r(f>aXep'q, 
rj 8e Kpta-LS xaXernj. Ae? 

over all the world by her words 
and deeds and by her military 
expeditions. . . ." 

Did Meletius write any other 
works ? 

Yes, but they were not all 
printed. The more remarkable 
of his works are the Geography 
from which the above extract is 
taken and his valuable Church 
History^ which, written in the 
ancient Greek idiom, was subse- 
quently translated at Constanti- 
nople into popular Greek by 
Johannes Palaeologus and 
printed at Vienna in three 
volumes, in 1783-4, under the 
superintendence of Polyzoes of 

The following extract I copied 
from the Neos Asclepios : it is 
the first of the Aphorisms of 
Hippocrates with an explanation 
in popular Greek written by 
Marcus of Cyprus, who was 
a contemporary of Alexander 
Maurocordatus : it was first 
published, in the medical peri- 
odical I have mentioned, in 
1843, from a manuscript in the 
possession of S. C. Oeconomos. 

Ancient Text 
"Life is short but science long: 
time is fleeting, experiment haz- 
ardous, and judgment difficult. 
One must not only oneself C' 




Se ov jxovov eavrhv 7rap€\€iv 
TO. ScovTa TTOteovTa, aAAa 
Kttt Tov voo'eovra Kal rovs 
Trapeovras Kal to, e^ioOcv. 
*H {■(ot) tov dvOpUfTTOV (Tvy- 
KpLVOfxkvq pX TO p.eyeOos Tyj<5 
laTpLKrj<; T€xvrj<s (ttc/oc rrjs 
OTTO Las €tvaL Kol 6 Trapuiv Aoyos) 
VTrdpx^i oX-iyrj^ Kal Sev cTvai 
dpK€Trj CIS Tckdav KaTavo-qcnv 
Kal aTTOKrrja'iv rrjs r^xvqs. 
"OOev €Lvai (r(f)u8pa xpr^cnpos 
Kal dvayKaia rj CTrt/zeAr)? dvd- 
yv(i)(rL<s Twv /?i/3Ata>v rwv irpo- 
y€V€crT€p(jDV, Kal paXuTTa tmv 
(jvvTopniiV SiSao-KaAtwv, ottov 
opia-TLKios Kal Kc^aAatwSws 
eppLYjvevova-L tols rexyi-Kas evcp- 
yeias' €k tov kvavriov opio<s rj 
rk\vy) ctVat paKpd Kal kirkKiiva 
TOV dvOpioTTtvov fiiov. Tov 
Kaipbv €is TOV OTTOiov SoKipLa- 
{bvTat a6 kvkpyaai avT7J<s tov 
€;(€i TToAAot o-T€vbv Kal oAtyo- 
)(p6vLov Sid TYjV Ttt^^eiav 
p,€Ta^oXr]v TTJS v\7]S TWV dvOpisi- 
TTtvwv o'W/xaTWV* Tj TTeipa TraAtv 
civat (Tf^akepd 8ta to ripiov Kal 
rrjv d^tav rrjs avryjs vXrjS twv 
dvdpiDTTLViov o-iopLaToyv, €7rav(o ctg 
avTO, vo, SoKLpd^rj ^orava Kal 
BapaTTivpara dSoKtpacrTa. MeTO. 
TTOvov Kal rj Kpta-ts, SrjXaSrj vd 
airo<fia(rL^'jri €K€tva ottov TrpeTrct 
va Kdp,r) 6 larphs ets Kade 
aa-Ocvetav Trpeiret Si o^t /xovov 
o larpos vd Kdpvrj to, SeovTa, 
dAAa Kal 6 dcrdevrjs vd VTroTocr- 
(rqraL eis rds TrapayyeAias tov 
larpov, vd p,rj Troiy rh kvavriov' 

form to what is requisite, but the 
patient also, and those with him, 
and his surroundings. 

Man's life in comparison with 
the magnitude of medical science 
(which the present subject re- 
gards) is short, and is not 
sufficient for a complete com- 
prehension and grasp of that 
science ; and therefore a careful 
perusal of the books of our 
predecessors is of great benefit 
and indispensable, especially 
of those concise instructions 
which in a definite and summary 
manner explain the power of the 
science : but on the other hand 
the science is of great extent and 
beyond the life of man. The 
time which it has for its powers 
to be tried is very restricted and 
brief owing to the rapid change 
in the substance of human 
bodies. Experiment again is 
hazardous on account of the 
worth and value of that sub- 
stance of human bodies, in 
essaying upon them untried 
herbs and remedies. Judgment 
also is a difficult matter, that ist 
to say, to decide what is proper 
for the physician to do in each 
illness. Not only must the 
physician do what is requisite, 
but the patient must obey the 
physician's commands and not 
act in opposition to them. And 
those who are in charge of the 
sick man must be capable of 




Kai 01 eTna-TOLTai rov dppuxTTOV 
va ^vat eTTiTrjSeiOL va KaraXafx- 
fSdvovv KOi vd TeXenovoiCTL rot, 
oo-a 6 larpos irapayykXXei, koX 
OLKoix-q rd e^ioOev TrepLaTaTLKd 
vd rjvai Irot/xacr/xeva KaAcus, 
oicrdv at KaTOLKtat, ^ ^/^ya •)) 
Xoyca OTTOV SlSovctl tov dcrOe- 
vovs Xvirrjv rj dvpov, kol dXXa 
Trapofxo ta oirov ep^TroSt^ovcn tov 
VTTvov, 7] Tr)v 7rp6yv(ii(TLV, rj rrjv 

'E/c TOV d^ioXoyov tovtov 
aTTOcnrdcr pharos kol tov irpo av- 
Tov Karac^atVerat evapyecTTaTa 
OTL y la^eoeXXrjViKrj yAwcrora Karot 
ras dpxds tov IW atwvo? rjpx'-- 
(T€V i7rai(rdr)T0)<s vd KaOapi^Tj- 

Tlepl TOVTOV dpLcjiif^oXla Sev 
v7rdp)^€L, 8l6tl rot rore crvyypa- 
cfi€VTa TTOLKiXrjs vXrjs f^L^Xta 
T/3avoTaTa pLapTvpovai to Trpdy- 
p.a' dXX ev TOVTOLS ol ^kvoi 

'EAA-T^I/tO-Tat TWV )(^p6v(3iV €K€LV(i)V 

cTTe/Aevov AeyovTcs oVt rj yXwcra-a 
TOV ^ISiXXyjvlkov Xaov ^TO /3dp- 
fSapov (f)vpap,a 6$V€l(i)v Ae^ewv, 
dpvopievoL Tots 7rX7]po(f>opLas tojv 

€K TiOV €V TttlS kpTTOpLKals TroX&TL 

TYJs 'AvaToX-yjs iy KaT€a-7rappL€vo)V 
AefSavTLVoiv, €k tmv biroioiv kdv 
epojTTJarrjTe Ttva els ttolov Wvos 
dv-qKei, 6d eras diroKpiOy otl 
elvac KadoXiKOS rj SiapiapTvpo- 
p.€vos' idv Se Tw TrpoTetvrjTe kol 
SevTepav ipiOTrjcTLV^ Troia elvai y 
yAwcro-a tov, Sev 6d SvvrjOrj vd 
eras aTroKpiOy evdvs, a A Act Od 
(TvXXoytcrOfi oXiyov koL vttotov- 
Bopv^oiV 6d €L7rrj- "'EyKw ^epeus 

understanding and carrying out 
whatever the physician orders, 
and moreover, the external sur- 
roundings must be well looked 
after, for instance, the place where 
he is, actions or subjects of con- 
versation which cause the invalid 
distress or irritation, and other 
similar matters which hinder 
sleep, or the prognosis, or the 

From this interesting extract 
and the one before it, it is very 
clearly evident that modern 
Greek at the commencement of 
the 18th century sensibly be- 
gan to be purified. 

There is no doubt about that, 
for the books written at that 
time on various subjects most 
distinctly attest the fact ; yet 
the foreign Hellenists of those 
days persisted in saying that the 
language of the Greek people 
was a barbarous medley of 
strange words, deriving their 
information from the Levantines 
scattered about the commercial 
cities of the East. If you ask 
one. of these to what nation he 
belongs, he will reply that he is 
a Catholic or a Protestant ; and 
if you put a second question, as 
to what his language is, he will 
not be able to answer at once, 
but will consider a little, and 
will mumble : "I know manv 



TToAAa yKAoxro-ats, fta to ^pav- 
T^e^LKO etvat rh yXuxrcra to TraTr- 
TTOv jxov TO fxdvva fiov rjTavi 
MaATt^iKO." Ot AeftavTivoL 
o^Tot fxera^v riov ofxiXovo-L 
)(v8at6TaT6v Tt VpaiKO-TOVpKO- 
yaXXo-LTaXiKov t6ta>/>ta, ei§ to 
OTTOiov €Lvai yey pa jjLfieva Kal to, 
irpo(T€V\y]rapLa avrdv SioL AaT6- 
viKWv yapaKTy]p(MV. Ei§ touto 
TO ISiiofxa KY)pvTT€TaL 6 Aoyos 
Tou Beov €V Tats Kara tyjv 
'AvaToXrjv AttTtviKais CKKX-q- 
oriaLS. 'Etti 7roAAoi>s aiwvas 
ot Ae^avrlvot o^Tot o^o^av ot 
/Aovot 8i€pfxr]veLS tcov ttjv 'Ava- 
ToA'i^v TTipL-qyovfxeviov Ev/otu- 
Tratwv. *Ek TovTwi' Ttoi/ Step- 
firjviiov, Stv TO KvpnoTarov 
\apaKrripL(TriKov iravrorf. virrjp- 
^ev rj dpdOeia, ot TrcptrjyqTal 
(TvveXeyov (Tvin^O(ji}<s Kara rds 
TcAevTaias 8vo 7] Tpets cKaTOv- 
TaeTTjpiSas, ticrcos S' CTt Kat vvv 
o-r'AAeyoixri, rds Trcpl 'AvaroXrjs 
(6voXoyLKd<g Kal yAoxro-tKas ai;- 
TWV yVWO-€tS. '0 ^€V09 6 irpoTL- 

Bifxevos vd €m(TKe(fiOrj rrjv 'EA- 
Aa8a ly Tr)v TovpKtav X^P^^ ^H-' 
iropiKov rj (jyiXoXoytKOv (tkottov, 
rj ttTrAws xdptv SiaxTKeSdcredJS, 
eav ^eA>; vd fir] y^ivy evdXuiTOv 
$rjpaixa twv rrepl S)v 6 Aoyo? 
Supfirjveiov, dd Trpd^y KaAws 
Vplv p€Ta/3y els e/cetva Tot ficprj 
V dTTOKT-qcrrj fiLKpdv yv(i)(TLV rrj<s 
NeoeAAyyvtKrys (09 6/x.iAciTat Kat 
ypd<f)€TaL vvv, Slotl avrrj efvat 
17 iTTLKpaTOva-a €K€t yAwo-o-a. 
Eis Tovs etSoTa? T^]V dp\aLav 
EAAv/vtKryi' ■)} €KjxdOr](Ti<s Trjs 

languages, but French is my 
grandfather's language, my 
mother was Maltese." These 
Levantines speak among them- 
selves a most vulgar Graeco- 
Turco - Gallo - Italian idiom, in 
which moreover their Prayer- 
Books are written in Roman 
characters. In this idiom the 
word of God is preached in the 
Latin churches throughout the 
East. For many centuries these 
Levantines were the only inter- 
preters for Europeans travelling 
in oriental countries. From 
these interpreters, whose chief 
characteristic is always ignor- 
ance, travellers for the last 
two or three hundred years 
regularly collected, and perhaps 
even now still collect, their 
information regarding the people 
and languages of the East. 
The foreigner who intends 
to visit Greece or Turkey 
for commercial or literary pur- 
poses, or simply for recreation, 
if he does not wish to fall an 
easy prey to those interpreters 
of whom we are speaking, will 
do well, before going into those 
parts, to acquire some know- 
ledge of modern Greek as it is 
now spoken and written, since 
that is the prevailing language 
there. For those who know 
ancient Greek the mastery of 


a-rjfiepLvrjs elvat evKoXoirdrrj koI 
KaropOovTac Ivros oXiyiov k^So- 

fldSoyV. UpCOTOV KOi Kvpiov 
7rp€TT€L vd fxaOoxTi vd Trpo- 
(f)€p(i)(rL rds 'EAAr^viKots Ae^eiS 
*EAAryviKws* Tovrov 8k yevo- 
jxevov, as dvayviocroHri NeoeA- 
XrjVLKd TLva fSi/SXia i} ecftrjiJiepi- 
SaSj KOi Ta)(^e(x)<s Od tSoxriV otl 
dv€7raL(r07]T(os eyeivav Kdro\oi 
ttJs NeoeAAi^vtK^S yX^(rcrrj<s. 
*H e^ts Tov ofiiXelv eAev- 
Ocpoy'S KOi dTTTaicrriiiS, ws eis 
Tracras rots aAAas yAwo-cra? ovtw 
^at €ts rr^v ^EAA^ptKT^i/, (xtto- 
KTarat /i€ tov Kaipov Sid rrjs 
TT/Dct^ews. Ets TOVS "EAAT^i/a? 
Kttt dp\aia 'EAAr^vtKO, vol ofxiXrj 
Tts yiVerai KaraAT^TrTOSj dpKel 
fiovov vd fxrj 7rpocf)€pr] avrd Kard 
rr^v Trpocfiopdv tov '^pdcrfiov, 
Slotl t6t€ Od vo/JLia-ioa-LV otl 
6/xtAet dXXrjv yAwcrcrai/. T^v 
c^rjs T^'X' 4^pd(riVj "At ypalai 
a^Tat /xatat, kultol Trpo^e/Sr]- 
Kvtai, cf)aiVOVTaL kv tovtols 
V€afc/' dvayLV(oa-KOfX€vr)v Kara 
Trjv 'AyyXiKYjV irpof^opdv, " XaJ.' 
yKpa'id'C ^AovTai fid'Cai, KatVot 
7r/3obebeKfcoin'at, (f)a'iv6vTa'i kv 
TaovTOLS vka'i" oi'Seis 'EAAt^v 
Svi/arat va €VVOi^o-rj. "^Av OeXeTC 
vd yeXda-qTe iTTLTpexpaTe [xoi v 
dvayv(XKTOi vpXv oXiyovs a-Ti\ov<s 


TtpL-Atpr) TOV 'Op(f)avi8ov kv ol<s 
7repLypd(f)0VTaL TrepirjyrjTai tlv€S 
kXOovTes ets ^vpov Ka6* ov 
\p6vov ot KaTOiKOL avTrjs evpi- 
(TKOVTO €ts /xeyav dva/SpacrfJLOv 
€V€Ka TOV Oavfiao-iov kovkkov 

modern Greek is a very easy 
matter, and can be gained in a 
few weeks. The first and the 
principal thing they have to 
do is to learn to pronounce 
Greek words in the Greek 
manner : after this, let them 
read some modern Greek books 
or newspapers, and they will 
soon find that they have in- 
sensibly become proficient in 
modern Greek. The habit of 
talking readily and accurately 
in Greek, as in all languages, 
is acquired in time by practice. 
If any one speaks even ancient 
Greek to Greeks he is under- 
stood : all that is required is 
not to pronounce it after the 
Erasmian method, for then they 
will think he is speaking another 
language. The following phrase 
for example : " These old mid- 
wives, though advanced in years, 
nevertheless appear youthful," 
read with the English pronunci- |j 
ation, " High gry-eye haught- p 
eye my- eye ki-toy pro-beb- 
bee-kyoo-ee-eye fye-nown-die en 
tou-tois nee-eye," no Greek can i 
understand. If you would 
like to have a laugh, let me < 
read you a feAV lines from the 
satirical poem Tiri-Liri of Or- 
phanides, in which a descriptior 
'is given of some travellers wli 
went to Syros at the time when 
the inhabitants were in a tre- 
mendous state of excitement 
about the wonderful cuckoo 
which had been killed by the j 




oi' €(fi6v€V(Tev 6 Tre pL<fi7jixos Kvvr)- 
yhs ZoAoras. Kivai 8e irepLT- 
rhv va eras etTrw ort oXrj rj 
vir66€(rL<s Tov TTOtry/AttTOS etvai 
ir\(KrT7j. 'lEi^ipxovrat Xonrov 
ot ^€V0L €ts Tr]v Trpo}T€vov(rav 
TTJs vrja-ov^Fip/JiovTroXiV' 
"*Ek tovtwv aAAot €c{)€pov fii- 
pXla €ts Tots )^€ipa<;, 

"AAAot S' €7rt TWI/ (TTepVWV TWV 
O-TaV/30€t8{0S ^OXTT^/OaS, 

K't aAAot €7rt Twv ttiAwv twv 

7r€/3 iT€T V A ly fievov 

AiVKov pavS'qXiov' aAA' ew €K 

Tcoi/ KttAwv /xas ^evcaf, 

Xeos ipatSpos /jI€ €K(f)pa(riv 

a-arvpiKOV irpoa-WTrov, 

M€ /JAe/x/iara o-araviKa, Kai 

€;((|)V (TTOfXa OTTOV 

*A7rWvrj(TK€ fieiSiafia dcTTrXdy- 

Xvov dpmveias, 

M' o^eiav piva, ttA^v aacfiojs 

dvOLKVpTOV, KL d(rT€ias 
Tpa(fil8oS dvTtK€l/X€VOV, CTTpa- 

<^eis 7r/3os KWirrjXdTrjv 

TIpo(r€i7r€ fJLe tyjv Trpocfiopdv rrjv 


Twp Xat/0€ krd'Cp^' '^12 Trtit, 

Ae^ov /iot 

IIov av/ ci'ev dvTpbs ZoAdra 

* Mc o-vy;((D/[)€is avdcvra /xov,' t<^ 

d7r€Kpi6r) irai^iiiv 

KiDTT'qXdT'qs, ^dyvou) rrjvyXioa-- 

(Tav Twv Ktve^wv.' 

"^Ev a-yjfXiLiofxardpiov 6 ^€vo<s tot' 


Kai ypd<fi€L TavTtt' '"EAAr^vcs 

T^v o-yjfxepov oXlyoi 

AaAovo-t T-^v ^EAAi^viK-j)!/ ws 

ovTcs T€Kva /AaAAov 

celebrated sportsman Zolotas. 
It is superfluous for me to tell 
you that the whole subject of the 
poem is imaginary. The travel- 
lers land at Hermopolis, the 
capital of the island. 

" Some of them carried books in 
their hands, 

some bands crossed over their 

and others, wound round their 

a white handkerchief ; but one of 
these gentle strangers, 
a youth, bright, with a satirical 
expression of countenance, 
with Satanic looks, and a mouth 
from which 

there died away a smile of piti- 
less irony, 

with a sharp nose but distinctly 
up-tilted and for a humorous 
pencil a subject, turning to a 

said with that most charming 

of the Keye-eree-het-eye-eree 
lot : '0 pie, lexon moy 
poy an ayi-en antros Zolota 
oykoy ? ' 

' Pardon me, my lord,' answered 

the boatman, ' I do not know the 
Chinese language.' 
A note-book then the stranger 

and thus he writes : ' Few Greeks 

speak Greek, being offspring 



'IKkvpiMV KOL Tpi/BaXXoyv koi 
2Aa/3o>v KOL BavSaAwv. 

K' etS 2v/30V TTjV efJLTTOpLKrjV TOV 

Aev evpov TreptrjyqBeh rrjv d- 
yopdv T-qs oAr^v 
OvSeva vd fxe evvoy. . . .' " 


e6vov<5 '^To va v^picrdy Kal va 
xXcvaa-Oy TroAAaKts vtto ^eviov, 
dXXa fxera^v twv TrepLTjyr]- 
OevTiov Ttts 'EAAt/vikcis ;((u/oas 
€vpi(rKOVTaL Kat rtves (faXaX'q- 
^eis KOI dfxepoXrjTTTOi dv8p€s ol 
OTTOiOL ov fJLovov TO,? dp€ra<s 
TOV ^^XXrjVLKOv Xaov kOav- 
fxacrav, aAAa Kat ttjv yXiocr- 
cav avrov /xeyaAws i^eTifirjcrav. 
*0 €K Mao-craAtas HeT/aos A^- 
yovcTTLVos Fktjs, ypd<f>tov i^ *EA- 
AaSos Kara to 175^ Aeyet ttoA- 
Ao, KaAa vTTcp Twv Tore 'EAA^- 
vwi' Kttt rrjs VTTO twi' ^evcov a- 

StKWS 7T€pL<fipOVOVfl€VY]S yX(i)(TCnf]<5 

Tinv. Tr)v Kotvi^v TOV ,Aaov 
yAoxTO-av deoypei fiovov /caT* 
lirt^avetav irapafiefxopcfioyfjievrjv, 
Kara /SdOos Sc SiaTrjpovcrav oXov 
TOV ttAoijtoj' Kat T^v yXacfivpo- 
Trjra t>}s dpxaia<s *EAAr^vtK?J§. 
H €^^? avTOv TrapaT'qpr^a-iS 
€Lvai xprqa-LfJuardT't] ets tovs 

€TrL9vp,0VVTa<S VOL fXadciiiTL TrjV 

^ eoeXXrjviKrjv. "'ASvvaTOV vd 
fidOy Tts T-i^v KaOiofiLXrjfxevrjv 
^EAAr^vtKryv," Aeyet, '* x^/^'^ 
Trporepov vd yvoypLcrrj to, -jrapa- 
IxvOta Kal Tas crTL)(rjpds 
Trapoifxias. Oi "E A Aleves Aa- 
Aov(riv dcwroTe aTro^^ey/^a- 

of Illyrians, Triballians, and 
Slavs and Vandals. 
And in Syros, the commercial 
city of the new kingdom, 
going over all its market I did 
not find 

any one to understand me. . . .'" 
It has been the fate of the 
Greek nation to be frequently 
insulted and jeered at by 
foreigners, but among those 
who have travelled in Greek 
countries there are to be found 
some truthful and impartial 
men, who not only have ad- 
mired the good qualities of the 
Greek people, but have set a 
high value on their language. 
Pierre Auguste Guys of Mar- 
seilles, writing from Greece in 
1750, speaks very favourably of 
the Greeks of that time and of 
their language unjustly despised 
by foreigners. He regards the 
common language of the people 
as only transformed on the 
surface, but as preserving be- 
neath it all the richness and the 
elegance of ancient Greek. The 
following observation of his is 
most useful to those who wish 
to learn modern Greek. "It 
is impossible for any one tc 
learn the vernacular Greek," he 
says, "without first acquiring 8 
knowledge of the folk-lore and 
metrical proverbs. The GreebJ 



Tt/cws* ayaTrokrt ttoAv ra 
Sirjyi^/jiaTa koi tols 7ra/)ot/xtas, 
TOLS OTTOias 17 7rapd8o(rL^ Si- 
iT'qprja-e Trap' avTOL<s fxcra t(ov 
kSifHiiv. . . ." 'O/xtAwi/ Se Trept 

TWV €p(i)TLKlOV ^Cr/XaTWV T0{i *EA- 

Ai^vtKov Xaov X.€y€L' "'AAAa 
Ti va €177(1) Trepl ttJs ipoyTCKrjs 
yAoxro-rys Twv 'EAA^vwv; OvSa- 
fiov 6(Tou Trap' avTOts ttTravr^ rj 
VTrepfSaXXovcra Trapa(fiopa twv 
epiDTLKiov Tradiov. OvSefxta aXkr] 
yXwcrara Sui^arat va Trapda-\rj 


ovofidriov ocra ot "EAAryves 
epaa-TOL €Tn8a\pt\evovcrLV els rots 

€p(OfX€VaS TUiV." 1 

To, €^^s acrfiara ^Sofieva ev 
Ktovo-TavTivovTToAet Kara to 
€TO<s 1750 avT^ypaxj/a ck t-^? 
rpcTTjS ckSoo-cws tov " <J>tAoAo- 
yiKOV €is T^v 'EAAa8a ra^ct- 

OlOV T01» 1 KVS. 

always speak in apophthegms : 
they are very fond of the tales 
and proverbs which tradition 
has preserved among them in 
common with their customs. 
. . ." Speaking of the love-songs 
of the Greeks he says: "But 
what shall I say of the lan- 
guage of love employed by the 
Greeks 1 Nowhere so much as 
among them are there found the 
excessive transports of the pas- 
sion of love. No other language 
is capable of supplying such a 
wealth of expressive epithets as 
Greek lovers lavish upon their 

The following songs, sung in 
Constantinople in the year 1750, 
I have copied from the third 
edition of the Voyage LitUraire 
de la Grke, par M. Guys. 

A\) ' KKpodTLyov (to/x. A' a-. 



4>(0S TOV 7jXlov €KXafXTrpov, XdfX- 

xpLs uipaiordr-q^ 

plxj/e Kttt CIS TOV Aoyov fxov avr' 

rrjv KadaptaTdrrj, 

dir' Twv 'fJiaTi(ov crov Tots /3oXd<s 

ttKTiva ^vo-^v fxiav, 

vd €vpo} els rd TrdOrf fxov Kdfx- 

/xiav SepaTreiav. 

Ttt /Bdcravd fxov, y TrXrjyaLS, ot 

TTOvot, Ttt Seivd /xov, 

^dXrjv fik 8t8ovv TrdvTore, Oprj- 

vovv rd 'fidrtd p.ov. 

^ Sd^a, HapdffTtjfM NfoeX. ^tXoXoylai, a. 126 

1. An Acrostic (Vol. I. p. 12 9). 


brilliant light of the sun, 

loveliest splendour, 

cast on me too one most pure 

golden ray of the glances from 
your eyes, 

that I may have some little 
alleviation of my sufferings. 
My torments, my wounds, my 
troubles, my wretchedness 
make me dizzy always, my eyes 
shed tears. 



e'Aa, (0 cf)w<s fiov, Sei^e fxe eXeos, 


'? ra afierpd fxcv ra /caKct /xt- 

K/oav Traprjyopiav. 

KOLfxe, (5 ^ws /xov, eAeo?, Ka^ite 

eva vrepfidvL, 

et5 Ta§ TrXrjyds fJiov rds TroAAas 

/SdXe eVa /SordvL. 

(TMV€L 7] dirovia crov, cfiOdvec ^ 


dXXoLfiovov/ k^dSriKa' Sev eivau 

dfJiapT ta ; 

B'.) To SevS/oov T^s dyaTTT^? 
(o-eA. 133). 

To 8€i/8/30v ttJs dydTrrj<^ croxf fik 

(fivXXa TTicrroa-vvq^ 

LOTKLov cAttiSos fx' cSiScF, (x/xe- 

rpov ev(f)pocrvi'r]S-, 

TrXrjv Tiapa i/JiapdvOrjKav rd 

(fivXXa, K v7ro(f)€pv(i) 

aTTcATrio-i'a? (fiXoyicrfiov kl dSiKa 


TWV V7rO0r^€O-€0>V KAaStct TOV 

fxLcrovs rj xj/v^poT'T]'; 

k^kpave TravraTracrt t-^s 'iydpa<i 

rj Kpvor-q's, 

Kol p.6vOV pi^av TOV <f>VTOV 

dSvvarov /cvrra^w, 

a.7r' rd crrjixeia twv KAaStwv av 

etV' ^Xtopr} StcTTa^o), 

(fiaivcTai KaTTWS €)(acr€ ttjv 

^(oiKrjv crTO)(i^v ttjs 

Kol 81' avTO direfSaXe twv ^vA- 

Awv Ti^v aroAT^i/ rr^s. 

aei^aAes Ivopn^a to SevSp avrb 

jjL€ XdOo<s 

XW/ois TTore vot Se^erat to ^vA- 

XofSoXov TrdOos. 

Koi jx 6X0V TovTO 7rp6(r(fi€pva 

Ktti Kd$€ depaireiav 

Come, my ligbt, show me 
some pity, some remedy, 
a little consolation for my end- 
less woes. 

Have pity on me, my light, 
give me a little help, 
put one herb upon my many 

Enough of your indifference, 
enough of your cruelty ! 
Alas ! I am lost ! the pity of 

2. The Tree op Love (p. 133). 

The tree of your love with its 

leaves of fidelity 

gave me the shade of hope, of 

boundless joy : 

but now the leaves are withered, 

and I suffer 

the scorching heat of despair, 

and writhe in unmerited torture. 

The branches of promises the 

cold of hatred j 

and the frost of enmity have 

utterly dried up, 

and I see only the feeble root of 

the plant : 

from the signs of the branches I 

doubt if it still be green : 

it seems to have been deprived 

of the source of life 

and so has lost its robe of leaves 

I wrongly thought the tree was 


and never had to suffer the cast| 

ing of its leaves ; 

and still I paid it every care. 



SaKpviov fxov TTOTia-fxara jxk Kadi 

TrpoOvfiLav ' 

Trkrjv jJLaTTjv cKOTrtacra, ytart 8ev 

€L)(^e <f)Od(rrj 

's TO pddo<s' pL^oiv pLOva^a 's 

rrjv 6\piv er^e irLacrrj, 

Kttt eScLXve '<s to. '/xaTia /xov oAo 

wws Oe V av^yja-y, 

fia pi^av (TTa6ep6TrjTO<i Sev et^^ev 


jxov OLTTo {ecrtv cpcDTO'? 7rdX.LV av 


icrcu? Tov irpujTov lctklov fiov 

cAttiSos '^avaSiocTTj. 

zealously watering it with my 
tears ; 

but my labour was in vain, for 
it had not reached 
to any depth : it had taken root 
only on the surface, 
and yet it always seemed to my 
eyes that it would grow, 
but it had not acquired the root 
of constancy. 

If only from the heat of love it 
will again send forth its buds, 
perhaps it will give me, as be- 
fore, the shade of hope. 

r'.) To TTcAayOS TlJjV (TVp.(fiOpC)V 

{rofx. B' o-eA. 39). 

Me 8vcrTV)(^Las TroAe/xw, 
IX€ I3d(rava, ws to Aai/xo 
*S TO TreAayos twi/ (rvfKfjopwv 
fie eTTLKivSwov Kaipov, 
p dv€p,ov<s oXedplovSf 
(rcfio8pov<s Kol evauTLOV<Sj 
pe Kvp^ara ttoAAwv Kavp,C)v 
KOL TrXrjdos dva(rT€vaypo)v. 
QdXacr(ra ^ov(TK(iip,kvy]^ 
TToAAa dypiuypiGV-q, 

OTTOV d(f)pt^€L Kttt <fiV(r^ 

/X€ crayavdKia Treptarcrd' 

(Tvvvecfia crKOTL(rp,€va 

Kot KaTao-vy)(tcr/x€va, 

Ktti vol <fiavrj p,id (nor-qpid^ 

vd '8lovv rd '/xctTia p^ov cmp-qd^ 

yX-VKo. V€pd vd evptOy 

7rttcr;(w Kol 8ev el^evpo). 

v' dpd^o) 8k 8€v elpLTTopio, 

yiaTL kip^kva 8\v dojpio. 

(X dTTcATTlO-taV Tp€)(0) 

S rd dpp,€va 'ttov e^w, 
Ittov pL€ avrd ndv vd Trviyw, 

3. The Sea op Troubles 

(Vol. II. p. 39). 

I am fighting with misfortunes, 

with afflictions, up to the neck 

in the sea of troubles, 

in dangerous weather, 

with destructive winds 

violent and contrary, with waves 

of passionate longings 

and profusion of sighs. 

A swollen sea 

all raging, 

and foaming, and it blows 

with many a gust : 

clouds darkened 

and confused : 

and that safety may appear 

and my eyes descry the land, 

and I may find fresh water, 

I strive, but find no means. 

I cannot come to anchor 

for I see no harbour : 

I run, in my despair, 

to the sails which I still have, 

at least to drown with them 



Kol Tovra av f^acrTa^ovv 
'ixTTopovv vd fxe (f>v\d^ovv. 

Aev etvai evKaracjipovrjra to, 
€p(3}TLKa ravTa ^(Tfxara, kol Trpe- 
Trei va 6/xoAoyw/xev 7rAe«rTas 
xdpiTa<s CIS Tov Tkv<s octtis ra 
Siecrwcrei/* dAX' aKovu) tov 
KwSwva ■q-)(^ovvTa, wcrre as 
VTrdyoifiev Kara) ets rovs kolt(ovl- 
(TKOvs /Atts va €T0Lfxa(r6Qp.€V Slol 
TO yevfJLa. 

or safely come to land, 
and these, if they last, 
may save me. 

These love-songs are not to 
be despised, and we must ac- 
knowledge the deepest obliga- 
tion to M. Guys who has pre- 
served them : but I hear the 
bell ringing, so let us go down 
to our cabins and get ready for 

AIAA0r02 IE' 


KvTTa^are, oXovrb KarocrT/Dto- 
fia ervat KaOvypov ws ^aiVerat, 
KaO' r]v lopav i^/xets lyevfxaTi- 

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ws va fLYj a-vve/Sr] Tt, Kal 6 t^Xlos 
\€€i anf)06v(D<s ras xpvaras avTOv 

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OqrOiv [xov Xa/oii/ StacrKcSacretus. 

eavTov dXe^i/Spoxov ^ CTravw- 
(jiopLov. 'A(f>ov eyev/xariVa/xev 
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"n^v ddXacrcrav^ aTre^ao-wra/xev 
i/a €KBpdpii)fX€v P'^XP'' 2aA,a/xtvos. 
2w€<^a)VT^(ra/i,€v AotTTov uera 
yepovTos rtvos XepfSovxov va 
'/*as virdyrj ecos ckci Kat va /xas 

Look, the deck is all wet : 
apparently, while we were 
having our dinner down below, 
it was raining outside. 

But I do not think much 
rain has fallen : perhaps it was 
a passing cloud, for I see the 
sky is clear, as if nothing had 
happened, and the sun pours 
without stint his golden rays. 

During this month, in these 
southern parts, the weather is 
usually very changeable, and 
one often suffers if one goes 
out for a walk without an 
umbrella. I remember, when I 
was a student at Athens, on a 
beautiful day . in April I went 
down to the Piraeus for recrea- 
tion with some of my fellow- 
students. None of us had 
brought with him an umbrella 
or overcoat. After we had 
dined at a little restaurant by 
the sea, we determined to make 
an excursion as far as Salamis. 
So we made an agreement with 
an old boatman to take us as 
far as there and bring us back 
for fifteen drachmas, and with- 




i7rava(f>epr) Stot SeKaTrevre Spa)(- 
/itts, Kol )(0)pls VOL xda-Mfiev 
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TTttiSta," etTTc, " /SXcireTC e/ceivo 
TO [xavpo (rvvv€(f>o ; Od e^w/xe 

out losing time we got into his 
boat and were soon outside 
the harbour. A light breeze 
blowing from the east swelled 
the sail and the boat cleft the 
waves delightfully. All of us 
were in high spirits and we 
passed the time in singing 
national songs. We had gone 
beyond the little desert island 
Psyttaleia and were already 
doubling Cape Cynosura when 
one of us, a student, if my 
memory does not fail me, 
from Philippopolis in Thrace, 
standing up, began to repeat 
with enthusiasm the beautiful 
lines of Aeschylus about the 
sea-fight at Salamis ; and just 
as he was reciting the famous 
exhortation : 

" Go, sons of Greece, 
free your fatherland, free 

children, wives, and the homes 
of your fathers' gods, 
and your ancestral tombs : the 
fight is now for all you have," 
and the whole of us were madly 
clapping our hands, the old 
boatman, who, seated at the stern, 
had up to that time been steer- 
ing without taking any part in 
our hilarity, interrupted us and 
stretching out his arm towards 
Mount Parnes said, " Look there, 
boys, do you see that black 
cloud ? We shall have rain, 




fipo^y], KOL /3poxr] y^pyj, (lio-rt 
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's €K€Lvrj T>)v Ka\vf3a €0)9 va 
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ttAAa^r^T€ €v6vfxaTa. 

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€t§ TTjV (TKLCpdv €K€LVr]V yCDVLaV 

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and heavy rain ; so we should 
do well to put in to land here 
and creep into that hut till the 
storm has passed," and with 
these words he steered to the 
land ; but the rain did not give 
us time to take refuge in the 
hut, for suddenly it came down 
furiously and drenched us to 
the skin. 

I hope you did not catch 
cold, for there was no possibility 
of your changing your clothes 

My good fellow, how on earth 
could we change our clothes ? 
Luckily in a few minutes the 
burning rays of the sun dried 
tliem on our backs. 

That I can well believe, for 
at this moment the heat of the 
sun is no joke ; and, as our 
clothes have no need of being 
dried on our backs, I think we 
should do well to go and sit 
down in that shady corner and 
resume our favourite discussions 
and readings. 

Very good, for we shall thus 
be able, before we arrive at 
Corfu, to examine concisely the 
points which regard the progress 
of the Greeks in literature and 
science in the last fifty years of 
the eighteenth century. 

At tha^time in western Europe 




ry €O"7r€/0t^ KvpioTrrj vTreXdvOavev 
ivepywv /xeyas tls ScavorjTtKOS 
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eSvovs, 'H pieOoSos ttjs 8t- 
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TO IS eKTraiSevTTjpLOiS p^erappvd- 
pi^op.ev-q KOL jSeXTLOvpevT) KaO' 
eKda-Ttjv eyivero eirl pidXXov 
Kat pidXXov Kap7ro<f)op(i}Tepa, 

there was imperceptibly at work 
a great intellectual and political 
agitation which later on over- 
turned everything, destroying 
ancient prejudices and raising 
man to his proper position. 
The writings of Locke, Hume, 
Voltaire and Rousseau greatly 
contributed to hasten that 
change, by which intellect be- 
came the ruling power among 
the communities of the civilised 
world. In what condition was 
the intellectual development 
of the Greek nation at this 
period ? 

The Greek nation, as you 
know from what I have already 
told you, even from the 17 th 
century began to make intel- 
lectual progress, but it is from 
the middle of the 1 8th century, 
properly speaking, that its true 
intellectual regeneration com- 
mences. At this time the zeal 
of the Greeks for learning 
received a new impulse and 
education was no longer confined 
to a few, but spread among all 
classes of the nation. The 
method of instruction pursued 
in the schools, reformed and 
improved every day, became 
more and more efficacious, for 
the teachers in them were in 



rja-av €V ycvet au8p€<s irecfuoTt- 
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€is 'IraAiav ev^a 8i€fX€LV€ 

general men of enlightenment 
who had completed their studies 
in the then celebrated uni- 
versities of the West. 

Who are regarded as the 
more distinguished among the 
learned Greeks of this period ? 

Eugenius Bulgaris and Nice- 
phorus Theotokes. Regarding 
these learned men Mr. Thereianos 
very justly remarks that they 
were " the foremost heroes of 
science and Greek literature, 
the eloquent heralds of the 
intellectual reformation of the 
race, renowned as teachers, 
more renowned as writers, a 
real honour to Greece." 

You will greatly oblige me 
if you will tell me a few par- 
ticulars of the life and writings 
of these two learned men of 
Greece in the days of her 

With pleasure : I begin then 
with Eugenius as of earlier 
date. He was born in 1716 in 
Corfu, where his father Peter 
Bulgaris had gone for a time 
with his wife Zaneta for fear of 
the Turks who were coming to 
attack his native country Zante. 
Eugenius, having completed 
his elementary course of educa- 
tion first in Zante and after- 
wards in Corfu, subsequently 
went to Italy where he remained 
studying for three years. In 



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1738 lie returned to his native 
land, and going thence to 
Janina was ordained deacon. 
After this he went back to 
Italy, and having become ac- 
quainted in Venice with the 
Maroutzae, at that time engaged 
in trade there, who were natives 
of Epirus and patriots, was sent 
by them to Janina to take up 
the post of headmaster of the new 
school which they had at great 
expense established in that city. 
There had been flourishing for 
years at Janina another school 
superintended at that time by 
Balanus, a very learned man, 
but a follower of antiquated 
philosophical systems. This 
man and his associates, rejecting 
the philosophical theories of 
Eugenius, which introduced 
new principles, raised a furi- 
ous war against him and 
compelled him to leave Janina 
and remove to Cozane, where he 
taught for some years with great 
success. The fame of Eugenius 
as a learned instructor and an 
eloquent preacher had spread 
throughout all the countries 
inhabited by the Greeks, so 
that, in the year 1753, having 
been invited to Constantinople 
by the Oecumenical Patriarch 
Cyrillus, he was sent from there 
to Athos as headmaster of the 
Patriarchal School just then 
established at that place. This 
great national school Eugenius 
superintended for six years, in- 



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structing tlie crowds of students 
who flocked there in logic, meta- 
physics, mathematics and di- 
vinity. Over the great gate of 
tlie school Eugenius, in imitation 
of Plato, wrote the following 
inscription : 

" Let him who will study geo- 
metry enter : I do not forbid 
him : on him who will not I 
shall close the door." 

The teacher of the Greek 
language and philology in the 
school was the celebrated Neo- 
phytus Causocalybites, whose 
commentaries on the fourth 
book of the Grammar of Theo- 
dorus Gazes, extending over four- 
teen hundred pages, published at 
Bucharest in 1761, attest not 
only the industry of the man 
but also his great ability in 
everything connected with gram- 
matical studies. In this school, 
as I told you before, Eugenius 
did not remain more than six 
years, for, perceiving that he was 
envied and bitterly persecuted by 
the deposed Patriarch Cyrillus, 
at that time staying at Athos, 
he resigned the head mastership 
and withdrew to Thessalonica. 
Seraphim II., who was then 
Patriarch, invited Eugenius to 
Constantinople to fill the chair 
of divinity in the National 
School Regarding the Patriarch 
Seraphim II., Sergius Macraeus 
in his Ecclesiastical History says : 

^ Plato's inscription over his doorway is said to have been : "MT/Seir 
ayeojfx^rprp-os elalru)," ** Let no one enter who is ignorant of geometry." 




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KttT AvyovoTTOV TOV eTOv§ 1775 

"His Holiness Seraphim was 
fond of men of learning and 
culture, and took delight in 
conversing with them, and did 
all he could to show them 
honour : . . . and sending for 
the great Eugenius from Thes- 
salonica, for whom he had 
great admiration and esteem, 
appointed him a teacher in the 
school at Constantinople, so that 
in the third year of his patri- 
archate he made the parish of 
the Phanar a perfect Athens : for 
there the famous Eugenius was 
at that time teaching divinity, 
there Dorotheos was imparting 
instruction in philosophy, there 
Critias was lecturing on rhetoric, 
there Ananias was giving lessons 
in logic : there was indeed a 
crowd of philosophers there, a 
throng of men of letters, and a 
band of theologians." 

From Constantinople Eug- 
enius went to Dacia and thence 
to Leipsic, where in 1766 he 
published his Logic, In this 
city he became intimate with 
the Eussian commander-in-chief 
Theodore Orloff, who then hap- 
pened to be staying there. Or- 
loff on his arrival at St. Peters- 
burg recommended the learned 
Greek to the Empress Catherine, 
and the result of this recom- 
mendation was an invitation to 
Russia, where he acquired high 
honour. In August of the year 
1775 he was ordained priest by 

1 Sd^a, MeaatuiPtK^ BipXioO-nKT), rofi. V <x. 229. 




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Platon, the Metropolitan of 
Moscow, and a year afterwards 
was consecrated Archbishop of 
Kherson. In 1789 he became 
a member of the Most Holy 
Synod of all the Russias, and 
also of the Imperial Academy. 
He died at an advanced age on 
the 10th of June 1806 and was 
buried with great distinction. 

The information you have 
given me about Eugenius 
Bulgaris is very interesting. 
Did he write many works ? 

A very large number, of which 
you can find a long catalogue 
in the Modern Greek Literature 
of Sathas. His translation into 
heroic hexameters of the Aeneid 
and Georgics of Virgil in three 
folio volumes is worthy of note. 

In what style did Eugenius 
write his works ? 

In the ancient Greek style : 
but in some of them he em- 
ployed modern Greek, which he 
certainly did not write with so 
much purity as Nicephorus 
Theotokes. As a specimen of 
his style in the vernacular let 
us read the following extract 
from his letter to the deposed 
Patriarch Cyrillus, who by hie 
intrigues compelled Eugenius 
to resign the headmastership of 
the school at Athos. 



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aiTias ' ttTra-ye 

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ttva</)v6/xeva aTOira ; 'Eyw Kara 
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jBovXevara jxe ^y^XoVj Kal eire- 
TrXrj^a /xe (T<fio8p6rrjra, Kal 
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vTre8ex6rfv fierd Trpaorrjros, Kal 
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els roarrfv evra^iav kol rotavrrfv 
Koa-fiior-qra, els 6a"qv Svvafiai 
va KavxyfSSi, OTt 8ev e^rja-dv 

"Here are some out of the 
many causes of my departure. 
In them you have sufficiently 
the why and the wherefore : 
but your Holiness, attaching no 
importance to these causes, in 
your various letters against me 
only strives to make it appear 
that my departure forsooth re- 
sulted from your wishing to cor- 
rect the irregularities of the 
school and expel those who were 
insubordinate, and that I, as a 
haughty and arrogant person, 
took it ill and could not endure 
your setting matters to rights. 
Heaven forbid ! A school which 
I found with twenty students of 
whom I raised the number to 
nearly two hundred, which I en- 
larged and firmly established 
with such great efforts, as you 
have heard, and with such great 
labour, as you have seen, how 
was it possible for me to bring 
to that perfection in which you 
found it beyond your expecta- 
tion, without punishing the 
insubordinate, and without 
correcting, as far as I could, the 
irregularities in it, as they 
arose ? According to what was 
required there I earnestly 
advised, harshly rebuked, 
severely chastised, angrily ex- 
pelled, and again good-naturedly 
took back and treated with 
affection and kindness, thus 
keeping two hundred persons in 
discipline and good order such 
as I can boast that the small 




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number of servants who attend 
you never lived in, notwith- 
standing the noble example of 
propriety they have in the great 
virtue of your Holiness." 

The following is an extract 
from the sermon which he 
preached at Constantinople be- 
fore the Patriarch Seraphim at 
the feast of St. Andrew : 

" And the laws themselves at 
first, like tender infants, require 
milk and something to strengthen 
them : as they advance they 
grow up and come of age : 
afterwards, like men, they 
arrive at perfection and are 
in their prime, and at last they 
grow old and decay, they be- 
come enfeebled and collapse, 
and then they want — what 
else, but a hand and a staff? 
a staff to support them, a hand 
to raise them up and hold them ; 
or they then want, what is 
more desirable, a breath of life, 
and some revivifying and in- 
vigorating power which will set 
them up when they have fallen, 
bring them to life when they 
are dead, make them young 
again when old, restore them 
when decrepit. People have 
likened laws to spiders' webs, 
and in some respects have well 
so likened them, for a single 
feeble breath shakes them, a 
vigorous puff pierces and dis- 
sipates them : spiders' webs in 
fact ! If flies and gnats and 



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dOxTiv, dvaKaivi^ovTai. "ISere 
dv ofiiXio Kard Xoyov. . . ." 

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cr\oX€iO) Tot /JLadrj/xaTLKd kol 

small weak insects of that kind 
are entangled in them, they are 
caught and imprisoned : if 
larger and more powerful 
animals make a rush, they break 
them and tear them. But this 
comparison (according to my 
judgment) is incomplete in this 
respect, that when spiders' webs 
have been broken and scattered, 
there is no more any hope, and 
no art by which they can be 
mended, so that they may return 
to their former condition : but 
laws, yes. Whence laws and re- 
gulations would be more fitly 
likened to nets, which are sub- 
jected to what spiders' webs 
undergo, according to the size 
of the animals that fall into 
them, and also they have this 
further peculiarity of laws, that, 
when they are torn they are 
mended, and, when they be- 
come old, they are renewed. 
See if I speak according to 
reason. . . ." 

We now pass to Nicephorus 
Theotokes. He was born in 
Corfu in 1736. His father was 
Stephanos Theotokes, a noble- 
man. Having completed in his 
native land a course of general 
education he went at a very 
early age to Italy, where he 
studied with great assiduitj 
mathematics and philosophy 
Eeturning in 1756 to his owi 
country, he taught for som< 
years mathematics and philolri 
sophy in the school thereJli 



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Having been subsequently or- 
dained, and preaching the word 
of God with great eloquence in 
the churches, he acquired cele- 
brity among all the Greeks. He 
afterwards went to Constan- 
tinople, and met with a favour- 
able reception from Samuel I., 
who then adorned the Oecu- 
menical throne. This famous 
Patriarch was a Byzantine by 
birth, and he was one of the 
best prelates of the Orthodox 
Church, for he was not only a 
pious and just man, but of the 
greatest ability in the direction 
of ecclesiastical affairs : " and ac- 
cordingly, even amidst all the 
difficulties of the times, he was 
prompt in the execution of all 
his measures and easily effected 
whatever the necessities of the 
Church required, securing the 
goodwill and esteem even of 
those in power, especially of the 
monarch (Sultan). He was suc- 
cessful in whatever he took in 
hand, capable of carrying out 
anything he chose to attempt, 
brave in enduring, active in 
meeting or else in averting or 
withstanding attack : he was the 
terror of evil - doers, but an 
affectionate friend to those who 
followed the right path and 
kind to all, popular with the 
multitude, especially most 
solicitous about the affairs of 
the Church, superior to the in- 
fluence of money, holding in con- 
tempt unreasonable prejudices, 



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an ardent defender of the ortho- 
dox doctrines of his ancestors, 
a zealot in piety, the champion 
of the truth, and an admirer of 
antiquity : a great patriot and 
philhellenist, and a man who 
sought and earnestly studied 
every means in every direction 
for the general improvement 
and advancement of his race." 
Theotokes, having been ap- 
pointed patriarchal preacher by 
this great prelate, performed 
the duties of his ministry with 
immense success, and attracted 
the goodwill of every one. He 
became on the most intimate 
terms with the princely family 
of Ghicas, but this friendship 
was the cause of his leaving 
Constantinople. This is what 
happened : when the mother of 
Gregorius Ghicas, Prince of 
Wallachia, died and the funeral 
ceremony was performed in the 
patriarchal church, Theotokes 
preached the funeral sermon, in 
which he appears to have 
lavished on the deceased more 
praise than was seemly, and 
accordingly the austere Patriarch 
frowned, and when, at the con- 
clusion of the discourse, in 
accordance with ecclesiastical 
regulation, Theotokes came to 
kiss his hand, he ex- 
claimed in a tone of rebuke 
"The Church requires preachers 
not flatterers." Theotokes, re- 

•^ S€p7. MaKpalov 'E/c/cX. laTopla, Zdda Meaan>}V(.Kr] BLJ3\iod'i^Kr], rbfi. V <r 



€v9vs iraprjT-qOr] tov d^tw^aaros, 
Kttt fxera/Sas €is 'IdarLOV Trjs 
MoASavias diOjpLcrdY) (T)(^oXdp)(y]S 

T>)s €K€l AvOeVTLKTJS ^\o\rjS. 

'E^'laaiov /x€T€l3rj els Aeixf/iav 
€v y €^e8iOKev Sidcjiopa twv 
(Tvyypa/Jiixdruyv tov. "Ore Kara 
TO €TO<s 1779 o Evyevtos "^o-PXI- 
TTjOri Trjs ap^ieTTio-KOTTvys Xe/o- 
o-wvos, 17 te/)a 2vvo8os rrjs 
*Pa)(T(rias dvr^yopevcrev ets tovto 
TO d^LiopLa TOV ^ LK-qcfiopov 0€O- 

TOKTJV, OCTTLS fl€Ta TaVTU 77/30- 

IX^^ €ts T^v dp^ieTricrKOTTYiv 
'A(TTpa)(^aVtOV Kttfc ISTavpovTTo- 
Aetos. 'EKTcAeo-as to, d/o;(t€7rt- 


(jXov Kol d<j6ocrtwo-ews, /actoI 
TrapkXevcriv ctwv Ttvwi/ eSw/ce 
Tr;v TTapatTrjcTiV tov, /cat (xtto- 
crvpOels els Moo^xav StrjXOe to 
eTTiXoLTTOv TOV /3iov TOV fxeXeTiov 
I Kai crvyypdcfiaiv' aTreBave 6e t(^ 

1800. EtS TOt eTTLOrTrjfXOVLKa 

avTov a-vyypdfifJiaTaj S>v 6 dpiB- 
fxbs 8ev elvai fxtKpos, /x€T€)(^ei- 
purOrj Trjv dp)(^aLav '^KXX-qvLKrjv 
oVa ojxcos €K Twv epy<j}v tov 
d—efBXeirov els tyjv kolvtjv ux^e- 
Xetav TrdvTwi/, TavTa (Tvveypa\pev 
els TO KaOapevov ^eoeXXrjviKhv 
I8t(j)fxa. " 'O fxeyas ovtos 
ai"i]p" Xeyei 6 KwvorTavTtvos 
2d^tt9, " avveviov tyj dXXrj 
TroXvp-aOeia kol fBaSeiav yvmriv 
TTJs Te dp)(^ciLas koI Trjs veiOTepas 
rcuv EiXX'qviov ScaXeKTov^ KaXios 
) evvorjcras Kal tov Trpoopia-fMov 
rrjs eOvLKyjs yXioa-(T7]S, irpocre- 
rddyja-e Kal 6av/xaoriU)S eire- 
'vxeVy Lva KaOdpr) avTyjv aTTo 

garding the censure as very- 
severe, at once resigned his 
office, and repairing to Jassy in 
Moldavia was appointed head- 
master of the Prince's School 
there. From. Jassy he went to 
Leipsic, where he published 
several of his works. When in 
1779 Eugenius gave up the 
archbishopric of Kherson, the 
Holy Synod of Russia appointed 
Nicephorus Theotokes to that 
office. He was afterwards 
promoted to the archbishopric 
of Astrakhan and Stavropol. 
Having performed his archiepis- 
copal duties with zeal and 
devotion, after the lapse of a 
few years he proffered his re- 
signation and, withdrawing to 
Moscow, passed the remainder 
of his life in study and in writ- 
ing books. He died in 1800. In 
his scientific works, the number 
of which is considerable, he 
employed ancient Greek, but 
such of his works as had general 
utility for their object, he wrote 
in the pure modern Greek 
idiom. " This great man," says 
Constantine Sathas, " uniting to 
extensive erudition in other 
subjects a profound knowledge 
of both the ancient and the 
modem Greek idiom, and 
thoroughly understanding also 
the destiny of the national 
language, used great efforts and 
wonderfully succeeded in purg- 
ing it of barbarisms and, without 
any violence, bringing it near 




TMV (SapfSapia-fMOiV, kol a/?ta- 
<jT(os 77po(T€yyi(rrj avrrjv els 
Ttjv Siavyy] Trrjyiqv. Ato SiKatws 
Svvarai va 0€ii)py]Ofj ws 6 fxovos 
fiop<fi<ji)rrjS Trj<s (ri]fX€pov ypacfio- 
fikvYjs Kol virb TTavTiiiv kvvoov- 
fjievrjs KOivrjs 07/xcov SiaXeKTOv 
Kat €V pikv TOts TrpiOTOLS avTOV 
(rvyypdfJifJLacrbV 6 veapos ttjs 
J^epKvpas l€poKT]pv^ (patverai 


80s Tov ISiMfia, y-qpaios Se 
' KcTTpa\aviov eTrLcrKoiros 6 
OeoT6Kr]S eScoKCV ev rois Kv- 
piaKoSpofMLOts TOV KaOapoi- 
TaTOV Trj<s yXiocra-rjs tvttov." ^ 
Kat TavTa fxev 6 2a^as. 
Ta e^rjs Svo aTrocrTracrjaaTa, 
elXTjfXfxeva €K tiov K-vptaKo- 
SpopiLwv TOV QeoTOKT], €a-TOKrav 
0)9 Seiy/xaTa rov KadapevovTOS 
avTov vcf^ovs. 

to its limpid source. Con- 
sequently he may be justly 
regarded as the one man who 
gave its form to our common 
idiom which at the present day 
is written and understood by 
all. In his earliest works, the 
youthful preacher of Corfu 
seems to have preferred the 
popular idiom of his native 
land, but in his Sunday Comi- 
mentaries Theotokes, the aged 
Bishop of Astrakhan, afforded 
an extremely pure model of the 
language " : this is what Sathas 
said. Let the following two 
extracts, taken from the Sunday 
Commentaries of Theotokes, serve 
as specimens of his pure style. 

^^pfjLrjveia els to Kara 

AovKoiv EvayyeAiOV ttJ? 

TrpioTrjs K.vpLaKrjs. 

^' IIoAAot f^XkirovTes to. kv 
Ty daXdorory 6\pdpia (fievyovTa, 
Kav p^LKpoTaTOS crvp.P'rj ktvttoSj 
ireiOovTai otl aTjra e)(^ovo-LV 
o^vTaTriv aKO-qv avTO, o/xws, 
€7r€t8r) k(TT€pripikva elcrl twv 
opydvoiv TTJs aKova-TLKrjs Svvd- 
/xews, ovSe^atav atcrdrjcnv aKorjs 
e^oi^crtv, a A A,' elarl TravreAws 
K(ocf)d. Ilo^ev ovv KivovvTat 
Kal <j>evyov(TLV orav aKova-Oy 
KTviros ; '^OTTOLoaS-qTroTe ktvttos 
ovBev aAAo ecrriv el fxr) KLvrjorts 

Explanation of the Gospel 

according to St. Luke for the first 


" Many people, observing thg 
fish in the sea taking to fligl 
if even the slightest noise occi 
are convinced that they hai 
a very acute sense of hearing :f 
yet, as they are without the! 
organs of the faculty of hearing,! 
they have no sense of sound,' 
but are completely deaf. How 
is it then that they start off and 
make their escape whenever a 
noise is heard ? Any soundi 
whatever is nothing but theij 



in or •< 

^ 'Zdda, IlapdpTT]fji.a NeoeXXijj/t/c^s ^iXoXoyias, cr. 130. 



Tov depos vrro tov ktvttovvtos 
(TiojJLaTO<i yivo/xevr]' 6 Se ai)/) 
Ktvovfxevos Kal KV/JLaTL^ofxevo'?, 
(TvyKLvel Kal (rvyKVfxaTL^€L to 
€<^a7rTo/x6Vov avTOV vStop. Tot 
oxpdpia €(TT€pr]fX€va pikv eiVt t>}s 
dKoy]% e\ova-iV o/xws al(rOrjTtKio- 
TOLT-qv T>}s d<^r^s Trjv aurOrjCTLV 

oOiV Tr)V KLVrjO-LV TOV l58aT09 

Ty)v VTTO TOV KTVTTOv ycvofxcvqv 
aixrOavofxeva fi€Ta(3aivov(TiV 

€v6vs €ts aWov roTTOv. K.(D(f)a 
^crav TO. oxpdpia ryj<s Xifxvrjs 
T€VV7](rap€T, KaOo)s Kal iravra 
ra aAAa oxpdpia' TrXrjv oral/, 
eXOcov 6 'IrjcTOvs els rrjv Aiyuvryv 
€K€tv7]v, elire rot? /xa^ryrai? 
avrov, ' XaAacrare to, SiKTva 
v/jiMv €19 dypav,' Tore -qKova-av, 
Kav K(i)<f>d rja-aVf ttJs SecnroTtKyjs 
avTov (f)0)injsj Kal aKOva-avTa 
VTTi^KOva-av ro i^oyo-LacrnKov 
avTOv TrpocrTayixa. "Odev ovk 
€cf>vyov, dW rjX.Oov' ov Ste- 
(rKopTrtaOrjcrav, aAAa (Twy^xOi]- 
crav Kal iKXeia-d-qa-av €ts to 
Slktvov TOcrovTov Se Tr\yj6o<5 
crvvy]\Orjj coa-T€ to fiev Slktvov 
€(T)(^L^eTOj ol Se dAiei? eyc/xtcrav 
Bvo TrAoia. ^H/xeis e;(o/Lcev t^5 
aKOTJs TOL o/ayava, c'xo/xe;/ to, 
0)TLa, dKOvofiev Kad' kKdcTTi^v 
rffiepav Trjv SecnroTtKy^v tov 
EuayycAiov cfiuyvyjV, TrXrjv 
/xr^SdAws aKovovTcs tow ^etots 
avTOu TrpoarTayixaa-Lj ytvofxeOa 
T(i)V aXoyiov Kal kox^wv 6\papi(jiv 
dX.oyioT€poL Kal KayifjOTepoL," 

movement of the air produced 
by the sounding body : the air, 
set in motion and formed into 
waves, imparts a corresponding 
impetus and wave -motion to 
the water in contact with it. 
The fish, though they have no 
sense of hearing, have an ex- 
tremely delicate sense of touch, 
and therefore, when they feel 
the movement of the water 
produced by the sound, at once 
go away to another place. The 
fish of the Lake of Gennesareth 
were deaf, like all other fish, 
but when Jesus, coming to that 
lake, said to His disciples : ' Let 
down your nets for a draught,' 
then, although they were deaf, 
they heard that voice of our 
Lord, and hearing, obeyed His 
authoritative command. And 
therefore they did not run 
away but approached : they 
were not scattered but were 
gathered together and enclosed 
in the net ; and so great a multi- 
tude was collected that the net 
began to be torn, and the fisher- 
men filled two boats. We have 
the organs of hearing, we have 
ears, we hear every day the voice 
of the Lord in the Gospel, but 
hearkening not at all to His 
divine commands, we become 
more irrational and deafer than 
irrational and deaf fish." 




*E/3jar^v€ta ets to Kara 

MdpKov EvayyeAtov t^s 

r' Kv/ataKT^s Twv Nr^cTTetwv. 

^'^'H xpvx*] 8ia rov voo<5 avT7J<s 
€V pi^'^ji ocfiOaXfiov avaf^aivii 
€t? Tov ovpavov, KarafSaLvei eis 
Tov"ASr]v, irepup^erai tyjv yrjv, 
e/A^atVet els ras TroAets, etV- 
€p\€Tai ets TTOLvra tottov, voet et 
Tt OeXec, fivrjixovevei rot 7ra/o- 
cA^oi^Ttt, o-uAAoyt^erai rot ev- 
eoTTwra, Trpovoet to, jxeXXovra, 
{vyoo-TaT€t, dvaKpcvei, (tv/jlISl- 

/3d^€Lj 8ia;(W/3t^€6 Kttt TOIJS 

ISlovs avTTJs XoyixriMOvs' avTrj 
fxav6dv€L Stacfyopovs yAojacra?, 
T€>(vas Travroias, eTTto-r^/xas 
vxp-qXds ' ocras StaAcKTOVS 

dKovere, ocra re^VT^Ta TrpdypiaTa 
/^AeTrere, rrjs ^vx^js yj/xcov eknv 
€pya' avrr] eff^evpe (juXorexvYj- 
fxara §ta twv otto too v ScaTrepw/xev 
TO. fxaKpd T'^s OaXd(T(Tr]s SiacrTy]- 
fiara' (SvOi^pieda els to jSddos 
Trjs OaXdcrcrrjs kol dvdyofxev tovs 
fxapyapLTas, KarajSatvofJiev eh 
Tovs koXttovs Trjs yyjs kol 
e^dyofxev rot fieraXXa' jxerpov- 
fxev TO fieyeOos rov rjXcov kol 
Trjs (reXrjVTjS kol twv XoiTrwv 
TrXavqriov, en 8e kol to, /xera^v 
auTtov Siaa-T'qfjiara ' dvaXoyu- 
{o/xe^a rhv Kaipov rrjs rovrcov 
irepLoSov, TYjs dvaroXrjs, rrjs 
SvcreoiSj rrjs (TV^vycaSy rrjs eK- 
XeixpeisiS, ttJs jxeTa^v aAAT^Awv 
Kol TTjs yrjs aTrocTTacrews, (rvvd- 

{b/i€V KOi (TKOpTrL^OfieV TO TTVp, 

ela-dyofiev kol e^dyofxev tov 
dcpa, yv(x)pi(ofj,ev to fxerpov ttJs 

Explanation of the Gospel 

according to St. Mark for the third 

Sunday in Lent. 

"The soul, by means of its 
intellect, in the twinkling of an 
eye ascends to Heaven, descends 
into Hell, makes the circuit of 
the earth, goes into cities, enters 
every place, thinks about what- 
ever it wishes, recollects the past, 
considers the present, foresees 
the future ; weighs, examines, 
combines and separates even 
the subjects of its own thoughts. 
It learns different languages, 
arts of all kinds, sublime sciences : 
whatever languages you hear, 
whatever objects of art you 
contemplate, are the work of 
our souls : it invented the 
contrivances by which we pass 
over long distances at sea : we 
dive into the depths of the 
ocean and bring up pearls, we 
descend into the entrails of the 
earth and extract the metals : 
we measure the size of the sun 
and of the moon and the other 
planets, and moreover the dis- 
tances between them : we calcu- 
late the period of their course, 
their rising, setting, conjunction, 
eclipse, the distance separating^ 
them from each other and from 
the earth : we collect and disperse 
fire, we introduce and remove 
air, we know the measure of the 
power of fire, of water, and of the 
winds : we see even such things 
as by their smallness or distance 




TWV dv€fX(OV /JAcTTo/xev Kol 
€K€Lva 6(Ta "^ 5ia T'i^v fiLKpoTrjra 
■q TO StacTTi^/xa <f)evyova-L tcuv 
6<f>daXfiQ>v rrjv opacnv • avT>) 

€S/)€ flLKpoa-KOTTLa, TT^AeCTKOTTta, 

7rvp6fX€Tpa, vypofxerpa, fSapo- 
/xeTpa^dve/JLoixerpa' avTrjvoelXv- 
(T€LS 7rpof3Xii]fidT(jov Tracri^s "utto- 
^e(r€(os, dva\oyi(riJLov<s p-OLKpocTKe- 
Aets Kat SvcravaAoytcTTOvs, Kat 
evpecrets Trpayp^droiv d7roKpvcf>u>v. 
*H \^i^X'^ rjdoXoyel, (fiva-coXoyei^ 
y€(t)p€TpoX.oy€i, f^oravoXoyei, 
p.€Teo)poXoy€L, larpoXoyei, d- 
CTTpovop^eL, ovToAoyei, Trvevp^a- 
ToXoyeX, xlyv)^oXoyei, OeoXoyel' 
Bid TOVTiov 8e dp)(^eL kol Secnro^eL 
TrdvTiov rcov kv Ty yrj rrpay- 
pdrojv Kol avTTJs oXrjs rrj<5 yrjs. 
BAcTrets TToa-q rj 8La<f>opd pLera^v 


dXoyov C^ov ; ttolov t(ov dXoycDV 

{o)(OV, TWV TreTCtVWI/, 7] TWV 
VqKTiJoV, rj TMV €/37r€TWV, rj T(t)V 

TCTpaTToSoiv, BvvaTai vd Trpd^y, 
ov Aeyo) Travra, aAA' ev p.6vov 
peTa ttJ? avTrj'S TeAetdrr^TOS 
juera ttJs oTrota? TrpdTTCi TavTa 
Travra 6 dvOpwTTOs ; Mcopol 
XoLTTov Kat avdr^TOi Kac KaTrj- 
(T\vp.pevoi elcrlv ocrot Aeyovo-tv 
oTt 6 AoytKos dvdpo)7ro<s ovSev 
Btacfiepei twv aAdywv ^w'wv." 

IIA^v TOV BovAyapecos Kat 
GeoTOKT^ dv€(fidvr](rav Kat aAAot 
BidcrrjpoL Adytot "EAAt^vcs KaTot 
T^v €7ro)(rjV TavTrjv ; 

IIAtt(7T0t oQ-of aAA' €7ret8^ 

8€V €)(^Op€V TToXvV XpOVOV €tS 

T^v SiddecTLv pas irpkiriL i^ 

escape the sight of our eyes ; 
it discovered microscopes, tele- 
scopes, pyrometers, hygrometers, 
barometers, anemometers : it 
understands the solutions of 
problems on every subject, long 
and difficult calculations, and the 
finding of hidden things. The 
soul treats of morals, physics, 
geometry, botany, meteorology, 
medicine, astronomy, ontology, 
pneumatics, psychology, the- 
ology : by these means it rules 
and governs everything in the 
world and the whole world 
itself. Do you see what a great 
difference there is between the 
rational man and the irrational 
animal ? Which of the irrational 
animals that fly or swim or 
creep, or of the quadrupeds, can 
do, I do not say everything, 
but one single thing with that 
perfection with which man does 
all these things ? Foolish, then, 
and senseless and lost to shame 
are all who say that rational 
man in no way differs from the 
irrational animals." 

Besides Bulgaris and Theo- 
tokes did any other learned 
Greeks of distinction make their 
appearance at this period 1 

A very great number : but, 
as we have not much time at 
our disposal, we must necessarily 




avajK-qs va TrapaXiTTOifxev to. 
ovofxara avrtov kol va fiCTa- 
f^oiixev €vOvs €ts Tov ixkyav 
Ko/)a7}v ocTTts dvaix(f)La'^y]T7]T(i>s 

KaTe)^€L TY]V V\pL(rTr]V BicTiV 

fiera^v TrdvroiV twv Itti cro(f>ia 
^laTTpexpdvTOiv 'EAA^yvwv drro 
TTJ's dAwo-ecos Ty]S KwvcrravTtvoi;- 
TToAecos IJ^^XP^ ''"^^ r^fxepQiV fxas. 

Uplv r) fiera/SajfJiev eis tov 
Kopa'JJv ^a (ras irapaKaXecro) vd 
fioL etTTt^Te oAiya rtvo. 7re/)i 


oTTOiov rrjv oypacav elKova elSov 
kv rfj oLKta tov 7rpe(r/?ew§ t-^s 
*EAAa8os Kv/9tov FevvaStov ore 
reXevTaiiDs €cr)(ov rrjv Ttfirjv vd 
i7ricrK€(f>6w avrov fxol etrre 8k 
OTi avTos 6 $(OTtaSr^§ k^wpiqcrev 
avTYjv €is TOV decfxvrja-Tov Tvark- 
pa TOV, TOV TToAvv Tecopytov 
FevvaSiov, ocTTts VTrrjp^ev 6 
kTTLa-Trjdios fiaOrjTrj'^ rov fxeyd- 
Xov €K€ivov SiSaa-KdXov. 

Kat iyoi €l8ov avrrjv TroXXd- 
KiS' elvai Se r] p^ovrj TrpojTorvTros 
eiKcov TOV ^oiTidSov, 7rao"ai 8e 
at aAAat dvreypdcfirja-av 1^ 
avTYJs. Tiopa aKova-are oXiya 

TLvd TTCpl TOV TTCpl OV 6 X6yO<S 

cro<f)Ov dvSpos. AdfJiTrpos 6 
^0}Tid8r]'S kyevv-qdy] kv ^Iwav- 
VLVOLS Tw 1750. At8a)(^€is kv 
rfj 7raT/)iSt avTOV Ta kyKVKXia 
fjLaO-qfxaTa Kal (r7rov8dcras 

aKoXovOoJS TTapd ^€0<f)VT(i) T<^ 

leaver OKaXvfBiTrj tyjv dpyaiav 
EAA')^v6K7)v (faXoXoyiav, wv 

8k kK <f)V<TeO)S TreTTpOLKiCTfJLkvOS /X6 

o^vvoiav, fxvqfirjv Kal (faXo- 
TTOviav, Ta;^€a>s KaTka-rrj eh twv 

omit tlieir names and pass at 
once to the great Corais, who 
undoubtedly holds the highest 
position among all the Greeks 
who have been consjDicuous by 
their erudition from the taking 
of Constantinople to the present 

Before we pass to Corais I 
must beg you to tell me a little 
about Lampros Photiades, whose 
beautiful portrait I saw in the 
house of the Greek envoy 
Mons. Gennadius when I lately 
had the honour of visiting him : 
he told me that Photiades him- 
self gave it to his father, the 
celebrated George Gennadius of 
immortal memory, who was the 
favourite pupil of that great 

I too have often seen it. It 
is the only original portrait of 
Photiades : all the others have 
been copied from it. Now 
listen to a few particulars about 
the learned man we are speak- 
ing of. Lampros Photiades 
was born in Janina in 1750. 
Having received a general educa- 
tion in his own country, and 
having subsequently studied 
ancient Greek literature with 
Neophytus Causocalybites, and 
being endowed by nature with 
ability, a good memory and 
industry, he soon became one 
of the best teachers of the nation. 



dpi(TTb)V SiSaarKdXojv tov Wvovs. 
Kara to €to^ 179^ StotpLcrOy] 
a-\oXdp)(i^<S Trj<s Iv BovKOvpecrTtw 
cr;(oA>]s_, kv y cSiSa^c H'^XP'- 
TcAoi's TOV f^LOV avTov' aTzk- 
dave Se tw 1805. ^Ev rah 
7}yLte/3ais TOV ^coTtttSov 7; kv 
BovKovpecTTiO) (rxo^rj e'Aa/Je 
vkav ^(i}i]V Ktti TO ttXtJOos tmv 
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^KWijviov fxa6r]TU)V rJTO fxkya' 
Trpoa-qp^ovTo 8e kol ovk oAtyot 
BAa)(ot Kttt BovXyapoL ottcos 
7roTi(r6(i}(TL TO, vdfxaTa ttJs 
'EAAi^vtK^S (Tocfiias. 'O Act/x- 
7r/3os Sev avryAio^Kev ev Try 
8i8a(TKa\i(^ TOV TrdvTa tov 
Xpovov jxovov €4? T-^v kpfxyjvciav 
Xk^ewv KOL cfipd(T€0)V, aAA' 
€irTp€(ji€ TTjv 7rpo(ro-\^rjV twv 
fxaOrjTMV TOV et? tois vi^^yAas 
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Kal /JLeTkSiSev els avTovs to 
Upbv kK€iVo TTvp oirep elcrSvov 
els Tcis veapds avTMV xf'V)(^ds 
kirXypov aiVas tov kvSeov 
kKeivov evSova-LacrpLov, ov yevv^ 
y /JLeXeTf] tmv dpicTTOvpyr^ixdTOiv 
TYjS dp^aias 'EAA7;vtK7ys <^iXo- 

KaTcAiTre ttoAAo, crvyypdfi- 
fiaTa 6 ^(OTidSys ; 

'Ev l3ioypa<f)LKy tlvl cn]fJieL- 
(sHTet 8if]fxoa-iev0ei(nj kv t<^ 
Aoyto) 'Ep/jtTy TOV i8ll dva- 
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SeKo. prjTopoiV to, croi^ofxeva, Tov 
SevocfiQvTa utt dp)(yj<s elsTeXos, 
Tas Wovaas tov 'HpoSoTov, 
TTevTe Ik twv crvyypacfioiv tov 
QovKvSiSov, IlXovTdp)(^ov TO. 

In the year 1792 he was 
appointed headmaster of the 
school at Bucharest, in which 
he taught till the close of his 
life : he died in 1805. In the 
days of Photiades the school at 
Bucharest received new life, and 
the number of Greek students 
who thronged there from all 
parts was very great, and not a 
few Wallachians and Bulgarians 
came there to drink from the 
streams of Greek learning. Lam- 
pros in his tuition did not spend 
the whole of his time simply in 
the explanation of words and 
phrases, but he directed the at- 
tention of his pupils to the lofty 
ideas of the ancient writers and 
imparted to them that sacred 
flame which, penetrating their 
young souls, filled them with 
that inspired enthusiasm which 
the study of the masterpieces of 
ancient Greek literature pro- 

Did Photiades leave behind 
him many works ? 

In a biographical notice pub- 
lished in the Logios Hermes of 
1811 it is mentioned that he 
translated what has been pre- 
served of the ten orators, Xeno- 
phon from beginning to end, 
the Muses of Herodotus, five of 
the books of Thucydides, the 
greater part of Plutarch, much 




TrAetova, ttoAAcL tov AovKcavov 
KOi aAAa TLvd' Ti o/aws eyeivav 
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avrcov ervTrioOrj. 

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jxov rds o-o<^as avTov CTTy/xetwo-ets 
ets TO, KlOioTTLKd rov *HAto- 
Sutpov, €i<s Tovs HapaXX'qXovs 


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yevea-repoL Ttves €K8oTat €7ra- 

of Lucian, and some other works ; 
but what has become of all 
these writings I have not the 
slightest idea : what is certain 
is that not one of them has been 

I am much obliged to you 
for your information about 
Lampros Photiades. Now let 
us go to Corais, about whom I 
have read not a little. His 
valuable editions of the ancient 
writers are held in high esteem 
by Greek scholars in England 
and are found in all our great 
libraries. In my studies I 
frequently made use of his 
learned notes on the Aethiopics 
of Heliodorus, on Plutarch's 
Parallel Lives, on Isocrates, 
Strabo, and many other authors. 
I have observed that his emenda- 
tions of the ancient texts are 
for the most part correct, and 
many of the more recent editors 
have adopted them, but it is 
worthy of notice that some of 
them make no mention of the 
source from which they derived 
them, and allow the reader 
to suppose that they are the 
offspring of their own critical 

You are right. Mr. Therei- 
anos, in his life of Corais, men- 
tions many emendations by that 
learned critic which some later 
editors have had the effrontery 
to offer as their own. But let 



povcTLaa-av ws ISlkols twv. 'AAA' 
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crocfios Qepeiavos' 

"Otav cr;(ea-tv€X€t6 2a>K/3aT7;s 
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crofjiovs, TotavTijV Kal 6 'A8a- 
fjLdvTio<s Kopa?]<s Trpos tovs tt/jo- 
yevecTTe/JOvs Kat (Tvy\p6vovs 

8tBa(TKdX0V<5 ' €K€iVOL e(TTpe<j)OV 

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rj ^EXXr]VLKr) yXokra-a, to Tr/aw- 


opyavov, dvaKaOapOetcra vir 

us leave what regards the edi- 
tions and emendations of Corais 
and let us see in what respect 
he so differed from the other 
learned Greeks who flourished 
during the subjection that the 
nation should look upon him 
as far superior to them not only 
in erudition but in many other 
respects. Listen to what the 
learned Thereianos says about 
him : 

"The same relation that 
Socrates bears to the philosophers 
who flourished before his time 
Adamantius Corais bears to 
preceding and contemporary 
teachers : the latter turned their 
regards to heaven, while he prin- 
cipally and especially contem- 
plated mankind : the latter 
studied nature, the former man. 
From his honeyed lips there 
came a sweet and delightful 
voice, which charmed and 
warmed the sorrowful heart of 
the Greek and confirmed the 
wavering souls of all. He 
was the first who spoke to the 
Greeks of Greek liberty in a 
style of speech neither adulter- 
ated with barbarisms nor so ar- 
chaic as to be unintelligible, and 
he so connected with each other 
Greek literature and freedom that 
the Greek language, the principal 
organ of national life, purified 
by him, became, as it ought to 
have become long ago, the most 
powerful lever of national re- 




avTOu, eyevero ws eTrpeTvev 'tjSrj 
Trpo TToWov va yetvi;, 6 
SpacTTLKioTaTOS fJ.ox^os rrjs 
WviKTJs avayevi/>ycrew?. Atot rov 
(jiiXeXevOepov koI eXevdepo- 
7r/3€7rovs "tjOovs kol Ttov yvr](Ti(i)S 
(f)LXoy€V(x)v avTov Trapacvea-eoiU 
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TrdcTi TO yevos ottws Svvqdy vd 
KaTaXdfSy Trjv Trpoa-qKovcrav 
avTa decTLV iv tyj -^opeta twv 

€VV0fJL0Vp.€V(DV WvMV. "OcTW 

vyucTTepov TratSevovTai ol "EA- 
At^vcs, TOO-oiVo) fX€L^ova Xajx- 
f3dvov(TLV €(f)€a-LV Trjs kXevdepias ' 
dpa Ta ypdfJLfxaTa rjcrav to 


avTovofxtas €(fi68iov. Kat €7r€t8>) 
dXrjOrjs dyoiyr] xwpls ev/jLedoSov 
SiSacTKaXLas "^to dSvvaTos, ^Set 
€7rl Trda-i vd fieTappvd/JLia-Orj to 
iKTratSevTiKov (rv(rTr]p.a, dirXo- 

TTOiOVp.kvOiV KOL €776 TO AvO-t- 

TeAeo-TC/oov pvdpt^ofxeviov Ttuv 
fiadrj/JidTOiVf kol KaT €^o)(r]v 
Trjs 7rapa86a-€(ji)S Trjs TrpoyovcKrjs 
yXc^crcrrjs. To koiAAos Trjs 

generation. By liis character, 
whicli was that of one who loved 
liberty and deserved it, and by 
his purely patriotic advice, he 
implanted in the souls of all a 
love of their fatherland, not of a 
superficial and trivial kind, but 
that real and practical love 
which produces noble sentiments 
and which teaches that to be 
unsparing of himself for the 
sake of his country is the chief 
duty of every patriot. Educa- 
tion, as Corais understood it, 
was the moulding of the mind 
and heart so that they might 
be in harmony, and it was some 
such kind of nobility of char- 
acter which above all things the 
race required to enable it to 
take its proper place in the band 
of well-ordered nations. The 
more healthy the education the 
Greeks receive, the stronger is 
the desire they conceive for 
liberty. Accordingly education 
was the principal equipment 
required for regaining independ- 
ence. And since true education 
without instruction on a right 
method is impossible, it was 
necessary above all for the 
educational system to be re- 
formed, by the subjects of study 
being simplified and so arranged 
as to be more practically 
useful, especially the teaching 
of the ancestral language. The 
beauty of the Greek language 
was not obscured to such an 
extent as not to be susceptible of 



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/itjSefXLav va tTTiSex^^Tat iiravop- 
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rjSvvaTO va d7roT€Xe(rOrj Sea Ttjs 
fxop(f)OTroiov Kol Wvo7rXa(TTLKrj<s 
Tcov 'EAAr^vtKtov y/aa/x/xarwv 
l(rx^o<s. '0 K.opar]S KaXXtcrra 
rjTrLO-TaTO on r) amTrAacrt? tov 
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Ttov yivofi€V(j)v Ta;(€ws Kat 
Trapaxp^ip^a^ aAA' o^ws tlx'^ 


ayvL(TTLKr)v /cat iTTLppoxrTtKrjv 
TTys vyiovs TratSettt? Suva^ti/, 

Kai etKOTO)? i<f)p6v€L OTL aVTYj 

Kal fxovT] da 7rpo€^0)jj,d\i^€ rrjv 
oBov TTJ's cAei'^e/otas • 8lo Kal 
dveKadev vTreXd/xfSavev oVt 6 
cfujoTLO-jJios TOV yevovs "^to 6 
dcr^aAeo-raTOS TT/aoctyyeAo? T'^? 
iOvLKrj<i TraAtyyeveortas Kat tt7S 
ttoAitikt]? avToii diroKaTa- 
(TTacreoi'S, dfia Be Kal 6 Icrx'^po- 
raros <fivka^ twv Svo toijtwv 
vTrepTaTiDV dyaOCiv. '0 /?tos 
TOV fieydXov tovtov dvSpoSy 
ocTTLS COS a/0X''''^'^'''wv Kat dva/xop- 
(jiUDTrjs Tr]<i 'EAAr^vtKr^S yXioa-crrjs 
Kol Tvjs 'EAAT^i'tKrys (fiiXoXoy tas, 
0)<s SLa7rpv(TL0<5 KTjpv^ Trjs apenys, 
T)ys cf)LXoa-o(f)La<s Kal Tt^s eXev- 
depias^ Kal w? elcrrjyijTrjs Kal 
lepo(fidvTi]S V€(i)v dpxH^V} t'x^' 

restoration. The noble character 
of the nation was not so com- 
pletely obliterated as to afford 
not even the slightest hope of 
its being re-established. For 
this purpose there was no need 
of any supernatural ingenuity 
or contrivance : the change to 
be effected in the Greeks to fit 
them for the new life could be 
accomplished by the formative 
and nationalising force of Greek 
literature. Corais thoroughly 
understood that the remodelling 
of the nation was not an under- 
taking which could be at once 
and immediately carried out, 
but he had faith, which nothing 
could shake, in the purifying 
and invigorating power of a 
healthy education, and he rightly 
considered that even by itself it 
would smooth the path of liberty, 
and therefore from the very 
beginning he held the opinion 
that the enlightenment of the 
race was the most certain pre- 
cursor of its national regenera- 
tion and its political restoration, 
and at the same time the 
strongest safeguard of those two 
supreme blessings. The life of 
this great man — who as the 
chief designer and reformer of 
the Greek language and of 
Greek literature, and as the 
loud-toned herald of virtue, of 
philosophy and of liberty, and 
as the author and initiating 
priest of new principles, holds 
among Greeks that kind of 




Trap "YiXX-qcri rotavTrjv Ttva 
BkdLV, otav 6 Montaigne irapa 
rots VaXXoiS, o BaKWV irapa 
rots "AyyAois, Kai 6 QiDiMacnos 
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/xai/ots, etvat ave^avrAr^TOS 
6rj(ravpo<s cro^QiV XoyoiV Kat 

€py(J)V Itt' (0(/)€Aci^ TOV 'EAAt^- 

viKoi; yevov? Kat twv EAAry- 
V6KWI/ ypafXfJidTO)v" 

'ISov Kat rives f3Loypacf>iKal 
(rr]fJL€L(i)(TeL's Trepl tov StaKeKpc- 
fxevov rovTov dv8p6s. *0 
'A8afxdvTLO<5 Koparjs eyevvijdr] 
kv XfMvpvrj rfj 2) 'AtvplXlov 

1748 €K TTttT/DOS XtOV, 'loidvVOV 

Koparj^ KOi fJLrjrpos H^/JLvpyatas, 
Q(D/jLat8os Ovyarpos 'A8a/Aav- 

TLOV ^PvCrtOV dv8pO<S (TO<f)OV. 

'^ScSd^O'^ ra kyKVKXia fxaO-q- 
fiaTa kv li/JLvpvy, kv t(^ avroOc 
VTTO TLavToXeovTO's 2e/?acrT0- 
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kSiSd^Ori VTTO TOV AtSecriytoi; 
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jxovov kfXTropevojxevos dAAa Kat 
Karaytvo/xcvos ei? a-TTovSaias 
fisXeras. T(^ 1778 /xcraKAT^^ciS 

position wliich Montaigne lias 
among the French, Bacon among 
the English, and Thomasins 
and Lessing among the Germans 
— is an inexhaustible treasury of 
wise words and deeds for the 
benefit of the Greek race and 
of Greek learning." 

Here are some biographical 
notes about this distinguished 
man. Adamantius Corais was 
born at Smyrna on the 27th of 
April 1748 : his father Johannes 
Corais was a native of Chios and 
his mother Thomais was from 
Smyrna, daughter of Adamantius 
Eysius, a man of learning. 
He received a general education 
in Smyrna, in the Greek school 
founded there by Pantoleon 
Sevastopulo. Having completed 
his course at the school, he 
devoted himself to the study 
of languages and soon mastered 
not only Italian and French but 
also Hebrew and Latin : the 
last he learnt under the Rev. 
Bernardus Keun, the chaplain of 
the Dutch consulate at Smyrna, 
giving him in exchange instruc- 
tion in Greek. In 1772 he 
was sent by his father to 
Amsterdam for mercantile 
purposes, and he remained there 
six years, not only engaged in 
trade but occupying himself also 
in serious study. Recalled by 
his father in 1778, he went back 
to Smyrna and stayed there four 




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dvojTdTOJV aKaSrjfxaiKiijv TLfxiov, 
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epyov TOV Alovv(tlov Qepetavov' 
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6ev avaffiaLvovTai (rvvc^ws els 
Tot "x^povtKd Tiov edviov. 

Hiopa dv dyaivaTe as ava- 

years, passing his time in 
scholastic pursuits. In 1782 
he went to Montpellier, where 
he remained six years studying 
medicine. During this time he 
made translations into French 
of two German and two English 
important medical works, and 
these the French held in high 
esteem not only for the value 
of their contents but also for 
the excellence of the translation. 
Having completed his medical 
studies at Montpellier and 
gained the highest academical 
honours, he went in May 1 788 to 
Paris, where he resided till the 
end of his long life, which he had 
devoted exclusively to the en- 
lightenment of his nation. He 
died on the 10th of April 
1833. I do not attempt here 
to wreathe a chaplet of praise 
to the memory of Corais, for 
much more able men than I 
have worthily celebrated him. 
You have the valuable work of 
Dionysius Thereianos, and there 
you will find eloquently and 
accurately described all that 
any one can desire to learn 
about the life and works of that 
great man whose equals rarely 
make their appearance in the 
history of nations. 

Now, if you like, let us read 



yviocTiDfiev aTrocnracrfJiaTa nva €K 
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KaAo, 01 deLfivrjcTTOi Trarepes 
yfjLO)v oTi TO. Xeyofxeva 'AvOpio- 
TTiKot ypdfMfxaTa crvvreXovv 


some extracts from the works of 

By all means. This first one 
I copied from his preface to 
Plutarch's Parallel Lives : it is an 
exhortation to teachers. This 
is what he says : 

"The learned instructors of 
the nation should love their 
pupils as their own children, and 
consider them as sacred trusts 
confided to their hands by their 
parents. The most important 
lesson for their young minds to 
learn is to render their disposi- 
tions gentle, which instruction 
in science alone without litera- 
ture cannot effect. Let them 
then advise them to acquire a 
sound knowledge of grammar 
before they include themselves 
in the list of students of philo- 
sophy, that is to say, to learn first 
the literature of the Greek 
language with which Latin 
should be inseparably united. 
Science without literature is 
reduced to the humble level of 
the mechanical arts. Nearly 
all the ancient philosophers 
were also men of letters, and 
the most distinguished among 
them were the best grammarians. 
Our ancestors of imperishable 
memory well understood that the 
so-called ' humanities ' greatly 
contribute not only to the art of 
writing but also to actual gentle- 
ness and refinement of manners. 
On this account our ancestors 



33 S 

Tov ypdcfi€iv, aA.Aa kol €ls 
avrrjv T(Jov ijOdv ttjv rjfjiepioa-iv 
Kul KocrfXiOTrjTa' 8ta tovto ol 
TrpoTroLTopes rjfJLMV wvo/jLa^av ti]v 
kyKVKXiov TratSeiav MovcnKrjv^ 
OTi Tvpavvei ttjv ^v^rfV ku^ws 
1^ iSt'ws Xeyofi€vy] /xovcrtKry* 5ta 
TOVTO (TvvelSovXevev 6 Oelos 


^evoKpdrrjv va Ovcnd^y crv^va 
els Ttt? XdpiTas" 

'H €^7J<s TrepLKOTrrj Trepl iVo- 
TrjTos elvau elXrjiJLixevr] Ik tQv 
'7rpo\eyofX€vo)V tov K.oparj eh 
Tyv SevTepav eKSocTLV tov 
BeKKapuov (1823)* 

" Ets Twv TrapoLfXiCjv tov KaTct- 
Aoyov eSecrav 01 irpoyovoC fxas 
t'o I20TH2 ^lAOTHS, ijyovv 
TO eKptvav fiLav a7r' eKeivas tcls 
dXrjOeiaSj tols oirotas eKafxev 
dvavTipp-QTOvs avTT] Trjs dvdpo)- 
TTivrjS <fiV(Teo)S rj epevva, koI rj 
fie Ti]V epevvav a-vjJicfiO}VO<s KaOrj- 
fxepLvr) Tzeipa. 'KXX edv 1) 
10-0T7/S yevv^ jxeTa^v twv 
dvOpioTTOiV TYjV cfitXtav, e^ 
dvd.yKrjs rj dvKTOTyjs €)(^eL 
OvyaTepa tyjv e^9pav. *H 
(jiva-is fj-ds eyevvyjcre t'^v a/3)(^v 
oAoi'S icroi'S, €7rei8r) els oXovs 
eSoiKe Tas avTas ala-O^creLS, 
TO, avTOL TrdOr], /cat tols 
avTOis xpeias. 'AXX' ■)} TOt- 
avTrj IcroTrjs Sev fxeveu TrXrjv 
ev oaro) TO dv6p(i>7n,vov o-to/xa 
evpicTKeTai els ttjv vrjTTioTrjTd 
TOV evOvs oVav dvSpiiiOrj 
iv(x<j>aiveTai evas tov dXXov 
ivorjfxovea-Tepos, cVas tov aA,A,ov 
ivSpeioTepos, eVag tou aAAov 

gave the name of Music to general 
education, because it softens th"e 
disposition just as music, pro- 
perly so-called, does, and it was 
for this reason that the divine 
Plato advised his disciple 
Xenocrates to sacrifice fre- 
quently to the Graces." 

The following passage about 
Eqiiality is taken from Corais' 
introduction to the second 
edition of Beccaria (1823) : 

"Our ancestors included in 
their list of proverbs ' Equality 
is friendship,' that is to say, 
they regarded this as one 
of those truths which the ex- 
amination itself of human 
nature, and daily experience, 
which agrees with that ex- 
amination, render incontestable. 
But if equality produces friend- 
ship among men, inequality 
necessarily has enmity for her 
daughter. Nature made us at the 
beginning all equal, since she 
gave to all the same feelings, the 
same desires, and the same 
wants. But such equality only 
remains as long as the human 
frame is in its infancy. As soon 
as it is matured one man shows 
himself more intelligent than 
another, one braver than another, 
one more highly endowed with 
natural advantages than another, 
and therefore inequality is neces- 



TtAcOV 7rpOLKLCr/Ji€VO<S /JL€ (jiva-iKa 

Trporep-^fxaTa' 66ev e^ dvdyK7]<s 
iyevvrjOr] tj dvicroT-qSj 17x1? 
eScDKev d(^opfxr]V els ttjv St^o- 
voLav. ToLavTr) eTvac rj Kara- 
CTTacns oAwv tiou dvOpiOTroiV 
elvai XoLTTov rj dvia-OTTjs ai^rr^s 
TTJs cfiV(T€(DS epyov, KOL rj Oepa- 
Treia rrjs eTrpocrfievero diro rrjv 
iroXtreLav, dAAo, vrdcra /caAws 
d)pyavLa/xevr] TroAireta 7r/)67ret 
€^ dvdyKtp vd e^y dvLa-OTrjTas. 
'O VLos 8ev elvat icros /xe tov 
Trare/oa, 6 fxadrjrrjs /w.6 tov 6t8a- 
(TKaXoVj 6 Kpivofxevos fte tov 
ScKao-TT^v, 6 dpyopievos />te tov 
dp^ovra^ 6 v7rrjp€Tr]<i fie tov 
oiKoSecTTroTi^v, 6 /xtcr^toTOS e^- 
ydrrjs fi€ tov fiLo-doSoTrjv, 6 
TrXovatO's fM€ TOV 7r€vr]Ta. 
"0(rTL<s ^y]T€L vd i^LCTiocrr} Kara 
Trdvra rovs virepk^ovras fxe 
rovs VTrepexofievovs tovtovs, 
^rjT€L vd (j^eprj rrjv dvap^iav 
els rrjV TroXtTiKrjv Kotvcovtav, 
^r]T€L vd eTTLcrTpeipy tov ttoXl- 


irporkpav tov dyptav Karddra- 

^H €^^s TrepiKOTrrj irepl rrjs 


2coKpaTov5 dvTeypd<prj Ik twv 
TrpoXeyofxeviDV tov J^opayj els 
Td 'ATTO/JLvrjfiovevfJLaTa tot; 
t^evocfiiJovTos (1825). 

"'O ^0}KpdT7]S dv KOL 8ev 
eirayyeXXeTO pi^Tiop, ws eKav- 
XO^VTO els TYjV p-qTopetav twv 01 
cro^tCTTai, ^Tov oyutos dXrjOojs 
KOL eVOflt^CTO prjTtMp. *H 
prjTopLKr] TOV ScoK/oaTovs 6ev 

sarily produced, and this gives 
rise to disagreement. Such is 
the condition of all mankind. 
Inequality then is the work of 
nature herself, and a cure for it 
was looked for from the state, 
but every well-ordered state must 
of necessity have inequalities. 
The son is not equal to the, 
father, the pupil to the teacher, 
the one under trial to the 
judge, the governed to the 
ruler, the servant to the master, 
the hired workman to his em- 
ployer, the rich to the poor. 
Whoever seeks to equalise in 
all respects these superiors with 
these inferiors, seeks to intro- 
duce anarchy in the political 
community, seeks to make 
civilised man revert to his 
original savage condition." 

The next passage, about the 
rhetorical ability of Socrates, 
was copied from Corais' in- 
troduction to Xenophon's 
Memorabilia (1825). 

" Socrates, though he did not 
profess to be an orator, in the way 
that the sophists used to boast of 
their rhetoric, was nevertheless 
really an orator, and was regarded 
as such. The rhetoric of Socrates 




ujfJLoia^e rrjv pi]TopLKr)v tiov 
<TO<^L(TrCiv' Koi rovTo i^rjyel 

TTOLaV piJTOptKrjV €VVO€l 6 

IIAaTwv, orav TrepiTrat^rf ry^v 

prjTOpLKrjV, KOi TrapLCTT^ TOV 

BtSdcrKaXov tov KaTacfipovrjTrjv 
avTrj<s. UoXv fJLipos tov Top- 
ytov etvat Tre/atyeAws t^s prj- 

TOpCKrj'^ • KOt 0/J,(OS 6 TTLKpOS 

av-n]<5 Kar-qyopos IIAaTwv ch 
TOV Topytav tov /xaAto-ra 
iScL^ev oTt ■^Tov avTos /xeyas 
prjTiop. TayvcrocfiicrTMvrj KaOavTo 
KJipovTiS rJTo VOL r]8vv(x)(rL tyjv 
OLKo-qv p.€ TTjv €vapp.6vL0V crvfi- 
TrXoK-qv Twv Ae^ewv, oXiyov 
<}ipovTL^ovT€s Trepl Trj<s d^tas i) 
TTJs cxTTa^ias Tiov \eyofX€vo)V' 
Kal ri p,aKpa e^i? Trjs TOtavTrjs 
(rvp.TrXoKTJ<s Tovs €Ka/xv€v dXrj- 
Oeis avToa^eStao-Tcis, to? ecvai 
(nfjuepov ot 7r€pi<f>r]p.oi ttJs 
'IraXtas avToa-^cStao-rat (im- 
provisateurs). KaOojs ovtol 
dirayyiXXovv avroa-^eSiovs 

paKpas py](T€L<i irepl o, tl tls 
V/^eAc Tous irpof^dXeiv, dwapdX- 
XaKTa Kol ot a-o<f>i(TTai kXa- 
Xova-av \iiip\<5 TrpoTrapacTKevrjv 
Kappiav TTipl Trdcrrj'S V7ro6e(re(i}S. 
Vopyias lKav\dT0^ otl rJTOV 
€TOLpo<s v' diTOKptdy €ts irdcrav 
epioTTja-iVj K kirapaTTOViLTo, on 
B\v TOV rjpdtra Kavets ttAcov 


ir]pioTy]Ke Kaivov ovSev ttoAAwv 


€VopLL^€TO prjTopLKyj, KOi iirXdva 
Itoo-ov evKoXioTcpa tovs aTret- 

IpOVS, KOt e^atp€T(i)S TOVS V€OV<S, 

jocov els €K€Lvy]V TOV )(^p6vov 

was not like that of the sophists; 
and this explains what kind of 
rhetoric Plato means when he 
ridicules rhetoric and represents 
his master as despising it. A 
considerable part of his Gorgias is 
derision of rhetoric, and yet its 
bitter denouncer, Plato, showed 
in the highest degree in this 
very work that he himself was 
a great orator. The especial care 
of the sophists was to please the 
ear by the harmonious combina- 
tion of the words, caring little 
about the value or worthlessness 
of what was said ; and long habit 
in this kind of combination 
made them true extempore 
speakers like the celebrated 
Italian improvisatori are at the 
present day. Just as the latter 
deliver long extempore orations 
on whatever subject any one 
may propose to them, exactly in 
the same way the sophists used 
to speak upon every subject 
without any preparation. 
Gorgias used to boast that he 
was ready to reply to every 
question, and complained that 
no one any longer asked him 
anything new : ' No one has 
ever asked me anything new 
for many years.' This faculty 
was regarded as a part of 
rhetoric, and it so much more 
easily led astray the inex- 
perienced, and especially tlie 
young, inasmucli as in those 
days one of the great defects of 
the commonwealth was the love 




rrjv TrepioSov €V oltto tol iroXXa 
rrj'S TToAfcTctas vocrry/xara rJTO 
KOL rj (TTTOv^apyJia^ ttjv oiroiav 
ef^o-qOcL rj SvvajXLS tov Xoyov, 
€7reL8rj eSiSe t7]V etcroSov eh ras 
€KKXr]crLas, ottov rj SrjixayoyyLa 
€7rp€7r€ va €)(r) 7roAAa/ci? (rvfi- 
fiaxov Tr)v aTJTOcr^eSiov 8r]fxr]yo- 
plav. 'EKai»^(uvTO, to X^^P^~ 
repov, ot crocfiicrral on rj 
prfToptK-q T(x)v €?;(€ roa-qv 
SvvapLLV, uxrre v* aTro^eiyvy 
TO crvficfiepov dcrvfi(f)opov, to 
SiKaiov aSiKOV, rrjv aXrjdeiav 
xJ/evSos, KOL TO \pev8o<s dX-qOetav. 
TovT (lyvofid^ero ' Tov 'qrroi 
Aoyov KpeLTTU) Trotciv* aAA* 
eTreiSr) rj a-vveiSyjcris rovs eXeyev 
OTL Toiavrr] Swa/xts ctvaL 
8vvafiL<s KaKOvpywv av^pwTTWV, 
T'qv kTrpocTKoXXiqcrav kol ravTrjv 
€ts TOV ^(x)KpdT7]Vj (OS kroXpiiqcrav 
va Aeycocrt Kar avTou ot6 
iKafive Tovs veovs v/SpLcrrds rcov 
ISlchv yovewv, (f^epovres avrol 
Tovs veovs ets too-t^v vf^piv. 'H 

prjTOpLK^ TOV ^(iiKpdrOVS 6)(^L 

[jLovov Sev e^xev, cos eiTray 
KafipLiav o/JLOiOTTjTa Trpos rrjV 
prjropLKrjv twv crocjiicrTioVj dXX' 
ovSe rr]v iSiSaa-Kev ws tt^v 
eSiSacTKav eKetvot. Oi crocfiLcrTal 
€fc>(av o-^oAeia Kal fjLadrjrds €k 
T(ov OTTOtwv eXdp.f3avav dSpo- 
rdrovs jxicrOovs. *0 '2(DKpdT7]s 
ovT€ or)(^oX€LOv r|vot^€V^ o{;Te 
fiaOrjTas crvvqdpoia-e' (r^^oAeiov 
TOV eyetvev ?) ttoAis oA>y, Kat 
/xadrjTaL tov ■^crav oXol ot 

TToAlTttt, TOVS OTTOl'oVS, ttVTt Vcl 

XdfSy Trap' avTtov p.Lcr06v, 

of office, to which ability in 
speaking was of service, since it 
gave admission to the assemblies 
where the popular leadership 
frequently had occasion for the 
assistance of extempore public 
oratory. The worst of it was 
that the sophists used to boast 
that their rhetoric had such 
great power that it made an 
advantage appear a disadvantage, 
justice injustice, truth falsehood, 
and falsehood truth. This was 
called 'to make the worse 
appear the better cause,' but, 
since their conscience told them 
that such a faculty was a faculty 
which belonged to rogues, they 
fastened this too on Socrates ; 
just as they had had the audacity 
to accuse him of making young 
men insolent to their own 
parents, although they them- 
selves brought the young to 
such a pitch of insolence. The 
rhetoric of Socrates not only 
had, as I said, no resemblance 
whatever to the rhetoric of the 
sophists, but he did not even 
teach it as they taught it. The 
sophists had schools and pupils 
from whom they received enor- 
mous fees. Socrates neither 
opened a school nor collected 
pupils : the whole city became 
his school, and all the citizens 
were his pupils whom, instead 
of taking fees from them, he 
advised themselves also to im- 
part gratis whatever good they 
had learnt from him, and before 



i(rvfi^ovX.€V€ VOL fieTaSiSdKTL Kal 
avTol diXLcrdu}^ o, tl KaXov eStSa- 
(TKOVt' oltt' avTov, irapayyeXXiov 
Trpb X/)t(rTov, oVt €7rapdyy€kX.€v 
6 Xpi(rTo<s et's Tovs Ma^r/ra? tov, 
' Aiopedv eAa^cre, Siopedv Sore.' 

Tov 2wK/9aTOl'? ly prjTOpLKYj 

yJTOV rj dXrjdivy] pr^ropiK'q, 'ijyovv 
rj SvvajxLS VOL TreiOrj Tis TOi)S 

dl/^/3dj7rOVS CIS Ttt SlKttta /X€ 

Aoyov OefMeXKOfMcvov els tiov 
TrpayfioLTiDV rrjv dX-qdeiav kol 
<f>va-tv^ Kol fxapTvpovfxevov (xtt' 
avTr]V TTjv SiddecTLV ttJs \pv)(rj<s 
TOV XeyovTos. "^Av Kat Sev 
efXLfjLetTO ry]v KaXXLeiretav twv 
(ro(f)L<TTMv, €T)(^av 6fX(DS ot Aoyot 
TOV eV dXXo elSos ev^/aaSeta?, 
T/Tt? eireiOe TroXXdKis ocrovs Sev 
ei{j6a(re va cfiapnaKevarrj v^ yeXoia 
rdv (TO(^L(nQiv KaAAt€7r6ta. *Av 
dfKfu/SdXXr) TL<s Trepl tovtou, as 
TrapafSaXy tovs Xoyovs tov 
llioKpdrovs, els rd (TvyypdpifiaTa 
TOV ^evo^QiVTOS^fxe tovs croi^ojxe- 
vovs 8vo Aoyovs tov Fopyiov." 

Kat TavTtt fiev Trepl rrjspijTopt- 
KTJS TOV 2(0KpaT0VS. ' AXXa)(ov 
TTov o/xtAet irepl ttXovtov koI 
TraiSetas cos e^rjs' 

"■ KaOois 6 ttAovto?, TrapofioLa 
Kal 6 (ficoTLo-fJios Trjs StavotaSjTOTC 
fxovov u)(f>€XeLTr]V TroXireiav, oVav 
hiacnreiperaL dvaAoyco? els oAovs 
TOVS TToAtVas. *H (Tva-(r(x)pei'criS 
TOV ttAovtov els oAtyovs Tivcts 
yevva tovs 2v/3aptTas Kat tovs 
oAoTcAa dTTopovs, 8vo p-epr] T'^s 
j 7roAtT€ias TrdvTOTe els ttoAc/xov, 
Itos vot KaTacrrpexpoiu-i Trjv ttoXl- 

the time of Christ taught the 
precept which Christ announced 
to His disciples : ' Freely have 
ye received, freely give.' The 
rhetoric of Socrates was true 
rhetoric, that is to say, the power 
of persuading men in whatever is 
just, by a reasoning founded on 
the reality and nature of things, 
and attested by the speaker's 
actual sentiments. Although 
he did not imitate the finished 
style of the sophists, his words 
had another kind of eloquence 
which often convinced those 
whom the ridiculously elaborate 
oratory of the sophists had not 
previously poisoned. If any 
one have doubts about this, let 
him compare the discourses of 
Socrates in the works of Xeno- 
phon with the two extant 
speeches of Gorgias." 

So much then about the 
rhetoric of Socrates. Somewhere 
else he speaks about wealth and 
education in the following 
words : 

" Like wealth, in the same way 
too the enlightenment of thej 
mind then only is of service to 
the state when it is distributed 
in due proportion among all its 
members. The accumulation 
of wealth among a few creates^ 
Sybarites and absolute paupers, 
two sections of the community 
always at war till they have 




TraAtv rrjs (rocfitas els ttoAAo, 

fXlKpOV apiOjXOV TToAlTWl/ (xva- 

f^Xacrrdvovv ot (TO(}>oXoy nora- 
TOi (T\oXa(TriKoi^ ot oiroloi 

eflTToSl^OVV TOV <f)lOrL(TfJiOV TOV 

KOLVOV Xaov, Sta rov (f)6f3ov firj 
TOV? Kara<f)pov7j(Tr) 6 kolvus 
Aao?^ KOL 8fca TTjV eXirtSa, on 
\tovs xvSaiovs OeXovv evpelv 
\/3or)6ovs eoLV rovs eXdrj ope^is 
\va depaTrevcrcjJCTL to, TrdOrj tcov." 

Uepl Se rrjs eKTratSevcrews twv 
yvvaiKiov iKc^kpei ras olkoXov- 
6ovs o'O^as Ideas' 

"At yvvaLKCs, Aeyet 6 
'KpLcrrorkXr]S, elvai to yjfXKTV 
fiepos ttJs TToAtTctas' o^ev 


Twv dvSptoi/ T^v 7rat5eiav, 
d<f)LV€L TO yjfiicrv Trjs TroAtTctag 
va {i^ (OS OeXei Kal o;(t KaTot 
Tovs vo/xovs. '"i2a-T €V oVats 
TToAtTeiat? cfiavXios €^et to Trept 
Tots ywaiKas, to i^fiKTv Trjs 
TToAecos etVat Set vofit^etv dvopio- 

OeTTjTOV.' 'AAA' oTav evpL(TK€TaL 
TO rjp.tarv xiopls vo/xov eyp-qyopa 
Kttt, TO aAAo r/^to-v Travet vol 
cre/SeTat tovs v6p.ovs. 'Atto tols 
ya;vatKas ycvviofxeOa' els avTiov 
Tas ■^(^eipas 8LaTpL/3op.ev to, Trpto- 
Ta €Ti7 ttJs aTraAwTepas, Kat 
ctKoAov^cos evKoX(i)Tepas va 
XdfSrj oTTOLavSiJTroTe p.op(fir]V 
rjXiKtas. 'OTTOta rj^vy 6;(ow at 
ywatKe? TOtavTa /xe to yaAa 
T(ov avTo /xas ttotl^ovv." 

Kat 1^ e^T^s TreptKOTrr] elvat 
d^ia dvay vtoo-ews • 

brouglit ruin on the common- 
wealth. From the restriction 
again of learning to a very 
small number of the members 
of the state there arise the highly 
learned pedants who prevent 
the enlightenment of the mass, 
for fear that the common people 
may despise them, and in the 
hope of finding the vulgar of 
service to them whenever they 
are inclined to gratify their evil 

Regarding the education of 
women he expressed the follow- 
ing wise views : 

"Aristotle says that women 
comprise one half of the state ; 
and hence whoever studies the 
education of men only, leaves half 
of the state to live as it likes and 
not in obedience to the laws. 
' Consequently in those states 
where matters which regard 
women are of no account, half 
of the state must be considered 
as not under legislation ' : but 
when half of it is not subject to 
the law, the other half soon 
ceases to respect the laws. From 
women we derive our birth, and 
under their control we pass the 
first years of that time of life 
which, being more impression- 
able than any other, is more 
easily capable of being moulded 
into any form. Whatever dis- 
position women have they im- 
part to us with their very milk." 

The following passage is also 
worth reading : 



^'*H KaX.Yj dvaTpo(f>r) yiVcrat 
Kal ^orjdctTaL ttAcov (XTro to, 
KaAtt TrapaS^LyfxaTa irapa wko 
Tas vovdecTLas Kal StSa^^a?. Tt 
(jj(f)€\ovv Tov V€OV ttt 5iSa)(at orav 
OTTOV CTTpcxfr) Tovs 6<f)0aX.p.ovs 
(iXXo Sev ^Xkirrj 7ra/oa dvofJLtav, 
dvOpioTTOv^s uTrav 6 pdoTTOvs Kal dv- 
SpaTToSioSeLS, KoAaK€i;ovTas koI 
KoXaKevojxevovs, rbv ttXovtov 
TLfXio/Jievov Kal rrjv dp€TrjV 
KaTa(f)pOVOVfX€VTJV, TTjV dSiKtav 

Tpv(fiO}(Tav Kal Ttjv StKaLoavvTjv 
XifXijjTTOva-av ; TltOavo^TaTov 
oTi TOLavTa Trapah^ty fxara 
BkXovv TOV 8t8a^€iv iKuv-qv 
TOV /3lov TTjv StayioyrjU ets 

TTyV OTTOtaV €Vpi(TK€L TO. fX€cra 
Va /36(TKr} TO KTrjVio8€<S TOV (7W/xa 

Kal va Oepairevrj T7J<5 KTYjvtoSe- 
(TT€pa<; avTOV ^v^^s to. Trddrj." 
To i^yjs ^Ivai Trepl fiovcriKrjs' 
" Ot TraAatot (f)LX6a-ocf)OL Kal 
vofJLoOeTat €KpLvav ttjv p.ova-LKr)v 
fxepos dvayKalov ttJs dvaTpo<firjs, 
u)9 LKavov va fxaXdo'a-r) tols 
dypLOTrjTas Trjs ^VXV'^^ '^"^ ^^ 
pvBfii^rj TOV dvdpoiTTOv el's tyjv 
€V(rx'r]pocrvvt^v, (05 Aeyet 6 
TLXovTap^os' 'Tots TraAaiois 
Twv ^EAAvyvwv eiKOTWs ixdXtcrTa 
TrdvTOiv e/xeXyja-e TrcTratSew^at 
p.ov(TLKrjv' Twv yap vko)V Tag 
\pvxa<s i^ovTO Seiv Scot /xovcTLKyj^ 
TrXaTTCiV Kal pv6p.L^eiV iirl to 
€va-)(y][jiOV, \prj(TL}X'T]<s St^Aovoti 
ttJs fxovcTLKTJs v7rapxova-r]<s 7rpo<s 
irdvTa Kal Tracrav ecnrovSa- 
(Tfikv-qv rrpd^iv, Trpor)yovp.€V(i)^ 
Be 7rpb<s TOVS TroXe/xtKovs klvSv- 
vovs.' *0 IIoAv^tos ttTToSlSet 

"A sound education takes 
its source and receives assist- 
ance more from good example 
than from admonition and 
instruction. Of what good 
are lessons to a lad when, wher- 
ever he turns his eyes, he sees 
nothing but lawlessness, men 
inhuman and slavish, flattering 
and flattered, we alth esteemed 
and virtue despised, inj ustice 
in luxury and justice starving ? 
Most probably such examples 
will teach him to adopt that 
kind of life in which he will 
find the means of cherishing his 
animal body and gratifying the 
passions of his still more animal 

The following is about music : 
"The ancient philosophers and 
legislators considered music a 
necessary part of education, as 
having the power to soften the 
savage qualities of the disposition 
and give men a sense of propriety : 
as Plutarch says : ' The ancient 
Greeks very properly took care 
above everything to be trained 
in music ; for they considered 
that it was by means of music 
that they ought to mould the dis- 
positions of the young and incul- 
cate decorum, inasmuch as music 
is beyond doubt useful for every 
thing and for every action of 
importance, and especially in 
encountering the dangers of war.' 
Polybius attributes the gentle 




rCiv 'ApKaSoiv Trjv rjfxepoTrjra 
Kol (f)iXav9p(D7rLav els tyjv ovrotav 
eix^v e^atperov TratStoOev 
cnrovSrjv rrjs fiovaruKrjs oXoi, 
TrXrjv fxtas 'ApKaSiKrjs TroAecos 
Twv Kvvai^ewv, rcov ottolihv ttJs 
drjpKjjSias alrtav Aeyet on 
Karecfipovrjcrav oAoreAa ttjv 
jxovcTiK'qv. "Arropov yjdeXe 
diKaioi's (fiavrjv av ia-vjJifSovXeva 
TYjv reXeiav kol TroXvSaTravov 


TtW Sev etvat yvoiorrov on drro 
Tovs TrevTjras, Kal e^aipenos 
OLTTo rrfv rd^LV twv yeojpyiov 
[xas, TToXXol e^ow KaOevas rrjv 
Xvpav Tov ; 'ApKct vd p.aOr)T€v- 

do)(TL TO, T€KVa TOiV vd Xvpt^(D(TLV 

oXiyov dpfxovLKiiiTepa. "ETretra 
06 Xvpi(rral Sev Trepiopt^ovrai 
€ts fiovov TO opyavov, ovSe 
Xvpi^ovv jLtovov, aAAa koI Xvpoi- 
8ovv. Uoa-rjv wc^eAetav Sev 
ijOeXav Trpo^evT^creiV ei5 rovs 
7rT(i)Xov<s ol TraiSevTOi tcov 
Trrw^^wv, av eis tottov twv dvo-q- 
T(i)v KOi TToAAdcKts do-e/xviDV 
T/DaywStwv eorvv^erav Sta ra 
7rTCt))(a TraiSdpta vfMvov<s els tov 
Gcov Kol TpaycaSia rotavTa, 
birola vd KpvTT-ruKnv viro rrjs 
'^Sovrjs TO KdXv/xp.a rjdLKrjv nva 
Tvapaivecnv. 'AAAa TOiavTa 
KaAot, irpeTrei vd rd Trpoo-fxeviofxev 
ttTTO TOV TroXvTrXaanaa-jxov kol 
TYjv reXeioTepav Stdra^iv twv 
crxoAetwv /xas* Trperrei vd Trpocr- 
fxevuy/jLev orav Karaa-T-^a-coixev 
KOi rjp.ets 7ra iSevTrjpLov e^atperov 
ryjs dvaTpo(f)7^s twv tttw^^wj/, 
KaTo, TO ^eXXefx/SepytKov Trepi- 

and benevolent disposition of the 
Arcadians to the special study of 
music, which from childhood all 
of them pursued except the one 
Arcadian city of the Cynaetheans, 
the cause of whose savage nature, 
he says, was their utter con- 
tempt for music. The thing 
would rightly appear impractic- 
able if I recommended a com- 
plete and expensive course of 
musical study. But first of all, 
who does not know that among 
the poor, and especially in the 
class of our agriculturists, many 
of them have each his lute ? 
It suffices for their children 
to be taught to play it a little 
more melodiously. Then again 
the lute- players do not con- 
fine themselves to the instru- 
ment, and not only play the 
lute but also sing to it. What 
help would not the teachers 
of the poor give to them, 
if, in place of foolish and 
often unbecoming songs, they 
composed for poor children 
hymns to God and such songs as 
might convey under the cover 
of pleasant recreation some 
moral precept ! But such bene- 
fits we must await from the 
multiplication of our schools 
and their more perfect organisa- 
tion : we must wait till we also 
have established a special school 
for the education of the poor, 
on the pattern of the celebrated 
Fellenberg school, and teachers 
who have Fellenberg's philan- 



fSorjTOV iraLSevT'qpiov, Kal SiBa- 
o-KctAov? exovTas Tr]V cjiiXav- 
OpiOTTLav Tov ^eXXcixfScpyov. 
*0 ^U)KpaTiKo<s oiSto? TraiSevTj)? 
TO)v 7rTa);(a)V TraiStwv €8L8d)(^0rj 
(XTTo Tr)v -Kilpav oTt 17 fxova-LKrj 
(.Tvat 8l oAa TO. veapa TratSta 
fxecrov l(r)(vpbv iroXiTi(rp.ov koI 
Kotvwvtas, {M€(rov cTrtT^^Secov va 

TO, <TVV€i0L^ri va KaVOVL^dXTL TOl/ 

/8tov Twv Kttt va crvvepyd^iovTai 
fxe ija-vxov dpfjLOVLaV vd fxerpt- 
d^rj Tols aTaKTOVi 6p/>ta?, Kal vd 
KadapL^Yj Trjs \pV)(rjS to, al(rdr]- 
fxara^ Kal vd ttjv dveyeipy els 
Ttts vx^/rjXds Ivvota?. Xpryo-t- 
/xevet €£atp€TW5 va rjixepovy, vd 
ev^paivrj TrpeTTioSecrTepov t^v 
KapStav, Kat va fiaXaKvvr} tyjv 
(TKXrjpoTriTa Trjs (fivcreti's iK€LV(DV 
IxaXicTTa Twv TracSiwv, o(ra 
eXafSev els to (r^^oAetov tov aTro 

TYJV rd^LV TtOV Xp(J}fX0(7]Tl0V." 

At 7r€/36 iJLOva'LKr)<s ISeat tov 
K.opayj €LvaL opdoTaTai Kal 

kXlTi^U) ol "EAAvpeS (i)(f)€XoVlJL€VOi 

€^ aiJTWV va cfSaXov avTd<5 et? 
Trpd^LV. "E^^ere tlttotc dXXo 
€K Twv epyoiv avTov ; 

MaAtCTTa, 6^(0 8vo aAAa 
aKojxr] aTTOcTTraa/MaTa, rb Tr/awrov 
€K Twv oTTooav dvT€ypa\pa Ik 
Twv 7rpoXeyo/xev(i)v avTov ets 
Ta? T€(ro-apas Tr/awras paxf/ip8ia<5 
Trj<s 'lAiaSos (181 1 -1820). *0 
Ko/iaT^s 8ev 7rapov(Tid^€TaL ws 
IkSott^S a^TWV irapicTT^ 8k 
avras Tre/xTTO/xevas €65 Haptat'ovs 
7r/3os TVTrworiv wo TIV09 Aoyt'ou 
XtOV KaTOlKoGvTO? StJ^^cv cv 

thropy. This Socratic educator 
of poor children was taught by 
experience tliat music for all 
young children is a powerful 
means of rendering them civilised 
and fit for society, an efficient 
instrument with which to 
accustom them to regulate their 
life and work together in peace- 
ful harmony, to moderate their 
undisciplined inclinations, and 
purify the feelings of the soul 
and raise it to lofty thoughts. 
It is particularly useful for 
imparting gentleness, for glad- 
dening the heart within due 
bounds, for softening any 
natural hardness of character, 
especially in such children as 
he received in his school from 
the class of beggars." 

The ideas of Corais about 
music are very correct, and I 
hope that the Greeks have 
derived advantage from them 
and put them into practice. 
Have you anything else from 
his works ? 

Yes. I have two more ex- 
tracts, the first of which I 
copied from his preface to the 
four first rhapsodies of the Iliad 
(1811-1820). Corais does not 
come forward as the editor of 
them, but he represents them 
as sent to Paris, in order to be 
printed, by a certain learned 
Chian supposed to be an inhabi- 
tant of Bolissos, where, according 



BoAtcraw, OTTOv Kara 7rapd8o(riV 
a/)^atav SierpLxj/e ttotc 6"OfMrjpo<s. 
'Ev rrj KiiifxTj ravTY) Trapta-ra 6 
K.opar]S on VTrrjp^e Kar GKetvrjV 
Tov )(^p6vov TTjv TrepioSov €(fir)- 
fiepLos Tt? (XTrAotKos fxev /cat 
afjLOLpos 7rat8eta5^ ivdperos o/xw5 
Koi Xiav <^iXo[xa6r]S. '\8ov ttw? 
7repiypd(f)€L avrov kirl to dcrreL- 
orepov ' 

"'H crvvavaa-Tpocjuq fxov etvat 
/x€ TOV i(f)7]fiepLov TOV xoypiov, 
dv8pa, o(TTi<5 TTapd raAAa tov 
TrpoTep-jfiaTa, KavyaTat otl Kal 
eh oX-qv TrjV vyjo-ovSevevptcTKeTaL 
TTttTras vol dvaycvcoa-Ky Trap' avTov 
eyprjyopcoTepa tcl KadtcrfMaTa tov 
ipaXTrjpLOV. Eis TTJs €opTrj<s 
Tcuv XyoicTTOvyevvcov tov opOpov 
TOV (TVvejBrj va TTTapvto'Orj ets 
TTjv dvdyvo)a-LV toctov a-(poSpd 
&(TT€ vd (rf^kcrrj tyjv XafiirdSa. 
"Orav TYjv dvaxpav, crvXXoyi^o- 
fxevos TTOCTOV e^acre Katpov ets 
Tr)v fxeTa^v crKOTiav, eirpoTi- 
firjcre vd TrrjS-qorrj xj/aXfiov 6X6- 
KXrjpov, TOV fxaKpoTepov, irapd to 
oveiSos vol fxaKpvvrj tov Kai- 
pov Tr]<5 dvayvo)(Te(i}<s virep to 
a-vvYjOes. Aev el^evpo), dv Std 
T7]v Ta)(VTdTr]v TavTfjv dvd- 
yi/co(Ttv, rj Sid ttjv <j)V(rLKrjV rjjx^v 
Tiav Xtcov kXIctlv els to. (tkcd- 
TTTLKd Trapiovv/XLa^ 6 BoAtcrcrt- 
vo? ecfirjfxepios dvo/xa(eTat dirb 
TOD? TToAtTa? T^s Xtov IlaTra 
Tpe;(as, Kal to Trapiovvfiiov 
rjpea-e too-qv ets tov Tvapovo- 
fia^6[X€vov, io(rT€ Sev cr aKovet 

^ IlaTras in modern Greek signifies 
name it drops the final consonant, e.g 

to an ancient tradition, Homer 
at one time resided. In this 
village Corais represents that 
there lived at that time a parish 
priest, a man of simple character 
and without any education, but 
virtuous and a great admirer of 
learning. Here is the way in 
which he describes him rather 
wittily : 

"My society is confined to 
that of the village priest, 
a man who, among his other 
talents, boasts that in the 
whole of the island there is 
no priest who can read, with 
greater rapidity than he, the 
allotted portions of the psalms. 
During matins at the Christmas 
festival, while he was reading, 
he happened to sneeze with 
such violence that he extin- 
guished the taper. When they 
had relighted it, calculating 
how much time he had lost in 
the interval of darkness, he 
thought it better to skip a whole 
psalm, the longest of them, than 
to incur the reproach of occupying 
more time than usual in read- 
ing them. I do not know whether 
it is from this very rapid reading, 
or from the natural propensity of 
us Chians for derisive nicknames, 
that the parish priest of Bolissos 
is called Papa ^ Trechas by the 
inhabitants of Chios, and this 
nickname so pleased its recipient 
that he does not listen to you 

a priest : when prefixed to a priest's 
. IlaTra 'ludvprjs, IlaTra Fedbpyios. 




ttAcov €av Tov KaAc(rr/s />te rh 
Kvptov Tov ovo/xa. 

Kav^^arat 7rph<s tovtols koI 
€19 k^y]Kovra recra-apa ra^eiSta, 
Kal (fiavrd^eraL ^avrhv aAAov 
'08va-(T€a, oLTrh tov ottolov tovto 

flOVOV 8ta<^€/0€t OTt TOt €KafX€V 

€ts auTot rrjs vrjaov to, k^rjKOVTa 
T€(T(Tapa Xdipca, x^P^? kiVSwov 
Kavkva rrjs Oakdcr(rri<s. 

Aid vd ere Scocro), ^tAe, fXLKphv 
TrapdSeiyfia rrjs OTTOta? aTre- 
KTrjcrev aTrh to, ra^CiSta ttoAv- 
Treipcas, iTrkpacrev i8o) tt/do 
ixrjviov "AyyXos Tt? TreptrjyrjTrjs 
p.€. (TKOTTOV vd dvaKaXvxprj Kavev 
V7r6fxv)]fjia TiJ? ct? BoAtcrcroi' 
StarpLlSrjs tov ^OfX'/jpov' €L\e 
artfjid Kal 8vo tov fXLKpd 
TraiSapia. MoAcs t aKOvcrev 6 
IlaTra Tpe^as vd crvAAaAtucrt 
fie TOV TraTepa twv, Kat /x' 
€pu>Tr](T€V €K(rTaTiKO? — Ilotav 
yAwcrcrav AaAoi^crt ; — Trjv 'Ay- 
yAtK7yi/, TOV aTreKptOr^v, Kal rj 
'iK(rTacrL<STOv eyeivev dTroXidojo-iS. 
Aev efiTTopei vd ^uipko-yj tov Bo- 
XicrcrLVOv 'OSi^aorews rj KC^aA^y, 
TTCus Tocrov vea/aa Trai^dpia iJTo 
Svi/arov va AaAwcrt yXda-crav 
cts avTov ayvwo'Tov. Aev 
cl^evpo) TrAeov iroiav yXQxra-av 
Kal ets TToiav i^AtKtav, /car 
avToi', CTrpeire vd AaAwo-t twv/ 
AyyAwv TCI TCKva. ETjuat 
jSk/^atos OTt yeA^s T^v w/oav 
TavTT]v Sid Trjv diroptav tov 
IlaTra T/oe^a' aAAa Tt ^^eAes 
Kd/JL€L, idv irapuiv irapovTos 
^Kov€s avToAe^et aTrb Tb (TTo/xa 

now if you call him by his 
proper name. 

He boasts moreover of having 
made sixty-four journeys, and 
fancies that he is a second 
Ulysses, from whom he only 
differs in this one respect, that 
he made them simply to the 
sixty- four villages of the island 
without any of the perils of the 

To give you, my friend, a 
little example of the great ex- 
perience he acquired from his 
journeys : an English traveller 
passed through here a few 
months ago, whose object was 
to discover some token of 
Homer's residence at Bolissos. 
He had with him two little 
children of his. Hardly had 
Papa Trechas heard them talk- 
ing to their father when, beside 
himself with astonishment, he 
asked me : ' What language are 
they speaking?' 'English,' I 
replied, and then his amazement 
became absolute petrefaction. 
The head of the Bolissian 
Ulysses could not comprehend 
how such young children were 
able to speak in a language 
unknown to him. I do not 
know, to be sure, in what language 
and at what age, according to 
his ideas, English children 
should talk. I am certain that 
you are now laughing at Papa 
Trechas' perplexity: but what 
would you have done if you 
had been actually in his presence 



rov rovs X6yov<s rovrovs ; — 'Ta 
StajSoAoTTOvXa, rocrov fXLKpa va 
'fiiXovv ^EyyAe^tKa / ' 

TeXa, c^tAe, ocrov OeXjis, aAAa 
7r/)0(re;(€ /zt) KaTa<fipov7Jcrrj<? 8ta 
TOVTO TOV (T€l3d(r/XL0V XlaTTa 

T/oe^av. Nai / crel:^d(T/JLios 
dXrjdios €ivai ws to Aeyw. M' 
0A17V ravTT^v rr]V aTrXoTTjra Scv 
clfXTTopeis vd (TToyaa-Bfis ttoctov 
€ivaL cfaXdvOpcoTTOs 6 KttAbs 


Sid TTjv ■)(^p7](Troridciav rov 


xj/vxTJs SiddecTLV irapriyopei tovs 
ivopcras els rds 8vcrTv;(tas 
avTOiV Kot Tovs avfji^ovXevei, 
orav €VTV)(^C}cri vd €\0}(tl irpo- 


*H dperrj el<s avrov Sev etvat 
yevvYjfxa TratSetaSjeTretS-^ TraiSetav 
Sev e'Aa^e ' Sev elvai Kapirhs 
d(TK'q(T€(i)S, iTreiSrj Kaveva kottov 
Sev SoKtfJid^eL et? rrjv -ij/v^y^v 
TOV. AvTretrat TroAAaKts Sid 
rrjv (TTepTjcTLV rrjs TraiSeias, Kot 
8id vd dvaTrXrjpcocrr) o, n Sev 
€KafjLav ol yovecs rov els avrov, 
eirep^xpe rov vlov rov els rrjv 
TToXiv vd P'dOrj rrjv dp^^atav 
^^XXyjviKrjv KOi v aKova-jj rd 
ixa$rip.ara rov ScSacTKaXov 
^eXeirr]. EiVat dveKSt^yrjros 
T'qv OTTOLOiV eSoKLfiao-e )(^apdv 
orav efxaOev on 6 "O/xrjpos 
8ierpLxpev els BoAtcrcrbv Kal on 
ao->(oAo{)/xat els rrjv eKdoa-tv 
avrov. Tovro [xovov fie epio- 
rr](reVy dv 6 "Opirjpos "^ro Xpt- 
crTtavd§. 'ASvvarov ^to, rov 

and had heard in his own words 
from his own mouth this re- 
mark : ' The little devils ! Such 
mites to speak English ! ' 

Laugh, my friend, as much 
as you like, but take care not 
to despise the reverend Papa 
Trechas for this. Indeed, he is 
truly deserving of veneration, as 
I tell you. With all his sim- 
plicity, you cannot imagine how 
benevolent this worthy priest is, 
and how solicitous he is for the 
good morals of his little flock, 
and how from his very heart he 
consoles his parishioners in their 
afflictions, and exhorts them, 
when they are in prosperity, 
to take thought for those who 
are in adversity. 

His goodness is not the result 
of education, for he has received 
no education : it is not the 
fruit of practice, for in his heart 
he feels nothing to be an effort. 
He is often grieved at his want 
of education, and in order to 
fulfil a duty which his 
parents had not performed 
in his own case, he sent his son 
to the town to learn ancient 
Greek and hear the lectures of 
Professor Selepes. It is im- 
possible to describe what delight 
he experienced when he learnt 
that Homer had lived at Bolissos 
and that I was engaged in 
editing his works. All he asked ' 
me was whether Homer was 
a Christian. I told him that 
that was impossible since he 




eiVra, €7r€t8r} €^r) xpoi'Oi^S crx^^^v 


Ot KaTOLKOi Tov x^/atov €ivaL 
rocTOV oXiyoi rhv dptOfiov, uxTre 
t) TToAAa nLKpd r(i)V kKKXyfcria 
rjfnropeL vd xaipkfrri rpiirXaa-iovs 
avTwv. M' oXov rovro rtvl'i 
dirh rovs TrpoecmoTasol TrXovano- 
repot €7r€dvfJL7](rav vd TrXaTvvcxyan 
TTJv OLKo^ofx-qv. 'EKOtvwi/r^trav 
T7)v yvio/JL-qv avTcov els rhv 

€(f)r]fXCpLOV, KOI OUTO? TOVS €(TVpL- 

povXev(T€ vd (rvva9poL(T(x)(TL 
TT/JcoTOV T-qv XpeLa^ofJLivrjV 8a- 
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€L7re ' ' TcKva fiov, 6 Gebs Sev 
KaroiKet et? Trerpas kol €ts ^i^Aa, 
dXX' els rds ij/v^ds riov KaXij^v 
X/)to-TtavctJV. T7;? eKKXr](TLa<s 
TO fxeyeOos /SXeirere otl 8ev 
ecfxeda dpKeTol vd to yep^La-io/xev. 
'Atto era? ot TrepKKTOTepoi 8ev 
el^evpovv p.yTe vd dvaytviocrKwcn. 
P'i'jTe vd ypdcfiUKri' irpdyfia 
d(TvyKpiTCi)s dpefTTorepov els tov 
Beov i)deXap,ev Trpd^eu, /3dX- 
Xovres els tokov to, (rvvayp^eva 
dpyvpia, Sid vd irX-qpoverac 
utt' avTov eTr)(Ti(ji}S StSdcTKaXos 
ypacjirjs kol dvayv(i>creii)S kal to 
7re/3to-o-e{!ov va p-oipd^eTat els 
Tovs 7rT(ji)\ovs dSeXffiovs /u,a§, 
ocrwv rj iTTtMyela 8ev elvai diroTe- 
Xea-p-a dpyias, /cat pie tovtov 
tov rpoTTOv vd eXevdepcodiopuev 
ciTro TO ovetSos otl /xovot rjpLets 

lived nearly nine hundred years 
before Christ. 

The inhabitants of the village 
are so few in number that their 
very small church can accommo- 
date three times as many. And 
yet some of the more wealthy 
of the leading inhabitants 
wished to enlarge the building. 
They communicated their idea 
to the parish priest, and he 
advised them first to collect the 
necessary funds, so as to carry 
out the work on a scale pro- 
portionate to them. When the 
reverend priest learnt that the 
money had been collected, he 
said one Sunday at the conclu- 
sion of the mass : ' My children, 
God does not reside in stone 
and timber, but in the souls of 
good Christians. With regard 
to the size of the church, you 
see that we are not sufficient to 
fill it. The greater number of 
you do not know how to read 
or write : we shall perform an 
action incomparably more pleas- 
ing to God if we put out to 
interest the money that has 
been collected, so that a teacher 
of reading and writing may be 
paid out of it annually and the 
surplus divided among those 
of our poor brethren whose 
poverty is not the result of 
indolence, and in this way we 
may be freed from the reproach 
that we alone in all the island 
are fond of begging.' What do 
you say to this, my friend ? 



cts 6Xy]V rrjv vyjcrov ayaTrw/xev 
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OCTTIS iKOXJ/e TO. (TiTr]pk(TLa T(JiV 

BiSacTKaXiov 8ia va otKoSofirj 
XafJLTrpas eKKX-qcrtas ; 

'A(f>iVO) aAAa TToXXa kol 
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OTTOLOV cftaLverai dcrvyxi^p^JTOv 
va (TLMTrrjcTd). ' HKOvcrev ort 
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^EAAyyi/tK-J}? yAwcrcrry? Trepirjp- 
X^TO rrjv vrjcrov ^t^twv vol '^p^fSrj 
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€fJiTTo8L(T(Ji). 'Acf)LV(0 Cr€, <^tAe, 

va arox'^o'dfjs Trocr-qv diroplav 
kirpo^kvy^arev els epik tov fMecrLTrjv 
TO KLvrjfxa TOVTO TOV lepeoiSj Kal 
fxdXio-Ta OTav ipo)Trj(Tas avTOV, 
StaTL drrecfidcrLcre va TrapaiTTjOy 
TTjV icfirjixeptav, e'Aa^a TOtavT^v 

dTTOKptU-LV ' ' *EyCU_, T€KVOV /AOV, 

€LjxaL dypdfXfxaTOS' tov ottoTov 
eTTiOvfjiio va fSdXo) els tov tottov 
fxov, eifiai fSe/Saios on eTvat 
errcTrjSeLOTepos Trap' efxe va 

Does not the humble priest of 
Bolissos appear to you more 
sensible and more pious than 
the emperor Justinian, who cut 
down the pay of the school- 
masters in order to build 
splendid churches ? 

I omit many other wonderful 
instances of this priest's good- 
ness, and content myself with 
one more which I think it 
would be unpardonable not to 
mention. He heard that a 
certain clergyman, who had a 
knowledge of ancient Greek, 
was wandering about the island 
trying to get appointed to some 
church as parish priest. What 
does your good friend Papa 
Trechas do ? He runs to him 
to propose that he should take 
the office of parish priest of 
Bolissos instead of himself. 
Hardly had the poor Bolissians 
heard of this great and un- 
expected misfortune of theirs, 
when men and women ran and 
implored me with tears to pre- 
vent him. I leave you to guess, 
my friend, in what a dilemma 
this action of the priest placed 
me, the mediator, and especially 
when,' asking him why he had 
determined to resign the office 
of parish priest, I received this 
reply : ' My son, I am not 
learned : the man whom I wish 
to put in my place is, I am 
certain, more fitted than I am 




SLSdcrKy Kol va KvfSepv^ to,? 


)(^u)pLK(ov.' Ets TOtavri^v ycv- 
valav aTroKpLCTLV Tt ef^^a v' 
avTairoKpidio ; ^vv€K\av(Ta k 
tyw fik T0V5 BoAio-(rtvov9 kol 
eTrpoa-jJieva /xe X.V7rr)V rrjs ^vxrjs 
pov Ty]v (TTeprja-LV tov KaXov 

TOVTOV Up€(i)<Sj TTjV OTTOtaV Kttt 

-qOeX.ap.ev TrddcL, lav ol koltolkol 
TO)v Ovp^taviov Skv €7rp6(f)6avav 
vd XafiuKTi TOV Xoytov Upea 
€69 iffufjp.epLOV, Kal v' dcfii^(T(u(ri 
irdXcv €LS ly/Aa? tov ISlkov 
Tov OavfxacTTOV i^/xtov iraird to 
'ipyov Tovro Scv to /c/otVct?, 
^tAc, (US kyoi dXyOiJos ^(OKpa- 
TLKov ; TotovTOS cTvat, <^lA€, 
COS 0-6 TO I' 7r€pLypd(fiO}, 6 aTrXov- 
arraros kol (^iXdvdpiairos €^^- 
fiepLOs tt}? BoAwro-ou. ETvai 
(r\€8hv p,7]V€<s Se/caTTcvTe ottoi; 

KaTOfKW TO \(i)pLOV KOt KaV€V 

dKopLrf irdBos Kvpuvov ttjv 
KaX-qv TOV xpv^y]V aAAo Sev 
iyviopta-a Trapd tyjv dp^erpov 
XpyjcTLV TOV Tap^jSdKov. 'AAAa 
eXaTTiodr) kol tovto ttoXv d(f)0v 
f.p.aOiv OTL pL-qTC 6 "Op^rjpos 
P-y]T€ 6 EiJo-Ta^tos kyviapixrav ttjv 
(TKoviv TavTYjv KoX oXiyov 'iXei\f/€ 
vd TYjv d(firj(Tr) Kal oAoTcAa, 
d(f)Ov TOV (TvvefSrj to ottoiov 
peXX(x) vd hiriyrjdCi oxtt^lov, rj 


€KKXt]a-iav. VvoipL^€i<i TO dvd- 
(TTrjpa TOV crw/ittTos p.ov otl 
h\v €LvaL aTTO ToL VTre/a/JoAiKW? 
jxaKpd' 6 KaXbs o/xws outos 
upevSj dv TOV 7rapa/3dXr]<i Trphs 
6/A6, eu/at TTvy/xaios, iocrT€ Kal 


to instruct and direct the con- 
sciences of my worthy villagers.' 
To such a noble reply what answer 
could I return ? I joined my 
lamentations to those of the 
Bolissians and awaited with 
heartfelt sorrow the loss of this 
worthy priest, which we should 
have suffered if the inhabitants 
of Thymiana had not been 
beforehand in taking the learned 
minister for their parish priest, 
and left us our own. Do you 
not consider, my friend, as I do, 
this action of our admirable 
priest truly worthy of Socrates ? 
Such as I describe him to you, 
my friend, is the excessively 
simple-minded and benevolent 
parish priest of Bolissos. It is 
nearly fifteen months since I 
took up my residence in the 
village, and yet I have discerned 
no passion dominating his noble 
soul except the immoderate use 
of snuff. But even this has much 
diminished since he learnt that 
neither Homer nor Eustathius 
were acquainted with this 
powder, and he very nearly gave 
it up altogether after something 
comical, or I should say im- 
proper, had happened to him in 
the church itself, which I am going 
to relate. You are aware that 
my height is not excessively 
great, but the worthy priest, if 
you compare him with me, is a 
pigmy, so that he often gives 




fxe 8i8€L TroWoLKLS d<f>opixr]v va 
TrapoiSo) els avTov to KiOfiLKov 
' MiKpos ye jxrJKos ovTOS, 
aAA,' OLTrav KaXov.' 
Mtav Tcuv Kv/oiaKwi' ei? rrjv 
OLTroXva-LV ttjs Xeirovpytas 
€7rXr)(rta(ra els avTOV va Xa^w, 
u)S ol aXXoL, TO dvTL8(x)pov' KOt 
eTretSr] Sea rrjv dvKTOTYjTa tmv 
croyfidTitiV ■^rov dvajK-q va 
(TKvxpidj eirecrev dwo rov koXttov 
/JLOV rj Kardparos TafjL/SaKoOi/jKrjj 
Kol icjiepero ws dXXos Slctkos 
els avrov rov dvnh^pov rov 
Slctkov. MoAts r'qv ev6rja-e 
KvXnofxevrjv 6 evXoyqpievos 
IlaTra Tpe^as kol Ktvovfievos 
avrojjidrcos rrpos avrijv, rrjv 
dpird^et fie fxeydXrjv TrpoBvfXiav, 
Kal dcfiov erafi/SaKLordr] /lov rrjv 
fSdXXei els ryjv x^^P^-y ^^^ rav- 
ry]S e^oTTLcro} rb dvrtSoypov. 
"Atottov ■^ro xwpls a/A^t/?oAtav 
TOVTO, aAA' els rov Trairdv rrjs 
BoXio-crov rj roiavrr) droiria 
TrapafSXeirerai Kal Sid rd TroXXd 
rov Trporep'jfjiara, Kal Sid^rrjv 
aTrXorrjra rrjs ^vXV'^y V ^'^o^cl 
rov ifiTvoSLcre va KaraXd/Sy on 
rrjv copav eKetvrjv irapd rov 
fxoLpacr/xov rov dvriSiapov els 
riTTore dXXo vd Trpocrexjl ^^^ 

'0 IlaTra T/)e;)(as Trapia-rarat 
VTTO rov K.oparj dycuv rore rb 
recra-apaKOcrrov eros rrjs "^XtKLas 
rov Kal (l>Xey6ixevos wo aKa- 
OeKrov eiriOv/xcas vd (nrovSda-rj 
rrjv dpxaiav ^^XXrjvtKrjv. 'Ore 

me the inclination to apply to 
him the comic verse : 
' He is short in stature but all 
of him is good.' 

One Sunday at the end of the 
Mass I went up to him to re- 
ceive, like the rest, the antidoron,^ 
and, as I was obliged to stoop, 
owing to the inequality of our 
heights, there fell from my 
breast the accursed snuff-box, 
and it was discharged like 
another discus into the tray 
holding the antidoron. Hardly 
had the blessed Papa Trechas 
observed it rolling when, ap- 
proaching it automatically, he 
seized it with great avidity and, 
having taken a pinch, put it 
into my hand and after it the 
antidoron. It was without 
doubt improper, but in the 
priest of Bolissos such im- 
propriety is overlooked both in 
consideration of his many good 
qualities, and on account of the 
simplicity of his heart which 
prevented him from understand- 
ing that at such a time it was not 
right to attend to anything but 
the distribution of the anti- 

Papa Trechas is represented 
by Corais as then in the fortieth 
year of his age and inflamed 
with an uncontrollable desire to 
study ancient Greek. When he 
read what was written about 

^ The blessed (but not consecrated) bread distributed by the priest to 
the congregation at the end of the Mass. 



avkyvoi to. ev rots irpoXeyo- 
jxevoLS rrjs 7rpu>Tt]S pa\pto8ia<s 
yeypafXfjLeva Trepl avTOv S^v 
[ Svo-qpea-TrjOi], dAA.' tt7r€<^ao"io"e 
va fJLi) pukvYj irXkov aypa/x/xaros, 
SiOTi Kar€v67]cr€v otl rj ajrai- 
Seva-ia its rovs Upojixivovs ^to 
iXaTTiopa a(Tvy\<itipy]rov. "Odev 
p€Taf3a<i el<s tov ypdxf/avTa 
ra 7rpo\€y6fx€va, ocms, ws Trpo- 


Sufxevev iv BoAwrcrc^, eiTrev 

aVT<^' "AoiTTOl/, €l7r€ jXOL, TL 

irXkov €;(w va Kct/xto/ No, 
^€7ra7ra8w^to ilvaL a^vvarov 
aXX-qv Bepairuav rrjs 8vcrTv;(ia? 
fxov Sev evpLCTKO) irapa va 8l- 
Sa^Oo) rrjv dp^aLav^^XXrjvLK-qVy 
Kal SiSdcTKaXos pxiv^ T€kvov, 
/jteAActs va y^^vys (TV." *H 
TrapaKXtrjcrcs avrov €yev€TO 
cLTroSeKTi) Kal Trj ^of]$€L(^ tou 
eK^oTov Twv paxf/ipSiUJV tov 
'^Ofirjpov Ta\€0)'s 6 rews ay pdjx- 
IxaTOS te/aevs Trporiydrj dpKovv- 
T0J9 €ts TTyv KaTdX-qxj/iv Trj<s 
dp^aias yX(oa-(rrj<s, coo-re ev^e/ows 
'/yoLVaTO va cvvot; to, 'Atto/avt;- 
povevfiaTa tov ^evo(^(ovTOS Kat 

TO 'Ey^ei/OtStOV tov 'ETTiKTV^TOV. 

*AkoAov^w5 eireSoOrj els t>)v 
(r7rov6>)v rwv o/xtAiwv 'looavvov 
TOV ^pva-ooTTOjxoVj as irpocr- 
€7ird6eL va pa ixr^T at els toLs 
SiSa^as TOV. 'EttciSt) Se €?;(€v 
idiaiTepav crTopy^v els tov 
Oprjpov, (OS SiaTptrpavTd ttotc 
€V BoAto-o-w, epiadev diro crT-q- 
\6ovs oX-qv T-qv 'lAtaSa Kat 
[OSwo-eiav. 'HyaTra 8e ttoAv 
Kai TOV Ev/)i7ri8r;v 6ta ra TroAAa 

himself in the introduction to 
the first Rhapsody, he was not 
at all displeased, but determined 
to remain no longer unlearned, 
for he perceived that want of 
education is an unj^ardonable 
defect in those who are in holy 
orders. Going then to the 
writer of the introduction, who, 
as I told you before, is supposed 
to be residing at Bolissos, he 
said to him: "Tell me now, 
what am I to do^ It is im- 
possible for me to give up the 
priesthood : I can find no other 
remedy for my misfortune ex- 
cept to learn ancient Greek, and 
you, my son, are to be my 
teacher." His request was com- 
plied with, and with the help of 
the editor of the Rhapsodies of 
Homer the hitherto illiterate 
priest §oon made sufficient pro- 
gress in mastering the ancient 
language to be able to understand 
without difficulty the Memora- 
bilia of Xenophon and the 
Encheiridion of Epictetus. He 
afterwards devoted himself to 
the study of the Homilies of 
John Chrysostom, which he 
endeavoured to imitate in his 
sermons ; and since he had a 
more especial affection for Homer, 
as having once resided at 
Bolissos, he learnt by heart the 
whole of the Iliad and the 
Odyssey. He was very fond too 
of Euripides on account of his 
many wise apophthegms. In 
course of time Papa Trechas 




KOL (Tocfia avTOv aTTO^Okyixara. 
Mera TrapeXevariv Katpov 6 
IlaTra T/je^as tTrt tootovtov 
TrpoioSevcrev els ra 'EAAiyviKa 
ypapLfMara, locrre crvvera^e koX 
VTrojjLvyjfiara eh rbv "OfJLrjpov 
k^r]X\rjvia-€ 8e kol to ovofxa 
avTOv_ KaXccras eavrov Qewya. 
'^Oewpei Sg TTjV 7rat8etav ws to 
apiCTTOV KTYJfXa TravTosdvOpiJoTTOv. 
" M-Ovrj rj TratSet'a," 'iXeyev, 
" iXevSepovovcra ro;^ vovv oltto 
TYjv ayvoiav, StSda-Kei tov dv- 


Tov<s dvOpioTTOvs KaOr^KOVTa' 
TOVTovs fJi€V vd crT0\d^r]TaL ws 
d8eX(l>ov<s TOV, Kal vd Trpocr^e- 
prjTai Trpbs avT0v<s 0)S eTTLdvfxeL 
vd 7rpocr<fi€po)VTaL irpos avTOV 
€K€LVOL' TOV Sc Bcov vot (TefSrjTat 
(OS ByjfJiLOvpybv Kal TrpovorjTrjv 
avTov, fjLTjSe. vd roA/xct va tov 
aTL/Jid^rj, crvy)(€(jiv SetcrtSatyaovws 
ras TeXeLOTrjTas tov fxe rots 
dvOpiiiTTLvas do-deveias' els eva 
Xoyov vd StaKptvy tov Geov 
(XTTO TOV dv6p(i)7rov, KaOios 6 


KaXos vd Kafxy ttjv dtaKpLa-iv 
TavTyVj d<f>ov y 'AOr)vd rjXev- 
Oepoya-e tovs ocfiOaXpiovs tov 


'ISov Kal TO TeAei;Tatov ev Ty 
(TvXXoyrj jxov dTr6a7ra(rp.a €k 
Twv 'ipywv TOV J^oparj, oirep 
dvTeypaxpa Ik t(ov Jv tw t/oito) 
TOfn^ Twv na/)aAA7)Aa>v Biwv 
Tou TiXovTap^ov AvToo-;>(€- 
Sicov avTov <TTO^a(Tp,Q>v Trepl 
T^S 'EAAvyviKi^s TraiSeias 
Kal yXoiaa-ys' eivac Se d^to- 

advanced so far in Greek litera- 
ture as actually to write com- 
mentaries on Homer. He even 
turned his name into ancient 
Greek and called himself Theon 
(the runner). He regarded 
education as the most valuable 
possession for any one. " It is 
education alone," he used to say, 
" that by freeing the mind from 
ignorance, teaches man his duty 
to God and to his fellow-men, 
to consider the latter as his 
brethren, and to behave towards 
them as he wishes them to 
behave towards him, to wor- 
ship God as his creator and 
protector, and not to dare to 
dishonour Him by superstitiously 
confounding His perfectioaswith 
human weaknesses : in a word, 
to distinguish God from man, 
just as Diomed was only then 
able to make this distinction 
when Minerva had freed his 
eyes from darkness." 

Here is the last extract from 
Corais' works in my collection, 
which I copied from his Casual 
thoughts about Greek education 
and the Greek language in the 
third volume of his Plutarch's 
Parallel Lives. It is an ex- 
cellent pattern of a lexicon for 
the use of any one intending to 



koyov X.€^LKoypa<jiLKbv vtto- 
Setyfia Trpos tov /xeAAovra 
TTOTC va (Tvyypdxlqj TiXeiov 
ke^iKov Trjs ^€0€\Xr)VLKrj<s 
y\io(r(rt]<; ' 

" 'AXriecia. 2vv€X€0-Te/30v 

L(T(Ji}<S ttAAo €tS oAaS TWV 

edvQv Ttts yAwo-cras ovofxa oltto 
ra (TTO/xara T(Gv dvOpioircov Sev 
Trpocf)€p€Tat Trapd to 'AA>^^eia, 
av Kal TToAAa oAtyot etvat 
6<T0L TTjV i^evpovVj Kal oAiyw- 
T€poL 6(T0L rrjv dyairovv. 

'Ek tovtov at €7rLpp7]fxaTLKal 
cfipd(T€LS avrai, 'Ett' d\r]$€ias, 
Kara ciAT^^etav, Ty dXrj- 
Oei<^^ rds OTTOtas fXiTa^eipi- 
^6p.€0a o-i'X^a et's ^6/?atwcriv 
Twi/ ocra Aeyo/xev. Avrat 
k-rrkpaa-av ctTro tovs iKKXrjcrLa- 
cTTLKOvs (Tvyypacfieh d<s t>)v 
yAojcrorar. Ets aTro tov<s c^- 
Spovs T-qs dXr^Oeia'^, OcXwv va 
Ovcndcrr) Kal toi/ Herpov (us tov 
X^)to-Tov, eAeyev ' 'Ktt dXy]- 
Oiias Kal ovros fJ-er' auTou rjv.'^ 

^Id TTJV dXy]0€iav. "AAAr^ 
(fipd(TL<s e^ovo-a (T^rjp,a opKiD- 
po(Tias, aAA' i(To8vva/xov(Ta 
TToAAaKis jae Ta$ Trpoci/or^/xevas. 
Tr)v ii€ra^€LpL^6pi€.da KaiTrore 
elpiovLKios  TrapaSciyfjLaTOS X^~ 
ptv, 7rpd<s oveiSi^ovTa evepyecrias 
dvvTrdpKTOvs, >} p.€yaXrjT€pas 
utt' o, Ti efvai, XeyofieVj Ma 
T^v aA^^^eiav cTvai dv€K- 
BiTJyrjra oaa KaXd fx 

AAvj^eta, €is TTyv ovo/ia- 

iKTjv Xafxl3dv€Tai iroXXaKLS 
^ AovK. 


write one day a complete 
dictionary of modem Greek : 

" 'AX^e€ia (truth). Perhaps 
no other word in all the lan- 
guages of nations is more fre- 
quently pronounced by the 
mouths of men than Truth, 
although there are very few 
who know it, and still fewer 
who like it. 

From this come the adverbial 
expressions ctt' aA-^^eia? (truly), 
Kara dXi^deLav (in accordance 
with the truth), ry dXrjd eta {in 
truth), which we often employ 
to confirm anything we say. 
These expressions passed into 
our language through the 
ecclesiastical writers. One of 
the enemies of the truth, wish- 
ing to sacrifice Peter as well 
as Christ, said : ' Of a truth 
this fellow also was with Him.' 

Ma T^v aA^^^eiav. (By all 
that is true.) Another phrase 
having the form of an oath, but 
often equivalent to the preced- 
ing. We employ it sometimes 
ironically : for example, we say 
to any one who throws in our 
teeth benefits never conferred 
by him or greater than they 
actually are, ' Really now, no 
words can express all the good 
you have done for me.' 

'AA^^eta (truth) in the 
nominative case is often used 
/c/3' 59. 



eTTippr^fjiariKMSj dvTi rod dXyj- 
Oms' otov TT/oos l/ocoTWVTa, Aev 
€i(raL (TV oo-Tts /Ae cTTres 
K.T.A. (XTroKpivoixeda, 'KXr^- 
Oeia. *H rotavrrj <f>pd(TLS 


fi€ TO, 'AXi^Oeia €ivaL on 
etfiat eyw ocms (re to elira. 
Trjv avTriv ivvoiav o-w^et oVav 
cxKovovTes Tt Sii^yrjfia Stcrra^ico- 
/xev 7re/)t avrov, ipioTOifxev tov 
8ir)yovfJL€vov/ AXi^OeLa; yjyovv, 
'KXrfdeia eTvat o, tl Aeyets; 

^€6avrb Aeyovv. "E^^etroTTOv 
rj <^pd(Ti<^ avTTj ets to,? irapoi- 
jjLLa<s jxaXiO-Ta, rj tovs irapoi- 
fxKoSeis Xoyovs' otov, 'AA^- 
Oeiav TO Aeyovv, '12s (TTp(iXTrj 
Kadels ovT(i)s e'xet vol TrXayc- 

^rjiJL€i(i)(rLS. TiapofJLOia kol 6 
KaXXifxaxo^ els to, iiriypafi- 

jXaTOi TOV etTTC,^ 

''AAAo, Xeyova-iv dXrjOea, tovs 

ev €p(x)Tt 

"OpKovs fMrj Svveuv ovaT is 
riyovv CIS Tr]V kolvtjv rjfxiov 
yAwo-(rav, ^'AXy^OeLav to Ae- 
yova-L, TOV epwros ot opKOi Sev 
efjb^aivovv els ravria Oeoiv twv 

Hapoifiia. *0 Kaipos 
4>avep6veL tyjv dXi^Oeiav, 
dvTl TTJs oiroias eXeyav ol TraA- 
atot, X/oovos dXrjOeias 7ra- 
T'^/). Kat €1? eKeivovs, m els 
rjfxds, a-rjixatvet rf irapoifxia tyjv 
aKara/xaX'^TOV Trjs dXrjdetas 

adverbially instead of truly ; for 
instance to any one asking, ' Is it 
not you who told me ? etc./ we 
reply dXr^Oeia. This kind of 
expression is elliptical and is 
equivalent to ' It is true that it 
was I who told it to you.' It 
retains the same sense when we 
hear anything related and, hav- 
ing doubts about it, ask the 
narrator dXriOeia; {truth ?) that 
is to say, ' Is it the truth that 
you are saying ? ' 

'AXy]Oeiav Xeyovv {they say 
truly) or dX-qdetav to Aeyow {it 
is a true saying). This phrase 
occurs especially in the case of 
proverbs or proverbial expres- 
sions, for instance, It is a true 
saying 'As any one makes his 
bed so he must lie upon it.' 

Note. In the same way, 
Callimachus in his Epigrams 
said : 

' But they say truly that 
oaths made in love do not 
penetrate the ears of the im- 

or in our ordinary language, ' It 
is a true saying, the oaths of love 
do not enter the ears of the im- 
mortal gods.' 

Proverb. Time reveals the 
truth, instead of which the 
ancients said. Time is father of 
truth. And with them, as with 
us, the proverb represents the 
invincible power of truth. For 
a time it is possible for it to be 
''E-m.-fpifi. K%. 



SvvafLLV. Avvarov eivat va 
irXaKiJidrj rrphs Kaipov (XTrb t5 
^evSos* dAA' avaAa/xTret Tk\o<$ 
iravTOiv fxe fXiydXrjv Karai- 
(T\vvi]v Ttuv 6(roL (nrovSd^ovv va 

TljV KpVXpiaCTL. 

To, OTTOia fX€TaX€ipL^OVTaL 

fxka-a T^s Kpv\p€0)<s, etvat at 
AoiSopiat, ai v/3p€LS^ at o-vko- 
(ftavTcaL, at KaraS/ao/xai, Kat 
avTOt ot (f)6voi^ ocroLKLS at 7r€/ot- 
o^Tacret? tovs KOLfxvovcrL {wTys 


Tov eyevvydrj dWrj TrapoLfxta, 
*H aAry^€ta €tvat fxaXwrpia. 
"^Av Stv 7rL(TTevrjs Trepl tovtov 
Ti]v IcrropLaVy firjSe TreiOea-at els 
ri]v Ka67]fX€pLvr]v Tretpav, toA- 
/X7^€ va <f)av€puKrr]S KafXfxtav 
dyvoiarov aAry^etav, cxtt' cKctVas 
/xaAtcrra, ocrat Scv crvfxcfycpovv 
els oXtyovs TLvas dvOpioirovs, 


ttTTo Tr)v yorjTeiaVj Kat totc 
^eAet? iSetv va cn]K(i)6rj Kare- 
Travw (Tov ttAtJ^os dv^/awTrwTKwv, 
I ot oTTOiot p,ayevfX€vot aTrh ra 
TropvLKo. BkXyi^rpa rov ^evSovs^ 
fjn^r' yj(rOdvdr](Tav, f^V'^' V"/^' 
Trrjcrdv ttotc rh c^aio-tov t^s 
dXrjdeias KdXXos' 
' OvK ecTTLV ovT€ ^iDypd<f>os, fid 
Tovs Oeovs^ 




suppressed by means of falsehood, 
but it shines forth at last to the 
great shame of those who strive 
to hide it. 

The means which people em- 
ploy for its concealment are abuse, 
insult, calumny, persecution, 
and murder itself whenever cir- 
cumstances make them masters 
of life and death ; and from 
this arose another proverb, Truth 
is a fomenter of quarrels. 

If you do not believe history 
on this point, nor trust every- 
day experience, only venture 
to display any unknown truth, 
especially of those which are 
against the interest of some 
small body of men who obtain 
subsistence and an honoured 
position by means of imposture, 
and then you will see raised 
against you a multitude of con- 
temptible creatures who, laid 
under enchantment by the 
meretricious spell of falsehood, 
have never felt nor ever loved 
the surpassing beauty of truth : 
' There is no painter, no, by the 
nor sculptor, who can form 

such beauty as truth possesses.' 

*ApY<5s. "OcTTLs Sev kpyd- 'Ap-yos {idle). Who does not 

(erai, V) hev dxryoXeiTai els work, or does not occupy him- 
^ ^iX-^/jLovoi Tov KUfjLiKoO \el\f/ava. 




TtTTore 7] St' efXTToSiov Tt, rj 8i' 
oKv-qpiav. Mrj crreKys dpyos, 
T L crr€K€i<s dpyos; kol ovo/xa 
'A/oy ta, TO OTTOLOV crr]fiaLveL kol 
TTjv OKvrjptav, kol rrjv aTrAw? 
(rT€prj(Tiv T^s epyaa-ias.^ 

^r)fi€LOiarLS. Tv(i)(ttov ervat 

OTt KOL ol TraAatot els tyjv avrrjv 

(rr]fxacri.av to [xeTe\€Lpi^ovTO' 

' KdrOav ofim o t' depyos dv-qp, 

6 T€ TToAAo, iopyios.'^ 

EtTre Ktti YivpLTrtSy^s' 

''A/oyos ya/o ovSets ^eoi'9 e^wv 

avot crTo/xa 

Btov SvvatT av ^vAAeyeiv avev 


Kal TO €?7re x^P^^ ^'"^^^ ^^ 
crvXXoyKrOrj ri e^'qrovv ol dpyol 
(XTrb Tovs O€ov<s /AC Tots (T^xvots 
Kttfc f3aTToX6yovs avTwv irpocr- 
€vxd<5. "Oxt jSefSaia va' /Spe^y 
6 ovpavo<s (^ayrjra eVoc/za St' 
avTOvs, KaTO, TO Tra^ot/xtwSe?, 
Ilecre TrrJTTa va are <f)dy(i)' av 


I dpyoi, Tocrov o/xcog rjXiOLOLy 

t I axTTC vu, kXiTL^oia-L TOtavra Oav- 

; /ittTa, Sev e^vat. Ilota AotTrbv 

i ^TO 07 TTpofrevxq tcov; '"^0 Zei; 

• Kat ^eot, SoTe eis tovs epya^o- 

Ificvovs Kol Svvafxiv kol yvCkriv 

yaSdpoiv^ o'xt fxovov Stot va 

€pyd^o)vrai, dXXa kol va ttl- 

a-rcvoiCTLV oVt xpecoa-rovv va 

ipyd^wvraL 8l rj/xds.' 

self with anything, either from 
something preventing him or 
from laziness. Do not stand 
idle. Why do you stand idle? 
And the noun dpyia which 
signifies both laziness and the 
simple absence of work. 

Note. It is well known that 
the ancients also employed it 
with the same signification : 
' The idle man as well as he 
who has done much die alike.' 

Euripides too said : 
' For no idle man, with the gods 
ever on his lips, 

can pick up a living without 

And he said this perhaps 
without considering what it 
was that idle men sought from 
the gods with their frequent 
prayers full of vain repetitions : 
certainly not that heaven should 
rain food ready for them, ac- 
cording to the proverbial saying, 
'Fall down, cake, that I may 
eat you ' : although idle men 
have not much intelligence, 
they are yet not so silly as to 
expect such miracles. What 
then was their prayer ? ' O 
Jupiter, and ye gods, give to 
those that work the strength 
and the capacity of donkeys, not 
only that they may work but 
that they may also believe that it 
is their duty to work for us.' 

^ "Odev elvai Kal (rvviavvfxov roO iopr'^. 

- ^Ofi'/ipov 'IXtds, I, 320. 'E/c toOtov yiverai cpavepbv otl rb dpybi ^ffXV' 

fiaricrdrj /carot Kpaaip airb rov depybs. 
3 Eipnrl8ov 'BUKrpa 80, 81. 



fiivo^^ orav 8ia TTTaicrfia efnro- 
Sta-Orj Trphs Kauphv oiTrh rbv 
dp\L€p€a va Upovpyrj. Kat 
(Ipyia rj rotavrri ttolvi]. Kat 
jr?]p.a fieTafSaTLKOv 'Apy l^o), 
';"/ 'Apy€X}(o,^ -^yovv Kafxvoi 

'Apyo<s €19 ra axj/v^a^ orai/ 
o Aoyos T^va6 irepl rrj<s y*)?, 
(njixati'€L KvpL(i)<s TO dy€iopyrjTO<S' 
oiov 'Apyrj yyj, 'Apyov Xbipd- 
</> iov. UapaSeiyfiara Trj<5 (rrj- 
/lacrtas ravTTjs aTro tovs TraAai- 
oi'9 va <:f>€p(i) €?vat TrepcTTov. 

^r]fiaLV€L dKOfXT] KOi TO 

dxpri(TTOs^ dfieraxeipLcrTOS^ koI 
uKoXovOcos fxaTatos. TlapaSety- 
paros \dpiv^ 2/f€V0S dpyov, 
rh OTTOLOV ri Scv xprja-Lp^imt ets 

TITTOTC, 7^ Scv TO peTa^^Lpi- 
^op^eOa, (09 TTCpiTTOV. 

KaTo, TttLVryv TT^v a-qp.a(TLav 
AeycTat Kat 'A/oy69 Aoyo9, o 
/xdTai09, o dv(o^eA^9, 17 (U9 Ae- 
yopev KOLvorepov dv(o<^eAeT09, 
oTTOiOL elvat p^dXicTTa twv dvoT^- 
Twv 01 Aoyot, rjyovv twv oo-ot 
AaAouv Trept TrpaypaTUiV^ twv 

OTTOtWV €VVOtaV dKpL^Tj prj €XOV- 

T€9, jur^Se Kpicriv opdtjv va 
KapaxTL 8€V c?vat /caAoi. Kat 
prjpa^ 'A/oyoAoy w, t6 fxaraio- 
Aoyw, ■)) (f>Xvapo}. 

'Apyos is also what a priest is 
called when, for some fault, he 
has been for a time inhibited by 
the bishop from performing his 
sacred functions. And such 
punishment is called dpyta, 
s^ispension. There is also the 
transitive verb dpyi^oi or d/aycvw, 
meaning I suspend. 

'Apyo9 referring to inanimate 
objects, when it is said of land, 
signifies especially uncultivated, 
as uncultivated land, an untilled 
field. It is superfluous for me 
to adduce examples from the 
ancients of this signification. 

It further means useless, un- 
used, and consequently of no 
use. For instance, a useless 
utensil, which is either not of 
any use or which we do not 
employ, as not being required. 

In this sense we say also 
dpyhs Aoyo9, idle talk, which is 
vain, unprofitable, or, as we more 
commonly say, useless, such as is 
the conversation of unintelligent 
people, that is to say, of those 
who chatter about things re- 
garding which, not having an 
accurate comprehension of them, 
they are unable to form a cor- 
rect judgment. There is also 
the verb dpyoXoyu), I talk idly, 
or I talk nonsense. 

^ '0 (rx^/iaTt(r/x6s tov 'Apye^u dvrl rod 'Apy^u elvcu Kard. rb rvpavviu 
Kal Tvpauve^u, ijyovv elvat 'E\\r]viK6$' 5^v irp^irei 8fxus dK6fi7j vb. pa\6^ els 
tA 'EWrjviKa Xe^i/cd, iTreidr] imaTrjpl^eTaL eh afKpL^aWbfxevov ^va fi6vov rdirov 
TOV 'B,evo(j)CbvTO% (AafceS. ttoXit. S' 3), 6irov avrl tov * 'Apyevofx^vuv ' &\\oi 
iridavuiTepov ypd(pov(riv ^' Ay pevofiivcav.' 




'A/oybs (rr^fjiaLvei kol t5 
fSpaSvs TMV TraAatwi/, kol e'xei 
dvTtOerov TO kolvov y pi^yopos' 
-q (T7]ixa(TLa kyevvrjBy) €k tovtov, 
OTi 6 6Kvr]po<s o, Ti e/jya^erai, 
TO ipyd^erat fxk l^paSvrrjra. 
"Orav 6 QovKv8i87)<s Xkyrf^ ''Ev 
oKiyi^ yap TroAAat [v>Je§] dpyo- 
repac p.\v Is to 8pav n cuv (iov- 
Xovrai ecrovTai, pacrrai 8e es to 
^kaTTTea-Bai k.t.A.' Sta tov 
dpyorepaLcrrjixaivetro fSpaSv- 
Tcpai, o)? 6p9o)S to i^-qyrjcre 
KOL 6 AaTLvos /xeTa</)/)aorT^S 
(tardiores). Et? tov irapaK- 
fxd^ovra kWrfVLorphv eyetvev rj 
crrjfiacria KOivorepa. 

'A /ay a, eTrtpprjfxa, i) aiTLarLKrj 
TrXrjdvvTiKr] tov ovSeTcpov 'Ap- 
yov, eTTipprjfxaTLKMS Xap^jSavo- 
fJi^vrj, KOL (rrjp.aLvov(ra to fSpa- 
6eo)s* ofov II/oo7raTW dpyd. 

Kat iireiSr] pberax^LpL^oixeda 
TO o-vvww/Aov fSpaSvs, Std to 
TcAos Tr]s Yjpepas, Tr]V ecnr^pav, 
rj TO o^/'e Twv TraAatwv, ofov, 
Ilpbs TO fSpaSv (eAAeiTTTtKWS 
Tov Mepos rrjs rjp.€pas), Xkyo- 
fiev dKoXovOo}<s els tyjv avrrjv 
(rr]p.a(Ttav, TrXrjBvvTtKOJS opLtos 
KOL Upos rdpyd. . . ." 

'IStvravda Trpkiret v' d^7^o-(o/xev 
T^v dvdyvoxTiv, Slotl eSvcrev 6 
T^Atos Kat Sev Svyajxai ttXcov va 
SiaKpivd) rd ypdfifxara' aAA' l8ov 
rjX^'' '^"^ ^ Kio8(j)v Slot TO yevfJLa, 
oxTTC as V7rdy(i)fx€v vd yevfxaTi- 

(TlOpLCV KOL dKoXovddOS ^^^PX^' 

fxeOa TrdXiv ets to KaTa(rT/)a>/xa. 

1 Z' 

'Apyo<s also lias the meaning 
of the word Ppa8vs (slow) of 
the ancients, and has for its 
opposite the common word 
ypyjyopos (quick) : the meaning 
arose from the circumstance 
that whatever a lazy man 
does he does slowly. When 
Thucydides says : ' For many 
(ships) in a small space will be 
too slow in doing what they 
wish, and very easily injured, 
etc. ' : by dpyorepai he means 
too slow, as the Latin translator 
has correctly rendered it (tar- 
diores). In the decline of 
Greek the meaning became 
more common. 

'Apyd, adverb or accusative 
plural of the neuter d.pyov, used 
adverbially and meaning sloivly ; 
as, I walk slowly. 

And since we employ the 
synonym f3pa8vs for the 
close of the day, the evening, 
or the oxj/e of the ancients, as 

TrpOS TO /3pa8v (SC. /X€/0OS TTJS 

riixepas), towards evening, we con- 
sequently say in the same sense, 
but employing the plural, Trpos 
rdpyd. ..." 

We must now leave off the 
reading, for the sun has set and 
I can no longer distinguish the 
letters. But there, the bell 
too is ringing for dinner, so let 
us go and dine and then go up 
on deck again. 





AvTTOVfiaL OTL €yw 6cv Oa 
SwyjOoj va Trpd^io tovto, Slotl 
€)((D va ypa^oi €7rt(TToAas rtva? 
KaT€7retyoi''0'as,Taso7roias avptov 
rh TrpioL TrpkiTiL va Swcrto ets to 
TaxvSpofxeiov. Ei^evpere ttotc 
(fiddvofxev €ts K.€pKvpav ; 

Uph oXtyov ijKovcra rhv 
TrXoikpxov va Xkyy otl da 
i'jfxeda €/cet Trepl rots 8vo rrjs 

Aev Tri(rT€va) o/xios va e^eA- 
0(j}fi€v els Tr)v ^Tjpav Kar €K€l- 
v^]v ri]v iiipav. 

"OxL /^k/Sata. Got d-Kofiifia- 
(r6o)ix€v vofiL^o) Trepl rrjv e/SSofxrjv 
i) oySorjv wpav rrjs Trpwtas. 

"Ex€t KaAwS, StOTt OUTO) Oa 

SvvrfdCjfxev va Xd/Siofxev oAtyov 
Tvpoyevfia Trplv e^eXOwfxev • aAAa 
8ev jMOL eiTrere el<s ttolov ^evoSo- 
Xetov ^a Karakva-toixev. Eis 
rhv oSrjyhv rov BatSeKep 
dva(f>epovTaL 8vo ws TrpcoTTjs 
Ta^€co§, TO ^evoSox^iov tov 
*Aytov Teiopycov /cai to ^evoSo- 
Xetov Trj<s 'AyyXcas. Ets ttoioi' 
CK TOVTWv vol vTrdywfxev ; 

'EttciSt) 6d fieivbifiev ev K.€p- 
Kvpc^ /jLovov ev rjfxepovvKTiOv Sev 
Treipd^et dv /x€Ta/3w/x€j/ els to ev 
r) els TO aAAo. 

ToT€ XoLTrhv as fierafSio/xev 


HoAv KaAa. 

I am sorry that I shall not 
be able to do that, for I have 
some urgent letters to write 
which I must post to-morrow 
morning. Do you know when 
we shall arrive at Corfu ? 

I heard the captain say a 
little while ago that we shall 
be there about two in the 

But I do not believe that we 
shall go ashore at that hour. 

Certainly not. "We shall dis- 
embark, I fancy, about seven 
or eight o'clock in the morning. 

That is all right, for then we 
shall be able to take a little 
breakfast before we leave : but 
you have not told me at what 
hotel we shall put up. In 
Baedeker's guide-book there are 
two mentioned as first-rate, the 
Hotel St. George and the Hotel 
d'Angleterre. To which of 
them shall we go ? 

Since we only stay in Corfu 
a day and a night it does not 
matter whether we go to the 
one or the other. 

Then let us go to the first. 

Very good. 

AIAA0r02 IS' 


IIoAv cftpovLfxa €KdfiafX€V va 
cXOoifiev €LS TO aT/;to7rAotov 
dpK€TrjV lopav irpo tov diroTrXov, 
SiOTt edv ejSpaSvvojJiev oXiyov 
dd eixofiev Kdiroiav ^vcTKoXiav 
vd €vp(i)/x€V Xkixf^ov. 

Aid TL ; 

AfcOTt, ws />te e7rXrjpo(fi6prjcre 
cfiiXos Tt9, (rrjixepov fxeXXovcrt v' 
aTroTrXeixriDcrLV els ^AO-jvas Svo 
fSovXevTOL Trjs dvTiTroXirevcreoys, 
Kol 6d yeivy fxeydXrj iirtSet^L's 
vrrep avTwv CKarovraSe? Se e/c 


SeiVwcrt fJiexpu rov drp^oirXoLOv. 
Ets roLavras 7re/3wrTacret§ 06 
Xepifiov^oi orav tSwcri riva 
CTTrevSovTa vd TrpocjiOda-r] to 
dT/xoTrXoLov Kard tyjv copav rov 
dTTorrXov yivovTat Opacrvraroi 
KOI d7raLTr)TLK(oraTOL. 

"E)(€T€ SlKaLOV. Ot Ae/A- 

jSovxoi, o)? Kttt ot Iv ry ^^/oct 
(Tvvd8eX<^0i Tcov dfia^rjXdrai, 
(SioTL dfJicfyoTepoi elvat rrjs avrrjs 
{■i;/x7^s), T06a7;Tas evKatptas Kat- 
po(f>vXaKrov(TLv ottcos dpird- 
(Toxruv 6 Tfc Svvavrai diro rd 
Ovjxard twv kol dv /caveis 
Kafxr} rh Xd9os vd firj crvjx- 
<f>(jivri(Trj ficr avTMV Trpo-qyov- 

We did very wisely to come 
on board the steamer in plenty 
of time before she sails, for if 
we had delayed a little longer 
we should have had some diffi- 
culty in finding a boat. 


Because, as a friend informed 
me, two members of parliament 
belonging to the opposition are 
going to sail to-day for Athens, 
and there will be a great demon- 
stration on their account, and 
hundreds of their friends will 
accompany them to the steamer. 
In such circumstances the boat- 
men, when they see any one 
hurrying to catch the steamer 
at the time of sailing, become 
very insolent and exacting. 

You are right. Boatmen, 
like their confrhes on land, 
the cabmen (for both have the 
same leaven), watch for such 
opportunities to get as much 
plunder as they can from 
their victims ; and if any one 
commit the error of not mak- 
ing an agreement with them 
beforehand about the fare, 



IJL€V(x)S Trepl rov /xtaOov, tot€ at 
aTratrryo-eis t(dv ylvovrai OLTrept- 


"E;(a) Treipav rov Tr/Day/xaro?, 
SiOTt TToAActKis Tryv iiraOa oltto 
aixa^rjXdras €v A6v8lv<j)' toL 
TraOiljfJiaTa ojxws fJiol eycivav 
jxaOyj/xaTa, Kal Sev epifSaLvo) 
Trkeov ovT€ els a/xa^av, ovre ets 
X.€p,/3ov TTplv jSe^anodC) tl TrpeTret 
va Tr\t)pii)(rix). 

Kai eyw rh avrh Tzparrui • ivto- 
T€ 6/x(jD5 orav exy tis va KapLrj 
Ilk avdiTO^ov dvOpiairov^ /xe oAa^ 
rov ras 7rpo(fivXd^€ts TrdXtv rrjv 
TraOaivei . . . 'AAAa ri eivat 
avrr] rj fSor] /cat 6 66pv/3os; 
Kan TrpcTret va crv/x/^atvry CK€t 
€^io Trapd rrjv KXipiaKa rov 

OtjScv €KTaKTOV (Tv/x^aivet • 
6 Oopv/Bos Trpoepx^raL €k twv 
XepifBovxiov, oiVtve? Xoyofia- 
Xova-L pLera^v twv tis Trpwros 
va 7rXr](Tid(Trj rh aKartov rov 
€i5 T7yv nXipiaKa rov drpLOirXoLov 
Kal va iirifii^dcryj rov^ eTrifSdras 
rov, 8ta va 7rpo<f>6da"Q va ^€/37y 
Kat aAAovs. 

Kara to, <f>aiv6p,€va 6d c';((o/xei' 
TToAAov? CTrt^aras, ot 7rA€r(rT0t 
o/xojs avTwv €ivat rov Karaa-rpio- 
/xaros, 8toTt Ktt^' a /zot ciTrev 
6 TzpdKruip rys 'EAA^/vikt}? 
ar/xoTrAotKT}? eraipeta?, et? 
lyv ttvryKtt toijto rb dr/xoTrAotov, 
€7rTa piovov iirL/Sdrat eXa^ov 
^la-irt^pta rrjs irpdorrjs 6€(T€(i)S kol 
SixiSeKa rrjs Seirrc/oas, Travres 8e 
ot aAAot €ivat Ta^etStwrat rov 
Karao-rpu)pLaro<s. 'AAAa rt Trot- 

then their demands know no 

I have some experience in 
this matter, for I have often 
been the prey of the cabmen in 
London ; but my misfortunes 
have been a lesson to me, and 
I never now get into a cab or 
a boat before assuring myself of 
what I have to pay. 

And I do the same ; but 
sometimes when one has to do 
with a regular rascal, with all 
one's precautions, one is still 
victimised. . . . But what is 
that noise and uproar ? Some- 
thing or other must be happen- 
ing outside there, near the 

Nothing extraordinary is 
happening : the uproar pro- 
ceeds from the boatmen who 
are disputing among themselves 
about the one who shall first 
bring his boat up to the 
steamer's ladder and put his 
passengers on board so as to 
have time to convey more. 

Apparently we shall have a 
great many passengers, but 
most of them are deck-pass- 
engers, for, according to what 
was told me by the agent of 
the " Hellenic Steamship Com- 
pany," to which this steamer 
belongs, only seven passengers 
took first - class tickets, and 
twelve second - class, and all 
the rest are deck-passengers. 
What a variety of costume ! 




TLS oAas ras (f>vXas rrjs 'Ava- 
roXrjs. Hodev 'ipxovTai iravres 
ovTOi ; 

Ot TrAetcTTOt avTMv €k rrj<s 
(XTrevavTi 'UTrecpov^ ovk oAtyot 
Se Kal eK Trj<s"Av(j) 'AA^avtas. 
01 Svo ovroi vxl/r]Xol avSpes 
cfiaivovrai va elvat Bo(n/tof ot 
KaroTTLV avTiJov epxofievot elvat 
M.avpo^ovvLOL. OvTOi ot ^e- 
povT€S KaXddta irXr^py] vaXtKMV 
8ev diJLcf)i^dXX(i) elvat 'E^/oatot 
fxer air par at' 6 Se rv(j)Xos ovros 
yepcov fjie rrjv Xvpav, 6 xetpayco- 
yovjxevo^s vtto tov ixtKpov7rat8tov, 
/?e^at(os ^a etvat aTTo Kavev 
fxepos Trjs 'Hiretpov, Kal lo-ws 
/Acra/^aivet ei? 'Adrjvas ottws 

€Vpy TTOpOV ^(07]S. IIoAv TTt- 

Oavov va tov tSiofJbev cKet Kara 
rrjv ITAaretav tov Swray/xaros 
Kpovovra Trjv Xvpav Kal a^Sovra 
KXea avSpwv 'qpi^Oiv. 

Aev dfxcfitlSdXXix) el^evpet ttoX- 
Xd KAe</)TtKa rpayovSta, 
Kol tcrcos, dv TOV cfitXoSoipT^criDixev 
Kart Tt, fxas rpayovSrjcrr) rtvd 
€^ avTOiV ivTavOa. 

Hepl TOVTOV vd rja-Oe /^e/^atos • 
dAAot ^AeTTO) ep)(0VTat ot f^ov- 
Xevrai Tt TTXrjdo<s Ac/a/^wv 
Tovs (TvvoSevet ! "OXdt elvat 
crrjfJLatocTToXtcrTOt. No/xt^et Tt? 
OTt evpta-Kerat kv Beyertct. ^A- 
Kovo-are ttoctov ^cAwStKws Kt- 
Oap(^8ov(Tt! To irpQtrov u.(rfxa 
OTTep erpayovSrja-av fxerd Tocrov- 
Tov TrdOovs "^ro " 7] ^apfMaKO)- 
fievrj" TOV ^oXwfxov' r]8rj rjpx^- 
(xav vd aScocrt tov ^'" Y/xvov eis 

All the tribes of the East are 
to be seen here. Where do all 
of them come from ? 

Most of them from Epirus 
opposite, and a good many 
from Upper Albania. These 
two tall men seem to be Bos- 
nians : those who come next to 
them are Montenegrins. These 
men carrying baskets full of 
glass-ware are, I have no doubt, 
Jewish pedlars : this blind old 
man with the lyre, led by the 
hand by the little boy, must 
certainly be from some part of 
Epirus, and perhaps he is going 
to Athens to find a means of 
livelihood. Very likely we 
shall see him there in Constitu- 
tion Square, playing the lyre 
and celebrating in song the 
glories of heroes. 

I have no doubt he knows 
many Klephtic songs, and per- 
haps, if we make him a little 
present, he will sing us some of 
them here. 

You may be quite sure of 
that ; but I see that the 
members of parliament are 
coming. What a crowd of 
boats accompanies them ! All 
are hung with flags. One 
fancies that one is in Venice. 
Hear how melodiously they are 
singing to the guitar. The first 
song, which they sang with so 
much feeling, was The Poisoned 
Girl, by Solomos : now they have 




rr]v kXivSipiav " tov avrov Trotrj- begun to sing the Ode to Liberty^ 
Tov. by the same poet. 

"^As TOV ttKovcra>/x,£i/. Let us listen to it. 



Translated by Miss Florence 

2€ yvaypL^d) aTTo rr]v ko^J/l 

Tov (nradtov rrjv Tpoficp-q, 
lie yviopt^u) oLTrb ttjv oxpL 

'TIov ixe ^la fierpdei rrjv yrj. 

AVell I know thee by the keen 
Of thy terror-striking brand, 
Know thee by the piercing 
That thou dartest o'er the 

'Att tol KOKKaXa ' fiyaXfxkvrj 
Twv 'EAA.7yvo>v Ttt i€pa, 

Kat Votv 7rpa)Ta avSpeioypievr], 
Xai/oe, w X^^P^i 'KXivOcpLOi ! 

From the sacred ashes rising 
Of the Hellenes great and free, 

Valiant as in olden ages, 
Hail ! all hail, Liberty ! 

IIiK/3a/x/jt€vi^, evrpoTraX-jj 

K' eVa (TTOfxa dKapT€pov(T€Sj 
"E A a TT a A t, VOL (TOV 'Trrj. 

Thou amid their tombs abodest 
Bowed with shame and bitter 
Still the rousing voice awaiting 
That should cry : " Come 
forth again !" 

Apyeie vdXOrj €K£tvrj rj * fxkpa^ 

Kat -TfTav oAa o-itu7r>^Aa, 
'tart racTKia^e r^ (^o/Je/aa, 

Kat rd TrXaKovc rj (rKXa/Sta. 

Late, so late that day in dawn- 
Silence brooded over all. 
Crushed beneath the weight of 
Terror did all hearts appal. 

^ Poetry of Modern Oreece,'\)y Miss F. M'Pherson. Macmillan & Co. 
[884. " . 




AvoTTV^'^S / Haprjyopia 
M.6v7] (Tov ifieive va Acs 

Ilepacr/xei/a fieyaXeta 

Kat 8L7]y(0VTd<s ra va KXals. 

Kat oLKaprcpeL, kol aKaprkpei 
^iXcXevOeprjv AaXta, 

"El/a eKTVTrae raXXo X^P^ 
'Atto ty]V dTreXTTLO-Ld, 

Hapless one ! no other solace 
Left thee save in mind to keep 

Memory of thy vanished glories, 
And to tell them o'er and 


Waiting, weary, weary, waiting 
For some freedom-loving cry, 

Thou thy hands together smotest 
In despairing agony ; 

K' e Aees ' ttotc, a / irore '/3ydvo} Saying : When from this lone 


To KCcfidXi aTT T s ipiJLiacs ; 
Kat aTTOKpiVOVTO (XTTO Vai/o) 

KAa^ats, dXva-e<i, <fnovat<5. 

When may I my head up- 
rear ? 
Answered from the earth above 

Clank of fetters, groan and 


Tore €(TrjKove<s to ^Xcfifia 

Mes TO. KXdvjxaTa 6oX6, 

Kai els TO pov^o crov eWa^' 
IIA'^^os atfxa 'EAA>^i/tKO. 


€ Ta pov^a aLpLaTOifJieva, 

'^epo) OTL e/Syaives Kpvcf)d, 
Not yvpevys €is to, ^eva 

"AAAa X^P'* Sward' 


Upwards then thine eyes were 

Dim with grief and weeping 
sore ; 

And thy garment's fold was 


With a stream of Grecian 


• 9 
In thy blood-stained garments] 
Thou in secret oft didst wend 
Through the lands of strangers, 
Some strong arm to be thjl'^ 
friend . 




Mova;^^ Thv SpofLO irrrjpes, 

Aev elv' evKoXats y Ovpais 
'Eaj/ "q xpeia rats KOvpTaXy. 


"AAAos CTOv CKkarJ/e ei's toL 

'AAA' dvdcraa-LV Ka/x/zta* 
"AAA09 <Tov €Ta^e /3orj6€La^ 

Kat o-e yeAao-e </>/ot/cTa. 


Lonely didst thou take thy 
All alone didst thou return ; 
Doors are not so lightly opened 
When the needy knock and 
yearn : 


Some might weep upon thy 
But would no relief afford ; 
Some who pledged to thee their 
Mocked thee with their 
broken word ; 



"AAAot, mfjLc! 's Wyv a-vfjicfiopd Some, alas ! thy woe and anguish 


"Oirov lyaipovro ttoAv, 
^vp€ vavpr]<s TO, TratSict aov, 

^vpe, kXkyav ol a-KXypoL 

^cvyet oTTta-u) to TroSdpi^ 

Kat oXoyXtjyopo Trarei, 

H Trjv Trerpa, rj to \opTdpt^ 
'IIov ryv So^a (tov evdvixel. 


TttTrcivoTttTT; crov yepvei 

H Tpta-ddXta K€.(j)0,Xri, 
2ai/ TTTW^^ov 'ttoO dvpohipvu 
K' ervat jSdpos tov rj ^(orj. 

With malignant joy espied : 
"Go, and seek thou for thy 
children ! 
Go !" the cruel-hearted cried. 


Backward turned thy flying 
Touching as thou fleddest 
Rock or grassy sod, recalling 
To the mind thy glory past. 

Crushed and humbled, low and 
Drooped thy head in dire 
Like the poor at doorways beg- 

Feeling life a weariness. 

2 B 




Nat* aAAa rw/oa avmraXevei 

Ka^e TkKVO crov /x€ opix'q, 
'Uov aKaTairavo-ra yvpevei 

'^H TTjv VLKT], rj rrjv Oavq. 

'Att' Tot KOKKaXa ' fSyaXfxkvrj 

Twv 'EAAryvwv TO, t€/)a, 
Kat Vav Trpcora avSpeLiofxhr], 

Xa?/)€, w x^^P^j 'l^Xevdepid! 

MoAts efiSe rr/i/ opfx-jv crov 

*0 ovpavo'S 'ttov yia ts e;^- 

ElS T>)v yJJv T^V IXrjTpiKljv (TOV 

"EiTpecfi avBia kol KapTrovs, 

'EyaAi^veucre* Kai kyyOri 

KaTa^Oovia fxta ^o-^, 

Kat Tou *P7^ya o-ov aTreKpiO-q 

TioXep^oKpayrf] cficovq. 

"OAot ot TOTTOt o-ov cr* cKpd^av 
Xa 6/36X0} VTcts (re Oepp^d^ 

Kat TO, CTTo/aara k<j>oivd^av 
"Ocra aia-ddvero rj KapStd. 


So it lyas ; but now with war- 
Zeal to arms thy children fly ; 
All with quenchless ardour seek- 
To be victors or to die. 

From the sacred ashes rising 

Of the Hellenes great and free 
Valiant as in olden ages, 

Hail ! all hail, Liberty ! 

Scarce was seen thy gallant on- 
When the sky, whose beams 
and showers 
On thy mother- soil long 
For thy foes the fruits and 

Grew serene ; and from earth's 
Eose an echoing sound on 
high : 

'Twas thy Ehiga's voice that 
With a rousing battle-cry. 


All thy lands with gladness 
Greeting thee with fervenl 

And their mouths outspeak th( 


That their inmost bosoms fill 




*E0a>m^ai/€ u)S rao-re/ata 
Tov 'lovtov TO, vr](Ttd, 
Kat €(Tr]Ku>(Tav€ ra X^P'-'^ 

Tea vet Sei^ovvc X^P^' 

M' oAov Vov Vat dAvcra)/A€VO 
To Kadeva TCX^'Ka, 

K(xt €ts TO fJL€T(D7ro ypafxfxevo 

"Ex€f ^evrpa 'FtXevdepid. 

'FKapStaKOL \apo7roiyjOr] 
Kat Tov Bao-ty/CT(ov i^ y>}, 

Kat ret dihepa ivOvfxy'jdt] 

'Hov TTjv eSevav kol avr-q. 


'Att' tov TTVpyOV TOV <f)(j)vd^€l 

'2a vet key, (T€ xatperu), 
Kai T7)v xii''"'!^ '^^^^ Ttva^et 

To Aeovrdpt To'IcrTravo. 

And unto the clouds uplifted 

Our Ionian Isles their voice, 
Waved aloft their hands, well- 
How they at thy sight rejoice ; 

Nathless each and all, the while, 
Were with specious art en- 
And upon their foreheads 
Was a freedom false and 

Heartily with joy salutes thee 
That free land of Washing- 
Mindful of the bonds that 
Her own limbs, not long 


Rising on his ancient castle. 
Tossing wide his tawny mane, 

Roars as if to say : "I greet 
Loud the Lioncel of Spain. 



'KX.a(f)Ld(Tdrj Trjs 'AyyAtas 
To dyjpto, Kat (T€pv€t €v6vs 

KttTct Tanpa T7J<s 'Povo"0"tas 

England's Lion too is roused, 
Straightway turns his gaze 
and scowls 
Towards the distant Russian 

1 ^ The poem was written, it must be remembered, in 1823, and these 
jverses accurately describe the manner in which the various nations re- 
j?arded the Greek Revolution in its earlier years. The verse about Spain 
j)f course refers to the Constitutionalists of 1820. 




Ta fiovyKpLcrfiara rs opyyjs. 

And with ire and anger 
growls ; 




t9 TO KtV7]fXa TOV 

8etx^€t Shows, as he his strong limbs 

IIcos Ta fieXrj elv ^vvara • What the power of his frame, 

Kat eis TOV Alyaiov to KVfxa O'er the waves of the Aegean 

Mia a-TTLdofSoXy] fxaTcd. 

Dart his eyes a glance of 

2e '^avoLyet diro Ta V€(f)r] 

Kat TO 'fidn TOV 'Actov, 

'IJov cfiTepd Koi 'vvxf-o, 6pk(^ei 

Me Ta (TTvXdyyva tov '\Ta- 

Hovering in the clouds above 
Scans thee that fierce Eagle's 
Who his wings and claws has 
With the flesh of Italy ; 

27 , 
Kat 's eo-€ KaTayvpfievos, 

FtaTt TravTa ere /xio-et, 

' EKpo)^, GKpoy^e 6 (TKaa-p.kvo<i 

Na (j-e f^Xdrprj, dv rjfXTropy. 

"AAAo eav Sev (TvXXoyua-ai 

Udpe^ 770V 6d 7rpii)T07ra.<s' 

Aev 'fJLiXels Ktti 6ev Kovyuo-at 

''2 Tats '(Spva-iats ottov dypoi- 


Keen the glance he bends upon 

For he hates thee to the 

Croaks and croaks the double 


Seeking, if he can, thy scathe. 


But thou reck'st not, thinking 

How thou may est advance, 

Speakest not and hear'st, un- 
Insults that thine ears assail ; 






'2ai/ Tov fSpdxov, oTTov dcfiLV€L Like the rock that lets, unheed- 

K-dde aKadapTO vepb 
Ets TO. TToSta Tov vd X^^V 
EvKoAocr/JvcTTOv dcfypo, 

Foul and turbid waters come 
To its very foot and splash it 
With their lightly-melting 

"Ottov dcf)iV€i dve/Jio^dXrj, 

Kat >^aAa^t, kol /?/30^7/, 

Xu TOV Sepvovv Ty]V ficydkrj, 
Tryv aicuvtav Kopv<f>T^. 

Evy€, K.€pKvpaLOL, ivye, Tpa- 
yorSetre ws dr]86ves. '0 

''•"Y/xvos ets T-y^v ^XevBepcav" 
€LvaL Xa/xTrporaTa Terovt- 
a/xevos' TfcS €/xeAo7roi>yo-€v avrov/ 

'O TrepLcfi'qfJiO's 'ETrravryo-tos 
fxovcriKoSiSda-KaXo's MdvT^apo<s, 
ocTTts iTLfi-qOrj Sid tovto vtto 
TOV /^acrtXeo)? t^s *EAAaSos 
"O^wvos fi€ t5 Trapda-yjfxov 
TOV dpyvpov cTTavpov^ tov 
2 CD T 7} p OS. *0 M.dvT^apos 

€fJieXo7roc'q(T€ koI TroXXd dXXa 
7runjf.LaTa tov ZaKwdiov iroiiq- 
Tov direp a-vvex^'i ^SovTat vtto 
Tiov aTravTaxov^EXXyjvoiV. 

^HtO AotTTOV 6 2oAw/XOS €K' 

ZaKvvOov ; Ka/xere /xot Ttjv 
xdptv vd fxol etTTi^re oAtya TLvd 
7T€pl TOV /3iov aVTOV. 

FiVX^-P^O-TlOS. *0 SiaKCKpi- 

U6V0S ovTOS 7roir]Ty]S t^s *EA- 
\a8os iyevvi^d-i] €V ZaKvvdo) t<^ 
1798 Kttt av?yK€V €1? /Aiav twv 

If7rt<^av€crT6/oo>v oiKoyei/etwi/ t'^s 


Suffers heedlessly the storm- 
Hail and rain in torrents 
Still to beat upon its mighty, 
On its everlasting head. 

Well done, Corfiots, well 
done, you sing like nightingales. 
The Ode to Liberty is splendidly 
set to music : who is the com- 
poser ? 

The celebrated Ionian pro- 
fessor of music Mantzaros, who 
on this account was honoured 
by Otho King of Greece with 
the decoration of the Silver 
Cross of the Saviour. Mant- 
zaros also set to music many 
other poems of the Zacynthian 
poet, which are constantly sung 
by the Greeks of all lands. 

So then Solomos was from 
Zante ? Do me the favour to 
tell me a few particulars of his 

With pleasure. This dis- 
tinguished poet of Greece was 
bom. in Zante in 1798 and be- 
longed to one of the most 
illustrious families of that 



vrjcrov l/cetV?^?. Mik/30§ ert rrjv 
rjX.iKCav kcTTeprjOy] tov Trarpos 
rov, /cat €/xeiv€ /xerot tov 
aSeXcfiOV avTOV ArjfJLr^TpiOv kXtj- 
povojxos (rrjixavTLKrjs Trcpiovarias. 
AeKaerrjS ecrrdXr] V7rb rwv Krj- 
ScfxovMV TOV €is 'IraAtav, evda 
<r7rov8d(ras ttjv 'iTaXiKrjv kol 
AaTLViKTjv (faXoXoytav, Trpbs 5e 
Koi TO, voixiKoi, ewavyjXOe to) 
l8l8 ets T-^v iipalav Trar/OiSa 
TOV. 'Ek fXLKpds ryAfcKta? eSei^e 
fxeydXr^v kXlctlv els Trjv 7roi7^crtv_, 


SoKL/jLta, aTrep a-vvWyjKev ets t'>)v 
'lTaAtK>)v yAwo-a-av, ixeydXoiS 
lOavfida-Orjcrav vtto twv ^IraAwv 
Aoyiwv. Ka^' TJv iiroxrjv 
€/JL€V€V €V ZaKvv^O) (Tvvef^rj vd 
tXdrf €K€t 6 27rv/3t5ajv TptKOV- 

TroLrjTiKYjv evcfivtav tov veapov 
ZaKvvdtov TrpoeTpexj/ev avTov vd 

KaTaXlTTTj TYjV 'iTaXiKYjV Kttt vd 

ypdcj^r} Tot TrotT^/xara avTOV eis 
TTjv yXQ)crcrav t^s Trar/OiSo? tod. 
Tt^v (Tvjx^ovXrjv TavT-qv k8e')(0r] 
7rpo6vfi(ji}<i 6 2oAw/>tbs /cai c/ctotc 
4'y/oa^e ttoAAo, 7roLi]fxaTa els to 
^ETTTavqa-LOiTiKov iStw/xa, fxeTa^v 
Ttuv OTTOiwv ^lairpkmi 6 "Y/xvos 
et9 TT^v 'EAev^e/otav, tov 
OTTOtOV 7r/90 fiLKpov TjKovcrafxev 
q.86lX€V0V TOfTOV />ieAo)StKa)s. 
KaTo, TO eTOS 1828 o 2oA(o//,os 


ZdKvvOov ix€T(OKr](T€V ds Kep- 
Kvpav, OTTOV €/x€tve p-expi TeAovg 
T^S ^w))? TOV dirkOave 8\ Trj 9 
^ePpovapiov 1857. 

^ The father of the able statesman Charilaos Tricoupis. 

island. While yet young he 
lost liis father, and jointly with 
his brother Demetrius was left 
heir to considerable property. 
At ten years of age he was sent 
by his guardians to Italy, and 
having studied Italian and 
Latin literature there, and also 
law, he returned in 1818 to his 
beautiful native land. From 
an early age he showed a 
great taste for poetry, and his 
first poetical attempts, which 
he made in the Italian lan- 
guage, were greatly admired by 
Italian scholars. While he was 
residing in Zante, Spyridon 
Tricoupis^ happened to come 
there, who, seeing the great 
poetical talent of the young 
Zakynthian, urged him to 
abandon Italian and to write 
his poems in the language of 
his fatherland. Solomos readily 
accepted this advice, and after- 
wards wrote many poems in the 
Ionian idiom, among which is 
conspicuous the Ode to Liberty, 
which we heard so melodiously 
sung just now. In the year 
1828 Solomos left his native 
land Zante and removed to 
Corfu, where he remained to 
the end of his life. He died on 
the 9th of February 1857. 


M.€T€(f)pd(T67](raV TO, TTOUj- 

fiara avrov eis TrokXas ^evas 
yAdxTcra? ; 

MaAtcrra, dAA' 6\l oAa. 
*0 "Yfivo<s €ts T-^v lAev- 
Oeptav /xoAt9 k^-qixoa-uvdr] koI 

€v6v'? IJL€T€(f)pd(Td'l) €IS TttS 

KvpiuiTepas yA(uo-o-as tt)? 
Ei'/)(U7rr^S, Tr)v 'IraAiKryv, Tr)v 
FaAAt/cryv, tt^v ' KyyXiKrjv kol 
T7]V VepixaviKrjV. '0 €ts T'r]V 
*A.yy\LKr\v fieTacjipdcras avrov 
■^To 6 KapoAos B/atVcrAei; 
2e/:)68av,^ drv^MS o/xws t] fx^rd- 
<{)pa(rLS avTov ttoXv dirofia- 
Kpvverai dirh Trj<i evvoias tou 
TrpioTOTVirov. H T?y5 SecrTroi- 
vtSos MaK(f>€p(r(j)v ^€/?at(os Kara 
TovTO ervat tt(TvyK/9tT(^ T(^ X6y(j) 
VTreprepa rrjs tov 'ZepiSav. 

' Av€cfidvrj(Tav Kal dkXoL 
Tronjral €v ^ KTTTavrja-oi ; 

OvK oXiyoL, 8ta7r/3€7r€crT€/30t 
Se avrCiv et^vat 6 'IwavvT^? 
ZaiJL7r^XL0<s, 6 'AvSpeas KaA/?os, 
6 'lovAtos TvTraASos Kal 6 
' ApiCTTOTeXrjs BaAacupiTT^S * aAA' 
i) ^ETTTavTycro? Sei/ Kav^arat 
fiovov 8ta, Tovs TTOLr^rds Trj<i, 
Slotl €V avTYj SuTrpexj/av Kal 
TToAAot crocf)ol dvSpes. *0 ck 
KepKvpas 'Av8p€a<s Movcrro- 

^vStJS W? IcTTOpLKOS Kal (jilXo- 

Aoyos )(aLp€i Ev/3(07ratK7}v 
<f)i^fxr]v. OvTos €?i/at 6 dvaKa- 
Xvxf/a^ Kal 8rjixo(rL€V(Ta<s iv 
MeStoXdvto Tw i8l2 rhv " Tie pi 
dvTL86(T€<j)S " Xoyov TOV 'l(ro- 
Kpdrov^s. To. (f>LXoXoyiKa €pya 
^ The Songs of Greece, by Charles 

Have his poems been trans- 
lated into many foreign lan- 
guages ? 

Yes, but not all of them. 
The Ode to Liberty had scarcely 
been published when it was at 
once translated into the princi- 
pal languages of Europe — Ital- 
ian, French, English and Ger- 
man. It was Charles Brinsley 
Sheridan who translated it into 
English, but unfortunately his 
translation departs very widely 
from the sense of the original : 
that of Miss M'Pherson is cer- 
tainly in this respect incom- 
parably superior to that of 

Have any other poets made 
their appearance in the Ionian 
Islands ? 

A considerable number : the 
most distinguished of them are 
John Zampelius, Andreas 
Calvos, Julius Typaldus and 
Aristoteles Valaorites ; but the 
Ionian Islands do not boast of 
their poets alone, for in those 
islands there have been many 
learned men who have acquired 
celebrity. Andreas Mustoxydes 
of Corfu as an historian and 
a scholar enjoys a European 
reputation. It was he who 
discovered and published at 
Milan in 1812 the oration of 
Isocrates Ilcpl avriSoo-ccus. His 
literary works are of the highest 
Brinsley Sheridan. London, 1826. 



Tov dvSpos TOVTOv etvat ctttov- 
Saiorara kol StKat'tos Oeiapelrai 
eiS Ik TWi/ cro(f)(iDT€p(DV Xoytwv 
'^EAA'jyvwv TOV TrapovTOS aliovos. 
'0 Tre/Diy^OT^TOS 7rXa(rToypdcf)OS 
Ko)V(rTavTLVos St/xwvtSrys Trplv 
eXOrj els r^v €(T7repLav^vp(j07rrjv, 
oTTov ovK oXtyovs crocfiovs dvSpas 
KaTCopOiocre va a.Trar'qcrr}, ISoKt- 
fxacre vd Trpa^y tovto iv *EAAaSt 
Srjfxocnevcras Kara to 1849 "^V^ 
Trepicfirjiiov avTOv " 2v/>iat5a " 
-qris elvat Trepicfiavh fivr]fi€LOV 
TraxvXoyTarrjS xpevSoXoytas. 

"Fi7refx\p€ XoiTTov ev dvTCTVTrov rov 


^v8r]V, irapd tov ottolov u)S <f>aL- 
v€Tat yjXTTL^e v dKovarj l-rraivovs, 
dXX I80V Tt d7n^VTr]a-€v avT<^ 6 
SiaTrpeTTTJs (f>iX6Xoyo<s' 

importance, and he is justly- 
regarded as one of the most 
learned of the Greek scholars 
of the present century. The 
notorious literary forger Con- 
stantine Simonides, before he 
went to western Europe and 
there succeeded in imposing 
upon not a few scholars, en- 
deavoured to carry out his 
practices in Greece, having 
published there in 1849 his 
famous Symau, which is a con- 
spicuous monument of monstrous 
mendacity : he accordingly sent 
a copy of his work to Mustoxydes, 
from whom he apparently hoped 
to hear words of praise, but 
this is the reply which the 
distinguished scholar gave him : 

K.epK^pa, TT] 27 Mai ou 1849. 

AoyitoTttTe K.vpL€ 

Aa/3o}v TTjv eTTLO-ToXrjv 


/xe €<^iAo(^pov7^craT€, ofxoXoyo} 
TToXXds -)(dpLTas avTi twv 
cVaiVwv 8t' S)v €Koa-p.'q(TaTe to 
ovo/xd fxov, KaiTOi vTrepfiaX- 

XoVTiiiV Th SUaLOV fJi€TpOV. 

Ov8' e'xw TTws KaXXiov v 
dvTaTToSMcro) T'qv fxapTvpiav ^s 
jae Tj^McraTe TrpOTifJirjcreios el /xrj 
€Kcfipd^(i}V Trpos vp^ds /xcto, 
7rda-r)S elXiKpLvetas to cftpovrjpd 

'Avayvovs Tyjv ^vpatSa, 
eXvTTTjOrjv SiOTL rj yovt/xos tov 
crvyypa^ews </)avTacrta, dvTt 

Corfu, 27th May 1849. 

Most learned Sir, 

I have received the 
letter and the present with 
which you have favoured me. 
I return you many thanks for 
the praise you bestowed upon 
me, although it exceeds due 
bounds. I do not know how 
better to requite the preference 
you have shown me than by 
expressing with absolute sin- 
cerity what my opinion is. 

Having read the Symazs, I 
felt sorry that the prolific ima- 
gination of the author, instead of 



i^a irepi/SdXy rh TrovrjfJLa rhv 


kvk^v<T€ Tov (re/SdcriJiLov rrjs 
IcTTop ta<g t/zaricr/xoK "Ocro) 

irpo\i)ip€.i Tts CIS ryjv dvdyviacnv 
rov /Si/SXiov, Tocro) /laXXov Kal 
els Tov<s firj o^vScpKCL's Kara- 
^aiVerat 7} jivdoTTOua. 'AvdyKrj 
V dvarpkx^yj T19 rot? f^^XP'' 
TOvSe TMV crvyypacfiiiDV irapa- 
h6(T€L<i^ dvdyKTj vd fxrj Trapa- 
KoXovOrjcrrj r'qv tt/oooSov tov 


TC^^VWV iv' d7ro8€)(^Sfj eUTTtCTTWS 

jxkpos TovXd^Ldrov r(av kv avnii 
fi€fMv6€VfJLevii)v. Kat fxerd 8v(r- 
ap€crK€ia<s Xiyia otl KaO' 
CKacTTOV /SyjfJia aTravTwvrat 
Trpoifiavrj crrjfxeia TretOovTa rj oVt 
VTTo TOV ovofxa rov MeXertov 
€K€LVov XavOdvet rts twv 
7]fi€r€p(DV (Tvy)(^p6v(s)Vy rj on 
avTos 6 ry/xerepos (njy^/aovos 
, els Tovs fxvdovs rov MeXeriov 
Trpoa-kdrjKev dXXovs IStovs. 

'Ev (S roLavrr) eTvat rj Kplcris 
/xou, Kat rotavrrj BeXeu eia-dai 
€^ dvdyK-qs 17 KpicLS Travros 
ttAAov ai/ayvwcTTOv, ttiSs lySvva- 
/X7;i' vd crvvreXea-o) els rryv 
8iaSoo-iv rov ^vixatSos ; ^xeSov 
aKovoi TToXXd Trepl ifie rd 
Karaf^oCivra crr6p.ara^ ov8' 
eTTiOvfjib} vd Kary^yoprjdOi tos 
ayav evTricrros y] w? (TwalrLOS 
Twv ireTrXaa-fxeviov. 

Uphs rifiyjv rov edvovs Kal 
Bid rrjv TTpos v/xas dydTrrjv 
rjv^ofxrjv ->) XYjOrj vd KaXvxpy 

dressing the work in the graceful 
garb of poetry, had invested 
it with the majestic robe of 
history. The farther any one 
proceeds with the perusal of 
the work, the stronger, even to 
dull-sighted people, becomes the 
evidence of fabrication. One 
must entirely upset all that 
has been handed down to us by 
historians up to the present day, 
one must refuse to follow the 
progress of the human mind 
and the advance of art, in order 
that even a part of what is 
fabled in your book may be 
credulously accepted. And I 
am reluctantly compelled to say 
that at every step there are 
met unmistakable signs either 
that under the name of 
Miletius is concealed one of our 
own time, or that that contem- 
porary of ours has added some 
fables of his own to those of 

While then such is my own 
opinion, and such perforce must 
be that of every other reader, 
how can I contribute any aid to 
spread the reputation of the 
Symwis ? I can almost fancy 
that I hear the tremendous 
outcry that would be raised 
against me ; and I have no wish 
to be accused of being either 
absurdly credulous, or accessory 
to the fiction. 

For the honour of our nation 
and out of my regard for you, I 
wish the Symai's were buried in 




rrjv ^vfiatSa, tJtls (^aiVerai els 
e/JLe aTratcTLos TrpoSpo/xos tcov 
ctAAwv Trap' vfJLLV aveKdoTMV. 

Upos ekeyxov ryjs yvrja-LO- 
TTjTos T(j)v ^eipoypdffxjiv ovre 
StOTTT/oat dTraiTOVVTai iraXaio- 
ypacfitas, ovre Tirepyafx-qvCiv 
SoKt/xacrta. '0/AoAoyw ort, av 
KaX iv 'EAAaSt aAAtos iSo^acrav 
ire pi ifJLOv, 8ev evo/xtcra i^ d.p-)(^s 
ifjiavTov dp/JLoStov twv roLOvroyv 
Kpinqv. Kat lav SiadpvTrTO- 


aAAwv yviofirjSj aTreSiSov els 
rrjv \l/rj(fi6v fiov Kvpos, oTrep ev 
(rvvetSrycret alcrddvofxac on 8ev 
€;(€i, -i^Svvdfirjv d^Lcos o^t fxovov 
vd Kar-qyop-qOa aAa^ov€ias, 
(xAAa /cat TrepiTTecriii els yeAwra^ 
ovTLVos 6eX(ji vd diraXXd^oi Trjv 
TToAtav fxov rpiya. 

"AAAcus Se rj yvrj(Ti6Tr]s 
Keifxevov tlvos 8ev reKp^-qpiovTai 
€K Tov ^dprov Koi rov a-)(7^- 
fiaros rwv y/oa/x/zarwv, ccAA' Ik 
TOV ^apaKrrj pos rov Xoyov, Ik 
Tcov Trpayixdroyv irepl &v 8ta- 
XafxfSdveL, koX Ik tov TrapaX- 
XrjXi(Tixov irpds 6 re Siecroicrev 
els rjfMois rj dp)(ai6ry)s. 

Eav 5e exqre ttjv crvveL8r](rLV 
OTL TO, aAAa Trap' vfiLV X^^'P^' 
ypacfta Sev elvai TrXaa-rd Kal 
VTrofSoXifiaLaj eKSioa-are avrd^ 
Kal deXere dTToXd/Set 6<f)eXos 
Kal tl/jltJv. 'AAA' iTTavaAeyw, 
fie XvTrei on Trporjyqdrj avrwv 
rj liVjJLaLS. 

oblivion, for it seems to me to 
be a very inauspicious precursor 
of the other unpublished works 
in your possession. 

In order to prove that a 
manuscript is genuine, no 
antiquarian's lens is required, 
nor any scrutiny of the parch- 
ment. I confess that, although 
people in Greece have formed a 
different opinion about me, I 
have never considered myself a 
proper judge of such matters ; 
and, if I were weak enough to 
be influenced by the unfounded 
opinion of others, and attributed 
any authority to my judgment 
which in my conscience I feel 
that it does not possess, I might 
not only be justly accused of 
presumption, but be covered 
with ridicule, an indignity to 
which I am unwilling to expose 
my grey hairs. 

Besides, the genuineness of 
a text is not ascertained by 
the nature of the paper, or by 
the shape of the letters, but 
by its style and the subject it 
treats of, and by comparison 
with the examples which an- 
tiquity has preserved for us. 

But if you have the conscious- 
ness that the other manuscripts 
in your possession are not fabri- 
cated counterfeits, publish them, 
and you will reap both profit 
and honour : but, I repeat, I am 
sorry that the Symais has taken 
the lead. 




T1]Td fXOV. " <J*tAoS TL\dT(DV, 

(fiiXTaTr] 8' dXy^Oeta." M'q 
^TTi\€Lpeire irapd^oXa e/)ya, k^ 
S>v €Tt fxdkkov TaAatTTW/aetrat 
o /?io?. *H €vcf)vta KOL at 
yi/(6o-et? vjxcov SvvavTaL vd 
vTroSet^iDCTLV €L<s vfids evdvrkpav 
Kol evTrop(i)Tepav 686v. 
6 vfj,€Tepos 
'AvSpeas Movcrro^v8y]S. 

Aafxirpd €7ri(TTo\rj, kol d^ia 
rov (Toffiov dvSpos. At' ei'yeve- 
a-rdrov rpoTrov KaT€KoXd<fiL(Te 
rrjv avddSetav rov ToXfxrjpov 
aTrarewvo?. 'AAAa ttoOcv dvT- 
eypdrpare ttjv d^toXoyov Tav- 


'Ek rod TrpwTov rop-ov ttJ? 
'' IlavSwpas," 1851 o-eA. 263. 

"KiTopov pLol (fiatveraL ttojs ot 
(Tocjiol Trj<s *Eo^e/3tas iirecrov 
Toarov €vk6X(j)s els tovs ovv^^as 
Tov Travovpyov TrXacrroypdcfiov, 
dffiov Trpb TToXXov i^eOrjKev 
avTov SeovTOis 6 oro^os rrjs 

l\epKVpaS KpiTLKOS. 

'AAAot 8ev €rvat piovos 6 
M.ov(Tro^v8rjS octtls i^rjXey^e 
Tr)v dyvpreiav avrov. 'Ev tw 
avTOi Topno ryjs TLavSiopas Kal 
iv Toj Sevrepio tjXlov (^aeivorepov 
(XTreSet^ev 6 TroXvpiaOrjs A. P. 
*PayKa/3?]s ort o ^LpioyvLSrjs rjro 
irXaa-Toypd^os irpuiTris ra^ewg, 
aAA* ot ttJs 'EcTTrc/atas (ro(f)ol 
pLTj SiSovres Tr)v Scova-av Trpoar- 
oyjiv €ts TO, (^tAoAoytKoL 
Trpotovra twv vcwtc/owv 'EAAt^- 
ViDV eyetvav evdXoyra dvp^ara 

Forgive my plain-speaking. 
" Plato is dear to me, but truth 
is dearer still." Have nothing 
to do with hazardous under- 
takings which render a man's 
life still more miserable. Your 
abilities and attainments can 
show you a straighter path and 
one easier to pursue. 

A splendid letter, and worthy 
of the great scholar. In the 
most refined manner he chastised 
the effrontery of the audacious 
impostor. But from where did 
you copy this excellent letter 1 

From the first volume of the 
Pandora, 1851, page 263. 

It appears to me unaccount- 
able how the scholars of the 
West fell so easily into the claws 
of the rascally forger, when, a 
long time before, the learned 
critic of Corfu had duly exposed 

But it was not only Mus- 
toxydes who incontestably 
proved the charlatanry of the 
man. In the same volume of 
the Pandora, and also in the 
second volume, the very learned 
A. R. Eangabes produced evi- 
dence as clear as daylight that 
Simonides was a literary forger 
of the first class, but the scholars 
of the West, not giving the re- 
quisite attention to the literary 
productions of the modern 




Tov €K ^vjx-qs dyvprov. 'AAXa 
(iXkiria ecrvpav -qS-q rrjv ay- 
Kvpav KOi (XTTOTrXeofJiev. Ylocrov 
wpaia (fiatveTai rj TrpoiTevovcra 
Trj<s Trepicfi'qiJLOv Tavrr]S viqcrov ! 
KaTe;)(€t decrtv fJLayevTLKiljv. To 
dkafxa elvat l^aiVtov, koi diropet 
Tis Tt' 7rpQ>T0V va davfidcrr], Slotl 
oTTov Kal dv (TTpkxpri to f^Xe/xfJia 
dTrapdfJLiXXoL KaXXoval Kara- 
OkXyovcTiV avTov. ETvat kirt- 
yeios TrapaSeicros. K-vrrd^are 
TTocrov iipala (^aivovrai rd 
Trpod(TT€ia TTJs TToAews* Tt 
TroiKiXia SevSpcov KaraKOcrjxeL 
Tovs \apUvTa<i €K€tvovs yrjXo- 
cfiovs. Ets ovSev fiepos tov 
Koarfxov VTrdp-^ovari too-ov vxf'TjXd 
/cat evOaXrj eXatoSevSpa. "^A? 
Aeywcrtv o rt /cat dv OeXoyu-LV ot 

XeTTToXoyOL KpLTlKol OTL rj 

J^epKvpa 8ev eivai rj TOV^OjXTjpov 
kpaTeivrj ^yepia' kdv Sev avat 
avTYj, TToia elvai Xoltzov ; Kvrra- 
^are eKetvrjv Trjv KaTdcf)VTOV 
TOTToBeo-iav ovyji /xaKpdv t/]? 
$aXd(Torrj<i' €K€t TTOv Od rja-av 
ra /Saa-iXeia kol ol aet^aAet? 
KrjTTOL TOV 'AXklvov, €vda 

Greeks, fell an easy j^rey to the 
Symian vagabond. But I see 
they have already heaved up the 
anchor and we are under way. 
How beautiful the capital of 
this celebrated island looks ! 
It has a charming situation. 
The view is superb, and one is 
at a loss what first to admire, 
for wherever one turns his 
glance, unrivalled beauties en- 
chant him. It is an earthly 
paradise. See how pretty the 
suburbs of the city look : what 
a variety of trees adorns those 
graceful hills. In no part of 
the world are there such high 
and luxuriant olive-trees. Let 
quibbling critics say what they 
like about Corfu not being the 
lovely Scheria of Homer : if 
this is not it, which is it then ? 
Look at that place all covered 
with vegetation, not far from 
the sea : it was somewhere there 
that the j^alace was, and the 
ever-blooming gardens of Al- 
cinous, where 

. . . SevSpea jxaKpd 7recf)VK€L reAe^otovra, 
"OyXvaL Koi poial koI jxrjXkai dyXaoKaprroL, 
2-UKat T€ yXvKcpal kol cAaiat TTjXeOoaxTab. 
Tacov ovTTOTe Kapiros dTroXXvTat, ov8' eTriAetTret 
Xet/xaros, ovSe Oepevs^ €7reT7j(TL0S' dXXd jxdX alel 
Tiefjivpirj TTveiova-a to, jxlv cfjvet, dXXa 8e Tv^crcrei. 
'Oyxvrj kiT dy)(^vrj yyjpda-Kec, jirjXov 8' Itti p^'ijXw, 
AvTap cTTi a-Ta(fivXy (TTa<^vXrj^ avKOV S' Itti avKio. 
"Ev^a 6e ot TToXvKapTTOs dXo)rj ippi^wTai' 
T^s €T€pov pL€V deiXoTreSov Aefpw evi X^P^ 
Te/oo-CTttt rjeXiOi' ere/aas 8' dpa t€ T/5vyowo-iv, 


"AAAa? Se TpaTreovcrc TrdpotOe Sc t' o/x^aKes cIctlv, 
"AvOo's a^teicrat, cVe/aat S* vTroTrcpKa^ova-iv. 
"FivOa Se Koa-firjTal irpaa-iaX Tra^a velarov op^ov 
Havrolai -Ktc^vaa-iv, €7r7]€Tavhv yai/dtoo-af 
'El/ Se Si^w Kprjvat, 7) fxev r ava Krprov '<XKa.v'Ta 
2/ct8i/aTat, >y 8' krepijjOev vtt avk-qs ovSbv ltjo-l 
Upus SofJLOV vxprjXov, oBev vSpevovTo TroAtrat. 
Tot' ap' kv 'AXklvoolo Scmv ecrau dyX.aa Swpa. " 

'OSva-cretas H. 1 14-132. 

Translation by S. H. Butcher and A. Lang. 

"And there grow tall trees blossoming, pear-trees and pome- 
granates, and apple-trees with bright fruit, and sweet figs, and olives 
in their bloom. The fruit of these trees never perisheth, neither 
faileth, winter or summer, enduring through all the year. Ever- 
more the West Wind blowing brings some fruits to birth and ripens 
others. Pear upon pear waxes old, and apple on apple, yea and 
cluster ripens upon cluster of the grape, and fig upon fig. There 
too hath he a fruitful vineyard planted, whereof the one part is 
being dried by the heat, a sunny plot on level ground, while other 
grapes men are gathering, and yet others they are treading in the 
wine-press. In the foremost row are unripe grapes that cast the 
blossom, and others there be that are growing black to vintaging. 
There too, skirting the furthest line, are all manner of garden beds, 
planted trimly, that are perpetually fresli, and therein are two 
fountains of water, whereof one scatters his streams all about the 
garden, and the other runs over against it beneath the threshold of 
the courtyard, and issues by the lofty house, and thence did the 
townsfolk draw water. These were the splendid gifts of the gods 
in the palace of Alcinotis." 

Aa/xTrpoTarry Kai tt7rapa/xi A Ao? A most splendid and im- 

7r€pLypa(fir) twv (fivorcKoJv Kak- rivalled description of the 

XovMV Tiy? Mpaias ravrv/s vrjcrov. natural beauties of this lovely 

'AAA' 7] KipKvpa 8€v Wavfxda-6i] island. But Corfu was admired 

ixovov 8id Tot Siopa /xe to. oTrota not only for the gifts with which 

kurpoLKi(T€v avTrjv rj cftvcns, dAAa nature had endowed it, but 

') Kttt Sto, TTjv cTTt/xeAws KCKttA- also for its carefully cultivated 

Xupyrnxkvrjv yrjv ai'rrjs. *0 land. Xenophon, in the second 




fS^evo(f)iov ev t<^ Sevrepoi kc- 

(jiaXatlp TOV €KTOV /Stf^XiOV TWV 

'EAAt^vikcov TrepiypdcjiOiv ttjv 
OLTrofSacTLV els ty]v v7]crov rov 
AaKeSaifxovLov vavap^ov Mva- 
(TLTTTrov fxera Icrxvpas SvvdfMeoJS, 
Xcyef " 'ETret Se aTre^r], 
iKpdrei re rrjs yqs kol eSyov 
e^eLpyacrfievrjv fiev TrayKccAws 
Kttt 7r€cfiVTeviJi€vr)V rrjv ^iiipav, 
fxeyaXoTrpeTrets Se oiK-qcreiS 


CTTt Twv dypMV OXTT €cf)acrav 
Tovs (TTparni)Tas ets tovto 
Tpv(f)'rjs kXBelv wcrr ovk Wk- 
Aetv TTiveiv el p.rj dv^ocr/xtas 

"E)(et XoLTTov StKaiov rj avro- 
Kpdreipa Trjs AvcrTptas vd dyaTva 
Tocrov T>}v KepKvpav, rrjv oTroiav 
o-we^ws eTTia-KeTTTeTaL. 

"OX'' fMovov eTria-KeirreTai 
avTrfV arvvex'^'i^dXX MKoZofx-qa-ev 
ev avry kol XafXTrpov fxeyapov kv 
(jipatordTr) TOTrodecrta. Tt Kplfia 
OTt Sev ■^Xdev els rov vovv /xas 
va vTrdyoyfiev vd to tSw/xev. 
'Ovoixd^erat "-'AxiXXetov" kol 
etvai ev /accto) Tre^tKaAAecTTarwv 
KqiTijiv KoX dAo-wv. 'H avTO- 
Kpdretpa Xarpevei ttjv ttolt^o-lv, 
KOL 18lo)s Oavfxd^ei rd TroLi^fxara 
TOV irept^riixov Vepfiavov Troirj- 
Tov XdtVe* oOev irap'qyyeiXe 
KOi KaTecTKevaa-av ev "^Pw/xt; 
dvSpidvTa vTrepcjiVGrLKOV fxeyedovs 
TOV VTT avTrjs XaTpevofxevov 
7roir]TOV, Kal ea-Trja-ev atSrov els 
v^j/rjXrjv Kal irepLOTTTOV Oecriv, 
SiaTd^acra vd cfiVTeva-wa-L irept^ 
TOV dydXfiaTOS TrevTiJKovTa 

chapter of the sixth book of the 
Hellenica, describing the landing 
on the island of the Lacedae- 
monian admiral Mnasippus with 
a powerful force, says : " When 
he disembarked, he made him- 
self master of the land and 
ravaged the extremely well 
cultivated and planted country 
and the magnificent houses and 
wine-cellars built on the estates, 
so that they said that the 
soldiers reached such a pitch of 
daintiness that they refused to 
drink any wine unless it had a 
fine bouquet." 

Then the Empress of Austria 
is right in being so fond of 
Corfu which she frequently 

Not only does she frequently 
visit it, but she has built there a 
splendid palace in a most beauti- 
ful situation. What a pity it did 
not enter our minds to go and 
see it. It is called " Achilleion," 
and lies in the midst of superb 
gardens and groves. The 
Empress is devoted to poetry, and 
especially admires the poems of 
the celebrated German poet 
Heine, and on this account she 
sent an order and they ex- 
ecuted for her in Rome a statue 
larger than life-size of her 
adored poet, and she erected it 
on a high and commanding site, 
having directed fifty thousand 
rose-trees to be planted round 
the statue. The Empress re- 



XtAtaSas poSiov. *H avTOKpd- 
retpa diryT-qcrc Trapd tov €V 
^Fiofirj dyaX/xaTOTTOLOVf ocrrt? 
vofXL^u) €Lvai Attvos, vd Suxry eis 
t5 dyaXfxa TrtcTTrjv 6fxoL6Tr]Ta 
TOV irpoaruiTTOv tov Trotr^Tov, 
o>(TT€ 6 kv T(^ " ' AxiX-Xeco) " 
dvSpids 8ev 7rapovcrid^€L Trjv 
ISeioSr] (Ketv-qv Kal veapdv 
IJLopcf)rjv Si ijv 6 XaiVe wvofia- 
crOrj Tepfxavhs 'AttoAAwv, dXXd 
TovvavTiov ifiTToiei Trjv ivTviru)- 
(TLV et's TOV Oeio/xevov otl /SXeTrec 
dvSpa aTToAecrai'Ta Trjv opaariv. 
'0 XaiVe €.l^€ irddei dKivr]<TLav 
TOV kvos f3\€(f)dpov^ KOi 6 dyaX- 
fxaTOTTOios fJirj OeXoiV vd irapa- 
(TTrjcry avTov €)(OVTa t6v eVa 

O(jidaXfM0V K€KX€t(TfX€VOV, €KA€t(7e 
Kul TOVS 8vO. 

lEtvye els Trjv €V(f)vtav tov. 

'AAAa fSXcTTd) kv TO) flCTa^V 

dpKeTa 7rpo€^iopr](T€ to dTfio- 
ttXolov. KvTTa^are tt/sos rot 
dptcTTepd ' kvTavBa CK^aAAet 
6 TTOTafios K.aXdfxas, 6 vTrh tiov 
dp\aL(jiv 0ua/xi9 KaAov/xevos, 
ocTTts Kara t^v kv BfpoAtVw 
o-vvdyKrjv (l88o) aTToreAct Ta 
fSopeia opta Trj'S 'EAAaSos. 

K/Ji/xa OTL Skv kirpayixaTO- 
iroty^drja-av ol opoi kKCivys Try? 
a-vvdy]Kr)s, Sloti ovto) 6d KaT€- 
o-Kevd^€TO €(os Tiopa dvaficfii- 
^oAws (TiSrjpoSpoixiKrj ypafipirj 
€K TOV o-rjfxeLOv TOVTOV /ze;(/3ts 
'A^ryvtor, Kttt ovTio 6d r)VKoXv- 

V€T0 fX€ydX(0<5 y (TVyKOLViDVia, 

aAAws 6fi(i)S eSo^cv eh tovs 
WvvovTa<s Ttts T^xas tiov 

quested the sculptor at Rome,* 
who, I think, is a Dane, to give 
to the statue a faithful likeness 
of the poet's countenance, so 
that the figure in the Achilleion 
does not present that ideal and 
youthful form from wliich 
Heine received the name of the 
German Ajiollo, but on the 
contrary it gives the spectator 
the impression that he is looking 
at a man who has lost his sight. 
Heine suffered from immobility 
of one eyelid, and the sculptor, 
not wishing to represent him 
with one eye closed, closed them 

Very clever of him to do so. 
But I see that meanwhile the 
steamer has made considerable 
progress. Look to the left : at 
that spot is the mouth of the river 
Calamas, called by the ancients 
the Thyamis, which by the 
treaty of Berlin (1880) con- 
stitutes the northern boundary 
of Greece. 

It is a pity that the provisions 
of that treaty were not carried 
out, for then without doubt 
there would have been by this 
time constructed a line of rail 
from that point to Athens, and 
in this way communication 
would have been greatly facili- 
tated, but it was otherwise 
decreed by those who rule the 
destinies of nations. 




To Trpos ra Se^ia rjfiwv aKpoi- 
ryjpLOV TOVTO a-vfiirepaivd) va 
eivat rj AevKififirj. 

'Ava/JLcfa/SoXuiS. 'Evrai^^a, 
(OS Aeyet 6 QovKvStS-qs, pera 
rrjv XafiTrpav VLKrjv rjv -qpavro 
ot KepKvpaLOL Kara twv Kopiv- 
Ol(i)v €v rrj TrpiJirrj vavpLa-^La., 
ea-rrjcrav rpoiraiov, kol " rovs 
pXv aWov<s ovs eXa/Sov al^pa- 
AwTOvs OLireKTeLvaVy K.opLvdtovs 

'AAA' Iv Trj Sevripa vavp^a^^ia, 
T^Tts crvvef^y] Kara rots TrapapLOvas 
Tov HeXoTTOvvrjcriaKov TroXkpov 
aKpi/SMS €t§ TO pi€pos oirep Sta- 
TrAeo/zev Tavrrjv rrjv (mypii^v, 
KttKws -ijOeXov rrjv Travel oi 
K.€pKvpaLOi lav Sev yjp^^ovTO at 
'A^r^vatKat Tpirfpcis eis fSorjOetav 

'A/x(^t/3oAia Sev virdpyci 77€pl 
TovTov^ Slotl Sta TT^s eAcTJO-ecos 
Twv 'A6r]vai(DV rj vlkyj e/zetvev 
dpi<f)Lppe777]S, KOL dpbcfiorepa rot 
oivTipa)(i^(TavTa P'^pf] rj^iovv 
oTi evLKYjo-av KOi €(Trr]a-av rpo- 
Traia, ot /xev KcpKitpatoL els eV 


oj/o/xa^ovrat ^v/SoTa, ot Se 
YLopivdiOL €ts T7}v (XTTcvavrt 

Tot, kirdpara ravra rpoTraia 
direp ot "EAAt^vcs Too-a/cts 
e(rT7](rav perd ras /car aAA?^- 
Ao)V alparrjpds /xaxas ctt-^- 
veyKav avT^KCO-ra 8etva ets to 
e^vos* eotv ot "EAAi^ve? tu/xo- 
voovi' Trpos (xAAt^Aovs Kat 8ev 
Karecnrapda-crovTO vtto Sltjvckmv 

€pL(f>vXL<J)V CptSoiV KOi TToAe/XWV, 

This promontory on our right 
is, I suppose, Leiikimme. 

Beyond doubt. It was there, 
as Thucydides says, that the 
Corcyreans, after the brilliant 
victory they gained over the 
Corinthians in the first naval 
engagement, set up their trophy 
and "killed the other prisoners 
they had taken and kept in 
bonds the Corinthians." 

But in the second sea-fight 
which took place on the eve of 
the Peloponnesian war, exactly 
at the spot we are now sailing 
over, the Corcyreans would have 
suffered severely if the Athenian 
triremes had not come to their 

There is no doubt about that, 
for by the arrival of the 
Athenians the victory remained 
undecided, and the combatants 
on both sides claimed to be 
conquerors and erected trophies, 
the Corcyreans on one of these 
little islands called Sybota, and 
the Corinthians on the mainland 

These accursed trophies which 
the Greeks so often raised after 
their sanguinary battles with 
each other brought incurable 
evil on the nation. If the 
Greeks had kept on good terms 
among themselves and had not 
been torn by constant internal 
strife and civil wars, who know 



Tts oiSev eav (ryjfiepov Skv Oa 
Tycrav t5 ur^vpoTaroi/ Wvos tov 
KocTfxov ; dXX as a</)rj(r(u/x€V 
ras OXif^epa^i rairras o-K€^€t9, 

KttC as (TTp€\l/lOfJi€V TO fSkifJifia 

7rph<s Th o)paiov iravopafxa oTrep 
rrapoxxTLa^ova-L tol /zeyaAoTr/acTrr) 
Kal evSo^a opi] rrjs 'Hireipov^ 
Ttt OTTOia fieydXoL Troiryrai 
vfjivycrav kol tocol Treptr^yy^Tal 
Wavftacrav. To, vxj/LKdprjva 

I Tavra o/37^ ra oTroia (fiaivovTac 
^ (OS imrriy fxkva WKcaveia KVfxara 
! vxj/ovjxiva aAAe7raAA>yAws /a€- 
)(/)fc Twv ve^eAwv virTjp^av i-rrl 
aicovas Tot dirpocTiTa Kprja-cjivyeTa 
dvSpwv r}/3(ocov, otrtves /xi) viro- 
jLtevovTes vol KyxpoxTi tov au^^cva 
VTrb TOV ^vyov aTrr^vwv TV/oavvcov 
KaT€(f>€vyov CIS avTa Kat 7r/)o- 
€Tt/xojv va VTrocftepoKFL fxvptas 
(mprjcreis kol KaKOvx^o-s, irapd 
vd SovAevcoQ-tv eis ^evovs Se- 
0"7roTas. 'Etti Tovroiv koX eirl 

, TWV aAAwV 0/3€WV T7^S 'EAAciSoS 

8t€Tr]pridr) to ^dmvpov T7]<s Wvl- 
Krj<^ kXivOepia<s twv 'EAA-^vwv 
€tos ov TyA^ev r} lepd €K€Lvt^ 
a-TLy/xy] KaO' i)v dvacfiXexdh' 
7ra/57;yaye Tr)V /xeyaA^yv €K€tV7;v 
TTvpaKatdv rrjs kdviKrj<s e^e- 
ytpo-ews ToO 182 1, e/v Trys 
T€^/3as T^s OTTOias dvWopev ws 
6 fxvOoXoyovpevo^ <f>OLVL^ rj 
iXevOepa *EAAas Veapd kol 
a-ijipiyCxra. MeTo, Tr)v vtt^ twv 
Toi'/3K(ov aAwcrtv tt/s KcovcrTav- 

TtVOl^TToAcWS, Ka^' 7)v rjpiOlKO)^ 

fJLax6p€vos cVeo-ev 6 TcAcvTatos 
avTOKpdriop twv ^EAAvyvwv, 
TravTCS IvofxuTav oti to *EAAr;- 


if to-day they would not have / 
been the most powerful nation y 
of the world ? But let us leave 
these painful reflections and turn 
our gaze to the beautiful view 
that is presented by the 
magnificent and famous moun- 
tains of Epirus which great 
poets have celebrated and so 
many travellers have admired. 
These mountains with their 
lofty peaks, which appear like 
frozen waves of the ocean rising 
up one after the other to the 
clouds, were for ages the in- 
accessible retreats of heroic men 
who, not submitting to bend 
the neck under the yoke of 
harsh tyrants, took refuge in 
them and preferred to suffer 
numberless privations and dis- 
comforts to being in slavery 
under foreign masters. On 
these and the other mountains 
of Greece was preserved the 
vital spark of the national 
liberty of the Greeks until that 
all - hallowed moment arrived 
when it blazed forth and pro- 
duced that great conflagration 
of the national uprising of 1821, 
from the ashes of which arose, 
like the fabulous Phoenix, 
young and vigorous, liberated 
Greece. After the capture of 
Constantinople by the Turks, 
at which the last emperor of 
the Greeks fell heroically fight- 
ing, every one thought that 
the Greek nation was entirely 
destroyed, and that it was for 




viKov €Ovo<s IvTcAws KaTe(TTpdcf>r) 
Kol OTL 6/xeAA.e ttAcov va crvy- 
KaTapiOfxrJTau jxcTa^v twv evSo- 
^(t)V jJiev KOL apxaiOTOLTOiV, aAA,' 
t^St] i^acj^avta-devroiv Wvwv rrjs 
yrj<S' KOL (OS TrapTJXOov ol 


TToXXol aXXoL Aaot tt]? 'Ap- 
^(atoTr^TOS OTL ovTO) TTapyjXOov 
KOL 01 "EAAt^vcs. 'AAA' eVTU- 
Xws TO 'EAAt^vikov eOvo? 8ev 
(XTrWavev, ovSe KareSovXiodrj 
reAetos. IIoAAat €Tt'EAA?^vtKat 
vrj(roL KOi ovK oXtya p^^py) Ty]S 
T€ (TTepeas ^EAAaSos kol rrjs 
UeXoTTOvvqcrov vTreKeiVTO ets 
Tovs 'Everous koI aXXovs "^y^- 
jxovas Trjs kcTTrepias Ev/)co7r7^s 
otTtves OTTWO-Sr^TTore lycrav X/ot- 
(TTiavoL. Merot toi^twv TroAAa- 

K6S (TVfipiaXOVVT€<S ol "EAAt^VCS 

KareTToAe/xovv tovs TovpKovs. 
'Ev T27 Treptcfy'qp.o) vavp^axia rrj^ 
NavTraKTOv TrAetcrTOt oo-ot "EA- 
Xrjves (Tvp.p.€rk(T\ov rov Kara 
Twv TovpKiiiv aywvos twv X/)t- 
o-Ttavwv. "Ore €7rt reAovs 
v7r€pL(rxv(ravT€S ot TovpKOL 
e^eStw^av tou? 'Evctovs Kal 
rov<s aXXovs ^pLomavovs ^y^- 
y6va<s iK Twv'EAAr^viKWv \oipQiv^ 
Tore TToXXoX dvSpetoL "EAAiyves 
KaT€(pvyov eis to, opy] oirov 
rjSiJvavro v avaTTvewo-t t^v 
yXvKelav avpav rrjs eXevOepias. 
"Ektotc XoLTrhv ripxicrav v 
dva^aivbivraL ot 'A/ayuarcuAot 
Kttt KAe^rat, rtov OTrotwv rot 
rjpoiLKa rpayov^ia Kark(Tr7](Tav 
rocrov TreptcfiTjpLa els oXrjv rrjv 
^vpc^TTTjv ; 

the future to be numbered with 
the celebrated and most ancient, 
but now vanished, nations of 
the earth ; and that just as the 
Aegyptians and the Assyrians 
and many other nations of 
antiquity had passed away, so 
too the Greeks had passed away. 
But fortunately the Greek 
nation was not dead nor had 
it been completely enslaved. 
Many Greek islands and several 
portions of the mainland of 
Greece and of the Peloponnesus 
still remained subject to Vene-- 
tian and other princes of western 
Europe who anyhow were 
Christians. As fellow -soldiers 
with these, the Greeks often 
fought against the Turks. In 
the celebrated naval battle of Le- 
panto a great number of Greeks 
took part in the conflict of the 
Christians with * the Turks. 
When at last the Turks, getting 
the upper hand, drove out the 
Venetian and the other Christian 
princes from the Greek countries, 
many brave Greeks took refuge 
in the mountains, where they 
were able to breathe the sweet 
air of liberty. 

Was it from that time then 
that the Armatoles and Klephts| 
began to make their appearance, \ 
whose songs about their heroes i 
became so celebrated throughout: 
all Europe ? 




01 'ApfxaTU)Xol dv€(f)dv7](Tav 
Kara rds dpxoi<s rov IS' alm>os 
€7rt ^ovXeifidvov rov MtyaAo- 
TrpiTTOvs, ol Se KAec^rat evOvs 
6t€ ol TovpKOL elcryXaorav cis 
TT/v *EAAa8a. 'Evrt ^payKO- 
Kparias ol KdroiKOi twv utto 
'OXvpjKOV P'^XP^ Tatvdpov CK- 

r€LVOp€V(x)V \0)piOV €K T'/}? (TVVe- 

Xovs auTwv i^aa-K'ijcreojs ets rd 
OTrXa Sid Tov<i totc (Tvp,f3aLvov- 
ras TToAAovs TToAe/xovs Kare- 
crrrjcrav /xa^^iyuwrarot. TotovTovs 
AotTToi/ dv8pa<g Sev ^to cvkoAov 
va Kadim-oTd^oxTLV ol reXevratoL 
Kol cjiof^epiOTaroL KaraKr-qral 
rrjs EAAaSo?, ot TovpKoi^ Slotl 
ol dTidacrot ovtol vTrepp^axot 
T'qs kXevBepias 7r€pLcf)povovvTe<s 
rds €vpiap€La<s tov kv rat? 
TToAecrt (iiov TrpoeTtpLMv rds kirl 
Twi/ opeiDV (TKXrjpay(x)yLas kol 
a-T€p-q(T€LS X^P''^ '^0'^ dve^ap- 
ry](Tias. Oi^tw Xolttov kyev- 
vi'jdi](rav ol ' App,aT(i)Xoi kol 
KAec^rat. Tots 7rpcoTOV<s ol 
TovpKOi perex^tpL^ovTO ws <fiv- 


€7rl T(^ opoi vd ^atpwcrt 

TrXi'jpij avTovop.Lav, /cat ovtw? 

Icrx-qparia-d-qcrav rd Aeyo/zeva 

ApparioXiKta^ direp Kard rds 

TTapap^ovds tt)? ^EXXt^VLKijs 

racrracrews rja-av SeKaeirrd^ 

rpta Kard rtjv kvrevdev rov 

A^Lov TTorapov MaKcSovtav, 

i€Ka €v Beo-traAi^ Kat ry dva- 

oXiKy 'EAAaSt, Kat recrcrapa 

V AtrcoAt^, ' A/cap vavt^t Kat 

Treipii). '0 7rpoL(rrdp€vo<s 

darrov ^ AppanoXiKiov a»vo/xa- 

The Armatoles came upon 
the scene in the beginning 
of the 16th century, in the 
time of Suleiman the Magni- 
ficent, and the Klephts directly 
after the Turks invaded Greece. 
When Greece was under the 
Franks, the inhabitants of the 
countries extending from Olym- 
pus to Taenaron, from their 
constant practice in arms owing 
to the frequent wars which 
occurred in those times, were 
extremely warlike. Such men 
then it was not easy for the 
last and most formidable con- 
querors of Greece, the Turks, to 
subdue, for these indomitable 
champions of liberty, despising 
the comforts of life in cities, 
preferred the hardships and 
privations of the mountains for 
the sake of their independence. 
In this way then the Armatoles 
and Klephts came into existence. 
The Turks used to employ the 
former as guards of the passes 
(Dervens) on the understanding 
that they should enjoy complete 
freedom; and thus were formed 
the so - called Armatoliks, of 
which, on the eve of the Greek 
revolution, there were seven- 
teen, three in the part of Mace- 
donia on this side of the Vardar, 
ten in Thessaly and eastern 
Greece, and four in Aetolia, 
Acarnania and Epirus. The chief 
of each Armatolik had the title 
of Captain and his lieutenant 
was called Protopallicar, and 




^ero KaTTCTavo?, 6 Se I'Tra- 
(nrL(Trr]s avrov CKaAeiro II/3wto- 
rraXXiKapov, ol Se vtt avrov 
TLaXXiKapia. 'ETreiS?) o/xws 
7roAAa/<is ofc Kara tottov? 
TovpKOL SLOLKTjral eTrefBovXevov 
TOv<s 'ApfxarioXovs, ovroi crvvr]- 
vovvTO et? TOiavras TreptcrTda-eiS 
fiera rdv kirX twv o/oewv KAe</)- 
Twv Ktti ^er' avrdv KamroXk- 


jSatvei evLore va (TvyyjerjTai 
TO ovofxa Tov 'ApfxarioXov pik 
TO TOV l^Xk(j)Tov. "Ore ol 
TovpKaX/3avol Sia TrpoSocrias 
KarkXafiov ra o-reva airep ecfiv- 
Xarrev 6 dvSpetos ' AppLaroiXos 
2r€/)ytos, avTOS evOvs Karetfivyev 
ei? TO, opn^ KOi €y€Lve KAe</)T7;?. 
To e^rjs KXecfiTLKOv rpayovStov 
SeiKvuet TTOcrov 7repLecf)p6vovv 


yevvaloi €K€tvot yjpojes ttJs cXev- 

those under him Pallicars. But 
since the Turkish governors at 
different places used often to 
form plots against the Armatoles, 
on such occasions these used to 
unite with the Klephts of the 
mountains and in conjunction 
with them made war on the 
common enemy of the faith ; and 
on this account it sometimes 
happens that the name Armatole 
is confused with that of Klepht. 
When the Mahometan Albanians 
captured by means of treachery 
tlie passes which the brave 
Armatole Sterghio was guarding, 
he immediately took refuge in 
the mountains and became a 
Klepht. The following Kleph- 
tic song shows how these noble 
heroes of liberty despised and 
hated the Turks. 

"K't dv rdAepjSkvtaTovpKeva-av^ 
TO. TTTJpav 'ApfSavLTais^ 

'0 HiTepytos elvai {covravo?, 
7racro-a8e? 5ev \pri(^d€.L, 

"0(T0 \iOVL^OVV TO, /Sovvd, 

/cat XovXovSl^ovv /ca/ATroi, 
K' 'ixovv rj pdxai^ Kpva vepd, 

TovpKovs Sei/ 7rpoa-KvvovpL€ ! 
JIdp,€ vd 'XrjpLeptda-ojpie 

OTTOV <j>0)X7]d^OVV XvKOL, 

Se KopfjiofSovvca, ere (T77rjXyaL<s, 

(re pdx^f-S-) a-e paxovAats ! 
^KXd^OL '<s Tttis ;>((o/oat§ Karot- 


Kai TovpKOVi Trpoa-Kvvovve, 

"Though the Dervens have 

fallen to the Turks and the 

Albanians have taken them, 

Sterghio lives and he cares for 

no pashas. 

As long as it snows upon the 

hills, and the plains bloom with 

flowers, and the heights have 

cool streams, we will not bend' 

the knee to Turks. 

Let us go and encamp where 

the wolves have their lairs, 

on the peaks of the mountains, 

in the caves, on the heights, on 

the knolls. Slaves live in towns 




'prjixtats KL aypta AayKaSia, 
Tlapa fX€ TovpKovs, /w,€ Bepta 
KaXXiTepa va ^ovfie." 

and are subservient to Turks, 
while we have for a town soli- 
tudes and desert valleys. 
Better to live with wild beasts 
than with Turks." 

OvTOi XoLirhv kv <^ ol ras 
TToAets Kttt ra? Kiojxas oIkovvt€<s 
"EXXrjvc'i'^jyov SovXcLov rjp.ap^ 
01 d<s TCt opT] KaTa<f>€vyovT€<s 
SteWjpovv TOL cnrep/jLaTa ryjs 
kdvLKTi^ eXevdepias. IIoA,Aot 


Ttt av^paya0rjp.aTa twv KAe<^- 
Twv KareXi/xTravov Trarkpa koX 
py]T€pa (piX-qv kol €({)€vyov €is 
Ttt opr) (TTepovfjievoL Tracrwv twv 
OLKiaKiov oLTroXaiKrcoiv X^P''^ 
T'q<s eXevOipias, ws ytVcrat 
SrjXov €K Tov e^y]S wpaiov rpa- 
yovSiov. Nea/Dos "EAAt^v Trapa- 
KaXet Tr)V p^rfTipa tov va tov 
d<f)'Q(ry va vTrdyy els to. oprj va 
y€Lvrj KAe<^Trys. * 

So then while the Greeks 
who lived in towns and villages 
led a life of slavery, those who 
took refuge in the mountains 
preserved the germ of national 
liberty. Many of the young 
men in the towns, hearing of 
the gallant deeds of the Klephts, 
left a father and a beloved 
mother and fled to the moun- 
tains, depriving themselves of 
all the comforts of a home for 
the sake of liberty, as is evident 
from the following beautiful 
song. A young Greek begs 
his mother to allow him to go to 
the mountains and become a 

Mavva, (TOV Aew Siv *fX7ropu) tov<s TovpKOVS va SovAevw, 

Aev rjfJLTTopo), 8ev Svva/xat, efidXXcaa-e rj KapSid jjlov. 

Go, irdpoi rh TOV<f)€Ki fiov va Vaw va yeivu) KXeffyTrjs-, 

Na KaroLKyjcriD \ rd /3ovvd Kal '<s rijs '^7^Aat? paxovXais, 

Na^O) TOV? Aoyyoi'S (TvvTpo(f)id^ yae to, Oeptd KovfSevTa, 

Na^w rhv ovpavo cr Kerry] ^ tovs f^pdxovs ytd Kpefif^drL^ 

Na;({u p.k rd KXecproirovXa KaBrjfjiepivh 'XrjfxepL. 

0a (fivyo)^ fxdvva, Kal fxrjv xAats, yu,dv' 66s fxov rrjv evxyj <tov 

Ev^yycrov /X€, fiavvovXd jxov, TovpKOvs ttoAAovs va cr<^a^(o, 

Kat cfivreif/e rpiavTa^vXXid Kal jxavpo KapvocfivXXi, 

Kat TTOTL^e ra ^d^apc koI ttotl^c ra fj,6(r\o, 

K*t ocro 'tt dvSt^ovv, /xavva /xov, Kat ' fiydvovve XovXovSia^ 

*0 vlos crov Sev diredave /xov' TroAe/xaet tov? ^ovpKOVs. 

K't av eXSrj 'p,epa dXif^epy]^ 'fxepa ^a/o^a/cw/xevr;, 

Kat fxapaOovv rd 8vo fxa^l Kal Trecrovv to, AouAovSia, 

T6t€ k' eyu) orKOT(x)d7]Ka, to. fiavpa vd (fiopea-yjs. 


AwSc/ca XpovLa Ttepacrav kol SeKaircvre /xrjves 

'II' avOi^av TO, rpiavTOicjivXXa ki dvotyav ra fiTrovfjiTrovKLa' 

Kat fjiiav avyr) dvoL^idTiKr]^ TrpiDTOfiayia Spocrdry]^ 

'Uov KeXa'CSova-av rd TrovXid kl 6 ovpavos yeXovcre, 

Mc /JLLois d(TTpd(f)reL kol fSpovra kol yiverai (TKordhi. 

To KapvocfivWi 6(rT€va^e, rptavracfivWid SaKpv^ei^ 

Me ixids ^epdOrjKav rd 8vo k kirka-av to, XovXov^ia' 

Ma^t /x' avTot (T(DpLd(rTr)K€v rj SoAT^a tov />tavvovAa." 

Mcra^/oacrt? tov dv(x)T€p(t) dcrixaros els rrjv dp^aiav 
^^XXrjviKrjv V770 ^iXiTnrov 'loidvvov. 

 Wyjrep kpJq TpicfiLXrjT, d}p.6(f>po(rLv ovKen Tov/dkois 
AovAei'etv Svvafiai • Terpyrai fioc Kcap evSov, 
Tw pa Xa/3o)V kv x^porXv epibv Td\a Trvp/SoXov ottXov, 
Zii)(rdfi€v6s T dop Xr}L(rTjj<s i^ye/xoveiVw, 
Kat 6p€(t)v oiK-qcTio kv ayKccrtv vxj/iKaprjvayv^ 
"l^vda SpvecrcrL 6* oniXyaro) kol d'qpecnv vXrjs, 
Kat X''^^' ^'^^ xAatvav tS' evSrjcroi kirl Trkrprjs, 
Ar]L(rTO)v 8' dp rraicrl fi€T€(r(ro]xaL yj/xaTa Travra. 
Ma/x/xt8iov, fiYj KXate' dirkp^oixaL' cvx^o^* p.yJT€p, 
TiXetcTTOVs 8v(TfX€veo)v fxe KaraKrdjJLev' d^ei' ^^Ak^ • 
*Ev 8' avXy poSi-qv re SiavOov 0' ^8v Trveovra 
Xeipecrt a-rjcrL cfivrevcrov iS' kvSvKeojs ariraAAe, 
'Afxcfiorep' dp8evovo-a (f)VTOTp6(f)io vSan Tn^yrj^. 
"0(f)p' ovv OdXXet ravra kol dvOoffiopet irapd Siofxa, 
Ylos crds, fjiTJTep, ^wet Kat fxdpvaTai k\9poLS' 
^Hv 5e ttot' a/x/;tt iriKpov kol [xopcriixov rjp,ap iKT/rai, 
'O^v S' cKeiva p,apavOj) t8' dvOea X^^% '^P^C^^ 
^XyjfJL€VOV I(t6l t66' via, Kat cipLfxara irkvOiixa ecrcrat. 
AcoSck' e/3rj(Tav ert] Kal rpets kirl SwScKa fxrjves, 
Tocfipa 8' 'WaXXe po8rj Kat o^Sv 'iirveLe 8Lav6os' 
EiVa ttot' etapos w/ar^, or' (o/)vvto <^a>o"^dpos >}ws, 
X^wv 8e ;rdAo9 r' lyeAa, opviddiv r Wve aetSev, 
"A(f)V(D VTrepO' I'la-Tpaxj/e Kal €ktv77€v kv ve^eecrcrt 
Aeivdv, (Tvi/ 8' kKdXvxpe ttvkvos yv6<f)0<s alav aTracrav. 


"Afj,<f)ii) 8' i^eixapdvOrj 18' ai/^ea \€V€V ^pa^e. 

^vv 8' apa TOts P'')]t">]P 8e.LX'i] ^a/xat t'jpLTr^v aTTVOVS. " ^ 

Translation of the modern Greek Version, by Edward H. Noel 

" ' I tell thee, mother, I cannot go 

To be a Turkish slave. 
I cannot and I will not. I'd 

Be rather in my grave. 
My heart is sick and weary grown, 

I'll take my gun in hand. 
And go and dwell upon the hills 

And be a bold brigand ; 

The woods I'll have for company, 

The rocks my roof shall spread. 
With fox and wolf I'll hold discourse, 

A stone shall be my bed. 
On mountain top, with valiant Klephts, 

All day I'll make my lair. 
Mother, I'll fly — yet weep not thou, 

Yield not to dark despair. 

But bless me, mother dear, that I 

Full many a Turk may slay. 
And plant a rose, and plant a dark 

Carnation on that day ; 
And water them with sugar sweet. 

With musk too water them. 
And when the blossoms, mother mine. 

Come forth from branch and stem, 

Be sure thy son he is not dead 

But, like a warrior brave, 
He fights, and sends his Moslem foes 

Before him to the grave. 
But if should come a sad, sad day — 

That darkest day of all — 
^ ^iXoXoyiKa Jldpepya ^ikiinrov 'ludvvov, ccX. 509. 


"When both the plants together fade, 
And all the blossoms fall, 

Then, mother dear, I'm stricken down — 

My span of life is run — 
And thou, put mourning garments on, 

And weep for thy lost son ! ' 
Twelve years passed on, and fifteen months — 

The rose still blossomed fair — 
The crimson dark carnation shed 

Its fragrance on the air. 

But lo, one morn, one morn in spring — 

It was the first of May — 
The birds were singing in the bowers. 

The sky was bright and gay, 
When suddenly the lightning flashed. 

The thunder muttered loud, 
And darkness spread o'er hill and dale, 

And wrapped them in a shroud. 

Then from the dark carnation's breast 

A sigh of sorrow flows. 
And fast and thickly trickle tears 

Adown the drooping rose. 
And all at once they shrivel up. 

And all their blossoms shed, 
And as the last leaf flutters down, 

Falls the poor mother dead!" 

'fl/oatorarov rpayov^iov at A very beautiful song ; and the 

Se (Tvvo^evovcrai avro 8vo fxera- two translations which accom- 

(f>pd(T€LS kiriTyxko-Tarai kol pany it are very successful and 

d^toAoywrarai. "E;>(€Te Kavev most excellent. Have you any 

ttAAo ; other ? 

"Exw TToAAa aXAa, TTpo? to I have many others, but for 

Tvapov oju,a>s as avayvoxrw/zev ra the present let us read the two 

€^?Js 8vo. 'Ek tov Trpcorov k^ following. From the first of 

avrdv fxavOdvofiev on ot KAe^ these we learn that the Klephts 

rai 8€v KareyLvovTO v' apTrd^ioa-c did not occupy themselves with 

TTpo^ara kol aT-yas, aAA' €?xov carrying off sheep and goats, but 



vxp-qXoTepov KOL r]p(DLKU>T€pOV 
(TKOTrhv Trphs OV dv€Tp€<f>OVTO €K 

veapas tjXlk ta'^. 'ISov ttws o 
7re/3t</)7;/xos Nawo? crvviXeye 
Kal eSiSacTKe tovs viapov<s 
KXecfiTas ' 

'•^'EfiyrJKe 6 Navvos's ra f^ovvd, 

'\prjXd 's Ttt Kopcf)o/3ovvLay 
Kal /xd^(jov€ KA€</)T07rovAa, 

TTtttSta KOL TraXXiKapia. 
Ta /xa^w^e, rot (rvva^e, 

roLKafxe rpels \iXid8es, 
K't oXrjfjiepts TO, 8i8a\v€, 

k'l oXyjixepls tovs Aeyet* 
''Akouo-tc iraXXiKdpid fxov, 

KOi (T€LS TratSta 'StKd fxov, 
KX^cfiTais Sev OeXo) yid rpaytd, 

KXicfiTats ytd TO, Kptdpia' 
^lov' OkXisi KAec^rats ytd (nraOt, 

KAe^rats yta t5 Tov^e/ct, 
\u Kcivovv XVP^'''^ '^'' 6p<f)avd 

els Tii)V TovpKMV TOt (TTTtVta, 

i^oco va Kavow '^ayopd, 
K €K€i xwpid vd Kaii/c.'" 

Et? T^ ^^"^S (U/JatOTttTOV 

rpayov^tov 7reptypd(f)0VTai fxerd 
ttoXXtJs TTOLrjTLKrjs ydpiTOS at 
reAevTatat TrapayyeXiai tov 
yi)paLov KXi(f>Tov A-^^ov els rot 
IlaAAiKa/attt tov 

*'■ ^jXios c/^ao-iAeve, k'j 6 

ArjfjLOS SiaTa^et' 
* St^pre, TraiSta /xov, *§ rb i^^poi 

^(o/xt va (^ar' diroxpe^ 
Kat crv AafXTrpdKT) fx' dvexpu, 

KdOiO"' eSw KOVTCt /xov 

Na Ta/a/xara /xov, cfiopccr' ra, 

had a higher and more heroic 
aim to which their education 
was directed from early youth. 
Here is the way in which the 
famous Nannos collected and 
trained young Klephts : 

" Nannos went forth upon the 

hills, high up on the mountain 

tops, and collected young 

Klephts, lads and youths. 

He gathered and assembled them 

and brought them to three 

thousand, and all day long he 

trained them and all day long 

addressed them : 

Hear me, my brave young 

warriors, and you, children of 

my own, I want not Klephts for 

goats, nor Klephts for sheep ; I 

want Klephts only for the sword, 

Klephts for the musket 

to make widows and orphans in 

the homes of the Turks, 

here to get ransoms, and there 

burn down the villages." 

In the following exceedingly 
beautiful song are described 
with much poetic grace the last 
commands of the aged Klepht 
Demos to his Pallicars : 

"The sun was setting and 

Demos issues his commands : 

* Go, my children, to the stream, 

to eat your meal to-night, 

and you, my nephew Lambrakis, 

sit down here beside me : 

here are my weapons, put them 



Kol ISes va ra rtixrjcrrjs, 
Kat cret?, TratSta /xov, Trdpere 

TO €pr)fJLO cnradi fxov 
Koi^ere irpda-iva KAotSta, 

cTTpoxrre fxe va Kadtcroi, 
Kat cf)€pT€ Tov TTvev/xartKo 

vol /x€ '^ofMoXoyyjcrr], 
Via va TOV 'ttu) to, KpLfxara 

6(Ta)((ji) Kafiayfieva' 
Tpuavra xpovt' 'Ap/xarwAbs 

k' eiKoa-LTrevre KAec^TT^g, 
Kat T(6/)a fjbovpd^ 6 OdvaTO<s 

Kat BeXo) va Ve^avw. 
Kayaere to KifSovpt fxov 

TrXarv, '^^Ao va y€vrj, 
Not crTCKW opOos vd ttoAc/xw, 

Kat StVAa vol ye^i^o). 
K'c aTTO TO fxepos to Se^t 

V* d(f)rj(rT€ TrapaOvpLy 
To, ^eAtSovta vap;)(wvTafc 

T'^v dvoL^i vd cfiepvovvy 
Kat TO, (XT^Sovta TOV KaAb 

TOV Mat' va KeAai'Sovve.' " 

*0 yrjpaios KAc^tt^s ws <^aiv€- 
Tttt Sev exopTacre fxe toI? /xaxa? 
Ttts OTTOias €Kafjiev els rrjv {iw/^v 
TOV, aAA' rj^cAe Kat Iv tw Ta^w 
aKOfJir] vd TroXcfiy. 

ToiovTOt rja-av 7ravTۤ cKeivot 
ot o/3€tvot /xax^Tat, ot ottolol 
€V /xovov ei^ov fxekrjfJLa tov 
fSiov TOiv TTWS va ixd\(ijiVTai 
dcfiofSoys Kat dv8pei(as KaTct twv 
TToAe/z-tcDV. Bc^aiws to ovo/za 


et'vat yvwo-TOv 6is {j^a5, 8toTt 
TToAAot "AyyAot 7repL7]yr]Tal 
eypaxf/av rrepl avTOJV. Ta 
TToAe/AtKO, avTWV dvSpayaO^/xaTa 
€?vat Trao-tyvwcTTa. "Et/3€Xov 

on, and see you do tliem honour, 

and you, my children, take my 

abandoned sword : 

cut green boughs and strew them 

for my seat, 

and bring the confessor to give 

me shrift, 

that I may tell him the sins I 

have committed. 

Thirty years an Armatole and 

twenty-five a Klepht, 

and now death has come to me 

and I am willing to die. 

Make my coffin wide and let it 

be high, 

that I may stand erect to fight 

and turn aside to load, 

and on the right-hand side you 

must leave a window 

that the swallows may come to 

bring the spring, 

and the nightingales sing of the 

lovely May.' " 

The aged Klepht apparently 
was not satisfied with the battles 
he had fought in his life, but he 
wanted still to go on fighting 
even in the tomb. 

Such were all those highland 
warriors, who had but one care 
in life, how to fight the enemy 
fearlessly and manfully. Of 
course the name of the dauntless 
Suliots is known to you, for 
many English travellers ha^e 
written about them. Their 
heroic deeds in war are known 
to all. On their precipitous 
mountains they ran like wild 
goats and fought like lions, and 




€7rt TMv airoKp'qiivdiV avTwi/ 
opkuiv (09 atyaypoL Kal kixaxovro 
(OS Acovre?, koI IttX ttoXvv 
Xpovov VTTijp^av 6 TpOfXOS TiOV 
TovpKOiv. Th V7rh vet^eAwv 
KeKaXvfJLfxevov eKeivo opos elvau 
TO TrepicjiyiJLOV 1,ovXl, ra? airpo- 
crLTOVS Tov OTTOLOV aKpcjpeias 
KarkXafiov ol ^ovXidrat irepl 
TO. TeXrf TOV YL' al(Ji)vos, kol 
ka-)(y]ixdTi(Tav fxtKpav avrovo/xov 

KOiVOTTjra (TVVL(TTaiX€Vr]V c^ 

€J38oixyJKovra yoipimv. 'Yttc- 
pdvia rrjs (f)of3€pd's xapdSpas 
8l' t^s pkovG-i jxeO' opfxrjs rd 
vSara tov 'A\€povTO<s Trora/xoi;, 
Trapd Tr)v KXeicrovpav, €K€lvto 
TO, TT/Qwra -yuipia twv SovAtco- 
Twi/, 'A/SapLKov,<f)a kol 
^afj,ov€/3a, els dTroa-Tacriv Se 
fXLKpdv rj TrpoiTevova-a Kixt/xr) ttJs 
ko6vot7;to?, r^Tts wvofid^eTO 
KaKocrovXc. ^YTrepdvo) tovtwv, 
els fx€po<s 6xvp(i>TaTov €k (fiva-ews, 

€K€LTO TO TTeptcfirjfJiOV K.L0VyKL, 

t5 OTTOLOV dTrr]OavdTL(r€v 6 
fjLOvaxos 2a/xovr/A. Ot TovpKOL 
TToXXdKLS Trpoa-eTrdOrjcrav vd 
Ka6vTroTd^(i)(rt to SovAi, aAA' 
at aTTOTTCtpat avTOJV dirkfiricrav 
/xaTtttat. KaTot Th €tos 1 790 6 
TreptcfirifJLOS t^s 'HTret/aoD caTpd- 
TTT/s 'AA>}s (JuAAc^as Icrxvpdv 
Svvafxtv irpoa-e/SaXcv dTrpoar- 
SoKy^TOJS Th SovAt, aAA' VTrkcrTTf 


aTTwAccre t5 TrAetcTTOv fikpos tov 
(TTpaTOv avTOv, aAA' eSiw^^r; 


*Io)avvtva)V. Avcravao-X€Tc3i/ 6 
AA-JJ? Sta TTyv T^TTav TavTr^v 

were for a long time the terror 
of the Turks. That mountain 
hidden by the clouds is the 
famous Suli, the inaccessible 
ridges of which the Suliots took 
possession of about the end of 
the 17tli century, and formed 
a small independent community 
consisting of seventy villages. 
Above the frightful chasm, 
through which rush in a torrent 
the waters of the river Acheron, 
near Cleisura, were situated the 
first villages of the Suliots, 
Avaricon, Kiapha, and Samo- 
neva, and at a little distance 
from them the principal village 
of the community, which was 
called Cacosuli. Above these, 
in a part which was excessively 
strong by nature, lay the famous 
Kiunghi, which the monk 
Samuel rendered immortal. 
The Turks often endeavoured 
to make Suli subject to them, 
but their attempts resulted in 
failure. In the year 1790, 
Ali, the celebrated satrap of 
Epirus, collecting a powerful 
force, unexpectedly attacked 
Suli, but he suffered entire 
defeat, for not only did he lose 
the greater part of his army, 
but he was pursued by the 
Suliots as far as Janina. 
Annoyed at this reverse, Ali 
employed every means to gain 



jjL€T€XeLpi(r$rj TtavTola fiecra 
oTTCos Kvpteva-rj to ^ovXu 'ISwv 
OTt 8ta Twv ottAwv 6ev rjSvvaro 
va KadvTTord^ri tovs avSpeiovs 
opecvovs kireipdOr] vd Karop- 
Oiocry TOVTO Sid rov xP'^f^ov kol 
Tr]<5 TrpoSocrias. Et§ eva Ik twv 
7rpo€x6vTCi)v oirXapxqydv rov 
^ovXiov, rov Ta-ijjJLav ZepfSav 
viricrxWy] oKTaKocria TrovyKLa 
dpyvpiov KOL jx€ydka<s Tcfids 
OTTWS Treicry avrdv vd TrpoSiocry 
TTJv irarpiSa tou, dW 6 yevvai0<5 
^ovXl(ot7]S eypaxpev avTW els d- 
Trdvrr]criv rrjv e^yjs ItticttoAt^v 

" 'Atto efxeva rov Tcr/y/xa 
ZepfSa, €is ecreva 'AXrj Ilacra. 

2' evxct/oto-Tco TToXv yid rrjV 
dydTTTjv 'ttov e^ets ytar* ifieva- 
/xov' rd TTovyKid crov ttov {xov 
ypdcficis vd fjiov a-reikrjs fMC tov 
Mttcto-o, va fxrj jxov to, (TTeLXys, 
yiarl 8ev '^epM vd to, /xer/ov/crw, 
KOi Sev '^epo) T6 vet to. Kavw 
/xov^ Kt dv y]^€pa TrdXtv Sev 
r^ixovv evxapicrrrjfievos vd (rov 
Sioo'Oi ov8e €va XiOdpt diro rovs 
^pdxovs rr)? TrarpiSos [xov^ kol 
o'xt vol (fivyo) ttTTO TO '2ovXl Sid 
rd TTOvyKid crov KaOoi<s ottov 
cfiavrd^ea-ai. Tt/xats kol So^ats, 
'ttov jxov VTroa'X^O'ai vd jxov 
8(o(rr]s, Sev fiov XP^'-^C^^'^^''-) 
ytarl els cfxeva ttAovtos, So^acs 
KOi TLfxals etvai rot dpfxard /xov, 
OTTOV jxe eKetva (fivXdoi rrjv 
TrarptSa /xov, rrjv iXevOeptav 
/xov KOi rd TratSta fxov, Kat 

TifMO) KOi TO OVOjXa TOV 2oV- 

AttuTOV Kol diradavaTi^oi kol to 
'SiKov pLOv TO 6vop.a.^^ 

j)OSsession of Suli. Seeing that 
lie was unable by arms to subdue 
the gallant mountaineers, he 
tried to effect his purpose by 
means of gold and treachery. 
He , promised eight hundred 
purses of silver and high honours 
to Tsima Zerva, one of the 
principal chieftains of Suli, to 
induce him to betray his country, 
but the noble Suliot in reply 
wrote to him the following 
letter : 

" From me, Tsima Zerva, to 
you, Ali Pasha. 

I thank you much for the 
affection which you have for 
me ; but your purses, which you 
write to me that you will send 
to me by Betso, you must not 
send to me, for I do not know 
how to count them, and I do 
not know what to do with 
them ; but even if I did know, 
I should not in return be 
pleased to give you even a 
stone from the rocks of my 
fatherland, still less to abandon 
Suli for the sake of your purses, 
as you imagine. The honour 
and glory which you promise to 
give me are of no use to me, 
for to me my arms are wealth, 
honour and glory, since it is with 
them that I guard my native 
land, my liberty, and my child- 
ren, and confer distinction on 
the name of Suliot and render 
my own name immortal." 



€is rhv 86\tov 'AXrj Ilacrav o 
cfaXoTraTpts ISovAitoTr;?. 

Nat, i^aopeTov^ dkX.' dTvx<^'i 
6 iravovpyos (Tarpdiri)<i fxerd 
TrapiXeva-iv oAiywv erwv Kar- 
(opSwcTi Sid 7rpo8o(rta<i vd yiivy 

KVpLO<S TOV 2ovAtOV, OV)(l opUDS 
Kol TCOV SovAttOTOJV, 8i6tL 

TToXXol e^ avTiav €7r€(T0V p-o-X^' 
pevoi 6t€ aTrecrvpovro €K tojv 
Trpoa-K^iX^v avTwv opkiov^ ol 81 
Xonrol KaT€(f>vyov els Tldpyav, 
tt)v OTTOLav pier' oXtyov Od 
l8(ji)PL€V Trpos rd dpta-repd rjpaav. 
*0 dv8peL0S povaxos ^apovn]X 
peivas reAeuTaio? /xera ttcvtc 
crvvayiovLa-Twv iv ry o^vp^ 
Oecret tov KiovyKiov, kol /xr) 
OiXwv vd 7rapa8o6r} ei's tovs 

ixdpOVS, i/SaXc TTVp €t? TYjV 

TTvpLTaTToOy'jKrjv /cat crvvaTre- 
Oav€v pierd ttoAAwv TroXepLLtov. 
El/ cro)p.a ^ovXcioTiov Karep^o- 


8pa(rTT]pL(i)s virh l(rxvpd<s 8vvd- 
p€0)S TovpKaX^aviDV. KaraAa- 
f36vT€S ot 2ovAt(OTat oxvpdv 
Bkcrtv VTrep rhv 'Ax^povra 
e8vv7]dr]crav €7rt 8vo rjpepa'^ v' 
dvriKpo{xTiJi(TL ras Trpoa-jSoXd'^ 
Ttov kxupoiv ttAAa ry]v TpiTrfv 
t'jpepav €l8ov ort ovre Tpocf)d<s 
ovre 7roAe/x€(^6Sta cixov. 'Ev 
rrj (TTtypr) ravry rijs aTreXTn- 
cria? at yvvauKes dxriraa-detxrai 
Tovs dv8pa<i Tiiiv koI XafSovcraL 
rd T€Kva Tiov ets rds dyKaXas 
i8papov €7rt Ttva €^€;(oixrav 
irkxpav vTrh r>;v oirolav e'xatve 
<f>of3epd x.apd8pa koI kuto) eis 

It was an excellent answer 
that the i:>atriotic Suliot gave to 
the crafty Ali Pasha. 

Yes, an excellent one, but un- 
fortunately the villainous satrap, 
after the lapse of a few years, 
succeeded, by means of treachery, 
in becoming master of Suli, 
but not of the Suliots, for 
many of them fell fighting while 
retreating from their beloved 
mountains, and the rest made 
their escape to Parga, which we 
shall see in a little while on 
our left. The brave monk 
Samuel, remaining last with 
five fellow -combatants in the 
stronghold of Kiunghi, unwilling 
to give himself up to his foes, 
set fire to the powder-magazine 
and perished with a great 
number of the enemy. One 
body of Suliots, descending 
from the mountains, was hotly 
pursued by a strong force of 
Mahometan Albanians. The 
Suliots, taking possession of a 
strong position above the 
Acheron, were able for two days 
to repel the enemy's attacks, 
but on the third day they saw 
that they had neither food nor 
ammunition. In this moment 
of despair the women embraced 
their husbands, and taking their 
children in their arms ran to a 
projecting rock beneath which 




TO /3d6os €pp€OV fxera pox^ov 
Tot a<^/oo€VTa vSara rov 'Ax^- 
povTos. 'Ek€l cfieLvav eirl 
fiLKpov a-vcrKeTTTOfievaL^ eVetra 
COS aTTO jJLLas 6pp.rj<s cfuX^^cracraL 
TO, (^iXrara avriov rcKva 
€crcf>€v86vrj(rav avra et? to 
/3dpa$pov. TovTOV yevo^ikvov 
evreAa^ovTO twv X'^^P^^ ^^' 
X'i]X{3iv Kol rjpxi^fJ'o^v ^d xop^v(J^o'i' 
kvkXlko}S fiGTa fieydXrjs raxv- 
rrjTOS, Kttt ovT(i) x^P^^^^^^'- 
€7ry]8r)(Tav iraa-ai fxta pLerd rrjv 
dXXrjv Kdro) els rov TrorapLov, 
TrpoTipi-qcracraL pcaXXov v' drro- 
Bdvoi(Ti irapd vd alxp^oiXiOTL- 
CrdMCnV VTTO twv TovpKOiv. 

01 8k dvSpes rt eKapiov ; 

UpooreTrdOrjcrav vd (TbidOxri Sid 
vvKTepcvrjs e^oSov^ dXX' ol 
ex^pol €(f)vXaTTOv dypv7rvo}<s 
Trdcras rds SiafSdcreis, (ocrre e/c 

TWV OKTttKOO-tWV avS/0€6(OV P'O-XV' 

Twv pLoXis CKaTOV TTevT'qKovra 
KaTiapBiMcrav vd (rojOiocnv els 
Tldpyav Trdvres ol dXXot 

'E^ ocriiiv piol etTTCTe ytvcTat 
KaTctST^Aov oTt ol SovAiWTai 
dve8eLxBr](rav kol avruyv twv 
dyoxatwv 27ra/)TiaT(ov dvSpeio- 
repoi. 'AAA.' etTrare /xoi, Tzapa- 
KttAw, TrXrjorid^opLev els ttjv 

Wipi,eda direvavn avTrjs. 
BXeTreTe eKeivqv rrjv pLiKpdv 
Xepcrovrjcrov ; eKel elvai rj Kard 
Tag dpxds tov TrapovTOS alojvos 
7repi(f)r]p.os yevop^evrj Tidpya. 
Ets avTr]v MS TrpoeiTTOv vpuv 
KaTe(fivyov odoi eK twv 2oi'- 

yawned a fearful chasm, where 
far down rushed with a roar the 
foaming waters of the Acheron. 
There they remained for a short 
time in deliberation, then as if 
with one impulse they kissed 
their beloved children and flung 
them into the abyss. When 
this was done, they took hold 
of each other's hands and began 
to dance in a circle with great 
rapidity, and, thus dancing, all 
of them leapt one after the other 
down into the river, thinking it 
better to die than to be captured 
by the Turks. 

And what did the men do % 
They tried to save themselves 
by a sally in the night, but the 
enemy sleej)lessly watched every 
j)ass, so that of the eight hun- 
dred gallant warriors scarcely 
a hundred and fifty succeeded 
in safely arriving at Parga : all 
the rest were killed. 

From what you tell me it is 
evident that the Suliots showed 
themselves even braver than the 
ancient Spartans. But tell me, 
please, are we approaching 
Parga ? 

We are opposite to it. Do 
you see that little peninsula ? 
It is there that Parga, which 
became celebrated at the be- 
ginning of the present century, 
is situated. It was in that town, 
as I told you, that as many Suliots 




aXojcTiv Tv/s TrarptSos t(dv. 

Aev VTr€K€LVTO XoLTrhv ot 

01 KOLTOLKOL Trjs Hdpyas 
Kara rh 1401 eTaxO-qcrav V7rh 
Tr)v Trpoa-Taa-tav ryjs ^Evctikt)? 
8r]fioKpaTia<s kol €fJL€Lvav vtt* 
avry]v p-^XP^ '^1'^ KaraAixrecus 
avTrjs Tco 1797 ^''"^ dveXafSov 
rrjv Trpoa-TacTLav avriov ol 
TdXXoL. 'O 'AXrj Tlacrds 
€yKap8i(i)S ptcrwv rovs Ilapyiovs 
SioTL Trapecrxov dcrvXov €l<s tovs 
^ovXiioras €Kat/oo<^vAaKT€t ottw? 
Kvpievcnj TTjv ttoXlv twv kol 
Tipioprjcnj avTOVS dirrjvios^ aAAa 
TO TTpa^LKOTrrjpia oirep aTreTrei- 
pddrj Kara rr/s Hdpya<5 t(^ 
1814 aTreVvxe, Slotl ol Udpyioc 
aTreKpovcrav ai'rov yevvaiuy'S kol 
dTTTJXOe KaTrjorxvpp^vos. Mera 
rrjv TTToxrtv tov NaTroAeovros •>} 

ITldpya krkSr] vtto tt)v Trpoa-ra- 
criav T?ys ^AyyAia?, aAA' avrrj 
peTo, rpta irrj €7r(x>X7](rev avTtjv 
. €("? TOV bpKio-OkvTa vd i^oXo- 
l 6p€\KTY] T0V<5 KarOLKOVS avTy]<s 
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7ra^a8o(r£faj ig Trj<i TToAgmg (^tpLcrOrji 
7} S eKaTTj matov tov 18 1 Q. "Ore 
ol UdpycoL r/Koixrav tyjv 6Xl- 
(Sepdv ciSrja-LV eyetvav ws paivo- 
pevot €^ ayavaKT'/jcrew?, Kal dire- 
<fid(rL<Tav vd (T(f>d^u)(TL ra? yvvat- 


vd 7r€(ro}(TL paxop^voc VTrep Trjs 
TrarptSos tiov dvopv^avTes Se 


as were saved took refuge after 
the capture of their native 

Were not then the people of 
Parga subject to the Turks at 
that time ? 

The inhabitants of Parga in 
1401 put themselves under the 
protection of the Venetian re- 
public, and remained under its 
safeguard until its overthrow in 
1797, when the French under- 
took their protection. Ali 
Pasha, who heartily hated the 
people of Parga for aflFording 
an asylum to the Suliots, was 
watching for an opportunity to 
get possession of their city and 
take a cruel revenge u^jon them, 
but the attempt which he made 
to surprise Parga in 1814 failed, 
for the inhabitants courageously 
repulsed him and he retired 
covered with shame. After the 
fall of Napoleon, Parga was 
placed under the protection of 
England, but that country after 
three years sold it to Ali Pasha, 
who had taken an oath to ex- 
terminate its inhabitants. The 
10th of May 1819 was fixed as 
the day for giving up the city. 
When the people of Parga 
heard the dreadful news, they 
were nearly mad with rage, 
and resolved to kill their wives 
and children and then fall fight- 
ing for their fatherland. Dig- 



Kal e^ayayovres ra ocrra avroiv 
avrjij/av ixeyaXrjV irvpav kv tw 


Kavo-av, OTTWS (Jirj fSe/SrjXijxroia-LV 
avTa ol iTrepxofxevoi ')^8rj <jiava- 


Icrxypa SvvafjiLS rov 'AXrj IIa(ra 
"^TO €(TTparo7re8eviJi€V7] ov [xaKpav 

TtJs 770 Actus kTOLfXTj VO, /CaTtt- 

Xaf^ll avrrjv. "AyyAos a^tto- 
/xartKos €<nT€V(r€ totc ei's Kep- 
Kvpav Kol yjyyetXev els rov 
apjxodT'qv MatrAavSov ra crv/x- 
fSatvovra. '0 MairAavSos 
€i5^vs €7re/x^ev e/<et rov crrpa- 
rrjyov "ASa/xs, cxttls rjTO dvrjp 
dyaOos kol rjyaTrdro vtto 
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7rapaarrd(T€0)V KaT(opO(i)(T€ v' 
dvaa-reiXri tyjv evrl rd Tvpoa-ia 
TTOpeiav Tov (TTparevfJiaTos rov 
'AXrj, 8l' ^TTLOiV 8e 7rapaLV€(T€0}V 
a7r€T/0€i/'€ Toy's TLapyiovs Tqs 
drrocfidcreoys avrwv kol tovs 
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XV(rLa<s €K€va)d7j rj ttoXls kol 
evdvs elcTMpixrja-ev el<s avrrjv 
TrafijjLLyrjs crvpcf^eTos dypto- 
fxopcfiiov TovpKaX/SavMV, S)V 
Trpoeiropevero (rp,rjvos xopevov- 
T(i)v Koi dXaXa^ovTOJv 8ep(ii(Tis>v^ 
KoX ovTOi KaTewecre to €(r\aTov 
TrpoTTvpytov XptcrTtavtK>J§ eAev- 
Oeptas €776 rrjs 'UTretpov. To 
e^rjs 87]fxoTtKov aa-fxa elvat irepl 
T^S TTwAr^crews rrfs Ilapyas* 

ging up the tombs of their fathers 
and taking out their bones, they 
lighted a great fire in the middle 
of the city and burnt them, lest 
their fanatical enemies, who 
were now coming, should pro- 
fane them ; for a powerful force 
in the service of Ali Pasha was 
encamped not far from the city, 
ready to take possession of it. 
An English ofl&cer then hastened 
to Corfu and reported to Mait- 
land, the High Commissioner, 
what was going on. Maitland 
at once sent there General 
Adams, who was a kind-hearted 
man and beloved by every one. 
He, by strong representations, 
succeeded in stopping the further 
advance of All's army, and by 
gentle advice turned the people 
of Parga from their resolve and 
persuaded them to remove to 
Corfu. In this way, without 
any bloodshed, the city was 
evacuated, and there immediately 
rushed into it a mixed rabble 
of savage - looking Mahometan 
Albanians preceded by a swarm 
of dancing and shouting der- 
vishes, and thus fell the last 
bulwark of Christian liberty in 
Ej)irus. The following popular 
song is about the sale of Parga : 

" ' Mav/30 irovXdKL Trovpxecrat aTrb TavTLKpv fJ-eprj, 
'lies fjiov Tt KXd^ats dXt^€pai<5, ri jxavpa fxvpoXoyia 
'Atto TTjv Udpya '/Syaivovcre 'ttov rd f3ovvd payi^ovv 


M>/i/a TT^i' TrAttKoxre TovpKba kol ttoAc/aos ttjv KaUi ; ' 

' Aev TTjv i7rX.dK(0(r€ TovpKLo.^ TToAe/xos Siv Ty]v kuUl, 
Toy's Ila/ayryvovs €7rovX.r](Tav 'crav 'ytSia, Vaj/ 'yeAaSta, 
K't oAot '9 Ty]V ^€VLT€La da. 'tt^v va ^^ycrovv ot KavfX€voL, 
S' dcjii'ja-ovvi TO, cnrirtd tov9, Tot»5 Tdcf>ov<i twi/ yoi/r^wv twi', 
0' d(f>i^j(rovv KOL rats CK/cAT^o'iai? Tou/aKOt va, rai? TraTouvc. 
TpafSovv yvvaiK€<s rd /xaAAta, Se/oi/ow rdcnrpd tov<s (Tri]Bia^ 
^vptoXoyovv 01 y€/30VT€? /jt€ jxavpa jxvpioXoyLa, 
TLaTrdSes /xe rot SaKpva 'ySvvovv rat? €KKAr;(rtais. 
BAeTTCt? €K€LV7) Tr)i/ (j)0)Ttd [xavpo KaTTvh 'ttov 'fiyd^€L ; 
^Ekci KatyovraL KOKKaAa, kokkuX' avSpetw/xei/wv, 
*IIou Ti>)v Tov/3Kta rpofid^avc koI rhv f^e^iprj Kaxpav. 
'Ekci Vat KOKKaAa yovr/ov, Vov t5 TratSt ra KaUi, 
Not /A-f) TO, f3povv ol AtaTTtScs, TovpKOL fiT) TO, 7raT>/crow. 
'Akous tov Opi^vo rov ttoAvi^ ottov f3oyKovv rd 8d(rrj, 
Kat TOV 'Sapjxh 'ttov yiVerai, ra /xavpa fxvpoXoyca ; 
E?vat V dTTO^inpL^ovTai Trfv SoXyja Tr]v TrarpiSa* 
^'tAouv rats Trerpats kol rrjv yrj kl ddTrd^ovrai to ;(w/xa.' — "' 

" ' Bird of the sombre plumage, who comest from the land be- 
y.'iid, tell me why the mournful wail and sorrowful lament which 
iviid the hills are coming out from Parga ? Is it that the Turk fell 
on it and the flames of war consume it?' 'The Turk fell not 
ui)on it, no flames of war consume it : the Pargians they have sold 
like cattle or like goats, and all the wretched people will go to 
live in foreign lands, will leave their homes, their fathers' tombs, 
will leave their churches for the Turks to trample under foot. 
The women tear their hair and beat their snowy breasts, the old 
men too in dark despair bewail their wretched fate, the priests 
with eyes bedimmed with tears strip the churches bare. Dost 
thou see that flame which sends out murky smoke ? — there burn 
the bones, the bones of gallant men, who were the terror of the 
Turks, and shrivelled up the vizier's heart. There are the father's 
bones which the son is giving to the flames, lest Liaps (Mahometan 
Albanians) discover them and Turks shall trample them. Dost 
thou hear the loud weeping re-echoed by the woods, and the wail 
that rises, and the melancholy moan ? It is that they abandon 
their afflicted fatherland, they kiss the rocks, they kiss the ground, 
and embrace the very soil.' " 

BAeTTw 7rap^]Xd€v 7} w/aa Kat I see it is late and it has 

2 D 




rjp\i(T€ va (TKoreivLa^yj' l^ov kul 
o K(x>8(DV rjX^h ^T€ ^5 VTrdyii)' 
fiev va yevfiaTLcrMfiev, Kai fxera 
TO yevixa av ayaTrare e^ep^o- 
?a TrdXiv els to KardcrTpiofia. 


ToLavr7]V hipalav vvKTa e^o) 
XpovLa Kol Kaipovs vol tSto. 
Kvrrd^aTe ttoctov KaOapos etvai 

o ovpavos , 


acmpes o-ixv- 


Aa/XTTCi ev TW /Aecr(^ avTWV 
IxeyaXoTrpeTTOiS. No/xt^et Tts OTt 
€ivat rjp.epa. 

Totavrrjv Ttvd vvKra tos 
(fiaLveTat el^cv els Trjv Sidvotdv 
rov 6 TTOirjTrjS Tlavay lmttjs 
^ovTcros ore ev tw 'Ay vwo-tco 
avTOv eypacfie ty]v e^yjs oypauav 

" Aap,7rpd (TeXy^vrj, iroia yaX'qvrj 
To pLeroiTTOv (tov TrepLKVKXiovei ! 

'E8(0 Tt (TTeKCtS; TTOIOV 7r/30- 

u-peveis ; 
Boo-Kei? T(ov d(rrpo)v tyjv xpvcrrjv 


Boo-KCt?, TToijuaivei? ; " 

*i2/)aia (Trpo<^rj — 'AAA" aKov- 
o-aTC" Sev o-as (ftatverai otl 
/Cairo tos eK€i ets t-^v Trpcopav 
TpayovSei kol irai^ei Xvpav ; 
a-TOiyiqp<xri{(Ji etvai 6 rvcfiXos 
yepiiiv. QeXere va virdyiap^ev 
va tov aKovdiJipev; 

Xwpts aAAo. 

Tt rpayovSi e^vat aTJTo to 
oTTOtov rpayovSei Tutpa ; 

'ETreiS-)) Sev r^KOVcra rrjv dp- 
\riv Sev elpiropoi va ads eiiria 
p^erd (5e(iai6rriTOS rivos r/poios 

begun to grow dark : there, tlie 
bell is ringing ; so let us go 
and dine, and after dinner, if 
you like, we will come out on 
deck again. 

I shall be delighted. 

Such a lovely night I have 
not seen for years and years. 
See how clear the sky is ! The 
stars shed a faint light and the 
moon shines magnificently in 
the midst of them. One fancies 
that it is day. 

Such a night, apparently, the 
poet Panagiotes Soutsos had in 
his mind when in his Agnostos 
he wrote the following beautiful 
stanza : 

" Bright moon, what calm sur- 
rounds thy face ! 
Why standest thou here 1 Whom 

dost thou await ? 
Art thou tending the golden 

flock of the stars, 
tending and herding them ? " 

A pretty stanza — But listen : 
does it not seem to you that 
some one there in the bow is 
singing and playing the lyre ? 
I bet that it is the blind old 
man. Shall we go and hear 

By all means. 

What is that song that he is 
now singing ? 

As I did not hear the begin- 
ning I cannot tell you with 
certainty of what hero he is 



(IvSpayadyfxaTa ^SeL' dW orav 
TiXeKoorr) rhv c/dwtw. — Mas 

KOLflViLS TYjV yaptV^ 7^/30, VCt 

yaas €i7rrj<s rl rpayovSi ^rov 
avrh Vov eTpayovSrjcres Tiopa; 

Mera X^P^'^> TratSta fxov. 
'Hrai/ TO TpayovSi rov Alolkov. 

^A U)p€, eKCLUOV TOV dv8p€Lii)fM€V0V 

AutKov. '^Av Sev TaKO-va-aTe air 
rrjv dp)(^rj, va rh '^avarpa- 
yov8i)a-oi KoX -yta (ras. — Ao? pa, 
TraiBi p! , tt) \vpa. — Tw/)a d<f)r]y- 
KpacrdrJTe ' 

" I IpoarKvva, AtctKO, toj/ Ilacra, 

~poa-Kvva TOV l^e^tpi], 
N<). 7€i^>/S npcDTap/AaTwAos, 

Aep/Sevayas va y€VY)<s. — 
"Ofrw Vat AtaKOS ^(ovravhs 

I lao-a Sev TrpocrKvvdeL' 
Ilao-a ')(^eL AtaKos rh (nraOty 

Be{"ip7/ TO TOVcfiCKL. 

AArJ IIao"a9 crav raKovcre 

(Sapeta tov KaKOc^dvrj • 
Vpd(f)€L ypacfiij Kol irpo^oSa,, 

pavpa pavrdra CTTeXvef 
' ^e (T€va BeAr} FKexa p,ov, 

'<S rats )((i)paLS, to, ^loptd piov, 
Tov Ata/co ^cAw {(avTav5v 

V) Kav dizoOap^pikvov.^ — 

r/v€Kas ' (iyaLV€i irayavid 
Kol KVVy]yd€L tovs KAec^Tas, 

\ia(^aiv€L AoyKOvs Kat ^ovvd, 

, TOXS /3pL(rK€L 's TO ' X.r]p,€pL 

'n aAAo6 yvaAi^av to, crTraOtd, 

1 Kt aAAot (}iOV(T€Kui cfiTidvav. 
^OVTOy LaKOVTTip (fni>va^€V 

(XTTO T(i p.eT€pt^f 

Ka/o8ta, TratSta /xov, Kdp.€T€ 
yLopov(ri 's Tct Kpidpia.' — 

singing the gallant deeds, but 
when he has finished I will ask 
him. — Will you do us the 
favour, father, to tell us what 
that song was you were singing 
just now ? 

With pleasure, my children. 
It was the song of Liacos. Ah, 
indeed, of the brave Liacos ! 
If you did not hear it from the 
beginning, let me sing it again 
for you. — Give me the lyre, ray 
boy. — Now listen. 

" ' Submit, Liacos, to the Pa- 
sha, submit to the vizier, that you 
may be made Chief Armatole, be 
made commander of the passes.' — 

' As long as Liacos lives, 
to no Paslia will he yield : 
for Pasha Liacos has his sword, 
his musket for vizier.' 

When Ali Pasha heard these 
words deep was his displeasure : 
he writes a note and sends it, 
despatches a dark message : 

' To you my Veli Ghecas, 
to my towns and to my villages : 

I want Liacos living, or dead 
at all events.' 

Ghecas goes to set an ambush, 
is hunting for the Klephts, 
goes through the valleys and the 
hills, and finds them at their camp 
where some were polishing their 
swords, others making cartridges. 

Condoyacoupis cried aloud 
from his entrenchment : * My 
children, summon your courage 
and make a rush upon the sheep.' 




'0 AiaKos kTTera^rriKey 
Votv a€T0<5 TreTierat, 
^KOV^€L KOL rpefJLOVV ra /3ovva 

KL OLVrifBoyKOVV ol KaiXTTOl' 

'Me/oa KOL vvxra ivoXejxovv, 

rpeis 'fxepais kol r/oeis vv)(Tai<i. 
'EKAa^av ' KpfSavLTicr(Tai<i 

's TO. fiavpa (fiop€jJi€vaLS, 
'0 BeA')} TKiKas yvptcre 

'9 TO ai)u,a Tov Trvty/xei'o?, 
K't 6 Mov(TTa(f>as Xa/SioOrjKC 

's TO yova /cat 's rh X^P'-" 

Up sprang Liacos, 
like an eagle dashes out, gives a 
shout and the hills tremble and 
the plains send back the sound : 
all day and night they fought, 
for three days and three nights. 
The Albanian women wept 
clad in mourning raiment, 
Veli Ghecas went back 
drenched in his blood, 
and Mustapha received a wound 
in the knee and in the arm." 

ESy€, TToXv /caAot fia<5 erpayov- 
Brjcre's to rpayovSt tov dvSpetct)- 

fieVOV AiOLKOV. El^€V/3€fc5 KOL 

Kavkv aAAo va //,asT/3ayouSryo->;?; 

"Ocra OeXere, iraihia fxov. 

'IleTe fJLOV TTOio va eras rpayov- 

Et^evpets TOV Alolkov to Tpa- 
yovSi ; 

'Akovs eKei, av to '^epo) ! 
XiAtats <j)opai<^ Toi^w Tpayov- 
8i^a-rj. — Few/oyo, TraiSt piov, e'Aa, 
va fxov ^rjs, ttAcio o-tfjia yia va 
pe f3o7]das 'Aiyo 's to Tpayov8i, 
Kal TTjpa va KpaTO-S KaXa to 

Bravo ! You sang us the song 
of the brave Liacos very well 
indeed. Do you know any 
other to sing to us ? 

As many as you like, my 
children. Tell me which one 
to sing to you. 

Do you know the song of 
Diacos ? 

Listen to him ! Do I know 
it ! I have sung it thousands 
of times. — George, my boy, 
come closer, long life to you ! 
that you may help me a little 
in the song, and take care to 
come in at the right time. 


(6 Matou 1821) 

'inoAA-^ piavpiXa TrXaKcocre, p^avprj Vav KaXiaKOvSa, 
Mrjv 6 KaAi;/?as epx^rat, />i7)v 6 Ae/3evToy tavv^s ; 
Oi)T 6 KaXvf:ias epx^Tai, ov8' 6 Ae^evToyiavv-qs, 
*0/xe/o BptMvrjs TrXaKOio-c p\ 8eK0XTiii X^^^^^^'-'^' 


'0 AittKos Vttv T dypoiKrj(r€ ttoXv tov tov KaKO(fidvr) 
'"^Vijk^jv (ji(t)vy]v €a"tJKio(r€ t5v irpQiTov tov (fiUivd^eL' 
*" Hh (TTpdrevfid fxov (Tvva^€, 'fidcre rd TraAAt/capta, 
Aos TOVs ixTrapovTt) 7r€pL(T(Trj Kal (ioXta yae rai? (f)OV)^TaL<Sj 
'TXrjyopa, /cat vd Trtda-ojfxe kcxtco 's ti)v ' AXajxdva^ 
'Ottov 'v Ta/jLTTOvpia Swara, ottov 'v Kal /zere/oet^ia.' 
'KTTTJpav rd ' X.acf>pd cnraBid kol rd fSapetd Toi;<^€Kia, 
'2 ry]v 'AXafJidva icf^dacrav kol Trtdcrav rd rafXTrovpia ' 
' KapSitt, TratSta /xoi',' <^wva^e, ' TraiSid, fxrj cf)o/3r]drJT€^ 
'AvSpeiOL (jKrdv "EAAt^vcs, (oo-av F^atKOi (TTaOTJrc.' 
'¥tKeLV0L i(fiof3Tj0r]Kav kol crKopTTurav 's tot;? AdyKovs, 
"E/x€tv' 6 AtaKO§ '§ TT/v cjiOiTid fjie 8€K0')(Tii) Xef^evrais. 
Tpets lopats CTToAeyaae fie 8€ko\to) ^iXidS