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Full text of "Nepal, the birth place of Kalidas; [synopsis"

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E PAL 



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BERKELEY 

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OP 
CALIFORNIA 



Birth Place of Kalidasa 

( Synopsis ) 




By 
PT. MURAL1DHAR BHATTARAI 



NEPAL 

( The Birth Place of Kalidas } 



by 
FT. MURALIDHAR BHATTARAI 



Me ( 3, ) 



Printed by Manohar Press, Varanasi, ( India. ) 



B * 



FOREWORD 



Shri Harsha, the celebrated poet of 12th 
century, has mentioned the name of Nepal in 
Naishadiya Charitam, as we read on 
12/43. 



But at the time of Kalidasa 1st century B. C. 
it seems to me that Nepal was not in the same 
political form as she is at present. Then 
the Western Nepal was in .Uttarakoshala and 
the Eastern was in Mithila, as is learnt from 
the Sarayumahatmya and Mithilamahatmya. 
It is vividly seen fhat Nepal in those days was 
divided into the several petty states, as we 
find in the above quoted stanza. 



But the case of Kalidasa is different from 
that of Shri Harsha. Kalidasa was thoroughly 
acquainted even with an ordinary grass of 
Nepal, though he has not given the name of 
Nepal as Shri Harsha did. It was partially 
from his un-selfish nature and partially out of 
the non-existence of a particular kingdom known 
as Nepal separate from the other ones at the 
time of Raghu. 



The Plots of the Poet's Works 

The story of Kumarsambhava 

The Gods annoyed by the demon Taraka 
tried to unite Shiva and Parvati, the daughter 
of king Himalaya in marriage in the hope of 
having a son from the father of the Universe 
as a commander for their army in the war 
against the demons. They had been successful 
in their scheme. Kumara, the son of Shiva, 
killed the demon and restored the kingdom of 
the heaven to the Gods. The plot is borrowed 
from the Skanda Purana. 

Raghuwamsa 

In this work the ideal characters of the 
kings of the solar lineage are depicted. The 
story is extracted from the Ramayan. 
Vikramorvashia 

In this drama the extreme affair of love 
between the king Pururaba and Urvashi, a 
celestial nymph, is described. This story is 
taken from the Mahabharatam. 
Malvikagnimitram 

This drama is a social one. Here the love 




between Malavika and Agnimitra is expounde 
and the importance of music too is exhibited. 
Meghadutam 

In this Kavyam a Yachhya, who owing 
to the curse of his lord Kuvera had to 
stay for a year in the mountain of Ramagiri, 
being separated from his beloved wife, sends 
his painful message to her through the 
cloud. This plot also is taken from the 
Ramayana, where Ram sends his pathetic news 
through Hanumana to his wife Sitaji. in Lanka. 
Ritusamhara 

Here are beautiful poems describing the 
six-seasons. In this Kavyam the description of 
nature is unique. 

The age of Kalidasa 

Kalidasa. did not refer to his birth place, 
date of birth and the king by whom he was 
supported. For the great men who have dedi- 
cated themselves to the service of mankind 
have very little time to look at themselves. 
This is the duty of his countrymen to trace 
out when and where he flourished. To decide 
his age the evidence of the Archaeological 
survey of India for 1909-10 will be undisputed 
proof, The coin found from the excavation of 






( 7 ) 

Bhita near Allahabad has the inscription of a 
scene from the Shakuntala which is decided 
by the specialist to be of the Sunga period. 
The Sungas ruled from 187 B. C. to 72 B. C. So 
our poet must have existed in 1st century B. C. 
And in the last stanza of the Malavikagnimitra 
we find the line rforn; srforfire, where the present 
tense is used, therefore it can be boldly said 
that Kalidasa flourished at the time of Agni- 
mitra, the son of Pukhyamitra. According to 
Hilbrade, a German scholar Kalidasa was 
before ( SRSRfa ) Ashwaghosha. 



Nepal 

The Birth place of Kalidasa 

Scholars of the east and the west alike differ 
from each other in their opinions regarding the 
time and place of the great poet of the world, 
Kalidasa. All of them seem to have endeavou- 
red to bring into light the date and place 
of his birth. But very few of them seem to 
have succeeded even to a little extent in 
their efforts. Some of the learned men 
are of the opinion that the poet was 
born at Ujjayini. The first and foremost 
thing, on which they are firmly determined 
for their resolution of Ujjayini to be the 
birth place of our poet, is the great affection 
shown by the poet towards her. Some erudites 
ascribe Bengal to be the birth place of Kalidasa 
on the evidence his mentioning frequently the 
cultivation of paddy crops in his works. And 
there is not a small number of thinkers who 
believe Kalidasa to be an inhabitant of Kashmir 
on the ground of his exposition of the dance of 
ever green creepers in his literature. In this way 



a lot of people have tried to make Kalidasa 
their own, but not in a very successful manner. 
The most popular critic Rajashekhar in his 
Suktimuktawali says that there had been three 
poets know as Kalidasa, 



Here I am concerned only with the author 
of Shakuntala, Malavikagnimitra, Vikramor- 
vassiya, Raghuwansha Kumarssambhava, 
Meghaduta and Ritusambara and not with the 
name of Kalidasa at all. It can also be said 
that out of the many one or two Kalidas as 
could have belonged also to Kashmir, Bengal, 
and other provinces. But the thorough study 
of the above mentioned books of Kalidasa 
bears the testimony to the truth that the real 
Kalidasa was born nowhere but in Nepal. By 
the critical investigation through the literary 
works of Kalidasa, at the same time Ujjayini 
would be probed to be the place for his 
literary performances and the land of his father- 
in-law. 

Similarity between Nepal and Ujjayini 

Both, Nepal and Ujjayini have been the 
famous Hindu holy places from the Vedic up 



( 11 ) 

to the pressent time. Chhipra, in Ujjanini, is 
held upon as holy as the Gandaki, Koshi, and 
Bagmati of Nepal. In Nepal the temple of 
Pashupatinath has been the centre of Hindu 
attraction from time immemorial, so is the 
temple of Mahakalashiva in Ujjayini. Both of 
the places have been centers of hermitage for 
ascetisism to the warriors of Mahabharata. It 
is seen in the Mahabharata that Pandawas, 
the great heroes of Mahabharat had been 
frequently visiting Pashupatinath, in Nepal and 
Mahakala in Ujjayini. 

Kalidasa, moreover, praised now and then 
the quiet and calm region near the temple of 
Pashupatinath and Mahakala far from the din 
and dust of the world. Near the temple of 
Mahakala there is a temple of Saptarishis in 
Ujjayini. The traces of their Ashramas are 
found on the banks of Kali, Trishuli, and 
Koshi, in Nepal. There is a famous cave of 
Rishiswara near Palung on the road to Tribhu- 
ban raj path in Nepal. Mela is held on the 
occasion of Shivaratri in Pashupatinath temple 
and in Mahakala of Ujjayini. As in Nepal so in 
Ujjayini a grand temple of Harisiddhi is to be 
seen. In both the country Harasiddhi is said: 






to be family diety of king Vikramadittya. As 
in Ujjayini there is a story of cutting his head 
to please the Goddess prevalent in Nepal 
too. Thousands of people go every year to see 
the head of Vikrama lying near the temple of 
Tara Layanny a Puri in Nepal. As in Nepal 
there is a temple of Dakhinkali on the outskirt 
of the city in Ujjayini as on the top of the 
Farping hill in Nepal. As the Bhairabhgarh 
( fortress ) of Kirtipur in Nepal, we have 
similarly a fort called Bhirahgadh at a 
distance of three miles from the city of 
Ujjayini. Kalabhairava is worshipped in both 
the countries as a terrible as well as a powerful 
God of war. As in Kageastami in Nepal the 
Bhairabastami is celebrated with great devo- 
tion by the people of Ujjayini. The Bhairava- 
yatra of Ujjayini has very little difference with 
the Bhairavayatra of Nuwakot in Nepal. The 
worship of Ganesh in Nepal and Ujjayini is 
popular alike. 

Even the images of the five headed Hanuman 
and sixteen-handed Ganesh are found in the 
same style in both the countries. As the 
Navagrahas are worshipped within the camp of 
JPashupatinath, so also exactly in Ujjayini, 



( 13 ) 

also there is a grand teinple of Matsendranath 
in Ujjayini as in Nepal. Kautilya, the great 
Hindu economist also had mentioned the name 
of Nepal and Ujjayini along with the names of 
other cities.. According to Bhagawata Purana 
Lord Krishna had gone to Ujjayini to acquire 
the knowledge of the Shastras from a Brahamin 
preceptor, Sandeepini by name. In the same 
book, in the same way it is seen that Shri 
Krishna came to Nepal and dedicated a temple 
of Shiva at the confluence of Wagamati and 
Visnumati to gain power to conquer the enemy> 
called Banasura. The Pradumneswara and the 
Gorkeshwar are the witness of the truth. In 
the Mahabharat the name of a king of Nepal 
and a king of Ujjayini are found, who fought 
against the army of the Kaurawas, in favour 
of the Pandawas. 

Nepal for thousand of years had been closed 
and cut off from the world. No body could 
give attention in this direction and at the 
same time similarity between Nepal and 
Ujjayini had made the scholars confused to 
distingush the place wherein our poet was born; 
nor could they clearly understand his emotion 
an light of which he had expressed it in his 



( 14 ) 

works. Now Nepal also is out of the darkness 
in the history of the world. So we should 
widen our outlook. 

There is a renowned story told in 
every roof of Nepal in respect of the 
early life of Kalidasa. About one thousand 
and two hundred years ago there was a wonder- 
ful throne near Pashupati temple. It lay 
buried under the ground, which was some- 
what raised above the general level. For a 
long time it had been a play-ground of the 
cow-herd boys who went there daily to tend 
their cattle. They used to elect a man from 
their group and make him their king to rule 
over them for that day. The king was chosen 
in an election of a peculiar type. The can- 
didates had to run a race from a fixed 
point to the place under which the throne was 
kept. And he who could reach first of all was 
made a king to rule for that day. Such was 
the influence of the divine throne that the cow- 
herd's king was obeyed even by the people, 
who happend to come near him, and what ever 
he told came to be true due to the power of 
the throne and the judgment given by him 
went never wrong. 



( 15 ) 

By virtue of these things the place as well 
as the cow-herd king had earned great repu- 
tation in the country. 

Once a man living in a service of a 
king in Ujjayini sent a precious gem through 
the hand of his co-worker to give to his 
wife in Nepal. The bearer being enticed with 
the gem did not hand it over to the wife 
of his friend. The man, on the other hand, 
arranged a group of witnesses as to give testimony 
in the court if needed. Ater a long time the 
man came from Ujjayini to his home in Nepal. 
By and by, he asked his wife about the gem he 
had sent, on which she said, "I have not got it 
yet, I do not know who brought it when, and 
what is it for ? The man came to know that he 
had been cheated, So, he immediately went to 
the home of his friend and asked him to return 
the gem soon. Thereupon that fellow said, "It 
was handed over to your wife the very day I 
arrived here." u Be careful" he said and went to 
the court of the king of the country and filed 
a suit against him. The witnesses having been 
bribed by the cheat gave false evidence and as 
a result the king gave the judgement against 
his fate. Being cheated of the gem and having 

2 



( 16 ) 

been deprived of the justice he went sad to his 
home while he saw the cow-herd king, 
his ministers and soldiers, on the way, playing 
their parts. The man noticed it standing 
near by. The king also heard from him all 
the matters of his sadness. The cowherd king 
promised him to give a correct judgement 
for his case. On being told the matter from the' 
very beginning, the cow-herd king summoned alL 
of them. On comming they were ordered to sit; 
separately ;ind draw a sketch of that gem on 
the piece of paper without knowledge of the 
others. None of them except the sender and the 
bearer of the em could draw the correct 
picture of it. The cow-herd king seated on the 
raised level of a ground under which the throne 
was hidden giving decison said that the gem was 
undoubtedly sent and it was brought by that 
man, but neither it w r as handed over to the 
wife of the plaintiff nor was even seen by the 
witnesses. The judgement given by the cow- 
herd king, was accepted by the court of Nepal 
and so the cheat was compelled to give back 
the gem to the owner of it. 

The king being amazed at his genius gave 
an order to his ministry to excavate the ground 



( 17 ) 

sitting whereon the cow-heard boy could 
ve the correct judgement to his subjects. 
Excavation was done and a throne inscribed 
with the thirty two figures of the celestial 
damsels was discovered and then there had 
been a thorough investigation of it. From this 
the king and his court came to the conclusion 
that it was the throne of the world renowned 
king, Vikramaditya. By order of the king 
a grand temple was built and an image of 
Shree Ramchandra was installed on that 
throne. The temple of Ramaji is called 
Battishputali. From the story we can draw the 
:onclusion that Vikramaditya was the common 
king of Ujjayini and Nepal. There is another 
story of Vikrama told in connection with the 
Narayanhiti, a water spring near the royal 
palace of present Maharajadhiraja. (Hiti means 
natural water spring in Newari language.) Once 
there happened a drought for twelve years in 
Nepal. Due to the want of water men and animals 
began to breathe their last. The king sent for 
the wise men of his country and asked them the 
cause and the remedy of this calamity. The 
wise men advised the king to sacrifice a young 
man of spotless character as the remedy of the 



( 18 ) 

terrible drought. The king sent his men to 
seek for such a young man of spotless character 
for the solution of the drought problem. The 
men, in search of such a man, roamed far and 
wide but in vain. At last they found a hand- 
some young man entirely of spotless character 
and body. He was not a son of an ordinary 
man but of King Vikramaditya himself. 
Hearing this, the eyes of the prince shone with 
delight and he made up his mind to sacrifice 
his life in order to save the country from the 
calamity of the drought. He liked to go to 
the Hity every day to enjoy the fresh and pure 
air of the holy place. One day he heard the 
wise men say that the ;Muhurta of sacrifice 
had come. Having heard this he could hardly" 
go back to his palace. On returning any how to< 
his palace he sent a royal order to the 
soldiers in charge of the Hiti-temple to 
slaughter the man who would be found 
sleeping covered with a white sheet to that 
night. At night the prince stealthily came 
out of his palace and went direct to the temple 
and slept without the knowledge of the soldiers 
on the duty at that place. At the given time 
the soldiers slew their prince as they were 



< 19 ) 

rdered. As soon as the sacrifice of a spotless 
oung man was done the water began to flow 
i abundance. The sky was immediataly 
overed with the dark clouds and rained in 
rrents. Now the Hiti is known as Narayan 
liti and Vikrama Hiti as well. It is separated 
>y a circuit wall from the main road to the 
oyal palace. It might have been clear that 
ne of the sons of Vikramaditya had given up 
is life to save the Neples from being doomed. 

From these stories a thoughtful man can 
atisfactorily conclude that Vikrama, a king of 
Jepal, ruled even over the country of Ujjayani. 

Now, it can be asked, what the story has 
o do with the birth place of Kalidasa. From the 
ibove mentioned story it can be infered that 
he king Vikrama probably took some Brahmin 
)oys from Nepal to Ujjayini ; among whom 
Salidas and Amar Singh were prominent. Before 
jiving decision of the birth place of our poet, 
t also is necessary to ponder upon the incidents 
f his life. 

There are hermitages of the sage Kandu 
md Bharata on the bank of the Malini ( Madi ) 
iver in the western Nepal. And not in a long 



( 20 ) 

distance from Reedi or Rireetirth, is a village 
known as Alaka ( Argha ), where our poet was 
born. On the first day of Ashadha, in the 
first century B. C. His father lived a holy life. 
He was not so poor as generally Brahmins are 
seen. But he was not much happy because 
he had no son. So he used to go to the bank 
of the Kali, and prayed her daily to bless 
him with a son. One night his wife dreamed 
a dream in which she saw the Kaliganga 
blessing her with a smile. In the morning she 
told her dream to her husband. On hearing it 
his joy knew no bounds. She became pregnant 
and gave birth to a son, who being given by 
goddess Ganga Kali, was named Kalidasa. It 
was that boy who was later on known as poet 
Kalidasa. 

The boy grew up to be a very arrogent 
young man. He was very strong and staut but 
in his early age he was quite distitute of 
intellect. Once, it is said that he went to gather 
the leaves of the trees for the fodder of the 
cattle, as the hill people generally do, began to 
cut down the'branches of a tree on which he was 
seated. At the very time one of the Men of the 
"king Vikramaditya happened to come to the 



spot. He was surprised to see the wonderful 
boy cutting down the branches of the tree on 
which he sat, not minding of the falling d( v>n 
with the branch. '1 he person, who thought to 
take revenge upon the daughter of the king who 
had refused to become his wife, promised the 
thick brained boy to cause the king to marry his 
beloved daugher to him provided the later would 
keep silence till the marriage would take place. 
The boy agreed to do so and then was taken 
to the palace of the king Vikrama Who liked 
him very much for his oeauty, strength and 
health. He was married to a beautiful princess 
named Viddyottama a very learned girl. Till 
the marriage ended Kalidas uttered no word. 
In the night of honey moon he broke his silence 
with tears in his eyes. 

"What is the matter with you'' said she to 
him. "My 'ka' has become very lean and thin/' 
He said with a stammering voice. 

She again enquired cf her husband to 
explain what he meant by becoming lean and 
thin of the *ka'. "It was bigger when I read it 
in the board of my home, now poor 'ka' is 
reduced very small" he said. 



( 22 ) 

On hearing this, she became very much dis- 
appointed and sad. She came to know also the 
mischief done by the unsatisfied minister. Then 
she said "oh, fool, you do not recognize even the 
<ka' the first letter of Devanagari character ? 
Be at once out of this palace." 

He was turned out of the home by his wife. 
He asked her where should he go and what 
should he do. In response of it she said. You 
illiterate fool, go to the temple of the Kali, 
near Ruruterth, ( now known as Ridi ) and do 
some Upasana to propetiate her. Do not turn 
your face any more, until you become a 
learned man". 

He thought, a man without the knowledge 
of the scripture is as useless as an overcoat in 
Bombay. For days together he kept wondering 
hither and thither at random as a hotel boy's 
of Nepal in India. One day he was told that on 
the bank of the Kali Ganga there is a temple of 
Goddess Kali within a forest, some distance 
away from Ridi. He became as happy to know it 
as a minister in a party. He entered the temple 
and propiciated Kali within a week. Kali 
being very pleased with his insisting devotion 
appered before him and blessed him with a 



( 23 ) 

boon. By the grace of .mother Kali the veil of 
obstacle for knowledge had been removed from 
his mind. His "brain became as clear as crystal 
ready to receive what ever was seen, heard and 
thought. His sorrow ended. Again one night 
mother Kali blessed him by putting her hand on 
his head and ordered him to go to Mithila, the 
birth place of king Janaka and Yagnyavalkya, 
Satananda and Seeta. 

In those days Janakpur had been the centre 
of learning. So he went to Mithila, Janakpur. 
There he canie to know of the place where an 
Upadhya, a great teacher lived. Kalidasa went 
to the Acharya who accepted him as a disciple. 
Within a short time he completed the course 
of study and became a great. erudite. There is 
a temple of Kali in a village named Uchcha in 
Durbhanga' district. It is told that Kalidasa 
during the time of his study used to go to this 
temple of Kali. Even now the temple is known 
to be of the Kali of Kalidasa where the students 
go every day to be benefited in their study. 

After completing his study, he went Ujjayini 
where his wife with his father were waiting for 
him with a great impatience. Vidyawati, the 
wife of the poet Kalidasa was in her room 



( 24 ) 

making preparation to receive her husband. 
As soon as she saw him said 3TRcf ^ra^cnq^ 
firtfa:, that is "I think, there is a progress in 
your learning" Then the poet smiled slightly 
and sat by her side and promised her to present 
the books beginning with the words spoken by 
her in the sentence said above. He spoke this 
in n cultured and lucid Sanskrit. 

He thought it, his duty to pay homage to 
his mother country on whose bosom he was 
brought up. So he wrote at the set up the 
Kumar Sambhava. 



There is an abode of Gods named Himalaya 
in the north direction, the king of the mountains,. 
whose two ends are merged into the ocean and 
is standing as the measuring rod of the Earth. 
By this stanza every thoughtful person can 
automatically make an inference for the fact 
that the lap of the Himalaya was the birth place 
of Kalidasa. Becouse the patriot, whenever he 
may have lived, being compelled by the 



( 25 ) 

circumstances, recalls his birth place now 
and then. Our poet felt it his bounden duty 
to make the world know his birth place 
Himalaya. So he beginies by the sentence 
"there is Himalaya/' etc. He wants to express 
his hidden joy before the people of the world. 
The sublimity of the Himalaya is known 
to the world. For this reason the kings of 
Nepal, from the time immemorial are honoured 
with the eoithet of Adhiraja or the kings of 
kings supreme rulers. As the king of Nepal 
today are given the title of Adhiraja. In this 
stanza, adhering the tradition of Nepal the poet 
gives the title of supreme ruler to his beloved 
Himalayas. The Gauri Shanker or the Mount 
Everest in Nepal is the highest plateau of the 
mother earth. That is why the poet says that 
Himalaya is the spinal cord of the Earth. 

The world renowened Kirat Pradesh is in 
Nepal which is given a considerable room in 
the book of the both poets Kalidasa and Bharavi. 
Bharavi has a general knowledge of Kiratas 
while Kalidasa seems to have a particular knovv- 
lege of it, The description of the Kiratas in 
Kumar Shambhava can be told by no means that 
it was a mere imagination of the poet. It will be 



( 26 ) 

clear from the following stanzas that the know- 
ledge that he had of the Kirat Province can 
not at all be called derived from the books of 
geography only. No man who had not seen it 
with his own eyes can describe it so clearly. 
For example, Kalidasa, expounding the natural 
beauty of the Kirat region says, 



n 



For the better understanding of the nature of 
the hill men the underlined words in the above 
given stanzas of Kumar Shambhava are worth 
studying with a great attention srt^T. ^TT 
lights without oil etc. Some kinds of woods are 
seen in the forest of Nepal, shining at night as 
bright as the day light, known as Ujeli Kath in 
.Nepali words. People wonder to see the trees 



( 27 ) 

emitting bright rays at night enough to read, 
books in it. 

The poet seems very proud to be a hill man, 
so he expresses his noble pride in this stanza. 



Our Himalaya is very proud to give shelter 
to an afraid as he protects the darkness afraid 
of the rays of the sun giving shelter in his caves. 
This is the nature of the noble ones to embrace 
the refugee however mean he may be". 

Let us proceed a little further and look what 
an attractive picture is put before us by this 
"fa^ft^ sr^T wrfcf" it means the clouds have 
served the purpose of a screen for the doors 
of the Himalayan-caves-dwelling-Kiratas. A 
man without living in a place for a long time 
can never describe so actually as the poet in 
the 1/14 stanza of Kumar-Shambhava. An 
inexperienced man can, however campare the 
cloud with the canopy not with the screen, 
as seen in the folk tales of Nepal "^ST ^t ;K 
3ft 3T?<$ ^t ^Rt ^f &B *f$Tl" O' sport of lord, 
door of cloud, do not hide me, ( the stanza is 
sung every where in the hill side of Nepal. ) 
Kalidasa's favowrite flower 'Shirish' and the 



( 28 ) 

Niwari corn which he prefers above all ate 
grown in good deal in the soil of Nepal. Shirish 
is colled Shiru in Nepali and there is a Hindu 
tribe named Niwara after the name of Niwar 
corn and Niwari flowers here. The Himalya 
is termed as Gauri guru by Kaljdas in his 
'Shakuntala'. There is Gouri Shanker summit 
of the Himalaya in Nepal about which very 
little was and is known to the people of Bengal, 
Bihar Kashmir and Ujjayini. In the stanza 22 
Kumar and 2/65 in Raghubansha, for the break 
fast of Uma the word parana is used by our poet. 
In the Magari and Nevari language the same 
words are used, Uma for the mother and Parana 
for eating after the religious fast respectively. 
Ume (^t ) in Magari and 'palan 5 ( qj3? ) in 
Newari is an etymological proof of his beeing 
a Native of Nepal. Again the day in which Uma 
took the vow of austerity to attain Shanker as 
her husband and gained the name Uma is held 

very auspicious and is observed fast in this 
day by every woman of Nepal. It was therefore 

his charecterstic to call up the fasting of the 

female members of his house of whose he 
depicted the picture in the name of Uma. 

5/32 
ft[ ^ 5/S5 



( 29 ) 

"Body is the first thing amongst the means 
of Dharma-duty : the gems do not seek man 
but it is sought by him." This is a great respect 
towards the Hindu woman. From the first line 
it is also hinted that the people living in the 
bossom of Gauri Shanker, which is puryfying 
by nature, penance is not necessary at all. In 
this way Kalidasa expresses his deep sentiment 
towards his mother land Nepal. 

In the 6th canto of Kumar Shambhava we 
come across the word Koshi for the river 
Koushika flowing in Nepal. But in every books 
of the Sanskrit literature the word Koushika 
alon is found except in Nepal Mahatmya. If 
Kalidas had not been a Nepali by birth he 
\vould have used the word Koushika for Koshi 
as other Sanskrit writers have done. 



: 6/33 

The great commentator Mallinath says 
""JTfTlNft ?JW 3SR2TT ^Tf^nft" rre^TT means ^TK^n. 
A river of that place means the river of Nepal, 
because the river Koshi flows in her eastern 
part. Again the sages fixed the very place of 
the bank of Koshi for their further meeting. 
From this it has been clearly proved that the 



30 

marriage of Gaurishankar had taken place ir 
Nepal, not in Kashmir and other places. 

India is widely regarded and accepted as 
the instructor of the world fa^p, but Nepal 
is held by the poet to be the instructor even 
of the instructors "wr N^Jjd^" 5 6\ 

See Kumar Sambhava : 



: n 

In this way we see Kalidasa respecting his 
mother land estimating the glory of her above 
all. And in the last stanza of this canto 
Pashupatinatha, the famous diety of Nepal is 
remembered by the poet with a great reverence.. 
The birth-day celebration of Kumara > 
Kartikeya is observed no where with such 
preparation as in Nepal. And it also is a thing 
to be considered that Kartikeya, the son of 
Pashupatinath is called nowhere Kumara but 
in Nepal. Kalidasa also is seen habituated to 
call him by the name of Kumara. If he was 
born in other countries, he would have given 
the tittle of Kartikeya janma etc. to his 
Kabyam Kumarasambhava. Shithi, the birth- 
day of Kumaraji is also celebrated by the 
Newars is Nepal with a great pump and show. 



( 31 ) 

It is called Shithinakha in their dialect From 
this it can easily be guessed that Kalidasa was 
mostly influenced by this traditional festival of 
Nepal; which without being a Nepali was not 
possible. How the poet like Shree Rama- 
chandra expresses his heartly homage to his 
mother-land Nepal, will be more clear from the 
comparative study of the two verse from the 
Ramayan and Kumarasambhava. 



II ^m 



is? ^T^FPT: II ( 

"Even the golden Lanka has no charm for 
me, Mother and mother country are greater 
than heaven/' Rama. 

"It is futile to long for heaven for the 
province of your father itself is the abode of 
the gods" Kalidasa. 

Amples of examples of this sert can be given 
to prove him Nepali from the Shlokas found in 
his books. 

Evidences from the Raghuwansha also can 
be given here for firmly establishing the fact 
that the great poet of the world was a son 
of Nepal. 

3 



It is interesting to note here that our poet 
at the beginning of the Raghuwansha, which 
commeness with the second word ( OTT=R ) of the 
sentences uttered by his wife, makes an 
abescience to Parwati the daughter of King 
Himalaya of Nepal, the mother of the universe. 
It is not a thing of a little pride for us that 
the daughter of Nepal is the mother of the 
world. 

The word arfsrcR or Supreme ruler, a very 
much favourite word to the Nepalese, is used 
two times in one stanza in Raghuwansha. 



Bhutan, which is geographically a part of 
Nepal, was called Bhutasthanam in the days 
of Kalidasa. This place is believed even to day 
to be the abode of the Bhutas of Pashupatinath. 
It will be quite clear from the statement given 
below that our poet was fully acquainted with 
the Bhutas and their lord. 



The hermitage of Bashistha where the King 



( 33 ) 

Raghu with his queen, Sudakshina, stayed to 
tend the Cow, Kamadhenu, is found on the 
bank of Koshi in the tarai of Nepal. As to the 
nature of the language of Kalidasa have been 
already given an account from his Verse in the 
explanatory remark of Kumar Sombhava. 
Hence I try to give some satisfactory examples 
to make clear the prooves given above. It is 
the nature of Nepali language that two words 
are not used separatly to denote eating and 
drinking. For example they say. *TKT ^TJ, 
^5 ^Tg ? f5 ^TJ, <JTCt ^rrg etc, ie rice, 
fruits, milk and water are all eaten not drunk. 
In Sanskrit, as mostly in other languages there 
are two words used separately for eating and 
drinking as ^T^fcf, mRf are separately used 
for the separate things. But our poet, Kalidasa 
being habituated with the nature of Nepali 
language, uses sometimes Bhuncho ( g^3" ) 
verb from a root to eat even for milk as we 
read in Raghuwansa. 



TO: w& *nftf gsrtagwelfa crorfc^r 2/85 
The cow said to the king "0 son, extract 
my milk in a vessel of leaves ( ^Nt ) and drink 
it up ( eat it up ) 5^- fqq - JT^frrra Milk is not 
aten but drunk. Nowhere except in Nepal 



( 34 ) 

water and milk are eaten. Though in Maithili 
and Bengali language the words ra?gf and <TTO| 
too are used but with the *raq?r or water-there 
must be something eadible, such as chyura an 
bread. Only for water is fqRT - PINA to 
drunk not ^T^T-KHANA to be eaten. 

From these stanzas we can infere that the 
nature of Nepali Language was deeply inrooted 
in the heart of Kalidasa. It is perfectly plain 
to every intelligent persons who is interested 
in where about of the great man of the world 
that the birth-place of Kalidasa must decided! 
be Nepal. 

The Bengalese claim Kalidasa to be th 

native of their province, but to quote a stanza 
from the fourth canto of the Raghuwansha 
will be enough to disprove the claim of them. 



nC *T. II tf 35 

Having uprooted the kings of Bengalese who 
were ready to face him, by his skill the leader 
( Raghu ) erected the Jaya Stambha, a pillar 
as the sign of his victory in the islands 
surrounded by the current of the Ganges. If 
Bengal was the birth-place of the poet he 
would never have tolerated the victory of a 
king from outside over his birth place. 



( 35 ) 

Raghu went up to the back of OXUS or 
Banshu eFU, the river in Pamir Platue, which 
meets the Oral Sea. 



Then he defeated Hunaj as is seen in four/ 
sixty-eight 4/68 stanza of Raghuwansha and 
conquering the princes of Kamboja returned 
towards the Everest. 

On the way to it the gentle breeze charged 
with the particles of the water of the Gangese 
served him. The poet showing his forvent affec- 
tion for his birth-place says, "In the shade 
of Nameru trees the army of Raghu took rest, 3 ' 
The fact is not in dispute that every-body having 
returned from his adventured journey takes 
rest in his own home-land. And at the time of 
Raghu the western part of Nepal was regarded 
as a part of Avadha that is why he took rest 
"there. The evidence of his taking rest here 
endicates clearly that Nepal must had 
been the home of Kalidasa. To make the fact 
clear I quote some of the stanzas here from 
the Raghubansha. 



: 4/74. 






r: 4/57. 

They rested, the herbs ( si^ft 3TO ) served 
their purposes of lamps without oils at night. 

The shining herbs are found profusely in the 
region from Kumayoo to Kirat province only. 

Talking rest for some days in his home-land,, 
Nepal, he again left his haunting abode and 
proceeded towards Kirat Pradesh. ^r^4 ST^L 
4177. There a battle had been fought between 
the armirs of Raghu and Kirats and defeating 
whom the King Raghu marched towards Asam 
where the foot of Raghu had been worshiped by 
the king Kama Roopa of Asam. Thus conquer- 
ing the quarters of the earth the victorious 
Raghu returned back to his birth place back to 
again. From these accounts there will be left not 
the slightest ground to distrust the views that 
Kalidas was one of the* worthy sons of Nepal. 

It can be said that at the occasion 
of the *epI3T or the choice of a husband 
by the princess of Vidarva, where suitors 
assembled for that purpose, no name of a prince 
of Nepal is mentioned there, therefore it is 
emproper to say that Kalidasa was a native 
of Nepal. But an adequate froof can be given; 



( 37 ) 

here to verify the certainty of his being 
a Nepali. It was even already said that the 
time of Ramayan Nepal was included in Utter 
Koshala. Frcm Gandaki (Saryu) Mahatmya we 
can get ample of evidence for this. 

Muktichetra lies on the foot of Himalaya in 
western Nepal which even now is visited by 
the thousands of pilgrimes every year. This is 
even now said Koshala. Raghu the prince of 
Koshala or Nepal was elected by the princess 
of Vidharva. The genious of our poet Kalidas 
never failed to bring the truth into light. 
He says : 



qft 



The Prince of Uttara Koshala Northern 
Koshala ? that is the son of Western Nepal, was 
garlanded by the princess. The World ( ^or rfk* ) 
red-auspicious powder is widely used on the 
occasion of marriage ceremony particularly in 
Nepal. 

If we impartially judge the thoughts given 



( 38 ) 

in Meghaduta by the poet, it will not be 
difficult for us to decide vividly the birth 
place of the poet. 

As the month of Ashadha is of very impo- 
rtance in the life of Nepali. Seeing the claud 
above their head in the month of Ashadha, 
every Nepali dances with joy. The Nepalies 
hold it to be an auspecious matter and to be 
besmeared with the mud of this month. 

They eat and as well feed their keeth and 
kinnes the curd and bitten rice as the sign of 
rejoycing at its arrival. And in this accession 
every Nepali wants to be in house and enjoy the 
cheerful month with his family. Being a Nepali 
Kalidas naturally remembers his beloved wife 
living in his house Alaka in Nepal. 



The passionate Yachchya in the separation 
of his wife spent several months in that 
mountain. His wrist began to seem empty due 
to the slipping away of the golden bangle from 
it. At the first day of the Ashadha month he 



( 39 ) 

-saw the cloud on the top of the hill as an 
elephant engaged in butting the ground. 

It is obvious to all that the cloud on the 
top of a mountain resembles an elephant and 
-seems very pretty to be looked at. It is an old 
belief among the Nepali people that the 
cloud dripping in their auspicion days is a good 
omen. From this also it can be guessed that 
the 1st day of Asar was the birth day of our 
poet which reminded him his darling and home. 
The newly appeared cloud made him more 
passionate than usual. 

The village of Alaka now known Argha is 
in western Nepapl near Reedi, as has been said 
in the begining of this book. Kalidas himself 
.says it to be his Birth place : 



35T there ^FRRf^T^^ 1 ^ to the North from 
the house of Kubera arwfW our STFIR home is. 
In this sloka Kali Das is telling us his house 
openly. 

The expressions chandeshwara in the 33 
;Stanza Pashupati in 36, and Brahmavarta in 



48, are worth to be contempleted upon. In 
Pauranic period the name of Nepal was 
Brahmavarta. "3fTR^ fe ^T^T 3^t ?TOTR5 SiRJ 
as seen in Gandaki Mahatmya. The holy 

place of Brahmavarta has been changed [into 
Nepal with the change of time. The temple 
of Chandeshwara situated on the bank of 
Punyamati in Nepal is world renowned. 
Kailasha, the fovourite term of the poet 
is near Pashupati Nath. About six miles 
north from Kathmandu, there is a temple of 
Gokerneshwara sitting in the cave of which 

Ravana cut his heads to propetiate Lord Shiva. 
Having receined the boon from Shiva he tried 
to test his strength by lifting up the mountain 

Kailash. The samething is said by the poet in 
this stanza. 



To confirm the idea said above a Sloka 
can be quoted from an inscripton of Lichchavi 
time, which is written in commemoration of 
Kailas. 



( 41 ) 



If these lines of the poet are studied by 
with an unbased mind there would be no trace 
of doubt left to say that Nepal was not his 
birth place. 

Kalidasa, of course, praised Ujjayini from 
the bottom of his heart. This implies to the 
best that he was matrimonially connected with 
her and he spent a long period of his life there 
and he made her the field of his literary 
perfermances. The main thihg to be noted is 
that the poet's method of expressing the-feelings 
towards Nepal and Ujjeyini differs not only in 
style but also in tenor. 

As a psychological proof : 

Describing Alka, his home, his eyes are filled 
with tears and paying homage to Ujjayini he 
seems to be fired by passion. The two different 
sentiments in describing the two countries 

show how much he is clear about his father 
land and father in-law'sland 



The word STOHT is used specially for the 
carnal love as spipft, srowft means one who loves 
ior the sake of carnal pleasure. Here the poet 
becomes a sentimental and suggests his friend 
Megha to go to Ujjayini and enjoy the side 
long glances of the ladies of there. This is the 
psychological truth that even the memory of 
the house of father-in-low makes a man un- 
- consciously jolly. 

He seems quite different when he advises 
his friend to see his wife in Alaka. ( Argha ) 



Even the entry to his house .is forbidden to 
his friend. His friend is asked to stay on the 
window of his house. Here the poet does not 
advise Megha to enjoy the side-glance of her, on 
the contrary he orders his friend to narrate his 
message to his wife from a distance. And he 
praises the chastity of his wife before him. He 



( 43 ) 

believes his wife as chaste as Seetaji ' 
iftt cR^I Sfcrat sfcg^t *TT". It is resounded from 
the word qqfficR ( Mahabeer ) that he wants his 
friend to be as holy as Hanuman ; because 
every body wants a man sent near his wife to 
be chaste. 

If we take a little effort to think over the 
words used by the poet above we can easily 
decide that this miraculous expression is not 
mere hypothesis on the part of the poet. 

Let us cast a glance again at the Shakunta- 
lam, the masterpiece of Kalidasa. The fourth 
act of this drama is anonymously held as an 
unique act before the existing dramas of the 
world. Here we find a compound word ( ^T- 
iferr ) used for the time of offering the oblations 
which is exactly Nepali in character. The Nepalis 
never say gcffi gjT^r as the people in all the other 
provinces of India do. The Nepalise use always 
^fT %$T and ijf^T f r time and fa for oblation 
which arffrised without any change by Kalidasa. 

KanduAshram is stationed on the bank of 
Madi in jthe Western Part of Nepal, where 
Shakuntala was brought up. The word s^rrRnRt 
3jfo also denotes that the place must had been 
a hilly one and not a plain. There is a place 



( 44 ) 

known as 'Apsarakunda or Shachitirth on the 
way to Muktichhetra wherefrom Shakuntala 
was taken off by her mother Menaka ( See 
Himabat Khand ). Again in the 6th act of 
Shakuntala we see a picture of mother Nepal 
drawn by our poet Kalidasa through the hands 
of King Dushyanta : 



TCOIT 



In this very stanza the Ashrama of the Sage 
IKandu is depicted to be on the bank of Malini 
or Madi river on the holy foot of Himalaya 
within the Kingdom of Nepal. See, Kasyapeswar 
in Himavat Khand. 

The hermitage of Kashyapa also has been 
recently discovered, It is on a mountain 
near Gosaikund, on the foot of Himalaya, 
where Shakuntala, with her Son Bharat, was 
met by king Dushyanta, on returning back 
from Trivistapa ( TIBBET ). Here Matali, 
the charioteer, was asked by the king what 
mountain was that. In reply he said "tr^ ^^ 
%*Hgt WT ^3^T qefa:" this is the mountain of 
Kimpurusha named Hemokuta. According to 



( 45 ) 

Bhagvat Puran, Kimpurush is a part of Tibbet, 
the Nothern part of it was in Nepal then. 



One part of the Kimpurush which is now 
-within the territory of Nepal, was in those 
days under the reign of Dushyanta, which is 
seen. ^TTfTgt^^^^Tf^BTC^ 3frfo?t You will 
be shortly in the region governed by you, O, 
long lived king" said Matali. 

Kalidasa is not so clear in the discription of 
the other countries as is seen that of Nepal. 
This is evident from the said statements. It is 
another fact to proof that Kalidasa was brought 
up in Nepal, otherwise it was not possible for 
him to describe so minutely every details of 
Nepal. So it is not an exgaggeration to think 
that Kalidas had inigreted to Ujjayini from 
Nepal with King Vikrama. 

There are other incidents worth to be men-> 
tioned from Ritusamhara, Vikramorvashiya, 
and Malavikagnimitra and the other works of 
Kalidasa. Our poet being an inhabitant of a 
cold country feels much hot in Ujjayini. For 
that reason he begings his Ritusambara 
with the discription of the hot region sftsn and 



( 46 ) 

naturally there comes out of his mouth the 
word 5RO^-terrible as an adjective for the sun of 
summer and at the same time he sings for the 
rays of the moon. 



There are other proofs in his being a NepalL 
We find some miracles in his poems for the 
discription of Hemanta as well as Shishira, 
which are saturated with the sap of the- 
Nepalese life. 



The first month of Hemanta, marga is the 
harvest season of Nepal. In this season the 
peasents of Nepal reap and gather the corn^ 



( 47 ) 

especially the shall paddy, the crop of this 
season. Every child of Nepal knows that the 
rice of shali paddy is the most tasteful grain and 
therefore held holy. % The Lodhra flower begins 
to bloom in this season and also a little frost 
begins to fall. This is seen only in Nepal in 

this season. Shali, Lodhra, tushara are in vogue 
in Nepali without any defermation. The 
Kraunch birds are seen over the sky flying 
from South to North in rows then In Nepal. We 

pass bence to some stanzas in which the cold 
season is described. 



Here the words f^RR eTETPR closed window 
of the houses of the country is note worthy. 
Because in the cold season very few windows 
of the houses of Nepal are left open. The 
picture of cold season drawn by Kalidasa is 
also a proof of his toeing a Nepali. 

The fifth act of Vikramorvashiya is also 
important regarding the birth place Kalidasa. 
The drama ends with the union of the king 

Pururava with his bereaved wife Urvashi and 
her son. 



( 48 j 

The forest of Ambika, where Sudirnna had 
been Changed into a woman named Ilia, is near 
Bhaktapura. The forest is known a Phulchoki. 
The son of Ilia was Pururaba, who fell in love 
with Urvashi. The mythological story from 
Mahabharat is adopted in the drama. The scene 
and scenaries of the drama are mostly taken from 
the Natures available inNepal. The meeting 
place of Pururaba with his beloved son and wife 
Urvashi happened to be near the hermitage of 
sage Chyevana-^Tor^T^WT^f^R 1l)^T <TR*ft ^W 
The female hermit reached here from Chyeva- 
nashram ( 5th act of B. U. ) This Ashrama is 
now found on the bank of "Betrabati'' neai 
west-number 1, Nuvakota, where the celestial 
saint Narada had come to give the message oi 
Indra to king Pururava. There is also another 
proof to confirm this idea. It is this that we 
read here 



u 

) Kirats is a tribe of old times living 
in the eastern part of Nepal on the foot of 
Himalayas. The tribe even now devotes with 
the business of Kasturi, Chauri, and Rubbies. 
The word Kirti is used no where but in Nepal. 



( 49 ) 

In Nepal the people say Kirati no Kerata to 
donote both sex of that tribe. Thus the thoughful 
men are naturally compelled to believe that 
the poet was a nattive of Nepal. It is surprising 
that Kalidas has miraculously woven a net of 
literature with the warp and waft of thematerials 
of Nepal. His love for Ujjayini and geographi- 
cal knowledge of the world was vast and what he 
wiote wrote correctly but not so minutely, that 
is why it has become very difficult with the 
critics to say difinite by about his native place. 

The style of Malavikagni mitra is some what 
different from those of his other works. This 
drama is social in character. In this drama the 
poet warns to those who have made their 
habits of giving their judgements indiscri- 
minately. Here Paribrajica Kaushika, an asce- 
tic woman is given the authority to distinguish 
a better student from the two students. In 
those days the fine art, dance, music, and 
stage crafts had developed a lot in Nepal. Even 
now Nateswara Shiva and Nateswari Parvati 
are worshipped in every quarters of Nepal with 
the hope gaining efficiency in music and dance. 
Every girl of Newar family attaining the stage 
of puberty is called Lyashe for their efficiency 



( 50 ) 

in the dance of lasyam. This very fact is stagec 
in Malabikagnimitrarn by the poet. He wants 
to give a new colour to the old spirit of the 
dance in this drama. So he say : 



"Everything can not be said to be good 
because of its antiquity, niether the new 
literature can be said all perfect due to its 
newness. A man of discrimination uses his 
own wisdon, while the fools blindly follow 
others". The drama Malavikagnimitrarn was 
staged on the occasion of the coming of the 
spring. Even now the custom of Vasantotsava 
is in vogue in Nepal. This festival is accom- 
panied by dances and musics. In this way 
allmost all the plots in the books of Kalidasa are 
miraculously derived from the book of nature 
of Nepal. Though this drama is doubted to 
be a composition of that very Kalidasa because 
there are few things that can be said of Nepal. 



KCI 16375