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Full text of "Nernst glower its development, characteristics and application to illumination practice"

IllmoJE tes'dtute 

of Technology 

UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 



AT 181 

Eustice, Alfred L, 
Nernst glower its 
development, 



For Us3 In Otirnry Only 



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THE I!ERNST GLOWER 
ITS DEVEIOMEITT. CHAMCTERISTICS 
AFD APPIICATION TO ILIUMINATIOH PRACTICE 



A THESIS 
pi^eented by 




1 ^ r^ ^ 



tb tho 

PRESIDEJIT and FACULTY 

•i 
ARL?OUR IKSTITUTE OF TECHNOIflGY 

for the DEGREE of 

EIECTRIGAl E]!IGIIffiER 

• /2^ 



OccUyUA Q7t^uu/(, if/0 '— -OOO— 

ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TKHNOLOGY 
PAUL V GALVIN LIBRARY 
35 WEST 33RD STREET 
CHICAGO, IL 60616 




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THE FERirST GIOWER,* ITS DEVEIOIV.EFrT, CHARACTERISTICS, 
AND APPIICATIOIT TO IL1UMO;:TION PRACTICE. 

oOo 

The eileotrioal interestB have, within 
the period of the past 10 years, made unueual progress 
in the direction of higher efficiency of generating, 
transmitting, distributing and current conaiuning machines 
and devices but, within the recant period of only 5 years, 
greater, by far, has been the advance in the Baane of 
converting electrical energy into li^t and also the effic- 
iency of application of the same to the requirements of 
modem illtanination praoticco 

The birth of the carbon filament incan- 
descent lamp, the discovery of the arc lamp, and the advent 
of the ITemst lamp may be regarded as the three great 
epocha in the annals of commercial electric lighting. To 
the latter end moat recent of this trio must be given ikn- 
divlded credit for the continued genertl use of electric 
currant for artificial lighting through that period when 
Important discoveries were made in ^Velsbach gas mantles which 
seemed to indicate that gas would be the popular and univer- 
■al llluminant for future service. These apparent conditions 
were furthered in that the electric consumer had a choice 



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(t) 



of only the low efficiency, low candle power, carbon 
Incandeecent lamp on the one hand and the hj^h efficiency, 
high candle power arc lamp on the other hand tmtll the 
advent of the ITemBt lamp. Bj reason of the fact that 
the Femet lanp wae the only electrical llltunlnant of 
high efficiency and was obtalnahle in any desired candle 
power, a timely weapon wae placed at the disposal of 
Central Station inter eats which would cover the entire 
field and succeBsfully fill the existing gap between the 
electric arc and the carbon filament incandescent lampo 

Inasmuch as the incandescent eledtrio 
lamp, under rhich the Hernst lamp is properly classified 
as a special design, hss become such a common necessity 
abd useful factor in every civilized conununity, it is to 
be expected thflit the problem of its development to a high 
state of perfection is one o f wide-spread interest. 
Relatively speaking, but little publicity has beer given 
to the !Temst lamp in comparison to that given by the army 
of individuals finemoially interested in the development 
and exploitation of vacuum lanps and, in the opinion of 
the writer, the embodied principdeB of the Fernst glower 
offer greater poasibilities for development into an ideal 
illumlnant thar any other type of lamp Inown at the present 
time, and, were the vast amount of energy and capital which 
has already been expended in the development of vacuum lamps, 
directed to the scientifio investigation and commercial 



S) 



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exploitation of the principle of the ITernBt glower, 
the ITernst lamp would undoubtedly he made the moet 
ideal and popular llluminant of the future* 

Coneiderahle sciantific inveeti- 
gation of the basic principle of the HemBt glower 
has already been carried to apparent perfection, and 
considering that discovery in illuminante today may be 
regarded as history tomorrow; so fast is the general 
progress, that the subject matter following will be 
centered about one type of ITemet glower which is now 
practically standardized and reference will be made to 
thle unit for comparison with later developments. 

The fundamental principle of the 
Nemst lamp, that certain of the rare earths or refrac- 
tory pxidee, when combined in correct proportions, will 
conduct electric current smd give forth a brilliant vfeite 
light after being heated to redness, was discovered by 
Dr. Salter Uemst, a German physicist, in 1897, 

The original invention of Dr. ITemst 
is embodied only in the light giving element, or glower, 
80 named in order to distinguish it from the filament, 
or light giving element of all other typas of incandes- 
cent lamps, and is characterised by two peculiarities; 
namely. 

First:- It 1b a non-conductor of electric current 
lAen cold, becoming, however, a good conductor at temper- 
atures above a red heat. 



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(4) 



Second: — The paeae^e of eleotrio cxrrent through 
the glower maintains it in a high state of inosaadeBoence 
in the OPEK AIR, 

The Uemst lamp in amhro was first 
brought to America at the request of I.!r. George Westing- 
house in 1898 and consisted of a crude body supporting 
a glower and a fine platinum wire resistance conzsoted 
in series therewith, but without means for rendering the 
glower automatically conducting. Foreseeing its great 
possibilities, Mr. Westlnghouse promptly undertook the 
commercial developmeait of the ideas prsented with the re- 
sult that the Fernat lamr Company was organized in the Fall 
of 1901 and was prepared to market a practical and effic- 
ient lamp* 

The ITerzist Lamp, as a unit, consists 
of the following essential parts: — 

1. The glower, or light giving elanent. 

2. The Ballast, or steadying resistance in series 

with the glower. 

3« The Electric Heater, to render the glower con- 
ducting* 

4. The cutout, to interrupt the heater circuit after 
the glower once becomes conductive. 

5. The Lamp Body, ^ich combines the above elements 
in & commBrcial form. 

The glower is the distinguishing 
featur* of the lamp, deserving special treatment and con- 
sideration and, during the various manufacturing processes. 



li'i 



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(5) 



the follovdng deelrable and eesential oharacterlstloe 
mtist "be sought and are given herewith in the order of 
their commercial importance: 

1. LIFE . A glower must have a long individual 
life (that is, early failtixee mtuat he very infrequent) 
and also a long average life. 

2. IIFE-VOITAGE CHARACTERISTICS . It is deeirahle 
that the curve hetween volte and life be a straight line, 
although tinder certain conditions it might he a great ad- 
vantage if the glower could he so made that the voltage 
would decrease slightly with life, in order to mafee up for 
decrease in surface emission of light. .Thile it is an 
innate property of the glower materials to rise in voltage 
vrith life, the rise can he controlled to a large extent hy 
a combination of glower mixture, form and physical con- 
ditionSf 

3. LENGTH OF LIGHTING PERIOD . The time required 
to bring a glower up to conducting temperature must be a 
minimum and is effected by mixture, form, terminals, and 
capacity of heater employed. 

4. ELECTRICAL STABILITY . Stabillly, with reference 
to Ihe performance of 1he glower, indicates the position 

of the crest of the volt age- current characteristic or the 
point where a further increase in current is accompanied by 
a decrease of glower voltage; i.e., the efficiency, beyond 
which the negative temperature coefficient will predominote. 



(d) 



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(6) 
It is expressed in terms of Watte per Cairile Power, 
iSiioh correspond to definite values of current. 

The Btabilily point shifts slightly 
with life, but not to any material extent due to the fact 
that a^i"ease in Candle power because of surface deter- 
ioration opposes the inherent tendency of the glower 
materials towards higher stability with life, 

E, EFFICIE?TY OF EMlSSIOi: OF IIGHT AND ITTHEREITT 
BECREASE III CArDLE POWEB, Characteristic of ill illumin- 
ants to have a depreciation in candle power with service, 
there is a decrease in the efficiency of light emission in 
the glower, caused by the volatilization of any impurities 
In the glower mixture as well ae by cryetalliaation and 
contraction of section of the glower. Careful chemical 
inspection and attention to the physical properties are the 
chief, means of reducing this decrease of candle power to 
a minimum* 

6- EFFICISITCY IT TOUCH THE GLOWZR CAr BE OPSRABED . 
The chief limiting fdature of commercial efficiency is the 
form of leading- in ?;ire or terminal, although #1,2 and 4 
above nj^med also have important bearing on this quality. 

7. MECHAPICAI STABIIITT . 

A glower must be capable of withstanding 
mechanical Injury while in the various processes of manufac- 
ture, in shipmait, and during servicec 

8. SPECIFIC RESISTAirnn. ir, glowers of certain capac- 
ities, this is of vital importance. As an illustration 

it would be a decided advantage in a low voltage, hi^h current 



(3) 

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(7) 
glower, if it were possible to gain a greater length 

between the terminals for a given voltage. This woult 
alBO attenuate the glower, and the terminals would be 
materially reduced in size. 

GIOWEH MAFUFACTURE 
The glower has been made from a 
large number of different combinations of oxides and 
the composition has not always been confined to the rare 
earths, nor have all glowers been non-conductors when cold. 
On the contrary, some have been composed of more common 
elements and some have not required preliminary hsating 
in order to render them conductors, and, therefore, known 
as self -starting glowers. Commercial glowers, however, 
may be said to consist of one or more metallic oxides cap- 
able of withstanding very high temperatures and also are 
conductors of electric current only at these temperatures • 

It has beon found that the oxides best 
suited for glower purposes when taken sii^ly, are much 
inferior conductors at the temperatures at which glowers 
are required to operate than when talcen in combination with 
each other. In this respect such condrujtors differ from 
metallic conductors where the purest metal possesses the 
best conductivity. 

The determine tlon of the best materials and 
the proportions in ?hich to combine them in order td produce 
commercial glowers, have been the subjects of a vast amount 
of investigation liiich is even now pursued in the search of 



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(8) 

spme thing better than has. so far. been deyieed. It is 
evident from the [large number of oxides which are avail- 
able, that an infinite number of combinations may be 
made. The majority of the rare earths which have been 
found suitable for the manufacture of gldwers are 
members of the two groups; as follows: 
GROUP fl R2O4 Group of rare earths. 
Titanium — Ti. 

Zirconium 2r, 

Thorium Th, 



qROU? fZ BgOg Group of rare earths. 

Scandium So» 

Yttrium Y, 

lanthanum la. 

Ytterbium Yb. 

Erbium Er» 

ITot only may members of Ihe same group, such ae Zir- 
oonia and Thoria be used together with more or less 
satisfaction, but members of different groups, such as 
Ziroonia and Yttria may be used with even more sutfcess. 
In fact, the latter combination forms the basic part of 
the commercial ITernst glower. 

The source of the Minerals from ^ich 
the rate elements are obtained is a mine owned and 
operated ty the Fernst lamp Company, known as "Barringer 
Hill", in llano Co.. Texas, which is a highly granitic 



(3) 

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(9) 
region. This property Is exceedingly rich in deposits 
of minerals containing Yttrium, Ceritm, Thorium, and 
Uranium Oxides, which deposits occur in the fcrin of 
poolrets from a few ounces to one hundred and fifty pounds 
capacity, embedded in great masses of quarta and ortho- 
olase-felspar, in gigantic pegmatite. 

These deposits appear to be 1316 focal 
point of rigid lines radiating from every possible direc- 
tion to distances of seferal feet and in some oases up 
to five and eight feet. It is also noticeable that these 
radial lines are fissures end bear no relation to the 
natural cleavage or crystalline form of the high rock 
masses in which they existo 

Easy parting takes place along these 
radial lines, thus malting the ore quickly available to 
the minero Since these lines converge into ore rich in 
Uranium and Thorium, and are a common phenomenon at this 
mine, it is probable thct their eacistence mf^iy be ascribed 
to an electric or other order of activity, wMch t^us 
evidences the presence of Radium, or some allied element 
or elements. 

The various minerals found so far in the 
development of this property ars named herewith^ the 
most abundant being Sadolinite and the remainder in the 
order nemed as to quantity. 



C; M 



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jn^meLe &siir>j otioe xo ^smtbsV. *:o ©orreset^r erft aeofrsf;''?-© 

• a^rre'ttsls xo 
oio rr!: la'l 03 &n:i/ol aIa*i«iiffT 3xxo:*t«y ^rCT 

eri;t ,£ijxwe'x9ri 06iTr«a ©t ■ 'i^^Heqot^^ at'^i '\o *rr&niqcleve/; 
ed* rfi: lebaxeaei ed^ '■r' ; ©tfirciXc&a© -^ied tnai^rxuda ■'eom 



(10) 
1. Gadolinite 

£. Cyrtolite 

3. Fergus on it e 

4. Allanite 

5. Yttrialite 

6. Thorogxamnite 

7. Mvenite 

. • 8 . Molybdenite 

9. Mackintoshite 

Some of these minerals show a strong 
activity when tested photometrically. 

Gadolinite is an ore rich in the ceria 
and yttria groups, and is the principal source of sup- 
ply of the yttria which enters into the composition of 
the glower. A long series of operations is necessary 
to reduce the crude minerals to glower materials and 
requires a continuous laboratory process for a period 
of approximately ninety days, the details of which would 
be a subject so broad "Qiat a clear ;inderst nding would 
only be gained by a separate treatise on chemical 
separation, which space will not permit. 

In general the materials entering into the 
composition of the glower must be absolutely pure and a 
uniform quality is of equal importance since the physical 
characteristics of the mcteriale deteimine several char- 
acteristics of the commercial glower. Critical 
attention to concentration and temperatures of solutions 



eji:lod-i)j;0 .S 
e^xtxBir.A ,^ 

'aTOi^a j:. wo^:i aX«i ■^rtxaj ©a&rfit to er.T:-'^ 

• ■'vIIao^.vteiao;^o:^^ Bcc^a©^ '^sr^T ^ivictoa 
^iCiso or!* i^i 40 ft ©to :rs ^A viltiXlohA^ 

£>ox'xoq - •ic'i' aa*©^^! Yrv^arxf.'dsl auoirfrUrTOc t. B9iJ::rp9'!: 

['ic-^; xiox.f'.v 1:o.aXri5?sf; od>J- ^a'^v 4;J'«Jttxn" ^Xatwifiixf.-i -rri; ^c 

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.J'."!:;i)T;^q[ >^oc; IXxr 60i*3;|e dX'L&^^ ^ctc i'-naqen 

,i ias e-i-ua '^rs-lrlo^cfa ad :ts«;:vi towoXvi s/it 'to aox^iaoq-ac-:) 

i::0X8'^"C[ 9ri>t aoni: ; eofta* voqaix Xsifp© '-to ai ^cfiXae';' laiG'r.iflB; 

-"xario .CB'sevea ©rex nn e t o '': ^.te^ioi" <a! erlJ 'Ic eoi: texto^J'o^Ji.ejlo 

liioxtiiC «'i'9woI>i Xisjo ■e-'Tsioo ®fft 'to aoittsi'xactoe 



(11) 



during the ohemloal operations give a uniformity of 
oharacterlstloB which oan be duplicated from time Id time. 

The materiel are tested physically lor 
epeolfic gravity, flnenesB and plaatlcily, and a few 
glowers are made from one new element In confclnation with 
a standardized material and tested mechanically for 
strength on a specially designed testli^ machine and elec- 
trically by noting the voltage, wattage and efficiency 
performsnoe rith life tinder overload conditions. Then all 
the test fall within the prescribed limits the material 
is approved for use, or in case any characteristic is 
below the fixed limit, perhapd because of some physical 
reason, the material is rejected and again subjected to 
the final chemical processes. 

Oxides of the fesired qtiality having 
been obtained as above outllnedih a commercial glower having 
a definite performance will result by mixli:^ these oxides 
In definite proportions ■ ith a suitable binding material 
and then following the various processes of glower manufac- 
ture, as hereinafter reviewed, through each step with exact- 
ness and precision* 

T7ith the desired glower characteristics in 
mind, the proper proportions of the before mentioned oxides 
are mixed with water and a suitable binding material in a 
special design of high speed Tcneading machine which is 
maintained at a low temperatxire during operation, until the 



{££', 



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• aoeaeooiq I oicfsr'o lAait erf* 

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ai dox'fw aalrfoaai sxrx casrcC fe©©rt« did Tio agxa^S Xsioeqa 

eri* XxtJ-njJ ,£rc nfa^iecio ^axxjyo ftttiiTeqaie* m;X a *a Jbefflatoiam 



(12) 

materiels form into a doughy loasB of exact oonsistency, 
BO that a definite pressure will be required to foroe the 
dou^ throu^ a die. 

The dough Is then removed to squirting 
guns and held at a lov/ temperature by refrigeration xmtil 
the size ol dl« has been selected, through ^loh the 
entire lot will be squirted, for a definite efficiency at 
normal rated current; after which the squirting operation 
is perfonned in the least possible time in hydraulic or 
power presses under a fixed and uniform pressure, the mag- 
nitude of the pressure depending upon the efficiency and 
current capacity of the glower desired, and also the form 
of glower string; I.e., rod, tube or special fomio 

After passing the die, the glower string 
In a continuous plastic form. Is caught (kn gauae trays, 
dryed for a long period in the air, after which it is 
further dryed in steam ovens. It is then cut into lengtla 
from which two finished glowers will be made, packed in 
platinum tabes and subjected to a very high temperature in 
furnaces for several hours in order to fix the properties 
and roast out the last traces of the binding material. 

The ends of the roasted string are then 
passed through an electric arc ar.d a small bead or terminal 
projection of "sintered" glower is formed. The next oper- 
ation Is what is termed as "flashing" in which operation 
the glower string Is held in a machine, undtr tension, by 



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ax d^i: rioxrfw leri ,'xia od* nx ";oi-tsq ^ffor 3 lot 6Q%ifi 

aid^asl o^iii: ^iso yQdt ^^i il #aH«vo aia©ta ai 5e-^i feiI*x?Jt 

ctx ie-to-iq ,«6aaT_ •([ rixw a-xeflol-a fiarialnil aw* xioidw mofxl 

nx aiirf-sisqaierf^ flaxd ^©7 "^ e-t fisd-o«t<^ifa o/ta eadiiPt i3«3-cl:}-alq 

ael^-ioqoiq ©ftf xxi or "£©i)T:o al a-usci I«wi'T©e «ol: aeo-ifrort 

aedi ©xk gtilTd'a 'sed'aaoa exiit lo © ffle ©xff 

Ian±arx©t 10 iaed II.iTjs a brra ois> a^-s^at*!© oa si^oxilSt'- ft«-^aaq 

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(13) 

elootrloal oontaote 09 the beads previously fbrmed and 
gradually Increasing ourrente are passed tihroTigli the 
string until a definite overload is forced upon it. This 
operation not only makes the string of xiniform line, but 
also removes all traces of mechanical shrinkage. 

At this stage the platinum terminals 
of Tarious forms best suited to the capacity of the 
glower are applied and covered with a paste, made from 
finished glower string finely divided and held by a 
binder, after which the glowers are roasted at a high 
temperature. This operation completes the manufacturing 
process of the glower, *** 

The glowers are next rated for dom- 
merciel service br mounting them on a large rotating 
device through which a cons tent current, the nomal 
for viiich the glower if designed, is maintrj.ned and the 
glower voltage is determined by means of sensitive 
laboratory instruments iifcich indicate the direct drops 
In voltage over the finished glower. The free glower 
voltage obtained in tfcis manner is then equated to lamp 
voltage and the glowers are packed and ready for oomner- 
oial service, 
BALLAST 

The electrical conductivity of the 
glower becomes greater as the temperature increases and. 
therefore, it becomes necessary to provide a steadying 



ens betn(St -iLaaoix . .;xi edc) 90 a:JoBiaoo laolTto: Le 

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•rrilsitea :.o ?; &aai £rrc?^#« • - «■•■ " •se^oli 

aqcii) teexte ori^ ©t oxiicrx dolt^ I 

1311013 ©•'1^ ©rf"-^" *tmro£-p- o«,'•'^!^(ti^ ^ v -x 



erf* lo TC:txT±*{>H6ffoo .I'a M0 

,i)a-3 •©8«»iorr.x ©*ii;i'sia|ax©* e.di aa wMMHMm »i«i»«»<f le'svoJEi 



(14) 

resistanoe or "Ballast" operated In series therewith 
for oommeroial operation. Inasmuch as iron possesses 
the property of increasing its resistance to the pas- 
sage of electric ctirrent in proportion to its rise in 
temperature, this metal has heen adopted for the commer- 
cial ballast in the form of a vei^; fine wire enclosed 
in a glass hulh containing an atmosphere of hydrdgen. 

The design of a ballast t* ich will 
give the desired corrective action ie extremely important 
and veiy difficult, while the manufacturing problem is 
comparatively simple. The iron wire ie rigidly supported 
on a "mount" end ettached to platinton "leading in wires" 
which pass through the"8eal", and the finished mount is 
fused to a tubulated glass bulb and exhausted in exactly 
the same mamer as in Incandescent lamp practice. At 
this point, just before "sealing- off", hydrogen is intro- 
duced at atmospheric pressure, the bvlb is sealed and 
provided with a base after which the ballast is "seasoned" 
and tested. The cu8tomary"air test" should show the 
absence of air and if the normal current, when normal 
voltage is impressed, falls within the prescribed limits, 
the ballast is approved for service in a lampo 
FF.ATER 

Since the glUwer reaches a point of 
conductivity aid becomes incandescent et erproximetely 
950 degrees C, it is readily ar parent that to acquire 
such t temperature quiclcly and without rapid destruction 



(M) 

xtHweieri;.' aexiea rrJ: beiexeqo "tBAllaS." lo eoflsJ'aiaet 
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itmSBSmmmt- 

to t.tEoq « aarloiseT: -cewor- 

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(15) 
of the heating element, renders the selection of 
materials for the heater a very serlouB problem. 
The standard heater is made up hy simply wlndljkg 
a thin porcelain tube with fine platlnnm V7ire end later 
embedding the wire with a coating of refractoiy cement 
in order to protect the platinton wire from the intense 
heat of Uie glowers. 
THE CITT-OUT . 

The development of a satisfactory 
electro magnetic cut-out for the heater circuit, which 
would fulfill the duty imposed upon it by practice, 
was not as simple as it ould appear to be on first 
thought. The type finally perfected is a combination 
of gravity and magnetic action, in ij^iich gravity acts 
at right an^es to the magnetic force. The cutout 
armature forme a part of the heater circuit and closes 
the heater circuit by the action of gravity throu^ 
graphite contacts vstien the glowers are below the point 
of conductivity. When the glowers once take current, it 
passes through the winding and, ?4ie(n magnetic pull 
exceeds the action of gravity, the armature is suddenly 
drawn and held in a neutral position by means of an 
air gap of conetantly diminishing width. 

Having briefly reviewed the 
features sought in the design of the elements of the 
lamp and also outlined the important phases of their 
manufacture, a more Intimate study of the character- 
istics and interesting phenomena presented in the 



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lied* 'io aaaxidq tnatiocjfiii: ad* banxlvi/o osl;.' ^a^j qraal 

-lecfasiaxlo ed* to f^iita 8*aoi:3Tr± e-xom a .exu^oatur: j.ni 

edo aci JJetneaaiq aaaraofledq srtxtae-iedTci: b-ca eoirtsi 



(16) 



operation of the elements will be in order* 
GLOWER TEm'IMIS * 

In the TTemst glower one of the aiffl- 
oult problems emcoiuitered is the production of a suitable 
electrode or terminal, which fact will be appreciated when 
it is borne in mind that tte light givirg portion of the 
glower operates at a temperature of approxinately £100 deg. 
«• 

The glower material ie often supposed to 
be a solid electrolyte which is probably not true, since 
it dose not conduct like a true electrolyte; that is, with 
a fixed decomposition at the electrode for each coulomb of 
electricity that flows, neither does the glower conduct 
like a metal because its specific conductivity varies as 
a complex function of the temperature. Somewhat of a com- 
parison may he made with carbon, but even a great difference 
in the two is present in the conductivity of the cold glower 
and cold carbon* 

Since eleotrolytio decomposition of a 
glower is comparatively slight, especially in the alternating 
current type, it is probable that tenninal complications are 
due to thermo-electric causes ana also to a large extent in 
the chemical end physical properties of the highly heated 
materials which form the terminals. 

The properties for consideration in this 
regard may be classed roughly as follows :- 

1. Electrolytic decomposition* 



(31) 



• '■ ■" •• It) 

•9 

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. , .'.o ...loo bns 

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oxs aHoi:rBoiX(i£aoo X -■Tiatia* ^Tsd':; eldatfoiq 3X :lx ,«t^t J.'xatn«r» 

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•aoii^xaogaooeJ". oxJ^iXoxooeX?- «X 



(17) 



2. Chexnioal affinity of heated glower oxides 
and metal employed in the terminal. 

3. Impurities in glower material or metal, 

4. The physical properties of the oxides and 
terminal metal, such as 



(a 
(b 
(o 

(d 
(e 
(f 

(e 
(h 

(i 

(J 



Mechanical strength* 

Fusibility. 

Conductivity for heat erd 
electricity . 

Difference in expansion* 

Vapor pressure* 

Adhe 8 ion 

Cohesion 

Porosity of Oxides 

Gaseous Occlusion 



Liberation or absorption of 
heat due to an apparent contact potential difference 
between the heated glower oxides and the metal of the 
terminal. 

Pure platinum has been found to be 
the only metcQ. suited, and then only by special applica- 
tion, for terminal purposes* Platinum has for its chief 
impurity the metal Iridium. Since the alloys of iridium 
and platinum have higher melting points than platinum 
alone, it would at first appear that such alloys would 
make a good terminal, or that to use oven iridium for a 
terminal would be an advantage. The difficulty with 

such alloys and iridium is that It has a veiy much higher 
vapor pressure than pure platinum and consequently rapidly 



iVC 



a3^xxo i9wol3 bQiaod ^:o ^?±a2ils Ir^oiarerfO .S 

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sa ffoxrg jlBtea iBrrionat 

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eorteiB^^it iBitn^s too tossiaoo tfioiBqqe na o;? afff? ItMNf 
oxi;f 'to ISwe:-^ orfJ ".rcx^ as^x^io -XDvxIa 6e:^s9ri arid" xW6«te<f 

scf ot &tmo'i asecf ■: iri .au^c±c^4Xq eijcr*! 

-soiIq[cxi3 laiseqs ^3 ^no aeiW' ore', .iisd'lwa iB&aia v:Xcio 9 rC* 

'iexrfo sti: 10I sad safftritsll •asao(n-"q fjacrxci'xe^t -^ol tUcti 

•uj-xixii to a^olli ai* eoaic .lasriSxiI Isitea s.-*;}' ^iiiuqml 

tmati ilq nadi sjflioa ■^ixii'leca I'idgid evari «BrfT±*aIq- '^oa 

Jblifow B%oLLi dojJB t«r[+ iJBeqT'? teix^ ta bliron ii .,«floL8 

B lo't attrifexij .isvs aaxr 0^ d'acM "eo ,Ianxi"!rre* '"oog 

•rad^xf rfotfia ^fteT .5 asri ti isdi ai mitblil: bc^-, a^tolla rfoiia 
■^If-taai ^Itnaupeattoo ^rr-i mffnJktsI'j s-n;;!! rT«rft eTiraae'Tfi toqav 



(18) 

vaporises away. In the cr.ee of en alloy the iridium 
will vaporize out from the platinum end leave the latter 
very "brittle, unleee the two ere in a molten etatt. It 
ie, therefore, the heet practice to use only pure 
platinum for all glower t era in ale o 
"H£JKS" TERMIMI (Fig. I) 

Some extremely interes" ing 

phenomena produced hy the forces of adhesion, cohesion, 

and surface tension exist at the temperature of molten 

glower material and molten platinum and when platinum 

and glower material are brought together in the electric 

arc, a bead of oxide foims and a small pellet of platinum 

is sucked and embedded in the glower material; the , 

latter almost totally surrounding the platinum. In 

cooling, the shrinkage of the platinum is sli^tly 

greater th&r. that of the glower oxidee, as is evident from 

the fact that- a little depression is formed in the 

1 
platinum at the end of the bead. The adhesion of the 

platinum for the glower material is safficioat to give 
a good contact between the platinum and the oxides. There 
appears to be little or no chemical affinity of the ox- 
ides for the platinum under operating conditions in 
the alternating current glower. The temperature of the 
terminal iifcan in service is near to the fusing point 
of platinum for a lead wire may be pulled out of a bead 
when the glower is in operation if tension be applied 
to the glower. Slight differences in tte expansion and 
contraction of the two materials show no bad effects. 



(31) 

astrtbxii ad^ •^oXia -r -3*^:0 98 :o 5A& rrl •j/na aesxioqsv 

19*;* al eil evaeX o/ra a»;rr±a"«Iq erft aiOTfi j-i;o esiicqav rii'^ 

■^1 .•^ai'e ued-Ioai t til e-i' owteriJ aaslriix ,«Itd iTcf ->riev 

• aX-aai irierr iswcl':' lis toI anrarttaXq 
(I .sil) 

netlom'lo eiJJJaiiQq;:©* ea* dr-. talxe aoxsi'sej soa^.. 

3i£r£rx*3lc[ txedw brtii smattolq^ aoCZom i-n-i laiieJijf.T 10W0I3 

or-ifoeLe sdd" rtx ledJs-soj tiia*''i«<s' •*• X'- ^istam lewclg bna 

mc/criitsXq to *e.[ Xaq XIbtb i cna ssrxcfl eiiixo to jsed .^ ,ox« 

edi ;Xj8iie3"3!H i.ew)X3 ^^^ J^ ^«6j©dive ';rtxj f)e>row?. ?3i 

.3I .aoJctl*3Xq e/{:^ -^tixbrcue tii.'s ^Ilad'o? tacwl- i«ct.Jp.X 

^X*rt%xX8 3jt OB/aiiJSXa edt 1;o 97j.a.-!fiTxr 3 otlJ- ^gniXooo 

aicrr. d"cieai79 ai 30 ,aeclxo lawoXs atSJ lo *jad;t ".jjdd ^8*3013 

edi cti fiemiox ax rroxsaetqsfe ©I^ttil .i ^taif:^ *•- "i arf* 

©r{:t to rtoiaedoB erfC .Baed 9Kt r biie Grit * .._ : 3lq 

ev.C3 oi JflBiai'iiXE ax Xaxrier).'«; -sewoXg dtftt -lol BffniJsXq 

a-xadJ .aefixxo edi orti mssatiBli oi(:r rroawitao ;^»i3;^noo ftoog :. 

-xo add- to \tiat'ViB I^olraerio on -10 el^tll od oJ aiaecfTB 

nx arroxd-xbfloo scita tsqo leSisx' raanxS-xiXq ©rf* -cot aebt 

-\:'.: io eivfi^Bieqcaed' odl •t&wol^ ti-re-sxJ^o ^axtaciiei'X.'i e'cf* 

*iiJ:oq -^tQift 3 At oi lacsa a.:; •oinas ax aoxiv Xfiaiima* 

jbaed 1 to tuo 'joXXxxq; scf "ii-ai e-i ^7 IjjmX ;• lot larci^'fXq to 

beiXqq?. ad aoxarted" 'it aoiienQrrc at si lawolg arf^ (!«:{▼ 

cjiij rroi3Xi«q:c8 arid 3X aeo^reietti'.: trf:%iX^ •«#*loX:? ar^* od" 

.ad-oetts Jbad on woria ^LatratriZ ow+ orf:^ ic noijoaitnoo 



(19) 



There is compareti vely little trouble arising 

from loss through vaporization because the platinum 

is almost entirely enclosed, but in case vaporization 

should form a cavity in the bead, it would be serious 

and show in the form of excessive voltage rise ?fcich would, 

no doubt, be erroneously HJiscribed to the properties of 

the ozidee* 

The conductivity of the glower mater- 
ial in the terminal bead varies widely on account of the 
different temperatures of various portione of the bead. 
The greater pert of tiie current appears to pass to the 
glower string from the nearest portions of "Qie embedded 
platinum, while the glower material surrounding the sides 
of the bead seems to act merely as a protection to the plat, 
inum. In view of this action, fiu-ther protection of the 
terminal by the application of paste is unneoeesary. 

The Hanl?B terminal is one of the best 
teiicinsas ever produced for altematinp current service, 
but, by reason o-Tits limitation to strii« of the rod form 
and low current capacities, and also the e^ipearance of 
glowers in tube form, employed in lampe of improved 
mechanical design, this terminal is now obsolete. 
ITERUST TEm'IMl (Fig. 2) 

The "ITemst" terminal consists of a 
bundle or cable of fine platinum wires wound around the 
glower, the ends of the cable being twisted firmly together. 



lil) 



■%alfiti& ertfx/oid- eL-iixl '^tlev IJ-aisqmoo ii aieriT 

msstii Jlq ©fit aairaoed aol^sztio^tiv i ^jjoi.-fit aaol mc-i:^ 

noi^tjasi'xoqjsv eaao cri oifd ,6e80loire ^jloiltia t iotals at 

,:;Ijjo\7 iloi.iiv eatt: 85^8*1 ov e7l38eojC9 lo iK'.toJ; 9di at wocfs Crra 
xO aaitie-xoiq orftt ot Aedii-ioaej* ^X3::/oeKOT;te ~id ,tdisob on 

-ist^ia tawola srid' "to 'itivlt e>sifenoe adT 

exiJ 10 tnjjoooj aro %lQbM$i @&ti'''^ .aied Jjsaia-iOiJ c*rf* at Lat 

.63©d sxi;}' to sisoittoq- ^woirisY to asiifoa-iStfiae* ;fcT8'i»^'ix& 

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-'slcj 9dd- 0^ aottOBioiq a 3B T,rsrcaKi ^oa o^ aai-aAs 6ead edj Ito 

erfo lo ito±*o©;f ortg lerCjiiri .aoitss -^.t •# 'to w«jfcT xl .aurai: 

• Tfxaaaeosrtmr si 9t3:iiT to aottB&tlei ; '^ odd- ^^d '■---■ -^.ot 

tasd ed* ic aao ax I.rxi-ais* «i?frr?H stfl 

.eolviea tjT9^:-i:i:jo 'rti^tafras^M lot *>eoxf6cTq; -xov© 8i^.-uxTn©:f 

yiiot Jboi arft ±o ^ftlTEte ot iroWjgtlai'jfcl stt "^o ftoaja«'i i< ,tifd 

lo ©on»T«©q--^ 9-dcr oafs ^as ,»0±*ir>aq-ao trrefstro ttoI 'jrt3 

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• afeloado woa at laffxirxe^ sxd* .n^.xaeb £-- ■•">--.- - 

{S. .iJi-d) '^ '" 

:3 lo a^axcjnoo XafliinBu "^tacne!!" &rfT 
©rfJ firii.-oae basior^' aexiw aiarffxtiJlq 6ia£l lo sidso io ©Ibrtird 
.'ledteao* -^onl^: j-etsiwt :iai9d •Idao arSt 1 o sLrr© erf;t ^iswolg 



(20) 
The entire oormeotlon 1b then pasted with a oement of finely 
powdered glower string, which prolongsthe life of the 
terailnal by preTenting the air from coming in contact with 
the highly heated platlntun and also aide in holding a firm 
contact between the cable of small wires ar,d the glower 
string* 77hen the wires are exposed to "the air, a volatil- 
ization of the platiniun hearest the heated portion of the 
glower string, gradually goes on and results in an increased 
length of the glower between the terminals with a correspond- 
ing voltage rise. The terminal, no doiibt, runs at a higher 
temperature since the strands of wire in contact with the 
glower material have only line contact with adjoining wires o 

The "ernet terminc^l is applicable 
for direct current glowers and it is here that eleotrdysis, 
if present, shows in electrode effects, being chiefly at the 
negative terminal, A blackening- occurs in Ihe glower string 
which starts at the negative terminal and Increases in dis- 
tance end magnitude with service. The cause of this phenom- 
enon mqjr be ascribed to an eleotrioal projection of part- 
icles of platinum from the negative electrode into the glower, 
and is the cause of a shorter life for direct current glo?.'ers. 

This effect produces a weakness at two 
places; the one being very close to the Junction of the 
darkened glower vdth the metal terminal ?4iile the other is 
at the limitation of Ihe darkened portion of the glower 
string. The weakness is probably due, either to vaporiza- 
tion of platinum from the glower, leaving the string in a 



rCtirw *oe*ffoo ni ■gntatoo mcrt'l t±« ettt ^nl* ireTetq ^cf I«ffi:tri3J^ 
TTill * -gatbloa ni aci: ^ osl 5 ban aafattalq bstoorf ^fl.-i^iirf arid" 

9r{t ^0 coxtiofi dsi'aacf ecfJ itBertasjef iHtfri* aCct 9d* to noitssx 
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•jfix'i.ts lewof"?^ «4^ rsx aitfooo i-:irrsf>''948Xrf l .Xarirfnet evJt*3'§©xT 

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-aorcorfq sxrft? to ©ac;'?© sr^ .ooi-viss ff-^i:"' e*ii; t^T-^,/?.? i-^ ; eorrad- 

-t)"TBCf to ffoWoe^otof laoxijO'^^Ie t ^ o;^ fce<fl':o«a 9<f \,>[t' none 

,ipwoIt ©!<:? otnl eLcitoele t. vltaaerf ©:{* arc'i''i iiansitf >Iq '-o aalol 

.Bie'VoDi t^naTiti/o J-oailb loi 9l±L letioria ' lo e«i«:o edi at orr -. 

ov;* Je aeenrrBaw • eeoirboicr tooll© 3irf- 

erii lo rtold-ortfi 6 A* ot bboIq ■■^er ^Txed eao arid- ;aeo«Iq 

ax i9:-"^o exf;J elirfe: Xanx.Jiie* Ijs* an arf* c^J'ir/ -xawola b9ae:itab 

Tcewols erf^- io £icxt-!;oq oexie'rfia'; ecB "ic iiol BcMflixI erii' ta 

-i3siioq»v o;t idiittra ,©!;& xLisdcij si sseaSaew erfT .sni-x^ta 



(21) 

more or lees disintegrated form, or to a reduotion of 
Btrong glower oxides to weal^er eub-oxides. The diffusion 
of platinxun occurs more rapidly when a glower ie operated 
below its normal temperature* 

There is fiirthennore an apparent 
contact potential differezice between the platintm nnd 
the glower oxides, such that the current in passing from 
the platinum to the glower liberates heat and in passing 
ftrom the glower to the platinum absorbs heat. It is 
beoause of this heat liberation and absorption that the 
positive and negatilre tenninals operate at widely differ- 
ent temperatues; the latter operating at arproximf.tely 
1100 deg» Co, whil* the former operates at approximately 
2100 deg. Ca "Then this terminal is used on alternating 
current glowers, the rapid reversals of current tend to 
equalize the heating effects and the total thermal effect 
is such as to Iceep the terminal cool. 
BA.^L TERI^aiTAL (Fig. 3.) 

The band terminal employs a stirrup 
of platintm which fits over the glower string so that it can 
be fused down into a solid band. There is no tendency for 
this band to slip off from the glower, as the adhesion of 
this fused platinum to "the glower string is very great. 
This type of terminal has all the characteristics of the 
Uemet tencinal in improved fo2an and has many superior 
points over the other types from the manufacturing view- 
point. 



(13) 

to aoliosbet s oi 10 ^OKft 5e-sigetn:xai:£> aaef 10 eiooi 
coxBiillib ditT . aefiJrxo-cfJxa la^'sew :■: aefclxo lewcl' snciua 
oeJ-jBieqo ai •xawoI:3 rrari." TsXfixqjsi 9iom aii^ooc flufaitslcf ^0 

^iaejaq: fit £(X3 t«fc ' .:jJ-I '.;^I^ ©d* 01 : ' ;I(T ed* 

ax cfl •tj30^' 3t!-i.:;:aij :^usxzt&Zi ^dC oi te-^L' srit acA 

eiS fsdi aoltqiOodB Vt-! sc'r-i^BiQdJtl *-iori eirfit "to eexjuoed 

-is^lxC ■\tla5i7.- :-?. a^^isqo fiifliirrmet e "" "^. ev:Jjfcao(i 

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ot br'ei tfae'rii: :o aljsatavei bi V .aiawol'q irteTii/o 

jotTte IsiciOf^t Isto* 9rf? '"f£ a.toe:'io »■■..^3efl orfj' esilsxroe 

• loco laaiffieJ e ' ' oJ bb rio'"- -; 3i 

i.e. .^±'4) ; '^ "' ■ 

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lot ^onef)cc9;r on si: JiarfT .i>c !d fcxlos 3 otxtx ftwo u fceax/i •<! 

iO cf ■ ofio a^ ,Tet7ol!P. a-icf fact'i tic qi:l3 Oj band ai-^i 

• ase-i,-5 ^... -JMd's TswcXr^ efC- c' " ' jIct bQass^ atrf* 

■3ri" Lc QOx3i;I-ioJo-i'x«i:{_o O'tt He a-jrf Xi3C-..,-x9 i to eqz* ■^idi^ 

•xoxieqjJB ^nact aid frrx^ iffio't Isvcirpnx ni Xerrirmet tatn:eil 

] -VYeiv 3rrxT;Jojstixmjfrf erf* aofi ae--^;^ ^er{to e-i'i rsvo atrtxoq 



(2£) 

Although several hundred forms of 
terminal have been developed, only the last two men- 
tioned are employed in the manufacture of plowers &t 
the present time. 
STUDY OF GLOWER . 

A close study of the heat conditions 
which are present in the glower terminals wi"' 1 no douht 
be of interest, and it is certainly evident t o an 
observer that thermo-electric principles apply to the 
phenomena taking plaoe in the glower. The ordinary 
equation for thermo-eleotro motive force is: 

E = a t-^4- t2 
fhich gives upon differentiation 

d Ec a a t -f- b d t 

Q ie taken as the rate of rise or the 
ratio of increase in S.M.F. to increase in temperature, 
and thus Q = J^ =- a + bt . 

Associated with thermo-electric 
principles is the so-called "Peltier Effect", which ie 
simply the inverse of the former. Thus if a current 
flow from copper to platinma, there will be liberated 
at the Junction of the t^-o metals, 9 x 10 calories 
per coulomb* 

If P| is equal to the heat liberated 
at the cold junction, and T* is equal to the cempsrature 
of t'^e oo]d juntion, and p5 equals the heat absorbed at 



io grino'l Laibrr^.d L^zQvea ri^iroriJl.- 
-ffSEt o~* taaT etft '•^Ctro , .& eqol ere i rreod evjiff I.:irri!r!te;t 
j/3 aiswoX'ti lo ©rti/toBlinsffl eri'J .nci fie^oXqa© e.c« beaoi* 

. aSrOI^ 'JTO YCTT TS 

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:sx eo-xol evltow orcttoele-orraerf* ic^ iroitswps 

>*^ — §^ -J 8 -'^ a 

no xd'stirrsrseHxc rro-TJj savis dol-'iT 
t 6 <J ; ;r B 3 ::^. 3 & 

a* TO eain "io st^rt 9rf;t s? fie^ra^f a* J 

.stu'JjBrcoqftted" rrx esseiorix ot ."^.X.ZI ni ea.^ettorri "io ciJsi 
.JO r- S „^.r J- ■:^ 5 Qjj.^^ gjj3 

ax fioxKw ."^ostlS: lartle^" fiaIIwo«c3 erfj ex asXaloniiq 

JB«*«iedxX ©d IXxr ^serl^ ««Bxai:*8lq[ ot 'isqqco «oi'x wol^ 
aeiioico CX s C ,alj3t&i,i c\/t of£^ io Gox;?^onii"t ^-'^^ *« 

• 'iaioXiioo laq; 
lJ9d-.e';:3dxX d-sed e-H oJ- IeoJ>e 3X ^1 11 

e'i:',*-si-z9qaa<s-^ srfd" o^ Xairps ax ^T ki.: ,rtoltoni;^ filco adi &s 
•J-a bsd-xcaJa iaer{ erf* alax/pe "1 tns ,fl;oii-n:irt 6 Coo erlt ^o 



(23) 



the hot Jxinction and Tg equals the temperature at the 
hot junction, then, if W equals the wo i^ done per unit 
flow of current 



5^2 ^1 " ^1 h 

but, since work is equal to EC and C is unity, W, 
therefor©, is equivalent to E and E equeae (Tg-TQ^) t-^^ 
An inepection of Ihese equations will show that they 
are similar to those deduced for the work done during a 
reversible heat process involving adlabatic and isother- 
mal expansioh. 

It will be noted in the equation for 
E that ^ile E must equal Zero when Tg S- T-^; it does 
not follow that P^ and Pg must equtl Zero for Pi and 
Pg must equal the Zero for P^^ and Pg vaiy with the 
current. 'Then current flows throu^ the junctions and 

T and !„ have an appreciable difference betv/een them, 

1 ^ 

B becomes real and effects a subtration of heat at the 

negative and an addition of heat at the positive, be- 
cause the E.M.F. must result from the absorption and 
liberation of heat at the terminals. 

When the negative electron theory 
is considered, some interesting results oan be deduced. 
According to the electron theory, electricity through- 
out the circuit is conducted by means of small negative 
eleotrone ^.ich are projected throu^ the materials 



jin^s -ii)'i 8ao& iHow Bdi alasipe W '11 ^aodt ,aorjtoccxrc tod 

«£ — 'i. -Ji -^l 



X" I" s 



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Miolanuiqrc* Ian 
toi noWajyoe ed^ ;xt beJort ed iltv &1 

ijrra j-l tox oieS I-sroo 5-.ixni ^1 5rf« j-1 ;t^:f.* v!roII:j'i tcrr 

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A X 

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'C'foedit Toi*o-Ie 9Vt:taaen ©rfit rterff" 

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-d-^oid;* ^*iolT*09l& .Yiowri* xxoiJoelo erf* ot acc-^fcioooA 

avi.taserr I Earrta lo ^.faeui '(£d Betoyccoo ai ttuo'tio edt isso 

al.^tietafn ertt /fr^uoTcrf* fieteetoi'r ens rfof-^; ■rrot^oare 



(24) 

of the oirouit. ^ere the platinum joins Ihe glower 
material, Ifce platinim electro ne will tend to go into 
the glower and travel far enough to meet a glower 
electron and repel the latter on its way, the energy 
of the former beiiag given up. At the positive end. 
It would seen that glower electrons would attempt to 
enter the platinum of the terminal, hut sinoe platinum 
is much more dense than glower ir.rterial, electrons would 
not have to travel very far before they would meet a 
platinum electron and ser.ci it on the way. 

Physioally, we have direct evidence 
that platinum enters the glower at the negative termin- 
al, but it is not known if glower material enters the 
platinum at the positive. It is thus reasonable to 
conclude that glower muteriel is electrically permeable, 
while platinum is quite dense. It may also be thought 
that platinum is very rigid and when the glower 
eledtrons strike it, the tendency is to volatilize I 

portions of platinum lying to the side of the point of 
contact of the electron. 

If blackening is a feature of the 
Peltier effect, then, since P^^ end Pg vaiy as the 
current flowing and the heat varies as the watts ex- 
pended in the glower, then as watts equal £ C and E 

diminishes when C decreases, the ratio ^1 *^^ ^g 

Watte 'f,'BttB 

is greater anci more blackening can occur. 



ottl 03 a? 5fiD* Iliw ano^toela wssitalq ©ri? ,lB.tte ,q:ti 

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, errs evJ:;J-i:-ioq[ odi *A ♦qi; «t9TX3 ^ttrei 'xenrfol orf* to 

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9:1:? ic ©iL'ts©! 3 air ^ine?[&sXd II 

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a"^ fifiB Jj^ oi'i-ei e.'^:* ,3©aB©roeo rtsffw 3©daii:ii.itl& 



(25) 



There icay also be a curve of glower 
permeability to negative eleotrone, ipSiich gives the 
permeability for any temperature at which the glower 
may operate. 

The foregoing priEcipleemay be 
epplied to explain eome of the peculiar actions 
which occur in the use of the glower, 

vrn.en the glower ie operated on j 

a circuit of twerty-five cycles, the life of the 
glower l8 somewhat shorter than on greater frequencies 
ana the failure of 1he glower alv ays oceure at the 
Junction of the terminal and glower. The cause 
of Ihit can postdbly be assigned to the blackening 
and the subsequent reversal does not oompletely 
change the glower terminal back to the original 
condition, so that strains are introduced and fail- 
ure results. It is not difficult to inagine that 
such a teminal could cone let of an amalgamation 
of glower and platinum electrons,' the platinum 
becoming more in evidence the farther one gets 
toward the platinum lead. 

In contrast to the above, it has 
been found that the glower fails at a point juet out- 
side the platinum teminal on high frequency. Thie 
ffl^ be a partial result from high temperature but 
the junction effect seems more probable, in view of 
the absence of the effect under some conditions when 
the teiminal is equally hot. It car be assumed 



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(26) 



that when first the glower eleotrone encounter 
platinuin electrons, the latter are in a zone of heat 
and will be more or lees movable ai*- respond by 
changinp their position sideways, but at other places 
the temperature of the platinuin may be such that the 
metal is rigid and the impact will find no elasticity, 
80 thet the platinum will be exuded from the surface 
in the form of a mass of fine particles of a spongy tex- 
tur«. 

On direct current the positive 
teiminal graducaiy accumulates this spongy mass and 
according to Uiis theory, it is done in the following 
mannert- 

/t the negative terminal the platin- 
um electrons flow into the glower proper, absorbing 
heat and liberating electricity. At the positive 
end the glower electrons attempt to enter the platinum, 
but at that point upon the platinum terminal where the 
heat is sufficiently small for the platinum to be 
comparatively rigid, a platinum sponge will be forced 

OUto 

SOME UinJSUAL PHEIIOMEITA 

hen £ direct durrent glower begins 
to take current, a sharp division line between a bright- 
er and a darter portion of the glower moves from the 
negative terminal towards the positive. At a position 
about midway between terminals it disappears, being 



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sviitxeoT edit tA .'^Jro'nJo Te ^. r^n'xedil c c ^aerl 

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(27) 



lost In the flood of light emitted hy the rapidly 
lighting glower. By operating the glower at a much 
lower temperature than normal, the dividing line moves 
more slowly anci for a greater distance, 
PECUII/R DlAXECrPJC PHE3?0t.^ETTA :- 

The highly heated air In the Immediate 
neighborhood of a glower when in opeiatlon Is conducting 
In a peculiar manner and is properly clashed as a "neg- 
ative electrode phenomena". At the anode there is a 
libera" Ion of heat and at the cathode there is an absorp- 
tion of heat, fT.d so great are Ifcese thermal effects 
that an anode of pletlnum which melts at 1760 deg. C. 
mey be melted while a cathode of silver, which melts et 
960 deg, C. will remain solid. 

The metal of the cathode is absorbed 
by, or possibly projected into the glower toward tie 
annode, for Ihe presence of silver, platinum and other 
metalB has been detected by chemical analysis of mater- 
ial taken flrom a point at considerable distances from 
cathodee consisting of those metals. 

This peculiar effect may best be 
Illustrated by the simple experiment of exploring the 
air with an •lectrostatlc voltmeter, and by fr.ls method, 
a distribution of conductivity ^proximatlng th£.t shOMn 
In Plate #E, Fig, 4, in which the shaded lines perpendic- 
ular to the axle of the glower represent the magnitude. 
171 th a 200 volt glower in operition and a voltmeter 



r ' -» / 



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(£8> 



rigidlly connected at the positive end end a freely 
moving "exploring .Ire" at the negative, a deflection of 
50 volte is easily obtained at a dletance of 3/32" from 
the negative eleotrode. The effect is more pronounced 
ae the temperature is Increased. If the voltmeter wires 
are inverted, that is, v.'ith the positive vlre free to 
explore, no deflection is observable, notwithstanding 
the fact that the terminal temperature is greater in "Qi t 
combination, and hence, it is apparent that it is not 
because of high temperatures that the air is conducting. 

Alternating current shows the 
effect in a more forceful ^vay than the case previously 
reviewed. Electrostatic instrmnents show leafcige from 
both terminalB, but thot from the negative is always 
the greater in magnitude. It is possible to sedure 
indicated deflections higher in value than the effectl-voe 
voltage as, for example, from a 200 volt glower it is 
possible to et a value up to 250 volte through the 
surrounding air. This is no doubt due to a unidirection- 
al charge, for the static emerge is received during the 
half-cycle^ when the exploring wire is near the momentary 
negative electrode of the glower, and a charge received 
from the "peak" of an alternating wave cannot leak off 
rapidly. These particular conditions for high deflec- 

tions are similar to those present in unsymmetrioal alum- 
inum electrolytic condensers. 



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(29) 

GI017ER FORM: — 

frlowere, in the solid or rod 
form, are limited to use for comperatlvely smell 

currents, due to the fact that the center of the 
string is operated at such a high temperature as to 
melt the material. For higher currents, therefore, 
other forms, such as tuhesi, are used in order to 
secure a thin wall of material which has a nearly 
uniform temperature. Special forms Tfcich may be 
compact and yet do not have all the material in active 
contact, mey also be operated on high current. 

In the latter form, it will be 
noted (Plate 2 - Fig. 5) that the path for current 
through the central portions of the glower (A) is 
much longer than the path (B) along the surface. 
These conditions of current distribution are self- 
compensating, for, while the peth at B ie short, the 
resistance of the glower material is higher because of 
the cool surface. Since the glower materials are 
subject to appreciable change after a definite temper- 
ature is reached, it ±^ desirable to operate the 
glowers as close to the limit between temperature and 
vaporization as possible. Otherv/ise. the hottest 
part of the glower would be just below that limit a^d 
the relatively cooler portions must, therefore, be 
operating at a temperature v^ioh is below maximum 
available efficiency. 



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(30) 



STATTDAP.D GL3'7EE CHARACTERISTICS 



Effect o' Glower length and 
Diameter on Efficiency 



The active lenpth of grlower string 
has a very mr. rked effect on efficiency of short glowers 
and but little effect on long glowers as showr. by the 
curves on Plate #3. To illustrate, lie normal length 
of E 100 Volt glower is 1.0 cm., so that a little 
variation would be a high percentage of total length 
and hence affect efficiency , I'he normal length of 
the 2£0 Volt type glower is 2.4 cBo, which is the 
standard ler^th of string for die tests, for- as will 
be noted on the curves, at these lengths, efficiency is 
affected comparatively little. 

In the operation of selection of dies 
referred to in the review of the manufactxirii^ process, 
a set of curves is obtained as shown by Plate #4 with 
glowers whose length is 2.4 cm. The die to ise selec- 

ted, for instance, for squirting a stock lot of .5 amp. 
glowers, w^ose initial efficiency is to be 1.5 watts 
per Mean horizontal candle power (of the bare glower,) 
would be Die #82, since on the materials used, no 
die gives the exact figure desired and th ; one selected 
is the nearest acproaoh on the increasing side. In 
the curves shown, it is evident that Die #83 is worn, 
for the Gffioiency of string made through it is not in 



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(31) 



ratio with Increased diameter. 

For a given ourrert density in the 
glower, there is a definite relf^tion existing between 
temperature and in turn a definite re'^ation to effic- 
iency and intrinsic brilliancy (that is, Candle power 
per unit surface.,) as will be noted by analysis of 
Plate #5o In general, it will be noted that ae tempera- 
ture increases by a rise in current density, the brill- 
iancy and efficiency^ at a point where the current approach 
eg normal operating value, increase at a rapid rate. 
SHAPE OF CHARACTERISTICS . 

The general shape of the glower 
characteristic changes with the proportion of oxides 
employed in its composition, so that the varioias combin- 
ations of glower mix will reach taie crest of the 
characteristic at various efficiencies. Such relations 
will be apparent by a glance at Plate #6, where propor- 
tions of 19, 11, 9, f<nd 4 of 2 oxide are combined with one 
of Y. The predominant features are strikingly shown and 

the curtes indicate that for commercial starting time and 
efficiency, it is desirable to use a ratio of somewheres 
near 9 to 1, and it will also be noted that the glower 
made from such e mix has electrical stability since the 
crest cf the curve is approached gradually said no marked 
change occurs immediately thereafter. Points of equal 
efficiency are indicated by the small circle on each 
curve. 



(x.) 



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• evrtxro 



(52) 
IJot only does the glower mix ^atee 
affedt the voltage-life performanoem as shown by Plate 
#7, but tlso the physical properties such as coarseness 
of the materials, and the presence of other impurities. 
If the glower starts at a lower specific resistance than 
normal and ha* e rapid voltage rise, it indicates the 
presence of some easily volatile metal so thp.t as the 
Impurity is volatilized away, m^ the Voltage becomes 
gradually that of the pure glower combination. As 

an illuatration, alkali will be present for only a few 
minutes, causing very rapid voltage rise for the duration 
of its presence, and then a glower will show only its 
inherent rise of voltage thereafter, itiile impvirities 
like Silica and alumina create a great rise for a 
long period of life. 

GIG Wars ir yahious gases 

A great amount of investigation hc.s 
been carried on to determine the influence of various 
gases on the performance of the glower, and it has all 
demonstrated that the air is beneficial to ihe operation 
of a commercial glower. 

The characteristic of the Terns t glower 
when operating in the open air is given in Plate #8. and 
also ^en operating in vacuum under like conditions with 
the corresponding point of normal watt efficiency as noted 
by the circle. Aside from the fact thait the vacuum ht£ 
shifted the point of norm.-.! watt efficiency to a much 
lower voltage and higher current density, it will he 



ot3l . Tid kwoj12 3^^ aMorronTXot'xeT ©iil-e-satlcv sKt t5©*t*tj3 

:ja?3©EiBOo as r.'ojjs aeij-iaqoiq I aoie^irfq srit oel J'yo ,?-,. 

• aeircfxixrcpTri n©rf;to to aoaoaotq 3xf* irrj ,iX^xi9*Bffi erfi*" lo 

rrJeric^ e.orr3d"oia9i oxtiosqa iswcl a t^ a^Tata •re'WJia oAi tl 

9rij- aai'->3ox6crx x ^eetn e^aflcr ttqa-x ^ ksv' 603 Isniitoci 

erl:? aa t^rf;)- oa Lateai eXi:rf"sX.v ^^Ixa^e ©mo.-j 10 eoaeaeTT 

aeaiooerf e-^is^Iotf ark' *'-.*•■< ,^w.i Sestx CiiJ-jBloT si ^jti-inqsii 

3 A •aoi^jSirMffloo "xewcla! a-cofx er^t to tarfj lillatr^iaTg 

■iTfjr, 9 -ft lol 9aii ©3JBs:rXo?- '-xq^n. ^lev -yiiairuo .eotuni-j 
sti '^cto wo-fa Xliv tewol^i a ao^t *!rc3 ^eorreaetq; atx 1:o 
asxd-xxcfirai aX'l' .latl^eiot't e^stXov to ©sire *rre:calxil 
e 1-^ ©ai'x *B»TE3 « eo'«8io arcxairXe fcnijs aoxlx?^ e/xl- 

♦ eliX to ooi-xot| g^croX 

3j;oxi .T to 8 oxisc; '"^fli orl? 9nl:'^n©d'r>6 cc5- ao Be^i'.rao ased 

IlB ^d i' i iraj ,i&woX5 erlt tc ©or'srjrscliao- erf;J- no aeaag 

froi:J"j3i©'TO Grtf !X)' Ifix axlsasd si -xra or! "■ .tjsrt^ fiatB-i-taffO-iiaS 

•ismXi X'iioiainaiofc ; to 

•vs7r- [3 : aria" orJt I0 oid'afcTo^ae-sjsrfo aflT 

■:ri; ,8t &iaLl rt£ .te-rx'^ ai -xlia rteqo srft cd 8ffi:;J«^©aro r^orfw 

dtxw aao i::}- 1 brr 00 93(iX leorri; iaauo3Y rcl ani^faTtexo '•■stfw osX.? 

;9ton a.? x;ofrexox1t9 Jtaw I ?e:io:: lo tniroq s^xfirrcciaeTcioo ©rfl 

3 .-I UKjuoBV ■'•(( *3d ' toat arfj fito-tt ©."ta' .©lotxo s ii' ^d 

rioirrn a ot -^oTOxoxtt© *:^sw I -.;TTion: tc :tTrro'X 0'^+ 6e*ti:r^a 

0(f rXxw Ji" ,^i:arr9o Jrteiixro Tsrf^xrf F^.tg e^acMoT tswoX 



(33) 



observed that all the points now lie on one side of the 
crest so that a decreasing difference of potential re- 
sults in an increasing current, "^uch a condition involves 
the use of a very larg« percentage of steadying resis- 
tance and hes thereby lowered the available efficiency of 
the glower. 

Plate #9 shows the nitrogen curve with 
corresponding air curve, and it will be observed that 
this gas makes the glower behave eimllar to the vacuum, 
but the effect is less noticeable • 

Plate #10 shows the corresponding abtion 
of a glower in hydrogen and oacygen as compared with ft e 
curve in open air. It is here very interesting to note 
that the oxygen and a ir performance are very much the 
same, while the hydrogen curve shows a character very 
similar to that of the vacuum end, like the vacuum, 
requires a relatively large steadying resistance. 

Plate #11 shows a very interesting 
phenomenon connected with glowers operating in a medium 
free from oxygen and which is the most pronounced rhen 
operttinp in a vacuum. .There oxygen is excluded, the 
glower becomes edugg is h ejid responds very slowly to rjiy 
change in line voltage. The upper cunre shows the 
change in current value with time, while the lower curve 
shows the corresponding change in voltage during the 
same interval of time. It must be borne in mind, in 
this connectton, that the glower will respond almost 



-r-r Isi.^rfe + oii ''"to ooaeialr^iis i^r^te&e losib .^. t irCJ oa d'se-.o 
-aJrse-x 3ftx><;BB©:^s l:c 9:5a;t'rr©oT:erj[ egial \^r.ev >i "to soi; erf;^ 

• ©Id"-^ 9 : j-o -r 3 8 si yt toelilts 9r^^ issd 
'^OB 3rt:i orto^aei-xco e'^* aworia 01* «^«I1" 

e-W rxoxrm \.i£V o-: •. e ocfis.irro'i ":e j rrt s 5a^» ne'S-^o srf* t.srit 
Z's. Y •x9;t'OBisrfo f^ aworfs emro ctergoiB^-i a-f* alrrfw ,©ra»2 

• so iij 3t39'c §nx^ae;tB e,;=ial ^lavxtalo-i 3 aoix.u-oa'i 
arritaeied-ti: V-t©^ J^ a-T-.n.3 Z.l'- gj-sll 

asrfvv booasjonotq ct x/.-rr 8'\3- si dior -'w TviT^i ne-a-^o ^Torr'i o©tt 
srfj" ,ft9fij:rIJX9 sx rro^-^o giarT' .flC'JTO-'^v 3 rrl: f^TXcf i9<io 

ad r aworTs 9T£;/o T:3rc.xi srT" .©g*;^!©^ errif rrj^ 0*5 r.3'^!o 

3Vxi;o igwc-r arft el-r^i^v .saclt d^lw ©juI'^v itrs'ri-x.oo ti^ esfiQ Ho 

e:':t -%niiisb e-%.itfov ni ef^i-jdo :^iTi"fjrtOG[Gei:ioo e^'f a'?ro;ra 

rri ,bcr.r:3 rrr smoci ed :5-8ir.Tf ^tl .oaiit lo !:-'VT:9*ftl e^ss 



(34) 



immediately in air to similar changes in line voltage 
and remain constant. The slight change in the vacuum 
curve after the first minute is posribly due in part 
;^o ihe temperature oorreotion of the reeistence in 
aeries with Hie glcwer. 

The relation of the ba-lcst to the 
glower is very intimate, and before considering the 
various elements which influence its design, it will per- 
haps he well to consider the following reiaainirig phases 
of the combination since the action of the glower is the 
determining feature. 

iimuErrcE "f freoueitcy of voltage 

It has been considered at times that 
frequency effedted a change in voltage over a glower 
but results, as follows, show conclusively that the 
voltage of a glower is not dependant upon the frequency 
of the circuit. 



Glower 


J_ 


Volts 
72000 Alt. 


3000 Alt. 




CMIIGE 


1 
2 
3 
4 

ioc;:Tioiir OF p.d. 


192.5 
192.5 
190.5 
191.3 




192.5 
193. 
190.5 
191.2 



By Qxploring voltmeter wires attached 
to various portions oft .4 ampere E.C.glower. an idea 
can be obtained of the numerical magnitude of the losses 
due to all causes before outlined. The readings given 



cmssoiiv edi si agnar^ ' tdglLs art? •toed'aftco ai-^ineT ^.-^r? 
rti eoito^esxasi odt Tro aoJttoeiioo axtjtjii&Tawt exf}- ot 

-'Af-'o; "X:-i!? cfx jngiasb :^tx eo:i9artnt rfol iv,- aitrtaiEiele Bi-'oxiisv 

393 3:1 -5: %ri::izxx6i '§rfi-«7oIIo t erfi le&tsrroo ©:*■ I lews of aq-Mi 

sd":)- ax -sawoli erft to rtotto--. sifj sc.iia ftc-b-anr: inoc sil? ?;o 

joax^ tjb Dsiafeiu-toc) ctee'l asri il 
te::ol':% .j t©vc o.^^jicll. v nx a,Qi"ijit£o .0. oatftetle -^ an. at pott 

a{* J3fl7 ^le Vi"3ir I O "00 WOilS ,«W0Cl0t 3J8 ,S^tS5 3VX ": ' 

\;cnsi.'p8T:'t sd;t fcoqi; fasoasfi©'; loa ix n#woXg .0 to e^3*iov 

• *i:fO ixo Bdi to 

'^..3€i a. sex X 

a.oei d.oer 8 

i^.xer 5,xex # 

38 ox XI:; ttowoXa.O. "^ sTB.j3i:3 ^» jto acio x* to ;j ':i0or^;«v o:t 

saasoX eficf to Bba^ x.tv.%:issi X.3ori9f^a.-«: odJ- to oertirsjCTo 9ci rt.-30 

cisvi:--^ a^nifiSQ-x erfT . beaxXtiio eiotad aeaxfao XXa ot au'i 



(35) 



are over portions of a glov7er as indicated by Fig. 6 
in Plate #2. 

Volte 



Time 


Va 






^P 


Vo 


Vn 


10 rin. 


203 




_. 


29 — 


154 — 


20 


1 hr 


197 




._ 


28 — 


149.5 - 


19.5 


25 " 


189 




._ 


27.5- 


141.5 - 


19,5 


50 " 


168. 


.5 


__ 


29 — 


139 


20 oS 


100 " 


. 188. 


.5 


-. 


29 -- 


140 


19.6 


200 " 


190, 


► 5 


_> 


31.5- 


140 


19.0 


300 " 


. 192. 


,0 


-- 


32.5- 


147.5 - 


12 



TEKHLimL LOSSES PIT VARIOUS KsEQUElJrC IE S 

The wQtts lost in the termint^le of a 
glower will be proper tiontl to the difference in voltsge 
between the glower and the external side of the terininal 
(or Va - Vq in Fig. 6 - Plate 2) and in an A. C. glower 
these readings are carefully obtained on verious 
frequencies with e constant watt input with en average 
result of 67. Volts on 25 cycles up to 57.4 Volts on 
133 Cycles. This indicates that the losses are approx- 
ime.tely eoual on all freqUBncies ; with a tendency toward 
sli^tly greater losses at the higher frequencies. 
VOLTAGE OF GLOWERS lU AIR AVT- lALIP 

When glowers are used in large lamps 
there Is an acotmulative effect which reduces the voltage 
required to pass normal current through the lamp, the 
amount depending upon the inter-heating effect of several 
glowers when operatlrg in proximity with each other, aiid 
therefore, the voltage of the glower, as determijied in the 
free air, is greater as the size of lamp is increased, 



i^s) 



acMoV 



XI' 



e^xT 



.n.t::.l 


CI 




Id 


I 




n 


33 




tt 


03 




« 


001 




It 


OOS 

ooe 




3S01 


I .ii:.5i: 


■;n: 



OS — i^Cl -- 9^5 — SOS 

^^.ex - a.Gf^i — Si — vex 

a-oOS - GKI -- e^:: — a«r5:>x 

a.t: - o^r -- on — d.BBi 

o.ex - oi^i -^i.X:'. -- s.oex 

2x - a.v^x -'i.35 -- o.sex 



rT.-riicisJ ei? 'to sfjxa i&crteixe q {^ Brri? lonoX? «fft it9a\T:^9ef 

■vsworg.C, A rr« ffi orr.< (S a^af- - 3 .?sM rtt gV - jgT -to^^ 

3irox'i'?v ceo 5 9fti.?,tcrc ^IXfr^si-o etB yr^rx's: ') bb-i esedt 

3 r?.i6Vi.' rr-j .HctI;;,' iisq^at ■*ii:>vf tffatarroo 3 •^ti'":? aeioiisiroeT:^ 

fTO atXoV ^♦va o;*- v-jir a«Xo\;ii a3 /to atCoT »1fJI to ^J-Iiraet 

-xoacfqfi ex; aeaaoX oii ;J . 1 astacx^^rti: axAl' .aeXciO S<3X 

j'lawoj ^ci9i)cre* s -i jx <; ; aeiofinyrpe-il X 1^5 flo Isii-.e ^©oMii 

»B©i»a«iro»^* idrigxfi srij *a ae^aoX •x©u#9i3 %£i[i%x£a 

aqiiinX ee%%:il nr fie J3" 9ri=.j aTSwcX"^ rterfv 

ogatXov b.-I:-'- aeoafjen ■ioi'tT *De'±te evI-vtalffflBfooB as at -^•rsrf:?' 

erf* ,rTffit3X eii^f :{3fcroirf* Jtacrii-?) £«nrron b3 n ot Betiuoai 

■.^.luvG.? I0 d-oeHa grrxts-jri-iod-ni srf'i' rroqu gr iurr^iqofr trttro:-^:; 

5it; .Tecfcfo -{oa? rf^ixv -^^ laix KO-iq; at 3rrx*£rf9T0 r-edv 8i9'7oX-.3 

odt at o&g;jtrriie*nn as ,i97roX:3 e/lt ro agiitXov erftf ,etetertad* 

.fieaBSiOTX '.]■ TTTaX "to esra ed* -;3 i9*3-.tj? si ,-txB ea-al 



(36) 



aB follows: - 6 glower, 18 Volts; 5 glower, 16 volts; 

2 glower, 13 volte; Single glower 3 Volts, and are 

applied to Ininp voltages as indicated herewith: 

Eumber of glowers 6 3 2 1 

lamp Voltage 220 220 220 220 

Ballast 20 20 20 20 

Cutout 4 3 3 4 

Glower voltage in lamp 196 197 197 196 

]3ifference between Glower 

Voltage in Air and La mp 18 16 13 3 

Air Volt£ge of Glower 

required 214 213 210 199 

GLOWEE VOITAGE OTT A.O. OE D.C, 

When a glower is operated on direct 
current the required Voltage is less than on Alternating 
current, and the (difference is always at the negative 

terminal, there being little or no difference at the 
positive endo A difference as great as 6 volts is 
sometimes observed, not only over the negative termiml, 

but also apparent over the external terminals, and 
since liffe teste are operated on sample glowerB from 
each lot manufactured, the difference is accurately 
determined for each lot and subtracted from the nominal 
rating, vfcich is performed on Alternating current only. 
BAIIAST 

The advantages be gained by the use of 
a steadying resistance vfcloh would enable the glower to 
be operated efficiently at a point on or beyond the cr«t 



ana crts «a*IoV t; ii-.'W>Ca el^^Kl-. ;ed-Iov ?.I ,iawoI^^ S 

: d:^ X v/ e 'i-©.rf nQ:^3oi onx 3 a a a^ai" X o v ^t a I o ^ 6 sx X opiB 

X 3 S d a'^owol'^ to isdinol 

0:';-t OSS OSa OSS ©SatXoV qrfc:xl 

0^'^ o;. ca OS ^aiiiiS. 

j. 5 S ^ #i;o*JiO 

V ?.j 31 _ 3X xq g't r. CIS liA sx eaatXcY 



eex CIS 51:1 M^ " feetiifpea 

•o,a ^0 •©♦A ^0 Sv^ATioY .^mois 

■actx7Bffie;tr.. rto aaricr aa©! si e^BtloV 6ei-c:;-e-t erft toarcitro 

arij j.^j oorce^onxfe on io aTo^tiX ^rtted eas^i" ^laa^fre©* 
ai atlov i 8B ;^^»*i:3 3:3 eorre-xa'tli ~ \ .Sfte evitxaocr 
,Xaax.rne:; avxli^aett ft- :J- levo i^Xrto :^or-: ^JBsrveatfo ^Sfffrtamon 
&«!3 .aXarx-mso Xxsaie^ze sri" t.ovo ;rti9i«(iT« oaXs *wrf 

^iXs:t3ij:.ooa 8X so^e-s^i^xb s^i^ ,6ext;;rostUiT^^'st JoX .'fo .9 
rsaraic.T 9ri[:t ^o-d: be^oattcTus ^c^b toL ^oa© "tot fcarci-TiftteF) 
,%£tio c^fTe-n-ao i^itti^.Tt-tX-i no feettriolieq ax tf ol '*: ,3nt*«i 



o:^ lewoXa 'a:» eXdarre M.uo-.- dot* aaffa.taiae-x s«iV>«9^s ' 
:^.o eA^ too^d io no .nxoq . *. ^^rtexo^e &e.e.e,o ed 



(37) 
in the characteristic air curve will be recognized 
by caraful analysle of Pletee 8, 9 and 10, In order to 
acooiirpllBh this tmc' er ell conditions of commercial use 
and vith as little lose as possible under normal con- 
ditions, the steadying resistance should have as large 
a positive temperffture correction as porsible, and, 
furthermore, the correction should always he iranediately 
available. To illxistrate, if a glowf r were operated on 
or beyond the crest of the ourve^, the current could 
obviously be controlled ty a large steadying resistance 
having no temperature correction, but svch resistance 
would very me.terid.lly decrease the net efficiency of t }b 
glower. On the other hand, if the resistance has a high 
temperatui^e coefficient, the necessary steadying resist- 
ance under norm??l conditions may be very much less than 
when no correction is present, in which case, should tho-e 
be en inciease in voltage above normal, the corrective 
power of the resistance would be brought into play to 
checlc the t endency of the glower to take abnormal cxirrent, 
or, in other words, it would talce up the additional volt- 
age. As already stated, however, the teiriperature cor- 
rection mu£t be immed lately available, for if it were 
not, the gloTirer would "shoot over its crest", when light- 
ed at a presv^.ure above normal; that is, tahe more current 
at the start than it would a little later after the temp- 
erature correction of the resistance had asserted itself, 
end if this over-shoot were too great, would probably 
^lash out. This would also apply to any siidden increase 



cA '-.obio rcl .01 -bcTj e ,3 est .•.II to 8i:8"^lJ3(TJ3 Ix/ilie'rjo \^ 
s acr IsroTS/rrrnoo 'to anoxtxDnco II."? ie 'rtJ:; ax fl" dedZqsnooosi 

-noo I's^norr lefetrx; ©rdir^aoT ae aaol elt^ir 3* rf+i:-- has 

os-sl aa evacf bl/ on'a •onB:J'Bxa«i jrri^^JBetf 3 ertt ,arfox*cb 

, .oae ,eldc830q as noi^oe^ioc eiift -I'x aqrae* ©TXtrao^x -'- 

-^'ot ■sx^Herrnri ©rf a^veCa filjj-o-fe noxtoe-sioo odt ,©-s.o.ni:eff1"rjrl 

iiLsjoo JnsTuro ar?":?" .evx.ao erlJ- ':o taeio eri* ba.o<ie6 lo 
eaiBctgxae-s ^ytx^ioseja 93-131 - vjj l)aCIo-f;ffloo a-f ^ajffoxvcfo 

eof-a^aiaei dtxss ^ud .acxtosTnioo ^^.:;:^«•t6q[.«d• on ■^rvjari 

■ji J 'io -^orjexoi^ta ^'ea ?:! saao-ioei) ^IIei--j:9* 5fK ^lev blifow 

d-gxfl ie. a:;xi e on-'; t si -3 si eri^ ti ,&n^;.ci T6n*o sr'lt aO ^t&koI-^ 

-tBias'T- ■%rit\^ii&'i e, ^^i^aeoorc end- ,*aexoi"11:»oo e iir;t^t9:/Tfe;t 

ai^-^lo' as9l rfoxr^i .^lav sd vam arte i:c^i: Sn 00 X^faiOxt -^le'-ccw eorrr, 

9-E:lt olxroria (BaBO rio-Mw £sx ^tHeao-xq; ai aox^tOdiTCOo on fle'fw 

©vxj 9110 sdM ,ISiriio:T ©vcds s^atlov ax saaa . on ?: rra sd 

0* ^"Iq: o^rri i-.d"^;oii 3d 61x5 cw ©oaBJ':--£3?i arf^ to leroq 

, o^'s^ i-ii/o IsjiriofKf* esCeu" od- 1 357013 oii lo -^one.D£ro ;r ^'v*- itoe.-To 

-tl..v IsfTOi^x&^B erft q:iJ w^nt oXjow tr ,aJbiov7 i&diJ-o ni ,10 

-•;:r. eiw^Bisof i9d- ■- '^ ,t6vewor; ,iei'fita vilae la ->A .sgji 

si9\7 tx tr 10'': «eIdsXi3d^ ^^:; ar Afe:-igtx ed tawrir rtoitosi 

-a'i.^.sii:! rcerfvr ,''d-ae'io aij levo .toocis" ^li/o^iv igwoX:?. sKJ" ,*or( 

;J-'reiii;o sxott 3cCa;f ,ax ^sr^f ;l&'^on svodj ^iw.aaii >* is 5a 

-qmet ari;)- 1©*^:.^ ly*?! oltJil ■ ^Iro'ir ti narW tiets ed? ;^?■' 

,'tl93tx betiesa.' Jb^'i eorttaxsei ed* to aoi-o 091100 evj^a'i.o 

^Idddo'3 T[ "-Ix/o,- ,tfleT3 :-\.i 9<:nw *ooxi3-i©To ax'i* '-.: nrr^ 

e.;B9irx-ri: xtecitxs v,ns <3J- ^Icr'7" o^ila .oluow airlT •d-j:;o daj&L% 



(38) 



in voltafe applied to the glower, unless the corrective 
power of the resistance were imined Ib te ly atraileble to 
cheoT^ the flow of current. 

The resistaTice employed in the TTemst 
lanp, termed the "Ballast", is unique in construotion and 
meets the peculiar reouirenemts of the glov/er in e very 
effective manner. Iron wi re is 4sed on account of ii s 
hi^. temperature correction and by properly mounting •Qi is 
vTire in a small tube filled with hydrogen, a ballast with 
high corrective power ccn be wrked at hifh tempera tur«s 
without danger of destruction and with a loss of only 10^. 
As iron varies in resistance with increase in temperature 
In 8 variable ratio and hydrogen seems to steepen the curve, 
the resulting typical br.llaet characteristic appears a? 
shown In Plete #12, and applies to bell as ts of any capacity. 

The portion of the ballast curve vhich is 
utilized has the greatest bearing on the stability of the 
lamp, the percentage of ballast resist.'.noe required, and 
t>e life of the ballast. If the working normal ie high on 
the curve, a large variation in voltage means only a email 
change in current and the glower will be almost uneffected 
by a large rise in voltage. In this event, the ballast is 
operating et a hiph temperature and a high rise ir. voltage 
makes an uncertain life. 

The design of a ballast ie rather a dif- 
ficult matter and no exact formula has, as yet, beer, devised 
which will hold true. An anproximation upon which to base 



©Yxt03'fi00 Bs^l aae.:.-^^ ,T9woIg sit o ■ iliq^ o-B:fIov tx 
-j& e.i.f:ilxsv3 ^jl ©d- lit oeiTEii aisw ©o'tsJ'jjxaoT: fU" "^c i9-;70- 

■JameT? ad* at 59^ioIq«e 9o;rsJ'3XijeT eH"""' 

-rtsv • rix le-TOls 9-* ■-' a-t!56iae^ixr' 9:t %:tL::oBq adt sd-QQJ' 
a X to JreiJoooe no b&a& si an L-vr to-y^ ,tm.^m sviJoatt© 

xi^xv^' taariBcT b ,neso'xi^\::f dthv fieim e-jij-* I T .^.us 3 fix six- 

aa-sin^istetirnat rf-^M *e b93f-i or,- sd n- .o -xg^o ;• sv tosTioo ri^lrf 

.^01 'itrfo to 3G0l s dtiw las floitotri;fae.5 to isnixsxs jwotfxw 

9'iiJj-s-i9Cir!xe* nx oaaoToex iir-r ©or^tsiaei fix aertav rronl aA 

;■ doi* av-ri-ro *as riad srET to crottio? qKT!) 

a-f^ to ^5*xI.'.--fBe-a edt /to ^oiisei-r taet^et^ e -T J a-rf fissJrlilx; 

^ rn ^fis-xxiToei eo-' d-sxae-x ^tasirxf to e3B*rr90-te(i 9d* ^qa.^il 
no irAM si I?fiicft ^fxi^r-io'^ sfti" "I **3aIIao ertf to st.cl 9 <:t 
Cr3-r-5 • v;IrTO ^rtso;- g^^tlcv rtx rrorti^r-xBV e^ifll ^ .evxi/o e't 
[i9;J-09t^-an tsomrB ^d Ilir lewol^ orf* o-b ^rrottiro rtt ogr^-irio 

♦ etxl nxBttaoni:; rr.'i ae-;r..'[tf 
-ti-fi 3 T9nJ-si ii taf.II'.d 3 to TOta96 9da 
,e5xvob rtserf ,te^c ^. .33c{ «Ii;«-iot *o,.x9 oit drb i9t*.3,n nv;or: 
oa.d ot -loxrrvr .oq. «ox:t.^xxo^ctr. . a. .e;n* blori IH'. rioHw 



be? 



(39) 



design may be made as a beginning and is thrt, the diam- 
eter of the wire in millimeters will be approximately one 
tenth of the ciesired o rrent in sr.peres, and that the 
total active length of wire shall nearly equal the volts 
drop and yet not exceed two watts per square inch of 
Buperficisl area, since the specific reeletanoe of the wire 

is governed by the watts absorbed o 

The reqrlrements of Ballast design are: 

1. Consumption of rated voltage at rated amperes. 

2. Stability and long life. 

3. Fon-sluggisho 

4o Size and shape of bulb. 

5. Keebanlo&l strength o 

Sluggishness is the property of a "ballest 
which neoeesltates a time elercent before the current 
asBumee a notmsl operatinj^ condition and to minimize it 
is the irost difficult feeti:re of ballast design. A 
ballast when operating at air temperature will reouire 
only a low percentage of voltage required Tiien hot snd 
T*ien current begins to flow throu^ the glower, the ballast 
correction can only be made. 

The iron wire is mounted In the ballast 
In the form of coils by stretching from the top of the 
mount to the leading in wires and by ranging the pitch 
between the turns, we are enabled to raise or lower the 
temperature and thus adjust not only the current, tut also 
the percentage characteristic. After exhaustion of the 
bulb, the ballast is treated with hydrogen, carefully 



.(^6) 



9iit t.3tf.t ba^ ^aet?iq'm rri *n9'xx o 5©Ti8e'^ ei'.f to dtne^ 

9*1:7 erfi" L^upe ^Iiserr Clarfa e-ii:w *c '{t'yrel oriiioB Ia*ct 

lo Aoal oiBJjp3 -xa-T ai't^jw owrJ teeo^ze ioa iQ\ tjm qoifc 

• etll ■gaol beta ^ttliJa*? .3 

,d8iT^isL2~ctoZ .S 

• cTIiro 'io ©qjssrfa -;rr ^ eztZ .^ 

tTefSifO erfo s-xoted tne-^^eC© em,:* s aetii^-tiaseoerr rfoi-r-.v 

;ti- eaiintncim o;J ftrt^ aotitbtoo '^frl:^a•J9qo Jti^ratoft a ao.-a/j8« 

A .rr^i-aoii taallr. J to stc^jeil: fluot'^lLtb tsorr 6?f-^ ax 

jbTc. tori rrerfe^ betliSTi^r e^atlov 'lo e-^ettaoi^? wol b -:,I?to 
i"36l 1:3(1 9d:t .Tswor^ sdf j*5iioi -fit WO f'l o;f «Tr-%e;i trcettxfo rte-fT? 

• 9f)j»ra ed •^r«-o nao rtol"tooiioo 

d-3sll3d 9 it iix fjad'ajJOitt ai ei r'T noil orfT 

6.id- 'to 10* sH:* rfioil sfiirCoteitta "^d aXxco to rrrdi srf t ni 

do^xq- erf* grii^nBi '^d x-rrs aft-xl- ■ rtx ■^niftiiel erfo o.' drtuora 

9rfj- tswol -£o e 3r«i o* oalJane ei ■> sw ,am!:r* arft ^raawl-ed 

O'Dls ^ssd ^fae'n:sc s.i* '^lao 'or JatfQJbs aurf* rja.; •-tir*J3i9q:.'Ke* 

ex::/' iO xioxoatfijfixe tailA . oitexisi-OjexBrfo e^ntfreoreq: arft 

-^II'ftsiJBO .no^oiB^tri rTj-xw betr.sii si. tajsIXacf odt ,(fl;-:d 



(40) 

purified, and v,hile nomal voltage 1b IrapreBsed upon Its 
terminals. It If sealed off. In thiP ranner of seallnp 
off, the preRBxire of the hydropen 1p erual to that of the 
atmosphere only when in operation; this boinp deslrahle 
since the glass will then not have a tendency to dis- 
figure Its contour, should It hecone soft from exces- 
sive heat vhlle on an overload. The ru^llty of the hy- 
drogen riust be very high In order to insure uniforrolty 
of performance, and nust he absolutely free from the 
slightest trace of molpture. 

The characteristic of the ballast Is rulte unaf- 
fected by small variations in pressure of the hydrogen 
and Is an admirable quality from the naniifacturlng stand- 
point. 

Important factors entering into the temperature 
and hence characteristic of the ballast are:- 

1. Absorption of heat due to specific heat of 
the materials In and adjacent to the ballast. 

A, Iron v,ire 

B, Hydrogen 

C, Glass and adjacent parts. 

2. Heat Dlpslpation. 

A. Connection 

B. Conduction 

C. Radiation. 



'ytilBs^ to Tortrta'^ ^^ixi;'' ni . i:'to feelsoo il tx .aXjaniflnecf 
sIcTbt r!?«5 ■^^niftrf ■'J.rrl? ;r\oifsit9'^o n'r fi9dw ^Ino P':f»,; 

-^ji{ 9f{c^ to^*i:X|Wo arfT .fci?oXT«^- - Bird'' ^nsd bvI^ 

.9T.u-:t-;ioi:i io ^ Est 



.driiroq 



eixntafiSffDsa* '3<f+ ■):►«* -^ifhr®?** »^®f»JI :*«S»?^«MfHi 







97 r < >.a", ;. 


»« 






r(o?»o-r f«fil 


.a 


.3^'fiv:] 


:' L^fjoos'^ c■■■ 


■■■- — ^-^ 


.0 




.^o.t.■^« : 


■ ^ ;.. '^eii 


• Si 






-41- 



These factors have particular referftnce to the 
eluggiPhness, and In the case of the latter factor, the 
rate of heat dlSRlpatlon Is greater for a certain temp*- 
erature at the start becauFe of the lov;er temperature of 
a lamp body. RlugglsJmesF may he reduced In several vays. 
By constructing a naturally ventilated lamp hod 7 so that 
the temperature of the lamp body is alv^ays relatively lov?, 
the main cause for sluggishness v.ill he in the specific 
heat of the iron v.ire. The anctmt of heat required to 
heat the iron wire from atmospheric temperature to that 
of normal operation can he readily seen hy an example: 

In an .8 ampere 110 volt Ballast, the cold re- 
sistance is 3.6 ohms and at normal temperature is 12.5 
ohms v-'lth ,00873 grams of v.ire. Assuming a specific 
heat of 1.3 and a temperature rise from air as 400 degw 
C, then the energy ahsorhed, because of the specific heat 
of the v.ire, v, ill be .00873 X 1.3 X 400 equals .454 grra. 
cal. But the current, in a non air cooled ballast, is 
approximately 40% over nomal for an instant, so that 

watts expended at start vill be 
2 2 
(.4 X 1.4) X 3.5 (C H) equals 1.1 watt., and 

since 1 watt represents .254 ^rv, . cal., at this rate of 
dissipation, the ballast v.ire will be brought up to nor- 
mal temperature in .454 or 1.62 seconds, tience this phase 

.S54 
of the subject, after all, is not as Important as vould 

be at first supposed. 



_ r .\- 



o:t h^ttv^^i ■tr.grf "^o ■* ,9Ti,v rrorti »rf.t to ^B»il 

: nIc[WBXe ob ^;cf .iJI>.f^<T ncf rtno '-o ?"*'.fl''*'^qo I«arro« to 

-f>i F)Ioo Off:*- ,;*i^IIfid >-^Iav OX.f ■ . .5 rtl 

1.21 ax 9tJJ:^J?10'r^f9^ livtto;-^ t ■ i.f- '»^ 

o^ ttoflq'J « ?i;.' ,9nf / to . .i^tv 

'Bed: ot tiOBfXB 'Si\^ to , ,0 

.i-TTT'i ^cl^, s^XaiJiie 00^ X S.I X ?;TB00. arf lit 7 ,»fifv »A^ 'to 

»d Hi . tnj8^^ ^B &c 
S S 

5rtB ,.c^+«-,7 I.I -M r;) 3,S X U.X X 1^,) 

io 9:*^Bi >=!?:rf* */5 ,,Ibo . vrn i^?.S, R;tnc9Sf?T'TBt f'^a-^^ I ooa^?? 
-Tort 0+ qu trf3wo-i(f f».f II 'r? ei.rv :^^.r1J .snt'&sriJiH'^tb 

blisoT ^B ^ns^traqni =5B ion ^i ^£Iji to^tx; ,:*OM(,d0T 9rf# lo 



(4?.) 

An atRolute viev, of t}i» Pub^eot Ib hard to ob- 
tain, for as speoific rePlFtance rlpes.the rate of ex- 
penditure of energy In the ballast also Increases. At 
the saine time the specific heat of thfi v ire Increases, 
and a f^reat portion of the heat vlll be dissipated by 
conduction and contlection until the ballast comes al- 
oost up to normal temperature. 

That the ballast makes a small change In the wave 
form of an alternating current Is of Interest. It Is due 
to the rise In specr'flc resistance of the Iron vlth rise 
In temperature so that the maximum voltage has to overcome 
a slightly larger resistance than does the lower values of 

voltage. 

For Instance, an .8 ampere, 110 volt ballast vhlch 
consumes B v;atts and a normal resistance of 12.5 ohms. If 
the resistance were con*fcant, the maximum current vould be 

C max equals 1.414 X .8 equals 1.131 ampere, 

or energj^ wluld be put Into the ballast at this stage at 

2 
the rate - (1.131) X 12.5 equals 16. watts* as against 

the effective value of 8 watts. 

But specific resistance may be assumed to vary as 
r equals r ^ i plus .Olt) 

or r equals 2.08 ( 1 plus .Olt) 4f 500 deg C Is the tem- 
perature corresponding to 12.5 ohms. 

The energy v.lll be expended In dissipation and 
stored up as specific heat In the iron vlre, for the perio- 
dicity Is too high to have an ef:^ect from the specl/lc heat 



.':;^) 






Q'stt rfj^t? reo-tl- srf:*^ t' 
9r!iof)-^9vo o:*' mid 9'^#Xo 






r{orrf7 :^asll»<f iZo^r Oil ,ai9qBi« 3, fie ,o 

11 ,3r.do 3»SI to •^'^-.Tr'r^^?--;^-' r.-:-p--;^ 

ocf blun ^rroTtxre njj , ■ j 

tgrrtan/^ Re <»fiKtt«w ,ax «Ibwp© il.SX X (X?.i.X; 

-r\Q& erfit t.c -^©fe 003 t* (;tro. ^^/jXt r t ftO.S «Xnfj .o -r to 

.p.nrfo 3..^X f 
&«£ doiJaqrPS'jf-B n.c babrrefTxa ^^d" LXt v 

-o.riST f»ff^^ T0'> ,ai.t 7 rto- tI +B«xf ot : ro9rf«? ^/? ,x- baiots 



(43) 
of the ^allB ana mount, etc., Lb the tenperature rises, 
conduction will vary ap the rise and oon»ectlon will do 
80 approximately, v.hlle radiation will -vrtj as -i-he fourth 
power of the tenperature, Conl^ectlon and conduction are 
sluggish and hence act to insulate against an Imraedlatlon 
dlPcharge of heat. 

In 1 second, there v ill he expend ed 8 o r 1 w att 

■SIC" "^^ ^n~ 

second or .0333 joule or .0082 gran C41. With specific 

heat of .2, this neans that .00873 (weight) X.2 equals 

,0001746 gran. Ual. Is required per degree cent, rise in 

temperature, so that in case all the heat, expended in one 

quarter cycle were given up to the wire, ItF tenperature 

o 
would he raised .0082 divided hy .000175 or 46.8 C. 

However, only a very snail portion of this rise is pos- 

eitle because of the heat helng continually dissipated. 

In connection with a glower, assunlng the glov,er 

of constant resistance during a cycle, there would "b* a 

total of 12.5 ohms ballast plus 125 ohms in plover or 

o 
137,5 ohms, xn case the hailast would use 30 U, the 

resistance would he 

2.08 (1 plus 5.3) equals 13.1 ohns. 

Hence nax. nust overcone a reslatance of 125 plus 13,1 

or 138.1 ohns, thus reducing C nax hy approximately .4 of 

As a matter of fact, the uallast wire does not 



i:J-i.:io'> 6»rf+ fJB -^-".v ili.7 rror#a!:5ai •liifv , ^I9:^.^ni:xo^:o 'f« og 

ort^O!?T:a .{♦iW .I#C nm-? ?^B00. -ro «X;.;of ?^:sr.(i. 10 ft»»«»a 

n";:r^B-tf)qTt9^ "^^t ,flTl.7 <^d!f ost qtxr fl&vr?5 etevf {jlosgc lor^iaMO 
o 

-r^oq- '^f- o'-jt*t ? rdit to .le t^-iofj iXjsw*! ^itsv & 'jIeio .lav-^xoH 
.^:nr£o I.?".! '-JliBps (S,3 i5»I«j I) ;iO*S 



I 44) 
o 
vary more than ^ C on 60 cvcles ar deterinlneci tir operatinr 

a dleo with an aperture in pynchroniBn, in vhiohoase 6nly 
a faint change in color if noted, and Flnce luininoelty of 
the hot body varies aP the 16th power of itr absolute tem- 
perature, a very small chanpe could be thus detected. 
Again specific heat tends to prevent a rise in temperature 
"by the greater anoiint of heat to be stored. 

The ballast, although primarily an elensnt of the 
Uemst lamp, promises to become a more widely useci piece 
of apparatus in all cases v,here a constant current is de- 
sired for varying voltages. It could be applied in el- 
ectro-chemical work, railway v/ork and the sensitive re- 
gulation of circuit breakers and generating machinery. 

Eavlng stxldied the characteristics of the tvo 
elements, ie., glover and ballast, separately, it is of 
perhaps equal interest to watch their performance Then 
combined, as is necersary to operate a lamp, and a re- 
view of lamp performance 1b In order. 

i:*late ifl3 shows the typlcAl performance of the 
lamp as a unit and is self explanatory. The ballast 
characteristic, it will be noted, affectively determines 
the nature of the lamp cixrve for all values of current 
above normal, xlate #14 shows the typical voltage v.at- 
tage performance of the lamp- it must be borne in mind 
that the wattage of a Uernst J^amp is voltage at vhlch the 
lamp is normally operated times the rated cixrrent. To il- 
lustrate the application of this characteristic curw, in 



''&Bte>^o ^rcf bertlt<vrB&f*f> "..o ^eCo-f-iO 08 no "1*i rtjarfrr or on ^tbv 

io ^ttisott.rnjjX oorrf'^ brr/? , 6e.torr ■="• toXoo rri sn/tj'jiio r^nif",*^ a 
~ -Qf e&JsLop.ds :.&t ■♦:<) te 7o<i d^r^I od^ -^jb gali/jv ^6orf .tori ©i{^ 

-^b f3x :*-r£9Tt.ijo ^rtfi^aiTO--^ a «»'ff^,- ^onao I Lb ret n to 

-Is ni betlqq^ ecf sMiroo i^i . ^eila 

trerf .' 90/tBffff o't^e.'r t'-e.ir^ rie^tars' ©# csi-frrsrr 

-01 B bna ,nE^T»I ;j 9?«^rT-'-o ocf ic^i>g^«e){jfl ^f- 'Ja , fosri ' 

.'iflfrsn ai ai o '. 1 ■ 7s.tv 

Qii:^ 'to scMtiMTtotieq 1*0 f'f^:^ 9f(,+ q-vorf=! f-ii^^ e»i*ait 

tnoTTcro 'to «!Siji.i^v Iju? lo^ e^r'tsso rr/?! orf:^ to r>TJT:*-.^r 
-tfiv en«;tIov r£ioi:(Tpjc^ ^rf;^ •srorf'^. •^X^! -^i-fsX t .I^fiitorc evofu- 
&nrn nt orr^oif 9cf t^.un :^i --mal sdi '\o »aimi"rto">"t9(^ 

-ii oT . cf n:;-"t*two f>6:»'«T ^li,^ «?9rf.r.+ fee.^siaqo 'jXlA-rtorr sr qnp.l 
":x ,WX0O o''r»'T.c-T9d'o.«Tsrfo 'url?- 'to noi^Qotlqqa adt 9*i^T:t"3xjX 



(45) 
a 3-el. lamp « .4 ampere per elo^^e^) the normal v.attaf-e on 
sav 2S5 voltP normal , vould he 270, but v.hen tniP lamp Is 
subjected to 236 volts, the voltafre If 105^ and from the 
curve, 113.470 wattag-e, or 306.5 watts. 

i>lattt yi5 shows the relation betveen voltage and 
efficiency and rlate yl6 that betv.een voltare and Candle 
Power. These curves are self-explanatAry. except, per- 
haps, to emphasize the remarkable steadiness In candle 
power In the Nemst lamp when operated above or on vary- 
ing voltage and is due to the great connective power of 
the iron ballast. Circuits of 25 cycles alternating 
current, or thosl^which the voltage fluctuates very 
rapidly give no appreciable variation in candle power. 
The former condition due to the fact that the specirio 
heat of the glower, being large in sectional area, tides 
over on low frequencies, and Is not found, to such an ex- 
tent, in any other lamp, 

rlate #17 gives a diagram of connections of a mul- 
tiple glower type of lamp, from which the arrangement of 
elements will be hoted. 

rle.te flfl shows a typical performance of platinum 
heaters of the tube form - and rlate fl9 shows the time 
element of a lamp from the startlnr point for an old 6- 
glower lamp - while rlate #20, gives a comparison of the 
time element and total performance for the latest design 



no o-.o:^■^.QV rBPTTOt e.i& (ts-roi; -ferr a-roqTrcfl -, f trnir!! .Ir5-?i e 

!?^ thbI 'irrt:^ nerlT tud ,0V2 - ' 5Ix;o v .JiBorrorr Ttlov =}S3 -^^8 

fefts ffi^itlov nee »*»<f rco.t;ti*lp)T 9 {:* frroifs *llt' ©J^ifeX'* 

-^Tfiv rto TO eYOcf« ')»#/;■ ?T.t r[s«M{ 

to te voT avi;fo«ffrfot> t, ' -^v -^ni 

.Tf^yo<T ©I?>rcflO Tt Off sv" .ere 

-xe rt£ lioJR '>:♦■,' , .0 -rovo 

-IiCT B ^o ^not:*'oemoo "tc - i 

to trtaae^.n/sTTB Mi^ 4MiI ^' " 'J- to <^'^'';,:' -r» .ol Blq'^t 



,D©:^od e<f !li«^ RtrB.^ele 

-^ Bio Ti^ TO'.': #ff?:oq -'' *!"g 

9if;t lo fto« 'TBrfnoo a ^.a't^r > . - olg 



(16) 
of equal candle pover. 

A very late type of heater hap "been perfected 
vMch enbodles a carton core coated, hy ppocial procesres, 
with carborundum, and provides a heater with lonp life 
and high efficiency at a prreat rediiotlon In coPt, In view 
of Its substitution for platlnun. ThlF heater he.p the ad- 
vantage over all other type? In that It cI'^^op llpht at an 
efficiency of approximately 7 vatts per candle In the open 
air at normal temperature, and therefore, rives seml-ln- 
stantaneous llpht. A remarkable feature of puch a heater 
Is Its uniformity of lighting time when on a circuit having 
cominerclel regiilrtion, r.s shown by Plate El» 

Referring to Plate #20, it may be interesting 
to trace through the action of the Ifop from the moment 
current is turned on. iniring the first 30 seconds, the 
current la that of the heater only, end the glowers then 
start to take current. At the end of 36 seconds the cut- 
out acte, throwing the het.ter out of service. Two secords 
le-ter the second glower hap tsken approximately normal cur- 
rent and third glower is rapidly increasing from the heat 
of the other two. The glower reaches its maximum current 
after approximately 50 seoondB, and a very slight dr6p is 
noticed after the expiration of considerable time, when 
the lamp body and ballasts have reached their noitnal 
operating temperature. 
PISTE IB UTIOI' OF LIGHT . BCUT A GLOWER . 

Trom the limited area of the glower section, it 



,T9?0q olFjflFO XflilpS tO 

Bsct-Oftttenr itftecf Hfid ■^j^&b'^A "to "^qz^ ft^rtX z^'-^v A 
,•50 soooTq Ififooq"? ^f/ , ^(taoo atoo flOffiao « a3tfiocfnr?i rfotri? 
9l cl inol Sit .7 t'^&fi^ci « 9©6tTOtoc 6rtfl ,c!J75mrto<ft£9 xi^Jhr 

-'.'R srfd- g^ifi Tf^toBif ^trf" .' ir-r-^ f.r-! -n": Tottft^itmiSaQ s:M io 

rcscro erfrt' nt eI6fwo Tsn ^^-^.n / T - 75 to ^orcDrolTto 

2n:J:YB~L. S'cxroi/o /.' ' f" al 

• IS etal"^ ^dT itrro-f^ a'^ .xtoit-^rut^oi laxoie.tinioo 

3itltaeis;tnl erf ^^i,ir ti %0S^ »;t«.C^ 0* •^frrtie'tsa 

irtsaroffl arft ^roi"^ qiaDB t e-ft *o ctolto* s-ft 'f^'oi:<'j eo-Jij ot 

arfj- ,aorroooa 0<5 &aii^ e.-ftf •gffi-rjjl .no Satitir* 3': ^n&fvjo 

rT9:-fJ" ai9wo f'^ sffot 5t.. .'^sljato •seJ'aed ')'ft to ts-^t si ;trTRTtxro 

ab'^nosa oa'T .6oiTT;s8 lo tj;;o z&iisd sit ■^l"!ro'tr{t ,B;t'03 tiro 

trretii/o arutaxxara -^.t.!: aarloaei -lo-rrol^ edZ •ow;t -rorfcf-o sn: 'to 

ai ■jO'if) trf-gxia tj-isv s ons ,a^;T005a 03 '^^led-snixotrrt 3 -xr-t^a 

crerfw ,erntt 31(1316^1:^-^0 "io fl0-:^31±gx^ -^^ tofta Seoxton 

iBixnort liod* Joarlosci ev^r' a^aair^d Bctc ^iz-ocf opnal e.-f* 

. )L>iy:qi^ a - Jd . TEOii lO ipirJdi^aig 
j-x <iio±to93 iswola 9rf* to B»iB Sstifflll 9 rf t aoi^ 



(47) 

is obvious that the distribution of light about a 
bare glower, in a plene through its length, ie 
irregular, as shown in Plate 22, because of the in- 
terference of the terminals from light emanating 
from the eurfcce between tenrlnals. 'Then the 

glowers areeqpplied to the lamp, therefore, the 
distribution curve in the horizontal plane ie very 
similar to Plate 2£, but at all positions below a few 
degrees from the horizontal, the distribution of 
light ie nearly equal for all positions in ar^ given 
plane e 

The Nattiral dovrnward distribution 
of light from the lamp, as shown in the curves 
(Plates 23-24-25) is one of its most valuable assets 
and herein lies one reason for the high efficiency 
of commercial installation. With this statement is 
opened a brief review of distribution curves in 
order to give the strongest poAsible emphasis to the 
remarkable fact that in no other incandescent lamp is 
such a natural condition to be foxmd* 

The distribution of a vacuum lamp 
can be more or lesF corrected by reflectors; but the 
nearer the desired distribution obtained by natural 
means, the less light will be reflected and hence, 
the less will be the total loss in the process of 
reflection. (It ie to be noted that advocates of vac- 
uum lempe recommend their use for lifting interiors 



£ tJi/cvia *rf:arX -o aoiSisdli^fal:. erit tjerld" tasoiroo :ii 

si fS>'±sae£ ali d-o^'O'tdri o.-t^lT ; ai ,'i9'/7or?^ 9':s3cf 

-ax orit lo ajiJjBoed ,:;:2 eJsI'I :u aworia ^i ,-xsI:Tae'«:xx 

^rfxtiifwra© ct"ri:^X laoi'l alsrrt .nst erft ^o eona'xet'xe* 

edf fierf"' • alafii" <ri©.t ifde^Jedf aojlius eii aio-cT: 

orl* ,©-^.01910 iia- ^cjTial suit o* f)©xXaq89*x.j a's moI-$ 

Xxov a± arcBlq I« JnoaJt tori Qdi rri evxiio rfoittfixiJ-aHT 

vst a wolecf acroii'i-^oq IX« la tM ,23 f^tsl^. o^ ijaUocie 

to aoi^isdiitiatk edf ,X«*noal'iorJ" e-l* pjo'x'i b0«t,*^©o 

iitoYi^ Tjfiii xii: actoi^xjoq IIj. -xOx Xaiipe 'iXijawi ax irfs^-E 

asvxtro ^rrfJ itx ntwo'i 3 j« ^qrir ;,I ojft .^ici'i ^d^lX to 

a^J'oaaB eldavrX.-'V J'eo.ff e^tj" I0 arro aJt {SS-^S-S3 ae;faX1) 

ACorrs.toJE't'ie d:?.irf erl* ^.o! «oa#ei acio aoil afe-terf S,-c8 

3i ;rna'Ti8J-3*a srrCt rfd-i^T .aoltw.CX.^Atsffi: Isioieanoo ":io 

xii: aovxtro aoi-l;jdi'i*3Jt& ^0 wstve't "Idlid ■ 6e«:oo[C 

orit oi- ex33rigrx! sX-ixeioc; tee^itoi^ta 9-^+ ©vi:'s o;*' •j«.*)ic 

Bi 'I:t-?X ^aooaobrxBOTtl isrtto orr ai tad-i to&l slrfaalxsnTei 

•JbfttiO't 3d oi rtc'r&i: ruTOO aissi^c: 3 rfoire 

cisml msisoj^.v b rtoiixfd'iitai''! srfT 

strf* *wd ;aio*oert©'i -^d" B^tosTi' o a© I 10 eiOfrf ^d n&O 

,9o:^:9rf &HS 6 9^-09 net acf JXiw *rf8J"X 538 X erft ,afa$&in 

ic 33seooii 9.^1;^ rtt 88 I raJo* p'f.t ©d IXrsv asaX e'* 

-or.v lo 3 3*fi00vBB ;}-J3rIt 6b*f>cx 9£l o:}- p,t t!) .aoi^oeXlsT: 

s'iocrstJ'nx ^aid-t^xX tot ©aw ixedJ- baeKriiOcot ■.xx;i-.;X wsu 



(46) 

only in connection with their atiziliery reflecting 
devices, so that a oocmerciEl confiideration of vacuum 
lamps should be based only on a combination of the lamp 
end reflecting device as a unit.) 

In the present lamp, marketed since 
the -ummer of 1908, under the name of 'Yestlnehouse 
Hernst. an advance in commercial efficiency was made 
through a combination of agencies discuseed in the 
previous subjects, and also by a slightly different 
glower mix which would permit an increase in the 
c^arrent at which the glower operates, and the standard 
consumption was increased to .6 and .6 ampere. The 
efficiency at which the glowers are squirted was 
raised from the previous standard of £ watte per 
Horlzont«l Candle Power of the naked glower to 1.5 
w. per c.p., w} ich results in an increased lamp 
efficiency in some sizes of approximately 40?^. The 
advance is f=pparent in Plate #22. Plates#23 and 24 
give the standard distribution of all types of the 
present lamps - and brings out clearly the downward 
distribution and similarity of any and all sizes of 
lamp. These results, as noted below, are on the 
basis of clear glassware, which represents modem 
practice in the rating of illuminants; 



lo dolturri-daoo xj no '^.Ino beaacT ocf Blxroiia aqariil 
{.txrj;; ^ ae •oivef^ g-Tx:to9l^ot fcn-: 

eQSJoi::\{txie pV "to 'juszn odi -is:!^.;; ,8061 to -z.er.vrar 9df 

9 ';jar^ sot: ^ortsi or'i1:e lisroiaitEioo n^ oot'jvofs as . J ani^s ^ 

odJ rri: ;;QQaiiosi:r; aero nag 3 lo rToitdrttdcToo b ri-'^jjoarfd" 

dTfeiet'tr& ^Ciff-gxla 3 ^cT oali. ferr^ jSi'o-tcfxia nxforvoiq 

srfi' ax esAjeiocri ns tlims'i P)Io'o>v cfoi'dw xirf -iswol^ 

as'v be^iiuo3 c.i& a^ov/ol^ or'' xioxriv; d"..i ^o^ieioi^^e 

crxtal r;6 3S3iorri; rts KX a:?.'. '391 riox i?.' ,«q»o -iticr .w 

1)1 .vvJi^ ■^leJ's'aixo'iqqH "to aeaia ai'sop- at Tjonaxoi^'ie 

i"^ .u:^^ SSr36J.sII .SSfi e :^II rti JiTe-iB>T'^ • -it eonsvr-s 

Dffd- '':o si&rv,^ LL- to rtox^wdx'x.taxij fi-ifibss^ta o:-?) avxn 

rrisvfcfv^of) erit "^'Xfl'-.Io joo a^ff 'cii trr - a'psX jrseai.'r.o; 

'iv aosx-j LL' f: rt-s ^s to i^j i'-xalxitixs bna noJt-twcfii 1:^x5 

sdi rro ei.- ,wol9d - ion .-; ,atl^^?.e"i ©a^ffT •qnf.'I 

;a*n3alftB;rIIx losxiioBi orfl nl ©O-ttoa-iq 



(49) 



Si 
Lamp Gla 


ze 

KB ware 


Max 
C.P. 


Mean 
HeiniBpho 
C.P. 


Mean 
Hem. 
Efficiency 


1 gl.66 W. 


4" 


74 


50 


1.38 


" 88 W, 


4" 


105 


77 


1.20 


" 110 W. 


5" 


131 


96 


1.2 


" 13£ W, 


6" 


156 


114 


1.2 


2 gl.{264 W) 


8" 


345 


231 


1.2 


3 gl.(396 W) 


8" 


528 


359 


1.15 


4 gl«(528 W) 


8" 


745 


504 


lo09 



Exhaustive teste on the absorption 
of light by the use of various kinds of glassware indi- 
cate that the standard glassware, known as alabaster, 
is but very slightly diffusing and does not naterially 
change the character of the distribution curve. The 

loss of light due to absorptioh in "Alabaster" glassware 
is approximately 15^ over that of clear glassware, and 
therefore, can be readily obtained, from the above 
curves and table on the basis of clear, by applying the 
absorption factor* 

The normsl limits for operation of 
standard glowers ere from 200 to 260 volts in the 220 volt 
class, and 100 to 130 volts on 110 volt service. These 
lamps, as now marketed, consist of six units for use on 
both alternating and direct current of 220 volt, and 
three units for both alternating and direct current of 
the 110 volt class ( for indoor and outdoor service), 
which are popularly tenned 66-88-110-132 watt single 
glower, 2-glower, 3-glower and 4-glower lamps. Within a 



rcae.J 


r££0 '. 

.'■icTai'^Tnli 






-I 

;j8l0 ^''te^'*^ 


85.1 


03 


f'V 


"xN 


.^. 68, Ig I 


oa.i 


^V 


aoi 


"^ 


.W 83 " 


2.£ 


ae 


151 


"3 


• v;- on " 


2,1 


*IX 


ddl 


"a 


• V; SSI " 


S.I 


ISS 


3M; 


"B 


(\'' i^d2).I-g S 


31. r 


ecis 


833 


"8 


(w ae'S).i3 5 


eo,i 


i>Qd. 


3^? 


"8 


{w 8sa),r3 ^ 



:xor.hiioads eric)- rto ac^30i^ e vx ;! airiirixiL 

jisitaiJo'siA 36 rf9?orrr .aiawaasl?? 'jiejajioe eK* i^di e tso 

^iAlsxi&taa *ofr saoB iiiTw yrxajJltib \;ftrfeiXs ^f©v tucf at 

Qd'}-- •9VXW0 rcoitwrfii^eifc edd- ^o ■i3&oauisto adi s^rr :?r{o 

9'isw3aBX3 "lai'sBdjelA" ax ioitqioada o-r ^jc;fc td%iZ to aaol 

SiTjs ,eiB\?aa3l3 tsoIm "ic t3rf;^ -cevo ^dl xLe&ijaixotqq^ ai 

ovo(f3 erft afoll .fisrtxs^tdo •^Xir-,j3ei a J nao ,9T0xetedd' 

sricj- •^trx-^Xq-s ^d ,i3t»Xo lo axaad erl# rto aldet f)n3 sevnifo 

••xoi"03?: no Wcti 03 da 

io '>.orJ-Bieqo lot b^xbiII I-miorf exfT 

7lov QS£ erit nx atXov 03S o* 00;S oroil ei' aiewol3 fiiafitata 

eap-l'.- .eoxvifjE .i"Io7 CIX no s^Mov OSX o;f 001 brts ,aafiIo 

rfo saj;; lol a-txru; xts 'io taiaxioo ,!>(=»* ©>'aar;i worr 3-y .aqnii'I 

oxYB (i'Xv-v oas 'lo d'cetijjo tootift fc,ti3 jftx^ame^tljs rid'ocT 

3:0 taaiii'O loeiib irrij gax^iirrre^Iij ^i:^ocf lot atxrtn aeirfit 

,( 301719 ico&*i;o trtr: T.oo.^)rrx tco'I ) aaidlo tX v Oil o-fi" 

aX^C-i'-. tt3'.v S-^X -011-30-33 fie.Tfi©* '^cvXi/qoci 913 rfox'w 

i5 n:xf(*x.' .aqraaX iJWcXg-l- bns 19W0X3-S .lowoX^-a ,19^0X3 



(50) 



short time, a five-glower lamp will be added, the 
largest incandescent unit ever offered for practical 
illumination. The 110 volt Ismps at the present time 
are offered only in three sizes of single glower units- 
66, 110 and 132 watte. See| Table No. 1. 

Lamp Voltage Current Service 



1-glower (66 watt) 110 •« A.C.& D.C. 

1 " (88 watt) 220 *4 A.C.& D.C. 

1 " (110 watt) 110 & £E0 1.0 & .5 A.C.& D.C. 

1 " (1Z2 watt) 110 & 2E0 1.2 & .6 A.C.& D.C. 

2 " (264 watt) 220 1.2 (X) A.C.& D.C. 

3 " (396 watt) 220 1.8 A.C.fo T.C. 

4 " (528 watt) 220 2^6 A.C.& D.I. 

(i) All multiple-glower, 2ij0 volt type A.C. lamps can 
be operated on 110-volt service by use of a sirall 

converter coil. 

£able 1. 

The Westin^ouBe-Nemet lamps may be claseified un- 
der three heads, multiple glower units, single glower 
units and chandelier units e 

The mechani6al construction of the multiple glower 
lanpe represents a design which combines simplicity and 
compactness. The Tinsightky ej^posed tesninals and 
supporting hook*^ commonly used, have been replaced 
either by a fixture nipple or small hook throu^i which 
the service wires enter the top of the lamp housing and 
terminate in two binding posts in the body of the lamp. 



ioa) 



-adirrx; lawol^ eI<VTi3 ^o aosra eairfd" i.x Ttlrro Saiel'to oia 
• I .oK aide" fss- .aJ-.^ev SSX firrr: Oil ,dd 



anivra^-; *ft«TxxjO s:>:^:^£cV cprr: 



.o.a ^.o.A ^* osa (ti-Bw 88) " r 

.o.T ».o.A a. ?. o.r o:?:j a on {t*s^- on) " x 

.a,'! -s.o.A a, .* S.I 0S3 ^ on (*i-jw 331) " i 

.O.'I '.^.D.^ (X) S,X 0S2 {;rtdv,' l^d*^) " S 

.'). : -.O.A e«I OSS {t.+sw d€S) " 5 

.'.a .R.o, . 3.? o:iz [t^B'f 8Sd) '' > 



rfso aq:fioX .0,1 sq^jvJ .tlov 0:2 ,t9v''. T-o^eiqitLfsm i f "i (X) 
liana JB lO -^a^i (^>f ©Drv'cea oXot-CII o osd'aiaqo sd 

• Xloc :r9:t'::evrvoo 
.1 eXtfjsX 

■ieTio 1"% 9X^X3 ,a*irti; tawcl^i aXq[x.tXom .aSasrf oearW- leo 

• atxnu loxL s&a-vjrfo tan ^iav 
■.::jv70lg eXqx tXxjiti erl* to notiossx^an^o lacta^rioaTt srlT 

una aXjirtx.ine* bsaoq^te ^;";l"fl3X9iSL" jr{T .aaecrt'OBqaoo 

69oaX'i,9'i rcssd svad ^bonss TtCco-amoo ^JToorf ^.txJ^ioqqx/a 

:ioi:d[w r^jjo-iri* iood LZ&iaa -lo eXqqXn eixr.txxT: a ^td lerilxe 

errs ^,ftX8iroiI qaial e;{;)' to ftott edt le^ao aoix.v eolviea sift 



(51) 

Immediately below the terminal porcelain 
is the eeotion of the lamp in whioh the hallaste and 
ballast coolers are placed. The hallaet coolers are 
built of flexible phosphor bronze and are securely fixec 
to the upper part of the lanp housing in such a way that 
a firm contact is made on the surface of the ballast 
and a metallio contact is secured with the housing, 
presenting a greater radiating surface. 

The housing is so constructed that a move- 
ment of the looking lever will permit its separation 
to a convenient distance, exposing the ballasts to view, 
thus making replacement an easy matter. Contrasting 
this simple method with the old lamp, it will be 
remembered that the hallests in the latter were arranged 
in a semi-circle about the cutout, and in order to gain 
access to them, it was necessary to remove the suspension 
hook and the top of the lamp housing. 

Below the ballast porcelain is the sleeve 
porcelain on the upper side of which is the cutout, and 
iato which the holder is inserted from below. The cutout 
armature (being the only movable element in the operating 
system) is enclosed in a dust-proof compartment, allow- 
ing the lamp to operate successfully without regard to 
climatic conditione. 

The Ismp bodies are interchangeable for 
either D.C. or A.C. serfice, f..nfi it is probable that 
the glower, at present the only non-interchfingeable 



61 ■ anglooG J-aellad' sdT .Iseoi;!/ eis 319I000 ;t lallacf 

j as I lad 9r{i+ 1:c eo:.*-^ixr3 srf* rro sficnj a: •tDsd'rtoo :tnl1 3 

• soij^iii^s :!?rci::fai6«i 'ieJfBeia .5 30CX Jiisaeiq 

-evo.T< -' ■taift ftdd-oxntafToo oa ax ~\rttp.Sisod eK'T 

rcori-is'sacje* aii. rf-iniaq CI-tT i»7©r 3ai7r-.^cX ©r<t to tT^ra 
,weI-T o;!" atauXIad srT* ^rrlaoq-xe ,eotJ3c?"S- - trreirr^vrroo 3 oi 

fje'^^fts 1-1.3 e-iew i&i^^&l erl* rri al'sal^^T arft tAjrt:}- bsiarfrfroGtei 

c-ts:? cJ- 19.010 fii ftrt ? ^tuod-. '^.ttj ttwod.? ©loilo-lirrea 3 rri: 

rfoxaaeqajj'a arid" evoi:ei 0* ^i;;isa8so©n: ausw ti .laer^-J- ot aaeooa 

•aal-airorl ii-nal erii- tc qod- srf;? fen^s ioofi 

ST09I3 erij" gr atsie-oicq ^J'SdlE (J arfj" woXeS 

;: ,^;rod-fro i^-ft}- ac ;iOi 'v? to efexa '■teqqL' erfJ no oxaleoioq 

■i^::cC^o ed'S .woXsd fao"ft oed-'ceaax 91 is 51 Off sdt dol/^w otjjl 

.?:x;i-£!i9q:o ari* -tx tna-iisle eIcf.6T0i-it \ilac erft gniocT) e":j.-*san:« 

-.voile ,*xsG!nlii3C[flico "^looiq-ttewfi e ni 6®a(Iorft> nt (med'a'is 

ot i5is;;;5ei jx;od[*xv njT.Dx'iaaeooffa etaiaqo ot o[m.^ C a -ft ■%rLl 

• also i *i baoo 1 ^asitlo 
10I slcf«e^:§.i.'3!l©ietn:i eia aexisoi tj.-'Tsf adlT 
J-3'i3- eldiidoi.-i a.c o.f "Srts .•ottiSB ,0»X ic .O.J i-^xCJ.l's 
©Icr-3©'<^rc •.'foietrtx-iTort -^Irto 9^3- trfsaeior t.e ,ief»FoI:g 9dJ 



(52) 



olenent, will eoon be made for viniverBal application. 

The holder of these multiple unite 
repreeents a radical change in design. The old two- 
piece porcelain ia replaced by a one-piece holder base, 
to Which are attached the characteristic terminal 
prongBf and instead of the old method of mountipg 
glowers with pln^, the holder is provided with a 
spring on one end and a fixed contact on the other, 
provided with slotted ends, which grip the glower by 
a jpead in the lead wire and hold it under tension o 
Two prongs are brought through the holder base and are 
secured in such a marner that they lie in a plane 
parallel to the glowers and at right armies to them. 
The use of two or more heater tubes is superseded by 
a "7/afer Heater" consisting of a small platinum - wound 
and refractory-cement coated rod, ben^t so that sever- 
al sections lie parallel to the glowers and securely 
mounted on a flat porcelain. The wafer slides on 
the heater prongs when inserted in the holder; the 
heater terminals being in the form of a sleeve con- 
tact. Hence it will be noted that heaters end glowers 
can readily be changed without toole and without 
disturbing any othertnember of the lamp. 

The various sizes of single glower units 
are of the Edison base type and present a similar 
appearance to the old popular 110 watt unit, although 



(S3 



.no iJ:5oi:Iqqja Laat-^vtms id ebmi eo rtoos .££i:vi ^tueaxels 

irfX) el'rtiLu:^ Qsedt 'to 'leilorf ©rfT 

-ow;?- &Io erPr .nsrsoE rti 93x130'' o r.3oi:i>si 3 sd-fToaeiqei 

.essc' teblod »oex'T-erro s \;d 660^X761 a-fc Gr^uaoioq; soe.cq 

Isrri-Tied- oltaxieJ osisriy 9d:j .bono«i-t« sx" iioxrfw oJ 

£ -ijiw cQfirvoiij --51 tsoXorf ocfd- .a^aXq d^j-l-v/ aie':vcX3 

,T9d3"o 9ri.' no tost too ooxil 3 &ao btte orto no gfrx-irrg 

-jd -xewcX-g erfj qxi^ rio -::!!?/ ,aBrie b^i&oLa rictlw bafcivotci 

• floierte* leZtfaf jx iiXori &rro a^i.v fiaeX qH a:i fiaert, a 

91B nri.-'. Qii&d tebLod dsi* A^uoi^ft to'-J^xiOTcd et r a^noiq c.^-^ 

9rtijXq 3 ax 9x1 TjerTt Ja-f* lartT ;m b rioiia ai £>eiJJoe3 

Tjcf bebss'ienssB 3I. s&dssi -xet'^erf etofi xo owt ^0 eso Sif? 

'■jrttjow - fflKrrrx*-.Iq II ei3 u tc ^'^.^ fat-anoo "ifitaaH ts^.r.'" d 

-tevsa terft oe ;ts!-rerf tOO"* cetisoo .t:^9aieo-^cl'03i1:ei 'r x^ 

\^etxjos3 ..T ai9ssrol7j a-f* '^ X6ll^*iac[ exX aaoi::to=s Ije 

CIO 39f)xla iel3w ed ^al&Ieoioq isL\ y no 6 sd'cifori 

a{i" ;'co&Iorf sri* ni aetisarri: 10 'v/ aaaoicj; istaar 9f{* 

-noo Qveela ■ 'io ;fnol srit rrr -s^ixed aXin--afsed- ^sJeerf 

3-is\TOl-n fc'^ : aiooBorl d-isid- bej-oa: ed XXi "v *!: soneH •to*3j 

e-ixorluiw DfiB aXoo* u-uoffixv; Sosraarto -d '^Xib-^e-x rtao 

e*iaif larol:- oX^rri: a to 39sl'3 yifcitav srfT 

isXJc'^xa ^ cTaeae^q brui ©q^ oa/^d acaxoS arft I0 r^i/i 
ri:^/jo.i*l3 ,*xn;/ trim OIX X3Xirqoq '^ro 9^-:; oj oona-iaecnB 



(5S) 



the oonst motion is a vmique deperture from former 
practice. The cutout is located within the Edieon 
base; immediately below this ie the bellaEt eecured by 
meanB of a bayonet catch. Three prongs lead to the 
base porcelain, the lower aide of which forma the 
Ferns t receptacle* 

The holder consiBts of a glower and wafer 
heater permanently connected on ft onall porcelain 
provided with a standard screw base, with an addition- 
al contact pin in the center. By an assortment of 
diameters end lengths of contact pin, it is impossible 
to insert any other than the proper holder in the lanp, 
thereby insuring the consumer ag-ainst troubles Incident 
to the use of lamps of v. wrong size or class of voltage. 

This form oi renewal is popularly termed 
the "Screw Burner", and should supply the demand for 
a high efficiency incandescent lamp, so rugged in design 
as to be easily maintained by anyon*. The burner is 
furnished complete with glassware when small bp.lls 
are desired, and without glassware when the standard 
size of ball is used on the leap* 
LIFE 

Fext in order of importance ie 1iie life 
of the unit. A summary of the life of the various 
elements is given in the table herewith. These figures 
are the basis of the standard guarantee given on any 
installation of over 100 units for the average life 
performance when operated on a circuit whose regulation 



rro^xfjci 9ri;f rtxiftfiw bed'BooI bi ;fx;o;}"-ao srf'.r .eoxJ-o^-rq 

;d" r>exuo93 jssll^d erf-J- ax ax-f* wolad ^le^ts'-rvri'-iax ;e38d 

erft ct 53 9l BSCTcrtq eertrfT ,&oSao ieno-'isa .-i to arraeni 

orfd" acncct xioxIt' 'to efcia -sjwoX so't .axr.Ieoicq; ss^d 

. e 1 9e c q - ei t ari yT 

nxBlsoioq IXama a jo betoorr.TOo ^^^©rtefTn eq TpJarrf 

-n:oi:trcf>3 res rftiw ,©ascf v7eioa Lii3cn:«Ja fi xf ji.v Bebivoior 

lo ;JTC0CTt'i osae ns T^a ••x^^noo erf* r:x rsJbq tostcroo Za 

QLdisQOqtax ax d^x .nxq i-ostrroo xc artd^^rceX fa^:' a-xstOitniS 

^aTssI 9:-i? Ecx neftlOii locfTiq s-f:'" a'lrfo" i6f5to 4.1.'^ iioarrl 0* 

J its 5X0'::- a9.rcfJJ:T:t tDrrts-is iscrLiraiToo s'fo' grcx-iueni xjiJeisffcf 

sasuloy 'lo aaslo 10 ssi'a artoiw • 'to sqpnal to esw er^j- o:J- 

r.afnst ^I-cslJjqoq: ai iBwerce'i iSiO artel airtT 

10^ &T8ifle'- ?Kt -il ^Tpy 3 f; 11:0^:3 &rr.3 ."lonxjS weioS" arftf 

- 'sefe nr 53':-^3J!'!: 03 .sjin"! ^reoaefirraeti •\jorT9i:ot1:te d^kid a 

ax lanxiTd exlT ••xjo-rcB . f fcertrr; trfxariJ ^xa«o ed ol" a^ 

air -l ir -na rT9d:,v eiBVTBSsr^ di'l'w stslqaioo bo-fstTTxrlt 

oi8brra*3 9fl* rcerfw ©•cs'.vaasl'^ tiro-r+i-r'? b.-rB ,£etiae - ©t:b 

• qatel srf* co beHU ii tL&d to ©sxa 

eiti 9* at son3;ttoqiax 'to trftio i^i: trceT! 

3i;( "tfiv o.iI^ to etrl -"^tt tc ^-s.-^rmirs a .tirtfj e.-f:^ to 

se-ujaii eeerfi' .d^i'^eisri elcfeJ- edt at .:i3vxg 3X a^nemtoCe 

^^'-.Q fio rrevx'^ 9©*.tJ^is.C2; fiisfirts^a a^f "io axaad o-^t 91.5 

ol.xl e^sieva ea"^ lo't atxmr 001 ^leTo lo noxti^II^tf-irri 

i-tcri-slir'-^ei eao ^v tx^/o-xxo s no betsTCoao nedw eoitenictieT 



(54) 



1b within 5% above or below the normal point of 
operation. 



HOURS LIFE 



DIEECT CURRENT JLTEKJ^ATim CUERE17T ' 

25 Cyole 60 Cycle 13? Cycle 

110 7> 220 V.llQV ££QV HOY ggpy hqv ggQV 

Glower 600 400 800 800 

Heater 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 

Ballast 15000 15000 150 00 15000 15000 15000 15000 

Screw J 600 600 400 400 800 800 800 800 

Burner) 

COIOE 



The color of the light given by this Glower 
lamp is another of its many distinctive features. 
It is a so-C£^lea white light, yet it has a soft and 
rich warmth of color which illuminating authorities 
recognize to be the easiest upon the eye. the most 
pleasing to the senses, and the best for general light- 
ing of all places; in short, this quality of light 
meets the populf r demand, so vvell expressed by one of 
the leading merchants of the country as :What we want 
i8 a soft wann inviting light— not a cold cheerless 
repelling light." 

FLE7.lEIIirY AKD ADAPTABHITY TO 
ARTISTIC FIXTURE DESIGN. 

By reason of the natural downward dis- 
tribution of light, the wide range of sizes and the 



(d^e) 



• rroJf■:^aTteqo 



:'€IJ. 35IUOR 



T^'l'irUO OTT TAT; "3051 \. TISHJTJO TOSilia 

.a von 70 ss yon vosii 7crx,7 osa .v oci 



'8 OC'i; OC^ CCS icvioIO 

^, 000?; 0005 OCOS OOOS OOOS 0005 t8*ssE 

: OGOei COOai OOCai 00 0',I 00C3I COCaX in&'^eA 

008 OOS 0C8 or* CO* OCi^ OOa ( rotoc 

i%ea.-xrd 



SOiiOV 



?,eiizion^isB •^nxj sax oar Xli riox-r; loXoo to rid-flrtJdr aoxi 

3"30!3 :' ^n ,9'\;e ©acr croofir *a«iajB9 erf J- ed ot ©ax.'T^ooei 

■hi--':! X.s'rorreg -rc^ 5Tiecf srft fjTs .asar.'isa sid* ot •%c:t&&&lq 

■ 'd-gli 'to '^ttiXjaiio aif'i" ,#'to ffg tx ;»«oaXfT XX 3 ^c ^rrx 

eaeX'ise o 6X00 s iorc — td^Z ■^liivai ^:aw *'5:o3 -ax 

".td-^.iX siTXrX9'ie:r 

0''" YTIIISAT^JlOJ. IT!-. YTIliai :^iLI'4 
.l(ISlP.v:f aiTITTXH OlTdlTZk 



(55) 



simple eystem of renewal, the lump offers great latitude 
in artistic fixture design, so that the range of artis- 
tic possibilities is within the scope of the most crit- 
ical eye. The units may he used with equal satisfac- 
tion as a xmit source, in clusters, in ceiling howl 
lamps, or in fixturesof elaborate design. The artistic 
ceiling bowl xmit by reason of the adaptability of a 
high intensity to a limited space, cari be used for 
efficient commercial lifting, and is a type of unit 
not practical with any other system. In this unit, the 
elements are built radially about the base porcelain 
in contrast to the vertical position used in the stand- 
ard lamps. '^ith th ie ^etem, absolute uniformity in 
quality of the illumination can be obtained throughout 
any installation, no matter how diverse the requirements. 

The chanielier units present a departure 
from foimer fixture practice in the form of a distinc- 
tive design. Heretofore, the complete single glower 
lamp was used in a pendant position in ordinary fixtures, 
but in many cases the appearance of such a combination 
did not harmonize with the aroniteotural features. 
The new fixtures are constructed with the ballasts 
and CTitotrts in the body ball, so that the receptable 
forms the socket into ^ich the screw burner only is 
placed . In this design, the lamps may be operated 
in eny position, and e. lamp presertii^ to the eye only 
a 3" baU will lend Itself to artistic effects without 



e.-.u-jJosI .'•8613 Btet'io qiE.i-.I odt ,Ij3Woriei to r:T6JSY.s sl-raiio 
-axi^'re '.to e-g^rs-x edi tfidd- oa ,£i3iao.:- oiirj-xi:! orcfgr^ti.". rri 
-^iin *803 9x1* 'to scfcoa erl* at'Wm el aeimitdli.zoq ot> 

Iwocf ^rfilrso rti ^siei-giflo r^^x .eoti/oa j'ms e 33 xrort 

citax^t-xa edl »a§iao'. 3&^xo-:i&Io loa^tisfxi'i nJt to ,aqr:aL 

3 to ^;tiIl-JB*q-£'')B sKo ^o noaast i^^j ;fxrt£f Iwo^ ■gnllrso 

10^ fesai; 9cf "'f^o ^eojaTa £e*xmJ:.C so* 'iJ^yfTe.t^•i d-^ld 

j-ifin ^0 err^s^ s 3x bra .igaxd-ftj,.? C l3x o"^ p'-.ir.ic d'crexol'i^e 

enl .(firrx; ai ':t nl .axets'^a ieri*o v^n£ rdriw ffioxJCBiq torr 

rrxBleotoq 9a3cf ©jlt i-t.rod"s "^Lj.rfxHi tl'nsd eijs ad'neiTrsIe 

nz ^tJJano'ixitir etulo-ids »i5i6.trj ,.« ;;:-i:* rftr^'' .•o[rtiaI btc 
tssory,^uvidt feerxxBd'cfo 8i ^.eo aotiaczhTisLIi: ecJ" to \,;}'ilsij'p 

>3-;:^■©■Tte-. xuoeri e:!i oa-xsvii; v7crf i.ot^^'^-'T: orr ^ac r tt i llBi --itLt ^jrrs 

-ouxd-a-f) iS lo ittc'i e:[:t rtx eoxctoeia e'^ixTw'.rxt isartot taoT^. 

•xowc'l^j sX'anxa ecToIqaioo &rW tSio^fco^sisK .rr^-ts*- ©^-^^^ 

, 3— ajtxxl- ^'iBrxBTC .ix rroxtrsoq- ;)-!XBi3no(r b nx boaif ajwr q; .-I 

ctoxo jsaidrnoo b rias;3 tc eor^£ seq'"!;.'' eri:?' aeajBo crisun nx ^.ycf 

• aeiix^eeT: LssmioQ^fJi'Q'Xii erW rld-i^- esxaortfreri ton ^itb 

atSBirecf s.ff:?- ri-lxv; £.£*Oirirf artoo ei.";! aext'txil we?* srfT 

eCdad-Teoei ed^ "ari:? 03 .Ilacf ^;5orf si-Tt ,'^ "■ srflroti;,-* ' rrtf 

ar ^^Cao ibmxrcf we-j.oa 9-^:" ^£o.^,^^' ot^rcx ;^e-'O03 c^i aiTtoJ. 

£)et3i6qo 9d ^.aia aqnte I erit .n^^aeb ax-rrf «! . b»o«Iq 

-i'-^o e^e ai* o* ^ttrtoaeiq q?T ^I - ''rti ,ifoi:*i3oq \^ 3 rrx 

tuori.Hr atoe-xts oitaittas 0* 'ilsstx &ael Iliw Had "S b 



(56) 
limit and still provide efficient Illumination, 
These fixtures are made o:' both spun and cast bronze 
for use with any size of single glower lamps and may 
be obtained in straight electric or combination gas 
and electric. 

IIADTTEHAITCE 

Unlike the incandescent lamp, the frame 
and connections of these glower lamps form a perman- 
ent structure, having an indefinite life, with only 
its light giving elements to he ronewed fiom time to 
time. Of these the ballast has a Ttfe so long, 
as before mentioned, that it plays little part in 
the maintenance? system. 

11" ewise, the wafer heater has a long 
life, and will require only accasional attention in 
ordinary use. The glower, however, like the 
vacuum lan^), has a practically definite term of use 
and is the item of greatest importance in the mainten- 
ance system. It is row generally recognized that any 
lighting system, be it incandescent, aro, or glower, 
will give the best results when controlled by a reg- 
ular inspection end maintenance organization. 
CTITIPLE GL0\7E.. JTYPa 

In view of the general similarity in the 
construction of the arc and the multiple glower l-inp. 
it is self-evident that the maintenance is much ihe 
same. In the aro system, the lamps are periodically 
Inspected, globee and shades cleaned, carbons renewed 



.nci t !rrr.-ttf Hi dn si or lie e^.tvcrq II tf-.-i Brra J-xfU-Cl. 

ssTOicf fsso br? irr'-ra itod c efctitt si-', aei^txll' easrfT 

^e-'TT cms 3q.11- I -xewor;:^ 8r:?irrx3 to 6si 3 ^irre riulw eais 10^ 

3'=n noi tanidflroci -xo ox-c;to©l9 l-rfsiBita rtl fioirx^i-ofo ©d 

• oiid'Oels boa 

>!fc>J.'4.Z-. . . I..-- - U.L -x- ■> 

©..rjail 0(1 :f ^qrrnl tiTeoaeOaaorfx erft 9>fi:Xfc'' 

-ussaneq 3 Sftot eiq:ji:il 19W0I3 sadrfd- **:o ajicxtoafrnioo &frs 

\l£io KrJiw t^JJI o^iailebr^t rro -ictiv^xrf .e-xjj-roirii-a tne 

:t QflixJ C30^ i bswarrc'i etf 1 a^ct:'xnele -'xriri:-? :*tf'5il ati 

,-gxtcI o« ©^11 ■". aid *8«IIJ8(f 9rf* 6:30:?^ xO ,9m£j 

rex oisq-; qI-j-uxI a^-iTi -tx ^ff-.rfl ,.5erio Wrrsin eiotecT a« 

fnoX '^ Bid letsoK islaw 9i^ ,eaiw9 '1.1 
ni rtot^seif ■? Lane ::3' 000 x^'^o sii c;oei iTt-?: ferra .slil 

S3fr 'tc -crcot 9->.{:rr.t^9fc- %LIfiol^o&ii a sad ,c[:.i,?>X amrojsv 
--■etn.csn! erSt i-fi eo.Tjs^toqiHX ;t --jet ^oa^ 1g tnsfJr sdi at nne 

-got 3 \;tf feollo'ilrroo rteiiw atlJ^aei rfae'f e-^tt evt-'^ Ilivi 

-3d: rrl \>,;ti:"i3lXQUii li^iDrceg odt "io wsiv ctl 

- ,ffr.i r lewo [3 elqtiism edi bnu o-xa sn;:.' Ic aoiioinSeaoo 

era- datfnj ax eortfirteJ trx-tjitr srf. tiif;- ttiecxvs-'ilaa ai ti 

^Ilxtoxioi'i'?'! 81':! acirtcl arft ,ffl:e:??-;e oib art? rxl .eccse 

3-"sa3i acioo'rso ^boaaelo eebatiQ ^n^-i aedoiii .beJ-oeorsrcx 



(57) 

aid occasional flaults In the internal raechanlBin 

or a bxirntout coil repaired. In the Fernet sye- 

tem, th" requirements are cleaning glassware, and 

replacing burned out holders. The extra labor 
which is neoessary for the subsequent repairs of 

holders in tlis systerr is about counterbalanced by 
the extrs time required in the arc eye tern for more 
frequent inspeotion tours. 

A system usuilly adopted by lighting comp*. 
anles is the orgtmization of a Maintenance Bureau, 
which looks after all lamps on the circuits, visit- 
ing all ills tal la t ions periodically, cleaning glass- 
ware and changing holders when necessazy. The 
total cost of maintenance under these oonditions will 
be comparatively low, provided the work is executed 
in a systematic manner. In tase the lamps are not 
installed on the free renewal basis, this mainten- 
ance is 131 en chergsd for as a fixed sum per glower 
per month, or for an additional chfrge per K.T.hour 
for current. The exact sum depends upon the class 
and length of service, but averages 10/ per glower 
on the former basis and from S to 7 mills per X.,7.H. 
for the latter. It is obvious that location ,vnd cost 
of labor have a rather important bearing on the cost 
of any specific installation. 



-3^43 ■ia:n.e'". s.^j ctl .fcextaqoT Xloo d-.ciotmJJcf a ic 

T0cf3l Bi:j'xp erfT .eras&Iorf ^J'uo bsmtifd ^rfxoslqei 
':■■■ coorrslBdigtrtxroo *xfai« si T[©t3v:B ai' 'J- rrJ OTiefjIcd 

• STJXoJ' rtolto-iq'rri' .rrrewpei^ 

-:ri 31 V ,sd"--'ioixo edJ rro aqirp:! lie ^sJ^js -^aCocX rfoiiv? 
-aaali 3.TXfis9Xo ^^IXeoxDcxieq srroit jlX-vt att flis -gai 

LL'^^ arioxtxorroo SB9f!u -xS-Scctr eorr Arrest n:xBnt to teoo iBtcd" 

:'-9Tx;oe:c6 ex 3i-xav ori':t- BeBlvotcr ,v?cX ^e'-Xca-xsqaoo ad 

cfon: 01s arjaaX art* 63Sd iyI .^errrtsei oi+sci? i 3^8 .3 rrx 

-■19 JTTJJB.Ti 3-rrft ,8xaed Xawonei ©eTt srfcr rro J&«Xr3;faft: 

leTTc r^ leq iEUTi feexlt e ae lOl fiesi'Oifo no'*^" .?.r eo:TS 

iJJori.:' .>' '£6q 031 r'o X«rTOX^l-.&r:;« rra -xol: 10 ,j|raom tcst 

aaslo uv{;t ftoqi; gferrsorefi laxfa toaxe erf? .^rrsTXtro < ol 

lewc I-^ r.e-; ^Cl swiAjertsTB t'/-f ,»oxT-xes 'tc '^(tgrfc^I rtrrs 

.n.' .'•' i6q; 3XX:fi '^ o:t 3 tioi^ ?!rri:^ si 3isd Tsn'-rcl sfit rtc 

■■■.oti- noX Jadl airoxTdo 9> tl .tsKt^'aX e?f;t lol: 



(5t) 



Slnf^le Glower Type , 

'\lier. screw burner lamp 8 are used, the 
malntenanoe problem ^60011168 that of ihe old system 
of ordinary incandescent renewals 'There free renew- 
als are included in the contract, the user returns 
the "burned out burner, for which he receives a 
rebate towards a new one. '"ith this system, the 
TTemst lamp Company is prepared to supply all the nee- ' 
essazy burners for a specified sum per year, based upon 
the length of "burning hours." 

The advantage of this guaranteed renewal, 
oj maintent-nce cost is at once evident r.s compared 
with the unknown quantity representing renewal costs 
in commercial installations of vacuum high efficiency 
lamps* 

APPLICATIOIT TO laODEHl^ IIIUlflNATION PRACTICE. 

With the advance in the efficiency of var- 
ious modem illuminants ceTiie a corresponding demand for 
an increase in the efficiency of application of the 
units to modem illumination requirements, due to the 
fact that the consumer is more interested in the 
application of light than in the means of productiono 
A further demand exists for comparative figures of 
total operating costs (current and maintenance, including 
labor and materials) of the various systems of illum- 
ination now before the public on the basis of equality 



•5SU2. ^QWoXt; elyria 
Qrt.j ,....1. tii; a.-xoisX roaissd -creioa :^€»rf7 

-oor: srld- Ilis %l<l'^^'i oi betaqsiq ni %nk<^moZ' •[ai^,! tana'" 

.I^wafTot oooiTxsrtsiT'?, ax ft "io o^a^irra^rba eifT 

iJe'x-'.Ttauo 3 5 d"xi8.ni70 oorto ta '?.t taoo eon: ^ne trrixsfST o 

iO!t9xoc":'^e ri-^irl cnoiroBV io auoi^jBlIetani Xril-oterminn rrl 

♦ aqwsX 

.aOI'TDAH^t TIOITAI^IMUXII ^^•^'^^OM '^T '.'/.. 1'2 .^ "iJ^Tlk 

-i«v lo 14 OfToi*; 11:1:0 arid' cil eor^svfca '^tf JJ'tV' 

aol SrtSfiefj gctfcnoqasTtoo a ouio atr -rrinmllc !TTce&OiC( Buct 

adi lo iioi"i"BOlX'T"f» ^0 "^otioloxlble or ;i rrl ea^.-eaorrl rre 

srfd" ot aiiL .aineoiefx rupat rto f+ '.nJtjrurXXr Tieoorj ot ac^i■IXU 

e.'i'^ -ti ijecffciwietoi: etosi al "xoaranos ©rfl lad* toa^ 

• rrox*o0co'iq to axceeat ed* jdl nrarf* *fl[:gir *i:c aOi^ta jiXqrqa 

^c se'x^^r-rvfcl!: evxts'raq^aoo 'fo^ ai-RXXO bcianob lod+Tj/i A 

.-v-l' (OorjsrtoirnxjBai 6 ay c^^e•I*uro) e^aoo -^nl ;t'at cq Xs*oJ 

-iiyxrii' 'jrao;; 3Y.'2 aJJoriBv sdt 'lo (aXaii.^tBf<t 5tb •ioa'",X 

v^-rliiUDe to Q.ta.-.d ed7 ceo oxXdxjq ddt ^ivted vvoa aoxtanx 



(59) 



of Illumination, and in this regard, great stress 
should "be placed upon the actual illuminating 
efficiency rather than the "Candle Power", #:ich has 
become an incefinite term. 

While the necessity and value of laboratoiy 
perforimnoe curves of individual units is fully apprec- 
iated as a means for planning the lighting of large 
areas, the conditions so found in practice cannot re- 
ceive the consideration their importance demands, and 
althou^ some comnercial conditions are considered when 
arriving at a set of figures for the installation of 
a lighting system, yet one very important phase of 
the question is almost invariably underestimated or 
sadly neglected, an item Tfriich has a very marked 
effect on the satisfactory operation of a system, 
namely: the loss of illumination due to unclean 
conditions of the glasswarso 

It is at once apparent that a system which 
does not require reflecting devices is the simplest 
and most economical to maintain, because of less 
glassware to break, and the absence of all labor 
involved in the constant cleaning required in order to 
keep reflector lamps up to normal efficiency. 

There is a marked contrast between the 
improved glower lamp system, employing a minimxim 
number of units, having glassware of a desirable shape 



:^^Tr;tefiXiiu;.rri- ljuc;to.Q ©rft rroqir fieo^jl^r grf rlJJor'a 
Asd dol if /' 1 ©wc I 3l haa " erf ;t 'tb rit i erf..+ei tj orr ai: o r'll: © 

^mieJ- eflai'le' ttl na O0ooecf 

;':■ QvL~iV hn& •^^^iaaooon 9rf* olrfTfr 

-oe-x.;i_- \tllxfl ai s;^x^fx; Iatr&i:v±Drrx lo aavi-c/o eorr affiTolrefi 

-e-r jornxso ooll-os'iq rri: brxro*!; o:', aic -^tiB no o orij .aaeia 

,8'''a^T95 ^o^:a;^'\-oqpax ir arft rroijBiefci arroo sd^ »vxeo 

in. I.' fiexQ&haaoo ars oxicidx cctoo I iioii^^rraaoo ©cio3 *';X;o'''tIj3 

'iu ao x J ail zlt^jii eii tol ee-ijj^x'k io toa a te .^Ivxiib 

10 i)j^t3flrxd'a9T:9om; ^j,! ' axxjavni: ^f-joals si: noxtaerrp erit 

fco-i'x.^;a >t'^.ev s ^.aii do'z^ tsetx ajj ,X!e:toBLS9rT "jI5aa 

«flTsta\;e js lo nolit-B'xeqo ^lotoalali-Qs 9/ft rro toet^'^ 

rfjselortt; o* eL'b aciiv^ntmsiZi lo asol erf^ :x^I©fnarr 

• eiBw^aalM arf^l 'io aac'rilL-oc 

uotii^v rrrecTa-^a 3 l?.rit Irrei iq'TB eono ta ?J ;tl 

jselqaii"'^ 9rf* 3x aeolvet r^/rltosriai erh pet ioa aech 

eael 'Io ssirBood ,ixl a trrx am od" laoxrnccrooe Jaom ^na 

tod.'iL lis It o SD!iE>acia erft oa.i ,3toeici oo^ ai fjwaasl-j 

.;■ 'Oiixo rri fcexii-'psT: ^rtln-aslo t-tB-tarroo ?rfo cil &eTlovrcl 

• ^iorrei- oi^-'i e I.2anon ojf ax; «q;(i8X t toellsrx cjae:!" 

t-dJ noewd'od itaxji Jrroo oosfi ;•.«! ? ax oiariT 

fi:iUfliJ:iT..r"( .; •grtx'^joXqms ^.-'feta^e q.-rrer -cowol 3 fseveiqral: 



(6d) 

and of smooth polished surface, and vacutun eystems 
with their multiplicity of lamps and pieces of glass- 
ware. Exhaxistive tests indicate loss of illmnin- 
ation due to dirt on glassware in the former system 
to he a negligible quantity tmd in systems employing 
reflectors, often as great as 30^5, covering reasonable 
periods of timee 

There is, at the present time, urgent needs 
of investigation of existing installations of Interior 
Lighting Systems in order to arrive at some definite 
and logic c-1 data which will show, not what a system T*aach 
employs a certain type of unit, theoretically should 
do, but rather, what the performance of such a system 
actually is, when operating under normal conditions of 
commercial regulation anr maintenance; for it has been 
proven that the decorations, surroundings, size of area, 
and all physical things have by far as fatal effect j 

on the net operating commercial efficiency as does the 
initial efficiency of the type of unit employed. 

Although this is a subject for broad treat- 
ment and wide application, an idea of the oommeroial 
effiency and losses on comnercial install t ions of 
the lemst system can be gained by the following 
results of a few tests. The small losses due to ac- 
cumulations of dirt on the glassware are to be exredted 
from the very nature of the glassware employed; for 



■;Tf9d■3^J8 mmjosv >£■! .eoAj'i'Tira 'Jiotizilo'^ ri&oo:::'i "to orts 

- : ■; ; to asocrj Shb aqrtHl 1o ^I'ioiLittli.rr. I'zerii rfd"iw 

-iiXDarlll 'ro aaol e^'^&x'^Tfi: atast 9vi"d''3i;i"jarix3 . eisw 

.;j. 3v;.% i8iiiiio!t efTt ccx oaswasaC-B nto tnib o* sixft noxos 

ireJnl lo arro itt rX r«« axi T5rti;ts.!:x» to nollt«:^."r taevrri: to 

^•d•xncx'i:9S siuog *« O'^'-iiio ot 106'xo rfx 8flie*8\.':. tfti'^JTf'si.T 

' -te^s'^B is ior[?? tofl,woffa Tli-w rioid'T ataf I lol^cl Drrjs 

(;I.i:.)oi:*9-iceriJ ,d-ini; "^o sq'^* rris^'xeo .■ a'iclqste 

.T9og^i3 '2 ri'5iJ3 ^0 eoaiBsnott&q Siit taifw .leritBi &is6 ,0/) 

arroi'ioitoo f-'.nrto't le^-fta' '«^n2:ffX'=iqo rrerTw «3x ^ i" .^info •■ 

-of 33ri tx lo'i leonzneittiom n rroii-aJw^e-r LBtotomioo 

"lo s:ji-3 ta-^rtiSroj-OTrr? ,arroJtt.'i!ioo«6 Qdf tsrft xxevotcx 

& i 'lonaiolVte Laloisimoo. -^ai: i ^t &rTO lerr erii" 00 

.cei^olqais txrw "io ©q^jt e ■» "0 ^ortoioJtilf* laxi'XiTX 
-tiisit bBoi.-f tol Jo 5(; dire a at 3tr*$ d"?..' odilA 

.".aio-saamoo 9ri;^ "o aebi nt ,nciuBnlXci' s oibix*' ona ^aern 

"ic artox J- .ll^^Jartx liixgrce raioo rro 86a aoX Srca TCDast^lis 

■gniwoIIo'L adJ- '^cf JborriB^ ocT ccao aw^aia Jams'' sri* 

-o:;5 0^ ei:Tb aeaaol 11 stus erfT .aJae* wol s "^o '-i iLsi a ot 

&e*be';xo ecf oJ otB e-xfiwaaal'.^ acft no ti-o ^o artol- Jsliracio 

•vox ;l)eTtoIq:ais ©Tiawaaslg srfJ ^c 9xu:^sn rtav siJ moil 



(61) 

only round types or "bells" are recommended, j nd in 

view of the downward distritutlon, end, further, that 

any dust accumulations .-re confined to the uppermost 

part of the glass where relatively little light emanates, 

the loss on the effective surface of the glfssware is 

of little consequenoe. 

IFSTAIIATION Type of Kean Effic. fo loss 

lamp IlluminEtion W.-itts per Due to 
Foot Candles lumen Djrt 

Rosenbaum Co. 4.20 .338 

^ei^» 3 gl. 4.34 ,327 3,23 

Armour & Co. 1 gl. 3.28 .427 

Chicago (Old Type) 3.45 .406 4.93 

Marshall Field 6 gl. 6,52 .36 7 

& Co,, Chicago(01d Type) 6.87 ,362 1.40 

Sweeney Co., 3 gl, 2,52 ,28 

Buffalo 

Siegel Cooper & Co, 

Chgo. 3 gl, 3,17 o295 

Charlton Co., 

Fall Eiver 1 gl. 2,66 .271 

Hewcomb-Endicott 

Detroit 3 gl. 3,60 .317 

f Special) I 

Sears, roebuck 

Sc Company 1 gl, 3.66 .303 



The Terns t glower and its application to 
a conmeroial unit of illumination is a subject of great 
interest and breadth and would permit of many exhaus- 
tive treatments, were time not a factor, and, in 
conclusion, it mpy be said that the Testlnghouse '^emst 
lamp, in the fiel* of comnercial lighting, fills the 



nJ: >-t ■ .ije/icrernmoosi 9'i •■ "sl.t.icf" to asT'r.J" ict^Ci \;Iito 
.*•'.•:■■" fie~'.*\;r. , err-: ,a:ox-.''JTJrTJ"s.I-f; 'V.awnwc ^ 9i{? to '.vaxv 
t r,oane3f /=:; ari* o.^ bsnll : . 01 artox+sIanttrooB "J" ■;. 

-ji- ©Ttr/'Ba '.[3 9ff;}' "ij soalixxa evicfos't^e orft no aaol orft 

.©orfSi/psaioo fid".:! 'to 

.omi-I nepi *o eq^^T I'fOITA.T'' AT :^TI 

tT Xu rtstiXiT gaXsT^O t.o'i 

8^.5 . Oa» •!?■ . an od rro a oK 

.;„,.' ^'S^. ^5. 1' .13 -v •ffgl 

Se.l» ao^, Si-.S {eq^^ bio) ogaoxdO 

vd<s. sa.d .13 a bieri ii.Briai-.:i 

..i.I SaS. ?B.d{9.f';^ &IO)o-^.iO£riO ,»oD i. 

• oO :S neqooO feaeiG 



3Ga, 


VI.S 


.13 S .OBri"^ 


X?S. 


aa.s 


.13 I -ievi/: 11^5? 


VIS. 


06.'=; 


:f;?ooi: ort.i-djioov/sl 
.1-: 3 e-lci;^fKl 



w^^ 



SOP.. aa.S .I3 I ^rcBq.tio':: 



-au^Kxe ^iraTt Ic axnnsq ^Ixjc^" ferr •. r£i"6a»t i ^-t .. d"89io:?'r:x 
arnco" naxforf^^rci^ao'," 9-*:}" tartt btH''^. od ■'^nf :tl ,r[oiai.rfo.Too 



(62) 



long-felt warite of every aggreeeive lamp oonBumer 
for a rugged lamp of the incandescent type; fe,aving max- 
imum flexibility and embodying in its design hi^h ef- 
ficiency, low maintenance cost, sln^jlicity in renewal 
system, natural downward distribution of light, com- 
paratively low intrinsic brilliancy, pleasir^ quality 
of light, absence of flicker, rugged mechanical con- 
struction, vmity power factor, a large variety of 
sizes, and leuatly, operative on any commercial cir- 
oxiits; either alternating otirrent of any voltage and 
commercial frequency, and on direct current for toth 
110 end 220 Volt service. J 



oOo — • 



•xQ.mfanoo qm ?I eviaasi^g-^ i'xsva "lo at Taw fIo'z-:%aoL 

-10 ri^rf ara^taeft s*i rri: S£ti\iLocfai6 bfia ^cMItdixel'i taamt 
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T 22130 

q621.32 



Bustlce, A. L. 
JLernst p-lowfti- 



T 
q621.32 



22130 



Eu79 



Eu79 



Armour Institute of Technology 

Library 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



FOR USE IN 
LIBRARY ONLY