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Full text of "A new and accurate system of natural history .."

r 



DUKE 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 



treasure %oom 



"BT 



THE 

NATURAL HISTORY 

O F 

FISHES 

AND 

SERPENTS, 

including 

Sea-Turtles, Cr u stage ous, 
and ^HELL Fishes, 

WITHTHEIR 

MEDICINAL USES. 

BY 

R. BROOKES, M.D. 

Author of the General Pra£fici of Fbyfic- 

VOL. III. 



LONDON, 

Printed for J. Newbery, at the Bible and 
Sun, in St. Paul's Church- Yard. 

MDCCLXIIL 



1/-3. 



C O N T E NTS. 

Introduction. 

Chap. I. (^ F FiJJ:)es in general^ Page I 

II. vy Of Fijhes of the Cetaceous Kind, 

III. Of Fijhes of the Cartilaginous Kind, 

23 

*III. Of cartilaginous fat Fifoes, 35 

IV. Of anomalous Fijhes^ a- kin to the Car- 

tilaginous, 46 

V. Of O'viparous Fijhes, nvhich are gene- 

rally honey, and have Spines in the 

Flejh, 48 

VI. Of flat Fijhes, ivith longer Bodies, 5 2 

VII. Of Fijhes of the Eel Kind,, that nvant 

the Belly Fins, 5 3 

VIII. Of Fijhes that nvant the Belly Fins, 68 

IX. Of spinous or Bmey Fijhes, that ha^vi 

f oft flexible Skins on their Backs, 82 

X. Of Fijhes of the Tunny Kind, 90 

XI. Of Fijhes of the Trout Kind, 97 

XII. Of Slippery Fijhes of the Eel Kind, 

110 

XIII. Of Fijhes that ha^ve two hlack Fins, and 

ivhofe Belly Fins unite in one, 1 2 1 

XIV. Offmall Fijhes, that ha-ve tivo Fins on 

the Back, <with t^o flexible Rays, 

125 
XV. Of Braiilian Fijhes, ivith tivo Fins on 
the Back, 126 

XVI. Of barbed and prickly Brafilian Fijhes, 

128 

» 2 ChaP^ 



iv CONTENTS. 

Chap. 

XVII. Of fpinous Tijhesy avith tnvo Fins on tht 

Backf the foremofi of lAjhich is radian 

ted nxiith S fines y I30 

XVIII. Of Fijhes of the Gurnard Kind^ 133 

XIX. Of Fijhes njcithout Thorns y and one Fin 

on the Back, 1 49 

XX. Of leather-mouthed Ri'ver Fijhes i 169 

XXI. Of honey or fpinous Fijhes y 'with one Fin 

en the Back, nvhofe fornvard Rays are 

ft iff and thorny, and the hinder foft and 

flexible y 1 92 

XXII. OfFifces of the Wraffe, or Old-Wife 

Kind, 200 

XXI II. 0/* American F//^<'j, njoith afingleFin 

on the Back, ivhofe Rays are all fpi- 
ncus, 2 I O 

XXIV. Of Eaft Indian Fijhesy not fully de- 

fcribed, 2 1 4 

XXV. Of Wel^ Indian Fijhesy dcfcribcd by Du 

Tertre, 221 

XXVI. Of Af/ican Fifhes near the Cape of 

Good Hope, 226 

XXVII. Of bloodlef foft Fijhes, 230 

^XXVII. Of crujiaceous Fifhes, 233 

XXVIII. OfTortoife, or Land or ^ea Turtle, 258 

XXIX. Of turbinated Shell Fifhes, 273 

XXX. Of turbinated Shells, 293 

XXXI. Of 'ivreathed Shells, z^y 

XXXII. Of Limpets, 301 

XXXIII. Of Shells, called Sea-Ears, 304 

XXXIV. Of Dentalia, or Tooth-Shells, 306 
XXXV. Of Cylindric Shells, 307 

XXXVI. Of Dolia, or Pipe Shells, 309 

XXXVII. Of Porcelain Shells, 3 1 1 

XXXVIII. Of Bi-jukued Shells, 314 

XXXfX. OfMufdes, 323 

XL. Lf Heart Shells, and Cockles, 326 

Xi I. Of Scollop Shells, 330 

XLII. Of Finger Shdl-fjhes, 3 3 3 

Chap. 



CONTENTS. V 

Chap. 

XLIII. Of Acorn Shell-fjhesr 334 

XLIV. Of Thumb-footed Shell fijhesy and thofe 

that ha<ve fi've Valves ^ ^^j 

XLV. 0/Pholades, or File-jhell FiJhesy 33^ 

XLVI. Of fre/h-nvater Shell Jijhesy 341 

XL VII. Of Sta Nettles, 349 

XLVIII. Of Serpents, 352 

XLIX. Of Viper i and Serpents defer ihed by %thz^ 

39* 



a 3 TABLE 



( vii ) 



TABLE to the PLATES 

OF 

FISHES and SERPENTS. 

A. 



A Lbicore, 
XJ^ Amboina, 


Page 94 
216 

B. 


Plate in p. 94 
210 


Balance Fifli, 


Page 3 1 


Plate in p. 28 


Butterfly Fifh, 


117 


38 


Butter-Fifli, 


208 


ibid. 


Bald-pate Filh, 


214 


Boneitoe, 


94 


ibid.. 


Bream, Sea, 


178 


ibid. 


Bream, Stone, 


214 
C. 


216 


Cramp Fifh, 


Page 43 


Plate in p. 32 


CuttJe FiHi, 


230 


46 


Cat, Sea, 


219 


72 


Crook-back Fifh, 


217 


161 


Cock, Sea, 


215 


214 


Grab, Soldier, 


249 


218 


Crab, Molucca, 


251 


ibid. 


Crab, Indian Land, 


254 


239 


Crab, Indiiin Sea, 


250 


ibid. 



a 4 D, Dolphin 



viil TABLE TO THE PLATES 



D. 



Dolphin of the Ancieacs, 


Page 26 


Plate in p. 6 


Dog-Fiih, 




32 


32 


Dorce, 




H9 


68 


Devil, Sea, 




212 


72 


Dolphin of the Moderns, 


149 


94 


Dung-Fiih, 


E. 


193 


'93 


Eel, Indian Sea, 




Page 215 


Plate in p. 118 


Eaft India Fifh, 




214 


152 


Eel-Pout, Indian, 




216 


161 


Eagle, Sea, 


F. 


35 


J 93 


Frog-Fifh, 




Page 46 


Plate in p. 46 


Flying-Fifh, 




,36 


'73 


Father Lalher, 




208 


46 




G 






Gurnard, Grey, 




Page 134 


Plate in p. 40 


Gurnard, Red, 




»35 


46 


Gurnard, Yellow, 




'38 


68 


Guarerva, 




152 


152 


Grunter, 




2J5 


210 




H 


. 




Horfe, Sea, 




Page 72 


Plate in p. 47 


Hedgehog, Sea, 




70 


70 


Horned Fifh, 




72 


72 


Herring, Indian, 




'57 


210 


Ifmglafs Fifh, 


I. 


Page 168 


Plate in p. 47 


Indian White Fifh, 




215 


210 


Indian Pine Fifh, 




215 


"t 


Jacob-Evertfen Fifh^ 




217 



K. King. 



OF FISHES AND SERPENTS, ix 

K. 

King-Fiih, Page 97 Plate in p. ii8 

L. 

Lark, Sea, Page 118 Plate in p. 1 18 

Lamprey, Indian, 216 ibid. 

Lizard, Green and large fpotted, See Preface. 

Lump, 123 173 

Loufe, Sea, 216 218 

M. 

Mor.k Fifh, Page 41 Plate in p. 28 

Moon-Fifh, 215 32 

Mullet, 131 131 

N. 
Nofe-Fifli, Elephant's, Page 161 Plate in p. 161 

O. . 

Orb, or Sea Weather-cock, Page 68 Plate in p. 40 

Orb, echinated, 68 6S 

Old Wife, 200 131 





P. 






Porpoife, 


Page 24 


Plate in p. 6 


Pigeon, Sea, 


218 




/Q 


Piper, 


^3S 




94 


Pit Fifh, 


219 




.^52 


Pyed Filh, 


221 




ibid^ 


Porpoife, Eaft India, 


216 




161 


Pogge, 


123 




173 


Pen Fifh, 


216 




216 


Prawji, Eall India, 


239 
R. 




239 


Ray, fharp fnOQted, 


Page 40 


Plate 


in p. 40 


Raven's beak Fifh, 


215 




214 




a 5 


S. 


Sword* 



X P L A T E S O F F I S H E S, &:c. 

S. 

S.vord FIfh,- 

Saw Fiili, 

S'lark, 

Sea- Fox, 

Sea-Wolf, 

San-Fifh, 

SIcearFilh, 

Sea-Bat, 

Skate, 

Snail, Sea, 

Soldier-Filh, 

Sat king Fill). 

Snip-, Sea, 

Scad,, 

Star-gazer, 

Sea-Hog, Ebft-India, 

Sea-Bat, Iidlan, 

Snake of ^'culapius. 

Snake, Indiarr, 

Snake, Rattle, 

Serpent, Hooded, 

T. 

Tin-Fifh, Page 1 1 Plate in p. 6 

Tunny FiHi, 90 31 

Toad Fifh, Indian, 47 47 

Tortoife, or Land Turtle, 264' 264 

U. 
Umbrana, Page 143 Piateinp. 131 

Urchin, Sea, 284 218 

W. 
Whale, Page 6 Plate in p. 6 

Y. 

Yellow Tall, Page 214 Plate in p. 2 14 



INTRO- 



Page 80 


Plate in 


p. 28 


34 

28 




ibid, 
ibid. 


il 




ibid. 


79 




ibid. 


i»3 




32 


215 




38 


3B 




ibid. 


120 




47 


• 217 
»i7 




70 
ibid. 


219 




72 


139 




J3» 


144 




*73 


214 




216 


220 




218 


366 

368 ' 

17^ 


264 
See Preface. 

ibid, 
ibid. 



( " ) 



INTRODUCTION 

T O T H E 

History of Fishes. 



TH E producHiions of Nature, as they become 
lefs per feci, grow more numerous. When we 
confider what numbcrlefs forts have hitherto 
efcaped human duriofity, what a variety of fifties are 
already known, and the amazing fecundity of which 
they are poilefied, we are almoft induced to wonder 
how the ocean finds room for its inhabitants. A 
fmgle fifh is capable of producing eight or ten miU 
lions of its kind in a feafon; but Nature has happily 
obviated this hurtful encreafe, by making the fub- 
fiftance of one jfjf)ecies depend on the deilrut^ion of 
another. The fame enmities that fubfift among land 
animals prevail with equal fury in the waters, and 
with this aggravation, that by land the rapacious 
kinds fsldom devour each other, but in the ocean it 
feems an univerfal warfare of each againft each. The 
large devour the fmall even of their own fpecies, 
and thefe, in their turn, become the tyrants of fuch as 
they are able to deflroy. 

Fifties in general may be divided into thofe that 
breathe thro' lungs, and have red blood circulating 
thro' their veins ; and thofe that refpire thro' the gills, 
and whofe circulating juices are limpid and colourlefs. 
The firfl: fort, which comprehends all of the cetaceous 
or whale kind, are poftTefTed of a greater degree of 
heat than the element they inhabit^' are* frequently 
obliged to come to the furfaceof the water to refpire 
Crelh air, and, tho' they are properly inhabitants of 

the 



xii INTRODUCTION TO THE 

the ocean yet are capable of being fuiFocated in it. 
They ufe coition, bring forth their young alive, 
nourilli them with their milk, and refemble qua- 
drupedes as to their internal conformation. The 
latter fort, on the contrary, are as cold as the element 
in which they live, they breathe only in the water, 
they produce by fpawn which is impregnated by the 
male, and are for the moft part covered with fcales ; 
between thefe there is yet an intermediate kind, which 
is called the cartilaginous. Thefe breathe through 
the gills like the latter, and bring forth their young 
alive like the former. Inftead of bones, their muf- 
c!es are fupported only by cartilages, or griflles, and 
from this conformation they continue to grow larger 
as they grow older ; for, different from every other ani- 
mal, their bones never acquire fuch a certain degree 
of hardnefs as to hinder their future growth. 

The number of the cetaceous and cartilaginous kind, 
however, is but fmall when compared to the other kind 
already defcribed, in which are to be found a greater 
quantity of fmall bones, which ferve to flrengthen 
and fupport the mufcles. The bones of a fmgle carp, 
for inftance, amount to four thoufand three hun- 
dred and eighty fix. Thefe are the kinds generally 
to be found in frefh water ; thefe have been moft fre- 
quently fubjedt to human infpedlion, and from them 
our defcriptions are moil ufually taken. 

The {hape of uiofl fifh is much alike, Iharp at either 
end, and fwelling in the middle, by which they are 
thus able to traverfe the Huid they inhabit with greater 
eafe. That peculiar fliape which nature has granted 
moii fifhes we endeavour to imitate in fuch veffels 
as are defigned to fail with the greateft fwiftnefs ; how- 
ever, the progrefsof a machine moved forward in the 
water by human contrivance is nothing to the rapidity 
of an animal deftined to refide there. The fhark 
overtakes a fhip in full fail with eafe, plays round it, 
and abandons it at pleafjre. The tail of all fifh is 
extremely flexible, and furnifhed with mufcles that 
take up near a third part of the whole body. In 
this lies their greateft ftrength, and by bending it to 

the 



HISTORY OF FISHES. xlii 

the right or left they repel the water behind, and 
advance with the defired fwiftnefs. The motion of 
this is in fome meafure affifted by the fins, but their 
chief ufe is to poife the body, and at will to ftop its 
motion. This is proved by experience; for whea 
the fins are cut off, the fifh reels to and fro, no longer 
able to keep its natural pofture. Thefe therefore 
only keep the fifh Heady; when it would turn to the 
right it moves the fins on the left fide, when to the 
left it plays thofe on the right ; the tail, however, is the 
grand inftrumerit of progreffive motion. 

As all animals that live upon earth, or in the air, 
are furnifned with a proper covering to keep off ex- 
ternal injury, fo all that live in the water are cover- 
ed with a ilimy glutinous matter, that, like a /heath, 
defends their bodies from the immediate contad of 
the furrounding fluid. Beneath this is generally 
found a coat conlilling of ilrong fcales, and under 
that, before we come to the mufcular parts of the bo- 
dy, an oily fubftance, which fupplies the requifite 
warmth and vigour. 

When we examine a fifh*s fcale thro' a microfcope, 
it is found to confifl of a number of concentrical cir- 
cles, one within the other, in fome meafure refem- 
bling thofe which appear upon the tranfverfe fedion 
of a tree, and, in fa6l, offering the fame information. 
For, as in trees we can tell their age by the number 
of their circles, fo in filhes we can tell their's by 
the number of circles in every fcale, reckoning one 
ring for every year of the animal's exiflence. Mr, 
Buffon^ by this method, found a carp, whofe fcales he 
examined, to be not lefs than an hundred years old, a 
thing almoil incredible, had we not feveral accounts 
in Other authors, which tend to confirm its veracity. 
That fifh are extremely long lived, appears from 
the nature of the element in which they breathe; in 
this they are not fubjed to thofe fudden changes, 
which terreftrial animals hourly experience ; their's 
is an uniform exiflence, their movements v/ithout ef- 
fort, and their life without labour ; fo that ajl their 

dangers 



xW INTRODUCTION TO THE 

<fangers and inconveniences arife not from the infir- 
mities of nature, but each other's rapacity. 

But tho' they are formed entirely for living in the 
water, yet ftili the) ase unable to fubfift without air. 
If a pond, in which tliey are ufaally kept, be cover- 
ed over with ice, a part of it mull be broken to let in 
frelh air, otherwife the fifh would die. All water 
containing a certain quantity of air, fifh have an ad- 
mirable contrivance in their gills, of feparating that 
from their native element. The air thus infpired, 
probably affiits in circulating their fluids, as with 
other animals ; but there is one advantage which it 
manifeftly grants them, namely, that of finking or 
rifing in the water, as pleafure or neceffity incites ; 
when they are ir.clined to rife, they dilate an air 
bladder, with which nature has furnillied them, and 
thus encreafmg their bulk, without adding to their 
weight, they become lighter than the furrounding 
fluid. On the contrary, when this air-bladder is 
contracted, their body contrads in proportion, and 
they fink. That this is the true ufe of the air blad- 
der, and that it is not, as fome have fuppofed, only a re- 
fervoir of air, for the fifh to breathe from while it 
continues under water, has been ihewn by experi- 
ments ; thus we fee that fifh breathe our atmofphere : 
but, what will appear ftill more extraordinary, they 
have been kept alive and fattened, after having been 
taken cut of the water. Carps, when hung up in a 
cool cellar, in a fmall net, and covered with wet 
mcfs, their heads however being at liberty, may be 
fed and fattened with white bread fleeped in milk ; 
an experiment eafily tried, and which has often been 
pradifed with fuccefs in Holland, as well as at 
home. 

The eyes of fifh are generally flat, which feems 
moft fuitable to the element in which they live. 
Their vifion, however, is probably very indiflinft, at 
lead it appears fo from the experiments I have been 
able to make upon their eyes, by fixing them in the 
apparatus of a camera obfcura. They feem, likewife, 
to have but an obfcure perception of founds, and 

probably 



HISTORY OF FISHES. xv 

probably they receive this fenlation, by the tremors 
of the element, in which they^live, operating rather 
upon their whole fyilem, than by any mechanifm 
adapted for that purpofe. Their fenfes, therefore, 
feem ivo way exquifite, and their pleafures are almoft 
entirely confined to the fatisfadtion they find in ap- 
pealing their hunget. It is this appetite alone, which 
;mpells them to encounter every danger j their rapa- 
city feems infatiable; even v/hen taken out of the 
water, and expiring, they greedily fwallow the 
vejy bait by which they were allured to their de- 
rcjudlion. 

As they are thus extremely voracious, Nature 
feems to have fupplied them with proper means for 
fatisfying their appetite to the utinoll extent of in- 
dulgence. They are all furniihsd with teeth, or 
fome other contrivance which anfwers the fame 
purpofe. The maw is in general placed next the 
mouth, and tho* poiTeffed of no fenfibie heat, yet is 
endued with a furprizing faculty of digeition. Thofe 
of the voracious kind f^'allow not only others like 
themfelves, but even prawns, crabs, and lobflers, 
Iheils and all, without experiencing any manner of 
inconvenience. This amazing faculty in their cold 
maw, ferves evidently to prove, that heat is not the 
caufe of digelHon in the liomach of man, or other 
animals; the caufe of that is perhaps inextricable, 
the operations of Nature are pad finding out, and 
doubts, inllead of knowledge, rife upon every en- 
quiry. 

As iifhei are thus formed for fcizing and devour- 
ing each other, and as they are prcfTed by unceafing 
hunger, we may eafily imagine, thai they lead a lift 
of continued holli.icy, of violence, and evafion. It 
is natural to fuppofe that the fmaller fry ftand no 
chance in this unequal combat; their ufual method 
oi efcaping, therefore, is by Iwimming into thofe 
fnallovvs, where the great ones are afraid or unable 
to puifue. Here they become invaders in turn, ajid 
live upon the fpawn of larger filhes, which they find 
treating upon the furface of the water. The mufcle, 

the 



xvi INTRODUCTION TO THE 

the oyfter, and the fcallop, lie in ambufh at the 
bottom, with their Ihells open, and whatever animal 
inadvertently approaches into contad, they at once 
clofe their {hells, and it becomes an eafy prey. The 
flat fifh, in general, watch on the mud, till the females 
of other kinds depofit their fpawn in holes at the bot- 
tom., and upon their retiring, come forth to feall 
upon the fpoil. 

Nor is their purfuit, like that of terreflrial animals, 
confined to a fingle region, or to one eiFort; Ihoals 
of one fpecies follow thofe of another, through vafl 
trads of the ocean, from the vicinity of the Pole 
even down*to the Equator. Thus the cod, from the 
hzwks oi NeivfoundlarJ, purfues the whiting, which 
flies before it even to the fouthern fiiores of Sf>ain. 
Such a purfuit as this may probably be the caufe of 
the annual return of herrings and pilchards to our 
own coafls, where they come in an abundance that 
to fome may appear incredible ; nothing being 
more common on the coaHs of Ccrnn-vall^ than to take 
five or fix thcufand hogfiieads of pilchards at one 
Tingle inclcfure. This return of fifh to the Brhijh 
Coafls, is, however, of no very long continuance, for 
about an hundred and fifty years ago, the herring 
fhoals were found along the northern coafts of Ger- 
many, but thofe they have fince forfaken, and in 
thofe places where the Germans once caught them 
in immenfe quantities, there are at prefent, with- 
out any vifible reafon, none to be found. 

Thus we find another analogy between thefe 
and terreftrial animals. As in birds, fo fome forts 
of thefe may be called fifh of pafTage, and others in- 
digenous. The herring firft has its flation towards 
the north of Scotland, from whence they make their 
way regularly every year, and at length arrive in 
the Britijh Channel. Their voyage is performed 
with the utmofl regularity. The time of their de- 
parture is fixed from the month of June to JuguJ}, 
and they afTemble always together, before they fet 
out. There are never any flragglers from the gene- 
ral body, for when they have pafl any place, there 

are 



HISTORY OF FISHES. xvii 

are none left remaining. It would be vain to af- 
iign the caufe of thefe migrations. Whether it pro- 
ceeds from the- fear of purfuers, or from a defire of 
propagating their kind in greater fecurity ; whether 
they find pleafure in the change, or whether this 
long voyage is undertaken in qaeft of food, is a 
fubjed that might fupply much conjefture,- and lit- 
tle fatisfadion. Certain it is, their numbers are 
aftonifhing ; they fatisfy, in their paiTage, the rapa- 
city of all the voracious kinds, and when they ar- 
rive at their appointed llatlons, they there fall to the 
fhare of man, and make the food of the poor, for a 
certain feafon, throughout all Europe. 

But this confumption, how great foever, only ferves 
to counterbalance their furprizing fecundity, which 
would, oiherwife, overftock the element affigned 
them for their fupport. The number of ^g%^ con- 
tained In the roe of a fingle cod, and computed by 
Lei.venboek, amounted to nine millions three hundred 
and forty four thoufand; which, if permitted in every 
individual to come to maturity, would rather obflrudl 
than replenifh nature. But two wife purpofes are 
anfwered by this amazing encreafe ; it preferves the 
fpecies whatever may happen, and ferves to furniih 
the furviving fifti with a fuilenance, adapted to their 
conformation. 

They feem all, except the cetaceous kind, entirely 
divefled of thofe parental pleafures and follicitudes 
which fo firongly mark the charaders and condudt of 
the more perfedl terreftn'al animals. They do not 
ufe coition ; for tho' the male fometimes feems to join 
bellies with the fem.ale, yet as he is unfurnifhed with 
the inftruments of generation, his only end by fuch 
an adion is to emit his impregnating fluid upon the 
eggs, which at that time fall from her. His at- 
tachment feems rather to the eggs, than the female; 
he purfues them often, as they float down along the 
ftream, and carefully im.pregnates them one after 
the other. Sometimes the females dig holes in the 
bottoms of rivers and ponds, and there depofit their 

fpawn. 



I 



xviii INTRODUCTION TO THE 

fpawn, which are impregnated by the male as be- 
fore. 

All fiih have a peculiar feafon to depofite their 
fpawn. They in general chufe the hotteft months 
in fummer, and prefe^ fuch waters as are fome.vhat 
tepified by the rays of the fun. They then leave the 
deepeft parts of the ocean, which are always mod 
cold, approach the coalts, or fwim up the rivers of 
frefh water, which are warm by being fliallow. 
_When they have depofited their burthens, they thea 
return to their old Rations, and leave their Ipawn, 
when come to maturity, to Ihift for themfelves. 
Thefe at firft efcape by their minutenefs and agility. 
They rife and fink much fooner than grown fifli, and 
can fwim in much fhallower water. But with all 
thefe advantages, fcarce one in a thoufand furvives 
the various dangers that furround it ; the very male 
and female, that have given it life, are equally dan- 
gerous and formidable with the rert, for every filh 
is the declared enemy of all it is able to devour. 

Some kinds of filhes are found to contain the 
parts of both fexcs in one individual ; thus there 
have been dilcovered hermaphrodite carps, breams^ 
and roaches ; but there is a kind of fifh, not yet taken . 
notice of, which, whether male or female, has the 
parts of generation double, 'f hefe are the cruftaceous 
kinds, fuch as lobrters and crabs, which differ from 
teftaceous, or fliell-filh, in this, that the crult, or coat, 
with which they are covered, may be bent inwards, 
orotherwife bruifed, without breaking. Thus do thefe 
animals feem diiferent from all other ; for as we have 
cur mufcles fupported by bones on the infide, thefe, 
on the contrary, have theirs without. As they are not 
defigned for fwimming, however, they have no air 
bladders, as other filli, but creep along the bottom, 
and devour whatcner they feize, not excepting each 
other. They regularly once a year, and about the 
beginning of I\Iay, cait their old (hell, and Nature 
fupplies them with a new one. Some days before 
this nccelTary change, the animal ceafes to take it* 

ufual 



HISTORY OF FISHES. xix 

■ufaal food. Juft before carting its fhell it rubs its 
legs again ll each other, and ufes other violent mo- 
tions of" the body. It then fwells itfelf in an unufual 
manner, and by this the (hell begins to divide at 
its junctures, between the body and the tail. After 
this, by the fame operation, it diiengages itfelf of 
every part, one after the other, each part of the 
joints burfling longitudinally till the animal is quite 
at liberty. This operation, however, is /o violent 
and painful, that many of them die under it ; chofe 
which furvive are feeble, and their naked mufcfes 
foft to the touch, being covered with a thin mem- 
brane, but in lefs than two days this membrane har- 
dens in a furprizing manner, and a new fhell, as 
impenetrable as the former, fupplies the place of 
that laid aflde. 

Such is the life of thefe animals in their own ele- 
ment ; but with refpeft to the ufe they a:e oif to man, 
their fielh ferves him for aliment, their fat for oil, 
their fkins for different purpofes ; of their founds 
we make ifinglafs, and the flony concretions which 
are V found in their bodies, were once thought 
to conduce to his health in medicine. Of frefh 
water fifh, thofe that have been fed in fwift and rapid 
rivers are reckoned moil wholelbme ; thofe which 
feed in ponds, or muddy llagnated lakes, are gene- 
rally wo; fl, as their flefh contrails a flavour from the 
place where they are bred. Luxury, however, has 
gone vail lengths in improving the flavour and fat 
of fifh, by callration, but it would ill become one, 
who lays claims to humanity, to inftruft gluttony 
in this vile art of torturing animals : Thephilofopher 
(hould ever (lop, when his labours begin to open new 
avenues to fenfuality. 

Thofe who have attempted accuracy in claffing 
the produftions of Nature, have only embarraded 
their works by their endeavours to arrange them me- 
thodically. To what order of beings the ferpent, 
for inflance, may be referred, whether to the fifhes, 
the lizard, or the infe<^s, is not yet fettled among 

Natura- 



XX I N T R O D U C T I O N. &:c. 

Naturalifts. The Aibjeft of their arrangement, how- 
ever, is of no great importance, it being fufficient 
for all the purpofes of utility and information, if 
they are accurately defcribed. Like fifhes, they may 
be divided into the viviparous and oviparous ; of 
the former are all of the viper kinds, of the latter 
thofe of the common fnake. The former, in our ov/n 
country, contain a poifon lodged under each fang in 
the upper jaw; the latter are no way venomous. 
With us they grow to no great length ; but in the 
warm latitudes of America they are fometimes feen 
from twelve to twenty four feet long. 

It would be vain to attempt affigning the ufes of 
moft of thefe noxious and formidable reptiles. Tho* 
the flefh of the viper has been converted to falutary 
purpofes in medicine, yet in the countries where 
they abound, man is found to fufFer more from their 
noxious qualities, than he is benefited by their medi- 
cinal virtues. Providence, however, in fome meafure 
feems to fecure him from the dangers of thofe which 
are moll fatal : The rattle fnake, for inftance, whofe 
bite is mortal, warns him of its vicinity, by found- 
ing its rattles : The moft formidable avoid his ap- 
proach, and feldom attack him without former pro- 
vocation. In fome countries the ferpent kind are 
even rendered ufeful, and, like cats, employed for 
the purpofes of deftroying domellic vermin. Whe- 
ther Providence intended that all things fhould be 
for man's ufe, is a queftion we cannot refolve, as 
we are ignorant of the defigns of Providence. It is 
fufficient for us to know, that by granting us fuch 
fuperior powers to all other animals, it has, in fad, 
rendered fuch of them as we think proper to em- 
ploy, entirely fubfervient to all the purpofes of our 
pleafures, or neceffities. 



ne 



( xxi ) 

The tnxjo follo^toing articles beings hy mijiakef omitted in 
their proper place, the Reader hvHI excufe our in- 
fer ting them here. 

THE Indian Snake is long and black, fmall, 
and fpotted with black and white on the back ; the 
fcales of the back are variegated with white, brown, 
and black. It raifes its head, which is very elegant, 
towards the birds it preys on, as reprefented in the 
plate. Its whole belly to the extremity of the tail is 
fpotted with black. It has been called the Flying 
Serpent, becaufe it darts on its prey as fwift as an 
arrow. 

The green and large fpotted Lizard is a native 
<^^ America. Its whole body is elegantly fpotted ; 
its thin fmall fcales, of a fea green colour, are regu- 
larly marked, with blackifh fpots, round and ob- 
long, mixed with whitiili eyes elegantly difpofed. 
It is thus fpotted from the head to the extremity of 
the tail, on its thighs and feet. The tail is very 
large, and often bent in a remarkable manner. 
It is encircled with ringlets, and all over fpotted 
with black, terminating in a fmall Iharp point. 
This is the male Lizard. The female is like it 
in fize, fhape, and fpots, except that it has not on 
the upper part of the body the whitifh eyes mixed 
with the black fpots ; its belly is different, be- 
ing marked with round black fpots. Its tail is 
larger than the male ; it is long, encircled with 
ringlets, and is marked with oblong fpots placed 
crofs-ways on it. 

Erratum. In the Index, for — o^ jEfculapius, 
read Snake of jE/culapius, 



THE 

NATURAL HISTORY 

O F 

WISHES. 

C H A p. I. 

Cf T'ljhes In gemral. 

jT^^^gC?^ I S H E S in general may be div^'ded into tJiofe 
3^ J^ that have lungs and thofe that have giUs, 

•w- V? though they both ferve for refpiration ; of 

^ V^W vJ the firft fort are the cetaceous kind, by fome" 
^M^y;^ hyperbolically called Sea Monfters ; for they 
d« not all deferve that name. Thnfe that refpire 
through gills may be fubdivided into the cartilaginous, 
which are alfc viviparous; and thofe that produce fpavvn. 
Thefe laft are diftinguiflied by the name of fpinous ; 
that is, they are provided with fmall fliarp bones, to 
lupport and Hrengthen their mufcles ; whereas the carti- 
laginous, fuch as the Scate and Thornback, have only 
a fort of grilHes, which are fo foft they are eaten by^ 
Ibme. The fpinous fort generate without coition ; in- 
fiead of which the females dig holes in the bottoms of 
rivers, ponds, and other watery places, wherein they de- 
pofit their fpavvn ; upon which the male immediately 
after emits his impregnating fluid, in order to render the 
fpawn prolifick. However, this divilion is not ftriftly 
true; f:r there are fome fpinous or bony nlh which are 
Vol. fIL B vivipa- 



2 THE NATURAL HISTORY 
viviparous, or bring forth their young alive ; among 
which fome think the Eel may be placed, though this is 
uncertain; for after all the inquiry which has been 
made, it has not yet been difcovered in what manner 
they generate. 

There are fome fifh which produce large eggs after 
the manner of birds, with the yolk and white, that are 
hatched in their bodies before they are excluded ; and 
this is proper to the cartilaginous kind. Others arc 
oviparous, or bring forth a great quantity of fpawn; 
which being a kind of little eggs, are hatched by the 
natural warmth of the water. The increafe of thefe is 
alraoft incredible, lor Levccnhook has computed that 
there are no lefs than 93440CO eggs in a fmgle Cod. 
Hence it ceafes to be a wonder that every fpecies is pre- 
ierved, notwithftanding they are continually preying upon, 
and devouring each otlier. The flat fifh in particular 
conceal ihemfelves in the mud, which they relemble ia 
colour, till the fpawning of ot)ier fiih is over, and then 
they feize upon the eggs and feed upon them. If it 
was not for this practice, and the devouring of the fry, 
the ocean itfelf would not be large enough to contain 
the prodigious number of hih that would otherwife come 
to maturity. 

The ihape of moll fiih is much alike ; for they taper 
a little at the head, and by that means are able to tra- 
verfe the fluid they inhabit with greater eafe. The tail 
is extxeamly fleAible, and in this lies their greatoft 
llrength ; by bending to the right and left, they repel 
the Vv'ater behind it, and advance their head forward 
with all the reft of the body. Moft people imagine the 
fins are the principal ir firument of fwimming, but this 
is a miflake ; for they are chiefly ufed to poife the body 
and keep it fl:cddy, as alfo to Hop it when it is in mo- 
tion. This has been found to be true by experience; 
for when the belly-fins have been cut ofi-', the filh has 
Keled to and fro, aad was unable to keep itfelf in its 
ufual poflure. When a fifli would turn to the left, it 
moves the fins on the right fide ; and when to the right, 
it plays thofe on the left ; but the tail is the grand m- 
ftrument of prcrreffive motion. 

^ " The 



O F F I S H E S. 3 

The bodies of moft fi(h are farniilied with horny 
fcales, which are flrong, or otherwife, in proportion to 
the dangers they are expo Ted to. Thefe fcales are ge- 
nerally befmeared with a flimy liquor without ; and un- 
der them there lies all over the body an oily fubftance, 
which fupplies the fifh with warmth and vigour. They 
are enabled to rife or fmk in the water, by means o£ 
an air-bladder that is included in their bodies ; whea 
this is contracted they fmk to the bottom, but when it 
is dilated they rife to the top. That this is the true 
ufe of the bladder, appears from an experiment made 
upon a carp ; for one of thefe fifh being put into an air- 
pump, and the air pumped out of the ve&ly the blad- 
der expanded itfelf to fuch a degree that the carp fwelled 
in an extraordinary manner, till the bladder burrt within 
its body. This iifh did not die, and therefore was 
thrown into the water; but it could never rife after this, 
but crawled along the bottom like a ferpent. It is fup- 
pofed that the air which fills the bladder is received 
through the gills, and fo enables the fi/h to rife ; anJ 
that when the filh finks it is qjedcd out the fame way : 
however, this amounts to no more than a very probabU 
iuppofition. Neverthelefs it is certain, that the air 
contained in water, or received into it, is necefiary to 
keep filh alive ; for which reafon llore-ponds, when 
frozen over or covered with ice, mufi: aivva) s have ibme 
part kept open, otherwife the fifh would die. 

Moft filh are furnifhed with teeth or fomewhat anala- 
gous thereto; hut they are not defigned for eating or 
chewing, but to retain their prey. Thefe teeth are placed 
in different manners, according to the different manner 
of their feeding ; for in fome they are in the jaws, palate, 
and tongue; but in others in the throat : and thefe Iuft 
are called leather-mouthed fifh. The eyes of fifli arc 
generally fiat, which is moft fuitable to the element in 
which they live ; for a goggle-eye would in Ibme mea- 
sure hinder their motion in fo denfe a medium. Bcfides, 
by brufhing through it their eyes would be apt to wear 
nnd prejudice the iight. However, to make amends 
for this, the chryfialline humour is always fpherical or 
e.-uctly round, a^ may be feen very plainly after they 
B ?. aie 



4 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

are boiled ; for then this humour always grows hai'd* 
and is in the fhape of a pea^ 

All fifti have a line from the- upper corner of the gills" 
to the middle of the tail on each fide. In fea-iifh it in- 
clines more towards the back ; but in thofe of rivers 
and ponds towards the belly. Moil fiih are provided 
with a tongue ; but fome, as the carp, have none at all : 
however, in its Head they have a fie£hy palate, which is 
generally accounted a delicious morfel. It is hard to 
determine what nfe fifh make of their tongues ; for it 
does not ferve to form their voice, becaufe they are 
ijiute; nor does it aflift them in chewing, becaufe they 
fwallow every thing whole ; nor yet is it likely to be 
the organ of taftc, becaufe it is grilHy in all fi(h except 
thofe of the cetaceous kind, or if it ferves them for 
that purpofe, it muil be in a very obfcure manner. 

Some fifli have no throat, for the maw, or llomach, is 
placed next their mouths; but thofe whofe bodies are 
long and {lender, particularly the Eel kind, have a 
throat though they have no lungs. The rtomach of 
fifli has no {enfible heat, and yet it has a wonderful fa- 
culty of digeiHon ; fmce thofe of the voracious kind 
f^^allow not only great numbers of other fifh, but even 
Pra-Lvrv, Crabsy and Lobj'ers, which it readily digefls 
or diflblves. The hearts of thofe fil"h that refpire 
through the gills have only one ventricle and au- 
ricle; but the latter is very large in proportion to the 
heart. 

The flefli of fifh is either ufed for medicinal pur- 
pofes or for aliment ; but much more for the latter 
than the former. In this refpeft they are generally di- 
vided into two forts, thofe of frefh water, and thofe of 
the fea ; thofe of frefh Vv'ater belong either to lakes, 
ponds, or rivers ; of which thofe of ponds are gene- 
rally the woril ; becaufe the water is muddy, more or 
lefs, which mull aiFe<ft v/hat they live upon, and confe- 
quently render their flefh not fo proper for our ufe. 
Thofe of fwift and rapid rivers are very wholefome, 
though there are fome very good alfo ; as thofe that 
creep but flowly along, particularly carps, that are great- 
ly valued for being fat. and well tailed. 

Sea 



O F F I S H E S. I 

Sea filhes are general/ allowed to be the beft of all'. 
and among thele, thore are of the greateil vaiue th;**'" 
are met with in places abounding with rocks. I\ti4" .. 
to thefe are fuch as frequent the bottom of the fea; bu;; 
. thofe that delight to inhabit near the iriore are in \ti 
efteem than the former; becaufe the water is not fa 
pure. There are fome fea-iiih that enter rivers, and k 
■ is obfervabie wlien they hav^e been there for fome time, 
their fieih becomes more agreeable to the taile. How- 
ever, it is pretended by fome, that they are more hard 
cf digeilion, though oftentimes more fat. 

Young fieih and old rifli is a common proverb which 
.does not always hold true ; for fome of thele grow more 
tough and hard- than thofe of a middle age : however, 
it muft be allowed that the older they arc, they are more 
large, and have generally fewer boneo, which renders 
them more valuable to fome ; but. thofe that have a de- 
.licate tafte like them belt vv-jien they are younger. Aa 
old hlh may be known by the hardnefs and largenefs of 
the fcales. It is hard to fay which are beft, the malts 
or the females ; becaufe fome are fond of hard roes and 
others of foft : however, this is certain, that the fleJli 
of the male is generally fatter and better tailed than 
that of the female. 

Fifhes are eaten either fried roafted, or boiled ; but 
thofe that are fried are hardeft of digeftion, becaufe 
the butter, oil, or fat that are ufed receive bad quali- 
ties from the adion of the fire. Thofe that are.roafted 
or broiled are certainly moll agreeable to the ftomach, 
becaufe they are always eafy of digeilion, and their tulle 
is mora agreeable on account of the confumption of the 
moillure wherewith their fieih abounds. However, it 
mull be acknowledged that there are many phyficians 
who recommend boiled or flewed iifh to \ aletudinarians, 
provided they are not feafoued too much. Some kinds 
of fifhes are faked in order to preferve them ; after wbich. 
fome of them are dried with fmoke, and others in the 
fun before they are faked ; but all thefe preparations 
render them hard of digeilion, efpecially to thofe that^ 
are of tender conftitudons ; for fome are fo robuil that^ 
fcarcely any thing comes amifs to them, and more par-, 
ticularly if they lead si laborious life. 

^ 3 U 



t THE NATURAL HISTORY 

In general the flefh of fifhes yields little nouriihmeni 
and foon corrupts ; it abounds in a grofs fort of oil and 
water, and hath but few volatile particles, which ren- 
ders it lef3 fit to be converted into the fubitance of our 
bodies ; for it is beyond all doubt, that all forts of ani- 
mals which abound moll in adlive and volatile prin- 
ciples, are moll proper for the aliment of mankind ; 
fuch is generally the flelh of quadrupedes and birds that 
we are accultomed to feed upon ; whereas that of fiih, 
for the cpntrary reafons, is lefs proper for nourilhment, 
though It generally digefts and pafies off the ftomach 
very foon ; for they being cold and moift, mull needs 
produce juices of the fame kind, and confequently are 
lefs proper to flrengthen the body. But for the fame 
reafon the fleih will agree bed with thofe of hot bilious 
conflitutions, and that abound in blood : befides, filh is 
the moil proper aliment in fome kind of difeafes upon 
the felf fame account ; that is, becaufe fironger nourifli- 
ment would be then very prejudicial. 



CHAP. II. 
Of Fljkes of thi cetaceous kind, 

THIS fort of fifn are endowed with Iung3, with 
which they breath, ufe coition, bring forth their 
young alive, nourifh them with their milk, and re- 
iemble quadrupedes in their inward parts. 

The Common Toothless WHALE without fins 
on its back is the greateft of all fea monllcrs ; for John 
Faber faw one thrown on Ihore in Italy that was ninety - 
one Roman palms long, and fifty thick. The Roman palm 
is a little above half a foot. The fame audior avers, 
i-here was another at Corfua an hundred feet long ; but 
Frederick Martens fays the largeft Whale caught at 5//>%- 
tergen, is no more than fixty feet long, or at leafl: fel- 
dom exceeds that length. The cleft of the mouth is 
eighteen feet long, which is near one third the length 
cf the 6fh. 

This 



^^o S 




.^efl//^l (7/^S/,iAe^i^ 




O F F I S H E S, 7 

This Whale is without teeth; but inftead thereof 
there are long black, and fomewhat broad, horny flakes, 
all jagged like hairs. It differs from the Fin-ii(h in the 
fins ; for the Fin-fiili has a great fin on its back, where- 
as the Whale, properly fo called, has none in that place; 
but there are two fins behind the eyes, of a bignefa 
proportionable to the body, covered with a thick black 
fkin delicately marbled with white ftreaks, which feme 
fancy to form houfes, trees, and the like. In the tail 
of one that was marbled very delicately, there was the 
number 122 figured VQvy evenly and exaft, as if paint- 
ed. This marbling on the Whale is like veins in a 
piece of wood, and gives this animal great beauty. 
When theie fins are cut up, there is underneath the 
thick fkin, bones that look like a man's hand, when it 
is open and the fingers expanded. Between thefe there 
are ItifF flnews, which when cut out and thrown againft" 
the ground will rebound and fly up. Thefe fins ferve 
to ileer the Whale, like a boat rowed with two oars. 

The tail does rot lland upright, as in lame other 
fifh, but lie.- horizontal, and is from three, to three and 
a half, and lour fathoms btoad. The head is one third 
of the filh, and on both lips tliere are fhort hairs be- 
fore. Thefe lips arc quite plain, and bend a little liiie 
an S ; and they terminate underneath tijc eyes before 
the two fins ; above the uppermott bended lip there are 
ftreaks of a darkiih brown, and as crooked as the lip it- 
felf. The lips are fmooth, black, and round, like a 
quarter of a circle ; and when they are drawn together 
they lock into each other. 

On the infide of the uppermof;: lip Is the whalebone^ 
which is of a brown, blackilh, and yellow colour, with 
itreaks of feveral other colours. In fome Whales thefe 
are blue, or of a light blue ; and thefe are fuppofed 
to belong to young Whales, juft before, on the under 
lip, is a cavity or hole, which exadly fits the upper, 
that Hides into it as a knife into a fheath. The failors 
imagine that he draws the water through this hole, that 
he fpouts it out again out of the top of the head. 
Within the mouth there are hairs- thereon, like thofe of 
a harfe ', and it hangs down on both fides all about the 
B. 4 tongu9. 



f THE NATURAL HISTQliy 

tongue. The whalebone in fome Whales is bended like 
a fey meter, and in others like a half moon. 

The fmalleil whalebone is in the fore part of the 
fHOuth, and behind, -towards the throat; but that in 
the middle is the largell and longell ; it being fometimes 
of the length of two or three men. On one fide, all 
©fa row, there are two hundred and fifty pieces of 
whalebone, and as many on the other, which make five 
hundred in all. However, there are more than thefe, 
bccaufe the failors do not think it wortli while to cut 
the very fmall pieces out, or, at Jeafl, cannot well come 
lit them. Thefe pieces lie one above another, and to- 
w.ards the lips are bent as above. 

Whalebone is bro*id at the top, v\ here it flicks faft 
to the upper lip, and is everywhere over-ran with hard^ 
white finews towards the root ; fo that a man may 
thrult in his hand between any two pieces. Thefc 
white finews look like boiled Sea-cats, or Black-iilh, 
and have a very pleaiant fraeli : however, when they 
?j-e putrified, they Imell like rotten teeth. The Whale- 
bone underneath is narrow and pointed, and all over- 
grown with hair, that it may not hurt that which is 
young, as fome fuppcfe. On the outfide of the whale- 
bone there is a cavity, like a gutter, to carry off wa- 
ter, where it lies one above another, as the Ihields of 
Lobilers or the pan- tiles of a houfe, to prevent its hurt- 
ii>g-the under lip. 

To cat the whalebone out is a peculiar trade, and 
there are a great many iron tools- belonging to it. 'J'he 
lower part of the mouih of the Whale is commonly 
white, and the tongue lies among thefe whalebones, be- 
ing very-clofe tied with the under chap : it is very large 
and white, with black fpots on the edges, and confiils 
of a fpungy fat, which cannot eafily be cut. If it was 
^ot lor this they would get fix or feven barrels of train- 
oil out of it. Upon the head is a hovel, or bump, . 
placed before the eyes and hns ; and on the top of it, 
on each fide, theie is a fpout-hole placed over againii 
tach other, which are bended like the holes cut in the 
i.pper parts of a violin. From thefe holes he blows the 
v.ater very nerceiy ; infomuch that itxoarslike a hollow 
\^ii3d, arid mav be heard ihj-ee.miles. it is obfervable 

that 



O F F I S H E S. f, 

•*iiat when a Whale.is,wounded. he blows out the wate/v. 
moft fiercely, infomuch. that it founds like the roaringt*: 
of the fea in a great llorm. .The head of the Whale • 
is not round at the top, but fomewhat flat, and flopes- ' 
downwards, like the tiling of a houfe, to the under 
lip. The under lip is broader than any part of the 
.body, and moft in the middle ; for before and behind 
it is fomewhat narrower, like the fhape of the head* 
.In Ihort, the whole iifh is fhaped like a Ihoeraaker's 
laft, if you look at it from beneath. 

Behind the bump, and between that and the fins, 
the eyes are placed, which are not much bigger than 
thofe of an ox ; and they have eye-lids and hair Tike tbofe 
of a man. The chryilalline humour of the eye is noi 
much bigger than a pea, and is clear, white, and tranf- 
.parent in moft; but in fome it is yellowifh. The eyes 
.are placed very low, and almoft at the end of the up- 

.P^f lip-. 

; A^Whale does not hear while h^e is fpouting the wa- 

.ter ; for which reafon it is eafidl to ftrikc him at that 

,time. The belly and back are quite red, only the 

■middle of the beily is wiiite.; though in fome it is as 

rblack.as a coal. They make a beautiful appearance 

when the fun lliines upon tliem ; and the waves of the 

.fea that run over them glitter like filver. Some are 

.marbled on the back and tail, and where they have been 

. wounded a white fear always remains. Some Whales have 

'been feen entirely white, and it is not uncommon for 

them to be half white. Thofe tiiat .are black arc not 

> all of the fanTifi colour ; for fome are as black as velvet, 

others as charcoal, and others again are of the colour of 

a Tench. The fkin is as fiipp.ery^ as that of an Eel, 

and yet a man may ftand upon it, becaufe it ,is fo fcfc 

that that, and the fleih yield xo. his weight. I'he outer 

^fkin or cuticle is as thin as parchment, and may b;e 

eafily pulled off; but the real fkin is an inch thick. 

The penis is a lirong fmev/, and is from fix to eight feet 

long ; part of which appears outwardly, like the haft 

of a knife in a Iheath. At the fides of tl\e pudendum 

in females there are two breafts, with nipples like thofe 

.of a cow. The breafts of fome are quite white, and 

.jof others .fpeckled with white and blue- fpotsji^ce lap- 

B 5 win^s 



lo THE NATURAL HISTORY 

wings eggs. It is generally found that they have buC 
tx^'O young ones at a time ; for never more than that 
iHimber ha\'« been met with within them. 

The real bones cf a Whale are hard, like thofe of 
great four-footed beaftf , but as porous as a fpunge, and 
filled with marrow. Two great and ftrong bones fuf- 
tain the underlip, lying againft each other in the (hape 
of a half-moon. Seme of thefe are twenty feet long, 
and as whitens if they had been calcined. The fleih is 
coarfe and hard, and looks like that of a bull ; but it 
fs mixed with a great number of fmews. Some of it 
looks green and blue, like falted beef, efpecially at the 
meeting of the mufcles. When the failors feed upon 
^ny of it they cut large pieces off the tail, where it is 
bell, and boil it like other meat. Some feem to like it 
pretty wel), efpecially the French, who dine upon it al- 
:moft every d?iy ; nor will they rejeft that which has 
lain till it is black. The fat lies over the lean, that is, 
■between the flefn and the fkin, and is about fix inches 
thick on the back and belly ; and upon a fin it is fome- 
times a foot thick. The fat on the under lip is above two 
ieet thick j but it is not fo much upon any other part of 
the Whale : however, it is much thicker in fome than in 
•others. In the year 1658, the ikeleton of a Whale was 
publickly fnewn at Parisy the ikull of which was be- 
tween fixteen and feventeen feet long, and weighed 
4600 pounds. The jaws were ten feet wide and four- 
teen feet long, weighing each 1100 pounds. The 
weight of the fins was 600 pounds, and the joints of 
the back, from the head to the tail, were forty-five feet 
long ; the firft joint weighing fifty pounds, and the refl; 
proportionably lefs, as they were nearer the taiL The 
Dutch for three hundred years had the Whale-filhery al-» 
moft to themfelves ; and it is ftill one of the principal 
branches of their trade. Each vefTel of three hundred 
tuns has fix fhallops, and each fhallop has allowed a har- 
"ponier with five failors to row it. The inftrument with 
which they flrike the fifh is a Jiarpoon or javelin, five 
or fix feet long, pointed with fieel like the barb of aa 
^rrow, of a triangular fhape. The harpoonier Hand-, 
ing at one end of the floop, when at a proper diftance 
ftQJXx the Whale, darts the harpoon with all his force 

^gainit 



O F FISHES. ir 

againft the Whale's back, where, if it faft^ns, he lets 
go a firing tied thereto, at the end of which is a dry. 
gourd, that by its fwimming on the water Ihows where* 
abouts the Whale is ; for as foon as he is ftruck he 
plunges to the bottom: however, great caie is taken^ 
tliat the line may be long enough ; but if that in one 
fhallop Ihould prove too Ihort they fix it to another 
from the neareft Ihallop, and another after that, if there 
ihould be occalion. The cord runs out fo fwiftLy that 
k often takes fire if it is not kept wetting with a fwab. 
When the Whale rifes again for breath they attack him^ 
again and again, till lie begins to grow weak by lofs of 
blood ; and then they plunge their javelins into various^ 
parts of his body, by which meajis they foon difpatcK 
him. 

The FIN-FISH is as long as a V/hale, but is three, 
times lefs in bulk. It is known by the fin on the back 
near the tail, and by its fpouting up the water more 
violently and higher than the Whale. The bunch or 
the head is divided according to its length ; that isj at 
the blowing hole through which it forces up the water.. 
The back is more ftrait than that of a Whale, and the 
lips are of a brevvnifa colour, appearing like a twilled^ 
rope. The Whalebone hangs from the upper lip, as 
it does in the Whale ; but it does not hang cut of the 
mouth at the fides, as in that animal. The infide o£ 
the mouth, between the whalebones is all over hairy^ 
and is of a blue colour, that is when the bone beginsr 
to grov/ ; for the other is brown with yellow fireaks,. 
which are thought to be the oldeiL The colour ol' this- 
filh is like that of a Tench ; and the fhape of the body: 
is long andilender; neither is he fo fat as the Whale> 
for which reafon he is generally negleded ; befides it; 
is much more dangerous to kill one of thefe than av 
Whale, becaufe his motion is quicker, and he beats 
more with his tail ; fo that the people dare not come near 
him with their boats. The tail is fiat like that of the 
Whale, and he feldom appears till the Whales, aie 
gone. 

The BUTS-KOPF, that is, the FLOUNDERS- 
HEAD, is belt known in England by the name of 
ORAMPUS. In the fnout, fins aad tail it refembids a 
B 6 polphin^ 



n THE NATURAL HISTORY 

Dolphin, but the body is four or five times as thick, 
efpecially about the belly: it is nearly as big as other 
iifn of the cetaceous kind, except the Whale; being 
eighteen feet long and above ten thick. The fnout 
is flattifh and turns upwards, and the lower lip is fo 
thick that it falls from the upper as this fiih lies along. 
Tht mouth is armed with forty teeth, of which the 
fcremoil are blunt and flender, but the hinder are fharp 
and thick. 

This fifh, as defcribed by Martens, has a blunt head 
on the fore part, from which the fnout proceeds, and 
which is of an equal thicknefs from the root to the^ 
tip ; and by this it may be diftinguifhed from a Dol- 
phin. The fins and tail are more like that of a Whale 
than of a Dolphin; and it fpouts out water, but not 
with fuch force as a Whale. The eyes are exceeding 
Tmali for the bulk of the body, which is brown above 
and white benesth. They come near fhips that are fail- 
ing along without any dread, and keep them company' 
a long while; but in general they always fwim again^- 
the wind. 

There is another kind of this fifh which may properly 
be called a BUTTS-KOPF ; for the fore part of the 
head is blunt, but the fin on the back is three times as 
high as the former, and the colour darker ; but the big- 
refs is much the fame. 
TheSPERMA-€ETi-WHALE,orPOT-WALFISH, 
(6 called by the Datch^ was thrown upon the weftern- 
eoaft of Hoilmid by a terapell in 1598. The length 
was near fift)'-t)irce feet, and the teeth in the lower jaw 
were placed in a double row, and there were fockets in 
tlie upper, which received the teeth when the mouth 
r/as ihirt. The teeth were as thick as a mans thumb. 
Thofe that liave given us this account have forgot to 
Tsikt notice whether there v/cre any fins on the back or 
not. There' was another thrown upon the fame fhore 
in 1661, that was fixty feet long, and the circumfe- 
rence of the body was thirty-fix feet. 

The WHITE FISH of Martens is of the fize of a 
Buts-kopf and the-lh'aj^e'of a Whale. It has no fin on 
its back, in which it agrees wirh the common W^hale. 
J./kewifc the tail is iiKe that of a Wiiale, with a high 

bump 



O F F I S H E S. 1-5 

%ump on the head, in which there is a hole through which 
it fpouts up water. The colour is of a yellowifh white ; 
and there is a great deal of fat in proportion to the 
bulk. 

The SEA UNICORN, called by the Hamhurghers 
NARWAL, is often met with near Iceland, Greenlandj 
and other countries that lie very far North. It is a kind 
of Whale, and is from lixteen to twenty feet in length, 
and has a large horn growing at tlie end of the fnout. 
It is of a fpiral fhape, and may be feen of different 
weights and iises in the cabinets of the curious ; fome 
of which are at leaft three ells in length. Thefe were 
formerly thought to be the horns of a land animal called 
a Unicorn ; but now the leawied are convinced, that no 
fuch creature is any where to be found. 

it is very uncertain, whether thefe fort of fifli are 
every where of the fame fhape, and the horns of an 
equal length ; for we are informed they are feen in very 
dirtant feas. That defcribed by Tulpius was very bulky, 
and eighteen feet in length, with a head like that of a 
Carp. The mouth was under the horn, which pro- 
ceeded from the bones of the upper jaw, much in the 
fame place where that of the Saw-filh is fixed ; but not 
exadlly in the middle of the jaw, but a little inclining 
towards the right. The Ikin was dufliy, and under ic 
there was a great deal of fat, from which the merchants 
extraded the oil, that had a very bad fmell. The fpine 
of the back confiiled of very ftrong joints, and ended in a 
forked tail, to which there was fixed on each fide a very 
fwrong fin. The horn was flrait, hard, white, with deep 
channels from the broad bafe to the fharp point. It 
was fo fmooth, that a good judge would have taken it 
to be ivory of a fnow-white colour, and exquifitely po- 
liihed by art. It was nine feet in length, of which fe- 
ven and a half appeared out of the fkull. That part 
within the fkuli was more rough, and did not fhine fo 
much as the other. 

Martens never faw one himfelf^ but he was inform- 
ed, that it has no fin on its back ; which is agreeable to 
the figure given of it by Tulpius. It has a fpout-hole 
Jn its neck, and fwims fvviftly in the water, holding up 
-its horn out of it j and .there are great ihoals of them 

together. 



14 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

together. The undermoft fins on the tail are like thoie 
on a Whale. The fkin of fome is of a dappled grey, 
like a horfe, and beneath on the belly it is white. On 
account of their fwimming fo fwiftl}-, they are very fel- 
dom caught, the' often leen. That feen by Wonnlus 
had a horn three ells long ; and Mr. Ray has feen them 
nine or ten feet in length. 

Dumantel affirms, that he faw one near the ifland of 
St, Domingo, in 1 644, which was eighteen feet long,, 
and as thick as ahoglhead. The body was covered with 
fcales as large as a crown-piece ; and there were fix 
large fins of a vermilion colour, four of which were 
placed on the belly, and the other two looked like ears; 

The fcales on the belly were yellow, the tail forked, 
the head like that of a horfe, and covered with a hard 
brown Ikin. The horn was nine feet and a half long, 
and at the root it was fixteen inches in circumference 
It was fo hard, that a good file would fcarcely touch it. 
it had two great gills like other fifh, and the eyes were 
of the fize of a hen's ^g'gy with pupils of a fky-blue ena- 
melled with yellow, and furrounded with a vermilion, 
circle, which was fucceeded by one very bright and 
fiiining like chryftal. The teeth in the fore part of the 
mouth were fharp, and the tongue was covered with a. 
rough red fkin. The flefh was larded with fat, and 
when it was boiled, it was flaky like cod. Above 300 
people dined upon it, and thought it very fine eating. 
From this defcription it appears, that this fifh cannot be 
the Narwal of the North feas. 

The horn, or rather the tooth, is the only part ufed 
in medicine, and contains a great deal of oil, fpirit, and. 
volatile fait. It is in great vogue among the Germans^ 
as an alexipharmac againft poifons, contagious difeafes,. 
and the epilepfy of children. The dofe in powder is. 
from fix grains to half a dram. It promotes fweat, and 
is likewife an abforbent ; for which reafon they make 
ufe of it in loofenefTes and fpitting of blood. In fhort, 
it has the fame virtues as hartfhorn ; and therefore as 
this is much cheaper, it may very well be fubftituted in. 
its room. 

After what has been faid, it will not be amifs to be a. 
iitllc more particular with regard to Whales, Though 

they 



O F F I S H E S; 15 

they bear the fhape of fifli, yet their internal llrudure in 
general refembles that of land-animals ; for the blood 
of Whales is hot, and they have lungs wherewith to 
breathe, for which reafon they cannot continue a long 
while under water. They couple like land animals, and 
they bring forth their young alive, fuckling them with 
their teats. The fins of other fifti are compofed of 
fpines united to each other by thin membranes ; but 
thofe of the Whales coniift of articulated bones in the 
ftiape of the hands and fingers of a man, and they are 
covered with mufcles and a great deal of tendinous 
ilefli. They have alfo a thick Ikin, like that which co- 
vers the relt of the body. Fins of the common fort 
would be too weak to guide fuch enormous maffe;, to 
refift the weight of their bodies in diving, and to avoid 
a fall. 

All Whales have a large thick tail placed horizontal- 
Iv, to aflift them in fwimming, and to direct their courfe ; 
and their flefh refembles that of land-animals, being 
covered every where with thick, porous, tendinous fat, 
called blubber, which ferves to preferve their blood in a 
due warmth, and to render thefe animals more light, 
which would otherwife be too heavy to move and fwim 
in the water. Every Whale has a thick large gut, which 
reaches a great way in the body; whofe length how- 
ever is undetermined, bccaufe the fifhermen feldom open 
thefc fifli, or trouble their heads about their entrails : how- 
ever, it is known to have very thick coats, and is fo wide 
it will eafily contain a man. Perhaps this, by contain- 
ing a great deal of air, may enable the Whale to become 
more light or heavy at pleafure, that it may fink down 
into the water, or rife to the top. 

There arc feveral forts of Whales ; which may be di- 
vided into thole that have pipes or tubes, and thofe that 
have nollrils. Of thofe that breathe thro' two pipes, the 
Greenland Whale is one ; and the Fin-fifh another : but 
others have but one, as the Cachalot. Whales with 
noftrils are very uncommon ; however, that there are 
fuch we are informed by Faber, and Sir Robert Sihbald 
in his natural hiftory. 

But the moft natural divifion of thefe fi(h is into 
Whiles with a-finooth back, and Whales with a rough 

back» 



tS THE NATURAL HISTORY 

back. The true Greenland. Whales and the North Ca^ 
per are of the iirft clais; and the Fin-fifh and Sword-hih 
of the fecond. 

The Greenland Whale has a fmooth back, and is fur- 
■niihed with barbs ; but of this we have already treated 
at large. The North Caper is another kind of Whale, 
•that takes it name from the moft northern promontory 
of Not-nvay, becaufe this hlh is always found. there in 
great plenty. It is exadly like the Greenland V^ hale, 
except in the head, and in having a fmaller and flatter 
body. It yields but twenty or thirty tons of blubber, 
and the barbs are very fmall. It is alfo more adive 
than the true Whale, p.nd confequently more dangerous. 
The fkin is whiter, and the jaw is not io long. The Fin- 
iiih has been already defcribed ; hovveyer, there is another 
kind of Whale, by feme called Gubart^ or Gibbartas.; 
but what it isj is not eafy to-fay, the' many times 
mentioned by authors. In the- Philcfophical Tranf- 
^adlions there is meiitiori made of Cubs, or yojupg 
'Whales, taken near thk\{\a\\6.pi Bermudas , whote. backs 
!are fharp like the roof 'of a houfe, and.the fides are fur- 
rounded wi'th- high .bumps. Th^ back is black, and the 
"belly white. T5ey..are ve/y adive,- and have prodigious 
Jlrength, and Tend' forth lerribie cries when they are 
wounded. ' Tjiey have no teeth, and are longer than 
the ^CVf^-^/flW \V hale,' /but are not fo thick; nor have 
they To much blubber, and wliat they have is, not gpod. 
One of thefe was taken above an hundred feet in length. 
This by Ande^-fon is taken to be a fort of Fin-hfh. 

In the year 1723, there was a hfh taken, that had a 
Jhead not fo thick as the common Whale, but much 
longer, and more pointed. The body was fmalkr and 
flatter behind, and it had two holes thro' which it bievv 
.the air, and made a fort of a whiiliing noife. It wa.s 
about fixty feet long. The (kin was loofe from the 
body, and of a bluiih black. 1'he fi^in on its back v/as 
two feet high, and w^s neither crooked nor pointed j 
for which reafon it was taken to be of tiie clafs of the 
Fin-fifn When it was wounded, ii made a terrible 
noife, like that of a hog which the butchers are killing. 
Jt had no teeth, but barbs or fins in the mouth, that 
,vs ere not above two feet long, but were lajge in the 
3 lower 



O F F I S H E S. 17 

lower part, and of a triangular form. It yielded but 
fourteen tons of tranfparent greafe or rather water, which 
being placed on the fire evaporated quite away. 

The Bunch or Hump Figh, fo called by the inha- 
bitants of AVw England, has a hump on its back, inllead 
of a iin, in the fliape of a pale fo termed by heralds, a 
foot in heighth, and of the thicknefs of a man's head. 
The fins on the lides are eighteen feet long ; and they 
are very white, and placed almoft in the middle of the 
body. The blubber is like that of a Fin-fiili ; but the 
Whale-bone, or fins, are not fo good, though better than 
that of the former. 

The Strag-Whale, called by ibme the Knohhed- 
fJJy, is found on the coaft of Ne^v England, and has oa 
the back half a dozen knobs or bumps inllead of a fin. 
It is not very unlike the true whale with regard to its 
fiiape and quantity of blubber. The barbs, or Whale- 
bone is white, but does not cleave very well. 

Filh of the Whale kind that have teeth, are the Sea 
Unicorn already taken notice of. A captain oi Hamburg 
took one in 1684, that had two of thefe horns, or teeth, 
for fo they are called by fome. In 1739, in February^ a 
Sea Unicorn was brought t-O Hamburg in a boat which 
bad entered thedver Elbe by the tide, where he died on 
the fands at low water. This filh was more thick than 
long, and had a truncated head like a portmanteau. 
1"he horn or tooth proceeded from the left fide, and it 
had two fmall fins with a very broad tail placed horizon- 
tally. The ikin was as white as fnow, and variegated 
with a vail number of black fpots ; but the belly was all 
over white and fhining, and as foft as \thQt.. It was 
ten feet and a half in length from the tip of the fnout to 
the end of the tail, and tlie horn was five feet four 
inches long ; each fin was nine inches long, and about 
twice as b'road as a man's hand. The tail was three feet 
broad, and two inches and a half thick. The tooth 
or horn was wreathed, and proceeded from the 4jpper 
jaw towards the left fide. The right fide of the muz- 
zle was ihut, and intirely covered with a flcin, under 
which thete was no cavity in the bone of the head. 
The fnout was very low, and the under lip thin and 
ihort, with a very {mall mouth, for it did not opea 

above 



It THE NATURAL HISTORY 

above the breadth of a man's hand. The edges of the 
fnout were a little hard and rough, but there was no 
fign of teeth ; and the tongue nearly filled the mouth. 
On the top of the head there was a hole, or double 
pipe, furnilbed \^ ith a valve which it could open or 
ibut at plealure. The animal breathed through this, 
and could fpout out water. The eyes were placed very 
low in the head, and did not rife above the fnout ; their 
opening was very fmall, and they were furnilhed with a 
fort of eye-lids. This animal was a male, but the penis 
did not appear out of the body. As for the fifh with 
t]^o horns, they are very uncommon : however, there 
i0one at Amjierdam, and another at Hamburgh which 
are kept as rarities. They proceed in a right line from 
the head, and are but two inches afunder at the root ; 
but at the end they are thirteen inches diftant. 

Ihe Spenna-ceti V/hale has a pipe or tube in the 
fore part of the head, through which it fpouts the wa- 
ter. Jt is fixty feet long, and yields at leall thirty fix 
tons of blubber. Over the fnout the fat is two feet thick, 
but on the top of the iicad it is only three inches, and it 
lies diredly upon the thick membrane that covers the 
brain. '^1 his is divided into twenty eight cells, and 
that part of it called the fperma ceti is white and tranf- 
parerit, but, when taken out, coagulates into fiTjall por« 
tions like fiakes of fnow. All the blubber of this fifh is 
granulated with the fame fubilance, and in feveral parts 
there are cavities quite full of it. Towards the bottom 
of the back there are tliree bunches ; thefirft of which ii 
eighteen inches high ; the fecond, fix ; and the third, 
three. When it plunges it always turns on the right 
fjde, and fmks down in that attitude. The head is half 
the fize of the fifli, and is in Ihape like the butt end of 
a mufket. lu the upper jaw there are three or four 
teetli on each fide ; befides which, there are holes, to re- 
ceive thofe of the lower jaw, which is well furnilhed 
therewith ; but the greatelt are before, and the leaft be- 
hind. When one of thefe teeth is drawn out, the ftiapc 
is like a large cucumber. 

A captain of a fliip, that has carefully examined the 
brain, affirms, that on the upper part of the head, the 
f?rt is of the thicknefs of a man's hand, and that below 

it 



O F F I S H E S. 19 

It there Is a thick nervous membrane, which ferves in- 
flead of a fkull. Under this there is another of the fame 
texture near four inches thick, which extends from the 
fnout to the back part of the head, which divides it on 
the top into two parts. The firft chamber is between 
thefe two membranes, and contains that part of the 
brain which is moll valuable, and out of which the beft 
fperma-ceti is prepared. The partitions of the cells in 
this chamber are formed of a fubftance that appears like 
thick crape, and the captain filled feven cags with a 
valuable oil contained therein. Jt is at firft clear and 
white, but, being poured into water, coagulates lik*e 
curds ; and yet when the water is taken away, it b^^- 
comes as fluid as before. Under this chamber there is 
another placed over the palate of the mouth, and, ac- 
cording to the fize of the fiih, is from four to kven 
feet and a half high. It is full of the fame fort of fluid, 
and is diftributed like honey into fmall cells, whofe par- 
titions refemble the film or Ikin on the infide of an egg- 
Ihell. In proportion as the brain is taken away from 
this chamber, it fills again, by means of a large pipe or 
vein, from all parts of the body. With this he filled 
eleven cags. The vein, or large veflel, is as thick as 
ft man's thigh, and runs along the fpine of the back as 
far as the tail, where it is not above an inch thick. 
Hence it appears, that the veflel improperly called a 
vein contains the fpinal marrov/ of this fifli, which is 
well known to be much of the fame fubftance with the 
brain itfelf ; and confequently cannot proceed from all 
parts of the body. The tongue is fmall in proportion to 
the fifli; but the mouth is fo large, that an ox may 
enter therein with eafe ; and the ftomach, when opened, 
has been found full of half-digefled fi(h, at leaft feven 
feet long. The fiOiers of Hamburgh have got from one 
Sperma-ceti Whale above forty tons of blubber. The 
flefli, which is very hard, confifts of large fibres inters 
mixed with a great number of nerves, and very thick 
fliff" tendons ; infomuch that there are few places where 
the harpoon can enter. 

The Sterma ceti Whale of Neiv- England is fomewhat 
different from the former ; for the teeth are larger, and 
placed like the teeth of a mill-wheel, and as thick as 3 

man's 



•to THE. NATURAL HISTORY 

man's arm.- They are of a grey colour, and have ^ 
"bunch or hump on the back.; and one of forty feci 
Jong will yield twelve tons of the oil out of which fper- 
jna ceti is made. The oil which is made of their 
blubber is clearer and whiter than that of any other iort 
of Wh;Je. When they are hurt, tliey throw themfei.es 
on their back, and endeavour to defend themfelves with 
their moiulis. This is the Whale that yields the ^m- 
Ijer-creafe, and is taken notice of in the Philofophica! 
Tranfaclions. It confills of round jumps from three to 
.twelve inches in diameter, which weigh from one pound 
^nd a half to twenty pounds. Though they are loofe, 
they are inclofed in an oval veilel three or four feet 
long, and two broad, much of the Aape of an ox's 
l)taddar J only their extremities are a little more point- 
ed. This bag .terminates in two pipes ; whereof one 
grows fmaller by degrees till it reaches the penis, and 
runs through it; the other proceeds to the kidneys, 
where it terminates in^^n orifice. at the other end of the 
bag. This is fufpendeci diredly over the tellicles, 
vvhich are above a foot long, and are placed, according 
to ti^length, from the root of the penis to four or five 
Hiche^beTow the navel, and three or four above the 
-vent.. It is near full of a dark orange fluid not quite Co 
thick as oil, but fmells like it, and is much ftronger 
ihaii the pieces of am-ber-greafe that fwim therein. 
They are. very hard while the fiih is alive, and there is 
often found atthe op3ning of the bag round fragments 
of the fame matter and confiftence. There are never 
above four balls in a bag. It is faid, that thefe balls of 
amber-greafe are never found in thefe Whales till they 
ore f\i]\ grown, and only in the males. The fmall black 
fiagments, that refemble the bills of birds, and pieces of 
broken ihells, have caufed feveral natyialilb to enter- 
tain feveral odd opinions concerning the origin of am- 
ber-greafe. Mr. Dudley affirms, as may be feen in the 
Philofophica] Tranfadions, that they are bills of certain 
fmall birds of which Whales are very fond. 

In 1720, a Spenna-ceti Whale was thrown, by a fu- 
rious tempcft and a high tide, into the river Elbe, 
where it died, and was dragged by the peafants as far as 
If^i/chaven^ a village a league below Sjade. It was fixiy 

£ve 



O F F I S H E S, 21 

five feet long, and about thirty five broad, with aa 
eTJormous head in proportion to the bulk of the fifn. 
They cut this fi(h up to get the blubber, and in opening 
the head, the brain or fperma-ceti run out in large 
quantities. 

There is another Whale of tAis kind having teeth on- 
ly in the lower jaw, and a fin on the back. One of 
thefe was taken by the fifhers of Bre7nen in the latitude 
of feventy feven degrees and a half. It was feventy 
feet long ; and fome are faid to be met with that are at 
leall ninety. ' The colour was blackiHi on the back, 
a!id whitifh under the belly; and the head was of an 
enormous fize, and of a terrible afpeft. It was in (hape 
li^e the butt end of- a mulket, and was nearly half as 
big as the whole fifh. On the fore, part of the head it 
had only a fingle tube to fpout out water. The mouth 
was not fo large as that of the Whale, but the throat 
was wider; for being wounded, it threw up a fifh 
twelve feet in length. It had fifty two large fharp teeth 
in' the lower jaw, placed at equal diftances like thofe of 
of a faw, and each of them weighed two pounds. In the 
upper jaw there were holes or cavities, in which the 
teeth entered as into a fheath. The eyes were fhining 
and yellowifh, like thofe of other Whales; the tongue 
was pointed, and of the colour of fire, but fmall in pro- 
portion to the fiih. On the fide of the head there were 
two fins, each of which was a foot and a half long, with 
toes confining of feven joints ; whereas other Whales 
have but five. On the top of the back there was a high 
bump, and near the tail another refembling the fin. 

In Decenibr 1 723, there were feventeen other Whales 
©f this kind thrown upon the fand-bank in the territory 
Ci Hamhurghf part of which were males, and the others 
females. They were from forty to feventy feet long, 
and they were all lying on one (i^t. The head above 
the eyes refembled a baker's oven, and the lower jaw 
was a little fhorter than the upper. The breadth of 
each was about a foot, and they terminated in a point. 
That below had forty two teeth, two inches thick and an 
mth long, with a crooked point like |h6fe of wolves ; 
-and in the upper there were holes to receive them very 
^xaftly. They were of a brown colour, arid' the fkin 

was 



22 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

was half an inch thick ; but the blubber was from eighc 
to twelve feet deep, and, while frefh, it was fo white it 
could not be diftinguifhed from lard. From fome heads 
they obtained four or five tons of raw {perma-ceti. The 
teeth, when taken out of the head, were near eight 
inches long, and feven in circumference near the gums. 

Another Whale of this kind was thrown on the fhore 
in the diftrid of Eiderjlahdy which had a tooth at the 
end of the fnout, and twenty five on each fide, that is, 
fifty one in all ; they were as crooked as a fickle. This 
fifh was forty eight feet long, twelve high, and thirty 
fix in circumference. At the bottom of the back, to- 
wards the tail, there was a bump four feet long, and a 
foot and a half high. The fin was four feet long, and a 
foot and a half broad. The breadth of the tail was 
twelve inches, and the point out of which it fpouted the 
water, was a foot and a half long. 

In 1752, there was a Whale thrown on Ihore in the 
harbour of ^ehra in Spainy and was called by the inha- 
bitants the Molar Fish. It was fixty feet long, 
twenty feet fix inches high, and fifty two feet fix inches in 
circumference. The lower jaw was fourteen feet nine 
inches long. From the upper lip to the top of the 
head was eleven feet feven inches, and the pipe, which 
ferved for a water-fpout, was a foot and fix inches. The 
breadth of the hole of the throat was four feet fix inclies, 
and the height fix feet fix inches. 1 he weight was 
about eighteen hundred quintals, and the entrails filled 
■fix boats, of fixty quintals burden each. The fkin of 
the back was of a dark blue, and of the beliy, white. 
The inhabitants could not draw it on fhore ; and there- 
they cut it in pieces where it lay, and they were employ* 
ed three days in cutting it to pieces. The oil ftreamed 
from it on all fides ; and after they had cloven the head, 
a clear oil fpouted from it in a ftream of the thicknefs of 
a man's arm, and about five feet high, which larted for 
half an hour without intermiffion. They got ofi^ the 
lower jaw of this Whale, which required twelve men to 
drag it into the boat ; and it was fent to Paris. 

Jn the years 1707 and 1709, there were two Whales 
caft on Ihore at the Cape of Good Hope. They were botli 
of a dark brown colour, and their jaws were eighteen 

i'tn 



O ? F I S H E S- 25 

feet long, and about thirteen broad. They had no 
teeth ; but tlie jaws were covered with a fkin as hard as 
iron. Their eyes were no bigger than thofe of a horfe 
with regard to their outward appearance, but wlien ta- 
ken from the head, were as large as a man's head. Un- 
der the orbit there was a large cavity, from which they 
fpouted plenty of water to a confiderable height. There 
were very large fins under the head, and the tail termi- 
nated in the fhape of a half-moon, and was very broad. 
The tongue of each weighed fix hundred pounds ; but 
the throat was fo narrow, that a man could hardly thrull 
in his hand. One of thefe Whales was fifty feet long, 
and twelve high, and the other forty five feet long, 
twelve broad, and eighteen high. 

The fubliatice called fperma-ceti contains a great deal 
of oil, and is prepared in the following manner at 
Bayonne^ and ^t. Jean de Luz. They take the brain, 
and melt it over a gentle fire, and afterwards pour it in- 
to moulds in the ihape of fugar-loaves. When it is 
cold, and the oil is run out, they take and melt it again 
feveral times till it becomes very pure and v.'hite, and 
then they cut it into thin flices in the fame manner as 
we fee it when brought to us. That is beft that is 
white, clear, tranfparent, and that is not adulterated with 
virgin-wax ; and this may be known as well by the 
fmell of the wax, as the llices being thinner and finer 
than ufual. It ought to be kept in glafs vefTels clofe 
ftopt, becaufe the air makes it grow yellow and rancid. 

Sperma-ceti is balfamJc, and an excellent medicine in 
difeafes of the breafr, and to blunt the fharpnefs of the 
humours. Jt is very efficacious in old coughs proceed- 
ing from defiuxions, and in all internal ulcers. It is 
alio excellent when the inteflines have been deprived of 
their mucus by the acrimony of bilious humours, as in 
loofenefles, and the bloody flux. It is alfo good agamft 
pifTing of blood ; it ibftens and relaxes the fibres, and 
often contributes to the expulfion of gravel by enlarging 
the pafTages. It is alfo of ufe to refolve coagulated 
biood, when occafioned by external injuries ; as alfo to 
eafe pains after child-bearing. The dofe is from twelve 
grains to a fcruple, v/hen given alone, or mixed with 
the yolk of an eggj but in other mixtures it :s given 
8 frona 



24 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

from half a dram to a dram. Externally it is emollieivt 
and vulnerary, and is of great ufe in the fmall-pox, if 
the puftules are anointed with it when they begin to 
grow hard : but then it muft be mixed with oil of fweet 
almonds ; by this means it will prevent in fome meafui-e 
the deep fears they generally leave behind them. It is 
alfo good in plafters, to diflblve the tumours of the 
breafts proceeding from the coagulation of the milk. 
Some ufe it as a cofmetic, to foften the fkin, and to ren- 
der the complexion clear. 

The PORPUS, or PORPESSE, is a fi(h frequently 
feen in the North feas, and particularly about England, 
It is fo called from Porcus-piscis, or the Hog-fish, 
from the great quantity of fat that covers the whole bo* 
dy much in the fame manner as in a hog. It is about 
fui feet long, and is frequently feen leaping in and out 
of the water, making cin uncouth kind of a noife like 
fnorting. The Oiape is long and round, but towards the 
tail it is fmall, tapering like a cone, and at the very root 
of the tail it is flat. J 'he fnout is long and (harp, and 
well furnlflied v.'ith llrong mufcles, to enable it to dig 
up fmall filh out of the fand. The fkin is thin, fmooth, 
and dcllitute of fcales ; and the back is of a very dark 
blue inclining to black. About the middle of the fides 
it begins to grow whitiih, and the black fpots and llreaks 
wherewith it is beautifully painted, at the meeting of 
the colours, gradually changes into a perfedl white. 

Jt has no gills, nor holes where the gills fhould be ; 
but on the top of the head there is a wide pipe, which 
opens like a half-moon, and inwardly is divided by a 
bony fubftance, as^it were into two nollrils. T)^t{e. af- 
terwards unite in one, and open with a fmgle hole into 
the mouth near the gullet. The end of this aperture is 
provided with a ftrong fphinfter, whereby it may be 
opened or Ihut at j:^eafure. 1 he upper part of the 
nollrils are covered with a ftrong fi<.in, in the manner of 
an epiglottis, to hinder the water from entering, thereiu 
contrary to the inclination of this filh. 

The eyes are Imall in proportion to the bulk of the 
body, at leaft as to outward appe.i ranee ; for when the 
eye-lids are cut off, they feem to be larger. The mouth 
is not wide, but is farnilhed with forty eight teeth regu-- 

larly 



O F F I S H E S. 25 

larly placed and difpofed, there being fpaces left between 
the teeth of the lower jaw to receive thofe of the upper, 
and on the contrary. They are all (harp, and feera to 
be a little loofc in their fockets ; and the tongue is flat, 
fmooth, and conneded throughout its length to the bot- 
tom of the mouth ; for which reafon it cannot be remov- 
ed out of its place. There are only three fins befides 
the tail ; one of which is feated on tlie back, and two 
near the parts where the gills are ken in other fifh. 
The tail is placed horizontally, like that of a Whale, 
which is fuppofed to be neceffary to enable this fifh to 
rife often and take breath. 

The belly, as well as all other parts of the boiy, is 
covered with fat, which has a tendency to preferve the 
equilibrium between the fifh and the water ; forotherwife 
it would be difficult for this fifh to rife therein. The fat 
is likewife a great defence againft the cold, as it tends 
to preferve the natural heat, ferving for the fame pur- 
pofe as warm cloaths does to men in the fevere weather 
of the winter. The flefh is red, and looks very much 
like pork. 

This fifh has a pretty large caul, which does not lye 
clofe upon the inteftines, but hang; loofe, and is placed 
between the iiomach and the guts, it has three fto- 
machs, or at leaft there are three bags, v/hich may be fb 
called, though they join together. When one of thefe 
was difTeded, it was found full of Sand-eels ; and in that 
of another were boiies of fifh, Shell-fiih, and Prawns, 
mixed with a little fand. The guts of a young Porpus, 
that was no more than three feet and a iialf in length, 
meafu'-ed no lefs than forty-eight feet. I here is no dif- 
tinft'.on into great and fmall, nor fo much as a blind g Jt, 
nor any appendage whatever. The pancreas, or fweet- 
bread is large, and adheres clofely to the third, or low- 
ermoll llomach ; the liver has neither lobes, nor gall 
bladder. The fpleen is fmall, but compofed of feveral 
dillincl lobes ; and the kidneys are broad, flat and o'j- 
long, adhering to the back. Likewife the urinary blad- 
d;^r is fmall, but tlie penis is long, and lies concealed in 
a fort of afheath, the chink of which only appears out- 
wardly. The teiticles are placed at the bottom o: the 
abdomen, are of an oval Ihape, and their interna' fub- 

VoL. Ul, C it.nce 



26 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

ftance Is like that of qiiadrupedes, as are the reft of the 
preparing vcfiels. T he Icmiii'al vefiels open into the 
urinary pafTage, with feveral duds a little above the blad- 
der. The diaphragm, or midriiT is entirely mufcular, 
without any tendinous membrane in the middle. The 
Jieart is like that of quadrupedes, only the auricles are 
larger in proportion, and it is placed in an ample peri- 
cardium. The lungs are hkewife like thofe of four- 
footed animals, except that they are bigger, and not ib 
fpungy. The brain in like manner refembles that of 
Quadrupedes, but is not quite fo fiabby ; however there 
are no olfadory nerves, nor maxillary procefTes. 

There are thirteen ribs, fix fnortand feven long ; and 
the brealt-bone is ihort, but the Ihoulder bones are broad 
and flat.' This fifli is feldom caught but by chance, or 
when they run on ihore in purfuit of their prey, becaufe 
the flefh is not defirable to feed upon, and there is no- 
thing but the fat to tempt £fliermen to take them. 
However in fome parts of the Eaji-Indies they make it 
their bufmefs to catch as many as they can, though they 
are only ufed to make oil of their fat. Thefe fiQi can 
Ivvim but a little way at a time before they come up to 
breath, and then they make fuch a noifc with their 
blowing that they may be heard at a great dillance in 
calm weather. 

The DOLPHIN, of the ancients, properly fo called, 
is of the Cetaceous kind, and is covered with a fmooth 
hard fkin. It has an oblong roundllb body, with a long 
round fnout, which is turned a little upwards. The 
cleft of the mouth is long, and fliuts very clofe ; and 
the teeth are Imall and fharp. The tongue is large and 
flelky, and their eyes are alfo large; but they are out- 
wardly fo much covered with the fkin, that nothing but 
the piipil appears. They are placed near the corners of 
the mouth, and almoft in the fame line. There is a 
double tube, or pipe on the top of the fnout, through 
which it fpouts out svater. It is placed juft before the 
bja-n, and communicates with the wind pipe ; and there 
is a very ilrong fin on each fide, not far from the mouth, 
and another on the back, which is partly bony, and 
TnMily 2iii'v. The tail is made up of xwo fins. 
* ^"^ ' The 



OFFISHES; 27 

Th^ Jkin is thick and firm, but foft on account of the 
fat that lies underneath ; and on the back it is black, buc 
on the belly white. 1 he fleih is blackifn, and refembles 
that of a hog, and the inner parts are not unlike thole 
of the Porpus ; but it dift'ers from that fiili in having a 
long fnout fomevvhat like a goole, and being more {len- 
der and flefliy, though not fo fat ; likewife a Porpus is 
lefs, but has a broader back, and a blunt fnout. The 
Dolphin is faid to go with young ten months, feldorn 
producing above one at a time, and that in the midll 0/ 
fummer. They live to a confiderable age, fome fay 
twenty-five or thirty years ; and they lleep with the fnouc 
out of the water. When they feem to play on the top 
of the water, many afiirm it is a fign of an approaching 
tempeft. There are various llories in ancient authors of 
the love of the Dolphin to mankind, but they are now 
looked upon to be nothing but fables. They fwim ex- 
ceeding fwift, and pafs at a ftated feafon out of the Ll:- 
diterranean fea, through the Dardenells, into the black 
fea. They are fometimes feen in ihoals, and there is 
always a male and female at lead together. They v iil. 
live three days out of water, during which they are faid 
to niake fuch a mournful noife as to afFecl thofe grearly 
who are not ufed to hear them. 

There are feveral other fifh, of the Cetaceous kind, 
which have only been (o-Qn by chance, and for that rea- 
fon have not been fully defcribed. There was one, ior 
inftance, that came into the FritJy of Forth near Edin- 
burgh, and was thrown on ihore. The head was fo 
large, that when the tail was cut off, it was equal ia 
length to the remaining part, and was thicker than the 
body. The lower jaw was more prominent, by two feet 
and a half, than the upper, and the upper was five feet 
long. The eyes were no larger than thofe of a Had- 
dock ; and, a little above the middle of the fnout, there 
was a fpout-hole, which was double, and covered over 
with a fort of a fto'pper. It had forty two teeth, all in, 
the fhape of a fickle, but thicker in the middle than 
elfe%vhere. They terminated upwards like a cone, and 
had very Iharp points. It had a long fpinc, or prickle 
©n the back, inilead of a fin. 

C z Ifi 



2S THE NATURAL HISTOI^. ' 

In No'vem^erj 1690, there was another caft on-lliore, 
that, from the fnout to the end of the tail, was forty-fix 
feet in length, and on the back, near the tail, there was 
a protuberance like a hon, which the filhcKmen called a 
prickle. The nollrils were placed in thje upper jaw 
pretty high in the fnout, being, from its extremity, fix 
feet eight inches diftant. They were eight or nine inches 
long, and divided from each other by a grille. The 
eyes appeared outwardly to be of the fize of thofe of an 
ox. Another was call upon anilland of the Oreadcs in 
1687, which had an upright fin on the middle of the 
back, refembling the mizen mail of a fhip, for which 
realbn the failors gave it that name. 

In 1692, another Whale was thrown afhorein the a- 
bove-mentioned frith, which was feventy-eight feet in 
length, and of a proportionable thicknefs. The lower 
jaw was much larger every way than the upper, and of 
a femicircular fhape. It had no fpout-hole, but towards 
the forehead there was a double large hole of a pyrrimidal 
Ihape ; the bafe of which was towards the forelicad, but 
towards the mouth it became_ narrow, and was divided 
by a giiUle. It had three fins in all, but we are not told 
where they were placed, at lead Mr. Raj fays nothing a- 
bout them. 

CHAP. III. 

Of Vipes cf the cartilagh.ous hind, 

THE WHiTE SHARK is the largeftof this kind, 
for fome of tliem weigh one thoufand pounds, 
and are fixieen feet in length.. Some pretend that they 
have feen thofe of four thoufand pounds weight, and 
particularly one that had aa entire man in its belly. By 
way of confiimation, Rcndektius informs us, that he faw 
one th.t had fuch a prodigious mouth and throat that ic 
migh.t withealefwallow a man. This fome take to be 
the fidi that fwallowed up Jonas, when he coiftinucd 
three days and three nights in its beMy. 



1 



^cuzci^i 




OF FISHES. '29 

The head is large, and fomewhat depreiTed ; the fnout 
oblong, and the eyes large. The mouth is enormouHy 
wide, and the teeth very numerous and terrible, there 
being five or fix rows of them, which are extremely hard 
and (harp, and of a triangular figure. Some fay there 
are feventy-two in each jaw, which make one hundred 
forty-four in the whole. However, others think that the 
number of teeth is uncertain, and that they vary accord- 
ing to the age of the fi(h; thofe that are oldeil having 
the greateft number of teeth. 

The fins are larger, in proportion, than in other fifh, 
and the tail is forked, but the upper part is confiderably 
longer than the lower. There is one fin on the back, 
another near the tail, two on the belly, between which 
the vent is placed, and there are alfo two near the gills 
and mouth. The fidn is rough, the eyes large and 
round, and furniflicd v/ith variety Oi miifcles, that en- 
able this hih to turn them to what fide he pleafes ; but, 
inftead of optick nerves, there is only a hard griily U^b- 
fiance. The mouth is not' placed, as in oth.-r fiSh, at 
the end of the i'nout, but under the eyQs at fonie dillance 
from it ; which obliges him to turn on his back when he 
takes his prey. 

It has a moll monfirous flomach, and an extreamly 
wide throat, as Vv^as before obferved. The liver is very 
fat, and divided into two large lobes, The fleih is 
white, and has no great ranknefs in its tafte ; for which 
reafon it is frequently eaten by fome of our failors, ef- 
pecially when they can come at nothing better. The 
Buccaneers lived much upon it ; and they firft boiled it, 
then fqueezed out the juice, and after Hewed it with 
vinegar and pepper. 

Sharks often follow fhips for a long while together, 
at which time the failors catch them by linking a barbed 
iriftrument, called a fizgig, into their bodies, and fo 
draw them up into the ihip. As foon as he is laid upon 
the deck, he begins to fiounce in a terrible manner with 
his tail ; and therefore they cut it ofi:' with an ax as fall 
as they can. They fometime^ bait a large iron hook, 
made fall to a thick rope, with a piece of fait beef, 
which he will fwallovv very greedily, and then they drag 
him on board. 

C 3 This 



30 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

This £fh is not only to be found in the Mediterranean', 
but in moft parts of the ocean ; and it is notfeldom that 
they will lay held of a man's leg or thigh when they 
have an opportunity, and either drag him into the wa- 
\&x or bite the limb off. 

The BLUE SHARK is as bold and mifchievous a fifh 
as any that fwims, and has a hack of a lively blue co- 
Icur, but its belly is of a filver white. The fnin is not 
rough, as in a Dog~fifh, and others of the fame kind ; 
but the fnout is long, fharp, flat, and indented with 
many fmall holes above and below. The length is from 
lix to eight feet, to which the thicknefs is proportion- 
able. T he mouth is \zxy large, and placed as in the 
former, with teeth iliarp, and notched like a faw } but 
there are not io many as in the White Shark. The holes 
ol the gills are Bve on each fide, and the tail is divided 
irtto two parts ; the uppermoll of which being much 
longer than the lower. 

i he fiomach of this Shark is fo large, that a whole 
Tunny-fifh has been found therein. The upper part of 
the guts are fmall, the lower thick, and the liver is large, 
anu divided into two lobes, being of a bluifh red colour. 
The rp^ecn is of a fmgular fhape, for it is divided into a 
vail number of fmall lobes, which refembie a duller of 
eggs or fpawn. This is probably the fame iifh which the 
failors call the Ground Shark, from its coming into fhal- 
low places near the fea-fhore, where they fometimes lay 
iiold of an arm or leg of thofe that are bathing in the fea- 
vk ater. Some tell us, that they will fnap at the feet of 
thofe that are walking by the fea-fide, which is not very 
improbable. It is to be found in various parts of the 
ocean, and often appears near the fea ccalls of Corn^ 
IV oil. 

The SHARK, called Maltha by Rondeletius, and 
SoRRAT by the inhabitants of Karbonns^ has a fhort 
iiiout, and the mouth is placed but a little below the 
fiicut. The teeth appear much the fame as in the White 
i-hark, which they refembie both in the inner and outer 
pai ts, only there is no white fkin over the white of the 
eves. 

' TheCUCURIcf Prfl//, is called Cassaon, by fome, 
and is a kin to the White Shark, though it is only two feet 

and 



^'^f^ 3' 




O F F I S H E S. ?i 

and a half in length.The head terminates like the conick 
fedion, called an Hyperbola, The place of the mouth, 
the number of die fins, and the fhape, are like thofe of 
a White Shark ; likevvife, the ikin is of the fame co- 
lour, that is afh- coloured above, and white below ; buc 
it has only a fingle row of teeth. 

The TOPE, fo called in Corn^ojail, differs from the 
fmooth Dog-fiih in the fize, for it is much longer; and 
in tiie teeth, for that has none, and this has a great 
number ; likewife in the eyes, which have lelfer pupils 
in proportion to the bulk of the body, 'i he fnoat, fo 
far as it runs beyond the ncftriis, is tranfparent. It has 
been taken frequently near Penzance in Lormvall. 

TheSEA-FuX, or Sea-ape, is fo called on account 
of the length of its tail, and from the ftrong fmell of the 
fieili, which is like that of a fox. It is fometimes fo 
large, as to weigh above a hundred pounds ; and has a 
round thick body, a fmall mouth, not much below the 
fnout, which is fharp armed with iharp teetli. This fifii has 
fome refemblance to a Shark in moil things, except the 
body and tail ; for the body of that is thicker and fhorter, 
and the tail much longer than in any of this kind. The 
fkin of the belly is white, and that of the back of an 
afh-colour. i he tail is crooked, and has fome refem- 
blance to a fword, being as long as the reft of hi? body, 
and at the root there is a fin. It is ufually met with in 
the Mediterranean fea. ^ 

Rondeletius informs us, that he once faw a Sea-fox 
opened, which had feveral young ones in its belly. The 
fifhermen, not being ufed to fuch a fight, fooliPnly ima- 
gined they had been i'wallowed as a prey. 

The BALANCE-FISH fometimes is as large as fome 
of the Cetaceous kind. It differs from all others in the 
monflrous fhape of the head, which refeinbles a fmith's 
large hammer, at each end of which the eyes are plac- 
ed ; but the forehead, or fore part Iwells out into a fort 
of femicircle, only it terminates in an edge. 'X he 
mouth is underneath, is very large, and armed with ex- 
ceeding rtrong, broad, fharp teeth, notched at the fides 
like a faw, and of which there are three or four rows. 
The tongue is broad, and like that of a man ; and the 
body is round and long, without fcales, and covered 
C 4 with 



: 3 T K E N A T U R A L H r S T O R Y 

with a fkin like leather. The fpines on the back are con- 
tinued to the upper part of the tail, where there are fins 
on each fide. I'he lefler horn of the tail, if it may be 
fo ca-led, is very fliort. In other things it refembles a 
Shark, and is a native of the Mediterranean fea ; but it 
may be eafily diftinguidied, from all others of this kind, 
by the Ihape of its head. There is another fifh a-kin to 
this, called by the Dutch CRUY SHAYE. It is like a 
Shark in aH things except the head, which is of a trian- 
gular fiiape, or rather like a heart ; the mouth is nar- 
row, and armc.i with a double row of Iharp teeth. 

The PICKED DOG, or HOUND FISH, has a 
roundifli oblong body, which is covered with a rough 
fN'in, that is generally known among us by the name of 
£ih-fkin, and is ufed by joiners, and other artificers for 
poli filing wood and other things. The back is of a 
browniih afli-colour, and the belly is white, and fmooth- 
er than in other parts. The eyes are in the fhape of a 
boat, and covered with a double membrane. The 
mouth is placed jufl under the eyes, and is armed with a 
double row of linall teeth. The two back fins have 
ftrong, Iharp fpines, or prickles (landing before them, of 
which that nearefl the head is thicker and longer, and 
that neareft the tail fhcrter and lefs. It has never a fin 
on the lower part of the body between the vent and 
tail ; by which it may be difiinguiflied from all filh of 
this kind. The BROWN DOG FISH differs from the 
former in the dufl'.y colour of its back ; and it is likewlfe 
mere dark and rough on the belly than on the back. 
The fnout is blunt/ and the noftrils large, placed near 
the extremity of the fnout. The former brings forth itS' 
young alive, which are produced from eggs hatched 
wiihiji ihe body of this fith. It is never very large, for 
it is ftld' m obovc twenty pounds in weight 'I he Ho- 
mr.ch is large, and i'e\eral Cuitle-flfh have been found in 
it ct once. It is frequently taken in the Britijh ocean, and 
in the 1 ijhk^. 

The LENTRINA is of the Dog kind, and is called 
by the Italans PtscH Pokco, fiom its likcnefs to a 
ForpuP. The body, from th^ head to the vent, is of a 
triangular fliape, of which the belly, being broad and 
i at, makes or.e of the fides ; and tiiC parts o i each fide, 

that 



'^Za^^ ^2 




r//tea^-^£? 




O F F I S H E S. 33 

that join to the back, make the two other fides, but the- 
back itfelf terminates in an acute angle: The colour is 
of a dark brown, the head is fmall and flat, and the 
mouth fmail, and placed on the under fide of the head. 
In the upper jaw there are three rows of teeth, but in. 
the lower there is only one. There is no fin below the 
vent, in which it agrees with the Picked-dog-fidi, but 
the back fin before, for there are two, has a fpine, or 
prickle that inclines towards the head, and feenis to run 
through the fin itielf at the root. The fpine, or prickle 
belonging to the hinder fin, feems to run through it 
tranfverlly, and turns towards the tail ; by which mark it 
may be known from all other fifh of thi^ kind. 

They are taken of different flzes ; but the liver of 
one was fo large, that it weighed fix pounds. This is 
of a whitifh colour, and is divided into two lobes ; and 
the ftcmach is fmall, but the fpleen double. Near the 
eyes are two holes in the ihape of a half-moon,- which 
probably are the organs of hearing. This fifli is taken 
in the Mediterraneafi lea, and is fometimes brought to the 
filli markets at Rome ; but the flefli is tough, and fo full 
of hard fibres, that ir will neither feparate from the fein, . 
nor yield readily to the edge of a knife. It is but fel- 
dom caught, and more feldom eaten ; for the pooreit . 
people will not touch it, unlefs when other fifli are ex- 
ceeding fcarce. Some fay it is of a poifonous na- 
ture. 

The SRIOOTPI DOG-FISH difes from the Tope 
in its fize, which is much lefs ; in its teeth, for this has . 
none, and in its eyes, which are more open ; but, in- 
ftead of teeth, the bones of each jaw are as rough as a- 
file. The fkin is fmooth,. whereas in all others of this- 
kind it is rough, and by that mark may be readily dii- 
tinguiihed from the Picked dop-filh. 

The GREATER CAT-FISH, called in Cornwall the- 
BOUNCE, differs from Dog-fifhes in having a broader^ 
back, and a Ihorter and blunter fnout, reaching but a 
little beyond the mouth. Jt is all over fpccklei vviili 
reddifli black fpots ; but the fkin is raucli rougher. It is . 
often met with in the Briti/h fea. 

The LESSER ROUGH HOUND, or MORGAV, 
ilifFcrs from the former in being much Icfs, in. having a. 
C 5 body. 



34 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

body of a more long and flender fhape, and in being of 
a fainter colour, with a reddifh caft ; and there are a 
great number of fmall fpecks or fpots, partly brown, 
partly whitifb, fprinkled all over it without any regular 
crder 

The GREATEST CAT-FISH differs from the 
Bounce, in being of an alh-colour, in having larger and 
fewer fpots, with a longer and thicker fnout, and the 
nollrils are at a greater diilance from the mouth. The 
iins at the vent are not joined together as in that, but are 
diftinflly feparated ; jikewife, the fin beneath the vent 
is nearer to it than in the Bounce. 

TJie PICKED DOG-FISH of CLftus, is very ano- 
ma:ou£, fo that it may be doubted whether it belongs to 
this kind or not. The colour is of a brownifh afli, the 
l'noi:t is broad, and the Ikin fmooth, wichoutany fcales. 
The eyes are clouded by a (kin or membrane, which rifes 
upward from the lower part ; and the mouth is placed 
beneath the head. There are two holes near the vent ; 
and it agrees with this kind, in being cartilaginous. It 
differs from it in having only four teeth in its mouth, two 
in the lower jaw, and two in the upper; and in having 
a fmglefpine or prickle, not on the back, but alm.oft on. 
the neck, ilx inches long, which is broad and hollow in 
the lower part. It has only a fmgle gill on each fide, 
and the gill fins are longer than in Dog-fifh. The firj 
on the back is extremely long, and reaches almofl to the 
end of the tail, that is, to that part where it begins to 
\ e very /lender ; from thence' the tail is feven inches 
long, and feems to refemble that of a moufe. It is 
taken in the Nortlvfea by thofe who are concerned in the 
herring fifhery. 

The SAW- FISH has its name from a faw, which the 
bone of its nofe is, by fome, thought to refemble; but 
they are more like the teeth of a comb, placed at fome 
diltance from each other. They are from twenty to 
thirty in number, t laced on each fide the bone; and are 
in fome five feet in lengch when the bcdy of the fifh is 
ten feet. Cn the back it is of an a(h-colour, and the 
belly is white; and there are no teeth in the mouth, 
wh:ch is traniverfiy cleft like xhut. of the Balance-filh ; 
but il.e iipb are as i;;ugh as a file, i here are two fins on 

the 



OF FISHES. 35 

the back, and that next the head is Hke theButs-kopPs; 
and that towards the tail is hollowed like a fickle. On 
the belly there are four fins, two on each fide ; and 
thofe next the head are broad eft and longefl ; thofe next 
the tail are placed directly under the uppermoft fin on the 
back ; and the tail is like a piece of board which dyers 
make iife of to open, or ftretch the ftockings, and is 
widened behind and before ; but it is not divided into 
two parts. The ihape fomewhat refembles a man's 
naked arm, and the noftrils are oblong. The eyes ftand 
high out of the head, and the mouth is diredly under- 
neath the eyes. Marten obferves, that fome grow to be 
twenty feet long. 

The Saw-fiih are great enemies to the Whale and 
Fin-fifh, for many of them will gather about one, and 
never leave him till he is killed. They are fond of no- 
thing but his tongue, for they leave all the refl behind. 
When feamen and failors happen to fee this fight, they 
never offer to intermeddle, but let them alone till the 
Whale is conquered, for, fhould they do otherwife, their 
long-boats would fright the Saw-fifh away, and then the 
Wi^ale would make his efcape. Fraz'er happened to 
fee a battle of this kind, between a Whale and the Sword- 
fifh, on the coalt of Coi/i in Sou'tl? America ; from 
whence it appears, that they inhabit different parts of 
the ocean ; however, they are ij^ greateft plenty in the 
North Teas ; perhaps becaufe there are the greatell num- 
ber of Whales. 

CHAP. III. 

Of cartilaginous Tlat-Jjjh. 

THE SEA- EAGLE has a head almofl like that of a 
toad, and the eyes are large, round, and promi- 
nent. The fides are expanded like wings, and the tc:il 
is long and flender, being fometimes above two ells in 
length. It is armed with a long Iharp weapon ; and 
the body, in bignefs, exceeds a Fire flaire ; and the 
weapon is not kfs dangerous than that of the Fire-fiairc, 
C 6 be- 



36 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

b^ing greatly dreaded by fifhermen The mouth is full 
o' teeth, and the {;;in is foft and fmooth ; the upper 
p irt being livid, and the under white. They are gene- 
rally taken fmall ; but fome of them have been found to 
weigh 3CC pounds. It may be diftinguifhed from other 
cartilaginous fifh by the length of its tail, and by its 
Ja ge weapon or fpine. which is fometimes fingle, and 
fometimes double, but always venemous. It is an in- 
habitant of the Mediterranean fea, and is often brought 
to Kcffie and Naples. The flefh is ibft and moilt, with 
a rank naufeous fmell, and therefore is feldom or never 
eaten. 

The FIRE-FLAIRE differs from other cartilaginous 
filh of this kind in having a remarkable weapon-fpine on 
its tail, of the length of a man's middle finger, which 
is fliff, exceeding Iharp, and ferrated ; and the teeth 
bend backwards. The tail is remarkably long, and the 
head iiat and depreffed, like the body. The eyes are 
in the upper part of the head, and the mouth in the 
lower. There are two apertures, or holes, behind the 
eyes ; that is, on each fide one ; and the eyes themfelves 
are large, with an iris of a d^QCD yellow, and a blackifh 
pupil. The mouth is large, and placed tranfverfly, and 
the fnout is long and (harp at the end. The apertures 
on the gills are five on each fide, beginning a little be- 
low the mouth, and ending on tlie breaft. The fides are 
terminated, throughout their w hole length, by a broad 
fin. The tail is remarkably long, and of a round fiiape, 
having no fin thereon; the back is ronndiih, and the 
belly fi t 'Xhe fpine is venomous, which the fifhermen 
t:,ke a r,reat deal of care to avoid. 

There is another FIRE-FLAIRE, called at Naples 
Alt A Vela, which is fmootli, and has a head like the 
former, but Icfs in proportion The colour is the fame, 
but the fliape is difix^rent ; for it is blunter at the ex- 
treme parts, and the tail is not above half the length of 
the body ; but there is a fiiarp fpine, nearer the begin- 
ning of the tail than the end, and fometimes two, bend- 
ing back to the tail, and ferrated. It does not grow fo 
large as the former, and its flefh is in fome rcquell. 

The WHIP-RAY has a large broad body, almoft of 
a triangular fhape ; and on each fide there is a broad 

flefliy 



OFFISHES. 37 

Piefhy triangular {kin. The head is of the fize of that of 
a middling hog ; but it is thick comprelTed, and has a 
fort of pit in the middle. The mouth is without 
teeth ; but, in the room thereof, there are a great many 
fmall bones : the eyes are (mall, and the upper part of 
the body is of an iron-grey, almoll blue, with white 
fpots throughout ; the lower part is white. The Ikin is 
fmooth ; and behind the tail there are two hooks, like 
fifning-hooks, placed one upon another, and near three 
inches long. This is a Brafilian filh ; by the inhabi- 
tants called NARINARJ, and is defcribed by Marc- 
granje. 

Dampier informs us, that there are two forts of Vv- hip- 
rays, one of which has a longer and fmaller tail than 
the Sting-ray or Rafp-ray, and has a knob at the end 
fhaped like a harpoon. It is about three feet and a half 
broad; but the other fort is three or four yards fquare, 
with long tails, which the failors call fea-devils. 
Nieuhoff tells us, that it has its name from its ugly 
fhape, and that the eyes are on the upper part of the 
head ; but the mouth is in a concavity below the head. 
The tail is like that of a Roach, and on each fide there 
are two teats pointed towards the end. Perhaps thefe 
are the two excrefcencies which ferve for a penis m other 
fifh of this kind. The fein en the iiead is full of brown 
fpots, and fome are near eij^ht feet long. 

The ROUGH -FLAIRE of Belomus is all over 
prickles, efpccially about the ta-il, which is as long as 
that of a Fiie-flaire, and has feverui hooks placed in 
circles round about it. 

The STING-RAY, 'called by the Brofdiam AlE- 
RKBE, is a kind of Flaire, fometimes above three feet 
in length, and is as broad as it is long^^The tail is 
round, four feet in leng'th, and about tlie middle there 
are two bony fpines, that are thick and dentated behind, 
which ferve for weapons. The mouth is little, without 
teeth ; and the Ikin, on the upper part, is of an iron- 
colour ; but, on the middle of the back, there are re- 
markable black tubercles or warts. The lower part of 
the body is entirely white and fiat, as in the reft of this 
kind. Sir Hans Sloan takes notice of a fifh of chis kind, 
which is almoft round, fomevvhat like a Torpedo or 

Numb- 



38 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

Numb-fidi, with tubercles on the back, and about foar 
inches broad, ^i he tail, he fays, is only three inches 
long, and has a fin on the upper part, and near to it a 
fpine or prickle about an inch long. Mr. Ray is in doubt 
whether this is not the fame fifh as the former. 

The SKATE, or M.AIRE, is remarkably large, and 
will fomctimes weigh above one hundred pounds ; but, 
what is ibll more extraordinary, there was one fold, by 
a fiflimonger, at Cambrijge to St. Johns college, which 
weighed two hundred pounds, and dined a hundred and 
twenty people. The length was forty-two inches, and 
the brerdth thirty-one. The colour on the upper part is 
a{h, thickly fpeckled with black fpots ; and the belly is 
white, which is likewife interfperfed with fmall blfick 
fpots. It has but few prickles, there being one row of 
them upon the tail ; and the males are diitinguiilicd 
from the females by having feveral rows of crooked 
prickles on both fides the broad part of the fins. 

The liver is of a dirty yellow, marbled v,'ith lines of a 
dark colour, and it is divided into three lobes ; the gall 
bladder being' placed in that towards the right. The 
fpleen is large, reddiih, and adheres to the ftomach ; and 
the pancreas, or fvveet-bread, is placed at the angle, 
where the gut bends downwards. The guts are large, 
though they have but one fold ; and the female has a 
capacious uterus, with very large ccrnua and ovaria. 
The male has feminal vefiels on each fide the belly, tuig- 
ed with fperm, and at their extremities there are oblong 
glandulous bodies, fuppofed to be the teilicles 

The great artery, foon after it leaves the heart, is 
divided into two branches, and then into three others, 
which ppfs to the three iowermoft gills, from whence o- 
iher veiTels bring the blood back; for, as in quadru- 
pedes, the blood pafies through tiie lungs, fo in fifhcs it 
all paffes through the oiHs. Hence the x^aim is plain 
why the lively led colour of the girls is the certain figa 
of the frcfhnefs of any fifh, for as foon as the blood has 
the leaft drgrce of putrefadlion, the brightnefs of the 
colour vanifnes. 

StCKO, in the anatomy of a n^ate, has difcovered the 
fpots on this filh to be a fort of glands, which fecrete the 
(lime that renders their bcd-es fo ilippeiy ; for which rea- 

fon 



/^^^^ 




O F F I S H E S. 39 

ion he fappofes the fpots in other fi{h may ferve for the 
fame purpofe. All fiih of this kind are more rank, 
when firft taken, than when they have been kept for two 
or three days. The winter is the proper feafon to feed 
upon them ; for then the fmell is not fo ftrong, and the 
tafte is more agreeable. 

The THORN-BACK differs from the former in being 
lefs, and in being armed with a greater number of 
prickles, from whence it has its name ; for there is one 
fmgle row runs down the back, but on the tail there are 
three. The (hape, except the tail, is nearly fquare, and 
yet a tranfverfe line, drawn from corner to corner, is 
longer than another drawn from the head to the root of 
the tail ; fo that in fome fenfe the (i{h is broader than it 
is long. One of thefe, being meafared, was found to 
be fixteen inches and a half broad, and only twelve long, 
the tail excepted. 

This filh has no fcales, but is covered with a fort of 
flime, which renders it very flippery. The upper part 
is of a dufky colour, fpeckled with round white fpots ; 
and the under part is entirely white. The row of prickles, 
or thorns, on the back, are about thirty in number, and 
on each fide the tail, beiides that in the middle, there 
are two rows of prickles ; but the lower part of the tail 
is fmooth. The eyes are placed on the upper fide of the 
head, being very prominent, and having no bone, or a- 
ny thing elfe to defend them; only, on the inner fide, there 
are fmall prickles. The pupils have round, jagged, co- 
vers underneath the horny coat, which are let down from 
the upper part of the eye ; and near the eyes there are 
two holes, which fome think ferve for hearing, if it be 
true that any filh hear at all ; for this is a matter ftill in 
difpute. 

When a Thorn-back is laid with the belly uppermofl, 
the nolbils appear in fight, being contiguous to the 
mouth, which is void of teeth ; but the jaw-bones are 
as rough as a file. The gil.'s, a:v in other fiili of this 
kind, are five holes, placed in a femicircular form ; and 
on the belly there are two fcmicircle5., one of which en- 
cornpalTcs the breaft, and the other the lovv'er belly, 
which is divided from the upper by a bone where thefe 
circles touch, A little above the tail, there are two car- 
6 tilaginous 



40 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

tilaginous procefles, the back part of which is divided, 
as it were, into teeth ; to thefe two fins are joined, 
w hich reach to the tail. They rife from a griflle a little 
above the vent, which anfwers to the bone of the pubes 
in quadrupedes. There are two appendages joined to 
thefe in the male-filb, which are fuppofed to ferve inftead 
of a penis. The orifice of the ftomach opens immedi- 
ately into the mouth ; and the inner furface of the fto- 
mach is covered with a coat, or cruii, which feems to be 
of a glandulous fubliance. This covering is extended 
over all the infide of the gut, but does not feem fo thick 
as in the ftomach. The liver is of a pale yellow, and is 
divided into three lobes, which look like fo many 
tongues. The fpleen is of a deep red colour, and plac- 
ed under the middle lobe of the liver, between the two 
orifices of the ftomach. The fweet-bread is feated at 
the bending of the gut, near the pylorus, and is furni- 
ftied with a dud, as in land animals. The (hape of the 
heart refembles that of the body, and the blood veflels 
are ramihcaed much in the fame manner as thofe of a 
Skate. The prickles of the Thornback are not always 
difpofed in the fame manner, for in fome they are more 
nvimerous, and others have had thorns on the belly. For 
this reafon RondAetiui has given figures of above a dozen 
Thornbacks, which fcarcely diftcr in.any thing elfe, but 
the different difpofitions of the prickles. The flefli is 
much like that of a Skate, but not quite fo pleafaut, and 
more hard of digeftion ; however, the liver is accounted 
by fome a great delicacy. Both the Skate and the 
1 hornback are very common in all parts of Enghtid. 

The SHARP-SNOU I ED RAY is of a more flcnder 
make than that of a Flaire, and is brov/n on the back, 
and white on the belly. Some of them weigh upwards 
of ten pounds, and have teeih in the mouth. Thefnout 
is flender, and pretty long, terminating in a fharp point 
like the end of a fpear, by which it is eafily diftinguilh- 
ed from other fifli of this kind. There are fpines, or 
thorns on each fide the tail. This fometimes is brought 
to the markets at Rome ; and Dr. Dale has feen them at 
Brainirce in EJ/ex ; but thefe were of the lefter kind; 



for there are two which differ in nothing but the fize. 



The. 



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O F F I S H E S. 41 

The CLUB -RAY, of Bondeletius, diiFers from the 
former in having a more pointed fnout, though it has not 
that fharp prickle like the end of a fpear. The colour 
on the upper part is alli, and there are eight long fpines 
or thorns on each fide, placed on the fkin, which' are 
wanting in all other forts of Ray^. 

The WHITE - HORSE is a Ray that is pretty 
broad in proportion to its length, and is alfo thick. 
The back is gibbous, or roundiOi ; but the belly is more 
flat. The fnout is oblong, and fharp at the point; and 
the eyes are prominent, but not very large, with an a- 
perture behind each. The mouth is tranfverfe and large, 
and furnifhed with a nmnber of fliarp teeth. The holes 
of the gills run down from the mouth, along the breaft, 
on each fide, being five in each. The upper part is of 
a hoary yellow, fpeckled with fmall round black fpots, 
without any order, and there are a great number of 
prickles thereon. The tail has a double row of greater 
pickles, which are pretty thick fet. The lower part of 
thebody is white, without any mixture, and the tail is 
long and flender. 

The MONK, or ANGEL-FISH, is of a middle na- 
ture, between a Shark and a Skate, and grows to a large 
fize, often weighing above one hundred and fixty 
pounds, and to the fize of a man. The colour, on 
the back and iides, is of a duiky alh, and the beily is 
white. The mouth is broad, and placed at the end of 
the head, in which it differs from other flat cartilaginous 
fiih. The head is roundifh at the extremity, and there 
are three row^ of tee«-h in each jaw ; each row confiliing 
of eighteen, fo that there are an hundred and eight teeth 
in all ; however, the number is not exadlly the fame in 
all fifh of this kind. The tongue is broad, and Iharp at 
the end ; and the noftrils are wide, being placed on the 
upper-lip, and filled with a fort of fiime. The eyes are 
ot a middle fize, placed not far from the mouth, and do 
not look diredlly upwards, but fideways. Inftead of gills 
it has five holes like the Thornback. The two fins, 
that are placed near the head, look very much like 
wings ; for which rcafon it is called the Angel-fiih, be- 
caufe Angels are painted with wings. On the extremities 
of thefe lins, near the corners, tkere are fhort, fharp, 

and 



42 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

and crooked prickles. The lowermoft fins, which are 
placed near the vent, have alfo the like. Below the 
vent there are two fins on the back, and the tail i.^ fork- 
ed. The liver is divided into three lobes ; to the mid- 
dlemoft of which the gall-bladder adheres ; and the gut 
is large, and joined to the nickntery. 1 he flelh is fo 
rank, and of fo difagreeable a ta:te, that it is ncgletled 
even by the poorelc people ; but the Ikin is in great re- 
quell for making cafes for inflruments, and the like. 
1'his filh is to be met with in all parts of the ocean, and 
is frequently taken on the coaft of Corn-wall. 

Riiyfch alfo gives the n«me of an Angel to an Eaf!-In- 
dian filh, which has nothing very fingular, e.xcept a hook 
with two beardo, that hangs out of his mouth. It has 
prickles on the back, which is all the defcripiion that he 
gives of it. 

The ROUGH-RAY, of BcnJeletius, differs from o- 
ther fifn of this kind in having fmall prickles on the 
fides, but none on the trui.k of the body. On the tail 
there are ihiee rows of long ftiff prickles, which reach 
to the end ; and the fnout is preity Iharp. 

The VERY-RC.UGH RAY, of Rcndeletius, differs 
■from the former in having all parts Overipread with very 
iharp prickles, on the belly as well as the back, info- 
much that this filh cannot be lifted up without taking it 
by the fins of the tail. It has no teeth, whereas the for- 
mer has a mouth full of teeth. 

The SMOOTH-EYED RAY, of RondeUtius, called 
by the Venetians BARACOL, has two fpots on the back 
that are purple in the middle, and black on the edges, 
though R.tndeletiui affirms, that they are blue in the mid- 
dle, and are encompalTed with two circles, the inner 
black, and the outer yellow. It may be diftinguiflied 
from other cartilaginous fidi in having no thorns or 
prickles, except un the tail, where there are three 
rows. 

The ROUGH-EYED RAY, of Rondehtius, differs 
from the former in the prickles, which are en both fides 
in the wings near the fpots. There are alfo prickles on 
both fides the head ; others on the back, and otliers on 
the tail, which are larger, llronger, and more thick fet. 
The fieih is hard, and yields bad nouriihment. 

The 



O P F I S H E S. ^5 

The STELLATED RAY, of Rondeletius, may be 
diHinguifhed from other Rays by the prickles on its back, 
which begin at the head, and end at the firft tail-iin ; 
and thefe are the only ones it has on the body. The up- 
per part of the body is beautifaliy painted with liars, 
from whence it derives its name. The tail isfhort, and 
more {lender than in others of this kind; and the head 
is more like that of a Flaire than of a Ray, for it is 
thicker and broader. The flelh is better than that of o- 
thcrs of this kind, becaufe this fifh always keeps in 
clearer water. 

The ROUGFI-STELLATED RAY, of Rcndcktius, 
is fo called from the great number of liars that it has on 
the fides, and beginning of th^ tail ; and from the great 
number of prickles, with which it is covered. They are 
grcatefl on the line in tne middle of the back, and on 
the tail ; but e.Mewhere they areleail. Inllead of teeth 
the jaw-bones are hard and rough. i^ij.W^/t//?// thinks 
there are two kinds of this fifh ; one wiih liars, entirely 
white, and fewer in number, and another with Hars that 
have a black Ipcck in the middle, which are fnrrounded 
with a white circle ', and the prickles are more numer- 
ous. 

The MONK RAY feems to be of a middle nature 
between a Monk-fiih and a Ray, bat more like a Monk- 
fifli ; from which it diifers in being of a longer make in 
proportion to the bulk of the body, and in having a 
(harp fnout, which extends beyond the mouth, as in the 
Sharp-fnouted Ray. For this reafon the mouth is under 
the fnout, as in Dog -fifh, and not at the end, as in the 
Monk-fifh. Likewife, the lower part is flatter and 
broader than in the Monk -fifh. The fkin is rough and 
dufky in the upper part ; and, inllead of teeth, there 
are roughilh tubercles as in Rays. It is common at Na- 
pies, and feldom grows to above four feet in length ; the 
weight being about twelve pounds. 

The CRAMP-FISH is of a round or circular fhape, 
except the tail, which is long and {lender. It is oF no 
extraordinary bulk, feldom growing to upwards the 
weight of fixteen pounds. The colour is of a dirty yel- 
low, like that of fand or gravel ; and the eyes are fmall, 
being almoil covered with fkin ; behind which there are 

two 



44. THE NATURAL HISTORY 
two holes, fhaped like half-moons, which fome take to 
be the organs of hearing. On the upper part of the 
body there arc five remarkable black Jpots, placed like 
the angles of a perjtagon. The head of 'this filli is 
broad, and joined to the body, for -.vhicli reafon it feems 
to have no head at all. The extremities of the body 
terminate in fins ; and, a little above the vent, there are 
tvv'o fins, which have two appendages that ferve for a 
penis, as in the reft of this kind. Below tiioie in the 
middle of the back or tail, for it is hard to lay v/hich 
term is moil proper, there are tvvo more, the onj a 
little below the other. The upper corner of the tail 
is a little longer than the oihcr, fcmewhat in the 
manner of a Shark, and othei- fiih of that kind. 

The cnouth of a Cramp-fiili is like that of a Skate, 
and is furnifhed with fmall lliarp teeth ; the obftrils are 
pkced near the mouth, and, inllcad of gills, there 
are five holes as in 1 hornbacks. There are no 
prickles in any part of the body, it being fmooth and 
foft to the touch ; but there are a greac many fmall 
holes, efpecialiy about the head, throug'n which a fii- 
my liquor is fecreted, that renders the body flippery, 
and defends it from the fharpnefs of the fait wa- 
ter. 

The moft remarkable quality of this fidi is to ilupify, 
or benumb the hand of the perfon that touches it, to 
fuch a degree that it feems to be aAeclcd with the 
cramp ; from v/hence it derives the name of the 
Cramp-fi(h. The famous Re.^i ordered one to be caught, 
that he might make a trial of the numbing quality. 
He had no fooner touched this fiili, but he found a 
tingling in his hand, arm, and flioukler, attended with 
a trembling, and fo acute a pain in his elbow, that he 
was obliged to take his hand away. The fame trouble- 
fome fymptoms were renewed as often as he repeated 
the trial ; however, they grew weaker and weaker 
till this creature died, which was in about three 
hours time. After it was dead this quality was quite 
loft, and it might be handled as fafely as other 

^^' . . 

Bcrelli imagines the ftupefadive quality does ftot 

proceed from any poifonous fteam, becaufe, if it be 

touched 



\) F F I S H E S. 45 

touched when entirely at reft, it produces no effeft at 
all ; b^fides, if the fingers compreis the extremities 
of the fides ever fo Ibongly, the hand receives no 
damage at all ; but if the hand is laid upon the 
flediy^part over the. back- bone, the violent vibrations 
of the f.ih will ftupify it, and afFedl it with a fort 
of a cramp. He iikewife obferved a very remark- 
able difference in the manner of touching this fifh ; 
for, if his fingers were quite extended, and he touch- 
ed the fifh lightly with them, he received no da- 
mage ; but if tJiey were bent, and the knuckles laid 
upon it, efpecially the joint of the thumb, then the 
flrong vibrations produced a cramp. From hence he 
concluded, that the tendons, and nervous ligaments 
of the joints, being exquifitely fenfible, were very 
much affedted with the violent and repeated flrokes 
of the fifh, which produced a cramp in the fame 
manner as a blow upon the elbow. However, Mr, 
Reaumur afhrm.s, he could never procure any fuch 
trembling, or vibration of the fifh that Borelli fpeaks 
of ; and he is confident, the numbnefs proceeds from 
the velocity of one fmgle flroke, which is equal to 
that of a mulket ball. ^Accordingly, a perfon, who 
feels this pain, imagines his fingers are af^eiSted with 
a violent ftroke. As a proof of this he informs us 
that, before the fifh gives this flroke, he draws up his 
back quite round, which was before deprefled and 
fiat. 

The liver is divided into two lobes, placed on each 
fide, and joined together by nothing but a fmall 
llring. 1 he Icomach is large as well as the gut ; 
which laft proceeds diredly to the vent. The fiefn 
of this filh is feldom or never eaten, as being very 
unwhclefome, for it is moifl, foft, fungous, and of an 
ill tafte. 

The AMERICAN CR.AMP-FISH is one foot 
nine inches long, and nine inches broad, having fins 
on each fide like a Ray. The head ends in the 
fliape of a cone ; and the mouth is on the under 
part, and void of teeth. 1 he fore part of the bo- 
dy, to the length of eight inches, is in the fhape of 
a heart ; but the remaining part is roundiih, and on- 



46 THE NATURAL HIS1*0RY 

ly a little deprefied. The number and place of the 
iins agree with other cartilaginous iiih of this kind ; 
it is covered with a foft fkin of the colour of glue 
on the upper part, variegated with duflcy and whit- 
ifh blue fpots. The fore part underneath is white, 
and the hinder of a flefh colour, mixed with white. 
If it be touched in the middle it caufes the joints to 
tremble. 

Dan:pier takes notice of two forts of Rays, hefides 
the Whip-ray, which are found in the bay of Cam- 
peachy, called the STING RAY and the RASP-RAY. 
They are much of the fame fhape ; but the former 
has tliree or four Ilrong fharp prickles, near two inches 
long, at tlie root of the tail, that are faid to be ve- 
romous ; but the reft of the fkin is fmooth. The 
Rafp ray has a rough knotty Ikin, of which they 
make a fort of rafps. The Ikins of the largeft are 
{o vo\}ght \.h3.t.t\iQ Spaniard y in fome places, ufe them 
for grating their cafavy or manioc, of which bread is 
made in the Weft-Indies. The fmaller fkins are em- 
ployed in making covers for Surgeons inftrument- 
cafes, and the like. 

©®®®®®©*®®@@'@'®®®®-®'®@®® 

CHAP IV. 

Of anomalous Tijh a kin to the Cartilaginous. 

THE FROG-FJSH. or TOAD-FISH, by fome 
called the Sea Devil, feems to be of a mid- 
dle nature, between the Cartilaginous anu the Bony; 
but it more probably belongs to thefe, becaufe it 
generates in the fame manner. The head is rather 
bigger than the reft of the body, and is of a round 
or circular fhape. The mouth is exceeding large, 
and inclines a little to the upper part of the heai, 
like that of the Star-gazer. On the head, not far 
from the corner of the upper jaw, there are two 
long ftrings, which this filh is faid to make ufe of 
as anglers do filhing lines. Both the jaws are arm- 
td with long fliarp teeth ; and there are alfo teeth 

in 



'Fa^ 4^. 



4-S 




•zoS 



f^um^r^^ya»/wr-. 




O F F I S H E S. 47 

in the palate, and at the root of the tongue, which is 
large and broad. The back is fiat, and of a grey 
colour, with fomewhat of a reddiih and greenifh caft. 
On the middle of the back, there are three briftles 
or firings, that feem to be in the room of a fin ; 
and round the circumference of the body, there are 
feveral llrings hanging in the manner of fins. On 
the lower part of the body, under the throat, two 
fins are placed, which referable the feet of a mole ; 
by the affillance of which they creep at the bottom 
of the fea. The flefh of this fifli is white when 
boiled, and has the tafte of that of a Frog. 

The American TOAD-FISH is very fmall, be- 
ing but four inches long, from the tip of the fnout 
to the end of the tail. The mouth is large, and 
armed with exceeding fharp teeth ; and the eyes are 
{o fmall, that they are no bigger than a grain of 
millet. Between the eyes, and the middle of the fore- 
head, there is a horn which Hands upright, only it 
bends a little backwards ; and before it there is a 
flender thread, about half an inch long, hanging fore- 
wards, which it can draw back, and hide within a 
pit on the top of the head. In the middle of the 
body, on each fide, there is an arm with one joint, 
which terminates in a fin, armed with prickles, which 
run through the length of it, and are like eight fharp 
nails : it has no fcales, but is covered on the belly 
with a foft fkin ; but on the other parts it is rough. 
The colour is of a dark red, waved with black 
fpots. It can blow up its flomach like a bladder, 
and then appears like a Sea-orb. 

The WATER'BAT, or SEA-UNICORN, called 
by the Brafilians GuACucLnA, is eight inches long, 
and five broad. The hinder part of the body is 
round, and towards the tail there is a fin like a cone, 
which terminates in a point. The head can hardly 
be dillinguiihed from the body ; and between the 
eyes there is a horn, which is very hard, and near 
two inches long. The mouth is without teeth ; and, 
on the middle of each fide there is an arm, which 
terminates in a fin, a? in the former. 1 he fkin is 
not covered with fcales, and it is brown above, 

marked 



4S THE NATURAL HISTORY 
marked with feveral hard tubercles or warts j and on 
each fide there are eleven black fpots, of the fize 
and ftiape of a lentil, placed two and two together. 
The lower part of the body is of a light red ; and, 
perhaps, this fifh might be properly placed among 
the Sea-orbs. 

C H A P. V. 

Of oviparous Fifi, nxjhich are generally hony, and baue 
Spines in the Flejh. 

THE TURBOT, fo called in the fouthern part 
of England, but in the northern a BRETT 
is the largeft of all this kind, the Holibut ex- 
cepted, though it feldom exceeds a yard in length, 
nor two feet and a half in breadth. It has no fcales, 
but a rough granulated fkin, full of exceeding fmall 
prickles, placed without order, on the upper part of 
the body, where the colour is afli, and diverfified 
with a great number of black fpots ; fome of which 
are large, and others fmall. The lower part is 
white. At the roots of the fms, about the circum- 
ference, there are no prickles ; and this fifh approaches 
nearer the ihape of a Rhombus than any other of 
this kind. 

The mouth of a Turbot is proportionably wider 
than that of the Plaice, and it has a greater number 
of teeth, both in the jaws and on the palate. The 
rofirils are not placed in the fame line with the back* 
fin, but below it ; and the eyes ftand on the left fide, 
or, to fpeak more intelligibly, on the right fide of 
the mouth. There is likewife a greater diffcance be- 
tween them, and they are farther from the back than 
in others of the fame kind. The liver is pale, th^ 
fplecn red, and the gut has but one fold. '1 he flo- 
mach is very large, the kidneys long, and the uri- 
nary bladder pretty capacious. It is taken very fre- 
quently in the Briiljh and Gennm ocean; and the 
fleih is white, firm, delicate, and vvholefome, being 

much 



f.wc4T 



n'y/u/M/f ^Ama-ty^/^f/i ! 




f^JaZ -tJ/Mz/ . 




J/M/i^/a/j-^/^-^^ 




I 



O F F ,r S H E S. 4s? 

much preferable to that of any other flat fifh. It is 
a fi(h of prey, and lives upon others, p:irticularly 
fmall Crabs, for which reafon it lies near ttie mouths 
of creeks and great rivers. 

The KITT, fo called in Com^jalU is a f- 
Flat-fiih, with prominent eyes that are iac? ■ 
clbfe together to the right of the mouth, 
fin begins near the mouth, and reaches to 
The fleih is good, and well tailed, eating n. 
that of a Turbot, which fifh it refembies. 
fpeckled all over very thick with black ijo: . 
there are fome of a brighter colour between \\. 

The CORNISH FLOUNDER, or WHIFF, .. 
hard rough Ikin, which is of a dirty aih-colour 
fleih is bad, and in no manner of eileem. 

The PEARL, fo called by the Londoners^ b it, 
the inhabitants of Cornn.vall, LUG-ALEx^F. It -; 
fers from others of this kind in having a fcaly b.v. 
and from a Plaice in the rough lines or prick.c. 
which furround the roots of the fins ; in having the 
eyes on the right fide, to the left of the mou'Ii 
£iid the back-fin, on this fide the eyes, arifm^ nea. 
the mouth, and running almoll to the tail. Befides, 
at the beginning of the fin, which is placed behind 
the vent, there is no prickle ; and the diftance of 
the eyes is greater than in a Plaice. The body is 
cf an afn colour, and the tail is round ; but in mod: 
other things it refembles a Turbot. 

The PLAICE is on the upper part of a dirty 
olive colour, or brown, and fpeckkd with round red 
fpots ; of which there are forne alf:) on the fins. 
There is no roughnefs at the roots of the fins, ana 
the fcales, if any, are exceeding fmall, and lie in 
round cavities. The eyes are on the right fide, to 
the left of the mouth ; and, at the upper edp-e o, 
the coverings of the gills, there are {^^'Q^ci bony tu 
bcrcles or warts ; the fifth, from the eyes, behig 
higheil and largelL There is one row of te. th in. 
both jaws ^nd a duller of teeth on the palate. O i: 
of the notlrils is fcated on the upper (iue near th.. 
eyes ; and the other on the lover fide under \.\ . 
eyes ; lii^evvife the tail is long, ani roundiih at tlij r • ' 

Vol. IH. U 



50 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The liver is long, undivided, and red ; the gall- 
bladder large, and the fpleen blacklfh. There are 
three kidneys, which are joined to a large urinary- 
bladder by a long dudl. It is a very common fiih, 
and the flefh is foft, fweet, pleafant, and wholefome ; 
but not fo good as that of a Soal. Some of thefe 
filh have grown to the length of a foot, and to the 
breadth of feven inches. 

I'he DAB is a litde thicker than a Plaice, but 
much of the fame fize. They have pretty large fcales, 
which are rough on the edges, in which it differs 
from a Plaice, as well as in not having any tubercles 
near the head, nor red fpots. But the fituation of 
the eyes is like that of a Plaice, and the colour, on 
the upper part, is. of a dirty olive, with a reddifh 
call ; and there are fome fpcts of a duiky yellow. 
The mouth is of a middle fize, and there is one 
row of teeth on both jaws. This fiih is very com- 
mon on the fea coalls of England ; and the flelh is 
firmer, and is preferred by fome to that of a Plaice. 

The FLOUNDER of Jamaua is about fix inches . 
long, and four and a half broad. It is white on 
the lower part or belly, and the back is covered 
with minute brown fcales, and there are fix or fe- 
ven tranfverfe black lines thereon. There is a fin 
that almoll furrounds the whole body, and a crook- 
ed line that runs along the fide^ from the head to 
the tail. The Homach is not very thick, and the 
fmall guts have feveral turnings backwards and for- 
wards. 

FLOUNDER, FLUKE, or BUT, is in fhape much 
like a Plaice, only the body is a little longer ; and 
when full grown it is thicker. The olive-colour is 
more dirty, and fometimes brown with dufky fpots ; 
for they are not red as in a Plaice ; however, they 
have fometimes been obferved to be yellowifh, as well 
on the body as the furrounding fins. In the upper 
part of the furrounding fins there is a row of prickles, 
which bend backwards ; and the eyes are on the right 
fide, to the left of the mouth. The fcales are ex- 
ceeding fmall, and ftick fo clofe to the fkin that it 
does not appear to be rough. The lateral line is 

com- 



C F F I S K E S. 51 

compofed of fraall prickles, from whence arifes the 
roughnefs that may be felt along it, from the head 
to the tail. The mouth is fmall, the tongue nar- 
row, and there is a row of teeth in both jaws. 

The FLOUNDER is both a fea and a river filh ; 
but the latter is not fo black, and is more foft than 
the former ; which difference feems to arife from the 
difference of the food in thefe places. They are in 
feafon all the year, except in June and July^ which 
is the time of their fpawning, and then they are fick 
and flabby, and infefted with worms that breed ia 
their backs. The ilelh is foft, white, and nouriih- 
ing, but is always bell: when it is moll: firm. When 
in the river it delights to lie on fandy or gravelly- 
bottoms, efpecially at the declivity of a deep hole 
near the bank. 

The THORNY BUT, of Rondelet'ms, isof a green- 
ifh alh-colour on the upper part, but on the belly 
v/hite. Jt has no fcales; but the fkin on the back 
is marked with lines, divided almoll in the fame 
manner as the fkins of ferpents. The eyes are plac- 
ed to the right of the mouth ; and this fifh fometimes 
grows to a great bulk. 

The S;V]OOTH BUT, of Rondeletius, is like the 
Thorny- but in ihapS and in other refpc£b, both with- 
in and without, except the prickles, which it is en- 
tirely deftitute of; befides which it is brcider and not 
fo thick, and the flefh is fofter and fweeter than that 
of a Plaice. 

The RIIOMBOIDES is like a Plaice, but differs 
from it in being covered with fmall fcales, and in 
having the eyes at a great diilance from each other. 
The body is fmall and fliort, not exceeding the palm 
of a man V hand. 



D 2 CHAP 



512 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

CHAP. vr. 

Of Flat-f/hy twith longer Bodies, 

THE HOLIBUT, or HALIBUT, called in the 
north of England a Turbot, is the largeft of 
all flat-fifh in thefe parts of the world, for it great- 
ly exceeds a Turbot, and is of a longer make. One 
of thefe fifli being meafured was found to be a yard 
long, and about half a yard broad; but there are 
many of a much larger fize. The colour of the up- 
per part of the body is of a dufky green or black- 
iih, and the fcales are fmall. There is no roughnefs 
thereon, nor are there any prickles at the roots of 
the fins. The eyes are placed on the right-fide, or to 
the left of the mouth. The fins are at a greater diftance 
from the head than in other Flat-fifh. It has a double 
row of teeth in the upper and lower jaw, which are a 
little crooked at the ends, and very fharp. The tongue 
is very llifF, and at the bottom there are two places full 
of a great number of fmall fharp teeth ; there are like- 
wife very fharp prickles on the gills. It is an inhabitant 
of the Ge>man and Britjh ocean, as a!fo of the Ir-j?j fea. 
The flefh is very good, but noi fo delicate as that of a 
Turbot. 

The SOLE is a longiHi flat-fifh, in fhape like the fole 
cf a fhoe, from whence it has its name, it is fometimes 
to be met with a foot in length, and fometimes a little 
longer. The upper part is of a dark aih-colour, and the 
lower white ; and it is covered v/ith rough fcales. The 
lateral line paffes direclly from the head to the tail, 
through the middle of both fides. The corners of the 
mouth are rough, with a fort of fniall briftles or hairs ; 
and the body is furrounded withfhort fins, which on the 
upper edge begin near the eyes, and are continued to the 
tail. The eyes are placed on the left fide of the head» 
and are fmall, round, and covered with a loofe fkin. 
1 he pupils are fmall, and of a fliining green ; and the 
tail is round. The flelh is more firm and folid than that 
of a Plaice; and for fweetnefs of talle, and the plenty 

of 



O F F I S H E S. 53 

of nourlihrnent it affords, far exceeds it ; for which rea- 
fon it is called in fome countries the Sea-partridge. 

i he LINGUATULA, fo called at Rome, and by 
Belontui POL A, is of the fhape of a Sole, from which 
however it differs in many refpefts ; for it is lefs by half 
than a full grown Sole, and is fhorter in proportion to its 
bulk ; the colour is lighter and whiter, and thefcales are 
much greater The vent is placed on the lower part of 
the body, and not on the edge ; and the eyes are on the 
righ:-iide, or to the left of the mouth. 

The LINGUADO, fo called by the Portugue^^ie, and 
by the firafJians ARi\MACA, is in Ihape like a com- 
mon Sole, and differs from it in having the gill fins ter- 
minating in flender hairs ; and perhaps in colour, for 
Marcgrave fays it is of a ftone colour. 

CHAP. VII. 

Of Fijh cf the Eel kind, thut ivant the helly-fins. 

THE MURCENA, is by the writers of Evgl-Jh die 
tionaries called a LAMPREY, but very improper- 
ly ; however, we have no Englijh name for it. The bo- 
dy is broader and iiatier than that of an Eel, with a long- 
er fharp and flat fnout. The colour is a mixture of black- 
ifh yeliow and gold colour ; and the mouth opens ex- 
ceeding wide. At the end of the fnout there are two 
fliort hollow appendages ; and above the eyes there are 
another pair, that are thicker but fhorter. Some think 
thefe excrefcences ierve for hearing and fmelling. The 
eyes are feated in the upper jaw, in the fpace between the 
end of the fnout and the corners of the mouth. There 
is a fin aiifes not far from the head, in the middle of the 
back, and is continued to the tail. 

Lampreys, in general, have around or oval mouth, 

with a hole or pipe on the top of the Ihout, as in the 

Cetaceous kind. There are feven holes on each fide, 

which fexve inftead cf gills, where there «re no fins nor 

D 3 yet 



54 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

yet on the belly ; by which they are diftinguiftied from 
all other fiih of this kind ; that is the long and flippery. 

The Lamprey, of the middle kind, is by the Gerfnans 
and Dutch called a BRiCK, and is not above a foot in 
length, being marked with tranfverfe blackifh lines. 

1 he Lamprey, or LAMPERN, or pride of the J/is, 
fo called by Dr. Ploit, is brown or livid on the back ; 
and the belly is of a fdver colour. It is about five or fix 
inches in length, with a round mouth, furnifhed with fix 
or feven teeth. When the mouth adheres to a rock or 
itone it is entirely Ihut ; and then the hole abovemen- 
tioned ferves to take in water, w hich is difcharged again 
by the holes of the gills, by fome called the fcvcn holes 
that are placed on each fide near the head. The eyes 
are of a palifh yellow, and covered with a cuticle ; and- 
the belly rifes and falls much in the fame manner as in a- 
nimals that breathe. 

The liver is undivided, and the capfule of the heart 
is almofl: bony, which is probably dcfigned by nature as 
a guard or fecurity for it ; becaufe this hfh has no bones, 
no not fo much as a back bone. The flefli is foft and 
glutinous, for which reafon it is generally potted before 
it is eaten ; and even then it is more pleafant to the pa- 
late than healthful to the body. The time of fpawning 
is in April. There are two fins on the back, the hinder 
of which joins to the tail, and to the fin behind the 
vent. There are great numbers of thefe fifli in the river 
Merfey^ that runs between Chejhire and Lancajhire j there 
are alfo fome in the //^, a river near Oxford. 

The Lamp R E Y oi Si.viJJeriand is very common in that 
country, and has a large mouth armed with very Iharpi 
(lender teeth. The gills on each fide are covered v/ith 
fmall folded ears, v*'hich are fibrous and glewy ; and 
there are four fins on the breafl ; of which two are in the 
middle, and the other pair on the fides; but thefe are 
longer and broader than the firll. From the vent to the 
extremity of the tail there runs another fm with blr.ck 
edge?, and another on the back near the tail ; both 
which are full of furrows. The colour of the body is 
of a greenilh yellow, marked here and there with black 
fpots. The belly is white, and the furface of the b(-dy 
is covered with flime inftead of fcales. Through the fkin 



OF FISHES. 55 

may be perceived the interftices of above thirty mufcles ; 
and under the fcarf -ficin, from the tail to the eyes and 
noftrils, on each fide, there runs a large lymphatic vef- 
fel, which has as many valves as there are interfaces be- 
tween the mufcles, from which many branches proceed 
upwards and downwards. This has its origin in the head, 
and is full of a clear fluid, which ferves to lubricate the 
body. Near the vent there is a blood veiTel, which runs 
along the furface of the belly as far as the four fins on 
the breaft, and from thence proceeds tranfverfely from 
one fin to the other. This vein throws oiF branches 
to each interilice of the mufcles, but it does not feem 
to have any valves, nor any communication with the 
iymphatick vefTels. At the bottom of the belly there 
are two holes, the larger of which penetrates into the 
belly and gut, and the other into the bladder, which is 
joined to the lail gut, and is full of water. The tongue 
is fhort and fleihy, and the holes of the noflrils are very 
vifible ; the length of the intellines, with the liomach 
and gullet, is half a yard. This differs gieatly from 
the Lamprey-ee], and why it is called a Lamprey does 
not appear from the defcription. 

The LAMPREY-EEL is much larger than the former, 
fome of them being three yards long. The body about 
the gills is near fourteen inches in circumference ; and 
the fkin is of a blackifh colour, marked with pale angu- 
lar fpots. The mouth is round, with which it adheres to 
a piece of wood, ora flone, as if it was fucking it, and 
cannot be parted from it without difficulty. The flcin is 
tough, and yet they do not take it off to drefs it. It 
has a hole in the head like the Lampern, and there arefe- 
ven holes on each fide of the head, under which thegill» 
are concealed. On the top of the head there is a white 
fpot, and the edge of the mouth is jagged; the teeth 
are placed within the mouth, and thofe that Itand fartheft 
backwards are largefl. It has no bones but a griflle 
down the back full of marrow, which fliould be 'taken 
out before it is drelt. In fhort they referable a Lampern 
in all things. 

They are inhabitants of the fea, but come into the ri- 
vers to fpawn, where they are found in great plenty, and 
they may be difcovered by the froth which rifes from. 
D 4 thei» 



S6 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

them. They are moft in feafcn in Marchy when they 
firft enter the rivers, and are full of fpawn. Jn April 
they make holes in a gravelly bottom, where they depo- 
fit their fpawn ; and if they meet with a ftone of two 
pound weieht, they will remove it, and throw it out. 

The BLirsD LAMPREY is round and flender, and 
not much bigger than our large V/orms, ufuaJly called 
Dew-worms and il/^y worms. It has no fcales, and its 
body is divided into fmall rings, by tranfverfe lines, in 
the manner of Worms. The rings are about eighty- four 
in number, and the racuth is round and always open ; 
but.it has neither teeth nor tongne. There is a hole on 
the head, and feven holes on each fide, inftead of gills 
as in the former. There is a YELLOW LAMPREY, 
which differs only in colour, but not in kind from the ri- 
ver Lamprey. 

The SEA SERPENT is about f ve feet in length, and 
has a body exa6lly round, (lender, and of an equal thick- 
nefs, except near the tail, where it grows fenfibly lefs. 
The upper part of the body is of a dulky yellow, like 
the dark fide of parchment or vellum j but the lower 
part is of a brightiih blue. The fnout is long, flender, 
and fharp ; and the mouth opens enormoully wide. 
Near the end of the lower jaw thtre are four or five large 
teeth bending inwards, but the reft are fo fmall as hard- 
ly to be perceived. The upper jaw has likcwiTe four 
large ones, and the reft are as fmall as in the lower. 
The eyes are little, of a gold colour, and fpeck ed with 
brown, and are covered v.iih a thick tranfparent fkin. 
It has only one pair of iins, which arc placed at the gills ; 
but there is a fn on the back, which rifcs a little below 
the gill hns, and reaches v/.thin an inch of the tail, but 
is not flat, as in an Eel, but round. '1 he belly- fin, or that 
which is feated on the lower part of the body, begins at 
the vent, and ends about £-n inch on this f)de the tail. 
The holes of the gills are at feme diftance from the head 
as in Eels. The flelli is very well tafted and delicate, but 
is full of very fmali bones, and therefore cannot be eaten 
without fomc trouble. It is taken very frequently in the 
Mediterrcncan fca. 

The FLAT-l^AILED SEA SERPENT is not fo large 
by above a third part as the former, 'i'he tail is not 

round. 



OFFISHES. ^-j 

round, but flat as in an Eel, and has fins thereon, as on 
the fame fiHi. The MYRUS, of Ron iektius, is like the 
former, but not the fame ; and the edges of the back 
and vent fins are black as in the Conger- eel, which mark 
likevvife belongs to the two former. 

The SPOT FED SEA SERPENT is above three feet 
in length, though not three inches thick. It is wholly 
round, and marked on the fides with a double rowof fpots 
of a yellow blackifh colour. 

The LIVID SEA SERPENT is three feet and feveii 
inches long, andan inch and a half in breadth where it 
is broadeft. The head is long^ and ends in a point ; 
and the jaws are prominent, and are both armed with 
many terrible fharp teeth. The lower jav/ is longer than 
the upper, and ends in a callous fubftance. The tongue 
is long, and fhaped like the head of an arrow ; the eyes 
are round, and an inch in diameter ; and there are two 
fms at the giiis, and one on the back, which runs its 
whole length ; there is another from the vent to the tail, 
which is forked at the end. The whole body is ileek, 
deflitute of fcales, and of a livid colour ; and the llefh is 
full of bones. The ilomach, when opened, was found 
full of fmall fiih, and the guts had only one or two folds. 
The blind-gut was very long, and was extended to the 
vent. The diaphragm, or midriff was membranous, 
and the liver large, having a gall-bladder, with a bile 
that looked like water. This fi{h v/as taken near the 
Tropick of Cancer. 

Th& VIPER- MOUTH FISH is faid to grow to a vaft 
fize, but that which was caught was only eighteen inches 
long. The mouth is exceffive wide, and both the jaws 
are armed with long deftruclive teeth, particularly two 
in each jaw, which are fo long as not to be admitted 
within the mouth. Moll of thefe long teeth have an 
angular bending towards their ends in a very fmgular 
manner. It is without fcales, and marked all over v/itli 
fix cornered divifions. In general it is of a very odd 
Urudlure, and makes a mo'i formidable appearance. It 
was taken in the harbour oi Gibraltar, and is now m Sir 
Hans Sloan's Mufaeum. 

The ^FRIC.4NSE/i SERPfiNT, called by .^.^5^ the 

Afrkan Conger, is on the upper part of the body of a 

D 5 • jel. 



5? THE NATURAL HISTORY 

yellowifti red, and the fides are curioufly painted with 
red and brown fpots, which at a dilTance look like 
coats of arms. Below thefe fpots, on the fides of the 
belly, is a double row of round fpots of a lighter red, 
and the belly is of a bright brown. On the back and 
tail there are fins like thofe cf Eels, but the head is like 
that of a Serpent. 

The^F/?/C^A^MUR^NA has two fmall fins on 
each fide the head like thofe of Eels, and the upper part 
of the body is covered with fmall thin fquarifh fcales, aih- 
coloured and red, and ihaded with large ftreaks of a bay 
"brown, which run acrofs the back near the belly, and which 
are whitiih, foft, and void of fcales. Its long head ter- 
minates in a pointed fnout, and is fpecklcd with black ; 
the eyes are lively, the tongue forked, and the tail above 
and below furnilhed with prickles. Jt is neither proper- 
ly an Eel nor a Serpent, it being amphibious, for it fome- 
times is met with on the land, but is more com- 
monly in the fea. 

The EAST INDIAN MUR^NA has a great refem- 
blance to the common Mun-ena, and is the largeft of 
thefe fort of fiih. The fnout is long, flat, and termi- 
nating in a blunt point, which makes it look like the 
bill of a bird. The eyes are placed a little back- 
ward, and on each fide the jaw, there are fins finely 
fpoited ; but there are no more. The whole body 
is of a yellowilh afh-colour, and fpeckled with green 
and poppy colours, fome of which are round, and 
diilributed in the form of flames ; and there are twa 
whitifti ftieak?, which run from the head to the end of 
the tail, which i- flcnder and pointed. The belly and 
£ns are yellovvifh, variegated with fliort ftreaks and 
black fpots. 

The BRASIL MUR^ENA has a dulky brown Ikin 
with large greenilh fpots. They look like fo many 
Arahick charafters, fpotted with black in the middle 
of the body ; and on the back, and under the belly,- 
there are two fins which advance to the tail and ren- 
der it broader. The female has fpots of a paler 
green. 

The AMERICAN MUR^ENA is a fort of Serpent 

withou; eyes, and its fkin is fmooth, void of fcale*, 

I ^^dl 



O F F r S H E S. ^9^ 

and of a yellowifli afli-colour, in which it differs from, 
land Serpents, which are always fcaly. The whole body^ 
from the mouth to the tail, is circled with rings of red- 
diih and brown colours placed at equal dillances ; and 
the back is marked with a fine bright black flreak, which, 
extends from the extremity of the nofe to the end of thft 
tail. At the end of the nofe there is a tubercle or wart» 
and the noftrils are fmall ; the tongue is long andi 
forked. 

The AMERICAN SEA SERPENT, or MUR^^ 
Ni^, has a fkin void of fcales of a dark green grafs co- 
lour, marked with fpots of a brownifh forrel colour in 
the manner of a Tyger ; and the belly is of the feme 
colour, only it is lighter, and the fpots are not fo, 
deep. The head is a little bunched, the eyes are 
large and fparklJng, and the tongue forked. It has 
neither teeth nor noftrils, but on the nofe there are- 
two iharp tubercles, and the tail terminates in a. 
point. 

The SEA SERPENT, of Surinam, is very like a 
Mursena, and the back is of a bay brown colour, circled 
with bright alh coloured rings irregularly placed. The. 
belly is reddilh, and marked with circular fpots, that are 
irregularly difperfed between the rings. The head i& 
fmooth and flat, the eyes brilliant, the tongue fork- 
ed, and on the nofe there are four whitifh brow^n fpots, 
but it has no noflrils nor teeth though it feeds up- 
on water frogs. 

The EEL has a fmall head, in proportion to its 
bulk, a litde flatted before, but more round behind,, 
with a long body a little flatted on the iides, and 
principally from the vent to the tail. It is flippery, 
and feems to be without fcales, becaufe they are not 
to be perceived unlefs the Ikin is dried ; the lower 
jaw is longer than the upper, and there aje four- 
holes, namely two before, that is one on each fide the end 
of the fnout, and two backward, juft before the eyes, 
which are the noflrils. The eyes are placed on each 
£de the head, and are round, fmall, and covered with 
a thick fkin that is a little tranfparent ; the Iris is; 
reddifli, and the Pupil blackifli, fmall, and round. 
Tliere are £niall holes on both the jaws, which are 
D 6 abojiit 



6o THE NATURAL HISTORY 

about fixteen in number on the lower, and many 
more on the upper. The membrane of the gills is 
fullained on each fide by fix fmall bones, or crook- 
ed flender fpines, which do not appear outwardly on 
account of the thicknefs of the fkin. There are fe- 
veral rows of fmall teeth in the lower jaw, as well 
as in the upper ; and there is a dentated bone on 
the fore part of the palate, which is longitudinally 
placed, and contiguous to the teeth of the jaws ; 
there are alfo two {mall oblong dentated bones, 
feated upwards, towards the throat, and as many down- 
wards towards the gills, which are more oblong, and 
lefs dentated. The tongue is fmooth, but immove- 
able, and is fupported in the middle by a hard bone. 
The gills have never an opening, either upwards or 
downwards, but only on the fore part near the fins 
on the breaft. It is only a fmall hole, about a quar- 
ter of an inch in length, placed perpendicularly. I h« 
lateral line is flrait, and fomewhat nearer the back 
on the fore part, but it divides the body equally in 
two, from the anus to the tail, and has a row of 
points at the bottom of the line. The back, th« 
fides, and the fins are of a blackiih grey colour ; 
but in feme forts of Eels, grcenilh efpecially, whew 
they are fat, and the belly is of a whitilh yellow. 
The vent is nearer the head than the tail, and thert 
are three fins in all, namely two on the breaft near 
the gilb, which are fmall and blackifh, and com- 
pofed of eighteen or nineteen fpines, of which thoft 
on the edges are fmall, and thofe in the middle long 
and branched at the point. The back-fin is fingle, 
and begins at a diftance from the head, running al- 
moft round the body in length, and extending from 
the tail to the vent. It confifts of many fpines fork- 
ed at the end, and about a quarter of an inch long. 
The tail, or the extremity of the back-fin, is neither 
round nor fquare at the top, but rather a little pointed. 
There are four g;iils on each fide, furniflied on the 
convex part with vefiTcls that appear like blood vef- 
fels. The heart is four fquare, or rather a little co- 
nical, with a white aorta, a reddilh pale liver, di- 
vided into two lobes, of which the left is the larg- 
er 



O F F I S H E S. 6i 

eft, and a great gall-bladder feparated fome dillancc 
from the liver. The gullet is long, and the lloniach, 
which is placed under the liver, is longifh and re- 
flected upwards, but crooked downwards, and made fo 
by a long thick appendage that reaches to the vent. 
The gut, which runs diredlly downwards from the 
liver to the vent, has no appendage ; and the ipleen 
is triangular, and lies under the ftomach. The air- 
bladder is fingle, and conneded with the fpine of 
the back ; the kidneys are large, and are extended 
along the fpine of the back, but the thickeft part is 
towards the vent, and they feem to be lodged as in 
a bafon. The vertebrae, or bones of the back are 
one hundred in number, flatted on the fides, and fmall 
towards the tail. 

With regard to the generation of Eels, authors art 
divided in their opinions ; for Arijiotle afliires us, 
that he could find no difi^erence of {^xts, nor yet 
any parts of generation, for which reafon they have 
been thought by many to proceed from the putre- 
fadlions of mud on the fides of ponds and rivers. 
Pliny talks much in the fame manner, and affirms 
that, though there are neither male nor female, they 
will rub themfelves againft rocks and ftones, and by 
that means detach particles or fcales from their bo- 
dies that quicken by degrees, and afterwards become 
fmall Eels. Some maintain that they couple, and that 
at the fame inllant they flied a kind of vifcofity, 
which, being retained in the mud, gives birth to a 
great number of the fame animals. 

Ro7ideletius informs us, that he has feen Eels fpavvn 
together, and he thinks they cannot want the parts 
of generation fmce at the lower part of the body 
there is a vulva in the female, and fern en in the 
male ; but then thefe parts are fo covered with fat, 
as well as the fpawn, that they do not appear. 
Redi, a Florentine^ afl'ures us, th^t all the Eels in the 
river Arno defcend every year in Auguji into the fea 
to produce their young, and return regulaily every 
year from February to April. 

Boeclevy and other Moderns think, that they pro- 
ceed from eggs j for though they are brought forth 

alive^ 



62 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

alive, and upon that account may be faid to be vi- 
viparous, yet it does not follow from thence that 
they may not be produced from eggs in their bodies. 
Others again are as confident that all Eels produce 
fpawn ; but, as we have no certain account of this 
matter, we mull leave this difpute undetermined. 

An Eel contains a great deal of oil, thick phlegm, 
and volatile fait, and thofe are beft that are taken 
in the cleareft water. The fiefh is tender, foft, and 
nouriftiing, becaufe it is full of oily balfamic par- 
ticles ; but then it is hard of digeftion, and is bad 
for thofe that have weak ilomachs ; however, they 
are better when they are faked, becaufe the fait cor- 
re£ls the phlegm, and in fome meafure imbibes it. 
Eels are generally eaten boiled, but they are better 
broiled or roafted on account of their clamminefs ; 
they ought likewife to be well feafoned, and two or 
three glafles of wine fhould be drank after to help, 
digeftion. But, let them be dreffed which way they 
will, they are never very agreeable to weak ftomachs, 
and they are apt to caufe obftru(5lions ; but they will 
do no harm to thofe of ftrong robuft conftitutions, 
provided they are not eaten to excefs. Some great- 
ly recommend the pov^der of the liver, and gall mix- 
ed together, in hard labours ; and the dofe is a fcruple 
or two in a glafs of wine. Others advife the pow- 
der of an Eel-ikin againft a fuppreffion of urine, and 
there are inftances of its fuccefs when every thing 
elfe has failed. A Lady in particular, that had had 
this diforder for three days, and took fome of this 
powder in a glafs of wine, and in fix hours time 
Jlie made a prodigious quantity of urine, mixed with 
gravel and fand- Some phyficians pretend, that the 
tet of an Eel put into the ear, with a bit of cot- 
ton, will cure deafnefs ; others ufe it to take away 
the fpots of the fmall pox, to cure the piles, and to 
make the hair grow. 

The EEL of Senegal is very fat, and of an ex- 
traordinary thicknefs, in which it chiefly differs from 
other Eels. The negroes dry the iiefh in the fua 
or in the fmoke, for which reafon the greateft part 
are fpoiled ; but thofe that are rich enough to pur- 
chase 



O F F I S H E S. 63 

chafe fait, dry them in the fmoke after they are fak- 
ed, and drive a confiderable trade with them among 
the inhabitants of the inland countries. 

Seba gives the name of Sea-eel to two forts of 
Sea-ferpents ; the firft of which was fent from /Ame- 
rica, This has a fnout as hard as horn, which ter- 
minates in a point like the bill of a bird ; and 
there are two fins for fvvimming under the lovicer 
jaw. The head is covered with broad fcales, and 
the upper part of the body is of a yellow colour, 
variegated with yellow, oval, and red fpots ; the fins 
are of a red colour like thofe of Perches, and the 
fcales of the belly are of a yellowifh afh colour, but 
they are laid on in a very irregular manner. Some 
place this fifh in the clafs of Conger-eels, though it 
feems to be more like a Serpent. 

The fecond kind only differs from the former in 
its ornaments ; for, inftead of fpots, it has five ftripes 
of a fea-green colour, which feem to be the work 
of fome artift, and they are extended over the red- 
difh fcales on the back ; the fins are red like coral, 
and the eyes, placed on the fore part of the muzzle, 
are fmall ; likewife the fcales on the belly are difpof- 
ed in an irregular order. 

Some authors divide Eels into four kinds ; namely 
the Silver-eel, the greenilh or greg, the red-finned, 
and the blackifh Eel. This lail has a broader, flat- 
ter, and larger head than the reft, and is counted 
the worft ; but whether thefe diftindlons are elTentlai, 
or accidental will admit of a doubt. The Gre^^ is 
thicker and Ihorter than the reft, and is of a darker 
colour. In the river Severn there are a fort of diminu- 
tive Eels, which at Glouajier and Teiukejbnry are cal- 
led Elvers, which are not thicker than a fmall nee- 
dle, and which fome take to be the fpawn of Con- 
ger-eels. The fifnermen take large quantities of them, 
which they make into cakes, that when fried eat very 
prettily. The method of the generation of Eels, as 
hinted at above, is unknown, though many gentlemen 
have made particular enquiries relating to that affair, 
but never could get any fatisfadion. Eels delight 
to lurk and hide themfelves in the mud, and yet they 

are 



64 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

are averfe to muddy water, becaufe, as fome pretend, 
they are liable to be fuftbcated by it. At a time of 
a Fiood tliey are often caught at mill-dams, and the 
like places in nets. They commonly fculk in the 
day time among weeds, under Hones or the roots of 
trees, or near bridges or mi;ls. Gaffer Schwcenckfie'd, 
in a book that treats of the fifh of Sdejia, aflerts that 
the fifhermen of that country take notice of fome- 
what very Hrange, and which he likewife has feen 
with his own eyes ; namely, that a Bleak not only 
produces fifh of its own kind, but alfo Eels ; for, 
in the month of April there are animalcula, which 
flick to the gills of a Bleak like fmall worms, or 
white threads rolled up into a ball, that, when they 
begin to move, drop oif into the water, and foon 
become pretty large, afiuming the Ihape of Eel-, but 
the truth of this llory mull depend on the credit of 
the author. 

The CONGER, or SEA-EEL is fomewhat like the 
common Eel, that is with regard to (hape, but dif- 
fers in fize, for fome Congers are feveral yards long, 
and as thick a^ a man':; thigh ; likewife. ths colour 
on the back is lighter, being more of an afh, and 
the belly is whiter. The eyes are larger in propor- 
tion, and the iris is of a filver colour ; and on the 
fides there is a flrait, white, broadilh line that feems 
to be compofed of a double row of points, that 
reaches from the head to the tail. The fin placed 
on the body has its upper edge blackifti throughout 
its whole length ; add to this, that the end of the 
fnout, or upper chap, is furnifhed with two fhort horns 
or tubes, from which a liquor may be fqueezed out. 
Some pretend the flefh is as fweet and good as that 
of an Eel ; but this is not true, for the tatte is not 
fo good by far, and it is much more hard of digef- 
tion. 

The greateft fpotted Indian CONGER, called a 
KOMMER-EEL by the Dutch, grows to the length 
of a man, and is proportionably thick. The body 
and fins are fpeckled with dufey fpots. 

The HORN FISH, or CAT FISH is common on 
the coafts of Firu in Amsrica, near Arica, It has no 

fcalesj^ 



O F F I S H E S. 6j 

fcales, and has a fine fkin vviih white flelh ; on each fide 
of the head there are barbs not unlike the whifkers of a. 
Cat. There is alfo many of them near St. Vhicent, 
one of the Cape de Verd ifland*, and it is called by tRs 
Frimch I\Jachoran. The Dutch name it the Little-beard- 
ed-man on account of ihe five long excreftences on the 
jaws. There are two fins below the eyes, one of which 
runs the whole length of the back, and ihe oiher that of 
the belly ; they are armed with a long poin ed horn, with 
wh'ch, if any one is pricked, it caufes the part to fwell 
Vvich exrream pain. There are many of thefe fifh near 
the Lee^'c.rd IJIands, where the flefh is dangerous eating, 
becaufe they often feed upon manchineel apple^ ; but on 
the coaft of Jfrica it is very wholefcme and well 
tafted. 

The SAND-EEL, or L AUNCE is a fi.fh in the fhape 
of an Eel, being round and long, but it feldom exceeds 
the length of a foot. It is pretty much like a Gar-fifh in 
Jhape and colour, being blue on the back, and of a fil- 
ver colour on the belly and fides. Jt has no fcale?, and 
has a fharp fnout, a wide mouth, void of teeth, and the 
lower jaw is longer than the upper. On the back there 
is a long fin, which, however, does not reach to the 
tail ; and there is a pair of fins at the gills, but there are 
none on the belly. I hey generally lye half a foot deep 
in the fand, and when the tide is out the filhermen of 
Ci?>7zwrr /, and the JJIt of Man, fearch for them with 
hooks made for that purpofe. The fieih is very fweet 
and good, and it is an excellent bait for oiher fifh. 
There is another fort of Sand-eel, which differs from 
the former in having two fins on its back, whereas that 
has only one. However, this has only one pair of fins 
that are placed at the gills, and there are none on the 
belly as in the former. 

The SEA-CRICKET is a fifh of the Cod or Whiting 
kind, and is fuppofed to be the fame that Pliny calls O- 
phidium, is in fhape like a Conger, though fhorter in 
proportion, for it is only nine inches long ; befides it is 
flatter on each fide, and of a lighter cc^our. Jt has four 
barbs or Ibings under its chin, two of which proceed 
from one root, and two from another. The tail fins are 
black on the edge as in tlie Conger, and there are fmall 

fcales 



66 THENATURAL HISTORY 

fcales that are of an unufual fhape and fituation, for they 
are narrow, longifli, and do not lye upon each other as 
in other fi(h, but are diftind, and placed in no maimer 
oT order. There is another fifh of this kind mentioned 
by Roruieletius without barbs, and it has a fin upon the 
back that reaches to the tail, which is fo prickly on the 
edges that, when this fifh is alive, it cannot fafely be 
handled. There are bla k fpots or fpaces on the back, 
which end at the fin. 

The CEFOLE of the Italians has a very long and 
(lender taii, and is of a carnatiop-colour, with a bluilh 
caft. The flefh and back bones are tranfparent, info- 
much that the joints may be eafily numbered. Jt has 
no fcales, and not far from the head, on the middle of 
each fide, there are filver fpots placed in a right line. 
The back-fin begins an inch below the head, and reaches 
to the tail, where it joins the belly fin ; but the greateft 
peculiarity of this rilh is its having the belly-fin three 
times as high as thi^t on the back, and it begins at the 
fnout, being io near that it fcarcely has room for the 
orifice of the excrements, which is placed almoft clofc 
to the corner of the lower jaw. 

The SEA WOLF has a fmooth body, being without 
fcales and very llippery. It is fomewhat in the fhape of 
an Eel, and is of a brownifn grey, and the fides are 
adorned with blackilli tranfverle fhades. The head is 
large, and fiat above the eyes, aud the cheeks feem to 
be fwelled and puffed out. It is a moft voracious fifh, 
and will bite hard with its terrible teeth. There are 
many of thefe that are large and flrong, as well before 
as thofe that are called Grinders Dr. Lijier faw one of 
thefe fifh at Scarborough in Torkjhire, that was taken, in 
the adjacent fea, which had all its teeth either broken or 
worn away, for there was not one whole among them. 
Dr. Merrit zffLYms, that hard flones, called toad-ftones, 
and efteemed as jewels, are nothing elfe but the grind- 
ers of this fifh. The fin on the back, which runs from 
the head to the tail, has very foft rays, and there i' ano- 
ther oppcfite to it, that runs from the vent to the tail. 
At the gills there are two roundifh and large fins. It 
is taken in the fea near Torkjhire and Northumberland^ 
surid is fometimes feen about a yard in leneth. 

The 



O F F I S H E S. (>y 

The LUMPEN, fo called in Flanders, has a roundifh 
body, but not fo round as an Eel, and towards the tail 
it is ilender. The colour is of a greenifn yellow, with 
black tranfverfe fpaces near the back, and the extremity 
of the tail is a little reddilli. It is fpeckled with dulky 
fpots all over the body, and inftead of pointed lateral 
lines there is a furrow that runs from the head to the 
tail down the middle of the fides. The mouth is large 
and round when it is open, and there is only one row of 
teeth in each jaw. The circle that furrounds the pupil 
is yellowifh, and it has no barbs, but under the throat 
there are a fort of wat-cles, for fins they can hardly be 
called; .however, when they are narrowly examined,, 
they feem to be parted io the middle by two rays. 

The CARAPO, fo called in Braftl, has a body about- 
a foot in length, and not two inches in breadth, being 
in the fhape of a knife, for the back is thick and blunt,, 
the belly fliarp, and the tail ends in a point. It has only 
one pair of fins, but on the lower part of the body there 
is a thin narrow fin that runs throughout the length lo the 
very end, but there is not pne befides in any part of the 
body. Under the lateral lines there are thick fet black 
fpots of the fize of muilard feeds. There is another of 
the fame name that is not above half the breadth, and 
there are no fpots. 

Ruyfch afiirms, that this fifli has no tail, and that the 
head terminates in a point ; the lower lip is longer than 
the upper, and the mouth is fmaJl, with fmall teeth in 
the lower jaw, but none in the upper. The eyes are 
fmall and black, but fcarce fo big as a poppy feed. The 
gills are narrow, and near them, on each fide, there is a 
fmall long fin. The colour is brown, mixed with a lit- 
tle red, but it is darker on the head and back. On each 
fide of the gills a line begins, which runs the length of 
the body, that refembles the blade of a knife; the flefh 
is accounted exceeding good eating. Some of thefe fifti 
are taken in the river of Si. Francis, but they are much 
larger, and pointed at the end like a fhoemaker's awl. 

The SIMAKIL INGLESE, fo called by the inhabi- 
tants of Aleppo, at the firft fight has the appearance of an 
Eel, ard it likewife eats very much like one. The head 
is long and fmall, and the extremity of the upper jaw 

runs 



6S THE NATURAL HISTORY 

runs out like the bill of a bird ; on each fide of which» 
a little diflance from the extream points, there are two 
tubuli or procelTes. There ?ire two fins at the gills as in 
the common Eel ; and, from the hinder part of the head 
all along the ridge of the back, there are fmall prickle? 
placed at little diftances like the teeti) of a faw 7 hefe 
terminate at the beginning of a membranaceous finrifing 
about four inches from the tail, and is continued along 
the lower part of the belly to the vent, at which place 
there are two or three prickle-. The colour of the head 
and back is blackifh, variegated with dark yellow fpots ; 
and he lower btliy is white, changing gradually in'O a 
yellowifh call. The fin of the lower belly near the vent 
ii yellow, but the other half is fpotted with black. The 
length of thisfiih is eleven inches. 

C H A P. VIII. 
0/ Fijh that want the Belly^fnu 

THE ORB, or SEA WEATHER-COCK, by fome 
called the SKA PORCUPINE, has a roundifh 
globous body, frorii whence it has its name; it can blow 
up its body much like a bladder, and is befcc with long 
thorns or prickles, efpecia'ly on the fides, where the ba- 
{es of the prickles are divided into two other fhort onef, 
and end under the fiiin. It differs from our Sea porcu- 
pine in having the eye-brows placed higher, and in hav- 
ing the head more round ; likewife, it is all over fpot- 
ted, wjiich ours is not. There is another t-ea-porcupine, 
v/ith a narrow, roundifn, and prickly head ; and the 
prickles are very long on the head and Ihoulders, accord- 
ing to the obfcrvation of Dr. Lijier, 

The PRICKLY ORB, or Sea-pop cupin^ of South 
America, has a mouth like that of a Frog, and is above 
feven inches long. The head is broad, and fpeckled 
with black fpots, efpecially near the gill fins. The 
prickles of this filh are o^ a fiattilh ihape like flags, 

whe^e- 



/V/- ^ 




I 



O F F I S H E S. 96 

whereas thofe in the former are round ; there are alfo 
broad dulky ftripes that run along the back. 

The Pr 1 CKL Y-o R B, called by fome ATING A, is fcarce 
as big as a Cjoofe-egg, and is very like the former, on- 
ly it has a rounder head, and not fo ered, and without 
high eye-brows or llreaks ; likewife. this has prickles on 
the belly, whereas the former has none. However there 
are broad fpots near the fin?, and about the tail. 

The PRICKLY NET- WORK ORB is one of the 
larger fort, but the prickles are very fhort, or at le ft lye 
flatter, and their roots, which ai"e triangular, fwell fo 
much, and are fo entangled among each other, that they 
feem to be covered with net-work. 

The FROG-MOUTHED ORB is fixteen inches 
long, and twenty in circumference. The whole body is 
of a duflcy colour, fpeckled with white fpots ; and the 
back-fin runs from the neckalmoft to the end of the back. 
The mouth is broad, and fhaped like that of a Frog ; 
and on each ilde there are two rows of red thorns, not 
unlike the roots of mu(hrooms, that run from the top of 
the head to the tail. The oblong Orb, with the head 
of aTortoife, is fmooth and fpeckled with afh coloured 
and dufky fpots. It is not much unlike the former. 

The firft ORB of Fondektius has a round body, being 
in the fhape of a globe, except the tail. The fkin is 
very hard, and is rough with fmall prickles, placed all 
over. The rough spotted Orb is covered all over 
very thick with fmall prickles. 

The HAIR-HEADED ORB is like the figure of the 
firft Orb of Rondel.tius, only the tail is a little longer, 
and the body is not fo rough with prickles, except on the 
belly only, for the back and tail are fmooth. 

The SHIELD ORB oi Rcnckleitus has a longer head 
than the firft kind, and the mcuth opens wider. Fiom 
the head to the tail there are bones of the fhape of an 
^gS» between which the prickles are placed. It is called 
the Shield orb becaufe the mouth is in the form of a 
fhield, and fcrves for a fternum in that part which in land 
animals is called the breaft. Rondektius fays it has many 
fmall teeth, but we rather give credit to Lr. Lijiir^ who 
fays it has only two teeth. 

The 



70 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The SMOOTH ORB, called the BLOWER at the 
Otpe of Good Hope, has the faculty of blowing itfelf up 
like other Orbs, and then its ihape is as round as a ball, 
except the tail. The Ikin, which is very fmooth, has 
few or no fcales thereon, and the back is of a dufky yel- 
low, and kas a kind of a luftre. The belly is white, 
and the mouth fmall, but armed with four large teeth. 
This filh is never eaten becaufe there is a great deal of 
danger in it, of which the Dutch are very careful to in- 
form foreigners. However, a certain failor, not believ- 
ing what they faid, had a mind to make a trial, and was 
fo hardy as to eat one of them ; but the experiment coll 
him dear, for he fellfick immediately after, and died in 
a few days time. 

The SEA HEDGE-HOG is covered all over with 
thick thorns or prickles, and has a head lefs prominent 
than the former, but the body \<^ rounder and bigger. It 
fwims very llowly, and confequently would be an eafy 
prey for other filh if it was not fo well . armed with 
prickles. 

De Poincy obferves, that thefe fort of fifh are very 
common in the Weji Indian fcRf and they are called by 
many the armed fiih. Some of them areas thick as a foot- 
ball, and are almoll round, having but a little bit of a 
tail. It has no head, for the eyes and tail are fixed to the 
belly. Inllead of teeth it has two hard fmall ftones an 
inch broad, which it makes ufe of to crulh Sea-crabs to 
pieces, as weil as fmall Shell-fifh, on which it lives. It 
is all over armed with thick prickles about as long as the 
tags of laces, and as fnarp as needles, which it can raife 
upright, or lay down at pleafure. This iifh is taken by 
throwing a line into, the water, at the end of which is a 
hook covered with a piece of a Sea crab ; when it is 
fvvallowed, and the fifli wants to get away, finding itfelf 
flopped by the line, all the prickles are bi illled up ; info- 
much that, when he is drawn on iliore, it is impoffible 
to lay hold of any part of the body ; for this reafon they 
drag it fome diilance from the water, where it will die 
in a fhort time. Sometimes this filh is thicker than a 
bufhel, and yet there is no more fielli fit for eating than 
12 found on a fmall Mackrel. In the middle of the belly 
there is a fort of a bladder or bag filled with wind, of 

whick 



/^a^ ya 



fJc/^'^/- f?/JiC^^ 




^ucA^^^ ^f^rn^ 




O F F I S H E S. 71 

which they make exceeding good ifinglafs or fifh-glew. 
The other forts of Sea hedge-hogs differ little from this, 
except in the fituation and fize of their prickles, for they 
are Ihorter in fome and flenderer in others, and in fome 
again they form a fort of large flars. 

The SEA PIGEON has its name from its head, which 
is thought to be like that of a Pigeon, and its breaft is 
alfo like that of a Cropper. It has no fcales, but there 
are fpots on the fkin of various figm-es. It is feldom 
caught, and it has a difagreeable taite. • 

The OSTRACION is in the Ihape of a Pentagon, 
and fometimes grows to a foot in length. 1 he head is 
covered with a hard Ihell, from whence it has its name, 
for Ortracion ligaifies a (hell. On the back there are 
four fmall tubercles or warts placed, four-fquare. Ano- 
ther Oftracion, of Aldto^uandus., is of a quadrangular 
form, and is hump backed. A third is called the snouted 
OsTRACiON, and it wants the abovemencioned tubercles, 
but the fhout is very long, and almoll: in the fhape of a 
fword. There is another called the hornedOstr.acion, 
as alfo one without horns. Y>r. LijJcr fays this is a large 
triangular hih, and that, though it has no horns on the 
head, it has one on the belly near the tail. It is covered 
with radiated fcales in the fhape of hexagons, and has a 
double or broad border on the edges. The former he 
calls the greateft triangular Horned-filli with radiated 
hexagon fcales, whofe centre or middle part is promi- 
nent. 

The TRIANGULAR HORNED-FISH, that has a 
long fpine or prickle in the middle of the tail which is 
covered with Ikin. It is of a middle fize, and is beauti- 
fully marked with pretty broad waved fpots of a dufky 
colour on the back and jaws. In many other triangular 
lilh, that have horns on their heads, there are no fcales 
on the top of the tail, but fometimes there is a iingle 
fcale either on the upper or lower part, and fometimes 
one on both. 

The MIDDLE-SIZED TRIANGULAR FISH has 
a horn on the belly near the tail, and is marked all over 
with very thick reddifh fpots of the fame fize. Tlie fcales 
of this are of the fhape of hexagons, with fmall tuber- 
cles, and placed in no regular order. The fmall Trian- 
gular- 



72 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

gular-iifii, with a horn on its belly, is alfo covered with 
hexagon fcales a little rough in the middle, but their out- 
ward fides confiftonly of the like number of fimple lines ; 
that is fix. 

The Triangular-fish, entirely w/V/^o/// i'cr;//, has 
hexagon fcales rough in the middle, and is adorned with 
fmall tubercles placed in rows. Likewife the belly of 
this kind is broader than that of the reft ; that is, it has 
a very large bafe in proportion to its bulk. 

The greateft QUADRANGULAR FISH has a flat 
back, whereas the former hath it raifed into an arch, 
and there are four tubercles on the back not far from the 
head. This feems to be like the firft Oftracion of Al- 
drovandus. The GREATER QUADRANGULAR 
SNOUTED FISH has its head marked with reddifli 
thick fet fpots ; but, though the body is lefs than the for- 
mer, the fins are quite as large. 

The MIDDLE SIZED QUAERANGULAR 
SPOTTED-FISH has a few pretty large fpots on the 
fides, and thofe on the middle are bordered with red, 
and their centres are of a whitilh blue. On the belly 
there are the like fpots, but they are fmall, and more 
numerous ; that is two or three on each hexa2;on fcale. 

The HORNED FISH, of Bontiusy called ICAN 
SETANG, is different from all others of this kind. 
^ The CSTRACION of the AV/^, of Felonhs, that is 
brought from the Mediterraneav fea, is thought by Dr. 
Lijier to be a qui^e difi^^erent fifli from any of this kind 
imported froni the Eai hdirs ; however, Mr. Ray ima- 
gines, that the difference of feas is no argument to prove 
it, becaiife the fame fort of fiih may be common in both 
feas, and he has feen fiili, that have been brouglit from 
the Eaft Indies and the Mediterranean^ in which he could 
difcern no difference. 

The SEA HORSE, bcft known by the Latin name 
of HIPPOCAMPUS, never exceeds nine inches in 
length ; and, in the head, fnour, and mane, is fome- 
what like a horfe. Jt is about the thicknefsof a man's 
thumb, and the body is full of clefts and furrows. The 
fnout is a fort of a tube, with a hole at the bottom, to 
which there i:. a cover that he can open and fhut at plea- 
fure. The upper part of the body is like a Heptae- 

dion. 



^a^^y2 




O F F I S H E S. 73 

dron, or a figure confiding of feven fides, but below the 
vent it refcmbles a Tetraedron, or figure confifting of 
four fides. The eyes are fmall and prominent, and be- 
tv\een them are two high tubercles. The tail ends in a 
point, and is generally very much bent or contorted. 
Behind the eyes, where the gills are placed in other filh, 
there are two fins which look like ears, and above them 
are two ho^es, but there are no gills neither outwardly 
nor inwardly. The whole body feems to be compofed of 
cartilaginous rings, and on the intermediate membranes 
of which feveral fmall prickles are' placed. The colour 
is of a dark green, but towards the tail inclining to 
black. ' The belly is marked with fpots of a whitifli 
blue, and tlie ftomach is proportionably large, but the 
heart is fmall, and the liver and fpawn red. It is taken 
in tlie Mediterranean^ and alfo in the weflern- ocean. 

The SEA HORSE WITH A MANE is four times as 
large as that without, and in the middle of the belly 
there is a fmall fin or blackifii membrane. From the top 
of the head and neck there are brillles or long hairs, 
which hang down like a mane. The fip.ooth Sca-horfs 
without prickles, has but few furrows. The fmall fmooth 
.Sea-horfe, with a great number of furrows, has thirty- 
five on the tail. It is found in the ftraits of Su7ida in the 
Eau Lilies. In the prickled Sea horfe there are thirty 
furrows from the back fin downwaids ; and in the great- 
er fmoodi Sea-horfe tliere are twenty-five, and in anodier 
thirty-five. Likewife, in the greater fmooth Sea-horfe, 
there are a great number of biackifh fpecks or fpots, 
whereas all the reft are entirely without. 

The SEA NEEDLE, or the fecond kind of ACUS, 
of Ronddetius, is the Typhle of the ancients, accordino- 
to Bjionius. iV!r. R«y fiw feveral of thefe at Venice y bu^C 
they were all lefs than thofe defcribed by Rondehtius, 
7'he body liad fix angles, like a hexagon, to the end of 
the back fin, but from thence to the tail it isibur fquare. 
7he crull, wherewith it was covered from the head to 
the vent, was dilb'nguiflied into eighteen fcales, but be- 
yond that there were thirty-four or thirty-five. 7'he 
fnout and mouth were like that of a Sea-horfe, and the 
tail ended in a fin. 1 he filh defcribed by Rondehiiva 

Vol. III. E ivaj 



74 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

was a cubit in length, and near an inch thick, agreeing 

in ail things with the former, except the fize. 

The Sea-needle, of Jri/iotle, has a long and angular 
body, and inftead cf fcales it is covered with a hard cruft 
or lliell divided into ieveral parts. From the head to 
the vent there are feven angles, but from thence, to the 
end of the back tin, there are five ; and below, to the 
extremity of the tail, the fhape is fquare. It has a long 
fnout fomewhatlike a tube. 

The WORM LIKE SEA NEEDLE, called by the 
Cornijh boys the SEA ADDER, has a round body en- 
tirely without fcales, and the colour is a dirty greenifh 
yellow, ending in a fhaip point, not in a fin. The 
Iriout is like that of the former, but fliorter ; and it has 
four gills on each fide, which, infiead of an aperture, 
has a fmall hole. The body is marked with angular 
lines much like that of an earth worm ; and the fize is 
that of a gooie quill. It is about five inches in length, 
and has only one fin, which is feated at the back. Jt is 
frequently met with in the fea that waihes the coalt of 
CornnvalL 

The SEA UNICORN, called PIRAACA by the 
Brafitian-, has a body that is comprelTed on the fides, 
and from the mouih to the root of the tail it is near three 
inches long, and two broad. The mouth is like that of 
aiiog, and before, on the lower jaw, there are tv/o br:>ad 
teeth like Sea-orbs. Above the eyes, on the back, there 
is a fmall horn which bends backwards, that is round, 
and not an inch long, being no thicker than a common 
thread ; but it has a double row of teeth which turn 
downwards. It feems to be fupported by a thin fort of a 
membrane, which is connected tranfverfly to the back. 
However, it cannot lay the horn down backwards, as 
Clufiui thought. The number of fins, and their fitua- 
tion are like thofe of Orbs ; but the flcin is rough to the 
touch, and of a duCcy yellow colour. However there is alit- 
tle ^old colour about it on the fins and fkin of the back, 
as is commonly feen in Orbs. Marcgra^e takes it to be 
a kind of an Orb, fince it can blow up its body like a 
bladder. 

The SEA GOAT, called CAPRTSCUS by Rovdele- 
tiia, has a comprcifcd head, with the eyes placed in 

the 



O F F I S H E S. 7S 

the upper part. The mouth is fmall, and in each jaw 
there are eight teeth, not ferrated but joined together 
like thofe of mankind. There are four gills that have 
not a bony but a fkinny cover. AlmoU in the middle of 
the back there are three very ftrong and large prickles 
joined together by a membrane ; of which that before is 
three times as big as the two others. This filh canraife 
tliem, or lay them down when he pleafes in a bony fur- 
row made for that purpofe ; which panicular feems pe- 
culiar to this fifh ; however, he i^ not able to raife them 
one after another, fcr they are all erc£led or laid down 
together.. They are made fo artfully, that the great one 
cannot be made to fall by any impulfe ; but if fhe two 
hinder are depreiTed, which may be done eafily, that 
before will fall down alfo. And, what is Ilill more 
ilrange, if the prickle behind is not quite deprefled, that 
before will be in the fame degree ; and yet cannot be 
laid lower, unlefs you repeat. the depreffion of the £rfl:. 
It is covered with afcaly Mn, whofe fcales are not like 
thofe of a Miy but rather of a Serpent, for b?fides their 
being placed in fuch an order, that the b"nes between 
them interfering each other make a fort of chequer v\^rk, 
they alfo Hick fo extremely fall to the Ikin that they can- 
not be feparated from it ; infomuch, tliat by that means 
the hide is fo hard and rough that it cannot be cut with- 
out great difnculty, but it may be polifhed.like wood or 
ivory. The colour of this "iiih is of a du(ky green, 
/peckled with blue ; but the blackifh fins of the back .and 
belly are marked with blue and red fpots. The fhape 
is broad, very flat, and almoft roundilh 5 but it feldom 
exceeds two pounds in weight. 

The GUAPERUA is a long filh, with a tail almoft 
iquare, and not forked, and the top of the head is broad. 
It differs from the former in having its teeth fharpened 
in a peculiar manner, in having but tvv^o horns on its 
back, of which the firft, in a dried fifh, had a double 
row of pretty large teeth as rough as a faw. There is 
no horn on the belly, and the fins are^ near three inches 
dillant from the tail ; but the tail fin is much the longeft. 
The top of the head is not fo fiat ; and the length of 
fhii fifh is near fixteea inches, andii is almoft five oroid. 
E ? The 



jG THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The broad GUAPERUA, with a forked tail, and the 
back fin fpotted, is near fixteen inches long, and .eight 
broad, with the head flat on the top. The fins of the 
breail and belly are two inches from the tail, and the 
back fin is marked with a great number of fpots ; and 
from part of it there aiiies a horn near four inches in 
length. The horns of the tail fin rife as it were fudden- 
ly, and are about an inch long. The fcales are Tquare 
and fmall in this fifh in comparifon of thofe in the for- 
mer. The horn of this is greatcft ; and there are not 
only on the forehead, but on the fides, efpecialiy in the 
middle, a great number of fmall tubercles or rough 
teeth. The defcription of this filh agrees pretty well 
with that of Marcgra've. 

The greateft GUAPERUA is a broad fifh, and the 
end of the tail and the back fin terminate in long fmall 
horns ; there are alfo two broad red flreaks, which run 
• tranfverfly over the body to the jaws. 

The broad GUAPERUA, with a flreaked tail, is 
about eleven inches in length, and five in breadth. 
The teeth are like thofe of men, and the head is de- 
preired, though raifed on the top. The tail is fork- 
ed, and there are fmall horns thereon. The fcales are 
fqcare and rough in the middle, and there are eight lines 
on each fide three inches long. The horn on the back 
is furniflied with exceeding fmall teeth, and are rough 
before m the manner of a faw. 

The PORCUPINE GUAPERUA is a fmall fifli, be- 
ing about fix inches long, and three and a half broad, 
and the teeth are not very (harp. Jn the upper jaw on 
both fides, by the two firfl teeth, ihcre are other very 
fmall teeth that are afcerwards iucceeded by broader. 
The fcales are fquare and very fmall ; and three inches 
from the tail, on the middle of the fides, there are five 
thickifh horny round prickles, about an inch long, mot- 
tled with black and white like the quills of a Porcupine, 
and they are placed pretty clofe together; likewife, near 
the tail there is a remarkable roughnefs. The tail fin is 
fquare, and is of a blackifh colour. 

The BELLOWS or TRUMPET FISH is a fmall fifh, 
rear four inches long, and about an inch and a half 
broa^. It is covered with rough fcales, and has a long 

fnout. 



O F F I S H E S. 77 

fnout, for it is almoft equal to one third of the length 
of the whole body. It has a fmall aperture at the end, 
which has a covering conne£led to the lower part, and 
muft be raifed upwards in order to fliut it, and when it 
is opened this is let down. The eyes are large, and their 
iris is white; and on the back there rifes a very ftrong 
fpine of a great length, to wliich there correfponds a 
furrow on the back part. On the edges there are a row 
of teeth which turn upwards, and tlie fpine can be erec- 
ted, or laid down at pleafure, but not directly upright, 
for it always inclines towards the tail. It is very com- 
mon at B.ome, and is to be met with in the iilh-markeis 
with other fmall fifli. 

The LAMPUGA, fo called at Rome, has a broad, 
thin, fquare body, not unlike a Turbot, and yet it fwims 
upright. Thofe feen at Ro?ne were about nine inches 
long, and weighed a pound and a half. The back is 
of a light blue, but the lower part of the fides an(i belly 
are of a filver colour. On the back, and above the 
pointed lines, there are beautiful yellow fpots and ftripes, 
but below the lines there are the like fpots of a gold 
colour. The tail is very forked, and the fnout blunt. 
The mouth is exceeding fmall, and armed with a fingle 
row of very little teeth. l"he whole body, like a Tur- 
bot, is furrounded with a back and belly fin, and on the 
fides of thofe that were purchafed 2^i Venice there are two 
lines that run from the gills to the tail ; the lov/er of 
which is ftrait, and the upper bended like a bow. This 
by the Venetians is called Lifetta, and it feems by 
thefe marks to be a different fifh from the Lampuga. 
However, there arc feveral fifh fo called J3y the inhabi- 
tants of Rome, but not fo large nor fo beautifully colour- 
ed as this. V/ith regard to the inteiliines, this fidi feems 
to be different from all hitherto defcribed, for it has two 
Itomachs ; and that before is fiefliy, and full of long 
rough thickfet apophyfes, like the fkin of a Hedge-hog, 
placed on the iniide ; but that behind is large, mem- 
branaceous, and is extended beyond the vent. At the 
pylorus there arc feveral appendages, v.hich terminate 
in fmall twigs, and are interwoven with a fort of paren- 
chyma. 1 he long gut has various turnings and wind- 
ings, and within it there is a Durple liquor which tinges 
E \ all 



78 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

all the excrements with the fame colour ; and the lidea 
of the vent are coloured with a brij^ht purple. 

The PAMPUS, of Sir Hans Stcan, is the leaft of its 
kind, being only fix inches long, and four and a half 
broad in the middle part. It is roundifh at the begin- 
ning, and f:om thence to the tail it grows gradually more 
flender. The tongue is round, flefhy, andfpotted; and 
the jaws are armed with fmall Iharp teeth. The eyes are 
large, with an ample iris of a filver colour. There are 
four fins ; one beginning on the middle of the back, and 
ending at the tail ; the fecond, oppofite to this, runs 
from the vent to the tail ; and at the gills there are tv/o 
long ones, but there are none on the belly. The tail is 
forked, and two inches and a half in length ; and there 
is an arched line running along the upper part of the 
fide, v^hich is ftrait in the middle. It is covered all o- 
ver with fmall white fcales. The belly is round, the 
bones fhnrp, and befet v/ith teeth like wool-cards. 7"he 
gut makes leveral- turnings. 

The RIBBAND FISH is pretty ftrait along the belly. 
The back is roundiih, and forms an edge along its ridge. 
It is fix inches in length, and two in breadth where 
broadeft, for near tiie tail it is little more than a quarter 
of an inch broad. It is much compreffed fideways, 
brown on the back, and of a lightifh colour on the belly. 
It has a fin on each fide the head, and a pair of fins be- 
neath them, between the head and the belly. There is 
alfo a fingle fin on the lower part of rhc belly near the 
vent. There is a long fliarp fin rifingfrom the highcft 
part of the back, and behind that a narrov/ fin which 
runs the whole length of the ridge of the back towards 
the tail. The fins and tail are of a dufey colour, and 
there is a reddifh circle round the eye, and a black fpot 
bet»veen the noftrils. There is alfo a broad black lift 
running round the head and pafilng through the eyes, 
befides :wo other black or dafky lifts bordered with 
wlwte ; the firft pafling a little obliquely below the head, 
and the other from the long fin on the back quite through 
the tail, which makes this fifli appear as if it were bound 
with ribbands. It is a Weji Indian fifh, and was caught 
near ilie Caribbee JJiands. Thi5 fifh is not propcily claf- 

ied. 



O F F I S H E S. 7p 

fed, but, it being of a fingular kind, it might as well be 
placed here as elfewhere. 

The vSUN FISH has a bread (hort body, which is co- 
vered behind with a circular fin that ferves inftead of a 
tail J infomuch, that it feems to be only the head of a 
fi(h, or rather one half, with the tail part cut off, which 
fufnciently diftinguiflies it from all other fi(h, though in 
all its parts it has fomewhat diiFerent from every other 
kind. Its common length is about two feet, and yet it 
is found to weigh upwards of one hundred pounds. It 
has no fcales, but is covered with a hard rough thick 
ikin. The back is blackiih, and the belly of a fiiver 
colour.; but both belly and back terminate in a fharp 
ridge. The mouth is very fmall for the bigaefs of the 
filh, and when opened is roundilli. 7'he jaws are hard, 
rough, and fnarp, and feem to be armed with feveral 
rows of fharp teeth. There are four holes in the head 
befides the nollrils, which lail are placed between the 
eyes and the mouth. The eyes are fmall, and of a 
duiky yellow near the pupil, but the other part is of a 
dufn-y yellow. Near the circular fin, which furrounds 
the tail, there is a broad llripe, which makes it appear 
to be bound as with a fillet. There are two large fins 
near the back part, and two fmall ones at fome dillance 
behind the eyes, but in the fame line with the eyes. 

The liver and gall bladder are large, but the fpleen is 
fmall, foft, and blackiih. The urinary paflage does not 
terminate in the vent, but has a tube, proper to itfelf, 
beneath it. The guts refemble thofe of quadrupedes. 
The flefli is exceeding foft, and the bone foft and grifily; 
the f]<in adheres fo clofe to the flefh that it cannot eafily 
be feparated from it. It is called the Sun-filh from the 
roundnefs of its body, or perhaps becaufe it Ihines in the 
night. However, this quality dees not belong to this 
fiih alone. It is taken both in the Mediterrafiedn fea and 
in the ocean ; fometimes likewife it is caught near Pen' 
xance in CcrnwalL 

Redi informs us, that one of thefe £fh was given him 
by the great duke ofTuJcany in the depth of winter, and 
it weighed an hundred pounds. The fkin was rough 
and unequal like that of a Sea hog, and it had four fins 
covered with a rough fkin like that on the body. The 
B 4 two 



So THE NATURAL HISTORY 

two fmalleft were placed on the fides of the holes of the 
gills, and one of the largeft was placed nearly in the 
middle of the back, and the o:her under the beliy near 
tiie vent. At the extremity of the hinder part of the 
body, which is as thick as the belly, there was no fin, 
nor any appearance of a tail. The holes of the gills 
were two in number, that is one on each fide ; but under 
each of thefe holes there were four very Lirge gills accom- 
panied with another, which v/as much finaller. The 
mouth was extremely fmall in proportion to the body. 
Before the upper jaw there was a iliarp bone m the form 
of a femicircle, which anfwered to another in the lower 
jaw of the fame kind. Ihefe two bones were inftead 
of teeth ; and at the entrance of the throat there were 
long, fharp, crooked, and very hard prickles. The 
ftomach was no larger than the guts, which had very 
thick coats, and was fixtcen yards in length. They con- 
fiiled of feveral folds, and were contained in a bag or 
iheath. 

The SWORD FISH may be eafily known from any 
other by its fnout, being in the ihape of a fvvord ; info- 
much, that it has got the fame name in all languages ; 
that IS of the fame fignification. With regard to its bulk, 
it might have been placed among the Cetaceous fifh, for 
it is fifceen feet in length, and two hundred pounds in 
weight. The body is long and round, and the head 
thick, but it grows gradually fmnller towards the tail. 
The fKin is very thin and fmcoth, or at leail not rough. 
The upper jaw terminates in a very long fnout like n 
two-edged fword ; and the lower is e.vceeding fharp at 
the end, making a very acute angle. The fnout is one 
third of the whole length of the hfn, and there is only 
one fin on the tail, which runs almoll: the whole length 
of the back. I'he tail is forked, and almoll in the Ihape 
of a half moon, and it has only one pair of fins at the 
gills, in v\hich it alfo agrees with Cetaceous fiih. 'J here 
are tv/o fins on the lower part of the body near the vent, 
and the Hvomach is long, almoft in the Ihape of a cone. 
Is ear the pylorus there are monftrous malles of veflels, 
ir.tei mixed with fiefli, much in the manner of lungs, 
there being two of them. The gut is below thefe ap- 
J cndaAM, and turo-§ backwards and forwards in a very 

agree- 



OF FISHES. Si 

agreeable manner ; but there is a long fvvimming blad- 
der. 

Nieuhoffy defcribing the Sword-fifh, fays it has a very- 
odd head like that of an Owl, with a very wide mouth. 
The fkin is hard, the back grey, the belly white, and 
without fcales. On each fide of the fword, which is 
above five feet long, there arc twenty feven teeth ; the 
whole length, including the fword, is generally twenty- 
five feet ; and the body is fo thick that two men can 
fcarce grafp it. Near the eyes are two noilrils, 
through which, as he fays, they draw the water in and 
out. This fhould have been called the Saw-fifh. 

The Sword-fiih is ftill taken between Ita^y and 5/- 
cilyy as it was formerly. Their cuftom is to place watch- 
men on the high cliiis that hang over the fea, whofe 
bufmefs is to obferve the motions of thefe fifh. As foon 
as they perceive any they give notice to the boats below, 
and, by ^i^vi^ before agreed upon, they direft them what 
courfc to take. As fcon as they draw near them a fiflier- 
man, who is ufed to the fport, climbs up a fmall mafl 
placed in the boat for that purpofe, to obferve the fifh 
he deiigns to Urike, at the fame time diredling the row- 
ers which way to fleer. When tioey have ahnoH over- 
taken one, the fifnerm.an immediately comes down, and 
ftrikes a fpear or harpoon into his body, the handle of 
which, being ioofe in the focket, parts from it, while 
the iron part, --vhich is made fall to a long cord, remains 
in the body, then the fifh is fuffered to fiounce about till 
he is tired, and grows faint with lofs of blood. After 
this they either hoifl him into the boat, or if he is very 
large tow him on fliore. The flefh is whiter than that of k 
Tunny, . and preferred to Sturgeon by the people of 
Mejjlna, who are very fond of it. 



C H A P. 



iz THE NATURAL HISTORV 

CHAP. IX. 

Of/phouj, or bony Fijh that have foft fexihk Jklm ah 
their hacks, 

THE COD. FISH, or KEELING, is about three 
feet long and upwards, and has different names 
from the different places, as well as from the different 
manner of curing it. Hence it is called Green-fjhy Ice- 
lanJ-JiJhy Aherdeen-fjh, Ncrth fea-cod. Stock fjh. Poor- 
Johny and Barrelled-cod. Thofe that are finall and young 
of this kind are called Codlings, 

It is a thick round fifh, with a large head, and a pro- 
minent belly. It is brown on the back, white under- 
neath, and interfperfed with yellow fpots. The fcales 
are fmall flicking clofe to the fkin, and the eyes are- 
large, and covered with a loofe tranfparent membrane. 
There is a barb on the lo\yer jaw, about an inch ia 
length ; and the tongue is broad, round, foft, and 
fmcoth. There are leveral rows of teeth in the javx s» 
one of which, is lor,ger than the reft, and there are like- 
wife teeth in the palate and in the throat. The ftomacti 
is large, is often found full of large fifh, particularly 
Herrings ; and the liver is large, and divided into three 
lobes, having a large gall bladder. The fvvimmin^ 
bladder is thick, (Irong, and connecled ta the back, and 
it is commonly known by the name of the Sound. 

The flelh is exceeding good, and in high efteem, and 
they are greatly in rtqueft when faked during the Lent- 
feafon. Frelh Cod for immediate ufe is caught in the feas 
all round Great Britain ; however, there are particular 
times for fiOiing in particular places ; that is they are to 
be found in greater plenty in fome places at feme times 
of the year, than in others. Thus, from Eafer to Whit- 
firiidty the bcft fcafon at Alanby, IVorkingtmy and 
VVhiteha'ven, on the coafts of Lancajhire and Cjvnhcr- 
I nd ; oa the wefl: part of Ireiand, fiom the beginning; 
of Ai ril to the beginning of Juve ; to the north and 
Jiorth eail of IrcLnd^ fium Chnjlmas to Michadmu ; 
3 and 



OFFISHES. 83 

and to the north eaft of England, from EoJIer to MV- 
Jummer, 

But the chief fupportof the Cod-filhery atprefent are 
the banks of Kei-vfoundland, which are a fort of moun- 
tains covered with the fea, and where the water is much 
more Ihallow than in other places. One of thefe is cal- 
led the Great-bank, and it well deferves that name, 
for it is four hundred and fifty miles in length, and aji 
hundred in breadth. It is about feventy-five miles from 
the ifland called Neivfoundlund in Arnerica ; and the bell, 
largeft, and fatteft Cod are thofe taken on the fouth-fide 
of the bank, for thofe on the north-fide are much fmal- 
ler. The bell: feafon for catching them on this bank 
is from the beginning of February to the end o{ April 
and the beginning of M.',y, for at this time the fiih, 
which had withdrawn during the winter into deep water, 
return back and grow very fat. Thofe that are taken 
from March to July will keep pretty well, but thofe that 
are caught in y-!</>', AuguJ}^ ^.vASeptevibeVi will foon be 
good for nothing without a great deal of care. How- 
ever, this fifhing is fometimes over in a month or iix 
%veeks, and fcrnetiraes it continues fix months. 

When Lent begins to draw near, though the filhermeii 
have caught but half their cargo, yet they will halleii 
homewards becaufe the markets are bcil at that time ; 
however, fome will make a fecond voyage before others 
have got a fufficicnt cargo for the firll. Each filherman 
■can take but one at a time, and yet thofe who are expert 
at this bu/inef^ will catch from thiee hundred and fifty to 
four hundred in a day. They are all taken with a houk 
and line, baited with t'.-ve entrails of ether Cod-fifh, ex- 
cept the {xx'^. This is a very fatiguing employmeiit, both 
on account of the heavinefs of the fiih, and the coldnefs 
of the v/eather ; for though the Great- bank lies be- 
tween forty and forty-eight degrees of latitude, which 
might be fuppofed to be a v/ann climate, yet the wea- 
ther in the feafon of fifhing is generally very fevere. 

They fait the Cod-fiih on board thefhips in the follow- 
ing manner ; they cut oiF tiiehead open the beLIy, and 
take out the guts, and then the faherlays them fide by 
fide, head to tail, at the bottoiia of the velTel, for abo*Jt 
a fathom or two f^uare; when one layer is coirpleatcd he 
£ 6 co\Tjs 



8f THE NATURAL HISTORY 

c )vers it with fait, and then lays on another, which he 
CDvers as before. Thus he difpofes of all the filh that 
is caught in one day, for care is taken not to mix thofe 
of different days together After the Cod has lain thus 
three or four days they are removed into another part of 
the veflel and faked afrefh. After this they are fuffered 
to lye till the vefTel has procured its full cargo, or till they 
think proper to depart for their defigncd port. Some- 
times they are put into barrels and packed up, and this 
is generally known by the name of Barrel-cod, which is 
accounted the beft. 

They do not always fait the Cod-fifh, for they dry 
fome on (here ; and this they fiHi for along the coaft of 
Phcentia in Ntn,vfounalavd, from Cnpe Ract to the bay of 
Experts ; within which limits there are feveral commodi- 
ous harbours and places to dry the £fh in. There are 
fifhing veflelb of all fizes, but thofe are raoft proper that 
have large holds, becaufe the fi(h have not a weight pro- 
portionaole to the room they take up. Thofe that in- 
tend to dry their filh in the fun always take them in the 
fummer fea.on, that being the only time proper for that 
purpole. The European veffels, which carry on this 
trade, fetout in Ma^.h or yZ/r/,', though there are ethers 
that deiir their voyage till June or jnh. But then their 
defigii IS only to porchafe the h^h tha^ has been already 
caught and cured by the inhabitants of the E.tgh/h colo- 
nies of NtnvfcurdlanH and the neighbouring parts ; in 
exchange foi which they carry them meal, brandy, rum, 
linen, and olhcr commodities, that they fland in need 
of. 1 he fii!h that aie chofen for drying are of a fmaller 
fort, 'Ahich are mere £t for their purpofe becaufe they 
icorcr take L!t. 

Wiicn ihe filhing veffels are arrived at any particular 
port, he who gets in lirfl is cmitlcd to the quality and 
privilege of admiial, and has the choice of his flation, 
as well as of the wood which they make ufe of. As 
foon as they are got into a harbour they unrig all their 
veffels, leaving DCthing but the fhrcuds to fuftain the 
mafls. fa the mean while the mates go on fhcre to 
provide tents, which are covered u ith branches of fir, 
and the fails are laid over them. They al(b make a fcaf- 
fold fifty or fixty feet long, and tweiity broad. While 

thefe 



O F F I S H E S. 85 

thefe things are preparing the reft of the crew are buned 
in fifhing, and as faft as they catch any they open them, 
and fait them on moveable benches ; but the main fak- 
ing is performed on the fcaifold. When the filh has 
taken fait they then wafh them, and lay them in heaps on 
the galleries of the fcaftold. This done, they afterwards 
range them on hurdles, only a fifh thick, head to tail, 
with the back uppermoft. While they lye in this man- 
ner they take care to turn and fhift diem four times dur- 
ing every twenty-four hours. When they begin to dry 
they lay them in heaps, ten or twelve together, to retain 
their warmth, and continue to enlarge the heap every 
day till it is double its firft bulk. At length they ma'ke 
one heap out of two, and continue to turn them every 
day as before ; but when they are quite dry they lay them 
in huge piles as large as hay-llacks. 

They not ordy fait the body of the fifh, but their tripes 
and tongue?, which are afterward-^ barrelled up, ?s alfo 
the roes ; which laft ?re of fervice to throw into the fea, 
in order to draw other fifli together, particularly Pilch- 
/kRDs. They alfo get an oil from this fifh, which is ufed 
for drefiing leather, and all the other purpofes of train 
oil. On the coall of Buchan in Scotland, the fifhermen 
catch a Ihiall kind of Cod, v.'hich is greatly in efteem ; 
after rhey havt; falted it, they dry it in the fun on the 
rocks, and fomecimei in the chimnies. 

T he W.RITING POLLACK is larger than a com- 
mon Whiting, but it is pretty much of the fame 
fhape, only it is broader, and lefs thick. The back is 
of a dirty green colour, and it differs from a Cod-fifh in 
being lefs ; in being proportionably broader and Icfs 
thick, in having a leffer head, in wanting a barb, and in 
having the hnver pair of fins n^uch lefs. 

The fides beneatli the lateral lines are varioufly freak- 
ed with a dulky yellow, and the body is f^aly, but the 
fcales are very fmall. 'I he mouth is large, the teeth lit- 
tle, and the ton2;ue is fiia!*p at the point. The eyes are 
of a filver colour and large, and the lo'ver jaw is a litde 
more prominent tha'^ the upper, i'he liver is pale, and 
divided into trrec lobes ; and the fpleen is of a triangu- 
lar oblong livape, and of a blackilh colour. He feeds 
upon filh, particularly Sand-etls. Ke is frequently tak- 
I en 



86 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

en near Penzance and St. l^ves in Cornivally but it i« 
fometimes caught by what they call rock-fi(hing; that i» 
by {landing upon the rocks while they angle. Thofe 
that filh out of a boat or fmack muft have a line fixty 
yards long, with three or four hooks, one above another, 
and baited with different baits. The bell time for fea- 
fiiliing is in warm weather, either early in the morning 
or after fun-fet, provided the tide has been ebbing near 
half an hour. The flefh of this iifh is well tailed, nou- 
riihing, and flaky like that of a Cod. 

The northern people have always been accuflomed to 
dry their fi(h, becaufe it is their principal nourifhment ; 
and when a Cod is fo dried it is called Stock-fifh, becaufe 
it mull always be beaten before it is ufed. The firll of 
this kind were brought from Non-way, where they ftill 
prepare great numbers. They are brought in prodigious 
large barrels to Drontheim and Bergen^ which are the 
two flaples for this merchandize, and from thence they 
are tranfported into different parts of Europe. 

The flefh, though ufed almoft every where as an ali- 
ment, is of little ufe in medicine, though the teeth are 
faid to be abforbent when reduced to powder, and good 
againfl loofeneffes and fpitting of blood -, the dofe is 
from ten grains to half a dram. The Hones that are 
found in the head have the fame virtues and ufes. 

The COAL FISH, called in Co?//xtW/the Rawlinc 
Pollack, is very much like the former, only it is a lit- 
tle longer, and more flender. The lateral lines are not 
bent at the beginning like a bow as in the former; be- 
iides which dicy are white and broad, by which mark 
they diilinguifh it from the Whiting-pollack. Likewife 
it is not variegated with yellov>'ifh flreaks like that, ar-4 
the colour is blacker, more lively and fhiuing ; from 
v.hcncc it is called the Coal-filh. The fins are tindured 
widi a blackiih blue colour, and the fcales are Icfs. The 
lower jaw is longer than that of a Cod, from which it 
differs alfo in wanting a barb, and in having a more 
forked tail. The flclh is not fo good as that of a Cod, 
but it is better than a Haddock. They are taken on the 
coails of Northumberland and I'orkjlire, as well as on' 
thofe of Cjniv:all, 

The 



O F F I S H E s. nr 

The BIB, or BLINDS, (o called by the inhabitants of 
Corn-zva//, has a barb under its chin, in which it agrees 
with the Cod ; but it differs from it in its fize, for it fel- 
dom ex'ceeds a foot in length ; likewife, the fhape of the 
body is Ihorter and broader, and the colour ligjiter. T he 
fize of the fcales are alfo twice as large as thofe of a Cod, 
and adhere clofely to the Mn. The Cod has likewife a 
ipine or thorn at the tail fin, which this wants. 

The DORSCH, fo called by the Gen^ans, but Pa- 
MUCHLEN by the P ruffians^ is a variegated ftreaked 
£(h of the Cod kind ; but the ikin is more fmooth and 
flippery than in thofe of that fort. It is above a foot in 
length, and the head is lefs than that of a Haddock, 
The mouth terminates in a point, and the back is black- 
ifli or duflcy as well as the fides, and the upper part of 
the coverings of the gills. Sometimes it is of an afh 
colour, with black fpots or fpaces, efpecially in winter. 
It has a fmall flefhy wattle under the fkin ; and, ex- 
cepting this, it is in other things very like the Whiting- 
pollack. 

The YELLOWISH POLLACK is pretty much like 
a Whiting-pollack, only the fins are lefs, and thofe 
which are under the chin are yellowifh as well as the refl, 
but the back and fides are of a dark yellow, and full of 
fafFron coloured fpots. 1 he line that runs along the gills 
to the tail is yellowiib, and about the belly it is a litde 
more bent than in the Whiting-pollack. 

The HADDOCK is of a middle fize between a Whit- 
ing and a Cod, and the colour is blackifh on the back, 
with fmall fcales. There is a black line runs from the 
upper corner of the giils to the tail \ and on the middle, 
on both fides, not far from the gills, there is a large black 
fpot, which diftinguiflies it from all others. This, by 
fomefuperllitiouschrillians, was faid to be made by the 
finger and thumb of ct, Peter, that he might diflinguiih 
this fifh from all others, as being very much to his lik- 
ing; the like monkifh tale is likewife related of another 
£{h called the Piper. The eyes are large, and there is a 
baib hangs down from the lower jaw about an inch long, 
and the tail is forked. In other things itrefembles a Cod. 
Some account this a coarfe fifh, and afRrm it is apt ta 
<aufe fevers, which may be true when it is taken in Teas 

that 



88 T H E N A T U R A L H I S T O R Y 

that are Ihallow and muddy as about Fr/W^W ; but 
when it is caught where the water is deep and clear it is 
very wholefome, though the fiefh eats much drier than 
that of either the Cod or Whiting. 

The WHITING differs from all other fifh of this kind 
in being the leai^, except the ?v1ollo of the Venetians ^ 
in having the upper jaw longer than the lower, and in 
the teeth, which appear out of the mouth when it is 
fhut. Likewife, the belly fins in this kind are placed 
more forward than in the rt^, and it wants a barb, in 
which it agrees with the Rawling-pollack and the Bib. 
The fin near the vent has feveral rays, and the flefh is 
very tender and delicate, it is called a Whiting becaufe 
the colour of the back is much lighter or more white 
than in any other of this kind. It is a flender fifli for its 
fize, efpecially towards the tail, for about the head the 
make is confiderably larger. The fins below the vent 
are fpeckled with black, and the fcales are fmall. The 
eyes are large, and covered with a tranfparent loofefkin ; 
and .he liver is white, having its l«:ft lobe very long, for 
it reaches to the bottom of the infide of the belly. The 
ftomach is large, and there are often bones in it as is 
fuppofed of other fmall fiih. The fpleen is triangular, 
and lies under the ftomach ; and there are two long ova- 
ries in the female full of yellow eggs or fpavvn. The 
air bladder is long, clammy, fiugie, and connedled to 
the fpine of the back with a pneumatic dutSl that rifes on 
the upper part, and proceeds to be infcrted in the gul- 
let ; the heart is quadrangular with very obtufc angles, 
and has a very large auricle, and a great aorta. The 
flefh is fweet, tender, ard univerfally efieemed in all 
parts of the v^orid, where it is caught, for its whole- 
fome nefs. 

The catchinc of Whitings in a boat or fmack is di- 
verting enough, becauf;,- they bite very freely, and i equire 
no very nice t'ackle to take them. The places where they 
lye may bereadiiy known from ihe oca-giilis that always 
hover over them ; and they may certainly be met w ith if 
they fetm to dip into ihe water ^vqv^ now and then. 

There are two fmall oblong ftones in the head cf a 
Whiting that are faid lo be -n^-.ri ia fits of the gravel, 

pro- 



O F F I S H E S. $g 

proper to ftop loofenefles, and to abforb acids in the Ho- 
mach. The dofe is from twelve grains to half a dram. 

The WHITING POUT is a remarkable broad fifii in 
proportion to its length, by which it may be readily dif- 
tinguifhed from all other fifh of this kind. The extre- 
mity of the tail and fins are blackiili, and at the roots of 
the gill fins, on each fide, there are large black fpots. 
It is about eleven inches in length, and three and a half 
in breadth, and the firil back fin, which is that of a trian- 
gular ihape, is produced into a longifh horn. Thefcales 
are fmall, and every where of a filver colour, as in the 
Whiting ; but the mouth is much narrower than the reil 
of its kind. The young fiih of this fort are called Whi t- 
iNG MOPS by the Lofi^onen, and are generally very com- 
mon in the month of cipher. 

The LEA^T WHITING, called MOLLO by the 
Venetians, and by the inhabitants of Marjedles CAPE- 
LAN, is the leail of all fiih of this kind, being not a- 
bove fix inches in length." It has a barb hanging from 
its lower jaw as in a Cod, and there are nine fpecks on 
each fide of the gills and jaws. Some fay that it is en- 
tirely fmooth, and w'ithout fcales; but others affirm, that 
there are fcales which are exceeding fmall. The back 
is of a light brown, and the belly of a dirty white. It 
is very common at Venice and Marfeilles, where no other 
of this kind are to be feen. 

The HAKE is above a cubit in length, and is of the 
fhape of a river Pike, for which reafon fome call it the 
Sea-pike. The back is of alight colour, and the belly 
of a dirty white, with fmall fcales. I'he head is broad 
and flat, and the month large like that oi a Pike, being 
full of iharp teeth. The tongue is fmooth, the eyes 
large and of a gold colour, being covered with as tianf- 
parent a membrane as in fome of the Cod kind. The 
tail is not forked, but terminates in a right line. The 
liver is large, white, and undivided ; and the ftomach 
is long. The gut has only one fold, and the heart is 
contained in a ftrong b-.g or pericardium. The ribs are 
remarkably broad, Iharp, and grillly. It feeds upon 
other fiih, and the fiefn is foft and tender, it is caught 
in great plenty ^oxx'i Penzance in Coni~am!h and is to be 
met with alnioll every where in the Briiifi and Get-man 

oceans. 



90 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

oceans. The proper time of catching Hake at Flfcardf 
and other places between M^ales and Irelandy is from 
Whitfuntide to St. Jan.eih tide. 

The LING, fo called by the Erglijh on account of its 
length, is for fnape and colour much like a Hake, only 
it is longer, and the fcJes are lefs clofely adhering to the 
1km. The head is flat and deprefied as in a Hake, from 
which it differs in being bigger and longer in propor- 
tion to its bulk. The tail is round, not forked, and 
there r.re a multitude of rays on the back fm. The rays 
of the lecond pair of fins are long, though lefs than the 
fins themfelves. The lower jaw of a Hake is a little 
longer than the upper, but in this the upper is longcft. 
The Hake has no barb, but this has, befidcs many ap- 
pendages, per.haps forty, and that has none. Likcwife, 
the flefli is much better, and more wholefome than that 
of a Hake, and is preferred to all other fait filh. It is 
frequently taken x\kl^ Penx.a^ce in Coniiva.'l, and may be 
caugh: among the iflands of Scotland all the year. To 
tlie north-eafl it may be met with from Eafier to Mid-- 
/umfMcry and to the north-eafl of Ireland from Qhrijimas 
to Michaelmas* 

CHAP. X. 

Of Fijh of the Tunny kind. 

THE TUNNY FISH, or 5?/^/V7o//MACKREL, 
fometimes grows to fo great a bulk that it might 
be placed among the Cetaceous kind, for fome have 
v/eighed above one hundred pounds. They are feven feet 
long, and have a round body, which grows gradually 
more flender from the middle to the tail, infomuch that 
at length it is exceeding flender. The back is black> 
which, however, in diiicrent lights appears blue or 
green ; but the belly and fides are of a filver colour. 
'I'here are fomefmall fin' on the top of the back and un- 
der the belly near the tail, by which this fifli may be dif- 
tinguifhed from all others of this kind. Ihe tail is 

broad. 



O F F I S H E S. 91 

broad, and in the fhape of a half-moon, and the ihout 
is pointed. It is covered with large fmooth fcales, which 
are joined clofe to each other. Jn fhort it refembles in aJl 
things a common Mackrel, except its bulk, and there- 
fore needs no farther defcription. Thefefilh always fwim 
in fhoals, and they may be readily known by the great 
noife they make when they pafs along, for they agitate 
the fea with great violence. They are extremely afraid 
of thunder ; at that time they are eafily taken with 
nets, which are made for that purpofe in the Mediterra* 
nean. 

The TUNNY is a fifh of pafTage, for it rambles from 
one part. of the fea to another at a confiderable diftance, 
Jn the months of September and O^oher they leave the 
ocean, and pafs through the llraits of Gibraltar into the 
Mediterranean fea towards the Le-vcnt. They are often 
taken on the coafls of CcrnvjaU with their flomachs full 
of Pilchards. Moft authors feem to think that the place 
of fpawning is the Black fea, and that they crofs the Me- 
diterranean for that purpofe. 

The time of fifhing for Tunnies begins in Seplemher, 
and they are caught by a fort of wears made of fmall 
canes, v/hich the French call madragnes ; fome of which 
are faid to be a mile in compafs. They are divided into 
feveral partitions ; and the fifli having entered the large 
ones are drove from thence into the fmaller, for they are 
like llieep, if one leads the way all the rell will follow. 
The inmoll: partition of all is of a clofer contexture thaa 
the reft, and is floored as it were with a net. When 
they take out the fiih they draw it fo near the fhore that 
the bottom may be within five feet of the furface of the 
water, and then the fiiliermen leap into it as into a filli- 
pond, laying hold of the fifh by the fmall part of their 
tails, and throw tliem into boats, where they imme- 
diately die. 

When they are brought to land they hang them up in 
the air, and then cut cf their head^ taking out their en- 
trails, and cutting their bodies into pieces, they broil 
them on large gridirons, and fry them with oil olive. 
This done ttiey feafon them with fait, pepper, cloves, 
and a few bay leaves, and then put them into barrels 
with, freih oil oiiv<; and a little vinegar. In this condition 

the/ 



^2 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

they are tranfported into diiFerent parts of Europe by the 
name of Sea-tunny. The flefh of this fifh is not very 
delicate, but is very ufeful, for when it is cooked in the 
forgoing manner, and cured with good oij, it is as fiim 
and white as veal, and eats pretty much like it. Some 
are very fond of it at all times, thinking it to be a fifh 
of a very good talle, very wholeibme, and yielding good 
nourifhment. 

The TUNNY, of Arifiotk, diiFers from the former 
in being waved with tranfverfe fumes, running obliquly 
on the fides ; . it is alfo lefs than a middling Tunny, 
though it has a longer body in proportion to its bulk ; 
and there are filaments on the abovementioned ftripes, 
whereas a Tunny has nothing of that kiiid. 7 he fnout 
is pointed, and the eyes fmall, and of the colour of gold ; 
the belly is large, and of a filver colour; the back is of 
a Ihining blue, and the tail ib {lender and made like a 
half-moon. 7 here are two lines of a blackiih colour, 
which run obliquely fi om the back to the belly, and are 
at feme diil:ance from each other. There are no ftales 
round the gills, and the teeth are very lliarp and bent 
inwards This fifh is very fond of freih water, fwims in 
flioalb like the former, and the flefli is fat and good. 

The SARDA, of Kcrufeletius, is very like the next 
preceeding, but it differs from it in having leaks on the 
parts between the fins aiid the coverir.g ot the gills ; the 
teeth are alfo larger and more crooked, and the flefh is 
not fo tender. 

The TUNNY, called LISSA or GLISSA by the in- 
habit:ints of the IJIe cf Candy^ is two cubits in length, 
and has a body as ihick a= that of a man. It differs from 
the greater and common Tunny in bemg of a rounder 
make, and in having gills like that of the Sarda. Jn- 
ilead of teeth it has wrinkled and rough jaws, and the 
tail is not in the fiiape of a halt-moon but rather 
forked. 

1 he MACKREL is generally a foot, and fomctimes a 
foot and a haif in length. '1 he body is long, round, 
thick, and fieihy, but towards the tail very fiender and 
(mall. It is not entirely without fcales, for it has fome 
that are thin and fmall. Underneath the lines, that di- 
vide the fides in the middle, it is of a bright iilver co- 
lour, 



O F F I S H E S. 95 

lour, but above them of a bluifh green. On the back, 
towards the fides, proceeds feveral dark ftreaks, which 
by diverfifying the colour contribute greatly to the beau- 
ty of the hill. The tail is fo very much forked that it 
feems almoft to be parted into two diftind fins ; but the 
jaws are of an equal length, and furnifhed with fmall 
teeth, ^""he eyes are large, the tongue {harp, and the 
noftrils Imall and round, it may be dillinguifhed from 
the Tunny by the fmallncfs of its fize, and by the black- 
ifh lines on ti.e fide?, fome of which are ftrait, and 
others crooked. Tae heart is of a triangular Ihape. 
The fpleen blackifh, apd th^ liver red and undivided, 
but it has no fwimming bladder. It is a fifh of prey, for 
there are often fmall hih found in its belly. 

Mackrel fwim in large Ihoals in divers parts of the 
ocean, but particularly on the coafts of England and 
Frajice. They enter the E7iglijp channel in April, taking 
their courfe through the rtraiis of Do^uer ; infomuch, that 
in Jwie they advance as far as CorK^^vall, Sufex, Nor- 
mandy, and Picardy. They are taken either with an 
angle rod, or with nets ; and when they are angled for 
it mull be out of a boat, fmack, or Ihip that lies at an- 
chor. They wm'II fnap at any thing, infomuch that they 
will take a bit of fcarlet cloth. In the well of England 
they filh for them with nets near the fhore in the follow- 
ing manner : One rnan hxes a pole into the fand near 
the fea, to which he makes fall one end of a long net ; 
another takes the other end of the net in hi^ boat, and 
rows round in a circuit as far as the length of the net will 
permit, and then back towards the Ihore. When his 
boat is a-ground he Heps into the water, and taking the ' 
cord of the net with him drags the net towards the Ihore. 
Afterwards, upon a fignal given, both the men draw the 
net out of the fea ; and by this method often catch three 
or four hundred hlb ; then they are either fent away in 
boats to the proper market, or are carried by land on 
horfes that wait for that purpofe. IVfackrel are often 
taken in fuch vaft plenty in that part of England that it is 
hardly credible, but then this renders them fo cheap that . 
they are not worth carrying away. 

The flelh of a Mackrel is very good when frefh, ef- 
pecially if they are drelTed when juft taken o«t of the 

water. 



94 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

water. There is fuch a difference between them then 
and after they are brought to Lond'^n that it is-not to be 
conceived by thofe that have not tried. However, they 
are not to be defpifed when they are well cured by pick- 
ling and put up in barrels. There are two ways of pick- 
ling them ; tlie firil is by opening and gutting them, and 
filling their bellies with fait, cramming it in as faft as 
pcffible with a ttick ^ this done they range them in rows 
r.t the bottom of the veflel, brewing fait between the 
layers, llie other way is to put them immediately into 
tubs of brine made of frefh water and fait, letting them 
deep long enough to imbibe fait iuuicient to preferve them 
from corrupting. After this they put them into barrels, 
taking care to prefs them down clofe. 

The LESSOR MACKREL, of Behnius, differs in 
Kotliing from the former but in being lefs, and it is prin- 
cipally made ufe of when pickled. It is called COG- 
NIOL at Marjeilles. The MAC¥.?<^L oi Renddetius 
<iiffers from the comxon fort in being bigger and thick- 
ei% and covered with fmail thin fcales. Thf oblique 
lines or ftreaks are fhorter, fpeckled with black, and the 
ikull is tranfparent. 

The ALBICORE, called by Nieu/xfihe CORETT, 
is fix or feven feet in length, with yellowifli eyes, and a 
forked yellowilh grey tail. The bottom of the belly is 
blue, inclining to green, and near the tail there are feve- 
ral fhort fins on tke under part. They are very bright, 
and ihine like filver vvhen they are catched at fea with 
hooks, which they often are by the failors to their very 
great refrefhment, the flefh being very good and well 
tailed. Sir Hans Sloan fays it agrees in all refpefts with 
the Mackrel, only the thicknefs of the body in propor- 
tion to the length is much greater. They are very com- 
mon between the tropicks, but they wander farther to 
the north when the fan is in the northern figns. 

The BONETTOE is about three feet in length, and 
two in circumference. It is often fecn in company with 
the Albicore, and has a Iharp head, a fmail mouth, 
large gills, full filver eyes, and a tail like a half-moon. 
It has no fcales, except on the middle of the fides, where 
there is a line of a gold colour, which runs from the head 
W thj tail. On this Jine there is placed a double row 

of 



^35 



^P/h/^ ^4 



^>0(>7tef/<?-f 




.S2)o//iA/n iT^Wu 



vr/ur. 




A'.r~f^^c 



t^ye^r -^y^/'c't^^m. 








/■v 



/OJ 



^J^zf?ye^/i^< ^ 



^^l/>re€rrR ? 



^'^^4 





'mmMjjlmlMiMMJiiJM 



<2/4 



^a/JU/'circ'=:y/^z 




O F F I S H E S, 9^ 

©f -fcales, which are fmooth two thirds of the length, 
but it begins to be rough when it reaches the tail. Jt is 
gree ;iih on the back and fides, but (liines on the belly- 
Eke filver. It has feven fins, two on the back, two at 
the gills, a pair on the belly juft below the gills, and 
one in the middle of the belly oppofite to the largefl on 
the back. From the lall on the back proceeds a fmall 
narrow one, which reaches to the tail ; and another that 
extends from the lafton the belly to the tail in likeman- 
-iier. There is no great difference in Ihape, nor in the 
number of fins between this and the Albicore, but the 
fieih of this is much more delicate, which influences the 
/ailors to be very diligent in catching them when they 
fail between the tropicks. Some have erroneoufly thought 
tiiat the Bonettoe and Albicore are the fame fiili ; but I 
can contradicl this fiom my own experience, having of- 
ten examined and eaten of them bo:h. 

Francis Leguat, in giving an account of his voyages, 
fays the Bonettoe is three or four feet long, and is very 
thick and ficfhy; and that on the back there is a ihel], 
which is fo narrow that it is fcarce perceivable, which is 
of the colour of fiate, and in fome places a liitle green- 
ish. The belly is grey, or of a greyifh pearl colour, and 
grows brown as it approaches the back. There are four 
yellowifh rays or flripes that rife on the fide of the head, 
and run along the body, almoil parallel to each other, 
uniting at the tail. The eye is large and lively, having 
the pupil as black as jet, and furrounded with a filver 
coloured circle. The reft of the defcription is m^uch 
like the former ; only he obferves, that near the tail, on 
the back, there are fix fmall fquare fins about an inch 
in height, and over-againft them, under the belly, there 
are feven. However, moft that have defcribed this iiih 
take thefe laft to be only two continued fins. 

He afterwards acquaints us, that while he was v/riting 
this account, one of his friends, who was a great admirer 
of the wonderful works of nature, had drawn a fort of 
Bonettoe that was caught on the coaft of Er/glani^ ne;^ 
Rye, it does not differ greatly from this juft defcribed ; 
Jiowever, it will not be improper to give that gentle- 
znan's account in his own words* 

The 



96 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The fifh, fays lie, which is called a Bonettoe in the 
Indian Teas, is well known on the coafts of France^ and 
particularly between the rivers Loire and Garonne, where 
it is called a GfiRMON. It feldom enters into the 
channel contrary to the cuitcm of the Mackrel. This 
Bonettoe of our Teas is certainly a filh akin to thofe that 
are commonly feen between the tropicks, 'and is three 
feet in length, with a body piriportionably more thick 
than the common Bonettoe, for i)e is one tl'iird as broad 
as he»is long. At iirft fight one would think the mouth 
of this fifh was not wide, but he can open it a great deal 
wider than any one would jadgc from outward appear- 
ance. I'he teeth above and below are fmall, fhort, and 
weak, but the tongue is large, blackifh, and hard to the 
very root. The eye is a full inch in diameter, and the 
pupil looks like very white tranfparent chryftal, the 
iris that furrounds it being more glittering than polifhed 
gold. 

The colour of this fifh is the fame as the former, 
though it has no fcales on its back or btliy, for the fkin 
there is quite fmooth ; but on the fides, between the tail 
and the fins near the gills, there is a Itripe covered with 
fcales two inches in breadth, though they are fo fine 
and fmall that they can hardly be perceived. At the nar- 
roweit part of the tail, on each fide, there is a knot or 
fmall hairy tuft, wh'ch is an inch and a half long. 
However the former has fix fmall fins on the back near 
the tail and feven below and this has nine above and 
ei^ht below. 

^The COORZA, of Pifo, is like a Bonettoe with re- 
gard to the outward form, and many other particula- 
rities ; but the fize is difierent, for this is eighteen palms 
in length. The (liape of the head, body, and tail is 
like thofe of finali Tunnies, and the fcales are large, 
and of a blackifh blue, and (o clofe together that they 
feem quite fmooth, without any inequalities at all. The 
fnout is fharp, the beily thick, the tail llender, and the 
end like a half-moon. '\ he back is of a fliining blue, 
and the belly of a fiL'er colour. Ke ta.<es no notice of 
the back and belly fins ; but the figure fhews they are 
like others of this kind. *I he ficfli js fweet, and very 

nou- 



O F F I S H E S. g; 

nounfliing, but more dry and hard than that of the 
former. 

The KING'S ¥ iSH of Pl/o, called by the Brafthan'y 
GUARAPUCU, and by the Portugucfe, CAVALLO, 
is {zvtfi feet in length, and the thicknefs of a man's 
body, and every where equal, except. towards the back 
part, where it grows gradually more fmall. The fnout 
is pointed, and the teeth fliarp, round, and regularly 
placed. The eyes are large, with an iris of a filver co- 
lour ; and the fins and tail are like others of this kind. 
There are alfo fmall fins on the top of the back and un- 
der tlie belly, between the hinder back fin, and the fia 
near the vent, and at the tail. It is covered with afkin 
of a filver colour, which on the belly has a blueilli call:, 
but on the back is of a deeper blue. On each fide there 
is a crooked line which reaches to the tail, and is covered 
with exceeding fine fcaks. 

C H A P. XI. 

Of Fijh of the Trent kind, 

THE GUINIAD, fo called in Wales, is bred in 
Pemhle-7neer \n'MericnethJh'ire^ and Mr. Ray takes 
it to be the fame fifh with the FERRxA. of Rondshtius, 
that is found in the lake Letnan, The fhape is not much 
unlike th^t of a Salmon, and the ufual length is about 
twelve or thirteen inches. The back is of a dufky co- 
lour, and the belly is white. The top of the head is of 
light blue, fpeckled with darker fpcts, and the ends of 
all the fins are of a dark blue. The mouth is much like 
that of a Herring, the upper jaw being fomewhat more 
prominent than the lower ; and it has no teeth either in 
•the jaws or throat. The belly does not terminate fharp like 
a wedge, but is about three quarters of an inch broad; 
and the fcales are of a middle fize. The eyes are large, 
but have no pellicle or ikin to cover them as many other 
iifli have. The lateral lines run direclly from the cor- 
ner of the gills to the tail, which is forked at the end. 

yoL. IH. F The 



93 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The brain is divided into feven lobes ; but the liver 
has none, and the gall is yellow. The Ikull is not very 
tranfpaient, and the borders of the eye on each fide 
ftein to be wrinkled. The air bladder runs the whole 
length of the back as in Trouts, and the fpleen is long 
and foft, like clottlcd blood. Pembk-nieer is by the 
Wehh called Llintegid, and lies near Bala^ a bailiff- 
town, and the chief of that mountainous tra£l. The 
Guiniad generally lies at the bottom of the lake, 
among the weeds termed water gladiol, which is peculiar 
to theie mountains. It is called Guiniad from the white- 
nefs of its body ; this word fignifying much the fame as 
Whiting in Englijh. It is very obfervable, that though 
the river Dee runs through this lake, yet (his fifh is never 
found in its Ilream ; and on the contrary, though Sal- 
rions are caught in the river, they never enter the lake ; 
fo ftridly do thefe animals keep to the haunts defigned 
f:>r them by nature. They are in feafon in fummer 
time ; and though the flefli is white> it taRes like that 
of a Trout ; but it is in much higher eileem, becaufe it 
is a greater rarity. 

The SCHELLY, fo called by the inhabitants of Cum- 
berland, is the LAVARETO of other authors ; and it is 
found in the lake termed HuIfe-~uoater^ not far from 
Pereth, a town in Cumberland. Jt is not a very large 
fifn, for it rarely exceeds two pounds in weight ; and for 
its fize, it is longer than a Trout, and of the Ihape of 
a Herring. The fcales are larger than in a Trout, and 
the fides and belly are of a filver colour. There is a 
line runs from the corners of the gills diredtly to the 
middle of the tail. 

The noble ALBULA of Scho}i:"jeUj is not much un- 
like the Guiniad ; and the little Albula ofGejner, has a 
head of a blueifti green, fhining like a precious ftone ; 
and befides, it is lefs than the former. 

The blew ALBULA o{ Ge/ner, called BEZOL A by 
Rop.deletius, is not fo white as a Schelley, being a little 
blewiih, and has a fharper fnout, a lefs head, and a 
broader and a more promment belly like a herring; but 
the flefh is fofter and not fo good. Gejner fays, it is of 
a middle fize, and that the extremity of the tail is of a 
bUckifli blue colour, efpecially about the middle and 

the 



O F F I S H E S. 99 

v\e fork. The fins are likewife of the fame colour as 
well as the head ; but the belly is as white as fnow, and 
the back greenilh. It has no teeth, but the tongue is 
a little rough ; the fmell of this fifli.is more agreeable 
than others of this kind. 

The leaft ALBULA of Ge/ner, is extremely like th^ 
little Albula, though lefs, and the he.id is not fo green. 
When this filh is placed upright, and beheld downwards 
from the back, the fides will appear to have a purplifli 
caft. The fins are white, and when the mouth is open, 
the end of the upper jaw bends downward. The niouth 
is longifh and without teeth ; and they fwim in very large 
fhoals, for which reafon many of them are taken. Mr. 
Ray is of opinion, that there are notfo many Albula's 
as are taken notice of by authors, though he thinks 
Gcfner, who has mentioned them, to be a fkilful, dili- 
gent, curious, faithful, and true writer; however, he 
obferves this author is moH to be depended upon, when 
he defcribes thofe in the waters near which he lived. 
Mr. Ray has himfelf feen the Albele otZurick, the La- 
VARETO oi Savoy, lie Ferr a of Geneva, the Guiniad 
of l^'alcSf and the Weiss- fish of Conjiantine y and he 
thinks the principal difl'erence between thefe filli, is in the 
fize ; of the which the Ferra and the Albele excel the reft ; 
befides the outward iliape of the body, is thicker, 
broader, and fhorter in thefe, than in a Salmon ; whereas, 
in the Lavareto, and Schelly, they are longer in propor- 
tion, as well as more flender and narrower, fomewhat like 
a Herring : but the leaft AJbula of Gefner, named the 
AVeifs-fifh in S-iviJerland, differs fufHciently from tlie reft 
in its fmalinef--, if other marks had been wanting. 

The HAUTIN or OUTIN, fo named in Flanders, h 
eafily diftinguifhed from the reft of this kind, from the 
fhape of its fnout or upper jaw which ftands out beyond 
the lower, and grows Iharp at the end like the figure of 
a cone. In fhape, it is like a Trout, and is commonly 
brought over from Hol/afid w'lxh fifh of the cod kind, for 
v/hich reafon, perhaps, Rcndeletius and others, are mi- 
ftaken in the number df the fins, which they fay is three, 
whereas in reality it has but two. 

F 2 The 



ICO THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The CURMATA ofrrafil, takeji notice of by Marc, 
gya^e^ is very like the Ferra of the lake Lc//ian in S'ivi/- 
Xir^atidi and perhaps may be the fame lifh. 

n^he GRAY-LING, termed in fome places the UM- 
BER, is the river Umber oi Be.cniui and Ron ektlus. It 
it has a longer and flatter body than that of a Trout, 
and in lize feldom exceeds eighteen inches. In weight 
i. about half a pound, but in fome places they are three 
times as heavy, its back is of a duf^y green inclining 
to* bine, and the f.des are grey, from whence it lias i.s 
name of Gray-ling, though they feem to glitter vvitli 
fpangles of gold j and they are marked v/ith black fpots 
irregularly placed. From the head to the tail, in the 
places where the fcalcs meet, there feems to be drawn 
dufky parallel lines, from whence it derives the name of 
Umber. The lateral, common to all iifh, are., nearer 
tlie back than the belly, and the top of the back fin is 
painted with red, but the lower part is of a blueiili pur- 
ple ; the iins of the belly are likewife of the fame colour, 
that is, of a blueifh purple fpotted with bluck. It has a 
little head with protuberant eyes, whofe iris is of a filver 
cotour, fpeckied with a dufky yellow. The mouth is of 
a middle fize, and the upper jaw is longer than the 
lower ; bat it has no teeth, but the lips are rough like 
a file, the tongue fmooth, and the gills quadruple. 

This fjfn deaghts in rivers that runs through moun- 
tainous places, and are to be met with in the fwiftell 
and cleareil parts of thofe llreams, particularly in the 
rivers Hodder^ DoiCf Trcnt^ Btrnxen^ PFye, and Lug. 
The ilcih may be eaten all the year ; but their chief fea- 
ibr^ is December, at which time the head, gills, and lift 
that runs down the back are black. It is firm, white, 
cleaves like that of a Salmon, and is accounted vtiy 
good and wholefome. The time of fpawning is in Mayi 
and it is a brifk fprightly fifh when in the water, fwim- 
ing as fwift as ati arrow out of a bow. 

'The SALMON has diiferent names according to its 
different ages ; for thofe that are tak:ea in the river Rib- 
hie in Torkjhlre, are in the firil year called Smelts, in the 
fecond Sprods, in the third Morts, in the fourth Fork- 
tails, in the fifth Half fifh, and in the fixth, at which 
time they are thought to have attained their proper 
growth, they are judged worthy of the name of Sal- 
mons. 



O F F I S H E S. f oi 

mons. The fize of this fifh is mach the fame in mcft 
parts ; of 'Europe ; and when the)' are largeil they weigh 
near forty pounds. 

The Salmon is a very beautiful fifh, and is every 
where in great efteem ; the body is longiin, covered with 
fmall thin fcales, and the head is fmal) with a iharp 
fnout, and the tail is forked. The colour on the back 
is blueilh, on the other parts white, generally intermix- 
ed with blackilh or reddifh Ipots, placed in a very agree- 
able nianr^er. The female may be dirtir;gu!ihed from 
the male, by havmg a longer and more hooked fnoiit, 
in having Tcales that arc not quite To briglu, and its body 
is ipeckled over with dark biown fpots. Likevviie the 
belly is Ratter ; the fieili is mere dry, and not fo red ; 
nor yet is the taice fo agreeable. 

The excrefcenee which grows out of the lov/er jaw of 
'tl.e male, and is a bony gnftie hke the beak of a Hawk, 
is not a (ign of his being fickly, as Wuitoii zvA others 
have thought ; but as a defence provided by nature a- 
gainrt fuch fifii as would devour their fpawn. It grows 
to the length of about, two inches, and falls off when he 
returns to the fca. He is like wife more fpotted in frelh 
water than in the fea. The teeth are fmall in propor- 
tion to its body ; and the gills are quadruple, with a 
broad cover full of red (pots, of the fame colour as oa 
the fides ; for towards the back, they are more dufky. 
The 'Az\!'[i is not fo red at fiifl, as when it is boiled or 
failed ; and it is tender, flefhy, flaky, and lufcious, for 
which reaibn it fatizifies the fooner, and is harder of di- 
gellion, though it is generally preferred to that of other 
lifh. About the time of fpawning it grows more iniipid, 
and loofes a great deal of its lively colour. Some begin 
to be out of feafon foon after the fammer folllice, and 
others much Inter ; which may be known by their falling 
away, their looiing their beautiful fpots, and by their 
colour ; infomuch, that when they are quite cut of fea- 
fon, they look like nlli of a diii-erent kind. 

The SALMON-FK.Y, called in fome countries a Sal- 
mon-Smelt, is by moll thought to be the ofrspring 
of a fickly Salmon, which has bten forcibly de- 
tained from vifiting the fait water ; but however 
that be, it is agreeable enough to the eye, though 
its tafte is very ordinary and infipid. I'he Salmron 
F 3 chufc* 



102 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

chufes the rivers for its abode about fix months in iht 
year, entering thefreih water about February oi March, 
in fome countries, where they continue to the autumnal 
feafou, at which time they caft their fpawn, and foon af- 
ter return to the fea. However, it is faid, that the Sal- 
mons of the river J?.v in De'xoijhire, and of the Wye and 
VJk in Monmouthjhirey are in fcafon during the other fix 
months, and that they never frequent the Wye and IJJk 
the fame year; for when they arc found in the one, there 
are none in the other. In generaJ, the fait water con- 
tributes moft to their growth, and the frefh renders them 
fat. 

When the time of fpawning comes, the female makes 
a hole in a gravelly bottom, like a kind of ueft of her 
own dimenfions ; which done, fhe difcharges her fpawn 
and retires. Then the male, or milter, advances and 
covers the fpawn with its belly, emitting at the fame 
time a whitiih fluid like milk. Afcer this the female re- 
turns, and they both endeavour to cover their brood 
witli gravel, in which they work wi^h their nofes like 
hogs. Then they return to the deeps to recover their 
fiier.gth, which they do in about twenty days time. 

There is nothing more remarkable relating to this fifix 
«than its agility in leaping over obftacles that oppofe its 
piiiTar^e to and from the fea j for they are frequendy feea 
to throv/ ihemfelves up catarads and precipices many 
yards high. They fcmetimes make fcvcral e/fays before 
ihey can gain their end ; and at that time there are fome- 
times baficcis fet to catch them, into which thry leap, 
'i here is a remaik;.blc cataradl in the river Tinjy in Pem- 
brokfjhire, where people often ftand gazing to obferve 
the Itrength and Height which they ufs to get out of the 
fi'a into the river. This is well known in thcfe parts by 
the name of the Salnion-lenp. Jn the river Weary near 
the city of Durha^n, there is another, which is accounted 
the higheil in England, Likewil'e, at old Aberdeen in 
ScoilanJy there is one where Salmon have been caught in 
i'uch great plenty, that they have carried on a great trade 
in that filh. -1 he Salmon when he re uins from the 
fea, is always faid to enter the liime river in v.hich he 
was fpawned. 'I hia i'j evident from the experimenu 
made by filhermcn, :<!id others, who have caught them 

when 



OF F I S H E- S. 103 

when very fmall, and have run a bft of tape through the 
tail fin ; for by this mark, they have been certain they 
have retaken the fame fiih, in the fame river, after his 
return from the fea. 

The chief rivers in Ei.gland, frequented by this ex- 
cellent fifli, are the Thames, Se'verny Trcnt^ Meikojay^ 
DeCi Ex, Ujl'y Wyey Lon, 'Tyve, IVarkingtoriy IVc-utyy 
Loane^ and others. However, the London markets are 
chiefly fupplied from the North, where they are net 
only more plentiful, but are in fcafon fooner than thofe 
in the fouthern rivers. 

The chief Salmon filheries in Europey are along the 
coads of t.ngl.indy Scotland, and Ireland \ where the 
hihing ufually begins about the fiiil oi January , and ends 
in the latter end of Sepiemher. It is performed wiih nets 
near ihe mouths of the rivers, and along the fea coails 
thereabouts ; when thefe fifh are feen to crowd thiiher 
from all parts in quell of frelh water. They alfo ii!"h for 
them higher up in the rivers, fometimes with locks or 
wares, made for that purpofe, with iron gate?. Tliefe 
gates are fo contrived, thac the hfh in paliuig up the 
river can open them with their heads ; but they are no 
fooner entered, than the gates clap to and prevent their 
return. '1 hus the Salmons are enclofed as in a refervoir, 
where it is eafy to take them. In fome places they fiili 
for Salmons in the night time, where they light up 
torches or kindled llraw, which invites this hih to drav/ 
near ; and then they may be either ftruck with a fpear, 
or taken with a net. In fome parts of Sco dandy it is 
faid, they Ihoot Salmon when they efpy them in the 
fhallows, with fire arms. When they are caught, they 
are either falted and dried, or pickled, and put into 
cafKS, by which means they are tranfported to diftant 
markets. 

The gall of Salmon is only ufed in medicine, and, 
that to take away fpots o^ the eyes, and to cure a nolle 
in the ears, by putting a little therein with a bit of 
cotton. 

The SAMLET, {o called in Hereford/hire y is named 

a BRANDLIN, and FINGERIN in Torkjkire. It is 

very like a Trout, and yet difFers from it in being 

much lefs, for it is but feven inches long, and an inch and 

F 4 a half 



104 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

?. half broad. It is alfo a litt'e broader in proportion 
ihan a Trout, and has fewer ipots that are not Jo lively, 
and the black fpots are lefs. Befidcs it is v.liiier, and 
has a more forked tail ; the fides are not fo yellow under 
the fpots, and the lateral lines in a Trout are greater, 
and more red than in this fjfh. Arid to this, that there 
are tranfverfe fpaces near the lines, of a blueilli colour, 
which the Trout has not. It is taken in the river Wye 
in Heycfcnfjcire, and elfevvhere. Some pretend that 
this kind of fifh are all males, which cannot poflible he 
true, if they are diilindl fpecies. However, they may 
be found in thofs places, and thofe only frequented by 
Salmons, and they may be caught at all times of the 
year. 

The GRAY, is probably the fame flHi which in Scot- 
land tnty qzW the GREY-LORD; it differs in fize but 
Jittle from a Salmon, but the (liape Is very unlike, for 
they are confiderably broader and thicker, and the tail 
is not forked. The body is every where fpecklcd with 
afli-coloured or grey fpots, from whence it derives its 
name. The fiefh is preferable to that of Salmon, and 
bears a'moft double the price, it is a very ftrong and 
niinbis fii'li, nialcing its way from the fea into tlie rivers 
vith extreme fwiftnefs, furmounting almoll all obfiacles 
with the great eft eafe. 7 his iifh is feldom taken, and 
thcrefoic is known but to few j and it does not come 
into the rivers before Augufty which is the time of- 
ipawning. 

The S ALVION-TROUT, the BULL-TROUT, or 
SCURF, differs from a Salmon, in having a tail not fo 
forked at the end ; from a Gray, in its head, which is 
fhorter and thicker; and from both, in being lefs, 
for it fddom exceeds twenty inches in length. The 
ileih is not red as in a Salmon, and it has a much 
itronger, and more difagreeable fmell than tha-t of a 
Gray. The LAKE-TROUT of Gjner and ^Idrovnn- 
diUy differs from a Salmon-Trout in being bigger ; for 
that of the lake Lemany weighs near forty pounds, and 
that in fome other lakes, from fifty to an hundred. 
Likewife the head and back are of a beautiful greenilh- 
blue coloar, and the back fin is variegated with nume- 
rous 



OFFISH E S. IQ5 

rous black fpots. Befides the tail is forked, and the 
fiefli is red and well tailed. ^ 

The UiVIBLA of Rondeletim, is two cubits in length, 
and fometimes longer. The tail is forked, and the 
pointed lines on the fides are crooked upwards, contrary 
to thofe of other iifh. The fides beneath this line and 
the belly, are yellowiili ; but above they ai-e fpotted 
with fpots that are neither black, nor red, but white. 
The head is blueiih, the ikull tranfparent, and the belly 
ruddy. There arc teeth in both jaws, that is there is a 
double row in each. The teeth on the tongue are 
fix in number, and under the eyes there are three or four 
fmall holes. 

Another UMBLA of Rondeletim, grows to an enor- 
mous balk, and fomewhat refembles a Salmon and a 
Salmon-Trout, The end of the lower jaw is crooked, 
and there is a cavity in the upper jaw to receive it as in 
Salmons. The jaws are marked with many lines,' and 
the back is of a biueilh black colour ; bat the belly is of 
the colour of gold. 

The BARRACJADA, is about fifteen inches long and 
three broad, in the middle where it is broadcil. The 
lower jaw is a quarter of an inch longer than the upper; 
and the eyes are two inches diftant from rhe end of the 
fnout, being nearly of the fame length as the cleft of 
the mouth. The lower jaw is furniilied with \-Qvy fmall 
teeth, and the upper is armed with a double row, of 
which the outer are the ihorteH;. The fore part is nar- 
row as far as the gills, gradually increafiug to thofe 
parts from whence this nili is almoil of an equal thick- 
nefs to the vent, where it begins to grow ie{s to the be- 
ginning of the tail. The colour is duUcy on the back, 
as far as the lateral line, which runs from tl-e head 
through the middle of the fides to the tail ;' but it is 
white on the belly. It is fprinkled widi black fpecks, 
and covered with fm.all thin fcales. There are two fins 
on the back about an inch long as well as broad ; and 
the fame number at the gills. On the belly there are 
likewife two, and one behind the vent. The fins are 
foft, the tail broad and forked. Thefcomach is two or 
thxee inches long, of the fiiape of a bag, and tie liver 
^ S -Avb'itira 



io6 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

whitilh. The name of this fi(h is probably Spav'/b, 
and it has no EngliJJj name in Sir Hans S/oaue^s catalogue. 

The MUD-FISH, is a-kin to a Irout, and is about 
fevcn inches long, and one thick, near the head, where 
it is thickeft ; and from thence to the tail it becomes 
gradually fmaller. There are feven fins placed as ufual, 
and it is covered all over with minute fcales, which are 
partly whice, partly yellowifli, and partly black, only 
on the belly they are all white. The under jaw is longer 
than the upper, and they are both armed with feveral 
rows of fmall fharp teeth. It is found in the lakes and 
rivers in the Weji-hidics, and is accounted very good 
eating. 

1 he SALVELIN, fo called by the Germans, has a 
blackiih back, and the fides are fpeckled with yellow- 
i!h fpot?. The belly, and belly fins, areyellowifh, but 
more pale in fome places than others. There is a ftrait 
line runs from the gills to the tail, and the fcales are 
fmall. On the upper jaw, from the noftrils on both 
fide-s, there is a row of points which run above the eyes 
to the corners of the gills, and then they turn back,, 
meeting on the back part of the head. The upper jaw 
is longer than the lower ; and when the mouth is fhut, 
the outermoU row of teeth appear out of it. This filh is 
\ ery common about Llnt% in Jvflria. 

The TROUT, is of a longiih. make, and refemblc^ 
a Salmon more than any "other fiih. 1 he head is fhort 
and roundilh ; the fnout blunt ; the body thick ; and 
frhe tail broad. The mouth is wide, and there are tee tlv 
not only in the jaws, but on the palate and tongue. Th« 
eyes are large, with a redJifh circle round the pupil ; 
but the reft of the iris is of a filver colour. The fcales- 
are fmall, and the fliin readily falls into wrinkles, and 
feparates from the iiefli. In the larger Trouts the back 
is of a duficy hue, and full of black fpots, which in fome 
arc mixed with red. The fides are painted with fpots of 
a purple or verinillion dye ; but on the belly they hav^ 
a yellowifh call. Theie are two fins on the back, and 
that next the head is full of black fpots, and the edge 
of that near the tail is of a vcrmiilion colour. On the 
belly there are two pair, which are always either red o» 
yellow. 

TrotJts 



O F F I S H E S. 107 

Trouts generally delight in cool and fmall ftreama 
which defcoad from hills and rocky mountains ; and 
they feem to take a pleafure in fwimming againft the 
courfe of the water, ftriving to gain, as it were, the 
fpring head of brooks and rivulets, let their defcent be 
never fo rapid. Several authors informs us, they are 
found in fmall rivers among the AJps^ which are fo cold, 
that no other fifh can bear them company. The time of 
fpavvning is in No^vemher or Decetnlevy when they dig 
holes in ftony or gravelly places, and depofite their fpawn 
therein. They are not in the highell feafon when fulled 
of fpav/n ; for they are fattell, and have the moft delici- 
ous talle in July and <:^ugujl. However, they begin to 
be in feafon in March, and are fooner fo in fome rivers 
than in others ; particularly in the Wandle, they are 
more forward than in any other about London, and there 
is near a month difference between that and Hertford 
river. In the winter time Trouts are lick, lean, and 
unwholefome, breeding a kind of worm wiih a large 
head, which is not unlike a clove in fhape. Then this 
fiili feems to have a head of a larger fize than ordinary, 
and thofe beautiful fpots disappear, and the lively colour 
of the belly becomes duficy and difagreeable. But to- 
wards the latter end of March, when the fun with its 
genial warmth and influence begins to invigorate the 
earth, he then makes a fhew of feme fpirit, and roufmg 
as it v>'ere from a foit of lethargy, forfakes the deep ilill 
waters for the more rapid Ilreams, where he rubs oir his 
in-bred foes againft the gravelly bottoms, and foon after 
recovers h.is former llrength and vigour. The flelh is a 
little drier, and not quite fo tender as that of a Salmon; 
however, it is efteemed the moil agreeable of all fifli 
that make their conftant abode in freOi wr.ter. 

The FORDICH-TROUT, is of a diifcrent fpecies 
from the Common-Trout 5 for it is almoll as large as a 
Salmon, and continues nine months in the fea, Be/ides 
it is feldom or never caught with an angle, being fup- 
pofed not to feed at all in frefh water ; at leaft, when 
their maws have been opened, there has been nothing 
found therein. However, they return to the river io 
very conftant and pandlual, that the fiihermen know al- 
moll to a day when to expeft them, PerLips this fJli, 
F 6 though. 



icS THE NATITRAL HISTORY 

though ciUed a Troyt, is the fame as the Gray-Lord 
abovementioned. 

: The RIVER-TROUT, termed HUGH by the G^r- 
mons^ differs from tli« common Trout in its fize, which 
is larger, being near twenty-fix inches long; in the 
iliape of the body, w hich is more long and (lender ; in 
•having black fpots, not red, and in having no teeth on 
the palate. 

The RED CHAR, is taken in the lake called Windn- 
dcrmeer in TFeJImoreland, and by the Welch is named TOR- 
GOCH. It has a more long and (lender body than a 
Irout, and the back is of an olive-green colour, fpeck- 
led with whitifl-i fpots. The belly is generally red, tho' 
it i> fometimes white, efpecialiy in the fpawners. The 
fcales are exceeding fmall, and the lateral lines (trait. 
The mouth is wide, the jaws pretty equal, only the 
lower is a little (harper and more protuberant tlian the 
upper. The lower part of the fins are of a vermillion 
dye, and the gilL are quadruple. There are teeth both 
jn the jaws and on the tongue ; but in the upper jaw 
there is a double row. The fwimming bladder is like that 
of a Trout, and the liver is not divided into lobes, 
but it has a large gall-bladder. The fplecn is fmall and 
blackilh ; the heart irregular, and the eggs of the fpawn 
are large and round. The fleib is more foft and tender 
than that of a Trout, and it is but very little tinctured 
with red when boiled. Jt is in very high efteem, per- 
haps, becaufc it is exceeding icarce; and in Wales, it is 
accounted the chief dilh at the tables of people of 
'fafhion. 

The only place in England where this fifh is taken, is 
IVirander-meer ; but in Wales, it is caught in five di(Fe- 
rent lakes. In AUrionethJhire, they are fmaller than in 
other places, and are taken in Ouober ; but in one of 
the lakes of Cnrnari'onjhire, they are caught in No-vem- 
her ; in another, in December ; and in a third, in 
Jcnuary ; fo that the fiiliing ends in one, wlien the 
other begins ; they fwim together in Ihoals, and though 
they appear on the furface of the water in fummer time, 
yet they will not fuffer themfelves to be taken either with 
'an angle or nets. The only feafon for catching this 
fifh, is when they refort to the (hallow parts of the 

lakes 



O F F I S H E S: lo^ 

lakes to depofite their fpawn. At this time they fet 
trammel nets baited, and {o leave them for whole day* 
and nights, after which they are generally fure to find 
fome therein. 

Some have been in doubt whether the EngUJh Red 
Char, and the Welch Torgoch, are the fame kind of 
iifh ; but Mr. Ray thinks there is no room to make A 
doubt of it, fince the Welch name fignifies a red belly, 
which is the peculiar mark of the Red Char. The GILT 
CHAR is indeed of a quite different fpecies, and is not 
fo big by one half. The belly is of a filver colour, the 
flelh red, and the back fpotted with black ; whereas the 
belly of the former is red, the jfielh white, and the fpots 
on the back are red likewife. Thofe of Winander-rneer^ 
are only taken in the winter time, like thofe in Wales ; 
for in the fuilimer they will get over the top: of the nets 
and make their efcape. Dr. Leigh affiims, that the 
Char is found in Coninjion rneer in Laneafhire^ which 
from what he fays of the fize, muft be the Red Char. 

The GILT CHAR, is the fame as the White Char of 
Winander-meer in the county o^WcJiinoreland \ and is like 
a Trout, only it is much broader, and has a more promi- 
nent belly. The fcales are very fmall, and the colour 
on the back is lighter than that of a Trout, though va- 
riegated with black fpots. The belly and iides are of a 
filver colour ; the fnout is blueiPa» and the Ikull transpa- 
rent. It has teeth in the palate, and two rows of them 
on the tongue, and the Avimming bladder is extended the 
whole length of the back. The flelh is red, and is in high 
eileem among the Italians. It never exceeds twelve 
inches in length. 

The TARANTOLA, fo called by the inhabitants of 
Borne, is a round oblong filh, more {lender near the head, 
and grows fenfibly thicker to tlie firft back fin, from 
whence it gradually decreafes to the tail. It i; a foot in 
length, and broader than a man's thumb. The belly 
is whiiifli ; the back of a blackilh-green, fpeckled with 
green, blue, red, and black fpots on the back, head, 
and fides. The top of the head is flat, and there is a 
fmall pit between the eyes; the mouth is extreamly 
wide, and the fnout terminates in an acute angle. There 
is one row of long fharp teeth in both jaws ; and the 
hinder fin on the back, placed not far from ihe tail, is 

little 



no THE NATURAL HISTORY 

little and deftitute of rays, being nothing elle but an ap* 
pendage of fat or flefli, as is commou to the "liiout kind. 
«rhis is a fingular fort of iilh, for there is no fea fifh 
like it. 

The SMELT is fo called, from having the fmell of a 
violet, though fome fay it is like a cucumber. It is fix 
inches long, and near an inch broad. I: is the leail of 
thefe kind of filh, and the Ihape of the body is more 
long and flender: The fcales fall off wich the ilighteft 
touch ; and the ficull is fo tranfparent, that all the lobes 
of the brain may be plainly and diftinclly feen. The 
back is of a dufky colour, but the belly and fides Ihine 
like filver. 1 hofe that examine them attentively, will 
find fmall black fpots on the head and back, and the 
lower jaw a little more prominent than the upper ; but 
they are both well furnilhed with teeth, and there are 
fome on the tongue. 

The flefn is foft and tender, and of a delicate tafte ; 
for which reafon it is in high efleem. It is a fifli of paf- 
fage, and vifits the Tharr.e: and other great rivers twice a 
a year, th?t is in March and Augufi. In the fiiilof theie 
month'^, they generally advance up as high as Mortlack ; 
but in the latter, they make a ftahd about Biackixall. 

The RIVER SMELT, of the ri/er 6>/» in France, h 
very like a Bleak, and only differs from it in the roots of 
the fins, v.'hich are red, and in having the lateral line 
bended as it were like a bow. It is near five inches long, 
and a little broader than a man's thumb. It has a par- 
ticular fmell, and is thicker and fhorter than a Sea 
Smelt. 

CHAP. xn. 

Of flippery Fijh cf the Eel kind, 

THE SEA LOACH, fo called in Chejhirey is 
termed the WHITTLE FISH in Ccrnivall. It 
js nine ir.che. in length, and the head is flat and depref- 
fed. It has a mouth like an Eel, fuinifiied with Icve- 
ral tetth, and on the upper jaw there are only two barbs. 



O F F I S H E S. Hi 

one on each fide, and antther at the lower corner. The 
eyes are not far from the end of the fnout, and their iris 
is of a filver colour. The fcales are exceeding fmall, 
and the head, back, and fides, are variegated witli large 
blackifh-red fpots. In a dent or pit almoftin the middle 
of the back, inftead of a fin, there is a low membrane 
or fkin edged with extreamly fmall hairs ; by which it 
may be known from all other fifh of this kind ; for with 
regard to the fpots, it greatly varies, they being white 
in fome, and others have none at all. The colour of 
the back is of a dufky yellow, but the fides are lighter, 
and the belly almoft white. The gills on each fide are 
quadruple. 

The Sea Loach begins to have fpawn like other fifh, 
about the vernal equinox ; but the eggs are white and 
very fmall like nit . About Whitjur.tide they begin to 
lock a little reddifh, and are of the fize of a grain of 
muftird feed. Likewife, about that time they grow 
fofter, for at firft they are hard. After this they begin 
to afiume an oblong figure, and two blackifh fpecks ap- 
pear, which are the rudiments of the eyes and head. 
Soon after, the belly may be feen, and then the tail, 
about the thicknefs of a very fine thread. 

When the eggs encreafe, the belly of this fifh is not 
only diftended with their bulk, but with a flimy liquor 
full of flcnder fibres, by which means the tender bodies 
of the young fry not only lie foft in a regular order, 
but are kept from crowding and hurting each other^ 
When the young ones are cut out of the belly, they bend 
their bodies like Eels, moving their mouth> and gills, 
and live feveral hours. They are naturally excluded a- 
bout the latter end of December. 7 he males may be dif- 
tinguilhcd from the females, by being lefs, and of a 
brigher yellow. The flelli is hard, and not very agree- 
able, being chiefly eaten by the poorer fort of people. 

The EEL POUT, has a fmooth fofc flippery body 
like an Eel, and has either no fcales, or thofe that are 
exceeding fmall. The head is broad and deprefled, and 
the jaws are as rough, with very fmall teeth, as a file. 
The tail is flat and roundilh, and on the lower jaw there 
grows a barb about half an inch long ; and between the 
liofkils and the fhou.t,. there is a pair of ihort barbs. 

The 



U2 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

-The colour is of a blackifh green which is eafily wiped 
oiF, and then there appears a mixture of yellow, white 
and black. The place in England where this fifh is chiefly 
found, is the river Se-veniy and they fpawn in December, 
•being {o fruitful, tiiat one roe contains no lefs than 
izSooo eggs. Their ufual length is about fourteen or 
fifteen inches, though they fometimes grow to twenty. 
;The flefh is good and fvveet, and in great efteem. 

The LOTA o^ Rondeletius, differs from the former, 
in having its tail like the end of a fword ; in being co- 
vered with fmali fcales, and in having no barbs on the 
upper jaw. 

The LAKE LOACH is greater than that of the 
river, and the colour is variegated with black and yel- 
low. Gej'ner makes three kinds of thefe fifh, the greater 
of which is near two feet in length, and there is a round 
foft caruncle, which is hollow within, and there are four 
fins on the back. Another, which he calls the GREATER 
.LUTEOLA, has three fins, and the third has only two. 
Belonius has only two kinds, namely the greater, which 
is variegated with different colours, and the lefs, which 
he terms a BARBO T, that is only of one colour, differing 
from the former in nothing elfe. Mr. Ray fays, he knows 
but two kinds, which have both only two fins on the 
back, and therefore fuppofes that Gc/ner is fome how 
or other millaken. However, he leaves this affair to the 
farther determination of the curious. 

The VIVIPAROUS i.OACH oi Schone^veldt, called 
by the Germans yLLQUAPPE and DEPUTE, is a lea- 
fi'h a foot in lengih, or fomewhat longer. The fkin is 
fmooth ; the colour of the head and back of a dufky yel- 
low witli black ibeaks, which towards the fides are more 
yellow; and the belly is of a dufky white The head 
i lefs in this than in others of the fame kind, and of ihe 
/liapj of that of an Eel. The back-fin begins at the 
reck, is of the fame colour with the back, and runs to 
v.^ithin half an inch of the tail. In the middle of the 
belly there is a \ ellowilh fin which terminates in a fnarp 
jxkint, and is a little rediih. There are no teeth, but 
the jaws are rou{>h. 

The FOS.>lIJ£ LOCH oi Gefner, is termed by the 
Gcrmam PEiSSKAR, or BEISSKAR. It is a palm in 

length. 



OF FISHES. M3 

length, and fometimes much longer, and the back is of 
an a.(h colour, with many fpecks or fpois running crofs 
it, partly bhick, and partly blue. At the mouth there 
are fiefhy particles, which are expanded by this fiih when 
it fwims ; and the belly is yellow, fpeckled with fmall 
white, red, and black fpots. On each fide ihere is a 
black and white line, and there are two fins on the mid- 
dle of the belly, and a fhort one at the back. They 
pafs out of rivers into marlhy places, hiding them (elves 
deep in the earth ; or being left in meadows after a flood, 
while water remains in chinks and holes of tlie earth, 
and then fubfiding, thefe filh continue in them, v/herc 
thsy grow, and cannot get out if they would. 

I'he CL ARIAS of the Nile, fo called by Bellcm'us, is 
. a foot in length, and as thick as a man's arm. The 
head is great and fleihy, and the eyes are large, being 
an inch and a half diilant from each other, and the iris 
is v/hite. The back is duflcy, and tlie belly is of a dirty 
white ; and there are two barbs which are ilx inches 
long and foft. There are two rov^s of teeth in the upper 
jaw, but the lower is only rough. The tail is broad and 
forked, on which there are two horny round appen- 
dages a paim in length, which are found in no other fi(h. 
At the gill-iins there is a fmgular ferrated thorn or 
prickle ; and on the back, there is only one long fleihy 
fin, armed only with one prickle. The fwimming blad- 
der is full of holes like a honey comb, which makes the 
body feem to be fpungy. 

The SHEAT FISH, grows to the length of eight 
cubits and upwards, weighing one hundred and fifty 
pounds of eighteen ounces each. In the river Vijlw^a^ 
which runs into the Baltick^ they are fomeumes caught 
of the length of fixteen feet, and twenty feven inches in 
breadth. It is of the colour of an Eel, only the belly 
and fides are variegated v.ith white and black fpaces, or 
large fpots. '\ he body is flippery, being covered with 
flime, and is without fcales. The head is very broad 
.and flat, and the mouth exceeding wide. The body, 
to the vent, is thick and roundilh, but the lower part of 
the belly is flat ; from the vent to the tail it grows broader 
and flatter in proportion to thefize of the filh. In the up- 
per jaw, before the eyes, there are two very long and 

haid 



114 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

hird barbs, which this fifh thrufts cut as it were to 
make fome difcovery. There hangs four barbs from the 
lowjr lip, which are flender and more ihort. There 
are no teeth properly fo called ; but the lips both above 
and below, as well as the palate, are as rough as a file, 
which might pafs ibr fmall teeth. There i:. only one fin 
on the back, which is very fraail, and coniifts of three 
rerves. From the vent to the tail there runs a very long 
fin, which joins to each gill-fin, and there is a hard thorn 
or prickle with which it drives away troublefome fifh. 
It is found in ieveral rivers in Germanj^ as well as lakes, 
and keeps chiedy at the bottom. It is a veiy vora- 
cious fiih, and does a great deal of niifchief wherever it 
comes. The flelh is faid to be wholefome food, and 
they drefs it in the fame manner as an Eel. 

The CALLORHYNCHUS, is a filh without fcale-, 
and that has cartilaginous fins. It is of a filver colour 
on the back, and of a fhining gold colour on the fides ; 
the lower lip is long and broad, and covers the upper 
when the mouth is fhut. The teeth are only fmoth tu- 
bercles placed in each jaw ; and the nortrils are ft-ated on 
the lower part of the head, having only a fingle hol« 
each. 1 he eyes are placed on the fides oT the head, 
and are covered with a fingle coat ; the iris is of a filver 
colour, and the eye- lid perpendicularly oval. The belly 
is large and flat, and the vent nearer the tail than the 
head, being feated between the belly fins. There are 
{cvQw fins, namely, two en the back, as many on the 
breail: ar.d belly, and the tail makes the feventh. The 
length of this nlh, from the top of the fnout to the end 
of the tail, ts nine inches and two thirds. The defcription 
of this filh, was taken from one in the collection oiEeba. 

The BLACK FISH, fo called by the Engiifi at Aleppo 
in Suia, is thought by Dr. Ri>£el to be like the Sheat- 
Fifti in Ihape, though it is not above twenty inches in 
length, nor twenty ounces in weight. However, they 
arc cf different fizes, and the head and back are bkck. 
The lateral line runs directly from the head to the tail, 
through the middle cf the fide; below which, to the 
helly, the colour geneially changes to a dark purple, 
and the under pait of the head is of the fime colour. 
The head is fiat, and near five inches in length ; and the 
body round, till witliin a few inclK \- of the tail, where it 

becomes 



O F F I S II E S. 115 

becomes fiat. The mouth is not fo large in proportion 
as the Shat-fifh, and it has no tongue. The make of 
the mouth and palate agree exaflly with the defcription 
of that fifh ; and from the edge of the noilril on each 
fide, arifes a fmall cirrus ; and from the corners of the 
mouth two more that are ftronger and twice as long. 
At the lower lip there are four more, the two outermoft 
of which are the longeft. The eyes are placed near the 
-corners of the mouth, near the lower edge of the upper 
jaw. There are four girls on each fide, and they are all 
armed with a double row of fharp points, like the teeth 
of a comb. There are two fins near the gills, confifting 
of (even rays ; and to the fore part, a pretty ikcng prick- 
ly bone is connecled. About an inch above the vent, 
there are two ircaller fins, and another long one that 
extends, from the vent to the tail. There is likewife 
another of the fame kind, that runs from^ the neck all 
along the back ; but neither of thefe join to the tail, 
which is round at the tip It is found in the river 
Oronffs ; and the markets of j^/eJ>/o, are fupplied with 
it in great plenty, fiom No^emhcr^ to the beginning of 
March. The fiefh is red like beef, and has a rank tafie; 
though for want of better, it is much eaten by the com- 
mon people ; however it is not very wholefome. The 
Turkij'h name is SII.OOR. 

The iVIISGURN, ov FISGURN, fo called at No^ 
rimh^rg and Ratifion in Germany, is of the fhape of a 
Lamprey, and is broader and flatter than an Eel, but it is 
much of the fame breadth from the head to the tail. 
The mouth is like that of a Lamprey, furrounded v/ith 
barbs, there being fix on the upper jasv, and four on the 
lower. It difi-ers from a Lam.prey, in having fins on 
the belly and at the gills, v/hich a Lanprey wants \ and 
they have gills and not lobes. 

This filh when taken in the hand, turns and winds 
like an Eei, and its body is covered all over with a ye!- 
lowilh-red flime ; the head is higher th.^n broad, and 
but little narrower than the middle of the body; the 
upper javv is longer than the lower, and the mouth is 
round and very fmall, being without teeth. The nof- 
trils are placed between the eyes and the end of the jaws ; 
"and the eyes arc fmall, and placed on the fide of the 

bead ] 



ii6 THEN ATUR A L HISTORY 
head ; they are covered with die fame Ikin that covers 
the head, which is a fort of a veil. Under the eyes 
there is a forked prickle, of which the outward point is 
ihortell ; the gills are double on each fide, wiih an ob- 
long covering, which opens on the fides only ; near 
the fins of tne breaft, the membrane of the gills con- 
tains three fmall bones or fpines, diilindl from each 
other, the firil of which is the largeft. The Ikin on the 
back between the fin and the tail, rifcs into a fort of a 
bump. '1 he colour of the back and head, is of ablueifli 
green, marked with greeni(h-red fpots; the upper part 
ofithe fides is marked with a yellowifh red line fpecklcd 
with blackv and another line of the fame colour as that 
on the back, runs along the middle of the body of this 
hih. Under the firll line on the fides that reaches from 
the head to the tail, there is another that is yellow, be- 
lides anoiher that is very narrow, and of a blueifii green, 
(peckled with yellow ; the belly is red, inclinable to 
yellow. This filli has feven fins, two on the back, a pair 
on the breall, another at the vent, and one on the tail, 
v.hich are all of a reddiih-brown colour, fpeckled with 
black. Wh«n this fifii is touched, it gathers itfelf into 
k round form, and makes a fort of a whiilling noife, 
ifom wheiice the Germans call it Pfrif f k r, or Wwist- 
LER. It is found in ponds, pools, and marlhes, when 
the fun has almoll dried up the Water, which happens in 
Auguji. Several afiirm tliat this fifh has been found in 
the earth, when it has been turned up with fnovels and 
the like ; upon which account it is named by fome the 
Fossil Fish. 

The RED TAPE FISH, termed at Gmoo, where 
it is common, CAVAGIRO, and FRAGGIA. It has 
a long /lender body, which is more flat on the fides than 
an Eel, and grows gradually more flcnder from the 
head to the tail, which is very fmall and fliarp at the 
end. It is all over of a palifh red, except the belly, 
which is white It has no fcales, or at Icalt exceeding 
fmall ones ; and the mouth i.- large, turning upwards. 
1'here are only one row of flender fharp teeth, and near 
each fide of the upper jaw there is a black fpot. The 
eyes are large, with a filver coloured iris ; and die back 
-fin runs along from the head to the tail ; and oppofitc 

to 



O F F I S H E S. 117 

to It there is another from the vent to the tail. Thefe 
in the larger fifh, are of a beautiful yellow on the lower 
part J and the upper edge is of a reddiih purple. The 
outward rays of the tail are pu*rpl^, and thofe in the 
middle yellow. 

The TAPE FISH of Rondehtius, differs from the 
former in being bigger, and in having fiv« purple di- 
fiin(fl round fpots on the lower part of the body, at feme 
dillance from each other; and in being of a filver 
colour. 

The SUCKING FISH, is remarkable for its fucker 
on the top of the head, by which it fixes itfelf to other 
fifh, and to the bottoms of fliips. It is about eighteen 
inches long, near four thick, of a roundilh make, and 
flender towards the tail. l"he mouth is triangular, and 
the lower jaw is longer than the upper. From the up- 
per part of the head towards the back, for the length of 
fix inches, there is a grifsly fubllance of an oval form, 
like the head or mouth of a Shell Snail, but harder, and 
it has the appearance of a palate of a quadrupede, being 
deeply farrowed, and confequently has fmall ridges 
wherewith it fallens to any thing at pleafuie. The eyes 
are fmall with a yellow ins, and inllead of teeth, there 
are many fmall eminences. It is of an afh colour, and 
from the middle of the body, as well above as below, 
to the tail, there is a narrow fin, and there are two pair 
of fins near the head. 

This , fifii ufnally attends upon fliips for the fake of 
any filth that falls out of them ; and in fine weather it 
will play about- them ; but when it blows hard, and 
confequently fails very fwift, it will flick to the bottom 
of it, from whence the beating of the waves cannot re- 
move it. They are fometimes found flicking to a Shark 
when that fifh has been caught and laid upon the deck. 
The Sucking Fifh is fuppofed to be the REI\'IORA of the 
ancients, and was thought to have a power of flopping 
ihips under fail ; but this notion has been long fmce 
found to be ridiculous, Ihe flefh is thought by the 
failors to be good eating. 

The BUTTERFLY FISH, is about feven or eight 
inches in length, and has a thick head, but towards the 
tail it is flender. The colour is of a light blue or afh, 

^ with 



ii3 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

wiih olive or dirty green ftripes. The eyes are pretty 
large, and placed near each other on the top of the head ; 
and above each eye, fome of thefe nili have a fmall hn. 
The fore teeth are long and round, near each other, 
and regularly placed. The back fin is very high at the 
beginning, and near the top of the fifth ray, there is a 
very beautiful fpot like an eye, furroundcd with a white 
ring ending at the eighth ray ; by v.'hich mark this fifli 
may be readily diftinguilhed from all others. This fin 
is all over variegated with dirty green, or olive and blue 
brown and white fpots, placed in no regular order. The 
belly is a little prominent, and there are no fcales. This 
fifh is often expofed to fale at Fenicef among other fmall 
ones in the winter time. 

The GATTCRUulNE, fo called at Vemce, is ilip- 
pery, without fcales, and comprelTed on the fides ; but 
it is of the fame fize and Ihape as the former. The body 
is variegated with fpaces, or half ilripes of a dark olive 
and ruddy colour, between which there runs a line of 
pale blue. 7 he lower half of this filli, beneath the late- 
ral lines, there are the like fpaces, but lighter, and 
and placed in a contrary order. The back fins and that 
behind the vent, have rays conne<5ted together with a 
membrane, above w hich there are white prickles. Above 
the eyes there are two barbs ; and from the eyes to the 
mouth, there is a great declivity. 

The GREEN SPOTTED GATTORUNGINE, differs 
from the former only in colour, which is of a light green 
like a Frog, and fpeckled with black fpots placed in no 
regular order. It has no barbs over the eyes, or fo fmall, 
thev can hardly be perceived. 

the SEA LARK, called in Comnvallxhe MULGRA- 
NOCK, or BULCARD, is a fmall fmooth llippery fifli, 
and which is very lively, for it will live feveral hours 
out of the water. It is of a dirty greeniih olive colour, 
and fome have tranfverfc light blue lines on the back, 
back fin and fides ; but the colour differs in feveral of 
thefe fifh. The covers of the gills fcem to be fwelled; 
and the tail when expanded is of a circular figure. On 
the back part of the head there is a final! depreffion, 
which makes it look as if it had a neck. 7 he top of the 
head rifes almcft to an edge, and the €/es are fmall and 
2 white^ 



c/^/:l(jC f/^. 



/f.9 



fje^ jzJ^ar/i: 




f^fuu^ /I _-^////// /v y . 




■^'5 



tyn<zfan t/,rv^ - cec. 




^^una~C^/^f/i 



O F F I S H E S. 119 

white, with a reddilh call. The mouth is not large, 
but is armed with long fmooth fore teeth, placed like 
thofe of a comb. The tongue is round, foft, and fklliy ; 
The liver is pale ; the fpieen red, and the air bladder 
adheres to the back. It lurks in the holes and cavities 
of rocks, and often bites the fifhermen's hands, but 
without any bad confequence. The crested SEA 
LARK, differs from the former in nothing but having a 
crefl on its head. 

The PUNARU, fo called by the Braftlians, is four 
inches in length, and has an oblong body with a thick 
head, blunt on the fore part. The mouth is little, and 
there are only two fmall teeth in the lower jaw, which 
are oblong, and as Iharp as needles. The eyes are 
placed upwards on the forehead, and the iris is of a gold 
colour ; over them are two fharp barbs, and the gills 
are large. There is a fin begins behind the kead, and 
runs along the back to the tail, which is full of prickles. 

There is likevvife another fin that runs from the vent 
to the tail. Jt~is covered with a brown fKin, and the 
fins are of the fame colour. There is another filh of the 
fame name, and of the fame fhape ; but the jaws feeni 
to be compofed of fmall teeth. On the top o{ the head 
there is a broad Hn which runs to the root of the tail, 
which is covered wiih^foft fpines, that do not Hand 
upright. The colour is like that of the former, only it 
is variegated with dark purple crooked lines. 

The ADONIS o^ Rondeietiusy is fix inches in length, 
and of a round fhape. It is of a gold colour, which 
has a greenifh call in fome parts, and a reddilh in others. 
From the gills to the tail, there runs an uninterrupted 
white line, which is all the defcription we have of this 
fifh. Jt is fuppofed to fleep out of the water, and Rc?i^ 
deletius afHrms he has feen it fnoiting among flones ; 
but perhaps it has been thrown there by the waves or 
tide, and could not get back again ; for it is fcarcely 
credible, that a fifh fhould fleep out of its own element. 

The PHOLIS oi Rondektius, is a little bigger than a 
Sea Lark, and has a dufky back, a pale belly, and a 
imooth fkin wichout fcales ; but it is fpotted and flip- 
pery, being covered with fiime. The fAcfh is foft and 

clammy. 



120 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

clammy. From thefe few marks, it is hard to fay whe- 
ther this fiih is a diftind fpecics or not. 

The SEA SNAIL of ^oW^A/Z/^r, has a head like a 
Rabbit, and a fmall mouth without teeth, but the jaws 
are rough. There is a broad ftripe runs from the head 
to the tail, and the body is covered with fmall fcales. 
It has a fin on the back, which runs from the neck to 
the tail, and has foft rays ; the tail is forked. Jt is fo 
fat, that it turns all into oil, fo that it feems nothing 
but a lump of fat. This defcription is too general for fo 
fmgular a Hfh. 

I'he Eiigup SEA SNAIL, fo called by the inhabi- 
tants of Durb m and Torhjhire, is a fm.ail fifh, being 
only five iiKhes long. The colour is brown when it is 
juft caught, but after ten or twelve hours turns lighter. 
The head is thick and round, and the mouth 'without 
teeth ; but the ja^vs are a little rough. The apertures 
of the giils are fmail holes that will fcarce admit a pea ; 
and under the throat, there is a round fpot like the im- 
prefiion of a fcal of a light blueifh colour. There are 
aifo twelve brown fpots placed in a circle ; below which, 
at half an inch diiiance from the vent and behind it, a 
fin begins, that runs to the tail, and unites to it, as 
does likewife the fin on the back, from the ihoulders 
where it takes its rife ; infomuch, that the hinder part 
of the fifh is in the flupe of an Eel. The whole fifh, 
that is, the head as well as the body, is foft and unftu- 
ous, and readily difiblves into an oily liquor, whence it 
has got the name of a Snail, Itis taken in the mouths 
of rivers, four or five miles diftant from the fea. 

The SEA TENCH of Aldro'vandus, is a kin to the 
Lamprey, and is about a foot long, feldom bigger. It 
is in fhape like an Eel, only it is broader, and the co- 
lour is gray, like that of a Tench ; but above the head 
It is tinftured with purple. The mouth is wide, the 
lips thick, and there are very fmall teeth in the jaws. 
Under the chin there is a fingle barb, and the eyes are 
large and prominent, and have each a white iris. 1 he 
fore back fin is triangular, having one of the points at 
the top. It is but fmall, and the upper edges are blrxk, 
bt-ing radiated v^ith ten nerves. The hinder back fin is 
vejy io.ig, and reaches almoil to the tail; and there is 

another 



OF FISH E S. 121 

Another anfwers to this on the belly behind the vent. 
The fins under the throat may be rather faid to be 
barbs, though they are very long, and each is com- 
pofed of two threads which join at the bottom, and 
are divided at the top. It is pretty common in Ve- 
nice, Rome, and other parts of Italy. 

The LAKE BULL-HEAD, is lefs then that of the 
river, being feldom above an inch in length, and the 
colour is more whitifh. It has feveral Iharp prickles 
about the gills, .though they are fo fine they are hard- 
ly viiible, unlefs carefully examined. The pupil of the 
eye is partly green, and ihines like a precious Ilone, ef- 
pecially in the fun. 



CHAP. XIII. 

OfFiJh that have tnvo hack Jin^y and <whoft belly Jins 
unite i» one* 

THE BULL-HEAD of the Venetians, called (h« 
Greatest Sea BULL-HEAD hy Rondeletiu^y 
differs from that before mentioned, in feldom growing 
to the fame fize ; in being of a lighter and paler co- 
lour ; in having the upper part of the fore back fin 
of a yellowilh red colour; in having a dent, or pit 
in the back, which is neither very long nor desp ; like- 
wife, the head is fomewhat (horter, and the cheeks more 
tymid, befides the membrane of the belly fin connefling 
the outward rays, and not fo high, whence the iliape 
almoft: refembles that of a funnel. Add tj this, that 
it frequents (lony places, and that it delights in marlhe:,. 

'ihe BULL-HEAD of Sal-viani, called Jozo at 
Ror.e, is perhaps the White BULL-HEAD of Ron- 
de etius. It differs from the two former in being lefs 
than each, in having larger and rougher fcales, in be- 
ing of a paler colour inclining to blue, in having the 
rays of the fore back-fin rifmg higher above the mem- 
brane that connects them, infomuch that they look like 
briilles. The pointed line, which in this kind runs 

Vol I;L G through 



122 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

through the middle of the fides, confifls of white lines 
and not of points, and the pupils of the eyes are en- 
circled with a filver colour ; befideo, the tops of the 
fins, and all the belly-fins are blueilh. 

The PIGNOLETTI, or MARSICONE of the Ve^ 
netiansy is like the laft Bull-head, except one, and per- 
haps may differ in riothing but age ; for .he fins are 
the fame in number, fituation and fhape. The body 
is round, tranfparent. and the back is broadilli, being 
of a white colour fprinkled with a few black fpors. 
The fins on the back, and the tail, are variegated 
with tranfverfe brown lines, as in the river Bull-head, 
and the eyes are placed in fome fenfe on the top of 
the head. 

The Common BULL-HEAD, or MILLERS^ 
THUMB, ]£ about four or five inches in length, with 
a large broad dcprefied head of a roundifh fiiape. The 
gill fins are round and beautifully notched on the cir- 
cumference. At the beginning of the cover of the 
gills, on each fide, there is a crooked prickle. The 
mouth is large, and full of fmall teeth ; and the back 
is yellow, with three or four black ftripes ; and the 
body is without fcales. It is found in brooks and gra- 
velly rivers, where they lie hid like Loaches under 
ftones, and fuch like places. The fiefli of this fifh is 
fweet, but there is fo little of it, that few think it 
worth while to catch them. 

The SEA GUDGEON or ROCK FrSH is a flip- 
pery foft fifh, covered with fmall rough fcales, and 
the (hape of the body is long and roundilh, being about 
fix inches in length. The colour is variegated with • 
a mixture of white, yellow, brown, and other colours, 
interfperfed with black fpots. 'I'here are likewife tranf- 
verfe Irreaks of an olive colour, which make thefe fifh 
appear agiceable enough. The head is large, the cheeks 
tumid, and the mouth is armed with a double row 
of rough teeth. 1 he belly fins unite into one, which 
h proper to this kind, infomuch that it may be taken 
for a double fin in the middle of the bread ; this 
enables them to flick clofe to the rocks, from whence 
tiiey have obtained the name of the Rock Fish. The 
eyes are fmall, yellow, and pretty near each other, 

looking 



O F F I S H E S. 123 

looking upwards. The liver is pale and undivided, 
and the ttomach wide and long, reaching to the vent. 
The fpleen is fmall, ihe gall bladder round, and the 
air bladder flender, tranfparent, and not feparated into 
lobes. This fifti is caught on the coaft of ComtL-al/, 
and is common in the fifh- markets of Venice, being taken 
near the Ihore, or in ponds made by the Tea water, i he 
flefli is fat and tender, and is in very great eileem. 

The LUMP or SEA OWL, called in Scotland the 
Cock-paddle, is a thick ugly fifh, having a broad flat 
belly and a iharp back. The colour is partly blackiQi, 
and partly of a light red, and though it wants fcales, 
yet the fkin is rough with Iharp tubercles, of a black 
colour in all parts. On each fide there are three rows 
of fpines or prickles, which are crooked ; and on the 
lop of the back, there is another row of the fame. 
The belly or throat fins, are conneded on each fide 
by their extremides, and form one circular fin like a 
funnel, by which they are enabled to fallen themfelves 
to the bot.om of the fca and to rocks under the wa- 
ter ; and this fo firmly, that no force can hardly oblige 
them to remove. The mouth is like that of a bun 
fifli, but larger, being three inches broad from corner 
to corner. The lips are fat and thick, and the jaws 
full of teeth. The noihils are tubes or pipes which 
rife above the fkin, and the liver is large and undi- 
vided. 1 he flomach and kidneys are likevvife large ; 
but it has neither gall bladder nor air bladder. This 
filli is often feen in the London markets, but it is in 
no great efteem. 

'J he |.'OGGF-, fo called in the north of England, 
is of the length of two palms, and has a triangular 
depreffed head, which is not fmooth but angu'ar, and 
about tsvo inches broad. Both fides have tuberclts 
upon them, which give this fiih a very rugged afped. 
The fore part is furnifhed with a great many fiender 
barbs, and the hinder is armed with prickles. 1 he fnout 
is flat, and furnifhed with four thorns or prickles, of which 
the two foremoft are in the fhape of a half moon. 
The mouth is fmall, femicircular, and at the corners, 
and under the chin, there are feveral barbs. The trunk 
oi the body near the head is of the figure of an oc- 
G 2 tagon. 



124 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

tagon, or eight cornered, and near the tail it is like 
a hexagon, or fix cornered. It is covered all over with 
bony fcales, in the middle of each of which there is 
a hooked tubercle, which makes this fifh feem full of 
angles ; but the body near the tail, becomes very /len- 
der. The belly is flat and white, in the middle of 
which the vent is placed, and the back is brown fpot- 
ted with black. It hath no teeth, but the lips are 
as rough as a file. This fifh is frequently taken in 
Tork/hirej and the biflioprick of Durham ; and the flefh 
is accounted exceeding good eating when the head 
is taken off, and the body llripped of its armour. 

The Brafdian POGGE, is much like the former, 
and is fix inches in length, with a head one inch and 
three quarters broad. On the back part of the head 
there are three angles, one on each fide, and the other 
in the middle. The forehead is almoft flat, and the 
upper jaw oval j the orbits of the eyes are round, 
ind there are no teeth in the mouth, but the lips 
are rough. The lower jaw and the belly are flat. The 
back, fides, and tail are covered with fcales of the fame 
colour, that are rough, and run in parallel lines, being al- 
moft four fquare. The breaft and belly have nothing but 
a foft thin fkin. The gill fins have a thick ftrong 
prickle, or thorn above half an inch long, which is 
flattilh and crooked like a fickle. 

The ARMOUR FISH is fomewhat lefs than a foot 
in length, and is four inches in breadth. A fmail part 
of the belly is cartilaginous, except which this filh is 
covered with a hard thick bone, but in a difi^erent man- 
ner ; for the fisad and fore-part are covered with bony 
plates, extending from the back to the belly, ard ad- 
vancing over each other. It is armed with three flrong 
pointed bones thick fet, or rather ferrated with teeth, 
one of which is placed near the back, and one near 
each gill. Thefe bones are flx inches long, and fo 
£xed in fockets, that the fiih can point them in any 
dired^ioii to defend itfelf. However, it has no teeth, 
which is fully corapenfatcd by his weapons and armour. 

The TAMOATA, fo called by the Brafttians, but by 
the Porluguefe Soldi do, is a river fifli three inches and 
ii half in length, from the back part of the head to the 

begin- 



O F F I S H E S. 125 

beginning of the tail. The head is about an inch long 
and a little more broad, almoft like that of a Frog. 
The mouth is not large, nor hath it any teeth, but 
on each fide of it there hangs a barb an inch in length. 
The eyes are very fmall, and have an iris of a gold 
colour; and all the upper part of the head is cover- 
ed with a hard Ihell like a helmet ; and the whole body 
cloathed as it were with armour, confiding of oblong 
fcaly pieces, which are minutely ferrated round about, 
and are placed in a quadruple row. There are fcaits 
on the middle of each fide, on the back and lowti 
part of the belly, which, as it were, grow togeih r. 
The colour is every where of an iron grey, but more 
particularly on the head. 

CHAP. XIV. 

Cf fmall Jifr.ts tho.t ha<ve iivo fins on the hack nxitb 
Jrft fiexihie rajs, 

THE Small TRAGCN FISH of AUro-vavdns, 
is nine inchej in length, and taken in itie ica. 
hay fays, he has ntvtr feen any of t'iiis kind aboy:; 
fix inches long. Jt has an obiong roundiih body, or 
rather deprefled, and alm.oll: fquare, and the colour 
on the back is of a yellowifh green, but on the belly 
white. The fides are fpeckled with fmall fpots of a 
blueilh filver colour ; and this fifh may be known from 
all other fmall fifh by the fpots juft mentioned, by the 
round holes of the gills, by three pointed prickles at 
the extream corners of the gills, by the rays of the 
fore back fin rifing higher then the membrane that 
connedls them, and by the jaws being furnillied with 
exceeding fmall teeth. It is a common fifti at Venice 
and Rome. 

The ANGUELLA, fo called at Venice, is a fmall 

oblong flender tranfparent filh, except where the back 

bone and the inteftines lye. The tail is forked, and 

the back is befet with black fpecks. The eyes are 

G 3 de- 



126 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

deprefled, and large in proportion to the bignefs of 
the fi{h. The mouth is fo formed, that the lower jaw 
ftands out farther than the upper, and makes, as it 
were, a cover for the mouth. 7 he fides are of a 
filver colour. This fifh is very common at Venice. 
^ The ATHERINA of Rondeletius, is a fifh that de- 
lights to be near the fea Ihore, and is alfo found in 
fait water ponds. It is nine inches in length, and of 
the thicknefs of a man's little finger, with a thick back, 
and a belly a Ihtle flat. The mouth is without teeth, 
the eyes large, the belly of a filver colour, and the 
back brown. About the head it is of a reddifh yel- 
low, and the fpace between the eyes looks as iif' it 
had fomewhat engraven upon it. It is frequently taken 
in a lake near Mar/eilUs, 

CHAP. XV. 
Of Brajilian fjh <wiib lavs Jim on the lack, 

THE AMORE PIXUMA, is of the fizc and 
ihape, nearly like a Tamoata, and has a broad 
head, and a wide mouth with teeth. The body is ob- 
long, the colour on the back is of a dark iron, and 
the belly, which is prominent, is white. The &in is 
foft, and the tail is roundifh at the circumference. 

The AMORE GUACU, is about fix inches in length, 
with an oblong body and a thickilh head. The gills 
are large, and the mouth is furniihed with fmall teeth. 
The eyes are fmall, and have a gold coloured circle 
round the pupil. The tail is of an oblong fquare form, 
and terminates in a femicircle. The fcales are large 
for the fize of the fiih, which is of an iron colour, 
with a wliitilh belly. 

The AiVIORE TINGA is of the fame fliape with 
the former, but lefs, and the fcales are whitifti every 
where, except fome brown fpots. 

The TARE! K A D'ALTO, fo called by Marcgra've, 
has around body ten inches long and five thick; but 

it 



O F F I S H E S. 12; 

it grows gradually lefs towards the tall. The head 
is like that of a fnake, and over the eyes, which have 
a yellow iris, there are two tubercles. The mouth 
is wide, yellow within, and fharp at the end of the 
jaws ; as alfo furniOicd with very Ihurp teeth. All 
the lins are as thin as popjpy leaves, being fupported 
by foft fpines. The fcales are in the ihape of a half 
moon, and to neatly put together, that tiie nlh is fmooth 
to the touch. The belly is white, and ihe fides and 
back are ilreaked with yellow and green lines, run- 
ning according to the length ; but the edges of the 
fcales are brown. There are three brown fins on the 
back, but the refb are yellow, and the tail is ftreaked 
with brown. 

The PiRACOABA is a foot in length, and has a 
widefiiarp mouth without teeth, likewife the upper jaw 
is longer then the lower; and the upper part of the 
mouth is prominent with a round cartilaginous cone. 
The eyes are large, and , have an iris of a gold co- 
lour. On each fin behind the gills, there is a white 
barb, confiding of fix thickilh hairs almofi three in- 
ches long. The fcales are of a middle fize, and of a 
filver colour j but towards the top of the head and 
back, they are a little hoary. All the fins are of a 
light afh colour, except thofe behind the gills, which 
are blackifh. 

The PIABUCU is a fmall fiOi about fix inches 
long, and an inch and a half broad. The belly is a 
little prominent, and the iris of the eyes of a filver 
colour, but on the upper part, there is a little mix- 
ture of red. The tail is forked, the fcales of a filver 
colour, and there is a broad white line runs along the 
fides, above which the back is of an olive colour mix- 
vf d with a lliining green ; the fins are white. 



G 4 CHAP. 



128 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

CHAP. XVL 
Of barbed, and prickly Bra/ilian Fljh, 

T'HE. frji Kind has an oblong body of about a 
foot in length, and the beginning of the back 
is a little raifed. The head is of the fhape of a cone, 
and covered with a hard fhell to the beginning of the 
rifing of the back. The barb confifts of fix threads, 
of which the four lower are an inch and a half long, 
2nd the two upper as long as the fiih itfelf. Before 
each gill fin, there is a ftrong toothed bony prickle, 
as well as before the forward back fin, and is of the 
lame length as that ; and the tail is forked. It has 
no fcales, but is covered with a Ikin that Ihines like 
lilver. All the fins are of a filver colour, as well as 
the barb on the head ; and through each fide to the 
tail there runs a line of a filver colour. The eyes are 
large, and the mouth fmall without teetk. The flefli 
of this fifli is eaten. 

The fecond kind has an oblong^ body, and is two 
feet and above in length. The head is comprefled 
and flat; and the mouth is blunt and obtufe. The 
head is covered with a fhcll like the former, which 
has fmall points thereon, and the eyes are fm all, and 
near four inches diilant from each other. The barb 
con fills of fix threads, whereof the outer are four in- 
ches long, but the reft are Ihorter. It has thorns or 
prickles like the former, and the tail is divided into 
two horns. All the upper part of the body and fides, 
as far as the belly, are white, with a mixture of yel- 
^ovv and gold colour. Ail the fins and the tail are 
grey ; but the belly is white. This likewife has no 
Icales. 

The third kind is of the fame fize and fhape as 
the former; but the barb confifts only of four threads, 
two of which are eight inches long, and pretty broad, 
being in the ihape of a tongue, the other two are very 
fl;ort. Near the back fin there is another of the fliapc 
of a tongue nine inches long, as alfo behind the gill 
Ens. In other things it is Like the former. 

The 



O F F I S H E S. 129 

The fourth kind has an oblong body likewlie, ten 
indies in length, and the head is broad and flat, with a 
mouth that is void of teeth. The barb confills of f«x 
threads, of which the four lowermoll are one, and the 
upper two inches in length. The eyes are fm all, of a 
blueiih colour, and placed four inches frcni the mouth. 
The top of the back is covered with a hard fliell, and 
on each fide behind the gills, there is a narrow fliell that 
covers the fides. The forward back fin has a honey 
tliick ferrated fpine or thorn, two inches and a half 
broad, and the tail is forked. The head, beginning 
of the back and {lA^Zy that are covered with fliells, are- 
of the colour of umber ; but the other parts are lighter,, 
though variegated with dufky fpots of a middle fize. 
From the broader end of the fliell to the tail on each 
fide, there is a row of fhort fliarp teeth, with their 
pofnts turned backward, that runs in a ftrait line. 

The f.fih kind is like the former, and fpotted with 
large round fpots ; but it is without teeth on the fides ; 
and of the {ix threads of the barb, two are longer than 
in the former. 

The NHAMDIA, fo called by the Brafiliansy but 
by the Portugm/^ BAGRE D£ RIO, has a body twelve 
or fourteen inches long, and the head is comprefl!ed as 
in the former, with a parabolick mouth furnilhed with 
fmall teeth. The eyes are fmall, and a little protube- 
rant, with a goldcoloured iris mixed with umber. The 
barb confifts of fix thread?, two above, and as many be - 
low the mouth ; the former of which are five inches- 
long, and behind each, there is an oblong dent or pit,, 
in which, the beginning of the barb lies, when it is-. 
turned backward, as it alir.oft always is. I'^ach of the- 
lower, is an inch and a half long, and not fo thick as 
the upper. The forward back fin is fquare and large,. 
being fupported with many fpines. It has no fcales^ 
but the head is covered with a hard Ihell, and the upper 
part of the mouth is of the colour of umber ; but the 
back and fides are of an afli colour, with a fmiU mixture 
of blue. The forward back fin near its rife-, is of the 
fame colour, but the remaining part is black, and the 
fpines are of an afli colour ; the backward fin is of the 
iam^ cobur, as well as the back atid fide^v and the rdl 
. G s Qfi 



1^ THE NATURAL HISTORY 

of the fins, the barb and the tail are black ; but the 
lateral lines are red. This fiih is taken in rivers, and is 
very well tailed. 

CHAP. XVII. 

Of fp'inous Fijh nvith tixjo Fins on the Back, the foremoji 
of 'which is radiated ivith Spines. 

TH E BASS, by many authors called LUPUS, that 
that is the WOLF FISH, on account of its greedi- 
nefs. It is two cubits in length, and weighs about fif- 
teen pounds, being not much unlike a Trout in fhape, 
only it has a thicker head. The colour on the back is 
of a blackifli blue, but on the belly like filver. When 
young, the back is variegated with black fpots, which 
vanifh when the filh grows old. The fcales .are of a 
middle fize, but thick, and adhere very clofe to the 
flcin. The mouth is wide, as well as the apertures of 
the gills, and there are rough teeth in the jaws. There 
are thorns or prickles about the head, and the eyes are 
large, with an iris of a filver colour. The forward back 
fin is radiated with no more than nine fpines, and in 
the palate, there is a triangular bone, befides two more 
in the throat. The tongue is broad, (lender, and 
rough, there being a rough bone in the middle. The 
flefli is extremely well tafted, and exceeding wholefome. 
It is an inhabitant of the fea, for it was never known to 
enter the mouths of our river: in Evgiand. 

The SEA PIKE is of the (hape of the RIVER 
PIKE ; but in proportion to the magnitude of the body, 
it is longer and rounder, and more ^ike a Gar-Fifh. It is 
covered with fmall fcales, ar.d has an oblong conical fno jt, 
the lower jaw being lon'ger than the upper, and ending 
in a fliarp point ; whence, when the mouth is fhut, the 
fnout appears like a cone ; and the cleft of the mouth 
like a line on the furface of a parabolick form. The in- 
iide of the mouth is yellow, and the jaws and tongue 
are furniilied with teeth. The eyes arc large, having 

each 



cPa/fC fjf 



r/,/u7w:-. 




<■)<; 



AJ: 






/J^ 



/-/-J 



r//^./£t 




^/m/ra/fa 




I 



OF FISHES. 131 

each a filver coloured iris, but a little clouded. The 
fiomach u narrow and long, and the gut runs from the 
ftomach direclly to the vent. The tail is forked. This 
fifh is an inhabitant of the Mediterranean fea, and has 
never been feen in the ocean. The full fize is uncertain, 
though Mr. Ray faw one at Leghorn fix teen inches 
lonj;. 

the MULLET is much like a DACE in Ihape, 
with a fharp fnout, a fiat head, and large fcales, not 
only on the body, but on the covers of the gills, as well 
as all over the head, as far as the noftrils. The back is 
ofablueifh brown, and the belly white. The lateral 
lines are variegated alternately with black and white run- 
ning according to the length. The eyes have no other 
ikin except their own coats, and the forward back iin is 
radiated with five long fpines. The mouth is without 
teeth, but the tongue is a little rough, and there are two 
rough bones on each fide the palate ; befides a bone at 
the corner of the mouth befet with prickles. The 
flomach is fmall, hard, round and mufculous, like the 
gizzards of birds that iztA upon grain. The guts are 
very long, with feveral folds ; the fpleen is large, and 
the gall yellow. 

This fifli, when it is at its full growth, is about half a 
yard long, and it vifits the rivers on the ibuth of Eng- 
Lundy in the beginning of the fummer, with every tide, 
and returns back when the water ebbs. The river Jxe 
in De<vonJhire^ and the Arundle in Sujfexy are noted for 
this fifh. The Italians pickle their fpawn in the fol- 
lowing manner. They take out the roes, and cover 
them with fait for four or five hours ; after which they 
prefs them between two boards for twenty-four hours, 
and then they walh them, and fet them in the fun to 
dry iu the day time, for fourteen days. This they call 
BoTARGo, and they pretend it creates an appetite, 
provokes thirft, and gives the wine a good relilh. 

Rondelctius mentions four kinds of Mullets, one of 
which has a lefTer and foarper head than the former, and 
the lines ^rom the gills to the tail are Ihorter. Likewife 
the fleih is fofter, loofer, lefs white, and not fo fat as 
the true Alullet. The fecond fort is reddifh about the 
head, lips, and covers of the gills. The third has a 
G 6 \ikT 



132. THE NATURAL HISTORY 

leffer bead with prominent eyes ; and there are blackini 
lines that run from the head to the tail. Befides, the 
lips are thick and prominent. The fourth he calls the 
BLACK MULLET, which is in fhapelike the COM- 
MON MULLET, but it is all over black, and has 
black lines running from the head to the tail. There 
are alfo fevea or eight prickles on the back, diflinft fron* 
each other, and behind them is a fmall fin. This he 
fays is an uncommon fifh. 

The American MULLET is of the fize and fhape of 
a middling Trout, with eyes of an oval form, and fcales 
of a filver colour ; between the rows of which, there are 
grey lines. On the top of the back there is a fin larger 
than all the rell, and the tail is forked. All the fins arc 
whitifh. 

7 he CUREMA of the Brafiians, is called TAIN- 
HA by the Pcrtuguefe. It is a kind of a large Mullet^ 
and grows to be two feet in length ; but in other things 
it is very like a Mullet, only the upper lip has been ob- 
ferved to be moveable, and the lower of a blunt trian- 
gular fhape,. being fhorter than the upper. The eyes are 
la'ge, having each a filver iris ; and in Ja7naica, it is to 
be met with in rivers, lakes, and ponds of fw^et water^ 
even far from the fea ; fcr this reaftm, after heavy rains, 
when the rivers and brooks overflow, they nre carried- 
down by tlie force of the f^ream in'c lower grounds in great 
plenty > and when the fioods ?re gone, they are taken 
in the plafhes of the water that remain. 1 he PARATI 
o^ Mirc^ra--ve is en:irely Tkc the former except in fize^ 
and in having a circle of gold colour round the eycsj 
the flefh likewife is drier. 

The GUAC ART, fo called by the Braftllavs, is of » 
roundifh or pyramidal fhape, grows to the length of a 
foot or longer, being eight inches thick. The lower 
part of the head is flat, the fides of it are oval, and the 
mouth little and round, being placed in the flat. part un- 
der the head. Inftcad of teeth on each fide, there are 
procefTes that look as if they were compofed of horfe 
hairs. The eyes are fmall, round, and of an afh colour 
fpotted with brown ; and near each there is a hole 
half an inch diflant, and placed before them. Be- 
low, before each gill, there is a body in the fliape of 

a long 



O F F I S H E S. 135 

a longfquare, almoft half an inch long, which this filTi 
can thrult out and draw in at pleafure. All the fins ex- 
cept that behind the vent, are fupported by bony fliarp 
flift fpines, which are thicker and harder before. The 
tail is divided into two horns, the fpines of which are 
alfo very ftrong. The whole head is covered with 
a hard rough ihell, and all the body with trian- 
gular fcales that are large towards the head, placed ia 
a regular order, and rough to the touch ; for in the 
middle of each there is a prominence, which makes the 
covering have an appearance of a coat of mail. There 
is likewife, on each fide, a four fquare armour confifting 
of a quadruple row of tubercles. The colour of the 
whole body is of a light faffron, except on the belly, 
where it is deeper; and throughout there are round 
dufky fpecks of the fize of muftard feed, except on the 
iin near the tail which is black, only the forward fpine is 
of a fafFron colour and fpotted. 

CHAP, xviir. 

Of Tijh of the Gurnard kind. 

THESE filh are called in Latin CucuLr, that rs 
CucKOW.-, from a fort of a cry or grimtino- 
which they are faid to have ; on .which account, that i^, 
from their grunting like a Hog, they are called by the 
Engljh, GURNARDS. They have two or three barbs 
or tufts under their gill fins, which fome call fingers. 
Some of this kind make a (hriller fort of a noife, whence- 
they are called Pipers ; and they have two very large 
membranous fins at the gills, with which fome of them 
may be iaid to ily ; as alfo large bony fquare heads ; 
but their bodygrows feiifibly more llender from the head 
to the tail. 

1 he BEARDLESS GURNARD of ^^W-^/^'Z/^z, cal- 
led by him MULLUS IMBERBIS, is undoubtedly a 
kind of a Gurnard, and is not much different from the 
CUCULUS of Aldvo'vandus, or our Red Gurnard ; 

for 



134 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

for there are ferrated thorns or prickles on the back iin, 
and line.- that run from the back to the belly. 

The ROUGH GURNARD of Ror^deh'tiu, called 
by him MULLUS ASPER, has a ihort round body of 
the fize of a man's finger, and is of a deep purple colour. 
The head, gills, and fins, are like the former ; but it 
has fmall ferrated fcales obliquely placed ; and from the 
head to the tail, there runs a line covered with fcales. 
The fins that are near the gills, are of two colours ; for 
on the outer part diey are white, but on the inward, they 
are of a blackifh green. 

The SEA RAVEN o^ Rondeletius is by fome called 
a CABO r, from the bignefs of its head ; for Cabot 
feems to be a corruption of Caput, that is the head. 
The bones that cover the gills, appear as it were engra- 
ved, and terminate in thorns or prickles. 1 he colour 
on the back is black ; on the fides reddifh ; on the bel- 
ly white ; and the gill fins on the infide, are of a 
blackifh green, but whitifh on the outer, wiihred fpots. 
The fins are of a fize between thofe of the flying filh 
and the Sea Swallow. 

The GREY GURNARD has a back of a dirty 
green, fometimes variegated with black fpaces, and 
there are always fpecks or fpots of a yellowifh or white 
colour. The pointed line is higher and more rough 
than in others of this kind ; and the head is very large, 
covered with bony plates that have prickles thereon, 
'i he fnout terminates in two horns, and the mouth is 
large ; and the jaws, palate, and tongue, are armtd 
with very fmall rough teeth. The eyes are large, and 
their iris is of a filver coloiir. The body grows fenfibly 
fmallcr from the head to the tail, and the gill fins are 
Jefs in this kind than in the Tub-fi(h and Gurnard. 
There is a furrow in the middle of the back, armed on 
both fides with a row of bony thorns, from which the 
fins arife. The teah of the fpines are lefs in this, than, 
in others of the fame kind; and it is common in the 
Br'itifh feas. The flefh is firm and of a good flavour. 

The SEA SWALLOW, called in Com^vali the TUB 
FISH, has a large bony angular head armed with 
prickles ; and from the head to the tail, it becomes fen- 
ibly more flender. The back is of a dirty green ; fhe 

fidei 



O F F I S H E S. 135 

fides of a light reddifh colour ; and there is a cavity be- 
tween the eyes. The upper jaw is notched in the mid- 
dle, but not divided into horn?, and the fcales are fmall. 
The teeth are much like the former, but the gill fins are 
exceeding large, flrengthened with a membrane, and 
extended with branched rays beautifully coloured, the 
upper edge being of a (hining blue. In fome fiih of this 
kind, towards the bottom, there are feven or eight rays 
fpotted with black, in a fpace of whitifh green, which 
make a very beautiful appearance. Under thefe fins, 
there are three tufts or fingers on each iide. It is caught 
in the fea near Corn^'all. 

The RED GURNARD, or ROCHET, is like the 
former, only it differs in the fize ; for it never grows 
fo large, being very fcldom above a foot in length ; the 
head is lefs, and the fpace between the eyes are more 
narrow ; the body and fins are more red, and the gill 
fins are fhorter and lefs, not of a blue, but rather of a 
purple colour on the edges. Likewife, the covers of 
the gills are engraved with ftreaks or rays, proceeding 
as it were from a center ; on thefe, there are alfo three 
thorns or prickles, two on the lower part on each fide, 
and one on the upper. 

The PIPER, fo called in Cornnvall, is of the fame 
colour as the former, only the head is lighter, 
tending to yellowifh. The fnout is divided into 
two broad horns, fenced with prickles about the edges, 
from which it may eafily be diftinguifhed from the Tub 
Fllh, and in which it principally differs from it. The 
fpines on the back are larger and longer than in other 
fiiTi of this kind ; and the noitrils ftand out, being two 
fmall round tubes, as in the bird called the Cuckow. 
It is common in the Brltijh ocean ; and from the noife 
that it makes, it is called a Piper. 

The Pi PER of Rondeletius is a fifh in the fliape of an 
o£lagon, or eight fquare, covered over with long fcales. 
The eight corners are made by eight rows of fpines 
like the teeth of a faw, or rather fix ; for in reality 
there are no more. This miflake arifes from the upper 
and lower rows, which feem to be double to thofe that 
do not examine them nicely. The fhape of the body re- 
fcmbles that of other fifh of this kind j and the fize of 

the 



136 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

the head and eyes are the fame. The fnout ends in two 
pretty long horns, on which are two perpendicular 
fpines. This fifh may be diHinguiftied from all Others of 
this kind, by the horns of the fnout ; the bony fcales ; 
the rows of prickles, and by having only two tufts or 
fingers on each fide. 

The FLYING FISH has a body, which in fhape and 
colour, relbmbles pretty nearly thofe of a Herring ; but 
the eyes are larger in proportion. It has two pair of 
fins like wing?, the greater of which are placed a little 
behind the gills ; and the lefler, about the region of tire 
vent. They are thin, and variegated v^ith dark dulky 
fpots, on a light alh coloured ground. Near the tail it 
has a narrow fin on the back, and another on its under 
fide, of an a(h colour. The tail is of the fame colour 
and forked j but the lower part of the fork is much the 
longelL 

JJifFerent authors have given different accounts of this 
fifh, which renders it highly probable, that there are fe- 
veral kinds of them ; though thofe that I have feen, 
are exa6^1y like that defciibed above. Mr. Ray mentions 
one that had its head covered with a ftrong bony cruft, 
or rough Ikull, variegated with a blueifh yellow, and a 
dark purple. This cruft terminates in two very long 
and ■ ftrong fpines, that lye on the back, beyond each 
fin. The colour of the back is blackifti, and the wings 
are nothing but fins placed behind the gills, which reach 
as far as the tail, and they are double on both fides. 
The wings before, are precceded with a fmall fin of fix 
rays ; and the upper part of the wings are of a dirty olive 
colour; but on the edges, they are beautifully painted 
with round blue fpots ; and on the middle of the back 
part with large brown and blueilh-white fpots. Near the 
root, there are oblong blue fpaces between the rays. 
By the help of thefe wings they arife out of the water, 
and fly a confiderable way, to avoid the purfuit of the 
Dolphins and other fifli that would devour them. They 
are never taken by fiftiing for them, but they will often 
fly into the fhips that fail between the tropicks. Ni'eu- 
hoj'fiiysy that the flying fifli is blueifli on the back, but 
inclining to brown towards the tail ; that they have 
large eyes, large ycUowilh fins, and in fhape refembUs, 
4 Smelts,. 



O F F I S H E S. 137 

Smelts. The flefli has a very agreeable flavour, and is 
very vvholefome. Ray affirms, that he has feen them 
frequently in the filh markets at Ro}ne^ as well as in the 
iflands of Sicily and Malta, where they were brought to 
be fold. 

The BEARDED GURNARD of Rondeletlus, cal- 
led TRFGLIA by the Italians and Sicilians^ is fix inches 
in length, and the head is comprefied on the fides, and 
the back is not Iharp but flat. From the top of the 
head, where it is thickeft, the body grows fenfibly le{s 
to the tail ; and it is covered with large fcales that are 
eafily taken off, being of a dirty ycllowifh colour; but 
when this fiih is fcaled, the fides are red, for which rea- 
fon it is called Rcuget by the French. The eyes are 
placed on the top of the head, and their iris is of a filver 
colour, fometimes inclinable to purple. The barbs 
under the chin are very long, and are lodged in a cavity 
under tke lower jaw, between the covers of the gills. 
It has no teeth, but the jaws are as rough as a file. The 
fiefh of this fifh is hard, britde, well flavoured, and 
nourifhing ; for which reafon it was in high efteem a- 
mong the ancients. 

The GREATER GURNARD is four'een inches 
long, and the back fins are beautifuly painted with yel- 
low and red. The fcales are thick, and Hick clofe to 
the fkin ; and on the fides, there are three or four paral- 
lel golden coloured lines, that run according to the 
length. It is taken near Penfayice in ComiAjall. 

The KING of the GURNARDS, perhaps are 
fo called from the fize ; and yet thofe that Mr. Ray faw 
at Valette in the ifleof M«/V^, werefmali, being fcarcely 
a palm in length. It is without barbs, and has a large 
belly, in which it differs from a Gurnard. However, 
the fcales are large, and the body is reddifh all over. 
The eyes are alfo large, and the jaws are as rough as a 
file, it agrees with the Gurnard in the number and 
fituation ot" its fins. It is frequendy caught in the fea, 
about the ifle of Ma.'ta. 

The Harwich GURNARD, with a very long back 
iin, has a head larger than the whole body, which is 
convex above, and marked with feveral blue fpots. The 
body, from the head to the tail, grows gradually lefs, 

and 



138 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

and has fix corners or fides ; the upper jaw is longer 
than the lower, and the mouth is large, and furnifhed 
with teeth. The two right lines that run from the head 
to the breaft fin, may be called lateral lines. The 
ikin is fmooth, without fcales, and of a blue colour, as 
well as all the fins, except the fecond back fin, which h 
whiter. It has eight fia , two on the back, two on the 
breaft, and as many on the belly ; one at the vent and 
the tail, which makes the eighth. Ihe back fin near 
the head, is ccmpofed of three flexible loft fpines, the 
firit of which is as long as the body, that is, from the 
head to the beginning of the tail ; the fecond, is three 
quarters of the fame length ; and the third one-half, 
'^i he fecond fin on the back, is not fo long as the third 
(pine of the former, and is compofed of ten fimple fpines, 
the three laft of which are the longeft. The membrane 
that covers them is white, marked with four double blue 
lines. Thofe on the breaft are white fpotted, and con- 
fifts of twenty-nine fpines that are forked at the end, of 
which thofe next the belly are fmalleft, and thofe in the 
middle longeft. The fins on the belly are blue, and 
very near thofe on the breaft, and armed with five 
very ftrong fpines. of which that in the middle is divid- 
ed into others that are lefs. The fin at the vent is blue, 
and confifts of ten fpines, much ftiorter than the fecond 
fin on the back ; but the two laft fpines next the tail, are 
much the longeft. The tail fin is round, and confifts of 
ten fpines forked at the end. It is called by Dr. Ty/on, 
the fmooth Gurnard of a blueifti yellow, having the 
cover of the gills on the top of the head. It is eleven 
inches long, of which the tail is two ; and the girth of 
the head is four inches and a half; likewife, the firft 
fpine of the back fin rext the head, is fix inches long. 

The WEEVER, called by fome authors the SEA 
DRAGON, is a long fifh with flat fides, a crooked bel- 
ly, and a ftrait back. The lines on the lides are partly 
yellow, and partly dufky, running obliquely from the 
back to the belly. The fcales are thin and fmall, and 
the head moderately comprefTed. The eyes are placed 
on the top of the fnout, and nearer together than in 
other fcaly fifti. 1 he forward back fin has fix vcne- 
mous rays J for which reafon, thefifhermen, when they 

have 



1 



O F F I S H E S. 139 

have caught one, immediately cut it off. The fin behin(f 
this, and almoft clofe to it, reaches very near the tail. 
It fometimes grows to a cubit in length, and lurks in the 
fand, in the fame manner as the fand Eel. 

There is another kind of this fifh, called the OTTER 
PIKE, by the inhabitants of the North o^ England ; but 
we are not told in what it differs from the former, ex- 
cept in its being lefs. 

Another kind of the SEA DRAGON, which is com- 
mon at Rome, and other parts of Italy ^ is beautifully co- 
loured with large black fpots, placed in a line on the 
middle of each fide ; but it has no yellow oblique lines 
thereon, and it is larger than the former. 

The NIQU f, fo called by the BrafJtam, has a thick 
head, a large mouth, but no teeth ; the tongue is thick, 
and the lower jaw longer than the upper. . The fore- 
moft half of the body is pretty broad, and the hinder 
narrow and round. It is about fix inches long, and an 
inch and a half broad, with fmall prominent eyes Hand- 
ing out like thofe of Crabs. Before the rife of the back 
fin, there are two llrong thorns or pjrickles ; and above, 
behind thofe of the gills, there is one that is very Iharp. 
It is covered with a Ikin, which is coloured with a mix- 
ture of black, umber, and grey, every where fpeckled 
with black. It lurks in the fands near the ftiore, and 
wounds thofe that walk upon it. 

The SCAD, fo called by the inhabitants o^ Corn^ivall, 
and by the Londoners, A HORSE MACKREL, is like a 
Common Mackrel in colour, fliape, and tafte ; but it is 
lefs, and the body is not fo thick and round, nor fpot- 
ted like it. In the middle of the body, there is a line 
that runs from the head to the tail, covered with bony 
plates ; but it is not ftrait, for in the middle it is turned 
downwards ; and at the bending, there are fmall 
prickles that grow on the plates. Towards the tail 
they grow larger and more prominent, being toothed 
like a faw. It is caught in the fea near Cff^«xv^//, and 
elfewhere. 

The GUERA TEBERA of Marcgra^e, is about 
eight inches long, with a blunt head, and the iris of the 
eyes of a gold colour. The mouth is fumiihed with 
finall teeth, and the tail is forked. There is a line runs 

from 



140 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

from" the gills to the middle of this fifh, and then turns 
downwards, and extends as far as the tail. The back- 
ward half of this line is armed with fmall hooks, and 
on each fide it is covered with triangular fmall fcales. 
The colour of the back and fides, to the above lines, is 
blueilh, but the other part is whitifh, with a fliining 
yellow caft. The fins on the belly are white ; but the 
rel>, with the tail, are or a gold colour. 

This is fuppofed tD be the fane ii(h which fome call 
the Mackrel of Sunnam., which was defcribed by Gro- 
TiO'vius on the fpot, in the following manner. The height 
of the head and body, is greater than the breadth ; and 
its fides are flattiih, but very broad near the two fins, 
placed before thofe of the vent ; from hence it diminilhes 
gradually to the tail, which is exceeding jQcnder ; the 
back is convex, and the belly pointed; the mouh is 
very large, and the jaws are equal when ihut ; but when 
open, the lower feems the longeft. The teeih ^re very 
fmall, iharp, and placed at a diftance from each other, 
there being only a lingle row on each jaw ; the palate, 
throat, and tongue, are fmooth. Ihe noftrils appear 
like two holes on each fide, and the eyes are fmall feated. 
on each fide of the head with a red iris, 'i he opening 
of the gills is round and very large, and there are four 
gills on each fide, whofe membranes have 'iQvtw fpines. 
The fcales are fmall, and liick clofe to the fKia ; and 
there is a line on each fide, which begins at the open- 
ing of the gills, is crooked near the eyes, runs along 
the fin of the breall, turns up to the middle of the body, 
and runs in a right line to the tail. The place where it 
bends almoft to a femicircle is fmooth, but the place 
where it is flrait, is covered with bony plates radiated 
on each fide ; at firft they are very fmall, but they in- 
creafe as they approach the tail, and are more elevated* 
This fi(h has eight fins, together with the tail. The 
^\^ is on the back, is compofed of feven fpines, which 
are rough and (harp. Whereof the firft is longeft, be- 
ing a quarter of an inch; but the lall is not above one- 
twelfth of an inch. The fecond back fm, which is 
near this, has nine foft flexible fpines joined together by 
five membranes, of which t^e firft is near half an inch 
long, and the reft decreafe like the former. The re- 
maining 



O F F I S H E S. 141 

gaining part of the back, as far as the tail, is furnifhed 
with ten very fine foft fins, which are flightly branched 
at the point ; but they feem to make but one ; the fiin 
on the breaft is placed near the covering of the gills, 
and confifts of fifteen foft fpines, of which the longeft is 
little more than half an inch. The belly fins are placed 
on its fides, and are hid in a long furrow, they being 
very fmall, and near each other. Next to thefe fins in 
the fame furrow, there are flrong bony prickles that 
are exceeding Ihort. The vent- fin reaches to the tail, 
and is compofed of fourteen hard Ipines, of which the 
firll is a quarter of an inch long, and the laft not half fo 
much. The tail is forked, and compofed of twenty 
fpines, of which the lafl is above half an inch long, 
and the innermoft fcarce the twelfth of an inch. The 
upper part of the head, the back, the fides above the 
lateral line, are of a greenifh blue, and the belly is of a 
fhining white. Thisiifh is but little above three inches 
long, and one broad. 

The GLAUCUS o^A'dro'vandus, called at Rome and 
Leghorn LECCIA, grows to a great bulk, and is of the 
Ihape of a Salmon. The body is long, thick, and 
fquare towards the t^il, and the back is of a dark blue, 
•with a little purple tinfture ; but the fides are more 
purplifh, and it is covered with fmall fcales. The 
mouth, for the fize of the fifh, is moderately large 
and rough, with fmall teeth, as alfo the tongue and pa- 
late. 1 he eyes are of a middle fize, having each a 
white iris; and the forward back fin has five or fix 
prickles turning towards the tail, in which it differs 
from the Glaucus of Rondeletius, 

The firft GLAUCUS of Rondeletius is a broad thin 
fifh, and of a dark filver colour on the back ; but on 
the fides and belly it is more light, with three or four 
dufky fpots on each fide. The eyes are fmall, hr.ving 
each a filver coloured iris ; and the mouth is blue on the 
infide, with exceeding fmall teeth in the jaws. Inltcad 
of a back fin, there are a row of feven fliff thorns which 
are very fharp, and fhort ; the firfl of which bends for- 
wards, and the reft backwards. However, they are 
connected by a membrane which adheres to that before, 
throughout its whole length ; but it only touches the 

bottom 



142 THE ITATURAL HISTORY 

bottom of the next following. The tail is long, and is 
divided into two long horns, which are black at the 
point. This fifh is often met with at Rome and Legkorr:, 
and probably in other parts of Italy. 

The fecond GLA\]C\5S of RondeJetiusy differs from 
the former in being lefs, and in having feven thorns on 
the back, that look towards the tail. There is a 
crooked line which falls from the upper part of the gills 
to :he middle of the body, and then runs direftly to the 
tail ; but in the former, a ftrait line pafTes diredtly from 
the gilh to the tail, and the hinder fins, as well above 
as below, are marked with a black fpot, which this 
wants ; likewife, the former has a broader body than 
this. 

The third GLAUCUS of RonMet-us, differs from the 
fecond, in having fharp teeth, and the line that runs 
from the gills, more crooked and v/inding. The back 
is of a blackiih blue colour, as fnr as the above line ; 
but below it, it is exceeding white. In other things it 
is like the former. 

The CEIXUPEIRA, fo called by the Brafillans, 
fometimes grows to the length of nine or ten feet, and 
to the thicknefs of a man's body. The body is obJong, 
and the head and fhape are like that of a Shark. Tlie 
head is deprelfed and broad, and the mouth is void of 
teeth, but there are very fharp prominences. The eyes 
are not large, and have a white iris ; and the tail is di- 
vided into two horns. In the fpace between the hind 
part of '^the head and back fin, there are eight bony 
triangular thorns, which it can hide in the fiefh, and 
raife them up at pleafure. The head is boney and 
fmooth, and the whole body is covered with fmall fcales, 
which arc fo very little, that the body feems to be quite 
fmooth. The colour is all over black, except the body, 
which is as white as chalk. The belly fins are alio 
white, with blackilli edges. It is a fea fifli, and greatly 
cileemcd by the Brafilians. 

The UMBRA of RondeUtius, is called CORVO by 
the Venetians, is a cetaceous fiih that often weighs fixty 
pounds, and is about four cubits long ; but thofe that 
Mr. R.ay faw at Rome and Venice^ were no bigger than a 
Carp. The fhape is more comprefTed, and broader and 
3 flenderer 



O F F I S H E S. 143 

llenderer than a Carp, in proportion to its bulk. The 
back is fharp on the ridge, and rifes from the head. 
There are lead coloured lines, and others of a pale yel- 
low, which run alternately from the top of the back to 
the bottom of the belly, in an oblique manner, being 
undulated, and make a very beautiful appearance. 
The fcales are of a middle fize, and the covers of the 
gills, as well as the head to the mouth, are fcaly. The 
head is of a moderate fize, and the eyes are not large, 
but the mouth is fmall, and the upper jaw is longer than 
the lower. The teeth in the jaws and the bottom of 
the mouth, are exceeding (lender ; and from the corner 
of the lo.wer jaw, there hangs a fmall fhort barb. The 
tail is flat, and terminated almoil in a right line. It is 
a very comxmon fifh in Iia/j. 

The UMBRA cf y^fldro'vafi^i/Sy is of the colour of a 
Tench, and nearly of the fhape of a Perch. The fcales 
are of a middle fjze, and the mouth is not very large; 
but there are teeth in the jaws. The tail, when it is ex- 
panded, is roundiih at the end, and the eyes are of a 
middle li2:e, v.-ith a brown iris. The belly fins, and 
thofe behind the vent, are as black as ink ; but in other 
things it agrees with the former Umbra. 

The UlVJBRINO, fo called at Rone, differs fi-om the 
IJ mhra. of Rcf2t:/e/etii/ J in colour, for it is variegated with 
darkifli brown lines, and fome of a greenifh blue colour, 
undulated, and running alternately over the pointed 
lines, proceeding from the middle towards the htad. 
Beneath the pointed lines, the oblique bnes are not fo 
plain, it wants a barb, and the fpines at the vent, which 
are in both the former, are greater and ftronger. Sal- 
*vianifs adds that this is much lefs, for he never faw it 
above a foot in length ; and the flefti is neither fo fweet 
nor tender. The nofi-rils near the eyes are pretty open, 
and there are fmall holes near the end of the fnout. This 
£fh is often feen in the fifh markets at Rcm.^. 

The COROCORO of Marc^gta've is afoot in length, 
with a crooked back, and a blunt head and fnout. The 
mouth is furnifhcd with fmall teeth, which are not very 
fharp, and the belly fins before, are fupported by a firm 
and fliaip fpine, and that behind, near the vent, with 
two. The fcales are pretty large, and this filh is all 

over 



144 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

over of a filver colour, except the back fins and tail* 
which have a mixture of umber. On each fide thtre are 
llripes near an inch in breadth, which run downward, 
and are of a light umber colour ; but the belly, and the 
belly fins are white. 

The GUATUCUPA of Mangra^ue, called COR- 
VINA by the Portuguefe, has an oblong body, two feet 
in length, with a back a little crooked, and a fharp 
fnout, having the lower jaw a little longer than the up- 
per. The teeth are very fmall, the gills large, and the 
eyes are of the bignefs of a Dutch Stiver, with an iris of 
a filver colour. This fiih is covered all over with fmall 
round fcales of a fhining filver colour, with which a 
little gold colour is mixed on the back. The fins and 
tail, as well as the belly, are whitifh. The forward fin 
on the back is high, triangular, and fupported with 
hardifh fpines. This fiih, at Jamaica^ is called the 
DRUMMER. 

The GREY GRUNT has a broad crooked back, 
and is fix or feven inches long, and four broad. The 
mouth is not large, but it is furnifhed with very 
fmall teeth, and the eyes are big, having a white iris. 
The back fin runs the whole length of the back, and the 
middle part is fupported with fpines ; but the raya of 
the hinder part are foft, and there ib no furrow to hide 
them in, as there is for the fore part. All the fins as 
vvell as the tail, are of a fhining gold colour, and the 
body is covered with fcales of a ihiniiig filver colour, 
mixed with that of gold. On each fide there are feven 
large ftripcs that run according to the length, as far as 
the tail, of a fhining brown ; but in fome they are cf a 
gold colour. It is taken in the ocean near the iiland of 
Jamaica. 

The STAR GAZER, called at Rome and Feni^e 
LUCERNE and hE^CE-PRETE, as alfo BOCCA in 
CAPO, that is, the mouth and the head. It is com- 
monly about nine inches in length, and fometimes twelve, 
with a large, almoil fquare head, that is bony and 
rough. The body i^ roundifli, and all the upper part is 
of an afli colour, with a white belly. The fcales are 
fmall, and the lateral lines behind the fin approach each 
other, and then defcend to the middle fin of the tail. 

The 



O F F I S H E S. 145 

The face is flat, looking upwards, whence this lifh has 
its name ; and the eyes are near each other, bei)ig pro- 
tuberant and Imall, with golden circles. The mouth is 
pretty large, and the chin beneath it, is almoft like that 
of a man. i he jaws are armed with teeth, as well as 
the palate ; and the lower lip is fringed with barbs. The 
whole face, efpecially the covers of the gills, are very 
rough, with a fort of warts or tubercles, fome of which 
are prickly. This fiih is frequently taken in the Medi- 
Urranean fea ; but the flefli is indifferent. 

The PEARCH is generally, when full grown, about 
twelve or fourteen inches long ; and fometimes,* though 
but feidom, they attain to fifteen, which is an CAtra- 
ordinary fize. This fiHi is hog-backed like a Bream, 
having a broadilh body of a dufky yellowifh colour, with 
iive or fix fpaces like girdles, proceeding from the back 
towards the belly, 'i he fcales are fmall, thick, and 
rough, drying much fooner than thofe of any other river 
fifii. The iris of the eye, is of a yellovV^ or gold co- 
lour, and the mouth is wide, and the jaws very rough, 
with fmall teeth. The belly fins, and the forked tail 
are of a fine red, fometimes with a mixture of white; 
fome parts of the principal back fin are fpotted with 
black ; and often the whole fin next the tail is yellow. 
The lateral lines are nearer the back in this, than in any 
other fifh \ for they run parallel to the back, till they 
reach the fartheft part of the fecond back fin, and then 
they run through the middle of the tail. The covers 
of the gills end in an acute angle, and the uppermofl 
thereof terminates in a prickle. 

The liver is oblong and undivided, with a gall bladder 
full of yellow bile, and the fpleen is blackilh. There 
are two fmall bones in the brain, and inftead of a fvvim- 
ming bladder, there is a tranfverfe m.embrane which 
runs all the length of the back. The Pearch fpawns 
but once a year, and that is in the middle oyi February, 
The moft natural places for this fifli are rivers, and yet 
they will live and thrive pretty well when fnut up in a 
pond. In the day time it does not feem to be fond of 
any particular haunt, becaufe it is almoft conti.uially 
roving about in queft of food, "t being a very voracious 
fiih. However, they are mcH likely to be found under 

Vol. hi.- H the 



146 THE NATURAL HISTORY 
the hoUov/ of a bank, near bridges, fturaps of trees, or 
in a gentle flream of a middling depth. I'he moll 
likely baits to catch it are worms, minnows, and fmall 
frogs. The flefli of this iilh is firm, of an agreeable 
tafte, of eafy digeftion, and very wholelome ; for which 
reafon it is called by fome, the Water Fap.tridge. 
A Perch fwims very Aviftly, as well as the I'ikc ; and 
it is armed with certain fpines or prickles, with which 
it defends itfelf againft much larger fiih. When a Pike 
ccmes near, it raifes them up, and prevents an attack ; 
however, a Pike will fvvallovv fmall Perches, becaufe they 
are then too foft to do him any ha^m ; and fome ang- 
lers obferve, that it is the bell bait they can make uie 
of to catch him. The only parts ufed in medicine, are 
the bones that are found in the head of a Perch, near 
the origin of the fpine of the back. They hpjve the 
fame virtue as other abforbent powders, and the dofe is 
from twelve grains to twofcruples. Some ufe them as 
dentrifices to clean the teeth. 

The PEARCH-PIKE of Schonen:eUU grows to the 
length of an ell ; but they feldom weigh more than ten 
pounds. 'I'he llinpe is longer than that of a Pearch, 
and the tail is more flender in prcpcrtion. 7"he fcales 
are very thick fet, and have rough edges ; the back and 
/ides are of a gold colour like that of a Pearch, or ra- 
ther of a dufky dirty yellow, with obfcuie Ibipes, 
placed in no regrlar order. The lower part of the 
belly, and the belly fins, are a little reddifh, but not fo 
much as in a Pearch. The upper jaw is a little longer 
than the lower, and they are both rough, with fmall 
teeth. Near the firft pair of fins, there is a litde bone 
which terminates in three prickles ; as likewii'e at the 
root of the gill fins, the covers unite into one llrong fpine 
or prickle. This fiih is common in the river Danubcy 
and the fldh is exceeding white. 

The ASPER or ROUGH FISH o£ RcnMetiusy cal- 
led zxRatifion the STREAVER. The fhape of the 
body is longer and more flender, cfpecially about the 
tail, than the Pearch-Pike ; and from the hinder part of 
the head, to the middle of the back, there is a furrow, 
and likewife eight or nine trsnfverfe blackifh flripes 
like thofe of a Pearch, The back is fcaly, but the 

bread 



O F F I $ H E S. 147 

brcafl is naked, and it is very like a Pcarch-Pike, ex- 
cept in the fize. This is a very fmall fiih, is taken ia 
the river Danube, and is common at Ratijlon. 

The AMBOINA PEARCH, is fo called, becaufe it 
is chiefly found in the rivers of Amboina. it is about a 
fpan in length, and fomewhat like the Common Pearch 
both in fhape and tafte. Its colour is inclining to brown 
with blue Ilreaks under the head ; and the fins belowr 
the mouth, are alfo blue ; but thofe on the fides are 
green and fpeckled. The figure that Nieuboff'hdi^ give* 
of it, fhevvs feveral ftripes on the fides, very like thofc 
of a Pearch ; and the tail is long and forked, or raiher 
divided into two horns. 

The DOREE, which is as much as to fay, the GILT 
FISH, has a broad comprcfied body, not unlike that of 
a Flounder ; but it fwims erect, and not on one fide as 
th*i,t fiih does. The head is very large and comprefTed, 
i'.ny \e mouth is monllroufly wide. The colour on the 
uaes L olive, and on the middle of each fide there is a 
large rou id black fpot, by v/hich it may be known 
from cthe^ fifh of this kind. The forward back fin i$ 
furnifhed with ten prickly rays, and as many that are 
foft underneath, which leave the prickles, and by them- 
felves run to a confiderable height. There are fliort 
rows of prickles in fome place?, that is at the roots of 
the back fins, as well as thofe at the vent, in general, 
it is a very fmgular fiili, and is about eighteen inches 
long, and feven or eight broad. The fiefn is tender, 
and eafv of digeftion, being fo delicate, that fome prefer 
it to a Turbot. 

This fi(h was formerly hung up in churches, on ac- 
count of the remarkable fpots that appear on the fides, 
which are faid to be the marks of St, ChnJioph(r''% 
fingers, who caught this fifh as he was carrying Jefus 
Chrijl over a ford. Others pretend that this is that fort 
of fiih, out of whofe mouth St. Peter took the money 
wherewith to pay tribute ; and that the fpots are ele- 
gant reprefentations of the coin, being left as a memo- 
rial of the miracle. This fifli is taken in the ocean, as 
well as in the Mediterranean fea, and is often expofed to 
fale at Fenfance in ComwalU 

H 2 Ihs 



148 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The ABUCATUAIA, fo called by the Braftliav:, 
but by the Portuguae, PEIXE-GAL.LO. This riOi has 
fome rcfemblance to a Doree, and is of the llze, fhape, 
snd rhicknefs of a Flounder ; but the mouth is not large,, 
and without teeth. The iris of the eye is of a filver 
colour, and there are two long threads which hang from 
the lower part of the body, and a fmgle one on the 
back, near the back fin. It is without fcales, and is all 
over of a filver colour, except the threads, which are 
black. 

1 he SEA ^OAR o? RottMeiius and other authors, 
called STRIVALE at Gema, and RIONDO at Feme. 
It is in Ihape like a Doree, but very much lefs, and the 
colour is reddiili, with fcales fringed about the edge?, 
fo that it feems rough to the touch. The fnout is ftiarp, 
turning a little upwards, and it has no teeth. The eyes 
are large, with a white iris, and it generally keeps at xhe 
bottom of the fea, efpecially in ilormy weather. ^ 

The HOLCCEiNTRUS, may properly be placed 
among the fifli that have prickly fins, and it is \'o Cidled, 
becaufe all the external parts, as the head, fins, ibales, and 
tail, are furniflied with prickles ; for the word fignifies 
all over prickles. It is, from the end of the gills to 
the beginning of the tail, three inches and three quar- 
ters, and the perpendicular height is more than the 
breadth ; the head is a little hollow between the eyes ; 
and the body is large in prcpoiticn, and of a filver co- 
lour, with a little mixture of gold, efpecially when it is 
full grown. There are fmall teeth, or rather tubercles 
on the palate, in the jaws, and at the bottom of the 
mouth. The opening of the gills is large, as well as 
the fcales, which are vej-y hard and fhining, dentated 
on the back part, and lying like tiles, one upon another. 
The back is convex, and a little fnarp, but the belly is 
pretty broad ; and there are feven fins, one on the back, 
tv». o on the breaft, one at the vent, and the forked tail 
makes the fevcnth. Upon this, both above and below, 
there aie five Ihort, iharp prickles. 



CHAP. 



Or F I S H E S. 149 

C H A P. XIX. 

Of Fijh n.vithout thorns, njoith cne Fin en the Ba L 

THE DORADO, isafeafilli, which has a fort 
of a crert on the head, joining to a large fin, 
that runs to the tail ; there is likewise another that is 
fhorter, and rnns only from the vent to the tail. The 
belly hns reach alnioil to the vent, which is placed in 
the middle of the body, and the mouth is of a middle 
fize, having fmall fharp teeth in the jaws, palate, and 
tongue. The eyes are large, the fcales exceeding fmall, 
and the colour of a blueifh green. The thicknefs of 
this fiih grows gradually lefs from the head, and the 
flefh is fat, fweet, and hard, like that of a Tunny. 

The DOLPHIN, of the moderns, called by mofl 
authors DORADO, is not of a very agreeable lliape, 
for the fnout is fiat and roundifli, and the body grows 
very taper from the head to the tail ; but its beauty 
confills chiefly m its colours, which are Vi^ry line. The 
back is all over enamelled with fpots of a blueiih green, 
which Ihins like jewels fet in a dark ground. The tail 
and fins are of a gold colour ; and nothing can be more 
brilliant than this filh, when feen in the fea, or when it 
is not quite dead. It is about fix or {"even feet in length, 
and near the thicknefs of a Salmon. There is a remark- 
able fin, which runs from the head, along the back, to 
the root of the tail, which in the middle, is feven or 
eight inches broad, and confifts of a membrane that 
feels like leather, and the fpines thereof are foft. There 
is another oppofite to this, that runs from the vent to 
the tail, and is not an inch broad. The tail is about a 
foot and half long, and is divided into two large horns. 
The fcales are very, fmall, and can fcarce be felt when 
touched. Some authors fay, particularly Tertie, that 
the fjcin on the back is of a greenifli gold colour, fprink- 
led wich fmall azure tiars, and fmall fcales of the colour 
of gold ; that the belly is grey, enriched with the fame 
fmall golden fcales, that cauie it to look like cloth of 
gold. The fnout is green, with a fnining glofs of a geld' 
colour ; and the eyco are placed on the fides of the head, 
H 3 which 



ISO THE NATURAL HISTORY 

which are large and handfome, with circles of a fhining 
gold colour. The fle(h is dry, but of an excellent tafte ; 
£t lead the failors think fo, who often catch this iilh be- 
tween the tropicks. It is a very fwift fwimmer, and 
will very often accompany a fnip for a long while 
together. Jt is faid, as has been before obferved, to be 
a great enemy to the flying fifh, being almofl always in 
purfuit of them. 

The RAZOR FISH, called at Romey PESCE PET- 
TINE, has a very large head, but comprefled, as well 
as the whole body, and there is fcarce any thing that 
can be called a fnout ; for the line which terminates the 
fore part of the head, runs almoft perpendicularly from 
the top of the head to the mouth, which is fmall, and 
armed with little fliarp teeth, except four, which are placed 
forward, that are longer. The eyes are fmall, placed on 
the top of the head ; and at the beginning of the back 
there is a fin eredled, which is not very broad, the' it runs 
from thence to the tail. There is another oppofite to it, 
on the lower part of the belly, that reaches from the 
vent almoft to the tail. The tail is broad, aud covered 
with large fcales ; and the head and covers of the gills 
are marked with feveral blue lines. The belly and tail 
^ns are of a yellowifn, and greenilh colour, as it were 
chetjuered in a very pretty manner. The back fin is 
led, fprinkled wi.h a few blue fpots ; and the reft of the 
body is of a yeilowilh red. it is feldom above a palm 
in length, and is fcarce at RoniCy though it is common 
in the ifies af Rhodes andi Malta. The flefh is tender, 
yields good nourilhment, and is eafy of digeftion. 

The POMPJLUS oi Rondtktiui, is a fea fifti without 
fcales, and from the gills to the tail there runs a crooked 
line, from which there proceeds to tlie belly many fpot- 
tcd, and crooiced tranfverfe lines. Above the lateral 
line, the back is mottled and fpotted. The mouth is 
of a middle fize, and the teeth are fmall in proportion 
to the bulk of the body ; the tail terminates in a fin, 
which is not divided, and the part above and between 
the eyes, is of a yeilowilh or gold colour. 

The lc;ier SEA UMCORN, is a foot and a half in 
length, atid is hog-backed like a Pearch, with a com- 
iriffed body, and the belly is arched. The mouth is 

narrow, 



O F F I S H E S. 1^1 

narrow, and there are teeth in both jaws, of the thlck- 
nefs of a middling needle, and an eighth of an inch 
long. The eyes that are feated near the top of the 
head, are an inch in diameter, and from the vertex there 
proceeds a round conical fmooth horn, turning a little 
downwards. It is about two inches in circumference at 
the b;ife, and three long. It feems to be fupported by* 
no bone, neither is it Inferted into the mouth, as in the 
Cetaceous Unicorn ; but feems to be a produftion of the 
ikin itfelf, which is hardened into a horny fuhftance. 
The bacic fin reaches from the head to the tail, and is 
an inch and a half high ; the belly fin behind the vent, 
anfwers to this, and in like manner reaches to the tail. 

The RHAQUUiNDA of the BrofiUans, has a body 
near ten inches long, and two bioad, being almoft of 
the fame breadth from one end to the other. The head 
and mouth are made almoii: bke that of a Pike ; and 
though it wants teeth, the jaws are almoit as rough as a 
file. The iris of the ey^s is brown, and from the begin- 
ning of the back, there runs a fin almoft to the root of 
the tail, Vv'hich is three inches long, and nearly on© 
broad, except towards the end, where it is a little broader. 
1'he tail is covered with a hard black fhell, and the fcales 
are of a middle fize. 1 he colour of the back and fides, 
is a dark gray, with a filver glofs, and on each fide ther$ 
is a row of round black icales, of the fize of a pea ; 
and between thefe, there are many blue fpecks. All 
the fins, and the tail, are of a gold colour ; but thofe on 
the back are fpotted with blue. Ti'e lateral lines arc 
black, and on each fide the tail there is a line of a 
gold colour. 

The PARU of the Brajilians, is a broad, roundi(h, 
but not thick fifh, being about twelve inches long, and 
izYtn broad. The back fin, and that which runs from 
the vent, ai-e about two inches broad, and reach to the 
tail, and each of them have a prominence at the end, 
fomev.'hat like a rope ; that on the back being five inches 
long, and that on the belly three. The head is fmall, 
with a high narrow mouth, and exceeding fmall white 
teeth. The iris of the eyes is yellow. The whole 
body is covered with middle fized fcales, half of which 
are black, and the other half yeliowiili, in fuch a man- 
H 4 ner, 



1^2 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

ner, that the body feems to be marked with yellow half 
moons. Behind the gills, on both fides, there are yel- 
low fpots, and the tail is two inches and a half long, 
and as many broad. 

The ACARAUNA of the Brafdians, is of the fize of 
the PARU, but not fo broad, and is covered with black- 
illi fcales. The tail is forked, and on the length of the 
whole back, as alfo on the bottom of the belly, there 
runs a (harp fin, which towards the hinder part, is about 
sn inch broad. The mouth is fmall, narrow, and fur- 
nilhed v^ith exceeding fmall teeth ; and on each fide 
near the tail, there is a Iharp fpine or prickle, almoft an 
inch long, which he can conceal in his fides, or ihruil 
cut fo as to hurt other fifh. 

The SQUARE ACARAUNA, called by failors, the 
CLD WIFE, differs in many things from the former ; 
lor the fore-part of the body is of a ftraw colour, and 
the latcer brown ; befides, the fcales run parallel to each 
other, and on both fides the upper jaw, there are four 
fpines or prickles ; and on the lower two fpikes, which 
are ftifF, (harp, and an inch in length, like a Cock's fpurs, 
turning obliquely downward. There is a back-fin which 
runs from the head to the tail, and another on the belly, 
which proceeds from the vent to the fame place, being 
parallel to each other, the ii{h being of a fquarilh fhape. j 

The SMALL BLACK ACARAUNA, beautifully- 
painted with yellow belts. It difFtrs li:tle from the for- 
mer, except in the belts, which are of an iron-grey 
colour, and are fomewhat differently placed j befides 
in thefe, there are no vifible fcales. 

The GUARERUA of the Brafdians, has a broad com- 
preffed body four inches long and three broad, with a 
little mouth, and very fmall teeth. On the upper part 
of the body, and on th« belly, there is a long broad fin, 
which both end in a point like a bodfkin. Ihe tail is 
fquare, the fcales black, with a glofs like filk, and yel- 
low edges. All the fins ?.re black, and about the mouth 
there is a broad line of an iron colour, and another 
placed perpendicularly over it. The body is farrounded 
with three llripcs, whereof two run through the broad 
.ind hinder part of the fins ; likewife, the tail is cut by 
iuch another ilripe. 

The 



*^iU/C /J2 



Q4^<tre-ri ^tzJ: 




O F F I S H E S. 153 

The HERRING, is a well known fifli, nine inches, 
or a foot long. That which diftinguiihes this fiih from 
all others, is a fcaly line that runs along the belly from 
the head to the tail ; and the colour on the belly and 
fides, is of a fhining filver ; befides the fcales are large, 
and come regularly off. It has no fpots, and the belly 
is fliarp like a wedge, with red eyes. The tail is forked, 
and the fwimming bladder is of a filver colour. The 
noftrils of this filli are very apparent, and have two aper- 
tures, of which the foremoll cannot be feen with the 
naked eye ; it is a little nearer the fnout than the eyes. 
The lateral bone that covers and clofes all the lov/cr 
parts, is fiightly dentated on the edges ; there is a long 
fpace, with teeth in the middle of the fore part of thci 
palate ; or rather two rows of fmall teeth feated in a 
right line, according to the length of that part of the 
palate neareft the end of the fnot. The lower jaw is a 
litt-e longer than the upper, and there are very final! 
teeth at the extremity of the lower jaw ; but thofe at 
the extremity of the upper jaw are fo /lender they can 
hardly be feen. The tongue is fliarpifh, free, and dis- 
engaged be!o;v, of a blackilh colour, and armed with 
fmall teeth tujned backwards. There is generally a red 
or violet fpot at the extremity of the covers cf the gills, 
the remaining parts of which are of a filver colour, and 
confiil, below, of three or four bony plates, and eight 
fpines a little crooked, and joined together by a mem- 
brane. The fcales are large in proportion to the body. 
The heart is quadrangular, with obtufe angles ; thtr 
liver is red, fmall, angular, and has a gall-bladder 
lying under it. There are fixteen or feventeen oblong 
appendages lying below, and on one fide the gut. The 
fpleeii is fmall, oblong, and feated near the beginning 
of the gut. The kidney is of the colour of clotted blood, 
and adheres to the fpine of the back length-ways. 
There are thirty-five ribs on each fide, and fifty-fix ver- 
tebrae running the whole length of the back. l"he 
fpleen is red, the gall-bladder large, and the gut runs 
diredly from the flomach to the ventr.- 

A Herring dies immediately after it is taken out of 

the water, whence the proverb arifes. As det^d as a Her^ 

ring ', the ilefli is every where in great eileem, being fat, 

H 5 folt, 



1,-4 THE NATURAL HISTORY 
'oft, and delicate, efpecially if it is dreft as (bon as 
caught ; for then it is incomparably better than on the 
next day. There are vaft quantities of thefe lifli taken, 
falted, fmoak-dried, and confumed all over Europe, 
They make a progrefs every year from the feas near the 
J\orth of Scctiandy into the Brittif? channel, coming in 
purfuit of worms and fmall fiih, which at that time a- 
bound there. There is alfo plenty near Nor-vjay and 
Denmai-ky from whence they proceed annually, as far as 
the coafl of Normandy. 

The Herring fiibery is begun both by the EngUJh and 
Dtitchy towards the latter endofya;;^; zr\<\ the Dutch 
alone, employ no lefs than one thoufand fhips therein, 
called BuJJes, from forty-five, to fixty ton each. The bell 
time for catching Herrings on the coaft of Nor/oik and 
Suffolk, is from the latter end oi September, to the latter 
end o{0£loher ; and the nets they make ufe of, are a- 
bout twenty-five yards long, and five deep. They fome- 
times faften fo many of thefe nets together, as will take 
5n a mile in compafs. They judge where the Herrings 
lye, by the hovering and motion of the fea birds, which 
continually purfue them, in expedlation of prey. The 
fiihermen row very gently along, letting the nets fall 
into the Tea, and taking their courfe as near as they can 
againft the tide ; that fo, when they draw their nets, 
they may have the affiftance of the tide. As foon as any 
boat ha- got its load it makes to the fhore, and delivers 
its load to thofe that waih and gut them. 

Herrings are diflinguiibed into fix different forts ; as 
the fat Herring, which is the largeil and thitkefl of all, 
and will keep two or th'ee months. The Meat Her- 
ring, which is Ijkewife large, but not fo thick nor fo fat 
as the former J the Kight Herring, which is of a 
middling fize ; the Huck, which has received fome 
damage from the nets ; the fhotten Herring, which 
has loft its row ; ifind the Copflien, which by fome acci- 
dent or other has loft its head. 

All thefe fort of Herrings are put into a tub with fait 
or brine, where they lye for twenty-four hours, and are 
then taken out and put into u icker balkeis and wafhed. 
After this, they are fpitted on fhnrp wooden fpits and 
hung up in a chimney, built for that purpofe, at fuch 

diibnces> 



OF FISHES. 155 

diftances, that the fmoke may have free accefs to them 
all. Thefe places will hold ten or twelve thoufand at a 
time ; and they kindle billets on the floor in order to 
dry them. This done, they ihut the doors, having be- 
fore flopped up all the air holes. This they repeat 
every quarter of an hour, infomuch that a fingle laft of 
Herrings requires five-hundred billets to dry them. A 
laft is ten barrels, and each barrel contains about one 
thoufand Herrings. When they are fmoke-dried in this 
manner, they are called red Herrings. Salt Herrings, 
and pickled Herrings, are cured after a different man- 
ner ; the laft of which, where formerly beft done by the 
Dutch ; but now the Englijh are become their rivals in 
that trade. Herrings always fwim in fhoals, delighting 
to be near the fhore. T hey fpawn but once a year, 
that is about the beginning of No'vember, a little before 
which, like moft other fiih, they are in higheft feafon. 

There are likewife Herrings on the coaft of North 
America^ but they are not fo plenty as in Europe ; and 
they never go farther fouth than the rivers of Carolina^ 
There are none near Spain^ Portugal, in the Mediterra- 
nean, nor on the coaft oi Africa. As for the medicinal 
ufes of Herrings, it is faid, that the aOie of one, taken 
to the quantity of a dram in a glafs of white wine, is. 
good for the gravel. Sometimes fait Herrings are ap- 
plied to the foles of the feet of patients in a fever, to 
divert the humours from the head. And-y affirms, that 
if you open a fait Herring, and apply it to a gouty part, 
it will eafe the pain ; and farther adds, that he has fuc- 
ceeded in this feveral times. The brine of Herrings is 
given by foine in glifters for the dropfy and hyp-gout. 

The PIlCHARD is very like a Herring, but differs 
from it in fome particulars ; it is a third part lefs, and 
for the lize, has a broader body. The bdly is not fo 
iharp, and near the upper corner of the gills there is a 
b!ack fpot. There are no teeth neither in the jaws, on 
the tongue, nor the palate. The flefh is firmer, and i» 
by fome preferred to that of a Herring, but without 
reafon. \i you take a Pilchard by the back-fin, it will 
hang even, which a Herring wiil not do. 

The Pilchard is a fiih of paiTage, and fwims in flioals 

in the fame maimer as Herrings. The chief fiiheries 

H 6 for 



156 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

*or them are along the coaft oi Dalmatia, to the fouth 
of the ifland of Ijjea, on the coafts of Bretagne, from 
Belle ijle as far as B'ejU and along the coafts of Corn- 
ivall and Oevo^Jhire. The feafon for fifhing, is from 
June to September^ and fometimes they are caught on 
the coafts of CorntvaU at C.brijlmafi. On the coaft of 
De-von/lire and Com^. //, they fet men to watch on the 
tops of mountains and cliffs, whom they call tiuers, who 
know when a (hoal of Pilchards are coming by the 
blacknefs or purple colour of the water in the day time, 
and in the night by its Ihining, When the Huen per- 
ceive, by thefe marks where the fifti are, they diredt 
the boats, and vefiels, by the ufual figns, how to ma- 
nage their nets, which they call ^omes ; and in thefe 
they often take an hundred thoufand Pilchards at a 
draught ^1 his fiftiery yields great profit to ihe people 
of thofe counties. 

The» SPRAT, Mr. /?«;• takes to be nothing elfe but 
a young Herring or Pilchard ; becaufe this fifn exaflly 
refembles either the one or the other in every particular 
except the fize; and he likewife thinks they have 
much the fame tafte. He is more inclined to this opi- 
nion, becaufe they are taken in the winter folftice, 
ibmetime after Plerrings have fpawned, that is, after 
they have had time enough to grow to that bignefs. 
Befides, an old Com-Jh liftierman whom he confulted^ 
affirmed there were two forts of Sprats in the Cornijh 
iea, one of which were young Herrings, and the other 
young Pilchards, which might be eafily diftinguifhed 
from each other. Now as Pilchards are fcldom to be 
met with unlefs near the {hores of Cor«xtis// and Denjon- 
Jh'ire, the reafon is plain, why there is but one kind of 
Sprats caught oh the coafts of other parts ol England, 

The S..RD1NE, fo called at Rome, and SARDEL- 
LA by the Venetians, differs nothing at all from our Pil- 
chards but in the fize, they being a little larger in the 
ocean, tb.an in the MecUtirvatiean fea. Likewife the 
SARDANE of the Italians^ is nothing elfe but our 
Herring, though they grow larger in the ocean than in 
the Mcditrranean. 

The SHAD, called by fome, the MOTHER of 

HERRINUS, differs from a Herring, in bein^ bioadej 

S and 



OF FISHES: 157 

and not fo thick, but more comprelied on the fides, in 
being larger, for it grows to the length of a cubit, and 
is four inches in breadth, weighing four pounds. It 
has a black round fpot on both fides, near the gills, 
and fix or feven lefs, placed in a right line tovvaids the 
tail, in which it agrees with the Pilchard. LikewiTe ic 
enters the mouths of rivers, which Herrings do not. It 
pafles into the river ^ tavern in the months oi Mai-ch and 
Apriiy at which time they are fat and full of fpawn ; 
but in May^ they return back to the fea, very lean and 
prodigloufly altered ; in fome rivers, as the Ihames, 
they ftay till J une or July ; and the flefh would be pretty 
good, if it was not fo full of bones. The eyes and 
mouth are large, and the upper jaw only is furniflied 
with teeth. The tongue is imail, fliarp, and blackilh, 
and the llomach refembles that of a Herring, and has a 
communication with the air bladder. f here is fuch a 
difference between the 'Thames Shad, and that of the Se^ 
'vern, that they do not feem to me to be the fame iifh ; for 
the Seijern Shad eats much the bell, and is not fo full of 
bones. It is of little ufe in medicine, only there is a 
ftony bone in the head, which is aperient, and good for 
the Hone and gravel ; and by its alkaline qualities, ab- 
forbs acids in the llomach and intellines. The dofe is 
from half a fcruple to a dram. 

7 he SARDELLA of Lago di Guarde, is by moft au- 
thors made to be a diftind Ibrt of a filh ; but we are in- 
formed by Willoughby, that the number, fituation, and 
rays of the fins, as well as the gills, cleft of the mouth, 
lateral fpots, fhape of the llomach and bladder, and 
even all other parts, as well within as without, the fize 
only excepted, agree with the Shad. However, the 
iifhermen fay, that the very fame fifh has diiferent names 
at different ages ; for which reafon, Mr. Ray is of opi- 
nion, this is the fame fort of fifli as the Shad, and that 
they afcend into the lakes by the river Fo, where they 
ipawn, and then return back into the fea. 

The lefTer Indian HERRING is broader and fhorter, 
though of the fame colour with the common Herring. 
The tail is forked, and the head is of an uncommon 
fhape, with a large fnout and eyes. They fwim in large 
ihoals together with the Herrings, principally on the 

coaft 



158 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

CO aft of Malabar. The tafte is not difagreeable, though 
not like that of a Herring ; and they are made ufe of 
by the natives of Malahar^ to manure their rice fields, 
Thefe fidi will take fait like other Herrings, which is 
an unufual property in thefe parts ; and by this method, 
they are carried all over the Eafi-lndies. 

The ANCHOVY, is about a palm in length, and pro- 
portionally thick ; and they are only taken in the Mediter' 
ranean fea. There is a fort near Chejier, that are longer 
and thicker than a man's thumb, which however are dif- 
ferent from thofe of the Mediterranean. They have a 
rounder body than the Herring, and are not fo compref- 
fed ; they are alfo tranfparent, except where the fpine 
of the back prevents. They are dellitute of fcales, and 
their colour is nearly like that of a Sprat. They have a 
fliarp fnout, and the upper jaw is longer than the lower ; 
but the mouth is monitroufly wide in proportion to the 
fize of the iifli ; likewife, the apertures of the gills are 
very large, as well as the eyes. Schone-veU affirms an 
Anchovy has fmall fcales which will eafily fall off; which 
is confirmed by the fcales that are feen upon them when 
they are brought over pickled. It has this peculiar pro- 
perty, that it will diflblve almoft in any liquor, when it 
is fet over the fire. 

They moft commonly filli for Anchovies in the nights 
of Mayy Juney and July ', for in thefe three months 
they leave the ocean, and pafs up the Meihterranean to- 
wards the Le'v-nt. 

The GOLDEN-ANCHOVY, is an Eaji-hdian fiib, 
and is fo called on account of its fhining golden colour. 
It has a very large long mouth, armed with Ihaip teeth, 
and if the body had been more flender, it might have 
been placed among the Eels. 

The BLICX of Schcne-veld, is a fmall fifli not unlike 
a BREAM in colour and fins. It is not above the 
length of a man's finger, and its fliape is like that of an 
emaciated Herring. The fins are the fame in number, 
and placed in the fame manner as thofe of a Bream ; 
but Ray is of opinion, that they differ in nothing from 
our Sprats. 

The MARENA of Schoneveld, is like a Herring al- 
jnoil in all parts; only the aperture of the giWs js 

~ larger. 



OF FISHES. 159 

larger, the back blackifh, and the fides of a fih'er co- 
lour ; befides the fcales are eafily taken off; but it is a 
little lefs, being only two palms in length at rnoft ; and 
it is fuller of flefh, which is more hard and fhort ; like- 
wife the belly is foft, and not rough, like that of a Her- 
ring. 

The ARGENTINA, fo called at Romey has an ob- 
long round body void of fcales, and is like a Pike. Above 
the lateral lines, it is of a greenilli alh colour, but be- 
neath them of a filver colour, as ifleaf filver had been 
laid thereon, efpecially over the covers of the gills. 
The fnout is oblong, the mouth of a moderate fize ; 
but there are no teeth in the jaws, and yet there are fix 
or eight crooked ones near the end of the tongue. The 
eyes are large, having a filver coloured iris, and the 
brain may be feen through the ikull. There is a fin on 
the back, about the middle of its length, fupported by 
ten rays. The tail is forked, but the principal mark by 
which it may be known from all other fi{h, is the air 
bladder, which is conical at both ends, and outwardly 
looks as if it was covered with polilhed ihining leaf 
iilver. This is made ufe of to counterfeit pearls, and 
by this means they are made like the right fort. Jt is 
often brought to the fifh-markets at Rome. 

The VUBARANA of the BrafiUans, is fomewhat in 
the ihape of a Trout, having an oblong body, a little 
fquare, and in the form of a cylinder. It ia about 
twelve inches in length, and twelve thick, with a Iharp- 
iih head, but not large, and a mouth wiihout teeth. 
The pupil is furrounded with a double circle, the firft of 
which is of a gold, and the fecond of a filver colour. 
The fins are like thofeof the reit of this kind, and the 
tail is forked. The fcales run regularly in rows accord- 
ing to the length of the body, and^are fo evenly placed, 
that this iifh is foft to the touch. The back is of a b!ue- 
ifh filver colour, and the belly is white. The giiis are 
fo fmooth, that they have the appearance of filver 
plates. 

The CAMARI PUGUAGU of the Brafliavr, has 
a ftrait back, but the belly is a little prominent, and the 
head is acuminated. The mouth is exceeding wide, 
and without teeth ; and the upper jaw is fhortcr than 



i6o THE NATURAL HISTORY 

the lower, infomuch that when the mouth is fhut, it 
feems to Hand upwards. The eyes are large, having a 
filver iris ; and the length is eleven or twelve feet, and 
the thicknefs is equal to a man's body. The back fin is 
high, broad, and of a triangular fiiape, with an appen- 
dage turning towards the back part ; it is three times as 
long as the fin, and as thick as a pretty large rope.- Op- 
pofite to this, on the belly, behind the vent, there is a 
broad fcaly triangular fin, which, with its appendage, 
reaches to the root of the tail. It is covered with large 
round fcales placed one upon another, infomuch that 
they are quadruple or quintuple, and of a filver colour, 
v/hich gives the fiih an appearance of being covered with 
filver, except on the back, where it is blue, with a filver 
glofs. 

The GAR- FISH or HORN-FiSH, is a long llender 
roundifh filli, and yet a little broad at the bottom. The 
back is greenilh, and there are feveral marks by which 
it may be di 11:1 ngui died frcsm ail other fifh. Tiie fnout is 
very long, fharp, fiender, and each jaw is armed with 
extremely (harp teeth ; there ia a fingle llripe that runs 
from the mouth to the vent, and there is no fign out- 
v/ardly of the ilomach and intelUnes ; but this mark is 
not proper to this fi;h, becaufe it belongs to the Lam- 
prey ; the fpine of the back when it is boiled becomes 
green, and the upper jaw is moveable as in the Croco- 
dile. The belly and fides are of a filver colour, and the 
back of a blueifli green. The tail is forked, and the 
gut runs diredftiy from the fi.omach to the vent. The 
liver is not divided into lobes, and the gall is of a blueifti 
black. The lateral lines that run along the fides are 
fcaly, but the reft of the body is imooth. It does not 
grow to any large fize, for fix of thofe that aie ufually 
taken, will nor wei^ a pound ; ahd yet there have been 
fome caught that have weighed two or three pounds 
each. 

The flcfh is hard and dry, yet it yields good nourifh • 
ment ; they are common almoft every where, and are 
ufually brought to market in May. In CorniJcaU, the 
fifiiermen catch two forts, one of which they call Ger- 
rocks, and the other Skippers. 

The 



<^a^e //y 



'Z/0 



dau*&tJ^i^aft 6^>/y2^tife I 




//^e4Z^ Cc>-r^- ^//im^\ 








Cri?&A:- ^^A e^>?2v^>f' 




O F F I S H E S. t6i 

The GREATEST SCALY GAR-FISH o^Dr. Lifer, 
is two feet fix inches long, and three broad; bivt 
fometimes there have been fome found much bigger. 
The lower jaw, whi:h is aiitde fhorter than the upper, 
is fix inches long, which renders the cleft of the mouth 
great, and the noftrils are placed at the point of the up- 
per jaw. On the edges of each jaw there is a row of 
flender longifh teeth, befides another that is lefs. The 
fins agree with thofe of the former, but the tail is 
obliquely joined to the body, for the fcales on the upper 
fide reach beyond it. The fcales are large, ftrong, 
ftick fad to the body, and are fomewnat fquare ; but 
they are placed in an elegant order, running nearly in 
ipiral lines irom the back, obliquely to the belly. 

The ELEPHANT'S TRUNK FISH, a kind of 
htdian Gar-filli, is of the fize of a large Smelt, and has 
a roundifh body elegantly fpotted, with a broad ftreak 
of a greenifn colour running down the middle of the 
fides. The under jaw is very long, and terminates in a 
point almoil as iharp as a needle. The tafle is mucli 
like that of a Smelt. 

The GAR-FISH of Belcnius, differs from the firll 
fort in being more flender, and is never above twelve 
inches in length. It is covered with thin fcales, has a 
flender tongue, and has that blunt fort of teeth called 
grinders in the mouth, feven above, and feven below, 
and towards the tail there are fins that hang downwards. 
It is caught in the ifland now called L'ljj'a, formerly 
Fhana, 

The SEA-LIZARD of Rondeletm^ , grows to a foot 
in length, and is fhorter and thicker than a Gar Fifh in 
proportion to its fize, and it has a iharper fnout, as well as 
fnorter, and turns a little upwards. Inftead of teeth, 
the jaws are ferrated ; but in other things it relembles 
the common Gar Bifh. The hinder part of the body, 
from the vent to the tail, and the tail itfelf, is of the 
fize of that of a Mackrel, and it is alfo like it in the 
fins. The flelli is fatter than that of a Gar-Fifli, and 
tafles like that of a Mackrel. Mr. Ray thinks, that it- 
ought to l;e placed rather among the Mackrel kind than 
the Gar-Filh. 

The 



i62 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The TOBACCO-PIPE FJSH, is three or four feet 
long, and has a body like an Eel. The fnout is fliarp 
at the end, and the mouth is without teeth. The up- 
per jaw is fhorter than the lower, and both are a little 
pointed. The lower jaw is fcarce two inches long, 
and confequently the cleft of the mouth mufi: be ex- 
ceeding fmall ; the upper jaw is bony or horny, and 
elegantly ftreaked. 1 he head is one third part as long 
as the whole body, that is, a fifh three feet in length, 
has a head a foot long. The thicknefs of it behind the 
eyes is five inches, and then it gradually decreafes till 
it comes to tliree at the mouth. The eyes are of the 
fize of a hazel nut, and almoft of the fame fhape, with 
a lilver iiio, mixed with a little red on the fore and 
hinder parts. Behind the vent there are two fins, and 
as many on the top of the back, which anfwer to thofe 
below, which is pecuJirr to this fiih. The Ikin is as 
flippery as that ofan Eel, and the whole back and fides 
are of a liver colour. There is a double row of blueifh 
foots on the head, and another on each fide. The belly 
is whitifti. 

The PIRAYA, and PIRANHA of the Brafilians, 
is a foot in length, and fix inches broad. It is hog- 
backed, and the head is blunt like that of a DORADO ; 
and the mouth cannot be fhut clofe, for it has teeth that 
cover the lips, which are white, triangular, and ex- 
ceeding fharp, being fourteen in number in each jaw, 
and placed in a fingle row; infomuch, that with one 
bite it can feparate the flefti from any part of a man, in 
the fame manner as if it had been cut with a razor. 1 ho 
cyes^ are fmall, and of the colour of chryftal ; and a fin 
begins from the vent, which is armed before with a 
flrong fpine ; but the other parts are foft, and covered 
all over with fcales reaching to the root of the tail. The 
tail is divided into two hens, and the colour of the 
upper part of the body to the lateral lines, is of a light 
afh colour, mixed with a little blue ; but the edge of 
every fcale fhines with flame, and blueilh colours. 
The lower part is of a dark yellow, as well as the fins. 
It delights in the muddy bottom of a river. 

I'he Pi RAY A of the fecond kind, is fhaped like the 
former, except in its having a fcaly fin on the middle of 

the 



? F I S H E S. 163 

the back," between the back-fin and the tall. It alfo 
difters in colour j for where that is of a blueifh afh -colour, 
this is of a gold or reddiili colour mixed with afh ; and 
where that is yellow, this is of the colour of fafFron ; 
but the back fins and the tail, are of a light afti-colour, 
mixed with a little blue. 

The PiRA YA of the third kind, has a head not fo blunt 
as the former ; but the mouth is a little prominent, and 
of a conical fhape. The belly and fides are of a filver 
colour ; and the back and head of a filver colour m.ixed 
with a little fnining blue ; but the fins are of a filver 
colour mixed with grey. It is lefs than either of the 
former, but it bites like them. 

The MATURAQUE of the Brafilians, has an ob- 
long body being almofl fix inches in length, and an inch 
and a half broad, with a broadifh head covered with a 
large fhell. The lower jaw is a little longer than the 
upper, and in it are fix frnall fharp teeth. The iris of 
the eyes is of a gold colour within, and brown on tlie 
cutlide. The tail terminates almoft in a right line, and 
the fcales arc large and placed in a regular order. The 
upper part of the head, back, fides, and all the fins are 
black. The belly is of a hoary white ; and this fifh i$ 
to be met with only in ponds and lakes, for it never 
enters the rivers, and yet is well tafted. 

The RIVER TAREIRA, has an oblong body, a 
ftrait back, and a belly a little prominent. The lower 
jaw is a little longer than the upper, and the teeth aro 
exceeding fharp. The bead is a little like that of a 
Pike, and the eyes are pretty large and prominent. It 
is fifteen or fixteen inches long, and has a large flrait 
almoft fquare back-fin. a little above three inches long 
and two broad, being placed on the middle of the back. 
The fcales are pretty large, and are duiky on the back ; 
but on the fides there is a mixture of filver colour. The 
head is covered with a hard dufky Ihell ; but the belly is 
entirely white. AH the fins are duficy, undulated tranf- 
verfely with black, as well as the tail. This fifh is taken 
only in rivers, and the flelh is fit to be eaten. 

The PIKE or PICKEREL, has a roundifh oblong 
body with a fiat head, and fquare back. The fnout is 
very prominent, almoft like the bill of a duck ; but the 

lower 



164 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

lower jaw is fomewhat longer than the-upj^er. The 
mouth is very wide, and the tail forked. The body is 
covered with fmall thick fcales, which 5re moiltened 
on the edges vsith a kind of ilime that ha'- a greeniih 
caft ; and the younger the Mi is, the greener he ap- 
pears. The back and fides, when turned, towards the 
light, appear to have fomewhat of a golden hue. The 
fides are fpotted with yellow, and the belly is white ; 
but on the tail there are dufky fpots and reddifh lines, 
cfpecially towards the corners. The teeth on the lower 
jaw are crooked, and there are none in the upper; but 
on the palate there is a triple row. The tongue- is 
broad, black, a little forked, and rough with teeth j 
and the eyes are of a gold colour, feeming to be a little 
funk into the head. The head and gills are fpotted 
with a variety of fmall holes. 

The liver is of a pale fiefh colour, and the gall blad- 
der is joined to its upper part, emptying itfelfinto the 
gut by a long tube. The gall itfclf is of a blackifh 
colour, as well as the fpleen, which is almoft of a trian- 
gular ihape. The heart is of the fame figure, and the 
gut is covered with fat, being folded back three times. 
The ftomach is large, and wrinkled on the infide. 
This is a very voracious fifli, and often grows to a very 
large fize. There were two caught in a ditch near IP^aU 
lingford in Berk/hire^ one of v/iiich, being the Milter, 
weighed fifty- one pounds ; and the other, which was the 
Spawner, fifty-feven. This ditch runs into the river 
^Ihames, and they came in to call their fpawn. A Pike 
v/ill fwallow other filh almoft as big as thcmfelves, not 
excepting thofe of their own kip.d. The ufual time of 
fpawni;g is in March, and fometimcs fooncr, if the 
fpring be forward. Thsy are prodigious bleeders, for 
in one row there were 148^00 eggs. They grow very- 
fail: at firlt, for in one year they become of the length 
of fixteen inches in the brook where they were fpawned. 
They are in feafon all the year, except in fpawning 
time, and about fix v/eeks after it. The flelh is white, 
firm, dry, and fweet ; but when they weigh above 
twelve pounds, they contrad a fort of ranknefs. 

Some have employed the fat, the gall, the lower 
jaw, and the fmall bones that are found in the head of 

this 



O F - F I S H E S. 16; 

this fifh in medicine. The lower jaw is abibrbent and 
detergent; many pretend it is a (pecific in thepleunfy 
and quinfv ; but they are feldom ufed at prefent for 
thefe purpofes, unlefs among the Genr.ans. The dole 
is from twelve grains to half a dram. The fat of a 
Pike is recommended by fome to annoint the feet of 
children with, to appeafe coughs, and to procure fleep ; 
but it has been feldom or never brought into pradtice 
with us as yet ; the gall, which is faid to cure inter- 
mitting fevers, taken at the beginning of the ni ; the 
dofe is feven or eight drops. It is more likely to take 
away fpots in the eyes ; but then it muft be mixed with 
water, becaufe it is too fharp alone. Some would have 
it put into the ears with a bit of cotton, to cure fmging 
therein. The fmall bones in the head of a Pike, are re- 
commended by fome to haften child-birth, to purify the 
blood, to promote urine, to cleanfe the kidneys, and to 
c-ure the epilepfy. The dofe is from one fcruple to 
two ; but there are few who depend upon them in thefe 
cafes. 

The CASSE-BURGOT, is a fiih of the lake of Loui- 
Jiana in America^ which is about a foot, or a foot and 
a half long, is good to eat, and has two ftones in its 
head. It has a roimdiih body, and a very thick head, 
not unlike that of a Pike. Tie body becomes gradual- 
ly lefs to the end of the tail ; and the flefh is white, 
being much of the fame tafre as a Turbot. The number 
of the fins are not mentioned. 

The STURGEON is a long nfii, with a pentagonous 
or fi\'e cornered body, fo formed by five rows of horny 
fcales, on each of which there is a fpine or thorn that 
is \'ery firong and crocked. The upper row of fcales 
which runs along the middle of the back are larger, and 
rife higher than the reft, and their number is not ex- 
adiy the fame in all, there beiny ekven in fome, and in 
others twelve, or thirteen. This row reaches to the 
back-fin, and there ends. The lateral rows begin at 
■ the head, and end at the tail, conhfting of thirty, or 
thirty-one fcales. The lower rows, which bound or ter- 
ininate the fiat part of the belly, begin at the fore-moii 
iins, and end at the fecond pair, containing each eleven, 
twelve, or thirteen fcales. Befides theic five rows, 

there 



i66 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

there are only two fcaie. in the middle of the belly bc- 
Icw the vent. The head is of a moderate lize and 
rough, with very fmall prickles, as has the reft of tkc 
body, between tlie rows of the fcales. I'lie eyes arc 
very fmall, in proportion to the bulk, and of a filver 
colour ; the fnout is long, broad, and fiender, end- 
ing in a point. In the middle of the lower part of the 
fnout, which is extended beyond the mouth, there arc 
four barbs placed in a right line which croffes the fnout 
tranfverfely. The mouth is fmall, void of teeth, and 
placed over agair.ft the eyes ; and it has a kind of fmall 
tube or pipe, which it can draw in or tliurft out at plea- 
fure. There are no jaws, for which reafon it is plai'i 
that it gets its nouiifnment by fucking. The tail is 
forked, but in fuch a n'sanner, that the upper part ftands 
out much farther than the lower. The colour of this 
fiih is of a duiky olive, or dark-grey on the back ; but 
the belly is of a filver colour, and the midalepart of the 
fcales is white. 

The ftomach at firft tends dire>5i:ly downwards, and 
then turns upwards again, making a fort of a bow, af- 
ter which it proceeds downwards. The liver is pale, 
and the gall-bladder has a paifage into the gut. The 
EJr-bladder is undivided, hanging Icofe from the back, 
JUid has an evident ccmmiinication with the fconiach. 
The fplcen is long, snd of the colour of blood ; and 
the gut has but one fold. In die flomach of two that 
were defeated, they found feveral infeds like Hog- 
lice. 

They are brought daily to the markets of Rome and 
Venice, from whence it is plain that they abound in the 
'Mediterranean iea. Yet they are but fmall, as they al- 
ways are when they keep conltantly in the fait water ; 
but when they enter rivers, and continue there, they 
grow to a monllrous fize, fome of them having been 
found to be eighteen feet in length ; and they fometimes 
will weigh upw^^rds of two hundred and fixty pounds. 
The fleih is ytx-j cominon here in Englatid, but then it is 
brought from difrant places in pickle ; however, they 
fometimes come up the Thames, and other rivers, though 
but feldom. 

It 



O F F I S H E S. 167 

It was foimerly in great efteem among the Romans^ 
and fome pretend, that thofe caught in rivers are beft ; 
v.hile others affirm, that thofe taken in the fea are much 
finer eating, provided it be at a good diftance from the 
fhoie. The flefh is every where in great efteem, and it 
is certainly very nourilhing ; but it is fo flrong, that 
fome would have Sturgeon, with regard to iiih, the 
fame as a hog among quadrupedes. It is not very pro- 
per for tender conftitutions, becaufe it is not eafy of di- 
geftion ; but it faits thofe that are fcrong and robufl. 
'Ihe male is better than the female, except (he is full of 
fpawn, and then llie is generally preferred on that ac- 
count, as well as for the goodnefs of the flefh at that 
time. The fat always lies heavy on the flomach, and it 
loofens the belly, becaufe it relaxes the fbres of the in- 
teftines. There is a tender thick griiile that runs from 
the head to the tail, which fome Icok upon as good 
eating ^.fter it is dried in the fun. 

The fpawn of this filh ferves to make caviar, which 
is a confiderable merchandize among the fwhf Greeks, 
and Ven.tiani. It is alfo in high eileem among the 
Rujjiam^ an'd is fometimes brought to Engl at: d. The 
manner of making it is this ; they take the fpawn and 
free it from the fmali iibreo that connect it together, 
and then v/afh it with vinegar, and afterwards fpread ic 
on a table to dry. Then they put it into a velTel with 
fait, breaking the fpawn with their hands, and not with 
apellle; this done, they putit into a canvafs bag, let- 
ting the liquor drain from it. Laft of all they put it 
into a tub with a hole in the bottom, that if there be 
any moiuure fall remaining, it may run out. Then 
they prefs it down, and cover it clofe for ufe. There 
are vail quantities cf thefe filh caught in the river Volga, 
and ether rivers that fail into the Ca/pian fea. The 
common way of killing them is with a harpoon ; but in 
fome places they are taken \y\xh nets. 

The parts of this £fn ufed in medicine, are the bones 
and the caviar ; that brought from Hamburg, is not 
much unlike green foap, with regard to the cclcur and 
fubitance. There are likev/ife large quantities brought 
from Riijfta^ M-iJcc^oyy and other places. The Italians 
fettled in Rujffta, cany on a great trade with it through- 
5 out 



i6'8 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

out that empire ; becaule there are vail numbers ofthis 
^fh taken in the mouth of the Voigp.y and other rivers 
that fall into the CaJ'pic-n fea. They confume a great deal 
of caviar in Italy ; and it begins to be in requeft in 
Trar.ce. The bones of a Sturgeon are iaid to be ape- 
rient, and good againft the rheumatifm, hyp-gout, and 
gravel ; the dole of the powder is a dram. 1 he caviar 
is nourifhing, and according to fome, is good againlt 
barrennefs. 

The ADELLA and ADANO, fo called by the Jta. 
lia»s, is thought to be a filh peculiar to the river Po in 
Ita.'y. It fon"etimes increafes to the weight of one 
tlionfand pounds, and is taken with a monltrous large 
hook faftened to the end of a chain ; and they are oblig- 
ed to draw it oat of the water with a yoke of oxen. It 
differs from a Sturgeon, in being a river filh, and in its 
bulk, which as was juft obferved, increafes fometimes 
to the weight of one thouland pounds. When it arrives 
at a certain fize, it lofes its barbs as it had before, like 
thofe of a Sturgeon. The fiefh of a Sturgeon is firm 
and of a pleafant tafte j but that of this fifh is foft, and 
not fo agreeable. The mouth is like that of a Sturgeon 
but much larger, and divided a little obliquely ; be- 
fides, it is not fo pointed as in a Sturgeon ; add to 
this, that the colour of the back is whitilh, and looks 
woolly. 

The TSING-GLASS FISH, is of the cetaceous 
kind, and is cartilaginous, without bones, fpines, or 
fcale?. The head is thick and broad, with a large 
mouth, and frc)m the upper jaw there hangs four flefhy 
wattles. The eyes are fmall for the fize of the fifli; 
and the flefh is wtry fweet, but clammy. The fliape is 
oblong and roundijh, and it has no fnout, and is cover- 
ed with a yellow, hard, flippery, fmooth fkin. There 
are two fmall holes before the corner of the eyes, and 
the two fins on the back, are placed eredl near the tail. 
The gills have a thorny cover, in the fame manner as a 
Sturgeon ; but the tail is more forked, and there is alfo 
a liitle above the thorny covering of the gills, and on 
the fides of them, a fort of a hole. 

The HUSO, fo called by the Germans ^ has a very 
long fnout, and under it there are from four to eight 

barbs. 



O F F I S H E S. 169 

barbs. There is only one fin on the back, not far from 
ihe tail ; but on the belly there are two. The (hape is 
not much unlike that of a Pike, and the belly is yellow, 
like that of a Carp ; but the back is blackilh. The 
body is without fcales, and has no bones but cartilages. 
The flefti is fweet and very agreeable to the palate, be- 
ing white when raw, but red when boiled. It fome- 
times weighs four hundred pounds ; though fome au- 
thors pretend that they have feen them fo large, that they 
could hardly be drawn in a cart with three or four hcrfes j 
their length, when full grown, is twenty-four feet» 
It is ufually met with in the feas about Mu/co'vy, and in 
the river Danube. They make that fort of Ifing glafs, 
of the guts, ftomach, tail, fins, and Ikin of this, and 
the former filh, which is ufed by wine-merchants to fine 
or force their wine. It has alfo medicinal virtues, when 
boiled to a jelly. 

The colour of Ifing-glafs is of a whitifh yellow, and 
is brought chiefly by the Dutch out of Rujjiaj and fome 
ufe it in ulcers of the throat, lungs, and bloody-flux, as 
well as againft fpitting of blood ; but now its chief ufe is 
external in plafters. Some artifts ufe it to give a glofs 
to ribbonds, to whiten gauzes, to counterfeit pearls, 
and for many other purpofes. When it has been mixed 
with fugar, and made into a kind of tranfparent yellov/ 
glue, they melt it in their mouths for the glueing toge- 
ther of paper; upon this account, it is fometimes called 
mouth-glue. 



CHAP. XX. 

Of Leather-mouthed Ri<ver Fijh. 

TH E mouths of thefe fort of filli are without teeth*-, 
but they have fome in the throat, or in the bot- 
tom of the mouth, near the frcmach. 'J he fwimining- 
bladder of this kind, is divided into two part?. 

The CARP fometimes grows to the length of a yard 

and a half, being of a proportionable thicknefs ; but 

Vol. III. I »hey 



170 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

they are not fo large in Englundy though there was one 
caught in the river Thames, near Ha?npt<m conrfy that 
weighed near thirteen pounds. The colour of this fifh, 
efpecially when full grown, is yellowifh, and the fcales 
are large. The head is fhort like that of a Tench, and 
the mouth is of a middle fize, with flat, flefhy, yellow 
lips. It has no teeth in the mouth, but there is a trian- 
gular bone in the palate ; and two other bones in th,e 
throat, which ferve for the fame purpofe. On the upper 
lip, near the corner of the mouth, there are two yellow 
barbs, which fome call muftachoes, from the fituation. 
The fins are large, the tail broad, a little forked at the 
end, and of a reddifh-black colour. The lateral line is 
ftrait, and pafTes through the middle of each fide. It 
has no tongue, but inftead thereof, there is a flefhy pa- 
late, which taken out of the mouth, looks like a tongue,' 
and which fome account a delicious morfel. 

The guts pafs through the very fubliance of the liver, 
and are joined thereto, infomuch that they feem to make 
but one mafs ; and not only the gall-bladder, and 
fpleen, but the ftomach itfelf is confounded amongft the 
reft. The air-bladder is double, and conneded to the 
back. They fpavvn fcveral times in a year, but prin- 
cipally in hlay and Augujl, in which months they are 
lean and taftlefs, and confequently out of feafon. Wil- 
loughby informs us, that the largeft Carps weigh about 
twenty pounds. There were no Carps in the ponds or 
rivers of England, "till they were brought over by Leo-' 
nard Mofcal about one hundred and eighty years ago; 
as he himfelf informs us in his treatife of Filhing. 1 his. 
iifh lives longeft out of water of any other whatever ; 
infomuch, that in Holland, they hang them up in a cel- 
lar in a net filled with white mofs, with only their heads 
out, and feed them with white bread foaked in milk, 
for many days. The flefh of the river Carp, is better 
than that of Ponds ; and fome are highly pleafed with 
it 'y while others diflike it for its being foft and infipid. 

Perhaps it v.iil not be amifs to give the reader a more 
exaft difciption of this fiih, as we find it in the Royal 
Academy of Sciences for the year 1733. All fifh, fays 
the author of the memoir, are covered with a fkin or 
Icales, as well in the fea and rivers, .as in ponds and 

kkes. 



OF FISHES. 171 

lakes. The Carp is perhaps a filh that has the largeft 
fcales in proportion to its bulk. Some of thefe are 
brown, and others yellow and white ; the brown colour 
prevails in the largeft fcales ; the middle are of a yellow 
and gold colour ; but the white are fmall and filvered; 
The common iize of Carps is from iixteen to eighteen 
inches in length ; of which there are nine, or ten, be- 
tween the head and the beginning of the tail. In ge- 
neral, the bigger Carps are, the browner are the fcales ; 
though Rondeletius affirms, that young Carps have 
browner fcales than the old, in which there is a yellow- 
ifh call. The largeft fcales are in the middle of the 
fides, with regard to its length, and the nearer they are 
to the head the broader. The fcales of a middle fize 
lye towards the tail, and the leaft are under the belly. 
The largeft fcales are two-thirds of an inch in length, 
and half an inch broad ; but fometimes they ate as 
broad as long, and they are one fixth of an inch thick ; 
in general, the fmalleft are longeft in proportion. 
While they remain on the body, not above a third of 
them appear ; and this part is often yellow, or a little 
brownifh. This colour feems to be in the very fubftance 
of the fcale ; for it cannot be deprived of it by fcraping, 
unlefs fome partis taken off, except where it is brown- 
eft. In the infide of this, there are line, in the form of 
rays, which proceed from the circumference, and run 
towards a point, as a center. The under part, oppofite 
to this, is of a filver colour, which is owing to a very 
fine membrane that may be readily taken oft"; after 
which, the fcales will be white in that part. 

All the fcales are connected together by the mem- 
brane that covers them ; but this does not hinder them 
from playing a little ; for otherwife, the Carp could not 
bend to either fide, as it always does in its motions. 
Thefe membranes are ftrongly connefted to a tendinous 
membrane, which furrounds the whole body of the 
Carp, for they are nothing but a continuation of the 
fame. 

If the ou tilde of a Carp is carefully obferved, a brown 

line may be feen on each fide, that reaches from the 

head to the tail. This appears to be brown, becaufe 

the membrane that connefts the lower part of the fcales, 

I 2 i^ 



172 THE NATURAL HISTORY 
^s very brown in the middle. Though I once obferyed 
it to be red. In the fubftance of the fcales where this 
line is feen, there is a canal above a fixih of an inch 
long, and a forty-eighth of an inch in diameter. A very 
fmall pill may be introduced thereinto ; but it enters 
eafieft at the internal and lower part of the fcale. 'I his 
canal runs from the upper to the lower part of the fcale, 
and obliquely from without, inwards ; it is continued 
from one fcafe to another fucceflively, from the head to 
the tail ; for between each fcale there is a fmall membra- 
nous canal, by which means it is continued. 

A Carp may be divided into four parts, namely, the 
head, the bread, the lower belly, and the tail. The 
head reaches from the tip of the fnout to the extremity 
of the covers of the gills, over againft which the breaft 
is feated ; for there is no neck between the head and 
the trunk of a Carp. The brtaft is feparated from the 
lower belly by the diaphragm, and only contains the 
heart and pau of the kidneys. The lower belly con- 
tains the entrails ; and the tail begins at the vent, and 
is entirely mufculous. 

The lower belly, is the cavity of the body that 
reaches from ihe diaphragm to the vent ; and all ana- 
tomies know in what manner k is formed in men, and 
in quadiupedcs ; hut there are few that have examined 
it in a carp. This fifti has the cavity of the lower belly 
formed by the vertebras of the back, and the mufcles are 
quite diiferent from thofe of men, and quadrupedes ; 
befides which, there are fpines in the form of ribs. 
There are eighteen on each fide, and they proceed from 
each vertebra, from the diaphragm to the vent, where 
they terminare in the lower belly in a point. The infide 
cfthe lower belly is covered with a peritonaeum, as in 
oiher animals. 

The vent does not only confift of an aperture, by 
which the excrements are difchargcd from the guts ; 
but it contains two others, one of which gives parage 
to the fpawn of the females, and the femen of the males ; 
and the other is a dudt for the urine of the bladder. The 
firil is at the extiemity of the redum, and is the largeft of 
the three ; the fecond is the extremity of the two capfulae 
tliat contains the eggs, and which re-unite into a fmgle 
. canal, 




r 



O F F I S H E S. 17J 

canal, whofe extremity is but a twelfth part of an inch 
broad, or thereabouts, according to the fize of the Carp ; 
but it will ftretch very muJi ; it is narrower in the 
males, and is the extremity of the two membranes that 
comprehend the milt. The third is the mouth of the 
bladder, and is not much above the twentieth part of 
an inch in breadth. All thefe apertures are not round, 
but lye flat one upon another, only the third is more 
roundifh ; they are feparated from each other by mem- 
branes, not above the forty-eighth part of an inch thick. 
The outward aperture is in fome fenfe triangular in mil- 
ters, but not fo much in fpawners, and is about a third 
of an inch in diameter. 

The ilomach begins at the bottom of the gorge, and 
paffjs through the center of the diaphragm ; it is in the 
Ihape of a gut, is fix inches and upwards in length, 
and extends long-ways in the abdomen. It is one third 
of an inch in diameter and upwards, next the diaphragm ; 
but it grow; gradually a little lefs towards the vent, 
where it is folded to form the firll gut. The fcomach is 
furrounded on all fides by the guts and liver, and ap- 
pears out of the bundle, about an inch, or an inch and a 
half from the place where it folds to form the firfl: gut. 
There is neither pylorus nor valve in this fold, as there 
is in Pikes and other fifh. There is fo little diiFerence 
between the ftomach and the gut at this fold, which is 
two inches from the vent, that it might be taken for a 
fold of the ftomach icfelf. There are a great many lon- 
gitudinal wrinkles en the infide, which is the reafon it 
is called the ftomach ; befides, there is no other part 
that can perform its office. It receives the biliary du'ft, 
a iixth part of an inch from the diaphragm ; and it 
forms a fort of a nipple on the infide of the ftomach, 
where its orifice may be feen. The firft gut turns back 
towards the diaphragm, and is three inches and a half 
in length, and a quarter of an inch in diameter. The 
fecond gut is formed by the fold of the firft, and is a- 
bout a quarter of an inch long, and a fifth in diameter ; 
it runs downwards. The third gut bends upwards, and 
is a fixth of an inch in diameter ; a? well as four or five 
inches in length, if the curve is taken in, that it forms 
on the right fide towards the diaphragm, where it pro- 
I 3 duces 



^74 THE NATURAL HISTO,?.Y 

duces a kind of a ring, with a portion of the fourth gut 
that enclofes part of the liver. The fourth gut is one- 
Jixth of an inch in diameter, and four and g half in 
length, if half of ihe ring is taken in ; it deicends tOr 
ward^ the vent. The fitth gut is fouT inches in length, 
•and a fix-th of an inch in diameter ; and it runs upwards 
towards the diaphragm ; and at an inch and a half froia 
It, it bends backward to form the following gut. The 
fixth is the longefl of all, it being fix inches long, and 
fometimes mc-re, and about the -fixth of an inch in dia- 
Uietcr; it terminates at the vent, and is partly furround- 
cd by the gup and the liver. In milters, this gut is 
mcft of it lodged in a channel of the milt. There i^ 
na-mefentary, for the guts arc connedted|rogether by the 
^arts of the liver that are lodged and connected withift 
the fpaces that are between the circumvolutions. 

The liver is divided into feveral parts, v/hich are a 
fort of thin appendages j which are connected to the 
guts filling up the fpaces between them, as was juft ob- 
Icrvcd J at.d fome of them pafs above the gut to fill up 
other fpaces. All thefe parts of the liver and guts, form 
§1 bundle which is iikewife conneded to the roes in both 
fexes, though very liightly. The liver is as long a^^ the 
the bundle of the guts ; and Iikewife as broad near the 
l^iaphragm, where it has its rife. After this, the liver 
grows narrower and narrower by degrees, and at lall 
terminates in a fort of a point ; from which the redlum 
is continued to the vent, and is about an inch and a half 
long. The liver confifts of a red mufculous flefh ; but 
is paler in the milters ; and indeed there is fome other 
differences in different fubjedts. It covers about one- 
half of the air bladder, to which it is flightly connedlcd, 
and is very broad in that place. It is covered on its 
fides by the roes, and is connedled thereto by very 
fine membranes, as well as to the peritonaeum. 

The gall-bladder is contained in the middle of the 
principal part of the liver, and lyes along the upper part 
cf the ftomach, and there is a part of the liver, a twelfth 
part of an inch thick, between this bladder and the 
Itomach. Jt is connedled in this place by many blood 
and biliary veffels, which terminate in the cyllic dutX ; 
this is conriedled thereto, a fixth part of an inch from 

tliC 



OF FISHES. 175 

Mte gali bladder, and may be called the hepatic duft. 
It is about a twenty-fourth part of an inch in diameter, 
and fometimes there are two. The biliary duft, and the 
cyftic duft, form a iingle canal of the fame diameter, 
which is above a fixth part of an inch in length ; but it 
is fometimes bigger every way. It is inferted in the up- 
per part of the ilomach, a Hxth part of an inch below 
the diaphragm, a little obliquely. It will not admit a 
very line probe through it^ aperture ; but the bladder 
being fqueezed, the bile will readily come out. In a 
large Carp, this bladder is an inch and a quarter long, 
and above half an inch in diameter. The bile therein, 
is green and fluid ; though in fome, it has been found 
as hard as butter. 

The fpleen is ccnnedled to the beginning of the 
ftomach, half an inch from the diaphragm ; and it is 
feated between the bundle of the guts, and to the left 
of the air-bladder ; it is three or four inches long. The 
principal part lyes between the upper part of the 
itomach and the liver ; and it is about half an inch broad 
though it is only the fiXth of an inch thick ; it is of a 
deep red, like clotted blood. 

The roes in the fpawners lye on each fide the lower 
belly, and reach from the diaphragm to the vent. On 
each fide they lye over the bundle of guts and the liver, 
and extend between this and the air-bladder, which they 
cover on both fides, from the middle part of the large 
air-bladder to the vent. They are covered with a very 
fine tranfparent membrane, which forms a capfula that 
contains the eggs, to which it is a little connedled. It 
parts readily from the eggs or fpawn when it is blown 
up, and it fwells gready. The two capfulse unite in a 
fingle duft, which terminates at the back part of the 
vent. This capfula adheres to the peritonaeum, and to 
the bundle of the liver and guts, though very ilightly. 
The eggs are almoft round, and are from a twenty- 
fourth, to an eighteenth part of an inch in diameter ; but 
this lall is very uncommon ; however, they are con- 
nedled to each other. The two roes when well formed, 
weigh about eight ounces and two drams, which make 
3960 grains ; each grain is equal to feventy-two eggs ; 
which being multiplied together, make 285120 eggs, 
I 4 OJ 



170 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

or thereabouts. Thefe rows belonged to a Carp elgh* 
reen inches long, comprehendir.g the head and the 
tail. 

It appears from feveral obfervations, that the larger 
Carps are, the more eggs they contain -, however, it 
would be no wonder if there (liould be a miftake of fe- 
veral hundieds. Leeunxhenhoek affirms, a Carp has only 
i\\(izc) t^%^\ and that Cod-filh have four times as 
many ; but in another place he tells us, that this laH has 
9344COG ; and that the eggs of a fifh of a year old, are 
as numerous as fiiofe of one of twenty-five. They are 
all more or lefs yellowilh, but they become white in 
boiling; and yet, after they are cok% tliey are yellow 
again, and fometimes of an orange colour. 

The milt belongs to the male, and confifts of two 
white irregular bodies ; thefe are the tellicles, and they 
ftre alraoil as long as the cavity of the lower belly ; the 
right fide is fometimes a little longer than the left, be- 
caufe it begins fcmewhat nearer the diaphragm. Its 
fides cover the bundle of the guts, the air-bladder, and 
the urinary bladder ; they terminate at the vent, be- 
tween the redum and the bladder, and are furrounded 
with a very fine membrane. When the milt is cut crofs 
ways, and prefTed with the fingers, a white thick mat- 
ter proceeds therefrom. Each of thefe bodies confift of 
two parts ; the firft and moft conlidcrable of which, 
takes its origin near the diaphragm, and i^ the body of 
the tefticle, and has a fmooth furface. The fecond part 
confifts of the feminal veffels that lye near the vent. Jn 
«ach of thefe there is an interftice according to the 
length, where there is a kind of a dud u hich contains a 
white fluid, which is the femen. This canal runs to the 
fecond part of the milt; and may be called the femi- 
nal veficle, becaufe it feems to be formed of fmall veficles 
diflin£l from each other. 

There is a veficle in moft fifh, full of air, which is 
called the air or fwimming bladder ; becaufe the fifti, 
by the help of this, can rife to the top of ihe water, 
and fink down again at pleafure ; according as this is 
more or lefs filled with air. Jt is featcd betiveen the 
kidneys and the fpawn or milt ; and it readies from 
the diaphragm to the urinary bladder ; it is (lightly con- 
nected 



OF FISHES. 177 

nefted by fibres and vefiels, to all the parts that touch 
it ; but it is connedled very ftrongly at the bafe to a 
fmall bone, which may be called the mitral bone, on ac- 
count of its fhape. The bladder is compofed of two parts; 
the firil of which is largeft, and is neareft the diaphragm ; 
it is about three inches long, and an inch and a half in 
diameter, at the place where it is thickeft ; and its fhape 
is a fort of an oval. The fecond part, which is fmaller 
than the former, but a quarter of an inch longer, is 
only an inch in diameter where it is thickell. Each of 
thefe veficles or parts, have two membranes, an exter- 
nal, and an internal, that are both double, and have 
fibres in different directions. They communicate vAih 
each other by a fmall du6l. 

The kidneys of fcaly fiih, are of fuch a particular 
fubilance and Itrudlure, that Ron^ieletius would not allow 
they had any. In a Carp they are fofr, and of a red- 
difli brown, and in fome fenfe refemble c-otted blood ;- 
they take up the greatell part of the breait, and from 
thence extend throughout the whole length of the lower 
belly to the bladder. That part of the kidneys within 
the breafl is of a confiderable thicknefs, and almoft en- 
tirely covers the diaphragm, as well as furrounds the 
greateft part of the heart. The two parts of which it 
confifts, reunite in this place; and over the mitral 
bone, they grow lefs all of a fudden ; palling through a 
hole a quarter of an inch long, and an eighth of an inch 
broad; this hole is formed by the union of the mitral 
bone with the third vertebra of the fpine, nnd enters 
Jnto the lower belly, where it grows larger by degrees^ 
and forms in the middle of this cavity, two very irre- 
gular bodies ; that is, one on each lide, which aie the 
principal part of the kidneys ; they are lodged berween 
the two parts of the air-bladders, and fill up the f])ace 
between them ; upon which account they are of a trian- 
gular Ihape ; after this, the kidneys are contrafted by 
degrees, and Aide between the two ureters, which they 
accompany to the bladder. The urine paffes from the 
fubilance of the kidneys into the urecers, by excretory 
veiTels. 

The urinary bladder is a roimdilh capfuln, 

which being fwelled, refembles a fmall gourd turned 

I 5 upfide- 



178 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

fide down, wliofe mouth is narrow ; it is not quite an 
inch in length, nor yet a third of an inch in diameter ; 
it feems to be compofed of a very fine fingle membrane. 
This bladder has no urethra ; for its mouth is near that 
of the re<5lum, and at the hinder part of the vent in the 
fpawners ; but in the milters it is not difcovered at all 
on the outfide ; becaufe it enters the common duft of 
the feminal vefTels. I'his defcription is fomewhat long, 
but rauft needs give great fatisfadion to thofe that are 
curious in thefe matters. 

The PRICKLY CARP of Rondeletius, is like a 
common Carp in all things, if the prickles are taken 
otT. The lateral lines are crooked, and marked with 
points, and the colour of the back is of a blueiih ^reen, 
but on the belly it is red. The body is covered witfi 
large fcales, from the middle of each of whicli, there 
arifes a fharp prickle in the fliape of a hob-nail, which 
are half an inch in length, and placed in no regular 
order. Thefe prickles drop off once a year, that i-, 
in the months of Jpril and May. This fifh is only found 
in two lakes of Mdati in //« V, as the inhabitants there 
affirm. 

The .SEA BREAM, has a forked tail, and is a 
ilattilh fifh, not unlike a Roach. The flefh is firm and 
folid, and the body is covered with fcales. It is twenty 
inches long, ten broad, and the tail is very flender. 
The back is black, but the fides are of a lighter colour, 
which on tlie belly becomes like that of filvcr. The 
lower jaw has two rows of teeth, but the upper has 
but one, and thofe are very fmall. The eyes are large 
and are like thofe of quadrupedes ; the covers of the 
gills are very ample, like thole of Salmons. There is 
only one fin in the middle of the back, which is con- 
tinued throughout its whole length ; and oppofite to it, 
at the bottom of the belly, there is another that runs 
from the vent almoil to the tail. They are not very 
common in England ; but one of them was brought by 
the tide near the mouth oi \\).q nvtv Tees \n ^orthum- 
lerfandy and when the water fell, it was left on the 
ilicre. This fifli is improperly clafled. 

The BREAM, is a broad flaltifh fifli, with a fmall 
fquarilh head and a fliarp fnout. The top of the head 

is 



O F F I S H E S, 179 

is pretty broad and flat, and the back rifcs like that of 
a Hog. The back is of a blackifh-blue colour, but the 
belly and fides are white. The fcales are large, and 
the mouth, for the fize of the fiih, very fmall. The 
' mouth is without teeth, but there is a triangular bone 
in the palate, which is foft and flefny like that of a 
carp. The iris of the eye is of a fHver colour, and the 
pupil is fmall. 

The liver is long and lies between the flomach and 
the gut, having a gall bladder almoft hid within it. 
The fpleen is angular, and the air-bladder is divided 
into two lobes. The Bream breeds both in rivers and 
ponds, but they delight chiefly in the latter, for v/hich 
reafon they are never found in fwift rapid ftreams ; but 
only in fuch parts of the river which mod referable 
Handing water, and have muddy bottoms. They love 
to keep company with each other, for which reafon, 
one hundred of them are fometimes fecn in a flioal. In 
fome places they have been found to grow to the length 
of three feet, and here in Englanc^^ they have weighed 
ten or twelve pounds, but this is not very common. 
I'he flefli is in no great eileem ; however, it may be 
rendered agreeable enough with good cookery. Ron- 
dektlus affirms, he has met with Breams two cubits in 
length. 

In Poland, there is a fifh called KLORZEZ, which 
is a fort of a Bream, of a blue violet colour, except the 
fins and the tail, which are white. Gefuer fays there are 
three kinds of Breams in the river Elbe, the firfl- of which 
has fcales like a Carp, and is not above eight inches 
long. It is found not only in this river, but in ponds 
and lakes. The fecond fort is more long and thick, but 
the fcales are like the former, and the flefh is very well 
tailed. The third is pretty much like the flrft, but it is 
a larger and more beautiful iifli, being of a colour more 
inclining to filver. They are only found in th« Elbe^ 
and fpawn like the common Bream, in January and 
June. 

A fliip of Captain Johfon being at Cajfan, a failor 

caught a fiih which he took for a Bream ; but as foon as 

he touched it, he cried out and faid, he had loil: the ufc 

of his hand. His companions laughed at him, and im- 

1 6 mediately 



i8o THE NATURAL HISTORY 

mediately one of them trod upon it with his naked foot, 
upon which the whole leg became motionlcls. Then 
they called the cook and defired him to take the fifh and 
drefs it ; he took it in both hands, but let it fall diredl- 
ly, and declared in a mournful tone, that he was feized 
with the palfy. However, a Negro who was acquaint- 
ed with this fifh, told them that after it was dead, this 
benumbing quality would ceafe. Her.ce it appears that 
this fifh has the fame property as the TOR.PEDO. 

The RED EYE, is a kin to the Bream, and the 
fhape of the body is much like one, only it is a little 
thicker. It is hog-backed, and all the fins are of a red- 
dilh colour, and the whole body is tindured with red, 
efpecially the iris of the eyes. There is a faffron colour- 
ied fpot on the tongue, and the fcales are larger than 
thofe of a Roach. Jt may be diftinguifhed from a 
Roach by the rednefs of the eyes, by the faffron colour- 
ed fpot under the tongue, by the back-fin having more 
rays, and the gut more folds. When full grown, they 
are about 'ten inches long, and they fpawn in May^ a- 
mong the roots of trees. 

The SHORT CARP of Schone<veU, is nine inches 
in length, and'bas a comprefled body with a hog back, 
being like a Bream, but a little thicker ; and the co- 
Jour is yellowiih inclining to gold. 1 here are lines run 
through all the rows of fcales, and the belly is yellow. 
The mouth is round and little, and the eyes are fmall, 
lying mere deeply in the head than ia moll other fifh. 
It differs from a Bream in being fhorter, in the colour, 
and in the back fin?, for thofe behind the vent, have 
ra,ys on both fides, with a rough fort of hooks as in a 
Carp. The BALLERUS of Rondeletiusy differs in no- 
thing from this, but in the red colour of the fins and 
tail. 

The CARASSE of Gefner, is a fmall fort of a fifh,. 
being fcldom above eight inches long ; but they are 
broad and thin, and fomewhat of a golden colour, 
with a mixture of brown on the back. It is twice as- 
long as it is broad, and the head is fmall. The back-fin 
and the tail are brown, but the rcil are of areddifh, 
brown. 'I hey are found chiefly in ponds and other 
ibnding waters, which they are more fond of than 

gravelly 



O F F I S H E S. 181 

gravelly ftreams. There is another fort of this fi{h 
which are a little longer and thicker than the former, 
andfeem to be of a middle nature between a CarafTe ar;d 
a Carp, for which reafon they are called the CA^iP- 
Carasse. Thefe and the former, are found in the 
greateft plenty in and near the river Elb in Germany^ 
n^he flefh is yellowifh and clammy. 

The TENCH weighs with us about five or fix 
pounds when full grown ; but in other countries they 
have been found to weigh twenty. It is a Ihort, thick, 
roundifh fifh, and is about three times as long as broad. 
The fnout is (hort and blunt, and the tail broad, but not 
forked. 1 he back is of a dark colour, the fides green, 
mixed with a {hining yellow, and the colours of the gills 
of a beautiful yellow. The tail as well as the fins of 
the belly, and back are blackifh. and the fcales are 
fmall, thin, and covered with a fort of flime which 
renders it very ftippery. The Ikin is thick, and there 
is a barb at each corner of the mouth as in a Carp ; but 
it does not appear unlefs laid hold of with the fingers. 
The eyes are fmall, round, and a little prominent j and 
their iris is red. There are two noflrils that look like 
fmall ears ; and the palate is fleiliy like that of a Carp. 
The teeth are in the threat. The fwimming-bladder is 
divided in;o two lobes. 

A Tench according to Artedi, has a fmall head and 
fnout in proportion to the f5ze of the body ; for this is 
broad, thick, and (hort : T he opening of the mouth 
will admit one's little finger, and the jaws are without 
teeth ; but in the throat there are five on each fide. 
The covers of the gills confiil of four plates and three 
crooked fpines ; the lateral line is crooked, and nearer 
the belly than the back. There are fmall dufts or holes 
on the head over the Eyes ; that is, one row on each 
fide, that form a fort of a line ; and under the eyes there 
are tvio other lines or rows of holes, one of which is 
feated near the covers of the gills, and the other be- 
neath the lower jaw. The eyes are fmall, feated on 
the fides of the head, and the iris is red. The openings 
of the covers of the gills are not fo large as in other 
fifn of this kind ; there are four gills on each fide, each 
♦f which is furnilhed with a double row of knots mad^ 



i82 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

in thejhape of a comb ; and which are equal on each 
fide to the three inner gills ; but in the laft of tlie inner 
knots they are almoll: equal to each other, and the ex- 
ternal are longer than the internal on the upper part, 
though much 111 or ter at the lower; thefe are all foft. 
The back which is thick, rifes a little above the head, 
and the belly is broad and fiat throughout. The fcale* 
are oblong and fmall in comparifon of other fiih of the 
iame kind ; they adhere clofe to the fiiin, and are black 
upon the back, and biackiih on the fides, with a little 
mixture of a golden or greenifh yellow colour, but 
it is whiti(h under the belly. There is a fort of a flime 
all over this iiih that renders it as flippery as an Eel. 
All the hns as well as the tail, are black or blackifh, 
and fometimes of a dark grey colour. The fins on the 
lr_^all are biackiih, almoft round, and confift of feven- 
teen rays, of which the fixteenth is longeft, and the 
firft is fmgle and lirong ; but all the rell are branched at 
the end, and the laft is fmall. 1 he belly fins are alfo 
black and roundifli -at the edge, and they confift of 
eleven rays, of which the firft is fmall, the fecond 
lobuft and thick ; but all the reft are branched at the 
ends. There is a (ingle black fin on the back confifting 
of twelve rays, of which the firft is very ftiort, and the 
fecoad is fomewhat longer, and reaches to the middle 
of the reft. The third is fmgle as well as the two firft ; 
but the reft are branched at the ends. The fin at the 
vent is black, and confifts of eleven rays, of which the 
two firft are {mail ; but the third is pretty long and 
fingle li-e the two former ; and all the reft are branched 
at the ends. The tail is blackifh, fomewhat fquare, 
and confifts of nineteen rays that are hard to count, 
except the laft- Ihe liver is long, lies along the fide 
of the ftomach aud gut, and is divided into feveral lobes. 
The ftomach is thick and long, and the gut has a fingle 
fold at the diaphragm from whence it runs diredly to 
the vent. The fplcen is oblong, and of a dark ox 
blackifti red, and is feated on the left fide. The air- 
bladder is large and as fmull as a thread in the middle ; 
but the duit which is inferted in the beginning of the 
lower part is very plain ; the peritonaeum is whitifti or 
of a filver colour j the whole length of the fifh from 

whence 



O F F I S H E S. iS; 

whence this defcription was taken was nine Inches and a 
quarter. 

The Tench delights in {landing waters and ponds; 
and they are fometimes met with in the ftill parts of 
rivers, particularly in the Stoxier in Dorfetjhire, and the 
Tiber in Italy. The time of fpawning is the beginning 
of July, and they are in feafon from the beginning of 
Septetnber to the end of May. The flefh of this iifh 
was formerly thought unwholefome by phyficians ; but 
perhaps without much reafon ; indeed it is a little 
clammy like that of an Eel, and may probably want 
a little. fpice in the drefling ; but in general it is as much 
in elleemas moft other hfn. 

In the head of the Tench there are two fmall ftones 
that have an abforbent, detergent, and diuretic quality. 
The dofe is from twelve grains to twofcruples; and 
the powder is ufed to abforb acids in the llomach and 
inteftines, to flop loofenelTes, and to promote urine. 
Seme apply Tenches to the feet in fevers to caufe a 
revulfion from the brain. Some pretend that if a living 
Tench is applied outwardly to the region of the liver, 
and fuifered to continue there till it dies, it v/ill cure 
the jaundice ; and the fifh itfelf will become yellow on 
the fide that lay next the fein ; but this feems to be a 
fable. 

The RUDD or FINSCALE is broader than a Roach 
or even than aXI^arp, and thicker than a Bream. The 
colour is of a dulky yellow, and the fcales are of the 
fame fize as thofe of a Carp. The eyes are reddiih ; 
but the belly fins, and thofe near the vent, are of a 
more deep red. The covers of the gills are generally 
marked with blood- coloured fpots, and the holes of 
the nollrils are double on each fide. The teeth and 
palate are like thofe of a Carp, and the back fin is 
placed in the middle of the length of the back, having 
ten rays, of which the third is longeft, and the firft 
fhorter by one half than the fecond ; but it is not hook- 
ed as in the Carp, from which it may be dillinguiihed 
by this mark oniy. The fin at the gills on both fides 
has nineteen rays, of which the firft is larger than in 
other fifii of this kind, and there are two on the belly ; 
but that pair over-againit the back fin has nine on each 

fide. 



1^4 THE NATURAL HrSTORY 

fide. The gill-fins are whiter than the reft, and that 
OH the back is darker. The vent is placed about a 
third part of the length from the tail, to which there 
joins a fin containing nineteen Rays, and the tail is 
forked. The pointed lines on the fides are ben^in two 
places ; and this fifh is generally from twelve to fixteen 
inches long. It is common in the river Rhine in Ger- 
manyy and it is found in the lakes of Holdernefs in York- 
Jhire ; as alfo in the lakes not far from Lincoln, befides 
the river ChernvelliVi Oxforc/Jhire. 

The flefliof this fifh is in great efteem and is always 
in feafon, except in the time of fpawning which is in 
Jprily and then it is not very good. 1 hey fwim in 
fhoals, calling their fpawn among the weeds that grow 
in the waters ; and the largeft weigh about two pounds. 

The VROW FISH, fo called at Ratijlon m Germany^ 
has a litde longer body than the Rudd, and the back is 
of a brown colour, but the belly is yellowifh. The 
belly and the vent fins are a little reddifli, and the refl: 
arc brown. The fcales are large and of a filver colour, 
and the iris of the Eyes are marked in the lower part 
with a blood coloured fpot. The gut has three folds, 
by which it may readily be diliinguiihed from the 
Rudd. 

The NOSE FISH or BROAD SNOUT, is a foot in 
length, and of the colour and Ihape of a Dace. The 
belly and fides are of a filver colour, but the fins on the 
lower part of the body, and the part below near the 
tail are fometimes a little reddifh. There is a blackifli 
fpot on the hinder part of the head, which kft is fmall ; 
and the belly is flat and broad, with ampl^ fcales. Th? 
lateral lines are nearer to the belly than the back, and 
the fnout wh ch is flat and blunt, is a little more pro- 
minent than the mouth, by which ic may be dilliaguifh- 
ed from all other filli of this kind, and from whence it 
has the name of Ncf^ Fifh. '\h.2 mouth is fmall with- 
out teeth, and the fkull is tranfparent. The iris of the 
eyes is between a filver and gold colour, and there are 
very fmall caruncles on the gilh: that are pectinated. 
The back fins, with regard to their fituation and rays, 
are like thofe of a Bream. The air-bladder is divided 



O F F I S H E S. 185 

into two lobes ; and the flefli is white, foft, and infipid ; 
as alfo full of bones. 

The CHUB or CHEVIN, has a longer body than a 
Carp, and a large blackifh head. The back is of a 
dark green, and the belly and fides of a filver colour; 
however thofe that are fat and fall grown have them of 
a gold colour, fprinkled with fmali black fpecks. The 
temples are yellowifh, and the fcales as in a Carp, large 
and angular. The mouth is not large, is without teeth, 
and the upper jaw is a little longer than the lower. 
The palate is fofc and furnillied with a triangular bone ; 
and the noilrils are large, open, and have each a double 
hole, one of which is every now and then covered with 
a valve. The eyes are of a middle fize with an iris, 
which is a mixture of gold and filver colours. The 
tail is forked, and all the £ns are of a blackifh blue, 
though in fome there is a tiniflure of red. 1 he belly is 
broadiOi, and the hitcral lines ran parallel to the bottom 
of the belly. 

The Itomach is long, and the gut has only one fold; 
and the liver and fvvimming-bladder, are both divided 
into two lobes. It is bred in river*;, and delights to 
lie in holes, and under the Humps of trees, in a clayey 
or fandy bottom. Some of thele have been met wiih 
that have weighed eight or nine pounds. They fpai\'n 
in A.^iil in fandy and gravelly places, and in the very 
midil of the itream. They are moil in feafon in the 
fpring, when they are full of fpawn. The flelh is white, 
foft, and infipid, and confequently is not much efleemed. 
"i he BLUE CHUB of G^vfr is of a broad comprefied 
fhape; and the head alfo is broad, and flat from the 
mouth to the hinder part ; but from thence the back 
begins to rife ; that is, this fifh is hog-bad<ed. The 
mouth is much wider than that of the common Chub, 
and turns a litde upwards. The Tail is forked, and 
the back is of a brownifh blue ; but the fides are of a 
lilver colour, and the belly is yellowifh. The belly- 
fins are a liitle reddifh, and the ikull of a paleifli brown, 
and tranfpaient. The gills are compofed of a double. 
row of prickles, of which the former are more hard 
and bony than in other fifhes, and they terminate in 
tubercles. There are no teeth in the jaws ; but in the 

bottoui 



i86 THENATURAL HISTORY 

bottom of the mouth near the orifice of the iloraach 
there are toothed bones as in the reft of this kind. It 
differs chiefly from the common Chub in the mouth 
and head. 

The GREEDY RIVER CHUB of GeiTier, is a- white 
fifh, or rather of a fhining fJver colour ; only the back 
is dark and a litde bluilh. The fcales are pretty broad, 
thin, and tranfparent ; and the filh is long, thick, and 
flefhy : but the flefh is full of bones, i'here are no 
teeth in the mouth, but in the throat there are fome 
that are longifh, being feven in number on each fide. 
The largeft weigh about {ik or feven pounds. 

The CHUB of passage is known at Napin by the 
name of Zerba as well as in Folind. It is a long 
fi(h of a filver colour, and covered with fmall fcales ; 
but the back i^ brown, and the fins near the giils, as 
•well as thofe below them, are Ihining, and mixed with 
.a little blue. On each fide of the body there is a line 
to the tail, which is marked with fmaJl brown fpecks ; 
the head is pretty thick, the eyes large, white, and 
handlome, with large nollrils. The fore part of the 
mouth is foft and void of teeth, or any other hardnefs; 
but near the throat there are fix long teeth. The largeft 
of thefe fifti are caught in the Tuj'can fea, and weigh 
about two founds. Every year this fifti leaves the 
ocean and enters the river El^e about IVkitfuntide when 
it cafts its fpawn. This is the time they are moft in 
feafon, becaufe the females are full of fpawn. It feeds 
on all kinds of fmall fiih, cfpecially thofe without 
prickles, as well as flies and other ittfefts, which it 
catches in or on tha furface of the wateV. It is one of 
the beft filh in the Elbe, whether boiled or broiled. 

1 he POND CHUB is in the Ihape of a Bleak, but 
is a litde longer, ha a fharper fnout, larger eyes, and 
a higher back and redd ifli fins. 1 he fcales are larger 
than in a Bleak ; and the head and back are of a 
greenifti colour. The flefli is hard, infipid, and in no 
manner of efteem. This fcrcms lo be a fort of a BULL- 
HEAD. 

The BARBEL is about a cubit in length, and the 
back is of an olive colour, but a little paliih, and the 
belly is that of filver. The back and fides are fprinkled 

with 



OF FISHES. 187 

with black fpots, and the fhape of the body is long and 
roundifh, but the back is fharp, and arched. Thefcales 
are of a middle fize, and the lateral lines run through 
the middle of the fides. The belly is fo flat that when 
this fifh lies with its mouth downward it touches the 
earth; which circumilance is perhaps common to all 
fifh that keep at the bottom of the water. The fnout 
is a little Iharp, and the mouth is not large, being with- 
out teeth, as the reft of this kind. The upper jaw is 
longer than the lower, and there are four barbs, of 
which two are at the corners of the mouth, and the other 
two are higher near the end of the fnout. The tail is 
forked, the eyes fmall, looking downwards, and their 
iris is either of a filver or gold colour, fpotted with 
brovvn. In the fiimmer time their bellies are red. 

The weight of this fifh is commonly about feven or 
eight pounds, and yet there was one caught at Stains 
that weighed twenty- three pounds. The fleih is foft 
and flabby, and in no great efteem ; and the fpawn is 
unwholefome, purging both upwards and downwards. 
The Milter is much better than the Spawner, and they 
are both in feafon in September. 

The DACE of Rondektius, called by the French a 
Gardon^ differs from a Chub in having a fmaller head, 
a broader body, a blue back, a green neck, and yel- 
lowifh eyes ; it is a brilk lively fifh. Belonius affirms, 
this fifh is more hog- backed, and has a body more com- 
preffed than a Chub, with a blacker back, that has a 
gold-coloured glofs, and reddifh fins ; that the fcales are 
larger, and that the make of the head is more like a 
Dace than a Chub. Hence it is plain that Belo7i'M3 
miftook a Roach for this fifh \ and yet Gefner makes a 
diftindion between them. 

The DACE or DARE, is like a Chub, though it is 
lefs, and a little whiter; the head alfo is lefs and not fo 
flat; and the tail -s more forked. Befides, the body is 
more flender and comprefTed, and the fcales are lefs. 
The colour is generally white, and there are a fort of 
flrait flreaks between the fcales. The iris of the eyes 
is not fo yellow ; nor are the tail, and back f:ns fo 
black, though they are fometimes fprinkled with black 
fpois. 'I'he teeth are not placed in the jaws but in the 

throat/ 



its THE NATURAL HISTORY 

throat, as in other fiih of this kind. The french give 
it the name of Dard, which figniiies a dart, from whence 
the Englijh Dare is derived. It is a very brifk and 
lively filh, and feems to dart along the v/ater it fwims 
fo fvvifdy. The Dare fpawns in February and March, 
and is fit to eat about two months after ; tut they are in 
the higheil feafon in September. The fle(h is fvveet, 
foft, and yields good nourifhment; hut is in no great 
elleem. They delight in gravelly and fandy bottoms, 
and in the deepell part of the ri\ er under the Ihade of 
trees. 

The ROACH is lefs than a Bream, and about one 
third as broad as long. The back is of a du&y colour, 
and fometimes bluiui y but the belly is pale. The iris 
of the eyes aswtli as tail and fins are red. The lateral 
lines run parallel to the belly, and the tail is forked. 
About the giils it is of a gold colour, and the mouth 
is round but void of teeth, it being a leather-mouthed 
fiili. Jt v/ill b.^eed in ponds as well as rivers; and 
though the pond Roach is larjeil, that of the rivers h 
the belK They fpawn about the middle of Maj, and 
jccover their iirength in about a month's time. 

The BLEAK, or BLEY, is a very fmall fifh, feldom 
being above fix inches long. J he body is broadifh ; 
the head little, the fcales thin and of a fiiver colour, 
eafily coming off. The back is of a bluilh brown or 
greenifh, and the eyes are large, marked on the lower 
fide with a blood coloured fpoc. The Ikull is tranfparent, 
and the infide of the mouth is like that of a Carp, 
'1 hey fpawn in March, and are moil in feafon in the 
Autumn. The flefh is fvveet, nourifhing, and pleafant, 
and it would be in high elleem if the fifh was larger. 
Charleton fays, there are two forts of Englijh Bleaks, 
one of which has the back of a chefnut- colour, and the 
other blue. 

Buy/ch fpeaks of four forts of Bleaks that are met 
with at Amboynay which are not of the colour of the 
Eurofeun. 'i he firft is of a reddilh colour, marbled 
with black fpots. The fecond is blue, but darker on 
rhe back and brighter on the fides ; the blue of the third 
is vaiiegated with yellow fpois, and the fourth is of a 
y.-liow colour with iilvery fpots, befides a broad ilreak 

of 



G F F I S H E S. igg 

of feveral colours, which begins at the eyes and runs 
round the head. 

The Tcales of the common Bleak are ufed to imitate 
pearls in the following manner. They take oft the 
fcales, put them into a bafon with a little water, and 
then rub them againft the bottom in the manner of 
grinding colours. This done they pour off the filver- 
coloured water into a glafs, leaving the fcales at the 
bottom ; and then they repeat the operation till nothing 
corhes off; putting the water into other glafTes. Then 
they let it fettle for ten or twelve hours, when the 
fiivery matter wiil fmk to the bottom, pouring off the 
water by inclination. That which is left behind is of 
a confidence of oil, and of the colour of pearls. Then 
they mix it with ifing-^lafs or fiHi-glew, and with this 
they varnifh any fort of lubftance of the fize of beads, 
particularly wax, alabailer, and glafs, and then they 
will have the exa6l appearance of pearls. But as thefe 
are not proof againft moifture, they have a method of 
lining the infide of glafs beads, therewith, blowing a 
little of the liquor into the infide with a fmall pipe. 
Then they fhake it about till it fixes itfelf all over the 
internal furface. It has a fmall bluilh caft, which 
caufes thefe beads the more to refemble pearls. After 
they have done this they throw them into a baH^et and 
fhake them together fo long that they become quite 
dry ; and then to render them more folid they fill them 
with wax. This is the method of making the true 
French necklaces, and there are great numbers employed 
in Pans for this purpofe. 

The GUDGEON is five or fix inches long, with a 
round body, fmall fcales, a brown back, and a whitifh 
belly. It is fprinkled with about nine or ten pretty 
large blackifh fpots which are placed in a right line, 
direflly running from the head to the tail on each fide. 
There are alfo ethers that are fmall on the back, tail, 
and fins, and at each corner of the mouth there is a 
barber thread. They are to be met with in rivers 
almoft every where ; but they grow to a larger fize in 
fome than others, for in that near Uxbr:(ige there were 
four taken that weighed a pound. The fiefh is in high 
cfleem, and fbme think it not much inferior to a Smelt. 

2 They 



I90 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

They delight in fandy gravelly bottoms, gentle ftreams, 
and fmall rivers. In fammer-time they refort to the 
fhallows, but in the winter to the deepeft places. 

The LESSER GUDGEON, called by the Germans 
aWAppER, is lefs than a common Gudgeon, and is 
not fo much fpotted ; befides the colour is whiter and 
the hinder part is fmaller, by which it may be known 
from common Gudgeons, for in that part it is not fo 
broad by one half. The back like wife is paler, the 
ihout longer and more fharp, and the eyes lefs. 

The LOACH or GROUNDLING, is like a Gud- 
geon in Ihape and colour ; but it is much lefs and Ihorter, 
feldom weighing above four ounces. The body is 
foft and flippery, and the tail broad but not forked ; 
and there are few or no fcales. The head, back, fins, 
and tail are fprinkled with blackifh fpots, and fometimes 
with a dirty yellow. On the upper jaw there are three 
pair of barbs, one at the corners of the mouth, and 
two near the end of the fnout. The eyes are fmall and 
have their iris yellow. The flefh is tender and delicate, 
and is by many fvvallowed alive, being thought good 
for a Confumption. They fpawn in the beginning of 
j^pri/ among the weeds ; however they are never out of 
feafon. They are generally found in fmall, fwift, clear 
brooks, and lie under Hones, pieces of wood, and the 
like. 

The BEARDED LOACH diifers from the former, 
in having a broader body and head, which laft is more 
fo than the reft of the body. Befides they have only 
two pair of barbs, and there are two hooked prickles 
on each fide between the eyes and the mouth. There 
is another kind of Bearded Loach that has fix barbs on 
the upper jaw and four on the lower. The River 
Loach of Rondsleiiusy is about the length of a man's 
finger, and has a pretty prominent fnout. The body 
is roundiih and flcfhy, the colour being yellovvilh, fpotted 
with black. The flefh is moift and clammy. 

The HORNED TAPE FISH of Schone-oeldis a palm 
in length, and the body is flat and tranfparent, being 
almoft of the fame breadth from the head to the tail ; 
however it is eight times longer than it is broad. The 
back and head are blackilh, and there is a ftrait dun 

Jlripe 



$i 



O F F I S H E $. 191 

ftripe which runs from the gills direftly to the tail, 
under which there are fixteen diilinft black fpots, and 
from thence the belly is of a dull whitilh colour. 
The mouth is fmall, and the upper jaw is longer than 
the lower, which fhutsinto it as into a box. The eyes 
are little, and under the forepart of each there is a 
white prickle with two lliarp points; but the foremoft 
is (horteft. 

The SCALY PINK has a thick blackifh head in pro- 
portion to its fize, and the iris of the eyes is of a 
fafFron- colour, which is alfo feen at the beginning of all 
the fins. ■ At the joint of the ,gill-iins there is a fort of 
a caruncle, which in fome is of a faffi on-colour, and in 
others red. The fcales are whitifh, and there is a 
brown line runs obliquely from the head to the tail. 
At the beginning of the tail there is a black fpot, and 
others that are lefs at the beginning of the fins on each 
fide. It is found only in running waters. 

The PINK or MINNOW, is a great deal lefs than 
a Gudgeon, having a roundifh body only three inches 
long with fcales that are hardly vifible, and there are 
^no barbs. On each fide there is a gold-coloured line 
which runs from the head to the tail ; and below that it 
is mottled with fcarlet in fome, in others white, and 
in others again with a Ihining blue. Laftly,- in fome 
there are three lines two being of a gold colour, and 
that in the middle blue. It is to be met with in ftony 
and fandy brooks where the ftream is fwift. 

The BOUVIR, fo called in France, is a native of 
the river Seiney and is near four inches long and an inch 
atid a half broad. It is of a filver-colour, and has large 
fcales, but in other things it refembles tie diminutive 
iifh. The mouth is without teeth, and the tail is forked. 
It generally hides itfelf in the mud, and is always dirty 
w^en it is Ccaught. 

The PiQUniNGA of the Brafviam.i^ a little above 
two inches long, and is fhaped like the Parabucu, from 
which it does not greatly differ. Jt has a little mouth, 
which however it can open very wide, and the Eyes are 
pretty large with a filver iris. The tail is forked, and 
the fins as well in number as fhape, referable others 
of this kind. It is of a ihining filver-colour on the 

head. 



192 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

head, and the fcales on the body are white, only the 
back is of a Ihining olive. On each there is a itrait 
broad filver-coloured ihining line, that runs from the 
head to the tail. 

The GUARAGUARU of Marcgra^ve, is never 
above an inch and a half long, and has an oblong 
flender body, like the leaft Pink. The head is com- 
prefled, and there is one fin placed on the hinder half 
of the back ; but there is none behind the vent. The 
tail is roundilh at the end, and the upper part of the 
head and forward part of the back are of a brown 
colour, with fmall fcales of that of Umber. The lower 
part of the head and belly are of a ihining gold colour, 
and the fins are yellow. On each fide rear the tail 
there is a black fpot ; and it is caught in the Lakes, 
and Ponds of South America . 

The PIABA of the Brafilians, is of the fiz« of our 
Pink, being fometimes above three inches long. It is 
a fcaly fifh, and the iris of the eyes is of a gold colour. 
It is variegated with gold, filver, green, and indigo, 
on the back, fides, and belly ; and behind each fin 
there is a round black fpot of the colour of indigo; and 
immediately behind this there is another of the fame 
colour in the Ihape of a half moon. 

CHAP. xxr. 

Of hony or fphoiis Fijh, nu'ith one fin on the back, nvho/e 
fjrn.vard rays ure fiiff and thorny ^ and the hindtr foft 
and fiexihU. 

THE CUGUPU GUACU of the Brafilians, 
is called Mercs by the Portvguefe. Jt is a very 
large fifh, being fomet:mes fix feet in length, four and 
eight in circumference, and half a yard high. The 
head and njouth are large ; which laft when opened is 
without teeth, and the eyes are of a middle fize with a 
yellow iris. The tail-fin is almoll fquare, and the fcales 
are fmall. The whole head, back, and fides, are of 

aa 



fa^^/pj 




O F F I S H E S. 195 

an a(h-colour mixed with umber ; but towards the back 
it is a little deeper. The belly is whitiih, and all the 
fins with the tail are of a light brown. The whole 
head, back and fides, are fprinkled very fine with 
fmall black fpecks ; but the belly and the reft of the 
fins have none. 

The PIRATIAPUA oiMarcgrave, is of a great bulk, 
and the under jaw is a little longer than the upper. 
All the teeth in the lower jaw are Iharp, but in the 
upper only in the middle, which are longer, and like 
the middlemoft in the lower. The mouth when opened 
is like a round hole; and the Eyes are not large in pro- 
portion to the fize of the body. The Ihape is oblong, 
and the back is a little crooked towards the head. The 
backward part of the body becomes a little fquarifh ; 
and it is covered with fuch fmall fcales, that they feem 
foft to the touch. It is all over of a golden liver 
colour, which however is darker on the back and ths 
top of the head ; but befides this colour there are aih- 
coloured lines running all over the body like a net. 
The fins are all of the fame colour as the body, and 
the flefh is thought to be very good when young ; but 
when it weighs two hundred pounds or upwards it is of 
little value. 

The STONE BREAAl of Nieuhof, is a large fifh, 
being fbmetimes four feet in length. It is fhaped like 
a River Bream, though much bigger, and the eyes are 
large. The fnout is of a light reddiih colour, as well 
as the backward fins and the tail. Jt is a fea-filli, and 
the flefh when it is cutting contrads itfelf, whence by 
fome it is called the Cramper. The flefh is firm and 
pretty well tafted ; however for want of a more com- 
pleat defcription, it is hard to fay whether this fiih is 
rightly clafled or not. 

The DUNG FISH is fo called, becaufe it delights 
to be near privies where it feeks for food, and wheieit 
is generally taken. For this reafon fome will not 
meddle with it though it is well-tafted either fried or 
broiled. It i^ a broad, flat fifh, hardly a fpan in length, 
and about the fame breadth, with a blueifh belly, and 
SI body variegated with dufky fpots. According to the 
Vol. III. K figure, 



194 THE NATURAL HISTORY 
figure, the forward rays of thu back fin are fpiny, and 
the backward foft. 

The SCARUS of Rondeletius, is of two kinds, the 
Onias and Varius. The Onias has large thin fcale?, 
and is of blackifli blue colour, with a white belly. The 
fliape of the body is roundiih, with a black fpot on 
t\\Q tail. The teeth are broad, like the foreteeth in 
]^4en, and in the jaws there are bony tubercles. The 
tail is broad not divided into horns, and the eyes arc 
large, and the eye-brows of the colour of indigo, 
K'Jr. Ray faw a fifh at Venice which the fifliermen called 
Or ADA Vecchia, that is, the Golden Old Wife, 
which agrees in defcription with this of Rondeletius. 
The Varius feems to be a kind of Old Wife, having a 
tail of the coloiur of indigo, and the reil of the body 
partly green and partly of a bluifh black. The fcales 
are fprinkled with dufky marks, and the mouth is of a 
middle fize, with broad teeth, which are thick in the 
upper jaw, but in the lower, few and iharp. From 
the back almoll to the tail there are fharp prickles, 
cbnneded together with a membrane, and placed at 
equal diilances ; on the tops of each of which there is 
a fmall membrane hangs like a flag. On the middle of 
the belly there are two purple m irks, and the vent is of 
the fame colour. 

The SCARUS of Belcnhts^ is probably the fame as 
that of the ancients, and has a body of a reddilh livid 
colour like a Gurnard, but not fo florid. The fcales 
are broad and tranfparent, and the fins blunt. It has 
appendages on both fides the tail, which are placed 
t^anfverfly, and have not been remarked in any other 
fifh. The teeth are blunt, and like the fore-teeth in 
Men ; and there is only one fin on the back full of 
fmall prickles. The body of this Scaru- is no bigger 
than what may be grafped by the thumb and fore finger, 
and it is feldom abiove a fpanin length. 

The SCARUS of the ille of Candia is thirteen inches 
long, with a forked tail, and the head and fides behind 
the gills arc of a diifky green colour, but the other 
parta are of a grceuifli yellow. Each jaw is divided 
into two bones much .in t^ie fame manner as in feme filh 
i'. . * ': 'of 



O F F I S H E S. 195 

©f the Crb kind ; and in the upper jaw there are five* 
fliarp teeth ; but the teeth of the lower jaw are dentated 
not unlike a faw. The fcales are large for the iize of 
the fiih, and one row divides the middle of the fides 
like embofled foliaceous carved work. 

The SPARO of therf«£//««j, is broader in propor- 
tion to tlie fize than the Orada, and the end of the tail 
is rounder than in that fi(h ; befide-, it differs from it 
in not having a black fpot on the tail, and in being of a 
more pale and yellovvifh green colour. It alfo wants 
the blackifli purple fpots at the gills, and the fore teeth 
are broad. It is likewife lefs than the Orada. It is 
caught in the Adriatkk gulph, and other parts of the 
fea near it. 

The SARGO, fo called by the Italians, has a fharper 
fnout than either the Orada or the Sp^ro, and it is a 
little turned upwards. The fore-teeth are like thofe of 
the Sparo ; but it differs from both in not having tu- 
bercles in the jaws, and in the back, and fides being 
ftiiped with brown, as in a Perch, it is fhorter and 
broader in proportion to the fize than an Orada, and it 
is rounder en the circumference, belides it wants the 
golden-coloured half moon between the eyes, which is 
proper to un Orada. This fidi is often to be met with 
at G 6710 a and Rome, 

The CANTHARUS of Rondektius, is much of the 
fame Ihapeas the two former; but it differs from them 
and the reft of their kind, in being of a darker and 
blacker colour, in having much lefs fcales. Th wanting 
the black ring near the tail, and in having round fharp 
teeth as in the Orada. Befides there are no bony tu- 
bercles in the jaws ; but in their Head there are certain 
roughneffes. However, it differs principally from the 
former, in having yellow lines running almoft parallel 
from the head to the tail. In the flrait gut there are 
alway purple excrements. This fifh is not uncommon 
at Genoa and Rojne. 

The ACCHIATA, fo called at Rome, differs from 
the former in having the body of an oblong Ihape, and 
a forked tail. The length is about a palm or a palm 
and a half, and the weight near a pound. It is caught 
in the feas UQar Leghorn^ Rome, Q.nd Najiks, ' 

K 2 Thf 



196 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The GIi;r HEAD or GILT POLL, is a broad fiffi 
comprefled on the fides not much unlike a Bream. It 
feJdom grows to be above two ipans in length, nor 
v-eighs more than eight pounds. The fcales are of a 
middle fizc, and the back is blackifh ; and at the upper 
corner of the cover of the Gills there is generally a black 
fpot, and below them not feldom another that is 
purple. Between the eyes there is an arched ftripe 
Ibmewhat like a half moon of a gold colour, from 
whence it takes it name. The convex part turns to- 
wards the fnout, and the horns lowards the eyes. The 
teeth in each jaw are oblong and roundifh, and the back 
5s (harp and furrowed, the tail is forked, and the flefli 
J3 greatly efteemed for its fine talle and vvholefomenefs. 
It IS often feen in the fi(h markets of Genoa, Venice, and 
^07ne ; and is ibmetimes taken near the coalls of 
Tngland. 

The SEA BREAM is bigger than an Orada, though 
it is like it in ihape, and weighs fomething more. The 
flefh is very good and agreeable to the palate, and is 
thouoht to be eafy of digeftio.^, and very whokfoine. 
Jt is about f.venty-fix inches in length and ten in 
breadth, though it is very fmall towards the tail, whofe 
fin is long and forked. I'he back is black, the fides 
are of a lighter colour, and the belly is v/hite. The 
lower jaw has two rows of teeth \ but the upper only 
one. The eyes are large, and for colour and fhape 
refemble thofe of Quadrupcdes. The covers of the 
eilis are like thofe of a Salmon, and the back fin runs 
along the whole length of the back. 

The PARGIE differs from the European Sea Bream 
in little elfe befides the fliape of the forepart of the 
body, which is almoft circular, and of a greyiih colour 
with llreaked yellow lines, that reach from the head to 

the tail. , . „ , . r 

The STONE BASS is ta' en in all the rivers of 
Jamauay as well as in the fea. It is all over of a filver 
colour, and though they are very common, they are 
accounted delicate eating. Our filhermen call the Sea 
WolfaBafs; but the figure ofitfhews that it neither 
2*>ree5 with that nor a Sea Breara. 



O F F I S H E S. 197 

The ALBORA, fo called by the Venetians, diiFers 
from the Orada, in being lefs, it being all over of a 
light red colour ; in having a fharp faout, with very 
large eyes, v/hofe iris is of a iilver colour, tin6lured a 
Jittle with red. The covers of the gills, as in all other 
fifh of this kind, are fcaly. 

The DEN TALE, fo named hy i\\t Italians, is not 
much unlike a Sea Bream, though it is thicker and 
longer, in proportion to the fize. The head is depref- 
fed, the fnout oblong, and the back (harp, being of 
a dirty green, or yellowifh colour, and fometimes pur- 
plllh, in thofe that are large, fprinkled with brght 
blue and black fpots, as well as on the fides. 1 here is 
a row of teeth in each jaw, of which four are more con- 
fpicuous than the reft, and are like dog-teeth ; fiom 
whence this fiOi has its name, for iiens figniiies a tooth. 
The eyes are large, with a golden iris, and is a com- 
mon filh at Venice and Rome They commonly weigh 
three or four pounds, though f:)me have been i^t^a. that 
weigh ten. 

The HEPATUS of Rondcleiius and Gc/ner, \ like a 
Sea Bream, but the eyes are larger in proportion to tlie 
body. The colour is dark, or of a blueifli black, with 
a black fpot on the tail. Ho.vever, this fifh wants 
more charafterifticks to determine its fpecies. 

The ORPHEUS of the ancients, is a fea fifh that is 
ufually found near the fea fhore, and is fomewhat like 
a Sea Bream. It is of a reddilh purple colour, witii 
large eyes, ferrated teeth, and a fmall vent which can 
hardly be feen, unlefs the belly be compreiled. 

The ORPHEUS oi Belonius, fo called by the modera 
Greeks, is rather flat than round, and broader than 
long The mouth is little, the teeth are broad, and 
the lips fleihy. The fcales are rough, adhering clofcly 
to the body, and all the fins are of divers colours. The 
tail is fmall and crooked, and the fide and belly fins are 
blunt. The back is blackifh, and the belly inclining 
to white, but the head is pretty much of a red colour; 
Rondeletius affirms, that this fifh weighs near twenty 
pounds. 

The GUAIBI COARA, fo called by i\it Braftliam, 

and BUR AGO de UELHA by ih^ Rcrtugueje, has a- 

K 3 'broadifii 



198 THE NATURAL fllSTORY 

brop.difli bcdy with a high back and an arched head. It 
is twelve or fourteen inches long, and four broad, and 
in each jaw there is a row of very fmall teeth. The 
lower part of the mou:h, as well as the tongue, is of a 
blood colour; and the eyes are large, with a golden cO' 
loured iris mixed wirh brown. The fins are like the 
reft of this kind, but the tail is divided into two horns. 
The fcaies are of a middle fize, and of a filver colour, 
with edges of that of oker j but the back part of the 
head and back are more blueilh. It is taken in the fea 
among the rocks, and is a well tafted fifh. 

The SEA BARBEL is of afiiver colour, but whitell 
on the back, and the body is oblong, with ten trani^ 
verle blackifli lines on each fide. The tail is forked, 
the head longiHi, a;id the iris of the eyes is of a gold 
colour. The lips are thick, prominent, and rough, 
it having no teeth, except in the bottom of the mouth,, 
where there are grinders. The barbs are joined by a 
thin membrane to the lower jaw, and the fcaies ftick 
clofely to the fkin. The flefh is well tafted. 

The MORMYRAS cf Ronde!etius, is in fhape like 
the Dentale, being narrower than the Orada, and 
longer than the iVIsenas, with a fliarp arched back, 
and a long fnarp fnout. Ihe back and fides are of a 
blueiOi green, and the tranfverfe parallel ftripes are" 
blackifh, being eleven or twelve in number, and are, 
placed through the whole length of the back and fides.^ 
The mouth is large, the lips thick, and th^re are teeth 
at the corner of the jaws, which are Iharp and fmall ; 
but on the in fide of the mouth there are only bony tu- 
bercles. The eyes are of a middle fize, v/ith a gold 
coloured iris Ihadcd with brown. The tail is forked ; 
and thi fifh never exceeds a foot in length. It is taken 
in ihc Med tcri aneanitZf near the QO^^oi Italy. 

The SAi.PA is longer and thicker, for its bignefs, 
than the Orada j but its back is not fo crooked. Jt 
is about a foot in length, and weighs about a pound, 
and there are ten or eleven golden lines which run from 
the head towards the tail, rendering the fides very beau- 
tiful, i he mouth ii exceeding fmall, and contain^ 
only one row of teeth in the upper jaw, which have 
double points. The eyes are of a middle fize, with a 

golden 



OF FISHES. 199 

golden iris, and the fcales are large. The tail is forked, 
and the guts are like thofe of quadrupedes, being ex- 
ceeding long, and connected to a mefentery. The 
llomach of one, when opened, was found full of fea 
wreck, wlience it appears that this fiih feeds upon 
weeds. Though this fifh is beautiful to look at, the 
flelh is not very good ; therefore it is only eaten by the 
common people. It is frequent in the Mediterranean 
fea. 

The BOG A, fo called by the Italians, is about a 
fpan in length, and of a flender roundiih make. 1 he 
fcales are pretty large, and the back of a yellowilli olive 
colour. The lateral lines are dark and broad, and be- , 
neath them, on each fide, there are four golden parallel 
lines, with a mixture of filver colour, that run from the 
head tQ the tail. The eyes are large, for which reafon 
it is called by fome BOOPS, thatis^OX-iiYE, and they 
have a filver coloured iris. The mouth is of a middle 
fize, furniihed v/ith fmall teeth ; and the guts are long, 
connefted to a mefentery. It is common in the fea near 
the coaft of I'aly. There is another kind of Ox-eye, 
with a (harper fnout than the former, and the back of a 
blueifn red colour ; as alfo a reddifh tail. The iris of 
the eyes is of a greenifli red, and the body is broader 
and Ihorter than the former. There is an uncommoa 
fort of Ox-eye, a palm in length, and without fcales. 
The mouth is little, and the eyes very large in propor- 
tion to the body. On the lower part of the body theic? 
is a fin that runs to the tail, which lall is broad and 
thick. 

The M.^NAS, is In Ihape like a Pearch, but broader 
and more comprefied, and fix inches in length. The 
colour is of a light gr^en or yellowifli, and there are 
darkifh iranfverfe fpaces, and blueilh lines that run ac- 
cording to the length of the body, with a large black 
fpot on each fide. The tail is a little forked, and thc! 
eyes are lefs than thofe of the Ox-eye, v/i:h a filver 
coloured irjs. The mouth appears i'mall v/hen fhut, 
but when open it is very wide ; for the upper lip ex- 
pands itfelf like a tube, which is contrafted again v/hen 
the mouth is fhut; for the upper part has a fort of a 
prop, which is received into a kind of flieath made in 
K 4 tli« 



ioo THE NATURAL HISTORY 

the upper jaw, which mark is peculiar to this fiili. It 
is caught in the Meduert aneun fea. 

The SMARIS, is like a Mienas, but lefs, being only 
of the fize of a man's linger; and the boclv is rounder, 
more /lender and long, in proportion to it: bigncfs, than 
that of the Ma:nas. It is nearly of the fhapeof an Ox- 
eye, but is of a darker colour, an4 it wants the trauA 
\erfe rings, tliough it has the black fpot on each nde, 
about the center of gravity. The gill fins, and the 
end of the tail, are of a light red ; this lalt is forked. 

CHAP. XXII. 
Of Tip of the Wrajfe, or Old-Wife kind. 

THE COMMON WRASSE or OLD- WIFE, is near- 
ly of the fhapeofa river tench, and nine inches 
in length, but it has larger fcales. The colour is mot- 
tied with red, yellowifii, and brown lines placed alter- 
nately, and running from the head to the tail, being 
live or fix in number. The fnout is oblong and turns 
upwards ; and the lips are thick, flefiiy, landing out 
beyond the jaws ; but the mouth is fmall. The teeth in 
the jaws are ferrated, but not very (harp ; and the fins 
are mottled v/ith red, blue, and yellow. The tail when 
expanded is roundifh, and it is called in Latin Turdus, 
which figr.ifies a Thrush, becaufe it refemblcs one in 
its fpots and colours ; and indeed there is no fort of fifh 
we knfcw of, v/hich has fo gre.it a variety. It is to be 
met with in the Britijh and Iri//j ieas, and is more 
delightful to the eye, than pleafant to the tafte. 

The LEsstR GREEN WRASSE, is green overall the 
body, as well above as below ; but fomc of them have 
blueifh fpoti about the belly, and the body is more 
broad and thick than that of others of this kind. The 
fins are a litile fpotted, and has a purple tubejcle n^ ar 
the vent. The Black V^'raffe, is fo called from its black 
or dun colour, inclining to blue. The Leprous Wr«fie 



O F F I S H E S. 20I 

of Belofiius, does not differ from the former, except in 
the variety of colours. 

The PAINTED WRASSE, is ofa middle fize, between 
the longer and broader fifh of this kind, and weighs aboit 
three pounds. The variegated WrafTe is like the forme ^ 
and the greater Green Wrafle has an oblong body, 
which is in ihape not unlike a Pike. The lower part of 
the body is of a lighter colour, and fprinkled with yel- 
lowifh and afh-coloured fpots. The oblong brown 
fpotted Wrafle, differs little from the former, except in 
the colours- Ronaeletius makes twelve kind of Wraffes, 
which difier from each o:her very little, except in the 
colours, and therefore need not be particularly men- 
tioned. 

The ALPHESTES o^iRondcktius, is a fea ffh with a 
purple back, and tJie other parts yellow. The body is 
not lb broad as that of the Orada, and it is much of the 
fhape of a Mannas, though the body is larger and' 
thicker, and fomedmetimes a foot in length. 1 he mouth 
is of a middle fize, and from the neck to the tail ther« 
are piickles connected together by a thin membrane. 
It feems to be a kind of Wraffs:-, for it is like them i:v 
every thing, except the prickles. 

The CIN^DUS of .S^/3«/"«j, is all over yellow, ex- 
cept in fome places, where there is a mixture cf a rud- 
dy colour. The fcales are placed as it weie in circles, 
being notched on the edges, and are extremely lough* 
There is a double row of ftrong oblong and fharp teeth- 
in the jaws. 

The JLLIOS o^ Ronddeiius, is a palm in length, 
and nearly an inch thick. It is like a fmall Wra/Te, but- 
is longer and rounder, in proportion to its fize. The 
tales are fmall, flicking cloie to the fkin ; but for the 
beauty and variety of its colours it excelh a Wrafie, 
The upper part of the body from the fnout to the tail is 
blackifh, and the fides are divided by a blue line that 
runs from the head to the tail, and parallel to this, is 
another of a gold colour, but the lower part of the 
belly is of a blueifh white. The mouth ii of a middle 
fize, having one row of teeth, and the lips are like thofe 
cf a Wr^lie. It is common in the fea near Genoa, 

K 5 The 



202 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The ANTHIAS of Ronddetus, is of the colour of a 
Sea Bream, that is reddilh. The fin that runs from the 
head to the tail, is almoi^ red, and the firR prickle of it 
is tall and ftrong. The belly fins are much longer and 
more {lender than thofe on the gills, and they are all, 
as well as the tail, of a reddifti colour. Tlie head is 
roundilh, and the fnout prominent. Another Anthias 
of the fame author, is of a purplifh colour inclining to 
indigo, and has a long body with a thick tail, and fer- 
rated Iharp teeth. The eyes are pretty round, and of 
a purple and reddifli colour. The vent is large, and 
there is a r^ddifii green gut appears out of it. 

The JURUCAPEBA of the Brafilians, is a kin to 
the WralL., and is feven or eight inches long, and two 
«r three bread, where broadelt. 1 he mouth is wide, 
and nearly of a triangular fliape, furniihed with exceed- 
ing finall teeth. ] be iris of the eye is red, and the 
fins, with regard to the number, fliape, frtuation, and 
rays, agree with the reit of this kind. Jt is a fcaly fifh, 
and the ftales are fo united together, that it appears to 
be Cjuite fmooth. The geneial colour is of a fine red, 
but the belly is f^otted with red and while. The fides 
have fpots of diiferent colours, particularly red and 
black, fome of which are large, others fmall. All the 
iiiis arer.d, fpotted with black. 

The C/' - A UN A of the Brajtlians, agrees in fhape, 
iize, and fituation of the fins, with the former ; but it 
has a mouth in the Ihape of a half moon, with very 
iharp fmall teeth. The gills are large, and armed on 
the back parts with prickles. The eyes are near the 
top of the head, placed clofe by each other, and have a 
red iris. The fcales are in the ibape of half moons of a 
reddilh colour and fprinkled with black fpecks, except 
on the bcllv. 

The PIRA PIXANGA of the BrafiUam, called 
GATVISH by the Dtitch, is eleven inches long, and 
has a mouth an inch and a half wide, furnifhed with 
exceeding fharp fmall teeth. Tl^e eyes are large and 
prominent, with a circle of a black, gold, and blood 
colour. The gills are large, and furnifhed with a 
prickle, and the belly-fins have only one fpine. The 
tail is not divided, but roundifh at the end ; and the 

body 



OF F- r S H E S. 2D3 

body is covered with fmall fcales that are fmooth to the 
touch. It is all over of a yellov/jfh white, fprinkled 
with blocd coloured round fpots of the fize of hemp- 
feed ; but they are larger on the belly. Ihe Ihape is. 
nearly like that of an Orada. 

The SACCHETof the Venelians, is a fmall fifn of 
the fhape of a Pearch, and like it in colour, as well ai 
in the tranfverfe rings. The fins are like thofe of the 
Maenas, and the mouth is v-/idc, the fnout iharp, and^ 
the lower jaw longer that the upper ; but they both arci 
furnifned with very fmall teeth. The iris of the eyea 
is of a filver colour, and the tail is forked, variegated 
with tranfverfe golden lines. The fcales are fmall, and 
the back- fin behind the fpiny rays, are marked with a 
black fpot, which is the peculiar charaderiftick of thi'5 
£fA. 

The'CHANNADELLA of Behnius, wh^n it is- 
taken dive, vibrates a certain fpine or thorn, with 
which it ftrikes the liands of thofe that touch it. The 
lips are large, and the fore teeth are fharp like thofe of 
a dog ; but thofe bi;hind are blunt. The body is- 
variegated with green, afh colour and red ; and fome- 
times with a chefiiut colour. It is covered with fcales,. 
and the extremity of the gilh are notched and bony.. 
T^he back fin is red. 

The CHARVlA, is a fea fiih, with a body in fhape- 
like that of a Sea- Wolf, as is alfo the cleft of the 
mouth. The lov/er jaw is longer than the upper, which 
makes the mouth feem to be always open. The teeth. 
are fharp, the eyey fmall, and the bad: is of a blackiflu 
led. The Imes that run from the head to the tail are 
reddifh, and the tail is fprinkled with red fpots, as weli 
as the fin behind the vent, that runs to the tail. 

The SEA Pi : ARCH, is a foot in length, and of 
the fiiape of a River Pearch, nor is the colour much dif- 
ferent ; befides, the back and fides are marked with fi.^ 
or feven tranfverfe ftripes. The whole head, and the 
fore part of the belly, are elegantly painted with blue 
and red ftripes, and the back-iins, as well as that be- 
hind the vent, are fprinkled with fpots, partly yellow^ 
and partly of a faffron colour. The tail, belly, and 
giU-fiiiiSj, are variegated with yellow fpecks, orr«d]inesi. 
K 6 But 



2<54- THE NATURAL HISTORY 
But the colours in thefe fifh differ with regard to age, 
fex, and the places which they frequent. The fiiout 
is more (harp than that of a river Perch, and the mouth 
is exceeding large, in proportion to the bulk of the fifh, 
being always open. The eyes are large, with a yellow, 
and fomctimcs red iris, and the aperture of the gills is 
very wide At the corner of the outward plate of the 
cover of the gills, there are two great broad fpines. 
The fcales are of a middle fize, the belly a little promi- 
ricnt, and the flefh delicate. It is very common at f^e?jice 
and Marleilles^ 

The PJRATIAPIA of the T.raftlians, is a-kin to the 
Wrafie, and has an oblong and a pretty thick body. It 
fometimes grows fo large, as to weigh five pounds, and the 
lower jaw is longer than the upper. The mouth is red 
on the infide, and the eyes are prominent, with a red 
iris. Before each eye there is a hole, which perhaps is 
the noftrils ; and the fns are like the reft of this kind. 
The tail is almoft fquare, the Icales fmall, and the back, 
lower belly, and all the fins, are of the colour of ver- 
inillion ', but the fides are of a brownifh grey. It is 
ipoued all over with greyifh brown fpots, which are 
large in fome places, and in others fmall. 

'J^he PIRAUMBU of the Brafilian:-, is called CHAY- 
QUA RON A by the Portvgue e, and is a-kin to the 
Wrafie. It is of the fhape and fize of the Carp, and 
from the mouth to the beginning of the tail, it is ten 
inches long ; and th; breadth is a little above four. Jt 
has the mouih of a Carp, and the eyes are large, with, 
a golden circle mixed with white. The fins on the 
back are faid to be two ; but they are fo near each- 
other, that there is more properly but one. The belly- 
fins, and that behind the vent, are each defended with 
a flrong fpine or prickle, as in moft ot the reft of this 
kind. The fcales are large as in a Carp, and of a 
fhining filver colour, mixed with a little of that of gold. 
The fins are all of a light afh colour. 

Ihe ACARA-AYA, is three feet in length, and is 
of the fhape of a Carp. The teeth are fharp and fmall, 
but there are two more long and thick on the upper 
jaw. The eyes are large, v/ith a blood-red circle 
without, and filver-coloured within. The fins are as 



O F F I S H E S. 205 

in the former, and the tail is broad, and almoft divided 
into two horns. The fcales are middle fized, and of a 
filver colour, fhaded with another of the colour of blood. 
The belly is entirely white ; but all the fins are of a 
blood colour, except the belly-fins, which are white j 
but their extremities are of the former colour. 

The CHROMIS oi Rondeletiusy is called MONA- 
CHELLA by the Sicilians, and CASTAGNOLE, by 
the Tufiam and Genoe/e. It is a fmall fifti about four 
inches long, and pretty thick, in proportion to its 
length. The colour is brown, with lines that are 
lighter, running according to the length of the body. 
The fcales are large, the head fmall, the fnout fhort, 
and the mouth little, with very fmall teeth in the jaws. 
The eyes are of a middle fize, with an iris of a gold 
and filver colour. The fins are like thofe in the refl of 
this kind, and the tail is forked. The pointed lines in 
this fifh, do not run beyond the back-fin. 

The SEA SCORPION weighs about a pound, and 
has a thick body in proportion to its length. The 
head is very large and full of prickles ; but the body is 
fmall towards the tail, and the belly tumid. It is hog- 
backed, and the Hiape in general is like that of a Pearch. 
The colour is of a dirty yellow, fpotted with black, 
and the fcale^. are fmall like thofe of Serpents. The 
covers of the gill-fins are alfo full of prickles, which the 
fifhciinen fuppofe to be venemous, and therefore cut 
them ofi\ The fpace betvveen the eyes is concave ; 
and the eyes are large and prominent, placed near each 
other ; and over each there is a fmall fin. The mouth 
is very wide, and th-e jaws are rough, with fmall teeth. 
The fin on the back is low in the middle, infomuch 
that it feems to be a double fin, and the tail is roundilh". 

The Greater SEA SCORPION of Rondeletias, is 
like the former, but differs from it in being three or four 
times as big, in being red all over, and variegated with 
black fpots. It has fevcral barbs, efpecially about the 
lower jaw, and there is fome on the upper, that are 
wanting in the former. The colour of the liver is 
deeper, being almoil of that of faffron, and the covers 
of the gills are armed with prickles at the corners. 
They are very common in the Mediterranean fea. 

The 



io6 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The Fhginlan SEA SCORPION, is about a foot 
long, and is more long and flender than the firrt of thefe 
already mentioned. There are fhort thorns Or prickles 
on the head, and before and behind the eyes, as well as 
on the other parts of the head ; but at each gill they are 
very long and fmall. The forward back-fin, is largei' 
than that behind, and is feated bat a litde way from it. 
The hinder is very high at the beginning, and grows 
lefs by degrees. All the fins are undulated with tranf- 
verfe black fpots, and the tail-fin is large and roundifll. 

The JAQUARACA of the Brafillans, is the fize of 
a middling rearch, and has a Iharp mouth without teeth. 
The eyes are large, with a filver iris fpotted with blood 
colour, and there is a long fin on the back. The tail 
is forked, and on the fide of each gill there are two 
pric:Ues, with which, and with the thorny rays of the 
fins, it flrikes and wounds thofe that catch it. 
The fcales are fmall and elegantly difpofed, but 
are very little ferrated on the edges. The body is 
all over of a filver colour, except the belly, which is 
white ; and the upper part of the head, which is of a 
carnation, being armed with a prickly fliell. The^ fins 
are of a li:^ht carnation colour ; and it agrees in mofl 
things With the Sea Scorpion, except the colour. 

The ACARAPEBA of the Braflians, has a broad 
body covered with large fcales, and ij all over of a Pain- 
ing filver colour, being twelve inches in length, and 
five in breadth. The mouih is ample, acuminated, and 
may be exu^aded and contrafted at pleafi-.e ; but it 
is without teeth. The eyes are large, wich a filver iris, 
and the fins are as in the reft of thib kind, being of a 
white fhining colour ; but the tail is forked. 

The PIRA JURUMENB^XA of the Brafilians^ 
commonly called BOCCA MOLLF, that is foft mouth. 
It is a fea fifh, but hides itfelf in th^ mud, and is m"ne 
or ten inches long, and two and a half broad. The 
mouth llands high, which it can render very large, and 
of a round form, with large eyes, having a circle of a 
niixture of brown and filver colour. The fins are placed 
as in the reft of this kind ; but the back fin is ibft. The 
tail is of the fliape of a Pentagon, the bafe of which is 
rext the body. The fcales all over thebody are of a 

middle 



O F F I S H E S. 207 

middle fize, and of a fhining filv^er colour, and the bacic 
fpines are of a green and gold colour. 

The CURURUCA of the BrafiLam, is a river fifh. 
a foot and a half in length, with an oblcng. body, a 
pretty large mouth, and middle fized eye. The fins are 
as in the reft of this kind, and the tail is almoft fquare. 
The fcales are of a filver colour, with a little mixture of 
gold and brownifh, efpecially on the back and fides. 
The back-fins, and thofe on the fides, as well as the 
tail, are of an afh colour ; but thofe on the middle of 
of the belly are yellowiih and browniih. 

The SCHROLLN, fo called at Ratijbon in Germany^ 
is like a Pearch in the number, fituation, and Ihape of 
the fins, and in their rays, as well fpinous as foft. The 
covers of the gills are armed with prickles, and the fbape 
of the body is like that of a Pearch. The fins are va- 
riegated points and fpots, and it is fo like in all things 
to the gilt Pearch, that it may be fufpecied to be the 
feme fifii. 

The SCHRAITFER, fo called at Ratifion, it being 
very common at that place. It is taken out of the 
Danube, and agrees with a Ruff, in having i'pines on 
the edge of the upper plate of the covers of the gills, 
and in having only one fin on the back, with rays, 
partly fpinous and partly foft, and fpotted membranes 
between them. It differs from it in being of a longer 
and rounder make, and a back that does not rife fo 
much ; likewife the fnout is longer, and in the prickles, 
which in that, are only fourteen in the back fin, but in 
this are eighteen. There are alfo two blackifh lines 
running on the length of the fides, of which the upper 
begins above the pointed line, and then crofTes it ; be- 
fides, the colour between the lines is whiter, and the 
tail more forked. 

The RUFF, is of the fhape of a Pearch, but is lefs, 
and wants the tranfverfe blackifh ftripes. The fcales 
are of a middle fize, and are a little fringed on the 
edges, which render this fifh very rough, from whence 
it 'has its Engli/h name. The back is of a dirty yellow- 
ifh green colour, and the lower part of the fides of a 
paliih yellow ; about the covers of the gills, it is of a 
iliining gold colour, whence it is called by fome the 

GILT, 



2aS THE NATURAL HISTORY 

GILT, or GILDED pearch. The back, and upper 
part of the fides, are fprinkled with blackifh fpecks and 
ipots. It is a river filh. 

The GUNNEL, fo called in Cornwall, and by fome 
the BUTTiiR-FlSH, is fometimes about fix inches 
long, but fcarce an inch broad. The body is flender 
and comprefied, and the colour is mottled with dark, 
led, green, and white, with tranfverfe ftripes alter- 
nately placed. At the root ofthe back-fin, which runs 
from the head to the tail, all whofe rays are fpinous, 
it is beautifully fpotted with round fpots on both fides, 
which arc black, and furrounded with a whitifh ring, 
being ten or twelve in number, and placed at equal 
diftances through the whole length of the back, from 
the head to the tail, which mark is peculiar to this liili. 
^J'here is one ftrait continued flripe runs froci the head 
to the vent, and there is no external mark or fig n of 
the ftomach or gift.-- 

The FATHhR-LASHER, fo called by the boys of 
CornixalU and by the Dutch POl SHEET, is fix or nine 
inches long, and of the fhape of a Ball-head. The 
head is pretty large, and covered with prickles ; but the 
body i^ finall, and the belly is broad and flat- On the 
back, above the lateral lines, there are roughilb broad 
tranfverfe I'paces of a blackifh colour, and three or four 
in number; but the inieimediate fpace are more pale. 
Thi covers of the gills are coanecled below, that they ap- 
pear like a mantle thrown over his head and fhouiders. 
Thefe are membranaceous, and When this filh is taken out 
©f the water, it fwells them {q much, that they feem to be 
blown up like a bladder. There are two fins on the 
back, the more forward of which, has eight or nine 
rays; which, when the fifh is grown up, are a little 
In'fF, as well as fninous. The circumference of the 
tail when it is expa ided, is iomcwhat roundilli. The 
riOfnils are fmall, the mou'.h large, and armed with fe- 
veral rows of fliarp teeth, and the tongue is broad, 
large, and fmooth. The eyes are covered with a loofe 
tianfparent fliin, and the pupils are fmall, and encom- 
pafl'ed with a red ciicle. Jt will live a long while out of 
the water, and it feeds upon fhrimps, the young fry of 
iifli, and lea infe(5l6. 

The 



O F F I S H E S. 209 

The STICKLEBACK or SHARPLING, is the 
leaft of all fi(h we know. Jt has only one fin on the 
back, with three diftin<5l prickles placed before it. On 
the belly there are two others that are larger, flronger, 
and joined ;o a very hard bone ; for in the room of 
belly fms, there are two bony triangular plates. It can 
raife the prickles up, or dcprefs them towards the tail, 
as it pleaies, and the mouth is furnifhed with very fmall 
teeth. The upper jaw is a little longer than the lower, 
and about the \'ent it is fpotted with black. Thefe fifh 
are generally full of fpawn, and they are to be found m 
every river, lake, brook, pond, and ditch. 

Tiie lelTer STICKLEBACK of iUndektius, differs 
from the former, in having ten or eleven prickles on 
the back, which do not ftand upright, but incline, one 
to the right hand, the oiher to the left alternately. The 
body is alfo longer, and it has no plates on the fides, as 
the other has. This is alfo an inhabitant of brooks and 
other fmall ftreams. 

The SEA STICKLEBACK, has a fquare body a- 
bouc an inch thick, and nine inches long j towards the 
tnl, it is alfo fquare and very flender. The ikin i^ 
fmoQth, and blackifb en the back, but the belly is of a 
v*'hitifh yeilov/. The head is not unlike that of a Pike, 
only it is longer. It hath two gill-fins, and another of a 
triangular fhape on the back, from which there runs a 
fVrait row of fifteen prickles a little inclined, but di- 
Hindi, and not connefted together by a membrane. In 
the middle of the belly there are two prickles, and one 
at the vent, A triangular iin terminates the tail. 



C H A P. 



210 THENATURAL PIISTORY 



CHAP. XXIII. 

Of American lijh 'with a fivgU Fin on the Bjck, nvhoje 
Rays are all/pinous^ 

THE ACARAPUCA of the Bramaus,^ is a river 
fifh half a yard in length, and four orfive inches 
broad. The fnout is fharp 2X the end, and the mouth 
is without teeth. The eyes are large, vvkh an irib mixed 
with white and brown. Every part flilncs with fmall 
fcales of a filver colour, only on the back there is a lit- 
tle mixture of gold. On each fide there are fix oblong 
blucifh red fpots, which are not very confpicuoiis, and 
the back-fins, as well as the tail, are of a light blue, 
and fo are the fide fins. There are two at the bottom of 
the belly, which, with thofe near the vent, are a little 
vellowifli. 

The GUATACUPA JUBA of the BrafiUans, grows 
to the length of two feet, and has a back a little crooked. 
The fnout is triangular, and fharp at the end, and 
the teeih are exceeding fmall, with large eye5, which 
have a red iris. The fins are as in the former, only 
they are white as vyell as the belly. The fcales are 
pretty large, of a filver colour, and there are flripes of 
a filver colour with a reddifli caft, v/hich run along the 
body from the head to the tail. The head is of a yel- 
lowiHi filver colour mixed wich red. 

The ACARA of the B'afihar.s, is a palm in length, 
and has a body not unlike a Pearch. The mouth is 
narrow, and the jaws as rough as a (ile. The eyes are 
not large, but havca golden circle, and the fins are as 
in the former. The tail is obloag, and the Icales are 
pretty large, of a filver colour, but on the head, back, 
and fides, they are mixed with umber. In the middle 
of each fide there is a large black fpot, as alio near the 
root of the tail. 7 his is a river fifh, and keeps con- 
Itantly in frefli water. 

The ACRAPITAMBA of the /?;-^///«;/ , has an ob- 
long body like a Barbel, and grows to. the length of two 

feet 



■^T^ 



,,^7^l/^i/t^r^^^^ ■ 




'y/iJ/Tf /I . /^errf/i^x: 




O F F I S H E S. 211 

feet and better. The moath is fmall, furniihed with 
teeth, and the eyes are large, with a red iris. The tail 
is five inches long, and forked ; and the fcales are like 
thofe of a Carp, but of a blue purple colour. The la- 
teral lines are of a gold colour, and an inch and half 
broad, -nning from the eyes to the tail. Above thefe 
lines there are golden fpecks, and under them iine yel- 
low lines running according to the length of the fifli. 
The back- tin and the tail, are as it were gilded, and 
thofe on the belly and fides, are of a whitifh yellow. 
Their fins fhine gready in the night. 

The URiBACO of the Braftlians, has a crooked 
back, a protuberant belly, and is fifteen or fixteen 
inches long, and five or fix broad. The teeth are fmall 
and Iharp, the gills large, the eyes great, with a filver 
coloured iris mixed witii a litde red. The fins are like 
the reil: of this kind, only thofe on the fides and belly 
are whitifh, or of a fiiver colour. The back-fin and the 
tail, which is divided into two horns, have more of red 
than of a filver colour. The fcalcs are large, and are 
all of a filver colour, with a little reddifh caft. The la- 
teral lines are red, above which there is a large black 
ipot on each fide of the backward pai'C of the body. 

The SEA DEVIL, is four feet long, andjbroadin 
proportion. It has a bunch on its back, covered with 
thorns or prickles, like thofe of a hedge-hog ; and the 
fkin is hard, unequal, rough, and of a black colour,, 
rifing into feveral fmall bunches, between which there 
are two fmall black eyes. The mouth is extremely wide,, 
and armed with fjveral very iharp teeth, two of which are 
crooked, like thofe of a wild boar. Jt has four fins and 
a broad tail forked at the end; but that which gave it 
the name of the Sea Devil, are two black fiiarp horns 
over the eyes, which bend towards the back. It is a 
very frightful fi(h, and its lieih is a deadly poifon. 

There is another fifh called the SEA bl^:VlL, about 
a foot long, and as much broad ; but they can blow 
themfelves up in fuch a manner, as to appear as round as 
a ball. The mouth is wide, armed with iharp teeth," 
and inlead of a tongue, there is a very hard bone. The 
ryes fparkle grcatiy, and yet are fo fmall, that the' 

pupil 



212 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

pupil can hardly be difcenied j between them there is a 
fmall horn bending backwards. There is alfo a large 
thread hanging from its mouth, and the tail is like the 
end of an oar. There are two bunches, one on the 
back tha: is upiight, and another under the belly ; as 
aifo two fins, which anfwer to each other, on each fide 
of ihe beliy, and which terminate in fmall paws eight 
inches long, and armed with fliort claws. The fkin is 
rough, and dark red under the beliy^ {potted with black. 
The fleili is not good to cat. 

There is likewifc another SEA DEVIL on the gold 
coafl of Guhjey, which has four eyes, is twenty-five feet 
in length, and about eighteen bread. On each fide 
there is an angular fubllance as hard as horn, and \try 
iharp, which renders this f.fh very dangerous ; the tail 
is as long as a whip, and has alfo a dangerous point. The 
back is covered with fmall lumps, two inches hjg^h, and 
fliarp at the ends ; the head is large, but there is no 
appearance of any neck, and the mouih is furnifhed with 
flat cutting teeth. Two of the eyes are near the throat, 
which are round and large ; and the other two are 
placed above them, but very fmall On each fide the 
threat tlicrc arc three horns of an equal length, the mid- 
dle-mofl of which is three feet long, 2nd an inch and a 
half in diameter; but they are flexible, and can do little 
harm. The flefh is tough, and not ft to be eaten. 

The PIRA ACANGATARA, that is the filli with a 
hard head, is of the fize of a middling Pearch, being 
feven or eiglit inches long, with a mouth of a moderate 
fiEe, with eyes that have an iris of a dark gold colour 
mixed with red. The fins are as in the Uribaco, and the 
tail i- forked. The fcales are of a filver colour, with a 
flame coloured call, and on the belly they are of a filver 
colour inclining to a fea green. The back-fin fliines 
like filver, and is marked with brov/n ipots. The Lde 
fins are white, thofe on the belly blucifh, and the t.dl-fin 
is blueilh at the end. 

The PJRA NEMA of the Brafihansy is of the fize of 
a middling Carp, being ten or eleven inches long, and 
three broad. I'he mouth is widf, roundilh, and with- 
out teeth, bui the jaws are rough. I'he tyes are large. 

With 



O F F I S H E S. 213 

with a white iris, only the upper part is red. The gills 
are very large, and the fins aie placed as in the rell of 
this kind, but the back-fin reaches from the hinder part 
of the head to the tail, and has twenty-two fpines. The 
whole fifli is of a filver colour, with a call of that of 
gum lack ; but in the body it is lighter, being almoft 
white. 

The RED PUDIANO or BODIANO, is of the fize of 
a middling Pearch, and two inches in breadth. The 
head is fmall, the fncut fliarp, and the mouth armed 
with little fharp teeth. The eyes are a little prominent, 
with a double circle, the outermoft of which is white, 
and the inner yellow. The fins are the fame with re- 
gard to the number, fhape, fituation, as in the for- 
mer ; and the body is covered with fine fcales, fo 
cloiely united, that ihey are fmooth to the touch. The 
colour of the whole body is yellow mixed with gold, 
only the top of the head, and the whole back, to the 
middle of th^ fides, is of a fine purple colour mixed with 
that of black. The edges of the great fin on the belly, 
near the tail, is alfo purple, as well as thofe that lye 
near it. The rell of the fins, and the tail, as well as 
the hinder part of the back -fin, are of a yellow or gold 
colour. 

The GREEN PUDIANO, has an oblong body, and 
from the extremity of the fncut to the beginning of the 
tail, it is ten inches long and three broad, with a fharp 
fnout ; at the end of the upper jaw, there are two fhajp 
Jong teeth, and then a row of Imall ones. In the undtr 
jaw, there are four of the fame kind, and behind them 
a row of lefTer white teeth. The eyes are fmall, with a 
circle about the pupil, which is of a gold colour within, 
and whitiih on the outfide. The back-fin is of a gold 
colour, with blue undulated ftreaks according to the 
length, and the lateral fins arc whitifh, with a blue line 
about the circumference. The belly-fins are of the 
fame colour, and that at the vent ofareddilh brown, 
with blue fireaks. The tail is reddifh, ftreaked with a 
fea green colour, and the fcales are broad and yellow, 
inclining to gold, with a moft beautiful blue on the 
^dges, 1 he upper part of the head is of a gold colour, 

with 



21-4- THE NATURAL HISTORY 
with a large fea-gn n fpot furrounded with azure, and 
vai-iegated with b. e, yellow, greeniili, and whitifK 
flreaks. 

CHAP. XXIV. 
Of Eaft-India Fijh not fully defcriled. 

THE SEA HOG, is about fifteen or fixteen inches 
long, and feven broad. It has a very thick fkin, 
and fuch clofe hard fcales, that fcarce any inilrument 
will pierce them ; but when boiled, the fcales come off 
with eafe, and then the Ikin is very loft. The flcih is 
white, refembling the bread of a chicken, and the 
mouth fmall in proportion to the fize, but is armed with 
two rows of white fhining teeth. On the back, which 
is brown, there is a Iharp fin, which this fifhcan ercd 
at pleafure, and fuch another oppofite to it on the belly. 
The other fins are not fo ftrong, nor of a pale blue. 
The be)ly is of a fliining filver white, but the fides are 
mixed with yellow, which gradually turns to an afli 
colour on the back. It has large brown fhining eyes, 
and when boiled, is very well tafled. 

The STONE BREAM is four feet long, aad in 
fhape like our common Breams, with large eyes, a big 
red mouth, and the fins, and the extremity of the tail, 
are of the f>.me colour. They are taken at fea with a 
hook, and the ficlh is excellent, dreifed any way. 
. The BALD PATE, is fo called, from having no 
fcales on the head and neck, though the reil of the body 
is covered with them. It is of a greyifh colour, and 
the mouth which is very wide, is fpotted with red. 
The eyes are large, yellow, and prominent, and it is 
taken in the rivers as well as the fea. The flelli is ex- 
ceeding good. 

The Yt^.LLOW TAIL, is of the fhape and fize of 
a Bream, with veiy iharp pominent teeth on the fore 
part of the mouth. The back is inclining to yellow, 
and the tail is of a bright yellow ; but the belly is blue, 
inclining to brown towards the fore part. It l)as red 

fins^ 



^ai^e Qy4 





i^a i/^z-i^ - £^e^z^£^t^u 




-< /^. 



! ... 



*.^-^z^^^.n ^//rte-J^/'^.^/t ^ 



O F F I S H E S. 215 

fins, anJ is caught in the fea near the rocks, and is in 
high elteem. 

The KAELT FISH, is fomewhat like a Pike, with 
a mouth full of fharp teeth, and the eyes are large and 
bright. The belly and tail are of a parple colour, and 
the back brown. It is about a foot and a half in length, 
and has a thick plump body. It fwiras very fwiftly, 
and is well tafted, though the flefh is fomewhat hard. 

The RAVEN FISH, has a mouth like a bill under 
the head, and is about a fpan long, with a red back and 
tail, but the belly is inclining to yellow, and has cwo 
yellow ftreaks on each fide. It is a very firm fifh, and 
wholefome. It is taken in fait waters. 

The KING'S FISH, is fo called, becaufe it is in the 
higheft efteem in the E\fl -India, It is five feet in 
length, with a long forked tail, and the back and fides 
are full of brown fpots, but the belly is white. It can 
open its mouth extremely wide, and is a very foul 
feeder. 

The SEA EEL, or WATER SERPENT, is about 
three feet long, and of a brown colour, yai'iegated with 
black fpots like the Ikin of a Serpent. The fore part 
of the body is llender ; but it is as thick again towards 
the tail, and has a long head and mouth, with fbai'p 
teeth, which are exceeding fm all. It delights in rocky 
places, and is valued as a dainty ; however, thofe that 
catch it, are generally feized with a trembling, but it 
does not continue long. 

The SEA COCK, is more like a fea monller than a 
fifh, and is about two feet long, with a broad thick 
body, a great part whereof belongs to the head. On 
the back there are two long fins, but one is longer than 
the other, and below, there are three more that are 
very long and flender. The tail is forked and of a 
brown colour, but the belly is yellow. 1 he fkin glitters 
like filver, and the fins are red. It is caught in the fait 
water. 

The WHITE FISH has a thick fhorthead, and a 
brown back, with a blue belly, inclining \q yellow. The 
flefli is pretty well tailed. 

The GRUNTING FISH, is fo called from the noife 
it makes when taken. It is very plump, and about a 

fpan 



2i6 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

fpan in length, with a head not unlike a RufF. There 
arc three lines which run on each fide, two brown, and 
one yellow. The fleih is very well tailed. 

The HOG FISH, is not above a fpan in length, and 
the colour of the fcales is inclining to a blackifli green ; 
the fins and tail are of the fame colour, but the eyes arc 
yellow. It is a frefh water filh, very plump, fat, and 
well tailed. 

The Eaji-lndian GURNARD, is almoft round, with 
a fkin full of knobs, and fpots, and of a brownilh colour 
ftreaked -Aith black. The head is very thick, Ihort, 
and full of knobs, with a large mouth and red eyes. 
The tail is alfo very round and Ihort, and on each fide 
of the body is a red fin. The flelh is pretty well 
tailed. 

The SEA LOUSE is an odd fort of a filh, covered 
with a Ihell, about a foot in length. It has the ap- 
pearance of a round lump, with a very long tail, and 
fmall legs or fins on each fide. Its colour is gray, in- 
clining to green, and it is catched near Bata^via, and is 
very Teldom oaten, unlefs by the Jan-anefe and Chinefe. 

The LAMPREY, or rather EEL POUT, is about a 
foot long, with a fmooth Ikin, llippery like an Eel, 
though not fhaped like one. It is brown on the back, 
and there are yellow fpots on the belly ; and the fins 
under the belly are purple. The head is made like that 
of a Snail, having feelers thereon. The fins are vene- 
mous, though the flelh is agreeable to the talle. It is 
caught in ponds and lakes. 

The CABOS, is a kind of an Eel Pout, but larger 
than the former, being about two feet in length, and 
very fat. The Ikin is alfo very fmooth, without fcales, 
and of a brownilh colour. The fnout is pale, fpotted 
with black, and the head is thick and Ihort, with 
the eyes in -the forehead. The flelh is \txy well 
tolled. 

The PEN FISH, is alfo a kind of an Eel Pout, with 
a fmooth Ikin, without fcales, and is about a foot in 
length. The back is brown, the belly of a pale blue, 
and the fins are alfo brown ; but they are very fharp and 
venemous. The flelh is well tailed, but unwholefome 
when eatea too freely. It inhabits lakes and ponds. 

The 



(If 4 



C^it/^rLA^^Ua/z r^/ea ~^t$-^^. 



'^'a^f ^^^ 





^//Zfne ^^reani^^ 




O F F I S H E S. 217 

The JACOB EVERTSEN FBH, is about ten feet 
long, and fometimes weighs above four hundred pounds. 
It is blue on the belly, brown upwards, and is full of 
' dark red fpots near the head and tail. It has a large 
white mouth, with a fhort brown tail, and many fins 
turning up towards the tail. 

The CROOK BACK FISH, is fo named from its 
fhape, and it has a fmooth flcin "without fcales, with a 
white belly, yellow fins and tail. Jt fometimes grows 
to above four feet in length, and the flelh is in great 
requeft all over the Eajl-Indies, on account of its agree- 
able tafte. 

The HORN FISH, is fo called from the horn it has 
on the top of its head, or beginning of the back. It is 
about a fpan in length, or foraewhatmore, with a large 
head, and litde mouth, one half of this fifh being no- 
thing but head. The Ikin is very bright, the back 
blueifh, the belly white, and the fins and tail yellow ; 
the body of this fifli feems to change its colour accord- 
ing to the different lights in which it is placed. 

The KNESSEN, is a fort of baftard Carp, about a 
fpan in length, and pretty broad, with ihick fcales. It 
is a frefh water fifh, very well tailed. 

The KLIP FISH, has a fmooth (kin without fcales, 
and is £at and broad, being about the fize of a Plaice, 
it is brown on the back, fpotted with white ; but the 
belly is entirely white, and the fides are variegated 
with ftreaks of feveral colours. The mouth and eyes 
are like thofe of a Bream, but the back -fins have prickly 
rays like thofe of a Pearch, and the tail is Iharp ; it is 
fdlJom above a fpan in length, and the flefh is exceed- 
ing good, it being firm, flaky, and of an agreeable taftc 
as well as wholeiome. 

The UNICORN FISH takes its name from the;; 
shorn on the top of its head, and there are two more 
underneath, which are very brittle and venemous, in- 
f jmuch, that if any part remain in the wound, it wiU 
fcarce admit of a cure. 

I he FLAT FISH, is about a foot long, with a 
fmooth fkin without fcales, and a v*'hite mouth. The 
body ihines all over like filver, and on the back there is 
.a fmall fin, with one on each fide. U-nder the belly 

Vol. III. L there 



2i3 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

there is a fingle fin, which is in the room of a tail.. It 
is a frefh water filh, and is very well tailed, but is full 
of fmall bones, for which reafon it is of no great value. 
The Red Fish is a kind of a Bream, and the back, 
fides, -and fins, are of a dark red colour, but the belly 
is blue, and two of the fins are yellow. It has a very 
thick body, and a fharp fnout, with a large mouth 
and yellow eyes. Some of thefe fifh are four feet in 
length. 

The BITTER FISH, is of the fliape and fize of a 
Carp, with large fcales and red fins ; and there are two 
black rings round the tail. It is very well tailed, but as 
it is very full of fmall bones, it is not much regarded. 

The PARROT FISH, is fo called from its mouth, 
which is hooked like the bill of a Parrot. It is a foot 
in length, and fometimes more, and the colour is 
greenilh, variegated near the head with yellow. The 
fins are blue as well as the eyes, which are very fpright- 
ly and large, having a yellow iris. The fcales are very 
large, and there are two rows of ftrong teeth in the 
mouth, with which it breaks open Mufcles and OyRers. 
The flelh is very firm and well tailed. 

The SHORT NOSED FISH, is in fhape not unlike 
a Haddock, having a round body. It is yellow on the 
belly as well as the fins, and the mouth isjuil under the 
nofe, which is very fnort. '1 he flefh is faid to be well 
tailed. 

The BONE FISH, is of the fize and fiij^pe of a Carp, 
but flatter, and the head is different. It has large fcales 
and a forked tail. The fielh is very good, but is full 
of fmall bones, from whence it takes its name. 

The SAND SMELT, is for fize and colour like a 
fmall Whiting, though the belly is a little yellowilh. It 
is a fea fifh, and very well tailed. 

The POCK FISH, is generally above a foot in length 
and the flcin is fmooth without fcales ; however, it is 
very bright, and changes its colour according to the dif- 
ferent lights in which it is placed, fometimes feeming 
blue, then green or purple. It is a long fifh but not 
broad, and foniewhat refembles a large Smelt, having a 
forked tail, and a mouth furniflied with teeth. It is very 
well tailed, but being full of bones is not much regarded. 

The 



/''afe '2/<>' 



'■^^^ J/m/ia^i yea-^t^ 




ad 4 




Vma/e/^ Cra/^.^ 



7/liy^uc<:xx //v?/ 




OF FISHES. 219 

The CHINESE FISH is round, and about a fpan 
in length, with a head like an Eel, fmall eyes and a 
long tail. It is green on the back, and white on th? 
belly. It is a frefh-water fifh, and thofe caught in 
rivers are good ; but thofe taken out of ponds are un- 
wholefome. 

The PIT FISH is no bigger than a large Smdt, and 
has a round body without icales, and full of green and 
yellow fpots. They are remarkable for their being able to 
thruft their eyes out of the head, and to draw thera ia 
again. The fins on the back are Iharp pointed, and 
though they delight in muddy places, the fie(h is very 
well tailed. Jt is a very nimble fiih, and will leap a 
great way. 

The EAST INDIAN MULLET is a very fine fi(h, 
which they dry in the fun and tranfport to diilant 
places. It is of a white colour chequered with blue 
and purple, and fwims very fwiftly. Jt is fo nimble 
that it will nut only leap over a net, but even a fifher- 
maii's boat. They are very well tailed when in feafon ; 
but there are times when they are peitered with worms, 
and then they arc good for nothing. 

The SEA SNIPE is fo called trom its mouth, which 
refembles the bill of a Snipe. Some are uve feet long, 
with a head like that of a hog, and large bright eyes. 
There is a large fharp fin on the back, which reaches 
from the head to the tail^ and is very broad and fuil of 
fpots. 

The SEA KORETTE is fix or feven feet in length, 
with laige yellowiih eyes, and a forked yellowifh grey 
tail. The fins arc yellow, and under the belly which is 
blue inclining to green, and under the tail there are 
feveral fins. They are very bright, and (hinc likeli'.ver 
when they are catched at fea wiih hooks. The flefh is 
very well tadcd and not unwholefome, for which reafon 
Ic is often a very great refrcuimeat to fnips that fail iu 
thofe feas. 

I'he SEA CATT is an odd fliaped fifh, wliofe ej-es 
are exceeding large in proportion to the body. 1 he 
back is of a purple colour, and the belly is blue fpottcd 
v.'ith purple. The tail, in proportion to the hjdy, is 
^ery broad, befides v/hich there are no fins, except on 
L z the 



220 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

*he fore-part of the head, where there are feven, which 
point diiedly forwards like the feelers of Shrimps. It 
is thought to be very good, efpecially when dried in 
the fun. 

Another SEA CAT is of a very flrange {hape, the back 
p^rt being an oval lump on which the head fccms to 
hang, it has long large eyes, a fmooth Ikin inclining 
to blue, only the telly is brown. The entrails of this 
£lli contain a glutinous matter, which ferves the Chinefe 
to make ink of. They dry the flelh in the fun, and 
then it is of great requeft among the Indiatis, though it 
cces not digtrt very eafily. 

The LEAPING FISH is fo called, becaufe they are 
always leaping and playing on the furface of the water, 
it is about the fize of a Herring, and is without fms on 
the back. The head is full of knots, and the body is 
of a greyiih colour, fpotted with black ; but towards 
the belly the fpots are lighter. It is a fea-fifii, and well 
tailed, efpecially when broiled. 

The PAMPUS is about a foot in length and a fpan 
broad, being not unlike a Plaice ; but the &in is fmooth. 
The eyes are placed on both fides, and the mouth 
dire(flly in the middle. It is well tailed, efpecially 
after it is dried. 

'I he EAST INDIAN WHITING is abou- the fize 
of our Whiting, and has a round prominent belly, a 
ftrait back, and a turned up mouth. The tail is forked, 
and it has only one large fin on the back, with feveral 
fmall ones between the belly and the tail. It is full of 
Iheaks A\ over the body, and there are two wattles or 
barbs under the mouth. The fiefh is xevy well tailed. 

The FIVE FINGERED FISH takes its name from 
five black fpots on each fide, refembling the prinrs of 
fingers. It is about a foot and a half long, with a 
fmall head, a large mouth, and brown pointed fins 
towards the tail. The colour is of a fhining blue mixed 
with purple ; but there are no fcales on the body. It is 
pretty well tailed, and is very common in the Enji Indian 
feas. 

The ROUND FISH has fome rcfemblance to a 
"W hiting, only it has a fmall head and tail, and a pro- 
minent 



O F F I S H E S. 221 

nvlnent belly, with fins on the lower part of it like thofe 
of an Eel. The fiefh is very well ta^ed. 

The FORK TAIL FISH has a long round body, 
wirh a very long forked tail, from whence it takes its 
name. Its head refembles that of a Herring, with a 
long barb or briille on the top of it, and two more be- 
low the mouth like thofe of Shrimps but la;-ger, which 
they keep clofe to the body when they are iwimmine. 
I'he fize is like that of a IVIackrel, but the tafte is not 
extraordinary. 

ThePYED FISH is fo called from its colour, its 
tail and fins being brown, fpot^ed with pale blue fpots. 
It is about a foot in length, pretty thick, and without 
fcales. ■ The Eyes which are yellow, are furrounded 
with a blue circle, and under the throat there hangs a 
crop. It has a little mouth, and on each fide there is 
a yellow fin. It is in great elleem among the native 
Indians, being well tailed ; but in fome part of the 
belly there is a venemous matter which mull be taken 
out when gutted. 

. The FOUR FINGERED FISH of Margr.^e, is 
fo called from having four large black (pots on each fide, 
which are of a violet colour in the circumference. It 
.is about feven inches long, and has a fmall mcuth with 
large eyes. The two back fins are of a middle fize ; 
but thofe on the belly are large and broad, each of 
which are marked with five filver- coloured fpots. The 
colour on the back is blackilh, and between the fpots 
on the fides of a fea green, but the reft of the body is 
of a filver colour. The Ikin- is fmooth and without 
fcales. 

CHAP. XXV. 
Of the Weft Indian Fij\ defcrihed hy Du Tertre. 

THE BECUNE, or SEA PIKE, is very like a 
river Pike, only it is much larger, for fometimes 
it is met with above eight feet in length. It is a very 
greedy filh, and moft' dangerous in the water, becaufe 
^ 3 it 



222 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

it can bite more ev.fiy than a fhark, and will not be 
driven aA-ay by any noife that can be made. The flcfh 
has the fame laiie as a freOi-vvater Pike ; but there is 
often great danger in eating it, for unlcfs the teeth are 
white and the li\er fwcet it is venemous. The reafon 
may be from its feeding on raanchineel apples whicli 
fall from the trees into the fea. 

TheTASSART is another fort of Sea Pike, v^hich 
is commonly taken among the iflands near the rock» 
where ihe tide is ftrongeft, and the fea moft in motion. 
Some of them are five or fix feet in length, and it is a 
very greedy fifli ; for it will very readily take a bait on 
a large hook which is faftentd to a line, and drawn 
along by a veiTel, though it fhould fail as fwiftly as an 
trrow out of a bow. But there fhoL-^d be an iron chain 
near the hook, for he will readily fnap a rope in two wiih 
his teeth. Some of them have been taken with three 
hooks in their bellies almoft as thick as a man's finger. 
The flefh is whi:e, and as good as that of a river Carp, 
only it is harder and not (o eafily digefted. 

The CARANGUE is a white flat fifh, and yet the 
eyes are placed on each fide the head. It is from two 
to three feet in length, eighteen inches broad and fix 
thick. The back fins arc very unequal, and thofe on 
the gills are pointed, and very near the head. The 
tail is forked. There is fo many of thefe fifh in the 
fea near the Caribbee i^ands that hundreds of them 
may be feen every morning leaping out of the water in 
purfuit of fmall fifh, even clofe to the land. They 
enter the rivers in the night, where they are commonly 
caught, and then one man is not fufficient to draw them 
out ; for they are fo ftrong that they make nothing of 
breaking a line as thick as one's finger. The flelh is 
exceeding good, even preferable to that of a Trout. 

The CAPTAIN, is a fifh that is red all over, and 
has one fin on its back which is very long when it is 
creeled, and armed with large fpines or prickles ; the 
gill uns arc of the fame make, and they fight o:her 
fifh therewith. It is prcitty much like a Carp, being 
covered with fcales like that fiOi ; but it is much more 
long and thick, fome being above three feet long and ten 
inches in diameter. They fwim in Ihouls, and it is com- 

moa 



O F F I S H E S. 223 

mon to take ten or a dozen of them at a time Jn a 
net. There are fome fix feet lona, and thick in pro- 
portion, being covered all over with fpots twice as big 
as thofe of a Carp. The ileih ol this.fiih is wliiie» 
well tailed, and very nourifliing. 

With regard to flat Fifh fome of them are exceeding 
large and very uncommon ; for one of thefe ne?r the 
ifland of St. Chrijlofker's^ came within a mulket fliot 
of the fhore, and two boats with about twenty men 
each were fent out after it. They flruck it with three 
harpons at once, which were fo far from killing it, 
that it dragged the boats a grtai way into the open iea ; 
infomnch that they deipaired g^ taking it. However 
it was tired at length and grew weak with the lofs of 
blood, and then they brought It on inore It waj 
twelve feet in kngth inn-^ head to tail, «ind ten ia 
breadth from one fin to the other, 1 he flclh wss io 
hard and tough that it was not ftt to eat ; hcvever they 
took out the liver, which required twelve men to drag 
it along. 

There is another particular fort of Fifh with a fnout 
like a hog, and a tail three, and fometimes four feet 
long, which grows fmallcr by degrees, Jt is all over 
black, and has the appeirancc of a fwitch made of 
whalebone, the gendemen ufe it inliead of a whip ; 
but at the top ot the tail there are two prickles like 
hooks, which are fo venemous, that a perfon hurt there- 
with is fure to die unlefs proper medicines are applied in 
time. However, it carries an antidote along with it, 
for if a bit of the flefh be laid upon the wound it is a 
certain cure. This fiili feems to be akin to the Sea Eagle. 

The SEA NEEDLE of the PFeJl Indies has a fquare 
body above a foot in length, and of a bluilh colour. 
It is a little greenifn on the back, and of a filver colour 
under the belly. The head is almoil triangular, and 
at the two upper corners of it there are yellow eyes, 
and a fnout near ten inches long, which is hard, {lender, 
and as lliarp as a needle. The mouth is armed with 
jTmall hooked teeth, and the lower jaw is longer than 
the upper. The fm that runs from the head to the tail 
15 green, and (hines like glafs ; and there aie two fins 
near the bead, befides two otheis under the belly, the 
L 4 tail 



224 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

tjil is forked like that of a mackrel, and is white and 
well tailed. 

The ORFIE is a fifh fomewhat like the former ; but 
it darrs itfelf out of the water very fvviftly to" the length 
of thirty paces, r.nd if a man fiiould Hand in its way at 
that time it would certainly make a pafiage through his 
iovjy. The fiefh is as gcod as that of the farmer, pro- 
ijced it has not fed upon manchinccl apples; which 
)oay he known by the dirtinefs of the teeth, that are 
larger than thofe of the former, and if thefe are not 
"xtry white there is danger in eating it. 

'I'he BALAOU is about the length of a Sardin, and 
its lower jaw confifts of a Ihong cartilage about the 
length of a man's finger, which is ilender and as fharp 
as a needle at the end. The flefh of thisfefliis delicate 
and well tailed. 

The SEA PARROT is in fnape much like a Carp, 
and all the (bales on the back are of a brownilh green ; 
Lilt thofe below it as far as the belly, are of a light 
green. It has no teeth, but in their room there are 
•t'A'o exceeding hard bones. The fins and tail are 
beautifully variegated, with blue, yellow, and red; 
infoniuch that when they are expanded they look as 
beautiful as a Parrot or Parroqueet, from whence it has 
its name, and not from its fnout, like that taken 
notice of before. The flefn'is good, well tailed, and 
nourifliing. 

The MUR^NA is a fort of a Sea Serpent, but 
fhapsd like an Eel, though not fo round. They ara 
feldom feen above two feet in length and four inches 
in breadth. The head is round, and the mouth wide, 
armed with two rows of flrong teeth as fharp as needles. 
The fkin of the female is brown, and variegated with 
fpots like flowers of a gold colour ; but the male has 
only a row of gilt fpots that run from the head to the 
tail. Cut the greateft particulaiity of this fifh is, that 
the great fin that runs from the head to the tail has rays 
that bend forward inllead of backward. It has a pro- 
digious ftrength in its tail, for when it is (ii)^td for it 
often clings or flicks to a rock, and then you may pull 
the head off, before it will let go its hold, which has 
fallen out fcveral limes. Uiilefs this fi(h be old the flefh 



r F I S H E S. 225 

is a- foft and as clammy as melted glue, and when it is 
come to maturity, it is fo full of bones that few will 
give themfclves the trouble to pick them out, though 
then the flefli is white and well tailed. 

The PiLOT FltiH is about the fize and ihape of a. 
Mackrel, with a long fmooth head, and a fnout which 
advances four inches beyond the mouth. It has two 
imall fins near the head, and one that runs along the 
back from the head to the tail, befides another under 
the belly of the fame length. The head is very fmall, 
and the body is covered with a Ikin that has fpots in the 
form of a lozenge. The Fremh call it a Pilot Filli, 
becaule as they fay, vihen it meets with a fhip it always 
follows it till it reaches the harbour j it likevvife keeps 
company with fharks. 

That defcribed by Sir Hans Sio -n is almoil of a fquare 
fhape, if the fins are included, being five inches long 
and four broad in the middle. The mouth is fmall, 
with feveral rows of little teeth, and the eyes large with 
a white iris. There are two fms on the back, and 
that neareft the head is oblong at the beginning, and 
the fucceeding rays are fom.ewhat fpiny. That beyond 
it is very large, and anfwers to another of the fame 
k'nd on the belly. 1 he tail is almofl fquare, and the 
whole body is covered with afh coloured fcales, except 
three or four tranfveife flripes, 7 he latersl lines are 
crooked. Hence it appears, that this is a different fifli 
from the former. 

Captain Cook fays, that a Pilot Fifh appears in the 
v/ater much like a Mackrel, and feems to be painted 
with blue and white llripes like a barber's pole. He 
alfo informs us, there is another fort, which when out 
of the water is of a deep blue, only the belly is of a- 
lighter colour than the back and fides ; and the fcales 
are fmooth like thofe of a Tench ; but the back is 
fpeckled like the fkin of a Seal. It is eight inches long 
from head to tail, and three inches broad. The ficih. 
i^ accoujited very good. 



I- ^ CHAP. 



226 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

CHAP. XXVI. 

Of the African fijh near the Cape of Good Hope, 

TH E ELFT is a Tea fifb taken in the table bay, 
and in fome things refembles a Shad. It is three 
quarters of a yard in length or fomewhat more, and has 
fcales like thofe of a Herring, only they are of a yel- 
lowiih colour. The bnck is whitidi, the belly white, 
fpotted with black, and at the bottom of it there runs 
a black llripe or lift from the head to the tail. This 
fiih is full of bones, and the flelh is fo hard that it is 
(cldom eaten for its own fake, but that of the fauce 
generally made for it. 

The SILVER FISH is of the fhape and fize of a 
Carp of a pound weighr, and the tafte is not much 
different. It is of whitiili colour, and adorned with 
filver ihining llripes, that run tranfverlly from the back 
to the fides. I'hey feem to be covered with leaf filver, 
as well as the tail, and the mouth is furnilhed with fmall 
ftarp teeth, This filli keeps generally in the fea, 
though it fometimes enters the mouth of rivers, at 
which time great numbers of them are taken. 

The BENNET is a fea fifli, and is often taken with 
a hook by the failors. It is nearly as long and as thick 
as a man's arm, and weighs ilx or eight pounds. It is 
a very beautiful iifh. having large fcales of a deep 
purple colour ftreaked with gold. The eyes are red, 
the mouth little and without teeth; and near the gills 
there arc tAO fins of a gold colour. The tail is led, 
aiid looks like a pair of fciffars when open. The fcales 
are tranfparcnt, for when they are taken off, the Ikin is 
of a fnining purple. The flelh is red, and divided into 
flakes by a fort of membrane. It preferves this colour 
v>hen it is boiled, but it is not fo lively. The flelh is a 
little dry and hard, and yet it is well tailed and eafy of 
^i^ellion. 

The HOTTENTOT FISH are fo called, becaufe 
the Dutch firil bought thefe fifhof iht Hcttentois. l hey 
are of tv;o or three forts, one of which has its back 
andfidjs of a black iih colour^ and the head of a dark 

purple. 



O F F I S H E S. 227 

purple. Another fort is of a deep blue, and feems to 
be fpotted. The firfl fort is fomewhat more round, 
more broad, and more fliort than the fecond. It weighs 
about a pound, and is feven or eight inches long. 
They may be called Sea Breams, from tkdr likenefs to 
that iilh. They feed upon fea weeds, and any fihh that 
is thrown into the fba. They are but feldom caught with 
a net, unlefs driven by a tempeil near the fliore. The 
Hcttentcts take them with an angle, whillling and mak- 
ing as much noife as they can at the flime time ; for 
they imagine this makes them bite fooner. Thefe fifh 
are very wholefome and well tailed, and when the 
fiihermen cannot difpofe of them while frefh, they fslt 
and dry them in the fun, and keep them to fell to the* 
mailers of fhip^^. 

The JACOB EVERTSEN FISH already mentioned, 
if^ called the Sea Bream by the Dutch. There are 
two forts Of them, the firfl of which is covered with 
red fcaJes fpotted with blue, except the middle of the 
body, which is of a gold colour, and on the belly it is 
of a pale red. The eyes are large and red, with hlver- 
coloured circles about ihem ; but the mouth is fmall, 
and furnilhed with fiender teeth. It appears to be 
under the throat, and its fleih is excellent and very 
wholefome. The fecond fort diiFers from the former 
in being larger, in having a fmaller mouth, and under 
'the thi:oat it is cf a deep red. All thefe f.ili keep in the 
fea, but the two laft are feld©m met with in deep water. 
This liih has its name from Jac.b E^oertfcn^ who lived 
£1 the Cape, and liad a large red nofc, wirh a (kin io 
pitted with the fmall pox, that when he was fhaved i^ome 
of the hair always remained in the pitts. At this time 
his face had a great rcfemblance to the Red Bream., as 
well tin accocmt of its colour as tht fpors which re- 
mained. This man failed once to the iHand of St. 
Maurice to take thefe iifh ; and the (hip's compr.n-y being 
on fhore and in a phafunt humour, bellevved u] on 
them the captain's name, which they have kept ever 
fmce, not only at the Ca^e cf GooJ Ho^s, but in tiie 
Mafi LJies. 

. The CABELJAU, fo called by the Dutch, \2 of 

feveral kinds, but they only fait one of them which is 

• L 6 uot 



228 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

n t fpottcd like that of the fame name in the Eajl Indies, 
It is of an alh colour, and covered with large fcales, 
and there is a black lift runs from the head to the tail. 
It is two or three fe^t long, and has very hard fins, 
'i'his fifii if e.iten while frefn, is extreamly good and 
(delicate ; but after it is falted it becomes hard of digeilion. 
However it is very nouriftiing, and very good for the 
flaves, as well a- fuch as work hard. 

The PLAIlE, fo called, becaufe it is like one, it 
being a flat fifh near an inch thick. On each iide the 
mouth there is a large round fpot, which fhines like 
chryftal. The fiicut is pointed and almoft tranfparent ; 
but the lower jaw is covered with a rough f-<.in. There 
are alfo fhining fpots on feveral parts of the body, and 
the tail is very thin. Thefe fiih cafl: a great deal of 
fpawn, and when the eggs come to perfection they are 
covered with a cubical (hell of a chefnut colour. 'l~here 
are about three hundred of thefe in one roc. The ilefli 
is very hard, and not very eafy of digeftion, nor is it 
well tailed. It has no fpines or bones, it being a car- 
tilaginous fifh. The lioiterJots take great numbeis of 
them, and fell them to the Europeans at the Cape for 
fuch trilles as thev Hand in need of. 

The STONE EREAM or r.OLK BREAM, is taken 
at the mouths of rivers, where they come with the tide 
in large ihoals. They are much like a Carp in Ihapc, 
but the flefh is much firmer, and not fo bony. It is- 
from a foot and a half to three feet long, and weghs 
from two to eight pounds. They are of difTer^nt 
, colours, though they are all brown on the back ; but 
fome have Itripcs of the fame colour on the fides, which 
renders them the more beautiful, becaufe the other fcales 
are large and white in thofe parts. The fleih is very 
good either frefh or failed. 

The STOMPNEUSEN, that is the nat nofe, is fo 
called, becaufe the fore part of the head is flat, tho- 
fc-^lcs are large and of a purple colour, and they have 
great eyes, with round ftiarp teeth. They are not very 
plentiful, though the fltfh is very del cate, and perhaps 
the more in eftcem, becaufe it is fcarce. 

The ZEE-TON G is little ciherent from a Sole, if 
not the fame fifh. Some of thefe that are fo called have 

fmaU 



OF FISHES. ^29- 

fmall fcales, and others have none at all. The eyes, 
if the exprelTion maybe allowed, -are upon the back,. 
which is blackifli as well as the fins ; but thofe under 
the belly are white, the belly itfelf being of the lame 
colour. 

The NAMELESS FISH was taken near the 
coaft of /^f ica, in tlie latitude of ten degrees. None 
of the faiiors had ever feen any of thefe fort of fiih 
before, and yet they did not think proper to beftow a 
name upon it contrary, to cuftom. It was eight feet 
in length, and the head and tail were a foot and a half 
in diameter, or four feet and a half in circumference. 
It was without fcale^, but had a thick rough fkin, like 
fiiagreen. It was taken by a large hook fattened to an 
iron chain that was defigned to catch Sharks. It was 
drawn up to the fide of the fhip, where it was kept till 
it was dead ; for it feemed fo flrong, that they durft 
not draw it upon the deck for fear of the mifchief it 
might do. It had a very large mouth armed with 
twelve great teeth, fix in the upper jaw and fix in the 
lower. They were near two inches long, and fharp at 
the points. J he fnout advanced fix inches beyond the 
lower jaw, and the parts about it were covered with a 
rough (kin like that on the reft of the body, and of a- 
greyilh colour. The lips were of a bright led, and 
the eyes were large, red, and fparkled like fire. A 
Shark came near it while it was upon the hook ; but ft 
received fuch a blow with this fifh's tail, that it did not. 
Care to make a fecond onfet. But that which appeared- 
molt extraordinary in this fifh, were five large incifions 
or clefts, which were very deep, and which this fifli 
would open a'd fhut at pleafure. They were in the 
place wliere the gills are feated in other fifh. On the 
fide of thefe there was an extream thick flelhy fi.n, with 
another of the fame lOit upon the back ; but under the 
belly there were two. The" tail was forked, thick, 
broad, ftrong, and covered with the fame fort of Ikin. 
As for the flefli nothing can be faid of it, for none of 
the faiiors would venture to touch it. 



C H A F, 



230 THE NATURAL HISTORY 
CHAP, xxvir. 

OJ bloodlefs foft Fljh, 

THE POLYPUS, or MANY FOOTED FISH 
is large, and refembles a Cuttle Fifh, having a 
belly of the fame Ihape. The gullet is long, and at 
the end of it there is a crop or ftomach conneded to the 
belly, with only one gut that has never a fold. The 
head when it is alive is very hard, and feems to be in- 
flated. It has eight long thick paws or feet which 
itixz for fwimming, walking, and bringing any thing 
to its mouth when it v/ants to eat. Thefe paws are at 
fome diiutnce from each other, but they arc joined to- 
gether by a thick membrane ; and the four on the 
middle are iii\Q. largeft. The other four may be called 
barbs, and the eyes are placed on the top of two of 
thefe paws, and between them is the mouth furniihed 
with teeth. It carries on its back a long body made 
like a tube or pipe, which it makes ufe of like a 
rudder when fwimming; upon which account it turns 
it to the right or left according to the place to which it 
wants to go. The ilefh is not covered with any ap- 
parent (kin, and it is fpungy, hard, and not eafy of 
ciigellion. This fiQi is found in the Adr'ia'ick fea, and 
feeds upon Sheli-filh, as well as upon human bodies 
when it meets with any. It v/rll likewife eat fruits, 
herbs, and is fend of oil. Like the Cuttle Fifh, it has 
near the ftomach a bladder full of black or rather 
reddifn brown liquor, which it iheds when it wants to 
be concealed. The eggs are like thofe of a Cuttle Fifh, 
only they are white. Some give the name of Feelers 
to what others CLllFeet. 

The CUTTLE FISH is of an oblong Ihape, being 
about fix inches in length, and three and a half in 
thickntfs. The body is fomewhat oval ; but broadcft 
near the head, and grows fmaller towards the extremity, 
where it is obtufjly pointed. Its back is covered with 
a (hell a large as a man's hand, and about an inch 
thick in the midJle, but it is more /lender on the iiJes. 
Jt is hard above, but very fpungy and brittle below, 

being 



O F F I S H E S. 231 

I)eing very white, and talks a little fakilli. The Gold- 
frni hs make ufe of it for many purpofes. Under its 
throat there is a vefTel or bladder full of liquor blacker 
than ink, which it fheds in the water when it wants to 
be concealed, or would efcape from the iifhermen. 
There are two forts, of legs of feelers joined to the head, 
which ferves this fiih for fwimming and brmging any 
thing to its mouth. The two Ihorteil are in the middle, 
and are ferrated on the infide. Next to them are two 
long ones, one on each fide, and the fix remaining are 
generally turned backwards, being of a pyramidal 
figure. It lives upon fmall filh, and is met with near 
the Ihores of the ocean, as well as of the Mediterranean 
fea. "] he fiefh is good to eat, and is often met with at 
the tables of the inhabitants of Bourdeaux, Lyonsy and 
Nants, in France, befides many other places. The eggs 
are as large as fmall grapes, and are connefled together 
like bunches of that fruit. They are of a deep violet 
colour, or blackifii, and each egg is covered with a 
membrane, and fupported by a liganient as long as the 
breadth of a finger. When they are opened, there may 
be feen without a microfcope, the eyes, body, and bone, 
which already begins to be hard ; as alfo the vefi^els in 
which the black liquor is contained. Thefe eggs are 
often met wiih on the fea Ihore, and have neither much 
imell nor taile. 

The CALAMARY, or the SLEEVE FISH, is a- 
kin to a Cuttle Fiih, and has an oblong cartilaginous 
body covered with two Ikins, in which it diiters from 
the Cuttle Firh, and in having fofter fiefh ; however, it 
has ten legs or feelers, four of v/hich, in the middle, 
are pyramidal, arid have rough bony tubercles on the 
infide of each, which make them appear as if they were 
ferrated. On each fide of thefe there is another, which 
is very long and thick at the extremities, which feem to 
have tubercles like fliells thereon, as the two following 
pair have through their whole length, that is on the in- 
fide, and are alfo of a pyramidal fnape. On the belly there 
are two receptacles or. canals full of very black liquor, 
%vhich might i'Qrve for ink. It lives on the fry of filh 
^nd fmall Crabs ; and it is generally found at the bottom 
©f the fea near Greece. Some have a very great eileera for 

the 



252 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

the fledi of this fifli, and others think it very ordinary. 
All thefe have a fin on each fide the body. 

The SEA HAkE. is of a reddifh black colour when 
alive, but when dead, it is of a lightiili brown. Some 
fancy it to be of the fhape of a Land Kare, and Ronde- 
htius defcribes three kinds of them, the firft of which is 
deadly, and feems to be covered with a naked JTicll, 
efpecially on the back part of the body. Jt has a bone 
on the back as in a Cuttle Fifli, which towards the tail is 
a little wreathed. On each fide of the belly, there are 
fin<, as in the faid fifh ; and there are two flefhy horns 
not unlike ears ; but in reality they are feelers. One 
part of the head is like that of a BaJlance Fi{h, and in 
the ether, there is a hole, through which it thrulls a 
flalhy fubilance at pleafure. In the middle of thefe there 
i« a chink or cleft initead of a mouth ; and it refembles 
the Calamary, not only in the ink vefTels, but in the 
internal parts. HoA'ever, the liver, fpleen, ^'C. are 
plact'd on the contrary fide to thofe of land animals, 
and feem to be nothing but a confufed Mafs. It has a 
very naufeous fifhy fmell. 

The fecond SEA HARE, is bigger than the former, 
though it is like it in other things, except in having two 
broad flefhy appendages, in the middle of which there 
is a chink ; and the feelers are ihorter and (harper. 
There is no bone on the back, but on each fide of the 
back part there are fins, which are larger than thofe of 
a Cuttle Fifh. The third kmd has* its mouth underneath 
tlic head, and next to it is the belly in the fliape of an 
fig, as in Cuttle Fifh, but the extremity is jagged. 
Under the mouth there is a thin liefhy membrane, witb 
fringe on the edges, of a black colour. The whole 
body is glofTy, and the fmell is fo naufeous, that it 
make.-i people Tick that come near it. Belomus affirms, 
that the whole body does not exceed the fize of aGoofe 
^%Z- ^Lit ^s thefe fifh feldom cornes • nJer an accurate 
examination, the Icfs can be faid of thciu with any cer- 
tainty. 



chap; 



O F F I S H E S. 233 

CHAP, xxvir. 

Of Crufacious F',Jh. 

TPIESE are of a iriiddle kind, between the foft 
and iliell-iifh ; for they being covered v/ith a thiu 
fhell, they in feme fort agree with the teilacecus kind; 
and as the infide is flelhy, they in that refped agre-e 
with thofe jull defciibed. The llomach lies immediate- 
ly next to the mouth, and from the belly a gut proceeds, 
which is fmall in proportion to the body, and runs di- 
redly to .the vent. There are two teeth in the mouth ; 
but as they are not fufncient, for the comminution of 
the food, there are three in the ftomach, one on each 
fide, and the third below. Between the two teeth, 
there is a flefliy mbfiance in the iliape of a tongue ; and 
the eyes are placed over the mouth, which are hard in 
all of this kind; but they may be turned to any fide 
'this animal pleafes. Though the head is fmall, it is 
defended by appendages and feelers ; and in general, 
they have eight feet or claws each. The right great 
claw is generally larger than the left; but whether it is 
always fo, may be doubted. There is one circumftance 
peculiar to thefe animals, or at leaft as far as we know 
iiitherto, namely, that if by any chance they loofe one 
or more of their claws, not excepting the largeft, they 
will grow again. 

The LOBSTER is fo well known, that it flands in 
little need of a defcription. The ihell is black before it 
is boiled, but afe 'wards it is red. It has eight claws, or 
legs, of which, the two foremofl are by much the largeft. 
They always feed at the bottom of the water, and feize 
on their prey with their large claws ; and when nothing 
better offers, they fearch the beds of mud and gravel 
for the worms that lye therein. I'hey are taken in 
pots, as the filhermen call them, that are m^de of 
wicker work ; and in thefe they put in the bait, and 
throw them to the bottom of the fea, in fix to ten fa- 
thom uater. The Lobfters creep into thefe for the fake 
of the bait ; but are not able to get out again. The 

fleib. 



2H THENATURAL HISTORY 

flefh is well known to be a great rellorative, and good 
for confumptive people. 

The Hones taken out of Lobftcrs, falfely and impro- 
perly called Crab's eyes, are found in the bodies of frfn 
of this kind^ and they produce two every year, that h 
one on each fide the lower part of the Itomach, and 
nearelf the head. Thefe ftones take their origin between 
the two membranes of that organ. The flat or concave 
fide touches the internal membrane, which is thin and 
tranfparent, though ftrong, and of a horny fubllance, 
but the convex fide is ahvays outward. Jtis covered 
with the flefhy foft membranes of the ftomach, and the 
fibres leave marks on the fublhnce of the ftone. It 
grows by little and little, and in plates, between thefe 
two external membranes ; the internal, which is horny, 
ferves only to preferve its ftiape; for which reafon th€ 
Itones are always convex on that fide. The firft (hell, 
or plate, on which all others are afterwards laid, is 
placed near the center, and the edges of the feveral 
layers, which are fucceflively formed after this, may be 
feen diflinflly at the edges. In feeking for thefe (tones, 
you mufl endeavour to find little round circular opaque 
ipots, that are whiter than the reilof the ftomach ; for 
thefe fpcts are the places where you may exped to find 
thefe Hones. 

It has been thought that Lobfters were deprived of 
thefe ftone* when they loft their fhells in the fpring fca- 
fon every year. About the time that the lobfter is going 
to quit the (hell, the ftones pierce the internal and horny 
coat of the ftomach, and the three teeth of this organ 
break the ftones, and in a fhort time the fluids therein 
diftblve them, for which reafon they are not to be found 
at that time ; which makes many believe that they are 
then voided. However, if this affair be examined more 
narrowly, thefe ftones may be found there half confum- 
ed. It is not very certain uhat ufe thefe ftones are of 
to the Lobfters, though fome fuppofe that they fupply 
them with fluids that have a petrifying quality, and pro- 
per to help to form a new ftiell. It is in the very large 
rivers near Jjlrachan, that thofe Lobfters are produced 
^'hich have the largeft ftones, where they are fold foi* 

about 



O F F I S H E S. 235 

about three-pence a pound ; and from whence large 
quantities are tranfpnrted to other countries. 

The SEA LOCUST or PRAWN, is afortofLob- 
fter, and has two large horns or feelers placed before 
the eyes. They are rough and prickly near the roots, 
where they are very thick, and from thence they grow 
fmooth and more flender till they terminate in a point. 
They can move them on which fide they pleafe, and 
the eyes are horny, (landing out of the head, and are 
moveable every way ; and they are defended with ex- 
ceeding fharp prickles. . On the fides of the mouth there 
are fmall appendages like litde feet, and the back is 
very rough, with prickles ; but on the forehead there is 
a very Lrge one. On each fide there are five clavvy, 
the foremolt of which are very fmfdl in comparifon with 
thofe of a Lcbiler. The tail is fmooth, being without 
prickles, and they confilt of five fheils, which terminate 
in fins on each fide, which enables them to fwim from 
place to place ; and in this tail the whole ftrength of 
the Prawn confills. The two fore teeth are very large, 
and between the mouth and the llomach, there is a Imall 
one ; as alfo feveral in the ftomach itfelf. They re- 
ceive the water through the mouth, which they tranf- 
mit to the gills, that are more numerous in this fiih than 
in any other of this kind. There is a tube runs from 
the breaft as far as the vent, which in the females ferves 
for a uterus. It lies in a furrow of the flcfh, and runs 
along the upper part of the tail. The back is of a blueifli 
black, and the upper fore teeth are three times larger 
than the lower ; but they are both fharp pointed. They 
are found in the Mediterranean fea, particularly near 
Genoa. In the Eaji-lndian feas, they are faid to grow 
to the length of four cubits ; but this feems to be incre- 
dible. In the winter they frequent the rocky places 
near the fliores j but in the fummer they go back to the 
deeps. They feed upon the fry of filhes, and they 
fpawn about Auguft. The flelh is very good, and they 
are befl when the fpawn is within the body at the time 
of the full moon. In Italy they are faid to be in feafon 
from Oftober to April. Prawns are very common in the 
Britijh fi(h markets. 

The 



236 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The ELEPHANT LOBSTER, is fhaped pretty 
much like a common Lobrter, only the fore claws are 
longer, and the nippers are more thin and broad, and 
open wider than in any of this kind. There are three 
fmall claws next the large ones, which are long and 
prickly ; and there are two more, that is, one on each 
fide, which are very fmall and fmooth, having neither 
prickles nor hairs. 1 here are two very long feelers 
that are exceeding fmall, befides other ftiort ones, on 
the forehead, among which there is a {hort one in the 
middle, which is not ferrated. Thefe laic ferve as a de- 
fence for the eyQSf which are horny and prominent. 
The whole body is undulated, like watered tabby, and 
the fhclls of the tail as in other Lobiters, end in fiveiins 
variegated with lines. Sea 'igcr favv one of thefe that had 
a fore claw as large as a child's arm. The fiefti is ac- 
counted a delicacy in ^ta,y. 

The fmall StiA LOBSTER oi Rondeletius, has a red 
fhell while it is alive, variegated with tranfverfe blue 
lines. The head and breaft are rounder than thofe of 
Cray-fi fh, and on the head there is a broadifh large horn, 
-in proportion to the body. It is ferrated on each fide, 
and placed between the eyes, which it can draw in and 
thruft out at pleafure. 7 here are four horns placed be- 
fore the eyes, which are fliorter than in the former, and 
placed near each other. The two long ones, called 
teelers, are very flexible, and full of joints, as in the 
reft of this kind. The large clavv' on each fide is dea- 
tated within the nippers, as in Lobfters, and they con- 
fift of four joints. The tail confifts of -feveral fhells, 
and terminate in fins, nnd under the tail there are mem- 
b;anes deiigned to retain the fpawn till it is large enough 
to fall off. 

The LOBSTER of Ron 'eletius, is generally red, fpot- 
ted with blue, red, and white ; but when it is boiled 
it becomes all over red. It has two long horns or 
feelers placed before the eyes, and two others that are 
faaaller. In the middle of the fore-head, there is an- 
other broad flat fmall horn with teeth on each fide like 
a faw. Jt has four legs on each fide, befidcs the 
pinchers, and there are two others that are fmaller and 
Lairy, with the endi made like the beak* of birds, the 

upper 



O F F I S H E S. 237 

upper part is moveable, and ferrated on the infide, as 
we]l as the lower. One pair of pinchers is always 
larger than the other, and two of the feet on each fide, 
which are ceareft the pinchers, ^re cloven at the ends. 
The tail is covered with five plates, and its end is broad, 
and furnifhed with fins proper to fwim with ; the eyes 
are fmall and fhoit, and the mouth cloven long- ways. 
There is likewiie another fea Cray-filh, out of whofe 
head a pretty large and broad horn proceeds which is 
cut on each fide like a faw, and is feated between the 
eyes, which it can thruft out or draw in at pleafure. 
There are four other horns or feelers before the eyes, 
that is, two (hort, and two long. Likewife, on each 
fide there is a great claw or pincher, with joints that are 
dentated on the infide ; but the feet, which are eight, 
are not forked. The body ib covered with fiielly plates, 
and the tail is made ufe of for iwimming. It is of a 
red colour traverfed with blue llreaks, and is not very 
common. 

The River CRAY FISH, differs little or nothing 
from f )me Lobiters, only it is lefs, and alv/ays black 
before it is boiled. The body is round, and the head is 
terminated by a pretty broad horn, ^hich is Ihort and 
pointed, under which the eyes are placed. On the fore 
part of the head there are four feelers or horns, that is 
two long and two Ihort, and the ends terminate in hairs. 
The pinchers are forked, rough, dentated, confiding 
of five joints, and there are four feet on each fide, the 
two firft of which, next the pinchers, are cloven at the 
end, and the next two are furniihed with a fpur. The 
upper part of the body is covered with five fiielly plates, 
and on the tail there are fwe fins. They are to be found ia 
alniofi every brook, river, and rivulet in 'Engla-nd^ though 
in fome places more than ethers. Their places of abode 
are in holes on the fides of banks, under the (urface of the 
water, where thofe employed in taking them, put in 
their hands and draw them out. Some are fo expert in 
taking them, that they will catch feveral dozens in an 
afiernocn. 

There are a fort of Cray-filh in the Eaji -Indies^ tha.t 
have prickles on the back dentated like a faw ; fome oF 

ihem 



238 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

them are fo large as to weigh fix pounds, notwithfiand- 
ing which they are very dehcate eating. 

The SHRIMP, has a tail fomewhat like the Lobfter 
kind, but it has no nippers ; but they have more claws. 
In feme places they are blackilh in the fpring, but af- 
terwards become white. Some have Iharp horns fixed 
at the top of the head, among which the eyes are 
placed ; and the gut runs through the tail, as in the 
former. They live in fait water lakes, and in rocky 
places on the fea Ihore. In the EaJ}- Indian feas, they 
are of a larger fize, and keep at the bottom. The broad 
Shrimp, called the Sea Bear by fome, is of the fize 
of a common (hrimp, but broader and flatter ; and in 
the forehead there are two bones, on each fide one, fer- 
rated on the circumference. To thefe a fort of fins are 
conneded, between which there are horns or feelers, 
articulated at the beginning, and divided in two about 
the middle. It has two claws with prickles, which 
Hand up like nails, but thefe claws have no nippers, 
and yet they take their food with them, and hold it to 
their mouths. There are four other claws on each fide, 
and the eyes are a little prominent. The forehead 
is fquare, and larger in proportion than in anycruftace- 
ous fi{h. There are many tumours on the back, on 
which arc tubercles, whofe upper parts are as red as a 
carbuncle. From thefe they receive the name of a Sea 
Bear, that is, from their being rough. They frequent 
the muddy bottoms pf the fea j for which reafon, whea 
they are catched, they are ufually very dirty. They 
are common at Naples, Rome, and in many parts of 
Jfrica. 

* The CAR ANGO, is a fort of a Shrimp, about a palm 
in length, £nd is covered with a thin fmooth white (hell, 
which has often a rcddifh call, and when boiled, is en- 
tirely red, though it is tranfparent. There is a ferrated 
horn on the forehead, which turns up and is fmooth in 
the middle. The eyes aie horney, and un^ler them are 
two cavities like ihofe of Snails. There are four other 
hon,s, of which two that are properly the feelers, are 
long, flexible, and flender. There are five claws on 
each fjde, of which three terminate in a fort of a fpur. 
'I'he back part of the body is thick and long In piopor- 
3 tioii 



G F F I S H E S. 239 

tion to the reft, confifting of feven fhells, and terminat- 
ing in four tins, and on the middle of it there is a prickle 
broader than in the Gibbous Shrimp. That which 
Gefner favv, was partly red, p..rtly whitifh, and yellovv- 
iih on the fidss. The flefh is the beft of any of this 
kind, it being tender, fweet, and nourifhing. They 
are faid to be moll in feafon in February y Manh, Jpril, 
and May. 

The GIBBOUS SHRIMP, is fo called from the 
crookednefs of its body, and is more fiender than the 
former, but more efpecially at the end of the tail. Jt 
has fix very fiender feelers in the forehead, and at the 
end of the. tail there are four fins, of which, that in the 
middle is hard, ferrated, pyramidal, and terminates in a 
point. They are very common on the fhores of feme 
parts of France, and the fielh is accounted very good. 

The COMMON SHRIMP, is the fmalleft of this 
kind, and is truly and properly the Shrimp. It is called 
Squilla'm Latin, as well as all the reft, for which reafon 
they have been placed under this general name, though 
perhaps not very properly ; fince a flirimp with us is ge- 
nerally fuppofed to be a very diminitive fort cf an ani- 
mal. Some of thefe are fo fmall, that a thoufand will 
fcarce weigh a pound, but this kind is not known in 
England, though it is common at Venice, and in Gafcony, 
where they devour them without taking off the Ihell?. 
The fhape of our Shrimp is like that of the gibbous kind, 
from which it differs very little, except in fize. It is 
common on the fea Ihore, and in the mouths of large 
rivers, as well as at a confiderable diftance from the fea. 
The flefh is very fweet, and is commonly ufed as fauce 
for other iiih, though fometimes they are eaten alone. 

I'here are Shrimps in the EaJi-InJies, that grow to be 
near a fpan in length, and have ihells like ouis. They 
are of a fallow colour, with a red forked tail. Several 
feelers proceed out of the head, two of which are more 
remarkable than the reft, being long and fiender. The 
liefh is very well tafted, and five or fix is fuflicient for a 
meal. There are alfo river Shrimps in thefe parts of 
the fame fize as our common Shrimps ; but they are of 
a bl^e colour, with a fmall head and a thick body, with 

two 



240 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

two long feelers as fine as a thread. The fnell is not fo 
hard as the former, neither are they fo well tafted. 

The SEA CRAB is of different kinds, and therefore 
it is no wonder the defcription fhould differ in different 
authors. They have lenerally a roundifh body, and 
the back is a little arched, and the tail turns up under 
the body, lying in a cavity made for that puipofe. 
They are of different fizes, for fome will weigh a great- 
many pounds, but thofe that are moft common, are 
equal to about twelve our.ces. The male is diftinguifh- 
ed from the female by having a broader tail, in the fame 
manner as Lobllers. But as a Crab is generally well 
known, it dees not need any farther defcription. Some 
prefer the flefti of a Crab, ei'pecially when full of fpawn, 
to that of a Lobller ; whereas, moll: think the latter 
ought to have the preference. Many Phyficians have 
thought thera very good for confumptive people ; and 
indeed they are very nourifhing, as well as Lobllers, 
and moft kinds of (hell iilh. 

The CRAB, called by fome authors MAG A, has fo 
heavy a body, that it can hardly move along when taken 
out of the water, and when it is alive, it is of a livid or 
greenifh colour, fprinklcd with red fpots. The legs or 
claws are long and llender, having four joints, and -there 
are four on each fide, befides the great claws, or nip- 
pers. The ihanks are very rough, and the female has 
a broadifh cover, under which there are two holes with 
a membrane to clofe them, which are placed near the 
roots of the hinder claws. There are two bony teeth in 
the mouth, and on the palate there is a caruncle inftead 
,of a tongue. Near the mouth there is a large cavity, 
which may be ei:her called the I'econd mouth, or ihe- 
flomach, for there are four teeth therein, like thofe 
•called dog-teeth, and one grinder wlieje the throat be- 
gins. 'J here is only one manifcil gut, which is round, 
and runs along direftly to the tail ; but there are two 
bladders in the belly, on each fide one, which are large, 
ftrong, and membranous, and the paflage from them 
outv/ardly, is through the abovementioned holes that 
lye under the cover of the tail. There are fix gills on 
each fide, under the head, which may be dilUnguilhed 
from the tegumert itfelf, by a certain membrar.e. 

2 The 



fa4;!^ 2^y 







\ 



O F F I S H E S. 241 

The CRAB, named the HIPPOCARCINUS, from 
its fize, is covered all over the back with fpinous 
prickles, which are bigger on the fides than elfewhere. 
Over the eyes, which are prominent, two fharp horns 
are placed, and there are two horns, or feelers, which 
are villous, and ferve to defend the mouth, which is 
placed below them. There are five claws on each fide, 
including the great ones, and they have all the fame 
number of joints. The great claws are of the fize of a 
child's arm, and the nippers are of a dulky colour ; 
from thefe there proceed a fort of fliaggy hairs, almoft 
like pencils. 

There is another fort, which is not unlike the former 
on the back; but the tail is of an oval fhape, and the 
end terminates in a narrow Ihield-like appendage, hav- 
ing five corners or angles. Near the mouth there are 
many villous feelers, and under the belly there is a ca- 
vity proper for retaining the fpawn. There is ftill an- 
other of this kind, which has lix large fpines or thorns 
on each of their fides, and tv/o large ones on the fore 
part of the head. They are two palms in length, and 
the claws, feelers, and upper part of the body are rough, 
with tubercles. A fourth, is of the fame fiiape, but 
there are more fpines or thorns on each fide, and on the 
back ; belides, the claws and feelers are rough and 
hairy ; Hkewife, the upper part is Ipotted with various 
colours, particularly v/ith red. A fifth kind has thorns 
on the fore part of the head and fides, as well as the 
under part of the head, and the whole is of a duffcy co- 
lour. The laft has a wooly roughnefs on the Ihell, and 
the colour is a mixture of aih and brown. I hey are 
found in the feas near Greece ; and the males are thought 
to be nioft in feafon in the autumn and winter, particu- 
larly at the full mcon. Some fay they continue good 
till ^/r /, and then the female begins to be good, and 
continues ib till Se;temhtr. 

The ROCK CRAB is very broad and long ; for in 
the ocean it grows to be a foot in length ; fome of thefe 
in EnAand, have weighed ten pounds* It is covered 
with a fl:rong fhell, and there are nine crooked horrs 
round the circumference of the back, and the colour is 
of a gre^nifh black. There are four claws on each {\Aq, 
Vol. III. M which 



24^ THE NATURAL HISTORY 
which are rough and hairy, and there are three joint* 
in each ; they are terminated with fharp oblong nails 
that are not cloven. Befides thefe, there are two fore 
claws which have nipperi like the reft ; but they have 
only two joints, and are black at the tips. On each fide 
there are fix gills placed under the (hell at the roots of th.e 
claws. The mouth is very extraordinary, there beir^.g 
many appendages and {kins, whofe ufe can hardly be 
determined. On the iniide there are white mufcles, 
which they can move outwardly. 

The HERACLEOTIC CRAB of Be/onius, which he 
met with in the fea of Marmora, has a very hard ihell, 
and there are four claws on each fide, beiides the two 
great ones that have two joints and very ftrong rough 
nippers. Some call this Crab the Sea Cock, becaufe 
the great claws are turned fomewhat like a Cock's comb. 
The back is rough, with tubercles, and is of a reddi/h 
colour. There is another of this kind, fo thick befet 
with hairs, that the ihell looks like the coat of a Bear. 
It differs from the former, chiefly in the fmali claws, 
which are longer, and have nippers at the end, that 
clofe exadlly when they are (hut. The colour is red, 
and the feelers near the eyes are at a greater diftance, 
fome of thefe are met with in the gulph of Venice ; but 
they are much larger in the Ocean. Rondeletim faw one 
of thefe that was half a yard in len2;th. 

The HORSEMAN CRAB, is fo called from the 
fwiftnefs of its running, though it is not much larger 
than a chefnut, and is of a whiulh colour fprinkled with 
red fpccks. It is fliaped like the Rock Crab, and, held 
up to the fun, is almoll trar.fparent, except in that part 
where the intcilines lye. The eyes are extremely fmall, 
and yet it hub an exceeding fliarp fight. The legs are 
befet with a fort of hair, and there are five on each fide. 
The two foremoft of which have nippers. This per^ 
haps is the fame that Rcndeletius calls the broad foot 
ED Crab, which he fays, is not much bigger than a 
walnut. There is another fmaller than this, with a 
I'mooth Ihell that is whitiih on the upper part, and is 
fometimcs thrown by the waves on the fea fhore. This 
is like that which at Rcme is called Grancetti, and 
jsipotied on the back like a fnake. They live as well 

OA 



O F F I S H E S. 243 

#tt the land as in the water, for in the hotteft days of the 
fummer, they come out of the fea and baflc in the fun ; 
but in the night they return thither again. Belonius af- 
firms he has feen them run fo faft, that he could not 
overtake them ; and that they rather feemed to fly than, 
run. 

The YELLOW UNDULATED CRAB, is fo named froHi 
its colour and lines, which on the lower part are crook- 
ed and waved like watered tabby. It has four long 
hairy claws or legs, befides two large ones. The feelers 
on the fore part of the head are pretty long, and on the 
forehead there are two appendages, with others on the 
ikles.r 

The MARBLED or VARIEGATED CRAB, has a fmooth 
polifhed ihell fprinkled with green, blue, white, black, 
^nd afh-coloured fpots, infomuch that it looks almoft 
like marble ; but the fpots foon vanifli when it is dead, 
and the ihell becomes all over yellow. There are tuber- 
cles thereon that Ihine like jewels, and the fore claws or 
nippers, are ihorter and thicker than in other kinds. It 
has two horns on the forehead, and behind the eyes the 
Ihell is ferrated. They live in the holes of the rocks, 
to which they adhere fo faft with their feet, that they 
can hardly be forced from them. The fhell is harder 
than thatof other Crabs. 

The HEART CRAB, is fo called from being in the 
fliape of a heart, and has two horns on the forehead. 
The great claws have Ihort nippers, and befides thefe, 
they have four other legs or claws on each fide. It is 
fometimes caught in nets with other iilh, and is fre- 
quently feen in the bellies of Cod-fifli. 

The SPIDER CRAB, has its name from the length of 
its claws, and is of three kinds. The firft is variegated 
with brown and afti-colour, and the Ihell where the 
head is placed is fharp, with eyes very near each other, 
and two lliarp horns. The fecond fort has a rounder 
body, and is called by fome, the crust aceous SPI- 
DER CRAB. The third is rounder than this, and is 
variegated with brown and afli colours. The claws are 
thicker than thofe of the former forts. There are other 
kinds that have very fhort claws, and flender at the fame 
M 2 time; 



2^4 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

time ; the fnell being covered over with a fort of down. 
But of thefe we have no particular defcription. 

The RIVER CRABS are very common in Gr^^r^, 
and in the iflands of Candia and Sicily. Belonius faw 
fome of thefe on mount Jthos, whofe numbers were fo 
great, that he could have caught a thoufand in a mi- 
nutes time. They are fiefli eaters, and are greatly ad- 
diifled to fight each other ; for when Kovdeleiius fent two 
hundred of them to Rome, and they were put into the 
water again to be refrefhed, they fought with each other 
fo fmartly, that no lefs than fifty were quite mutilated. 
At length they were all killed. 'J hefe are very common 
in the filli markets at Fon:e, and they are good at all 
times, but more efpecially in the furamer. Thefe feem 
to be tjie fame fort as thofe that are met with in fait 
ditches near the fea ; only they are never feen out of the 
water. They are very common at London, where fevc- 
ral of them are fold for a penny. 

The SQUARE CRAB of th&Caribbee-JJIands, is not 
above two inches long or broad. It has two nippers, 
which are very fhort and brittle, as well as the ftiell and 
every other part of its body. They are met with among 
the rocks by the fea fide, where great numbers of their 
old (hells are feen, which they caft every year; and 
they are fo entire, that any one would think the bodies 
of the Crabs were flill within them. The only diffe- 
rence is, that when they are living they are grey ; but 
when the (hells are deferted, they are beautifully va- 
riegated with red and white. They have two fmall pro- 
minent eyes, which look like tranlparent grains of bar- 
ley, and they (liine like cryilal, 1 hey are faid to be 
very careful in watching the opening of oyfters, mufcles, 
and other (hell firti ; for then they throw themfelves into 
the (hells to devour the fifh. 'I'he flefh is reported to 
be a great antidote againft all forts of poifons ; for one 
of them being bruifed and foaked in wine, brings up 
every thing of a poifonous nature in the ftomach. There 
is a.vothcr fort that have a (hell which conceals all their 
feet, and the tail is as (harp as a dagger at the end. 
The (hell is not larger than a crown piece ; but the tail 
is as long as a man's little finger. Under this (hell there 
are five fmall feet, which arc all nippers, with which 

they 



O F F I S H E S. 245 

they pinch thofe that catch them ; however, they can 
do no great harm. When any one is pricked with their 
fharp tails, it produces the fame pain as the fiing of a 
Scorpion ; but it is foon remedied by bruiiing a Crab, 
and laying on the wound. 

The VIOLET CRAB of x\-iQCanbhee^7JIands, is a 
land animal, and is in fhape like two hands cut through 
the middle and joined together ; for each fide looks like 
four fingers, a-.id the two nippers refemble thumbs. All 
tFe reft of the body is covered with a fhell as large as a 
man's hand, and bunched in the middle ; on the fore 
part of which, there are tv/o long eyes of the fize of a 
^rain of barley, as tramparent as cryftal, and as hard as 
horn. A little below thefe is the mouth covered with a 
fort of barbs, ui.dcr which there are two broad fliarp 
teeth as white as fnow. They are not placed as in other 
animils, above and below, but on each fide, not much 
unlike the blades of a pair of fciifars. With thefe teeth 
they can eafily cut leaves, fruits, and rotten wood, which 
is their common food. 

The fhell is full of a thick fat fibrous liquor, with 
which the inhabitants make fauces. In the middle of rh s 
there is a bitter fubftance, which the inhabitants call the 
gall ; which, however, is nothing elfe than the ftomach 
that is compofed of a thin fkin or membrane, and is 
twice as thick as a man's thumb, having the fame Ihape 
as the fhell. Under the body there is a fort of breail 
plate, compofed of feveral pieces fet together like thofe 
of a corllet, and under it there are five or fix barbs on 
each fide. There is a fort of tube about the fize of the 
barrelof a quill, which proceeds from the ftomach, and 
pafilng along the middle of the breaft pla;e, terminates 
at the end. This animal has no blood, but inftead of 
it, when it is wounded, a clear water comes out, which 
congeals to a jelly. 

Thefe are all of a violet colour in general ; but there are 
others variegated with blue, white, and violet. However 
the circumitance moft worthy of admiration, is their de- 
fcending from the mourktains in .-Jpril or Mayy when the 
rains firll begin to fall ; for then they fally out from the 
hollow trees and rotten ftumps under the rocks^ 
and from a vail number of holes which they 
M 3 makt 



246 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

m:\ke in the earth. 7 hen the ground is covered over 
with them, infomuch, that you cannot fet your foot 
thereon without treading upon them. They feem to be 
afraid that the rain ihould not laft long enough, for they 
get down to the river fides and marfhy places as faft as 
they can, that they may fecure a retreat if the weather 
fhould become fair ; and that they may fhelter them- 
leives from the heat of the fun beams, which they do 
not at all like. 

They defcend in as much order as an army does, that 
is under the command of a general ; and they are com- 
monly divided into three bands or companies ; of which 
the hril confifts of the males, which are more ftrong, 
large, and robuft, than the females, and confequentJy 
are mofl p:-oper to overcome obftacles and clear the way 
for the reft. Thefe are like the avant-guard of an ar- 
my, and are often obliged to halt for want of rain, 
and feek a new lodging till the weather changes. The 
main body of the army is compofed of females, which 
never leave the mountains till the rain is fet in for fome 
time ; and then they fally into the fields, being formed 
as it were into battalions, near three miles in length, 
and forty or fifty paces in breadth, but fo clofe, that 
they almoft cover the ground. 

Three or four days after, the rear-guard follows, 
which confifts of males and females, in the fame number 
and order as the former. But they do not all take the 
fame rout ; for fome follow the courfe of the rivers and 
canals made by the floods, and fome march a-crofs the 
woods, but not in fuch great numbers as the former. 
They proceed very flowly in the night time, and in the 
day, when it rains ; but when the fun Ihines, they get 
to the fides of woods to avoid the heat, waiting till the 
cool of the evening. When they are terrified, they 
march back in a confufed and diforderly manner, hold- 
ing up their nippers, with which they pinch fo hard, 
that they tear off a piece of the Ikin. They clatter thefe 
rippers from time to time, by ftriking them together, 
as it were, to threaten thofe that come to dillurb them. 

If it happens, in their defcent, tliat the rain 
ceafes, and the weather becomes fine, which is not fel- 
dom, they all make a halt, and take up tlicir lodging 

where 



O F F I S H E S. 247 

where they can, fome under the roots, and others with- 
in hollow trees ; but thofe that have no fuch opportuni- 
ty, make holes in the earth. However, the inhabitants 
that lye in wait for them, are glad of this opportunity, 
and make them pay dearly for their lodging ; for they 
all make themfelves merry at their expence. However, 
they throw the bodies away, only keeping the fmall 
fpawn, which lies as thick as a man's thumb on each 
fide the ftomach ; and this is greatly elleemed by the 
French, being very nouriftiing and well tailed. There 
are fome years in which there is fo little rain, that they 
are three months in getting down to the fea fide ; 
whereas, in the times ot heavy rains, they are no longer 
than eight or ten days. When they have gained the 
fea, they go into the water and call their fpawn. AJi 
the Crabs in thefe iflands, as well great as fmall, 
males and females, make a pvogrefs once a year down 
to the fea, where, when they are arrived, they let the 
waves run over them two or three times, that beat upon 
the Ihore, and then withdraw to feck a lodging. In the 
mean time the fpawn grows larger, proceeds out of the 
body, and Hicks to the barbs under the breaft plate lately 
mentioned. There is a bunch of them as big as a hen's 
egg, which are like the rows of herrings. At this time 
they are negle»5ted by the inhabitants, becaufe they have 
loft their fine taile. Some days after they go to the fea 
again, where they-fhake oil' their eggs, and about tv/o- 
thirds of them are immediately devoured by the fidi, 
which the native Caribbees call Tytira, that are then 
fo numerous, that the fea near the fhore is quite black 
with them. This is an excellent feafon for fifhing, for 
then, with one draught of the net, they catch as many 
£fh as twenty men can draw out. The eggs of the 
Crabs that efcape, are hatched under the fand, and foon 
after millions at a time of thefe little Crabs are feen 
travailing towards the mountains. 

When the fpawning time is over, thefe animals be- 
come fo feeble and lean, that they can hardly creep 
along ; and the flelli at that time changes its colour ; 
for which reafon moil of them flay in the flat parts till 
they recover, making holes in the eajt'i, which they 
flop the moutiis of with foil and leaves, that no air may 
M 4. enter 



2h8 the natural history 

enter therein. There they throw off their old fhells, 
v\hich they leave, as it were, quite whole, and it is 
hard to fay how they can get out, efpecially when it is 
confidered what a great number of joints there aie. 
Then the Crabs are quite naked, and almoli without 
motion for fix days together; but then they are fat, 
iiclhy, and in very good order, being covered with no- 
thing but a very fine fldn, which in procefs of time har- 
dens into a fhell. They have then, under their ftomachs 
four hard large white ftones, which gradually decreafe 
in proportion, as the fhell hardens ; and when they 
come to perfedlion, they entirely vanifh. It is pretend- 
ed thefe ftones are good for the gravel ; but however 
that be, they always caufe vomiting. 

The WHITE CRAB of the Caribbee IJiands, is alfo 
a land Crab, and has nearly the fame property as the 
foimer, but with this differerxe, that they are fo much 
bigger, that one of the white ones is worth three of the 
Violet, however, of thefe there are two forts, namely, 
thofe that live conflantly on the Udes of lakes, ponds, 
and muddy places, and thofe that advance farther on the 
land, which are the leaft. The former are always half in and 
half out of the water, and have nippers as broad as a man's 
four fingers, and two feet in length, being almod fhaped 
like a mirre. They are very flclhy, but are fo fubjed to 
feed on Manchirccl apples, that they are unwholefome j 
bendes v/hich, thty always fmell of mud. The other 
fort frequents the woods a little dillant from the lakei 
and marlhy places. They are I'cf^ than the former, and 
the nippcis are more fliort -, but the flefn is more firm, 
and ^cvy well tafted. 

The Flame Colour CRABS, of the Caribbee- 
IjJands, have a black fpot on their backs, which greatly 
lets off the red colour. 1 he inhabitants of Guadalou;:ey 
v/ill not touch them, becaufe they believe that the flefh 
caufes the bloody flux ; but at Martinico they will, for 
want of others ; however, it is fcarcely v.orth while, 
fince in fix hours time, a man can hardly get fo many of 
them as are fufficient for a fingle meal. But the worfl of 
it is, that all thefe land Crabs are apt to feed upon Man- 
chineel apples; for which reafon, the inhabitants are very 
careful in examining the teeth and flomachs, and the 

infide 



OF FISHES. 249 

infirie of the body, which is then as black as charcoal. 
The ilefh indeed will turn black with feeding on the ap- 
ples of Genifa, but then it may be eafily known, for 
their llomachs are then firm, and they are fat, having 
their fhells quite full of meat ; whereas, the contrary 
happens in the former cafe. All thefe Crabs have one 
property, which is very wonderful, that is, when their 
nippers are laid hold of, they can part them very eafily, in 
order to make their efcape; befides, if one of their nip- 
pers or claws is wounded, they immediately part with it, 
and fo get rid of the limb and wound together. How- 
ever,- in a years time there are other claws that grov/ in 
the room of the former. 

The MARICOANI, is a fmall Crab of Brahl which 
frequents the Ihore when the tide is out ; but at other 
times it keeps itfelf hid in a hole. The body is almoflr 
fquare, and the length is equal to that of a man's finger, 
as well as the breadth ; the eyes are near each other, 
and of the thicknefs of a large pin, which it can thruil 
out or draw in at pleafure. The mouth is larger in pro- 
portion than that of other Crabs, and there aje eight 
legs covered vvith thin browniOi hair; the right pinther, 
or great leg, is very large, it being above three fingcrS' 
breadth long, and fo thick, that this animal can hide him- 
felf behind it ; the left pincher is fmall, andevenlefs than 
the legs. The colour is rcddifli, and the right pipxher 
is of a dark red. Ihis Crab is accounted good eating. 

\ he SOLDIER CRAB, is about three or four iuc&s 
long, and half the body is like the Sea Grafs- hop- 
per, but it is covered with a harder fkin or fhell. Four 
of the feet are- like thofe of a Crab, widi tv.'O nipper?, 
of which one is no larger than- the other feet ; but ihe 
otlier is thicker than a man's thumbs, with which it can 
pinch very ftrongly, and it ferves to Hop up the mcuJli,- 
of the fhell wherein it lodges. The reil of the body is 
like a little pudding, covered with a rough thick fkir),. 
and is X)f the fize of a man's finger, though not above 
half as long At the end of this, there is a-.fhort tad^ 
compofed of three fmall nails or fiiells, like the tail of a. 
Sea Grafs-hopper. Half the body is filled with a lls- 
aaach like-that of a Crab, but red, and expcH-d to the 
M.5 . Si« 



250 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

fire or fun will melt, and diirolve into oil. This, is a 
ibrt of balfam which is excellent for green wounds. 

They defcend every year to the Tea fide to change 
their (hells, for the back part of the body is quite 
naked. As foon as ihey are hatched they every one 
go in fearch of a (hell proportionable to their bulk, 
thrufting their back parts therein, and then they march 
along as cloathed in armour, from whence they have 
the name of Soldiers. They go up to the tops of moun- 
tains, and take their lodgings in hollow trees, where 
they live upon leaves, rotten wood, and fruits ; but as 
they fometimes feed upon manchineel apples they are 
very dangerous eating. 7 he next year v/hen the Ihells 
begin to grow too little, they travel down to the fea 
fide again in fearch of others that ht thsm better. 
When they are there, they ftop to examine the fhells 
that they meet with, and when they have found one 
they think will do they immediately quit their old one, 
and get into it. as if they were afraid the air fhould do 
them harm, or as if ihey were aih^med of appearing 
naked. Sometimes it happens that two make choice of 
the fame flieil, and then a battle enfues, for they will 
fight and bire each other till one of them yields and 
reiigns the fhell to the conqueror. When he has got 
pofrefhon he takes three or four turns upon the fhore, 
and if he likes it he keeps it, othervvife he betakes 
himfelf to his old one again, and then choofes another. 
This they do often five or fix times, till they get one to 
their liking. Wichin thefe fliells there is about half a 
fpoonful of Clearwater, which is looked upon as a 
icvereign remedy againft pimples or other bre?.kings cut, 
cfpccia'ly thofe that are caufed by the water that drops 
fioin the leaves of t]\e machineel trees. When ihey 
arc taken they feem to be very angry, and have a cry 
like ^g^re, grey gre^ endeavouring to lay hold of the 
perfou's hand, which when they do, they will fooner 
fuffer ihemfelvcs to be killed than to let go their hold. 

The SEA CRAB of the E Jl Indies is about a fpan 
in breadth, and is *of a moft curious colour, the fhell 
being fpeckled with yellow fpots ; befides which there 
are three of a purple colour inclofed with white rings. 
'1 he claws arc ycllowiili next the body, afterwards 

white 

I 



O F* F I S H E S. ^51 

whhe, and at the extremities, of a deep purple. The 
eyes have fomewhat of the appearance of fmall tacks, 
and Hand an mch without the head. 

The BLUE CRAB of Nieufrff is a foot and a half 
long, and is of a purple colour, fpotted with white. 
The claws are alfo purple near the body, but the other 
parts are blue The eyes are like the former, and 
ftand a hnger's lenj-th out of the head. The flelh is 
good and well tailed. 

The GkEb-N CRAB with red claws, is of the fame 
fize as 'he Blue Crab; but may be eafily diilinguifhed 
from them by their colour, which is inclining to green, 
with red claws. The flelh is a great delicacy, being 
the bell of any fort in the Eaji Indie!. Some of thefe 
Crabs laft mentioned are of a prodigious bignefs, and 
they are faid to eat beftwhen the Moon i^ growing to- 
wards the full. 

The GUAIA AFAR A is a Zouth American Crab, 
and is beautifully variegated. One end of the body is 
terminated with a circle, and the other by a right line. 
It is three inches broad and two and a ha-f long, 
though fome of them grow to a larger fize. The fore 
part of the fhell is of a dark brown, variegated with 
whitifh fpots ; and the hinder is of a whitilh yellow, 
adorned with brown ftreaks that run according to the 
length. It has eight feet or claws which are roundifh, 
with four joints, and are of a vvhitifft yellow colour. 
Befides thefe, there are two great claws or nippers, 
each two inches and a half long, and half an inch 
broad. The nippers themfelves are but fmall, for 
which reafon it cannot lay hold of any thing fo firmly 
as other Crabs. The upper part of theie claws is 
armed and dentated like a Cock's comb, infomuch that 
when it is alive and holds thefe claws clofe^ to the body 
they appear like two cocks combs placed near eacii 
other. The nippers are fomewhat like the bill of a 
Cock, which with the v/hole \t^ or claw reprefents 
the fore-part of the head of that animal, together with 
its comb. Thefe are alfo of a whitilh yellow, variegated 
with brown fpots. As it f vims in tne water it blows it 
up like the bubbling of a fpring, 

M 6 A :o:hcr 



252 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

A«other GUAIA has a roundifh body, and is about 
the fize of a walhiut, with its green coat on, with 
eight claws or legs like other crabs. The two great 
claws or legs are each two inches and a half long, 
but very {lender, and at the extream part of the body 
there are three blunt thorns, and the eyes are very 
fmall. The colour in general is white, on!y on the 
back there are beautiful rows of brown fpots which are 
largefl near the head and lefs on the fides. The great 
claws are variegated with fpots of a purple reddifh 
colour; but the other claws and belly are entirely 
white. 

There is ftlU another GUx^IA, as the Braftlians call 
it, that is very feldom taken, which is three inches 
broad, and as much in length, or a little lefs. The 
Ihell is of an oval form, and on the circumference there 
are many little horns. The eyes are very fmall, and on 
each fide there are four claws or feet, with as many 
joints ; which are a little hairy, and there are black 
nails at the ends in the fnape of horns. The molt for- 
ward of the legs are three inches in length, and the 
reft grow \ radually Ihorter. The fore-legs with their 
nippers are three inches in length, and as thick as a 
man's finger, the nippers themfelves being half an 
inch long and pretty thick. They are dentated on the 
outfide, and the teeth are like thofe of a man, and 
they fit fo exactly to each other that they reprefent a 
dentated bill when fliut. The colour of the whole 
Crab when living, is like that of a large live coal, but 
in the middle of the body it is deeper, and the other 
paits lighter. The extremities of the nippers are 
coloured with a mixture of red and brown, and when 
this Crab is boiled it retains the fame colour. 

The GUAIA MIR I is a very fmall river Crab, which 
never exceeds the fize of a plumb, and the Ihell is of 
an oval form, only the fore-part terminates in feveral 
angles or corners. The eyes are fmaii and flioit, and of 
the great legs or claws the right is a littie lefs than the 
left. The other claws or legs are eight in number 
with four joints each, and are befet with ihort hairs. 
The colour of the ihell is of an iron grey, but the legs 
are of a darkiih purple, and the hairs are pale. 

The 



O F F I S H E S; 253 

The CARARA UNA is a fmall Crab of a fquare 
figure, and a little flattifh, and it is but half an inch 
in breadth. The eyes are black and prominent, and 
look as if they were cut into angles. The fore legs or 
claws are fhort, with roundilh thick nippers; there 
are eight other claw?, which are not thick but flat. The 
fhell and legs are of a liver colour, but the nippers are 
brown like the juice of black cherries. The legs are 
befet with very fine hairs, and are of the fame colour 
with them. 

TheCUNURU is of the fame colour and fhape as 
the UCA UNA, and is fuppofed to be the female of 
that fpecies. However it is lefs, and the fore legs or 
claws are fmall, and the left is a litde larger than the 
right. There are but few hairs, though the Uca is 
covered all over with them. 

The CIECIE ETE of the BrafMans, called by the 
Fcrtuguefe CtiANGViNsiNGHO D£S Manges, is of a 
fquare Ihape, and does not exceed a large hazel-nut in 
■fize. The eyes are prominent; but it can draw them 
in at pleaiure. It has eight legs or claws, bciides the 
fore-legs, and that to the left is the greateft. The 
nippers are thin, long, fmooch, and without teeth. 
The Ihell is of a liver colour, but the reft of the body 
with the legs, of a pale dirty yellow. This Crab is 
eaten by the PortugueJ}, and the natives cure a diflera- 
per with it which they call Mi<:u 

The CIRI APO.A, fo called by the Brafdians, is a 
Sea Crab covered with an oval Ihell, which is toothed in 
the middle of the forward edge, and on each fide it 
terminates in an acute angle. The fore-legs or claws 
are of a middle iize, and are dentated or toothed iike- 
wife. It has alfo fix other claws, befides two flat fins 
with four joints which are hairy, and which it makes ufe 
of in fwimming The Eyes are placed at a great 
dittance from each other, which are fmall and fl-.aped 
like cylinders, and on each fide there is a barb like a 
hair. I'he flicll is of a brownifli colour inclining to 
black, and on it there is a fpot of a different bro^vn in 
the ihape of a heart. The fore claws or legs are dufky, 
with nippers of a bluifh white. The other clav^s on 
the extream part ©f the fins which is broad are blue, 

and 



254- THE NATURAL HISTORY 

and the other part green mixed with white. They 
generally creep at the bottom of fait water, coming 
fometimes on Ihore at the ebbing of the tide ; but this 
is feldom. They are well tailed, and are taken when 
the tide is going out. 

The UCA UNA is a pond Crab, that has a body of 
an oval (hnpe, ar.d the fncil is convex on the upper fide. 
It is of the fize of a 'VV^.llnL!t wiih its coat, aud has 
eight claws with four joints, of which thofe before are 
longer than thofe behind. The eyes are pretty near 
each other, and he can thruft them out and draw 
them in at pleafure ; their colour is yellowifh, and the 
pupil is of the colour of gkA. The right fore-leg or 
claw is the greateft, and has many (harp tubercles on 
the infide ; but the left is fmall. The colour of the 
upper part of the ihell is olive, with a mixture of 
yellow at the extremities. All the legs are of a chefnut 
colour, as well as the upper part of the nippers, and 
all their lower parts are covered with thick longiih hairs 
of a dark cnefnut colour. The flefh is good eating. 

The GUANHUMI is a land Crab with a roundish 
body, but a litde comprefTed, and of the fize of an 
orange. It has eight legs or claws five inches long, 
with four joints, and the lower parts are covered with 
long hairs. The mouth is large, and it is hairy on its 
fides for about an inch, as well as the reft of the body. 
Of the great legs or claws, the right is big and the 
left fmall, the right being eight inches long and two 
broad ; but the left is fcarce fo long by three parts. 
The eyes are thrull out like two fmall pills, a^d are 
drawn in at pleafure. About the mouth there are two 
feelers, if they may be fo called, for they are fhort, 
and can be drawn in at the will of this ar.inral. Jt 
runs very fwiftly fiJewa}S, and there are a great nnmber 
of them in the marihes and woods. The flcfh is ac- 
counted good eating. 

The ARA ( U PINIMA is a land Crab of a fquare 
(hape, but the body is not large, and the flicU is va- 
riegated with brown, blue, and red fpois differently 
intermixed. The eyes are prominent, black, and ftand 
a great way out of the head, and it has eight feet with 
four joints which are ilaitilh, of a reddilli colour, and 

variegated 



O F F I S H E S. 2SS 

variegated with purple, black, and white fpots. The 
two fore legs or claws are not large in proportion to 
the body, and they are' fmooth and red, only at the 
ends they are of a yellowifh white ; the belly alfo is 
yellowifh, and the lower parts of the claws are hairy. 

TheMARACOANl is afmall crab, and comes upon 

the (here when the tide is out, being not to be feen at 

any other time. The body is almoil fquare, being an 

inch long and as much broad, only the fore-part is a 

little broader. The eyes are placed near each other, 

and are half an inch in length, though as fmall as a 

large needle, which it can thruil out and draw in at 

pleafuie. Jt has a larger mouth than other fmall crabs, 

and eight claws with four joints. The right fore- leg 

or claw is the greateft, being above three inches in 

length, and pretty thick, and it can conceal itfelf 

behind it. The nippers are broad but not thic'<, and 

refemble a pair of Taylor's fheers There are tubercles 

indeed of teeth, and on the furface of the lower part 

there are fome likewife. The left kg or claw is very 

fmall, and has nippers xike thofe of a Scorpion. 

The lower part of the claws have a few brown hairs, 

and the colour of the fhell is tawney as well as the legs 

and the lefler nippers, as alfo the lower part of the 

body ; but at the extremity it is a little reddifh. The 

right leg is of a reddifh dun colour. The flefti is pretty 

good food. 

The POTIQUIQUIYA of the Brafthans, is a Sea 
Prawn, and the length of the body from the fore-part 
of the head to the tail is {^^^fa inches, and the tail fix. 
The breadth of the (hell on the back is feven inches, 
and of the belly two and a half. The tail confifis of 
feven fhells or plates, with as many joints placed over 
againft each other, and on the lower part of each fide 
there are four fins an inch and a half long, and one 
broad ; likewife the lateral extremities of each plate 
end in a fliarp horn. There are ten claws, that is five 
on each fide, with five joints, and the firll pair are fi>c 
inches long, the next nine, the third a foot, the fourth 
feven inches, and the fifth five. They have each a 
crooked iharp nail befet with many yellow hairs, in the 
manner of hair-pencils. The fore-leg is an inch thick, 

but 



25^ THE NATURAL. HISTORY 

but the reft are fmaller. The fhell is covered witli 
various forts of tubercles like-horns, with Iharp points. 
The eyes are prominent,. and«of the fhapeof a cylinder, 
having behind them two ftrait horns bending forwardsj 
and an inch in length. Before the eye?, and over the 
mouth, there are four feelers, two of which are as 
thick as a man's thumb at their rife, where there are 
four joints ; and they are a foot and a half long, being 
befet with prickles on all fides. Between thefe there 
are two lefs with four joints, but they are fmooth, being 
without prickles; and about half way from the head 
they are divided in two, being all together ten inches 
long. 

The TAMARU GUACU of the BrafiUans, called 
Camaron deSalgado by the Port ugue/ey is a kind 
of Prawn nine inches long, or a little more. The 
length of the head is two inches, to which part it grows 
narrower by degrees. The body has as it were (even 
joints fomewhat like the tail of a Lobfter, and on the 
hinder part of the body on each fide, there are two 
hairy proceiTes. The whole body is ftrait, whitifti, and 
Ihining like poHllied horn; but at the joints it is of a 
bJackifti purple, and there are three feet on each 
fide, namely, at the third, fourth, and fifth joint, 
reckoning from the neck. They are (lender, and 
about two inches long. The head is of a trian- 
gular ftiape, and of the iize of an Olive, covered with 
a whitifh ihining ftiell about two inches long. Behind 
the head on each fide, there is a leg or claw fevcn incites 
long with four joints, and it is crooked at the end li!i^ 
a fickle, and furniihed with nine very fliarp teeth. 
With thefe claws it ftrikes thofe that come near it, and' 
the wound which it makes will not eafily heal. The 
eyes are oblong, and prominent, and there is a barb, 
or beard coaiifting of eight hairs. Near the eyes there 
are two prominence^ turned backwards, which are an 
inch in length and fmooth, but hairy at the extremities. 
Below the head there are eight excrefcences that are 
two inches long, terminated v/ith. tubercles. Towards 
tlie hinder part of the body bc.ow there aie many broad 
fort of fins, which no doubi ferve for fwimming. 



O F F I S H E S. 25,7 

and they He in folds on tlie belly like leaves. The 
liefii i- not eaten. 

The PARANCARE is a fort of a Crab or rather 
Lobiler that live? in a borrowed iliell and is three inches 
long ; but the flefh is not eatable. The two fore-leqs 
have nippers, and there are four others three inches 
long, and behind thefe four more that are (hort. The 
tail is an inch and a half long, and the eyes are long 
and prominent. There are two barbs conrifcing 01 
tufts of hair. The body is covered with a fKin of a 
dark chefn' t colour; and the tail is cf the fame colour 
flreaked 'vith black acror lirg to itb length. The lower 
part of the body is bluilh, as are the eyes and barb ; 
and over every part there a e hairs of the colour of 
oker. The Ihell that it lives in is about four inches 
long and turbinated, being of a palifh yellow colour. 
There are feme Icfs than thele, which perhaps are young 
ones, being no biggiir than a fmall plumb. They are 
found on the Iho^e near the river Fwaiha. Ihefe 
feem to be akin to the Soldier Crab nbove defcribed. 

The GUARICURU of %\\9 B-aftlians, is four inches 
long, having fix claws with three joints each, and a 
nail at the extremity. The forward pair feems to have 
a fort of calves, being thicker than the reft, and feem 
to ferve for the fame purpofe as the nippers in other 
Crabs. They are a little above two inches long, and 
the laft pair a little more than one ; but they are ail 
prickly. There are fix barbs, two of which are tliree 
inches long and turn backwards ; two others are an 
inch, and the remaining two half an inch. Under the 
mouth there are two thickilh excrefcences, and four 
fmaller, with which it holds its meat. The eyes are 
like others of this kind. 'I he colour is all over brovvn> 
and the fieih i^ eaten when boiled. 



CHAP. 



258 THENATURAL HISTORY 

CHAP. XXVill. 

Of the Tortoifs or Land and Sea-Turile» 

TH I S animal is by Tome authors placed among 
^ Quadrupedes ; but it may without any great im- 
propriety be inferted iiere ; efpecially as all fyftems of 
this kind are arbitrary. 

The TORTOISE or TURTLE is of various kinds, 
and are dillinguifhed into the Land and Sea Tortoifes. 
That diiTeded by the academifls at Puris was of the 
former fort, and was brought from the coaft of Coro" 
mandel in the Eaft Indies. It was four feet and a half 
in length from the extremity of the mouth to the ex- 
tremity of the tail, and fourteen inches thick. The 
ihell was three feet long and two broad. Some of the 
ancient writer?, particularly Fllny, pretend to have feen 
Tortoife-lhells fifteen cubits in length ; and that one of 
them was fufRcicnt to cover a hut which was large 
enough to lodge feveral perfons. However, this was a 
Land Tortoife, and thofe mentioned by the Reman au- 
thors were Sea Tortoifes, where animals generally grow 
much larger than thofe of the fame kind which live on 
land. However it may be a doubt, whether Plmy was 
not miftaken in the meafure of the fhells mentioned by 
him ; becaufe there have been none fo large ever (ttn 
fmce. The ftiell, and every part of this creature was 
of the fame colour, namely, of a very dark grey. 
The upper part was compofed of feveral pieces of a 
different Hgure ; though mot of them v/ere pentagonal, 
or had five corners. All ihefe pi^^ces were connected to 
. a bone, which like a fkull inclofed the entrails of the 
animal. It had one opening before to let out the head, 
fhouldcrs, and fore-legs, and another bthind to let out the 
hinder legs and thighs. i his bone to which the fcales 
cr plates v/ere faftcned, was a line and a half thick in 
the thinneft place ; and in fome places near an inch and 
a half. 

One part of this bone lies upon the back, and the 
other under the belly, v/hich unite on the fides, and 

arc 



O F F I S H E S. 259 

arc tied or connedled together by Ilrong ligaments, 
which however allow the liberty of motion. What 
we commonly call the fhell will loofen from the bone 
after it has been kept fome time ; but when they are 
to be taken ofF immediately, the bone is to be laid 
upon the fire and then the fliell will readily feparate 
from it. 

At the great opening before there was a raifed border 
at the top, to allow fufficient liberty for the "neck and 
head to raife themfelves upward. This bending of the 
neck is of great ufe to the Tortoife ; for by this means 
they can turn themfelves again when laid upon their 
back. A certain Tortoife being laid upon his back 
and not being able to make ufe of his paws to turn 
himfelf, becaufe they can only bend forwards towards 
the belly ; be endeavoured to help himfelf with his 
neck and head, which he turned fometimes on one fide, 
and fometimes on the other, by pufhing againil the 
ground, and fo rocked himfelf as in a cradle, till at 
length he was able to rowl quite on one fide, and fo 
get upon his legs. 

The three great pieces of Ihells lie forwards upon 
the back ; and in the middle of each there was a round 
flud about a quarter of an inch in height, and an inch 
and half broad. The parts which are not under the 
fhell are all covered with a loofe fkin with a grain like 
Sp-ntjh leather, and full of wrinkles. There is no 
Ikin under the fhell to cover the parts which are enclofed 
therein ; but it was connefted to the edge of each of 
the two apertures or openings. The flun on the head 
is much thinner than that on the other parts» It was 
feven inches in length and five in breadth ; and had 
fome refemblance to the head of a Serpent. 

The lower jaw was near as thick as the upper, and 
there were no apertures for the ears. The noftrils at the 
end of the mouth were only two little round holes, 
which made a very uncouth appearance. The eyes 
were fmall and frightful, and had no upper eye-lid, they 
being ihut only by means of the lower, which may be 
lifted up to the eye-brow. Towards the extremity of 
the jaw bones near the lips, the fkin was as hard as a 

horn. 



tSo THE NATURAL HISTORY 

horn, and the lips thsmfelves were jagged like a faw, 
and on the inlide there were two rovv5 of teerh* 

On each of the fore-paws diere were five toes, or 
rather nails ; for the toes could not be diflinguifned but 
by the nails, the paws thernfelves terminating in a 
round mafs, from which the nails grew out. 1 he fore- 
legs were nine inches in length, from the top of the 
fhoulder to the end of the nails, and the hinder le,53 
eleven from the knee to the fame parts. The nail 3 
were an inch and a half long, a.id rounded away both' 
above and below, being as it were cut in an oval figure, 
or perhaps worn away with ufe. Their colour was 
black and white in diirerent places, and without any 
regularity. 

The u.i\ was large, being fix inches in diameter at 
the beginning, anrl fourteen inches in length, termi- 
nating at the point like the horn of an Ox. The tail 
happened to be bent at the time of this animal's deaths 
and could never be made Urait by any artifice or force 
whatever. The fame inllexibility was found in the 
mufcles of the jav/s, which could not be opened but by 
cutting thefe mufdes afunder. 

The academills give us an inflance of the head of a 
fmall Tortoife which for half an Jiour after it v/as cut 
off wonld clack with its jaws, and make a noife like 
that of cailanets. They fuppofe from the lliffnefs of 
the tail that the Tortoife mult have vafi: fcrength in that 
part; and that he may ufc it as an ofi^enhve weapon. 
ArifiotU has taken notice of the vail ftrength of the jaws 
of this animal J and he affirms they will cut in two? 
whatever they lay hold of, even not excepting the- 
hardeil flint. 

Af er they had fawed in two the bone on each fide 
that makes a fort of a fkull, in which the , entrails are 
inclofed, as has already been taken notice of; they 
then cut away the membrane which adheres to this, 
bone underneath, and which forms the belly. Then 
the internal parts prefented thernfelves to view ;. which 
were the itomach, the liver, and bladder, which laft 
was fo large that it covered all the guts, and other parts 
in the lower belly. The gut next the llomach had 
plaits or folds within like thfi^ ftomach itfelf, fomewhat 

tike 



O F F I S H E S. 261 

Kke a net in figure. The reft of the guts were compofed 
of very thick membranes, and the fmall guts were an 
inch in diameter, and nine feet long. There was no 
blind gut, though fome authors have affirmed that 
Tortoifes have two like thofe in birds. The redum or 
ftrait gut at the diftance of nine inches from the anus, 
had a contraflion which appeared like the anus of a 
hen, and there were three round appendages of different 
fizes, which feemed to be formed by the internal mem- 
brane of the rcdlum, and which Vv^ere covered with flefhy 
fibres running according to the length of the appen- 
dages. The remainder of the redum from this con- 
tradion to. the anus, ferved as a cafe for the penis, in 
the fame manner as may be feen in Beavers, and feverai 
other animals. 

The liver was of a folid fubflance, of a pale colour, 
and very large, and feemed to be double ; for it was 
feparated into two parts joined together only by an 
ifthmus of an inch broad, and by membranes which 
ferved to convey the veffels from the left part to the 
right. They had each a vena cava, which proceeded 
fi*jm the convexity towards the midriff, and each had 
an hepatick branch which proceeded from the hollow 
part. The left part of the liver was divided into four 
lobes, and the right into three. The leaft of thefe 
three lobes covered the gall-bladder to which it was 
fixed, and which was an inch and half long and half an 
inch broad, being of the hgure of a human bladder ; 
the cyftic dudl was a continuation of the neck of the 
gall bladder, and was feven inches long, and as thick 
as a fmall quill. 

The fpleen lay between the gutts called the duodenum 
and colon, and was of the ihape of a kidney. The 
pancreas or fvveet-bread embraced the duodenum very 
clofely, and was conneded to the fpleen which partly 
covered it. It was of the figure of a triangular prifni, 
and its canal opened into the duodenum. 7 he kidneys 
were four inches in length, three in breadth, and of 
the fame fhape. The tellicles were hid under the 
kidneys, and they were two inches and a half long and 
near an inch broad. The bladder was of an eraraor- 
dinary fize as before obfei"ved, and contained above 

twelve 



2^2 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

twelve pints of dear urine. ]t was in fliape like a 
gut, and its neck was not at the end but in the middle. 
It was two feet long, and lay acrofs the belly from one 
fide to the other. The neck of the bladder was an 
inch long and as much broad, and was fixed to the 
middle of the re6tum, into which the urine was dif- 
charged. The penis was nine inches in length, and 
half a one in breadth, and confided of two round 
ligaments of afpungy fubftance, which were covered with 
a thin membrane. 

The heart was placed in the upper part of thebreaft, 
and was included in a very thick pericardium or bag, 
which was connefted below to the membrane which 
covered the liver. It had not the ufual figure of a 
heart, for its largeft dimenfions were from one fide to 
the other ; it being three inches this way, and only an 
inch and a half from the bafis to the point, the two 
auricles or deaf ears which proceeded from the bafis, 
were very loofe. The right was two inches and a half 
long, and an inch and a half broad ; but the left was 
much lefs. They each opened into a ventricle, and 
there was an orifice in each which allowed pafl'age for 
the blood from the auricle into the ventricle. There 
were likewife three valves, made contrary to the ufual 
manner, that hindered the blood from returning out of 
the heart into the auricles. Befides thefe two therewas 
another on the fore part inclining a little towards the 
right. Thefe three ventricles communicated with each 
other by feveral orifices ; their fubftance not being folid 
and continuous as in the hearts of other animals. 
Befides thefe narrow orifices, there were others more 
large, by which the two pofterior ventricles commu- 
nicated with each other as well as with that before ; 
for there were three in all. 

The afpera arteria which was compofed of intire rings 
at the entrance of the breafl: divided into two branches, 
each of iix inches in length. At their pafTage into the 
lungs thefe branches loft their cartilages, and became 
membranous canals, which were very large and un- 
equal; being an inch and a half in diameter in fome 
places, and half an inch only in others. The membrane 
which formed thefe canals was tranfpr rent and thin ; 

but 
8 



O F F I S H E S. 263 

but folid and ftrengthened by ligaments conne£led to- 
gether in the manner of a net, compofed of feveral 
mefhes. Each of thefe mefhes was the mouth and 
entrance of a fmall pouch which opened into a fecond, 
and fometimes into a third. The branches of the vein 
and artery of the lungs run along thefe ligaments, and 
accompanied them through all the divifions, diftributirg 
the blood equally throughout the whole extent of the 
lungs. 

The whole mafs of blood does not paG through the 
lungs ; and to be fure of this the academifts made a 
ligament upon the trunk of the pulmonary artery, which 
did not affect the motion of the heart in any fenfe ; 
but the circulation of the blood continued the fame in 
every refpeft. Hence it appears that the true ufe of 
the lungs in a Tortoife and other animals of the fame 
kind is very obfcure ; and that v/hat may be faid about 
it can be only guefs-work. However the academifts 
imagined that they affill the Tortoife in keeping on the 
furfaceof the water or fmking to the bottom, juft as he 
pleafes ; and that they ferve in the room of fvvimming- 
bladders that belong to filh. To confirm which, they 
obferved that when a Tortoife was put into the water a 
great many bubbles proceeded from the noftrils, be- 
caufe probably there was too much air in the lungs to 
keep this animal in a juil equilibrium. They likewife 
imagined that when a Tortoife is at the bottom of the 
water, he relaxes the mufcles which comprefs the lungs, 
and then the air by virtue of its fpring expands itlelf, 
and brings the body to fuch a bignefs as to enable it 
to fwim upon the Water. We have been the longer 
upon this article, in order to fhew in as diftindt a man- 
ner as poffible how amphibious animals live in the 
water, and are able to continue under it fo long; 
which mull evidently proceed from there being no in- 
terruption in the circulation of the blood, when it is 
not permitted to pafs through the lungs ; that is, that 
part of it which we may fuppofe commonly has its courfe 
that way ; and therefore we fhall now proceed to take 
fome notice of the other parts. 

The globe of the eye was an inch in diameter, and 
the ni<5titing membrane bad the fame mufcles as in 

birds. 



2^4 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

birds. The watery humour was fo thick it would hardly 
run, and the cornea was very thin. The chryrtah'ne 
humour was but a line in diameter, and was of a flattilh 
ihape. It had no black membrane at the bottom, fuch 
as is to be feen in the eyes of birds. The tongue was 
of a pyramidal Ihape, and was an inch in length, and 
one third of an inch broad ; but it was but a line in 
thicknef'. About one half of it was /leftiy, and the 
coat that covered it was full of a vaft number of 
papillae. 

The ears have no outward orifices ; but under a fkin 
which lies over a deprefiion, on the fide of the temples 
there was a round hole like the orbit of the eye, which 
was clofed by a kind of cartilaginous plait, that was 
very moveable, and was connefted all round the hole 
to the parts below by a very thin membrane. On the 
fide of this behind the head, there was a cartilaginous 
pipe which pafTed into the palate, where there was a 
long orifice. Under the cartilaginous pipe there was a 
large cavity twice as long as broad, which was pierced 
on the fide to give pafTage to a little flender bony flyle 
placed obliquely to fupport the plait at one end ; and 
at the other it flopped up a hole by which the fecond 
cavity opened into a third that received the auditory 
nerve, the part of the ftyle which Hopped up the 
orifice of this ihird cavity grew large at the end like a 
trumpet, and had a very delicate,, membrane which, 
tonncfted it to the circumference of the hole. 

Thofe that have given a defcription^ of the Caribbee 
Jjlands have affirmed, that this animal is deaf; but 
there is little reafon to think fo, after examination of 
the organs jull: dcfcribed. It is very probable that the 
v/riters who are authors of this afiertion, were never 
very exad in their inquiry ; but only judged 1 oitoifes 
were deaf, becaufe they had no external orifices on the 
hdes of their heads. 

The COMMON LAND TORTOISE is full of 
yellow and black fpots on the back and the upper part of 
the fliell is very convex, and the iovver is flat. It has a 
little head much like that of a Serpent, which he can 
put out orhide wi.hin his Hi. 11 jail a:> he pleafes, or as 
occafion requiies. He h:.'. iiu upper eyelid; nor has 

be 



/''.'i(74-J^^.JI^' 



^ygr^ort^e. qr^^^^n/^-^ur^^^^j^ 




^ree^J^/ar^e*:J/>o^/^i/^J/':^r^ 



O F F I S H E S. 265 

ke any ear or orifice inllead of one like the former. 
In the winter time he hides himfelf in the earth, and 
there continues without any food. He is a very long 
lived animal. 

The TORTOISE, called by the Brafiiam Jab on, 
and by the Portugue/e Cagado de terra, has a black 
Iheil on which many hexagonal figures feem t > be 
engraved. His muzzle is like that of the former kind, 
"and the head and legs are brown, with fpots of the 
colour of umber. The liver is highly commended 
for fine eating. 

The FRESH WATER TORTOISE delights in 
ponds and muddy waters, and particularly the ditche* 
about walled towns and caftles. However he is feldom 
to be met within Europe except in a fmall lake in the 
Canton of Zurich in S'witzerland ; but near Conftantine 
to the South of Algiers in Africa, they are in great 
plenty. They are very difagreable to look at, and the 
women in thofe parts call them Devils, fuppofmg they 
are the occafion of various difeafcs. Be is called by 
fome the Water Tortoise to diflinguifh him from 
that that lives entirely on land. They are pretty much 
alike, only that belonging to the water has a longer 
tail. The colour of the lliell is black, and feems to 
confift of feveral fmall ones joined together. He can 
put out his head, feet, and tail when he pleafes, or 
hide them under the ihell. The lungs, kidneyi, blad- 
der, and other internal parts are like thcic of the 
Tortoife above defcrlbed. They live a long while 
without food, and even after their heads are cut off. 

The COMMON SEA TORTOISE differs from the 
Land Tortoise chiefly in fize which is larger; but 
the (hell is not fo beautiful, and it is of a fofcer con- 
fillence. The feet are like the fins of fifh, becaufe 
they are ufed for fwimming. They grow to a very 
great bulk, for fome of them neai* Brafil and the 
Canbbee ^<2;7^j are fufiicient to dine eighty or a hundred 
men. Mr. Herbert has feen them in the Eajl In.iian fca 
fo large that fourteen men might fit on one of their 
backs. 

The Tailors take notice of four kinds of Tortoifes, 
which they call the Trunk Turtle, theLoccER- 

VOL. III. N HEAD 



lee THE NATURAL HISTORY 

HEAD, the Hawks-bill, and the Green Turtle. 
The Trunk Turtle is commonly larger than the 
reit, and their hacks are higher and rounder. The 
flelh of this fort is rank and not very wholefome. The 
Logger-head is fo called, from the largenefs of his 
head, which is much bigger in proportion than that 
of the other kinds. The flefii cf this is likevvife very 
rank, and not eaten but in cafe of neceflity. 

The HAWKS-BILL TURTLE is the leaft of the 
four, and has a long and fmall mouth, fomesvhat re- 
fcmbling the bill of a Hawk. This is the Turtle that 
produces the (hell fo much admired in Ewope for making 
combs, fnuff-boA-es, and the like. They generally 
carry about three pounds ; but the largcft of all hx 
pounds. The (hell confiib of thirteen leaves or plates, 
of which eight arc flat and five hollow. They are 
raifed and taken ofl' by the means of fire, which is 
made under it after the flefh is taken out. As foon as 
the heat afi^e^ls the leaves, they are eafily raifed with 
the point of a knife. The flefli is but indifferent food, 
and yet it is much fweeter and better than that of the 
Logger- head. However it Sometimes purges upwards 
and downwards ; efpccially between the Scmbalices and 
i'oyto Belio. 

The GREEN TURTLE is fo called, becaufe the 
fhell is greener than that of any other. It is very clear 
and better clouded than that of the Hawks-bill, but it 
is fo exceeding thin, that it is only ufed in inlaying. 
Thefe Turtles are generally larger than the Hawks-bill, 
and fometimes weigh three hundred pounds. Their 
heads arc round and fmall, and their back flatter than 
that of the Hawks-bill. 

The TURTLE in general is a dull, heavy, ftupid 
animal; ihcir brain being no bigger than a fmall bean, 
though t;ie head is as la ge as that of a calf. That de- 
fcribcd by the acadc mills at Pari 5^ was an inch and one 
third in length, and three quarters of an inch in 
breadth ; but then it mull be noted, that the Tortoife 
wfis of a very large fizc ; however they have a very 
good eye and aveiy quick fight. The ilefh is fo like 
beef, that it would hardly be dillinguilhed from it, if it 

wai 



O F F I S H E S. 27^ 

was not for the colour of the fat, which is of a yel- 
lowilh green. 

They feed upon mofs, grafs, and fea-weeds, unlefs 
in the time of breeding when they forfake their com- 
mon haunts, and are luppofed to eat nothing; both 
the male and female are fat at the beginning of this 
feafon, but before they return the male becomes fo lean 
that he is not fit to eat, while the female continues in 
good plight, and the fielh continues good to the very 
lait. They couple in the water, and are faid to be nine 
days in performing this work. They begin in March^ 
and continue till May. 

The coupling time is one of the principal feafons for 
catching them ; for they are very eafiiy difcovered 
when they are in the action. As foon as they are per- 
ceived, two or three people draw near thera in a canoe, 
and either flip a nooie round their necks or on one of 
their feet. If they have no line they lay hold of them 
by the neck where they have no ilieil with their hands 
only, and by this means they catch them both together. 
Euc fometimes the female eicapes, being more fhy than 
the male. 

Another way of taking them at this time is with a 
fpear, v/hich being thrown at the back of the Turtle 
pierces the fnell and bone, and iHcks as fall: therein as 
li:' it was folid oak. They ilruggle hard to get loofe ; 
but all in vain, for they take care that the line which is 
faltened to the fpear be ftrong enough to hold him. 

The time of taking Turtle upon land is from the firfl: 
moon in Aftnl till that in Auguii, it being the feafon in 
which thefe creatures lay their eggs. I'he number of 
ihero is prodigious, for they wiil lay fc;veral hundred 
in one feafon. The night before fhe intends to lay 
fhe comes and takes a view of the place, and after 
taking a turn about fhe goes to fea again ; bat never 
fails to return the night following. 

Towards the fetting of the fun they are feen drawing- 
near the land, and feem to look earnellly about them 
as if they were afraid to be difcovered. When they 
perceive any perfon on fhore they feek for another 
}-4ace ; but if other ,vife they land when it is dark. 
After they have looked carefully about thtm, they 
N 2 be^in 



263 THE NATURAL HISTORY 
begin to work and dig in the fand with their fore feet, 
till they have made a round hole of a foot broad and a 
toot and a half deep, a little above where the water 
reaches when higheit. This done they lay eighty or 
ninety eggs or upwards at a time, each as big as a 
hen's eggy and as round as a ball. She continues lay- 
ing about the fpace of an hour, during wJiich time if 
a cart was to be driv^en over her, fhe would not ilir. 
1 he eggs are coveied with a tough white Ikin like 
wetted parchment. When fhe has done laying, Ihe 
covers the hole fo dextrouily that it is no erSy matter to 
find the place ; this done, Ike returns to the fea. At 
the end of fifteen days flie lays eggs again in the fame 
manner, and at the end of another fifteen fhe does the 
fame again, laying three times in all. 

In about twenty-five days after laying, the eggs are 
hatched by the heat of the fun ; and then the little 
Turtles being as big as young Quails, run direftly to 
the fea, without any guide to lead them or (hew them 
the way. When there are any caught before they get 
into the fea, they are generally fried whole, and are faid 
to be delicious eating. 

The men tliat watch for the Turtles, as foon as they 
have an opportunity turn them on their backs, which 
is not performed without fome difiiculty ; for they are 
very heavy, and ftruggle hard. After this he hauls 
them above high-water mark and leaves them till morn- 
ing ; for uhen they are once on their backs they a'e not 
able to ftir from the place. The I'urtle as was faid be- 
fore, feeds upon grafs and weeds, and this Ihe docs on 
the land as well as in the water. Near feveral of the 
J}ne>ican iflands there are a fort of green meadows at 
the bottom of the fea, v/here it is not many fathom 
deep. For this reafon, when the weather is fine and 
the water fmooth, they may be feen creeping upon this 
green carpet. After they have fed fuffit-iently, they 
take their progrefs into the mouths of frefii water rivers, 
and after feme time return to their former Uation. When 
they have dene feeding tiiey generally float with the r 
heads above winter, aniefs they are alarmed by the 
aoproach of hunters or birds of prey ; in which cafe 
they fuddcnly plunge to the bottom. A Turtle of an 

ordinary 



O F F I S H E S. 269 

ordinary fize and of the beft fort, will yield at leaft 
two hundred pounds of fiefh, which the failors often 
fait for their fea provinon. 1 heir eggs will keep for a 
confiderable time. The fhell may be fafhioned in what 
manner the workman pleafes, by foftening it in warm 
water, and then putting it into a mould ; for then by 
the affiftance of a ftrcng iron prefs it will take any im- 
preflion, and may afterwards be adorned and embelliflied 
at pleafure. 

The French authors, and after them Mr. Ray, make 
mention of three forts of Tortoifes, which thougii 
already mentioned, it would feem a negledt not to take 
fome notice of them ; and the rather, becaufe perhaps 
we may find fome particulars taken notice of by them 
which have been before omitted. 

The JURUCUA of BrafJ, is called hy (ke Fori w 
gue/e Tartaruga, and by the French Tortue 
Franche. Pere Tertre fpeaking of Tortoifes in gene- 
ral afferts as above, that they are llupid, heavy, fluggifh 
animals, and that they have no more brain than a 
fmall bean. He adds to this, that they are deaf, which 
however is erroneous ; becaufe they have the proper 
organs of hearing though not outv/ardly. Ke owns 
however, that they have a very quick fight, and that 
they grow to a prodigious fize, being fometimes five 
feet in length and four in breadth. He adds, that 
their flefli locks like beef, and canno; be diliinguiihed 
from it but by the colour of the fat. Some of the 
Tortue Franche will dine thirty men ; and the fat will 
yield a large quantity of oil as yellow as gold, which 
the French make ufe of inftead of Butter. 1 his is the 
fame as the Green Turtle. 

The TORTUE KAOUANNE differs from the for- 
mer, in having a much larger head in proportion to the 
body ; and this is the fame as the Logger-head T urtle. 
He is more mifchievous than the relt, and defends him- 
felf with his mouth and paws, when they are going to 
turn him on his back. He is the largefl of them all ; 
but his flefh is in no great efteem, becaufe it is black, 
and not very well tafted. Likewife the fat is difagerc- 
able, and the French affirm, that it fpoils all the fauces 
N 3 into 



270 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

into which it is put; and therefore they never ufe it 
when they can get any better. 

The TORTUE CARET is theleaftof the three ; 
but is not fo good as the Tortue Franche ; but is much 
better than the Kaouanne. The oil of this Tortoife is 
greatly efleemed by the French^ as being excellent for 
weakneffes of the nerves, the fciatica, and for all cold 
fluxions; but that for v^hichhe is iu highefl efteem, is 
his (hell, which confifts of thirteen pictes or plates ; 
eight of which are flat, and five a little convex. I'he 
finelt fhells are thick, clear, and tranfparent; and the 
colour is a mixture of that of antimony, jafper, tav^ney 
and white. This is the fame that was mentioned above 
by the name of the Hawks bill Turtles. 

Mr. Ray has another Tortoife, called the Scaly 
Turtle, which he thinks is of the water kind. The 
Ihell is above a foot long, ten inches broad, an4 three 
and a half high in the lovv'er part. However he takes 
i: to be the fame as the Caret above-mentioned. 

The LAND TEREJ31N or TORTOISE, is generally 
round mouthed, and not hawks billed, as forae Turtles 
are. 1 hey are eaten by the Savages, and are pretty 
good meat except the very large ones of all. They 
arc utter enemies to the Ratt'e fnake, for when th€ 
I'fT^bia meets him he catches hold a little below th^ 
nt ck, and draws his head under his fhell, which makes 
the tnikt beat his tail, and twift about with all th« 
fiicng:h and violence imaginable to get away ; b^t the 
I'ticbin foon difpatches him and there leaves him. 

Tlie l,AND ThREBIN, or TORTOISE taken 
notice cf by Mr. La^j.icny is little more than four 
inches long Avhen tlie head is under the ihell, and it has 
no tail but only the rudiments of one at the extremity 
whereof the vent is phced. The head is covered with 
a hard fhel! of a dark b/own colour on the top, and 
yellow on the fides and throat, vyiih fmall black or 
dufky fpots. The noib-jls ar-e near together at the end 
•of the beak ; and the eyes are yeibwilh. The neck 
is covered v/ith a loofc iiiin of a da.ik purpHlh fleih- 
colour, which partly coveis the head wnen it is Jiot 
fully extended. The hinder legs and parts about thj? 
vent are covered vv'ith Ikin of the fame dull fleih-colour 

^s 



O F F I S H E S. 27! 

us tTie reck, and the fore lejrs and feet with yellow 
hard fcale^ having five toes on each foot before, and 
four On each behind, which are armed with pretty 
itrong claws of a duiky colour. The ilicll above is 
roundifh, and divided into feparate fcales, each being 
engraven with rings round its extremities, that leiTen 
inwards towards the center. The fhell above is of a 
duflcy brown colour with ycllovviOi fpots of various 
figures, but underneath it is fiattilli and yellow with 
black clouds and fpots. There are fome of otlicv fizes. 
I'hey feed upon Snails, Tadpoles, young Frogs, Mulh- 
rooms, and the flime of the barth and f'onds. 

[hey have alfo another fort in Card na^ called 
Water Terebins ; but thefe are very fniail, and 
contain no more meat than is on a Pullet; but then 
they are very delicate eating, efpecially in IvUy and 
yune. Their egajs are very good ; but fo many ene- 
mies lie in wait to devour them, that theie is not one 
in a hundred conies to perfection. They are hatched by 
the fun and fand, and when they come out they are 
about the bignefs of a Chefnut, and get their own 
living. 

1 he LESSER LAND TURTLE of the Ea^ hd-cs, 
mentioned by Mr. Ray^ is covered with a ihell not {sd 
much as four inches in length, and near the fame in 
breadth. It ccnfifts of three orders of chequer-work, 
and a border which furrounds them all. They are tinctur- 
ed with various colours, fuch as black, white, purple, 
greenilli and yellow, 'i he lower (hell is all whitifh, 
and divided by denticulated lines. It has the head and 
beak in the ihape of that of a Parrot ; on the top of 
which there is a prominence of a red colour mixed witii 
yellow. The neck is fmall, and the fore-feet and legs are 
be let with fcales of a horny fubflance. The feet aie 
flat, and have four toes ; but the hinder legs are longer 
and imaller, and covered with nothing but the commoci 
ikin ; however the feet ai'e fcaly, and like thofe before 
armed v/ith four claws. '1 he tail is {lender and ends in 
a point, and is only half an inch in length. There 
are fome of this kind larger, and fome lefs. 

The Jfrican LAND TORTOISE, is of the fame 

fize with the former, and the iris of the eye is of a 

N 4 ' reddifh 



272 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

reddifh hazel colour. The lips are hard like the bill of 
a bird, and the head is covered v\ith fcales of a yellowifh 
cojour ; but the reck, hinder-legs, and tail, are 
covered with a flexible Ikin, of a dirty iicfh colour, the 
fore-legs have yellow leaks on the outfides, and the 
iliell is round, rifing pretty much en the upper fide 
snd fiat underneath. It is di\'ided into many com- 
partments or fepara;:e fcales, which have furrows all 
round them, lefiening one within another to the center. 
The Ihel! is yejlowiih, and clouded and fpotted with 
large irregular dufky fpots. The vent is in the tail, and 
it has five claws on each foot before, and four on each 
behind. When they apprehend danger they draw the 
head, legs, and tail into the fhell, fo that they cannot 
eafrivbe hurt. 

'i he LESSER CHEQUERED TORTOISE is near 
feven inches in lengih, five in breadth, of a black 
colour, with rhomboidal fireaks. The fhell confifts of 
three orders of proinineixes, befides the border E'rom 
the middle of thefe proceed feveral fiellated lines, 
Avhich run to the edge. The lower fhell confills of 
eight dilbn-fl plates, joined together as it were by fo • 
many futures, of which two are twice as large as the 
lelL They are all diverfified with a black and yellowifh 
colour. 

Some authors recount other kinds of Tortoifes, but 
they all may be referred to the above forts ; as for in- 
ftance, there is or was a great chequered Tortoife-lhell 
in the Mufaeum of the Royal Society. It was brought 
from the ifland of Madagafcar^ and is of an oval fhape. 
Jt is very concave, and is a foot in length, eight inches 
in breadth, and almoft fix deep. There is another 
chequered fhell brought from Hurinamy and likewife 
another from Virgiyiia. Condomine of the royal academy 
at Paris obierve?, that the Tortoifes of the river 
JmazovSi are much fought after at Cayenne^ as being 
more delicious than others. There is fuch plenty of 
them of feveral fizes and kinds, that he thinks they 
alone with their eggs, would be fufhcient to maintain 
all the people on the banks of that river. There are 
alfo Land Tortoifes, called Jubvtis in the Biajilian 
Ir.rguage, which they prefer at P^/y? to any of the reft. 

He 



O F F I S H E S. 27^ 

He farther obferves, that they may be all kept out of 
the water for fevcral months together, without any kn- 
fible nourifhment. 

CHAP. XXIX. ^ 

0/ turbinated Shell Fifb. 

SHELL fi(h are commonly divided into the turbi- 
nated, the bivalved and the univalved. The turbi- 
nated are fomewhat in the fhape of a top, and are fur- 
rounded with fpiral furrows much like a fcrew, being 
wide at the mouth, and terminate by little and little in 
a point. Ho.vever, they arc greatly different in their 
Ihape and fize, as well as in their texture, fome 
being harder, and others fofter ; but within they are 
all nearly alike with regard to their furface, which isex- 
ceedino- fmooth. 

The'NAUTILUS, or SAILOR, according to ^/-/. 
fiOile, is of two kinds, one of which has a lliell like a 
Pecluncle, being hollowed in the fame manner, it ge- 
nerally keeps near the fea fhore, on which it is often 
thrown by the waves, where it comes out of the ihell 
and is taken, or perifhes on the ground. This is a 
fmall fort, but the oiher keeps in its (hell like a fnail, 
or at leall feldom comes out of it ; but fomctimes thrufts 
out a fort of arms. This i^ fpoken of by PUny\ where 
he fays, this is one of the principal wonders of nature, 
becaufe it can fwim on the furface of the Tea like a boat. 
This is often feen near the Ca^e of Good Hope, and it is 
certainly a very pleafant fight to behold how they ma- 
rage- themfelves in the water. They delight 10 be on 
the furface when the water is calm, and their (hells {cvxe 
inftead of boats. Then they raife up their heads and 
fpread out a kind of fail, provided by nature, failing a- 
long in a very agreeable manner. While they are thus 
employed, if any thing appears that affrights thc.m, 
they take down the fail, hide themfelves within the 
ihell, and difappear. 

N 5 The 



274 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The Iheli feems to confifl of two parts, the keel^, 
and the fides, whereas in reality it is but one. It is ge- 
nerally fo large, that it may be juft grafped with both 
hands, though it is but an inch bro.id. They are not 
thicker than a fkin of vellum, and are ftreaked accord- 
ing to the length ; but the iides are crenated or jagged, 
bnt the divifions are roundiih. The hole by which the 
Nautilus gains its food, and fnews itfelf out of the ftiell, 
is large. Thelhell is brittle, of a ihining milk colour, 
very fmooth, being in all things like a round veffel or 
fliip. When it rifes out of the fea, it comes up with 
the fhell upfide down, that the afcent may be more 
eafy, and that the boat may empty itfelf of water ; but 
when it is on the furface, then it fets the Ihell to rights. 
Between the arms of tjiis fifh, the abovementioned mem- 
brane or fail, is placed as it were like the webbed toes of 
a bird, but much more thin, being not much thicker 
than a fpider's web ; but , it is llrong, and holds the 
wind as this fifh fiils alpng. There are feveral threads 
on each fide, which it makes ufe of inftead of rudders, 
and yet, when any thing comes near it, this fifh will 
immediately dive under water. 

The Pearl shelled NAUTILUS, is fo called, 
from having a fhell exceeding bright on the infjde, in- 
fomuch that it may vie with the fin eft pearls. Belonius 
calls it a PORCELLAIN, becaufe the French artificers 
ufe it for the making of feveral forts of ornaments. 

Some authors affirm, that the fhell of the Nautilus is 
fometimes met with twelve inches in length ; and when 
entire, what is called the lip, ftands very high, and the 
opening of the mouth is large, and of an oval oblong 
figure. Fioai this part there runs a kind of a tail, which 
turns within the hinder part of the opeaing of the mouth, 
continuing in a fpir^ form for feveral circumvolutions, 
but within the body of the fhell, and therefore is not 
vifible till it is cut open. The outfide of the fhell is of 
a browniili colour, variegated with one that is paler. 
The opening of the mouth does not go deep into the 
fhell, but in its hinder part there is a hole, which is the 
hr^. opening of the Siphuncle of the inner part. From 
this place, the inner cavity of the fhell is divided into a^ 
muljtude of cells, generally not above one-third of an^ 

inch 



O F F I S H E S. 275 

inch deep ; the divifions are made by tranfveife plates of 
the fame pearly (hell that lines the mouth and the pipe 
or fiphuncle, the mouth of which is vifibls in the 
bafe of the firfl: aperture of the fhell, and is continued 
regularly through them all to the very extremity. Thefe 
cells are forty in number, and they grow gradually 
fraaller from the firft to the innerraoft. 

It is found in the ArchipelcgOy as well as in the ocean, 
and is fometimes feen in the clay pits and ftone quarries 
in many parts o'i Englanh 

The LITTLE THICK NAUTILUS, is of a roundifh 
form, and rarely exceeds an inch and a half in diameter. 
The furface of the whole Ihell is fmoQth, and the open- 
ing of the mouth is large, and nearly circular, but part- 
ly filled up behind by the turn of the fpiral part of the 
ihell into it. The colour of the outfide is of a pale 
tawny brown, with lines or ftreaks of a darker colour. 
The infide is bright and fhining like the former, and 
the mouth opens to a much greater depth in proportioft 
to the fize. At th-e bottom there is an aperture which 
runs through a multitude of Ihells, into which the inner 
cavity is divided. It is a native of the Gul^h ofPerfia, 
and the Eajl-Indian f^^s. 

The THIN Eared NAUTILUS, has a very beauti- 
ful Ihell, which grows to ten inches in length, and is 
exceeding thin. '1 he opening of the mouth is vtxy 
large and of an oval fhape, but truncated at the hinder 
part, where the fpiral turn enters into it. The edge of 
the mouth is undulated, and st the hinder extremity 
there are two appendages called ears., one on e.ich fide 
x!\\Q. turn of the ihell. The whole fheil is as white as 
i'now, and its outer furface is beautifully marked w th 
undulated ridges v.'ith circular lines, and a great many 
tubercles. TTie back is hollov/ed all the way, and from 
its center there arifes a denticulated ridge. This fpecieg 
is common in the Eajl-Indiuny and fome parts of the 
American feas. 

The PAPER NAUTILUS, fo called from the thin- 
ncfb of its (hell, it being no thicker than llrong paper or 
parchment. It is often met with twelve inches long, 
and is comprefTed on the fides. The opening of the^ 
moutii is stx'j long and narrow, and there are iio ears ; 
K 6 hn 



2;6 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

but the corners of the hinder part of the mouth, between 
which the fpiral turn of the ftiell enters the cavity, are 
high and fharp. All the outer farface is beautifully va- 
riegated with undulated lines and hollow fpaces between 
them. On the back there is a furrow runs all along it, 
and the ridges on each fide it are fharp and ferrated. 

The THIN NAUTILUS without Eai-.s, is fmaller 
than the former kind, for it is but five inches long, and 
three or four deep. The openinor of the mouth is very 
long and narrow, and it is without ears. The colour 
is of a yellowifn white, and the fhell is very thin and de- 
licate. All the furface is undulated, and the back is 
both furrowed and undulated, having the two ridges on 
each fide of it pretty broad and denticulated. Some au- 
thors make fevtral other kinds, but they differ fo little 
from the f)rmer, that it is not worth while to allow 
them a particular defcription. 

The PURPURA, is of the fize of an egg, and fome- 
times bigger, and there are feveral forts of them. The 

YELLOW LONG SNOUTED PURPURA, with loug 

crooked fpincs, is about four inches in length, and 
fometimes more, and the fhape is nearly of an oval. 
The fnout is almoil tv.ice as long as the reil of the Iheli, 
and both this and the body are armed with four rows of 
long ipincs or thorns, fome of which are an inch in 
length, but (lender, and pointed at the ends, but moft 
of them are fomewhat crooked. The mouth'is nearly 
round, only its opening is continued to the form of a cleft 
up the fnout. 1 he natural colour of the (liell is a tawny 
yellow, mixed v.ith brown ; but when it has lain long 
upon the (hore, it becomes white as moll other lliells do. 
It may be feen in the cabinets of the curious. Some 
call it a Woodcock ILell, from the length of its fnout or 
bill. 

The VAiUFGATED LONG SNOUTED PURPURA, IS 

four or five inches long, and the body of the Ihell is 
ihort, and nearly of an oval fiiapc. The fnout is flen- 
der, and about five or ih: inches in length ; the mouth 
is round, but not very large, and the lip which fur- 
rounds it is of a reddifii colour. The fnout joins to the 
end of this, and there is a cleft that runs all along it 
fom that part. The external furface of the fhell is 
covered with lar^c tubercles irrcgukrly placed. The 

colour 



O F F I S H E S. 277 

colour is of a dLif]<y yellow, variegated witii brown and 
gray. 

The SHORT SNOUTED PURPURA, is aboijt two 
inches long, and its diameter with the ipines and thorns, 
is an inch and a half. The (hape is nearly oval, and 
the fnout is fliort, or rather little or none. The iUrface 
of the fhell is befet with fix rows, or oblong protube- 
rances, fome of which are a third of an inch in height, 
and jagged at the top. Thefe are generally black, at 
leall: in part, though the body of the fxiell is white. 
This (hell is frequently found on the fliores of the 
Canhbee-lJIandi, and is confequently white when brought 
from thence. 

The SHORT SNOUTED PURPURA with three rows 
of fpines, is about three inches long, including the 
fpines, and as much in diameter. The body is large at 
the head, gradually decreahng till it becomes almoit of 
tiie fhape of a cone, and it has about fix volutions. All 
the Ihrface of the fheil is deeply furrov\ed tranfverfely, 
and adorned with three rows of fpinous protuberances, 
fome of which are half an inch in length, and a quarter 
of an inch brrad; but the broadeil part is at the extre- 
mities, where they are hollow below. The colour of 
the whole fhell is of a dirty white. 

The PURPURA, with a longifh fnout and (hort 
prickly fpines, is about half an inch in length, and an 
inch in diameter, and the fhape of the body is roundilh. 
The fhell has about five volutions or turns, and the 
fnout is (lender, and about two thirds of the length of 
the body. The whole furface of the ihell is bcf'et with 
many fhcrt fpines of a conical figure, and fome of them 
are hooked. There are ten rows of thefe, which are 
continued to the fnout, and the Ihcll is of a whitiih co- 
lour, but the tips of the fpines are for the moil part 
black. 

The BRISTLY PURPURA with a longifh beak, is 
about two inches long, and an inch and a quarter in 
diameter. The mouth is fraall and roundifn, and the 
fhell has four or five volutions or turns. 1 he fnout is as 
long as one-third of the body, and of a conick fhape, a 
little crooked and blunt at the end. The furface of the 
Ihell is covered with high raifed ribs, running longitu- 
dinally 



27« THE NATURAL HISTORY 

dinally at fmall dirtances. There are alfo furrows that 
run round the fliell, and crofs the former. The fhell is 
quite covered with a fort of fpines that look like brililes, 
whofe ends are cut off; and the colour is variegated 
with dufky grayifh and white, and the lining of the 
mouth is white. 

The PURPURA oi Senegal, has a fhell that is from 
four to eight inches long, and half as broad. It is 
made in the form of a club, with a fhort round head ; 
it is compofed of eight or nine fweliing turns, very di- 
ftinft from each other, and there are fix or feven large 
ribs running from the right to the left, and obliquely 
with regard to its length. Thefe ribs are traverfed, as 
well as all the fhell, by a great number of threads, and 
on the firft: turn, there are fourteen teeth difpofed in two 
rows, which turn towards the middle. Thefe teeth 
all together in a fhell of four inches, are half an inch 
long, and in thofe of eight, they are two inches ; they 
are all marked with a deep furrow on the convex part. 
The fummit is twice as broad as long, and twice as fhort 
as the mouth. This is of a cylindrick form, and at its 
beginning is three times longer than broad. There are 
generally placed thereon, fifteen or eighteen horizontal 
prickles, but not fo large, by much, as the teeth on the 
turns. The left lip is remarkable for the fhape of the 
ihining plate that covers it, for it is flender, undulated 
in the midJle, and twice as long as broad. The fhell 
is either white, yellow, or fallow coloured without, and 
roie coloured within. 

The COFAR, is a fort of Purpura found at SenegaU 
and is one of the largeil kind, with a very thick fhell 
of a fomewhat oval Ihape, only it terminates at each end 
in a point, and is eight inches long, but net fo broad by 
one third. It confifts of nine or ten fpiral turns, which 
are round ifh and dillindt from each other ; there are 
alfo from feven to nine large ribs placed according to 
ihe length. On the two firll turns, thefe ribs are fur- 
nifhtd v.'ith points, eight on the firft, and two on the 
next ; the reft are adorned with a large ftud, and the 
ribs are traverfed with a great number of fmall threads 
finely fhagreened, that co\'er likewife the whole furface 
of the flie]], turning in the faaie manner as the^ fpires. 

The 



i 



OF FISHES. 279 

The mouth is of a middle fize, and almoft round, only 
it is fomewhat narrower at the extremities. The left 
lip has a fwelling at its upper extremity, and where it 
rifes, there is a round deep navel ; the right lip is thick 
and fharp, flightly undulated at the edges, and marked 
within with a great number of furrows. It is of a deep 
brown colour inclining to black. 

The GITON, a fort of Purpura of .S^^^j^?/, is not 
en inch long, and not fo broad by one half; but it is 
iharp at the end. It has eight turns, with flattifh fides, 
which form a fort of lattice with fmall threads that cut 
each other at right angles. The fummit or clavicle, is 
longer than broad, and the upper channel of the opening 
of the mouth, is three times Ihorter than the mouth it- 
felf. The left lip is fmooth, without teeth, and cover* 
ed with a (hining plate. The colour is white or fallow, 
without any mixtuie. 

There are many other diftin£lions of the Purpura, but 
thefe are fufficient to give the reader all the knowledge 
that isneceflary relating to thefe fliells. Ihis fhell fifh 
is faid to live fifty days out of water ; and yet, if it hap- 
pens to be thrown where the frefn water falls into the 
iea, it dies immediately. 

The BUCCINUM or TRUMPET-SHELL, is fo 
called from the imaginary likenefs of this fhell to a 
trumpet or horn. It confifts of one fmgle piece, and 
has a large belly, and a wide mouth. 

The TRUMPET SHELL of the iHand of Goree, is 
feldom much above half an inch long, and its breadth is 
lefs by one-hair. It has but eight turns, v/hich are a 
little fwelled, very narrow, and rough, with tubercles 
on the outfide. There are five or fix on the firil turn, 
two on the fecond, and one on the reft. The fummit 
is of an equal length with the firft turn, and the length 
of the mouth or opening, is not quite three times as 
much as the breadth. The right lip is thin and without 
teeth ; that is generally fpeaking, for in fome it is thick 
and has four large roundilri teeth. The ground colour 
is of a deep purple, and in fome, the firfc turn is fur- 
rounded with two obfcure vvhitifli lines. 

The CERITHEUfvI of Adanfon, is a Trumpet-fhell 

^4*, Sen gal f and is ieldom above two inches long,, and 

3 half 



28o THE NATURAL HISTORY 

half as much broad. It has but twelve turns, whick 
fwell in the middle, and it is adorned with a row of ftuds 
on one fide, parallel to its length ; the refl of the furface 
is furrounded wiih ten or twelve threads a little raifed. 
The opening or n>outh is pretty wide, and its lower 
channel is hollo.ved like a femi-cylinder, and is partly- 
covered by a pretty thick rib raifed on the bafeof the left 
lip ; the upper channel is narrow, 2nd more deep by one 
half than brodd. The colour is white, without mixture 
in the young, but rii2hdy fpotted with brov»'n in the 
old. 

The SLENDER BUCCINUM, with a longifh fnoirt, 
is four or five inches in length, and its diameter in the 
thickefl part is not more than an inch; for which reafon 
it is by ibme called the Spindle-lhell. The thickeft part 
is nearly in the middle, and the mouth has a fnout for 
its lip, which is continued to the fame length one way, 
as the clavicle the other. This fhell has ten fpiral turn- 
ings, and five of the lowermoft have a foit cf ridge in 
the middle, formed of a row of fhort blunt tubercles. 
7 he fnout is radiated in a fpiral manner, and the gene- 
ral colour is white, but the tubercles are yellowilh, as 
are alfo the lines between their feveral rows. 

The SMOOTH SLENDER BUCCINUM wi'h a clovcii 
fnout, is by feme called the MITRE-SHELL, and is 
about three inches long, and about three quarters of an 
inch in diameter. It has about five voluiions, the 
lowermoll of which k as long as all the reft together. 
The principal colour is white, which is variegated with 
clouds and fpots of a dulky red. It has no fpines, and 
the mouth is long and nar.-ow, and at the upper ex- 
treniiiy of it there is a cleft. It is found in AfJ'Crica as 
well as the Eaft-lnd-e;. 

The SMOOTH sLEvDER BUCCINUM, with an ob- 
lono^ fnout, and a denticulated outer lip, is five or fix 
inches in length, and its diameter where greateft, is a- 
bout an inch. The fnout is equal to about half the 
length of the tail, and the fhell confifts of twelve fpiral 
volutions, tlie lowermoll of which is largeft, and has 
fomewhat of a belly. Jt open^ at the front into an ob- 
long mouth, and the fore lip has about five large denti- 
culauons. The joining of the two lips is continued into 

a long 



OF FISHES. 281 

a long and fleiider fnout, pointed at the end. The whole 
lurface of the Ihell is fmooth, and the colour white. 

The LONGEST BUCCINUM, raiiated tranfverfely, 
is faid to be a very icarce (hell, and is about four inches 
in length, and nearly two in diameter. It confiits of 
feven Ipiral turns, which are feparated as it were from 
each other, and are flatted on the fides. The colour is 
ycjlovv, iranfvcrfcly radiated with prominent roundiili. 
ftreaks. '] he opening of the mouth is oblong and large, 
and the extremity of the fnout is blunt. 1 his fheli is 
brought from the Eaft-Indtes. 

The GHORT BUCCINUM, with tu.bercles and a 
large mouth, is about two inches long, and nearly as 
much broad. The mouth is oblong and very large, 
and the outer lip broad. The extremity of the mouth 
is a little cloven, and the tail is fliort and thick. The 
flieli confdls of about fix turn?, and is of a brownifh co- 
lour, and a little variegated with red and white. It is be- 
fet with a great number of fhort blunt tubercles, placed 
in feveral rows. 

The SMOOTH SHORT BELLIED BUCCINUM, is 
remarkable for having the turns of the Ihell running a 
contrary way to mofl: of the reft of this kind. It is a- 
bout an inch and three quarters long, and near an inch 
in diameter in the thickeft part. It confifts of fix turns, 
theloweft of v/hich is much the lai-geft, and as it were 
inflated. The mouth is ihnall, and of an oblong oval 
form. The furface of the flieil is fmooth, and the co- 
lour yellow. It is brought to us from Barbudoes. 

The SHOR T SMOOTH BUCCINUM, with an extend- 
ed lip, is an inch and half in length, and above an inch 
in diameter where broadeft. It has about four fpiral 
turns, and the lov/ermoft is thick and blunt at the top. 
The mouth is large and longiih, and the lip is pretty 
much extended, i he furface of the (tiell is fmooth, 
and of a pale brownifh colour, .with many yellow rings. 
It Is chiefly met v/ith in the Eaji Indies. 

The SLENDtR LATTICED BUCCINUM, is about 
two inches and a half long, and an inch in diameter 
where broadeft. It has feven turns, and the four lowcr- 
moft are very fmall, the laft terminating in a iharp point. 
The mouth is oblong, moderately large, and of a red- 

d.fh 



2<{2 THEN A TURAL HISTORY 

difh colour, and the lip is narrow and cloven a little at 
the top. The furface of the fhell is adorned with pretty 
high longitudinal ridges, which crofs the turns and liand 
pretty near each other. Eefides, there are many broad 
lines that run according to the turns of the fhell, and 
crcfling the ridges, divide the whole furface into fmall 
Squares. It is found on the ihores of the American 
ifiands. 

The BELLIED BUCCINUM with a narrow dentated 
roouth, is an inch and half long, and a!)Out an inch and 
quarter in diameter. It has about nine turns, though 
the lowermoil: of itfelf makes the principal part of the 
irell, the reft being comprehended in the fpace of one 
third of an inch. The lovveft volution or turn, is near- 
ly oval, and the mojth is fmall, oblong and narrow, 
with a lip at each end, extended a litrle beyond the 
opening, and form, a ridge. 'i he mouth is dentated 
on both fides, and the colour is of a pale brown, va- 
riegated with a deeper brown, and a faintifh white. 
It is brought from' the Eaji-hidies and other places. 

The THICK BUCCINUM with a large mouth, is 
four or five inches long, and two and a half in diame- 
ter where thickeft. It has five fpiral turns, and is ter- 
minated in a fmall blunt point. The lowerrnoft turn of 
which the body of the fiiell chiefly confifts, is bellied 
and large, and the mouth is large and oblong, with 
thin lips. The colour is of a fine white, variegated 
with red, yellow, and brown, in a beautiful manner^ 
^J he furface is as fmooth as if it was polifhed. It is 
brought from the Wejl Indies. 

The SMOOTH OBLOKG BUCCINUM with a narrow 
mouth, called by fome the MIDAS EAR-SHELL, is 
three or four inches long, and two and a half in diame- 
ter ; it is of an oblong ihape, and has fome refeixblance 
to the ear of an Ais, fuch as Midas is reported to have 
had,. It confills of fix turns, the lowerrnoft of which 
takes up abnoil the whole fhell, and is nearly of an oval 
fhape. The mouth is almoft extended through its 
whole length, and is very narrow, being only a cleft 
fomewhat broader at the bottom than elfewhere. The 
mouth is rounded, and has a fort of a fold near the bot- 
tom. 



O F F I S H E S. 283 

torn. The furface is quite fmooth, and the colour is of 
a pale brown. It is brought from America. 

The SHORT BUCCINUM with a hollow fnout, 
is about two inches and a half long, and two 
inches in diameter. Excepting the fnout, it is 
much thicker than long, and confifts of fix fpotted 
fpiral tarns, with a blunt end. The mouth is wide and 
nearly oval, and the extremity of the fhell is continued 
into a confiderable long, flender, hollow fnout. 'I'he 
lip is thick and wrinkled, as well as the whole furface 
of the (hell, which is full of low oblong protuberances 
that are the higher rifings of the ridges between the 
wrinkles. 

The TRUMPET- SHELL of c^^?;^^^/, isfmall, thick, 
and of an oval form, blunt at the upper part, and 
pointed at the top. It is but half an inch long, and 
mucli lefs broad. 'It is compofed of ten turns or fpires 
which are all fmooth, polifhed, and flatted, except the 
firll ; but they are not very diilind from each other. 
The mouth or opening is oval, except in the lower part, 
where it forms a narrow channel, v/ith a flight furrow 
roundifli above, and twice as long as broad. The upper 
extremity forms a Ihort channel, and is cut on the back 
of the fhell by a furrow, which is foraewhat more datt^ 
than broad. The right lip is blunt and very thicks 
though withdut a border, and fomewhat wide, being 
adorned inwardly with eight fmall roundiih teeth. The 
Left lip is rounded, and crooked in the middle, like the 
portion of a circle ; and it is covered with a fmall fhining' 
plate without any fwelling, and as it were, wrinkled 
on the outfide towards the upper extremity. The fur- 
face of the fhell is covered with a reddiih membranous 
ficin, fo thin and tranfpajent, that the colouis may plain- 
ly be perceived through it. The ground is either white, 
fallow coloured, or brown, without any mixture in fome; 
•but is generally brown, and marked with round Vv-hite 
fpecks in the ihape of lozenges. The animal that inha- 
bits this fhell, has a fmall cylindrick head flightly fur- 
rowed at the extremity ; and the feelers are almoin cy- 
lindrick, being blunt at the top, and longer by one-half 
than the head. The eyes are two fmall prominent 
points placed at the root of the feelers, and the mouth 
appears Uke a little round h;;Je placed under the head, 

about 



2S4 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

about the middle of its length, from which is almoil con- 
tinually darted out a cylindrick trunk, almoll as long as 
the feelers, which feems to be divided at the ends like 
two lips. The mantle confifls of a very (lender mem- 
brane, which extends from the external furface of the 
fhell, and is folded like a cylindrick pipe, which pro- 
ceeds from a length equal to the fifth pai t of the Iheli, 
and lies a little on the left fide. The body is of a pale 
white, with oval reddiih fpecks when beheld above ; but 
underneath it is of a dirty white, without any fpots. 
The feelers are red in the middle, and of a dirty white 
at the extremities. 

There are many other forts of Buccinums taken 
notice of by authors, but thefe are fufiicient to fatisfy the 
curiofity of moft readers ; and perhaps mod of the other 
diftindions are in a great meafaie owing to fancy ; 
though it is allowed there may be a greater variety v/ith 
regard to the colours, and perhaps in the fbapes. 

The HEDGE-HOG MLREX, is three inches and a 
half long, and about two and a half broncl where thick- 
eft. The body of the fhell is nearly of a conick (hape, 
and of a whitifli colour, wrinkled on the furface with 
circular furrows. It is alfo furroanded with feverai rows 
of long, ereft, ftrong, and fharp fj^ines or prickles, 
from whence it has its name. The clavicle has alfo f ro- 
tuberances of the fame kind on its federal turns, but 
they are fhorter and more blunt. The fpines are all 
black, as v/ell as fome other parts of the fheil, which 
give it a very fmgular appearance. It ia brought from 
jifrka and the Enjl-hidies. 

The HEDGE-HOG SHCLL with a fmooth clavicle, 
is two inches and a half long, and near two in diameter 
where broadeil. The fheli is of a brownifii white, va- 
riegated with a deeper colour, which feems to be a mix- 
ture of brown olive and purple. There aie three rows 
of fpines at fome diftance from each other, conneded by 
a ridge- and the clavicle has about five turns The 
fpines are white, which add greatly to the beauty of the 
Iheil. It is found on the fhores of /Jfrica, near the 
Mediterranean fea. 

The MUREX with hollow fpines, and a naked 
wrinkled body, is about two inches and a half long, and 
an inch and half in diameter. The cluvicle confifls of 

about 



O F F I S H E S. 28,- 

about nine diftinft turns, the two lowermofl: of v;hlch 
are befet with a row of imperfc6l fpines, and the body of 
the fliell i> wide, having a number of deep longitudinal 
furrows thereon. Towards the end next the clavicle, 
there are two rows of fpines near each other, which are 
fliort, conical, and hollow. After thefe the body of the 
fiiell is naked till within half an inch of the other extre- 
mity, where there is another rov/ of thofe fpines. It is 
brought from the Eajl-Indiesy and is not very common. 

The LEFT HANDED MUREX with a deprefleJ clavi- 
cle, is near three inches long, and about an inch and a 
half in diameter at the head, from whence it grows gra- 
dually fmaller to the end, which is pointed. The mouth 
is fo large, that it reaches the wliole length of the head, 
and the clavicle has about fix turns. The colour is of a 
whitifli brown with a reddilli call. But this fnell is di- 
flinguilhed from all others of the kind, in being turned 
tjie contrary way to the reft. It is brought from the 
South Seasy and is confequently very rare. 

The SPIDER SHELL or WRLNKLED MUREX 
with an extended lip, is about three inches long, and 
nearly as much in diameter. The colour is chiefly of a 
pale yellowifh brown, and the clavicle is long, with a- 
boLit fix turns, which are broad and elegant. There 
aie roundilh ridges all over the body atdifierent dillar.ces, 
and they are continued through the lip, which is greatly 
extended, forming v.-hat ianciful people call Spiders- 
feet, from whence this fhcU has its name. The mouth 
is very large, and the extremity of the ihell fmali and 
turned up. It is brought from the IVeJi-IrJies. 

The SCORPION SHh.LL or TUBERCULATED 
MUREX with five teeth on the lip, is five inches long, 
and abo^'e three in diameter. The colour ia. yellowifn, 
with a mixture of one more dufey ; and the mouth is 
very long and wide, v\ith a lip, when in perfedtion, 
variegated with rtd, violet colour, and white. The 
clavicle is fiiO' r, and all the furface of the Ihell is cover- 
ed with tubercles. The whole tdgt of the lip is notch- 
ed in a very irregular manner, and there are five olon<y 
protuberances refembling thofe at the two ends of the 
mouth. It is brought i'rom the EaJi'Imiesy and fonie 
parts of America, 

The 



286 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The SIX LEGGED SPJDER SHELL, ordieMUREX 
with an extended lip and fix long finall horns, is three 
inches in length, and two and a half in diameter. The 
clavicle has about fix turns, which are not very diftind, 
and the general colour is a tawny brown variegated 
with darker clouds, and a little flelh colour and white. 
There are a few blunt low tubercles on different parts of 
the furface ; and on the back there is fix long protube- 
rances like {o many horns, and thofe next the head are 
longell ; but near the oppofite extremity more fliarp 
pointed and fomewhat crooked. It is found in the 
AleMterrar^san fe:i, and is pretty fcarce. 

The RIBBED MUREX with a tuberculated clavicle, 
is above four inches in length, and two in diameter at 
the head, from v/hence the fheli grows gradually fmaller 
to the end, where it is a little cloven by the continuation 
of the mouth. The clavicle is ic ng, having about eight 
turns, and the lower ones have each a row of tubercles, 
that on the firll and feccnd form a fort of a crown. The 
fuiface of the body of the fiiell is raifed into longitudi- 
nal ribs, and the colour is of a yellowifn brown, variega- 
ted with lines of a darker colour, like the veins of fome 
fort of wood. It is an uncommon fliell, and is brought 
from S'.uth Aiiienca. 

The RIBBED MUSICIC SHELL with ftreaked rings, 
is about two inches long, and near an inch and three 
quarters in diameter. The body of the Ihell is fhort, 
and there are feveral broad low ribs at fome dillance 
fj-om each other, 'i he clavicle is long, and confilh of 
\(t\tn or eight turns. The colour of the Iheilisofa 
whitifh brown, and is furrounded with three or four 
rings, confilVing of four or hve {lender black lines, v/i:h 
reddiih and blackilh fpots bcfAeen them, which give 
them the appearance of the lines in mufick books, it is 
brought from the Eaji-hidies. 

'l\he iMUkEX with a fingle large rib on theb?.ck, is not 
above an inch and half in length, and an inch in diameter. 
The body of the fheil is nearly of an oval fhape, and 
the opening of the mouth is long and v^'ide, with a lip 
bordered with a tliick z6.gQ. 'i'he clavicle is fhort, con- 
lifiing of about five turns, one of which bellies out. On 
i)ic middle of the back there runs a thick large rib, 

rounded 



O F F I S H E S. 287 

rounded at the top, and very like the thick edge of the 
lip. The reft of the furface is fmooth, and of a horn 
colour variegated with brown. It is brought from the 
Eaji-hidies but is not very common. 

TheTuBERCuLATED MUREX with abidentatedlip, 
is only an inch and half in length, and as much in dia- 
meter. The clavicle is long, confiiKng of five turns, 
though it is hard to determine where the lowermoil ends. 
The colour is of a dufky brown with paler variegaiions, 
and the infide of the mouth is of a whitilh red. The 
furfice of the body is furrounded v\ith rov/s of fmall 
round tubercles ; and four or five of thefe rows are paler 
than the reft of the (hell. The mouth is very wide, 
wiih a lip greatly extended, and armed v/ith two points, 
the one at the extremity, and the other about the mid- 
dle, whence it is faid to be bidentated. 

The MUREX befet with large thick tubercles, fel- 
dom obtains the length of an inch and quarter, and the 
diameter is pretty much the fame. The clavicle is fliort, 
and confifts of a coaiiderable number of turns. The tU' 
bercles are large with blunt points, and are difpofed in 
four or five rows. The furface of the fliell is variegated 
wiih a blueilli violet colour, a deep purple and brown. 
It is brought from the Eajl-Iniles. There are various 
other kinds of thefe fnell filh, but thefe are fufticient to 
lead to a knowledge of the reft. 

The Gold mouthed COCHLEA or SNAIL; is 
about two inches high, and an inch and a half in dia- 
mer.er. It is thicket! about the middle, and is fomewhat 
fmail near the mouth ; but it g:adaally tapers the other 
way to a point. The furface of the Ibell is deeply fur- 
rowed with fpiral line?, which are fomewhat irregular, 
and have a great number of tubercles thereon, diipofed 
into five row?. They are pretty large and biunt at the 
end, and the Surface is variegated with a deep and pale 
brown ; but the extremities of the tubercles are paleit. 
The colour is not the fame in all, but the mouth is al- 
v/ays of a fine bright gold colour within. Jt is round 
and edged on the circumference with a narrow lip. It 
is common in America^ and is found in foir.e parts of 
Europe, 

The 



£8S THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The HEDGE-HOG SNAIL, is about an inch high, 
and two inches in diameter near the mouth. The cla- 
vicle is a little flatted for two or three turns, and then 
the flicU lengthens, and grows broader till near the 
jnouth, where it again becomes a little fmaller. The 
mouth itfelf is nearly round, and edged with a narrow 
2ip. There are prominences on the fhell which are high, 
and follow the fpiral turn ; being a third part of an inch 
in length, and pointed at the^nds ; and there are others 
"which confill ot three or four placed together, and are 
dentated at their extremities. i he predominant colour 
is yeJlowifh, and the tubercles are of a fine rofe colour, 
fometimes a little tinged with violet. The infide of the 
iheli is white like the mother of pearl. They are 
brought from the Eaji-Indics, and fometimes from 
j^vietica. 

The BELTED SNAIL, is two inches and a half high, 
and about as much in diameter. It confilb ot four very 
diftinft fpiral turns, of which that next the mouth is the 
largeft by much. The mouth is very large^ and fome- 
v.'hat oval, ?nd the whole furface of the l"hell has deep 
furrows, which follow exaftly the fpiral turn of the 
fhell. The prominences between thefe are like h many 
broad belts, roundiih at the top. The colour without, 
is brown mixed with grey, and the infide is of a blueifh 
white. It is common on the coalts of the American 
iilands. 

The SMOOTH RIBBAND SNAIL, is one of the 
tallell and longeft in proportion to its breadth of all this 
kind, it being two inches long, and a little more than an 
inch in diameter. It confiits of five fpiral turns, and 
terminates in a very fharp point. The furface of the 
fhell is fmooth, and the colour dufky, but paler in fome 
places than others. It is variegated with feveral beauti- 
ful liripes like ribbands, following the fpiral turn of the 
fhell, which are of a fine reddilh brown, with a little mix- 
tare of white in fome places. It is found on the fhores 
of many paits oi Italy. 

The' WHITE AMMON'S HORN SNAIL, differs 
greatly from the two former, and confifts of five fpiral 
turns, though it is quite flat, that which fliould be the 
point, being funk lower than any other part of the fliell. 

Ihe 



O F F I S H E S. 289 

The diameter is about two inches, and the thicknefs no 
more than half an inch. The mouth is round, and there 
■the Ihell is Kirgeft, for it tapers from thence to the point 
in the center. The furface is fmooth, and the colour 
white. 

The WARTY SNAIL, is feldom above three quar- 
ters of an inch long, and half an inch in diameter. It 
coniills of four fpiral turns, and its top is bluntly point- 
ed. All the outer furface of the fhell is marked with 
fpiral lines, and there are others that crofs them, form- 
ing a fort of chequer work, in the centers of many of 
which there are warty tubercles. The upper part of 
the fhell is of a pale brown, and the tubercles whitifh ; 
but on- the lower part it is tinged with grey, and the 
protuberances are large, blunt, and of the fame colour. 
The mouth is nearly round, and both that and the whole 
inner furface is of a fine pearly white. 

The SMOOTH BROWN SNAIL with a great 
mouth, is about an-ifrCh high, and as much in diameter. 
The furface of the fhell is fmooth and even, and the 
colour is of a pleafant brown, which becomes paler to- 
wards the edges, where it is almoft white. The mouth 
is large and of a femicircolar fhape. The fore part be- 
ing a true fegment of a circle, and the hinder a ftrait 
line. This part has a fmall lip, and a hole like a navel 
behind it. The inner furface of the fhell is whitifh, 
and it is brought from the Effi-lndies, 

The THREE RIBBED SNAIL, is an inch and a 
half in diameter, and the body is large, with a fmall 
fpiral depreffed clavicle. The whole furface of the fhell 
is fmooth, only where there are three narrow flripes 
v/hicn rife above the furface, and run along the whole 
body, dividing it into fo many fpaces. The prevailing 
colour is a reddiih brown, which is paler in fome parts, 
and the mouth is larger and femicircular. It is brought 
from ^outh America^ and fometimes from the Eaji- 
Indies. 

The ROUNDISH SMOOTH SNAIL with a wide 
mouth, is of the fmall kind and of a round fhape. The 
body is large in proportion to its fize, and is nearly 
equal in diameter to its depth. Ths. clavicle is fmall, 
and has a depreffed fpiral turn at the end. The mouth 
Vol. Ill, a ' is 



290 "the natural history 

is very large, and fomewhat broader than deep, being 
femicircular on the forepart. The under part is formed 
into a kind of a lip, with a hole like a navel behind it. 
The furface of the fhell is fmooth and of a greyiih 
vvhire, variegated with two irregular rings formed by- 
clouded fpots which are rough on the edgec. The in- 
fide is of a pearly white. Jt is brought from the Eajl- 
Indies. 

The TOOTHED SNAIL or NERITE, is about an 
inch in length, and three quarters of an inch in diame- 
ter. The body is large, and the clavicle fmall, with a 
deprelTed fpiral turn ; the colour is grey, variegated 
with iron grey or blackidi colour. The mouth is large 
and femicircular, and the hinder lip is furnilhed about 
the center with two longilh blunt teeth, which are fome- 
times reddifli ; for which reafon it is called the bloody 

TOOTHED NeRITE. 

The BANDED SNAIL with four teeth, is nearly 
round, and about an inch in diameter. The clavicle is 
very fmall and depreffed, and the outer furface of the 
Iheli is formed into raifed broad bands running parallel 
to each other, and feparated by narrow furrows. The 
colour is whitifh grey variegated with black, but the in- 
fide of the fhell is of a pearl colour. The fore lip is 
broad, thick, and prominent, and that behind is very 
broad, having each two teeth, which are fometimes 
white and fometimes red, as if they were bloody. 

The PRICKLY SNAIL, is about three quarters of 
an inch long, and near half an inch in diameter. The 
fhell confiils of fjur turns, and there are upright blunt 
ridges with fmall liollow fpaces between them. Round 
the larger turns, there are two rows of long flender 
thorns or prickles, and the outfide of the Ihell is va- 
riegated with a deep reddifli brown, and a whitilh pale 
colour. 

The CLOUDED SNAIL, is about an inch and a 
half long, and an inch in diameter, confifling of five 
fpiral turns, and the extremity of the clavicle is fmall 
and blunt. The outfide of the fhell is fmooth, and the 
colour of a pale brown, variegated with fmall clouded 
fpots of very dark brown. The mouth is large, and 
the infide of the fhell of a filver colour. There are 

other 



OF FISHES. 29! 

other forts of fnails with femicircular mouths ; but whc t 
has been faid, perhaps may be fufficient to give an idea 
of them in general. There is another fort of fnails 
with a flatted mouth, partly filled up with the turn of the 
- Ihell, of which fome account fliall be given. 

The CONICAL TUBERCULATED SNAIL, Or ROUGH 

TROCHUS, is fometimes three inches long, and two 
broad at the bafe. The mouth is moderately large, 
and the fhell has fix fpiral turns, and blunt at the end ; 
it is befet with tubercles that are large, blunt, and 
broad at the bafe, being difpofed into five or fix rows, 
and the reft of the furface is undulated. The colour is 
of a fine grey, variegated with another that is-biackifh. 
It is brought from the Eajl-hidies. 

The SMOOTH CONICAL SNAIL orTROCHU?, 
is fometimes three inches long and two broad. Jt con- 
Tlils of feven diftinft fpiral turns, and becomes fmailer 
gradually from the bafe to the end, which is blunt. 
The mouth is moderately large, and of a white filver 
colour within. The fheli is pretty fmooth on the out- 
fide, and of a whitifh colour, but variegated with irre- 
gular rays of red and brown. It is brought from the 
Eaft-Indies2<\\^ other places. 

The UNDULATED SNAIL or TROCHUS, h an 
inch and a half in diameter at the bafe, and two inches 
long, and the fhell confifts of about feven fpiral turns, 
the two lowermoft of which are large and flattifh, and 
the others very fmall. It terminates in an oblong blunt 
point, and the colour of the whole is white, except the 
mfide, which is of a pearl co'our. There are a p-reat 
number of tranfverfe ridges on all parts of the fhell, that 
are <;onfiderably raifed above the reil of the furface, and 
are irregularly round at the top. 

The PRICKLY SNAIL or TROCHUS, is about 
two inches long, and an inch and quarter at the bafe. 
The fhell confifts of about ten fpiral turns, but four of 
the upper ones are not very diftinct. Round the edges 
of three or four of the larger, there are regular rows of 
fharp pretty ftrong prickles ; and the furface of the lower 
part is fomewhat irregularly raifed into a few tranfverfe 
ridges, with many fine lines running generally in pairs, 
according to the turns of the fhell. The outfide is of a 
O 2 chefnut 



292 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

chefnut brown, but the prickles are paler, and the lines 
darker than the reft. It is brought from the Eajl-Indiesy 
and particularly from Chi7ia. 

The FRENCH HORN SNAIL, has a flat deprefled 
fhape, and the extremity of the clavicle is funk within 
the reft of the furface. It is about two inches broad, 
and half an inch thick, and its mouth is the fegment of 
a circJe almoft filled up with the fucceeding turns of the 
fhell, of which there are four or five. The colour is yel- 
lowifh, and it is common in the Ea/i-Imlies. 

The SERRATED SNAIL or SPUR SHELL, is a- 
bout two inches broad at the bafe, and but little above 
an inch long. The fhell confifts of fix fpiral turns, 
each of which is adorned with a fcrratcd fliarp ridge, 
and the denticulations rife into a fort of thorns broad at 
thj bottoms, and pointed at the ends. It may be 
placed fo as to refcmbic a fpur with large rowels, and 
the clavicle is dcpreflfed at the top. The mouth of the 
iliell is pretty large, and the colour is fometimes of a 
fine pale yellow, and fometimes entirely white ; but 
the inner furface is always of a pearl colour. It is 
brought from the Eajl-Ivdies. 

The COiNICAL SNAIL with tuberculous undula- 
tions, is about an inch and a half thick, and as much 
I:>ng. The faell co.-ififts of about fix fpiral turns, ter- 
minated at the top by a fmall roundilh button. The 
furface is covered with undulated tranfverfe lines, whofe 
central points are raifed into blunt tubercles. The 
colour is of a greenifh grey, but the more prominent 
parts, and the top of the clavicle, are more pale, 
*nd fometimes white. It is brought from the Enjf 
and iVeji-lndici, 



CHAP. 



O F F I S H E S. 293 

CHAP. XXX. 
0/ Turbinated Shells. 

THESE fliells are of the fimple kind, conMing 
of one piece, and of a long flender make, always 
terminating in a very long fine point. The mouth is 
narrowert towards the bafe, and has a fort of an ear. 
They are of different fhapes, and in general they ai-c 
called Screw- fliells. 

The THICK TURBO or SCREW-SHELL with an 
oval mouth, is fometimes feven inches in length, and 
two in- diameter where thickeft. The iheli confiils of 
about fourteen turns, ten of which are pretty diftind ; 
but four near the extremity are a li;tle confufed. The 
turn next the mouth is the largeft, from which thejr 
gradually diminifhed to the end, which is pointed. 
They are all round on the furface, which is fmooth and 
white, but beautifully variegated v/ith yellow rays and 
broad bands, confining of a mixture of blue and brown 
Jines ; but interrupted by irregular fpiral lines of the 
fame colours. The mouth is large and wide, and the 
lip thin and not dentated. It is found in America, as 
well as Europe. 

The NEEDLE-SHELL or SLENDER SCREW- 
SHELL with roundiHi fpires and a fmall round mouth, is 
iive or fix inches long, and the diameter where thickefl, 
is not much above half an inch. Jt becomes gradually 
fmaller from the mouth to the other end, where it ter- 
minates in a point. It confiils of fifteen fpiral turns, 
which are all roundifh or bellied, rifing very high in the 
middle. The furrows between them are deep and nar- 
row, and the mouth fmall and roundifli. it has only a 
notch where the ear is placed in the other, and the whole 
furface is perfectly fmooth. The colour is white, va- 
riegated with yellow. 

The SLENDER TURBO or SCREW-SHELL with 
bellied fpires, and an oval mouth, is about two inches 
long, and a third of an inch in diameter where thickeii. 
The fhell confifts of about fourteen turns, and that next 
the mouth is much the largefi: ; the mouth itfeif is mode- 
O 3 rate!/ 



294 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

rately large and oval, and bordered with a thin lip. It 
is common on the ihor^s of the American iflands. 

^Thc TURBO or SCREW-SHELL, with bellied 
^Ires and elevated ribs, is an inch and a half in length, 
and the largeil turn a little more than the third of an 
inch in diameter. The turns grow gradually fmaller to 
the point, and they are feven in number, beautifully 
ribbed, and each of them have feveral firait very high 
ribs running down at fmail diftances. The colour is 
white, and the mouth round and pretty Isrge, with a 
thick lip. It is common on the fhores q{ Barbadoes. 

The CONICAL TUREO or SCREW-SHELL, 
with plain llreaked and numerous fpires. It is by fome 
called the TtLESCOPE-SHELL, and the fhape is a 
regular cone four inches long, and an inch and a quar- 
ter in diameter near the mouth, from whence it ptows 
gradually fmalier, terminating in a very fine point. 
The turns near the mouth ai-e broad, and they become 
gradually narrow, but are very numerous, and at length 
indirtinft. The turns are all flat and ftreaked fpirally, 
and the colour is brown, but dcepeft at the thickell part, 
and almoft white at the point. The mouth is fiat and 
jjot large, and the lip runs each way to fome diitance 
beyond it Jike a ridge. It is foimd in mofl parts of the 
wofid. \ 

The SLENDER TURBO or SCREW-SHELL with 
fpiral lines on the turns, is four or five inches long, and 
fcarce half an inch thick where thickeft. It becomes 
gradually fmaller to the end, where it terminates in a 
point. The turns are all round it, and the furrows be- 
tween them are pretty deep, and beautifully ftreaked all 
the way with deep furrows following the 'turn of the 
fhell. The mouth is fmall, and of an irregular oval, 
with a thin lip. The colour of the Iheil is yellow, un- 
Jefs it ha6 lain long on the Ihore, and it is found on the 
fhores of the American ifiands, as well as in the Enji- 
Indies, 

The TURBO or SCREW-SHELL with diftant and 
prominent fpincs, is about five inches long, and the dia- 
meter of the fpire next the head, is about three quarters 
of an inch, from whence it becomes gradually Icfs till it 
terminates in a point. There are about feventeen turns 

that 



O F F I S H E S. 295 

that are very high, and extremely narrow, with very 
deep furrows between rhem. The mouth is round, but 
not very regular, and the iip has aliitleear; the colour 
is whitifh, with a tincture of yeilow and red, and it is 
broa(>ht from the Eajl and Weji-Indies. 

TheTURBO or SCREW SHELL with narrow flatted, 
and iiudded fpires, is about four irxhes long, and the 
diameter where largell half an inch, from whence it 
tapers to a line point. 'I he ihell confifts of about four- 
teen turns, which are very indiftincl towards the point. 
They are all flatted and undulated in a very agreeable 
manner, and along the edge of each fpire, there is a" 
foit of blunt fmall protuberances or ftuds of a paler co- 
lour than the reil of the fliell, which is of a du(ky brown. 
The mouth is large but irregular, and projeds from the 
reft of the (hell. It is brought from the Eaji-htdies. 

The WAR IT TURBO or SCREW-SHELL with a 
broad depreiTed mouth, called by fome the CATER- 
PILLAR-SHELL, is about two inches and a half long, 
and near three quarters of an inch in diameter next the 
mouth. It confifts of about twelve turns, which ter- 
minate in a point, and feveral of thefe are irregularly 
befet with blunt warty protuberances. The mouth is 
as it were connefted to the fliell by a fort of a neck, 
and is broad and deprefled, having the lower lip a little 
turned back, and an ear at each extremity. The fhell 
in general is pale variegated with a darker colour ; but 
the protuberances are blueifli. It is brought from 
Chimin 

The TURBO or SCREW-SHELL with a long wide 
mouth, is three inches long, and of the thicknefs of a 
man's little finger. It becomes gradually fmaller from 
the mouth to the end, and confifts only of three turns, 
of which the firft takes up almofl the whole fliell. The 
mouth is near two inches long, and narrow at the lower 
part, but wide near the extremity, with a winged lip. 
The colour is brownifli, variegated with a deeper brown, 
and a reddifli tawney. The furface is fmooth, only 
there are a few tubercles on the fecond turn. It is brought 
from the Eajl- Indies. 

The RIBBAND TURBO or SCREW-SHELL with 

a fmall mouth, is about tv/o inches and a half long, 

O 4 and 



296 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

and a little more than the third of an inch in diameter 
near the mouth, from whence it gradually tapers till it 
terminates in a point. 'J he Ihell confiils of about tea 
turns that are fomewhat rounded, and the lines which 
divide them are very fmall. The mouth is nearly oval, 
but a li tie irregular, and fmall in proportion to the fize 
of the fhell. All round the turns there are feveral broad 
rings or belts that follow the courfe of the fhell. In 
fome more, in others Jefs, and they are of a darker co- 
lour than the reft of the fliell. Jt is found on the Ihores 
of the American iflands. 

The WKEATHED TURBO or SCREW-SHELL 
with a narrow oblique mouth, is two inches long, and 
a third of an inch in diameter at the bafe. The ihell 
confifts of fourteen turns that are ilattifn, and fomewhat 
liollowed inward towards the bafe. The outward edge 
is more prominent, and is armed all the way with a row 
of Itrong large piickles that are a little blunt at the extre- 
mities. The mouth is connected to the ihell by a fort 
of an neck, and is cblcng, oblique, and narrow. It i& 
found on the fhores of Italy. 

The OBLONG MOUTHED TURBO or SCREW- 
FISH with fpires jagged at the edges, is about two 
inches long, and the third of an inch thick at the bafe» 
The mouth is fmall and oblong, but widell in the mid- 
dle, and has a broad lip. The ihell confifts of about 
fi(t4;en turns ; the firft of which is a little bellied; but 
the reft are fiat and jagged at the edges. The colour is 
of a faint brown, a little variegated with tawney, and 
reddifn, and regular rows of little black dots. 7 he jag- 
ged edges are of a paler colour than the other parts. It 
is found in A7nerica, and fome parts ai Europe. 

TheTHICK EARED 1 URBO, or SCREW-SHELL 
with turns deeply jagged at the edges, is three inches 
Jong, and an inch in diameter where thickeft. The 
fhell confifts of about eleven turns, that are all flat, ex- 
cept the firft, and are deeply jagged at the edges. The 
colour is a whitifti pale, variegated with irregular fpots 
of a darker hue, and the extremities of the fpires are 
paler. The mouth h oblong and narrow, and remark- 
ix\i\y eared. 

The SCREW-SHELL of SenegaU is like a cone 
rounded at the bafe, and grows gradually fmalier to the 

top. 



O F F I S H E S. 297 

top, where it terminates in a very fine point. The 
largeli are not much above an inch long, and a quarter 
of an inch in diameter; it is compofed of thirteen flat 
fpires or turns without any fweiling, infomuch that they 
are only diftinguifhable by a (hallow furrow which fepa- 
rates them from each other. Thefe turns are all crofied 
by a great number of very flight furrows, according to 
the length of the fhell. The mouth, or opening, is 
nearly like that of the Miran ; but above twice as ihort 
at the fummit. The upper furrow is fomewhat deep ; 
and left lip has but a flight fold. The ground colour 
is a dirty white ; but on the upper middle of each turn, 
it is of the colour of agate. 

There are other Screw-fnells mentioned by authors, 
but thefe may be fulHcient for our purpofe. 

CHAP. XXXIIL 
Of wreathed Shells, 

TK E VOLUTA or WREATHED SHELLS are 
of one piece, and of a figure nearly conical, but 
fliort, the clavicle being commonly depreffed, and ti;e 
mouth long, perpendicular, and narrow. 

The JAMAR, is a Voluta of Senegal, which is very 
thick, raid nearly of a conical fhape. It is about fix 
inches long, and two in diameter, and confiils of twelve 
fpiral turns. The fir fl makes of itfelf the chief bulk cf 
the fliell, and turns oir at a right angle towards the 
lower part, to form almoll an horizontal plain fiightly 
hollowed in the middle. The remaining eleven are alfo 
flattifli, and nearly horizontal. The clavicle terminates 
in a very fine point, and the fummit, which is, as it were, 
the bale of the cone that forms the upper part of the 
fhell, is but the eighth part of an inch. The mouth or 
opening, is a long Itrait cleft, larger by one half in the 
upper part than u\ the lower, whofe length is terminat- 
ed by the firft turn, infomuch that it is feven times 
longer than the clavicle. The right lip is acute and 
O 5 very 



298 THE NATURAL HISTORY 
very {harp at the edges ; the left is fwelled roundiih and 
very fimplc. A membranous (kin of a reddilh colour 
furrounds the whole furface of the fhell, and when this 
is taken off, it appears of a fine polilh, and finely va- 
riegated wi;h different colours. The ground is white, 
red, yellow, or brown, and marbled with fpots without 
any regularity, and fometimes encircled with pointed 
ftreaks. This fhell is highly valued by the curious, 
who have given it different names, according to the 
varieties. 

The ADMIRAL SHELLor VOLUTA with a broad 
yellow band, and a pointed line thereon, is aft uncom- 
mon and very beautiful fliell, bearing a great price. Jt 
is about two inches long, and near an inch in diameter 
towards the head, from whence, to the extremity of the 
mouth, it gradually decreafes in fize, fo as to form a 
fort of a cone, with an obtufe point. The clavicle alfo 
dirainiihes in diameter, and terminates in a blunt point. 
The ground colour of the fhell is of a beautiful yellow, 
but fo variegated, that it does not take up above one 
third of the furface. There is a circle or ring of this co- 
lour at the head, of about the breadth of a ftraw, and 
below it there are three broad belts or rings finely va- 
riegated. The loweft of the three are broader than the 
others, and feparated by five yellow lines. Under the 
belts, the fine vellow appears again in the form of a broad 
belt ; and in the center there is a narrow pointed line of 
the fame colour, with the other variegations, which is 
the charedleriftick of this fhell. From the verge of this 
to the extremity of the fhell, the yellow gold colour pre- 
vails again ; but the clavicle is very beautifully variegat- 
ed with the fame colours as before ; but what thefe are, 
our author does not mention. It is brought from the 
E aft -Indies. 

The VICE-ADMIRAL SHELL, is nearly as beau- 
tiful as the former, and is fjmevvhat more than two 
inches in length, and about an inch in diameter at the 
head. The clavicle is a little longer rhan that of the 
Admiral, and has about ten turns, and tlie ground is of 
a bright gold colour, wi:h the fame variegations as the 
former, only they have a greater mixture of white. 
There is a line of gold colour at the head, of the breadth 

of 



OF FISHES. 299 

of a draw, below which there is a circular line of the 
variegations, much of the fame breadth. Under this 
there is a narrower line of yellow, and under that a 
very broad belt of the variegations. Below this there is 
another of yellow, as in the Admiral, but without the 
pointed line. Next to this there is another broad belt 
of the variegations, and then comes the point of the 
Ihell, which is yellow. The clavicle is beautifully 
clouded with variegations. This is brought from the 
Eaji-hd es, and likewife bears a great price. 

The FALSE ADMIRAL SHLLL, is by fome taken 
for the Admiral Shell, but it is not near fo valuable. It 
is.about an inch and half in length, and half an inch in 
diameter at the head. The body is conical, though it 
does not taper very much ; and the clavicle is not quiie 
fo long in proportion as the two former. The ground 
colour is of a dufky white, variegated with feveral faint 
colours, and there are two broad belts of a beautiful 
yellow that run round it, the one being near the point, 
and the other a little higher than the middle. The fur- 
face is fmooth, and the mouth narrow. It is brought 
from the Eeji-Inaies, but principally from China, 

The TIGER SHELL, is about two inches and a half 
long, and an inch and quarter in diameter. Its mouth 
is very long and narrow, and its clavicle has about four 
turns. The ground of the Ihell is of a duiky red, and it 
is fprinkled all over with irregular fpots, or fpaces a lit- 
tle whitiih. Some of thefe are oblong, and others angu- 
lar and indented. It is a fcarce fhell, and is brought 
only from the Eo.fi-Indies. 

The YELLOW TIGER SHELL with fmaller white 
fpots, is about two inches and a half long, above an inch 
and half thick at the head, from whence it gradually di- 
miniflies to the opening of the mouth. The clavicle 
confilts of about fix turns, and terminates in a fine point, 
7 he ground colour of the ihell is yellow, and beauti- 
fully variegated with white irregular fpots of the fizeof 
a pea. It is brought from the Euji-lndies, 

The WHITE VOLUTA, variegated with a cloudj 

reddilh colour, is about two inches long, and above an 

inch in the diameter at the head. The clavicle is pretty 

large and blunt at the end, and has only four or five 

O 6 turnsj. 



300 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

turn?, and thefe not very diftinfl. The colour in ge- 
neral is of a faintifli white, variegated with dufky red 
fpots that are very large and of irregular figuies dii^ 
pofed without any order. 

The CROWN IMPERIAL SHELL, is three inches 
long, and near an inch and half in diameter at th& 
top. The clavicle is fo deprefied, that in a front view 
of the fhell it is not to be feen. The head is fur- 
rounded with a very beautiful row of tubercles pointed 
at the ends, and the ground colour is pale, with two. 
broad beautiful belts running round it, the one near the 
head, and the other towards the other extremity. 
They are of a fine yellow, prettily variegated with, 
black and white. It is brought from the Eajl Indies, 
though few of them are very perfect. 

The HEBREW LETTER SHELL, is fmaller thaa 
the reft of tliis kind, for it is rarely above an inch and 
quarter in length, and three quarters of aa inch in. 
diameter at the top. The body is in the fnape of a 
cone, and the clavicle pretty long, with about five 
turns, but it is blunt at the extremity. The ground 
colour is of a pearly white, variegated with large irre- 
gular black marks difpofed in about four rows on the 
body, and there is a fmgle row on each turn of the 
clavicle. Some have fancied they refemble Hebreixj 
Letters. It is brought both from the Eaji and JVeJi 
Indies. 

The WHITISH VOLUTA, variegated with brown 
and purplifti blue fpots, is more than four inches long, 
and two in diameter at the head, from whence the 
body tapers very gradually, and is large and blunt at 
the end. The clavicle conlills of feven or eight turn?, 
and is blunt at the extremity ; the ground of the fhell 
is white, variegated with fpots of different fizes runnin^r 
in circles round it, and are from twenty to thirty in 
number on the fhell, fome of wliich are brown, and 
others of a purplifh blue. It is brought from the 
.coaft of Guinea. 

The HALF CROWNF.D VOLUTA,. with an un- 
dulated furface, is more like tb-e Crov;n Imperial thaa 
any other fhell of this kind. It is about two inches 
ftrid a half iQ length, iUid near an inch and tiiree quar- 
ters 



O F F I S H E S. 301 

ters at the head. The edge of this is deeply indented 
fo as to form a kind of crown, i he clavicle confilU 
of but a few turns, and is blunt at the point. All the 
furface of the fhell is undulated with many longitudinal 
farrows a ftraw's breadth diilant from each other. The 
colour is white and the variegations of a faint brown. 
It is brought from the coad of Africa. 

The SLENDER VOLUTA, with a long clavicle, 
is about two inches long, and near three quarters of an 
inch in diameter at the head, from whence the body 
forms a fort of cone tapering very regularly to a point. 
The clavicle is long, very (lender, and confiils of ten 
or twelve turns terminating in a fharp point. There 
are three white broad belts variegated with purple fpot3 
and lines ; and between thefe there are three others 
that are broad and of a beautiful orange colour. 

The BUTTERFLY SHELL, is three inches long, 
and about an inch and three quarters in diameter near 
the head. The body is in the fhape of a pretty regular 
cone tapering very gradually, and ending in a blunt 
point. The clavicle has five or fix turns, and is pointed 
at the extremity. The general colour is yellow, finely 
variegated with fine brovv'n fpots placed in regular 
round rows. There are three very beautiful belts round 
the body, and one narrower near the head, confifting of 
large fpots of a deeper and paler brown with fome 
white. They refemble the fpots in the form of eyes on 
the wings of fome Butterflies. 

CHAP. XXXII. 

Of Litnpets. 

A LIMPET is a fimple fhell of a conical or gib- 
bous fhape, with a very wide opening at the 
bottom. This fliell-fifh always fixes itfelf very firmly 
to fome folid body, which fer; es as it were in the room 
of another fhell. The top of the Limpet in fome is 
acute, in others blunt. In fome depiefTcd, and in 

others 



302 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

others perforated, and in others again turned down or 
crooked. 

The STREAKED LIMPET, is an inch broad at 
the mouth, and three quarters of an inch high ; but 
the bafe is not exaflly round, and the top is fharp or 
pointed . The colour of the outfrle is of a dufky brown, 
with an olive coloured call, and it has about ten ridges 
placed nearly at equal dil^ances, being rough all over. 
Thefe ftreaks are moft confpicuous towards the mouth, 
for they become fainter as they approach to the top 
where they difappear, the fharp point being fmooth. 
The infideof the ihellis variegated with yellow, brown, 
and vvhitiih colour, and difpofed in irregular circles. 
The appearance is not unlike the flower called Auricula ; 
it adheres very firmly to the rocks in many parts of the 
Eafi Indies. 

The STARRY LIMPET with feven ribs that form 
as many prickles at the rim. It is of an oval fhape, 
being about an inch one way, and two thirds of an inch 
the other but not raifed very high, it being fcarcely 
half an inch that way. It is pointed at the top, but 
not exadlly in the center of the lliell ; and on the outer 
fur face there are feven very high nbs placed at a con- 
fiderable, and nearly equal diflance from each other. 
They run diftinftly to the \Qxy point of the top and to 
the edge, where they terminate in a point beyond it, 
forming fo many prickly rays, with furrows betivcen 
them in the form of fegments of circles. The colour 
is whitifn on the outfide, variegated with black clouds 
and fpots, efpecially about the ribs. It is found ad- 
hering to the rocks in the Eaji Indies. 

The OVAL. SMOOTH LLViPET, with a depre/Ted 
top, is two inches and a half one way, and two inches 
the other. Its height from the center of the bafe to the 
top, which is fomewhat deprefied is an inch and a 
quarter, and the rim is even, and the -whole furface 
fmooth. The colour is of a du(ky white, finely va- 
riegated with black clouds. It' is found flicking to the 
rocks on the fhores of the fouthern parts of Europe. 

The BliAiChD L[\iPET, with a round mouth, and 

a fmooth even edge, is about an inch in diameter and 

nearly as much high. The outer furface of Uie ihell 

4 has 



O F F I S H E S. 303 

has no ridges, but there are irregular rough nefTes 
thereon. It is bellied half the way up, where it begins 
to form a fnout that is fomewhat pointed and lends 
down. The infide of the fhell is chambered, and the 
divilions are terminated by a fort of points. Jt is 
brought from fome of the American iflands. 

The CHAMBERED LIMPET, with a ihort fnout, 
is of an oblong or irregular oval iliape at the bafe, 
being an inch and a quarter long at the mouth, but not 
half an inch broad. The edge is fomewhat undulated, 
and about half the opening at one end is covered by a 
thin cruft or ihell connedled to the end and along the 
fides, but irregularly notched at the edge. The height 
of the fliell is about half an inch, and the fnout is ihort, 
feeming only to be a kind of a button. It ia not placed 
at the center of the ihell, but near the edge at the end, 
which fome call the head. All the outer furface is 
rough and warty, and the inner fmooth, but very beau- 
tifully coloured. It is found on the European iliores. 

The GREAT OBLONG LIMPET, is near three 
inches long at the bafe, and an inch and a half in dia- 
meter at thelargeft end. The edge is fmooth and even, 
and the height is about an inch ; the furface is almoil 
fmooth, only there are feveral longitudinal rays, and 
fome tranfverfe or circular. Its colour is of a duiky 
brown, and the Ihell is more thick and ftrong than that 
of many others. Its topis not much raifed, and there 
is an aperture or hole therein of an oblong ihape, 
which feems to be formed of two round ones joined 
together. The colour on the outfide is of a duiky grey, 
and the iniide is whitiih. Jt is met with in the ^^ 
Indies^ and fouthern parts of Europe. 

The LIMPET of the ifie of Goree has a conical ihell 
with an oval bafe, is about an inch long, and fomewhat 
lels in diameter ; but not fo much by one third in 
height. It has an oval hole at the iummit, which is 
nearly one fifth part of its length. It is almort always 
covered with a marly crufi which is whitifh, and under- 
neath there are fifty ihalbvv furrov/s which divide at 
the top, and run to the edges of the fhell, being all 
nightly dentateJ. The colour is of a whitiih green 
within, but without ic is fometimes white, grey, or 
red. 



304 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

There are many other forts of Limpets ; but what has 
been faid is fufiicient to diilinguiih them from all other 
fort of ihells. 

CHAP. XXXII L 
Of the Shells called the Sea Ears. 

THEHALIOTIS or EAR SHELL, is a fimple 
fheli of a depreiTed fhape with a large mouth, 
being fomewhat of a fplral form at the top, with feveral 
perforations on ihe fide of the dife. Seme have fup- 
pofed it to be of the fhape of an ear from whence it 
has its name; but lijler has placed it among the Tur- 
binated Shells, on account of the fpiral turn at the 
top. 

The GREAT EAR SHELL, with an even edge 
and kvtw holes, is five inches long, and nearly three 
broad ; but it is no more than three quarters of an 
inch high. The fnape is of an irrcgulnr oval, and the 
end v/here the fpiral turn is placed is tlie largeft. The 
back or hinder edge is thick, and fo turned as to form 
a fort of lip. The fore edge is thin, fimple, and even, 
and the upper furface is brown, rough, and uneven, 
with a kind of undulated line. 1 he part towards the 
head is thickeii, nnd the fpiral turn fhort and depreiTed. 
Along the back pnrt of the fhell rear the thicker edge, 
there are a row of holes of a roundiiJi fhape, of which 
feven are open, and tlicre are the marks of others that 
do not penetrate quite through the fhell. The inlide 
of the ihell is of a bcciutiful pearl colour, which feems 
to be variegated with feveral bright colours when placed 
in different diredlons of the light. There arealfo a kind 
of warty protuberances which look like pearls. It is 
rnet with in many parts of the 'Aorld, but chiefly in 
the Eajl Lidics. 

The LONG EAR SHELL, with an undulated head 
and eight holes, is three inches long, and an inch and 
quarter broad where broadell, but it is not half an 
inch high. The head is large, and the fpiral turn very 

beautiful 



O F F I S H E S. jo$. 

beautiful and fair. The back of the Ihell forms an 
even lip, and the fore-edge is thin and undulated. The 
outfide is fmooth, only it is a little undulated from the. 
fpiral turn, and is of a greeniih colour, variegated witk 
a brovvnilh red. The infide of the Ihell is of a pearl 
colour, finely variegated with others. There is a long 
row of holes on the back edge of the fhell, eight of 
which are always open. It is found flicking on the 
rocks of the Malabar coaft in the Eaji Indies- 

The STREAKED or WRINKLED EAR SHELL 
with fix holes, is three inches and a half long, and 
two in diameter near the head, but it is not above three 
quarters of an inch high. The outfide of the fliell is 
of a dufky brown, and on it there are many flight irre- 
gular undulated ridges which begin near the fpii al end, 
though they aimofl difappear before they reach it. 
The back is thick, and forms a kind of lip, and the 
fore-edges is thin and a litde undulated ', but the hinder 
extremity is generally more fo. There is a long row 
of holes, near the tliieker edge of the fliell ; but of 
thefefix only are open. The infide is of a pearly blue, 
and there have been fbmetimes a fort of loofe peails 
found therein. 

The STOMATIA or MOUTH SHELL differs 
from the former fort in being without holes. The 
Oval Mouth Shell is about an inch and half long, 
and near an inch broad where largefl ; but its height is 
not quite half an inch. This fhell is very thin, with a 
thin and even edge, and the head is the finaller ex- 
tremity, with a fhort fpiral turn running into the cavity 
of the mouih. The oppofite end is large, and hollow 
like a fpoon, and the colour is a pale tawny-brown, 
and the irfide is of a pale brown. The mouth is very 
large, from whence it derives its name. 

The GIBBOUS STOMATIA or MOUTH SHELL 
with many fine ftreaks, is about two inches long, and 
an inch and a half in diameter. The upper furface is 
of a dufky chocolate colour, and is more gibbous than 
in the former kind. The edge is pretty thick all 
round and of a whitifh colour ; but the inlide is of a 
p2le brown. Both thefe kinds are found in the /hnerican 
iflands. 

The 



3o6 THENATURAL HISTORY 

TheSTOMATIA or MOUTH SHELL, with a 
crooked edge, is four inches long and three broad 
where largelt ; but it is not above an inch high. The 
upper furl'ace is of a deep chocolate colcur variegated 
with white, 'i here are many blunt undulated rTdges 
which are almoft white at the tops, and of a deep purplifh 
brown en the fides, as alfo on the fpaces between them. 
The infide is of a pale brown with a reddilli caft, and 
the fpiral turn of the head is fmall. The edge of this 
fhell is crooked or finuous from the depreffions that run 
between the ridges. It is found on the coaft oi Malabar 
in the Eafi Inditi. 

CHAP. XXXIV. 

Of Dentalia, or Tooth Shells , 

THE STREAKED, and RINGED TOOTH 
SHELL, of a fhape approaching to a cylinder, 
is two inches long, and of thi thicknefs of a Swan's 
quill. This fhcll looks as if it was broken off from 
fome other, and is of a greyilli white colour generally 
variegated with green, and fometimes tinftured with 
red. It has about ten deep longitudinal furrows, run- 
ning all the way down its furface, and the ridges be- 
tween them are rounded. There are generally three 
circles or rings, pafling round it at unequal diilances, 
fomewhat interrupting the longitudinal furrows. This 
fhell is thin and is eafily broken. It is common on the 
fiiores of Italy. 

The DOG TOOTH SHELL is about an inch in 
length, and of the thicknefs of a Goofe quill. The 
fhape is conical, and Jargefl at the mouth, from whence 
it gradually tapers to a point, which is fharp and with- 
out any opening. The furface is fmooth and polifhed, 
and the colour is white like that of China ware. It has 
fometimes a purplifh caft, and fometimes that of a bright 
red or brown. It is common in moft parts of the 
world. 

The 



O F F I S H E S. 307 

The CONICAL CROOKED STREAKED and 
RINGED TOOTH SHELL, is four inches long, and 
of the thicknefs of a child's finger. Jt is largeft at the 
mouth, and from thence gradually tapers to a {harp 
point. It is a little crooked, and the furface is furrowed 
with eight deep longitudinal lines placed in pairs with a 
vacant fpace between them. 1 he ridges are roimded, 
and there are two broad annular marks furrounding the 
fliell towards the bafe, and another much narrower 
towards the point. The colour is of a dufky grey, and 
the furfice is not polifhed. It is found on tlie (hores of 
Ita'y and other places. 

The GREAT SEA PIPE, open at each end, is (ix 
or feven inches long and three quarter of an inch in 
diameter near the mouth, which ha- a kind of irregular 
lip an inch and a half broad ; and the lliell grows gra- 
dually fmaller at the other end, where it is of the thick- 
nefs of a Goofe-quill. The whole furface is of a dulky 
brown, and there are about twelve annular ridges upon 
it, but they are not much railed above the furlace. It 
is common in the Ger)nan ocean, where the waves 
throw it on the ihores ; but it is feldom whole, being 
thin, brittle, and eafily broken. 

CHAP. XXX\^. 
0/ Cylindric Shells. 

TH E BROCADE SHELL, is large and beau- 
tiful, being three inches and a half in length, 
and near two and a quarter in diameter. The circum 
ference is much the fame throughout the whole fhell, only 
it is a little fmaller at each extremity. The head is 
denticulated, or crowned as fome call it, and the clavicle 
has four or five turns terminating in a point. The 
colour is as white as filver, and is beautifully variegated 
with a bright brown in fine irregular lines, clouds, and 
fpaces. It is finely polifhed, and the whole has the 
appearance of brocade. It is brought from Jfrica and 
Jlmerica, 

The 



3oS THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The TULIP CYLINDER SHELL is about three 
inches long and two in diameter, but the fhape is not 
fo regular as that of the former ; but it is largeft a 
little below the head, from whence it grows gradually 
fmaller to the other end. The clavicle has ten or 
twelve turns, and terminates in a blunt point. The 
colour is white, variegated with clouds and fpots of blue 
and brown. It is very fcarce, and is brought from the 
Eafi Indies ; but feldom in perfection. 

The PORPHYRY SHELL is about two inches and 
a half long, and an inch and quarter in diameter. The 
fKape is nearly like that of a cylinder, with a fhort blunt 
clavicle. The colour is of a pale white, with a reddifh 
cail, and it is clouded with a deeper red approaching 
to purple, which takes up much the greater fuiface. 
This colour appears in moil places in irregular longitu- 
dinal and dentated lines, it is brought from South 
Ame<-ica. 

The SLENDER WHITISH CYLINDER SHELL, 
variegated with brown, is three inches and a half long, 
and near an inch and quarter in diameter. It is ihaped 
nearly like a cylinder, only it is fomewhat fmaller to- 
wards the point than elfewhere. The clavicle has four 
or five turns, and the body of the fhell is cloven at the 
other extremity, by the continuation of the mouth. 
The colour is white, with a broad belt near each end, 
variegated in fuch a manner that fome have imagined 
there are letters thereon. It is brought from ikit Eaji 
Indies, and South A'-nerica. 

The SLENDER CYLINDER SHELL, variegated 
with brown and white, is three inches long, and about 
an inch and quarter in diameter. Its ihape is nearly 
like that of a cylinder, only it is a very little fmaller 
at both ends than in the middle. The clavicle is blunt, 
though it has four or five turns, and the whole fliell is 
variegated with a bright white, and a pale tawny brown. 
They are difpofed in denticulated lines, and the fur- 
face appears to be finely polifhed, it being very bright. 
It is brought from Sjuih America. 



C H A P. 



O F F I S H E S. 309 

CHAP. XXXVI. 

Of Dolia or Pipe Shells. 

PIPE SHELLS are fo called, from being ima- 
gined by fome to be like the pipes or calks made to 
hold wine. However their fhapes differ fo much that 
it may be doubted whether this appellation is proper or 
not. 

The OVAL PIPE SHELL with fpiral ribs, is about 
two inch.es and a half long, and nearly as much in 
diameter in the largeft part. The clavicle is longifh, 
and pointed at the end, but it is continued in fuch a 
manner from the body of the Ihell that it is hard to fay 
where it begins. The other extremity is formed like a 
fhort fnout or bill, which turns a little up. This fhell 
has a large belly, which is grcateft near the head, and 
all its furface is covered with many ribs of the breadth 
of a ftraw, feparated by furrows of the fame breadth. 
The ribs are yellowifh, and the fpaces between them of 
a whitifh yellow, only they are fprinkled irregularly 
with a deeper yellow, that is, both the ribs and fur- 
rows It is brought from the Ea/t hides and America. 

The PARTRiDGE SHELL, is about two inches 
and a half long, and near two in diameter. Jt is a 
thin Ihell with a pretty long clavicle that has four turns, 
the lowermoft ot whxh is feparated from the body of 
the ihell by a furrow. The other end terminates with- 
out a bill or beak, and the m.outh is large and reddifh 
within. The external furface is perfecflly fmooth and of 
a brovv'n colour, variegated with a deeper brown and 
grey, fomewhat refembling the plumage of a Partridge, 
whence it has its name. It is brought from the Eaft 
Indies and the Arner can iflands 

The HARP SHELL, is about two inches and a half 
long, and a little more than an inch and a half in dia- 
meter ; the body however is bellied in fjch a manner as 
to render it like others of this kind. The clavicle has 
five turns, and that next to the body of the fhell is 
large, but the others are fmall and pointed at the top. 

All 



3IO THE NATURAL HISTORY 

All the furface of the body of the fhell is furnifhed 
with large ribs that Hand at fuch diftances as make the 
fpaces between them equal to twice or thrice their own 
diameters. The colour is of a deep brown, variegated 
with a paler fort and white in a very beautiful manner. 
It is brought both from the Eaft and Weft Indies, 

The ^ETHIOPIAN CROWN SHELL is about three 
inches iong and two in diameter. The fhape is oblongs 
ai:d ibniewhat oval, being fmaller at each end than in 
the mi<idle. The mouth is long and v/ide, and cleaves 
the extremity of the ihell a little way. The clavicle is 
Ihort and blunt at the end, and has four turns ; that 
liext the boJy, as vvell as the upper qH^^q of the body 
are deeply dentatcd, or as fome fay crowned, and the 
teeth are formed into regular even conical points. The 
furface is pretty fmooih, only there are imprehlons of 
longitudinal lines ; and the colour is of a pale browniih - 
yellow. Jt i? brought from Jfrica 2nd the Eafl Indies. 

The LARGE MOUTHED OVAL SMOOTH 
PIPE SHELL is about an inch and half long, and an 
inch in diameter at the bigger end, from v/hcnce it 
becomes gradually fmaller at the other, which however 
is vtry blunt, and a litde cloven by the extremity of 
the mouth. The mouth itfelf rans the whole length 
of the fhell, and is extreamly wide. The lip is thin, 
and thefmall pillar has two or three foldings or indent- 
ings near its lower extremity. The clavicle is greatly 
dep;eiled, and all the furface of the fhell is white and 
finely variegated with clouded fpots of yellow, it is 
brought from America. 

Tne THIN GONDOLA SHELL is about an inch 
and a half in diameter each way, its figure being nearly 
round ; but the two extremities of the mouth are ex- 
tended beyond the line of the other parts of the IhelJ, 
giving it the appearance of two ears. The colour is 
of a pale dirty grey on the outfide, and of a dull white 
within. It is brought from the Mediterranean. 

T'he MULBERRY SHELL is about an inch in 
length, and three quarter^ of an inch in diameter in 
thelargefi part, that is nearer the middle than the end. 
The clavicle is pretty long having three or four turns, 
aud the oppofite extremity is a little cloven by the 

mouth. 



O F F I S H E S. 311 

mouth. The furface of the body is beautifully adorned 
with longilh and pretty large tubercles difpofed in fpiral 
rows, which are ufually fix or feven in number. The 
ground is pale, but the tubercles are commonly black, 
and have a very fine efFed. It is brought from the 
Mediterraneaji. 

The PEARLED SNAIL SHELL is about two inches 
long, and an inch and a quarter in diameter where 
largefl:. The body of the fliell is of a roundilh iliape, 
and the clavicle is pretty long with about four turns. 
The mouth is long, and terminated at the lower end of 
the Ihell by a ihort, thick, and pretty crooked beak. 
The body of the Ihell is finely adorned with many 
ftuds fomewhat refembling pearls. They are regularly 
difpofed in live fpiral row?, befides another on the turn 
of the clavicle next the body. The mouth is large and 
dentated, and the colour of the fliell is yellow, only 
the tubercles are fomewhat paler than the other parts. 
It is brought from the Eaft and Weft Indies, 

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 

CHAP. XXXVII. 

Of Porcelain Shelis. 

THE PORCELAIN is a fimple fhell, confilling 
of one piece, and gibbous on the back ; the 
mouth is long, narrow, and dentated on each fide. 

The WHITE PORCELAIN SHELL, yellow 
within and beaked at each end, is of an oblong fhape and 
very gibbous. The length, including the beaks, is 
about three inches, and its diameter in the middle nearly 
two. It is white on the outfide and ) ellow within ; 
and the mouth is large, having a fort of a fnout or 
beak at each end. It is brought from Africa and the 
Eaft Indies. 

1 he ARGUS SHELL is about three inches long, 
two in diameter and fomewhat lels in height, though 
it is gibbous like the former. The mouth is wide and 
the lips are continued at each extremity in the form of 

a broad. 



512 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

a broad, fhort beak each way. The general colour is 
yellowiih, only there are three brown bands of a con- 
iiderable breadth running over it, and the whole fur- 
face is adorned with a multitude of round fpots like 
Eyes, from whence it has its name. Jt is brought . 
from Africa and the Eaft Indies, 

The^ MAP SHtLL is about two inches and a half 
long and rearly as much in diameter, with a gibbous 
back. At the head there is a fliort clavicle placed a 
little above the extremity of the mouth, confiiiing of 
about four imperfe>5l turns. The other end of the (hell 
is blunt and the general colour brown, only there are 
irregular undulated lines of white thereon, which with^ 
fpots and clouded marks of the fame colour, give it 
the appearance of a map. The mouth is dentatcd, 
and near it the fhell is paler than elfewhere. It is 
brought from Africa and the Eaji Indies. 

The PORCELAIN SHELL of SenegaU is about 
an inch and a quarter in length, and not an inch broad ; 
but the length is three times the breadth. The right 
lip is a little Iharp andilender, and tjie left lip is fmooth 
and without teeth; the four or five folds on the upper 
part are pretty near each other, and form a pretty high 
ftring. The bottom is white or grey, fometimes 
without mixture, and fometimes marked with a yellow 
ftreak or two, mottled witJi brown. The infide is ge- 
nerally brown as well as the left lip, only fometimes it 
is inclinable to a violet colour. 

The GIROL is a Porcelain fhell of Senegal, and is 
found in the fands at the mouth of the river. It is of 
a cvlindric fhape and very thick, round at the top, and 
fharp at the lower extremity which Adavfon calls the 
fummit. It is near an inch long but not half fo broad, 
the feven fpiral turns are flattifh and very clofe to each 
other ; however they are parted with a deep furrow. 
The mouth is three times as long as the fummit, and 
the right lip is fharp though thick. The left lip is 
roundifh, and at the top there are five low plates whofe 
edges form as many folds or fmall prominent fides a 
little diftant from each other, and under it there are 
from eight to fixteen pretty long narrow teeth. The 

coloiir 
8 



O F F I S H E S. 315 

colour varies ; for it is fometimes white, yellow, blackifli 
yellow, greenifti yellow, and [\reen. 

The BLUISH BANDED PORCELLAIN SHELL, 
with a clavicle at one end and a beak at the other, is 
about two inches long and nearly an inch and a half ia 
diameter. It is very gibbous and rounded at the back, 
and at the head there is a fmall conical clavicle with about 
four turns, of which the two lower ones are imperfedl, 
and terminate in a iharp point. At the other end thsre 
is a very ihort broad beak or fnout, and the general 
colour is bluiih, only there are two or three greyiili 
brown bands. It is brought from Africa and America, 

TheOVAL-PORCELLAIN SHELL with a long 
beak at each end, is about three quarters of an inch 
in length, and half an inch in diameter, with a re- 
markable gibbous back. At eacli end there is a fnout 
or beak two thirds as long as the body and of the 
thicknefi of a large ilraw The colour is white, and 
its furface fmooti and ihining. It is brought from 
Jfr. ca and the Eaft hid'es 

The WHITE PORCELLAIN SHELL variegated 
with brown, and beaked at each end, is three quarters 
of an inch long, and about half an inch in diameter. 
The beak at the head is fhort and broad, being a con- 
tinuation of the mouth furrounded wiih a lip ; but that 
at the other end is more long, flender, and truncated. 
The colour is a fine white variegated with bright brown, 
and difpofed in crooked and irregular angular lines. 
It is brought from the American iflands. 

The SMALL POX PORCELLAIN, is not above 
three quarters of an inch long and half an inch in dia- 
meter. The body is of an oval figure, and very 
gibbous. It has a beak at each end, that at the head 
being the longefl, and they are both cloven at the 
extremity ; all the fuiface is covered with beautiful 
round ftuds of a fine white colour not unlike pearls, 
it is brought from Africa. 

The BEETLE PORCELLAIN SHELL, is about 
an inch long and two thirds of an inch in diameter. 
The back is gibbous and the mouth wide, being con- 
tinued in a beaked form at each end. The beak at th^ 
head is longifh and truncated, butattheotherextreinlty 

Vol. III. P v^^ 



314 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

very fhort and turned up. The colour is white only on 
the back, there is a large ii regular brown fpot which 
fome fancy to be like a Beetle. It is brought from the 
coaft of Guinea. There arc many other fhells of this 
kind as well as of the reft ; but what has been faid is 
fuiiicient to give a general knowledge of them. 

CHAP. XXXVIII. 
Of Bivahed Shells. 

OF thefe there are fix kinds, namely. Oysters, 
Bastard Cockles, Muscles, Heart Shells, 
among which Common Cockles are included, Scol- 
lops, and Razor Shells. 

OYSTERS have two valves or (hells, one of which 
is hollowed on the infide, and gibbous without, and the 
other is more flat ; but they both confift of feveral 
plates, and the outfide of each fhell is generally rough ; 
but the gibbous more than the other. They ufually 
caft their fpawn or fy^t in May^ vv'hich at firft appears 
like a drop of candle- greafe, and fticks to any hard 
fubftance it falls upon. It is covered with a fhell in two 
or three days time, and in three years they are large 
enough to be brought to the markec. Thefe Oyfters 
they term Natives, and they are incapable of moving 
from the places where they hrft fall, for which reafon 
the Dredgers make ufe of nets, which are faftened to 
a ftrong broad iron hook with a Iharp edge, which they 
drag along the bottom of the fea, and fo force the 
Oyliers into the nets. When they are thus taken they 
are carried to different places, where they are laid in 
beds or rills of ialt water in orJer to fat them. When 
the fpawn happens to ftick to the rocks they generally 
grow to a very large fize, and are called Rock 
Oysters. Between the Tropicks there are millions 
of them kti). flicking at the roots of a fort of trees they 
call Mangroves at low water. 

Th: 



O F F I S H E S. 315 

The Red and White-ribbed and foliated OYSTER, 
IS in Ihape like the common Oyiler, and is about three 
inches in diameter. The lo^er valve or fhell is deep, 
and the upper nearly fiat ; it is all the way on both 
ihells furrowed deeply long-ways with round but irre- 
gular ridges between the furrows. Every fixth is fur- 
nilhed with a row of very elegant leafy prominences, 
which are flat, curled, and jagged at the edges. They 
are from half an inch to three quarters high, and are 
on both ihells, but they are plaineft on the upper. 
The general colour is that of a rofe with a mixture of 
purple variegated with white, but the prominences are 
chiefly white. It is a native of the Eajl Indies. 

The ONION-PEEL OYSTER has very thin de- 
licate (hells, and grows to be near two inches in dia- 
meter. The fiielh are fome times nearly ilat, and fome- 
times one is pretty much hollov/ed, and fometimei 
again both. The furface is fmooth and glolly, and the 
colour vvhitilh, with a green or reddifli call: on the out- 
fide ; but it is of a fine pearly white within, with a 
fmali cindure of the former colours. It is frequently 
undulated in an irregular manner on the furface, and 
has a large roundifh opening near the hinge or joint. 
Jt is a native of the E -Jl Indies, but fome fay it is found 
in Europe. 

The 7'REE OYSTER, is about two inches long, 
and an inch and a half in diameter at the larger end. 
The hinge is placed at the fmalier extremity, and from 
thence it gradually becomes larger to the oppofite end, 
where it is crooked or finuouo at the edge. All the 
farface is deeply furrov^'ed long ways, and is fomewhat 
rough though not fo much as the common Oyfler. The 
colour is brown, with a fmall mixture of red on the 
outfide, but within it is of a pearly white. It is com- 
monly feen flicking to the roots of trees in the mouths 
of large rivers, and particularly Mangroves that delight 
to grow on their banks. This Oyiler is common in 
the hot climates of AJia, J/rica, and America^ that is, 
v/here the Mangroves abound. 

The HAMMER OYSTER has one of the moft ex- 
traordinary ihells in the world, it being in ihape like a 
Hammer, or rather like a Pick-ax with a very ihort 
P 2 handle 



3!6 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

handle and a long head. The body of the fhell which 
is taken for the handle, is about four inches long and 
three quarters of an inch broad ; but tlie head is five 
or fix inches long, and except where it joins to the 
body, is little more than half an inch broad. It is of 
an irregular form, uneven at the edges, and terminates 
in a narrow blunt point at each end. The hinge or 
joint is at the lov/er end of the body ; and the (hells 
open all the way from each end to this part, and yet 
they fhutvery clofe The edges of the body and head 
have often great irregularities and protuberances on the 
furfaces, being deeply furrowed in all direftions. The 
colour is of a deep brown, with a tinfture of violet 
purple on the outfide ; but within it is of a pearly white 
with a faint purplidi caft. It is found in the Eaji Indies, 
but as it is very fcarce it fells for a great price, fix 
guineas having been given for ore that was imperfe<5l. 

The great PlUCKLY OYbTER is nearly of an 
oval form, being four inches long and three broad at 
the larger extremity, but at the Imaller where the joint 
j--, it is about an inch and a half Both Ihells are gib- 
bous on one fide and hollow on the other, but the under 
one moft. The furface of each is furrowed long-ways, 
but fomewhat irregularly, and is covered with a vait 
number of fpines or prickles which are ilrong, (harp- 
pcinted, and from a tenth of an inch to half an inch 
long. Some of thefc are ftrair, others crooked, and 
the colour on the outHde of the fhell is of a dirty red, 
but on the infide white and pearly, it is found on 
the coafts of /Africa. 

The CONICAL OYSTER, with undulated f^^ines 
at the rim, is two inches long and an inch and quaiter 
broad at the larger extremity, from whence it gradually 
becomes fmalier to the other where the hinge or joint is 
placed. The body of the (hell is rough and undulated, 
ard there is a few (hcrt fpines or prickles at the edges. 
There are three or four lows of them near the rim of 
the larger extremity, which are fiiarp pointed and not 
flrait, but undulated or bent backwards and forwards, 
making a thick f rt of fringe, ^i hofe of the upper and 
lower fhel! me'. ting and hiding the place where the 
fhclls ihut together. The body of the (hell is of a 

dirty 



O F F I S H E 3. 3? 7 

dirty white, but the prickles are of an elegant purpliili 
red, making a fine appearance. It ib common on the 
HiOres of South America. 

The WHITISH FOLIATED and IMBRICATED 
OYS FER is of an oval fhape, and three inches and a 
half long. The hinge or joint at the fmallell end is 
tv^^o inches and a half broad, and the flidl is veiy 
crooked or fmuous at the edge ; tliefuiface is covered 
v,'lth tranfverfe leafy protuberances of an undulated 
form. They are flat, uneven, and notched at the 
edges, and there are ufually fix or ftven rounds of them 
placed nearly at equal diftances one above anotlier. 
The general colour is white, which is a little varie- 
gated with a bright rofe colour. It is a native both of 
the Eofi and Weft hdies. 

The HEEGE HOG OYSTER is about an inch 
long and the fame broad and deep. The fnells are 
both gibbous, and fo fhaped, that the upper one 
being fealler than the under they never f/iUt clofe. The 
whole fhell is furrowed long-ways, and very thick fee 
witli ihort crooked prickles, the points of which turn 
towards the joint. The colour is white, and it is a 
native of the Eaft Indies. 

. The BAJET, fo called by Adavfon, is a fort of 
an Oyfter of Senegal, which fixes itfelf to the rocks by 
its lov/er fhell. It is of a flattiili fhape, and almoft 
round ; being about three inches broad, and not much 
longer. There is fifteen large triangular furrows fur- 
niilied with a fort of prickles which are often branched 
at the ends ; they arife at the pointed top, and from 
thence are fprcad over the circumference like fo many 
rays. There is little difference between the upper fhell 
and the lower, only the former has no furrows on the 
infide near the top. On each there are fifteen triargular 
teeth, which anfvver alternately to the furrows. The 
fiiell is of a rofe colour without and white within ; but 
bordered with a very deep purple. 

The GASAR is another Oyfter of Senegal, and is as 
good as the befl of thofe in the northern parts. It is moll 
common in the river Gamb a, and : is generally three 
inches long, and almoft as much broad ; though there are 
fome of fix inches or upwards. It is very thin and of 
P 3 fiattifa 



3i8 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

flattifh fquare fhape ; but blunt at the upper extremity? 
which decrcafes to a roundifh point towards the hinge. 
The fliape is fo irregular, that there is fcarce any two 
exaftly alike. The outer furface is rough, which k 
owing to the fcales of which it is formed, that lie 
over each other ; but the inlide is Ihining and of a fine 
poiifh. The upper fhell is tliin and flat; but always 
unequal and undulated as well as the lower fliell, which 
is ever hollow and not very deep. Near the hinge 
or joint there is a fort of a heel formed by the edges 
which fold inward and make a cavity. On the flat 
furface of this fold there is a fmail cavity in which the 
ligament is placed that ferves to fliut and open the 
Uiells. There are no teeth in the joint, and the outfide 
of the fhells is fometimes grey and fometlmes of a 
violet colour bordered with white; but the infide is 
always violet colour bordered with white, or white 
bordered with violet. 

The GARIN of Senegal is another kind of anOyfter 
wiiich fixes itfelf to ftones and rocks efpecially in places 
cppofite to the current of the fea, particularly near the 
illand of Goree. The llicll is flattifh and of a triangu- 
lar thape; but no more than an inch and a half long, 
and is always pointed at the fummit. It is thicker 
than the Gajar, and towards the extremity there are 
five or fix triangular furrows which make alternate- 
ly fo many teeth wherewith it is bordered. The 
colour is of a deep red inclining to brown on the out- 
fide, and within it io of a dirty green. 

The COCKS COMB OYSTER i- four inches broad, 
and its depth from the joint to the edge of the mouth 
nearly three. The furface is furnifhed with three or 
more very prominent fharp ridges, divided by very 
deep angular furrows, which extend to the rim beyond 
th.e rell of the fnell, and form a toothed-edge like that 
of a Cock's-comb. The colour is a deep brown with a 
tiniflure of violet ; but within it is of a pearly white, 
though the furface is pretty rough with tranverfe fur- 
rows. The fhells Huit and clofe very exadly. It is 
found on the fhores of the Mediterrantan fea. 

The PEAKL OYSTER has a large ftrong whitifh 
fhcU wrinkled and rough without, but not flreaked, 

and 



OF FISHES. 31Q 

and within fmooth and of a filver colour. Thefe Ihells 
are commonly called the Mother of Pearl, on account 
of their breeding Pearls. However the (liells are of 
different fizes, fome being four times as large as thofe 
of our Rock Oyilers. There are "a great number of 
Pearl Fifheries in JJia and America. One of the moft 
famous is in the Pe fmn gulph near the ifle o.^ Bahren, 
and another between the coalt of Madura and the ille of 
Ceylon, Behdes thefe there are five in the gulph of 
Mexico near the Atmric -n coaft. There have Pearls 
alfo been found in fome rivers, particularly in Sco/hfjd 
and Ba<varia, but they are not near fo valuable as thofe- 
in other parts. 

Peai-Is are not all of the fame colour^ for fome are 
white, others yellovvifh, and others again of a lead 
colour ; and fome affirm they have been found as black 
as jet particularly in America. However the Oriental 
Pearls are the bell, and among thefe tlie largeft moffc 
perfeftly round and iliining in the E Ji-hdies ; they 
fifh for Pearls, or rather the Oyilers that contain them, 
in boats twenty eight feet long, and of thefe there are 
fometimes three or four hundred at a time with each 
feven or eight flones which ferve inflead of anchors. 
There are from five to eight divers belonging to each, 
who dive one after the other. They are quite naked, 
and have each a net hanging down from the neck and 
gloves on their hands wherewith they pick the Oyilers 
from the rocks. Each of thefe has alfo a ttone a foot 
in length and weighing fifry pounds, to make him dive 
the fwifter. This Hone has a hole at the top, by which 
it is fattened to a rope, and when they are going to 
dive they place one foot in a kind of fdrrop, laying 
hold of the rope with their left hand, and the other end 
is fattened to the boat. They flop their nofes with 
their right hands to hold in their breaths, and fo they 
go to the bottom, v/here they are no fooner come but 
they give a fignal, by pulling the rope for thofe that 
are in the boat to draw up the ftone. This done, they 
go to work filling their nets as faft as they can, and 
then they pull the rope again, v/hen thofe in the boat 
draw up the nets firft, and immediately after the divers. 
P 4 They 



320 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

They dive to the depth of fifteen fathoms, but not 
deeper. 

Thefe boats near the ifle of Cejlon generally go every 
raorring by break of day with the land winds, and 
return in the afternoon w'lh the fea winds. I'he owners 
of the boats hire both the divers and the reft of the 
boat's crew, as we do our labourers at fo much a day. 
All the Oyfters are brought on Ihore, where they are 
laid in a grrat heap till the Ptarl iilhery is over, which 
continues all Fo^vember and Decei.dtr. Every Oyller 
does not con'Tain a Fearl, though there are fonie that 
have from five to eight. The natives ftev/ and eat the 
fielh of thefe Oyftert, but they are not near fo good as 
the Englijh^ they being more iiard and fomewhat ranl^. 
There are i'everal other foris of Oyfters, but thefe are 
mofl: remarkable. 

The BASTARD COCKLE is a two valved fhelJ, 
each of which are convex or gibbous and of an equal 
bignefs ; bat that which diftinguilhes it from other fliells 
is the opening that remains when the valves are fi-iut. 
'I he general Latm name is Cham a. 

The vHAMA o^ Senegal is about an inch broad, and 
not quite fo long, and each (hell or valve is marked 
with about twenty-fiX deep fquare farrows, fometiraes 
qijite fmooth, and fometimes a little wrinkled, according 
to the length of the fhell. 7 he hinge has but one 
icotii on the right fhell, and two on the left. Each 
valve is hallowed inwardly about the edges with about 
twenty- five channels, terminated with as many deep 
Doiche , which anfwer to the ridges on the outer furface. 
71iefe channels reach about a third of an inch within 
t2ie Ilicll. The infide is white on the edges, and a 
litde reddifh towards the middle ; but outwardly the 
ground is of a reddifh brown, and is fometimes mixed 
with white lines. It is found on the fand at the mouth 
ef the river Senegal in May. 

The ARABIAN SHELL is three inches in diameter 
where largeft, and two and a hidf from, the joint to the 
oppofite rim. 7"he head where the joint is placed is 
not in the center of the top, but near orie fide, and 
the whole furface of the fhell is perfedly fmooth and 
even, having a fine natural polifh. 'i'he colour is a 

pale 



OF FISHES. 321 

pa!e brown, variegated with lines and Hreaks of black, 
which are narrow, angular, and run crofs each other 
in an irregular manner ; infomuch that they have fome 
refemblance to the Arahick letters, whence this fhell 
has its name. It is common on the coafts of fome parti 

The GIBBOUS BASTARD C9CKLE with many 
tranfverfe furrows, is about two inches and a half ia 
diameter, and an inch thick. It is entirely of a beau- 
tiful yellow colour, and the whole farface is full of deep 
furrows with fmall iharp ridges betv/een them. It is 
found in fome parts of Europe as well as the Amtrkan 
iflands. 

The VENUS SHELL, or Concha Veneris, is 
about an inch and a half in length, and as much in 
diameter towards the larger end. The valves are both 
convex, and are deeply flreaked long-ways. The joint 
is placed at the extremity, where the Ihell is rounded 
and prominent ; the end that fhould have gone the 
other way feems to be cut cfF, and the opening is 
covered with a very elegant lip, proceeding from each 
fide. It is wrinkled, and of a beautiful reddilh colour, 
with fome white among it. The lips do not join per- 
fectly in the middle, but leave a long aperture, and 
at the farther edge of each there are a row of long, 
flender, beautiful fpines. It is brought from the Ame- 
rican iflands, and is feldom perfedt ; but when entire 
it is of a great value. 

The TRUiNCATED BASTARD COCKLE wit^ 
deep furrows, and a ferrated edge, is about an inch in 
diameter each way. The head is rounded and fmall 
and truncated at one extremity. All the furfnce is fur- 
rowed with deep lines, and a few broad ridges between 
them ; the truncated end has two whitilh v\Tirk'ed 
lips which leave a fmall long opening between them ; 
and the edges of the Ihells are dentared or ferrated on 
the rim. The general colour is a dull white, beautifully 
variegated with a gloify brown. It is brought both 
from the Eaji and Wefi I :d:cs. 

The TRUNCATED BASTARD COCKLE with a 

fmooth edge, is an inch and a half in diameter each 

way ; and the head where the joint is placed is j&nall 

P 5 and 



322 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

and blunt. The whole furface is fmooth having a fine 
polifh, and the colour is white. The truncated end is 
large, and the lips which are very much wrinkled, hav« 
but a fmall opening. The colour is brownifh with a 
tinclure of violet. It is brought from the Eaji-Indies. 

The ORIENTAL CONCHA VENERIS is not {o 
beautiful as the former of that name. It is two inches 
and a half in diameter each way, and the head near the 
joint is fmall and rounded. The truncated part has 
two lips which m.eet near the top, and leave only a 
imall opening under the hinge, except lower down 
v/here it gapes again. The furface of the Ihell has 
eight or ten obfcure bands, and the lips are fmooth 
at the edge. It is common on the fhores of the Eafi 
Indies . 

T he fmooth variegated and truncated BASTARD 
COCKLE, is more than tvi'O inches and a half in dia- 
meter one way and two from the joint to the oppofite 
z^gt. Both the vaiv^es or fnells are confiderably gib- 
bous, and at the truncated end the lips leave only a 
fmall round opening under the joint. The furface 
feeras to be finely polifhed, and the ground colour is 
white, but variegated with elegant ftreaks and large 
fpots of a violet purple. It is brought from Atr.erica. 

The fmooth variegated and roundilh BASTARD 
COCKLE, is near two inches in diameter, and the 
fhells are both convex. The head is large, blunt, and 
roandifh, and the fliella fnut tolerably clofe, except a 
fmall roundifh opening near the head en one fide. 1 he 
colour is yellow varieeated with red fpots, and every 
part is fmooth, having a fine polifh. It is chiefly 
brought from the Eaji Indies. 

The roundiHi wrinkled BASTARD COCKLE, is 
an inch and a half long, and an inch and quarter in 
diameter. The head is raifed and longiHi, terminating 
ki a blunt point, and both the ihells are confiderably 
gibbou^;, wi h many deep tranfverfe furrows, and the 
ridges between them are a little rou?h. It is all over 
of a brownifh yellow colour, and is in no great elleem. 
They a;e found in different places-. 

The roundifh BASTARD COCKLE with deep fur- 
rows, is only three quarters of an inch in diameter one 

way. 



O F F I S H E S. J25 

way, and fomewhat lefs from the joint to the oppoiite 
rim. The colour is white, variegated with blood-red 
Ipots, and there are deep broad furrows with ribb be- 
tween them ; as alfo fome tranfverfe lines that are much 
fainter. Jt is found on the Ihores of the Mediterranean 
fpa, as well as in Ireland. 

The roundiih -ftreaked BASTARD COCKLE with 
fmooth lips, is not unlike the truncated kind, only the 
truncated part is more round, and the part oppofite to it is 
fhorter.Thc fhells are convex or gibbous, the whole being 
almoft as deep as it is broad. The colour is a dulky 
white, and the furface except the lips is ftreaked tranf* 
verfely with fmall clofe elegant lines. The lips are 
almoft fmooth, though fometimes there are a few longifh 
wrinkles. It is brought from the American iilands, 
but is not very common. 

CHAP. XXXIX. 
Of Mufcles. 

THESE are compofed of two valves or fhells, 
of a longifli fhape that fliut all the way, and 
they are both convex. They are not liable to be carried 
along by the motion of the water like many other fhell- 
fiih; for they are capable of forming feveral firings of • 
the thicknefs of hairs about three inches long, and 
fometimes to the number of two hundred and fif.y. 
With thefe they lay hold of any thing that is near them.- 
This mschanifm is very evident in the Pinna Marina, 
with regard to thelinenefs and number of the threads. 
They are as fine as filk, and made ufe of for the fame 
purpofes at Palermo in Sicily ; for there they make va- 
rious kinds of fluffs and other ciiriofities of thefe 
threads. The inilrument that the Mufcie employs in 
producing thefe threads is what we commonly call th.e 
tongue, in the midil of which there is a narrow channel, 
which ferves as a fort of a mold for their firft formation. 
Our fea and river Mufcles are too well known to need 
zny defcription. 

P 6 The 



324 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The CAROLINA MUSCLE is four or five inchei 
long, and an inch and a half broad. The fide where 
the joint and head are placed is pretty blunt, but thaS 
oppofite to it is more pointed ; but it fhould be ob- 
ferved this joint is placed at one end of the Mufcle. 
The Ihells (hut very clofe and are deep, their middle being 
railed into an irregular angular gibbofity. The colour is 
yellow with a fmall tinfture of purple in fome places ; 
but the infide is of a pearl colour with a purple calt 
near the edges. It is brought from Carolina, as well as 
South America. 

The Mufcle called ADER is a very curious fhell, of 
a fine fky blue colour with yellow rays one over an- 
other towards the bottom. Jt is very fmall, being 
never above a quarter of an inch in length and three- 
twelfths broad. It is pointed at the top, and has flight 
folds near the hinge, where there is a fmall cavity. 
Each valve has about fifty deep furrows which run long- 
ways from the top to the oppofite extremity, and the 
edges are all round with fmall teeth, the fame in num- 
ber as the furrows- When the fkin is taken off, it ap- 
pears to be of a fhining violet colour. The fhell on 
the infide is generally white, though fometimes of a 
dark violet. 

The ANFAN has a bivalved fhell, and is one of 
the largert that is met with at Senegal ; for it is feven 
inches Icr^g, and four inches and three quarters broad. 
Jt is fo fiat, that the breadth is twice as much as the 
thicknefs. It is in the fhape of a gammon, having 
the back almofl ftrait, and the upper extremity very- 
broad and round ; but the belly is a little concave 
towards the top, which diminillies infenfibly to a point, 
forming a kind of a handle. The ihell ii very thin 
und as brittle as glafs, but appears like horn, it being 
C)f the fame colour and as tranfparent. It is polifhed 
■and fhines on the infide, but without towards the ex- 
tremity there are a great number of crooked very fmall 
cylindric pipes of the fame nature as the fhell, and 
above one thiid of an inch long, rifing to an angle of 
forty- five degrees. Thefe pipes owe their original to 
-the wrinkles of the ajiimal, which is like others of 
Ihis kiad, only its mantle has about thirty large fur- 
rows 



O F F I S H E S. ^ 325 

rows inflead of threads. The ligament that joins the 
two valves reaches from the top to three quarters of 
the length towards the upper extremity ; but the joint 
or hinge has no tooth. The Negroes iiih for this 
Mufcle about the capes of Bernard and Daker^ where 
they meet with large quantities at the depth of three 
fathoms. The flelh is exceeding good, efpecially when 
it is boiled and drelTed j and is in great efteem with the 
Europeans. 

The COATED MUSCLE is two inches long, and 
not an inch from the joint or head to the oppofite joint 
or rim ; but the joint is placed much nearer one end 
than the other, where the ihell is raifed into a roundifh 
protuberance. The furface is rough and of a dufky 
brown, and covered with a thick horny coat furnilhed 
with a great number of fhort hairs, it is common in 
the Mediterranean Tea. 

The NARROW BANDED and VARIEGATED 
MUSCLE, is three inches long and one broad, and 
both the valves or fhells are fo convex that it is as 
thick as it is broad. The largeft part is near the middle, 
from whence it becomes gradually fmaller to each end. 
At the head or upper extremity where the joint is 
placed it is terminated by a fmall blunt button ; but at 
the oppofite end it is more obtufe. The lov/er part i& 
marked with bands or broad lines that are funk lower 
than the reit of the fhell ; from the middle to the top 
the furface is more fmooth, and the colour is a yellowifh 
red, variegated with deep purple chiefly near the fides. 
It is brought from the South Seas, and is very un- 
common. 

The PURPLE MAGELLANIC MUSCLE, is four 
inches long, and two and a half near one extremity, 
from whence it grows gradually fm.aller to the head 
where the joint is placed which is narrow, and a little 
pointed. Both the ihells are gibbous, and the colour 
h a deep fine violet purple variegated with white and 
brown. It is brought from South Jmerica, but is not 
common. 

The PINNA MARINA is the largeft of this kind, 
fome of them being two feet long, and near one broad. 
JN either of the (hells are very deep, and it is fmall and 

narrow 



326 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

narrow at the head, from whence it grows gradually 
larger for two thirds of the length but from thence 
to the extremicy though it ftill grows larger, it becomes 
of a roundiih fhape terminating in an oval. The 
colour on the outfide is of an olive brown, but within 
at is partly of a pearl colour, and partly reddifh. The 
outward furface is rough in feveral places with a kind of 
fcales, and there are furrows that run from near the 
top to the bottom. It is broughf from the Eafi-Indiesy 
as well as the Mediterranewn fea, and is the fame that 
produces the filk above-mentioned. 

The PRICKLY PINNA is fix or feven inches long, 
and three broad at the bafe, from whence it becomes 
gradually fmaller to the oppofite end. It is not fo 
round at the end as the lafl fort, though it bellies out a 
little. The colour is of a pale olive on the outfide 
and of a pearly white within. The outward furface 
has deep furrows running long-ways at fome diHance 
from each other, and the raifed parts between them are 
confequently broad. It is furnilhed with a fort of fcales 
many of which terminate in prickly points. 

CHAP. XL. 

Of the Heart -Shells, and Cockles, 

THESE confift of two valves or (hells which are 
equal and gibbous ; but they have no e^rs or 
appendages near the head. As for the common Cockle 
it is fo genvTally known, it needs no defcription. 

The thin white HEART-SHELL with ten ribs, has 
roundifh and ver^' deep valves, being three inches in 
length from the joint to the oppofite rim, and about as 
much broad. The head next the hinge is prominent 
and blunt, and is nearly of the fame lliape as a heart on 
cards. 'I here are ten ridges or ribs that run along 
each ihcll from the head to the rim which are veiy high 
and of a triangular fhape, being edged at the top, and 
continued with denticulations beyond the rim of the 
ihdl. It is of a fine white colour, and appears tranfpa- 

rent 



OF FISHES; 327 

tent when held up to the light. They are brought 
from the Eaji Indies, as well as South America. 

The deeply furrowed and fpinous HEART-SHELL, 
is three inches and a half long, and much the fame 
broad. The fhells are fo hollow, that the thicknefs 
when clofed is not much lefs than its length; and the 
head is rounded and large with beaks that meet in fuch 
a manner over the joint, as to give it the appearance 
of a heart. The colour is of a greyilh white, and 
there are furrows on its furface tliat run long-ways at 
fome difiance from each other. The ridges between 
them are rounded ; but the back of the fhell is fome- 
times fmooth, and towards the end, and at the edges 
there are long, fharp, ftrong prickles ; fome of which 
are flrait, and others crooked. It is brought from the 
American iflands. 

The deeply furrowed HEART-SHELL, is two 
inches long and an inch and three quarters from the 
head to the oppofite rim. The head is formed of two 
beaks, one to each Ihell, and thefe are rounded and 
turned inwards, but they do not touch each other. A 
little below the fhell is fiat, in which the joint is placed 
that keeps them from touching. The notches of the 
joint are as fine as thofe of a file, and both the valves are 
of the fame fize, being very thick and heavy, appearing 
to be of the confidence of white marble. They are 
deeply furrowed long ways, and the furrows grow 
wider the farther they are from the head. The ridges 
between them are low and rounded, and have often 
tubercles thereon. 

The yellow-ribbed, and imbricated HEART- SHELL, 
is four inches long and three and a quarter broad from 
the joint to the oppofite rib. The valves are equal and 
fo gibbous, that they make a large cavity, and the 
-fiarface of each is raifed into five very large ribs rounded 
at the top, and at a confiderable diilance from each 
•ther. They run from the joint to the oppofite rim of 
the Iheil, and the furface is covered v/ith tranfverfe plates 
that run from edge to edge over the ribs and the fur- 
rows between them. Thefe plates are thin, iliarp, and 
railed at the rims above the furface of the fhells, being- 
placed over each other like guttered tiles. The rim of 

the 



r 



5x8 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

the Ihell is undulated and indented, and the beaks join 
at the top in the form of a heart. The colour on the 
outfide is of a fine yellow, and within of a pearly 
white. It is brouglit from the Eajl Indiesy and fome- 
ti.nes from Africa. 

The truncated-ribbed, and fomewhatfpinous HEART- 
SHELL, is two inches and a half long, and near as 
much broad from the joint to the oppofue rim. The 
edges are rounded, and the fhells of the fame fize and 
very gibbous. One fide of the head has a blunt ex- 
tremity and tlie other is truncated, or feems to be cut 
off, being filled up by two perpendicular lips. The 
furface of the ihell is adorned with ten large round 
ribs with narrow furrows between them ; and on fome 
of the ribs, efpeclally towards the rim, there are a few 
ihort, blunt, thorny protuberances. The general colour 
is of a greyifh white, variegated with a fine red. It 
is brought from the Eaji-Indiesy but is not common. 

The roundifh prickly HEART- SHELL, with a 
<ler)tated edge, is about two inches long and as much 
broad ; as alio as much thick when clofed. It is almoil 
in the fnape of a common Cockle, with beaks at the 
top thr^t turn over the joints, meeting fo as to form the 
ihape of a heart. The furface is deeply furrowed, and 
the ridges are continued down to the edge, where they 
make a fort of teeth. They are furnifhed with a fort 
of pyramidal fcales Iharp at the ends ; and the colour is 
white, variegutcu with red and yellow fpots. 

The furrowed HEART-SHELL with dillant beaks, 
is about: an inch and quarter in length and as much 
broad. The fhells are equal and large towards the 
beak, being confiderably railed up and hollowed ; bat 
at the top they form two beaks which are longer, more 
ilender, and crooked than common. They are at fome 
dillance from each other when the fhell ii clofed, an4 
the furface of the Ihell is deeply furrowed long-ways. 
The ridges are not much raifeJ, and the colour is of a 
<iu{ky white. It is brought from America. 

The HEART -COCKLE, is about an inch and quar- 
ter long, and an inch bioad ; it is a tender delicate ihell 
and of confiderable value, having the valves extreamly 
xaifcd on the back, and not round as the refl of this 

kind 



OF FISHES. 329 

Idnd, for they have a (harp ridge, vvhicn is furrounded 
with a narrow margin different from the reft of tlie 
fhell. The valves are pointed at the bottom, and have 
each a twifted beak at the top ; infomuch that when 
they are cicfed they more refemble a heart than any of 
the former; there are furrows on ail the furface, but 
the ribs between them are not much raifed. The colour 
is of a pretty bright white on the outfide, but purer 
within. It is brought from the American iilands and 
the Eaft Indies, 

The VENUS HEART-SHELL, is nearly of as 
fpinous a fhape as the former, and exceeds it in variety 
of colouring. It is an inch and a half long, and an 
inch and a quarter broad from the ridge of the back of 
one of the Ihells to that of the other. The fhape is 
like that of a heart painted upon cards, being pointed 
at the bottom. 1 he top is formed by the two beaks 
that go a little over each other, and the edges of the 
two Ihells are toothed where they join, It is thin and 
light, with furrows and roundilh ridges rifmg between 
them. Each v/ay there runs a margin round the back 
of the Ihells from the extream turn of the beaks to the 
points. The general colour is white, beautifully varie- 
gated with lines and fpots of a deep and bright purple, 
aad fometimes with a few fainter clouds of yellow. It 
comes from the Eaji- Indies, and the American iflands. 

The SENEGAL COCKLE is about an inch long 
and two inches broad, and fometimes rounded at the 
extremity, and fometimes truncated obliquely with a 
fmall furrow. It has about thirty-five longitudinal 
furrows, which fometimes feem to be divided in two 
in the middle, and crofied by a great number of ex- 
treamly fine threads. The valves are adorned inv/ardly 
on the edges with the fame number of furrows, beyond 
which there are the marks of a great number of xziy 
fime furrows which reach to the top. The hinge or 
joint is compofed of near fixty teeth on each valve ; and 
the Ikin that covers the fhell is brown, thick, and 
dcwny. It is generally white as well within as without, 
and is very fcarce on the fands at the mouth of the river 

The 



330 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The HEAR-r-SHELL of Senega^ is one of the 
thickell: of this kind that is known, and it is as heavy, 
as hard, and will take as high a polilh a^ marble. The 
largeu of this kind is three inches and a half long, as 
much broad, and nearly as much deep ; it is above 
half an inch thick. The external furface has twelve 
longitudinal iurrow.-, feven of which are large, fmooth 
and loundilh. Each fhell is marked inwardly uitli 
eleven ve y broad furrows, wl)ich run all round the 
edgts in a band of about two thirds of an inch broad. 
The edge which forms the hinge advances confiderably 
within each Ihell, and makes a kind of heel, under 
which a large cavity remains. On each fide the im- 
preffions of the Mufcles appear, which are very large 
and almofl fquare. The upper (hell is bigger than the 
lower. The fummits are nearly conical, very long, 
and have one fmgle fpiral turn. The hinge is ftrait, 
and one half as broad as the ihell ; it confifts of a row 
of fourteen teeth running parallelly on the tdgQ of each 
ihell. 'i hefe teeth fall exaftly within each other, and 
j-ender the fheH extreamly flrong and folid ; the colour 
is brown, fometimes mixed with green ; but when the 
ikin is taken off the Ihell itfelf looks like polifhed 
marble. The negroes are very fond of this fhell, and 
take great numbers of them in the fands at the mouth 
■of the river Senegal, 

CHAP. XLI. 

Of Scollop Shells. 

THESE (hells have two valves that Ihut clofe all 
round, and are ufually pretty flat with ears, for 
fo the two proceffes are called that proceed from the 
head of the (hell near the joint. 

The ribbed and variegated SCOLLOP with large 
equal ears, is about two inches and a half in length, 
and two inches and a quarter in breadth. The fhells 
are pretty flat and rounded, and fmuous on the edge, 
from whence they become fmaller to the head, and 

terminate 



O F F I S H E S. 331 

terminate in an oblong point. On each fide there is an 
ear which joins to the edge of the head, and runs down 
a third of an inch farther on the fhell ; they unite at 
the top where they rife a little above ihe level of the 
head, and the furface of the Ihells is adorned with ribs ; 
there are twelve on each, and are broad and rounded at 
the top, having furrows between them about half their 
own breadth. The ears are alfo furrowed and ribbed, 
and the general colour is white, finely variegated with 
large fpcts of brown. It is very common in England, 

The red ribbed and furrowed SCOLLOP with un- 
equal ears, is four inches long and about as much broad, 
and is of a roundifh fhape. It is deeply and regularly 
ihiuous on the edges, and but little raifed on the back. 
The colour is of a deep red with a mixture of purplifh 
b; own, and large and regular ribs on the furface, which 
are broad, deprefled, and furrowed, and have feveral 
undulated tubercles thereon, and fome that are more 
regular. The ears are large, but one of them is con- 
fid era bly bigger than the other. It is brought from the 
Mediterranean. 

The PRICKLY SCOLLOP with unequal ears, 15 
of an oblong or oval fiiape and flat. It is two inches 
and a quarter long, and about the middle near an inch 
and three quarters broad ; from whence it continues to 
form a rounded and flightly finuous rim one way, and 
at the other it grows fmaller till it forms a blunt point. 
On one fide of this there appears a large fine ear ; but 
the other feems to be broken ofi^, at leaft in part ; for 
it is never no more than one fourth fo long as the other. 
The furface of the fhell is adorned with about twenty- 
feven fine flender ribs, with inconfiderable furrows be- 
tween them. Each of thefe ribs is lightly llreaked and 
befet with many iharp thorns, from the verge to two 
thirds the length of the fliell. The general colour is a 
fine red; but the thorns, and part of the ribs are white, 
3t is not uncommon on the coafts of the Mediterranean 
fea. 

The DUCAL MANTLE SHELL is three inches 
long, and nearly as much broad with a regular finuous 
edge. The head is furniflied with two large beautiful 
ears nearly of the fame fize, and the furface is adorned 
with about thirteen ribs that are broad and fomewhat 

elevated 



332 THENATURAL HISTORY 

elevated in the middle. The general colour is a <ieep 
fine red, and the edges are orange ; but the furface is 
every wheie variegated with yellow a-nd white. The 
head is fomewhat paler than the other parts, and the 
ears are beautifully variegated. It i^ met with on the 
European ihores, but is not very common. 

1 he IRISH SCOLLOP, is about two inches long, 
and almoft as much broad, having on its fijrface about 
fifteen ribs that are broad, deprefled, and nearly at 
equal diftances from each other. The fliells are very 
little raifed, but the ears are moderately large, and one 
is a litde bigger than the other. The general colour 
is reddiili, which changes gradually from the deepeil 
purple to the paleft fiefh-colour, but in fome it is every 
where the {rime, and in others it is beautifully variegated 
with irregular fpots of white. It is very common on 
the hij^j coaits. 

The little yellow elegantly furrowed SCOLLOP, is 
about an inch long and as much broad. Toeing pointed 
on the top or head, where there are two large eajs 
nearly of an equal fize. The rim on the oppofite ex- 
tremity is rounded, and there are about fix ribs on the 
furface that are very broad, deprefTed, and at fmall 
diftances from each other. The furrows between them 
are ftreaked in an elegant manner, and the colour of 
the whole is of a brownilh yellow, and fomctimes, 
though but feldom, variegated with a fainter ycllov/ or 
while. It is brought from the Meditcrianeant and is a 
curious fhell. 

The fmall eared thin SCOLLOP with tranfverfe 
furrows, is about two inches and a half long, and as 
much broad, being nearly round. The edges are even, 
and the head is furnifhed with two fmall very regular 
equal ears. The valves or fhells are very little raifed, 
and there is no appearance of ribs. It is extreamly 
tliin, light, and brittle, and of a pale brown colour. 
The whole furface is furrowed tranfverfly, and the fur- 
rows begin near the head, where they are not very 
diflind, and continue in large circles to the bottom of 
the iheil. 



CHAP. 



O F F I S H E S. 353 

CHAP. XLir. 

Of the fingfT Shell Fijh. 

THE thick red FINGER SHELL is about three 
inches long, and of the thicknefs of a man's 
£nger. The furface is fmooth except towards one end, 
wliere there are a few crooked lines or laiher furrows; 
the (hell is prttty thick for one of this kind ; but at the 
end where the laminas or plates are entire, it is thicker 
than the other. It is open at both the extremities and 
the colour is of a fine pale red, variegated from the 
ftrongeft damafk rofe colour to the faintell carnation. 
It is brought from the Ea'i Indies. 

The crooked FINGER SHELL, variegated with 
brown and blue, is fix inches long and three quarters 
of an inch broad. It is of an equal thicknels from 
one end to the other, and is bent in the manner of a 
bow. I'he far face is fmooth and gloffy; but there are 
the extremities of many broken or imperfeft plates 
ieen tl.ereon, fo that it is never quite uniform. Jt is 
variegated with brown and violet blue ; but the inflde is 
of a pearly white. 

The flcnder, ilrait, brown and white FINGER 
SH3.LL, is three inches long and near a third of an 
inch in diameter. It is perfe«S^tly ibait and open at 
both ends; but the furface is fomewhat irregular as in 
the former, though very glofiy. The general colour is 
of an olive bro .n, variegated with white in fome 
places, but the inner furface is of a pearly white. It 
is brought from tlie Ea/t Indies, 

The violet purple FJNGER SHELL is four inches 
long, and near half an inch in diameter, being quite 
open at both ends. The fhell is no tliicker tnan ftron^r 
paper, and is very brittle. The furface is irregular 
from the broken plates that appear thereon ; and" the 
colour is of a fne bluifli piuple, and nearly like that 
of a violet but fomewhat redder. It is brought from 
the gulph of Ferfu^r and the Ec^Ji India, 



CHAP. 



334 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

CHAP. XLIII. 

Of the Acorn Shell Fijh. 

THESE fort of fViells are of a longifli fhape, 
nearly approaching that of an acorn, and are 
compofedof feveral valves from fix to twelve in number; 
hut they are not moveable like chofe of the bivalved 
kind, for they are fixed to each ether by an inter- 
: ediate fubftance. 

The great furrowed ACORN SHELL with a large 
mouth, is the biggell of this kind, it being about an 
inch and half in height, and above an inch in diameter 
wh^fre largeft. It is broad at the bafe, and firmly fixed 
to a iolid fubftance, and it is nearly of the fame dia- 
meter at the top as at the bafe, where it is wide open. 
The mouih is not exactly round, nor the edges even ; 
it is compofed of twelve valves that touch each other 
at the bafe, but recede from each other at the top. 
Thefe vahes are furrowed lengthways, and are of a 
brownifli red ; but the intermediate fubflance is of a 
lighter colour and irregularly undulated in a tranfverfe 
diredtion. The inner iurface is whitifh with a mixture 
of carnation and blue. The animal contained in this 
fhell is of a triangular fhape at the head, and there are 
four pieces that belong to it which ferve to clofe up the 
opening. It is found flicking to the rocks of the Eaji 
and /-'/ efi-hidies. 

The bcU-faflnoned ACORN SHELL with a large 
mouth, is ufually found in great cluiters, and they are 
fixed to each other at the tops, which makes the fur- 
face of the whole appear like net- work, but there are 
large cavities underneadi between their bodies. The 
fliell is narroweft at the bafe, where it is fixed to a folid 
body, and from thence becomes gradually wider to the 
top, where it is broad, open, and bent a little down at 
the edge, lb as to appear fomevvhat like the fhape of a 
bell, it is compofed of eight firm, hard portions of 
a conical fhape, connefted by a firm flielly fubftance. 
The colour is of a browcifh grey, and the intermediate 

matter 



O F F I S H E S. 335 

matter of a deeper brown. They are brought from 
the Ar-erican iilands. 

The LOW ACORN SHELL with a large mouth, 
is three quarters of an inch high, and above half an 
inch in diameter. They are found in large clurters, 
and are fo clofely conneded that the inner furEice is 
more vifible than tlie outer. This is of a pale whitiih 
grey with a mixture of brown, and a fm-all tinf!-ure of 
red. t ach fiiell is compofed of fix parts united to- 
gether by a fhelly fubftance. Thefe are thick furrowed 
and of a pale red, with a mixture of grey and brown. 
The fhelly fubdance that unites them is or a paler red, 
and the largell part of the fnell is near the bafe. The 
fhape of this fhell is fbmewhat like a drinking cup ; 
whence by fome it is called the Cup Shell. It fticks to 
the rocks and hard fea plants on the American fhores. 

The narrow-mouthed oval and greyifli red ACORN 
SHELL, is ufually found in cluflers of twenty or more 
together. They do not all flar.d upright, but are very 
clofe at the bafe. A fmgle fhell is about half an inch 
long, and about a third of an inch in diameter, but 
fomewhat narrower at the bafe than elfewhere. The 
edges at the top are drawn inward, and yet leave a 
fmall opening or mouth. It confiiis of twelve portions 
conneded by a fhelly fubilance ; though they are io 
clofe that it is very litde. Thefe valves are deeply fur- 
rowed, and the colour is of a dufky grey with a con- 
fiderable mixture of reddifh. It is brought from the 
Ecifl'Indies and America. 

The narrow mouthed flender ACORN SHELL, is 
three quarters of an incli high, and one third of an 
inch in diameter where largeft, which is a little lower 
than the middle. The bafe i^ fomewhat fmalicr, and 
the top much more fo, for the edge is {o contracled fs 
to render the mouth fmall. It confifls of eight portions 
connefted by a thinner iubTtance, and they appear like 
fo many ribs, that are of a roundifh fhape, rifmg con- 
fiderably in the middle. The colour is of a brownifh 
grey ; but the intermediate m.atter is of a pale grey. 
Jt is common in the Eaft India and on the coafl of 
Africa, 

The 



33^ THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The purple narrow mouthed and (lender ACORN 
SHELL is three quarters of an inch higli, and a lit-tle 
more than a third of an inch in diameter. It is largeft 
at the bafe, from whence it grows gradually fmaller to 
the top. Each fhell is compofed of fix ribs which 
touch each other at the bafe, and are connected by a 
tiiin fhelly matter. The ribs are flatted whh deep but 
not regular furrows that run long-ways. The inter- 
mediate fubftance is undulated tranverfely, and the edge 
is fo contrafted as to make a narrow mouth. It is all 
over of a bright purple colour, though the ribs are 
deeper and more bluilh, and the intermediate furrows 
more red. 

The greyiih-vvhite furrowed flender ACORN SHELL 
is feldom more than a third of an inch long, and is two 
thirds lefs in its diameter. It is broadeft at the bafe, 
and narroweil at the top. where there is a fmall mouth. 
The colour is of a greyilh white, and the fhell exceed- 
ing thin. It is compofed of fix portions, which are 
broaceft at the bafe and fmalleil at the top. The fur- 
rows run long ways, and are moll diftinfl near the top. 
The intermediate matter is tranfverfely and irregularly 
undulated. It is common on the EngVJh ihores. 

The flender ACORN SHELL wi'h a narrow mouth, 
is about half an inch in height, and hardly a quarter in 
diameter v/here largeft, which is towards the middle, 
from whence it grow- gradually fmaller. 1 he colour 
is of a dufky brownifli yellow on the ribs, and of a 
paler yellow between them. They are twelve in num- 
ber, and are very narrow and roundifli, ftanding at 
very fmall diftances from each other. It is brought 
from the Euft h.diesy flicking at the bottom of the ihip» 
that come from thence. 



CHAf. 



O r F I S H E S. 337 

CHAP. XLIV, 

Of T.hum}) -footed Shell-Fi/h, and thofe that have 
fve Valves, 

THE BLUISH-GREY THUMB-FOOT, with a 
pedicle longer than the body, is a third of an inch 
in diameter at the top, and near a quarter at the bafe. 
It is tolerably firm and fiefhy, and is covered with a 
tough thick (kin, granulated on the farface with irregular 
tranfv'erre furrows. Above this is the flielly covering, 
which is about half an inch long and of a pyramidal 
figure ; the diameter at the bafe is equal to the top of 
the pedicle or foot, and it terminates in a pretty i'harp 
point. The fhcU is compofed of an uncertain number 
of portions of which the middle ones are the largeft, 
and the reft far round them at their bafcs. They are 
all of a pyramidal iigure and fhut very clofely, unlefs 
when the animal throws out its arms. The pedicle 
is of a brovvnifn colour, and the Hielly part of a mixture 
of bluifli-grey and white. It is found in feveral parts, 
and the fleih when boiled becomes red. It is looked 
upon as wholefome eating, and has nearly the tafte of 
Cray-fiili. 

The REDDISH THU?,4B FOOT, is about two 
inches in length, and the pedicle or foot is more than 
an inch and a half ; but the Ihelly part is only the third 
of an inch. The pedicle is about a quarter of an inch 
in diameter and of the fame thicknefs all the way ud ; 
its furface is deeply wrinkled, and its colour is of a 
pale whitiih red. The fubilance is fleihy, but lefs firm 
than that of the former kind, and at the top of this 
ftands the fhelly part, which is of a pyramidal fio-ure, 
and confilts of an imcert.^.in number of portions that 
fliut very clofe, and are of a whitifli red. It is found 
on the coails o( the north of Ergland. 

The WHITE THUMB-FOoT is three quarters of 
an inch in length v/here largeft, which is at the head of 
the foot, and is about half an inch in diameter. The 
body is of a pyramidal form, and fomewhat longer 
than the pedicle. It is compofed of a great number 

Vol. III. (i_ of 



35S THE NATURAL HISTORY 

of longiOi pyramidal portions of a whidlh colour, .ind 
the pedicle is white. It is found on the northern coalb 
of Eni^lar.d. 

The THUMB FOOT with a very long pedicle, has 
a foot four inches long and three quarters of an inch in 
diameter. It refembles a piece of a gut filled with a 
reddifh liquor, and is nearly of the fame diameter all 
the way, being fixed at one end to fome folid body, 
and at the other terminated by a fhelly part. This is 
about three quarters of an inch long, and becomes 
gradually fmaller at the top. They are in great plenty 
on the coalls of LancaftAre. 

The PURPLE THUiV-lB-FOOT is like the farmer, 
only it has a larger body and a fnoiter pedicle. The 
iflielly part is an inch long, and half an inch in dia- 
meter at the bafe. It confifrs of an irregular number of 
thin pyram.idal portions of various fizcs, and of a 
purplilh colour variegated v.'ith white. It is like a 
piece of a gut filled with a reddifh liquor. Jt is found 
on the fhores of Lancajhire. 

The BARNACLE SHELL is of the five vnlved kind, 
and was formerly fuppofca to f reduce a gcofe ; but 
now that fable is fufficiently exploded. It is about an 
inch long, and three quarters of an inch in diameter; 
•ard confnls of five broad angular valves or portions 
which form an oblong body, and fhut pretty clofe on 
?11 parts, except when the fifh thiufls out its arms. 
The fhelly part is of a pale red or flefh colour, varie- 
gated with white ; and it adheres to a neck of an inch 
long, and about a fifth of an inch in diameter, by 
whfch means it fixes itfelf to wood, flones, and fea 
plants. The neck is of a brownifn colour, and is 
firm, tough, and flefiiy. 

The whiiifh FIVE VALA^ED SHELL FISH, with a 
thick granulated neck, is about an inch and a half long, 
including the reck or foot, and the Ihcll confiils of five 
broad angular iheils. It is of a longifli fhape fcme- 
what flatted, and obliquely truncated at the end. The 
fhells are of a whitifli colour, with a little mixture of 
blue, and the neck is very thick and fhort. It is of a 
brownifh colour and ftcfhy fubflance, and on the furface 
it is granulated like fnagreen. It is found in the 

northern 



O F F I S H E S. 359 

northern feas commonly flicking to the branches of the 
larger fea plants. 

The violet coloured five valved SHELL-FISH, has 
a body three quarters of an inch long, and half an 
inch in diameter, and the fl-iape is longifh, though 
obliquely truncated at the upper extremity where it is 
fmalleft. The {hell confiib of five irregular angular 
flat portions, and is of a fine deep violet blue, variegated 
with a pale greenilh blue, and fome v/hite. The neck 
is fie (by, two inches long, and not much thicker than a 
whipcord. It is met with on the Ihores of Torkjhln 
and elfevvhere. 

CHAP. XLV. 
Of the Pholades, cr File Shell F;/!:. 

THE PHOLAS, is a fliell-fiai whofe fhell is made 
up of five piece?, but fo as to have the ap- 
pearance of a Mufcle. Two of thefe are large, and 
exa^flly refemble the bivalved kind; befides which, 
there aie three other portions or valves that are very 
Imall, and ferve to clofe up an opening left by the 
irregular meeting of the two principal fliells. They 
inhabit holes made in rocks and other folid bodies, and 
fometimes they are met with at the bottoms of fhips. 

The longifh white chequered and rough PHOLAS 
is about tivo inches long, raid an inch and quarter in 
diameter at the largeil part, which is nearer the head 
than the other "end. It has five portions as obfervcd 
above, the iargeft of v;hich appear like thofe of com- 
mon bivalved fliell-fifh, and befides thefe there are two 
on the back that are very broadifii and Ihort, and 
another fingle one which is long and nanow lying 
under the joint. The colour is whitiih, with a fmail 
mixture of a faint yellow or brown, and the furface of 
the two large ihrdls has furrows both ways, which give 
it a cbe''^ucred appearance. The furface is as rough as 
a file, an4 this animal lies {o clofe in the holes of itones 
0^2 that 



340 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

that it has no way of getting out. The opening being 
no bigger than the diameter of a Goofe-quill, but it 
thrufts out a fort of probofis or trunk. It is common 
on the fea coafts of moft parts of Europe, How thefe 
creatures make thefe holes, or how they get in is not 
certainly known. 

. The WHITE PHOLAS, or FILE SHELL FISH, 
with fhort oval and pretty large valves, has a fhell not 
large enough to inclofe the body. It is of a whitifh 
colour, fomewhat hollow and llreaked long-ways. The 
furface is rough, and the texture tender and delicate ; 
the two fmaller valves are placed at the back of the 
others in a contrary direction, and the fifth is long, 
flender, and convex, covering the whole joint. It is 
found on the coafts of Keni and Sujfex. 

The reddiih rough PHOLAS, with deep furrows, 
is foilr inches long and two in diameter. The two 
principal fhells are oblong, largifh near the middle and 
deeply hollowed ; they are very thin and tender, and 
of a pale bright red colour, generally variegated with 
white. They have deep furrows on the furface which 
run long-ways, and there are ridges between them 
which render the furface rough. The three other 
valves are very fmall, and placed at the back of the 
former. It is found near the American coafts. 

The Weft IndianYll^Y. SHELL FISH is the largeft 
of this kind, being feven inches long and two in dia- 
meter. The two large fhells are very tender and britile, 
hollow within, and of a beautiful white. There are 
deep furrows on the outfide which crofs each other as 
in a file. Three other valves are as in the three former 
kinds. It is brought from America, but is very feldom 
met with. 



CHA P- 



O F F I S H E S. 341 

CHAP. XLVI. 

Offrejh Water Shell-FIJh. 

THE OVAL LIMPET with a crooked fnout, 
has not fo fine a fhell as that of the Sea Limpet. 
It is very thin, oval, and deprefTed, except in the 
middle, where it rifes into a beak. It is two thirds of 
the diameter of the fliell. It is no bigger than a man's 
finger naij, and \s found flicking to ilones in the brooks 
of Ncrtkamptonfbirg. 

The roundifh TARGET LIMPET, is fmaller than 
the former -, and inflead of a beak has a fort of a button 
at the top. It is very thin and delicate, and has a 
pretty fmooth furface, vvhich is of Jin olive brown colour, 
it is found in fome of the rivers of Lelcefierjhire. 

The OVAL LIMPET, \vi:h a hole at the top, is a 
quarter of an inch in diameter, and an eighth in height. 
The flieli is very thin, rounded at both ends, and of a 
dufey brown colour. The hole is fmall and oblong, 
and feems to be formed of two round holes broken 
into each other. This is common near London. 

The SPIRAL SNAJL SHELL, with a clavicle a 
little elevated, and a round mouth, is three quarters 
of an inch in C'iameter, and the fheil is firm, folid, 
and fmooth at the furface. It confiUs of about four 
turns, and the clavicle at the center is raifed above the 
reft of the furface. The colour is a greyilh white, and 
the large turn has a ftreak of black running along it, 
but loofes itfelf before it reaches the next turn. It is 
found in the lakes of the north of England. 

St. Cuthburt's HORN SHELL, js of the fpiral 
flatted kind, and about half an inch in diameter. Jt 
is firm and folid, and of a fine gloify brown, with a 
tincture of olive colour. It confifts of two or three 
turns, and the clavicle is deprefTed in the center; the 
mouth is partly filled up with the next turn of the ftiell> 
and the lip is narrow, but thicker and of a paler 
colour than the reft of the fhell. It is common every 
where in England. 

Q.3 Th» 



542 THE^NATURAL HISTORY 

The taller SNAIL SHELL with a long clavicle, is 
one of the mofl beautiful of this kind, being about an 
inch high, and jhiee quarters cf an inch in dia- 
meter. The mouth is half round, and partly filled 
up by the fucceeding turn of the fhell. It is fur- 
rounded with a thin rim, of a paiifh yellow colour, 
and the clavicle has four turns, terminating in a point. 
The colour is of a duiky yellow, variegated with olive 
brown. It is ibmetimes met with in deep rapid livers. 

The LAMBIS is a kind of large Snail of the Canbbee 
iflands, whofe body ieems to be nothing but a fort 
of a pudding, and whofe fhell terminates in a point at 
one extremity, and is open at the other, it having a 
large round mouth, from whence proceeds a long thick 
membrane like a tongue, with which the animal takes 
its nourifhm.ent, and drags itfelf along at the bottom of 
the Water. When the Snail is opened there appears 
neither heart nor liver, nor lungs, but only a foit of a 
gut full of grafs in fmall bits, as alfo mofs and fand. 
The flefh is white and firm, and the larger the animal, 
it is the longer in boiling, and harder of digefiion, 
Thofe that ei.t thefe Snaih, cut them down long -ways 
to take cut the gut. They make lime of the fhells,^ 
which when worked into mortar is as hard as marble. 
In each fhell there is about half a glafs of water, more 
or lefs, accordmg to the fize, which as they pre'.erd is 
good for inflammations of the eyes. Some of the 
fhells are fifteen inches long, with a mouth of the fame 
dimenfions ; and they weigh from ten to twelve pounds. ■ 
This renders the ar.imal very ilcw in its mo ion, but 
does f ot hinder it from coming from the bottom of the 
w:.ttr to the fides of the fhore. '\ he furfj.ce of the fliell 
is fprinkled with a great number of blurit tubercles, 
from three quarters of an inch to an inch in height, 
and almofl as much in diameter at their bafe. 'i he 
fpacc'i between tlie tubcicles is rough and (lony, and 
ofien cov( red v.irh m.ofs. One of the edges of the 
mouth rifes quire upright, and renders the head of the 
animal vifible, unle/s it fhrinks within the fold of the 
fhell. Nothing can be inore beautiful, better poMhcd 
or fliinirg, than the enamel with which -the fhell is* 
lined, it is of the colour of t/ic fin fl carnation that 
c*in be imagined, and if the outfids was as fine, it 

would 



O F F I S H E S. 343 

would be a moil beautiful (hell. This defcrlption is 
taken from Labat, and ihews he has little fkill in 
defcriptions of this kind, as well as in the fpecies to 
whicli it belongs. 

The variegated oval SNAIL SHELL with a blunt 
clavicle, is about three quarters of an inch high, and 
near half an inch in diameter. The body is large 
but pointed' at the extremity of the mouth. The cla- 
vick has three turns, and the top is blunt. The colour 
is of a greylfh white, variegated with belts of a deep 
brown. It is found in large rivers. 
■ The large-mouthed brown SNAIL SHELL, with a 
fharp clavicle, is about half an inch high, and the fame 
in diameter. The body is oval, and the clavicle long 
and pointed at the top. The ihell is of a duiky brown, 
and the mouth is remarkably large, and edged v/ith a 
thin rim or lip. It is common in brooks. ' 

The grey frefh-water NERI I'E, is about a third of 
an inch long, and near as much in diameter. The 
body is almolt oval, and the clavicle is deprelied, and 
near the fmall extremity ; the mouth is narrow, with a 
little lip on each fide, and the colour is of a pale grey, 
variegated with a blackifn iron-grey in little irregular 
fpots. The furface has llight furrows, and it is found 
in the large rivers of the n^rth of Ejigland. 

The chequered frefh-water NERITE, or SNAIL 
SHELL, is about half an inch in length, and nearly as 
much in diameter, being almoft of an oval fliape. The 
clavicle has but two turns, and the mouth is narrow, •' 
with a lip on each fide. The furface has furrows length- 
ways, and others tranfverfe. The colour is almoll. 
whice, variegated with blackilh clouds or fpots. It is 
met with in the Trout ftreams about Uxbridge, and 
other places. 

The red frefh-water NERITE, or SNAIL SHELL, 
is about half an inch long, and above a third in dia- 
meter. The colour is of a pale red, but a little dulky, 
and the fhell is more firm and thick than moft others of 
this kind. The furface is pretty fmooth, the mouth 
narrow, and the lips of a pale red. The clavicle is 
fhort, and has two turns near one edge at the fmaller 
0^4 end 



344 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

end of the (hell. It is plenty in the rivers of Nor, 
tk afr.pt cnf^i J e. 

The NERJ TE of the ifland of Goree is found in 
great plenty flicking to the rocks, and the (hell is an 
inch broad, abo^^t lialf as long, very thick, and fome- 
what in the form of an <^'g%' It has three turns, of 
which the firfi is large and roundifh, but the others 
ver)' fmall, and form a round and very blunt fummit, 
twice as broad as long. The outward furface is covered 
with a film, on which there are twenty fix flight fur- 
rows that run round the firil turn. The mouth is in 
the fhape of a half moon, and two thirds of its cir- 
cumference is encompalTed v/ith the right lip, which is 
very (harp and thick, and under its edge on the infide 
there are fifteen or fixteen long teeth fet clofe together, 
of which the lowermofl two are thick and round, look- 
ing like two buttons. The left lip is formed by the 
flatting of the fecond turn, which is covered with a 
large fhining plate. It has two fmall teeth, and the 
middle of its length is of a deep black on the outfidt 
and white within. 

The great conical SNAIL SHELL with a deprefled 
mouth, is about a tV:ird of an inch high, and its dia- 
meter is near as much at the bafe, where it terminates 
in a blunt little button. The colour is of a pale grey, 
and the fubftance is very thin and tender. The mouth 
is partly filled up with the fuccceding turn of the fhelU 
Jt is found in fevera! large rivers of Enguind. 

The ribbed and CONICAL SNAIL SHELL with a 
deprefied mouth, is half an inch high, and one third 
in diameter at the bafe. It confills of five turns, and 
has a rifing in the form of a rib in the middle of the 
firil, which IblloA's the whole turn of the fhell, but 
becomes fainter as it approaches near the top. The 
colour is of a faint grey, variegated with clouds and 
lines of black. 

'1 he BKOWN CONICAL SNAIL SHELL is only a 
quarter of an inch high, and its diame:er at the bafe ii 
the fixth of an inch. The colour is of a pale brown with 
a laintilh caft of yellow ; it confills of fcn-r turns that ar« 
lounded and fmooth at the furface. The top is blunt, 

or 



O F F I S H E S. 345 

©r terminated with a fort of button, and the fubftance 
is extreamly brittle. It is common in ditchc^. 

The long mouthed SCREW SHELL is about three 
quarters of an inch long, and one third in diameter at 
the bafe. It confilts of about thirteen turns, and has 
a longifti narrow mouth, edged with a furrowed lip: 
The furface is fmooth and the turns flat, only the upper 
edge of each is deeply denticulated. The colour is- 
grey, inclining to that of a pearl, but not always 
pure. 

The SCREW FISH with ftudded turns, is an inch: 
high, and a third of an inch in diameter at the bafe.^ 
The mouth is irregularly oblong, and the fubflance is 
very thin, and brittle, being of a dull whitifh colour. 
It has about feven turns, and on the edge there is a row 
of protuberances like ftuds that run all along. It is not 
very common. 

The WHITISH SCREW FISH with fmooth tumid 
turns, is an inch and a half long, and of the thicknefs of 
a Swan's-quiil at the bafe. The mouth is roundilh, and 
the top blunt ; the ihell confifts of about fourteen turns, 
which are bellied and very diftinft. It is britde, and 
of a whitifii colour. 

The SLENDER SCREW Fi:.H with flattilli turns, i» 
an inch and a half long with alongiih narrow mouth, and 
the top finely pointed. It confilis often or twelve turns, 
wlnich feem only to be furrounded with a fpiral line. It 
is very thin and brittle, and the colour is of a pale- 
brown, fometimes whitifli. 

The thin BROWN TRUMPET SHELL with a nar- 
row mouth, has a very thin fhell an inch and a quarter 
long, and half an inch in diameter. The^mouth is very 
large and oval, and the body is oblong and bellied. 
1'he clavicle has about four turns, and the colour is 
brown wiih a greenifn tinfture. 

The llender large mouthed RED TRUMPET SHELL, 
is an inch long, and about a third of an inch in dia- 
meter. The body is oval, and the clavicle has four 
turns, terminated with a little button. It is of a thin,, 
brittle ilruclure, and fmooth on the furface j and th? 
colour is reddifli niixcd with white. 



3'4.6- THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The forehead 'J RUMPET SHELL with a large 
oval mouth, is about three quarters of an inch long 
and a third broad. The body is the chief part of the 
fliell, for the clavicle is fmall, and has only three turns, 
terminating in a fliarp point. It is very brittle, not 
very fmooth on the furface, and of a pale brown. 

The narrow 'iRUA':PEr SHELL with a long cla- 
vicle, and a long narrow mouth, is about half an inch 
long, but not a third in diameter. The body is fmall 
and rounded, and the clavicle long, confiillng of fix 
rums. The furface of the ihell is fmgoth, and the 
colour of a pale brown wich a tincture of olive. It is 
found in fmall fwift rivers. 

The ihort-bellied TRUMPET SHELL, with a fmall 
round mouth, is half an inch long and as much in 
diameter. The body of the fliell is ret fo diftin6l from 
the clavicle as in the reft of this kind, and the whole 
fhell feeins to have been cruflied together. The mouth 
is round and connected to the ihell by a fort of a neck. 
Tiie clavicle has only three fhort diftincl turns which 
teiminate obtufely. The fubilance is thin and brittle, 
and the colour of a pale brown. 

The narrow TRUMPET SHELL with turns den- 
fated on the edges, is an ii^ch and half long, and half 
an iach in diameter. The colour is of reddifli biown, 
and the mouth large and longifli, with a- very gieat 
clavicle, \«hich confilU of five broad, flat, diftin£l turns. 
The top is blunt. 

The oval-mouthed TRUMPET SHELL, wi:h turns 
punning the contrary way, is an inch and a half long, 
and nearly as much in diameter. The fhell is fo ex- 
rreamly thin, that it breaks in the handling it. The 
colour is of a pale brown with a tindure of yellow. 
Theclavicle has only three fmall diftind turns, and is 
pointed at the top. 

The brov.'n PIPE SHELL with a very large mouth, 
is about three quarters of an inch long, and half an 
inch in diameter. I he body of the (liell is bellied, and 
the clavicle very fhorr, confilling only of four indiftind 
turns, but it is pointed at the end. 'i he mouth is large, 
and the lip extended a great way ; the furface is fmooth- 

and 



O F F r S H E S. 347 

and extreamly thin ; and the colour is of a dufk/ 
brown. 

The oval PIPE SHELL with along narrow mouth, 
is an inch long and two thirds of an inch in diameter. 
It is extreamly thin, and of a duflcy brown ; the body 
is nearly oval, and the clavicle is veryfhort; but the 
mouth is large. 

The yellow BROWN PIPE SHELL with an oval 
mouth, is half an inch long and as much in diameter. 
The fubftance is extreamly thin and tender, and the 
colour of a pale yellow ; the mouth is large and oval, 
but the clavicle very fmall. 

The white oval PIPE SHELL with a large mouth, 
is about three quarters of an inch long, and half an 
inch in diameter. The Ihell is indented towards the 
edge -of the mouth, and the clavicle is very fmall, 
though pointed at the end ; the colour is of a beautiful 
white. 

The large mouthed Am??ioii% HORN SHELL is of a 
roundifh, deprelled figure, being in diameter about aa 
inch, and towards the mouth a quarter of an inch thick. 
It confills of about four turns, which grow gradually 
fmaller and form a litile button at the center. The 
mouth is large in proportion, and furrounded with a 
little raifed lip. The furface is undulated tranfvei fely, 
and the colour is of a pale grey. 

• The brown fmooth Ammon\ HORN SHELL, with 
a depreifed mouth, is about three quarters of an inch 
in diameter, and the thickeft part is of the thicknefs of a 
fmall Goofe-quill ; it confifts of about four turns, and 
the fhell is thin and eafily crufhed. The colour is of 
a gloily brown, only there are obfcure lines fomewhat 
darker. 

The fmooth little yellowifh AmmorC% HORN SHELL, 
is about the third of an inch in diameter, and not 
thicker than a Crow-quill ; it coniifts of about three 
turns, terminating in a little button. The furface of 
the fhell is fmooth, and the colour of a bright brown 
with a yellowifh caft. 

- The pale ribbed Ammonh HORN SHELL is about 

half an inch ia diameter, but its largeft end is no 

thicker than a Crow-quill ; -t is of a very pale colour, 

0^6 and 



348 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

and confiils of three or four turns tranrverfcly ribbed 

all the way. 

The white fmooth deprefied BASTARD COCKLE, 
is three quarters of an inch broad, and the fame in 
length from the joint to the oppofite edgQ. The fhells 
are not very much bellied, and are very thin. The 
furface is perfedly fmooth, and the colour of a dufky 
white. 

The gibbous vvhitifh variegated COCKLE, is about 
half an inch broad, and rarely as much from the joint 
to the oppofite vergs. The fhells are confiderably 
deep, and llightly ftreaked with obfcure circular lines. 
The colour is of a dulky white, variegated with olive 
fpots. 

The reddifh round ilreaked COCKLE, is about an 
inch and a half in diameter, and as much from the 
joint to the oppofite edge. They are lightly ftreaked 
with a pale brownifh red colour on the outfide, and are 
of a fine pearl colour within. 

The bluiih oval BASTARD COCKLE, is about 
half an inch long from the joint to the oppofite edge, 
which is broad and rounded ; but at the top it runs up 
fmaller terminating bluntly It is finely flreaked long- 
ways, and the colour is of a pale bluifh grey. 

The extreamly thin greenifh MUSCLE is near an 
inch from corner to corner, and three quarters of an 
inch from the joint to the oppofite edge, the furface is 
lightly Arcaked, and the colour is of a pale fine green. 

The vvhitifh vari-egated Ilreaked MUSCLE, is an 
inch long and half an inch broad. The colour is 
whitifh variegated with brown ; and the fhells are botl^ 
pretty hollow. 

The narrow brown angular MUSCLE, is near a» 
inch long, but not half an inch broad, and the fhell* 
are both very deep. The fubftance is pretty thick and 
llrong, and the colour is of a pale brown, with a tindure 
of olive. 

The bluifh rounded HEART SHELL when viewed 
fide-ways, looks like a heart painted on cards, and is 
about an inch long, and as much broad ; as alfo but 
very little lefs in ihickiiefv The furface is elegantly,. 



O F F I S H E S. 349 

but not deeply furrowed, and the colour is of a du&y 
blue. 

The reddilh flreaked HEART SHELL, is about 
half an inch long, and nearly as much broad ; both 
the Ihells are very deep, and are of a pretty firm, folid 
fubflance, and lightly ftreaked ; but the intermediate 
furface is fmooth and polifhed, and the colour is white, 
with a tindure of red. 

CHAP. XLVIL 
0/ the Sea Nett:es, 

THE SEA NETTLE is of two kinds, one of 
which comprehends thofe that always remain 
fixed in one place like fea plants, and the other contains 
thofe that change their place. This divifion is accord- 
ing to Arijlotle, but Reaumur aihrms, that there are 
none of thefe Nettles, not even thofe that are found in' 
the holes of ilones, that are not capable of fome pro- 
grefTive motion though it is very (low. He alfo thinks, 
that the name of Nettle is not pioper to many of them, 
fince thofe on fome parts of the coafts of France have 
not that flinging property that many pretend they have. 
Pliny, as well as Jrljlotk^ takes the former kind of 
them to be of a middle nature, between plants and 
animals ; though Arijiotk imagines, that they have no 
vent for their excrements, and Pliny fays, that they 
have a narrow tube for that purpofe. .But Reaumur^ 
who has carefully obferved them, afrlrms, that what 
they void is nothing at all but clear water quite diiTerent 
from the nature of an excrement. However, he thinks 
they are real animals, becaufe they have organized 
bodies, and give iigns of feeling when they are touched; 
befides which, they lay hold of fiili, and fliell-fiih, 
which they eat, and have alfo a progrelnve motion, 
Thefe Nettles affume fo many different fhapes, that ie 
is not poiTible to defcribe them under any determinate 
figure ; but in general their outward form approaches ' 
aeareil to a truncated coue, haviig its bafe fixed to. 

fou.*. 



Sso THE NATURAL HISTORY 

fome flone to which it is found always adhering. Some 
aregreeniih, others whitifh, and others again of a rofe- 
colour ; likewife there are others of al! the degrees of 
brown. Jn fome of thefe Nettles thefe colours appear 
evj^ry where on the furface, and in others they are mixed 
with ftreaks or fpots. Sometimes again thefe fpots are 
dillributed regularly, and at other times irregularly, 
but always in a very agreeable manner. 

The wandering SEA NETTLES have nothing 
common except the name, with the preceding, and 
they have different appellations in different places, as 
alfo according to their fizes. Thefe may be more pro- 
perly called Sea Jellies, according to Eeaumur^ which 
is very proper to the fubiiance of which they are formed ; 
for in reality their fiefh, if it may be fo called, has 
always the colour and the ccnfirtence of a jelly. When 
they are thrown upon the fca coaft they appear to be 
quite motionlefs, which perhaps may be owing to the 
Ihocks they have received againft (tones or the fand, 
which may be fufficient to deprive them of life ; for 
it is certain they are a fort of animals. 

The firil Sea Nettle is fo called by tiie ancients, on 
account of its flinging quality, which produces an 
efte(ft much the fame as the common Nettle. The 
fecond is called by Rondektius the alh-coloured Nettle, 
and it has no ileili, for it refembles a head of hair. 
This is found in the clefts of rocks, which it never 
leaves. The third is red, and is like the firll kind, 
but has more hair, and is more thick and broad. This 
is fometimes fixed to the rocks, and fometimes wanders 
here and there. The fourth adheres to the heads of 
Cyllers, but principally to the Purpura. The upper 
part is more hard and thick than that of other forts, 
and all round it there are fhort hairs ; but from within 
there proceed long il rings of a purple colour. 

The fi.Th kind, which is of the wandering fort, is 
called by the Ge^:os/s Cap ellq di Mare, that is, the 
Sea Hat; for one part of this Nettle is a fpungy 
hollow round mafs, and pierced in the middle. Round 
about it there is a liule red cord, which gives it the 
appearance of a hat, or rather of a bonnet. T'he 
Gther part refensbles the feet of cut.le fifh, of which. 

there 



OF FISHES: 



ZV 



there are eight that are large and fquare at the be^ in- 
ning, and terminate in a point. The body is fo Ihining 
and fo tranfparent that it dazzles the eyes. They melt 
like ice when they are handled for fome time, and they 
fling the hands, which caufes a painful inching. Lin- 
n<rus takes notice of a Sea Nettle, much like this, for 
when the fun fhines, it appears like a bright ftar in the 
fea, and he calls it a Medufa, as he does all of this 
kind, of which he has four, namely, the Sea Nettle, 
the Sea Lungs, the hairy Sea Nettle, and the Sea 
Nettle that fhines like a ftar. The fixth Sea Nettle has 
but four feet or branches, which are long, and on the 
upper part there are oval figures which are difpofed in 
the form of Hars. 








THE 



[ 35^ ] 



THE 

NATURAL HISTORY 

O F 

SERPENTS. 

CHAP. XL VIII. 
0/ Serpents. 

>{rj!^-^"^ VIPF:R differs from ether Serpents, not 
"^ ^ only in moving more flowly, niid in never 

tor A Tw bounding or leaping ; but in bringing its 
W ^'"s^^ ^ young to perfedion before they are exclud- 
*^ir^^f\J^ ed ; whereas the females of other Serpents 
lay eggs, which are either hatched by the heatofthe fun, 
or in the place of their retreat. Some have thought 
that a Viper is an emblem of malice and cruelty ; but with 
out reafon, for they never do any mifchief, unlefs they are 
exjfperated, and^then they become furious, and bite 
very hard. However, it muii be allowed, that it at- 
tacks and kills the animals dt-figned for its nourifhment, 
namely, Cantl^arides, Scorpions, Frogs, Mice, Moles, 
Lizards, and the like, which it fwailovvs whole, after 
they have been tilled with its large teeth. 

Vipers will live f^/eral months without nourifhment; 
Bor will they ear after they are taken ; for though they 
are very fond cf Lizards, yet when they have been 
thrown into a tub in which were feveral Vipers, they 
were never touched. The fiefh of a Viper is vifcous and 
hard, and does notdigeft vtry eafily, Tlie ikin is Icaiy, 



© F SERPENTS. 353 

and its colour on the upper p^rt of the body is yellow, 
with a reddifh caft in the males ; which is whitilh in 
the females. In the middle of the back, there is a 
blackiili line dentated on each fide, or rather a chain of 
blackiih fpots, which runs along from the head to the 
end of the tail. A little below is another row of black- 
ifh fpots, and on the lower part of the fides there is a 
line confining of little white fpots, and then another 
of black, which are larger, and at laft a third, 
which are whitiih. The belly is covered with long 
tranfverfe black fcales ; which are lefs on the other parts. 
Befides, the colour is not the fame in all ; at leaft, 
the ground is different ; for it is fometimes whitifh, 
fomeJmes red, grey, or yellow; and at other times 
tawney. This is always fpotted with black, or at leall 
with a dark colour, and ibme think they have the ap- 
pearance of difrerent charafters placed in rows one above 
another, efpecially on the top, and on the fides of the 
body. Upon the head there are two rows of fpots which 
refemble horns, which rife between the eyes, and run 
along the fides on the top of the head. Oppolite the 
middle of thefe horns, there is a fpot the fize of a lentil, 
which is the beginning of thofe that run along the fpine 
of the back. 

They are generally about two feet in length, and a- 
bout the thicknefs of the thumb of a large man. The 
head is flat, and has a border at the extremities of the 
upper part, in which it differs from fnakes. It is about 
an inch long, and at the top, two thirds of an inch 
broad, which diminifhing by little and little, is one-third 
of an inch about the eyes, and half as much at the end 
of the muzzle. The neck, at the beginning, is about as 
thick as a man's little finger ; and the tail of the females 
is always mere thick and long than that of the males, 
and they terminate in a point in both. 

Vipers caft their {kins generally twice a year ; and 
the new one feems always more beautiful, and the co- 
Jours more bright than that which they have quitted. 
Soon after this another fein begins to be formed, fo that 
it may be faid, that they always have a double Ikin. 
When a Viper is cut itito feveral parts after the Ikin is 
taken off and the bowels out of the belly, they will all 

live 



354 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

live for feveral hours, and the head is always ready to 
bite ; nor will this be lefs dangerous now than at an- 
other time. Vipers do not make holes in the earth like 
other Serpents ; for ihey generally hide themfclves under 
floncs, or the ruins of old houfes. However, in fine 
weather they delip-ht to lye amono- bufiie?, and in tufts 
OX grafs. 

Vipers have generally two large teeth without the 
upper jaw, furrcunded about two thirds of their height 
with a pretty thick veficlefull of a tranfparent yellowifh 
liquor, and pretty fluid. In this veficlc, and in the mid- 
dle of the liquor under the large and principal tooth, 
there are feveral teeth ill placed, fome longer than 
others, and ail crookea. There have been fometimes 
fix or feven on the fame fide, under the fame tooth, and 
in the middle of the fame veficle. Thefe large teeth are 
about one-fixth of an inch long, and are hooked, white, 
hollow, and tranfpaient throughout, even to their very 
point, which is extremely fharp. Thefe teeth generally 
lye clofe to the upper jaw, and their points do not ap- 
pear till the moment the Viper is going to bite, There 
are like wife other crooked teeth in- both jaws, which are 
hollow and tranfparenr, but very fm.all. Their number 
is uncertain, they being feldom found the fame in any 
two Vipers ; which peihaps may be owing to their be- 
ing fo liable to be broken off. 

There is a great diHerence between the teeth and 
jaws of Vipers, and thofe of Snakes; for thefe lali have 
four upper jaws, and two lower. Two of the former 
lye near the tdg^ of the lip, and ferve, as it were, lO de- 
fend the other jaws, which have the; f.me fituation as in 
Vipers. Some Snakes have near an hundred teeth, 
which are all fine, cooked, hcllow, white, and tranf- 
parent, as in Vipers. 

The tongue of a Viper is compofed of two long 
flefhy round bodies, which terminate in Iharp points, 
and are very pliable. It is about an incli and a half 
lojig, and its root is conne-Sled very ftrongly to the neck 
by two tendinous bod;cs, near a quarter of an inch in 
length. 1 he tongues of feme Vipers have three or four 
points ; and though they are often darted out, they do 
i.o harm, except lerrifyii^g thofe that behold them ; fcir 

they 



OF SERPENTS. 3^5 

they ferve prirxipally to catch the fmall animaL that the 
Viper live upon. 

The lungs are made in the form of a net, but have no 
lobes, and they are of a bright lively red colour, and 
pretty tranfparert. They lye on the right iide, as well 
as the heart and liver. The heart lies four or five inches 
before the lungs, and is of the fize of a horfe bean. It 
has two ventricles, and two apertures. The liver is 
flefhy, and of a reddilh brown colour, feated half an 
inch below the heart, and in large Vipers is five or fix 
inches long; and hr.]f an inch broad. It is compcfed 
of two large lobes, and that which is to the right, de- 
fcends full an inch lower tlian the left. The gall blad- 
der is of the fize of a fmall bean, and the bile is very 
green, exceeding bitter and fharp. The pancreas, cal- 
led by. forae authors the fpleen, is feated a little under 
the gall bladder, and to the right of the Viper, being 
of the fize of a large pea. The ftomach feems to make 
one body with the gullet, only it is much more thick, 
and confifts cf two Itrong coats, one within the other. 
The guts lye in the middle of the body under the fpine 
of the back, and next to the bottom of the (tomach ; 
and on their fides are the teflicles with their vefTels, and 
the two bodies of the matrix belonging to the females. 
The kidneys are placed below thefe, and are compofcd 
of feveral glandulous bodies ranged one ^ftcr another. 
T hey are generally tv.'o inches and a half long, and near 
a q'jarterof an inch broad. All the entrails are covered 
with white foft far, which being melted, turns into oil. 
7 hey are all wrapped up in a very Ilrong coat, connec- 
ted to the extremities of the ribs. 

The VIPER cf Cejlon, has fmall eyes feated over the 
ncllrils, and it feems to have four, bscaufe over the 
javv' on each fide, there are two whitifli fpots that refem- 
ble eyes. The nofe is covered with pretty large fcales, 
and the fcales on the back are of a rhomboidal form, a- 
dorned with an undulated black and red ftreak. The 
belly is of a bright yellow, fpotted with a reddilh co- 
lour, and furniihed with fcales of a whitifh colour. 

The Ja'van VIPER, is covered v/ith fcales of a fea- 
green colour, and furrounded with ftripes of a dark 
tavvney, that run trunfverlcly round the body from the 

head 



356 THENATURAL HISTORY 

head to the tail. The head is defended by large red- 
difh fcales, only over the eyes there are two white tranf- 
verfs ftripes. About the neck there is a red circle, and 
the fcales on the belly are of a bright yellow, but bor- 
dered on the fides with a black line like a filken thread. 
There is a Snake which authors give the fame Latin 
name to, which has an hundred and iixty-four fcaly 
fireaks round the lower part of the body, and an hun- 
dred and fifty fcales on the tail. It is called by Z/V/* 
naus Ahoetulla. 

There is another Serpent called llkewifc AKCETUL- 
LA, that is met with at Surinam. It is of a blue co- 
lour with a golden glofs, and there are fcaly fireaks on 
each nde the hinder part of the body ; but the belly is 
white. The head is fmall, and there is a black line on 
it near the eyes ; the tail is as flender as a thread. Some 
fay this is likevvife common in the Eaji-Indies. 

The MARASSUS, is an Arabian Viper with reddlfh 
fcales on the upper part of the body, fhaded with large 
dark brown fpots which reach to the fid,es. Thefe fpots 
on the back, are mixed with fireaks of a forrel colour, 
which run crofs-ways The head is covered with large 
unifoim fcales, and the mouth is edged with a beautiful 
border ; the fct.les on the belly are of a yellowifh blue, 
ipecklcd with red. 

The AMMODYTES of Ceyhn, is a very large and 
dangerous Serpent, with a mouth full of (harp teeth. 
The eyes are larg>; and fparkling, and the forehead is 
covered with fmall round fcales, fome of which are yel- 
low, others red, and fpeckled with black. On each 
fide of the eyes there are black ftripes that reach to 
the neck ; but the body, above and below, is of a whit- 
ifh afh colour ; and on the back, ihere are angular ipots 
variegated with white and brown. The fcales that cover 
the upper part of the body, are placed like net-work, 
with large mefhes, and the tail is fpotted with brown, 
ending in a bony point. 

The ANJMODYTES oi Surina??i, is a Serpent which 
the Negroes have in high efteem, and they think them- 
felves very happy if they come into their huts ; but their 
colours are io many and beautiful, that they furpafs all 
defcription. 

The 



OF SERPENTS. 357 

rye AMMODYTES, or SAND SERPENT, fo 
called, becaufe it hides itfelf in the fand, and is faid to 
be very like a Viper. It is a cubit in length, of a fandy 
colour, and the head is broader than that of a Viper, as 
well as the jaws. On the upper part of the nofe or 
muzzle, there is an eminence like a wart, which has 
given occafion to fome to call it the Horned Serpent. 
It is to be met with in J/rica, I/Ijria, Italy, and other 
parts of the world. 

The BAYAPNA, is an Jfrican Serpent, with a 
longifli white head fpotted with chefnut colour, and the 
neck is adorned with a narrow collar. The eyes are 
large, feated near the mouth, and the upper part of the 
body is covered with fquariih fcales as white as fnow, 
from the head to the tail, which laft is long and flender. 
7'he neck is fmall, marked with oblong fpots of a bright 
bay,, which are more large on the back. Near the tail 
the fpots are fmaller, and the belly is of a yellovvilli afii 
colour fpeckled with red on each fide throughout its 
length. It lives upon birds and frogs. 

The GERENDA, fo called by ^eba, is a Serpent of 
the Eaji-lnaies, to which they pay divine honours. It 
generally lies folded up, and has a Ikin finely fpotted ; 
it is covered with very thin rhomboidal fcales of a yel- 
lowiih afh colour, and encircled v/ith bands of a fmoky 
red, which look as if they were embroidered, or rather 
like ribbands. The head is oblong, and like that of a 
hound, and of a very pale afh colour ; it is covered with 
fmall fcales, that become larger upon the nofe, and from 
thence to the neck, there runs a deep red ftreak, made 
like the links of a chain. Another ftreak, much of the 
fame fort, proceeds from the eyes to the jaws ; the 
edges of the lips are turned outwards and folded. The 
teeth are fmall and flender ; the eyes lively and fpark- 
ling, and the nollrils large ; the tranfverfe fcales on the 
belly are of a yellowiili aih colour, and the fmall fcales 
of a bright alh colour, fpotted in the middle with a 
deep red. This Serpent is had in great veneration in 
Japan and Calicut ; and the inhabitants oi Malabar are 
greatly afraid of it. 

The African GERENDA, is of a prodigious bu'k, 
and is worlhipped by the inhabitants on the coall of 

Mo/ajnbi^ue, 



358 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

lAofambique. The flcin is not fo finely fpotted as the 
former ; but it is variegated all over the body with very 
fine white afh-coloured and black fpots. The head is 
fomewhat like that of a dog, as well as the nofe, which 
is finely fpotted, and fmall round fcales cover the top of 
the head. The mouth when open feems to be furrow- 
ed, and the tongue, which is cloven in two, is red, the 
tail terminates in a point. 

The jAUCAACANGA, fo called by the ^r^//^«/, 
is nr.med Tedagofo by the Portuguefe. The Dutch that 
live in thofe parts, call it the Hunting Serpent, becaufe 
it winds along with incredible fwiftnefs, infomuch that 
it is very difficult to get out of its way. The natives do 
all they can to render thefe Serpents tame, for they re- 
ceive them into their houfes, where they free them from 
all vermin. The head is oblong, the mouth fmall, and 
the nofe is like that of a hound ; the eyes are large and 
very fine, as well as the fcales on the nofe ; but thofe 
on the forehead are fmall, thin, and round. The reft 
are pretty large in proportion, as white as fnow, fhad- 
ed with a pale red, and variegated v/ith gold colour. 
The teetJi are crooked, the tongue cloven and of a pale 
red, and the tail is of a deeper colour than the body. 
Under the belly they are afh coloured with red edges. 

The HCEMORRHOIS, which is the name of the 
bleeding piles, isfocalled, becaufe thofe that are bit by 
it have hemorrhages or fluxes of blood from all parts of 
the body. It is but fmall, being only a foot long, and 
it has a very bright and ihining Ikin. The eyes arc red 
and (hine like fire, and the back is full of black and 
white fpot-. The neck is fmall, the tail very flender, 
and it has fmall horns above the eyes. 

The Indian HCEMORRHOIS called HAUCYAT- 
LI, is like a Rattle-Snake, in all things, except the 
Rattles. It is larger than the former, but the venom 
has the fame efieifl. The firll is to be met with in 
Eg:pt^ and in feveral other parts of Africu 

The KOKOB, is of the fame kind, and is three feet 
long, it is of a brown colour, with blue and red fpots. 
It is an American Serpent, and has been fecn at Yucatan. 

The SEPS, is a Serpent about three feet long, and 
thick in proportion. The head is large, the rnuzzlc 

pointed. 



OF SERPENTS. 359 

pointed, and the fkin is generally of an afli colour, bat 
ibmetimes rcddilli, and marbled with white fpots. It 
has four crooked teeth, and a lliort tail. It is to be 
found in the mountains of 5)r/^, and fev^eral other places. 
The bite is very venemous, and caufes the part which 
is hurt to corrupt in a very {hort time, and is generally 
fatal. However, it muft be obferved, that authors dif- 
fer greatly in the defcription of this Serpent, and that 
Mr. Ray takes it to be the Lizard mentioned under this 
name. 

The ACOALT, is a water Serpent found in the 
Etiji Indies y has very fmall teeth, and its bite is not 
dangerous. It is pretty long, and variegated with broad 
black itreaks ; but the back and the under part of the 
belly are blue ; the upper part of the head is black, 
the lower yellow, and the fides blue. 

The ARGUS, is a Guiney Serpent, which is very 
uncomm.on, and it is fo called, becaufe it is covered 
with fpot5 from the head to the tail, that refemble eyes. 
On the back there is a double row of them, which are 
the largeft, and the ground colour of the fcales is of a 
bright chefnut colour, only on the back between the 
eyes it is of a dark brown. 

' The PRINCE of SERPENTS, fo called by Seba, is 
a native of Japan, and has not its equal for beauty. 
The fcales which cover the back are reddiili, and finely 
fiiaded and marbled with large fpots of irregular figures, 
with other fmall black fpots. The head h oblong, 
and the fore part is covered with large beautiful fcales. 
The jaws are bordered with yellow, and the forehead is 
marked with a black marbled ftreak, which reaches to 
the end of the neck ; the eyes are handfome, lively, 
and brilliant. It is a very harmlefs animal. 

The ASP, is a Serpent very often mentioned by an- 
cient hiflorians, but they have given us no accurate de- 
fcription of it. Some fay it is of the fize of a common 
Snake, only the back is broader, and their necks fvvcl I 
greatly when they are angry. But as to their teeth 
growing exceeding long and franding out of their mouths 
like Boars, which fonie affcrt, lecms to be fabulous. 
However, it may be true, tha": two of the longefl: are 
hollow, and that they are thofe which contain the 

venom. 



360 THE NATURAL HISTORY 
venom. They are generally covered with thin pellicle^ 
which flide down when the Serpent bites. The fkin i^ 
faid to be covered with fcales, which are redder than 
thofe of any other Serpents ; but others affirm they are 
of very different colours. J^ome fay they are two cubits 
long, others four, others again live; and Peter Kol- 
bin affirms he has feen them feveral ells long; fo that in 
fhort, there is nothing certain to be faid about it. They 
are undoubtedly bred in Jfrica, and ic v^^as by the bite 
of one of thefe Serpents tliat Cleopatra h faid to have 
ended her days. 

However Seba gives the name of Afp or Afpic to feve- 
ral Scx-pents, the firH of which is faid to be found in 
Eg)pty and is fpotted with black. The ikin is of a rcd- 
difh alh-colour marked with black fpots, whereas thofe 
on the back nearly refemble eyes. The head is of a 
daik brown, furrounded with a white collar ; and the 
fcales of the belly are white, adorned with a reddifli 
border. He has alfo an American Afp, which nearly 
refembles this in every refpe^. 

The Jwoa ASP, is of a fea green with a fharp mouth 
and a long head covered with icales on the fore parts. 
The other fcales are alfo of a fea green colour with 
white edges, except under the belly, where they are of 
a light green, and feparated from the reft by two white 
llreaks which run like furrows along the fides. 

The Surinam ASP, is of a bright green colour fprink- 
led with blackiih fpots ; but the belly is of an alh co- 
loured red, and the head is of a deep green ; the eyes 
are lively, and the tail is terminated with (harp points. 

The ASPIC COBRA oi Brr,fil is very large, and has 
a white head ftreaked with black. The forehe.id is large, 
angular, and defended by great whitifh fcales. This 
Serpent is of divers colours, for it is brown the fourth 
part of its length ; then the brown is mixed with white 
ipecks as far as the tail, which is entirely black. The 
beginning of the body is covered with oblong fcales in 
the form of a chain ; after which they become rhom- 
boidal. The eyes are large and. fparkling. The teeth 
called the grinders, are very fharp ; but the incifors do 
not appear to the naked eye. It feeds upon Lizards 
and birds, and is found principally in the province of 
4 Honduras^ 



O F S E R P E N T S. 361 

Eondurasy from whence it has been brought into 
Holland. 

The GIBOYA is the largefl: of all the BrafMan Ser- 
pents, being fometimes twenty feet long and very thick. 
Travellers pretend it will fwallow a ilag whole, but this 
mull be a fable. The teeth are very fmall in proportiom 
to its body, and this Serpent is not at all venemous. It 
lies in wait for wild animals near the paths, and when 
it throws itfelf upon one of them, it winds about him in 
fuch a manner, and with fo much ftrength, that it breaks 
all the bones ; after which it mumbles the flefli in fuch 
a manner, as to render it fit for fv/allowing it whole. 
Linnaus places it among thofe that have fcaly ilreaks on 
the belly and tail ; with a head covered with fmall 
fcales, and the tail without any appendage. 

The HIPPO, an African Serpent, fo called by Seha, 
is co\'ered with fcales of a rhomboidal form, and of 
a bright lead colour, appearing very beautiful to the 
eye ; the head is variegated with red, yellow, white, 
and blue, very curioufly mixed ; and each fide of the 
head and neck are marked with four ipots as red as coral. 
Along the fpine from the head to the tail, there runs a 
whitilh ftreak, which feems to confiil of a row of oval 
pearls, and on each fide the belly, which is covered 
with yellow fcales, there runs another white ftreak. 

The HCEMACETA is a Serpent of Afia, which 
Seba procured out of Tabarejian, a province of Perfia, 
It is covered with fcales exactly refembling oriental ao-ate. 
On each fide the belly there are fpots of deep red, and 
the fore part of the head is covered with uniform pale 
red fcales ; but the hinder part of the head and neck are 
adorned with white fpots like rofes ; the fcales of the 
belly ai'e of the colour of apple blollbms, inclining a lit- 
tle to red in fome places. 

The SCYTALE is of a long round Ihape like a llafF, 
from whence it has its name ; for Scytale f-gniiies a club 
or llafFin the Greek. Some fay this Serpent is very full 
of marks or fpots on the back, which render this animal 
extremely beautiful. Jt has a veiy flow motion, and 
therefore cannot purfue any one to hurt him. The head 
and tail are (o mucn ^ like, that it is hard to diltii g\n(\\ 

Vol. 111. R "oue 



352 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

one from the other, and Nicander affirms it for iize and 
length like the handle of a fpade. 

The AMPHISBCENA, or the double headed SER- 
PENT, is remarkable for moving along with either 
the head or the tail foremoft, as the Greek name 
imports. For thisreafon, many authors have affirmed, 
that this animal has two heads, which mull needs be 
falfe, for there is no fach creature in the univerfe. 
This error took its rife very probably from the thicknefs- 
of the tail, which might look at a dillance like another 
head ; but if thofe who have affirmed it, had had a 
nearer view, they would foon have difcovered riieir 
error. Some aflert, that this Serpent is like the Scytale,. 
and differs only from it in going backward and for- 
ward. Jt is as thick at one end as the other, and the 
colour of the (kin is like that of the earth. It is rough 
and hard, and varioufly fpotted. It is to be met with 
in Lybia^ and likewife in the ifland of Lemnos. 

1 he Av:erican AMPHISEGiNA is of a flelh colour, 
and it feems to have neither eyes nor nollrils ; its 
mouth is a fmall cleft without teeth or tongue ; how- 
ever, it is thick, fmooth, and covered with large fcales 
of a flefli colour ; the head is blunt, and as thick as a 
man's head, as fome fay ; but this may be doubted ;. 
fome place them among the blind Serpent?. 

The AMPHISBCENA of Ceylon, is as black as a 
Raven, and is fuppofed to be the female of the Ammo- 
dytes, but for what reafon it is hard to fay, for it re- 
fcmbles the common Amphifboena in the ffiape of the 
head, and the tail confifts of half rings. 

There is j^nother American AMPHISBCENA, marb- 
led with white and brown, and the head is of a draw 
colour. The whole body confills of very narrow rings, 
clofely united together like thofe of Earth-worms. IJie 
fcales are thin, and confift of longifh irregular fquares 
of a chcfnut colour; but more brown on the upper part, 
and lighter on the belly, it being there mixed with. 
white. 

The APAMEA, is a Syrian Serpent that feems to 
have two heads, and the body is fmooth and ffiining. 
1 he head is Imall and of a pale yellow, only there is a 
flicak which reaches from the eyes to the nollrils. Jt 

is 



O F S E R P E N T ^. 363 

h round* thick, and flat, and covered with fmall fcalH 
like lozenges, of a violet purple underneath the body> 
and variegated with a ftraw colour. The tail is thick, 
and blunt at the end. 

The IBIJARA, fo called by the Brc.fliansy and by 
the Port»guefeQoii?.\ delos Cabecas, is reported ta 
have two heads, but faifely. The error arofe from its 
flinging with the tail, as well as biting with the mouth j 
befidci the head can hardly be diitinguifhed from the 
tail, becaufe they are both of the fame fnape and fize. 
It is about as thick as a man's little iinger, and a foot 
and two inches long. It is of a whitiih colour, and glit- 
ters like glafs, and is marked with beautiful rings, and 
lines nearly of a copper colour. I'he eyes are very 
iVnall, and hardly vifible ; for they look like fmall holes 
in the fkin, made with the pricking of a needle. Is 
lives under the earth, and never appears but when turn- 
ed up by digging. It lives upon Ant', and its venom 
is fo fatal, that the PortugusJ'e affirm there is no cure 
for it. 

The CjECILIA, the BLIND WORPvI, or SLOW 
WORM. Some have fuppofed it to be both blind and 
deaf; but this is a miftake, for they certainly have eyes, 
tho' very fmall. The teeth are fet in the mouth likethof(3 
of a Cameleon, and the fkin is very thick. Ic is of a pale 
blue with blackilh fpots on the fides. Likewife, it is 
quite fmooth, being without fcales. One of thefe, that 
was feen by Mr. Ray, was of a yellowifh aih colour on 
the back, and on the fides there were different black and 
white lines ; but the belly was black. However Mr. Bay 
thinks, that the male and female are of diitercnt colours j 
or perhaps, tiiat they may be different in the fame fex. 
It is about a fpan in length, and as thick as a man's 
iinger. It is to be met with in Enpjnnd, as well as in 
many other countries ; and it brings f jrth its young oneb 
alive like the Viper. 

The C.-.NCHRU3, CENCHRIo, or MILLRT, 
fo called from Millet feed, becaufe it is adorned 
v.ith fpots of the fame fize. it is in length about tv/o 
cubits, with a thick body, v/hich terminates in a llender 
tail. The colour is of a vellov/iHi green, cfpeciailv on 
R z 'the 



364 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

the belly. It is found in Lemvios and SafKos, and per- 

haps may be met with in other parts of the world. 

The ACONTIAS or DAR f, is fo called, becaufe 
it fhoots itfelf like a dart. Be'ori or Bellon^ met with it 
in the iile of Rhodes, and acquaints us that it is three 
palms in length, and about the thicknefs of a man's lit- 
tle finger, Jt is of a whitifli aQi colour, and on the 
belly it is entirely white, with little fpots like eyes upon 
the back. The neck is black, and from thence there 
run two white lines along the back to the tail. The 
fpots, which are black, are no bigger than a lentil, and 
they are all encompafled with a white circle. Authors 
affirm that they get upon trees, from whence they dart 
themfelves upon people that pafs along, and that their 
bite is deadly. They are to be met with in Egypt, 
Lybia, and the iflands of the Mediterranean fea. Late 
authors mention different kinds of them, the defcriptions 
of which have been fent to Eurofe from different parts 
of the world. 

Seba fpeaks of three kinds of Darts, the firft of which 
has a pointed tail, armed with two hard flings like the 
forked tongues of fome Serpents. They lurk in hollow 
trees, where they wait for their prey, and dart upon it 
with great fwiftnefs. It has a long head, large eyes 
and jaw, a mouth well furnifhed with fharp teeth. The 
fcales that cover the forehead and upper part of the body 
are uniform and regularly placed, and of areddilh blue, 
and on each there is a furrow of a white colour ; but 
thofe under the belly are cf a pale yellow, mottled with 
red fpots. This Serpent was feen at Santa-cruz in 
America. 

The DART oi Amboyva, is called by the Dutch Spa it- 
slang, which is as much as to fay, theSyRiNCE Ser- 
P£NT, becaufe it raifes itfelf as fwiftly as water, out of 
a fyringe. It is as thick as a man's arm, fix feet in 
length, and is covered with fcales difpofed in the form of 
lozenge , which are of reddifh brown, and of a fea green 
on the back and fides ; but thofe on the belly are of a bright 
afh colour, 'i he fkin is fmooth, and the head of a mid- 
le fize ; but the eyes are very large and (hining, with 
fmall teeth, and a long pointed tail. 

The DAR f of ^e-w Spain is covered v/ith yellow 
and reddilh fcales, placed in the form of lozenges that 

are 



O F S E R P E N T S. 365 

are cut through the middle by ftreaks that run from the 
head to the end of the tail. The head is covered with 
yellow fcales fpeckled with red, and all its joints are 
orange ; but the fcales on the beily are of a reddifli 
yellow. 

The DRYINUS is fo called from the Greek word 
Drus, which fignifies an oak ; becaufe this Serpent is 
faid to borough in the roots of oak trees. Belion de- 
clares, that he never met with any Serpent fo large as 
this, nor that makes a louder noile when it hiffes ; for 
one of them being put into a fack, it was fo heavy, 
that a countryman could not carry it two miles without 
refting. He faw the ikin of one of thefe fluffed with 
hay, that was as thick as a man's leg, which is all the 
defcription that he gives of it. Other authors have 
given fuch different accounts of this animal, that it is 
impofhble to reconcile them, and confequently nothing 
certain can be faid about it, with regard to its defcrip- 
tion. 

The ELOPS or ELAPS, Is a Serpent that Belion tells 
us, is to be met with in the ifland oi Lenwos, where they 
call it L A PH I AT I ; for which reafon it is fuppofed to be the 
the fame that the ancients called Elaphis. It is^bout 
three feet long, of a greyifh brown on the back, with 
three black lines running from the head to the tail, and 
the belly is yellow ; which is all the account that au- 
thors give of it. 

The GRILL of Surhmniy is a Serpent almoft a foot 
long, and an inch thick, being in the fhape of a cylin- 
der from the head to the tail. The fkin is fmooth with- 
out fcales ; on the back there are points a little elevated, 
and there are wrinkles on the fides. The head is fmooth 
,and round, and the upper jaw is long, blunt, and fur- 
nilTied with a thread on the fide of each noflril. 1 he 
holes of the ncll:riis are a good diftance from each other, 
and they are as fmall as the points of needles, as well as 
the eyes, which hov>'ever are very brilliant, the teeth are 
fmall, and the tail, if it may be faid to have any, is 
blunt and wrinkled like earth worms. 

T\\c Jmericcn BLIND SERPENT is white, mixed 

with f^eih colour, and is covered with fmall fcales frora 

the head to the end of the thick tail ; and they are 

R 3 divided 



366 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

43ivided into parallelograms, by fine longitudinal ftreaks 
that crofs others which are circular. The head is large 
and fhort, and the mouth is furnifh^d with tcech. The 
eyes are very fmall, and covered with a membrane ; 
but the noiirils are large. It feeds upon hog-lice, and 
cither fmall infeils. 

The ANGUIS ^SCULAPIT, the Snake of ^fcu^ 
lapias, is a harmlefs kind of a Serpent. In ha!y, it is 
fuffered to come into the houfes, and often gets into the 
beds where people Vjo. ; but though it is an innocent 
fort of a animal, yet it will bite when exafperated. It 
is of an oblong fiiape, an ell long, and of a yellowifh, 
or rather porraceous colour, except on the back, where 
it is brown. Both jaws are armed with many very fharp 
teeth ; and on the neck two fmall eminences appear 
with an empty fpace between them. They are very 
common in Spain, Italy, and other warm countries. 

Seba has feven forts of i5iscuL apian Serpents, 
which aie 2ls follow : 

1. The firft has the whole body encircled from the 
head to the tai], with broad brown and black ftreaks, 
and the fcales that cover the body are of an afh colour 
and grey mixed with white. 

2. The Brafd SERPENT, variegated with divers 
colours, is defended' with ftrong fcales of a dull blue co- 
lour, mixed with black, and finely undulated. The 
head is curioufly mottled and fpeckled, and the tranfverfe 
fcales on the belly are mortly white. 

3. The ^SCULAPiAN SERPENT of Panama m 
America, has a blueiih violet coloured body, and the 
belly is of a paler blue with tranfverfe large fcales, al- 
together white. They are all clofe together, except at 
the beading of the back, where they are difjoined. 
The head is covered with long broad uniform fcale.s as 
well as under the jaws. The mouth is armed with fharp 
Clocked teeth, and it lives upon mice and fmall birds. 
i:s excrements fmell like mufK. 

4. 'I'he ARGOLt is an American Serpent, and a- kin 
to the yEfculapian kind. The fcales are rhomboidal, 
and of a greyifh black, with large bsy brown fpots, feme 
of which are rOund, and others oblong ; but the belly 
li almoft whitifh; and the tail terminates in a point. 

5. The 



OF SERPENTS. f.-j 

::. Tilis Serpent is another Argoli with fpots on ; ihe 
fcales are of a whitilh afh colour, difpofed m a beautiful 
manner, and more exadlly than in the former kind. 
The tail is blunt at the end, ahd the head and eyes are 
ihining. 

6. i'he JESCULAPIAN SERPENT of^r^,?/, is 
near three ells in length, with the head covered with 
large beautiful fcales, and the neck furrounded by a 
narrow collar. The fcalea on the body are white^ atid 
in the fhape of lozenges, each being marked in the mid- 
-die with a fmall black furrow. From the neck to the 
tail there are Isi-ge red and brown fpo:s, which Aii^, 
longifn near the head, and {horter as they iipproach to 
the tail. The mouth is armed with very irnali teeth. 

7. The .>ESCULAP1AN SERPENT of the Eaih 
Indies^ is very large, and the upper part of the boJy is 
covered with yellow fcales, (haded with duucy brown, 
and which fhine very much. It is encircled wich bay 
brown ftreaks, fome of which are narrow, others broad. 
The fcales on the fides and under the belly, are of a 
yellowilh a(h colour ; the head is little, fliort, and pret- 
tily variegated with black and brown ; the forehead is 
marked with two whitilh fpots, and the neck is fur- 
rounded with a white ring. The teeth are very fmall, 
but the body is round andflefhy, and the tail blunt. 

'I he BlTEN of AW Bpain, is of a thick fnort Ihape, 
being remarkable for its fliort tail, which is diilindl 
from the body ; the fcales which cover the middle of 
the body are long and broad ; but towards the head 
and tail they are narrow ; and are whitifh, and va- 
riegated with red, pale, and deep yellow, mixed here 
and there with black fpots. In the back part of the 
mouth there are crooked teeth ; but there are none 
before. 

The BITEN of Ceylon is a fort of a large fnake 
covered with great oblong fcales which adhere to the 
{kin by the root ; but there are other parts as loofe, 
.and fo moveable, that when it is angry they rife up 
like hair that itands an end. They are of a deep yel- 
low colour where they touch each other, fhaded with 
blackhh fpots ; but between them there are other fcales 
of a yellowilh afli colour. The neck is marked with 
R 4 oval 



368 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

oval fpots, and the head is fhort and of an oval Ihape; 
the eyes are large, brilliant, and full of fire ; and in 
the mouth there is only four long crooked teeth, two 
above and two below, that are connefted to the 
jaws on each fide by tendons ; but at the bottom of the 
palate there are others very fmall and crooked. The 
tongue is forked. 

1 he RATTLE SNAKE is bred in America, but in 
no pait of the old world. Some of thefe are as thick as 
a man's leg, and fix feet in length ; however, there are 
many that are no larger than a common Snake ; and 
thefe are moft frequent. They receive their name from 
the rattle which is at the end of their tails, that confifts 
of feveral fliells, which are very thin and of a horny 
fubftance. 

They are of an orange, tawney, and blackilh colour 
on the back, and of an iJ^{\ colour on the belly inclining 
to lead. The male may be readily diflinguifhed from 
the female by a black velvet fpot on the head ; and be- 
fides the head is fmaller and longer made. 1 he young 
Snakes of a year or two old have no rattles at all ; but 
thofe that are older, have feveral. Many have 
been killed thf-t have had from eleven to thirteen joints 
each. 1 hey fhake and make an noife with thefe rattles 
with prodigious quicknefs when they are difturbed, and 
their bite is v^ry dangerous, but not always of the fame 
force, it being more or lefs mortal in proportion to the 
vigour of this animal ; for this reafonic is always more 
fatal in March and Afril. 

'\ his Snake is a very majeftick fort of a creature, and 
will fcarce meddle with any thing unlefs provoked ; but 
if any man or beall offends it, it makes diredly at them. 
Many have affirmed, that a Rattle Snake has the power 
of charming Squiij els. Hares, p£rtrid<^es, and the like, 
in fuch a manner as to make them run diredly into their 
mouths ; but this, upon llrider examination, appears 
to be a mifla'-.e. 

Lr. l-fon had one of thefe Snakes fcnt from Vir^^in-ay 
\vl;ich was four feet five inches long, and his body fix 
inches and a half in diameter, but the neck only three. 
The head is fiat at the top like a Viper, and the noHrils 
are placed at the end of the fnout, between thefe and 

the 



OF SERPENTS. 369 

the eyes; a little lower are two orifices, which might 
be niiilaken for ears, but by founding them with a 
probe, they were found to terminate in a bone, that 
had no paffage through it. Jt was in all things like a 
Viper excepting the nofe, and a large fcale which hung 
like a pent-houfe over each eye, which feemed to ferve 
inftead of an eye-lid, and to prevent any thing from fal- 
ling into the eye ; but it was not defigned for covering 
or {hutting the eyes, in which there is a nidlitating 
membrane to wipe of the duit if any fhould fall therein. 

The fcales on the head are the leail: of all ; but they 
grow larger as they approach near the back, and fo on 
to the thickell: part of the body ; after which they di- 
minilh fenfibly to the end of the tail v/here the rattle is 
placed. The colour of chofe on the head was like the 
back of a Green-finch ; but it was marked with fmall 
black fpots, of which four are large and more remark- 
able. Thofe on the back were of a dark ftUemot colour, 
or a mixture of black and du(ky yellow, v/hich was 
likewife fpotted. Thefe different colours were diverlified 
like chequer work, and had an appearance fbmewhat 
like a chefs board. They grew darker the nearer they 
approach to the tail, where they were almoft black. 
I'he fcales on the back ro^ up in fharp points like thofe 
of a Crocodile; but they grew \e^^ the nearer they ap- 
proached to the fides, where they were quite flat and 
equal. The belly feemed to be flat and covered with 
long tran Tver fe fcale> of an oblong fqu are form, and of 
a yellow colour fpotted with black. From the neck to 
the anus, theie were one hundred fixty-eight fcaks ; 
and beyond that, there were two half fcales, and nine- 
teen whole ones of a blackifti lead colour edged with 
yellow. After thefe, as far as the rattle, there were fix 
rows of leffer fcales of the fame colour. 

The fcales on the belly were conr.efled together by 
diilinft mufcles ; and the lower teudcn of each v/as in- 
ferred into the upper edge of the fucce^ding fcale ; and 
another tendon of the fame mufcle wa. fixed to the mid- 
dle part of the preceding fcale. Thefe niufcles abo;,t 
the middle of each fcale were flefhy, aad the fibres if- 
cended obliquely from thence. The point of each fjale 
was conneded at both fides to a rib, and by that mrnns 
R 5 fupplieg 



-70 THE NATURAL HISTORY 
^applied them with great flrength to perform all their 
iriotions ; for thefe might be likened to fo many feet, 
which being free and open on the lower part, they 
might eafily take hold of the earth and fo force the body 
forward. Hence the query of Francis Hernandez may 
be anfwcred, why thefe Serpents can proceed more 
fwiftly in flony rough places, than thofe that are flat; 
becaufe here the fteps are much more firm. 

The Snake being laid on its back and opened, the 
tendons of the abdominal mufcles were found to termi- 
nate in a line in the middle of the belly, along which a 
large blood veflel ran, which rofe from the vena cava, 
and terminated in the lower part of the liver. The af- 
pera arteria, or wind-pipe, was of a fmgular ftrudlure, 
and differed from that in other animals ; for in this, as 
foonas it entered the breaft, it met with the lungs, and 
confifted of femi-angular cartilages annexed on each 
fide to the membrane of the lungs, and fo conveyed air 
into the lungs without the help of broncchia. Thefe be- 
gan at the throat, and defcended to the length of three 
*(set. The upper part which lies along the fore part of 
the body, was a foot in length-, and reached to the heart. 
It confiiled of fmall veiicles or cells, on which were reti- 
cular ramifications of the blood vefiels. A little below 
this for the fpace of four inches, theie cells began to va- 
wfh very fcnfibly, and at length terminated in reticular 
cempages of connivent valves, at the end of which was 
a large bladder without any cells, and confifted of a 
traniparentbtit flrong memba-ane. When it was gently 
blown up, it v/as about eight inches in length. The 
gullet was two feet three inches in length ; but the 
liomach, properly fo called, only five inches. It was 
different in fubftance and colour from the gullet, and 
was lined on the inlidewith fcveral fold-^.. 

1 hey fwsllow all tlieir food whole, but do not x'omit 
up again thofe parts they cannot cigeil', as fome have 
afiirnicd. There is no need that it fnculd be divided 
into fmall particles by the force of the fcomach ; and 
this in iSi^ality never happens. I5ut .then, as it pafles 
through the body, every thing proper for nourilliment is 
extraded froxa it ; and yet it is h^rd to fay, in what 
manner it is done. 'I he heart lies e*"* the nght fide of 

th« 



OF SERPENTS. syi 

the lower part of the wind-pipe, and is covered with a 
membrane called the pericardium. It is about an inch 
and a half long, and is rather flat than round ; and it 
has only one ventricle endowed with fmall iielhy valves. 
The auricle was bigger than the heart, for it had not 
two, as Charas affirms he had often found in a Viper. 
However, Dr. Tyfon thinks that this muft be a miftake, 
"becaufe the hearts of all Serpents are alike. The liver 
h feated below the heart, and was about an inch broad, 
being divided into two lobes of unequal length. The 
left was about tv/o inches long, and the right a foot. 
The colour was of areddifh brown, and the gall-bladder, 
which v/as full of dark green bile, was two inches long. 
The kidneys lye on each fide the fpine of the back, biv5 
are not ftrongly connected thereto, and they were fcven 
inches long. Thefe, though they were only one body^ 
feemed to be fubdivided into lefler kidrecys, near fifteen 
in number, and their flruclure was very beautiful and 
.curious. 

The very large Mexican SERPENT called DEPOxNA, 
jhas a very large head and great jaws. The mouth is 
armed with cutting croked teeth, among uiiich there 
.are two tufhes which other Serpents have not, and 
which are placed in the fore part of the upper jaw. 
All round the mouth there is a broad fcaly border, and 
•the eyes are fo large that they give it a terrible afpcd. 
The forehead is covcied with large fcales, on which are 
.placed others that are {^nailer, curiouily ranged. Thofe 
on the back are greyifh, and along it runs a double 
:chain, whofe ends are jaiaed in the manner of a buck- 
ler. Each fide of ihe belly are marbled with vail fquarc 
/pots of a chefnut colour, in the middle of which is 
.another that is round and yellow. The tranfverfe fcales 
of the belly are variegated vvdth large fpots of a reddifh 
colour as well as the long {lender poi;jted tail. They 
-avoid the iight of a man, :and confequencly feldoin Of 
;never do any harm. 

The CENCOALT is a fort of a Viper o^ New 
^paitt, and has an oblong head flatted before, with large 
Tioftrils ; the nTouih has a large dcntatcd border, and 
:the eyes are large and :parkling. 1 he body is covered 
wUh rpfckled fca'-cs ihaded wkh fj^ccs tiiat *»€ pwtly 



372 THE NATURAL HISTORY 
^fd, partly yellow, and partly of a chefnut colour. .The 
^Cales on the belly are of a bright afh colour variegated 
with yellow ; the tail and neck are long and fmall. 

There is another American CENCOALT, which is 
long and flender, with a fmall head and large eyes 
feated very near the noftrils. It is finely fpotted, and 
the fcales are of a yellowifli afh colour. The whole 
length of the back is of a chefnut colour, and the fcales 
underneath the belly are of a dirty yellow. This Ser- 
pent feeds on worms and ants. The female is more 
flender than the male, but has a rounder body ; the 
neck is long, and no thicker than a tobacco-pipe ; ia 
other things it refembles the male. Linnaus calls it the 
t:nake that has two hundred and twenty fcales on the 
belly, and an hundred and twenty four on the tail. 

The BOIGUACU of Marcira-ve, is called by the 
Portugufe Cobra de Veado, and is fuppofed to be 
the largell of all thcfe kind of animals. They have 
been leen frc>m feven to twenty four feet long, and 
Marfgrave affirms, that he has feen one fwallow a Goat 
whole. This feems to be the fame diat C .rJomine men,- 
tions by the name of the Corah and fays, it is remark- 
able for the variety and livelinefs of its colours ; but 
more efpecially for its largenefs ; for it is affirmed they 
sre from twenty five to thirty feet long. This author 
carried two of the fkins to France^ one of which was 
fifteen feet long, and a foot in diameter. It is thickeil 
in the middle of the body, and grove's (horter and fmal- 
ler towards the head and tail. On the middle of the 
back there is a chain of fmall black fpots running along 
the length of it, and on each fide there are large round 
black fpots at iorr.e diftance trom each other, ♦.vhich are 
white in the center. Between thefenear the belly, there 
are two rows of leiler black fpots, which run parallel to 
the b?.ck. Jt has a double row of iharp teeth in each 
jaw, of a V. hitc colour, and.fhining like mother of pearl. 
The heail is broad, and over the eyes it is raifed iiito 
two prominences. Near the extremity of the tail there 
are two claws refembling thofe of birds. 

Pijo affirms that thcfe Serpents lye hid in thickets, 

from whence they will come out at unawares, and raifing 

ihemfclves upright on their tails, will attack both men 

5 and 



-OF SERPENTS. 3-3 

and bealls. It makes a ilrange hiffing noife, when ex- 
afperated,' and will fomelimes leap from trees and wind 
themfelves round the bodies of travellers fo very clofely, 
as to kill them. However, Condomine makes no mention 
of this, but he takes notice of their biting, which he af- 
firms is not at all dangerous ; for though the teeth are fa 
large as to infpire any one with terror that l:>€hold them, 
yet their bite is not attended with any other confequence 
than what may proceed from an ordinary wound. 

Deliori affirms, that in the Ecji-hidies there are Serpents 
of twenty feet in length, and fo thick, that they are 
able to fwallow a man. They generally haunt defart 
places, for though they are fometimes feen near great 
towns on the fea fhore, or on the banks of rivers, yet it 
is generally after fome great inundation. He never 
faw any but what were dead, and they appeared to him 
like the trunk of a large tree lying on the ground. The 
Americans pretend that one of thefe Serpents will fwal- 
low a Deer horns and all ; and the Ind:ans, that it wi I 
fwallow a Buffalo whole ; both which ftories are very im- 
probable. Hov.'ever it is pretty certain, that one of the 
Eaji-Indian Serpents did aftually fvvallow a child. 

The CUCURUCU oiUarcgra-je.ih 2l Serpent from 
nine to twelve feet long, and thicker than a Rattle- 
fnake. Their fcales are much alike, only thefe are yel- 
low and marked on the back with large black fpots. It 
is a very venemous animal and greatly to be feared, 
and yet the fielh is eaten by the Savages. The bite is 
faid to have the fame effed a« that of a Hcsmcrrhois. 

The IBOBO.A of t\\Q Brafdians, is called Cobra 
DE Coral by ihe Pcrtugue/e, it is two feet long, and 
almoil: an inch thick ; and the tail towards the end is 
round and fharp like a bodkin. All the belly is of a 
fliining white, and the head has white cub cal fcales 
black on the edges. Next to thefe is a fpo: of a bright 
red colour, the fcales of which are black on the edges, 
as all the red fpo s are. To this a black f^ot fucceeds, 
then a white, then a black, and again a red, and To on. 
The red fpot is about an inch long ; and two white, 
and three red, taken together, are an inch and a half 
long, but equal to each other. The edges of the white 
fpots are always black. The bite of thefe Serpents 

is 



374 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

is generally fatal; however it can move along but 
ilowly. 

The BOITJAPO of BrafA, has the name of Cobra 
de Lipo among the Fortuguefcy and is {^vtxi or eight 
feet in length, but is fcarce fo thick as a man's arm. 
The body is round, and the tail ends in a Iharp point. 
The colour in general is olive, except under the belly, 
which is yellowifli, and covered with beautiful triangular 
fcales. 

The fplne of the back is furnifhed with a row of 
prickles, which runs from the head to ihe tail. The 
fcales on the upper part of the body are placed like the. 
mefhes of a net with a double thread, which croifine 
<cach other form a fort of lozenges. The head is 
defended by a buckler, ccnfifling of large long fcales, 
^nd the eyes are large, Iparkling, and full of fire. 
The mouth is armed with many fmall teeth. It lives 
upon rr02,s, and is very venemous, for tl^ venom ope- 
rates like that of the Ha^morrhois. 

The BOYUNA is a Serpent of Ceykn, which the 
inhabitants are fond of meeting wich, becaufe they take 
it to be a fign of good luck, and more efpecially if 
they happen to come into their houfes. The mantle on 
its back confiibof a fine web of fmall fcales, which are 
afh-coloured and yellow, and made like a net; they 
are bordered with a mixture of large bay brown fpots, 
and on the belly there are others that are fmaller, in- 
clining to a rofe colour and fpeclded. The head is 
covered with beautiful pretty large fcales of a bright 
•chcfnut colour, fpeckled with red and brown. The 
fcales on the belly are white, fpotted with brown. 

iJhere is another Boyuna of Ceylo?2, v^ith a white 
j^.ead defended with large fcaJes, and adorned v,'ith a 
fort of a crown. The edges of the jaws are tranfverfed 
with black flreaks, and on the hind part of the head 
there is the print of a Tiara. The fore-}:iart of ihe 
hoiy is half a Dutch ell in length, and there are very 
Jarge fpots, variegated with white, chiefly on the back, 
though they extend here and there to the belly. The 
fcales of the belly and the tail are furrounded with a 
ircry narrow xoundijQi bordei'. L^j acquaints us, that 

thi« 



OF SERPENTS: 175 

itliis Serpent Is long and flender, and has a flrOHg fmell 
like a Fox. 

The BOJOBI, fo called by the inhabitants of Brafil^ 
is known to the Spaniards by the name of Cobra Verde, 
or the green Serpent. It is about an ell in length, and 
as thick as a man's thumb. The green colour on the 
body is like that of a leek, and fhines very much. 
The mouth is large, and the tongue black ; and it 
delights to be near buildings. It is a very harmlefs 
animal, unlefs any one vexes it, and then it will bite, 
which is always fatal. 

Another BOJOBI is a Serpent of Ceylon, with large lips, 
and is of a beautiful (hape, but it has a terrible look ; 
the lips are thick and hanging, and the teeth iharp ; 
but tliey are hid in fheaths within the jaw, and have a 
membranous covering. The lips are edged with a 
border of large, pale, reddifh fcales made like lluds, 
and the eyes are red and fparkling. The upper part of 
the body is of a fhining orange colour variegated with 
ilraw- coloured fpotSjand adorned with belts of a reddifli 
brown. 

Seha iuforms us, that this Serpent is of diiFerent fizes, 
though feldom above that before-mentioned ; the fcales 
are large, long, and of a fea-green colour, variegated 
on the back with long, large tranfverfe ftripes as white 
as alabafter. The fcales on the belly are yellow and large; 
the head is well made, and ihaded above with bright 
red, but greenifh underneath ; the eyes are furrounded 
wiih large fcales, and the flat fnout is quite covered 
therewith ; the upper lip is bordered with the like 
fcales; and the tongue is forked and pointed, being 
svhi-.e and reddifh ; whereas the tongues of moil other 
Serpents are black. 

There is another Serpent called BOJOBI, and by 
fome the Crowned Serpent. It has a wide, fliort mouth, 
with a black head, marked at the top v/ith ayellowifli 
•crown. The eyes are fmall, ar.d of a fp?rkling green ; 
but the noftrils are large and open, Tliis Serpent 
j;^€n rally keeps in old hollow trees. 

Ihc BOiQUATRARA is a Serpent of the ifiand of 

5t. Maurice^ which word fignifies the painted Serpent. 

'ihdJekind of Serpents Uvea long while, and become 

J fjctreimiy 



3/6 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

extreamly large ; the upper part of the body is adornM 
with along chain of chefnut coloured links, fomewhat 
like a net, and on each fide the belly there are round 
faffi on -coloured fpots, difpofed in a beautiful order. 
The other fcales are large, and fpeckled with pale 
yellow ; the head is not large in proportion to the 
body ; but it is finely adorned with fcales, and thofe 
on the belly are of an afli-coloured yellow, and barred 
with rays. 

The BOIQUATRARA of Amboyna, is fo finely 
coloured, that it is likewife called by the natives the 
painted Serpent. It is beautifully variegated with blue 
fea green, and dark green. 1 he fcales on the belly 
are of a fea green, marked on the upper part with four 
yellow llripes, which run from the head to the tail. 
The head terminates like a long pointed bill ; but the 
mouth is fo large that it can fwallow a common fowl 
whole ; but it has no teeth. This Serpent makes a 
kind of a finging noife, by which it is laid to invite 
birds within its reach, and then leaps upon them. 

The CAivACARA. is a Brafilian berpenl with a 
greyifn head, the back part of which, and the neck 
are covered with fcales of the fame colour, marked 
with dark brov^n fpots, that run traniVerlly in the form 
of a bow, and cuts a blackifn chain in the middle of 
that part. Vv'here this chain terminates, the fcales be- 
come of an oblong fnape, and aftervvards are rhom- 
boidals. That part of the Serpent where this chain 
begins is a little fwelled, and inclinable to a red colour. 
The fcales on each fide of the belly are of a bright 
afh-colour, and on each fide the head there is a black 
llreak, which terminates at the nape of the neck. The 
eyes are large and fhining. 

The JARARACA of Pifo is a fnort Serpent, 
feldom exc^^eding half a cubit in length. There are 
prominent veins in the head, as in thoie of Vipers, and 
it hiffes much in the fame manner." It is marked 
with red and black fpots ; but all the other parts 
are of a dirt colour. The Portugue/e have a re- 
medy for it, called by them Herva de Cobras, and by 
the natives Caatia, which being applied outwardly, 

and 



O F SER PENTS. 377 

and taken inwardly, cures not only the bites of this, 
but of all other Serpents. John de heat makes four 
kinds of the Jararaca, which he take> notice of and 
defcribes. 

The CANINANA of ?ifo, is yellow on the belly 
and green on the back, and is about eight palms in 
length. Its bite is not accounted very fatal, and it lives 
upon birds and their eggs. The fleih is eaten by the 
Africans and the Americans, when the head and tail are 
cut off. 

The IBIRACOA of BrafJ, is a Serpent remarkable 
for being fpotted with white, black, and red. Its bite 
is very d.ngerous, and induces the vvorll: kind of 
fymptoms. 

The TARESBOYA and CACABOYA, are two 
amphibious Serpents that live as well on land as in the 
water ; and upon that account are not unlike our VVater- 
fnakes. However they are not fo pernicious as thofe 
of Europe, They are quite black, and not ver}' large ; 
and they will bite when angered, but the wound ad- 
mits of an eafy cure. There is one of this kind of a 
yellow colour, and fix palms in length, which is more 
to be feared by the country people, on account of 
devouring the poultry, than from the danger of its 
bite. 

The GIRAWPIAGARA, which fignlfies an egg- 
eater, is an oblong S.rpent or Snake of a black colour, 
only it is yellowiih on the breaft. They are very 
nimble in getting up the highell trees, where they feek 
birds-nells, and devour their eggs. 

The GAYTIIiPUA is an American Serpent as well as 
the former, and has been {t^w in the country called 
Burim, it is of a vaft fize, and fmells fo filthily that 
no man can bear to come near it. 

The BOM is a very large Serpent, and receives its 
name from the noife it makes ; however it is very 
harm^efs, and was never kno.vn to hurt any one. 

The BOYCUPECANGE, which word fignifies a 
Snake fpotted or marked on the back, is much thicker 
than the former ; and thefe marks are fuppofed to be 
of a very virulent nature. 

The 



378 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The JARARACUCU is about ten palms in length, 
whofe teeth are very large ; and when it is about to 
bite, they are thrall out of the mouth like fingers ; 
but at other times they ?.re hid within the cheeks. The 
Venom is a fluid of yellow colour, and fo powerful, 
that it will kill a man in the fpace ot twenty-f -ur hours. 
Thefe Serpenis bring forth feveral young ones at a 
time, and feme of them that have beea killed, have 
been found to have thirteen in their belly. 

The JARARA COAYPITIUGA, which name 
fignifies a Serpent, whoie rail has more white in it than 
brown. It is as venemous as the S^a :ip Viper, and 
diiTers little from it either in fiiape or colour. 

The JAR.ARA EI'EBA, has a red line running like 
a chain upon its back and under the bJIy; the other 
part, are either brown or of an afn-colour. 

There are other i^erpents in the Eaj} Indiesy of 
which v\e have fome account; and we Ihall give you the 
fceft defcription of them get. 

Serpens INDICUS CORONATUS, is called by 
the Portuguefs CoBRA DE Capello, which fignifies 
the Hooded Serpent, and it is fo named, becaufe it has 
an excrefcence like a hood or cap at top of the head. 
The Ikin is of a gold colour, and it is generally about 
a yard in length, and about three quarters of an inch 
thick. However Francis Leguatt affirms, that in the 
ifland o{ Maurice near Batesoia in the Eaji Indies \ they 
are eight feet in length, and as thick as a man's arm. 
It is agreed on all hands, that the poifcn of this Ser- 
pent is extreamly dangerous, and perhaps more ftrong 
than that of any other. It is generally faid, that there 
is a Hone in its head which is an antidote againil the 
bite of this and all other Serpents ; but Kolbtn declares, 
he has fought for it in vain, though he has killed a 
great number of them on that very account. How- 
ever the Dutch at the Cape of Good Hcpe^ have a ftoi:e 
called Slang fleeners, or the Serpent-ftone, which is of 
great ufe againil poifons of all kinds ; but it is thought 
to be a compofition of the Bramins of the EaJi Indies, 
from whence it is brought ; and many attempts have 
been made to prevail upon them to dilcover the fecret, 
Lut hitherto without eifejS. 

The 



OF SERPENTS. 379 

Tlie Amerkan COBRA DE CAPELLO, To called 
%y the Spaniards^ feems to be a fort of a Viper, and 
the upper part of the body is of a dark red, and there 
are white (ireaks run acrofs it. The belly is of a pale 
red, and the upper part of the tail of a fcarlet colour; 
■but the top of the head is wbirifli The forehead is 
marked with a fpot in the Ihape of a pair of fpedlacles, 
and the eyes are fmall. It lives upon fpiders and in- 
fers of the like kind ; but there feems to be a miilake 
in calling it Capello or Hooded. There is another 
Serpent marked with a pair of fpeftacles in Peru, with 
the neck of a dufey brov/n colour, but v/hat is called 
a pair of fpedacles have a greater refemblancc to hooks. 
The head is covered with large fcales, and furrounded 
with a bright grey collar. On the flioulder there is a 
dark tawny ftreak, and all the upper part of the body 
is uniformly covered with reddiih fcales, variegated 
with white and afh -colour. The tranfverfe fcales on 
the belly are of a bright greyidi filver colour. 

There is another Serpent of this kind, called likewife 
Cobra de NeuHria, which is a fort of female Viper of 
Ceylon. The forehead is large and fliort, covered with 
large fcales, in the middle of which there is a triangle, 
on the top of which there is a black crown. The other 
fcales on the forehead are of a greyilh aih-colour ; the 
eyes are fhining and large, and the noflrils very open. 
The fcales on the back are of a bright afh-colour, 
marked with large beautiful reddifli fpots, and lower 
there are other fiefh-coloured fpots. The fcales on the 
belly are of a yellowilh red. 

The COBRA DE CAPELLO of ^iam, is entirely 
different from that of Ce-lon, in its fkin, in its mark on 
the forehead, and its rhomboidal fcales. From the head 
to the end of the tail it is of a greyilh afh-colour, but 
has a little brovv-nilh red on the back. The fcales on 
the belly are large, and of a reddifn pale inclining to an 
nfli-colour. The mark on the forehead is not fo large 
■£s that of the foregoing, and the chequered fcales are 
without ornament. The eyes are large and fhining, 
and the fore- teeth are fo fmall they can hardly be feen, 
■being covered wi!:h a loofe fkin ; but the hinder teeth 
are Jharp and crooked. There is another kind in the 

iflanii 



38o THENATURAL HISTORY 

iiland of Ternate, which feems to be of the fame fort 
as this, only the colour is a little redder. Another 
Eafi Indian Cobra de Capello, is furrounded with cir- 
cular ilripes, and its yellowilli afh coloured body, is full 
of purple rings from one end to the other, fome of 
which are large, others narrow, and yet beautifully 
difpofed. 

VIPERA INDICA TRICOLAR MAJOR, called 
Pa LAP A RIG Az by the inhabitants of Ceylon^ is a Ser- 
pent that generally lives under the earth. The Tunu- 
polon of Ctyloii is fpotted with marks in the fhape of 
bows and arrows, and is called in Latin^ Vipera TjP.yla- 
nica minor maculis fjfcis holofericeis eleganter njariegat /. 
Malkarabcila of Ceylon^ is faid to be ipotted with v/hitc 
and livid fiOwers. The Se> pens h:dicus gracilis 'viridis^ 
that is, the /A7^/<a:«flender green Serpent, lives in woods 
and groves, 

Befides thefe there are the Ceylon Serpent, ff otted 
with fiari of a red colour; the Stinkiiig Serpent; the 
Indian Serpent, that is an enemy to the Buftalo; this is of 
a dead bluifh colour, with a fmall head in proportion 
to the thicknefs and length of the bcdy, whi:h is co- 
vered with beautiful large fcales ; and thofe on the up- 
per part of the body are of three different fhapes ; but 
thole on the fides and under the belly are entirely white. 
The Indian Serpent that lie^ bid under flone-, and has 
whitilh lines running crofs its back : The Indian Serpent 
with white fpots, that flies upon pafTcngers like a dog : 
The hidian Serpent of a blackifh brown with white 
fpots, whofe bite brings on a fatal fleepynefs : The 
Indian Reed Serpent, whofe face has a refemblance of 
the Reed called the Ra'tan ; the I-.dian Serpent, whcfe 
neck and back are full of fpots in the fhape of arrows ; 
and the Indian Serpent of a greyiHi yellow colour with 
a llrong fmell. 

for vv'ant of a more particular defcription of thcfe 
irerpents, is is very hard to fay, whether they refemble 
any defcribed by other authors or net ; however it 
uill not be improper to mention others that have been 
defcribed by travellers of undoubted credit ; and firil I 
fliall begin with thofe mentioned by Peter Kolben, who 
went purpofely to the Cape of Gcod Hope to make ob- 

fervations 



OF SERPENTS. 38r 

i'ervations that might enable him to write the natural 
hillory of that country. 

The COBRA DE CAPELLO of Brafd has a mark 
on the forehead in the Ihape of a heart, befides four 
fpots fo formed as to refemble eyes. There are whiti(h 
rhomboidal fcales about the neck. Every other part is 
of a bright red, except fome brown and red ftreaks on 
the back that run acrofs it : the belly is of a lighter 
colour. 

The American COBRA DE CAPELLO, {o called 
by the Portuguefe, has a thicker neck than the reft, 
upon which account he is called the ci owned or hooded 
Serpent ; but very improperly : the head is covered with 
large afh-coloured fcales, and the mouth is armed with 
long fharp teeth ; the fcales on the upper part of the 
body are of the colour of dead leave?, and are large, 
oblong, and clofe to each other. The hinder part of 
the body is very long, and the tail is terminated by a 
pointed bone refembling a fmall horn. 

The COBRA DE CAPELLO omalabar, hasa fpot on 
.the forehead like a pair of fpeftacles ; but that Vvhich 
gives this Serpent the name of Capello, is a mark on 
the hinder part of its neck at a fmall diftance from the 
head, the nofe and the frame of the fpedlacles are 
white, furrounded with a double border of a reddifh 
colour, but at the head it is fmall, fhort and covered 
with very large afh-coloured fcales ; but the eyes are 
very fmall. The upper part of the body is of a yel- 
lowifh afh-colour, and thofe on the belly are larp-e, 
long afh-coloured and white. 

The COBRA de CAPELLO of the Erji Indies, fo 
called by the Fortugueje, is very large, with a monftrous 
broad neck, and a mark of a dark brown on the fore- 
head, which viewed before looks like a pair of fpe6ta- 
cks ; but behind like the head of a houfe cat. The 
eyes are livdy and full of fire; but the head is fmall, 
and the noie fiat, though covered with very large fcales 
of a yellowifh afh colour. The fkin is white, and the 
large tumour on the neck is flat, and defended with 
oblong fmooth fcales. The fcales on the lower part of 
the neck are fmall, and grow larger on the trunk of the 

bcdy. 



3?2 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

body. The teeth are fmall, and almoft.hid in thei** 
fockets. 

The COBRA d e CAPELLO of Ceylon has a thkk large 
neck, and the mark reprefents very diftindlly two round 
eyes, or two fpeflade glafies. The neck is covered 
with whitifh fcales ; but thofe on the upper part of the 
body are of a light and deep brown alternately, and 
the fcales on the belly are of the iame colour. 

The COBRA de CAPELLOof AV-o; Spain has a neck 
no thicker than a common Serpent, and the mark oa 
the forehead refemble a buckler. The fmall qua- 
drangular fcales that cover the nape of the neck to the 
mark, are quite white ; and near this mark there are 
two collars, one of which is black and the other white. 
The eyes are of a fine blue, the body yeliowilh, and 
furrounded with brown rings. 

The ASP, Kolben obferves, is fpotted with red and yel- 
low, and his head and neck are very large. The eyes 
are flat and funk in the head, and near each of them a 
fiefhy tunior rifes of the fize of a hazel-nut. Whether 
this is the Serpent mentioned before under the name of 
the Afp, is very uncertain. 

SERPENS OCELLATUS, or the EYED SER- 
PENT, is fo called, on account of the various white 
fpots on its black Ikin. Some give it the name of the 
Dart, with regard to the fwiftncfs wherewith it throws 
itfelf on its enemy when it meets with an opportunity. 
It may be taken u ith a great deal of eafe, for a fmall 
blow on the back with a flick will flop its career, and 
then there is no difiicuky in killing of it. 

The TREE SERPhNl' is fo called, becaufe it 
perches commonly upon trees ; it is three ells in length, 
and three quarters of an inch thick ; and it winds itfelf 
about the branches of trees, v^here it continues a long 
while without motion. One not accullomed to thefe 
Serpents, unlefs he has a very piercing fight indeed, 
may cafily mifcake them for branches of trees, whi-ch 
they do r.ot uifrer fiom in colour, except in the fpots. 
When any one comes near the place where they lurk, 
it is ufual for them to dart their heads at the pcrfon's 
face, by which means they often wound them. When 
the mifchief is done, they get down from the tree as 

laft 



OF SERPENTS. j8j 

faft as they can, in order to get away; but as they 
are flow in their motion they may be foon overtaken 
and knocked on the head. They do not leap from the 
tree, but get down by winding along the branches. 
Many of thefe are put in fpirits, and fent by the Dutch 
to Holloni as a piefent to their friends. 

The BLIND SERPENT is very common at the Cape 
of Good Ihpe, and his fcales are black with brown^ 
white and red fpots. Its bite is not fo dangerous as 
that of other Serpents, and is often found in the clefts 
of rocks and other places about them, where they may 
be killed with little trouble. 

The D I PSAS is fo called from the Greek word, which 
fignifics thirft, becaufe thofe who have the misfortune 
to be bit by it have always a paflionate deiire for drink. 
£ome call it Prefter, which fignifies to bum, on ac- 
count of the burning fenfation that it caufes. Thia 
Serpent is about three quarters of an ell long, and is 
very thick a little below the head, with a blackiih back. 
It is very nimble in attacking any perfon ; and its bite 
inflames the blood to fuch a degree, that it caufes a 
burning thiiH. 

There is likewife another Serpent at the Cape of 
Good Hcpe^ which at prefent has no name in that coun- 
try. It is a foot and a ha!f long, and about three 
quarters of an inch thick, with a whitilh head and a 
red back, fpcttcd with brown. There are alfo feveral 
other Serpents, of which Kolben gives only a general 
account ; fome, fays he, haunt the rocks ; cther^ keep 
in fandy places ; and another kind delights to be about 
the high roads. Some again lie hid among reeds and 
llraw, and they are little and black. Some again get 
into the thatch of houfes, where they lay their eggs, 
and bring up the young ones. When they are at their 
full growth they are not longer than a man's middle 
finger, nor thicker than the barrel of a Goofe quiil : the 
egg of this Serpent is about the fize of a fmall pea. 

Befides the Dipfas above-mentioned, there are others 
of the fame kind ; as the Au-.erican Dipfas, which is 
blue, and all the upper part of the body is covered with 
fmall fcales of an equal fize, aud of a very lively blue 

colour. 



3^4 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

colour. The tranfverre fcales of the belly are vviiitifli, 
variegated with Imall black ftieaks. 

The DIPSAS oi Surinafny is of an orange colour va- 
riegated with red fpots placed over againii each other, 
on one half of the body, and then they begin to change 
near the tail, to fcales of a pale red. 

The America?! SERPENT, found on the banks of 
the river Birbica, is of a pale red fpotted with deep 
brown, but the belly is whitiih, fpeckled with black. 

Another DIPSAS of Surinam, is of a blue colour 
with green Ihining fiery eyes, and a belly whitiih under- 
neath, but of a bright blue on the fides. 

The Amhoytia DiPSAS, is covered with fpots of the 
fhape of a lentil, and has a very beautiful ikin. The 
fcales are of a bright grey, variegated with white and 
black fpots. The head is long, thick, and on the top 
fhines very much. Between the eyes there are two white 
fpots furrounded with a black border, which have the 
appearance of eyes. Above thefe there are alfo two 
other fpots longer than the former, but meet together 
at one end ; the tranfverfe fcales of the body are large, 
and v/hite, with a broad black ftreak. 

The CHAYQUARONA, is a Brafihan Serpent, 
whofe male is adorned with rings from the head, which 
are handl<)me to the extremity of the tail. On each 
iide the neck there are nine black fpots which look like 
eyes as in feme kind of Lampreys ; fome of the rings 
are red, and others of a pale yellow ; and the fcales of 
the lower belly are of a faint blue. The female is like 
the male, only the rings are of four colours, and there 
are no fpots on the fides of the neck. 

In Carolinay there is a Serpent called the ground 
RATI LE-SNAKE, but very improperly, for it has no 
rattle. It never exceeds a foot or fixteen inches in 
length, and it is of a darker colour than a commonr 
Rattle-Snake : Its bite is very dangerous, and it (lays 
longer abroad than any other, before it retires to its 
hole. 

The HORNED SNAKES are like the Rattle- 
Snakes for colour, but rather lighter. They hifs exadly 
like a Gcofc when any animal comes near them. They 
lij ike at their enemy with theii tail, which is armed at 

the 



OF SERPENTS. 3S;. 

the end with a horny fubftance like a cock's fpur ; which 
being venemous, generally kills thoie that are ftruck 
with it. 

The WATER SNAKES of Carolina, are of four 
forts ; the firft is of the colour of the Horn Snake, but 
fomewhat lefs ; the next is a very long one of a diffe- 
rent colour, and will fwim over a river a league in 
breadth. They generally hang upon birch, and other 
trees, near the water fide. Their bite is reckoned ve- 
nemous. The third fort, is of the colour of an EngUJIy 
Viper, and delights in places where there is fait water. 
The bite is accounted dangerous, but whether deadly or 
not, is not faid. The laft kind is of a black colour, and 
frequents ponds and ditches, which is all that authors fay 
of it. 

The SWAMP SNAKES are very near a-kin to the 
Water Snakes, and may properly be ranked in that 
number. The belly of the firft is of a carnation or pinic 
colour, and its back of a dirty brown ; they are of a 
large fize, but not very venemous. The fecond fort is 
large, of a dirty brown colour, and continues always in 
the marihes. The lafl is mottled, and very poifonous, 
with prodigious wide mouths ; and they grow to the 
the thicknefs of the calf of a man's \t<^ : they frequent 
the fides of fwamps and ponds. 

The RED BELLIED LAND SNAKE, is fo called, on 
account of the colour of their bellies, which is nearly 
orange. Some have been bitten by thefe Snakes without 
any bad confequence ; while others have fuffered greatly 
on that account. 

The RED BACKED SNAKES, are fo called, from 
the colour of the back. They are long and fiender, 
and very uncommon ; however, their bite is fo fatal, 
that it admits no cure. 

The BLACK TRUNCHEON SNAKE, lies under the 
roots of trees, and on the banks of rivers. When any- 
thing difturbs them, they dart into the water like an ar- 
row out of a bow. They are fo called from their ihape, 
for they are very thick and fhort. Thefe will fome- 
times fwallow a black land Snake, which is half as long 
again as themfelves. 

Vol. hi. S Ther« 



386 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

There are Snakes or Serpents of feveral kinds in the 
iflands of the IFeJi Indies ; of thefe, the little Grey 
Snakes are the moil common. They are never above 
two feet and a half in length ; nor no tliicker than a 
man's thumb. They always fly when any one comes 
near them ; and though the inhabitants fhould chance to 
tread upon them, they will receive no harm. 

Another Snake, which they have not thought proper 
to diHinguiih by any name, is full of , black and yellow 
ipots on the back, and the belly is greyifn, mixed with 
yellow ; thefe arc larger than the former, being fome- 
times five or fix feet in length ; and though the agree- 
able variety of their fpotted fkins is pleafant to behold, 
yet the fiercenefs of its looks Vv'ill often make a traveller 
fly. They generally haunt mountainous dry ftony bar- 
ren places, and are feldom to be feen on level ground. 
Their fkins are made ufe of to make belts, which are 
exceeding handfome. 

There is another kind which is black, and more thick 
and long than either of the former ; for fome of them are 
feven feet long, and as thick as a man's arm. T'hey 
are very bold, and inftead of flying, purfue thofe that 
do them any injury, holding their heads up above a 
foot high, hifllng at the fame time, and thruRing out 
their forked tongue a confidciabk way. 

Jn the iiland of St. Domingo, there is another fort 
which is never thicker than a man's arm, and yet is tea 
or twelve feet in length. They are great enemies to the 
poultry, and will kill them by winding themfelves about 
them wi[hout biting:, and then they fwallow them whole. 
The bite is attended with inflammation and pain, but it 
has no bad confequences, for it will not kill. 

In the French iiland called Martinicoy there are three 
forts of dangerous Serpents : one of thefe is grey, with 
a kind of velvet fkin fpotted with black in feveral 
places ; the fecond is as yellow as gold, and the third 
jed. The firft fort are never above two feet in length, 
though they are fometimcs as thick as a man's arm ; 
and this thicknefs continues till within two or three 
inches of the tail, which from thence decreafes into a 
point, where there is a fmall claw. The head is very 
fiat, and as broad as one's hand -, and in the jaws are 

eight 
8 



O F S E R P E N T S. 387 

eight teeth, generally about an inch long. They are 
fharp at the points as needles, and in fhape like a hook. 
There is a hole in each of thefe, which reaches from the 
root to the very end. Some imagine there is venom in 
all them, which dillils into the wound whenever they 
bite. 

AH the other Serpents, as well yellow as red, have a 
head of a triangular form, and Father y^r/r^ pretends, 
that by this mark, all venemous Serpents may be dif- 
tinguiflied from thofe that are harmlefs. They are arm- 
ed with teeth like thofe juft mentioned, and their make 
is like that of other -Serpents ; but they are very large, 
being as thick as the calf of a man's leg, and fev^en or 
eight feet long. When fome of thefe have been opened, 
they have been found to contain above forty eggs, as 
thick as a man's thumb, and above one hundred of the 
fize of lentils. He farther obferves, that their venom is 
different, both as to colour and quality. It is con- 
tained in fmall bladders, about the fize of a pea, which 
furrounded the teeth. The Yellow Serpents hzLve a yel- 
lowifli venom, which is more thick than that of the reft, 
and lefs dangerous. That of the Grey, is like muddy 
water ; and that of the red, as clear as rock water, 
which he fuppjfes to be more fubtile and dangerous. 

The Rats and Fowls often draw Serpents near tha 
houfes; for Vv'hich reafonthe inhabitants never come near 
z hen-rooi!: without looking about them, to lee if they can 
difcover any of thefe animals. Father Tfr//T affirms, that 
he has feen one of- thefe Serpents, after killing the hen, 
fwallow nine chickens above three weeks old. Likewife, 
feveral fmall animals that they feed upon, generally gi\'^e 
notice of the approach of a Serpent, by their cries, or 
the noife that they make. They will hide themfelves in 
cheils, baikets, tubs, and the like ; and will fometimes 
get among the bed-cloaths. The hunters cover their 
legs with large boots when they go in fearch of game, 
which may indeed prevent the bites of Serpents that lie 
upon the ground ; but they are no defence againft thofe 
that perch on the branches of trees, or lie on the tops 
of rocks. When they have filled their .bellies, they deep 
very foundly for three days together, and then you may 
S 2 do 



388 THENATURAL HISTORY 

i^o -'Kvays what you pleafe with them, for it is almof!imr 
poffible to wake them. 

Lutat m his account of fome part of the Wejl-Indiest 
informs us that they once caught a Serpent in a net, 
whofe body was as thick as a man's arm, and about a 
yard long. Its head was like that of other Serpents, 
and the tail was broad, and forked at the end. It had 
a fort of a fin upon the back, which took its rife at the 
beginning of the neck, and leffened gradually to the end 
of the tail. There were alfo two other fins of the fame 
kind, a little lower, which alfo ran from the neck to 
the tail, which were three inches broad at the beginning. 
The teeth were long and black ; and as they did not 
know the nature of this animal, they tied him to the 
inaft, in order to fee how it would look the next day ; 
when they found that it was entirely diiTolved into a 
greenilh (linking water, except the fkin and the bones. 
Labat took it to be a fort of a Sea Viper, but he met 
with none that could give him any fatisfadion in this 
point. 

Lahat happened to fee another Sea Serpent, which 
was ten feet in length, and two in circumference about 
the middle. The fcn was blueifh, with large ihining 
black and yellow fpots, which feemed to be varnifhed 
over. It had a fin on the back, which reached froin 
the neck till within fix inches of the tail. The Jin was 
feven inches high near the head, and decreafed gradually. 
7 he tail was forked, and befides the above fin, there 
were three others on each fide, which at the edges, were 
armed with claws like thofe of great Thornbacks There 
was likewife another in the middle of the hollow part of 
the tail, which was two inches in length. The head of 
this Serpent was neither flat nor triangular, like thofe of 
Martinico ; for it was feven inches long, round, and a 
little convex, with two large eyes level with the head, 
which fparkled very much when it opened its mouth, 
which was of an immenle fize, two rows of teeth were 
difcovered near two inches long, that were Itrong and 
Iharp at the points. They were not crooked like tliofe 
of Vipers ; but whether they were furrounded with 
bladders of venom or not he was afraid to examine : 

I it 



O F S E R P E N T S. 389 

It appeared d terrible even after it was dead. He in- 
tended to have had the head and the fkin taken off, that 
he might have dried them ; but he could find none who 
had courage enough to do it, they were fo fearfu lof 
the claws, the fins, and the tail. 

The LAMANDA, or the King of Serpents, fo 
called by Sfia, is a native of the ifland of Ja^a. It is 
fo curioufly coloured and fpotted, that a very fkilful 
painter that he employed, could not come up to the 
beauty of the original. The head is well proportioned, 
and the forehead is of a yellowilh afh-colour, covered 
with rhomboidal fcales, marked with a red crofs made 
like the iron part of a halberd ; and near it are two an- 
nular fpots, which furround others that are fmaller. 
From the eyes, which are lively and fparkling, to the 
nape of the neck, there runs along the fide of the upper 
jav/ a bay brown variegated ftreak ; and the lower jaw 
is encircled underneath with another of the fame colour. 
The hinder part of the head is finely fpotted, and the 
mouth is armed with fharp crooked teeth. The upper 
part of the body is very fuperh, for it feems to be paint- 
ed with coats of arms, and crowns of different fhapes, 
fo interwoven with each other, that any one would ima- 
gine they were the work of fome curious painter. The 
fcales are like lozenges of various colours, and the tail is 
adorned with a fingular orange coloured fpot. The 
tranfverfe fcales are of an Ifabella colour, that is between 
white and yellow, and beautifully marked with blackilh 
fpots of different fizes. This Serpent is about feven 
feet and a half long, but the thicknefs is not proportion- 
able to the length. 

The MANBALLA, a Serpent of Qj/o;/, is of a chef- 
nut colour, and the head is like that of a hound ; the 
upper part of the body is covered with pale yellow fcales, 
and thofe on the forehead and jaws are of a deep red. 
The whole extent of the back, which is fmooth and 
highly polifhed, is marked with oval links, which are 
joined together by a large fpot or ftreak ; under this 
ftreak the links are of a triangular form, inclining to a 
pale red, and run uniformly on each fide of the belly to 
the beginning of the tail. Towards the extremity of 
the tail, the colours become more deep, for the bright 
S 3 yellow 



3C0 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

yellow change^ into a deep yellow, and the brownilh 
red into one the colour of vermillion, with a kind of a 
black border. The large yellowifh fpots, and the 
upper part of the body, are marked with flefh coloured 
fpecks ; the head is large, the neck flender, and the 
tongue long and forked. The mouth is armed with 
long teeth, the eyes are large and fparkling, and the 
fcales on the belly of a yellovvifli alh colour marbled with 
blackifh fpots and other ornaments. 

The NINTJPOLONGA, is a Serpent of Ceylon, 
which is of a fine marble colour, and has the head a- 
dorned with fmal1 flowers. The whole body is of a 
li .er colour marbled with bright afh colour, and the fpots 
:.re terminated with b.'ack edges, only they are of a fal- 
low cojcur in Ibme places, and \eiy white in others. 
The foreliead is covered with large bright yellow fcales, 
difpofed in the (hape of fmall flowers ; and the eyes are 
large, blue, and fparkling. The opening of the mouth, 
which is armed with fliarp crooked teeth, is defended 
by a border of thick fcales. The tongue is white, 
pretty long, and forked. The tail diminilhes gradually 
in a point. 

1 he PETZCOALT, is a Mexican Serpent, the up- 
per part of v;hofe body is yellow mixed with a little red, 
and covered with large fcales like lozenges, which are 
fiTiooth and flippery to the touch. The tranfverfe fcales 
of the belly are mixed with red and yellow, and the 
head is defended by large flrong fcales that rife like 
lumps. It is about four feet and a half in length, and 
thick in proportion. Thefe forts of Serpents hide them- 
felves in hollow trees, where they watch for their 
prey. 

The PIMBERAH, according toSe^a, is a Serpent of 
Ccylorj, as thick as a man, and of a proportionable 
length. It has a terrible afpecl, on account of its two 
large eyes placed on the top of the head next the fides. 
The jaws are armed with teeth cut like a faw, and the 
mouth has a border in the form of a (hell. The fore- 
head is covered with grey and afli-colcured fcales, 
adorned with large beautiful fpots, and furrowed a crofs 
with three Ilrcaks, in the fliape of fo many crofles. The 
fcales on the upper part of the body are reddilh, fliaded 

with 



OF SERPENTS. 391 

with large magnificent fpots of a dark brown, of which 
feme are red'.iifh, and others oblong, ranged in a fine 
proportion from the top of the head to the end of the 
tail, which is flender. This variegation is accompanied 
on the fides with other large triangular black fpots. 
Underneath, towards the bottom of the belly, there is 
a third row of fpots, which are very fmall, and extend 
near the tranfverfe fcales, which are very large, of an 
afh colour, and difpofed in a beautiful order. 

The POLONGA, is a Serpent of Ceyhn according to 
^eha. The head is covered with fmall thin afh coloured 
fcales inclined to yellow, and marked with reddifa 
ftreaks. The eyes are fmall, and the edges of the 
mouth are bordered with a fimple lip without Icales. 
The jaws are armed with {harp teeth, and the fcales on 
the upper part of the body are of a filleniot colour, 
adorned with large magnificent fpots, fome of which are 
of a purplilh brown, and others of a yellowiili afn colour, 
all which are terminated by a blackifh border ; thofe on 
the fides are brown and quadrangular, with a yellow 
afh coloured fpeck in the middle. Likewife, on the 
upper part of the body, there are black irregular fpecks 
mixed with the fpots ; the yellow afh coloured fcales 
that traverfe the belly underneath, are all marked v/ith 
black fpots. The tail is one-third part of the whole 
animal, which grows gradually more flender, and be- 
comes infenfibly of a more reddifh colour. It is gene- 
rally faid to be very innocent, and is admitted into the 
houfes of the natives. 



%%%%%%<m'-%%%%%%'%^%%%%% 



CHAP. XLIX'. 

Of Vipers and Serpents fro7n Scba, thai have no 
particular hames. 

THOUGH there have been Serpents already de- 
fer! bed from Seba ; yet, as he has many more 
that are not diflinguifhed by any particular names, we 
S 4 thought 



392 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

thought it would not be improper to place them in a 
chapter by themfelves. 

The farft Viper taken notice of, was fent from the 
ifland of Madera, and it is reprefented as lying in a 
bundle of hair. In this Situation Vipers are commonly 
found when they are afleep, with the head ftretched out 
and expofed to the fun beams. The head is long and 
flat, and the jaws are placed more backward than ordi- 
nary. The upper part of the body is of the colour of 
lead, and covered with rhoraboidal fcales fpoued witii 
yellow, fo as to appear in the form of chains. The 
fcales of the belly are of an afh colour inclining to yel- 
low, but fhaded here and there with black, like fome 
fort of marble. 

The fecond is sn Eafl-lndia Viper, of the iiland 
cijava, otherwife called the Snake of Jararaca, It 
is all over of a reddiih brown, variegated with white, 
and the fcales are whitilh, pretty large, and intermixed 
with a fmaller fort, of a red bay colour, and difpofed 
on thft back like a chain. The head is large and pufted 
up, and the eyes are fo fparkling, that this Viper has a 
terrible look. It is generally met with, under the Ihoots 
of a tree, called the horned Acacia. 

The third is a male Eaji- Indian Viper, and has 
two long teeth or tuflcs, which are not very thick, and 
they are placed in the upper jaw; befides thefe, the 
mouth is furnifhed with others that are fmall, through- 
cut the whole extent of both jaws. T he body is re- 
markably fpotied, and it is covered with browniih fcales, 
dirpofed in a beautiful order, and fpeckled with fpots, 
the largeft of which join each other, and as it were, 
creep along to the end of the tail. 

The fourth is a Viper of Surinam^ which is all 
over fcales, and every part of the fcin is hid by fmall 
reddifh fcales. 

The fifth is an American VIPER, beautifully fpotted, 
and the back is variegated with a mixture of white palifli 
red and black. 1 he belly is of a bright afh colour, and 
the eyes are lively. 1 he head is pretty large, butcom- 
preffed, and the nape of the neck, is marbled with fpots, 
which are either white or inclining to red. The fore- 
head 



^\. 



O F S E R P E N T S. 39? 

head Is covered with large greyifh fcales ; bnt the tail is 
not fo pointed as in other Vipers. 

The fixth is a male American VIPER, fent from the 
ifland of Eujlachia. The colour is reddifh, and a chain 
runs throughout the length of the body, coniifling of 
fmall links with four points, and marked in the middle 
"with an oval fpot. The mouth is full of fmall teeth as 
in other Vipers. 

The feventh is a female VIPER, fent from the ifland 
of Eujiachia, and yet of a different kind from the former ; 
for it does not only differ in colour, and in the fpots, 
but the head is in the fhape of that of a calf, and very 
large on the back part. The mouth is larger, but the 
neck more flender, which might feem to render the 
fwajlowing difficult ; and yet it is able to fwallow frogs, 
toads, and lizards. The upper part of the body is 
covered with reddifh fcales, and there is a chain of a 
bay brown colour. 

The eighth is a female VIPER of the ifland of Saint 
Eufiachia, and the mouth and head are pretty large. 
The colour is yellow about the neck, and en the nape 
there are two black fpots. The body is covered with 
large reddifh fcales ; a-crofs which, on the back, there 
is green, that fhines like fattin. The belly is of a palifh 
yellow, fhaded with black fpots, which are extended in 
the fhape of little flames . 

The ninth is another female VIPER, from the ifland 
of Eujiachia, which is not lefs beautiful than the former. 
The fcales on the upper part of the body, are of a lively 
blue, and each of them are marked with a whitifh fpot ; 
but the belly and the fcales that crofs it fillemot. The 
head is made like that of the former, only it is covered 
with large blue fcales. 

The tenth is a female VIPER of the ifle of C<fy^;r, 
which has a large flattifh nofe, and a terrible look. 
Its colouring is fuperb, fhaded with white, chefnut 
colour, and reddifh, fo curioufly diverfified, that one 
would take it for an ornament made by fome fkilful 
workman. The head is large, as well as the mouth ; 
and it makes a noife, like the voice of one that is fmg 
ing. It has two rattles, at the end of the tail, which 
may be heard at fome diflance, and fervc ^ a warning 
S 5 for 



394 THE NATURAL HISTORY 
perfons to keep out of the way. It lies concealed among 
the plants and trees of open forelts. This fcems lo be 
like the American Rattle Snake. 

The eleventh is another VIPER of the \{[e of Cey/^n, 
and is of a very beautiful kind. It is covered from the 
head to the extremity of the pointed tail, with fmall 
yellow and red fcales, waved every where with dark 
brown fpots. The head feems to be gilded, and is 
covered with very large fcales, in proportion to thofe 
of the body. 

The twelfth is a beautiful VIPER of Atitycira, whofe 
back is marked with annular fpots, which runs tranf- 
verfely, as well as placed feparately. They are of a 
flraw colour, with bay brown edges ; but on the fides 
of the belly, they join other black fpots, or rather of a 
cTiefnut colour, variegated with yellowifh rays, made 
like a crefcent. The forehead is oF an oblong fnape, 
covered with fmall thin fcales of a faifron colour, leddifh 
on the edges ; they are divided in the middle of the fore- 
head, by a chefnut coloured ray, that extends to the 
nofe ; but the jaws and the neck are of a blight yellow. 
The other fcales on the bo.ly are of a brownifh a(h-co- 
loar, mixed with yellow ; but thofe on the belly are as 
white as fnow. 

The thirteenth is a VIPER from Japan, marked as it 
were with a fort of charadlers not unlike the Hebrew 
letters. The fpots are of a pale yellow edged with a 
blight chefnut colour. They run from the hinder part 
of the neck to the end of the tail, efpecially on the up- 
per part of the body, which is covered with reddiih 
fcales. The head is adorned with pretty fmall fcales, 
fomewhat variegated. Thofe under the belly, that run 
crofs ways, are of a yellowilh afh colour, fpeckled with 

red. 

The fourteenth is the HORNED VIPER ofSda^o- 
nia, taken on the fhore of the Gulph ofl^enice, and is a 
kind of Ceraftes. This Viper is curioufly fpotted, and 
has a head like a maftifF dog. The jaws are thick and 
broad, and the mouth wide, with teeth that are extreme- 
ly (harp. Tl-e noflrils r=re very open, and the foiehead 
is but fmall, though it is marked with a crofs that looks 
like j€V/eU, in the middle of which there is a round fpot. 

Ancient 



O I^ S E R P E N T S. 395 

Ancient writers, have miOaken this crofs for a horn 
very improperly, for it does not rife up in a bunch, but 
as it were ingraved on a large flat whitifh fcale. The 
upper part of the body, is full of large oblong fcales of 
a yellowifh alh colour, fpotted with red, and edged with 
bay brown. Thefe large fpots, are variegated here and 
there with a mixture of chefnut coloured fpecks, which 
have a very fine efFeft. The fcales under the belly, are 
of a lead colour, variegated with fpecks. 

The fifteenth is the Virginian VIPER, marked with 
purple fpots, and along the back, there is a large purple 
fpot, with other large and fmall ones of the fame colour. 
The fcales of the body are of a bright alh colour, and 
thofe of the belly of a faintifh yellow/ 

The fixteenth is a VIPER of Paraguay^ of an ex- 
traordinary beauty. The garment is fo rich, if it may 
be fo called, that it is impoffible to defcribe it as it ought 
to be. T hroughout the whole length of the back, 
there is a remarkable mixture of great and fmall chef- 
nut coloured fpots, fhaded with bright purple, and whi- 
tifh afh colour, that are in the form of chains, placed 
end to end. The head is adorned with thin fmall 
fcales of feveral colours, placed in compartments with 
wonderful fldil. The eyes are fmall, and the nofe is 
marked with a white fpot. The jaws are large, and 
the neck flender, roundifh and flat. The body is very- 
long, the fcin fh'ning, and the tranfverfe fcales, mag- 
nificently variegated. 

To thefe Vipers of Sel^a'sy may be added the HORN- 
ED VIPER of Hafelk/uifi, called in the Uj/al Tranf- 
adions pf 1750, the Snakb with 150 abdominal fcales, 
50 caudal fcales, and two prickles on the top of the 
head, with teeth in the palate. This Viper has the 
head, body, jaws, eyes, and tongue, like the Viper of 
Egypt, which the Apothecaries formerly made ufe of. 
It has no teeth in the upper jaws ; but there are two 
bones in the palate, that are long- parallel to each other, 
and furniihed with ten lliarp teeth fomewhat crooked, 
and turning towards the throat. The lower jaw is fur- 
nifhed with three or four teeth on each fide. On the 
top of the head, on each fide, there are two prickles or 
thorns, fomewhat like a horn, placed on the edges of 
S 6 the 



396 THE NATURAL HISTORY 
the upper orbit of the eyes. They are round pointed at 
the end. crooked, fomevvhat furrowed, hard and cover- 
ed with a {kin ; they are alfo adorned at the bafe, with 
a row of fmall fcales, and the two prickles are half the 
length of the orbit of the eyes. The tail below the 
vent is cylindrick, and grows lefs and lefs to the end, 
where it is armed with a prickle. The head, back, 
fides, and upper part of the tail, are marked with fpots 
of the colour of fhining rufty iron ; as alfo with brown 
large fpots, irregularly mixed with the former. The 
belly, the lower part of the throat, and the under part 
of the tail are white. The tail is two inches and a half 
long, and of the thicknef of a goofe quill ; and the thick- 
ne{s about the middle of the body, is lefs than an inch. 
Jt is found, but not very commonly, in Egypt and j^ra- 
bia, where they look upon it to be venemous. 

The common vSERPENT of Germany, according to 
Seba, has blueilTi fcales on the back, fpotted with black, 
as well as the large tranfyerfe fcales of the belly. There 
is a large yellow ring or collar about the neck, marked 
with two fpots that are almoft black. The fcales of the 
head are large, inclining to brown ; the upper jaw is 
bordered with a white ureak, ftriped with black j the 
teeth are fmall. When thefe fort of Serpents have caft 
their Ikin, they are clammy, fhining, fmooth to the 
touch, fat, fleihy, and the females are full of eggs. 
This Serpent was fent to Seha^ from Franckfort on the 
Maine, from whence they tranfport great numbers to 
Holland every year, and which ferve for various pur- 
pofes. 

The VOLHINIAN SERPENT, is found on the 
banks of the river Hoar, near Lucko, capital of VolhiniA 
in Polund. Seba tells us, that it was brought from 
RuJJia among other rarities, and that the (kin was in- 
clinable to purple. The head appeared to be as it were 
adorned with a diadem, painted with pale yellow, and 
reddifh yellow colours. The forehead was defended by 
very thick fcales of a citron colour, marked with three 
fpots, and fpeckled with flelh colour. The fcales of the 
body were fmall, fmooth, and fhining ; and each was 
painted with bright purple, fhaded with brownifh purple. 
The fcales of the belly were reddifh, and fprinkled with 

brown 



O F S E R P E N T S. 39, 

brown fpecks, and the tail was very fmall terminating 
in a point. 

The SERPENT of Italy, found among the hills oC 
the Paduan, was fent to Seba, and had all along the 
fides of the belly, which are of a bright yellow, and 
red fpots. There were others of a brownifli yellow, on 
the tranfverfe fcales of the body ; the head was fmall, 
and of a dull yellow ; but the fcales on the forehead 
were large. On the nape of the neck, there was a fort 
of a crown, painted with red and a yellow flame colour. 
The back was roundifh, and quite covered with fcales. 
There are feveral other Serpents found among thefe 
hills ; but though they are of diiFerent colours, they re- 
femble thofe of Germany and Holland, in all other parti- 
culars. 

The SERPENT of Senjil, has a very beautiful fore- 
head, and all the upper part of the body, is as fmooth 
as if it had juft caft its flcin. It is adorned with white 
and black fcales ; but the tranfverfe fcales of the belly, 
are of a dull yellow. However, in general, it is a very 
curious Serpent. 

The SERPENT di StramuUpa, with large cheeks. It 
has a large mouth, with great lips, that are thick on the 
edges, and of the colour of jafper. It has a frightful 
afpeft, and the head is defended by large fcales ; thofe 
on the back are brownifli, variegated with white, and 
difpofed in the fame manner as thofe of Fiflies. The 
tranfverfe fcales on the belly are very large, and of a 
bright tawny colour, with a mixture of white. The tail 
is encircled with large rings. 

The SERPENT oi Sicily, \z called by Seba Serena. 
He had both the male and female, from the kingdom of 
Sicily, and they are variegated with brown and white. 
fpots. 

The Armenian SERPENT, is moft curioufly painted 
with diverfe colours. The fcales in general are whitifh 
marbled with brown fpots, not much unlike the breaft of 
a Partridge. The head is of a reddifli colour, and the 
fcales under the belly, are fprinkled with yellowifli afli 
coloured fpots. 

The common SERPENT of Ho//««^, is met with a- 
mong the brambles, and in moiH marfliy places of that 

country ^ 



39S THE NATURAL HISTORY 

country ; but VVeJi Frief.and, is more efpecially fertile in 
Serpents of this kind. They are taken chiefly in /^pril, 
when the fun begins to warm the earth. They iirll: take 
off their (kins, and then waih and dry them, fending 
them to HoIla7id, where they are ufed for divers medi- 
cinal purpofes. They have the fame virtues, according 
to Seba, as thofe of Ger?nany and Italy. Their fkins are 
very pretty, but they are differently fpotted, though in 
moft they are of a chefnut colour, marbled with blackifh 
fpots. The fcales of the belly are large, inclining to red. 

The tame SERPENT oixhQEaJi Indies, according to 
Buyfchy is of a green colour; and when they are 
brought out of the fields, they are not above the thick- 
nefs of a man's thumb. They make beds for them in 
tubs, where they lie contented, and never come out but 
when they want to be fed. Then they get upon the 
Ihouldcrs of the mafler of the houfe, who gives them 
fomewhat to eat, after which they return back to their 
nefts and fleep. 

Tlie SERPENTS of Arabia, according to Seba, are 
of four different kinds. The firll is a brown Serpent, 
marked with blackifh fpots in the fhape of flames. The 
back is of a bay brown^ llreaked with black tranfvcrfe 
fpots, in fhape £s above. The fides of the belly are of 
a fa'nt yellow ; and under the body there are tranfvcrfe 
whilifh fcales. On the head there are two brown, and 
two other black fpots, which are much the larger. The 
fcales are rhomboidal over all the body. 

The fecond Arabian Serpent, is marked v/ith fpots, 
that look like fo many eyes. This animal is of great 
beauty, as well with regard to its colours as variegations. 
The head is blue, and towards the hinder part of the 
neck there are nvo large red fpots, divided in the mid- 
dle by a yeilov/ ftreak. The eyes are pretty, and lively ; 
and the mouth is furniihed with fmall Iharp teeth. The 
tail ends in a point ; and the back is of a faffron colour. 
The fides of the belly, whofe ground is a pale yel- 
low, are beautifully fpotted throughout with blackifh 
fpots. Each fcale on the body is furrounded with a 
double border of a deep yellow colour. 7 he tranfverle 
fcales of the belly, are white, Hreaked v/ith black, in 
the manner of a zig-zag. 

The 



O F S E R P E N T S. 399 

The third Arabian Serpent is of a dull gicenifti co- 
lour, ftreaked tranfverrely with brown and blackiih 
fpots, over all the body. The fcales are in the fhape of 
JDzenges, and of a fhining green ; and the back is of a 
dark green, fprinkled with blackifh fpecks. The fides 
are painted with a dark brown colour, and the fcales of 
the belly are whitifh half way on the body. After this, 
they begin to incline fometimes to a green, fometimes 
to a dirty white, alternately to the end of the tail, which 
is blunt. The upper part of the body is of a fea green, 
and on the nape of the neck ihere are two red fpots. 
The mouth is furnilhed with fmall flender teeth. 

The fourth Arabian Serpent, is marked with fpots 
in the form of the links of chains ; and the fmall 
chains like lozenges, aie of a gold colour. They are 
fhaded en the back and on the fides of the belly, with 
bay brown fpots of an oval fhape, and ranged in fmall 
rings in the manner of chains. The fpots on the belly, 
are fprinkled wiih black fpecks, as well as the tranf- 
verfe fcales. The he?.d has nothing remarkable, but 
four oblong yeilowifh fcales, with which it is covered. 

The SERPENT oi Malabar, has a robe, which con- 
firts of a tiffue of white, round, circled fcales, from the 
head to the end of the tail, and there are il:reaks as 
black as jet, which are broad on the top of the body, 
but become narrower as they approach the belly, and 
fometimes difappear before they reach it. The whitifh 
fcales that run crofs-ways under the belly, are divided 
in the middle by a blackifh line. The head is furnifned 
with great and fmall fcales, agreeably painted with a 
mixture of white and black. Seba informs us, that the 
ladies in the Eaji Indies^ are very fond of this Serpent, 
and take a delight in playing with it. There is another 
Serpent of Malabar , taken notice of in the RepuMick 
of Letters, which is very lingular and very dangerous. 
It is no thicker than a man's finger, and yet is five or 
fix feet long, and of a green colour, infbmuch that it 
cannot be diftinguifhed from the grafs. It will fly 
upon pafTengers, and fix upon their eyes, nofe, or 
ears ; but the bite is not venemous ; however, under 
the neck there is a poifonous bladder, which proves fatal 
when it touches the Ikin. 

According 



400 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

According to Seba, there are feveral kinds of Ser- 
pents in the kingdom of Siam in the Eaft Indies. The 
firft that he takes notice oF is a male, which has a large 
but very fine head, and the tail is very flender. The 
fcales are reddifh and yellow upon the back, but of a 
brighter colour under the belly, and fpeckled with 
black. The back is curioufly variegated with whitilh 
fpots of a particular (hape, with a black flender border. 
This may be placed among the Ce pastes or horned 
Serpents; and the female rcjembles in fhape, colour, 
and fpots, the male, only the head is larger. The aper- 
ture of the mouth, has a border all round that is a little 
curled, and is yellow and as hard as horn. There are 
no teeth, and the noflrils are narrow and very fmall. 
This is a harmlefs Serpent, and it feeds upon infeds, 
caterpillars, fpiders, and the like. But about Grand 
Cairo in E^ypt, there are horned Serpents, the largell of 
which is no more than an ell and half long, and yet 
they feed upon birds. Thefe are prettily painted, and 
the fkin is covered with a(h coloured and grey fcales, 
fpotted with white and black ; the belly is of a yellow- 
ifh afh colour, fct off with black and white fpots, fprink- 
led upon pretty large fcales ; the head is pretty long, the 
mouth without teeth, and the tail decreafes infenfibly 
to the point. 

The fecond Serpent of Si amy is circled with white 
and black ftreaks alternately, and the head is very 
beautiful. 

The third Serpent of Sia 7ry has a very gentle afpeil, 
with a head fmall and pretty, and the fcales thin and 
whitiih, with black ftreaks round about the body. 

The fourth Serpent of »S/^»7, is named Sybilla by 
the inhabitants, and is in high eileem among them ; 
becaufe they firmly believe, that when they chance to 
meet one, it is a very good omen. The body is little, 
and as yellow as faffron, and it is covered with thin 
fmall Alining fcales. It is furrounded with red ftreaks,^ 
and the head is of a pale yellow ; and it has a very flen 
der tail. 

The SERPENT of the county of Kokur a in J apofi, 
according to Seba, has a long and flender body, whofc 
upper part, from the head to the extremity of the tail, ia 

fpeckled 



O F S E R P E N T S. 401 

fpeckled with a deep red colour, and there are flreaks 
with an alh colour. 

The SERPENT of Zagara, is very beautiful, and 
the top of the head is adorned with an orange coloured 
ilripe ; and on the forehead there are two other narrow 
llreaks, crofling pretty large fcales of a red poppy co- 
lour, ipotted with yellow in fome places. The noftrils 
and edges of the mouth are yellowifh ; the fcales that 
cover the {kin are fmall, in the fhape of lozenges, and 
of a greenifli yellow, fprinkled with duiky greenifii 
/pecks. The whole back is embellilhed with fpots, 
fome of which are of a dark red, and others of a pale 
yellow, placed in fuch a manner as to refemble coats of 
arms. The fcales on the belly are of a faint yellow. 

The SERPENT of Maderafpatan, a town on the 
coaft of Malabar^ is covered with fcales of a beautiful 
yellow colour, variegated on the back with fpots of fil- 
lamot. The head is adorned with large fcales, fet oiF 
with fpecks fcattered all over them. The belly is regu- 
larly marked with red fpots, rnd the middle is of a bright 
alh colour. 

The SERPENT of China is as red as coral, and ito 
fmall fcales are of a bright red, marked with fpots of a 
deeper colour. The head is painted with a yellowifh 
bright red, and the colour of the fcales of the belly is of 
an aih coloured yellow. This Serpent according to 
Sehay is not vtry common. In the ifland of Hay-nafi, 
on the coaft of China, there are Serpents of a prodigious 
fize ; but they are fo fearful, that the leaft noife makes 
them fly away. Jt is not likely that they do any mif- 
chief by their bites, becaufe the inhabitants walk bare- 
footed day and night, as well in the woods as in the 
fields, without the leall apprehenfion of danger. 

The SERPENTS of Jmhj^a, according to Seha, 
are of feveral kinds. The firil is as red as coral, and 
the fkin is whidfh, fpotted with a bright red ; but the 
fcales of the belly are of a fine aih colour. 

The fecond Amboyna Serpent has a fpotted fkin, like 
that of the Tyger, only there is a capuchin on the 
head, as white as fnow, and without fpots. This Ser- 
pent feeds upon caterpillars, and Seba found in the 
body, an intire ovary, containing nine eggs, and 

conne^ed 



402 THE NATURAL HISTORr 

connefted to each other by a thread, they were placed 
along the fpine of the back. Each of thefe eggs was in- 
clofed in its proper membrane. 

The third Jitnbjyna Serpent, had breaks as red as 
coral, and would fwallow Lizards, almoft as big as it- 
felf. On this occafion the jaws open fo wide, that one 
would think they were disjointed, A fuffocation which 
might otherwife happen, is prevented by the windpipe's 
being feated in the fore part of the throat, fo as to leave 
a free paiTage for refpiration. This Serpent is 
adorned with fixteen ftreaks, each of which feems to con- 
fill of a chain of coral, joined to each other. Thefe 
ftreaks are placed according to the length of the back ; 
but on the fides, at a litde diftance from the belly, 
there are fcales, ranged along thera, as well as under 
the belly lengthways and a crofs. 

The fourth Ar.boyna Seipent, is of a pale blue, 
fpotted here and there, with black on the upper 
.part of the body. The fcales on the belly are 
"fprinkled with fmall black fpecks, ranged orderly by 
pairs. 

The fifth Jmhoytia Serpent, is very beautiful, with 
the back as red as coral, adorned with femi-rings of 
the fame colour, that are placed by pairs from the head 
to the middle of the body, and then the rings become 
waved or mottled. The fmall fcales are of a fea green 
colour, with fome that are whitifh here and there ; 
but the fcales at the bottom of the belly, are all of a 
bright yellow. 

The fixth Amhoyna Sqrpent, has the fcales of the 
back of a reddifh orange colour, which are more brown 
towards their origin, and more pale towards the belly. 
Jt is covered underneath with tranfverfe f:alcs of adufky 
reddilh colour. 

The fever. th Jn.hoyna Serpent, is of a yellowifh 
afli colour, and feeds upon catterpillars. The fcales 
on the back are rhomboidal, afh coloured and yel- 
low ; but thoie on the belly are whitifh ; and thofe 
on the forehead large, and of a faffron colour. The 
eyes are large and brilliant, but the teeth are very 
fmall. 

The 



O F S E R P E N T S. 405 

The eighth Serpent of Amloyva, is covered with 
fcales refembling oak bark. It is of a chefnut colour 
on the back and fides, fpotted with a mixture of white 
and yellow. The fcales which run a-crofs under the 
belly, are marbled or variegated with red and white, 
and the head is of the fame (hape as that of other Ser- 
pents. They can turn and fold up their bodies, in 3 
very uncommon manner, and particularly their tails, 
more than other Serpents, becaufe the bones in the 
latter, are joined to each other, fo clofe, that though 
they can move their tails, they are not fo pliant by 
far, as they are in thefe, whofe joints are extremely 
loofe. 

The ninth Atnho^na Serpent, has the head covered 
with large yellow fcales, edged with a bright red. 
Thofe on the body are thin, and of a yellowiih red. 
There is a dufky reddifh ftripe runs along the upper 
part of the body, from the head to the extremity 
of the tail. The nape of the neck is marked with 
fpots, that afterwards turn into broad reddifh ftreaks, 
and at the end change again into round fpots. The 
fides of the belly, are variegated with white and 
red fpecks ; but the fcales of the belly are entirely 
white. 

The tenth Amboyna Serpent, has a crown on the 
top of the head, and on each fide of it near the 
jaws, there are two fmall procefles like wings, which 
are covered with hair. That which is called a crown, 
is nothing but a black mark refembling one. The 
back is of a yellowiih aih colour, variegated with 
brown fpots. The belly is of a dirty blue, mixed 
with yellow. Thefe fort of Serpents, according to 
Seba, are amphibious, living equally on the land and in 
the water. 

The FLYING SERPENTS of Amhoyna, according 
to Seba, are of two kinds. The fcales of the firll, 
are all feparated from each other, and each is painted 
in a particular manner, on a ground as black as a 
crow, and each has fpots as white as fnow, and as it 
were fringed at the edges. The fcales on the belly are 
white. 

The 



404 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The fecond Flying Serpent has blue fcales on the 
back, mixed with white ; but thofe that run a-crofs 
under the belly, as far as the end of the tail are white ; 
and thofe that cover the upper part of the tail, towards 
the extremity, form a kind of chain work. This Ser- 
pent is alfo found in Egypt, Lybia, the ifland of Lemnosy 
that of Rhodes in Calabria, and in Sicily. Thefe Flying 
Serpents, are of the kind which L«//>^ authors call Aeon- 
tius, or yaculum, both which words fignify a dart. 

The ORIEN PAL SERPENT, is as Seba informs 
us, an animal that leaps. The body is four cubits in 
length, though it is not above two inches and a half 
thick ; the fcales are beautiful, in the form of lozenges, 
and painted of various colours ; only thofe on the neck 
are whitiih mixed with red. The trunk of the body, as 
far as the beginning of the tail, is of a yellowifh afh 
colour, covered with fingular red fcales, in fome fenfe 
reprefenting ribbands, marked in the middle with white 
fpots, that are double near the tail. This is large, red- 
difh, and terminates in a point. The tranfverfe fcales 
of the belly are of a pale yellow, and barred with ftreaks 
of a faint red. 1 he head is proportionable to the reft 
of the body, and the forehead is defended with large 
fcales of a citron colour. The neck is adorned with a 
collar of a beautiful red. 

The little ORIENTAL SERPENT, has a tail that 
terminates in a point. It is red on the upper part, yel- 
low beneath, and fpeckled from the head to the begin- 
ing of the tail, with black fpots regularly placed. The 
tail terminates in a point as (harp as a needle. 

The Eajl Indian SERPb.NT, is long and black, and 
is a kind of a dart. It has a flender body, with white 
and black fpots on the back ; and the fcales thereon are 
variegated, with white, brown and black. It will thrull 
out its ftately head towards a fmall bird perched above 
him ; for thefe are his food. The belly, as far as the 
point of the tail, is fpotted with black. It is called in 
the Eaji Indies, the flying Serpent, or the Serpent 
that darts itfelf as fwift as an arrow upon its prey. 

The SERPENT oflemafe, is curioully ipotted, and 
the fpots refemble fo many eyes. The fcales are rhom- 
boidal, and of a reddiih colour, variegated on the back 

with 



O F S E R P E N T S. 4C5 

With large yellow fpots edged with red. On each 
fide of the belly, according to the length, between two 
of thefe large fpots, there are others more fniall, yel- 
low, round, placed in order, and very like eyes fur- 
rounded with a red ring, and having as it were a pupil 
in the middle, of a deep red colour. There is alfo 
under thefe fpots, another row. which are of a reddiOi 
brown, and the fcales of the belly are inclining to red. 

There are feveral Serpents of the ifland of Ceylon^ 
mentioned by Seba in the following order. The firft 
Serpent of Ceylon, is ftriped with a brownifli colour ; the 
ftripes extend from the head to the extremity of the tail; 
and the belly is white and covered with fmall rhomboi- 
dal fcales. On each fide there is a fmall white ftripe, 
which is a great ornament to this fmall Serpent. 

The fecond Serpent of CeyJon, is as red as coral, and 
its Ikin is inclinable to a pale red. It is covered with 
fpots as red as fcarlet, regularly placed, which greatly 
fets off the beauty of this animal. The head is adorned 
with fomewhat larger fcales, which are of a very pale 
red, and the tail terminates in a very (lender point. 

The third Serpent of Ceylon, is extremely beautiful, 
and painted in a very lingular manner. There are two 
ftripes on the top of the body, which crofs each other 
and form a kind of net work ; and in the meihes, or 
fpaces between them, there are round whitifh fpots, 
which almoft difappear towards the belly : the head is 
the moll beautiful part, and the neck is flender. The 
tranfverfe fcajes on the top of the body, are of a dirty 
white. This fort of Serpent feeds upon infedls and 
lizards. 

The fourth Serpent of Ceylon, delights to be among 
deferted buildings, and hides itfelf in the ruins of old 
walls, from whence it iallies out from time to time, 
io catch flies, beetles, and other infeds. It is a very 
mild harmlefs animal, and does harm to no-body : the 
Ikin is traverfed with fpots in the form of flames. 

The fifth Serpent of Ceylon, is very fmall, and has 
white and black llreaks on the back. It is defended with 
pretty large fcales of a violet colour, and furrowed ac- 
cording to the length of the body with black and white 
breaks : the fcales of the belly are of a paler violet? 

The 



4o6 THE NATURAL HISTORY 

The fixth Serpent of Cejhf?, is marked with beauti- 
ful fparkling fpots. The hack is covered with fmall 
yellowilh Jcales, marked with white or reddifh fpots, fo 
brillianc, that they feem to fparkle. The head is fur- 
nilhed with large yellowifh fcales, variegated with white, 
and the fcales of the belly are inclinable to yellow, only 
they are adorned here and there with a little red. 

The feventh Serpent is diftinguifhed by long ftreaks. 
The colour is chefnut, interfered with red and white, 
and adorned with llreaks like net work, which run along 
according to the length of the body : the head and nofe 
are made like thofe of a dog, but prettily fpotted. This 
Serpent, fays Seba, makes an agreeable kind of noife, 
as if it intended to invite paffengers to admire the beauty 
of its colours. 

The eighth Serpent of Ceylon, is variegated with an- 
nular flripes, and is pretty fmooth, long, flender, and 
of a yellowifh afh colour, marked with dark brown 
fpots on ample fcales, made in the form of lozenges. 
The ftripes are broad, and variegated, running round 
the body like rings : the fcales on the body are inclin- 
able to red ; and the eyes are beautiful and brilliant. 
T he forehead is defended with large whitilh fcales, and 
the nofe is crofTed with a chefnut coloured llripe, like- 
wife the hinder part of the neck is fhaded with a very 
large fpot. 

The ninth Serpent of CeyJon is red and yellow, and 
encircled from the head to the end of tlie tail, with 
broad, brown, ftripes : the body is long, flender, and 
covered with fmall rhomboidal fcales : thofe under the 
belly are of a bright afh colour, and the head is fmall. 
The inhabitants of Ceylon, admit this Serpent into their 
houfes, it being a harmlefs animal. 

The tenth Serpent of Ceylon, is called by fome the 
Cross, becaufe its body is marked with black ftripes, 
that form, in traverfmg each other, a kind of croffes, 
between which there is a whitifh fkin fpeckled with 
black. It is covered with fmall fcales, that in fome 
fenfe imitate marble of two diftindl colours. 

The eleventh Serpent o^ Ceylon, is the moil beautiful 

and moil uncommon of all ; and it has a triple llripe, 

confiding of black, whitifh and reddiHi colours. The 

^ belly 



O F S E R P E N T S. 407 

belly is of a fine white, traverfed with black fcales : the 
head is adorned with very curious fcales. 

The twelfth Serpent of Ceylon, has long reddifh 
ilreaks, formed in the manner of chains, which rua 
magnificently down the back ; and throughout the 
length of the belly, the fcales are of a pale blue : the 
belly is of a yellow colour, fprinkled with red fpecks. 

The thirteenth Serpent of Qy/o;^, feeds upon rats^ and 
its colours are extreamly beautiful. 

The fourteenth Serpent of Ceylon, is very beautiful, 
and has brilliant fparkling eyes : the fcales on the upper 
part of the body are very black, and Ihining ; it is 
variegated on the back with whitilh flowers in the form 
of rofes ; and there are other fpots like croffes. Each 
of thefe lail is compofed of five oblong fpots, which 
pretty well refemble a liower with four petals : there 
are long whitilh llreaks, which run according to the 
length of the belly, and are regularly placed. The 
head is barred with yellow ilreaks, placed crofT-ways, 
and fprinkled with yellow fpecks : the tranfverfe fcales 
on the belly are green and yellow. 

The fifteenth Serpent of Ceylon is fmall and pretty, 
and the fkin is handfomely fpotted : the back is marbled 
with large red and whii:e fpots, raifed in the form of a 
buckler ; the belly and the fides are marked with fpots 
of a deep yellow colour. Thofe that adorn the head 
are of the fame colour, but formed in the manner of 
iluds. 

The fixteenth Serpent of Ceylon, has a forehead of a 
bright red colour, and the body is covered with great 
and fmall fcales ; but thofe on the back are very thin, 
are of a reddifh colour and variegated with white fpots 
of different colours. 

I'he feventeenth Serpent of Ceylon, is long, (lender, 
and called by fome the Squir rel Eater, and it excels 
a cat in the manner of catching tliem. Italfo lives upon 
lizards and frogs : the head and neck are magnificently 
fpotted, and the eyes are large and fhining. i he back, 
from the nape of the neck, to the extremity of the tail, 
is marked with llreaks like net work of feveral colours, 
as yellow, white, green, and poppy colour : the yellow 
is a gold colour, and the white appears like filver ; 

likewife 



408 THE NATURAL HISTORY, &c. 

likewife the green that lies next to the white, is very 
gay, lively, and (hining : the fcales on the belly are all 
whitiih, and thofe on the back are oblong ; but thofe 
on the fides are rhomboidal. Serpents of this kind have 
been brought from America^ but the colours are not fo 
brilliant as thofe oiCeylon^ according to Seba. 

The eighteenth Serpent of Ceylon^ has fcales as black 
as ebony, fprinkled with white fpecks on the upper 
part of the body. There is a fort of bracelet of pearls 
about the forehead, and the back is fprinkled with white 
flowers, in the fhape of rofes regularly placed. The 
tranfvcrfe fcales are of a greenifti yellow ; and Seha 
thinks this may be called the Serpent cloathed in a rich 
mourning habit. 



The End of the Third Volume, 




INDEX. 



ABerdeen-fifli, 82 
Abucatuaia, 148 
Acarauna, 152 
Acara-aga, 2^4 
Acarauna, black, 152 
Acara, 210 
Acarapata, 206 
Acarupuca, 210 
Acchiata, 195 
Acoalt, 359 

, fquare, ibid. 

Acontuis, 364 

Acorn Ihell-fifli, 334 

Acrapitamba, 210 

Adano, 168 

Adella, 168 

Adder, fea, 74 

Adonis, 119 

Airebe, a iort of flair, 37 

Albacore, 94. 

Albora, 197 

Albula, noble, q8 

, blue, ibid. 

, of Gefner, 99 

Altavela, 36 
American old wife, 152 
Amore tanga, 126 
— — guacu, ibid. 

•— pixuma, ibid. 

Vol. III. 



Ammodytes of Ceylon, 356 
- of Surinam, 



356 



-, a fand~fer- 



pent, 357 
Amphifbasna, 362 
Anchovy, 158 

, golden, ibid. 

Angel, or monk-fifii, 41 

Anthris, 202 

Apameya, a Syrian fer- 

pent, 362 
Argentina, 1 59 
Argus, a Guinea-ferpent, 

359 
Armour-filli, 124 

^fculapian ferpents, 366, 

367 
Afper, orrough-£fh, 146 
Atherina, 126 



B 



BAgre-d-rio, 1 29 
Balaou, 124 
Balance- fill), 31 
Bald-pate, 214 
Barracada, 105 
Barbel, 186 
— , fea, 19S 

T Barrel- 



Barrel-cod, 82 

Bafs, 150 

Bat, water, 47 

Baypana, an African fer- 

pent, 35 
Becune, 221 
Bellows-fiih, 76 
Bennet, 226 
Bib or Blinds, 87 
Biten of Ceylon, 367 
Bitter-fifh, 218 
Bivalved-fhells, 31410323 
Black-fiih of Aleppo, 1 14 
Blay or Bleak, 188 
Bleak, ibid. 
Blick, 158 
Blind-worm, 363 
Blind-ferpent, American, 

365 
Blower, 70 
Boar, fea, 248 
Bodians, 213 
Boidjapa, a ferpent of 

Brafil, 374 
Boga, 199 
Bone-fiih, 218 
Bonettoe, or Scad, 139 



INDEX. 

Brill or Pearl, 49 
Buccinum, 279 to 284 
Bullcard, 118 
Bulhead, lake, 121 

, Venetian, ibid, 

, white, ibid 

— — , 122 

Bull Trout, 104 
Bunch filh, 17 
Burbot or Eel-pout, 1 1 1 
Butt, 50 

, thorny, 51 

— , fmooth, ibid. 
Buts-koff, II, 12 
Butter-iiQi, 208 
ily-filh, 117 



^c^f 



the Indian 



feas, 96 
Botargo, how made, 1 3 1 
Bounce, 33 
Bouvir, 191 
Branlingor Samlet, 103 
Brafilian filh, barbed and 

prickly, 128, 129 
Bream, 176 

-, fe^ 178, 196 
, ftone, 193, 214, 

228 
Bret, 48 
Brick of the Germans, 5 4 



CAbaliau, 227 
Cabos, 2i6 
CiEcilia, 163 
Callorhynchus, 114 
Cantharus, 195 
Camari-puguaga, 159 
Capelan, Sg 
Captain, 222 
Carauna, 28 2 
Carango, 238 
Carange, 222 
Carapo, a Brafilian fifh, 6y 
Caraffe, 180 
Carp, 169 

, prickly, 178 

, fhort, 180 

Caflaon, 30 
CafTe-burgot, 165 
Cat fifli, greater, 33 
■ greateft, 34 

,64 

Cavallo, of the Portuguefe, 

Caviar, 



I 



N 



D 



Caviar, how made, 167 
Ceixupeira, a Brafilian filh, 

144 
Cenchri-, 363 
Cencoalt, a viper of New 

Spain, 371 

, American, ibid, 

Centrina, 32 
Cepole, 66 
Charr, red, 108 

, gilt, 109 

Channadella, 203 
Chevin, 185 
Chinefe-iifh, 219 
Chromis, 205 
Chub, 185- 

, greedy, 186 

, ofpafTage, ibid 
— — , pond, ibid. 
Cinoe dus, 201 
Clarias, 113 
Club, ray, 41 
Coal-fi(h, 86 
Cobra-de-vario, 172 
Cobra- de-coral, 373 
Cobra-de-lepo, 374 
Cobra-de-capello, 378 to 

384 
Cobra-de-neuftria, 379 
Cobra- verde, 375 
Cobra- delos-cabefas, 363 
Cochlea, 283 to 287 
Cockles, 321 
Cod-filh, 82 
, the method of 

falting, 85 
Cod-fifhery, where beft, 83 
Conger-Eel, 64 

— , Indian, ibid. 

Corciro, 143 
Corvina, 144 
Coorza, 96 



Crabs, 240 
Crab, foldier, 249 
• , Tea, 240 

, called Maga, ibid. 
— , named Hippocarci- 
nus, 241 

, rock, ibid. 

— , Heracleotic, 242 

, horfeman, ibid. 

——,undu]ated yellow, 243 

■ , marbled, ibid. 
— , heart, ibid. 
— , fpider, ibid. 
— , river, 244 

, fquare, ibid. 
, violet, 245 

, white, 248 

, flame-coloured, ib. 

' , Brafilian, 249 

• , fea, Eall-lndian, 

250 
•— — , blue, 251 



green, 



ibid. 



named Guaia-apera, 
252 
I , named Cararauna, 

253 
— , named Cunuru, ib. 
, called Ciecie-ete, 

ibid. 
• , named Ciri-apoa, 

ibid. 
— , named Uca-una, a 

pond Crab, 254 
, termed Guanhumi, 

ibid. 
— , called Araiu-pinima, 

ibid. 
— , called Maracoani, 

, termed Potiquiquiya, 

ibid. 
T 2 Crab, 



I N 

Crab, called Tamara- 

guacu, 2^6 

, called Parancare. 257 

, termed Guaracuru, 

ibid. 
Cramp-filh, 4; 
— — — , American, 45 
Cray-fiQi, 237 

— — , Eaft-India, ibid. 

Cricket, a fort of whiting, 

6; 

Crook-back iifh, 217 

Cruy-fhage, 32 

Cucuri, a kin to a fhark, 

Cugupu-guacu, 152 
Cururuca, 207 
Cuttle-fifh, 230 
Cylindric Ihells, 307, 308 



D 

DAB, 50 
Dace, or Dare, 187 
Darts, 364 
Dentale, 197 
Depona, a very large 

Mexican ferpent, 371 
Devil, fea, 46 
- -, fea, middling, 211 
— — , fea, fmall, ibid. 
— , fea, of the coaft orf 

Guinea, 212 
Dipfa?, 383, 384 
Dog, picked, 32 
Dcg-fiih, fmooth, 33 

, brown, 32 

Dolphin of the ancients, 

26 
' • of the moderns, 

149 



» E X. 

Dorado, 149 
Doree, 1 47 

Dorfch, a fort of cod, 87 
Dragon-ffh, 125 
Dragon, fea, 138, 139 
Drummer-filh, 144 
Dryinus, a very large fer- 
pent, 365 
Dung-fifh, 193 



EAGLE, fea, 3^ 
Eaft-lndian Mullet, 
219 
Eafl- Indian Whiting, 22® 
Eel, 59 

— , Lamprey, 55 
— , fea, 63 

, fand, 65 

— , pout, I n 

— — , of Senegal, 62 

— , fea, or water ferpent, 

214 
Eels, their different forts, 

63 

Elephants-trunk- fifh, 161 
Elft, afortoffhad, 226 
Elops, a ferpent of the ifle 
ofLemnos, 365 



FAther-lafher, 208 
Fiie-Oiell-fifli, 399^ 
340 
Fin-fifh, a fort of whale, 11 
Fingering, 103 
Finf^er fhell-filli, 333 
Finfcale, 183 

Fire- 



INDEX. 



Fire-flaire, 36 
Fifgurn, 115 
Five-fingured-fifli, 220 
Flair, 38 

Flounder -head, 1 1 
Flounder or Fluke, ijo 
Flounder, Jamaica, ibid. 
Flounder, Corniih, 49 
Flying-fifli, 136 
Fordich-trout, 107 
Fork- tailed fiih, 221 
Four-fingered-filh, ibid. 
Fox, Tea, 31 
Frefh- water fhell-fiih, 341 

to 349 
Frog-hfh, 46 



GAR-FISH, 160 
Gar-fifh, fcaly, 161 
Gar-filh of Bellonius, ibid. 
Gatviih, 202 
Gattorugine, Venetian, 1 1 8 
■ I--, green fpotted, 

ibid. 
Gerenda, an Eaft-Indian 
ferpent, 357 

- , an African fer- 
pent, 357 
Germon, a iort of Bonettoe, 

96 

Giboya, 161 
Gilt char, 109. 
Gilt-fifh, 147 
Gilt-head, or Gilt-pole, 

196 
Glaucus of feveral kinds, 

141, 142 
Goat, fea, 74 
Grampus, 11 



Grayling, 100 

Grey, or Grey-lord, 104- 

Grey-gurnard, 134 

Grey -grunt, 144. 

Grill, 36.; 

Groundling, 190 

Guara-guaru, 192 

Guararua, 152 

Guacari, 132 

Guatacupa-juba, 210 

Guabi-coara, 197 

Guaperu, a fort of Porcu- 
pine, ^6 

Guatacupa, 144 

Guaperua^ 75 

, broad, 76 

• , greateil, ibid,. 

*- ■ — , broad, with at 

llreaky tail, ibid. 

Gudgeon, 189 

•——--, leiTer, 190 

) fea, 122 

Guera-tebara, 139 

Guinead, 97 

Gunnel, or Butter-fifli, 208; 

Gurnard, bearded, 137 

-, beardlef?, 133 

— — — -, Eaft-Indian, 21 6- 

y grey, 134 

— — , rough, ibid. 

, red, 135 

, greateft, 137 

' , king of, ibid. 

< , Harwich, ibidi 



H 



H 

ADDOCK, %-j 
Hake, 89 



Halibut, 52 

H ai e, fea, three ibrts, . 23 2: 

T 3 Hauun, 



Hautin, {o called in Flan- 
ders, 99 
Heart- (hells, 326 
Hedge hog, fea, 70 
Hepatus, fort of fea bream, 

197 
Hermit, or foldier crab, 

249 
Hernng, i£;f 

, Indian, 15^7 

■ fifhery, 154 ^ 

, method of curing, 
ibid. 
Herrings, mother of, 156 
Hippocampus, 72 
Hippo, 361 

Hoemorrhois, Indian, 158 
Hosmorrhois, ibid. 
Hosmaceta, a ferpent of 

Afia, 361 
Hog-fifh, 24, 2i6 
Hog, fea, 214 
Holocentrus, 148 
Horn-fi(h, 166, 217 
Horned fnake, ^84 
Hufs, 168 
Hottentot-fiHi, 226 
Hound-fifh, 32 
Hump-fifh, 17 



INDEX. 

Ibijara, a Brafilian ferpent, 

363 
Iceland-fi{h, 82 
Tfinglafs-filh, 168 
Julius, a fort of finall 

Wrafle, 201 



JAcobevertfcn-fifh, 2 1 7, 
227 
jack or Pike, 163 
Jaquaraca, a Brafilian-fifh, 

205 
Jaucaacanga, a Brafilian 
ferpent, or hunting fer- 
pent, 358 



K 

KAELT-FISH, 215 
Keeling, orCod-fiih, 
82 
King's-fiih, 215 

• , of Pifoy 97 

Kitt, 49 

Klip-fifh, 217 

Klorzez, a fort of Bream, 

179 
Kneffen, a fort of Carp,, 

217 
Knobbed-fifh, 17 
Kokob, 358 
Korette, fea,, 219 



LAKE-TROUT, 104. 
Lampem, 54 

Lamprey, 53 

, Eel, 55 

■ -, Eel-pout, 216 

'-, blind, 56 

-, of Swifferland, 

r 54 

Lampugo, ia called at 

Rome, 77 
Lark, fea, 1 18 
Laveretto, 98 
I.aunce, or Sand-Ecl, 65 
Leaping* 



I N 1 

Leaping-fiih, 220 
Leccia, of the Italians, 141 
Limpets, 301 to 304. 
Ling, 90 

Lingatula, fort of Sole, 53 
Linguado, fort of Sole, ib. 
Lizard, fea, 161 
Loach, no, 190 

, bearded, 190 

. '-, fea, no 

— — — , lake, 112 

— — , viviparous, ibid. 

-, fofTile, ibid, 
Lobfter, 233 

. ', Elephant, 236 

— -, fea, fmall, ibid. 
— — ofRondeletius,ib. 
Locuft, fea, 235 
Lota, 1 1 2 
Loufe, fea, 216 
Luce, or Pike, 163 
Lug a-Leaf, 49 
Lump, or fea-owl, 123 
Lumpen, 67 



M 

MAckarel, lefler, 94 
Maekarel of Suri- 
nam, 140 
Maekarel, Spaniih, 90 
— — , horfe, 139 

, how caught, 

192 
Maraffus, an Arabian viper,. 

Marena, a fort of herrings 

158 
Mataraque, 163 
Moenas, 199 
Millers's Thumb, 122 



E X. 

Minnow, 191 
Monk, or angeUfifh, 141 
Monk-ray, 43 
Morga, or bounce, 33 
Mormyras, 198 
Mud fifh, 196 
Mulgranock, 1 1 8 
Mullets, their feveral kinds, 

131, 132 
Muraena, 53 
— -, African, 58 

-, Eaft-India, ibid, 
— — , Brafilian, ibid. 
— — -, American, ibid. 
Murex, 284 to 287 
Mufcles, 323 10326 



N 

NAmelefs-fiih, 229 
Nanvale, 13 
Narinara, a Brazilian fiitt, 

37 
Nautilus, the feveral forts^ 

273 to 276 
Needle, fea, 73, 223 
Needle, fea, worm Iike> 

74 
Nettle, fea, 349 to 352 
Nhamdia^. a Brafilian fifh, 

129 
Nigni, a Brafilian fiib> 1 39 
North-fea-cod, 82 
Nofe-fifti, 184 



OLD-wife, America!, 
152 

Old-wife, or wraffe, 2Q0 
Orb, 



INDEX. 



Orb, 68 

— , prickly, 68, 69 
, prickly, with net- 
work, 69 

, frog mouthed, ibid. 

, of Rondeletius, ib. 

— , bare-headed, ibid. 

— , fliield, ibid. 

, fmooth, 70 

Oifie. 224 

Orpheus, of the ancients, 
197 

— , ofBeJlonius, ib. 

Olbacion, 71 

, horned, ibid. 

— — — , fnouted, ibid. 
•, quadrangular, 



ibid. 



of the river 



Nile, ibid. 
Otter-pike, 139 
Outin, 99 

Owl, fea, or lump, 123 
Oxe eye, 199 



PA MP US, 78 
Pargie, a fort of fea 

bream, 196 
Farrot-fifli, 218 
Paru, 151 
Pearch, 14; 
. , pike, 146 

, Amboyna, 147 

, fea, 203 

Pearl, 49 

Peixe gallo, 148 

JPefce porco, 32 

Pholis, of Rondeletius,! 19 

Piaba, 192 



Piabucu, 127 

Picked dog-fifh of Clufius, 

34 
Pigeon, fea, 74 
Pignoletti, 122 
Pike, or Pickerill, 1 63 
Pike, fea, 130 
Pilchard, it;^ 
Pilot-fifh, 155 
Pink, or minnow, 192 
Pink, fcaly, ibid. . 
Piper, 155 
Pipe fhell, 309, 310 
Piper, of Rondeletius, 135 
Piquitinga, a Brafilian fifh,, 

Prratiapua, 193 
Pira-pixanga, 202 
Pira nema, 212 
Pira-acangatara, ibid. 
Pira-jurmenbeca, 206 
Piraumbre, 204 
Piratiapia, ibid. 
Pira-coaba, 127 
Piraya, three forts, 162,. 

Pit-fifh, 219 
Plaice. 49 
Pock-fifli, 218 
Pogge, 123 
— -, Brafilian, 124^ 
Pollock,, rawlin, 86 
— — — , whiting, 85 
o >" ', yellowilh, 87 
Pola, ofBelonius, 53 
Polypus, 230 
Pompilus, 150 
Pope, or ruff, 207- 
Poor-John, 82 
Porpus, or porpefs, 24 
Porpus, anatomy of, 25 
Porcelaia-ihells, 3 1 1 to 3 14 
Porcupine, 



INDEX. 

Rhomboides, a fort of 

Plaice, 51 
Ribband fifh, 78 
Roach, 11 8 
Rock fifh, 122 
Round-fiih, 220 
PCough-hound-fiih, ? 5 
Rough -flair, 37 
Rud, 183 
Ruir, or Pope, 207 



Porcupine, Tea, 68 

Pot wall iifli, 10 

Pout, whiting, 89 

Prawn, 235 

Pride of the Ifis, 54 

Prickleback, or fnarpling, 

2og 
Prince of Serpents, 359 
Punarua, a Brafilian-fifti, 

119 



Quadrangular- fifh, 72 
Quadrangular, fout- 
ed-fi(h, ibid. 
Quadrangular, fpotted-fifli, 
ibid. 



R 



RAttle-fnake, Carolina, 
384 
Rattle fnake, 368 
Pvaven-fifh, 215 
Raven, fea, 134 
Rawlin pollock, 86 
Ray, fliarp fnouted, 40 

, rough, 42 

— — , very rough, ib. 

■ , very fmooth eyed, 

ib. 

--, very rough eyed, ib. 

■ , ftellated, 43 

' , rough ftellated, ib. 

Razor-fifh, 150 
Red-char, 108 
Red-eye, 1 80 
Red- gurnard, 135 
Red-filh, 218 
Rhagua'ga, 1^1 



SACCHET, 203 
Sailor, 273 
Salmon, 100 

fry, ioi 

leap, 102 

trout, 1 04 

Salpa, 198 

Salvelin, i 6 

Samlet, 103 

Sand Eel, or Launce, 55 

Sard a, 92 

Sardella, 156, 157 

Sardin, 156 

Sargo,j95 

Saw-fifn, 34 

Scad, or Bonettoe, 3-9r 

Scarus, feveral forts, 1 94 

Scate, 38 

Scharaitfer, 207 

Schelly, 98 

Schroiin, 207 

Scollop fhells, 33010333 

Scorpion, fea, three forts, 

205, 206 
Scurf, 104 
Scytale, 361 
Sea barbel, iq8 
— boar, 1 48 

Sea 



N D 



E X. 



Sea bream, 178 




Serpents, 352 


— devil, 46 




, eyed, 382 


— cricket, 65 

— devil, three forts, 3 

/J T -K 




*.w^ ^ lU. 


11, 


li'lnrl i^" 


-, uiiiju, 303 


— eagle, 35 




Shad, 156 


— ears, 30 1, 306 




Shark, blue, 30 


— - eel cf Seba, 63 




, white, 28 


— fox, or ape, 3 1 






— cock, 215 




Sharp-fnouted ray, 40 


gudgeon, 122 




Sheat-fifh, 113 


— goat, 174 




Short-nored-filh, 218 


— hare, three forts, . 


232 


Shrimps, 238, 239 


horie, 72 




Silver, fiih, 226 


— horfe, with a mane, 


Simakil Englefe, iifli of 


73 




Aleppo, 67 


— loufe, 216 




Skate, 38 


locnll, 235 




Sleeve-fiih, a fort of cuttle^ 


— needle, 73, 223 




fifh, 231 


—- needle, v/orm like, 


74 


Slow-worm, 303 


owl, 123 




Smaris, 200 


— — pearch, 203 




Smelt, no 


pike, 133 




. , river, ib. 


tench, 120 






porcupine, 68 




Snail, fea, 1 20 


— pigeon, 71 




— ^, gold-mouthed, 287 


fnipe, 219 




, hedge-hog, 281 


— raven, 134 




, belted, 288 


fnail, 120 




— , fmooth, ribband, ib. 


ferpent, 56 




, horn, ib. 


— ferpent, livid, 57 




— , warty, 289 


ferpent, flat tailed 


56 


, fmooth, brown, ib; 


— ferpent, American 


»58 


— — , three ribbed, ib. 


— ferpent, Surinam, 


S9 


, roundiih, fmooth. 


unicorn, 13, 47 




ib. 


weathercock, 68 




.— , toothed, 290 


— wo!f, 66 






hedge- hog, 70 






— fwallow, 134 






parrot, 224 




, tuberculated, 291 


Seps, a ferpent, 358 




, conical, 291, 292 


Serpents, fpcwted, 57 




. , undulated, 291 

Snail, 



Sting-ray, 37 
Stickleback, three 

209 
Stock-fifh, 82 
Stompuren, 228 
Stone-bafs, 196 
Stone bream, 193^ 

228 

Strag-whale, 17 
Sturgeon, 165 
Sucking-fifh, 1 1 7 
Sun-filh, 79 
Sword-fifh, 80 



T 



INDEX. 

Tench, fea, 120 
Terebin, land, 270 
Thornback, 38 
Thumb-footed fhell-filh, 

337 to 339 
Toad fifli, 46 
Toad-fifli, American, 47 
Tobacco-pipe-filh, 162 
Tooth-fliells, 306, 307 
Tope, a fort of dog-fifh, 

31 
Torgoch, 108 
Tortoife, 258 

, land, 264 

' , Brafilian, 265 

- , fea, ib. 

forts, , frelh* water, ib. 

, land, African, 

271 

, chequered, lefs, 

272 
214, Tortue franche, 269 
kaounne, ib. 



Snail, french-horn, 292 

. , ferrated, ib. 

• , of ^fculapius, 366 

, rattle, 386 

• , rattle, of Carolina, 

384 
Seal, 52 

Soldier- crab, 242 
Spanifti-mackarel, 90 
Spara, 19^ 
Spermaceti wale, 12, 18 

, how made, 23 

— , what, 19 

Sprat, or Sparling, 156 
Star-gazer, 144 



caret, 270 



TAmoata, a Biafilian- 
fi(h, 124 
Tape-fifh, red, 1 1 6 
— — -, horned, 190 
— — -, of Rondeietius, 

117 
Tareira, river, 163 
Tareiro d*alto, i 26 
Tarantola, 109 
'I'afTart, 122 
7>nch, 181 



Triangular horned -fifh, 71 
Triangular-iifli, middle 

{jzed, 72 
Triangular-fifli, without 

horns, ib. 
Trout, 106 
•— — , bull, 104 

, falmon. ib. 

, river, ib. 

Trumpet-fifh, jS 
Trumpet-fhels, 279 to 283 
Tub-tilh, 134 
Tunny-filh, 190 

, how caught, 91 

, of Ariflotle, 92 

— — — , of the ille of 

Candy, ib. 
Turbot, 48 

Turtle, 



1 N 

Turtle, 258 

., , anatomy of, 259 

• to 264 

"■ , trunk, 26^ 

-, loggerlicad, ib. 

, hawkfbill, 2L.6 

■ , gi'een, ib. 

land, JeiTer, 271 



Turtles, hew taken, 267 
Turbinated ihells, 293 to 

2^7 



T7IPER, 352 

V Viper of Java, 355 
Viper of Ceylon, ib; 3:^2 

, mouthed-fifli, 57 

A'ipera tricolor, 580 
Umber, or grayling, 100 
Umbla, 105 
Umbra, 142, 143 
Umbrana, 143 
Unicorn-fifh, 217 
, fea, 13, 47 



D E X. 

Whale, defcription of, 6 to 

24 
— -, common, toothlefs, 

6 
— -, fkeleton, of, 10 

, fpermaceti, 12, 18 

— -, greenland, 16 

, eye of, defcribed, 9 

— , flefli, what part 

eaten, ib. 
— ' , fa t, where found, 1 3 

, ftrag, 17 

WhiiF, 49 
Whiitler, 116 
White-fiih, 12 
Whiting, leaft, 89 
Whiting, pollock, 85 
Whiting-pout, 89 
White-horfe, a fort of ray, 

Wolf-fiih, 66 

Wralle, or old wife, 200 

, green, ib. 

' — , painted, 20 r 



fea, 

74 



of the Brafi- 



150 Wreathed-fhells, 297 tojoi 



lians, 
Vuberana, 1 59 
Uribaco, 211 
Vrovv-fifli, 184 



ELLOW-TAIL, 214 



W 



W 



Kathercock, fea, 68 
Vv^eaVtT, 1 3 S 



Whalebone, what, 7 



ZEE 
of 



EE-TONG, a fort 



fole, 228 



N 



i 










^*l 



U 



v<,