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Full text of "The new American : a study in immigration ; chapters I to IV"

^ STUDY IN IMMMATIOtf 




MARY CLARK BARNES 

*4AO> 

LEMUEL CALL BARNES 






GIFT 


OF 




THE NEW AMERICA 
A STUDY IN IMMIGRATION 



Interdenominational 
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Under Our Flag- 
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The Call of the Waters 
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From Darkness to Light 
By Mary Helm 

Conservation of National Ideals 
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M or monism, The Islam of America 
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The New America 
By Mary Clark Barnes and Dr. L. C. Barnes 

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Comrades from Other Lands 
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Issued under the direction of the Council of 
Women for Home Missions 



THE NEW AMERICA 

A STUDY IN IMMIGRATION 



CHAPTERS I TO IV 
BY 

MARY CLARK BARNES 

I 

CHAPTERS V AND VI 
BY 

LEMUEL CALL BARNES 



ILLUSTRATED 




NEW Your CHICAGO TORONTO 

Fleming H. Revell Company 

LONDON AND EDINBURGH 



Copyright, 1913, by 
FLEMING H. REVELL COMPANY 



By MARY CLARK BARNES 

Early Stories and Songs for New Students of 
English. Illustrated, i6mo, cloth, net .60. 
Paper, net .35. 

Through the medium of these stories and 
songs, teachers knowing only English have 
given to pupils of different nationalities the 
ability to speak, read and write the English re 
quired for practical use. 

Dr. Edward A. Steiner says: "Not only 
practical, but it affords easy transition to the 
higher things." 

By LEMUEL C. BARNES, D.D. 

Elemental Forces in Home Missions. I2mo, 
cloth, net .75. 

As the author of that popular missionary 
text-book, "Two Thousand Years of Missions 
before Carey," and as the long-time Secretary 
of one of the largest Home Missionary organi 
zations in this country, Dr. Barnes commands 
a hearing from the religious world. Some of 
the most important issues connected with the 
work of Christianizing America are presented 
with breadth, clearness, force and conviction. 



New York: 158 Fifth Avenue 
Chicago: 125 N. Wabash Ave. 
Toronto: 25 Richmond St., W. 
London: 21 Paternoster Square 
Edinburgh: 100 Princes Street 



Co 

The Strangers within Our Gates 



371489 



CONTENTS 

I. BEGINNINGS 15 

The immigration problem as old as the New America 
Phases of the problem manifested in development of 
original colonies Virginia cavaliers Plymouth Pil 
grims Massachusetts Bay Puritans Connecticut 
Educational problems Development of religious lib 
erty Dutch and English in New York Delaware 
Pennsylvania New Jersey Maryland The Caro- 
linas Georgia The Revolutionary Ideal. 

II. DEVELOPMENT 39 

Expression of nation s intellectual power Inventions 
Explorations Acquisition of new territory Im 
migration attracted by industrial opportunities 
Sources and character of immigration Assisted im 
migration Illiteracy Changing conditions in Ger 
manyConditions affecting Scandinavian immigra 
tion Diversion of British emigration to British colo 
nies Forced immigration from Africa Its cost in 
" irrepressible conflict " The Civil War a test of pre 
ceding immigration Immigration following the Civil 
War. 

III. ADDITIONAL EUROPEAN ELEMENTS . . 61 

The " New Immigration " Dominant racial factors 
Italians Slavs Russian Jews Russian Christians 
Austria-Hungary Slovaks Magyars Other races 
of Austria-Hungary Polish immigration Bohemians 
Balkans Does America need the "New Immigra 
tion " ? 

IV. TENDENCIES 83 

Control of immigration Tests of admission Average 
age of admitted immigrants Findings of the Immi 
gration Commission concerning alcoholism Insanity 
Pauperism Sanitary conditions in dwellings Agri 
cultural pursuits Wage earning Criminality Juve 
nile delinquency Majority of " New Immigration" 



CONTENTS 

unacquainted with source of American ideals Testi 
mony of Professor John R. Green Responsibility of 
Christian patriots. 

V. ASIATIC INFLUENCES 103 

All continents contribute to stream of life in America 
Asia gave us our Bible and our Saviour Growing 
influence of Jews Syrian, Armenian and other con 
tingents from Western Asia From Eastern Asia, 
Chinese, Japanese, Koreans and East Indians Reli 
gions of Eastern Asia winning many Americans Our 
influence on Asia by our treatment of Asiatics in 
America and by direct missions to them, local, denom 
inational and inter-denominational Hundreds of 
students as well as laborers Asiatics within our 
gates the greatest challenge of human history. 

VI. GUIDING AND INSPIRING AGENCIES . . .129 

State agencies for selection, distribution, naturaliza 
tion, education and protection of immigrants Society 
agencies classified as general and racial " Homes" 
Labor Unions Young People s Associations Social 
Settlements Church agencies, inter-denominational 
(six named), denominational, carefully analyzed and 
summarized, and local church with institutional, 
branch and individual work Imperial possibilities of 
the future. 

APPENDIX * 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Landing at Ellis Island .... Frontispiece 

Finnish Family 42 

Rumanian Shepherds 58 

The Worker 71 

[>reek Bride and Bridegroom 79 

Chinese Children s Choir no 



I 

BEGINNINGS 



Every other civilization of which we have any knowledge is 
so much older than that of America that we can take much for 
granted. But with America it is different. The why and the 
wherefore is the constant question; the meaning of it all can 
only be understood by an intimate knowledge of the funda 
mental. . . . 

In America man stands face to face with a civilization in the 
making. A. MAURICE Low. 

I incline to think that the future of America is of greater 
importance to Christendom at large than that of any other 
country. WILLIAM EWART GLADSTONE. 



BEGINNINGS 

THE New America began with the permanent 
settlement of the English at Jamestown in 
May, 1607. Their coming brought a serious 
immigration problem to native Americans. 

For more than a century the vision of a " New 
World " had fascinated European minds and had led 
many an expedition across the sea in search of a shorter 
passage to the riches of India, or in hope of finding 
even greater riches in the precious metals of America. 
Gold was the lure, not only of Spanish adventurers, but 
no less of English noblemen and merchants in suc 
cessive excursions to these shores in the sixteenth 
century. 

The first colonial charter granted to Englishmen for 
purposes of settlement in the " New World " was 
conditioned on " homage and rent." The tract of 
land so granted was known as Virginia and included 
twelve degrees on the American coast, extending from 
Cape Fear to Halifax. The stipulated " rent " was 
one-fifth of the net produce of gold and silver and one- 
fifteenth of the copper. 

Gradually the golden mirage enveloping the New 
World faded in the clear light of experience, and the 
New America emerged as a place of ample returns for 

15 



16 THE NSW AMERICA 

the itiyestnicnt; of : persevering labor and a place of 
refuge for the oppressed and the poor. 

Each of our original thirteen colonies had its own 
phase of the " Immigration Problem " to solve. In 
some cases the phase of that " Problem " which was 
committed to a colony baffled solution and led to delay 
in the making of the New America. 



VIRGINIA 

A notable instance was that of the attempt to colo 
nize Virginia in 1606 under a patent granted by King 
James I. The immigrants, one hundred and five in 
number, included twelve laborers and " a very few 
mechanics." There were forty-eight " gentlemen " to 
four carpenters. There were no men with families. 

This company of men was commissioned to form 
a permanent American colony which was to be " the 
chosen abode of liberty." The code of laws by which 
they were to be governed was framed by the King of 
England. Religion was " established " according to 
the doctrine and rites of the Church of England, and 
dissent was forbidden. Tumults and seditions were 
punishable by death. Legislative authority over the 
colony in affairs, great and small, was the prerogative 
of the English king, only. 

It may have been due to the disparity in numbers 
of " gentlemen " and carpenters and other workmen in 
the wilderness colony that within six months many 
died of privation and suffering, and those who re 
mained reported of their experiences, " Our lodgings 
were castles in the air; had we been as free from all 



BEGINNINGS 17 

sins as from gluttony and, drunkenness, we might have 
been canonized for saints/ 

The coming of one hundred and twenty new immi 
grants with fresh supplies from England brought a 
return of hope to the suffering colonists until it was 
found that the newcomers were " chiefly vagabond 
gentlemen," and goldsmiths, intent on digging gold 
from the earth rather than on industriously building 
that " chosen abode of Liberty " which had been their 
original aim. 

After the coming of a third company of immigrants, 
John Smith, then president of the council, wrote to 
the promoters of the enterprise in England, " I entreat 
you rather send but thirty carpenters, husbandmen, 
gardeners, fishermen, blacksmiths, masons, and dig- 
gers-up of trees roots, well provided, than a thousand 
of such as we have." 

In 1609, after the ships had gone and the colony 
was left to face its problem afresh, President Smith 
required industry of all. " He who would not work 
might not eat." So it came about that " gentlemen " 
became " accomplished wood-cutters." In the follow 
ing spring thirty or forty acres of ground were 
" digged and planted," the culture of Indian corn being 
taught by two savages. 

Slowly but surely the lesson of industry was learned 
by the survivors of the company commissioned to found 
the " chosen abode of liberty " in the New America. 
The problem of the creation of a free commonwealth 
by immigrants to whom all freedom was denied by 
their rulers on the other side of the sea was finally 
rejected as insoluble. 



18 THE NEW AMERICA 

* * * * * "* *,* ** > * 

In May, -1609, : "*he immigration problem" was 
again submitted to Virginia under a second charter 
involving new conditions. The powers which had been 
held by the king were transferred to the company in 
England. The colonization of the land was entrusted 
to " a very numerous and opulent and influential body 
of adventurers, representing the nobility and gentry, 
the army and the bar, the industry and the trade of 
England." Lord Delaware was made governor and 
captain-general for life. 

More than five hundred immigrants left Eng 
land at the first sailing to work out the solution of 
" the immigration problem " in Virginia under this 
new charter. Within a year of their landing the 
whole number of colonists, including these new ar 
rivals, was sixty " reduced to that number," says the 
record, " by indolence, vice and famine." 

In 1619 a new solution was attempted. Kings, par 
liaments, privileged companies, titled noblemen, all 
had failed. As a last resort the colonists were to 
attempt the management of their own affairs. On the 
thirtieth day of July delegates from the eleven planta 
tions of Virginia met at Jamestown for their first 
Assembly. The session was opened with prayer. 
Then the Assembly proceeded to investigate and pass 
upon the proper election of its members in a manner 
quite modern. 

The Church of England was confirmed as the church 
of Virginia. The salaries of ministers were fixed and 
it was enacted that " all persons whatsoever, on Sab 
bath days, must frequent divine service and sermons 
both forenoon and afternoon." Grants of land were 



BEGINNINGS 19 

asked not only for planters, but for planters wives, 
also, " because in a new plantation, it is not known 
whether man or woman be the most necessary." 

Taxes were voted on " excess in apparel." Penal 
ties for idleness were appointed, and for drunkenness, 
and for gaming with dice or cards. Encouragement 
was offered for the cultivation of corn, mulberry-trees, 
hemp and vines. Measures were adopted " towards 
the erection of a university and college," and for " the 
education of Indian boys who might work for the con 
version of their people to the Christian religion." 

Whatever opinion may be held concerning any par 
ticular enactment of this " first elective body that ever 
assembled in the western world," its records are of 
perpetual value as indicating the judgment of the 
colonists as to their own needs. 

In view of current discussion of the different mo 
tives actuating the " new immigration " in comparison 
with the " old," it is to be noted that economic con 
siderations dominated the early settlement of Vir 
ginia. Neither the social order, ecclesiastical regula 
tions nor political forms of England were repugnant 
to these early immigrants. They came quite frankly 
for the purpose of bettering their material condition, 
as well as for the enlargement of the domain of Eng 
land and in the hope of " wynning the savages to the 
Christian faith." 

The Anglican church remained the established 
church of the colony for about a century. In general, 
the social ideal of the colonists was a reproduction 
of the life of England of their time. A landed aristoc 
racy was promoted by the provision that a planter 



20 THE NEW AMERICA 

might claim fifty additional acres of land for every 
person whom he would transport into Virginia at his 
own cost. The lack of popular education made it diffi 
cult to bridge the gulf between classes. 



THE PILGRIMS OF NEW ENGLAND 

Out of the same England and nearly at the same 
period as the permanent settlers of Virginia, came the 
colonists of New England, but with a totally different 
immigration problem. They yielded to none in love 
for Old England and in loyalty to her sovereign, but 
they found themselves at variance with her restrictions, 
both civil and ecclesiastical. 

The Reformation, whose influence had affected all 
Europe, had touched England. But in bringing relief 
from the dominion of the Pope of Rome it had not 
been able to free the people from the despotic rule of 
the King of England. Henry VIII. became " pope in 
his own dominions." In 1539, through his influence, 
a statute was enacted " abolishing diversity of opin 
ions." Death was decreed equally for denying the 
king s supremacy and for doubting his creed. 

Those who held strong convictions of the need of 
reform within the established church and against the 
exercise of civil power in the domain of religion gained 
the title of Puritans, given in derision by those who 
were content with the existing order and who resented 
any suggestion of change. 

Queen Elizabeth s " Commission for Causes Ec 
clesiastical," appointed to search out " heretical opin 
ions, seditious books, absences from divine worship 



BEGINNINGS 21 

established by law, errors, heresies and schisms," and 
to deal severely with all found guilty, relighted the 
fires of persecution. 

In 1608 a company of Independents in the north 
of England, having chosen John Robinson and Wil 
liam Brewster, both Cambridge men, their pastor 
and ruling elder, emigrated to Holland, " where they 
heard was freedom of religion for all men." After a 
year in Amsterdam, recognizing themselves as pilgrims, 
they moved on to Leyden. But they preferred to live, 
if possible, under the government of their native land. 
They began to consider " the most northern parts of 
Virginia " as a region where they might " live in a dis 
tinct body by themselves." 

Taking counsel together, they agreed that " It is not 
with us as with men whom small things can discourage. 
The people are industrious and frugal. We are knit 
together as a body in a most sacred covenant of the 
Lord, of the violation whereof we make great con 
science, and by virtue whereof we hold ourselves 
straitly tied to all care of each other s good and of 
the whole." 

They succeeded in forming a partnership between 
their Leyden employers and some business men in Lon 
don with the arrangement that the services of each 
emigrant should be rated as a capital of ten pounds, 
and should belong to the company. No division of 
profits was to be made for seven years. 

The Pilgrims gladly entered into this engagement 
which bound them for a seven years term in material 
things, since it left them free in regard to civic rights 
and religious liberty. This first colony of New Eng- 



22 THE NEW AMERICA 

land, consisting of forty-one men with their families, 
with no warrant from the sovereign of England or of 
any other nation, with no available charter from any 
corporate body, after a stormy voyage of more than 
sixty days, landed at Plymouth, December 21, 1620. 

The new commonwealth, when it landed from the 
sea, had an organized church and a system of civil gov 
ernment. Hardships were many through the long 
New England winter, but when the Mayflower 
sailed for England in the following April not one of 
the immigrants sailed with her. The " Colony of Con 
science " had come to stay and to work out a destiny 
for itself and for the New America which was in the 
making. Retreat was no part of its programme. 

Without a charter, they established self-government 
whose stability depended on their own character and 
aims. The twelve years which they had spent as im 
migrants in Holland had given them an acquaintance 
with the spirit and forms of republican government, 
a conception of education, of religion and of life, which 
had not been offered them in monarchical England of 
their time. 

PURITANS OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY 

In 1628 the Massachusetts Bay Company sent over 
from England a number of Puritan colonists, includ 
ing John Endicott as governor, with his wife and 
family. They united with other Puritan settlers in 
the region of Boston harbor and founded the first 
town of their colony at Salem, which had been chosen 
by the Company in England as " a convenient place 



BEGINNINGS 23 

of refuge for the exiles of religion." The Company 
had commanded, "If any of the salvages pretend right 
of inheritance to all or any part of the lands granted 
in our patent, to endeavor to purchase their title, that 
we may avoid the least scruple of intrusion," and 
further, to " particularly publish that no wrong or 
injury be offered to the natives." Thus did Puritans in 
England co-operate with Puritans in New England in 
laying foundations for the New America. 

The new colony, having survived its initial hard 
ships and privations, was subjected to the severer test 
of popularity. In their prosperity, intent on their mis 
sion as " a religious plantation and not a plantation 
for trade," they sharpened the severity of their laws 
against infidelity and " sectarianism." 

CONNECTICUT 

The beginnings of Connecticut were made by a group 
of people under the leadership of their pastor Thomas 
Hooker who emigrated from Massachusetts and, in 
1639, adopted a constitution guaranteeing the liberties 
of the people and creating an independent republic. 

Mr. A. Maurice Low, in " The American People," 
characterizes this as " the only written constitution then 
in existence that organized a form of civil govern 
ment," and as "the prototype of the Constitution of 
the United States." 

The constructive work of the ministers of colonial 
days in shaping civic affairs is worthy of note. Three 
colonies, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Haven, 
owed their origin to three ministers, Roger Williams, 



24 THE NEW AMERICA 

Thomas Hooker and John Davenport. They, with the 
Pilgrim colony of Plymouth, stood for larger liberty, 
both civic and religious, than could be found in the 
other colonies at the time of their organization. 

EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS 

The fact that it was their independent thinking which 
had led them to leave their native land was allied 
with the fact that education had a prominent place in 
the development of the New England colonies. As 
early as 1624, Governor Bradford, noting the fact 
that families were teaching their own children as yet 
because of the lack of a common school, added that " it 
is not because the need of education is not realized." 

Early provision was made for public schools in all 
the towns of Massachusetts. In 1647 a ^ aw was passed 
providing that every township of fifty householders 
should have a public school for its children. By 1665 
every town had a common school and every town con 
taining more than one hundred inhabitants had a gram 
mar school. As early as 1636 the colonial legislature 
founded in New Town (Cambridge) the college which 
was named Harvard two years later. 

In Connecticut every town that did not keep a school 
for at least three months in the year was liable to be 
fined. 

Perhaps no other characteristic of the Virginia 
colony indicates so marked a contrast to the ideals of 
the New Englanders as the attitude toward popular 
education. As late as 1671, Sir William Berkeley, who 
had been made governor in 1641, thanked God that 



BEGINNINGS 25 

" there are no free schools nor printing and I hope we 
shall not have them this hundred years; for learning has 
brought disobedience, and heresy and sects into the 
world, and printing has divulged them, and libels 
against the best government. God keep us from both." 
Would it be possible from types of thinking so 
opposite to evolve a common ideal strong enough to 
fuse all elements in the creation of a national life? 



DEVELOPMENT OF RELIGIOUS LIBERTY 

Among those who emigrated from England in 1631 
to escape the persecutions of Archbishop Laud, was 
Roger Williams, a graduate of Cambridge, whose 
advanced views concerning freedom of conscience and 
whose advocacy of the separation of church and state, 
had made him particularly obnoxious to the authori 
ties. 

In Massachusetts, finding that the magistrate re 
quired the presence of every man at the public worship 
of the church, he insisted that " no one should be 
bound to worship or to maintain worship against his 
own consent," and declared that " the doctrine of per 
secution for cause of conscience is most lamentably con 
trary to the doctrine of Jesus Christ." He became 
assistant minister at Salem but soon found himself too 
far from harmony with the ruling powers to be useful 
there. Later he was assistant minister in the Pilgrim 
church of Plymouth. In 1633 he became pastor of the 
Salem church, but was banished by order of the General 
Court in 1635 because of his persistence in teaching 
that " the power of the civil magistrate extends only to 



26 THE NEW AMERICA 

the bodies, goods and the outward estates of men, and 
not to the souls and consciences." 

In mid-winter he went to the shores of Narragansett 
Bay, where he purchased land of the Indian chiefs, 
and founded the colony of Rhode Island, with its basis 
of civil and religious liberty. In regular session of its 
Assembly in May, 1664, the colony enacted that " No 
person shall at any time hereafter be any ways called 
in question for any difference of opinion in matters of 
religion." 

NEW YORK 

New York, having originated as a trading-post under 
the auspices of the Dutch West India Company, was 
the abode of merchants from the first, and a meeting- 
place for representatives of many nationalities and 
many creeds. We are told that " twenty years after 
Hudson had discovered Manhattan, fourteen languages 
were spoken in its streets." 

In March, 1627, the colony on Manhattan sent a 
letter to the Plymouth Colony, claiming " mutual good 
will and service," reminding the Plymouth colonists of 
" the nearness of our native countries, the friendship 
of our forefathers, and the new covenant between the 
States General and England against the Spaniards." 
Governor Bradford replied, " Our children after us 
never shall forget the good and courteous entreaty 
which we found in your country, and shall desire your 
prosperity forever." 

The government of New Netherland had published 
the desire that the population should include " farm 
ers and laborers, foreigners and exiles, men inured to 



BEGINNINGS 27 

toil and penury." Free passage from the Old World 
was offered to mechanics. 

At first citizenship was a commercial privilege, not 
a political enfranchisement. Puritans of Connecticut 
established whole towns, planting their New England 
liberties in their congregational way, in the territory 
claimed by the Dutch West India Company, and met 
no protest from the agents of the liberal-policied Com 
pany. Dutch citizens, watching the experiment, began 
to grow restless, then to ask for the larger liberties of 
citizenship. 

Out of the general unrest came the meeting of an 
assembly in 1653, composed of two deputies from 
each village in New Netherland, and claiming the 
right of deliberating on the civil condition of the 
country. The petition of the assembly, drafted by 
George Baxter, recited that, " We who have come 
together from a various lineage, we who have, at our 
own expense, exchanged our native lands for the pro 
tection of the United Provinces, we who have trans 
formed the wilderness into fruitful farms, demand 
that no new laws shall be enacted but with consent of 
the people; that none shall be appointed to office but 
with the approbation of the people; that obscure and 
obsolete laws shall never be revived." 

" Will you set your names to the visionary notions of 
an Englishman ? " demanded Governor Stuyvesant. 
" Is there no one of the Netherlands nation able to 
draft your petition? And your prayer is so extrava 
gant! You might as well claim to send delegates to 
the assembly of their High Mightinesses themselves! 
The old laws remain in force. Directors will never 



28 THE NEW AMERICA 

make themselves responsible to subjects." He com 
manded the members of the assembly to separate, " on 
pains of arbitrary punishment," giving them as his 
ultimatum, " We derive our authority from God and 
the West India Company, not from the pleasure of a 
few ignorant subjects." 

The West India Company, being appealed to, de 
clared the resistance of the colonists to arbitrary taxa 
tion to be " contrary to the maxims of every enlight 
ened government." The colonists were exhorted to 
" no longer indulge the visionary dream that taxes 
can be imposed only with their consent." 

Lacking freedom as men, the colonists lacked public 
spirit. It was difficult to secure men to go to the relief 
of neighboring villages when attacked by the Indians. 
As the Company claimed absolute sovereignty, the 
people claimed from the Company absolute protection. 
The Company, valuing the colony as property, con 
sidered how far expenditure might be justified on 
business principles. 

When rumor came of an intended invasion from 
England in 1664, a new assembly was held, larger than 
before. When the English fleet appeared off the coast 
of Manhattan, the people surrendered, receiving guar 
antees of security to the customs, the religion, the 
municipal institutions, and the possessions of the 
Dutch. Manhattan became New York, with power 
vested in the people to choose their own magistrates, 
to elect their own deputies and to have a free choice in 
all public affairs. 



BEGINNINGS 29 

DELAWARE 

Within the limits of the present state of Delaware 
settlement was made by the Dutch as early as 1631. 
Swedes and Finns came in 1638. They erected " Chris 
tiana Fort, and named the territory New Sweden." 
In 1664, soon after the English conquest of Manhattan, 
the colonists on the Delaware capitulated, allowing 
England to complete her possession of the Atlantic 
coast territory of the thirteen original states. 

PROBLEMS OF DISTRIBUTION 

Immigration problems of the colonial period were 
complicated not only by the relations of the colonists 
with the proprietors but by their relations with each 
other. All boundaries were in dispute, owing to 
imperfect knowledge of the geography of the coun 
try. 

In 1643, m order to provide for their common secu 
rity and welfare, the colonies of Massachusetts, Ply 
mouth, Connecticut and New Haven, united to form 
the United Colonies of New England, each retaining 
the management of its own affairs while all matters 
relating to the general good were referred to commis 
sioners, two from each colony. From 1652 to 1820 
the history of Maine is merged in that of Massachu 
setts. The relations of Massachusetts and New Hamp 
shire varied until 1741, when the final separation was 
made. The New England colonies claimed western 
boundaries which overlapped the territory claimed by 
the Dutch West India Company and its colony of New 



30 THE NEW AMERICA 

Netherland. The territory which now is Vermont 
was claimed not only by New England but by New 
Netherland and by France. Charter governments, 
proprietary governments, royal governments, became 
entangled with each other, to the greater confusion of 
the immigration problems of all. 

Governor Stuyvesant, of New Netherland, finding 
what he considered encroachments being made on 
every side, went to Boston and entered complaint to 
the convention of the United Colonies of New England. 
His statement of unjust encroachments met a neutral 
attitude on the part of Massachusetts, and a demand 
for delay by Connecticut. Baffled in Boston, the re 
monstrance was carried by an embassy to Hartford. 
When Governor Stuyvesant asserted his right to terri 
tory purchased from the natives, the commissioners 
replied that Connecticut, by its charter, extended from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific. " Where, then, is New 
Netherland ? " asked the Dutch protesters. " We do 
not know," replied the agents of Connecticut. 

PENNSYLVANIA NEW JERSEY 

When William Penn had received from the Eng 
lish government a charter for the land which came to 
be known as Pennsylvania, he issued to the settlers 
who had immigrated to that territory a proclamation 
containing these words, " You shall be governed by 
laws of your own making, and live a free, and if you 
will, a sober and industrious people. I beseech God to 
direct you in the way of righteousness, and therein 



BEGINNINGS 31 

prosper you and your children after you. I am your 
true friend, WM. PENN." 

He addressed a letter to the natives of the Penn 
sylvania forests, declaring himself and them " respon 
sible to one and the same God, having the same law 
written in our hearts, and alike bound to love and help 
and do good to one another." 

The Quaker proprietors in England wrote to the few 
immigrants in New Jersey, " We lay a foundation for 
after ages to understand their liberty as Christians and 
as men, that they may not be brought into bondage but 
by their own consent; for we put the power in the 
people." 

MARYLAND 

The experience of Lord Baltimore illustrates the 
different characteristics of adjacent colonies in the 
New America. He visited Virginia in 1629, bringing 
his family with him, but was refused as a settler on the 
ground of being a " papist." Greatly to the dissatis 
faction of the colonists he secured from the King of 
England a grant of the territory of Maryland, which 
they had considered their own province, and widely 
advertised toleration of all forms of religion in the 
new colony, although Quakers were fined and im 
prisoned on refusal to take an oath, or to perform 
military service. 

THE CAROLINAS 

The permanent settlement of Carolina was closely 
connected with the restoration of Charles II. to the 



S2 THE NEW AMERICA 

throne of England. During the English Revolution 
the sympathies of the majority of the colonists of Vir 
ginia had been with the royalist party as strongly as 
those of the majority in New England had been with 
Cromwell. On the restoration of the monarchy the 
aristocratic party in Virginia led in organizing a royal 
ist assembly, allying it with the English crown, and 
thus sweeping away the progress that had been made 
in self-government. 

Those members of the colony who were out of sym 
pathy with this retracing of the footsteps of the past, 
found the freedom from conventions, both political and 
religious, in the forests south of Virginia congenial 
to them, and Carolina gained an element of the popu 
lation which Virginia lost. 

In 1633 Governor Berkeley, of Virginia, was com 
missioned to institute a government over the people of 
the Carolina region. Without disputing their posses 
sion of lands which they had acquired in part from 
the Indians, and without discussing political principles 
with them, he appointed William Drummond, an im 
migrant from Scotland, as their governor. 

Men from the colony of English wealth, nobility 
and ecclesiasticism, were met there by men from New 
England, the colony of democracy and non-conformity, 
who claimed the privileges of self-government as a 
natural right. The overflow from these two colonies, 
founded on opposite principles, combined to secure 
greater liberty than had been granted to either of the 
parent colonies. 

In 1669 a few laws were framed to fit the local 
needs and, simple as they were, they remained in force 



BEGINNINGS 33 

half a century. New settlers were exempted from 
taxation for a year. Every one joining the colony 
received a bounty in land, but a perfect title was given 
only after a residence of two years. When a constitu 
tion was forwarded by " the proprietors in England," 
in 1671, it was promptly rejected by the people, who, 
intent on solving their own problems, felt no need of 
outside help. 

In 1663 the territory of South Carolina was granted 
by Charles II. to eight " Lords Proprietors," with 
authority to legislate " by and with the advice, assent 
and approbation of the freemen " and " to grant re 
ligious freedom." 

The proprietors furnished free transportation for 
immigrants, and established their own agent in the 
colony to manage all commercial transactions. Soon 
after landing, the colonists took affairs into their own 
hands, somewhat after the manner of their neighbors 
on the north, and instituted representative government 
for themselves, electing five representatives to act with 
the five chosen by the proprietors. 

Religious liberty attracted dissenters from many 
parts of Europe to South Carolina. From England 
came, also, " impoverished members of the Church of 
England." Scotchmen and Scotch-Irish came, at 
tracted by the fertility of the soil and by the prospect of 
peace denied them in their native land during the 
tyranny of Lauderdale. 

King Charles II. provided at his own expense two 
small vessels to bring to Carolina " a few foreign 
Protestants, who might there domesticate the produc 
tions of the south of Europe." 



34. THE NEW AMERICA 

Of the 500,000 Huguenots who escaped from France 
after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, many 
reached America and a large proportion of those who 
came found homes in South Carolina. 

In this freedom-loving colony there came a time of 
confusion between the will of the " Lords Proprietors " 
and the people who refused to recognize their authority. 
Finally, in 1690, a meeting of representatives of the 
colony disfranchised the governor, James Colleton, and 
banished him from the province. So South Carolina 
felt and fought her way to independence fifty years 
after Connecticut had become an independent common 
wealth. 

GEORGIA 

Georgia, youngest of the colonies, was founded in 
1732 by James Oglethorpe, as a place in which the 
unfortunate, especially those who had been imprisoned 
in England for debt, might gain a new start in life. 
By its charter the colony was placed for twenty-one 
years under the guardianship of a corporation, " in 
trust for the poor." The institution of courts and all 
executive and legislative power were given exclusively 
to the trustees for this length of time. Parliament 
made a grant of 10,000 to be used in the establish 
ment of the colony. Through private subscriptions 
botanists were sent to South America and the West 
Indies to find and bring to Georgia the plants best 
adapted to its soil. 

No colony ever was started with better intentions or 
treated with greater generosity, except in the matter 
of placing on the colonists themselves responsibility for 



BEGINNINGS 35 

their own welfare. Those who accepted the opportuni 
ties which it offered included not only English, but 
Swiss, German, Scotch and Hebrew immigrants. 

Though generously aided, the colony did not prosper 
under the rule of the incorporators, who surrendered 
their charter before the end of the specified twenty- 
one years. But in 1768, after fourteen years of find 
ing and making its own way to prosperity, we find 
Georgia reported as " the most flourishing colony on 
the continent." 



THE REVOLUTIONARY IDEAL 

What the Dutch West India Company in 1654 
had characterized as " the visionary dream that taxes 
can be imposed only with the consent "of the taxed, 
was not dispelled by the exhortation of " Their High 
Mightinesses." It became a part of the inspiring ideal 
of resolute freemen and found voice after more than a 
century of waiting, in the Declaration of Independence. 

That, too, was counted a visionary dream by many 
a High Mightiness of the Old World. Were less than 
four millions of people, immigrants from the four 
quarters of the earth, speaking different languages, ad 
hering to differing creeds, capable of amalgamation 
for effective service in resisting foreign domination ? 
capable of that more complete amalgamation which is 
essential to the creation and maintenance of a national 
life? Let History reply. 

Turn to the roll of honor, the names of those who 
helped to create the New America, and let each re 
spond for the land of his birth. England, Ireland, Scot- 



36 THE NEW AMERICA 

land, Wales, Scandinavia, Holland, France, Germany, 
Switzerland, and more; for almost every nation of 
Europe had representatives here, even then. 

Out of the desperate struggle for freedom grew a 
new and stronger ideal of patriotism, of love for the 
country to which, voluntarily and unreservedly, they 
had given their lives, their fortunes and their sacred 
honor. 

Without a common vision, a common ideal, the 
nation could not have been born. Should the vision 
fade, should the ideal fail, the nation could not 
survive. 



II 

DEVELOPMENT 



In her form and features still 

The unblenching Puritan will, 

Cavalier honor, Huguenot grace, 

The Quaker truth and sweetness, 
And the strength of the danger-girdled race 
Of Holland, blend in a proud completeness. 
From the homes of all, where her being began, 

She took what she gave to Man ; 

Justice, that knew no station, 
Belief, as soul decreed, 

Free air for aspiration, 

Free force for independent deed ! 

She takes, but to give again, 

As the sea returns the rivers in rain; 

And gathers the chosen of her seed - 

From the hunted of every crown and creed. 

Fused in her candid light, 
To one strong race all races here unite ; 
Tongues melt in hers, hereditary foemen 

Forget their sword and slogan, kith and clan; 
Twas glory, once, to be a Roman ; 

She makes it glory, now, to be a man! 

BAYARD TAYLOR. 



II 

DEVELOPMENT 

THE infant nation, numbering less than four 
millions, faced its problems of growth and 
development in the same resolute spirit that 
had characterized its struggle for freedom. 

After the achievement of independence the intel 
lectual power of the New America began to manifest 
itself in connection with a mastery of forces which 
brought far-reaching results in the national life. 

The invention of the cotton-gin in 1793 by Eli 
Whitney, has been said by Edwin W. Morse, in 
" Causes and Effects in American History," to have 
had " a greater effect in later years upon political, in 
dustrial and social conditions in the South than most 
of the measures passed by the Federal Congresses. * 

In 1790 Fitch s invention of the steamboat, and, 
in 1807, Fulton s invention of the paddle-wheel boat, 
promoted the navigation of the country s waterways. 

EXPLORATIONS 

In 1791 Captain Robert Gray, commanding the 
Columbia of Boston, a small ship of only a little more 
than two hundred tons, on a voyage around the world, 
entered the Columbia River and sailed up its stream 



40 THE NEW AMERICA 

for twenty-five miles. He carried the American flag 
around the world, sold furs from the northwest coast 
in China and brought back to Boston a cargo of tea. 
His discovery of the great northwest river which he 
named Columbia, after his ship, was the basis of the 
claim established by the United States to the Oregon 
country. 

In 1804 the Lewis and Clark exploring expedition, 
consisting of forty-five men in three boats, starting 
from the village of Saint Louis, went up the Missouri, 
over the Rocky Mountains, to the mouth of the Co 
lumbia River. Their return in 1806, their reports and 
the results of their expedition are matters of American 
history. 

In 1805 the exploration of Captain Pike to the head 
waters of the Mississippi, and, later, through the coun 
try of the southwest, brought to the knowledge of the 
people some idea of the value of the great almost 
unknown region included under the name of " Louisi 
ana," which had been purchased from the French in 
1800. Besides more than doubling the previous area 
of the United States, it was found to possess vast 
agricultural and mineral wealth. 

NEW ATTRACTIONS FOR IMMIGRATION 

The acquisition of Florida from Spain in 1821, the 
annexation of Texas in 1845, and the accession of 
California in 1850 added enormously to the domain of 
the nation. The opening of these vast areas for occu 
pation attracted new immigration to America from the 



DEVELOPMENT 41 

crowded countries of Europe, greatly increasing the 
population of the United States. 

Agriculture was not the only lure to the New 
America, although the opportunity to secure " home 
steads " at low prices in addition to the cost of actually 
settling and cultivating the lands, brought some of our 
most desirable citizens from across the sea. The fact 
that a certain portion of the public land was uniformly 
appropriated for public schools gave assurance of edu 
cation as well as of material support for family life. 

The construction of roads and canals, the building 
of bridges, the opening of new lines of communication 
between different parts of the country in the early part 
of the nineteenth century, brought a steadily increasing 
immigration to meet the new opportunities for the 
investment of industry as well as of money. 

The introduction of railroads in 1830 brought a new 
line of development and expansion, revolutionizing 
previous methods of transportation and opening almost 
incredible vistas of future prosperity. The manufac 
ture of gas and its use in illumination, the invention of 
cylinder printing-presses, of the telegraph, of the 
sewing-machine, of farming machinery, indicate the 
fact that intellectual development was keeping pace 
with and inevitably promoting material prosperity, 
while steadily increasing the demand for physical labor. 

It was the great shipbuilding era of the United 
States. " The building of the ship " not only stimu 
lated the poetic fancy of our Longfellow, but it made 
a reputation for our workmanship and our American 
timber unequaled in the world. Not only were our 
ships built at less cost than those of England, but they 



42 THE NEW AMERICA 

were swifter and lasted twice as long. One vessel is 
reputed to have made one hundred and sixteen round 
trips between New York and Liverpool in twenty-nine 
years, and to have brought thirty thousand immigrants. 

It is estimated that in the first year after the an 
nouncement of the finding of , gold in California, in 
1848, one hundred thousand men reached that coast in 
search of the precious metal. Adventurers whose chief 
incentive in coming to the New America had been the 
hope of finding gold or its equivalent hastened to 
join the " forty-niners," on the Pacific coast. 

Planters of the South pushed into the middle West 
of their latitudes for larger areas of productive land. 
Puritans of New England, in increasing numbers, 
pressed into New York, Ohio, and on westward, 
carrying with them their system of free schools and 
self-governing churches. Mr. Bancroft tells us that 
the early Puritans of New England " were the parents 
of one-third of the whole white population of the 
United States as it was in 1834." 

SOURCES AND CHARACTER OF IMMIGRATION 

In the further development of the New America, 
as in its beginnings, the " immigration problem " was 
one of serious importance. 

The national government began early to scan the 
numbers, the source, the character, the destination and 
the occupation of those who came. From 1820, on 
ward, we find regular annual reports of immigration 
among the Federal records. 

Previous to 1883 ninety-five per cent of the total 




FINNISH FAMILY 



DEVELOPMENT 43 

immigration was furnished by Northern and Western 
Europe, including England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, 
Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Nether 
lands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland. The great 
majority came from Germany and Scandinavia. While 
it is true that "they were prevailingly Teutonic in 
blood and Protestant in religion," these general char 
acteristics had many exceptions. Their motives for 
coming were as diverse as those for the coming of 
immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe to-day. 

Some study of conditions in the countries from 
which our immigrants come is necessary to a just 
understanding of various phases of the problems in 
volved in their immigration. For instance, in 1845- 
1855, the failure of the potato crop in Ireland led to 
the coming of a million and a quarter of Irish immi 
grants, many of whom were neither Teutonic nor 
Protestant. Again, in 1882, their immigration was 
greatly increased in consequence of another famine. 

Those who came from the South of Ireland were 
of a different race from the " Scotch-Irish " of the 
North, of whom Professor Commons, in " Races and 
Immigrants in America," says that " they are very 
little Scotch and much less Irish," but " the most com 
posite of all the people of the British Isles. ... 
They are a mixed race through whose veins run the 
Celtic blood of the primitive Scot and Pict, the primi 
tive Briton, the primitive Irish, but with a larger 
admixture of the later Norwegian, Dane, Saxon and 
Angle." 

They were immigrants from Scotland to Ulster in 
the North of Ireland at the time of the " great settle- 



44 THE NEW AMERICA 

ment," in 1610. In 1718, three hundred and nineteen 
men of them empowered their agent to negotiate terms 
with the Governor of Massachusetts for their settle 
ment in that colony. Ninety-six per cent of the 
whole number wrote out their names in full. It has 
been said that at that time in no other part of the 
British dominions could such a proportion of men, 
miscellaneously selected, have written their names. 

Among the Scotch-Irish was a goodly number of 
French Huguenots and of Hollanders who had come 
over to England with King William from their native 
countries. This stream of immigration turned partly 
eastward and partly southward. At one time it formed 
almost the entire population of- western Virginia and 
of western North Carolina. In later days the Scotch- 
Irish passed into Tennessee and Kentucky. Their de 
scendants in that region still are to be found among 
the " mountaineers," who furnish to-day so large a 
proportion of the workers in Southern cotton-mills. 

Early immigration from Germany was caused by 
that intolerance both in church and state which led 
to the Thirty Years War. Protestantism, which began 
in resisting abuses in the church, was continued logic 
ally in resisting abuses of civic power. In 1710, after 
the French devastation of the Palatinate, about 13,000 
Germans emigrated to England, and of this number 
about 4,000 came in a single year to America. 

ASSISTED IMMIGRATION 

The economic incentive was not lacking as a stimu 
lant to this immigration. Professor Commons tells us 



DEVELOPMENT 45 

that " William Penn and his lessees, John Law, the 
Dutch East India Company and many of the grantees 
of lands in the colonies, sent their agents through 
Western Europe and the British Isles with glowing 
advertisements, advanced transportation and contracts 
for indentured service by way of reimbursement." 
And again, " Not only William Penn himself, but 
other landowners in Pennsylvania and also shipowners 
advertised the country in Germany, and thousands of 
the poorer sort of Germans were induced to indenture 
themselves to the settlers to whom they were auctioned 
off by the ship captains in return for transportation. 
Probably one-half of all the immigrants of the colonial 
period came under this system of postpaid transporta 
tion." 

ILLITERACY 

The settlement and development of the New America 
would have been greatly retarded had literacy been a 
test for the admission of immigrants during the early 
periods of its history. William Heard Kilpatrick, in 
" The Dutch Schools of New Netherland and Colonial 
New York," tells us that " at Albany, of 360 men s 
names examined, covering the years from 1654 to 1675, 
21 per cent made their marks. Of 274 men s signa 
tures at Flatbush, covering a longer period, 19 per 
cent made their marks. Corresponding figures for 
other American colonies are available in only a few 
instances. Of the German male immigrants above 
1 6 years of age who came to Pennsylvania in the first 
half of the eighteenth century, 11,823 names have been 



46 THE NEW AMERICA 

counted, with the result of 26 per cent who made their 
marks. 

" Bruce found, by a most painstaking count of the 
seventeenth-century Virginians, that of 2,165 male 
adults who signed jury lists, 46 per cent made their 
marks, and of 12,445 male adults who signed deeds 
and depositions, 40 per cent made their marks. . . . 
Putting all the Dutch women together, we get, for the 
figures available, 154, a percentage of illiteracy of 60 
per cent. Bruce found in Virginia, out of 3,066 
women signing deeds and depositions, an illiteracy of 
75 per cent." 

In Suffolk County, Massachusetts, including Boston, 
two volumes of published deeds were examined for 
the years 1653-1656 and 1681-1697, in which it was 
found that in each period n per cent of the men made 
their marks. Of the women, 58 per cent in the first 
period and 38 per cent in the second period made their 
marks. 

GERMAN IMMIGRATION 

To-day no element in our immigration is more highly 
esteemed than the German. But Mr. Hourwich, in 
" Immigration and Labor," quotes from a letter of 
Benjamin Franklin, dated Philadelphia, May 9, 1753, 
as follows: 

;< Those who come hither are generally the most stupid 
of their own nation, and as ignorance is often attended 
with great credulity, when knavery would mislead 
k . . . it is almost impossible to remove any preju 
dice they may entertain. * . . Not being used to 
liberty they kno\v not how to make modest use of it. 



DEVELOPMENT 47 

... In short, unless the stream of importation could 
be turned from this to other colonies, as you very 
judiciously propose, they will soon outnumber us, that 
all the advantages we will have will, in my opinion, be 
not able to preserve our language, and even our gov 
ernment will become precarious." 

Considering the honor universally accorded our citi 
zens of German origin to-day, this record of the appre 
hension of an earlier time is reassuring in regard to the 
possibilities of other nationalities who are not yet as 
well known among us. At the present time, solicitude 
in regard to German immigrants is due to the fact that 
their proportion of our total immigration is less than it 
was thirty years ago. 

The cause of this decrease is to be found in the new 
industrial opportunities offered to Germans at home. 
In the closing years of the last century, Germany s 
industrial expansion increased her demand for labor 
to such an extent that she became a country of immi 
gration instead of emigration. Since that time the 
German immigration to the United States has been 
chiefly from Austria-Hungary, instead of from Ger 
many. Since 1880, immigrants from Italy, Russia, 
especially Russian Poland, and Austria-Hungary have 
gone in large numbers to Germany in response to the 
demands for labor in the coal-mining districts, in the 
agricultural regions and in the great industrial cities. 

In 1898 Western Germany had 57,000 foreign- 
speaking mine-workers mostly Poles. The increase 
in the production of pig-iron in Germany during the 
last twenty years is nearly equal to that in the United 
States. This increase has brought a corresponding 



48 THE NEW AMERICA 

increase in the development of railways and of freight 
traffic. 

Germany s new internal developments provide a 
home market for the labor of her own people and com 
pel her to welcome, besides, multitudes from the same 
countries that provide our " new immigration," Aus 
tria-Hungary, Russia and Italy with the difference 
that it is naturally the stronger, more enterprising, 
more courageous, more financially able, who will take 
the longer journey and the greater risk involved in 
crossing the sea to America, rather than merely cross 
ing an imaginary line between their own country and 
Germany. 

The new demand for labor has led to improvement 
in labor conditions. In addition to higher wages and 
reduction in the number of hours, insurance against 
sickness, old age and accident has made wage-earning 
in Germany much more attractive than it was at the 
height of German immigration to America in the 8o s, 
when political oppression added to the discontent of 
workingmen. 

Political conditions in Germany now give no special 
impetus to emigration. The disappearance of cheap 
lands in the United States and the development of 
modern intensive methods of agriculture in Germany 
have further lessened the probability that the large 
immigration of the last century from Germany to this 
country will be repeated. It is not that Germans have 
been " crowded out " of America, but that room has 
been made for them at home. 



DEVELOPMENT 49 

SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRATION 

In regard to emigration from Scandinavia, Mr. E. 
H. Thornberg, of Stockholm, " an expert on the sub 
ject, having first-hand knowledge of the matter," in 
" The Women s International Quarterly " for October, 
1912, makes a statement of changes in Sweden so 
typical of changing conditions in other European coun 
tries from which a large share of our " old immigra 
tion " came, that it forms a valuable contribution to 
our study of the subject. 

Mr. Thornberg writes : " Since the middle of last 
century Sweden has lost through emigration to differ 
ent countries, especially to North America, about 
i, 1 00,000 persons. . . . 

" As early as 1638 Sweden founded in North 
America a small colony on the shores of the Delaware, 
a colony which more or less corresponds to the present 
states of Delaware, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 
Swedish emigration, however, as we understand it, 
only began about 1840, when the general stream of 
emigrants began to rush over from the Old World to 
America. At that time in this country there were sev 
eral factors which co-operated to induce people to cross 
the Atlantic. 

"The birth-rate had been high during the period 
1810-1830. Our young people were touched by a 
spirit of adventure, and feeling their want of oppor 
tunities at home and realizing the westward movement 
in the United States, many made up their minds to 
leave their native country. . . . 

" In 1867-69 there were very poor harvests in 



50 THE NEW AMERICA 

Sweden and of course the consequences were disas 
trous, especially for the agricultural population. At 
the same time the United States was enjoying exceed 
ingly prosperous conditions and the emigration from 
this country reached higher figures than ever before. 
In the eighties, when prosperous times in America 
were again simultaneous with economic depression in 
Sweden, the numbers of emigrating Swedes became 
still larger, our high-water mark being reached in 
1887. The figures for that year have never since been 
equalled. During the four last decades, the figures 
may have varied, but the general tendency is undoubt 
edly a decreasing one The prospects of getting 

a living at home are really better. The agricultural 
and industrial life of Sweden is steadily making prog 
ress, and the whole general standard of living is being 
raised. . . . 

The wages of working men in our own country 
cannot perhaps be raised to the American level of 
nominal wages, but the aim of our social reformers 
is to give them compensation by means of greater secu 
rity and safety in the form of state insurance against 
accidents, sickness, old age, and even, if it be prac 
tical, unemployment, effective, more thorough-going 
factory legislation, etc." 

DIVERSION OF BRITISH EMIGRATION 

In Great Britain to-day the efforts of the Home 
Government are strongly on the side of directing emi 
gration to the colonies of the British Dominion. Not 
only so, the colonial governments themselves in Canada, 



DEVELOPMENT 51 

Australia, New Zealand and South Africa are offer 
ing special inducements to immigrants of British na 
tionality. 

Salaried agents of the Canadian government promote 
immigration from Great Britain to the British colonies. 
Each railroad ticket from Great Britain to Canada 
sold to a British subject, signifying his intention to 
follow farming or railway construction, secures to the 
ticket-agent selling it a bonus of one pound sterling. 

In addition to the definite promotion by British 
Colonial government agencies of emigration to Brit 
ish colonies, charitable, philanthropic and religious or 
ganizations are enlisted in the same cause. In our 
United States, in 1912, 1,333 aliens were excluded 
because found to be contract laborers and 3.1 were 
arrested and expelled from the country on the same 
ground. But Canada and Australia are importing con 
tract labor freely. 

The gradual diversion of British immigration froni 
America is due chiefly to changed conditions on the 
other side of the sea and to strenuous efforts on the 
part of Great Britain and her colonies to secure their 
hold on their own people, and to promote through them 
the expansion of their colonial enterprises. 

FORCED IMMIGRATION 

The development of the New America has been pro 
moted not only by voluntary and assisted immigration 
from Europe but by forced immigration from Africa. 

In August, 1619, only a few days after the meeting 
of the first representative assembly of Virginia, a 



52 THE NEW AMERICA 

Dutch man-of-war entered the James River and landed 
on Virginia soil twenty negroes for sale. All the 
original colonies received slaves from Africa within 
their borders. In the background of the struggle for 
their own freedom from oppression loomed the dark 
shadow of an alien race enslaved by them. 

ANTI-SLAVERY ENACTMENTS 

In Rhode Island as early as 1652 a law was enacted 
that " no black mankind by covenant, bond or other 
wise, shall be held to perpetual service. At the end 
of ten years the master shall set them free." In Ver 
mont slavery was prohibited by law from the begin 
ning. Early differences of opinion on the subject were 
expressed in the colony of Virginia. In 1772, in the 
Colonial Assembly, an address to the king was voted 
stating that " The importation of slaves into the 
colonies from the coast of Africa hath long been con 
sidered as a trade of great inhumanity," and express 
ing the fear that it " will endanger the very existence 
of your majesty s American dominions." The address 
proceeds, " We are sensible that some of your ma 
jesty s subjects in Great Britain may reap emoluments 
from this sort of traffic; but when we consider that it 
greatly retards the settlement of the colonies with more 
useful inhabitants, and may in time have the most 
destructive influence, we presume to hope that the inter 
est of a few will be disregarded, when placed in com 
petition with the security and happiness of such num 
bers of your majesty s dutiful and loyal subjects." 

Mr. Bancroft tells us that " Thousands in Maryland 



DEVELOPMENT 53 

and in New Jersey were ready to adopt a similar 
petition, so were the legislatures of North Carolina, 
of Pennsylvania, of New York. Massachusetts, in 
its towns and in its legislature, had reprobated the 
condition of slavery as well as the sale of slaves." By 
her constitution, adopted in 1780, Massachusetts be 
came a free commonwealth, making the colored in 
habitants, about six thousand in number, fellow- 
citizens, without distinction, with white citizens. 

Delaware, in 1776, in adopting its constitution as an 
independent state, characterized its article prohibiting 
the slave-trade, as one which " ought never to be vio 
lated on any pretense whatever." On the adoption of 
the constitution of New York, in 1777, the article 
against the continuance of slavery was lost, notwith 
standing the fact that " all New York s great states 
men were abolitionists." 

In 1778, Virginia succeeded in prohibiting what she 
had attempted vainly before, the introduction of any 
slave by land or sea, and ordered the emancipation of 
every slave introduced from abroad. An attempt at 
framing a bill for the emancipation and deportation of 
resident slaves came to nothing. 

In 1782, Thomas Jefferson declared, " Nothing is 
more certainly written in the book of fate than that 
these people are to be free," and, in the same year, 
" I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is 
just, that His justice cannot sleep forever. The way, 
I hope, is preparing under the auspices of Heaven, for 
a total emancipation." 



54 THE NEW AMERICA 

THE INSOLVABLE PROBLEM 

After the signing of the Declaration of Independ 
ence, slavery was one of the obstacles in the way of 
effecting a strong confederation of the states. 

At the time of the adoption of the Constitution of 
the United States in 1788, it was found to be impossible 
to secure agreement on the question of slavery. The 
" three-fifths of all other persons," specified in Section 
II of Article I, being understood to refer to slaves, was, 
in effect, a bequest of the insolvable problem of forced 
immigration to the posterity of those with whom it had 
originated and who were unable to meet it. It was not 
a silent, obscure problem. At every step of advance 
ment for the new nation the shadow of slavery emerged 
and claimed first consideration. 

When Vermont, having been claimed both by New 
York and New Hampshire, and having succeeded in 
making good her own claim to separate existence as a 
commonwealth, applied for membership in the Con 
federation, her admission was postponed until she 
could be " paired " with a new slave-holding state, in 
order to maintain " the balance of power." 

Thomas Jefferson and others with similar convic 
tions succeeded in securing for the great " Northwest 
Territory " the guarantee of freedom in the ordinance 
that " there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary 
servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in pun 
ishment of crimes." 

It was adopted two years before the Constitution of 
the United States went into operation because it took 
effect immediately, while the Constitution, after being 



DEVELOPMENT 55 

framed at about the same time, was sent to the states 
to be adopted by their conventions. 

GROWING COMPLICATIONS 

Eli Whitney s invention of the cotton-gin, in 1793, 
revolutionized the chief industry of the Southern 
States. Giving increased facility in preparing cotton 
for market, it increased the demand for labor in con 
nection with its production, thereby enhancing the 
value of their negro slaves to the Southern planters. It 
has been said that this invention " increased the value 
of slave-labor more than one hundred and sixty fold." 
Within ten years the exports of cotton increased more 
than one hundred fold, bringing a corresponding in 
crease in wealth to the planters. Regarding slavery 
as essential to their financial prosperity, they gradually 
ceased to think of it as a scourge and a curse. After 
a time it came to be a cherished institution, to be 
guarded from all outside regulation. 

In the slave states, free immigration from Europe 
had not greatly increased. Not only was the dignity 
of labor, so strongly emphasized in the North, more 
attractive to immigration than the prospect of sharing 
the conditions and the social stigma placed on the 
labor of slaves in the South, but the growing manu 
factures of the North constantly attracted mechanics, 
while the lands for farming brought agriculturalists. 

Gradually, but surely, it became evident that the free 
North was gaining dominance in almost every realm 
of the national life. Even the fact that three-fifths of 
the slaves counted in the enumeration which secured 



56 THE NEW AMERICA 

to their masters representation in Congress, did not 
suffice to preserve for the South " the balance of 
power/ in legislative affairs, while the North was re 
inforced with the rapidly increasing immigration from 
Europe. 

THE POWER OF RELIGIOUS CONVICTION 

When the question of the annexation of Texas arose 
in Congress intense opposition was developed on the 
part of some members to the project, as one to in 
crease the slave-holding area of the United States. 
Daniel Webster, speaking at a reception in New York 
in March, 1837, said, " When I say that I regard 
slavery in itself as a great moral, social, and political 
evil, I only use language which has been adopted by 
distinguished men, themselves citizens of slave-holding 
states. . . . 

" On the general question of slavery, a great portion 
of the community is already strongly excited. The 
subject has not only attracted attention as a question 
of politics, but it has struck a far deeper-toned chord. 
It has arrested the religious feeling of the country; it 
has taken strong hold on the consciences of men. He 
is a rash man indeed, and little conversant with human 
nature, and especially has he a very erroneous estimate 
of the character of the people of this country, who 
supposes that a feeling of this kind is to be trifled with, 
or despised. It will assuredly cause itself to be re 
spected." 



DEVELOPMENT 57 

THE FINAL STRUGGLE 

The " irrepressible conflict " grew more and more 
intense between representatives in Congress of slave- 
holding states and representatives of free states. In 
1860 the war-cloud which had grown steadily darker 
since the first compromise concerning slavery, burst 
over the country. The very existence of the United 
States as a nation was at stake. 

When the call came for volunteer troops to maintain 
the Union, recent immigrants from across the sea joined 
citizens of American birth in service which proved 
their readiness to pay the cost of citizenship in their 
adopted country. The effort to solve the problem of 
forced immigration was traced in characters of blood 
and flame through the anguish of the Civil War in 
1860-65. 

Its record is in the Thirteenth Amendment of the 
Constitution of the United States : 

" ARTICLE XIII., Sec. I. Neither slavery nor in 
voluntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime 
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall 
exist within the United States, or any place subject to 
their jurisdiction. 

" Section II. Congress shall have power to enforce 
this article by appropriate legislation." 

AFTER THE CIVIL WAR 

In 1862, our immigration, for the first time since 
1844, was less than one hundred thousand. As the 
regular occupations of civil life were resumed, immi- 



58 THE NEW AMERICA 

gration increased and, in 1866, was more than three 
hundred thousand. In 1882 it reached nearly eight 
hundred thousand. 

A government chart of immigration showing the 
numbers of each nationality represented in each year 
from 1820 to the present time, gives a vivid picture 
of the changes which have taken place in our popula 
tion. The most impressive feature of the chart is not 
the statistics of total immigration, but the change in 
the countries having largest representation in the mak 
ing of those totals. 



Ill 

ADDITIONAL EUROPEAN 
ELEMENTS 



Nay, but these would feel and follow Truth if only you and 
you, 

Rivals of realm-ruining party, when you speak were wholly 
true. 

Plowmen, Shepherds, have I found, and more than once, and 
still could find, 

Sons of God, and kings of men in utter nobleness of mind, 

Truthful, trustful, looking upward to the practiced hustings- 
liar ; 

So the Higher wields the Lower, while the Lower is the 
Higher. 

Is it well that while we range with Science, glorying in the 

Time, 

City children soak and blacken soul and sense in city slime? 
There among the glooming alleys Progress halts on palsied feet, 
Crime and hunger cast our maidens by the thousand on the 

street. 
There the Master scrimps his haggard sempstress of her daily 

bread, 
There a single sordid attic holds the living and the dead. 

Move among your people, know them, follow him who led the 
way, 

Earth would never touch her worst, were one in fifty such 

as he. 
Ere she gain her Heavenly-best, a God must mingle with the 

game. 

Follow Light, and do the Right for man can half control his 

doom 

Till you find the deathless Angel seated in the vacant tomb. 

ALFRED TENNYSON. 



Ill 

ADDITIONAL EUROPEAN ELEMENTS 

FROM 1883 to 1907 eighty-one per cent of our 
European immigration came from the countries 
of Central and Southern Europe, Austria-Hun 
gary, Bulgaria, Servia, Rumania, Greece, Montenegro, 
Russia (including Poland), Portugal, Spain, Italy, 
Syria and Turkey. 

ITALIANS 

In numbers, Italy, Austria-Hungary and Russia have 
led all the others. In 1907 these three countries fur 
nished nearly seventy per cent of the total immigra 
tion of the year. In the years 1899 to 1910, Italians 
led all others: 372,668 came from North Italy, 1,911,- 
933 from South Italy, a total of more than two and 
one-fourth millions. 

North Italians differ from South Italians as much 
as the Scotch-Irish of Ulster differ from the people 
of Southern Ireland. Of those who came in the years 
1899 to 1909 inclusive, n.8 per cent of North Italian 
immigrants were illiterate; of South Italians, 54.2 per 
cent. 

Italian freedom has given even to South Italy some 
amelioration of her condition, and the rise of educa- 

61 



63 THE NEW AMERICA 

tion gives promise for her future. South Italians are 
among the most illiterate of the races coming to us 
to-day; but their illiteracy in the home land is steadily 
diminishing. 

The reports of the Commissioner-General of Immi 
gration from 1899 to 1910 show that the proportion 
of women to men in the North Italian immigration is 
21.7 to 78.3 per cent, and of the South Italian 21.4 to 
78.6 per cent. Seventy-four per cent of North Italian 
immigrants are reported as having returned to their 
native land, in contrast with 41 per cent of South 
Italians. 

Victor Von Borosini, in The Survey for September, 
28, 1912, says, " One lesson they all take home is the 
knowledge of how great a handicap is illiteracy in 
the struggle for existence. Hence they favor strongly 
obligatory instruction for their children, and co-operate 
willingly to extend the system." 

Emigration to America is undertaken by many fami 
lies in hope of " doing better for the children." A 
cobbler in New York, replacing a lost heel on a shoe, 
started with a sudden illumination of his dark face at 
the mention of Naples. " You see my country, my 
Italy?" he asked. "Then you know the beauty, the 
art everywhere, for the poorest ! " 

* You have left your Italy," was the response. 
"Shall you go back?" 

" No-o," he said slowly. " My children, for them, 
America. My boy, he go school, read, write, be man. 
My boy, he no putta heel on shoe." He had named 
the charm of America to thousands of foreign-speaking 



ADDITIONAL EUROPEAN ELEMENTS 63 

parents among us. The children are to rise above the 
condition of their fathers and mothers. 

The density of population in Italy is in excess of 
that of Germany, France, India or China. In the 
South of Italy, where the birth-rate is highest and 
the poverty greatest, taxes are most exorbitant; 13,000 
sales of land for non-payment of taxes have been 
made in a single year. 

In the matter of safeguarding emigrants, Italy leads 
all other nations. The contract for transportation is 
written, and a copy must be transmitted to the Emigra 
tion Service of Italy. Each ticket must contain the 
name of the emigrant, name of agent and company, 
and of the boat (with its age, speed, tonnage, flag, 
date of departure and duration of trip), price paid for 
ticket, weight and number of pieces of luggage. The 
menus and quantity of food to which a person is en 
titled must be printed on the back of the Italian ticket. 
Italy provides for proper medical treatment in illness 
and, in case of death, for decent burial at sea. 

These indications of interest on the part of the gov 
ernment even for citizens who emigrate to another 
land may influence the intense love of the Italian for 
his own Italy. However illiterate, he idolizes his 
national heroes and revels in the art and the beauty of 
his native land. 

An Italian visited in his quarters in a construction 
camp shack, brought out from under his bunk a collec 
tion of beautiful photographs of Italian sculpture and 
architecture, and, displaying them to his visitor, said 
proudly : " Italia, mm." Then indicating w r ith an ex 
pressive shrug of shoulder, gesture of hand and dis- 



64 THE NEW AMERICA 

tortion of face, his surroundings in the shack, he added, 
" America ! " with contemptuous emphasis. 

The rift between church and state in Italy has weak 
ened the hold of the church on many of the most 
patriotic and intelligent citizens. The leaders who 
achieved liberty for Italy have a stronger hold on their 
imagination and their enthusiasm than the Pope or his 
subordinates. A very large proportion of the Italians 
coming to America have dropped their allegiance to the 
Roman church and are in danger of dropping with it 
their ideals of religious life. They are susceptible to 
religious influences, and responsive to the ideal of 
human life in direct communion with divine life. 

Of their country it has been said truly, " Italy never 
became barbarian." The illiteracy of the present can 
not dim the genius of the past, or make the world 
forget what art and science owe to Italy. In science 
Galileo, Galvani and Marconi connect the past with the 
present in title to the gratitude of the world. In paint 
ing no names have come to replace Michael Angelo, 
Andrea del Sarto, Raphael, Da Vinci, Titian and Fra 
Angelico. Her Dante and Petrarch and Tasso and 
Savonarola have given lessons of religion, of life and 
of character not only for their own day but for all 
generations since then until now. 

SLAVS 

The Russian is the leading nationality of the great 
Slav group which, in the last twelve years, has fur 
nished a large proportion of our European immigra- 



ADDITIONAL EUROPEAN ELEMENTS 65 

tion. In this group belong the Poles, Rumanians, 
Ruthenians, Bohemians, Moravians, Bulgarians, Ser 
vians, Montenegrins, Croatians, Slovenians, Slovaks 
and others believed to comprise in all about 125,- 
000,000 of the population of the globe. 

Of the so-called Russian immigration, only about 
two per cent really is Russian. Russian peasants, as a 
rule, are too poor to emigrate, perhaps too much 
inured to oppression to possess the energy, the enter 
prise, the courage, the initiative, involved in emigra 
tion. The Poles and Lithuanians are Slavic peoples 
long since conquered and annexed by Russia. The 
Finns, although dominated by Russia, are a Teutonic 
people with a Mongol language. 

RUSSIAN JEWS 

Five-sixths of the Jewish immigration in America 
comes from Russia and the majority of the other one- 
sixth comes from adjoining territory in Austria-Hun 
gary and Rumania. The anti-Semitic riots in 1881 led 
to the beginning of the large immigration to America, 
which has continued for similar reasons since. His 
high birth-rate, and his low death-rate make the 
Jew an important element in the computation of immi 
gration statistics and possibilities. His tenacity of life 
is equalled by his innate tenacity of purpose. 

The librarian of the Children s Department of a 
Public Library in the lower East Side of New York, 
in speaking of this characteristic of Jewish children, 
said, " If a child of almost any other nationality, asking 
for a particular book, is told that the book is out but 



66 THE NEW AMERICA 

that we have another which I think that he will like 
just as well, he is easily persuaded to take the available 
book and to be quite content with the substitution. A 
Hebrew child, on the contrary, listens to my glowing 
account of the substitute book, looking meantime with 
unsatisfied eyes into my face, and when I have finished, 

says, But I want , naming the book for which he 

has asked. When he has been convinced that it really 
is out, he asks, * When will it be in ? * He takes no 
substitute, but comes again and again for that particu 
lar book, and, having secured it, he reads it through to 
the end." 

It is a fact well known that the sections of New 
York in which Jews predominate are the sections 
in which library records show the largest per cent 
of solid reading, the smallest per cent of fiction, the 
least of what by any classification can be considered 
" trash." In our colleges and universities Jews are 
ranking high in scholarship. Their increasing domi 
nance in America is worthy of thoughtful considera 
tion in any estimate of the future life of our Republic. 

RUSSIAN CHRISTIANS 

The Russian Protestant Christians who come to us 
are largely imbued with that same type of freedom- 
loving which Mr. Oscar S. Straus in " Roger Williams, 
the Pioneer of Religious Liberty," imputes to the 
founder of Rhode Island, characterizing him as " the 
Apostle of the American system of a free Church 
in a free State." 

The doctrine of the separation of church and state 



ADDITIONAL EUROPEAN ELEMENTS 67 

is now so generally accepted and so unyieldingly advo 
cated by most bodies of Christians in America that no 
denomination can claim any monopoly of it; but in 
Russia, where it is steadily making headway under the 
advocacy of the Baptist denomination through whose 
insistence it was first promulgated in America, it is 
costing imprisonment, fines and scourgings more se 
vere than in its early advocacy in America. 

It is not despotic Russia that asks to be received in 
America, but the suffering victims of Russia s despot 
ism. We frequently are warned to beware of senti- 
mentalism in the study of immigration, and are assured 
that however it may have been in earlier days the 
motive for present-day immigration is economic. The 
sufferings of Jews in Russia are so well known as 
to require no new description; but the need of asylum 
from persecution for Protestant Christians is not so 
well understood. From many authentic cases, two or 
three may be given here : 

Andreas Erstratenko, born in Russia, in 1863, was 
a strong partisan of the Greek Catholic Church. At 
twenty-seven years of age, after joining in severe 
persecution of Protestants, he says of himself, " One 
day it dawned on me that, right or wrong, they had a 
right to their religious views, and I resolved to investi 
gate them. So strong a hold did the faith take that I 
began to preach." Then began a long series of per 
secutions. Imprisoned in a dungeon, nearly starved, 
beaten, tortured and scourged many times, he refused 
to recant. 

Feodott Kastromin, born in the middle of the nine 
teenth century, converted to the Protestant faith in 



68 THE NEW AMERICA 

1884, was arrested and taken before a magistrate who 
announced to him the forfeiture of all civil rights 
unless he would return to the orthodox church. Six 
years later he was banished to Transcaucasia because 
of persistent refusal to renounce his religion. His 
property was confiscated, his family was broken up 
and separated by hundreds of miles from each other. 
Although loaded with heavy chains, scourged and 
beaten until nearly dead, he never yielded to the re 
peated offer of freedom in return for the renunciation 
of his faith. 

Vasilia Ivanoff was twice exiled, imprisoned in 
thirty-one different prisons, forced to work in the 
treadmill, chained to gangs of robbers, " and worse." 
His only offense was that of being a Protestant and 
communicating his faith to others. He has persistently 
paid the cost of his faith and has baptized fifteen hun 
dred adult men and women. Others of the same na 
tionality and faith have left all in Russia and have 
brought to America their wives and children, in the 
hope of securing here for their own families and for 
those who may come after them, what Russia fails to 
give. 

Is there room for such citizens in America? If they 
lack full enlightenment as to the principles of freedom 
and of democratic government their experiences have 
been such as to make them apt pupils under sympathetic 
teaching. In the Conference of State Officials on Dis 
tribution of Admitted Aliens and Other Residents, 
held in Washington, in November, 1911, the repre 
sentative of North Dakota reported, " The Russian 
people are among the very best settlers in the western 



ADDITIONAL EUROPEAN ELEMENTS 69 

portion of the state. [They are] good citizens, good 
farmers and a valuable element for the state to have." 



AUSTRO-HUNGARIANS 

Austria-Hungary has been called the " most com 
plicated social mosaic of all modern nations." 

Within, the personal influence of the Emperor, with 
out, the rival interests of adjoining nations, hold 
together elements which have little in common, and 
whose large emigration suggests the centrifugal forces 
at work among the people. 

The chronic political unrest in Austria-Hungary, the 
mutual hatred of races which never have amalgamated 
with each other in all the centuries of their joint occu 
pancy of the country, are matters worthy of study 
by all who realize the seriousness of immigration prob 
lems, and the desirability of learning from the experi 
ence of other nations. 

MAGYARS AND SLOVAKS 

The Asiatic Magyars, despising the Slavs whom they 
conquered a thousand years ago, still inhabit the fer 
tile plains which they appropriated for themselves. 
The Slovaks, subject to Austria-Hungary, feeling 
everywhere the yoke of the Magyar and of the Ger 
man power which makes the laws, owns the land and 
manages administration, are born to a heritage of 
hatred of their usurpers. 

Some Slovak young men in an American city left 
a class in English after being asked to read a few 



70 THE NEW AMERICA 

paragraphs extolling Kosstith. Their explanation was, 
" Kossuth was no friend to Slovaks." 

In another city, well-meaning friends built a two- 
storied chapel for Hungarians, offering the use of one 
story to Slovaks and the other to the Magyars of the 
same religious denomination. They found that neither 
company would occupy it if the other were to find a 
meeting-place under the same roof. 

A Slovak peasant girl, eighteen years of age, a few 
weeks after her arrival in America, used her first 
knowledge of English words to acquaint her employer 
with herself, in this manner. " Me, Paulina Dvora, 
me Oongar.* Yes, Oongar Slovak, not Magyar. Mag 
yar? No! Slovak? Yes! Fader, moder, broder, sis 
ter, all, all Slovak, not Magyar. Lady oonderstand ? " 

By means of facial expression and gesture this im 
migrant from a little peasant home on the Carpathian 
Mountain-side was able to make her limited English 
vocabulary express volumes as to her estimate of the 
relative merits of the two races. Later, a growth in 
the vocabulary of mutually understood words enabled 
her to give in some detail to her employer her version 
of the thousand years old conquest of her native land 
by Magyars and of her estimate of them as the 
newly rich of the country. 

The Magyars, in discussing this ancient history, are 
more likely to manifest the graceful air of the con 
querors who, having won, find it easy to accept the 
verdict of the arms of their ancestors. 

The Jews of Austria-Hungary, enjoying there a 
greater degree of consideration than elsewhere except 

* Hungarian. 



ADDITIONAL EUROPEAN ELEMENTS 71 

in America, have become the controllers of finance, 
public and private, to such an extent that the Magyars 
themselves, in numbers which are causing uneasiness 
in their own government circles, are emigrating to 
America in search of new opportunities for economic 
advantage. 

OTHER SLAVIC RACES IN AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 

Among the Slavic people of the northern mountain 
region of Austria-Hungary are the Czechs, or Bo 
hemians, the Moravians, the Poles and the Ruthenians. 
In the south are the Croatians, Servians, Slovenians, 
Dalmatians, Rumanians. 

The Ruthenians, who share the subjection of their 
fellow Slavs of other names, have their own inherited 
hatred of the Poles whose serfs they were in the days 
of Poland s departed power. 

Aside from the Jews, who characteristically are city- 
dwellers, the people of Austria-Hungary are agri 
culturalists and foresters. They are lovers of the soil 
and of their own homes. But in addition to unhappy 
civic conditions, prohibitive prices for ownership and 
for rental are driving the peasants from the country 
to find a possibility of economic independence else 
where. 

Professor Balch tells us of some " emigrants from 
the rich eastern countries of Croatia and Slavonia, 
who, seeming to have no economic reason for leaving 
home, when asked why they were going, said, " We 
go to see if there still is justice in the world." 

Are they finding it in America? They are chiefly 



72 THE NEW AMERICA 

engaged here in mining, forestry and heavy construc 
tion work. 

The Annual Report of the Bureau of Industries and 
Immigration of the New York State Department of 
Labor, 1911, tells us that " Camps on public works are 
devoid of any Americanizing influences. With two ex 
ceptions there are no amusements or recreations other 
than the saloon, no educational influences and no re 
ligious influences. Most of them have no regulations 
and are remote from authorities and are therefore a 
law unto themselves. . . . With the exception of the 
aqueduct workers, these men are crowded into the 
barest shanties, hovels or barns, with no sanitary pro 
visions, and none of the decencies of life, to say nothing 
of the comforts. These quarters provide bunk-space 
only, and here laborers must keep their clothes, sup 
plies of food, and all other possessions. . . . The 
greed or cupidity of the bosses crowds them into quar 
ters which soon become so vermin- and germ-ridden 
that they prefer to sleep out of doors. . . . There is 
not a greater menace to the morality and health of our 
cities to-day than these camps. ... It must be re 
membered that aliens come into these camps, very often 
directly from the steamers, through the hands of a 
padrone who is the only person other than their fellow- 
workmen whom they really know. . . . [They] get 
the first, and very often their only impressions of 
America, from these padroni and camps." 

The Report proceeds, " The need of learning English 
to progress economically, to prevent accidents, to be 
come citizens, to enable the men to understand their 
work better and to adopt American standards of living 



ADDITIONAL EUROPEAN ELEMENTS 73 

is imperative. . . . These are matters of vital inter 
est to the State of New York, and if these men are to 
come in and build the works which make this State in 
dustrially great, and to man the industries which make 
it economically powerful, it must be realized that its 
power, civic and political, also depends in some measure 
on the treatment and opportunities afforded to these 
workmen." 



POLISH IMMIGRATION 

From 1899 to 1910 more than 949,000 Poles were 
counted among our immigrants. Coming from a coun 
try which is no longer theirs, fleeing from the tyranny 
of Russia, they are appreciative of the degree of 
liberty which they find in the land of their adoption. 

They are dominantly religious by nature. It has 
been customary to classify them all as Catholics, but 
it is estimated that not more than two-thirds of the 
3,000,000 in this country are affiliated with the 
Catholic Church. With them, as with immigrants 
from other Catholic countries, the weakening of ties 
with the native land and the finding of a larger civic 
life than the Old World had offered, tend to weaken 
the hold of that type of religion which is associated 
in their minds with the type of government which they 
have left. Unless a new phase of religious life meets 
them with the new civic life, the tendency is to feel 
religion to be outgrown and to become irreligious. 

Lord Bacon s aphorism, " Discipline by bishops is 
fittest for monarchy of all others," is an apt expression 
of the unconscious attitude of multitudes of immi- 



74 THE NEW AMERICA 

grants who, in coming to America, leave behind them 
" the discipline of bishops," with " monarchy," in the 
Old World. 

" We call them Polacks," said the crude young fore 
man of a cotton mill. " They don t know anything but 
to work, and we drive them like cattle to that." 

Perhaps it had not occurred to the young foreman 
that Paderewski, " the greatest pianist ever," whom he 
had heard play a few evenings before, is a " Pole," 
or that Chopin was their fellow-countryman, or that 
Copernicus was of their nationality. He may never 
have heard of Pulaski and Kosciusko and of our in 
debtedness to their services in the Revolutionary War, 
when they fought for our independence. In those days 
we were poor and small, numbering only about three 
and a half million souls. Poland was one of the great 
powers of Central Europe two hundred years before the 
beginning of our national life. 

If the young foreman is a worthy son of the 
American Revolution he will find a way to pay to 
these newcomers, in some measure, the debt which 
his ancestors and he owe to the Poles who helped 
to give freedom to the New America. Of Polish im 
migrants admitted in 1899-1909, 35.4 per cent were 
illiterate. The foreman will help not only the Poles, 
but, quite as much, the Americans among whom the 
Poles live, if he will teach reading and writing to 
these new residents of his country, who never have had 
his opportunities for education. 

Mr. Alexander E. Cance, in charge of that part of 
the report of the Federal Immigration Commission 
which treats of the " new immigration " in agriculture, 



ADDITIONAL EUROPEAN ELEMENTS 75 

says in The Survey of January 7, 1911, "The goal 
of early Polish immigration was northern Illinois and 
Wisconsin. After 1885 the stream of Slavic immi 
gration set in very strongly, and Polish rural colonies 
began to dot the prairies of Minnesota and the Dakotas 
as well as the Lake states. 

" Unlike the early peasants, who came directly from 
Europe in search of cheap land and homes of their 
own, a large percentage of these men are day-laborers 
who have been engaged in the mines, steel mills, quar 
ries or urban industrial pursuits, and who are attracted 
to farms by advertisements in Polish papers or the 
solicitation of Polish land agents. They settle in small 
groups, their location is directed, they bring more 
money than the arrivals directly from abroad, and 
when they are fairly dealt with they make more rapid 
progress than the earlier immigration." 

In a Conference on Distribution of Admitted Aliens 
and Other Residents, held in Washington in 1911, 
the representative of Wisconsin said, " The Polish 
have proven to be very good citizens with us. We 
w r ant all the Polish people we can get, every one." 

In the same conference, the representative from 
Massachusetts reported, " In Massachusetts the Po- 
lander goes out into the western part of the state and 
buys up land that has been perhaps deserted by the 
Yankee. They want to own the soil, to own their own 
farms, and they are making very great successes out 
there." 

The subject which was considered by the Polish 
National Alliance, recently assembled in its congress 
" How Poles may become better citizens of this coun- 



76 THE NEW AMERICA 

try while retaining their love for the traditions of 
their motherland " gives some indication of their 
attitude toward the land of their adoption. 



BOHEMIANS 

It has been said of Bohemians by one of their 
own nationality that " they have had such a stormy 
national struggle, and the bitterness of it has so entered 
into their lives that it is impossible to judge them 
rightly apart from it." 

We who know little of them shall fail to estimate 
their true value as citizens unless we know something 
of their past. It is well known that only a fraction 
more than one per cent of them are illiterate, less 
than the per cent of illiterate native-born Ameri 
cans. Is it equally well known that their University 
of Prague was founded in 1348, more than half a 
century earlier than the great German universities, 
and that it was the first higher institution of learning 
in that part of Europe? At the time of the death of 
its founder, King Charles I. of Bohemia, in 1378, it 
had enrolled more than seven thousand students. 

In the fourteenth century the assertion by Charles I. 
of the right of the electors to choose the emperor 
without waiting for the confirmation of their choice by 
the Pope, was considered revolutionary and was the 
harbinger of the separation of church and state, which 
in that age seemed incredible, but which is now a 
fundamental principle of our government. 

When John Huss was burned at the stake, in 1415, 
the University declared him a saint and a martyr, and 



ADDITIONAL EUROPEAN ELEMENTS 77 

Bohemians, nobles and common people, swore that to 
their latest breath they would uphold the religious 
freedom for which he had given his life. 

When Ferdinand II. began his reign in 1619, nine- 
tenths of the population was Protestant. At its end, 
eighteen years later, with the aid of the Catholic 
League and the Jesuits, he had banished and destroyed 
the representatives of Protestantism throughout Bo 
hemia. 

At the beginning of the Thirty Years War, Bohemia 
was one of the most advanced countries of Europe in 
point of culture. The population of more than four 
millions was reduced by starvation, by torture, by vari 
ous forms of martyrdom and by exile, to eight hundred 
thousand. What outrages, what indignities, what hor 
rors, have not the ancestors of present-day Bohemians 
suffered in the name of religion ! No race of people on 
earth has a deeper right to see manifested a spirit of true 
Christian brotherhood than Bohemians, in connection 
with whom the term has been so travestied. 

Not only were life, property and religious freedom 
destroyed by the unrelenting persecutors of Protestant 
Bohemians, but their priceless literature, instinct for 
two hundred years with a spirit of freedom and pa 
triotism, was condemned to the flames. 

Bohemians began coming to America in large num 
bers after the revolution of 1848. They settled in 
New York, St. Louis, Milwaukee, Chicago and in rural 
districts in Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Texas and 
California. Texas has a Bohemian population of more 
then 50,000, engaged principally in agriculture. More 
than half of them now own their own property, free of 



78 THE NEW AMERICA 

debt. A recent writer in the Texas Magazine tells us 
that, " together with the Germans, the Bohemian farm 
ers have given Texas her great agricultural industries, 
and have been responsible largely for her rapid de 
velopment." Favorable comment is made by this 
writer on their quickness " to utilize improvements in 
machinery and methods of agriculture." 

100,189 Bohemians and Moravians came to the 
United States between 1899 and 1910. More than one- 
half of the Bohemians coming to us are skilled work 
men. Of the Germans and Dutch, one-third are skilled, 
and of the Scandinavians, one-fourth. 

Bohemians have qualities which any nation might 
covet for its citizens. To inspire them with a new 
patriotism, a new faith in their fellow-men, a new 
trust in their Father as the leader of all His children 
toward increasing light and power, is a task well worth 
the effort of American Christendom. 

BALKAN RACES 

The year 1912 saw the coming into prominence 
among European nations of a group of nationalities 
little known in modern times. Until recently " The 
Balkans " has not been written large in accounts of 
the nations of the world. We now know more of some 
of the people of the Balkan peninsula than ever before, 
and are turning with new interest to the records made 
in America by their representatives who have come to 
our shores. 

Reports of the Commissioner-General of Immigra 
tion show that from 1899 to 1910, of Bulgarians, 




GREEK BRIDE AND BRIDEGROOM 



ADDITIONAL EUROPEAN ELEMENTS 79 

Servians and Montenegrins, classed together, 97,391 
came to the United States. In the same period we 
received 82,704 Rumanians. Of Dalmatians, Bosnians 
and Herzegovinians, 31,696. Of Croatians and Slo 
venians, classed together, 335,543; of Greeks, 216,962; 
of Turks, 12,954, a total of 777,250. 

At first glance, the most impressive feature of the 
immigration record of these nationalities is the high 
per cent of illiteracy; in the first group, 41.8 per cent; 
in the second, 34.7; in the third, 36.4; in the fourth 
36.4; of the Greeks 27, of the Turks 58.9 per cent. 

Theodore Roosevelt in The Outlook, for November 
23, 1912, says, " No other nation has traveled so far 
and so fast as Bulgaria has traveled in the last third of 
a century." 

In America, Bulgarians are found oftenest in the 
Middle West, Northwest, South and Southwest. 
They are characterized by industry and thrift. They, 
with Greeks and Macedonians, are patronizers of 
coffee-houses rather than of saloons. They and the 
Greeks are named by investigators of the Immigration 
Commission, as living " most plainly " of all the group 
of nationalities with which they were found associated. 
They are reported as strong workers in iron and 
steel, " rather heavy, patient, serious toilers." 

Those in America who knew the Bulgarian best 
were least prepared for his transfiguration in a white 
heat of patriotism, as he dropped his tools and started 
in a wild rush to meet the opportunity of the centuries 
in his native land. 

The Bulgarians at home are described as being char 
acterized by indomitable courage and thrift, by "a 



80 THE NEW AMERICA 

passion for education," and by " purity of home life 
maintained through a thousand years." Since 1885, 
when they freed themselves from Russia, they have 
improved their opportunity for educational and indus 
trial advancement. In another quarter of a century a 
new record of literacy will be made. 

The Bible in the vernacular, brought to every Bul 
garian fireside, has been the great inspiring agency of 
the new life in Bulgaria, and two Christian colleges 
Robert and the Constantinople College for Girls have 
furnished leaders for the expression of the new life. 

Dr. Edward A. Steiner, in Tlie Outlook of Novem 
ber 9, 1912, reminds us that " \vhile in the north of 
Europe our forefathers built schools and followed the 
arts and commerce, the people of the Balkans held 
watch upon their mountains, followed the plow, sword 
in hand, that we in peace might prepare ourselves for 
the great tasks of Christian culture and civiliza 
tion. . . . 

" [The Balkan spirit] is a religious spirit bearing 
the imprint of a great mission. To have been a wall 
against the battering-rams of the Moslem, to have 
borne the brunt of the first onslaught, to have felt the 
last assaults of his retreating armies, has been a sacri 
ficial and a vicarious task." Does America need citi 
zens capable of such tasks ? 



IV 
TENDENCIES 



Be with us while the New World greets 
The Old World thronging all its streets, 
Unveiling all the triumphs won 
By art or toil beneath the sun ; 
And unto common good ordain 
This rivalship of hand and brain. 

Thou, who hast here in concord furled 
The war flags of a gathered world, 
Beneath our Western skies fulfil 
The Orient s mission of good-will, 
And, freighted with love s Golden Fleece, 
Send back its Argonauts of peace. 

For art and labor met in truce, 
For beauty made the bride of use, 
We thank Thee : but, withal, we crave 
The austere virtues strong to save, 
The honor proof to place or gold, 
The manhood never bought nor sold ! 

Oh make Thou us, through centuries long, 
In peace secure, in justice strong; 
Around our gift of freedom draw 
The safeguards of Thy righteous law ; 
And, cast in some diviner mold, 
Let the new cycle shame the old ! 

JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER. 



IV 

TENDENCIES 

THE government of the United States is definitely 
facing the problem of the future as to new ad 
missions. The people of the United States in 
their individual capacity must face the problem of the 
future with those who already are here. 

The question of what the character of this nation 
is to be for future generations is as important for our 
citizens of alien birth as for descendants of the Pilgrim 
Fathers, or of the first families of Virginia. A nation 
as truly as an individual has its mission to perform, 
its characteristic influence to exert on the character 
of the world. 

CONTROL OF IMMIGRATION 

In 1882 our federal government first assumed the 
function of controlling immigration. A conviction of 
the determinative bearing of immigration on the entire 
life and the whole future of America led to the creation 
by Congress, in 1907, of the Immigration Commission. 

This Commission gave four years to the study of the 
problem committed to it. It " secured original informa 
tion concerning more than 3,000,000 individuals, or 
about one-thirtieth of the population of the United 



84 THE NEW AMERICA 

States, including one-eighth of all the public school 
children; and, in some of the leading industries as 
many as fifty per cent of the total number of wage- 
earners employed." The resulting data certainly are 
entitled to be considered with care, whatever con 
clusions may be drawn from them. 

TESTS FOR ADMISSION OF IMMIGRANTS 

The concern of our government for the effect of 
immigration on our national life has led to more 
stringent regulations, more severe tests for admission 
and more rigid application of such tests. The regula 
tions reject all who are physically or mentally feeble or 
diseased, all criminal, all immoral, all insane. They 
compel steamship companies to return free all passen 
gers rejected by our immigration officials, fining them 
in addition $100 for each case. 

The table on the opposite page, copied from the Re 
port of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor for 1912, 
gives the number and causes of rejections for the years 
1907 to 1912, inclusive. 

ADMITTED IMMIGRANTS 

At the time of entrance more than 80 per cent of 
our immigrants are between fourteen and forty-four 
years of age. It is the time of greatest strength and 
productivity in the average human life. A little more 
than 12 per cent are under fourteen years of age, the 
period of greatest susceptibility. Five per cent are 
more than forty-four years of age. 



TENDENCIES 



85 



CAUSE OF REJECTION 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


I9II 


1912 


Idiots 


2Q 


20 


18 


16 


12 


JO 


Imbeciles 




4.K 


42 


4.O 


26 


44 


Feeble-minded persons. 
Insanity (including epi 
leptics) 


180 


121 

184 


121 
167 


125 

108 


126 
144 


1 10 

111 


Likely to become public 
charges, including 
paupers and beggars. . 
Afflicted with contagious 
diseases 


6,866 
3,822 


3,741 

2 847 


4,458 
2 1O8 


15,927 

1 Oil 


12,048 
2 715 


8,182 
1.674 


Afflicted with tubercu 
losis 




CQ 


82 


QC 


III 


74. 


Physically or mentally 
defective . 




870 


070 


112 


1 O5<? 


2,288 


Criminals 


141 


136 


271 


580 


644 


502 


Prostitutes and other 
immoral women 


18 


1 24. 


121 


3l6 


251 


263 


Procurers of prostitutes 
Contract laborers. 


i 

i 4-14. 


43 

I 0^2 


181 
1,172 


179 

I 786 


141 

1, 116 


192 
1,333 

















The Immigration Commission, in its study of tend 
encies, had an accurate record kept for seven months 
from August i, 1908, to February 28, 1909, of all 
charity patients entering Bellevue and other allied hos 
pitals in New York where the great bulk of immigrant 
patients are treated. 



ALCOHOLISM 

The Report of the Commission tells us that " of 
the 23,758 cases treated at Bellevue and allied hos 
pitals during the period covered by the Commission s 
inquiry, 25.5 per cent of the native-born and 18.2 
per cent of the foreign-born persons involved were 
treated for alcoholism. Among the foreign-born this 
treatment was confined almost entirely to the races 



86 THE NEW AMERICA 

of old immigration, such as the Irish, Scotch, English 
and Germans, while relatively very few southern and 
eastern Europeans were treated for that cause. A 
striking difference between the old and new immigra 
tion in this regard was also apparent to a greater or 
less degree in the many industrial communities included 
in the Commission s general investigation." 



INSANITY 

Much has been said of insanity among representa 
tives of the new immigration. Statistics * compiled 
from United States Census, Special Report, " Insane 
and Feeble-minded in Hospitals and Institutions, 
1904," show that the number of insane in hospitals in 
the United States in 1903 was 186.2 to 100,000 popu 
lation. In England and Wales it was 340.1, in Ire 
land 490.9, in Austria in 1901, 57; in Hungary in 

1902, 14.1. In continental United States, of the 
foreign-born white insane enumerated in hospitals in 

1903, 29 per cent were born in Ireland, 26.9 per cent 
in Germany, 6.5 per cent in Canada, 2.3 per cent in 
Italy, 2.2 per cent in Hungary and Bohemia, 4.4 per 
cent in Russia and Poland. 

These statistics seem to indicate that the people of 
our new immigration are relatively a sane, " level 
headed " class. The serious and disturbing changes of 
environment, of occupation and of mode of living, the 
misunderstandings, disappointments, injustices and dis- 

*From "The Immigration Problem," by Jeremiah W. Jenks, 
Ph.D., LL.D., and W. Jett Lauck, A.B. Funk & Wagnalls 
Company, New York and London. 



TENDENCIES 87 

tresses of body and mind which they experience as a 
result of ignorance of the language and customs of 
the country, might easily distract them to the verge of 
insanity if they were not well-poised by nature and by 
habit. 

PAUPERISM 

Does the new immigration tend to add to the pauper 
ism of America? 

Immigrants are not allowed to enter empty-handed. 
The Secretary of Commerce and Labor, reporting for 
1912, says, " The total amount of money shown to in 
spection officers by arriving aliens during the past 
fiscal year was $30,353,721, or an average of about 
$36 per person." 

From 1907 to 1912 inclusive, immigrants to the num 
ber of 51,222 were rejected on the ground of being 
" liable to become a public charge." 

The Immigration Commission, with the assistance of 
the Associated Charities in forty-three cities, taking 
in practically all the large immigrant centers except 
New York, during six months including the winter 
of 1908-1909, reached the conclusion that " only a 
very small percentage of the immigrants now arriving 
apply for relief." This statistical investigation * cov 
ered 31,374 cases actually receiving assistance. 

Commenting on these statistics, Dr. Jenks and Mr. 
Lauck, in " The Immigration Problem," say, " If we 
attempt to discriminate among the different races, it 
appears that it is among the immigrants of the earlier 

* Reports of Immigration Commission, Doc. 665, including 
1839 pages. 



88 THE NEW AMERICA 

period, or those coming from Northern Europe, that 
we find apparently the largest number of cases of neg 
lect or bad habits of the breadwinner. 

" For example, among the South Italians, only 8.7 
per cent give this cause, whereas the Irish give 20.9 
per cent, the English 14 per cent, the Germans 15.7 
per cent, the Norwegians 25.9 per cent. The Hebrews, 
again as representatives of the later immigrants, give 
12.6 per cent." 

SANITARY CONDITIONS 

Does the new immigration increase the unsanitary 
condition of towns and cities? 

The Immigration Commission made a thorough 
study of the conditions prevailing in the poorer quar 
ters inhabited by immigrants of various races, in the 
seven cities, New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, 
Buffalo, Cleveland and Milwaukee. The inquiry cov 
ered over 10,200 households and over 51,000 indi 
viduals. 

The Commission reports : " The average conditions 
were found materially better than had been anticipated. 
Moreover, a comparison of the conditions in a great 
city like New York or Chicago with those in some of 
the smaller industrial centers, such as mining or manu 
facturing towns, shows that average conditions as 
respects overcrowding are very materially worse in 
some of the small industrial towns than in the large 
cities. . . . 

" In the large cities much more frequently than is 
generally thought, the population changes. New im- 



TENDENCIES 89 

migrants are attracted to these poorer residential quar 
ters by the presence of friends or relatives and the 
necessity of securing living quarters at the lowest pos 
sible cost, but as their economic status improves after 
living in this country for some time, they very gen 
erally move to better surroundings. The undesirable 
districts of the cities that are now inhabited largely 
by recent immigrants were formerly populated by 
persons of the earlier immigrant races. . . . 

" In many instances, too, where deplorable condi 
tions were found they were due in part, at any rate, to 
circumstances over which the inhabitants have little 
direct control, such as a poor water supply or unsanitary 
drainage matters that should be attended to by the 
city authorities. 

" While instances of extreme uncleanliness were 
found, the care of the households as regards cleanli 
ness and an attempt to live under proper conditions 
was usually found unexpectedly good, about five-sixths 
of all the families visited in the poorer quarters of these 
large cities keeping their homes in reasonably good, or 
fair condition." 

Mr. E. A. Goldenweiser, expert in charge of City 
Inquiry for the Commission, writes in The Survey of 
January 7, 1911, "In connection with the prevailing 
opinion about the filth, which is supposed to be the 
natural element of the immigrant, it is an interesting 
fact that while perhaps five-sixths of the blocks studied 
justified this belief, so far as the appearance of the 
street went, five-sixths of the interiors of the home 
were found to be fairly clean, and two out of every five 
were immaculate. When this is considered in connec- 



90 THE NEW AMERICA 

tion with the frequent inadequate water supply, the 
dark halls and the large number of families living in 
close proximity, the responsibility for uncleanliness 
and unsanitary conditions is largely shifted from the 
immigrants to the landlords, and to the municipal 
authorities who spare no expense in sprinkling oil to 
save the wealthy automobilists from the dust, but are 
very economical when it comes to keeping the poorer 
streets in a habitable condition. The water supply, the 
drainage, and the condition of the pavement are also 
outside the jurisdiction of the tenants; and yet their 
neglect results in bad conditions for which the resident 
of the crowded districts is blamed." 



AGRICULTURAL PURSUITS 

Has the new immigration any tendency to develop 
the agricultural resources of America? 

The old immigration had a choice of homesteads in 
the Middle West at lower rates than can be found to 
day. But great areas of unoccupied territory farther 
West await development; and smaller areas farther 
East, once occupied, are open for new cultiva 
tion. 

The Immigration Commission investigated more 
than one hundred and fifty rural groups, including 
Italians, Hebrews, Poles, Bohemians and Portuguese, in 
nineteen states. Mr. Alexander E. Cance, in charge of 
that part of the Report of the Commission, says in The 
Survey of January 7, 1911, "Of the forty or more 
Italian communities visited in thirteen states, the old 
est and largest groups are the berry- and truck-growers 



TENDENCIES 91 

on the pine barrens of New Jersey. . . . Both north 
and south Italians are landowners at Vineland, and 
Hammonton is one of the most prominent south Italian 
settlements east of the Rocky Mountains. In origin 
and development both are typically unassisted colonies, 
whose progress has been continuous since the seventies, 
and whose numbers have been augmented chiefly 
from abroad. These groups number perhaps twelve 
hundred families of Italian origin, and here veritably 
the magic of property has turned sand into gold. 
The hundreds of little berry farms, vineyards, or sweet 
potato or pepper fields, which make these Italian com 
munities real oases in a waste of sand and lowland, bear 
unmistakable testimony to the ability of the much- 
maligned south Italian to create wealth and to make 
progress materially, morally and politically under rural 
conditions. 

" At Vineland the original immigration set in from 
northern Italy, but more recently a large number of 
Sicilians and other south Italians have come. . . . 
The first arrivals have passed well beyond the experi 
mental and pioneer stages and many of them are 
pointed out as the most substantial citizens in the com 
munity. They are prosperous, influential and intelli 
gent farmers and proprietors. . . . There is a fourth 
class, the American-born Italian, who represents the 
new Italian farmer, born on the soil he cultivates. 
He is the progressive farmer who dares to try new 
machinery, new equipment, new varieties and new 
methods. He subscribes to an agricultural paper and 
belongs to a farmers co-operative society. . . . 

" In New England, especially near Providence, 



92 THE NEW AMERICA 

south Italians have been engaged in truck and vege 
table farming for many years. As market gardening 
has increased in importance, the Providence settlement 
has been augmented by defections from the industrial 
population in the vicinity. . . . 

" [In New York] the south Italian colony at Cana- 
stota is typical. . . . American owners were unwilling 
to undertake the clearing, hence the land was purchased 
cheaply; and since an Italian raised his first crop of 
onions in 1897 tne ^ arm settlement, now called Onion 
Town, has grown slowly but steadily. Economically 
it is significant that there has been no displacement of 
the old agricultural population; that the Italian has 
developed new land otherwise commercially unpro 
ductive and a new agricultural industry, and that he 
has found this rival rural occupation more remunera 
tive than his former employment on railroad or 
canal. . . . 

" Italian farming in the South covers a wide range 
of products, widely diversified soils and climatic con 
ditions, several forms of land tenure, and various sys 
tems of culture. The north Italians among the moun 
tains of western North Carolina practice a self-suffic 
ing, diversified agriculture. . . . 

" In the Delta both north and south Italian 
cotton-tenants are teaching the cotton-growers how 
valuable careful cultivation, kitchen gardens and small 
store accounts may be to the cotton share hand. In 
the Ozarks Italians from the Sunnyside group have 
taken up new land, planted orchards, and become suc 
cessful apple and peach growers." 

Russian, Polish, Greek, Italian, Swiss, Portuguese 



TENDENCIES 93 

and Armenians, all have been commended by repre 
sentatives of various states as successful farmers. 



WAGE EARNING 

Mr. W. Jett Lauck, expert in charge of Industrial 
Investigation for the Immigration Commission, writes 
in The Survey of January 7, 1911, " The earnings of 
the immigrant industrial workers, as well as of those 
of native birth, in present-day industrial communities 
are generally too small to permit the maintenance of an 
independent form of family life. 

" Of more than 22,000 wage-earners eighteen years 
of age or over, who were studied by the Immigration 
Commission in the general investigation of immigrants 
in industries, the average annual earnings were only 
$455; an d in the case of many southern and eastern 
European races the average was considerably less. 
These meager earnings in the case of male heads of 
families were supplemented by taking boarders or 
lodgers into the households, or by having the children 
go to work." 

Can a Christian nation face this record without 
shame ? 

No one questions that the requirement of improved 
steerage conditions is within the province of govern 
ment. The improvement of housing conditions in all 
dwellings which immigrants are to inhabit during a 
much longer time than during their voyage, would seem 
to be even more important. 

Our government has adopted the expedient of re 
quiring the immigrant to turn his pockets inside out 



94 THE NEW AMERICA 

and to allow the inspector to learn whether the cash 
in hand is sufficient to prevent the probability of his 
becoming a public charge. Is there any inherent im 
possibility of the government s requiring the prospec 
tive employer to open his payroll and to show that the 
wages which he pays are sufficient to allow employes to 
provide for themselves and their families with a rea 
sonable degree of comfort, to prevent the necessity for 
child-labor and for such wage earning on the part of 
mothers as must compel them to neglect the care of 
their children and their homes? 

CRIMINALITY 

Does the coming of the new immigration add to 
the criminality of the New America? Much apprehen 
sion has been expressed on this point. 

The immigrant s " offenses against public policy " 
are frequently only the result of ignorance. A peasant 
from a rural district of Europe, unacquainted with the 
regulations of city life, unable to read laws, pro 
hibitions or notices, or even to understand the language 
in which verbal orders are given, may fail to make 
proper disposition of sewage, garbage and ashes, 
may undertake to peddle without a license, may resist 
arrest, may fail to pay fines on demand, may be unable 
to secure counsel speaking his language, and so, quite 
uncomprehending and dumb, may be sentenced to im 
prisonment, and yet be no criminal in any true sense of 
the term. 

In view of all these considerations, the fact that 
the searching investigations of the great Federal Im- 



TENDENCIES 95 

migration Commission resulted in the conclusion that 
" immigrants are no more inclined toward criminality, 
on the whole, than are native Americans," may be con 
sidered good testimony to the character of those who 
are allowed to enter our gates. The testimony from 
the same source that " statistics do indicate that the 
children of immigrants commit crime more often 
that the children of natives," is ominous for the 
future. 

There can be no dissent from the verdict that " the 
measure of the national healthy development of a coun 
try is not the extent of its investment of capital, its 
output of products, or its exports or imports, unless 
there is a corresponding economic opportunity afforded 
to the citizen depending upon employment, for his 
natural mental and moral development." Whether the 
belief in this theory is so deep and strong and abiding 
as to result in the requirement that employes shall be 
given reasonable hours of work, and a living wage 
which may include decent housing for themselves and 
their families, without overwork on the part of women 
and children, is a question of vital import, not only 
to immigrants but to the nation that receives them. 

JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Four-fifths of the children brought into juvenile 
courts in Chicago, and about the same proportion in 
other large cities, are the children of foreigners. In 
the phraseology of our time, character is produced by 
heredity, environment and will. In the case of the 
children of foreign-born parents in America, the hered- 



96 THE NEW AMERICA 

ity, as shown by the careful investigations of our 
Immigration Commission, is not especially criminal. 

What of environment? Who creates the environ 
ment? 

First, the public school, during from 15 to 30 of the 
1 68 hours of each week. Sunday schools and various 
child-welfare organizations claim perhaps three more 
hours of the week. During the rest of his waking hours 
the child spends his time in the street, in the alley, in the 
back court, wherever he can find most diversion, w 7 hile 
his parents and older brothers and sisters are busy 
earning the bread for the next meal. He learns much 
that escapes their weary eyes. 

They may belong to the army of illiterates. Even 
if they can read their own language, they may not have 
learned English. The child soon stands shoulder to 
shoulder with children of his own age in the public 
school. He salutes the flag with a grace all his own 
and sings, " My country, tis of thee," as lustily as anv 
descendant of the author of our national hymn. With 
every sense quickened by contact with the new environ 
ment, he becomes acutely conscious of the difference 
between " teacher " and his foreign-looking, foreign- 
acting, foreign-speaking father and mother. His grow 
ing conviction that " they do not understand, " not only 
the new language, but also the new life, leads to the 
rejection of their authority and influence. Keenly 
sensitive to the criticisms of thoughtless companions, 
he ceases to use the mother-tongue, and lives his own 
life, a law unto himself outside of school. The juvenile 
court record begins where parental influence ends. 

Is there no other agency to intervene? 



TENDENCIES 97 

AMERICAN CHURCHES 

In " The Immigration Problem," we find this sig 
nificant statement, " One of the most striking features 
of the whole immigration situation is the almost entire 
indifference of the native churches to the immigrants, 
and the general lack of religious and welfare work 
among them. . . . The American churches are pass 
ing by a great opportunity for social service." 

At the present rate, this generation will see the 
coming of about 33,000,000 immigrants to our shores. 
About four-fifths of the new immigration speak some 
other language than English. They all need English 
for meeting the needs of daily life and for the main 
tenance of helpful relations within their own homes as 
well as with the communities in which they live. 

Is the task of acquainting them with the English 
language too great to be undertaken by those who be 
lieve in the principles on which our Christian civiliza 
tion is founded ? No more patriotic service, no greater 
Christian service asks for volunteers to-day. 

Of the immigrants from countries in which the Eng 
lish language is not spoken, about four-fifths come from 
countries in which the Bible is not an open book. It 
has proved to be a wonderful inspirer of diverse na 
tions. It is bringing a new day to China, to India, 
to Japan. 

Professor J. R. Green, the keen-eyed historian of 
national life, tells us in his " Short History of the 
English People," that " no greater change ever passed 
over a nation than passed over England during the 
years which parted the middle of the reign of Eliza- 



98 THE NEW AMERICA 

beth from the meeting of the Long Parliament. Eng 
land became the people of a book, and that book was 
the Bible. . . . 

" As a mere literary monument, the English version 
of the Bible remains the noblest example of the Eng 
lish tongue. . . . But far greater than its effect on 
literature or social phrase was the effect of the Bible 
on the character of the people at large. ... A new 
conception of life and of man superseded the old. A 
new moral and religious impulse spread through every 
class." 

Has our New America any need of " a new moral 
and religious impulse " ? 

" That new religious consciousness which the great 
historian describes as coming into England with the 
coming of the Bible in the common speech of the people 
was strongly dominant in those who crossed the sea to 
make the New England and the new nation on these 
shores. To-day the old Pilgrim stock is fading out 
and is being replaced by immigrants who never have 
known the experience which Professor Green so vividly 
describes. To them, even as to the people of old Eng 
land three hundred years ago, the teachings of the Bible 
in the speech of everyday life would * fall on ears which 
custom had not deadened to their force and beauty. 

" Protestant Christians have gloried in the independ 
ence of church and state in America. Have Ameri 
can churches realized their consequent obligation as 
well as privilege, to supply in the life of the people that 
which the state may fail to give? " * 

At the end of the eleventh century, thousands of 
* The Biblical World for January, 1913, page 28. 



TENDENCIES 99 

men, women and children enlisted in a crusade, " to 
rescue the holy sepulcher in the East from the infidel." 

In the beginning of the twentieth century millions 
of men, women and children have come from the East 
to find a vague Something Better than they have known. 

If American Christians will see and respond to their 
opportunity for personal service in giving of our best 
to those who have come, the world will be enriched, 
not by the possession of an empty tomb, but by the 
inspiration of millions of Spirit-filled temples of Life. 



V 
ASIATIC INFLUENCES 



Who taught you tender Bible tales 

Of honey lands, of milk and wine? 

Of happy, peaceful Palestine? 

Of Jordan s holy harvest vales? 

Who gave the patient Christ? I say, 

Who gave your Christian creed? Yea, yea, 

Who gave your very God to you ? 

Your Jew ! Your Jew ! Your hated Jew ! 

JOAQUIN MILLER, 
in " Russia s Ingratitude." 

Though East be East, though West be West, 

The world they form is one; 
Alike the aims of human kind, 
The goal when all is done. 

P. H. DODGE, 
of Keiogijiku Universitj. 



ASIATIC INFLUENCES 

THE unity of the human family is to be found 
or not found in North America. Ours is the 
only continent which in any large way is com 
posed of all continents, excepting South America. 

North America itself contributes the least. There is 
a slight native element in the United States. It is 
larger in Canada, while in the West Indies it was 
exterminated. But in the six independent republics 
between our southern boundary and our Panama Canal 
zone it greatly predominates. The continent of Africa 
has made a conspicuous contribution, numerically 
larger than any other except Europe. The materials 
of our country and our continent are mainly from Eu 
rope. The contribution of Asia is little noticed as 
such but is most noteworthy. Asiatic elements are 
much larger than most people think. In the year end 
ing June 30, 1912, more than twenty-one thousand 
people from Asia landed in the United States. The 
Orient is here. In the vast temple of American life 
which has been rising without human design the time 
has come for us to observe its Orientation. " And, 
behold, the glory of the God of Israel came from the 
way of the East." 

103 



104 THE NEW AMERICA 

OUR BIBLE AND OUR SAVIOUR 

It must not be forgotten that the fundamental litera 
ture of America is not American, nor African, nor 
even European, but Asiatic. The English language, 
the metaphors of common speech, the structural lines 
of thought, the basic conceptions of American life, are 
given us through the translation of sixty-six booklets 
originating every one of them in Asia. 

Not only is our fundamental literature Asiatic, but 
so also is our fundamental faith. " The father of the 
faithful " was a wandering Asiatic sheik. The God 
of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob is our God. Not only 
are Joseph and Moses and David our heroes, but Isaiah 
and John and Paul are our inspiration. Most of all, 
the supreme center of the divine revelation to us is in 
One who was primarily not American, or European, 
but Asiatic. He became, indeed, the Son of Man 
man at large. But he was first of all a Son of Asia. 
Out of a long Asiatic line he sprang. In Asia he was 
born, in Asia he was reared, in Asia he hungered and 
thirsted. There he was filled with righteousness. 
There he was tempted and overcame. He was never 
outside of Asia. It was on that continent that he 
spake as no man ever spake. There he started man 
kind on a new course of evolution. On one of the 
hilltops of Asia he was crucified, his blood mingling 
with the soil of Asia and fertilizing it for the highest 
products of human history. There are many mighty 
streams of influence in America to-day, but far and 
away the most potent of them all are those which have 
come to us out of Asia. Let no one forget this when 



ASIATIC INFLUENCES 105 

he looks into the face of a Jew or a Syrian, when he 
thinks of a Chinese or a Japanese inhabitant of 
America. 

A distinguished editor said that we could not expect 
an occidental religion like Christianity to lay hold of 
the Orientals who come to us. Such an absurd state 
ment shows to what extent race prejudice can make 
even a large-minded, highly-gifted student of human 
affairs stone-blind to the best-known facts of history. 
It is well within the facts to say that the life of the 
Pilgrims on the Mayflower was not merely colored 
but was completely dominated by Asiatic influences. 
That has been true of the best life of America to this 
hour. 

RETURN CURRENTS 

Return currents toward Asia began to flow in a 
decided stream one hundred years ago, when the cul 
tured son of a minister in old Plymouth, Mass., 
Adoniram Judson, went with a choice group of young 
Americans to take the faith of the Orient back to its 
own continent. The stream of American influence has 
deepened and widened. Half a century ago Commo 
dore Perry opened Japan to the world. Secretary Hay 
and men of his type have shown China that we seek 
its integrity and welfare. To-day more than five thou 
sand of the finest American men and women are liv 
ing in Asia for its good, and our flag is floating over 
sixteen hundred islands of Asia. The American con 
science is so alive to its obligations that we are obliged 
at least to allege that we are in the Philippines for the 
uplift of the Filipinos. We are now avowedly " a 



106 THE NEW AMERICA 

world power " with no expectation of diminishing 
influence in Asia. The relationships are mutual. 
Forces inflow as well as outflow. We must not exult 
in influencing Asia without expecting Asia to influ 
ence us. 

HEBREWS 

Consider Western Asia first. Although they have 
come through Europe the Jews are Asiatic. Probably 
the same may be said of all Europeans, if we go back 
far enough in ancestry. With many of the peoples 
coming to us from Southeastern Europe their Asiatic 
origin is not remote. That is one reason, perhaps, why 
this new contingent among us brings new problems. 
But the Jews are Asiatic not only in origin but also in 
the language which every Jewish boy learns to read and 
write, in the regulation of their daily food, in a large 
part of the customs which dominate their lives, both 
physical and mental. They have persistently kept 
themselves a distinct and a distinguished Asiatic race 
in spite of the massive and cruel forces which would 
have submerged or at least merged any occidental 
breed of humanity. We have in the United States 
more than one million eight hundred thousand of these 
thoroughbred Asiatics. Nine hundred thousand have 
come in the last ten years. They are marked factors 
in the commercial life of every city and town. In the 
metropolis of America they are one-fifth of the popula 
tion. One-half of the Jews of the country live within 
the horizon of the Metropolitan tower. They are fore 
most in philanthropy as well as in many lines of busi 
ness. They take a large and high place in great uni- 



ASIATIC INFLUENCES 107 

versities. One of them was recently a candidate for 
governor of the Empire State and had in his following 
many of the most thoughtful citizens of every race and 
creed. 

These Asiatics in America are avowedly not Chris 
tians. They are to be a decided factor in the future 
of the country. Who can measure the variety, the 
complexity and the immensity of our obligations to 
these kinsmen of Mendelssohn and Disraeli, yea, of 
Moses and of Jesus Christ? 

SYRIANS 

In this connection, turning to the peoples coming 
directly from Asia to America, it is natural to think 
first of the Syrians. They are of the same Semitic 
stock as the Israelites and of a near branch of that 
stock. Their country is next to the Holy Land itself, 
almost a part of it. A Semitic emigrant of old who 
passed through their country " went out, not knowing 
whither he went." That has been true of not a few 
who have come to this country. On the slopes of 
Syrian Lebanon the writer was told of some neighbors 
who were overheard discussing at what point in 
America they had better land, should it be Chicago 
or Brazil. Thousands have found their way to the 
United States. The first village to send many was 
Zaleh, on the summit of the pass over the Lebanon 
range between Damascus and Beirut. They began to 
come in the eighties. So many are here now that they 
are sending back to Zaleh $500 a day, it is said. The 



108 THE NEW AMERICA 

inhabitants of that place may well have their own 
interpretation of the verse, 

" There shall be abundance of grain in the earth upon the top 

of the mountains; 

The fruit thereof shall shake like Lebanon : 
And they of the city shall flourish like grass of the earth." 

From all Syria they are coming at the rate of over 
five thousand a year. About one thousand a year 
go back to Syria. In spite of all who have returned 
during the last thirty years, some seventy thousand 
Syrians are now in the United States, according to 
conservative estimate; many say one hundred thousand. 

ARMENIANS 

The other leading people in America from Western 
Asia are the Armenians. They, too, had knowledge 
of the Oriental Saviour firsthand, or nearly so. Tradi 
tion claims a letter to their king from Jesus himself. 
They were possessed of literature and culture when the 
Angles and Saxons were untutored barbarians. Ar 
menians have been coming to our country for many 
years. During the last five years twenty thousand 
have come. They have been driven by the " Armen 
ian atrocities " of the Turks and have been drawn by 
our liberties as well as by our opportunities. Estimates 
of the number in this country now range from fifty 
to one hundred fifty thousand. Their percentage of 
illiteracy is less than half that reported by the Syrians, 
and the percentage procuring naturalization more than 
twice as great. 



ASIATIC INFLUENCES 109 

TURKS 

While Syrians and Armenians are the two peoples 
coming from Western Asia in sufficient numbers to 
have separate mention in the immigration tables of 
the government, two thousand came in 1911-12 from 
other portions of Turkey in Asia. Some of these are 
Asiatic Greeks, but many of them are true Asiatics, in 
cluding hundreds of actual Turks. In fact the latter, 
even though they come from Turkey in Europe, belong 
to the group which we are now considering. In the 
five years from 1907 to 1912, six thousand four hun 
dred Turks have come to this country. They belong 
to the Mongolian division of the human race and so 
carry our thought naturally toward their cousins on 
the other side of the Asiatic continent. 

CHINESE 

Under Genghis Khan and his successors, for a whole 
century, eastern and western Mongols were united in 
one government. In the last half of the thirteenth 
century there was free intercourse between the Far 
East and Europe. In the last half of the nineteenth 
century, and since, eastern Mongolians have been com 
ing to America. Our present study is not concerned 
with the desirability of this but with the fact and its 
possible issues in the establishment of the kingdom of 
God on earth. In 1853, twenty thousand Chinese hav 
ing come the previous year, a great meeting of San 
Francisco s representative citizens was held, and the 
following resolution was unanimously adopted : 



110 THE NEW AMERICA 

" Resolved : That we regard with pleasure the pres 
ence of great numbers of these people among us, as 
affording the best opportunity of doing them good, 
and through them of exerting our influence upon their 
native land." 

Although their welcome was soon reversed and the 
stream of Oriental immigrants was largely turned back 
after a time, there were still 70,944 Chinese in the 
United States according to the census of 1910. That 
year 1,449 landed here from China. In 1911 it was 
1,307; in 1912, 1,765. They are scattered through the 
whole country. There are half as many in New York 
as in San Francisco. There is hardly a town of any 
size without some of them. 

JAPANESE 

Since the discouragement of Chinese immigration, 
the Japanese have been coming in larger numbers, al 
though their coming is carefully limited by the govern 
ment of Japan. In 1910, 3,759; in 1911, 4,575; in 
1912, 6,114 Japanese arrived. The census of 1910 
enumerated 71,722 in continental United States. The 
Japanese Association of America reports for 1912 the 
presence of 93,751 72,394 men, 12,285 women and 
9,072 children. There are about 16,000 in the New 
York consular district. 

It is believed by those in the best position to know 
that there are about 500 Koreans and about 5,500 
Filipinos in the country. 



ASIATIC INFLUENCES 111 

EAST INDIANS 

Recently a new contingent has appeared from south 
ern Asia. In the last three years, 2,325 came from 
the East Indies. There are said to be some 5,000 in 
the United States, some forty-three hundred of them 
being Hindus and the rest Mohammedans. Their il 
literacy exceeds that of any other people coming to us. 

OCCUPATIONS 

While most of the Asiatics in our country are en 
gaged in industrial pursuits of the simplest kind, con 
siderable numbers have become landowners. In some 
sections the Japanese are taking possession of the agri 
cultural industries. In 1909, as laborers, they did prac 
tically all the hand work in raising berries, a large part 
of that in sugar-beet fields, and one-half of the work 
in the vineyards of California. Moreover, they owned 
16,449^4 acres of land and leased 137,233^4 acres 
more. In Washington, Idaho and Colorado, they con 
trolled 34,072 acres. In all the great cities, East as 
well as West, there are Chinese and Japanese mer 
chants. 

Altogether, there are well toward three hundred 
thousand Asiatics in the United States at the present 
time; in other words, about the same number as of the 
aboriginal Americans. This is in continental United 
States, to which the present study is confined. Under 
the flag in the Philippines are many thousands more, 
and in the Hawaiian Islands they threaten to pre 
dominate. 



THE NEW AMERICA 



There are great differences between our Asiatic and 
European immigrants which need to be kept in mind. 
Foremost is the difference in race relationship. 
Nearly all the emigrants from Europe are more closely 
akin to us than most of those from Asia. Even the 
Slavic races are a part of the great Ayran family to 
which we belong. With the exception of the Armen 
ians and Hindus who have come here lately, the 
Asiatics are from an entirely different branch of the 
human race. Race feelings are among the deepest in 
human nature. If we find it difficult to count the new 
comers from southeastern Europe as our brothers how 
much more difficult to count so those who come from 
southeastern Asia? 

Connected with this profound racial difference is a 
great difference in tendency to assimilate. Japanese 
of the second generation in considerable numbers show 
power to become genuine Americans, but in the main 
Asiatic immigrants are always aliens. 

A third difference of great significance is in the mat 
ter of permanency among us. Year by year about one- 
third as many Europeans go back as come to this 
country. Many of them, however, are returning to 
Europe for only a visit. The vast majority of those 
who come from Europe expect to make our country 
their home. On the other hand a large part of those 
who come from Asia come for only a temporary stay. 

The fourth difference, closely connected with these 
others, is in the interchange of ideas back and forth. 
The great bulk of Europeans who come to us for 



ASIATIC INFLUENCES 113 

permanent residence infuse new color into American 
thought and feeling, and quickly receive themselves 
new color, often to the extent of an almost complete 
transformation. These transfusions of life take place 
far less with the Asiatics among us. Owing to all 
these differences there is extremely little actual inter- 
blending of the Asiatics with other Americans. There 
has been among Asiatics and Americans only the 
slightest tendency to the miscegenation which has been 
so marked in the relation of Africans and Ameri 
cans. 

Except the Jews and the few Mohammedans, the 
Europeans who come to us are Christian in name and 
tradition. Both of these are, in fact, Asiatics and 
both of them are monotheists, believers in the God of 
Abraham. Most of the sacred books of the Jews are 
the same as ours. The Asiatics, on the other hand, 
who come to us from the Far East are polytheists and 
have inherited no knowledge of Christ or even of the 
one God of the Bible and the Koran. But in spite of all 
these differences the interflow of Asiatic and American 
life is very considerable. 

ASIATIC INFLUENCE ON US 

Note, first, the influence of our Asiatic visitors on 
us. It manifests itself in various directions. In indus 
trial affairs, labor questions of the Pacific Coast have 
been deeply and violently complicated by the Oriental 
immigrants. The political life of whole states and, to 
some extent, of the nation, has been shaken by the pres 
ence of these men from Asia, and still more, perhaps, 



THE NEW AMERICA 

by the fear of their presence. It would be impossible 
to say how much the moral life of the country is 
affected by the Orientals. It is believed by those who 
are most fearful about them on the Pacific Coast that 
they introduce vices which are characteristic of their 
low standards of morality, and which draw not a few 
Occidentals into their vile currents. The " white slave 
traffic " is a somewhat metaphorical phrase, but the 
yellow slave traffic has been literal. It has been con 
ducted on a large scale and with written bills of sale. 
The opium trade has been immense, but like the slave 
trade, it has been mostly to gratify the Chinese them 
selves. 

It might be supposed that their influence on us in 
religious matters would be a negligible quantity. On 
the contrary, there are conspicuous embodiments of 
Asiatic missionary activity at points all the way from 
the Point Loma sanctum in southern California to the 
Green Acre School in Maine.* 

OUR INFLUENCE ON ASIA 

Turn now from Asia s influence on us to consider 
our influence on Asia, through the immigrants from 
that continent. It is exerted, first of all, by our life. 
What we are counts for most. They return to tell 
of the prosperity of the country and what they have 
learned of its institutions and of the real character of 
the people. The Christian kindness which some of 
them have met here in the strange and largely hostile 

*For discussion of "Non-Christian Faiths in America" see 
" Conservation of National Ideals." Fleming H. Revell Co. 



ASIATIC INFLUENCES 115 

country is keenly appreciated. That is what tells most. 
The offset of this is the unkind treatment endured in 
America. In addition to that they observe the wide 
spread evils here. 

Vast numbers in Asia know something of the actual 
character of America, which poses as a Christian na 
tion. Their judgment of it is a real day of judgment 
for us. If the family life, the educational life and the 
political life of America were completely Christian, and 
the industrial life could be Christianized, our testimony 
to Asia would be irresistible. In these days of world 
wide intercourse, if even one commonwealth in the 
United States were to become absolutely Christian the 
continent of Asia would not long resist the argument 
and would be clamoring for teachers from that common 
wealth. If a single city, San Francisco, New York, 
or any other, were to become entirely the city of God, 
it would do more to bring Asia to the feet of Christ 
than could be done by sending to Asia every preacher 
in the United States. We must act in the light of this 
indisputable fact while at the same time we act in the 
light of another law of nature which scatters seeds 
broadcast. Jesus sent the apostles into all the world 
while the Promised Land itself was yet reeking with 
wrong. 

But our influence on Asia through the Asiatics among 
us is exerted by our teaching as well as by our life. 
We must tell them the good news of our Oriental 
Saviour, the supreme inspiration to right living. The 
immigrants from western Asia are commonly con 
sidered in connection with those from Europe, and so 
need not be reconsidered here. 



116 THE NEW AMERICA 

MISSIONS AMONG AMERICAN ORIENTALS * 

By Local Churches. The evangelizing activities 
among immigrants from Eastern Asia are conducted 
in three ways. First, by local churches. There are no 
statistics to show how many Sunday schools or Bible 
classes there are for Orientals. It was stated a few 
years ago that in seventy cities there were seventy-five 
Sunday schools for the Chinese, with an attendance 
of 2,500. There are more than twenty schools in New 
York City and immediate vicinity. In New England 
there is an association of Chinese Sunday-school work 
ers connected with forty-two schools. Hundreds of 
Chinese have been brought to Christ through the 
Chinese Sunday schools in various parts of the coun 
try. The writer has had the privilege of seeing in his 
own pastoral experience in western Pennsylvania and in 
central Massachusetts numbers of Orientals studying 
the Bible and dozens of them giving their hearts to 
Christ. Some of these men, like Lee You in Pittsburg, 
have shown by many years of unswerving loyalty to 
Christ and His Church that their faith is genuine. The 
majority have returned to China. 

The scattered work of local churches makes no show 
ing in statistical tables. One of the denominations 
doing the largest amount of work among them (Pres 
byterian) has recorded the number of Chinese com 
municants in distinctively Chinese churches and in 
American churches, showing almost as many in the 

* On this and other topics in the present chapter see the mono 
graph " The Oriental in America" by Geo. Warren Hinman. 
New York, Missionary Education Movement, 1913. 5 cts. 



ASIATIC INFLUENCES 117 

latter as in the former. If this hold, as there is no 
reason to doubt that it does, in other denominations, 
nearly as much in the way of conversion is being ac 
complished in this way as in the separate missions. 

By Denominations. Next comes the work con 
ducted by denominational missions. It was begun in 
1852 by the Presbyterians in San Francisco. Baptists 
began there in 1854, Methodists in 1868, Congrega- 
tionalists in 1870. There is a Chinese Methodist mis 
sion in New York City and a Chinese Presbyterian 
Church. Both New York and Philadelphia have 
Chinese Baptist churches. The first organized work 
for Japanese was in 1877. Most of the work for that 
nationality has been done since 1900. In addition to 
meetings for worship and preaching, and Sunday 
schools, evening schools have been opened, boarding 
schools established and rescue homes and Christian 
boarding homes have been erected. 

The open doorway through which the majority have 
come into connection with the missions of both kinds 
has been the need of learning the English language. 
The Bible and extracts from it have been used as teach 
ing material.* 

The total number of Oriental members in the Ameri 
can churches and the foreign-speaking churches at pres 
ent is estimated as follows: Chinese, 2,000; Japanese, 
2,600; Koreans, 400. A majority of the Koreans be 
come Christians in Korea before coming to America. 
It is believed that nearly ten thousand Chinese and 

*Some of this material has now been put into pedagogical form 
in "Early Stories and Songs for New Students of English" by 
Mary Clark Barnes. Fleming H. Revell Co. 



118 THE NEW AMERICA 

Japanese have been baptized in America. There are 
now about seventy-five organized missions for Chinese 
and the same number for Japanese. Twenty of the 
former and four of the latter are in Eastern parts of 
the country. 

By Interdenominational Agencies. The third way 
of seeking to Christianize Asiatics is through inter 
denominational agencies. The Chinese Young Men s 
Christian Association at first was modeled to a 
considerable extent after the well-known Y.M.C.A. 
It began as an interdenominational work. It has 
developed, however, into a Young Men s Christian As 
sociation under the care and conduct of the various 
denominations. The American Bible Society has done 
some excellent work among Orientals in America. 
There is a joint work among the Japanese, the Dendo 
Dan, which is moving along hopeful lines. 

The organ of interdenominational action which is 
of the greatest promise is the " Standing Committee of 
American Workers among Orientals on the Pacific 
Coast." In 1912 the Home Missions Council requested 
this Committee to prepare a plan by which the work for 
Orientals can be allotted among the denominations so 
as to secure its more adequate accomplishment. The 
Committee has done this with great care. On the north 
Pacific coast also there was organized at Seattle (1912) 
a " Council of Oriental-American Christian Workers/ 
An adequate interdenominational building is proposed 
and other closely co-operative undertakings. 

Hitherto the needs have been largely unmet. In 
the Consultations of the deputation from the Home 
Missions Council during the winter of 1911-12, one 



ASIATIC INFLUENCES 119 

missionary administrator with years of experience in 
China and then other years of experience on the Pacific 
Coast, affirmed that not more than one Chinaman in ten 
in the coast state where he lives had had the Gospel 
brought to him in any adequate way. The deputation 
was informed in another coast state that there are in 
that state twenty-seven counties, with an average of two 
hundred Chinamen in each, without any Christian work 
of any kind for these Asiatics. In November, 1912, the 
Standing Committee above mentioned declared that 
" by recent surveys some fourteen thousand Chinese 
and about the same number of Japanese are found to 
be without any Christian opportunities. Among the 
Hindus there are about four thousand." 

Would the Orientals among us respond to missionary 
endeavor in encouraging numbers if adequate effort 
were made? The city of San Francisco is perhaps the 
best provided of any place with missions to them. 
Even in that city there is only one mission to each 
nine hundred and fifty Chinese. Yet they have turned 
to Christ in such numbers that they are communicants in 
evangelical churches to a larger extent, in proportion 
to numbers, than the white people of that city. 

Do American Christians really long for the conver 
sion of Orientals, or is the interest only imaginary 
while the thought is a glimmering mirage on the dis 
tant horizon? Inside our own gate more than thirty 
thousand flesh and blood heathens for whom we are 
doing nothing ! Thousands more for whom we are do 
ing but little! That little, however, counts. Owing 
to the public spirit of the Morning Star Missionary 
in New York, in helping the large Chinese community 



120 THE NEW AMERICA 

to secure and forward famine funds and in other 
ways, he and his brother missionary have been 
made associate members of the Chinese Merchants 
Association which meets every week, with a voice on 
its floor. One result is that the joss house connected 
with the rooms of the Merchants Association has been 
closed. 

REFLEX INFLUENCE ON ASIA 

The most striking aspect of the influence of Asiatics 
in connection with the New America is the reflex influ 
ence on Asia. It is known that Chinese Christians in 
America have sent back for Christian work in China 
at least fifty thousand dollars. If the unreported sums 
be considered, and the gifts of the Japanese as well, 
it is probable that one hundred thousand dollars would 
be a moderate estimate. But the main thing is that 
they have gone back themselves, the majority of them 
to stay, nearly all of them for at least a long visit. 
More than five thousand returned in 1912. That is 
more in one year than the entire number of American 
missionaries in those countries. This has been going 
on for years, during some periods in far greater num 
bers than now. 

On Government. It is more than a coincidence that 
the portion of China that has been the fountain of demo 
cratic influences which have at last captured the Chinese 
government, is the region from which most of the 
Chinese have come to America and to which they have 
returned with some knowledge of American institu 
tions. While laborers have come almost entirely from 
southeastern China, students have come also from other 



ASIATIC INFLUENCES 

sections. Chinese students in America in their petition to 
President Taft pleading for the recognition of the Re 
public of China by the United States said, " In effecting 
this remarkable transition of China from a corrupt mon 
archy to a sound republic, many of the most prominent 
leaders have been guided by the practical knowledge 
and experience of the blessings of free government 
which the hospitality and generosity of this land of 
liberty have enabled them, in their student days, to 
acquire within the precincts of its institutions of learn 
ing; and all of them have been inspired by the luminous 
example of the happy republic of the United States. 
For this immeasurable service which the people of the 
United States have rendered to the cause of republican 
China, we avail ourselves of this opportunity to own 
our debt of gratitude." Said a student in Chen Tung 
University, Western China, to his American teacher, 
referring to America as a whole, "What you are we 
want to become." 

On Missionary Work. Chinese brought to Christ in 
America have exerted a decisive influence in evan 
gelizing China. Rev. Dr. Noyes, a missionary for a 
third of a century in China, said, " Nearly all the 
Chinese [laborers] in the United States come from 
four districts in the Canton province. Twenty-five 
years ago there was not a Christian chapel or school 
in all that region. Now there are few places in these 
districts where there is not a mission chapel within a 
distance the Chinese can easily \valk. Of these chapels 
we have six [now more]. Every one of these sites 
was obtained by the help of Christians who had re 
turned from California. Of the thirteen native assist- 



123 THE NEW AMERICA 

ants who have labored at these stations, six were con 
verted in California, one in Australia and one received 
his first serious impressions from a member of the 
Chinese Church in California on the steamer crossing 
the Pacific." Not long ago a Chinese pastor in New 
York City for thirteen years said that when he was in 
China recently he was in a meeting where fifty Chinese 
preachers of the Gospel were gathered, and on taking 
an expression it was found that twenty- five of them 
were converted in the United States. 

A Japanese inhabitant of the United States having 
become an earnest Christian felt that he must carry 
back the news to Japan, and help bring that nation to 
Christ. After a few months he returned to America. 
The present writer visited him just as he was in the 
act of unpacking his trunk, and asked him why he had 
returned to this country. He said that soon after 
reaching Japan he received a letter from an old ac 
quaintance living in one of the country towns of the 
Empire, who asked him to come up there and help to 
discredit and drive out two American women who were 
teaching the villagers that in America there is a Jesus 
religion which people throughout the world ought to 
accept. His acquaintance said, " I told the people that 
I lived in America for years and never heard of a Jesus 
religion. You are just back from that country. If 
you will come up here and confirm my statement we 
can drive these fake religionists out of the town." My 
friend said that he concluded that he could do most 
for Japan by returning to America and doing every 
thing in his power to make it impossible for Japanese 



ASIATIC INFLUENCES 123 

to live for years in this country without learning of 
the Jesus religion. 

On the Educated Classes. When we turn to the 
student class, we look upon forces of unmeasured po 
tentiality for the regeneration of Asia. Nemoro 
Utsurikawa in Education, November, 1912, mentions 
by name more than thirty former Japanese students in 
America who have since rendered distinguished serv 
ice in Japan, and says that in 1911 there were in the 
United States 869 Japanese students. 

The Chinese students, in petitioning President Taft, 
said that they represented 900 Chinese students then 
in America. The Chinese government is sending here 
about one hundred more students each year, giving 
them an allowance of eight hundred dollars a year. 
They are generally to remain here seven years. Ac 
cording to an old theory of physiology that is long 
enough to secure an entire transformation of their 
bodies, so that when they return every ounce of their 
substance will be American. However that may be, 
they are here on purpose to imbibe American ideas and 
ideals for the sake of regenerating China. In the 
revolutionary Chinese government the First Assistant 
Secretary of Foreign Affairs was the earnest Christian, 
Wang, educated in the United States by the wise gen 
erosity of two Baptist laymen of Lansing, Mich. Fei, 
the private secretary of Dr. Sun Yat Sen, was educated 
here by a Boston layman. 

What would be the effect if the evangelical churches 
were to begin at once to put sufficient endeavor into 
the work for Asiatics now living in the United States 



THE NEW AMERICA 

to win the majority of them to the Christian faith? 
It would simply mean that something like one hundred 
and twenty-five thousand ambassadors of Christ in 
the next few years would go from our shores to the Far 
East. They would go with the language and habits of 
the people to whom they go, their own to start with. 
This would be far and away the most inexpensive and 
at the same time the most effective method of inserting 
the Gospel leaven into the Asiatic lump. 

DR. SUN YAT SEN 

The most striking instance of interdenominational 
and intercontinental influence is in the case of the lead 
ing factor in the recent revolution in China, Dr. Sun 
Yat Sen. This man, who traveled largely on foot some 
ten thousand miles throughout China, gathering and 
indoctrinating groups of patriots with republican senti 
ment, is the son of a man brought to Christ through an 
English Church medical mission. He himself learned 
the Christian way more perfectly through Congrega 
tional workers in the Hawaiian Islands. Though he 
was a medical student, not a student for the ministry, a 
Chinese merchant in New York who knew Dr. Sun 
intimately when he was in school says that it was the 
habit of the young man, when Sunday came, to go 
somewhere and conduct a gospel service. When he 
was in the United States, after a reward of fifty thou 
sand dollars had been placed on his head by the Chinese 
government, he was protected for many weeks in the 
Baptist Chinese mission in New York City. Remem- 



ASIATIC INFLUENCES 125 

bering the readiness with which Chinese assassins, for 
a comparatively small consideration, take human life, 
his peril can well be conceived. Wherever he went 
upon the street two men workers went with him, one 
on each side. Because peril lurked in darkness, as well 
as in daylight, they slept one on either side of him at 
night. It is not surprising to be told that his Christian 
life deepened and quickened in this sacred and almost 
tragic fellowship. When he returned to America, years 
afterward, a distinguished reformer, many homes and 
places of entertainment were opened for him, but the 
New York dailies said that Sun Yat Sen was most 
sure to be found at the Morning Star Mission. 

THE CHALLENGE TO CHRISTIANITY 

During the last half of the thirteenth century, Kubla 
Khan with his capital at Pekin ruled over the most ex 
tensive empire ever seen on earth. He was not only 
the most extensive but also one of the most broad- 
minded and progressive of the earth s rulers. He 
begged the Pope of Rome to send him one hundred 
missionaries. New popes were passing just then in 
rapid succession. If they had done as requested, in 
stead of spending their energies in ecclesiastical quib 
bles and quarrels, and sent one hundred true-hearted 
men to the Far East, China might have been a Chris 
tian nation for the last five hundred years half a mil 
lennium at least as Christian as many of the nations 
of Christendom. Now at last another opportunity, and 
one of even greater promise, has come. China and all 



126 THE NEW AMERICA 

the Far East are craving Western light. The Ruler 
of the ages has put within our own parish circles, to 
stay for a few years before returning to Asia, more 
than one hundred thousand sons of the Orient, hun 
dreds of them picked men. It is the most stupendous 
challenge in human history. 



VI 

GUIDING AND INSPIRING 
AGENCIES 



Gifts differ, but the Spirit is the same; ways of serving 
differ, yet the Master is the same; results differ, yet the God 
who brings about every result is in every case the same. 

If the foot says, Since I am not a hand, I do not belong to 
the body, it does not on that account cease to belong to the 
body. Or if the ear says, Since I am not an eye, I do not 
belong to the body, it does not on that account cease to belong 
to the body. If all the body were an eye, where would the 
hearing be? If it were all hearing, where would the sense of 
smell be? But in fact God has placed each individual part just 
where he thought fit in the body. 

PAUL. 



VI 
GUIDING AND INSPIRING AGENCIES 

IS the development of the New America to be left 
entirely to the working of unconscious forces and 
more or less blind economic factors? The high 
est attainment of evolution is the guidance of the proc 
ess. In the creation of our new and unprecedented 
nation out of raw materials from all nations there are 
a number of guiding and inspiring agencies. They all 
work together, but for convenience of description may 
be classified as State Agencies, Society Agencies and 
Church Agencies. Their co-operation might well be 
come more than as yet a deliberately planned and 
closely articulated co-operation. 

STATE AGENCIES 

Selection. The government has laws and an elabo 
rate administrative system for sifting applicants for 
admission. More than twenty causes, physical, mental 
and moral, are assigned for debarring them. Many 
think that the sieve ought to be finer. As it is, it de 
barred sixteen thousand and fifty-seven in the year 
ending June 30, 1912. In addition to that two thousand 
eight hundred and fifty-three were returned who had 
been allowed to enter. In 1909, over twenty-four thon- 

129 



130 THE NEW AMERICA 

sand were debarred; in five years, ending with June, 
1912, eighty- four thousand. In some months of recent 
years the exclusions have been as high as three per 
cent of the arrivals. 

The continuous work of the United States in receiv 
ing the new Americans is conducted by its Bureau of 
Immigration in the Department of Commerce and 
Labor. The administration of the government s regula 
tions concerning the admission of approximately three 
thousand people every day, on the average, through the 
year, is a task of enormous proportions and of a 
delicacy and difficulty almost incalculable. Every one 
of the applicants is a person, and the center of the world 
to himself. No servants of society in America deserve 
the appreciative sympathy, the support and the prayers 
of the lovers of God and men more than do our immi 
gration officials. On them we place vast responsibility 
as to the character of the New America. Under the 
Commissioner-General there are nine Commissioners, 
stationed at New York, Boston, Montreal, Philadel 
phia, Baltimore, New Orleans, San Juan, San Fran 
cisco and Seattle. There are twenty-three districts. 
An inspector is in charge where there is no Commis 
sioner resident. At the chief gateway, Ellis Island, 
New York, there are six hundred and fifty govern 
mental employes of all kinds. The staff of medical 
inspectors is often seriously overtaxed. By rapid and 
at the same time keen and kindly inspection they im 
mediately pass the great majority of applicants. 
Eighty per cent of those who come are kept at Ellis 
Island only three hours. A few must be detained for 
further inquiry. 



GUIDING AND INSPIRING AGENCIES 131 

There are various causes for detention on Ellis 
Island. Many are waiting for friends to meet them. In 
the crowded seasons as high as two thousand may be 
lodged there. It is a vast temporary home as well as 
si f ting-place. An important adjunct is the hospital 
service. All about the buildings the following " Order 
Concerning the Treatment of Immigrants " is conspicu 
ously posted, " Immigrants shall be treated with kind 
ness and civility by every one at Ellis Island. Neither 
harsh language ncfr rough handling will be tolerated. 
The Commissioner desires that any instance of dis 
obedience of this order be brought immediately to his 
attention." 

Representatives of missionary and other philan 
thropic aid societies have desks in the heart of the 
building. Nothing is more significant of America s 
good will and welcome to its new people. There are 
thirty-nine of these accredited representatives, twenty- 
five of them under avowedly religious auspices. The 
workers speak with almost all known tongues and 
render almost every kind of humane service. 

Distribution. The Bureau of Immigration has a 
Division of Information which was instituted by act of 
Congress as follows : 

Correspondence shall be had with the proper officials of the 
States and Territories and said division shall gather from all 
available sources useful information regarding the resources, 
products and physical characteristics of each State and Territory, 
and shall publish such information in different languages and 
distribute the publications among all admitted aliens who may 
ask for such information at the immigrant stations of the United 
States, and to such persons as may desire the same. 



132 THE NEW AMERICA 

In 1911 over one hundred thousand people received 
the benefit of this agency, thirty thousand six hundred 
fifty-nine being direct applicants. 

Many of the Western states have departments de 
voted to the securing of settlers, and other activities 
bearing on immigration. Such departments are being 
created in Eastern states to aid in the distribution of 
immigration and in other vital services for them. 

Naturalization. The desire to become citizens varies 
greatly with the nationality of the immigrant, ranging 
all the way from less than six per cent of the Portu 
guese to more than ninety-two per cent of the Swedes. 
About seven-tenths of the men of the older immigra 
tion (fifteen nationalities) have sought naturalization 
and about three-tenths of the men of the newer immi 
gration (twenty-five nationalities). In recent years 
our government has greatly increased endeavor to make 
the process of naturalization intelligent and judicial. 
The courts having jurisdiction, about twenty-five hun 
dred, are aided by the Division of Naturalization in the 
Bureau of Immigration. It has examiners who are to 
look into each case and present their findings to the 
courts. Obviously this work of making American sov 
ereigns ought to be guarded and strengthened to the 
utmost. There are enough foreign-born in this country 
to displace the entire population of nineteen of the 
states. If so distributed, they could elect thirty-eight 
United States senators. 

Education. This is the chief governmental activity 
in behalf of the new Americans. Five of the forty-two 
volumes issued by the recently organized Immigration 
Commission are devoted to the school attendance and 



GUIDING AND INSPIRING AGENCIES 133 

progress of children of immigrants. Not only is the 
school the chief agency of the state in Americaniza 
tion, but that has now become the chief work of the 
schools. It was found that 57.8 per cent of the pupils 
in the public schools are children of foreign-born 
fathers. Even in the cities where the percentage was 
lowest, New Orleans and Kansas City, eighteen and 
twenty-one out of every hundred were of direct Euro 
pean parentage. It is typical and suggestive that the 
highest percentage was just the same for an Eastern 
and a Western city : Chelsea, Mass., and Duluth, Minn., 
74.1 per cent. New York City had 71.5 per cent, Chi 
cago, 67.3 per cent, and Boston, 63.5 per cent. 

In every school where many of these children attend 
are found instances of the greatest mental alertness. 
The children of eight nationalities, taken as a whole, 
grade higher than the average children of native- 
born white fathers, Finns ranking the highest. The 
public schools are the hope of the New America more 
even than was "the little red school-house" of old. 
A teacher in a New York City public school has put 
it in a way not easily forgotten, " Children of twenty- 
nine nationalities enter our school; they go out one 
nationality." 

Public libraries as well as public schools give atten 
tion, many of them large attention, to the needs of the 
new Americans. They provide books in the languages 
most used in the community. Large libraries have 
special attendants for the non-English departments, 
some of them rooms set apart for their use. Special 
branches are opened in foreign-speaking neighbor 
hoods. In Rochester, for example, in a neighborhood 



THE NEW AMERICA 

where there are between six and seven thousand Poles 
and no public school within a radius of a mile, philan 
thropic people organized an Institute for teaching Eng 
lish and it was made the first Branch of the Rochester 
Public Library. 

Protection. The Bureau of Industries and Immi 
gration of the State of New York was established in 
1910. Its purpose is thus summarized in the first an 
nual report : 

Believing that an alien s first impression, his first experiences 
on arrival and his first contact with American institutions, are 
the most lasting; that if his property rights and liberty are not 
respected on arrival he cannot be expected to respect those of 
people resident here; and that if he has not been given a square 
deal he will later visit his early experiences upon his newly 
arrived brothers ; the State has undertaken, so far as its facilities 
permit, to make these early experiences forces for real civiliza 
tion. 

The exploitation of immigrants and of emigrants by 
New York hotels and transfer companies, the out 
rageous conditions of labor camps and many other 
forms of wrong, are beginning to be righted. As al 
ready noticed, a number of states have immigration 
boards of one kind or another. The New York Bureau 
has led in the formation of a National Conference of 
Immigration and Labor Officials. Its objects are to 
promote state activities of the kind just described. It 
is significant of the fine purpose of this movement that 
the Chief Investigator of the New York Bureau is a 
woman. One of its special investigators was Miss 
Carola Woerishoffer, a young woman of large wealth, 
who gave herself in unstinted devotion to discerning 



GUIDING AND INSPIRING AGENCIES 135 

and remedying needs, even working for that purpose, 
incognito, in laundries and other places of lowliest 
service. Her life was lost in an accident while on a 
mission of mercy for the Immigration Bureau. It 
seemed to the writer peculiarly fitting that her body 
should lie in humble state in the " Church of the In 
carnation." 

SOCIETY AGENCIES 

There are many organizations doing important work 
for immigrants which are official organs of neither 
state nor church. Most of them may be grouped under 
the following classes. 

General Organizations. There are a number of 
these. The following are good examples : The North 
American Civic League was organized in Boston in 
1908. It has an active branch in New York and is ex 
tending its work elsewhere. It seeks to educate the 
older Americans to sustain appreciative relations with 
the new Americans and to educate the latter in the 
American speech and duties. It undertakes protec 
tion and educational measures in preparation for co 
operation with state agencies. It sends " domestic 
educators " into neighborhoods and homes of immi 
grants. One of its great services has been the organiza 
tion, in 1912, of the Immigration Council, composed 
of representatives of thirty-five societies engaged in 
work for immigrants in New York City. This is for 
the purpose of avoiding duplication of work and hav 
ing a central bureau of information. 

The Immigrants Protective League of Chicago is an 
efficient organization with the same aims as the North 



136 THE NEW AMERICA 

American Civic League. It is the intelligent, alert 
and generous friend of the newcomer. 

The Travelers Aid Society " provides information, 
advice, guidance and protection to all travelers irre 
spective of age, race, creed, class or sex. It thereby 
relieves suffering and prevents error, wrong, extortion 
and crime at a time when the desired victim is most 
accessible. The agents are not allowed to receive 
gratuities or fees. Women agents of the Society, who 
speak the different languages, meet trains and steamers 
to aid and conduct inexperienced or confused travelers 
any hour of the day or night to their destination within 
the city, or to trains or steamers for other points. This 
protection is continued by co-operation with other so 
cieties or friends at terminal points, until the traveler is 
known to have safely reached the proper destination. 
When necessary the Society provides temporarily for 
the traveler at headquarters." It has nineteen agents 
regularly appointed to meet railroad trains and trans 
atlantic steamers. These workers speak twenty-one 
languages and many dialects. In 1911 they met at the 
docks 11,563 people of forty-eight nationalities. From 
the beginning of their work in 1905 to January ist, 
1913, they had met 55,961 people, of sixty- four nation 
alities. This organization especially meets the needs of 
aliens who come as cabin passengers. The nationality 
societies and many missionary societies also carry on 
this line of work, for steerage passengers. 

Nationality Societies. At least twenty-nine nation 
alities have organizations of their own which give con 
siderable attention to the new arrivals of their re 
spective nationalities, often meeting them on landing, 



GUIDING AND INSPIRING AGENCIES 137 

sometimes providing for their necessities afterward, 
and in general throwing about them the social and 
fraternal help which make them feel at home at once in 
the new country. Some foreign governments grant 
these organizations subsidies. Several nationalities 
have more than one organization of the kind. In some 
cases one is under Catholic and one under Protestant 
auspices. Let the following statement of one of the 
Italian societies serve as a sample : 

It " employs agents to look after the needs of the 
immigrants at Ellis Island; it runs an escort service, 
by which competent persons are furnished, at nominal 
cost, to take immigrants to their destination; it con 
ducts an employment agency; it maintains an informa 
tion bureau; it co-operates with the United States 
authorities to enforce the immigration laws; it manages 
labor camps for conductors; it wages war on all per 
sons engaged in swindling immigrants; it is engaged 
in breaking up the padrone system in all its forms; 
and lastly and generally, it does all it can to help immi 
grants, so that as soon as possible they may become 
self-supporting and self-respecting citizens, a benefit 
and not a detriment to this country." 

The race making the best provision for its incoming 
members is the Hebrew. They have nine general or 
ganizations for this and kindred purposes. The Baron 
de Hirsch Fund and the Educational Alliance do an 
immense work for the comfort and Americanization of 
the children of Israel. 

Immigrant Homes. One of the agencies which is 
specially helpful to many at the outset of their Ameri 
can experiences is the Immigrant Home which is under 



138 THE NEW AMERICA 

philanthropic management. There those who are not 
met by friends, and are at a loss which way to turn, 
may tarry for a short time at a reasonable expense and 
be under protective influences. There are not less than 
thirteen of these Homes in New York City. Some of 
them are under racial and others under denominational 
auspices. Other ports have such Homes. In one year 
fifteen thousand immigrants were discharged to benevo 
lent homes and aid societies. 

Labor Unions. Labor Unions have a large part to 
play in the Americanization and assimilation of the 
newcomers. The vast majority of those who come be 
long to the laboring classes. Professor John R. Com 
mons, in " Races and Immigrants in America," says, 
The labor Union is at present the strongest American 
izing force. Before the organization of the Union 
in the anthracite coal fields the foreigners were given 
over to the most bitter and often murderous feuds 
among the ten or fifteen nationalities and the two or 
three factions within each nationality. The Polish 
worshipers qf a given saint would organize a night 
attack on the Polish worshipers of another saint; the 
Italians from one province would have a knife for the 
Italians of another province, and so on. When the 
Union was organized the antagonisms of race, religion 
and faction were eliminated. The sense of a common 
cause and more than all else, the sense of individual 
rights as men, have come to these people through the 
organization of their labor Unions and could come 
in no other way, for the Union appeals to their neces 
sities, while other forces appeal to their prejudices." 
Young People s Associations. Both the Young 



GUIDING AND INSPIRING AGENCIES 139 

Men s and the Young Women s Christian Associations 
have departments for work among immigrant peoples. 
These might be classed under church agencies but since 
their work is chiefly without special religious emphasis 
and along lines similar to those of the Jewish and other 
organizations now being considered, they belong here 
also. Jenks and Lauck, in " The Immigration Prob 
lem," say, of one of these, " The Young Men s Chris 
tian Association has for the past few years made efforts 
to do work of a purely secular character among the 
immigrant races." The Industrial Department of the 
International Committee has twelve emigration secre 
taries at ports of departure in Europe, and thirteen at 
ports of entry in America, with three general secre 
taries in the Immigration Section. In 1912 also there 
were conducted classes to teach the English language 
in twenty-nine states and the District of Columbia, 
with 16,402 students. More than forty nationalities 
are reached. The annual expenditures exclusively for 
this work are about fifty thousand dollars. 

The National Board of the Young Women s Chris 
tian Association inaugurated definite work for immi 
grant young women in October, 1910. The Secretary 
in charge of the work reported in January, 1913, " All 
the activities for the immigrant girls will go under the 
title of The International Institute for Young Women 
of the Young Women s Christian Association. . . . 
This scheme is actually in full operation in two cities; 
the International Institute in New York City has a 
budget of twenty thousand dollars. . . . The second 
Institute is at Trenton, with a budget of three thou 
sand dollars. . . . Aside from this protective and 



140 THE NEW AMERICA 

educational system, which aims to reach the present 
immigration from central and southern Europe, fifty- 
seven Associations in the country are maintaining in 
their headquarters buildings English classes for for 
eigners." By April an institute had been opened in 
Lawrence, Mass. Sixteen full-time workers were em 
ployed in the three institutes. 

Social Settlements. Social settlements are among 
the efficient agencies for the assimilation of foreigners. 
A large feature of the work in every settlement where 
there are foreigners is in their behalf. "Americans in 
Process, a Settlement Study," by Robert A. Woods, 
sets this forth in its very title. In " Twenty Years at 
Hull House," Jane Addams devotes an entire chapter 
to the subject and makes it a prominent feature in 
nearly every other chapter. There are more than four 
hundred social settlements in the United States. One 
hundred sixty-three of these are under avowedly re 
ligious auspices, Methodists, Episcopalians and Jews 
being in the lead, with Roman Catholic and other de 
nominations represented. Most of the settlements 
conduct the work in a way to respect the religious 
convictions of people of every race and creed. The 
social settlements which nominally exclude religion 
from their special work are nevertheless conducted un 
der the motives which were energized in the world by 
the ministry and teaching of Jesus Christ. Even when 
the workers do not allow themselves the broader out 
look on the universe which they w r ould get from a 
distinct recognition of this, and when those for whom 
they work lose the deep and high inspiration which 
has come into the human race in this way, they are 



GUIDING AND INSPIRING AGENCIES 141 

still, though somewhat blindly and narrowly, doing the 
work of the kingdom of heaven on earth. A social 
settlement is a collective reincarnation of the Spirit of 
Christ. 



CHURCH AGENCIES I I. INTERDENOMINATIONAL 

Church agencies start with individuals, enlist a whole 
church, spread throughout a denomination and secure 
interdenominational co-operation. It may be more 
helpful to review them in the reverse order : 

The Home Missions Council. Among its other en 
deavors in co-ordinating the activities of the mission 
boards this Council has had committees on w r ork among 
special groups of foreign-speaking people, and at its 
annual meeting in 1913 established a Standing Com 
mittee on Immigrant work. This committee may 
be able to standardize forms of report so that in 
future it will be possible to ascertain what is being- 
done by denominational agencies in such a way as to 
aggregate the data and present the work as a whole. 
It is to be hoped that the Council may find ways of co 
ordinating and distributing endeavor so as to eliminate 
waste by competition, and especially so as to secure the 
attention of some home mission agency or other to 
every group of foreigners, so that the Gospel may be 
given to all new Americans. 

The Council of Women for Home Missions. At 
its annual meeting in December, 1912, this Council 
created a Standing Committee on Home Mission In 
terests among Immigrants, and has assigned to this 
committee the duty of securing and keeping on file 



THE NEW AMERICA 

information regarding immigrants and the Christian 
work being done on their behalf at ports of entry and 
elsewhere, as well as of furthering through existing 
agencies their Christian education and uplift. Through 
this standing committee, the Council has taken over 
the work inaugurated early in 1912 by the Fireside 
Leagues in teaching English by means of Biblical ma 
terial, and has assigned this special service to its sub 
committee on English for Immigrants. 

All students of immigration problems agree that the 
help most needed by our non-English-speaking people 
is help in learning the language of their adopted coun 
try. 

Since four-fifths of our immigrants of foreign speech 
come from lands in which the Bible is not an open 
book, it is of vital importance that they become ac 
quainted with those Biblical ideals which have shaped 
our national life. The conservation of our national 
ideals depends upon acquainting the incoming tides of 
life with those ideals. 

The American Bible Society. A large number of 
the million and more Bibles and Bible portions in Eng 
lish circulated in the United States in 1912 by this 
Society, were for use by foreigners among us who are 
learning to read our language in that best possible way. 
In addition to that, about three hundred thousand 
volumes were issued for use in the United States in 
seventy other languages. Two hundred and fifty of the 
colporteurs and others employed to distribute the Scrip 
tures in this country gave attention largely to for 
eigners. Of the four hundred thousand dollars spent 
by the Society in publishing and distributing Bibles 



GUIDING AND INSPIRING AGENCIES 

in the United States that year, one-fourth or more 
should be accredited to work for foreigners. 

Daily Vacation Bible Schools Association. College 
men and women and theological seminary students are 
engaged in teaching boys and girls the Bible and some 
simple practical arts. In 1912 schools were held in 
twenty- four cities, conducted by nine hundred and four 
teachers with some fifty thousand boys and girls. 
Eighty per cent of the pupils were of foreign parent 
age. They were of many races and creeds. This work 
means much in direct ministry to new Americans at 
once, and still more in the training of college young 
men and women for such ministry throughout their 
lives. 

The National Woman s Christian Temperance 
Union. This society has a Department of Work 
among Foreign-speaking People. It lists in 1912 one 
hundred and thirty-eight pieces of literature printed 
in twenty foreign tongues. Its members are urged to 
study the conditions of the foreign-speaking people in 
their own communities, and to carry to them the gospel 
of temperance. 

The American Tract Society. About half the work 
of the Society in the United States is for the foreigners. 
During the year ending March 31, 1912, it ministered 
to the spiritual needs of forty different nationalities in 
eighteen states. In doing this, fifty-three of the So 
ciety s one hundred six colporteurs used foreign 
tongues and distributed forty-six thousand volumes 
printed in languages other than English. They sold 
much, but the literature given away was listed at 
$4,254.76. As with all organizations doing such work 



144 THE NEW AMERICA 

it is impossible to say how much of the entire outlay 
is to be accredited to the work for foreigners, but 
thirty thousand dollars for the year appears to be a 
moderate estimate. 

For whatever purpose these interdenominational or 
ganizations were primarily formed, it has come to pass 
in the present development of our country that an im 
portant part of their work and an increasing part is 
in behalf of the strangers within our gates. 

CHURCH AGENCIES: n. DENOMINATIONAL 

As the forces of the kingdom of God at present are 
organized by denominations, the largest effective action 
comes in that way. 

Proportion of Foreign-speaking Church Members. 
The United States census of religious bodies (1906) 
shows that forty-one languages were in use and that 
one hundred fourteen denominations had churches in 
which some foreign language was used. 24,594 
churches with 8,394,229 members reported the use of 
a foreign language alone or in addition to English, 
that is, about one-fourth of all the church members 
in the country. The bulk of these were in Roman 
Catholic, Lutheran, Jewish and smaller religious bodies 
transplanted from Europe and Asia. When we turn 
to the more distinctively American religious bodies and 
select those which mainly occupy the portion of the 
country where immigrants abound, we get some sug 
gestion of the ministry of these denominations to for 
eigners. In the Northern Baptist Convention, Con- 
gregationalists, Methodist Episcopal Church (North) 



GUIDING AND INSPIRING AGENCIES 145 

and Presbyterians of the United States of America 
(North) five and one-half per cent of all the churches 
use a foreign language. To these churches belong over 
four per cent of all the communicants in the denomina 
tional bodies named. They are practically all the re 
sult of home mission activity. When the obstacles to 
be overcome in bringing non-English-speaking peoples 
into such radically American bodies are considered, 
and when it is remembered that many of the earlier 
churches of the kind have long since ceased to use a 
foreign tongue, the census finding is a noteworthy 
indication of missionary enterprise and success. The 
four denominational bodies aggregated about six mil 
lion members. The exact percentages of their mem 
bers in churches using a foreign tongue were, Baptists 
6.3, Congregationalists 5.4, Methodists 3.3, Presby 
terians 3.5. 

Missionary Forces. Since 1906 there has been in 
creasing activity in this phase of missions and several 
denominations are taking new measures of efficiency. 
There is, of course, no such costly and extensive ac 
cumulation of data as that made by the government, 
but facts furnished by denominational administrators 
show more aspects of the missionary work and give us 
a good suggestion of the state of the work at the begin 
ning of 1913. The forty societies and boards which 
have given us figures, employed in their foreign-speak 
ing work thirty-four hundred missionaries and appro 
priated to this work more than one and a half million 
dollars during the year 1911-12. It appears that the 
four denominations which are doing most in this 
line of service Congregational, Northern Baptist, 



146 THE NEW AMERICA 

Methodist and Presbyterian counting self-supporting 
as well as aided churches, have thirty-three hundred 
churches and missions using other than the English 
language. These churches have more than two hun 
dred thousand members. There are more than two 
thousand men giving their whole time to this work and 
more than four hundred women. The annual expendi 
ture for it aggregates more than two and a half million 
dollars. 

Adding to the somewhat complete account of the 
four denominations only the society and board work 
of the other denominations (all the data given), we dis 
cover in all more than four thousand workers and an 
expenditure of more than three million six hundred 
thousand dollars. To get the grand total, however, we 
must add to this the foreign-speaking sections of the 
great Lutheran denomination. It has over eleven thou 
sand foreign-speaking churches with seven thousand 
ministers and nearly two million members. 

Quality of Christians. All who know many of the 
foreign-speaking members in the churches under con 
sideration recognize in them, as a whole, a type of 
Christianity which is peculiarly refreshing. For the 
most part there is a simplicity and fervor which may 
well set an example to churches of the older American 
stock. They promise to provide new blood which 
American Christianity needs. Often they show an 
apostolic quality which is inspiring. In the matter of 
giving, for instance, it is safe to say that in proportion 
to ability they give at least twice as much as their 
brethren of long American lineage. 

Two-fold Work. The two sides of Christian minis- 



GUIDING AND INSPIRING AGENCIES 147 

try are emphasized more fully in work among foreign 
ers than in the average work of the churches. Personal 
evangelism is inevitably a decisive feature in winning 
the immigrants to American Christianity. Social min 
istry is also prominent in this work. The need of the 
work may be seen from the following recent and con 
crete record of work in one of the denominations which 
is always strongly emphasizing personal evangelism. 
It is from the Pittsburg District, Pennsylvania : 

The Association has ten men and five women at work among 
the foreign-speaking peoples, who give their whole time to it. 
They reach people in ten different languages. They are beacon 
lights pointing the way home to shipwrecked and storm-tossed 
souls. Helpless children are given attention. Those unjustly 
imposed upon by unscrupulous tradesmen and dishonest agen 
cies are given advice and helped to their rightful protection. 
The homeless are housed and the unemployed found employ 
ment. These our brothers and sisters who labor with these 
dependent ones count not their own pleasure and comfort, but 
serve as angels of mercy to those who most need it. 

This is applied Christianity our Brother Blank starting out 
before daylight and standing in the frosty morning interpreting 
for his people to find them positions, or tramping from place to 
place with them until employment has been found ; Miss Blank 
working with fifty Syrian and Italian girls, teaching them the 
first lessons of neatness, industry and Christlikeness, or in 
another school working with Jewish, Russian, Lithuanian and 
other children in the same manner. 

Brother Blank has been able, along with his successful work 
among the Russians, where a goodly number have been baptized, 
to have two young Jews confess Christ publicly by being bap 
tized. One of these is a prominent physician, the other also a 
bright man. 

Supervision. The denominational organizations 
which are conducting missionary work among for 
eigners are of six types. There are about twenty 



148 THE NEW AMERICA 

General Missionary Boards, including the entire 
constituency of their respective denominations. Both 
men and women are enlisted in this work. In 
addition there are some ten Women s Boards engaged 
in it, with missionaries of their own. They give much 
attention to school work and visiting in the homes 
of the new Americans. Several denominations have 
also Publication Boards which provide literature for 
non-English-speaking people, some of them sending out 
colporteurs to disseminate the literature and present 
the gospel. A number of Theological Seminaries have 
departments devoted to foreign-speaking nationalities. 
Some whole seminaries are given to that. There are 
also a number of Training Schools for lay-workers, 
many of the students of which are fitting themselves 
for work among foreigners. Co-operating with the 
general missionary organizations are State and other 
District Bodies variously named according to the 
church polity of their denomination. In some denomi 
nations State Conventions do a large missionary work 
which is becoming more and more in the eastern 
portions of the country a work for foreign-speaking 
peoples. This is generally conducted in close financial 
and inspirational co-operation with the national agen 
cies. The other special group of organizations is made 
up of City Mission Societies. Inasmuch as there is a 
strong tendency among immigrants to settle in cities, 
and inasmuch as many of the larger cities are getting 
to be composed mainly of citizens of foreign parentage, 
a large part of the work of city mission societies is in 
their behalf. 



GUIDING AND INSPIRING AGENCIES 149 

CHURCH AGENCIES. III. LOCAL CHURCHES 

A large amount of work is done by the local churches 
without subsidy from general organizations. 

Institutional Churches. Many churches, largely in 
view of the conditions created by immigrants, have 
established various social ministries. Socialized 
church is perhaps a better name than institutional 
church. Every denomination has some conspicuous 
instances of this type of work. Many churches which 
have not aspired to the title have entered into activities 
of the kind mentioned. For example, in the late 90*3 
the Fourth Avenue Baptist Church, Pittsburg, adopted 
one phase after another, so that it went into the 
twentieth century with a list of twenty different forms 
of social ministry. A little later, at an International 
Exposition in Belgium it received first award among 
churches represented there as doing social work. In 
addition to the conspicuous institutional churches like 
St. George s, New York; Temple Baptist, Philadelphia; 
Labor Temple, Presbyterian, New York; Morgan- 
Memorial, Boston, and Halsted Street, Chicago, Meth 
odist; First Congregational, Jersey City; there are 
hundreds if not thousands of churches in the country 
which are rendering social ministries largely with a 
view to meeting the needs of immigrants. 

Branch Churches and Missions. Many churches 
have established branches, organic parts of the church 
yet with a distinctive existence, frequently with build 
ings and one or more employed workers for each 
branch, where a large amount of ministry to foreigners 
is conducted. The Ninth Street Baptist Church, Cin- 



150 THE NEW AMERICA 

cinnati, Ohio, is a conspicuous instance of this kind of 
ministry. A still larger number of churches minister 
to immigrants through mission Sunday schools and 
services. 

Individual Service. When it comes to the actual 
doing of the work it is always and only done by 
individuals. Machinery cannot evangelize nor as 
similate human beings. The workers connected 
with organizations are useful at last only through 
their personality. In addition to all that is done 
in connection with organizations, both great and 
small, an innumerable multitude of Christian men and 
women of the older American stock must actually show 
the spirit of Christ to the newer Americans if they are 
to be won to Him and in any degree to the old ideals of 
our country. There is no larger service to be rendered 
to America, to humanity and to our Lord, than for 
Christian men and women to show by manner and by 
deed that they count as brethren and welcome their 
new neighbors from over the sea. Having first done 
this in a general and unmistakable way, then to sit 
down beside them, one by one, before an open Bible 
and teach them at the same time the language which 
they so much need and, through the Biblical material, 
the ideas and spirit which have made the best of the 
nation what it is, this is one of the most God-like 
services in which any follower of Christ can engage. 

POSSIBILITIES OF THE FUTURE 

In the new day of the free circulation of humanity 
over the globe, population, like water seeking its level, 



GUIDING AND INSPIRING AGENCIES 151 

will have a strong and ever stronger tendency to come 
to equilibrium, filling all unoccupied spaces. Three 
hundred million souls may find a home in the United 
States without crowding together as much as people 
are crowded even now in some of the prosperous coun 
tries of the world. In the eastern sections of America 
large cities, even whole states, now have two-thirds 
of their people of foreign-born parentage. It is truly 
a New America in which we live as new as it was 
in the days of the Pilgrims. In the West the condition 
is still more acute. On the western half of the con 
tinental United States, according to the census of 1910, 
only 13 per cent of the population of the whole country 
dwelt, but 1 8 per cent of the foreign-born of the whole 
country. Not only is the proportion of foreigners 
greater than in the country at large, but the institutions 
and traditions of life being less firmly established and 
the forces of evangelical religion being fewer, the bear 
ing of the foreign element is far more decisive. 

This relative condition is likely to increase rather 
than diminish. Heretofore the great cost of two or 
three thousand miles of railroad transit from the At 
lantic ports of entry has largely prevented direct 
European migration to the Pacific slope. With the 
opening of the Panama Canal that prohibition is re 
moved. The possibilities of population on the west 
ern side of the continent are not matters of conjecture 
but of demonstration. One of the nine republics of 
North America, that of El Salvador, has only a Pacific 
Ocean seaboard. Though it is densely populated it is 
one of the most prosperous of the North American 
sisterhood of republics, next to our own. The State 



152 THE NEW AMERICA 

of California can easily support as many people per 
square mile. When it does it \vill have forty million 
souls. According to the Salvadorean standard the 
continental United States might have eight hundred 
and fifty million inhabitants, or one-half the present 
estimated population of the entire globe. 

The world-neighbors are actually dropping in here, 
not one by one, now and then, but two every minute 
day and night, year in and year out. Are we giving 
them adequate Christian welcome or anything like it? 
Then, too, they are going back to the Old World every 
year three hundred thousand strong. What impression 
do they carry from us as to our Lord as to the real 
Master of us? Is it Christ or Mammon? What a 
matchless chance is here for the redemption of the Old 
World and the whole world ! There was never any 
thing like it before since Jesus rose with scarred hands 
above the slopes of Olivet and sent His voice ringing 
down the ages, " Make disciples of all the nations. 



APPENDIX 

(PREPARED BY LEMUEL CALL BARNES) 

TABLE I 

Foreign-speaking Work of 
HOME MISSION SOCIETIES AND BOARDS* 

(In Continental United States only and not including work for 
American Indians.) 

1912 

LUTHERAN t 

Mission- Amount 
aries Expended 

Uoard of Home Missions of the Gen 
eral Synod of the Ev. Lutheran 
Church in the U. S Baltimore 30 $ 8,570.00 

Woman s Home and Foreign Mis 
sionary Society of the Gen. Synod 
of the Ev. Lutheran Church in 
the U. S Springfield, Ohio 4 2,000.00 

The General Council of the Ev. 
Lutheran Church in North Amer 
ica Philadelphia 278 1 14,236.52 

(Practically the whole work of the follow 
ing general bodies is caring for unchurched 
immigrants of the Lutheran faith, but the 
figures given are of what might strictly be 
called their Home Missions.) 

German Missouri Synod St. Louis, Mo. 363 

Synod of Wisconsin, Minnesota and 

Michigan Milwaukee 369 

Joint Synod of Ohio Columbus, Ohio 400 

Norwegian Ev. Lutheran Synod of 

America Norway Lake, Minn. 115 40,000.00 

Hauge s Norwegian Lutheran Synod 

of America 20 14,000.00 

United Norwegian Lutheran Church 

in America St. Paul, Minn. 100 44,000.00 

The Norwegian Free Church Minneapolis, Minn. 

1,679 $225,806.52 

* All Boards doing work in continental U. S. were asked to give data. 
Several ^replied that they are not doing this kind of work. A number of the 
Women s Boards are strictly auxiliary, and so give no data apart from 
those of their general denominational boards. 

t The alphabetical order is departed from in putting the Lutheran first. 
This is not only because in several respects it is naturally the first to be 
thought of in connection with Protestant work among Europeans, but also 
because the figures in this table for all the other denominations are only 
for missionary societies and boards, while for Lutherans the figures are 
partly for such strictly missionary agencies and partly for entire Lutheran 

153 



154 



APPENDIX 



A rvwnvTTTCf Mission- Amount 

ADVENTIST aries Expended 

Seventh-day AdvcntistMissionBoard. Washington, D. C. 34 $ 10,509.00 

BAPTIST 

American Baptist Home Mission So 
ciety New York, N. Y. 282 60,709.80 

Woman s American Baptist Home 

Mission Society Chicago, 111. 108 50,000.00 

American Baptist Publication So 
ciety Philadelphia, Pa, 39 20,443.3$ 

Home Mission Board of the South 
ern Baptist Convention Atlanta, Ga. 

Woman s Baptist Missionary Union . Atlanta, Ga. 19 9,ooo.oo> 

Scandinavian Independent Baptist 

Denomination Britt, la. 6 3,000.00 

CHRISTIAN 

Woman s Board for Home Missions 

of the Christian Church Dayton, Ohio I 1,000. oo> 

CONGREGATIONAL 
Congregational Home Missionary 

Society New York, N. Y. 354 151,900.00 

American Missionary Association. .. New York, N. Y. 43 17,650.00 

Congregational Sunday-school and 

Publication Society Boston, Mass. 9 1,870.00 

Church Building Aid Society 27,900.00 

Congregational Education Society... 21,570.00 

DISCIPLES 

American Christian Missionary So 
ciety Cincinnati, Ohio 6 S,900.oo> 

Christian Woman s Board of Mis 
sions Indianapolis, Ind. 20 25ooo.oo> 

METHODIST * 

Board of Home Missions and 
Church Extension of the Metho 
dist Episcopal Church Philadelphia, Fa. 800 276,350.00 

Woman s Home Missionary Society 

of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Cincinnati, Ohio 79 94,040.00 

Board of Missions of the Methodist 

Episcopal Church (South) Nashville, Tenn. 176 26,500.00 

Woman s Missionary Council, Home 

Department M. E. Church (South) Nashville, Tenn. 57 51,791.9$ 

MORAVIAN 

Society of the United Brethren for 
Propagating the Gospel Bethlehem, Pa. 6 3,365.00 

PENTECOSTAL CHURCH OF THE NAZARENE 
Gen. Missionary Board of the Pente 
costal Church of the Nazarene. .. Chicago, 111. 6 2,ooo.oo> 

PRESBYTERIAN 

Board of Home Missions of the 
Presbyterian Church in the U. S. 
of America New York, N. Y. 284 1 53.332- 

Woman s Board of Home Missions 
of the Presbyterian Church in the 
U. S. of America New York, N. Y. 24 33,773-i 

Board of Publication and Sunday- 
school Work .. 20 27,001.00 

Executive Committee of Home Mis 
sions of thf Presbyterian Church 
in the U. S. (South) Atlanta, Ga. 50 25,300.00 

* The figures do not include deaconesses, of which there are more than 
i. ooo in service, a large proportion of them doing city mission work among 
foreigners. 



APPENDIX 

Board of Home Missions of the 

United Presbyterian Church of 

North America Pittsburg, Pa. 

Woman s Gen. Missionary Society 

of the United Presbyterian Church 

of North America Pittsburg, Pa. 

Central Board of Missions of the 

Reformed Presbyterian Church. .. Pittsburg, Pa. 

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL 
Domestic and Foreign Missionary 
Society of the Protestant Epis 
copal Church in the U. S. of 
America New York, N. Y. 

REFORMED 

Board of Domestic Missions of the 

Reformed Church in America. ... New York, N. Y. 

Woman s Board of Domestic Mis 
sions of the Reformed Church in 
America New York, N. Y. 

Board of Home Missions, Reformed 

Church in U. S Philadelphia, Pa. 

Woman s Home and Foreign Mis 
sionary Society of the Reformed 
Church in the U. S General Synod 

UNITED BRETHREN 
Woman s Missionary Association of 

the United Brethren in Christ. .. Huntington, Ind. 

UNITED EVANGELICAL 
Home and Foreign Missionary So 
ciety of the United Evangelical 
Church Penbrook, Pa. 



KINDRED BODIES 

American Bible Society 

American Tract Society 

Young Men s Christian Association 

Young Women s Christian Association 

Salvation Army 



155 



Mission- Amount 
aries Expended 
18 $15,300.00 



96 

a 

16 



4,398.oo 
2,500.00 



4,000.00 

42,507.00 

3,000.00 
8,975.00 

7,800.00 
890.00 



2,587 $1,191,375-26 



200 $ 100,000.00 



30,000.00 

50,000.00 

23,000.00 

122,314.00 



GRAND TOTALS t 



Lutheran Bodies . . 
Missionary Boards 
Kindred Bodies . 



514 $ 325.314.00 



1,679 $ 225,806.52 

.2,587 1,191.375.26 

514 325,314.00 

4,780 $1,742,495.78 



* The figures given here are official estimates in rvart. They represent 
only work exclusively or chiefly for foreigners. All these organizations 
have many more workers with corresponding outlay in part for foreigners. 

t It must be borne in mind that this is only a small part of what the 
evangelical churches are doing for immigrants. For example, the items in 
this table amount to only one-seventh of the work of Northern Baptists for 
immigrants shown in Ta ble II. In addition to that, vast amounts of work 
by all denominations in this field are not subject to tabulation. But if 
the above ascertained aggregate should be multiplied by only seven it would 
give a total of ten million dollars. 



156 



APPENDIX 



TABLE II 

Foreign-speaking Work of 

DENOMINATIONS (AVAILABLE SAMPLES) 
Among Specified Nationalities 

Table I showed the work of general Home Mission Societies 
and Boards in only two particulars. Table II shows the entire 
work in nine particulars among nationalities reached by the de 
nominations named, including both work sustained by various 
agencies and self-supporting work. The tables are incomplete in 
spite of all the pains taken. Additions and corrections are so 
licited. It should be especially remembered that the church 
members given are only those in the foreign-speaking churches. 
There are large numbers, perhaps as many more, in English- 
speaking churches. 



CONGREGATIONALISTS 



Nationality 
( 
Albanian 


I s 

"c- 2 

1 

i 


Members 


c/i 
i/5 


</i 




Salaried 

" Men 


Annual 
* Expend. 
I 


5*S 
HI 

1909 


S3 

11 1 

wu cw 


Armenian 
Bohemian 
Chinese 


29 
28 
20 


501 
868 
256 


6 
8 

22 


277 

555 


14 

! 

16 


9,762 
8,831 
7,733 


1883 
1887 
1890 


I 20 

S2-J* 


Dano-Norweg . . 


Bo 


3,000 

S2O 


81 
24 


700 
933 


55 
24 


36,250 

7 436 


1849 
1888 


I X 


French 


g 


45O 


8 


250 


6 


3.500 


1876 






226 


12 891 










I 8d7 










j 


g 


16 


2 8t;6 


180? 




Indian 




I 3OI 




797 










Italian 


21 


I,2O7 










1800 


j e 


Japanese 










18 


S - 7 J 






Polish . 












I 8OO 






Portuguese .... 
Spanish 


4 


38 


2 


i! 


8 

2 


1,087 

775 


1909 

1897 


I I 

j j 


Syrian 
Welsh 


I 

17 


23 


j e 


56 


I 


600 


1908 
1848 




Slovak 


8 


216 














Croatian 


















Persian 




60 








850 






Swede-Finn. . . . 
Hindu 




20 




20 


I 


600 


1907 




Turkish 




* 
62 




o 


I 












8 72O 




7 8">4 










Mexican 






S 


266 






1882 




Bulgarian 










I 


1.500 


1888 





724 33.389 316 14,191 392 $419.862 



20 656 



APPENDIX 



157 



NORTHERN BAPTISTS 



Nationality 
Bohemian . . 


Churche 
and 
30 Missions 


J3 u 
J W3 

II 
456 
3,874 
2O9 
417 
723 
30,746 

264 
13 

1,494 
73 

481 
2,040 

* 

233 
340 

45 
25 
380 
24 
27,929 
16 



J{1 

.-s-g 

We/) 

7 
54 
5 
7 
10 
355 

13 

40 

2 

4 
24 
10 
3 

9 

i 
5 

356 

2 


3, 

3 

1,350 

3,016 

155 
292 
305 
24,894 

416 
3,497 

1,223 

540 
118 
75 
460 

50 
235 
185 
22,208 
179 


"***J! * 

4 
45 
3 
10 

12 
268 
I 
13 
2 

3 

36 

9 
4 
5 
7 

i 
9 

5 
232 
i 


2 

4 
9 

2 

5 
ii 

2 
I 

6 

2 

I 
2 

3 
3 
7 
3 


5 ^ c 

$ 6,361.00 

43,313.23 

8,450.00 

5,392.00 
10,591.00 
327,614.94 
75.00 
17,450.00 
150.00 

24.724.74 

1,700.00 
600.00 
5,500.00 

25,234.00 

5,950.00 
2,720.00 
2,300.00 
4,700.00 

1,092.00 
7,700.00 
4,700.00 

351,847.02 
1,586.73 


|II 

bo^ 
UWvS 

25 
18 
3 

2 
2 

15 
36 

I 

4 

i 
i 
7 

2 

I 
9 

I 


l/l 

s! 

310 

9 8 

21 

55 
26 

ISO 
4Si 

10 

80 

ii 

30 
250 


Danish .... 


53 


Chinese 








French 


. . 24 




ogo 






Hungarian 
Greek 


... 19 


Italian .... 


18 


Japanese .... 


. * . 2 






Lettish 




Norwegian . 
Polish 


... 41 


Portuguese . 
Roumanian . 


... 3 

7 
g 








. . . 2 


Slovak 


T1 


Spanish-speaking 7 
Swedish .... it A 











24 



1,038 70,466 916 59,313 725 89 $860,751.66 128 1,580 



PRESBYTERIANS, U. S. A. 



Nationality 


c 

ill 


B 

1 


Accessions 


l 

o a 


*c 2 


Beneficence 




3*1 


M 


Exam. 


Certif. ^ ^o Boards ^tion 


Bohemian .... 


4 1 


39 


177 


20 


1,910 


2,625 


$ 1,800 


$ 18,394 


Other Slavic. 


20 


17 


57 


4 


702 


993 


334 


4,334 


Magyar 


















(Hungarian) . 


34 


24 


437 


132 


2,546 


788 


1,089 


13,883 


Italian 


74 


49 


840 


Qf 


3,821 


4,668 


663 


12,941 


French 


6 


5 


29 


6 


714 


661 


v- O 

633 


9,594 


Scandinavian . 


i 




9 




93 


40 


12 


448 


Welsh 


3" 


m 


6 


20 


158 


60 


45 


2,570 


Syrian 


4 


3 






94 


10 




*";> / v 

385 


Armenian .... 


5 


4 


34 


13 


327 




388 


4,074 


Chinese 




6 


19 


7 


240 


234 


2,127 


1,442 


Japanese 


9 


4 


26 


12 


393 


79 


28 


2,096 


Korean . 




4 






560 






1,446 


Persian 


i 


I 


10 


2 


9W 


75 




307 


Spanish 


















(Mexican) . . 


44 


44 


132 


37 


1,507 


973 


503 


5,108 


German 


139 


137 


915 


61 


14,401 


17,592 


26,106 


216,841 





394 341 2,691 399 27,466 29,213 $33.728 $293,863 



158 



APPENDIX 



SUMMARY 

Including several items not in the foregoing tables 
123456 7 



lil 1! 



|l isg =i 

"! 1 IJs l"i II 

c/i , c/;^S c/2^^ UW 



3 



Congregation- 
alists 



316 14,191 392 30 $ 419,862 $ 35,734 



27 Languages. 724 
Methodists * 
(North) 

8 Languages. 1,220 88,045 1,191 84,745 800 300 276,350 
Northern 
Baptists 

24 Languages. 1,038 70,466 916 59,313 725 89 860,751 55,000 
Presbyterians, 



A. 

15 Languages. 394 27,466 



29,213 284 35 700,000 84,766 



3,376 219,366 2,423 187,462 2,201 454 $2,256,963 $175,500 

* It should be observed that the Methodist data in the first four columns 
are for only the eight nationalities for which they have as yet compiled the 
figures. The fifth and sixth columns give the entire number of foreign- 
speaking salaried workers, but are estimates rather than statistics. The 
seventh column is only the amount expended by the Board of Home Mis 
sions. If the facts were ascertainable corresponding to those of the other 
denominations, this item might be in the neighborhood of one million dollars. 



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4 vols. New York : Harper & Brothers, 1895. 
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lution to the Civil War," John Bach McMaster. New York : 

D. Appleton & Co., 1883-1900. 
" History of the United States of America," George Bancroft. 

6 vols. New York : D. Appleton & Co., 1890. 
"Immigrant Invasion, The," Frank Julian Warne. New York: 

Dodd, Mead & Co., 1913. 

Immigrants Protective League, Reports of. Chicago. 
44 Immigrant Tide, The, Its Ebb and Flow," Edward A. Steiner. 

New York ; Fleming H. Revell Co., 1909. 
44 Immigration and Labor," Isaac A. Hourwich. New York: G. 

P. Putnam s Sons, 1912. 
* Immigration Problem, The," Jeremiah \V. Jenks and W. Jett 

Lauck. New York ; Funk and Wagnalls, 1912. 
41 Incoming Millions, The," Howard B. Grose. New York : 

Fleming H. Revell Co., 1906. 
44 Mediator, The," Edward A. Steiner. New York : Fleming H. 

Revell Co., 1907. 
44 New Immigration, The/ Peter Roberts. New York : The 

Macmillan Co., 1912. 
North American Civic League for Immigrants, Reports of. 

Boston and New York. 
44 Old Chinatown : A Book of Pictures by Arnold Genthe," Will 

Irwin. New York : Mitchell Kennerley, 1908. 
44 Old Homes of New Americans," Francis E. Clark. Boston : 

Houghton Mifflin Co., 1912. 
" On the Trail of the Immigrant," Edward A. Steiner. New 

York : Fleming H. Revell Co., 1906. 
" Our Slavic Fellow-Citizens," Emily Green Balch. New York: 

Charities Publication Committee, 1910. 
44 Promised Land, The," Mary Antin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin 

Co., 1912. 
41 Puritan in England, Holland and America, The," Douglas 

Campbell. 2 vols. New York : Harper and Brothers, 1893. 
44 Races and Immigrants in America," John R. Commons. New 

York : The Macmillan Co., 1907. 
44 Scum o the Earth," Robert Haven Schauffler. Boston and 

New York : Houghton Mifflin Co., 1912. 
41 Syrians in the United States," Louise Seymour Houghton. 

The Survey, July, August, September, 1911. 
"Through the Mill," Al Priddy. Boston: The Pilgrim Press, 

1911. 
"Williams, Roger, The Pioneer of Religious Liberty," Oscar S. 

Straus. New York : The Century Co., 1894. 

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HOME MISSIONS 



JOHN T. PARIS Author of "Men Who Made Good" 

The Alaskan Pathfinder 

The Story of Sheldon Jackson for Boys. I2mo, 
cloth, net $1.00. 

The story of Sheldon Jackson will appear irresistibly to 
every boy. Action from the time he was, as an infant, 
rescued from a fire to his years of strenuous rides through 
the Rickies and his long years of service in Alaska, per 
meate every page of the book. Mr. Paris, with a sure hand, 
tells the story of this apostle of the Western Indians in clear- 
cut, incisive chapters which will hold the boy s attention 
from first to last. 

JOSEPH B. CLARK, D.D. The Story of 

American Home Missions 

Leavening the Nation : 

New and Revised Edition. International Leaders 
Library. 12010, cloth (postage ioc.), net 5oc. 

This standard history of the Home Mission work of all 
denominations in America, has been thoroughly revised and 
brought up-to-date. 

MARY CLARK BARNES and DR. LEMUEL C. BARNES 

The New America 

Home Mission Study Course. Illustrated, I2mo, 
cloth, net 5oc. (post. 7c.) ; paper 3pc. (post. Sc.). 

This, the regular text-book for the coming year is on the 
subject of immigration. The author is eminently fitted for 
writing on this theme as she has been a worker among immi 
grants, and has given much time to studying the problem. 

LAURA GEROULD CRAIG 

America, God s Melting Pot 

Home Mission Study Course. Illustrated, 121110, 
paper, net 25c. (postage 4C.). 

The subject chosen for study this year, Immigration, covers 
so wide a field that it was thpught best to prepare a. supple 
mental text book from an entirely different standpoint. The 
author has written a "parable study" which deals more with 
lessons and agencies than with issues and processes. 

LEILA ALLEN DIMOCK 

Comrades from Other Lands 

Home Mission Junior Text Book. Illustrated, 
12010, paper, net 25c. (postage 4c.). 

This book is complementary to the last volume in this 
course of study, Dr. Henry s SOME IMMIGRANT NEIGH 
BORS which treated of the lives and occupations of foreign 
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doing in country indtistries. Teachers of children of from 
twelve to sixteen will find here material to enlist the sym 
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HOME MISSIONS 



LEMUEL C. BARNES, P.P. 

Elemental Forces in Home Missions 

I2mo, cloth, net 750. 

By the author of that popular missionary text-book, "TVo 
Thousand Years of Missions Before Carey." Some of the 
most important issues connected with the work of Christian 
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a force and a conviction that will give the reader a new 
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his responsibility. 

JAMES F. LOVE, D D. 

All. Cor S*t Horn Minion Beard Southern Baptist Convention 

The Mission of Our Nation 

T2mo, cloth, net $1.00. 

"Doctor L,ove shows himself at once a historian and a 
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MAR Y CLARK BARNES 

Early Stories and Songs for New Students 

of English 
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Dr. Edward A. Steiner says: "Not only practical but it 
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to foreigners." 



HOME MISSIONS TEXT BOOKS 

BRUCE K1NNEY, P.P. 

Mormonism : The Islam of America 

Home Mission Study Course. Illustrated, I2tno, 
cloth, net SQC. ; paper, net 3oc. 

Dr. Kinney treats the subject in a judicious way, avoid 
ing denunciation or undue criticism. The facts of Mormon 
history, doctrine and life are woven into a readable story 
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JOHN R. HENRY 

Some Immigrant Neighbors 

The Htfme Mission Junior Text Book. Illustrated, 
I2mo, cloth, net 4oc. ; paper, net 25c. 

The author is the pastor of "The Church of All Nations" 
In New York City. He writes of many nationalities from his 
own experience. Through his sympathetic portrayal the child 
student will be drawn toward a neighborly feeling for hi* 
little brothers of foreign speech. 



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