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Full text of "The new American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge"

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NEW 

AMERICAN CYCL0PJ:DIA. 



VOL. vn. 

EDWARD-FUEBOS. 



m 



THE WEW 



AMERICM CYCLOPSDIA: 



l^pkr Sirti0Tittrj 



OF 



GENERAL KNOWLEDGE. 



EDITED BY 



GEORGE RIPLEY aito CHARLES A. DANA. 



• > * • 



» • • . '. • ^ • 

• •••• •» 

♦ • •• 



• * « 



VOLUME VIL 



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* • • 



EDWARD-FUEROS.' 



«« •• •••• 



. •. . ; • * * • • 



»«•••• •• ••' 



NEW YORK : 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

SM ft S48 BROADWAY. 

LONDON: 16 LITTLE BRITAIN. 

JLDCCaUX . 



4i:^•0 



EwnaMo, tceofdSag to Act of Cotipnm^ In the jmt 1659, bj 

D. APPLETOK 4 COMPAKY, 

Xb thi CkA*! OOco of tho Dirtrict Cooit of Um Uaitod Sutct for tho Sootborn Diftrict of 

NowYofk 



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• ••• • • •• • • 

• ••• •••*•• • 

• •• •*•• ••• 



ill* 



THE 



NEW AMERICAN CTCLOPJIDIA. 



EDWARD (thz Eideb) 7 EDWABD (thx Cobvbbsob) 

EDWABD I^ snrnamed the Elder, son and opposition formall/ aooepted as king. The strife 

noceasor of Alfred, king of the West 6axons, among the clergy, however, still divided the Idng* 

aKeoded the throne in 901, died in 925. His dom, and the part/ opposed to St. Donstanplot- 

dmm to the throne, thongh recognized h/ the ted the mnrder of (he yonng monarch. He was 

vifcenagemote, was ^spnted b/ his oonsin Ethel- stabbed in the back at Oorfe castle, the residence 

vild, who gained the support of the Northnm- of his stepmother, as he was drinking a cup of 

kia and East Anglian Danes. The rebels march- mead on horseback, and sinldngfirom his seat 

«d through the counties of Gloucester, Oxford, he was dragged away by the stirrup by his 

ad WHta, and Edward, unable directly to oppose frightened horse. 

dbon, retaliated their ravages in the country of EDWARD HL, sumamed the Ck>nfesBor, king 
fte East Angles. He thought proper to with- of the Anglo-Saxons, son of King Ethelred IL, 
diaw Ms army, loaded with booty, before the successor to Hardicanute. bom in Islip, Oxford 
jqppraach of the rebels, but the venturous Kent- shhre, in 1004^ ascended the throne in 1042, 
M men. greedy of more spoil, stayed behind in died Jan. 5, 1066. His mother was a Norman 
defiaaee of orders. They were assaulted by the princess, Emma, and during t^e Danish domi- 
lastAngle^ and resisted so valiantly that though nation which had succeeded the death of ^- 
ebliged at last to retreat, it was not till after mund Ironside, he dwelt in exile in Norman- 
tibey had 5l^n a great number of the bravest dy. When the news of the death of Canute in 
ot the ened^, and had terminated the rebellion 1035 reached him, he determined to assert his 
ky eansini^ the death of Ethelwald himself. The pretensions to the crown, crossed the channel 
ijlgn of Edward, as of many of his predeces- with a fleet of 40 ships, and landed at South- 
am and successors, was occupied with subduing ampton. He found himself opposed by his 
the turbulent Danes, who abounded and were mother, who had become a second time queen 
eoDstasktly reeoforced in the provinces of East of England by marriage with the Danish mon- 
Ai^^ia and Xorthmnbria. In this task he was arch, and was now regent of the kingdom. 
~ by his sister Ethelfleda, who governed Menaced with destruction by a constancy in- 
Ile protected his territories by for- creasing force, he hastily effected his retreat, 
which gradually became centres of trade With his brother Alfred he received a perfidious 
population. He gained two signal victories invitation from King Harold to cross the sea in 
M Ten»ford and Maldon, and subjected all the 1037. Alfred was murdered at Guildford, and 
tribes from Northumbria to the channel to his Edward, apprised of the fate which was await- 
haul I lite control He was twic« married, and ing him, escaped into Flanders. After the ao- 
kft a numerous family, and 8 of his sons, Athel- cession of his half brother Hardicanute, Edward 
Ami, Edmund, and Eared, successively occupied was received with honor into England, presented 
Aa throne. with a princely establishment, and was at court 
EDWARD n., sumamed the Martyr, king when the king suddenly died in 1042. TheDan- 
<f ^ Anglo-Saxoufs son and successor of Edgar, ish heir Sweyn was then absent from the king- 
in 962, ascended the throne in 975, and dom; the rightful heirs of the Saxon line, the sons 
murdered in 978. The intrigues of his step- of Edmund Ironside, were in exile in Hungary ; 
Elfnda raised a faction in favor of her the Anglo-Saxons were determined to throw off 
son Ethelred, who was but 7 years of age. the Danish yoke; the Danes were divided and dis- 
itical parties took opposite sides, Uie pirited ; Edward was the nearest to the throne 
clergy who had been ejected in the pre- of any one present, and after a short period of hea- 
_ reign regarding Elfrida as their patron- itation and commotion he was recognized as king 
mtd supporting the pretensions of Ethelred, in a general council at Gillingham. His reign 
' the monastic followers of St. Dunstan main- was the period when the mutual aversion of the 
Bg the superior claim of Edward. A civil two fierce Teutonic peoples, whose struggles for 
had already begun, when at a general meet- dominion had vexed the country during 6 jgau- 
%i(r the witenagemote Edward was after mudi erstioo^ began to sabside, wben intAnnarnaiiS^ 

TOI^ TIL — i 



2 EDWAIU) (rni Coxrawnu) 

!in«l A Monilln^ of lanpin^*? an«l cti*!.r!.« n«-irir At tlii* poritij I'lViirrt-i! tlio ov,nfH wlil'h furni 

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po'i'Ht iiitliii :i'«- in t!.«' r«>'ii.trv, !iitlt iiulMnn iii>!'lr!ii:iii« riiiiriliTiMl l>iinraTi. kisij f>f S-p:!.iiii|, 

«if w!.:. Ji l'n \ wi"*- •..^■n III |-r-«i!r:ift'. lUo c]ia<H-il M:ili'ii]Tii, lii- Ntin unil !i«-ir. into Ki:;;!aii«l, 

fr-t rijk.'il i*- ! "f r.Iw.ii'l w:»- ! ' -trip !.i«. nn»- ati«l n<.ur|Hil l) «• rriiwn. Tin* * \ili-»I |.rin<v ri»- 

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aTlt Ti.pt i.i !■' :.i.!i l!.. tlr.-:..'. <'l" !,i r iJ!.::iC'ii'Mi ri^'li!'» » ith tin Kiijli-h iirrnv. liiit fur ITi ^viir* 

tri'i^'.T* *. \:.'\ ! !,iirii' hi r f'-r !.:i iii :i ni^L.t— llu* ji«i*ir ff !l:i- mcriii-nT <li'fi .itrd i\rry at- 

ttry ;it W-.7,/!,i «!t r. lli>* p'%ir:.r!K':.t u :i«4 nt tiiiii't. Al K n^'tlt in U'tVl M.ilri'lm wA«' «tir- 

ihi- l::ni' 1:. i).i' !.:4:.iN if li |-^«*t:iI i.'i'ltini i. : n—liilly MippiTtvil l»y Maolutt tlio thani* of 

K:*r'. <i.n!\% .v. M !. 1 r.li.l :i!l :\ v ^■• i:!ii rn pruv- Kit'i'. mpI l-v Mwaril, tarl nf Ni<rt!inni!fr!.irhl. 

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tho nM;:!.irn 11 tn!.t« •I Mir>:i. ninl Karl ^:- of ^iMun!; \\.*' Ni<rt)iurM!ri:L!i mrl ilitil Mi^in 

wan], hL-'^i* •••Aiiv I iM:-!!-!! !r.-m tin* IIimmI'it iiI"t«T. uLin II.'irnM o!>taiiiril r!.;i! i-.irlilnni. in 

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pr«':ii :i":: i-f Jjirl ifmlwin \\ ii-jirriin/ h;-* «'wn l-rntlur T»'*tl. T}.?!* tin- ^■:pINlrl wliirli 

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y*-t tl.o i:.'li\i- wliiili pri'Mij''.!'! K'iwjiril l'» tnar- aiiii iJ:injiTi»:i-i «.i;l'ji rr. T-mi] p.iM. ILtruM'.- f^r- 

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prit^<il tiiiTi f'irc a -ninv »'f vnntity i:>ti-4il »'f I'f I.i"frir. « i*Ji iho piVcriinn-Lt i-f tliL-^l A 1.^:1 ia, 

fr.rt 1^-^ * ^ ' !.!» Lin,^ :iii>l hit futht-rMn' l>nt tho ini'.u'M< <• of Al^:ir •^uiikU Ictl t>> hi« vx- 

irti.tl U>i!i t<i Nornuai num- pultun fri>ni hi^* iirw ]Mi«-v>^iiin. \U\ howvVvr, 

!iy fonitri ihun-hnion ami mnih ritiir::0'l int^ llLTft'iiriUhiri.' MiiU an army 

<.i! him t'l Kni:lan>!, whcro i>f Wi-Nh iiinl Ni»rM'ivi'^t> !iii\ili:»ri(-!\ w.-it fpfti^ 

, ...K. iiiiluntv in tin' ^'iiMTnini-nt. i-<l hy the imi-iiotant Kn^'Ii-h ni>>n:trch, hut wa* 

A ('•'p iLv/'-ilixi-y «aiairi:ii)> h !t iu::r.l:^ttllt■lll. uMv tu tiiuintain thv r:iu«<> of i!if kiMf; in ^ptl^ 

«h«n in 1"V> K»t.'trf, n.un! !•( Itx-.il'vno. Mii!i of tho kin^* hini'^lf. tiinl rL-lurniti^ lur^in. for« nl 

bi« train. % .^.!.!i*' Kt;»:!a:.«h >t :arrtl!i>l nitli tho IIar>>M to u I'unijirnnii'H' lUul wa« n-iii-tatfii in 

Larirhi-:«of I>i\^r. niA in tl.i t inr-ill m vcral |ht- K:f*t An;:h:i. ![•' %«»•• u^'ain fxpflli-il anJ »^*:An 

winf WiTf «l.tiri. Tin* n!!rny \%a« ri purtfl to tho ri-^ti»r«-iK atnl ut hit Jralh in lt>'>*« IlaroM uaa 

kiLi: at (li-.iMi t-«t«r. hy *\.v A.-* -ti.ti!!*! r.ii«tari\ K-ft wit!i<>iit a rival, O.w ni*>^t {xfArrfi;! ^jhjt-ct 

aod ^I'SwAn! i*i\f of'h ri t'l (i -Im in. in Mhi*««* in Kn^rlai: I. lM\iiiril t!iO tiuthiw. thf Sai«>n 

ptvtTi.n-.ir.r I'-.-.ir !a^. '-n ha-'s-- l!jf iiiM.l-r.ro hiir !•» thf tliP'i.i-, tiiXvT a h\v i"^ €ii!i-. ih«.d 

oft!if ii*i: « f th.it « ^!v, Thfi..!l ri j'i-« 'I IimI-1 V ; wi!hin u lVwi!.i\i iif hi- arrival in flh^'LiMi. a:.ii 

arupt -.r« M k^ t!.< r«.? 'ri- 'i:.a\' .liM". :i:i-!>iarin.>-i thm i.«>vi <•:••<■•{ ht tM 1 • n Il.irttM ji!!*! t!.ri.ri>uii 

iii;i!i r th<- • >(t.;i..i:.<l c! < mmIu .:i a'l-l h:- *J •mii.'v fitly t!.f\ii-.iii^ mhI 1i-«-Mi' KMpTar. r!i«.< i!:tirin >*M 

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n**ri:-*.:ri-. Klrtar-l ■"..ri.nj-r.i 1 ! • \..- at-l !.•■»- Karl (i'>«!\\iiv, turi.iil hi-iii- towunl h;- k.K»- 

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111 rtf»T th-- ■! -p ;rf •■•!!..i!. . .*.- ri . !' thi- ».*i;i- hiin ihi ti:"-t f -riLphihlv rival I" IIafi'M. IIa- 

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EDWABD L EDWARD H. 8 

and strled " the Confessor" abont a centnry nndcrtaken in France, advanced again to the 
after his decease. The most commendable fea* Forth, and defeated the insurgents with the loss 
ture of his goTernment was his attention to the of from 20,000 to 40,000 men near the forest of 
administration of justice, and to collecting the Falkirk, July 22, 1298. Wallace himself escaped. 
laws of the realm. Ilis compilation is lost. The rebellion again broke out in 1803, and again 
EDWARD L (of the Norman line), king of Edward overran the kingdom, its temporary sub- 
EngbiTid, sumamed Long Shanks, from the ex- jugationbeingcompletedbythe surrender of the 
ces^ve length of his legs, son of Ilenry III. and strong castle of Stirling in 1805. Wallace was 
cf Qcanor of Provence, bom in Westminster, soon after surprised and captured, and was hang- 
June 16, 1239, crowned Aug. 19, 1274, died ed in Smithfield. In 1806 the war was again 
Jdy 7, 1307. Being invested with the duchy Jcindled by Robert Bruce, who was elected king, 
d Gnienne, his right to that province was di&- and though at first unsuccessful, at length gained 
pnted by Alfonso X., king of Castile, who, how- a decisive victory over the earl of Pembroke. 
ever, renounced his claim in consequence of Edward, now enfeebled by age and disease, 
Edward^s marrying his sister. In 1254 he re- marched again to the north with the purpose 
ceived the lordship of Ireland and of the prov- of renderiug Scottish rebellion from that time 
iaoes which had been seized in the reign of impossible ; but he was surprised by death on 
John Lackland by the king of France. He sup- the frontier at Burgh-upon-Sands. The most 
ported the throne against the revolted barons, and enduring results of the reign of Edward were 
was with his brother Richard I. made prisoner the reforms which he introduced in the ad- 
at the battle of Lewes in 1264. He recovered ministration of government, of Justice, and of 
las liberty in 1265, defeated and slew Simon de the finances, which have gmned for him the 
Montfort, earl of Leicester, at Evesham, and in title of the ^^ English Justinian.^' He ameliorated 
1S67 conquered the last of the insurgents in the the laws, confirmed and finally established the 
isleof Ely« He now joined the crusaders, and two great charters, gave to the parliament the 
aerred 3 years in the East. Kcarly 2 years form which it has since retained, and is said to 
after his father's death, he was crowned without have first instituted justices of the peace. The 
epposition at Westminster, and began to signal- Jews, who during the whole period of his reign 
ize his ability both as a warrior and legislator, were objects of the bitterest hatred to the great 
His aims were first directed against Llewellyn, mass of the people, were cruelly despoiled, and 
prioce of the Welsh, whom he reduced, but who in 1290 ordered under penalty of death to quit 
lebelied again, and was slain in single combat by England for ever before a certain day. 
an Eogiissh knight immediately after the army of EDWARD II., king of England, son and 
Edward reap|>eared in that country. It is said successor of the preceding, born in Caernar- 
t2jkt Edward caused the massacre of all the von, April 25, 1284, ascended the throne in 
lords of Wales, for fear that their songs should 1307, murdered Sept. 27, 1327. Ho was of an 
rerive the patriotism of their countrymen ; but irresolute character and dissipated habits. From 
this story may have been invented in view of his childhood ho had lived in close intimacy 
the strict censorship which he exercised over with Piers de Gaveston, the son of a gentlo- 
the national poetry. He established corporate man of Guicnno, who had at length been ban- 
bodies of merchants in tlie principal towns ished from the kingdom as a corrupter of the 
of Wales, and introduced the jurisprudence of prince. Edward I. on his deathbed forbade his 
the English courts. In the castle of Caernar- son under pain of his paternal malediction to 
TOO his qneen Eleanor was delivered of her son allow the vicious favorite to return into Eng- 
Edwani ; the natives claimed the child as their land ; yet the first act of the new king was the 
coQntryman, and he was declared prince of recall of Gaveston, whom he created earl of 
Wilea, a title which has since always been borne Cornwall and married to his own niece, and 
by the eldest son of the sovereign. In 1289 ho to the scandal of the whole kingdom appointed 
neolved upon the subjugation of Scotland, to him regent while ho himself went to France 
Ifae crown of which there were at this time 13 to marry the princess Isabella. A formidable 
ddmants. Being invited to the oftice of arbi- league under tlio earl of Lancaster forced Gav- 
trttor, he first took possession of many of the eston into exile; but instead of being disgraced, 
Sooleh fortresses, and then conferred the crown ho was appointed lieutenant of Ireland, and ao- 

EJohn Baliol, who soon renounced his alio- companied for some distance on his way by his 

?. Edward marched again across the royal friend. He returned soon after, when an 

d, gained a great victory at Dunbar in army raised by confederate powerful barons and 

UM, Bent Baliol into exile in Normandy, bore commanded by the earl of Lancaster pursued 

my the Scotch sceptre and crown, and left tho him to the north ; ho was besieged and captured 

H^mA offices of government in the hands of at Scarborough, and, without any pretence of a 

bgjlifbmen, under the earl of Surrey, who re- legal process, was executed. Edward, at first 

Mived the title of guardian of tho kingdom, threatening vengeance against all who had taken 

The Scots rallied in 1297 under the chieftain a part in the death of his favorite, seemed soon 

mStm Wallace, and drove the English out of to forget his friendship and his hatred, and 

ftnr kingdom, totally defeating them in the turned his attention to the revoltecl Scots. At 

Ittie of Stirling, Sept 11. Edward hastily tho head of an iraraenso army ho crossed the 

bibed the war which he had in the mean time frontierf but after losing the battle o£ BaonocV 



EowAirn ni. 



Imrn iW from thi* kini!«1oni witli .1 KmIv nf S ft- 
ti«li riiiitln* fit )ii« }ifi 1-. In li'i'Jl 1m* w.'u«xi;miu 
di'fraU'^l At |{la< kiii'Nir. aii'I ]>iirMii-«i wcii t.i tito 
wall* of Vork. Ttic pii}>!io «]i^'<int« iit «.'>« i:i- 
rfv.vi«l liV ihi« hi'Ti'T!! U-tiiwitl ui"'ii Hii^rh 
S|irnM-r. A iii-w (a%i>ritf. nixl an arniiM iitturrt-c- 
ti'in of till' bariitit uiiili-r tin* carU nf Liara-Htor 
atid IltTrfiiril i-.vi*>«-<i l!ii> >|H-ii'M'r'* U* )k' tmn- 
Ul.r^l ; h'.A titi ill! Ir rit'iru Iau* rtttrr nn» ^iznl 
Mid |iiit to (liAlli Hi'Ji tlio ^aliu' iiM!i;;ijit;i-4 
vliith hwl tuniierlv \*\ lii^Mrdvr^ Uvii I'lrn t<HMl 
ftpiiii^t (fa«i«Ti»ri. Kdw&rd. imw ut {'vua'o wiiK 
hU own hiiSjiit*. )iii|H-i! !•• Mi-iiro hi« tran>|uil- 
litv l>y iH*pitiatiii|C in I'.'ri-i a truri- for X'.l vi'uri 
with ^^■l•tI:lIIll. Thou^'li tiit* thMnip!i i^f the 
S|M-riM r« via* ctniiplflr. tho |iartiuiity viitli 
wliir!i t!ii* Liii>r ri-kr:inli-«l hi'* fivunt**- li.til t!ii* 
rifi't't iil' alifiin!.!!.* iiMt iin'\ lti« ^iiKji>r:!>» li'it al««i 
)ii* ij-.tt'ii. I'l.iliT i*ri'ti-iii'<* ot' arriiti«:iti;; ^«>ino 
di!r« n-ni-i*«i It-tu ci-n lirr ]iii'>li:Uiii adiI iit-r l>riillii.r 
•)ic Wfiii tu rr.iru'v. vk III rv pho fiXHul a ^rt'at 
nuiiiUr cf Kii/ii-!i f*i^MitVt«. lUv t'ri«'iiiK i>f 
LAiir:k'*;aT, (!u- iui»t (MiD^idirAliio ai«l ]>otvnt nf 
win nil «i:k9 till' \iiiiii;; lC«nrt r Murtiiriirr. A ili>- 
lii<-*t!i« ri U lii"ii MipiHirtftl ly a f«iri ijn in%:i«i«iii 
wa,* pri;>«^'ti«l. Ai.d 111 ri'i*> tliv itUitii villi a 
fi»ivi,;n !• m< nI' :i.<«Mi tm n. U-ii liv ilu;;li M-T- 
tinuT ai.'l Jii)iii t>I Ilikittaiil. lrui>U*«i on tUo roa^it 
of >iiir>iiW. Tliv iii'i-t |*>i«ii*r!'i4l iii>lil«."> and yrv 
lati<^ liApU'iinl ti> tiH i-t ill r. und K^Im ar>l, li.iviiif^ 
in «.tin a|>|ii*jii-d to tin* (■ilizi-ri'« r*r h>i|i|iiirt, 
wa* o!i!t^*i-il Ci» rttrvat In tin* ni.ir»ln*^ <>( \Va]i«. 
Tli«* •{'i«i n ]i'trHi:t*«l lnni. and Ik* t«"ik »lK|»pirii( 
ft>r In Ui.d. Imt, ui.l'it-kv \t\ ^-.1 ai vidl a* l>v 
laiiil. «.-i<* ilrMi-ri liu< k liv rii;i!rar% wmd-. wa<« 
fiiund t-tiht i-.ili d in till- liii>:ilit:ii!i«t<f W:i!t-«. uIhI 

•till in i:.«t<"ly t>i till* >:i*!!f of Kiiitlwortli. 
Till' fj\«iri!i- >;•• ti«« r wa" tnktii At (lio -auu* 
tiiiK' and !:an^*«^l. 'I J if {iirli.inn-i.! U-iiit; a^^-ni- 
Mid. i'} t!i«' mil':- 1!« V «•! l-.'il" ila and Vl>'rt.iniT. 
lt«a« r^-*"hi>! th.ii tin' p iprn i>t' T^lviard of 
C'ai'rnAr%i>ii h^l ri-A<«i«l. ^Vl.ili* ru{'ri«tirif«l in 
Itcrkili-y ia«tlr ninii r '.l.t' • i.:ir/»' of r::t!i.iri<» 
riiip*oxi-l l>v \l><rtiinir. PMu^ird II Mat foL.rni 
dral in Iji^ Ud int'i* n.xriiin*: niit-r •hruk*! 
La*l Ui-n Itf-.trd ir^'tii !::<« ap irirnt t.t il :r)iit: \Uv 
tiU"!it, ar.il liL« d.*l<<r!id l^Mriirf* iNtruyol tiio 
Bpmv ]fi will- li 111- liAil (\j>iri'<l. 

KIiWAlMi III . tldiM H..U Mt yA^\:ir^ It. and 
I«a*NlU *i Kraii'i', \'"t:i nl W >rji!-.'r, %••%. It, 
IJI.'. I.n*la.nu-U:Mtf..f KiipTlmd, .!.in.-j:.. 1 JT, 
dirtl at >!.*!•■•. i.iw ill! hiiixi.i!. .I-:!*!- 'Jl. I ".77. 
At llif aff !•( I'i ,^i ar« !*•* «t i t «.::i a »|ni-ii>]:d 
rr'.:r. K- I » Kril,--.* ti il« liiM:i-%ji> !•• *'I.irii * IV. 
for tin- |-*»M*»-n I'f ItM- i:::f bi il r«MJ.iiU. 
trliU .'1 haii luA-ri n-^irtii^il !.i l.irn 1> hi- f.;';.i r. 
Iltf rr ?:.i;n«- 1 VI. *.li i.i* iip''.^«r at tlio Kr< ;:i'h 
r«»urt, «»* ri'i.tr-.i!!-*! in n..»Ti.ii:i» \\ 1,. r \>» 
V\i.\.]]*.\, ii;k-;,:i.trr it t^i' !••:::■. u! llailii:«t, ai* 
c«iii{ia:.ud li* r ar 1 !«« r f>!!i»tr« in !S-.r 
|h«a«i >n *■{ K*,:!.ir»!. a:. I ir.\* d-'*..irid k: ,: 
aftrf tiic rajtiv .rj if !:.^ fji*?.. r. A r-i'in- .! i-f 
rflpiftry. O'fi*. •!.:«" I'f 4 I'i*in-|" a:.1 1" l."!'.f- 

Ipai f up t<i lit r a;.-! M r'..r:.>r ' ii'>« 1 r« y.%*\ % ar! 
^ MmrcJj/ the M^LvudnUcji lu ti«v g<j«cruuicbt, 



IiAiI l-nt j:i>t U^n Ap{H.in:>'<l, wjj.-n I*.0- n 
Ilr ifo, in vi-il:i!i-»n of tl;». tn:.*o Utwi'ii; n ■■:. 
Lind and Kn;;land. fr-ni an uriny i>f 'Ji,<HMi p,. n 
u!:tli'r Ilandolf and I)«iu;:!.-is «lii*'li ru\»Lvd:^o 
rnM!i!y «if CuniUTUnd. Y^' in;: tMwArd ni;i-i'lj- 
(M t'l till ii.irth nitli tiviT 4",||<'*> nan. i:nii!i* • 
rnin |>iir«::iL i<f tlu- Siois i'.»nio n|iiiiith tluin 
tuii-i' whin tliry wt-ri- in irjat*i"c^*iMi' iMi-i*.!..:!*, 
i^ rii-i-rdiil to li.ivi' Wf'it ulnri lu> fiiiiM<l Mrn- 
N !t' icit't:' ixrillril l>y i}u> «>ki:l i>f uii iiit'i ri<ir 
fmin^. aiiil tMnilndtil nn ir^loriotH r:ini]'ai,ni 
l>y a lr(-:i!y in nhiidi tho cfitiri' indt'|H.'ndi'r!iv t*f 
Srtitland w.i^ ri'C«%:'i>'«^<^* 1 !><> o«liuin nf ilii^M-t- 
ticnu'Ht « A.1 tlirown u{Kin I-^l'cllAAiid MortiniiT, 
wIjo iniTcUM-d tliiir uri|H'{Mi!;irity by inlrij:ni.-a 
a.r:iin'*t tlio i-iirl «'f Krut, vilii.>lii tlirv calLMtl to 

U- I'Xi'rtitrtI f'T }ii;;li trfA-'-n in 1 :'>;:•». A: tho 
0;^!' of 1*^. l-^lMArd. li.iviii;: di-: cm lintel tu a^^^Tl 
lii<« oM II autl.fTiTy ;u.iin<*i li:'« inutlii-r ami her 
fa\orit«-, ron^rivdl ilnir am «t. Mortimer wa4 
vit'i-'.ittil fiif l.'.»'ti tri'.i<Min at Sinitlitu-!i|. and 
1^!i-!!a wa*! mniiiinl f>>r tlir n •it i>f l.cr life in 
tlif ni.'iiior I if Kt<in jt. linniL-dt:ili ly alU-r a»i«iiin* 
in^' tilt' u"*viTnin( lit IuTi iu-\^iil iii<4 fatl:or'« anU 
frrundl':iilii*r*4 projirt of ii>ni{fn'rini* ScotlaiiJ, 
and -MH ri'tly i-ni-ii'.:ra::i-il tho rl.iini of Kd«Anl 
l{Aa<l til tho rniwn nf th-tl ri'Unlrv. whu «M 
willin;* to hi'Iil il a^ a firf of tlu* KnL:li«h nion* 
ar-h. lt.ihid Won thi* rmun ai:d lii«i: it «ithia 
3 tnonth«, anil tho in« iirojiMM of tlic Scut^ p^^o 
to K'lward I lit* it*. t«it n hirh lit- lU-trt'd to r^ 
Di'W tilt' w:tr and titicnip*. t'> r«."torL' I ho rl*fup^e. 
llo l.iiil !*!ivt' til licrui. k. and <JiiIy 19. 153S> 
dv'fr:ilfil on llalidmi hill with i:t\:\1 1o«4 tht 
army ui tho ro;:tnt I>ii'i;;i t;*. wim had uppruarli* 
i-«l t<*r it« n lirf Ihi* t>'Hn and c':i«ti«' wfte im* 
nifii:ittdjk •Mrrt-nili ri il. and I'laliol hiins a^aia 
k«-Ati d oil tlio thr>>nfi<f S-ii:laii<i diMnfmbrHrtt 
tho kiriu'ilofn hy a l.ir/r ii-ir.ii in of ii rriturj to 
Kti.'laml. 11 nio:o*rin' «!.!« !i ma*! foliowi-ij br lik 
tli.'ht to Knirhkipl w::liin 4 nioiith's. llirco 
tini«"« K.«!wurd inv:ii!i .| and dfVa*talid Scotiaiid 
in »iip;»<«rt i*( lt:ii!'>l. hut l.ail not cum^norrU Um 
intli-fi^-ndoiit "p.rit of thf r>iiintry vrhm he Mif* 
fori-d tlio uar to laii.'-ii-h. hu^ir:; dt-tormiiMd 
to hiy rlai'ii !•• tin- «ri>«n of Kranrv A|raiiM| 
rh:ii|< if Valiii-. I'hi- ;:ri"ind of thii |r\'trD* 

pinn Ma-. t}i:il :il!!i>>il;^*h !i-Hiu)i"» M^vFv I'lcludcd 

fri"n tlii' Krin«*Ii t'lp jh-. tl.oiii:i!i' di-rotidantaof 
fi-ni iIo« i%iTo n<<t : nnd th.-il a« tin- "iMi of l^bfl- 
la, x\iv dau/liti r ••!' ( !i.ir!i-n IN'., hi« r!:iim VM 
lHitt-rt!.An th:kt if P!.i:.i<. Hhn wa« drMXudcd 
fr-M A>".n^'ir hr-'tij- r i-f Cli.irlf'. IV. To cany 
hi" r!i p'htt dioipTn int>> 4 \i< 'itiMii, ho niailr alii* 
ar.i-i* uir'i •« «ir:il i-t'n:iniii!;il pr.nrt^ and mlef^ 
thi' rh;t r'l'f m!i-mi Hi-rr I.'-^:« t f Ua^afi^ cM- 
|.^Ti>r ot' (r«r- 1.1;. y, t!if 1! .ki <« of Kralant aod 
(ii<!>lrt«. .1? '1 .\r:> ii Ml' i>f dli^'t. Il4!«aff4 
f>'r!!ii'.i« |''i^'..«^i-<l ! 4-4 i i.iini in l.'i :7, Mid in the 
f •'.!•«! ir.^ \i.ir «.iii>t! mi'.Ii a i. iimnMi^ fit^l to 
A-.* Mir{'. d< -itrr.lt .: t<> Ui^'iii thr 1 anij>a:;rT; witli 
ti:>' ^.kj:'- oI iArit^r.*;; l-ut |« ri'%i\iM.; iLr t!ifl» 
ti'.'r if ;':!• i-t.'t r;>n'M-, ho ad^ i!ii td ir.to Kraiws 
%r ::. .iN.rr. :.ii.i"hi iiii :i. i%n« a!i!i"-! r'«!ifmt«4 
*.''t .i": arn;% ft i.iaT!\ d iTiMi- tl.o for''o ti 
r^iiip, V v: bo vbfa^«.xuoUl cUaUi-d, aud hm 



EDWARD IV, 5 

lo^ returned to Brossels and disbanded his of the lionso of York. The great Lancastrian 
armr xrithoat having derived any advantage chiefs, Cardinal Beaufort and the dukes of Bed- 
fiom his immense expenditures, lie returned ford and Gloucester, who ably though discord- 
to Esglaod in 1340, obtained an unprecedented antly supported the throne during the minor- 
grant from parliament, defeated a French fleet ity of Ilenry, were dead, when Richard, duke 
of Slais which Philip had sent to intercept him, of York, the father of Edward IV., returned 
Ktomod to the continent, and at the head of from Ireland, cautiously and gradually ad- 
frXlOOO men undertookat the same time theslcges vanced his claim to the throne, gained the 
of Tonmay and St. Omer, both of which were support of the powerful earls of Warwick and 
ossaccesffal ; and he quickly concluded an ar- Salisbury, took arms against Somerset, the 
aasiice for 9 months, and soon after another for last great nobleman of the Lancastrian branch, 
3 rears and 8 montfak Another English cam- and began by a victory at St. Albans, in 1465, 
pum in France was begun in 1346 under the the wars between the red rose of Lancaster 
tsi of Derby^ and prosecuted with unintermpt- and the white rose of York. The claims of 
ed f Qccess. Edward also landed with a numerous both these Phmtngenet lines were derived frgm 
fcrc« on the coast of Normandy, advanced to Edward III. From the first 2 sons of that 
Sdoen, sent his light troops to insult the fau- sovereign no issne survived ; the 3 Lancaa- 
bou^ of Pari^ and on Aug. 26 gained over trian kings who hod occupied the throne for 
Philip the decisive battle of Crecy. The siege more than half a century were descended fh>m 
of Calais followed, and while the chivalry of the 4th son ; the dukes of York were descended 
Eo^and lay before the walls of that city, the from the 6th son, but had also by intermar- 
Soots suddenly crossed the frontiers, but were riage become heirs to tlie rights of the 8d 
de^:ed by a miscellaneous and rapidly collect- son. The Question of genealogical right, com- 
ed army, led, according to the improbable testi- plicated in itself, w&s rendered more so by the 
Bony of Froissart, by Queen Philippa. Calais irregular accession of the 1st Lancaster, while 
mrendered after an obstinate defence, and a Edmund Mortimer, the heir of the 3d son, waa 
tnce followed which lasted till 1355. Mean- alive, and by decrees of parliament. Richard, 
time. Edward invaded and widely desolated duke of York, after varions successes and re- 
Scoclaad, caosing a havoc long remembered by verses in maintaining his claim, was defeated and 
tlie nadveft. The war was renewed in France slain by Queen Margaret, at Wakefield, in 1460; 
noder the Black Prince, who gained in 1356 and young Edward, the inheritor of his father?8 
the memorable victory of Poitiers, in which he pretensions and ability, immediately put himself 
took Kic;: J<:»hn of Franco prisoner, who was not at the head of an anny of Welsh borderers and 
nasi^med^ till 1360. In that year the *^ great mountaineers, and defeated a formidable force 
wac*'' was conclnded at Bretigni, by which under the earls of Pembroke and Ormond, at 
£iward renounced his pretensions to the crown Mortimer's Cross. lie tlien marched southward, 
cf France and restored his conquests, retaining supported by the earl of Warwick, who suffered 
only the full sovereignty of Poitou, Guienne, a defeat at I^arnot llcath by which Henry waa 
ud the county of Pouthieu. Though the mis- again restored to his friends. Edward marched 
Simnes of the latter years of his reign con- directly to London, which ho entered without 
tiftate^i Firongly with the glories of its com- opposition, and where his youth, boldness, and 
znencement, and though his victories left few beauty gained him the public favor. Ho waa 
laRing acquisitions, yet they gave to England a proclaimed king in 1461, and thus there were two 
\astn and renown which were long her strength kings and two royal annies in tlio land. Both 
Bid <«fcty. In his reign tho elegant arts began parties made the most formidable preparations 
a> be cultivated, the castle of Windsor was re- for battle, and at Towton, near York, 100,000 
bmh, the order of the garter was instituted, and Englishmen were drawn up, in not very un- 
Eigilsih poetry and prose may be said to have equal division, in hostile array. • Proclamation - 
been besrun. ' had been made that no quarter should be given, 
EDWARD IV., king of England, bom in and tho battle was probably tho bloodiest in 
Booen, April 20, 1441, died April 9,1483. An English history. It lasted more than a day, 
old chronicler f^peaks of '* the troublous season and ended, after the slaughter of more than 
if King llenry VI., the prosperous reign of 80,000 persons, in the total rout of the Lan- 
XxBg Edward IV., tho pitiful life of King Ed- castrians ; and thus the crown was firmly 
VTO v., and the tru^ical 'doings of King placed on the brow of Edward IV. The cause 
Behard III." The lot of the feeble Henry VI. of the red rose seemed desperate, but it was 
4DiDo«'t inappropriately in an age of violence, to supported by tho courage and energy of Mar- 
vluch he brought only meekness of spirit; and garet. She sailed to France, seeking the alliance 

k Mw daring h' ' ' '" * ' '^ '" "'--'' ' * ' — '''' ^" '—' -"" ^" 

of forei;rn 
isDomin V 




ft^Ue qneen, Margaret of Anjou, were the oc- tie to the English general. Lord Montacute, near 
~' of revi\iiig the long forgotten pretensions Eexham, Tho LoDcastrioiis were again eoui- 



6 EDWARD IV. EDWARD V. 

ji!i'ti !}■ rrtnt*-*! ; tho liiij liii-! ri.ir.y t »f Oi-^ r!ii. f* now luraln !mv:iiik» master of LiihIoti. And uf i}m 
¥iri.' r.i|it;ir« il f*n titi* r!iM. or af'.' r l^irkiiii: :ur in-r**-!! ot' lliiirv. wh«i w.v ri'MuiinKil to tlie 
A »}.:!•' i:t t ••riicaliMt I.! ; hri>l .M.&rjart : lu'-iin l<*wtr. rtr\iT ni;:un tn K-hvo it. MtanwMle, 
Im.-mIi- ].«rt'-a|i- t}.rfi:^li S-. rl^i:. 1 int>) Fr.un'i', Mar,:.int, uith lur wn, iiow H viar* of a(^», 
tri!h ).< r ."•';! and lii- fvii>>-.;<i {To* ptur, Mr luudul uC WiMihicith :a tho Iu'jmI of .1 bi«]r uf 
J>i!.ii Fiirtt«<-)r. K'lMaril. ai t;:ij ujtiii the Frtiirh triHi|H mi tlio wn thiv uf tliv baltle of 
l;;;i\.r:i ^if M i* . !.;;iv. !!i. ^%i!li ( l.ar.M t«ri-«:i'' 1 i^- ]{:iniit. Tin* lifNi iVihf of u hirh >\iv n<«vive«I 
t>r. x:;.i>!i- :i l* rr.^'li* ^!:kw•:^:l r of l.:i i:.i imi-* in tiihtip« vrn^ h«-r ltii*<l*aiid's raptivity and tlio di<^ 
t!i- tir-t iiiiMiii-:,'. ff 11 !<>r\, u:.-! iii hi* mi*<m- frat tuid di-ath df Wurwuk. N overt tnU'sfes, tdio 
q'i«^i! :idiij!!n^!rv.i"7i n.I> d ui'.h 1 !i-iiii !.>}. Af- iKti-nuinol to (Ufi-nd to tho utiiuMt hi-r fallen 
Ur ili:-* Miii'.il n-tr^.it cf Mar^MTt :. l.v di vii!til furliiiii's :tnd with an uniiy otiiinuiiHU-tl l.r tlie 
liiri'vif f'lr u tii!i«' :•> I !• a-'Tr. lie h-A'\ Niii d'lki* of Snui-rMt inutU* a staiKl :il Tcwkiittiury, 
liTint::.^* i'l t!.'- fTi -t ff <ir:kfl4.:i, u]i. u Iil- nut, M.iy 4, 1471. Mt-r nnny w:l- ili fi-altil. ht-r hm 
Bt K>r fu!!it r'** }i<>'L-«'. KI;/.il>i :!:. ^^iilnw i>f >ir i'riniv FMwanl >lain. niiil ^)R• lMr<<-lf takt-n pri»- 
Juijii<ir«y and di:/)itir tif Iluhard Widvillo, uni-r lUtd hi-ld in «-;qiti\ity Ti \v:\r^^ ntu-n ^lNl 
liar*ifi Iti^iTt. TLi' iiii|i^«inuui kiiu*. in v:un vu.i run-in ird by ttu* kin^< if Friuiiv. llrrhu»- 
N-t-k:!!,r u:i i!!h .t uIi'umi, (iin'M ;it4.tl to a iirivato l>:U)d ii:irt ]»nt to d«.at}i in tlu* tuwi-r. May 21. 
niarr-.vf uitli !.i r (April, 1I04>, aiid Mio Wii.i E*lw:knl foriiivd an idliuniv in 1471 with tlie 
witiij; a yi-.ir i'.;llii ly :m k;tii\\Kt!»:fd •purn, and dukt* of Hnrpindy, l>y « hirh Fninri* wtu* t't lie 
li«r futhir wa^ li. &•!•.- un • ^I. Itii** tii.ion di-^ dividi-d into tuo !*t:ai-?, one of \«hii-h, cxfrni>rv- 
|dl^^•^■d tJio (••>^«ir!-.d a:.<l }iaii;;}ity t.irl «>f W^at- h« niliii;; tho nor!hrrn anil i-;i.*«tcni i-niviniv^ 
wi< k. «!jo hud It fort' tivn a<:thi»r:Ad U* rit.-;r»- hl.<iuldU'lon;;ti» Murcnndy, iind th«ijthvrfthi>ul>l 
tiato fL>r !}.L' i:;arrta4!i* of tSr kiitu' ^«ith l!io Ik* [MP^<.^-<iM-<l l>y Kn^'laiid. Uc \r^s<*\ iAiT to 
f>ririri— « I(«ii.i:f if ^:k^oy, and \\\i*j ii:i.<i nion- C*ulai4 witli a forro uf arrlii-r*iind nit u-at-unns, 
owT in-li^TtA!.! ut t!ii- ii.riiuniv ikium-^miI by only, hoUi-Vi-r, to Ih.* di.t:i{>|Hiiiitvd I ly the duke 
tht' ni-u' >|'..iin, Hliiih ^!lo i!upl>i\iil in tlio of jtnr^'iintly, who rt^nt he* ni^iio^y iiMcad iti 
€h-\ati<<!i of htfown fKiiiiN. Tiio nioii'itntinl an anny, autl !•• miiko aii advantafn^iiUa in-atj 
carl, allying ).iia-<lf with Kd\i:u-d'p l-ruthrr, uith I/'ui-i without u t>altlv. J{y thi^ irt-atj 
till* d iki- of ( un'Hf, !ri>ki< I'Ut iiito c>;>n.ii ri^ iiiii<>to:i<4iif('i>:i-iil^-rahlt' amount^ wi-r\- 1 •«'!ttuw«tl 
Vi'it 1:1 ll'j'J. Til*.' rtWii of hi'* i-oniViinat:on l^y I.ouU ni>t (Mily tifmn the F.n^r'.i-h kinir, hot 
With thv d:'«ii!it« ii!<'<l !i«iMiity and pntry uai aUi niNin all thr ron«i«K-raMi* |'ir>«int uf the 
q'iikly iMiii in Mi!:tiori4 fi iiii* :]t«-il in i-% I ry part Kii^Ii"h miirt. (Mwar^l rfturni'«l to KtvlaiHl 
of tl.c* ('•".;ii:ry. In Y^rk^liiro. ICoSin of llitK*^- !•• Uinriif iiivohid in a hitter Atrifi* w itJi hu 
cL&lf. a hrpi aniitri:! tin* tnn'i'LTv of tho fronti« r, hr>t(lA-r ( lafi-Xitv. The inti-rfin-nii' of Eduanl 
t«»/k t}H*!*iM \% i:!j tio.o-i*»xi.i !i. Kdu:kpl n;ar< If |irf\inttd tlu' inarri.i^v of ('I:irin<v wi:h the 
cd a.':ii!i-l i}f rii. utiaw.iri? of \* v d.iii*:vr to wiiJiny lii-iri-^^ of Uiippfiindy ; N^on aftt-rwani 
tihi> !i h>.« X|-"*t d I.>i-a;-it.J. \V jirMji k. al'-M-i.t twoMf'ttn- f;:i nd'* of ( Iin m r were pnt to di-ftth 
In Fr.i'.' 1-. )..>l ^Miiinl tho f.ivfr i<f I^^^a^ \1., u{t>n a frivi<!>(io pn t«ni i\ ji>inr<l with an acca- 
ai.d h:k>l • %• n !<«(m::i» r< ••>!]■ i!iiI with hi<« o'll Kiiion of r»*•T^K^\\ and \i lit n hv niAintainrd 
mtiiiy, \I.ir«:.ir> ?. II*.- Uiidi«l at ]*.irtni<>u:li tin ir iiiniHi-rirt , \,m» wh^ liini*^ If privatvly put 
Willi a -"T.-iIl l--!y if tr ••p^ w}itro h.-* p"pii- t«i iliath. Ft*-. M7S lij^in a iliapp.*!? K*f trvan^Q, 
lartty •••.n'.lid hi« army in a fi u il:iy^ to ni'TP for arrai.:ini..; p<:) li-' j<>Ti'-'-. Darin.: lln- lal- 
tlian ''•o.'"^' ii.i*n. II" a'!v:iii> > 1] to tiic n< r:h, tiT part of h>i hi«- FdManl %«a« Mi:.k iu itMli>- 
and h.-* a' ; r-'T }i •'h'" k t].i- fi'h'..!\ of t!to ro\al hn< •• aixl ph a-itrt*. He \*-(\ 't •hk.i^'KttrN uf 
tr<-"p". I'^fviard thd :ii l4To \,t lidl^.ind, and u!<->mi Kii/al'iiM w:i- a!\rw.iril i.i.irrii'«l to 
lii« i!:.pr-.^i'.ii! n^olu^i !.d f<'r:h fruni t!«u Ih i^ry VII. ; aii>l 'J >«•:.<•, t!ii.- ill faUd priu«.«i 
towir to )iiar!hi' -tr^.*!^ of I.'irj>!«i:i ri-^"..:idin,; }!•!'•» ard ni.d Ki< !.ap!. 

«i:m- !;i"ri? u rth ihv uni.iv ol K.:.,: liii.ri. A KI»WAllI' V., kii 1: of F.r.;:!afid. I'f thv Yi>rk 

pnrlL.vVf'iit }^x'* •iv.T'ji rnd in thi' :.anM' of t!io lTa!i< h of :!;•■ I'l.»:.:a.»i r.» *.'•, !h.!i ai.d ^'.u« t^^or 

n •!..ri-.!L ::..-.» y wl.:- h r.'l ward u ;*"« ppijH'-.inivtl oI tlii* j-ri ■ i-'.:: A h":T' N"*. I. l**'', in the ^axu^ 

A 'j» irj« r, h:* a :!• r% : I* ui n* at'.aii.'.i-il. and lurirv i.f \\\ ••.i:..r.-:i raM«« y, u!.ichtr hi- niothor 

all a«?« : I*- d 1 * !.:* ar.h^-r:!* p i-^ a!i i!. liii-* \,ii>\ I'.i.-l U'T t*.:-.*:*- ir»-VA t!ii- arn.v of tho I.an- 

»^ •!..:»:. -n /avi . I.'W< \ir. ^':: a l-r.i f r* *:'it»- to r^-'.ri.tn ^Jii» :i M.ir*r in t anil ul Wurwii k. dit!«i 

tliv Ijin<-i-!.-;an fa::..!y. 'l'].^' {:^\:,\y K'Im.ipI. d'»'*S!l«*- hi :.i'y •' •'" "* ^••'^" towirof 1.4>i«ikn, 

•e* p :.'» :^-i-!.'l * y :!.»■ diko ••! !'• .rt^in-iy, < ul- w!.- ri- J.^* wa"* i:ir; rix>ii«i!. iii 1 l^.i. A*, tl.i- t.:ikki 

Ii-«!id a l--!y '-f Fl- ri;.?.j^< aii! I'-.Ti iiint d i:i a t f.'.i^f.i! J » :'- •!« .itli. Ajr.l '.', 1 l^'i.y -.lii.j i;«l»ard 

ffw rrn •:.!:.•. w.'li m !.••!:* lii* t :.!• ri^l tJji- II .m!--r, w.\h p *id:r.^ ■ n :!.i l.--rili r-ol W.ili 1. i:. tl»«' iar« 

an<l l.v. l.'-l a*. lLi*i '-•; -.r. U.* .ii!^i:.i'd ii.'.o of i\.*' •.»:! l::-.» r% l-r-tlu r tT t'iv 'iii"*.:;. In 

Un» j:ir»r;-T. J •. !. H'lifi.: .tl !"r»: t.'i.il hi' rarii.» ittfr.pi:;^ m .!!i K;^* .-•* In- i::i::ii •!:>»:• ly "-W-n: ii*r 

«»::!y l.» ri r :..• pa!:.!:i •;* a« d.ki' of ^•■rk, l^-ndi-ii. w I..\' lh«. duk.i'f * t!'» in -Itr. tin' I rtth- 

a?-d t:..fci.* ,: }..* ! '.ii«. r* • •> " !-■•:.■: !!*•• Ki:.,: iro! th^* l.*:** k.r.pT. aii>l now tin- PiTti.: d..rii^ 

II-::ri.'" ! ;; \." ri-t.^id P • :.f o • nn i:> wl..ih thi* rii.j;nr:'v. -•.ur:* d f"r iln* ••■j!h froi:* Yt^rk, 

l^fit J.r:i ,:i nit; :.'•■ n ti f.u i- l.'.i •'.•ri:t\. 1 !.o a!!t-:ii!i«l h« .1 *| I- t:'!;«l P.'i;f.ii'. 'Pn twopn-^x*- 

ad^tp^i* arr ;. • r;.. •. at Ir»r:i« •, on }'..i-.!t r ln«rrj- t>:«ir.« !:.• t at >:«'!sy >:r.ilf"pl, w hvn (ihiUCcAXcr 

i: /, Apr.! ! t. 1171 .\ipl t!.« Ij»ri> i^lrukU* WiTd a; pr>isit !ii^l tlic youii,: |r:!i<i- Wt*.h thi- ^rtaU««t 

drs\m:*'J AbJ Uarni.k tauA».If »1aiu. Ld«ard dvuiuuatr;fc:iui*svfrv:<|t«i.t bul»iK;ualUrtLaq(ed 



EDWARD V, EDWARD VL 



LVers and the qneen's son, Sir Richard Grey, ofan old stairway aheap of decayed bones, which 
rith having idmcil to estrange from him the af- proved to be those of two boys. The indica^ 



Rivers 

wi: 

fection of his nephew, arrested and imprisoned tions were deemed sufficient that they belonged 

them both in the castle of Pomfret, and endeav- to the nnfortuoato Edward V. and his brother, 

ored nnsaccessfally to satisfy Edward with re- and they were removed by royal command to 

Old to tho violence thus exorcised upon his Westminster abbey, where an inscription, be- 

kindred. Tho king was from this time a captive, ginning Ossa desideratorum diu et muUum 

The queen mother in London, perceiving that qumitOj was placed upon tho monument. So 

BOthing less than the ruin of her family was in- well ccmcealed a matter as tho death of tlie 

tended, hastily took refuse with her second son, royal princes leaves room for paradoxes and 

the duke of York, and iier 5 daughters, in tho historic doubts ; but it is certain that, though 

nactoary at Westminster. Gloucester had no the name of Edward V. stands on the list of 

SDOoer arrived in London than ho postponed tho English sovereigns, ho had hardly the shadow 

coronation of tho young king, confined him for of a reign ; that under tho dark protectorship of 

lecurity in the tower, and was formally invested his uncle he went speedily from the palace to 

vith the office of protector. Uis next step was the prison, \vithin whoso predicts ho found sc- 

tD withdraw tho duke of York from his retreat cret death and burial. 

vith hb mother at Westminster; but he hod still EDWARD VL, Sd king of England of the 

to fear opposition on the part of those noblemen, Tudor dynasty, born Oct 12, 1537, ascended tho 

iDch as LLtrds Hastings and Stanley, who were throne in 1547, died July 6, 1553. The son of 

friends of the late king, and unswerving in their Henry VIII. and Jane Seymour, ho was little 

fidelity to his children. Their destruction or cared for by tho 3 stepmo&ers whom he had in 

iopzisoainent without form of trial, or even spe- quick succession ; but at the ago of 6 vcars, being 

dncation of od!ence, swiftly followed. Tho earl intrusted to the learned masters Anthony Cooke 

Kvers also, and his friends, were put to death and John Cheke, mado progress in philosophy, 

withoGt any semblance of judicial forms. Tho divinity, Greek, and Latin. Henry YIII. ap- 

imoars of the late king now suggested to Glou- pointed in his will a council of executors to ex- 

cester a means of vili^ing tho queen dowager *ercise the royal authority during the minority 

and ber descendants. He even did not hesitate of his son, who, at their first meeting, fearing 

to malign his own mother, affirming that the that the government would lose its dignity for 

resemblance of Edward IV. and of the duke of want of some head to represent tho royal ma- 

darenee to notorious gallants was a sufficient jesty, bestowed upon Edward Seymour, now 

proof of their spurious birth, and that tho duke created duke of Somerset, or allowed him to as- 

of Gloucester alone, of all bis sons, appeared by sume, the titloe of governor of his majesty, lord 

his features and cuuntcnanco to bo the true protector of all his realms, and lieutenaut-gen- 

o3S?prin2: of the duke of York. Thus having eral of all his armies. The chancellor Wriothes- 

insulted the memory of his mother and brother, ley, who resisted this measure, and who in his 

d»graced the queen and her children, and re- zeal exceeded his judicial duties, was compelled 

moved their most powerful friends, ho openly to resign his office. Sir Thomas Seymour, 

dccied the title of Edward V., who meanwhile, tho brother of Somerset, was created Baron 

with his hrotfier, languished in prison. The pre- Seymour of Sudley, and appointed lord high 

ebe time and the details of the death of these admiral. Tho government was ahnost entirely 

princes are among the mysteries of history. Protestant, and its first object was to complete 

A conspiracy liad been set on foot for their lib- the religious revolution and establish a church 

cntion during the first year of tho usurper's independent of the see of Rome. Tho statute of 

Rign, when it was announced that they were no the 6 articles was re[)ealed, prisoners under it 

loMtr alive. The account of Sir Thomas More, were released, and exiles recalled. Preaching, 

which was collected from the confession oi which had been raro in Catliolic times, was en- 

the murderers in the next reign, is as follows : forced by nsitors despatched throughout tho 

that Richard had in vain tampered with the gov- kingdom, who with other powers wore author- 

of the tower, Brackenbury, to put them to ized to require that 4 scnnons bo preached ov- 

, bat found a ready instrument for tho exe- ery year in every church against the papacy. 

1 of his purpose in l^Trel, his master of Images, which Luther had tolerated as aids 

; that Tyrrel was despatched with a com- to devotion, and of which Craniner vindicated 

to receive the keys of tho tower for one a moderate use, became objects of dislike, and 

a^t, and that during that night ho watched were torn down in places where they had been 

without while one of his grooms, accompanied honored by pilgrimages and offi?rings. The 

If a notorious assassin, entered the sleeping room English Bible, with Erasmus's commentary cm 

tf the princes, stifled them both with feather tho gospels, was placed in every church for 

teds and pillows, and buried their bodies at the the use of the people. In tho first parliament 

ftKit of the staircase. The testimony of More is the statutes of Kichard II. and Henry IV. 

doMBst contemporaneous with tho event itself, against tho Lollards wero repeale<l, togetlier 

■d b confirmed by the honors which were cer- with all tho acts in matters of religicm pa-sed 

^maty conferred upon tho alleged murderers. In under Henry VIIL, except those directed acainst 

ft* reign of Charles II., when alterations were the papal supremacy. The uniformity of public 

" in the tower, there was found at the foot worship was established, uud all mimslcr^vcciXQ 



8 EDWARD VL EDWARD (va Black Pmai) 

c^JoiiMN] to DM onljr the book of omnmon pray- Undlordi. Thcro were Armies of imnrgent« in 
cr, |»iv|>arutl br tlio (iriinmlo Craiiuivr ftou )iU teverftl coantioH, bat tbo IftrgcAt and iiiunt tkh 
brvthrvu, whu-It, aAA.T varkms iiItiTatioiui io tlio lent wa« in CornwAll, where a tjurner naincd 
fviKniiof ElitthvCh, JauKHi I., and Cbark*« II., K«tt cocamjii'd nvar Norwich at tho hi*ad of 
contiuuc4 in oh* in tho Anglican church to thtf 20,000 men. He r«|>ulie<l tho maniuisi of Ni»rth» 
daj. The En^liMh clergy wcru ^niancifiati'd amiiton, but wa« at Wngtlt di*fcate<l and hangud 
from cowi'alnory cvUltacy, though it wan rvcom- wiih Uxa principal aflKociate^. Tbo pn»to«'tor had 
ui'Oiivd til thetu **to U«*eM>|iaratv from the b4»nd incurred odium bj what wait (eriiu'il his ftvhlo 
of niarri.i;^*, fi>r thvir own intimation, and that adiuini«lration during this rebellion, and alM> bjr 
tbvy mi^ht attend M»lely to th« niini>tration of his lavikh cxiienditures uixm his magnifier ot 
the gl>«I^.•l.'* Thero wi-re as yet no lYutv^tant palace of Somenn't house. Ho had wavorvd and 
nooronft»rmb4A« but all pir»ns were command- almost given sanction to tho demands uf tbo 
fd to attend public workliip under pain of ih> populace when thcv were in arms againi4. tho 
clesia!4ioal cen^un^ of 6 month** impriiionment royal authority ; and had bvcomu from a simpU 
tor the tir»t otfencv, 12 for tlio second, ami cim- knight with a slvndor fortune tho injivenur of 
finenK-iit lor lifi^or tlto third, lionner, bLthop more than 200 manon and parreUor Und in dif* 
of I»udoii, (laraitK'r, bi«>ho|> of Wim-heater, and fvrent parts of tlie kingdom. Tlie dl^iconteoted 
several otU-rt, wero deprived of their sei-H bo- lords, directed by Dudley, earl of Warwick, grad- 
canse tltiy ci>uld not keep |iaco with the reform- ually withdrew from court and met in Loodoa 
aiory m«>Vi:m«nt Tho fir-4 step toward reli- with bodies of tlieir retainers. Tlicprr»tector,aa 
giottB lilierty was a distinction, rvcognixAMl prac- toon as ho received intvlligenre of tln^ir move- 
tically though not by canon, between what were ment, took tho king with him io Windsor, and 
mp|ii»>v«i to be the euvntial and the unesm*ntial called by proclamatitm on all Ciithful suliji«(s to 
paru of i'hrUtiaiiiiy, and only offences againrt re|iair to him at Hampton court in arms for tho 
the fornu-r wvro liable to deadly iieniet*utioiu protection of tho royal iH'rbon against a conspi- 
Tha\ u«j Il'iuuftn Catholic suffertd death for re- racy. Multitudes of the common ficople, bat 
Ugiou in tliiA ni^rn ; but Joan HtMrher, comuMtnly scarcely a gentleman, obeyed his i^nmmona, and 
eallcd J> MH of KeiiU was burned for an uniutel- his i^uso was rendered de»i»enite when the cooo- 
ligible hir%-fty, which denied feumething, tluKigh cil declared against him. TIte king was obliged 
ber a on!- \ ainly MTu«rf:ivd to explain w liat, con- to sanction tho vote for hb depotiition, and he waa 
erruing e liruc. Von I'arris, a i Dutchman, was brought to London and incarcerate^i in tlie tow* 
also bunicd for detiving the divinitr of tho cr,<K:t. 14, 1549. Warwick diftiiembU*d fur the 
tsiavit#ur. .Vm«jng civj occurrences in tFi is nugn, moment his purpose conceniing tlK» priaoDcr, 
the fir»t of imjiortance, afler tlie settlement of and was obliged by hU |iobition, tliough a secrvt 
the p»%ernmeut, waa the exitediiitmof S>NH*n»et Catholic, to Sivor tlie cause of the reformation, 
into Si 41 olid tt>comi*el the nisrhago of Mary, and, though a rancorons enemy of Somerset 
the }i*ui^: iitK^n uf ^vots. to£«lward, according soon to sot tluU nobU'man free, and to give bia 
to a proMUA treaty. A bloiMly encounter, bo- own son in marriage to SomerMrt's danghter. 
irun U'.» ixn the S'«>ttl»hand fcjigliih cavalry at Wlion, liowever, Warwick had re«*cived the of- 
jalaiih-, ^s}•L If, 1547, wan c<intinue«i iIm^ next fice of bird high a«iniiral, liad l<een raised to the 
day UtMtwi the entin.* armii*!* at Tinkie, and dignityof dukeof Northuml»erluud, had twcuma 
CD«U.<«1 .11 the victor^' of tho Kngli«h protcctx»r. tlie uihiispnted chief of tlie government, and 
Ho wa^ however, ouickly called h*mie by hati annihilated tlie iMiwer of Smierni't, he waa 
niai)iii.sia*u^ againsit liim, the ><Hiug <|uet.'n of able to iirix*e\.Hl furtlR'r against that duke, who 
Bcvit* »a« »ent to Kntiice, and the war «a<% end- mas again coimnitted to the touer in 1551 lur 
ed «ith««it La\ ing effet-ti^ its ohJe«*t. Ili4 brtn treoMou and for feU»ny, wan coii\icled u|ioa tba 
thcr aijd ri^aJ, I.AinlS'T moor, «aA commit te«l to latter chan^*, and eie«*utetl n|H»n Tower hill, 
lhet«>wir, Feb. 25, 154!l.andal'iIlatLuiutinghim Jan. 2i, 15.'i2. Warwick next i^^'n^iiaded Ed- 
Was brn'U'ltt into tlie hf>u«o of h'VxU. This bill ward to make a Dew KttlenM'nt excluding bia 
was, by tiieuiliuencucif SiUMTwl, abo«aspn*f^ sifters from the su4x:ession to tin* throne, and 
cut in thi' ho<i.«o U> cn<-iiurage it, |'a»«i'<l unatii- giving llie faud nomination to Ijsdy Jane tinry, 
liMiu«ly mthin 3 liays ; and S-\m<'ur, «it)H»ut who bad bren his pla\ mate and 4*t>inpanion in 
baviiig h..il an o|*|MNiunity to defeh'l him<K*lf or studies, t'lilward »aiik ra|'idly alter tlii\ and 
oonfrticit h.« S4t-uvr% «a« Ite.Sewicd on Tuwer divd in the 16th year of hi« ag\* autl the Tlh of 
hill. Mari h *». l>^ring the bexi»uf!imer fonni- hi« reiim* Hw act-«impUihmentii wvrt* puth aa 
dable i:i^:irrvciiun4 bri'ke out in tarn'U* |»art*of to ftur]>ri»tf the fainoua Italian |ih\>irian Jeroina 
the kiri,;i!o::i. The deprt^iation of thcrurnncy Canlan, who vlMted hiui in lii« la^t ^i«-kncw; 
durm,; t^i U«t rtign l^ad U> n ft»!lomed by an ad- and for hi* diary and otlu r cotii|M*^iti«»n« Ih* i% in* 
van«v iti i.'if pricvirf o>mnuji!itit-«; at tht< saxno dudnl by WaJ|Ni]e in hi<» h^t «»f nnal atithor^ 
time 1 2 rt* dims fill fur laUir h^l U*en h«ihiu«^ Tlie literar> r\-niain% of K<1 ward VI.. i«ili ted with 
and i!* w !„-«« ndut-^^L The nrw uikiwr%uf ab^ bi«tiirical notiivi and a biograph(«*.-iI imnio-.r by 
tir} lai «i» i.^1 rruUned maxiT of tlie lieUU which John <ioU|:h Nithuls, wtre prtiilol in 1^*5)1, for 
Lad fvr7.i«r!i l<^ii ailott<>d fir the ri.*mnHin the Knxbiirgh club (2 %f«U., I^Hidoni. 
ttw t>f l}<v i^T uihahitants aiid th«.ir rapacity KI'WAKIi, i>rin«x* of Wa]i«, f^i;niamr«l tbo 
Waa i-urM|t.ir*<i w :ih tJie iiidul^-nc«.* of t^ie Ulack IVmfi*, frcm the nihtr of hi« ariiMT, rid- 
iavftk% w Lo Lad vfUu bvcD the UMjat kbiuit of cat sun of Edward UL and i'hdippa vf llaitiant^ 



EDWARDES 9 

bom at TToodstock, Jane 15, 1830, died Jane 8, appointed 8d assistant to the commissioners 
1376. la Ills 16th year he accompanied his of the Trans-Satlcj territory a few weeks later; 
&ih<rr in his inrauon of France, uid he held the and in Jan. 1847, was made first assistant to 
nominal command of tlie largt^ and most ac- Sir Henry Lawrence, the resident at Lahore, 
tirely engaged division of the English forces in and was charged with collecting the revenue in 
tbe battd of Crdcy, the king giving him this the N. W. part <^ the rui\}aab. The skill with 
cpportunity to ^* win his spurs." Among the which ho performed this difficult duty, and, 
^a in the battle was John of Luxemburg, king without resort to military measures, reduced the 
of I>ohemia, and his crest of 3 ostrich featliers. lawless tribes of that half subjugated country, 
with the motto Ich dien (I serve), was adopted at once drew the attention of the Indian authori- 
ty the prince of Wales, and has always been ties toward the young lieutenant; and his con- 
bome by his successors. Li 1356 he gdned the duct in the troubles which foUowed with the 
Tictory of Poitiers, in which the French King Sikh chieftain Lalla Moolr(\j soon made his name 
J<^ was taken prisoner. He returned to Eng- familiar in every part of England. In April, 
lud in 1357, the king of France on a splendidly 1848, Mooing stirred up a rebeUion of the Sikhs, 
e^wrisoned chariger forming the principal oma- fortified himself at llooltan, and, aided by the 
Dent of the cavalcade with which he entered native garrison of a small fort near there, mur- 
London. In 1861 the king of England united dered Lieut. Anderson of the Bombay fusileers 
iQ his dominions between the Loire and the and Mr. Vans Agnow of die Bengal civil service. 
FtpfOces into one principality, and bestowed it At this critical period it was probably the cour- 
cpoa the Black Prince, with the title of prince age and military knowledge of Lieut Edwardes 
of Aqnitonia. There Pedro the Cruel took ref- which saved tlie British power in the Puigaub. 
Qge from Castile, and young Edward undertook Leaving the town of Lcia on the Indus, where 
10 replace him on his throne. He marched he had been employed with a small force in col- 
throof^h the valley of Roncesvalles and by Pam- lecting the land tax, he summoned Col. Cortlandt^ 

2oaa to the frontiers of CosAle, met and commanding at Dera Ismail Khan, to come to 
ifeated Henry of Trastamare on the plains his assistance, called upon the friendly nabob 
InetweenXavarrete and Najera, was disappointed of Bahawalpoor to take the field, and having 
of the reimbursements which had been stipu- effected a Junction with Cortlandt, May 20, 
lated, and returned into Guienne with an ex- moved down the AV. bank of the Indus at the 
hansted treasory and a shattered constitution, head of 7,000 men. At the same time 10,000 
To defray the expenses of his court, perhaps of the enemy who had marched out to oppose 
the must magnificent in Europe, and to fulfil liis passage IV'cre compelled by the demoustra- 
his contracts with the troops that had followed tions of the Bahawalpoor troops to retreat 
Lim to Spain, he was obliged to impose taxes toward the Chenaub, whither Edwardes, hav- 
▼hich made him unpopular with his baruns. ing crossed the Indus on the 17th with a small 
Siaumuned in 1369 to answer before King b(xly of infantry, hastened to attack them, 
ChiHtrs of France to the complaints of his vas- leaving Cortlandt to follow as soon as boats 
taU, he replied that he would obey, but at the could be got for the passage of the rest. Mean- 
head of 00.000 men. IIo appeared in the field, whUo Mooing had defeated the nabob of Baha- 
but the French generals avoided an engagement walpoor, and Edwardes on reaching the scene 
aod garrisoned tlieir strong places. Helaidsiego of action had to withstand the onset of the 
to Lunoj-cas captured it and reduced it to ashes, whole Sikh army, 12,000 strong, including horse 
lad ma^>acn:d the inhabitants. This was the and artillery. After a hard-fought battle, mem- 
dose of Lis military career, and by the advice orablc for a gallant charge of the mounted Brit- 
of his physicians he returned to England, where ish officers ui>on the Sikh front, the insurgents 
he Lngcred for G years. The Black Prince is were routed by the opportune arrival of Col. 
portray e-l by contemporary writers as the mir- Cortlandt, and made their way to Mooltan. In 
ror of knighthood and the most heroic of princes, the subsequent siego of that city and its assault 
He was married to his cousin Joan, countess of after the arrival of Gen. Whish from I^ihore, 
Eent, faniel for her beauty, by whom he left the heroic young officer gained new laurels, but 
le foa, Kichard. who succeeded Edward III. lost his right hand by the accidental discharge 
I the throne of England. of a pistol For his services he received the 
EDWAKI>ES, LiECT. Col. Herbert Biwja- local rank of miyor in the Lahore territories, tho 
:,C. B.. an English soldier, born in Frodosley, East India company voted him an annuity of 
*:iire, in Jan. 1820, where his father was £100, the court of directors caused a gold medal 



netor of the parish. He studied at King's col- to be struck in his honor, and ho was raised by 
kfB; London, and having been nominated to a successive promotions to the rank of lieutenant- 
ship in the East India company's service, colonel. At the end ofthe war he visited England, 
ul for Calcutta, where he arrived in Jan. was married,was created by siKJcial statute an ex- 




tf fioodkce, Dec. 18 ; was actively engaged in appointed commissioner and sunerintendcnt at 
fta Tictory of Sobraon, Feb. 10, 1846; was Pesh^iwcr, aa oiUco which ho bIlII holds, Mlftt 



10 EDWARDS 

0»c <!i*.inninff t-f ili^ tr-v\j>i at tM< «f.i?ii»n <lMr- K^t knnwn work, llio •* ITi«torr, Civil ami r«»rii- 

iiik' thv "i j-i\ ri V i',? 4»f l-'7 ■*». !io I r^Tiiii/t-^l .in intp-i.il. of t!n» Hriti^h ('«'Itini»«» in i}\»' Wt -i In- 

rf i!ii' f:-*i.ritr-, nn ! w:i« ii.»:r.ly n.-Tnun* i.tjU uurk Ik.ip* » liitfli chfirrMTt-r, arnl j:i\r- \iry 

in |ri^ri.i«' t'n- r"!!i:;»?TiT:\i- traT.'iUilI'.'.y of iiiiTiUto uml vurutl iiif(»nn.ition. Ii w.i- ri- 

t!..it ;•..-.. I f:.l:.i t!.r- ■:/!.•• ;! tJ.i- ri!- !!i"ii. |>riiiti«il in Philm<K*l|i)tiii in 4 voN. Svo i I-m-:— V,). 

KI'WAiM***. !i S K. t> .;' Ii!.. liniLi^I t-'t a A r»t!i Ltlitii>n, with arontinntition t«i 17''f*>. «:l<« 

hv.\.i\\ i \!t:.: I V i!n- l.:v:i W.j.v), ri\.r; ari-a, i'«Mi-!rril in 5 %•••!%. Hvn. <I.omlon, l»^r.»v Mr. 

2'*t --,. i!i i ]•••'. .1. l*'!'!. l.'i."». Im-m r.KiTrik rI«l\vanU ritnnu'^l to Kii^lum!. ti-ik nj- !.i- n-i- 

ll>)u <.:*.•>!./ i'- r. *- nl- r. :i:.'! tl.i- Wj' a-!» t«»i:« Iu'H doriro m JVily^fin, nrar Southanjpt*. is, a:iil fn-m 

i! .Ill !? . N K I ' \- • :r! » .- 1* »-••':;■..! I y i.-rt-^t;* lTl"» till Li-* ili-ath rf|in*«ciitctl iLc borvu^h of 

atii] fi :".!■ I.')-! .' .' • .• ; n.'.i-. Iij >'■" ijj..-|-pi- (irrtnirHHin'I in {'arlianu-nt. 
il ;. ■: .: - >\.! ■ -jj;." 't ! •>.!■• I f I:.:i.»n lurn, KI'WAIiMS, (iCiiMiK, ''tho fiitlwr of orni- 

;.'».41J I - .•-, .1 .•! I.'* J ?•-••• <f l.!»y. Tlii r« t]ii>lotri!>t«s" Imihi in Siratfnril, K.^<>fX, F.n^.. April 

fivr- 11 .1..-.'..-, a:..l l."M pv; il- '.'ilUn'lii:!: 3, WM, «liiil JuW 2:i, ITT.i. Ilr wm ImMi^M 

|.';* I !■••«■ !:•-■.'. I ijvi .i'jM!y w:;-i:.iM«'*l inli'-ii'-r up t«> tnnlc, but lii^ tH.-t«r4 livin^: dovvli^i^c-fl l«jf 

«if N.:.: -n K-'.w-.r 1-. ^'.•\«.r:."r I'f liliNoL'* ti-rri- tlu* w-ru«al of work^ un natural Li^tury niA ao- 

tory 1 ij '.t\ A. *■:••!». tiipnlic^ At the t*K»«so of hi-i appr^-ntiit-^hip li« 

K!•^^ Al:! <*^. Uu \ I'tiTr*. [i IV, an Aiiu-riran travvlltil uliruail. vi^itin;; Ilolhuni, Norway, and 

Bntl: tr. pp-:'. --ic i:i tli-- A:.'l«»\« r tin- -l>>/ii*iil otIuT (•arts of Kiipipv, in proM-rutinj: hid faTur. 

H?M:.r»r_*. *-■.':* .fi N«i*l::i!:ip!ii:i. M;i— ., July 4, itt* rvM.-arrliO'i. The fniit of hi* hiln.r* apjH-ared 

1»»"J. .'.ji'! Ill <...--^'.v. A; r:'. *J". \<>2. llfua^ in his •'Natural History of unfoiiini«>n innl% 

irra<!w..:«'l li*. A:.i!j>r-'c r>>li< .'•■ iii I'^JI. t- tilt riil ami i>f houu' rart* anil umU'^'nUtl AnimalV* (4 

Ihr ■*:ir.i:ir\ :»! Ai;'! -\.r J!i l-'J'". in l**J'i wart Vol^ 4to., lAinilon, 174.J, '47, '5o, anil '.M • ; lo 

ftpi-'.i.:' '1 !..!.r a! Aiiil.'T"!. in l-J** tt;i-ih"^n mhiili 3 «n«rc volumes wcfi- acldi'd in 17."»-, *Ci\ 

a*-.-!.ir.: -M . '1 ! .ry if tin- A*n- rn un olni^Tinn ami *»H, cilUfl ^liUnnini!^ of Natural lli-t.'ry.'' 

f-" ii !;. . ui.'l p- rf- irriii -1 t!.t; i! ;ii<<* of lhi'« oiVi'-v Thi< c-xrif«linjrly valuaMi* w<trk ri'iitaint'^I na- 

t.!l 1- :i. 11.- ' "i r.iry :i:..l i<!i!.ri:il I.i^kip* wtn* iiKroiin platir*. with iK!**'ri;»liiin- in Friinh aiifl 

y\r\ L-r^^it u'.i'l i'. ;■ ■.-!;!!.:. Tro?.'! I'^L'-'to I'^l'i En^ili-h of ovi-r f'*^* Mihjtrt-*; in it-* ori^nal 

!.«• «'l.!t.l :>.• " A'jii ri- .i:i <;iirt. r!y lU-ji-t. r/' fi>rni it i-* vi-ry M^anv, hnl M.-vtr;il pnrti.tl c*Ji- 

fihii!.. "J* i'» !?:■■ iir«: .\iti', h:iil 1-iriii.' :!.o n.iino tit-n*, a!«ri<Icinviit4, A*-., havi« \-wt, p'iMi*hi<L 

of !!.f ■•V^»:..rt. r]\ J..:n..il nf ilic Aiu' ri- .in Elu- Mr. E*l»ar»!-i h-ft a »-%»rk t-ntillnl " K.^iiM-btaof 

ra:; -n >•"..!;.." I:i l-.i'l he t •T.iMt'In.'J t!jo Fi»^'«:l»»l"irv." whirli aji|'«-firc«l in 1«7»«. 
**A\.. r: 11 iij:ir*ir!> O!-^ rvir," x% !.i. !i, :il>er KWWAHI»S,.Ioiin. I».l>.,a«li\ ini-ofthvchnrrh 

3 \"'. .'M. -, u .L- w:.!t. -1 \* i*.h t!ic " Tu! lual lli»- of Kn;rlaip!. l-orn in llirtfi»n!, K«h. 2««, lii *7. tli«il 

!*»-.! ■%■' i-!" iV'-r". I:'*>j--!i. w!i. !i ht; olitfil in I'.inihritik^, April Iti. 171'». lU-u:L*^Tai!aatt'<l 

!r.«::i 1- ■'• r»i > •^. !»:' t!.r *■ 15 :*■)•.• h. "i S.ura" at r.iml-ri'Lv in It'.ril, and kwhi atVrManl t«<ik 

hv u k- •.■•..•.! '■.rrr-'r:i 1«»14 ! ■ 1**J. In l** Clm rh:ir^« of Trinity rliurrh in C'.inihrulu***, t!j«-nce 

U.1- ji! '•■:'.'■ M jir'f- "^--r of ll'!riw in tf.i *• nii^ rtnio^«-«l Mi«'ii'>*i\ilv In Wnrv St. Ktlnii;D(l\ 

mr.^ ./. A;. I"^- r: .n.l i:i 1»* J •«•>:;■ n — rt-i I'rof. |m C-l-'ht-trr. anil oaik «i;:iin t.i C.-unhndirP. 

hr'.rt .:» !'.«■• !:.k.r i'f li'-Ii. i! li?.ri:.ri'. wliU'h In ir.-.i-.i hi- w:i'4 ni.i<K* «l<H'ti>r of dlviiat} : and 

o??:- •■ l.«h« 1 !: !! h:oit>:i!h. K'r 2 i jki.ir- i. •.■'«' i!»»r- fp-in thi* linn* he Ui-:inii' a loluininoiH writer, 

iii!(:.!i''l iiJi :!:.pT\*:.: j-irt i-f «■'..- j-* ri'^iii .il hlinuiiip; hini^-lfa Mihtii* anil aMf i«>lt.tiii<*. and 

liUrat ;r. , ;i:.i!. \\\'.\t t'.f m-I i »:"•■: ?»tr*, pp-l in-*] lh'-ri»u;:J.!y IiTm,'*! iri o i-h-i.i'^tii :il hi-ri-ry. He 

r>l i- :.i^'> \'i :!:;•". i.".<-".u:. !•*.!<• I f hi- ii.i!'>:ry, ti :i^ •>«» iliii>li^l a l*:il^iiii*»t t!.:il lu- ha* l^-«a 

Itnr: : /. !,i-'.'. .i'. I t..I. :.'-. Ih :il-*i r- j ;ir. lll^o tti.l* •! "tin.- Vm\ tlir AufiMim-. th*- 1* railway 

•' v.- !«^ :. II' .i!ir." "Io-vT;*! !.* "f >• if-!a*:jht i[\u%-. m\*\ tht» l'.i!\in of hi-« zO'."' anl ••Jirh wa« 

li|. ii." a". ■! •'.»••■ M;--;- II .r} li:u'i 'T. . r." A *^'- hi-* u'-hiTr- ii--*' t-f Annii.iiuiiTU lh.it hi» rii|»- 

!*• !;'in 'i i..i ** r* :«■■:.-. !■ . •■:ri -, :ir..l ;n!'!ri -•« *, i, i.i'.i il, witli tin* ol^l rurit.iTiN that it ».i**lo^'ly 

l»;:Ji a r:». • ;■ r \\ I'ri.f. P.irk J \il-. I'Jinu.V, i •nin-. ti.il \i ith irfij-Tv. lli- pi:Mi«hol nufftui 

W;." ; ' -■•! J'i !'••*••. •!! -.n 1^*' r w. r*- \* r\ ii'irni rou-. and tlji-y rvir.if f\tt'n«ir« 

l!I»W M:!'**. !'.»! ^ '....•:!*• /"..-Mi •t'T:.ir..K'm hariiin;:, d. ■ p tl.iiii^rhl, *iij» nl n a^-nin,:. and 

\r. \V. • .r;. \^ .'.•••..r-, M .* Vt. !7i .. iIm! i J.t c\!r:iiriiin.iry :*a\ f-.r w li.it iiri» Lin-wn it* thm 

1*. l--' A'*r.i ;■- r,:i,» A /I*--! Kn^vi^h I !•:■•.>• i!. i. 'ri::' * of ;:r:iri«. The in-'^t i!ii|«*r!4::* of hia 

I. •■. %• !::. '■ 1, i." • '..i/r..:. 'I !■■ .ri:;ii;- .i I'. IT*'*, wi.rk-i iir.- '* r»rif.ii /.•../•ij. ur K\.iii/» li- a! Trctbi 

»'.r .r ;. '.'i '■/*•.■ I..': !ii. • ... i:*-*! :' n::!- Ili-tor. ■! ."' *• Ir.'i'.iiry iiiT-i f»::r rt tiiirkal^e 

{!■!.:./ .'. . -•.:■% .v.! : r :»!'y r::i-!- \.\r.\ hii T. x*-;" " Pi*«-.»*:r«H.' ruin i ri.iii^- 'Jk^ A^stJ.i-r.tjr, 

.' r. !!• '- .•:.. .1 :••■• :. \: e .■ i *.r .f the Sr>'..-. ar.-l I'« rf. i n-.n if th.- ]^*'\'* of tlif o!d 

r ! r.. .! .-. '^.v.-l ; -.*.-*.. 1 :ri IT"! n p.v.> mpI Srw Ti ^taiLtu!-* ," *" S'lrv. > if t!.« ►. vrral 

I "•.! •..■*.•..•■•.?■■•.-•:. • ■. !...l \. ;•«■•.. r: ••■.. :.t li>'.« rj-.iri.-r.-* if !!• '.i/":i ;*' "An*»ir !.« I*r. 

!••. v.- !:i; '.:«..:.!*.. \V..! It, 1.. * a: '! !!.•• Wl.irhi- K:v.« !•».■.:»!".;'* " Ar.lniu-Iv.r^i.-:.* tifi 

I !.!. 1 *" i" - II.- ..iVrwir-! w.r-.r •... >r. !».»■ I»r. <';'irl.''.SripT::r.' I»»»lr.!:i'of !:..• Tr.: .!« ;■• 

rr. ■ j^.. 1 .1 ■'!. ■ '..1 :. *r. r. .U f r h- - H-r-r- •• Aa* -y* » /.''/'"-'vif.! t?..- ll--!y .j*.i Si:S»! 



■ hi' !. H .• : ." ".''.t.! -.I'-. !•'.*. r:, IT'.'TV : Ji I a.-:..'i-*. t!i'' S-Miniin', imd a la-l i...Uil'\r uf 



JONATHAN EDWARDS 11 

EDTTARDS, Jokathan, an American divine since yon last heard ; five now stand proponnded 

nd metaphysician, horn at East Windsor, in for admission ; and I think ahovo SO persons 

the colony of Connecticut, Oct. 6, 1703, died at come commonly a Mondays to converse with 

Princeton, N. J., March 22, 1758. He was the father ahout the condition of their souls." To 

first of the sons of Connecticut, the greatest the power of analysis, Edwards, like *•'' the great 

theologian of his century, and the ablest meta- master of those who know," ilmafstro di color 

j^Tsician of the period between Leibnitz and eA««an72o, added the power of observation; and 

Kant. Thomas Chalmers of Scotland gave him when 12 years old, he sent to a European cor- 

tSiepalm over Hume, and added: *^ On the arena respondent of his father an account '^ of the 

of metaphysics Jonathan Edwards stood the wondrous way of the working of the spider" in 

highest of all his contemporaries. The Ameri- the forest, whose habits he had watched, as it 

can divine affords, perhaps, the most wondrous seemingly ^' tacked its almost imperceptible 

example in modern times of one who stood gift- web to the vault of the heavens," and, swayed 

•d both in natural and in spiritual discernment." by the west wind^ moved through the air to- 

Sr James Mackintosh says : ^^ This remarkable ward the ocean. With proper opportunities ho 

man, the metaphysician of America, was formed would like Aristotle have become a great 

among the Calvinists of New England. His natural philosopher. In Sept. 1716, he entered 

power of subtile argument, perhaps unmatched, Yale college. His fellow collegians, only 80 in 

certMnlv unsurpassed among men, was joined number, dwelt not together, but scattered in 

with a character which raised his piety to iervor. clusters among several villages; Edwards for 

That most extraordinary man in a metaphysical the most part at Wethersfield. He gained a 

ase or country would certainly have been deem- good name for " his carriage and his learning ;" 

cd as much the boast of America as his great but in his scanty opportunities the range of 

eonntryman, Franklin." Robert Hallos testi- his learning was very limited. He knew little 

mony is : '^ Jonathan Edwards ranks with the of classic literature ; the best impulse to his 

brightest luminaries of the Christian church, mind was given by Locke's *^ Essay on the 

not excluding any country or any age." Du- Human Understanding," which he read with "a 

nld Stewart says : '* One metaphysician of far higher pleasure than the most greedy miser 

America, in logical acuteness and subtilty, does finds, when gathering up handftils of silver and 

not yield to any disputant bred in the universi- gold from some newly discovered treasure." 

ties of Europe." He was an only son; with 10 But he was quickened, not subdued or mastered, 

staters, -4 of whom were older than himself. His by Locke's system, of which the perusal only 

own father and his mother's father were eminent roused his own faculties to speculative activ- 

rainiaters ; he sprung directly from John War- ity and creative reflection. His nature was 

ham, the west of England minister who reached inclined to that system which in Europe had 

America a week or two before Winthrop, set- found its representatives in Malebranrhe and 

tied first in Dorchester, and then with a part l-icibnitz; and in some way or other, probably 

of his flciok removed to Windsor. The father from citations, sometliing of Plato's theory of 

of yonnj^ Edwards was distinguished in his day ideas, and something of the doctrine of Cud- 

forhiskuowkxlgeof Hebrew, Greek, and Latin; worth's "Intellectual System," infused them- 

his mother was a woman of an excellent mind, selves into his youthful reflections. At this early 

well cultivated, fond of reading, and of ardent period, when about 15, he, in opposition to Locke, 

piety. He was trained by his father and his denied tlio possibility of adding to matter tho 

dder sifters for college and to habits of careful property of thought; and held that "every thing 

ttody and analysis. The community in which did exist from all eternity in uncreated idea;" 

heDveil was "remarkably favored by revivals that "spirit or mind is consciousness and what 

of religion ;" and before he was 10 he was much is included in consciousness;" that "truth is 

••eoncenied for his souFs salvation," abounded the agreement of our ideas with the ideas of 

hreliginus duties, prayed five times a day in se- God;" that "nothing has a proper being but 




the woods. But the boy did not obtain nowhere but in the divine mind." His spccu- 
of mind ; his childhood was troubled lations have sometimes a startling re8eni])lanoo 
"•with many exercising thoughts and inward to those of Spinoza. The latter names thouglit 
itniggles;*'' and the doctrine of GckVs sovereign- ami extension as the attributes of God, and 
tj in choosing w^hom ho would to eternal lifo ascribes being to God alone ; Edwards, the col- 
ad rejecting whom he pleased, used to appear legian, to whom God was Intelliffenco itself, 
tohim like a horrible doctrine. At 10 years wrote also that "space is God." In one of liis 
M he wrote a paper ridiculing the idea that tho latest works he says of God : " Ho is all and 
tool is material. At 12 he described in a letter to alone ;" " the inflnite, universal, all-comprehend- 
a absent sister " a very remarkable outpouring ing entity." In his youth, at 15 or 1*), he said : 
if the ^irit of God " in his native place. " It "God and real existence are the same; (Jod is, and 
rtiD continues," ho says, " but I have reason to there is none else." Spinoza retained till he \va8 
ttink it is in some measure diminished ; yet I past 40 the so-called Arminian theory of the 
kope not much. Three have joined the church wiJi. and did not adopt that whkli harmomLV^ft 



12 



JOKATILVN EDWARDS 



>- Ii'K'l i-f I'l -• :irTt *. \"i'lTiiiri- in lii"* iMrlv iiuiJi- 

■ 

I.'mmJ t:i^;:)it M:tii:tlli<- i!il t ')i:'ilt id tlir AniMIiirUi 
\HW. t)i'>Mi:^ :irti r 4" ii:ir^«'f* I'urtlsi r t \|n ri- 
rr.if :.ril n lli« t.'.!i hi- n— * rtii! rJu* • tlii-r llimrv. 
ri'f.fi — jr.;: I .ii:t!i'!!\ «•!" liim-H-'.t . "Thf i^inTaril 
|,l,!l..-4.j.| I r w ?.■■ »:.»> rt-:i»..i.- i!i«\v, Im* inT :il- 
l%j4i- U. !i .■!" tJ.> wti\ «■!' l!ii!:kiiij." UmT K«1- 

■ 

w.ir«!«. w •■ !• II 1 i'II«v':»»'> "f 1*' 'T 1**'. fir^^i»'l "'it 
f .r !.!ii.-H If ! .-Ttiii-ri ■■! il.r w I'.l. :iiii! ln-tliri-ry 
tif\ir:i:i M 1- ;i!-i?!.ll\ l>>riiit it :iii<I ili r!:tri •! itiiil 
%i r;**' II •!'■« II I'l wi-rl* iUn- tl.iii/ iiii-n- w a-* 
%iriril:i „•! ■ -!,ipt 111- . .i^r--. !!•' inilliln! !i:i:,- 
H If •>:.!! :iT..'-: j thi* ui-n t'« »n rat*- ; l-'H :ir*T :iii 
VAv.t •* ill hi* I.j-i >• 'ir i!i t ..;ii ;,•. . u !ii h ii'it It t 17. 
|i.«u i.r \} ys !i,il in ;i!.«« !.».• rmiM in\i r X* II. " M-* 

|«ri«t « ••III :. :."S.««'" WiTi- I'ViTiiilin'. lilHi In- }i.-A 
ii'» iiH-ri- ilo'i!.'* «f ■■ I ii~r* iil»'-»!»:ti" '••i\i ri i:ri.t_v 
b!:') i«.-:ii>' Uit!i ri«|MiT !•■ «.'U\:iTl<Ii lilui iLilii- 
I.:i!l »li." Ni'W !:r lnnl I'-UImI llu- I'Mr|-»M« i-f I,m 
1;*". , J.I* ^]•• • ii!:i!!Vi' M|>iiii>>n« :iii«l It > ri 1 :.'!•■•!* 
f tiT!i M • r» M'l i!'i r:iM\ f< •rim i!. IIi* {i:ii1 im !• "i* 
Ui.ii I.'H ki' :i fi.-iMi-iTixii l>i »)iiiw tlif Ii:irM]i>iiy 
lM!i»iiti r»ri»-«*i iiiiil Ti Ii,ri««n. tlir fai'iiliu* nf 
li..i?i :.'.■! !!n- »l"jJM;i- ««f ll.i- tnii' f.iitJi , l-nt Ir»iiii 
ll.i l!r-: ?.• n J- .!i *\ tin- in.iti ri.il:*! |'li:!«-»«'pliy ; 
a::'i w! .!•• In- l.iiir « ;iii:r l«'rw;ir«1 a* llu* i \- 

j'Ti -^ '-a!.!!.! ■■!' I.«H Li-, it Ih-< aliif fr«'!n Iji* 

iar!\ \';??i!l ';■ • ! «'f lii«» i :irtli!_v rarit r t-i 

< ■•:■!' :i? »!. I- r. -ill!* i'l' I.^t ki*'-* |Oii!<-*>«i|>liv iii it* 
ft|'|-',ii .ii;>-ii !<• iln- *i>nrri-'* •■!' Lii-iu !• •li.'i-, tin* 

H ii-Iti'i- I'f lr.i'r:i!'-. :i!.-l llii "I-'/V . tViiIll lIii-« 
Iii«'riii I.! ••i'«!"«« fi '*••'...!«■ •••ivi r*i/iit_v l>i I aiiii- !•• 
Iiini n <!•!..'!.!!■, I i •••i\ ii Th'ii - tin- (Imi tnitr i \- 
c»f*i!!;:l* }■!..»•. ill! ai.'l Irii'ht. A- If n inl ul" 
l!.o Ki!i/ I'lr! il. iTiiiiiMr!iiI. Rfjil iii\ i«i''li'. ii 

III W ■-.!-•- i.| !!.•• ;;!i'r_l I'f tl.i- I'llli"- I'm ii.j 

ma»<ii!t'>i •'. !*,ri :;i:!j ft.«*i>iil III- !• rij»«l t-i Ju- 
r.i;t '.:ji :.i J ,!■! iri l.i.i\i:i. IIi- r^ j'1 av-l m* •!{- 
t;>% «i • ! t! . ' i : ■.?* t»r .1 I \i • !:i :.. \ i.f tl-i- pi r- 
H-ri i-f t '.r.-T ii:.i! !*n- l'>«i-!>i:>-« i>t *:iji :i!ii'ii Kv 
l.i^ !ri • ^T'si* III t!i'- ««• lil. I'l A I jiiiii a'«-tr:ii-- 
t'.-ri tr- r.i t',- i..:..irT:-i « 1' Tfi-i Wi rl-i. Ii- 
^. irt.i-.! •.! U- Ml ti.i iiiiiijii*.i!i.'. Tir Irt'Tii !:i:i?i 
k:.'!. ■ ' r.\i r-.:ij w •): ( Iri-t 11* -• • *•■ *'i *\\- 
\ :.*' t!. .!.,:• «■•■ !•! >•*** !: ■•!' n •^pIi!- ij k'.icl!i- up 
"a^wnt ' .;i..'.: i:i !i:* !.. irT " M- .:.i\i' ;i!i 
II' ••■ ::.*. ft !..- • \|« r-. in •■ tn la- f.*.!!.- r. af.-l U-- 
ra."» a fii 'ri^H r I'f !l •• \ i*i'-!i- I i.'iri h Ni-w. 
a.» *.. u;."k.'1 .:» a •-•■., ?.ir_% ]•' n «■ iii I :• f.i*! i r'* 
|M-* i'' . !.- -..-.* r' ■■ ..■■■r;.-;- i:.r.-'v ar.il :'r»i«- 
f>f 1 t^i 'J I . .• 1 * < ■'. „•■■•!•■ iv.a 'I •?*. 'rr :•"■!;■ • 
r.i • '».:.• •• .. I .■': „■ ■! /'• .i' :ir.'! ;.. '.\ ;•• '.'"i 
I.' ■ » I • ' '.I ■ 'r . :.; j-. .»r.i:.- 1- M' i *• ry tV ■ ^• 
» ."• .!'••• • •;.-.■ M ..• :i- .• w.r.-. ;i I .liiM. 
• » ' • • ■ . ■• ■ •■ ■ ■ > ;T r • • if ill". '..■ .■'■•r» :': 
r ■ • ■ " I . I • 1 ' ■ ' • I ■ i ." * 1 ^ ■•'!.• ^ ..'..■■ w * 
«? ■ J • ; ■ • ^ .■■!!■■• *■■:•■!• I :i' ■■• ;r 

I I 

il' • . • ■ . • I? ! -Vi'- 11 ! •• • I- 'il* .4:.'! 

} ' , m . \ ;•. ' ^" i" ',' • 'A ■ '• ''iiw^ ;•; ^|.- 

» .!• - .' -l .; : .' I 11. ■ . •». !. «.*. -1 ".• - ! 

■ ■ < . • .• • , ■ • .' 1 '..■ • ' ■■ . •••■■••• 

t\.»} *;■* : • ■ ' ■ •■ 1 \ . ^* r / ?*,• i !■ ..!^ :, •! 

*» . •■• ' ' . ■.?••. v.. - A. . • /■ :* . ? Il •! 



Wrtfi h tlin tlinniltritnnn. and while iliu* rn- 
piL'(*I.tir will II walkiiii: iilom* in •Military |iliir«P4 
fun Mii\i-rM' u \\\t (iih), it filunv4 M-miwl nntorftl 
f(ir liiiit tn chiMiX fiirtli hi-i iii«-<liliiti<>ii<«. or to 
■>|H-:tk lii* thftiL'lif^ in *>*>liIiH|uii'4 w'nh n Mn^nit 
\i»in'. IIo w:i* o^iti-tif*! ••fill'* pMMl t-*tutc. bat 
lif lMii;:iil M» \i-liciiuiitly f**r umrv }iiiiin("-4, thftt 
III* mm]1 wa* l-rtaLiii;! f"r i!<* lunL'itiL'. TraTer 
uii« n* nnlurnl tn him jv^ th«* hn'atli nliirh rr- 
lifvril lilt iiiwnril tiiiritiiii:'i. M'ith ^ml nnitnAt- 
iii;.' ni.<l rt-fn-liin^' iMik'ht, he naw ttir rhTine 

r.XriHiIKv itf tliO tliillk''* «'f (hmI. and tAi4(Ml 

tlirir •••'»l-»'ati-fyiMtf an<l lifi'-^'ivimr j?tii«4l. — For 
tuii \4 ;ir*i aftiT ht- tiNik lii** tli-;:r«*«* hr ri-nminrd 
in N\-\« Ilavi II U-* i\ »tiii!iiit fi^r thi- inini^tiT'; 
HI 111 in Ant'. 17-2. l^f-iri- hv wan ly yoart of 
n'jt\ hv wa«i ••rlrrtiil tn nphiiM. a-* a prcarher, 
tiirrMii»«- of <'alviiii*rii in u l*n"«hvtt'ri.iii I'harrh 

■ 

in till" f ilv iif Nrw Yi«rk, Ili-ri- ho ri'nmizird 6 
iiiiinth;*. iiKTi a^iri:; all tin* tiriu' in hi;* m-Hmt of 
fliviiu' (hill;**. Ili-avt-n apjH-arcil ti> hiin ai A 
wi-rM I if l«ivi' : hi ill Hi •"• iiH ri»vi*hinely IuvcIt— 
ni!ivint< liiatity, nf a i lianiiin;; MTtiir natare, 
l>riii:;in;; pMriTy, liri;rlitnr^«. and |i^ainv lie 
wiii:!<l fftiri- intn a Military phin* nn th«* iMUikc 
f>f till- IIiiil*'in ri\i r fur mntiniplntiiin nfiliriiM 
tliin/-, hanu'iii;: a tlioMu'lit mi i-vrry thorn. Life 
in till- (oiniiKTi'i.'il i-ity rnlark'til hi*) !*yni|*atbie^ 
ami nn ll.i* arrival nf a *<hip " hii nuiI «-ai?t*riy 
«-ati lull at aiiv tH-w* fa^nrahlo to tht* intrrMt 
uimI a«]vaiii'i-iiii lit nf I'liri^t'** kiiiLr«lniii." Here, 
nil Jan. I 'J. 1T'.*M. Ill- iiiaili* aiit w a ^•l^■nln (Mi- 
I'atinii **( h:iii*4 It tnCiiNl. Ml- n riinim-il in New 
Ynrk ]n|};r iii.'ii:;|i tn karn tn Invi* the |iUre 
"uiiiTi- h«- liiiil iiniif nthiT than «ur«'t and 
|*!ia">.iiit ila't*." and «hi-ii. in A]»ril. 17:23, Im 
r« Turin il lioiiii*. Ill** partiiiLT Imnr " wn« mciiC 
1-iTTir." hi* In art *m-i nu-tl !<• ■'ink within him, 

nil'l a* In- o.iiliil au a\ In- kt pt oi;;}!! nf tll^ cHj 
a« I"r>«' a* In in'.i'.il. At l.i* fatlur'^ hnuntf ia 
Km*: \Vii.-l*«.r }ii- I ■•:!? iiiiii il Iii« m \it«- antl iinr^ 
iii^Mih^ »Tii'!i. *, iiijiii' with the- fKii III hand. 
ill ri . ti'«). lit- t':iii>)n*il a »4-ri«^ nf 7h rrMi!iitioii\ 
Hi"** Itf wl.iih ho urnTi* in Niw Ynrk. He 
lii:i!.Mv ii-triatii} (nxl hv hi** irraiv tn rnabls 
li III ti> ki • {I thtiii ail : !•! ai't alwai^ fnr tiM 
::|nri *•{ (n-I. fi>r tin- cinnI nf luankiiiil in ■««• 

i-r.i! Tn ! r>>! nin- iMnim-rit «<f tinu-; ttt livs 

uit!i a!! }:>* n i.'lit mIimi- l.i- did li\t-. !.• ht Xhm 
klin\« |i .l.'i- ..f :)..' t.iililii:* nf n»lnr* nnly ^ipt^ 
iiii''i- -!..»::■•■ !!i I.^T:.-i !t . ?n *i'I\t- a* f.tr a* Im 
■ ••■-.:>1 aii> rl.ii-rif'i Ml lii^i'iify .^i* iii-.'K: think 
'■! . !■• !r.iii- ;ii •.■!:;- ' .\* k tn thi ir i-ri^'iii.ii Miiirr*; 
1.. >■.- lirir.lv !.i.r)i!'-.'i T • }|.« !r:i-t . !•• l.w a» Im 
M< ■:!■! I* It ui r> f 'it :kii l.o'ir li ti-ri- I.r •ht«ld 
l.i ir t!i ! !■? tr'.!':;. t-* *!ri\i' iht\ wnLto 

a ' ."? ' - .>i"l V ' ^' "'''* ' ' ** '' "•' "t ;►*'«'■•* . "tn 
li • p I '■■ :. .'u M^j" • T. ar.'I !•• 1- 1 tJn ri- \h- •» 



!>.. 



.• ». 



r . \ 



'• :i< I \u ;.!! )i • ^{t I • i, " AU'Und- 

!!■/ •; -I • : -i", :iJ:d li.I» ' '^ ^. t.'.i- T.HlPi: ** •©• 

rip' • i:«" !'-r " ••! T'-i./ri /:iV..T.aii-!ii rbt ri^htn 
I •• ! • ;■« ] ki tV ^ I ! :\ • • ii ri -.*. nf }in)itit<««aad 

•■ k ' r'. : / !'-\. ti- lii'd ' Ir w .1* a'*'' aniiiifoft 
!.. ■■ \ t.. *i.-\ •: :\.\\ -?;itr i-f f.lin — nf J€iy 
«■■:- :• .":- 1 » .1-. I T.!%. I .till. ai'.d«ii h/J.I?"iil h»*fL 
"li>.->» '>v%i<.;:«. " ^al•i l.i', *' w lil inutuiU luvcfV 



JONATHAN EDWARDS 13 

loin together to sing the praises of God and tho possessed of so mnch intellectual cnltnre. It 
Lunb/' He heard of the wondroos virtues of was the shire town of a very large county; the 
ftchildof about 14, and noted them down in this most populous, richest, and happiest town in 
wise : *" They say there is a young Iwly in New western Massachusetts. Hardly was the young 
Haren who is beloved of that Great Being who divine settled witli a competent salary, than tlie 
made and rules the world, and that there are thought ofSarahPierrepontjoined itself with his 
ctitun seasons in which this Great Being in studies and his devotions. '^Patience,^'8aidheto 
Kxne way or other comes to her and tills her her in one of his lovo letters, pleading fur an im- 
mind with exceeding sweet delight, and that she mediate union, *^ patience is commonly esteemed 
hardly cares for any thing, except to meditate on a virtue, but in this case I think I may almost 
him ; that she expects after a while to be re- regard it as a vice/' She listened to his urgency, 
eeived np where he is, to be raised up out of and on July 28, about 5 months after he was 
the world and caught up into heaven; being settled, tho youthful preacher was joined in 
adored that he loves her too well to let her re- wedlock at New Haven with the wonderfully 
main at a distance from him always. There she endowed bride of his choice. She was pure and 
k to dwell with him and to be ravished with kind, and uncommonly beautiful and affection- 
his love and delight for ever. Therefore, if you ate, and notable as a housekeeper ; ho holy, 
present all the world before her, with the rich- and learned, and eloquent, and undoubtedly 
est of its treasures, she disregards it, and cares tho ablest young preacher of his time ; siio 
not for it, and is unmindful of any path of aiflic- 17, he 23. What was wanting to their happi- 
tioQ. She has a singular purity in her afiec- ness? The union continued for more than 30 
tions ; is most just and conscientious in all her years ; and she bore him 3 sons and 8 daughters. 
conduct and you could not persuade her to do In Feb. 1729, the senior pastor died at the good 
any thing wrong or sinful if you would give her age of 85, and the young minister of 26 was left 
in' this world, lest she should offend this Great with tho sole care of tlie town. Notwithstand- 
Reing. She is of a wonderful sweetness, calm- ing a weakly and infinn constitution, his zeal and 
&e«A. and universal benevolence, especially after industry were equal to every duty. His wife 
this Great God has manifested himself to her spared no pains to conform to his inclinations, 
mind. She will sometimes go about from place and ministered cheerfully to his comfort, as her 
to plare, singing sweetly, and seems to be al- greatest glory and best service to God and her 
wayAfoilof joy and pleasure, and no one knows generation. She was a good manager; and 
for vliiit. She loves to be alone, walking in he carried into the business of life the samo 
the fields and groves, and seems to have somo thorough exactness which marked his researches. 
one inYi>ible always conversing with her.'' Yet ho kept himself as free as possible from 
TLLs younii lady was Sarah Pierropont, daugh- worldly cares, giving himself wholly to tho 
Uz of a minister, and like Jonathan Edwards work of the ministry ; rose early, and employed 
having ministers for her ancestors, among them himself in study all day long. He made no 
Thomas Hooker, one of the best of men ; one visits unless sent for by the sick or the sorrow- 
wiio fiCed his earthly career with great deeds, ing; but encouraged persons under religious im- 
•nd left a free and imperishable commonwealth pressions to come to consult him on the state of 
fti his monument. In Sept. 1723, having re- theirsouls,and they were sure of easy access and 
eeived at Now Haven his degree of master of tenderness. The little exercise which ho took con- 
iztj; several congregations invited Edwards sisted in solitary walking or in rides on horse- 
to h« their minister; but he declined every pro- back among tho lonely woods; but his mind 
pQsaL reserving 2 years more for study. In was in full action all the time he was abroad, 
Jime, 1724, he entered on the office of tutor in and he would return richly laden with thoughts. 
Tile college : and he and his colleagues are re- His fame spread more and more widely. In 
membered as " its pillar-tutors and glory ;'' all July, 1731, he was prevailed upon, notwithstand- 
the while practising ascetic abstinence, not of ing " his youth and modesty,-' to preach the 
hod only, but of sleep, for the sake of closer dili- Thursday lecture in Boston ; and " divers min- 
gnce. In the suumier of 1726 he received an isters" found him to be a workman that need 
Bigentinvitatioutobecomethepastor of North- not be ashamed before his brethren; printed 
npton. as the colleague of his grandfather, his sermon ; approved his teaching " evangelical 
fiokmoD Stoddard; and on Feb. 15, 1727, in tho principles to the churches notwithstanding all 
Hth year of his age, he was introduced to his their degeneracies ;'' and " heartily rejoiced in 
I oAee. Every omen promised usefulness, honor, the special favor of Providence in bestowing 
I ad happiness. His residence was in tho most such a rich gift on the happy church of North- 
keantiful town of New England, where no one ampton." Ho gradually obtained universally 
MB live without imbibing love for tho place, tho character of a good preacher, beyond nny 
The inhabitants were all, even those who were ono of his times ; writing out his thoughts with 
■edianics, engaged in agriculture. The rich soil care, but uttering himself fluently and freely, 
teemed witli abundance ; the people were none in words full of ideas, without regard to his 
if tbcm wealthy, but all enjoyed plenty, and tho notes ; above all, adding to his closo reasoning 
flommaxiity was affluent. The scenery is as and great acquaintance with divinity an inward 
iheerful as it is beautiful, propitious to mental sense of true experimental religion. His o\vn 
lity, and there was scarcely another village experience and his rare powers of o\)a<irvQL\AOU 



14 JOXATIIAN EDWARDS 

pivc him ^ofit inNi{;}it intn tho Iitimnn limrt^ of nlipon ; lii^ pro<]occ«nr had had fire har^ 

nit'l ).t> kilt w i»h»t w<L<« ill man. Imth in Miicit \iM.'s lint tho h.arvi'<tt uf thin year mnil tho nrit 

bii'l o'.nhi r. II;-« vnii-i', ihMti^'h n«*t >tn>rk'. wa4 i-X(v«-«li«tl cvi-ry tiling that had bc«n knuirn at 

(\-.ir iii'.il t]i">tiiiit; tiiA liN nmiiT;tr. ilinii^'h ho any tinio in any I'lirt df thv cMuntrr. It vaa oa 

!:•<'< I lit ill- (if ^'i «tiirtMli<««o\i Till hi^ nwn ft-rvnr thin rit-ia^iMn that Kdwanli printcil a fH^rtnonon 

mA i-tri'Ctu.iliy iiiii\t«I llii: hcirt'* of hii hi ikFiT^. ^ A Pivinc and S(i{ii-ni:itiiral Kik'ht iinparti-d to 

III* dtun l.iul twii t t'iini|>tni-i.-iiry in tiiMi and in thrSiuIhy thcSpiritof GlhI;" apfrfonnanre im« 

t!io « iiiiK :.i-y ii'.Ti«ij^ Cliri*!. Tin.- }tii)in«.«.H hi u-d with ht«» views of the M)iirt'v(ifknu»lvdi:o 

of (itnl ApiHaritl t> h;.'ii till' uiit^l )'>\ily it' ail as well n.-* of the re^rnerutin^ infldenro of th« 

ttie ili^ ii.f attri! iili«. diNlh al-^'Inte »u\i r^i;;ii. Spirit. lie wruten narrative of tlie!i«'!>ur|<nsinff 

ty ai.il iti-*' ;:rai *>. and n:aii'.t uli^i'Iutf diiniid- c«>nverMi'ns whii'Ii was printiii in Kn^laiid, and 

iiii-f 0:1 tl.i- riiK.Ta*.iMht i.f (mm!*!* }iiily •>|>irit, repuhliihed in ]{«»<*ti>n with s«>nio dot*trin.iI di>- 

ai>lH'ari->! t>i hi!!: nuT** nn'I n.iiiv ut -Meet and roMr«>4.-<« o^ntin^t the Anuiiiian4. [u all hid read* 

^Inriiuo li'M-trit.i-. lit* ]«i\i-d to mliTi- him at in^*. the ph-a-ante^'t thin^' to )i\ui had ever been 

a !«'^« rii^'n. ai.d :k-k ^•»VLrl ipi ni* ny df him ; to read of tlio iiilvan<'Oint-nt of ('hri*«t*!i kingdom, 

it K^ nii^l " li.al it WMiiId ^|•••il liia^rn to and liis mind uiv^entertaineil with the Sriptara 

Tiivi^e it in any nilur «a\." TKu- he tun^ht prophc^-ie-i. In IT'tT. As he ru«lo in the woixla 

hi- [H-op!o th>' iSNTrih'-v *•( tlie ^'i'^IhI, which on thu (''inneetirut river, and alighted to walk 

wtTv !•! h « •^•'il a!i>I thvir- likf en en [•a-ttire'*. fi^r divine ciintemplation and pra}er. he haii an 

JIv hini-A-'.l' in h:- hwmihtv wat " a!« a little oxtruordinurv vii-w v( the irlorv o{ t lie Sin of 

uhiti- thiw«.r. whi< h may W* H.rn in the mea- (ohI. and hin full, pure, aiiil hweet ^rrare and 

dii«« in tlie hpniij i>f the yi'ar, lnw and hum- love, wliteli kepi him f«ir an honr in a fi*»**\ of 

l>le lO the ;rrnn:id, oi<«-niijff itt Ut-(int to re- tt.nr!>, wei-pin;: ali>nd. On a Sutunlay ni::ht in 

ctiv" the p!ca".ii«t Uaui-* of the Min't jrl^iry; Jan.lTJiy, he |Kre*.iiei! so lU-arly how lle^-^^.n! a 

ri'j*i^-ir.^ a» It u*rt' in a ealmrapinri*: dit)u«int: thin^r it ii to walk in tho way of iluty. t!ial it 

ari'iiiid us^vtvC fr.i;:ra;iry ; Ktandinf* ]i>ac\fully eaiiM-tl him to l<riak f<irih into h»nd wivt>ini{ ; 

fii.d I«jviiu-!y in the mid^t of ntlicr t!ow«r- round f**r he hail an utVtt-tin;; hen-e how miit and ^uit- 

aUfjl, .I'l lii like ntaiiiu-r ojn iiifi^ fltiir Ui-iiiii4 uMe it was that CokI hhonid p»veni the w«>rhl 

t'l ilri:.k in i}.e li;:!it of till' r»L.n.'* Tuthi^Niw and ordt-r all thin^'i ariHinlim; to hU omn 

Kii,:'aiiil ('i.r:^:i:in pliili'-Mipln-r tlie \ i!l ijr nu^-t- p!ea-Mri\ and he rejoifi<«l in it that (ohI re-cnfU 

inj hiiu««* u a^ till- (rtirxh ot' tli*- Ai .ulcmy, and an«l that hit 11 ill wiLt done. Tlte fruit of thia 

{]&in iniiiiiry |iiMpli< t}te pnpi!!* wlm (liin^; to exiilrnuiit of mind wa<*. two m<intht aAer, in 

.im fi<r lit-u t «»f M'lrit.ial cinry. What ti-ailier Marrh, lTo9. the U-pnnin;; of a volnine of dia- 

in hi- » t>!t-t fkiiie ti At ):ri-ati-r than li«- / IIuw rour *>•.!« on nniver-jd hi-torr, treating the won- 

|"Mir in t!.e ri'in;>:ir;t«'n w:k4 I.* jKiiiiA, ^|K■akin}; di-riid M-rir- nf •stl^ee^^ile ait- and eveiitiiat i)j« 

tiilhei'lii iliiw:uvr« J. I trt— <'f II iImivit. or to the retard nf IJimTs rflifminj* proviilrnn- fp-ni tho 

«l<i-i:. ff I'r .o'l.v IT iif i*ri:.«e Kiu'lik-! Ih^w K-f;inniiiE: — a ntnt'eptinn not le-s Mihl;nif and 

(l:d t!.i> »:>i';^i pr< :iih<.r, ^^\^^> ^\^^r\:^T^'^\ divine nMre full nf fielin;; than that of liti^^nrt in hii 

tru!}:. {.••: i-il'ol til tho huriiiil, hut In tlio ** I'nivrrvd ll>tiir\" — hut failing in thf ixccn* 

i;m\i r^.J !t.tr:, r:^ i:i il:/Mi_\ a^Hiii- Ma-fi'.lun, tinn alike from thtieii-iuy anil from e\i't-.% tb« 

•l<aoi:..r the ij* i.-i !i<tiit t'f^.rt of I.uii:-! \\'. \i itli Want <>f r!<>M' knii%ih-«l^e of t\int«, and tht> dl*- 

i.« 1- a':'..i .1 •{•!!••!;: iTiVtu lt>:!li r, iuktrui t- |>«»-iti*'n til o*inttni* t i>ul 4»f int« r{in-tu;iiui» of 

i:.j l^M'M r..r'I.:4i- T.i fjlri! ai! li.r part* and prMhhi.vit"* a narrative a1-o of thr futuri-. evea 

Mt-^ ;iil If r «Ii.I-Ir*n ! I- it ttra: i;i- that Kil- to that !•« rfVrt i>'.ale of think'* iK-ttlnl f^r eter- 

UuriN ^!.<•l!•! ].\\*- t}.ii'ip:ht ofti n of tln' mil!i-:i- intv In thitwai viar« rullolovir t!iet^»<:!;vDt 

■ ■ • a 

i.iij-.i. • r i!i 1! i\ -!.!< .!lh:i%i ii'ti.f ii.!ii hit niind m«-»'>4-ri;*ir nf ('cli<!i:d truth, anil he wj- tiiur- 

th-i^ :hj! h »;■; 1 ;■« : •••I Ma« t<i takf 1:1 U jin'i::^ ouji.ly h:ip|>^ , ILt wi:e u!!*<i hail the ilri])c^ 

in Ni-«- I.: / .ii.>l .' K<!«.ir«!t •l.riiiiutl a!w.i\<i n I:.::>>ut chin rii-iiff. at thnUj:!! a eloi« i>f dn ino 

till r> «{Ki 1;! b::io •,':• «!:tiii-; hu* t!..* ArriMri.an h'^e 1 ann' d-<iin fri>m thf In-art nf 1 hr.*! in 

il-t !r.ut-, wh.i-!i i:: !<!'• ii.:«ri't riV'"^^*'":i hi-i Ik aM n into her lit-art in a n instant *!r^.;n:. iikft 

(•w II «>.:k. H ..« ri.:.irdtd !•> hiiii at i.f *h«- mo^t a |>em*:l i-f »w«tt h^'ht. A \vr} irriil ri Mval 

ii.ii.*:vr> .• I ri !.< a! !• r.ili n> \. IIi- 1 1 !>1 i:.ii.d ln>'a!i t>) 1 \fiiiil far arid n tde thrun.'h the NeV 

I'iN'a'- %!■ !..i'!ir. "the wi-rktif »!.■! m the Ki</!:ind 1 •^••iii« -. a '•.ihin t nf iiittri-! ard in- 

ri :.^ • r-.'>T; • f ■•!..- ^ .1 in U' :a li.<-ri' e!"r>-i:^ ^tru* ti"!i !•• the wurlil. ha\ iii^', a- m:*ii) ihii.k. n 

u«rk if tt-1 *.\.i\ ll •• r-.a!j.ri 1 :' tlit- w Jmle {t r:::aiii nt in!Vn :.« e t-n tht- il.ararrr i>( th# 

tKA'« r. k^ r.:..\. r<^- . ■ u:.d 1 w 1 ■• • m1 t>i t!.i< i* ij I., fitting tin m f«'r tlif >,-nat * xi I/" i:i their 

if:i!..iir.! i-:,M ,;.r.itt nf !).r*r h Ili.iti JT.lo |ii-:<>ry l.'i.kt ^«i Tv -^^'n tn rn!lii- 'I :;4'i.ln n *;ill 

» h.i :. \%>i .!■! I !j.!.i !i..-irri .i!* •: «'<rk :.« i!«iu n. ki*;- in fmri:- ry tin- Wii-.ilirful ifSit «■' Kd- 

'■ 1 ■ e il ► 'r "r 1 ! 1..1 ■ * U .I.J l?.»' •!. •. :n, :..:.^ w u;-!-'" m rin-ri at Ki.?nM on mijuT'. Ui the I .^.:i«U 

r.»ij- ^ •■! t'. ruWTj *.rVif!» . '.•:!..vi !;,►: :.i nf an ;»:i/r\ it- A. Ih- wr«'U ■ Th»i;.i:hSt i.*. tho 

ilii -I :■ . ■•. :i» •■..-. thi- jr-. , I rjiT.«-e d -l Ki \ :^ .i- ■■? Ili ^,:»"n ;" anth a?^» r h.i ;: :'Mt!»:^!.i'n, 

H hi :. J . !"..-■. k.-l li -1 i 'T l'.:.kK.'..j: h.ui t.» iLtfrr hi-. :'.i ITi*'-. ^.kW Intht- H..r!d hi* ■ T:i k!.*» *oti- 

f.-f I i tin r I. . I ;:. \ r*.-." A/ ».r.-! :!i.- ; r; :*• *« r:..!.jr lIi '.>:,i'.:i Aifn Tint.-." a vn»rk 1 .!'. • f tia 

h* •■;».:."•! .1 w ir i:i :7 4. '^/.li \-\ il.-«..r>««< -p.?^.!. {■« rnn .iti •', I y n'l h." rht n-h- •!»'.- 'r:; «4 

oil .-!.'. / r. *i f..''i .1! : . lii- .4.-.!..:v n:. r »■ r.il-, ai.l ii.nrki-.! * i kti<. ui.al^ -.- 'I ••.!!• • 

a:.! i v •*ir m ^ : :.^1^h^: ! ^. :• mc!.v!«.::.«1 rv^«^al ^i !...i.d. ^hivh »hoH«.-d Lis t^It'p •>^-v!inn ::. the 



I 



JONATHAN EDWARDS 16 

midat of tho most exciting scenes. No one Las and wine alike to all. Calvin and the Congre- 

bettor analjzed and described the affections of gationalists offered both to cverj ono who 

the hanian mind under religions influences; and partook of either, but confined them both to 

tho:]gh his style in this work is neither polished, visible believers, tho regenerate, the elect ; and 

BorconcL<e, nor correct, his characterizations of baptized only the children of communicants, 

ooonterfett piety are sometimes worthy of tho On this latter system were tho churches of Massa- 




centuricsy 

life was wasting away with a hectic fever, to had baptized all children born within their pale; 
cotne under his roof; and with tho exception of and the influence of their example, prevailing 
a short vi^it to Boston to consult physicians, more and more after timo had enfcebl^ the pas- 
Brunerd remained with him, nursed and cared sion for dissent, made the Now England <|>eoplo 
for and comforted, till his death. Meantime generally desire to secure the ordinance of bap- 
war rag«Ki between France and England ; Ed- tism for their ofl&pring. Half-way covenants, 
wdrd^'s parishioners took an eminent part in tho and an opening of the church doors to tlie un- 
eapmre of Louisburg in 1745; and it happened regenerate, was the consequence. The half-way 
in the next year that the night after a day of system was illogical and saperficial, and tliere was 
fasting and prayer, appointed for the colony, nothing half-way about Edwards. According to 
and kept most fervently at Northampton, the the Catholic church, tho oucharist was changed 
terrible French '^armada,*' under the duko into the body and blood of Christ himself; the 
d*AnviIle, was finally dispersed, and utterly Lutherans held Christ to be present with and 
confounded; ''the nearest parallel," said Ed- under tho elements; but Calvinists held Christ 
wards in Lis plea for a visible union of God^s to be present only in the soul of the believer, 
pe«p!e in extraordinary prayer, " the nearest and therefore there was no place at the Lord^s 
parallel with God^s wonderful works of old in table for tho unregcnerate, for those who 
Mofies*«, Joshua's, and Hezekiah^s time, of any could not ascend in spirit into the presence of 
thai have been in these latter ages of the Christ in heaven. As the seal of a covenant, 
world.'' Tills trast in Providence never fail- the sacrament presupposes conversion. Ed- 
ed him; but his life was now destined to wards desired to enforce tho rule, which in 
meet with seemingly one of the saddest of the Northampton church had been evaded, not 
aSicn'oas. The New England of that day abrogated ; and tho purc-mliulod, sincere, logi- 
ar-p-eareJ to grudge a homo to its noblest sons, cal, consistent pastor found himself at varianco 
u thucgh Ti^solved that they should elsewhere with a church of seemingly visible Christians, 
ttai their shelter. Ono of the two greatest who made no profession of tliiit in which real 
lifid fcl: himself, while yet a boy, forced to run Christianity was admitted to consist. The pas- 
away: and the other, the Dante of the New tor would have sanctifying grace go before ad- 
EncJand churches, as Osgiwd of New York mission to full communion ; the brethren wero 
rzhily CiilU him, was destined to bo driven of opinion that tho Lord's supper is a convert- 
•Lto t'lile. The civil tribunals take cognizance ing ordinance. A Congregational minister is 
of offences against the law ; the ecclesiastical only tho moilerator of his church ; Edwards was 
cc»!irt« of the Catholic church exercised a super- overborne by tho majority. He proposed to 
rjaoa over the inmost actions of tho soul, deliver a course of lectures on the subject, and 
Among the Puritans that power of the keys they refused him their consent. After years 
w« taken from ecclesiastical courts, bishops, of difference of opinion, tho greatest man in tho 
tLi\ priest?, and transferred to the several bodies New England churches was, on June 22, 1750, 
'jf covenanted believers. Tho members of each driven away from his congregation, to wliicli 
Xew England visible church exercised a broth- ho had devoted tho 24 best years of his life ; 
criy superintendence over one another, and and now, as his decline was beginning, with a 
dealt with those offences of mind or heart of wiieandl01iviugchiklren,of whom but one was 
vluch the hiws of the land took no notice, provided for by marriage, ho was left without 
Edwards discerned levities of manner, conse- any visible moans of support. IIo must quit 
^nt as it seemed on reading books which a tho scenes that he loved; the groves in which 
terere morality could not approve, and ho in- he had meditated ; tho modest mansion where ho 
vnked the attention of his chnrch to the subject, had studied ; tho elm trees which his own hands 
The chnrch disapproved of tho scandal which had planted. Throughout tho whole contro- 
vooli follow an inquiry, and let tho matter fall versy, it is hard to say which was most admir- 
to the ground. Here then it appeared that there able, the single-hearted humility of Edwards, or 
was some deeper defect; tho church, under his martyr-like firmness ; and when afterward 
file lax discipline of Stoddard, had been filled up he gave an account of his ejectment, ho can- 
with persons who, though outwardly well bo- didly revised his own [conduct, and sought to 
hived, were not saints by calling. The Catho- find cause of blame in himself. When the 
Re diorch offered bread to the people, tho cup news reached Scotland, his friends there iii- 
onlT to the consecrated ; the reformation estab- vited him to come over and establish himself in 
Ifahed the equality of all believers, and the Lu- that country; Samuel Davies of Virginia, tho 
tfaerans and the Anglican church offered bread samo who uttered tho famoud prophecy a\)0\x\i 



16 JONATILVX EDWARDS 

Wjw!iinpton, rntrratoil }iim t-i remove to Virji- wnrl«l ah " Inquiry intn tlio Frcc<lom of tho 

iii:i. •iiri-rir »: !•• "tirn nl«r t» liiiii !•!* nwn par!-?!. Will." TJiis wriiioii uiit in a vcrv !«!iiirt j-* rit J 

aitd I'liMilinj liial Ijc ni.-I !ii> iinly Ii.vl wvi;:ht of lini«\ not «-Xiei'<liits •'> inoniliN wa<* piiMi-livU 

i-iitKipTh !-y !ii4 rv;ri->« rifa!i •:i'« in tirfAl Iirilniii in ITr>4. WMlf \tv w.ih in^':u;i-<l in iTvpuratiuD 

to ;»:••{• fl.o ill lit rid ••]']-ri ^-:'>ii *•( rrc-l'VUriaiiH f*r tliis wnrk, Aziroii Hiirr, t)ir pre«ii}r2;t i>f the 

liy till* iT'iVi rniir"* «■!' tl.i<»!i! Iiiirriiriion. Iiut r«»iK'gi» «)f Ni'W Ji-rnoy, at rrinrct«in. nftt-r ■ 

iiiiTJiir N ..ti.iii.l n.'T \:tj:'. i:i «ii:.I'l • ifi r !iiia a tliri-o JayV [H-rMinul ai'i}uatrit:iTire at SliN-fc. 

urtuiii |-ri>\iMi.:i ; un! !!.•• ui:ii\ wlju-i* intilUv. l>n'I;.v, ni.irrioil Kilu:ipI-\ tiiirililuui;!iii r. Di»- 

ti:Al ii.'low ni> [>!<* \«< Ti- i/ii |(.:i:I'-il i:i tin- I.iii«l, trt'-^Mtl aiiil ontV-tMi-d t<y a li.ilf wur'* iiini*^ 

l.uil liii oj-Tifi: !ii:r t.ia4->(;i! :& -iii.iil t>ir«.r from h\n partial nroviTy mily »>i'iit liim intu new 

thi* a;.viir I'f :}:•' I.-':i<Ii-;i ^tIi ry I'xr prupii^'utin^ tuliN, ami hori<nipK'ti-il;i<]i<i-«-rt:itiiiniin "litid*! 

tlic Ar-'-;^! !•< U^K'Ski* » i!r.»-iiiiiary in tho rriii- l^*»t Kiiil in tin* Crratiiiu nf t)ii> \V«.irlil,'* vkl.icb 

iMiit iif Ifii :>-.iT'Mi'i>-k li.>!i.iii« nt StiH'kI>ri<!.r«-. i;* a pii lure of )ii<t (»wii t-!i:ir:it-t«'r, niL-Minins; 

'Wiv Iiri!i>!;i! «>t' u)ii!o f«:!!ir^ that \nf\ ;*at!ifri<l ain! iitiinl. Ho al-xi ^M'ti* ii (ll-«Mrt:i!iuii on the 

nii:n<l t!i>' tn-t' ;i!-«) ii*ki*<l hir;! t" ft^otiK* tin ir "Natnroof True Virtiit*.** in uliii-h lu* iinUMlicd 

paittor. 1 tti.* ?r.:!iiij ii !iu> tl.ii'* •■l>intiu-«l wtm tho ron\ictii>iM th:it )u* ha^i Inrnu-tl in }(»ulh, 

Miffiitly iMipr<<Vi«l t.y :)>•' dilir.ito hMtiliwurk of ami hml rnrrii-41 wiilt liirii tJirmuh lifr, a* the 

hi^ ^^ \U' aidl ii.i'i.'!iii r-, u 1.;. 1, w li-* fi.rw uriUil to Vi-ry rt'nir*' and heart of hi* n-lijiiiU- tAjK-riince 

i(fi-t>>:( t>i U' •..•M. I: \\:i- :i]']<:iri-nt!y Iijinl that Ai.d hin pliil iilorul n t!t rtiuii^. Oiif c^naj 

!«u w.-M' aiiil t'r< ai :i iiKin «!.ifi.i-l h:i\e -«i liniitc«l umtv iH'Inn^ttitlii^ {h-riiHl, in nliirti )k- I'liuhod 

a ^phiTi- iif i!i:t\ ; *'-.t in (ru*.!i tiit ^pliiTo wa;* nimo hut t!i«* !iik'hi'<>t lUnl n:i>«t nionu-ntKn^ «uS- 

inl.irjiii !>y h:* r< iiiii^ul. a!i<! ni>w i-iiitirat'i-il tliO ]*•«?•*: it i** iho cli-rnur'H' on "Orij'in.il S;n." 

«h>iii' K:i/!.oh «<<r'.>l. A iiiitnl hki- lii^ warncil nut tho niorr ht" a* ri>!M|>li'>lu-t] tlie i):i>re be 

fiiriMiiiKiTf.- intvri<i-:rM' ui'Jj i\^ kirnl; at North- hin;n.sl to a«viMn|>li«li. ainl lu' l^Hik u{><>n hiofiiinii 

.nnt|'!>>:i. KilHariU \%;ii tiu- \i'n!ri*ii!* a witlocir' and hl^ lu-art uliat hv hiin-tlf haw u:i<> tu be 

r!«i» «•! iiiTliii :io-. \>.!i-.| \*\ many fui-ni-. ron- *'a rr«at wtirk :" l'liri-:ijin thfi'ltijry in ihi- fonn 

Milic- I h\ ni.ki.y «-!ii:ri !ii-«: nt >!<n Ll<ri«!L*>\ iill hi'4 of a hi-tury : a rvvi-ti'n and ri*ni;il«'iii>n of thd 

prtat !jiI:.« !•• tl.t- Indiir.i- \%a« uttcri^l «'Xtf;!i- hi^t^ry of n-ih tnpli'in uliii-h lie had «r;U4.*n at 

|Niri-. %%:!)iiii,t I. ••!•-, iiidiil hy an iiiti-rpri-tor ; NorilianiptnU : a hi<t>>ry !•» ho rarriid ««n with 

.Mid mIm n hi' u:i-i-:.it.' i-taMi-!ifl i:: .i hM:i«H.*of rr^:tril !•> all thru* wurJiN, htii\iij. larth, and 

|p«i>Mn. ):i fxiitxl li.i[i^ if |-»X4— «4i! oi uion* Ji-U- till!. I'lu* pl^in of oilur tr^'atiM'* troud^il aI«o 

urv l«ir -iiidy thiiu Uv l.ail i \vr l-ifi-ri* criji»y*d. ujhim hit lu'Sive mind. ThcM* Mi:d)i-<i wvi\* in- 

T!»r ii'\* •• }*:ir* i-:" li:i lifi- wr.-c Ti-ar^ t'f un- trrruplcd hy tho d»a!h of l.i* ^-'U-iii !.,w, tho 

inltn.']'!! '1 "'.-A). 11,0 n irri-\« ;ipurini«.-nt that l«rr*idcMt uf rrinir?i>!i ••'Ilrj.v. anil f.-r hi* mic- 

fi>rniinl li.« ui'.-k-r'xiiM fn'iiid him i :irlv, all tho i'«'"Mir tin* tru^Zit.** tif llint !:•«*. iluii'ii liM<ki-4l to 

d»\. Old l.i'r at Ii.- di 'k . hi* - aruN -!:urid the wiJiU on tin* fr.-iiliir of M.i>vit ' -i-^'tt^ 

thi* fill ..!• of 2..^ f Hi, \%. • ii I pt I.I ;i-k Ih-avi-n** 'lln-y »aili-d KdwanN fn-Ju hi* t.i-k t-f u.v ':.'*y.^ 

h*i-«-i'-j: ••:it:.>!.i. ai.d i: i- i!.>> tr.»ili'.i'iii. that tlio Ihiu^itMniiiuk^ tu t.ikc t-!i:ir.:i' of i!i«* c\n' 

ii!i.> ! J* w r'o .kS.d IJ..- iVii'lriti ii<:.T:nurd at tr.d *<-minary of tfn- oitmtry. Af'ir •Ni:no htr^ 

til- iT r. p .-•. h'!w.*rl« «.i.! 1 r«:.rv t.» I.:' p r- itation ho riMiM-nti-d t-i ai«'»-pl t!if i:ii .ia:i«.«n, 

h..it\ <•■::.■■ .* I':! «ii.i,\ !•• r« '.urn tf.iiiks u hi n r«-pa:ri-il to IVmh «-ti*:i. kiiidii ti hy hit pri-**«ni^ 

t!ti\ h .-l •!•■!. •■. I :.(■ i!> \i !••; r..t !.? of tl.i' \ii-Wi and lii<* wurd- ihi' livi-lii^t intt-n-t tni,*jf\,x the 

ii!ii< :i i..i 1 l"::j • r..' i.-^l .ii: ! -w ..!!'-\«c,l up )ii<« ^!uih*nt.-*, b:ii1 on K* h. It'i. IT.'i^. na.** ii.«ialU-U ai 

ini'uh f 'f .• d il •■ • !. • f I *.!trt...riM.til :.i,d cli-- prt-^itlt-nt. 1 }ii- »>iii.ul |->>x wa-* pn v.ti! n^ ii. tlie 

l.»-^t •■{ ii o !:'• . lie u.i" h.i:'!>% Mi ti'.i ■>•■ ( !ii] !,>\ - hi i.'lil»'r!iiNHl ; a* an :i< t of pn i-aiilii>n l.o «as 

Hunt*. II. « i-'>:)>>! i f •: :•!% hid «\ir l^t-^n ii."« -ila!!-!!. I'-'k i!ii- •i- .i-i- ui.'hr.i i:...I..;t ant 

!.\ »r. ;.!,'. M;{!;,ii..: !jiti.».if !•• i::,;r.»\f i .i« !i fi-rm. iiiid h:id fi.\y In pri piir*- l«i *'..*■ !■» Li* 

ir.. J- :'.»:. I !..•.!. :t:.<l |^ :.r. n^ ih-M n },i* !,**: wilV. u hn w-i** ali- :iJ. ht- •* !.! l.i« ksM'.. •: Imo; 

ih'i ./ > •■•; ;. ■. ir:ifra' !i' •,'j.«I". l.-r ii:* iiwii r*** .i,'.! cj |!.i* iir.i ••!.»;. i':i i;iit"n >*Ki-!i I. ad ^» 

l-:if.'. i', .'. T iW ir; !.;<. hSo. •!:!•• ri !iri r;:i ' T, l": ,: ""^ih-i-^ttd |ii:\*«in tJ.tiii. nui! t'i>t< d thai 

1 kt a ! i:i • r I ! v.< t i.r:r> h ;:i I ■.>- M iMi ri.\ ^-s ).:<• a^ tin ir li.:-':i hid !>in »pir:'i;:i! i!t i!« ta- 

tl.'- ;,'i.r » I* l-iT 1. • I«!"."W I • n iti !:.•• u, r!.!. V.r*', il w.-nl-l i t.i. !:!!•:..• f. r t\*r. * l'.:-'. in 

ai. I : * •":.*<• -f il .:\ if..ir,d 1..! i o:i '..> i:i.- Intl. a:i«l v«' n-'-l i ■! f. :ir." niri- l.i'. la!«t 

iitr'.ik- I r I .- • \:."\ a:,'] :!..• w.-:!! n ri : > w.-rd-. and l!ii ?:. ••* »\i}^ afli r li - iii-'.i! at.na 

I »*.. ■'. ••'■■: • •'.•* %» .' ■ '■. ;.* i.i- Ni:i-^i'l. %i,ri' a* pr» -i»h-:i!, at \* *' i-.r:_, :i."f i-f .M. ;.ii *f l.jrri 

fi!' i". !'. r. -■!■..'.. !:. ..;/?! •*..y %»irr i-f :j!.t ti ,i! » :i* nn-rr.-d i ■»!?..■ . ns.''; w t* ..■..• a "trv.^'irli* 

f"r--%.iri il .* J ..:. .r i I" Ir ; ;!i;p!. -i* !?.*• &■}..! \ , • f*.l .'k-l-^p. llcW-i* I-iir.- d a! i*r:i.i i '•• :. «»:ii 

I..;.! •! -.--r.-.r ■..".: i 'i .■.:.! d.'. ■ riiir.* !•!. i'\i rv iri! iti- :! ;»! ri ^i ri :.' • I'-r li> ;.*i :. .« art*! 

1 .' f v. . ■. • .:•.:.'.:..' it -■.•-,. •■! I- ! Mil-:; Arr!i.!. p:« *y «'• -'d « !*• r I!." w ?c %*.i^i. ' !• r rf «S.- 

i .r.» v :» .. ••- ? r-' . .■ ./.l I.m:. I !.-•!• ;.• i.-i-d !:• li l-Sii: !.i- d. .•."'•• r -•■■■. ; ■ i d J cr 

! -i 1 •' •. . r : . . . ■ :, r. 1 1 ^ ). \i fr-M 1... .:.! %*li. •!...! pri .'t-l ri.i*. .i . . •-. :J.*i 

!•.■•■ • ■■* •• 1 '• ;" .:• • !, a: i ! •■ !■ 1 1 k« ; I iri .i u. i k .i* •! a }• ir tl.i- I ^:r iw • i ? JM-* ar^ls 

: . • .•...' } • :' ._• • ■ ■! .: : / !■.• ,■ •. ;\» f. .• J h - w .:'■'. l.-* -^r. :•.. '. \'x, ;i!i 1 !. * •!. .:,::■% r. » . r» 

]-' -: .' ■.-•■■: •■ •■■, :S a J- ::■ • : T .:i-:. :y o-I-i d •." !l.i '.-ir d ; ". ! I 'r :...!:.—!:»»■ :i« 



...» »• 



.'I 1 1 :....-!. ;«:.-] I r.^.p' l<5.:urt.' thu f.ril t*.in^ !•' Iv li.'rnv ii; z:.i:«d i« h.« i!..'d..kf. 



V 



JONATHAN EDWARDS 17 

sncere, nnqaestioning acceptance of tho truth never proposes as a problem the contradictory 

of cTcry word ia the Iloly Scriptures, of every question, if willingness to be damned must pre- 

event recorded there, of every miracle ana cede hope of salvation ; he moves in the retd 

every prophecy; the actual fall of man, the in- world among his fellow men, and brings theology 

carnation, death, resurrection, and ascension of down from the dim clouds of speculation to the 

Christ. The next is, the intensity of his attach- business and the bosoms of the univeraal people, 

men! to the system of Calvinism as opposed to — It is one of the strangest misconceptions that 

tba* of Arminianism; he declares it himself has ever been uttered about Edwards, that 

cTerywhere ; if in any thing he departed from ho drew his pliilosopby from Locke. In the 

its essential principles, it was done without his dismal want of books, tho essay of Locke was 

consciousness, and therefore, according to every the work which trained him to pliilosophical 

rule of interpretation, his words are never to be meditation ; but his system was at its founda- 

forced into an antagonism to the reformed con- tion, as well as in every part of its superstruo- 

ie»oa9 of faith. These points being premised, tnre, the very opposite of the theory of Ixxcke. — 

the characteristics of all that Edwards has writ- On the subject of tho origin of ideas, the views 

ten are threefold. He looks always to establish of Edwards accord with those of Leibnitz, 

the reasonableness of his views. The doctrine which in the present day have been in some 

of a divine incarnation, for example, approves measure popularized by Cousin. Tho doctrine 

itself^ as he thought, to human reason ; and he that all truth is derived from sensation and 

cites in proof of this the authority of Greeks reflection ho discards as ^^ a low, miserable 

and Romans, the most philosophical nations of notion of spiritual sense. '^ ^^ A clear appre- 

tbe world. He even refers to the aTiiTTuxtnt/n^i hension of things spiritual" he calls by the 

of Blonnt and the pantheism of Spinoza. He name of ^^ light," ana attributes it not to *'the 

KoSs at the pretensions of greater liberality put external senses," not to " the inferior powers," 

forward by tne Arminians, and puts reason and but to " a new principle," " the divine nature 

oommon sense on tho side of orthodoxy. In this in the soul." " It is some excellent communl- 

battle, he was in Europe preceded by Leibnitz, cation from the divine beauty and glory." " It 

with whose works he was not acquainted, and is the Spirit of God that gives faith in him," 

WIS followed by Lessing and Kant, who were at were tho words of his sermon at tho Boston 

aH times ready to defend the sternest doctrines of lecture in 1731 ; and 3 years later ho enforced 

orthodoxy, election, free grace, and eternal pun- at large that it is a doctrine of reason, that " a 

ishiaeDt, and especially the Trinity. "There is," divine supernatural light is immediiitely im- 

sayshe, ''no need that the strict philosophic parted to the soul by tho Spirit of God." There 

truth should be at all concealed from men, no and elsewhere he toadies tliat knowlo<lge of 

danger in contemj>lation and profound discovery spiritual trutli cannot be derived from *' second 

in these things. The truth is extremely needfid causes," from tho senses, from flesh and blood; 

to be known ; and tho more clearly and perfectly that it is a wisdom not earthly or sensual or 

the real fact is known, and the more constantly natural, but descending from above ; that it is 

it is kept in view, the better. The clear and full " nearly related to a participation of tho De- 

kfiowledge of that which is the true system of ity ;" that it is *' a kind of emanation of God's 

the universe will greatly establish the doctrines beauty ;" that ^'^ it is tl>o image and participa- 

wluch teach the true Christian scheme of divine tion of God's own knowledge of himself;" that 

idministration in the city of God." Least of all " it is beyond man's power to obtain this knowl- 

woold Edwards give up the individual right of edge and light by the mere strength of natural 

fieeinquiry, forhesays: ** lie who believes prin- reason," and by natural reasrm he means the. 

dplesbecause our forefathers afiirm them, makes understanding as it deals with knowledge ae- 

idob of them ; and it would be no humility, quired through tho senses ; in a word, that " to 

Vat baseness of spirit, for us to judge ourselves see spiritual things depends on the sense of tho 

iso^ble of examining principles which have heart." The term is not well chosen ; but by 

been handed down to us." In harmony with sense of the heart ho means what later philoso- 

flus principle, and indeed as a necessary conse- phers mean by intuitive reason ; and by '* spirit- 

qsence of it, his teachings all bear tho inarks of ual understanding," that higher faculty which 

mdrersality. He knows no scheme of Chris- reaches at truth which is not received by the 

fiinity that is the fruit of time ; tlio Logos took senses, " and could be produced by no exalting, 

eotmsel with the Father ; the divine administra- varying, or compoimding of that kind of per- 

tion of which he desired to unfold the character ceptious or sensations which the mind had be- 




tire questioms, and while he discusses the great- shines forth in beams of communicated k no wl- 

CBt topics that can engage tho mind of man, ho edge." " Tho Spirit bears witness with our 

never treats them but because of his overwhelm- spirits." ** There is some new sensation or i)cr- 

iof consciousness of their important bearing on ception of tho mind;" "a new simple idea." 

eooduct and morals. He never involves himself As a consequence, tho contrast of Edwards with 

lUapsarian or supralapsariau subtleties; he Locke and those who camo after him uy^y^QOX^ 

VOL. XILS 



18 



JOXATIIAX ETlWAKDS 



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i ^•' .1 . 1 . .V »« A (I i ^ .-....' • i I '. w . . ' ^ ■ • • I .' > 



JONATHAN EDWARDS 19 

ic:ioiL Liberty consists in the power of doing is truth to be fonnd bnt in the world that God 
wluit one wills; and the pi>wer of willing be- created, and in the Being of beinjys himself f 
lungs to the man or the soul. The cause of an Does it rest on sympathy ? But nothing so cer- 
actioQ is comjilex. The volition follows the tainly and universally commands sympathy as 
greatest seeming good; and what shall seem to a spirit that is in harmony with the whole sys- 
a man the greatest good depends on the state tem of OtKl's providence. The love to univer- 
C'f his soul. Liberty is to bo sought for, not in sal Being includes all being, each in its degree, 
the act, but in the man ; and if a depraved iia- according to its amount of existence ; active 
t-:re i« to abstain from sin, it can only be effected love for the goo<l <»f the world of mankind before 
ly a change of heart. This theory Edwards the love of country, of country before tliat of a 
assorted by an appeal to the facti^ of universal single city, ofa city liefore a family, of the family 
eip-erience, and by a most thorough, complete, before the individual, of the individual only ia 
and aniinswerable analysis of the complex cause subordination to the great system of the whole. 
I'f action. All the while that he was engaged The theory is directly at war with the system of 
in this most severe demonstration, the seem- self-love as the foundation of moral order, or a 
iLgly sturn doctrine appeared to him as involv- respect to happiness as the only good ; for where 
ing man's dignity and worth, and his abstruse scTf-lovc is made the root, it grows to beinordi- 
Teas', ining was answered by a flood of perfect nate, and is at war with the being of the whole. 
nirlcdy in his heart. — From the consideration But every man, into whatever career of enter- 
of the wilL the transition is natural to the prise he goes, may take Edwards along with him 
theivry of virtue; and Edwards finds it to con- in all his course of prosperity, if he will but seek 
eL*t in love — not in love as resting complacently that alone wliich is in harmony with the greatest 
oa its objects, but in love xis the ruling motive good, and keep every passion and inclination 
of the will; love in action, benevolence. A subordinate to the divine will. Least of all 
biiiwledge of divine things comes from the would Edwards, whose whole theory is one of 
divine in man; as justification comes of faith, love, weaken the bonds of family affection; 
Eo vir.ue has it6 perennial spring within the only the love of wife or husband, parent or 
Kr*L And this love is not for self; the doc- child, must not be the paramount motive; the 
trineof Edwards is the intensest protest against wife must cheer her husband to do his duty, 
tlie thi-t^ry of solt-love. He raises the soul even though he is called upon to become a mar- 
to the highest jioint of contemplation, takes tyr; the father may bless his son, who goes 
i: as ii were to be present at creation, and bids forth to battle for his country's freedom, or as 
i: iove actively all tliat is, univers:d being, the a missionary defies the danger of foreign climes 
all-O'jmprchending entity (»f God; so that the to diffuse the knowledge of pure religitm. On 
virjjuus in:in, with holy love sanctifying his will, Edwards himself the effect of this theory is ap- 
is KP.t f.Tth joyously for action, action, and parent in a wonderful tenderness toward every 
r 11 f-.^r a* tioii, as (ind's own sc»ldier and servant, thing, a compassion for human frailties, a can- 
r.i:? ^irt'iu iiir.-ludos right reason, holiest love, dor of judgment that nrirrored the purity of his 
and ae:iiin ; a mtional motive, wnrracd by love, soul. Viewed in this light, the doctrine of the 
and Iv.irir.g fruits of righteousness. The view oneness of tlie race, which Edwards asscrte<l 
is r.ot an ei-ctutric one in Edwards's system; witli greater clearness and force than the mod- 
it lies at its heart. It appears in his college em school of philosophers who have so much 
nafi-cripts ; it colurs a half dozen of the resulu- to say of tlie solitlarite of humanity, gains new 
tions wli'.i-h he formed at 20 ; it runs through significance, a^ may be seen, not altogether with- 
his treatise on the affections; it reappears in out excesses, in the writings of his followers. — 
his fcs.'-iiy on the end of God in creation. It The ethical theory of Edwards is cosmical ; no 
mast bo accepted, or Eihvards himself can- one was ever more so. His manner of contem- 
not l^e accepted. It enters too deeply into all plating the universe was also cosmical. It em- 
t2iat ho ha-i written to be set aside as no essen- braced more than the whole course of tinie, and 
till part t'f him, and must be explained and de- all as one work ; universal history resting on 
Teloped iu connection with the sum <^f all his the principle of the redempticm of the world, 
doctrinv;?. The test of a theory is that it em- decreed from all eternity ; a history of the grad- 
bncea and absorbs all that is good and true in ual progress and advancement of the race 
other theories on the same subject ; the rod of through the presi'uce of tlie Divine Word and its 
the tme prophet swallows up all the rods of his ever .ipproaching triumpli over all its enemies. 
i^posers. l)'.»es virtue imply the love of GikI Events seem confused like the work of an ar- 
with all the soul? This is exactly the doctrine of chitcct, who einpl(»ys many hands in many 
Edwards ; for God is the Being of beings, " in ef- kin^ls of labor at once ; but a knowledge of the 
feet. Being In general'' I)«»esiU'on«;ist in respect design reniMvos all appearance of confusion; 
for the nii>ral fitness of things ? That moral fit- and so the design of tlie Divine Word in redeinp- 
ness lies impressed on the universe which per- tion gives unity to the history of all the nations 
feet moral power has created. I )oes it consist in of the earth. The development of this idea em- 
themvoiding extremes? The universe of being ployed the latest tluMights of Edwards. Ho 
b moderated by the divine law, and is ever giv- left his work unfinished ; hut the sketch shows 
ing the lesson of just order and proportion, howcompletely he ec.nsidered universal history 
Docs it consist in regard to truth ? And wheio ns tho record of GotFs providence, and tii^i c^u- 



so JOXAHTAK EDWARDS 

tarit'4 as ■ projrivMiTO «iti«»<; lrinnul-ftii<l n v- nnuri-liiMl ilu* >y\Tii i-f j ntrinii-m ai:-! lil'^rtv ; 
olutiitii** t'> Iii>M iiipS Hiif hii'tlhtT l'r> rii .vt' t>* :n:^\ ui:*\ in tin' In i-. {.< .ki'tl'.:!. tkiA \-ii\'\*} Ii<':ii« - *»{ 
onlv i.i l-riii,: f'-rtli tnitJi iii.'lli-'l!: ■ -•. •«• "tLia tin- Niu K!:/!:ii.'l \(<-ni;titn. it \i» liK-«l il.i- jj-t- 
aII lIiiiitT'* •■)*<'':M N' ^)i)ikt ;i iiiiT.l lliiit ••<!:.•« ly ili.t- {iXi • i •!• m i In that |'rii.i i]<li' ft .i>t.\tf 
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EDWARDS 21 

fishcJ his celebrated treatise on the raWoct^ his second def^ree, ho delivered an oration, in 
which led HnmhoMt to say that if lie had not which he attacked the existinp; law by which 
been the greatest tlicnlojrian, he would liavo the eldest son recfived a double portion of tho 
been the jrrcatest philologist of his age. In his estate of the father, if tho latter died intestate. 
l'!ih year he w.'ls sent by his father, with tho This excnted w) much attention throughout tho 
Rev. Gideon Ilawley, among tlio Six Nations, state, that at the next meeting of the legisla- 
tbat he might also lenni their language, and be- ture the obnoxious law was repealed. Having 
come qnalilied to be a missionary among them, studied law at Litchfield, he settled at Hart* 
Hert* he mude rapid progress, and became a gen- ford, where ho rose rapidly in his profession, 
eral t'lvorite; but owing to tho disturbances of and soon l>ecame widely known as u i)rol<>una 
the French war, he remained but a few months, lawyer and distinguished advocate. Unremit- 
when he returned to St4>ckbridge. In 17^1 ho ting a])plication to his profession so impaired 
e!i&?red the college at Princeton, N. J., whero his health that he early retired from public lifou 
he wa>. graduated in 1705. After leaving col- — Tryox, D.D., an American clergyman and au- 
leae he studied divinity with Dr. Bellamy, and thor, son of tho preceding, great-grandson of the 
in 1776 was licensed as a preacher of tho gos- first and grandson of tho second President Ed- 
pel. In 17^7 he was appointed tutor in tho wards, born in Hartford, Conn., Aug. 7, 1809. 
C'.'llege at Princeton, and soon after accepting IIo was graduated at Yalo opllcge in 1828, and 
this office, which he held 2 years, was chosen afrer studying law in Now York, and theology 
to the professorship of languages and logic, at Princetxjn, settled in the ministry at Rochos- 
vLirh he declined. In 176y he was ordained ter, N. Y., in 1834. IIo removed his pastoral 
as pojtor of the church in White Haven, in tho relations in 1846 to New London, Gonn., liisprcs- 
town of New Haven, Conn., where he contin- cnt residence. In 1832 a prize tract on Sabbath 
ned till May 10, 1795. Resigning this charge, schools appeared from his pen, and ho has from 
imunly f«n account of ditrerenco in doctrinal that time contributed constantly and in various 
views between himself and some of his people, forms to the religious press. Among his publi- 
he was settled in 171*6 as pastor of tho church cations aro an address delivered at Williams 
in Colebrook, where, in addition to professional college in 1841, entitled "Christianity a Philoa- 
dnties his time was devoted to his favorite ophy of Principles ;" a memoir of the younger 
Gtadic-N and to an extensive correspondence President Edwards, published with his completo 
which ho had long carried on with learned men ^works (1842): ** Self-Cultivation" (1843) ; and 
U>:h in iliU country and in Europe. In May, 'Ji memoir of Dr. Bellamy, published with his 
17i?'A he wri<5 i-h-ctcd president of Vnirm college, completo works (1850). Ho has edited, besido 
find cniorinc^ on the duties of this office, ho the works of the younger President Edwards, a 
pre him-^if with unwearied diligence to the in- volume entitled ** Charity and its Fruits,'' from 
Kmfti.in ,.>f the stu<lents, and to aU that might the MSS. of tho elder President Edwjirds, and 
advaneethepro-i»erity of tho institution, for tho several collections designed cspcoially for do- 
SroTain'.r.Jni: years of his lift-. There were several mestic culture, as "Select Poetry for Children 
remarkaMe ooincidt-nces in the lives of Dr. Ed- and Youth ■' (1851); ** Jewels for tho House- 
wiird* and Jjis lather. They were similar in char- hold '' (1852) ; the " World's Laconics" (1852) ; 
after .'irid Srtrufture of mind. Both were early and " Wonders of the W^orld" (1855). Sevend 
dtsrinsrii^hed for tljoir love of study, and were of these books liavo passed through many odi- 
t^tors !''»r equid ]>eriods in tho colleges whero tions, and have been republished in England, 
they were re-])e«^tively educated. Both, after Dr. Edwards has been a frequent contrihutor to 
having beon settled in the ministry, were dis- the "Christian Spectator," " New Englander^" 
ici»a<-'i on acenunt of their d<)etrinal opinions, '^Biblicd Repertory," "Biblical Repository," 
sad were nijain settled in retireil ])laces, whero and other periodicals of note, and was fur many 
they h:id leisure to prepare and pul»lish their years editor of the "Family Christian Almanac." 
valuable works. Both were called from these EDWARDS, Justin, D.D., an American 
ritoa:ii»ns to be pre*i<lents of colleges, and both clergyman, born in Wc^thampton, Mas.-^., April 
died,sht.'rtlynftertheirrespectiveinaugnrations, 25, 1787, died at Virginia Springs, July 23, 
odein the Sotli and the other in the 57th year of 1858. He was graduated at Williams collego 
hi* ace, cwrh having ])reached on the first Sab- in IHIO, settled in the ministry at Andover in 
bathnf tl If year fri>m the text: "This year thou 1812, removed thenco to the Salem street 
ihiiit di»r."' I)r. Edwards was a man of great church, Boston, in 1828, and in 1821) resigned 




edited with a memoir of his life ]»y his grand- with great ability and success, by lectures and 

con, the Rev. Tryon Edwards, D.D., were pub- addresses, in every part of the land, and i)re- 

fisihed in 2 vnl<. at Andover in 1842. — »Joxa- paring tho well-known "Temperance I>ocu- 

mxs W., a Iftwvf-r, tho only son of tlie i>rece<l- ments." After this, he was for years presi- 

" - - . - ^^jj 

ob- 
ath 

ward tutor in the same institution. On taking Manna],'' ttc. He then i*peut 4 ycara \ii ^t^- 




S2 EDWARDS EECKHOCT 




*!>•*«• M. »:.■..»!.' _ . ^ ... J ... . . ._ 

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EECLOO TgTer. 

EECLOO, or Eccloo, a town of Belginm, in alive until wanted for market in ditches sup- 

th« province of East Flanders, 11 m. from plied by the tide. In Feb. 1858, at Harwich and 

Ghent ; pop. in 1856, 8,837. It has an active the neighboring towns on Cape Cod, tlio princi- 

indiia'try and commerce in woollen fabrics, hat«, pal part of the male population were engaged 

tobacco, and nil, and is the most important grain in eeling; the fi^fih were obtained by Kpearmg 

miirket in the province. through tlie ice ; in a single bay, and on one 

££Is a name applied to several malacopter- day, 200 men HjK'ared 100 bushels, or 1,200 do«- 
o-i"? fishes of the families anyi/iZ/Mf<p, cow^tfriA*, en; such as were not consumed in the town 
lH'I murtrnidiF, especially to tlie typical genera were sent, packed in ice, to Boston, New York, 
art^iilia (,Cuv.), conger (Cuv.^, and murana and other cities, wliere they were readily sold. 
iTncnb.). From their snake-like appearance, The silvery eel (-/4.ar^cw<«»,Les.)i*' silvery gray, 
aii-1 the absence of ventral fins or posterior darker above, and satiny white below ; the pec- 
Uabx they liuve been called anguiform apodcs; torals are nearer tlie head than in the common 
they all have the body more or less elongated species, of which, however, it is considered by 
&z.t! cylindrical, no ribs in the skeleton, a cxcal some only a variety ; it is taken in pots in Oc- 
stomaoli, and simple not-jointed fin rays. In tober, when it leaves the ponds. A large spo- 
th^ genus anguilta^ to which the common eel cies, caught in the lakes of western New York, 
UIonff-5, the scarcely apparent scales are cy- is the beaked eel {A, raatrata, Les.) ; the snont 
cJoid, narrow, oblong, arranged in groups at is elongated and pointed ; the upper parts are 
ri^iit uncles to each other, forming a kind of olive-gray, sometimes slaty blue, and tne lower 
iacike-work under the cuticle ; the whole skin parts white ; the dorsal and anal fins reddish ; 
ia *>ft ar.'d tlimy, thickly studded with mucipa- length about 2 feet. The common eel of Europe 
roM elands and ducts; the nostrils are double, (A. ticutirastrity Yarrell) has a sharper snont 
each having 2 orifices, the anterior prolonged than ours ; it is highly esteemed as an article 
inio a tube, and tlie pasterior opening above of food, and the London market is supplied 
t'ae mouth; the teeth are card-like or villiform principally from Holland, from which the eels 
in botli jaws, and a few on the anterior part of are brought alive in vessels carrying each from 
the Tomt-r; the gill-opening on each side is very 15,000 to 20,000 lbs. Eels are mu(?h esteemed 
small, and just in front of the pectoral fin, which in other countries, especially, acconling to El- 
exists ia all the species; the dorsal fin begins at lis, in Polynesia, where they are often tamed 
a caafidvrable distance from the head, and be- and fed until they attain an enormous size. 
Ij'aJ this pectorals, and forms a continuous fin The attention of fish breeders mi^ht be very 
wirh :lie oa-.i'lal and anal; tlie lower jaw is profitably directed to this family ; they are nu- 
I'-iijcr th;in The upper. There are about 50 merous, prolilic, linrdy, ea.-^ily iiroservod in salt, 
bj-v* iL"? do-cribed. The common eel of the fresh, and brackish water, and will always find 
Dijnhern and middle states (J. BoiftouieiUiU, Lc- a ready sale. Eels are de'scribed as making 2 
fficar. ami tulgarU^ Mitch.) is greenish or olive- migrations annually, one in autumn to the sea, 
bruwn abrtve, and yellowish or yellowish white the other in spring or summer from the sea to 
bcDtiatli, ofron with a reddish tinge along the the rivers. They are not found in arctic regions, 
anal fin ; in a specimen 2 feet long, measured nor in the rivers of the extreme north of Eu- 
br Dr. Storer, the short pectorals were about rope ; even in temperate regions, at the ap- 
8 inohos from the end of the snout. The eel proach of winter, they bury themselves in the 
inhabits both .«alt and fresh water, from the nmd, renuiining torpid until spring; they re- 
B.*ici>h provinces to the southern states, wher- main without f<)od, breatliing hardly at all, at 
ever it i-an find its favorite muddy bott<»ms a low animal temi)erature, and almost motion- 
sad extensive fiats; it prefers shallows near less; yet the irritability of the muscular fibre 
the shore, where it may be caught in great is very great, as is shown by the restless motions 
nambersi by hook and line, by bobbing, and by of eels during thunder storms, and by their well- 




I' 

d«rpth of about a foot, and are then speared the eel is able to survive a long time out of 

throazh liolc< cut in the ice ; the be>t time for water, simply because the gills remain moist 

cati-hin;; thorn is at ni^jrht, by torch-liglit. Dur- from the small size of the branchial nrilices ; by 

\S3^ their passage up and down rivers they are this means it traverses considerable distances on 

taken in baskets an<i pots baited by fish or any laml, moving like a snake through the grass; 

decaying matter. Tlie eel is very voracious and in this way is ex])laine<l the apjiearance of eels 

quite iimniviirous; when in good condition it is in fish ponds from which the utmost care has 

a wrll-fiuvored fish, though, from its s?iake-liko been taken to exclude them, on account of th<*ir 

appexiraure (and it is only in form that it re- destruction of the spawn and young of more val- 

wmbles a snake). m«>st persons are prejudiced uable fishes; they have been otYen seen perform- 

affainst it. The length varies from li inches to ing such overlaml journeys at ni«:ht. Eels are 




Mts^ 'l5 or 20 bushels at a time, and are kept burface, and sometimes swun very high m d<«\> 



34 ££L 

wfctir; iltf'Uirh m»>w f.f prnwth, iK-y httJiln n It hn* Uvn ranel.t on llio I!n(;li:*h coA^t, bnl it 

Wji' ■»>/«' iiinii r i.i\><r.iMi' I .ri iiiit«rM:« i". liHv - aIhmitmIh in iIk- Mi (liti-rrtiiif.'iit : ^n-At nninWri 

iiiiT !N*it I .iMfeT^r ill V.uj:\.ivA ui-iifiiin^ *J7 I'-^. wi ii* rtiiiourn*<i hy tli<* bricii-iil HiiiiiAn«, nho 

TIk' t«<nn I'l Ki\ i- ^nitl !•• Ii:i\r 1>«.« i\ -• r..L'!Mil k( pi tin rii in pei.t!*', hihI i'^i-ii {•liio'fl tlii-ni alire 

frt'in tlif riiit* !::iv;; j Ihoii |i.p!inrl_\ j.:ii.| in i-n li.f ta'Oi* in trv-lal \i*MN t!iiit the fni<^tJ 

IH'I-. tK*' li-r-U imIi. in.i'p.r ^^ iii^ ;ii!ii-i.i!i% t :i- mijlil jplmiro i!:i ir lH';mii!'»il nili.r*!»«"f'»r*' thfT 

tilK'l l'» I!.".-! :!.:i:i !'• «. ». Klri..iri'. ■rj Tjm »• n- i •M'ki-il. l';i-ar i** Nii'l l«» Imwili^lriiiUlrJ 

Hi'V»-rii, w tk* Ml « ;i;;, il !r"Tii iS- iiiiiin !.-.■• hiiin- ri.i'Mn i.f tli^ -i" iNIhh Himtti;: !ii^ frii'iid^ nii tho 
Ut <f I?it— t>!. II.' ro laki ri. TS.r i • :!,:• r < • !■* i • !• !'riilii»ri I't" Mru* ni" lii.-t triuiiiph*. Tlify are 
diif* r fr»'»i. il.r v'' •■•■' "■■■.yi./.i iti lui^nij t!.- v. r\ \i-r;ii iiiij* aul turro, ami nn* haid ^'ine- 
dnrvhi Imi Uj'.ii ii>.irirtii« ill .f!. :ir iir t v« n in tiiiti «ti> li:t\<' !"-«-(i l*i'«l •■!! llit* lK->!i nf ^lHVr* who 
fn»ii! ••! ti.i- j'tf ••■r.-.I-. ai.'i :!. ii.iv.n.' t'.i- nj-i" r Ij.i-I ff!! ?:"!i«l tlnir Kniii.'iii nnt-ti-r*. TIk-t are 
Jaw t!.i' I'i.,*ir. tin- ji'.t. ri -r i.-r-Tr.!- i pi n liv t:-!i' •! r-r wirli -Trunif Ii!ii-<«, uii<l tluir l»ile is 
nhiirt !':"'i " i I-"".- T'l iln" * ii i !■! till" •!..i.T, tui'l isiui ii «lrt .I'l. •! I«v iln- ii<>iit riarii ; tin* are\iTy 
UjO i^i-ri r:-.r i'l !"r"!i: •: lJj« lar»-i- »}.-; l!.-* li-ii.H iou- d' lii'i*. Tlit- llf-!i !•« wliitf, «Mit*ftte, 
tci-th ff tin- |-.il.i'f :ii.'! ii ::.tr :!!•• -li ifl- r. »i;li ull^\ iiuch *->!i i iiu-tl. Tiuri* uro iiiiiiiv ••|it'cii*4i, 
clii-^ 1 -Jinlt'l iri^*!.*. jii.il «!.i-ili «rr:iiii:i i! ; * >> '.ii-i\fly niiirrii-. — Tin* haml n.-! (iimnicK/jr'M 
t!it» fi.in i- (...k' «l J.!.'! »t jL;i !• •«. .-ii.'! tin- t.liI .!"•< ''i>'i>i*iii. Iir K:t> ) li:f« u!i i-Ii>ii::iit«*l, hlitrht- 
irliiu.:.!!! •! .ill'! j" -.iiV"!: I!. I'tJiir r- "I'l i t- !l.i y \\ (••(i.|>ri-«'>i-iU'iN|\, Iar;:i* ::iI1-n| it- niniT'*. adored 
rvM iiiMi* tilt • ••::iin"n i-i !. 1 !••• An < rii .'iii i <<n- fim \Ti n>lin,riii:iriv \\n' u hi>Ii'Irii;rthi>!'tLoN*t'k, 
l^r Ctf'.j/rr (•'*•< .^sr.i'i*. 'Ik- K;i,^ M-i'!iw ! [••wii iinila!i:ii.:tlfini>ti •■n-i•^■ra:•]•■^i/«^ !N.itliM-|tiir&lc4l 
»Imi\o ;i:.l w!,i!.-lt Ih',.i» ; i!i,- iLir-.-il rii-il ii!.;il iV.-rn i)m- t :i-.i«ial : llio l<'»ir jaw tlio ]f>ni!i-*t ; the 
fiii« iiri' Ir.iT ""iL'tri :.l ^ i:!. a (!»:k !i«'ri!t r : \)n- !:i:- t <i!>'r i« } i Il^u i«h nr }i]ui-<li \^T*^}^ u a)Hi\r, iiiiic4 
vral linr > li^-tnn !. w illi u »< in - •■! \k liiii- •!••'«>: \% I'.li ^iiv« r\ ainl li:r!it i^ri* n : llir -idi-* nnil uti«]«>- 
it jfri»» - !".i l:ir,:i *i/i'. rri-iu ;j i.» .'» i". ••! in ]i tijili, im tiiirc-«:l\t r;k ; tluli nk'ttti^ iVmhii; in 1:* iiii'litr^ 
Aiiii i'i!!.i r !h.- iir aii"!!.» r !-p« ■ ii- i* !'"i!.«l trmn TLi- -pi 'i' •« i- f-iiinil from iIh* ri«a«t i»f IjiUraiUrr 
tlieK"'^ "•^•- ^-'**f« ■'■*■ """•■'** ^tf'i •^•' *■»'".»' J );•• t'» !l:.it i>i Ntw Yi-rL; in lUv prmiinvi il U 
r«»a-»l i'f N'« M Jir-^-t. "!!»• lviri-;i« an i.'i.:«r l;ir;.*t Iv n-^ «1 a* l-ail !"'»r i'^mI ; it it iir\ «*iiiiiiitoii 
('*. cu^:«fri#. ("1:1 i i- •••■::.nii«!i i-n t;..- iii.i«i i-i" in l.-'n/ I«!.i!i'! "Minnil t'ri»ni Ma> I«i Ni«ii'iii?*T, 
l\>riiuti'!. « :; th« «a~'irn r-n k\ x^xr* ". a:.>l in • ":i«;iTii!itij in I't *•• a^nii thi- prini'ip:il t>it*«l uf 
l>aziLt ••!!' t!- • I • .i-T I'l Kraiit I . it i-. r.iiijl.t i»n tl.i '•!'». ri-li a.'iil l-a"*; it i" al""* tat* n by ••"'^ 
lll.f*, tJ.»- l« -! ' .i:l l'« ii.p! tli»- -ai'l I.i'nn • \ Pi- ui.-l I'TfnT li-!! ; tin- 1 iplialfpit! » 'itt'.*. Ii»h pfi* J 
mt»fytt*\ I'f :!.<• p:!\ l..iril. aMi tl-i- li-} r j it iip'!i it < \r< ii»n< i\ ; liki- t!ii'ir<>pii al I^Mii*:ti*h, 
|irrfiTrm«! :»t i.i/!i: ; ^rr. a! I. ;!ij'-i r- ar* Taki n, i! i^ pi;r-:h'l ]'\ ll^lii- in t!.f iiat^r. ai.il l-^ jruIU 
aii<1 !i;»i! ni??i a T* i*t\} -al« at a I"M pr i- • \>> ll.f a?.. I ti n,* ii. t!,.- .-li:". 'I !.t naim « ••!' ».in«l !aunr« 
|Mi<irir I in-"! ". \ i\ 1*. ii n--T Li !l 1:1 iiin !. t -ti!!..!- iii.<l -i'm ''i>-<;\v''4 I'-rt- ^'ivi-n !•» it lri>ni iT« haMt 
ti"n. ( •■■i,'i r* ar-- \« r_^ \ «":■,».;.. w*. sivil :ii •■.;;:«• i.f il.ir!ii „• i-iil i'l :i!,il int-i tLi* -.ilii!. IkAiI fi»iv» 
ftlar^'r-i/- . -p. •.;..•;.-. !.a\« Ut ;ii .lUj;! ! w. :.•!:• ii.'^l an-lis.-T-i: 'i^ . I> nn ah^ o!" it" priJi-« tin|C 

in*c 1 ••• i ■- , I .'ri- I'lUh I" I- • t i": ,'. ai -1 is I.'W.rjiW. Ii- ! ! i" priiti ipii!)% iij-«*!*. IHi 

liiri.i • in I .:« .ri,:. ■. : « I ; li.i » i,r. *t : » •tr-r-.'. L*.* i ".koi •>! T.t .-!.i:.-! 1! i^ t -:i i n.* •! A« Iim«!. and 
1»it«. »K-irp!i. ui'l 1..V /ri :i: !• r..L< :\v «.i !.; . io :-.ik* •! K.it i*! t!.< *.ii.i! :tT !<»u liilr in trrtat iii:m- 
A* Tiifti.^ .1* l.*»'» w r!' '-r.! ),.».. "m I :i »•■..■. .1 i;! !)..■ I • ; " . 1; i* a!-» • .ii»';.! iii -* li:< ". T»"*I«*rir« 
ruiiffi r. a'-- .t 4" I..' ri t} .1;. .ri !•- '.•! iii !'.- ••!; a:i r!- -, r;' • •!. r.i>>li:i>\( Y\i ^:^f^**lf^fu»e!gr- 
l}^\•^ »\:\\\ :. V: }*• » * :..''* r uiA Jl.n. . r. \ . >:rJ.!n trt.-..,^ I;.,: 1 "i:...iijli ap"<!nl a:.'l tv!".iki- in 
Kirli.iT':-!';. n'.I .•!^"i tii '.» *;•« I h ^ i ui- • • i .■: r'n- ^ri ■• r..l .1; : 1 .irii:.- . . ;!.:- t>li JjtVi :-• fri-ni \\t^ 
Viiitt rTa:.« ..!.. •"■ ! I" • .1 v. !!■• -I \\ - ••? :»:.- i. i.t n I- m !!i. • ■•: .pi. :. i*-- • r il.r law *. tL«- jifx-*- 

I'"nn". *■•■'■! J' !■• Till i^i '."i* t'j'jrr ,ij. 1 ...i:.,. ?. r in l' m -«. a:.<! ti.i j'-iiifiil tMiriijk-; 1! \:mm 

iii*\ ^\ \}.' ri'-t : t |N .!••.' ;i;-. •:.. .•:! :\:A n- l»^■ r %• :.:i.il h-T il'-r-.ij li' . t^•■ ai..u ri .m Kt^ 

wall It •* »k.- . *'..:.I'. laii "i! i-r.i! I !.i:i! i • .•!• 1 !■:* I.-?... p. :■.: • • ::.■ r ni. aii-l !iki- ll.i ptt"-'r»i» 

I'BkA, •ii!i-. HI •! ::.. ■.!..•■ ■'. il-.r-a! a- ! ..■..»'. :.'i-. .-• « :\i '■ ; . -1 it. a tl .■ k *kin n !,• !« 1 --ri. . a'.* the 

Jiiw ar. ! !'•••*. l.-.if'.^ (1 •'!:/. I-: .' .. !••».. -1 r..» - :) i -»wii. .- *• :* :i'.'l ■•iali!»--. iJ.i Ki ad 

ll.r n.a:/T t" '..!-■:_* . i!.i •»..•■ ..-. iT i „■. -! j- ••% li .t .•'.:! iV •!.. ::.-•;::. i .ri.i»lit«l w ::K > .-..aiI 

In B •:!..!'• !• w :.: :.l :? . •'!,•• '■! I .■■ • i-.w '.;-. ;.i «!•;■•:.•■,•:.'•■, ..'.« ..- far U" :.♦:■!« r iJ.t* 

b«>iii-, »."• n Sw t :. !.'.• ! •• / • .ilii. i'. •!..l;..'. .*.- '.'• • .k •■:■.■ r : ■•-tfj^i ari- -n .■\'i l;!-* • i!i • 

Itrir. V'-r- •:. .• J' -;....% ..:. .•. n. r. ..!../ - .. ' .!;:-•.■. .•• : . ".i-I.- i-J !!.r l:j •. t' f 

ta.T.i? / ■ !.i 't.-' ' •" I •■• ,*. S . ! .- . • 1/ • ri ^' '. I . -•. -. .• ..: . ■ . .. .; ;.• ■! .-.'■.. \i tl t !.. . '..i'« raJ 

l\\ ' w.t- r' •.'. .1 ..•■ -■ * ..: •'.. ;-:.!.• .1 . : 1 ...'-•!.•. J. ■■.•*■' i ••■ •. '\ !. , :": .•:. t!..- .iT« 

aiit)* 1 !.. I I. . •; . ■ .i ■ . r • . M- 1 'i '• »' % i ; - - . • . .' 1 • ' ■. J • !•■«» r. a "^ •■:.•! r«* » f 

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|«i •^• ]• : i". : * r '. '. . : V ..."■.. ;x ; r a ■. i -• ... ! *■ . ' . i.'. 'J i- w - i.!--!.^' Tin -;• Tj.j .'.« - 

|!l-*. * : VI ... : ..rk'^l ■» •*• ^ , .■ •" >• ■* • . ' v • ' . j.. r ' ' . ! r. !'• ' ra',« iiia! i-ri- 

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ai.tt r. r : •••.;•.. 1 ■ .• *.'-.•■ .».'•.•;...•. » .. •.:■-. .--. i r".. j .:•'.• : p.ju ■l ^-u'.h 

Ir.i p. •!. -. r .'..-. ■ : ,■ ■ . : .. • . . •.- A i 1 •.•* •.*...•■;. !..::i •:.'■ .-r •••.»'.. r4i'I 

AT*- /j!.'.i7 !.«:... -1 !:•;.. L.«'- ..^r •!•>«.•:::,< :.t. :i •■! a., 'w. a:. 1 ^t..i'-» ;'!i i<'.\-r. li.v %.\\- 



EELEE EFFEN 25 

trio apparfttos irliich has rendered this fish so mountains, "where they find abundant pasturage 

Cciehrsted occupies the space between the pec- for the flocks and herds which constitute their 

ton^ and the tail, for a largo part of the lower only wealth. They breed camels, horses, and 

Iwlk of the body ; the organs are 4 in number, sheep. The latter furnish tliem with milk, which 

S on each side, the upper and larger organ be- is made into liquid butter and sold to the in)iab- 

ii^ separated from the lower by a thin stratum itants of tlio lower country. They pay tributo 

of muscle and membrane, and the organs of one to the government, and are obliged to furnish a 

i&ie ait distinct from those of the other; the certain number of soldiers and horsemen for 

apparatus consists of an assemblage of mem- the Persian army. In personal appearance tho 

branons horizontal plates, nearly parallel and Eeleeyats are frequently prei)ossessing. Tho 

intersected by delicate vertical plates ; tho cells men are hardy, powerful, and well proportioned, 

tins formed are filled with a glutinous matter ; with dark brown skins, aquiline noses, and pierc- 

ibe lepta, according to Hunter, are about ^V ^^ ^S black eyes. The women when young aro 

in inch from each other, and one inch in length often beautiful, having delicate nut-brown com- 

contains S40 cells, giving a very great surface plexions, regular features, handsome teeth, and 

to the electric organs. Tho system is abun- countenances beaming with good humor. But 

dntly supplied with nerves from the 200 pairs perhaps no women in the world change so com- 

of ventral spinal nerves, but not from tho lateral pletely as they advance in years. With tho ap- 

oostinuation of the trigeminus and vagus nerves proach of old age the charms of the Eeleeyat fo- 

from which the electric system of the torpedo males vanish ; their skins parch and wither, and 

iisappUed. The electric eel seems to be a mere their pleasing expression ^ves place to ono of 

qpendage to the anterior part of its battery for inconceivable repulsivcncss. The Eeleeyats usu- 

porpoees of moving it about, as all the other ally dwell in communities of 20 or 30 families. 

oigBDfl are confined to a very small space, even Lady Shell, in her ^* Glimpses of Life and Man- 

^ vent opening under the head; and the ners in Persia" (London, 1856), remarks that 

BBves supplying the electric organs are much " the tent-dwelling Eel is to be recognized b7 

jugcr than those sent to any sensory or motor his bold and manly air and his freo and inde- 

organs. According to Humboldt, the South pendent look. The stationary Eels aro termed 

American Indians capture these eels by driving either Tats or Takhtch Eapoo ; the latter term 

horses and moles into the water inhabited by implies that their doors are made of wood, that 

them ; the electric powers of the fish being ex- is, they live in houses. They are also termed 

Laastcd on the quadrupeds, the former are Dehnishccn, which means village dwellers." 
harpooned and thrown on shore ; the horses EElSSAll, Somaulee, or Somafli, a powerful 

fwr greatly, many of them being killed by tribe inhabiting tlio territory of Adel, on tho 

the electric discharges of the fish which glide coast of the sea of Babelmandeb, £. Africa, 

leneath their b«>ilie». By grasping tho head They are a pastoral people, leading a roving life, 

cf the eel with one hand and the tail with the and subsisting chiefly on tho produce of their 

other, the niu?t ])aiuful and almost insupport- flocks and herds. Tlicy have no fixed habita- 

abie ^ocks were received, in the experiments tions, and wear little other clothing than a loa- 

«f Fanuiay. This fish is neither voracious nor ther apron. They carry shields, spears, bows, 

fierce, but u«es its battery to secure its prey, and poisoned arrows. Tho Danakils, a ncigli- 

■sd to defend itself from its numerous enemies, boring tribe, hold them in great dread, and do- 

( See E lectric Fishes.) scribe them as a nation of thieves and murderers, 

^CTFF Elk, or Ili, alsoGooLDjA, GorrnjA, or but tho character given them by European trav- 

GrLKcnx (Chinese, IIoci'yuan-tching\ a city ellers is moro favorable. 
of S. V. Soongaria, China, and capital of a dis- EFFEN, Justus vax, a Dutch scholar, 4>orn 

triet of its own name; pop. 76,000. It is a in Utrecht in 1684, died in Bois-le-Duc, Sept. 18, 

ee of banishment for Chinese criminals, but 1735. IIo was a graduate of tho university of 

also considerable trade with the cities of tho Ley den, and for many years was a privato 

pt^Hnce of Kansoo, and with other parts of tho teacher, conducting at tho samo time several lit- 

MBpire. It is well fortified, surrounded by walls erary periodicals. II is first publication' of this 

of ttone, and contains barracks for tho troops, kind was called Le misanthnppe, written in 

puaries. and government offices. It is situated French and published at the Hague, sliortly after 

«a the right bank of tho river Eelee, a stream tho appearance of Addison's " Si>ectator." This 

•nr 800 m. long, which rises in tho mountains wos succeeded by tho IloUand^hc Spectator 

of Thian-shan-nan>loo, and empties into Lako (1731-'35). IIo si)ont some time in England as 

T cBgfae ezor Balkash, near the borders of Siberia, secretary of tho Dutch embassy, and tnmslatcHl 

mLS, Eeleeyats, or Ilitats, a namo ap- * ^Robinson Crusoe, ''Swift'd" Tale of a Tub," and 

jficd to tho wandering tribes of Persia. They 146 numbers of tho ** Guardian," into French. 

«« Cound in every part of the country, and So thoroughly was ho master of that tongne, 

lUioagh many of them have become inhabi- that some of his writings which appeared an<»n- 

of cities and viUages, tho m^ority pro- ymously were at first attribute<l to FontcnoUo. 

their ancient customs, living in tents and A collection of his French works appeared at 

jiming all connection with tho old Per- Amsterdam in 1742, in 5 vols A 2d edition of 

■tocfc. In winter they keep to the plains, his JloU^ndschc Spectator was published in IUq 

Ittoa tho approach of summer ascend to thg samo citf in If 56, 



20 EFFESDI EFT 

EFFTXI*! fRoniAii', artvr^t, lonl). in Tnrkcr, of an cx«rti»inn. and n^ilnrinir t])<^ corir: 

thi* iitif pve!i !•• i\\ il niKi ^r«. I'.ariii ^I nun, oud niorely iMi-^iing iIk* iiamcof tho i*i>[!(!> ixr: 

bll l)i'>«4' w}i> fiil'ii :.iiv i7ii|Kirt.iiii f'.i:i(:tl(»n. n^in, t4>i;ithi-r witli the ju<!,niuiii fv.:..::i 

K^K^.!tVK>^■K^■^ k. !!.•■ ». /-..m wliirli lali-* ujNin a jiiiMu" j»l:u'i'. 1 ho tx«.r.ir:iM I; 

J ':i' .-. r- "< II ':'..:.,: ■••■' :i^:. wl.iii n /;i«< i" i«'pi- I;a-« cxUtiJ «liiw?i to llio lalc-l t\.\'%* i:, 

I- i-!v • \ • '.-. • I I': rr. 1 r> ukli.*: ii;> t'f ii::i' I }.f[iii* olhtT i*iniiitric«», Iviiijj i-xt-ni^ti! l-'t!. \ 

( al i "1. ;••■:. ij 1 ..':-l t!ii r<rii.:i! imIi ••!:»:.>•: L> r. .'ih criiiiii-nU an«l, wit!i>»ut U^:^] -M. ■'.'.•■?•,. 

\\!.. r. tJii- n •.! aJ. 4 :ilk.»'.r.-- ^'--wiiir-* i-f « tVi r- |ivi»pio. In Kii^IhikI it i-* a |">j«;.!.ir i;.v:l 

\i- :: j: 'i;. »■,:■■•• ■''' tl.-*"'.'. • i <r isiixt ■!. ff vcntiiii; ^pito A^Miiiot nii|Mij.iilAr i::* :;. 

lii.:t . Ill I. r!j ;!..r.ii.-.- r;i:^.f.i.' m id jrw-i Fa^^kc;! in t-lVi^'ir auiiually, ni.d fn-jUvr 
I'M .»i ' ••. .i- iT :- -■:■!. \\ i:!i • ?'". rs. -It rii ..*. ixu«^l {iniiiiihi'iit Hkmi ot* iji^laii'! i:.iLr :!; 
Kl"H'l:VK>< INi; r<»\Vlir.l:S. J rii.nr:it*H)fi«i ally f»r ?hhih' iM»'illi«al i«r iivlt-i.i^! . .i; . t 
i»f:n . 1 .iiiduikalii.i' |-«iwi!. r«, J ur j.pimhiVcrciitly KKKINlillAM. I. An E. r«v i-fiJa . 
f"! 'rol jMjHrv i:i tTiUr !•• <ii*>:]i:knii-li li.oru. to cd W. l»y the < ^kvorhfo ri\ir, !»♦.•! -• j 
I'c t.»«,d ii-« :i t:;i-ilii i:.o Iv nii\lij^ ll.r i'i>ii!vnt!i from Sciutb ('.in'lina «*ii the K !•« tV< 
• i{" tvi.i.l:?V. ri :4: ]>:\\" r-^nV.* r thv-i.- liiivr Inrvii did- uali ; arnv 4'«n ^•^. in. ; |»<»|i. in l"*.'.;. .'i.i 
^ O^oil. u:.d ilr:!.kin.; \il.ili- t!if i-l.iniii-alrcai.-:i>*n ulifiu l.r*7ri wr-rr h!:&v<.'». It hu-< ap 
il tak.r.p; ]!.ii'r ui;!i I :l*i.r^> >< • Lii*. Tlic inin- lovil Mirfa>i', mIiIi a Kktuly M.j-r<<il . t:i 
in*-:! •'• 1.1 :ii.J N •.!.:/ |'"wdiT^ :""'ri;i ttViTVi -iitj^ lait there arr t xt« u-'ive |iin».' uirl <.'»;:• -- 
dr.i'1*:!!!.". t.^o !w\-\ in ii:.i> oi' il.i- |i:ipcr4 nnn- and lutn^M r i-* an itMjK.irtutit ar!i<]i'<t' 
I'iiiiLf? ui:7i thr 111 kali lit* t ho (ar!"'nati* in the In ]**.V) tho {>riH!iif-:iMns vcn- -^T.T.'f 
cilhiT. ar.il <.-\{M '.iiiii; ihi-i .irl'Miiic :u id. Thi'*;:a.s <'t* Indian r<>rn, .'m.'J'i'J •>!' !>\%ivt | •<*:»:.' 
i«'iitin i'.iu* !•• li' • »'«lvi i! in ilit- »!"inarli. ncU an "."iTty"! 11-*. "f rif.-. TluTi* wi-n '2\ «!. 
a r< :iij;t-r.i:.t :Jii! d.apltur^ lli-. i^Mtr tix* alk^uinv nnd 'J**>< jjupi!'* atti imIIll' i>ul>'.i«' >• }.•- !< 
Kalt 1* o!^;:!i:t\ hiiatiVc. IK-' dr;:ik i^ i.-Hi<i-t i:illv ronntv uu'* hanird in li«>niir nf I.<>nl K:V.: 
a<l.i|-Uil t'l :• !ri!'- runii'liiit/.- :n-ni iU nxiliof; a Knli-h I'tlici r u !iu r«."i^iir>I h'> i«>ri.! 
aniir- :>!. *}.i:.^'.|i:ik:i:ii!<. 'I ).c • M!r.::ii niKHla {•«'»- rather than tako arns'< BL':i'n-t th- A: 
dcr* ii'ii-i-t t'f 'J'l ^raiii- cl' t:»r:ar.<' ai*id in ui.o cultinit-. <'a|'ital, >]>r:iigtiv!d. V.il .■■ 
|•aI«•r, aii>l ••'^rfa.i.oi'f IharlK-Wiaii- i-f »iMla in tlie c-tat»* i'.i 1 *•."*•'•. f ■''•J''. 7" :{. II. Aii-'r^l 
Cithir. An I .|>a'. :dr:.t pr"|>4trT;<in <.<f hirarl'i-nito III., draiiivd hy I.i'.tlv Waha^h r:\' r. a'; i i 
(■f I*>t.i^h to »<(ni t4iui«t piil'-^sit.itt-d tor till* H'd4. mill >triain ; uri-a, ni»*iit n*'** -•;. >.. 
Thi* fit'il"» n»^ Afo the j'ri'|«i»r:»i»ii«» ^ri\vn in xUv \<tT». A.^-^rt. It ha* u Kvi I i».:i:".ir i-. . , 
"Ann'ri"a:i I h*j"-n-al. -ry' : tartari*- acid 1 o/,, WimhIIiUiiI* and t"i r'il*' | ra'.rii * i:. n!!:.--^ 
l»:«arl«un.itf .-:" --mIj 1 i/. ar.d Til jTi.i:!;*. nr I'ii'.ir- iiri>|H>rti'ii.«. (*i'|'(M'r. li'ad, a'l i ir ar^ 
l"r!.a*t! t'( |■^»^l•vi 1 • /. a:id !'"»'• ^Taiii.o. "ll.o liori*, nu<l th*- i lii« f ;urr:' ' !:':r.»'. [ !.. • 
i^id ai;d till.ir ! i- ar^'ii it« . ^1 ill/ •- l-aratt Iv rt- jfraMi niid^«>i*l. In !**'•'• U..- . r '» 
di i»l *<•* I ji'.' ;- A'hr. .iF" t!:vi.hil t .11 h iiit.t lO SiT."'-*'* I.ij-IhIi «r" huliiii i..r: . .*. > • - :' 
I--::. ■:.••. I .*:»•■ :* :! i- ^•••:;• !;n» <• i-in]>!<>\ i.d 3»"«.'»'J*« i-f • :il -. 7. l'»'i i :■-■■:" \v • .-.. ;;»".7l 
I:.-*., vl "f !"■..' ! i:!.irn- a.!. \u ll.o yr*'\--r- t«.r. ami 'Ul I> >:■.'•• I' !..i> . '1 ),• r- w. :• .'. • i. 
C^-n I'f '.' .1: u '.,'■■ - :■• 1! .il' iVi- --'d.i j-all. I r 13 and .*J*i i-u] .'.n ut:i !i-.::.^' ; ■.*■'.. - ■.•■. - 
if til." j-*'*^.-'! ••. .-1 i'.' )H.u-iir'« ar- a iifi\:iiro ilji!. Kwin;:t -n. 

I'f J tIr.M :.r:.-*.l i: - ■:.r.:.-./.;i.:..r:r^lt.'..f|-.ta^h EITI < «I:I.'«< !:S« K . I iT #;'.' . ! 

hnd •"-].» n'.'l J - r .; ".■ •■ iif ':■»• .irl •■rjaii» I f •'■"la tr-. th' •■"•■:.! iij !• | ■.*■!. r 

ir* •■In' I .»|^r. ar.il '• ^Ta.:.- •■! tar'arii- aii<l in 1«-!.. ^ a,-* tin \ ; i:? \s:'*. :.• .- ' ' 

t*.f i'TJ.tr. 1 :.«■ t.»r!..r.«- a> id S-.:'..' in v\'f>!» iii?" I'.t'r • ■■'i.j .•/.. r "i - ;. .: 

fi :.-h r« l),'- til '..'.I.! !:.■■•.■ ! ".• .i*.r.'. l» tak*'. ••■:".:-!i.»'- ■•! »■••! i < r (tt:.'- ■ « -.. ■ - 

».:.*»■.: III*. •:- 'I'./ V* :!'..'.-. I. .-,.: t .,:a'.:y « ,ir ■•..'.■ a!- ■. ..t ■! -*'':;•••• 

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r»i -fc'"' ■• '. ■ "• ..:■ ■ :.: !■-■•':. n "f !':..:.• !i. i».i!* Ir.-r. •" . .i.r I f • U •■..-• ■ 

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• ■a*. ••■&•••<•■ 'li 31 V. •(.••>. a*«*. ' ''''• ••^•■^•••« 1>\.. * 



£GALIT£ EGERIA 27 

tlie efta in the genns lissoiriton. The color in his wife, 2 sons, and 46 oth<rr persons, and in July 

the male is brownish gray above, passing into following landed upon the coast of Greenland in 

7e£k>wish beneath, which in the spring becomes lat. 64^ N. Ilis mildness and zeal gained tho 

bright orange : there are numerous round dark affections of the rude natives, and after several 

ipots of unequal size, and 2 longitudinal streaks years of effort ho was able to ])reach tho gospel 

oa the head ; the crest in spring is often tipped in their language. Various calamities, among 

with red or violet. The female is light yellow- which were the ravages of tho small pox, al- 

"* brown, or buff with brown dots, plainer be- most annihilated the result of his labors. Yet 



low. The total length is about 3^ inches, of before his departure he succeeded in laying a 

whidi the t^l is nearly one half. It is very foundation for the further propagation of Ohris- 

eoDunoQ in the ditches and ponds of Europe, tianity upon those icy shores, and in establishing 

t^ecially where the water is clear ; its food the germs of what was to be an important com- 

eoittistff principally of annatio insects, larves, merce. The Danish govenimcnt sent out 3 

worma, and moUnsks. Tne reproduction and Moravian brethren to aid him, and after a resi- 

neUmoq>hosis are almost identical with those dence of 15 years in Greenland, Egede, seeing 

df the newta. Though usually spending most tho colony flourishing in the hands of the Mora- 

of their time in the water, the young in June, vians, asked and obtained permission to leave 

md the adults in summer and autumn, become it. He continued his labors for the evangcliza- 

temstrial; they appear to attain their full size tion of Greenland, alter his return to Denmark, 

the first year. The experiments of Spallanzani by publishing several works, and by superin- 

ibow that the members and the tail may be re- tending a seminary designed especially for tho 

pwdnced several times in succession, with bones, education of missionaries for that country. — 

nnseles, vessels, and nerves. Like the other Paul, son of the oreceding, and successor in 

npliibia, it is very tenacious of life, and can re- his apostolical labors, born at Waagon, near 

■it even congelation. Its bite is perfectly harm- Drontheim, in 1708, died Juno 8, 1789. Ho 

Iml They are eaten by the larger amphibia^ was a child when he went with his father to 

hf flahea, and by various reptiles, birds, and Greenland, and in 1728 returned, bringing to 

nail camivora. Copenhagen several Esquimaux, with the design 

£GALIT£. PniLiPPR. See Orleans. of initiating them into European civilization. 

EGBERT, king of Wessex, and 1st king of tho They all died, however, of tho small pox. After 

niitcd Anglo-Saxons, born about 775, ascend- pursuing his theological studies in Denmark, he 

«d the throne of Wessex in 800, died in 836. returned to tlie mission station, and labored 

The defeated rival of King Brihtric, he took there 4 years after the return of his father. Ho 

refuse fir*t at the court of OfFa, the king of translated the ** Imitation of Christ" and por- 

M«rcla. and afterward in France, wlierc he was tions of the Bible into tho language of Green- 

rwtiveJ at tho court of Charlema{^e, in whoso land, and at his departure left the colony in a 

inme« he s-orved 3 year:*. Ufion the death highly prosperous con«lition. He fullilled va- 

ef Brihtrio in bCKl he was recalled to his native rious functiims in Denmark, was particularly 

ewoarrj, and acknowledged as king by the West active in expediting tho exploring mission of 

Saoa thanes. In 600 he commenced his career Lovenon to tho cotusts of (i reeiiland, and at the 

i4 ci>nquest : and. successively subduing the time of his death occupied a chair of theoh)gy. 

Britons of Cornwall and tho Saxons of Mercia, EGER (Boh. Chfb)^ a frontier city of Bohe- 

Htsi, Es^^x^ and Northumbri:i, and assuming mia, on a river of the same name, at tlio foot of 

B in request the i>rote<-torship of East Anjrlia, the Fichtelgebirge, 92 m. W. from Frjigue ; pop. 

bj 627 he had bccumo the actual sovereign 10,500. It has cotton and woollen nianufac- 

flf the whole hei»tarchy. In 832 tho Danes tories, and in its vicinity at Franzensbad are 

knded up*m tlie isle of Shoppy, an<l carried otf chalybeate springs and baths. lUi fortifications, 

inch bVntty. In 8-33 they disembarked at formerly strong, were destroyed in 1808. It 

Gttrmouth, and defeated Egbert's forces. Tlioy has a city hall, in which Wallenstein was assas- 

Imdcd aq;ain iu 6o5 on the coa>t of Cornwull, sinated, Feb. 25, 1634, and the ruins of a castlo 

wbere tlu-y tormed an alliance with tho Britons, in which the friends of Wallenstein were killed. 

' Zjben en< on ntercil their united forces at Ileng- Eger was taken and retaken by both Swedes 

tfMe hill. jrainLtl a bloody but decisive victory, and imperialists during the 30 years' war. In 




k Korway, Jan. 31, UJSti, died in Nov. 1758. this city was the capital of a district of the samo 




as a missionary, lie was unable to ob- gives its name to a circle contuininff 5(U),000 

k royal audieni'e before the spring of 1711*, inhabitants, in which tho former district of 

wwms^ to ihe wars witli Charles XII. of Sweden, Egur is comprised. 

wiaeix encro?sed the public attention. He then E(;EKIA, one of the Camenm c\t nymphs of 

Mfeived the i>atronafre of Frederic IV. of Den- Koman mythology, who was believed to havo 

k, And 5ct sail in May, 1721, with 2 vesseJi^ dictated to ^sumu rompilius his wise \l\l^v^, vxuvi 



28 KGERTOH EGO 

M ■-.■.;'w; * !i- .' T'-l-i- • ■! Ir \%.i- 'tii! 'r il ♦-■•. iti* --f !i."»^'Ti.-m. '-xiu* «■!' if- 'n. -i :"'.-• '.] 

hi I .■..••■■.. .:..».- w if- . ii. •!•].,!*-. i: ^' ?:■ ■ :.- I.it.'.tur t!ii- !ii»lli«w -K.I! i- i V.t.u :i: -1 ! 

s. ' / '• .:•■ ."■ ' - ■.. ..*■;. -Vi- \% .1- ■ : i." J. ! i:/ ■ :» t .- 1 .' ran--. • < v.ij --••1 jVi-.. i|'..il> • :' i".- '". 

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:.■ ! J !■ ; * ' T ■ . ■:•>:: ; : t).. . ...• I:- •' p. ' . -!^ t;.. ..i:t. r -li. 11 .»i.«! t1..- t:.. n.'-r-.:,. . -.v • :.. 

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EGG EGG PLANT 29 

throQ^b the pores of the shell. This diminntion to 148 hens' eggs, or 60,000 eggs of the hnmining 

Km been observed to continue for 2 years; an bird. From some of the bones of the hird which 

eighing originally 907i grains being re- have been preserved, its height is calcalated to 

a« remarkeii by Dr. Thomson, to 368.2 be about 12 feet. — Ego Trade. The demand 

'When they have lost so much weight as for eggs as an article of diet has given riso to an 

to ixmt upon water, they are generally unsound, immense trade in furnishing the supplies requir- 

Tlie preventing of this evaporation by covering cd by large cities and thickly populated districts ; 

ttdr surface with a coating of varnish, wax, gum and by means of railroads and steamboats they 

vabiix or lanl, cliecks their putrefaction. It is can be transported long distances with despatch 

■id that if every new-laid egg was at once rub- and safety. From the western states and from 

bed orer with sweet butter, it would be a rare the British provinces they are brought in barrels 

tfiiiig to see one unsound. Tlie Scotch some- to the seaboard of the United States, those from 

tiniKS drop them in boiling water for 2 minutes, the provinces being admitted free of duty. In a 

Vf which the membrane within the shell is par- single day as many as 15,120 have been entered 

wtj coagulated and rendered impervious to air. at Boston from Nova Scotia ; and in 1852 about 

EcDs* eggs vary so much in gravity, that it is a 8,000 barrels, containing 84 dozen each, amount- 

wonder they continue to be sold by numbers ing to about 8,000,000 eggs, were shipped from 

fartead of weight. A dozen of the largest have Montreal to the United States ; but this amount 

Wen found to weigh 24 oz., while the same is probably small compared with the quantities 

■mber of smaller ones of the same stock brought from Ohio and the other interior states. 

washed only 14^ oz. The fair average weight In Great Britain the home production Ls put 

hand to be about 2Sioz. to the dozen. Thorcl- down at 75,000 tons annually, and the value 

itirc weights of tlie portions of the egg as given at $15,000,000. Beside this, the importations 

W Dr. Thomson are : shell and membrane, 106.9 ; comprised 1 1 7,230, 600 eggs in 1 856, and 126,- 

lUmmen, 604.2 ; yolk, 288.9. About i of the en- 818,600 in 1857. The imports from France into 

tin wei|^t may be regarded as nitrogenous and England amounted in the former year to £244,- 

ntritioos matter, a greater proi>ortion than that 041 ; from Belgium, £19,677 ; from Spain, £11,- 

«f meat, which is rated at only from 25 to 28 830; from the channel islands, £1,731; from oth- 

per cent., while the nutritive portion of the er parts, £1,143 ; total, £278,422. Since 1854 

0T8ter is only about 12 per cent. The white the duty on foreign eggs is Sd. per cubic foot 

of the egg. from its tendency to coagulate into of 200 eggs, and only 4d, on those from British 

a bard and indigestible substance, is likely to possessions. They are packed in crates and 

disagree with the stumach of invalids, when boxes, the contents of a single box amounting to 

the yvlk may prove i)erfectly harmless. Raw 2,500 to 13,000 eggs. The consumption in Paris 

c^ are more wholesome than boiled, or even is also enonnoiis. In 1835 it was estimated by 

titan those lightly poache<l, which are very Legrand at 138 per annum for each individual, 

&«ftible. Eggs become more difficult of di- and in the provinces at double this rate. By 

pkion by being kept. In medicine the shell the estimate of M. A. Husson in his late work 

B TLaid as an antacid, its animal composition on the Consommatwn of Paris, the number is 

Kerning to adai»t it better for the stomach tlian now about 175 for each person annually, costing 

dkalk, the mineral form of carbonate of lime, about $1 85, and the whole population thus 

TSe white is employe<l for clarifyiug liqnors sui>i)lied is rated at 1,000,000. The following 

■d amps, which it accomplishes by entangling table is given of consumption and prices : 

the snail particles floating in tlicni as it coagu- 

ktea, and thither ri^iug with them to the sur- ve^. | Nnmter. 

fcee, or sinking to tiie bottom. An astringent 

pmltice is formed by causing it to coagulate is*7 

»ith a piece of alum briskly stirred with it. itS.V.V.V.'.'.'.'.V.V.V.' *.!!!. *!.'!!. 

Us. under the name of alum curd, is used as iS5o!!!!!!!.'!!!'.!.*!!*..*!!;!!!*.!! 

■I ippHcation to the eye in some forms of oph- J^ 

fittlmia. Tho white is also used as an antidote isss!! ! !!!!!!!!!!'.."!!*.!!!!!!!! 
toeorrosive snblimate and salts of copper. Tho 

jdk is f^^metimes given in jaundice, and forms EGG, Augustts, an English painter, bom in 

B excellent diet in dyspepsia. It is preferable London in 1816. Uo became a contributor to 

to the white in making emulsions. The largest tho academy exhibition in 1838, and was elect- 

ibed eggs of which we have any account are cd associate of that institution in 1848. IIo 

■me Ibond in 1850 in alluvium in Madagascar, has produced a great number of pictures illus- 

Ihey belong to a bird which it is supposed has trative of humorous scenes from Shakespeare, 

noently l>ecome extinct, to whicli M. Saint Le Sage, and Walter Scott. In 1857 ho was 

HEure has given the name of c^piornis max- one of the artists connected with the arrange- 

inuL Two of the eggs are preserved in the ment of the gallery of modern paintings at tho 

K«nch academy. One of them measures 13^ Manchester exhibition* 

Uka on its longest diameter, and 8i inches on EGG PLAINT (solanum mclongena^ 'Willd.), 

Ac diortest. The thickness of the shell is about the popular name of a species of tho soJanacea^ 

lof an inch. The capacity of the egg is about native of N. Africa. The plant grows to tho 

\ 4fBartA| 6 times that of tho ostriches egg — equal height of about 2 feet, with a prickly alem^ uiA 



120,M0.784 
10C74T,223 
118,^S7J92 
124^7,lft0 
129,782,299 
160,l«0,000 
175,000,000 



At. priw p«r 

1,000. 



67.00 fhinca 
4<k.40 " 
46.70 " 
48.93 ** 
42.69 " 
41.85 " 



80 EGINUARD EGMOKT 

wi!Ji 1 ippp f-vn?*'. f!i»wny. priiVU* \i*\T%'% : flnw- ^liirh Arcfortlio most p.art Itomo npnn ihcl 

i r* of i\ vi..I.! ii'V-r. ■•!' «•••!»•■ U-rtsty ; friii?, n brfturlifs, iiro ul' a lii-Hiirilul li^rht ro*v « 

fr!"- l.«*T_v, cruwilin;: i!'«lf «»»il fn»iii tlio niKl full of frnirriinco. Tlu» rhiff p^-rfiim 

(Iiiviiiy t :,!%!, vi!ii>)i ri riiaiii^ until the fruit tho plunt, howovi-r, in in the fnhniro. itrt'l< 

rijHT.-. lu.'l i'm' •!• ri' p-irj-li- «ti!.ir it a— iiTn«'«« in- Ikmii^ lK>*'t witli ruv.4l-4'nli'n'd frlnixN. w 

dirfiti* i> j-i rfi I :ii-rj. li* «•!/#•. }iM\i«\tr. iK-- mi l>(iti^ ^ii^Iitly hriiiM'J. emit a |H«-ul].ir i 

pi !!•!* I •■T.-ii|. ri*'''jk ii|-i'n Tin* ii«"!ji.« *< "f tho-i»il Tho i'^I:intinc MU'ri»f«i«i wi-ll in thi* fnnk 

niiil w:irTi>!!i if ilin.Htf. :it:<1 J!) ]>n>|'iTioii<- m-:i- aiiiplo nnini niid h iWp N>il nro nlluun! i* 

|i««ij» it T' .11 !.•- M i.r.il j'l.i'.r.i!-' Uii^'ht. \\\ !ii- in Muh rjiv* it hiu* Im-n kliuwii !•> |>n<liK 

ili;iiir:i! I'T'ii r !iiiT r*»ntitr:i— i* i" iif.i^i'riti* !irtii K» r;i.«iMii:i]ly iImmMo tluwor*. Il ^mw-i re 

iff f.-wl. :,».il !•• iti".i !i '!*•■.! in tho I iiiTt i! ^trili*. from iho K-oiN, ami Hiiwn in niw-* Ih^ j 

It i*> c -i* ^t'!.^ ^<r\i<l m;i in f?:<lL.i i« i*li si'.jnr liaw* l^fn rIip]HiI into ^imfK' ti» fi>r:ii \*t 

ni:i1 w :t..'. fi!.i| I- i>i«H'\ tlii- Kr» ijt h ninl !?.■»!- nrnaiMviilal !i»i!k*'* •ii^i-i'-ii"*. Thr •'j-^'io* 

inn* in -t'-'A"* nn«l "■•uj".. A'M-tf.ir -ni:ilUT ^|•v'- kmi^n in thi* li.itnl Stutr-J i-* fui-jfj-^M I 

cit-* i* >' '-'i*;*.— .'n. h.i%".n;r :i whitf fruit of iho nn fn!\i*iililinu'« C'ln' fn-m Kurnpr. an'l wa 

^i/.• ii!i<l hjijN iiran-f «.!" h f.-wT* ojriT. rhii't!y tpHlnriul with n «-oj«|'crif, u!-*i friurrmn 

€UiTiv.iTi<l :i> :t!i i'r!:-i!iit t.tal r'.iriii«'.l \ . ami Mime- fni'*r.r;iM'f, Sir.ilh), li!ivin^ ^m:t'lv^ T^iwcr 

tinii * riMTMl i:i j ■ r- !•• ^^i -.irr tin' riiTiiin;;. an nclitViTi'nl ^ll:lf••'J frwit »»r Mi-ii \»-«.*l. 

K li'Tik* f« i"'!! ••••::.•• Ti .i'li-.T" ftt tht' niirtli. licoin ti» havv M-.in't ly iXtciidvU lo'uiid thi 

T!m' •-s-'l* !■!' tin- I ^'j j.l:i!kl *S'':M W* Hkwn mi cou-t rif Ni-w Kn^Iamt. 

a-i;^-*.T II..! U.l ir.M.ir. !. ..r»:irS in Ai-ril. aiM F.til.INTnN ami WINTON. Ai:.in 

tl.f |lti.*« ■>}ii-'i!ii >'i- trMiopliTiii-iI in tlio latttT W'li.tivvi M<*n"i«<<'MKi:ik, i-arl di'. iNirn iii ] 

j.art • f M;iy. it :n Ji;::*-. in ri' !i, wartn trronml, int>. .S-j.t. :!'.», 1*»12. Ilo !■» Kinl !:• .tin* 

lit tl.i' i:.-: !?!• •■ • f "j f ' ■ t u-i:ni!ir rvi-ry wiiy. Ayr*>liirt'. IwL's \w\\\ tui varii>!H tni:i-.«.!i^ 

W"fi.|» ••^■•';'.•l \ ir« filly vruiliiiitt-d fn-in ]in al }i;<|">intmriil», iiinl w.-i-* ^.lutii! in 

b!n 'Jij t!.i i!i. t!ii- "•■.! Ifi-, Hi Fitly l'«»i*iiiril wiiji I'^.'i'J, KniJ rri'Tor t>f fila^piw i;iii\ir«i!y. 

tht' 1"N-. n;.il t!r;ii% ;i ■:{• tirnui.'I tliO ^t^tns. Yvh. \*\ I^-i'. 1^^'J. Li* wam lunl Iii-iit'.i:a] 

Aiifiij !!.- rji.i >'. .f.'rhi'i'ir'.tn. haMn;; In iniid, and tn tliis (•lVn i* hr ua" n.*ij: n;-] 

similar fn •. > i«liiiii<<! T'-r f':ruj-!iif;;r ii!i t-r- i**!, Krli. 1.'.*. l'«r>^. Ho w priiiiip.illy Lmi 

rar:unt:il ili-h in ^Tiat ti i .i«!'M.> aiiil i>u fi'-t;!! a ]iatrtin ul' thr turf and :»<• an ni:!:k:t ur %.( 

davik. iiaiiuntH. llr;ra\fin l^o'Ja.^pli udul « i:Uv 

'K*iIVH\KM. I'T KiMi\Rt«. tho M'orotary, im-nt if tin- l.iltrr iwind At I-V'inton « .i-:!.'. 

ci'iifid. T.!i.il ttih'.MT, atpl l'!«vnild»»'r f»f I'hnrlo- d'li L< .*'« of SunuT^ot. thi-t» Lu!) .Svi. •■■•:! 

mnirtii*. I'tTTi in A'>trn«ia c Ha^t Kranrri, iliiJ thir ijm.-i n cf !■< nuty (in that ifi'vU>*:. ai d 

July S"'. *»U. H'* W14 A |''Ji'il i-f .M'-'.;in. who Na|KiI<*iin t«"»k a par', in t!i«' papa:.!. M:' 

IniriNl'ii-.d h::M a: tfi.r'.. !!«• ntiriil. aftor hi* wif-.- iliid in I'^Tin. aud hr lii.irriid. N\ 

r«»>:kl i-fttr-;.'* d« a?!i. !•• :ii I'liritry n-idi-nif nt-ar l'*o'*, Iji«ly Adi la Ca]it.l, utily da.v'l'ttr i 

M'ilii}i''i:::, i:i tin* < )il< nu.iM. vili< ro hf do\"ti d <-arl cf K*>m'X. 

)ii!.— :i t.» li'.. rury |.Mr-'.si- Afl.r the d-ath K<iVln,\T. f.\M<ii:\i. vn.t if. a • l.rf 

i«f !:.■• u .fi'. \\\ >t \m \'*\'.K\iA ti» Jiavo W-i-n a h?att-inan i-f tin N« 'In rl ih'!*. ' "r:. r. t::« 

4! ?»«»».•*.! IT 1 f CI..»r!i!M!i-: .', !.i- l.'iili ai •»nvc!it at i.f la niirii.'iid.'. in lla.TJu it, in l.'JJ. . Xi . :.' 

K!:,-«i.>!a-!t,iri!?.»j.ri -. rtl ^Tatiddil"!!} of !!(^*o, !<r«i-'t I-*. .Im:-- .".. iri''**. Fr-i!j I.h r , -^i 

ar. I fi.t.-rid 1! a* a i.i- :.k. T!i«' -arifphojii^ in nr-t hi a':t.t'.I Kit ru>h \\'TI!:i:i ■ :" \.% r T.r; 

*l. i ii III- fi'i 1 1.:- » !"•• w«. ro ! 'jrttd ;«• -tJil ""hown iiilii-rirnl !!.•• dij;:.:\^ tf | r.!.- *• if tior 

a! th«' i\v'lo t»f }'.t\ II !;. .4:>il tJ.» ii-i:j.S* of Kr- J..- prt f«-rrid tKi i;.'»r-' r.- •!- «r !:•;•■ « T ' . •; 

I It !» I '.:•.:;. t*% If l.js li'ji iI i!«-<-< r.<!;iij:4. 1 !«» K^'?t!«-i.t. w!..'!i lann' t-i I .;:i fri : . } ■» i 

Wr t I'-.'-'ti .V »;•.!. Iv K/ifihnn!. i* i.s.i* of tho ai.d »!ii'!i ?■• -i'*ik«- a l!'.i a^-i- a^ I- •'■. :•.- 

!■« ■! !..'kTal'hj- a! tH'tL* of tJ.i- !r. dillo a^t ■•. It NUiTt i/n-* t.uld ^.m^V T!ir« :i:?. a I.r 

}.:%.* **> n I' p".Mi»' • <I \ y ]■'.• !• r »Ha?ii*'';rfc', l-^.T.M, 1 hi^alroi:^ ai.il il-MiiJi: ^?i"'. m.- • -r.-r- * ■ ! 

a:.d a'«-i ir. tl." -I'l-:.'! *i !":ri.' of iVrt/'-i Jl/ll^^- lii- <!. m i::M'r"'n ai.« :• 1 ■ pu'i?'. K'.* '. 1 

r..*.'i ^'"••.M.if //.••'•■I-? K,'i::l;.ird'* .li- H\ !hi'«!« a^ii . f ar. « Id. .- hi.'!.' r I •■ .' . .»r: 

f..iV* /,>■/■ ••» /^ f - •-• •. ;ifi.! A I- iliH !:>in (»f hin 1.. il.- h. t !■• !h.' ti'-i*- :i!;d i-V-'i ' ■ ? .1 f 

K-!t< r*. .%'!' l;kr« i-*- of iT*- »l \ k! .»• to the !.«•••»• w)i.r!i \\ .%* -i .■ lid to T'V«- "ii I "i: 

r.'in I:..' j-«; .Ijir \t"r»'. ?i i f K»':TiJ. ip!"* iimrt- ^^"••':. *»■ ^i'-i. a'.d | ■•.v.r. Ih 

»?!:;• u i:l» 1"' ir".. ?»i.^/:,. - d k"-,'V:. r II I* rr.ij'.iiiitly I ... I,i-d a j .i.*.- '-f th. .■:.|..-ic( '. i'"- * \' 

!.«• :. tj.i- * .'^- . : I : J-^ ti- a1 ..r. 1 i!.''.i2;.jt:i: ft j»- in i.i- i'.*'S ^. ;ir - '■r..r.'r ■!- ■! w .■!. .1 •• ■ • ' 

ri**'r.*T.' -rv tf' .-ji I-f !:«'!.• h.-r^-' .'» Tin- i^i"I' .1 a. 

K'rl.AVriVr.. r.n oM r-ij:*.->i l..i?no f.ir th- A!.-:, r- l:. • ;:• ■ j ?•■ 1. - <• .'■T* ). » 

fcw.- : ' r.- r ■•■•I r-'iy,.,».i l.r.». I, a H'l- (' r-. a, i i- ? ■ i. :»:.! I '-rru :.«. i?i r.4" * . 

L:..<»n a:.! I'l 'i*'!.'.f . ' ■ f-t#v.i:.t ;. r.vnl r"**-, r-i-l ^rk^ r i ..; |'.n'..,?.\. * ••- r if •'. • •! 

irr.'W I ,r 1 1.'?. !.!'.'!_»:;» f '. p\.'»V:r« .. a:.d isi jli • •- |-.i! iVi.. . •'' ! ' '" ' • '• •' • '■■• ^-^ ■ 

i'l I.. ! U I:-. «'...;■ '/ .!* .%•■! •.;• dt r I.i\.r..M.' «!. vr* ..••!; r ! ..| .il ?. -•'.■.-. f •.' . . •-.; '• 

I r .-.-rv.ii* it :- t." ! ':r -. ?::Tii .'i fir tin i-l'l 1 r ? / !*•. i...j*..ii- ^> "'.. .r J -• -• r . 11 

n . . -Vi! !.-*.• I r »••* l.i •- :.d »::- \ v'""* ^h*-** in '.).%• I W •y\ r .• *«Mr .!. » . •'. d » M. T' ■■ - 

ir ' ki r« - .-r i'» r.! !.v*«. '*•'.«' '• ^rv i.-v- thi- ».•' M* 'i !'.• • 1'. :i. I'' !-• a'?. :.:. 1 !*. 

cr<-l vk .:li har%.\ cr.ivkid jTi-AK-ft. lliv duMTin^ |tri r dunn^ thv ^i•■^'v c-f M«-t/ ; in K'''*t !. 



■ < 



EGMONT 81 

i£ the bead of the splendid embassy sent to in tbo field ; and, swayed by tho contrary mo- 

fiBzUnd to solicit for Philip II. ofSpaintlie band tivcs of sympathy witli the popular movc- 

of JiCary Tudor ; and in 1555 be was a prom- ment^ loyalty to tho throne, and devotion to 

incfit fignre in tbo throng amid which Charles the Roman Catholic church, ho accomplished 

V. transferred to Philip his dominions in the by alternate hesitation and rashncBSonlyli is own 

Vciherlands. In 1557, when war broke oat ruin. In 1559 Egmont and tho prince of Orange 

between. Spain and France, be was esteemed were appointed members of the state council of 

one of the 5 principal generals in the Spanish tho Netherlands under tlie recent Margaret of 

KiTice, and commanded tho cavalry in tho Parma ; hut being excluded n'om coiLsultation 

•nny which invade<l France and invested St. on the most important affuirs of state, they ad- 

Qoentin. The constable Montmorency ad- dressed (July 23, 1561) a joint letter of rcmon- 

TiDced with a select body of troops to relieve strance to Pliilip. Egmont united with Orange 

tlie garrison, but failed to accomplish his pur- and Horn (March 11, l€63)in another letter to 

pose. Egmont, at a council of war held in his the king, urgently remonstrating against the 

tcnt^ proposed to cut off the retreat of the extent of the authority of Cardinal Granvelle^ 

IVeneL His eloquence gained the assent of a leading member of the council, who was de- 

the oonncil to this project, and having detected clared to be odious to many of the people. Tho 

tftebly guarded defile in the rear of Montmo- unpopularity of Granvclle increased daily, and 

mcy, he threw into it a portion of bis cavalry the most reckless and resolute of his opponents 

before the coni>table was able to strengtlicn it ; was Egmont, wlio despised him for his low 

nd the main French army on its approach to birth, and hated him for his airs of superiority. 

the post found itself confronted here by Egmont, At a banquet given to a party of Flemish noble- 

vho assailed it with a brilliant charge at the men it was decided to invent for their menials 

keid of 2.000 horsemen. The French received a livery that should symbolically express tho 

iloul and most disastrous defeat. Of 21,000 general contempt for the cardinal. Dice wero 

tnopa, ail but 6,000 were killed or captured thrown to decide who should devise tlio typi- 

vitlun an hour; more than 80 standards fell cal costume; and tho pri^c, which ultimately 

into the hands of the victors ; and 600 prison- proved a deadly one, fell to Egmont. His re- 

en of noble birth were on the following day tainers appeared in a few days in tho famous 

maented to Philip in tho camp before St. fooVs cap livery, which immediately bccamo 

Qcentin. Rarely had a Spanish monarch en- the reigning fashion, and which, together with 

Joyed so i^ignal a triumph as that which was the numerous pasquinades and pamplilets, drovo 

Ha* achieved by the promptness and gallantry Granvclle from the Netherlands. Thus far Eg- 

of Effmont. In the following year the marshal mont had acted under tho eye and infiuenoe of 

de Taermen, who had taken a distinguished part William of Orange. In 15(35 ho was Kent as 

IB Uie capture of Calais, marched into West special envoy to Spain to enligliten the Spanish 

FUs'Iers. storming and i>illaging Dunkirk and court concerning the afliairs of tho Netherlands; 

dcTi5ta:ing the country as far as Niouwpoort. but ho bccamo the dupo of royal smiles and 

Flasled with victory and laden with spoils, his favors, and returned to his country only to dis- 

insy waa already on its homeward march, cover that his mission had been fruitless. For 

rfccB Egmont took the field to intercept its a year his course was uncertain and fitful, after 

Rtnat. With such forces as he could collect which ho departed for his government of Flan- 

11 the nei^rbVjrhood, amounting to 10,000 foot dors, then in rebellion against tho royal edicts. 

and 3.000 horse, whose numbers wero increased Had Egmont now put himself at tho head of 

ly large vohmteer bands of the peasantry, he tho reformers, he might undoubtedly have seized 

threw himself into the path of the French army, the capital, imprisoned tho regent, and made 

■fid arrested its progress near Gravelines. In himself master of tho country ; but on tho con- 

Ae hard-fuUi^ht action which followed, Egmont trary, he exerted himself with all his energy and 

fisj^yed. brilliant valor, and the army of Do with ostrcmo severity against tho insurgents 

Ibermes was annihilated, and himself taken and Protestants. Ho continued enthusiastic in 

friiDDer. In respect to its results, the battle bis loyalty, oflfering to throw himself into Wal- 

of Gravelines was one of tho most decisive in cheren against tho rebels who had taken refugo 

kiiCory, for it compelle<l tho French monarch to there, risking his life at Valenciennes to recon- 

«B9ent to a treaty which has been pronounced noitro tho works and suggest tho best point of 

■ore ruinous than any other in the annals of assault, and avowing his intention at a meeting 

ftance. These two splendid victories gave Eg- with Orange at Willebroek never in any caso 

Boat great renown and popularity, and largely whatever to take arms against tho king. On 

a^gmentel hi^ here<litary infiuence in the Neth- tho arrival of Alva in tho Netherlands in 15G7 

iMads. Rather from a generous sensibility to Orange escaped from tho country, but Egmont 

ftfl wrongs of his coimtrymen than from any remained to receive and do honor to the man 

nttfed principle, he ranked himself among the who camo armed with his death warrant. Alva 

■ileontents against the oppression of Philip, arrested him by stratagem together with Count 

ki opp06xti<:in to which he was from tho first Horn at Brussels, and conveyed them under a 

doacly associated with William of Orange. But strong military escort to Ghent, whore for 2 

im coodnct as a statesman was as weak and months they wero kept in rigorous confinement. 

fKiOatiDg as it had been prompt and audacious In vain E^^ont cloluicd to bo tried by onQ oi 



1 




82 EGRET 

the 8 ri»nrtA whi>^« Inri-Mlirtitin hlonc lio ror- fh>tii betwMn the ^honldere arises t tuft of loog; 

opti/<-«I. Ai .1 kiii»:M of t!M' piM> n tli-i'iv it dvoun'ctl, aiiJ dflU-ntc tliranitiHl fvathm, ex* 

wu->Im» \ niur^i' [•• If tritil liv it- -tatiitif«; om tciiilinfc aU^ut lu iiichi'fl beyond the tail; thft 

a liti'.'Ii* I'f r*r.i)>.i:u lii< iI:ti(iH'«l tin* iirotrriiiin wiiit^s are iiuKlorate, and the tail ahort, of IS 

v( \\iK- J"yt',*e Kiifn^: ui>>l u.« a (••iint of ilio wvak fi*athoni ; the bill ii bright yclloir, feet 

holv n*i!iiun iiMi'irr. Ill* i-liiiuM l<o trii<l hy }ii^ chiws Mu4*k, and the pliimufce vhite, in 

i«rr*. tl.f •ItifxT'i uii«l ]'riiii t-H iif thi' riahn. tturlA slightly tiu|^.-d with yoHuw. This el 

Ii* 'Mu^ I'p'i:,^-!.! U>:'i>ri till- trit>iiiial kiKtvin in binl Li found broe«1ing t'nmi Florida to ^i 

hi->ti*ry ii- tlif "I M:i:ti-il •<!' MimmI." i«:i.'4rhtirp-*i York, and along the hhori*^ of the gulf of 

Willi li:i\i:.j»» U*ii u |Mirt> !•• the Kfi^Mu* ami ico to TcxoA, and |triibaM}' furthiT ; it it 

c<>ii->|>i:ui % I'Mht |.riiiii' ff i>r:iivf :iiitt h\* a«- m.*i-n hi MA^»achu9l'tt^ anddooA not appear 

lMKUl^^ iii.'l \kitli tiauiit; o'liiinit;* li Miihlry thun 50 niileM inUnd, nnli*i«» along the cuQi 

lAiajprtM !!• « -> to till- |ir^i:iliri* of tlu* ^•>\iTn* lurgi* rivorti; it gi'iierallj hrt'cdft in lo^ 

uitiii iti.il •'!' till- (':»!ltM|ii' I liiin-li. ami ullv-r lit- pl:icr<i. distnal pwonipe, and thu niArgins of 

tic tmn th;tti a iii-h k trial uh- :i«!jm<!^'ii1 guilty ami jmuhN; tlie nvntu are >>onioiime« 

of trvuMOi nij'l ri!<« lli":i. lli- l:tt«r zeal in low liU!>hvis and oiva-Mtinallr <»n land j H 

tho KT\iii **( thr ^'i>\i riir.'M-iii liinl imt iitiii]i-«i iii'ur tlio ciia*>t, but ginc-raily on lii^ 

in till.* nii!i>l- !<!' riiilip :iiitl Alva T«ir lii<« «:ir!iiT Thv long, hilky tiutmi'ntH of thv back are haidl/ 

iM t» 4«f i<|>}M>«iti<>h. M< ai.T'iiii.- tlic primv of to Itv M.n,*n i-xcvpt in the love neasun, which va* 

l^raiifi- Ka'l tliTiiM II %\i*\\ u till- ;;auiitl«t. ti* the rit*** from early !«pring to miilnDunnvr, 

*\iii%i(l I !iiiiii|iii>ii i>t'lil« ritiiiiTrjb'* vkri>iiu'N mid to latitude; l*oth m'Xv» poeiH^M thi'm, and 

it «a- di^:/iM<l to Mriki' terror to tin* h«art of an* hhot during thv bn-etling K'UMiu to 

till' :'t«>|ili- I'V luakiiij till- cu-i-utM'ii of K.rim<nt tlu'M* f«*athiT<t furoriiHnu'nial purpOHML It fcadi 

atiillh'ni all iiii|ir(^«ivi aikil a};al!iiii;o|i'( tai-K-. by day, on i»inall ti*hf?s cru!«tttcva» and rrptiliU, 

Vu JxLut- r>. l.V-^ ^i.i.MHi S|M!.ioli triHi|». wtTi* v huh it rutchen in the feliallow^ and manbcs; 

draw n liji in battle hrru\ uroiiiid I In* ^ atfoM in it!>» tliirht ia wiU Miittainiil, and ilN gnit and moT^ 



t!.i- ^rriat ^•iM:lrl• of I'lruHM ]«. nipi, mIiIU' all nient» are grai'cful. The ne«t ia made of 

bu-in- •- «a« Mi»|>«mliil ami tiie UIN of ilu* sticks urerhunging the water, and is oacd §0f 

thun !.• •< wi r«' tolliij^', KpTfi.t-i.t \ia^ U-hradnl, yi-an by the Kunie birds, whirh annually reoair 

afttr !.aw:.^» i iiti^-h.! n bt;;>r ri k'r* t that he it; the etrgS 3 or 8, are *2i inihiv b>ng| whiB 

L-Ail i.oi rati.i r Ui.n itr(hiT!iil to <lii*. ^uonl in fre*bly hiid Knio«)th aitd pale blue, lM.*ri>nruiif nf^ 

hai.'l. tj,:ti!itii; f-r l.i'* fiii:;r> aij 1 kin.-. Kvtu terward nmtfh and whiti-h. The egret ia ahj 

th« •*« Mu r« .«!.f •! !• ar** n^* iln i biin !•! ilic death and dirtieiilt to nbtain, eicept in the breediaf 

(if il.i- i:><<«! ^'.i!!ait! a!i>l i.t!ii'>;> of tin ir gill- K-aarfju ; many of the young are de«tniTeil bj 

CTaN. a • r} •<! l.orr<>r ri>«i troiii iti< lunltiiiiile; crovi-<i and turkey buxzardi*. — The Eunii|Mna 

aii'l t.^i Kr< :.• )i :ini^M->.kii*ir i \«laiMiid ihiit he e^'Ti.t (.1. (i/'w, <initl.l i«* almUt 3 feet 5 inclMi 

hail •>••:: tV' li< .1'! ••( tli.i! ti. I'l !all ht i<iri- whom lon^r. of a piin.' white pluiungt*. Acrordiu to 

Fraif ?..»■! ta; ■ Tn :.'■!..!. K.'Tii'ti.t i^ t!*e Svlby. the uill i** blat'k or dark brtiwn, ydow 

m'-jt . r I-!' I'M- I.:* I i.i?' . - i:.i^'i ■!!• -. Tli*- U»t at the ba.»«e and al>out the nostril*, and the le^ 

K' • •> .-.: if i.i« • .ir<« r ;.;i>l • ?- ir..i !• r i» ^'i\i ii in are alniii!*t bluik. It !-« i-otmnon in MrtitheffB 

y":!i\''* I. ''"r* of !S«' •■ l;.-.- oi !ljf !».sh KuriijH.*. but (-oni]>arati\vIy rare in the Dtirtheia 

Ilil-u:'.'" iN.A \'rl. l-'.'.j. >*.- ul^i Tri."- and rei.tral part>; tbo white heron« of Avia art 

tv!'.'- •■ nj-!-rj of V:,:.'.y 11."' U-Iii nil t.» l>e of iIiIh ^pecieJ.. The little Ewi^ 

£<fl!Kr. a nanir gt\iri t" iho««* ^piiMi-* of iHatttvn't i .1. y^ir.^/ M, I. inn.) is aUmt 2*2 inchtl 

whiti- htTorf hI,;i!, I.a*. f (!..• fi:t:litr'< uf tiie lnu^ from li!I to i-nd of tail: tlic plumage !• 

luHi-r par: I I tl.'- !>i( k t-lon^rati-d ari'l tliiir «i^i wli/i*; ln>in the bind lirad spring 2 



di>>:iiiiti iL n:u^;:.p: ^-t^^oi^ 1 »'r !•• thi- tail, at (tr- fi atlii p» 4 inihi - btn^'; the pluniri uf the 

tain K-a!«':«« of the ><ar; t!i< ir foni.s are al-o an- tlun^ratid: the bill and tar^i are blark ; iht 

hiurc grw « fd t!.:>r. t}.<*^* of rti!iii:iiiii hi ron«. tar":i« i!>« 4 inrhi's b«{:^'. Thi-* s|i^-i'ir« i« ovoflDtd 

Tluv It loll,:, )tM\«iii r. i< tin- %knti' »*i ii'i<* 'ir-f**i to the t-a-^ti rn hiiiii'>|bf-re, Uiiig iiiir*t abundaMi 

(I^iiU I. I f t!i«- ori!< r *jr f 'f. nii'p:rr..t Ati.i ri< an in ^'iUthern Knn^pf. iir««re, asid northern Afti* 

t'grvt (.t. r*yr,:t>t. <ft. .! ) i- »>•:.! ^7 m l.i « ra; it ini a^iunally wamhrs an furAf* ExkgUod. 

long lu c!.d I f ta'.. 4.' t" i !.-l i-f • I.iw^. wiTli an Tlit- b':trburkiM| t-^'n-t (.1. /'"rr..«rri./.i. liudd.) 

estf i.t of uii.^"*i.! ;.*! i: •!.•<.. V-!I || up !i. «, tail i^ aliiut ••> inrhii h*UK, the bill *J iiuht** and 

6t. Ur-;.« t' ; n.'.ti r."r t- « 2\, 4, ui.<I 3} imli*.*, iira::;:e .^ili'iw; i!i.< plumaje i« » h:te, rirepi 

with thf I !aw < ). |. a'.'l j if ail it.' ii ri-|H'<-- tbi- i*<pi>f the hi ai! and friii.t i:ri-k, wliich 



ti%*N. !hr }.:[.•! t>M 1 1. .>;..l it« I !uu Ij ir.- i.i-* l-wtf. U'vominir Itohmt n^ thf bird i:n*w« lUder; 

L'U*. w*:^*!.! a":--'.: '2% ".* • , tJi-* f•l::^ll• i^ •»n.i- i! i-. \ir\ /•:.• rally ili^thbut««l I'^ir A^ia. Tba 

whV. •Ti..il!ir. 1!..- I :',] .^ *!ra.,:}.!, talitrsrs;: t«» riiM;-h i-grtl ■ .1. n./'i, Ifc^M ). i f i%hirh Prale't 

an ii\\x :.j>. tin }.. :»•! r.<*..i -• --••1 a:.il ofifi.g; ivr< t ii tl.** \i'i(ifc:. i<» a)-out -"1 iii(-hi-« b>i^. aOil 

lu-* k 1 1./ ri:.'! •^i< :i'li 7 . It-lv •.;:.;:• 9*t't!; ft • ?, 4''> i!i i-xt« i.t if « in^-^: t!it* palt I lU hx« a black' 

tarvi*. a:, i :.' .a !- :.^ :\a» !i!'< r b.iri ui it^* !••«• r t ;• : thv iri« i« « !.i*.i ; tin- :<-athrr« of the hra4 

l.:i!f. 11. t' -| V t *•«!«•.;. ^ .;i ..n>l I ;.i. :ili.l :ir>. rrd a'.! Th « k brr Iin^* i^d j<« ?:tb lit. of a !i^*ht rv4- 

Ihi !at:*r. :• * .ir% . ::.. [•'. i:..a^-. i- ^r* a:i'! ^ !• :j !• di*^ 1t..h:i lnj^'nl u ill, lUi-. failing irto brviwn* 

r<l: l.txl i.ui « r< •'• !. th- .j:* .!*f< .&'.:.• vtur* • \"U- \-\i uMtf a! tl « t.|">: :fif h.^ k niid «iiiir* gra^^ith 

i;V.«.^ u a:i- li,sjK uu l^v ljMi.r Li.i.k i:i f:v;«'. ; blui . lvn(:f«ather^of the bavk}«;Uo«bh'*:tp{H.-U; 



EGYPT 83 

pole frrayish bine below. It seems never to go of the Birkct-el-Karonn, at the distance of 50 m., 
nr from the Florida keys, except westward are the natron lakes, from which the water eva- 
alon^ the gulf of Mexico; it is a plump and poratcs in the drj season, leaving the ground 
gTMefol bird, and an easj and high flier; it is covered with a crust of natron or cnrbonate of 
dij, rarely associating with other species ; it is soda. Along the sea-coast of the Delta there is 
iHWMbly strictly marine. The nests are made a series of largo lagoons stretching for nearly 
Bj the middle of April ; the eggs are 8, of a 200 m., of which the principal are Lake Manr- 
pale sea-green color, and are excellent food. oot, the ancient Mareotis, 40 m. long, Lake 
EGYPT (Gr. Aiyimrof ; Lat. jEgyptuM; Heb. Boorlos, 80 m. long, and Lake Menzaleh, 50 m. 
JfiniM / Coptic^ Ckami or Kemi)^ a conntir long, with an average breadth of 15 m. From a 
in the N. £. of Africa, bonnded N. by the Mcdi- very ancient peri^ Egypt has abounded in 
terrmnean, E. by the Red sea and Arabia, S. by canals, chiefly constructed to facilitate the dia- 
Kabia, and W. by the Great Desert It lies be- tribution of the water of the Nile for purposes 
twcca laL 31^ 87' and 24" I' N., and long. 27"" of irrigation. The Mahmoudy canal, 50 m. long 
IS' and S^"" 12' E Its lengtli from K to S. in a and 100 feet broad, was made in 1820 to ac- 
dhvet line is about 520 m. ; its breadth from £. commodate the commerce between Alexandria 
to W. varies frum 300 to 400 m. ; area, includ- and the Nile. In the beginning of 1859 Egypt 
tag the desert regions, abont 200,000 sq. m. had about 500 m. of railroad completed. The 
The river Nile enters Egypt from Nubia at the principal lines are from Alexandria to Cairo, 
aknd of Philse near Asswan, the ancient Syene, 131 m. ; from Cairo to Suez, 91 m.; and from 
yahen it descends the famous cataracts, and Cairo to Beui-Souef, up the Nile, 76 m. The 
lows thence unbroken by falls or rapids, and railroad bridge across the Nile at Xafr-el-Zyat 
■ot aogmented by any branch, nor even by a is one of the greatest works of the kind in the 
rirolH; till it reaches the Mediterranean. From world, and is expected to be completed in June, 
the eitaracta the river, whose general breadth 1860. Another great work commenced several 
is about half a mile, runs for 600 m. through a years ago, but not yet finished, is the hat- 
fiBey bounded by hills varying in height from rage or dam across the Nile at the beginning 
100 to 1,200 feeL The average breadth of the of the Delta, designed to heighten and regu- 
fiQey is 7 or 8 m., its greatest breadth 11 m. late the annual inundation. The construction 
Andently the whole of this valley was called of a canal across the isthmus of Suez to unite 
Upper Egypt, bnt afterward the term Middle the Red sea with the Mediterranean was he- 
Egypt was applied to the northern part of it. gun April 25, 1859. — ^Tho most striking geolo- 
Aboae 100 m. from the sea, the hills disappear, gical feature of Egypt is the vast bed of alluvium 
lad the river enters an extensive and perfectly deposited by the Nile, which covers all Lower 
lerel sJIuvial plain, where, 12 m. N. of Cairo, Egypt to a depth that probably averages 30 or 
it separates into two great streams, which con- 40 feet. The predominant rocks of the country 
timiiily diverge until they reach the Mediter- are limestone, sandstone, and granite. The 
luean by months abont 80 m. apart, the eastern great pyramids arc built of limestone, and stand 
It Damietta, and the western at Rosetta. This on a limestone plateau. This rock extends up 
put plain is Lower Eg}T)t. The triangular space the valley of the Nile as far as Esne, and from 
ockised by the two arras of the river and the thence to Asswan or Syene sandstone prevails, 
Ma is called the I)v.*lta, from its resemblance in from the quarries of which most of tlyo temples 
Aipe to the Greek letter A. But iX\Q term Delta of Egypt have been built. At Syene, at the 
■ also sometimes applied to the whole plain, southern extremity of the country, granite pre- 
or to so much of it as consists of fertile land, dominates, and the quarries there liavo furnished 
Hm area of the Delta and of the valley of the chiefly the materials for the obelisks and 
Sife in Eeypt is variously estimated at from colossal statues of Egypt. The soil of Egypt 
11,000 to 17,000 sq. m. This comprises all the is of unsurpassed fertility, and its richness is 
ohirable land, the rest of the country consist- annually renewed by the inundation of the 
faf of deserts, with the exception of a few Nile, which deposits upon the land a coating of 
•HCi and of the region called Fayoom, which mud which renders needless any otlier manure. 
left at no great distance W. of the Nile, between In many parts ploughing is dispensed with, the 



and 30% and has a fertile area of 340 sq. seed being thrown upon the mud, and sheep, 

The largest of the oases, the one most re- goats, or pigs turned loose in tlio fields to 

B from the Nile, is Siwah, the ancient Am- trample in the grains; though in other parts 

limn, the site of the temple and oracle of agriculture is carried on with considerable labor 

J^iterAmmon. It lies 10 days'journey W. of and care, especially where artificial irrigation 

l^ooni, and has an area of only 15 or 20 sq. m. must be resortetl to. The rise of the Nile begins 

lb desert between the Nile and the Red sea is in Egypt in the latter part of June. The inun- 

' ■ ected by chainsoffhountains whose highest dation reaches its greatest height between Sept. 

its attain an elevation of 6,000 feet.— The 20 and 30, when it is usually 24 feet above the 

iiote4 lake of Egypt is the Birket-el-Ka- low water level. It remains at that height 

,in the N. W.part of Fayoom; it is 30 m. about 15 days, and then gradually falls, till it is 

; kw and 6 m. broad. The remains of the famous at the lowest about the middle of May. It 

■oent artificial lake Moeris have been recently rises sometimes 30 -feet, when it does great 

Untified in the R part of Fayoom. To the north damage to the country. K it fall 8\\otloi\% 

YOL, vn, — 3 




34 EGYrr 

fwr, A famine i* tlio rrtn*oqnrni'C. Tlio ftillow- i« nmrh nnrortninty nlnrnt thoAinAnnt nf popa- 

iii^ |ilurii<« uro miwii iiniiuiluiti-lv afti r ihciiniii- latii'ii. A p»ViTnincitl cciiMi^i in 1^47 (iflifiAlIy 

<l:ititiii U-^'iM!« III oiil'^hli*. anil iirc liarvi-«u-i| 3 Mafi-il iho niiintii'r i>f i nimbi tunt!» ut 4.&4:i/rJ0. 
v>r 4 ii!itiittt'« LiliT : \OitnI. Itarloy. lNsin<. {K-ai, 



A iinMi!! t»ki*n diirin); thv jircM-nt vt-ar I lb5'i) 
i:i \ 1- « a r ot ul uf 5. 1 :*:». i u k>. I Jy fi .nl jr n < kim ct- 



!i4*ni]t, riiriun*lt r. ]«<i;>|>u-, ti'l an'it. uaU-ruKlnii^, cm i>f jinltrntent and in runicy, ilic^* «-vnAi 

anit turunidr*. 'llii> f<lli»u 111^; | lai.!-« nru arv iliM^Titlitol aimI tliiir n*i*nlt> ItvM lu \m 

ruiMMl in Mininii r 1 hirily l«y artiticiul irr.;r:iCi<in : (;ri*^«]y tiil^itK'il amI i'.\ufrk;crAti-c!. Sir Cianliicr 

clurra. in.ii/r. 4>i.ii>r>. Ill nu:i, Mi^'ur rune, mt'i'n. WilkinMin roin|iiiU^ (In* |iupiilAti(in At onlj 

n»ilv«'. inili»'i>. aii>l ntaiMi-r. <tr.i(K«i mv \>\kuU' 1.MHJ.<mhi. Hyu'lu-rs it is Mi|i|Ni^il Ut\te aUiiit 

fill, anil othtT fniit<< aUi inil. c>f wiiuli iljv niit*t 2.'V^i.<nn». nf i\||iitn*J.(KMi.iHN)arcMtiltunin>itlAiia 

mnitnnii uri- ii.iU-*« 1!.:% iN»niivrHnatf«, A{'noft<«, uiul rail tltvni»clvi>4 Aruli;*, tlMHi^'li tli«-y 

jn'A'.hi^. i'i'u:;^i"s li!ni*it*. citn-ns bananMi, |iri»)iAlily in nrvai purl tli-M-i'itdfii tVoni the 

iniii)>«'ri ii'«, a^l uli\« •>. Titrr\' nr*: no furi'^lri in fimt K^:} pli.iti'<. TIk-v urt* a tim* raiH\ lian(iM>iiic^ 

(I^ypi, itii'l r< w tri i-^ i>f atiV kiinl vxcipt (liO violl nwwlv. unil riiiirti«*n<» in ihi'ir nianniT*. la 

palm, i«i n !ii<-}i iliiTi* ari.- u^iiully frr<>\i*!« ariMinJ ni>rt}ii'rn K;:\pt tiny an* «if a yflliiHi<*li etiOk' 

t\w viilnfTi-i. Kri'iii t)ii-uli<^-nro nf lur^^t" lluTo pli-xiim, ;:row in^ ilurki r t<»wunl tlir fM»ntlt, nntU 

an- fiw u iM li'4-('», t!if prii.i .pal ^pl.ric'« U-in^ tlio Imi* UTiinic-uiKrp lirnn/r. Mr. Ijuu*. lb* 

till' «•>]''. fi>\. j:u.kal.l..«vlia, tin* %iili) as.«>, anil >cv* |<i.»t authority u|m»ii \\iv *>iihjii>t. .^(•tuk'* highly of 

c-ral kiniN nf acttiopi*. 'Ihv 1 hiif il<tnii.'-<tii: ani- their mental lapariiy. ami ^'i\e-thim rreilit for 

main are<'at:ieU, li<<rv-% Ao««'^ hfr:.! il lattle, ainl n:ii'<'!iimiin ipni'kne!>ii<t'appri'iie(i«ion aihI reaiU- 

^ht■«■p. Till* h:p|i>j-«>tamiio ii n«t luti^rer fi»uiiilin ni^-^of* vkit. Tlu-y are lii^'lii} rilif!iiiu% bimI art 

K/jkpl, tlinii^h It ii n:i:l uilli la ilie Nile aUive p ru-rally lii>ni'«t. rhterful, hnrnane. ami Imm^- 

thc lalarai t^ a^mI ihe • riN-iilile lia^ aSanil-ineil t:kMe. The Araho i»{' pure hli<ii«l Ulon^fing to 

the U.*vt kf ;i.irt d' l!.e ri^er, and i^ lii'ofiiin;;ruro Kj> pt are eliiillv IteiimiLn- uhmlMfil in tvDlAUl 

i-vtn III l')'!** r lL'^p:. AiUKn;: l^'e l>:riU Are U the ih MTt. aiiil niimlx-r alMiut 'J'hMmh.i. Ther* 

^|«^ir* i«f \u!'.iirt-« ("i.e nf *\i.,e!i :-\ery lar|,H% are l.'i«VHHinuti\elliri«lian"» !erineil ('•tpt%who 

iiiiii\i<!'i.i!« •iiiueliiui-!* iiiea-urir.;* l.^ lci.-i A4'rf*>d are the ri-ni^rnizeil (1e'^'r(ithiiil<« ut' llie anridit 

tlie «ii^'»J, «ii^v«s f.il • r.«, liavik% IfUZ/anK inlial'ilaiit>. Thev are l'* neraiiy tinpln^rfl m 



k;te*, I riivi«, ii;ine:«. lark«. *>parrM«>. anil (he eK-rk« an^l areimiiiant* ill pi\i riiMii nt aimI 
lH-!iit!ilul hi ••ji»e, Vkiiii>!ii<« rejrinlnl wi'Ji ••miht- eantile ulVnv. iKMiIf thi-e tliereure Tiirkik Um 
■«titi<<u<« n verv:i«-e. I*i^i.'ii'ia7.<l \ari«>UH kitit!^ nf ruling rla->>. i.f u hi mi tliere are aU^nt 2u.0i'Ml|, 



!»•»«. irry are vt ry a^lin•laJi!. Thei"»:rii h ii f«(unil unil Arnieiiiant. (ireek% lU-rUr*, J«»^ 

in tliv ill M-rto. Aiii"!!^ the fi'pTiit'o are the le* Frank*. A^'rieuhnre i-* the i liiel' puri^uit «jf 

rn*tv> u: 1 i.jji l..iit*. h'!!i iK:.'l!jk p< i>«in>>ii«. the pi'i*t>!i-. ami turn iolii"* nil th«**'taplt« rf ex- 

).•!.•■<• at ^.:.il ill Uiv N:.i- mpI ','.\ ll.e lakii, pert. \VheaT, ht all*. I<arh'^ . Iinlian <'i»rTt, Im- 



ai.-i I .::. -ii a 1 i:ni:.fii n;.>l I.ti'-rire arl.ih- •»(' r^i-'i, M-^anif. rMttmi. u<hi1, t!;ix. aIuI htnitm 

fi*iH!. I,'., i..;^ i-i • .L-!>ti u!_^ i:.v fii- ti.i- 1 '•'■.!.try aiiciLiIU eipurti il tu the aniituiit ut' Al>«»iit$lCa- 

Ai \ ••••.r..i'. ^rri it ra\.i^e-. I'l.e 1 1.1;. .ill- I'l" iMMi.rMHi, \V heat i« tlie prim ipal art ii le iif ez- 

K,'.'» ; • ■* -•.•...*:'•> •!:> a:;«l t-j-.:a'!e, a:.<l i^ |M<rt. :iii*l uhi».:t ri.'»«Hi.iMMi hoheU. i«r • of ill* 

h'...t:.^. I .:'i i\<<*v\<!\ !.••: in »MMii:«.r. eiiiire (T«>]>, are »«iit tti Kuri'pe nniiuully. Of 

t!i'- n. •■•;•* T "i'.j: •"■!.!• M.ii * lit llj . 'i j.i- r..!ii.u the a\ir.it:v annual ixp'-rt f-r M-Teral 

%ii:.'«r > !.... I !i:.«l -- ri i . . •: ■« Ii .iij aii!i.i*t ^*-.ir'i»a*l Ii.i- Ui-n iMarlv I'lNr.iHNi hal» •. Thm 

n!.k;i<H!) I:: I ;•;»• r K.*;< : t r.i t: i.irithat aiinnal ainoui.t it iiiip<irl- i- aUiiil f 14.<"*<>.4M>; 

A -ii»J.* *!i"^ir I- !--'ki-t iijN.Ti .t- :\ pr«-::j_\. In the priiii-ip.tl ariii-le^ are tinilfr, n-pj-^-r. 



t).'- W- '.'a :i ^:.will <,i. ki.I.'t^ ■•! i.i.!i f-xuallv V^'HijIi-n. ri»tl-i'i ai-'l •^ilk pNni'*. ilril)>. Iin^ 

la..- 1:1 w .: ■• r. 'I . « » j«"! ■ .ti::-"!! i!fi.iM«i pa|HT. I'il. jiwtiry. Mij::ir. ):la*^ li>tiam\ 

Ari" 1*.,^ - !ir. r-. . i.\. r «i* ;!i:.i''. .*!;•! i>;>liii.iil- ^;•ll-« '*, nn«l <•••!!"•«•. T)i»- l"ri'i;:ii n»iiiiiiiTni» li 

i:i;.i. f=< ; iVi : I • .: ^* <•!!• n 1 ji ! \\ir!i. '1 he 1 h.i lU u i:ii (iri a! nriljiiii. Kraiu «■. uinl AuMli^ 



pl.u'"' ^* *• :■ :!.i. :i\ :.'■ , li'il a:. 1 ^.r.i'«:.:. I '.t ainl i-iarr.»«l oii thr>tii^'h tin- \-*tI *•( AU- 

!•« ii.^» • ■'.,.* -..:,.'..r» J •■ . .I"' • :.» lit l' ■• iT-'*. : :i- i!ria. An v\U Ii-Im lr.4tU- hi ixi«-an-*iif rarar 

i;.i t:! ;: .': i- : •' ■ . i*!- ;:<..;■;■• ir.t*.* •- ri> • 1***:. i<* I'laiitt.tiiii il vi iTii tin- iiitiTiMf 1 f Al'r.< a. TIm 

I »:ii- t'f ! .■ :;, -: •;. ,/r. 1 u-.i !i..l-,r«« nj l'.,v iiiatiiil.ii :iir«- •-!' I.rearni*. aiiil nf c«'lli»fi, »Jk, 

« !i' i.iT. .' : '■ K tv.-.'i. :i;. • « .'.i! tr.i'M l.'.i lii •■ ar.l « i»'»'ien u*""*!'. i* • arrii «1 i-n • lli i.»i\ili IB 

« :! *i!.l» , -. \ i.!» :■:'.'» *\ .\ •» 1:1 il.i •«;■:.:.,•. « -t I'-.i-hhit n'.-* I-uinh-il at.il ilire*!*^! !•• tht 

I-* - : ! ■« /•■:..',• ..■■'.: \l..\ J. a:.'l i. i- .1 p.-. • ri.Tin i.t. F."- p! i* n ih|H:».hn']» ««f tlM 

I- i'-.y .;•--...■ .Ill i.:i;.. ,'!'i\ % :\\ • T:ri» -'i 1 !i:p.ri . .iiiil ii ^"iiitrSLil ih«(->!ieAllT 

t'/^l'l I- :f\* ■;.. 1- .| I'.'o 7 \ r- \ t. • -. \i:.:')i \\ .1 pa-li.i • ! tip l,inn!> nl Milni'nl All. « ith 

A'e -.'-l:-. '.. ! J- v. .;. I !ir'i:.. •.•- :»;,■! :l.i ••• u?..m!?i. "i ursi"!! -i;!:.!?. »fM«li- a Irt :i!_\ il. I"m, 

a/t:ii:>!< •■ -V.*- A:.. :• I tl*. ..:.U r ;•». ]\ \i I. h .r w .t- a.Tn -I'tJ.at ll.i tT'*^ • rr.!:u nl »rf 

I. I'.iii f ." :- I :'.,. r I'l r- .-. 1 1: .« k. :.:.•! Il- ■ !!.■ | r- \ Mi .■ •.!,..'i.l U T'd.kiI tn l^.^Ti. Alwl 

r i.'i ■■ : •- '.'.• :':) -i. ..•■'..•, i-h 1 ii.'.. 1:1 «' 1 • • ».i-!: T>< '!-i- I-i* ii ):^ iii,: iiui.ilt r* lii hlA 

• '•■•■■• • ...' ! : • • .. •. .- . ■/ ;:i I. .!..'.» r .1! ? .' .!. A !i ' ''■• • t j »•!' 'li* rt\ti.i:« i< aiinu* 

•: •^ •- :.' I . • : • . •,:.!. - ' -* 1 Ih • .| .! ji a!.^ •• i.*. ?•!:•• -^i<ii :•.*•''•« >m •in a!««i ail a|>- 

if K.» i • • ' . • »■•:.■••!■:; I :..; li ;.w ' 1 p.. •./:. • !.!- ri. j ..-:• iii tin .nn:} a*-'\i :h* rabk 

ATI- .^.1 la.vlr.iA. I. •f\'.' i. i^.-; A*.i:...i '.:.i. Hit re ff ii4a'<>r l.a\c lu In: feUrrvii K-r ivbtirbkatMjia. 



EGTPT 86 

The nnmber of the army is limited to 18,000 to conquer and possess the neighboring land of 
men. thongh this regulation has not been strict* Canaan. The date of their exodus, according to 
It observe^]. There are ministers of foreign the commonly received Scripture chronology, 
ttid internal affairs, of war, navy, finance, and was 1491 B. 0., after a sojourn in Egypt of 215, 
public instruction. The government maintains or, at most, of 480 years. Bunsen assigns the 
•boat 50 schools of various grades, a school of date to 1820 B. C, and mainttiins the duration 
languages, another of medicine, several military of the sojourn in Egypt to have been 1,484 
•cImoIs. and a printing press. There are 4prin- years. From the exodus, for several centuries, 
cipal courts of justice, whose seat is at Cairo : the relations between the Hebrews and the 
that of the chief of police, which summarily Egjrptians appear to have been friendly, until 
4Kides petty cases ; that of the cadi, or chief in the 5th year of the reign of Rehoboam, 
iadge: that of the mufti, or chief doctor of the about 980 B. C, Shishdc, king of Egypt, con- 
kw ; and that of the pasha's divan. There is quered and plundered Jerusalem, an event the 
ibo a cadi in each town and village, who dis- occurrence of which is attested and confirmed 
penses justice, and each province and subdivi- by the monuments. The first of the Greek au- 
mm of the country has a governor clothed thorities upon Egypt, Herodotus, visited the 
with a certain degree of judicial power. The country about the middle of the 5th century 
dominion of the Egyptian pasha has been ex- B. C. His knowledge of its history was de- 
tended by recent conquests far up the Kile over rived from conversaUon with the priests of va- 
Nabia, Dongola, Sennaar, Kordofan, and other rious cities, with whom he talked by means 
iMrbarooa regions, to the confines of Abyssinia, of interpreters. They told him, he says, that 
—The history of Egypt divides itself into 6 great Menes was the first king of Egypt, and was suo- 
pcriods : 1, the Pharaohs, or native kings ; 2, ceeded by 880 monarchs, of whom one, Nito- 
the Persians; 8, the Ptolemies; 4, the Romans; cris, was a queen. None of them were distin- 
6^ the Arabs ; 6, the Turks. The main sources guished, and none of them left any monuments 
of its history under the Pharaohs are the Scrip- worthy of note, except Moeris, the last of the 
tarei, the Greek writers Herodotus, Diodoms, 830, who constructed the artificial lake which 
and Eratosthenes, some fragments of the writ- bears his name. He was succeeded by Sesos- 
iBgi of Manetho, an Egyptian priest in the 8d tris, who conquered Ethiopia and the greater 
oentnry B. C, and the hieroglyphic inscriptions part of Europe and Asia. His successors were 
on the monuments, that is, on the temples, Pherou, Proteus (who was contemporary with 
tombs, and other buildings of ancient aate. the Trojan war), Rhampsinitns, Cheops, Ceph- 
From works written on rolls of papyrus, found ren, and Mycerinus. The last 8 kings built 
in the tomb?, information has also been derived the 8 great pyramids. Mycerinus was succeed- 
by recent Egyptologists. There is still, how- ed by Asychis, and Asychisby Anysis, in whose 
crer, much uncertainty and controversy as to reign Egypt was conquered by the Ethiopians, 
the true interpretation of the hieroglyphics, and who held it for 60 years under King Sabaco. 
Kvcely any two authors agree either with regard At the expiration of the half century they vol- 
to Dames or dates ; though the discrepancies in untarily abandoned the country and retired to 
R^ard to names are immaterial, while those in Ethiopia. The next king of Egypt was Sethos, 
the chronolo^ are wide and apparently irre- between whom and the first king Menes, the 
eoDcilable. The chief living authorities upon priests told Herodotus, there had been 841 
tte interpretation of the hieroglyphics are, in generations, a period of 11,840 years. Sethos 
En^ifh, Sir Gardner Wilkinson, and in Ger- was succeeded by 12 kings, who reigned jointly, 
nan. Chevalier Bunsen and Dr. Lepsius. From and together built the Jjabyrinth, which Hero- 
ffae Scriptures we learn that the Hebrew patri- dotns thought surpassed all the works of the 
Ufh Abraliam went into Egypt with his &mily Greeks, and was even more wonderful than the 
beorase of a famine that prevailed in Canaan, pyramids themselves. After the lapse of some 
Ha found the country rulcJd by a Pharaoh, the years, Psammctichus, one of the 12 kings, de- 
l^jntian term for king. The date of Abra- throned the others and made himself sole sov- 
kn a visit, according to the chronology of the ereign of Egypt. lie was succeeded by Necho, 
Habrew text of the Bible, was 1920 B.'C. ; ac- Psammis, and Apries, the last of whom Hero- 
eorffing to the Sentuagint, 2551 ; while Bunsen dotus calls the most prosperous king that ever 
tea it at 2876. Nearly two centuries later Jo- ruled over Egypt. But m the 25th year of his 
nph, a descendant of Abraham, was sold into reign a rebellion broke out which was headed 
Ijgypit as a slave to the captain of the guards of by Amosis. Apries was defeated and put to 
aoatber Pharaoh, whose prime minister or grand death, and Amasis became king. Amasis was 
vUcr the young Hebrew eventually became, succeeded by his son Psammenitns, at the very 
iDHph^a father, Jacob, and his family, to the beginning of whose reign, 525 B. C, Egypt was 
Miaiii I of 70, accompanied, as Bunsen conjee- invaded and conquered by the Persians under 
IVM, by 1,000 or 2,000 dependents, followed Cambyses. Diodorus, the next of our Greek 
I tWr Ibitanate kinsman into Egypt^ where tliey authorities, was in Egypt about 58 B. C. Like 
HHled in a district called the land of Goshen. Herodotus, he begins the line of Egyptian kings 
Then they remained until their numbers had with Menes, who, he says, was succeeded by 52 
aaitiplied into 2 or 8 millions, when under the monarchs, reijrning 1,400 years. These wet^ 
kid of Moses they revolted and quitted Egjrpt succeeded by iiusiris I., and 7 or B geueralAOiA 



S6 EGYPT 

laltr br Bafiiri^ T!., irlio Inilt Tliel>os. Ijiter dynasticft, with inron»i«]crabIe exception^ vera 

•till rvigtivU 0»riiiAiii]vas litid mfti-r A muro ctmiocutivv, ami that the kin^ vuuiiK'ralcd 

gv Herat iiiiis Uchorvu*, Hhohuilt Mvinphis aikI rvipii-tl owr the whole of £K>pt* U> lucigft 

vh«> aHcr 15 more gi-ucTatiof.ii wa« ^ucceeiied writimi uii the feuhjti't it U Lel«l that liiatij of 

bj M}-riA or M«Kri<*. I>i<Nh»ru^ aUo relates the tlio dviiafiiiefli»erecuiiteiiiiMiraiieou.s»rHl tkat S 

cipkiitJi of the pvatciiii'invrfir SrMwtri*. whom or more kiii^ rei^'iietl ut the aaiiio time over 

be«'alU S-«taio«*i«. He ('iiiii|iutc« the whole nuiii- ditlvrvnt parts of K}{vpt. It b a«!fmttvU by aU 

ber nf naTiTe N>vori>ii;ii!* ti Flcvpt at 47u k'lun^i thut the Ibtli i] ynas«ty and th(»?« «hiih>iicce«d- 

and 6 «}iii-vii!*, ami thr dnraiioii *>( tlie native itl it retfCiu'd over the whole of I lie ruantrj. 

iminarc-hv at 4.71h> vi-ar^. EratuMheiifA, who ]tiiD.<k.>ti dividtTi the dvlltt^tic:t ami the hiAtorjof 

diodaUiut 11*6 It. (\, wu«a i!atiie«if t*y rents ami Ki:\ pt under th«rni into 3 great masMrs : 1, ths 

«'as made hhrnrian ot' the Aiixamlriaii hhriirj old empire, from MeneA to Ani\ntiui»iii^ iii- 

bj Tti'leniy III. lie «niteai»Mrk on nniver- rluding the tir»t 12 dyna»ties of ^aticthu and 

m1 rhronohvy. fru^nnoi.t.i of nhii-h have U-en p:irt of the L'Uh, and embraciog a periud id 

pre*ier\ed by Symvllu* and <ilhiT^. II ia rum- l.uTti yeunt ; :2, the middle iicriiNl, or ibe pericid 

pulation of Kc:ypit:iii i hrnhol.i^ry, io far oi* it of the kht-pherd kings U'22 or tfiV yean; S,tb« 

giH-!«, biM liTtu adopteil I>y iSiiiiM-n. Manetlio new empire, fnuiithu 18tb to the SOth d^iiaair, 

wan high prii-t of S-Unnytu^ uU'iit S'^n H. C aliout I,;i«Ni yearn. Ix'pMUA di*eutA from tbia 

He «rote a hi«(ory of tv>P* f*'!" the informo- arrangement iu M»me rei^ifoctis and rt-ckom tb« 

tion of the (iri-i*L\ of vihiih only ikjme ex- length of the firnt i*erioU at 1,S':>6 jeara in»CrMl 

tra«'t« have rcac-he«l U4 iu tlie wurk^ of later of I.UTO. He al»o main tainn that there alvaja 

writers who do iiot agree in their tranikcript ion were native iVyptiaii dynatitiet coutcmporarj 

of the nl4■^t inifiortant part of theM.' remaims with the hhephenlrt, aii«l diiiden the d\uatftM 

wbirh ht a li«t of t?jc dyutetii.-^ and Mivenigni merely into the old empire and the new. Wil* 

of EfOpt from thu earliest (leriod to tlie end of kinMin, however, regards thki divi»iou into Um 

the IVptian rule. Hut bi>twith<«t:indiog the oc- old and new empires ad purely arbitrarj and on- 

cai»ional di!<n*iianrie4 priHlui.*!^! hy careleM or neivsMiry. Thecaj*ital!i of the l»tand iddynn»* 

fraudulent copu^t:*, thew *'dMia*>tie!«** of Ma- ties »i.-eni to have been iu L'piier Egypt, bul thm 

netbo are of Mie hig!ie»t \uliie to Kgyptian bi^- teat of the 3d dyna»ty wast at Meuuihi;* iu Lower 

tiirr, and their general authentitily has beeu Egypt. The kings of tlie 4th uvna>ty, «bo 

full J e<»lAM lulled by coinpari*«>n « itii the nionu- reigned al'O at Memphis an early at least «« 2450 

raeutt. They c^ impriM* 3 Id^na^tiesnthiih reign- ]i. I*., were buiUlen of pynuuidA. mhiib w«rt 

ed Mjrce«»i«ely in Egypt, nuniU-ring upwanl of intende^l for their tomlm. Tlic monuiuenUabov 

SUUking4, the Bum of the yeurn of « hone reigna that at thii |H.Tiud the Egyptians bad alreailj 

from MeueA to Net'toiieljo II.. 351 H. (.*., was inailo great ailvaiii-e^ iu the artt and babita o^ 

a..Vi5 }ear«. ''Ihi't mii-re^iou of time,'* aavit civili/edlife. '1 he maK»nr}' of their build iugv was 

l<uD»eu, " the va^:e«t hithi rto c^LltMi^he«l any e«pial to that of any other fK'ritid, ancient or mod- 

wbere in the old world, Lt now ai*o the be»l ern, and their M'ulpture of the human form wa« 

authmtiratcd. It it ba-ed ufnin li^t^ of king^ better than it wa<» in a later and more ciinTvuti4>a- 

aikd their rrgi::d yeiir.4 ; ui^il thew Ii»(« are O'r- al age. The art of making gla<«!i wa« knon n, and 

roburat«.-«l audi lui'Mutcil b} route m I Kir ar^ nmn- the furniture, ro»tunie% implement! of trades 

DUient* up to the 4th dynasty, i»ith »li^'ht and ogriculture, and the maniirr» and mBtooM 

breaks; an authrnticalion nhifh i4 a» mieiam* of the |*et>ple, are apparently aa indicativs 

fiK'd a» it« r&tent." 'Ilie era of Mene% aeeord- of a refimnl i-i%ihz.itiou an at any anl-ar^nrat 

ing t4i Hunw-n, w.i4 .".til:) li. i*. ; ai-eonhng U* \»vruK], Two hntther;! of this dynaaty, «bo 

l4-|i«iu«, :>*«y3. WiIkii.«M rt-mork^ tf Metier wvm to ha\e reunetl togilher, Supbi* or Sbaftt 

lh«t llio fri-)Uent otc-urr« uri* of a ^imiIar name I. aiid II.. the I 1u^*|h of llerodo(u\ wvr» tbs 

in early hiRtory, ai Mamx iIk- lir^l king of I.y- buiMers of the great pyrami«L iibirh waa tiwir 

tiiK the riirygian yatii% the MiniH of Crete, tomb and in Hhith their names Itave r^<«ol^ 

Ibc Indian yeim, the TliiU-tian Maiii. tiie Siam- Ui-u fMUiid iii*«'ril»e<l. The •eeoiid pyramid vaa 

Maiiu. theCftnnan M.iiinu«. and other«. may built by Sliaire or K'phrei^ the iVpbrcn <i# 



m t4> a»«ign him a plate a!iH<f'.g nivthii-al Hero<lotu*, and the od p\ ramid by Mez Jiare or 

triDgv, but that the Eg}p:ian!« the!ii<iil\e'« In^ Memhere-, «ht»iii llerotlotu* calU UyciribO^ 

lir%cd him to l« a rt-al |M-P«i;i.ige. a:id ai i epted A |»irth>u t«f hi« ritSiu, taken from bi^ pyramid 

the reeort!i-«l events of hi4 repTxi ai umlitul'ied bv den. Vy^.* a lew \«-ar** agn, i» in the Bntiak 

fartfl. Me, howe%er, d^^ \iu* •» in hi^ lat«.«t pub- nm-eum. The (*ll) dw.asty. according to 



liratam ti» aMign to Mtn«« anv date, f'>r the authoritie», iuiiiudi.itriy »ua-ei-ded the 4th al 

a!li-e«^l rea«i*n tiiat no rvr:.»iii er.i Uw beiU e«- Memphis u h:!e the ut:i at the ftame time rei|^ed 

tabli*hcd lu carW Key ptian • ;.r'>tfli-gY. In )ii« in rp|Mr Eg^ pt. At the rml «if lh« t'.ih dyii«»ty, 

JiviuKAft Work* he l.jtio'ifj.tt^l i!.'- date of J '.On at-i'>'r>iing tu \^ ilLii.^>ti,*JJlu H.i'.. I.«>«tr EtfipC 

(. tV a« the MMMt |r«*baM«*. It i.« a {Niidi «titl w:^,* eiiii'it«er«-d l>y in%ad«r!i from .\«.a. «!<«f ea- 

In dispute ariKifig E.M{>tiI(»'«;i>t« thither the tal'U«!ie«l t!jim»4-!%e«* at VIeinphi!* aUii made ibe 

tir«t 17 duia9ti«*« «!.it ii •*:i^ii-«h •! Mt-m**! Here »*itereuMi« 4-f I'pjier K.»'>pt their tril-utanca. 

riH.M<-'Jti%e. It :« niiiLitaiiie«l Vy lhi»^ who TIh-^* iiit.ithr* >»«re raiinl by thi- >Ig]ipl«aoa 

are di«fMiwl to a-^*./!! i'* the l^ginnmg of •!it{<h« rd«, ari'l the:r kit.»r^, of tehttm »«tvral 

£itjrpUMU }d23tor/ the reiuutcit dale, that the d«LMt.ei r«.:giMd at MtUipbu, are ca^>i iLe 



EGYPT 87 

ihepherd kings. Nothing whatever is known thathisreignwasoneof themost distingnished 
of their origin, bnt it has been coT\je€tared that in the history of the Pharaohs. He extended 
tbej were a pastoral race, either Arabs, Scyth- his arms far into Asia, from which he received a 
itns, or Tartars, who emigrated from their native hirge tribute ; and tlio elephants and horses, the 
seats and oonaoered Egvpt, as in later ages the rare woods, bitumen, rich gold and silver vases, 
Goths, Huns, Mongols, Alagyars, and Tprks snb- ebony, ivoiy, giraffes, apes, gold dust, ingots, and 
daed and occapied remote countries. The date rings, pictured on the monuments of his reign, 
of their inroad into Egypt is placed by Bnnsen show not only the value of the tributes, but the 
tf about 2567 B. G. Lepsius, on the contrary, distance from which they were brought. ** The 
compotes it to have been more than 500 years great additions he made to Kamak and other 
later, at abont 2000 B. O. The 12th dynasty temples in Thebes," says Wilkinson, ''and the 
began about 2000 R C, according to Wilkinson, remains of monuments bearing his name at Mem- 
Its e^Htal was Thebes, and several of its mon- phis, Heliopolis, Goptos, Ombos, and oUier cities 
archa, among others 3 of the name of Osirtnsen in different parts of Egypt, show how much was 
•r Sesoitasen, were highly distinguished. Osir- done by Thothmes to beautify them and to com- 
tMea L was a conqueror, who seems to have memorate the glories of his reign ; and the style 
enried his arms southward into Ethiopia, and as well as the nigh finish of his sculptures were 
ta have regained neariy the whole of Egypt not much surpassed at any subsequent period. 
from the diepherd kings, who, howeven still He has left more monuments than any Pharaoh 
Weld Memphis, and part of Lower Egypt except the second Remeses.^ RoseUini, thedis- 
He is supposed to have been the original Sc^os* tinguished Italian Egyptolo^st, remarks that 
Kris, io ^moos among the Greeks, though in there is hardly an ancient city in Egypt and Nn- 
after agea a still greater monarch and conqueror, bia, as far as the second cataract beyond Semneh, 
Rharaw^ IL,be^me confounded with Osirtasen where remains of the edifices of Thothmes III. are 
L, and the achievements of both were attributed not to be found. Thothmes IV., his grandson, 
to a sin^e Seaostris by the Greek historians and caused the great sphinx at the pyramids to be cut 
poete. Osirtasen IIL also made conquests in out of the rock. Amunoph or Amenophis III., 
Ethiopia, and his memory was so highly respect- another king of this 18th dynasty, was known 
ed thtt^vine honors were paid to him long after to the Greeks and Romans as Memnon, and his 
his death by some of the kings of the 18th aynas- colossal statue at Thcb^ was the famous vocal 
ty. By some Egyptologists he also is supposed to statue which was supposed to salute the sunrise 
hare been the prototype of Sesostris. Osirtasen with a clear-toned sound. Ilis conquests and 
L boiic the temple of Heliopolis, where to this his power were very extensive, his empire com- 
dar stands one of the finest obelisks in Egypt, prising Ethiopia, a large part of Arabia, Syria, 
erected by him and inscribed with his name, lie and Mesopotamia, and ho is supposed to have 
ibe excavated the principal of the grottos of introduced innovations or heresies in the nation- 
Beni Hassan, in which tlie arts, manners, and al religion of Egypt, and to have prepared the 
customs of his age are vividly depicted with a way for the great religious revolution which 
Biinnteness and variety of detail that have given took place under the ^ stranger kings," as the 
IB a better acquaintance with the domestic life Eg^-ptians termed them, by 7 of whom he 
of E^pt 4,000 years ago than we have with the was followed in immediate succession. Of these 
■me feature of European existence 3 or 4 cen- monarclis very little is known. They seem to 
tnriea since. Under the next dynasty, the 13tli, have been usurpers or invaders of foreign race, 
about 1860 B. C, the shepherd kings seem to to have ruled tyrannically, and to have supplant- 
have recovered their supremacy in Egypt, and the national gods of Egypt by the worship of 
to have driven the Theban monarchs to take tlie sun. Their capital was at or near the mod- 
TCfbge in Ethiopia. Under several dynasties the em village Tel-el- Amarna in Middle Egypt. 
esnqaerors held the country till Ames or Anio- Their memory was so detested by the Egyptians 
W, the first king of the *18th dynasty, who that after their expulsion from the throne their 
tooogfat aid from Ethiopia, headed a successful monuments and inscriptions were everywhere 
vnotL of tlie Egyptians, and drove the shep- destroyed or defaced. Their reigns were short, 
herda oat after a long struggle, which ended not more than 30 years in all, according to Wil- 
widi the capitulation of their last stronghold, kinson^s calculation, and terminating about 1324 
tta frontier city of Avaris, from which they B. 0. It was in the reign of Pthahmen, one of 
withdrew into Syria. According to Wilkinson, these kings, that Wilkinson supposes the exodus 
ttto took place iU>out 1500 B. C, after the shep- to have taken place, when the children of Israel 
karit had possessed Egypt 511, or at the most went forth out of the land of Egypt under the 
05 yearsL According to Bunsen, the shepherds leadership of Moses and Aaron. Bunsen coin- 
TOB expelled in 1548 R C^ after having occu- cides with this view of the date of the exodus, 

SI Egypt under 43 kings for 022 or 929 years, though he gives the name of the Pharaoh who 

attributes their final expulsion to Tuthmosis ruled Egypt at the time as Menephthatli. Tho 

m., ft grandson of Amosis, though he maintains date he fixes at 1820 B. 0. Abraham he sup- 

ftftt Amobis recovered the greater part of Egypt poses to have visited Egypt about 2876 B. C. in 

frooi their grasp and reestablished the throne the reign of a Pharaoh of the 8th dynasty, and 

aftlie Pharaohs in Memphis. Tuthmosis III. is Jacob to have settled in the land of Gosheu with 

Thothmes IIL by Wilkinson, who says bis family in tho 9th year of Oairtasea L^ ^1\S4 



88 EGYPT 

n. C. Tlia lonicth of tho fojonrn of the I§rftcl- tnd wero M often fubdaeil, bnt at lenfrtK al<oat 

|U.*4 in Kirypt h« thus ciiin|mtii4 at 1,434 >cam. 411 B. C, thor »acccc<le<l in (Iriving uut the 

Th« ll^th «lTna»tv, which K-pui aUntt 1H24 Persians and with the aid vf (irvek aiiiiliafica 

B. C. with KIioiiim:!* I., rviioioil diiriug tho nio»t maintained their indc|>endoncc under a K-ri«a<if 

Ulu»trioU!» iKTimi uf Kfcvptiun hi<»ti*ry, when tho native nionan-ln, thv la-tt <if wliuni was N«cta» 

extent and iM>wiT uf the iMiii»iro were at their Dvbn II., who w&n (*onijuervd and di-thnnitd 

highiM pitch, and whi-n the nui^t h|>Iuiidid luon- hr (Vhus or ArtuxerxeH III., in 351 H. C. 

nnivnts wvre ereiMi-d at ThiSo, and in fact Efr^pt continuid a IVn-ian pruvimv, lioveTery 

throughout tho ixiuiiCrr. The ^r«.-at im march <» only till IV^'i H. C, when it wav conqtKTetl bf 

of thi^ dv(Ui>t/ Were Srthon or Si'thi Land Alexander the (fn-at. — <Jf the niannvrs and cos* 

Ithaniik«« tl.. tlie ^^^n and f;ra:i<lM>u of UhainM,*s touiii, nimle of lifo, and Mx*ial condition of ib# 

I^ the fiiuuder of the lino. SvthuH made ext<-n- ancient I-^ryptian^ wo can fonn a very ■atisfac 

■ive coni|uc7it4 in Africa and Ai<i.i, and warred tory opinitm fnun the repre!<«ntationa oo tht 

aoccr^«fuI wan with thv A<*'«yriun« and Mi^cs. nionuinent!». It is e\*idi-nt from their te^liinooy 

He built many »iU{n:rh etliticci at The bcii, among that nt a %*ery early af^ tiio Kfr^ptiaiit wera a 

otiicrs tSc frreat hall uf Kariiak, on the walls of highly civilized |»eop)i*, wealthy, indn^trioaa^ 

which hit \iotunes are nculpturid, and his tomb with a fully urgani/etl MK-iety, and great iiru6* 

excels all uthepi in E^'vpt in tho beauty aiid ciency in arts, munufucturcK, and agricuitart. 

richness of iiBftculptun. SttUil] taint int:4. Acconl- Of their literature we knuw little, the faw 

ing to liuiiM'U, NrthiH, or SvtliiK*i% us he calls remains that have reac*hi><l us* I>eing too scant j 

biin, w.ia the trut.' tTi^iiidlof S«'<Hi9tri4, tho Cole- to cnshlo uh to Jitdgo with i^tditideni'v uf tbtt 

bratv«l hero i>( Kgxpt. Khjn>'H-4 II., his son, general character uf their intvlle«*tual prudne* 

reigovd C6 years aitd, in)i«.rt:in(; a mighty em- tions. A largo numU*r of |wpyri have bcao 

biro and a great and veteran army, achievi'd found, containing writing^ some of a hkktoricnl 

vnlliaiil victories ovi-r the Mim>iiiiding nationis ft»d othersof a religions nature, but tliey haTanot 

and erect e«l nnmerou!i nuinuments bv tlie Ial>or yet U'en so perfe^'ily deciphered as to be full/ 

of the captives w!i>>ni he brutight Lome from umlenttiMMl. The religious doeuuK*nisaU betong 

his campaign*. Wilkin!<i>n, on tho contrary, to one w«irk, which wan called by riiamfiuUiaa 

tboogh admitting tlie glory and [lowerof Seth<«, the ** Funeral UituaU'* but which lie|miiipi tvmift 

ooiiMders his mu the greater monarch and tho tho ^' lUnik of the Ik'.od.^ This work, which 

true Se!H««tri4. IIv fixei tliv beginning uf his seems to be alike |M)or iu matter and si\le, eoa- 

reign at 1311 \\A\ and mivs that this period ftb>ts chiefly of prayers and of instnictiuu aboBt 

may be ngurded as the Augu«taxi age uf Egypt, the future life. The hi«t4irical |ia|iyri relate to 

in whit-h the art» altaiiie«l to the highest degree tho exploits uf Borne uf the kings, which am 

of excellence of « hirh they Were then capable, told in a Uimbafttic manner. Avery curioi 

A cent urv later, af^er^e^eral uliM-ure and feeble nuiiamv or fairy tale of the age of tin* 19Ch 

reign% KhaiUM-s III. of the 2o:li dyna<>ty revivi-d dyua.My has Inn'O disi'overtsl and traniJale«l iDtO 

the marti.il renown tif his name, aiid {K-netrat- French. Sime mllertituis of letters writl«o bjr 

cd to remote ci>iiutrif4 in A-«ia, to which the acriU.-^ a bii»',;raphical memoir of a MTilie, and 

arms of Kk'}pt hu<l never U'firo reat^hi'd. Ho a numl^er of ini*«*eHunetm» frugnHiitu have al'O 

•oen» evi-n to ha\e encountervil and defeated been found. The progress v( the K.'yptiAns in 

autne Tartar nation «. With him, nay <• WiILintM>n, iculpture and painting was hani|ierv«l l>y r«ii- 

cUmt* the glorious tra of Kgipliaxi hiatury. gious rei4 mints which pre vente<l tlieir dc\elup- 

IlhauM-s VIII. lHiwev«-r, wlii««o reign In-gan men t U*yond a |K»int which n as early rvacbesL 

1171 II. C\ uiaintainvil the furei^ |Hi«!k-Mionn In architi-rture. however, they u«*r upy pvrba|M 

vi Egy|iC, and lia» left M»me i«tr iking monument 4 the mup>t di4tingni'»hi*4l i>Iare among thi' ualiunsw 

on «hirh hi*! own |M>rtrui£, ion*piru4»u^ for the No iK.tipIe hn^ «ijiiaile«] tbem in ll»e grandvuf. 

high bndge of hi« ni^n,'. i<i yet to l*e wn. The the luaitf^iveni'Si*, or the durability «if tl^'ir »<riir- 

fir>t kiivg uf the 2Jd d}naMy was She^lmnk 1., turi*^. A comin-tent autluirity, Fc*nn»*on. tbe 

9Shill. 1*. IleiiastheShiihak of thv.STiptuses author of the *' 11! U!i! rated liaiidUN*k t*f Ar* 

n Kings* 11. 4<M. «ho uas c«'i.tem|M»r:iry with chiti*cture," Kiyn : **Taken alttfetlier, |Krha|» 

oohiiuiiu; and in the 5:h year of Kehi»boam, it m:iy be »afely a>Mvrtetl t!<ni the Ki?>pli«aa 

king of lararl, he captur%^l Jvru^kUni and pil- werethe niict e^'*enti.illy abniii!ing |<ok('U*uf aD 

laged the temple. The st ulptund rvciinlof this thiiso «e aro aci|uainted with, and tin* nwsl 

cana|iaigr« i« utill t>i U* kiu on the wall of tlio getierall) succc^ful in all they attempird tntlhia 

creat temple of Kariiak, Dkith the name(»f Juda way. Tlie (in-eks it is true. Mirpaw^d tLrin 



jCclchi,ur kiugtiomof Judah. wt legihlo, tf»giih- in relinement and U Auty *4 tt- tail, and iu tbe 
er with tl>e |>ortrait of aiapt:%e with Mmngly cla«« of N'ulpture with v^hicli they i«rni 



marked Jewish features FniMi the time 4if their buiMini.*^. ainl the ttoihii- arrhitr«.ts far 
hbr«)(««fik K^vpt dt'i^i.ed in {NiWiT. nut impri«!»- exrelhtl them in c-i»nMnii-ti%f rie\ertMiM; lint 



aUy bi-rauio of t!.e i-ipid gr>'«th at thl« |ieri«<l U'^ide tbi*^\ no ikIkt ^%1i« can U' put in c« 

of the A««>nan m.pirr. At thr ^h ginning of the |>etiti>in %iith tii< tn. At tin- ^mie Urn- oeitlier 

reign of r»aiitmen:t i% the l.i«*. kii.,; oi' the SOih (•r<-«-i:in bi»r (ntthii* art hiti-i*ts uihU r^tt^^l inore 

dsiAasty, i-*^ H. l\ l^'M-t ».is c 'h.^uerLd by |i«rfeetly oil l!ie grailuli* n^ iif .v!, and iIk- exact 

Canib% «e% ai>l lii-«mmv a t'l r*uu pruMme guv- chjrar^tiT that nhi^Mld W gi\rn !•» e\eri form 

^romJ i'j M amUap. 7 ht j •loj I v f ro^ueut ly rv v ul ted and e \ cry dv t ail. Th**y u nder stood, oImj, bvtur 



EGYPT 89 

than any other nation, how to use scnlptore in elaborately constrncted tombs. — ^Tbe govern- 
combination with architecture, and to make ment of Egypt was a monarchy, limited by 
iheir colossi and avenues of sphinxes group strict laws and by the influence of powerfcd 
themselves into parts of one great design, and hereditary privileged classes of priests and sol- 
tt the same time to use historical paintings, diers. The priests were the ruling class. They 
fiiding by insensible degrees into hieroglyphics were restricted to a single wife, and if polygamy 
on the one hand, and into sculpture on the other, was permitted to the rest of the people, it must 
linking the whole together with the highest have been very seldom practu«ecl. The mar- 
dass of phonetic utterance, and with the most riage of brothers and sisters was permitted. The 
brilliant coloring, thus harmonizing all these laws were wise and equitable, and a])pear to 
arts into one sreat whole, unsurpassed by any have been rigidly enforced. Hurder w:is pun- 
thing the world has seen during the 80 centuries ished with death, adultery by bastinadoing the 
of straggle and aspiration that have elapsed man and by cutting off the nose of the woman, 
iiDee the brilliant days of the great kingdom of forgery by cutting off the culprit^s hands. Im- 
the Pharaohs.** — Of the religions system of the prisonmcnt for debt was not permitted, but a 
ElTptians we possess very scanty information, man could pledge to his creditors the mummies 
The people worsliipped many gods, and each of his ancestors, and if he failed in his lifetime 
city or district had its tutelar deity, who in that to redeem them, he was liimself deprived of 
place was particolarly adored, while in the rest burial. Women were treated with respect, and 
of the country he was little regarded. The the laws and customs seem to have been so 
principal gods were Osiris and Isis, who were favorable to them tliat their condition in Egypt 
vorshipped throughout Egypt ; Amun, or Am- was much higher than in any other nation of 
moD. who like Jupiter was held to be the " king antiquity. The military force of Egypt was a 
of gods»^ the especial tntelor deity of Thebes; species of hereditary militia, which formed one 
Noma, the god of the cataracts and oases, who of the lending classes or castes, and in time of 
in Uicr times under the Romans was calle<l also peace cultivated the land, of which it held a 
Ammoi^ and considered the same as Japiter ; largo portion. The king's guards, some few 
Sal^, his wife, who corresponded to Juno ; thousands in number, were the only standing 
Plithah, the Memphian deity, who symbolized army, llie number of soldiers in the military 
the creative power ; the goddess Neith, wor- caste is stated by Herodotus at 410,000, which 
shipped at Sais, who may be compared to probably included all the men of that class able 
Minerva; Rem, who represented universal na- to bear arms. It is not probable that tlio whole 
lore, ami particularly the generative principle, of them ever were or could bo brought into 
and vho^e cliicf temples were at Coptos and at the field at once. Their arms were spears and 
Ci.L-inmis: the goddess Pasht, whoso worship swords, and they were protected by largo shields. 
[jfrvailed at Buba-^tis, and wlio corresponded to "^hey were distinguished for their skill as 
i!» Arteuiis or Diana of Greek and Roman my- archers, and also used the slinjr. They do not 
tholo^ : Maut, the maternal principle ; Re or seem to have been well suppliiKl with cavalry, 
Plirah,' the sun ; Seb, the earth, vrho was called though they made mucli use of war chariots. — 
**litherof the gods;" Nepte, the sky, wife of The researches of modern investigators have 
Seb, the " mother of the gods ;" Moui, the sun- established the fact that the ancient Egyptians 
Edit: Atmou, the darkness; Thoth, tho intel- were of the Caucasian type of mankind, and 
l*ct. Other noted deities were Khons, Anouke, not of tlio negro. Their language bore unmis- 
Ttine, Savak, Eileithyia, Mandou, Seth, Nepthys, takable affinities to the Semitic languages of west- 
Homs, and Athor. A great variety of abstract ern Asia, such as the Hebrew and tho Arabic, 
principles and even of animals and vegetables Herodotus, it is true, speaks of them as black 
were however worshipped by tho nuiltitude, and woolly haired, but the mummies, of which 
thongh the doctrine of one God was privately immense numbers remain, prove that his words 
tangbt by the priests to a select few. To each are not to bo taken literally. The shape of 
deity an animal seems to have been held sacred, their skulls is Asiatic, not African ; and the 
iriikh was pirobaMy reganled as his symbolical paintings on the monuments show that they 
represent at ivo. Bulls were consecrated to Osiris were neither black like the negro nor copper-col- 
■nd cows to Athor ; the sacred bull of Mem- ored like some of the Ethiopian tribes. The 
pUi, called Apis, being particularly venerated true negroes are distinctly represented on the 
throQghout Egypt. A hawk was the symbol of monuments, and in a style of caricature which 
Be. tSie ibis of Thoth, tho crocodile of Savak, the Egyptians would not .have applied to them- 
andthecat of Phthah. Of the doctrines of tho selves. There is, however, reason to believe 
Egyptian religion little is accurately known, that tho Egyptians had mixed largely with the 
The existence of the spirit after death was be- negroes, and from tho positive statements of 
Ecved, and a fnture state of rewards and punish- Greek and Roman eye-witnesses there can be 
aenU inculcated, in which tho good dwelt with no doubt that they were of very dark com- 
th« goda, while the wicked were consigned to plexion. We have no certain knowledge of 
fcfj torments amid perpetual darkness. It the amount of population under the Pha- 
vw believed that after the lapso of ages tho raohs. By some of the Greek and Roman 

£rit would return to tho body, which was writers the number of inhabitants at tho 

nfore carefully embalmed and preserved in most f ourishing periodd is stated to \iavQ '\)^^i;i 



40 EGYPT 

7/i<X),000. a procli(;ioni amonnt for m briaII a enli|tht«no«] ruler, who after a splradid 

country, tlio avoriigi* iiuinUrr tu tlio At^iiare milo, of .'(S yvur^ nlNlicati'd in favor of LU aoo Ft«il» 

ezrluftiTc fif tlio «lif<Tt. Wing twioo aii larp* od eiiij riiiiiulvliiliuis and tlivd two yaars aflarw 

in the iiH*«t lU-niivW |ii.>oplid IniuU of uiuJcrn wanl. The varly part of tho reign of PtulcnT 

tiinvft. Still, v> irrvat was tho fiTtilii v of K^vpt Philadelphuii wa.i distiirlMitl bjr ri%'il war vitb 

tliat the «tatftni.-nt is nut inipniliahlo. Tho cul- hin rehvllious hruthvrs two of whom be pat to 

ti%'aliK- laml i« Minu-w Imt (rrfatiT in txtiiit nitw dotith. Tho douieUic fftatv of Efcrpi waa greatl/ 

tlian it ma* in uutt>)ijit\. nwin^ !•» tho widiT iniproviMl under hi^ adniiniHtratiun, and (*PP^ 

■prt'Ail (if tho inundation <>f tho NiU- : and it in E^rypt, whirh ha«i bwn in a turbulent oondkUoa 

r«>niputttl that if pr<i|HTly tilK-d it would yioM ft»r half a ivntury, was reduced to order and 

in«in- than i« ro<|uisto ftir tho (i**A of sjhnmn»o niiule Kufo fur merchants and other traTellenu 

fMNiph-. t!iii!ip;h withiMit alluwihj nny riin«ii]or- Tho {Nirl of IWreiiire on tho Uod lea vai cun* 

ahlo Mir]>:u« ii.r oxpurtatinn. rndt-r thi- aniii-nt structod, and tho rity of Ar^inoo waA bnilt vImiv 

rharhi>h** Iiri!i' nr nn rurn iiiLt «x}HirT«^l, and Suoz now stand'*. Ttoleniy aliio built other 

the land mi insi t<* liuvo Uoii ourifully ('uUi\ utod. cition on tho lU-d sea tu facilitate the trade witk 

Anothor ^tatcnit-nt of tho <ir(ok<> an<l Konian^s India, wlitoh was at that time extensive and 

that at tlio hoi^ht of hir |>rif<iKTity tlioro WiTo pruti table. Tlie ntiiM'um of Alexandria and its 

in E^'vpt 2(i.(Niii 4iti< <«, is alt-i^vtlu-r pro|KMtort»u>i. funioU!» library, Uith fuundod by Ptolemy Soter, 

Tho ct'Uniry containod •M\(Tnl lar^^u anil iN>pn- weru now at the height of their proepeAtj. 

Iou«ciii«-«. the iiiii^t ri»n«iiK- ruble nf whioh uoro I>oniotriu«t Phalerous wili librarian, Euclid wm 

Tliobofs I.'itiiiHi]i«, A{*<>I]iiii>|N>lisSyono. in rp|tor head of the nmtlioiuatiral M'hooh and the poet* 

E|ryi»t : Mrinpht^ HtraoloKiNiIi-, An^init'-, in Thoiirritiis CaJIiniai-hus, and Phil»tna were 

lliddio (V.M'^ : l!vli*i|Hih». HiibtMiK, ] .eon topi i- n'lkuniH] anmn^ the ornaments of the court* 

lis ^aio, UuMrit, NuuiTatis Mrndi-!i, Tan (4, Tho Jew A at t!ii> time Wore very numeriMM ia 

Pelu>iuni. iu L'Wor l^ryi't. At the h»ue'>tcom- E^vpt, and with t!io kin;!*-« fanction tho SeptB- 

putatinii thoM,' frroat ritii*!«can H-arooIy Iiuvo euU' ai;int vor>iiin of tho Old To<«taiueut was made 

tainvvl in tho <4r^TL>i*ato h-i^s thaii t>,iHHt.fNio |k'i»- front the llohrow into the lireek by 70 or 79 

pie, whiih, dodui-tr«l from tlio 7,tHHMi(H)i.f tiitid Jewish t^holun*. Tho dominions of Ptulem/ 

|Mipu!utiiin, «i'i:Id lia%-e loft bnt an uvor:ti:e cf lK*<*ido Kt?\j't mniprisi'd a rotiHideral'Ie part oC 

SAO itJiahitaiitN ti> each of thr 2'*."<hi (itio<. — Ethitiiiia. to;^■tho^ with Palontire. i*<rIe*Syri^ 

Tho rMn«iiu-«'t i<i' K^% pt |iy AU\:ui<li r the <iroat l*un>ph\lia, Cilioia, l.yoia, Ciria, Typruii, ami lh« 

wait nm* h fM-ilitutt-ii by tlio liutrtd of tho na- CvoIai1o.<4. Hit army is haid ti» have numbeiW 

tivo^ t.i thoir 1% r-iun m'a.<^ttr-. Tiny wi-h i.mrd 26*».ouo f.N>t ami 2iMKtO hiifjio, 2.<KKi cliariuCi^ 

tlio (iro« k^ a^ d« !i\(Tcr^ and « ith nuMin, fnr 4^^) oK-i'hant". and a navy of ],5oi) »lii|r% of war 

m'ith tl.r nili-tif Ah xunihr ranio trailf, Uarnin^', and IjXni tian»|KirtA. t.*i»fntmToe aiid the artai 

sriomo, tl.i' arT-. a:.d jiM and >tal>lf piwrn- Mrionoo and literature, directed by ti rook Keniua 

nunt. Ill' (-••III iliatcil tho prio-t;* by ^ai ri:ii in;; and (*re«-k eni-nry. won* rarriod to a hoi^ht of 

t«i the ^aiT«d h'ill \v\\ Hhnni tin- i^lol-haTin^ »ph*ndiir tliat rivalUil the brighti*ftt day« of tbe 

PofMafiH had trt.ittd with iniUirniT\ . ainj in elder I'huraoh^. AIozandria« the capital, wae 

onSi-r tu r«-*!>'ri* t>« till- (H-i>|>Ii- thrir azi4 it-nt lau^ a»iij»erbri!y. adurned with nia^uificont ediftcHk 

and i:-.v* *< 1'*' ("^'a-'t^^id tMi> jmlijioliij.*. with aiitl pniiniiiont tiiroii^hout tho rivi!izf«l world 

Juri«li< :.<iM tixir t!.«- « L* !•■ iKiidlrt. uimI ap* a^a H-at uf harnin^, s icni-e. and tradr. I^tcdccnT 

-Miintol twii om':iio!it K.*> I'lLin- ti t!ii'*4 i ■;!'..(•». I*hiladi1|<!iti'«rti.-nfil )ik«.- hi« father :*^*< vean,and 

'irot-'.ir:;; al-^* uli tho (iri* k i>:!^ cr^ tu ricurd inan Mit-ioodi-<l by hi.'» mhi l^oK-niy l!uergetcs 

thoi :j»tiim« "f Kjypt in alniiz.i^trrin;: thr ^•w\' who huil a brilliant aiid | riM|H>niu^ ni^ f«f SS 

rrnm«!ii. Idi! tin- cr^att^t i4:.il uw-t |*t niu- yi-ar*. l!o robuilt many <-f tho final ti*nipK'a uf 

m-nt liri«^: wli'.ihthv M;i<'f«Iiini*tzi i ••ii'|i)iT>>r I'4:y|>t and fcuiuh-d i>t}ior\ ai.d hi;* itMirt vai 

lN»t"»id u;m.ii KpTyi't au4 tl.r f«>i:rii!.iM«<n ^-f thriin}^-«l l>y arti^tn aiidunthur^. Tndrr his pro- 

Ahxax.ilria. »!i>m4- t apiifitii"* t>> l>o ni.i>!i- a p^rt ili»rito M'.d twuiiniial ■'••n, I'tithmy I'hilnpator, 

«>f tho t.r«t • U->« and an oMipuritnn f -r t}.«- t ••!'.• tlivkin^*«!i»m U^'an ttidri'ini*; and in the rri|[nuf 

ni« no 4>f thi' la-tt ni Mi •li!(rrai.< :i!i hi- t<trii;v- tho noit k:Mj. I'tnh iin Ki'ipl:ane«, a minor, tlie 

ed at a irlari'-r »hiK» p.i*«iii;; tl.ri'*:^h t!io p!.!- o kin);*}tpiaplian4 wi ro furt-ol to invuki- thepffo- 

on hi« %jk\ T>» \W.t tho lira* !•■ tf AiitiM.iii. Tlio tootion of tl.i- K'tmaii^tafThitiskt tho ambltiiiU* de- 

city «h;ih ho i>n!t nd t-i \n- b.i.l! tijtfo r«».-t? ki^n.^of ih*- »»»viroi;:n!« I'f Syria aiiil MAcv^lani^ 

rapi'I!,^ !•• inifMirtani-f. ai'.d m a ft w yi-.ir% hi-- who hail fi-nni<l a ««'ni]>in.ition a^rain*: Kjt^pL 

caxno ft.o (f !ho trr«at ra|.,:al« ff tin- H'tM The ri-^ult uf thi ir iiittTt'oft nre wo^^ that a^.er • 

anil !!.•• rliiif f . nt.-o «-f (iri-k riviIi/aTi'-n. cn.tury ui.d a l:*Ifttf t'.:rbuhnre and misrule, un- 

Alt'Xaii'lir ifftT!«i! !.■■! nnrtl* a |N>litira!, liii di.r 8 fkuViTixi!-* Uarinj tho nanio c^f I*! Itrmv, 

a •m-ial aii'l ixit«!:f I tual r« %M!titii.n in I'lt.Mpt, tht- Ia*t t<f n ^t.i;;, P^.Iiniy \II.. rfi):nrd jukctly 

mhirhfiir a i^M-'i-atiil }« .I'^af^i r !:.t i iini{T:r«t rr- Kii'.h Uin ni-ti-r ni.d wilo. the faniou« i'lu'pttnw 

inaini-il • -«i r.ti.t!I% atiri < ki ■•ii tri :livlir(«k^ (l^rji pt w .i* ndm i d tu tlie mndilifn iT a I»i<ruaa 

licirj: !!.r i*.>r:..na2!t :f !...• !^. nn.-? i. :nii r- pr'.\.nroly Anir;!>!!H I'a-^ar. :io \\. i\ !*. re- 

i*n« r:*4'f A{\at i:<t' di-.k:!i ff A!«'ia*>ihr. SJ 1 nt.ii:'<d »ul--ri t tu tin* tiiii>4 rur* «fKiHiu'fi-*nMi-e 

n. (* , a: •! '.I.r 4l:%:*hri ff h 4 t Ti.j iri- anifii^ thati li n tiVirn*. m ith ll>i- '•Ix rt aiid doiiStf tl rl* 

ill*' y.v f' >!;; n rjp!.iin«. (l.'\|t Uiarni- »:J»- r**; t:>'ii if a {t-r-ipl w hi n i! ma% lia\r l-^^ n ImM 

jcrt ti' I*:<>!i:!.t, turiuu:ii>l S^tir, aii alio aLd ly ZtUulia, tho t^uv^u uf Taliu^ra. Il w:^* 



S 



EGYPT 41 

looked upon ai the most valuable of the prov- the Egyptians from the govornmcnt at Constan- 

inoes of the empire, as the granary of Rome, tinople, so that tboy mi^e no opposition when 

vpoo whoae harvests the idle and tnrbnlent mil- in the reign of Heraclius, in 61 6, the country was 

Coos of the imperial metropolis depended for overrun by the forces of the Persian king Chos- 

their daily breaa. Its history during this long roes, who held it 10 years, until the outbreak of 

ptnod is a record only of fruitless rebellions Mohammedanism so harassed the Persians that 

and of aavage peraecutiona of the Christians, Heraclius was enabled to recover the province, 

vboae religion was eariy introduced and made only however to lose it for ever a few years later 

npid progresa. After the transfer of the seat in 640, when it was conquered by the Arabs, led 

of the empire to Constantinople, A. D. 830, by Amrou the general of the caliph Omar. For 

the Christiana of Egypt triumphed over the more than 2 centuries after the Mohammedan 

pagam^ and lor another period of 8 centuries conquest Egypt remained a province of the ca- 

iti hisborj preaenta little but theological con- liphate, the seat of which was transferred from 

tan, which not unfrequently broke out into Medina to Damascus, and from Damascus to Bag- 

dTfl strife. The first of these contests was the dad. In 868 Ahmed the vicerov threw off his 

Ariaa coatroversy — Ariu8,who was pronounced allegiance to the caliph and established an inde- 

a bereCic by the oomicil of Nice (325)^ being a pendent kingdom, which lasted 87 years, when 

presbyter of the church of Alexandria, while the caliphs again reduced it to subjection. 

Athana«in% hia orthodox opponent, was' arch- After a long period of anarchy, Moez, the 4th 

bishop. By the emperor Constantius' II. Atha- of the Fatimite caliphs, who reigned in northern 

iiawu waa removed firom his see and an Arian Africa, and were rivals of the caliplis of Bagdad, 

ippointed in hia place, while the orthodox conquered Egypt, in 970, and building the city 

Qttistians were grievously persecuted. When of Cairo, miule it the seat of his government. 

Jalian the Apostate became emperor, the pagan The Fatimite dynasty ruled Egypt fur 2 cen- 

Biob of Alexandria rose against the Christians taries. Tlie most distinguished of them was 

tad murdered the Arian archbishop, and Atha- Hakem (died 1021), the prophet and Messiah of 

Bimu finally regained the arcniepiscopate. the Druses, who still look for his return to eartk 

Alter his death the emperor Yalens appomted Adhed, the last of the Fatimites, died in 1171, 

in Arian to succeed him, and the persecutions and was succeeded by his vizier or prime min- 

of the orthodox were renewed. Theodosius I., ister, the renowned Saladin, the chivalrous and 

in 379, isBoed stringent edicts against paganism, successful adversary of the crusaders. He took 

▼Lich still held ^ita ground, especially in Alex- the title of sultan of Egypt, and at his death in 

indria. where it numbered among its adherents 1193 was sovereign of a vast empire which hia 

most <^ the learned and scientific classes and sons divided among themselves, Egypt falling to 

the students in the schools of philosophy. In the share of Aziz. Successive invasions by the 

compliance with the orders of the era[)eror, the crusaders harassed Egypt for the following cen- 

pigaia temples were broken into by the Chris- tury, but tliey were all repelled by the descend- 

tiins and the statues of the deities destroyed ants of Saladin, with signal loss to the Chris- 

or overthrown. The great temple of SerapU, tians. The last and most disastrous of these 

which had been for ages the most sacred and attacks was made by Louis IX. of France in 

eelebrated of pagan fanes, was plundered and 1248, who landed with a largo army and the 

desecrated, and its library of 700,000 volames fiower of the French chivalry at Dimiietta, but 

de^oiled by the mob. The pagans resented after some successes was defeated and compelled 

these oatrages, and took arms in defence of to capitulate with the loss of 30,000 men. A 

(heir religion ; but after several battles had been remarkable revolution next took place in Egypt. 

iDOgfat in the streets, the Christians were vie- Saladin and his successors had organizi-d a nu- 

torioQs. and the pagan leaders were driven from meroas body of guards, called Mamelukes, com- 

the eitir. In the reign of Theodosius II., the posed exclusively of slaves of Turkish origin, 

edehrated Cyril, archbishop of Alexandria, in brought from tlio countries around the Caspian 

41<4 raised a persecution of the Jews, who were sea. They gradually acquired such power and 

BBmeroos and wealthy, and himself headed a influence that at length tliey deposed their law- 

■nb which attacked and plundered the syna- ful sovereign an dm ode one of their own number 

mgnea, and in one day expelled every Jew from sultan. For 120 years these mercenaries con- 

tfae dty. The pagans were next assailed, and trolled the destinies of Egypt, making and un- 

OHof their most popubr teachers of philosophy, making sultans at their pleasure. At length, at 

fhabeaotifnl and learned and eloquent Hypatia, the close of the 14th century, the Circassians, 

dai^ter of Theon tlie mathematician, was from whom the ranks of the Mamelukes had 

fagged from her chariot as she passed through long been largely recruited, overthrew the pow- 

Iha fftreet, carried into a church, and brutally er of the Turkish Mamelukes and took the gov- 

■trdered. At a later period, the theological emment into their own hands. Another century 

eoBtroversies of Egypt culminated in the com- of anarchy succeeded, and in 1517 Egypt was 

plate separation of the Coptic or Egyptian conquered by the Ottoman sultan Selim I. and 

^BTch from the orthodox, whose bishops held reduced to a Turkish province. Some of tho 

aeoancil at Chalcedon in 451, and denounced Mameluke sultans were men of talent and ener- 

tbe Egyptian doctrines as heretical. Tlie bitter gy, and under their rule Ejrypt waa at tuuea iho 

generated by these contests alienated centre of aa extensive though fiuctuat\ug ^m- 



42 EGYKT 

|«iri*. The arts wore ruiti rated villi some sur- arrnv. and avert the orerthrow of th« Otto> 

cv94. u i« sliown } y tin* iiiom|ii(-4 und t4>iiibfl cf tiiun oiniiire. In 1^48 Melicniet AIL at theaf* 

thtTM.' AultAii.'* ht Ciiini, Mliiih jn-tly rank nnioiiK of bO, grew imbecile, and his pod Ibrmbim waa 

till- iiMi^t iiia^Mtifiiviit Mill vlf^aiit ^Ii«ciI^¥ll» of invcftte<i with the ]ia»hiUic. Ibrahim du-d aft 

Saracviiii' :in iiitcciurc. I'lidi r thvir bwav Cairo the end of S nionthis and wa« MK-ceeded by hb 

Ut'aiiiv wl.at it li.i« iVvr sni'o remained, the Dtrphew Abbu^s ^n ignorant and profligate fo- 

cliiff K'ut III' MohaniiiK^luii Uamin^ and intel- natic, who was bigot«llT oi>|i09ed to tlw n-fuma 

Kitnul 4 ul;ivMiiiL. Vor'2 cvntunv« the Turkish introduced br his grundVatlKT, and, immencd in 

)i:i*liiii rult^l i'l^'.M-t, uhuh deiayv*! undvr thvir Mutual gratiticatiouis |*aid no attt-nt^on totba 

ruli* liki* Jill thi- lai.<U Miljrrti-d tn it. Hut in duties of hi* fiOAt. Meheinet Ali divd, Aag. S^ 

thv l*«:h ivfilury i:,v Mamvlwkcs who Mill con- 1849. AbboA died suddenly, not without ao^ 

Mitut<.il the niiiitury foTre I'l tU* \*T\j\ ibio. crad- picion of violence, in July, 1>^. He wa> aoe- 

ually ri-^'.iitie>i tl.i ir l'i>rni(r fH>wer to such an ceedvd by the present rukr. Said ra^ia»the4th 

cstitit that in 17''S, ui.iler the load of their M>n of Meheniet Ali, a nmn of enorpy and itt- 

ablest Aiid iiiii'>t iiiiliieiiiittl «-hii-f, Ali Key, they telligence, who thun far has goveri.iHl wiacly 

thri-w «iir ihi- iurki<Ji }iike nijil de^'lareil Kg>pt and liufiianely, and has carried out thv enlighv 

ii.4li|H-iiihi>r. A: the end (it* 4 yi-ur% however, ened plans of hin father with notne nnWlifieation 

All lUy u.ii In tnAt-d and |H»i<4tned. and the of itrtain «il Meet ion able featnre^ by which tliey 

authority nf the ^il]!.1a vas nnniinallv rei^tab- were defwid. Under his au^picv^t E^pt a^ 

h-he-l in 177J. i fMu-ion ui:d civil war bo> |>euri to be pratluully advancing toward that 

twon t!.e d.iiiTint fui'.i><n4 (it tho Maxneluken }Hj»ition amuni; the natioM to which tlie ia 

c«fii:iiiu«d tij |<re^::.l ijM:1 in IT'JH tho inva.Mou entitled by her inexhaustihlo n.'iiourcca and 

ofK;;>pt by N:i|'«>:i-« n lMiM:i|i&rttf united their unnvulled geographical I*o^ition. — Fur fuitbar 

«hiei<i ill h* ir di ii i.> e. Their fainouft cavalr}' infurtuation on Kg}|'t g^'nemlly, K-e Caih\ 

inaile a g:ill Jit n^.-Mnie to the French, but CoI*T^ NiiC. Tho Muljects of IllUooLTI-UlOa 

w;i« fiiri-til til gill* Huy U-fure the M-ience and and tho riKAMioa will be trvateU i.nder tbow 

tA4*:ii<»Mi Ki)ri>|if. In the bat tie of the Ty ram ids titles re«|K-( lively, and artirle* u|>«in tlM 

the Manuliilhi- r.nny ^nn i.«-urly annihilated, chief citie<( and {k THunoges of (^gi plian kiatury 

Tlie Kri III !i •••n'lUt nd tho %%hnle nf K^'ypi, and will lie fuund under their prt>iier headx. Tba 

h>M It tiil InM. «»litn tl.ey w«-ro eiiielled by a d L<ic<i verier uf nindem trnvelhr» in Egyi-t will 

i»rit<-h antiv i«ii*Ut <iener:iU AlH.Tcn»mbv and bo nutieed under the nauicii of the tra%«DeriL 

JJi.Ti liin^'ii. Atter thf ih)Kirturc i»f the French The following is a li?*t of home of the uikM im* 

civ.l uar briike ut.t at'n<*h U-twii-n the Turks iiortant works on Egypt and Egy[>lian Mjbiects: 

atid t!.o Mir\i\:ii^ Manielukes w liich re»uItiHl, iiun«>en, AfjypttM SttUt in titr HV/'yrsrAirilt 

in l^'-.'t. in the ilii.itii-n tn the jxi-it of pa>haof (5 vols. 8vii., Hamburg and (iotlia, lM&-*37; 

Me!M irft A!i. nn Al'ar.iun aiUentiirerwho had Engliali trannlutiun, by Charles 11. I'l'ttrvD^ S 

U-ti'Mir !.:r!4r Kfi-iiecf il.iMiintcndingfactionA. vols. bv<i., Ivohdun, Is4')-*&H ^f s^y ) ; I>&p»4ii% 

]Ii« a>.!!.i'riM. huwi-vi-r, w:iS ni>t tinuly e»ta1> J^nlmaUr tiu$ Ar*jtfptrn und Arthnj'tf n tL^ip^ 

1i*!m«1 i.M.l altera 1 1 'I I ,; Mr U;:;;lo wiih the Mume- tic, IMi^'uH r' •«''/.>, J!rif/f iii/« Jr^'y/'^rOi. Jk. 

lull *, ''Y.'O >-i'hI'"-i> I'C iH-rtiili'iu-ly niasKocred (iCerlin, lK*i2; Kngh«h tran^latifii, I.* nJoa, 

in 1*11. 'P.<: i^i^pitttnl Mirnvi.rs tlml to Nubia, l^ao) ; linigM'h, litifhtrichte iiu§ Afjy^m 

anil »:i.*v the n.a— i< :<• the internal troiiouillity (lA-iii^ic, lbo5); I'lileinann, Ilamilveh dtr ^ 

of l^VI't h:L« r."t Infii Kfiou-ly di-turlivJ. Me- mmmUn Ae'yif/diarh^n Atffrthunuluude i^ r^h, 

hiiiit! .\ii ii.fr>i4ii]r««l prat ri fornix in Ei'ypt, in H\u., l.ei|»«ie, l*«o7'*^); In nun, Vtyai/* Jfiaj ia 

the »}•*.«. ni of hili!i;i.^«!rat ion, ai.d in the uriran- UiMMf tt Ui hauff K'jyvtf (2 vol*, tu!., l*ari^ 

i/j!.«n if th«- arni> uz.d na^y. With tlie aid i>f \*^^^'X\, Jh»erii»*ion dr VK'jypte f*2r> %«.!«. Hva, 

Euroj-^un an*! .\ni. rii.iri ailvcnturen ho anned and 12 voU. !••!. uf plates m-w ed. Pari-. 1^*20- 

a:: 1 •..«« i;>hued in the Kuri'iK-aii manner a large '•'■•Oi Cliaiiifiollion, L'hjyvU 9oua U» I'h^r^wmM 

f.ali** f-rrr, ami irtaled a ri •j-eetaMe tltit. (2 VnN. h\o., Taris 1^14), I^ttrrt, Are. l***"!!^ 

Mair..f.ir:iirrt iif a^li^ i!«>th«. and other ini- i\ r «, l*«3::),JI/»fit,Mifnf«c//rX2fy^f/rff// At A'viAsf 

J4<r:aiit art.- Ie« vitr«* iiitrudun-d and »etliiii*u*!v (iMliu, I\ir.-, IM*!): Marietta, CK»i^ de noaa* 

• •*tiri-<!: ilif I ••iri:iii fie of A!t iaiiilria, wliirh mtnfatt dedta»iuadieoHT4rt$vurjfeu*ia i^ndaaJi 

had i'Mi:iil!.tI a!:i. »*! ti» nuth-iv*, uos reviveil. U dihhiittuft.t dn Sertifitupi de if'fri/'Ai« (4tO,, 



and the jxijiilat.'-n of the (I'.y via« increaMrd ]'ari\ 1^'*'*). Mfmoins^ &r. (Invito: Mei 

tcnf'ii'l ilur::.»; \.i% reipfn. Iv.^pt. lirmly aitd ///,«;y;»V rout*v jn*r*iihe t>«*o., Tari*, 1^5^); 

liii«Ii-r *l« !> ^'it^i rii< i\ i ;;>iyfd a "tate of |H.-ace iStiM-llini. Sf^*hururufi dfW K*J^fto « dfUt* Swhi^ 

ai.d ,: «-l i-rdif ti Mi.h !i i*. l.ail Ui-n a »lr.nnL'«-r A'c. i^\o., fdiu plate*. Ti-a, l^*'); E. W. I^d^i 

fTi*:.' >r.i*, .It •! a taiiii •! a Min iiiandiiig jNMi. "Vtannm* ai.d i'uMoni* of thi MmUrn Egyp- 

l.'i?i a*'-«Jig the » .rroMitliftf i.atu>n«. The tian*" i*J vti!*. *i\n., Sd i-*!, I oi.dnr., l'«42): S 

I ikOia ..:ii.i«l !i! « ••!n; !t t<- i!j>i<-;i«-n !enr«>, and »u ml Hiari<«-, ** lli^tury |.f Egypt fioi*. tl.e Earli 



gri.»ti«.ri« It* rt*-»ur«« thut in 1**j1-'3.*-'33 linte* to th«» (\«nipK-«t bv the Arr.r* "■('«* Ok, 
hoiiB»''^l a !.;/! \\ •i:«e«'Nifil wnriii'.h the Turk- L ndi-n, l**!'"'): .*»ir J. fJ. (VilLii.^-n. * M 



ith •.:.:aj.. it-t.-rutrM! >\t\x and a k.'rtat p.irt of and ru*t<ini«>of the An* let t Eg,«ptiai •" (A voliL 

A* a Mil., r, a: •! «i-:!il har.- niade J..f!H*!f nia»- h\«>.I.i nih<(i. lM7i. " Ilni.d^-o^'k tt-r TrAelkra 

tir tt l- i.^t.ii.i.f.fj !• had I'*, the K.:r4>|Han in Ej^pt" | ! i<i.ihiii. I'>l7t. ".V l*««pi:Iar Ao'<4iiit 

^Hjmin jjiUr!irid to arroi tiic progress of his uf the Ancitbt Egyptiaiu"(2 vols. 12u.o., Lufr 



EHNIN6EB EHRENBERG 43 

doxL 1954), Xotes tnd Appenclices to Rawlin- and pnblbbed a narrative of Lis travels and ob- 

foa's'*IIefodotas'-(London,1858-'9);JobnKen- servations (Berlin, 1828\ The new species 

rick, "Ancient E^nrpt under the Pharaohs" (2 which he had discoverea were described in a 

Tols^ London and JSew York, 1852). See also series of 8ymboh» PhyBiea Mammalium^ Avium, 

the travels of Savary, Sonnini, Belzoni, J. A. St. Inseet^^rumj et Animalium Etertehratorum^ puV 

John, Haniet Martineaa, Mrs. Poole, J. Ij. Ste- lished between 1828 and 1834. Other sci- 

pbena, the late Bishop Wainwright, Dr. Robin- entific results of his journey were contained in 

BOD, G.W.Gortis^ Bayard Ta7lor,W.O. Prime, &c. his works on DU KoraUenthiere des Eothen 

EHXINGER, John Whxtton, an American Meeres (Berlin, 1884), and Die Akalephen des 

artist, bom in New York, July 22, 1827. He Eothen Meeres, &!. (Berlin, 1836). In 1829 ho 

was gradnated at Columbia college in 1847, and accompanied Alexander von Humboldt in his 

ihortly after went to Europe to pursue his art expedition to the Ural mountAins, which was 

BtadiesL In 1848-'9 he was a pupil of Couture prolonged to the Altai ; and during this journey 

in Paris, and between 1851 and 1853 he made ne began to apply himself to microscopic invcs- 

loBff risita to DOsseldorf and the chief capitals tigations, by w^hioh ho has since made highly 

ofUie continent. His first oil painting, " Peter important discoveries, and may be said to havo 

StOTvesant'^ (1850), the subject of which was created a scientific knowledge of the infusoria, 

td^ea from *^ Knickerbocker's History of New Among the larger works which embody the re- 

Tork,^* was engraved by the American art suits of his researches with the microscope are 

Bnion. Among his best w^orks executed since the Organisation^ Systematik, und geographi- 

tfait time are ** Love me, love my Horse,*' *^ The 9che$ Verhaltniss der Infunansthierehen (Berlin, 

Bvord,"^ the *' Foray,'' the landscape of which 1830; additions were made in 1832, '34, and 

u hj Mignot, **Lady Jane Grey," and An Ce-- '80), and the more complete Infusiomthierchen 

Im Artemi^ the latter now owned in Washing- aU vollkommene Organismen (Lei|)sic, 1838\, il- 

ton. He has 2^90 produced some excellent lustrated with 64 fine copperplates, which, from 

etchings and drawings in outline, pencil, and the elegant style in which it was issued, as 

India ink. Of the former, a series illustrating well as from its scientific contents, is reckoned 

Hood's '^Bridge of Sighs" was published in among the ornaments of German literature. 

1849, and in l&O another on subjects from Ir- Prior to Ehrenberg the infusoria were consid- 

TiQz's story of ^* Dolph Hcyliger.'' Of his pen- ered as scarcely organized, but he ascertained 

eil orawings the composition entitled " Christ that they have an internal structure resembling 

Itealing* the Sick," executed in 1857, and now in that of the higher animals, and discovered in 

tlie poa««os!^ion of the Kev. Dr. Anthon of New them muscles, intestines, teeth, different kinds 

York, is among his latest and best works. In of glands, eyes, and nerves. The astonisliing 

1sj8, soon after the appearance of Longfellow's minuteness of his observations api>car3 from his 

'^ Miles Standish," he prei)arcd a set of 8 illus- estimate that the size of tlio smallest colored 

trations of the poem, wliich were copied by the spots on the body of monas tei^mo (the diameter 

pbixo^rraphic process, and obtained a consid- of which is only^gVv of a line) is -^^1^^ of a 

enble popularity. Mr. Ehninger has of late de- line. So great are the powers of reproduction 

voted mucli time to perfecting a system of pho- in these animalcules, tliat from one individual 

tofEraphic etching. {hydatina senta) ho observed that 1,000,000 wcro 

EHREN BERG, Christian Gottfried, a produced in 1 days ; on the 1 1 th day, 4,000,000 ; 

Gennan naturalist and microscopist, born at De- and on the 12th day, 16,000,000. In pursuing 

fitadi, April 19, 1795. Ue was educated at his studies he made, partly by accident, the dis- 

Sefaolpfurte, till in 1815 hewenttotheuniversi- covery of fossil infusoria, which form an im- 

ty of Leil^sic, where after a short study of theol- portant element in many of tlie strata of the 

ogy lie devoted himself to medicine. lie con- earth's surface ; and he showed the similarity 

tinned his studies at Berlin, where he received of their phenomena in 3 dificrent parts of tho 

the degree of M.D. in 1818, publishing on tlie world in his Bildung des Europdischen, Lihy- 

Mcasioo a dissertation entitled Syha Myeologica acheUy und Uralischen KreidefeUens und Kreidc- 

Beniiiunscs, in which he gave an account of mergels aits mikroskopischen Organi$men (Ber- 

fl8 ^Kcies of cryptogamous plants found by lin and Leipsic, 1839). That black earth consists 

UBanMind Berlin, 62 of which had till then of infusoria he had before stated in a special 

keaa unknown. In 1820 he was enabled to treatise. Ue made the same discovery in 1841 

pitify a long cherished wish to travel for the concerning the peat soil which underlies a 

pBipose of scientific exploration, being appointed large portion of Berlin. In his treatise on Das 

vita Lis friend Hemprich by the Berlin academy Leuehten des Metres, which is a model of acuto 

if adences to make a scientific journey in investigation, he attributes the appearance of 

^gypt, wliither Gen. Minutoli was then going shining bodies in tho sea to the agency of mic- 

1m antiqiiarian researches. During 6 years he roscopic sea animals. A similar application of 

aplored the natural history of Egypt, Nubia, his discoveries he made in his Passat-^ Staub-y 

M Arabia, narrowly escaping from fevers tind Blutregen (Berlin, 1849), proving the ex- 

wU€h caused the death of his companion, and istcnce and operation of animalcules in the at- 

Monied to Berlin in 1826. He was at once ap- mosphere. The most important of his other 

lofnted extraordinary professor (ordinary in works are the Verbreitung und Einfluss des 

jM) of medicine in the university of Berlin, milro^lopUchen Lehens in Sud- und ^ord-Ame* 



41 EIIRENDKEITSTEIN EIDER DUCK 

ru.i int-Hin. 1M2k tlii* Mtlrot^rol^if iUii^ic, 25, 1827. ITarinffiitndiodtheologjAlGOItiiifRQ, 

1*C>4. fimtifiuiii ill isVi rt «/y ). ntii] niitit^riMifl in 1775 he wan elert^Ml pmfeMnr of the oricoial 

]i:ilifr« ill (Ik* " Trmi^ftinfi*." 4.f tin* lU'rltn nroil- Iad^uaitp^ in the uniTernty of Jena, and in ITM 

em V I '( M'ioiii v<«. M luiy of the i»|ierilifai ion* of wan calM to the Raiiic office in the untTerwtj of 

KliK-iiU-rK liavi* Ui*n '«|iU'«4ii»nitJ hr ot!ier m- (f«>ttiii»ren. where he tauglil with brilliant aoe* 

vttiitN hut liv hu< (vrtaifily tliv im-rit of having ccft« till near his death, lie firat prored thm 

hi*iloi 



fip4 firovitl tilt* i-ii«>tiii«*o of A linro chisa of extent of his learning In oriental hi^norr 

nii«'r«><«*npio |iUnT4 mud aniiiiiiK and o( having literature hx treati^*A n|Km the commerc* of 

o|N-ni-4l n fivw pfuh in whii^he him Duw uu- the Kant InJie;* prior to tlie time of Mohammtd, 

nifPiiiH fiilli>«tr«. and uiN>n the ancient hintorj of the Araba^ At 

KIII:KNIU:KITSTKIS. a tnwn ..f PJicni^h (i'lttinpen liedev(.te<lhini<ieIf«^wcial!Ttobib> 

I*rii—i:i, i*ti tlif ri;r(iT l>:kiik tif thi* K)iiiH\ nm- littil rritiriiim, nnd published the rpwiitji of Ut 

nt-i-tril !•% A Ui:it l<ri«li!i> with i'l^Mrntz, and studies In hiii lifpertorium fur hihiiatke mmd 

raiU-il ili.tl K!)ri-n)ir«MtM«-in, fp^in it a Mtii:itii>ii m*»rtfrnh\Mliwehf LiUratur (18 toU., Ijripair, 

at tiif t'iNit III » rtN-ky hctirht which rtn-n 772 17 77 -'bit), and hi^i Afhjfmeine BihlUthek 4tt 

flit al*t»%r ihr ri\iT. |Nip. alMiut 4.iHHi. iiii>Iudin|( biblisehrn Lit* rat nr { 10 voln., 17B7-1901). Ht 

thr (Tarri^xHi. ( i!i t!ii« livi^M htuitiN the cfle- wai especially influential In fonnding the teCei^ 

I»r:itfd ttirtrio* iii' Kliri-nlircttMi-in. whii-h wu^ i»retatinnofthoSTipture4onaknowled|!<eofbib* 

pnil>.tl>h iKiihiU^I by tlio lb«nian<« unibT the iical ant i«)uity and of oriental modes of tiMmgbt 

fniii«T«ir Julian, wa- rebuilt in the TJth «vnturT by hU introdnrtionn to the Old and New Tertftp 

b> Jlt-nnnnii, nn-libi-liiifMif Trivc«. nnd U'cume mentA, and his wurks on the Hebrew praplMCi 

of irrmt -trutc/^tii.d itii|Nirtani-i* tlurini; tin* HH and on the AfKx*n]yiNeof St. John, besMlcmny 

yf.-tr»* war. TIm- Kr«-n« li unilt-r Mnr^bul Itnuf- Taluable pA[K'ni in iH^riodical work*. Near IM 

ritTN uidfl by Vaiiban. in \uin U*»iivol it in cIi»m* of the l:i»t century ho eonccived the plM 

li>*^. Tliiv no^diK-il it airain ut tli«* t-nd i>f the of a full hi^torruf all the branches of in teUerlari 

f<!li*viiiii: if!itury. but (raim-d |iii«^-««iiin of it culture in Eurojie «inre the revivAl <if leCtcfiL 

(Jun. *J'*. IT'.'-O oiily nt^i-r u Mtve <>f 14 llll•nth^ Totbi^ end he A.<w¥*iated hiniNclf with teiefll 

and ntt«-r ritbii-iiii; the ptrri<«>n to KtArvutiim. leAme«i writer^ and r<ifn|M»NMl the ''llitCoryof 

In l*«iil ihii bit u up itM di'l'tnrt«, but the n- IJteraturt* I'runi it<4 (n-ipn to the nMwt KcMBi 

otiiMrurtiou iif tho ftirtrfo* ha<* Wvw aL'i*«»m- TinitV (l( voU., (mttinp'n. IKi^'lS), ao an !■• 

pli-Iittl !•% l*ru<*oit Hhtv I**!.*!. Tlit* cti«t of the troduction to the whole ciilleotinn. Among Ui 

«ii«rL4 «>u 1mi*1i ojilf^ I if tlit* Kliiuf it e«rimatfd other wrtcinir^ inton^Minit U>th from their erv* 

At hH>r<- than |:(.5«mi.imni. Jhcv « ill Imlire 1(ni,. dition And M>le, are hin rr^fffthi^hfeiWM^^WS^ 

OiMi niiMi. ^tt a carri^cin nf fi.tuNi i^ difnit-d in which hccritirAllv fXaniiniil thoMin^aie re^ 

Mitririd.T i*idffi nil tln-ni. Thf inA/a/ini-« arc t\i- ord<t of the creation A^d fAlt, And wurk^ on th« 

pabS-ff i-i'!itaitrnit» pni\i»iiin« fur h.inni nu-n fur Fn-nch rvvfilutb»n (I7l»7>, on ancifnt hi*t<inf If 

111 wur-. Il!trti)l>rrit»ttin i^di-ffUibtl by aUmt toN., Hll-'lMi, and on the hi^tury of the ImI 

4'i*> ph-i v« «'f ' .iiiiii*n. The f«rar]Htl pm k« AXid 3 cvnturif^ \\U\ fd.. ]><17-*1*^). 
»t«t p -I-hn » n'l :i -i.K * I'f the liirtn-*"* •^t-ni ini- EirMSTXl>T, n IlAv.irian town in the rlrrln 

privi>n ■■!«'■ 1 !'•' pi.iif'irni i-n the top tif the of Middlo Franconia, on tbo river AltmttM, 

riM'k •t-r\r« a* a piiraib* in^mnd. anil rti%-fr^ %u«t aUuit Tii'ini. fnuu Munirh ; iNip. 6.8<mV Theprin- 

arrliitl I cTi rn« i ap.iK|f nf lifMiHi! a 'A \vi\rn ci|»iUity ttf Kich^tadt. nf nhirh it wamheeapilnl, 

•up|«!\ i«f u .it< r. H 111- )i i^nbtaiiiitl fmrn ^prink'4 wa«di«Hi|vi*«| Ktb. S*^. 1*sM. Kich^idt hail M«« 

«iiiiiti)T tin- ».i:N. Tbi* wiirk* wtTo tXt-^-uti-il a bi^ihopric until l**«r!, nhcn it becainea prind- 

uiMbr fill' il:n-«:;<>n iif the I'ru^^ian ^viitTal pAlity, a uTt^at part tif which wa4 on'«enled la 

A*it r. ubti ilktd i!i l^'lV ]HI7 to Kul'i'iic ile KeanhAmAi^ duke of l^or^ 

KhJIKNlM»l:KK. JifCfn Kaal llivrnmr, tenlienr. A n^w bi-^Jnipric, however, was 

liATiiu, A (itTinau AuthiT. U^ni noAT katilnir, li^btil in 1^«*i1. which is suflTrapin to the 

rplN*r Sdi-iA. March 10. 178H. diiil At Nci^***, bishopric of ItAnilicrK. 
Nov. ■.*•■^ 1*07. He ».!« dt-^t-ntliM fmm ah KIi>KI*. a n vit of Dt^nm Ark. ri«in:» ne«r Kki 

AiM-itnt ('axlii'lir VlorA%iAn fAiui]\. wa- a rep- in the duchy nf lb tlntr in. And tfowinff into iIm 

n^^'ittoiMe iif tijo i^k-calbHi ruuiAntif «c1hmi|. North m*a not far fn>intb«* t«iiin of Innnin^ea. 

wnite many line i««*ni«, tnn*l.itt-«l Ht^n Juan Itf ptnfnU ciMir«4* i^ N.. and fur a c«in«iiSt-rabl9 

Mamit-r* i'>*T,*U /u/*iji.L'r (lk*rhn. 1*^10) and di«tan<*e it furm^ the Ntuntlary b«*twr«-n iIm 

C*aMfn*«r« rWvM>-i« pU,^« i2 \k*W, Mutlpirt, duchiv« of S*!,li*«wi(« aikI llidMric. Its tutnl 

l*^r»-'Vii iii!«i (iirm.in, jiubii»h<tl in Ik'jI /vr lent^th i« aNmiI lu% ni., of which 7nArv 

«lr^r«rA/' /taMH.ifi Jf ]•« J ikrk%in»ifrts in teinrm bb*. With the aid of a canal thit rivrr ft 

Vfrhtklhttmf funt 4'SrisftmrA*im, ami In 1*^*6 a mcan^ of c<immuiiii*ation U*twecu the Nortk 

(if9-AtrKU ,ftr f^^turkrn LiUnttur ItmtatK" aud Kaltir H*a«. 

Liftmis. Kii'ir flitiiin* tif bi«|a«!r\ and of bis KIPEK PITK (i'>«niT/critfi fPM»//iflfiiiMi, I.ian.\ 

Bi4r*t |«*p-ilar \.tt\*\ I .\*t» tif 91% /y-Arii /imm T^iu- otw i>f the fuU^whutf ur m'a (liirks wrll kmiwa 

^uhfkUt ar'i«*ari«l in l(*-rliii in tbt* i«int* y«*Ar. for th«* rfniarkablr "^lOnr^s ff it« iVoiin ao«1 IIm 

Ill4'nil< >ll\. JxiMw (■•■rrrricn. a (ti-nnm U*auty of it* pl1:ln.•l;^^ :ini| ctimriHtn, liki" other 

c«r.«>ii(al *i iif!.ir ainl lii^turian. Urn iti !^<riu- ar«'!i«* ^fi^N-uxs ti» Nitb b«Mni*fih4«n'«. Tlie liill ia 

r>Hi*ii«rn, in \\i^ prim i^ixdiiy cif lb*ht rili«lH-- rb'\alt^! at the bitw, ritnipn-^'H*<l brhimi llie hn^ 

i*i*ri:.^*t,, iji I. } 0, J 7^2, dii^ tu lit/tlingi-n, June UiK di% idcd in fn»iit by an acute angle of fcnih* 



EIDER DUCK 45 

ezs, flattened at the tip, which is armed with a an instance has been related in which thequontltj 
ftroDgi brood, and hooked nail ; the lamells are obtained the first time from a single nest is said 
Bodcrate and far apart; the wings are moderate, to have weighed | lb. ; when proper] j cleaned, 
pointed, the 1st and 2d qaills longest ; the tail it is worth from 12s, to l-k. per lb. for the Eng- 
ibort and wedge-shaped; tarsi more than half as lish market So highly is it prized for wanuth 
long as the middle toe ; the toes long, united by a and lightness, that in Iceland and Norway the 
M web. Tho head is very large, the neck short, districts resorted to by the duck are regarded as 
tiie body balky and much depressed ; the feet yaloable property, and are strictly preserved. 
«• short, and placed far behind. The plumage The Icelanders t^)ce pains to make artificial isl- 
ii short, dense, soft, and blended. The bill is ands by cutting off projecting points from the 
pale grayish yellow, iris brown, feet dingy light mainland, such spots being more attractive to 
green with unskT webs ; upper part of head the birds from their seclusion tban the mainland 
Uoish black, with the central part white ; occi- itself. Eiders fly rapidly, steadily, and generally 
vttty upper part of hind neck, and sides of neck near the water, rarely more than a mile from the 
flel&eate pale green ; sides of head, throat, and shore ; they are very expert divers, descending 
Beck white; lower neck and upper breast several fathoms, and remaining lone under water; 
ocam-oolored or buff; rest of lower surface tho food consists of Crustacea, moUndc s, and the 
black, as are the tail coverts and middle of the roe of fishee ; the gizzard is largo and muscular ; 
ranp ; rest of upper parts white, the scapulars they are rarely seen inland, unless driven in by 
tingnd with yellow, except the secondaries which storms. They are shy, and difiicult to kill ; the 
■e brownii^ black, and the primaries grayish fl^h of the yonng and females is s2ud to be well 
teowA; the length is !25 inches, the extent of flavored, but that of the males is tough and 
wags 42, the tail 4}, bill 2 J inches; the weight flshy, and rarely eaten except by hungry fisher- 
ii Son 4^ to 5i lbs., greatest in winter. The men. The common eider has been reared in 
fawle di&ra greatly from the male, having the captivity, becoming as gentle and tame as the do- 
■eaenl plomage brown barred with black, mestic duck, with which it readily associates ; 
Belter on the head and neck ; secondaries ana from its eminently social disposition, it would 
their eoverta with white tips ; the size is also doubtless be a valuable acquisition in a domcs- 
•omewbat smaller; the jotmg in the first winter ticated state, for its feathers and down, for its 
resemble the female. The eider is rarely seen eggs, and even for its flesh. — The king eider (S, 
•oath of New York ; east of Boston it is more ipeetahilU, Linn.) is a handsomer bird than tho 
and more abundant as the latitude increases, preceding, and like it is an inhabitant of the 
Thousands of pairs breed and pass the summer higher latitudes of both continents. Tho bill of 
in U>rador, where they are called sea ducks, the male is yellowisl), the upper mandible having 
a name also given to other species ; they there at the base a soft, compressed, orange-colored 
b«gin to make their nests about the last of May, substance, extending upon tho forehead ; the front 
iiud the grass and low bushes, and in sheltered is covered with short black feathers ; the general 
places among tho rocks ; many nests are found shape is like that of the common eider, and tho 
Bear together, made of sea- weed, moss, and twigs, character of the plumo^ tho same. The iris is 
each euntoining from 5 to 7 eggs, about 8 inch- bright yellow, feet dull orange with the webs 
it long, of a pale olive-green color ; the eggs dusky ; the head is bluish gray, darkest behind ; 
neeonsidered great delicacies by the fishermen, the sides of the head pale bluish green ; a block 
When the eggs are laid, the female plucks the spot below the eye, and 2 lines of the samo 
down from her breast, and places it under and color on tho throat ; fore neck cream-colored ; 
■oond them, and when incubation commences the sides and posterior part, with a patch on tho 
the male leaves her to take care of her eggs and wings, and one on each side of the rump, white ; 
benelf ; when she quits the nest in search of lower plumage blackish brown ; posterior part 
ind, she puUs the down over the eggs to keep of back, scapulars, larger wing coverts, and scc- 
ftflB warm ; when hatched, she leads the young ondaries brownish black, tlie latter with a green- 
to the water, or carries them thither in her bill, ish gloss ; primaries and tail blackish brown ; 
les them to dive for food, and protects them the size is about that of the other species. Tho 
their worst enemies, the black-backed female is quite different, having the head grayish 
; by the 1st of August old and youns are yellow, with small brownish black lines, the 
log southward. In many places the birds scapulars with brownish red margins, the gcn- 
Aot allowed quietly to hatch their eggs ; the era! color of the lower parts pale yellowish 
ire robbed by man of both down and eggs, brown, and the quills and tail deep grayish 
the female seeks another male, and lays a brown ; the featliers of the lower neck, breast 
L time with the usual quantity of down ; udes, and lower tail coverts with a centre and 
if again disturbed, she will try a tliird time, margin of brownish black. The king eider 10 
tta down being supplied from the breast of not often seen in the United States, breeding 
the Biale. The unnecessary destruction of the further north than the common eider ; its hab- 
lUi by the eggers of Labrador has nearly its resemble those of the latter species ; its liomo 
ill uj rill the trade, and driven them fur- is the sea, the land being visited only in tho 
ttv aiMth. The down of a nest, though bulky breeding season ; its down is valuable ; the eggs 
anggh to fill a hat, when cleared of grass and are about 2{ inches long, of a doll grtt^mah. 
I«%a rarely weigha more than an ounces thoi^h color. 



4G ElUiOy UILL3 EKATERINBURO 

ETI.PON' ITT1.LS ft irroQp of hWU in the m. whirh U tho r&*'tIo. fonnerlj the retldeocit of 

of ]I<izliur^'!i. S-oiIafitL ri>n«i^tin|{ (<f 3 conical tho I>rincc4 of Ki'M.^narh. Ita in«naCictnr«t m 

]i«-«L«, t!io hi^ho^t i>f which hma an clo^atinn chiefly woollen and cotton fabrin^ aiiil plM 

«>f alMiut I.n'iu :V«*t. Fnun their puininit^ a head* of ■• tap stone. In its environ t on a lofty 

inaiTTiifiiviit ui-wnf t!i4* rumantic UinhTMvncrjr hi-i^ht 14 the ancient caMlo of Wartharg; ooea 

cif >i-fitliinil may l»c fditaiiivil. There i» a tra- tlio residence of the landgraves of Thurin^iii 

ditiiiii ainontr tIic {•(•.•Mint.'* of tho nei;;hl»urinfc celehrated as tho place where the Minnceinfm 

ctr.Mlry t!i:it t\i\^*e hilU wi-rc ori finally one contended fur the palm of p<MrtrT, and as tiM 

riii>'jntAiri. ^hiih wa!i divi4h-«l intt> 3 wjiarate aiivluin where Luther cmn|ioik-d hia tranalalioB 

»!iiniint9 hv a dt-niou under tho wizanl Michael of tlie Bible. It wa4 in t!ie ktnH:t.<« of Kiwnaeh 

K-titt. that Luther, when 17 yean of age, and a DOor 

KlMIiKc'K. a town of Hanovrr, capital of Mii'lent, sang befiire tho houHvs of the ricn to 

the prill! ipality 4if (irubenhagon. 21 m. N. N. M*. gain U\* bread. Thecimfcrenci-^ of tho Ciemun 

fr>>in <i"ttin,.vn. on tho lhn«; fto]*. <i.5<ni. It Evangelical church have been held in Eiteoark 

haft maniifAttoriefl of woollens and linens, and »ince 18!i2, and the 12th CiHiforcnce of the Z$Q^ 

several tann> ries and MeacherioA. Itti iiniKir- rrm'a was held there in 1 806. 

tanix* I1.14 del lini^l ^iiii*e its walU were destroyed EISLKHEN. a town uf PruMian Saxony, f7 



by the Fri'iii-h in ITHI, but prior to that it was m. N. W. fmni Mer^-hurg; iMtp. lu,Hu<t. || |g 

le iiliuv where M 
empire. It enrlyemhrared the reformation. Its born and died. The hi»uw in whirh he 



• ---. — -J -- - — — -- -- — «-■»■■• 

pruiiiiiient a lilt m;; the military towns of the noted aA the iilmv where Martin Luther 



beer w-as mi ceUh rated that it was said that tho l»«»rn no longi-r roniuin^ having 1ie«rn burned lo 

afTaim of (lerniauy were lettled by the princes lfis*i, ).ut that in whirh he died i« still prMcrr- 

over foaming draughts of it. The church c«>n- etl, ami lia«* rivi-nily Uvn convertiil intoascKofll 

taining the niaiiM ileum of the dukes of Gruben- fur pi n ir children. In an up|K-r htory of the hoosa 

hagen, and tlio cattle of Rutheukirchcn in the si-veral relies of Lutlu-r are kept, among whkk 

vicinity, are \x.% 6neftt edifioes. in the album of hijt friend tho jiainter Cranarhi 

EINSIKI>KLS. or Eixhibolkv, a village of who maile the design* for hi^ wtirk*. In tbo 

HwitzerUud, in the canton of Schwvtz, on tho rhureh of St. Aii'lrew. tho pulpit fn*m whiek 

Sihl ; \fo\K Ck-'jO. It isaituatvd 9 m. k. N. £. of Luther proaehiHl but a few dayt iM'ftire hisd<-alh 

tlie to« II of Schwytz, and ab«>ut 3,inio fort abtive 14 Mill |»reM-rve<l. Tliero arc cup|>cr miaca Is 

tlie level of tli« sea. Adjoining the village is tlio virinity of the tow n. 
a famous Ilennlictino abbey whence it derives KI.STKIM>KOl), the name of an awembly of 

its name. This abbey was originally founded in the bard?* and miiiMn-K of Waleft, in the town 

tho iMth century, but has been since several of IVrwys in KlintNhire, for tho purpine of 

timeH nb'iilt. The present edifice, which dates niti«»i<'al nn<l |MHtirid cnnteM^. After UtkM di^ 

fro!n 1719, i« in the modem Italian Mtyle, and um\ they arc now held at repilar internals, 
contains a mUMruin, a library of 2«t,(|iMj volume^, I-UEi'TMENT (Lat- ejeetio Jirma ; Fr. ijftt^ 

and a marble 1 Iuiih-I wherein if an illlai^.* of the mrnt dfjim^x^ an artiiiu for the recovery tif ibo 

Virgin that ntiroi-t^ thither multitude < i*( do- lN»*H'^!«iou of l:intl^ but now u.4ed both in Ea(- 

TifUt Kiifiiaii ('aihi»lic4 from maiiv parts of Eu- land and the I'nitod State* fur the trial of title 

ro|ii-. The villaje has more than iO inns and Tho pt*culiarity \*i thi^ action has been refciTcd 

restaurants for thiir accotiimiNlation. Zwingli to in thoartu'lel>i<«i*i:iMN. As it retain* vcarrc^ 

wa9 onre (lan*!! prit^t of thi« plaiv. any thing of its original fonii and uae^i, the hi^ 

EI>KNAC*I1, a princifiality in tho cent n* of tory \»t the ai-tion is mutter rather of curiooi 

Cicrmany, f>irfiier\T inde|K-ndt*nt, but stnt-o 1741 learning than of prirtical imtmrtance. Yk It 

unitetl to the gr nd durhy of Saze-Wiimar ; is well worthy uf stndv a* |KTiiapi tlie mott r^ 

area,^<^ u\ \\\.\ jiop. Ht/wio. It ikboumied N. markable pr«.'ri-fiviit of the adaptation of funa 

by rniMianSaiitfiV, E. by Saze^*othaaiidSax«,»- to new exigeiieie^ to bo fitund in tho Eogliah 

Meinitigoii, S. liv Itavaria, and W. by IU-«M'*i*a^ law. A lucid exit<r»ition of tlio t>rit;in and grvd* 

si-I. and c«inta.U4 7 cities, H Uirougliv, and !•'»<) U:d miMliticatioii of the ai'tion will l« fuund is 

%illitgr». It i* travvi>c<l irrvgularly by UMiunlain nifM*k«t4>no*s '* i'oiuiuentariesi*' Vol. iii. y\k 1 



ranges c«ivcre<l with f<«reK(^ and «at<*re«i liv the 2u5. 
rivers Wcrra, ILt^I, Ne»e, I'Mer. and Feldo. EKATKrJNHrn(;.lKKATKKixaorao. or To> 

ItspruductA are gram, rial, timUT. hiTTied rat- KATKiaMiiMHio. Iiti rallv i*atharine'« caftlle, tho 

tic, shcip, c«i|i|4T. iri>ii, and alum. There are al^Mi rapital ••!' thf Uii«*iaii ntining di«trii't i>f tbo 

quarru'ftff niarl>Ie. im|->rtant Kdt uprihtr**. and I'ral. in tliei:i»««Tiinti-nt uf iVrin, »itua!i<«l ali«.«t 

hiaiiufactu.v^ i-^jKvi.illy in the t^m n uf Kiwn.-11-h Ti'Mii. I'miii the Kurii|Nan fri'ntit r. «>n the .V*;alic 

and the %u!ll^• t.f Kuhlo. — EidCXACii. the i*a{»- mile i-f tliel'r.d nifuntain*; lat.Ai'i 5«i W N^ 

i:al t'f thf a'>»\e |inncipa!it,v, i« •itu.i!«'d mi (ho IxiikT. '•**" •U 44 K. ; \*>*Y. in 1*01. 1^. ''-■*. Eka- 

U rdir K'i the Thurii.giau fiiro«t, at the runtlu* ti-riiihiirk! i« hmlt mitai h »ideof the t\wt l«rt. 

cnoo if tho ITrMl with the Ne««e, 712 feet On the .V K. ;i:>le i« an exteiiMVv plain, Upott 

alnne (}.i< ».a le\il, 4^ ui. W. i*{ Wiimar. an^l is v^hii !i are the p>\erniufnt buiMin*:^ rminc^lt^ 



t!.e (hirf ftU::i-n Ktt the Thtinugian-S.iii n rail- 11 iih tlie iii>rkiii}r <-f the pmitu;* nirlals 

way . {M>p l^.V**". It It cxii*!>>«etl by a wall, has iri'ii'N a« oImi a pi.^'ln' ^«|Uare \*t market plsi**. 

I ri .;«1 streets ginrra!!y pa««U with ba«ait, and On t''H-tipp<i*i!e »idi-nrf *pa( ii>'.i« »trt^-l«andcl»> 

**»tra/ nxi^arXjifla J'uLlic buildings among gant LuU9<a of the mertliaiitsanduiibcprviprte- 



EKATERINBURG EL 47 

tors. Some of tlieso are upon the snmmits of tho higblj- prized qualities bo wen known on 

hilUf and those upon the north side of the town this side of the Atlantic, as obtained from the 

overlook a beautiful lake, which extends several Ural mines and furnaces. Machine works liavo 

jmlta in a wes>terlj direction until hid in the Iset- also been established at Ekaterinburg witliin a 

ikoi wooddL From the lake is a fine view of few years past bj private individuals ; alsu an 

th« towen, spires and domes of the 8 churches, extensive manufactory of st^arine. (See Atkin- 

the monastery and the convent seen above the son's " Siberia," I-^mdon, 1858.) 

numerous other public and private buildings ; EKATERINOSLA V, lEKATEiiofosLA.v, or 

vbile overtopping and behind all is a rocky Ybkaterinoslav, a government of European 

nwont clothed witli dark green foliage, upon the Russia, between lat. 47° and 40° 20' X., and 

fommit of which is the observatory used for long. 33° 30' and 39° 40' E., bounded E. by 

nuffnetin and other scientific observations. The the territory of the Don Cossacks, S. by the 

nameroua costly editices are mostly built of sea of Azof and Taurida, W. by tlio goVern- 

brick and c*ivercd with cement. Some private ment of Chcrson, and N. by those of Pultowa 

booses are described as well built and beauti- and Kharkov, and comprising also the district 

ftlly decorated, and furnished with much lux- of Taganrog and the territory of the Azovian 

my and comfort. The town owes its impor- Cossacks, separated from the rest of the gov- 

tince to the numerons rich mines in its vicinity, ernment by the country of the Don Cossacks ; 

Tbe mineral productions are gold, copper, iron, area, 25,52*3 sq. m. ; pop. in 1851, 902,3<>U. The 

platinum, and precious stones. The iron mines Dnieper intersects and divides it into 2 unequal 

Dear here are of vast extent and importance, portions. The larger of these divisi<jns, situated 

mi some of their products, in the form of £. of that river, is mostly an open stoppe, des- 

iheet iron, find their way even to the United titute of timber, and adapted only to pasturage ; 

Sutea. Platinum is found in considerable quan- but the smaller, or W. section, is fortilo and 

tides, and this is the most important region on undulating. The climate is mild and healthful. 

the globe for the production of this metaL The principal vegetable productit)ns are wheats 

Amon;; the precious stones worked at the great barley, oats, hemp, flax, and fruit. The chief 

lapidary establishments of Ekaterinburg are wealth of the inhabitants, however, consists of 

aoted particularly the jas[>ers, mxdachites, to- horses, horned cattle, sheep, and swine. The 

paz, emerald-s beryls, chrysoberyls, aouamarine, rivers al>ound in fish. The most valuable min- 

toannalines of different colors, amethysts, &c., erals are granite, limestone, chalk, and »ilt. 

S4>me of which are brought great distances from There is little manufacturing industry, but a 

ea&tem Siberia. The jaspers, malachites, and great many distilleries, where hirjro (niantities 

porphyries also, are made into tables of great of brandy arc made. The population consists 

nu^mificence and immense value, some inlaid chiefly of Russians and Cossacks, ]>ut Servians, 

with stones of different colors in imitation of Walluchians, Greeks, Tartars, Turks, Persians, 

birds, flowers, and foliage. The jasper vases or- and German colonists are also found. The 

Bamented with delicate carvings of foliage are houses of the poorer classes are generally con- 

des^ritKjd as objects of great beauty, executed structed of clay and thatched with rushes. The 

with extraordinary skill and taste by workmen government is divided into 7 circles. — Ekate- 

whose wages are somewhat less than a dollar rinoslav, the capital of the governnu-nt, is on 

per month, with 2 poods (72 lbs.) of rye flour, the right bank of the Dnieper ; ])o]). about 

SUtt tliey are supposed never to eat. At the 13,000. This town was founded in 17^*4. The 

great establishment called the Granilnoi Fab- streets are broad and regular. The principal 

ric, which belongs to the Russian government, edifices are the churches, ^ynmasiuni, eoclcsias- 

this work is extensively prosecuted, and the tical seminary, hospitals, law courts, jjublie of- 

orfimins. pedestals, tables, vases, and numer- fices, barracks, and bazaars. There arc nianufac- 

flnaller articles, are said to be unrivalled tories of cloth and silk stockings, an<l a largo 

rorkmanship, either in ancient or modem annual wool fair. It is the seat of an archbishop. 

-VJl the precious stones found in Sibe- EKRON", the most northern and important 

riaare the property of the czar, and the most of the 5 royal Philistine cities, assigned in the 

Tiluable of these are sent to the imperial palace distribution of territory to Judah. The ark 

cSl Petersburg. Tlie government also owns was taken to Ekron after its capture by the 

Afferent iron works in tliis region, in which are Philistines. Beelzebub was calle<l the go<l of 

eoostructod heavy guns and other munitions of Ekron, and was here worshipj>ed, and the 

»ir. The chief of the Ural, or principal officer prophets made this city the burden of s(.)nie of 

rf the mining direction, appointed by the gov- their most violent denunciations. It is sup- 

nment, is a general of artillery ; and another posed by Dr. Robinson that the inodorn Moslem 

gaeral of artillery is appointed by the minister village of Akir, 5 m. S. of Ramleh, occupies the 

«f war to reside at Ekaterinburg, with especial site of the ancient Ekron. 

duTTO to inspect and RuperWse the construction EL, or Al, the Arabic definite article, often 

flf aU the g:uns made in the mining dwtricts of making one word with the noun which follows 

fte UraL At Ekaterinburg are machine shops it ; thus, Alkorany the Koran. Its other forms 

rfpvat extent belonging to the government, in are i7, id, and oL Many words in English and 

vluch the machinery is made for the mint and other European languages beginning with cl or 

ither public works, the iron employed being of al arc from the Arabic, as almanac^ alcohol 



48 



£L DORADO 



ELAGABALU3 



F.L r»On.\r>n. OnlliHifu tlio licutrnnnt i.f 
Pixurro. !•« iiit; •'•■ni (Mi ati t'X{Hiliti<>n truni t!io 
fMiiiriA« fi'liu* Ain:i/*iii til it« niiiiitli. iinCfiuK-il 
t«> Im\r ili-M ••\iT(il ill t!ii* iiidriitr ut' tho r«iiiti- 
iiciit, iH-tuKii tSi* ri\ir iiiiil the OrizitH'n, a 
rniiittn •'iir{>:bfi-iiij t-\i 71 iVrii ill t Ik* all 111 111 linn* 
i>f it"> {•m :••■:• liiil.i-rnU uml iml.iU. '!'•» t}ii« ho 
pi\i- tin* li.uiir til Kl Ii«ir:k«lti. tin* ^uMi-fi ri>i:iiiii, 
iiiitl !•• it** I apit.tl till' ii.kiiu- *'( Maiii>a. For a 
h'UiS I'luw iiT'iruaiil l!i.* lal'iilnii* rc;:ii>n firvw 

flii*ri- uinl liPTi* talii>>'.<* tViitii thf f\:l;:;:vruU'4l 
a4-tii{i!t:« Tital MiTi }'.i)<Ii*li«->l. (ihil tVtilu till* ('\- 
iiliiratiii!!** T!..it uiTf iiiiiUrLiLcti in M^arrh of 
It. iiii'l it i\ :i« n>>: liiii.I (lii.- •'••tiiiiKiiivuirnt nf 
thf \jL< It ntur\ tli:k: i!* i-\i»t«-iii-i* wu<< (Tifirrttlly 
di'^Tol.li •!. K^ t II a- Lite :i* 17**'» :i liir^v pitrty 
tif S(i:iiii:»riU »i ro \**-l in n^c ut' tli<.'^i.' cxiH'ili- 
tii*ii«. 'I'l.c x^'Tti. I \i I { t :i« iiku api'lii-il iruii) 
till- 'i.-Vf III' !i\:.. rl»..!.- t<» MVir.il \ill:i:ri"» in tlio 

■ 1 

%i<olirn kiati -. :iIh1 to a i-'iiiii:> in Culil'i'miik, 
i* i'nl\ ii*'-*\ ]*••* III .iV\ t«» 1 xpn--* ii rt- jinn •tvor- 
tlouiii^' « .:!i rii ii^ «. 

Kl- Im»1:A1h», a N. K. r... «.f rulir..rnin, 
lNit:!ii!f t* v.. \.\ I tj!i. aitil N. I>v AiJitTi«-:iii ri\i'r, 

WalL« t'* fi^i-r*. it i* u!--* <lr:i:iii-i! : ftrr;i, iJiriO 
h-j. In.: |»"j». Ill l>1''n'-::!ii:iTi-il .it .'».'.!<**«». It is 
tTi*'*^-il '■•} !lir >irrra N\^:k*Li. In lVi>» it i»ru- 
ilii.*.l lT.*J«"t l-ii-l.*.!* iI' wliiiit. •JT.i'iH* «,f lar- 
K'v 'J'l. »'"• ••i" ••ai^. :i»Hi ,•!' |Mi:.if«N.. uml JjiJS 

tiili* "I li.i>. N'll iii'tr*- lli:.:i .'i.hini uiTr* im-re 
uii'lt-r I ii!t.%:iT:<iii, iivcr i I'f till- iKunty ruii^iHt- 
inj I'f iiiimral \au>\, vii.ii'i i<< atiiun;; tlic nii««t 
\u!uaMi- ill i!.«- *tali\ a:i-! oii wliii li. lN*oiilop*M. 
arr !' •:;:!'! rii *i • »\ j-i-rori* aic! *-xi-i.lI«'!il iiiartili*. 
Ill 1 *»'.•• !ht ri- Will- 17 'i-j.-.r!/ iiiili* in i>}H-ratii>n, 
41 «.*'•« iiii !•. 1 ;:riot ni;'.!. P* )>ri* k kiln-. H lan- 
lii r;«-, :»:il •• '.r« -.%• r.- -. 4';ij'i?;il. riii.-iTVjlli-, 
Kl. rA>»». aN \\ .... .?■ IVxa-, l...iii».U..lN. 
liv Nrw M- ■..•'■•. :i:-'l ^\ )'^ tI;«* Ili» (iriiiuli-: 

■ • ' 

nri-a. 1". .••» •; m ;• ;■. iM ]*'*••'. /i.'»T''. all i-f 
Kil:«'iii w 1 ri rtV:r!-l :i- tr- •• w!j:!t-. TIm- -nr- 
f.Vf •- lit ■ ::.* k.:.-' ;•. :i:i ! ;»'«-''it J I- i-ii\i Tul W itli 
l.fti^ii r. T;.'- -■■it ■! ' n- ■k.»!lt>* :* ri- li aiiil 
miIti '^ I'.' ^t I.I i: :.:.! I:. ):.i:i > ••rn. i'^ai i-* 
f«'.irjil III n".-.. •..'..»:... . \ ..! .i- if n fil • -lal*- in 
\<»7, i'.'- .'.J' 1 T'....! !r..nj lUxar n*. in 

Kl. rA>'». • • r.T r^Mi i-ei S'-rnr, n lin*- i»f 
•• !'li :■.. !.!• » I •!..' \'. 1!. • rr.i r ■•! rliiiiiialfH.k. 
y, li. .., .ij.;.. I. :.••., ?.. % :. ..|" )':.iliki:n in Ti \;i«. 
1*.t\ .ir. ->.'.:.,'..!■: .k ?. »rr..^ '. .i!.- % i Xtt- liiliii.' 'J 
t'T \* !;. a! ■■:.• • .1' r /■',• *i:iii • f lIi.- Km (fr:i:.ili\ 

n !.!•'..• 'i« ri !->>■ 1 ■••*: > !> 1 1 M i'I<-. '1 !i«» 

ft.-.! i'! :'.. 1... » :. r v.irk.i'. '..'k r.« h. .ilitl "lil 
f»* !• ' r- ■■ w: . i?. ..: ■ ni^in . •)!»• ^Tain- .il-n 
irr-w *!..-. ■..••■ .T ;-» :■ '.v.i. Tl.r • In I' rii-isi- 



ii!.». !■.:. -■ : 



■ ■t 



ar.l '-.k 
I ! !* . - 



»..' ! -A: .1 :;''.tv. •.ra#li r* " !'.»** 
t i'. ■ .%...-i..^ ■ I I..- iiiLa^-!ta:it« 
" :..:'- .: ..' :.il!i • f !ii.\»,i! r.u . >.. 
f . * ! •• ■ . . ■ .• •■.. f: ■:: a •.:./!■ if Ii..l::t:i 
I!-. I 1 .. ♦ .:■ ■ •* rr .. ;•■».*:•»!. >.fi» rii %. r 
u*'- '. .■■ : ■ » • .*. ' ■ .r 1 • ::.::.-.:.■! t-i *■;!;'> 
tV- M.*. ! ' » ." ■.*• ' - . ! ■ ■:.? -r! fir \-i\ .r\ 



c«l infl'KpoiKAMo. (fflazM wint1ow4, fiir c-iam- 
|>lc. an* unknown; kntvon an«l fnrV* arv noC 
um-iI : aiiil rvvn tho hoii-^'^i nf tliv rirli crintata 
m'ithiT rlinir?* nor taliU-*. Their tlwi-llinpi vm 
hnilt of Min-<lriitl hrirk^ with earth«*n lli«>r^ 
and nro ii<*niilly hut oni* story htfrh. The f^rivb 
rliurrh. tho {iLvju and the nmrt' |<n^tenticHi» uf 
till* privati* rc«>i(li>n(-c% are nitiiatiHl in thcnurth* 
cm part of the \alK'y, jiint Ih-1ow a f^^^r^pe or 
|izL«i*t in tho unMintaini*. This iNirtion of tlw 
K-ttli'nii-nt i*» |irolfiilily In'^t entitu-il tft licralkd 
tho town of Kl Vam*. It i!* alKMit .150 ni. S. br 
W. frt»ni Santa Ki*. iVhi m. in a «lir(*ot Iin« i 
fruni the I'm-ittr, nnd I.mk) in. froin Wa^hill9- 
ton; lut. 31-'42' N.. liHic. ItMiMn' Mi.: pop. 
aliMit 5.1 MNi. It i^ the |innri|ial thon>nfrhfiM 
hetwet-n New Meiiro, iliihnahna, and the Mci* 
ii-an hCatc<t further Ninth, and !•« an ini|M>rtMt 
utat'nm on the Mnithern nviTland ri«tite tn Cali- 
fornia. It« n.inic, M;:nify infT **the pa-r" !«• prob- 
ahty derived from the |ia*>«a^'e of the Uio ItraDdt 
thrmvh the mount iiin-*. 

KKACfAHAI.rs, VAKiirt ATtTr*« HAMiAyrii 
a Koiinin einiii'ror, Min of the M-nator Varioi 
Marri'lliM ami Julia SixniiiL^ and roiiMn «>f C*A- 
rufali.1, iMirn at Knu'«*;i. in Syri.a, aUiut A. D. 
S<i5. iIknI in Home in 'J*.**i. lie ha« U-en railed 
the SanlannpaluTt of Kume. While \i*t a hov 
he wan inaile priest of Klii^'altiilu^. the Ph^nil- 
iian Min pMl. in hi"* native eity : and thr Kofuui 
holdier^ hIio ii^hJ to re<Mirt to the ina^rnitioeBt 
cereinonirM of the temple there, licliolilinir tb« 
(■Ii-;raiit dre**H uml ti;;ure of tlie }onnir pontiC 
thou;:Iit they reeiiirnized in him the fca!ure««if 
I'urai'alla. Hi- artful irraiidniotln-r w:l« nulling 
to advaiire hi^ fort urn- nl the e\p«'n*e of her 
iluu;:ht« r'« rrp'itati'tii. ainl ^prrad a rrffrt tlkat 
he w:i.<« the oti'-priii;.' of an iiitri^ie T<«*tiirrii hrf 
and tlie inunUrcd (iiipcror. The tkni\} . di*tra«l- 
\t\ nith the par-iiiiony and ri;:hl fllMipIm^ f>f 
Murrinn^, Muodi-poMd tondmit hi<» pn tt nM<•Ii^, 
K!iHraliaIii«. a^ ht* » aoralh"*! front in- •ai rrt| prc^ 
fi-H«iiiii. t'Mik tiie name of Ant<-!iini!«». mk* re^ 
ct-ivvil «iih fiii]iu»iu>ni l<y thr triM |.«i>f Kii?r^ 
and tlcfhirt-il riiiiKror iinihr t*.e n-m*- *•( Mar- 
cM'* AiircliuH Anti>ninii<i r'Jl**r. M u nnr.* firnt 
d«-tarhnifriT«iif hi* army tr><ni Anti'N li f.i « r:i*li 
the rcU nmii. l>ul tl.r h-/ioii« ni'ird^ rol ttirir 
ri>t!Miiaii'!i-r* .ind j"iiii-«l t!ie • !n m* . A! h-rpfh 
h>- hiiJiM If iii:iri'lii^! tiirth !«• nin t i^t' {-"^-Tt-nilrr, 
and li;« pr;rton:in ,:i:.ip!- l<ri*k«' tli*- r< ^ • ^ r.'inkK 
Htit Kliu'ahahi*. fur tSf Mtil;i t in«> 1:1 li • I !• rtvk- 
li-«oI;i lii-roh'. t li:tr/:;i;: a! tin- hv.i I *l hi« li^-^l 
tr-Nip^ reiii-u«d till- l-alti*' witli •'ii *i \ .• r l!.at 
M.i- rtU'i* llt^l. and tl.i- pni-lnnai:- Trr : ■!« retJ. 
M»>ri!iU- W.I- »•■< i! :itli r r.t;<('iri •! :i: I ) ■:*. tti 

ih-:i!|i. :th>l l!if Ilii':i:ih ** u:\\»- T\ .":..•• l !!.•• iir- 

ti-r:-';!- l-i_* -1% iTtijHri-r. !!•• !••.•.:» I. * in^reh 
fri-m S* na :•• Ital% . *[■< M a « .u'.* : .it M; • •■■isl.a, 
a!.'l s:i tin- iutt *'i!j.n.i r luatl- lii-** *.'\ .-.t.t t'.c 
I :ipi!.il iT» a!! till- •!ul.- I'f A!i orii i.'.il i:-..' ariS. 

Ill- 'I'll- ki* lii^pi.iv « "1 lioT l» ** llii- li"-} "T r hMniir 

• ■! .1 p\Mi,ir..ili •■!•! iM.ifi t*i.i:i !l;i' U\: t.i-!.- ra- 
jir..i-« i.f o •jMii^tJ I his'l. Hi* «\\.i!.«r. h* 
!!.■■ i/?il !ii Ki- il'i«- li'll - i"iu t r ■•! :'.•■ -i.'i. m i.i. *i 
hi' iior«iii{ {i^il in the f> r::i i-t a h!di k n-n.ral 



ELAND 49 

stone, and the senators of Rome were obli^ 17 inches; the horns are nearly 8 feet long; the 
to see their hills covered with altars and their height at the shoulder is 5} feet, and at the 
iCreets filled with processions in honor of the crupper 2 inches less; the length of the tail ^ 
godofEmesa. Mount Palatine became the seat feet, and of the dewlap at its base 20 inches. 
of a magnificent temple, where lascivious dances The female is of a pale sionna yellow, deadened 
were performed bv Syrian damisels. The Qui- with pale brown above ; below dirty white, 
riosl was occupied by a senate of women, who with a cream-yoUow tinge ; the figure is more 
gnvely discussed matters of toilet and ceremo- delicate and elegant than that of the male, the 
usL In a mystical fancy about the sun and limbs are more slender, the mane is shorter, the 
BOMi, he married the Carthaginian priestess of dewlap narrower, the tail less tufted ; and the 
tlM moon, which was adored in Africa under horns are straight, slender, somewhat spiral at 
the name of Astarte. He abandoned himself to the base, with a rudimentary ridge on the spire. 
tlie wildest pleasures, but neither a rapid sue- The young are of a tint between reddish orange 
enrioQ of wives, nor a long train of concubines, and yellowish brown. This is probably the 
nor the art of his cooks, could satisi^ his pas- lai^gest of the antelopes, equalling the horse in 
BOOS, or save him from satiety. Weariea at height, and weighing from 7 to 10 cwt. It 
Ingth with playing the part of a man, he de- ranges the borders of the great Kalahari desert 
darad publicly that he was a woman, wished to in herds varying from 10 to 100 ; rare at pres- 
be dresased like the empress, chose a husband, ent within the limits of Cape Colony, it was 
and worked upon lace. His cruelties were as found in abundance in the wooded districts 
great and as fantastic as his follies. Having of the interior by R. Gordon Cumming. The 
tX one time invited the patricians of Rome to flesh is most excellent, and is greatly esteem- 
a dinner, in the midst of the repast he opened ed. When young and not over-fed the eland 
tiM doors and let in upon them several furious is not easily overtaken by the capo horses ; 
tigert and bears. The patience of the populace but in good pastures it grows so fat that 
and soldiers being exhausted by his vices and it is easily run down ; it is said that when 
l^ranDT, a sedition was about to break out, pursued it invariably, if it can do so, runs 
when Elagabalns was induced to adopt as his against the wind, which gives it an advantage 
ooQeague nls cousin Alexander Severus. Al- in outrunning a horse. The hide is very tough, 
•zander cherished the rigid manners and prim- and mu/ch prized for shoes and traces. Like 
itive usages of Rome, and quickly became the other antelopes, it seems to be independent of 
fivorite of the army. When Elagabolus sought water, frequenting the most desert localities far 
to withdraw from him the power which he had from streams and rivers; except in the breed- 
grantefL or even to compass his death, the prro- ing season and when pursued, tlie males gen- 
torians broke out in mutiny and killed the em- erolly keep in groups apart from the females. 
peror and bis mother, and threw their bodies Another species of the genus hoselaphus is the 
uto the Tiber. B. eanna (H. Smith), called bastard eland by the 
ELAXD, a name applied by the colonists of colonists to distinguish it from the prece<ling 
ihit cape of Good Hope to the impoofo (fiosela- species ; it is smaller than the eland, of a dark 
fhu oreas, H. Smith), an antelopean ruminant, brownish gray color, with a white space be- 
Raemblim^ the bovine group in stature, shape, tween the fore legs. The name of eland, or 
dewlap, and high shoulders. The general color elk, is improperly applied to this as well as to 
above is a grayish yellow, with rusty and pur- several other deer and antelopes, by the Dutch 
pUih shades shining through it; the lower parts colonists of Africa and the Indian arcliipelogo, 
cream yellow ; the forehead with long, stiflEJ and apparently indiscriminately to any liollow- 
yeilowi^ brown hairs ; face brownish red, chin horned ruminant of large size ; the animal called 
white, eyes chestnut ; a slight brownish yellow eland by recent travellers and hunters in south 
Biaiie, along the back becoming reddish brown ; Africa is in most cases the first described species, 
nuzle black ; hoofs brownish black, e<lgcd and probably sometimes the second, as both are 
•bove with brownish red hair ; the tail is found in the same districts, though the herds 
kownish red, with a tuft of yellowish brown ; do not intermingle. These animals are gentle 
tba mane of the dewlap is yellowish brown, and readily domesticated ; but though strong, 
peaeilled with brownish red. This is the color the shoulders do not possess that solidity which 
if the male, which has a small head, a neck renders common domesticated cattle so valu- 
taptnng above, but bulky toward the chest ; able to the agriculturist. Tlie late earl of Derby 
tte body is thick and heavy ; the limbs elegant in 1842 received at his extensive menagerie at 
md ilender ; the eyes are full and soft, and the Knowsley Hall 2 males and a female eland, the 
ision of the face is gentle and ovine : the first brought alive to Europe ; the female pro- 
slope slightly back from the crown, oeing duced several calves, but the whole stock died 
. thick at the base, with 2 spiral turns hav- from improper pasturage except one female born 
k^ ca obtuse ridge, and the upper f straight, in 1846. In 1851 a fresh supply was received 
•ppfring to a point; the ears are long, nar- from the cape of Good Hope, which he bcqueath- 
»w, and point^ hairy on both sides ; the ed the same year to the zoological society. This 
Inr is rather thin, except on the neck, mane, herd, 2 males and 3 females, rapidly increased, 
dewlap, and tuft of tail. The length from nose and several were distributed by sale to different 
"" of tidl is about 10^ feet, the head being parts of Eo^iaud, whoso uncultWated \aai(i^ i<^- 

VOI* TIL — 4 



50 ELASTIC CURVE ELATEBIUX 

wmblo the park-Iiko cnnntrr of th« African donrrofalofijt vircinadoof it, whenrai6p<^ndcd 

home tif th^ aiiitnal. I^inl II ill, of IIawV>ton^, at oiu' <'iiil and tH i«ti*U, to unrtiil itn-lf aini ri-tnni 

8hn»|Hihirc, tji>t attoinfiti'tl tlit-ir naturali/Jilittn to its fontiiT poMtHut. A thrt*a«l i»f rla}. inAd« 

in hii fiti'n>ivc purk, aiid im Jan. 7, ls59, hy fnrriiij; tho mfi nub^tanoo tlin»ii^li a »iiinU 

killed the fir^t viand f.ir ttio Xa\Av which Ijad hnlo, niaiiifi-sitA tlio Munc itruinTtr. In ch«M 

been l'ri><i in England ; tlio animal. Ti years oltl, and many uthi-r inataiiroa tlio furco i-itrrtcd bj 

vci|r!ied vihvn li« fvll 1,1 7A Ilrt*.. " hu^> aa a tho |iarti(-K!4 to rf^rain their fonniT ponition of 

•hort-hiirn. hut with Ixmo nut half tho pizo.** c«ini!ihrinni rarriv» t hem hark to thi^ point, ami 

Chuicv partt (»f tho animal witc fkT\od at tho the force n4it U-inf^oxiH'ndiHl tliv ni'ition i% rrm- 

tahlet of ij-ievn VitUiria aitd tho Frfn<-li em- tinned in the Kanie di relation till the 

p«ror. anil tn-fure i*ruf. Owi-n and meinUni uf hveonie^ tiNi ffPi-at, and thus the |iartir)efl 

the xooKi;:ii.J HM*iety -. it wa^ fuuud to n>Memhld drawn alt^rrnattly in one and the other dirve- 

beof. w;th u vcniiMiu flavor, with a fineness «tf ti<>n with cnuf.t.intly diminiNhing furre, prodn- 

flbro and a dtrlieat-y of fat placing; it hi^li on tlio cin^ a horit-^ uf vihrati«)ii.s ; tlnis musical m>ancU 

liftt of ih'tiro and nutri(ioii!i articles of foml. arc prinlurrd. the pit4-h dciiending Q|K>n th« 

It M'em'i |<n>hali!v that thit animal will he ox- ^reat^-r ur K'N.t rapifiity of tlie \ihrati«mJL B7 

t«u«i%fly ruiM'd ill Kn^'land. and add an iui|Mir- the applieation of ttM» frreat fiirr«\ ur by too 

tant iti-m ti*t!;f national Ifill of fare. It iamui h frreat strain, Uie partielcn <*( a i^'Iid Iwidy WMJ 

til he ri'irrtttvd that we ha\e n'l plnco in the hv di^platvdaiidlind theireiiutlibriam in a n«v 

Uuiird Stau^ %ihi-re similar exjierihuntd in in* arran^'mi-nt. Thin may oeeur with a vi*ibl« 

trodurini; new aulmaU may be proMcutcd on a reparation of the partirle^ an in a hreakiay 

lari^* N*aif. apart of the body ; c»r it may bi* maile apparent 

EI^X.MU* CrUVE, tho curre ar«^nnutl bv a bv tho manifr>t indi>iN>sition of the Uidr to 

■traiirht ^prin;; of uniform thit-kne^<< i^hiu tho c*hun;;e from itn m-w Mato. A win* or indjl- 

•nd»arvb:i*j;:ht forcibly top' thiT. It embnuvd lie liar thuH hont In-yond itA limit of rlai*ticitjr 

a Tarivty if appi-aranceA, Mmplo wave?*, 4iv«:r- i^ Miid to have " taki-n a M't.** Theamoaut at 

lapping wtt\*% afiirureof ei|;hl, retrot;radeluoi'« elti.*ticity in UnUi-js or tho force they will miH 

or kink«. ordinary UKi|«*, and tlie circle. Tho witlmut |M.-nnanvnt alteration < if »tnicture, niajr 

fundauirrt.-U law or e«iuation of the curve ia U- i*xpri*oM-il by tho immbor of |Hiunda weijrfat 

that the ci rvuture of each |»oint U diro«-tly pro- to tho Hjuare inch tlioy will U*ar without beinf 

p>rtional t" iisi di»tauc« fn>i:i a certain fttrui^cht rruohoil. or. at* pro[Mii«i'd liy hr. Thomaa YoonfFi 

lino on whiih the curvati.re i* u-t**; h> that ** by tho uiiifht of a certain column of the aabm 

wlicu tho curve crosi^es thn» line it rovenea tho iiuli>tanci', uhirh may W di-nuininated the ■!«- 

Uirrctiiiii of i!^ rurvature. dulus of ittt elasticity, and of which the weight 

KI.AH III rV liir. fXaiBw. to drive, tudraw ). i« furh that any ai Id it inn ti» it nuuM incrraao it 

Whrn I « ilii- nppIioatii<n«*f anoxti'rnul fiiroi ilio in the Kune propurtiun a.^ tho wrti;ht adtlod 

partiili-' *'i A tnitly arc diMurU-d from i!io »tate wouhl thiTttn by it.^ pro^*uro a p'>rti«in of tbo 

uf equilit-riiiui in Kiliiih thoy wi>ro IkM. uiitl a sub^tanro uf visual diameter. . . . The hvi|(fat 

ch&iiK'o ••! {••rill in tliiTi-by inilu4-«>«! in tho IhnU, of tho niixlulu^ i^ thi- ^aIIll■ fur the »axne »ab- 

tiio loiiilt I.' s ff tii«' ptirtii U-n tiirot!ain tht ir fur- Manco. \k liuiiVi-r il< l>roailth i^iA thirkne«A nxAj 

nivT »tAi«- :k!.d rv*turv thotiri^'inal lurm i^tcrtiud be : fi>r atnio<*phiTir air it i^ al-uut A milea. arid 

alafkiiciiy '1 ho fi.ino i« muro litarl} |i«rfiit ac- for htiil ni-arly 1.r«uo." l'I.i*i m<Hlulu4 ur m>- 

Oi*rdin|r b< :1m- linio roi}uiri-4l to n>'ain tho prim- etf.cii-nt uf ola»tir it 1 ha* l>4*«u ditonnimNl hj 

itne f<«n:i. aftt-r th«* c«-««iitiuii uf tho dii^turlunt; eX|K-rinuni fur a ri«n>idirabp- i.iifnl»or of •ub- 

furrv, appr>iu« hrikthatoX|Hnd«.d inpriMliwin;* t!itf htani'o*. It i<» an inipurtant iliineni m tb* 

rhaxi^o. 1 lit- air aiidpaiH'«t:i!jibit l!io pr>>{*«Tty ph}fii-al pru|^*riii-'i *•( b<it!;i!«. ajii) nin-t br dnij 

n;or« iMfht ;ii than any f:li«rr<>ul*«tanro». b»t iiu c-uii«idt rod in in\r«Ti^*atiiit; tl.r otrinirth of ma- 

biidir^ aff uiti%roth( r dotli iiiit m it. A ball of ttTial**, tho M'lln^v^ot Ii\driNl\nbiiiit «, pncumal* 

(ltt^«v \\'*r}. ^Tl«!. or uihtT hunl malLriul. tot fill U%, Asc. 

U\m,*u a »Mi— -'!i hard Mirfari-. rt Im-ui.'S trnni tho KI.ATEIkH'M ((*r. fXatvw. tiM!rivo\ adraalie 

U*nd<^i( } I ! fho partuio!* t'l ri !iirnlu tho Inmi- purt:ali\o mt-ilii iiif. priparnl irutii tho Juire uf 

ti«'!t %2u -t^j i:it UiV !vt« fru!ii 11 ]ii« h t!it \ li.i%o ihv ttn*tm»nlir*t ilitftrtntn^ *tr{\f ^\U\ t,T •^\uir\' 

bn 11 f>ri • il :>% tl.i- M<>«. If thi haril «.irtai t- )•«• in;r ciii-iihi!ptr. l!ipp>*«'rnti-* applud the nam* 

coii-ro>l w .*'« A li'iin ttttklMi: of ••oitit- \:^ ill "lib- |;oiivral!% ti« any .11 *.:\v pur.:^- It i^ unrrriaia 

•taiiio. t-r • : • .:. thr iF;iprf»<i>iii ]• :*. ii|h.;i tii'« ,:i HhilLirtho nanio u.i< tri^*n !•• tho plant from 

d »!-&!•• a :!..*.'• i.iiv uf thi- bail. aMl (In* i« fi> iiid t!.o 1 uri>>u« pri'jH rt\ U l«<iit;ii.,r I" thi fruit c*f 

ti* l"- •>':<••'■ r a« •••:•! I :.ir III t!iO hi .^'i it if t!.( f.dl. N ;>.iratiii,r wlnii r'.|<«- fruMi tin itno and di*- 

F!u:d« :< .-u.< "S tjiuiitfl.t tu U* ir.i •'iiipri«><»iMi\ chararii.j i:« jiiho ui.d m«.i!« t].ri>iiA;!i an ••|«rn- 

aad i« !.'« ■^■i• u;!,\ mt l^ttir. havt *t«n prii\i«i by in^ al U-.*- (■:im-. lk In r<- it w a^ :«l!rt< ^o*! tu tho f.mt 

thr r !;•«:.:..■ ;.:•!•;< Kr-U-d til Ih- • ••iiiiTcMiMt 111 ataik. i>r fri'Mi tl.i ai'Tn'ii uf tin iiifduiDo prr- 

pr-ij-'f*', •. '.i. tl.*- fiirrc tstfttd. ui.d « hi ii ri- p.-iriil frmu i! u|hiii Jhi li-wiN Thi* nn-^lw bo 

Iir%«<! I'!' i '• >• ;ri li.ty nturi.iii .ntiniiiiatt ij^ to i« a tort Iv'ht. puUoruh-nt. ai.d |ia!o %tlli.i«i«h 

thr.r f<>r::.» : ''.-u'.h, . !.tXi<ft' t.'it t iii:kv ^n- ri ^'ariliil |;rti n ••diiiunt dt{MiMttd fr<>!L (i:« ji.i 'o. TliO 

ai> fuir:...:..: '. -.t r«>| or« lilt i.:«i>f {•« rtti li 'a*t.« '.;i, iji::iiiT,t} i« %« ry fiiia^l, uri1% *'• i:T.kiu% iN-ir:^ ol*- 

ti.i-:;i:ti • ' • t • jk \ir« -!.,;!.! t it« M. 'I !.• *'.*%■ tatntti hv i'bittt rbiitk fri>iii 4" • i!i uniU r*. A 

uy «'/ :. '. >;: tuKiai iv*i u »ho«^u I > the t4U- do»c of ( of a grain of tho gmuinc art;c!«. 



ELATE ELBE 51 

howeTer, purges violentlj; larger qnantities ex- are employed in the mines. The qnarries of 
cite nAUsea and vomiting. In dropsy it is high- granite in tlie 8. W. part of the island appear 
Ij recommended from its tendency to produce also to have been extensively worked by tiie 
e(H>ioas liquid discharges. The plant is largely Bomans. The commercial relati(xi8 of the isl- 
cmcirated in the south of Europe and in some and are almost confined to Leghorn and Mar- 
parts of England. The stem has been seen 4 seilles. The Imports consist chiefly of grain. 
iBcheswidc, with a thickness of only half an inch. catUe, cheese, and manufactured articles, and 
When the fruit separates from the stem, the the exports of the above named and a few 
jnice is said to be thrown sometimes a distance other articles. Ancient ruins are stiU visible 
of 20 Tarda. One incurs some risk of injury to in various parts of the island. During the mid- 
tbe eyes in walking among the vines at the sea- die ages it was ruled by various Italian princes 
ton of matnrity of the fruit. The puice thus and chiefs. In 1548 Charles V. ceded the ter- 
naturally expelled is inferior in quality to that ritory of Porto Femgo to Tuscany. Afterward 
afterward expressed from the fruit. From a the island was successively governed by Spain, 
bushel weighmg about 40 lbs., and worth from Naples, and the lords of Piombino. From July, 
7f. to 10#. sterling, about half an ounce of the 1796, to April, 1797, it was in the possession of 
medicine is obtained ; but if the expression is the British. It was then ceded to France, and 
etrried too far, the product is of inferior qual- imited with the new kingdom of Etruria. The 
itj. — 8ee article by Mr. Jacob Bell in "Phar- treaty of Paris in 1814 erected Elba into a 
BMoeatical Journal and Transactions," Oct. sovereignty for Napoleon I., who resided there 
1850. from May 4, 1814, to Feb. 26, 1816, when he 

FTAT TT (in Josephus Ailane^ in Roman ge- embarked from the island with about 1,000 

ography Elane^ now Ailah), a seaport of luu- men for France, landing at Cannes, and march- 

mea, of great celebrity, lying on the shore of the ing triumphantly to Paris. During his brief 

eastern or Elanitic gulf of the Red sea, now sovereignty Napoleon introduced many improve- 

caQed the gulf of Akabah. It was a part of ments. and caused a good road to be built uniting 

David^a conquest from the Edomites ; was a Porto Carngo with rorto Longone, a small for- 

pUee of great importance in Solomon's time, as tress and harbor on the E. coast. In 1815 Elba 

the port in which he built and fitted out his reverted to the grand duke of Tuscany, and its 

dups for importing gold from Ophir ; was cap- affairs are now administered by a civil and mili- 

tored by the revolted Edomites m the reign of tary governor (in 1859 Col. Edoardo Facdo- 

Jorazn, after having been in the possession of nelJe), who resides in Porto Ferrajo. 
the Israelites 150 years ; was retaken by Uzziah, ELBE (anc. AlbU\ a large and commercially 

who fortified it anew, peopled it with his own important river of Germany, rising in the Rie- 

nbjects, and restored the trade to Ophir ; was sengebirge of Bohemia, near the frontier of 

afterward taken by Resin, king of Damascus, Prussian Silesia, and passing into the North 

who in his turn was deprived of it by Tiglath- sea between Holstein and Hanover, tlirough 

Fikser, king of Assyria, from whose time it was Austria, Saxony, Prussia, Anhalt-Dessau, Hon- 

never recovered by the Jews. Elath adjoined over, Mecklenburg, and Hamburg. It is about 

E&oii-Geber ; and Akabah now occupies the 650 m. long; is known at its source as the 

■tc of one or both of these ancient towns. Labe ; originates in a number of springs on 

ELBA, the Ilva of the Romans and the the western slope of the Schnee-Koppe (snow 

^thalia of the Greeks, an island in the Medi- summit), oneof thepeaksoftheRicsengebirgo; 

tciranean, belonging to Tuscany, from the coast runs mainly in a N. W. course; is navigable 

of which it is separated by the strait of Piom- from its confluence with the Moldau, and has 

biao ; length about 18 m., and greatest breadth but a very slight inclination, its bed, 40 m. from 

13 m. ; area, about 97 sq. m. ; pop. in 1858, its sources, being but 658 feet above the sea. 

23,026. Its outline is irregular, the mountains Its cliief affluents are : on the riglit, the Iser, 

which traverse the island rising in some parts Black Elstcr, Havel, and Spree; on theleft^ the 

to a height of above 8,000 feet, and being in- Moldau, Eger, Mulde, Saale, Ohre, Jotze, Bme- 

dcDted by deep gulfs and inlets, so that its nau, and Ostc. Joscphstadt, KOniggrutz, Lcit- 

Ireadth in some places does not exceed 8 m. mcritz, in Bohemia; Pima, Dresden, Meissen, in 

ThA loil la fertile, but only a small portion of it Saxony ; Torgau, Wittenberg, Magdeburg, in 

if ander tillage. The vallevs abound with fi-uit Prussia; Lauenburg, Hamburg, and Altond, aro 

tnea, bat they are not well cultivated, and the the chief places [situated upon its bonks. Its 

frnita are of inferior quality, excepting oranges, channel, between Hamburg and the sea, will 

Among the azmnol products of the island and admit of the passage of vessels drawing 14 feet 

111 waters are about 1,700,000 gallons of red and water, at all times, but is much encumbered 

Wiuta wine, 4,000,000 lbs. of marine salt, 6,000 with sand bars and shoals. By means of its 

tol,000 tons of tunnies, sardines, anchovies, and own waters and those of the numerous canals 

fitter fish, and 18,000 tons of minerals, chiefly branching from it, the Elbe places all N. W. and 

lioiL for which the island has always been central Germany in connection with the sea- 

edrt»rated. The iron is found in a mountain board. Wood, stones, fruits, and earthenware 

■ear JEUo, on the E. coast, about 2 m. in circum- are the chief articles of export, which are ox- 

facnoBy 500 feet Wgh, and yielding from 50 to changed for com, salt, and colomal prodxicift. 

15 per cent, pure metal. About BOO persona Its nsLvigaiion was in former times m\x<:itx oomr 



62 ELBEBFELD ELDING 

plicated hy the ro(rnlAtiiin» of the <aXoA ihron^h fncroMfnl expedition afpunst the nritish in EmI 

which it rnnv hiiico 1^21 t}ii>o liavo U'cn Florida in tljc Miniintfr and antuuin of 1777; 

piiii|iliruHl, aiid the ciitiro rivi-r i^ nnw o|>on was activi-ly onf^^^-'<l near Savannah, and cap- 

lo \i*«'M'l!4 (if all the a4liaront r«ii]iitrio<i. Au;*- tured Of;lothor|K*> fort at FriHlerica, in 1778; 

tria rvlimiuii^hcd thv fitilniiiinn KIIk* dm-ti in and dii^tiuguUhed hitu^-If during CainphelKa At- 

lKa2. Ill Iho.*) IlaxHtvcr a^NiIi-tHil t!io EHh) toi^lc npon S:ivanna)i in I>ec. 177H. lie eom- 

dat'it li'vii d ai Stodi* fir all ^h\y9 and ^'iknI^ en- niandod a hri^^ido at tho battle of Hrier CtmIc, 

t«riu); liarburK K'award. ainl \urioii^ ci>iil'vr- whoro ho was tiikon priMnor, March 3, 1779; 

encim haw hinco Uvn hrlil iW tho ptiqHiM' nf and after bi-infircxchanf!i.Hl he went to the nortli, 

liringinfT at h tut a tutal al*i>Uiii»n of the diK-<. Joined the forces nndi-r Wa!«hington, and took 

The llaiiMveriun rhaniliT in Kt'i vuteil airraiit |»art in tho luittlo of Yorktown. At the clow 

i*f nioiifV fur the iinpriivi-iiu-iit of tlif inivitfa- of tho war he receivfd the coniniiwion of 

tiuii. 1 ii«Tt« are »ti'iiiiiUiui'4 on the KHk.' U*- majerpMioral, and in ITt^ he was elected gor* 

twitrn MupK-burK uxid IlanihurK, and lM-tw«fn cnnirof <ie<»r|iria. 

lM.-<t<l«-n and tlu* M>ur«'c nf thi' river in liultoMiia. KLHECFi or Ki.B<xrr, a French town, in Um 

EIJiK]tKEI.I^ an iinjiortttnt manufacturing; department uf Seini'-Infcrivure, on the left 

town of Khcniith PniMiia, adjoininf^ Kannon, 15 hank of the Seine, 4 m. distant from tlie 

ID. E from I>n«iBehhirf, and connit-t^d by rail- Tuurville Ntation i>f tho Tarin and Roaen nfl- 

wa J with tliat aiHl moHt other lYu-ibian town!! ; way; diMonii* from rarid 7H m., and froa 

pop. in lSu5. 41,(»bu. The river Wnpper, which Konen 13 m.; pop. about lU.OOO, exclasiTec€ 

flowithruu^rh the town. preMrutu advaiitafre^fitr about 1*2.<mhi workmen from ai^oiuing TiIlflMa 

bleach injr. Linon bleach vrii*s wi-re in (»{>eration empUivod in tho f^rttirios. Almuat from tbe 

here as early as the Kith century. Manufacto- foumhitiou of the town in tlie 0th centnrr the 

rieauf liiivn, woollen, rotton, »ilk.s lace, ribbon% inhabitantM disfila^ed frreat skill and indnatryin 

Ac, were p-adually e^^tablidhi'd, and have since tlio manufacture first of taiiestry and afterward 

tlie IHth century attained to a hi^h dei^reo of of wiioUvn clotli. ('ull>ert senactmentjin 16k7 

perfection. Tho dvcin^ of Turkey nxl, which promoted tho pnis|ieritv of the town, which wag 

was tir»t attempt^ in 17m». \* another promi- mtemiptoc!, however, by tho revocation of th* 

nent pursuit at ElU-rfirld. Iju^* f|iiantitii'S of etlict of Nante.A, whon many of tlie mannfae" 

yam are annually s«nt hore fn»m iin'at Hritain turors enii»fnito«l and Rottli-d in Ley den, Koi^ 

and otlier countries to lie dyed. Tho annual wirh, and Ixi(x*i»ter. The indnatrr of the pinet 

Talue <»f the pxMli luanufaciureil in Kllicrfeld did not fully recover from this sliockand tram 

exceed!! $ll,<Ai0.i>oiK Tho r.honiUi East India the ci»miH-tition of HoI}^um until lb16. The an- 

com|MinT and a company fir working mino!i In nual pnidurt.% whii-h thfu amounted only to 

Mexico had tlii-ir iK*at hi- re fur a numlier of ah«iut 2'i.o«m| piei^es (of Cn vards each), oon- 

years. ElbcrfvM is rich in charitable and edu- prise«l in 1s5h aUiut 7u,(HiO iiiecec. There are 

catiuual in»titutiunH,amouK^'hich are a frynina* S^mi fnrtorii-^ mostly worke*! by «team power, 

aium, an industrial »chiiul, aiitl a k:1io«»I in which 25 dvi-iiii; o»taMi^hment<*. and 10 de|MttA of wool, 

tlie hitfhvr braiichi-* uf wi-aviiig are taught. of which alM>ut t;.(HNi,<)4M.i ll>^. are annually n^ 

El.ltKlIT, a N. K. ci>. of (ia., M-parated fnim quiro«i. Thoaniiunl n|rtn'e;rate value of tlie total 

F. Carol ir.a by Savannali rivt-r, bounde«l S. itn.Mldrtion i* citimati-d at |10.<»*ni.(jimi. The 

and W. by Iimail rivvr, and drained by sev- Ui*<H'riiitiun vf frood?! protliiivd iurludes doulde^ 

eral small crt^-k« ; ar^a, 614 im{. m. ; puji. in twilli^ and wator-priN>f eloths, zcphrr\ faacj 

IMii, Li.lt'o, uf mh<«m 0.44(i were p-lave*. Tho doth^ billianl tablo doth.and HannvL Nearly 

■uriace i.^ hillv, and tho nuI, partirularly near 4*) i-!itabIi*»hmonti nn-ivtil niedaU at the Parii 

the riviT\ i^ frftilo. Tho iirodurtionA in 1^.00 indu<itnal exhiliiliun uf 1nV>. Th«rt« are i an* 

Wore t'U.iH'.fj Irjiihi-ls of Indian mm. TM.l'^^t of nnal fair««, drrivinic inifHtrtani'o fn>m tho Kile of 

oaii, f4.7T7 of swt-^t |>i>ta(«HM, and H.5f».*i Ifjili-e clt>t!i, tho ixtt>ti«>ivo tnid«« in W(ni1, ami alv> in 

of rotiim. Tbtrv wrru a ni:mlier of milU and ca!?l«', chinuwan', and hiniiory. KlU'ufoin taint 

fartfrii^, S<* t-hurthiA aiid l/i"S pupiU att«'iid- 2 tt«jthic olnirrLiA courtn nf law, ai.d vark^oa 

ing public (whiMiln. NcMr tiie Savannah ri\^-r wli'MiU ainl • h:iritab!i' iii->titntioni. 

are N<vtral miiArk.nMv artifi«'ial fiitiinpK ^'Me KI.IiIN<t. a *^'»I**irt t«>wn of vA»tt-m Pniiai^ 

of whn h i« 4-< tir iio U-* t hii'h aul ha<« a lar^*is on a rivrr of tiiv mimo r:nrno. anil fii tlie lier!in 

erdar fHMiiin^ « in it* summit. 'Ilio county was anil K--iii^'^N n* rnilwav. :<4 m. K S. K. frica 

naim^l m l.tmiT of >aniiiil KlN-rt, fomur!/ l^aiit/if; {Hip. :!4.f*"«i. h i4<^»inpu«od ('f tl.c fU 

|(tiTrniiT if lh«* Rfato. Valuo of roal i-^tate in and now tiiwn^iind ^'Vi-riil ^uburb^ i« •urr«^v.nd- 

1h54, |1. '••■'• .SU. t'upitol. KlliTtoh. e«l by niiufi* «a1:« and r:inipart«. un*! c*>nU:De 

KI.IiKKI. >kiiT If, an Anii-rirnn oflWr i»{ H I^rntoMAKt • hnri-!i« 4. 1 ('A'.l.olir ai.d 1 MrM:«'0« 

tho rrt.'!uti'in, iMirn in Scirh Cnrnlina in 174-(. ito cLurrh, a::'! 1 Avn.v '•"••. Anii^nf: i!»pai!ie 

dinl in .Viianiia)i, <«a.. Nov. 3. 17***^. l!o wm biuMinr* t.^o 11:' 'tit rciiiarLabb* i« the rharoh of 

eni^a^^tl ir* rou.mrn iol punmiis in S.iv<innAh, Notr«* l*ai!.<-. a »!ruiti:r«* «>f the 14th cor. tsry. 

whi rr l.r !•• ■ xtii*- a iiK'mU r 'if lltr ^Mif-r.i] ri<rii- A mllr^o !• t.fi-b-d h< Tt in l'i3«i ba^ a library vf 

nr.t:«« i'f ^afiiT. ai.il iu Kib, 177»"», ri'i«;\*««l a 1\«'»hi \i.!':i:it'«; ax^d ani>i;i); it* l». r.i vi^'.oM e^ 

eoniiTiwi.iiii a* !•• n'lLiint rt lone I frcsn t!.o a«- (^iT>i ^firnvrit* arc H'Vtral «';ido«io<l !•/ Mr. 

icmbly of iit^'r^\3L lie wa-i | rom*!!*."! t«i the Kirbard i'>i\^Io, a Wi-allhy En^u^hmaa. who 

v/ cuJviuJ ui iLo MWo jrcAT; kd na uu- tuuk up Lis rvaidcuco in Elbin|{ in 1^10 acd 



ELGESATTES ELDON £8 

died in Dantzio ia 1821. Elbing has manTifito- 'EJjy'ER, an orereeer, rnler, or leader. The 

torws of sugar, potash, tobacco, soap, chicory, reverence pidd to the e^d in early times was 

litriol, leather, and woollen fabrics. Its marl- doubtless the origin of this title, it being used as 

time trade is very active, its exports being its a name of office both amongJews and Christians. 

own mannfactures, and its imports grain and Hacknight thinks it was applied in the apoetolio 

wisA. This place owes its origin to commercial age to cdL whether old or young, who exercised 

fftabCshments founded by colonists from Bre- any sacred office in the Christian church. Elders 

men and Ltibeck in the 18th century, under the or seniors, in the ancient Jewish polity, were 

protection of a fortress constructed by knights persons noted for their age, experience, and wich 

of the Teatonlc order. It was early admitted dom ; of this sort were the 70 whom Moses 

ioto the Hanseatio league, placed itself under the associated with himself in the government of 

procection of Poland about the middle of the Israel, and such also were those who afterward 

llkh century, and in 1772 was annexed to the held the first rank in the synagogue as presi- 

framnn dominions. dents. Elders, in church history, were origmaUy 

ELCESAITES, a sect of Asiatic Gnostics, those who held the first place in the assemblies 

fbooded in the reign of Trajan, a branch of the of the primitive Christians. The word presby- 

Jewisb Essenes, kindred to and finally confounded ter is sometimes used in the New Testament in 

with the Ebionites. A Jew by the name of Elxai this signification, and as interchangeable with 

or Doesu is supposed to have been their founder. wntaKorros ; and hence the first meetings of Chris- 

Iheir most distinctive tenet was that man is but tian ministers were called oret^yfrna, or assem- 

amasB dT matter in which the divine power is blies of elders. Elder and elders, with the Bap- 

eoneealed. They were tenacious of their oaths, tists, are terms used to designate ministers of 

&vored early marriages, and rejected the Penta- the gospel generally. With the Presbyterians 

tcieh and the epistles of PauL they are the officers who, in conjunction with 

ELCHE (anc. /?t>i), a town of Spun, prov- the ministers and deacons, compose the church 

inoe of Valencia, 13 m. S. W. from Alicante, 8 m. sessions, representing the church itself, conduct- 

W. fhxn the Mediterranean ; pop. 22,800. It ing its discipline, and aiding in the promotion 

isnrdled on every side by forests of palm trees, of the interests of religion. They are chosen 

and has been named the city of palms. The from among the people, usually for life ; are 

duef industry of the place is employed in the generally set apart to their office with some 

cnkare and exportation of dates, which are in- public ceremony ; and their number is different 

ferior to those of Barbary. m different churches. — ^It has long been a mat- 

ELCHIXGEN", a Benedictine abbey of mo- ter of dispute whether there are any such offi- 

£3Bval celebrity, founded In 1128 upon a steep cers as lay elders mentioned in Scripture. On 

Bonnt^n in Bavaria, 7 m. from Ulm. Amid the one side, it is said thnt these officers are no- 

ihe massive buildings which composed this where mentioned as being alone or single, but 

^bey, the church, which was destroyed by always as being many in every congregation ; 

lightning in 1773, was especially distinguished, that they are mentioned separately from the 

In its place another has been constructed in an brethren ; and that their office is described as 

even more ancient style of architecture. The being distinct from that of preaching, he that 

abbey of Elchingen gives its name to 2 villages rulcth being expressly distinguished from him 

■tnated 3 m. apart upon opposite sides of the that exhorteth or tcacheth. On the other side, 

moontain. ThebattleofElcbingen,Octl4,1805, it is contended that the distinction alluded to 

was one of the most brilliant episodes in the Aus- does not refer to different orders of officers, but 

teriitz campaign of Napoleon, and gained for only to the degree of diligence, faithfulness, and 

Ibrshal Key the title of duke of Elchingen. laboriousness with which they discharge their 

ELDER (samhvcut Canadensis, Linn.), a duties and fulfil their ministerial work; and 

dwvy shrub, well known from its numerous that the emphasis in such passages as 1 Timo- 

flat cymes of white flowers appearing in June, thy, v. 17, is to be Ifdd on the word "labor," 

to be succeeded by heavy black-purple, crimson- not on the word " especially," as though tho 

jiieed berries in August, and overtopping the latter were intended to distinguish between two 

wild reeds and bushes on the borders of fields, different classes of elders, one superior, in some 

Ok account of its long and spreading roots it is respects, to tho other. 

sonetimes troublesome to tho farmer. A whole- ELDON, John Scott, earl of, lord chancellor 

•one sndorlfic decoction is prepared from its of England, born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Juno 

flowers, which are carefully gathered and dried 4, 1751, died in London, Jan. 18, 1838. His 

hi the purpose ; the fruit is much esteeme<l by father was a man of respectable fortune, en- 

■ime in the manufacture of a sort of wine, while gaged in the coal trade. Jolm was taught in 

Aepith of the stem furnishes excellent pith balls tho grammar school of his native town, by 

lor electrical experiments. There is another the Rev. Hugh Moiscs, and in May, 1766, in- 

^Mdes (iSl ptihens, Michaux), which has a scar- stead of being apprenticed to the coal business, 

ik frnit, folly ripe at the time the former is in as his father had designed him to be, he was sent 

Uoaom. The flowers of this are handsome, of to liis brother William, afterward Jjonl Stowell, 

agraenish or purplish white, borne in thvrse-like who was then a tutor at Oxford. He was enter- 

ipifceaL The plant is weU worthy of cultivation ed a commoner of University college, was choaen. 

vbcie it is not found growing wild. to a fellowship in July, 1767, took bis bac^eW^ 



M ELDOK 

degrfc in Fi*b. 1 770, ^no<1 the rhftncellnrV prizo tho fknioTui West mi D9t or scrutiny raw, an«! 
of jtSit for AH KnKliah y»ru!io oway in 1771, in- down thv primuplo which hadMncc pA!w&tl into 
temlinirall Uio whiloto tikeordt'm, bntthiHiiUn law, ** that iho i>!vrti«m mu«t be final! r rluacU 
iron rkanffid in 177*2 br lijh ninninj; away with bi'fnro tho rv!urn nf the writ, and that th« writ 
Hint t-llixAlH'ib Snrtt.'ir*, tho 4lanKht«-r of a New- must Xm returned on or before thi* dar ppecifirU 
eartlo banker. He w'a*i niHrrinl At liltickshiL-K in it.'* ili<4 tir^t ofliciid apiKiintment wa« U» tba 
in Scut land. Sow 21*. Thi* bndi-*A family fur a chaxuvlliir-liip of tlio county |»alatine and bUh* 
vhilo rofuMrd t<» tee h«T; but ab«»nt the U-^iu- oprir of Ihirham, in 17A7; and in June, 17^8, 
ninff of the next year the nun of X2,rHMi woii lie wais made solicitor-p'neral, and rereirrd the 
■ettled ii|Min ea<*lt of the vnunK ron|ilo hy their boniT of kni^ltthttinl. Si-nrrely had be onteml 
rcf»peetive (larentis and tlie newly married pair Dfion hi^ new ortire, however, when tli« great 
went up to Oxford, wliere .Kdin wa^ t<i ttudy political vrWi^ ariMng out of the king^ im^nitj 
fur the law. He wait admittc^l of tho Middio throatenetl to turn liim and hi« party adrift. 
Temple in 1773. intending, bo we Vi-r, to enter tho Mr. Tit t pro{iO!(i-d to confer limited |>uwen M 
chnn*b if a c«ille|{e livinfc idiould fall vacant dur- recent u]^in the prince of Wale*» by aet of par- 
ing the year of grace for which ho wad alIowe<l liament, and thi-H measuru tho .solicitor wannl/ 
to retain bin fellow. ••hip after murriaire. Tho upheld, adviH-ating the use of the great ftcal ia 
annivvrMiry of hi'k marringo dei^trured hi.4 laiit the king^smime, andbr«>achingadi*ctrine wbicb 
bo|M.' of eccleAiaf»tii*al prefennont, and he tlienro- virtuully plai-e«l ^uprenle jiower in tbc bands oC 
forth bent liit whole mind to the profe*t»ion which tho |ien(on i« ho hel«l the seal f\*r the time being. 
circumManccn seemed to have forciil u|Hin bim. The bill wax htop|M>d in iti puiiiiago by the kiDg** 
In 1774-'5 be wan a tutor in rniver»ity ctdlege, recovery, bnt the line of action then Liid down 
wliere. Iiowever, be pmbably did no more than dictatvd tfie cour*io of ibo ministry at a later p«- 
puperintend the law tttudie.s of !»omo of the meiu- riotl. In 1793 Sir John wa.s made attorney-gviH 
bi'Ps and at the umo time be obtaine<l the t\h- cml, and as kuch c« inducted tho famous stat4 
pointnient of vice-i»rincipal of New Inn ball triaU tif 17'J4. in which be wait oppu»ed toErs- 
and vice law prufesMir, hU duties being to kiue. Scot tfuiUd to obtain a con viction,notwiilk* 
mad the lectures written by bis BU|>crior, Sir standing a ^|M•ech of 9 hi»uri»* duration, and wai^ 
Kobert Cbambcni. Ik*Mde the laithful i^tudy of moreover, exiM.K'd to c«jnMderab1o bodily dan- 
Coke uiHiu Littleton, he read and ri' mem Ik- red ger from the «-.\citcd populace. In July, 1799, 
all tlio re|N>rt«. riving at 4 in tho morning and on the death of Sir Jumi*ft Kyre, bo obtained tb* 
reading until late at night. In 177>'> be r\'mt>Vi*d |Mi>t of chief ju.«tice of the cummon ideas, and 
to Ijoudi^n. where an eminent c^invryancvr, Mr. with it the rank of Jtaron Kldon «*f Kldon. bia 
I>uane, ttM^ bim into hi^f oilice without the cu4- title Uong taken from an c^ttate which bo bad 
touuu'T (w\ and in Feb. 177(». ho wan called to purch:iM:d in ilic cuuntv of l>urbain. Shortly 
Die bar. In after life be lovi-d to i^jieak of tho after the f41rm.it ion of '^Ir. Addingtou** Uiinia- 
difHcidttei* of hi« early career; but in trulJi, nf- try, in l^oi, hi> iK-came lonl chancellor, receir* 
ter a shorter perind of inaction than falU to tho in^ bin apjNiintnicnt, it in Ktid. dint*t]y fri'U tb« 
lot of ni'M*. young law^vm, he svenif to have king, who wa.4 plen^^-il to intru«t the great seal 
risen iteadily. and hii fortune wast made by his U* one wlkn<.e anti-Catholic zeal accordevl st.i well 
fjuni'Qs argument in the ca.«>e of Ackruvd n. with the nival nentiment*. lie contrib*;led to 
f*mith»«'n, which l/>rd Thnrluw di-eidetl in hU tho overthrow of Mr. Adtlington and the furu- 
favitr on ap{M*al in March, 17^0. In the full«iw. ation of Titl's ^ec•lUil ailnuui.»tratii>n, in which 
ing Tear he still further advanci-«l his priMiK-i-ts bo retained hi^ tiflit-«*, but he re«igiu*d it wkvn 
by his display of ability in the t lit heroi* elation tho wlii,;^ cime into iKiwer under Mr. Fox and 
case, which he undcrt4M>k in the abM'mc of other I.<)r«Uirenvil!e. in Feb. l^oG. He wa<i an activ* 
r«*aii«rl. at a few hour^* notice. A plan which lie member of the op|MiHition, and with the porpuan 
bad rntertaint'il of ietthng in Newca-^tle m'a«* now of breaking down tlie >» big cabinet by enlUUnf 
abandoueil. In June, 17 *».'(, tin tlie fonnation sympathy ior the iirinceM uf Walea^ be i« is^ 
vt the ciialitii-n ministry of Fox and I.i»rt| North, tMisi'd to have pnNluccd. in ctug unction m itb Mr. 
Le was on«> of !«rtral j.mior ci>un«M-l « Im ni-ro Feriwal, the fum<»n!i "Il<Nik," who»e origin waa 
calkd nithin tlie bar, and a f<-w d:i}-i afttr ho Milongamrstvry ; but it** publication wa« »t>>|H 
wa* made a U-nrhvr %.*( hi* inn of i-i>urt. Tho |mn1 wht n tiie toriesi came int«i |io»er bv the cry 
influrucv of l^jpl Thurl.iw pp<-urol !i.m a seat of "danger tu the church," and on April 1. 1807, 
in the hfiu«e of cummons as rcpri^'i. tattle of I^rd Kldon t4Hikhi4<«i«Ht again u|h in the wu«<Usck. 
I.ord We\mot:th*« Ntrongb of Wi-itMy, uml cji Huw.isnow at tlie hi-ight i»f fa%or andinliocncw; 
Itrc. f*\ 17^5. he dehvcnd hi«ii:aii!t-ii nimvi h in hi;* intimate rehtiou^ with the king. noIis« than 
o|i|4Hiti*-n to Mr Fox't \lMi Ii^ha bill, but with bin otiicul |HMitiun, gave him a nbare in tbe ad- 
little «M< re**. Snitt, in faiC. «.-«« ni« orator, and niii.i«trati'>n such u% no chanci*Ilur bad rxyit^ed 
though }v aftcr11a.1l »(»i.Li* nith i:r«.M-:. i->|-." f«irniany yi-ar^; antl lb«Mi^htheaK«€'rt:oiiiif IxTd 
cially o.'i bvnd •iUiHition^ and priivtd a |io«rrful Itrougham that he did thne fourth* of tlio gur- 
uemtirr of the V*r} part v, he i.ever aojuircd r rn i u^ of t It v cciun '.ry for a whoK* generation may 
tl<o faMic of a ir-d tleltutcf. ( >n the at-<'«'i^*ion Im> rX4gg%-rate*l. it i« ci-rtaiu that at timr« «tca 
of Mr. Fi't, in March, ITM, be cafiie int.i par* thi- king «aanot4irioi>}y iikcfini|>«.leiilhe pitt t^^e 
l:an«<iit a^TAin as a m<-mVr fur Wck.hir, hut in gr^al M'al U> um*» fmui which bi« nior>< timid 
Uf^ fu^uniis^ jcmr hm aupjA^ridd Mr. Fox in aaaociitca drew back, and in |*arLam«ut the 



ELDON ELEATIO SCHOOL 55 

sererast strictares were passed npon his oon- him, and he had the reputation of being one of 
duet. When the recovery of the^ng became the most entertaining story tellers of his day. 
BO longer probable, Lord Eldon began to cnl- Li his " Anecdote B^k/' a sort of autobiogra- 
tiTate the favor of the regent, snddenly took phy compiled in his old age, he does little, how- 
aide against tlie princess Caroline, and bought ever, to snstain his character as a hnmorist, and 
vp as many as possible of the few copies of the shows a lack of literary culture not surprising 
** Book** which had got into circulation. In in one who from the age of 22 read nothmg but 
the ministerial intrigues following the aasassina- law books and the newspapers. 
tkm of Kr. Percevfd he was the secret adviser ELEANOR of AQurrAnnE, queen of France 
of the prince, and the real author of Lord Liv- and afterward of England, born in 1122, died 
cn»ool*8 administration, which lasted with slight March 81, 1204. She was the eldest daughter 
diangesontil the death of that minister in 182T, and heiress of William IX., duke of Guienne 
A period of 15 yeara. Lord Eldon's devotion to or Aquitaine, and was married, Aug. 2, 1187, to 
his ^dear young master" was not without re- Prince Louis, who in the same year succeeded to 
ward. On' the death of George IIL he was con- the throne of France as Louis YII. She was gay. 
firmed in his office, and by his subsequent part in frivolous, a lover of poetry and art, and could 
the matter of the proposed divorce he earned the not sympathize wiUi the ascetic spirit of her 
dignity of Viscount Encombe and earl of Eldon, husband. She accompanied him on the second 
which George IV. conferred upon him, July 7, crusade to the Holy Land in 1147. At that time 
1831. Bat with the introduction of more lib- he complained of her preference for other men, 
tral Tiewa than had hitherto ruled the nation, and on their return from Asia they were divoro- 
LordEldon's influence began to wane. Though ed, March 18, 1152. A short time afterward 
rtiH honored, he was less and less consulted, she bestowed her hand upon Henry Plantagenet^ 
The ideas which he had brought with him from the future Henry II. of England. This alliance, 
the previous generation, his uncompromising which made Henry master of Eleanor's vast 
hostility to reform in law or parliament, his firm possessions in France, produced pernicious and 
itand against Catholic emancipation, his coercion protracted wars between Franco and England. 
of the press, were no longer the principles of She bore him many children, but his infidelitiea 
the government ; and when Mr. Canning became and neglect changed her love into hatred. She 
iidnkter,in 1827, he resigned the great seal, and incited her sons GreofiOrey and Richard to rebd 
was aooeeeded by Lord Lyndhurst. He never against their father, was arrested in 1174, and 
again took office, though he showed on several remained in confinement until after Henry's 
occasions a readiness to do so ; and in 1835 he death in 1189, when she was released by his suo- 
withdrew entirely from public life, taking with cesser, Richard I., CoBur de Lion, who placed 
him a large fortune, the legitimate fruit of his her at the head of the government on his de- 
poittioa. As a lawyer, Lora Eldon ranks among parture for the Holy Land. She negotiated his 
the greatest who have ever adorned the bench marriage with the daughter of the king of 
or bar of England. Without a mind of the high- Navarre, and went to Germany with his ransom 
eat order, and little versed in the civil or in for- from captivity. She afterward retired to the 
eign codes, he was unsurpassed in knowledge of abbey of Fontevrault, and surviving Richard, 
^a^flwh law and in subtlety and acuteness of in- lived to see him succeeded by one of her other 
tdlect; but his habitual hesitation in deciding, sons, John Lackland, the signer of Magna Char- 
boside proving ruinous to suitors, encumbered ta. She was a favorite personage with the trou- 
the court of chancery with a vast arreor of badour poets of the day, and appears in a verv 
emses which was often the subject of parlio- different light in their works from that in which 
meatary animadversion. Hence, according to she is represented by the French and Norman 
Mr. H. Twiss, his biographer, it was in the chroniclers. 

eoounon law courts, where he was forced to ELEATIC SCHOOL, a group of Greek phi- 
decide without delay, rather than in the courts losophers, beginning with Xenophanes of Col- 
of equity, that he gained his greatest reputa- ophon, whosettledinElca or Velia, a Greek coi- 
tion. His opinions, from the study bestowed ony of southern Italy, in the 6th century B. C, 
rthem, are of the first value, but they are and whose principal disciples were Parmenides 
expressed in confused and obscure Ian- and Zeno, both of Elea, and Mclissus of Samos. 
nege. As a politician, he was distinguished Some of the ancients also ranked Lcucippns and 
if adroitness, tact, and a boldness strangely in Empedoclcs among them, which has led seve- 
eontrast with his hesitation on the bench ; but ral historians of philosophy to distinguish two 
Is was not a great statesman, and knew little Eleatic schools, one of metaphysics and the 
of teeign politics. Ho had a horror of innova- other of physics. But apart from the radical 
tioB, looked upon the reform bill of 1831 with difference which separates the doctrines of Em- 
■BDcied fright and amazement, and, with a pedocles and Loncippus from the system of 
momdfondnessfor political prosecutions, boast- Xenoplianes and Parmenides, there is no evi- 
sd that he had caused more actions for libel in 2 dence that the latter philosophers were at all 
years than had taken place in 20 years before, associated with the former. It can only be af- 
ffis demeanor on the bench was courteous and firmed that they were all contemporary, and 
aflkble. His domestic life was eminently happv that the writings of Parmenides probably con- 
■nd Tirtnous ; his good humor seldom forsook tribated to tho modificatiou of lonlasi \^«aa 



56 ELEAZAR ELECTOR 

wroofslit hj Tjiuri|i|ii|4, and t«i tlic rliAnjrc'fl in onlor, and on Aamn^s death wm railed to Um 

tiio MMrzii iif i*Tt!iu^i>rA!>i made hy KiMii«'iliit-lc*. di»rinty uf hi^li phc<(. HiA|Kintitirat« wa.«roD- 

Tbo iCi-iiiTiil Npirit ot' tliv M-liiNil iiiuv l>o ditinvd U'liiporury with tlie iniUtur/ ipivvminrnt of 

as ori AtuiMpi. |Kr}ij»{i4 t}ii' tir<>t I'wr iuaiK-. t«> Ju-huo, aiid the Inxik <»f Jcrthiia cli»«c« «'ith aa 

refiT all m u-Mtv i** i!iv al'"'i*luti' aiiil \*\irv idfiu account of Win death and hurial. — Elkazj^k, bob 

of till' r«.aMiri. Thiro aro. ai-ionliii^ to tho of iKwhi, waMoiivof l>avid'43 ini^htv men. who 

Elvatio, tWM kind;* cf kunwUd^v. tlmt «)ii(h Mimti* the Phihstino^ till hi* hand wan wrary, 

CNiim-^ UtM" thriiu^h tin* k'H^v. mid thut whirh and who with 2 othi-ni broke thrimch the Phi* 

Wc i>wi* t>i tht.' n-a!M>ii ik!<iii«'. T!u* 'M-ifUri' « hi«-h h>tini> h<i«t to hriitK to Pa\id a draught uf watar 

U euniii-t"^- 1 tif (he ftiniuT i-* only an illu^ii>n, from liin native lU-thlvhem. 

for it i-ontuiii'^ ikothin.; trut*. tix^**!. anil diiraMe. ELECAMPANE, the riNit of the plant inutm 

The only i'« rTttin tn iciue in t!iut Vi Itirh vim-* A^/rnium, a liaiidMinie nhrub, wliirh. introdorad 

nothing to llti* MiiM.-, anil all to i!k* n-u-on. into Aniericu from Eun»|>e. i^ now rrminion m 

Childri-a ;uiil t!ie untjiu^'ht mar tK-lii-Vf in the our ^aniens and i;ruws wiM in meatlown and bj 

reality of M-n-iMi' a|i{<-uranci-!«. )iut the pliilo»- thr mailsiiii*!^ in the northern Ktate^. The rooi 

0|'herwjiiim.ikithe louu'iationuf tliinfr<«*.hiiulil should tie du^ in autumn and of the Mrond 

a|i|K*al only t<i tho Tvm^tu. The re are two year'if growth. It baA an a^rreeable arumatie 



iirim-i|ile«« in nut u re, on the one Mile tire or oilor wlieu driiil, Mtniewhat like that of c. 
ii^hU ai'd on the other ni^'lit or tliirk iind heavy phor, and ii** ta*ite when rhewed i* warm and 
matter. Tiiex.' priniiiiU** aredi«tin(t but not bitter; water ami aleohol eitrart it* peculiar 



aeparate : thev at't iii o>neert, pUunt: t•ll^'the^ pr«tiKTtie.4, the latter nlo^t reailily. It^ 
a lN*r|ietnal anil univer*>id part in the world. arfVird the ve^- table priiiciple** alaiitina t»r is* 
The wtrrld i^ Uiunili-d by a rirele of Iii;ht an by iiline. reM*nibIinf; >tari*h, ami helenine, which 
a pnile. und i- dividi-*! into li |»art^ in t!ie ren- forni'* b>nt; wliite (*ry»taN. The |Niwdercd rooi 
tral one of vkhiili mi-e<<M(y rei;;n?* Niven-i^'n. ur the dee(H-tii»n in water i^ UM-d in nirdicino 
Tlie »Ian* are l*ut eonileiiMii Are. an^l the earth a« a lonii* niid ^tinmlunt. It in prescribed in 
i» the darkest and hea\K-<*t of all lMH!ii«. It i.H chri*nie diM-ii!ti-<iof the lunt;;*. 
ruund, and plod ed by it^ ow n weijlit in ilie eeii- El.ECTi*lC, or ruiMB EiBtTOR (Ikurfuni)^ 
tre of (he Mnrld. Men are born of tlie earth, in the old (lerman emtiire, the title uf tboM 
wartueil by t!ie ^Aat ray-, axid thoUk'ht i^apro* princes whu enjoyed tho privilege of cUctiaf 
dui t of or«:iUii2atii»n. From t}ii« c-iimniintrlin); (kur<n) the emperor, or ratlier the kin^, far 
of fire and earth hu\e U-tfun all tlie tliin;:^ whii li tlio ruler:* of the liennan empire Were uriirinall/ 
our MMiM-^ fih>'W n^ and whirh will iMime time ad ^U(h «inly kin^c^. I'mler the Car!oviu|pai» 
peri»h. I{.it in all the^- ph\Mral phenomena t)i« Kuvvmnieni wa> hereditarv*. After tbeirci- 
tiiere i« no true M'ieitiv. Kea«<>n In the exriu. tinelion tlie mu»t |K>a'rr!ul prinee«s toch a« tbo 
aive N'iiri-e of certHinty. and reason roiK-ei\eii duke-i of the liavahaiis Saxona, Saabians Fran- 
and n«-<vni/e<* a* (rue iiotliin;; but al'Mihitf be- cuniaiin, and I^itharinpan^, were acrnatunMd 
iu^, U-itiir lit i(-^l!'roti<*iilireii, that In a«* di-^n* to curne to ati under^tandiiijc n» tuthe one tub* 
Ka^ol fr«>iM v>ery piiTti* ular. llt-i-tinf:. arnl |*it* K'leeted frum anionir their !iuml>er tu rule nrcr 
U)iab!>- I iTi ':!u-taiii «■. m>*>lilirutifii. or a4'i'id«iit. all the (iennari trilii^. Tii'n wat done withiait 
Tliu* e\« ry \\nuj: mIiuIi Itiks ei* r |i«-|*un to (>«-, anv »{ i*<*itir hiw. the electon U'ing dimply pow- 
every t]i::i^ a !«:i-}i i.<* «UM-ipt:'hle of < haitk'e or errulentiu^h (oet)nt4-<«t any eliTtion ma*!e a^Tunat 
inod:ii« at;ii:i. «>t' birili or d<'<«triii-!Mn. ha-« no tlieirail). Hut in th«* (*ourM.*of lime the elvcto- 
TeritaMe ei>ttnre; it i« ni>t bi in.', but «tiily ral pri\ile^e iK-i'ame a rifcht inherent in rrrtaia 
a|*iN arfi::i-e. Ite«:>b« Uin^\ in l\t\^ "m n^* of (be territ«irial i*<i»M-^.«ion«, vi«. : the an-hbudiof-rica 
Wi*rd. tl.i ri- i«, fti«i>p!;nt: t>i tbe Eleain^ only of Ment/, Treve^i, and IViht^rne, and tlM» priori- 
hot hiiip:! :«*«<. an>i a* tin* i- bit the niyati-in of p:d:tiettuf the Talatinate, SaXony. Hrandcnburf, 
all t). .!.,;«. • Tie ran n«:(lii r atf'.rni it ni^rib uy it. and lUtl.einia. The inoumlH'nt* of the^ prio- 
IWin.; i« rt> rr::i]. ui.i !ian;:i :i*>!e, m !•'< xi«:ixi( ; It <ipali(ie4 arteil a« cUrti>rH fi>r the liriit time ill 
ha« ntitl.tr ]•&«* t.'ir f.iiiire. n«i(!i«r p.irtt n^T 12<if>, when they rhoM* Itiehard ctf C\>mwalL 
li:iiii«, ni-L;!i>-r t!ni«..*:i irir Miiie*<i<'n; it i^ A t'en(ury later their eieluMve pritdep' waa 
tlirn an B!>--!iite i;i>.!«. an>l «\er,\ th^iv *•'*«' ii Kunrantetd to them by the 'Miolden linll '* Id 
but an ii!ii"i>-n. Tl.u*. the Eiiaiii' ^w!eiii i!« - I'VIh an >^\U tleitoratu w af» e»taL>lL<»he«l fi>r tho 
Die* t^«* data liri..«^iil b> tlie m n->< •. di niti ]*al.'»tinate, who^* ri^rhtA had btvu tranikferr«d to 
the p iHTt^! I /«!•>•!. 4 an«l aN»:r.M-;i>*n« « hii-h (!.!• Havana diiring; the «{•> >eani* war : it Ini^ame ez« 
r«-a*«*i. fii«i!i!» uiM-n »:!• li i!a!a, ami ntlirni'* ofdv tinrt in 1777. In Ki'.*J the durhvof liruntwiek- 
tii4.^> iii^t •^.bri i<!rA« « itii h rin.~'n ••Mi « ^''b !y iJinebunr aaA raivM to the raiik of an tler- 
fii it««!f. a:i! «!.i< S it « tii''!*>i * in ii« o|>« ruTi"!.-^. toraie. Whin the liennan empire wan tot trnn^i 
Tfie n «Tii; i« a | ai.tl.t :«"i. ni Xi ifpLoite^i re- to ii« ruin in oaiMi^nrnri* uf tbe war» witii 
w*n»l !iu»-t^ • M< :.•!•«! i^at' r;ui .»:-.«] •\'.r.i'ia\ p.tn- r«. vol-.it'.oi..'iry Fraure, t!je eleetoral rolle^r^ waa 
ihi- ^m I f >j-'.!. ■•.*. Ml! in I'aniM :.:dt « ap] rou* !i- riitin ly rein«i!il!i-,!. Tin- et« Ie«ia!*tiral elt-«';i«ra 
iU^ X\.r «! .*:r<.;a! ••!. i^i-tii* {>Ai.;*.« t«r:i «•( F:i !itt-. ha^il'^* b^t ti.eir i-oSM'^«ifn« i^n the left )>ank of 
KI.K.V^AK Mi '■ . (i'«l 1* )i*\i' . t!.e i..tM.i- i'f the lliiine. ^ m« uUr prinrt.-* were miM-l t • the 
■rvrrol ai.i-.if.t lb' :« « ». T)ie u.--'. ii< :••! of m:ik o(* ttiiri<r\ x'lg. the mar^ra%e of HatU r., 
the:*: « a- il.i* M - :i •■:' Airi'ii. «!.•• In Id in bi« tbe duLe of Wurti ni!H-r«f. an^l the land^ra«r uC 
lalLtr'i Jifili:nv the u%«.r».^'h: if the LL\ili<.al lleMC-Caw«l; bi^ide lhe»e, the grand duk« \d 



ELEOTBA ELEOTRIO FISHES 67 

Tisscanj, hATing been made arobbishop of Saltz- Tbe vengeance of the guilty mother and her 

burjr and afterward of WUrtzburg, was recog- aocomplice threatened death also to Orcstos, but 

nlzed as an elector. But when, in 1806, the Electra discovered his danger, and sent him 

emperor Francia abdicated the German crown, away to King Strophius of Phocis, who had him 

the electoral system came to an end. Bavaria, educated with his own son Pylades. Orestes 

SaxoDj, and WOrtemberg became kingdoms (the had hardly attained tlie strength of manhood 

eUctors of Brandenburg had been kings of when Eloctra sent secret messengers to him 

PnssA since 1700) ; Baden was a grand duchy ; urging him to undertake the duty of vengeance. 

and the elector of Ilesse-Cassel was deprived of With his friend Pylades he came in disguise to 

his dominions, which were afterward incorpo- Argos, made himself known to his sister, and 

rated in the new kingdom of Westphalia. Thus, slew both .^Igisthus and Clytemncstra in the 

fi)r 6 years, the title of elector had no legal ex- palace. The guilt of matricide awoke the Furies 

isteBoe, until it was revived after the downfall against him, who stung him to madness, and 

of the king of Westphalia by the elector of pursued him over the earth. On the shore of 

HcsK^Cassel, now the only prince bearing that the Taurio Chersonesus he was about to be sa- 

title. The prince electors enjoyed not only the crificed by the priestess of Diana, his own sister 

pririlege of choosing the German kings, but also Iphigenia, who was ignorant of the relationship. 

that of subjecting them to certiun stipulations According to some, the report even reached 

md conditions, which, in many cases, were so Greece that he had perished. Electra in despair 

ending as to leave the monarch scarcely a rushed to the oracle of Delphi to learn the par- 

diadov of poifer. By the ** Golden Bull *' the ticulars. At the same time Orestes, Pylades, 

electors are called ^ the seven columns and pil- and Iphigenia arrived there. A casual word 

hn of tight of the holy empire," also '* the having at the last moment revealed Orestes to 

Bwmbers of the imperial body." It was one of his sister, Electra was about to hurl a firebrand 

their privileges to offer their advice to the em- into the face of Iphigenia, when her arm was 

peror whether he asked for it or not They stayed by Orestes. Electra became the wife of 

were also entitled to all royal honors, except the Pylades, and the mother of Medon and Strophius. 

title of migesty. The electors had each a special Her story has been treated from various points 

function in the administration of the empire or of view by almost all the great tragedians^ by 

the impcnal hoosehold. Thus, the elector of u£schylus, Sophocles, and Euripides among the 

Mentz was arch-chancellor of the empire, chair- ancients, and by Racine, Alfieri, and Goethe 

tun of the electoral college and of the diet ; the among the modems. 

cfcctorof Treves was lieutenant arch-chancellor ELECTRIC FISIIES. The extraordinary 

ffl(rGermany;thatof Cologne the same for Italy; modification of the peripheral extremities of 

the elector ofBohemia arch-cupbearer; the elect- nerves by which electricity is geuerfttcd and 

or of the Palatinate orch-dapifer and licuten- discharged, is found in 4 genera of fishes, and 

Bt of the emperor in the Rhenish provinces; in no other class of the vertcbrnta. Tlie best 

&e elector of Brandenburg arch-chamberlain ; known of these fishes will bo described under 

the elector of Saxony arch-marsbal and vice- Torpedo ; a second, the gymnotus or electrical 

naident of the diet ; tliat of Brunswick-LUne- eel, has been already mentioned under Eel ; the 

KTg arch-treasurer. The electorates created other two will bo briefly alluded to here, as there 

dw^y before the dissolution of the empire had is no common name under which they would 

not yei been endowed with special functions. — properly come. The 3d electrical fish belongs 

h the political system of the United States, to the family of siluridcB, and the genus mal- 

tieetcHrs are chosen by the people of each state apterurus (Lacep.). The M, elertricus (Laccp.) 

to elect the president and vic43-president. Each differs from the common siluroids in having no 

sate diooscs as many electors as it has members anterior dorsnl fin nor pectoral spine ; the skin 

xa the two houses of congress ; and these elect- is naked and scalclcss ; there is an adipose dor- 

onmeet at the capitals of their respective sal fin near the caudal; tho vontrals arc just 

ntei, on the 1st day of January next after the behind the middle, and the anal occupies about 

dection, and cast their votes for president and half tho distance between them and the rounded 

vice-president. These votes are then sealed up caudal ; the body is stout, tho tail thick, and tho 

md carried by special messengers to Washing- head short and conical; the lips are fleshy, with 

tot, where they are opened and counted in tho 6 barbels ; 5 villiform teeth in each jaw, iiono on 

fRKDce of both houses of congress, and tho the vomer. Tho fish attains a length of 18 or 

iHolt proclaimed by the president of the 20 inches, and is found in tho Nile, Senegal, and 

ttte. other rivers of northern and central Africa ; tho 

CUCTRA (}n Gr., the bright or brilliant color is cinereous or olive above, spotted and 

)), dangbter of Agamemnon and Clytem- irregularly marked with black, whitish below ; 

sister of Orestes, Iphigenia, and Chry- anterior nostrils tubular. Tho existence of a fish 

Hthsnis, was, when her father departed to the with benumbing powers in tho Nile has been 

Xrajaa war, confided with her mother and known for more than 800 years, but Geoflroy 

Inther to tho care of iEgisthus. Clytomnos- and Rudolphi were the first to give detailed de- 

tai yielded to the addresses of her guardian, scriptions of tho electric organs. Yalcnciennes 

■d when after 10 years her husband returned describes these as forming on each sido of the 

to Greece he was murdered in his own house, hodf, between tho skin and tho musdcs^ ^ \^i^ 



58 ELECTRIC FISHES ELECTIUO UGHT 

U}-('r« of fi{H^n;:T riiluUr tis«<iio uniting together in connection trith mnscle is followed by 

A!iiiill ii •£1-11^1' »hai>t-l I'oiU tUit^^l Willi f^clatiiious cotitractiun. Tlie electric like the mi 

fluid, un«l G »*r luore tine l«>niritiiilin:il iiu'in- powi-r is ei)iauMt4Ml bj ciercise, and recori 

branc*: i'ttiii!>iriiii;( the Knu-tt:ro of thoM» or- D>'nivt; both arv increaMtl by energetic reipi* 

f;an* in i\n* loqic*!!! an«i ):?''""• it u\ and rL-roiv- ration and circidatiim, and l>oCh are exalted bj 

iii^ tli«> ni r%ii(i« iiitliK-nro U'th fpiMi tho InttTul the action of atrvcbnine, which prtMlacee tilaaio 

lirafirh lif r!ti* ra^u^ axnl from tho vvntr^il n m tract ion of the inuscIcA, aiiu a rapid looei^ 

braiiL'iivoff thi^-pKiiil niT\0'>. The shock pven ninn of invuluntary clvctric diAcharfca. Tte 

by tliin f-h i<< i^tiiipArativflr fi-eldi', tho di^- phononiona diAjdnvcd bjr these fifthcs aAird BO 

«-!.arf.v t.ikin^ \Anro when the head i?4 tfinrhc«l; irroiind for the ujiinion that nervous inflncpoa li 

ii4i >'h>M K i-* fi'lt whtn tiio tail \n grasjH^d, a« t!io idontiral with elect ricit v ; the former is noBora 

el«-rtri<* I'rcan^ d<i ip«t cxtoihl t>» thi<t part; in identical with the latter than it is with Bift* 

p\ii:;r a ^!t-•«'k the t.iil i< nitrvi'd, as if the iiius- cular contractilitr ; the contractilitj oC tte 

cleA wt:u ui tiv«'. Thi;* ti«h i^ niurh esu>enivd nlll•^'Io resitles in its fibre, and the electriet^ is 

a« ftHxI. The Ara!>*i call it rfuA (thundcn. — cem-rati^d in the battery of the fish ; bolhav 

Thf 4ih elfctrieal fi«h Udon^r^ t«i the urdvr yt^- bnaight into play Uinmgh nenruus inflneiic«i,bai 

fiij/h.iMi, faiiiilr JUt'ioutuLp^ aiA frenuH Utrtio- neither residei in or is a pntperty c»f theiMm^ 

c/"n fl'iiv.i. 7 lie n|i|K'r and Miider jaw«i an* di- Tho phenunienri of heat, electricity, and pbfl^ 

^idiil Itv a nii-di.in suture, hi that tlu-y M-ein to phorencence within the animal body depeod ca 

have '2 toth aifve ai.d 2 bcl>iw, inn if] Pirated chemical actiouA, which take place in the n» 

with tl.f J3«4; in ui^^t of the «iH'eie4 of tho tern juit a<» they wonld in the chemist's Umh 

pMiu*. thJ h^ly, tiivpt t!ie hiad and \ii\\^ is ratory, mudifli*d always by the mysterious rital 

ri-ndort-d rtit:^h hr •«; imi nia<le eri-etile l»y tho principle. To show the energy of the eledrkiqf 

i;i!lsii>in of t!u* »kiii. or n!iti:r:i!lr en-rt ; but in thu^ frenerateil, it may be stated Uiat, ii i (irilJM 

t^e fUHTtrir oi-t i-ii^ ( T. tU^-'ricu*^ WU'T%^*\\) t!ie to F:iraday, the shock of Uie electric eel iatmil 

Klin i« dt^tiiute iif ^i•inl•^ in e«>nft>nnity with to that uf 15 l^eyden Jars of 3,5(iO si|uarB inuM 

till* a^'LiiniMfd I:iw that ho eiivtrio lishi'i have of nurfaee: it is not suri»ri»ing thai a 

ci'.hi.T f -;»Ie4 or 'piiioH: the butly ii brown uf thei^ nhould prostrate a horse. 

aUiVf. Vi-lliiw nn thv biih-A. i«*a-»:iven Ulow, and KI.KCTUIC JJiillT. Thu lumiooos 

v.iricd wi:!i rt^]. ^<rt-en, and white ^piiL!*. It at- ance has bwn provt-nl by \s\t iHirid Brewi 

tain^ a ii-r>;:(h of 7 nr S im hi-i, and i^ found in be of the baiue nature with all other UghlMM* 

the Ia;:iMi:.!4 t>f the Parifie. l!4 vh-t^tric |ioWi'ni gards the proiicrties of polarization and mB^B 

are «*iinipar:«(ivil\ fi*i'Mc. — TSie niit^t ehnrui'ter- and double refraction, and he con^iden thai IM 

i«tir feature i^f a)! the^o l>a:tiTii<i in their en(*r- spark is a tiaine, con^iitting. like all other flana^ 

ino'i« ^t:;-pty if niTvn'.:'* niattrr: the tUvtrio of ineandeMreut niol«rulrs in a state of niuli 

orgin- •;• :i«-ruto tin- cK-< trii'tiy. v^hi^'h ii ren- suUliviiiittn, yirt Iwing producible in a Taraaa H 

dert-d tt4 !:\i> t'V nt*rvii!i<i iiit^ot-nro. In tho tt*r- would sevm not to be the etTect uf c«>mbi 

N-dn t).i- "th'N'k i^ hi.-«l riM'^uvitl whi'n one hand A most intenne and steaily rlectric light is 

H I'I.ukI i>!i tlir bai-k uM'i tl^e Kther «^n the ah- e*! Inrtween two (lointA of coke, forming the 

d"*:i> ri •'Mill- fi-h : in thf ^'MMnittuii the intcn- of a liattcry, and brnught into c\o^ proiiato. 

».iv of t}.i> »h.«i-k 14 in i>r>«iNirti>-n to the len;:(h Fpim itii great l»rilliancy and cheapnesa tUi 

of ;!ii li-!i iii>]'id«^l Urwei-n the handi ; ae- light would MH*m to be well adapted fur ID' 

tii.-il r.i; !.k. t with till- t'lnnd'-k i-« i.<it i*-M-ntial, nai inn, especially for lighthouses, and if ia 

a« it i«w<'.l kn-'wn hy the Ni*.-ipn!itan fl-her- dMe(*<l iutd miiu-A it wuuld certainly prova 

i:ien tlia: theMi'K k i«f«-!t whi-:i MuttTi^d&fthfd mo»t |Miwerful illuminating Agvnt« wi ~ 

n\-ii It. t)ic «!(Ttrie rurrt.'it |':i-«ini:uji along the tending, like other lighta. to contaminata 

strcr.m. tl.f eip-iii: luin;; r>inipIe*.«M thnmtfh the purity c»f the air. The difficulties which il 

earth t<> t!.f vi-titral«iirfA'-i* 'if the ti«h ; tin* dur- fvre with tliis application of the electric UshI 

sal ••:r!'.wc i^ alHay* |i-Mitivo, ami tSe ventral are wholly of a ini*ehanieal nature, and 

i:r;a!:xt-. 1 !.at thii i^ tlio «ariie a* r>in)im<n many ei|»i'dientj have been devised to 

r!i«!ri. .Tv hA« Utn khown ly M.-itl«Mirri anil tlieni. the sppsratus in still too cumbei 

Farad^v ; it r. i..*. r« thf m-* lih* inat;ii«lir. ajid andc«ist!y fur ordinary uie. One of th« 

de« <'Tr.]->-'*4 i-hifr.:- a! cxnij'otiniU: \*} it heat iJ pal ob«tai-les to Ik* overcome is the coo 

ei"hc*i. :tr:d tijfi 1'- tr.r «;i^rk i^ •dtainctl. Hie separation of the charctial or citke potnti^ M 

ci'-itin:: i.>*r^f4 t«-rTMi!iatf m l><"p4, oa in the thew are slowly mnsumed. .\ practical appA* 

111':^ .:!.ir !i^-;ii*. aii>l thi-y Ari««- like iii«>!<>r nerves cation wa4 made in the year 1h54 uf the eb^ 

fr« ni tJ.i* ai.!. n-ir trait •/ iSr e-ird ; th*- rire|»- trio light, by l»r. WatJoii of the "Electric Towiff 

tN'ri ariil I ••:!%• }Ati'<« uf i:i:;>r^<9*i<>fi«, and tho Light and i.*<>h>r i'iim|iany,** to facilitate tht 

^•■1 ;:::jr\ lu «. « j.i. ^i r^-^*:!!* i:i tiir shiM k. are uf o|>vratiHn<« (xinne<'tnl with the erection vt ite 

thr Aj*:.! i.jt'-.rr an I r>!Ii-w **.i> sann' ii«iirN» a* m^w hridgi' at Wciitminster. Tngi%e light lotht 

in n. :•> .i.iri-. riira l.<'f.« ; a <i.^ i^i>*ri «>f l^l• rlrr- wi-rknivn ciiiplo^e^i during l>iw tide at night, hs 

trii" !.• rii-« a! r! < :r ••n^in a*r> «r« all \->Iiii!ary ina l«* u*e ^f an apliaratuv eitmputnl to haretht 

•h«h k*. *':t\ an irr.:':r.<i:i"f !hfi niNxf tliiTiTxes i!! animating i^twur of 7'i Argand burners, or of 

in • ?.::•€-:>••; w.*:. :) rj.ia 'i% {-V.^mv^l hy an inarly l,«i<c> wax randle% placing it oa ite 

i::M !u:.t uv« «-!•- *r.- il.*> ^ nve. Ju«( a-t an irri- bitik of the rivi*r aUiut 2<KI fevt ui^tant ! 

/J.'. '£1 t'f tsv tiiJ if a ili%.d(d nioU'r nerve the working stage. I' {Jon this 46 man wen 



I 




ELECTBIO TELEGBAPH ELECTRICITY 59 

«g«d in pile driTing. The battery, placed 2,000 rapidlj made, and with every new step gained 
foet off^ was fitted with 72 cells. The reflector the subject assamed a greater importance, ex- 
«Md was that Imown as ChappoisV The light tending in unexpected directions, so as to em- 
diSbsed oyer the stage was more brilliant than brace phenomena of the highest interest to man, 
that of the brightest moonlight It was fully and linking itself with departments of physics 
aa manageable as that of gas, and is said to be with which it was before supposed to have no 
fimiahed at the lowest cost of gas (which in relation. Thus these investigations have con- 
London is very lowX a considerable profit being tinued for more than 200 years to attract the 
ittafised from the application of the residuary profound attention of the ablest philosophers ; 
pcodacts of the battery to the manufacture of and at this day no subject is more worthy of 
eolora. — ^According to the recent experiments their study, or opens a more promising field for 
of IL Edmond Beoquerel, made under favor- original research, than the boundless ranee of 
aUa qrcqmaitances with a battery of uno and electricity in its many departments. As acvel- 
jJ^*^"'"", the least cost of the electric light oped in animal bodies, it has already been treated 
compared with that of some other means of in this work in the article Animal ELEOTRiorrT. 
iBnmination, may be thus stated. Using as a (See also £el (Electric), Electric Fishes, and 
glndard the light of 850 sperm candles of best Torpedo.) In the present and succeeding ar- 
qiHKtj, tides it will be treated : 1st, in its ordinary 
&■ east of Mtf fM at $1 SO per 1,000 cable fe«t was..$o 85 exhibitions ns produced by friction, heat, &c. ; 
1 ^ ^^^ •^? •* VJ^. p*' \T 2 S 2d, under Elbctro-Dynamics, in the form com- 

* gteari— cMidles t S3 eta, per lb. ** 3 58 __^ , • i v ai. i • i 4. • 

• WBZ eaodks at 58 eta. per lb. •* 8 13 monly recognized by the name galvanic electn- 

•• ciectrie lifht " 068 city; 8d, as connected with magnetism in the 

Ai tfaa osaal prices of gas in the Umted States, form called Electro-Magnetism; 4th, in the 

tha dcctric light under present expenses of the application of this branch of the subject to the 

bittery is a more costly method of illumination, useful arts in Electro-Metallukoy. Atmos- 

Imt may itill be much cheaper than candles, pheric electricity, with particular reference to 

(Sea EuccTBO-DTNAauos.) the experiments of Franklin, will bo more fully 

ELECTRIO TELEGRAPH. See TsLEORAPn. noticed under Lightnixo. Electricity as de- 

XLECrSICITY. In the article Amber, it veloped by magnetism will be treated under 

has been already remarked that electrical phe- Magneto-Eleotricity. — The prominent elec- 

Bomena were first noticed in this substance by trical phenomena are exhibited by very sim- 

the ancients, at least as far back as Tbales of pie experiments. A glass tube, dry and clear, 

ICktcs; who lived in the 7th and 6th centuries when rubbed with a warm silk handkerchief, at- 

bdbre the Christian era. From the Greek word tracts light objects, as slips of paper, gold leaf, a 

loramber,i7Xrjrrpoi', the name electricity was ap- feather, or a pith ball suspended by a silken 

|fied to the obscure force which produced these thread. The property thus developed is called 

effects. As the substance gave its name to the electricity, and the body in which it is generated 

ibcfiomena, so the most obvious of these, the is called the electric. The light body attracted, 

■operty of amber when rubbed of attracting after remaining in contact with the glass for a 

0^ bodies, gave the name with the Arabs of few seconds, and being then shaken otiT, is no 

ivaft^ or *' catch- chaff," to the fossil gum ; and longer attracted, but on the contrary is repelled. 

it ii by no means certain, as suggested by Sir Da- But if the light body be touched with the finger. 

Til &ewster, tbA the Greek name itself may not it is then placed in a condition to be immediately 

ifrom<XjcM,toattract,and^p((, ahairorfila- attracted again by the glass. A stick of resin 

or^jMov, aleaf. This singular property of or sealing wax rubbed with dry flannel will be 

was regarded merely as a curious isolated found to produce the same result as the gloss 

te; nor were the phenomenon of crackling tube; but if the two electrics be applied one on 

Mks emitted in removing the clothing from the each side of the suspended pith ball or feather, 

Wj, and the exhibition of animd electricity ob- and at a short distance from it, the light body is 

■md in the torpedo, considered as matters tliat observed to be attracted toward one, and when 

isridprove of any considerable interest or impor- repelled to be instantly attracted by the otlier; 

!■« to mankind. Not until the investigations of and thus it will continue to fly backward and 

kGObert, of Colchester, England, made about forward between the two, nntil the excited con- 

fttTsar 1600, had any progress been made to- dition of both bodies disappears. The elcctri- 

%mcfaicidatiDg or classifying these phenomena, city excited by glass is tlius found to bo of a 

ffaddmg to their number. He found that a large different quality from that excited by resi n. M. 

Kited like amber Du Fay, who made this discovery in 1738, dis- 



of substances were excited 

If ftiction and attracted light bodies, that their tiuguished these by the names of vitreous and 

-'^ of doing this was greater in cool dry resinous electricity, which names still continue 

than when the air was warm and moist, in use. Dr. Franklin gave the name of positive 
that many other substances were apparently electricity to that called vitreous, and negative 
Aant in this property. The publication of to the resinous. These are now sometimes rep- 
lb e^Mriments directed the attention of other resented by the symbols +, plus, and — , minus. 
lUaaofphers toihe subject, and this soon became (The theories of Du Fay and Dr. Franklin are 
■a of the most interesting and popular fields more fully discussed in the article ELKCino-MKOt- 
tf identific resefurch. Kew discoveries were nstism.) If the silk used to rub the glass \>Q'^t^- 



•e&tedtoiheplthUn,itwnibefoimdtoaetlike tequentlj hMidt 1 1st of cUetrici or ii 

iheresin; ana the tUonel med to rob this wfl] bo tori| is shellac or i haps gotta psrdia^ 

Iband In the same wst to poMess the same kind which follow •oiuor, vue resina, solpbnr, wa: 

of eleotricitj as the glass. Heoce, In the derel- glass, miciL gems aod rariooa miDtrala, 

opmoit of elecCricttjr by fHctioo, one kind is wool, hair, feathers, paper, baked wood, 4be. 

foimd to be produced in the electric, and the a costing of moistare upon these reodeni 

other in the material used as a rubber, and the ooodactors, as a coating of wax or rMioow 

same quantity of electricttjr in each. In the nish upon the snrfiu^e of the bodies das* 

mnltttiide of bodies which may become electri- conductors deprires them of their charaets 

cally excited by being rubbed together, it b not property. An example of the immense i 

always obvious which will possess the ritreous ences which are found in the capacity c 

and which the rennoua electricity. The nu- rarious conductors to oouTey electridtT h 

merous experiments that hare been tried, how- resented in the comparison of iron wire 

ever, seem to have dereloped sotne laws which water, the resistance to be oreroome in n 

determine this result Oi two bodies thus ex- through an inch of the fluid being Iboad 

dted, that whidi radiatea heat most readily as- to that experienced in trarenring 400,00 

aomes the positiTe electricity, and the other the times the distance of the wire. The Tel 

negatircL SUtct rubbed upon lead b positiTely of electricity alooff good conductors has 

electrified, but if upon iron, which radiates heat variously eitimated by difEsrent experimei 

better than silver, it takes negative electricity, some making it to exceed that of lij^t i 

and iron the positive. But thb may be reversed passsge thrmigh the atmosphere. The 

in bodies of neariv the same radiatins power, dple of the movement b as obscure in tK 

in case the one radiating best b heated, and its case as in the other, as b oar knowledge < 

aorftce b quite rough. Bnrfsoes which are un- nature of the forces themselves. In a row d 

•veil, so tllat the oarticles are considerably dis- balb suspended near each other the exe« 

tnrbed in the ruboing, incline to take the nega- electricity contained in one b transmitted l 

tive electric!^ ; thus, when a rough and a smooth next by poceptible movement of the pari 

ribbon are rubbed across each otW, the former b As the distance which separates the panic 

negativelv and the latter positively electrified. A diminished, the capadty of rapidly ooavi 

blMsk ribbon nibbed upon a white one becomes electricity b increased ; but when the par 

negative, the suriaoe probably being more rouffh. are brought into contact, no movement d 

— ^In the experiment of touching the pith ball with kind b apparent to the senses. 60 it b pei 

the finger, its dectrical property b found to be that the mind faib to coticei ve the mode by 1 

instantly removed, so that it becomes indtfibrent the particles of air transmit the shock bet 

in its attraction either to the gUts or the resin ; the electric cloud and the earth, or those of 

touched with a metallic rod held in the hand, tallic wire through a long line of it, at the 

the same effect b produced. But the ^aas or it msy be, of more than 100.000 miles in 1 

resioous rods do not thus strip it of its dectri- o«»d ^ time. — Various machines are in m 

dtr. A difference in bodies is thus noticed as generating and collecting electridty by frU 

to their propeny of conducting electridty, and A common form of these b a hoUow cy] 

a distioctioo b established between those which of glsas made to revolve upon a horiacmcal 

are good and those which are bad conductors, against a ctishion or rubber stuffed with hi 

It b ihb facility of rapidly conducting away wool and covered with soft l#ther. A iU 

electridty that prevents many solid bodies from oiled nik, attached by one edge to the ru 

being regarded as electrica» though all of them paases from thb over the upper soriace e 

nuLj be made to develop dectrictty by fri^on. cylinder, upon which it rests, the object of 1 

A metallic rod or tube provided with a handle bto prevent the dissipation of the vitreous 

of glass or resin may be made like the ^aas tridty as thb b carried over from the n 

tube to develop electricity, its escape wing by the revolution of the cylinder. The si 

checked by the non-cooductiog glass, which b b furnished by means of a chain attached I 

said to insulate the metal Bodies which thus rubber and leading to the fioor or to the t 

act as poor conductors are called insulators, but The rubber b tlius not insulated, and the 1 

the dijtfii^ion )ietwee& them b only in degree, oos electridty exdted in it b not ordinarily 

fihellar, atuber, resin, glass, brimstone, dec, may lected for experiments, as is the vitreous. 1 

be called either good insolaturs or poor coiidoct- effected by means of a smooth metallic cjl 

om The same bodies alio differ in their con- placed upon a solid glass W, and extd 

ducting propenv by slight changes in their paraUel with the glsss cylinder and abo 

compudtMHi, and bv change in their stmcinre, mches from it on the side opposite to the 

such as b caused by change of temperature ; ber. lu ends are hemispherical, tliat no 

thus glass b made a conductor by being heated tricity msy be lost by escaping from sharp • 

to rsdoees, and vegetable bodies are changed to It b hoUow, as weight aod tolidity are 1 

Doa-coodocton by being deprived of their moistr service, electricity at rest occopjing oelj 

vre. The metab are the most perfect conduct- surfaces of bodies. Thb portion of the 1 

on, aod then follow charoual, graphite, sdine ratos b called the prime conductor. The 

and animd fluids, ores, water, snow, animal tricity dis(*hsrged from beneath the oiled a 

UmIsc^ ^ka The worst oondnoCor, which ouo* recdved upon roetallio pointy a row of « 



ELEOTBIOITY 61 

project like the teeth of a rake from the side of chines are sow generally constracted in this man- 
dM eoDdactor, and point toward the glass cjlin- ner. The dbk is set upon a revolving axis in a 
an ineh or thereabout below the silk flap, frame, the cross piece of wood over the npper 
derelofpment of electricity is greatly in- edge of the disk supporting a donble robber, De- 
ed by the application of an amalgam paste tween the two parts of which the edge of the disJc 
to the snrfikoe of the rabber, and also, as Dr. revolves, and another pair of similar rubbers are 
Tsaday recommends, by impregnating with it secured upon the base or platform, and by a 
the alk fliqju It is made of 1 part of tin and 2 screw are made to press between them the lower 
of merenry, nuzed with tallow or lard to form edge of the disk. A flap of silk passes from each 
a aoft paste. A better preparation is to melt 2 rubber in the direction of the revolution of the 
OB. of zine and 1 of tin in a crucible, and then disk, covering each side of it, and extending 
m 6 OS. of mercury. It is to be well nearly one quarter of its circumference, where 
in a box until cold, ground to powder in it meets the collecting points of the prime con- 
>, and then mixed with lard. The paste ductor. This is secured to a strong glass sup- 

be thinly spread and occasionaUy renew- port, which projects horizontaUy firom the 

od. The glaas cylinder and all the apparatus frame on the side opposite the winch or handle, 

■Bit he kept dean and free from dust, and its and then bends around like two elbows so as to 

iAoBocy will be increased by some method of present an extremity to the surface of the disk on 

h eq ana it warm and dry, as by making the two opposite edges. The arrangement is va- 

yriraratffi which support the rubber and prime riously modified in different machines. An 

eoadactor boUow iad open at the bottom, the enormous machine, with a plate 11 feet in diam<« 

itod being made double so as to admit a small eter, was in the Panopticon in Leicester sauare. 

daoiiol lamp under each pillar. By such a con- London. The quantity of electricity developea 

fcifnce the machine may be made to operate increasing with the size of the plate, the pow- 

■liifrctorily in a state of the atmosphere which er of this machine is probably greater than that 

wder ordinary circumstances is unfavorable for of any other ever constructed. Dr. Ilare of Phil- 

te ezlubition of electrical phenomena. As the adelphia contrived a very neat form in which the 

dwiUititj is excited by turning the cylinder, its disk was made to revolve horizontally. Other 

f imm ce is immediately indicated in the prime substances have been used instead of gloss for the 

wodnctor by the divergence of a pair of pith disks, as pasteboard soaked in copal or amber 

ItDs fOflpeDded by a conducting thread, as one varnish, and coated with the same ; wood has 

tf SneDfihHn a curved wire fastened to the also been made into disks, and gum lac has been 

tap of this conductor. Excited by the same applied in the same way. A machine of great 

load of electricity, they repel each other. By power was made in Brussels of a web of var- 

■ mu ting the kiiuckle to a brass ball, which nishedsilk, 25 feet long and 5 feet wide, revolv- 

■ eomiaionly attached by a stem to the con- ing-upon two wooden cylinders covered with 

imsoFj a spark is drawn from it which is both woollen serge. As the cylinders were made to 

MB and felt. "When highly charged, a succes- revolve by the exertions of 4 men, the silk 

im of sparks may be taken off with great passed between 2 cushions, each 7 feet long 

apifity to any either neutral or negatively ex- and 2 inches in diameter. These were covcrea 

dhd body brought near to the knob ; or if with the skins of cats or hares, and could be 

Acre be points or sharp edges upon the con- made to press more or less upon the silk. Tlie 

Atttor, the electricity will be seen escaping into sparks produced by this machine were 15 inches 

Af air in brushes of faint light. The electric long, and no one was inclined to receive one of 

ia accompanied by a sort of explosive them except upon the shoulder or elbow. — 

with a display of considerable force. Phenomena have been frequently witnessed 

produced in water contained in within the past few years in New York and 



■Uit w 



it when produced in water contained in within the past few years 
aitoQOg glass tube to burst this with violence, other places in the northern portion of the 
ktbis and its zigzag dartings it exhibits its re- United States, a notice of some of which by 
ce to lightning, which is in fact the same Prof. Loomis may bo found in the " American 
enon upon a largo scale. It is accom- Journal of Science" (vol. xx\'i., July, 1868). 
with heat, and appears sometimes in one Persons, especially children, wearing dry slip- 
Bother of various shades of violet, blue, pers with thin soles, and a silk or woollen dress, 
red. and yellow, and is sometimes a in a warm room heated to at least 70°, and 
white. From the discoveries of Dr. covered with a thick velvet carpet, often be- 
ASnieri of the transmission of infinitely small come so electrically excited by skipping a few 
— "~c particles, when a spark is produced be- times across the room with a shuffling motion, 
S metallic bodies, and of a concave in- and rubbing the shoe upon the carpet, that 
km made in each of them, he concludes sparks are produced on their coming in contact 
the beat and light of the spark proceed with other bodies ; and on their presenting a 
L the ignition and combustion of the parti- finger to a gas burner yet warm, the gas may 
Ai of ponderable matter, and that these are be ignited. Sulphuric ether has been thus in< 
•|HiBeCed in opposite directions. For the glass flamed, and in dry cold weather sparks half an 
%Cid^a circular disk of plate glass, J or f of inch in length have been given forth by young 
Ifcfadi thick and 2 to 8 feet or more in diameter, ladies who had been dancing, and pulverized 
Eubfidtutedf and the most efficient izui- resia has been thus inflamed. Eleclncvly \& 



C2 ELECTRICITY 

fiUn p-rcrtito-l \>T ih(* %uiim r^n;in;* fntin i^fotinrl tn^iMlif^oront. Arcon]inf;ai«t)ioM"tJaBb 

Ixti'.fp* iinpir ,;in{r ti{«>»Ti )i:inl su^.^i am ■•■<*, an in thut of r(H»liii^ ur nf hvatiiif;. The eflVrct a n^ 

l»Av«:Rjr t!triMi::h In-nt iri>n t;l^l•^ iiliirh t*-nm- |m>m:(1 Uil»oi>wingUi thu molecular rhmnicewblih 

nito in jit* i>r Mnall iiriHt'i'sui' Uix u4«ihI. TIif<io tho tnotal csiK'ni'tirvsliy cbangv of temprratvik 

rccvivc 'iiii* kill'! lif «.\rtrii itv \un»t runiiiiniilr Other t-ItH'triCAl iilii*iioinvnA have niil<i<nHqHh 

tiiv ttc;:iiti\i I. Aiitl t!i** iN-ili-r, if in^ulntfil, h W^n exhilutei! by tliin mcthtiil of vicitation, aili 

foiiinl til I •■ ( !inr^i-l u itli t^o o'Jicr. T)ii<i otVcrt, tht* prtJiIuctton of ••parkif viviMo in the dajligjh^ 

Boor.ii:.^' t<i tliv itiVf>!i^-Hthi:i!( i>f I 'r. Farmlav. ii the (U'ruiii|KHiiinn of wati-r. &r., cause Ihufciv 

i*i(Jiirf<! ]>y till* fr:>-tiiiri nf (!io ]iurtii-li.'«i of wator of cloctridtv tulni now rcgan)e<l as noC <liflM|g 

in t!.o •-li-.iiii i:{rtin th«' tliM'liarjiiir; tuV*-. A from that f^cnv rated by mure familiar ncChod^ 

mji-hi:ic hii/» i-Mn^tru'^Ntl for tfu- {I'lvu-i-hnic T.'te i-K-ctrir etiiiirk wa* olitaiiie<l by Prof. IIcvj 

iii^^.diti-'ti i:i I.iiii«iifi. M it*i a UiiU-r b'% t\xl Iimg nnil IVof. Whi*nt^ton«*in I'^nT with aamaO eyll^ 

niu\ '■: iv\'\ i]. a- 1 liter, of tin- 0>riii-h I'onu, with Oriculbiindleof S-lclomcnLHof hiionuthaDd 

t!io Tirf t!ir\!n>tr in iIp* I'liiUr. from which inony, | of un inch in diameter, and ) uf an 

•I*:irk.« nre •■'.Tairii-il *J'J ir.i*}ie<« long, ami tki lar^o lon^*. — Klertririty i^ than obtaine«l by T 

and ra|>i-l in thrir •<t>ri-r— inn as U* :ip;»car like a mrthodi', and in«ulated iKidies may be obAr]|ii 

riintiiit:> ■!:« fl.i!n>.>. < *ne of tluM.' MWalu*tl hydro- with it by l^ein^ bron^ht in contact with ihceiM" 

c'livtrii* nia<'!.ini*-« hre* b^vn i'Mii«:nk''.oil at tlio durtur, either din.*i'tly or through a chain, wlv^ 

fui ii!:y of y' ii ii.-o in Tariv It is pro>idc«l with (Tothercondui'tii-ft N^dv. IiMleeditainflacoeail 

H'i jitf* for the ( ^1 Lift* «-f the ^teuni. The cjiarks felt u{Min NNlif;* arouna that are nut in contMl 

ft inn bfL h.-iiit yi-* of tiro by tluir raiiid hUoc«.*<- with the elertritud conductor, an U fthoWB by 

BJoTi. Karh •jiiiric i- aUmk a fimt in K-nj^th, brintrin^: neir to this an iuMdatc**! metallic bod|f, 

aii'I !K\ir:i! im !i-« in l>rinilth. Elei-trii-ity ii a« a cylinder, u|>4 in wliich K'Veral iiain of pw 

ni<<ri-iver i|i'Vi-!"Jn.>1 dirin^ i!ie ehan;;rik whifh balU are !tu«iK*ndiMl by linen threa«l*(. An W^ 

b> •<!.«-« tinhr;*'! in niec}.ii!iti-.tl structure, and in trieul ixcitenient i« acen by the divergent flf 

otiit'r* ]>rt-liitM by rhi-niiiAl action; us, f^r theM* balU !•> l»e iinme«liatFly inducrfl; aad ft 

i\.ki!i;>!>\ Ml.ih •>f:]]i!i*ir. wax, and other iMHlic^ will l>o f«Mind that thoKe Mi«|iended acrcaa tte 

Lt\rr U.t.k' iiii-I''«l. ntiirn t>» a «"!id »tate on end nearest the prime ciindurtor are afftctll 

c •••iii>^'. «\}.i:i k'..-«< ur«- di^niTitfed, anil va|N>n i»ith the opipo^ite elei-tririty fnim that of tks 

bre e>"!vrl . fri<tii t).e leavt-Hof li>ii:^ |>l»nt4 ail condni'tttr, and thl'H^ at the renint^ eiKl bj tks 

tlif^y diM!)/:i::<* i'\\pMi anil rar^H>iiir ai'id ; and Baine eKi-trieity. Tlio eliTtricity that waa^ii* 

a!-«i fr> 111 ih-ioiiii-^inj >r;:i-t:il>!v niattt-rs. Ah i«cvnt in tho bo*ly thn» ap|K'fln to hare Maa 

rapul :iio:i'<n nnd friit; ^n develop it. the fallinjc di«tiirl-e«l bv its proxiTnity to another h^gh|f 

<•! r.iin n:iil h.iil a:id th<- bhiwin*; of the wind (h:ir^i-il. an«^ tliat i-ortiim whieh «a#of an o^ 

may |.r< ■••!.• e il in the et.i<rn)i>M« ({'lantttifs in ]Ki<kiti- nalun* to the di*itnrbing aironi i« dimWB 

whieli ii i« ^'i-n* Tiitiil in thi* utriiii<«|ihere. and ti»wuril it, mIjiK' lliiil of the Kinie nature ia 



by v\aj.ira:i' :i *t;*.l ni":v in:»y Ite dt.\e)tr|>i-d by jkIUJ. Ihtwrmthe two txtrt-niitii-* i« 

till-*-' i!!;» •;'J.' ri-* n.!!-.:triii». Ai an vxani^>lc where no eKftrii-al »■ \rite!!:«".t i-nli^iilayi^l. 

of the a!:i>>-i!.l ^"Tiii^iiiii-* |>ri**!(ii cil ill I':,- utnMi**- iiheiioriifnon ii r.illid eln'triral induct inn. || 



|ih*n'. ii J* •':.k!i-l Ui l.i\i: k'-t'-nr'i " Travi!-* in 1* !:|Kin tlii-i'rinei|tli' tliat tho apfiaratu* fori 

Ni':*h Afrit V •]• I ^Ci that the hut wtiii! Hhirh Ici-tiii^ and rituiiiin^ lar^'e t|uai.titie« ef eltctll* 

bli • i\ » ir.r II. L* !'<-•! ^^ m :k^iii«ii\« ril.rdi -^vrt from rity !<« ba<>i-i1. T!te Ui»"-i n\ii\\']v form of It la A 

i.i-rih !•• «<'if!i "1^ ill «.i' ti aii c!>i-trii* Mute t!iat ynuv of k'*-i*'> co:itt il fU Uith ^ii!f4 with tin fc^ 

a I :.i:' h ••!' • >!r.. It fi-a! .• r^, },• \.\ a lew »-eoiiiii w::}i t!ie txr^ptiiin uf a niarinn of an inch Ift 

a;.*:;!! «t it. 1*^ Ik-* :l^ -rr-ii/lv < liarL'fd &•» if wi^lth all arfiind. ( >:.e -ide of ih:« iH-in^r |Jaeat 

:4!t rf.r-1 t<i -i }-"-Ai r: .1 « M t-*.:ti':i! iii:iihi!j«*. and upt>:i i^iiiiK'ii'ndiii'tin^Uidy r>irnmunii'ating widi 

I ] •«; *' th«*u'!-. nn' ^!>*r !i.i:ii] \« :!li a-h^rprraikliii^ thi> tithir, ami t!ie orhrr ^idi* l«>in^ c«>nnecMA 

K •'.:?.•! " Itv II ]i:'!<' l'ri< !:••!> :h< f irof thi- n..ir.tle4 witii the i hrtr,:M «< nilmtiir. the latter Mde b Ik 

Worn : y :hi- l /.\t"*/.\»* '••a a !i;ri:iiiitiiiiu|ipvar- ■Hlfthurk'ed Mit!i tin- 1 h rtriii'.y of the roodiiclai^ 

a:. ■ It ;« j>r'»!i:>>«! i \« :• bv t. e ni<>tiiin com* w}.i!e the :ni t:i!!:<- •- a!ir ii i;n tlie othi r mJ* b^ 

nn:M-M;i-! i'l ri- ;:(.!?. n':d ;\r\\ *>!ii^'\«itht!iehund i-I'M'-o at :he - t:iuti*i:i-t hAr)^.iI u ilh the fk|ip«Mili 

ca :»4 <• »jijr'i. ■» ii!.il <1'.-!:t.' '. » t%\ ■•.;i?j..li- t'» \n: efi.lT- e!«.'trii'i!,* . Uy tl.i' l;i« ihod ih.ir;:\'«i of < liTtrid^f 



t»«I I»r. II ifci-r .■'••^■r-. • d Mii-.Iir |>!iei.«i;:i«;ia ninv bf u.«iMini'..:«i j -••]»« tI:i'Ma! to the 

d :r:i«; :i <- •■« •>'■ -nii ••:! iU'ii N«v:« in 1*'2>'), t!iO of n:t-t.il!.'' "V.rfu'.* ». T!.e |>nn> 4 niay be mnk^ 



!!■ '.'.. 1'^ I ii-".'./ .1 !;i--i':;:««niii ! iri ih>' :iir. arid jbtd i:. i;'.nilKr. u:.it iiia'!- t«» r.it an one by 

t'T". '.. .^ !h." 1.1 r "f Tlr*' ::h tid-r* of lu^ T-'*'"*/- t-ftJij^ ar! !)ie if.-::!.i:»^l «r ui-jnt ri«tir^bTA 

!>■ ••.I.— :■ .I'.'!' rf.i -- 'A .r-'.-^-iIth* "amt^ilTrt t^ pi- I r.!:'!i:i ••■r \* .'Ii t)..i'. r n.iiiiit.i -at^nx vllk 

o;. M- :;t II: *. m w. 17» 7 -H:..i! w:^^ *i'.\>ii"KA tin* j riine «•.'!. •; '.• t.-r. avd »!'. t" r olht-r »un 



t.t ^m- :. :■. i!:..r •.•ifi! T; ••! «Ii«!r.«:!v » ;i* fir«»l bv '^j-i.ti.! r ;:■ -••! . i'.ib:i!"r w ith that Ctmtmui^ 
41^ •.-■...; I. » It > -« !•«' Ui-^M r'.i'i.nij 1 naritid 1 y » A:: j: n :!!i ibi- pr^uiid. Thi' trndeficy i^ 



I*;. I « >, r«'i.! t'le :*.■ rr ii vlt ■v.-al •■■irn :i!. It !w • • In !rii"it!r* ll.i* »' rTiiir:lnl*t| i» to 

i«I r -1 . el u h. :i » -.v i j i. • ,m ..f nii'.il j .ii.o! t.- t. ,:.■:* » r, :i::d t!.S thi-y d.. iii<>!.)nia!>ctit:«!y w^fS 



i:.-^h. r I*. '-"i'J. I .'i-:* afi- In'ft?- d 'T I • ■ !• d -: . • f "f a i« [ .!;:t'.l:j/ n<«>Ii:M:i it j ri-»«-nlr«! t»i 

V <.').•.' :.-. II o . IT. It! i'.:i?..i'. *!j% i!* j ri--^ T'.f i 'i; ninn nict!.» ! if Ti ^T.-nniT thrir r^jtiilik* 

er. .\\ I ,. ;'v !hi' irisvu !.- i. •••!!•■ ti i!< \ .j!4 ri'.ni \% \\ ii i a!.- I'f a *!■•;.! »ire i-r r***!, 

/"> oi ..'f/A.^*. ;.<>/.. The directiuu uf the current a nietoll.c ki.vb at ca- h ci.d, the wira b^-nt 




ELECTRIGITT 63 

tuned hj a binge to the proper earvatore, and its under snrfoce the solid earth. THienever 

MHiiigtbrovigfaagiaashandleybj which it is held, cither the stratum of clonds above or the earth 

TUiitcaDed a discharging rod. A chain will ef- below becomes charged with one kind of elec- 

feet the kame porpose, or the discharge may be tricity, the opposite kind is induced in the other, 

tikeQthroiightfaebodybjpresentingonehandto and the same tendency is manifested of these 

cadi warhce of the glass ; and if any nomber of two electricities to rush together and neutral- 

poMMia Join bands, and the two at the eztremi- ize each other, as is observed in the electrilied 

■ent a band one to the upper and the other coatings upon the glass; and if with our im- 

lower sorfaoe of the glaasw the shock will perfect apparatus, covering a few square feet 

' r pMB throogb them all. Instead of panes of surface, we can produce effects so startling, 

it m ibnndmore convenient to use wide- we may the better appreciate the terrific pow- 

id fAan bottles or jars, which are coated er gathered upon surfaces adapted for accumu- 

Uda and oat nearly to the top with tin foil, lating electricity, extending over areas of many 

•re called Leyden jars, from having been square miles, and charged by the action of the 

naed by Ifoaschenbroek and others at Ley- most powerful agents in nature. A particular 

m 1746. A coTer of baked wood is fitted quality of this natural electricity, common to it 

one, and through the centre of this a and the machine electricity generated by fric- 

liMTiwI penifMi nr nrl j tn tnn bnttnm^ im'tb irhirih tion, is its intensity, or its property of violent 

i eonaecia br a short chain ; its upper end ter- action. In this it differs from the electricity 

in a brass knob 2 or 8 inches above the generated by the galvanic battery, which is 

A number of these arranged together, distinguished for the mildness of its character, 

knobs at the top being connected by while the quantity is remarkably large. The 

a chain, and the outer coatings being natural electricity obtained by friction has been 

bcoogfat into communication with each compared to the heat developed in a bar of red- 

r by good oondoctors, constitute an elec- hot iron, while that produced by chemical ac- 

kMbitttery, and this is charged from the prime tion is more analogous to a larger quantity of 

floodaetor bj connecting one of the knobs with caloric difiused through a vast body of water, 

k. With a battery of this kind, the metallic The common electricity also, after being accu- 

of which amounted to 225 square feet^ mulated, has the property of remaining for a 

jed bra powerful deotricsl machine con- considerable time m an excited condition, and 

by Van Marum at Haarlem, Holland, for this reason has been called statical or re- 

dboekBofflocIi power were obtained that apiece posing electricity, in contradistinction to that 

tf boxwood 4 inches long and 4 in diameter was generated by the battery, which exists only 

KBt tpart, and the report produced was so loud while it is evolved, and for this reason is termed 

■ to Stan the ear, while the flash dazzled the current electricity. In most of the instances 

i|a with its brilliancy. The heat generated in which electricity is applied to useful purposes 

VM 10 intense that a small iron wire about yi^^ the violent shock is not what is required, but 

tf as inch thick and 25 feet long was fused into the feeble and continuous action of the galvanic 

nd-bot globules, which scattered in every di- current. It is consequently in the description 

nctkxL A piece of tin wire y^ of an inch thick of this form of electricity that the practical uses 

lid 8 inches long disappeared in blue smoke, of this agent will be treated. One use of the 

^oboles of melted tin at the same time falling machine, however, may be noticed in this place, 

^oa a piece of paper and repeatedly rebound- When a shock is passed through strips of gold 

^ ICagnetism was also developed by the leaf placed between slips of window gloss, the 

Aoek, so that polarity was given to steel bars gold is melted and driven into the pores of the 

rfi inches in length, nearly \ an inch wide, and glass. On this principle metallic colors are im- 

Aof an inch thick. The machine which pro- pressed in ornamental figures upon silk or pa- 

■iBid these effects was constructed of two per. The design is first cut out as in stencil 

of glass, 5 feet 5 inches in diameter, set plates on a piece of thick drawing paper, and 

tbe same axis, and provided with 8 rubbers, this being laid between a piece of gold leaf and 

cf which was about 15 inches long and 2 the object to be impressed, and the whole 

wide. Bodies 40 feet distant were sensibly placed under a weight and the shock passed 

d by the electricity excited by tliis ma- through the gold ledj portions of this are pro- 

and pointed wires 28 feet distant directed jected through the lines of the design, and fixed 

_ \ tbe conductor were tipped with a star of upon the ground intended to receive them. By 

feift; and when ametdlic ball communicating the shock various chemical compounds may be 

iKthe ground was presented to it, a brilliant decomposed and gaseous mixtures 8ei)arated, 

of light 2 feet or more in length darted and their elements made to assume now coni- 

vlu a adgzag motion, throwing luminous binations ; but these plienomena are better ox- 

_» of K^t into the air.— It is interest- hibited by the battery, and will therefore be 

to observe the close relation between the described in another article. — Statical electrici- 

oC i^asB partiaJly covered with metallic ty is developed in some cases by other agencies 

and the arrangement of the natural as well as by friction, as by pressure and heat. 

' e perfectly conducting atmosphere, The mineral Iceland spar is especially remark- 

_ _ing to the glass, overlaid with the able for the electrical excitement occasioned in 

ofdoads of vapor and touching by it -when & rhomh held in ono hand by il^ \*v« o 



64 ELECTRO-DYNAMICS 

owMi^ito t-Asc^ !• tr.TifliH Tip^n two of il* pnr- prmont the former is Ibo comprther* 

all 1 1 tiw-i-^ )*} x)iv tiiik'i-r-> tif t)if cihcr hiin«l. IW- which incliiJo*! whtttcvcr b«:Iong« lo ih 

in^' tli«M !tili) niiir tlif •-innll iifrillc of tho rlor- rnl current KenvratiMl by thu voUua 

tr<i^-«'|H- dill ii}«truM.riLt !■• ti> hi-ri-Mtt-r ni*tu'i-<]), battery, the thcniio-elwtric circle tT i!i 

thi> luiiH ral i« ^-hown I** !•«• vxiitol by vitmnir* iiioirnct. I'dJiT thohvadii TiiKKMik-Kir 

tlirtritl!v. A ntiinU r of ■•tbt-rrr\Ma]!(. SLN tbiiir Klu-tk(»-Ma<]Nktis\i, aud Mai.neto K 

rpur. ti>]>:i/^ in'u'iK arm:* tiiif, A'c. all «>f « liirh tt, tlio last two will Iw re«|ivrtivoly t: 

ar« r:i|iaMf iinxiiik' < 1* .'kViil iiitti l:iii)in:iMi}aiji. Tho dift'ovcry of thid form of ricotr 

ffot tltf ^atiii- pr*>|>«rty. Thf i It i-tricity thiiii bocii rt-fcrri-d tt» in tlio article Am Mi 

«]«*vili •{■«•• I !ift'« U-tii fti'-iml to ri>iitiiino, ns ihh tkicitt. It is iiiaiiifi*ste«l in tlio ihi 

tii-«i! by lliiay, fur 11 tbi^-* without ili*>{K-rMiin. tion of f>ub>tanci'4 uinm each otlu-r; 

^Vhi n !w>i ■>nf «!;U)rf < Are i<rc«-Kil t'icitlur. tho exliibiti-U, it ii true, unlcssi Hiu^ht l'i>r. 

fit I trii-iiy i« «!• \«'l>i|ii'il only i*ri thi.ir Mji.trA- iJiaiiifi-<ct!, even when it is ik> fi'«'b!o 

tii'ii. uikI in i>tii* it i^ vi;n**iii'« and in tho I'thi-r vKrtrical vxciti-mcnt pnxluretl i<i itAfi.! 

rf«>in>*i>. K'n trii-ity i-^tniiutl by hmt ii ti- tion; witiu^.H the hlitrht h\nH:k U* iK 

hibiti*! u:«i> \'\ A \»ri«tvi*f iiiini-raK iiitd i-^fK.- ti?«tFue,cauMM(;Mi(Mvucuntractii>n, whi-i 

ciallv \'\ r!ii' I r\ «!al ff tucnnalifjc Whi-ni'\cr eiit im-tal!! iilucvtl ouv bvltiw and tho otK 

hf tiiiipi r.itnrv rliaiiji"'. ihttririty U ixcitid the ttaipio, or afrain>t thv inner ftsirtui 

in it. ui ■•rici:iil ff thi* |Ki«i!ivo and in tlio lip, arc bniii^ht in contai't at tficir i-i!^ 

othiT ff ti.f iHv'utivo kiinl. If tho rhan;!i' of Miliva in this cohb acts chuiiiii'iilly i.; 

tt-iiifit r:iTiiri- \* rapitlly priHl-:rvi!, tho vb-rtri- metal, prtKlucing in the one iim-t Htfr* : 

city i« oi :!)'.• it lit ly iiitc-tiM' (• I utrr.i«-t li^dit U^liot oUii or no^nitivo olertririty, anti in t! 

ti» ihi* *i:rfaiv nf tho rr* *tii!. Whon the crv*tid vitreous* Tho funiier i-* aniilMjuiM tn 

i« ajlonktil (•• (••*'! :itA«-r l>«irik' hvat«-d, (h«> rUt*- Wr in the dortrica] niachiui', uii^l i- ( 

trit-iTy ilc\i l<i{H •! at c.ii h ritrrinity in tho op- gi'Merutinf^ plate; tho othi-r, uii«wirii: 

tMi»:!o'iif t!iiit iiiui;iu-*>sd during tho boat in l*. — prime con juctor. iri callo«l I ho conibi*:. 

In r»»ii'l'i« W'.'.j: i \iNriiiK-iii* in ibitricity, a vu- Tho prouto«tl ctloct in priKluceil xiht-n il- 

n«-t,^ iif i;iMr>inu-iti« h:ivf \m%n intriNliici^d in pM>d ci>nductopt) the one itf rapiiily u> 

CiaiiM-i-ti'-n H itli ll.o ii::ti-!iin«-. •^•1110 i*f wliirh« an by tho fluid which wots thoni. and th«- o 

cK« tri»iiit-t« r. rlrilriiplii«rM-, ibrtnrMvijM*. Ao., a nature tube lir^atTor [«•«). Twn *:i'"I. j 

may priijH r!y U> n<i(iri-«l in their alphaUtioal adlo«l a frulvnnie pair ; tho torni <-!• !;.« 

p!a<v ill ihi'« ikurk, t!ii*M.rh fir tltrir full di* plied M»niotinio*tto thepair, or moro k*< i 

Khptii'M lf:f n iwliT niu*i l^Mik ti» hihio of tho <ineof thoolatc-^. Th«'yarocontn)cii!y «•! 

maiiy :iM*' ••{•iriul triafi'**^ r.{Min t))i?« ^ubji-rt, and one of i\ip|ii'r, silver, or pl.it:iii:!it. 

aiM>>:ik' «].:•-*) !!::it bvSlrhavi'l nri-wa^ti-r )i>>ldH are inimirM.Hl in wutor niiinl uitii • 

an iiiii">r*.iiit vaiX, anil tis- fiiriii^hotl nio^t of arid. Thoy aro allowi-il tutouth k-:v h i* 

the iiia*« r:;i".- !".»r thf II. any 1 oiiipilali'in*. Tho aU»vethoiiurfaivi>f the tin id. or i !.<•:« ai! 

Trtntf *.'#• V'^frfri^i'r th"»ri.j\f ft %ij'pfufUt€ ly touching, a w iro of aiiy h-iik''li i:.:»y 

(I*uri% l"*'* .'•-► ••! M. A. Ik l.i Ilivv pre^nt-* from lai-h ai a otuMnctii;; n.LiIiiim. 

the - ii ii •• •:.•-'. * "i!ij'% T. ]\ \'.i it* hiti »l di vel- whii'h iho i-Ici'tri>.-al cum nt i- traii"!!..: 

opriii ii!->. :iii-l ill iT* iH'Xir:!! dii;ir?i!»tnt«i. An iln ctK'^-t* are deVeb»jn-d u :th i!jo ^,4!;l 

KMk''>i«h rrti.-'.i?i.-n ••!' it. by I'. V. WaiLi-r. F. at their extninitios or tlto in.'.,* if 1 

H. S.. mr.'I"! •■ A Tr. :iii«M- i,?i Kbetriiity in when brnu^ht into contart, a- if ti.e i:; ; 

Thf-ry a:.'! rr:w!:ri'." Ln-* Uxii pul'li-f.i •! (3 of tho 2 plates Wero theni«*Ni-^ Ir--::. 

\i'.-. ^i'». I "is'b'M. I-'- i "'•••I. S-i' al-' Kura- ther. |{y the cont<irt U-ii:^' itTi.tfl .1 

day ■« " Ki;-i :mn Jstikl K« »< .»r. li.Hi.iiKleilrii i!\'' onlinary cai^aL-ity i^ prHlin-*! in t!.i 

(.J i..'» H... |...i,i!..|i. j-u ':.:.i. of acting uiMin the /im* pbi:-*, «!.:!• : 

KI.K«'I K* » 1»YN A.VIIl'*i*ir. ijA#rr^io». ftnd»or, ap|ii*am t<» l^o pro|-irtii'n.ilIy jr. St!, 

ani! ^iMitAii. {■••wtTi. 1 l:o Lin-I i>f e!«-ctri«-ity do- w.iter U deitinii'OM.th ii^ i*\y^*:. i.;.. 

icb'l^d {■> 1::> ti<>n may U* Ltpt •j'lii •H.t'itt. a<4 ar- t}:o riuf*, tho re<»ii!tiric oxiih- 1 f m !.:• i 

rum^:ri!« •! :ri thr I.«'}(!en ;ur, aii'! at any time l*o Nilve«l by the Milpliuhi* a- hI n* a ->..; ) 

ma^iv !■• r:: iT iU< ii.*(Aii:!\ i:-* iii*.4-:.«:ty of aa't^'ii, the hyilr>ik''-n apiii-ar^ in iiiiit:i!i !-■:' : it 

a« %\i* li tt * ilriiMiiti'ik* I "Mi!^ r i« i \{-bf<k<l. Iict, Mirftue of the nt hi r plaU*. Tht^'O I .( 

M d* \i! s« '1 ^ ^ I ^<-" i> .d n-'ti* n, vlec-trii i!v tiiiUullv inrreik'H* in »i/o and «<^a:< ! • 

in U.f fi r!:i i.f a r«i:i-*a!.T 1 ■irrefil mar.iN^ii f:MV. The elei trii.ly i* ^^pJ•«■**■l! 1. N »: 

otS.tr ir-;-r!.'*; ar.! :•* « 'ri' t- art* e\}iil-::> •! oT tho /iht* pl.ite or tlut m--! ft- !• '. ■ 

oljv il'.r.! „• t'.- !'••*! of t!..- 1 'irri ii!. di-apj^ar- Mtil. aii«l t«ipi*' t!Toi:,:!i tho l!...«l f 

ixiiT iri-:^!.*.!) I'll 1:* t f^.vtt.-r:. a« (?.i- li;:h: if t!io ti> lh» ropjKTor ni« tal li'<\<t A!'ir!i<l ! 1 

*un i» 1— t »hin il* r^y- are tiiS .'1 « p'.etl. K!"- ai.-l (hence thrM'.:/!* wh.i!i\tr i»»i. ■!■..■ : 

tn.»-«iyriar . * i* l!.f r.a!.n» a;:-!i^d t.i!h> *'ra:iih tt-riH.^-d l^twn-:* liso ut-j-^r i-^-rv •. • : 

i»f Iho N :i n-e. in . ••ri'.r-nl. •::::• '•••n !■• ili'ir*- (!.at ff !!••• /iuc pla!*-. TSe r.ii- p!.4l* . ■ 

Thr d.»! fi.-*;- n i* I.. !. ! -.wex.r. a ni!i-Iai'.. rr j v. .•*■;..';. u;. ■ .. ...f • .- ^•.■\ r . ,■ -. 

or.r ; a'.d »N:» !^i' f .I'uri' • ? t:.!- * .b'.li- aiTii.l r .••.-■': it !■ %«. » •» •t-#- ;•■•■ -i 

g'ir^/*isc0 t*/ M li:urv vlALt i'l{K/»;tUiQ. i>ut at |.r\».iAr u)*.:^ u.« •t.iif. 



ELEGTB0-DYNAMC9 65 

to be the BOVToe of the electricity, is called posi- in this arrangement has been called the electro- 
tire, and the copper plate, which receives the positive metal, and copper the electro-negative, 

cmreht, negative. Some suppose two cnrrents terms which have merely a relative significa- 

are excited, which pass in opposite directions, tion ; for if potassium were sabstituted for the 

and others believe that the excitement is not of copper, or platinmn for the zinc, the electrical 

the nature of a current at alL If the circuit is properties of the metals would be found re- 

oompletef no evidence of this action is apparent versed. The following table presents the met* 

except the rapid oxidation and disappearance als named in the order in which they stand to 

of the anc, and the production of the hydrogen ; each other when used for electric plates, with 

bat if this be interrupted by the smallest break or the acid mixtures usually employed, as water 

by the interposition of a very fine wire, the with sulphuric or hydrochloric acid. The most 

piaang of the current is manifested, not, as with positive is the first named, tho most negative 

themachineelectricity, by the quality of tension the last. Each one is positive to those which 

which enables it to leap across l^e non-conduct' succeed, and negative to those which precede it. 

ing ur, with an explosive spark, or to pierce an Those furthest separated would consequently 

interposed card or other poor conductor, but produce tho highest electric excitement : 
intense heat is developed at the points where i. Potassiam. d i^wi. lo. Silver. 

the current is partially obstructed. If, however, J- ztnc 7. Copper. n. Antimony. 

T . i • V i.1 1*.' T J J.V 8. (^admlom. 8. Bbtnuth. 12. Gold. 

the number of pairs be greatly multipued, the 4. Tin. ». NickcL 13. Platinum. 

electricity then approaches the character of that &> iron- 

generated by the friction machines. TThen a fine This arrangement, however, is not constant with 
wireof a poor conducting metal is used to form a all fluids, nor always with the same fluid at 
part of the circuit, this is immediately oxidized different degrees of concentration, or at differ- 
lad disappears in vapor. If the break is closed ent temperatures. A number of pairs being 
bj bringing the terminating points in contact, arranged in succession, and tho zinc plate of one 
brilliant sparks are produced ; and if points of being connected by a good conductor to the 
coke or dense charcoal, such as that made from copper of tho next, and so on, tho whole may be 
boxwood, are used for the poles or electrodes of made to act as ono pair with increased effect, 
the circnit, a continuous hght of intense brillian- Enlarging tho size of tho plates also increases 
cy is enutted, even if the poles terminate in a the power. Yolta's arrangement was a pile 
Tacnam, and to some extent also if under water, of disks of copper and zinc, ono of tho latter 
thui evidencing that it is not the offect of combus- being placed at tho bottom, upon it a cloth 
tion. In the passage of the current tbrougli most moistened with some ncid liquor, separating it 
eompound fluids in which the plates are immers- from tho co])per above, on wliich rested another 
ei the fluid is decomposed, ono of its elements, as zinc disk, then tho wot cloth, copper, zinc, and 
the hydrogen, appearing at tho negative, and the so on, the uppermost disk being one of copper. 
«ther' as the oxygen, at tho positive side ; and Two wires, ono from each extremity of tho 
&e same decomposition is eft'ected ifl instead of series, meeting together, complete tho circuit, and 
3iQiner?ing tho plates in the compound fluid, tlio electrical action is excited throughout the whole 
conducting wires anywhere on the circuit are series. On the su[)position of tliero being two 
etch made to terminate in it, but not in contact currents, the electricity developed by the chem- 
with each other. In this case, however, it is tho ical action of tho acid upon tho lowest zinc plato 
TOe attached to the copper which is acted upon ; renders this positively excited, and tho proximate 
■ad that attached to the zinc (now the negative copper nej^tively so. This, in actual contact 
pobbecauseit receives tho current), which gives with another zinc plate, tends to impart to it 
tf the hydrojren. This is the arrangement used directly its own kind of electricity, but tliis zinc 
ht effecting decomposition, and tho interposed disk also, being itself positively excited, trans- 
Teasel in which the compound is placed is caUed mits the nojrative electricity to tho next copper 
fte decomposition cell. It is in reference to tho with an additional charge of its own creating ; 
ihenomena which take placo in this, that bodies and thus the negative current goes on accumu- 
tn distinijnislied as either electro-negative or lating toward tho uppermost copper disk, while 
deetro-positive ; or, according to the nomen- tho positive electricity accumulates in the same 
ditare of Prof. Faraday, as anions or cations, manner in the other direction at the lowest zinc. 
lbs former in the decomposition tend to tho Tho conducting wires, like those of the electrical 
node or positive pole of tho battery, that pro- machine, by coming in contact restore the dis- 
M^ng from the copper plate, and the latter to turbod e(iuilibrium, ono electricity neutralizing 
fte cathode or negative polo of tho battery, tho other. Tliis original arrangement is called 

&ft CkTUODE.) Hydrogen, the alkalies, and the voltaic pile. It was modified, however, by 

metals, appearing at the negative pole of tho Volta himsolt' by the substitution of a liquid for 

kttery, are cations ; oxygen, chlorine, iodine, the inoistcned cloth ; and the plates being ini- 

^vine, and tlio acids generally, tend to tho mersed in this on the sanio principle of their 

«ber pole, and are called anions. But this arrangement in the pile, the ai)paratus is called 

i. ilHfication of bodies must not be confounded the voltaic or galvanic battery, the latter uamo 

irhh their division into positive and negative having reference to Galvani, who discovered 

tith reference to their action when applied in this kind of electricity, tliough he kncAv notliing 

ft« buttery to excite the electric current. Zinc of this modo of developing it. — \\t lias \)Vi<iii V)l- 
voi* vn. — ^ 



(M ELECTRO-DTNAMICS 

rr«dj BtAUM that by inrrmin^ tlio number or Ite cxtcntloil onW to nhnrt dinUncc^ uid thca 

•IMA* »f the |>Iatv4 till' f'ltM-tririil t'tTiTt.4 urc auj{- tliroiif«h the h(*^t comlurtnnt; but if the cnrrtoi 

rm*iit«d. It ii» itiit u iiiatttT nf imhtlVrfin'o, hnw- tiv intvrruptt'il by the inti'rfNMtitiun of fine wirt 

r\i*r. which iif thr%f nifNli!* it ailti|it4-il. It ifl (if |NHir ouniiiictintr nmteriiiL &« irttn, ^eel, or 

fuum! that iiirroiviiii); the aroa of a >tn^*lc |iairof plHtinum, an extra«in1inary di-);r%*e of livat UcW- 

fiUlr4a4l«lAiiit)iL'ra|»aiityofp*iuTatii)f;ht'atevon Vt'hi|if4l. A n'uiurk able bat tvry nf thi» dt-ft*ri|»- 

n ai^atiT ratio than the incrt'OM.' in the Mirfaro tinn « as t'l^^t niaiK- by I>r. I lure nf I^tiilaiMpbil^ 

of the|*lato\ ami at th«' Miiu'tinK'nin|;ni*t«*«eli'c- with whifh lie fns«-il a nunifitT of »ul»«tanr«« 

iririty ia uutw thi*rwii^')ily iK-vi-Iii|ivil; hut the in- U-ltire ri'}:ardiil us iiifuMhlc, iiirhiilini; rharrual ; 

trnaity ofthfcltttrii a)l'>iri'oi«ni>t M-iiMtily atfrtt- |>Iatiiiuni lie iIi.-M*rilti-il a<« running like valcr 

r«l, n<>r it« pii«tTi>f priHldi iii;:i}i« iiiifalrhaii^i.-« uikKt it<« at tiuii. Kurronv^'nienri' uf nKrfn thm 

in biMlit •• iiiiriiilii* 111 ibTm the i-iri'iiit, whit h i*> a platfi wvre arruit^i'«l hi riiiU, the zinc and cup* 

{iru|H'rt> hc-Iiiii;:in^ v* tliat t*nhilititiii c\|>rt"^Mtl i>«'r lK*in^ ^v]i:iruii-il by a }»|ta«H* i*( unly | uf an 

ly ihi- t« rill iiit«-ii*>ity. iiinl nut to thi* other. lU*- intli. Knuii it-* {miwit nf lirndurinf; beat hm 

|M'n<b'iit, It i" NiiiiiMiti'il, un •{(luntity. Km if the f':Uli*tl tliis form of battiTy a raloriniotcir. StBH 

■iw of caih |iair of phitf* riiiitihur the ^anit\ lar hatt^Ticrt h:i\e Mfu'v liet'n made with an cs* 

and their iiuniU r b«* im rL-a^Mt), tho i>h'i'tririty |Hi*<*d afi-a of 4<mi «i|uare feet. Hy r«»nnet*tiiif( a 

drvi-h<|ifd i« niori.' of the niituff of that p>n- nuiiiluT of di^tiiirt blu't-tfi of the haine metal to* 

erati-*) l>y t!io tlniriiul inailiini-, whii'h i-* «lit- ^-thtT liy a k^nnI ronductor. tho i-fiivt ia ptt^ 

tiiiirui*hi-i! I>v it-* «*harai li r of iitti-n-ity, a** i^ dufiilof onv Iar^'«hii't. IK-at isalA«>di*vi-lu|iad 

inanifeotol in iti imiUlt of pi^iii^ ^h'H'k-. and by inrrfaoiint; tlti*!»tren^thof the arid, at leaatop 

uf |ia«*inK' l«* M'liie fxti-iit throii,;h ini|HTfiM-t to a ecrtain iMiint. The chi-nru-al actiun thca 

r«indui-:tir«. It i^ t!ii« furiii of battery whirh irt pK'ii on with fEfi'ater nipidity, anil a pruteir- 

eniiih'jbi'il to flTt-et thfiitii'al dti-onipo^itiitn^. t imi ate truant ity of I'lcrtr ir it r i« iH*t frve. ih% 

That um-iI hy Sir lIiiMi|ihr\ Pa«\ in t!ie e\|i%Ti- dctieit iii-y of thi<( kindiif vlcrtririty in intclidty 

nifnt« whitii re«ulf«-d in L« di-*«-overii-<i of the reiidept it ni'i'e»!«ary, whi-n lite vlTrct ia tu m 

nu'tallii' haM-« of thf alka!i(.« and earthy tun- traxiMiiititHl a oin-iderahliMlittanfe. aft for fiiisf 

•i«tf«l of 'J.iNMt |i:tir!« I'f platv^ with area.^ i-x* charh:!':* untlcr water, or iirnitinir Mrveral rhargas 

ptmed t«> the at lion of tiii.- a> i«N aim Mint iii^ t^i at tiiit'e in hla<»tinkr rtH-ksi, t«> atld a Mrcund bat- 

12\(NH« ^^iiarv ihi ht'*. Vari*ui« ni>Hli^are tt-ry or to inrreaM.* the nuniU-r of the pain of 

»hi|itf«l f<irarrunjin«; tlu'M'|tlati-'\ hut the ]>rin- idate^. The U-»t ti*ndut'tin^ Uiaterial ahoaU 

ri|ile i« the •«;iine m all. The t-ii|i|HT and /ine w Um.iI, and thiA in a wire «if lar^* »i2e. Tba 

plate* i>f i-.M-!i |air are to U- briMi.'ht in t*«niat-t nu-tala lary ^'reatly in their c*at>aiity uf roa- 

dirwil* i-r ihr-'U^'li ilieiin-iliMni ol .k -'ii*"! niet- dutliiii; the i-lntrie furriiit. Their )n»pdr« 

al, whiit i!ie etiiiiMi'iiiii :k!i"ii U-twvinthe /iiii* tional %alui* in thi^ ri'<i*«.-i t i-* n | re<4^-nt«M in 

an«l t-<<;*;Nr ff ai!j<<iiikii.; pair^ i*^ lliptu;:!! t}ie the iiiiiiiYtT!i ri-^iK'i-li\i!y at-eoniiiabyi:i^ thuM 

a&'id h ^li-'r 1:1 «hii!i tini are iintuer-Hil. The naliieil lilow: 

arronjt 111! ttt U\.i\ t-i>I.«;«!. a< ll: l!ii tr><Mj!i Im:- y,\*fr,r*^i;^?.rfch I|i> !•< a. 1 '.■■.lu-im, rark 14 

trr>. fi a tr;!uU-r I't" ft 11- !". rnin! h} jartith-n-s l,*;^ * •*» 1 n $• 

whii-h Ml 'h^r the »• ■•! I.' r tl.i i '.. I'.r.. rurr* nt ""^ *" '*' 

ran tra\> :-^ . a t-o'i'i-tr { ! i!> *t ::.^ .■jj-"hiI t'- a Thi' i'!A.e f.r Vra*-* i-* Utw.in t^pj^r and 

xinr |>:.i'.>- Ik t .11 !i It «!. u:.! llie . ■ ::.::niniiMt:'n pll. In the art-- lo Iii A-*Ti>it ii a d*- 



U-.n*: !r..:ii i!.e /::*. t- tl.e i.':.j*r ti.r.-u.'h t.i-n of a « heap hattery um.I :ri S^otlatKt by 

thr flu..! l!e i-'ij'^r i- . • :!:i. .':. l *\ \ -lip whi. li d;*«!.ar;:i • l.a\e U*tn ;>ri-!-ii-<t! at a di^ 

•if uwiM I i'v:.j .wr ?!.*• i.ir:.T . :. w rl» a ta:..e of :.•■> Iti^. A ^ . • :.l ha!tir> anbM 

finr \'v>* 111 x\%' lit It ii!l. .■ji-*i.l i.« »1.:. h w.'il! inrrv t!.tt?ret? M:!'. I'-.r:!.. r t'a*t i 



i« all-:!..: t..;|^r y'.y.*. .wA •- "ii. T!.t l.k*t i* ^^^-tituT.d i:i th.ii f^r \) ijtrjlate, 

C'l'l-^r I- Tj f.j'.;i.'.. a!t * ti .'.Ii \'..>. ? :-t .'.:;• *■» a >!'• ?• "Hd :ii«re ttVii-.n" :.■•:-» f-r j. i.iratir.j r 

wire •'.i!'. !. . : ::.e i*:.-.;i-, t!. .* i' :; ; \:.i.«- the tr.. .r.^ iii -iiartst^ t? .vi ntS r . ■ |-;* r i r 4il»*r. 

cift u:t » »r. ;••!. v! 'l a !.--■ :^''j il:\ ili ! :::r.i TI.i i :!". t ! • f t!.. in', i *•* In V. .- !^.i:! I':!!* et- 

c»IX a :. .::tr.: .:!a-« !iu.!. ?- i:ia» !-• ar- h;!'.*i-! ^> a i.iv.I^ r ■ f •.!.!. ri •'..• ^ t \j- rirnrnt^ 

raiitfitl I'. • : ■:., la. !i i.'l'iiv,; :i /.:.' a'.! .i » -■ 1. ^Im :'.■! * f i.r!-rniti! In a -iark r«««L 

iMj.jHr J .iT. . i»:i !. Af* ,.-ii..t ti.l \% •!:;■• "t" A\ !.• :i '•:. « :r.- .>" •' i- Vat!. r% i* n:.i*t' ?.• tc^ 

mtiftl » li. :'.. .T .|;-"!:f j '.it. - is. a.:;.-;!..ri^ ni.i.as- a:.!-.^r*.t .«!.-• •■!' a nn tal' ■• i.-.!. ar.«! iha 

tuf!. !•;.:. I ..-».k«!!. .irr^.^'. •:.. : ! ai-jStil o; j- - ?• i.l^» . f :'.•;» '.-v! ■■,-••. a rrt Tai^.* •ajf- 

l» \ ::a I:M : . k-'.a: k • I :•:.:?:.• ^'V.Wry, fi-e m!.. ^ i- ..••.!,.!»•:; r! ,- . T*. r »!r% 

the r I .■ a: !•«;:. r ■.: fci. . .*rt i; ; !:..',.: • •:;- ;i t!.e Ua! « ' !■;• !.»'. .* iTT'-iiif!. a: •! \ -.n* w :th a 

tht ft:., r tt 1 - : ! :,.l ! ,:• : ' r. a: '. ".' :• .:•. i V-ira- :. r>- ! ,•» ! a:;.! r. ! -. -Iwr ^.^ .".^ <»at 

•i-rtfi A-i-trt.!. r.* i:. T * !: ■ V . '.: ^ .•:•■ }'i:. - • ■ '-■'•• .*'■ • ' • •■»■■'• -'•■J * «?..•«!. ! j! ! If i<M 

all i^ u»r . .■ ».»* .»:. ! : . ..;pr!'. .".r w ;ri ;• :-..i !• r •. ::; :.ar. i:. .i r!.- ar. ■!!'.•..!?,. f 

TJ*rc.;> Ii. II !.:v"!. '-I :j:l -v \-^r\ ^:'^ ? '■ d 1?: a -S^'. ;• ' T. a: ■! •* '■ J- :r > .!ra»r.t.t«r 

• ithd.: iT. X :■'.! ."*: ^t ::^. :.!;•- • : ! ■' . t! e tJ.e t!.-. » •.: a: ' •: a'^* .;r. .: V.-! Ik. t* ■■•• 

Miuea« t:.a'. ■: :- t^ ' t i :• V-V'-- ••■i- •T . '•. ^» V i- ! a::.::., r . f •:> ■ a- k--:. tV frx.ra 

ilnK-!«U ■.'?•*:'»;: »' ■ • .'• i: • ■■ ■'•• r a i:. w*- ■ :' 1 < a:.d :-■ !. l»r W :\*:. • t'^t^tol 

aiai»« aiiKiUut ^'1 *",- !- 'i • * :t. : • . f a^- .: :.rrA'! :: jr- \t v.. : ! .' Tl .■ * a?:. -i ia 

Tiii .r a*. :. - 1 ai, ,. ■ ■;--». ^u* -:Iy 1 ? 1 -■, *« i a^j.^ i ja L la^^- «. f :!.*: i— ,: :%• 1< ep- 



ELEOTRO-DYNAMICS 67 

posed to one of copper. The plate of the latter hattery may he kept in action for days together, 
metal was hent round in the form of the letter For this reason it is called the *' constant hat- 
U, and from the upper edge of one side an ear tery." Its effect is increased hy adding several 
projected at right angles, by which it could be pairs, and connecting them on the principle 
suspended to a cross bar of baked wood. The adopted in other batteries. Grovels battery is 
■crew bolt which fastened it to the wood also constructed on the principle of Danieirs*, but is 
went through a similar ear projecting in the op- made much more compact by the use of plati- 
posite direction from the zinc plate of the next num instead of copper. A strip of this is placed 
pair, the copper ear lyins between the wood in the porous cell, which in this case is of un- 
and the zinc ear, and both being brought into glazed porcelain, and contains strong nitric acid, 
close contact by tightening the nut on the up- The zinc, in the form of an open cylinder with 
per surface of the bar. The zinc plates lie each a longitudinal slit from top to bottom for admit- 
within one of bent copper, but without touch- ting the free circulation of the acid through it, 
ing it in any part. Their contact is sometimes is placed outside of and around the porous cell 
eturded against by inserting Rtrins of baked wood in a glass tumbler or similar vessel, partially 
between the two metals. As by this arrange- filled with sulphuric acid diluted with 10 parts 
ment particles of zinc as they fell were caught of water. The poles are thus seen to be re- 
in the bend and retarded the action of the bat- versed from the arrangement of DanielPs. This 
tery, the form was afterward improved by invert- battery is remarkable for its intensity or power 
ing the copper plate and cutting out a portion of of current, but is objectionable on account of 
the top, so as to admit the bar forming the ear the fumes of nitrous acid generated by the re- 
ef the zinc plate. The slip of copper cut out action of the hydrogen upon the nitric acid, the 
was also bent to one side, to take the place of gas developed at the zinc penetrating the porous 
the copper ear of the former arrangement, and ceU in its progress toward the negative plate, 
eoimect with the next zinc plate. There were, Bunsen's battery differs from Grove's in the 
however, still other defects of serious conse- substitution of a cylinder of a dense form of 
qcenoe attending the operation of the battery carbon for the platinum. The coke which ad- 
in an these forms. Tlie surface of the copper heres to gas retorts answers an excellent pur- 
was diminished by the bubbles of hydrogen pose. The form of a hollow cylinder maybe 
which collected and adhered to it. The capa- given to the coke by preparing it from pounded 
city of the water to take up the sulphate of zinc coal, and it may then be used for the porous cell 
dimmf.«hed with the quantity dissolved, and the by filling it with nitric acid and sand. Oatside 
chemic.'d action thus constantly grew weaker, of it the zinc cylinder is placed in dilute sul- 
The action of the copper was also lessened by the phuric acid. The coke is improved by soaking 
fcillection of a film of black oxide and of other it in a saturated solution of sugar and calcining 
imparities, and by the reduction to a metallic it a second time. Smee'sbatlcry,like the trough 
•use «>f a pfirtion of the sulphate of zinc, the lat- battery, employs but one fluid. Its peculiarity 
t^r causing local and contrary currents of electri- originally consisted in the use of a negative plate 
citj. The!?e defects were corrected in the battery with a rough surface, this having the property 
rfProf. Daniell, of which an account was publish- of shedding the hydrogen bubbles as fast as they 
c4inlS36. The zinc in this was separated from form. The metal employed was silver coated 
the copper by being suspended in a porous cell, with platinum deposited upon it in a pulverulent 
vhich contained the diluted acid ; and this po- form. Platinum foil is sometimes used instead 
IWB cell was placed in an outer vessel of cylin- of silver, and the name is retained with the 
dricsil form made of copper, which acted as the method of arranging the plates. A strip of the 
negative plate, and contained a solution of sul- platinum is suspended with two zinc plates, one 
l^kite of copper with an addition of about ^ of on each side of it, from a wooden bar extended 
Rlphnric acid in excess. The zinc was a cylin- across tlio top of a tumbler or similar vessel. 
dxical rod, and the cell originally used was the The plates are kept very close to each other and 
laQet of an ox. In this arrangement the animal exactly parallel. The two zinc plates are con- 
Bcmbrane admits the passage of the electric nected together by a clamp passing over the 
corrent, but checks that of the sulphate of zinc, wooden bar, and the conductor from the plati- 
Ihe hydrogen, too, no longer collects upon the num plate passes through the top of the bar. 
flaK>er, but spends itself in decomposing the By keeping the plates in close proximity the 
iB^ihate of this metal, uniting with the oxygen electric current is rapidly excited, but it is nc- 
cf the oxide, and setting the copper free. The cessary to prevent the platinum foil from being 
■^nric acid eliminated at the same time pene- brought into connection with either zinc plate 
taftes to the zinc, keeping up the strength of the below the surface of the fluid, as may happen 
aixUir e in the porous cell. The copper result- from tlie accumulation of hydrogen bubbles 
Sqf from the decomposition of the salt of the upon it, or from its being drawn by any other 
■etiil is found to cohere upon the surface of the cause to one side. This may be eflccted by glass 
Bflntire plate ; and this is the principle upon beads attaclied to its lower edge, or by its being 
vfich the art of electro-metallurgy is based, kept in place by a weight or other means. 
Bt keeping up a supply of crystals of sulphate In all these arrangements it is found that the 
■ eopper where they can be dissolved as re- consumption of the zinc may bo greatly re- 
fBved in the upper part of the solution^ the dacod hy the application of mercury to \l& b»\xx- 



68 ELECTRO-DTNAMICS 

fcrc, tn IL4 to form sn nmnl^m over Iniili f:iro!». |M»li*)ie«l f:ire of the next |il)ilo. TIjo interpnifd 

The nu-tiil \* not then hu)>ji-tt t<i tli^^'lvf in tt.i* air mtvo^.i^ \hv nuiiit comluctur, aDil i ivrtru-iiy 

cliliitdl nrit] \i!ii*n the rirniit i.h ndt rmiiplitt'; i« tlfV^lopiil M-ii-iMy iiith tltc ii«« of G*i to 80 

bnt wheiu-viT thi* ai'tii»n of tho hnt^i-rv ii vv plat i- 4, the {loliahe^I fur« ni'tiii^* a- tlio 2-<>?itiTe 

qiiirid, and the ri>inniiiiiit';itii 11 h fi>nni*il hf and the ntis^'h an tliv nv;;ati\e tU-nunt. \l» 

Cwcvn the |>laio«. the zinr !•« nttar-Lc-il hy the ai -'ul thnui:h two nu-taN are nMially einpli>} i-J f t gvA« 

the fame a^ if 110 applicatii'n «<f iiivnury hail rr:t!ii.{? ^oltnir (Ii-rtruity, miv aim v 1.235 >A* 

been mmlv t«> it.4 »urf:ii'i.'. llu* zini* !•« aiual^^- BWir, |>ro\iihi] tliut dirti-riiit portions t-f ii 

matrd hr n:Miif:^ it « iih iii«rriiry aAcr it has uri- in ri>ntlltiiin!i to he ditn-rently act«>l oa 

been rh^annl with dilnttil Milplnirir ariil. It it by thr ii'iil. The c-KTtriral fXiitruunt i« pio* 

reroninicndcM] hy mimio to nii\ the dilutnl arid diirol with a ^in(^Ie i»hite foriUi-«l in port uf 

and nu-rrurv inji'ilivr in a tial, and thiii apply ra-t and in part of roiKd zinc; or if une por- 

the niixturr. — The preo4*nro i-f a lluid i;- not i<- tion of a phitu «'f copper or of zinc i» co^ 

■vntial !•• priM!ihv vultaii* %h*<*trii :t\. \Vhut in roih il nitd t lie other i.n rU'iin, a cumnt !» jir\^ 

ralh'd the vkrtrii'cnhinin t-r dry plIi*. tiptt niaile diuvil, the nurface ma-t rv-adlly artv^l i*n bviny 

bv IWlirtii^ in l'^«>.'>, and itii]>roviiI and hniii^'ht t!ie (.-vm-ratin^ plate. Truf. Karad^iy al'*o»hov» 

Into uotitv hy Ik' Km* in 1^1". ]< mn-ifnictiHl nf that a jilato pr^^M-ntin^ a uniform furf'are m^f 

di»k« of z:ni*, CfpiHT, and jrilt pai^r, ralhd U> nia<Ii' to dcvoltip fliTtrical ezritwiw-nt when 

Putrh pujM-r: it may U* U-sa than an inch in ditfort'nt {Nirtioni^of it arc exiKiTH**! to the artioo 

dianicti-r. \Vith a i-i'lunin of uwiv.y hiMidrod cif two flu id.i which dilfcri-ntlv atftrct it. Tliva 

smupH p:Ivf! u{N»n oni' anoilur a \:!>ratiiin of a an eU-ctric current ht pnNluL*i'«I uhi-n a plate of 

brasi!* ball i«u«{»fnilitl fiy a f^ilk thrvail ha* h«-«'n tinr, iron, orcop]M*r is jiiit ii:t«i a timm.1 which 

cootinuttl U<tW(i'n two !n!U inoulatid andr<in- hasi Win partially til Ivtl with a ^tn*n^ M'!atiaa 

nertt.-4l one « ith varh jniU* of the mlnn.n s** iM of »(ilpliatv of cop|K-r, and U]Min thi^ a lay^r of 

tu ki-<*p a rontii;na) riiijm^ for nearly ^1 ii)oiit!i-(. diluto Milphurii* acid ha:» Wen carvfuliy adi2«d. 

I>e I.nr caiiMtl apt-iitltilnni thrii to vibrate with- The M>!]<liate of r«»ppi-r in Kj1uti«>n will l« d^ 

out Ki>ppiuk* for i:i>>T\* tlian !! yi-ar-*. With an oi>niiHi<k-4l, anil nirtullic ciip|Mr will K* prvcipi- 

apparatu<i of *Jo.inii) 1^^.11].^, «if ^i!vi'r, zinc, and tatcd ujnm the |N>rtiiin of thv plate in contact 

d«*ublo dM'4 of wri!in;; | a|fr. Mr. Mn;:i'r oh- with it. — Tlio prf!4t'iii-e of a current t«f voltaitf 

tainol niin!:tc l<ri;;h! hparL% ainl ( hari;i*il a I.«.'y- elivtririty i* iiidicatvd by in»trumfi.t4 called 

den Jar in !•> inin.iti"* «i:h Mir1!ciint vIiM-trii'ity (nI^aiH»-ciiiif*i i-r pilvanonieti-r*, thi* principto 

to CAUM' adi-:urri'e:iMe ^!.•H*k, titj^Tforato thirk of \ihit h i- the tvndcnry of a nt.*i(rni tic need]* 

drmwin^: pa|i«T. and to Ui^» auv inch of plati- to turn fruni itn north and roiith dircitiou wb«a 

nuni«irv , .'. ■ of an iirh in dt.init-tir. The tho lU'i-Tric cnrrt-nl i^ mnt throi:;;h a ci^npcr 

quality I'f l!.e (Itririt-ity ma< w!..i!I% that of wire, ^\ hit h pa^M-* over and UJidirtl.r nic«llr ia 

the niai}iir>e, nnd ift th:it orliiiurily di'Vili>{t-d one ^r a iiuiiitivr of tnrn'«. (S-e KiEtTKO-MaA- 

by the p-li'. In I*«rj I'r.'f. ZamlH'ni of Vi-pina M:ri-M.) The more nniuepius the tun. «. pruTid* 

pr«Nln«-.d a ni>Nl.tii>l t'i>nii of tM<^ pile, u^iiit; i->l tl.e wire L«it|' >:/e prop irtiiin.tl to tLei{uantitjr 

2.IHH di«k* of *i^ir pajir. Kaeh ii!ii*iint«tl of lUt tru ily. the ni-in- «Hii*iMy j- the niollu ai- 

»ide ^«a* riv« r^il wirh a luvi-r i>f M i-k nxide "f fe«-;e«I ; and in ordi-r that the m ire m.ty !v ei>CB* 

inai-.;:aiii •«- nnd hoiu-v. The fit-iile of the iiai llv urraiijeil. mi :i<t i]i>l tu Iran«>n:iS thecuTTvat 

ei'lTiiiiTi Ha* r.iat."*! with ^^^il hn-. aiid the thr-ii^rh i:.- ^..!.. tt« tl.e uilji-i:..!.;: I.v. er-. it i» in- 

whi>!f «:i« encli>*eil in a ho!!i>w lir.-!«« i-% Under, sulat^d hv Uic^ Huiiiid :ir>>i:i.d y^.'Ai ^ilk. Tb# 

Ik*! H ten tWt» i.if thr»f ri>!iM!in'« a l':ilanctil ne«" needli* ilevia!!"- !•! one or tin- oti.i T -idf AC\*ora* 

dltf w.i^ fi'Wt.il III ^ihra'e ri>!i'.;ni:'>i>!r : and at- In,^' \>* l!ie d.reitinn in whi*h the c-.;m*:it b 

te:Mp!« lirrf nia^Ie in titTMairy wA V.u/.mA t-i ir:ii.M:iit!eil. i-r unordin;: to wl.j. Ji c:.I of th^ 

apply il.l« a- a n:oti»e |-.«iir f-r i!-^L^ and wire i- c.>iiiie< !eil uith the ]N..i*;\e 1 r niyatiTe 

wattht-. 1..! t'lo n:>>^irtji rit »a«» f-'-nd V* It? |"«le of tin- l;*;!ery. Ity rfni.ei. T.i.;: :« »*r:ul!:a?«d 

t'»> :rre^i;!.ir t'* adtiii*. nf th-.!« a;*;!) :i:i>in. Ik) circle ui;h the ntidle, the ank«<ui.t ■•:' dtiiatida 

la II. ve n''-fii!:ii rui-i b.4 a K-r.rv* f.»ri:i nf thii may N« made !.i n.ia-cre the |»*'i«er t»f l\.v eltf^ 

appam!(.i «l:*k« *'i I>'i;'-'i / M ar.<l if P::!'-h trie rurrt nt, a^d the ii,«trni::i(it i« thin a f^I- 

nl\«r pv-r •fj'-k tivi th« r 1 .' k t» 1 v k. :4!i 1 TannTKeli-r. rr^f. Tarailay nuliid ai.t.thtfr 

ami.iV'l •.! '.l.^i a •!'.%• r fi«e l.« ■:!•• n 1 .• !i rrinc:j!i- t.« the i;:i;i.-Tire:i:i i.t of tin r!i«!r:c;!y 



pilil f a* e. the p**!"*"' Mpfir:.?:*/ t? e Kh I.i! ii' by a-' 1 rtaiiii:..: tl.i* i^naMtv i f V a!i r ilti" 

faii-4 if 1 ui !j ]mt. \ *irv tt..- *.'.k ••■ rd p:«- |»<Hiidl* l! e v'.. « trii- riirrti.: Tl.i- he «i.J hj 

pr»."at.-! »;:!i \:in..'}i *.r\.i i-i •v.r*' tl." |:.- a* :r.iii: tin- l%i!ti.:tn a:.d I'x;.^:* ri t \i-Iio^ 

tis^k* t- ■.••-.« r. and ?!.!• r-'.T :i :• j I..^. ■! in a iii!i:i*i he 1 liei'n! ii; a i:r;ti!:a!« ■! ir'i'* ti:**, 

tu:^« I.I \.»r: .-':i !?!.*• a: ■!-•:;!•■ r:. il'ttmi^n u-ttl a- al-".! i.!.*-* f . r i !Iitr.!;r ^-aei •. Tt« 

r-!« . f :'. -..?;,. Pi" !■ ». r?:: -'. I'.-k !• J !:irtil i» iTi * i-f t\e I irti r* «:■!!;..• 1:. !«•> | !a*..n^ni 

t:;»i ?i a •■ .r . ;■ • .rf »■ 1 . a* •! a M\>'.\'..'- *-rii!i » Ii * !r— h "« ^\ 1 ri ii.Tn iln «! :i.r ■■:/h !h« • ; J- *ita 

ttr. .f.aV.^' ::. a * i.. .1 v: ;.'.. '. » jr- -■• s.j- :. •.!..• ^i !• * .f t! . r ;' . i.i ar tl 1 l-.!! ■■. . ii. ! \ r.-s^bl 

1:; j-^r: i- -r. Iv-n- ./.■•■ .v ■■••.. r.. •. !i ;..;. l:»ar*;. in 1 . : •... :. Tlie ti.* e. !;:'i •! ^ ■.■!! w a!<r, 

l*'ii I a- '.!'.'.•.'. r r •:^\. \' ■ : ."•..■ a *• !!a ..• < r i* ./er :.< :■! .! .!»d \* .!li " .-I !■.:-. '..:!. » \* IB- 

I ■.■.•.;!.! .r !iw ♦■«:;: I -,..; •. 1 •' 1 ":\::.f u ij. \» rTi d 1 ■^l r a r. ■• ; ! . • •: :? • -.: 1 t! .. !, a&d 

ar ■! -<■• ar .!..■. u* !' i * .r- :.rr .• .-. •! :•. ;i •:■ -j/'i a» i\ •• ^• 1 ;!i :. 1 .:. t- • »;;-'; *'■ *• *' '• r 

«'//.y jb!^..: /^ if b:. IL! ^. !r. lii '.Le opj-^ai^.^ u.d waa tl.^; iaC\-d. The rwr:..vi wf tl..* »L^uld 



ELECTRO-MAGNETISM 69 

not be aH'iwccl to desoeml below the ends of the manifested by varions electrical phenomena. 
vires» m the beat then developed might cause The second hypothesis supposes that all Uie elec- 
ta explosion of the gases. This apparatus was trical phenomena are produced by the disturb- 
named by Profl Faraday a voltameter. It has anco of one highly elastic fluid, which i>ervadea 
been modified by using two tubes set in a large the earth and all material bodies, and which 
eork side by side, and opening below into the Is able to move with various degrees of facil- 
Tiesael containiog the fluid* The wires are made ity or not at all through the pores of sub- 
to terminate near each other, one under the stances of different kinds of gross matter, 
mouth of each tube. Into the tube over the which arc hence considered either conductors 
positive wire oxygen only is evolved, while the or non-conductors ; that the atoms of this 
other receives only hydrogen in quantity double fluid repel each other with a force varying 
that of the oxygen. Other forms of voltameters inversely as the square of the distance ; that the 
have also been devised, the principle of which atoms of the same fluid attract the atoms of 
was the determination of the amount of heat gross matter, or some ingredients in it, with a 
developed. This was estimated by its effect in force varying in accordance with the same 
eaoang the elongation of a wire of platinum, or law ; that the atoms of gross matter devoid of 
m cazmng narrow slips of metal laid up together electricity tend to repel each other with a force 
to twist still more or to untwist by their un- inversely as the square of the distance. When 
equal e xpan sion or contraction. any body has so much electricity combined with 
ELECTRO-MAGNETISM and Magneto- it that the self-repulsion of its atoms is just 
EucTBXcrrT are branches of science which balanced by the attraction of the same atoms 
treat of the phenomena belon^ng to both elec- for the unsaturated matter, then the body ia 
tricity and mognetisnu In our article on elec- said to be in its natural state. 80 long there- 
tricity we have given an exposition of the facts fore as all portions of space contain their natu- 
of this branch of science, independent of any ral share of the fluid, no electrical phenomena 
hvpotheslsas to the causes of the phenomena; are exhibited; but if^ by means of friction, 
bat our account would be incomplete, and it chemical action, heat, and other agencies, to- 
woold be almost impossible to present a proper gether with the interposition of partial or non- 
view of the branches above mentioned in the conducting substances, the electricity is accumu- 
qnce to which we are limited, were we not to lated in one portion of space, and rendered to 
give some idea of the generalizations which the same amount deficient in another, then two 
have been invented to explain the phenomena, classes of phenomena are manifested : 1, those 
and to express the laws of their mutual connec- called statical, such as induction and the conse- 
tion and dependence. It must be recollected that quent attraction and repulsion of light bodies, 
trience does not consist in an accumulation of due merely to the accumulation or deficiency of 
fie^ bat in a knowledge of principles, and it is the fluid ; 2, dynamical, or those which arise 
impossible to arrive at a full comprehension of from the transfer of the fluid from the place 
tbwe principles without expressing them by where it is redundant to that where it is in 
means of some hypothesis from which logical deficiency. Our countryman, Franklin, is justly 
deductions can be made, which will enable us at celebrated for his discoveries in science, but 
inj time, independently of mere memory, to his claims to philosophic genius rest particu- 
aj what result will be pro<luced when the larly upon his conception of this theory of 
eondicions are known, or in other words, which electricity, which bears his name, and which, 
win not only present to us the relations of with slight modifications and additions, is still 
known phenomena, but enable us also to pre- sufficient to express the connection and relation 
diet the occurrence of those which have not of the multiplicity of facts which have been dis- 
b«i observed. Without hypotheses of this covered since his day. However different tlie two 
kind no extended and definite progress can be theories at first sight may appear, their math- 
uade ia science. It should, however, always ematical expression and the deductions from 
W borne in mind that they are the provisional them do not difiTer, provided that we adopt the 

Sres&ions of the generalizations of our know- modification of the latter proposed by J5pinua 

;e at a given time, and that we must hold and Cavendish, that matter devoid of electricity 

Ives in readiness to modify or even abandon repels matter; an assumption not inconsistent 

vhen we meet with facts with which they with the attraction of gravitation and chemical 

decidedly inconsistent. Two hypotheses have action, since wo may refer even these to the same 

proposed to account for the phenomena of cause. The theory ofDu Fay was generally adopt- 

tlcctricity : one, tliat of Du Fay, known by the ed by German and French savants, because it was 

Mme of the tlieory of two fluids, and the other first discussed by tlicm in a mathematical form. 

tgr that of the Franklinian, of one fluid. Accord- The theory of Franklin was afterward devel- 

flg to the first, all bodies are pervaded by two oped mathematically, and with the modifica- 

daitic flnidfs the atoms of each repelling those of tions we have mentioned, is, we think, more 

tbe sanie kind and attracting those of the oppo- readily applicable to the facts of the present 

BSe kind. When the two fluids arc togetlier in state of the science than the other. It follows 

aqoal quantities in the same body, tliey neutralize from the theory of Franklin that if electricity 

" other; but when sep^irated by friction or bo communicated to a sphere of conducting 

means, their attractions and repulsions are jnntter, nil tho fluid will bo found al l\v<^ fixa- 



70 £LECTRO-MAGX£nSM 

fare, b<^oan«o carh Atom rcpiUtho other, aiul war )it tlio imlnrtit^n o. « pnworful mAcnK, 

the Miito iif i-<iuili)iriuiii will l>o tliul «if an aiul at'l or wan 1 brink the bar into tmo iiiroM, 

equal tli<*irit*utitiri at tho rirruiiitVrxiu'o; tho eu«*h half will vxhiliit a n<»rth and !>outli pul« 

ati*iii<i are iirfvonti-il fruiii ll^iii,: ii>t'» ^pmv |iy of equal inu>iMty ; aiM if wori»utiiiUf ti» breftk 

the iiii|i-t'i*iitliii*tiii^ iiioiiuiu of air in whirh the carh picoo iiitu twn nihiT;*. hnwevL-r far the d&* 

pIiilN* t'Xiot'*. In likv luaiMK-r it f**lliiH!* fmni vi-tinn may l*i* rontinui-*!. the K'une nr^^ult will 

AH applit atiiiii **( thr law tif uttrai-tii>n invrfM-Iy W {TiHluriti. iianivly, a {niIo at vach tnc] nf earh 

M thf >'i)'i:iri- «if (ho tliMaiirr, tliat « lirn a ImhIv |*iri r antl a neutral |Niiiit in tho uiiiMle. Frun 

ha^ K"*^ th:ui it4 natural ^haro nt'cltt-tririty t}i«* thi^i oS{>i*rinirnt we iiift-r tliat tho |>«ilarity of 

di*tioi«-n«-v niu^t oii«t at tho *iurfa<*o. Jurhar;r«'il ncuriiftiMH rvnult^ iHini tho cU'Vi-Inpnivnt nf the 

c«*n4lui-ttir'4 nt'i-loii^'uloil I'linii^, thf ili«trihutii)n inriLriiotio {mwrr in oaoh atinii vf thv niaaa; 

of thr tluii] will U- Kri-^ttiT at thr twi» vitri-iiii- whilr if tin* ^anlo oxfHTiniont U» mutle with an 

tio4. Thf I'hrniinifna nf tho I^'ViK'n jar aro olortriral ntniliifti>r, thnl is if it U* M'paratcd 

roanlilr «Iv4i^i't4l, anil all t!u* fai't:* rniini-rti-il intu two imrt!* whilo uikKt tho intluonrv of tb* 

with it may hf All! ii-ipat«-tl «>vt'n with nunit-rioal oxcitoil Uhly. o:ii-li half will vxhihit a rhar)r» 

cxartUf^. hv till* aiipliratifn nf thi<* thoiirv. nf tmlv nno kind tif olrrtrioitv. liv rnnsider- 

• II •• •• 

ll'lti-n a rriluntLiin y nf ih'i-triiity i^ thrown iin iu;r th*-rrluro that ilootriral runilurtii^D pro- 

ono oiiK- I'fa pain* <>f triad's tho rfpuUion nriin;; tlurctl hy a hiMlily trai)!«fi-r uf tho iluiil frmntiiM 

tliri»u^h ihi* k*!*!*"* will i!ri\f •■tra]Miriiiin of I ho i-nil of tho roiiiluotor ti> tho othi-r. an«l limiting 

natural rh. t-tri>-iiy on tlio nthcr •>iili\ tho uri- tho lii^turhaiioo in niairni'tiMn to tho partirl«« 

•aturatiil ni:itt«r of wliio!t will ntirai-t tin* trro of pri>o'« iiKLltt-r, a inathi'inatii-al txpn-^tiitn i£ 

rlvotririty thr-'un "ii tho lir^t ••i«h* und thu-t nio-t tif tin- plii-iionirna know n pri-\ii*U4 ti> ths 

Doutrali/o it^ rrp'.jUi\o « hrr^rv : anil in thi** war diM-oVfrv ot' ( K-ritni wa-i ohtainrd. i^ttli rkc- 

■n ininii-nM* atiii>uiit of iKitrii-itv ran U- »■'- trii-itv aiiu mairiioti^m woro !»•• ili*MiiiiLar fai 

runiulatctl in a «iii:ill ^pa•v. \Vhrii the two Ninif partiouluritliat thoy ciintiiiUttl to !•« fttnd- 

•urfarrt art- j"in«-tl liv a t'i'n«!ut-tiiii; rirouil a it**! a'^diotinot l«ranr}M*««of sM-ifinv. T hi* fort bad 

diM-har^r tuLi-<t I'laiv w Itli ^Trat iiiii-ii'>ity. U'* \**tn: Uxn notioitl that di^'haru't-^ of lichtninf 

rau«othr ri'.ii'l oil t!ii' rljur^vil *iiili* i^ im|Nlir<l fri*i{U«.-ntly piw jMilarity to hari of ptrvL aoil kA 

through tlif t'lri i:it hy tho ri-piil-inii «if it<» itwn miiho raM*<» ri'ior-fil tho timriuor*?* roiii|iu!u». A 

at«4n\ anil Ih*i :ii:.<> i: m uitr.u-tfil to tho othi-r H-rii-^<il\>x}H*rintriit^tiiiiiiitaivtli«-'^itroi-t««trw 

•ido l>y tlio uii«i»Tiirutiil liiaTTtT. If an iii-u- iiiaih* liy Krunklin and othiTt !•} pa«*ni.; i^iorLa 

lattil roridui-ti>r in thr furin of a hm^ ovlitiiii-r thrmi^h darning noiilli*:«. Thv n-'^uliv wrt* ui- 

witli rii'.in«l 1M41N hi' hri>u»'!it noar a rhar;rrd (dii-faoiitry, ninci.' tho noo^Uo wa^ »<Mi>ftUD«a 

rondurTiir. t'U! ii>>t wiihiii •'.riLiii;: diotanro, iua:;iiftiZ(-d in ono diri-rtitin and Ninu-tinit^ ia 

the natiir.il ri«i'trioity nf tho firiiuT will ho tho othor, and fniiitoiitly nut at uU. « ithout anr 

roiM'lUil t'l t'lo t iri!ii r« ml . tlio ond luaror tho apparent change in the ronililinu^. ludted, 

rharp-iMx-lv Will hi ill u si.kii- ot'ih'lii itM-v of orilinnrv tloitrititv wasi not favorahlo tu \hm 

cliTtrn iiy or {.••;:ativi 1\ 1 !t-i fririril. whilo tlio Ntndy uf tho ri»iini-oti«in uf oWtrioity and mac* 

furthi r i-inl w 1'.! U- ill a^Tatt if rodiindanoy or Urti-iii, ^inl■o tho phonoiiii'iia whirh Nlon^ to 

p«wit!%i-!y o!>-i !ri;;i-«l. I'Htwt-tn ilif twi> 0111I4 iMith nro oxhihitoddiirin;! tho ojiitibunnco uf aa 

tlioro w I'.l ho a jH.iii*. w'.iih will )•<• n>- itral or oln inoid rurri-nt; and in t'lo 1 aM- uf thr dkfr- 

in it« iiaitiral «!.i!i*. Tho iiiT«!:oi!\ i>f this ao- char^- of a I.o}doii jar tho tr.ii:*fir i« *«* iit*tan- 

tion dini:ri>hi ^ r.i|'i>!l\ wit!i t!ii' «li<^taiii-o. par- taiionU!! ttiat wv aro only uhlo !•> ^tiii]} «!?r<:ta 

tirnlarly in tho faM* whi-rr t!io i-\li:.drii al rmi- whirli ha^o takon plaro, without Uiii^ ahir to 

durtor i« »hi>r*. atid tho « \i titil Uilv 1- Mnall : niako anv olMirvnti>>:i4 «« tu tin- ni.ii nir m 

but in tho r:i*<- f>f aini>i<p!torii'ul i-hitriiiii. in wliiih thoM* roi^-.iliit ha\o U-on prodii*-i-d. Tbia 

whh h tho I liar;;o i^ i>ri tho «:irf:M'o of a liir;*o wa« tlic Miiiilttioii «if tho «oionro up t*< the winter 

rhfU*!. t}io in>hi>'tuo ai-::><u tako-* phii'o thr*iM;;h uf I'^l^'^'V whon Trof. < K-r!«!<d of i'Mp*.iiha|:ca 

K'Tor d miio«i>f iTiTt rvi'!iirij ^]iui'o. Anattint|t put a ni-w* iiitorn»^a:ion to iiaturo h> a«kinf 

wa« ni.bdo )>y .K; inu-. ri-o***'!!. an*! i-thiT'*. to wliat would tako pluoo in nirard t>> a nia^-rtia 

ajqdy tho Kimo h>pi>*.]iiii« !•■ tlto phriifiui na no«-«Ilo whon t!io twi> ihiU"* ot a fralianio hattrrj 

of nia«:rt« Ti«t:i. Ik'.mi-ou thr<^* ai.il !hi>«4' of wiTO joinitl t^ptlior hy a I'oniluitiii^ Win Ha 

flortrii :!.« a «!riL.ii^ art iji*j\ w a* i>S«>or\i*<l. fouiul tliat wh«>ii t!io w iro wii> hrtiii,:hl p.ir&I]«l 

F>>r ttarnph-. !-'lif^ wh;<!i aro iI;-> iui!:k:!y to and noar t!io ni*i-iih'. tho lat:«r ttbdvii to 

c!«^'tnth«I a!tr.v't oa^ h o!ht-r. tifiM* w !.:•:-. nr\f turn at rii;ht anjh*^ to tho fonnor Thi« wa;» a 

■imdarly i!«*tr:l:o<I ri|il 1 ai h o'.'i* r. I;i hko now* ro<ult. uidiki' atiV phcuonu iic^n Ufi>rodi»- 

manni-r. tw>i •.iM-'.ar ]>"'.*■•* it a iiia»-( it rt|nl. co«vro<i. iViiiuUH to thi*. tho «-t<ti!'i<-!ioi. bt^ 

and tV'i i!.««i*ii:!4r !•••!•* attract 1 a* h I'thi-r. tWi*ni-loririi-i(% and n)A;rrit ti>ni had Ik^ n f>«f*j|H«t 

AjTain, if tho iiiTth !•• -I- if a ii-a/ii* t )•« ^rMii,:!it in tho a:t.i!ot?y of thi» |N>!ur-.t,« <•: thi two irdf 

nrar an unii..i^Tii*..2t«l 'ar i-f •• :t ir><:i. t!ir n^ar of a in:u;nttii- tiar and tin- twn t itntii t]o« of a 

and rih'.hit* fc.':!:.rrri |- !.ir.'\ a;..l tho fiirthi r palvaiiii- ho!li-ry, U»th **i wh:« h i\? li .:»-J p<'.ar- 

cml n« r!hor:i i-;.4-.!v. a:t, ari r.!!v >iinilar i-i itr. An ari-i-unt of thi^ rt vurka' !f tii*«'%>\crr 

Use ro*uI: of t!ii a- t< :i in t:.< t-iar-pli- wi* havi- wa4 puhli«hrd m all par*.< if !ii«- 1 .% ili/td »i*rU^ 

ltt«l |:i*on if ol«-!r.Rl i:. !:]. I. .:i. 1 hi-ro i« an^l r\L-ryw hero iXiitfd t!i<' i:.!i ri •: ot tux-:^ %>t 

bowo^i-r tli:- ri-!!iA-VaM- il rf- r* 1.1 -. tlj.*! if wo h'u in-o. It w a« ri-}<rafid ni lli./laiid, t'r.in.r. and 

'ftiie a j'itxi- vi Lfcrdi:iii*il »li.xl m the aaine Ovniiany. The addilioual lad w a* di»cu%cml 



ELEOTBO-MAQNETISM 71 

hr Ango in Franco and Davy in England, that right angles to the length of the cylinder on op- 
the wire joining the two poles of a galvanic bat- posite sides. If this cylinder, the several spires 
tvry while the latter was in action was capable of which will represent the pieces of money, 
<tf imparting magnetism to iron filings ; bnt the be supported horizofttally, so as to turn fredfy 
person who seizod on the phenomenon with the as a magnetic needle moves on its pivot, it will 
greatest avidity, and who in the course of a few take a north and south position when a power- 
moDths developed the whole subject to such an ful current of galvanism is transmitted through 
extent as to elevate it to the rank of a new the wire. .Nay, more, another cylinder formed 
Kience, was Ampere, of the French academy, of like spires through which a current of gal- 
He discovered an additional fact which gave a vanism is passing will act upon the first precisely 
key to all that had previously been found by his as a magnet would act upon another magnet, 
coatemporaries, namely, that two parallel wires Indeed, so long as the galvanic current is pass- 
transmitting currents of electricity in the same ing through this helix or spiral, it exhibits all 
direction attract each other, while similar wires the properties of an ordinary magnet ; but they 
transmitting currents moving in opposite direc- immediately disappear when the current is in- 
tio&s repel each other. On this fact, combined terrupted. To deduce from his theory the al- 
with the hypothesis that all magnetic action most infinite number of facts which it involves, 
consists in the attraction or repulsion of elec- Ampdre first considered the action of currents 
trieal currents, he founded his celebrated the- on currents. Starting with tlie hypothesis that 
ory of electro-magnetism, which gives in a the attraction and repulsion were inversely as 
Bo^e sentence a generalization from which the square of the distance between the element- 
all the known phenomena of electro-magnetism ary parts or smallest portion of the currents, he 
tsweU as ordinary magnetism can be deduced, deduced matliematically the consequence that the 
This theory is based upon one fact and one force of a current of considerable length acting 
hypothcaa. The fact is this, that currents mov- on a single element of a current would vary in- 
ing in the same direction attract, and moving versely as the simple distance ; and this he was 
in opposite directions repel, each other ; the enabled to verify by experiment by suspending 
hypothesis is, that the magnetism of a bar of a bent wire, through which a current was pass- 
steel consbts in currents of electricity revolving ing so as to be free to oscillate under the influ- 
at right angles to the length of the bar around ence of a single element, which was ingeniously 
each particle of the metal. In order to give as effected by doubling a piece of covered wire in 
mach precision to our ideas as is possible with- the middle of its length, thus ^ . "When a cur- 
oat the use of diagrams, let us suppose a num- rent was passed through this double wire, the 
ber of shillings or cents piled one on the other, portion of it which went to the point of bend- 
aad cemente*! together so as to fonn a cylindri- ing and that which came from it neutralized 
ctl column or rod 8 or 10 inches in height ; and each other, and the residuary effect tlierefore 
kc US further suppose that on account of some was that of a single point, whicli gave a result 
moleoalar action a current of electricity is per- exactly in conformity to the deduction from the 
petnally circulating in the circumference of theory. After proving experimentally this fun- 
ttch piece of coin, and that the direction of damental principle, he was enabled by mathe- 
the carrents is the same in the whole series. If matical reasoning, principally of a simple char- 
W6 further suppose that the column is standing acter, to deduce the resultant action of the most 
•a end, and that this motion is contrary to that complex forms of conductors upon conductors. 
of the sun an«l contrary to that of the hands of Among many others, the following important 
a watch when placed face upward, such ar- deductions immediately flow from the premises 
rangement will represent the hypothetical mag- assumed. If a current of electricity be sent in the 
sec of Ampere, in which the north end, or that direction from A to B through a straight con- 
vhich turns to the north, is uppermost, and ductor,AB, of indefinite 
consequently the south pole undermost-. If length, ]>laced for exam- 
tbese postulates be granted, instead of loading pie horizontally, and a 
the memory with an almost infinite variety of current bo sent down- A 



D 



Asconiiected facts, we shall have at once a gen- ward through a termi- 

enlisation from which all the phenomena can nated conductor, 1), perpendicular to the for- 

be deduced at pleasure in a series of logical mer, the latter conductor will l)e impelled paral- 

eorollaries. If this theory be true, or if it be lei to itself along the length of the horizont^dcon- 

eren an approximation to the truth, it will fol- ductor. This effect will bo due to the fact that 

low that if currents of electricity be transmitted on the right side of the short conductor the ele- 

ttkroogh an arrangement of the kind we have ments of the two currents are moving in oppo- 

dcseribed, the phenomena of ordinary magnet- site directions; the current in the short wire is 

im will be exhibited ; and this anticipation will approaching the point F, while the current in the 

be realized if we coil a piece of copper wire horizontal wire is moving from this same point, 

eorered with silk into the form of a corkscrew and hence on this side repulsion will take place ; 

■pind, forming a cylinder 8 or 10 inches long, while on the left hand side of the short wire 

■Dfd if the two projecting ends not included in the two currents are moving toward the same 

the spiral be passed backward through the cyl- point, and therefore attraction will bo exhibited ; 

and made to project from the middle at and under the influcDCO of these two iotcQ^VIti^ 



72 ELECTR0-3[AGKrnSlC 

•hort cone! nctor will more parallel toil !«o1ff mm the thcorr of Atnpt-rc, and might hAT« been 

right t«i U'ft nliin;* till.' hnriznntAl riiii«Inr{t*r. If dodiuvil (mm it. A l>i*aiitifiil ilIu!4ration of tbt 

the i]irft'«*tii>n of thr t tirrnit :n rithrr of the two iihi'!Kiimnaot'torn"itriul iiiitimetiMn was fintci- 

Gondnr;or> U* ri%crMil. tin* riiiiti«in of tho Mmrt lii!>iUtl l>y ]*rof. lUrlow of Wm^Iwich. EngUnd. 

cundiKtnr will nl^i bo n-ViTHnl. If, in«tcu(l uf llo iin-imri'il a wiKMleii glulio, into the Mirfac* 

the (ihi»rt ruinlu'-tnr, niu' in Uu* fi»riii of a rin^^ of wliicli a long conductor waHlturicf) in aMiinl 

bo frci-Iy hu*|ii>tiili>«I over tI.>o lung condurttT, gnniw oxtonding with many tnm^ from polo to 

with tho plane of tlu' hittvf ii' Ti*-*: tlio fortiiiT, ]Hili>. Tliin globo wan aAcrwanl cuvcrvd with 

the cnrrcitt p:iK<H-«l thMi:;:h this will &*>i.>nd t»n lini^iT, on which wen* drawn the cnntim-ntiiaml 

one M'io of the ring and di'><vnd «'n tlio otli^r. (Kv:in'«. When a MiuUl dipping needle wa5 pUc«d 

Thervfor*-. the one hiIo will t«-nd to ui**\w tii t!io ovi-r thin apjuiratu^ and a current of galvanism 

right and the other t<i thi* l^f;, aiiil tho p'«rilt:Uit rent thnmgh the conre:de«I cimductor. the De«- 

ftcliun will Ik'Io t>rin;;the phino ^f thi'ring pur- die n-^sutneil a direction hiniihir to that which 

allel to the horiziintul current: in whirli va*^ woiiM he duo to an analogoiv piRtition un tb% 

the current in t!if li»wrr part of the rin^ will eartli'sMirfni'c; and hince, in all ca«ie5, the 

be moving in the Mime diri'ftion as the enrri-nt dh- ti-[i«U ti» urranL'v it'«i'If at right anglr^ 

in thf I«>n;; wire. Now*, hinre. armrding to tho thv dirtrtinn of tlie current, hy a pn»[KT MfHj 

theory of Ain|xTi\ rnagncti^rti dciK-nd^ ujKin rnr- nient of the conducting wire in the gnH)ve th« 

rent •» uf t'U'i- 1 rii'lT y. i: fulli I w<i that them. vneti.«m variation of the niinlto at c-vrr^- {niint of th« 

of the earth n^ultn fr«-Tu rurnnt-* of vKctricily earth's Aitirfaco coidd Ik» accurately repre^ntcd. 

reTo1vin^«i*ntinuBlly fr«'!n e:i<t til w'tM. lU-nce, The expl.in»tii»n of all the plieiiomena of 

if a condurtor l«e U nt inti» the f'*riu of a ring dinary mtignttiAin readily flnwii from the 

or hoop, anil frcvly Ml"* ;>!■(> •k'll, it will urrangc it- principle.^. Wv have htati-d thut if a m 

•elf c&«t and w'e«t. To in«uro tlie Mirri-ss of ue hrokfU in twn, eurh half l>e<'imit*4 a f«iiarat« 

thiii c-z{««Tinunt, the hnon should he furtiu'il uf m:L;:t:vt. eziiihiiing north and »tii:th polaritr. 

m lung wire cuvvnil with Mlk anil milcd into If the hyiNitlutical mmrnct which we have &• 

the form of a ring !^> u to imdiiply the net inn*!, lunt rated hy a pile of hhilling^ he hrukvn in tb« 

Bach a ring tunv U* ron^idi ntl as (inc* nf the fume way, lucli part wi!l iK-cume a iieparat* 

diftka reprt'««'nt<-4i hy the ^hillill;:'* in the hyjn^ nKi;:nct; the two tndA of the two part* which 

thrtiral ma;rtict : and Mncf t-ach di«k niakii.;; up wore prrvinn>ly in contact will attract earh 

the wholi* h-n^th of the TinI wnu'.d ho ^:^kilarly other, U'cauM) the currents will be rovi>!ring in 

acted u|<oit hy tlie cnrn-nts of tho varth. tlio the Kinio direction, hut if we turn the other 

Azi« (if tlie rtni Would a««unu* a nurth aiid ^«<u!)i cntl of one magnet to tliC ^ami• end of the other, 

diret-iion if left frc^' tu ninvc, t!ii:K arfu riling an rcpuNion will vn-uc, herause tho currents are 

ezpUnatiun of thi< f:i4*t, ^o Ion/ cii!:<«ii!iri-d an revolving i:i disfiTcnt dinrtion^. Ity a littio 

nitiniate i>i.», of the din i-t;vo projirty nf the rvtlir!i<in it will not W ditfii-ult to explain i»r to 

needle. l.ct i:^ return n;::i!n tu tin- tu t: !ii>fiho aiitii ip:it«* tho m-tion of the two ni.ijnetf OQ 

long li*'ri/<i;:tal riii;dni'!Mr on till' ohxrt {m rpi n- earli nther nniler any aivtuinrd e>'n«li!:on. Iq 

dicular cni*. If t!.r forim r he !•■ i:t in!<i a h>ir- ail'iptin.* t!ti'< h^pothe^^, i*. i« not i-ei i -.%^ry to 

ifontnl iin !•-, then it i<»eviih !■.?. r>i>(ii tl.i- riMoxn-i ro::ti-niI f..r the aMuul ext'«ttnt-e I'f tlertrical 



ha\i' h- fi-re fc'ivi n, !ha' tlie ^K'-r: i iiiil':i r.ir, lurrin:- in the mn/net or iven in the tarth. 

movini; {*• r;N-tM.iriy r>>nis'! it p!ir^[!il t" i:^!f ^r It i<* «ulfi> lent to a^'*< rt that all tlie pivul.ar- 

retainin,: ii<|Krpi ndi<n!ar ;>••«;! ion, w:!! d"H-riLK.< i!u<« if iLc knuwn pliinornen.! «>f t:i.v*neti»m 

a cin le. Th»* may It* -h^ittn exp rirnenia'.ly are | ni :-iIv -m h as wtiuM ri -nil fr'*r.\ an a^ 

by lien>!tn;; a pii-»"i' <if w iri- into i].v I'.rrni of rin ikTjj* l.i^ri' if furreM* mii h a* .\nip« re ha* *rip- 

rj, ant! ••xj'|Hir!:n/ tl ver!ir;i!!y ii:i •Ii.. ptiin! i.f ptt-«i! to e\i*t. It i* pr«'la!!e tliat m the j.h<^ 

a |H r|*i bilii lilar wire w}:ii'!i titi li»'!.!ly i:.t>» a n"ii.i ;ia of in^uriietioni a n:"!i-c'.:l:u' i!i«tr:i utino 

»4irktt fi tht' ur.iKr •':•!•• i>f the ir.:il>!!>< t f !ht» of th>' A-rA t:kke^ plac** which :•« ana]<%:'"t" to 

arrh. If the |w<i cn<!4 i>f tfii-* !•• !i: wiri* ihn iha*. m a wire tran-niitting a r'irrt ::!. Ii:i!i'«'d. 

inti» a riri 'il.ir h:^«in of u>r* i.r\ !!.rt>':^!i tlie we k;i>iw' tl:al ut tlie tnuriit-r.t of in:\.*Tii t:^:!.^: a 

middle of which, ••jrri'iin-h d hy a ^v.1-* tiiU*. h.ir tif in»n. a n'ulec .!art !...?::>• i* j riNl-.r.^l in 

thr »uj>|x r!:ii;: {tintii! wire p.; , and if a lh>* iiutal ff f^'::V.>-ii !it ir. :%;;•>. *\ ti* '.p.-**.* a m'D- 

|Kiwcrftil I'lrft r.t of g:i!\.iiii-i:i !■*• »• :.t rip mMi* ^-itjiid; a f.i- ! w!::ili w a* fir-l in!..td hy 

through thi« w nv i! will il,-. . :j.l i^.n- u'h the rri..'". rL.irlt- d P.i;.-*- if W adm.^Vr:. -It t« 

leg* iff the J ii.rii the i:ii ri -irx ; h:.<l if a! t?ie an u.Ur* -:i: ^' fact in '.!.•• hi-ti-ry i-f ^4i^t• t. thai 

aaini* tnni» a |-iwi rfil I "iTi I.' !-■ I i-M ■! t^r'-'./li di-ii-^t r:** 1:1 t-i.e 1 r.»:!i li !H.r^o V* '.hrnw i ^'.t 

a ring i-r !.••« •■ i- :■«!■:. \- r p^ i #•! h-r:.-. .nlAily on 1 ?!ii r I r.i:.i!ii-*. and in ir-.v.y ca-i-* :• :::-: i-h 

around It. a mpid rta!:' :: I : !).• \f r?.;rlw.r.' i:.-Ti;::ie:'.I* h* wh.. !» »«!.i:;* f.^i d- !.■ i.'c !" iio 

wiU lake p! 41 « . N"»" "i: '"■ rii.ti:t.' ^i"::-.. n'-c> rJ- ttTiT" :.-,!«.! Iv «r!:ri.,rir niiat.« \i..i\ \^ w ■'..:• 

iag to ihe v..*" ry Wi- hi. ■■ a! •; ltd. i- ?:•.-!» in 1 .1 aij-I itieii-^irii!. Sn n t^V.^r t'je i'..«»i %«"i i-f 

rarrrnt* "'f rl«i*r.r.:y ri\.!v ' / ;.' r/i.t »'„■'■ h i»i •-!..!. I'r-f N hwi .-jtr of in ::!i »: v r 1 -r^l 

to the ifiv'J*', if a ir.»uv!-*. •■ •! I ir !■•■ i:.!r»- a I- ■!*,:»'.'«■ w .:!. ».!k .ir: 1 • ■ !^'l .• i:;'--::.' '> n\ 

doceil wi»'i» th." I -.11.- ; . ' if •*.! ^%r.: r..- . %..f u r. - rai;«"'* . w.!l..:. w^ . :i h. *>:«sr..:-i \\ 

ducti>r, a«i". !ir r< *ari i: • ■■:; w .!i « :.- :.• T..* i*.* .1:.* ^f a f:* ri« of ^•.'\ a IiU'.»'. Xk*', . 

fact wa« t r«: •^■•H:l • i;- r.'iii • Viiy ^l Mr. V.ii- VI ■ » :. a^«r> r"i 1 * !•■ <-:rT%:.'. it »!■*::;.:.* » -» 

•daf. It u, Lt.'Wi-\«.r, a 1> y'l' ^ i.. :.v^u«:ax' v( •-.:;: ihn -..-h iLi* co::Jui:.-r. «M-h :-.ru tf ;:.v 



ELEOTRO-MAGNETISM 73 

vire acted on tbe needle to turn it at right form in which it is ordinarily developed, t. e. in 
■ngles to its own direction ; and in tliis way the direction of the greatest length of the hody, 
13 instrnment colled the galvanometer was pro- or at right angles to this length. lie iinds, for 
dneed, by which the most feeble galvanic action example, wlien different substnnccs nro made 
in the form of a current is exhibited. It has into bars and suspended by means of a fibre of 
heok before stated that Ara^ and Davy dis- silk between the poles of a powcrfal electro- 
eovered that the conducting wire through which magnet, that they arrange themselves ^dth tlio 
a gtlvanic current is flowing is capable of in- longer axis in the direction of tlie polo or witli 
dodng magnetism in iron filings. They also the shorter axis in the same direction. Bodies 
ihowed th^ a discharge of ordinary electricity, of the former class are called magnetic, those of 
▼ben made above or below a sewing needle, the latter class are called diamognelio. This 
pve it definite polarity ; and in this way the prox>erty is even possessed by gases. (Sec Dia- 
reifiOD of the fiuluro of Franklin and others, icagxetism.) An electro-magnet even of im- 
idM) had attempted to magnetize steel wire by mense power can be magnetized, unmagnetized, 
opSanary electricity, was explained. In these and remognetizcd in an opposite direction, by 
ittempts the electricity was sent through the instantaneous changes in the direction of the 
length of the needle, instead of across or around current of the galvanic battery. Tlio largo mag- 
it, as the theory of Ampdre would indicate, net wo have mentioned as at Princeton can bo 
]£r. Sturgeon, in England, was the first to con- loaded with several hundred pounds, and while 
itract an electro-magnet, which consisted of a in this condition may bo so rapidly unmagnet- 
pieoe of iron wire bent in the form of a horse- ized and remagnetizcd with the opposite pulor- 
shoe, insulated with a coating of sealing wax, ity that the weight has not time to commence 
orer which was loosely coiled a few feet of its fall before it is arrested by the attraction of 
copper wire. When the current was sent tho reverse magnetism. This sudden change of 
tuoogh the latter, the iron became magnetic, polarity afibrds a means of producing mechani- 
ud exhibited in proportion to its size a very in- cal movements of considerable power through 
tense action. The first person, however, who ex- tho agency of electro-magnetism, which have by 
hibited the great power of the galvanic current some been considered as a rival to steam power. 
b producing magnetic effects was Profl Henry of The first machine moved by this power was in- 
Washington. He found that by surrounding a vented by Prof. Uenry immediately alter his ex- 
luge bar of iron bent iqto the form of a horse- periments in developing electro-mngnctisin, and 
ihoe by a number of coils of wire, so connected an account of it was published in the '* American 
»ith the battery of a single element that the cur- Journal of Science" in 1831. It consisted of an 
Katia each wire would move in the same direc- oscillating iron beam surrounded by a conductor 
tien, a magnetic power of astonishing magnitude of insulated copper wire. A current of electri- 
»a!d be produced with a comparatively small city was sent through this in one direction, 
gilTasic apparatus. A magnet constructed on which caused one end to be repelled upward and 
tiiis princii>le, now in the cabinet of the collcgo the other attracted downNvard by two stationary 
of New Jersey, will readily support 8,500 lbs. magnets. The downward motion of the one end 
border, however, to produce a maximum efiTect of tho beam near its lowest point brought tho 
of this kind, it is necessary that great care bo conducting wires in contact with tho opposite 
taken in the insulation of the wires, that thero poles of tho battery, which produced the reverse 
be ao cutting across from one wire to another; motion, and so on continually. In a subsequent 
od fur this purpose the ends of two wires in- arrangement, tho velocity of motion was regu- 
teaded to be soldered to the positive polo of thfi lated by a fly wheel, and clcctro-mafrnets substi- 
bittery should project together, while the two tuted for tho permanent magnets at first used. 
cads intended to be united to the negative pole Prof. Ritchie of the London university after- 
c( the battery should also be associated. If the ward produced a rapid rotatory motion between 
aagaetic power of tho iron is to be developed the two legs of an inverted liorse-shoc magnet 
by means of a compound battery, then a single in a i)iece of iron around which a current of 
loDg wire may be employed instead of a num- electricity was made to revolve, and thcmagnet- 
ler of short ones. Tho power of tho electro- ism reversed at each semi-rovolution. Modifi- 
Bagnet depends on the following conditions: cations of these two forms of the apparatus havo 
flo the energy of the current, tho dimensions since been made in almost every part of tho civ- 
nd form of tho iron, the nature of the iron — ilized world. A large electro-ma*?notic engino 
ttt softer the better — tho perfect insulation of wasconstructedbyProf.Jucobi of St. Petersburg 
ttt wire, and tho proper adjustment of tho by which a small boat was propelled at tho rato 
kagth of tho wire to the intensity of the bat- of several miles an hour. But tlio largest and 
tery. By means of an electro-magnet of tho mostetlicient engine ofthis kind was constructed 
knid we have mentioned, the instantaneous by Prof. Pago of Washington, at the expense of 
development of an immense magnetic power tho U.S. government. It exhibited sufficient pow- 
h ^rodaced, by which discoveries have been er to propel with considerable velocity a railway 
in regard to this nysterious agent, of the car, and afforded the best moans which has yet 



interest. Prof. Faraday has shown by been presented of estimating tho comparative 
ft« application of this instrument, that magnetic cost of the application of electricity as a motivo 
property is possessed by all bodies, either in the power. From all tho exporiincuU w\uc\v\va\^ 



74 ELECTRO-METALLURGT 

bcoD mnilc, it appears that thongh tho electro- tical impcirtancc ww attarhed tr> the op< 

inafrnotic {Hiwvr run bo applktl with lo!«« Ium in lie hail obM*rve<l that a r«ip|K.T efin ii<>^i 

the wa}- nf ctrt'ctivtf wurk than heat by mean* of nc^rative plate of the hattvrj UT.inio iin 

the Mi-arii eri^iue. ji'C thiM'4Mit of tliv material \*y with a lavor i>f rop]H'r tU'riviHl fr«*in th 

which it i« ^I'ni'rati'il i;* so great that it eannol tion nf t>]iie vitriol in wliicli it wiis iiiit 

Im* vt'«ini mi it-all r fiiipl<iyi'J. Aerunliiig to the antl tlial i'Vitv niark iifNin the ruin mu> 

i'i]H>rinunt<^ nf I>f<ipntA one {Nuiiitl uf coal in fcrred in n'Vor<K.' U|Nin the iu*w hi\ir 

burning; «K-viliip4 a^ Hint h hi*ut an G |ioun(li of whfn at antitluT time a slip of thr *>.tnu' 

zinr ; i-unM'iiUiiitly, umli-r tho s:inie ctmditions whirlt he ii^'<l f^r thi* nrgativc plate. !ia 

C tiim*» u- ii)U« h |hiwiT i* *\vvv\i*\*vd from the to Ito pnitiTtftl hy a tVw ilropsi «if Viu-iki> 

burriin:; nf an k'*\'\:\\ wciprhl of Che former at ri^rcivin;; the nirtallir iK-|HiMt, it omii 

frtifn lli:tt of ttio hittiT. S\iw tite ]i<iwcr of the him ihut a plute mi^ht hv l\in* fiitirr!v <-• 

fttcani tUL'iiie i* prtMhictil by \Uv lMtrniri|r of and any iK-^ikMi 1*^' rut thronsli tlio i.triii 

cual in itir. wbiU* tti:it of tho i-loi-tro-nia^ni'tic the cojiikt Ik- il«'|HiMtiil only en thv 11 n 

«U|rint* i<i «!t- Veil ^iK'tl from the oxi«hit ion or burn- ex|HiSi'iL lU* MiiTft-tlfil nn tryin;; thv < 

iug tif ziiir in ai-iJ; and^inrv riialaiHlairaretho nu-nt, the rnp|H*r plute U*in^ imnirrM 

»impl» priMh:i-t<4 of nature, while zinc and acid Kktnrutiil hohitiun nf fulphato nf ritpit 

n«*)utri' urMi' !.i] pripamlion at tbe cxpi'nse of ronneetcil by a wiro with a bur nf /:i:t-. 

|M»w«T. It ni(K l>v i'Vidi'iit from all the»e conoid- wax pla<vd in a diluto Hihitiim nf *>;i!|>l: 

eratam^ iliut iiti-;rM>ni.i^nLti.»m cuiinut coin- wnIx Thin wif« contuinf*! in a lar^ri u. .* 

|K't«! utih ^tl•allt. ultlinugh it nmy bo applitHl In whirh (it-t htwvr fXtmnity iK-ini; ib*«<4ii 

ftonie c:i^-^ ulu-ro tl.v vi{K*nM.* of materials \a (Niroun MnpiH-r nf plu>ti-r nf Turi^i yM\n 

of KTiiiidarv i-niiMiIi-ratinn. Kli-etrtt-magnetiitm, duri-d into llu* hulpliate k*( i-np|H r *< 

for fxaiM|iio. i^ applied with nuuh »ucce!«i in AlMiut the >atiie timv Trnf. .Im-ubi nt St ] 

railing: inin nfiiTaiinii |MiWt'r at a dintaiRV, as In hurg wa.« conducting a Minilur r1.L«^ ■>!' « 

the (-.1*1' nf tliv vUciro* magnetic tclcgrapb, in ex|K-rinu-nts un ai'munl nf wliltli. prt* 

giving ^i^lullani••»u4 niutiun to the hamK of Mniilar ri*siilt.<*, wils publi«hf«] in Ki.u'' 

cIiieL» MtiiAifU in ilitlV-ri'm partu t»f a city, in \*^'M. Thi:* dri-w Inrth a h'tti r fn-i!. M: 

rava^urii]^ very niinutv (xirtiuns of time, and Jnrdun, a printer, nbirh \ia:4 puMi-lifl 

in brinpii;: into ai'tii<n the p4«wir ni-oeM^ary to *' Mvehaiucn' Mairu/itu*" of . I urn-. •!« *< nV 

ring al:ina In-IK. — Tor an eX|H><iitinn of tho method of obtainin;: iinpri-^Hii iris friti; t:i 

ftcieiititii- prinriplei of <Iei'tr(»-tna;;ueti!im, we platen, matri«v!« fmin tvpi \ i&:r.. iti.>i «u«-, 

WnuM refi r to Ik* Mnntferrand'!t work on the other appliratinn;* nf thr »anii> prixi<^-, 

•ubjert. traii»ia!«il fp'm I lie French hy I*n'f. tuining ra^tn fmni a plaMtr «>urr:ii • . u:i 

Cuniiiiiiii; iif Cambrtil^e, Kiigiund; and for va- **f niuking mi'!:i!iir tiiU-<t hy pr> < ; >.i 

riiiu« ii';:ri.iiiii^ ntiKli!ii*aliun!« of apparatus and iiitrtal arniiml a >Air«*, anil tin n iIU«> i\.: 

lulere<»tiii;; l\x*i'* nf ibe N-ieiici', In Nr. I'age'd out by lieat nr Mimr HiUfiit Hk !•:< 1. l.i- !.•• 

|»a|HTB i'l t!ic *' ATii«-rii-an Juurnal of ScifUce u|Hin the nutiT fnutin^'. ^Viili «(■.• Jt mi 

and Art." iSt-i* MA«iNni!«M, ui:d MauNKTi>- durtinn the art wu^ HiN.n tukt n up ^ > \r 

Ki-xtTUP tTi I nu-n, uimI rapiilly |»t-rlVi t«-<!, •!.• t!i:i*. .' . 

KI.K* 1 1:< > Ml. 1 Al.I.riKiV. Kic«T»(»TTi'i\'o, exluiMvrl^ appliedlniiiinisttr in nc'* .:t ' 

ca!K-«l !■> t'li- Kricih f^nirau-fhitfir, the art (jf wa\«tiilhi' v aiit^nf iiiaitkind. li.i-ii:; 

of iHp:tr 'I'.ii:^ fl.e irn t:iN frnin tbi ir Mihitii*n4 ori^inailv i Tiipin} iil i« dl••1ill;:lll■•^l •! :l* i! 

■III! il> |Mi«.!i:ij li.i ;i) 111 imiIhI I'liriii )*y iniaii«i iif pie fnriii nf tlie dfi-nn.{Hi«iii^ l-:it!i 7\. w. 

!)■•' i-!ii t:.>- I .:rrt I.?. i \ritt-il b\ ili%* ^ttltuii' but- thet-lei tri** nirri lit i« L'<'nrrutfd int! t h^> 

Xvry nr l::;v-* t*'* ■• ••r-r limi luiu-. 1 be nbjti t K'l w biF* in tlie Imlal 1- •lipn'-iln! \' \* 

in In n'>!ai:i in u liit ! :t!!ii Uwraii t X:i«'t Ctipy **( prn\«d by Ni;b«titiil!ii^ f<<r I lit* ii.i'.i r vi 

Aiii •i':r?..ii-. n* ••! tl.^ iiiipr««'*iiiii iiiaile in wax glar«4 niicnf nn^rta/i d |Hiri i Ki:i) nr i:;r:! 

f»f bii • rij::i\ in^*. a jw*' nf I)!-*', a iiii'ilal, c>*iii. mhii-h}»taiiiUiiitfti-t i-iitri-nflli !t>ri %! 

Ai-.s!i< r:.!i!.,; nf utitih iiiiprt «<»i<iii in irutal «e«M-l, aii>l (-••litaiii«.iM ll:i- Milpbwr.i n- : ! > 

pr<^b.<t-i •111] !:• .itt' I'l thi' iTi^'iii'd artirlf. nr with I'J nr !'• titini iT« iMi.:!.T •?' %« .! 

may jr^«ii U- i:-^-! a^ a ni"ij!i| i>ir nbiainiii^ in rim* plat** *u»|h ndnl by n br.i»-« \\:r«- ^ 

m«irf fi*!*-;!* riiiT.i! ia»!« •■! tin- •>aiiie. I'ln' ih-rnl In H, tin- u ire i "ir^ .lii: nvi r i-.t '. • 

Hit t.U T.ii ii!«-i !•«■ prt t :p.:a!>-*l >-• a* !•• a«l- iitiX at it* ntln-r « i.il tin' obji • t I" ^m . 

hi ri- \m r: 1 !!.• iit!y i.Jmi!i t)i«- «iir!'.» f nbj« i-t«, wliu'h i^ bMii;; f:ki'<- tn f.it-r Uitli !?.•■ .* r ■ 

fil!n r li-r :)it p'.rjH.M- ••t'i*rii.i!:*rit!iii*;. ktri-ii^tli- NiilbtT ibi- niif » ;t]iin tb«- i^-ri ';* i * * r ■; 

tti.li;:. •■.- ;■! i'!t 1 l.:.i: Iri.in i!.t!V ri lit aA*rli!« *•( tin* n)ijrrt witlh'-iT •,ii:Ii* t'»«*ibi • j! • ** ^1^ 

« !i.iii;i- '1^:« br iiii b i<f tiii- art i« i.illi'«l « 1« r- tht- /ilie i^ di«*«>I\t •}. alniiit t^.i «.i!i.* .»: .• 

Irii p!.**i!i^» ar"! •■!•• !rt»-i:i.diii/. 1 In- di*i'ti\« ry n^ppi-r i« "^p-irat*!! u:jd ibj-".'«'i '.j« 

that I .. : I • i'.,:Iil ^«■ !i...« •li;- *:i*'l *--■!» f-l- t b • trn-in ;:aljM' p"b. li t« :»'N :.• ^.\*.'i.' 

btWiit iJ.Jit • ! :).i- v-i*.t.,- |..*.t. W I'lLi^tnii I'xat- r.< ar ibe po.lit vi l.« Ti t!;i- %» rn i«n!: .•*<«! 

vti n'.\*r wir'i •■•{.|>«r *•'} lbi« n.i :]tnil in \**'*\, nbj<i t. an*1 tlirrif<iro »•■ •>!•#:!•! ).ik%t < 

aitd It: :/T..i:. ;.: ib ••r.ltti III l**"'i 111* irldili;' (f ti.t m* |Mi;i)t» nf atfai bllu t !. itl d .i'.! '.} 

SS k.i%t r ;,•-!. 4. « .!i !!if -:4ii.i' ii'.u.'iiit r . but ;t » ai «Iiiiti<r4 "•^miiM U ibiiii'Ml^.* jri!««!»- 

I<>*1 \:i.\.i Mr l.'.oiii.vt >pt :i. t r i-f l.i^irj---! cnaliiv i-f %;ir!.i*!i. a* r.I-» t!.- •* !-•:!•' 

iumul- }.im t i;«ir.2:tiLiU in 1:*J7, that any prac- uljcct mbii h it ii nut d«-:>i^'Uid toin^i r « 



ELECTBO-HETALLUBGY 75 

precipitated metal. As the sulphate of cop- fiftce these objects a little distance off toward 

Mr folacion would soon be reduced in strength^ the other side of the trough. The rod being 

tt is well to keep a bag of crystals of this salt connected with the zinc plate, and the copper 

npended in the upper part of the solution, the with the platinum of the battery by brass 

kwer portion always retaining more strength wires^ the circuit is complete, and the depo- 

thui the upper. A convenient substitute for sition immediately goes on. A battery of nov- 

tiui arrangement is to take a tight wooden box el construction is described by Prof. Jacobi 

ff troo^ and divide it by a partition of some of which an account may be found in the 

poroos material, as a thin board of sycamore, article GaltanopUutie of Uio Diction naire dea 

Dto two parts, in one of which the copper so- arts et d^4 manufactures. It is called the 

ktioa is placed, and in the other about the pile of Prince Bogration, and surpasses all oth- 

■me quantity of a solution ofsal ammoniac, with ers in the regulxurity of its action, its extreme 

fiee crystals of the salt to supply the waste simplicity, and the little care it requires. It will 

cnsed by the action of the zinc. A plate of continue in operation more than weeks with- 

this metal is suspended by wires soldered to its out attention, demands no skill or experience 

edge and passing over a stick laid across the in chemical manipulations, and costs a mere 

top of the box, and so adjusted that the plate trifle. Jacobi thinks its discovery must havo 

rinQ face the diaphragm or partition and be an important effect upon the art of reducing 

Very close to it. The object to be coated is sus- ores, and throw light upon many obscure sub- 

paided upon another stick parallel to the first jects connected with industrial operations. A 

qr the same wires passing over it. The appa- flower pot or any such vessel impervious to 

EttBS should be left several days for the opera- water is filled with earth saturated with a solu- 

tm to go on ; but there is no objection to tion of sal ammoniac. In this a plate of cop- 

titing out the plates occasionally to observe per and another of zinc are placed a little dls- 

kov It proceeds. In electro-plating, constant tance apart, and wires are attached to them. A 

■odon is recommended to insure uniformity of voltaic pair of simple form is thus obtained, 

iqwation. The probability of obtaining a de- which may be kept in action for months or even 

posit of eqnal thickness is increased by having for years, if the earth is occasionally moistened 

As sor&ces of the two plates perfectly parallel with the solution and the zinc plate is removed 

to each other, and of about the same size and when it is at last worn out. It is well to 

rikspe. The tendency is for the most prominent leave the copper plate for a few moments in a 

points to receive the greatest thickness of metal, solution of sal-ammoniac before putting it into 

be object of the partition is to keep the two the earth, and let it dry until a decided oxida- 

■its i^art while the electric current may pass tion appears upon its surface. By uniting sev- 

btdj through the diaphragm. The zinc salt crol pairs a constint current is obtained, long 

fleDtrated in the process is also prevented by it continuing and perfectly regular in its action, 

from going to the negative plate and incrusting which may be employed for various purposes ; 

tUi with the reduced metal, as it is disposed to do as for example, to reduce metals to their most 

vhen only one vessel is used, thus checking the malleable form. Jacobi mode use of a battery of 

flperatiun or interfering with the production of 24 pairs. He recommends that the vessels con- 

iperfect mould. Cohesion of the precipitate is taining the pairs should be carefully isolated. 

prorented by a previous application to the object The subject is strongly commended to the atten- 

of a thin layer of some greasy substance, and tion of those engaged in electrotyping, not mere- 

I removing all that can be taken up with a ly for its economy, but for its entire freedom from 

finen rag. A much better method has been the noxious vapors which are given off from bat- 

ised in this country of first applying a coat- teries requiring tlie use of nitric acid. — ^In the 

fag of sUver, and then washing this with an use of the batteries the metallic deposition is ob- 

\_ rieoiiolic tincture of iodine. This prevents co- tained in different conditions, which vary with 

f faMOQ of the metallic surfaces without interfer- the intensity of the current, the strength of the 

i fa|g in the sliji^htest degree with the process of acid solution, its temperature, &c. To obtain tho 

-: mftmlyon. But in plating or gilding, the great- copper in a clean metallic state, the solution of 

\, .Mlcu« is required to remove by boiling in cans- the sulphate must be acidulated with sulphuric 

" dkali and thorough washing every trace of acid, and bo kept well saturated by constant 

, and render the articles perfectly bright, supplies of fresh sulphate of copper, or by suffi- 

form of the battery usually employed in ciently large copper plates. There should also 

ring requires two vessels, in one of which exist a proper relation between tho zinc and 

ric current is generated, and in the the acid which act^ upon it, and the object to 

r, which corresponds to the decomposition be coated. If the zinc plate be large and tho 

, the articles to be acted upon are suspend- object very small, the copper is likely to be of 

^ilsithe metallic solution. A Smee^s battery brittle texture, or it may be deposited in the 

eoQTeniently be used for generating the cur- form of a powder if tho difference bo consider- 

asd a wooden cistern to contain the solu- able. If the sulphate of copper solution be- 

gf sulphate of copper. The objects to be comes nearly exhausted, or the electric current 

led are suspended from a metallic rod rest- is disproportionately strong, or tho positivo * 

[fat i^on the two ends of the trough near one pole disproportionately large, the copv^r \a 

^■fe, and m copper plate is suspended bo as to likely to be separated in the form oi t)^ \>W^^ 



76 ELECTRO-METALLURGT 

p'twiltT, witli tli<» pf»l]i*rtion f»f mnrli liyiln^frcn hi*}\*r cniirairitl upon tlii* worV i« of unr-r 
iipcii tin* iii^atni' pluto. Thi-« t«n«lrni*y inn}" iiirn*ii»n». Tin- lUTLiiipnMtinn rill N a • 
Vr t'irn«ti>l Ny ••lu'iir aniitluT of tlu' fulliiwin^ <»f wihkI. 12 iV-ct in It-n^'tli, 2 ftfl in »:il:l 
iiii-aii^ a-* rii-iiiiiriu'riili(l liy Siiuv. Tlio intrii- Jl frt-t do*.p. It mtitaiii^nlMiiit ft:i«»;.;il\.»> 
h'lty i>r <|uuti:iiy nf iltt' tiatt^ry may 1h' Khm'IuiI; fii-iiIiiIato<l M»1iitiiih «if >uIp)iuto of r«ip|i« r. * 
tla' iiivativt* |HiJt* may U- im*rr:iM:tl«<r tho pi»^i- U kipt fnr yi*:ir^ of iinif>inn Mn i;;r?!j I 
ti\i' r«ili:ivi) in ^iz«•; tlir miImiiihi may U* Nitu- slu-it^ «»f roi»|HT mi*>|k-ii(K«1 in it fj pf- 
raUil. iir i: iiiav l-i.- rriHli-rul Ij« iiiral : or lastly, iiuh Mir faro i*ip«»M-4j fur tin.* rrrtpii'ii -f 
th«* tiinpi-ruturi* ma^ t»i' IiiHi TitK Tlio pnN*i-.«d tallii* ciKitintr. Thv (ilji-rt:* tn )•«■ (M-i-fr>< 
Mil-' i*i«U !h >: u! a tiiiipiraiiirf tiiit !>i«'i'r than aro plui-vil in X\iv Milntion in tlir «%••!. 
Cm. I>\ priiiH-rly ri-^iilaXiniftlirniKTation.rop. taki>n out in the morning. Tln-y art- -i.*j 
pi-r plati<t tii:L\ l^c ohiainnl huitaMv f^r printing on 1tra>a umU whirli \'w acrno'^ tlic t<>p • 
en^Tux lIl^•^ fri.m. wliirh will wvari^uit*a'*wi'll an c-i-tfrn ; or.v t-ml of laHi n»«! »•• tiinn il »■ 
thf ori;.'iiial luctal ; I'lit till* mvilitNla'^niiw prac- ri^'lit an::lr«> ii* form a ^Imrt fiN>t. uli*.'^ 
tiM^! i- iii>t to ol>t.'iin thi* h!io1i- thirLnf>f« of into a rhannil of mtrrury that ixtcii'N 
llie pli*!!-* \'\ tJii' *li"» trotypi' o|i<>ratii>n, fi.ir a the oiitiT ftl^« of iht* ci-^tfrn. Thi- V.» 
>try i!ii:i >'irf;iio nf mppcr i* ^utliriiiit to pn- forinvil !»y tnrnimr ovtT th** upyn r ii*.i:» 
^lTVl• tl.i.' ( x:ti t iniprr^*ii«>n, ami tlii<i 'i* more liroad ^lu-ct of cnjifHT tliat i« attji'l.^-i! i 
(■ri»iioiiiifalj\ 1*arki-il with hoiiif clirap alloy. hi<Ic of t!io riMiTn. anil <-xtinilslHyon«! :t 
An intVrii>r i|ua]ity of t\|N.* nu-tal answers ihii olhrr ristfrn fonnin^ thi* battt-ry, «: 1 1 

{tiiqHi««- It r\ vtll; it nulti rr.idily, am] may wimv ^hi■i•t of rop|HT i^ apain tiirTuil 
•t* inailo to r«ihcrtf |o tlit- rop|»<T farin;: hjT inako HiiiitlitT <'hann%*I fi^r mi-n*nry iiiin i 
►imp!* {Miurir.;!a layvrof it ovirthothin ^l^i•^.■t, thi* jmi1«-< t»f thi* zinc* platr<« art* iniri-iljw 
wh:i-h i« lui'I ilut n|Nin it*^ faiv on a »iiHNith hard ono siiU*. Tho'«%* of thr pIatini/«-t1 rop{ . r 
Hirfiifv «:|Min uhii h it i«tiniily ^tfurvdhy vhiMic intf the othtT |hi1v irf tht- l«alt«ry «hj ir.t 
^!ip•• of r>t«-i-l ritiinlin^ from i!-* vthj^v to a fixi'tl othir 4*orri'*<iMin«Iin}f rhiiniifl of iim n i:r,% • 
oljii t a IittU' alniic. The \ku\ of the (*i»ii{iiT oihi-r si«li' of tlu* hattcry <'i*«ti-rn. thr* i:i:!. y 
mure r«a<Ii]\ uniii<» with tht> allov if it ha**{Ki*n fonnrctittn \< maiU- in the Kimi* n-.ni.r.« r ••! 
pr<-\iou<lv ii«a!«-il with tin hy iHiiiriii); thi<4 hiile with tho «livom|M«Hitiiin ri-ll. oiiitr 
nietal wliin mi-ltnl owr iti Mirfuri'. h,* the riMUMantliii;; with one fiM.t in tl.i*^ « !::i: :.• 
•heel t* ht-M in an inrlineil poMiinn. It i^ thi4 |Hirtinfr the *>heet« of eupper whii h arr <:.- 
pri*rv*>.» wliirh i* employetl in elittfoty pillar the v*\ in t!ic h«ilutiiin to t-ompli-te the « i:* i:i 
paiTe* iif thi* Work. Kv«Ty paje of tyin,*. after f»rni*h the metal for the dep«»!-it. T? < t . 
It \i-j,n tH'iii u»<-ii f ir furni-hiii.; [>rtNit\ U im- !•« ('onMrui't(.il wit)i plate- «>f amalL"kTi a:*- 
pr»**««! i:p'tn u Mirfa* e of wax. TIji* i« then alternatin;: witli oiiu-r-i of phit.i.:.'* >! •- 
iii\t tkI w :!!i pl:im!ii4;u in t'liif |>owiIit, and all ea<'h platr mi a«urin^ loy. 14 iinlii • !'>«>■ 
till* ••Mpi-rif'i'in- jMiwiliT 1^ Mi'iinotriir ('ru-he*! <Iown in |:nHi\i-<»rut «in i-iii-h ^idei-f t! • i . 
awav 111 :m apparali:^ iiiiiotrnt-Teil witli tine their low^-r eilk'*'-* not riaihir.^ wt:! :. 
tir;i*li« • f«<r ili:4 piir|i'^'. l\y the application ini'hi-'<itf the l*ottoiii. Ai'ci'nliii^!'' r} < .-.; 
of i!..i r-i!i<Iiii ;iit/ iiii'liiini i\rry {Hirlitin of of wi>rk \>* !••■ done, tin- innnU r •? ) i.- 
tlie wai !.!■ i* !<• i:jai!i- • npiil-lf of rei I'ivin.: tin* r^durid iT inrri-a-M-il ; !•* i.r 'Jo i.i , ., ! 
Ttiati: .; •■!' fi'pp-r. whin the eaki* i* enriri'lei! ordinarily in n*^-. The arid *nip!i>«! a 
l>\ wir.' ar.d -:i«pt-iiiltd hy it tn the n^] eon- fXi'itirii; liipiid i« the t-ornm«<n «-ilpl w 
nit te>I With ihf /:!je platt-of thi- Lattery. Tho — A \ar;ity nf Mi)i«tani-e*i are iJi. ]•'•■.. -i ^ 
inelal a« it i« dei'«i<»i!i-i| i nt« r<i ii:t<> tho tiiott wax r>r ohtairiiii^ miiiiliN of i:)i'!:i'.- n:.'\ 
iniltllte depn oolfl.^ ainl retaiii^ the mi>»t deli- ^mall ohjee t- f'tr eU-i triiT\pn.L". K'> ■ • 
rat«- markiii.'^ a-* d>t:ni-!!y a* tln-y apfM-ur in mmle l^y m>ltiii;r ^«%iT:d lir:.!- *• I-''*- ■ 
t!i<' wa\. 1 !i<- pa.v of t\|i> I't.Ti.: tfiMM diipli- ninth. 5 of |i ad, ami .'i of tin. i^wi '.'. a*:..; *• 
rati-*!, tl.o nil 'i.'i-r* tliat ii-nij-ii-ifl it are at thi»pnr|H.*f. Ariother fi>iMeB!!i>;. :;-• i: 
litn rty t.i if il..'r.!'Uiid f'T the •• inhinution of Fn-m-h fur tlieir'-'drA*^ ir.oii!.I*ii \ *.•:- • f •• 
n«-w pa.** • . a:.'} t!i-:4 a --'.n;:!*- f>>Mi)t nmy ho itf l>i»mi:th, 4 of tin. •%«rf K:id. nrni 1 i>l' u: t : 
kept in •••[•! -t.iiaJ !:«• fi>rih«- »< ttii j iipof MrieH The iniilal 14 mI in a Min k of Wi-t^!. a: ! ; 
of Wiirk*. i-i w hi. !i (I'pi.^ I'r « 4!.Tii>-i« nuM Ik? the mel.1l, wliiih i- iM.n.-i-*l in a^l.-i!'- « ^- v 
»tr*:rk i>*rii<tl.>} are w ar.t. •! T?i>- i!in »h«tt4 witli ikMiio*!i rnrtr:«i^e i a|n r. i« on t! ■ ]• . 
of ■•'p{i« r arr hai kid w I'.h a kiiid i-f t\]i- nn tal, Httini?, tlii*nie<!.d !«• l.iii! \.]-n. i:. aid ^rr ■ i 
and thr p'.a'.i ■• art- t!*» -i plai.id '■{■••n the idt'i * tly m>.i4 fairly toimj ri^* jt»*':r!".ire l! .i- \ 
at.d ha* k \\ •harp ki.i\t-. \\ wh.>h tl.i r M fonnvd or. the ^nrIll• e i-f the allt^ . r. -i 
ari- } Ti. 1,'hi in'.i j ri-;-. r -!•«!■«■ a!id tl.:iki:i — . li« ^k:nl1nl-<l ot!" wiili the nl^"*- of a 1 .i*^'. 
H-irTrf*%l ■■•.^» > pr^'irri'l In tin- i-ril.i.ary tiro! r«n* i' ai»-i enipli-y id for t-.« •.■>■■ • 
ini!li>«l I-:" •!. -!.•!% J :'.»-. ir luki!..: a e.vT in •(•••««■; iii<il pitr.i |irili.i 1* fi«:i •! T .-• 
t%;i- Tiiita] •■! ').* in. J ri..^:fn i-f a pa/i- of t>p'? i-iiitid U>T it. Tin* latli-r !■• ^'ftiii-tl i* 'I - 
inoilr r, jl-i-^irof I'ar.-. f r thi- ri i-ir.-t t! at p r-t!ure of N.ihnp » ;i*i r. and pri --i-il 
t!.» •!• ri«'T% •■« !• iin're • i^'in ? t'l ill ft ■!*,«!■•* ^ i:edu!, whi«h I* ""rrt iindiil wi::i r. :. 
fji-f jrt— y.l •> t •>,arp an ontLru* ttf ih*- I»!!ir*, r.m. \V!i. n ii-'tl ih*- uuV.a pi r* ! -^ .* f -.t 
ai ■! .• K •*•!■. r.i'-h th:in !J.«- 1 ■«; ji r fni**il • !• f. the pr-i— i* \\*V. ]-*'t'. 'riin-l. !■« \.a\- t. . ■ 
i/" 'Tji/t. T^^chatur^ tniyl*'}K^\'}' il*v I'TiuUu^ an admirallu ii: pre.*>>iun. Ihn U tri.^:«^. 



ELECTRO-HETALLUBGT 77 

the wax to render it susceptible of receiviDg the dissolved in a solution of cyanide of potassium^ 

metallic coating. Powdered zinc is sometimes and this is the fluid used in the place of the sul- 

mized with the fine plumbago to increase its phate of copper solution employed for the dopo- 

Qooducting power. The zinc is melted in an sition of copper. But a more convenient mode 

inm ladle, and when just ready to take fire, a of obtaining the solution is to connect a plate 

few pieces of iron are dropped into it. AVhen of silver with the jwsitive pole suspended in a 

cold, the mixture is easily pulverized. — ^Elec- solution of cyanide of potassium, and allow the 

trocypiug may be applied to the preservation of current to pass until the silver begins to deposit 

Tirioas delicate objects by coating them with a rapidly upon the negative pole. To insure the 

BKSailic deposition. Insects and delicate flowers cohesion of the silver upon every portion of the 

ve made conductors by dipping them in a weak surface exposed, the latter must bo thoroughly 

nlutioQ of nitrate of silver, and then precipitat- cleansed, which is best cflocted by boiling the 

iBgthe:$ilveraponevery portion of them by ex- articles in an alkaline ley, then dipping them 

pofiore to the vapor of phosphorus, or sulphn- into nitrio acid, and finally scouring them. The 

Toos acid gas, or even to the action of the light copper wire is then attached to any portion, or 

OloChafdifferent kinds lias thus been coated with wound around the body, and this being again 

a metallic covering, and lace has been beautifully dipped for an instant in nitric acid is then sus- 

£and ornamented. A sheet of copper, precip- pended to the metallic rod which connects with 

)d upon a surface of morocco of any desired the zinc plate of the battery, its surface opposed 

piteni, may be nsed for embossing the surfaces to a plate of silver connected with the other 

of other skia<9. Copies of daguerreotype pictures pole; after being in the solution a few seconds, 

hire been taken by this process. A conducting and receiving the first coating of silver, the 

wire of broad surface being soldered to the back article is taken out and rubbed with a hard 

of the picture, and the portions not intended to brush and a little fine sand. It is then replaced 

k coated being covered with wax, the plate is and left for several hours in the solution, when 

ytt into the solution of sulphate of copper, pre- it acquires a coating as thick as tissue paper, of 

ady as if it were a medal to be electrotyjied. a dead white silver. It may be then polished 

Ihe'depo«t is removed when sufficiently thick, with a hard brush and whiting, or burnished. 

ad the copy, which is wonderfully exact, is The hardness of the silver varies with the power 

cftenfoond to present a softer and finer expression of the battery, a weak current depositing silver 

flUD the original. The face of the picture may of very soft quality ; but if the battery is too 

be gilded by subjecting it to the action of a powerful, or the silver plate forming the ])Ositivo 

f9rj iveble electric current in a weak solution of electrode is very largo in proportion to the arti- 

CTiDide of gold and potassium. In applying clo to bo plated, the silver is apt to bo precipi- 

tbe process to the incrusting of fruits, leaves, tated intlio form of a black powder; with due 

iiid similar organic substances, for the purpose proportions between the power of the battery 

rfprK«r^-ing their forms, either in the metallic and the work to bo accomplished, the silver do- 

ibell deposited upon them or by making use of posit may bo of the hardness of tiio rolled or 

Ais as a mould for restoring the object in solid liaramered metal. Any desired thickness of tho 

ftmn. the body is tirst covered with the plumbago deposit may be given according to the time tho 

Cwder. and a pin is inserted at one extremity operation is continued. A plating as thick as 

which it is supported upon the wire of the ordinary writing paper consumes from IJ to 1^ 

bsttery connected with the zinc plate. Tho pin, oz, of silver to the square foot of surface. As 

ifter the ojieration is completed, is withdrawn, before mentioned, tho silver is more equally de- 

■kl through the hole it leaves the fluids of the posited by keeping the articles in motion as tho 

friit maj be expelled by heat. Bronze statues process goes on. The silver is rendered harder 

m% made from the hollow plaster casts obtained also by the motion as well as by intensity of 

fam the original model in clay ; these casts, battery ; and thus, though only the pure metal 

^rhkh may be in several sections, being coated is deposited, it is rendered as durable as the al- 

Vkh plumbago powder, and exposed to the sul- loy used for silver coin. — The solution employed 

fbate of copper or a bronze solution. The sec- for electro-gilding is prepared by digesting tho 

floBS thus obtained are fitted and soldered to- chloride of gold, obtained by dissolving the 

■afto', and electrotyped over the soldered metal in nitro-nmriatic acid, with calcined mag- 

YaatL — Electro-plating is tho covering of or- nesia. Tho oxide, which falls as n preoipitate, 

'" ■ br the electric current with a coating of is washed by boiling in nitric acid, and is then 

•. ' It is very extensively practised for giv- dissolved in cyanide of potassium. The soluti 




_^ ^ perati 

if a rery thin coating of tho more expensive gilding copper, and for gilding silver it should 
iL The solution of silver has formerly been bo still higher. Tho battery must be formed 



«hlBiiied by di^solving the metal in dilute pure with the positive plate of gold, and tlio negative 

c acid'; distilled water is afterward added, may bo of iron or copper in a porous vessel con- 

the silver is precipitated as a cyanide by a taining cyanide of potassium. Tlio same atten- 

Son of cyanide of potassium. The silver tion must be given to having tho surfaces to 

fMipitate, being collected and well washed^ is be gilt thoroughly cleaned, except that \AiQ m^ 



78 ELECTRODE ELECTROMETER 

of nitric arid U ditiponved with. Ifetallic snr- <nnMrr«, to 9cc). Tlie^c terms are cfien q«i 

farcM that «Kt not r<*aihly rcroiro thi* dvp^Ntit sTnonvmou*, t(ionf«h the former iit |>n>|ierl; 

of goIiL a!« t!ii>iici (if inm, ^twl. lead. Ac., may name of nn itKtruineiit for nieamirinfr tlie ii 

fipit l*e niutol with a thin lai'cr of rofipt-r, hit y of the elivirical excitement, and the 1 

up in which the irohl i^ tlion (fe|M>«>ited. The of one for renderiufr it ap^uirfnt by it^ vt 

M»lution should r-iniain Mitlicient pild todeiH»«it Tlie toniicm halunccof C'oulomh admiraMj 

all th.1t i<« rt'<juiriil at once. T!ie value of the )>inc9 the rei]uirement« of both in<mm 

material vrnpl'ivcd i« wry triflinir inisiin|iari!««in but a (rreat mimlKT have U'cn contrive 

with tlie ctfi-rt ]irudur«.'d. A »iUvr thiinMe re- l>oth. and of (rrititer iirett'n-iion<i and CMinpl 

cetvri onir A or ti i-vntV worth of fri>ld ; a com- whirh it will not be necessary tode*«ril»e. A 

mon »i/4.*d watch ca<4', thinly cmt^Ml within and fine bravi wire is su»|>ended from a tixed f 

heavily without, re«]iiin-4 only fnun 2o ^'rains to and kept strvtclivd by a rmall weight atu 

a |ii*nnywL-i4rhi, or a)M»ut the \a!ue of a dollar; to it.** lowvr extremity. Near the weipht i 

and a |i«-nrii caM* fp'Tu 3 to 5 fmiiiis or \vs3 than mvdlo i* attU4*hc<i to the wire in a horii 

Su ct'nt^* Worth.- -The apfilicatinns nf thiii niw |N>sition. one of the ends of which \* a cun* 

and interi-^tidf: art are already wonderfully de- or, and the other a non-conductor of etectr 

Tt'l«i|K*d, and itH practire ^ivv^ einploymtnt to A grailiiHtetl arr is arranire<l around thi* cir 

many thou^.imlHof Wurknu-n in thelarKe platini; ference of the plas* %'i-;^*^.*l in which tlu* nee 

and other elertnt-inetallurpc i*staMi»hmentji of fru-'iK'ndi-*]. The »mall InkK. the eKvtrii-i 

our citie« an*! nianiifat'turiu); ttwui*. The fac- which id to lie determined, Itein^ let dowi 

ini: of printers* ty|K-4 with ctipiier, now lan^rly Nde of the veH*iel, causes the hwincinj; ith] 

prartiM-d, trehlen or ({uadnipIeM their durability, diverj'e or lie attractml, and the amount o 

liut it it by no means probable that it^ most val- movement is mea>un*4l by the numbi*r of de 

nahle u«cs are yet diM'uTvrv<). In France tho upon the arr passe<l by the index on the < 

possibility of applying its principle to the sejia- bite end of the nei*<lle. An iniitrumeiit hxn 

ratii»n of metaU fnm their oreA, haH been siTi- constnicied in which a force et^ual tn dJ, 

ouf^ly t*«»n!iiidere«] liy M-ierititic and practical men ; a (rrain cansetl the needle to travern* the « 

and when more ccoiioinira] modea of exciting cirrumferenre, so that a mo v erne 1. 1 \f 

thtf electrir current an* di-velofMHl, it is pnibable de^eo indicated a force not grexter 

that thi^ ni'i«Ie nf reduciht: hotiie uf tho oresi ^i i«a«§b of a grain. For an in.»tri:n)ei 

may U* sur«v4«fully prartiMTil. It hasevenbe^n delicate, tho su*>pcnding wire Is of «-xt 

thought |>us«il'le ti» apply a coating of con{»cr in fineness and con»idera!iIe length. Tho prii, 

one vheet ii|Min th*.* iHittoni of a »hip by this adopted for detenu ining the relation \<t 

method, or to re«t> 're old sheathing by adding to the eliM'tric forci* and the (^nantitie^ of el< t-t: 

it« thii-Ln«-«« withojt removing it from the vea- in NHJii'^ was to take two jK-rfet^tly similar 

hi: and it hi« Uen prii|k<i^*d, as a more e<*o- duct '.ng balls, and aAer charging t in t* .iimI i! 

DuiiiicalnietJiiMluf 1 1 titait.iiig thee Icetric current, mining its elTivt n|Hiii the b.tlaiicr, brir.g 

to em pi' ly tho m:ipu-ItH>fli>i-tric rnaehine, in C4»nt:M*t w ith the nn«'hargt-d ball. The an 

whirh thi« {Niwrr i^ geueralol by the cunsump- <if eK-rtririty Is then ei}M!iIly dtiidtd Ut 

tiou of eht-.ip fut-l in nihiiiiig a Ktenm engine, the two, whirh may lie prti\til by tfting 

in-itead nf the ni'Tcexi'v n«:ve rinc in the v«iltaic (H|ual etfeetH U|Hin tho balanre. < >ne «'f 

liattery. II.:*. in the e\|H-rtnient4 of Mei^^r^. may then U* maile to give up h.ilf it** rli rt: 

Klkin,:tiin and Ma^iu, of r»:rm!n»;h:ini, England, ti> another |K*rfi-etly MMiihir unt-harg^ii b.tl! 

wi:h tlie roiiiniAiiil of a m.ngitilicv-iit machine, h> the (jnantity iriay lie (otitiniully ri*!:;i-i 

and (*f •tram ]««wvr. the rurn nt w;ls found to Ui known pro^Mirtinns to any de«ire«l «.i:«i:t. 

t4j«i cn*te3'ly to admit of piml w frk. Machiiu^ elei'tric nei-dle uo^tl a* an cl«itrfv*« ■]»••. t^ a 

cif the "Ame con^trui titm havv Ui m introdu(-i*d bar of home noi).ciin'lurting ^ul'«t.in< f, ^np 

into New Y«'rk and appliisi to practical o|iir a- ed u|Min a fioint like a magnetic ii*t •!]«', 

tion!i in «*I«t t riMpI.it ing. liearing t;{K>n one extremity a -an.ill !-•>!% * hi 

KIJClTKoWKMtr. i^Afrr^mr. and o^ff,away1, with a ki.onn eleetrii-ity. Id-nnitt* g* It! 

a U*nn appliv^! by I'ruf Faraday to the surfai^e, ele<-tn*M*o|K', whirh i^niuchu^id. L*fi.*i-'.«i- 

whether «*f air, water, metal, or other hub- thin htri|Hi of p*ld li-.if, fi^teued in tVv i ri. 

ataiice. by whuh eliviririty poMH-s into or out nu-tullie rifl, which ]i.i«m*h thrtugli i).** lm 

of other nit-tlia. It rurre^fxiitiU wirh the {xilc a bill gK^-, and liTniin.i*.i*'< aUi^i* in a 

ctfthe k*al\ani(' batt^'ry. — I 'ndiT another deriva- knob. TImm* htri{M of gi>bl leaf bur*:. :>i; i 

li(jn fr*:n i;Af«r^», and fi^'f. like, the term hat ci-ntre of the U'.l gt.iK« will div< r;:i> whic 

al««i \mru emph-viU to desiiguato bodies which b««lT eliviricullv e\t'itoI is br>!;i:!i? !.• nr 

L<,<«'«ime cl««-:rii- hko nniUr. con:a<*t w i^h the bra^ knol>. It i« wi !'. t>* 

KI.Ei1'll< »1.Y>IS. KiXiTLfiiTTCMtr. ^\§rrpom, two rondiictlng Inhliv in *i:cli a I"'- !. r. i 

and Aim, III A^t frtvl. teriiiN whiili Were Intro- Ik-11 ghl^kS that e.'Lih »trip ff p*'.d li .if MJ 

du«-r«l by I*ntf. Far.i>l:ky. aXi-l appliol. lli«*oni' to a:riiii«>t c>i;o cf tliem. si.d tliiu i!.'>« 1 ar^ 

dti-tifT.|ii.<»iti«>n pri"l:i«td by thet-Io trii^rurrt-nt, eleitrn'ily ; fir iilherwiM*. if they r«v.i- ;:i 

and the f !hi r !'<a l-«!y vi-^-eptible uf dir«.vl de- t.ii-t with the non-oiiidm !*iig ^l-i"^ a* t).c 

C«iriij--;!i<*i i:: thi<» milliter. %er^*i', ttit ir tviuli nry it to rtinain st*. ih* 

Kl.K* 'IK* iMFrTKII Mir. (>X««T,in». ar:d firr^iov, it. I'Ke on^jiMi i« p.irti>-i:'.ar}v i.i'!:<««I i! 

MDi-s».int, Lliu.iim.iw. on (tir. i}X«rr^Mv, and prect-ding articles treating on eivi-tric-a! »i:b, 



ELECTROPHOBUB ELEONORA (ov Este) 79 

ELEOTROPHORUS TGr. nXrirrpor, and 0cp«, mitted. Although this number is very small in 
tD bear), a convenient form of an instrument comparison with the almost infinite variety of 
frr obtaining and holding small quantities of materialsubstanceswhichoccur in nature, or are 
deetricity for a considerable time. It consists produced artificially by man, it will doubtless 
of a llat| smooth cake of resin, made by pour- eventually be greatly lessened; allanalogy tcach- 
■f the snbstance when melted into a wooden ing that the really essential elements of mat- 
Boiild in which it may be allowed to remain ; ter must be very few. Thus far, however, the 
■id abo of a disk, either of brass or of wooa number of elements has been continually, 
flofiered with tin foil, its diameter less than though slowly, increa<)ing tlirough the discovery 
tint of the cake; its edges should be rounded, of new substances. The latter have occurred in 
A cltss handle is inserted into the middle of the most cases only in extremely minute quantities, 
dUc at ri^t angles with its surface. The sur- and in but few localities ; some of them have 
bee of the cake, as it lies upon the table, being hardly been seen by any one excc])t their dis- 
nbbed or beaten with the scin of a cat, is soon coverer. The properties of many have not as 
cliHged with negative electricity. If the disk yet been thoroughly studied. Such are view- 
b tMn laid flat upon the cake, touched with ed with suspicion and distrust by chemists, and, 
As filler, and then tidsen off by the handle, it is until authenticated, merely tolerated on the 
fDNBid to be charged with positive electricity, so list of elements. The great mass of the matter 
m to give a spark like the prime conductor of of wliich the world is composed consists of 
fte deetrical machine. By renewing tlie con- about 80 elements, the remaining 31 being of 
iHtit is charged again, and the process may comparatively slight importance. The term 
le repeated hundreds of times, the resin often simple or undecomposablo (better undecom- 
Muniog its electricitv for many days. The posed) substance is often used synonymously 
Mitive electricity in the disk is developed by with element In popular language, fire, air, 
■deedoii. If the disk is left insulated without earth, and water are sometimes called elements. 
friffiing the finger or other conductor to it^ The last 8 are, however, compounds, while the 
■D dec^icity is developed in it, except a slight former is an appearance, occasioned by the devel- 
Moare chance received directly from the resin, opment of light and heat which attends chemi- 
BE CT ROTYPE. See Elkctbo-Metallttbot. cal combination, &c. — For a complete catalogue 
ELECTUARIES, a name retained in the of the elements, see Equivalent. 
S£nhar]^ pharmacopoeias for mixtures of me- ELEMI, a resinous exudation from a number 
iKODal sabstances, generally dry powders, with of trees in different parts of the world. Com- 
tipr or any sweet sirup, to render them more ing from so many sources, the substance known 
flOBvenient to take. Conserves are similar prep- in common is by no means of uniform character, 
■etions, the saccharine portion being intended and the trees which afford the gum are very 
to preserve the other ingredients mixed with little understood. That from Holland is siip- 
Ihcm. The word confection is now in use in the posed to be from the Dutch East India posscs- 
pkannacopoeias of the United States, London, sions, and the product of the cwiarium hah 
wui Dablin. to include both. samiferum of Ceylon. Tlie Manila article is 
gr.FVRVT^ Chemical. In the present state believed to be the product of the canarium 
flf edence this term admits of no very precise commune; that of 0. album or arholahrea is 
ddfinitioxi. In general, the word element is ap- used in the Philippine islands for pitching 
vfied to any substance which has as yet never boats and vessels. The Brazilian clemi is 
■eoB decomposed into constituents or trans- from the idea icicariba; the idea is a genus 
into any other substance, and which dif- separated from amyris^ to which the elemi is 
in some essential property from every commonly referred. The Mexican is said by 
known body. Several elements indeed Dr. Royle to bo from a species of the elaphri" 
under two or more allotropio conditions, t^m, which he names clemi/erum. The resin 
states they exhibit different properties, is imported in various shapes, and in different 
modifications are however mutually con- colors and degrees of consistency. It was for- 
ivrdble into each other, and are regarded as merly much employed in plasters and ointments, 
■ere varieties of one and the same substance, but is more used in Europe than in this coun- 
Aa Dov used, the term element does not possess try. Hatters make use of it, and it is in somo 
fe Wttj degree the absolute signification at one demand for varnishes by coach painters. It is 
^ attached to it by the ancients, none of the one of the ingredients of pastilles burned as 
Lts now admitted being regarded as true incense. It has been resolved into two resins, 
T principles of matter. It is indeed not one amorphous and one crystallizable, for tho 
ible that some of them may belong to this latter of which the name elemine has been pro- 
bat of this nothing is known. Provi- posed by its discoverer, M. Baup. 
^HBeUy, all substances which have hitherto re- ELEONORA of Este, an Italian princes?, 
.^toed erery method of analysis that has been whose name is associated with the love and 
L to them — all, in short, which cannot be madness of Torquato Tasso, born June 19, 1537, 
pmd to be compound — are called elements, died Feb. 10, 1581. She resided in Ferrara at 
Gt Biay readily be conceived, the number of the brilliant court of her brother, Alfonso II., 
bodies is constantly changing with tho of which she and her sister Lucrezia were tho 
of science. At present 61 such are ad- most accomplished ornaments. Tasso ec^Qina \a 





80 ELEOXORA (ov Toudo) £L£PUANT 

havo pftnroivoil an arJi-nl pa«inn for Elo^nora. pivln? tft tlio lioa«l the woll-knnwn a-j- 

Biiil tn !i:i\i' aJiIri««c(l to Iht Hnnc of liU iim-t -.urarity; this tli'm^li fur Mi]N<riiir !•■ tl 

forvrni t :rii-iiiii\ l«»tln» tliMi'Vvrr nf nhirS tho iIk* itilM-r j»ur!iyi|»'riii* ha* (hiu)itl«-!i<« Ua-i 

iM-r.M-fiiiiiii'* !•■ « Lii'li 111* i%a,« Mil-jfrtctl l>y Al- r:itctl fn>in tlit.* {hm iiliar rraiiiol furrnati>>ii 

Um^i ^^K^v v.i part iw nUi). Itut tlu* cviiliiiro animal. Thi* L'ro:it cK* vat ion of thi* fri.:i 

oil (lirMilijiri i«itiiitlii tifi^. Tln-ri' wrro M-vi-ral jriim i1<k"* not ari-o from any ini-ri-a'^- 

otlii-r I.i'lsfH of t lit* iiutiii* of KI«'<*tii>ra whom ininial cavity or ('•>rri-'*|Htn(liiiir(l«'Vti<pT:. 

Ti.^Mi I • 1- iir.iU-«! ; a», for iiiotaiuv, Klin iiiora San hrain, liiit tli-|KtiiI« nn thi* pri*at •H|>iir.kr. 

\ ii.tii-. till* lK-aiitiful t'ouiit«!*^ of SiMUfli:!, in tin* tuhK-t of i)m> -kull. ami lUv i\ti->-: 

iihii*^' |»r.ii»«- ho %k rulo iliuniiiii;; %'i'r<H!<. Ilow- hirji-mnit *ti the fmntul >inn«H-\ atr>>r«l:« 

i>v«r. iiM-i Mii.Tup)irr!« a;;rix' in ]M>intiti(; to tlio ph- *i|iatv fiT tlio )>ri;;in of thf nm-H-Ir- 

|iriiii««-< K!t-itni<ru :k« tho lo^ly of hi^ ^I•l-ciaI .-uhi- trunk: tlto uppt-r jiiw ha:4 a ^iniihir «tr 

ratii>ii. IhiM' fir iho |iriniv44 ri'«'i{>ri>(*atc<I hist fi»r tho ai'i't>runiiHhLtii>ii nf thi* i-itMri:it>i:« 

alfi-i-Mun i« n>>t ■ !• arly e«>tuhli'»}ii-il, uii<l tho prr- iit l>«>tlt ru^'^ Mrvn;:th Bn«l Mih«Iit4 ari* i>!i 

FU!iJii!':*Mi ih tli.ii !>!io iravi: him o:ily fricmloliip wiThi*nt tiHi mnili wi-i^rht. Thi* ni-arljk im 

ami pifiji^ul Mmp.iihyin ri*t:irn for hU love, difular fai-ial linvof thoi-lophunt, thiii, lU 

}^hi* u :l-> n* v4 r iiiarriftl. i»n tiio ^i/i* nf tlio fmntal »>inii>H"*. thi* «Iii 

KI.K* »Ni »11A tiF T'li.EiM*. i!.in;:ht« r €»f PotiT <f thi* hmu-* nf ilu* no-^*, ami thi* vt-rtici 

ofTt'!ii!<*. M'lTiiy I'f Nuplfo, Nirn in lo'2*\ wasi tii>n nf tlu* liiaxillary ami inti*rtik;i\ill:ir\ 1 

marrinl ri K>-IH ti* i'i>«iiiii J^* Miiliri. atU'rwiml ari«l tho rraiiial «-a\ity «icrupit"« hut a ^ina 

)rra::il «i'ik<- t'f I'u'~i*aiiy. fifu^ht with ;!ri*ul hravi*- of t lit* hra^t at it." ]H««t«rt(ir rciitral i*- 

ry ui;.k!:.»i l.ir )ii)«hamr!t i-hfniii-% i*apturi-il tho 1)>i' iM-ripitul hum* fnrntt thi* |N.<.tirii>r » 

chit-f ••( chi'n ililippij Siri'//i>. afti-rwani ac- tho ^kuU. ami a4lvam*i'4:il<Mi un t^ it- i:p;<« 

coinpuiili**! ('••«?ii>i in tho war hctwti-n tho «-ni- faiv: tlio i)arii*tal<4 aro vurly (-■■tiMitiilat^-*: 

|K-r«'r Char^f* V. ami Franoto I. of Franco, ami tn oat Ii otht-r, an<l ti» tho tciniHiraN. f>>r! 

%i'a« ait;%«!v i-ii^*a^<-<I in tho takiii^r ^^f SivnniL Hiliil Inix ; tho «thni«>ii1 i* lar;:i>. a::i! thf • 

In tho ia'.sr part •»! hi-r hfo >»ho wa;* ili<in;:ui'«h- ami ^urfa('o of t!io crilirifurin phiti* iril* 

«*«I fi^r !.• r iu>iii (••u** patrmiaiToof U'ttori, thu fluu <li-li«'ato or;;an of pnivll : tlio pphii «>.! i 

art-, ar.'l w.irk* nf i harity. Hat intornally. Iiut it-* i» ll-« :iro innrii."':- 

EIJ-J >Si>KA Tlll.l.i-lZ, aUautifuI rortu;;noM» Vfl.i|.«-il. vm r«»ai!iiiiL* laru"«!> ujN.n th» ^. 

Wonun. U<r:i in 1^>*M. dii^i in 14>i!i. thcilau;!htor tho **ku!l. Tho tn-th rmi-i^t ft 2 \*:ij « 

c»f a i^'-iT i:i>!iIoman. wa« niarru-il in \'A6 to a lu-k^ uno in i:u-h iiiti-rniaiilhiri |n>i.i-, a 

p-iith man i<f t'lrtuno. hut of ]o*>sam iont doMvnt, lar^v and nimpiMinil ninlar* in i a^ Ii j:t« 

a:.4l II. 4* !i hor «<ipiri«irin War*, ilo brought hi' r piTmuiiint tu*k*, uhii-lt an* m««ii-!r'.= ;« i 

t*' '.)if • •! irii'f I.i-i-in, win TO ronlinami I. ft,-ll in i»-ith. ari- prt-* i-ihil h_\ '2 -mall A* • iil'.-- ;■• 

Iii\r Mirlt :i< r. >!.•••!«■ ItiMil li^'iinnii.j his nii«- uhiilt niakf tht-ir ap|H'araiii •■ UtHiti: \] 

Us"". I t.l l»i < .I'uo !.!■• will, :,i*. r ha\i(i;r U-cn K- ain! Tth niiin:h*>. rardv ti« ml 'J \ut ?n • .v 1 

f;u!l« i!.'.>r>i>! f.-nm .'.ir Ir. -*•:&:. il. I'tiil hi-r hi-art and i nf an iii'-ii in diaiiii tiT. aiid ;irr «S* 

w.i^ a* !.!•!•• ni!i .-1 -ii.l in ?.i r •n«ii|hI ii« it )i:id f'»ro tin* 'Jd year, ihiir r«Hii* Inn.j. . r.-.-Ii 

Iki;:;:. !.. : :"r-: i;i.i;r..i.'t . >:ii* fill in hivowi:h al'-i»r!H.il ; ul-.nt 'J tii't!.!!.«. iif^t r ().* i.. A 

a}t» i:./ < ■.*-:i 1 »!: ii'.!- M;an, I>.»n Juan d'Andoi- arr *!iii!. tin* prrniaiu !il li-L*. w!i:- !. .ir* 

ri>. !t« r : ri !• :• ;i< •• :'• r li::n ruid hi-r tvraniiii'al aU'd tn thi> iniuT '»u\v *'\ ai.*l U iiiml i:.i f 

i!i*pt-..*...;i pr>«i :•!•! ^:r* .^\ di«i iiiitt'iit and li'd ti) {•iiTii* t!ii- {.Mm u h* ii aU'iit aii ii ■ !• ! >'... 

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fa^f-r.ii- » .1* ^-^^.i-^.liaS •! *'» thi.* kilij^'* l»pi!!|. r, aiiMiial. T!io liininr Ii-i-lh ii.-i- ri ■! .i: pl.i 

till i...'.i: '.*■ I»fi..'i f.ii I 1 ». 1 . ft. l.;sJi. w ho u*irp. t!ii :r -i/i- and thi- it«inpl« \il_^ i.M':» .r -.■-•;. 

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ELEPHANT 81 

■re alwftTg subjected ; the constant wear of the this resemblance is continued in the leg and 
grinding surface keeps it in order for mastica- tarsns ; the os calcis is very large and promi- 
tkm ; the miinner in which the enamel is ar- nent ; the metatarsus consists of 5 bones^ the 
rmged on this snrface, after the ivory is worn external one being imperfectly developed ; the 
down, enables the anatomist to refer a tooth toes are also 5, each consisting of 8 bones, ex- 
cither to the Asiatic or African elephant. From ccpt the outer, which has one, all encased m the 
the oblique position of the molars in the jaws, thick skin, the division beiug indicated only by 
the anterior portion pierces the gum first, ana the projecting extremities. The bones of the 
may be quite worn while the middle and pos- elephant may be easily distinguished from those 
tenor portions are slightly or not at all used, of other quadrupeds ; they resemble, except in 
10 that these teedi diminish in length at the size, the bones of man, particularly the cervical 
Hme time that their depth is worn away ; as the and dorsal vertebra), the shoulder blade and pel- 
aterior grinding surface becomes useless, the vis, the femur, tarsus, and the bones of the me- 
not ifl removed by absorption, enabling the tacarpus and metatarsus; so that it is not but- 
tooth to be pushed forward by that behind. The prising that even anatomists, ignorant of the 
tiaks are formc^i of ivory and enamel, the for- elephant^s skeleton, should have mistaken their 
mm making the central and by fieur the largest recent and fossil bones for the remains of gigan* 
portion ; the tusks exist in both sexes, but are tio human beings. The food of the elephant i» 
■DiDer in the females than in the males ; they entirely vegetable, and must be immense is 
■ometimes measure 9 feet in length, and weigh quantity, and the digestive apparatus is accord- 
9nsr SOO lbs. the pdr ; this great weight is kept ingly largely developed ; the stomach is simple, 
Ib pliKe only by the tight embrace of the socket of a lengthened and narrow form, its caroiac 
nd sarronnding parts, explaining the abnormal extremity being prolonged into a pouch of con- 
fircctionofthe tusks produced either by sudden siderable size, its internal membrane divided 
nd violent or by gentle and long continued into thick folds and transverse wrinkles, and 
pRKore. The lower jaw is massive, and pro- its muscular coat very thick ; the small intes- 
jowed in frt>nt, where the extensible lower lip tines are voluminous, and tiie large of enormous 
kScmgated into a triangular deeply concave size ; in a moderate-sized animal the intestinal 
organ for receiving the extremity of the trunk, camd was 60 feet long, the small intestines being 
The qnne consists of 7 cervical vertebrss, 20 88 feet, the caecum li, and the large 20i feet; 
doraal, 3 himbar, 5 sacral, and from 24 to 26 the circumference of the 1st being 2 feet, of the 
caodals : the number of ribs is 19, and in some 2d 5 feet, and of the last (colon) 6 feet. The gall 
necimens 20, of which 5 or 6 are true. The bladder is situated between the coats of the 
thoracic cavity is very large, the ribs being con- duodenum, and is divided by transverse parti- 
tinaed back nearly to the pelvis, of great size tions into 4 compartments ; the spleen is 4 feet 
nd width ; the sternum is long, compressed long. The heart resembles that of the rodents 
kterally, and somewhat prolonged in front, in having 3 vena) c^va) opening into the right 
The liiabs being designed more for strength and auricle, 2 above and one below, and the Eusta- 
loGdity than speed, tlioir bones arc thick and chian valve is furnished with a rudimentary 
Ivge :' the shoulder blade is wide, its posterior superior division. The brain is small in propor- 
mar]^ much the shortest; and the spine, beside tion to the size of the animal; in one 7i feet 
the acroTnial process, has a broad, sickle-shaped high the whole organ weighed but 9 lbs., and in 
prominence extending downward and back- another 9 feet high the internal capacity of tho 
ward ; there is no cla\'icle, as the approxima- cranium was only 854 inches, being less than 8 
tion of the limbs toward the centre of gravity times tho weight of the human brain, and less 
k Becessary to support the weight of the body, than 4 times the capacity of the Cauc4isian skull ; 
Ike humerus is short and massive, the ui)per the convolutions are well marked, and the cere- 
extremity hiiving a flat articular surface with helium is proportionately very large ; the 6th 
hilje protuberances for the insertion of the mus- pair of nerves, which supply the trunk, are 
dcs of the shoulders, a strongly ridged shaft, enormously developed. The trunk of Uie de- 
ad ft palley-like lower surface for the forearm, phont is an elongated nose, but is chiefly an 
admitting only of flexion and extension ; the organ of touch, though capable of being used 
•Btcmal condyle is very extensive upward, for smelling ; it forms a conical mass, 4 or 5 feet 
~ radius and ulna are permanently pronated, long, gradually tapering to the end, which is 
both enter into the formation of tho elbow provided with a thumb-like appendage, endowed 
wrist joints ; the 8 bones of the wrist are with a most delicate sense of touch, and capa- 
■nnged in 2 rows, and the 5 metacarpals are ble of picking up a needle ; it contains a double 
Aort and robust, 5 fingers being attached to tube, strengthened by membranes, extending 
ftem : tho fingers, however, are concealed by up as far as tho bony nostrils, just before which 
fte thick and overhanging skin, with the ex- they form a sudden curve; the true nasal pas- 
■fCionoftheends. The pelvic bones are large, sages are provided with a valve by which the 
ti accommodate the powerful muscles to which cavity of the trunk may be cut off from the nose, 
ftaj ^ve origins ; the ilia are broad, rounded a provision rendered necessary when the animal 
■tcnorly and concave toward tho abdomen ; takes fluid into the former. The great bulk of 
Ae femur is simple in shape, comparatively this organ is mode up of transverse and longitu- 
resembling considerably that of man ; dinal muscles bo arranged that the trunk ma']] 
vol/, vn. — 



82 ELEPIIAKT 

be dongatod, tbnriened, ruined, and bent in anj The ii«iia1 hcifrbt is from 7 to 10 fi>ct« that of 

desired direction, with all the )irvi'iMi>n f>f tho tin* fi'iiiul«."i Ai'mtt (irtwoIcM; i»i>ii'iuu-n4 are oa 

baman hand. ThoU{{h tho tnink h r:i|ial>Io uf rrronl ntiiMiK'rably lari;vrthan thK !K«iiie hav* 

perfumiing the inii!»t dolirmte o|H.Tatiun\ it i.i in»r a K-npih nf 15 fvet and a hi'i^ht nf over 11. 

alxi an orvnn of jprvAi i&tronfrth and a wi^apun Tito peril n1 nf (ceMatitm i<« alHiut S*i| ro^mlba; 

of the m<»t funiii'hiMo character; with it (he tlic nfw-horn aiihnal i* 3 fvvt hi^h. vitb all 

animal ti'br^ t}i( hranrhcs frt)mtn>iM in it« ^farch it- ?hiim'< piTfi-ct ; ciiickin;; \* piTfonnf! hy iJm 

for fiM.id, (x rf>>n!i« tho h«.•avie^t ta«k4 forhi^ hu- Mh>:itli. thi* tnink lK.>inf;turiu><l back, and i« ru»* 

man own or and defends hiuiM.'Iffntm his Muall- tliiiu'd U»r a iieriml uf nvurlv 2 ji-ar^. Th» 

er eDeniiL-»; with it hv iiitm«luciii futnl anil votin;; tprow rnitidly, iKiug 4 fvi't hich in iIm 

drink into Lis ni'iuUi, which, fruiii the ^hortni'S^i t!d }i-ar, and arc haid t«i W f*iu'k)ed indiAfrimi- 

of bia iici-k, !if cannot brinj; to the £T«)Und ; br nntrly dy ajiv frtiiaK* in the hinl; tber aiti^ 

btfpirint* :hn>n^h tlie trunk he tills it with waur, maturity at aUnit tho ajre f»f 30 jvws and 2iT« 

which ho d IK* harp.' 4 into hL« mouth i*T in re- cvrtuinly fi»r 15<* yoar?*, and iirobablj fi>r SOQL 

freahing !*}i'iwor4 uwr hu back. So imi(«*rUtnt Tlio wt-i^ht of a fuD-erown oivphant i« fromS 

la tbii or^'an that tho aniiiial's firit oi't when in \** 5 ton-; ono kopt in l^indun tor many yeai^ 

danger i^ to raise it alnivc his hfrnl ; when hunt- botwi-vn 10 aiitl 11 fi'ot hif;h. CMn!»iimo<l «laalj S 

ing the ti|^r or other wihl animal, ho carrii-s tru^**-^ of hay an<l abuut 2CK)Ilri. of cam»t4 aaA 

It high in the air ; any wo'.md of it bo«.'iu4 to frr^h \fp-tAhlrsdrinkinfffr«im AO to N) galloM 

render him holpK-M* ; in ordinary caacfi he rare- of wuitT ; thi*i tino >|KrinK'n co^t, on hi« arriwl 

Ir luot it to htriko an object. When cri>i>ing in Kn^lami iu isir», ink) guinea**; ho |>erfoniMd 

deep rivtTB tJje l»Lsly is deeply immersctl, and in iiantoiuime- at tho theatre- for Mveralvran; 

respiration ran be carried on with only thu tip ho wif« .-uhjiit to in-rioiru'al fits of rage, iiuriv 

oftho trui.k abovQ water. Tlie m-u^ of Muell i:» one of wliich it wa.s deemed ni*re*!^ry to kifi 

■cute. thoUp^h not resident in tlio trunk pn»iier, &i him. whieli wa» done by t!io diK-hari^' into hi* 

la indicated by tlio extent of tho froiitai and IhhIv of about ISO ritio balK an«l hy *eTenI 

BiAxlUarr »iiiU4es communicating with tho m>!H.'; aevero !• word and lamv thni«it!^. Th(»ngh tte 

the f^iht-noidal »inuM.« aru al-«> of unu.*ual di- eleph:uit will hrL-e*! in caiilivity, thi- ^uitplj fcr 

mention*. The h^'inm vf hearing is al^o acute, doim-tio and warlike pnr|Hi«i>s niu*t Ifi* Kr|it up 

ai it *houM !ie ft»r an animal living in tltick liy h untinir the wild an imaU and retbicing than 

woods and jung1i•^ in which vi-ion can hardly to •n-rtiiudo: the favurite way in India ia to 

detect thi' appriiaA*h of an enemy; tho ear cum- capture the wild by the aid of tamo animal^ 

municates «itli vxten-iro U-ny coll s and tho e-iwrially female •&; the -i* display a« much trearJi- 

external aundo i* lar^v to ci*IUrt the Miunds ery, ini:enuiiy, |ifrM'%t-ranco, and ri>uraffe, M 

and coiivev them to the twnpiumm. Tlie lyo ditl o\erhuman*H.*ductrtiM-omp.nx'* tlto d«*<rue- 

U tmall. \'M i« «ell prMtected l>r thick litl- and tinn of a viit'.m. FMlInuim: in thi- track ci 

a liii-t-.t&t:::*; iiii-inhrane. The mu^-uhir \\ -teiii the nmle wild animals, the wily f« male* m%)T« 

la of lUin.i I -H* >rr«n,:ili: and the li^ame!iinm gradually ton aril tin ni. ^Tazin^ uith '.he f«m« 

nurliir. w''i'.i!i «':p{M>r:4 tlie heu\y hea*!. i^ 4>f coinpLuvney aiul iiiiliiren n<'o a» if they wcrt 

iinc.<i:itiii':i -.'••and tirmm *•-.-- Eleji^iaiit 4 in- iidiabitantu of (lie f>»re-t ; while the femalr!» 

bahtt tl.e !r<;-.>al fure*'!^ cf A^ia anil Atrir:i, caj*''iinirama!i*. the h:ii:tt n* rai:ti>iu«*!y appn 

li*inj: ii; tri-'j-: thiiu,;h ortt-n deMnirti\e to and fasten hi«< le^*< hy n •{•<"• ti» tn e*. tl.e fi 

trots &;i<l «•>;••. .illy (•* ea<'i-!..-irMio plx'.t-, they di-tr acting: tho at!entii<n of the int«niltnl 

arr 4U;i t ii:.l ::i Tfeii^ine uiile«^ at:a«-ke-! hy tivo, and e\en a— iMin^' in Mndintf the rorda; 

man or i>::;i r o:.:?:::^!^; t^iiv prefi^r ^\iilua- the female-^ then lea^o him. m h« n he ha» dl^ 

teret! rt,:-i.«. ui.ire a lar»:e ht nl nuiv frc- covered hi^ ei>iMli:ion. t«> ^*'nt hinuvliu rag* 

qarnt!\ U- -••:< ;:-:.i!i(l hy n .!!.«• n]. I iiin!i\ keip- ti> hm own e\lKiu-fii*n ; further rtdi:ro! hf 

ing in the -^,:i'U' ilurif:/ midiiuy and !Led;n»r at h'ni«*er and tliir-r. he will imniii aiii>w himself 

mon..ri/ ari! i '.«:t!i:)?. easily b!ari!ir>l, tliev re< ti» U* letl !>y lii- treat liiTfUi r<impanion» tti ttA- 

tire !•• tl.i v..^M>« ai t*..* appr^aih i*i' ni.ip.. V::t tit>;i4 app«<inteil f>r tLo trainin;* of ehphaati^ 

ifp:ir«ue*! M .!'. !<:r:i ni.d atTaik him ui:}i !*.e « !.• r«'. at^er a f < w nn-nthV ili-t-ipline. he b#- 

grea?!-*" f;r%. « t-.lv 'J ^ji,!;, , nre de*i riV« il, cun »•< ijuiie d»H -.le aii*l r\intent«l. Ihcro art 

tho A-.a!.«' sr •! !l.i« Ainean e!tp!..i:.!. llio \:i:l"ii4 i.ilur ni'-^Ie"* lY taking elephant* by 

A*iat:r I ;. J ■■ .r.' / V; h*is /u it^':M, K'u\.\ « \!« !:- fi male decjn, l'\ *tra!;i^im. and hy driiifi^ 

»j\t!» <!i-:r:' :••■! n^i r S. l:.<.\ an*! t!.e K, A-:- Kl^p!»an!\ l-'th A*ia?:i- aiid Afriian. frojuectl/ 

atir i-1ai. 1-. !.:k« i.:i •■•■!••: ^ h«-a«l. r. .::• a-. *• :' r. - l^'ire in the h:-ltrv ol'thr warsff the Cir««ka 

brad, ar:*! *'• ■ ' «:.« i !' t\i ;i:'-!'ir« ]>ri •<i.:.:..: a:.d Ki'ti..*!!.-. I'.kr.i}- III. had a *u\x.\ r.^mi^T 

tra;i«Mr4- .• ! !.»•.■,• r.I^*. •. thi-i .ir-»ar«- *:: ail ot' thi :ii in h'.< » .ir a^'i.!.-! Ahiaitdir; iN^nw 

rf^ri.por^-i vi ". !' ■ .• i-:" !? e A*r.':ui •'J- « •>. of Iii-lia hn* i/ht a l;.r,'i- i.uiriU'r inl«» the f^cU 

Tljr •kn :• '. ..' * \'. 1 ! .. L. vr:t.L!«<l u}- ..'. !*.•• n.T.::.-t thi* f:ii:te r^'n j..i ri-r. N U ucu- had hua- 

Irf*. r,i.-k. ;•.•.; ' •. 1*". !:.!■ in :i. r i! i -'. r i- a «!r' :<> uf tin t:i in hi- nrn:y a! tiie i:rva'. ba:t!ei^ 

bn.»:.;»h ,t-^ : \- \ - ::.. :.!ti« < wirh I.^-I.'.i r lp-:v r.*rrh::* *f Kj'-.n:*. Ha:;ni^al. a:i>S Ad- 

»!■■?■•. I ■:.'•»• :.. :.'- :.rc \.M r ir* !; -^ . :; ; ;.■»< !.•!•• the liriat Tn^.'-t witii vlepha::!* afa;iist 

ti*«' ha:r« ir- :. ■* a' i :.,• !. ii. •' *' »;r.'l;ir ! **\ !!.r K>ir:Mn\ »h<» lh» iu-nIm-- nr^^n matlo uae cf 

Otr litfti!. r; I !.it *.:.%•' .'t t'^<. !hi' X..i.''« if t!.' *:i in l!.i :ri ii::ip:i;/ik-. a:.d aliHti \hil':l«^ thcfS 

w}.;rh are m< :\ N ; • :.ii tho t utautvua iU%^!o|'C. at *J«eir l'Uhl;c ihow ^ triuuipha, and C\-U.ball %d 



ELEPHAirr 8S 

▼Sd animals in the theatres. In the ancient In- ish evergreen, the *' speck hoom,^' which forma 
dhn empires, elephants formed a necessary ap- very dense jungles in CafTraria, utterly nselesa 
pendage to the royal retinue ; they were used on account of its pithy hranches even for fuel ; 
for shov, for warlike purposes, and for carrying this is a favorite food of elephants, which 25 years 
hardens. In the East at the present time ele- ago frequented this region in large herds, whose 
phants are employed for transporting haggage, paths are still discernible on the hillsides, and 
dragging artillery over difficult places, and whoso hones are seen bleaching in all directions, 
otherwise in connection with army movements, From this selection of food they are not so in- 
bot withont entering into the actual mancQu- jurious to the vegetation of a district as would 
rres of battle; they exercise their strength and be supposed, quality being more requisite than 
^gacxty in lifting, dragging, and pushing with quantity. Most of the native tribes hunt them 
tkeir leather-protected foreheads. When the more for their flesh than their ivory, the latter, 
dephant gets under full headway, his speed is until the advent of Europeans, being of little 
ea^iderable, and his momentum overcomes value to them except for rings and ornaments; 
■& ordinary obstacles ; though able to carry the flesh is much relished as food, and the in- 
B izumense weight on a level surface, he is li- temal fat is highly prized for domestic and 
lUe to totter and fall backward when forced medicinal purposes. They hunted them with 
■pooosderable elevations; a strong animal can light javelins of their own making, overpow- 
travel 50 miles a day, with a burden weighing ering them by numbers. A few white hunters 
iton. The anecdotes illustrating the docility, like Gordon Gumming would soon exterminate 
Action, sagacity, irritability, capriciousness, this noble animal. This species is wilder and 
ad revenge^l spirit of the elephant, are in- fiercer than the Asiatic elephant, defending its 
■merable. and may be found in various well- young with great courage, and furiously attack- 
kaown books on natural history. The natural ing the hunter; though not domesticated in 
aemies of the elephant, beside man, are the ti- modem times, it probably might be as easily as 
|cr and the rhinoceros, and the nasal horn of the other species, were the same pdns taken to 
the latter often proves a more formidable weap- tame and train it ; it can hardly bo doubted that 
on than the trunk and tusks of the elephant ; the elephants used by the Carthaginians in their 
the nght of even a dead tiger is enough to ex- wars with the Romans were of African origin. 
dte most elephants into a transport of fury. — The length of the male tusks is from 6 to 8 feet, 
The African elephant (^. ^/r{<^nu«, Cuv.), ge- and their weight from 60 to 100 lbs. each; 
nns lifzodonta (F. Cuv.), has a more rounded Gumming mentions a single one in his posses- 
head, a rather convex forehead, enormously long sion 1 Of feet long, and weighing 173 lbs. ; the 
cars, and cheek teeth with lozenge-shaped di- price which they bring in the Eoglbh market is 
Tisions of the crown; the generic name of F. from $120 to $160 per 112 lbs. according to 
Cnvier was founded on the last characteristic, quality. Such is the terror which these animals 
It inhabits Africa from Caffraria to the Niger, have acquired from the persecutions of man, 
firing in similar localities and with the same that a child will put a herd to flight ; they are 
Banners as the other species. The males at- very difficult to hunt, from their hiding them- 
tun a height of over 12 feet, but decrease in selves in the most remote and inaccessible for- 
ue north of 20' 8. latitude ; the tusks, how- ests, going often 20 miles by night to water. 
erer. are larger, according to Livingstone, as "When at ease they sleep on their sides, but when 
yoa approach the equator ; the females are liable to be disturbed they sleep standing ; their 
■BsQer than the males. Under the tropics, ani- gait, when natural, is bold, free, light, and grace- 
nals as well as men decrease in size, though ful. Gumming gives an interesting description 
food there is most abundant ; such climates (" Hunter's Life m South Africa,'' vol. i., p. 804) 
nem unfavorable to full animal development, of the manner in which the Bechuanos cook 
l&e natives estimate the height of this species the feet and tnink of the elephant in hot earth 
bxdoabling the circumference of the impression and sand. In his experience from 5 to 30 rifle 
■ide by t lie foref[K>t; this is tolerably accu- shots were necessary to kill an elephant, and the 
ate for'adolt animals. In the most favorable best place to direct them is just behind the 
Imlitxes the African elephant is considerably shoulder ; it is useless to aim at the front of the 
hvfer than the Asiatic ; but toward the eqna- head, as the chances of a ball penetrating the 
the female African is about as large as tho brain from this direction are very small. The 
male. The car of the African species destruction of these noble animals for the pur- 
ient to distinguish it, being often more pose of supplying the world with ivory must bo 

5 feet long and 4 feet wide, 3 times as immense ; whenever the regions inhabited by 

kqps as that of the other species ; it descends them shall be occupied by agricultural tribes, the 

^OB the legs, and is frequently used as a sledge animals must retire and finally be exterminated 

ft the cape of Good Hope. From the ancient by the inability to obtain sufficient food ; when it 

Mat it is evident that this species was known is remembered what a quantity of vegetable food 

^the old naturalists, and it has been justly herds of elephants require, it must be evident. 

"-** that Aristotle knew it better than did Buf- that man and such large herbivora cannot coexist 

It seems to be a dainty feeder, selecting the in tho same districts. — Many species of fossil 

HtsX, fruits and vegetable matters contain- elephants are described from tho drift of Exviop^ 

kg logar, macilage, and gum ; there is a dwarf- and Asia; tho best known of these, the £. prv 



S4 ILXPHANTA ELEpnANTIASIB 

mifffniui (Car.), will bo tn^ateJ in tho articio Siva, who alw holds in his han«l a c»bni d« e»- 

lUMMttTii, which \* the coninioii name ; their |K'11o. Sevvrol other fipirefl of Sim, ime i/ Um 

remaiDJi liive livon abundantly found inSiU^ria, 4-fiired liraliiua, anil one of the double dintj, 

and ftMil ivory from this H<>un*e haii been lui half nifde, half female, called Vir^. fonncd bj 

important oljwt of trade. The fo^il elephaitta the union of Sivm witli I'arrati, are ako to \m 

of Europe rt-M'nible mi>st the A'*iatie f(|)eiMvsi, itei>n. There are 2 smaller excaTationn on tbs 

bat Xhey were more bulky, with lar^rer tu!ik^ £. and W. slnpcii of tho hill, similar to the 0«al 

narrower teeth, and with the skin covered with temple, and lille«l with repri-^ntations of Uiih 

hair and wool to enable them to dwell in cli- doo deitici*. But what U most remarkable ii^ 

mates colder than any in whicli the?« aniinids that althou^^h most of tho aubjecta cif fhiw 

are now found, though not in a climate so ri^'or- licuIptun'S aro evitlvntly Hrahminicai, and tim 

ona as that of Siberia at the present time, wliich tfrnph*!! wvro pn>liably dedicated to Sira. tbfffv 

would l»o unable to funiLth tho necessary w^e- is at K-A'M one figure which api^eam to be thai 

table fo«id. Foeidl bpe4*ivs re^'uibiin^ the Afri- of Kuddha. Xo record cif the origin of thm 

can, and others with mastodon-like tei*th, have shrines can bo found. The general opinioD d 

been found in the Himalaya mountains bv Caut- Europeans who have examined them is thai 

ky and Falci*ner. The fossil eleiihant ot Ni>rth tliey date fn>iu a iK^riod suli»equent to tte 

America is said by I'ruf. 11. li. ibU^ferH (** i^ro- birth of Christ, |)erhaps as lat« as tho Mi «r 

ceeding!! of the I^^tton SN*iety of Natural llii- 10th century. 

tory," Vi>l. v., \K iZ) to oi-eur ul»ove the drift, in £LEriIANTIASI8. Under this c on iW M 

the superficial defMriiits i>f a distinctly later a^ ; name two entirely dilVerent dt<teases are cumpi^- 

it must, llierefore, have been contem|N>niry with bended : t\ .IimAuwi, elephant Kg, or Rarbadoi 

the ftMsfvJon ffigauUuM ; indeed their bones leg; and A*. ^fViPcorii/n, eleiihant »k in, or tubcffm- 

and teeth hare been found side by side in the )ar elephantiasis. \. El€j'\tMnti*uUArabumyiiw§ 

marsliy alluvium of liig lione Lii-k, and the two deH'ribed by HliAzes in tlie Vth century ; it pff9- 

animals must have been ex tenniuaie<lt««ether; vails extensively in IhirbudiH, wh^ce tk» 

from this one of two conclusion;* mu-^t be do- name Barbados leg; it is K*minon in IkciD»> 

rived : either the drilVs are not of tho samo rara, Cayenne, and Brazil, in the S. W. part 

MKK'lia, or eUethufonsil elephants of the two re- of tho island of Ceylon, and on the Malabv 

gions niuiit be dilVerent »|»et:ics, coa^t in India ; it i^ S4»metimes found in Ci 

EI.EPI1ANTA, or (iakai-oui, a small island and tho Anurias in (Spain, and rKxasiooal 



of Brittrh India, on the E. side of iiombay bar- rmlic cans are met with throughout Europe 

bor. aU>ut h m. from tlie mainland ; hit. Itt 57' Amerir:L Notwithstanding it.^ name, tL« <li^ 

N., long. 7:r E.; circumference aUmt 5 m. It e&M^ is not contine<l to the log, but may attack 

Cou»i«t.o iif 2 hills with a valley betwivn them, alnn'st any |iart of the bmly. The attAcIt il 

much overgrown witli wikmI, but diversified u»hereil in l>v markeil rlpir, heada* ho. i>aia ia 

with*fi«ime rici* !ield:< and p:ir>ture!«. The inhal>- the bai*k and linil*^, followed by hint of the sii^ 

itauts aU>ut I'N) in numU'r. are envugetl in alternatiii;; with pn>fu!<o i>er>pirati< n, and a^ 

ivariug sheep and |>iiultry for the liombuy mar- tmdeil with liiirnmg thirst ; at the saniv lima 

kft. The usual landing phwv is on theS. coant, S4»n:e part of tin* IkmIv U'conu-s rci! and swol« 

about 2^141 y.irds from which, rudely cut from K-n. hut and p.iinful. part imlarly along the tract 

an LHihitedblack riN-k, wantheli^ure of an do- of tho lynipliatic ve-ir<'N. In a few days tba 

phant, IH f(H>t long, now rdlen to di*rav, from svnipt«im^ Uitii gineral and IiK*aI. ftuboide, witk 

which the Euro] •eaii name for the iilantl in de- tlie exi-eption that the atKvted part reinaiaa 

rived. Eurtherinlatid,aUjut half way nn the N. m-Te or le'»4 swollen. At irregiiUr intrrrali 

aide of a liill. is a remarkable eave temple of un- hin.ilar paroxyMiu rei'ur. the alfcctc^l part bciaf 

kotiwn ant iiiuity, which ha-* liint; U't'n di-srrt 111 each time Kft more ^ui>Ilen and imlurated; 

by iu priests, ai.d i^ now frei^ueiitttl lUily by a^ the eiilargi-nu-nt in(-n'.\se\ the skin often b^ 

marriiJ wnmen pra> ing for fe*niiidiiy. The *p:i- comes niugli, covered with scale*, and fismvd. 

fiions entraniv, (>» ftt-t niile and 1*^ feet hich, is Thedi<*oase i» usually contmed U^ i-no |kart uf tba 

aopl>ort^<<I bv 2 nia<»Mve pilhirs and *.* pilasten, bo<ly. thuut:h<-*<'«'aj»ii>nid]y lioth leg^ areafft<ta^ 

beiDg thu<* liivided into 3 pasMtfe ways. The The alfecteil parts nf^iii at tain an eiionx)i»ussijiL 

Interior breadtli of the cavorn is 123 fe^t, and The cau«e^ nf HaHiadi*^ leg an- ii'>t under*tnod; 

Ita length, pre-<'nting a s«'rmirifcrly ei.dleM vista it* i^vurrenre in partii-nlar di-tri.-L* slums thai 

of hug%» «'«'ilamn* eut fri»m the livirj: nn-k, si'mo b»ral cauM*4 ha\e •«»Tn«-:hing to do « ith iu pt^ 

of them Ir'kt-n bv the P«'rt«»:uei.e. who formerly ductiun. In tin* Wi-t Indies the mgn^A aaA 

aawcsfcd the '\Atdv\, ii aUiUt L»o fivt. Tlio in Ceyl«»n tl.e nnliw rnfe, are alTn ttd t&Q^ 



fOoTi^genirally lUl. though n-'i ft I HTf«Tt plane, moro ireipii iiily than the whitt-i; and of tba 
The side* are e'xravuiid \i\\** ri"Mipartmrnt». a!l whitri, the m^'liA tht*^* \^^^TZ\ in the c«>outry. 




^ m*- uther sunbols a human skull eK!.i!>ition of mrrcnry. Wht-n t^e d.K^a*o );^a 

aftt repraacutvd on that of already mada cunsidcrabla |»ru|p^H| rust ia a 



ELEPHANTIN2 ELEUTHEBA 85 

positioQ which favors the rctarn of the blood fertile soil. It contains several ancient mins; 
from the limb, and compression by means of among others, the Nilometer mentioned by 
proper bandying, are the means most to be re- Strabo, whoso npper part was destroyed in 
bed upon. II. Bltphantiasis Grrceearum, tnber- 1822, several dilapidated temples, and a gate- 
nlar elephantiasis, appears to have been the way, as well as numerous fragments of pottery 
fisease which daring the middle ages was with Greek inscriptions. In antiquity Elephan- 
known as leprosy; it is most frequently met tin6 or Elephantis was renowned for its (prtility. 
with in the West India islands, and in other Herodotus regards it as forming the boundary 
tzopkal regions, while it also prevails exten- between Egypt and Ethiopia; but afterward 
BTttv in certain parts of Norway, where it is Phyle was regarded as the southern landmark 
known as fpedaUhed, The disease ordinarily of Egypt Elephantin6 was strongly garrison- 
eommeDces by the appearance of dusky shining ed by the Persians as well as Romans for the 
qmCs upon the skin, slightly swollen, and more defence of this province. 
or less insensible. After a variable period, ELEUSIS, in modern times Lessina or Lep- 
wlddi may extend to months, and even years, sina, a fortified town in Attica, on the bay of 
these spots are succeeded by tubercles or small Salajnis. According to ancient mythology, it 
tnmon, sof^ reddish, or livid in color, and was founded bv Eleusis, a son of Hermes. At 
tirying in size from a pea to an English walnut, an early period it was conquered by the Athe* 
These tubercles developed upon the face deform nians and became one of the most populous 
k excessively, giving it often a fancied resem- cities of Attica. Its principal importance was 
Ibnoe to the head of the lion, whence one of the derived from its being the seat of the cele- 
Bimes by which the disease is known (/'e{?7i^uMi«) brated Eleusinian mysteries. These mysteries 
k dnived. As the disease advances, the tuber- formed a peculiar religious festival celebrated 
dm become inflamed and ulcerated ; the ulcers in honor of the goddess Demeter or Ceres, the 
ende a sanions fluid, and this concretes into patroness of agriculture, and the representative 
tiu^ crusts; the bones become softened and of the procreative power of nature. Originally 
■kered in form. In the progress of the disease these celebrations appear to have been some- 
tike gastro-intestinal mucous membrane becomes thing like modern thanl^sgiving festivals, but 
nvdved, and tubercles make their appearance afterward a symbolic meaning was attached to 
in the pharynx ; the sense of smell is lost, sight them, and they became the vehicle of a secret 
k weakened, and the touch blunted. In this science, conducive, as was believed, to eter^ 
▼retched condition the patient may continue to nal bliss. They consisted in dramatic repre- 
erist a long time, unless cut off, as is commonly scntations of the myth of Ceres and the rape of 
the case, by some intercurrent disease. In a sec- Proserpine, hor daughter, by Pluto, and would 
end form of the disease, E. aneesth^tica^ patches seem to have been intended to propagate the 
of ta irregular shape, sometimes slightly elevated belief in the immortality of the soul, and to 
i2x>Te the surface, appear upon the extremities, give an ideal moaning to the coarse fancies of 
of a tawny color ; in whites they are lighter the popular religion. The great Eleusinian 
thsa the rest of the surface ; in the negro they mysteries were celebrated at Athens and Eleu- 
me dry, shining, rough, denuded of hair, and sis in the latter half of September and the 
faBeosible. The hands and feet, and then the 1st of October; they lasted 9 days; the lesser 
flxtremitie^s generally become swollen, stifl^ took place at Agraj on the Ilissus during the 
tnd nninb ; ulcers form on the metacarpal and spring. Except to murderers, barbarians, slaves, 
ttetstaraal articulations; these enlarge, pene- and afterward Epicureans and Christians, the 
tnte tiie joiiit, and finally amputate the toes admission to the public performances and re- 
nd fingers. As the disease advances, the pulse ligious exercises was free for all ; but in the 
i€3 slow and the bowels constipated ; some- secret allegorical representations none but the 
it in complicated Avith the tubercles of the initiated were permitted to participate, and they 
variety ; in other cases the lobes of the were bound by solemn oaths never to reveal 
the wings of the nose, and the lips, bo- what they had seen or heard. The unity of 
i thick, hard, swollen, and ulcerated. The God and the immortality of the soul are supposed 
pBitient U listless, and his intellect enfeebled, tohavo been the secret doctrine of the mysteries. 
nd in this condition he may live many years. In 1858 a Greek schoolmaster, named Vlastos, 
~ caases of tubercular elephantiasis are un- discovered at the village of Hagi-Constantioa 
n ; it appears to bo hereditary ; but the an inscription upon an old marble slab, con- 
prevalent opinion of its contagiousness is taining rules and regulations for the celebration 
BDt foond to agree with recent observations, of the Eleusinian mysteries, but nothing was 
Of its proper treatment little is known, and learned from them about their allegorical mean- 
itai cmce fally developed it has hitherto seem- ing. — See Uwaroff, Essai sur les mysteret d'Eleu- 
ii incanible. »w (3d ed., Paris, 1816), and Preller, Demtt^r 

KLEPHAl^TINfi, or ELSPnANrnrA (Arab, und Persephone (Hamburg, 1837). 

imBer€t'tl-Sag, "islet of flowers," or Jeziret- ELEU TIIER A, or Alabaster IsLA^^), one of 

^Jjfvan), an island of the upper Nile, about the largest of the Bahamas, and the principal 

1 mile long and \ m. broad, at tho foot of the fruit-growing island of the group, in lat. 24** 

Ue cataracts, opposite ^Vsswan, tho ancient 38' N.,long. 76^ 9' W. ; area about 100 sq. m.; 

• It is formed of granite covered with a pop. in 1851, 3,400. It is of irregular shape, long 



ELEUTUERIA ELGIX axd KINCARDINE 

nd narrow. Tlie 9o\\ U fertile and the climato was a bi:'h«>|i% !ioo ; it^ cat!ii*<Iral was fijun«!«d la 

•grwablo. Tlie rljicf M.'ttlciiiviiti« am at Guv- 12*24, and wa4 ImriicU in Juno, 139i.i, l*j Alciaa* 

«nior*H njirU>r, Om Co%'i*, Wreck Sound, and dvr Scuart, couiinonly railed the wulf of Hadt 

the CumrnL. mn-h. lU^hop Barr ^fon ailcr crcctvd in iu 

ELErTIlEKIA ((ir. fXfv^f^Mo, froc^lunOt Mead a trrui-ii'onu church with 3 tow c-r». Abool 

ununt; tho aiiriwit (irvckft, a fcatival couimvni- tho voar ITitiS the privj council ordcrvJ lb# 

orativo <if dflivoranro fn>m tho urniiiit of load to l>o htrittiiod from tlie rituf and aoid to 

XerxiA.* It yk-tki in.-titutitl altvr tho l*uitlo of luuiutain the Miidivnt of the n*gvut Murray. Th« 

P]ata«a (47'J li. C), and colohraied annually at uoMv utruttnrc hat uvi-rvlnce been falling pic«^ 

that pLtfv iu tho month MainiacU.rion. nc^ly nual to dcs^tructiou. The grval ccutraTlowv 

eorre«|Hiiidiu^ t4i ciur Strpivnihvr. At tho duwn and ^ftiro, I'js iwi hifcli, fell in 1711. Tho 

of day a |inM-f:«Hi(»n marohtd throU);h tho tuwii, chant vr huu»o. a U*autiful )iiece of architcctiii% 

ni tito head of whii'h truni|icti'r» tlvw tho ^'ifi- in tliv hhu|ie of an iM'iuf^on, with agroiited rtM^ 

Bal for battle. At midday a cliariot wa!i drivt-n aui'|>orti*d by n hund9ome nilunin iu th« ccntrO| 

towartl the altar cri»wucd with ui}rt]v and va- and olaUirutoly urnaiuontcd, b i>till entire. Aft 

lions fpirland*s and leading behind it a black laio ad the U*i,'inning of tlie lUth century Elpa 

bnll. Iu front of the altar the arohfMi of I'lata'a lioro much i>f tho antii{uated look of an old co* 

immolati'«l tho bull tu JupitiT u::il Mercury, cle!>iu^lical town, but it in now peatly ckanc«d» 

culii^'i/t^l till* )uTot-A who had fallen ut I'lata:!, New hoUM.-!i aitd ^trooti have taken tho |iUc«if 

and ftpriiikled thv ground Willi wine. Krery the old ; asskinbly rooms have Ui-n fitted op; 

5Ui year the^* MiUiunities were atti*nded by a neat moilern church has U-en built; and too 

eonto»:% • !ia{'leL« lK.*ing the reward of the \ ictorii. streets are well ^we)lt, drained, and lighted vilh 

ElAilN. a t*iiy of Kauo to., IIU on l>oth banks gas. Gray's Inippital or infirmary, an inatitniMa 

c# Fox river. 42 m. N. W. from Chicago; iMip. emlowed with i'20,OiM), occupios an elevataA 

in lSo<), *.*,:i.'i9; in 18oh, about 4,0mo. ItLta bite in the we-ttern part of the city. Anoq>bao 

pro»|ierou!i t ratling place, U-ing situated at tho aj^ylum horv was endowed with £70,000, lo 

junction of the I: ox river v alloy and tho Galena connection with UantF, CuUen, liiverary, KiiH 

and Chica^ unit in railn>ud<*. It has 2 wevkir tore, and IVterhead, Ugiu rvturni oue mcmbv 

Bew»f>a|ivr ulTu'eis a bunk, 3 hotvK a gri!*t mill, to lliu hoUM* of rommons. 
adi»tillrry, a carriage fartory, 2 man ufoi tori es KLiilN ANnKlNTAIlUINE, Tuomas RBrc% 

of agricMltural impleinenu, and M'Veral schools 7t!i I'arl nf. « Itriti^li nobleman, burn July SflL 

and ai*a*!i*inie<i. It vasseliled in 1^*:*^. 17i'*'i, dietl in Sari's N«*v. 14, 1^4l. He mam 

ELGIN, a S. \\. ixiunty of I'auada West, on »«iiiie time at t!ie uhi\erMty of St. AiMir««*|^ 

tbe N. shore of Like Erii*. tra\erM-tl by Otter stu«lieil law in TurU, and ha\iii;; pur^ui-d mil^ 

cnx'k, and Uirdered by theTliamt"4 ri^er; area, tary •^tiidu'i in (irrinriiiy. iMered the anny aod 

about 7i"» ^\. m. ; |iop. iu Ki2, l!\41'«. piM.* t«i the r.iuk i>f if^iuru]. 11 i^ time, Ikiwctct, 

EI.4i IN. formerly MtiiiAi. a muritimu co. in w:iA ih'MU pu'-^d in ili|'l«in:atir enipltivmeai^ 

the N. of S«'iit]and, U»-.iii'Uil N. 1>\ Moray frith, .\tii r huMri,; Uku iittru-tid with mi^Mons to 

titrndifi^' 40 m. frfia N. to >.. an>I h.i\in^ a liru-MlH iiml Uerliii. in 17 'J'.* ho wai* Mht aa 

brt'a«Uli t'f lV«>ni h !•» 'Ji ni.; aria. ^4ii •».}. m. ; en\«>y eYtr;wrdiii:ir> t^ C'«>ii.<*tai.tI[ii>]'Ie, whco 

pop. i!i l^M, liW5'J. It l.ai a ei>a-»: Iiitc (>f tin- i^h'a «H-«-urtitl t<i him cf reo'-uin.: Irxm tiOM 

aliont It^i M^ on wbirh are u few Miiall harSur^. and t!io Turk- und reiiii>\iii.: (•• Liu'WumI tho 

H'ith the e\i«*piiiin tif »inu* bruLen m.i«M*^ «»f celi-lirute*! H--ii!i<li;rf'« uliit.S are (.••w in tha 

rvK'k. the surf;ii'e in thi^ «{'aarter i^ n«.ur!y U-vel, lirilt^h naiM-ijin. ui.d bejkr l.io liunu'. I in his ^9f 

but ir.land it ri^«iut'iiiill«. in(vr»iH*rs<-«l aillifir- h'>:iii- he pa— >«tl intn I'ruiire. whiri. Na}^*WuO 

tiit> vallev\ and diver.^ifii tl by luke^. The Si>ey, del.i:iird l.:!ii u<» a li«<«t:i;;e mi the riiptun* of tha 

Lonnie, and I'mdhoni, the tir»t aiid Ia.«t of w Liih |>\-ai i- «*f .Vniiei.o. lie u a- r« Wn^ d \u 1n*«*i, 

contain -AlnioT I, are the c-liief ri\er«. Matu aiid paoM.-d the ri^t ft hi-* hfe Hithf.il pi.hlkC 

frcc«t«ine are the oi.iy VAluable niMKT.d'*. Tho pli'Viiieiit. Ho u a* a. ^uti h rrj ri 'H.i.:a:i\«> |i« 

duuale i« MiiUI and dry ; the ^*i\ of the hi« lands fi»r .Vt vvaT'*. Iu l^l•' I.«'rd l.'.^iU pul>;i>h«^ 

Is general! V ft-r tile, sihI the hili«f:irni-h puftlurnce dt I'l-nee of l/.t «<»liili:it a 4ttt \iii;iiie. eutitltd 

ftir blaik iVmI nheep. rattle, and lii<r«i:*. Tiio ** Menioraii«luiii mi tiie >iilj« • t •<:' tli« (larl of 

Staple proline tilt! I i* wheat, but oat«. |K>:Attv<(, Kljin't rur-riiTH in liretre."- Jwb* Hat't'^ 

ana t'trnip« ari< nl«o ^"n^wn e\tt-:ioi«el\. I.i-ki hth < arl, nui nf the pri-***!}!!:;:. a Itr.'.i^h »tatci^ 

than ) of t!iv laiid i.-* culti^ate^l. and t.'ji re aru maii. l>«.rii .luh *J'>. 1**11. H.'* »ti;d:«« «cra 

■tdl Iar,^* uneiM IifM'J tra«-t*. 0<rn, w!.>k<-r, )i ^"in u*. Kti':i. m.il « •'!tipl(t««! u*. ni:i«trhujT^ 

fish, antt timUr ari- tlie luiM* itiiiHirtAtit I \|i«'rt.<«. <>il><rd. uhci l.v wa« t;rai:ua%d *:. l^^'f. Bo 

The nMuity I* t.^avi r«t.Hi ly » nuniU r i>f «:i"»<l «ai aitvrw^knl iIkNiI ii'..i'\\ it M«rti'n «v4- 

rooi<s but ha* fi«»r Altai* and nil rai*. WAV*. 1 h:i f lt;;e. He i>>ii:iiit in-id \.v,)-\.t l.lt at fiif i/ tho 

town*. K!|fin, Korre*, K««huU*r>s and ll'jrirJn-:^!. nn •!.*■* r# «'f |.vl.amtii; :-r >• s.tiiarnpti'O Ul 

— EiuiN. a riyal pafIiAiiirn!.irv anil n.Miu .} .il l***!, but. » re tin- wnr wa* n.:, ••.ic%»^»^ tO 



buiyh aiid ritT. t-a|<it.il of the idmvi* rt«i:nty. mi tin- I:!li- &:■•! i •••ale^ «<!' hi* l.i!!.* r. Iu the 

tha S. bank lif the l^»i«ie ; |H»p. uf niUMr.pal rte«!!ii;: \i nr !«t w :ki a*>|««>M.ii d i;>>w r:i<>r uf Ja* 

barfb in I'd. •.H;.7. It i* nurpa!***-*! h\ f»w n::i.- ;i. nn«l wa-. pn.in.r.d in l-J*' l" tl.» m*yrm 

citiM i4 ?voilAiid m liir number aiid in!ire*t rvjn. :;*:!.!,• a'ld 1 1- rii!ive p.-: I l"ir»»M ri.. r cvo* 

aC iti ancknt moouiiKUia. In foruKr times it croi of C-inada. I bd^? Li* admixiuiralAwi. Cao- 



ELGm MARBLES ELI 87 

idA pused from the ferment of recent insnrrec- mnns of the Parthenon and Erechthenm ; beside 

tMRi into a state of tranqniUitj. Through his numerous inscriptions, including that commcm* 

cneffj' and diplomatic skill the negotiation of orating the Athenians who fell at Potidioa ; 

tiie reciprocity treaty with the United States urns, &c., taken from various parts of Athena 

was brought to a successful conclusion in 1854, and its neighborhood. The first instalment of 

ifter which he resigned the office of governor of those treasures of antiquity arrived in England 

Canada, returned to England, and received the in 1808, and excited a feeling of admiration and 

appointment of lord lieutenant of Fifeshiro. delight, not unmingled, however, with indigna- 

Ib the spring of 1857 he was appointed minis- tion at what was considered the Vandalism of 

ter plenipotentiary to Pekin, immeiliately pro- Lord Elgin in removing them from their origi- 

eeeded to the East, was present at the tak- nal resting place, or with doubts as to their 

ing of Canton, and, in conjunction with the artistic value. It was said that ho hod spent 

mnch, socceeded by vigorous measures in re- much time and money in procuring indifferent 

daring the Chinese to terms. After signing a Roman marbles of the time of Hadrian, and the 

treaty with the Chinese commissioners at Tien- project of purchasing them for the nation waa 

tBD. Joly 26, 1858, the conditions oC which were strongly opposed, l^rd Byron is said to have 

highly favorable to the British, he sailed for carried his feeling on the subject of tlio alleged 

Japan, boldly entered the harbor of Jeddo, depredations of Lord Elgin to such an extent^ 

from which foreigners had always been rigidly that on a visit to the Parthenon he inscribed 

exdnded, obtained important commercial priv- in a conspicuous place : Quod non fecerunt 

flegies for his countrymen, concluded a treaty Goihi, hoc fecerunt Seoti. Among those who 

with the Japanese, Aug. 26, and in May, 1859, urged upon government the purchase of the 

retonied to England. Lord Elgin has been marbles was the painter Haydon, whoso style 

twiee married, his second wife being the daugh- received its direction fh)m the contemplation 

ter of the earl of Durham, former governor- of them, and to whose earnest pleas with 

general of Canada. men in power was partly attributed the o£fer 

ELGIN MARBLES, a collection of ancient of £30,000 for the entire collection, made by 

trdptores. chiefly taken from the Parthenon at Mr. Perceval, the premier, in 1811, whicfau 

Athena, now deposited in the British museum, however, was refused. In 1812, 80 additional 

They derive their name from the earl of Elgin, cases arrived in England^ a number of valuable 

wha while British ambassador at Constantino- marbles having prcviou^y suffered shipwreck, 

pie in 1799-1802, procured the permission of and in 1815 Lord Elgin offered to make over 

(he Porte to take away from the ruins of an- the collection to the nation for a reasonable 

cieat Athens "*• any stones that might appear sum. In the succeeding year the purchase was 

interesting to him," With the aid of a corps effected fur £85,000, the actual outlay having 

of artists from Italy, and at his own expense exceeded £50,000. The services of Lord Elgin 

(the Briti«li government having declined to fur- in bringing within the reach of artists, as well as 

ther the undertaking), he succeeded in the course in preserving from the ravages of time, these 

of 10 years in detaching from the Parthenon, masterpieces of anticjuity, are now fully appro- 

or in excavating from the rubbish at its hose, ciated ; subsequent events having shown that, 

abundant specimens of the various descriptions had ho not removed them, the greater part 

of sculptures with which it was ornamented, would have been long since destroy eil. In the 

These consisted of 3 kinds : the colossal statues war of Greek independence, and especially in 

OD the tympana of the pediments, tlie metopes, the last siege of Athens in 1826-'7, the Partho- 

ai^ the frieze around the cella. Of the first, the non suffered very serious damage. The Elgin 

Elgin collection contains statues or fragments of marbles, executed by Phidias or under his di- 

ttatoes from both pediments, those from the rection, exhibit the highest development of 

Ctttero, on which was represented the birth Greek art in the maturity of its splendor. As 

flf Minerva, being the best preserved, while types of beauty they have never been suqjass- 

tkose representing the contest of Neptune and ed, and even in their present fragmentary and 

l&Bcrva f*tT the pi>ssession of Attica arechicHy mutilate<l condititm they afford models of form 

torsos an«i fragments, procured by excavation, which the utmost efforts of modern art have 

Of the 92 metopes, it contains 15 from the S. not been able to equal. Many costs have 

aie of the building, representing in high relief been taken from them, of which the free acad- 

tke combats of the Centaurs and Lapitha?, and a emy of the city of New York possesses a set. 



from another now in the Louvre. The and under their influence a national school 
riikbs from the frieze of the cella, representing sculpture has been established in England. 
hlow relief the great Panatlienaic procession, ELI, judge of the Hebrews immediately ho- 
ve the most numerous and the best preserved fore Samuel. lie was of the race of Aaron, and 
tfaUthe specimens in the collection. In addi- officiated as high priest and judge during 40 
ttn to those. L>rd Elgin procured, from the years; yet ho lacked the power to discipline 
niiis about the Athenian Acropolis, the colossal his own family, and a train of woes befell Jiim 
ftacue of Ricchus from the clioraL'ic nn>nument and his house during the latter years of his life, 
tf Thra-fvlln*. one of the caryatido-* from the His piety was exemplary, but his indolence was 
pie of Pandrusus, a portion of the frieze a source of calamities. After a bloo<ly and 
the Erechthenm, and fragments of the col- disastrous battle with the Philistines, in which 



gf-TAft ELUAH 

hift two ponn wrr« »laiD, an<l the arV cif t}ic I^rd ally cxhibitctl in the long butoiy of the glote 

Wfri raiituriNl, Kli. whvn hcnrin;: t!ic ]a>l ni'W.\ duriii}; 5hurt poriotU of thsturlianre which Me- 

f«U hock fr<itii hi A chair and hruko his neck, at ccviK'd the iiii>ro ostcndL><1 |)eriiid4 of repofc, b 

Um aire of i^*^. the lattvr wero dv|KK«it«.tl the HNliinvntonr rocks 

ELI AS. Km> Kujah. of thi> ]Kt*u1iar tyi»e!i of the |K*riuil, inurganie ami 

£1.1 AS LKVITA <nth. JTttlrri^ tho I^viti*), or^^Auic, aud every chaii^ to another »erica of 

a Icarmnl rahhi and Ilihriw author, Uirn at nxTk:* «-art evidourvd hy the fonnation uf 

Keu»(ndt in Franrnnia, or a«'i'orilin); tu 9**\iw in 4»f niuuntuin^ having a diffiTent direetkw 

Italy, iu 147:!. du'<l in Vi-nii'c in IM'.i. II«* wa.h tho«o which preoi-deil Uu'tn. Further, 

teacher of llihrt* w in I'ailua fn»in \U^^\ to \Ti\\*\ Mrntinetl nuk» uf the laiuv i>iN)ch miut har« th» 

wh«.*n«'tf h<* wont to Vviuro and Mib<««*i|iivntly ti» Nimo direction itr htrike. He described In tht 

It^inii*. Ill* !• ••a all h in ]ir(i(M-rty in tho Kirk of la-t t'diili>n of \M wurk the feature! of no loi 

B«mit' liy tho Fronrli in lo'JT, hut i'nj>i\od a ri-|». tlinn {'5 syhtem^ of mountains ; ami the CacU bn 

Qtation fi»r loarnint; and H»«ial «]ua]itif4 wliirh collertvd addoiUargvly to tho geological knofw^ 

hK-«1 liiiii to numlior hi«hop4 and iVLrdinids edp* of tho day. 



nniun^hi*ii*u|iiKandniailohi<«MMiity HiM^ht hy KKIJAII, u Hohrew |irophi't, whr>Me hifftorj 

priurc^. ilo osivlhtl a4 a «Titir, (rruniiiiariun, 1^ p\«-n in the la*it ch.'i|itiTii of the l»t buok ov 

Ivzii*<»(n'ai>!ii*r, aitil ]HKt, and his workn «iTo Kin;:4, and in tho oiK-nin)? (-ha|itor4 of the M. 

trmn^Iatitl anil \iTy wiiKIy ri-ml. Anion;; tlK>u Atvordinp t<» thii* ho ^uddi■nly a|<iKared before 

werv K-voral Ilvhruw ^raiiiiiiurt, of u!iirh hiii )\\\\^ Ahnh, dit'Iarinf; that ait a |Mini«hment fcr 

Baik^r ift the iiui-t ivlohratoil, tho It'xiro;;ra]ih- his initiuitio!« m-ilhor dow nor rain »hoald Ml 

ical 7"uAAt\ aiiil tho *'MiL*4ira of tlio Maifuru,'* for yoarii, until he hiniMlf announctHi the 

the Mfuiilunl iHMik on llohn-w |iunot nation. chmikv. Ilo tiKik rofu)^> from the wrath of 

£LIK 1»C HKArMuNT, Jean lUiTt.-.TB Ar- tho kinj; in tho doM-rt, hy the hnM.k Cberith; 

MAsn I.oi lA I.i:i>N( K, a Fn-nrh froulo^ri^t, Inini and aftor tho drvin^ u]» 4»f tho hrouk be pi^- 

at Canon. CalvudusSopt 25, ITVtf. lu 1821 ho i'oi*ilod to Zarv|>hHih, whoro ho was anpport- 

nndertiNik, hvi>rdor of the govonimont, a wrioii i*«l hy a |MHtr widi>w, ti*T whom bin pre 

of ini-ta!lur;nt-al ezplorationiS and wa:i made on was » jiiiurro of Mo-Mnc'^ during tho dial] 

hia rv-turn in 1^24 a mining cn^riuovr. In lb2t) <if tho timo. At\or droujrht and famine bai 

be bei*amo i>roft*viur at tho mIiixiI i>f mino<«, in do^'hitc«l tho country during 3 yi-nn, be reip 

198S at tho collego of Franco, and enginoor- iK-nrid to tlio king, otforing to domou*tratc UM 

in-cbiof iu l*^o3. AiU'r tho death of Franvoid % unity of tho WMr*.irtj» fif Haal. llo challrnfed 

Arago ho wan made ftorju-tual iiocn.*tary of thr iiliilutroun |irii-*>ti. K*t> in numU'r, mho boi 

tbe acadomy of Kionce*. Na{iuksiii III. a|»- fi>llowo4l in tho train of ijut-«-n Jozl-UL to 

puinte<l liini K*nat«ir. lie wari upiMiinud in him ui*«in Mt. C'anmh and dttkd thi-m to 

1^23, to^Tfthor with hufri-noy, \o aid M. Ilro- tiro full from hoavt-n to coUMimo thiir »a«'rifiee. 

cbant dr Vil!ii-r<« in pn-iiaring tho matorialA tor Tho 1«>ng |>r.ivor4 of t!io Ha;dito» i»&-re vitboni 

tbe go<-!i>giia] map of Franiv; axid in thin com- mhtc^-, hut oii Kl)jah*rt hhort pra.wr tl>e fire 

miMi'^n tlu-y wt-re rhargt*d t«i vi^it Mxiglunil, r:im<* ihiwn and i-onMiniotl not <inh tho tolloek 

wbero a similar work waii in |irou'To>.'«, and at hut tlio altar. Thr |K«>iile in-tunily ina.<««md 

tbe Mni« tinn* tu examine tho mot.ilhir;:ii*al o;»- tin* priiM-, aiul thi-n Kiijali |tromi»c>«l an end to 

eratiut;« t}irro practi<«Nl. and colKvt full d«- tails (ho fatniiio. and ttioro i»uh an ahundant 

tlie knowIi'«ig^* of whii-h might aid in dovvlup- Hut ^*'^K^n I h\%o»ring rr>ongo fiT tl<o do^tj 

ing thr •>.'iiMo hranrht'4 of indu-^try in Frnnro. tion of tho prii^t-i. Klijali a,:ain tKil to the 

Tho ro«iilT«of thoir invvMitratioh^ wiTo |>uMi*h- miMi ria -"i of Mt. lIofL-li imd liid hiniM-lf in n 

cd by Iiufri-Qov luid r.lit'do llvauniont, in a work cavi rn. Thi-n hi* «:i.4 oonini&nd<*d ti> retnn 

entitM IVy.i^r mrt'iUunjijur ru AnyUUrrf and uiii>int Hn/m 1 king ovir S\ria,Jihu ofef 

(IH27). ilIii*trato*l wiih numtTou!« plati-s and Nratl. and Kli^^ha pr^phrt in hi4 o«n plaeiL 

aftcmard enlargi-d with tho aid of MM. 1/on On liit v^tiy h«* foun<l Ki>ha and mado him bks 

Ctatc a!i>! lVrdi*nnot. f.Vw iU* lUaumont imvr di^ :ph', and »<• hf ai>{Nari-il again U-fi^rr AbolL 

derotfii l.::ii<N''if ahn^xt i-x>*lu>ivtl\ togmlogiral gui!:y of tin* Mi^-l i>!' NaU>tI., tho king humbled 

reArarrIiO%. whili* ou^ra^'cl u|io!i tho prvpar:»tion hini^ If and ri p ntid. Aha/iah, hi» M*n. who 

of tlje niap of Franco, a2i>! puMt«hiil fr««iiU'nt Mii*(v«d<*4l t<» t!.o t!iroiio. fi-'.l ill, ai.d I'lliiab on* 

pa(trn in *.h^ .lnii«j.V« iht mtrtfs and o:hrr no-iih til to Iimu throiik'h hi4 agvxit^ that bin 

erifnt.fi" jiinrnal^ h\ Wi^ \ofirr tur Us $i,»f> m<s ^:l■k^l •<««»• u:d mil in di-ath. Aha/iah wnt n 

dm m**fiii'jv.fa { InVJi, }.o cnd«-avor««I t'l pri*vo cnpi.iiii anil Ti * arnii-d ni« n t«» mi/o FJ;jah : bol 

that iv.'i:H.!a:n •-!ii:!.« arr to l-o f Ia-M.^1 nii-<>r>l- tiro l'ro!n l.i avi n onii^uiMid tho h.ind. A MC* 

Ing to :2.«* d;r<v*iiwi of th«-ir rai:»:t'. all th«>M» ori>l i<'ni|a:;v trxt with tl.o ^oir.o fate. Ai 

|yii*.g ]:kra!!f! ».:h tho iiauio ^rri-a? • Iri !•• «.f ll.o lonjTh Ii.« r.j'jM .ircd |KTwi|.al!y In-f'-rv tho kilif 

MTth. « !.^r« \i*r tht'T mav lio f><t:i.<!, ha\ii!i; !•«'« n aiid r* |x'u!i->i !ii« aiiiii>iiiii'«-nuitt. Wis mi«a»oft 

Qpltfto! » ••l>'.f:i!y d';ring the ^arsn- g«iil>giral i«:k« i.i>\r a> •-••n:]>!i«hi tl. IK> i:'..*i4!i' a \w\ to 

epiM*!.. i ' *• ii|l.f\iUk% hr C'ltitrini'd, naftrauM-d tl.i' »• !to«<I < f t^>> |ro]'h(M at lUthrL and 

by tho ?:.•'••*;:<■;• t ri'^ulting froi:i !h>- 1 •Jii!ra«-tii'n )«a\i[tj, iii i-<':i:|'a::y « i*h 111 "ha, cri»«M.M tbe 

of tho f r ;*: i-f the earth ;:•. tho f .'..rM* if ll-o J«>r'hiL. !ho »;.!«rn i-f nh.rU hi* di\id««l bj 

•er'.:Iar ri/r:;^* r a: iirn of the I <l.\r;t-t . l!ti-«* ^:- n ..* .\ * shii:: \^;*!i Iii^ ni:i:it'i«\ ho was tokra 

h*nt r^f*> la tlii;j producc«I woro fi.ly uccapioU' v.\* !:•'.•» hi-aiiU hy a whirls iud, in a cl&ar* 



ELDONATIOK EUOT 89 

iot of fire drawn by horses of fire. The date of In these labors of benevolence he cheerfully en- 

t!us event is fixed in the early part of the 9th countered both dangers and hardships. In one 

eeitarr B^ C. of his letters he says : " I have not been dry 

ELIMIKATION' (Lat eHminare^ to turn out night or day from the tliird day of the week nnto 

€f doors), the separation and exclnsion of some the sixth, bat so travelled ; and at night poll off 

puticiilar substance from a compound, or of my boots, and wring my stockings, and on with 

■ome particaliir symbol firom an algebraic ex- them again, and so continue; but God steps in 

prodon, thns simpUfyiog the compound or and helps." He induced large bodies of Indians 

aprasion, and rendering it capable of further to give up their savage customs and habits, and 

MWTiis azid use. form themselves into civilized communities ; led 

EuOT, JoHX, commonly called the '^ Apos- many persons to engage in the missionary work 
tie of the Indian!;" an American clergyman, among them, and lived to see no fewer tiban 24 
ton in Naan^, England, in 1604, ^ed in Rox- of them become preachers of the gospel to their 
bo^, ICass., ^y 20, 1690. He was educated own tribes. His influence over the Indians was 
at Cambridge, was for some time an instructor almost unbounded. He protected them in 1675. 
of youth, and in 1631 came to Boston, Mass., duringPhilip^s war, when some of the people oi 
where he preached to the church of Mr. Massachusetts had resolved to extirpate them ; 
Wibcn, who was then in England. In 1632 he and though he suffered much abuse for the part 
m settled as teacher of the diurch in Roxbury, he took, nothing could shako his faithful friend- 
vim he remained to the end of his days, ship for them. At the age of 80 he offered to 
Bong impressed with the benighted condition give up his salary from the church in Koxbury, 
of the Indians, whom he fancied to be the and desired to bo released from his labors as 
denendants of the lost tribes of Israel, and their teacher ; and when, from increasing infirm- 
the kgidatnre having passed an act for the ities, he could no longer visit the Indians, he 
fnpagation of the gospel among them, he com- persuaded a number of families to send their ne- 
BMneed preaching regularly to them in their gro servants to him every week, that he might 
own laagnage at Nonantum, now a part of New- instruct them in the word of God. His declin- 
tem. He had acquired their language through ing years were without pdn or disease. Mr. 
file awMtance of an intelligent Indian servant Eliot was one of the most laborious and useful 
in lu5 &mily who had learned English. The ministers of his day ; his discourses, unlike those 
fat service was held Oct. 28, 1646. After of most preachers of the time, were direct and 
irayer he addressed them in a sermon, in which free from pedantry, and everywhere acceptable. 
he stated the leading doctrines of Christianity, In all circumstances his first inquiry was, how 
iod applied them to their condition, inviting his he might do some good to those about him. His 
hearers at the close to ask any questions that manner of living was very simple. He allowed 
nu^t occur to them. One asked whether God himself but little sleep ; a single plain dish fur- 
ODold nnderstand prayers in the Indian Ian- nished his ordinary repast. He gave to the In- 
goaee ; another, how could there be an imago dians most of his annual salary of £50, which 
of God since it was forbidden in the 2d com- he received from the society for propagating tho 
mandment ; another, how the Indians could dif- gospel ; and it is related that on one occasion, 
far so mnch from the English in their views of when tho parish treasurer was paying him, ho 
reHgioDS tmth if they all at first had but one tied the ends of tho handkerchief into whicJ^ho 
&tfaer ; another, how came the world so full of put the money in as many hard knots as possmle, 
people if they were all once drowned in tho to prevent Mr. Eliot from giving it away before 
flood. The conference lasted 3 hours, and was he should reach home. Calling at once, how- 
loDowed by others in which similar queries ever, on a family suffering from sickness and 
were propounded by the Indians, one of whom, want, he told them God had sent them relief, 
T«fT aged, inquired, with tears, whether it was and began to untio tho knots ; but becoming ira- 
too late for such an old man as he to repent patient, ho gavo handkerchief and all to tho 
ad be saved. Eliot was strongly opposed by mother, saying : " Hero, my dear, tako it ; I 
lome of the sachems and conjurers, who threat- bolievo tho Lord designs it afi for you." Among 
Med him with violence if he did not desist from Mr. Eliot's peculiarities was a deep-rooted pre- 
b labors ; bnt his answer was : ^^ I am about judice against wigs and long hair, preaching and 
tbe work of the great God, and he is with mo, praying vehemently against both, and attribut- 
10 tiiat I neither fear you, nor all tho sachems in ing to them tho evils under which tho country 
fta oDimtry. I will go on ; do you touch mo if suffered. Ho had the same strong aversion to the 
JOB dare."' A settlement of "praying Indians " use of tobacco, and denounced it in tho severest 
VM soon formed at Xonantnm, which in 1651 terms. Richard Baxter said of Mr. Eliot: "Thero 
VM Tomoved to Natick, where in 1 660 an Indian was no man on earth that I honored above him." 
Anch was organized, and the community Hour- All New England bewailed his death as a great 
Uted for many years. Eliot travelled exten- and general calamity ; and Cotton Mather tells 
M^, making missionary tours every fortnight ; us : " Wo had a tradition that tho countrj^could 
ibnted a nnmber of churches; visited all the never perish as long as Eliot was alive." — A list 
bdiaiifl in tho Massachusetts and Plymouth col- of tho published works of Mr. Eliot may bo found 
and once preached the gospel to tho in his life, by the Rev. Convers Francis, in Sparks's 
King Philip, who rejected it in disdain, " American Biography." Among them are ao- 



90 EUOT EUOTT 

conntA of the pro^n^ss of the |70«pel amon;; the gaired in litcnuy labor, biit tlfo girin; 

Iiidiunf; the *'ChrUtuui Oimiiion wealth/* pub- tiuio and thuught to tho biisincsi v( y 

ll«}io<i in Kn^rland about 1000, which, when re- tearhing. IWsiilo private pupiK h« gav 

reived lu MawachuHi'ttA, wai rei^nrded ta mhIi- itoud inntniction to cU^nes of vounic i 

tiuui. M> much M) that the governor and council toen, and organized a chant j school for 

reiiuiro<l Mr. Kliot to retract its teachings, bccauM ohildren. lii!! finit publication, a »ma!l 

oppu^'d to Uie inonan.*hy of thvir native coun- produced in Ik«ton in lc^7, entitled *' I 

try; an Indian grammar (lOiU); the |»salms from tlie II isttory of LilK>rty,** traced th< 

tran«Iatv<l tni«i lu'liaii nu'tro ( U>04) ; and a liar- of Arnold of ISrescia and other early lu 

iiiuiiy i>f tho ii'HjieU, in Kngli<«h (l<'i7H>. II 14 fi»ruierH,ofSavonariiIa,of Wyclitfe, and 1 

ffTt-Dt wi«rk, liowfier* wat the traiL^lation of the u(K>n tlio war of the i*«im muni tie:* in 

JiiMo into the I !idiau tongue; tlie New T«.*«*ta- The first portion of the elaborate work ti 

ment waslir^t pubii^heti in Idil.and tho Old in ho had caicdy dovottnl himsolC ap(M-ar« 

IGCii ; and b«»t!i were iwued in sub9e«|uent vdi- vol a. 8vo. in New York in 1649, entitle* 

tiohv. Thid Wiirk wui puliliithed at Cambridge, Liberty of Rome.** A second reviwd 

and wa."> the only Hibleprint«*d in Anifricauntua appeared in lio-iton in 1853, entitlvd **1 

murh later fiTiLNl. The lungv^t ^ingle wonl in tory of Liberty. Part I. Tho Anrient IV 

It is ** Wutap|K.'^ittuk«pi'«sunniM>hwchtunkijUoh,*' In the sauio year wa^ publl«hc«] in U 

»igiivfying " Litii-ling di>wn to him/' in 3Jark i. further portion of tho dame work in 2 vo 

4<t; which illu«trati<* the je^t of CVitton Mather, called "The History of LiU^rty. Tart I 

who fMiid he thuUf^ht the Word-* of Uie lan^'nagu Early Cliri<<tian!f.*' The author ii n«iw % 

intut liave Wvu growing ever bince tliu di<«|»er- upon a third part of thi^ work, in whi< h 

•ion at IlaU'l. — .Uiicd, irrand'^in of tho pr«.*ced- treat of tlie history of liberty during tk 

Ing, and mi:ii«tcr in Killiu^worth, Conn., b^iru age<i. TheJ«o hi»t4}ries are charactci/iii t 

Nov. 7, Kt'^j, dit<d April 22, 17G3. He w:ui an depth and patience of reM^arch, a i'hi!u? 

able and constant pn*achvr, a botanist, and a metliod, and a reverential and rvlig^uu 

sclent itie ainl practical a^^'iculluri^t, wa« tho but they arc not ]Kipular cither in fa.<^>c 

first to iutroduiv the white mulberry tree into form, and they have not received from t 

Couneetieut, and diMTovereil a process of extract- eral public the attention which their »u*.- 

ing in in fmiu ft-rru^nnou* vond^. He was also merits de^^rve. In I Hot; he pubii-^heJ 

regarded a<» the fir«t phv!>ician of hiA day in the ton ** A Manual of United State<^ IIi«tory 

colony; au>l ^ueh was lii-i hucccsi in the treat* ISoO,^* a cxtrefully preparo«l work, di^tin, 

ment of insanity and chronic complaint*, that for tidelity of ri'<k*ar<*li and CMruKiiie^l c' 

Le was ftiimetimeii sent fur to Nvwiiortand lios- of statement. Mr. Kliot han aI<<o Ucn : 

'ton. uml uu^ more ext4*nMVelv con!>nlt«d than sioiial contributor to the |K-riodii-nl liN-ra 

any I'ther pliv^ii ian in New ICn^'laiid. In hi4 the country, lie i;t at pri-s^-n: pr> •fe^^>r 

multiplied piir*uit^hi^ juilrfiueiit M-emvd always tory and political M'lencv in Trimly > 

PkhI, Aiid )ii« Mil 'V-^ ulrii'i^t unfailing. Hartford. A man <'f eanie-it n-li^'u j^ i. 

KI.loT, .lulls. It.I)., un .\merioaM clertrynian, bi*Hove4 tliat cdui*ntiim in Aiiiiriia 1 

b<*rnin I'Mi^tn!!, M.-iy :il. l?-'*!, diedthcri*, Feb. 14, stronger infuMon of the religitii:>i i-!t u*c 

l*«lo. Willi Iji-i! ru- lid Or. lU:lknaphocoo|H,Tated hi* life, hiiwritiitgs and hit pr:ictii:J t*-: 

in(;StuMi*!iiii,ran'i«i:^tainintcthc*'Ma.s>arhuM'tt4 in his department, are shaped and cui^ 

Hi«fifrii*ai > x'K-ty/* tii till* publications of which thit ruling idea. 

hi? rontrih'iSiI liiaiiV vuhiaMe pa{ii-r4. He wai ELIOTT, (.iCnli'tE .\rrii-.Ti a, H-iri.?! 

muih 4n^M/-.*l in bi«»;:r3phiral and hi»toric.il fivM, a British geiuTii!, Uirn in >*.ii:b' 

ri-^'arrhi-«. aiid in l>*yj publivhe'l hli well- bur;;h-hire, .^'otland. i!i 171\ died in 

kui*i«n " Nil*" Kn^rlanil Uiit,:raphical I>iction- Chai»ille, July 4, IT'JO. He wjis i- l".;r 

ary." He al*«j pi:Mi<»lii«l a numl*^'r of senni'u* the univep«iiy of I^'vdeii, a:}d ^nbv> 

on ditT«-rci!: ot-i'a.^iiin^ and BK:\eral memoirs of Mudled tho urt of w.ir at tlie cel« brat* J 

dx*tini:ui«}i(sl |K-.'^^n«. of artiUery at Iji V* re. Ho eiil«.red :h 

KI.I<(r, >%>!! Ki^ nil ATiu-rlcon aMttmr, l^orn i^h army in ITiiV aiid frum that \-^ri'/ 

in lliMtiin, hi". 2 J, l'»Jl. a "Nin of Wi!Iiam Ha- the clow of the 7 vcip*' war wa- &« Mj 

vard Kiiot, a:ii| in':in«l]M>:i (.'f Kimnil Kliot, hIij pltiyc«l at huine and abroail, hhoM ir.4 

founded i!ie K!i"t profc**ir-^:ji in Har%*ard cul- capai'itv a* an ntrhvr of »a\.ilry, i»f cu, 

K'tn?. Ho w.k<« i;riid(iat«-«l a*. Harvard cullei.*** iu and of th«» ^!arl'. Ho di!»tingui«liitl 1 

183'J. With the hi,;he«t honors uihi<*« ia^\ thi'iii^h greatly at Mctliri;;! n, and many ot} vr a< \ 

one of thi* vti:iii^i »e memU r4. Ha\ m,; d» i>leit (ii-nnany an<l tlie Netherlnnd*, at tlie hen 

ujMin a Iifu of l»'i '11 »«■**, ho ji.i»vil 'J ve.ir^ in a r«.Ii! -rated rt.:inirnt of li^jiit hi'r-M-. \i 

Counting rxMiin in !(«■«!.•:), miler b-aViMi; ci/.h^v ; ]>kMv ho ohtairie.l the r.iiik <>f *.u-:!tr.a 

but he abandiiued hi« original piir|NfM> at llto i-ni], and in I77.'i w.-l4 Ap|H.t:i!id g^'^^r 

end »»f Ihi* |N.riud. The next 4 year« were (iibraitar, the dffeoie uf whirij j '..»•.•: .' 

fkint by }.ini m f irtiA^i tra\il auii in «!u'lu4 than 3 year^ a^'ain*'. ilio coi:ibi:.«d Kre:. 

auroall. In Komi\ in 1*«|.\ ho fornu^l the plan Spanish fi>r<«-^ w.i4 tlie chief iip!>>!'. *»( I 

of writing a hiit^fry «»f itlnTty. anil b<-gan u;r.<n ai.d «-i:«* *•( tho ni>'«t ru* tii'<rah!o evint* : 

iL BFor aumo }\i>t^ after h'.« fi.'.u.'n he r^'^idid tory Aimal^. I^-triii;; (lu* grand atia«'k. 

Ift Jjostoo or ill ibuucdiatv bcighborhood, vu- 13, ll^'iu several hundred pivces of Lta^ 



ELIQUATION ELISIIA 91 

were directed against the fortress, beside tack Elis, but on the first attempt fied iJann- 

the bfttteries of 47 ships of the line, of 10 bat- ed by an earthquake, and failed in a subse- 

tning ships of peculiar constmction and great quent attack. Cyllene is mentioned in IIomer*s 

ftnngth, and of innumerable frigates and gun- catalogue of ships, but of the Elean Pylus no 

boAta ; bat owing to the exertions of Gen. sign remains but the name, it having been de- 

Elioct the enemy were beaten off with immense stroyed even in the heroic times of Greece. 

dMtroction of life and ships, and with but tri- Hollow £lis is the scene of the legend of the 

a k>9s to the besieged. On his return to £ng^ Augean stables cleansed by the current of the 

ha received the thanks of both houses of Peneus, which Ilercules made to pass through 

psfiament, and was made a knight of the bath them. The Elean horses, too, were famous for 

If George III. ; and on July 6, 1787, he was bearing off tlie Olympic prizes, and merited 

luied to the peerage as Baron Heathfield of the praises of Pindar. Pisatis, which was the 

Gibnltar, and a pension was settled on him and lower valley of the Alphous, had 8 cities, 2 of 

Ui neeeasor. which, Pisa and Salmone, are celebrated in the 

ELIQUATION (Lat. eliquo^ to melt), the legends of CEnomaus, Pelops, and Salmoneus. 

milled of aeparatii^ metals from each other by From the time of the Doric invasion there was 

mhiiig out the more fusible at temperatures hostility between the proper Eleans and the 

Wow the melting point of another with which Pisatians, caused by the claim of the former to 

tiwf BMJ be alloyed. It was formerly largely direct the Olympic games. This jealousy gave 

fnetised in assaying, particularly in separating rise to several wars and alternations of snprem- 

dfljB of copper and silver. Lead was first acy. The Eleans, finally victorious in the 50th 

■■ad with them, and the mixture being then Olympiad, destroyed the city of Pisa. In this 

ohAiIIt remelted upon an inclined iron plate, district was Olympia, the seat of the most fd- 

tta kad first melted and flowed down a chan- mous of the Greek games, and the quatemial 

■I IB the plate, leaving the copper behind. The scene of the most splendid of Greek assemblages. 

■ifcr was afterward easily separated from the Triphylia, the smallest and the southern divis- 

hid by cupelling. (See Assayino.) ion of Elis, was separated from Messenia by the 

£US| or Elxa, in ancient Greece, a country of Keda, and was fertile only in the interior. Ilere 

diaPak^ponneBaa, extending along the Ionian sea was Mount Minthe, the highest in Elis, one of 

fron the promontory Araxus to the river Neda ; the seats of the worship of Hades. Some of the 

greatest breadth about 85 m., from the promon- cities tof Elis hardly yielded to Corinth and 

%arf of Cbelonatas to the foot of Mount Ery- Sparta in the magnificence of their monuments 

Bmithnsi, where the boundaries of Elis, Arcadia, and temples. The Eleans took part in the Tro« 

nd Achiua come together ; area, about 1,000 jan, Peloponncsian« and the other general Gro« 

^. m. It contained the western slopes of the cian wars, and were almost constantly in strife 

a#4>#Uti mid Arcadian mountains, Erymanthus with some one of their neighbors. They re* 

Fhoke, and Lycseus, and though its surface was taiucd the celebration of their renowned Olym- 

ftr the most part uneven, it had many valleys pic games till A. D. 804, when the festival was 

ad hillsides of great fertility. Its principal abolished by the emperor Theudosius. Two 

riven were the Alpheus and the Peneus. years later the country was laid waste with fire 

The whole territory included 8 districts : Elis, in and sword by Alaric. Again in tlie middle ages 

in narrower sense, or Hollow Elis ; Pisatis, sep- Elis became of some importance in the hands 

sated from the first by an arm of the Pholce of French adventurers, and subsecpently of the 

BHKmtains ; and Triphylia, lying S. of the Al- Venetians. But the memory of its ancient re- 

ihent. Of these, Hollow Elis, so called from ligious character, and traditions of its cultiva- 

n being a vale set in a circle of mountains, was tion and largo and active population, give to it 

Aa most northern and the most fertile. Hero, its only modern interest. 

ad nowhere else in Greece, grew the flax called E LISA BETG RAD, Elisavetgrad, or Yeusa- 

^^ as fine but not as yellow as that of the vetorad, a fortified town of S. Kussia, in the 

ws, as was remarked by Pausanios. At government of Cherson, 130 m. N. from tho 

fta time of the Doric invasion, Oxylus led the town of that name ; i)op. about 10,000. It is 

fculiiliii south by the more difficult way of situated on tho river Ingul, is tho capital of a 

Aicadia, lest they should see and be attracted circle of its own name, is hexagonal in shape, 

Ijtharichness of this plain. Hollow Elis never fortified and well built, is tho headquarters of 

aoBlnned more than 3 cities, Elis, with its har- tho military colonies E. of tho Bug, contains a 

Iv Qyllene, and Pylus. These were unw^alled, largo hospital and 5 churches, has considerable 

■d protected only by the sanctity of the conn- trade, and tho princi{)al annual fair in the govorn- 

fej, which by the common law of Greece ment. It was founded in 1754, and named after 

zegarded as inviolable, on account of its the empress Elizabeth. 

■aion of the temple of tho 01>*mpian Zeus ELISIIA, son of Shaphat, a Hebrew prophet, 

tfaa hanks of tho Alpheus. Here, once in whoso history is given in tho 2d book of Kings. 

4 years, all the states assembled for re- He was ploughing with 12 yoke of oxen, when 

_ games. This sacred character of Elis Elijah, returning from IToreb, called him to tho 

however, disregarded durinj* tho Pelopon- prophetic office. At tho moment when Elijah 

a war by tho Athenians. Afterward King disappeared from tho earth, Elisha received' his 

l|pi of Sparta pressed across the Larissua to at- mantle, and was recognized by the other proph- 



ELIXIR ELIZABETH 

ei« a* tlx^ir spirit nal rhtcf. TTo divided Uia int^ro9to<1 liimvolf in her education. TTc 

VftterA of tiktf «TunlAii l»y i*ztondiiig (»vcr tboin pumnl wedding; htT to the 3d mm of Frao 

Ui«*rnU' nf hiHina^tor, rondt'ri'<l t ho bitter foun- of Franre. In her 3d jear her fortunes 

tain of .K-rirtH) ftWi-ot hy ra**ttng Milt into it^ clouditt hy the occurrence of that tractM^ i 

curM^l t!io c !)ildri*n of lU'thol, who nio(*ked him, mrnt her mother to the KcalToId. EUzaU't] 

and worv de\ ourvd hy 2 In-urs pro<licted the in her turn declared illefntimate, ami fe! 

victtiry tif Johorain and Jelio^haphat over the contempt. The birth of her only brother. 

XIoahitt«, re»tomi ttie fortum* of u widow per- wanl Edward VI., happened in IMT.andhe 

bOCiit<'d by her creditor^ tiiwv*\ to life tho turn public act was to bear tho chrium at hu chr 

of a wtiMian of Shunain who had pi von hiui bos- infr, »he bcinf; herself curried in the arm» of 

pitnlity, anil riir%>d the lepni^y of Naanian. Ho Hertford. She wa^ e«lucatvd by Ijuly Hn 

detvMed all tlio prnji-ctA of licnhadad, king of HU|)vrior woman, and early »howcd talent, 

byria, againn Nrael, caummI the Ini^t sent to her brother hhe l>^*camo attached. With 

capture tiiin^'lf to lie Miiittcn with blindne^:^ r}'*s \^i 3 wive.'* !*he wan on the be^t of t 

and lia%ing ^lM»wn them how eai«Uy ho could At 10 years her hand wasoflered to the « 

destroy thi-m. dltmi<«cd thorn, afitoniahod at hit Arran, but refused. A marriage K*twoc 

|iowor and moderation. Samaria U'ing rcdnce«l and Prince I'hilip of Spain waa talked of in 

tt> iitntne famine by bioge, KlUha pre<!ictod The pri'eoding year .**he had been re«ton.-<l t 

iucn-diblo abundance, whit'h was buddenly ob- right of »uccei«ion, but the act de<*lahD| 

taiued by the panic and flight of tho Svrian illegitimato wa«i never repealed. She hi 

army, leaving thoir tontt filletl with gold and ready become very leanie<1, under^randini 

I>ruviMon». He foretold the death of IWahadad, Litin, Kr%*iirh, Italian, Spaninh. and netnii4 

and the Miri*i-v»iun of IlazaeL hU murderer, guages*. She tran*ilate<l a work from the lb 

Upon hi* death UhI he wa.4 vij^ited by King and dedicati'd it to her lai^t »tepnu>thor. 

Jouhh, to m horn ho iiruiniM.-^! 3 vict4trii»4 over tlio puvtry was very go^Nl for a princef«H ; but h 

Syrians. HU death is* tiled in the latter part of voritc ntudy wat hi-itury. She U known tu 

the 0th Century H. C shared the in'ttrudiun received by b«*r br 

£I.I\lK(Ijit.r//^, to IkmI, or perhaps a word from nonie of tho mont learned nnn of 

of Arubit* origin I, applied in oUi pharmacy to laml. Henry dying in Jan. 1547 (N. S. i, 1 

certain ox trait 4 obtain etl by Niiling, as elixir beth found herM.'lf, tiy Ui-» will, tlie next p 

of vitriol, a mixturi* of hulphuric acid with in the order ftf »ucce!«Mon to Mary, and in < 

•onie aroniatio tincture; imd in modern pbar- re!<i*ectji liberally provide*! fur. I.«ird S^^y 

nia«*y tho name i* rttaiiuHl for various tincturea uf Sudloy, an uncle of the king, efidea\>«r 

made upof .•^•voral ingretliontsi. The nlcheuii»ts got her for hi<i wife; but he faiK^l. and mi 

appluxl it to a numl»er uf wUitionn thoy em- Catliarine r.irr. Henry *4 last wiff, at \ih«-ii 

plo.^od ill the transmutation of metal**. ^ KtancoKIiz:ibetli hml roicctod him. lUr rt 

KLIZAliETH, a city, cupit;d iif I'nion co., N. were citntimiid. and 4io l>ecamo tho pti{ 

J., on K!i£aU*thto\i n creek. 2\ m. l'n>ni it4 en- Hc»ger Am-Ii.hiu, on tho death of li^'illiam < 

tr.-uitv into Matt n Ulaml houn«l. and 5 m. S. W. dxJ. wlu-n she wa.<i h\. With him »!>c re 

fnmi Ni-» :»rk ; jKip. in 1 **5ri, n.'.iTh. It is rii:u- Ijitin tlie works of Livy and Cicero. mA in « 

lorly built ••» lii,;li ground with straight streets thofk* «tf S)ph«M*lo^, theiwlect oratit>R<* «•! I* 

ffhadid Hi'.h treo«, and rontaini a number uf tri«. and the New To!»t.iinont. ElizaU :h « 

exrclleiit iMliit,»l^ the connty i>liii*vs, a bank, a »ding with her stepmother, and the fret iloc 

Ue«»pri{^T uflice, several large manufactories, allowe^l I.onlSi-ynioMrcaU'-^tl mut*h ^ap.iiai 

and 1:! • hun-lii «. \:z. : 1 Ilaptip^t, 3 Kpisropal 3 lt*d to her removal to llnttield. AAi r hi« i 

Meth'Mii«;. .*( I*ro<>bWerian, :uid 2 Koniaii Calli- death, S-ymour renewed hii aciiuaiitta::i-e 

ulii-. \\-«4l» ot 3<*o totiH ran reui'h tlliialfoth- KIizal»etli, but bin arrant ainl exe<*u!t<n o 

|i«*rt, "\ m. frnm tho ei:y, at the niouth of the charge of trea(«i>n preventM the vir. f« * 

crix-k, aiid tt*'AT tho eUlraiiro uf SSaten Idaiid design ^. Kh/«tUlh, on hearing of hi* d 

Sound iu\*> Nt-w.'irk bar, an>! te^*«l« uf 30 t4ini morelr Kiiiil thiii th^n* h:Mi 4lit>«l a niAi; of i 

can anci'nd to Kit/aUtli. Tho New Ji>rM.-y con- wit and %ory li!:li« judgment— wt-nl* »l.:c 

tral ainl the New V^<rk and I'lnlailelphia rail- curatrly d<-^ riln* tlio nnn. lb r n ;>utJ 

foad^ px«* thruuirh thi* city. It «a« M'ttk^d in howvvtr, p^-itfertd severely, and ilie ixn'^t 

\f»t',y and H :k« li'itg the rapi:.il and ehief t<»wn i»f dalou^ frinrie^ were rurn'nt rei]Hvti!-K' )» t 

tiie»:alr. It «:i!«fiirnu-rlv eallid KIi.MU'tht^iwn. S-vmour. It in certain that ^he !<>t.r *\.rr 

KlJZ.\II(mi, ii«*«i>nd ipir* n r>viianl of Eiig- a r\*gartl f t \\\* in*Mnory. .\n attai-k t*^ i! 

land, an 1 !a*t m>\i'U i^n of ilio T^silir liue, ilaogh- endangere<l Iht l:fi\ anil letl t • her U :nr V 

ler vi Henry VIII. a^id .Vnno I(<1> mi. U»ni at tr\*uted, !ht*n^h ^he was ni>! al!o»i^! t<> »«• 

the |ialaco of (ir^-i-n«i> h, ^e;it. 7. 1^<3. died kint:, whoM* ulfi^etion f^r lit r u.\!» ui.l rnkcr^ 

March 31. Ifi'M. >!ie «:i« virtually maclo heir- l.V'l hho wa-* rrntoriil to fa^i-r. M.e wa* 

rm pn<sumpti\e t«> the thn>Tta* imiut«! lately a^er rtvar«l<-'*l a« N ing iu •«»me ¥*ir\ the r^va! of I 

IkT birth. b\ a' t I'f {arl..in'.ent, t>* tl:o fXi-lu«i«fn and a« the c-Itiif [K'pMin in thf l'n»!<-«!ai*t p 

«ff l.rr st«trr Marv. dM:«:^l« r uf i'.itliahno «if a* y.ir% wa« at the h«*ad of the i*ath«>.i--«. 

A rag* ■ II, » !ni » .t^ twrv than IT }fan» h«-r neui'ir. plan of Pudlt^y, d'.iko uf Nt-rtJiuniU .--aMl. t 

Tho k.:i«r, tbti .f^h bi'.ttr!y di^ip|^'inU*d in the I'lu'le U.ih l.-vlif<« t'nim the throne. a.vil to m 

aex uf Lhd daU, aliuwed attachiiKnt tu lior, aad it for Ijuly Jane Orty, whom he Lad cauM 



EUZABETH 93 

mzTT one of his sons, put an end to this rivalry, ions for tho interests of Philip, "Marj^s intended 
The king was N(Nrthnmberland*s tool, and was hnsband, warmly urged Elizabeth^s execution. 
BoC allowed to see Elizabeth in his last days. lie Mary, whose conduct throughout was not un- 
■ SDpposed to have been completely estranged kind, and who behaved with singular modera- 
ftom her. On his death, the duke offered Eliz- tion for a crowned head of those times, would 
ibeth a large som of money, and a valuable grant not listen to his entreaties, and soon gave orders 
if landsL if she would acquiesce in the new order for her sister's removal from tho tower. Eliza- 
of things ; but she referred him to Mary, during beth was sent to Woodstock, where she remained 
wlwseTife she had nothing to resign. She did in detention for some time, and professed lierself 
BoC raise a force to aid Mary, as it was not in her a Catholic. Tho queen was married in July, 1554^ 
power ^ do so, but joined her soon after her sue- to Philip II. of Spain, and her belief that she waa 
fOBi in 1553, at the head of a body of troops, to give an heir to tho crown had a good effect on 
Cmt were oq the best of terms, but in a month Elizabeth*s fortunes; she was now taken to Lon- 
they became enemies. Mary^s stubborn fidelity to don, had an interview witli Mary, and appeared 
tlie<dd fkith offended many of her subjects, who publicly at court. Though treated with much re- 
k)oked to Elizabeth as their future sovereign, the spect, she was not made free until some months 
aoMQ having passed middle life, and being single, later, returning to Woodstock, and sent thence 
their relative positions were sufficient to cause to Hampton court. Her liberation is attribute 
amity between them, and Elizabeth's refusal to Philip, and she was allowed to reside at Ilat- 
to attend mass offended the sovereign and her field, but with a sort of keeper in her household. 
Cktholic advisers. After much quairelling, the She was visited by the queen, and went herself to 
irineen affected to give way, and attended the court. Tho object of many plots, her life contia- 
fiMn at mass. Her object was to have her ued to be unpleasant, aud at one time she thought 
li^ to the saccession admitted at tho corona- of flying to France. Overtures of marriage were 
in which she succeeded. The sisters made to her from various quarters, but she would 
d each other^s support. The estrange- not listen to them. Philip, who now treated her 
. however, was renewed, when an act of with marked friendship, on politic grounds, was 
pariiameni was passed, declaring valid the mar- anxious that she should marry his friend Phili- 
nge between Henry YIII. and Catharine of bert of Savoy, but all his endeavors were fruit- 
Azmgon, from which Elizabeth's illegitimacy fol- less, and he could not prevail upon his wife to 
lowed, tboogh it was not set forth in words. A coerce her sister's inclinations. Mary and Eliz- 
eon^irary is supposed to have been formed for abeth were on good terms during the last months 
tbe overthrow of Mary's government, and the of tho former's life. The queen, anticipating 
aarriage of Elizabeth to Courtenay, earl of De- her husband's request, declared Elizabetli her 
Tonshire. Mary consented to her sister's request successor, shortly before her death, exacting, 
that she might retire to the country, but with- however, a profession of adlierenco to the old 
tow the favor, and ordered Elizabeth to re- religion. Affecting to feel hurt that her Cathol- 
Bun in the palace, and affronted her on the icisin should bo doubted, tho princess ^* prayed 
point of precedence. On this, Elizabeth refused God that tho earth might open and swallow her 
to go to the royal chapel, and remained in her alive, if she were not a true Roman Catholic." 
chunber. Grave accusations wero preferred She declared that she prayed to the Virgin, and 
•gainst her, but she disproved them, a recoucil- on the day before she became queen the Span- 
btion was effected, and she was allowed to go ish ambassador wrote to his master that she had 
tD the country. Ilere sho refused to marry told him that slio acknowledged the real pres- 
the duke of Savoy, and also declined the hand ence in the sacrament. Mary died Nov. 17, 
tf the prince of Denmark. Tho conspiracy to 1558, and Elizabeth ascended tho throne with- 
ckvate her and Courtenay to the throne having out opposition. Cecil was appointed her prin- 
hceome known to the government, those en- cipal secretary of state, and Kicholas Bacon 
in it rose in rebellion, and Mary ordered lord keeper. Tlio queen continued to conform 
eth to return to court. On the plea of to tho Catholic worship until Christmas mum- 
she did not comply. Wyatt's rebellion ing, when she took the final step that placed 
put down, and some of the rebels accused her at the head of tho Protestant world, by re- 
W of being in the plot, while there wero other fusing to hear mass in the royal chapel. Other 
dRomstances that bore against her. A royal changes wero made, but her coronation was ac- 
iODimission was sent to remove her to Ixtndon, cording to tlio fonns of Catholicism. Sho sent 
vindi was done, though she was very ill. She friendly messages to Protestant sovereigns, and 
VM lodged at Whitehall, Mary refusing to see directed her minister at Kome to assure Paul 
W. The royal councillors wero divided, some IV. that no violence should bo done to tho con- 
l in favor of her execution, while ^hers sciences of Englishmen ; but the pontiff mode 
more merciful. Finally she was sent ro the only sharp comments on tho message, declared 
r, ILaotrh 1 7, 1554, where she was examined, she was not legitimate, and required her to sub- 
fih» wai forced to hear mass. Wyatt exonerated mit her claim, as against that of Mary Stuart, to 
hvoQ the scaffold of being privy to his intended his arbitration. She recaUed her minister, whom 
iriieUion, but his language was ambiguous, and the pope frightened into staying at Rome under 
ft«e leems little reason to doubt her complicity tho threat of excommunication. A bull was is- 
kAeplot. The ambassador of Charles Y^ anz- sued against Elizabeth soon after, though sho was 





M EUZABEm 

not f xprcv^ljT named in it. The roligioiw chnni^o name, a man of nobl«r lineaj^ than licr 

Wi'ia oil, thutigli KIiMkbi't!i wan avenw to innovm* Though abo waa entreated to acknowledge Harr 

lions, and w unit I have |trvfi'rre<I to iirorvcd m Stuart aa her heiress presnmptiTe, she woolid 

alowly as to !ia%-e i irtually kept thinpi in the state nut do so, nnd the question was loll o|<eD, to fhm 

she had found thvni. ('atludir and I'mtestaut frrivf of the f*cople. The ex|iedition she sent to 

aerriee^ wi-re e^en Indit'nm^ljr niixo«l up in her France failed. She recommended Iif>rd IColwK 

Cublic wurrhip. Thi4 rould not last, and 13 I hidley as a husband to Mary Stuart, before to 

tKhoim were deprived of their si-es by par* bad been made eiiri of U-icehtiTi thou|rfa hte 

liament for refusing to take tlic oathuf suprein- object was to marry herself. She was oflartd 

■TV. The church of Enpland was restored, the hand of Charles IX. of France, bat ihooA 

and Uie n«o of the itible in Kndiiih was \c\pi\' pleoM^d «-ith the offer she would not arcepc IL 

Lsed. riiilip v( S|iain sou|rht her hand, nnd Another suitnr of the hiffhent rank waa tka 

wrote ti> hvr often ; but though she played lier archduke Charles, son of the Cterman emperor, 

caiue with much skill, England being in a very 1 Leicester approved of this match. The fun 

oepreMcd state, she would not accept tlio offer, of this new noble were rapidly risiofc 

Parlianivnt formally acknowledged her titio though he and the queen occaskinally foil 

without any aIlu^il•n to her mother ; bat she they werb aoon reconciled, and to his im 

never vindicated her mother's name and fame, gain. Their intimacy began early, in the dm 

which has licen a si^rnilicoiit fact in the way of of Elizaheth*s oilrenity, and lasted an til %m 

tiicise who have sup] K>rted Anno I U>Ieyn*s cause, eorrs death. He even patronized Cecil, to 

Elizabeth^ii a>nduct wus purely poHtical, and it whom in talent he waa so inferior, aa well at ill 

should Ik3 rei*olIected tliat she hod ne%'er Knuwn solid influence. The intimacy between ika 

her mother at a |>eriotl of life when it is possible queen and the ear) caiuied scandalous storica to 

to fonn durable affei^ions. By the treaty of Ca- obtain currency, which had no other fonndafi— 

t«au Canibrc!>is (April, \TiH9) |ieace waa restor- tliansouie imprudent acta could fbmish. Beiw 

ed, France ogivc-ing to give up Calais in 6 years, renuestcd by Charlea IX. to select twu Eq^M 

It was not until 6 iiiuntliM after her accession that nobles to Im» made knights of St. Michael, tUm 

the l*atholie tier vice was fmally diMx>n tinned in named Leicester and the duke of Norfolk. Um 

ElixaU'thV private cha|>cl. At first slio would marriage witli the favorite waa expected dai|f. 

not take the title of heuil vf the chunh, oasum- Tlio marriage of Damley and Mary Stnait M> 

ing that of its goveme^s; but at a later peri< id nored her; and the birth of a wn from 

abe became leM diM-riuiiuating, and ashcrted her union caused alann in England, as showing 

supreniacv arbitrarily. Many princes and nobles the crown might pass to a Catholic. Parliai 

continued tu sue fur her tiand; and it shows being summoned in Oct. 1666, one of the 

how different wai npiniim then frrtin what it acts of the commons waa to votv that the bfll 

now is, that even a plain knight. Sir Willlani for supplies should bo accompanied by ooe for 

Pickering, a in;in of giH^l talent but moderate the mrttlement of the succe^^iun ; for this 

meaIl^ wa.4 mtIou^Iv h{Hiken of as her husiband. U'th liotly r%-buked tliem. Even I^icester, 

In France the Kngli-h tlirono wa« clainK'«l for schemes hail U*vn traver50<l by Cecil, waa 

Mary, <|!K-tn of N-nts wife uf Frani'is II. ; a the leaders of the opiKJsilion on this 

fooli-h prvten^ion, diMino<l to ha%'o liliMMly con- In November she was waited ufion br ai 

aequer.tvs. ElizjiUtli e.-irly U-?an that fty^tem- titm frt<m both houM'^, aii«l entreated to 

atir interfi-n-utx* with S'ot«*h affairs w hii-h lai>tttl or to name a suerei^jr. She endeavored to 

duriiii; her entire reign, making of S-otlaiui an son them out uf their olistioacy, and aa to thm 



£ugli<«h province iu fart, llio party of tlio succeviion, hbo Mid they sliould havo the 

refi*nnatii>n was i-nnbleil to tnuniph there of her prayers The common^ Wfrv stabborai| 

througli her aid. I'lu*! IV., anewpo{i«.\ ^.night but the dispute was cv^mpromi^ed, tlie qi 

to «in the •juren bark to (he church of Kumo taking half the money without naming her 

by gentle mefoi**, )>ut un«iirri-<dfully. She re> Ci*NS«ir. At tliin time she was dabbling in 

atureil the curreney to Merling value in 15Co. a my. Mieving in the (jiiackery of I>r. Hvei, 




reform t!.at did uiurh tt>prttmote the prt»«iii*rity she hod con^nltetl at thi« beginning of her Mifli 

of her !•u^jv«*t< Aid in money, arms, and nun for an au^piciuus day for her corunatkMi. 6m 

was s(-!it t«> the Fnni'h Ilugnenuts, and necret ma«Io him chancellor of St. Paul' a. ThemwAv 

aaeiitarre x*t the !>•!« «tantiuf HoikIl m. Whi-n of 1 )arnley Utl to the overthrow of Mary 6(iMff^ 

the 'jOtvu I'f S-ti*4 "MiUjLt a safe passage from and to her tlicht to England the next Tear tHiOTt 

~ 15fi^). when Mie wa<i moile Elixalivths priscoaL 



France ti* l.-'-r ki:i.;i!oni, ElizaU-th n-luiKd her 
rvqt;i>9t, u:A it i* U'iie\M (hat ^he endeavore«l in violation t-f the laws of hospitality and tka 
tu ivi-i/i* hiT |<pN n. In l.V'.'t parliament en- laws of nation*. Mar}' submit t4*«I her rate to b# 
trrat«>l t!.e >{Tietii to nmrry, tlje i:uc^tion uf the tritnl by EiiK'ii*'h commi<«ioners, who vert ft 
sui'c« v«iii:i U'ln*; one if murh ii:!tr«>«t to all parked btnly. .and incapable of deciding ^ostfT. 

The wrious intenial tniublv<t of England ta tUt 



rloM^'s of !ur *'ul<jtt ts, who bail n^t vvt pit frie 

frfi.i thetirn'r«-au<H*d by the war» of thf ri>Mrs. reign liegan with the imprisonment of Mar^; 

Cu:.i! >Lstii fi<r htr hand r«intinue«l t«> i^priiig and th<ii^* frum without began to oaMime aena- 

np. !.t hiiiiie and abrooil. The nio^t prr>minenl ical rhararter alM.*ut the same time. The aay^ 

F.n.:.:-}.':-.sn wb<ia*|ired tnthchomir wai Henry lum England afforde<l to tho»e «bo rted fra^ 

Fit/oUu, last (and 18tii) cart gf Anuidvl of thai pertecution ia Flandcn offciultd I>paiB. Aa 




ELIZABETH 95 

bfflish flag was insnlted in the gplf of Mexico, oat knowinff the rilor features of it. It was dis- 
■id tiM Eogliih minister at Madrid badly treat- covered, and Norfolk was exccnted. The Alen- 
•d. The queen retaliated by seizing treasure ^on marriage project was now resumed. Par- 
tktf had been fonnd in Spanish vessels which had hament passed a bill to pat Mary Stuart to death, 
takm relbffe in Enslish ports ; and when Alva but Elizabeth would not give her consent to it. 
Udaneinoargo on Englishmen and their prop- Meantime, fanaticism in France caused the St. 
«tf, ihe arreated all the Spaniards in England, Bartholomew massacre in 1672, which event 
Bit even excepting the ambassador. She corre- made the English reformers clamorous for Mary's 
folded directly with Philip IL, but that mon- blood ; and while Elizabeth would not consent 
■tk took a high tone, and threatened war. The to the execution of her unlawfully detained 
dnka of Norfolk had become attached to Mary prisoner, she agreed to a project for giving her 
fatrt, and Elizabeth bade him be on his guard, np to her Scotch rebel subjects, who were to 
Hs vaa arreated and imprisoned. The great murder her in 4 hours after obtaining possession 
aortlMn rebellion then broke out (1669), headed of her person. This villanous business came to 
W the CathoUo earls of Westmorels^ and notMng, because of the Scotch leaders in it in- 
Mthnmberlaind, but was nq>idly crushed by the sisting upon conditions to which the English 
iiri oC Siuflez, and 800 of the rebels were ex- could not agree. Mary was still held in confine- 
•nlad. In 1670 the queen was excommuni- ment. In 1676 the Dutch offered tlieir ffovem- 
cilid bj Pope Pins Y., and a copy of the bull ment to Elizabeth, whom they respected as de- 
'm fJMlniiftii on the gate of the episcopal palace scendcd from Philippa of Hainaut. She did not 
rf Loodon, bj a Gatholio named Felton, who at first help them, and it was not until 1678 that 
■ neked and executed. After the failure of she agreed to aid them with money and men, 
attempt to get up a marriage between on conditions by which she could not lose any 
and the archduke Charles, it was pro- thing. When Sir Francis Drake returned from 
tbai ahe should marry the duke of Anjou, his voyage around the world, Elizabeth visited 
Henry IH of France, and last of the him on board his ship, knighted him, and 
TdoHL When the council was informed of this, shared the spoil he had piratically taken from 
«M oC tbem obeerved that the duke was rather the Spaniards. Ireland gave her great troubles 
jOMg for the qneen, which enraged her. In and the contest which was waged tiiere by Lora 
tfi^ aa in all her negotiations of a similar char- Mountjoy was known among the people as "tho 
', abe does not seem to have been sincere ; hag's war/* in bitter derision of the queen. Con- 
it was always a source of anger when any spiracles began to multiply around her, natural- 
of her innumerable suitors saw fit to marry ly having Mary Stuart for their central iiguro. 
e other lady. She opened the new bourse. The Jesuits were conspicuous in these plotss in 
MIt by Sir Thomas Gresham, in 1671, and one of which the Spanish minister Mcndoza 
it the royal exchange. Cecil was now was implicated, and forced to loavc the coimtry. 
Lord Burleigh, and made lord high treas- Many persons were executed and others iinpris- 
Sir Thomas Smith was made principal onecL Philip Howard, earl of Arundel, son of 
of state. Ilatton now began to attract the duke of Norfolk, was condemned to death, 
being high in the queen's favor becauso and died in the tower, after a long imprison- 
rfhii personal acoomplishments and beauty; and ment. An association to protect the queen 
kv repotation has been assailed on account of against *^ popish conspirators" was formed by 
ha ftmdness for him. For his good she spoiled Leicester, and was converted into a statute by 
tie bkhop of Ely of much church property, and parliament, which actually prepared the way 
vmIb him a truculent and blasphemous epistle for tlie murder of Mary Stuart, should Elizabeth 
it 8 fines. The French marriage project halting, be assassinated in her name. Though she con- 
of the aversion of Ai^ou to the mature tinned to refuse the sovereignty of the Dutch, 
bia mother had the impudence to pro- she afforded them more aid, and honorably 
his yonneer brother Alen^on in his place, bamshed Leicester to their country, at the head 
Elizabeth's junior by 22 years, and as of an army ; but the distinctions heaped u])on 
in person as he was morally depraved, him in Holland greatly offended her. The dis- 
affected to change his opinion, and the covery of Babington's conspiracy proved fatal 
iBitiaetion was resumed. The parliament of to Mary Stuart, despite the fact that nothing 
flfl rezed ber much, but she was beaten in her could be proved against her. Tier trial was a 
Mania to rule it. The emperor Maximilian serious farce, and had its appropriate ending in 
IL cnered the hand of his son Rodolph to the the open murder perpetrated at Fothcringay 
who was more than old enough to be his (Feb. 8, 1687). It is now pretty well establislied 
Henry of Navarre was also placed at that Elizabeth's signature to Mary's death war- 
iapoaaL But she favored Anjou most, rant was a forgery, and it is beyond doubt that 
to his dread ; and it was to avoid his it was sent to Fothcringay castle without her 
fi^^ction of her hand that she rejected his knowledge or sanction. Burleigh was the sender 
M nficions grounds, according to those who of it, and the forgery is sup]X)sed to have been 
Mik 3bB was sincere. Philip II. was now en- perpetrated by the order or under the direc- 
■pid in a plan involving the assassination of tion of Walsingham. Elizabeth was anxious for 
linliilh With this plot Norfolk and Mary Mary's deatli, and sought to have her privily as- 
bad some connection, but probably wiUi- sassmoted, but did not mean to have her openly 




96 ELIZABETII 

•xcM'atod. Pbc feared iLe ctTi^ct of lo bold an act her dabmitUd to the norereign. Tlie d* 

oDiiianyaocounU,butnio«tIy iKTaasoof ihcten* of Henry IV. to abantltm Ow Protf»Uii 

dencT it would lave to ciK-oiiro^ i\io^ writers axinoyed Elizahetb, and the suught u* i:ii 

and «pecuUt<irs who then ar^rued in favor of fho hisi mind to remain Ann, but inclRTtual 

ri^bt of tlic iioo|ile tu dethrone and to punbh plot to |K)iMon her was detected, and hi 

kinirs. Bhc aUo feared it^ etft-ct on foreipi sor- |ihysii'iun, Lc»|iez, who hod l»een in In r i 

•reifrna. Her niinii^terb* fvar^ wi-n* of a difTi-rcnt 34 jeanf^ was eXiH'Uti>d for his |iart in it. 

character, and were removiil by Mary^s inurdiT. gious |ierfiecution.<« were now cuumif 'n, ai 

They feared Uiat Mar}* would bur^ive ElizaU'th, eral noted Puritans were put to di-aih. 

mail eitlier would succeed lier, or that her claiui war with Spain was carried on with \'\f\ 

would cauM a soccvssion war, the traditionary Cadiz was taken in 15'J6, by a fleet and 

aTvrsion of En)r1i<«h stati'>uivn. Angry as s)io commanded by Ho wanl of Effingham and 

wa^ Elizabeth dared ti» puui«h no one but sec- The latter wus now the tirinei pal iiTStn ii 

retary I>avi»on, who was only a iotA of tho land for a subject, but the infinnitiix of hi 

Lifrher miuUters ; for not only had foreign {>er prevented him from profit inp fully fr 

aj&ira afiifUuied a mtious a»Dect, but tho killing iiositionand the «iueeu*s regard. Titi* cttu 

c^ Mary was uniiuestionably a f»opular act full of intrigui's and Essex, tho niii?>t gi- 

with tho ruling clasM-s ainl |>iirty. Tlie tH>otch and imprudent of men, was the victim 

|>cople wore vnrage«L, and gladlr would have who cho(»e to play ujion him. Philip 11. 1 

SBMailvd their old enemy: but ttieir king had formed a plan to place his dauglitvr on th 

little alfectii»n for a mother whom he never had lish throne, E«sex wai sent toaM>aiI the Spa 

known, and he expected to Ih; Elizabeth's sue- at homo and on tho ocean. He ac«^^m| 

ceteor. The ctmdition of Franc« let\ no room nothing, which offi-nded the «}Ucen ; but h 

for fi*ar on tliat side; but the iK>]ie and the recovered her favor, and was enabli-il t<i 

king of Spain were active enemies. Sixtns V. Burleigh, until the latter discovered tliat ! 

•nathemaii/A-d Elizabeth, and proclaimed a in corrcatpondenco with the king of Nv 

crusade again »t hiT. PhilipII. laid claim to tho Henry IV. having n-Milved;. bihju \*ia»\ 

Eoglisli crown, a^i Ultimate heir of tho houso Hpain, to tlio anger of ElizabMh, otTi-rvU 

of Lancaster, in virtue of his de?«(*ent fmni two diate a geuerul peace. Hurlfigh favore< 

danghtCM f*f John of (fuunt, who had been and Esm:X took the other sioe. It vi 

queens of Portugal and C*a'»tilo. He madeoi»en consultation on Irisli affain, in |he royal 

preparations to eufonv thi-* claim, and the |»o(h) that Essex tunu'd his back coikeinptuui: 

rromi*«d large conditional aid. Meantime, the (juei-n, who imnuiliati'Iy htrui k him 
>rake ravaged tho c«ia«ts of Spain, preyed on head, and told him to *' go and \v l.ai 
hi-r conmiortv, and mado a Micco4«ful attack on AtV-r a display ut r;k«hno<*s and !• n.{Kr i\ 
the hhipping in tho harlior of Cadi/. Tho Eng- K-ft tho pri-M*iiri<. \l'hiU* otTir:!* for a 
li^h were not l>ai*kward in [iri^panng to moot ciliatitin wt-ro making. Hurl< u*h ilii !. .^ 
Philips att.'U'k. .Ml part ion C nlholio:i and Piiri- I.'i'JH. Six wo<k<» bitor dii-<! I'liil p 11. 
tan% a« woll *« tho ri>t of the [»ofipK\ fdiowod rrtunuil t«» furt, and hlii-rtly a?:- r » 
a patriotic ^pirit. A lUi-t of 1*«it Miil was gut |N.int«-i| Itml d<puty nf Iriland. hIihIi u, 
reailv. ciiii:ni:iniK*<l bv L>rd Howard of Kf- niiJ^-ruMo htati-. Tho iiMitouiio gi\«:i ! 
fiugham, Itrakr, Krulii^hor, and Hawkins. Two li»vo than in an;:iT. and «u« tbr gift «I t n 
aniiios woro raiM.-4l, nmii taring o\or ^i^.^nn) A |Militiriaii raiin-r than a Mat*-Mi.:k:.. 
in«-n. Tho Span Ml armada ^aiK-'! May :2'.i, kiiitrhl rathrr tli:in a M»IdiiT. K«<m \ i<i.'.< 
15^"^, but a •kturm comiu'lU-d it to rolum ; tiroly in Iroland, whonro ho ri-turnti! m 
and it wxt ni»t until .Tnly 21 that tho two |H,*nni!^Mon and onti-riM] ii|Minthat ^tranpTi- 
fli-ctn met, and Juinttl lattlo near tho En;:li«>li «if action tliut iiiiicd in bin dfuth i!. *A.* 
Cl•a^t. After a MTii-4 of actions th.it la^tol 1^ fold, in Itlul. Thofjuiinas ^tll^v ol i!.> Ti.i 
da}i the Sjianiard^ wrri« uitvriv n^utol. the thor<»unt<"">of .Viittin;:h:ini ha<»n«*f>'':i.-la 
elrini-nts grv.itly a'««:«ting tho Kng!i*>h. I-111/.v truth; nor i** ii truo thul tho gli">rii in 
Lcth luTM-lf !<« »aid to have origiiiai<-d the i*lan t!io iiurt-n'"* lii-t (!ri}<» wi-ro p:i<^^d i%.i<» f^i 
of st'iidin;; :*ro ^!l;|•4 into tho Sp.tniOi lii'«-t, E^m I'l di-itt}i. Sir HnU-rt ( Vnl, a ^«'n • 
to whirh i:it:ih i^f tbe »uc4*v^« rY the English bi;:h. wa« in tw El:. *.'i) it h't ni'i*t |p**wk4r tu- 
nas uwin/. IIk* ruuntry iia4 thii'« dilivin^ t*r. aiidho «u« in ttirri--p<'nd(nrr w .!l. !l. 
fni?!i pri-H nt f<'ar of mv.-i»jin. I AM<'f4or died in t^f S*t»lland. Tin* i;!:**?! MiUpTbl t«- 1j.i^v 
IS**"*, alliT a tju.krrrl wiili th** i{'ii-on, *!»•» had IV. \i-it Imt at I»'i\i'r. hv Uiiitf ut Cwj 
lifon |irr*fiaihil b,^ hor mill :«ti:« iii •!!•.! rai*«> liim hi< Cii!)t«nt«tl hiiiiMif Mith Mt^il.rj 
to iho |x>»t I'f I'-nl Ih-uti-nant of England and Ho^nv. hiti r tho duke i\v >ullr. a-* h:- a!r 
In-!aiid. In 1*»-V, an rtj^itlition *fca» M-nt to dtm Tlit-ir isiti r\i»-u<t i»*ri- inti ri -:.' .;. 
rlTo4-ttho IiUr.iti>>nof Portngai ; but thoUpTh tho tli<' llr-l ^bo >jN*ko t>f tbi king « f St '.'. 
army was IaimKiI aiid mart bid l** tiio nuburbn hi-r mii'ci •••-•r, iftb<*. •^ho ^.ti^l, U" :!•• U k 
of l.'t»bun. tJ*o ui^dortaking M/nallr f.i.htl. Ai'l UriM Britmn. Tin* tifli- or ^'i'latt-I m i! 
in nun anil nu-r.iy wa* h i.i t«» il«nr}' IV. of An'tilurvniba-- y ».i*mi.i to r.i.prliiii-ll * 1 
Erar.i'**, thm c«<ntondin7 Mi:h Spu:n and the and ua« woU rto* i%«d. Eli/-i-*« :■•*« U*: ; 
leagtio. in 1 :•'.»• »'.il. A pariivnoLt nut in l't'.'3, i:n nt nut in Oi t. I'-ol. It m:uK- jir^^i 
the cutnxuuiu alter st4ne ooutcution » itli tiou to thu oppro<«ivc mobo|i^.'l:o« ^h 



ELIZABETH (of Fbaxck) ELIZABETH (of Yalozs) 97 

ited, and she frracefnlly gavo way. In the declared incapable of sncceeding to his father^s 

J put of 1603 (N. 8.) she suffered from rale; a party was organized in behalf of Hemy, 

nnplication of eomphunts, but the inime- brother of the late count ; the castle was seized, 

e cause of her death, which took place at and Elizabeth with her 8 children was turned 

xmond, was a cold. She was buried April out of her home without provision, money, or a 

Her reign is justly considered one of the change of raiment. After living some time in 

t important England has known, and her great destitution, subsisting now by charity and 

oory is held in deserved reverence by all now by spinning, she was sheltered by her aunt 

sea of Englishmen, and in esteem by the the abbess of Eitzingen, until a more suitable 

id; for, in despite of many faults of charao- asylum was found in a castle offered for her use 

md errors of conduct, she was a great sov- by her uncle the bishop of Bamberg. After- 

gB. **The Elizabethan age" is one of the ward, at the intercession of the friends of the 

t brilliant periods of English history, and deceased count, Henry recalled her to Wart- 

Bumerous statesmen, soldiers, scholars, and burg, and acknowledged the rights of her son ; 

■r intellectual personages who then existed, but frequent misunderstandings and difference 

iered for it a place in the world^s annals that of t^tes led her to petition the count for a 

never been surpassed. Of this glory the separate residence, where she might follow a 

sreign has had allowed her far more than monastic life, and give herself wholly to works 

doe share, because of the loftiness of her of charity. She took up her abode at Marbux^ 

ftion and the consequences of her actions. in Hesse, where she spent the remaining 8 years 

UZABETH OF Francs, PnaippixE Mabib of her life in seclusion. She wore beneath her 

tec, madame, sister of King Louis XVI., garment the haircloth of St. Francis, bound 

I in Versailles, May 8, 1764, guillotined herself to obey the orders of her confessor, dis- 

teii^ May 10. 1794. She early distinguish- missed her favorite maids when she found her- 

barself by cnarity and a taste for serious self loving them too well, devoted her liberal 

mita, especially botany. When the revo- allowance entirely to the poor, and supported 

m broke ont^ she shared her brother^s herself by spinning ; she mmistered to the most 

Is and misfortunes, evincing in all circum- loathsome diseases, and even received lepers into 

cm nn&ltering firmness, courage, and sweet- her house. Her confessor, Conrad the legate, ex- 

I of temper. On Oct. 5, 1789, she sac- ercised his functions widi the utmost severity ; 

led in preserving the lives of several of the and in compliance with her own wishes, subject- 

i] body gnard, threatened by the infuriated ed her to unusual and cruel penances. She was 

i; in June, 1791, she accompanied her bro- buried with great pomp in the chapel near the 

' to Yarennes, and sustained his spirit in hospital wliich she had founded in Marburg, and 

r dangerous journey back to Paris ; on June the report of the frequent miracles wrought at 

179S, when the populace broke into the her tomb induced Gregory IX. in 1235 to add 

her life was in danger from being her name to the list of saints. IJer shrine was 

for the queen ; and in all the perils of for ages one of the most famous of Europe, ri- 

she retained her wonte<l composure, vailing those of St. Thomas of Canterbury and 

thonght only of the safety of her brother St. James of Coinpostella. Tlie altar steps be- 

his family. .She was incarcerated with them fore it are worn hollow by the knees of pilgrims, 

lia temple, bnt was separated from the king and the name of St. Elizabeth of Hungary still 

Us trial before the convention, and after- remains throughout Germany the synonyme of 

A from the queen and the dauphin ; and all that is sweety tender, and heroic in Christian 

If, although nothing could be adduced faith. Her life has been written by many au- 

mft her except her devotion to her brother, tbors, Catholic and Protestant, in many lan- 

aoBtenced to death by the revolutionary guages. No fewer than 88 published works and 
■aL She met her fate with the patience 13 MSS. relating lier story are catalogued by 
inbvpidity which had marked all her life. Count do Montalembert, whose elaborate and 
UZABETH OF HuNGAKT, saint, countess of enthusiastic biography is accessible to American 
riigia, daughter of Andrew II., king of Hun- readers in the translation by Mary Ilackott, pub- 
reborn in Presburg in 1207, died in Marburg, lished in Now York in 1864. The best Prot- 
■niyt Xov. 19, 1231. At 4 years of ago she estant life of Saint Elizabeth is that of K. W. 
bfltrolhed to Louis, the oldest son of Hermann, Gusti, an edition of which was published in 
IpBTe of Thuringia, and according to the Germany in 1885. 

an of the age was transferred to the house- ELIZABETH of Yalois, or Isabella, queen 

I of her future husband, to be educated for of Spain, bom at Fontainebleau, April 18, 

rank. The nuptials were celebrat- 1545, died in Madrid, Oct. 8, 1568. She was 

■he had reached her 14th year ; and a daughter of Henry II. and Catharine do* 

the religious practices for which she Medici. By the treaty of Angers (July 19, 

been remarkable, she enlisted the 1551) she was betrothed to Edward VI. of Eng- 

tf lier hnsband in the charitable works land, but the marric^o was prevented by his 

lib flBgroased her time. Louis joined tho 6th premature death. By the preliminaries of the 

■lOi but died before reaching the Holy Land, treaty of peace of Cateau Cambr^sis, her hand 

lib death at once changed the circumstances was assigned to Don Carlos, infante of Spain. 

flMeounteas. Her infant son, Hermann, was The treaty was ratified, April 8, 1559 ; but the 
TOL. VII, — 7 



98 £UZAUETn CHARLOTTE ELIZADETU FARXCSE 

father of I ton C'nrln«, Pliilip TI., being Irft a toGcn.C?niinki»w : " She i<inot at all bfantifuL 

widower by the ihath <if hi-* witV, (^•:iorn P(H'ak*> ahin'^c iiotliiit^, nrul 14 prcii to f-outinc.** 

Miu*y of Ei)(?1a:i'i. arnl fa.*<'iij.it«'il by a {icrirait Tho inrirria/«« oiTi-njony, hnwcvcr. wii.* |4*rfurin* 

which lie hoil mh:i of the Kit i: eh {inn<-,.><.. s:i!»- cd at I'Dtxlatii, Juno 12, 17^.3; and TarUle navft 

fttiMited hiin^'li' f'^r hi-* sun. Sl.o vr:k<i nnitLil to tltat, *' witli tlic ^^y temper of 1^ and hir native 

I'hilip. Fib. 1*, 15«'h», tho niarri.it:'* i^Tiiin'isy l«»yni!y i'Mniml. hlio soem'*iiihftve>haiudhcr*rf*lf 

li-in^r jK-rfMrriii"! wiili ^ri-at >j.itu«lur at Ti'Icil'i. Minv-Mwly in iJn.* princv'b taste, and prowir|r 

She WHS liii'.i/. i! hy the |-t «.jili» nf Sja.n. nnd \e»i-Iy cracifuller and U*tter-)iKikin;r. wa^ an or- 

Frenrh a- Will :«<• Sii:Lni''h l>ii-::ra{'her< are u:-:.in- nuiiu-tit an«l pleasant athlition to Iii!* exi^tei.i'v.'* 

iuioiis in i>r:i>iii;; lurU'autv. aeojnplioiiitiint-s Krederie niado iri-neruiin proiiMon for her, ami 

and virt'}!-. Jii«t U't'urc her di-aih *'!i<* w.lh roniarked in hi« will: ** I'uriii); my whi4« ivipi 

delivorvd i^f a dai:;;hter, who lived oi\)\ t<i ho ^!le has never ^Ivon nie the Bli^hte>t raiJ»c of 

l»aptize<1. mill u:i<4 hurii-<l in tlie viinei-Mtlin i^ith di-<iti^f:irtii>n, uvA lur hi^'h moral rharacltr 

thvmi'thir. diitwingaivuunts have U'i:np;v«.'ii niii-t in^^pire ri>iiirt :iiid K>ve." She was a 

of the rihirii'iiH hctwii-n Eiifalieth an'l Cirlivi, lady of O'n-idiTaMe attainment!-, wrote Mwral 

but Mr IViM-'ti in his "History of the Kei^ii works and distributed half of her income auioii( 

of I'hilip 1!."' proved their (;runnd!L-'*''ne»«. the i-oor. 

ElizaU-t!i ti 'k a lively inii-ri^t in l*arli>?*, and KMZAlil'TII CITY, a S. E. 00. of Virpnii, 

wait die] >ly utVerr«tl by hi-* tragic* end; but. ar- borlerin:,' on ('he>npiake b.iy at the mouth 

curding t-* Mr. Tre^Hott, her feelings for him of .lanie-i river, bo:wtdi.il S. by Ilnmpton Kuads, 

were on!v thi»i' of kindnt*«i4. and N. bv Ibiek rivi-r; area, fi" hj. lu. ; pop. 

EUZAllEllU'MAKUnTE. dueheMof Or- in l**r,ij. 4,5s6, of whom iM4h wvre tUrca. 
leans, Uirn in lUi-IelUTp, May 27, \C*o*2, diol at It ha< a fi-riile xii!, Mil ta bio for frraiu and liotA- 
St. I'loi-.d. Ike. H, 1722. She wa-» a daii^'hier tois In I-^-^m it pridnit-d 87,2l'5 bu^lwU of 
of the eU-«-:or i'!i:irlc!i I.* m in of the I*a!atinate, Indian corn, 22.1 ^s ot' wheat, 17.754 of nats^ 
aiid fo homely t!iat a duke of r<iiirl:ind, who ai.il 42.r>T'.* of poiut.KS. The rr were :i tlonr and 
hail been Utro'.heil tohi-r, refuMrd to marry her. t:ri»t inilK 7 ehnn-hi-*, and 249 pnpiU atSrnd- 
Afler int*r:ii-in:* (.\it!ii>liei*>m hhe U'eaino tlio in^ pnlilii* «chiHi!-» nnd aradi'inieo. Tliis wia 
2d wife iNii^. I'V 1071) of I'liilip I., duke of one nf thi* H on^*ii4:iI fliire^ into which VirpQM 
OrKan«, liri»thi^^rof Li>ni.« XIV. At tin* French wa-* dividi-d irt 1<'>:'4. i'iipital. II am [•ton. Valoe 
court idii* Ifeame di»tingui'«!ieil f >r her inte^'risy t<f r«.id e'«l:ite in l^o't, |iV.)4,.'ilO: in l^oO, t^*^*' 
and inttlliit, .11 wi-ll ai fi>r hvr bliiiitni-v» ami lM«i. N!,«iw-ifiL; nu ifnTfaM- of 4i' i<'r ci-Lt. 
ecci-ntrii-itv. >lie had a cordial hatretl fur Ma- KI.IZAHKTII Tl I Y, aiii^t toivn and caxiiCal 
dame de Vf.iintenon, and op|HiM'il the marriage of raMpiotank c>i.. N. ('., nn ]*a«'{Ui»!aLk n^er. 
of her ^on (t'le Mtture rejri-nt) with Mile, de 2i) m. tVum it<i luontit ; p<-p. in K>iu»:imatrd 
HIoi«, tho kink*'^ niiliirul dan^'liter. St. Sinion at 2.'HH). It ]« nnv of tlie priui ip.il tuwn^ in 
givf^ an :»r:i :-::•;.' arixiint of tlie vniT;:i':ie man- the N. K. part «*f t!.i* •^t.iti-. It hiU'* con. mun lea- 
ner in wh:i-!i ^liv.- d:''p!:iy(.d hi*r fei!in^'<4 i-n tlie ti>*n with Norfolk, Va.. b\ iiiean« vf the river 
4K*i'.\*>i in. \\ -i.ijip::^;: her Bi<n in t!ti- fai'o in tlie aiiil the Pi^mal >\v:trnp eamd. and 1 xj-irts lum- 
pr» ^ nrc I f t!n: wltt.ile et»'irt. Shv ofli-n a: tend- U-r and vari-tii* pri'ilm i- tif the pili h pine. 
Ml^'uli XIV. t'» tlji- rhaM-. anil the kiiu'enjiiVtd KI.IZ.M»F/MI F.\KNK>E. .;ui\n of Spain, 
her wit arid «.<rv:;..Liity and i**tiirnei! hirtrutli- born Hi-t. 2.'i, 1G'.'2. dii.d in 17(*'i. She was a 
ful f'hara- 1« r. Jb r pridiIi-<-tii>n fi<r ilieCi-niiuu dauchti r of ( Mi^ardo II.. print r *>( ]*arr.j:k and 
lanl:I:af^* ar.dliti-r.itiiro i: itim-miI the int^Ti.-ur-i^ of thednehe^HSuphia liwroihiaof Itav aria- Sea- 
of Frmi h w st!i (m rman »<•!.• ilar-. e-;-* ^mjuIv wifh btirL'. lb r nnLMi(>Iy uppi .ininn nnd !ieai!«!rt'«x 
I^eibiiitt, o'it< «-f In r ^|»eeial fa^oritr-. Ilir ili«pi»«itiiin ahen.'itt-d fri-m hi r thi- at!Vrtl*iU> uC 
rlainiii to the ra!.i!inati*. ho\ii-\rr, ]'ro\i il dx9- hi-r mothi r. and In r idniati<in wa-« n«.frhetcd; 
a*tr '14 for di rii.nn>, by ri--ult;iij in t!ji- div.a»' bt:tt!iii<*c whoprfjioMiI ht-r a«aion^>ri tolliilip 
tstion *>{ t!. it «<'-:!i!ry !•) the ariuii <« of I.*>ui4 V. in tlie h>>ii* *'\ niukii:;: h^r thv.r tf^>I werv 
XIV. I !•>»» 'O'i) Mie w ri'!t' vuri"::-" niemi'ir?*, ^Ti-.iiU dl-sq p--i;.!i «!. T^.i* kin^ of !*pain oQ 
which ha^c I- I :i m vi r.i! t.mis trand.itnl and I'^vuMiinf: a u . .••■.\i r in 1714 ri-Mk*:!!*! bin:%clf 

puMi-liid \:\ Fr.i!t«'e. Ib'r p •<*!hjiiii:;<i Ii-tt- r<» to the ^i.;>!ar: f thf Fn lit h pri:ri m l^t* 

w« re al-' tr.in*! I'i ■! f.--iT:i !!.•■ (iirmnn, ar.il pi:b- I'r-iii-, lln' f.i\t»rlte if lii^ lato U !»«^f«i ijui-ra, 

b«htd bv M. <i I'mtut 1:1 Ki'; i:r.dir ti.e t.tlo ai;d i!i^iri«l t.i f<«ll.iw hrr athiie in the chi.4 

i»f l^*tr^a I .* •■|'*'i ,ff it J rt:;ut jutl.itit.r nf .1 *<iiind w jfi-. The priliro** «i« le* tc<d Lli 

KI.IZAKKIM < '1[UI> I 1\ A. I]!:!! n i.f IVm^- Klh t-n ai •-•■'iiit if hi r app.-iri tit di««;u;i*.if;i a:i<«a 

•la, b »ni tn Hr ;:i-\vi. k. N'.-i. »». I7l'i. diid .I.in, f-r an f\:i!t««l |H»-iti<':i. lint the Tir^: ai*. i>f t^«« 

l.'i, 17y7. ^':' » I* a I .-:: «i -n i-f iiri;:>\« n k- ncw liUfin wa.-* l«» 1 au-M* ihi' dl-ni.«*ai of th« 

llf«trri. a i.i> e %•( thi> 1 ti^; ri'«i iif (ii.rninriy, prlnot.-^. a:i<i "l<i* ^iMt!! cn-nfl a i'l'iiiphttf u:a^ 

and Was *-!r"'*i.! *.! t?.i' f..!i.ri' Fri Itr.!' ihi- !• rji o^cr }!• r M«-.»k;iundtil l.u-ba:.d ar.d o*rr 

iireat. Map !j !■». l7:-2. (':»rl\!i. is: }..- h.-:. rv :h- ii:V.i:r'« i-f Sp.im. Ii\ hi-r .ii!ibiii«>n a;;d ii*- 

of FrwKri- II.. :. ! -r , !•••, 1,, ,), ^ ril-i * l.i .- a« tr./-.t % a*.. I ihi* wTi at n !.• r.,% • nf hrr mii.wter, 

l^intfat t! at t.'i.f " Ai. u.-,; : !. :'::i.-.'. -mpli \..«n. •! ( .jr-t.rial Allr* ri-iu. F.':r»-;»*- » a^ throu n ml*- ••* o- 

yMun,r !.'.•!>■ ." a? d Ir-^'.-r. , «?.■■ w.*. i-.»::ij»t!!id f. ".":.. ^; .»iu tt.vi.!. -dijinid |»»^M^*Hin of 1* • 

li» marry h- r ' > 11* f.i''H r, a?.'. w!.»i w.n f .•:. !» T\ • .^.. :!u^ hi d *•( r.ir::ii athl l*iaeci:xa. i'lr- 

cip|-«.-M:d to th«. n.j:< !i, B^d «.Z h^r lu h:3 Ic-ttcri hU-, :u ).Li " lli.<':ury v( Fr«l«.ric lL« iirrai,'* 



EUZABETH FETROVKA ELK 99 

gires s fbll description of her qnarrels with the an ardent supporter. The licentious disorder 

emperor Charles Vl., and characterizes her as in her court lasted till her death. RazumoffskL 

**a termagant, tenacious woman, whose amhi- successively her servant, chamherlain, and field 

tioiis copidities were not inferior in ohstinacy marshal, finally hecaroe her secret hushand, and 

to Kaiser Eari*8, and proved not quite so shad- is regarded as the father of 8 of her children. 

Qwj as bisw" The foundation of the university of Moscow, 

ELIZABETH FETROVNA, empress of Rus- and of the academy of fine arts at St. Peters- 
ut, daughter of Peter the Great and Catharine burg, is one of her greatest merits. 
L, bom in 1709, died Jon. 9, 1762. After the ELIZABETH STUART, queen of Bohemia, 
death of her parents, her nephew, Peter II. bom in the palace of Fidldand, near Edinburgh, 
(1727-^30), son of the unhappy prince Alexis Aug. 16, 1696, died at Leicester House, London, 
and her coosin Anna Ivanovna (l7dO-'40), Feb. 18, 1662. She was a daughter of James 
dioghter of the elder brother of Peter the L of England, and a highly accomplished prin- 
Great, snocessively occupied the throne of Rus- cess. She had many suitors, among whom the 
na, ibr which she showed little desire, the pleas- most eminent were the young king of Spain, 
wes of love, as she used to say, being her su- Philip III., Charles Emanuel I., prince of Pied- 
prane good. Anna appointed Ivan, son of mont, and Frederic, elector pdatine ; but as a 
Anthony Ulric, duke of Brunsiirick, a child but Protestant Frederic was preferred. The mar* 
a few months old, heir to the crown under the riage was celebrated with great pomp in White- 
totelage of his mother Anna, and the regency hall chapel, Feb. 14, 1618. To defray part of 
€f Biron, the favorite of the empress. Thus the expense of the ceremonies the kin^ levied 
EUaibeth was for a third time excluded from new taxes to the extent of £20,600. The total 
the throne of her father, but even her freedom expense amounted to about £58,000, exclusive 
wis now menaced by the jealousy of the mother of the bride's portion of £40,000. Her husband 
of the infant czar, who wished to get rid both of was the head of the Protestant interest in Ger- 
the regent and the princess, and advised the lat- many, and when in 1619 the crown of Bohemia 
tBt to take the reiL Under these circumstances was tendered to him, she urged his acceptance 
her anrgeon and favorite, Lestocq, brought of it, with the remark that he should not have 
about a conspiracy, which being seconded by married a king's daughter if he had not the cour- 
tbe laTor of the national Russian party, and the age to become himself a king. Her entrance 
intrignes of the ambassador of Louis aV., tcr- into Prague and her coronation were mogni- 
rain^ted in a military insurrection, the over- ficent pageants, but her sovereignty soon camo 
throw of Anna and Ivan, and the proclamation to an end. The imperialist forces advanced into 
of Elizabeth as empress (Dec. 1741). Anna and Frederic's hereditary dominions, and into Bo- 
her husband, as well as numerous other victims, hernia, and after the battle of Prague (Nov. 8, 
vere punished by confinement, and the young 1620) ho and his queen were compelled to flee, 
prince imprisoned in the fortress of SchlQssel- A refuge was offered to them by the prince of 
Mrg, which he never again left ; while the sue- Orange, at the Hague, where most of her chil- 
eessive favorites of Elizabeth, like herself desti- dren were born. One of her sons was the prince 
tate of character and talent, ruled the court and Rupert, so well known in the history of the 
EosBa. Her vanity equalled her gross sensu- English civil wars. Iler youngest child, Sophia, 
ifity ; but though sometimes exceedingly cruel afterward electress of Hanover, and ancestress 
ad barbarous, she often showed humanity, and of the present English royal family, was bom 
cm generosity. Subsequently some abler Rus- in 1630, shortly after the birth of her nephew, 
■ns obtained the management of affairs, among Charles II. Shortly before her death Elizabeth 
thm BomanzofE^ Bestoujelf, and Woronzoff. resided for about 6 months in the house of Lord 
Fiter, son of her deceased elder sister Anna, Craven, whose acquaintance she made after the 
docheaB of Holstein-Gottorp, was appointed heir death of her husband (1632), and with whom 
to the throne. A war with Sweden was hap- she lived on terms of the greatest intimacy. Her 
ijBy conducted, and terminated in the peace of charms ore celebrated by Sir Henry Wotton, in 
Ibo (1743). A plot against her was detected his famous linos beginning: *^ Tou meaner beau- 
ad punished. An army sent to assist the ties of the night." 

■HaiHfl Maria Theresa ^against Frederic the ELK, a N. "W. co. of Penn., traversed by 
Qnatoontribnted to the conclusion of the peace Clarion river, its branches, and some other 
if AizlftChapelle (1748). Having been cruelly small streams; area, about 800 sq. m.; pop. in 
Mortified by a sarcasm of the witty Prussian 1850, 3,631. The surface is broken by many 
Ifag, Elizabeth allied herself against him with hills and rough mountain peaks, the principal of 
iatria slid France in the 7 years' war, and which is Elk mountain, in the southern part. 
Iv armies, under Apraxin, Fermor, Soltikofl^ The county is occupied chiefly by thick forests, 
ad Botorliny contributed not a little to the dis- and lumber is the most important article of ex- 
tana of tiie idmost belated Prussian monarch, port. Bituminous cool is found in great abnn- 
1^ won the htMes of Gross Jugemdorf and dance. The soil is better adapted to grazing 
Xmendorf^ took Colberg, and even occupied than to the culture of grain; in 1850 it pro- 
Bvfin. The death of the empress not only duced 10,776 bushels of Indian corn, 24,040 
itid Frederic from a dangerous enemy, but also of oats, 26,656 tons of hay, and 81,755 lbs. of 
to ^vo him in her successor, Peter III., butter. There were 8 churches, 1 newspaper 






100 £LK 

office, and 415 [mpiN attondinir pnMic FohcMild. pA54iH] the porioc] of irroatcftt visor; in r*It] &nd 

llie crifiiitjr w&« ur^raiii/ril iri iKt:;, and iioxnod vi^iiroun atiiiiial'« tlivy are pheJ in IVcvrulicr. 

from Kik inciiiitaiti. ('upitnl. Ki>!p-w.iy. but tdudk atiMnal.i ioiiictiinvs rarrj Uicin until 

ELK, a namv ppiju-rly applii-il x** t]i(.> air i no Mun-h. llio l>t inner lirtinch K'^rius alH>at 9 

division lift lie dcc-r nriln.- Miituy n-i^ioiH. t<» tlio inrhis from tlio base; tlu* palin^ aiv itt^vn un* 

gcnu«i ff/<*^ (II. >n)itli). In tlii<4 Lrmu^ tlio uiiu- like nn the ri^ht and lift !«iilc«>. and arv channel- 

slc M vt-rr Iroud, aiid ruvi-rcil u it!i li.iir* except Kd irre^rulnrly i>n lM»th M)rf:Mre<* ; iLeir rulor is 

a iiuiall b.ire ^put in front nf the n<i->trIU: the brtiunishydluw, with tlieeiidivvllnwish white, 

upper lip 13 4 iiithi-s I>in;:er than the lower, and TUv i mi -tor teeth, (i in the loiwr jaw only, ara 

answtni f<»r prclieii'*ile MirpDst:*; the mrk is guukv-like and very white; the oyca on: blark; 

thickand^h'•^t, and the th rout >ome what nt ailed tht- no*«e, fnn-head, and u|i|H:r lip ye1Iowi«li 

in both M'Xe:); the hair i- i-u;ir<\ thick, and fawn: the Mdvs of tlte heail yellow i^h bniwa; 

brittle; the Lind le^A h:ive the tuft of h:iir the general culur above \arie:» f rum bLickiah to 

rather ab«>ve tho middle of the U)itatar<iiH ; ashy ^Tay ; KIow li^'hter, witli a yi-IIowuh 

the hvni* in the niah-!^ are broad and pal mated ; white tinfre. In winter tlie color 'n darker, and 

the tail is vhL'rt. T!ie u*t9<* eaviiy in ilie ^kull in advanced atv m> dark a^ to nu-rit the nanM 

Li Very lar^^o, reathin^ po-tcriorly to alineover friven to it by H. Smith, *Mhc American black 

the front of tlic iiit> !:ir'4 ; the lon^ intermaxilla- elk;** the ^n-ayish are ^aid to l>o the larpttt, 

rics dt> not reiK-h Vt the very sh«»rt mknid?*. Tho reai-hint? a hei^dit of 7 or 8 feet. In summer 

hurnM havf noba*»id mm, the liri^ brnneli K'ini; the hair i'* !*hort and ;«(jft, in winter longer and 

eonAideniblv a^'ove the r.-uwn. The youn^r nre very eoar>i\ with a tine bhort woul neit the 

not (ii^otti-tf, but ct.ili>red like tho adult. Elks ^kin. M<mko are Hot uncommon in the no rtbem 

live in tlie woikI^ in the northern part- of }H»th partn of Maine, and in (\inada, Nova So^tia, 

continent% but the Amvr.ean i:i by H>mo c<in- and I^ibrador, e«i fecial! y in m* inter. In ^umn^er 

■idercfl a di>tinct F{Kcies from the Kuro]Kuii. they freipient lakesi and riven to (ras thorn* 

The true American elk, or mon-e (a^ it id selves from iuMM't |Hriits, aitd feed upon water 

univer!>ally cdled here), aUr Af/uri'-itnus (,l:ir- plants and the teniler branched of o^erhangiof 

dine), exixi'd.4 all other exi-tin^ deer in kzo tr^v*:. In the winter they retire to the elevated 

mnd»tren^'th, and unitet tu ^Teat i»2>eid renmrk- riil^re^ abundantly pn>vided with maple and 

able powers of emlurauce; it is as lar^rc an a other hard-wo«id trees •'» the twipi and bark 

borH*, htaiidin^'o feet hi^'h at the ."houldern, and (»f which tliey ftHMl. Ity the eIon^'ate<l i!p(«r 

neasuriij^ alxiut 7 feet fri»m noM) to tail; tho lip they pull down the branehe<, which ther 

len^'th of the latter is uUmt afixit; the wei;;ht hold with t!ieir fore lep* until the} are ntripf^d 

of the hor!i.-i varic* fro?:i 4r> to 7'J lb<.. auil that of the twi^'-i ; the bark tliey peel off by inclod- 

of the aniujal from ^ to I 'J ewt. The miHKM.« U in;; it Ktweeu the haril pad on the r«N>f of the 

anawkwanl, cliim>y. and di>p!-i*pi»rtiuned crca- mouth and the lower inrixtrs. In winter tl<ej 

tare, tliou^'h from it"* ?i/e it )H><.x.>«e.s a certain truad down tin* miow, furmintf what ori* called 

majesty wlien Mx-n amid tl.i- wild M-ei^-ry of its **yanl\'* in n!ii< li are fTenerally found a male« 

favorite haunt< Tlio he:ul i.-* t«-» larpe in pro- female, and - lawns; n*i the treen are .-tripped 

{lortiun t" the bf.>4ly for any preten-ion to the they tn-ad down fri"-!! hnow, aikd they are fond 

pymnietry u-ually «e«n in the ib-er family; tl;o of p'in^ alwav<» in the same trai k^. They pre- 

lonfT, fnuid, and ino^aMe upper l:p pv^s to tho fer the twin's cf the maple, w il!*>w. button W(.H«d, 

face »iimeH hat of an e<|uine expre%>iiin. ai.d tho birrh, and a-peii, and ^'ra><H.'« ; in raptivitv tlie? 

heavy ear^i, more tlian a foot lon^', aredei-ididly will eut tl:e ii*'A of di>nK>tir rattle. TlioC^h 

vinlni*. Audub'<a h3.t>: "'ihe h<'a>l lorriMy tin ir tU-'^h i:« ci'arM-, it ii e^te«-mid by huuten; 

rvmibl^ u-of that of anenonnout j:i« ka^«.*' 11:0 t!ie noxr i>r ntuflle i.s a s|K,-('i:d favorite, li«.':3g 

ejev are •Ki p-M.at«-d and eoniparati\e!y ^malI; rieh, pIatinou\ ainl juii*y, when roi>ked like 

nnd^r the thri-at tlure i-* in l»-th MXe^ a tufl ca'.fV l.iml; the hJeak-* are juicy, itti-n tender* 

of cuar^* bristly hair att.ir!!* d to a i>enduIoiiA but -iMom fiit ; the tle^h of vvarlirip* i« alna^i 

SJi'l. whiih Is niiixt ri'ii^pxruoiiH in thi*}niin^. preferred; the toiipio is niuih rili-hitL. as ore 

e h'inii oru f^uiid in t}ie m.ili-o onh, and re- the f.itt} appendafre;* to the lur^*e inte^tir.ca. bjr 

quin* 5 \ears f r their full deVi!'«; ni« nt ; tl.ey the k»t :i iijittitei of the liunt^rn, iKl.oa!«< c»..n- 

lM.f;'in V* sprint in April, and complete their iider the n;:irrow w:irm from the ^!.al.k U a«« 

vruvvth in July ; the \< \ear tht y are aNiut an on exeelUnt >'jb«ti!nte i»r butter un their Irv^d. 

Inrhloi*:; the 'Jd year. 4 ur 6 im hes, uith |>«T- T!ie nn-iiM.' tri>t<i. run*. arA j.im|»« with frxxl 

baps a r'<*limi.-n!arv piint; the Tid }e:ir, ab- ut *J i|H*iHl, pa^-in;; {hri>uj:]i »i-e::iir.;:Iy ini)Hrt tr^lte 

inchc<s «a(h tlividin,; into a roin.d frk; in tho tniikets ar.<l over bri'K« n ^To-.m I iKitJinut ap- 

4th Viur t?.ey lH.-ct>ni>' | :u::)a'.«-*l. \ii:h abr^'W i>:ireni r?V>>rt; it fwini!i ntll, with I'l N :Le 

ar«t!er ai.d ^ it 4 iiiints; ui.d lln' riili }t:ir t!iiy Lead and ]-:ir: of the ne< k aN'Ve water; it is 

have 2 rniwn Mi:Ier<« and 4 «r u Jm ii;*,; uitvT never kvH hke the n indeer on the lev, rXOipt 

tL> or.e or two p,.i:.!* are a-Mi-*! a!:nuxi,v. up fri'M a!-clti',e iJice**ity ; when walkin;: t-n ca- 

tu ai mnny a.s 'J^i, with an expanse si::j<.t:':ies trinlib n -now its fit t pnemlly «:t.L i:.:o ii to 

of bear!} C f,.,i t.i i!.v • it-iije i-f the tip^ wi:!i th>< jrp'Und. It-i ^^nM' of *ni.Il i^ \trT acJte. 

Ibe palm a f-xit iiii>le within the |iii:.t-s ar.il a and en.i!'leo it to i!i teet an i::eny a! a ;r« xt 

eirciimference aU<vc the burr of 'J inihti*. The dintaniv; the br>-aki:ip; of t!ie Miui!i*t tw:^ i« 

bor&i diUiiuUh iu auv after tbo ouiinol Los KUlicieiit to startle it liviu ill hiding pUctc. Tlic 



ELK 101 

pairing season begins in September; daring Oo- step, with a sonnd which may be heard at a 
tober the males become furious, fighting each considerable distance ; a part of the sound is 
other whenever thejr meet ; thejr run noisily said to be made by the hoofs striking against 
throQgh the woods, and swim lakes and nvers each other. According to Hamilton Smith, the 
in pnrsoit of the female ; at this time it is dan- Teutonic name elend (miserable) was applied to 
geroQs for the banter to approach, as they do this animal from its supposed frequent attacks 
not hesitate to attack him. The young are bom of epilepsy, while its falls are really attributable 
in M^jt the first time one, and 2 annually after- to its tripping itself up by treading on its fore 
ward; the females are also very fierce in de- heels, the elevated position of the nose, with 
fence of their calves. The m^es are called the horns laid horizontally on the back, pre- 
boUs and the females cows. The proper times venting it from seeing the ground distinctly be- 
Ibr hunting the moose are in March and Sep- fore it The European elk seems to attain a 
tember ; in the latter month the animals are m size equal to that of the moose, measuring 6 feet 
their prime, and in the former they are most high at the shoulder. The period of life is said 
easily t^en on account of the sharp crust im- to be about 20 years. Pennant states that elks 
pc£ng their progress through the snow. In were once nscd to draw sledges in Sweden, and 
noBtin^ them in March, a few small curs are that they conld travel over 200 miles a dav; their 
QMfnl m worrying tbe animal and delaying him hide makes excellent leather for belts and cover- 
iDitQ the hnnter comes up ; it is useless to pur- ings for the feet. Though most authors have re- 
RW them through soft snow, which offers no garded the American and European elks as the 
iin|>ediment unless it be deep, when the hunter same, Agassiz has described the former as dis- 
ean easDy overtake them on snow-shoes. Many tinct, with the specific name lobatus^ from differ- 
are ahot from canoes on moonlight nights in ences in the shape of tbe nose, the form and 
September; the hunter imitates the call of the branching of the horns, and other points. Sir 
BHUe, which, angry at the supposed intrusion of John Richardson (in the "Fossil Mammals^* of the 
a rival, rushes to the water^s edge to fight him, " Zoology of II. M. S. Ilerald'*) also considers the 
and meets instead the fatal bullet of his con- species distinct, calling the American ^.mtMtoa/ 
eealed foe. Slip-nooses attached to strong sap- he compares the skeletons carefully, and men- 
lings, bent down in the moose paths to the wa- tions, among other characters, that the breadth 
tar, win occasionally entrap a victim. The most of the face at the most protuberant part of the 
exciting and most successful way is to start them maxillary bones is less in the American than in 
from their yards, and pursue them over the snow, the European elk; if they be regarded as tho 
"When wounded and brought to bay, they defend same, tho proper name would bo A, Americanus 
themselves fiercely, striking with their fore feet (Jardino). Tho name of elk is applied in this 
and horns ; they will frequently turn upon the country to the wapiti {c^rvus Canad4:nsis, Briss.^ 
honter when not wounded, and force him to fiy which should bo called tho American stag ; this 
for hb life. Moose have been domesticated, and name is also given by tho British sportsmen in 
tKigJit to draw carts and sledges, but during the India to some of tho rusa or samboo door ; so 
ratting season they become perfectly intractable; that it is necessary to consider tho country of 
if necessary, they might perhaps be mado as the animal before deciding on tho meaning of 
osefol to semi-civilized man as tho reindeer, tho word " elk." — ^There aro many fossil species 
Thdr geographical distribution is extensive ; called elks, as tho fossil or Irish elk (C, gigan^ 
they have been found at the mouths of tho Mac- teus^ Cuv.), found in the diluvial strati of Eu- 
kense and Coppermine rivers, on tho eastern rope, and especially in tho peat bogs of Ireland ; 
dope of the RocKy mountains at the sources of this species was of great size, with an enonnous 
Qk river, and in Oregon ; on the eastern coast development of horns, which, resembling those 
tiieyare found from Labrador to northern New of the elk in their broad palmations, differed in 
Ea^and and New York, their southern limit the size and low situation of tho basal antlers; 
•»«wiinr> to be 43^ 30'. As in all other deer of in other parts of tlio skeleton it resembled most 
cold and mountainous regions, there is consider- the stags. Another species, found in tho peat 
aUe diversity in the size of the body and tho bogs and upper tertiary of Franco and Germany, 
horns of the moose, according to tho abundance seems to have been a gigantic fallow deer. The 
€f fi>od in the places inhabited by them. — ^The fossil elk described by II. do Meyer, from the 
EvDpean elk (-4. malchUy Ogilby) was once diluvium of Europe, differed from tho living 
fanid between the 53d and 65th degrees of lat- animal in tho form of its forehead. A fossil elk 
itade, in Prussia, Poland, Sweden, Norway, (C, Americanus\ allied to tho wapiti, has been 
aad Russia, but is rarely s«en at present ex- found in tho United States, with tho bones of the 
ecpt in the most northern of these countries; mastodon. Tho fossil «^^rt Mm m??^, described by 
fa Asiatic Siberia it is also found. The ap- Cautley and Falconer, from the Sewalik hills of 
Marance is the same as that of tho moose; the lower Himalaya range, seems in many re- 
Dom its long legs and overhanging lips tho old spects to have resembled tho moose ; tho form 
aMliora thought that it grazed walking back- of tho head and its size lead to the belief that 
vard. From the great height of tho shoulders it was clephant-liko in the cellular prominences 
Aore the crupper its gait is awkward and of its posterior portion ; tho face was short, and 
Aoffling, and when running fast tho hind limbs the nasal bones were raised into an arch over 
■t very wide apart ; its joints crack at every the external nostrils, indicating tho probable 



102 ELKUART ELLERT 

cxi^tonco of a tmnk; wo mo the nppor lip of tnon oppo«od to liim. In 190t ho wfta appoint- 

Die tiiiHi^i vl>ii:;:«tol u;<*u into h kimluf ]>r(.h(.n- cd fttt<inu-v-);;i'ncrul, and in 1*^<''2 lie ^nowded 

•ilu priilHii'.M^; tlio Ik'IiI iru4 it]«ii artiu-d ui:h IaihI Konynii an cliii.'f jii-tico of the king'i 

S nprt-afiin,; hl»rn^ ariMrf* uhuvc mA U'twft-n Wm h, on which (toi*.aM>.)U he wai cicvatc-i to 

the itrhit.o; tlu* imJiir t«-oi!i nri* t-ntin-lv liko thv {I'ora^v a<« Hariin KIIi.iiU^n»U(;h. IIo rctirrd 

th<>i«*(>f niminiuits; tho uiitinur fxtrfi!iiiif<i (i)f fr^m th<> hiMuh a fi-w woi-k.'t prvriouA to hii 

whirli «';istH c\'K in the i':ibiiii-t of tho it>i<t<»n d^-ath.— Ki>WAi:i) Law, 1>t varl of, an Knj;!Uh 

focictv fif natural history) itnlii.iti* an aiiiinal htaicsnian, Hi^n v( tlio priocdin^. born Sept. 8, 

of the >izo f.<f ularhjif ricphant. Tho a:.itn:il wos IT'JO. IK* wai vduratrd at Eti>ii and at i^L 

linditnhttillT a r;iuinai:t, i« ilh tl.v pai liVili-rm Ji^hit's rullcp^ Cambr'ul^i*. whi-ro he wad in'ad- 

charuitipi of a hi.avy fi>n!). »h<<rt nvtk, and uati-d in ]>«i/*J. ShiTtly afterward ho iDtorcd 

probably a pp.>b<^s<-:^; in like niar.ijir tlio ruiiii* parliament an a nii'ndK-r fi'r the iiow di^fran- 

Dai:t n](H-<»o drparts from the dii-r fai:i;]y, anit chiM-'il bonni^'h of M. Mic!iaers. Itiin^ a tirra 

ftpproarhi't th'? parhjdLTMi* ii-j'*.fiallv the t-^ui- advin-ate uf liTv principles and a flueiit •►waker, 

OCT J in itH ntovablo ibm^rated Miont, Iimi,; cur*', uinih tho ULVi'««ii»n of the duko i>f Wellic^-too 

mnd peniTal -ItaiH* uf th** head and body. t«t utiliv. in l*»:!s, hi* was app«<inti^i l^rd \tWj 

KI.KHAItT. a N. i*>t. i>f Ind., bfrderlne: on ^n!. Iiurin^ the aiIniini!»tration of Sir ItoU-rt 

Ifich., and wik'.LTid by Si. JuMph^ ami Klk- Teel, in ls;i-'.\ he Uramo preMdent i-f tho 

hart ri\ers w!iiih unite wit hi !i it:4 b( 'piers; area, board i>f (tinlri'l and firi^t romnii-riioDLT uf Is- 

4C7 Ni. III.: I^p. in IWO, IJ.i'.yo. 'Iho h'lrfaco dimi affair^, an ftVjre to whiih ho waa reap- 

biniKlerati !\ nni-^iU atiddiv\r«i7led by prairie<t, iN<ii.ted in Sept. l*»4l, U|Hin the cun-^rxaiiv* 

oak iipiiiiiv*-. and M-veral !«'n;ul I.ikesi. The Huil triiitiiph of th:it year. A few wiek^ a()cniiari 

b fertile, and tl^o pnKlnrtiiinA in lN*iit \\ero ho \\a.<* apiM/inteil to Mnvct-d Liird Auckland aa 

87«».U7;J br.-!ifN of Indian e. rn, ITl.TlC of p-jw-rnur-jroneral «'f India. lie arrived in i'al- 

wheat, l>i4.l*4'> uf uat^ and ^.2*^7 t ^ns of hay. cuita in Feb. 1^12, and in April. 1^44, he wm 

Thore Were 10 chtirelies 1 neu«|ai*ir o!l:i-e, and rciulicd by tho board of KoaI India dirvc:or<| 

l,S<>i pi:piU 'aitvnilin;; piiblio •«i-hiiul.4. Tho ronirary tu the \\ i-hes of ihu cabinet. I>ur;i.j 

count) Iia« coninrinication with Tuledi*. (*hira- hU adnii:ii<»trAtii'n S'inilo wa-i annei«.d to the 

fti, and otlier plai'i-^, by tlio Miclii^'uu !Hint!ii ru Kri'.i-h dotuinion^^ und (iwulior reihi«vi! Vi »ul>- 

Bxid nortiiern Ii:>liana railroad, whivh pii^.-n-s jeiiion; but In* w^i^ rh:;rt*cil with fxot.^t:^^ 

tlin)U;:h ilii'^heti, tl'ie capital. - Kl.kiunr, a pi«t tenderne<^i for the native triNtp^ tu the Iie^-ic« t 

Tilhuie anil towiL-^hip of the abiVe rounty, at t!io ol' the etiiployei-i in tho civil •H.rvire; \ii:.t i»- 

c«»itlui'!ii I* i>f the St. .loMph'.f and LIkl.art riv- .tnin^' prviclaiiiatii>n<4 whiih M^med ti» «.\nt*li^•n 

ci^, l*''i ni. N. frt.'Mi Indiunap* lin; |N*p. of tlio iibilatry; and vith oth> r tjue^tiur.able a< :^ m 

town*!iip in l^-'o, l.«|">3. It i^ tho priticipal en- hi:* otiicial ruputity. I 'p"U h>'« return to Kl;- 

trep'il I'Tlhi* eip< rt* of tho couijty, l» ii.;^ t-'iUi- lainl, ln-HtVir, he was treatid an earl. aX; 1 la 

atiil on the !in*.' L-f tiiC Micbi^'an M'Titl.ein mpI 1^4*i w ai appiiiiite'l tlr>t l^rd of the atl'.: i- 

norilurn Indiana r:t:Irt>a>L ami havii:^ c<>!iir;-.uni- ralty, wliirh iii!ii'e he hiM tor a f i. w ?L.<:t:^ 

ca!i-*n by njiMiL^i't'the ri\er witii Lake M:< }.i/an. only. lb. renia'i!i*-d init <Y of!!i'f i::.*.I !*.e I' r- 

Kl.KH<»I:N. the c.i.nty sMt of W-iImclh inalion »f the I>i rl-y eahiiiet i:; Kb. l-*'-*. w hin 

C", ^^ I-.. 12 i:j. N !>-i:i tho liiiniii-* -la'.o lino, he ajjain bec.in.e pre^id«M if tJ.v b..ird of 

4 in. W. I*:-'»;i Lake .Mi. !.i^'ai:, at thi- iun<'*.lon ri-i.tP-l. In the ^•:l rtcliii^ Mav a di>:iat. h 

of tho Ita- i:»i- a!.>l Mi«^i "ppi ai.tl Wi- oi,%:ii from Lord Kllen'-i.r. .ii;?! l.t 1.1 »rd i'.k!.7;in^', ,:'.v- 

Ctflitral r.i.Ir'»ail-. al.'d •■:! the .N'. ^ Jeof tli^ };;k- orni'r-;;envral i-f Ih-h:i. >:roi:^';_\ n.ni.Vn.r.at- TX 

Lo.''n pra.rii ; p tj-. in l"'-'^. nb-w l,.%oii. In tho of tlio pr < lai-irvti-'n i-f the ia!i».r c i.:.*. ..:.:.^ 

•ame \i ar i*. ha>l a larpTi- nn>I wi 11 lini^lnd «->ii;rt the i>r>'perty ot' the iMtl^i <i of (^n!,-, \\a* i:.a<:e 

h-'-SM-. >r.i"l, lire pro* 'f I -^iinry •■:!;■ i-, 4 i !ii:ri !m ", p'lhj- . and t !■ it* •! >•< h aiiitnailvir-:' ri. that . n 

la.Vi- rii;!n>ad bu.ld;l.g^ a:.d i4'j:;ur<i:iH .^toreri th«- ll!!i ol' the ni 'ntii. uAi r \^[.i!r-.i:i:.^ h»« 

auil pub!:-- h>>::u.<i. rour^e in a ^ptcc!t in the h« ':-e i-f !■:«!«. he 

Kl.l. ai:ii.;-"«re i-f !• ri/!h in ^.iriiM^ I .ii:r.:rii4, an:.>'Ut.ied th.it ra:lnr th.'^n ixj-i-e h.-* i-I- 

ii*« d 'hittly ! -r I '.!■!* ". I I..:.-, -iIV.-. a:: I -;t.i.'.ar Ka,::i« ■* In the i •i.-'-.iro *f ]>arl. ..!:.• i.t !..• l.*! 

fa: rii «. "J !ie •'! K: i:'.i-:i i-* I'l i:. he-. «r 5 n »:^'i.« d his « :*:« e. Tho«ar!»t I »t r* \ «^. 1 thit 

quirtiTSi tho«!: I'li :m;-)i i*7 i:.c!.. ^, •. r il r^.^ir- the ri -i^natioii had b«tn a-ijtid w.'.h ri,r\i. 

U-r* , thi- S...tih I '■ ■■.7."«» ii!-h»^. b-.j*. a liMi'.riil tJiur !u- f.i;,-iiK ri -1 thi» \::\\. ..'..a 

KI.I.KNII* »K' 'li'Il. Ki-i«.u::i I.\w. 1 ir.-!!, i'l':h» ih-pa'.i ii prt'.n.iTurr ji;.d i:_:'h» .• -* 
fhiif j :4:i.o ■?':!. o •■■•::: »ffc.' /- 1 . I. !i in K- ^•- KI.I.MiY, Wn i mm. •:.•■• fth. - ^:.».r-« trhe 

lai:d. !' r*i bt <ir'-t "^-lii.- !■!, '' r .Vt rhji-!, N v. Aim iii »•» •'.! • l.ir.i'.. •:! i.i" i: 'ii ;•« :i'i- i.. • . '. r*. .n 

lfi.17:. ■ .:.!::. I.. •.!■!.. 1 •. .. I... I-l»*. lb w.^^ N". wp..rt. K 1.. 1». . L'l i::7. -hei :h. -t. K- ' . 

edi- A?! i! ar !h. tj.arti rh ■;;- f'- '. ir. I •■•.-i ■:., 1'. 1-J". lb w ;ii pTr.nhia'.t d ..: H.Lr\ .:.. !- 

ai.<! .»: **• !'■ :• •"' i-!It,r'-, < a- .1 :.!,:••. a?.-! '.:\-:i b kV iM !7t7. at.-l i"..r a i. ;:n*« r i f }» ..•- uf\r 

b«-. I. i-ailt ■!:■■!!!■ !-.ir •»■■'•. }f .k'- ».•?:.:«:.*.;:. h.-* h.- i. arri.ije. w].-..h t^-K )!..<■ s:. IT.'-*. *■ «♦ 

prof -- ■ v U.' a^. i:- ^ a* a 'u^^,w^ .»■.!•;• ,',.1 r i '.■..,:» d in 1:.. r-- i!. !.'..» p\:^..:* ::. N. " ; ::. 

w*-.' !!r»! «!.^j '..»_*■ ■! :■• n ! .1! • i«V' ri ;'..• 1:..l! Hi- v. .^.^ ;»!<* . f r y-'rn- I ::.e i..*\.i! ■ !V. •: i* :'. 

of W.'.rr.n n.»-*;i .:• 1:1 IT--*- •*. ::i w:.; h u* f -1 •.» ii llh-le I-! i:.:. I:. 17T"'. h.tx .■ 1: I r 

k*af{i:.p; i- .■'•'. f r !!•■■!»:"■:.■ I.. '1. ■ ■ ; ■ •! f'i.-- "J w .ir* i riw ■■.*-< r'.i 1 :ii . ! rV> «l" • :.» . r •'. * 

Oca»fuljy w.:!. the i::ji:.vi.'. U^tw."! ..:. i ?:a:-.i- ct-'jr^N he «.<. iu:;.t:.ci.>i li.c I .'.•■ t;v.v. lI t:.v ...« 



ELLESMEKB ELLET 103 

in Newport, in which he acquired eminonce. raised to the peerage as carl of Ellesmero. after 
Th« era of the revolution found him an ardent which he retired from active political life. 
fjinpathizer with the colonies in their stnigsle While a student at the university he printed a 
with the mother country, and in May, 1776, he volume of poems for private circulation ; but 
entered active political life by taking his seat in his first public appearance as an autlior was 
the memorable congress of that year as one of in 1824, when he published a translation of 
the delegates from Rhode Island. With his ** Faust," with versions of popular lyrics from 
colleagne, Stephen Hopkins, he set his name to the works of Goethe, Schiller, and other 6er- 
tbe declaration of independence, the incidents man poets. Ho subsequently produced " Medi- 
connected with which event he was accustomed terranean Sketches" (London, 1843), containing 
in his latter years to relate with great vivacity, the " Pilgrimage," a poem which records the 
He remalnea in congress until 1786, with the author^s tour in Palestine ; ^^The two Sieges of 
cxcq>Uon of the years 1780 and 1782, and on Vienna by the Turks" (1847); " Guide to North- 
all occasions proved himself an active and use- em ArchoDology" (1&48) ; and a number of 
fill member, and, notwithstanding a natural poenis and plays printed for private circulation. 
diffidence which it required strong efforts to The " Pilgrimage," after having been withheld 
overcome, a ready debater. As a member of the from general circulation for many years, was 
marine committee, and subsequently of the republished in 1856 with a number of additional 
board of admiralty, he exercised considerable poems. In 1853 Lord Ellesmere visited the 
raflnence during his whole term of service, and United States as British commissioner to the 
the plan of fire ships to be fitted out at Newport American exhibition of industry in New York, 
has been attributed to him. In April, 1786, he returning to England the same year. 
WB dected by congress commissioner of the ELLET, William Hbnrt, an American chem- 
eoodnental loan office for the state of Rhode Isl- ist, bom in New York about 1804, died in that 
and, and in 1790 was appointed by President city, Jan. 26, 1859. He was graduated at 
Washington collector of Newport, an office Columbia college in 1824. While pursuing 
which he held until his death, notwithstanding his medical studios he gained a gold medal for 
his frequent and frank avowals of political a dissertation on the compound of cyanogen. 
principles directly opposed to those of several In 1882 he was elected professor of experimental 
adrainistratioos. He retained full possession of chemistry in Columbia college, a position which 
his mental faculties until the close of his long he resigned in 1835 to become professor of 
life, and was highly esteemed in his native place, chemistry, mineralogy, and geology in the South 
not less for his social qualities and intellectual Carolina college. In 1848 he returned to New 
abilities than as a relic of the revolutionary era. York, 'where ho resided until his death. The 
An interesting biography of him by his grand- legislature of South Carolina presented him 
son. Professor Edward T. Channing, is published with a service of silver plate for the discovery 
in Sparks's " American Biography," vol. vi. of a new and cheap method of preparing gun 
EIXES3IERE, Francis Egertox, earl of, an cotton. During the last 5 years of his life he 
English nobleman, born in London, Jan. 1, was consulting chemist of the Manhattan gas 
I'MK), died there, Feb. 18, 1857. He was the company of New York. — Elizabetu Fries 
2d son of the 1st duke of Sutherland, and Lummis, wife of the preceding, an American 
notii the death of his father was known as authoress, bom at Soaus Point, on Lake On- 
Lord Frxmcis I^veson-Gower. lie was educat- tario, N. Y. She is the daughter of Dr. Wil- 
ed at Eton, and at Cbristchurch, Oxford, where liam N. Lummis, a physician of some cniincnce, 
he was graduated in 1821. In the succeeding and at an early ago was married to Professor 
year he entered parliament as a liberal con- Ellet, whom she accompanied to Soutli Carolina, 
terrative and a supporter of Canning, and and with whom she returned to Now York in 
became one of the earliest and most earnest 1848. In 1835 she produced a volume of 
advocates of free trade. IIo also supported the poems, beside which she published while in 
project for establishing the university of Lon- South Carolina " Scenes in the Life of Joanna 
doD, and on one occasion carried a motion of Sicily" (12mo., 1840), "Characters of Schil- 
tiiroogh the house of commons for the endow- ler" (1841), and " Country Rambles," and con- 
aent of the Roman Catholic clergy of Ireland, tributed articles to several quarterly reviews on 
Between 1827 and 1830 he held various political French and Italian poetry and literature. In 
offices; but in the latter year he retired from 1848 she published, in 8 vols. 12mo., tho "Wo- 

Sliament. In 1833, upon the decease of bis men of the American Revolution," one of her 
»r, be came into possession of the immense most popular works, and the materials for which 
etates of the late duKo of Bridgewater, and of were derived from original sources. Subso- 
the picture gallerv, valued at £150,000, which quently appeared her " Evenings at Woodlawn," 
Wd been bequeathed to the duke of Suther- "Family Pictures from tho Bible" (1849), ** Do- 
hud, with reversion to his 2d son ; on which mestic History of the American Revolution " 
occasion he assumed the name of Egerton in (1850), "Watching Spirits" (1851), "Pioneer 
the place of his patronymic of I^veson-Gower. Women of the West" (1852), " Novellcttes of 
la 1885 he was elected member of parliament the Musicians" (1852), and "Summer Rambles 
fv South Lancashire, and continued to repre- in the West" (1853). She also edited "The 
that constituency until 1846, when he was Practical Housekeeper." She is now engaged 



I 



104 SLUCOTT ELUOTSOX 

upon a dictionary of fomnle pain tor« and MTul^ nal,** cnntrihntion^ to philosophical tocMti*^ 

ton, in which sketches arc jrivon uf the winncn anil a few othrr MTitinps hi4 wcrks are jct ia 

artists of all nj^-* antl oMintrii*. inaiiu'»crii»t. — .li»*>r.i-ir. hrothcr of llie prvccd- 

ELLICOTT, ANMtcw, an American wtrt^no- inc, Imrn in IVim^ylvaiiia, diitl in liatATia, X. 

roeranJeivil vn/inicr. iMirniii UiK*l«i m., IVnn., Y., in H2i}. In IT'.K) he a:toi!«tetl his bruihcr 

Jan. 24, 1754. diitl nt Wi-nt I'tiiiit, N. Y., Au^. Amlrcw in hivinj; out the city c»f WohliiDgton, 

SS, IS'Jo. Hit fathi-r, having uiiitt'<l with a aiidin ITl'l wu^ ap^n tint c«l t<i run the booxHiuj 

brother in the piirt*h:LM.* of a hir^^f tr:u.'t of \iiM line U-twivn (leurp.i and tlie I'reck ladiatifl; 

land un the r:itapM*i> rivor in ITTi), U-f\ Hucks and fur a lun^ iktIihI, iMuhniciuf; the most ac- 

CO. in 1774, and hircanie a f«iundcr of what is tlve {Hirtiim i>f lii-* lifo, he wu.'i cn^raped in Um 

now the town of EllioiU'si Mi IK in Mairvhtiid, F4.rvice of the Htillaiid land company. He wat 

when? the vounpi-r day^ of Mr. Kllitott were a ^iknI uintlieniatiiia!!, n^iientitie *»urvvTor. and 

deviated tit tlivMudy 4 »f till* '<cictice<( 111 id prat -tioal an aMc tinan«'ti-r, ktl a lifo of proat QM^fuln 

mcchaiiii'-. Tliim^'h U:lon^»iii|; to thi* •^•cirty ^^f and i-nterpri-e, and wa-^ iiicntifivl with the 

Friends Mr. Kllio»tt eomnuuided a hattaliun of puMie imjiriiwiui-iit.s **( the htatv uf Nt*w York. 
)far}'land militia in tht.- rt.*vuluti(«n. Hid M-ieu- Kl.Urt HT'S MIM.S,a pO!»t vil!.<^:e and town- 

tific attainmint.4 i-arly attraotod i»uh!ic atti-n- rhip of Howard and lialtinKire cue., Md., on tiM 

t ion, arid ffi >ni the rovnliitiou to the day of hi !i PatapMXj riviT. 10 m. from the city of Balti- 

death he wai itnph>yc«l in the fulfilment of more; |H»p. in 1>^.V>, lj>.*i'.K It was tint acttlvd 

tn\yU confi-rri'd by the gonrral or ftiate p>v- In 1774 by the hrotlicrs Andrew and John Elli- 

amnu-ntM. Ho enjo^ol tlio frU*nd>)iip and von- c<itt^ whti:ie lar^^^ tluuriiif; niilN hvre at one tima 

fidencv uf Wa.H)iin^ton and his iuirri'^Mfrs during; held prcoeilciKV in extent and jterfeetiuo orcr 

llfe.and maintaini'd the uiii<»t intimate relations all Mmilar mnnufaeturies in the country. For 

vitli Frank!in and Kittonh<tU!«e, of whom his many years the whole of £11 ieott*sMdK and cz- 

pap4»ri ri-'Utain many int« ri-^tin^ memorials. At tend<-d tracts of c-uuntry on tJio ri%er. above aad 

Tarit»ns tinu-^ he was aii|»oint<.<d C(inimi<«ii»ner Klow, wore kopt with ^tUlliod ext-Ia^irencM 

for markin;; part?* of tho iKiundariosi>f Vir;;lnia, within the family. In 1^59 nut uno of the nama 

reuu\%lvania, and New York. AUiut 17Ni ho is rosidin;; i%ithin the limits of the K-ttlemrnU 

remo\e«l to lUItimore, and n-pre<«.-!itoilthat(ity Tho wator powor ii eirolhnt, au>l numerou 

in the htatc* Kvi-hiturt*. In 17***J ho was a|»- cuiton aiid othrr t'aetories are pntiivUvd by it. 

point«*«l by I*n-<*idt'nt M'a*^)iin;rti>n to -iiirvcy the T!iu I»altimoro and < >ltio railnMi] p.i<v^« through 

land lyin^' Utwoen Pviin^lvania and Lake Krio, tlie village. It is tl.u beat of St. DiarWt (R. 

and durJ!.^ th.kt yi>ar he made the t\r< aioii- C) (••lUvo. 

rat« nua-uri-nii-nt o( the Nia^ra rivor fnuii Kl.I.lt iTSON', J<i;in. an Fn;;Ii-h]ihysii*ian and 

lake to lako, wi'.h t!io hoii^ht of tho falNand tho phv>iolo/i<t, horn in London in the lattor lort 

(all of tho rapt dv In 17'J<i ho Ha.^ iuiplo\o<M«v of tho U< roniury. Ih- riToivo«l hU moJical 

tlie ptvornnit n: t>> hurvov and lay out tho l\-*{- i->hiratl>>n nt tho uuivi-rtity of K.tlliihur^h and 

and m<.*tro]>*.!iv In 17**2 ho wad m:i<!o «iir- at I'aialiri'Lv. iin<l ^u!■M■>{UontIy at to nihil th« 

Teyor-^'vt.oral of the I'liilotl Stato", HUil iu 17'.'.*! moi]i«'.il utid ^'.TL'i'.d prai'tii'c iT St. Thonia»^t 

bu MiiKTi:.t4 n>Kil ihi- rtuMruttiiiii uf l\»rt Kriu and (iuy\ !ii»«;ii:iU in ].-<n>!itn. of the Ul U-r uf 

at IV-«juo Nlo -in'W Krio. iVnii.). ai^l »a«» i :;j- whiih iii^titJiliiiU'i In* Wa^ in 1*^-'J t:lo«'tc-\l pht- 

plovo'l Ul l.»\ii:^ •■'.il tin- towr.oof Kri«*, \Varr»:i, Miia!j. Su!"H»iUi'nt!y hi- U«a!:ie hi turiruu the 

and Frank r.t). In 17:*»l ho wa» aji^'jut'-'i Vy prai-:i»o »»f nioili' iin* in S:. Thoma>*<i h*>*>pital, 

Pre*i'lon! Wa-Lin/tiin ri-mtni-Mnin r i-ii Uhalf anil in Ivil w.i- a;i]HU[i:Ld pri>N-^^iriit* the prin- 

of tho rnili'tl Stalon U!..h r tin- tr» .ity uf S.iii cipli t ari-l prarti*-o of mnliiiin- and of c!ibii .tl 

l^reii/o o! Uf.ti, to di.:on:iiiio tin- H>u:h'rii motiii iijo in rni\or"'ity i"lh-.:r, l.«indi»n, in c^jr« 

boundary r^-pirntiu^ tho I'nilod St:»tts ttTri*«'ry m rti -n \i ith wl^ii h .'l ^oar-* lati r lu- -uivvotli^l in 

from tho Sp-ini^h |i»^«^H*ioii-i. Tho rfult-i i-l' o^taMi^hin^ja lio-pital. wlioii hi* r* "•i^rtn-l hi^pra- 

this fcT\i f, omlira^intr a inriiNl ,,f i.i-arly T* f*'.-*-.:>»!iipnt M. Tlioina^'-i, A'* a !«.• ti.iiT ).r iil»- 

year*, .ij ;-oar in his 'Jnurual." prj' I.-ln d i:i tail id ^rn. it popular it y. U'^t K'^^ f:<<[ii h> ^.-onLil 

4l«>., «::!» 6 i.iap-* t rh!!.i<i4!{<M.L, l"»o.;). I'li-n iPiniiiMT tli.in fiuui liis il..>riiU^h nia»itTv of hU 

the o.!n|!i!i"n %•( tJ.ii .h .-m-o In* wa- appointi ■! M;^jr't. Hi- U'*- of pru-^lc a^ id m o^rtaiu dttn* 

by (rn. M» Ki.in I if lV;in-'\I\ :ir.i.i -■■r-iary of plain;-, ari^l «'fitt In r now roui'du*. h'i«i\or. mil 

the ^tn:<' IjihI orfi'v. \).** duties %,( u !.:i }| \n p^r- Hiilimui }i ••;'{•< •*>i: Ion : .'Uid in atlomptmi; tii n>- 

fomiod t.'tlio ^i.ir I'v"'. arid in 1*»1'J !io riM'i ;V4.| furni iKoolil r>i'<t*ii.«' t if tho hospital-, ho ini-Lrr\<»i 

the |H'*t of pr ft-**, r i-f ma:homa:.i-o at Wi -: t?io h'>-:ili*y ••! iiian> i*f ll.o pnifo^^^iKn. He«a« 

Point. In 1*»17, ^> ••r-l- r ».f i?.o jr-w rn'.i i.t, thi- f mhr ai.d -i.'.'M-.jUs.ntly thi pn>idoi:t iJ" 

be pp'-.tdidtit Mi>t.tr« a! !o III .k<- a-'r.ni.iii,;. t!.f jl.r. ni»l".ri' :d H'-ioty, and iho pri**.-!!!.! » f 

cal oiivr-kati ■!:• { r iarr\ \v.j in; i i.'F. • t •"•Tin- t.f tl.i- roVkl u.iiii -al a^.d i I.inrk'it'al k»* iilT. In 

lhoart.-*t*.if ii oir»Mtv . :ti!,. :.r. II-i ..i.!.:.;i ! l'*.:7 M.o a!!»:i::"n i"!' Pr. Kliif' •««>:; ^^ a* draw n 

to ill! t^o pfiif' -i^'r^hip uf i:iaT''.t m:i'!i <• a:.il i • .1 t<> i.i: phi :i>*i.\' :.:i of a:.i:ii ii r.i:i»:i*-*.!«m. an*! tit 

cu|riri04-r'.:i,: t<i t*.t timo iif hi« drilli. Mr Y.V..* tin- ro|ii;!id rtrj."\.il « r i*'.!. » i..t.«'n cf «!.:!':."'.!: 

Cot: »&«• ari a> !.w Uii-ntU r a:i>l i.'>%f..i i :!i>-i r *'( <!4-i.i«*-« !!iro-i/h i:<i a,:^ :i'-,^ . II.i\iri^ ■ia:.<:;i'«l 

the .Vnif r..-.^-. p!.:'<»«>|ih.t'.»! ■••i .• 'i. ai. 1 !it .: > h. :..•"':' t:<at lu :> !i uf u!. i*. ho 1. ,d ftad a^d 

lain^ c«»rTi-p. ■:»■!* ■ I f « 1:?. tho K- irr.i I'-xii'.-s h*ar»l u;n'ii tl.- -iVji-: \i.i* f »i::;-!od oti f^i !, L« 

of LnrifjK- ; hal « I'Jti the oictpu-.:^ vf hit " J^ur- c%>mn.oiAcd a s^-iios of ii;H:rin.c:it^ « LicL fk«.r« 



EUJOTT 105 

ittended bj eminent soientific men fhrni all parts conference of 1852 ho 'was reelected editor of 
of the kingdom, including a number of the med* the ^' Western Advocate," which office ho filled 
kal facalty, and the stnking results obtained for another term of 4 years, making in all about 
from which conTinoed him that animal magnet- 15 years of editorial service. lie has also writ- 
ism or mesmerism afforded a certain remedy for ten a " Treatise on Baptism'' (1834) ; *^ Life of 
lercnl diseases previously believed to be incura- Bishop Roberts ;'* ** Delineation of Roman Catli" 
btei and was also the most powerful agent for al- olicism" (2 vols. 8vo., New York, 1851) ; and 
Imng the pain attending surgical operations. Ilis " Uistory of the Great Secession from the Metb o- 
dibrta gained many converts to mesmerism from dist Episcopal Church" (8vo., Cincinnati, 1855). 
theedocateddasses, whose zeal in his behalf was Dr. Elliott is now president of the Iowa Wcs- 
•qnaDed by the violence of the opposition which leyan univer^ty, and is preparing a work on 
a—ilnrt him. The unwiUingness of his medical ** Political Romanism." 
eoQcagiaeB and of the counol of the umversity ELLIOTT, Charles Wtllys, an American 
to allow the mesmeric cure to be applied to the author, bom in Guilford, Conn., May 27, 1817. 
baqxtal patients induced him, in December, He is the 6th generation in lineal descent from 
183^1 to sever his connection with University Eliot the ** Indian Apostle." After some years 
eoDcge, an event which made a considerable stir spent in mercantile life in the city of New York, 
ia the scientific world, and since that time ho he in 1838-^9 studied horticulture and land- 
has been an indefaUgable advocate of the oura- scape gardening with A. J. Downing at New- 
tive agency of animal magnetism. In 1849 he burg, and from 1840 to 1848 practised those 
was instrumental in establishing a mesmerio pursuits at Cincinnati. Since 1850 he has resided 
boi^ital, in which many remarkable cures have in New York. Ue was one of the founders and 
ban effected. A mesmeric journal, called the first trustees of the '^ Children's Aid Society" 
'*ZMst," was also established by him. Dr. EUi- in 1853. In 1857 ho was appointed one of 
dna'f principal contributions to medical science the commissioners for laying out the central 
ne : " Lectures on Diseases of the Heart" (Lon- park in the city of New York. Mr. Elliott has 
don, 1830), which were delivered before the published the following works : " Mysteries, or 
rqyalcollegeof physicians in 1829; a translation Glimpses of the Supernatural" (1 vol. 12mo., 
of Blmnenbach^s "Physiology" (1817-56), the New York, 1852), an attempt to refute spiritu- 
Mtes to which are more voluminous than the alism; *^St. Domingo, its Revolution and its 
tnt ; the " Principles and Practice of Medicine" Hero, Toussaint I^uverturo" (1 vol. 12mo., New 
(London, 1840), a valuable work, which has been York, 1 855) ; " The New England History, from 
translated into various European languages ; the Discovery of the Continent by the North- 
"Sorgical Operations in the Mesmeric State men, A. D. 986, to 1776" (2 vols. 8vo., Now 
wilhont Pain" (London, 1843), &c. York, 1857). 

ELLIOTT, Chables, D.D., an American ELLIOTT, Charles Lorino, an American 

Hethodist divine, born in Killybegs, Donegal, painter, born in Scipio, N. Y., in 1812. Ilis fa- 

hdaod. May 16, 1792. In his youth he be- ther, an architect by profession, removed to Syra- 

e&DA a member of the Wesleyan Methodbt cuse in tho childhood of his son, and placed him 

lodety, soon after began a course of study in the store of a country merchant. Thooconpo- 

preparatorr for the ministry, and in hb 24th tion was altogether distasteful to young Elliott, 

year applied to the Dublin university for ad- who devoted all his leisure timo to his favorito 

miaBon, but was refused because he could not pursuits of drawing and painting, with tho cx- 

oonacientionsly submit to the established test, pcctation of ono day becoming a painter. His 

Having obtained, however, with the aid of father, seeing that he was unfitted for a mercan- 

H^H*^] scholars, what was equivalent to a uni- tile life, allowed him to study drawing and ar- 

TSBTRty coarse, he emigrated to America, and chitecture, though chiefly with tho view of 

pnceeded to Ohio, where ho was received into making a practical architect of him. Elliott, 

tte travelling connection of the Ohio conference soon tiring of this occupation, went to New 

k 1818, For the first 4 years he travelled over York and became a pupil of Trumbull, and sub- 

iKeosive circuits, and cheerfully submitted to sequently of Quidor, a painter of fancy pieces, 

iD the privations of pioneer life. In 1822 he with whom he remained long enough to acquiro 

appointed superintendent of the mission a knowledge of tho technicalities of his art. 

; the Wyandot Indians at Upper Sandusky, HLs chief employment for some timo was copy- 

ibseonently for 5 years presiding elder of ing prints in oils, and ho afterwnnl attempted 

tte Ohio district, and was then elected profes* portraits, though with no great success. Somo 

K of languages in Madison college, Uniontown, of his youthful productions, however, evinced 

ftan^ where he remained 4 years. In 1831 he talent, and some oil paintings by him represont- 

VHKationed in Pittsburg, and was subsequent- ing scenes from Irving's and Paulding's works 

^proiding elder of that district. While serv- attracted considerable attention. After about a 

if hi this capacity he was chosen editor of the year's residence in New York he returned to the 

*PSttsbarg Conference Journal," and was after- western part of tho state, where he practised 

«lri transferred to the editorship of the " West- his profession, more particularly portrait paint- 

«a Christian Advocate," at Cincinnati, where ing, for about 10 years. Returning to New York 

kmnained until 1848. Ho again entered tho at the end of that period, ho established liim- 

iHdar wortc of the clergy, but in the general self there as a portrait painter, and has since 



106 ELUOTT 

Itoon A roM<lont of that citjr or its immciliate fV<*^^ in pnMic in rapport of his p«cnlisr Ti«^ 

iicif;lilMtr}i(.HH). llii wurks Cl)^^t•>t almost I'X- The coining' rriol panic of ls:)7 vntsilrd seriona 

rlu«ivcl}' of {iiirtraits, iiianjr of uliirh nrc o( |i«ciini:iry Insscfl ujHin liim, but by cArrful loan* 

cininrnl Aiiicrk'uu «*iti/(Mi% and nro ri'mnrkiibio nf^nnonl ho wari enabled in IMl to retire from 

for till* fidi-Iiiy vf tho likonc^ and their vipT- bu-incssuilh a rompotenry and soUle at a tiUa 

ou?* r>tli>rln:;. Sini-o IMC Mr. Kllintt has U-vii noar ]lum«Io*', where he pa<*tiiHl the la^ ytMTB 

a nKMnl*er i'f the natimiul afadciny of df^i^rn. of hi'* life injdrasaut i»eolu>ion. Since his death 

KI.I.I< >Vl\ KiiENE/Eii. an Kiij;li^!i iN»ot, born 2 volumes or hiji literary retnain^ have ap{i«ared 

At \(:L^t»<>pm^li, near jlolherhani, Vorkshiro, under the title of ** More Pru»o aiul Ycne by 

Marrh 17. IT*^!* dii*d twiir Harnfrloy, Ik-r. 1, tho Cum I^w Khynier.** 

iM'.i. Ili« faihtr, who wa.4 employed in a KLLIOTT, Jws»tt IMncax, a comroodore Id 

fiiuiidi-ry iit-ar Ma*>U»r(.iu^h» wa-t a didin^nter of tlie V. S. navy, born in Maryland in \7f^% diad 

what w an c.il!t.«l tlio liiTvan tA-r;, an o«va.Monui in rhilailelphia, iHrc. IH, 1845. lie entered 

priatht r. ui.d a fiirrible |HiIttir:J tii»eakiT of tho the K>rvico an a midshipman in April, 1906^ 

ultra r:i<li<'al tviH.*. Yi'Un»; Kllitdi received tho and wa^ pruinutisl to a lieutenancy iu AprU| 

cdu>-uti>>ii usualiv nirordi-d to Imivh (if bis i-ondi- ISIO. In 1^12 he w&4 Attached to th« ccicb- 

tinn, but at M-hiMiI wan ni>trd for littlo el<H« than mand of Commodoro Isaac I'hauncey at Sack- 

dalnc»4 and l.-i/ini*--*. He wa'< unnblo to master etl's Harbor, and was ncui by him U» the nppar 

t!ie riuli:i:i*n(A v( (rrii'niunr or arithmetic, and hiki-s to puri*haso vc^teI.^ and make other prep* 

ottcn ;;rati!iid an ia'»ti:ii"«i\ c li>\ o for nature and aratiiin** for tho creation of a navai forc« in iLosa 

N>litu<lo by Moll- II ra!iibh.'« in tho iiioatlows und waters. While at Black llock, en^ai^l in tlkia 

WfKNliiiiiii*. ni> fa:lior« hearing of the>e va^'a- service, 2 Kritinh brif^^ the l)etr(»it and i*Alcd^ 

l>ond habits M-t hiiii t<» Work in tho foundiry. nia, anchuri-d, Oct. 7, 1^12, near the opposiia 

lit' was bo;:inijin^ to f,dll into dLsMpatinl habits rhoro under llic ((uns of Kurt Erie. KiliottroOF 

whon thv |»oru«al i ^f a treat ifO on btituny, whU'h coivml tlie idea of capturinf? them. Fortunatelj 

actidt-nt ]iiit into l.i<* liai:d.\ revived hi^ love of the firH party of M-amen intcndetl for the Uka 

DAlurr, atid hi* bo<'a:jiv an induitrinus col lector rerviiv arrived fnim the !<'alioar«l on that ^ciT 

uf b>>ta.';ical ^{•o^inl^ll-. Ho u1m> procured uc- ni^ht, and (len. Smythe. the commanding nilH 

re»!« to a ^nlail ht>r:.r\ of the oM divines and tary oflirer on tlie frontier, ni*t only prumpclj 

|N»ets a:id in hia 17th your priHluivil hi:* tir^t complied with the re(pii«iti(»n for anns for this 

published pivui, ** Tho Vernal Widk," a crude Fer\ice, butfurni>hit] ailetachmeut of.'iuv.ddim 

imitation of Thom-un. It wan fullowed by fortheimrpitse. AUiut expedttiosi wj<»or|ranis«d 

** Ni^'S't," " \V harm litre,'* ai.d otlicrs. Tho under hlUott*s command, and the vc^mIs wcia 

AUthor'if jio^ier* ini*re:iM*d with each new work, boiirded and carried with !)Ut ^li^ht h>M a littla 

and he luul the ^'*^*^\ fi rtune to uttrait tho no- aHor mi>lnif*ht, Of t. H. The lutroii mouiitcd i 

liie of Si ithi-y. t'« uh«>-e kind o!llce'« he w :i5 ciiii«, w iih a i rew of TiO ; the C'aK^biniam*'Ut.ted 

acrii.:..m. d l> ri !'i r u iih atle'-lion und ;;r:Ltituile. 12 u''in«, bud had a Mnaller ct^mplemenx. A^joot 

He had im .u.u lii!e \\i'rkf >1 ^t^;l<l.]v :i: thL-lofin- 4n An.eriia!! pri^mer^ were found en bc^ard 

diT,^. w!i[i h h;t l'.ti}iir h..>l piiT' ha-ii o:i (Tiillr, thc<«.' \e***M U. rheruJod«>nia wa*» ^hfell brt»uf;ht 

atid l.aviii;; iiurrii d m! u[i in tin* i:i>:i buoit.i"^;! nvt-r ti> the Ame:ic.'in ■>ide, but the Ik'trcit naa 

on hi!« *':\ i\ a>-ci>i.;.!. A: '.» * \\ :ir<i nf n^v ho he- Cfm]MlIed to drop d>>wn the rivi r. pa.-'^w-c the 

came ail e.irii< «t .Khm .ite of thi- lahnrin^ <'Iu«<*i-% ltrili'«h batteries under a heavy fire, and ax.ch 



Thi* C'^rii laws in p.vtienlar «!ru>-k him »•> un- in^ within reach of their ^un». In the rtd ihia 
u:«% and i:p'>ii h!<> •> .{i^'i'.iiT t fail :ro in t't^iuesH Ve.-«vl wan burnoil by the .Xmericansi, m***! o# 



/, 



le attr.' ute.l hi* fii"-:"irtu;,e» I** their inl!:i sn'o. her ^'.uren having l':r-l be«n removed. For thia 
111 1'»l'1 ho iii.ii!i> :t!iot}iir vi i.t'ire a<* an iri-n exploit K!!i<'tt wa<* %otid a ••wurd by cor.| 



inert h.'iTit in SIn:!\ii!, i\ it:» a h .rriiUtil cijiiial In July, l^Kt. ho isa^ pr«iini-ted t*- the rank ai 

4'f i.'!"". .-ltd wa* •MK-n iml<arktil iu a In- master (unim.tU'lant, ani! A||<\iintid tn the Ni- 

cra!i\i' li>:tii -*. He n-iw ciu:iii:i Ufid ht> w^ll- a;r.ira. a br!,; nI" "Jo j:un*, un Ijikc Krie. In I'er- 

kn<>M:i *'<'.>rn Kiw l»li}me«," w!.ich wero r>'> liien.tirat'le i n^'np-nient with tho Bniish 

wn'.ien wi:h t!.i- -.!,■ |..:r|<>M* of j-rm ::rirnr t!jo h-jiiadrfn. .Spt. lo. l*«i:i. Ulliott was **r«nd m 

re| 4m1 of li.e u:<i:>>iio-.;« lj\\«. A*. l':r-! pii!!i-h- ciiiiiniaiitl, ai.d a ^'>>!il modal wa« voted Kim bj 

c-d i:i a 1 f ul { .i| 4 ." .iiA b!'!i rwaril coiln :«d i:i a ci-n;:rto« f r l.i-coi iliict on the CHcasiun. Atiet 

iii:j:!e \- I .!!.e. •.!..-. \m^'i'.,^ Ir.. :-!jt Kiiji'lt ii.ro the liattle *'( Lik'- Krie. Kllii»tt returned lo Lak* 

n"t;ee. 1 i •■ ' K.if.! r,' \i !.;. !i * :. . . i.btl. w ai a Oi.tarlo. wljtri* he ua^ mti\ely oni|I>'ycU until 

b«:;/ |<- m in a * M/.^r \- in. Ii. !•*.'.* a| |-«an.l N-iv. 1**1:;, wIhh he w:i* upin-'isited to lliC ct^a- 



hi* "\ nla^-e I\»?r: if- h.'ex- . edii.^* it; li !:k'?-i :»: y n.aH'l ••Ithi- Ont.ifi'i ^li-'j- »t V ar, i»huh had J 

of \lI-» pr^Vi-.LSjr h!'.. rl :.«. a-. 1 thi- Uv if Ji.H UeU buil*. :.'. lhd!imiTe. Ihi-^i-'vl waJO&Ctif 

Lr,:«r;ji«K In ;•*.:»!. t . icim ;•• • ! ac.'in)--< tv t!ie * jnadrf'! of ('.-n.n>«K!iTe iKealt.r cn:p}oT«d 
e«:i!. r; . f h;^ w-rL*, \r\. . !. u; ;«;»:••! d.n: /i!.e ii,.M:i:ot AI^»^« r« in l^l^, aiid .i^i.-le'l in ll»e rap- 
in \' "J \. i;-.. u:A i'Tl'.i*- lir-'. i.:]:i n..vle »;. : « r- ti.ri i !" an Al^v riue fri^Mte «■:!' t'a|-' dv t»a:t, IB 
all* k:.i'\*ii ;.;a:.y i*!" l!.«- h .•!.' :'■» p'-ui-* ip-t i-f Mar- it. l"!*^, he w a- pri'Tiio! id Iu the ratk of ca»- 
an i iti^^.vf !jk j .'..ri a\ . ]i:,rA^ :• r. >■ \*r..! i '.!.ir !:• n.aii-!*'.:! ■*«'i!:ii:il> hail thee* mmari'l of kjcaJ- 
I-!.:. ■: <i a;;« ..r«.l -ii l).*' t...-^. . f l.;i hff. u:.\ r-':.-* t-n !li.- co:k-l •■* Urii.';]. in the Wc*! Ind^l^ 
til till- \.k< he !• :.rj:.'itil •.! \kr.\- \ i r*- *, i !.j. tly i.:. 1 iii !he Mi-'liurr.-iiii m. und of thr nav» j 
fur tho iin^rdicJ prt-s aiid uA uiifreijiei.tly at lio-^iiiu and I'hiladclphix lluconduc;« 



ELLIOTT ELLIS 107 

k eommflDd of the Mediternmean s^adron did ^ Agricok,'^ and published in 1851 , being among 

lot meet the approyal of the execative, and re- his latest expressions of opinion on politioid 

nked in hia trial by court martial in June, 1840, sabiects. He has contributed largely to the pe- 

nd snspensioa firom duty for 4 years. In Oct riodical press of the Soath. His published works 

IMS, tbis period of his suspension which then consist of an *^ Address before the St. Paul's 

Muuned was remitte4 by the president Com- Agricultural Society" (Charleston, 1850), and 

Bodore Elliott^s name was much before the pub- '^ Carolina Sports by Land and Water '' (1856). 

Se fat many years, as his conduct in the battle Ee is also the author of *^ Fiesco," a tragedy 

«f Lake Erie unfortunately became the subject printed for the author in 1850, and of a number 

flfaoontroTersy which lasted until his death. of occasional poems of merit, few of which, 

ELLIOTT, Stxphsx, an American naturalist, however, have been published. 

ban in Beaufort, S. C^ Nov. 11, 1771, died in ELLIPSE, one of the conic sections, a figure 

Oiarieaton, March 28, 1830. Ho was graduated bounded by a curve line produced by cutting 

M Tile college in 1791, and 2 years later was through a cone with a plane, or by letting the 

cieoled a member of the legislature of South shadow of a circle fall on a plane. The discus- 

OvoKna, a position which he retained until the sion of this curve began with Plato, 430-347 B. 

Mtabfiahment of the ^Bank of the State" in C, and was continued with great zeal for about 2 

18U; of which he was chosen the president centuries. No important advance in the knowl- 

He ratained this office till his death. His leisure edge of the ellipse was then made for about 1700 

hooxi were devoted to literary and scientific years, when the research into its properties was 

panRnta, and he cultivated the study of botany renewed and still continues. The ellipticity 

vilh enthusiasm. In 1818 he was instrumental of the planetary orbits is one of the immortal 

m finmding the literary and philosophical so- discoveries of Kepler. The knowledge of this 

rwrtfw of Soath Carolina, of each of which he curve is essential m the mathematical investiga- 

wm the president He lectured gratuitously on tion of many physical problems. One of tba 

UiliiTonteecienee, and was for some time chief most important properties of the curve line 

•fifeor of the ^'Southern Review," to which he bounding an eUipse is that every point in this 

eoDtribated a namber of articles. In 1825 he line is at such distances from 2 points in the 

" ~ in establishing the medical college of the figure called the foci, that the sum of the 2 

and was elected one of the faculty, and distances is always equal to the longest diam- 

0or of natural history and botany. He eter of the ellipse. An ellipse may therefore 

B the author of the *^ Botany of South Car- be drawn by driving 2 pins in a board, to mark 

oEna and Georgia*' (2 vols. 8vo., Charleston, the foci, putting a loose loop of inelastic thread 

lflll-*S4), in the preparation of which he was over the pins, and then drawing the curve with 

■rifff^ by Dr. James McBride, and left a num- a pencil placed inside the loop and stretched 

ber of works in manuscript. His acquaintance out as far as the loop will allow. A second im- 

lith general literature was extensive, aod he portant property of the curve is that lines from 

MM thoroughly read in the scientific works of any point of it drawn to the foci moke equal 

the modem French schooL His collection in angles with the curve. Hence light emanating 

tiM several departments of natural history was from one focus would bo reflected by the curve 

It the time of his death one of the most exten- to the other focus. If the other focus were at 

mrt in the country. The degree of LL.D. was an immeasurable distance, the curve would bo 

conferred upon him by Yale and Harvard col- a parabola, and the light would proceed out in 

kfea— Stefhex, D.D., son of the preceding, parallel lines; or light coming from an inverse 

MK>p of the Protestant Episcopal church for distance would be reflected into the focus. Ucuce 

fte diocese of Georgia, bom at lieaufort, S. C, the parabola gives the proper form for a tele- 

k 1B06. Ue was graduated at Harvard col- scopic mirror. These are the most important of 

lege in 1824, and was ordained a deacon in 1835, the simpler properties of the ellipse ; the higher 

■n a priest in 1836, soon after which he be- and equally important properties are scarcely 

iBe professor of sacred literature in the South capable of expression without the use of mathe- 

ChnwDa college. In 1840 he was elected bishop matical forms. When an ellipse, instead of be- 

tf Georgia, and in Feb. 1841, was consecrated, ing traced on a plane surface, is traced on the 

KLLIOTT, WiLUAM, an American author and surface of a sphere, it is called a spherical ellipse. 

HBtidan, bom in Beaufort, S. C, April 27, 1788. ELLIS, a N. co. of Texas, drained by Trinity 

Hi vas fntered in Harvard college at the age of river, which forms its E. boundary ; area, 1,000 

abnt Ql health compelled him to return home sq. m. ; pop. in 1858, 3,212, of whom 723 were 

ue the completion of his academic^ career, slaves. The surface is occupied by prairies and 

for many years he devoted himself to the man- tracts of hard timber. The prairies are very 

^pOMiitof his estates^ and served with credit in fertile, and produce maize and cotton. In 1850 

■& Innches of the state legislature. During there were raised here 28,744 bushels of Indian 

fti mllificatioQ crisis in South Carolina in 1832 com, 2,617 of potatoes, 17,220 lbs. of butter and 

b held the oflSce of senator in the state legis- cheese, 287 of rice, and 200 of tobacco. Valuo 

hlB«,bat resigned upon being instmcted by of real estate in 1858, $545,600. Capital, Wox- 

HieoDftituents to vote to nullify the tariff law. ahachie. Formed in 1849. 

kkM nnce participated less frequently in pub- ELLIS, George Edward, an American cler- 

k lAin, his letters against secession signed gyman, pastor of the Harvard church, Charles- 



108 £UJS ELLISTON 

to^n, Ma«., liorn in Doiitnn in 1915. lie was antbor, born in tbc latter part of the U 

(rmcJiiAU'il Ht II.irTar>l colltf|^» in 1H33, itudicd turr. In H15 be beramv offiriallr cot 

thc< •]•>;;.«' at tliti Cainbrid^e «livinitj k1ioc»1 until with tbc I^iitiun misitionarr !tocivtT. undvt 

lsi36, and aftiT a ycar'n travel in Europe waa an^pices in Jan. 1816, be (tailed with bi«i 

or<Iainv'«l in 1 M^ ai pa-^t' t of the cburrb Mill iin- Poljnctfia. lie 8(»ent nearlr in jean in p 

dcr bi« r}.:irj^, and prt^vim^Ij under the charge infr the ppiritnal velfar^ of tlio natives 

fif the Uvv. .TaiiK-d Wblki-r, nrnr provident of South Hca i»lan(L« (at one of which. Tal 

Harvard unlviT^ity. Ho b.'i4lti*«*nanindu>trious enN:teil the fin^t printinfc prew in V*A} 

and •^uctv^oful writt-r, U tlu' autbi»r of tbo lives and in 1^24 retume<l to EniHand on acre 

iif JiiLfi M:i.M.in. Anne lIutdiinMm. and William tbe illni-s!« of his wife, sto(»|iinf; fnr »<in 

IVnii, in Si»:irL*'H " American lliojrrapby/' and on the way in the United iStatOii, whore 

in 1*»<*7 pri!*!l:-hiil a vi-ry elulMinite work, tho ccived luiicb nttentinn. Fur jtnrne y^ 

"ILiIl* CVhtury **( the Tnitariun Contrvversy."* was ernployeil in tbe businetf of ibe' 1 

IIeiditi.'<lf<Tatiniethf"C'Iiri«tiun]U*'p:i^tor,**tbo tni*«(«ionary soriety at b^mie, and pu 

re!i/ioU!i iivw<*[iai<'r uf the \I:i»«acbttM*tta Uni* " Narrative nf a Tour tbronpb Owhybi-e * 

tari;iiis and fur some year<, in r«)nneetiun with I^ondon, 182^); **rolyne^an luAarrh 

the llev. (^triT^re Putnam. I ».!»., be conducted voU 8vo., 1829); •*Uistnrj' of Matla^r 

the *' Christian KxamiiuT.'* He has contributed compiled fn»ni infonnation recvivwl froi 

I:ir^* Ir tu v:!^!!''!^ poritMlicnl^, inrludinR the M«»(u&rie9 and ptvemment d<»cumi*ntA (S 

•■ Ni w Yi.rk lirvif w," tho *• Nnrth American," 6vo., 1K39) : *■ Ilistury of the Ix>ndon H 

tl;o "I'liri^lian Exiiiiiinir," and the "Atlantic ary Society "(Svd., 1S44); '* Vjllapo Ixcti 

Mi tztMy," mo>l fre*pi»-nily upon topics of Anier- Puiwry " (Svn., 1S51), Ac. In 1^35 LL» wii 

lean lii-tiury. In lSu7 he wait appointi-d pn.>fer«- ana 2 year* later he wa.^ marrietl a sc-octo 

fi.ir i>f dr*etrinal t!ie<>h*{;y in tbe ( umbrid;re di* to Mi?a Sarali Stickney, with i»bnm be i 

vinity t^'hu*'l, and r^-ccived the dojn-ee of I>.I>. for many year* in lioddoMtun, lli-rtfur 

frum' Harvard uiii%-er«ity. He U a prominent where Mm. Kllis conducted a!»i'hfiiil fo 

]ni.ii.l'ir of the Ma>**acliU'ietts historical society. In 1S5.1 Mr. Elliji procet-ilcil tu MmWa^* 

antl 3e:ive in it<« antiiiuarian revanches and cul- tni?i>iouuf (>t»M.>rvation fur tho Ix>n<li>n ini^< 

Kitijn-^ In hii rclicpout views bo belongs to society, and after three vImIa to that i-^Ian 

the nil. re cou«erv:ilive clas^ of rnitariaiiii, aikd H^ied an iitttTe<itin,; and vainaMe wt^rk, 

UiK\:A a dv<-ided <and airaini-t tbe new rational* tbe title of ** Three Vi^its to Ma<lapi«car. 

i:.ni. He i< a ZL-ak'Us friend of popular educa- )WS-'5*5, with Notice* ufthe IVopV, J 

tiun, and has siNikeu and written much for com« History, ^e." ^I^undon, 1959), of whuh 2 

xu>>ii M*h<iuU. Hi4 publiblivd sermons ftddreswS) lieation^ bave ap|>eared in tbc rni(i-«l St 

pan:itlili'!^ &o., have been numerous Sailaii Stukset, wife of tlie prect ditj. a 

ri.I.IS, (ii:Mi:i«E. un Enjrli^h author, born in liOi autbureMi, U»ru in the be^nnini: ol tL 

1 74 V d'.^-d April 15, 1^1 V He comniencc^l bis ont century. Herpari'iitaU'lonpMl ti«tho 

litvrury eari.-i.T a.s a t«rit«*r uf pnlitii\il satire^ of KriL-nds amoni^ whom ^beren-iwil b* r 

and I'tvanio favMraMy known a<« ari>ntributor tinn. Her tir^t liter;iry pnnluction ^»a5 a 

til the *' K<»!!!:i'h" and hub«e>)UvntIy to the tic wurk for the yt'Utt^'. entitled the *' 

•• A:iii-.TaciiMn/* T!»e htU'!y of t-arly En^Ii«h of I.ifo;'* and bince bcr marriaire in \<: 

Ii:iT.iV'.ri\ bitwcver, •.K:enpi»«il bi^Ifisuro hours, ba* written many vulimirsi dv^uted tn ii.e 

aiid in 17**') be prixl'.«'nl " SiK*ciinens of An- and mental culture of her k^s. Th<* pr 

tluMt K::^*h-h ritvlry.*' of which enlarged etli' of the-^ are: " Htjmr. or the In-n Hulc 

til-::- ai>;'ear>d iu l"*'*! .'LUil 1^11. A <-i>iupanii.>n wi!I-kni>wn horii.^ entitleil tbe *' W.it:: 

Work, •■ SjH.^ irmn- of Ancii-nt Encli^h Itoman- Ki.^'!:ind** jIKJh), the "l)aujrht«-r«»of K:i| 

Cf," appearetl in 3 v.-N. Hv.». in I»^«»5, an<l has (1M2» tbe '•Wi^i-* of Enjrl.nnd " «l***:i 

hlr;re U-vn npuMishi-l in IMiu*s ** Antiijuariaa the " Mot!n.-ri of England'* n^."). '• L 

Iji-rurv" ih'.n.fiin, 1*»4>*). the End" <2 vnU hvo., IhIoi; *• Hi ar 

EI. LIS. Sib Hr.M:v. an En^rli'.b author and Honu-." (.1 viK 8vo., 1»*»h.'ii., a-, 

ant: |p..krv, Inirn in I."rid"n in 1777. He was nowiHWi en;rap«l ni»on the pn; arati-i 

*^h.i atvd at St. Jiihn*i ci'Ili-uv, < Oxford, and in niw work to UM-aiK-d " Mother* i if < J r- at 

I'^o'i l/< ranii' orio I'f thi* a-M<4.int librarian:* (if Her puMicatiiinH, nuniWrin^ U-tuitr. 1 

thi" Hrili^h !nn«^Mm:. A n-w and e!d:ir;:i.-d edi- 3", hn\e rierii'id a l>enifi<*iAl inf!. :«•:.!> 

tl'-n uf UraiiirA " I'iipMlnr .\ntii|uitii4** wa4 in- dome^tii* life i.'f lireat Britxuu aii'l i:.«- 1 

feUi-il '.;ndir hi* cart* in l^lt, and was n'puln Statr«. 

lishrd in a <.bia|».r funii i:i IMi. In ISlii bo EI.I.ISToN, Ri»nEirr TTiiimm. an F 

»r'»!i' a Careful ni»il t! iNirato intriHlurtir>n t«» m'tiir, U-rn in I.ondi>n. April 7, 1774. «:.ixi 

tJii- "hoimwlay Il*»'.k. ' and in 1»*2I publi^lnd July 7, isTl. Ho was i-lufntid a! >r. 

a H-rit-^ *•{ ••< tri^'iua! I.f!t»r^ illtwrativeof Knir- H'!n»«»h b«;t :it the h?i* t»f 17 ran a« .iv ari- 

b«h History,** fri>:n ai:(i>{;r;ip^< in the Hriti«}i ed a thiatrical eKnijiaiiy at lUth, «S 

in:«« aiii ( i'> Vi !«. •**!».): a t^-'-i-nil M.*rie\ in 4 initio hi-* fir-*! apji-arafir.' « n t!!ej»t.i*«« ir: 

Vi-l-. in 1*»27; Mid a third, in 4 vn!*., in l**4d. I7i»l. Ki\e y- .ir*i la:ir he m.-id*- !. * *\r 

>ir li. Kllii ^«a^ friini lvj7 *,, ]s5*j hijkd libra- I^>nd'>n, ut t}>i* ILiyniarlvi thi-.t!re, and ii 

r.a!io!!l.v ltr:!idi muM.*inii. bivanie ]<rii.i*ipal attur and ai-:iti^ n^ira, 

EJJ.IS, WiLUjui, an En^liab mlaftioDary and that buuM*. lu tho ruece^xliog year L 



ELLOBA ELLWOOD 109 

•t Drarjr Lane, bnt after the bnming towns in the state, and a place of commercial 

of tba theatre, haying quarrelled with Thomas importance. It is extensivelj engaged in the 

Sfamdan, be left the companj, and opened the lumber trade, exporting every year aboat 60,- 

Socrej theatre. On the rebuilding of Dmry 000,000 feet of lumber. It contains the county 

Ijm he was mg^ engaged as a leading actor, buildings, and in 1859 had 2 churches, a high 

ad recited the address written by Lord Byron school, a newspaper office, 2 hotels, 2 banks, 

Jbr^ opeoing night In 1819 he became the 9 saw mills, 2 grist mills, 9 lath machines, 1 

leaee of Dmry £ane, but in 1826 retired a shingle &ctory, 1 tannery, 1 machine shop, 1 

bankrupt , Sabsequently he was again manager carding mill, 1 pottery, 8 brick yards, and 13 

of tiM Surrey theatre, and continued occasion- ship-bmlding yards. Capital invested in manu- 

aQy to perform his principal characters until factures, about $2,000,000. The tonnage of 

the dose of his life. ElUston was called the the district (Frenchman's bay), Juno 30, 1858, 



of his time. His chief merit was 27,632 enrolled and licensed, and 6,733 

y d ii M was the £Eu;iIity with which he adapted registered. 

MnMdftoeTeryTarietyof characters, from the ELLSWORTH, Olitek, LL.D., 2d chief 

feraedly bmnorons to the tragic. He possessed Justice of the United States, bom in Windsor, 

tm. iDor&uite self-esteem, and many anecdotes Uonn., April 29, 1745, died Nov. 26, 1807. He 

m iold of lijs whimsical eccentricities. was graduated at the college of New Jersey in 

ELLOBA, Elobjl, or Eloubo, a decayed town 1766, and soon after commenced the practice of 

«f HindostaDy in Hyderabad, 13 miles N. W. law. In 1777 he was chosen a delegate to the 

Annmgabad, and celebrated for its cave continental congress, and in 1780 was elected a 

ezcavatedfromtheinnerslopeof ahorse- member of the council of Oonnecticut, in 

iped hill, about a mile firom the town, which body he continued till 1784, when he 

cavercs are sculptured over an extent was appointed a judge of the superior court. In 

U Bila in length, and may be regarded as a 1787 ho was elected to the convention which 

ndoo pantheon, since every divinity of India framed the federal constitution, and was aftor- 

Ipi there a shrine. Host of the caves are ward a member of the state convention, where 

than 100 feet in depth ; 20 of them are he earnestly advocated the ratification of that 

1 to Siva, and 2 to the Trimurti, or important instrument, which his exertions had 

triuity. They are aU adorned with essentially aided in producing. In 1789 he was 

statues and innumerable sculptures and chosen a senator of the United States, which sta- 

bHKeZIefs. The greatest and most remarka- tlon he filled till 1796, when he was nominated 

lb of these monuments is the Eailasa^ or by Washington chief justice of the supremo court 

pradiae, dedicated to Siva, and designed to of the United States, over which he presided 

npcesent the court of that divinity where he with great distinctioD, his opinions being marked 

those of his worshippers who, having by sound legal and ethical principles, in clear 

metempsychosis, come after death to and felicitous language. In 1799 he was ap- 

eternal happiness. This does not, like pointed, by the elder Adams, envoy extraordi- 

flie others, extend subterraneously, but rises to nary to Paris, and with his associates, Davio 

a htby height in a vast excavatiou. It is com- and Murray, he successfully negotiated a treaty 

fond of a portico, a chapel, and a grand pa- with the French. This accomplished, and his 

■Ddk The portico is sustained by pillars and health beginning to fail, he visited England for 

Inked by curious sculptures. Two obelisks, the benefit of its mineral waters ; but his in- 

fret in height, and 2 gigantic elephants, sur- firmities increasing, he resigned his ofiice of 
nnd vid support the chapel, which is likewise chief justice in 1800. Returning to Connecticut, 
domed on every side by statuary. The pa- he was again elected a member of the council ; 
|ida rises from the centre of the whole structure and in 1807 he was appointed chief justice of 
^ tte hei^t of 95 feet, and is surrounded ex- the state, which office he declined, under the 
ktaaUj by mythological designs and sculptures impression that he could not long survive under 
■■naentinglions, tigers, elephants, and fantastic the distressing malady which soon closed his 
■■■ab of all sorts. Within are 42 colossal days. He was eminently distinguished both for 

^of Hindoo divinities, each one the centre public and private virtues, and his reputation 

^ !oap ; and beyond this main temple may was so irreproachable that in the hottest parti- 

li seen others of smaller size and simihu: son conflicts his character was never assailed. 
These gigantic works are of un- ELLWOOD, Thomas, a minister of the 

antiquity, and seem to have been exe- Friends, a friend of Milton, bom in Crowell, 

1 by Buddhists as well as b:r Brahmins. The Oxfordshire, in 1689, died in 1713. Atan early 

of Ellora is small, and is resorted to by age he attached himself to the society of Friends, 

ns pilgrims. thereby giving great offence to his father, but 

BLLSWORTH, a port of entry, and capital neither blows nor persuasions could induce tho 

if fiBioock CO., Maine, on both sides of the son to renounce his new sentiments, to take off 

tkkm, river, a navigable stream, which empties his hat before his parents, or to address them 

bto fteochman's bay about 4 miles below this with other pronouns than ** thou'' and *^ thee.'' 

[; tlliiL the opposite banks being connected by He was, like most of the other ministers of his 

1 Moses; pop. in 1860, 4.009; in 1854, about time,the author of numerous controversial work^ 
MjnfL EUaworth b one ox the most flourishing The most considerable of these is his '' Sacred 



no ELM 

nistorj of the Old and Now Tcstamontj.** ITo titr of inncl1a(r<^, of mnrh valnc In 

ftI«o wriite a poem entitled DaritUis, of which Hicham cnniiiden its wood ai raperior to 

KiD^ I>avid wa<« the liero. Hat ho U cliioHj of the white elm. The tree can be nmSSIj 

known from t!tc cirrum*>tanoo that he wa<« one grafte<l ii|M)n the white elm, and if only for o^ 

of tliow H'lcrtcd by tlie poet Milton to read to nament it ii well worthy of cultivation. Ito 

Lim after the lorn of his «ipht. Durini; the corky white elm (T, rtirfmota^ Thomas) hMHi 

rafrine of tlie pla;;ue in Lmdon in icr>5 he ob- branohei often l>e«ct with corky ridses; Hi 

taioed a retreat for Milton at Chalfont, and lea vex are similar to those of the white da; 

there he i^ saiil firkt to have 9uggc5tcd the idea ita flowers are in racemes; it<« wood is tooi^Mr 

of the ** TarailiM* Kc^ined/* and finer frruinod. The wahoo or winged eht 

EI.M iulmu*^ Linn.), a tree f>f the natnral (f*! alatii, Mx.) i^ a small tree, seldom eioec4- 

ordi-r ulni'Ut'p, which enkbrace* itomo of the inj^ SOfoet in heif;ht, hasafino-in^ined, TaloaUft 

noMe«t and imM inipf.»rtant HiK.Ties in the Unit- wo4kI, and is to bo found in VirfHnia and sooth* 

ed Stati'ii. All the plants belonging tothisfam- wanl. The English elm (/**. Mtnpettris^ Linn.) 

ily have simple, routrh, serrate, unequal-sidetl wan early introduce<l into this countrr, and it A 

leaves; flowers tmall. in buncIicHon the side of etntely tree, contrasting finely witli tbe AnMri* 

the twi^; the fruit cither a winged samara or can. Its branches, unlike that, tend npward, €r 

a drupe. Three fincra of ulmactip aro found elite srtread more horizontally, and ita (bliagt It 

within the limits of the I'nited States. The of auarker green andmoro pleasinic to tbecji^ 

mo»t coitM lie nous of tlioM) is ulmut, of which The wych elm ( r. montana, Itauhin) has bMi 

we e<rK*ci:ilIyni»tiro the white or American elm partially intn>duced ; it is much cultiTafcedift 

(/7, simfricana^ I.iun.). No tree can stiq»a«is Scotland, and goen by the name of the 8coCck 

this ill the beauty i>f it 4 proporti(»n«. In old chn. It ri^Mrmbles the slipfH^ry elm. The mIf 

trees e.«{>e<.-ially, from tlie wiile-rpriMdin^r, but- tie tree has a tnmk from 20 ti> 6*) feet hi|^ 

tress-like ri>ots to the Willi- rf^preading branches, Its K-aves arc obliipiely lanceolate, acumii 



tlic curvaturo U beautiful ami graceful in the shari>ly si-rrato ; its fruit is a sort of pi am or 

~ It hat at«w 



extromo. Situutinn beetQ«, however, to give drufto of a yellow iith gn.vn colur. 

variety to the out I i i.e. In wet pastures or hi mi- eral varieties, con«idereiI by some botanlttt 

lar plaiv^ a tail, hknder trunk, crow ne<l with a distinct spcrii-^, but probably nothing more 

few {icudvtit liiul'S uiitl clotheil nearly from the forms of rrl^is orrUUntala (Linn.). Ther g. 

ground wit!i a fchthory inve«>tmont of small on the poorest and most arid soils bat flooriA 

brancho.4, whi< h are K-arcvly more than leafy beitt in a rich and moist ground. Miclianx Mjt 

braiiohi-s of twi;:^, i^ a plca.«iug object Krldi»m that the wihnI of the harkWrry {/*. cnast(/Sp|ia^ 

overlouki -d or cji-nally n^^rdcd. 'I'lio ra[iidity If x.) i« fino-(rraiue«l and Ci»mpart, but not hesTj, 

of the growth of tho white elm ad-ipts it toarti- The plaiuT tree (jfhtnrnt aq^ntiot, (tmeHa) 

ficial planting' where -hade is soon nivdi-d. Hanly has small leaver like th> '^>e of elms ; the riowcft 

to an uiiu.-^ual d^^Ttv. it kioo U'Comes a favorite aro bonie in small axillarv rlu^ter*; the Anil It 

nith the tree pl:int«r. ranging in its di*tribntion nut-like, .\ecorilin:; to Michaux, it grows oft 

from S.Ltkatehewari mh Hudsitn'sbay to(reor^a. wet b.iuks in Kentucky and MiUthward. Ht 

The >%i>'d I'f the wliito «1m U u<ed fi<r making coUMden its w^hhI as hard, strong, and proptr 

Lub4 I'f wliveS. and !•« pre fern *• I for that puriKi<o for various pur]Mi«4-«. It has not, l.owercr, beiV 

to any i<t!icr native w«<o.i. Y^'kc* :ire made of put to any u-o in tlii^ country, and is so Htllt 

it, ai.d t.t-ar the i'<i.\-t '•Mji bt(M*k4 arer«in!<*tructod estecnu'il an ti> havo reivivin] no |»opu!ar 

of it* tiMJ?tr. TiiiJ whito ilm grows n-a'hly It in worthy of n: tempt t at cult iv a! ion 



fn-m s< • d. V Lii'h s!.>'il<) l»o H*wn a.4 «oi>n as ward, and can be readily propagated by 

ri]K\ ar.d may U' g.ki!ieri-i! in almtKt any d«Mr- it ii|Min the rim. 

ab!tf (i':aiitity from t?je gruunil under the tree*, KLM ACINI'S, or T.x. Maciv. rtronoK, 

fjc'iij^- iL« 4ar!y u4 June. T!it« s,-ei]s >!iouId l>o in th«* fli^t by the name of I!»n Amid, an Ara» 

very >!:k*litly (MVervd, a:id the young plant* bian hi'«to.''ian, b<>rn in K;0'j*t in 1»3. died !■ 



r;-e in a ftw nerks, when thev hhi'uld lio Pamancus in 1'2T3. \\%^ wan a t'hn«tlan, 

wati-^id and wei>!<.-d, and i:i «:iccL«vling !k*;L«oiui held at tho c-iur: of tho suh.in^ nf Cairo tte 

shouM bo thinrie«l c:! and trant>pl.inted t>» in- office i>firfi^ or M'critary. lie wn*te a hiiCMy 

sure lAilI-f ir!ii«-«l tn-^^. In tran-plantin;; full- of the Ea^t, e«>pi-eia!Iy of tho Aral»s, frum tM 

grown aiiil \i^i>rii';4 ynti;:^ •>{ii--imin.<4 {'*\\\A creatii^n of t!ie M'orld tii his time, a portioa of 

whi-ro t!i(y \.%\*' ap;><.iro! •^{•ontanfou-ly, it whi<'Ii m' .as pul>!i*hid both in Arabic and I^IIb 

b n< .■•-*''.irv t.i fc c::re n* minr nf i!io tli»r«Mis br Eni*iiiu». ht L« vib»n, in ltV2r»; tho I^tiO Ter- 

r«Hit« .1^ I •■•«!^!^\ i.m1 have !hii:i ikpr«-:iil imt in siou wai ^-o'l ri-;'r:i;*.ed, and wa« fuUowf«l by 

laTi^'o a::'l »!:•;')•• K>-!f«, fk ill pppAFit! With pMNl a French tr:i!:-l.iti"ri. A e'-njp-^te r«litioa la 

inl : «- irf v\,< !e t.ik'-n i."t to havo tliem Arabia* nnnin^ in u»o yunk«::g tito Chrj 



t«-.i d'tj-'.y <..-.ir.-l. IJ.o fj; p- ry e!m ( /'. of tiio I^-vant. 
fultt. Ml I i^ .-v 1:.... h Mii.i!!i r trts-, with lar^j^r ELMES. JiMr*. an Ersli>h architAd, bnrv 

a:i 1 I., r- !- .4-.'..f..l f-'luj.*. ar.d » 'ft, di»r;y, in lAmdi-n, o,!. ir», 17"'J. He praotiwd bit 

ru»t\-'. I. rid \ .'!•. »i.t fii-^ tlie naii.e »--:ti»'!i!:ji'S prufesM-m in ll.e e.irly j art of his life, and gained 

arpiii^l » i" r-!i!::i, I;»li-iw,r« ar.» ;n lateral th.» silver mchil r.i arr!iitivt::re at the rrytl 

c*U"tir*; !:.•• ":Aii.ara :.« lar^'t rand iftith abroailer academy in l**<^t. Me was fir Mime time set^ 

border. Tlie inner bark contains a great qaan- veyor and civil engineer of the port of Loodtfa, 




ELMINA ELPHINSTON 111 

but loss of sight, which, however, he afterward was elected the solicitor, or public prosecuting 

partially recovered, caused him to relinquish officer, of the southern circuit, an office wliich 

the oflUse in 1828. He has published *' Memoirs he retained by successive reelections until 1836, 

«f tlie life and Works of Sir Christopher when he was cliosen a representative to fill a 

Wren^ (^to., London, 1828) ; "Lectures on Ai- vacancy in the 24th congress. lie subsequently 

dutectore'* (8va, 1823) ; *^ General and Biblio- served throughout the 25th congress, and in 1839 

graphical Dictionary of the Fine Arts" (8vo.. was made president of the bank of the state 

18M); **Oa the Law of Dilapidations" (rojal of South Carolina, which position he held with 

8tou, 18S6) ; ^ Treatise on Architectural Juris- credit until elected in 1850 to €11 the vacancy in 

pmdenoe" (8vo^ 1827). Among his most recent the U. S. senate occasioned by the death of Mr. 

pfodoecions is a work on Thomas Clarkson Calhoun. He died immediately after entering 

(Loodoo. 1854). upon the duties of his new office. In 1838 ho 

ELIONA, or St. Gbobge dbl Mina, a town was selected by the South Carolina delegation 

hi Affbantee, IT. Africa, capital of the Dutch in congress as one of a committee to obtain au- 

•iCUflnients on the Gold Coast, on a small bay thentic information respecting the anti-slavery 

BMT Um mouth of the river Beira, 5 or 6 m. movement He addressed, Feb. 16, 1838, a let- 

IT. of C^>e Coast Castle. It is a large and ter to James G. Birney, corresponding secretary 

&ty town, containing a considerable native of the American anti-slavery society, enclosing 

popahtion of traders^ fishermen, servants, and a series of interrogatories as to the number of 

stifieerSi the last being very numerous and anti-slavery societies and members in the United 

■osdy held as slaves. There are several coun- States, their objects, expectations, means, and 

tiy residenoes and farms belonging to the gov- modes of operation. Mr. Birney replied at great 

and merchants, back of which is an undu- length in a letter, which, with the other letters 

eoantry covered with dense forests. The on both sides, was printed, and went through 

■^ sittu^ed on a low, rocky peninsula, is many editions under the title of *' The Elmore 

atrong; and was the first European estab- Correspondence." 

oo this coast. It was built by the ELMSLEY, Peteb, an English scholar, bom 

Fortngiiese in 1481, captured by the Dutch in in 1773, died March 8, 1825. He was educated 

107, and finally ceded by Portugal to the latter at Westminster school, and at Mcrton college, 

■ifioDirith other possessions in 1641. Oxford, and was graduated master of arts in 

XLMIRA, a post village and township and the 1797. He officiated for a time to a small chap- 

CipUal of Chemung co., N. T. ; pop. in 1855, eiry in Little Ilorkesley; but becoming master 

1^189. It is situated on Chemung river, near of a fortune by the death of an undo, he de- 

ttt moQth of Newtown creek, and has easy voted himself from that time to literary studies, 

OBomiaiiication both by land and by water with and particularly to Greek literature. IIo lived 

d the priacipal cities of the northern and mid- for a while in Edinburgh, where he was intl- 

ib states. The New York and Erie railroad matelyassociated with the founders of the '^Edin- 

crowci the river at this point ; the Williamsburg burgh Review," and contributed to that period- 

Md Elmira railroad connects with other roads ical several articles, among which were reviews 

It Philadelphia, and the Elmira, Canandaigua, of Heyne^s " Ilomer,^* Schweighunscr^s ^^ Athe- 

■d Niagara Falls railroad opens a communica- nasus," Blomficld^s *^ Prometheus," and Porson^s 

tkm to Canada. It is also on the line of tiie "Uecuba." In 1816 he made a voyage to Italy 

flifimiiH^ and the Junction canals, the former in search for manuscripts, and passed the winter 

itftiiig it with Seneca lake and the latter with of 1818 in researches in the Laurentian library 

fta osntral parts of Pennsylvania. It presents at Florence. The next year he was appointed 

wnrj indication of prosperity, and has in- to assist Sir Humphry Davy in the unavailing 

■lisril more rapidly tban any other place on task of trying to decipher some of the papyri 

Aa New York and Erie railroad. It is well found at Uerculaneum. After his return to 

bloot, and contained in 1859 the county build- England he published editions of several of the 

hp; 9 churches, viz.: 2 Baptbt, 1 Congrega- Greek tragedies. 

^ d, 1 Episcopal, 3 Methodist, 1 Presbyterian, ELOCUTION. See Oratobt, and Voice. 

1 Roman Catholic ; 1 daily and 2 weekly ELOHIM, one of the Hebrew names of the 

offices, numerous good schools and Deity, the plural of Eloah. The name is also 

^ 5 grist mills, 10 saw and 2 pianino applied to angels, princes, judges, great men, 

^■9^ 1 manufactory of edge tools, 2 of soap and and even to false gods. 

•■ilea, 4 of coaches and wagons, 1 of woollen ELPHINSTON, James, a Scotch gramma- 

1 car factory and repair shop, 3 breweries, rian, bom in Edinburgh in 1721, died in Ilam- 

jacea, 3 machine shops, 4 tanneries, gas mersmitb, Oct. 8, 1809. He studied at the 

VMfcL fa;. Elmira b the seat of a female college university of Edinburgh, became tutor to Lord 

MAb of accommodating 800 pupils. Blantyre, superintended an edition of the *^ Bam- 

ELICORE. FnASKLDr Habper, an American bier" in his native town, and in 1751 opened a 

JhHrier and politician, bom in Laurens district, school at Kensington. He was a zealous advo- 

I id, in 1789, died in Washington, D. C, May cate of a change in English orthography, and 

It 1B50. He was graduated at South Carolina published several works on the subject wliich 

itf^Si in 1819, subsequently studied law, and exposed him to great ridicule. A translation 

Jl mi waa admitted to the bar. In 1822 he of MarUal (4to., 1782) was no better received. 



112 ELPUINSTOKi: ELSIKORE 

IIU prinripal wnrk^nrc: ** French nml Enplish which he was mado lord high chancellor of 

Lani;iiapi«" (2 \oU, rjiiio.. 175C); ** (ItliicatiDn, fH?otlam1. He was callvd to take part at tto 

a Totfin'* (I7(*3j: "Kiiifhoh I.-inpiiA;:t''* (i voU. c«)n>iiation of James I\'. in 1-188, aad wae ioK 

ISiiiti., 1T(i«i»; ** l*n»privty aHrt-rtamcd in hiT inL*d lately aft or M-nt a:i an aubaiMador to tte 

IVturo" (17m>); PorttF sintehtioMi^ iMtini^&c, euiK.Tur Maximilian to nefrotiate a marriaft 

(171*4); **KitU' YvAT*' iVrr«'*<|Hin<linro, Inplii-h, between the kin^r of Scotland and the ctnp** 

French, and Ijittin, in \'rvz;c and VerM\ U'- nir*n daughter ; and on his way he coodndea A 

twcen 4iiMiu<v«eA nv houth S'Xc^ and James tri'uty of alliance between Scotland and tte 

£li'liin«t«in" (H vi»N. I'Jmo., 17*.*4^ ttatet* of Holland. At his suggeetion the ^op% 

Kl.rillNSn >.%{•:. (iKi'Ki.e. S.'e Keitii. granted, in 1404, authority for ttie fomidAtiea 

KI.rilISST(»Nl'l, MiM >T«Tr.ii:T. 4th M>n of of Kin^^H colU-^o in Old Aberdeen, which wet 

Johu, llthnaninEI|ihinMphiMinKngIi>hbtAte4- crvcti-d in 1500. IIo wrote the Hree of th* 

inaniind hi<itorLin, b<»nialN)iit 17^». He entered Sci^ttii^h saint!*, a work which has not FMckei 

tliv service of the Kast Iiidiu ci>nii»anr at an our times, and a historr of tH'otland, whieh b 

early age, wa.<i made ao^i^tiuit to the judge of still prffterved in the liodleian library at Oa» 

lienan*^ ro'^ rapidly to tlio |K>^t of ri■^ident at funl. After tiiu defeat and death of JaoMalY. 

I\iiinuh, and in l*^**J waM M-nt ait ariibu«'<:uh»r at Flotlden he was never sc*en to ffliile, and Ui 

cxtradrdiiiiiry to the Afghan court at C:iImn»1, death has bven attributed to grief at that A^ 

whero he MU'ceidvd in n including a treaty aster. 

agniu^t the Frvmh. The (»>i-rthrow df the Af- KL'^IN'ORK, or EisiNirR (Dan. 27r2fiafi9% 

ghan munar«-h in the same \car rendori-d the a maritime town of I )enmark,io the bailiwick flf 

com|iA«*t iuo|KT»tive, but. a.4' the fruit of tliii Fredi-riksborg, Inland of Swiand, SA^ m. N. & 

mi««Mi>n. Mr. KIphiiiHtone puMi-hcd his valuable from i*«i|»enhugcn ; lat. Oti^ 2 11" N., long. 11* 

*' Account of the Kinpliini i>fl*ubul and it4 l)e- ati' 41i ' E. ; iki|i. about H,(ioo. The towB ii 

{•endencivH in IVrsia, Tartury, and India,** built on the nurrowe!»t part of the loond, hm% 

(4t«i., l.uiidi.M, 1^15 1, which has U-en twice but .'^ ni. in width, o|i]H»ite the Swa&k 

reprinted, lli't rondurt u: I*i>omaIi during the town of IleUinirlKtrg. It commands the priMA» 

truubld with the i»ii<*hwa in 1>*17 wa.4 highly pal pa(is.iae bi'tweiu the C*dtt4-gat and the iialll% 

praise^l. Ho intHwlucod many rcfitrnn in his and is the sp«it u here the houml iTiirs (ahallA 

district, and in Oct. 1S18, wan nanunl giiv. ed in lho7) were fnnnerly |»uid by all fcnipk 

C'moruf]i«»njb.'iy. on a*>M:niiiig whiih station he veiuelii, except tho<*e of Swe«len, narigatfaw 

addn'M4'dti>thc(\dcuttagiiVi rnnunt .1 "Kc|K>rt that channel. The town is sub*»tAntiaIljrMa 

ontlicTcrritorivscuniiuiTodfrom thclVi'ohwa.** irregularly built on gntund rising gradnalllf 

llii Idii'ral |io1iry, care vi educntiitn, and Mudy fntni the hhoro. withuno nmin Mn.-ct eroesed hf 

of the wi-ii':iri* of t lit* rativi'4, urc citniinondvil by uthcnt at ri:*ht angles and eitntuin^ 2 rhiirrha% 

Hi«hop Hi^ir in his *' linlian Journal." Mr. a town hall, a high m hu«»l. an intiniiary, a ~ 



l'Upliin'«ti>ni> ri-tin-d from t!ie Indian M-rvi'^e in j'it:d, a theatre, ami n cemetery l»eautifuIlT MM 

lh:2i\ fU.<l nn bin dt']iarturc fur Kn^'lund the out. The harUir i«i little more than the sbeltir 

citizen** of lUmibay i>rt^iiird him with a kt- atlunU-d by a w^MNlen pii^-r. but the roadstead b 

\ ice of plate, and foun«!id in hii honor the exci-lli-nt and i^ generally crowded viith Teaalk 

iiL-aitutitm in It«>Mi!i.-ir uhiili liears hi* name. Adj:u*ent to it, on t!ie N. K., on a tongoa of 

lu 1*^11 he ppxliirttl hi^ " ni>tiiry of Iiiiiia; land running out into the k-.i, i^ tlie raatle of 

the Hind'Nt ami M.-i)h*iiiet:in rerimU*' r2 vuN. KruitUir;; (Crown casilei, built by Fr\.'«!erie IL 

bvi». I. a thiril«*«!itiiin«if wi.i< li apfN.ir^d in l^t'^. alMiiit loHo. Modern forlitication<» hare 

KI.rHIN>li»NK, AViiiiwi. a >CMirh pnluto mhlt«i to it-* ».trengtl». It if» now chiefly 

and fttnte^mnn, Uirn in <•!:ls^tw in M:i7, dii-d a pri'^in. (*ari»lino MatibLi, «{ueen of 

in l^Lnburirh, <i*-t. 'Ji, l'il4. He was edu- VII.. wa<i imprlMmifl here until the interfc 

rated at t!te university of (tla-^itw. ri-<vi\id «»f her brothi-r. <fii*rge III. i>f KngUnd. Ul 

the divroe of M .\., appli«d hiniM.-!f to theo- the ca-tle urv cu^-mates ca|»able d 





livii'al ^tu•!il-^ iitid ^ a- l>'r i ^ear* ret tor of l.iiufi men. Acconling to a |N>pular tJ 

Kirkmiihael. in (i!a-gow. >il'M*«)Uently. uhilo Holger I^nn'^ke, the legendary h«ro of 

Mud>tng in VuT\\, he attra>'tid the attention mark, riMiIcH in one of Uie subterranean vi 

of t!i«« ui:i\i-r«.'.} l>v the ix'.tnt ami variety uf In the ci»urtyard of the CA«>tle i^ tlie lightboSM^ 

hi4 K-:ir)in/. .vhI na^ api'oirit* il t>i tlic pro- sh<iwing a tiietl licht ll:i feet above tbe MB 

fc«^>r«}.i:* i-f ri\,] at.il ra!iun law. fir-t at I*aris K*^«l. A ^li<«rt distance N. \\, of tli« towa b 

and ailtrw.ir«l ai * 'rleai.*. AJ:» r re^idini; \> vt .irs the paLttv nf Mariei ly»t \ Mary** delight), 

in Fram-i*. lie ri-:un:<-i t** .*^> ••t):kml. w:u made a ntval ri-*!dince. but now in private 



ree!i>r of till' iinivir»iTy at (? 1. !>•*.:• iw and otVii-ial tio:i. Ni*nr by i"* nIiowd a pib' of rocka, 
or rii'i:ni;«<:«rt <>f *J dl••4^■^-^. atnl ;it tlie K.iii:e neoii^lr callid the tomb of Hamlet^ of 1 
tir..e w:i« «-.i!.i •! t'l a *«-at in pariiiit:irnt and in t!it* st<ir\. a.** tfld by Shake ofieare, Elftinorw It tM 



.";• V r.>T;i :!. llf mttli**} a nii-utideP^taiidiu;* ^^•-rtl•. KNinoro enji»y» a pHi^I fureign 

Utui.-t .lami-« III. tif S-.>t!and ar.tl I«>iu% Xl. M'"«t of tlie ni.nri:ime nations have cooeal 

0* Ir^iiii*, te:-d prt vrtittd a uar. Ilr ua<« mailf si'Vira! Hriti*)! invreantile hoUHtk hart* 

li-h"p"f K'"^- aUv.*. H**'*. a:^<l iia« vh'i«— :id ln-re. l.<«H'aI imlu^trr i^ movtly en^raired la tkt 



in a M'T.nd iii]<!i>i:ia'.it' m:"*i"n i't arraii;;:!..; a rviining of »ugar and bratidy, priotiug 
truco betwevu Scotland and Fn^laud, alter ti»hin^, &c. A» the principal cotrnnnniraltoa 



SLSSLER £LY£S 118 

i Sweden flood the continent passes fhrongh sq. m. in extent It yields annnally upward of 

port, fiKilities for trayel are abundant. 100,000 tons of salt, the collection of which 

I eommnnlcation exists with Copenhagen giyes employment to 10,000 persons. In the 

idaingborg. An extenave manofacto- hottest season the crystallized salt along its banks 

* anns is in operation at Hammerwolle, and on its sarface giyes it the appearance of a 

s saborbs. Elsinore was erected into a yast sheet of ice or frozen snow. It is nowhere 

in 1425 ; was taken and burned by the more than 16 inches deep. 

I of L&beck in 1522, and again in 1585 by ELYAS, a fortified frontier town of Portugal, 

tisn EL It was enlarged by the Dutch in the proyince of Alemtejo, 10 m. W. of Ba- 

■ta in 1570. The castle was taken, Sept. dajoa, on a hill near the bank of the Guadiana; 

S8» by the Swedes, under the orders of pop. 16,460. It is an important stronghold, 

Wrangeil, bat was restored to the Danes haying an arsenal, and spacious bomb-proof bar- 

10. It faOed to preyent the passage of the racks. The fort of La liippe on a neighboring 

li fleet under Sir Hyde Parker, with Nelson hill is deemed impregnable. The town itself is 

I ieoond in command, in 1802. poorly built, and many of the yenerable Moor- 

BBLER, Favnt and Thebxsx, two sisters ish buildings which line its streets are crumbling 

rated as dancers, bom in Vienna, Therese in to pieces. It is supplied with water from a dis- 

Fanny in 1811. Fanny, the more famous, tance of 3 miles, by means of a fine Mooridi 

Htmcted in the juyenile ballet corps of the aqueduct During the peninsular war in 1808 

lese theatre, and at the age of 6 made her ap- Elyas was taken by the French under Maraud 

DM on the stage. Subsequently she receiyed JunoL and held during seyerd months. 

letioos ih»n Aumer, and a marked influ- £L VES, genii of uie northern mythology, 

Don her general ssthetic culture was exer- forming, according to some classifications, with 

if Baron Friedrich yon Gentz. The two the undines, salamanders, and gnomes, groups 

%f who were inseparable, gaye performances of elementaiy sprites identified respectiyely with 

plea for some time, and in 1830 made their the water, fire, earth, and tan The elyes are of 

abearance at Berlin. Here the public had the air, and haye been more widely receiyed in 

IB some measure prepared for Fanny's the faith and poetry of Europe under this name 

by the account giyen of her by Gentz than under their Hellenic name of sylphs. They 

I friend Rahel Yflfnhagen yon Ense, but are capricious spirits, of diminutiye size but 

Mtical conceptions of her art, and graceful preternatural power. Their stature is less 

ice, fkr surpassed all expectations. Hence- than the size of a young girPs thumb, yet their 

id her career assumed the character of a limbs are most delicately formed, and when they 

of trimnphal oyations. Vienna, which will they can hurl granite blocks, bind the 

sen so slow to appreciate her, soon joined strongest man, or shake a house. They are di- 

sneral dliorus of enthusiasm. While en- yided in the sagas into good and bad, or light 

at Berlin she made occasional excur- and dark elyes, the former haying eyes like the 

to Lmdon and other cities, and in 1834 stars, countenances brighter than the sun, and 

Mdied France. The sisters made their golden yellow hair, the latter being blacker than 

ppearanoe before a Parisian audience, Sept. pitch, and fearftilly dangerous. The elyes ordi- 

La tempSUy a bdlet adapted from Shake- narily wear glass shoes, and a cap with a little 

i%**Tcmpest,"byAdolpheNourrit. Fanny bell hanging from it. "Whoever finds one of 

•eelTed with much applause, and consid- these slippers or bells may obtain from the elf 

■litied to the same rank with Taglioni, who has lost it any thing which he asks for. In 

i file bead of her profession in Paris. She, the winter they retire to the depths of moun- 

IV, fiiond an occasion to eclipse her celo- tains, where they live in much the same way as 

I riTal in the Spanish cachucha, a dance men, and in the first days of spring issue from 

I Ae introduced for the first time in the their grottoes, run along the sides of hills, and 

af Le diable hoiteux. This was received swing upon the branches of the trees. In the 

M&pons applause. The noted Dr. V^ron morning they sleep in blossoms or watch the 

IhtfAis hana; Jules Janin was in ecstasy ; people who pass by, but at the evening twilight 

Hlie yoong Pole glorified her in Lettres d they meet together in the fields, join hands, and 

fifirfa published by him at Brussels ; Paris sing and dance by the light of the moon. They 

toed bar inimitable. In 1841 the sisters are generally invisible, but children bom on 

\ flia United States, where they met with Sunday can see them, and the elves may extend 

it noeev, and afterward reaped another the privilege to whomsoever they please. In 

ilcffliM and glory in Russia. In 1851, after England and Scotland they were subject to a 

; % WW farewell performances at Vienna, king and queen. The islands of Stern and Bu- 

MiCirBd from the stage with an immense gen, in the Baltic, are especially subject to the 

iLflldnow rendes at a villa near Hamburg, king of the elves, who rides in a chariot drawn 

■nr« who retired at the same time, con- by 4 block horses, and whose passage from isl- 

L AptO 25, 1851, a morganatic marriage and to idand is recognized by the neighing of 

Maoa Adalbert, of Prussia, and was en- the steeds, the blackness of the water, and the 

ladder the title of Frau von Barnem. bustle of the great aerial company who follow 

RUT, a aah lake in the government of in his train. The elves sometimes become do- 

^ " 70 m. £. of the Volga, and 180 mestic servants, and would be valuable as such 
TOL^ TIL — 8 



114 ELWEB £LZEYIB 

if the J were Ims tuWj offended and leas d«n« mtrketi, and aevenl bcncTolant inftitatioiu and 

gcroiu after taking oflcnce. As lunK afl their icbuob, amons which U a grammar trlioolfuaDd* 

caprkii are gratilieil, their fixxl and drink reg* ed by Henry Yl 1 1. It ii the capital of a di- 

niarlr Ivft at an appoitititl place, and no at- Tision of Cainbridgethire, called the ** Ule of 

tempt made to iolerfere witli tlicir freetloro, Ely/* separated from the real of the ooonty bj 

tliO faniiture ii iure to bo du»ted, the floor to the Onse. This district ia included in the ra- 

be iwfpt, Htid every chamber to !•« i>erfi*ct]y claime<1 marth known afl Bedford LeveL 

in order. Hut the brtHbern (rrimm, in their ELYMAIS, in the Hiblo Elam, now Larittaa, 

JjtuUch€ Sagfn^ have chronicled the misfortunes a province of Susiana, now Khooaakan, in Per- 

of many a vouiig girl, who, having calle<l an elf to sia, a moantainoas region, watered by the Ca- 

her aid, rvfieiited loo late of having otfended it. heuii (Hob. Ulai), and inhabited by a people of 

Tlie brviwnio of Scottish tamo is one of these Semitic descent ((reneais z. 2S). The people 

domestic clws. of Elam appear as bold and rude moantaia* 

EL WES, Jony, an Eng1i!>h miwr, bom in eers, skilled in archery, and are often tncti* 

Bouthwark about 1712, died Nov. 26. 17S9. His tioned in connection with aome warlike ei* 

own faiuily name was Mcggot, but he vxdianged pedition, from tlie battle of Chcdorlaocner, im 

it for that of liis uncle, from whom he received the time of Abraham, down to the cooqncei of 

a lar^ri' 111)10 ritancv. At an early |»eriod of his Babylon by the Medes and Persians. In Isaiah 

life he attcndi-d Westminster school, and be- (zzi. and xxii.), we see them marchinc wHk 

came a ptod dawical scholar, tliough at no their mighty quivers, with chariots and nor—^ 

auliMHjUint {icriiid was he ever seen with a book, to fatal sieges ; in Jeremiah (zltz.), we see their 

He was Kiit to iieneva to complete hU educa- bow, their chief strength, broken ; in EaekM 

tiiin, and tliere di^tinguislied himself as one of (zxxii.), we find there among tliose inhabitHrta 

the l*ol Jekt riders in Europe. After returning to of the nether world who had spread their terror 

Englanil he U-pin to inaulge in gambhng, fre- aimmc the living. (See ScaiAVA.) 

quenting the nun^t noted gaming iMmMs, and sit- ELiSU'M, or Eltsiax FiBLoa, amoof th* 

ting up u \ut\v niglits with the most fai^hionable Greeks and Itomansi the dwelling place cif tha 

and pr« 'filtrate nu-n of the time. After thus blessed after death. While the oriental 



making or lu^in^ thousands he would g%t to tlie most other {teoples sought this abode in the vp- 

cattle market at Smithfleld and dii^pute with the per regions of the bky, the Greeks placed it ■ 

butchero f**r a ^hiiling. He next took to hunt- the west on the ends of, or beneath, the 

Ing, oiiil hi4 stable (»f foxhounds was considered where the sun goesdown. According to II 

the bei>t in the kingdom, yet ho kept but a sin- Elysium was a plain on the ends of the 

gle servant to attend to all liis cows, dog^ and where men live without toil or care, where 

li«irf<«<i. Krutu his parsifiioniou!i mode of life his U neither snow, nor winter stornuk Dor raiaa; 

fort u 111' rai'idly i11creaM.1l, and when worth half where the h>vely and cooling zei»hyrs blow ■■• 

a ii;ill;i'ii iio refuM.*d to ai*cept a seat in parlia- ceaningly with light murmur, and where dwell 

meiit ni.V-« «»n tlie exp^e^s stipulation that he Khadamanthus, who, in the upfier world, waatlsa 

stiould U' briMight in for nothing, and, owing to Ju^testof men. The iKisit ion of Elysium changed 

pe«'iiU:ir «-ir(-uiii«tani*«.'^, was a4*tuallr elertcd. with the prt^gress in geographical knowleun^ 

Hill nii-^rlv liahits iniTi.'aM.*d with hi* fortune, priKvedingfurther and further to the weaL a^ 

and dun Li.' tlie latter years of his lifu he aban- siod speaks of the ha{»py isles of the oceaa, aaA 

dohid gnin.ng, hunting, and e\ery e(»mfort, and other writers i>up|Kt!ied it to be aumewbera la 

died t.*.o i'iiH«i«fM>r of Xkmi.ihhi, aAcr having the .\tlanti(\ till Pindar and the later poeu 

aafTi-n d grmtly fnitn fear of |Kivertv. it U'ueath the earth. According to the 1 

ELY. a iit> I'f < ainhridgt'^hire. I'Iii;;Iaud, on desicriptioni^ the nieaib of Elysium 3 timee i 

an rni!i:>-iiic tiiMr the <>uh\ 16 m. N. N. E. from vear brought forth the most beautiful flo 

(*ain! ti'Ik'* . l^'p- in I^ol. 6,17C. It mnsi^u Yhe inhabitanls enjovcd the reward for 

Iirinri{iaiS of « 'I.I* Mreet, and run tains many (iM virtues on earth, and whoever liad S fimes re* 

»uild:fi,:« It i« tho •^Mt «>f a bifkhiipric whi«h siMt-d a teniptati«ui to do evil attAined to ihii 

ws« fo-i:.>lid 111 ll'>7. Itf cathedral i-i a spk-n- aUide. A ni-\er-Mming sun shone npoo thtm^ 

did fir:.- fiire, I'lilt in siircefw^ivi- ce:iturie«, and and melancholy was removed far away. 

iirr^ii'.:^ a »:i.k'ular niiiture of the Saxon, air% fnttrrant and tinted witli purple. 

Norm ill. A' A larly English »t>Ies of arihiti-r- softly frtiin the ^a. the flowers were tw 

tiirr. '!!.•• clinrrhtd of St. y.ir} and of the into'wrealhs for the dwellers, peaccfol wav^ 

Holy Tm- .ty aro ai-» remarkablv U th for their lew river« flowi<4t by, and hone race^ faBM% 

agr sjnl «; !i tii!iir. A f.mioUM rouveiit wo* fouiid- mu%ic, and con vvr»«at ion, occupied the boors. Ae» 

r*\ !•• r« a'~< :t f-T't bv Ethein'^la, wii'e «*f t>«w\, ording to Homer. nh»!amantlius akMM raled 

kHvof N'l r:liuniU-rUn«l, and slit* tH*eamcit4 timt Ely«ium, l>eing admitted there on pereliw 

abU«« It wa^'lti'triiirid by the I>an«*s in h7'^, gritunds a« the representative of the idee ef 

and l'^> \i.ir« later wa« rebtnl: \^^ Etlielwi»id, ju»iice. HvMod kn4»ws Elysium «Mily by the 

lii*)ii';> of W.iit lit^trr. who ploixM in it moiiks name of the isles of the Hleaaed, where Kroaei 

iii*t«ai! •/ 1 ':i.«. KU hai iin|H>rtA;.t ntoiiufac- nili\ and the Titans and otlier Homeric hereaa 

turr« of • i':!.i nware snd to^ai • o pij^t's, cxtcn- dwcH 

•111* iTanli -.• iti i*« «iiihit%, i!.o prtnlure of ELZEVIR, or more pn»perly Eiastub er 

«hii!i u H lit to the lioiidou aitd Cambridge Elsstiui, the name of a Coouly uf I>atch prial 



ELZEVIR EMANUEL 115 

en, established at Lejden, Amsterdam, the 16tli, and 17th ccntnries, than in the clearness 

Higae, and Utrecht, in the 16th and 17th cen- and beauty of their type, the excellent quality 

tones, and who for nearly a hundred consecu- of their paper, made in Angoul^me, and in the 

tive yean were distinguished for the number general elegance of their publications. The 

and elegance of the publications, especially the texts of their editions of the classics were not 

editions of ancient authors, which issued from founded on or collated by old manuscripts, as 

their preasL — Louis, the founder of the fisunily, were those of many of their predecessors, who 

bom in Lonvain in 1540, emigrated to Holland were scholars as well as printers, but were gen- 

iD 1580, in consequence of the religious trou- erally reprints, and were sometimes pirated 




and also engaged in the business of a bookseller name Elzevir applied to a book has become a 

and printer. In the latter capacity he is said to synonyme for typo^phioal correctness and ele- 

have prodaced, between 1588 (when the Bntni gauce. The Elzevirs printed sevex^al catalogues 

Ehmweantm QwBUumwn ae BetpoMumum libri of their works, but the best account of them is 

dm^ the first book bearing the imprint of Elzevir, to be found in the Notice de la collection d'aU'- 

appeared) and his deatii, 150 works. He is saia teure Latine, Fran^aii, et Italiens^ imprimee de 

to OiTe been the first printer who observed the format petit en \2mo, par lee Elzetier^ in Bru- 

distuictiQn between the vowels % and u and the net's Manuel du libraire (Paris, 1820), and in 

cameponding consonants^' and 0. Ofthe7sons B^rard's J5wa» bibliographique eur lee iditione 

ofLoQi%5followed the business of their father, dee Eleevire (PariR^ IS22), See also Pieter's 

TIL :Matthku8) who was established at Leyden, Annalee de Vimprimerie EUetirienne (Ghent 

vhere upon his death in 1 640 he was succeeded 185 1-52), in which the number of works printed 

by hia son Abraham ; Lons (II.), who in 1590 by the Elzevirs is stated at 1,213, of which 968 

ckablisbed ft printing house at the Hague, and were in Latin, 44 in Greek, 126 in French, 82 

£ed there in 1621 ; Gillbs, who was in business in Flemish, 22 in oriental languages, 11 in Get- 

at the Hague and subsequently in Leyden ; Joost, man, and 10 in Italian. Their imprint was : Apud 

Tho settled in Utrecht ; and Bonatentube, bom Ehsetirioe^ or Ez Offieina EUetiriorum or Eueci" 

ia 1583, died in 1652. In 1626 the last named riana ; and frequently the title page of their 

catered into a partnership with his nephew books contains a device of a blazing wood pile, 

AiBAHUf, the son of Mattheus, at Leyden, emblematic of their name, compounded of tU^ 

which terminated only with their deaths in alder, and ^uur^ fire. 

16«, within a month of each other. They EMANCIPATION. See Slavery. 

veie the most distinguished of the family, and EMANUEL, an £. co. of Ga., bounded N. by 

from their press issued those numerous ex- the Ogeechee river, and S. W. by Pendleton's 

fuite little editions of the classics, as also creek ; area, about 1,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1853, 

BOM on history and politics (62 volsi 16mo.), 4,883, of whom 1,009 were slaves. The princi- 

oJIfd by the French Lte petitee republiqxiee^ pal streams which intersect it are the Great 

wish which the name of Elzevir is now most Ohoopee and the Oannouchce. It has a level 

iniliariy associated. The Livy and Tacitus surface, and a sandy, unproductive soil. Tim- 

of 1684, the Pliny of 1635, the Virgil of 1686. her is abundant. Cotton, grain, and potatoes 

Md the Cicero of 1642, are among the best of are the chief agricultural staples, and in 1850 

thdr prodnctions. The business was carried on the county yielded 559 bales of cotton, 121,874 

6r two years by Jan, the son of Abraham, and bushels of Indian corn, 2,259 of oats, and 49,889 

DAnBt, the son of Bonaventure ; afterward by of sweet potatoes. There were 17 churches, 

hm akme, and by his widow. Louis (III.), son and 202 pupils attending public schools. Value 

•r Louts (II.), founded the Elzevir printing es- of real estate in 1856, $684,872. The county 

ttfabment at Amsterdam in 1688, entered into was organized in 1812. Capital, Swainsborough. 

aMTtoerahip with his cousin Daniel in 1654, EMANUEL (Port. Manuel) I., king of Por- 

wfidi lasted 10 years, and died in 1670, at tugal, called the Great, and the Happy, bom in 

wUch time the reputation of the Elzevirs had Alconchete, May 8, 1469, ascended the throne 

MKlked its highest point Among their chief upon the death of John II. in 1495, died in 

piUieatioiis are Uie celebrated New Testament Lisbon, Dec. 13, 1521. He was the son of 

tflCSSu a series of Latin classics, the Etymolo- Duke Ferdinand of Viseu, grandson of King 

ffaM Linguee Latince, and an edition of the Edward of Portugal, nephew of King Alfonso 

ikrpuB Juria. Between 1664 and 1680, the V., and cousin of John II. His father, accused 

~ ' of his death, Daniel carried on the business of conspiracy against John II., was slain by the 

and in that period published 152 works. latter with his own hand. Emanuel, bearing the 

the last of his family who excelled in title of the duke of Beia, was educated in Spain, 

J, although his widow and Pikter, grand- where he married Isabella, daughter of Ferdi- 

of Joost, carried on the business fur some nand and Isabella, and heir to the crown of 

J*. — ^The merit of the Elzevirs consisted less Castile ; after whose death in 1498 he married 

their learning or criticsJ abilities, in which Donna Maria, her sister. He received the king- 

a^ were inferior to the Aldi, the Stephenses, dom from his predecessors in a state of pros- 
others of the celebrated printers of the 15th, perity, and by his activity and sagacity raised 






IIG EMBALMING 

Portoffil to her most brillUnt point of power their incan, according to Gtrcilaimo, ** perfect aa 

and glory. He »i|rnalized the beginning of his life, witliout so mach as a hair or an ejebrow 

reign by punning with an ardor surpaaung that wanting.'' In the great temple of the mid at 

of all hit prvdooe«i»n the long^tiiught pa«age CazA.*o their bodies, ranged on one aide, and 

by sea to India. Mainly under his patronage thoeo of their queens on the other, sat clollicd in 

were made the voyages of Vadco da (iama, AI- their former princely attire npon chairs of gcdd, 

baqoen]ac, and l'«dro Alrarvx de Cabral ; in their headfl inclined downward, covered with 

his reign (itia became a Purtuguose settlement, raven black or silver gray hair, and their hands 

and liruil, Uie Moluccas* dsc^'wcro discovcrvil ; placidly crossed over their bosoms. (PreacoCt*s 

tlie commerce of the Indies was o]>eDed to Tor* ^ Oonquest of Pern,** vol. i., p. 83.) Expoenre of 

tngal, wealth BccumuUtcd, and a spirit of enter- the bodies to the exceedingly dry and oold air of 

pnse took |iOMeMion of the nation, which could the mountainous region, it was thooght br Gar- 

Dow boast of a brilliant succession of navigators cilasso, was sufficient to preserve these bodiea 

and generals. Lew successful were EmanueKs without recourse to the artificial pro ces s c a adopt- 

eilbrta for conquest in Morocco^ where dearly ed by the Egyptians. These have been partis 

Girchased victories secured no lasting gain, olariy described by Herodotus and DiodonsSi^ 
e lealousdy devoted himstelf to Uio interesta nlua, and the accounts of the former e^iedaDj 
of the Uoinan Catholic church, sent mission- have been regarded by most antboritiea aa pff»- 
aries on board all his fleets to convert whatso- seating an exact exposition of them. Some, bow- 
aver peojile they might discover, and sought to ever, question the adequacy of the prooeasca thna 
reform the character of the Portuguese ecclesi- given to account for the resulta, and atata Ihaft 
astics at home. Ho persecuted the Jewa, ban- modem experimenters fkil entirely of aoeecaaia 
ished the Moon, and mtroduced the inquisition, endeavoring to perform the operation by thdr la* 
Though he ruled 2u yean without convening the at ructions. The account given by llerodotna (iL 
cortea, his home administration was marked by 8G), is as follows : ** There are a set of men In 
Justice, and he gave oompletuness to the institn- Egvpt who practise the art of erobalming, and 
tions of his kingdom by publishing a code of make it their proper business. These pe r som^ 
laws. He succeeded in remaining at peace with when a body is brought to them, ahow tba 
all £urtj(ie, and even presicrved a difficult nen- bearers various models of corpses, made in wood, 
trality toward Francis I. and Charles V. He and painted so as to resemble nature. The raosft 
was a patron of men of letters, and himself tlie perfect is said to be after the manner of him 
author of memoirs of Uje Indies. He was thrice [Oiiiris] whom I do not tliink it religioas to 
marrii*d, his hitt wife being Eleonora of Aua- name m connecti4>n with such a matter ; the 
tria« sifter of Charles V. second sort is inferior to the flrtt, and lesa cosi- 
£MH.\LML\(r(Gr.^X<ra^Mw, balsam or balm, Iv; the tliird is the cheapest of all. All this 
from the rrT»iuous subBtaiices empluyeii in the tiie emhalmeri oijtloin, and tlien ask in which 
o|ierati'jn), thu proccM of preserving animal way it is winlied that the corpse should be pre- 
bodies from c«)rrni>tion by introducing ontuieptic paml. Tlio Ivorers tell them, and having coo- 
aulMtances into the spaces lefl vacant by the re- cludwl tlioir bar^in, take their de|karture, while 
movolof 1 1 iv internal part 4. Tlio art whs eiten- the enibalmem, lefl to themselves proceed to 
aivtfly pratti<««.«d by the ancient >Igyptians, and the their task. The mode of embalming, accocding 
mummies fnund at thii day in their sepuMires, to the most perfect process, is the following: 
where tliev liave hun for B.OtJO years or more. They take first a crooked piece of inm and with 
testify to tilt, iierfertion it had reat-hed in those it draw out the brain through the nostriloi thna 
remote jivriiNK With them it was not limited gt<ttingrid of a {Kirtion, while the skull isdeand 
to the preservation of human bodies alone, but of the rest by rin«ing with drugs ; next thej 
no reptile a|i|«ean to be so moan as not to liave make a cut along the flank with a sharp Ethx^ 
bcvn held Kirrv«i and worthy of this care of its pian stone, and take tmt the whole contents o^ 
remain* ; and whvii, in oiMition to the countless the al»domen, which they then cleanse, WMhiog 
bodies of human bi.'ing<i still to be f«»und in the it tliorouglily with palm wine, and again fr«» 
places where tliey were dt.-|i««tted, are rvcktmod qnently with an infu«iun of pivundcd aiumotiek 
the millions of d^>ir«, apv«, rnM*«nlilv!i, catfl, ibiiH-Si Af^cr this they till the cavity with the pcrvsa 
bulK nxus f*tws &«ps dec, of more than 5<) bruii^^d myrrh, with cowia, and every other aiirt 
species in all, it i^ a matter of wonder whence of spicery except frank incvn^te, and sew up the 
wens obtained all the resins drugn, Bpici*«, Jkc^ c^fiening. Then the body U place«l in natrum ftir 
which art- dmcribe*! wt e*i«*ntial to the proce*Hi. 7u days, and c^ivered entirely over. After the 
After Egypt 1>«rjuno a K«iman province the art expiratii>n i^f that sjiace of time, which must not 
continued t*» he |trai'tiM«l, and was adopti<d to l>e exceeibtl, tlie liodv i^ washed, and wrspred 

- ' - of fine 



extent by the Itomaitf thtim'ielves. Among n^ind fn>m liea«l to f<M»t with lianJagrs 

Otlier rwev^ a]w> the same practice has in former linen cloth, i^meared over with gum, which is 

times prevailed ; or at lemut a mod ideation of it u^ed generally liv the Etfvptians in tl^e |>lAr« nf 

designed to protlocv a similar result ; such, ftir glne, and in thiti state it b given bock t» the 

exam|4e, as drvin^ tiie ImmIic* of the deaiL relative^ who eqclo^ itin awimtlen coi^ which 

Thia was prubaMy the cutftf im of thi« (ffuanche*, they have ha«i moile fur the purptw. shspfd 

the fomirr inhabitants of tla* Canary inUndo. into the (i^rt of a man. Tlien fastrr/'nc the 

The andant Peruvians pr^iacrved the bodies of case, they place it in a septtlchnl chamber, op- 



mfBALvmg embabgo 117 

right against the waD. Sach is the most co^ihr ing suffered the slightest change, it was rar 
my of embalming the dead. If persons wiw liUle deformed, and easily recognised, althoogn 
to avoid expense and choose the second pro- the flesh had become as hard as wood. A pro* 
eess, the following is the method pursued : cess has been introduced into France bjr JT N. 
STringes are filled with oil made from the cedar Gannal of iniecting a concentrated solnUon <^ 
tree, which is then, without any incision or dis- sulphate of alumina into the veins of the body, 
embowelling; injected into the abdomen. The which is employed for anatomical preparations 
p— age bj which it might be likely to return is as well as for embalming. Dr. Ure states that 
stopped, and the body laid in natrum the pre* a solution of chloride of mercury and wood 
scribed nomber of aajn. At the end of the vinegar is most efficacious for similar uses. He 
time the oedar oil b allowed to make its escape; is also of opinion from the statements of Pliuy, 
aad audi is its power that it brings with it the that wood vinegar, the antiseptic virtue of 
whole stomach and intesUnes in a liquid state, which is in the creosote it contains, was the 
The natnim meanwhile has dissolved the flesh, essential means employed by the ancient Egyp- 
aad BO nothing is left of the dead body but the tians in preparing their mummies, and that the 
skin and the bones. It is returned in this con- odoriferous resins were of inferior consequence, 
ditioQ to the relatives, without any further M. Falconi, in a paper read to the French acade- 
feroiible being bestowed upon it. The third my, states that after a series of experiments made 
method of embalming; which is practised in the with different salts, he finds that sulphate of 
of the poorer dasses, is to dean out the in- zinc, prepared of different degrees of strength, 
I0B with a dyster, and let the body lie in na- is the best material An ij^ection of about a 
the 70 days, after which it is at once given gallon would perfectly well preserve a dead body, 
to those who come to fetch it away." Both with as is proved by the preparations belonging to 
the Egyptians and Peruvians the same practice the anatomical cabinet at Genoa. Bodies so 
ia mM to have obtained of preserving all the prepared preserve all their flexibility for 40 days. 
*»t— ■"•! parts extracted from the body in vases It is only dter that period that they begin to dry 
dspositea near the mammies. Dr. Cormack of up, still preserving, however, their natural color. 
London, who has recently investigated the sub- Chloride of zinc and sulphate of soda are somo- 
jaot, is of oi»nion that the essential part of the times used also. 
process was the application of heat to the EMBAKKMENT. See Dncx. 
bodies, which were filled with some form of EMBARGO (Sp. embargo^ an impediment), 
bitamen. By this means creosote was generated a public prohibition forbidding ships to sail, 
wad diffused throughout all tissues of the body, generally adopted with a view to impending 
snd this method was never divulged, while the hostilities. In 1794 the American congress laid 
pther operations may have been practised the an embargo for 60 days upon all vessels in the 
better to conceal this, as well as to add dignity ports of the confederation. This was said by the 
lad mystery to the art. — ^The substances found opponents of the measure to be done to obstruct 
in mummies are altogether of a resinous nature, the supply of provisions to the British forces in 
and the tissue is impregnated with resinous the West Indies, then engaged in hostilities 
mitter; but this and the wine said to be em- against the French republic. But the embargo 
ployed could not preserve the animal substance, most famous in American history is that intend- 
All parts, and the linen used for enveloping the ed to countervail Napoleon^s Berlin and Milan 
body in folds sometimes of 1,000 yards, bear decrees and the British orders in council. On 
tilt marks of heat ; the bandages are commonly Dec. 22, 1807, on the recommendation of Presi- 
ndooed almost to tinder. The object of the dent Jefferson, a law was enacted by congress 
RBI with which they were smeared may have prohibiting the departure from the ports of the 
neo to produce creosote by the calcination to United States of all but foreign armed vessels 
vUeh they were subjected. Bitumen also ap- with public commissions, or foreign merchant 
Bssn to have been employed in a liquid state for ships in ballast, or with such cargo only as they 
ffliDg the cavities of the bodies, though no men- might have on board when notified of the act. 
fioa ia made of heat being applied to effect its All American vessels engaged in the coasting 
jpoo mD Osition. The cost of the most expensive trade were required to give heavy bonds to land 
■tthoa of embalming was a talent of silver, their cargoes in the United States. This embargo 
about £137 lOtf., or, according to'Oolmet, about was repealed by an act passed Fob. 27, 1809, and 
£W0; £60 was a moderate price. — ^Th^nard^s taking effect March 15, 1809, except so far as 
^Ghemistry" contains a description of a meth- related to Franco and Great Britain and their 
•d employed in recent times by Dr. Ohaus- dependencies; and in regard to them also it was 
Mr. The body, thoroughly emptied, and wash- to take effect after the conclusion of the next 
•d in water, is kept constantly saturated with succeeding session of congress. A 8d embargo, 
nre snblimate. The salt gradually com* laid April 4, 1812, was superseded by the decla- 
with the flesh, gives it firmness, and ren- ration of war against England, June 18, 1812. 
it imputrescible and incapable of being A4thembargowaslaidbyact of Dec. 19, 1818, 
d by insects and worms. The author prohibiting all exports whatever, and even stop- 
that he had seen a head thus prepared, ping the coasting trade; fishermen wore required 
i for several years had been exposed to to give bonds not to violate the act. This was 
alternations of sun and rain wiUiout hav- repealed 4 months afterward. 



118 EMBER DATS EMBOSSING 

EMBER DATS, ccrUin (Lir.<i net apart by Uie punishable criminallr, except io tb« cas« *4 a 

church as early a>« the 3«1 c«ntury for the pur- common carrier who shouli] break open a ca»k, 

pose of prayer auJ fasting. They are the Wed- bale, or packa(^ of goods And appropriate a part 

nesday, Vriday, and Saturday after the 1st Suu- of the o«>uCents, or should carry on tlie entire 

day in Ix^nt, after the fvast of Whitsunday, after cask, bale, or packa|»> after it hftd been brought 

the 14th (if September, and after the 13th of to it« destination, which apprupriatiua or carry - 

December. The wctiks in whii h tliese day 4 fall ing off was held to be larceny. To remedy this 

are called ember week?*. The name is probably defe4*t, various statutes have been enacted vhere^ 

of Anglo-Saxon derivation, iiivauing the circu- by the embezzling of the gooditof a master by 

lar days, and in the canims they are termed the a servant, or by a clerk or person employ c^ 

^iMfu^r anni Umporii, the 4 canlinul seasons, provided such servant or clerk had the custody 

8omc, however, have supposed the name to be of the g«KNls was made felony ; so of a goest is 

taken from the ancient custom of using ashes ait inn, or a lodger in fu middled rooms, carrying 

or em ben in conne4'tion witli fasting. off any of the effects which he had poaaesntoo of 

EMBEZZLEMENT, the wrongful appropria- for use, it was declared to be larcecy. Severe 
lion of the goods of another, differing from lar- penalties were als«) enacted against enibezzle- 
ceny in this, that in the case of embezxlement ment by clerks in the poi^t office, or by brvkcrik 
the property is in the piMMeMion or control of bankers, attorneys, ikc, of any moneys or va!- 
Uie wrong doer. It was therefore not an indict* uable securities placed in tlieir hands for sail 
able offence at common law, and the owner of keeping or any s[>eoiaI purpose. In the ataU 
the |iriiperty embezzled had uo other remedy of New York tliCDO provisions have been adopU 
but a civil action for damages, or in some cases cd with tome am|»Iitication. The embezzling c^ 
fur tlie recovery of tlie i>ro|*erty itself. Thus if property, or the converting of it to his own lu^ 
a man hired a horv» and fraudulently sold him, by a clerk or servant of any private person or 
If the sale was made in the usual course, i. f. oo-partncrship, or by any officer, agent, derk, 
in market overt, and there was nothing to or servant of an incorporated company, wbidi 
put the purchaser upon his guard, the sale was shall have come into hi« possession or ondtf 
Yalid,andtheownerc«iuld only recover damages his care, is made punishable in like maUMT 
against tlie man who had committed the fraud ; as larceny. It is also enacted tliat a carrier 
but if a horse had been stnlen, although it shall be punishable for embezzling goods in the 
should afterward have been sold in market overt, maifs without breaking the package, box, ke^ 
the title did not pass, and tlie owner could re- liefore delivery at the place of destination, in 
claim hi.H pro|>erty. It has never been settled like manner as if he liad broken such pack- 
by a )Mi»itive rule of general ap[>licatit>n what age, in which latter cA<ie he was, as befurv mec« 
would bo sufficient notice to the purchaser in tipned, liable at common Uw. (See 2 Itev. StaL 
the case nf a fraudulent bale of pro{ii-rty in- 67^. <*i79.) 

trusted t) another. Any circumstance ' th.it EM HLEME NTS, a term applied to the gn^w* 

should have put him u|>«*n imjuiry wnuld Ihi ing crujis of laud, when the estate of a tea- 

derniiHl fijuivslent ti> actual notice, antl in iurh ant f<>r life has expire<i by the death of t!.e 

a caM the »ale would not be deemed h.>htt jidt. tenant, or when an e*»tate at will has Xk-cix de- 

Whenever there are circum*>tani'es indicating termined by the les*(»r. In eitlier caw the r'» 

that Uiere is p<i^«^*>«ii*n without prii|»erty i<r blements beK»ng to the tenaiit or his legal rv;*- 

only for a s|M*rial )'ur]iL><ke, as in the case of a resi*ntativea. But when the estate is determiiMd 

pawn briber or t-omniou carrier, the nilo would by tlie leano itseIC as when there it an estate for 

applv that the purdiajHrr takes tite ri^k of any a term of years* the rule is otherwise' ; Uit the 

frauii that mav ber.immitti-d by tlio Miller. S> law does not relieve a nian from the cuoae 

in cmftCA of sale by the owner, but of non-com- ijuence« of hU own voluntary art. 
pliance with the condition*! of lale by the ven- EMlK>SSINCr {Vr. &*«sar, a prt>tu)^raace\ the 

dee, a difficult iiiie»ti«in sometimes ari!M«>. Act- art of pri>ducing raided figures upi>n |>Ia&c uu* 

nal delivrry of the pn.>i>erty to the vendee with face^ as ut»on leather fur N wik- binding ; cpoo 

the intention of gi\iii4 liiiu the «iwnerMiip. evcu pa|>er, as ftLaint*e<l envel«)[*es; upon wolhS ta 

if lurh dehviTV va^olitained l>r frauilulent rep- architecture, and hronre, de**., in sculpture, la 

resentatii«n% or if a fraud wa^ committed by nnt the two laj>t-name<l art\ according as the £g- 

paying for the prfpiTty, if the price wa« pays- ures are nmre «>r Icm prominent, they are said 

ole on delivery, •till Iran *ferii the rit;ht of prnp- to be in ii/M, f.-i/i.'o, ur ^<i«ai rtl^eeo. Varioos 

erty s<i far that the fraudulent vend«-e can make molh««lA uiul macliines are in u<k' for pn«iur:cg 

a valid salo \n ani»ther |icr*iin who i^ ignorant this effi*ct. I>«*ather, |^per. axid the teitil* fab- 

of tho fraud , but the own* r will ha^e the right ricsare emlK^M.'d bv |>o»erful pri'S«ei, furciiLe^ 

to neclaini the prM|M.*rlT fri>ni the vruih-e him- with die«. which give their pattern to tiieohicvi 

aelf so long ai it n in hi« {HMMiM^itin. du^cm a to be euilK»«MH]. The previ nf Me%*rk R \U^ 

daim bj rreditim of the vtniK>9 nhti'^M inter- and Co. of New York i« uf ^ery Muipleand p4*«* 

Tene. Thus although fe!i*>n pro;i«-rty couM erful conj»truction. The |m»ii«t i^ a|fpUrd k i a 

be rrrlainie«l, in wl.ine hainU ft«>t-v«r it shituM trea«lle to straighten a l*ent anii, a^ in tbe old 

be fouiul. vet in the ca^ of rinlirzilrnienti which fi»nn of the printing prenrf^ and the hands of the 

was in fart a greater nffcncu than Urconv, th« (^iierator are thus at hli-rty. >!eaui i« in'.rv^ 

ownership might be lust ; nur was the olfender duced to keep the plate at the tcxu|H;rature 



ElIBRAOEBT EMBBOIDEBY 119 

foosd most suitable. A veiy ingemoos method see also xzzix. &-3, &c.) It is probable that the^T 

of embooring wood was introduced in 1824 by acquired it in Egypt, where it was commonly 

Mr. J. Siraker of London. The pattern being practised. They f3so made an embroidered coat 

drawn trpon its surface, the parts intended to of fine linen, and a girdle of needle-work, for 

be in r^ef are sonk by the application of a Aaron. The Babylonians were celebrated for 

blnnt steel tool as deep into the wood as they the beanty of their embroidered draperies, bnt 

are intended to appear raised above the surface, this art seems to have been very generaUy 

care beins taken not to iignre the grain of the known among the Asiatic nations. The women 

wood. The sor&ce is next planed or filed of 8idon had acquired great celebrity for Iheir 

down to the level of the depressed portions, skill in omamentol neeSe-work long before the 

The wood then being nlaced in water, the com- Trojan war ; and the Grecian women at a later 

piiJMijJ parts rise ana remain permanently in period attained to such a degree of perfection 

tibeir original podtion, and the work is finished m this accomplishment, that their performances 

by carving as ordinarily practised. A method were said to equal the finest paintings. The 

of toftening wood, so that it shall receive im* Phrygians were supposed to be the inventors 

pKMJons from iron moulds into which it is of this art, and by them it was probably first 

forced, has recently attracted much notice in introduced into Greece. In later times the 

Fuia. Hie wood is softened by steam, and Moguls were celebrated among all the eastern 

•oow inmdients are added to increase its due- nations for the splendor of their embroideries, 

tiB^. The bass-relief imnressions are said to be their floors, as well as their walls and couches. 

■hanand permanent, ana to project from 4 to being covered with fabrics richly wrought and 

5 mufimetres. The art is named xyloplasty. inlaid with gold and precious stones. At the 

EMBRACERY, an attempt to influence a ju- great exhibition of 1851 the finest specimens of 

icr by any nnlawfiilcondderation, as by private modem embroidery were from Turkey. Em- 

inflnimce or by bribery. This was a criminal broidery upon canvas with the brilliantly dyed 

oflfenee at common law, though the punishment wools of Germany is much practised by the 

has been prescribed by different statutes in £ng- women of America as well as of Europe. The 

knd. The term is not used in the statutes in the variety and delicate shadings of their colors fhr- 

United States, bat the offence itself is subject nish every tint which can be required for the 

to a penaltj. In the state of New York the at- imitation of the most beautiful objects in nature. 

tempt to corrupt a juror, referee, or arbitrator, The Chinese are at the present day the most 

by a gift or gratuity, is punishable by imprison* indefatigable embroiderers, and their work is 

meat in the state prison for a term not exceed- always executed with the greatest neatness and 

ing 5 years ; and so also the receiving of such regularity ; but among the French and Germans 

gift or gratuity by a juror, referee, or arbitrator, the art has been cultivated with wonderful suo- 

ii punishable in like manner. cess, and furnishes not merely a pretty occupa- 

EMBROIDERY, the art of working silk, tion for the ladies of those countries, but gives 

vocdlen, cotton, or linen threads with a needle the means of support to a large portion of the 

bto woollen, muslin, or other fabric. It is of population. In England, Scotland, and Ireland, 

two sorts : embroidery on stufls, with colored also, it is carried on to a great extent. A roa- 

threada, sometimes with the introduction of chine was invented in 1834, by which one per- 

flsld azid precious stones, which is done on a son was able to execute the most difficult and 

loom or fiame, chiefly for tents, curtains, hous- intricate patterns, using 180 needles, all kept 

IiMi, &c« ; and embroidery on muslin or some in motion at once. It was supposed that this 

44irnf^ fabric, with linen or cotton threads, would entirely supersede the old-fashioned 

ftr the female dress. The latter is worked methodof hand working, but in 1857 one house 

iitber by a pattern drawn upon the fabric it- in Glasgow is said to have employed upward of 

tdt, or by stretching it over a pattern drawn 80,000 men and women in Scotland and Ire- 

OB paper. Tents, which are so much used among land in the embroidery of muslins, all the work 

tba wandering tribes of the East, are often being done by hand, as the machines failed, or 

liddy adorned by the embroiderer. A tent of proved too expensive. Over 50 firms were en- 

a late king of Persia, said to have cost £2,000,- gaged in the business, and about £750,000 a 

OOQL ^ was embroidered with burnished gold, year was paid in wages to females in the west 

■tMifnil with precious stones and diamonds, in- of Scotland and in Ireland. From a paper read 

tHipersed with rubies and emeralds set with before the society of arts in London in 1859, it 

ra of pearls ; and there were painted there- appears that certain difficulties which seemed 

gpedmens of every created thing, birds and almost insurmountable in embroidering by ma- 

aod towns, cities, seas, and continents, chinery had been overcome, and the manufae- 

and reptiles.'^ The art of embroidery ture was successfully conducted in the estab- 

praotised at a very early period, as we find lishment of Messrs. Houldsiworth of Manches- 

i mention made of it by both sacred and ter. The machine was an improvement on that 

acdBuia writers. Instructions were given to the originally contrived by M.Heilmann. Apanta- 

Habnwa for embroidering the curtains for tiie graph was used to copy th^ pattern to the scale 

tabtfoade, with such magnificence that wo required. Each machine was usually worked 

kave reaaon to suppose that their knowledge of by 8 young women and 2 girls. The advantages 

tta art was very great' (Exodus xzvL 1-81 ; of its use were the rapidity, accuracy, and ex- 



120 EMBRYOLOOT 

ocIlcDoe of work In tbe production of repetitions tinction bctircen ovipnrooji ant] riviparou^ aai- 

of tbeJcbign in bordera, flounces, and tnmrain^ mab was alfo sujipojiod \»y the anrienti to iodi- 

for drcsgi*% and the perfect embroidery of a pat- rate a fundamental ditferenco in their m«Ml« of 

tern on eocb Hide of the fabric, especially useful generntion. In oviitaroua animals the eg^^ were 

In window curtAin.% table covert, and trimmings known to bo produced bj the female, and 

for uuhol.otorv. fecundated bv the male, after which the f oong 

EmHKYOLoOV, the study of the mode of were hatched from them by incubation. In dm 

formation and dereloiiment of the animal foptus. Tivi|mroud si)ecie9 the embryo was thou|rht lo 

The process of our Knowledge on this subject be produced by a mixture of the male sfierm 

baa been marked by several well defined epochs, witn the fluids of the female generative organs; 

oorriS|>onding with the successive discoveries of some thinking that the material ftir the body of 

as many ditfcrvnt investigators. Though many the embryo was supplied by the menstnial 

Important fwcu beiiring upon ombryulogy were blood, others that it came from a kind of fesnala 

known to tho earlier anatomists and physiolo' sperm, or seminal fluid secreted by the femaU 

gists, thoy were often mibiuterpreted, and their organs. In 1051 Dr. William Harvey, in Us 

true relations consequently mistaken. Aristotle book on generation, first announced the UdL 

and his followers recognized three different that there is no esiential difference in the raoda 
modes of giiieratiun as occurring among ani-- of generation between oviparous and riTiparooi 

mals, viz. : oviparous, vivii>arous, and spontane- animals but that *' all animals whats<»ever. ersa 

ous generation. Ovi[iarous generatiim was that the viviparous, and man himself not excepted^ 

form in which tlie female |iarent produced eggs, are produced fVom ova.** But though the tnich 

fmm M hich the vouug were hatched, as in most of this opinion has since been amply confimadi 

fiah, reptiles, and binl:*. Viviparous generation and its expression {i^mnt animal ex ore) has i 

was tluit in which tho young were discharged passed into a physiological aphorism, yet it 

alivo and fully formed fn>m tho body of tho mit intended by Harvey precisely in tbe a 

parent, as in quod ru|Hrds and tho human species; which is now given to it. Uarver never i 

while sjKintaneous or equivocal generation was tho un impregnated eggs of the qaadmpedSi 

that in wiruh certain animab of a low order, did he have any idea of the real stmctura aad 

such as worms, insci^ta, paraf^ites, maggoty &c., function of the ovaries in these animals; aad 

Were supposed to be pHMluci-d s|Kjntaneously, in stating the opinion that the young of tba 

without parents, from tbe soil, tho water, or vivipara and of man acre produced friim egip^ 

decaying animal and vegetable substances. ISy he only meant to say that after sexual inlcr> 

the pntgress of investigation, however, the last course and conception, the first thing produced 

mode of generation was shown to be much leas in the uterus was not tho embryo, but rather 

fro(|Uent ill i'j occurrenco tlian Ari!»t(ttle had resembled an egg; and that the embryo waa 

supiK>M.'d. Tiie firtit advance in this direction was afterward fomu'd from this by the process of 

maue aU>ut the end of tlto 17th eentury. when growth. In 1672 Uegnier de (iraaf showed 

Itedi, an Italian naturali< studied a'ith care tho that the ovaries, in women and in female qnad- 

guneratiou and metamnrpliojies of insects, show- rupods, were filled with globular vevtcles visi- 

ingthat many wurnis and maggots, iuhtead of ble to the oyo, MmiLir in appearance to thecfifl 

be inicpr(»dui*ed with* >ut parentis Were in reality of birds and fl&he*. The^ vehicles he pn^ 

Latched from vgg« laid by jierfect insects, and nounccd to be tgg<; and tho organs in which 

that they afterward U'caiue traiKfnrmed, by tltey were found then ttnik the name of ovarian 

tho priM-e^s (if gruwth, int4> similar forms. Ho A ci-ntury and a half l:&ter (1H27) ill. ErasC 

also in 1(>K1 ^hiiwvd that m«r^ iiara«itic animals von liaerdiK >vcred, by the micnncope, tlic nsal 

were pni\ide«l with M'XUoI orguns. and pnNlui^ egj; *»( the human female and of the vivt|iaro« 

their 3<mn^ in tlie same manner with other and animals, which iscmtained in the interior of tha 

larger h)K-tie<i. Valiiinii'risoi'n afterward(170<J) %-e^icIe4 of Di* Graof. Thene eggs w^rv ah<ywa 

extended the oWrvations of Iti'«Ii. and upplii-d to exist in the (ivariesof virgin females, as weO 

tho same c<tnclu'>it>nj U* other spiH-ii*s uf ins«i-ts, ai of thi»M^> in whom wxnal intercourse had takea 

and ti» the para^ittfH inhabiting vegetables. In placi' ; and it was accordingly demonstrated (Kat, 

this way the number of fiK*<'iL-s in which spun- m a!I animals and in man. the egg« are fomed 

tan«^ti:'> ^rneratii<n was r%vsMe<l as iKi^sible nr originally in the otarii^ of tho female, indcf^to- 

probable grailually dimini^hiHl, as ziN.li>gii'aI den tly of tho mule ; and tliat these egg« ars a^ 

scitMici* Ueaine miire extrndod and m«>re a^-cu- terwanl fi'<*undate<1, anddeve]nitedintiieml>ryaa 

ralo; uiilil, in ls.'l7, Schultxe demuUfttrated, ly Aui'ther iin;K>rtAnt discovery remained to rom- 

bis eifNriMientA UjMin tlie infunrria, t.Sat even pU-tv our km* w ledge on this part of the aabjerl, 

these niiiTt»«iNipic axiimalcul«*s are nrvt-r prvH vi/., that i>f the i»|»«intanei.iiis ri|>ening and dis- 

ducr<i in mtfiatiyiu wliere their gi-nns neither choree uf t!ie egps, in qnatlnipvtU and in maa. 

ciivtcil Ik'Ttc uiT rouid i;ain arreM from with- N«!-grier, Pi^uchi't, and HlfechffT demfrfistrated 

out. Stm**' t*ien it has Uvn generally ac'know!- (IM^VJ-':^) tliat the eggs of thr female, origin 

edged by p!iTiiiithvi«tBtltat s|Kintaue«.>us genera- a!Iy priHluritl in the ovarie«, ri|»en and are dis- 

lion is a thing unknown in nature, and that tlio cLar^'t*d. indrperidmtiy of sexual intcroNirse, aft 

sup|i« ar*! iri«laiuvs i if its tn-rurrence are oi.ly certain reg\ilar {«eriiid«*: anil that the imprvgna* 

eases in i»!.trh (he rral prorrts of generation tion of these egg« by the malt* s|»enii h a sab- 

Las not Ux'U sufficiently luy estigatcd. Tho dis- sequent proci-^s, taking place after the eggs ha^ • 



EMBRTOLOGT 121 

left tlie orary and entered the Fallopian tubes, and complete the development of their rarioas 
Tlie origin of the embryo accordingly takes parts. At the same time, the remainder of 
place in the same manner in all classes of ani- the blastodermic membrane becomes more con- 
Bab, Tiz. : from an e^, which is produced in densed and organized, forming the integument 
the OTmry of the femade, discharged thence at and muscles of the chest and abdomen ; and 
certain definite periods, and afterward fecun- tiiese portions finally unite with each other in 
dated by contact with the spermatic fluid of the front, forming at the point of junction a Ion- 
male ; and the only real difference between mtudinal or rounded cicatrix, known as the um- 
OTipcroiu and yiyiparons animals is that in the bilious. The aJimentary canal, formed in the 
former spedes (ovipara) the fecundated egg is interior of the abdominal cavity, is at first en- 
d i adi y g e d fh>m the body of the female and tirely closed ; but two openings are afterward 
dcponted in a nest^ or other suitable recep- formed, one at the anterior extremity of the 
tade, In which it is afterward hatched; whue body, the other at the posterior. These open- 
in the latter (vivipara) it is retained in the ings become the mouth and anus. In frogs, 
body of the female, and there nourished during tritons, and some kinds of fish, all these changes 
tiia development of the embryo. The egg, at take place i^er the eggs are discharged from 
the time of Its discharge from the ovary, con- the body of the feooale. In birds and tur- 
rfrti of a globular vitdlus or yolk, surrounded ties, the segmentation of the vitellus and the 
by A membrane termed the vitelline membrane, formation of the blastodermic membrane are 
In very many instances this becomes surrounded, ^ready &r advanced at the time the eggs are 
wbik paaang downward through the Fallopian laid. In the lizards, most serpents, and some 
tibet or dncts, with a layer of transparent al- kinds of cartilaginous fish, the development of 
bimdnoos matter; as for example, in the eggs the embr3'o takes place partly while the egg is 
flf firogi^ tritons, dec. In other cases, in addition still in the generative passages of the female, and 
tD the albaminons matter, certain membranous partly after its expulsion. In a few species of 
eoverinss are deposited round the eg?, of a fib- serpents, and in some fish, the embryo is com- 
noft and calcareous texture, as in birds and the pletely developed within the egg in the body of 
Kily reptileai In all instances, however, it is the female, so that the young are finally brought 
the vitdlns which is the essential part of the forth alive; while in all the warm-blooded quad- 
egg; and that from which the embryo is direct- rupeds, as well as in the human species, the 
]j prodoced. — ^The first change which occurs fecundated egg is also retained in the uterus 
gftsr the impregnation of the egg, is a spon- until the embryo is sufficiently developed to be 
ttteoos division or segmentation of the vitellus. bom alive. — In the frog, the eggs are deposited 
Tbe vitellus divides successively into smaller in the early spring, in some shedlowpool, freely 
ud smaller portions, in such a way as to pro- exposed to the light and air. Immediately after 
daw at last a multitude of minute flattened their expulsion the albuminous matter with 
bo£esoroells, which are attached edge to edge, which they are surrounded absorbs water and 
md which form accordingly a continuous mem- swells up into a tremulous gelatinous mass, 
bfue, which is called the blastodermic mem- which floats near the surface, with the eggs im- 
brue. In eggs which have a large-sized yolk, bedded in its substance. The formation of the 
u those of the birds, lizards, and turtles, the embryo then goes on as above described, and the 
formation of the blastodermic membrane be- young animal, at first curled up in the interior 
gins at a particular spot on the surface of the of the vitelline membrane, soon raptures it and 
ntdlns^ termed the eicatrUula^ and thence effects its escape. The body is at this time of 
ipRads in every direction, so as to enclose grad- an elongated form, terminating behind in a nar- 
f/Stf all the rest of the yolk. But in those row, compressed tail. The integument is cov- 
vUeh are of minute size, as in quadrupeds and ered with vibrating cilia, which produce a con- 
fte bnman species, the whole vitellus is con- stant current of fresh water over the surface 
verted into the blastodermic membrane, which of the body. Respiration is performed by gills, 
iftcr its formation encloses only a small cavity situated at tlie sides of the neck, which are 
IDsd with transparent, watery fluid. The bias- at first exposed, but afterward become covered 
todermic membrane then becomes variously al« by a fold of integument. The muscular system 
teed and developed in different parts, so as to is very feeble, and the young animal remains 
firm the various organs and tissues of the em- nearly motionless, attached by the mouth to the 
krya A line or furrow first shows itself, in the gelatinous matter around the eggs, upon which 
thi^est and most condensed portion, known as he feeds for several days. As he increases in size 
tbe primitive trace. This indicates the future and becomes stronger, ho abandons the spawn 
ion of the spinal column ; and the different and swims about freely in the water, feeding 
of the vertebrsa gradually grow around it, upon the juices and tissues of aquatic vegetables, 
a chidn of cartilaginous rings, with The cilia with which the body was covered dis- 
B and oblique processes, which envel- appear. The alimentary canal is at this time 
opt tbe primitive trace or furrow, and convert very long in proportion to the size of the w1m>1c 
It into a dosed canal, large and rounded at the body, being coiled up in the abdomen in a spiral 
extremity, or head, but narrow and form. During the summer lungs are developed 
at the posterior extremity, or tail. In in the interior, and the young tadpole frequcnt- 
the brain and spinal cord are formed ly comes to the surface to take in air. But the 




122 XMBBTOLOOT 

gOli alio MQtiiiiie, tnd tre ftOl tlie moit tetir* of hatrhinf, or tre thrown off whm, tbo 

orgmni of r«fpiraiion. Toward the end of the animal leaves the egg. With tartleai for 

aeaaon antertor and potterior eztremitiet or ple,the eggs,oonsiftingof theTitellQa,all 

linibe begin to grow ; the posterior ipronting ex- and thell, are depositCKd in aa ezeaTation 

temallj from each tide, in the neighborhood of earth or tand, and allowed to hatdi In th> 

the anot ; the anterior remaining concealed an- nations. In birdS| they are placed ntoi 

der the integument^ Jost below Uie sitaaUon of nests, formed of twigi, leaTW, and fihn 

the gill9. The tadpole passes the winter in thia there kept constantly warmed and pvotec 

transition state. The next spring the longs in- contact with the bodr of the female ] 



crease in siie, and the giUs oecome leas active This process Is termed Inenbatloo. and i 

"b>T kcMHng the 
ities are liberated from their confinement by a temperature of 104^ F. and proridiag 1 



as organs of respiration. The anterior extrem- imitated artificially by keeping the egi 



mptare of the integument which coTered them, regular supply of fresh air and a proper i 

and both anterior and posterior grow rapidly in tion of the atmospheric moistore. During 

aiie and strength. The tadpole at this timei bation the eggs of the common fowl lose 

therefore, has both fore and bind legs and a tail. cent, of their wei|^t, of which 11 per 4 

The tail, eariy in the summer, bMomes atro- doe to the exhalaBoo of motstore. Th* 

phied, and finally withers and disappears alto- absorb oxygen and exhale carbonic add. 

Ether; while the limbs, and especially the hind segmentation of the Yitellos and formal 

js, grow to a disproportionate size. At the the blastodermic membrane, and of the 

same time, tbe lungs attaining their foil derel- ot the embryo, take place for the ma 

oproent, and the gUls finalW disappearing, the according to the plan already describe 

tadpole b Uins eonrerted mto a perfect frog, yariatioos present themselTes which ms 

capable of living and moving upon the land as process more complicated. The vitell 

well as in the water. The tadpole swinu by example, instead of being entirely sum 

the tail and breathes by gills, while the frog by the abdominal walls, Is divided into tf 

swiou by the legs and breathes by longs. Sim- tions bv a constriction dtuated aboot ita i 

ultaneously with these changes, the alimentary One of these portions reroalns outside On 

canal becomce very much shorter in proportion men of the embryo, thooch still connecU 

to the rest of the body, and the frog becomes it bv a narrow neck, and by blood vssseh 

camivoroos in its habita, living prindpallv upon ramify upon ita surfooe. This sac, coota 

insects, which he b enabled to capture by the portion of the viteDus, b called the no 

gTMt development of hb muscular system, and vesicle. It sopplies the embryo with d 

the rapidity and suddenness of hb movementa. roent daring the whole period of incul 

—The process of development of the embryo for immediately after the egg b laid th 

consists, accordingly, in the successive formation men, which b at first gelatinous in coosi 

and disappearance of different organs which are begins to liquefy near the upper surface, i 

adapted to different modes of life. When these liquefied portions are immeoUtely absorb 

changes take place after the jounf embryo has the yolk. The yolk, therefore, grows lari 

left tlie ecg, as in the case of the frog, and pro- more fiuid thsin before, whlie the a) 

dnoe marlced alterations in the exter^ form of diminishes in aoantity, and loses its 

the bod V, they are termed transformations or portions. The blood vesseb of the embry 

metjunorphoies. Thus the egg of the butterfly, ifying over the surface of the vitelJus a 

when first hatrbed, produces a caterpillar, or urobilieal veside, in their turn absorb th4 

larva— an animal with a worm-like body, slug- tious finids from it, and convev them i 

gish crawling movements, and no sexual appa- interior of the body, to be used in the fur 

ratos, but fbrnished with largely developed di- of the tissues. At the end of incubati 

gestive organs and a voracious appetite. Thb albumen has disappeared and tlie umbtlic 

condition b succeeded by the papa slate, in cle has much diminished in siae, while tl 

which the animal changes its skin, losing the of the chick has increased, at the exp^ 

legs and bristles which were its locomotory or- both ; but the umbilical veskle, contain 

gam, and becomes motionless, nearly insensible remains of the volk, still cxista, and b e 

to external impreesioos, and stont feeding alto- within the abdominal walb when the 

gether. I>aring thb period anoilier integument leaves tlie egg. In quadrupeds and the 

grows uodemcath ths old, with new legs and species the umbilical vesicle b much sm 

wings; and when the skin b again changed, the proportion to the body, and leas impoi 

animal appears as a perfect insect, or inuigo, ca- fonction, than In birds and the scaly r 

pable iji rapid and sustained flisht, ornamented In the human embryo, tlie umbilical ves 

with brilliant colon, provided with different ways very small, disappsan soon afl<r ths 

sensory and digestive organs and a weU devel- the third month of gestation. In the ef| 

opsd teinal apparatus. — I ntliose instances where fowl, certain accessory membranes or eo 

the hatching of the egg is a longer process, sim- begin to grow around the embryo at ai 

liar changes to the abuve take place while tbe period. The first of these b the amnion 

embryo b still retAined in its interior. At the is formed by a double fold of the blasco 

same time certain other organs are funned in ad- membrane, rising up aboot the e<lgee 

ditioo, which either disaf^tear before the time body of the embryo^ so as to sorrouod 



XICBRTOLOGT 123 

kind of ctrcmnTallfltion, or embankment Bv size, and performs a very important function, 
eootiniMd growth these folds at last approach during extra-uterine life. In the ruminating 
Mcb other and meet over the back of the em- animals, cows, sheep, goat, deer, dec, it forms 
lirjoi, forming by tbeir union and adhesion an an elongated sac, taking the form of the uterine 
mtoring membrane, or sac, which is the am- caritj, and lying in close contact with the lin- 
]ik». The amnion, therefore, is a membranous in^ membrane of the uterus. The cavitv of 
MiTdope, which is closed over the back of the this sao communicates with the cavity of the 
cmbc7«^ but which remains open in front of the posterior part of the intestine, from which it 
abdomen. Aboot the same time a vascular, mem- was originally developed, and receives the secre- 
hnnona diverticulnm grows out from the all- tion of the Wolffian bodies, and afterward of 
BMntaiy canal, near its posterior extremity, and the kidneys. Its exterior is covered with a large 
ing from the open part of the abdomen number (60 to 80) of tufted vascular promi- 
opward over the back of the embryo, nences, which are entangled with similar eleva- 
tho amnion, and just inside the shell tions of the uterine mucous membrane, called 
lb This vascular outgrowth is the cotyledons ; and the blood of the embryo, wliile 
It increases rapidly in size, growing circulating through these bodies, absorbs from 
^vard and downward in every direction, untu the maternal vessels the materials requisite for 
St finally envelopes completely the body of the its nutrition. In the pig, the allantois is nearly 
wmbrjo and the umbilical vesicle, taking the smooth on its external surface, merely present- 
fhea of the albumen as it is gradually absorbed, ing transverse folds and ridges, which lie in con- 
md fining the whole interior of the egg shell tact with similar inequalities of the uterine mu- 
wfthacontinaons vascular membrane. Thefunc- cous membrane. In the carnivorous animals 
Horn of the allantois is principally to aerate the its middle portion is shaggy and vascular, and 
Uoodoftbe embryo, by bringing it into close con- entangled with the bloodvessels of the uterus, 
iMtwith tlie porous egg shell, and thus allowing while its two extremities are smooth and unat- 
tta abaoqktion of oxygen ana the exhalation of tached. In the human embryo, the amnion is 
cvbonie acid and wsiery vapor. Toward the formed in the same manner as already described ; 
latter poiod of incubation, the aUantois becomes but the allantois,* instead of constituting a hol- 
T0T dooely adherent to the egg shell, and the low sac, with a cavity containing fluid and com- 
ibsU itself grows thinner, more porous, and municating with the intestine, spreads out into 
man fragile ; whence it is believed that the a continuous flattened membrane, the two 
a&mtois also serves to absorb calcareous matter layers of which are in contact with each other 
from the shell, which it conveys into the interior and adherent, leaving consequently no cavity 
of the body, to be used in the formation of the between them. It extends, however, quite round 
booeo, the' ossification of which takes place the foetus, enveloping it in a continuous vascular 
aboat this period. When the chick is suffi- membrane, which here takes the name of the 
ciently developed to leave the egg, usually at chorion. The chorion is, accordingly, the same 
ttecnd of the 21st day, by a sudden movement thing in the human species as the allantois in 
it strikes its bill through the end of the at- the lower animals, except that its cavity is ob- 
taaated and brittle egg shell, and by inhal- literated by the adhesion of its walls. It is 
lag the air and continuing its straggles, finally covered uniformly, at an early date, with tufted 
titrieatea itaelf from the cavity of the shell, villositios, which become entangled with the 
kaviog the allantois adherent to its internal mucous membrane of the uterus. But during 
■riboe. The bloodvessels of the allantois are the 3d month it begins to grow smooth over 
torn off at the umbilicus, which afterward the greater portion of its surface, while at a 
doaes np, and unites by a permanent cicatrix, certain part the villous tufts grow more rapidly 
^Another important change which takes place than before, until they are finally converted into 
k the development of bi^s and quadrupeds, a thick vascular, spongy, and velvety mass of vil- 
la addition to those presented by frogs and losities, which penetrate into the uterine mucous 
is in the formation of the urinary appa- membrane, and become adherent to its blood ves- 
In fishes and batrachians the urinary or- sels. This organ is then termed the placenta ; 
are two long glandular bodies situated on and from that time forward it serves the foetus 
tade the spinal column, which are known as an organ of absorption and nourishment, its 
tiie Wolffian bodies, and which remain per- bloodvessels imbibing from the circulation of the 
ant throughout the life of the animal, no mother the albuminous fluids which it requires 
Udiieys ever being produced. But in birds for growth and nutrition. — The amnion in the 
^oadmpeds, the Wolffian bodies, which are human species is at an early period so arranged 
' rat Tery large and important organs, disap- that it closely invests the body of the embryo, 
daring the progress of embryonic develop- while between it and the chorion there is in- 
, while the kidneys are formed at the same terposed a thick layer of soft gelatinous mate- 
and gradoally take their place as urinary rial. During the 2d and 8d months the cavity 
la. inie kidneys are accordingly substitutr of the amnion enlarges, by the accumulation of 
fiir the Wolflian bodies in these instances, a watery and albuminous fluid (the amniotic 
y much aa lungs are substituted for gills fluid) in its interior, while the gelatinous mat- 
tbe development of the frog. — In many ter between it and the chorion is gradually ab- 
' of qoftdrnpeds the allantois attains a large aorbed and disappears, in order to make way 






Jinn uir,r ./urif% iPATT .M nii^rui mriJacA \i 

.iH •:!> ritn. uiit 1? .in i«*^.nning if \ia Irii 

luiMa 111* '. V I m^unrinKA miiui ji vinx^icc 

T fa Mr!i ••r.;i»r .V; "Iiit ninna "-in jur.u !•»- 

vivni^ •v.i'N-jiivl n I ii;*^ •a'."t/ na imnmfit! 

*-i.'r/ . lilrtf*. w :.i ■•;ii(*, fti -imc i iT* m.-iiM j 

ii'.it<T*sS '.r -«:i! jui"-*m»mtd if *^rt ftcLu liniM. 

7*ii^*t III'." •nMr.rj >3:a m w it»^iu"'*it uit: nc 

'^lA »ra tu'.n!:;;. ic -v'lii'A "i^nirt inii:fti*iim4f it mid 



£i7':r»ii 



>'*' :.'.'t 'tiradCua 



uui 



lira. Tr-t. fw luxil -r>HfeMui f Ui» l^BCaa. 

frju v.it i.'.«ii:!::iia %i lii^ *LM«n:^ uui thh tnn- 
roc. 'i<i: •:<::•» 7.-;i*ii «ii:ni£iCt!«l. i^til is rhu mom 



IS*:''-* :a- 
ccrL Ii 



tvLiV*i !:7«.a ui ova &iis. caaLt ji A<i>:«:cu:a 
fru-ca r^; t>^ •«^ TLen ats. Lz Uie !as:«r ;«er.- 
c^ of jc*Lk:i^:-c. tw^ c&':r^ral Art<r.<^ carr* jj^ 
U.« U'jod c-f the f f :;i« oQtward \a \zjt ^lyetn"^ 
&ad oce caal-il'kc^ rels, ia vhich :: li necsrzatd u> 
th« bodr asd tL« is^rral Tienccj 45 idea. — TV* 
formation of t^.« blood acd bM.v>d ▼mkIa ia :2« 
cmbrro takes rlaic^ at a Terr carl; pwrad. 5ooa 
after the produ>~t;«.>o of the l-CaKcoeraic OfC- 
traae, K>iDe of the cells of which it U ci:^;<m«! 
tivak down. aaJ l^oefy in Kioh a Tr-ir.rer at to 
leave irrepUar fpa«>r^ ct car.vt. wh:<h in:«cc- 
late with vach o:ber by fh»;acL: ci-!=jni- :«.*»• 
tions. Thc«e canals are de«:iced aSlcr^iri to 
bococno t2)e bKx*d TeMvls^ the »trQc:ar« of wLl:h 
i« fR^iially |H-rt\.vi<.'«i hy the growth of £:-r.<:s 
titfue in tlirir walU aad their ixva^^ete «c:«ara- 
tion from tho neu;hl>«.trin^ parA In the inte- 
rior of thi'^e cinai^ or isuperfet'tir fomieU Mvx^l 
vcMel», l)ton* \% to W seen at tir»t oclj a trans- 
parent, c«>li»rti'M diiitl, hninlin^ in >iif;<c;>.< n a 
fow lar|^^ n>unili*)i, nui'IeateO celK wLuh n^ore 
»Iupn«hlv to and few as the camrnt of tie clr- 
culatini; fluid U^gins to be established. H.ese 
rrlU d«i ii«>t ditior much at this perii^l fn.>:a 
th(Mt* nliirh ixmMitiite tlie general ma."^ if the 
nei|:hU>rin|^ tis«ii«*» ; but f(R«n af\c*rwanl thvT 
be^rin ti» U« tm^liHetl in their appearar.cv, and 
roiivorti^l iiilii iruo Y*Khm1 fclobales. Their snr- 
fai*« NH-i»inr4 MniH»th, aiHt a rrOdi«h colon nf( 
niHtCer is prtitluivd in thtMr interior, which pv^^ 
them a tiUf^v •>iiniUr to that of the red ^«hule« 
of Ihr b)ii*Nl in the adult condition. The red 
hlnn\ |;hd>uh'«iif the fa*tufl« howi^vcr, still dLflfer 
lniK*iiral niijN*rtant partirulan fr«*ni th«*««i rf 
Ihi* adult, lliey aro cxinMdvrabl)' lar(^rand 
iii«ii# i;It»butar in «ha|H*, and have also a very 
divtitieC iiuf'h>u^ wliirh U wantinff io Uie bloiU 
* d'ulr* of tho adull, at )t*ast intlie«)uadrui<HU 
tf r HK rca«i* in numU«rv alto, at this iime« by 
•iilanriHis di«i»i<'ti. one ithtbule l^Cifiiinc di* 
Blu twis whii*b i«parat« fhMu each uther 



amiliir Jiiiani?. la tiui way the q^j 

'^d liOi;«t £i:niUi!!S 3 f-iT* nc«^T laCTrt 
*2ii*y liii.a 3M:ttmif lir^) eZ tw.ld9r a 
Airni mil icmi;mr^ T^uy &=nsiih in 
nimi* ji lie iumoa 4as*«cc aad the '^t 
doc^aistt ind iinmiaTv a. £:ra, a&d fe 
2ai-:i*na iiwrnearv I»se ehas^vs a: 
jisrceit ::iniir ^^ui !&. acii U< the n 
iiirnif *Jie •^ary zroua^ so thss at the 
'i\v*2L 'iie jioiTti xfijccJea h^re al;«*iy 1 
ii'.&^j»Cir9 v^:i'^ iiaccfiiah t^wei i£ a 
T\A isiucciii-acxa of :be VU»d flo^cle* 
U-'*iHi:a j» i^r.fwB whjch uk«s t-laceoi 
^misry j. T^d p*»rei:tly 5:med hASod ^ 
•rsaae n iixinl:«r .2 sciae echcr way. ^•r.' 
tias ji:iare<i ;r «ini:tj:a aihi srowtL of n 
—A: *j:« '.'me <:f -.^.-th. the fetal cm 
nnn.t:a i2ii :i:i:r.t:fi ^ are rsptoTMl 
jacu 4«3ce«. TSe irrbilleal cord beii 

m 

mme ::nM iiT'ileti izd iM. the portion t 
li wtii -iM ^xCQi six« ibrivek a 
^T ffciiiiseiica tilicentioe, whi^ 
as wljdi ;z was anached heals is a f 
jcAvvix a cicasrlz c<a tbe laiddle of H 
sex viiiirh ia ^ersasec: tLn>ivhuct 

.—The Urn 



,.-< 



^-* -Jie - 



iV; 



^y a lsjI U ^oidir^or svroctiu: pn.io 
:£« A>4 -.-f :Le U.dr. tbev are at fi 
r^«x=fiirf«i •ecilAecee^L withoct dLstincti*^ 
\Lt irai:::'.i:j:-c* : t-ot they SQbM«)Ucn:Ij 
S0L-c««KT«iy d.vided into finprn ai:d 1 
\2jt <L5<r=c: ^. Lzu of the arm and !< 
5r««r extrec.tiea. dcrin^ the frea:«^T 
5i"-il !^e. are ^.^rs^er than the h»wrr. b 
wiT'I tl-4 l':werri:rLn:i:io*and the pel 
faK«r :L&z ti.v arm* and *hos!d«-r>*. ac 
teorce after birth c:3:h tlie larpcr •-•f 
Tie !:;=r» ar>^ »r.iall and sohd in tei:c! 
iinh. *:-: ir:n:<-d;atelv af^vrwanl iht-i 



\y t;.e il^ 



ti-n 



■f air, and r%i*«.:ie 
lar^r scjrir of blcod than Irf.-ri'. 
ciLxT Lar.d, the !iver is much Urgvr in 
th.>n to the rt.^ <.>f the l^y at an «-ar: 
than «sl'9ei;=rn:Ir. In M»me actmal« it 1 
curing the fir^t part i»f firtal hfe, l.i 12 
of the entire weight ('f the b«)dy. and it 
t J 3 i'T 4 i<T cent, at t!;e tin:e of bsrth. 
harcan «u! jcct it is c«}ual at birth to I4 
of the entire weifrht* bnt is red need ic 
ult to Icu tlian S |ier cent, iirrat rhai 
(•lace alfo durinj; f^rtal life in the a:.j 
the h'^art and circulattiry sy»tvi:i. as m 
the relative »ixe and deveU^pm^'iit t f i 
the onrins in the l->dy. TTk-ms charpr* 
to take place afU'r birth, thoU|?h le^i 
than l>efi.Te, and the entire proi*!-** i-l 
inent i« not repaniod aw ci>nipU*te ut/..! 
vidual ha.4 rt*a«'hcd the adult ciirKiitiun- 
ainffular nuidif:cation of the k\k*\v \t 
I'Uibryobic develojiroent aiiK>nK t! e 1:1 
liccurs in the marsupial animaU t<f « 
American opcfMoni (i/i«//f/*Au nryisi. 
repn'M^ntative. In thes«* animal* the 
iinpre^uatol and the furmatitin of the 
cviuuvuced iu the naual way ; but af^^ r 




KMBRYOLOGT 125 

a for A eomparetiTel jr short time in the ntems, tenia, or tapeworm, inhabiting the small intes- 

while their development is still very incom- tines of certain animals, sach as the dog. cat, 

Um embryos are discharged from the gen- &o., produces an egg containing a small globa- 

e paasagofl, and are immediately afterward lar embryo, armed with certain hard spikes, or 

ntUicbed by the mouth to the teats of the curved prominences, capable of being moved by 

pnni. They are then less than half an inch in musculur fibres inserted mto their base. The por- 

E^l^ and qnite gelatinous and embryonio in tion of the tapeworm in which these eggs are 

uance. They are protected by a double contained, known as the proglotUs, is discharged 

of the integiunent of the abdomen, which from the intestine of the first animal, and the 

• A kind of pouch, surrounding the teats, eggs, becoming mixed with vegetable matter, are 

MTfiMto enclose the young and helpless devoured by animals belonging to other species, 

ryiML They remain in tbis situation during as for example the pig. Either in the process 

Aaeonmletioo of their development, continuing of mastication, or by the action of the digestive 

Machea far the most part to the teats, from fiuids of the stomach, the external envelope of 

they derive nourishment ; and even after the egg is destroyed, and the embryo set free. 

become capable of running about by By means of its movable projecting spines, the 

th^ still, upon an alarm, take refuge embryo then makes its way through the walls 

in the pKmch as before. It is not of the stomach or intestine into the neighboring 

' the younff embryos, when expelled organs, and passing into the cavity of the blood 

dw utenifl^ find their way into the external vessels, is often transported by the current of 

» as to reach the teats, for, notwith- the blood to distant regions of the body. Here, 

_ many attempts have been made to as- becoming arrested, it is temporarily fixed in 

tfua pointy the animal is so secret in her place by the consolidation of the tissues round 

_ at the time of delivery, that they have it, and becomes enlarged bv the imbibition of 

I thoi iur entirely unsucceasfhl. — Among in- fluid, assuming a vesicular rorm. A portion of 

ate anlmalB the egg is constituted, as a this vesicle becomes inverted, and at the bottom 

thing, in nearly the same way as in ver- of the inverted part a head is produced, upon 

and its impregnation takes place also in which ^ere are formed four muscular disks, or 

_r manner. The segmentation of the yolk suckers, and a circle of calcareous spines or 

1 by repeated subdividons^ until the whole hooka, different from those present at an earlier 

I ia converted into a mulberry-shaped period, which are thrown off and lost. In this 

oat of which the embryo is formed, state the animal receives the name of scohx, or 

Ufe, however, in the vertebrate animals, the cysiicercus. It remains in that coudition till 

Mkyo always lies with its belly upon the sur- the death of the animal whose tissues it in- 

in of the yolk, in some of the invertebrates, habits, when being devoured with the flesh 

■ tike articnlata (insects, spiders, crustaceans), by an animal belonging to the first spocies. 

ftl back of the embryo is in contact with the it passes into the intestine of the latter, and 

ydk. and the closing up or union ofthe two sides there becomes developed into the complete 

tftte body takes place along the dorsal line, tapeworm, or atrobila, similar to that from 

of the abdominal. In many moUusks, as which its embryo was first produced. The same 

mple in snsula, the embryo, soon after animal is accordingly a parasite in different or- 

Aa ooimnencement of its formation, begins to gans, and even in different species, at different 

te slowly in the interior of the vitelline sac ; periods of its development. Some of the invor- 

, tiiia rotation continues more or less rapid tebrata are parasitic at one stage of their exist- 

tbe hatching of the egg. In the inverte- ence, and lead an independent life at another. 

» rlannn the metamorphoses or transforma- Such are the small Crustacea which infest the 

I of the young animal are more frequent and bodies and gills of certain fish. In the family 

I striking thim in vertebrata. In many of of cutrideay or hot flies, the eggs are deposited 

ithe yoong animal, when first hatched from by the female insect, and attached to the hairs 

is entirely unlike its parent in structure, of horses, cattle, &o. ; from which situation, 

I ^pearance, and habits of life. In the after the embryo has become partly developed, 

of insects many of these transformations they are detached in some instances (as in a»- 

MvbD known, and have always attracted the trtu equi) by licking, and swallowed into tlie 

a of the curious. Frequentlv the young stomach. Here the larva is set free, and at- 

ia passing through several successive taches itself to the mucous membrane of the 

^lons in which he is adapted to dif- stomach, nourishing itself upon the fluids ob- 

es of life, necessarily changes his tained from this source, and gradually incrcos- 

; and being found accordingly in to- ing in size. After a certain period the larv^ 

rent localities, and presenting at sue- leto go its hold, passes through the intestine, is 

Intervals corresponding differences of discharged with the fosces, and assuming the 




occurring in the course of embryonic which the struoture and organization of the 

_^ _at, are termed migrations. They are young animal are adapted to different modes of 

Ary marked in parasitio animals. Thusti^e ezistenoe, and in w&ch different organs and 








r . ,. . .» -•• *• ti.ir' - * .^ri*— » '.I • ■ * T -»» .4 T.f • I m :*•« hjri *•»'-, :*a'-T 4iiifi»n«l. Aldunifh tht 

't^....i... '•'..'.••-.. I^ r.<:..r.. 1«4* *»pa..x::zuL crct.nivMi :•> 'j< t o.csinerriai plaei«f ( 

ri/«'. -. '.-- *. l*-'' Vr. ilvf /**'.»?» JTrm- '.tiaT* the ["^rt iss'^aIj ami flhrp-tailAif J 

fn*f'. .-1 'i //n.-. ijf fr^-tj»i ^pw* ■ "-i !<«►:■•:■-. LecoiT^i? raiT'.ied 'iQ. Effitlcniaaf' 

lUrK^^'K^M §\r K: ^'--^ri'ti-i ^.^ •p.<iinmi/^**<s ihrrfigrh the hi£ii^ c^ P 

•^•■*.;*;^-v.? <^/j '..rM fl'^ws-.urj Pir.*. 1-47, ihir.< ^ inAiZM r Tec V3 th« Si 

4'i. ' i'. -r;.t-', iKr.'i^if f^ti'i'€ I^ li /^^n\' mxenl kkcw^ kwryL tncjo 

y.BiUf^t d€ f-. ••< '.I'l.*-. •i -..-.'* J »i^«p ^* /^ >j /3<r. n- U prcsens in th«proc«}rtioa o/ I<«i 

<//J ' i</ r. '/^j It*! r.\ rr. \f* *f €'. dt tfJt}-^^* k *.' RUi « 14 CSC ^ t S«« BkST L fOT •iefCTTpCklQ of 

'f'ari- 1-47- !Ji»« :*• ^. T-^i*^ •/•! d^'tl^-x^' I: i» fvin-l m n:etjm*?rpbi«r rxkik tifct^ 

fn«r«! </^ /''.•m'^.^ #! <//j •r»4iii>'ii/?rM. #«/r mi L'^re'ilecile roi'kj. dk^UjcnitM^ Ac 

frui*'irtt^u"* ft I'i^huU p^rv.'dij'wV^'.*. I'^-'i : kr.< W3 co!r.c from ti^ vicieisj of 

If< i'M'ff *if CK'-m'Tif t* d£s fFwimmi/^rea. i'k'/<- ra; i!^ of Nev Granada,, in Sn«i 

jte^*i'itume\t 4* Li ftror^dti^ u-n ( A^^'^iUm A*m tri- vL«re t^er are AAi^i to be Ibaxul Ui vtiaa Ib S 

r/i/-/# r..ifi/r^//«. A Iff. i"-*4i; Ku*trir^tt'\^y9- biaf k iLxevti^ne. I', m frt:>cn this regioa 

fl/a-.'.i/'Af/ .//J J^^<r*rAifriri^A^i.j 'G.t^**-!:. 1 <»■! . ; crl«:tra:c«i cnrttal ia the cabiaeC <rf th« 

jla:!.k.r. I'rfftr </■> K'^f^ifkthtutj dtr Sfkiid- Iiev.^r.*Mrv if said to hare becD obCaincd. 

iri'Vr. ( Krur.<»«\i k. iM^i. II. liau'iriiiit.'iit and Prru^ian rmeral^^ were famuoi froa tk* 

Mart 111 >!. Ai.;rr. //'i d*rtU'yjie^»€7.t d\i f'X' of the ron«)neAtof thatcoactrr b« 

ffij (|'ar.«. 1 ■*%'•<: lUr^niioiin am! L«n< kjrt, v ere obtaioetl ia the barren diitrict o/ Al 

I'er'jUirKrtidr A'.nfomie u*\d I'hfti»l*>gu iSx^il' and «ork«.*ti br the native artifta with tk* 

^-art. I'^.VJk Ai::&-«i£. " Ijrt tiir*.-^ ou O^uiffara- of the ni«ji!vm la{>i(!arT. To thia dar a 

tivf Kt!i''r\'>li>/> ' r iii-t'-n. 1M'.M. an«l a Ti!la(re«.*f Ecoa^lur are known bv tha 

LMiSl KY. Kmma C*ATfiiKi\K. an American nf C«ir.oraI«la!i from the abandaore of 

autiior«.-«<. Urn lu Now* Y"rk. >hv i- the il^;^!;- ffnr.irlv fnuiM in t}jat reckon. Mexsco^ il ikf 

tor iff Dr. Janii-« H. Mafilt\v of tK.at ritr. and tarie «^arlr {i-rittil. hail |>nxiucci! crraiab 

Wi*»marr:t-il til Mr. ha'iitrl Kriibiirv in I**^'*. In rare l-^ajty. which were no leia afi 

the Kiti\*r ^tvir •!!»• i»ubii«h«.<tl "(>ui«!<> ari'l ether ar.d h:jh!v vui:i'.-*l br the nileri of tiM 

Piivrrj*." Snrt* her iiiarria;;e ^\.v has wnttva than wrre tlio-e uf IVm br i:» inrat. 

XD<'re |»n»s*.' tt.an vi r%i*, and hor t.i!i-« 1 k»- hor ('ortt« on h;* r».iuni t«> Eurofie jtiiCrirvdk !■ 






ptH-nt^, !in\c Un-n originally juibiio^f •! in tliv tlie d>(MPvtI nf 5 of tho«e mairnlDcent 
col'iinii* i*f the ]K*riiNiir:il prt***. < >f ;hr«« «i>rne his ^knutliful bride to the iiiieen of Charica V^ 



haVf ni'ita-.'irt-il in a CMliin'tt^il fiirr:i. urjtlcr th^ a fc«-Mn/ of otrantrement if thoa^ht ta 

ti:!r« of "Ihf r»!i[id <firl and oth*r T.ili«," Non i*ro<luiHMl in the ri'Val bai«*fn, 

'*(fhni|>M"t if ITmiio Life." and '*lV:i;rv4 of an linuvurable influ<*nco on the future 

Eurly I. i :'•-." In 1^1'* «!iv >ui>('*I<^l the letter- nf the i«in<{ueri^r. Vor f*ne of t]ie«a 

I'tc*^ UtS |'r<>«o and \erv, t>» an il!n«tr.itei} iritt ^tAne4 M»ine (U^nno-ie merrhants are aaid lo iMfftt 



It-Nik «nt.thl " V:tture*<i (lenir **T Anurii-an iTfend l'«irte4 4«M>*'0 ducat tw Ther liad 

Wiiil Kl •wvr«." and in the »urri-<-ihtifr vi-ar pi.h- tut by thi^ oxi^uiMti* workroan«hip of tlM 

U»lit-<1 a ii'!lt.<'::in of Jhh ntn ra!!t-d '* I^)ie*H Tif trtA. one in tiie form of a n^se; theiceood in Iba 

ken FloHerv ' IIi r l:i«t H.irk i< "Thi* Wa'rd'irf funn of a horn; the third like a fi*h, with evaa 

Family, or drandrntlur » I-efji*nd»" (IM**). a of pol«l ; tin* f«.iirlh wai like a little Wl, vilk a 

fairy taU* of Ilrittany, |>arJ/ a traiiklatiuu and line jioarl fur tie tonjric The fifth, wbirk 

partly or iirinal. ^'a« the nu^t \a]nat>le, wan a nnall cup with 

EMPKN. or Fwaiicx. a ik*ai«>rt town of a f>*ot of piM, and with 4 little chains U fhm 

llanowr, in thi- proiinivi'f Aurii'h ithe furnu-r MMie metal attarlu-U to a larite pearl a» a bat- 

princi|alit} «if E.i*t FruMand). nit'iattd a lisslo tiin. Fn»m tlicM* toun^efi were pn.d«blT c»^ 

mIow the outfall of the rir«'r Krni into t!ie t.ii( ed the inagnifirrn! einerald« now in thm 

lJ0ll Mtuary; j"»p. n.f»<K». The h:irUir i« r*t}n\ rolle^-tinn at Mailrid, M»roe of whirb ara 

w* bat the rxiad«tead i* capable ofaf(^*ni- %!at«d tt» l*e a« larpt* aa thi^c «if the dukt td 

M %-i>«^!t. CanaN int«.-r«%-4-t the I»i*vii:i«hirc, and of the l)nc«t water. The cf»- 

«Biiuu« diri-ction*: one connett* it crald ha* l«injr l*****" hij:hly r^teemeil, r«nk\n« la 

Uiwn of Aurich, and another (••|K?ne<l valiu* i;ext t«i the diani<ind and the niby PSiny 

»talc« that in lit« time tho«e of considerable aiae, 
whieU Wire free fn»iu defects, «cre iold at eDur^ 



.a4A, at a c««ftt of |230(>fJ(»» «ith t^e 
Another canal ia now in coupm: of 




EMERSOK 127 

prieML Hie color of the emerald is a pe- sitj he made more use of the library than is 
shade of green, different from that of any common among students, and when graduated 
prec i o us stone, and b called by the name was distinguished among his classmates for hb 
ersid green. It has different shades, some knowledge of general literature. For 5 years 
Tcrdwris or grass green, and some of a paler after leaving college he was engaged in teaching 
I. Tlo&j all appear best by daylight^ and to school. In 1826 he was " approbated to preach'* 
-^ their eflect by candle light they require to b^ the Middlesex association of ministers, but 
■■ an with small diamonds or pearls. Emeralds his health at this time failing, he spent the win- 
an genanUy cot in the form of a square table, ter in South Carolina and Florida. In March, 
vith beTdOeu edges, the lower surface being cut 1829, he was ordained as colleague of Henry 
kto ftosls^ parallel to their sides. Beudant, in Ware, at the 2d Unitarian church of Bos- 
Hi MmirmwgU^ gives the value of emeralds of ton. He belongs to a derical race. For 8 
fas oolong aod free from flaws, as follows : one generations, reckoning back to his ancestor 
of 4 gndos, 100 to 180 francs; of 8 grains, 240 Peter Bulkley, one of the founders of Concord, 
ftnas; of 16 grains, as high as 1,600 francs ; and Mass., there had always been a clergyman in the 
hidtas a fine stone of 24 grains which was sold family, either on the paternal or maternal side. 
iljj iCO fh mca. He was the 8th, in orderly succession, of this 
BCEBSOK, Gcobqb B^bsbll, an American consecutive line of ministers. In Sept 1830, he 
•iHator, bom in Eennebunk, York co., Maine, was married to Ellen Louisa Tucker of Boston. 
fat li, 1797. He was graduated at Harvard who died in Feb. 1881. In 1832 he asked and 
Mqpa in 1617, and soon after took charge of received a dismission from the 2d church, on 
r in Lancaster, Mass., having for account of differences of opinion between him- 
previondy employed portions of his self and the church, touching the Lord^s supper. 
terms and vacations in teaching district From this period we may date that impatience 
in Maine and Massachusetts. Between with fixed forms of belief, and that instinctive 
int and 1821 was the tutor in mathematics and suspicion of every thing having the funtest 
■1 i^ilosopby in Harvard college, and in appearance of limiting his intellectual freedom, 
was dioseo principal of the English high which were aflterward so con^icuous in his 
to boys then recently established in writings, and which have sometimes been ear- 
In 1828 he opened a private school for ried so far as to give a dash of wilfulness and 
ifds in the same city, which he conducted eccentricity to his most austerely honest think- 
1865, when he retired from professional ing* lu Dec. 1832, he sailed for Europe, where 
He wrote the 2d part of the '^ School he remained nearly a year. On his return in 
Schoolmaster," of wnich the 1st part was the winter of 1833-4 he began that career as a 
tan by Bishop Potter of Pennsylvania, lecturer, in which ho has since gained so much 
which was distributed by private munifi- distinction, with a discourse before the Boston 
I among the school districts of Massachu- mechanics^ institute, on the somewhat unprom- 
ind New York ; and is the author of a ising subject of " Water." Three others fol- 
cr of lectures on education, and of articles lowed, two on Italy, descriptive of his recent tour 
ibnted to the periodical press. He was for in that country, and the last on the '^ Kelation 
ears pre»dent of the Boston society of of Man to the Globe." In 1834 he delivered 
history, and was appointed by Gov. in Boston a series of biographical lectures on 
IfWBtt chairman of the commissioners for the Michel Angelo, Milton, Luther, George Fox, 
mdafpal and botanical survey of Massachu- and Edmund Burke, the first two of which were 
■tti^ hi which capacity he published a " Report afterward published in the *^ North American 
tf the Trees and Shrubs growing naturally in Review." In this year also he read at Cam- 
fti Ijorests of Massachusetts" (Boston, 1846). bridge a poem before the Phi Beta Kappa soci- 
XKERSOy, RA.LPH Waloo, an American poet ety. In 1885 he fixed his residence at Concord, 
Mlsasayist, bom in Boston, May 25, 1803. He Mass., where he has since lived. In Sept. 1835, 
h lbs son of the Rev. William Emerson, pas- he married Lidian Jackson, daughter of Charles 
^the 1st church in that city; in his 8th Jackson of Plymouth. During the winter he 
OQ the death of his father, he was sent to delivered in Boston a course of 10 lectures on 
sf the public grammar schools, and was English literature. These were followed, in 
qoalified to enter the Latin school. Here 1830, by 12 lectures on the philosophy of history ; 
Ml fcit attempts in literary composition were in 1837, by 10 lectures on human culture ; in 
eoosisting not merely of the ordinary 1838, by 10 lectures on human life; in 1839, by 
as by which boys are drearily inducted 10 lectures on ttie present age; in 1841, by 7 
the mysteries of rhetoric, bat of original lectures on the times ; and since that period ho 
m recited at exhibitions of the school. In has delivered in Boston 5 or 6 courses of lee- 
Tha entered Harvard college, and was grad- turcs, which are still among his unpublished 
fliii in Angnst, 1821. He does not appear writings. Of his printed works, a small volume 
tsftsf^ held a high rank in his class, though entitled *' Nature" (published in 1836), an ora- 
tta wcor ds show that he twice received a Bow- tion before the Phi Beta Kappa society, with the 
Ub frise for dissertations, and once a Boylston general title of the " American Scholar" (1837), 
friai fior dedamation. He was also the poet of an address to the senior class of the Cambridge 
Hi ctaaoa** class day. "^ While at theuniver- divinity school (1838), and the "Method of 




mnJ 





I 



1*28 £M£RS0!7 

Nature** ^1^1). ront&inod the mo^t promi- employed for the detect ion of pretenc« ami in* 

nent {h'^'nlinhtio^ cf his Fchomc of idoa]i!>rn. iK»!itiiro9. Mr. EmorMin's practical aiider«tand- 

aiitl \y tf.vir frv!>}iiioM nnJ liti'th of thought ing i<« K>metiino« underrated frnm the fact that 

and roiiip:i>-t l'«':ku;y «'f eijirr*-*:!'!), alhirc-d inanr ho never fn^inps hx9 thoufrhts b j the tnethudt 

ri':MltT« ir:t<» di^M]*U'«. In I'^t'i tho 5i'tifN>l of of ki^io. He gives few n'aaoiu, e%'eo when hm 

Now KivIadI trun-^ciidoiitnli't^ wa^ vutiirifiitlT 15 inueit rca!«onaMe. He doe^ nut prora, bat aa- 

larje ti« il« inir.d .in onran ; and a (jnarterlv nou neon, aiming directly at tho intcUigeoc^ of 

i>ori**«!;> aI. lalUxI tho ** I'lal* wai* MArtc<l. witK hi« reallor^ withont Htnving to extract a rclo^ 

if ioo M jr^.-in't VaWcr at c-ditor, a*e-'>totI by tant a«.«ent by furce of argiiraent. Inright, noC 

A. H. Al •>!!. William II. (*!.ann:n?. Mr. Em- reasoning. i« his process. The bent of hts mifid 

er« 'lu Thi-f.**! ire Parkfr, (io<>r;:o Kiplcy, and is tii idi-ul laws, which arc porcei%'i'd by th« io* 

o'.hi Ti. It Will |'uMi4hcd for 4 vcir^, and tnitivc faculty, and ar« beyond the provioec </ 

during tho Ix^t 'J ycani of i'.« c\i«tonco it dialivtio^ K'jually conspicuous ui hb tendency 

ira« ur.iKr t}.o itlitor<!.i:i of Mr. Kt::i'r>«)ii. In to fmUxly ideas in the forms of imaginatinii 

1<\\ tti«* lir^t M-rio^ ff hi^ " £»:i\<i" w:l4 pub- So ^['iritual al>strartiun is so evanescent bat hm 

ILaIp d. Tho aut!.or might prL>udly .>ar (if tho-<% thuA transfi>niis it into a concrete reality. Urn 

as lEsi^^n Kiiil of his own, **thAt tlioir mat- K-ldom indulgi.-s in tho expresbion of aenttinent, 

tiL-r ri<'iM Hi-iU' fi»i:nil in U^ikO It i** i^ru^able and in his nature emotion seems to be leaa tha 

that t).i y n\tti'J havo Win at iint*o witU-Iy wcl- i^rtnluot of the heart than of tlie brain. Mr. 

Ci>ni''d .'fc4 a p«><tivo a<Miii«>!i t'* liti-ratun*. liad kmrr<onV stvle is in the nicest liannoBT with 

it n«it ti-( u fL<r«<*mo startling paratliiio!* and an- tho characti-r of his thouglit. It b condenMd 

daciiiu« ^^1t• ii)l:i:<, whii*h. wliilo t!u-y wi-re in nlm<«t to abruptness. 1 k'cafriuoall j he 

thoolnphi a] li-liiT-i of the chases comproviiou at the e 



dirivt rii:.t!ii-t Mith the tho<*ln,:ii a] li-liiT-i of the chases comproviiou at the expense of cl 

pe^I'li^ wiTo bi!p{Hirto«l niiihor by foi't^ nor ar- and his nieriu as a writor consist rather in ibi 

gutnviits but ri-^toil vn tho ••imple tostimi>ny of chuioo of wor\ls tlian in the connection of kih 

the author*!* inihvidual con««-i<)u«nev«. In 1S44 ton res, though his diction is ritalixed by tb« 

a s«.M-i>nd K-ric«of o^Hays was puMifhod, cvir:c- pre!<>nce of a poworful creatiire clemenL Hia 

iLfT. as r<^!i;parod « ith the !ir*t. o<|Tial brovity thnu;:ht dictati*s his word, atampa it with its 

and In-aiiTy xf oxpror<.*i'>n. In 1^46 ho collected own peculiar quality, and cun verts it flva A 

and p':'-!.*hed hi^ {Hfins. Tho next viar he flooting bound into a solid fact. The iingnlar 

visitoi! Kiifiland for tho p-jr;Hr«o of ful flailing an l*oaiity and intense life and significance of Im 

enJa;^!:u^.l '^idolivor a sorii*5of looturos U'fitre language domou»trate that ho has noC unlj 

a ur;;.'!i of *ni-i*!.ani(V in<»;ii(ito:» and lUht-r sini- something to say, but knows exactly how loiAj 

ctii'S. In 1^*.) ho ('or.ooti.tl in one voltime his it. Fluency, however, bout of the i^oestioo 'm 

** N:irT:rv" hiii! *j loo*i:rv.s anil ii>Uogo aildre<oe% a stylo whiili combiitim ^uch au4t«-ra ecL'iKiai/ 

wh.i h 1 1:1.1 W*n I tl-v !•■!>!} i^-Uiil in pasi'iphlet of wonU with tho determination to l^iai! trtrj 

for:\ ' r J ri:.'.'-«i in rho "iMa!." In I**'". '* Itep- wi«rd with ^it:J meaning. Hut the great chaf^ 

re**:;t.i:.*.i" M- ?i." a •nrii* *f i:.a-terly mi-ntal ai'!erL»iic of Mr. Emor?on*4 intelkvt is the p^er^ 

|N.rtrait*. ■» :!!i?-»:n.' nf iljo fo it'irt** t.\irr!iar^i.Hl, ciptii«n and si-n!imettt of l»eauty. Su strong it 

w;i* J- :■■!.-}• il. Tii !h.» •• Mrfi'lr'* of Margiiret thi\ that ho aivvpts nuthlng in life tliat b mur> 

F'j!!- r < •'*■ !i.'" \*!.:'.h ^i-jtur' -l iu I*''^. l.e c«n- bi-L unromoly, hag«/anl, or ghastly. The fbct 

tr:*-.:*-.l » •i:i.«ail'::ir;i>.!i'i:.t*.rj ri tiiriit-rriti- i*ni. that an o]iIniiin doprt-***.-^ iru^tead of invignrat* 

I'l 1 *•,"••■ 1.1- I ':l'i-J.i.il •• Eijj!i-!i Tr.ii:.%*' a w.-rk ir;:, is with him a hutlii-iont ro&Mjn f»ir it« reje^ 

in ••.:i!i 1:0 -«.i.%« ar.l 0fi:j'!i.L-!/."» thi^ t'har:n'- tioti. 11 I«oIi-ht\ at ion. his wit. his reason, his im* 

tor.-t! ■* . f *)tv Kr^vj-?i v.i\rA nvA \k- ;!••. Mr. agi:.Atii»n. hi* stvlo, all oU^y the eontn tiling actm 

Kr::or«<ii l..i« .i!--i dr!.viri«l tiuir.y ':n2>u* ::'«\od of lt«ai;tv, whii'!i !< at tho heart of hb natonii 

a'liri-**^"* 1:1 *!.ivtr\. w..T::ai.'* r:,;:.!'', .-u.d other an«l inMii'.i-tivtly avoid the ngly and the I 



t"l'! « if J -i^!..' iji!*:*-:: ar.il ho ban !irn oi.e Tlii">o {Kirtl'iisof Mr. Kmor«<Mi\ writing<i which 

v( i\v i:..''t ir»'r:.:rnnt of the K- tTircr* who ro!.ito to pitiloMtphy afid rt^iigion may b« eoo- 

ai!'!ri-* t! ■• ix-i-it::* of t*.o ri«'::i!rv. — .\* a siilvred ta* frjuriiient:irv c«*ninl'i:l:ons to iIm 

wnt.r. Mr Etm. r*. 11 > i!i-:::'j :i-}.ol f -r a -ifi- '" I'lisK^^-phT of t!.o Inllniio." 11* ha« B«> sy^ 



gu!.ir V.:.: n •:' {-« ^.- irr.:.^'.:. /. in nifh pru ti- ttm. aiul ini!<.-«-'l «]»>ti*n in hit mind i« &»■ loial^d 

cal ai-::>:'*v I!:h\>:>>:i t:i!^> * a wi.K» «wii.;i w [!h r!.arIa:Ar'.:-'r:i. Ili^ largi«t gi*nvrali£atiua 

i:i tJio T\ il ::.">■ f tin- i !« .iJ : 1 i? i-* ! •> K--* lir!:i U *' Eii^torni'." i)n this i:iM'n:lahl« ti.«n:«. hit 

an ! ]-■:•- :ra'.t..: in !?..• *; *.iTf * i f.iit-. His i»lt- on::roptii«ri» \.ary w iii» hi^mo<jds andex;i«nc&0e» 

»*r^ -*::.':.». I ■•;*.».■ Ty. . Ti i!.:4'.r -Tn 1 ni *.ara' 'or, S ii:etin:« •» it m'» :!i* to l-e man who |4U^ with 

tn !:.•!.• .:.■ ' -. .*.-! ^r.iTrjr .-'. n.^Ii rtir.' ^Ajir.ty. M* |.irvii'.a!i:y in U-ing united to <«»d; m>c:«» 

i:id. V..!' J a !"iv !..ir k:.'"A\ -]••* <.f tJ.r ?..•:!■.• "y ti:ni-* it s*eir.^ t.» l«o 4m^ who is imjiorsoiLal. aoi 

I i.i*- • ''.'.'*. M^ w). ar- *• 1 ! :.m i-w l! i:i iJ.i r win c-'Hif* !•• i«or*«>nality on'.y in ma:: ; and tJ 



|-iv*tl r. *n'.; ■ V i »' •• •; '.1 if !;• w ■-! 'M 1* ri.\l i-^'**"jri!y i-r varillatii n of hi« m(taphysA*al 
w r; ;■» w -.» •:;. T)f' \r\'.'..\: t trnr.-v?- I* r r.il- i'.ij* i* iiirn-a*«d by tho vivid and |»»i;:%«rua- 



i*t :- f* !<••!» a ::j.\r. r. •• 1 .k-y i-. S- i^«>.w.l rr«!c fir:'.?-* m whii'h tJo'v are •uorr^viely 

ir. ! i:"tr* ; -rta.*':'!/ lo th- « r.!.*.;*ry i-.':r^- 1 f c!- tl.ed. tier.i r:illy. the I'.Mino IWing is frit or 

Kt. \:\ A'Vii'» !!.• ••■ '..!: . :. •• !.••■ *?ir*'\* .!fi. *< r'-:.- 1 ;vi-l u«a lift iiiipartint; i ;::! uor.ro dt^i:.lc:D4( 

i-* \i\.'' i Vt \\- TMi \o u.t. With ? :•::. ] -m - t.at .re ai.d MiAM, and a^ idel: '.:•'&! with U-lh. Ha 

1 1 cr. « /. ;» uot :^ e:.d. but a laear.'s aLd u»u.Al!y adurcs the Spirit of Ood rather than Uvd, tba 



EMERY 129 

rays of the snn rather than the snn, and does of the heavier masses are necessarily left be- 
sot appear to give safficient prominence to the hind. Some of the blocks, however, yield to 
obyioar principle that the individuality of the the hammers after being exposed for some hoars 
Divine Nature, being an infiaito individuality, to the action of fire. The color of the powder 
may indnde infinite ezpansiveness and infinite varies from dark gray to black ; hot its shade 
Tiiiety of working in infinite self-consciousness ; has no relation to its hardness, and is conse- 
and that the appearance of impersonality comes quently no index of the vsJuo of the article. 
from the conception of i>ersoiiality under finite The relative degrees of hardness of different 
haman limitations. samples were determined by Dr. Smith by col- 
EMERT, a mineral substance usually describ- lectmg the powder just coarse enough to pass 
cd as a variety of corundum, but really a me- through a sieve of 400 holes to the inch, and 
chaniral miztnre of this mineral with oxide of with weighed samples of this rubbing little test 
iron, fo intimately associated that the smallest plates of glass till they ceased to be further re- 
fragment commonly exhibits the two together, duced. The rubber was the smooth bottom 
la some instances, when separated into different surface of an agate mortar. The loss in weight 
portions by washing with oil, fine crystals of experienced by the glass plates gave the relative 
eorondam have been detected by the micro- values of the samples of emery. On this plan 
KOpe. Its extreme hardness, derived from the Dr. Smith prepared a table exhibiting the differ- 
eoraodma, and the ease with which it is ob- ent degrees of hardness ; and making use of 
tamed in large quantities, have led to its exten- sapphire of Ceylon as the standard of compari- 
mn use in the arts, for grinding and polishing son, the hardness of which he called 100, and 
haid stonest, metals, ana glass. The localities the effective wear of w^hich upon glass was equal 
from which it is obtained in the Grecian archi- to about } of its own weight, that of the best 
pdiga and in the vicinity of Smyrna andEphe- emery was about i of its weight. This table^ 
m in Asia Minor, were probably some of them to wiiich were appended the results of the 
known to the ancient Greeks and Romans, as analyses of many samples of the mineral made 
tibe use of a substance of this nature seems to by Dr. Smith, was published in the elaborate 
hm been required by the lapidaries of Magne- articles he furnished to the " American Journid 
m, EphesQs, Tralles, and Tyre. In later times of Science," 2d series, vols. x. and xL The 
the island of Naxos in the archipelago has far- hardness of the sapphire as rated upon the 
aabed all the supplies of commerce, uie mineral mincralogicol scale is 9, next to the diamond, 
being shipped from the port of Smyrna, and which is 10. That ojf ornery is not necessarily 
known by the name of Smyrna emery. From indicated by the proportion of alumina, for a 
1635 to 1846 the trade in emery was a mo- part of this may bo in combination with the 
Bopoly granted by the Greek government to an silica. It seems to vary with tho water present, 
Eof^h merchant, who so regulated the sup- those samples containing the least water being 
dj tsto raise the price from its former rate of tho hardest. — In 1855 tho annual production of 
ilOa ton to about $140. This monopoly was emery was 2,000 tons of Naxos stone and 1,G00 
broken up and the whole trade changed in con- tons of Turkish. Tho whole business was con- 
nqoence of the discoveries of Dr. J. Lawrence centrated in tho hands of Mr. Abbott, who held 
finith of tho United States, who in the course tho contract with tho Greek government ex- 
of his explorations in tho service of the Porte tending for 10 years, and had purchased the 
finorerea in 1S47 a number of localities of Turkish firman unlimited in time for tho annual 
the mineral belonging both to tho Turkish and payment of $55,000. An arrangement was 
Greek government^. By on arrangement with entered into with tho house of Messrs. John 
Am bnner, operations were commenced in the Taylor and sons of England to employ a capital 
year at some of the localities and after- of £120,000 in tliis business, and supply the 
extended to others, so that the price has emery cither in the stone or powder to all parts 
been reduced to $50 per ton. At the of tho world, with tho guarantee of its being 
of Gumuch-dagh, 12 m. E. of the ruins free from adulterations, such as had previously 
tf Ephesos, Dr. Smith found tho emery upon impaired its qualities and reduced its value, 
ftt imiiniit scattered about in loose pieces of all The principal consumption of the article is in 
up to masses of several tons weight. The polishing plate gloss, and the increase of this 
to which it belonged was a bluish meta- business causes a constantly increasing demand 
marble, reposing upon mica slate and for emery. The discovery of new localities is a 
In this rock the mineral was found in matter of great importance, tho few that are 
and in amorphous masses, somo of known in other parts of tho world furnisliing no 
were several yards in length and breadth, supply capable of competing with tliat brought 
d the weight of 80 to 40 tons. The struc- from the nead of the Mediterranean. It is said to 
t of this rock is compact and tolerably regu- be found near Peischkau in Bohemia, near Ekate- 
; bat the sorface presents a granular appear- rinburg in the Ural, near Miosk in the Ilmen 
Unless traversed by fissures, the rock is mountains, and in Frederic valley, Australia. — 

with ffreat diflBculty, and attempts to Emery is prepared for use by crushing the stone 

it are maue in vidn from its wear upon the under stamps, and sorting tho powder into dificr- 

L As the transportation from tho quarries ent sizes by appropriate sieves. For the most 

iiaa^ on the backs of camels or horses, many delicate uses of opticians, dec., it is separated in 

VOL, vn. — 9 






IM ""->^^C^^I3 EMIGRATION 



1 trzml "«■ i' " ^ *J 'j'^^^ " '^ Tx-l-inr •"»'«"or called Connt Ram ford a» tho minister of Bnrar 

/.- :,•••■--* ■ • '"^'i. '". _ — ^.T'rer •t:lr.;r jr •'SE'Lthd he hiTin^ Uvn Inirn a suljoot of the Uht 

TQtricr ""'^^J".. * -^r -T . r wircr •• r.rxr.fuc cntwn. KoniiiTlj tlio priuciple thaS lio «» 

i-.ni »i"' ■ ' ' ^^'i. ^ ■'— AT-'i ^^^.•■■■■r'i :■• *Ji*'- je«-t mMM evt-r cea-*!* to owe a]Iep;iiire 

««ii: ■• ' • ""'^"J^'"", '*"" ^ f«-^' -.;* ■ r niir-ite^. h;« p'ViTnniciit jin'ViiiKnl in Eurune. and t 

r .e '" " ' ■ ;■ .': "'_"'" — '--^ •■■*•-/ ' '•:;.;:^.-<i, :i < *ra: ::c l«if"ks of kni;land titill cfiniain lam* ft 

n*.tT . r :■ - ^ *. .'. "^ ^ -*-"-.■ "'- "- ^" - ' i.'a«r-: i.- l.oiinj the iriMigratioii of M.*veral clowc^ cjf ar 

"•..r.. - "-'' * •-'^ "'::-^-«.- i .. ; ^i* i^l »..-i :> iai.-, l»u: tliey have b<^»ine ob«olet«. T 

^cj.-.; ' ""^^ J^* *: ,*-.. : -. -^-•r.--. c wy» ^:.rral r-Ie in Kuri»fK-an coiintrirfl it now 

. .> • -- "^ *^ ~ 1 -^:- r. >, .c J -^-j' ". i^ all»w e:=..ratiun. | ruvidfd the etniirraot h 

• - ■ -- ""^^ — - ::»:"•. « ■■ HL~r-7 :>♦ filrlllpj aS Lis nM'ijratii>nH t«>ward bu nali 

'^' * "^^ .. u;-: •. '- : '» ••L *Lxzt . jvi :i.v 'jucstiuti w ^tiU mxmMsndcd wi 

^r :.-■-:■ ' * '^ ~ — "=" :r« : .»-•-« 4.—. «..:^ t_ u :::a.tj i *.-ult.c?. Tlitf United State's by ado| 

^. -i:^- . -- '^ '— ^— " J. ^ :-. T-c- iT: •_.•:': ^ j ' r. ^.t.-s a* citlzvni without r(N]uiriDjr 

^^^- - - ■ ' ~ ^— ; IT..: r-.ti-jine .- r-_-r7 <>:-.-! ;*:.. '.{ li.cir didinUMl from thvir oripfi 

i,^-^- ' "^ ^ - li. :.-; * •-: - i:--r 7 . 7 o:" 1. --1 -. r a^e iuiplii itlr [irnclaiiiUHl the m 

^.^ . ..''■'- . --1 -: *.tT-'s : : r-r- :. r i.'u r-.'. . f vij^at rial ion, that i* to »aT. ti 

^^_ _•. - _ " -"^ - i. • 7 ... : - » "i.-'.'7 f r-:".'. f ■-'•«•'";• 12^1:. to ch<NiHea goTemmcni u 

■^.. - — - i.-*-.: - *j «■ "C .--r. CkT » . :. ;.« ir.tct d^ to livo. To thi« cite 

^^- , -s :iz:cr u» 15-- .». —-•!- :.;•-• r^ : la.- r.- : le«n arknowK^l^ed by ai 

^"J - . ■ -;. £:r ■T^:^^ »:A:ci\r«;ftGivat liritain, and hT tJ 

r^t "' ^ ^ . .:.^ :-«*•;- -r-/:-rr - •::.-- Lii:-.- :;! r:*. :^:x!y. n« it legally. Casetlta* 

^. . - ...-•;.:.• rr :-j.*--^ 5^ . :m ".r _-.*^ 1 in which naturalizc<l citiM 

— . . "■. -i^^ J.— ^- .-•': - r .: :.:-: V .toi >:A:cstvvn th*»« wIki cam« he 

-. . • « ^^ : .: —.■ .-- te =: ".'--^ ■ :• ti.c will of thi-ir parvnta. ka* 

' . *..«?-.».- •-— .: ■ '^-.■-* -v- : --■--••r'l.'i. t-u irav«.-l!ln);throacrh tlierrm 

^ - . -^ -.---" .r. -e -■ '—■ : r ir- Y li; .- :..-•.:, lo do military duty, or ha^ 

• -. *^ -. : -- I ■•• '. 7 :.^ *Lo: f^r i-avin^ failed to ilo io. TI 

^ ^ •.-:.-. ^ * i3- •• . : :' ".-v ^'XcmmeLt of the rnite«l Stal 

. -n . '- • :j..>*.i» : ^ sr^i : <i*.L; (.ak-^ has liecn an un^tlled 

* ^. . ,: . » u..-* *.-:—.: 1: : «>».*: I'.r.-.^n. While, in I8M. M 

^. ^ > <«. « u'x. '. .* i:: . i? ill-':. tJ'.n 9«.vrvtAry of »tatr, in hif fatnoi 

-^ .- % . . i : a^'f. A -^rL* -Vcr. »:.•:?> T.^rated the right and dm 

^/ - ^ ..-*-.. ^.-^ : '. .K- V-.:W'i S:^e^ •»> pr«*tect even **tnrhi« 

• 't T. >- :.-..*■ ^*:k.L»t ciioti. :i* ah^inf? fn.m tic 

.'•--■.:: .-:;» r* :«i.:.-al ril.ii:. Tl^. in ISSH thv refif 

■ ..4 .- ■ ■ *^ o "^ :j:.-. .• r :::c I'l./.oi Matr^at iWrlin watiK 

. * I . J.-- -.■ : ■^>:j. o: ' • ::.o^vvr'jmcnt in pmtr^tinffairaia 

'^ 1 . .-^ . ^ .-» '..*•■ r. .c eLr- .>:K!.:iif Laturalixed Amrrirt 

«^-. I ■ *.-<* ; • * "» .:i 'lie rr'>-.iAn artnr. It wa«i b« 

k-Nfc* .. *^. ;• *. ii H i.. n .1 :"'rvi;:nt:r l-erame nataralisi 

"^ . '^ % •% - -* . : • ■(.* .V » ** .1 ■-■« ' :i.:'-«l >:.»:«.■•» n i:lii»:;i ha^inir obtaixM 

"^ «.*.>».. '•^ ^ .•:'-^- >r":.'«:.'U '.I till M. :rvi:i 111!! fiTtncr |r.»ieniiiie« 

'^ ^ * •»;.•*. :^^ .'•«.. -s ■< * *■• *.!;:. :i"i ! > il.*- \ p teiti^n of the Ania 

^' ' . ^" - ■* . '^■••- *•"••• ^'■' ?■■»■' »iit •i.'.y wii!iin the trrriiury < 

^ . N 1 ^ . « I ^ : ^- • .:r- 1 c ■ .:."iti Stale-, a;:d, w!.fri n>tuniir.tf l4» h 

m \ .*-•:■».• «• ii-i. • ..: '\* K-^-i.rr.ry u: Ocr ru\iT nf an Amcna 

'^ .^ ^ • * . • ».. 1 ^ .xai ', »-*.•■."♦, il;.i 4.1 a: I1.9 I'wn n-L. A dl 

. . :• .-.*.. ft v.- ... - ' i- --il 0^ ■■:::;.■ n «.»f t!i»' l-rar^n^c «*f tJ 

^ . , X k. . . *^ ; ■ .1 : ■ :' ::j:-:ru. i.*..- ri T:jKn iKe n^rhta t-f tJ 

. , . » , 1 ,•» ...■••■. '. ::..-.:x! ?id v"..i.i :i njrird t-* hi« f««m 

*' ~ . . ,1 .•.*■• ^ ■ ip'.' -■viv i !:.i* r.v^cr l»tfen a:trnipt^— 1 

^ "* ' -« ■*- ..V . '. "^ •' • *•*"• i?-^' r»i:!:i!;t« ha\c l*^-n yrlad to k« 

*"* » ^ ^... . • I .-••*- .?•••..■■• A ;• r- ■ M . : :!., r ;^'j i:U::un. o«(i«vially «bci 

. . * . ••■1. * , X* •» '• Ml •:. >..iri •:.'.r\ i f over-{M.puUtii>o pr 

, ,». v.i .: *'v >..- t' ^-^ -. r .:•. n.-.v-Ji M-i.tr. on i':»u o >ii|rratiilal4 

. ., . ..^. :. ^"•■fc'> * V • '. r *•- :■ :r^ u't-n the pr\-.\l ini(rratti« frui 

^ ^ * I ^. ^1^. V .'1 10 ''^ •; • ".• • ■ ■* «! ' Av ir:«a a'^-al the tnidillo oi tli 

,,..,, X »^x ».i <r.->. -v- ^-^ .-^ \'%.' :ii. . rv waj» that tr thw Xth 

' ^^ . . ,^ ..^*f ^ . • *. f 1 v.-Tw •> «*i '■'■ .: • • t'"v J* p iJiiiiR. th« tn*-an« of Mihab 

^"*' * * ...» ■».»•»• o'»*' ■•'*■'»■ •'■*•' *■ ' *■ ■' * *••*"*■ rvmainii5|r iiiu«t Hrrr^i^anly I 

,*•.%*- *-» *.\."* X ."H • .ar-T tr iw i. * -• i^*.^!. lV<^:Ny tfe piviiliar i-'litieaJ UMl 

.. .^^m. 1 ■• il^* .*4ti;Mj»rw i..\: 'r.^ » :' a tvuLtrv inaT at:th<»riie *:irh a b 

^ . ■ .. .• «.*.%-« 1: i:"*v« ■•* '• 'o '.i ■:. ' ut i^-nerU exiiiTifncc wn*U lo prx^ve thi 

• .,.,% » * »-»^ i.i* * ■■»»."■ tf.i'.^-r..-. .I'. J "^'i'lic ov*r-pi»pu.alu»n i« out or tli* qiM 

'* 1^ v»\«waAMi .-v^tto^"^ ttf 7^-vi^e Uva c^va la tho uoat dviMtrly settled Eompei 



EMIGBATIOK 181 

cocntries. A relative over-popnlation, caused nomadic tribes. Of such corporate emigration 
bj partial and insufficient development of natu- patriarchal hbtorj records some examples, as 
nl resources, exists in the most thinlj settled those of Lot, Abraham, and Jacob. With the 
countries. Indeed, the lower the state of civil- progress of agricaltnre and the growth of more 
ization the more frequent is a relative over-pop- definite political relations, trade, and commerce, 
ulation. This is proved by the example of the began the emigration of single bodies of ad- 
Axnerican Indians, a few thousands of whom venturers to distant countries. In this way 
may starve for want of food on a territory largo Phoenicians, led by Cadmus, and Egyptians, led 
en«igh for a European kingdom. The limit of by Danaus and Cecrops, emigrated to Greece, the 
absulute over-population, that is, of the insuffi- Heraclidte from Greece to Asia Minor, the Tyr- 
cteccy of the natural resources to subsist a peo- rhenians to Italy. Unlike these, the exodus of the 
pie, may have been reached in some provinces Israelites from Egypt to Canaan was a corporate 
•of China, but has not yet been pointed out by emigration of a people, on account of religious 
actual experience in Europe. It is a significant and political oppression, for which modern bis- 
ect that the emigration from some European tory furnishes parallels in the Mormon emigra- 
coontries, Rhenish Prussia and Westphalia £or tion to Utah and the emigration of the Boers 
instance, is in an inverse ratio to population ; that in southern Africa. During the historical times 
b to say, the largest number emigrate from the of ancient Greece emigration generallv assumed 
most thinly settled agricultural districts, these the character of colonization. Many nourishing 
kaviuK, relatively, a larger over-population than and powerful colonies were thus sent forth along 
those in which agricultural and manufacturing the shores of the Mediterranean and Black seas 
pomits are combined. The monarchical gov- by Greece, the relative position of which In 
cmments of Europe have from time to time en- ancient history is similar in that respect to 
deavored to diminish emigration by oppressive that of the Germanic (Anglo-Saxon) nations 
lam, and by levying heavy taxes upon emi- as contrasted to that of the Roman race. The 
frants ; but of late they have begun to perceive colonies of ancient Rome for the most part 
flnt such measures £iil entirely to proouce the were rather outposts of an army and combina- 
dflsired result, and have therefore confined their tions of fortune hunters than settlements of 
iflbrtB to the regulation and protection of emi- men intending to found permanent residences. 
pation. Associations have been formed in The great migration of the Germanic nations 
many European states for this special purpose, having destroyed the Roman empire, the move- 
hi the United States there are likewise a nnm- ments of European society were for centuries 
bcr of similar associations devoting themselves not unlike the whirlpool caused by the sinking 
to the fl^istance of immigrants. The United of a large vessel. Nations and races were tossed 
Bttted government has passed laws for the rcg- hither and thither, and only a few out-of-the- 
vlttion of emigrant ships (March 2, 1819 ; Feb. way nooks and corners of Europe remained un- 
t2,l&47'. May 17, 1848; March 8, 1849, &c.). disturbed. Charlemagne changed the direction 
Ihe itate of New York has established a board of of German emigration from the south to the east 
fionmissioners which requires a tax of $2 from and north. While from that time the inove- 
trery immigrant, and applies the proceeds of this ments of German nations toward Italy assumed 
tamion to tlic support of the needy and desti- the character of mere militai*y conquests, their 
tale among them. A depot for all immigrants emigration conquered nearly the whole country 
arriiing at New York, designed to protect them between the Elbe and Vistula rivers from the 
igufnt fraud and violence, was opened in 1855* Slavic race. A counter current from Asia, which 
Smilar measures have been adopted or pro- set in at various periods of the middle ages, con- 
Msed in the states of Wisconsin, Illinois, and sisting of Magyars and Tartars, was successfully 
iGehigan, the latter of which in 1859 appointed resisted, and the tide was even turned upon 

rts fuT the purpose of drawing a portion of Asia by the crusades ; but at a later period an- 
emigration from Europe to the state of other Asiatic race, the Osmanli (Turks), sue- 
Kehigan. In 1853 the German diet proposed cer- ceeded in displacing the most decayed of Chris- 
Mu rules for the restriction of emigration from tian nations m south-eastern Europe, while al- 
Gvmanv to America, but their adoption was most simultaneously still another Asiatic race 
IMvde^by the war bepinning in April, 1859. — (the Arab?) was expelled from the south-west- 
Ik history of emigration in the broadest mean- ern peninsula (Spain), to which they had emi- 
hg of the word i<s in fact, the history of man- grated 8 centuries before. — Individual emigra- 
lU. Of the earliest migrations by which the tion, as distinguished from the movements of 
i^iniamental features of European history have whole nations, commenced on a large scale af- 
defined, no records remain, but numer- ter the discovery of America. During the 16th 
races of them are found by the archaeol- century the nations in which the Roman element 
ethnologist, and linguist. In the earliest predominated, Spain, Portugal, and France, sent 
^(jftna of civilized life, when hunting was man^s forth a great number of emigrants, most of 
fr ei^ means of subsistence, his wild roamings them mere adventurers who did not intend to 
|; 'mtr lerge territories could scarcely be called stay longer than might be necessary to become 
»Uon, since there were no settled habita- rich. The first attempts by the English to or- 
to leave or to go to. Emigration proper gttnize emigration to America likewise origi- 
nced when herdsmen congregated into nated in adventurous designs. In such attempts 




aa 



acuTLk m:ir 



m^ n«*n mil J 



inn u . b'M 
vir <•■ i^ •u^ii •■•niiMi:»*.*t. 7"i»« .t-i*.:!"-*. '-iin- 
^«n'.* i*'' -ki* «. .'i.iiKtia.iin ^f* rTMiu i**t t 'iiti 
jBim iitit ^. > (ifi A. JtoiL -•j.trinui '^iiiUf^^J 

i^iii. ^••'ir. ^ ;'« > V irfi^tiUUL ••r^ «i a ui t^:- 

Art J-.r • ■..• •>w? y -.••■/ ••litf.i.n. 2*tsiiii*. --in 
l^vi.v. .-..4 ■ .'.ii ■^•»Ti .•• .<.••: J'.r utt iKtwtruMnc 

ci:«ju# Ai'. : V -.-..u *,..rt ir. ::<r'-r-a«r -li-CH '^ 



^v 



«r •-. ...i 



l.-iH 



.■-* 






•9t 



^ I*'. :i. -a 






«»./j« r 



31«fl 






'. 



xjL '.-•rsoa? J**? a 



•iMd .'•••* V'T« . :..-- .-•'tiVri r>:-tVir* Mi- 

^A M^! ]>/..>. Ar.A «•:-. 4iitr^: 17 ir%!:i^ *:- 

|jt«t/^ry WM ^.-sM a:.: >•../-.■• vr^tc o-.ci}art«i 
With t^iAt nitiiii ttfTuzz^u-K^i Af>r ihii vu y 

•f AfU'TiCAft iafM-;*..'^:.* Li»: '^et^ teAcii * * 'Jla 

of tli« ii^itJiVr of A..>:3 i(Xi:;.i^rrAZ.:« vcr« Zi.^ 
kept untii, in r*»riijil.af.' ti^.iLa^ Act '^■f o.r^r>?^ 
of Mar* h '-'. l-I'J. f #.]•■• u-n of ii.c cjV.cj -ic- 
gAii l«i r«|i«irt •|fJAn«.Ti» to lii* ^^^matj •/ *:a:* 
the iiuiitUT, iK-x, ApTi*. ^':-. 'jf {lAB^it-r.^D Arr:- \:.^ 
bj At-a. "IlitTt: Are. ljow«\ir, TK:%^fi^ X.»«i.'c\: 
tlio Ai-ruru4\r of iLc n i-irt* ri^aJe w ;•.:.! a tie 

fimt lU or 15 TcAFl MlCl-cniili,? tlic { a^-eo^j *4 

Uio Art. Mr. p. Kttpp uUciiipti ^i j.r v^ fn-rr; 

the riK'onl^ uf mivvhU M:ttIt.'ru«:Dt.«, c^tall>:.t'<i 

botwceii isjootij lH;iiMh:it Uic nuiulivro: iu- 

miirraiit^ who urrivwl during that timv was 

UrRvr than that ^ivrii in ttio (tthcial rcfufrt^. 

Thu iixiriii^'rAtiiiri fnmi 17S4 tn 17U4U^tAtt.*<l t>r 

Mr. SainiK'l liUnl^vl il*^<>«j) U* Lato Av»rA«.*i'l 

4,000 |H.T Annum. I>iiniitc IT 1)4. 1 ••.<>>•• inimi- 

crmntd H«*ro C!«tiinat4-<1 to Iiaw arrived in llie 

Loitvil ^tati•^ tut thi^ waji an ex:raurJinanr 

BuinU-r I'lir thu tiino. Iho yvarly Avcmtfv ui 

Um iuinii;:rAtiun during :2ii yean*, I'mm \1\*^) to 

\%V\ 14 A^ikunu-d l*y I>r. Adain N.'yl>crt to havo 

bevn lj,<i'Ni. iiiiriii;; tlie Iil \caPt fmni 1*«'j6 to 

1816 nicnMve etni*;rali<>n to thu I'nitod States 

VAdfri'tludud tiv thi- iinfrirhilly ri-laliuna at that 

titnv rxi«tiiii: U-lwts.*n (iri-al Uritain, Kranri*. and 

the I'mtrd >tAtO'« ; but iiui>ii alVr tho ri.-** titration 

of pc'oi-v it iK'iCAn aifain. I)iirin^ ihv yrar \^\1 

OTvr So.iHNi ifiinii^ant4 arri%-i-d. No tru^^t- 

Vurthy data fxi«l on the iminip'i&tioD i»f lh<* *JI 

nth!* frL^n Jon. 1, ]M\ to S^'pL ai>. l^]•^. 

the Uttor date to Kia. thu nuniUT <if 

pD|^*rAi and from lb5>i to 1^J*< thu total 

r uf nA!«svu^i*rs (natives of the Tnitcd 

included; arri\ixig by aefti are officially 

iaifoUowt: 



7*nK I I'lift.'afRk if 



*. p-ft 



♦ J 






:iiiiNi icj:' 





• 


:-^ 


:-jatt 






• 


\<* 


^MJK 




r-?*- 


1 iMH'.b" tsiLJ.; 






- "^^ 


1 


^. 


Bit:r. 


lOLIli 


T-*r . 


i> 


-14 






* 


r. 


s-^ 


ri«» 


U?JM 






.CJ 


ArTS^ 


letns 






:<-4 


SMirr 


:r^f3« 






:vj 


::!>: 


«LS<r 






:v4 


:r34 


9i.i«ii 






'.<' 


:ujA» 


:^«w 






:<•-- 


•eu- 


u:*» 



i:.7 : u» L.rr. rr of a^Ivq iami^nuct* who tf^ 
r.Te*: :> '.Lr U: .:<.4 ^tA:e» fnxn Sept. 30, ISXIL 
to Lite. 31. l-s:>5. u 4.211G24. C>f th« pnw 
per« c z:.:::^ ty ka during the 3 Temn cttiSii^ 
l>vc. !>->. d^sctlr.^ therefrom t£c«e ton li 
tLc r:;/.etl >:A:es as aIj.) ihoic vho 
potacd tL-v-i^h the rnited SlAt«« to the 
K»h \>T\jy incv<. iic^ there rvmaiii about ft50> 
A«juli. K*'jrnAtiuir the number of umnticnali 
who arrirt-d fruru 17^ to 1^19 at 15O,uO0l» m 
obuin A grand totAl of 4.912,C24. or. ia roiai 
nuniben. 5.1^" •.(^«i immi^TADta into the Unilii 
StdUd fn^ni 17*^ to J An. 1, 16^9. kH thb ft«^ 
U:r A^Mmt 2,6«^>,u*)i> caino from Qrtxl BriUia 
and Ireland; AU>ut 1.6<.n).iKiO frtim 
< including the wliole of Tru^tia and 
SiNi.iHNj fruni France: lOti.OuO fmai 
Aniorica; t%i*,iNHi from Swedvn and K4 
SO.utKJui from China; iii.OOO from S\ 
kiid; 3«'>.H(H> fn,in the W«»t Indies; IS^OOt 
frt»m Holland: 16. On) from Mexico; 8,000 ftva 
Italy; 7.0(N» fn>m IWIgium; 6,300 from Soaih 
Anifrii-a: a.iN^i from Portugal; 1,300 horn tW 
Axorf"*: l,<N>u from Ku.«ia. It will be wum 
fntni tlie aUivo table titat tlte emi^ralftua to 
thtf Uniti*d St«t4*« incnrJMtHl in an ud[ 
cd i)roiM>riion from 1^4^ to 1854. TLm 
owiMfc in tho fir^t in»tance to the 
ino in Ireland ; in the Nv^tnd, to tlie rergigtioae 
of 1H4H, br M hich great uumben of thoee whoee 
{irofpecla had been blighted bj fH^Utioal oaavW- 



EiaGRATIOH 138 

sioDs were indnoed to remove to the 'vrestem emigrants. The emigrfttion to Atifitralia waH 
continent. The ye&r 1854 was also the turning formerly for the most port a forced one. From 
point in the nnmerical proportion of the emi- 1798 to 1888, ahont 74,000 convicts were trans- 
ffration from Ireland and Germany. In 1852 ported thither. Since then the free emigration 
IreLuid sent 160,000 emigrants to the United has gradually increased; in 1887, it was 2,664; 
States, Germany hat 145,918; in 1858 there ar- 1888, 6,102; 1839,7,852; 1840, 5,216; 1841, 
Tired 164,000 emigrants from Ireknd, and 141,- 12,188; 1842, 6,071; 1848,28,904; 1849,82,- 
M6 from Germany ; hat in 1854 the Irish immi- 091 ; 1850, 16,037 ; 1851, 21,532 ; 1852, 87,424; 
gxmdon fell- to ahont 103,000, while the German 1853, 61,401; 1857, 61,248. The total emi- 
incresscd to 215,009, and in 1855 there arrived gration to Anstralia from 1849 to 1859 will 
Tl^f 18 Germans (inclnding Prossians and Ans- scarcely fall short of 550,000. The aggregate 
tiians), and 50,000 Irishmen. In the port of of those who have emigrated from the United 
STewTorktherearrivedin 1856, 56,117 German, Kingdom either to British colonies or foreign 
and 43,996 Irish immigrants ; in 1857, 86,859 coantries from 1815 to 1858, is given hy Mr. 
and 67,106 Irish; in 1858, 31,874 Ger- McColloch at 8,798,529. Adding to this the 
aad 25,097 Irish. From Jan. 1 to April 7, emigration of snbseqnent years, as stated hy 
i, there arrived in the port of New York other authorities (viz. : 839,524 in 1854, nearly 
TjlMimmigranta, against 8,018 during the same 200,000 in 1855, 165,951 in 1856, 212,875 in 
p«iod in 1858. The steady falling off of the ira- 1857), we ohtam a total of over 4,500,000 emi* 
~- — ion since 1854 is attributed to various grants from the United Kingdom during a pe- 
j prominent among which are the strong re- riod of 43 years. — ^The emigration from Europe 
of the native American sentiment against to other distant countries than those in which 
tte soppoeed deluge of the United States by the Anglo-Saxon race predominates, has always 
dena, and tiie financial crises of 1854-^7. It has been comparatively insignificant, in spite of all 
been calcnlated that the number of 2,500,000 efforts of continental governments to push it in 
tragnera who had settled in the United States that direction. Algeria, in 1851, full 20 years 
ftom 1784 to 1850 had during that period been after its conquest by the French, had an immi- 
iweDed to 4,000,000 inclnding their descendants, grant population of only 65,233. The emigra- 
Aiff"Tri"g this to be correct, in 1860 the total tion from France to Algeria amounted in 1856 
of that portion of the population of the United to 8,564, and in 1857 only to 7,992. — Of the 
States which is the product of immigration since South American states, Brazil as early as 1819 
1784 would be near 7,000,000. iBut a close endeavored to attract emigration from Grermany 
edeolation is rendered exceedingly difiicult by and Switzerland, but the manner in which the 
fte fiKt that the proportion of age in an immi- emigrants were treated by the large property 
grant population is very different from that in holders frustrated these efforts, although ener- 
a natiTe one, thero being always among the getically repeated from time to time. Still, a 
flbnner a greater number of marriageable per- few Swiss and German colonies have, after hav- 
wma^ bat also a greater proportion nearer to ing passed through the severest ordeals, obtained 
the average x>eriod of human life. Of the a considerable degree of prosperity. Among 
total emigration from Europe, the largest por- these are New Freiburg, Petropolis, Leopol- 
tkn b identical with the immigration into dina, and San Amarros, all in the neighborhood 
tbe United States. In a comparative statisti- of the capital, and containing altogether some 
ed table, published by the French govern- 12,000 inhabitants. Since 1851 the colonies of 
■est in 1859. the total emigration during 10 Donna Francisca, Blumenau on the Itajahazy, 
jean^ from li848 to 1858, from Great Britain province of Santa Catarina, and Ybicaba, prov- 
nd Ireland, is given at 2,750,000, from Ger- mce of San Paulo, have been established. Em* 
■SByatl,200,000(this number is given as 1,1 87,- igration from Germany and Belgium to Costa 
***in the consular reports), but less than 200,- Rica and Nicaragua (1850), and from Austria 
from France. Hence it would appear that (Tyrol) to Peru (1857-8), has generally re- 
Lion is almost monopolized by the Ger- suited in failure. Emigration from Germany to 
nations, among whom, in this respect, Chili has been attempted with better success, 
0veden and Norway have since the middle of The agricultural colonies established since 1850 
fhb 19th century begun to take a place. The in the province of Valdivia are in a highly pros- 
Md emigration from Europe in 1857 was, ac- perous condition, and may in no very remote 
OQtding to official statements, 852,378, viz. : time form the nucleus of a strong German pop- 
110^600 from Germany, 99,631 from Great Brit- ulation on the western slope of the South Ameri- 
ria, 86,238 from Ireland, 13,803 from France, can continent. In 1859 a joint stock company 
Un from Sweden and Norway, 5,000 from for the establishment of German emigrant settle- 
Sraserland, 1,734 from Uolland, 6G0 from ments in the republic of Ecuador was organized 
Pdj^iiim and 400 from Italy. — Next to the by German merchants in London under favor- 
1Mted8tatei, the British colonies in America able auspices. An isolated case of successfbl 
" Avsta^ia attract the greatest number of colonization by people of the Roman race is the 
pranta. The emigration from Great Britain establishment of about 80,000 Frenchmen and 
^_ Ireland to British America from 1846 to Italians in the Argentine republic near the 
IfMT •veraged 40,000 per annum. The year of mouth of the river La Plata. Since 1857 strong 
Irish frunine (1846) drew thither i09,680 efforts have been made in Germany to turn emr 



184 EKTGRATION EMMET 

ignition in the ■aroe direction, and tho hope has born oat of Uiom states and territorica 

^«n exprcMed Uiat bj tbifl nicaus tho I^ Ilata ively, but within tlie United Siat«a. 

coQDtrj might be i>eniuincntly acqainnl for the £MIK, an Arabic title, nieaoinff prince or 

German ra«x\ but ai yet ncarcely any thinic hon mler, iriven in Turkey particularly to tbow 

been done to that effect. — In KurofK*, Itu^uiia tbon{j;ht ti> be of tlie line of Mohammed through 

wan among tho earlie?it to |Krreivo tho advan- hU dnugliter Fatima, and to whom, in di»tin^ 

tafseft of immigration. iVtcr tho (irent invited tion from all othorA, lielonfri the right to wc«r 

emigrantji from all nations to si'ttlc in Uu<^ia. a green turlian. rnf|KTly, the em ire const itsto 

Hid iiUcceiMM)r« fullowcil the harne pulii-y bv with tho ulemib* only thu finit of the 4 caiue 

granting premiums and valunMo privilegis, siuoh of the Turks, but their number has so much in* 

ai> exemption from taxation for a rcrtuin nuni- cream**! that they are now estimated at ^^ part 

ber i»f years exemption fn»m military duty, and of the |Ht]»uIation of the Ottoman empire, and 

fri-e homenteailii tit cidonii^t-'*. Indulged bytheM they are found in every claMi of people, evca 

•dvnntageK a lurgi* number of emigrant.'* from among tho bi*ggnn«. Km im who perform serTite 

the I'alatiiiate !<*ttle«l in xmthern Uu^ia in IT?:^. duties do not degrade the green turban bj coo- 

Immetliaivly after the Napole<inic wan an ex- tinning to wear it; and thcne who become |Ka* 

tensive (iernianii* emigration to Kn».*iia (inelud- eral^ pahha-s mini^ten^ or even grand riaei^ 

ing Tolandi t«jok place. The total number of al»o dUiiiense with it on public occaaiona, lest 

Gennatii who emigrated thither betwi^n the they may otlend the t>uUan, who liaa not lb* 

Tears lb! 6 and lb2ti is estimated at 254Vj(H). honor of m-earing it, not being of the race of 

The agricultural colonies of Vieloviith, in the Molinmmed. 

government of Tcheruigov, and UieU-ndorf, in EMl.YN, Tiioma\ an English Fnitarian A* 

that of Voronezh, a manufacturing colony near vine, iHirn in Stamford, May 27» l<l6t. diad 

Pultowa, a Moravian settlement at Sarepta, and July 30. 1743. He was educated at Canbridgcw 

a number of German colon iini in the <.*ritnc:i, and at\er travelling over England and Ireland 

originated in this way. louring the reign of settled in lti9i in Dublin, where he gained 

Nicholas emigration to Hunaia ceased alm(»st en- great reputation as a preacher. In 1697 kn 

tirely, but since the ait'ewion of Alexander II. advanced d(»ctrinefi upun the snbivct of thn 

It hat, to fonie di^gnv, ciunmcnced anew in the Trinity at variance with thote of bis congf«g!^ 

northea»teru pruviuces of Prussia, whence of tion, de^-laring the Father pret-minent over ihm 

late a n>nMderable number of agrirulturidts have S»n ami Spirit, and thus reviving Arianim. 

cm ignited to Tohuid. — llie Austrian govern- The op]>o«itiiin which was excited against his 

ment hold4 out inducementn in order to draw a obliged him to leave Ireland, and he published ia 

portion u( the (lenuan eniigratiou to Ilungar}*, England aw(»rk de<-laring and aiming fa> juaiiy 

bat Ml far with |HNir hurce»4. Immeil lately his opini<in'4. This U^tk brought ufion him n 

after the close of tlie Ku*>so-Turki»h i»ar, tho prosecution for bla.*>phemy, and ho was cuQo 

question was sericMi^ly discuj^sed whi-tlu-r it domned to the iienalty of a fine and a year's 

W(»uld not bo |io«4iMe to regenerate the < >ri en t imprisonment, lie did nut |Miy the fine, bet 

by turning the title o( we*^tviard emigratiMn to remained in priion *2 years, and aAer his releftto 

the lowi-r I>anubiAnrountriesand AMaMinor. — prea«'hed to a Cttngregatii»u of hi^ fri«*nds ia 

Of Asiatic nations, China furniOie^ tlie lurgi-<(t i^^ntlitn. l\U charat'ter wa^ amiable, and hie 

nmuU'r of emigrantA, hundreds of thou«.uids life irrepnuichablo. IW^ido bin theohigira] writ- 

fif whom ikttlo on the ditffreht i^IaXMN of the ingn, wlitrh have lieen repulili»hed, he left me- 

Malay ari-hifN:Iag«>. the Hriiinh, I'utch. Si»aiii'>!i, moirs uf the life and fti*ntiments uf Dr. Samuel 

mud I'lanish colon ie««, and al<M) in Au*>traJia, the i'larko. 

Bandwich Ulands^ and C'uliforuia. The annual EMMASTEK the tvame as Immasiki^ a 11^ 

avt-mge of ChineM* emigratii»n may r^*ach Mime brew wonl M^'iiining *^ (iml with ti%.'^ It ii 

tW>.tK>ti, but mi»st of them do nut remain iht- Uwd by l«aiah in a pn>phi-cy inhirh acmtdiag 

maiifiitly abrtiad. Tliey return to their native to Mnttli«>w wai acoompU^heil in Jcmu i^rul, 

eariintry an «4jon as they have eametl enough to who i« thun di\ iik ly rvi-iigniziil a<* the pr^<diclied 

live t^uifortahly at iMime. We may li^re men- M«-s«iah, the true Imnianuel. or **Ciii«l with a^* 

tion the i»eculiar system of eniigr-iiion whifh KMMKT. 1. A N. W. ro. of Iowa. U«fd«rinf 

vithin the la< fern* yi-an hns U*;n rarriod on on Minn., inter-ci-ted by the I >vi» Mi nnc« rivtr; 

nnder the auMiiivs ('f the Kri-ncli govvrnment, area. alHtut 4.''*o t^^, m. In its N. L. fiart ara 

vii. : the pmfe^nedly voluntary emikTatinn of n\rnil •mall lake«. It ha-* l«ctn ftmnvd MAoa 

negroes fr*jm the mib^I of Afrira fn Fri-nrh ISTio, and va* nanutl in hi»nor tif ll««Urt En- 

colonirw. It i« generally ron^di-r^-d that this iii met. \hv Irii^li patriot. It i* not incl-jdrd ia 

aimply the old slavt trotle in di-gui^. — That tl»e s-iate cm^n^ of IsTi**. II. A new co. t/ 

emigr'atMrti which U unintrrrupt.-dly g».ing «in Mi«li., I'uJIed al-) Ti.rM'dagnna, CiMnprising ti«« 



rithm the trrritory of the I'nitvd Sial« » among norlhvrn vxinmiiy of iIh- hiwi-r firnmMi'A. 

the different stat«-'<i can »rarcely be ron^drred during on Ijkke Mi« higan ; an-a, abiHit ?i«» a^ 

under the nam** heail with the emigrath>n« from ui. It in not inolud«d in tlie riji»us of 1&5<>. 
Mtiun to nation. Ai-t-^inling to the centu« m{ EMMET. Kobickt. an lri«h revolnUubi^ 

1A>). there livrd in tU- ditTvrtrit ■(ati*4 and t«r- Kirn in Iiublin in 17n). hanged in the vaDtr city, 

ritorics o( the (*niim 4.17(i.:i2:i white |ii*rM>n4 Kpt. 2u. Ii!**i3. He gniiud hiirb iK^rnirs al 

(fix. : 1319,331 waifet^ and 1,953,8:^ females) Trinity college, from which he «as nltUBala^ 



EMMET EMORY 135 

expelled for avowing himself a repablican. He embark in the enterprise which led him to the 
joined the association of united Irishmen, whose ecaffuld. He came to America in 1804, rose to 
object was to separate Ireland from Great Brit- eminence in his profession in New York, and 
ttn and to establish an independent republic, was attorney-general of tliat state in 1812. 
and be was impHcated in the rebellion of 1798. While in prison in Scotland he wrote sketches 
After the failure of this attempt he escaped of Irish history, illustrative especially of the 
to France, returned secretly to Dublin in 1802, political events in which he had taken part^ 
reorganized the malcontents, established vari- which were printed in New York in 1807. — 
oas depots of powder and firearms in different John Patton, son of the preceding, an Amcri^ 
parts of the city, and fixed upon July 23, 1803, can physician, born in Dublin, April 8, 1797, 
as the time to seize the castle and arsenals of died in New York, Aug. 18, 1842. lie came 
Doblin. On the evening of that day he directed with his father and other Irish exiles to the 
the distribution of pikes among the assembled United States, was educated for 3 years in the 
ooospirators, to whom he delivered an animated military school at West Point, resided for one 
hanngne. The insurgent band, marching with year in Italy, and studied medicine after his re- 
dieersioto the principal street^ and being swelled turn. His delicate health obliging him to seek 
into ao immense and furious mob, assassinated a milder climate, he removed to Cliarleston in 
Chief Justice Eilwarden, who was passing by 1822, and began the practice of his profession. 
in lua carriage, but heatated to follow their en- He was in 1824 elected professor of chemistry 
tboaustic leader to Uio. castle, and dispersed at and natural history in the university of Yir- 
the first voDey from a small party of soldiers, ginia, and during several years was a contribu- 
Emmet, in disgust at the outrages and pusilla- tor to Silliman^s ^' Journal.*' 
nimity of the insurgents, abandoned them and EMMITSBURG, a post village of Frederie 
«ci9)ed to the Wicklow mountains. After co., Md., in the midst of a fertile and thickly 
the £ulure of the first blow he checked the populated region ; pop. in 1850, 812. It con- 
other movementa which had been projected, tains several churches, an academy, an asylum 
husbandiog his resources in the hope of soon for female orphans, an institute for girls, under 
leaewing the revolt. He might have evaded the care of the sisters of charity, and Mount 
the porBoit of the government^ but a tender at- St. Mary's college and theological seminary, a 
tadunent which subsisted between liim and flourishing institution supported by Roman 
lb Curran, the daughter of the celebrated bar- Catholics, which in 1858 had 24 professors, 
rirter, indu<^ him to i:eturn to Dublin to bid 12 C pupils, and a library of 4,000 vols, 
her fkrewell before leaving the country. He EMMONS, Nathaniel, D.D., an American 
Tss tracked, apprehended, tried, and convicted theolo^an, born in Kast Iladdam, Conn., April 
of h^ treason. He defended his own cause, 20, 1745, died in Franklin, Mass., Sept. 23, 1840. 
delivering an address to the judge and jury of lie was graduated at Yale college in 1767, was 
remarkable eloquence and pathos, met his fate licensed to preach in 17C9, and ordained pastor 
with courage, and won general admiration for of the church in Franklin, where he spent his 
tlie parity and loftiness of his motives. His days, in April, 1778. He continued in the pas- 
iSite and that of Miss Curran are the subjects of torate till 1827, a period of 54 years. lie claimed 
two of the finest of Moore^s Irish melodies. — to be a genuine Calvinist, though diftbring from 
Tboxas Addis, brother of the preceding, a the tlieological views of Calvin in several im- 
politician and lawyer, bom in Cork in 1765, portant respects. Of some of his peculiar spec- 
died in New York, Nov. 14, 1827. He was ulations, one is, that there is no such thing as 
graduated at Trinity college, Dublin, studied holiness or sinfulness, except in the exercise of 
mediciDe at the university of Edinburgh, visited the voluntary affections, so that there is no de- 
the most celebrated schools of the continent, pravity except in voluntary disobedience ; and 
tbeii selected the legal profession, studied 2 another, that God is the efficient, producing 
ymn at the temple in London, and was admitted cause of every act of the human mind, thus 
to the bar of Dublin in 1791. He soon became making the will of God the source of all sinful- 
of the association of united Irishmen, ness as well as holiness, while every moral act, 
r&s one of a general committee to superin- he would claim, is at the same time perfectly 
all similar associations, having rebellion free and voluntary on the part of man. Dr. £m« 
their ultimate object. Disclosures being mens was one of the founders and first president 
to the government, he was arrested with of the Massachusetts missionary society, and one 
ij of his associates in 1798, did not deny of the editors of the " Massachusetts Missionary 
pforposes, and was finally conveyed a pris* Magazine.** He guided the studies of some 87 
to Fort George in Scotland, where he was theological students. His writings pubUshed 
2i years. After the treaty of Amiens in his lifetime were numerous, and his complete 
was liberated and permitted to withdraw to works, in 6 vols., edited with a memoir by the 
the severest penalties being pronounced Rev. Jacob Ide, D.D., were published in Boston 
him if he should return to Ireland. His in 1842. 
obt^ned permission to join him on condi- EMORY, Jonx, D.D., bishop of the Metho- 
n that she should never again set foot on dist Episcopal church, born at Spaniard's Neck, 
British soil. From Brussels, where he passed Queen Anne's co., Md., April 11, 1789, died 
flia winter of 1802-'d, he saw his brother Robert Dec. 16, 1835. He was graduated at Washing- 



L 



186 EHPEDOCLES 

ton collogp, yd., Rtadiod hw, and wa^ iiilmittcd middlo of tho 6th century D. C. The w>n of a 
to the liar in 1808; but attar itrartUiii^ a ffliort rich fuiiily, he was inntruclcd br the P\thagD- 
titno wiih miccosn ho n^-mlviMj to dev4ito him- rean^. atiu was acquainted, it is said, with Par- 
self tn thiMnini«>t rr, and cntcn.-«l the rhiladid- menidosAndAnazajguras. Ukc his father. M«toa, 
phia M. K. ouifi-rcnoe in tlie sprini? of lH]n. tho louder of the p(»pular partj nt Afn^^^ntoaiv 
From 1813 to Ih'JU ho filled ^olne ol' the most he»avedtho ronublic from a dan)^*rou4 conspir- 
Importutit MAtif>n» iu tlio church, includiiif; ary, and rcfuseu tho supreme power when it wm 
PhilaiK-ipliiii, Haiti more, Wa^hiof^ton, and other oiTcred him. A firie^t and a poet, a physician mod 
citieii, and wus wnt as a dolvfrate to every a philosopher, his contemporaries esteemed him 

fcncral innfirenco, except one, from tho timo as a pod; Plato and Aristotle admiri*d him, and 
bei-auic elipble until t!ie cIons of hi^ life. Lucretius san^ his praises. lie saved th« lift 
At the cuiifcrciico of is*2u he was clMVf»cn to of a woman pluniccd mto a lethanry. from which 
|iepre<knt the AnK-ricAii Methodist church iu tho art of other jihysiciaiis was |)owerle3« to ra- 
the Briti*>li coil fere til -o, and in lb24 wam elect- vive her. IIo blocked uu a mountain icorya 
ed iuninr spent of the Methodist Uiuk concern, through which pestilential winds were drivinc 
and priucipul Apent at tho ensuing; cuiil'ereiice, upon Afrrigentuiu, and at another timo stoppaa 
in lb2*4. His labors in this department of tho the raping of the plaguo by turuinf? two nreii 
church Were c»f great service, and, havitif* through a morass. His vantty equalletl his ahil- 
placed the institution ufion a jiennaiient bcLsi^, ity. lie amieared in public only iu tho midst of 
Le wa4 electi-d bishop by tho general ci>n- a retinue of attendants, with a crown u|K>n hia 
fercnce of lN:t'J. Hi<« presidency in aU t!ie confer- head, sandals of brass on his feet« hi^ liair float* 
anccA during tlie ^hurt {Hrrioil of his episM'opato ing over hii shoulders, and a branch of laortl 
was entirely !«atififai*tory. He not only attendi'd in his hand. Ho proclaimed his divinity him* 
the se«> ions of the various con ference4 f Ailing in self, and it was recognized throughout Sicily, 
his divi>>iiin of the plan of eiilscoiiAl vii«i tat ions, In acting his part and spreading his iileas among 
hat he entered largi'ly into the sulject of educa- men, it was his aim not le«s to affect tlie imagi- 
tioiL aa*>i^ting in the organization of the New natitm than the reason. In his old ag« he left 
York univi-r-ity. as well as the Wv*>ieyAn univcr- Sicily, not, as has U-en said, to converse with thft 
aity and I>iikiu!ion college. Healsoilirected his priests of (Igypt and the magi of the Ea«t, hoi 
attentiou to tlie improvement of tlie miniitry, t'l teach phiKnophy in iireece. Ho visited 
and prepared a cour^* of study whicli has pmvetl Tliurium and Athens, sojourned in tho PelopoiH 
oi grest !H.Tvico in elevating the htandurd of nesus and read a |Mivm at the Olympic gamca 
roini»terial e<lui\ition in the MethiMli]»t KpiMs>iial which gained tlie applnuse of nil ttreece. Ilia 
church. He wa* killed by biink? thrown from his last days were pa^svd in oloiMirily in the Pelo* 
carria;:e. Hi«htip Kiniir\*!i writing** werem.Hinly ponne»>us. Some ini.igined th:it ho wa-t trant- 
controvrr*>'u]. Aiuung them U-tii;: "iKTcnce of lated to heaveu and reocivi'd among the gods; 
our Failtir.-" (^vo.. New York. 1*«'27), and '*Tho otliers that he was drowLcd in the «>ra, that ha 
EpiM-opal r«'nlnivtr*y Ileviiwid* ^him., Ki^\. fell from hi** chariot, that he waa strangled by 
TheM*. wit!i a lifi- by hin niu. reuppearid in 1 vul. his own hand, or tliat lie phi n get I into x^e cr^ 
8vo. in 1^41. — Kouci.'T, nm of the preceding, sn ter of Etna, in order by hiding hU Innly t«» cvr- 
American ch-rg.vTnaii, Inirn in rhi]uih'1phi.i, July tity his divinity, but that the Tolctro »ubs«^ 
99. 1^14. diitl in H.dtiniore. May 1\ l'«4'<. Uo qnently U-hhed' forth one of bin samlal-. I>f 
waoi gTAdiialed :it ColuinbiA college in 1 **:{!. anil all thise fuMen the l.i«it. which ha"* Uvn the uiosi 
•liortly uflerwaril coinmenceil the *>tiidy cif law. widely n^t-eivcd, i<i thenuMt pre|Hi«ten*U4. Tha 
In 1*^34. ajrtiii tlie re'irgnnizatiuu of lMi<kin*Min work4of KnipiHluclc^ were all in vitm*. embrac- 
oullege, he wa^ falh-^l to the chiiir of nncieiit hm- ing trageilie**, epigrams, hymns and an vpic. 
goagtA but r< ^:gnl-•l hi^ profi-<o»><r^liip in iv;'.». The nio^t ini|Nirt:tnt c^f them wtn* tuo didactic 
in orb-r to mJiriice the ministry, aiid entered l>«ii-ni«, one ou ** Nature.'* trvat it / of o ><•:]. ••!ivt, 
the Kilficio.-i* annuul c<>nferen<v of the Mitho- pliVMul'vyi aiuI {•^y|•hoIogy all t<'geth<r; th« 
di*>t K;*;«Ciipjl ihurch. He wa«. howrvt-r. ia other on " ruriticationi,'^ treating of w.irdiip 
IM'J. by t!ie unaiiinions re(iUf>t of th«* fm ulty and magic, and cuntAining hi-^ rtli^iu.^^ pr^ 
of the r<i!Iep\ PN-tUled. an prt»itb'[it pro trm.^ cept<. FragnicntH only of the.M) rem a.::, tut 
during tho &!'^-nre in KurojKr of rre«i'l«'nt Pur- tlniM* of tho tnatiM <>n nature are Mii^lr:rut to 
bin. u|Nin w}ii>h; re^tignation I>r. Kni' ^ry wa4 give an iiiea of ilio plan of the work. It e«iQ* 
cho^'U hi* fcUiTi-^^^T. This otTjre hr held until si*!* of 3 b<K>k4: in tho Jlrst, after #>!3tii j tha 
the ch-M* of hit lif^-. Ik'^ido a life nf hi<« fatht r, Ci>ni!ilion4 of human knnwU«lgi>. he trt-a^n of tha 
he lert A •• Hi^torr of the Pi«*iphne €»f tJie M« th- univcrM- in gi lu-ral, of the foriv^ whirh j ruiuot 
odi»t Kpi^fpalt'iiun h"i»»vo.. New York. I-^IS, it, A'i.l the elements whiih conj|fiM» it; in iJ.e 
revi^^fl .Vid bniught d^iwn to IsTm*' by tlie \Kv\. MM-und, of natural obbctM, of p^ant.* and 



I'.ural ot'bct 

W. P. S!ri< klnnd, fi.I* I. aiM AnUnfniiNl.«d*'.\iiu- niui'*: and in the third, of the g>*(!« nrA il;i 

ly«i*fif |U.ttir'« .\na1i>.:y," whic!i wii^roint-I-tfil thit!g«. And of the nmjI And il« iit«:i!i« . Kica 

by the Jir%. Iir-rge K. rpHik% 1*1'. irji:i«i. in ph.li>Miphy. Km|K*«bMK-« reniAin* a j-nI, A 

1*Ci^*). Ahd hr.« li-«ii iiitriMluciil as a teit-bf^'k Ib>rncric spirit, an .\rt«t4>tle ca!N I..IM. !.r prr- 

lDt4» rniny iti«!i'-ili'in« of Iranting. iM>[.itlt-A Ai:d di-itU'S v\mT\ thing, wA r"!<f» l.:r?:- 

KMPKIhk'I.K**, a dre^^^k phii"M»phcr. I^rn n-'.f in *w»i!ioU and mastery, lit* di-i-tr-.n • 1/ 

at Agri^-ntuni, in biciiyi flour tfthcd about Uio Kiit|ivdocIcs is develo|ied in tho "S«.>phi3i,'* :La 



EUFEROB EMPETSEMA 137 

**}ireno,''and the "Ph8Bdo"of Plato, andintho up, Dew aspirations arisen; tho reformation 
*' Soul ^ and the ** Metaphysics'* of Aristotle, stmck boldly at the pope, and indirectly at 
The best edition of his remains is that by Kar^ the empire. It was at that time tliat the 
sten( Amsterdam, 1838), which is famished with German kings, who usually had been elected 
admirable dissertations. as such, exclusively from Frankish or German 
EMPEROR ^Lat. imperatoTf commander), a bouses, in earlier times by aU, but later only by 
title bestowed lu the Roman republic on chief the greatest princes of Germany, who were hence 
oommanders of great annies, on consuls elect be- called electors, gave up their Roman imperial 
fore entering upon their office, and often used pretensions, and were crowned in Germany as 
by 'vietorioiis troops to hail on the battle field a emperors of that country. At their coronation, 
SQoeessfol general. In later times it designated celebrated in Aix la Chapellc, Augsburg, Ra- 
the highest authority in the state. Casar, re- tisbon, or Frankfort, with great display both 
taniing from his last campaign, after tlie victory of splendor and servility, the emperors were ob- 
of Maoda (45 B. C), and Ootavianus Augustus, liged to sign an instrument, called capitulation, 
after the battle of Actium (31 B. C), assumed containing the conditions under which they 
this now regal title in preference to the odious were raised to their dignity. They lived in 
ra, and Rome became an empire. Augustus palatia set apart for their use (Pfalzen), in later 
and his soccessors took in addition the name of times in their hereditary dominions. The wars 
Gnar, and both the title and the name (Kaiser) of the reformation broke the ancient forms and 
vera afterward adopted by monarchs of other institutions ; the imperial dignity became al- 
itsteiL When the rule of the Roman empire was most hereditary m the house of Austria ; the 
divided, the name CsBsar designated tho adopted other German states were made nearly inde- 
MBKtantof the emperor, who was himself honor- pendent; Prussia became a kingdom under 
ed by the title of Augustus. These titles disap- Frederic I. ; the unity of Germany was virtually 
peired in the West with tho fall of Rome (476), destroyed. The wars that followed the French 
Dot were saved in the eastern or Byzantine em- revolution wrought still greater changes, and 
pire for nearly 10 centuries, not by the virtues when Napoleon had assumed tho impend dig- 
or warlike spirit of those who bore them, but by nity (1804), and founded the Rhenish confeder- 
ibe happy location of the capital, by the Greek acy, Francis II. in 1806 changed his title into 
fin, and Grecian bribery. During the cm- that of emperor of Austria (as such Francis I.), 
ndes we find also a Nic»an and a Trapezuntine and what was once the Roman, now tho German, 
empire in tho East. But all these eastern states empire expired. Its restoration was during the 
were swept away and replaced by the power of revolutionary period of 1848-9 the favorite 
the Turks, whose sultans, however, never offi- idea of a party in the Frankfurt parliament 
daJly adoptec^lie title of tho vanquished Chris< The refusal of tho king of Prussia to accept the 
tsao monarchs. This had been restored in tho imperial crown made tho sclieme a failure. In 
BKsnwhile in the West by Charlemagne, who the meanwhile several other monarchies of Eu- 
reoeived tho imperial crown from the hands rope had taken the imperial title. Russia as- 
of Leo IIL at Rome on Christmas day, 800, sumed it under Peter the Great (1721), and the 
ind was hailed by the people with shouts of assumption was in time acknowledged by all the 
•Dfe and victory to Carolus Augustus, tho states of Europe. Tho empire of tho French, 
God-sent, pious, and great emperor of Rome, founded by Napoleon on tho ruins of tho repub- 
the bringer of peaco." When the empire of lie, perished at Waterloo (1815), to bo revived 
this great Frankish. monarch was divided by after two revolutions by tho nephew of its 
his grand>on5, the title of emperor of Rome was founder (1852). On the American continent 
giren to the eldest of them, the king of Italy, several empires havo been established, but most 
■nd his descendants boro it until it was taken of them destroyed by revulutions. That of 

r2) by iho mightier king of G<?rmany, Otho Mexico under Iturbido (1822) was ephemeral ; 

And now be^n a long series of expeditions that of Brazil is governed constitutionally ; that 

to Italy, undertaken by the German monarchs, of Ilayti, which was nominally constitutional, 

in order to bo crowned in Milan with the iron was overthrown in Jan. 1859, and replaced by 

crown of Lombardy, and in Rome by the popo a republic. The Asiatic states of China, Japan, 

vith that of tho Roman empire ; a series of and Anam, the African Fez and Morocco, are 

tfragglea between tho emperors, claiming tho also often called empires. 

merei^ty of tho Roman world according to EMPHYSEMA, a diseased condition of man 

their title, and the popes, claiming the same as and animals, in which gases aro developed in 

neoeMOrs of St. Peter ; between tho worldly or have been introduced into any part of tho 

nd spiritual heads of tho Christian nations, body ; restricted, however, generally to tho di- 

IheOtbos, the Henrys, and tho Frederics, and the latation of tho cells of areolar tissue or of the 

Gregorys^ tho Alexanders, and tho Innocents, lungs by atmospheric air. Gaseous collections 

Gennan bravery and Italian diplomacy, tho in serous cavities, or in canals linod with mucous 

■word and the bull, were by turns victorious and membrane, have received other special names. 

Tuqaished ; emperors were humiliated, popes Three kinds aro usually described, which may 

were ignominiously stripped of their dignity ; be called surgical or traumatic, spontineous, and 

Germany was distract^ and Italy desolated, pulmonary emphysema. Traumatic eniphyse- 

Bnt new states had grown, new ideas sprung ma,'though always subcutaneous in tho com- 



U8 ESCPnYSESCA 

mcDc«ment, in not iJirays accompanicti by et upon and displacM tho heart and tba oUmt 

m'outid o( the rkin; it mar o«Tur after Mvvro lung; Mich diMMed portkms are stronglj crep^ 

contusion;! nf the cho«t, or after fracture of the tant, part m'ith their contained air with difirahj, 

ribs the air cv\U of the ]uti^<i toeing runturvd, and tinat Tery lightlj on water. In Interlobular 

and in the latter raw punctured hy the nrukon einphyM.*nia the distended vesicles aasamc aa 

bi»ne, with or witliout vxteriial cotuiuunieation. irri'irular form, sometimes of considerahle sia^ 

In any uf thi*^ condition^ if tlie wimiid of the anti are situated Ju»t under the pleora; tbij 

luuic l>e MniJI, and e9pei*i.iil>' if it be ni>t in di- may bo made by pressure to more onder tha 

rei't c«>nm.>«'iion with an oi>eningin the &kiii, the sentusi covering as far as the next lubaUr ^ 

re*>pirLd uir. not I>eing aMo to pa^s out fri'««1y, vision of the organ ; sometimes the enlarftl 

beeotni'd in til I rated in the areolar or cellular ve^icies are not in the subserous tissaei bot Im 

iiMuc, forming a s«>ft and crvpitdtiiig swelling, the tUMue separating the lobnlea. between whick 

whii'li may vxti-m! ovi-r a great part of t!io they may descend to a con»iderabIe denchL 

b«Hly ; during inspiration the air e«eai>CH into Thc»e varieties are a^mally combined* thair 

the canity ot tlio rhe^t thn>ugh the wound in tyniptomA are the same, and the latter is ga»» 

tlie lunir, and during expinitiiui, being com- erally C(m;«iderc<I Uio consc«}aence of the far- 

pre!«HHl between the liiiig and tlie thoracic wallfi, mer, the distention and rupture of the 




It ii» forci-il into tlie hubcutaneous cell.s the i^nKveding to a greater extent. Laennec 

amount tending to iniTea»<* at each ]>vrfoniiani-o Fiorry maintained titat pulmonary catarrh waa 

of the respiratory aii. Emphysema may arise one of the principal cauM^s of the dilatation oC 

from any (Mirtiua of the air pas9ai:e!i, and fre- the vesicles, whicli, unable to free themselw 

qui-ntly u« ftcen at'comiianying wounds of the from the viscid mucus witliout great effoc^ 

larynx and trachea; if the extenial wound bo of ncce«4sity became enlarged; Lnab seems to 

extensive, and the ojicning in thv lung or trachea consider that there b some power of artivt 

small, this complication H nut likely to occur, dilatation brought into play, though he gives as 

The onlinary byinptom<i are painful constriction sati»tactory dvhnition of the agency. Adadl* 

of the rluvt at the injured part, and ditliculty ting the conni>cti«)n between einphytfcma 

of breathing, which may become aIIno^t infiU]H olR^tructcd bronchi, with the first- nam<«l 

portal ill', and evt-n produce de.ith by bufloca- tliors, there is no necessity for making the 

tioD. Thv h Welling of einphy?«ema may be dis- mer a direct consec^uence of tite latter ; 

tingui^hed from itfuHionH of Huids under the ared lty a pre^ure gauge, the forceil expi 

skin by ixs crepitation and elasticity, bv its not act ha^ bee a fountl ( more powerful than cte 

pitting on pre**«ure of the lin,;er, anJ by the act of forced inspiration ; a« Ur. W. T. Ciairdaer 

ab-^ence of ret]ne<i.s pain, aiui m'eigliL After has welt ob^rved (in his work on bronchitisl 

distending the rvllular ti*^ue under the skin, the whenever viscid ob»tnictions are to lie rvmovsi 

air may iHnt:r.i!e U'twci-n the muM'los alt»ng fruiii the air pasKage^ the air ii gradually el* 

mucous i-anaN, ve^KrU, and nerve^ to the in- i»elled from the aftected part of the lung hf 

uuM rece*>«<.*< of the <irganism. The treatment expiration, and they l»erome colb|>w<! in pn^ 

C4in*i«i'« iu letting uut tho cwntined air by minute pttrtiim to the oli^truction. Kmpli} v-ma is iha 

punrtiireM with a lancet, by preventing its re- direct opp«i«»ito to broiichinl colup<&o. and Ibt 

aiMi(iiMl:itiun by proiK.T i•and:lge^ and in caM*^ indirect conM.H |uc nee of it ; bocau:^, whenever A 

of eilri niu upprr-'^iun by parllcente^is or in- iiart of the lung it uli>trurted c»r cellar ««d from 

ri^ion of the thoracic walls; the cure may Ik) bronchitis or any other cau^e. the air daring tal- 

hastened hy aiit:i>}iIo;:i'«tie niea^un-s aini liy spiratiun must ru^h with greater fi>rre and 

stiiutilattn;; ai'plicalioni and friction^. In Ku* unie into the {portions still freely open. 

to\'V it i-* i;"t unruninion for {Kr9«in4 desirous chitic arcumulati«»n and coIlaps« are 

of MC'iriii^ inmiunity friMu military hervice. and c«>mnion at the |>4isteriitr and lifwer |»art of lbs 

for p(:r{H.M'« tif menilii-.incy and diCeption, to lnn;;«s and eniphyM*ma on the free anterior bar* 

ariitii-Lbiiy inlLito with air varioui parU of the der«; the einphywmatoiis ]Mirtions are casilv 

surf.tce I'f the {nhIv. ami to pri-tend that their cttn- iiiriatcd from the bronchi, while the cullapaet 

ditii-n i« tliC r««ii!t of chri>ni«* ur cuiigenital di:4- |Mirtsure not. KniphvMtnia iis thertfonr. essesp 

eoM*^ ; the treatment in t!if«o ca<H*« con^iiits in tially a niechnniral legion from di»:enti«4i of 

seanni-at:<iu<, banda^re^, aikI t«>nic frirtiiin*. At- the air celN. in |iriiiM»rtinn to which the dovoC 

tvr I xpi'*ure to gr«.at ruM, in ct-rtain case« of in- bhmd through the ultimate capillaries of ihs 

tinial p'liMit.ing antl t>f iHiiMin«i-,i« biti«, afier CO- lunir« if* arre.^teil, cati<iii>g Bl««tri*t:i<n v4 

lidiiB (lit iihiiiC^aiiil \arit>u<t -^-vi-reai'i i<leiit«. and «all4, and t«-ri9ii»n au'l iibliteratii»n ot their 

n del>.ii!..ti«J rfnilitiiiti^ aivoMi| ani\-«l by gan« s«'U In the cum* of Mr. K. A. (irxiui. with 

greue. till re «<«'«-a«i'iti:i'.ly ar:<e4 an «iiip}jv-<-ina- p-nital fi<«*iire nf the strrnutn, in the ry«ur«# ti^ 

to4» « •>!ripli4-:ilii<n, wKit-h it tre.it«-i! in the !«anio pri>liin;:e«l for citl expiration, the che^t andabdo* 

niam.i r a* tlie i rcci'«!i!ig varit \y . — ru!in«inary men U'conie Mnaller. the vein^ at th»* roiU i«f ths 

emphiinnia may l>e eitlier \:i^ ular or ititerlub- ni-ik ^vmllen. the up|H-r intemMtal spaces <\4i* 

ular. In the tirM the ve^irlf^ are en!ar,;«-«l. ni^n vex, anil the figure aviumct its groateat width ; 

turi'«L at'd milled t«igether, and tlic bnigt. wht-n and u^MiVe the pnl<iatile rardiat* turiuir is a pri>> 

the t!.e«t i% <»,icnetl, in.i.) \fv mi diitendi'I, imto trui!:iig ma«s %iliti h iH*nMUPion slio^s to be the 

es|H«ia!!\ t!if i)p|<er h'U-«. At u* pnitrudo fpini antrrittr {Nirtion of ttie npfi^r Kdie if tlic rrghft 

Us cav ity ; « luu oa!y olc side isaflccted, i: pre^s- luii|;. This can throw little light on the ofdiaafj 



I 



EMPSON EMU 139 

of emphysema, thongb the cells are doubt- tation of the Deitj, according to the description 

lea dilated, bec&ose the protmsion is evidently of St. Paul, Lueem Beui habitat inaccesaibiiemj 

due. not so mach to the obstructed passage of air and where the saints enjoyed the beatific vision. 

«r Mood, as to active moscular effort, and to the EMS, or Bad-Ems, a German watering place 

Talstogof the whole thoracic contents by thedia- in the duchy of Nassau, on the Lahn, 15 m. N. 

nhragm and abdominal muscles in a cavity whose from Wiesbaden, to wliich and to Baden-Baden 

Dony wall is deficient in front, where of course it is inferior in extent and splendor ; pop. about 

the free portion of the lung would protrude. 4,000. It is shut in by mountains, surrounded 

Emphysema has been traced to compression of by picturesque scenery, and has a terrace by 

UMDrunchi by tamors; to the great respiratory the river side serving for a promenade. The 

cfibiti required in playing on certain wind in- Kvrhaus, a large chateau, formerly a ducal re?- 

ftroments, showing the connection between this idence, is let in apartments to visitors, beside 

fisease and forced expiration, and as partly ex- which the place has a number of lodging houses, 

amplified in the above case of Mr. Groux ; the and a new Kursaal built by the grand duke 

&po«ition to this disease has also been cousid- at the side of the Lahn, containing a cafe^ a 

wed hereditary, and doubtless many cases of so ball room, and gambling saloons. The number 

oQed hereditary phtliisic or asthma are duo to of visitors is about 4,000 or 5,000 annually, 

die veacnlar dilatation consequent on spasmodic comprising many English and Russians. The 

bcoDchial contractions. It is found in both sexes, revenue from the gaming tables forms an impor- 

it all agea, and in all constitutions ; once devel- tant item in the receipts of the duchy of Nassau, 

aped, it remains during life, sometimes station- but the duke^s subjects are not permitted to play. 

By« but generally increasing, with irregular in- The springs, which have been famous bince the 

tervaJs of ease ; the dyspnoea is sometimes such 14th century, and are supposed to have been 

thit the patient ia obliged to sit up in order to known to the Romans, are used for both bath- 

beatbe ; slight causes, as a catarrh, exposure to ing and drinking. The waters are more or 

Irritating gases or dust, or vivid emotions, are less impregnated with carbonic acid, have a 

•affioent to bring on an attack. Examination temperature of from 93° to 185° F., and are es- 

of the cheat will show an enlargement of the teemed for their eflScacy in nervous, liver, and 

iflected side at the upper region of the ribs and dyspeptic complaints, and also in diseases of the 

iaiaroostal epaceSb On percussion the chest ia chest and eyes. 

nrr sonorous;, and the respiratory sounds foe- EMS (anc. Amisia or Amisiui), a river of N. 

ble,'with ralea sonorous, dry, or humid, accord- W. Germany, rising in Lippe-Dctmold, passing 

lag to the accompanying catarrhal condition, through Hanover, and flowing; into the Dollart. 

•1^ the presence or absence of cough. It is a It is an important channel of conjmunicatlon, 

Terr common disease, generally chronic in its is na\igable about 13 m. by vessels of 200 tons, 

utore, but sometimes acute and speedily fatal, and is 234 m. long. 

It may be known by the occurrence of dyspncsa, EMSER, IIikisoxtmi's, one of the most octive 

without palpitations, disease of the heart, aide- opponents of Luther among the Roman Cutho- 

Ba, or fever, and often without any signs of lie theologians of Germany, born in Ulni in 

eaurrh. The principles of treatment are to 1472, died Nov. 8, 1527. In 1502 ho became 

nvd against pulmonary congestion by proper professor at the university of Erfurt, wliero 

depletives, to diminish the frequency of respira- Luther is said by him to havo been among his 

tioo by opium and other sedatives, to strengthen pupils. In 1504 ho established himself at Lcip- 

Ihb weakened system by tonics, to relievo tiio sic, where he also lectured at the university, 

obitructed bronchi by emetics and expectorants, and in tho year following Duke George of Sox- 

nd to avoid all tho exciting causes of catarrh ony made him his secretary. With Luther and 

■ad bronchitis, the most frequent originators the theologians of Wittenberg generally ho was 

■ad assrravators of tho disease. on good terms until the disputation of Leii>- 

£MfS<3N, Willi Asc, a British author and sic in 1519, from which time ho made, in union 

sitic, bom in 1790, died at Haileybury, near with Dr. Eck, incessant endeavors to oppose the 

Hotford, Dec. 10, 1852. He was educated at increasing influenco of Luther and the progress 

Winebester and at Trinity college, Cambridge, of Protestantism. The German translation of 

Qpon the retirement of Sir James Mackin- the Bible by Luther was attacked by him us er- 

became professor of law at tho East India roneous, whereupon it was forbidden in Saxony 

ipany's college at Haileybury, a position by Duke George. Emser then himself publish- 

^ich he occupied until his death. Subsequent ed a trani^lation of the New Testament into (ier- 

||»1880 he was tho editor of the ^^ Edinburgh man, made from the Vulgate (Dresden, 1527). 

," to which his contributions were nu- Ue also wrote Vita S. Bennonis^ as ho ascribed 

That which attracted most attention to St. Benno his recovery from a severe sickness. 

on Stanley's " Life of Arnold.^^ He married EMU {dromaius Notcb lloUandiof^ Ijitham), a 

• only child of Francis Jeffrey, who addressed bird closely allied to tho cassowary, a native of 

lum tome of his most interesting letters. New Holland and tho ai^jacent islands. Tho 

EMPTREUM, or Emptreax (Gr. ck, in, and emu differs from the cassowary in its broader 

Ict^ fire), a name given by tho fathers of the bill, in its head covered with feathers above, 

ilveU and the ancient theologians to the high- and in its smaller and moro obtuse claws ; as 

■I point of the heavens, where was the habi- in the latter, tho cheeks and sides of the nock 



140 ENAUOSAURIANS EXAHKLUNQ 

are nake«1, t}ic \c^ lon^ nn«l n>bniit and protect* by discoidal bones disponed like thote of 

ed I'V (itn*n(( foaIi>s and tlio win^ and tail not reant. Tlicy have been divided into 2 |miap% 



apparvtit ; tho mid' lie tfjo 14 the longest, the in- whose eharact4*rs correfipond alio to their m^ 
niT the nhortv^t. This bird was named emn br Uigical pofiitiou. The ichlhyonaorimns/incliiaiM 
tho Eng]i^h niKmi^t*, who ctwifoundiHl it with tho ichthyosaurus and /^/meaa una) have w«f 



the caMtiwanr or emu of tho Mohiccai; to dift- developed crania, withttnall fotHsand 

tingui«h till' in, ornitholof^isitH call tlie present bird these have been foand in the Jaraioic and 

New Holland t-mii. There isimlv one s|>ecie8 <»f ceons Htrata. The other group, the fimoiai 

the genu.% living in tlie eurafyplvs and casva- (inchiding notkcsavruA, simMauma, Ae.), 

rina fiirci-tA in tho Australian isiland^ Its tho cranium with very largo temporal 

lentrth U about 7 feet; it^i plumage is thick, and orbital and nasal cavities; they ars foqat 

and of a brnwnMi culor. Tho feathvrs are re- only in the trianic strata. The first twog«Mm 

markable fmm their two central Bt«m4 being are the best known, and the most commoa la tte 

nniti-d at the bas4.\ licarinf? simple barb a, and strata of England and (lermany ; the itt 

somotiiiK-^ very bhort barbule^ Tlie furm is iourt<« must have attained a length of nearly 

Uiirk and hva\ y, tho ba<*k arched, the denuded feet, and tlie pUswmurus of more than IS, 

neck of a \ iulvt color, and the feat hem on the both presented forms most nnlike those of 

head are f^^w^ simple, and hair-like. Tho emu existing animals, though admirably adapted !• 

prvM.*nt4 the ^lu!^.•^t analogy to tho ostrich in its tho circumstances in which they lived (8m 

anatomioal structure; a wide membranous sao IcnrnTosAcars, and Pi.uioeAcai*s.) 
is fomiod below the crop by a dilatition of tho CN AMUUC, Pierrb VANoaoegrB DiiL 9% ft 

cesophsfrui, wliirh endst in a slightly develoiied French navigator, bom in Dieppe, died in fiL 

{risanl; thi* inte*ti(ifd canal is aUmt 10 feet Christopher, W. I., Dec. 1636. Being d wm 

ong; the wind|ii{ie is very long, and at its 52d adventurous spirit, he sailed from Di«p|ie !■ 

ring o|»on4 into an immenm; mubcular sac, whoso 1625 in a brigantine of 8 guns, for the AntiDMk 

ttie is not Welt aM'crtainod ; according to Wagner, He Unded in the island of 8l Christopher on thm 

the bones of thi> wrijtt are wanting in this bird, samo day with a party of English colookllL 

TIte nativif of New South Wales call tho emu with whom lie divided tho ii4and, and, natu 

parrmbiing. It is a timid bird, running with his death, held the French half of the c6Umj 

groat rnpiility, aud very ran-lv taken; it was with extraordinary tenacity. In 1635 betook 

once Ciiniinon in the neighborhood of Sydney, posMs.«ion of Martinique in the name of ik* 

but rivili/atiun h:is now driven it U'Vond tho Ling of France, and founded the town of 8L 

Klue mountain*. It prefers o{>en shrubby places Pierre. 

and sandy plaii:«. When puriiuc^l it takes read" ENAMELLINO, tlie art of applying a coil 

ily to the water, and swimn with its UhIv miMt* ing of vitreous lubstances calle<l enamels to n 

ly •ubiiitT'^iMl. It fei'<Non fruits, iKTri^A HMtt^ surface of glass or of metal, and baking this in 

and varitMi*. herbi. The feiiialo Liy^it tir 7 virtr^, by a fusing heat. In its h(»moliest apidi< 

in a ^1:^*ht hi*lIow H-ratched in t}io eartli; tho it is a iH»rt of glazing, and as applied by 

ijiale h:!!*'!!!** tin* egg^ and taki*s rare 4»f the em methods to ornament and protect sui 

briKHl Kc.'.il ili«y can provide fur t}irmhlv«-«; of cast or wrought iron, it may be consideri4 

the vtiMii;; are i>f a grAyi«h oiior, with 4 bands simply a pnK*ess iif Japax.nino. whirh see. B|f 

<if l-ri^'IiT ri-'l. T!ie tle^h in eaten by tlio na- the f:u-ility with wliirh colors might be intio* 

tlvfk, ;irii1 i<» Nti'l t'l hsve tho taste of U.>ef. duced in tho vitreous ifimpttunds or apfdied la 

KN.M.It i>.\I'IMANS i(ir. tvaXior. nisrino, them and beconu* fixed by a second kiaLinctlin 

anil irut ,M>[. n li/ard t, an order of fosiiil luHrino art wui in enrly times exceedingly popolv, 

n-ptilrs f«>i:!iil in t!ie liassio, triavsic, and rr« ta- and in the mitldie ages it attained a l.iglirr rank 

riiiU4 «iHich-. They pre^'nt tho i»trange?«t fornix, even than it now hold^, a^ one of the tine artik 

uniting i:i their ^:riii*turo rharaitfrs «hii*li ap- The unrieiit iVrsians and Arabians appear M 

pt-ar ut tirto! ^-i^ht iti>-oni;>utihIe. Thrr have tho have prurti^r^l it ujkui earthenware and pom* 

\rrti ^^.l• i>f ti«hf. tl.i- t'vtli of crociHiUianN the lain ; and the nio<lo of cidoring this ware at the 

Xnttlr I'f ]:/.iri!*, tho pni!i!1e4of rt'ta<-enn!i or ina- pre-ont day }•■ jiroiKTly a process of enaiDeIlin& 

riii«* t::r;!i <t. aipI •Mniie havo a \»ttiji hnakt-Miko u will Ih.* nvn in tho detcriptiun to tie given of 

nr«'k. M.i!iy iif the<to ci-j'.Litio iiaunaM4 attaitie<l thi^ manufacturo. Articles of |H>ttrrT enaiMl* 

a !:i v *>'«'i •'^'•d fri'iit their vi-rai-ity mu*>t have led in cihirs are found among the rains of ■•• 

Km the terfiT of tho watir« of tho ^'ri»nd- c'ient TlieU-^s and in many of the citi^s uf Egypt 

ary t'{«t:.. nftrr thv> di*ap{H-ar»tiro of tho are buildings ci<n«!nicted ttf c-nantellod bricfcs 

gri'at •>a*:r'>i'l t>ht-4 of tho iarlHiniftTii>2*i taki-n fntin t!ie nt ins of older ritirs. WilkinauS 

lnTi'-!. W !•■! roii^idi r* ih.rii as ei'mm^ i.*ar- Mate-* that " it hiisUn^n tjuentioniHl if the Egyp* 

c^t !•• thi* •ia':riaii«, thuc^rh •>»* dttri riMit fr>>>ii tiann umler^tiMMl the art of enamelling npoft 

ariv ti:*'.ini; ^^i**'^ ^ t'* re'pjin* tht* e»t.il> guM or filvi-r, hwi wo might infer it fMcn AB 

li«hi!.<M.c i-J a !ii w onbr. whi>»t« priiuipal r^iar- expreNkioii of Tliny, who »ay*: 'Tho Egypiiann 

af't«-r« nTK* b^''i<!H-avo ^ertel'rn*. Hi<Ii-r than j aint their ^iIvl■r va***, ri'pre^enting Annbil 

loii^. iA i'h !kriii:i.i* f<i-«<My ut.iti^l t>i the Um1,i-«; u|*on them, the silver U*ini* |iaiutKHl and nut CA- 

coiiii al tft!li. wi'Jiti'it ra%ity at th«ir haM*. iin- graced;* and M. DiiIhi;4 had in his t^MASiion 

piar.t<->! Ill »hi>rt i!i • pM'aSfl a!vi-<!: ; bvA 4 a «]irriiiicn of (Vyp^'sn eiiamrL'* Frv*m Um 

aLor% flatt^zied limit, uhuse fir.gvn arc furuvU Eg^ptiaiis tho art Is suppoivd tw have p 



ENAMELLING 141 

fha Greekfli and afterward to the Romans, in some fine portraits hj Angostin, and varions 

Brongniart, however, in his Traite dm arts ce- French and Englbh artists have since executed 

fmmicmea^ traces its introduction into Italy from many fine portraits in tliis style, distinguished 

the Balearic isles by the Spaniards, who de- for the brilliancy of their colors, and the more 

rired the art from the Arabs. The Romans in- valuable for their permanency. A piece of 5 

trodneed it into Great Britiun, as appears from inches in its longest dimensions was considered 

TBiOQs enameUed trinkets that have been dug the largest that could with safety be under- 

ip there with other vestiges of the Roman con- taken ; for with the increase of size the liability 

qoensn. That the Saxons practised the art ap- of injury to the enamel by cracking, and to tho 

from an enamelled jewel found in Som- plate by swelling and blistering in the several 

lure, and preserved at Oxford, which processes of baking, rapidly increased ; but by 

an inscription stating that it was made backing the metallic plate with one of porcelain, 

bT&ectl<Hi of the great Alfred. The gold cup the work is now executed in pieces of much 

ana br Kins John to the corporation of Lynn larger dimensions, even 18 inches by nearly as 

fa Hormk shows, by the colored enamelled great a breadth. The process is usually conduct- 

iii— of the fiffores with which it is embel- ed as follows. The plate is coated on both sides 

BAed, that the In ormans also practised the art. with a ground of white enamel, and on this the 

AflHog the Gaols enamelling upon metallic sur- design is lightly sketched with a pencil, using 

hem la miderBtood to have been in use in the red vitriol mixed with oil of spike. The colors. 

Id oentuiy. As practised upon earthenware in finely ground and mixed with oil of spike, are 

tka ityle called by the Frencn faience mnamunc then laid on as in miniature painting. By gen* 

M imtnlfie, and by the Italians majolica ware, tie heat the oil is evaporated, and in an cnam- 

It was earned to great perfection in the 16th eller's fire the plate is next made red-hot to 

OBtory at Castel Durante and at Florence by incorporate the colors wiUi the enamel. The 

tka IratherB Fontana d' Urbino. Other Italian painting may then be retouched, and the colors, 

dte adopted the &vorite art, and Faenza be- again be burned in, and this may be repeated 

MOM iamons for the works of Gnido Selvaggio. several times if necessary. But the greatest ac- 

Qt articles produced in this style were rather curacy in the first drawing and coloring is essen- 

^jtfbdB of luxury than of use. Some were tial for a perfect picture. In this department 

itasb for the tables of princes, adorned with may be consulted tiie work of Count de Laborda, 

tka most delicate sculptures and splendid paint- Notice dee emaux expoeSe dane lee gaUree du Lou- 

imi There were also vases of numerous forms, vre, — In the ordinary processes of enamelling, 

■naU flasks covered with tendrils, figures of the enamels used for tho ground are opaque, and 

Hints, birds of brilliant plumage, painted tiles, must bear a higher degree of heat without fusing 

Ac, all formed merely of baked clay covered than the colored enamels, which are afterward 

nh an opaque enamel composed of sand, lead, melted into them. They are made after a great 

Bid tin, upon which the designs, in some instan- variety of recipes, according to the uses to which 

Ml those of Raphael, were painted in enamel they are to be applied. All those designed 

flolon and baked in. This high style hardly out- for metallic surfaces have a transparent base. 

Sfed the artists who perfected it ; and from which is rendered opaque by tho substitution of 

1540 it gradually deteriorated. Bernard do combined oxide of lead and oxide of tin, in tho 

BiUflBy, by practice of 25 years directed to tho place of the oxide of lead used as one of its ingre- 

pradnction of a cup like one of great beauty dients. Five ditfercnt mixtures of tho two oxides 

ihown to him, sought to introduce the art in are in use, the proi)ortions varying from 3^ parts 

Ymctj and his works became very famous, but of lead and 1 of tin to 7 parts of lead and 1 of 

\aM m^hod died with him. llis productions tin. The two metals, in the desired proportion, 

intercstiug as true copies of natural ob- are melted togctlier, and the combined oxide is 

in relief^ and colored with exact faithful- removed as fast as it appears upon the surface. 

Some of these objects were fossil shells When the oxidation is as thoroughly efiected as 

the Paris basin. Of late years the art practicable, the product is well washed to ro« 

!■ been revived in France, chiefly through move any particles of metal that may have 

ftsakfll of M. Brongniart; and in Berlin also escaped oxidation, as these would greatly im- 

fennftifbl work of the kind has been executed pair the quality of the enamel ; for tho same 

tM. Feilner. — Painting in enamel, as prac- reason it is essential that the metals themselves 

S upon plates of gold and copper, can hardly should be absolutely pure and free from tho 

la ngarded as applied to works of high art usual alloys found with them. One or other of 

' the 17th century. Jean Toutin, a gold« the mixtures of oxides obtained by the method 

1 at Cb&teaudun, appears about the year described is next melted with proper quantities 

to have first made enamels of fine opaque of silica (pounded quartz), saltpetre, and a little 




MknL and applied them to portraits and his- borax ; the last gives greater fusibility as its pro^ 

V Meu Mbjects. Other artists profited by his portion is increased, and no more is used when 

I iMraetiona, and several miniature painters at* the enamel is to be applied upon copper or 

I lijfaad great dfstinction in this branch. The art silver than upon gold. The plates are some- 

I lAward fol into disuse, and was only applied times chemically acted on by the enamel, and 

I tavBamenlng watch cases and rings. In tho if the gold of the gold plates is alloyed with 

I mltf part & the present century it reappeared too much copper, the effect of this is perceived 

L 



142 EKAMELUNG 

in injnrinp the appoaranre of tlic onamcl. For room. A new coatinir Is neit addrd prerarad 

makinf? coKtivU enaineK ciilicr tho opn«]iic or fmrn 1251lis. of wliito Rlau without K-aiL ft5 Ib^ 

transparent enami'I M^rven a» a lia$e, and with it of borax, 20 1h:«. of Mxla in cryrUd^ which hav« 

hi molto<l a snita!>le profKirtion of mtiiie metallic bei-n piilreri2e<l and fuM}d Uigvther. gnmod^ 

oxidtf a.4 a coloring matter; for a blue enamel, c(H>liil in water, and dricsl. To 45 H«. of tUi 

the t>pa(pie is omnI with oxi«lv of cnhsLlt; for a 1 lb. of noda is adde<1, tlie whole miicd in hot 

preen, oxitle of rhromium. or binoxide of co|>- wati-r, driv«l and pounded. A portion of it itriT 

pvr; for a violet, ftertixide of man^ne^e; ed over the other coaling whde it is Mill n ' 

fiir a velluw, chloride of Mlver ; fur a purple, and driiil in a etove at the tein|i«ratore of 

pnr|tle (if CiL'«»iiis; and for a black, tho tran^ Inp water. The voAJielia then heated in a ■(ova ( 

piirent enamel is u^hmI with mixed oxidi*i« of muffle till the (;laze fuses. It is taken out. 



cupiK*r. cobalt, and raaiicaneso. Tho dilFer* glaze powder i:« du!*ted on tlie giaxe alreadrlB 

ent enamels bfiii^ pn-p:ire«l l»efore!iand, aro f\ision, and it i^ apaiii subjected to heat. Tbm 

when wanteil for u«e crushed t(» |MiwdiT. ami proce^ri now em|>love<l i^ncceasfnlly tv McawiL 

then kept at hand under water in Vi-«5ivU wi-U T. K. (iriffitlisaiKi vo. «»f Hinuingliain, of eoatfaif 

coveretl to protect them frt>m all impuritii^. the interior surface of wrought iron ve^aeklkeos* 

The metallic hurfact-4 to U* c(»ate«l are cleaned bists in tirst brn^hing it over, when thoroogh^ 

bj lM)il(iig in an alkaline M.>I:>tion, antl are then eleane^l, with a mbition of gum arabic : on this 

wa«bc*«l witli pure water. Tlic copfKT al!f»y in is pit>e<l a fine vitreoiia jiowder, cunsi*tiDf fl€ 
c di 



gidd miiy l>c di^wilvi'd from iho ^url':lce by Uiil- 130 purta of |K>wdered ifiiit glaM, Sh| of 

ini; in a ^trt>n;r !t«>lutiun of 40 p.irta of »alt[H'tre, l»onate t4 scnla, and 12 of boraric acid T 

25 of alum, and A5 of c«>mmnn »:dt. — In the man- are tu (to well mixed, melted in a glata maktr^ 

nfacture of enaniolK-d earthen wan\ the whito crucible, ami piilvi'rized so as tu paM thiuogk 

enamt-l is prepared by nK-Itin;^ Knj Pi«. of Ivad a Kieve of 6<) hi>les to tlio inch. Tb« artirlt 

with lo to 5<Hl>«. of tin, and addim; to the ox- thn<i coateil \* placetl in an oven heated to frvoi 

ides thus obtaitifd the Kime wei;;ht of <iujirtz 212^ to UOO^ t\ and when dry i* removed t» 

»and, and ^M IIh. or thireal»out of common am tt her oven, and heated to a bright rctl till tb« 

aalt. The i« hule UMiig well nibbe«l together U glaM in iieen througli the aperture to be mcllad. 

meltiH] ; a: ill thuugh ii may appear of dark rolor. It it then taken out and annealed. A Kecuncla^ 

ll afUTwanl livcMnu'S white «hen rednred to p]ir.ition is made if the first prove ini| 

|Ki«dfr aiiil bukvil UMin the uterioiN. Tlie pn»- Cireat care in n-(|uire4| tljat the glassy pi 



JM)rn«»M'« if the mati-ri.'iU employed are vi-ry tion lie proterti-d from mixture with forc^ 
vari.tb!e. a:i«l otlier in^'ri'difntjialviareofti.'n in- matters, and it i-* well to glaze the interior flf 
tn»itui-rd, partit.ilarly oxide of manh'TmeM', tho the crucible8U'fi*reuMng them. Colored cttUi* 
^iTvci tif niiiith ill Mnall ijnantiry U to \ifld its cN may afterviard U* Hpplied to the «urfSar« of 
uxye^u U'liuy rarUir!.i«'i-«iiH inipTiritit-^ that may the white roatin^ if dcitired. Hy this method 
\fO pri-«*'[it. and rviii<>\i- thr-v in tht* fiirm of irnn plates have Ik-cu made ti» imitate inart4^ 
carliniM" :»oid fp'fn the iiultedim-"*. Thei-'l-T- ami manti-U fur liri'plai'eH, tables Ac. havt 
etl en.iMv!* art- appiuil by paiiKinc th« iii \ihen In-eh prtMbiccil in New Yt»rk alnv>«t ei}ual fai 
finelv (:r<>(Hi<!. tkiA mixed ui'h •xifite vivr!a'<Io lK*aiity to the orii:inal<. There is hunwer. a 
oil. :i4 tli.i! I't -;>:ke l:«Vfn!i r. n|Ni|i die white tenilem-y in tho ptate*i to warp bv hi-at. and fai 
eiiritDi!. ii'kiiiT )h I'lire i>r a:'ti-r th:i !ia« InTn onn* tin- rnaiurl to M'ale utf: and tJii^ latter tlrfrct Ii 
hratol. :iikd thi-n f-ikiii;: thoin in. TKe uViik a^HTioiHolijertiitn tf» the c-namelied imo rm^kiM 
fur i!ift.i!!.i- art.rl'i are ni<i:Mi* ni.vlo to »li<io ute[ioi!o*M>ld inthol'niie«lStati-s. ThemctAlaM 
r]i*<H!y iii:<> l^e f':rnai e. aiid f:ir?::o!ii'«l with a the l' I i/edi* not expand and e«*n tract t(Vetli«r.** 
Miiall aMTtire t!ir'M.jh wl.ii*i the ]iri*^e*4 tif Sinall artieU-ii uf enamel, as Uttle t^vii iuil 
the ii|<«'r:i:i>>n t::n\ **vMti««r\i •!. — Theettaiiielliiif; th*- t:;rure4 of binN, A:«*., and al*4i artificial 
of i^A": iri>:i ••>>k;i:;; iit« ?:«.!« «a« prai'tiHi-«l at are inado by nii It in;: with the table blowpipe 
the ili'^i* •r t'.e la-t rei.i.iry, and a nuni^^T v{ ri>«U or tubes of enamel prcfnirvil f<<r this pu^ 
diTfere',: in'.\t .re« of the M.iterial^ eini'In.^ed p'^M'. and f»i!ia{-i;i;; I hem by haiid. ju«t as tb« 
have ^i;:ie \kk:i in i:-*. Tlie i.-h.* of had inti»t g!:i<»« Mi^Wer nork^ with tuliesaiiil rutl* of glaoL 
be rari!t.'.!v u^'sdi-d i!i ar!i>-!e« i-f th:« kind. Artitii ial e\e« are thu« nimle w.!li in^at pcf^ 
Ve«M \* of «r>-i:.*:.: iri>:i arv a!^i treatt**! \i\ tlie fet'thni. — Kiiatnellinrof »latc*t !•• imitate tnarfcle 
>ain« prii •■*■«: a:i<l run pijH* fi<r omveMng and niularhite wa"* intriNbiee«l in Locduo BOC 
VBitT :« :.•!..!: '..v'('"*iv f'nittH'ti-tl bv a eh .in maiiv lear^ -liiev br Mr. (t. K. M.icnu«: and th« 
»ihi io';- en •i7i> I n ■*. i. i^Ie t^J atfi-rt the purity ii{>eriiiien«. tln-n ijiiitv novel, esliibited at \hm 
of the «.i! r. -I:.e pnti lit n^ht i>f Me«»ro. great r\!.i hi linn nf IVi I, received hijrfa pr«ifl« ia 
1 U'le of K:..'!.;t.'l. i-f l** •".». ct'fi*.»t<'«l in the u-*» the re|-irt of the j-ihe*. and a f r./«» titrdal «ai 
•if t^•• f <.i •« iMgT ii<nirMni!h>n and nittli«Nl ; ]t4i a\i:iriled totlu exhibitor. The art wa»fint prae^ 
\\'. of I al- .i.*^\ »T>':rid :!:t>:« a.'id 5o 1».«. cf U*r.\x ti-i-d o |!ii- I mteil Slated at \U ott*n, and alaU* 
rtU'iMi I ft:i I \\\t'\ grii'i' •!. t-» W ir.iied. f'lv*!. fr.iiii Wale** were im|H<rtr«l t*» U- u«rd fi* thta 
and /rai! :.tl..« i ••• \-<i. < *f '.l.t«. 4** \\ *. ar<- nii\i •! piir;>ii-4-. Sub«<^|Ueiitly the »lati wof the Ijehi^ 
«.:li 5 iS». ■ f i-'tlt r*' el 11. Af.il /ri.-.;i.'l in \*j*vr rivtr were applied In ihi^UM* in I.*-!i!i:h Co.. Teiia^ 
to a p ■*>t.^ n^a**. I'.o \t«M!. tir«t l}.**rii-:.rl:!y an 1 %rerea!^»*M'nt t<> I'|iilaile1p!..a tnli^tbrreco- 
ftl^mnvd. n !.:i>d w /.i ai ••.itin/of tl.i« aIn-'mI j I'f aT!>e!!il. In Wrnii fit t\e tair.e b':«'.D«is isbov 
thlek, a:.J left (^jt ii to harden m a Harm carrii-d on at We»l V.VtIvt«.Hi. « l.i re art cxtea- 



ENAREA ENOAUSTIO 148 

sre qtuuriei of aUte, and an establishment of and Jalins Panlus (lib. vii. et seq.), Connt Caylnt 

the same kind is in operation in New York, called the attention of the French academy of 

A great varietj of useful articles are produced, belles-lettres to it in 1755 ; and M. Bachclior, 

among which the most important are billiard author of a treatise De Vhiatoire et du secret 

nd oSier tableSi mantels, tubs for bathing, sinks, de la peinture en eire^ had produced a picturo 

4e. The slsi^s as received from the quarries in wax in 1749. In 1829 M. de Montabcrt, in 

ire flnt aawed to proper shape, then planed to his Traite des tons Us genres dt peinture, favor- 

uiform thickness, and rubbed smooth with pol- ably noticed the process, and M. Durozier of 

ishing stones. The ground color adapted to the Paris soon after announced that he had perfectly 

marUe it is designed to imitate is then laid on, succeeded with the method given by Montabert. 

md after this the variegated colors. The slab The ancient methods appear to have consisted 

ii then placed in an oven heated to 200^, and in the use of wax crayons, in which the colors 

iDowed to remAin over night. In the morning were embodied, and which were used upon a 

after cooling it receives a coat of varnish, and heated surface, the outline of the picture hav- 

iiittamed to the oven till the next day. Other ing been first traced. The whole was afu>r- 

hcatiDgs and vamishings alternately succeed, ward covered with a varnish of wax melted in 

with robbing with pumice stone, and a final and polished. The method of Oount Caylus con- 

pnl^hing wiui pumice stone, rotten stone, and sisted of rubbing and melting wax into the canvas 

the hand, completes the process. or panel, then coating the surface with Spanish 

EXAREA, or Exakta, a country of E. Afri- white, and painting upon this with water colors. 
ca» W. of Abyssinia, between lat. 6° and 8° N. By warming the picture the colors are absorbed 
■id kmg. 83"* and 87° £., 15 days* journey from into the wax, and thus protected. Mr. J. II. 
the Nile. It is elevated above the adjacent re- Muntz recommends waxing only one side of the 
^ona, traversed by a range of hills, in many canvas, piunting on t!ie other in water colors, 
ptrts densely wooded, fertile, and watered by and then melting tlie wax throogh to fix them. — 
■ereral rivers. It is peopled by Gallas, among Encaustio Tilbs consist of a body of red clay, 
whom are found a few Mohanmiedans and Abys- faced with a finer clay, which bears the oma- 
■manCluistians. It exports slaves, ivory, gold, mental pattern, and strengthened at the base 
coffee, horses, musk, and the skins of various wild with a thin layer of a clay different from the 
■nim^l*^ in exchange for rock salt (the national body, which prevents warping. The clay of 
carrency), beads, daggers, knives, guns, kitchen the body is exposed to the weather for 6 months 
vtensihft, copper, and cotton goods. The capi- or more, and is afterward thoroughly worked 
tal, Sakka, is a considerable place, not far from over and tempered, and mixed witli other sub- 
die bank.« of the river Kibbe, and is visited by stances, and at last evaporated at the slip-kiln, 
caravans which come from the Nile and from From a cubical block of this, formed in the 
Goodar in Abyssinia. usual method by slapping, a square slab is cut 

ESAULT, Locis, a French writer, bom at off with a wire, upon which slab the facing of 
Ugny, Calvados, in 1824. After having trav- finer clay colored to the desired tint is batted 
Acd in various countries and visited tlie East out and slapped down ; a backing is then applied 
ia 1853, he went in 1854 to Northern Europe, in the same way to the other side of the tile. 
His Constantinople et la Turquie apfK'ared in It is then covered with a piece of felt, and put 
1895, and his Voyage en Laponie et en Norvege into a box press ; a plaster of Paris slab contain- 
in 1857. He has been a frequent contributor ing the pattern in relief is then brought down 
to the leading reviews and newspapers of Paris upon the face of the tile, and the design is im- 
Vkder the nom de plume of Louis de Vermont, pressed into the soft tinted clay. The hollows 
and has made translations from Goethe's Wer- thus formed are filled with a semi-fluid clay of 
tl«p, Mrs. Stowe's ** Uncle Tom's Cabin," and a rich or deep color poured into them and over 
ftvB the works of Dickens. Ue is now the lit- the whole surface of the tile. In 24 hours this 
eniT critic of the Paris ConstitutionneL has become sufficiently hard to admit of the 

ISiCAUSTIC (Qr. n',in, and Kavirruor, bum- surplus clay being removed, which is done by 

i^rt, a term applied to the method of fixing placing the tile, still in the box, upon a horizon- 

aolDn npon objects by burning them in. £n- tol wheel, and as it revolves applying a knife or 

iBaQing in colors is an encaustic process. The scraper entirely across, so as to rest upon the 

void it most commonly used in its application edges of the box. The surface is thus cut down 

to Ml ancient method of painting, in which wax so as to expose the pattern and tho ground. 

employed with the colors, and a coating of Tho defects are removed with a knife, and the 

■me material was finally applied to the pic- edges after being squared are rounded off with 

to preserve it from the action of the atmo- sand paper. The tiles are kept for a week in a 

■hare and lights In modern use a peculiar kind warm room called the green-house, and thodry- 

if tBea are ciuled encaustic ; and by the French ing is afterward completed in another called the 

the tame epithet is applied to preparations of hot-house. They are then baked like other arti- 

id for polishing and protecting the sur- cles of pottery, except that double tho ordinary 

of wood. The little that is known of the time is given to the process, and the oven is 

mt art of encaustic painting is derived from left 6 days to cool before the tiles are taken 

nention made of it by Pliny (** Natural His- out. They contract in baking from I to jV ^^ 

'," Hb. zzxv. ch. xL), Marcianus (lib. xvii.), their dimensions. Tho process is supposed to be 



144 ENCILVSING EXOBINITE 

nevly Oio Hatno v that oini'loTcsI in the mijilla fium, of calcaUtinfr an orbit Mmmed to b« ^ 

Mgvn ill Frunotf auJ Ln^KiMl in making [uivo- li|}tical, he showeU Uiat its poriud uf rtcomaoi 

tueiitf f jr i hun !io«. ami al^i fur tLf U*autiful muiit bo ab<iut 3} jcara, and that it wasi proba- 

r littery (m!1c(1 lU-nry II.'s ware, peculiar to My thv samo comet observed by Vecniua fa 

rancc in \hv lOili cvutury. — The Krvurh apply ITS^. by Mian Ilenchcl in 1795, and bj Poot la 

the tiTni tnra*.*tie tn pri-paratii>n# uf wax umhI Wi'i. Ho calculated the effects of t£e ptftor* 

fur iKili^liih;; fiirnitur\'. (St-o Fkencii roi.i«ii.) batii^nii it would czj>oricnce from theplaacCarr 

KNi HASlNli, or Chamm). a pn)r«.s8 analo- bodieii, especially from Jupiter, and predictod 

gou« to that of sculpture, lieiog tho art of finUh- ita return in 1823, though it would probably aol 

log urnarnoittai dt-^icn* in rai!M;il work upon sur- be visible in Europe. On June 8 of thai jcv 

faces of ^L«■t■t tnctal. When the«e tU^igns havo it was divcovered at the obwrTatory of Sv 

received ihuir pinerul form by ca*>tinj;, ham- TliomaftHri^banc, f^vemorof KewSoatiiWAlML 

tuerinj:. ir < it her meai:*, the work in finished, all He predicted itji return in 1825, and vHh each 

but poii^Ilin^, with piinrhei or cha>in^ t(K»l^ reap]»earance as predicted more elements w«a 

These arc i>f a irnat vnritty of fthai>es and mzi>!S alTunleil for computing its exact orbit. It a^ 

fitted to ci'rn'^iHmd with the minute ditaiN of peared a^ain Oct. 30. 1828, and Encka was ■£■• 

the mi>«t oomph- 1 work. Some are frroovcd to fix its orbit as witliin that of Japlter, te 

and chi-i ki-nvl at the c;:>K and Mjme are nicely greatest distance from the sun being 4 times the 

PoUhIkiI. Thi-y act i>:i a MUful sH^ale liko the earth's distance, and its least distance bot | thai 

dies u*A:«i f"r«!rikiii^ cuins and metUI^; ami the of tho earth, and its |>eriod of revolation SJit 

BiuaUi.^t of tlivm are struck with hammers of vears. Hy comparison of the times of Its ca^ 

diminutive hizc. In onler that tho form of lier and later apparitions, Encke was aftenrarl 

hollow ur:I«-Ii-s may it«>t bo injured in theoiiera- led to detect a gradual acceleration of its mofa- 

tion, thcM} are tllUd with a compoMiion of ment, amounting to about 2 J hoars on each rar^ 

melted pt:«-h and bn«*k du«t or msiiu, or with olution. This secular acceleration, neTer bclbta 

pit4.'h ulfue. llii-y are moreover ftUp|»orted recitgnized in the movement of any other cds^ 

u^ton a iuiid \\u'* like tlmM* U!*^-d by engravers, tial body. Encke ascribed to a rasliting mediaa^ 

llorks in oippt-r and li.'-a!*^ aro Mwuvtimes tilled m-hich sensibly affects a body of the aztRiM 

with lead !o give them a tirm supi>ort within ; rarity of this comet, which isltransfiarent to IH 

but this will not do fur urticks in gold and centre, but has no fierceptible effect npoo tha 

silver, which mi'lte*l lead would seriou<»Iy in- dvn«iT planetary bodies. Resistance uorlaai 

lure. The mo«lels uihih which tho sand moulds tho time of the revolution by giving mater i^ 

fur receiving objects intended for chasing are feet to the attraction of the sun, which tli 

prepared, arc them*clvi-s M.>mitimes chafed draws the I »ody more forcibly toward itself. 



nearly to the rr<iuiri.-l forms. Excollcnt spcci- ening the major axis of the ellipse and thus Its 

.■voluti'in. 



mcn^of (Ij:i.*^'duork arc *<irn in pitTo^of anrivnt orbit of rev olut inn. In investigating the 

anuitr. a:.ii in vaM.-« a!.<l other ornament <• in guM turbing effects of tho planets U|Hin titis 

aLd -•4U\r plate. 11. e tll«■^t beautiful are thoM) of Jupiter in its aphelion, and of Merrorj la 

by iWnv' niii'i rtlli:ii. win) died in lu7<t. In its |H.'rihelion, ho was 1«mI to sn«piH-t that tha 

France tin' art i« prarti^il unly in <ini' ^nlaI] dia* ma^'i of the farmer had been greatly underraftad 

triet "f r.iri«. uiid chii ;lv liiDitei] t>i tlie pru'luc- (.i faet afterward e»tabli>hed by Trvf. Airr)' 

tii'U (>:' :!.. rii hly wpii:.'}ii articles ttf br«>iize. and in l^:iS Kncke proved that Ijigrange Lai 

KNi'KM. J>iiiA\\ i'i:\N£, a (ivnnan m- &«4Tiln.'d nearlv 3 times too great a bulk tv Mcffw 

tn^n••nlt■.^ ^H<rn at IIa:nburg. S'pt. "IX ITl^l. cury. Encke s expUnation of the rsuse of tha 

Wvi fath'T. a 4 li r,:\niar.. eilui'ated him at hmne aecelcratiou is not univenuUly accepted, thoQgh 

mjtU li>- w.i- M ti*. t'l t!.e utii\i'rMty tif (i<t- the f.tct it.<^*lf is n«it que^tinned. I W-m^I partis 

tin^-en. In l-*lu ar.l 1^14 he Krve^l in the ularly opi^K^i'd tho explanatiitn : lythoKogiMih 

Haii^a'.li !i,;'.><ij :iga:ii«t Napolenn, anil In 1^13 a»tn>n«miers it is mure favorably retvived. Be* 

be cnl- Ti il *.!:e TrM^-ian ni:litary K.*rvl>'e, but ^iile theito investigations, Encko has imfiroTeA 

ail«Titur>l :f-i I ]i*.i-«l a -itnati'iii in the f>^>^'rva- the thei>ryof Vesta, and nubrmhf<d a new meCh« 

tory of >i*!>ir.:, iie.tr (f!!i]i. J:i \^to he w.os k.A ff c<*mputing |»erturb.ition\ es^pecially to 

ap|xi:i.t« «! tirii:i>r ••:' t!.e ri^^al it^'««.Tv.itnry orbi!« ci*ii>Iderably elliptical. The planet Ne^ 

at ]ii-xi.:r, h!iti ha« •-. iT ^i[ll-e r* tnainitl iu tnr.e wni di<*i'nvvn'd St hii oW*r\atory bj M. 

char;;e i>i' :].:« i':«!:!.::;<i:i. IK* i^ the niithnr (ialif, his aviistant. Since 1 slo Kncko Itas an* 

of nia:.,) lai'iuMe i:.^.ni->in* "n a*tri*nitmiial nii.iily puMisihisltite^'A^trononiirU Year Um^^** 

su^jl.•-!». .-I w'.:- }j :).•• ni '•! ii:ti re«::n*r ax.d im and nneo IMO ** A^tntnomiral nK^rratvons 

fMirta:.: i^k- th<' tri.k!iM-« ] -;l>i;«!ii-«l iti the .1»- niaile at the Unyal < 'bservatnry at IWTlia." la 

fr<»M'**i*^>i^ SirKr^ '..'#f., :i: I'm r!:n. in l**:!! and \^\'\ he pulili-hetl di**ertation« /A* formMii 



l^oj, i.[ -n ::.e<'->mt*. 'J.en eaili-d by ihi> name Ih^fffi^is; and in 1*^6 a trt»atiM» "On the 
of I't :.-, ::.o a*!r -li"'! • r i-f M.i.'^-illi*. »!.■• ili«- llelati'in of .\Htrv»niimr to tho other S 



€«i«rrt .1 1*. .:i N< V. l'>l>«. l.iit n"W InnMu .VI tho KNCKINlTK Mir. ff^NKir, a hlv), a &m1 
Ciimet f:K:.'Sk«. >.f.-;e it* di»*iivery Kncke gi*nt:« of tho family crinewZ/rt an«l e[ai« erJ 



li:*d d:!i;:ri.:! V :i| | !.• <! !.,in*K-!f t«> the iletenniiia* drmuitti. It apinrareil among the earliest fvi 

tivn of ir* ••.-'.'.. M.k.r:;: t:<«« of the meth>»!s of animal life, its remains Lpi-i.ig prrsened ta 

of hi' f-r::.' r iii-trui *.. .-. l'r"f. (i.r>*, a< ei plain- tho n-t-k* of the siluhan {•i^'i(ld. In suc^^rriii&a 

ad in h;» Wvjfk TUvrt.i M^iu$ i\frj>^nim L\xi€^ fonuatiuDSi nearly to the lias| they are ultca »9 



ENCRINrTE ENDICOTT 145 

•bundAnt that ealcareoiu strata extending over pentacnntis caput meduscB^ almost the onlj 
nmr miles are in great part made np of them, living analogue of the ancient crinoldea. As 
As OMcribed bj Mr. Miller in his work on the Dr. Bnckland remarks, the primeval perfection 
criDddea, the animals of this family are for- of the fossil affords an example at variance with 
siihed *' with a round, oval, or angular column the doctrine of the progression of animal life 
eomposed of nnmerons articulating joints, sup- from simple rudiments, through a series of grad- 
portmg at its sammit a series of plates or joints, ually improving and more perfect forms, to its 
whidi form a cop-like body containing the vis- fullest development in existing species. 
een, from whose upper rim proceed 5 articulated £N0 YCLOPiEDI A. See Gyclop^sdia. 
inii% ^Ti^ng into tentaculated fingers more or ENDEMIO DISEASES (Gr. cv, in or among; 
lea immeroiis surrounding the aperture of the and di^/xo^, people) are diseases produced by lo- 
mooth." In the encrinite the stem is cylindri- cal causes, generally persistent and appreciable, 
al ; in the kindred genus pentacrinite it is five- and consequently peculiar to certain climates 
sided. The cop-like body is the portion repre- and localities, during t!io whole year or at fixed 
•eating the flower of the lily, for which the crea- seasons ; in the last respect they differ from epi- 
tne is named. When the tentacula are spread demic diseases, which prevail more or less ex- 
eat, the appearance is that of an opened flower ; tensively from accidental, temporary, and gen- 
wben dosed, tliey represent the unopened erally inappreciable causes. As examples of en- 
bod. The stem served to attach the animal to demic diseases may be mentioned the cholera of 
■ly bodies in the water, and by the manner of India, the yellow fever of the southern United 
vtienlation of the plates composing it, it ad- States, the intermittent fevers of the western 
Bitted €ii much motion, swaying back and forth, states and other marshy districts, the coast fevers 
By this means the head with its tentacula was of western Africa and Central America, the bron- 
bfoo^ within reach of its prey. The plates chocele and cretinism of the Alpine valleys, the 
ef the stem, separating into short cylinders, periodic dysenteries of the East Indies, the yaws 
pnsent the form in which the remains of this of the West Indies, and perhaps the elephanti- 
saimsl are most commonly seen. In the mar- asis of the blacks in Brazil. Many exanthema- 
blsi Qsed for chimney pieces they are often tons and catarrhal diseases, ordinarily attacking 
very ahnndant, the polished surface presenting single or few individuals in a community, under 
some of them of a different color from the the influence of certain ill-understood atmo- 
greaod in longitudinal section, some in oblique spheric, telluric, or electric conditions, may be- 
eooieal formed cutting, and some in circular come epidemic, and affect many persons at a 
£iks^ being transverse sections across the cylin- time; the cholera, endemic in India, has raged 
der. By the disintegration of the rock contain- as an epidemic in Europe and America ; and the 
ing them, the little joints of the fossil stem fre- history of diseases exhibits the occurrence of 
qnently ^1 out, and may be gathered in great various epidemics before unknown, appearing 
■ombers. Each has a hole through its centre, without evident cause, defying all treatment, 
aimittiDg of their being strung together. Dr. spontaneously disappearing, and not returning 
Xutell states that he has found them preserved afterward. Endemics and epidemics may or 
IB tmnuli of the ancient Briton?, having evi- may not be contagious (including under that 
dently been worn by them as ornaments. In term infection, which amonnts practically to 
the north of England they are called *^ wheel nearly the same thing) ; the endemic dysentery 
it PMj ^ and " St. Cuthbert's beads,'' and were of India, the typhus fever of certain localities, 
flBraowrly used as rosaries. The encrinites are the ophthalmia of Egypt, under favorable con- 
mawrkable for the multiplicity of small calca- ditions, become contagious ; the same is true of 
leoos pieces, which make up the various parts epidemics of the eruptive fevers, erysipelas, and 
sf the animal — ^the stem, the parts that may be puerperal fever. The investigation of the causes 
oBedthe 10 arms, the hands and fingers, and the of endemics and ei)idemics is one of the most 
■aenms tentacula which proceed from them difficult as well as the most important duties of 
A These pieces, as enumerated by Parkinson in the physician; the lives of thousands may bo 
Hi ^Organic Remains," amount to not less than endangered or saved by the neglect or adoption 
M^OOO, thus showing a complexity of structure of proper sanitary, hygienic, and therapeutic 
ifliil to any that is met with in the nearest living treatment ; the temperature, electric, hygromet- 
■dognesof these ancient animals. The structure ric, and chemical constitution of the air, the ele- 
tf QBBctf the fossil pentacrinites (a genus which vation and nature of the soil, and the food and 
Isasa to abound as the encrinite disappeared, habits of the people, are principally concerned 
■■abas been represented in some of its species in the origin of endemic disea<ics. 

I to the present time from the lias, or in- ENDICOTT, John, governor of Massachu- 

in a single species from epochs much more setts, bom in Dorchester, England, in 1589, died 

i), has been cited by I>r. Buckland as in Boston, Mass., March 15, 1665. lie was sent 

"Aaving an equal degree of perfection, and a out to this country by the *^ Massachusetts Com- 

daborate combination of analogous organs pany" to carry on the plantation at Nanmkeag, 




■pecies . * . 

of the lias. The living species is the to transfer the charter and government of the 

TOL. vn. — 10 



146 EXDUCHER 

eolony to Kew England, and Wintlirop wm r»ingMrttth^ and lioil tlio mortification of mcibi 

a|ip«jintod govvrnur. lu 163«j. with ilic lomnus the oriviitalij^t JitM-ph von llaniuicr-INirfcttaU 

CApt. I'ndvrhill, he rondiicti.'d the fumpuinurT ntiiiiinati-d to thfi*rt*Mdency of ihearailvinv, h 

but inolTfctuul cxi»oditiiiD ai;ain<»t the lilm-k Im- litniur to whicli LiidlichiT wait at leaat aa veil 

and and IVtuot Iijdiari«. Eudicutt wax dopiitv cntitli*<l. T)io {Ktlitica] tunuuiU «if l^A pUcfd 

l^iTernor of the Moiv^ai Ini^t-tts c<ih>ny from 1641 Endlicher in a linH-urinuft po^iiicm : hit AjniBa- 

Xo 1644, in lOSn, and 1Cj&; nnd wu pivoni- thiv*( and prinri|>losi were thf^c <if the pii^lBr 

or in K>44 aud l»>4ll, from 1601 t<» 1654, and ijarty, whiU- his a.>fiociatiiiriftBiid|»urM]it»lioaBd 

fnmi 16!»o to IdO.V \l*i wu^ bold and oner- him to the an?>tiKTaA-y and thir ronMrrratiTcn 

ITptic, a »nrcrf and Zi-ulou;! I'uritau, ripid in The unt<} ward turn of ^Kilitiral aflairs bia m<«- 

his r)^nci|>li•<^ and K'Vcre in the execution of niary C'mbarra<»MiicntN and the intri|n:e*«*i etie> 

tlie la«» a^iiui^l thoM.* who dilTered from the niie^ drove him to di-ipair, and he died id % 

religion of the c<»Iony. »So avvrM wa<i Iio to hrukvn heart, or :^<« some belifVv by hit ovm 

•very thiii;; like i»o|nrry that he cut out the crovi hand. — Hi;* works mi>ot of mhich m'ere pab- 

fruni thu mihtary stuiidard. IIo was opiMi>ed li<»h(.Hl in Vivnmi, are a*«toni>hing for thrir ti^ 

to lon;( hair, inM:4ted that tho m'onien Miould riety, and arc written with equal learning tl^ 

wear veils in public aMcmblieii, aud did all in gance, and cleanu*M». Thcntc on »ubji-«'ta boI 

bid |Hiwcr to e<>tabU«h what lie deemed a poro connected wit!i iMitany are: Kxtimem Criiie^nk 

chorrh. In 1659, during his adininisttratiuo, 4 CodirU IV, Ernngeliorum Byiantino'Cmrfimi' 

Quakor-t were put to death in Iktston. aui (Lei]»sic, 1^25; ; Atton^mi Btla RegiB 3V 

ENI^Ml'IIEK, Srti'iiAN LADiai.Aia, adi^tin- tarii de GtMti§ Hungarorum Liber (IHST); Rn^ 

nXAivd iH.tanist and linguiM, liorn in IVes- eiaui dt Liiudt Impfratoris Aftasta»ii, H 4$ 

burg. Hungary, June 24. 1^>4. died in Vienna, P»nderihua tt MeMurU Oirmina (ViMn^ 

Marc U '2\ 1 ^^4 '.). A ft e r ha v i n g rere i ve*! t ho 1 H2 ^ ) ; Fragmen ta Thtot Uea Venio ni§ A ma^ 



degree cf ih»t tt>r of philo<ii>phy from the uni- quwinur Erangtlii 3i*itfh»i tt atimyoi ffi 
veri»ity of IVmIi. he entered the arc-Iiiepif*k*opal /i<iru»iie<lite«l with lIotTmann von (allenhrfaca, 
ienii nary (if Vii-n Lain 1>«J3, mainly with a view iK'U); Vt»m Jinuhr Ktiuachen (with F. WolQ 



to the Mii'Iy of oriental Iangua;:fS whieh he 1^:15); /)f I'ljiiitni Ihatitutivnvm 

pur*>Uid f'lr -iome year* with ^uice^s lie re- ttr. (1K)5); i\tt*iU»g\ia Codirum 

ct,ive«l tlie minor clerical tinier^ hut in 1>*27 to rum lUhliother^w PaUitin€§ Vindoh*\ 

re*'lvtil I'i abandon theology f«>r the natural (1^36); AnaUrta 6'ramm<i fira (with Ilr. J. voa 

■cit-nres und c4|H'eially botaiiv. without, how- Eirhenfrld, 1K]6): VrnfirhHiaadtrCMiumatkam 

ever, giving np hi*« lingiiiMii* pursuits In lr«28 vnd Jayanttiaehtn Minitn drs Mmng- ti»d A^ 

be na.** a|i{N)int«.^l dirertur of the imr*erial li- tiltn'OibinftM in II'i>»(1h37>; Ah/tingm^mit 

brury of V ivniio, in lh30 kee|ier of the court der ChiiuMtMrSfn (irammtitii MM5k Ih§ ^ 

cahinct of ii.it lira! hi^tury. and in lH4<l|trofe^!Mlr 9ttge dts heiligtn St^pkan (IMI'k AVi-wm i7«a- 

of hiiTaiiy .-iud director i»f the Uitaiiir garden gttricantm Slonunnuta Arj^idiuna (St GaD^ 

oft!ie uiii\tT«ity. Ill lii-viealoUH prom«»tion of IMV^I. — IIl^ Uitanical work^ are: Crrafatkstm^ 

hi4 faviiritv <>tiiilie« he immi:i cxliau^teil the f-on- eint ntnf Pff*inirhgtittung avsdrr Ordh^Mg Atf 

»ider.tMi r<^iiiiri->-» whirh he )iad inherited from SfMamnr ()Wrlin. l'''J'J) : Plora Pq4ou\ 

hm f.illn r. }tiH.L«, map*. l>l»e% M-eil?*. plaiitz*, (IV-lh, l>^:i'*»; -^tirjtium Pemyt^u : MtUti 

herliar:.i. ii!i<l a]l othi r inattriali wlileh Were /KiftJ/iiVfi (Hilh II. S'hott, Vi«nna. l*^^ii; 

yet waiiTiii^ at Vienna, aiiil whiih the govern* aingitt, X^rum Gfuu* Phtntamm (iViS^: 

nient u:i- ffit LUral eiitittg!i to priH'ure. he drutnua yi**rtf Sorf'tiira^ ttr. iWviiti^ \99SX^\ 

purrha*i*il ai hi* own exjun**'. He pulilinhed " Mi^cellaiitou-* Work* tif KoU'rt Browa,* 

tlie mo^t **:|M r!'!y il!ii*;ruttil vkurLn, whirli e«lited in (i>nncrti(in with Nvi^ Vun Ems> 

owiiit; til v.cir (-••Htimi «* aii<l *<-ii ntitlr ( haracter b«'i'k ; AUtrta jUftnuica^ S**rn (trnena tt Jim^ 

foimd l>iit t'lvv pur>-)ia'H-r*. hei%i-n aiileil utlitTft ciVj J'htnfitruuk {\K\'.\}; Xt^ra Ufnera tff J^f> 

in puM.o}.!!;^ tilt :r wi<rk«. niid gave away « lj«>li} ciet Pt'ihttirum in I^fjho CKiSf u»i Lrti^rmm 

rtlitlori* of !m* own. II:* map i»f I'hiiia, in 'J4 (with ToppiLr. I^-i]<*ic. lOrn: Strtnm t^mhmU' 

khr^'lo. ni:k\ T'l- * i'.%A a<* a *|k*< iim-n nf hi* priNl> rum inter Ihra (ihmte Kknn tt f'iibul (wiMh 

igalilv. 11* pri»4 !;!!•! hi* own rlmii-c lihrary E^Iward Ken/l, l**.Vi); General Pi^utarmn a^ 

anti r:> li In r* .ina tf ihr *tatr. and •li*triSnted cindum Ordines y*itur*iU§ diai<'$il*t ; m e rtiHi 

rare .\*i.i^' |rii:!-iig tt|N« t<> puMic in*titu- SvftpUmtutim Primum (l*<«^»-4ti; lAvuflW 

tiiii.«. Ill* W.I* i-itia'.!.^ •■ri/inal ami profntind mo*t ini|Mirtaht h%*teinatic «ork« }tt pobliak- 

in hi.?ari% :.•.! pfjili'I",:.* . Hi' » iTri *|Nindi*«l e«l) ; /.'/.•ir/iTiifin Pimttirum qutu i a^ AV<w 

If}, til- iM- ^t tM.iMiiit '•avant4 in «•%• ry p.irtff UulUtuditr Or*i A^.atn*-(hrulent*ili ad 




the wiirM. i\- •\ w a* oii*- nf thi* •i.iif fiiumlfrK i'yrufr^im tt in Siuu liegi* Gt'*rgii,f*Utf%i {*. 

of thf A :i!> ': j> • f Vif !:ti.i, and I'lu- of t*ii* ori- L. II. de Jlit'jrl \'^\\\\i.\\'\*v^- lUrit!.am. E Fefu^ 

giiiat'ifo if*'. .!'.'■ :'«-• dr» Wittttr M^stums. and H. S'lmTI, IhTiT). I*'"h"gr*ipki»t (§t%i 

l\v nr.i!. n I % :.!;.i*-'«' ** r\»ii'< tn tlii* *!;»*••, f'lr PUintxtrum I !*•'**•»; i»r^tndtugf fi%tr 

whirh hi' ritin-'l !." rinnneratifn. ar d fur Thr'trir dir lytiinsentfugufig i\t^T»^\. Stir^MX 

|o \iar* w M .1 •••' -'.ai.t r>>tiipani</n of the <-m- AuatritKi»tfttrum IltrKirii llugeluiHi 

|irr«ir Kir'I.'.i-.'I V., ujth *h«im hi' u*4'd to frr«i 1 *»:>». .sViryium X-rarvw /Arrti^f* I l!tt»; 

i*a^ft M-iir.k! !.'•.:-> wtry \k\%\. F"r a!l il.i^ /ViTii AViijiViVruif. «fc. iwitfi I'h Fr. a»l PLiL 

Le wa« few ar lei with ihe paltry title of 7»Vy»«- \on Martiun, Vienna and Lcil««tc, lMO-'44>; 



ENDOGENS ENDOSMOSE 147 

Enekiridton Botnnievmy ete. (Leipsics, 1841) ; sitnated on this side of the Jordan, to the soath 
Die MMieinalpJIanMen der ostreUhi^chen Phar- of Nain. It was in a solitary vallej, not far 
mat^pdie (1842) ; Oatalogus Horti Aeadem- firom this town, that the famons sorceress re- 
in l^ndohonenMii (1842-*8) ; Mantista Botan- sided, whom Saul went to consult on the even- 
tei, Httent Oentrum Plantarum Supplementa ing before the fatal battle of Gilboa. 
Stemndum et Tertium (1848) ; (frundtStge £NDOSMOS£ (Gr. cKdov, within, and tMTfior, 
igrBoteaaik (with Franz Unser, 1848); Synop^ impulsion), the action exhibited by one of two 
nt CSaniferantm Sancti Oatti (1847) ; Paraii- fluids of different densities and composition in 
mti fmdohoneiuii (with Hartinger, 1847) ; and passing through a porous membrane whidi sep- 
many minor works in the Annalen de$ Wiener arates them, till they become both of the same 
Jfiafi f m t , and in other periodicals. (See also density. Let a solution of sugar in a tube ciosed 
BoTA^Tjand CHnnas Lanouaos.) below with a slip of bladder tied across the 
ENDOGENS (Gr. ci^oy, within, and ytvpat^ end, and open above, be suspended in a vessel 
to generate), a class of plants so called becauae of water. The quantity of liquid in the tube 
fbenr stems bicrease in diameter by the deposi- is soon seen to increase by the passing through 
tioB of new woody matter in the centre, in con- of the thinner fluid. It will flow over and run 
tnSstinction to exogens, whose stems increase down into the outer vessel, and so the action 

5ib» formation of a new layer of wood outside will go on till the two mixtures become uniform. 
tittEt previcnnly fbrmed, and immediately be- Dutrochet, who first observed this phenomenon. 
aeath the bark. In endogens the stem has no found that the height to which the fluid would 
andnllary raya^ concentric rings,* or ^>parent rise increased with the density of the thicker 
fttinction of pith, wood, and bark, but consists fluid. In a tube about 1^ inches diameter and 
ef fibres of w<K>dy or vascular tissue, distributed sirup of density 1.083, the fluid rose more than 
wifli little apparent regularity through the eel- 1^ inches in 1^ hours; with sirup of a density 
Uir system of the stem. They may be traced of 1.145 the fluid rose nearly 8 inches ; and 
ftem fhfi boss of the leaves downward, some when the density was 1.228 the rise was 4 inch- 
g into the roots, and others curving out- es. A considerable force is exerted in this 
until they lose themselves in the rind or movement ; in sirup of density 1.8 Dutrochet 
il integument, which differs from the bark estimated it to be equal to the pressure of 4^ at- 
sf exogens in that it does not increase by layers, mospheres. If the flow is drawn inward, the 
sad cannot be separated from the wood. As action is called endosmose ; if in an outward 
tbe plant grows^ now threads or fibres spring direction, it is called exosmose. It is supposed 
tan the fireshly formed leaves, and passing to be upon this principle that the sap ascends 
first down the centre of the stem crowd the in trees and fluids are diffused through an- 
oU ones ont, and are finally directed toward the imal bodies. Licbig, after describing some ex- 
and. In some plants the rind, being soft, is co- perimcnts, in which fluids were made to pass 
fMe of unlimited distention ; in others it soon through as many as 9 membranes, to fill the 
ndnratea, and the stem consequently ceases to vacant space left by evaporation of another 
glow in diameter. The best example of this fluid in a glass tube, remarks with reference to 
dsM of plants is the palm, whose branchless the application of the results to the ])rocesses 
tnmk, rising from 80 to 150 feet from the taking place in the animal body as follows: 
fRumd, and terminated by a simple cluster of " The surface of the body is the membrane, 
mage, has a striking and majestic appearance, from which evaporation goes constantly for- 
Tlie growth of this tree is from the terminal ward. In consequence of this evaporation, all 
Ml, and if the bud is destroyed the tree per- the fluids of the body, in obedience to atino- 
iAeL In some instances, as in the doum palm spheric pressure, experience motion in the Oi- 
sf ITpper Egypt, and the pandanus or screw rection toward the evaporating surface. This 
two terminal buds appear and branches is obviously the chief cause of the passage of the 
shoot forth. The asparagus is an example nutritious fluids through the walls of the blood 
dogenons growth. Endogens are monoco- vessels, and the cause of their distribution 
QUonoas ; the veins of their leaves are almost through the body. We know now what impor- 
■ifiinnly in parallel lines connected by simple taut functions the skin (and lungs) fulfil through 
rene bars : their flowers are trimerous, or evaporation. It is a condition of nutrition, and 
tiwir sepals, petals, stamens, and styles in the influence of a moist or dry air upon the 
They luxuriate in hot and humid cli- health of the body, or of mechanical agitation 
and the^ comprise the greater number by walking or running, which increases Uie per- 
il flants contributing to the food of man, and spiration, suggests itself." Interesting examples 
lit ft small proportion of poisonous plants, of this phenomenon are seen in the passage of 
Ikff are genmlly shorter lived than exogens, the gases through membranes. If a tumbler, 
%fpi^ the dragon tree and others, whose filled with air and covered at top with a thin 
ymrth is not limited by the hardening of the sheet of India rubber, is placed under a bell 
Mrteal integnroent of the stem, may attain a glass filled with hydrogen, the gas will soon ' 
pHfc age. The average age of the palms is penetrate the cover and mix with the air; and 
Mdups 200 or 800 years. this action will go on till the India rubber bursta 
_XNlK>B (Heb. home-fountain), a town of open from the increased bulk of the contents of 
asrigned to the tribe of Manasseh, the tumbler. If the tumbler contained hydro- 



148 EXDTUION ENTANTIX 

gvn ami the boll j:]a« *ir. tho Intlia niliWr rolJijionsrriO*!. IleiliarptHlliirn atnlhi^f -'.l-'W- 

noulil thru h*} iiri*>o««l in Lv tlio v«o:i|>o cf tho cr- with {'laiinin^ u H*ciul ifrilcr fi>un<li->l u|«*n 

in^ Wviit^ tho i>nriiuii rcinaiiiiD^; uf ^roatly liivntioiisiios; s^luiraiuii t*ri«iii Chum in I*^-<l.ar.J 

reiliirtn) (U'li^ity. <IiiMl a year after wiirti. Ili.'t M.*ci«.«iiin wa^ foi- 

KNPYMIoN, in an<-ii'nt niytholo^ry. a shcp- U^himI liv that uf t!io vt'onuniioal aiid i^'Iitifal 

liiTil itrrt-n lark libit* U-nniy, «h<». ai\-«>nlin^ to a sri'tion ot'tho >rh(Hil. Lnlaiitin. howc\iT. pir- 

Cin'tk Ir;;i*nd. ri'tintl i.'\i-ry ni^ht to ugmtitift' M»tfJ in hi:» on(Ka\or^ to i'«tuMi-«L a nvw re- 

Monnt L.-itniiH i:i i'uria. As \iv •K'|»t ihc ;:(m1- li^rion. Ho aili]rLv<<<-<l lii'« folium cni («h«.>in he 

f]o<^S*li*ni'(:honioun) Ivruinvi-naniorL'tlot'l.ini, cMiniatod ut 40j'^'m) in Frunci' alunv) mith the 

aiid leaving hi-r ( liariot laniv doun to liini. The aulLority of a superior hcin;; avi apart by Prtir- 

c< lipM"* of tho moon Wi*ri» bttri^utol to thrns idcnro for tliv pur{<)!H* of inau^^nratinf* a iivw era 

ri*it!«. Hy St'lcnc he h:iil o** (lunj^htiT.'*. Jupitrr for humanity thnui^'h thei-nmnripatiun azM th« 

condi'inni'I him to |ii'q*i-tuul skvp. or. aci.-oril- a^i-iioy of woman. Ho i-ndfa^nrvd to find the 

ing to fit! I IT aoounnt.s ti» 5i» yoar*> i>f 7»lcci>. fi-mali' MoMali {Jrmmr MesMu) wlio id Lin o|.iii- 

KNFANTIN, Hahtii^.i emy Pm^^pEx, pim-r* ion w:lh prcdc^tini'd to War to hiin a ni-w »a- 

ally kMi>\\n utidcr the namo of \\u* Kniantin, \ionr of niankiml. Ho oijointd on all hi> ad- 

ono (if tho foiindtT'i of St. SimoniMu, Inirn in hiTont'* in the ditft-rviit part^ of Francv to aid 

I'arLs Ki'h. i^, 17'.MK Uv wai tin* N*n of a l>ankiT, him in hi<i K>ardi for thi- female ; an^l ullhi»iififa 

and with hi<» fv!1ow pupil-^ wai ili'*iniv.M*d from his Mn^ular thittrii*** wcro attarkc<l 1>t tuanj 

tlio ]Hi1\te(lini(' M'hiHiI alter March ."o, 1>1 4, fur of hi't old asMn'iates ho roLtinuvii tu inake 

having fired tm that day on the ikllie<l tro'ip*:. pnr^lytes t!io nuniU-r of hi"* publicatioD* in- 

lle tlu-n bt*camo a roninieroial travvKi-r, and in cri:LM.d rapidly, and he Hi-nt up*nt4 to tho uria- 

1***J1 nieiiiU-r i»f a nKri-:»!itiio firm in St. IVtrrs- ripal citie;* of Kiirope. Ho ^'avo ^plvndi«l CD- 

burg. Ho returned tu France in I'^Jii. and was tertainmcnt<i at i'aris whith arc Mid to Lava 

cunvertt-*! ti> thti thi^iry of St. >im<in by a •Uw c*>-t him over l.'iti.utMi, in which the paq^«< 

nanu-d olir.de l*i»ilri;;iioo, who liad Uxn one (T of diM.-(»ver>n^ anions: tho women pri<4c&: the 

Lin te:i<*hcr«. At't^T t!ie ilealh of St. >;tili>n, M:iy h>Ii;:-<^iU^lit individual wa> lie ViT h«kt »i^ht all 

ly, \^'2\ Knfintin and K«*dri^'uen be::ari the piih- He procured a luan of |1»V»' for tho I'^labt.ih- 

licatioii of a jf:iri.at ( /.r ;'rif/tirrr>/r». wli!i h wai mmt of itdu**!nal work^hop^ but thi> amriont 

d:MM»nti!;ueiI tiiuardiheeiidof 1>J>) : many {•«-r- va<» i.ot ^u!^U'itllt. They were !Nmu Ctit»cda 

■itiit. who had ^'i\en their Mip|Mirt to i: while and tho /r7t-V now>{iaiHT W'a<* a^«o dL»c>int*cu«d 

it!«di*i«'U«>kiMiin^\iro conttneil t«i*M.K'ial and indu«- for w;int (»f faiid^. T!to attentiiin i-f th« aa« 

trial interests liavii-;; wiiliilrawn Ojt >i^*i\ u* thi*rities beiti^ ut b'n;r*Ji dra^n tu hi« UMxlinis^ 

Knfaiitin :k^o!:iniil tho chanwler of a n*ii;:iim.'* tl.ev were iIi-hiI in M:iv, 1*»32. He n*.-* with* 

iniii>\3t><r. and <.-«pi-t-i:i!!y a*. M^^n U'^ he W:!.- de- driw w ii h 4o 1*1' hi^ f •!!<•« ir«.a:::ot.;wh> •::. wer« 

ni :i!n'ed a* *i:ih by I$t-iMa!nin T. ■:.■»!.»:::. Kti- Micl.il C'iii\ii'.i*r ai.il oi!n.r emii.t.r.: inr. to 

fa:<!i;i. !.i'\\f% I r. i-i>:itiiiU(d t>t ad\oi 4:e 1:1^ % !• \i4 t).e i.vi^!iUirii«i<Nl i>!' TarN, i.«ar M. ?-!'i' ..r '^r* 

bv Ii-. t'.rr-ai.d piiblie nieetirii:«». 1 he reN i'l'iTi'-n Hi Tt-, i.j"»:i "t*!',!- l.i:..l w ).:<. !i Ul'-n^id !•• 1.;e\ 

of 1**..«» l^av.'r%d ti.r n:'iv«.i:.iiir, whi. !i w .in >,k.ii they %«:.ti>'.i-lii il a o-::»::i'::.;*y aiil >]•*:.*. tl.«ir 

r«ri'.i il'.y I rj.i'.:,-d with I'Tifai.t-:: :ind Ikx':irfl time ir: i:ia:ti>al lii'^ir m.'I >t.S :::•';. loi. rxl.j^;-.' 



a* the 1 1.:. f li .nil -% J yV-w f./»rr;»»,fjr. M.-l u .;!i ii.iiii^trat! >:.*, iixir w):ii-i. Fhfuiit.Ti ir*-»:ici 

the /fi'i-'f I'.i «<>;:.;•< r. ot » liii !i M.i*hi-i I !.» vaiier Aja.h arra:^Ti»d b> tin' ;^■\^ r:.i:.r:.t. Kiif^XitJi 

w a^* i«:;:-r. .,* j;«. ir;;.in. A SM-hi-in. ht.wi %i- apj'^.irnl i:i :l,e ii-:irt with l^.i Llit-^CtvUe 

^N'li l;i'».r I i:t Ivruiin thi- t^-i Ivaili :«. Kii- Ffiriii 1 ai.«l A,:!:»e >.i;iit ir'ai:* a* hi* n UL^-i ; 

f.i:.*;ti i»,i- a b,n*ht!.ir a: A a •»< ntiniei.'.a!.*:. 11" b'lt \\ %y w, n- i.'-: ptri:.;:*.i 1 : • p!i.i ! !.;• ra'i*e, 

t!i\ .1 ■! iriiiiiki:.!! ii.t.» !uo iI.L'.m-, \\.v 11: ] •..!•.: no i :.« tr:al l.i-tt-l - ■1.*%- : A'.^. 27 aii-l ^'•. KSy. 

a:.d tl.v i' 1 ■:,:;,!•■'.:'.. {]iv :".'ri:»i r ;:«i\t ::;• \ .-». !i'.y lU- wsl* f"ii. I JT'J.'.:;. u:i'! v.:.!e:n n! •«> a }<ar*« 

\y rr»ii«.e:.: •>• r::iMu li!- and eJKt t^ !).i- i.iti. r in.;. n-«innieit'. I ;: •*.: fr*v afttrafow i:v r.:h»' 

a.w i>- Xy 3) ni.ii^ pr;:i ■; 1«^. In 1 r<i(r t<i }..r- «;» :. : !i-':i. He ►:;!-«. ,'.i:j!:> >\^,\.l i iiat* in 

11! ■ I/.- !* i- |h r*«'!..il r\ ia?:i'ri"« hi iw n:. i: . ••i i;v.i Y.j\ \ !. j»fti r w h.i !i ho re*.;;:: vd t" Fraz..-«, d«- 

cia»«i-% I.e J ri-'t.'K.! t!.e i\tr!!.ritt %.:* aii it j:— \tt.:.J h:!ii-«\f Im a^r.- ::*.:; r.i! pT;r*::-:« a: d . S- 

Uriw- .1::.! *--:d re»:raii.t 11. ::.e -:0.irvif I \o ci./r ^- st- a 1 •-•:■.. fc>'ir i •..*r I *■ :.*. Hy :h« 

atid :it?i' !i.;i. iiT.i! ».::li! a.!:;.;: • f : • i-:?., r \u- i: :! :• :•>' «•! :..• :• r.- kT i'..^-.;'.-« ai.d a^M*^':At«i 

\.v \»'..y.iK »;. l-**! a!:.i::.'ir if li.e ►«- « nl.-C 



te :?"•:»:■'■• i» \]t :he 1m>t--;!m« al.d i::.- * o?.- of ti.e 

i: !■*.•! .1! \:\ tl itoftL ; ::.*:«■.-..•: :\*^r. w!. > 



U :ir.: i-r .W- r.a. 1 r-vi >;"i :• IM 



t 



«'! h- il.- .|1. - ! -r !' . I -iT-M- I I" t :-...'. l..*^^ J .::i a:, i 1.;. ■:.-. I : N ^. >4^ 1..- i-U^ i.-l.t-!, la 

I.' i.'Mro! t" . ir pi^-;«-!.«. I'l .: i:i 1..^ •.; .: -n i*-:. • r: » .:!. M Ir:\»yr.tr. a d^..* j •-.r-.-a', Jl# 

tJ I- J r.i -! I'!,:' I t I }-• .\ I* r^ :. i-:" .;ti .^: j^ r*- : .il r-- .'. w '!'. A %:e'v vt r« . "i.^ .'..l.,: j-''..:i:il ro- 

a'i";i- I": . a::-t Wi'TTi.iii. ;-.• .t r.-:.*; .■■::.«*.«i Tt ; :• - f r- ..* •* .•■. \..^ \ :..j ..»:. •...«*. f«^ -^ ;a! r^* *!;.:_• ; 

!..!:%*•. •" th^ :•:.! .:'.-;\ei Ia*^ ».■!" i. :::.i:i *-«.:••, I .*- '.:.v ■ '..r'.k". ii *- ii> :.T l. :i.; ;;. 1 v". ■ lit 



I • 



»! • ::'■! liiL-- a I ri n.-iirii! {-a:! .:i *':.i- : . m !u .*- a.'i.:; r».-*.i-i .::: u: ;-.'.. •.:;.* M ;n i"* :.c. !•.-•.; o 

Tu r.! I- i-'jr*!. ii*.ii wi« a riarrn d i..a:.. a ]•* :- w.*;. •'...- u[i...:-.<rs:. :. 'i r.klw^^-k. w:...-i. L« 

•in if r\ .■-.». V r .i::d ;:.:. :{I.. jr :« -U .1 k«-a...-: -.!!.'!«•. A:, vj i •;'.:..■; u ""-rk* .• /••r* 

thi M» \li w«. ui:] . I J-"*-l KulV. ::■.'• ..::-.: ; '. :-.» r-. i .> .n:. .f >. ... Ik? . V. ^^ :I.i.' }- .: '. IT." 



ENFEELD ENGHIEN 149 

Ti^er, Bazard, and Abel Transon. It passed or nsed for pasture lands. The valley was for 

through 4 editions from 1880 to 1832, and a some time subject to Anstria, wbich lost it in 

Bev ediUon appeared in 1854. In bis latest 1623. Most of the male population emigrate at 

irork, " Knowledge of Man and Religious Physi- an earl/ age and scatter themselves over all 

olo^^ (Paris, 1869), bo still maintains bis pe- parts of the continent Some of the higher 

cohar reKg ious and social theories. Alpine pastures of the valley are let every sum- 

ENFE^D, a market town of Middlesex, mer to Italian shepherds. The natives speak 

England, on the London and Cambridge rail- a peculiar dialect called Bomansh, 

way, 10 m. N. E. from London; pop. in 1851, EN6AN0, an island of the Malav archipelago, 

9,453. It is noted as the seat of an ancient pal- €0 ra. 8. of Sumatra, in lat. 5^ 21 S. and long, 

•oe, now half mined, built in the time of Henry 102"^ 20' £. It is about 80 m. in circuit, of a 

VIL, and of the manufactory of the well-known triangular form, thickly covered with forests, 

rifles which take their name from this place, and surrounded by coral reefs. With some 

The mannfactory employs 1,300 bands, and small islands adjacent, it has an area of 400 sq. 

turns cot weekly 1,100 stands of arms. The m. The natives, who are genuine Malaya, Uve 

term ^ Enfield rifle " does not denote any par- in conical bouses, have neither cattle nor fowls, 

ticolar improvement, but the result of a series and seem to subsist wholly on cocoanuts, sugar 

of improvements on the old musket. The ^uns cane, bananas, and fish. Unsuccessful attempts 

are made by machinery after the American have been made by the Englbh and Dutch to 

ratem. which a commission was sent out by open an intercourse with these islanders. On 

the BntM^ government to examine about 1851. the S. E. side of the island there is a safe bar- 

ENFIELD, William, an English theologian, bor, formed by a bay protected from the sea by 

bom in Sudbury, March 29, 1741, died in Nor- 4 small islands. 

wiefa, Nov. 3, 1797. He was a dissenter, and in ENGHIEN, Louis Antoine Heitbi de Bonn- 
1763 was chosen pastor of a congregation in Liv- bon, duke o^ a French prince, of the Cond6 
crpdoly where he remained 7 years, and publish- family, bom in Ghantilly, Aug. 2, 1772, execut- 
ed some devotional works and 2 volumes of ed at Vincennes, March 21, 1804. He received 
aennonsL In 1770 he was elected to the profes- an excellent education, served under his grand- 
■onhip of belles-lettres in the academy at father, Prince Louis Joseph, in the outbreak 
Wanington, remdned in this position till the of the revolution in 1789, and accompanied 
disBolation of the academy in 1783, and was bis father and grandfather into exile. He 
sabsequently pastor in Norwich. His biograph- bore arms against revolutionary France in 
ial sermons and biblical characters are not only the famous corps of royalist emigrants com- 
valnable as ^ds to interpretation, but exhibit manded by his grandfather, and distinguished 
considerable force of thought and elegance of himself both by bravery and humanity to his 
expression. He published an abridgment of prisoners. On the disbanding of the corps, iq 
Bnicker^s "History of Philosophy," and a work 1801, he fixed his residence at a chateau near 
entitled ** Institutes of Natural Philosophy,^' and Ettenheim, in Badon, being impelled to that 
wrote under the signature of X. many articles choice, it is said, by his affection for the prin- 
hiAikin's "Biographical Dictionary." He was cess Charlotte de Rohan, who lived in Etten- 
also the compiler of " Enfield's Speaker," a very heim, and to whom be was perhaps secretly 
popolar collection of pieces for reading and re- married. Though it does not appear that ho 
dting in schools. took part in any subsequent plots against the 

ENFILADE (Fr. enfiUr\ in military affairs, French consul, ho was generally looked upon as 

a trench or position which may be sconred with a leader of the emigres, and was suspected of 

riiot tfarongh the whole length of its line. A complicity in the attempt of Cadoudal to take 

tamch or parapet is said to be enfiladed when Bonaparte's life. The reports of spies sent to 

Am guns of the enemy can be fire<I into it in a watch his movements gave some color to these 

direction parallel to its length. surmises, for it appeared that he was frequently 

ENGADINE, or Enoadin, or Valley of the absent for 10 or 12 days together, at which time 

Im, a beautiful valley of Switzerland, situated it was supposed that he secretly visited Paris. It 

letr the sources of the Inn, at an altitude varying was thought that an unknown person, apparent- 

im 3,500 to 6,100 feet above the level of the ly of rank, who had been seen to visit Cadoudal 

■^ and extending along the banks of the Inn, at Paris, but who afterward proved to be Piche- 

AnnQgfa the canton of the Grisons, between two gru, could be none other than the young duke. 

■Aidpal chains of the Khsetian Alps, from the Anxious to terrify the royalists by a decisive 

Xdoia, which separates it from the picturesque blow, and to put a stop to their attempts upon 

fil^y of Brigcll, to the gorge of Finstermilntz, his life, Napoleon resolved to seize and execute 

Mtlie confines of the Tyrol; length, about 45 m.; the duke, and accordingly sent Gen. Ordener 

wmnm breadth between 1 and 2 m. ; pop. esti- with 800 gendarmes to make the capture. The 

■ited at 11,000, chiefly Protestants. The tops soldiers surrounded the chateau on the night of 

of tbe sorronnding mountains are inaccessible March 15, 1804, arrested the duke in his bed, 

ndOg and the sides are sometimes covered and conducted him immediately to Strasbourg, 

vMi ^aciers. The valley and the lower part whence he was removed on the 18th to the for- 

flf the mountains are susceptible of cultivation, tress of Vincennes. He had received warning 

krt are for the most part occupied by forests of his danger from Talleyrand and from tho 






i.-.^ ir 'Tf^itrTL ir-n^; ..t r..:ii.-T.-r i: "irii- fir."!. T'l** ▼ -j* i^-r'-^-.! t.. AnliimiMi s nn- 

-L-« irtar .r ;;n- .i iet7".i:i lUMi r:it"» :: :'..r- 2- r:^-u« ".':.- i: F*;- - ulr. i»* a!^i hi* in v*n- 

r-.rT;::j k -..wp-ni-.r*. T.f ir.-r.i-r -^r.u-iiiMi :.•.■.•!.-•; rj ..il :-.t.- t^tritii'i.* in inv« lianical 

" ari'nr.iri ■; ;,!• •- -r.iii^ f -.:•• ••>.-. i.:.i % «.■.••:.••?. -'-.•.•..• :. -. :.. a hi,fli r&iik aa an t-np- 

**▼ ." ""^ Jii-nrir; i : ■•ir'niixr'.'.i.. **•-:■:#••! I'm- V "-;.-::* wj.* a fvlrbratcJ iT.^iai-«-r 

iv.-r ..- ..-r.. -i.ui:!. iH^^'iiiiii-i a ",.•• •■■r*.";-i, K"<!:".<«i : ▼ A vj".'?:"* !•• t!u- i.'ffirt of !»uj*riii- 

a r.: -.i r-u ▼!■ rr.i^ '«.- li^'i. tiii. ▼:.!-':: Vr.:.-^ icii :.;.- ..-^ i?.c militarr m^in,.^ 

tta '^LdT-.m^Liin ii" V r:ii~-f .p t-:: ^n -»— r.- ir.-: f.- -r vi.-r j. v -l a* an ari'hitvrtural 



Hi'Ti* 111- i .«•• TUi '.lir.-: r*.:>7 t.: '!.-»•» v'-r 'v L * r.viv-* /•< .-frrAir/rrurai u|io& 

Siorr*- i T'-a** n. uiii it .i:i!: i-i ill".. ?:-■:- ".:»r r. ;....-^ f »-!•. f-rtilii-atU'iLS U-cr.|i!vA, 

"iuo. .Ilj -•■. :i=*» "ti *v 'ill- ir-z ■ r.-::. 1:11 1 -.j v.. :i-t"*. - u"' 'i* !v. i.-^u!..* t :i;: jif.<4, niilN, Ar. 

jit Li.'^X'Z'i fc -iiiite-fciir v"'i .i«t:i :•:;:.•-:. Hi I*:.'-.:^ * .- z- ■:•:.- aj^*. ami iii^Iwil u|i I0 tLe 

▼.to H.- t • -. rruiiipiL j«'T..fn ♦ ic*: # ■ •:.•■* "■::.•: if r. .1:.- •: .. !:■ r. nf Mi-aiii cii^inr^, 

^ jL. c —is li:.::: iui.*iiii*'.:ii v ul-. in-: ..a .1 •:/ •-.•• T"*:^'". 1^ ^--a: *.r-^*:i.t«rir.2 Kn»rks bv!»i(!tf 

"▼.■to -Li.-i'vi. ir— *u la I T L-. :i:.. i ,r^." • »i:i'!i '.:•• -,■ :ri.:..-: ■ ^•rrj.v-r- *•{ i:.c I»iiti h aim! tb« 

Laa ji— :x ;u*r -:u 1-47 i-\:r\ r..j TTirrai m-ijJ.« ■ r..-:.-:. !o: '.z i.'.c crth of Ilalj, were 

ma il 17 ;.:i in-; !!:•: ii::.a.:-t* Tr:^*'- --.x- -' ' ••-* a.* ...••-• ti.-al I rar i ?* of Xhv priifc*> 

siL*i « v-rii::^ A iiT- r -..'^ •ic'i'.''xt i.:r.Tt». *!• n ir-: f :i.r-« v.o r:nt*t iiaDiii!f^ arr iIm 

'iiiiUin t iMi fi jircuiii-i ?'f :• i a ■:i:r:::i;f i i- rr^e- r ::... jr»v. i :. -r- !.• •, a-rhat ^.f St. Mary 

«ijn \2 :. :.- ;a • "-:•** 'f .'.uii 'i-Lu. >'ic«ic.'a i^ ?*• >.':.•••. ■ j ::.-t: •>!;«■«. i.s; <f St. TtUr'!* at 

mil i^ :...i:j :i.<.-j:;:i;i:-.* '..t it -s «•:!"/ ':ix^r^ ij F- r:e. .t }*,.r.L::. Sa:; li.i!:'s ami MirM Ah- 

,iis<::^ v. fir - u«:;i:\ u:<: i ':a.«* ■!ij''-=r j^wa ^•' -».^'- r" >". Pa ;!'• a: LfiHlfn. l-j Sir CLri*- 

»a«wT * : ' :t *...ein "* is 3ii.!< ^.-""7 -• |-«'.'-r W.-.s. The ■:.!r»-!i;i !;i-n i»f ihe »tram 

TN :'>; Tyv '\.; y- .. ,^^7. ^^ •air-i** . a <::^":'*. i.^*! *.".•* ^v a: vi :«:.•. ^'n nfniiinLfaftarrf 

:i'— II iiM'i.*.-- .1.* i ' •. • .i- ->:- r"'-^:« 11 *..:•■ .• "^-r. .*• r-H?-; ivi: :!.• ."o n. i:^.-r;t«l niw tit*M« ft^r t^ 

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ir~ »."^* -L. •-••i -:^.:!^*v.-H ^!:.- ::.-:.-•:.•: i::': :.- *.i- :•■•: a L .j'. ■i^j'w • f (•« r!'v« tii>ii. c-icniplifisil 

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I,.. .11 :■' .; ■ *. !••.'* . •":■.■ • k" r I ■'. L i ■' * •' ' i'* .'- i''K::*«if-. n.ay r> nvt tiirnt^T 

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. n -* — : -."..T f«.< 1 111 ilaiiuUT ar.il !■•> 



'. ^ !* .^ . ^ .^ - r* .' «» .- S.-i*\;vi!M \\ f*.ri il.-; in air La- 

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^^ 4,^.' .«*-4i/j. .. .^i'^i^^ '•'♦ r**- t.-^-i wf W-i.^: |.la:c .r.u m a;.L Uta 



vfreniaJe readj upon the land to be laid acroH 
tk«e opeDinga, each to have one foot upon the 
Bier in the rirer and one upon the pier on either 
Wk. Eadi meMored 470 feet in length, 17 
fat in width, and 13 teA in height; and with 
tbadwina U> b« auspeoded from it Tor sapportiiig 
the n»dw>v, the weight of each exceeded 1,200 
. loM. Ita strength was tested by a we^ht of 
IJOO tons distribnted over the whole arch, 
the cfiect of which waa only to cause a tem- 
porsr7 deflectioQ of 7 inches. The tabes, being 
mted oat upon iron pontoons and bronght to 
their plaeo*, were raised by hjdraalio prea- 
■n^ ue metlioda emplojed resembling Uiosa 
iJiipfi il for fioatiog and eloratingthe Britannia 
tmkr bridge. Twice every week the spans 
wve rwaed 3 feet in one day ; and in the inter- 
nJi the maaonry on the land side was boilt up 
to iiiptioit the outer end. The ends in the mid- 
fla of the river were sastained b; teniporvy 
Wr*'"c each time they were raised, until a 
Wl)),lil of 14 feet was attained, which admitted 
IBm inaertion of one of the joints of this length 
of tiw great cast iron columns, 4 of which snp- 
fottedfiiese ends. When thearched tnbeswere 
tiktA to the height required, the chuns forsup- 
porliiif tbe roadway were attached, and the 
vort was then toon completed. To stiffen the 
^■etuv, tbe parts were strongly bonnd togeth- 
er with cross ties of wrought iron. The quan- 
ti^ of this metal employed in the work was 
iboat S,650 tons, beside 1,200 tons of east iron. 
Tbtx* were also used about 11,000 cubic feet of 
timber and 459,000 cubic feet of masonry. 
Hhttt finished, tbe bridge was tested by a trwn 
' " g 400 tons, crossing and recrossing at 
speeds. Tlie greatest deSection ob- 
sarveaaidnotexceedliinches. The appearance 
■ and to be tasteful and elegant, thongh the 
only object in view was strength and etaDility. 
b naval engineering, also, England was prcSm- 
iMUt in the constrnctlon of the largest ships. — 
Ihe engineering worlds of the United States are 
ediitnted in~ ita long lines of railroad, so eon- 
ibsctcd as to stretch at the least cost over vast 
Bd thinly populated areas; in its canals, its 
&7 docksl fortifications, and breakwaters; and 
■or* especially in i-litp-building, which, how- 
over, in the United States is not ordinarily treut- 
«d oa a branch of engineering. 

ESGLAND (Ut. Anglia; Fr. AngUUrrt), tt 
iimiilij of Europe, forming with Wales the south- 
Ma, larger and more important division of the isl- 
■n of Great Britain, and the principal member 
•fdko United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ire- 
faid; bounded K. by ScoUand, E. by the Ger- 
■>■ oeean, S. by the straits of Dover and the 
Thflinh channel, separating it from France by 
dfattAcea incresEing westward from 31 m. to 100 
»,8.W. by the Atlantic, aod W. by St. George's 
Aarnd >od the Irish sea, dividing it from Ire- 
Ind, aad having an average wiiltli of aboat 90 m. 
& Im between hi. 49° 57' 42" and 65° 46' N., 
Ing. l" 44' £. and 6° IS'W. ; its greatest length 
V. and a is 400 m., and its greatest breadth 2S0 
^ Ita dupe bears some resemblance to a tri- 



AND 151 

angle, the apex being at Berwick-on-Tweed, tho 
northernmost point in England, and the extremi- 
ties of the base at the Sooth Foreland, near 
Dover, and the Land's End, at the S. W, point 
of Cornwall. Tlie distance in adirect line from 
Berwick to tbe South Foreland is 34S m. ; from 
thoSonth Foreland to the Land's End, 317 m.; 
and from the Land's End to Berwick, 4SS m.; 
making a total perimeter of 1,087 m., but follow- 
ing the ainnoeities of the coast the perimeter 
will be about 3,000 m. The area of England ia 
8a,GffO,429 atatute acres, or S0,922 sq. m. ; that 
of Wales is 4,734,486 acres, or 7,398Bq. m. The 
divisions of England are very ancient, the coun- 
ties being snbstantiolly the same now as they 
were 10 centuries ago, though a few have been 
made inlater times. Each conntyisaubdivided 
into hundreds, and the hundreds into parishes. 
London is the metropolis of the United King- 
dom, and the other principal places are Liver- 
pool, Ifanchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Bristoli 
Sheffield, Bradford, Hull, Sootham^ton, &e. 
The following table shows the population of the 
counties in lUl aod 18S1, number of inbaln- 
tauta to the sqnare mile, and county towns : 











CmiUn. 


lUI. 


W1. 


«1 
3M 

a 

ME 

1 
ns 

R«4 

STS 

'«! 

IM 

lie 

15* 

llf 
As; 

1 

IS! 
4«l 


C<»=ljl«» 




IS 

istw 

8«,1M 

ns.D3s 
r^«6 

S44!9Tf 

1 

I,««7,(M 

S1IS.G87 

RSi.ises 

14It.WS 

4i&eM 

m.v» 
«e,OM 

14S.il 
JS3.1S7 

»i,3ei 

«w»» 

M9.4T1 

esiess 

SOftOV! 

'K 

,,1S 


H 
'S 

IM.4IS 
441,114 

■0S,8M 

"B 

MS341 
4U,9IS 

405,870 

nvnt 

80.301 
lIB.ai4 
l.S2\4!»S 








Ciinbilrteo 


Aj-lnftuiT. 
rambrtdgt 

ItoTlinlo. 
Csrllile. 








DurliuD 


Ch'^l'"'l*rt. 


12";::::: 


Gloiin-.ter. 


UncaUr 


MlddlrHi 


Hrrnirord. 


Sa-T::::: 


Ni.nl iiiBpton. 
) upr.n-TyB«. 


Sominwl 












Sasscl 

Wurwlck 

W.slmotclsnd.. 


rhlchj^. 


^E^ Elding... 


^^'^- 


Ni.rti. Bwiiif.. 
WcitBlrlln;... 


Norlliillerton. 
Itlppn. 


TotJil 


U.9BT,«T 


lfl.9Sl,SSS 


sm 





Wales, which woa incorporated with the Englidt 



152 ENGLAND 

tnonftrchj in the time of Eel wan! I., is dirMed Norwich, whirli is now near tho centre of th% 

ioto 12 conntio^ with an a^nrri-frato iK>|iiiIatiuu £. divisiun of Norfolk, having utood in tb« 13Kh 

In IMl t»r 1(11.705, and in 1^51 of 1.0ii5,721 ; and 14th centuriva on an arm of the tea. Tba 

ETeragenuiuUTof inhaliitantf«|K-r^.ni. in lh51, 8. rooAt, from the South Foreland to bcTOod 

136. Including tho itrinT, iiaval and nivrfltiint FoIki'Mtonc, U characterinKl by loftjclialk clitC^ 

marin€iM>rviiv. thea^rvgutoimpulattonof Enj;- which are continuallj diinint«hing in height, 

land anil WhIvs in IK"^! was iKjNM.&ril. of w!toni It then gradually sulMidc* into Romncy nur»h, 

8,683,2lH wcro inidi'rt and t*,121,25:{ foiDulcH, Vi\ of which tho shoro becomes dtcnuUely 

and the oMimato<l population, Juno 30, Ih57, precipitous and flat. The W. b by far the 

WAS 19.:t<4,<HK>. Tho numbiT of marriage A regiiH ino^t irregular of the Englbdi coafttA. It i« high 

tereil in England during the finit 9 mouths of and rorky an fiir a^ Minvhead bay on the liri^ 

1668 was liw.rd ; nuniU'r of births during tho tot channel. North of tho princi|iality of Walca 

whole y vur, C5r»,4i27 ; numberof dcath^45U.0I8, the shore con»i!»ts of wa»tmg clitf;! of red clay 

an incroa«o of 2 '.(.999 from tho previous year, and marl, of |>euiniiulaa which were probably 

Tba ratio of nmrtality wuuld tlius Iio uliout 1 in once more elevated than they are now, of aln 

43; in 1740 it was 1 in 40, and 1H52 it was rupt headlaIld^ and toward Sidway frith of 

Cftimatod at 1 iu 56. — Tho most ini|H)rtant Miids and marshes. The most mountainona part 

rivers of England are the Mod way, Thames, of England lies N. of the riven 11 umber and 

Stour, Orwell, (ireat Duse, Neue, Wi-Uaiid, MerNoy, and is traversed N. and S. by a ranga 

Witham, IIiimlKT, Trent, Unso, Tees, Wear, called tho Pennine mountains or the northern 

Tyne, and Tweed, all of which empty into range, connected with the Cheviot hilU oo tlM 

tha Cienuan oci*an ; the Enk, Eden, Lune, Scotch border, and teniiinating in Derbyshira. 

Ribble, Mersey, Uoe, Svverii, Avon, Taw, and The general height of its aummita is 3,000 to 

Torridge, whidi empty on the W. c«)a»t ; and 8,40() fei>t. Thin range is about 60 ra. long, and 

the Tamar, Eie, Froom, Avon (Ilamimhire), of unetiual widtli, varying from a narrow ridf* 

and Siuthunjpton water, which flow into tho to 20 m. West of it are the Cumbrian noon- 

Englifh channel. Many of these have broad es- tains, occupying the central and S. portions of 

tnaries at their mouths and are navigable by Cumberland, the largest part of Wr»tmorelandv 

large vo^-n-N. The English lakes, though few in and tlio N. part of I^ncivhire. Their higtieai 

number, An^fametl fur their beciuty. Thopictur- summits are K-afell (.'(,1GG), llelvellyn (3,055)i, 

eac|ne di-^tricts of We-tmoreland and Cumber- Skitldaw (3,u22), aud Howfoll (2,911). Tb« 

land, in wliioh are TlUwater (9 m. long, and Devonian range extends fntm tSonierte'tJkhirr to 

from I ti» 2 m. wide), Windennero, the large!»t the Land's End, and its principal elevatiuos ar* 

lake in England (loj m. h»ng, and IWrni 1 to 2 from 1.500 to l.SOu feet high. Tliroe croa rulitva 

m. widf). 1<&<»«enthwai to water, Perwentwater, occupy tho S. E. part of tho kingdom. vxtcntLng 

llutterinoro, Ennenlolo water, ^'c, arc fuvifrite frma Sali-biiry IMxiin, onv S. E. to Lieachy Hca«i 

auninier re^irts. The Mvi-cou^t i^ riun-h bn^kcn, aiHithvr E. to the lil. bliore of Kent, and tlH* third 

and abomnU in tine harbors and ruod-teadt. i Ui N. K. into Nurf^Ik. The f:unous S4»uih lKtwr.\ 

the E. are Ilcrne bay. the e!>tiiuri("« «it' the Meil- 5^^ ni.lniig and 5 or ti m. wide, are in the flpit, and 

way, Tli:i!iir4, and HumlHrr, und tho W:i*-h, into the Surrey hilU or downs celebrated like tli# 

whichi'Mipty the Ciri-at < >uiie, SvUt\ Witli.itn. &c.; furiiirr fi<r liu-ir!>hei'p p!i<*ture%arv in the ftecvtnd. 

on the W. tl.v bpiail S«ilway fritli. U-:wo«*n Kii*- The Malvvni hilN vxtoud over part^ of the csjoo- 

land aiid Smtland, Mont-anilio bay, tho Iiri«tol tiesofiilnuceMer, Hereford, and Woree?»t(.T. Tha 

channol, ) >ridg«* water Imi). and tho eM Mar io4uf the 1 otswoM and Stroudwater hiiN are in <flotice»* 

I>uddnn, Kibi-lo, Mersey, iK-o, und S-vvrn; and ti*r, and the Chilteni hills oxtcnd I'rcm Hertford 

ou the S. Mount'^ bujt, Fnhnonth IturlMir, I'ly- intti Oxt'ord. lMwc<'n the«i' ridges lie many 

mouth ^t>*:nt!. Tor b.iy. tin* r*>tuary of the Exo. beautiful vaU-s, wutonsl by rivets; other i*aru 

Wiry month bav, ]*imi1.* h.iriior. the Soii-iit ami uf the et»'intry hpread out in va^^t plain «, »u<-h 

8*>utli.viitit«in water Ih twi-«n HniM]i^liiri*and tho im the plain !•!' York, whirh vxtiii<U from th« 

U'.e »»f \\ iirlit, riirtMuo'itli an«l Chichr^tfr bar- valh-y ufthe Ti'*s to the cuntluenco *»f th* i>uio 

bors. Ne.ir the oiitraruvof I>iiVi r strait into the nntl Trent, a di^;:lli^o of 7<i or b*i ni . anil others 

(tvrmnn <H'fnn aro the wt-i!-ki.<iun andiorago aUuind in ru^ved and picturt.>«|Uo K-rnt-ry. 

grounds cillod the I>owTt«. npjMi^ite thot^'Hus NorthumU rhihd in in a groat dL-;:7ti- iM-(*upicd 

of lH*a] uml Sanilwii !i. Thf K. maot pre^nts bvuuHipi, whieh .tlvi iiiIit much nf I.'tnea^hire, 

an altrrnatiiMiof Miidy iTai-hi^ anil rhalk rlitfs \tirk*>hire, StalfopShire, (uinU-rUnil, Wt-«t- 

holl<»wod«Mit in nianv p!a<-i'«in!<iifivi-^nud « ith ini>rrlunil, a!id iMirham. Thi*«c are tltvat^-d 

several hi.;!! pr< If tt4ii;t'<r ii-«. Tho Atlaiitii" ti^b's trnetn, m nii><kl plaei* Mi-rile. healh-^rri'* n. ur 

fonn a i»tr«':i^ fum-nt, ^w^.«■p:rl;: S. a!'»ng t!it« gravelly, Iht^-f ff the E.i«t It id ing u Yiirk*hi7^ 

c«ia«t, a^^d ••i:j!ii:uai!y w«jriii«; aw 'vy tiio lime- aU'tie ooVit nii area of A**** or ?i<Nt «.|. u\. TSe 

stiinr r\AT- nnd hfadland^ , thi* i ?.< ruai^hniftits Mo!d« uf York-hire. whi«'li clii^iy rc^-i:iMo l.^c 

of tho M-a havf alrea>!v birittl lar^*i< tr»rt.« of clKilk l.il!'* ff nianr otlur ctiuntie«. occnt'i 

land. A c^.Sniahtiof r*-< l.a.* l-i-^tiTraeol along a*.NMit .^o•l f^^. ni. — The di^tribuiinn of thr pr ■> 

a groat par*, of tho i->ia*>t i>f I.i:ii f!n«!iiro. On btgictl fiiriiiutii>tiN throuich En^ilatid t« ruri<--.«.y 

thr hai;<!> iMirtMii*! uf t' f m-a! Kaiil i],v npiHi-tito rii:iii«*<*t«-il uith that of it^ inhabitaiit^ thiir :* 

iihen^Mni-nuii i« ct aaTvo) . |N>r!^i!i« i»f iaiid liA^o du-'rinl iiur-^uit*, aiul [•hymnal mi.d.U ''i : kV. 

Lrre Iten ^rained fio::i the wa!or, the toHu of Mhich iudeid aru lu grval uivasurc controUcd I y 



ENGLAND 158 

tiM nature of ihe mineral productions, and of extends from tbe N. E. eztremitj of England 

the foil resulting from the disintegration of the to the river Tees, along the coast of Northom- 

vockj strata. Nearly all that portion of Eng- berhmd and Durham ; it is traced further S. to 

kDd lying £. of a line drawn from the mouUi Leeds, bat this portioa has only the lowest beds, 

ef the Tyne in Northumberland in a southerly which are of little importance. The Yorkshire 

directioii through the towns of Nottingham and and Derbyshire extends south from Leeds to 

Leioerter, thence 8. W. nearly to Gloucester, near Derby, and covers in its northern portion 

and agun 8. to Bath, and S. W. to Exmouth, a breadth of about 25 m. Some small but very 

eonsista of tbe upper secondary formations, in- productive coal basins lie S. W. of Derbyshire, 

doding tbe oolite, lias, chalk, and greensand ; of which that near Coventry is the most south- 

and on both aides of the Thames, widening as em locality of coal in the midland counties. On 

the formation extends N. along the coast of the N. W. is the Cumberland and Whitehaven 

SaSoDc, is the tertiary group of clays and sands, coal field, extending along the coast to the north 

which oonstitutea the London basin, and rests in of Maryport; some of its mines have been 

the depreasxon of the chalk. Similar strata worked beyond low- water mark, and the con- 

Uda the secondary rocks over a small area vonience of shipping gives a high importance 

about Southampton and the northern part of to their products. The Lancashire coal field 

tbe iile of Wight. In Lincolnshire a strip of lies W. of a range of hills that extends along 

allBfial akirts the coast, and stretches S., const!- the borders of this county and Yorkshire, sepa- 

tuting the boggy district of Huntingdonshire and rating the two coal fields by the underlying 

Omliridgeshire. Over this region of secondary shales and millstone grit of which they are com- 

vo^ the prevailing dip is toward the S. E., so posed. The strata of the coal formation on the 

tint the lower members of the series are in west side dip toward the west, and the margin 

general met with in passing from the eastern of the fioid in this direction reaches to Prescot, 

eoart weetward. They constitute narrow belts, near Liverpool, and extends N. E. toward 

idudh are traced with great uniformity in their Colne. A little beyond the southern extremity 

fine of bearing, or N. £. and S. W. Thus from of the Lancashire coal field is that which sup- 

W^ymoath to the Humber one may continue plies the potteries near Newcastle in Stalford- 

ea diat bed of the middle oolite called the Ox- shire, and which, with those referred to as lying 

ftifd day, the average thickness of which does S. W. of Derbyshire, make up the central cos! 

lot exceed 600 feet A little ftirther west, district as grouped by Conybcarc and Phillips. 

from Bridport in Dorsetshire to Flamborough These include the fields of Ashby do la Zouch 

Bmd on the coast of Yorkshire, the topogra- and Warwickshire. In the South Stafford or 

E, rocks, and soil all designate the chalk Dudley coal field the coal has been worked in a 

lation of earlier date; but west of this, single bed 80 feet tliick, and at one locality 

ca the line from Lyme Regis to Whitby, the it has reached a thickness of more than 45 

Eaieslones of the lias appears in the general feet. The western coal district comprises tho 

otder of older rocks in a westerly direction, mines in North Wales, the island of Anglesea, 

Over all this region no mines of coal or of me- and Flintshire. The middle western or Shrop- 

tiDie ores are found. The easily disintegrated shire district comprises those of the Clee hills, 

strata present no bold hills, except in the cliffs Colebrook dale, Slirewsbury, &c. ; the south- 

of chalk abutting upon the coast, but are spread western district, those of the forest of Dean, 

eat in elevated plains, and gentle undulations South Gloucester, and Somerset, on both sides 

md hills of smoothly rounded outlines. The of the river Avon, and tho coal field of tho 

edcaieous nature of the strata secures fertility S. coast of Wales, bordering the Bristol chan- 

to the soil; and tho region is distinguished for nel for 100 m. E. and W., and stretching in- 

its agricultural character. West of this, ooou- land toward the N. from 5 to 20 m. This 

fjiug a belt not many miles wide, is the manu- field is in convenient proximity to the copper 

fc«'*^"g district of England, made so by the mines of Cornwall, the ores from wliich are 

■fam of coal and iron ore which are found transported to tbe great smelting establish- 

ibng its range. They occur at intervals in ments on tide water near tho coal mines. (Seo 

Uatedbasinsof moderate area, but remarkably Copper S^celting.) Much of the coal of this 

inductive in coal by the close grouping toge- region is semi-anthracite, like that of the Cum- 

Iher of the beds and tho great depths to which berland coal field of Maryland, and some is true 

tfctf are carried by the steepness of the dip. anthracite. Tho latter was first successfully ap- 

(Bee C0A.L.) These basins are often overlaid in plied upon a large scale to the smelting of iron 

|vt by the sandstones and marls of tho new ores in this district at tho Crane iron works. Iron 

lid sandstone formation, which may be seen ores abound in the coal measures of this field as 

mtfaig opon the upturned edges of tho strata well as in many of the others, especially that of 

tf the eoal formation. The marls afford rock Dudley at Wolverhampton, near liirmingham. 

■It and strong brine springs, which have long Tho same measures also yield the fire clay essen- 

Wm advantageously worked in Cheshire, ana tial for the manufacture of the firo brick required 

aeir Dnritwich in Worcestershire. Associated for tho furnaces ; tho limestone for fiiix is ob- 

vitli the salt are also found valuable beds of tained from tho same group of strata and other 

msom. The coal fields aro too numerous to older formations in close proximity, and the 

n aU psrticularly namc^ That of Newcastle millstone grit which underlies and holds as in a 



154 ENGLAND 

cup tlic coal rooararcs fumWhofl t most durable spccU is not readilr fonnd io on j of the 

builJinfC »t<>ne, aIm) woll adaMod for with<itand- tionn; w)iiU\ on account uf the hDini<l 

ing the lioat of furiiACo*. The prodnction of pherc causing the stones tu rapid! ▼ diMni 

England in rtial and iniri is stated in the Bi>ei'ial the want of dura!»Io materials is the m* 

articles upi>n tliese suhjccbi. l{e<*ido the coal bibly felt for important structoreft. The 

meaiiures scattered over the area in which they sian liuie^tone selected fur the new hui 

ore ffund, and the newer I'onnations which here parliament is described under IUiuotku 

and there overlie thenif there occur frequent it has not proved so durable as was ez 

put<*he«, like islandu, of rocks of older date, and its decajr is so rapid, that it ii no« 

whii'h have intruded thmugh the carbtmiferuus coated with a ccimposition to prefer re t 

strata ami tlie later formations aliovo them, face from further disintef^rAtion. Eng'an 

Tilt so uro of granite, menitv, and nictomoqdiic ficient in fine iiiarbh-s and in griod iron ore 

slate 4. Some are basaltic dike^, and one ««f best of the latter are the hematitv« ; lu 

cztrai>rdinarr extent apiicars from under the chiefly employed in the immense pruduc 

alluvium on the coaitofthetivrmAn ocean, near iron of this country are the poor ar^il 

Ilarwuod d:iU\ and in thenro traced toward ores of the coal fonnation. For maktof: 

the N. W. arntvi the Tei-s to the western port cvUent cast steel, for which En{;li>h m 

of Iiurhoin. It travvpio^ strata of the li&s turers are celebrated, the better irm fi 

oolite^ the coal iiu'asiirc«, and of the mctallifer- magnetic and specular ores of Norway ar 

ous or mountain liinotuue of the lower carbon i- den is largely imiKirted. Tlie annan! proi 

femui group. Its length in from 5u to 60 m., salt is nearly GOO,<><jO tons, a large p:irt«>t 

and in some places it is si'en onW 25 to 30 feet is exported to America. Theclimatv i«su 

thick, dipping at a steip angle, ^he mountain great variations of heat and cuM. and of < 

linu-stone is productive in lead, cop|»er, and zinc and moisture, but the winters are u<«t sei 

ores in S di^trict^i in England. Veins of galena the latitude, aud the heat of summer i^ o 

near Al»t4in mni»r in Cumberland traverse ad- lieved by periods of cool weather. The 

Jtiiuing bed 4 of limcittone and sandstone, yield- phero is chilly and damp, and partii-ul.i:! 

ing well in t!io fonner and |KKirly in the latter, in the W. cimnties, but the E. coa»i i* tl.i- 

Others are found in the some county, as alsi> iu The mean annual temperature of the > 

I)urham and York iu the upi»er [Mtrtions of the sea level in about 5*2^; at (rretrnwiih. ^ 

valleyi uf the Tyne, the \^ear, and tlie Tees. Penzance, 61' 8'. There is thus an inir 

Pyritous copper in obtained S. W. of AUton mean temiHrrature from N. to S. and fr^v 

miKjr, and near riversitone Inrds of red hematite W. July and August are the hottot i. 

alteriiiite with tli4tsc of the aukine limestone. A l^ecember and Jaimary are therolijo^t, t: 

seomd di^trii-t \s in l>erby«hire ami the contig- mometer in the hitter two near I>'i:i!i*r. *. 

U0U4 pnr*^ of the neighU/ring counties. Zinc mean height of 3'J~ 7 . The W. uti'! ^ W. 

bh-nde it economically worked in this district, m*»tt pro\alent and inm^tant wind*, l* ;! a 

which al»i» include«i tiie copper mine of Keton ing N. £. wind often blows ufHin 1^l K 

in S:air«ird<»hirf. The mim-rol pnnluet ions are doing great damage to the on ifM and liw-- 

further noiic«.Mi in t!io urtii'K-^ Pcrhthiuhk and Norfolk and Kent. Nottvithstamling :' i 

Firoi: Si*4iL The third diMrirt is in the N. K. ity of the climate, tlte axinualavcrure I.il 

jiart of \l'ul«-«i, wln-re tnim't of galena and cala- is les^ than in the Northi-rn rnite-l St.^t 

mine h:iv«> Imtg K't-n pnititubly wurketl, I>ing the British islands it is given as : J 

|>artly in the nio.intain linic^tntu* and {tartly in while at Cambridge, Ma<«4 . it is «t.ir<'«! \ 

old or fi>miati<iit<«. Ilunlering tin* roal tieldn fre- (iuvot to Im 3S incheiw and at the Wi «r< 

quvntly are m-vu the htrata of the old red H:ind- serve college*. Oliin, it was fd*:.;-! } ; 

■tifbo aud iitiivr roi-k^ uf the iK'vonian MTies; l.iN»ini«i t«» l>e 34 imh-.'s. The gv-ni r .\*l 

and frum U'Ueaih thfM* ai'fieur the older atul of the ^lil istliat of great fertilitv. iKi< .^ 

l>»wiT fit««iIiferoU4 itratA of the bilurian and are fi.i><Mi i-r T.'hxi <u{. m. of Liu J untl; I 

C*anibrian fonnation*; they prinluce little of vation. T!ie rui'avati-d cn^ps an w].. , 

ecuuiiniical inipnrt.'uiiV. The metalliferous d 14- Ik^aus, barley, rve, turnips. fw.ta*.<^-«. 

tri«-t<» t>f I'ornwail and l)evon havo already been ht^pN tUx, d:c. Yvmr of the fure%L» are vw 

niilire«l in the .irtirlefi upi in the«e counties; M'e but the country 14 well wooded. irv»! 

aI*o ('«irrKi! and Ti.v, in whii'b the amount (»f timU*r U-ing found in feUiall i<'..ti:t.i *..••(.% 

prmlurtiiifi uf thi*^ nietaN i* «p<ritted. The gra- iiig to private individuals. Tl.<-re ore »• •:: 

nitic rock« and metainnrpliir -Lito«, vuch a^ are large fore< landvhowi rer. suih i^ :}.■.• N 

Seen in thi« {Mirtitm of Kn^'I.nnd, are repeate^l in c^i in llainp«h!r%\ Iv.vi f^ri'^tin (i!<<'.vi *• 

North W:kle\ whtTf the ar^iilotvuu^ hlatC't an* and Sherwui>«l lu