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■I ■]>■'■-' <)1458o 

I 5 MAY 3 1 1955 




PA£R, Samdh, LLD., an Enf^ish scholar, era all his oontamporariea ezo^ Dr. JtdiiiMB. 
dagjnun, and author, bcnn at Harrow-on-the- In 1787 hepahliBhed an oditioa ot SiCttndaMt 
HiO, Jan. IS, 1747, df«d Uaroh^, 1685. He dt Statu, with a f refiww in whidi ho «aIogli«d 
wu tb« ton of a anrgeon and apotheoar?. He Bnrke, Fox, and Lord North, bat attamd 
e«riy manifested a taste for learning, and when, other contemporarj statesmen with great vim- 
at the age of 1&, he was removed from school lenoe. It ia esteemed one of the most sucoew- 
and placed at his father's bosiness, he devoted fol modem imitations of Ciceronian Latin. His 
his leisiu« time to the stndf of Greek and Lat^ prefnoe to an edition of " Tracts hj Warborton 
in with each Msidnitjr that in 1T66 bia father and a Warbnrtonian, not admitted into the 
relnotantlr consented to bia entering the nni- Colleotioa of their respective Works" (1789) 
verrt^ of Oambridge. The death of nis parent is remarkable for its polished st^le; bat the 
obliged him to aocept in 1767 the flirt assistant work was undertaken in order to annoy Bishop 
raaBtorship of Harrow sdiool, where he re- Hard, the editor of Warburton. Hia other 
mgiiwil s years. Having been rqected by the writings comprise a controversy with Dr. 
govemon as a oandidate for the vacant bead White, whom ne accused of plagiarism in his 
maatership in 1771, be tanght a school on bis " Bamnton Lectnrea" (1790), papers connected 
own aoconnt at Btanmore, and in 1777 became with tne Birminriiam riots of 1791, a oontro- 
master of the school at Coloheeter, where he versy with Dr. Charles Oombe in 1795, and 
was orduned priest, recdvin^r the onraoiee of one with Godwin and others occasioned by 
Hrtbe sod Trinity charoh. In the following Parr's Bpital sermon in 1800, and "Oharao- 
jcar be was appointed master of Norwich tersof the lateObarles James Foi"(1809),ooa- 
MhooL Two sermons " On the Tmth and Use' sisting partly of original and partly of sdeoted 
ftalnesB of Ohristianity" and " On the Edacation matter. He left a connderahle number of liia- 
<rf the Poor" (1780) appeared daring his red- torioal, oritlca], and metaphyaioal papers in 
dence here, and the latter served to preptae tbe mannscript. AJi edition of his works, witb a 
way for his macb admired " Discoarse on £da- memoir of bis life and writings and selectiona 
eaOon, and on the Plana panned in Charity from hia oorreviondenoe, was pnblisbed by John 
Schools" (1786). In the mean time the nni- Johnstone, D.D. (8 vols., London, 18S8). 
Tcraity of Cambridge bad granted bim the de- PABEC, Thouas, commonly known aa Old 
grea of LL.D. (1781), and Bishop Lowtb bad Parr, an Englishman celebrated on aoconnt of 
lOTKdnted him a prebendary of St. Paul's. In bia great age, bom in Winnington, Shropabiie, 
irea he temored to Hattos in Warwlokxhire, in 14SB, died in London, Nov. 15, lOW. Ha 
wbere be held a perpetnal cnraoj, and here he was tbe son of poor parents, and after Us fa- 
pused die renuiodw of his life, mgaged in lit- ther's deoesse oontinned his occupation of hus- 
erar7 Dnrmiits, the care of Ilia puii^ md the in- bandry. He was first married at the age of 
■traotum of children. His personal nnpopnlar- 80, and begot two children ; and after the 
ity witb the memben of his own profendon and death of his wife, be married again when about 
th« dispeiisers of government pateonage pre- 120 years old. According to a oarreut stoij, 
vented his riung to those dignitice in the ohuTtJi be was engaj^ in a love IntriRne when about 
to which his learning entitled bim. He was lOS years old, and was compelled to do peo- 
vdn, arrogant, and quarrelsome, a violent whig anoe for the crime bv stanmn^ in a sheet in 
p a rtw an, and both unjust and iocoDsistent in Alderbury churob. when a httle over ISS 
manj of bis political opinions. He advocated years old, he was taken to London by Thomaii 
tkerepeal of measures against the Soman Oath- earl of .^imdel ; but dying soon after, he waa 
oBca and Unitarians, but could not tolerate buried in Westminster abbey. Almost all 
Uetbodtsta: In bis controversial writings he that is anthentically known in regard to him 
wu fiwuently nn&ir and nntrnthfol, but be la oontidned in a pamphlet pnbll^ed in 1089 
poaaened great natnrd benevolence, and is by John Taylor, under the title of "The Olde, 
Hid t« bare sorpaased in oonveraational pow- Olde, Very Olde Uan; or, the Age and Ltmg 



lafe of Thomat Parr, the Sonne <rf John Parr, PABKOT, the general name of ittt piittaci- 
of Winnington, In the Pariah of Aldwhoiy, in dio, a tamilj of acansorial Urda, rema^able for 
the Oonnt; of Salopp, who waa bom in the the elegance of their form, the biWiani^ of 
reiga of £ing Edward the IVtli, and is now their plnmage, and their docility and power of 
UTing In the Strand, being aged 16S yeara and imitsung the human voioe. They hare a Ui^ 
odd monthea. His manner of Ufb aM oonver- strong bill, much arched, with acnte tip, and 
aation in so long a pilgrimage ; Mb marriage^ the lower mandible notched at the end; the 
and his bringing up to London aboot the end npper mandible b movablj articnlated to the 
of September las^ 16K6." frontal bones, eoabling them to aaiie larger 
PABRHA8IUS, a Greek painter, bom in objeew than other birds of tieir size; the 
Ephesoa, flourished about 400 B. 0. He was tongna is thiok and fleah?, tbe wings and t^ 
the son and pnpU of Svenor, and, altbongh be- generally long, tarsi short and robust, and tiie 
long^ to the Ionian school of art passed tbe strong toes directed 3 before and S behind, the 
greater part of his lifeinAtheos, of which <nty former united at the base bra narrow mem- 
he waa made a dtizen, Qointilian oaUs him brane. These are the typical climbers, bnt are 
llie legislator of his art, from die fact that he slow and generally awkward on the ground ; 
c^blished oertdn canons of proportioB for the they nse both bill and claws in climbbig, and 
human figure which were adopted by snooeed- wbOe feeding nse one foot to hold their food ; 
ing artists; and Pliny says: " He first gave to though rat^r sedentary, most of them are 
punting true proportion, the minnte details of good fliers ; the neck is ^ort, and has omally 
the oonntenanoe, tbe elegance of tbe hair, the 13 Tertebrte ; the stemnm b long and narrow, 
beauty of the &ce, and by the confeenon ot the with generaDy an oval ^rtnre on its inferior 
artists themselveB obtained tbe palm in hia mai^ on eaoh side ; the sfmctnre of the 
drawingof the extremities." Eewasarro^nt tongne and the complicated lower larynx m- 
and insolent in manner, and in epigrams In- able them to articulate with great distmotness. 
scribed on hb own prodnctJons oalled himself They are confined to the warm parte of Ameri- 
'A/SjioSuurac, the cleeant, claiming a dirfaie de- ca, Asia, AMoa, and Anstralia, and generally 
scent, and annonncing that in Us works the to the sonthera hemiapbere; their food oon- 
art of painting had reached ita highest excel- aists of soit pnlpy frnita, eapedaUy meb aa have 
lenoe. His most celebrated work, aooordlog to bard kernels or seeds ; they are nsnally aeen in 
Pliny, was an allegorical representation of the lai^ flocks, active in the momtng and evening, 
Athenian people, in which every qaality, good noisy and qaarrelsome, destmctive to vegeta- 
or bad, ascribed to the Athenians, fonnd its tton in their wild state, and very misohlevoas 
expression. Among otiier famone works by in captivity ; they are monogaroons, and build 
him were a Tbeseos, of which Enphranor re- tbeir nests generally in hollow trees. This ia 
marked that it had fed upon roses, and his own a very extensive family, numbering about 800 
Theseus npon beef; " TJlysses feigning Insan- apedes. and divided by Oray into tiie sob-fiDn- 
ity;" aUeleager, Bercnlea, &c. He also punt- iUas ot pttoporina, araitia, Icritta, eaeatvina^ 
ed pictures of a gross and lioentions oharao- and ^Uadna; tbe first 4 are described re- 
ter, two of which, the " Arohigallns" and t^a speobvely under the titles Pasoqitbt, Macaw, 
"Meleager and Atalanta," were so highly Lori, and Gookatoo, leaving for this article 
prized by the emperor Tiberias that ha caused only the ptittaema, and the genus eMturu* of 
them to be bung in his own chamber. Two the macaws. Boias of the parrots present rap- 
well known contests in which he engaged with torial characters in the form of the bill, and 
eontemporsry painters are recorded. In the especially in its soft skin or cere. Bonaparte 
first, when oonqnered by Timantbes, the snb- makes of them a distinct order, placing them 
ject being tbe combat of Ulyssea and Ajax for at the head of his system, separated from the 
die armsof Achilles, be observedtbathe cared typical Kantorei by tbe rapacious birds; for 
little for bis own defeat, bnt felt pity for Ajax the connecting links between tbe ftoilias sea 
in being a second time overcome by an un- Owl, and Owl Pabbot. — The only well asoer- 
worthy rival. In the second contest, which tained species within tbe United States is the 
was with the painter Zeoxis, the latter execnt- Carolina parrot Uomitvi Oarolinmtit, Kabl) ; 
ed a bimob of grapes so natnrallytbat tbe birds in this the lengtJi is about 14 inchee, and the 
came and racked at the fruit. He thereupon alar extent 22 ; the bill is abort, bulging, and 
requested Farrhssius to draw adde a curtain very strong; the h^ is large, the neck robuat, 
which apparently ooncoaied bis own piotnre; and the body and tail elongated, the latter 
bnt aa me onrtaln proved to be the picture wedge-shaped ; the bill is white and tbe iria 
iteelf, tbe victory was conceded by Zeuib to hazel; general color green with bluish refieo- 
his rival, who bv deceiving men had gone fir- tions, lightest balow ; fore part of head and 
tber than himself in tbe art of imitation. Tbe cheeks bright red, extending over and behind 
story told by Seneca, that Partha^us, when the eye, the rest of the head and nook gambooe 
painting a "Promeuiena Chained," put an yellow; edge of wing yellow tinged with red ; 
Olyntbian captive to the torture, in order to wings and their coverts varied with bluish 
obtain traia him tbe proper eipreeaion of green, greenish yellow, and brownish red; S 
bodily suffering, has been proved to be utterly middle tail feathers deep green, the others with 
TOfbanded. tiie inner webs brownish red ; tliighB yellow. 



Tbls Bpeciea h« been seen sa far north asLake ftirttmate repetition of prerionslj Mqnlred sen- 
OnUfio, though now it ia ehieflj confined to tenoea, and are not nev words dictated by in- 
the sontbem and Bonth-weetem statee, and aa telligence or any consoionenees of their appli- 
&T as the SGssoari to the west They are very oabiQty. Large bqidb have been paid for well 
fond of the aeeda of the cockle bnr, and e^ taught Bpecimens, and a cardinal la said to have 
ijiuost any kind of fimit and gr^ from their g^vea 100 golden crowns for one which could 
immense fiooks oonunitting great havoo in the repest tiie Apoatlea' Qreed ; another is aaid to 
garden, field, and orchard, deatroying in search have served acceptably as chaplain of a vessel, 
of seeds far more than they consume ; they are redting the prayers to the sdlora In the ge- 
killed in large nnmbers by the enraged farmers, nns eiryioti* (Swuns.), of tropical Sonth Amer- 
who consider their flesh a delicacy. The flight ioa, the bQl is smaller bnt strongly deatated; 
is rwid and direct, with ^eat inclinations of thewingareaohtothemiddle of thetail, whloh 
the body and incessant noisy cries; they gen- is broad and ronnded. The green parrot (O. 
erally alight cloeetogetber on the trees bearing Amtmoniau, Qmel.) is very often taken to the 
tbede^edfi-nit; theyareaavagewhenwonnd- United States and Europe mi aooonnt of its 
ed, bnt are eadly tamed by inimerriim in water; mat colloquial powers; it is IB inches long, 
they are dMtmotive in owtivity, and incapable Sie bill orange yellow, as well as the ohe^ 
of articulating words, lliey are fbnd of sand and chin; the general color la shit^g neen, 
and BaUne earths. Many females deposit their with a bluish pnrale band over the fortuiead, 
«g(p in the same hollow of a tree, each one and the feathers of the hind neck edged wtth 
laying 3 or 8. Several other parrots are found black ; it inhabits the ooonlry watered by the 
in Meiioo aiid Central America. — To the sab- river Amazon, where it oiten doee great mla- 
fiunily of ptittaeina belong the parrots best chief tothe plantations, Thefeedve pirrM(Cl 
known in the domeetioated condition, espedally fitttmis, Linn.), a native of the aame forest^ ia 
the any and green parrots so common aa pets; IS or 16 inches long, of a general green oolor, 
in this groap the head is wiQiout crest, the with a narrow red frontal band and eye streak, 
margins of the bill are dentated or festooned, blue above and behind the eyw, lower back 
the wings pointed, and the tail short and square, and rmup vermilion, and the gnater qnilla with 
In the old genos ptittaetit (Xdon.) the bill la blue onter webs and the inner greenish black; 
large, rather compressed, with biangnlar cnl- It ia docile, easily tamed, a&d learns rsadily to 
men mnoh avched to the tip, near which the pronounce words and senteneee. The last two 
lateral margjn Is deeply notched, the under roedee are Uiosemottoommonly brought flwn 
muidlble nraoh mnnated and the anterior edge Sonth Ameriqa; fliere are several ouers de- 
aharp ; winn generally reaching to the end oif Boribed. In Ute genns ptittaeuJa (Briaa.) the 
the t^ with Sd and 8d quills equal and lon|^ rase is generally small ; tbe Mil is rather large 
est There are more than 40 Hiecies found ui with the lateral margins fostooned; the planted 
the humid forests of Afiica and Booth America; wingaeztendtotheendofthet^,whidiiaahort 
eoUeotingatnigbt in immense flocks, theyleave and even; there are about 80 spedesdesoiibed, 
their roosting places early in search of food, in South America, AMoa, ana Asia and its ar- 
which consists chiefly of pnlpy fmits and seeds, chipelsgo ; they are r^id fllersand expert climb- 
after which they bathe and retire to thick- ere, often hanpng head downward in thur 
leaved trees daring the heat of the day, going search for &uits ; while feeding they ntter a 
in search of food ag^ at D%ht ; they migrate shrill chirp, like that of a large grasshopper ; 
in large flooks to warmer redone on the ap- when sleeping they eenerallv suspend them- 
proabh of the rainy season, rising to a grrat selves by one or both feet head downward, 
height and uttering themost discordant screams; Here belong the beantifiil little "love birds," 
the young are fed with the disgorged half mas- the genus agapomit of Selby. Swindem's 
ticated food of the parents. The gray parrot love bird (P. »iiindaren.iana, Euhl) is a native 
(P. trythaaiu, linn.) Is the most remarkable of S. Africa; it is about 6 inches long, with a 
foritadooOity and power of articulating words, black strong bill whose upper msndtble is 
snd is the (ma about wldch so many wonderm notched ; the bead and nape are bright green, 
tales are eitaut; it is about 12 inches long, of boonded bv a black nuchal collar; neck and 
an ash-gray color, with a bri^t scarlet tall, breast yellowish green, mantle and wings 
yeUowiah white Iridea, and grayish fbet and toes, green, lower back and npper tail coverts aeure 
It ia a nativd of W, Africa, whence it has been blae ; tbe abort and nearly even tail has a me- 
imported from a very early period ; its habits dian bar of vermilion edged with black and the 
are not very well known in the wild state, but tip green. These parrota are remarkable for 
in c^>tivity it foods on bread and milk, nnts, their attachment to each other. Other genera 
and even meat, holding its food with one fbot, are tanymaOwt fWagl.), of the Holnooas and 
and redndog it to smi^ pieces by the bill and New Gtunea, having a very large and swollen 
cnttera on the palate ; it may reach the' age of bill without dentations, a very lon^ broad, snd 
70 and even i>0 years. They breed readfly hi wedge-shaped tall, short tarri, and long den- 
captivity. Anecdotes of these parrota might der toes; and naritMtM (Wagl.), vhi»i is a 
fill a large volume ; It wIH be sufficient to very emidl Kew Qninea genus, having a short 
say here that many of the recorded apposite elevated bill, and the apex of each feather of 
speeches made by them are the resnlt of the the short rounded toil jrolonged into an acuta 


point; the I^.pj/^maa (WagL) is the stnalleet oe the firet of fishee, and large snms wen m- 

of the ptuTot &mil7. pended to stock the Itali&n waters with it ttom 

PABROT, Johauk Jakob Fsudbioe Wil- the sea between Orete and Asia Minor. B7 

Bxui, a Oennan natnTal philosopher, bom in the ancients it was believed to have a voice, to 

OarlBrahe, Oct. 14, 1799, died Jan. 15, 1841. sleep at night (alone of fishes), to be yerj m- 

In 1811 and 1812 he travelled in company with dent in the porstiit of the female, to release its 

Engelhardt over southern Russia ana the Can- oompaniona and other fishea from neta, and to 

oasDB, and on his return pnblisbed an account have the power of ruminating ; the last belief 

of his travels nnder the title of " Travels in the natnraJly arose from the backward and forward 

Crimea and Oancaans" (2 vols., Berlin, 1615- movements of the jaws rendered possible bj the 

'18). In 1631 he was appointed professor of mode of articnlation, and neceBsary for Uie 

physiologj, pathology, and eemeiology in the complete mastication of the sea weeds npon 

university of Dorpat, travelled in 1^4 in the whioh it prinoipall; feeds. Its flesh is tenaer, 

Pjria^, and in 182B was the first to make a sweet, and easy of digestion, and the inteetiDes 

aaoceesful ascent of Uonnt Ararat He wrote and thdr contents were highlv relished ; the 

" Jonme; to Ararat " (2 vols., Berlin, 1834: modem Greeks call it tearo, and consider it a 

English translation hj Oooley, London and fish of exquisite flavor, eating it with a sanoe 

New York, 1846) ; a treatise on " Gasometry " made of its liver and intestines, as the modems 

(Porpat, 1814); and " Views in regard to Uhi- eat plover and woodcock; its liverentered into 

venu Pathology" (Riga, 1821). the composition of the famons dish called " the 

PARROT FISH, the common name of the shield of Minerva," with the brains of the pe«- 
muneroQs cyclolahrold fishes of the genus cock and pheasant, flamingoes' tongues, and 
tearvM (Forsk.) ; the name is derived from the the nult of the murssna eel. The red parrot 
beak'Iike form of their Jaws; they also present fifh of the West Indies (S. Abilg<ntrdii,vaL), 
the same brilliancy and variety of colors as do about 16 inahca long, is a handsome nieciei. 
tiie parrots among birds. The form b oblong The great parrot fish (S. guiuamaiit, Val.), from 
and stout, with the lateral line branching and the same locality, attains a length of 2) or 8 
intem^ted under the end of the dors^ fin. feet, and a weight of 80 lbs, ; the colors ar« 
The jaws are prominent, convex, each divided red, bine, and green. Many other beautiftd spo- 
into oalvea by a median suture ; the teeth are oiee ore described from North America in Dr. 
inooiporated with the bone, arranged in an Storer's "8ynop8is," and the whole genus fa 
imbricated manner in crowded qninonnxee, the treated at length in vol. ztv. ofibbSUtoiretia- 
ddest forming the cutting border, andsncceed- tvr«If«(!MjiiTUMm«byOnTler and Valenciennes, 
ed by the lower ranks as the former are worn PARRY, 8ik Wtlluu Edwabd, an English 
away; their surface is generally smooth and navigator, bom in Bath, Dec. 10, 1790, died at 
polished ; the pharyngeal teeth oomdet of treu- Ems, Germany, July 8, 185C. He was the son 
chant transverse v^tical plates, two at>ove and of a physician, and was intended for his father's 
one below, presenting when worn narrow el- profession ; but after he had received a good 
lipsBs of dentine snrronnded by enamel; the education at the grammar school of his native 
lips are umple and fleshy, in some ^>e<^ place, aretativeindat^ him toenter thenavy. 
leaving the teeth exposed. The body is cov- In June, 1603, he was wpolnted a first cla^ 
ered witli large scales, as f^ as the gUl covers volunteer on board the Ville de Paris, 110, the 
and cheeks. Cbere being from 21 to 3S in a flag ship of Admiral Oomwollis, and remuned 
longitudinal line and 8 in a vertical one at the in this vessel nntil 1806, when he was rated as 
re^on of the pectorals ; those at the base of midshipman on the Tnbnne frigate. Having 
the caudal fin are large and embrace a consid- been transferred to the Yanguud, 74, of the 
erable portion of its rays; there is a single Baltic fleet, he wss several times in action with 
conical dorsal, with 9 spiny and ID articulated the Danes, and in one engagement was intrusted 
Ttye ; the anal has 2 spiny and 8 articulated with the command of one of bis ship's boats, 
rays. The muzzle is obtose, and the profile In 1810 he obtained hie commiasion as lieuten- 
sometimes rather high ; there are no stomach- ant, and sailed in the Alexandria fHgate to the 
al nor paaoreatio offica. There are abont 100 polar seas about the North cape, where he cor- 
species doscribedMiving principijly on the reeled the admiralty charts of those waters, 
ooral ree& of the west and East Lidian orcM- After the outbreak of war between Great Brifr. 
pelagoB, about one quarter dwelling oronud ain and the United Btates, he was sent to Hal- 
the Molucca and Sunda islands. The liest iiax (1818) to join the La Hogue, 74, with 
known is the parrot flah of the Mediterranean, whoae boats in the spring of 1814 he ascended 
(8. CVet^niii, RondOj of a red or blue color ac- the Oonnecticut river about 20 m., and de- 
cording to season, h^^Iy esteemed by the an- stroyed 37 privateers and other vessels with 
dents ; it is about 16 in^es long, of a general the loss of only 2 men. He remained on the 
pnrplishcolor, roseons below, Bod violet brown North Ainwican atc^on until 1817, when, 
on the back; the pectorals orange, ventrala hearing that two expeditions, the one under 
with transverse lines of violet, and dorsal violet Bnchan aodFronklinand theotherunderCapt. 
gray with golden spots and bands. There is Ross, were about to be sent out to the north 
more smd of this fish in the ondeut writers polar regions, he solicited employment, and 
than of any other ; inFIiny'stlmeitwasraiiked was plamd in command of the Alexander under 



Om oidara of Sobs In the Isabella. They left Regent Met. On Aag. 28 ^ej vere asain 

England in April, 1818, and proceeded toLan- imprisoned bjtlie ioe,but Uie7'p«rfbrmed dor- 

eaater soimd, which the^ naviKsted for about ing the winter aererta laud Joiinie?^, saffldent 

00 m., when Bosa, imagining Uiat he saw the to oonTince them that aoy attempt to reach 

WI.7 doMd before them hy a range of moon- the polar sea through Hndaon's strait was 

taina, gave orders to retnm. Panj freely ez- hopeless. The appearance of scnrrj among 

pt— cl his eonviotion that the range of moim- his men induced him in the spring to retom 

taiua waa an optical illnson ; and as the pub- home, and on Oct ID, 18S3, he arrived at Braa- 

Uo ga>erall7 ooinddad in this opinion, it was sa sound, Shetland. During his absence he 

deb«rmined in the roring of 1819 to equip a bad been promoted to the rank of post-captain 

freeh eraeiMtion under hia command. With (Nov. 8, 1831) ; and in Deo. 18B8, he vaa ap- 

th» Hecu, 876 tons, and the Griper gun brig, pointed acting hjdrographer to the admiral^. 

IBO tons, Ijeut Uddon, he reached Lanottater Hia " Jonmol of a Second Voyage for the Du- 

soond July SO, and sdled throngh it He ez- oove^ of a North-West Faaaage" was pub- 

plored and named Barrow struts, Prince Re- liahed by the admiralty in 1^S4. The resolta 

gent inlet, and Wellington dionnel, and, en- of these Toyages, however imperfect, were euf- 

tering the water which has since been called fieient to enconrage fiirther search, and the 

Pan7 sound, reached on Sept 4 long. 110° W., Heela uid Fury were consequently refitted as 

thereby earning a reward of £S,D0O offered by speedily as pcmble. In Hay, 1624 Oapt 

parliamuit to the first ship's company which Parry sailed again in the Heola, with OwL 

shontd att^ that meridian. He wintered at Hoppner in the Fury under his orders. Hia 

UdnUe island, and hia ezpedients to preserve pltm was to pasa through Prince Regent In- 

tbe health and spirits of his crews during the let, but winter overtook him ahnost at the 

long orcCio night were scarcely lesa deserving entrance of that ohannol ; and Boon after the 

of mention thm his aohievementa as a disoov- ice broke up, July 20, 1825, his vessels were 

erer. Exerdse was rigorouBly enforced, all caught in the drift and carried down the inlet, 

possible preoantions were taken agunat scurry, On Aug. 91 the Fury was driven ashore, and 

and a newspaper and theatre were provided aa so badly damaged that she had to be abandoned. 

amnwuteDta. On Aug. 3, 1820, after being Her crow and stores were transferred to the 

froEeninforlOmonths,theshipswerereleased; Hecla, and, deeming it impossible to continue 

bat the state of the ice was ench as to preclnde the voyage under snch circumstances, Oapt 

thft bope of ftirther pn^ress westward, and Par- Parry returned to ^England, having aocom'^m- 

ry oocordin^y returned to England, where he ed little or notliing. His " Jonrnal of a Third 

wtiH welcomed with the utmost enthnsiaam. Toyoge for the Discovery of a North- West 

He was promoted to the rank of commander. Passage" appeared in 1636. He now turned 

prBBented with the freedom of Bath and Nor- his attention to a plan oripnaily proposed hj 

wieh, and elected a member of the royal Bode- Scoresby for reachmg the pole in boats whlim 

ty, and the narrative of hisadventures was pub- could be fitted to sledges and floated or dragged 

luhed bj order of the admiralty. The results as occauon might offer; and having improved 

of hia voyage, beatde the estahliahment of the somewhat upon the ori^nal dedgn and obtmn- 

navigabiH^ of lAncaster sound and the ezist- ed the sanction of the admiralty, he set sail in 

Miee of a polar aea to the north of America, the Heda, March 27, 1827, for Spitzbergen. 

were eztremely important to the science of Here the vessel waa left in harbor with apart 

magnetism, no observations having ever before of the crew, while the remdnder, led by Cfapt 

been made so near the magnetic pole. The Parry and Lieut. Jomea 0. Ross, set out for 

greet problem however of the north-west pas- the pole In two boats, June 23. These boats 

sage was still nnaolved, and in May, 1631, Far- were framed of ash anJd hickory, covered with 

ly i^ed ag^ with the Fmy, accompanied by water-proof canvas, over which were anccesdve 

Copt. Lyon in the Heclo. He passea through planks of fir and oak, with a sheet of stont felt 

Endaon s strait and Fez's channel, disoovered interposed. They were flat-bottomed inside, 

aod named the Dake of York's bay on the N. and had mnnerB bo that they could be used oa 

diore of Southampton island, and passing sledges. The adventurers sailed throngh an 

throng Froten strut reached Repulse bay. open sea for about 60 m., and then found, not 

After ft aeason of fruitleaa exploration along aa they had expected a solid plain of ioe, but a 

these waters lying Immediatdy N. of Hudson's snr&ca half covered with water, on which 

bay, hia ships were frozen in at Winter island, wdking and sdling were almost equally diffl- 

OeL 8, And were not rdeaaad aguu until July cult They entered this ice June 24, and after 

S. HenowsailednpFozchanndto themontli C nights of labonouB travelling (for tbey trav- 

oftbeatraitseparaluig Melville peninsula from elled only by night to avoid snow blindness) 

OfxMnn island, and named it Fury and Hecla had advanced only 10 mUes. After reaching 

BtrwL Aa it was ftoxen across, ha made a harder ice their progress became more rapid, 

Jonmey on foot to the narrowest part of the bnt on July 19 a north wind eprang up wmob 

atr^t, whence be oonld see in the W. on open proved a more formidable obstacle than any 

expanse of water which he thonght was the they had yet experienced. It waa found th^ 

polar aeo, but whioh is now known aa the the ice moved southwardwhiletheyweretrav- 

golf of Boothia, at the S. extremity of Prinoe elling toward the north, and on the S4th th^ 



•wvn 4 m. S. of the podtion oo<ni|^ed on the FABBT BGUKD. Bee Hblthxb 6oun>. 
sad. It was eyidentlf impoeatble to proceed FABSEE8. See Gdbbiob. 
ftirther, and they began to retrace their stepa, FABSLEY U>ftn>»eiinwinatimm, Hofitaian), 
haviog reached as &r K u laL 82° 46', ue an exogenoiia hardr biennial plant of the nat- 
nearert pmnt to the pole that had heea reach- nral order ofiaeea. This order ia oorapoaed <j* 
ed by any ezpedMon, and trftTelled in a direct herbs vith stems either aoUd or flatnlona and 
line 172 m. from the ahip, to oocompligh which ftirrowed, leaTea nsoeily divided and sheathing 
distanoa they had been obliged to Msa over at baee, and Dnmeroos oaeU flowers bwne in 
666 m, ot soT&oe. They reached the Heola af- mnbels and snrronnded by an invohiore ; in 
t«r an abeeooe of 61 dare, and at the end of color either white, pink, yellow, or bine \ the 
September arrived in England, where Oapt. fruit (commonly considered as the seed) con- 
Parry published his " NarratiTe of an Attempt nating of 2 oarpels separable from a common 
to reach the North Pole in Boats fitted for the axis to which the;r adhere by tiieir face (com- 
Ptirpoee"(1837), and resomed his duties ashy- missvre), each carpel traveraed by ejevatod 
drographer to the admiralty. On April 29, ridges, dT which S are primary, and 4 altemat- 
1829, he was knighted by George lY., Sir John ing wiUi them are secondary ; belween theae 
!EVai^diu reoeivluig the same honor at tbe same ridges are sometimes lodged receptacles of oilj 
time. Both these disttognished navigators also matter called titUt. The plants of this order 
reo^red frtnn the murersity of Oxford the are extremely rare in the hotter regions of the 
degree of D.OX. Pan^ now received the globe. — ^The common parsley Is a native of 
anointment of oommissoner of the Anstralisn Sardinia, and has been cnllivated in gardens 
agricnltnral company, the mismanagement and for S or more oentories. Its stem is sngnlar, 
ne^ot of whose agents bad redoced tiieir set- its leaves sbining and tripinnate, the leafleta 
tlaments to the condition of " a moral wilder- toothed ; its flowers are Dorne in compomtd 
neaa." He took ship Jnly SO, 1829, and passed mnbels famished with general and partial in- 
6 years at Fort Stephens, abont 90 m. from vobcres ; the sepals ab«ri;ive, the p<^als 6 and 
Sydney. Betnming to England in 183G, he equal; the fmit ovate, umtracted at the ride^ 
reedved from the company a servioe of plate famished with S nairow, equal ridges, tlie lat- 
"in testimony of the high sense entertained oral ridge on the edge end each furrowed ridge 
of t^e beneflts conferred by him on the colony with one vitts ; the albnmen plano-convex, 
dnringhia residence there;" was^tpointed aa- The most nsual form seen in gardens is what is 
sistant commisdoner of poor law fi» the connty called the double-leaved or curled-leaved, hav- 
of Norfolk, as office which he waa obliged to ing a beautiful thick-leaved, onrled, and cri^ 
redgnim aoconnt of his heshh at the end of folia^ highly ornamental aa welles of saperior 
18 months ; was employed by tlie admiralty in quality ; t£ia however is only a mere permanent 
1887 to wganiie the packet service between variety of the plain-leaved or common form, 
livM^ol, Holyhead, and Dublin ; and in April which used to be solely raised for its leaves, and 
fit the some year received the newly crested which is still cultivated. Another la known 
office of comptroller of steam machmery for as the Hamburg, raised for the roots alone, 
the Toysl navy. Dnring his term of office the which are out up and employed in seasoning 
nse of steuu In the navy, which had already sonps and stews, their superior size rendering 
been tried to a considerable extent, became them better than the roots of the other varieties, 
almost aniversal, and the introdaction of the The leaves, as is wdl known, are the parte 
•crew propeller waa in great measure owing to naually employed for the table, both for im- 
his persevering advocacy. In 1641, at the re- muting flavor and as a garnish to meats, 
qnest of Sir Bobert Fed, he drew up a report Parsley is sometimes sown snwmg pastnra 
OB the state of the Caledonian canal, in which grasses, to counteract by its presence Ine ten- 
he recommended its adaptation for vessels of dency to tiver rot in sheep. In gardens it 
lante dranght, a measure which was accord- should be sown as early as pos^ble in tlie 
fn^ adopted. He retired from active service spring, and a slight covering in winter is found 
In Dec. 1846, with the appointment of captain- advantageous to the young plants. The Uam- 
■nperintendent <^ tiie royal Clarence yara and bnrg should be thinned out frequently so that 
of the naval hospital at Haslsr near Port»- the plants may be allowed as much as 10 or 12 
month, retaining this position until ISG3, when square inches of surface. In medicinsl auali^ 
he was compelled to vacate it on attaining the parsley is considered pleasant, stimulating, 
rank of rear admiral of the white. In the fol- aromatic, and diuretic 

lowing year he waa made lieutensnt-govemor PABSKIF(pa«finiHvisoftva,Linn.),Bbiennial, 

of Greenwich hospital. In the summer of 18G4 nmbeiliferousplant, growing wild in the chalky 

he waa attacked by cholera, which entirely districts of England near the sea coast, and 

undermined his constitution, and induced bim cultivated for the sakcof its root, which has a 

to go to Germany, where he died. Beside the sweet taste and nutritious qualities, aiid is osed 

nairatives of his 4 voyages, he wrote a treatise both aa a table dish and for cattie. The com- 

on "Nautical Astronomy by Night;" "The man parsnip bat an sngnlar^ farrowed st^n, 

Farental character of God; and a "Lecture pinnated, smooth leaves, liairy benesth, the 

to Seamen." His life has been written by his leafleta oblong, blunt, crciiatc-se irate, the ter- 

waa, the Bev. £. Farry (jAtaAo'a, 1807). minal tme S-iobed ; the Sowers are yellow and 


boms in a oompoDnd mnbel, osoaU^ witiioat an appropriated <BometimH called impn^- 
inTohicres ; the calyx obsolete ; the petals K, stod) to uie lord of the manor or other pa- 
loooMdate, inrolnte, onLfonn, entire ; the eta- tarn of the living. The word parson has lost 
mena 6^ pistib 8 ; fruit &m, satroonded by a aomewhat of the importanoe attached to Uia 
broad boider, with oil reoe[rtadee (ntfa), one name; and 100 yean ago Blookatone Bpoke 
in each farrow. The paraoip when growing of it as "depreciated by ^miliar, elowniah, 
wild by straying hom Kardens la materially and indlacrltmnate use," bat as still "the moat 
aflbeted in ite nature and habits, and its root legal, moat beneficial, and most honorable title 
beewnea small, strong, acrid, and virose ; hot that a parish priest can e^Joy." In the United 
mider coltiT&taon in a suitable soil, the root States the word is not nndenitood as havlDg 
grows to a larm siie and penetratea the gronnd any legal or official meaning, bnt is oommonly 
to a great depth. The soil it prefras is oaed as designating a minister of the gospel ; 
meDow, deep, and rich, and not apt to dry. bnt it is not often applied to a priest of the 
The beat floored roots areprodnced Inasoil RofnsnCatholicorof the£pisoopaldinrcb,and 
inelinlnc to sand rather than to loam. The it has lost so mnoh of its ori^ial solemn and 
gronnd in the sarden should be spaded deep, official meaning, that it la oommonly need In a 
as the qnalitiy of the crop depends mnoh np<m famiKar rather than a rererential or even ra- 
the lengdi c^ the roots, l^e nsnal mode of speotfol sense. 

coltivaUon is to sow them in drills and thin PABBONS, Thbopeili^ an Amerioan Jmist, 

ont as needed ; they shonld be at least 6 inchee born in Byfleld, Essex oo., Mass., Feb. 24, ITCO, 

apart if large roots are required, and sowed as died in Boston, Oct. 80, IS18. He wss grad- 

early as possible in the spring L!<>ine prefer cated at Harvard college in 1769, and in the 

sowing in the previoas antninn. When mannre enooee^ng year commenced the study of the 

is used, it sboold be rotten and free from lumps law in F^nontb, now Portland, Ue., where he 

and straw, and no great amount is needed, as waa admitted to the bar In Jnly, 1774. Dnr- 

tbe crop is not exasasttve. The early frosts ing this interral he oontrihnted to his support 

of aatnmn do not affect the tops and roots, hut by teaohing a sohooL He commenced praoldoe 

there is no advantage in wintering Ihem in the with unusually brilliant prospects ; but the al- 

groand as soma do, and the first renewal of most total destruction of Falmonth by a British 

growth in the spring caoaea them to become fleet, in Oct, I776,havinginterruptedhisoareer 

tough and have a bitter flavor. The best treat- in that place, he retomed to BySeld, and for 

ment is to dig Uiem up in the antmnn, toUng several years received the instruotion and as- 

oare not to out the roots, and not to trim oS the sistance of Judge Trowbridge, called by Ohan- 

tops too olosely. A cool and dry ceUar is bet- eellor Kent " the oracle of Uie common law in 

ter than one in which if stored they might Hew England." In the librarr of this Jnrist, 

sprout and grow. — Some agricoltnral writers one of the beat in Amerioa, he laid the founds- 

have reoommended tite parsnip as an excelknt tion of a vast acoumnlstttHi of legal lesroing; 

fi>od for swintL and as nsefiit for feeding and and the maaneoript briefs on questions inoiden- 

fattening all kinds of cattle. A variety called tally ocoorring to him, which he there pre- 

Qm esoHMM, the roots of which smnetimea pared, were frequeutly employed by him with 

ran 4 feet deep, Is raised in Jersey and Quern- advantage during his subsequent career at the 

sey chiefly for feeding miloh oows. According bar and on the bench. Estabhshing himself 

to Sir Humphry Davy (" Agricultural Ohemls- in Vewbnryport, he entered upon a lucrative 

try")t ^ 1,000 parts tliere are SO saccharine practice, which gradoally embraced all the 

utd B mueilaginoiia. In Scotland the roots New England states. At the same time he 

are lai^y nsed for food by the peasantry ; took a conddersble interest in the politics of 

and when they are ra^ed raw and mixed with the day, his opinions being of that couaervatlve 

Sour good bread is maae of them. In Ireland a stAmp which subseqnently characterized the 

sort of beer is brewed from the roots; and wine federal party. In 1TT8 he formed one of the 

b nude in Enidond by boiling ther -'•'-- ■• " " -' ■ '■ ' '-•-.- . 

little angar to the expressed juiM, a) ... 
ing by yeast, dlstillatloa affording a apirituona state ccmstitution reoeutiy framed by the Uaa- 
Hmor. The best foreign varieties of the par- ssohnsetta legislature; and a pamphlet, famil- 
sntp are the GnerDsey, ht^ow-crowoed, and iai^ know aa "The Essex Resnlt," stating the 
nnmd or tnrtiip-rooted ; and in the eastern principal objections to the proposed oonstlta- 
New fiigland states, the cnp parsnip Is decid- tion and approved and adopted by the "Jonto," 
edly preferred. The wild psranlp of Amerioan was probu^ly wholly prepared by him. It was 
fields is a Enropean exotic, and is regarded as a widely circulated thronghont the state, and 
noxious weed. had an important influence in caumng the re- 
PABSOH (Lot MTSona teeUtta), in English Jectlon of the constitution. In 1779 he was a 
law, one hnvmg fbll posnnesion of sll the rights delegate to the convention which frmned the 
<tf n parodiial church. (Bee Pabibh.) He Is state oonatitotion Anally adopted. As a mem- 
a sole corpontion, and possesses the righto her of the convention which assembled in 
of the dinrch by perpetual snoceeaiotu Dur- Boston In Jan. 1786, to ratify the federal con- 
ing his lifb he has a freehold estate in the stitution, he took an active and Influential pari 
glebe, and in tha tithes, nnless where they In &ror of that Instrument and was the anthor 


of tJie " PiwoBmon," ofibred by John Han- insnranoe, and the law and practice of sdmi- 

oock and snEiseqaeiitlf adopted, ratifying the raltf (2 vols., 18C9). 

oonstitation and recommendliig cartain amend- PABSONS, Taoius Woxuh, an Amerioan 
menta, known in the histories of the times poet, bom in Boston, Ang. 18, 181B. He was 
M the " ooncOiatorf reBolntiouB." He occa- educated in the Latin school of Boston, and 
sionally served in the legislatore after this, in lS80-'7 visited Italr, where he Imbibed 
bnt took no prominent part in pnblio a^urs, a fondness for Italian literature, one of the 
alQjongh to the dose of his life he remained a earliest frnits of which was a translation of 
consistent federalist. In IBOO he removed to thefirstIO oantosofthe/f^eT^io of Dante, pnb- 
Boeton; and npon the retirement of Ohief Jos- liahedin Boston in 1618. In the interval be 
Ijoe Dana in 1B06, he was appointed to sneoeed adopted the profeemon of a dentist, which he 
him upon the bench of the sopreme judicial has tdnoe practised, although devoting his lei- 
ooort, whioh position he held at the time of sure to literary avocations. In 1854 appeared 
his death. As a lawyer and as a Judge he was a volome of poems from him, containing 
greatly respected. In the former capacity Jns- "Ohatto di Roma" and other pictures of life 
tieo Story declared that he " had no equal," in Italy, which he revisited in 1847, and also 
and was " a head and shoulders tsller than any many pieces suggested by American subjects, 
otiier man in the whole state ;" and Ms judi- He has completed his translation of tho /n> 
dal ophuons were so highly esteemed that a /emo, but it nas notyet been pahlished. 
collection of them was published in New York PAKTHENOGENESIS (Gr. vapStm, vir- 
nnder the tjtle of " Oommentaries on the Ijtw gin, and ytrtrrK, birth), a name given to the 
of the United States, by TheophUns Parsons, phenomenon in the organic world, believed by 
late Chief Justice of MasaaohuBetta," His de- many to occur, though still questioned by 
ciaions threw much light upon the laws of others, of a production of successive genera- 
pleading, marine insoroiice, and real property, tions of prooreatuig individuals, ori^nalmg 
and he rendered a substantial service to the from a dngle fertilized ovum, but without anj 
community by discountenancing delays and renewal, through such series, of fertilixation. 
expediting the trial of causes. Apart from his Ordinarily careful observations seem, at first, 
professional duties, he was distinguished as a to re»ilt in the rule that, certainly in the ani- 
clasaioal scholar, and as a mathematician of mal realm, and probably in the vegetable, off- 
conmderable ability ; and in private life ho was spring can only arise by means of a union of 
esteemed for many amiable qualities. Anelab- sexual elements, though this union may be 
orate memoir of him has been published by either obviona or concealed. Tet there were 
his son, Theophilus Parsons (12mo., Boston, those among the earlier writers who held to be 
ISfiQ). — Tbzofeilcs, an American author and poerible what they called a lueina tine toneu- 
jurist, son oS the preceding, bom in Boston, bitv,. H. Bonnet, about the middle of the IStfa 
Ifass., Ifay 17, 1797. He was graduated at century, first gave a scientifio standing to thia 
Harvard college in 1816, studied law with opinion, by discovering that the ^^** (plant 
Judge William Fresoott, and after a brief visit louse) may produce a nomerona otimiring, and 
to Enrope entered upon the pracUce of his these be followed by several generations, with- 

C'ession, first in Taunton, and afterward in out the intervention in any Imown or conceiv- 
ton. For several years after his admission able way of the mascnline fertiliring prindple. 
to the bar he was a constant contributor to U. de Quatrebges proposed to name this re- 
the "North American Review," and wrote oc- suit n^onw^ment, or production without union, 
easionally for Ur. Walsh's " American Review" The name at the bead of ^is artiele was vp- 
in Philadelphia. He was also for some time plied to certun oases of this kind by Professor 
connected with the " Free Press" and "New Owen. Of Siebold's work on this subject a 
England Galaxy" newspapers, and founded and translslion ^)peared in London in 1867. Strict- 
edited the "United States Literary Gazette." ly, the name parthenogenesis is hardly appro- 
Be was an early convert to the doctrines of priate, since either the producers in these eases 
the New Jemsuem church, and has written are not perfect ordinary females, or the prodne- 
much in eiporiticn and defence of them in tion is not Uiat of perfect ordinary ofibprin^j 
its periodical publications. Two volumes of or both these drcnmstances'may be true. Bie- 
" Essays" have appeared from hifl pen, and bold investigated this uni-sexual, or at least 
other smaller works, written for the aame ob- unusual generation, in certain sao-bearing Itpi- 
jects. Id I847hewas appointedDaneprofessor ii^tera, in the ulkworm moth, and & the 
oflawin theHarvardlawBohool, andlisssince honeybee. In the first, fbmales only result; 
resided at Cambridge, in the dischai^ ti the in tiie second, both sexes. Alone wiUi Dzier~ 
dnties of his professorship, occupying his leisure zon, he obtained in relation to Uie honeybee 
in the preparation of legal treatises. He has the most complete set of observations. The 
published the " Law of Oontracta" (2 vols., queen bee, impregnated once for all for her 6 
18C8) ; " EIemen,t9 of Mercantile Law" (18B8) ; or 6 years of life, deposits thereafter, at proper 
an elementary work called "Laws of Business periods, the germs of succesmve swarms or 
for Business Uen" (1867); and an elaborate colonies; and the microscope reveals the fact 
and comprehensive treatise on maritime law, that the eggs destined to become workers fun- 
induing the law of shipping, the law of marine peirfoot f^udea) and queens (perfect fbmuea) 



■r« fnrtifised, u onliiurilj, bv contact or pen- is id>lillst«; jet in its new localitj it haa Bow- 

etrmtioD of spermatozoida, while those to be- ered and borne fruit regularly ; and though it la 

otnne drones (malea) nndergo no snoh infln- olaimed that, with perbapH a single ezoeption, 

•dm; ao that the prodnctioQ of these last la no polleQ haa been foimd in or upon an; of ita 

■gomogenelio. In fiirther proof, if the qneen flowers, jet the seed aeema to be perfected, &nd 

hkn her wings crippled from the first so that the nnmeroas plants alread;' obtained from it 

■ha takes no flight, she prodnces tmij males, do not appear to be hjbrid. Brann foacd in 

tlttu mining the hire; and a like resnlt maj one instance a pollen grain and tabe on the 

fitllow the pinching or freezing of one aide of BtAgroA o! tiie aalebegyne ; ani he considers the 

hK bodj, and alao, becanse the spermatozoidn aeed of the plant perfect, while ElotzEch flnda 

hare become eihaosted, in her old a^e. Bo, in it no embrjo, bat oiflj a bnd. It is doubt- 

rarelj, the workers may without fertilization fld whether any of &« yonng plants of thia 

prodaoe eggi, bnt thoee of males only. Bnt species have as yet mstared seed which conld 

any of Qieee males, though all directly agamio be agun tested; and poseibly the qnestion of 

or Catherless, can become efBcient in a return agamic prodnction in plants muat still be re- 

to the ordinary or bi-seiual mode of reprodnc- garded as open. Regel foond that after strongly 

tion. — Bonnet's experiments with the aphis cntting-in female plants of (^ntuTia and ntereu- 

jiald, as irttimated above, more dtriovs resolts. rialit, male flowers were constantly developed, 

Be carefiil^ isolated a newly hatched aphis bnt which, withont great care, would have 

by conveying it npon a twig beneath a glass been unnoticed ; and reviewing theae and other 

shade dipping into water. Of fonracore oS- snpposed cases, he concludes that "partheno- 

qiring prodneed alive by this insect, one was genesis certainly does not occnr in plants with 

iaolstoa in like manner, and with nmilar re- evident sexual oraans." But Prc^. Asa Qray, 

salt; and thia was repe^«d as long as the ob- in apparent oonahrtency with all the known 

serrstions continued, or for 9 suocessive broods, facts, mfere that parthenogenesis does occnr in 

As Uie yonng aphides are ready for propagation plants, and therefore probably not in 2 or S 

in ftbont 8 weeks, it follows that in the course special oases nor in diceciona plants only ; and 

of a summer a single parent may have a pro- tnat " sexual feonndation may t>e strictly neces- 

geny of millioos, and all without renewed in- saryto the perpetuation of the species, withont 

tervention of the mole element. Eyher fbnnd being strictly mdispensable for every genera- 

tbat when warmth and food were abundantly UonJ' ("American Journal of Science and 

Bopplied, this sgamio production would go on Arts," Sd series, vol. xvii. p. 440.) 

for a or » years; but these broods, winged or PARTHENON. See Athxns, vol ii. p. 291. 

wingless, consist almost wholly of imperfect PABTHIA, in ancient geography, a district 

females, seldom sny males. The true females, of western Asia, the boundaries of which v&- 

slwaya wingless, prodnce only after sexual ried at diflerent times. Originally it was a 

anion, and then eggs, not living ofiapring. small and mountainona oonntt? S. E. of the 

And ordinarily, as tbe oold of antumn inoreases Caspian sea, and bounded by Per^ Snuana, 

and the aapply of food f^la, the agamic yonng Hjrconia, Aria, Carmania, and Uedia, and 

give place to true moles and females; the latter thereibre including nearly all of the modem 

laying eggs which, the next spring, hatch out Eohistan, the northern portion of Khoraasan, 

iguD viviparous or imperfect females. Thus and a pert of the Great Salt desert It was 

theroisaoycleof changes; a large but varying dividedT into the distriots of Oamisene, Par- 

nnmber of links of non-paternoL, being inter- thyene, Choarene, Apavarctene, and Tabiene^ 

poeed between any two of paternal generatii 
The imperfect females have, in place of ov 
ries, certain tabular organs, the germa lying 

whli^ develop into living insects. Thus the during the reign of the Arsaoidse was the resi- 

is only apparently, not really, anomalous 

of which the two last were in the southern 
part. There were no cities of great impor- 
tance. The largest was Hecatompolis, which 

dence of the royal family. The chief moun- 

the real indivuinal of the aphides is the perfect tains were the Labns or Labutaa, probably part 
"-'" "r female only, and union of these must of the range now called the Elbooriir — ' 

the Parachoathras, now called Elwend ; and 

,.,------ the Ifasdoranns. The rivers were few in nnm- 

of vital activity, an intercurrent produc- her, and scarcely more than monntain streams, 

tioa by germination or bndding sets in, termi- almost dry during the hot eeaaon, bnt violent 

Qsthig finally in a return to the normal individ- floods when the snow melted.— The Parthians, 

uaL Aocording to this view, the drone bees according to tbetr own tradition, were of Bcy- 

are another ioatanoe of prodn<^on by budding; thian descent, their name sicrnif^g in that lan- 

and stiU others are said to be fonnd in the guage "banished" or "ezues." This was the 

<IapAiiii0 (water fleas), and in some species of opinioaof the anc1ents,althongh manymodern 

batterfly. — Among examples believed to be writers suppose they were directly connected 

foond in the vegetable world, the most marked with the Iranian tribes. In their treatment of 

iathatoftheoM&oiwn«i2tci/b{ia (literally, "hoi- their princes and nobles they carried the usual 

ly-leaved spinster"), sent from Moreton Bay, obsequiousness of the oriental forma to excess. 

Australia, to the royal gardens at Eew. This They were under the government of a doable 

tne is ditmuoos, and the single ^>eoimen fonnd council, made np of the "Ur^iai* and the nobles 


._ h0 Unff. Tix war Omj fomiiA oondition <tf ttie kfiudom, Artazenea^ rmcie- 

OD horaebaok, the pmcqiat we^Mm h^tg Beating bimBelf u Eelonf^ng to th« aiuneiit 

the bow ; sod the peonlkr raatmer in whioE dynastr of the Feraana, induced that people 

ther fon^t, dlwduu^ing th^ arrows while to throw off the joke. AilabanDSIV.,tiie last 

.1 poets. Pt^gamr was verj common. — alam in A. D. S2S, and the new Pe ., 
lie Farthians early became anlqect to the nnderthenileof the^naatjof the Sasauudn, 
Peruana. In the diTiMon of the empire bj took theploce of the Farthian. 
Darioa fiyitaspia into 20 aatrapiea, ther, along FABTIGIPU: (I^ participivm, a partak- 
with the Chorssmians, Sogdiana, and Arians. ing), a part of speech which part&kea of the 
formed the 16th. Thej constitoted a part of propertieB of both an adjective and a verb, and 
the annj of Xerxes in the expedition agunat maj be oonddered as an a^jectiTQ witli the 
Greeoe, and aerred under the last Darius, idea of time added or as a verb without the 
Parthia and HTreania formed under Alexander idea of afilrmaldon. In English there are two 
one eatrwr i and after the death of that con- partjdples, the present and the past. The for- 
qneror, the inhabitanta of the former oomitry mer ends in inf, bat originally in atid, which 
Joined the cause of Enmenes. Afterward the; termination is seen In the ptutioiples of the 
were gOTemed auooecnTelf hj Antigonos and cognate langnages, as onf in Sanscrit, ortt in 
the Selencidn nntil S50 B. 0., when onder tba Greek (se in the genitive jSovXtv-oi^or), ani and 
leaderabip of Araaoca they became independ- mt In Latin (aa in am-aat-u and r»g-ent-id}, and 
ent. The new kingdom oonstantlj grew in end in German. The past participle is formed 
power, gradnaU; enorottobing on the Bac- osoall? bj adding enoiedoidto the root of 
trian possesaionB on the east, and on thoae of the verb ; bnt the final d in some cases becomes 
the SelencidB on the west, until the Parthian t. In the power aod espresaivenese gtuned bj 
empire extended from the Euphrates to the the obo of the partidples, the modem langoagee 
Indus, and fhnn the Osns to the Persian gulf, are inferior to the andent. 
The oonqaeste of the Komoos in Aeia finally, PABTITION, in law, the severance of coin- 
about SO B. 0., broDght that military nation mon or undivided interests. It Is particularlj 
in oonfliot with the Farthians. In S3 Orauos i^iplied to interests in realty. At common 
invaded their territory during the reign of law landa held bj two or more persons were 
Orodes, bnt was oompletely defeated, he him- held by diem either in Joint tenancy, In com- 
aelf being elain and his army out to pieces, mon, or in coparcenery- The first two of these 
Mated by their victory, the next year they in- estates were created by the act of the parties. 
vaded Syria, but were driven back by CaseiDs, The last was created by operation of the law, 
the prooonanl of the province. Siding with when in caating a descent it devolved a single 
Pompey in the civil war, md Bubaeqnent^ with estate npon two or more heire ; as, for exam- 
Brotiia and Oasuas, they were defeMed by Ten- pie, when an estate in fee of one who left no 
tidius, the lientenent ctf Antony, in 89, and by male anccesdon passed to bis daughters or 
the same general again in 88, on the anniversary other female representslivea. These persoDs 
of the day of the defeat of Grassos. Pacoros, were called coparceners. Theirs was the only 
the son of Orodes, being slain in tne battle, joint estate of which the common law wonld 
The nor was continued after Phraatea IT. as- compel a diasolutJon at the requeiit of a dngle 
cended the throne, Antony marching into Me- party. Joint teoants and tenants in common 
dia in 86, but being forced to depart alter enf- becme so, said the law, by their own mutual 
faring severe loss. A treaty was made between agreement and act, and the tenancy could be 
the reiening monarch and Augostus, the former Jostly severed only by their mutual consent, 
being threatened at the same time by the Bo- But coparcenere are rendered bo by operation 
mans sod the disaffection of a large number of law, and lest any one of them be prejodiced 
of liis own anlaeetB. In this treaty Phraates by the perverseness of his fellows, the law will 
restored to Bome the standards which had lend ita aid, if he ask it, and help him, by par- 
been taken on the defeat of Orassos. After titioD, to the enjoyment of his separate interest. 
the death of this monarch, Parthia became for In the reigns of Henry VIU. and of William 
many years the scene of civil wars between IV. special statates extended this common law 
various pretenders to the throne. There were benefit, which hitherto ooparoenera alone had 
frequent confiiots with the Komans, eqiecially enjoyed, to joint tenants and tenanta in com- 
in regard to the Idngdom of Armenia, and dor- mon; so that partition then became incident 
ing the reign of Trajan that emperor marched to all estates held in common. — In the ITiuted 
into Aua, and made Armenia and Hesopota- States the technical Joint tenancy is quite abol- 
mia Bonian provinces. This territory was re- ished ; Joint ownerGhips being, if not under ex- 
■tored by his eucceeeor, but war agun broke press statutes, yet in effect, only tenancies in 
outdnring the reign of Uarcns Anrelins and common. Bo ^so the technical dlstinctionabe- 
AnreliusYeruB;andlheoonqneetsniadebyOe»- tween estates in common and in coparcenery 
una, the general of the latter, which were oon- have lost nearly all their force. Mnch there- 
tinued by Septimius Severus and OaracaQa, fore of "the cunning learning of partition," as 
effectually weakened the strength of the Par- it exists in the English law, is inapplicable here, 
thian empire. At length, seeing the prostrated Tet as among us real property generally passes, 



on ft»<8« th tf in anoMo^to more panotu arotton of tarinawAr'tlMtroiannoiipniSt. It 
than one, paititaon >tUI rMrau an Importanoo m^ bo oonfiaed to a roodflo purpose, or & 
in remeot to the tmundee in mhuoiod of heirs single ta«naHtion; but vhen not so limited^ 
and devisees. In some parts of the eooutrr, the words of the partners, or b^ acta whiijt 
tbe ofteration of ttata remedy is extended b^ imply limitation, it is general. All persons 
■tatntea beTOod the limits ued tor it by t he oompetcmt to do bnaineee on their own aooonnt 
oouBnon law or tite atatntea of Henry ViU. — mayenterlntopartnerahip. Generally, the part- 
PartitioB, in England, waa made eitber by mo- nera own the properl? and the pndta jointly ; 
tnal cxmaentornponoompoUon. In thelatter but one or more at them may own ex<dn- 
case, tbe relief waa sonf^t cither by a writ of mrely the pft^ierty or oairital, tearing only the 
partition, aoed ont by one par^, at oonmiim proflti to be owsed Jointly. So aU kinds of 
law,orbyluBpetitfaintotheooi]rtof chaDoery. proper^may beownedby apartner^ip. Bat 
If tfae ooartealawererbadezoladTaJariBdlo- ' when i«al eatate ia owned, the law of reoord 
tioa of partition, as It la sometimes assoted, it titlcL of transftr by deed, of inheritance, and 
moat IiaTe been at a verrremote period. For, of dower, has stiU an important operation. 
aa Muiy aa tiie reign of Elizabeth, it is oertain Gaierslly the role is this: real estate is part- 
that ohanoery took Dtwmzanoe of the matter, nerah^ proper^ when it is bought with parU 
and lately It has enjoyed almost NnlosivejQriS' nerahtp nnds, for partDerahip purpoaea, and 
diction oTor it; for the oonrts of law are rarely is used for tlieae purposes. Then it will be 
invoked to make partition, thongli th«dr jmla- treated as part of the (»qdtal of the firm, and 
dietion is omwnrrent whb that of dtaiMetj. Jnst as petaonal pnqterty ia treated, so far aa 
Iliere is good reaaon^ boweverjfor the mf- BabtUtr for tiie psrtnersh^ debts Is concerned, 
er«iiceoftte<&anoeryoonrta. Thepntoeffiire and n^ the romaining faalanoe ia asoertaine4 
at law ia a ttnae of pBrStion Is for leas eflSto- ' and dtrided among the partners; bat then its 
tive t&aa titat in eqni^. Tbe courts of law ohnaoter as real estate is restored with all the 
are limited to a mere aDobuent aooording to inoidenta of dower end the Hke. The legal 
the proportioaial shares of the parties In inter- title most always be traced tbrongb the reo- 
eat; and this often oaasea a pnrriymeohanieal, ords. Bat if the property he, for example, in 
and so pregD^dsl, diririon <rf an estate. Bnt thenamectfonepartner,hewillberegardedas 
chaseery, not leetrioted to tiie exact balan*^ holding it in trost tiirthepartiienliip; and if h* 
of eqtdvalent shares, bat eapable of all eqoita. die, hla heir will be held as tnistee, and only 
ble a4i™tm<aitB <rf the matter, may distnbnte so much as ia not wanted to pay the debts of 
among the dUmanta the separate, tiioogh nn- the Ann, or satisfy the diums of the other part- 
equal, patoels of tiie estate, nrtfiignlne to the nera, will be permitted to remain in hla hands, 
several partieetheportions which will best suit as his own and free from the obligations of the 
their remeetire oondition, eqaaHtiag anoh a tmat. Bo, the widow baa her dower in tJ» 

partition by deoeeing peooularr eompensation red estate after debts and cUma are aatiafled, 
to be made, or in other oaaea orderfaig eqnitaUe and not before.— The good will of a partner- 
payments by some for improremente made in ship ia, fbr many pnrpoeea, a part of Its prop- 

tiio COTomon property by others. This jnris- erty, and may be transferred by sale or as- 
diotioa ia exerdaed with peonliaT fltnoas m all signed fbr the benefit of creditws ; and it 
oaaea wltere pnrdy eqoitattle ri^^ts, conflicting wonld nndonbtedly pass to the assignees 
clsinH of partie^or modes ot u^oyment are mider insolvency, by operation of law. — No 
to be a^nsted. Oonrts of eqoity wiu Interpose partner, and no i^ority, can Introdnce a new 
oalj when the title of th^ petitioner ia elesr, partiier without the consent of tiie othus. A 
If it be contested, he mnst try it at law, partner may aell out all his interest in a part- 
Wbererer, is onr atates, distinct eqni^ coorts nership, or may asdgu it as seomi^ for a debt ; 
exist, ttiey probiiAj have ecmoarrent jnrisdio- bnt the purchaser or aaaignee only aoi^nlrea a 
tion with ooarlsof law in respect to putilltHis, right to have the balance doe paid to hun, and 
and, in general, snob a jarisdiotton as hni Jost oannot aoqnire merely bj the transfer a right 
bem deeerfbed. Bat tn dmoet aSl the atatea to become a partner.— A partnership may be 
the eoffmitaioo of partitions is r^nlated by formed by an instnunent nnder seal, which ia 
rwy mrnnte statute provirionB, and to these in perhi^ the meet common, or by a written in- 
each state relterwioe mnst be made for tiie par- stmment without seal, or by oral agreement, 
tioolsr methods of prooedare, and the powers without any writing. In general, a partner- 
oftheoonrts. Li BoiDe etatea tiie eqnity pro- ship is formed by an agreement that the partiea 
eesaisteft andlstm-bed. In some thewiltof shall entw ttwetfaer into a oertdnbusinecH, and 
partitioB, with oertdn modiflcations, still r»- share the profits and losses. In the absence of 

mains. Gonerafly, howerer, the mode of ob- spe^ slapnlattois, the partnera share aqnally, 
taining partition is by petition to the higher bat may stipolate abont this as they will. Bo 
eonrta of law. The eonrls of probate, too, are tbe agreement may proTide for its dnrstion, bat 

nsnally tUTeisted with the power to diTide ee- if the period appouted for its termination oi 

tates among hrirs an d devisees. rives, and it contimiBa in foot, and withoot a 

PABTNERSHIP, in law, eiists whan two new bargain, it will be held to oontinne npon 

or more persons combine their propeKy, labor, the former terms. — Fetvona may be partnera 

or akiD. or one or more <^ these, for the trana- as to third persons who deal with the &na. 


while th^ are not partners as between them- by them u partnera, In which caae Hie partner- 
ulves. Thng, A may agree with B and ship creditors have au oxdnsive right to the 
that A shall render certiun SMistanoe to the partnership effaota. Thns, Aand Bown ashfp, 
firm of B and 0, either of capital, credit, or each having half; they agree to buy a cargo b 
iMU, and not be held ont as a partner, nor the same proportions, and to ship it for sale, 
be a parbier, and own a certain proportion the retnmB to be divided eqnally. They M. 
of the profits, and not be liable for any share If they are partnerB in the cargo, those whom 
of the losses. Then, if the firm be not insol- they jointly owe for it have an exolndve daim 
vent, A m^ claim of B and hia share of the on the returns from it If they own it only at 
profits, and, if obliged to pay any debt or loss tenants in common, each one's halfgoes with the 
of the firm, may claim compenaation from B rest of his property to be divided among all hia 
andO. But nevertheless, he will be Jnst aa creditors. In snch a case it was held that they 
liable to the creditors of the firm as B or ; were only tenants in common ; and the general 
and all his property will be as liable as their mle is, that to constitute a partnership there 
property. There have been many cases tnm- most be a Joint parohase, from a Joint nmd or 
mg on this point, bat the principle of law is on a Joint credit, of effects to be need in btui- 
dear and certain, however ilifflenlt it may some- ness, the account and profits to be kept separate 
times be to ^plyit. This principle is, thst from that of other property of the same par- 
whether a person is a partner in the firm in ties, and the profits to be owned jointly. — It is 
regard to the rights and obligations among- the a general mie, both in England and in the 
partners, depends npon the agreements they ITnited States, that no partner can sne another 
have made ; but, wnatever these agreements at taw on any matter grovring out of and con- 
are, he is a partner as to third persons, that is, nected with uie transactions of the partnership 
he mcnrs as to them all the responsibilities of a business, and dependent for its determination 
partner, in two ways, and on two gronnds, npon the partaiershipacconnts. Onereasonfrar 
One is, that he was, by his own consent, or by this andent and well established, mle may be^ 
his own fhult, held out to the world as a part- that no individual partner has any aepvata 
ner, so as to justify the creditors of the firm in right or interest in any of the goods or accounts 
dealing with it as if he were a partner; and of the firm, because ail are owned by all the 
the second is, that, without being so knovm or partners jointly. But the principal reason is, 
held out, he participates in fact in the profits that any one snch question involves others 
of the concern. For it is a nearly universal which a court of law has no adequate means 
rule, that one who participates in the profits, for investigating. For if a partner recovered 
as such, is liable for the losses. The principal on this clslm against a partner, there are mol- 
and most difficult question which has arisen on titudes of other daims or accounts, on each of 
this snUect, relates to clerks or salesmen who which another question may be raised ; and 
are paid by a share in the profits. Formerly it whether, on the whole, one partner owed an- 
was held, that if such a person was paid, for other or had a daim against bim , must depend 
example, "one twentieth part of the profits," upon asettlement of ollthe busiaess andanad- 
thia made him a partner, and liable as such ; Justment of all tbe accounts. This & conrt of 
but if ho was paid "a sum equal to one twen- equity can direct and anpervise by its machinery 
tietb part of the profits," this was only a pay- of masters, receivers, and &b like, althon^ a 
ment of wages, which was indeed measured oonrt of law cannot- and therefore it ia now 
by the profits, but did not make him a part- settled, as a general rule, that questions be- 
ner. But this technical and irrational distinc- tween partners about partnership affairs must 
Hon has passed away; and now the <juestion in go before a court of equity and not a court of 
every such case would be : Does his bargain law. But a partner may sue a partner at law 
with the partners merely provide that his com- in any matter not involving the partnership 
pensDtion shall be measured by the profits! for accounts; and so if a distinct part thereof issev- 
then ho is only a person employed by the firm ered from the rest, and especially if a separate 
and not a partner ; or does U)e bargain nve promise is made about this, a common action 
him ajiroperty in the capital orin ttie profits? at law is maintainable for the balance. I( as 
fbr this wonld make him liable as a partner, is not unfreqnently the case, a man is a mem- 
In other words, if the alleged partner has a ber of two firms, one of those firms cannot aoe 

Sht and property in one twentieth (or any the other at law, because the same person eas- 
ier proportion) of the profits, while tiiey re- notbe plaintiff and defendant. Bntff oneof the 
main nnmvided, he is a partner and liable aa firmsbolds the negotiable paper of the other, it 
snch ; bnt if he have no such right or proper- may indorse it to a third person, who may sue 
ty, but only a daim against ma firm for so tbe other firm. — Partners are of various nnds. 
mnch money aa, upon a settlement of the firm's They may be open or secret, active or dormant, 

Erofits, one twentieth of them shall amoont to, retiring or new-coming. A secret partner is just 

e bnot a partner, and has none of the liabili- as liable for thedebts of the firm, wbenbeisdis- 

ties of that relation. — It is sometimes important covered, as an open and declared partner ; so a 

to detemdne whether property is held by per- dormant partner who only lends his capital or 

sons as tenants in common. In which case it his name, and tokea his profits, is just as liable 

goes to all their creditors, or whether it is held as an active partner ; for the one role, vUob 



Hm at Uia foundation of tbe whole l&w of part- and all th« partnon in r^ftrdtottuit pemoi, 

nenhip, is, that eocli partner, and tho whole however fr&ndnlent the tranaaotion may he in 

of bis property, ia liable for the whole of the refbrenoe to the other partnerg. Bnt if a part- 

partaerahip debta. This role waa nntil recent* ner, who has borrowed mone; in bis own 

l^a nniTersal one, and would be bo now bat name, brings that money into the partnership, 

for the special partnership reoendr introdnced the partners ore not thereby made liable for 

into ttsisooontryflnm Enrope. (See Pabtdkb- the debt; the firm owes the borrowing part- 

cmp, laxCTD.) A retiring partner who oon- ner, aai he alone owes the lender ; and one 

tinneB to recwve a share of the profits contdnnea who lends money to a partner, for the yerj 

to be liable for the debta of the firm, bat is porpose of enabling him to contribnte the same 

not made liable by raoeiying a certain definite to their capital, cannot hold the other partner* 

mn, Mnnnally or otherwise, independently of without their assent. — Some partnerships are 

the profits. He shonld ^to nodoe of his re- carried on in the name of an indiTidosl, who 

tiremont ; for those who deal with the firm in may also nae bis own name in his own business, 

ignorajioe of hia retirement, withont their fault. In that case, paper bearing hia name will be 

may deal with it on his credit, and are author- supposed to relate to his private and individnal 

iied to hold him responsible. Bnt if the retir- bnamesa, unless direct evidence or circnm- 

ing partner gives snoh general notice in the stanoes show it to have been on the firm's ao- 

DStuu way, he is not liable to a customer who oonnt. But if a partner is a trustee for any 

happened not to know of his retirement ; and body, and applies the tmat money in his haa& 

a new cnatomer, who had no dealings with the to me partnership acoonnt, the partners are 

firm before the retirement of this partner, can- certainly liable if they knew of this application 

not bold the partner after retirement withont of the trust money and did not prevent it, and, 

notioe, unless tt can be shown that be came to according to some authorities, even if they had 

the Smi on the credit of this partner, and that no knowledge of it. A release by one partner, 

ba waa Jastified in trusting to this credit. So or to one partner, is a release by or to tiie firm, 

if a creditor of a firm, knowing of such retire- if there t>e no fraud; so a notice by or to one 

ment, reoeivee for his debt the negotiable paper ia notice by or to alL — The question sometimes 

of thefinn,thepresamptioi)of lawisthatnein- arises^ how for a new-coming member is re- 

tl intention to the contrary, out his adoption of the debt ; but this adoption 
A Doodnal partner, who Iwkde his name to a may be shown by his express agreement, either 
firm without any interest whatever, is, in gen- with the firm or with the creditor, or it may 
era], jott as Hable as if he were actoally inter- be inferred from circnmetanoM which distinctly 
ested. If one purchase goods separately, and indicate it ; and it has been held that a pay- 
owe for them, tliose who become subseqnenUy meat by the firm, after he enters it, of the in- 
interested in the goods Jointiy with the first terest on an old debt with his knowledge and 
pnrohaser are not thereby made liable for the without Direction by him, implies his adoption 
debt, mdem the purchase waa made originally of the debt aa due from bis firm. Bat the lia- 
by their joint authority, and for the purpose bility of a new-coming partner for the ezist- 
of bringing it into the partnerehip ; for tbeu the Ing debts of the firm oannot be prestuned from 
partnerahipexistedatuiebeginning. — Throngh- the mere fact of his enteringinto the firm, — 
out the oMnmeroial world, itisaoniversal rale. Whether a majority of the partners can bind a 
that each partner has fbll power and authority minority, and conduct the bnriness of the firm 
to act toe the others and represent the whole at their pleasure, may not be quite settled ; but 
firm in all matters appertaioing to the partner- the later antboritdes seem to confine this power 
(hip. There is perhaps no exception or limits- of a mi^rity to what may be called the do- 
tion to Uua role, oilier than l^ the principle mesdo affairs of the firm, as the hiring a room 
that dther partner's powers may be restridned or store, keeping clerks or books, and the like. 
by agreement, and all persons to whom this At the same time it seems to be now well es- 
mt is commnnicated are bound by it. tablished that a partner who dissents from an 
, OD the continent of Europe, it is very inchoate and inoomplete transaction, and dis- 
eonmon for the oiroulars or cards announcing tinctly expresses his dissent to the outside pat^ 
a film to ftatB specially which of the members ties concerned in the transaction, giving them 
is nithoiized to make purchases in one place notice that he shall not he bonnd by the action 
or in another, or to di«w or accept bills, and of the firm, may in this way protect himself 
the like. Where there is not this agreed and from liability. It should be added, however, 
dedared limitation, each partner may make that the recosant partner, after such denial and 
pordiasea, sales, loans, assigmnentA, pledgee, notice, may wiuve it, and will be considered as 
or mortgagee of the partnership propmty, and doing so if he permits the proceeds or avails 
ire or recwve notea or bills or money there- of the transaction to be brought into the com- 
■r; and any suiji transaction, done In n&r- mon account and the common fond for the 
enoe to and wtthin the soope of the partnership common benefit. — The dissolution of a partner- 
bwineae, and with honest intent on the part of ship, however caused, has no effect upon its 
the pecaon dealing with the firm, binds the firm existing debts, or upon the UsbiUty of the part- 




U PATmrmamp 

SAnforthem; ImtitentbelypreweatstheetHi- Thole pn^OT ty » ._ . 

trmoting of anj new debt hj uie firm, b«aWM vor or Barriron, bat only for die pnroose of 
that has ceased to exist. Hence the former Mttliog up the boeineas and dosing the oon- 
partnen can in no war bind b^ any new oon- oema of the partserriiip a« soon as Qus can be 
troeta, Thoa, no partner eas indorse a note done in * proper waj. The sturiring partners 
of the finn, either with the firm's name or bis and the repreBentAtirea of the deoe«Md may 
own, even if it be to par a debt of the firm; come to somo agreement about this, or the ar- 
and even aothoiity given b; the Ann to one tiolee maj pronae for anch an event. Bat in 
psrbier to settle the affikirs of the firm would the absence of any sach agreement or prori- 
Dot genendly, carry with itthe power to nuke mwi, Qie BnmTors take every thing, with the 
nioh indorsement. Diawdnldon may take place powers ueaeesary for the speedieet and beet 
in many ways. 1. By the expiration en the setQcment, and no more; nor oan they, even 
thn^ when it is to terminate by the artieles; for the pnrpose of settlement, make new con- 
bat if it goes on as befbre, althoagh notliing tracts bindmg the estate or rwreeentativee of 
be said, the law will presome an agreement to the deceased. When the settMmeut is finally 

partner, if there be no limited tenn in the dne to the estate; bat tmtil then the n , . 
articles ; and if there be, and even if there tatiTee cannot interfere with the managemoit 
be a mntnal covenant not to dissolve, we of the proper^, althoa^ a court of equity will 
shonld say that either partner might dissolve interfere, on Oieir pewioii:, to prevent waste, 
the ooparinership at his pleasure, alvrays being delay, or oUier iignrigns oondaot by the nrvi- 
liable to respond in damages for any i^Jniy he vorsu — ^The mlea of law in t«gard to the rights 
may inflict by bis breach of contract &it a of creditors over the fluids of the partnei^t^ 
oonrt of equity would probably interfere to and the property of the partners, are very im- 
prevent a oanselesa or ftnadalent dissolation, portant, but in some partjcnlara tbey are not 
espedally if it were obviona that iqjnry wonld qmto settled. It ia oert^ that the jwnt fimds 
be done which conld not be adequately oon- of the partsiersbip are, In the first place, to be 
pensBted by damages. So a coort of eqnlty implied aod api»«priatsd to pay the jtunt 
wonld always decree a dissolntdon at the prayer debts, that is, to pay the partnership areditwa ; 
of any partner, if he conld show good cause, and the private oreditorB of the individual part- 
of snfflcieDt magnitude; and in any soch ease nera cannot toutdi the partoerahip ftmds In any 
the court would appoint a receiver il that were way nntil these have ptiA in foU all the part- 
neoeasary, and do or order all other things nership debts. It ia suo certain that the [ni- 
which the Interests and equities of the paiiieB vate creditors of an individual partner m^ 
required.* 8. An assignment by a partner of his reach by any proper prooess of law the private 
whole share and intorast in the copartoership and separate property of the partner who is 
property and' business wonld of itsd^ as we their debtor. So, too, it ia certain that the 
think, work a dissolation ; and it would he so creditors of the firm may, at some time, resort 
even if one partner assigned his whole share to the wlvato property of the partners. The 
to another partoer, becanee this wonld be tmcertamty is involved in this qnestion : While 
equivalent to this psrtner's going out of the the creditors of the firm have an exclusive 
firm. 4. Any departure from a fiim or copart- right to the pnmerty of the finn, have the pii- 
nership by any partner dissolves that firm, vato creditors of the partnera an eoaslly exda- 
however it be oansad. The firm may go on as aiveright to the privato property of the indebt- 
before, taking in or not new partners, bnt it is ed partnerst Formerly it was not so ; and 
in law a new firm, for the simple reason that a while a creditor of A, rf the insolvent Ann of 
partnership is in no sense or measure a corpo- A and B, conld not touch the Amda of the firm 
ration. Hence, the death of any member of until the debts of the firm were pdd and a 
a firm dissolves that firm. Even if the articles balance found due to A, which balance his 
provide for that casualty, and it ia agreed that creditor might reach, it was at the ssme time 
the firm shall go on with onohanged name, and held that a creditor of the firm could resort to 
that no account ahall be taken, bnt the share of the private property of A or B as freely as to 
the deceased be p^d to his representatives by the Joint funds of A and B. The obvious in- 
eaah or notes to a certain amotmt, still in law equality of this rule has caused some of our 
the old firm cwised when the partner died, and conrt»— as in New York, Fannsylvania, and 
a new one began. 6. Bankruptcy of the firm. Mew Hampshire — to ^ve to the private credit- 
or pethaps of any partner, dissolves the firm at ore the same' prior nght to the private prop- 
once. Whether the insanity ot a partner has erty, that the joint creditors have to the joint 
that efibet may not be certain, hut we should property; and the same rule is &vored in £ng- 
say that insant^ which wonld probably be per- land. But in mokt of the states, as fiv as wa 
manent wonld onqaesdonably be agood ground can jodge from existing decidona, the old nils 
fbr dissolution bv the oonrt or by the parlies, still oonthinea. — ^What ri^ a creditor xi ft 
hat that It would not of iteel£ and by Its own partner in a solvent finn has, and how ha m^ 
force, eflbot a diseolntion,— If a psftnership ^betoato his right, is a matter of mnehniwer- 
fs dissolved by the deaft of a psrUier, the tunty. The prevailing ^oindple may however 



be stated In tUs jnj. The orefitor can take pftpen; 4, this adnrtiMmoiit, or psbUoallcm, 

ooIt irhst hi8 debtor has. This is not a bbt- most state aeonratc^ tli« luunes aiM reddeaoe 

era! and disUniA ri^t to w property in any of the Reoeral partnws, the namea sad raol- 

puifrffhepartnenupfaiidB; for it i» (wlf an denoe of the ^>eoial parbiwa, the naiM <tf the 

ownership of Hie whcOe in oommon with the firm, the mm which each apeoial partner ocoi- 

otlwT partners, and tiiaioe a right to have the tribntes, the bosineBs to be tnuiMoted, uid the 

aeoonnta settled, and the debts of the firm paid, period for which the partnarahqt is made or 

and then his share of the balanoe set (A or paid the time when it will terminate; and dnring 

to him in several^. This right or interest his ttiat time the special partner eannot withdnaw 

creditor maj aoqtdre \>j attaohment or lev7 ; his oapitsL Lt some of the states there are 

and if it be done bj attadunent, a frequent, providoni limiting q>ecdal partnenhipa to mer- 

and generally peaking the better way, is to oantileba^ece, and ezolntUnglnanranee, bank- 

sttmmon all the partners as t^nstees or gar- ing, Ac, If any of the reqairementsof law are 

nishees onder the process of foreign attachmenL disregarded, the roedal partner becomes a gen- 

PABTNEBSHIP, LnoTiD (or, as it is some* eral partner, and is liable in soZtili). Theoonrta 

3mes called, special partnership), a partao^liip xpplj these mles with much sersrity. Thns, 

whweof oneormoreof tlieniembersoontrllnite a special partner has been held liable ^ stftid^ 

a (iertain amoont to the capital, which may be beoonae, by anerrwof one<rftbenewspi9eis, 

lost by its being demanded for paymffit of the the Bum he contributed was stated erroneons- 

debts of the fim, bnt beyond which they have ly; and in another case, beeaun he sold oat 

no farther liability. This is ntt«r1y unknown bis interest to a general partner for more than 

to the oommon law, or to the law merchant as he pnt in, this being considered as a with- 

enstiag in En^snd and in Uie United States, drawal of his oapftaL 

It has nowerer been common on the oontinent PABTON, Jauss, an American aothor, bom 

of Europe for a long time. Beoently it has in Osnterbnry, England, Feb. 0, 1892. At 5 

been adopted in this country, and is now com- years of sge he was bronght to New York, 

mon. The foUowii^; states have statntes an- whwe tiic test of his childhood was paaaed ; 
thoriziDg limited partnerabip, and there may andat 19 hebeoameateacherinanaoaaemvat 
be others: YermonL Uassachnsetts, Bbode White Plains, Westchester oo.,atwhichhehad 

Idaod, Oonnectlont, New York, New Jersey, received hia edncation. Bnbseqaently he was 
Pennqrlvsnia, Uaryland, Yirj^nla, Bontb Oaio- ooonpied fbr several years in the same eapadtr 
lina, Georgia, Plorida, Alabama, Misassiwi, at Pniladelphla and New York. His first lit- 
Kentnc^, Ifibbigan, Indians, Dlinois. After erary employment was on the staff of the 
mnoh opposition, it has to some extent beoome " Home Jonmfd " of New York, with which he 
established in England. It has made a part- was connected abont 8 years.. In 1865 ap- 
nership partially resemble a oorporstion. A peared his " Life of Horace GreeleV," of which 
stockholder in a eorporation may lose hia over 80,000 oopies have been solo, and which 
stock, bat not be made liable any ftirther, nn- wss followed In 1667 by his " Ltfe of Aaron 
lees by special statatory provision; whereas Bnir." Ofthiawork,themostelaborstebiogra- 
every partner is liable in tolido for all Uie phy of Bnrr yetpQb1iahed,near^20,O0Ofl(^e8 
partnership debts. From this liability capital- wei>e sold daring a period of great etomnen^ 
tste were nnwiUiog to place any part of their diatresa, fflslwtpnUication, "lifisof Andnw 
cwital in a trading company, beoanse their Jackson" (8 vols. Sto., 1669-'60), in the pep- 
whole fortune wonla he at risk. It was thought araUoo of which, as In that of thelifbof Bnrr, 
that it wonld be better for the commerce of he had access to a mass of original dooom<ats, 
the country, that yonng merchanta and odiers has proved equally snocesafbl in a peonnlary 
with akin and enterprise but not capital shonld point of view. In 18S8 llr. Parton pnbliahea 
be able to indoce those who had available ibnds a collection of " Hnmorons Poetry or the Eng- 

~ ■ " " He la 

o place them in the bamness ; for then it rest- lish Laognage, from Chancer to raze." He 
d on a real cqiital and not on mere credit or now (1891) engaged upon a biogra^y of Be 
poeaible profit; and the capitalist, who wonld jamin Franklin.— ^ara. Patsom Wnxn, wife 

be entitled only to a certain portion of the prof- of the preceding, better known b^ her nM» da 
its, wonld be exposed only to a proportionate plvma of "Fanny Fern," bom m Portland, 
UabiBty. The system is believed to bave been Me., Jnly 7, 1811. Her father, Nathanid Wil- 
fonnd to work well in practice, wherever it haa lis, for many yesrs editor of the " Boston Re- 
been introdnced. The statates of no two states, corder," removed to Boston with his fiunlly 
peifaapa, are precisely the same ; bnt they agree when his danghter wss 6 weeks old, and to 
sHhstsnttaTly in the following provisions: 1, that city she passed her early years. Her 
there must be one or more general partners, edncation was received at the school of Hiss 
aE of whom are liable in lolido; S, there may Catharine E. Beeoher at Hartford, where lbs. 
be one or more special partners, and the ape- Httfriet Beecher Stowe wss then a jnnior 
cific sum oontribnted by each special partner teacher. She wss married to Oharlsa El- 
mnat be actoally paid in; 8, the arrangement or dredge, caE^ier of t^ merchanta' bank, Boston, 
articles of partnership mast be in writinf , mnst with whom she lived for a nnmber of years in 
generally be acknowtedsed before a magbtrate, ^nenoe and happiness ; bnt upon the death 
and most be pabliihed Jn one or more news- of her husband she was snddody thrown iqmi 



her own resdureea to proride a m(dnt«nuice parte of the old TOtld, some ooiwtaat n 

Ibr herself and two cliildren. After ttnmcceas- and others mlgrstoir, some freqnmtang onKi- 
(bl attempts to proonre emploTment as a teach' vated lands and others forests ; thon^ oooa- 
er and in other Tocationa, she turned her at- eionallj' perching on trees, ther are generally 
tention in ISSl to literatore, and prepared a seen on the ground, searching for grdii, seeds, 
short ess^ for publication, which was rqected bnlbons roots, and infioots ; toe nest is a slight 
bj the enters of seTeml Boston jonmala to hollow on the groimd, beneath eome bush, and 
whom it was offered. One of them at length the eggs are from 13 to 20 in unmber. The 
ventured to partdiase it for half a dollar; it oonunon or gray partridge (i*. einerea, I^ath.) 
proved saccesefol, and was followed bja nnm- is about 13 inches long, with an alar extent of 
her of others, which were widely copied by 20; the body is ronnd end stont, the head 
Uie public jonmals, nntil her pseadonTine of small, and the legs and tail short. Thoogh the 
"Fanny Pent" was fitmilii^r in all parts of the pinmage has no brilliant colors, it is very neat. 
United States. A collection of these sketches and its intricate npper markings of ash-gray, 
jras published in 1868 under the title of " Fern yellowish brown, brownish hl&ck, and brown- 
Leaves," of which 70,000 copies were sold in ish red are pleasing to the eye ; the scapnlan 
a short time. This was followed by " Little and wing ooverts are darker, with wnitish 
Ferns" (16SS), "Fern Leaves, Becond Series" streaks; the forehead, cheeks, and throat light 
(1664), "Bnth Hall," "Rose Clark," "Fresh red; neck ash-gray, with minute blacknndn- 
Lesvea" (1867J, and "The Play Day Book" V>tions; sides with broad bands of brownish 
(I66T), all of which have ei^oyed a consider- red, and a large patch of the same on the 
able popnJarity. They have all been repablished breast. The f^iale is a HtOe Hmaller, with the 
in England, and some of them have been trans- npper parts browner and the top of the head 
lated into French and German. For the last streaked with yellowish ; both eeses present 
faw years she has been chiefly employed in conriderable variations. It is spread abim- 
writing for the " New York Ledger." Soon dantly over Enrope, and is sometimes foond in 
after the commencement of her literary oareer N. A^ca, generally in the vicinity of grain 
she removed to New York, where she has fields and very rarely in woods ; it nms with 
since redded. She was married to Ur. Parton great speed, squatting close to the ground when 
in Jan. 18C6. alarmed; the fli^t is rapid, direct, low, and 
FABTRIDGE, the popnlarnameof thefam- accompanied with a whirring sound j it is 
ily otperdicida, which includes also the quails, wary, and eadly frightened ; the affection for 
Iney differ from the grouse in having the legs the yonng, or posts, is very remarkable, and 
bare and the nostrils protected by a n^ed hard varions devices are used by the parents to dis- 
scale ; thejr we also smaller in size and more tract attention from the brood. Dnring win- 
nomerons in species ■ the head seldom has a ter they keep together in coveys, searching fw 
naked space around the eyes, and the sides of food among the Htnbble ; they separate early 
the toes are hardly pectinated; they are widely in spring, pairing in March, the eggs being 
distributed over the globe, but the true par- laid in June; the males take no part in incub*- 
tridges, oTptriiana, have no representative in tion, bnt watch the nest. The genus is mono- 
America. Great confusion exists in the appli- gamons. This is one of the best game birda, 
cation of the term partridge ; the spmca par- as its flesh Is tender and well Savored ; shooting 
tridge is the Canada grouse [Utrao Canadmtu, it forms a favorite and exdting amusement, es- 
T.inn J ; the partridge of New England is the pecialty in Great Britain ; the bird Is so prcJific 
mifod gronse (loruua vmbelUu, Bt«ph.) ; the that, witii protection during the breeding aea- 
partridge of the middle and southern states ia sou, their numbers do not materially diminish, 
the qnul (orij/j) Virgimaniu, Bonsp.) ; several and the markets are so well supplied that the 
other qnaUs are called partridges, as the plumed price brings them within the reach of the mid- 
and Gambel's of California, me scaled or bine dUng daaaee. The partridge thrives well in 
and the Kassena of the valley of the Bio captivity, and its inclination to the neighbor- 
Qnmde in Texas ; on the other hand, the birds hood of man seems to indicate that with proper 
called qnails in Enrope belong to the partridges treatment and food it might he added to the 
and to the gfioaa eetumix (MOhr.) ; such of Uie list of domeaticated birds. It is not only the 
so called partridges, therefore, as are not de- victim of man, but of caruivorons mamma] a 
scribed here wiQ be fonnd under Gbotisb and and birds, to the last of which it is peculiarly 
Quail, and the francolin partridges under Fbait- eipoaed on account of its terrestrial habits and 
OOLDT. — The typical partridges belong to the short flight. The passenger partridge (P. i^am- 
genus ptrdix (Brisa.) ; the bill is short, broad atema, Briss.^ is generally considered a varie^ 
at the case, with the apex curved and vaulted ; of the last ; it is smaller, much wilder, with 
the wings moderate oiid rounded, with the 8d, greater powers of flight, and decidedly a mi- 
4th, and 6th quills longest; tail short and gratory bird. — The Guernsey or red-legged 
greatly concealed by the coverts; tarsi with- partridge belongs to the genus niwa^(Eaup); 
ont spurs or tubercles; toes long, inner shorter m this tbe bill is more arched and the tarsi are 
than onter, hind one short a^ slende^and armed with a blnnt tubercle. Tbia species {G. 
olawB moderate and slightly curved. There r^fa, £aup} ia 14 inches long, with an alar ex- 
■» about a dozen spewes in the temperate t^t fd 21 ; the bill and feet are bright rod ; 



apMT parto reddiah brown tinged with gr^: time until 1818. He was professor of engineer- 

a bloCE band from the bill to tha ejo, and ing from 1813 to 1S16, ana anpermteudent from 

thenoe down the neck, heoorauig wider and Jan. 181S, to Hov. 1616, and from January to 

meeting in front that of the opposite side: Jolj, ISlT. In ISlShe left the aemce, with 

lower parts aah-graj and light red, and tho rank of captun. He was the principal of 

sides banded with the same end black and the esploruLgsurver sent out in 1619 to deter- 

white. It is oon£iied chiefly to the eonthera mine the N. W. bonnda^ of the United States, 

oonntriesof Earope and to Asia and Africa; it He founded in 1820 at Norwich, Yt., a military 

is fonnd also in the islands of Gnemsey and academy, which was afterward removed for a 

Jersey; its flesh is highly esteemed, bat it time to ^ddletown. Coon., but restored to Nor- 

affords less eport thaa the common spedea wich and incorporated as Norwich university, 

from the separation of the flock when pnrsaed with CapL Porbidge as its president. He snb- 

bj Aogfi ; it is also believed to drive off the segnently fonnded sinular institations in Penn- 

grajpartridge. The Greek or rook partridge sylvania, Virginia, and MisaiBsippi, was chosen 

(0. Graca, Brias.) is larger than the last, and sorveyor-general of his native state in 1882, 

baa the plumage more ashy; it inhabits the and was G times a member of the Yermont 

moontainooe refpons of Greece, Turkey, and le^slatore, from 1833 to 18E9. 

A^ liDnoT, and is probably the species &Lladed PABrBlDGE BEBBY, a smooth and triul- 

to in the Hebrew and other ancient writings ; ing small evergreen herb, of the natural order 

the Seeh is white and much esteemed, thon^ ru^iaosa, the ^'2cA«2Iarepeni (Linn.), commem- 

it is occasionally bitter. — The genus tthagimt orating the botanical acquirements of Dr. John 

(Wagh) has a short stout bill, lengthened and MitoheU, an early correspondent of Linusns, 

ronnded tail, long torsi armed with 2 or 8 who resided in Yirgioia. This exceedingly 

blunt spurs, and the toes and daws long. Here pretty little creeping plant, very oommoa in 

belongs the sanguine partridge (/. orventut, Ke w England, is found in shaded woods through- 

Hardw.), from the mountninH of N. India ; it out North America, growing neai the foot of 

is slate-colored above with yellow streaks, and pine and oedar trees especi^y ; its leaves are 

greenish yellow below irregiUarly spotted with roundish and variegated with whitish lines upon 

red ; edge of tul ooverts and vent red ; it is a dark green surface ; its short petioles have 

nearly as large as a pheasant. The eenns minute stipules; its flowers are white and fra- 

ptUmachm (Swuns.^, from W. AMoa, hsa a grant, aometdmes porplish tinted, and are borne 

smau slender bill, long tail, and onspurred m twos, snooeeded by dry-pulped scarlet ber- 

tar^. The geuos leraa (Hodgs.) has a short riee, which are slightly mnoil^inoas and quite 

mid maoh curved hill, the sides of the upper tasteless, lasting throiuhout the entire wintw. 

tnandibiemuch dilated and covering the lower, It isnot unusuu to find the berries of thepre- 

win&a long, tail moderate, tarsi plained below ceding year accompanying the fresh flowers, 

the knee and armed with a small spnr, the toes These bright^oolored berries are sometimes 

long, and olawa robust. The type of this genus called two-eyes and cats'-eyes, from the oir- 

{L, nioieoia, Hodgs.) is fonnd in flocks among cnmstance of the 2 calyces marking the 2 ova- 

the rocks and brushwood near the snowy riea ^ipeariog on the same fruit, which is the 

mountains of N. India; it feeds on bnds and joint produce of the 3 flowers. — The name par- 

Isarea of aromatic plants and on insects, and is tridge berry is also freqnently applied to the 

highly esteemed as a game bird. The genus 6buItA«HapTvaumieM (Kalm), more commonly 

roUuuM (Bonn.) has a short strong bill, un- called winter^en. (See Wihtzbobkkii.) 

armed tusi, and moderate toes, the hind one PABTBIDOE WOOD, a kind of wood prized 

da*t!tal« of olaw. The species are found in in oabinet work on account of its shaded and 

the Indian arohipelago, and the best known la beantifhl appearance. The tree whidi flirniaheB 

the crowned partridge (R. rmdrovl, Scop.)i com- it is unknown in the latest hotsnical systems, 

mou in Somatra and Borneo ; it is 10 inehes though called by Anblet ioooa protacfrm, who 

long ; bill above black, beneaUi orange ; eyes ^vee an account of it in his Flanttt de la 

sarroanded by a naked orange akin ; plumage OvioM fra/nfom (London and Paris, 175C). 

bbickiah with violet and green reflections; head He remarks that it ia found in the woods of 

and neok velvet blaok ; crown whitc^ behind it Oaux, and intimates that its heartwood misht 

a san^dronlar crest of loose reddish brown be employed in nmiring blocks and poUeys, but 

feathers, and in front of it several long bristles ; saya notmug of itfl being an article of export 

the wings brownish black ; under parts bluish Guihonrt, author of a notice on the indigenous 

black; abonlder&mmp, ai^ tail muddy greeo. and exotio trees and woods of Guadeloupe 

The tanale is of a genwal deep green oolor, (Puia, 1884), mentions the same as hein^ a 

with dna^ head and tawny brown wings, ao- tree growing in Cayenne to the height of 60 

oordiagto Tjtiiam fytX, and called there hooo^ bat on wh^ author- 

PAiSTSSDQiE, Aldbv, an American soldier, i^ he does not itate. 

bom in Norwiidi, Yt.,abont 1786, died Jan. PABUTA, Paolo, an Italian anthor, bom in 

16, 18H. He was graduated at the U. B. mill- Venioe in IMO, died there In 1598. He was 

ta^ aoademy at 7eet Point in 1800, and acted educated at the univerdty of Padua, and after 

as aatbtant professor and afterward professor filling several pnhlio offioea was chosen histori- 

of "laflifmatiiy in that institution ffom that ogn^er of the republic The result of his 
Toir. xm, — 2 



labon, embntdnv Qie neriod Iwtween 1618 tmd for Its antiqnitif, and iru under the eflpedal 

IDSl, u inolnded in the Eeiies called hU/riei protection at the ma^. It contained tlie mort 

Vmeiiani. In 159S he was sent bb ambassa- ancient royal palace and tlie treasnre*. The 

dor to Borne, and on hia Totnm to Yeoice was Persian kings were inannirated there. The 

made a knight and jirocwatora of St. Mark, city was the stronghold of a tribe of the same 

His prinoipal work is entitled DitMrti politiai name, the nob]e«t of the 8 principal tribes of 

(Venice, 1696), a series of disqnisitdons on Ro- the ancient Persians. The Achsmeoidn, to 

nun and modem history, distinguished by their whom Oyms, Dariaa, and other kings belonged 

impaitiali^, sagacity, and independent train and who wereinfiaottheroyal f^uyofsnoient 

of thought. He also pnbUahed a work Delia Persia, were a dan of the Pasargadee. Thejr 

puifitieTte i»Ua vita poUtiea (1S^9), a history were apparently the direct descendants of the 

of the Tnrko-Venetian war In the island of originsd Persian tribe which emigrated from 

Ojrpms, andvalaable notes on Tadtns. ftuther east about 1600 B. C, and which as it 

P AS-DE-OAIiAIS, a maritime department of rose to power imposed its name npon the peo- 

norUiem France, formed prinoipaUy from the pie and the country. 

old province of Artois, bounded N. by the etoait PASO AQOULA, a river of Uissisrippi, form- 
of Dover (Tr. Pa» de Oatav),'E. ^ tho depart- ©d by the jnnction of the Leaf and Ohiok^i^. 
ment of Nord, S. by Bomme, and W. by the Kng- It flows in a sontherly direction into MisriBsip^ 
ligh channel; area, 3,606 sq. m.; pop. in 1866, sonnd, throngh two separate months, its em> 
713,846. It is intersected from B. E to N. W. bonchnre forming Pascw>nla bay. It is navi- 
by a ohun of hills which give rise to several gable fo^ 100 m. or more by small vessels, which 
rivers, Qia most important of which are the export timber, tarpentine, and other products 
Boarpe and the I^ branches of tiie Scheldt, of the pine forests throngh which it flows. The 
and die Aa and the Oandie, flowing respeotivelT name is derived from that of the Pasca-ogonlas 
into theOermanooeanandthe English channel. ("Bread-eaters") or Fascagonlas, a tribe of In- 
TheseriveTS are navigable and nnited by canals, dians formerly inhabiting the vicinity. On the 
The northern railway and its branches cross £. month of the river is the village of Pasca- 
the department. Coal is fonnd in small qnan- gonla,orEastPascagoiila,wbichcontainseeveraI 
tltdes. The soil is marflhy in some districts, Enndred ichflbStants and a large hot«l, and is 
bat is generally fertile. Mnch land is devoted much freqnented as a snmmer watering place, 
to the growth of beets for the maanfactore of There are extensive saw mills ia the viomity. — 
sugar, more b^g rused in this department The month of Pascagonla river is celebrated for 
Uian any other except Nord. Themannfaotnre the " mysterions mosio" which may often be 
of tolles is carried on at Boulogne and Oalais ; heard uiere on still smnmer evenings. The 
while other towns are engaged in making cot- listener being on the beach, or, yet more favor- 
ton and linen BtaSi and yants, spirits, leather, ably, in a boat floating upon the river, a low, 
gunpowder, soap, glass, and earthenware. The plunlive sound is heard, rising and fblling like 
chief town is Arras, formerly the capital of that of an JEolian harp, and seeming to issue 
the provinee of Artois. from the water. The sounds, which are repre- 

PASARGADA, or Pababoas^s, the capital aented as indescribably sweet and plaintive, 

of tuudent Persia under Oyms and Oantbjses, cease ss soon as there is any noise or distarb- 

and previous to the fonndation of Persepolis, ance of the water. The actual occurrence of 

dtoated on the small river Oyrns (now £oor), this phenomenon, not only at the month of the 

in a plun sorrormded npon all sides by moon- Pascagonla, bnt at other points on the same 

tains, and aboat the centre of anciwit Pends coast, is fnlly attested by nnqnestionable evi- 

praper. Its name is translated by Stephen of denoe. It is the subject of varions legends and 

Byzanlinm, "the encampment of all uie Per- traditions, but the most plausible conjecture 

sians." The modem Kui^nb occupies its rite, in explanation of its origin is that It la occa> 

and the whole adjoining plain ia strewn with sioned by some ntecies of shell fiah or other 

its relics. Among these is a tomb called by the marine animal. A somewhat simHarphenome- 

natives the tomb of Solomon's mother, but non is mentioned by Sir Emerson l«mieDt as 

which is supposed by Bawlinson and others to occurring in certain situations on the coast of 

be that of (^TOB. On a square base, composed Oeylon. 

of immense blooka <^ white marble, that nse in PASO AI^ Blaise, a French auUioiv mattie> 

stepa, Btsuds a quadrangular house or diamber. matician, and philosopher, bom in (Vermont, 

buut of blocks of m^la 6 f&et thick, shaped Auvergne, June 19, 1638, died in Paris, Aug. 

at the bm into a sloping roof The chamW IS, ISSS. Bis father was president of the court 

seemstonaveheldasarcophagus. Uponpinars of ^ds in his native city, and was a man of 

near by repeatedly occurs uie inscription in oonsidenble learning. Being left a widower, 

Persian and Median: "lamC^natheAohceme- he sold his office in 1681, and removed to Paris 

nian." This is the exact deaeriptiim gtreu in with the intention of devoting himself to the 

Arrian of the tomb that hdd the roiuiiis of edncsHon of his son and two daughters. He 

OyruB in the time of Alexander, uid the exist- directed the studies of the son to laDgvagee and 

enoe of which at this place was vonohedfrtr by generalliteTature,avoid!ngeverythii^oonnect- 

Aristobnlus, otM at Alezasder'B compmions. ed with the exact sciences. This only sharpened 

The ancient dty was esteemed by the people the desire of tiio boy, now 13 years of age, for 



Hm forbidden etodtes. 'Without aaaiBtaaoe, and worldly pleasnireB. Her entreaties would per- 

ignorant even of the veiy mdimenta of loatlie- haipa have proved unav^ling, had it not been 

matica, he eecretlf applied himself to drawing for an inddent which ooonrred in Oot 16£4. 

Rnd reflecting npon Keometrtoal flgaree, until While drivins over the bridge across tlie 

he bad gone through a eetiee of definitions, Beine at Netmlj', the two forward horses at- 

siioms, and denionstr&tions that brought him toohed to his oarriage were precipitated into 

as far aa the 82d proposition of Eaolid. His the rivar, and it was little less than a mirada 

father, discovering him one day engaged in that the carriage did not follow them. The 

these Btadiea, was aS^ted to teus^ imd, obej- shook he then esperienoed prodnoed an effect 

iOK what he conridered a proTidentiat warning, npon bia nerrea and mind, from which he ap- 

wHlingly gave him matbematioal instniction. pears to hare never entirel;f reoovered, and to 

BUise matb wonder^ progress in this new ca- the end of bis life he was subject to ballaciaa- 

reer ; he was sotm adniittea to the meetings of tions and visions. The immediate result of this 

scientifio societies, where his att^ments and oooarrenoe was to-revive his religions impree- 

genins aatoonded ue most learned ; and at the aioos ; he withdrew from eocietj, and entered 

age of IS he oconposed a " Treatise on Oonio npon a oonrse of self-denial and ansteritj', 

Sections," which Descartes, to whom it was wliioh characteiized the remaioiDg jears of his 

anbmitted for examination, ooold not believe to lifo. Amid bis previons gajeties, however, he 

have been written by a mere hay, Unfor- had written some of his philosophical work^ 

tonatel; the manoBoript has been lost. In 1089 snch as his treatises J}e lapetantew it la nuMM 

Bluse aooompaoied his &ther to Bonen, where de Voir and Ds Vi^Uilyre det Uqvmn, whit^ 

the latter hod been appointed mperintendent were not pablished nntil the fear an«r his 

of finance for the provinoe of Nonnandf; death. In 1664 he completed an "arithmetic^ 

and there he inventeil a oslcnlating machine^ triangle," by which he aimed at eipoondinA 

whioh was snbseqnenlly improved oj L'£pine madienuiticallf certain laws connected wi^ 

and Boltisscndesn, hnt it nevec came mto bets and games of chance. It was in fact an 

practioal use. He pnhlisbed an aeooont of approach toward the binomial theorem of New- 

it in 1646 in pamphlet form, with a dedioation ton. After his death 8 treatises of his were 

to Chancellor SSgiuer, and in 1B60 offered it pcblislied (1666) in which he had laid down 

to Qneen OhriBtiiia of Sweden, in a letter the principles of the oalcolaa of probabiliUes. — 

whidi has been fteqaently reprinted. It was For sevem years Pascal had been acquainted 

also during Ids Bt^ in liouen that he invented with the Port Royalists, and bis new mode of 

the vinaifretU (wheelbarrow chair), the A»- life brought him into closer intimacy with them. 

q^ut (a kind of dray), and, according to some. They were now the upholders of the doctrines 

the bydrauHc press. Hia health, which bod of Janseiiina, and though he never formally 

never been strong, was seriously i; ■ ■ - .•■..-.■ . . , ., ...,.,. 

hid labors, and his eabseqnent life w 

sion of snfferinKS. From 164S to 164B he exe- quarrel with the Jesuits. Wheu, at the end of 

ented aa the Pny-de-D6me, near Clermont, at 166&, Antoine Amauld was expelled from the 

Ronen, and at the tower of St. Jacqnes-la-Bou- Sorbomie on aceoont of hie letter in defence of 

oherie in Paris, a series of barometrical experi- Jansenisni, Pascal, impelled by motives of 

ments^ which went fhr to confirm the discover- fiiendship, entered the lists and published the 

ieaof Qalileo, Torrioelli, and Descartes respect- &rat ot Qiaeenea of LtttretdeLowadtMonUdU 

ing the wewht and dasticity of air. Pascal d un provincial de ut anat et aiwt E&. FF. let 

was led by tSeae experiments to nse the barom- Jituittt ntr la morale tt la poUtique dt oa 

eter ss on imtrmnent for levelling, aai for pira, which afterward became so celebrated 

ascertaining tba pressure of flnids upon the under the abbreviated title of " The Proviudal 

rides of the vessels contslning them, and estab- Letters." The first of these letters, which ap- 

lidiing the laws of th^ equilibrium. His Et- peored Jan. 28, 16Se, was eagerly read and ou^ 

ptrieneM iovthant U tide were published in culated even among those who hod until then 

1647, and were assailed by Father ISoHl, a Jes- remuned nniuterested in the contesL It was 

ait, who presented hin»elf as the obompion of followed at intervals by 17 others within a pe- 

the old system, and whom Pascsl answered in riod of 14 months. The replies of the Jenuts, 

two letters. About this period he Wl a stroke the condemnation of the letters by the holy see 

of paralysis bywhi<di he for awhile lost the in 16^7, and thesentenoe of the council of state 

usaofhislegs; at the same time be studied in- and the parliament of Aix that the^ should be 

Mnady devotional works, and his mind became bnmed by the band of the exeoutioaer, could 

deeply fmpreesed with religions convictions, not check tiieir popularity ; and 20 years later, 

He was advised 1^ his physidans to seek for as spears from uiue. de S^vign^'s correepond- 

dfverston in BOoi«ty, as the only means of al- mice, the PeUttt lettrts, as they were now 

levlating his sn^ings. To this he reluctantly etyl^ had lost nothing of thdr ori^nal attrao- 

consoited ; but he socn allowed himself to be tions. They m^ he said to have been the 

carried too fu by his natoraUy ardent tempera- origin of that hostile feelina which, a century 

menl^ and 1^ pious ^star Jaoqneline, who had lat^, brought about the expuLdon of the KX&btj 

joined the o«nmnnity of Fort Koyal, several of Jesus from France. Their circulation in £n- 

bmae tboiq^ it neoeaBarj to worn him agdnst rope was inoreased by tranalationB Into several 



langnasee ; and one of tiie Port BoyBHsta, Ki- tiie PeiuSti (3 yoIb. 8to., 18SS). The life of 
oole, who hsd been instramentBl in their com- Pascal hy luae. P6rier has been the foonda- 
voaitioii, produced a Latio Terriott of them Tm- tlon of nnmerons enbBeqoent bic^raphiee. The 
der the name of Wendrook. — In the midst of Peiukt and £«ttre» prmitteiaUgnavo been eev- 
tbese l&bora Pascal's healUi had contdnned ful- erel times tranalated into Enoliah. — ^The yoimg- 
ing, and his snfferii^ waroelr left him anr er sister of Pasoal above aUnded to, Jaoqux- 
reepite ; he neven^^ss retarned to his wonted line, bom In 16S6, died in IftSl, left some mis- 
pureuitB, and studied the properties of curves, oeDaneons works, letters, and versee, which 
and espedallj those of the ojdoid or rouhtte, have been oi^ected b^ Prosper Fang^re (1 vol., 
which had alreadr arrested the attention of Paris, 1846), and by Oonsin in his biogn^y 
Galileo, Torriodli,I>eeoartea, and Fermat. Fas- of Jacqueline Pascal (Paris, 184B). 
csl oonqdeted their researches apon this par- FABOHAL II., j>opo (BASina of Blkda), 
titndar point, and in 1669 pnblished the resiilU bom in Tuscan;, died in 1118. HevaaainoDk 
of his inyeetigatiODS in his Traiti ghiiral d«la of the order of Olnn;, and having been sent to 
TMletU, He bad also engaged in tJte compo- Borne on some affsire of his order was made 
dtion of a new demonstration of Obristianity, cardinal b; Pope Gregoi7 Vll. He sncceeded 
in which he was to enlist all the powers of ha- Urbsn 11. in 1099, and almost immediately af- 
mon reason fa the service of tntth ; but the terword renewed the straggle with tiie Ger- 
state of his health left bijo bnt brief periods for man emperor on the snl^eot of inveetitnree, 
tliis project. He was able onl; to write ooca- which had eoKroesed so much of the pontjfi- 
riondly detached thongbti, which were collect- cates of his predooesBors. He excommnnioatod 
ed after his death, and published in 1670, under Henr; lY. in IIOS, whereupon that empeFor's 
Hie title ^ Pmteit tur la religvni. Modem son revolted and caused bimBelf to be acixowl- 
aritJ(s,eepedaIlj'Viotor OoQun and 8te. Beuve, edged as Henr^Y. ; but in the matter of in- 
availing themselves of previonslj neglected vestitnree be proved as unjieldiiigBa his ftther. 
sources of infomiation and original manuscripts Paschal pr<q)osed a compromise, offering to re- 
too slightl; passed over bj former editors, store all tbe temporalitieB which the ohnrdi 
have Bucoeeded in giving an outline of Pascal's had received A'om seonlar princes elocetlie time 
derigu. The last i jeait of his life were an of Oonstanline, provided the emperor wonld 
almost unbroken series of bodily snfFering and renounce the right of investitnre which vas 
obaritable emplOTments: his alms absorbed fonnded upon these grants; but the bidiopa,es- 
more than bis moome. His remains were bur- peoiall; those of Germany, who were poBsessed 
ied in the church of 6t. £tienne da Mont, of large fiefs, would not consent to tJie meas- 
wbere Ms tomb is still to be seen, — There are nre, and when Henry arrived at Borne to be 
two editions of Pasoat's complete works, inclnd- crowned In 1110 the uegodatioa was broken 
inghisscienti£ctreatises,namelv;ti)atofBosBnt off, and the pope reftised to perform the coro- 
(S vols, 8vo., 17T9),andthatofLef%vTe(6vols. nation ceremony. The emperor thereupon 
8vo., 1819). The Lettrei previneialei, collected s^zed the pontiffs person, treated him. with 
fbr the first time in 16ET, were publisbed in great indignity, and after keeping him prisoner 
1S84 at Oologne under the supervisioo of Ni- two months extorted from hrni a renunciation 
cole, with Latin, Spanish, and Italian transla- of the disputed right, received the crown, imd 
tiona. The Pmitiet. which have been of lat« went back to Germany. Paodial afterward 
an especial object of leeearoh and stody, were smmnoned a council in the church of St. John 
reprinted from the mi^nal edition of 1670, first Lateran, by which the investiture of chnroh- 
lnie7S0)vol^l2mo.),&ndwitIialifeof Pasool men by lay hands was solemnly condemned, 
by his sister, Ume-F^rier, hi 1684; by Deemo- The result was a rebellion of some of tlie 
lets, with some additiiraia, in 1739; and b}[ Con- turbulent German borons, but Henry soon 
dtnttet in 1770. These were the fonndation of subdued them, and nmrchii:^ upon Borne ccon- 
erery subsequent edition, until 1843, when M. pelled the pope to flee to Benevento. After 
Oousin, in a paper read before the French aoad- the emperor's return, Pasohal made vigorous 
emy, pointed out the alterations and omissions preparations for war, but died before he oonld 
in evei7 one of them, referring at tbe same time take the field. He hod also hecoi involved in a 
to the autograph monnsoript which ie preserved dispute with Henry I. of Inland on the same 
in the imperial library at Paris. In 1844 U. snt^eot, bnt a compromise was e&toted in 1108, 
Gosper Fangire, following up Ooosin's snjses- whereby the king snrr^idered an unimportant 
tjonik issued a man correct edition of thePsn- part of the ceremony of investiture (the colla- 
itti,tettfea ttfinf/mmiitU BlamPa»edl^T(^ tion of the ring and crosier), and retained the 
6va.). Tlila gave rise to a controversf reepeot- right of nominating bishops and abbcte and ex- 
ing tihe v(»rk itaelf and what has }jvea a^led acting from them fealty and homage, 
the aoeptioism of Pasoel, to which we are in- PABHA, a TnrUah governor of a provinoe, 
debted for the f<^owlng woibe among others ; or military and naval commander of tu^ rank. 
TictOT Oonrin'B Miite Ftucat (1849); Ste. The iVenchqwll tie word jXM&i, and formerly in 
Benve'si^irt Soyal tmi Portraili l^trairM; SidiBhitwaBwniallywnttenbashaorbaahaw. 
and theabbiFlottesandA. Yinet's^u^tur Fastias of tiie first raidE are called pashas of 8 
Paieal (1846 and 1648). Tbe controversy has t^ that number of horse taila b«ng carried 
lieat sntomed op by ^vet in a new edition of before tltem as a Btandvd when they i^pear in 



pnUie. Before dose of inftriormik two hons ur as ocanmander-hi-ohief of tlie anniea em- 
tulfl ore borne. The title is probablji^Perdaii ployed in Poland. TteaevereBttheaamBtime 
origin, and is Terr ancient, a BilDilar term, m&(i, abwigthened bo as to become ovenrLelming ; 
being used in the Hebrew Boriptarea to oedg- and, still ddnded by the jmimima of Franoe, 
nate the Ticeroys or governors of pronncea of the generals of the revolation alloved Paske- 
the Asrrnan, Babylonian, and old Parian em- vitoh to cnws the Vistula, nndieoked, near tlie 
prea. The office corresponds to that of tlie Pmssisn frontier, aod to adyanoe on the right 
ancient Persian satraps. Until recently the banJc of that river toward Warsaw, wUoh 
Tnrkiah paahss were entirely sbsolate in the after a desperate struggle finally capitulated 
adminislration of their provinces, bntnnder the ^pt 8). The conqueror received as his re- 
present reformed system the power of these ward the title ofprinoe of Warsaw, and was 
officers is in some measnre checked by local mode governor (Rnss. and Pol. namitttniJ^ 
oomndls. The province governed by a pasha Uentenant or viceroy) of Poland, which was 
is calledApubuio. now stripped of its oongtitntional semi-bde- 
PA ^PwAft . Bee Itmoe. pendence, and transfbrmed into a Bosaian prov- 
PASKEVrrOH, IvAx f^KDOBOViTOH, prlnoe Inoe, though maintdning some instatations of a 
of Warsaw, a Bnaslan field marshal, bwn in separate administration. The task of govem- 
Poltowa, Hay 1ft, 1783, died in Waraaw, Feb. ing the nnhappy ooontry was one of the great- 
1,1808. He was educated at 8t Peteraboiv, est respondbill^; bntPaskeTitchnotoovdls- 

beoame a page of the emperor Panl, and m oharged his dn^ to the entire satisfitctJon of 
1800 entued the army. He served with die- his master, but by his moderation also gained 

of Alexander L,and in those Gt 1812-'ll eom- part at uie Polish people. Yarioos attempts 
nuaded under Bagration, Ularodovitch, Ben- at a sew risiDg, amoDg others that of ItM, 
ningsen, and R^^&ki, at Smolensk, Uoaoow, were speedily suppressed ; and the year 1848 
Le$sia, and in France. Aiter U« retora to passed off without oonvnlsion, the attention of 
Bnsda he aooompaiued the grand duke IGohael, the Poles being chiefly turned toward Hnn- 
brother of the emperor, on a Journey through gary, whence the liberation of Poland was ex- 
various provinces of the empire ; and in 1820, pec^. To avert the more and more threaten- 
on the outbreak of the war against Persia, was Ing danger, Nicholas, having already sttenmted 
^ipointed by Nicholas to oommand imder Yer- an Invasion of Hni^ary ftom the Bannbiaa 
moloff. Having achieved condderable sue- prindpalities in the winter of 1849, in the en- 
eeaaea ovw the Perdans mider Abbas IGrza, suing spring placed Paskevitoh at the head of 
he in the following year snooeeded the less an anny of intervention of more itum 200,000 
sneoessftil YermoloflT in the chief command ; men, which simnltaneoualy crossed the north- 
and the taking c^ the fortified Armenian con- em, north-western, and sonth-eastem Oarpa- 
rent of IMchmJedgln, of Kakhitohevan, and tiilans, acting in part independently, and in 
other strong places, soon juved the way to part In ooqjunotion with the Austrians. Ko 
the conqneet of Erivan, which ci^itnlatod in brilliant rictoi? was now achieved by Pask»- 
Oet. 1SS7. For this achievement he was re- vitoh, his principal merit oonsisling in oanliouB- 
warded by Nicholas with the title of Eri- Ir avoiding dangers, while tiie Hungarians, 
vanskoi. Faakevitch now crossed the Aras. distracted by hostile populations and fbrtressse 
and by a r^d advance entered the cl^<^ wtthin ^eir own territory, were dowly crushed 
Tabriz, when a peace was ccoiclnded with the by the wright of oonver^ng masses. CMrgey'i 
Persian oommandw, but it was not ratified sarrenderatYiUgos (Aug. ISIhavIng vlrtaally 
nntil after fkirther operations In the begin- ended the stni^le, Pi&evuoh rrtnmed to 
ning of 18S8. The peace of Turkmantimai, Warsaw, where he reodved new honors from 
whMi added to Russia Persian Armenia, being Nicholas. A ^rsnd Jubilee soon after took 
eooolnded Feb. 29, Faakevitoh found a new place in that oity on the 60th anniversary of 
field of ndlitsiy aativity In the war against nia entrsnoe into the army. In April, 1864, 
Turkey. He commanded in the East, while he once more took the command of the prin- 
the prtndpfll Busnan army was ennged on the oipal Btuaian army in the war sgtdnst Turkey, 
line of the lower Danube and the Balkan, after the first diswtrons osmpsipi on the Dan- 
Anapa, Foti, Ears, and Akhaltrik were taken nbe, but soon resigned it, haviu been wound- 
in the anmmer of tltat year; and advandng ed before Silistria (June 8), whi^ he Ailed to 
through mountain passes in that of 1839, Paake- eonquw, and returned to Poland. ffisBnooe»- 
viteh nrpised a large anny nnder the wras- sor in command. Prince Uohael Gortchakofll| 
Uer. Assisted by the treachery of the Janixo- also soceeeded him as governor of that country, 
rlea, he took Er^oom, July 8, and poshed for- FABQUIER, ^nmnn, a E>ench Jurist and 
wtri toward TreUsond, in the vidnUy of author, bom in Paris in 1529, died Aug. 81, 
whidi he recdved the news of the peace of 1916. He studied law under Oqjas at To^ouse 
Adriam^de. Hade field Tni-atml and governor and Uarianns Socinos at Bologna, was admitted 
of the province at Georgia, he ohe&ed the to the bar, and first appeued iu 1649 in the 
rising ot ^e Lesghian mountaineers in 18B0, oapadty of attorney before the parliament of 
sad in the foUovring year, on the death of Paris. He devoted much attention to Utera- 
DisbitBob, was appointed (Jane 26} his sneoes- ture and history, and after puhUshlug the Jfo> 



ncfMU and Im eeOojua ^tunow, in prom, soA oaimot be rtyled tea aaihor, hflvliig pnbBabed 
atiytnl nuBoeUAiiMiiB poems, he prodnc«d ia Dothing bat a vandeTUle and a collecdon of 
ISmh^lgthookotMtSeehnvhadtlaFhmce, diBoonrseB delivered in hia oapftcit? of mimster 
In 1S64 ti« -waaoommi tot the nniverraty in ita or peer from 1814 to 1636 (4 vols. 8to., 1S4&>, 
Uwniitwith theeocie^of Jeenita. Bis pte&d- heiraainlB42 electedamemberof thelYencii 
ings made him popular, and elienta looked to aoadenqr. It ia ^enerallr reported that he has 
him. Hs wibiened the parliameiitar7 Beashxia written intereatuig Mintoiret which will be 
known aa let ffranda jovn at Ptdtiers in 1676, pttbllBhsd after hia death. The revolution of 
■nd at Troyea In 1588 ; was in 1S8S appoint- IMS terminated bis poUtioal career, 
ed attomeT'-gaiieral to the ooort of aocoonts, PABQULCl, tiie name ^ven to a mntilated 
and In 1B88 was elected a depaty to the statefr- statae in Bome, standing at the end of the Bras- 
general at Bloia. A fidthftu adlterent of roy- ohi palace near the PiraaNavotia. Initaim- 
altf, he aeoconpanied the rojalist members meuate neighborhood was aitiiated in the iat- 
of the parliament who, under Henrj m., ter half of tke Iffth oentnrj the shop of a tailor 
held their seenons at Tonn, and returned named Pasmiin, or Faaqnino, whieh was mnoh 
to Paris with Heorr IT. He now fonnd frequented bj people of oonseqoence for the 
himself inrolred in new qnsrrels with the pnipoee of hearmg the current gossip and scan- 
Jesoits, who were expelled from Fronoa in oal of the town, and of amusing themselves 
eonsetmence of the attempt of Jean Ohfitd with the iacedous stories uid Batirioal remarks 
upon the life of the king. In IfllH he resigned of Paaquin and his workmen, to whom the ut- 
hla office of attoraej-general to his eldest son, most licatse of speech seems to have been al- 
and deroted his later jears to revising, oom- lowed. Bo rnsnj caoatio pereonatitiee emana- 
pleting, and publishing his litersrr works, ted from tills place, that KradnaUT- everf bitter 
Meat at these were collected and prmted in S saving was attributed to Fasqtdn or his diop — 
TOls. foL (Amsterdam, 1TS8}. Beside hie in- a practice tlie more convenient, as etiquette for- 
valnable Mtehtfehet d» la JywiM in B books, bade the euffisrer by such libels, or paaqninadee 
whieh, notwithstondiDg eome errors, are justly as they were called, to exhibit anj* resentment, 
regarded as a treasnrr of learning, they Include Alter Pasqnin's death the statue, wiiich hod 
J)S books of bndllarletterB,aflbr^ng ample in- long l^n half imbedded In the ground, was 
fiHinatlon upon the manners of the time. H. dng out and set up near his shop. The popa- 
Lten Feng^e has edited his (Smm eAoitim lace, avaUing itself of this cireumBtance,declar- 
(3 vok. lemo., Paris, 1646), with an excellent ed th^ Fssquln bod come to life egun. The 
biogrt^^c^ and critical notice. Paaqnier's mutilated torso was called by the name of the 
&me as a jnrist has been ftilly vindicated by deftmot t^or, and thenceforth the custom 
the pnUioation of his Intmwitaiion de* Intti- arose of attaching to It bits of writing of a 
UOei dt Jvttmim, edited by H. Charles Glrand satirical character, which frequently took the 
(4to~ Paris, 184^. ahape of lampoons upon persons in hi^h station, 
PASQUIEB, Enxim Dkhis, duke, a French the pope and oardinals being ftvorite ol^jeots 
atafawnsn, of Uie same family with the weoed- of attack. "The fr«e speech," says a recent 
ing, bom in Paris, April 3S, 1767. B^in he writer, " which was prohibited and dangerous 
became of age he woa app<dnt«d connoilltv in to the living sntfjects of the temporal power 
tiw parliament of Paris, His father woe be- of the popes, was a privilege which, in spite 
headed during the French revelation, and he of prohibition, Posqnm insl^ied npon exerds- 
hinuelf wss bicaroerated. Under the empire ing. Whatever precantions might l>e token, 
he became sncoesnvely master of requests in whatever penalties imposed, meana were al- 
the oonncil of state, councillor, procttrmir gini- ways fonnd, when occadon arose, to affix to 
roldu •swtuefda Ittret, and prefect of police, the battered marble pliers bearing stinging 
Oharged by Napoleon with neglect of dnty at epigrams or satirical verses, which, once read, 
tiie time of the conspraoy of Ifalet in 181S, fastened themselves in the memc^, and roreod 
he was acquitted on trial, and kept i n office quickly by repetition. He could not be d- 
nntil the first restoration, when Louis XVlli. Mnced. 'Great Bums,' said he one day, in on 
appointed Mm director-general of roads snd epigram addressed to Paul HI., who was pope 
bridges. He stood aloof during the Hnndred from 1684 to 1646, ' great sums were formerly 
Days, and after the second restortiion was pv en to poets for singing : how much will yOD 
keeper of the seals and temporarily minis- ^ve me, O Paul, to be silent ?' " The statue 
ter of the faiterior in the cabhiet of Talleyrand of Marforio, sapposed to be that of a river god, 
in IBIB, minister of Jnstioe In that of Bichelieu which aboot the close of the I6th tientory was 
in 1617, and of fbreign a&irs in that of De- plsoed in the palaao di eontenaUm on the 
ooEes in 1819. He adhered to the revolution Oapitol, woe made the vehicle fbr replying to 
of July, 1880, and was treated with favor by the attacks of Fasquin; and other statues in 
Louis Philippe, who made him president of the various parts of the city occasionally issued 
chamber of peers, with the honorary titie of on epigram on public afi^rs. Patqnin, however, 
chanoellor of France. He had been made a mtdntiUned his enpremaoy over all rivals, and 
baron by Nqraleon, became a count nnder the so formidable did he become that Adrian YI. 
restoration, and finally in 1844 reoeived the proposed to have him thrown into the Tiber, 
tide of duke from LoDiB Philippe. Although Le but was dissuaded by his friend Lodovico Snee- 



nno, who doolarad Out the frogs of Hm tivar ehwter of imall Uete called Voit lalaada U» 

TOoid tiieocwfiirtli orot^ paa^unadet. The within it. The haj >< well ahelteied and not 

first true poAqniiuidM date frtMii ttie pontificate QabletobeobetmotUbrioe; andithasgood 

of Leo JE., and after the Iwae of Si eentutiea harbon and a anffloient depth of water for die 

th« atatae psmus his antoent avoeatiwi with latest Teasels. It aboonds with fiah^ tnoh as 

nndhnlidahed yigor. SaUiieal epigrams how- mackerel, ood, and herring. The tide has as 

ever wen snhlUied previons to Leo's aeoee- average rise of 2fi feet. 

don, and tte fbUowing, directed against Alez> FASSAU (ano. Batata Oailra), a town of 

ander TL ^toderio Bo^ia), is nnsarpaBeed in Bavaria, capital of the drde of Lower Bavaria, 

aeveri^ hj say ntteranoe of Pasqain: eitDoted at the conflnence of the Ian and the 

TndllAiBia>d«iteTM,iUn^ObrWDm; Daonbe, 09 m. K N. £. from Unnieh; pop. 

SB*atiu*pii^TC>d*n]i»pot«L 11,000. It is divided bj (he ri«rfl hito « parte, 

" aUt^^w mUs the kevB, the altars, Ohrist the oentral one bring the town printer, km the 

He bou^ them first, and has a right to seU." ot^or^ Inn^sdt on the Inn, and Uttedt mi 

PASQUOTA^ a N. E. co. of N. 0., boi- the Xknnbe, being suburbs. The Bs, a triba- 

derhig on Vligfaua, and bounded N. E. b^ the tair of the Bsnnbe, flows between Ofltodt 

FaniDotank river, siid fl. bj Albemarle sound ; and Anger. The town is strongly fortified by 

area, abovtSOOeq. m.; pop. in 1860, 8,040, of two formidable oastlee and 8 smaller works of 

whom a,08B were slaves. Its sor&oe is low defenoe, sad oonsttotee one ctf the most impw- 

•ad level, Indading a portion of the I>ianial tsnts&ragholds onihe Dvinbe. Ithasaoathe- 

■wamp, and in some plaoes fertile. The pro- dndwith eome interertinKmonamenta, a pnblic 

dnedons in 18S0 were 9»i,BW bushels of In- library, a theatre, an old abbey, a bran» statue 

dian com, 10,4Sft of wheat, and SS,i)4S <tf oats, of King Maximilian Joseph, several aehools and 

There wwe 8 ship yards, i newspaper offices, ho^dtds, a Innatio asyuim, roannCsetnw at 

14 ohnrcheiL and 640 pn^ attotmig pablio porosUn, leather, tobaooo, beer, paper, iron, 

sehoob. The PaaqnotsiuC river is navigable and ecpper, and an active trade on tht Danabe. 

fbr smaQ vessela to the owitaL £lisabeth Uity, Its bishops were fwmerly independmt prinoas, 

and a branch ot the Inamal Swaiop oanal but!twasseoalaiisedinl808,andinooiporated 

cmMsea the eonntT. with Bavaria In 1805. In 16fi2 a trea^ gnai^ 

FASSAIO.a S. oo. of N. J., bordering on anteai^relipona freedom to the QermanProt- 
N. Y., boDnded S. W. by the Peqaannook, and estants was ocmdnded here between tti* em- 
intersected by the Itingwood, Bainq>o, and Pas- peror Oharles T. and Uanrioe (tf Saxony, 
euo rivers; area, abont 930 eq. m.; pop. ui PAfi8£H0£B PIGEON, or Wild Pioxox 
18S0, a»,D91. Its snrfiMM is diversifled and the (tetopiiUt niffratcfria, Swains.), a well knows 
soil generally fertile. The prodnctions in 1650 oolnmbine qiedee peoi^ar to North Amerieai 
were 140,211 bnabela of ^dian com, 41,600 where It exists in IniTr"^"" namlwrs. The 
of rye, 70,1SS of potatoes, 41,440of oata, 11,< family oharaoters an given nuder FisKov ; the 
020 tons of h^y, C,3S0 lbs. of wool, and aSB,- senerio charaoters are.a very small head, short 
470 Iba. of bolter. There were in the latter year bill, kng winga, the first primary tbe longea^ 
1< grist and 91 saw mills, 1 card, 1 carpst 4 tarsi voy short, and tail very long and wedgfr 
woolkn, and 10 ootton betmdee, 4 papw mlll^ shaped. The male passenger pigeon is about 
1 rolling mill, 1 fb^ea, 2 foonderiea, 1 Aimao& Ifti Ini^es Imw^ with an eiax extent of 05 ; the 
9 looomot^ manoftotortos, i1 ehm«hea, and general color umve Is gr^iah bine, some ta the 
1,16? pwpils attending public schools. The wing coverts feting marked with black spots; 
Honis oualand New iwk and Eiie railroad IhnMt, f<«e neck, breast, and udes light brown- 
intersect the 8. £. eonter of the oonnty, the Ui red, and the rest of the under pwta white ; 
latter ^Msing throi^ the capital, Paterson. lower hind neok with golden, green, and violet 

PABBAIO,ariverofNewJerB^,wliiehrisea i«fieotic»is; qaiUa blackish, bordered with [Mde 

iaMendbaro,H(griaoo.,flowaB.forafewmJies blnish, the uiger ooverts whitish at the tip; 

and then £. between Somerset and Morris oos,, 9 middle tail feathers blso^ the others palo blue 

tiien N. N. E. between the latter and Essex at the base, becoming white toward the end; 

CO., crosses Pasaaio oo. in an easterly direction, the bill blai^ iris bri^t red, end feet carmine 

ud tnming to the S. after a very devious purple. The female is smaller, sod of daller 

eonrae of abont 90 m. entws Newark bt^. It colors. Their rqtid and long continaed flight 

B navigable a short dlstanoe for aloope. At enables them to pasa over, and their keen 

PatersonithaaabUof T9feet(or00fbetper- viaon to sorvey, a vnat extent of country, 

pendionlarX affiwding immense wster power, when migrating at irr^^i^ periods in search 

wUdi has been tnqnroved by dams and osnals. of the mast which constitutes their prioolpsl 

It ia nmeh vUted hj tom^sts. fbod ; the flight is high or low according to 

PA68AHAQUODD7BAY, abodyofwater the nn&v<va£le or pnxniaing nstnre of the 

between the S. E. extremity of Maine and the region ; th^ present a very beantifnl appew- 

S. W. comer of New Bnmswick, bring abont anoe as they perform tbrir aerial evoli^oua 

19 m. long and m. wide at the entrance. It preparat(»y to alighting, now displaying a bril- 

rsoeivM the waters of the St. Oroix and Didge- Uant abeet of asnre which anddeidy ohuiges 

gnaah rivers, OampobeUo island lies serosa tiie into rich deep pniple ; for an aceonnt of ue 

•utrsnee of the bVt »>^ I>eer island and a r^i^ty of thebr flight, see Oasbibs Piokob, 


After ftedlng thej settle nn the trees to rest, MTeral rovi of filamentom procesMe, resnded 

and toward etmaet depart for their roosting bj some as abortlTe stamens and bj others as 

places, often hondreds of inilaB distant; they the tnie corolla, but probablj an intennediate 

boildin foreate where the treesare high, withoat condition of both; the true stamens S, mons- 

mnoh reference to season, and in places where delphons, raretj indefinite, sarroanding Che 

food is abondant and water not far off; the stalk of the ovaiy; anthers liaear, S-oelled, 

habits of conrtshlp, Incnbation, and feeding of bniatiiig longltndinHllr ; orarj npon a long 

the yonng squabs, are tlie same as in other stalk, snperior, l-celled ; st7le8 8, arising from 

pigeons ; the flesh is dark-colored, and hishly the same poin^ clavato ; stigmas dilated ; seeds 

esteemed as food ; aooording to Wilson uiot attached in sereral rows to the placenta, with 

lay only one e^, bat Andnbtw bbjb two. This a brittJe sonlptnred testasDironnaedbjapnlpj 

bird is fonnd thronghont temperate North &ril ; cotyledons flat, lesfj. The common pas- 

America to the high central plBins. Their rion flower (pattifiora earrvlea, Linn.) is a 

numbers sro absolntelj oonntless both in the climbing greenhonse plant from Brazil and 

roosting and breeding places; in tbe former Fern, and baa been known in cultivation since 

theyspreadoTerthcasandBof acres in the West, 1699. Its stem is of a somewhat woody textnre, 

breakmg down the limbs of trees with their and attains to considerable sice ; its brttnobes 

weight, and destroying the grasa and nnder- areabnndant,long,fleiible,andofr^idgrowtb, 

wood ; in theee places they are killed by myr- reaching 16 or 20 feet in a dngle seasiHi. Its 

iads, and by every conceivable kind of weaiMm leaves are palmate, 6-parted, and entire, the 

and device, from dabs to flrearms and snlpiinr ft)otstalks glandnlar ; tbe involnore is S-leaved, 

pot& The breeding places are still more ez- the blossoms of a beantiM bine color withont 

tensive ; Wilson describee one in Kentucky as and purplish and white within ; the filamentoos 

extending 40 miles through tbe woods and sev' processes of the same color and shorter than 

end miles wide, every tree bearing nesta wher- the petals ; they possess a feint smell, and last 

ever they could be placed ; they appeared abont for a single d^ only ; the fruit is egg^ehsped, 

April 10 and left with their young befbre May of the size of a large plmn, yellowish wlies 

3S ; when the young were nearly ftill-grown, ripe, and filled with a sweetish unpleasant pulp 

tbe people came, with their families, from all and black seeds. The racemose passion flower 

the neighboring country, formed enosmpmenta, (P. roMmoM, Bims) is a native of Brazil, hav- 

and commenced the business of collecting the ing 8-!obcd leaves, with 4 glands upon the 

birds ; he describee the scene aa very exdting- petiole, eiA twin pedicels Arming terminal 

thongh disgusting, the ground being strewed racemes in consequence of the upper leaves 

with felled trees and broken branches, the being abortive ; its flowers are of a de^ red 

young Urds devoored by hogs below and by or seariet color. Between these two speotee a 

hawks and vultures in the air, and the old showy hybrid has been raised, known as P. 

birds crowding and flnttering with a deafening earvieoraetrnMa ot Babine, and described and 

noise. Notwittistandiug the immense deatruo- flgnred in the "Transactions of the London 

tion, snoh Is their fecundity from the nomer- Horticultural Society," vol. iv., in a highly in- 

ona broods in a season, that the numbers do tereati^ and sdentiflc papra". The Orenadilla 

not seem to diminish. Wilson calculates the vine (P. ^vadrangulart*, wmA.), a native of 

length of a column of these birds which passed the West Indies, has a square ligneons stem ; 

over him at S40 miles, and estimates the nmn- oblong-ovate, snboordate, entire, veiny learee 

ber of pigeons in it at more than 3,000,000,000; 8 to 6 inches long, petioles with 6 glands, 

allowing i pint of food for each bird, snoh a stipules roundish ovate. Involucre 8-leaved ; 

legion would consume daily about 17,500,000 the Sowers are large, showy, red within, white 

bushels. Nothing comparable to sncb flights, withont, and odomeroos ; the fruit leige, ob- 

which actually obscnre the sun at noonday, long, about 15 inches in circumference, of a 

can be seen except in the myriads of locusts in greenish yellow color when ripe, soft and 

the East. Audubon estimates the nmnbera at leathery to tbe tonoh, and quite mnooth, with 

a less amount than Wilson. Thongh not found a very thick skin enclosing a sucoolent, purple 

in such multitudes in the New England and pulp, of a sweet taste, but slightly acid, and in 

middle stotoe, great numbers are caught in a hot chmate oooling and agreeable ; the seeds 

spring nets in the autumn, keeping the market lie In a sort of sao which easily separates f^om 

well supplied, and at a moderate price when the pulp. In the stove or hothouse this 

the consumer is brought into immediate rela- specdes grows admirably when tr^ed nnder 

tion to the cq>tor. the rafters of tbe house, the shoots being 

FAB8ION FLOWER, a showy plant, the pnmed back to witUn fi or 8 eyes of the old 

type of the natural order jxHrt/fimnws. These wood, and abnndance of water given in the 

are herbs or shrabs, usually oHmbing, seldom growing season. It has been suocessfolly oul- 

ereot, with alternate leaves fiimiahed with leafy tivated in Europe for the sake of its f mlt. The 

stipules, and the petides often glindulsr; ax- winged-stem passion fiower (P. alata. Willd.X 

iUary or terminal flowers, often acoom|>anied has a 4-aDgIea stem ; undivided, cordate, very 

by a 8-leaved involncre ; the sepals 6, at a entire leaves, petioles with 4 glands ; flowers 

men color ; the petals fi, arising from the large, of a rich crimson ; the ffliunenlons pro- 

ttiroat of the calyx, and oolored ; witliin theee, oeesee variegated with blue and pnrple ; Um- 



Boms sripeib, and with a pleasant aoeot. It patals none, prooeaaes purple at base, fhiit pot- 

snoceeda adniirablj' when trained ia an °P'%'it pl^ S '' oeonrs in Flonda. The narrow-leiived 

maimer at tiie back of the greentaonae. "Iba (P. anffutt^folia, Swartz) has leaves either ea- 

■errate-leaTed pamkin flower (P. Mrrat^foNa, tire or 8-lobed, the upper ones dmple, laaoeo- 

Bot. Hag.) is a spedas requiring the heat of late, and oocte ; the flowers are amall, solitair 

the atore^ a native of Snrinain, with undivided or bj pairs, yellowiah, processes in 3 rows; 

ovate-serrate leaves, ehowf flowers of a por- Cmit pnrple and of the rixe of a pea. Another 

pliah color, the processes spotted with pnrple species, tne P. Warti of Nnttall, nas very email 

and bine. The edible pasMoo flower (P. edvlU, flowers with a ver?' few processes ; it oocnrs in 

Unn.) has smooth, 8-lobed, serrated leaves, B. Florida, and may bo a variety of P. pallida 

the petiole with 2 glands near the apex, the of the Weet Indies. (Oh^man, in " Flora of 

involnore glandolarlv serrated, the processes the Boothem United States," New York, 1860.) 

equal in Iwgth to the oalyx ; the petals whit- — ^The pamjlora are American species ezdn- 

isB tii^ad with pnrple. It is a native of (dvely, generally oeonrring within or near the 

Bradl, grows rqddly, and is easily raised in tropics. -Althongh, as 1^ been noticed, the 

the oonaervattny l>y training its Icmg flexile frnlts of aome are edible, yet those of otbem 

bruMihes to the rafters. The frnit haa a yel- are nozions and disagreeable. The prevuling 

low pulp of a peonliar flavor, esteemed hy qnalit^ of Hm feaxa is norootjc. The root of 

some. There are a few species which possess the Orenadilla is likewise an emetio, and &om 

a cBsagreeable odor when the stems or gkaia the flowers ot the P. rvbra a tinctnre b pre- 

ara bndsed, and which oonstitnte a section by pared as a snbatitnte for opium ; the flowers 

themeelTes called dytotmia by Don. Of these of the P. faiida are pectoral and employed 

m^y be mflntiwed the P. fxtida of Oavanilles, in hysteria, its leaves are emollient and oar- 

hanoff hinid stems and petdolea ; leaves villoos cotic, and emm«oagogae qualities are ascribed 

on bmi rfdea, 5-nerved, cordate at the base^ S- to the root of the pluit. The aril of the seeds 

tobed, nearly entire, lateral tobee very short, the of some of the edible-frnited speoiea is in some 

middle ones acominated ; flowers whitish with instanoes sweet, and In others acid and nsefol 

variegated bine and pnrple processM. This for oompoonding a oooling drink in fevers and 

species ooeors in the Oaribbeui islands and in in bilions disoraers. The flowers were snp- 

Sovth America. A more remarkable one is posed to represent the snfferings or"pasracai" 

the P. eiUata (AitoD), with a round smooth of the Beoeemer, and in them the Bpanish 

stem, whkh climbs to a great height; dark monks sapposed they saw the flgnres of the 

green, i^aaej, perfectly smooth, S-Iobed leaves, implements, woonds, and crown of thorns ; 

beoetootba edges witb strong glaodnlar hairs; the trivial name thus early applied by them 

the involute S-leaved and capillary, each di- has been retuned, affixed to a hloesom which 

vision terminating in a visdd gtobnle, wfalob la teems rather to present in its evanescence and 

fbtid whtai braised ; flowers BnalL whitiah, r^a ot ^ory the type of human life. — Of the 

wHh bine filameotoos prooeaaes. From the tnio paMon flowers Don gives at least 1S6 

tropical speoiee a good many very fine hybrids ^edes and varietlefl, beride mentioning many 

have originated, of wUch may be mentioned ulied genera. The several kinds are easy en 

P. Sitrmmna, Loudani, ilMeaunsana, Ac cnltirsaon from seeds, snokers, or cuttings; 

The iaet named is a very recent sort, of the the last shonld be trom the extremities of the 

style of the alata, with leaves 10 inches long, branches, and strook in a gentle heat. The 

l^t brilliant green, and of a ooriaoeons tex- sdl they pref er is a light rich mould, 
tore ; laige flowers of a rioh crimson, with PASSIOlir WFES:, in the ohnrch of Eng- 

pnrple and bine prooeesea. — Of the North land, the week bsfbre Easter, oorreaponding to 

American epedes, the fleah-oolored (P. in- Holy tVeek In the Soman O^olio church. See 

earnato, Unn.) is econmon in the soathran Holt Wknc. 

states, blooming in Jnne and Jnlr. It has FASSOTEB (Heb. jwmA, frcsn patali, to 
patanatdy 8-tobed, acute, serrate leaves, hi- le^ ov^ to pais by; Aram, patka; Sept. 
^iHidalar petioles, 8-braoted pedondes, eqtals wurva: Vni. pattAat, a Hebrew festival, insti- 
snd petals whitiah within, processes in rows toted by Uoaes in commemoration of the Is- 
of a pnrpUih pink color ; fruit yellowish. It is raelitea remaining Intact on the night of the 
a perem^ herbaeeons ^edea, making strong deslarnotion of the first bom in Egypt, immedi- 
dtoota in a idngle sommer, and well aduted atdy preceding the exodns from that coontry 
to cover trdUseemsmaUgaKlenB. They^ow- (Ex.xiL). Originally it was observed by sac- 
flowered (P. bttea, Unn.) has oordate leavea rifidng passover lambs toward the evening 
broadly il-lobed at the summit with the IoIms of the 14th of the Ist Hebrew sprmg month 

Jowish graon flowers, and oval pnrple fruit ; it night, as well as by exclnding all leaven from 

oeeors in woodlands and thickets (Tom Ohio to the meals <tf that evening and the following T 

Florida. The P. nierota (Linn.) has smooth di^ the first and last of which were observed 

leaves, sligfatiy fringed on th«ma^tas,6-nerTed as holy, Sinoe the final destruotion of the 

at base, divided above the middle Into 8 ovate, temple of Jemsalem, the passover has beeq 

entire, acnte lobes, the middle la^^ ; petioles odebrsted by eating unleavened bread during 

ibort, ^fiaadnlar ; flowera and sepals greenish, the 7 (ont of Palestme during 8) days, by absti- 

as PAS80W FA8TA 

nmee from labor on the fint and ]ast (oat of differ slmocrt indefliut«1;. In genenO, the 

Palaetjne on the flret two and last two), and b; bearer ebonld take Mb passport to the uunister 

the obeeirauoe on the firet eveniof; (oat cf or aathorized agent of the ooiuitr7 which he is 

Palestioe on the first and second) of Tarioos aboat to vi^t, and have it signed bj him; and 

domestio rites conunetnoratiTo of the deliver' on arriving at the ontpoete or frontier ports or 

anoe from ^yptiau b(«dag«, indadio^ the re- cities of any foreign state on the contmeat of 

oital of soriptnnd and legendary narratiTM and Earope, the passport moat be ezhibited, and 

bmiliaroDnversation on tiiesune national event, so it mnst bo at any principal town in theinte- 

and the nhanHng of pBalmB. lior in which it is intended to renuun for au^ 

PASSOW, FbjlBZ Loswia Kj-sl Fbixdsiob, a couNderahle period. In many of tho Ehiropean 

German philolo^st^ bom in Lndwi^ast, Sept. states, a native oitizen or subject cannot travel 

30, 1786, died in Breslao, Uarch 11, 1688. He many mfles in his own coontry without a pasa- 

waa ednoated at the gymnasiam of Gotha and port. The whole system is productive of great 

at the oniveruty of Leipsio, where he stndied annoyance and some expense to travellers. It 

theology and philology. In 1807 he- became has been kept np to afford the anthoritiea 

professor of the Greek language in the gymna- means of Barreillance over suspioioos charae- 

sium atWdmar.and in 1810 director of the tors, and thereby to prevent oonspiraciea 

institution styled the Oonradinura at Jankan against the goTeroment, or provide the means 

near Dantzio. After the dissolution of this in- of deteotang them. The belief that pas^orta 

stitntion in 1914 he was made professor of havo little effioaoy for this purpose has been 

ancient iiterature in the university of Breelau confirmed by recent experience; andthagrow- 

and directAF of the philolo^cal seminary. Of ing conviction that they are not so ns^ol as 

his philological works, the most important is they are Inconvenient and opprea^ve, ma; 

tJie Diotionac? of the Greek Language" (2 have been the inducement for a recent change 

vola,, 4th ed., Leipsio, 1831), still one of the in the system in France, where it formerly 

most usefiil of Greek dictiouaries. flourished in fall vigor, but where from the re- 

FASSFORT, a document given by the an- cent declaration of the emperor (Jan. V, 1861) 

thorized officer of a state, which permits a it is altoat to be relaxed iu favor of t'^gi'"*' via- 

person or persons therein named to pass or itors to that country. 

travel either generally, or through a country FABTA, Gidditta, an Italian singer of Jew- 
named, or on certun routes, by luid or water, iah ori^n. bom at Saronno, near Milan, in 1798. 
Passports most have been need by all civilized She received her first musical education from 
governments to some extent and in some form ; Bartolommeo Leotti, chapelmaster in the cathe- 
bat in England and in the United States they dral of Como. At the age of 15 ahe was ad- 
have not been used within those countries, mitted to the musical cODservatoi7 of Uilan, 
though their governments give them to those where she was by no means a distinguished 
of their citizenB who purpose to travel abroad, scholar, and in 1816 began her pablio osreer at 
Each of the United Btatea will give its passport the minor theatres in Leghorn, Parma, and 
to any of its citizens, and so will the govem- Bresoia. The next year, appearing at the Ital- 
ment of the United States. The U. S. secratary iena in Faris, she failed to attract notice ; abe 
of state is charged with the duty of issuing waa equally unsuocesafol in London, and decided 
paasporta, and authorizing and regulating thur npon returning to her native country to stody 
issue bydiplomatio or consular agents. Any further her profesnon. Thisshedid inoamcBt; 
one who iasnes a passport without authority, and when, m 1819 and 18S0, ehe app^ed in. 
or who has authority and issues a passport to Venice and Uilan, she was greet«d with ap- 
one not a oitizen, is liable to punishment by pl^sa. Ketuming to Paria in 16S1, and vising 
fine and imprisonment. Passports are also Veiona during the session of the European 
given by collectors of ports to all vess^ of the oongreaa in 1822, she was remarkably SQCoess- 
United Statea, and if any snch vessel sails with- M. Her triumph in London was scarcely less 
out a passport the master is liable to a fine of brilliant, and for several years she continued to 
$200. One entitled to a passport may address sing alternately in Paria and London. In 1827, 
a request to the office of tiie secretary of state, some busineasdiffioulty having occurred between 
at Washingtou, and will be furnished with di- her and BossinL then director of the Italian 
reotions how to transmit the necessary stat&- opera in Paris, she left France and accepted an 
meats and evidence; or he may, generally, engv^ement at Niqtles, where Pacini composed 
learn all that is necessary fr^m a collector of a for her his opera of Jfiobt. Her dramatic 
port, or from a pnblio notary. Every passport powers however did not please the J^eapolitan^ 
states the name, age, residence, and occnpatdon though they were afterward fully utpreciated 
of the holder, with a description of his person at Bologna, Uilan, Trieste, and v erons. It 
and appearance, which is intended to afford was at Uilan that Bellini wrote for her Za mm- 
Uie means of identi^ring him. It is supposed nambtUa and Ifovma. Pasta won her last tri- 
to assure the holder of the snpport of his own umphs at Vienna in 1832. Her voice, which 
government, and asks for him and entitles hii" bad always beenmoreremarkabtefor energetic 
to the protection of all governments or natioua than melodious qualities, was now impaired; 
St peace with his own. — The rules and usages, and her last engagement on the Italian stage in 
iu Europe, in ret^iect to peraonal passports, Paris, in 1888 and 1884, was not on the whole 



Bu o aowfti l, thoD^ flhe vaa mndh admii«d in called pampas, wMob rise in twrBoes from th« 

BdHni's Jmm Sohivi, Bosdiii'a Otello, and Zin- ooean to the foot of the Andes, where the bat 

gardlL's Soma) & CHiMOta. In 18S6 aha re* attaina a height of about 8,000 feet above tho 

tiled to bar villa <m the banks of the lake of level of the sea. The chief rivers in this traot 

Oomo, ooearionallj'pasmngBonietime at Oenoa have their aonroe in the Andoe, and generally 

■ad IGlan, where ahe took pleasure in ioBtmot- ran in a B. S. direction to the Atlsntio. " 

J pnpils, among whom vras Teresa Farodi. of them are deep and rapid, and have oonraea 

iier last engagement, bj which she made $40,- of considerable length, bnt oolj' a few of the 

000, waa mh the open In St. Peterabni^ in more northern have any effect in fertilimg the 

■'®*^' .^ 1"^ "P**" ^^^ banks. The plains are droaiy 

PASTEL (Lat. patUUiui), a colored crajon and aterile, and strewn with hii^ bowldera. 

formed b7 the mlxtnrei^auor with a oblorless In the S.Uiereia agreat depo«t of tertiaij 

base. It is reduced hj an apfdioatkai <^ gmn atrata, covered vrith a thick stratum of a white 

water to the Mmrirftence of a paste (whence pmnaceons substance containing a tenth part 

the name), whidi is cut into diort stioks, and of marine inAiaoria, which extends for several 

wheo. dxj is reodf Ibr use. Pastel painting is hundred miles along the coast. This is oover- 

exeoirted iq>on a paper maan&ctared for the ed witta a bed of Single 70O m. long, 900 m. 

pnrpoae, Ute woolty sm^iae of which ansta in broad, ai^ 60 feet thick. !nie pebbles forming 

blending and letaming the tints. Sometimes ttiis bed areohi<^ponih7r7,and have beocane 

TeUnin with the snrftoe brooght to a aap bj detached from die rocks of the Andes and wa- 

&i^ion is em|)lo7ed. The artist nsoaUj rabe ter-wom sinoe the depodtion of the tertiarj 

In the tints wiUi his finger, althongb for the sbvta. Fresh water is ezoeedinglj' scarce, but 

finer kinds of work he also uses the stump or there are nomeroua salt water ponda. To the 

fba point of the crayon. The art originated Ea K. of lat, 46° S. the conntrj is not so oomplete- 

GenDsnr, bat has been cultivated with most If bairen aa the 8. portion ; it becomes more 

BDceeSB in France \>j Grenze, Nattier, Girodet, Tudolating, and here and there are found good 

and others. . pastnres and some trees. The climate ie ex- 

PASTILLE. See PKBrnu. ceedinglf cold in winter and hot In sanuQer, 

PATAGONIA, an extensive r^lon <tf Bontb and is remarkable for its dryness, no rain foil- 
America, oeoupying the 8. eztrunitj of the con- iaa for altoiit t of tbe rear. — W. Patagonia is 
tinant, bonnded N. by the Aiveotine confodet^ i^oHymonnt^nons, and in everrresMot forma 
ation, from which it is divided by the Bio a strong contrast to tbeK region. Themomi- 
Negro, E. by the Atlantic ocean, S. by the tains are barren and ragged near tiie coast, but 
abait of Magdian, which separates it from the E. sides are well wooded. Opposite the 
Terra dd Fi^o, and W. by the Pacific as tax island of Ohiloe there are two active volcanow. 
as lot 4S° &, and thence for about 100 m. by Heavyraina fill almost Incessantly, accompanied 
Ohill, the <%lIiaQ Andee fortmng the boundary by storms of wind, and there is so much bad 
line. It extends frtxn lat. S8° 80' to G8° B., and weather that this portion of the country is near- 
from long. 63° 06' to 16° 40' W.; extreme ly uninhabitable. Tbeforestsof the W. contain 
kmgtii 1,080 m., breadth 420 m. ; area, 810,000 several speciea of beech and large ferns ; and 

. — ,_ eettanated at 130,000. llie conn- the vegetation of the N. part of £. Patagonia, 

. bended vithin these limits la little near the Bio N^o, is the same as that of the 

known, and at present of bat little importance. Argentine repubuo. Where there ie vegetation, 

[. m.; pop. 
y eomprelu 

The whole of the coast has been examined by particnlarly in the N. and W., differeat kinds 

di^rrat navigators. There are several bays of animals are found. I«rge herds of gaanaoos, 

upon tiie Atlantic side, bnt they are not of wild cattie, the puma, the woU; the fox, the 

mm^ nee to luve vanels. On the N. part of opoasum, the cavy, and the armadillo are nut 

theooast the tides rise about SO Eeet, increasing with. Fish and sea animals are abundant os 

to SO feet toward the 8. The Pacific coast u the coasts ; and sea fowl are exceedingly nn- 

frmited by & idtain of large islands which ex- merona. The condor, hawk, a spedes of ibis, 

tend from the W. extremity of ^e strut of and the Sooth American ostncb are the printd- 

MMellan to laL 42° S. The chief of these Isl- pal land birds.— The Patagonians are a tall 

anda are Ohiloe, Qie Obonoe archipelago, Wel< race, but by no means so laiva as they were 

lii^^ton, Qoeen Adelaide's archipelago, and Dee- described by early travellers. Thur bodies are 

oMioa iaJacd. They are all rooky and high, bulky, but their limbs are not large in propor- 

lUag abruptiy from the ^orea. The coasts tion. Mr. Bourne, mate of an Amerioaa veaeel, 

next the I^cdfic are bare, being subject to fre- who was in captivity among them in ie4B-'50, 

quent storms j bat on the opposite Nde they describes them as about O^feet in height, while 

are wooded, and in some places the timber is some few are still higher. Their shoulders are 

oflargesiEe. Tbe senoral aspect (tf the Pscido broad, and their ohests well devdoped, their 

coast is rugged ana mountainous, broken by heads and fbatores lam, bnt their hands and 

inlets and Mys, and bordered by rooks and fbet oompar^vely sm^ lliey are natural^ 

Iveakera. — Patagonia comprises two re^ons indoleat, but when snfficieatiy aroused e^iMt 

separated by the Andes, and entirely differeat great strength. Their color la a reddish brown, 

both in climate and snrnoe. E.Fatagoida con- and their hair black, coarse, and lank. They 

8istaofs8aooea)ionofahingly,horiaontal plains, have large months with thick lips, but good 



teeth. Th«7 color their fiioea and bodies widi onl right, bat oji\j upon the statate ot 17tt 

wMte, blae, or red pdnt. The hidr, Hed above and those nrhldh have been made anbeeqnentl;^ 

their temples with a fillet of twisted sinews, is in amendment or alteration of that, the latest 

the onlj oovering for the head; and they wear of which vaa approTedHarah2, 1861. Indeed, 

a large mantle, made of Bkins sewed together, there seems to be now no recognition broonrta 

hangmslooselyfrom their ahonlderstotlieir an- of any abstract right in an inventor to theez- 

Uee, whioh adds greatly to tlieir apparently^- olnsire nse of his own invention. The theory 

gantio rize. For their feetthey make boote out of tbe patent law is rather that of oontraot; 

of the bUhb of horses' hind legs. The etatore, the inventor bargains with the public that he 

dieiB, and sppearanoe of the women so maoh wilt tell them how to do some new woi^ or 

ree^nble those of the men, that were it not far some old work in a new way, which shall b« 

lliehair, which they plut in two tails, it wonld oseM to them; and they bsxgain with him 

be difflmt ft^ a stranger to distdngniah them, that whoever makes use of it for a certain time 

They are generally good-natnred, bnt when shall pay him therefor. The purpose of tbe 

ezched are pasrionate and reckless. They ap- patent law is to encourage invention fbr the 

pear to possess nothing like towns, and to lead pablio good, by the stimnlna of the large re- 

a wandering and unsettled life. Their hnts are wards whioh a monopoly of any nsefbl instrti- 

formed of a few stioka covered with the skins ment must yield. As ^ onr patent laws rest 

of animals. Their arms consist of a long lance, upon ezpreas statate law, it might seem as if 

a bow and arrows, a knife if it can be pro- no consideration of its theory, pnrpose, or foon- 

onred, and balls made fast to the ends of a long datiou oonld affect the rights or obligations or 

leather thong, which they throw with a rotary remedies of any persona. It may however be 

motion and nse for entangling the legs of ani- very important aa hearing npon the qnestton 

male. They are all expert horsemen. There of oonatmctlon. Patent cases abomid with 

are several distinct nations In different parts qneetions, sometimes of very great importance, 

of the oonntry, and those who inhabit the W. which maybededded dtherway inoonfomd^ 

ooBstareof mnch lower etatore than the others, with nnqneationable iirinclplea and argmnentB 

Their chief BQbBist«nce consists of the flesh of of great weight ; ana those will seem to be 

horses, gnaaaoos, and sooh other animalB as the better prmciples or the sb^ngerargnmeata 

they can cwtore. They are filthy in their which ooncnr with the prasomption adopted, 

habits, exceedingly vain, and great liars. — Mo- either that a patentee is a monopolist, who 

Mlhaene is generally supposed to have been owes all his rights to eioeptiotial law, and 

tiie orighiBl cusooverer of the 6. coast of Pata- mast be tealooaly watched, or as a public bene- 

gonia. Othernavigators, whose namesdeeerve &ctor, who is to be kindly and tenderly treated, 

to be mentioned ae connected with tbe dlscov- Formerly, in England, the first of these snppo- 

eriea upon its coasts and in the seas ai^joining, dtioas seemed to be geuer^y made, and a 

are Drake, Le Moire, Davies, Cavendish, Haw- patentee was treated with extreme severi^ ; 

kins, Oook, Barmiento, Narboron^, Oordovo, now, he is there treated more Uberally- Inthe 

Byron, Willis, Carteret, Bougainville, Wedddl, United States, abo, whatever may have be«i 

!^ng, Stokes, and Fitcroy. Many attempta the language of the oonrte in some cases, a 

have been mode to form aettlemente upon the patent was seldom pennitted to stand, if any 

coasts and on the neighboring islands, but until mgenuity conld detect a flaw. Li conseqnenee 

lately none of them met with any nicoeea. The of the severity of some of the rules of the 

government of Chili claim the W. part of Pata- courts, various statatory provisions were made, 

gonia, and the Ai^entine repnblio the £. fdde. as for disclaimer, surrender and renewal, pre- 

The Chilenos have lately formed a few small vious nse, Aw., of all whioh we shall speak 

eatabliahments, eztendiuK aa for aa the £. en* presently. Kow, however, we would observe, 

tranceofthestndtaof Magellan, and are mak- that while the oonrts generally adopt a oonrae 

iug efforts to explore the interior. far more tiivorable than formerly to the patea- 

PATAFSOO, a river which rises in Oarroll tee, Oien scarcely seems as yet a uniTersid 

00^ Md., flows southward and then sonth-east- recognition of what should undoubtedly be re- 

erly between Baltimore and Anne Arnndel garded as the true principle, namely, that both 

counties, aai passbg Baltimore opens into a parties should be treated rationally and justly 

brood eetnary which enters Chesapeake bay 14 and impartially. — In no other country are In- 

m. below the dty. Its total length is about 80 ventions and patents fbr inventions so nomer- 

m,, and It aSbr^ valuable water power. It is ous aa In this; and our stotntee provide liber- 

navigoble for la^^ vessels to Baltimore. ally and wisely fbr all those things which 

PATENTS, LA.W of. Nothing like the law may tend to give euconraRement and aseiBt^ 

of patents was known to the ancients, or is anoe to nseM inventors. The patent office !s a 

__ w known out of Europe and America. Even branch of the interior department; It haa a 
there it is comparative^ reoent. In England commisaouer with a large st^ and three ex- 
it is but little more than two centuries old. In aminers in chief, all w^ paid, among whom 
Fruwe, the earliest law in favor of new inven- the duties of the office ore skUfUly divided, 
tions was passed in 1T90 ; and in the United A library of such works of science or art 
States the system of patent law rests, not on aa misht be useftil, is kept in the office ; and 
common lav, or usage or any reference to n^ there li a ooreflil and well devised arnnge- 



m«>t ot all the module gathered Bfaiee the de- adopt » nilewMdh is mrtainl^ reasonable, aoA 

stmotaoiL of the former patent bnildins on applioable witfaoat much diffionltf , tie. : that 

Deo. 16, 18S6. To Beonre the fanparta^^ m patent ahall not be defeated becaiiM the 

of the penona employed in the office, they are thuig was prerlooslj invented, nnleaa the pre- 

all pronibitBd from having or reoelTing 8117 in- TiooB inventor had done enongli to entitle him- 

tareatinanj'pflteutvhateTer, other thaa what aelf to a patent; and this -would imply that he 

raay some to utein by inheritance. L Who may had reduced the bveation bo distinctly into 

hateUttan pataUt The statnte i^v : "Any form, that a mechanic of reasonable skill mi^t, 

dtiieu or oibMns^alien or aliens having redded fhnn his description and without flirther inven- 

one year in the united Statea, and taken the (ion, make the thing patented. Again, it is no 

oath ofliiB or Uieir intention to become aintizen defeasance of a pat^t, that some one, claiming 

or citizena." They mnst be the InvenCorB or to be a previoos inventor, had commniuoateS 

diaeoTsran of the thing, and not merely intro- to the patentee BnggestionB or plans whicdi were 

dnoera of it into this ooontry. If the applioant in fitot the essential features of the thing patent- 

foT an American patent has already, as the in- ed, and abont whioh the rest had grown, pro- 

ventor thereof a ^tent for the same thing in a vided the patentee invented and first ap^ed 

foreign coualrj, lus patentwhrai taken oathere those needed aooessories and first oonstraDted 

wille^tieasBoonasitwonldifthedateofthe tbe irhcde thing. It is of no consequence 

Amariean patent were the same as that of the whettier the thing was disoovered by aoddent, 

previons fbrtngn patrat ; in other words, it la and at once, or was the result of long, carefhl, 

taken out for 11 years ftom the dat« of the fbr- and asaidnonB labor. Kor is it of moment 

eign patonL Nor can a patent issue in this whether the patentee discovered the whole 

oonnbyfbr an artiole patented abroad, if that thing and all its parte himself; for if some parte 

article has been introduced into common and are old and well known, and others suggested 

public use herepreviouB to the appliealdonforthe by different individuals, until perhaps there Is no 

patent It may be remarked, that it is a very one element newly discovered, yet if the whole, 

ocnmnon thins for an American inventor to take in its present form, oonstruotion, and action, 

out a patent In foreign ooontries, particniariy is new, and is the invention of the patentee, 

in England and France. If the inventor u that is quite snffldent. The patent would not 

dead, the patent may isme to his legal repre- be given, or if given it would be void, if the 

sentativee ; if he has assigned it, itmayissne to wiulcant, before his fq>plloation, has himself 

his aarigneea ; bnt none are his aadfftoea but abandrated the thinA to the pubho, which will 

they who reodvfl the whole of his interest. If bepreeomedif "it has beeoi, with his consent 

he naavM any part it cannot be issnad Joinfly and allowance, more than two years in public 

toMmandhisasdgnees; bnt if he has more than use or on sale." Bnt his own use of the thing 

one a«lgnee,it may isene to all the assignees previously will not prevent him from hariag a 

ii^tly. XL Wlutt may he the tiMaet i^patmtt valid pat^it. The statute says that Oie thing 
D the language of the statate, '' any new and must not be preriond}^ "known or used by 
naeAtl art, maohine, mano&cture, or oompon- others ;" but ft is held that this plnral word 
tion of matter, or anv new and uaefiil improve- haa also a singular meaning, and if it was 
mMitonanyart,madiine,mann&cture,orcom- known or used oy one other, the patent ia in- 
position of matter." ThN« is scarcely a word valid. 9, In regard to the word "useful," it is 
in this daseifotion that has not been oritidzed perhqw enong^ to say, that any degree <rf ntil- 
and disoDssed ag^n and again. 1. It must be Ity is aoffldent to satisfy the etatnte; and we 
oew. ^resomedlsHnotion qtpearstobemade soppoie that Tenr few patents are wilhhdd 
m regard to a previous knowledge when the menly becansa <s the inntillly of the thing to 
thing ia fordgn and when it is domeatJo. H be patented, If there be no other objeooon. 
what Isdaimedas new was distjiuitly known S. It haa been questioned what the word "man' 
to some person abroad, bnt was never patmited nfiuitore" covers. In England, what ia called 
thMevitor po^Q>'i^»oi'^'B'^°o*'7^BBoribedin the statute of moniHKilies (21 James I, oh. 8), 
tstj work, it is new oaoiwh to be patented which waa intmded and has operated to pre- 
here; bntlfitwaa preriont^distinctly known vent the aneientoppreselTe monopolies, perioits 
by any («e at hmne, it is not new in the sense letters pat«it (oikder which monopoUes had 
of the patent law, althom^ he who knew It fbtmerly been granted) still to issne for the 
m^ nerei have published it in any w^. It "workuWOrmakinRof any newmanuiaotures 
mnstberameinbered,however,aaaveryinQ)or- witUn this realm." It is nnder this statnte 
tant tide, that a mere previons coqjectoie, nip- that all letters patent are now issued in Eng- 
posithn, or oonoqitkiniB not enough to prevent land; and to enable them to cover all gnitable 
ordefoatapatent. It must have been deiSnitely oases, the wmd mann&otnree ia oonstrued to 
known end reduoed to form, or dirtlnotlymBnt mean everything in themakinf or preparinc 
fested in someway. Here thinking about It^ of whidimanmakeaany usaof nis hand,thtf 
or talkiiv aboirt it, is not enough to prevent a is. of phydcal power, in any way whatever, 
■nbeeqaent inventor fh>m getting ont a patent The meaning of the word by our adjudication 
The qoestion is: Was it previonsly deacribed Isnot quite bo broad, because onr statnte con- 
in wrWnir wHh drawings or models if they tains other words. There Is indeed scaroely 
f niere u some disposilim to any tUng which man can do, or invent, which 


will not ocnue Tinder ■ome of these v^nds; bnt lispe be oaOed imitatm bnt who tatttinlj 

it IB eometimeB iKoeeeaij to determine to wMoIi would nevet hftve done what tber ^d,.luid not 

olass Uie thing patented belongs. 4. A "ma- the tsj been op«ied &nd indicated b^ the ear- 

ohine" mnrt not be a mere fimctdon, or effect lier discoTerr. The diffeienoe between the old 

or operation, bnt it mnat tie a ftinotion clothed and the new ma^ to all appearanoe be \wy 

and embodied in meohaniam intended for and slight, and Tet be of ereat nnportance. Thu 

operative of a oerbdn effeot. If tblB effect is may be well illuBtratea hj the process of wa- 

new, the medumiam which prodnoos it may be tor- proofing cloths, as it was called. Many 

old or new. That is, the mTentor may have years ago some one found tliat cloths im- 

a patent for new meohimism by which ho pro- meraed in a solution of bo^ and alnm were 

daoes A new effect, or for mechanism no part made water-proof. Then a man took ont s 

of which is new, if the whole machine, as he patent for inunersing cloths first in a solation 

constmots it, prodnces an effect nnknown be- of alnm (with an ingredient or two added}, 

fore. It is to be rotnembered, however, that and afterward in a solntitni of soap; and this 

the mere using of an old machine to do a thing patent was sustained, beoaase it wsa proved 

which it had not been used for beibre, bat like that the immeraion into the separate solntaoziB 

what it had been used for, ia not the proper ancoeesivelr made the cloth moch mora com- 

sabject of a patent. Tfans, to use an illnstra- pletely and permanently water-prooC 9. An- 

tlon of this role given in one case, a man may other role, of very frequent appEcation, is that 

not obserre that a certain mUl grinds com and no toere prinoipla can be the snbjeot <^ a pst- 

beans very well, and then take ont a patant for ent; nor can any mere effect; nor can any 

it as a ooSbe mill beoanse he was the first that property of matter or mere quality or power 

ever thought to put that mill to that nse. Bnt or aotivit; of nature. All this oonstitntee bat 

he may have a patent for bis coffee mill, al- one rule; and this might perhaps be ezpressed 

thongh every thing in it has been need before, by saying that noUiing In the abstraot can be 

and uthongh something like it has been nsed the sulfject of a patent Any of these Ibinga, 

for some grinding, if the same thing baa not however. In the concrete, can be patented ; by 

been applied to do work of the same nature, this is meant any prindple or properlT whion 

In statmg, and in endeavoring to iUuBtratesudi is fixed and embodied m certain met^hanlsm, 

a rule as this, we are rendnded of a phrase which then, by means of this ^inei^ or 

Judge StOTT need often to apply to the patent power, produces a certain e&ect. But Uien it 

law. He called it " the metaphyBios of the is not so much the [oinupte or power in tbe 

law." Many of its distinctions are slight and mechanism which is E«tented, bnt the whole 

almost evanescent, and msny of its principles together; nor is the effect alone patented, but 

scarcely capable of distinot definition ; and yet tbe effect when produced by these means In 

these distinctions and princ^les are of very this way. The reasons of this rule are many, 

great practical importance. 0. Thus, where One is the almost inevitable indistinetneas 

the patent is not for any new maohuie, bnt which would attach to snch a patent. Another 

for "an improvement" in an old machine, is, that were ihe mle otherwise, things might 

which is a veryfreqnentsnbject of patents, the be appropriated and monopolised, which are !n 

qnastitot, whether n ia a lawfid improvement themselves nniveraal and the common property 

or a mere infiingementjis sometimes one of of all men. If a mere principle ia discovered, 

the utmost diffionlty. We must content our- even if It be of the utmost importance, enob for 

selves with saying, that if thla improvement example as the principle of gravitation, this 

oondsts in producing an old effect in a new takes its plaoe at once in soienoe. The disoov- 

way, the praotioal questions are : 1st. Is the erer cannot be repsid excepting by the homage 

effect prodiioed in a way which Is actually and rendered to one who has uud all mankind nn- 

■Qbatantially different from the old way t fbr der obligatdon, by givins to them new troth, 

otherwise tt is a mere repetition, and may be But either he or any otiber man mxy at once 

a mere devioe to avoid the old pat<ait. 2d. If devise and pnt in operation means by which 

the same thing be dona in a new w^, ia it done a new soientiflc tmUi or a newly diaoovered 

in a better way t ttecanse otherwise it is no im- principle is made to operate some practical 

provement Here, as was said of the ntility benefit. Then, as has been s^d, the princijple 

of an invention, the improvement need not be haa become a prooess. Then this principle with 

very great; and in general, if the thing be this mechaniran as its ingtrmnent, and a eutoin 

done really in a new way, a patent will nsoally result as its effect, form one Itdal entity, and 

be granted and protected, imlesB it seem to be Oiat is the subject of a patent But this patent 

a mere variation or change, of no valiie except- raves no exclusive right to use this print^e or 

ing hecante it may invafidate a former patent Uiis property, or to produce this effect Ibere- 

Tor scarcely any Uiing was ever Invented, or fore any one who finds out another usefol ap- 

perhapfl ever wul be, that doea not susgest at plication of tbe prindple or property, or other 

once a mnltitode of poeriUlities for doing the means by which it may produce this same 

same kind of thing; and it la tberafbre very e^ot, is also an inventor or discoverer of a 

rare for any new discovery of importance, new thing, for which he may have bis patcmt. 

whether soientifio or praotiniL not to be fol- Hence srises what may be oonaidered as the 

lowed np by a host of those who may sot per- third reason fbr the rnle above stated ; it ia. 



thskbntArtt Hie extent of ajHttent ml^t be epeeliJ form reqnired, but it must state dSstinot- 
ttummns and intolerable, "nie omier of ft If, although geaerallr, what he «onmders the 
nd^ Hj: "The vhole of that prinoiple or inventioa or d)eoov«i7 for wbidi be aaks a 
power ia mine, and tbat efibot la mine howerer patent ; bnt no mere mistake in the application 
prodnoed." But as the laer itanda, tbe pria- viQ vitiate tbe patent. 67 a role of the patent 
ctple or property ie his only so lar aa he baa office, no patent isanes for more than one m^- 
n*t«ied it to hia own maohlner7; and the ohfne,althoaG;h two or more maj be nsed joint- 
effect is bia only ao inr as he reaches it through I7; and in t£at case each maat be made the 
iastnanentB of his own invention. No man ean aabjeot of a separate patent, although the peti- 
motporo ezdndve propOTt? in the electric fluid, tioner may espreH his de^re for both in one 
nor ean he in ai^ <me of its propertdes or pow- application ; bnt it wonld be better in all re- 
en. Bo no man em become the owner of the speots to treat each machine, from tiie b^^- 
nm's light, nor of that aetlnio power by which iiW, as a separate thing, if it be so in &ct. 
^etatev are painted or impresBU. Bnthemay With the application he sends to the commis- 
devise any way of woridng wifli electridty, doner a spesifioatioii of his clum. There must 
and that tray auU be his; and so he may dis- be drawings attached and referred to if these 
oovaraiqrin^cHrmakfaigirfotareeorrepreBeu- are necessary to understand the Bpecifioation, 
tatioiisbyllght,aiidtiutways]soahBlI eelong and these shoidd be in dnplioate, that one oopy 
to the inventor. And then uiy other person may be rettuned in the patent offloe. Also a 
isatUbertrtodiBooTersomeotherwayCTaBlng model is required wherever that is the beat 
wtherof uwae foroes or qualities of nature. wayofinMtratlngthespeoifioation,8ndawork- 
Bnt me tiling ahraya remains ; and that is, ing model is preferable ; but no model shonld 
the watohftilneae of Oie lawto ^ard an hcpneet be more than one foot in length or height, on- 
pataitee from Invarion of his rights by a mere less by permission of the commissioner, which 
eoknable |wetext of a variotioD in the method ia never given but for apeclal reasoua. By the 
diaoovared by him of nnng a oertidn power in 11th section of the reoent statate, lettera patent 
aoert^nvay for aoertainend. Nobettermle maybe obtained for any new and ori^al de- 
eu be (ortai than that each patent holds all sl^ for a manafactore, or for a bust or baaa- 
that bMonga to its sabstanoe ; and any thing relief^ or composition In alto or baseo-rilievo, 
is an infringement whloh does not differ from or impreesioD or ornament to he placed on any 
it material^ and anbitantially. 7. The last article of menn&ctnre, or any new and nscM 
phrase naed in deaJgnating the niliject matters pattern or print or piotare to be fixed on any 
of patent, ii ** oompositton of matter." This article of mimn&ctare, or any new and original 
will leqmre taut little diaonssion. It is nsnally shape or oonflgoration of any article of mann- 
^[^lied to medidnea, and less frequently to faotnre. Tbe exact force and meaning of these 
oampodtioiis nsad in the arts, as for example phrases will not be known nntil they are de- 
allays tor the bearings of axles. Here it Is termined by adjudication. It may be added, 
obvions that the teat question must be, not that tbe same section provides that the patent 
^tettier tbe materials are new, bnt whether may issue on any of these things for 8^ years, 
tJiaemnbinaikmianew. Hence an ai^tHcant for 7years, or 11 years, as the applicant may 
a patent fiv ft new oomposition of matter may choose; the fee in each case being respeo- 
Qse varionaittgredienta, and declare that one aa lively flO, tl&i or $80, and to all foreigners 
vdl as the omer will answer Us parpoee, pro- $800. Money should be deposited with some 
Tided that the eomblnatioiL whatever be used, aaaistant treasurer, and his certificate taken 
has in it the efement 4rf unity, ao for that It is in duplicate, one oopy to be sent on; or the 
one in its pnnfoae and ita effeet. 8. By a more money may be sent through the mul. Theap- 
reoBDt aet (ISti) another class of ol^eots may plications received are exambed in the order 
be tlie sabjeot of a patent, viz. : destgns for m which they come, nnleaa some one is taken 
mann&etorea of any kind. Some of these np ont of its turn for special reasons. If the 
mi^t seem to be more properly within the oloim be allowed, a patent will issue and be 
scope of the law of oopynght. Bnt for any sent acoordbg to the direction of the pat- 
dodgn, or pattern, or drawing, or print, or entee. If it be r^ected, the daimaute will 
ptetare, whfeh is intended not to have vahie always he fomiahed by tbe oommlasioner with 
bf ttseJC bnt to he used in the mannfaotnre liie reasons for rejection, and with such refer- 
(^aanuuingelae^or to be fiwtened in any way enoes to former patents, or other similar means 
to mne orttele of mamiihctare, and be sold of information, as will enable the daimaut to 
wtth it, 1i» hiventor may have letters patent, jndge of the sufficiency of the groands of re- 
m. mts Ltttgn FMmt may 6a obtafMi. 1. jeotion and of the probability of a soooesafiil 
The fint st^ is an Mtplloatlon. This most be appeal S. It sometimes happens that two or 
in writing, addressed to the oommiBsioneT of more persons claim each to be the first invait> 
patsQts, ioA a^ned by the orighial inventor, or of the same thing. Then tbe commisdoner 
Xven if he baive assigned the invention, and declares a case of " iDterferenoe" to exist, and 
the patod is to be nude out in the name of after due notice to the parties, they are heard 
the assignee, the application must be signed by in support of their several claims. This may 
the inrentor. If he be deed, it moat be signed huipen althongh one of the oltdmonta baa re- 
bjr his exeontor or administrator. There is no oeived a patent at some Msaa before ; for tlie 


82 FAraHTS 

oommiaaioner, if he comes to the oonolnrfoa apeoifliMtioii, and needs time fivexperlBiaiding, 

that the seoond claimant has a better right, or or otlkerpiirposeB. Henutrfileaoawa^wbioit 
an equal ri^t, will give him also apftteut, and will be plac«d in the eeoretarohivee of uie pat- 
leave the two to determine bf legal meas- ent ofBce; and if then be any ' q>plicaticai 
Dies whioh is valid. 8. In all the qneetiona within a jear for any thing which appears to 
which thaa come before the oommiaaioner, interfere with bis daim, be shall have notice 
or the examinera, on tbe qnestion of grant- and may appear and prove prioritj ; and b j 
ing a patent, or before an; comt anbseqnently pa}dng a eeoond caveat fee (f 20), he may re- 
in a suit for in&ingement of tlie patent, the new it for another year, and soon enooeanvdy. 
^eoification is of the ntmoet importance. It is to be notdoed, however, that a caveat oan- 
Upon its clearness, its aocnracy, ite exactness not be filed hy an alien, anises he has redded 
in defining its claim and in olMming what in the United States one year, and has made 
ahonld be claimed and nothing more, a very oath of his intention to beo«Hne a citizen, acy 
large proportion of the cases tried depend, cording to law. Even where caveats are not 
'Hie pointa to be observed are those indicated taken oot, all pending applications are regard- 
in the 6th seoUon of thestatnte of ISSQ. They ed as so for confldenual, that, nntil after a pot- 
are in snbstance : 1st, that the description ent is issued, no information will be given to 
shall be so foil, clear, and exact, vrithont any one bnt the claimant respecling the eziat- 
prolizitf, as to enable any person skilled in the enco of any application, or any qnestions whidb 
art or sdence to which the thing belongs or ma^ have arisen in rel^on to it 6. To guard 
with wbidi it is connected, to make and use agEUnst deceptkin of the pnblio as to what ia- 
the same ; 2d, that the principle shall be fully ventions are protected by potent, any person 
eiploined, " and the sevU'Bl modes in whitik who shall, in any way whatever, pnt any word 
he has contemplated the wplicatiou of that or remark upon a thing not patented wUeh 
principle or character bj which it may be dia- shall indicate that it is the enbjeot of a pat- 
tingnished firom other inventions;" and Sd, he ent, or put upon it the name of any patentee 
most spociiy and point ont the ^arL the im- withont his consent, or, if it be ^wtented, fiiil 
prorement, or the combination which he claims to etamp or engrave on the article the Caot 
as his own. This last reqaireiiLeat is so im- and dat« of the patent, is liable to a heavypen- 
portant, that it has given the name of " spetdfl- alty. 6. The terms of patents for dedgus m^ 
cation" to the whole description. All this may be extended for 7 years from ihear expiration. 
seem, to those who liave not tried it, very Formerly the terms of all patents might be ez- 
easT; bnt nothing is more difficult. Uistakee tended under certain reetaiotions, and thenja 
of importance are not nnfreqnently made by and provimona on this snl^eot were minnte and 
those who are trained to this work, and who complicated. It waa thonght, however, that 
make it their special busineaa ; and it can very they did not snfElce to prevent mischief trota 
seldom, if ever, be safe for any cUimant to improper extensions, or from favoritim or 
draw his own specification, nnleaa he has large mist^e in discriminating between iqipUoanIs 
experience in work of this kind. Mistakes are for ezt«nBion. and by the patent law of Uart^ 
not BO fatal now as they were formerly, be- 1861, the whole law of extension, with tJie 
cause recent legislation has interposed, wisely above named exoeption, was abolished as to 
as well as kindly, to assist the pstentee. If a patents thereafter granted; but the proviacma 
patent b void by reason of a defective spe<Hfl- of the preceding law as to extension would 
cation, or becanse the patentee claimed as his seem to remain in force as to all patenta pro- 
own mventian more tnan he had a right to vionsly granted. IV. Sightt and £emedia ^ 
daim as new, be may surrender his patent to PatmUtt. So long as the patent remaiua in 
the commisaioner, and file with liim a new and fbrce, it ^ves to the patentee an ^clndve ri^t 
corrected Bpeoificotion, and the commismoner to "m^e, use, and sell" the thing patented, 
may therenpon isane to him a new patent. Or, Whoever infringes on tliis right Is liable in 
by a still later provision, the patentee may damagea, and the infringement m^ he stopped 
make a disclumer in writuig of sach parts of by iqjnnction. "We will consider first wlutt 
tbe thing patented as be sliall not wish to is an infringement of a patent, and then what 
ol^m ; and this disclaimer, being dn^ received are the remedies £<x an mflingament. 1. "Om 
and recorded, shall have the same effect as if it statute contains no deflnition; bnt It haa been 
had been origmaUy a part of snch spocifica- well sud, that aa infringement exiata when 
tion. Even without anoh surrender or dis- a copy is made igreeingirith the prindple and 
daimer, a patent may still be sastained by the action laid down in the apedfioation. Infiinge- 
conrt, &r any material and dJetingaishable ments therefore maj be of as many kinda as 
part for whioh the daun was valid, althoogh patents are. Feriiqw it is impossible to give 
there are other parta of the dum to which t£e rulea and deflnitiona which ehall meet all this 
patentee is not entitled ; bnt he tun recover no variety of cases and be of mnoh nse in deter- 
costa for the infringement of snch a patent mining the qneetioa of infringemanL It is 
withont surrender or disclaimer. 4. There is certain, however, that a patentee is seldom 
a very wise provision to meet the frequent case permitted to call that an mlringem«nt which 
where an inventor wishes to secure nis right, imitates nothing that is direotly and explidtly 
bnt is not ready to present a Ml and complete stated in the spedfioation. Forif thepatudee 



did Dot know this or h^n H in hia mind, ho local rif^ta nnder ft pat«nt. Thus, ft man bfts 
oannot claim it as hIa; and if iie knew it and a ri^t for the ooontf of Hamilton to make 
did not state it, whether through nef^igenc« or and sell oertain patent bedsteads; another man 
design, ho has f^ed to laj the foundation of has a similaT right for the a^J^'^K county of 
his oxeliifli*e right, becsose he has not placed on Dearborn. The first man soils a large quantit j 
record a ftill, dear, and exptioit description to a pnrohaser, who ttiteB them into Deartwm 
of hia invention. Perhaps the difdoalty at- and ondersells the person having the ri^t for 
tandins this law of infringetnent, and the prin- that oonnt?. It seems now to be determined 
dptaa inroked to dispose of it, ma^ be wiell that this is not,an infringement or nnlawAil in- 
illnstrated b^referenoe to areoent English case terference ; and the supreme conrt of the United 
which has gone through the oonrts there and States have gone even further than this, and 
been the snbjeot of mnoh disonadon. One have decided that an/ one who has an ezcln- 
Heath invented and patented au important im- eive ri^ht to a patented machine within a cer* 
proveaieat tn making steel Thia inventioa t^ district, cannot use that machine ont of 
ctHuiated in putting into a orndble with pieces Utat district, but that he ma; sell an jwhera 
at iron oarhnret of manganese, and ezpodng the prodnctemade under the patent within that 
the mistare to intense heat But carburet of distinct. 4. Interesting questions have arisen 
minganeae is a verj expensive ohemioal prod- as to the right of rraair. If one biiTS a pat- 
net; and one Unwin discovered that b; pnt- ented machme, and it wears ont, ha oannot 
ting into the cmoible with the iron orida of make another under pret^ioe of repairing that 
manganeae and coal tar, the intense heat to which he bought ; but he may prolong its ex* 
wliioh tbej were ezpoaed mode a carburet of istence and ntifity by mere repair as long as he 
manganeae in the cmoible, which then operated can. If he repurs this part to-day, and that 
on ^e iron in the same wsj as if thu com- to-morrow, ana in ever; repair makes some 
pound had been pnt there at the be^nning; and renewal, tmtdl at lost no part of the original 
as oxide of manganese and coal tar are vwy machine is left, wa donbt whether the law 
cheq>, Unwin's war was likely to supersede wotdd interfere, if each repair hod been made 
Healli'a, who bronght an action for damagea. at the time in good fiuth, aa repair and not as 
The ease waa tried befbre Mr. Justice Oress- renewal 6. It remains to treat only of the 
well, who mled that there was no infringement remedy in case of infringement The statute 
It waa than argued btfore 6 Jndges in the ei- ofI8&6providesthatdamuesmaybe recovered 
chequer <ihamber,S of whom agreed with Orees- by "an action on the case;" which ri^ht would 
weli, vid the other 4 hdd that there was an exist equally at common law. But this remedy 
infiing«nent The case was then taken to the would often be wholly inadequate, were it not 
house of lords, and the Jndgea of England were for the further and more effectual remedy pro- 
roqnested to give their o[^on to the lords ; vided bv the principle of eqmtable Jurisprc- 
and after org^nent, 7 judges gave their opinion deno^ that wherever a legal right eiiata, and 
that there was on infringement, and 4 jndgea this right is invaded or violated, and Uie dam* 
gave tiieirs that there was no infringement. At ages recoverable are an ins&fficient remedy, 
Mogtii tlie qaeetion was finally deoidad by the conrta of equity will grant an injunction against 
Iorais,tluiittherewasnoiiiJringement; thuBover- the offender and so prevent a repetition of the 
rulmg the tn^ritiee of two asBemblagea of the ofitoioe. But this great remedy will not be 
Jn^ea of En^and. The prindpal reason for granted nnless the court can see that it ia ne- 
hol£iig that there was an infilngement was, ceesory to prevent farther violation of right 
that the thing potttotedwaa improving steel by and vexations and inanffident litigation. And 
mi^ng carbni^ of manganese in the cmoible if this injonotiou or prohibition agdnst a repe- 
with U, and it was wholly immaterial whether tilioQ of the offence be diare^arded, the offender 
thia oomponnd was made ont of or in the cm- will be punished by imprisonment, or such 
cUtle ; while the prinoijttl reason for holding other p^al^ aa will, in the Judgment of the 
that tiiere was no infhngement was, that the court, compel obedience. Generally, an is- 
thing pat«ited wss the putting a certain com- Junction wul not be granted until the plaintiff's 
pound into the cmdble with iron, and thereby rights and the defiuidant's wrong doing have 
producing the effect, whereas Unw^n put been established in an action at law. But when 
wbcdly ufibrent materials into the crucible, the infringement ie certain, a court of eqnity 
ihd thui, by means of a double eleotrio affiu- will proceed at onoe ; and not unfrequently, on 
itf and rhamif-al action, they produced their petition of the patentee, they direct a trial at 
effect B. Aa to infringement by the sole of law, and order the defendant to keep on exact 
the thing patented, it must be a sale of the account of all that he makes or sells in sup- 
whole tUng, and not of the different parts or posed Inftingement of the patent to be ren- 
msfawials out of which it may be made. Yet dered if the trial resolta in establishing the 
no ensitm of a patent right would be permit- infringement — The commisamier of patents 
ted, merely by selliug a part at one lime, and makes a yearly report to the secretary of die 
to <Hi« person, uid other ports to others, with interior, which, with its accompanying doou- 
Um intent that theyshoold be put tf^ther and ments, is published at government ezpenee; 
ID make the whole machine. 8. A curious these oonstitate in some degree the records of 
foestion hoe arisen as to tiie Interference of the office. The whole nomber of patents grant- 

VOL. xni.- 



«d by the T7. S. gonenuneiit up to Maroh 18, plored an average of 720 hands at an expenaa 
I8dl, vas 81,670. In the jesra from 1840 to of $24,000 a month, and tamed out, bemde m 
1B4B the average of applications for patenta large qiiantitr of cotton and other mschinerj, 
wasl,000; the average of patents granted waa 60 looomotiTea ; total production, |76S,00O. 
660. For the siicceedisg 7 years the average The estBhlishment of Danforth, Oooke, and co_ 
of E^phoations was 8,800, and the average of coital $800,000, employed 640 handa and pro- 
patents granted was 1,760. In 1668 the nnmber dnced to the value of $688,000, inclnding 8S 
of patents granted was 8,710 ; in 16S9, 4,888 ; locomotives. There are 7 other machine ^opa 
and in 1860, 4,819. Daring B jears of its ad- of some extent, with an a^regate c^iul of 
ministration the ^penditoree of the patent $190,000 and an annn&l prodnction of $344,- 
ofBoe have been greater than the receipts; bnt 613, and a mannfaotory of stationary Bt«am 
at all other times the receipts were consider- en^es, capital $40,000, producing $96,00a 
ably in excess of eipenditnrea. There is now The paper mill of H. V. Butler and co. oocn- 
(Maroh, 1861) in the treaanry of the patent pies a fine building, and, with a capital fd 
office $89,000.— The conunissionerB of patents |SO0,000, mann&ctures to the value of $289,- 
in Great Britain have printed in several hnn- 000. Among others are 4 silk mannfactories, 
dred 4to. volumes (1868--'S) the specificatlona aggregate capital $168,000, prodacing $846,- 
of all the pat«nt« granted in that country np 000 ; 1 Sax and hemp, capital $300,000, pro- 
to 1862, amounting to about 18,000, withlitho- dnoing $140,000; a printjng, dyeing, and bleoch- 
grwhed plates in separate folio volumes. ing ostabiishment, capital $200,000, producing 

FATEBOULUS, Oi.irBYxu.KmB, a RoniaQ |180,000; and a wick and twine factory, coital 
historian, bomaboutl9 B. 0. Hewasdescend- $40,000, producing $7G,600. Beeide the conn- 
ed from on ancient Oantpanian family. Eisfa- if offices, there are an academy, a bank, S 
ther was prefect of cavalry, ahd the son, early newspaper offices, a mechanics' and a pbiloeo- 
entering military life, attended 0. Ctesor, the phicalHOtuety, and 16 churches, viz. : aButiBt, 
grandson of Angnstna, in his eastern ezpedi- 1 colored Congregational, 1 Episcopal, 1 Inde- 
tionin A. D. 2, and subsequently served under pendent, ^HeuiodiHt, 9Freshytetian,8ItefiHin- 
Tiberius in Germany, Pannonia, and Dalmatia. ed I>utch, and 2 Roman Oauiolio. The town 
Li 8 he became qunstor, had a share in the was founded in 1791 by a nann&otnring com- 
triumphalprooeadonofthe emperor in 13, and pany with a capital of $1,000,000. 
was elected prffitor in 14. He had early gained FATERSON, Willuv, founder of the bank 
Uie good will of Tiberius, and of his &vorit« of England, and of the Scottiah colony of Da- 
Sejanns, and it has been conjectured that he rien, bom according to tradition in Skifanyre, 
vaa executed in 81 with the latter and his Tinwald parish, Bumfriesshire, in the spring of 
friends, altboogh nothing certain is known of 1661!, died in Jan. 1719. He was originally 
his death. His reputation rests upon his Ro- destined for the Presbyterian ministry, and U 
man histo^, which appears to have been writ- said to have been among the Covenanters per- 
ten in A. D. 80, and goes under the title of O. secnted by Charles IL To escape from these 
Vdlaii Pat«reult HUtoria BomaaUB, ad M. persecudonshewent to London in the capacity 
Fintoium Cot, Libri II. The manuscript was of a merchant, and also visited America, where 
discovered in the monastery of Uurbach in Al- he acquired &om the buccaneers much infor- 
aace by Beatus Rhenanua, who printed it at motion in regard to the Bpauish main, of wbidi 
Basel hi 1620. he subsequently made great use in connectim 

PATEBSON, the ci^ital of Passaic co., N. J., with the Itarien ei^etUtion. It is a question 
on the Paasuc river, near the &lls, and on the whether he was crmiinally conoemea io the 
Morris canal and Nev York and EMe railroad, vident courses of these marauders, bnt the 
17 ra. N. v. from New York ; pop. in 1860, probabilities are that he was not. In 1692 he 
19,618. It is a well bnilt city with paved was a merchant in London, as is evident from 
streets, generally wide and straight and lighted a lease authorizing him and two others to con- 
with gas, and contains a large number of hand- stractthe Hempstead waterworks. About this 
some private residences. The falls supply time he made proposals in r^ard to foundins 
power to many &ctories, several of which oo- a bank of England, and a tract entitled " A 
onpy extensive stone buildings. There are 8 Brief Account of the intended Bank of Eng- 
largecotton mills, having on aggregate capital land," isaupposed to have beenwrittenbyhim. 
of $S96,000, and producing annniJly to the He was one of the first directors of the insti- 
valne of $762,961, principally cotton yam. totion, but for some cause redgned. He hod 
Of these, the Paterson mam^octnring com- long before conceived the project of founding 
pany and the Fbcenix manufacturing company " a free commonwealth in DarieD," and after 
make large quantitiee of cotton duck, the for- several unsuccessful efforts to have his scheme 
mer to the annual value of $116,000. Fater- adopted by England and by other states, it waa 
son is specially noted for its eitendve machine finally sanctioned by a Scottish act of par- 
shops and steam-engine manufactories, and is liament in 169G conatitnting the Darien corn- 
stated \a make at least half the locomotives pany. (See Dabiek, Oolosy of.) After the 
constmcted in the United States. The Rogers niluro of the expedition, whioh would proba- 
locomotive and machine works have a capital biy have been sucoessfol if his advice had been 
of $800,000 ; dnrisg the year 1860 they em- followed, he retomed to En^and and devised 



a new plan for the colony ; but the unexpected of rienmiing, the prindpal mhiuter of Aagiutaa 
death of King William, over irhom he had II., and haTing moreover, during a missioii to 
great influence, destroyed all possibility of re- Bnssia, won the favor of Fet«r the Great, he 
riving the project. He was an able advocate accepted from the ozar the rank of general and 
of the anion of England and Scotland, and the office of Bnsdan ambassador to Dresden, 
when the treaty to tiat effect was passed, an This conduct roused the diapleasnre of Aogos- 
iudemmty was lecommended to be given him tna IL, who, notwithstanding Patkol's offlotal 
on account of the losses he had snfTered in the character and the risk of endangering his 
Dorien expedition, and ofhis" carrying on other friendly intercourse with the cstr, cansed lum 
matters of a pnblio nature, mnch to his conn- to be arTest«d in I'TOS. When afterward An- 
try's service," Bnt it was not till the reign of gnatns, defeated by Ohorles XII., was obliged 
George I., and after a long stra^le with the to abdicate his Polish throne, one of the con- 
goremment for t^e settlement of his claims, ditions of peace imposed npon him was the 
that it was paid. PatereonwaainlTOSamem- surrender of Patknl- Augustus gave secret 
ber of parliament for Damfriesshire. The last orders that his prisoner should be Buffered to 
years ofhis life were spent in Westminater. escape, but they were not obeyed. ByOharlee'B 
He was an early and zealous advocate of the command, Patknl was taken to the convent of 
principles of free trade, was a decided oppo- Karimierz and condemned to death by a court 
nent of the schemes of John Law, and in all martiaL He was first broken on the wheel, 
matters of trade and finance his ideas seem to and then, while still living, carried to the seaf- 
have been far beyond the times in which he fold, where he was beheaded. His eorpse was 
lived. (See Bannister's " William Paterson, then quartered and put on Mia wheel again. 
the Sferchant Statesman, and Founder of the When Augustus II. was replaced on the throne 
Bank rf England, his Life and Trials," Edin- of Poland, he cansed the remains of Patknl to 
bni^, 1SS8.) Ss works, which are nnmerons. be collected and buried at Warsaw. 
have been lately collected under the title of PATMOEE, Oovhttbi, an English poet, 
" The Wridngs of William Paterson, with a Bio- bom !n Woodford, Essex, Jnly S8, 1838. He 
graphical Introduction" (8 vols.Svo., 1868). is the son of P. Q, Patmore, a man of much 
FATKUL, JoHAHy REraHOLD, alivonianno- literary industry in the early part of the 19A 
bleman, bom in a prison at Stockholm abont oentuiy, and commenced his career by the 
I660,eiecntedatKaz!mierz,nearPoBen,Oct, 10, publication of a volnme of poems which at- 
1707. Livonia being then a province of Sweden, tracted little notice. It was snooeeded in 1808 
hefirstservedasacaptainintheSvedishamiy. by "Tamerton Oburch Tower and other Po- 
In 1689 he was one of a deputation of noble- ems," and in 18SS by his most popular poem, 
men sent to Charles SI. to remonstrate against "The Angel In the House," In two parts, the 
the encroachments of the royal officers npon first entitled "The Betrothal" and the second 
the rights and privileges of Livonia; and al- "The Effpoosals." His last work, "Faithftil 
though among the youngest, ho was chosen for Ever" (London, 1860), a sort of pre-Ra- 
Epokeaman, and addressed the king with par- phaelite attempt to give a poetic interest to the 
ticular energy. Three years later, iu the ca- commonplace incidents of life, has been ee- 
padty of a deputy ftom his fellow nobles, he verely criticized by the leading literary period- 
remonstrated strongly with the Swedish gov- icalsofQreat Britain, but has met with a warm 
emor at Riga, and addressed an elognent letter eulogist in Ur. Rnakin. Ur. Patmore is also a 
to the king. Having participated in other pa- contributor to the " Edinburgh Review." Since 
triotic manifestations, Patknl, in connection 1843 he has been one of the assistant librarians 
with the marshal and members of the Livouian of the British mnsenm. 

diet, was summoned to Stockholm. Procuring PATMOS, or as it is now called Fatuo, an 

a eafe-oondnct, he obeyed the smnmona, but island of the group called tlie Sporadea In the 

soon Jndged it necessary to fiee to Oonrland ; Grecian archipelago, 20 m. S. <^ tne W. extrem- 

and a few weeks after his escape he was con- ity of Samos, and abont tlie same distance W. 

demaed to be beheaded as a rebel, his property of the coast of Aria Unor. It oonsista of an ir- 

was confiscated, and his writings were bamed regular mass of barren rock 38 m. in oiroum- 

by the executioner. Being no longer safe in ference, and in the time of the Roman emperors 

Conrland, he retired to the canton of Vand, was used as a place of baoishjnent. It was to 

Switzerland, where he engaged inscientifiopur- this Island that St. John the apostle was exiled 

suits, and afterward visited France. In 1668, by the emperor Domitian, A. D. 95 ; and here, 

after tbe accession of Oharles XIL, he sued according to tuuversal tradition, he wrote the 

for pardon ; but his petition being r^ected, he Apocalypse, and perhaps his Qospel also. On 

entered the service (n Qie elector Angnstus II. the side of ahiH acavem is pointed out bytiie 

of Saiony, king of Poland, who appointed him Greek monks, who have a monastery in the vl- 

one of his privy council. He participated ao- oinity,aB theexactspot wheretheevangelistre- 

tively in the coalition between nis new master, ceived tbe revelation, and through sDmeflssurea 

the king of Denmark, and the czar of Russia in the roof he ia said te have heard the " votoa 

against Ohailee XH., and at different times en- from heaven like the sound of a trumpet." The 

teavored to ronse Livonia against the Swedish monastery, built by Uie Byzantine emperors 

rule. Disutiafiedwitii the overbearing manners in the IStn oentury, is under the patronage of 



**8t. ^ohn the DiTine," and inhabited hj aboot at SOO of flielr canatrjiaea wbo vera ennOj 

60 monks, sabject to the patriarch of Con- murdered bj the nabob a few montba before 

rt&ntinople. On the E. mde of the iBland there his defeat 

b a small Tillage and a good porL The island FATOOK. or Fatuoa, a river of Hondnraa, 
is Bol^ect to Uie Tnris, bat the inhobitantB, fiilHiig into tne b^ of Honduras, about 110 m. 
4,000 in number, are all Greeks. They subast Kof the portof Tnudllo. It rises in the heart 
cnieflj b; agricnltnral labor on the mainland of the department of Olanoho, in the vicinity 
or the more fertile ialanda, migratiiig for llie of the cit; of Jutdcalpa, and is formed by the 
pnrp<»e every Bommer. jnnotion of the rivers Jalan, Tinto, tinayape, 
PATNA, a dlfltriot of British India, in the and Ouallambre, all celebrated for their gold 
Uentenant-govwrnorshipof Bengal, boonded by TashingB. Through the ooast allDvions, for a 
Qio distriots of Banm,Tirhoot, MoDKhyr, ShiT- distance of 60 m., it is a deep and navigable 
hahad, and Bahar, extending from lat. 2S° 8' stream ; but above that point it is interrapted 
to 25° S8' K*., and long. 64° 4£' to 8Q° 10' K ; by nonieroas ruids, and among them what is 
area, 1,828 sq. m. ; pop. 1,200,000. Bedde the called the Portal del Inflemo, a deep and nar- 
o^iital, of the same name, the chief towns are row chaam, through which the river rushes 
Dmapore, a large military station, and Phatn- with irresistible force. The principal moutJi 
ka. The Gauges flows along its N. frontier, of the Patook opens directly into the sea, and 
and the river 8one forms the "W. and N. W. is obstructed by a bad and shifljng bar, with 
boundary and b navigable for a considora- only from 8 to 10 feet of water. The second 
ble distance. There are many smaller streams, mouth of the Patook opens into Bros or Brew- 
aud during the rainy season uie provinee is in- er's lagoon, bnt will not admit vessels of mora 
terseoted by water courses in every direction, than 6 feet draft. The total lensth of the 
It is fertile and highly cultivated. The climate is riveris about IGO m., and it afforda the best 
very hot in sonuner. The growth of the white means of communication with the large and 
poppy, from which opium ia made, is a monop- rich department of Olanoho. 
oly rented to the Patna opiom company by the PATRAS, Patbasso, or Bixubaxda (anc. 
govemmeuL About 6,S00,000 lbs. of poppy Patr(g), a fortified seqiort town of Greece, in 
Jnioe are annnally nwnnfactnred, yielding a the N. W, part of the Uorea, on the golf of 
revenue of £8,G0O 000. The East India rail- the same name, capital of the prefecture of 
way passes tbrougn the province. Patna was Achtua and Elis ; pop. abont 8,000. It is ritn- 
indaded under the grant of Bengal, Bahar, and ated partly on aspurof Ht. Yoidhio, on which 
Orissa, made by Shah Almn to the T^-ngliah in stood the ancient town, and prinoipally on the 
1?66. It was the scene of some of the most level plain below it The streets are broad 
memorable events in the great mutiny of 1867, and atraiffht, intersecting one another at right 
every part of the district except the capital an^es; tne houses are mostly of one story, 
havingbeenforalongtimein the hands of the bemg bnilt low as the best secnrity aaainst 
iusi)rgeat& — Patna, the o^ital of the above de- earthquakes. The most important public bnild- 
scribed district and of the province of Bahar, ing la the castle, which ia situated on the site 
iasitnated on the right bank of the Ganges, 800 of the ancient acropolis. Patrasis the principal 
m.N.W.&omOaloutta; pop.2B4,182. Theclty seat of theforeign tradeiu tbeM(n«a. Porthe 
proper, or fort, is of rectangnlar form, but- protection of the harbor, which is unsafe and 
rounded by a wall which extends about li m. exposed to heavy seas, a mole has been con- 
along the bank of the river, and i m. inland, etmct^d. — ^The ancient city was founded by 
The snbnrbe are very extensive, and stretch the loniana, from whom it was wrested by 
about 7i m. along the Ganges. The principal Uie Achseana under Patreus ; from him the city 
t^oronghfitre, parallel to the Hvor, is wide, received its name of Patre. During the Pelo- 
though neither straight nor regular ; and Uie ponneaian war it alone of the Aohsan towns 
other streets and lanes ara narrow and crook- embraced the side of the Athenians. In 410 
ed. Borne of the houses are built of brick, B. 0. Aloibiades persuaded the inhabitants to 
and have flat roo& and balconies ; but many join tho city and port by a long walL It was 
of them ara made of mnd, and covered with a member of the Achnan lesgne, and during 
tiles and thatch. Thera are several Uoham- ^e war between the Aohnana and Bomaus it 
medan mosques, but they ara regarded with suffered extremely, and beoame an instgnifleant 
little raverence, and most of them are now town. In tliat condition it remuned until the 
Dsed as wnrebouses. There is a school where rdgn of Augustus, who selected it as one of 
tbe 'RrigH't' language and literature, history, the two Koman colonies estabUshed tm the 
and mathematics ore tanght The mannfac- W. ooast of Greece. It was destroyed by an 
tores of Patna are not very important; and the earthquake in the 6th century; enbsequently 
ohief trade is in opium, rioo, indigo, wheat, and it was a dnkedom of the Byzantine empire ; 
Bt^ar. A great deal of traffic ia carried on was sold to the Venetians in 1408 ; was taken 
npon Uie Ganges, and Patna is a station on the by the Turks In 1446, was after a vigorous de' 
l!wt India ndlway. Patna was taken by the fenoe retaken by Andrea Doria in 168S, and 
British in 1764, when they defeated the troops agtia recovered by the Turks, in whose hands 
of the nabob of Bengal under its walls. A it rem^ed ontdl the Greek revolntion. It 
monument is erected in the city to the memory was the first dty to raise the standard of re- 


. i garriBon, which oapitnlatod ii , . „ _, . 

o a Trench force. — The galf of Patras liee b&- np its obligations and privilegefl ; and n 
tweeD jBtoIia and the HT W. ooast of the Mo- ter how wealthy he was, a plebeian ooald not 
r«a, and between the golf of I^anto on the K. become a patrician except m accordance wiUt 
■ad the Ionian sea on the w. Ita greatest the let euriata, and thia was rarely tbe case, 
lenfftb ii 80 m., ita greatest breadth 14 m. Iti At the end of the repabtio the number of Mk 
uftrigadon ia difficolt, aod daring the whiter trician families had diminished to about DO, 
montlis Bometimea dangeronB. and both Jnlina Ossar end Aogiurtas and tho 
PATBIABCE (Qr. warpiapms, chief of a sncoeeding emperors found it neccsaarj to ruse 
race), a title applied to tbe &Uien or heads of plebeians to tbe patrician rank. The long 
geoenaiona mentioned br the sacred writers struggle in which the plebeians were engaged 
from Adam to Jacob. After the destmctioa for the possession of their political rights ro- 
of Jerusalem it waa the title of tbe chief rell- anlted in their complete victory, only a fnr 
gioas mlers of the Jews in Ajia : and in early insignificant offices being retained by tJie pa> 
Ohrifltian times it became the dedgnation of tricians. The formation of the new aristocracy, 
certain Inahops who exercised siq>erior juris- founded npon wealth and upon the holding of 
diction. Theae were the tiisbopa (MF tlie 5 chief the offices of consul, pretor, and onrole naile, 
di<iceMB of Rome, Oonstantino^e, Alexandria, rendered the old patridan ftmiliea of still less 
Antioob, and Jerusalem, Oertain other bishops aowtmt During tlie empire tiie Boman dtl- 
were likewise termed patriarcha in course of zens were divided into the two classes of pofm- 
time, eapedallr those of newly converted na- bit and patrieii. At the acoesnon of Oonstan- 
tions. in modem times patriarchs have Jnria- line the patrician funilies had almost entirely 
diction over aH the bishops and metropoutans died out, and that monarch made it a personal 
or arohbiahops of their patriarohatea, but their title instead of a hereditary distinction. It 
anthorityextendalittlebeyondtherightof con- was grantfid to all, without regard to birth, 
vokingoonncala and exercising a general watch- who Itad made themselves eminent by their 
tolnesa over the conduct of thdr subordinate servioee to the empire or tbe emperors. With 
prelates. The patriarchs at preeent in com- the exception of the consuls, they oonstitnted 
monion with the see of Rome are those of the highest rank in the state. Those members 
Constantinople, Alexandria, Antiooh, Jerusa- of the patrician body who were in actual ser- 
lem, the East Indies, Tenloe, and Lisbon, beside vice, as nsnally most of them were, went under 
those of the Helchites, Jbronitea, and Syrians tbe name of patrieii praaentaUt; the others 
at Antioch, Armenians in Oifitua, and Nestori* were called patrieii ccdicUlarei or ?Umorarii, 
ana (Ohaldeons) nominally at Babylon. In the Thia distinctioa was conferred by most em- 
orthodox Greek church the title of patriarch is perore with much caution^ but some granted it 
attached to tbe se« of Oonstautinople, Alex- even to eunnohs. It was also conferred at times 
andria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, and various on foreign princes ; and the governor of Ba- 
Ohristian sects of the East have patriarchs. venna, who exercised the power of a soprenie 
PATRICIANS (Lat. palrieiiytrom pater, a ma^strato, was styled indifferently exarch or 
father), the name given by the Romans to the patrician. After die loss of Italy, the Romans 
members and descendants, by blood or adop- conferred this title on their rulers and proteot- 
tion, of the ori^nal bouses of which the popw- ors, such as Oharles Uartel and hia desoend- 
Ua Bomanat WM wholly composed unt^ the ants ; and in this capacity Henry IV. claimed 
establishment of the plebeian order. They the right to depose Pope Gregory VII. Dur- 
were at first divided into tbe tribes of Bamnen- ing the middle agea ftmiliea entiUed patridan 
ses, ntienses, and Luoerenses, each tribe con- sprang np in many of the cities. In Venice 
sisting of 10 carim, and each curia of 10 genUt, members of the great oonncU and their de- 
' 1 regard to representation and war of 10 scendanta were called patricians. After 1297 
ria. The gmt, all the members of which no person was created patrician, but all de- 
bore the same gentile name, sent its leader to soendants of those who had belonged to that 
the senate. Originally the two tribes of Ram- body became members by right at tbe age of 
neusss and 'Hlienses mioj^ exolumve pt^tioal 9S. In Rome, Genoa, and other cities of Italy, 
privileges, bnt die Etnucan tribe of Lncerenses the title of patridan- was and Is still used to 
was admitted to the same rights by Taroninins denote a member of the nobility. 
PriscuB, and the nmnber of senators, which be- PATRIOK, a B. co. of Va., bordering on K. 
fore had been 200, was in consequence increas- 0., and drained by the Dan, Smith's, and NorHi 
ed to SOO. To dtstiuguish tbe old senators and South Uayo rivers, all of which have their 
from the new, the former were called patret sources in the Bine ridge, which forms its N. 
mt^onm gentium, and the latt«r niitrei mino- W. boundary; area about EOO sq. m. ; pop. in 
rumge^ium. AtthiBperiod,a]lthe population 1860, 9,869, of whom 3,070 were fJavea. It 
who were not patricians were clients or slaves, has a mountainous surface, and b noted for its 
After the formation of the plebeian ordcr^ the picturesque scenery; much of the soil is fertile^ 
patrician became a real aristocracy of birtl), and iron ore is abundant. The productions in 
which held possession of all the civil and re- ISCO were 248,868 bushels of Indian corn, 90,- 
li^na ofSces. No matter how poor he was, 441 of oats, 1B,7E5 of wheat, 4^9,699 lbs. of 



tobfloeo, 8,SStS of wool, and 6S,9S7 of butter. He pnbUahed, beude a translation otQTotiiulk 
There were 2 griat nulls, 8 taniieriw, 1 famaock VerttaU, a ItLrga nnmber of works, ohieflf de- 
1 forge, 18 tobacco factories, 12 ohurches, and votional, the most important of which was his 
826 papils attending pablio Bchools. Yalne of " Oommentarj and Par^ihrase on the Old Tee- 
real estate in 1B6S, (1,321,719, showing an in- tamest" (14 vols. 4to., London, 16SG) ; it ex- 
orease since 1660 of V6 per cent. Capital, Ta;- teade to Solomon's Song, and was oompleted by 
lorsTille, Lowth and Whitby for the whole Bible. Dr. 

PATBIOE (PATmomB), Baibt, the patron Fatriok's writings gave him oonaderable repn- 
saint of Ireland, bom, according to most an- tation in his da;, and are still valned. He wa» 
tborities, near the site of Eilpatriok, at the selected to revise the oollecte of the whole 
month of the Clyde, in Scotland, in S72, died year after his appointment as one of the com- 
at Down, Ulster, probably in 464. At the age misaioners for lie review of the liturgy, bnt the 
of 16 he was carried captive to Ireland by a revision never came into nse. The first collect- 
band of marauders, bat made his escape after ed edition of his works was printed by the Oz- 
6 months and reached Bcofland. Carried off a ford press in 9 vols. 8vo. (IMfl)- 
second tdme, and again escaping, he resolved to PATRIUONY OF ST. FETEIR, the name 
become a missionary to the Iriab, was ord^ed formerly applied to a part of the F^ial St^tea, 
in Scotland, and after a long preparation was conristing mainly of tne territory given to the 
oonsecrated bishop. Having previonsly, ac- chorchby the countess Katilda in 1077. Itcor- 
oording to some acconnta, visited Gaul and per- responds to the modem delegation of CXvits 
hwH Italy, he paased over to his chosen neld Veechia, toother with the S. part of Viterbo^ 
of labor about 482, and preached the gospel and the S, W. part of the comarca di Roma, 
with snoh extraordinary effect that, although FATBOCLUB, a Greek legendary hero, the 
not absolately the first to introduce Christianity inseparable friend of Achilles, and sod of Ue- 
Into that country, he has always received the ncetius of Opns. While a boy he accidentally 
credit of its general conversion. Be baptised killed Clysonymus, and in oonseqnence was 
the kings of Dnblin and Knnster, and the 7 sent to the conrt of his kinsman Pelena, and 
sons t^Qie king of Connaught, with the greater brought up with Achilles, whom he aooom- 
pari: of their sutgects, aud before his death hod panied in the expedition against Troy. He oo- 
converted almost the whole island to the faith, cupied a prominent po^tJoQ in the si^e un^ 
St. Bernard testifies that he fixed his metropol- his friend absented himself from the conflict 
itan see at Armagh, and it appears that he ap- by reason of his quarrel with AgameninoD, 
pointed several other bishops, with whom he when Patroclns also withdrew ; but the oOain 
held oonnt^s to settle the discipline of the of the Greeks becoming desperate, he obtained 
ohnrch which he hod planted. In his old age from Achilles his armor and his troope, and with 
be wrote his" Confession," the authenticity of their assistance drove back the Trojans and 
which, however, ia doubted. It may be found saved the ships from bnming, Doring the con- 
in Sir James Ware's edition of the works of flict he was sb'uck senseless by Apollo, and was 
St Patrick (8vo., Loudon, 16B8). The Roman killed by Euphorbns and Hector, the latter tak- 
Oathohc church keeps bis festival ou Uarch 17. ing poswasion of the armor. In the fight that 
A popular legend ascril>es to him the banish- ensned for the dead body the Greeks were sno- 
ment of all venomous creatures from the island cessful. His ashes were buried under a mound, 
by means of hb crosier or staff, which Ralph whichnot long afterward was opened to rec^ve 
Bjgden in hie " Polyohronicoa" mendons as the dead body of Achilles, who had revenged 
being kept with great veneration at Dublin in his friend by the death of Hector. 
i860. PATRON (Lat. patronvt, from pater, a 

PATRICE, SuoN, an English prelate and father), an appellation given by the Rmnans 

anthor, bom la Gaiusborongh, Linoolnshire, in to a patrician who bad plebeians, called cUents 

1696, died May 81, 1707. He was the son of a (see Client), under his protection, or to a 

mercer in his native town, and was educated master who had freed his slave. When a slave- 

at Queen's coUege, Cambridge, where he re- was manumitted, he himself was called libertia 

ceived a fellowship in 1648. in 16G8 he was or freedman, and his master pahvnvt, and be- 

presented with the hving of Battersea, and tween them existed certMn duties and privi- 

about this time published his " Meusa Mysdca, leges, which however seem to have been more 

or a Discourse concerning the Sacrament of fixed by custom than by law. The patrtm took 

the Lord's Supper; to which is added a Dis- the freedman under his protection, and the 

course concemmjt Baptism." The following freedman owed to his former master respect 

Siar he produced a treatise entitled "The and gratitude, and was boond to support both 

eart's Ease, or a Remedy against all Tron- him and his children in cases of neceeaty. By 

bles;" and in 1660 another nsder the title of a special agreement the liberttu after he waa 

"Jewish Hypoertsy, a Caveat to the Present freed took an oath to make an offering to the 

Generation." By the earl of Bedford he was patron of gifts and services, the latter being of 

presented with the living of St. Paul's, Covent two kinds, services of respect and services of 

Garden, where he remaned several years. In labor. The former ended with the death of 

1679 he became dean of Peterboroa«i, in 1669 the patron, but the latter were due also to hia 

biabtqi of Chichester, and in 1691 bishop of Ely. heirs. The p^ron was not entitled to any eer- 



vioN tiut vers eidier daog«n>tu or diigraoa- of rocki off TripoU in OtA. 1S08, and, ht&ag in 
(bl ; and bj the lea JuUa et ^t^aia Po^paa s defenoelees ooadition, mirrenderad to a flotilla 
fteadmeo, mtb a fev exoeptions, vere dl»- of Tripolitan gaa boaU. (Bee Baihbbidgii, 
dumd from all nqoiiemeiits as to g^fts and Wiluuc.) He remdned (t prieoner in Triptdi 
BV^ea, if the^ vere the parents of two 4^1- until peaoe was condnded with that regeiier 
drai woo were in theb poaaesaioiL or were the in ISOo, In 1807 be was promoted to the rank 
parents of cme child 6 years old. The mort of lieutenant, and in 181S to that of master 
inwortant relation wrirting betwe«i the patron ocmmandant. In 1814 fae conunanded the 
and freedmaa was the liffht of the fcmner in uaTal foroee <£ tbe United States at New Or- 
ontwn oaaea to beotHoe tJie heir of the whole leans, and eo{>perated so ably with Gen. Jaok- 
or a ptt^on of the proper^ of the latter. Br Boninthedemioe of thatcity thathe reoeired 
tbe laws <tf the 13 tables^ if a freadman died the thanks of oongreas. He was promoted to 
Intestate wilhont hein of tus own, the patron the rank of captun in Feb. 1816, aerred as 
beoame hie hdr, as he was supposed to stand nary oommiadoner from 1888 to 1698, and in 
in the rdati<Hi of an agnaVat. By the lea command of a sqeadron in tiie Kediterranan 
i*(WJa. when a fi-eednun 1^ property valued from 1838 to 1680. He died while in com- 
as Wffi aa 100,000 aeateroes, some of it went to mand of the nary yard at Waahington. 
the pabtin whether a will bad been made or not FATTIBOlf, Bobebt Etxrrt, D.D., an 
IftlMrewereSddldren,howeTer,Uiepatranhad American clergyman and teaoher, bom in Bon- 
noahare. These righta of a patron extended to boo, Vt, Ang. 19, 1800. He was graduated at 
hia dirert but never to his oollaUral hdr^ and Amherst college in 1826, was soon aft«r ap- 
iha privilegea of the It&tfrti in regard to the pointed a tator ta Oolnmbian college, D. O., 
■OMeodoB of property extended only to thoao wssordsinedaaaBaptistminiBterin Sept. 1889, 
who wwe Boman dtizeni sad not to the Latin at Salem, l£sss., and In Uaroh, 181)0, settled as 
freedmen. The latter "lost their life and their pastor of tlie first Bt^itist ohnroh in Provl- 
Uber^ at tike same time," and tiieir proper^ denee, R. L From this post he was colled ton 
paved into the hands of llioee who had manit- pro&ssoiship in WsterviUe college. Me., and In 
mitted tbem. In many other pointa the ano- 1S8S to the prendencyof that college, wMoh 
oesBiHL to their property difEwod from tbe sno- he reRsned in 1840. He then returned to his 
oeeston to that (A the Boman freedmen, and on pastoral charge at Frovidenoe. Inl848Iiewa8 
this snl^eot lawa were passed during the reigna elected one <^ the oorrenHmdEng secretaries of 
of dandios and Trqaa. These reflations the Baptbt board of foreign miaaionfl. In 1846 
were radically changed nnder JostinTui, who the trdstees of the western Baptist theological 
gave to the Latin fireedmen the same prifilegee institute, at Covington, Ky., elected him presi- 
' as were possessed by the Romans. If a freed- dent and proieaeor of Christian theology. In 
man was guilty oi ingratitode, his patron this poution he continued till 1848, when by 
might punish him snmmuily, and in latw times an act of the Kentucky legislature, subsequent- 
he cad tbe right to relegate him some distance lydetnded by the supreme oonrt of the state to 
ftom Bome. In the time of Nero an efibrt to be nnconstitntional, the control of tbe seminary 
pass a decree enabling a patron to reduce his was wrested flrom tbe trastees and placed In 
freedmsn again to slavery foiled, hut afterward other hands, and the professors were dismissed, 
it was BucoessfuL The patron lost his rights, Dr. Pattison was immediately q>potnted to a 
however, if he neglected to ntpport his f^ed- umilar profeseorship in the Newton tfaeologtoal 
man in a case of necessity. The libmrtm as- seminary, Uass., from which, after G years' 
smned on his msDDiiiiauoa tbe gentile name of servioe, he was sgatn odled to tbe preridenoy 
lua patron.— In the canon law, a patron is a (^ Watervilla c^ege in 18C&. After some 
man who has the right of disposiog of a ben- years he rodgoed on account of his health, and 
efioe, from the fact that it was founded or he is now at the head of the Oread female in- 
endowed by him or by those to whose rights stitnte at Woroeeter, Uass. He received the 
be has succeeded. This right is eiud by some degree of D.D. fh>m Brown university iu 1888. 
to have sprung up about the close of the 4th Beude contributions to periodioals and one or 
eentnry, and was probably intended to offer in- two addresses, he has written a " Oommeetory, 
dncemeuts to the wealthy to found churches Explanatory, Doctrinal, and Practical, on the 
with the privilege of naming the person who KpisUe to th e Ephesians" (Boston, 186ff). 
should officiate. In the Boman Catholic ohnroh, FATDXENT, ariver of Md., riang abont SO 
a patrcm is a s^t under whose protection a m. from Frederic Oity, and after a 8. E. course 
person places himself, often from Wiring the of about 40 m. and a nearly 8. course of 60 m., 
aame name, or who holds that relation to a disoha^ing itodf through an estuary 2 or 8 m. 
communis ; or a saint to whom a particular wide into Ohes^MAke bay. It f^rms the divid- 
ehnre h or o rder is dedicated. ing line between Uontgomery, IMnoe George, 
PATTERSON, Dakui. T., an officer of the Charles, and 8t. Uary counties on the B. uid 
IT. B, navy, bom in the state of New York, W., and Howard, Anne Amndel, and Calvert 
died in WashingUm, Aug. 10, 1839. He en- counties on the N. and E. Small vessels can 
tered the navy as a midshipman in 1800, and ascend it 60 m. to Nottingham, 
was attached to the frigate Philadelphia, Capt, PAU, a town <J fYanoe, capital of the de- 
William B^nbiidge, when she ran upon a reef pariment of Basses-Pyriutea, on the right bank 

of the Qsre de Fan, 470 m. 8. by V. from (Dte, 166S}, and afterward against PhiUp It., 
Paris; pop. io 1868, 17,988. It b rwolarly in Mmseqnence of which hie dominions were 
bud oot and well btdlt, luTiag a hroM midn invaded bj the duk« of Alva, and the Bpanish 
street, uveral sqnarea, and fino public walb troops advanced almost to the gates of Bome. 
on its ontskirts. Its sitaation on a piecipitjina A peaoa however was couohided in 1GS7. The 
height is delightful; in the vicii^ are pio> eroperorFerdlnand I. havingaccqitedOie throne 
toreeque vallefs, and on the B. the eye teets wiuiont eonsalting the holj see, the pope dis- 
in the distance upon tiie snowy peaks of th« mined the imperial smbassador, and Ferdinand 
PyF6n6es. The cfaana of the scenen- and the Moordingly did not eome to Kome to ho crown- 
mild and bealthflil climate attract to Fan a con- ed, an omisrion which was imitated by all Uie 
aderable nnmber of foreign viritors and per- nooeeding emperors. Panl lY. was a xealons 
manant residents. linen cloths, renowned aa opponwt of the Froteatants, against whom he 
toilet da £jam, and fine table dotha, tapestry Issned a boll in 1B69, and cooperated earnestly 
carpets, and cntlery are mano&ctored. — Fan witit Qneen Mary in her attempts to rostore 
was founded in the lOtb oattary ; a viscount Oatholicity in England. He introdnoed the 
of B6am boitt a strong castle on the top of a inqiddtion into his states, labored asBidtiansly 
hill, andhavingmarked the lindtaofthegronnd for the reformation of the clergy, and fbnnded 
with stakes or patu, the town which formed the cnder of Theatines, who took their name 
itself around retained the ^>peUation. In the from the srohbishoprio of Theate or Chleti, 
I4tHh oentnry the castle was rebuilt by Qaaton which ha had held before he became pop& 
Ffa^bos, connt of Fois, and the city became He raised his nephews to the highest honon 
the chief town of B^ani. The oastle wsa en- In the state, and made one of them a cardinal, 
larged and embellished dnring the ISthcentnrj. thonghhis past life had been that of a soldier 
H^ry IV. was bom there ; and the room and a liberbne ; but hearing that they abnsed 
where this event took place has still its ancient their power, he banished them from Bome in 
portnuts and i^mituro, aa well as the tortoise 1669. He was hated by his Hnhjecte, who rose 
shell that was used ae a cradle for the In&nt in tnmnlt on the news of his death, and threw 
prince. The CBstle itself wss repaired and ren- down his statno, crying: "Death to the Ca- 
ovated in the time of Lonis Philippe : it is one rafiVu." HI. Paot. V. (Oamillo Bobohxsx), 
of the summer resorts of Napoleon III. and his bom in Bome in 1&69, died Jan. 16, 1621. He 
oonrt. A marble statae of Henry IV. stands eacceeded Leo XI. in 1606, and soon after his 
in the vestibnle of the oastle ; and two others, accession was involved in a dispute with the 
one of white marble erected in 1848, and one r^nblia of Venice respecting the foundation 
in bronie, adorn the principal sqnares. of reli^na houses, the alienation of charitable 
PAUL, the name of several popes, of whom bequests, and the trial of ecclesiastics by lay 
the most distingiushed are the following. I. tribnnsla. He eiconunnnicsted the doge and 
Fatit. hi. (ALEsaun>BO Faknxbi), bom in the senate, and laid the republic under an in- 
Bome in 1466, died in Nov. IMS. He sue- terdict which t^e senate forbade to be poblish- 
oeeded Clement VH, in IBM, end gammoned ed, and whioh only the Jesuits, Theatines, and 
a general oonncil t« meet at Hantus, bnt after- O^inchins observed. These three orders were 
ward transfbired it to Trent, where the first oonseqnently banished. The pope on his fdde 
session was held in Dec 1S46. He made an prepared to take up arrns; but fearing, from an 
abortive league with the emperor and the re- Intercepted letter of Father Panl Barpi, that 
public of Venice against the l^ks, and induced advantage would be taken of snch an event 
Franins I. and Charles V. to oonclnde s tmce to introdnce Calvinism into Venice, he invited 
for 10 years at Nice (1688), which was not the mediation of Henry IV. of France, and the 
however observed. He eioommnnicated Hen- dilute was settled by a compromise in 1607. 
ry VIH. of England, established the inqnintion The condemnation by the parltament of Paria 
at Naples, approved the society of Jesus, sent of the D^auio Udei of Snares was the cause 
a contingent of 12,000 footand l,000horseta of angryrelatlonswithFrancein 1614. InUie 
Join the emperor's forces in Germany against mean time Paul had devoted himself with great 
the Protestants, and opposed the reHgions pad- zeal to reforming the administration of his tem- 
fieation colled the ititerim granted by Charles poral government, embellishing Rome, and re- 
V. in 1G47. He exerted himself zealously to storing ancient monuments. He exerted himself 
subdue the torbnlent feudatories of the Papal to send nusslonories to the East, and received 
StataB, and expelled the powerful Oolonna embassies from Japan, from several princes of 
family from Bome, Before becoming a priest Lidia, and from Congo. 
hehadasonanddanghter, the former of whom PAUL, Fatheb. Bee Baspi, Piktbo. 
was created dnke of Parma and Piacensta. U. PAUL I., Fktbqvitob, emperor of Rnsria, 
Fadi. IV. (GiovAmn Pibtbo Oabatfa), ham in bom Oct. 12, 1764, assasrinated Harch S8, 1801. 
1476, died Ang. 18, 1660. He succeeded Uar- A son of Peter HI. and Catharine IL, Paul in- 
oellna II. in 1666, and displaved an enei^ in herited the weakness and pnsiilanimity of his 
bit administration which baa not been expect- father, with few of the iDteilectnal qnslittes of 
ed fh>m his advanced age and previona Btadions his mother. The hatred whioh his parents 
habits. He oonolnded an alliance with Hemr bore to each other, and which resnltea in the 
n. <^ France ag^uat tiie emperor Oharlea V. aasaasliution ot Peter at the instigation of hii 

PAUL L (BuBu) PAITL (Saib 41 

iri&, exerted a baneftal Influenoo upon the ear- orndtj vhoever did not aUofat from their oft^ 

Heit development of Paul'snundandchankcter. riages and prostrate UiemBeiree as he pawed. 

His father hated hjm 08 the ofibprii^ of abated He dialiked round hats, and authorized aay 

wife, and intended to didjiherit him. Oatha- one to tear them from the heads of thdr 

rina, having aaaomed the reins of government irearere. He vonld allow no one to keep a 

(176S), pretended to give him an ednoation dc^ near his reetdenoe. These and a thonauid 

worthj of the heir of a great empire ; hot even other pettj oppresnona ezaaperated the peo- 

before he grew np to manhood her dislike of pie even more than hia hatred of liberal i^aSi 

him had become so violent that she compelled his decrees forbidding the importation of all 

him to live at a distance from the capital, per* books or newspapers printed m Froich, and 

aecoted him in eyerj conceivable manner, ear- similar meaenrea. His polkj in r^ard to the 

rounded him with spies, left him in absolute great events in weatem Entvpe was as incon- 

want of the necessaries of life, and took not sistent and oapriciona as his administration of 

the slightest puns to conceal her contempt of the internal sffiiirs of his empin. At first he 

him. Bnoh inflnences necesaaril; left their became a party to the coalition agunst revo- 

mark npon his temper. He became morose, Intionary Fnaoe, and his army of over 100,000 

rerangfiil, craven toward his mother, jet wil- men obtained same encoesMs in Italy, Switzer- 

fhl and ^rannJoal toward inferiors, dead to land, and Holland ; but having afterward sof- 

ambitian,aiid indifibrenttothereqniremenCsof fered severe reverses, Panl bwiame dls^sted 

bia atalion. At the age of 10 he was married with his aUiea, expelled the French relogeeB 

by Older of hia mother to a princess of Hesse- from Bossia, and endeavored to get np a ooali- 

Dttnnatadt, and after her death in 1770 to s tdon ag^uat Great Britain. In tlusbe snoceed- 

prinoesa of Wortemberg. Bia domestic felicity ed so far that Denmark, Sweden, and Praseia 

recompensed hun in some degree for the con- Joined him in a treaty of armed nentrolity. 

temptnons manner in which ne was excluded Bnt his hatred agunst Great Britain had be- 

from all participation in government a&ira, oomesoviolentthathewss&rfromlMingaatia- 

Eia aeoond wife bore him 4 sons (Alexander, fied with this snoceas. lltronghtheoolomnsffif 

from all participation in government a&ira, oomesoviolentthathewss&rfromlMingai 
Hia aeoond wife bore him 4 sons (Alexander, fied with this snoceas. lltronchtheoolonai 
Ccmstantine, Nicholas, and UiohJaal) and B (he " ^ Petersburg Jonmal'* he diallenged to 

dao^tteia. The fbrmer were t^en trom. their persona] combat w tiiose Unn who were nn- 

parenta by order of Oatharine, and brought willing to take rides with Mm agmnst En^ 

up under her direction. In 1780 Paul travel- land. At last his capricloueness and despotism 

led throngh Poland, Gtermony, Italy, Vniaoe, reached a pitch which verged on downri^it 

and Holluid. Afterward he tixik part in the madness. A conspiracy was formed agwnit 

WOT agwnst Sweden, but even then his mother hia lUb by a number of noblemen, among 

pnipoMlydeprivedhimof everyopportunityof whom Oonnta Pahlen and Znbof^ Generola 

bflooming flunilior with the dnties of bia poai- Benningsen and Uwarofi; and Lient OoL 

tion. He bore this treatment in a dnll, patient Tatisheff were the moot oonsi^onons. To hia 

manner, hoarding np revenge for a f^tnre day. son Alexander it wsa represented by than 

At last his ddiverance oame. Oatharine died that they had no other ottjeot than to oom- 

Kov. 17, 1796, and Fanl ascended the throne, pel the emperor to abdicate the throne. They 

One of his first acts wae to cause funeral honors fbroed tiieir way into Psnl's chamber late st 

Co be paid to his mnrdered &ther, and he or- night, and presented for bis signature a letter 

dered the remains of hia mother's former fo- of abdication. He reftised to sign, whereupm 

vorite, IMnce PotemUn, to be disinterred and Zuboff knocked him down and kneeled npon 

thrown into a ditch on the wayside. To undo him, and, the other conspirators Joining in the 

whatever OathsHne had done seemed to be deed, the emperor was murdered in the most 

Us only guiding principle. He disbanded her horrible manner within hearing of his eldest 

armies, declared peace with Perdo, disapproved son and snocessor, and it has even been said 

of her p<^oy toward Fohwd, liberated Eosci- that his second son OonstantiDe actoolly assisted 

'na^o and the other PoUsh prisoners, decreed in the butchery, 

that the fbmale line should henceforth be et- PAUL, Rboitlab Olxszb or St. See Bab- 

eloded from suooessicn, and invited his eldest kabrb. 

aoa to an active participation in the adminis- PAUlv BAnrr, in sacred biography, the first 

tiation of the country. Bnt the r^tcings of Ohristian missionarr who extended his labms 

the people over these happy beginnings were b^ond the limits of the Jewish people, the first 

prematnret The defeats of his edaosdon soon Christian tMoher who maintained the eqnahty 

became apparent. His narrow-minded egotiam. «^ Jews and gentries nnder the new dispense- 

fostered by the seolnsion of his youth, combined tion, and admitted the latter to the foil partid- 

with his nervoDs and fltfnl temper to render patiou of Ohristian privileges withont the exao- 

him an execrable tyrant. Hia most pnerile tion of the ceremonial law. Paul is ranked by 

whims and otq>rioes were rused to the digidtr the Ohristian chnrtdt with the IS aposties, and 

of laws, and a well organized aeoret police was olmms that rank for hhnself in his epistles. Onr 

constantly active in discovering victims of his knowledge of his history is derived i^om the 

wrath. He reqolred thoae who were admitted Acts of the AposUea and incidental notices in 

lo his presence to kneel before him. When he his letters to the ohnrohee. Many attempts 

drove ont, he would poniab with the utmost have been made to arrange theae materials la » 


iTfltematic bi(wr^)hf, of whioh the most com- the partioipation of Paul's oompaniona in tbie 

prehengiTa and populkr is the " Life and Epis- remarkable experience, bat all agree in tbdr 

ties of St. Panl," bj Oonybeare and Howboh repreBentation of the impreBsioc made on-PaoI 

' (Ixmdon, 1864). For the critical student tbe himwif of a voice addressing him in the n^ne 

works of Wi^eler and Baor are tlie most im- of Christ and bidding him forbear the perae- 

portant, Paul iras a Greotao or Hellenistio cation of his chnreh. Btrack with temporaiT' 

Jew, b; birtb and conntrj' — that ia, a Jew blindness by this visioii, he was bron^t to Da- 

Itoni withoat the limits of Palestine — but, antil masons, where, after 8 daja' sojonm, he recor- 

bia oouTerrioii, a rigid Hebrew of the sect of ered his eight at the hands of a disciple named 

the Pbariseea, bj' parentage and training aaweU Ananias and received Ohristian baptism. Tbt 

aa h7 peraonal aonTiotioiL His original and next 8 years were spent in Arabia and Dnnas- 

Jerish name Saul ^)peara to have been dropped cas, after which the apostle made a brief visit 

and that <tf Panl adopted soon aiter bis aooeasion to Peter at Jenisateip, and then retmned to his 

to die Ohristian nuuistry ; for what canseitis nativecity. UeanwhileauewcentreofObristlan 

impoasibla to say, nor whether the name Panl inflaenco had established Itself at Antioch, the 

bad ever been used ae one of his appellations coital of Syria, aod thither Paul now went at 

before his oonversion. He was born in Tarsus, the solicitation of Barnabas one of the leaders 

the metropolis of Oilicia. The precise date of of that moyement, who had come to Tatsos to 

Us birUi is unknown, bat is proximately deter- secnre his cooperation. Here he remained for 

mined by the oircomstanDe tbat Paid is spoken a year or more, engaged in expoondiaK and 
of as a yonogman at the timeof the martyrdom propagating the new faith. A famme which vls- 
of Stephen. The best cbronologers place that ited Jndajain the reignof theemperorOIandios 

aveat as late at least as A. D. 88. Accordingly, (A. D. 4G), indnced the church at Antioch to 
I^nl can hardly have beoi bom earlier than send pecuniary aid to the ChrialianB at Jemssr 
A. B. 8, or later than 12. His family emoyed lem, and Paul and Barnabas were deputed to 
the ri^t of Boman citizenship, either as liW- convey the money collected for that pnrpoae. 
Uni (davea honoraUy manumitted), or in con- (Acts li. 29, 3D.)* Baving accomplisbed this 
seqnaiee of important services rendered to the eleemosynair misaon, be returued to Antioch, 
state. Thore is reason to beliere that the youth and made that city his head-quarters and Hie 
of Panlpartookoftheliteraryadvantageswhich starting point of Uie missionary tonrs in Aria 
distingaiahed his native city. The traces of Minor and Europe whioh he now undertook ia 
philosophic thought whioh pervade his epistles, behalf of the faith. Three distinct Jonraeys 
and his evident familiarity with the Greek from this point of departure are recorded. The 
poets, discover a mind imbued with gentile as first, in which Paul was accompanied hf Bb> 
well as with Jewish lore. According to rab- nabas, and for a portion of the wav by J<An 
binical law and cnstom, which required every Hark, who left them on the coast of Asia Ui- 
male Jew to be tanght some manual art, he nor, embraced tbe island of Oyprus from east 
learned the trade of a tent maker, to theprac- to west and three of the southerly provinces of 
ties of which hewasafterwardindebtedinMrt A^a Minor, viz., Famphylia, Pinaia, and Ly- 
for his support. (Acta xyiii. 8, xx. 84 ; 1 Oor. caonia. In the principal cities of these oonn- 
ir. la.) His knowledge of tbe law and tbe tries the missionaries established Ohristiau 
prophets and other essentials of a Jewish edu- churches after tbe model of that at Jerusalem, 
cation was obtained at Jerosalem nuder the Some time after his return to Antioch, where 
tnllion of OamaUel, the moat learned rabbi of Panl now resnmcd his home miniatry, Qie at 
his time. Paul's first appearance on the stage tempt was made by Jndming Obristnons sent 
of history connects itself with the martyrdom from Jerosalem for that pntpose to impose the 
of Stephen, to whioh he was a party, being at Mostuo ritual on the gentue converts. The 
that time a stndent at Jerusalem, devoted to movement was strennonsly resisted by the lead- 
the Pharis«c interest in that city, and probably ers of the AnUoch church, and Paul and Bar- 
attached to the congregation of the " liber- nabas were sent to Jemsalem to debate and 
tines." From this time forth he became a zeal- arrange this difGcnlty with the apostles and 
ouB persecutor of the Christian church, volan- elders in that city. "Diis first Christian cooncil 
teering his services to tbe sanhedrim for that is assigned by different authorities to dates 
purpose, and holding a commission from that 

" strange cities,' and bring to trial the confes- oh. xtUL, or neither ^ Ham, is idsoUcsl Kits iii« om n- 

BOrs of the new fwth. It was in the discharge *™*,'°"'^!!J' '2J?^v!* iS^.T*?^ *'.'?^.J!° 

Of tliia oommisaion, and while bonnd to Da- stUOt ta tbs OiUtUn aoDlUeCs with Uis snntlTa In th* 

masons on one of these errands, that he eipe- AsIs, a» no erltlclim lui nt n«»ded to nooBoUlBg tb* 

He»«d. mdam „d „™ulon. oon«r.ion^ 5lSlSiJ!W?SS,SSSZ,nS.'5T,!: 

which changed the whole course of his Me, not ipaUiKoftha SntrML Bntwtoont r^«tlii|c tbe tcsO- 

only arresting his work of persecution, but im- ?i™3[i*^ ' "" "'"" ' * ~*"-~' ■' ■""• 

pelling him to become the indefatigable advo- n[^i'ru!toi7-we «nnot ^nantti« vteiVto Jsra^Mn 

cato and apostle of the faith be had persecuted, mcntlonod in thit dgcntaen^ >od inextriiKMr Istomran 

Th, U,™ »x».unt. of He m.tUr. in tl. Act. SJ£l."ia,'SSif&1aSSrftSSSy! 

^x. 7, xxu. 9, and xzvi, 14) differ m regard to toflie fliiiUuu. 


PAUL (Saiht) 46 

nM^atg ftun tlie mir 47 to tha ;ear 55. We two of the ej^sllee in onr flofledloii an ad- 
inahiM with Wiasder to place it at 60. The dressed, he retained to Antiooh, tonohing at 
two detefptea, after a satJE&ctoiT a^Ji^Btment Epheena and vintiog Jerusalem bf the wa^. 
of tbia qoeatioii, rebmed to Antiooh, uid vith Aiter an interral of rest at Antioeh, in the an- 
th«n two fiiiiliMwi 1 1 III from Jerasalem. With tnrnn, it ii aappoaed, of the year 64, Patd ai- 
on« of the Utter, Silvaniu or Bilae, Patd soon tered on the third and lait of his miasioiuvr]' 
aA«randwtookhuaeoondmisaionBrjteiir,haT' Jonmeys. Faseing through vaiioiu proTinoei 
log prerioodj separated fhon BamatMB in eon- of Ana Hinor, he arrived at Epheena, where the 
■eqiietioe of a di^te which aroae between them groond had been prepared for him by Agpila 
nutive to Joha Maxk, yrbtaa Banmbaa would and Priadlla, with ApoUoe tbeir eoiTert Here 
have to go with them, bnt whom Pant rejected he reontined daring a period of 8 year^ laboring 
on aooonnt of hia deeertion of them at Perga in with mailed aoooeai, induoiDg, among otlker 
their Sitt ezpeditioo. The misdonariea Tinted firnits trf his ndnlatry, the goUa, or ma(^am 
mida and the regions already trarersed by to abandon fbeit pcaotioe and to bom tbnr 
Piul, and the ohorohas fbonded by him in amideto— apeoimiaryBaari&ceof60,OOOdraoh- 
FkmplvUa and LyoaimiSL. At Lystra they niia, equivalent to (8,000 or $9,000. A hoatUe 
were Joined at Paul's solidtadoa by Hmothy, enoonnter with the silveTsiiiitlis irf that eity, 
a young <!hedc who had embraoed the Christian who traded in models of the temple (^ Diana, 
&ith. Tb^ eztanded their travela throng and who oonodved th^ bosinen to be endan- 
tiM eentral provinoes cf Asia Uinor, Phrygia gered by Panl'e preaching hastened hisdepart- 
and Qalatia, tiien to Ij^raia, and so to the west- nre ttom X^eaoa. He proceeded to Maoedo- 
«m eoart, where, at 'Aoaa, Panl reeolved, in nia, and thence to Greece ; then retwnina to 
aonaeqnBDea of a di«am whioh he interpreted Iboedonia, he oroaaed over to Troas, and from 
aa a eall tiata God, to oroaa over to Eorope^ theTe,bywaTofAsscaaod the islands of GUcs 
Aooordin^theoompany.ttf whioh Luke, it is and Samoa, he went to Miletoa, aooompanied 
smpoaed (frran the nse m tJie first person phi- by Tirootby, Lnke, and other disi^les. At 
zai whieh oocms here for the first time in the Ifiletos 1m tarried long enon^ to recdve a 
nanativo), was <aM, took ship at Troas, and depntationoftbeeldersof tbeebnrohatEphe- 
aft^ ft short nm landed at Neapolis on the ao^ wliran he had inrited to meet him, and to 
ifmaJnntM eoast. They th«ioe proceeded to whom he oommonioated hia parUng instmc- 
PUlippi, whwe Qie Christians came Into ool- tions, bidding them a final and aSbotionate 
liaioa with a mitila part; who trafficked in farewell He then embarked with his company 
dlrmation, and who inflamed the minds of the fbr Rhodes and Tyre on his wty to Falestines 
people a«nst Paul and Klaa, The apostle and whither he went, as ne says, " bormd in the 
Us firiei^ were onbMy seonrged and thmst spirit;" his friwida in erety dty where be 
into prison, bat nonorahly rdeased the next stopped on the ronto endesToring to dissuade 
d«f,iriian the ga(der,wh(an Panl had baptised, hini,"the Holy Spirit," in every city, "wit- 
rqvFesented to the mwistratee that they were neasing that bonds and afflietiona"awdted him; 
Boman oitizena. la Thoasalonica, where they his own Inatinot in apite of prophecies and en- 
made many converts amiHig the AJlenista, they treatiee urging him on. The party arrived at 
" ... - .1 . . -.. , ' m at the feast of Penteooet in the year 

met withaatrongoppodtiononthepartofthie Jei 
strioter Jews, who lollowed them to Berea, 68: 

Buwwi Mswa, iruu iviiuwou uiwu w uwdb, uoj th^ presented themsdves before James 
where also anooeas had attended their eSinia. and the other elders of the ofanroh, and Paul 
Hm " brethren," thinking that Patd's lifb waa reported the manr-rided saooess of a mission 
andaogered, sent him nraj in the charge of embracing a otmuderable portion of the Roman 
frfeada who bronght him to Athens. Here he emjnre in ita vride endeavor. The Ohriatian 
held public dispntatens with philoeophera of partr at JemsalenL imder the inflnenoe of the 
the laa^jog sobmJs, and at their invitaUon gave Jewish ospit^ and anxions to oonoiliate Uieir 
a pnblio «xporitaon of his doctrine in the areo- oonntrymen, so far trom reuonneing the law of 
pagna, pruwnndng on this oooasion the re- Ucaee^ woe especially sompolons in their oh- 
marfcable qweoh on the nature of Deity— 4he servanoe of its rites and re^nirements. Aware 
meat atariking snd important of all the speeches that Panl had rendered himself obnoxioaa to 
recorded of him. From Athens he went to Jndaising Ohristians by his liberal views in re- 
Oorlnth, then capital of the Roman province lation to tida matter, the elders perroaded him 
of Acbaia, where he enjoyed the hoapitalitr of by an act of public confbrmi^ to hnmor ihdr 
a Jewiah laiidly reoentfy banished firom Bcane pr^ndioea and disarm tbeir hostility. At their 
vnder the edict of the emperor Olandins for- soggeetion he united with a party of foor wlio 
Wdding the reaidenoe of Jews in that dty. He were then disohar^ng a lHazaiitio vow, and 
practised here bis craft of tent maker, which was seen with them In the tem|de ftalfilling the 
waa also that ot bis boat (Aqnila), and so re- ritoal purification prescribed or Levitioal law. 
lieved bim of the burden of bis support. He Tbia ooncesrion was not attended with the ex- 
was soon jcdned by ffilaa and Timothy, and pected resnlt. The meaenre which wss to have 
with their assistance^ urged by a vision fore- aerared bim against the hostile seal of his op- 
tdhng saooess, be minlrtered for a apaoe of ponenta <mly aerved to betray hbn into their 
neariy two years to the people of Oorinth ; snd oands. Seen in the temple, he was seized on a 
liavingeotaIilisliedapr<»niEingehnrcl),totrhioh charge of [dotting againet the Jllosaio rel^ira, 


44 PAUL (Bairt) PAUL 

and aeeiued of brlDs^gentiks into tiie sacnd ninenen of the pastoral Kuadcs (the tvo to 

courts. The Boman gaard raBoaed him from Timothv and the one to litoa). of GoloMiaw 

the huids of the mob, and, on tiie dieooro? of and £i^edaDi),lia« also been oalled in qneetitoa; 

a oonapiraoj against his life, disdosed bj a and Baor even donbta the aatfaorahip at I^ii- 

nepbew of Fuil tiien red^g at Jenualem, be Kppiana, PhUemon, and the two TheaaaloDiaia^ 

LB sent to Otesarea to Felix, prooonsnl of the aUewing as indispi^hly genuine only G~''~*' — 

province of JjiAat. FeKz, thongh aaemingly Btaoana, and the two OorintbianB. In this ez- 
aa^ed of his iunooeooe, for the sake of oon- travagant jndgment fbv oritioB tHI 

B iunooeooe, for the sake of oon- travagant jndgment fbv oritioB tHI agree wfOt 

(dialing the Jews detuned him a prisoner at him. It is imposrihle to detemdne witli pre- 

OeeBsrea. After the expiration of two jeors fUtkm tha ohrondogieal order of the epiatlee. 

Felix was sncceeded by Festos, and Panl was The tiro to the llteasalonlans are plaoed first 

then offered the c^portimity of a trial before bymost of the eritios who admit Qi«r gemdne- 

the national connoil at Jerasalem, which he de- sees, and after A«m the i^iatle to the Q«la- 

^dined, aware of the impossibililj of obtaining tiana. Then fbllow, In Wieseler'e arrangement 

a fair hearing from that tribimu. Despairing 1 Hmothj, 1 Corinthians, Titas^S GorintMana, 

of jnstice at the bands of bis conntrymen, be Bomans, Philemon, Oolossiaiis, £[dkesianB, Phi- 

(npealed by right of bis Roman oitizensbip to UppianH, and S Timothy, 
the goyemment at Borne, and to Bome accord' PAUL, Yisaxsr ns, a sdnt of the Boman 

ingly he was sent. He reached that destination Catholic ofanrcb and founder of the oonnegation 

in the spring of the year 61, after the long and of giatera of charity, bom at Pony, Gaaoiwy, 

periloaa voyage and shipwreck described in the in 1676, died Bept 27, 1660. He was the 4th 

Acts (xxvii.). While there he was permitted child of a pions peasant named Jean de Panl, 

as a special favor to reside in a hirra lodging who, having detwmined to educate him tar the 

instead of being tbrost into a dnngeon or ooD- ohnr^ibjirat nimwhea IS years old to loam LAtin 

fined in the barraoka. Here be remained two at the iranoisoanfiiars at the neighboring town 

year& and, thoogh nnder constant militoiy of Acqs (now Dax). He afterward became tntor 

gnard, was allowed free intereonrse with his in the funily of a lawyer of the place, who sent 

conntrymen and others who ohose to vi»t him. him in 1696 to tiie Tmiversity of Tonloose^ 

He was thna enabled to prosecute bis miasionarr where be passed 7 yea™, was ordwned priest 

labors, which he ^ipears to have dona with in 1600, and received in 1604 the degree of 

■oocess. Members of the imperial household baohelor of divinity. In 160S, while on a 

were among bis converts, p*hilipp. iv. 23.) voyage from MarseUIes to Narbonne, he was 

Here the history leaves him , and leaveB os to captured by Turkish pirates, carried priaoner 

oonjeotnre bis sabseqnent fortmies. The sn^ to Tunis, and after being several times sold 

position of Banr, Wieseler, and many others is became at last the slave of a renegade from 

that be never recovered bis liberty, but re- Kice. Through the influence of one of his 

muned priaoner at Borne mitil he perished at wives, who bad heard Vincent sinc^ng aa<»«d 

the bands of the executioner, a martyr to his son^ at Us labor, this man reeolvea to retom 

f^th 1 but there b a widely accepted tradition to Obristianity, and in Jn&e, 1607, fled from 

that he wns tried and acquitted, that be left tbe conntiy wiUi his dave and reached France 

Bome, made other missionary tours, was once In a little skiff. Vincent spent tbe next year 

more arrested, again brought to Bome, tried, in Rome, where he secured tbe friendship of 

condemned, and executed. It is even ssserted Cardinal d'Ossat, who sent him to Paris on a 

that he passed two years in Spain, retoming to secret errand to King Henry lY. in 1609, and 

Bome about 64, and suffering death by decani' afterward prooored bis nomination to the ^bey 

tation in 66, or according to some authorities of St, Leonard de Ohanme in the dlooeae of Ro- 

Feb. 22, 68. The attentive reader of the New ohelle. About the same time he was appointed 

Testament will notice indications of tbe opposi- almoner to Qneen Margaret of Valois. Li 

tion, jealousy, and even persecntion which Paul 1618 he entered tbe &mily of Emmanuel da 

encountered at tbe bands of his fellow Obris- Oondi, count de Joigny, as tntor to bis 8 sons, 

tians of tbe Jndajstio type. Other martyrs one of whom was afterward Cardinal de Bets, 

iiave snffered from the enemies of their faith. To his dnties as preoepttMr be added the task 

Panl suffered tar greater trials from its profee- of preaobing to Uie peaaantry of hie patron's 

•ors ; and wben enamera^ng his hardships and estates, partionlarly npim tihe neoeeraty of oon- 

his sorrows, he tops the climax with " perils by fearion ; and ao stmok was the oonatess vith 

ttite brethren." (2 Cor. xi. S6.) This oircum- tlie extraordinary results of his labors that she 

stance should be taken into the acooont in esti- ofibred 16,000 llvres to any religions commn- 

mating the worth and force of a character nity which shoald undertake the same work 

which in moral heroism baa no snperio^ among her tenantry every 6 years. Tbe offet 

perhaps no eqoa], in tbe world's snnals. — Of however was not accepted, and it was reserved 

tbe 31 epistles embrsced in the canon of the for Vincent himself to foand a few yeara later 

Hew Testament, 14 are popnlarly ascribed to a new congregation for snch nussioiis. Hsv- 

Paol and assigned to him in tbe current ver- ing obtained in 1623 tbe appointment of ahiq»- 

rions. Of these, tbe Fpistle to tbe Hebrews is laSi to tbe galleys at Marseilles, he devoted 

pnmoonoed by many critics at the present day himself to the welttoe of tbe wretched oonncts 

to be the work of some otLer hand. Tbe gen- with the inteuseet ardor, and, after senribly 


.. ^extend his nfonoB to tbapriB- viaitiDg the oonfraternitfee and In other labors 

OM in which they vere wmflned irhile wuting for the poor. Sooh was the origin of the ria- 

to ba iSBt to the H^korts. He fitted iq> a aep- ten of oharity. Their role was drawn up bj 

ante bnlAiig for them, and when abs^it him- degrew in the ooorse of some reara, and Vln- 

salf «anaad tnro pieMa who bad Joined In his oent lived to aee Se honseB of Qie order eatab- 

dttrttaUe enfagpriw to Utb in the prison. He lished in Paris, beside otbera in Tarions parts 

nazt^tpsars at lUeon, as the apoatle of the of Europe. The reformation of tiie ho^tala, 

natmtdtittideeofthieTeaBnd1>e^^ffsforvhom the estaoliahment of an asjlnm forfcHumnga 

that d^ was then notoriooa. bi 1623 he was (see FonimLiNe Hosprru.), the inatruclion of 

^ipointed diraotor of the nmu of the order of idiots at Us priorj of SL Lazaras, uid oontin- 

the Yiaitatkn in Paris, and this position Ite re- nal labors among the convicts, are &s next 

tained nntil his death. In 1S94 the ooontesa erenta which we hare to record in his bistor;. 

da Jaignr revived the mojeot of eataMiahing It ia related (tboni^ the stor? has been qnea- 

-*-'-d inuaiims among the poor, and with the tioned) that he onceofibredbimselfin the place 

patent in }Saf, 1SS7, at which time th^ had Haurtn, and his convent of St Lazaraa vaa 
Enneaaed to 6, and were eract ad into a otmgre- aooordinRlf sacked bj a mob. The last labora 
atioB by P<^ UriHin VIIL in 1082. (See of hia lifo were the fonndation of an aarhim 

ia proposed to Yinoent to undertake tha wcne the fett«Ts of a galley alave ?•._ 

eatoblidmieDt of a new order, which she prom- weeks befiH« he was reoo^uzed. Dmlng the 

iaed to endow with 40,000 livres. Aooordin^f ikmlnc which dep<q>n]atod Lon^ne in ld§8-'& 

in MSB Vincent, aocompanled by two other he colleoted and dittribnted upward of 2,000,000 

priaata, took up bis retddenoe in tbc oollage of livree amtmg the md^nat. He attended Lcnda 

tlie (mi* ti^anit, whidt had been siveD tm the XIIL in hia last illness, and waa qipoint«d by 

pmpoae by the archbishi^ attd laid the found*- Anne of Anstria one of the 4 members of the 

titm of the oongr««atioD cif prieats of the mis- " ooonoil of cDnsoieuoe" to whom was com- 

rion. sometimes called LazatistB from the priory mitted the distribution of eooleaiastioal pre&r- 

of St Laxams which they acqnired aoon after- ments. In the wars of the Fronde he incorred 

wanL The asscdates received royal letters the groundless gnspidon of being a &vorer of 

"" Haurtn, and his convent of St Lazaraa Tsa 

aooordinply sacked by a mob. The last labora 
_ ,_ _ of hie lifo were the fonndation of an asylum 
I or TBK UissKHi,) Beside the primary for aged artisans of both sexes, and a hoqiitsl 
Df misrimis omoiw the poaaantry, Yin- for all tJie poor of Puia, which waa opened in 
iw devoted himsuf to t£e apiritnal im- 1667, a royal edict obli^ng every b^ar in the 
proTOiMot of the clergy. He eetaUiahed rail- metropcdiB to dther enter this insbtotion or 
gioon axerdsM for eaodidatas tOt orderly to work for his living; Between 4,000 and 6,000 
whioh thaarohMahc^ of Paria afterward obliged ohoae the former alternative. Yhicent was 
all his eedaaiaslioa to spply themselves for 10 beatified by Benedict XIU. in 1729, and canon- 
days before Mdiuatim ; he threw open Ua ised tn^Glemeot XH. in 1787. 
boose to all who wished to q)end a fow days in FAuL or SuioajiTA, a herealarch of the 8d 
pn^w and meditatiMi; and every weak he held century. He became patriarch of Antlooh In 
what he called aiuritoal oonforwioes, to which SSO, and by extortion and bribery acquired 
the deigy resmted in great nnmbeis. With great wealth. He affboted extraordinary pomp, 
the ssristanoe of Cardinal Bichellen, iriio ad- canaed the hymns of the church to be abollah- 
mittod Inm to his eonfidoioe and used to con- ed and others anng in [a-aise of Idmsel^ and 
suit him in making eooMastical ^poiotments, sorrounded himself with a number of young 
lie opeoed in IMS an institution in which and beantifol wunoi who attended him where- 
yonng priests or candidates for the priesthood everbewent &i defiance of the ecdeslastioal 
mi^t St themaelvee for fbe labora of the min- canons he held the office of iIuMnartufa sort 
istiy I7 3 or 8 yean spent in prsyer and plooa of proonratorship under the emperor. Hewaa 
exaraiaee. The result ot these ^orta fbr the an eapeoial MaiS. of Zenol>ia, the queen of 
purifieation ot die ohuroh aaawared his greats Palmyra, who called him to her oourt, admired 
est eaoMOtadom. In the mean time he had not his eloqnenoe, and disputed with him on rell- 
been Mle in providing for the auSMngs of the don. He tanght that there was only one 
Door, WI>ai«ver he preached it had been his God, who is denominated the Father ; thst the 
a establish "confratemitiea of charity," Word or Viedom of Ood was not a sttbatanoe 
^ . ^ of wunen who to<A upon theoaaelTea or person, bnt was in the divine mind aa reason 
to saarah oat and relieve the distressed, with- in men ; that Christ waa a mere man who ao- 
ont howarer fbnning themaelvea Into a regular quired this Word or Wisdom of God, becoming 
OTdar. In 16SS he determlMd to enlarge hia by it both God and the Son of Ood, though 
plan by craatiiig a risterhood whidh shonla pu> both in an Improper sense, and gradually ac- 
sue the same oUecta under a sufficiently con- ooiring his knowledge and virtnea; and that 
vantnal ornoisaUon to Inaore the pennanenoe tiie divine Word withdrew from him when he 
and most bSDeflclal vorkinfl of the enterprise ; snffered. His opinions were condemned in a 
and aoeoidin^ he placed 4 ycvng women who oonndl held about 804, but be was allowed to 
had Tidvnteered thor ssrvioee nnoer the charge retain his aee on pronuee of retracting them, 
of Uma. Le One, a noble lady who had beoi Ffdfing "however to keep hia word, ne was 

jy Google 


tg^ oondemned and dwoaed at tli« ooimcfl Mmof John Panlding, diriiiigiilih«d in Um nv- 

^ Antiooh in 230. The fovor of Zenobis ena- olntiomur war as ono of the chptan of lUor 

bled him to Mt this sentence at defiance tmtii Andr£. He entered the nxrj aa a midaldp- 

S7S, whan Zenobis was oonqnered b; the em- man in 1811, and waa in Ihe aqtudron of Com. 

peror Anrellan. He whole matter waa now UoDonongh in the battle of liake OhamplBiii, 

refured to the aee of Rome, and Fanl, expelled for whioh seirioe he reodv»d a awoid fnan 

trma hia ohnreh, paesed tlie leat of nia life in oongreaa. In 1844 he attuned the rank of cap- 

obawui^. He haa a few followers, who ofdied tiln,aodinlBS7,wluleiDO(»timandoftbeh<me 

themaelTea Panlianista. They dts^pear from aqnadron, broke up an tnniedition against Nio- 

historrabotit the Sth ecntnry. ar^u headed by 0«i. wilUam Walker. Ilie 

PAUL (FuKDmcH Fxm. Wilhxlh), duke of nuun body of thia expedition, eommanded by 

'Wbrtembn^, a German traveller and natural- Walker in penon, landed in Pnnta Arenas in 

iat, bom in Oarlsmhe, Jane 3fi, 1797, died at the harbor of Greytown, Nov. S6. Omnmodore 

Uergentbeim, Nov. SS, 1860. He was edaoated Paulding arrived on Deo. 6 in Us flag ship the 

at t£e oonrt of his nncla, King Frederic I, Wabash, and tai tiie 6th landed a strong foieo 

and from love for natnral Boienoes and travel under the immediate command of 0«f>L &t^ 

in May, 1817, he left the army of WOrtem- of tiie Wabash, when Walker mrrandered with 

berg to devote himself to his &Torite porsnits. his fidlowers, IBS in nomber, who were imne- 

After having travelled exteodvely through diate^ disBrmed and sent to tlie United States. 

Enrope, he crossed the ocean, and from 1B22 to Oommodore Paoldtaig acted on tUs oecanon 

1884 Jonmeyed in North America, making rich without spedflo instrnetione, and his airest of 

eoUections in natnral history, and eq>ecitd]y in Walker npon foreign aoU was not fiilly ^^tot- 

H)ology,andsobseQiientlypnblishedaDBcooDnt ed by the exeoative. In Dec. 1860, Niearana 

of hia expedition m a work entitled " I^rst presented him with a sword and also offered a 

Journey to North America" (Stuttgart, IBSC). teaot of land (which l^ter, however, the U. S. 

In a second jonmey to Ameriu, he paid special senate did not allow him to receive), in teeti- 

attention to the remains of the old Azteo civi- mony of her sense of the hi|)ily important aer^ 

lintion. He snbseqiiently made aeveral Jour- vice which he had rendered the repnblio. Oom- 

neya to Algraia, England, France^ and Austria, modore Fanldiog, while a lientenant, jtnblidied 

and in the ^raog of 1849 he vinted America a volume entitled " Journal of a Oroise amnig 

again, travelling over Texas, the entire west of the Islands of the Fadflo" (New Toik, 18S1). 

tfie United States on both sides of the Rocky FADLDING, Juas Kaca, an Americw 

moimtains, and Sonth America, and in 18GS author, bom in Pleasant Va]ley,I>ut«heaB oo., 

B^ed for Enrope. From his 4th voyage to the N. Y., Aug. 39, 1779, died in Hyde Park, in 

United States, and thence to Australia, he re- the same county, April 6, 1860. His &ther, a 

tuned home in 1869 by way of Oejlon, Egypt, deeoendant of a Dntch fiunUy originally eetab- 

Trieeto, and Vienna. liahed in Ulster co., cultivated a Sum at the 

PAUL VEBONESE. Bee Oaaliui. commencement of the revolntion en the oale- 

PAULA, St. FSasoib of. See Fsakoibof brated "neutral gnnmd" of Wertcheeter co. 

Pauiji. The depredations of tories and "cow boys" 

PAULOON. See Oohbubtik FAnxKiir. having oompeUed him to remove his fomily to 

PAULDING. L A H. W. 00. of Ga., drained a place of safety, he resided for several years 

by branches of the Chattahoochee and Talla- in Pleasant Valley, but after the peace retum- 

pooBS rivers ; area, about 400 sq. m. ; white pop. ed to WeetciieEt«r co., where young Panldintf 

mlSGO, 6,667; slaveein 1600,478. Itssurfaee passed his youth. His edncation-was aoqaired 

is nneven and traversed by derated ridges; the partlyat a neighboringvillsge school and partly 

soil in the valleys is fertile. The piodnctions by a coarse of self-instraotion, and abont the 

in 18G0, since which time its limits have been commencement of the IBth eentmy he removed 

reduced by the formation of new oountiea, were to New York, where a great portion of hia sab- 

306,019 bnshels of Indian com, &4,063 of oats, sequent life was psMed. Becoming intimate 

44,878 of sweet potatoes, and 1,489 bales of with Washington Irving, whose elder brother, 

cotton. There were 1& grist mills, 8 saw mills, William Irvina, had married Panlding's rister, 

4 tanneries, 16 ohurchos, and 824 pupils attend- he published m connection with liim a series 

ing pnblio sohools. Oapi(«l, Van Wert IL A of periodical essajs of a hnmorooa and satirical 

N. w. CO. of Ohio, bordering on Indiana, drain- character, entitled " Salmagundi, or the Whim- 

ed by tike Maamee and Anglaise rivers ; area, Whams and Opinions of Lancelot Langataff 

483 sq. m. ; pop. In 1860, 4,946. Its surface is and oth««," with whioh the career of each 

level, covered with forests, and the soil, a rich author commenced. This literary partnership 

vegetable mould, is very fertile. The prodnc- tenniosted with the qtpearanoe of the SOth 

dons in 1B60 were 41,690 bushels of Indian numbaron Jan. SS, 1608; bnt neither Panlding 

oom, 10,704 of wheat, 4,609 of oats, and 4,214 nor Irvmg ever attempted to make a divition 

of potatoes. It is intersected by the Wabash of thdr oontribntiona, and the whole is indnded 

and Erie and the Uiami extension canals, in tho stereotype editions of the works of the 

Oapit^Oharloe. former. TheBnecesa^"8aln)agnDdi" eneovr- 

PAULDINQ^ BjBtJt, an Amerioan naval offi- aged Panlding to devote hfanself to litw^are, 

cer, bom in Kew York abont 1800. He is a and abont the ctanmenoemeut of tiie war be- 

Iveeti flw United States and Great Britaii: he tcKtk ite name from one Panl, the son of Galll- 
paUiahed gweoe w ftiBy an allegorioa] satire en- nice, who with his brother John was its foand* 
titled "Ilie IHrtnting History of John Bull er. Another tradition refers the name to Panl 
■nd Brother Jonathan," In 181S appeared Ms the Armeiiian, a later teacher of the seat. The 
"Lay of lie Soottiah Fiddle," a parody of most probable theory is that whioh derives 
Scott's " Lay of the Last Minstrel," which was the name from the apostle Panl. The probable 
reprint«d in London. It wee folloved by tlie fbunder of the sect was Oonstantine, a Haroion- 
"United Btates and England" (1B14), a pam- ite preacher of Uauanalis, near Samosata on 
phlet defending American institntioiis tnm the the Enphratee, who took the name of BTlvaniuk 
attiwhi of the London "Quarterly Review," as that of one of P&nl'a companions (Silas), and 
whioh bronsht the author nnder the notioe of established the precedent, afterward dosely fol- 
Fremdent Madison, who ^)pointed him seore- lowed by (he hrethren of the sect, of assmning 
tary to th« board of navy oommlasioners. A the names of those who were friends of the 
vUttoTir^idainlSlOfliniishedtheinaterials great apostle. After 27 years of labor, Oon- 
fiir hb next work, " Letters from the Soath by stontine was put to death for the caose he 
ft Northern Man" (1617); and In 1816 he pnb- had esponsed, which had already aaatimed the 
liahedhis lootfeat and hMtpoem, "The Back- proportiotis of a formidable heresy. The offi- 
woodsman," tnoronghly American in scenery, oer Simoon, sent to pnt the heresy down, he- 
incidents, and sentimcDt In 181S he prodnoed came a convert, took the name of Titna, as- 
a second aeries of " Salmagnndi," written whol- sumed the leadership of the sect, and was in 
ij by himself and in 182S "A Sketch of Old his torn, after 8 years of toQ, bnmed at the 
England by a New England Man," followed in stake. His successor was Pan], nnder whosa 
18S4 by a ^milar work entitled "John Bnll eons, Tlmott^and Theodore, the xect was rent 
in America, or the New Mnnchansen," pur- by schism, Timothy holding to the transmis- 
tiortmg to be an English cockney's aoconnt of sion of spiritual gifts by apostolic sncces- 
hia tonr in the tTaitod States. In 1828 appear- sion, which Theodore rmected. Timothy 
ed his fir«t novel, " Eonigsmarke," followed (whose proper name was Gognfesios), having 
by "Merry Tales of the three Wise Men of adroitly managed to evade in his answers the 
Ckttbam" (18SS); "The Traveller's Gtdde" charges of heresy, was able to continue his 
(1628), snbsoqnently called " The New Pil- preaching for 80 years. On his death another 
grim'e Progress" in oonseqnenoe of a whimd- schism arose. The sect had gradnally increas- 
eal mistake aa to the character of its contents; ed and dtffnsed itself, until it was fonnd not' 
" Tales of the Good Woman" (1839), and the only In Syria and Armenia, hnt in the prov- 
"Book of St. Nicholas" (1880), which were inces of Asia Minor, Abont the beginning 
diiefly of a satirical character. "TbeDntch- of the 9th century, the conversion of the Gala- 
man's Xlreside" (1631), a story of the " old tian Bergins by a Panlician woman gave new 
A«aoh war," and commonly regarded aa his life to the sect. Under the new nsme of Ty- 
b«Bt work of fiction, passed throngh 6 editions ohions, he preached aa an oTSogotist with &.- 
in the oonrse of a year, was republished in defUigable zeal in every part of Asia Minor, 
Ltxtdon, and translated into the French and imitating the apostle not coi^in his dleoonrse, 
Ihrtch langtiagea. His next novel, "Westward hnt in his manner of Me, His enemies aeons- 
Ho I" (1888), the scene of which is laid princi- ed him of arrogating worship to himself as the 
pally in Kentooky, also mot with great sno- Paraclete. The PanlliMans were now driven 
oess. In ISSiy he pnbllshed a " life of Wash- beyond the territories of the empire to find 
ington" for yontb, and In the snocoedlng year protection fhim the Saracens, and reprisals 
a work entiled "Slavery in the Unit«d States," were made, until Sergics, thongh he had pro- 
in whioh ha defended tlutinslitntion on social, tested agahist this return of evil forevil, was 
MODomioal, and phyriological principles. In in 885 assassinated by a fimatic named Izanio. 
1687, bsviiig fbr a number of yean previous In spite of this persecntion, however, the sect 
held the pontlon of navy agent fbr the port of conUnned to grow and spread. Under th« 
New Ym-K, he was ^)pointed by Prendent Tan empress Theodora, a new expedition was sent 
Bnren aeoretary of the na^. In 1841 he re- to exterminate them ftvm Armenia, and 100,000 
lired U> a country seat at Hyde Park on the victims perished in this persecntion. In 949 
Hndaon riv«r, where the remainder of his life the emperor John Zimisces transported a larg« 
was passed. Ho wTot« two mora novels, "Tho nnraber of the sect to Philippopolis in Thraoe, 
Old Continental, or the Price of Liberty" whence they were able to extend themselves in 
(184A), and "The Puritan and his Dsnghter" Europe, not Instifying by any change o^Mth 
(184^. He also pablished anonymondy an the emperor b hope of their conversion, A 
illQElrated volume of stories entitled " A Gift similar attempt by Alexis Comnenus a cen- 
from Fairy lAnd" (1886), and in conjunction tnry later had hardly better success. The seot 
with his son, William Irving Paulding, a vol- continued to flourish under other names, and 
nme of " American Oomedies" (1647). the principles of the Paniieiana were perpetn- 
PADLIOIANS, a sect of esstem Christians ated by the Enchites, the Bogomiles, the Oa- 
irboat ormn is somewhat obscure. Photius than, the Waldenses, and to some extent by th« 
raraosea l£at the sect began in the 4th century, English disciples of WycUfTe.— The Paulicians 
ua was a variety of Maniotueism, and that it held that the evil spirit, bom of darkness and 



fire, wu th« creator of the lower world : that ment. He was prohibited from lejirii^ it • 

the Bonl of man, ori^nallj related to Glo^ had without a cartifioate from the parish ma^tnts, 

beea made llithle to Bin b? ita imioii with the and if he did ao waa to be whipped and sent * 

flesh; that all men are capable of recoyerj; back. In hia own parish ha might beg, thooKh 

that Ohrist came down from heaven, bringing he wsb liable to be compelled to work. The 

with him a bod7 of finer mould, wilh which aot 4S EUzsbeth, o. 8 (1601), waa a great od- 

he pasBcd back to heaven when hia work of re- Tonoe cmi the preyioaa poor laws, and remained 

demption was finished; tliat the mother of In force withoot mat«nal modifiution till ISM. 

Ohrist was not ainleaa or a proper object of It directed the overseers of the poor in each 

worship; that the cross was properly a symbol parish to take measares for emplojing the ohiJ- 

of Ohnst'a diffhsive love, and not of the corse dien of all parents who were thought nnobfe 

which he bore or of his vicarious snfi'ering, to i&aint«ui their children, as well as all sndi 

They danied the validity of the sacraments, in- persons as, haviog no means to muntiun them- 

terpreted spiritoally baptism and the Lord's sup- selves, did not practise any trade or labor to 

per, would not recognize any priestly dignity, earn a hvin?. For this pnrposa, a tax on real 

and insisted both in tne ritoal and in the house- and personal estate was to be levied, and all 

holds of the church npon mmplidty of onstoms. Isme, blind, old, and impotent persons were to 

They rated highly the study of Bcriptar& and be provided for ; children were to be put out 

especially honored those who would mulUply as apprentices, and a sufficient stock of flax, 

and expound its record. They made no scrapie heap, wool, and other material provided to 

of nsing fhlsehood in dealing with other sects, set the poor at work. Poorhous^ were to be 

and ware ready to deny their Mth when in- built by the chnrch wardens and overseera, to 

terest served. — The ancient authoritiea on the acoommodat« the impotent poor only. Per- 

history of the Faulidana are Fhotius, and Peter sons possessing means were to be assessed for 

of Sitdly, ambassador to Amtema of the em- the support of their poor kindred. In cases 

peror Basil (668). of bastardy, the putative father was compelled 

PAULUS, H^NBiOH K''>"i"*«" GoTTLOS, a to pay a certain sum weekly to the mother, 
Qennon Protestant theologian, bom in Leon- and in default of p^ment waa imprisiMied. 
berg, WOrtemherg, Sept. IflTSl, died in Heidel- The effect of thia provision was to maketlM 
berg, Aug. 10, 1851. He studied the oriental income of the unnjarried mother, in many in- 
Imguagea and divinity at Tfibini^ and Qottdng- stances, greater than that of the honest wift 
en, and made a voyage to Engund to examine and motber ; and as the parish sumwrted 
tha mannscript treasures in the libraries of Lon- the illegitimato children, it aotnally ofi^d a 
don and Oxford. Oubisretnmhomeinl78S he premium to licentionsness. Under these pro- 
was appointed professor of oriental languages visions, the expense of the support of paupers 
at Jena, which position he exchanged in 17M increased. In 1801 the expenditure for this 
for the chur of theology in the Bsmeunivertity. purpose was £4,017,871 ; in I81B it had risen 
In 1804 he became professor of theology at to £7,870,801, nearly donblmg in 17 years. 
WOrzburg, and in 1811 taught exegesis and For the IQ following years it ranged from 
philoeo^T at Heidelberg. Among hia works £6,000,000 to £7,000,000. The p<^dation of 
are: PhtiologiieA-hritueher vad hitlorueher Englondand Wales inl818waBll,67S,000, and 
CoiMMntar€£«rda*N«v«Tettameiit(lS00-'4!); theratoofpoorrehef per head to the population 
Dot I,A«nJetu(182S)i and Bxegeti»M€t Sarid- 6«. Oid. But such was the aversion of the peo- 
buch i^er die drei ertien Beangelien ^1880). pie to change, that, although several snccessiTe 

PAUPERISM. In every organized ctnn- oommissions aom 1801 to 1838 recommended 
munity there has existed a class of persons ob- plans of legislation, no material change woe 
taining their subsistence, partially or whoUy, made in the poor laws. In 1828 another nan- 
frt>m public relief. The best method of repress- mission was appointed, and continued Uiurin- 
ing panperism has been one of the most im- vestigationa for several years. Their report 
portant topics of consideration in the political in 1683 included a new system of poor Uwa, 
economy of all organized governments. Bo- which became a law in 1834. Retaining tie 
lon made provision against pauperism in his best features of the act of 1 601 , it ftirtber pro- 
Athenian code, directing that the slate shonld vldea for a central board of 8 commiamcmeTS 
adopt tha widows and orphans of those who for the general superintendence and control of 
fell in battle, and support those who were sQ bodies charged with tha management of 
wounded or (Usabled. "It is better," says the funds for the relief of the poor. Subordinate 
Roman code, " that vagabonds should be left to these ore 9 district commissioners, and the 
to die of hnnger, Qian that they should be whole are subject to the direction of uie aecre- 
supportcd in their b^^ng." Mendicity was tary of state for the home department. The 
disoonrsged and prohibited bv Oharlemagne oommisaioners are empowered to order work- 
and his successors, while liberal proviraou waa houses to be erected or hired, enlarged or al- 
made for the sick and snfi'ering poor. — In Eng- tered, with the consent of a n^jtnity of the 
hmd, all enactments for the suppression of hoa- board of guardians. They may unite a number 
gory having C^ed of effect, the effort was made of parishes in a poor law union, for the par- 
te ocmflne the beggar to his birthplace, or to pose of a more economical uid effective admin- 
the parish in which he had aoquired a settle- utration, but in snch a way that each lurish 


own poor. Ttopwid^ oomposin^ *W 1*t ^ISSSSSaiffiJilK^SJXSS: ^ 

UDioit elect their board of trnarnione, without « a fa attioai togtoUM- nur 

U»ooD»«to».m5|oriljrfwhominoa«c«i- gSSiaS'Si^SaS'aWS: "*• 

iiotMraiseaforbiiiiaiiigpiirpoees;buttheiiui»- tiaiu bejoDdOsiutnipoii^T??. .TTT^ mumo 

ten of the TOrkhoosM, and other paid offic«rEL B mUoeliMiwa. ct^nie. 8.M8 

are under the oideTaoftheoommiisionen, and Totdbamu £i,uuat 

remorable br tbem. No wages are pud to the LtiiatrMifi^&tpi>». 

poor ont of Uie poor rates, and exoept In extra- ib the woaiioiims ss,e40 

ortoery caaee relief U only given to Uw able. O"*""!^ ^"-^^ 

bodiedpoor and their &iniliee within the valla winteinimlMTnllnsd vit,-[4a 

jftb.,«tU,oj«,wh»»L*orl«™™todot fSffiSSSiSiS'iii-.V.SS 

toem in return for it The provtsionB in regard BipndUDT* ftrpom nuS'Soleiy smfK 

to iUeffitimate ehildreo are intended to materi- i 

ifflfXk b,.«.raj. Tk. p,t.ti™ ath.. If ssmasss'saif- ''•*™ 

pnMeontoi b required to pay the snm flied by _in Fnmoe, worthonaee were establiBhed for 

Ijw (Si. 6<t per weij) to the mdon Initeiid of tkt nble-bodied poor t 1613, by > decree of 

the mother, tod mother end ddld uro reoeiyed Jtoi, do' Hediof end It lym dlnoted that aU 

hiloth«woAho«ae. Theohlltoiiofpaopmi meoidliantoiliooldbeoonaiedlnthemaiidaet 

are edoeated la wor^o™ r^b. In tro to ,ork. In ipite of the worlhoMei ho». 

![!!r'?S""fTT.?'''"i!'"*^''.° "". >xm^ eontmied to mereaiTii the 

ooet oflhareDef of lie joor 40 p^ oent. A „,,„ ^fjZalB XIT. the BleStre wa. (bimded 

■taular wfltoin has been urirodaoed Into Ire- ^g » combined hospital, afljlnm, and alme- 

hmi The fdJoinng jtatntioe diowthodmiln- i,„n,„. !„ U9s a terrible amliTocoiirred to 

whed cost of the relief for the poor at penoda France, Then2C,000ofthepoorto Parte were 

SOyearaapart TiJIe U. im giroa some data ntterly deetitnte, and menafoano; waa necea- 

foracompariaon of the rcLef to Ihepoor m „^, pcroiltled. Haying once n««ned Ita 

London with that to Parte and Now Tort footbclS, It oonttonod tTbe one oflie crying 

Tuu L^-STAnRiiB or Fin-mmi m Enujm las erib of the country for the neit 100 yeara. In 

i^asun-diuc^^^irikl .. iimioc W»» 'orkhonaiia weij agi^ eA.blijhed, and 

a^^or'jSSnttlSild^iMW..™::.;::.: «S«^ mendicity Btemly prohibited. The decree of 

B«aipta from othn muBMiB iidofpcnrnK Uaroh 19, 1798, took thc grocnd that the aa- 

g^dflUtudM-nmnixiK^^iim BiBlanccof the poor waa a national debt, and 

■ . divided the ftinda apprcpidated to theb relief 

ofihi.«mttm™™i™itoMair«tiTL.*^'^"* " followa; tho aaeletancc of Ubor to the 

ttianUar<^Baapaa(fuEi^w^udiarM healthy poor, to time of dearth of labor or of 

liirM i i rfa arf m i nnii w i n n i i i^ wartton etbaild- Calamity; aaetetaoce (to money or provteiona) 

SftiE?2!S55'4S^tr*'""'".t £UH,fe9 at home to the inflAu poor, theif children; 

Tbe<rbo)*ramb«t«(p«ip«nLiSiiiJiiiduidWals tho old, and the tick; hospitale for the riok 

PaKraSc^pnoiitioii """m who had no homes, or oonld not be oared ft>r 

WibMt^uavtraiuOik'nuim'iniditaouMV/.V.V. lOT^OH there; foondllng hospitals and Bsrlmns for 

. ."^^. ^._J"i!^f^-i: !S^ abandoned io&utB, the dd, and the homeless 

5U^Sa!53teSi2Sri5.*:^;::::::::::::'SS:£? infirm; and aid for nnfores^n accidents. C 

na«p*Bditan>nraMnliActfifa« poor Mdei}', par polooQ I. forbade mendioitT br BeTore laws. 

Tir:i££f>S2SS&Sl;i;t- ***«£«« Boon after the aoce«ion of Lonis Philippe to 

ofttwxDBapsDdMdtndrftirnlKtben the throne a thorongh tnTeetigation ot tAe 

DSir^'£srSJSr!f^;;;:::;:";;-:-:2^S'""'*°'- ^hoie8abjMtofpmperimwasSiianited,and 

^teilt^b^i^i;^];^........: &«e - *^ oodererised, thebasisof anaadstaooe to mimOEttOtatA to, SU3 " the poor being the principle of inciting them 

HirfESh^^SSidKi";::::";:"-' iJm *" Mlf-mipport. There are now fewer men- 

!io.(irMiHl*pvWiwiKittiMiDd*d ui dioants in France tboit In anj other conn- 

£UmiMl.<wuaoeMowi8»(ifi&siuii,AD*ili« poor are aasisted, whero saeutaQco IS neoessaiT, 

p^BiatHm hid inoMMd nwuUnM BfiS^ tAQitx at their homes or in workhonses (dipSU 

Tabu n^Lonwa ToumuT Ohauum » ten ^ ^ mMdiaiti) ; the sidk and infirm poor are 

isbMUdihntaaufaMomaat. <go(v»0 ftbrnidantlf prorided for in 1,881 hoKiltals, 

^*"2mj»«JJJJ«2^«'B'*indl»«lUi. asylnms, and hospital aaylnms; and fonnd- 

iipSSot^^uid^StomitoriMli''^!"!: ^Eoo ^i^S^i orphans, and abandoned cMldrwi, in 

isdMrUkihrnB«f«ftiudMtitat«,b«wflciiig fonndliag hoflpitslsand orphan asflmns. Yet 

uSSflS^-dibtiii;^d^Vi;iiii; "^ tl»«" *« » «t«»dy in<M;eMe rf abl^bpdied pi«.- 

*e- torn pers in a larger proportion than the mcawase of 

^i'hSiaS'^**'^"'*"''''""'"'' 101X0 the population. ThieinoroaBeinl868,aBoom- 

ijprarMwttiodi^i:":::::::::::::::::::'.: SooS psredwith the epreoedmg years, was tI, of i 

iliwMiaB«wUtia^tinianiiiigi,doapaiK[ia.... oajMB per ooHt On the other hmd, the number of 
nli>l.>dMi«ol.piu«lr<d>^t.SKUnd... IM^ the Biok and inflran Is gradual^ deoresKDg, the 
- - ise^ns diminntion being S.SS in every 1,000 inhabl- 

TOuxm. — 4 



tanta in IStlS, as compared with ttie S precod- The nrntnal relief sooieliea of Fr&noe do mnoli 

tug jean : and the number of fotmdlings and to benefit the poor and prevent panperism. 

abandoned children in 1BC8, as compared with The members are ahnrat exolnsivel; from the 

the 17 Tears preceding, had diminished 68 per laboring olasseB. In 1669 there were of tfaeM 

cent. The following tables show the amoont aodeties: 

and kinds of relief to the poor in Franoe in Apanrsdbjrgartnuiwiit i,tTi 

1868, the latest year for which fall returns Aa&,aii»i - ^^'ntiS 

have been made pnbuc: ^iESS^^CS^^Sib^::::":::;-.::" Its 

iw^ -wtai ooxraitoa or mnam TMOM. Tbt gvfa]Ma<m otVnaix ia IXt vrm SSfn%tm 

MC^'^^tfLSS <»..».» The M«™, «^. T.m„ to p.,,«i- 

laSy.. SSitBie in Pans are of interest: 

?''^!!l!!!;?J?i?5Li—>i:;;v™ J^W:1& Poi»i»uoiirfp«rmMn (m^qr 

'^"'^^.'a.*"™™"™™™™™*" ..« Hii,rfllleglHiii«tBblrtlifclnmlotilof B8,SM,lnlBI» ie,Bn 

™^?^.S^ SS Mo,<rfb«Silnth»h<milWtao(PuS«tolte! 

Ditto, MBi... „..,.......„ M.n In iHwrftal* proper <,T« 

<Ln In Aiuiimiic hoBiuii ew— n.iti 

■"*' CoWof wipport ot flu hemlMlfc wjtiiiiii, mmI nrlim 

„_ hoBlUitiiPuialiklsn .... fLWC«l 

*-» C<»ts(vofUuHuei(<«pMid4bln>«Ktiotti)-- —•— 

> ttorBign pupan SS(L4II 

liBl^u «l,4n 

Dlttt^islB.....^ iM xoW • 

.d<r{Nmt,(nil£«p<(a{^tj%HM — Itwyt Spam, and Portugal have been oxer- 

ToWniimborotbo^itilsMiduylnintlnFniica I,»i ran with beggars from time immemorial. Hol- 

HonAtiiifcr uw gick >]«■>... v,-v;i;' SS land and Belginm, too, have dnrinit the pree- 

H«idtd ttjim^ta HMnoTbUBd, dut- ent centnry at least been remarkable for the 

-nntoLiiUatiLAfr ,_SS nnmher of thrff panpera. In 1865 the formtc 

iSSSSSr.ff.lS'Siiii;: BS co«>tryhrf280,000p<K,rr«»l™g«ri««,«, 

' ' lainiSM aaoM or 1 to everr 13 inhabitantfl; and the expend]- 

AdiiiW«up.ri^tnhibttuuioi858 itot ""^ ^' V^™^ reiiei was aoont f^ooo.uuo, or 

Totil oiponJo tor 18S8 mL*Bi,a79 71.4 cta. to every mhabitant. The religions 

DiUt nimfa upenae fbr ncli lanute IM cli. to iT.l cta. ienoniination to wMoh the panper belonire iS 

SSi'SSSBStSS !SSi .ffi" " "■*' •"p<«*«i » .«rt«o him, »S it b o,j, .h«n 

uUa S8is,iBS their means are exhausted that the goTemment 

JStf^ iS**! ■•*?* in ■with ita aid. Aside from this govern- 

ffliiiftrtii liiidw-'iB jiiri """.'.'.'.''.'.'.'."."," 4»,»1B ment assistance, there were 3,884 societies for 

DcBtha 1b fliB uylnnu ind Brltun hoR^til* la ^dlng the poor at their homes, of which SGS 

lE'S"h^ii;'ft;'thi'ili"."f.i:".".:.rV*."a!S'^ were in the towns, snd 3,628 in the conntiy. 

IIL anidrm aHittad,in ibundOne EdtpttaU, orjAim Belgium has the repntadon of being the pow- 

Atj^vnu, Ae. est conntry in Europe ; a large proportion of 

A-mmMran^nniDberofciiiidMninuTinnu, its peasantry never taste meat, but eabsistoa 

nZuTIS"^'""'''"'"^'"'"^ ."■ K vegetables and the black breadV the conntry. 

Annn*iBipMi»ofU»ir>opiwrtiBiB*8-^'M.... tt,Bn,i»T In 1846 it had 699,867 paupers, or I to B.SO 

WaeUy o^enMiD isiB-tn ICLSO.B poorest portlos of the kingdom, having 400,- 

jumMl6ip«i«»ri|»aini8e8 •list OOO panpers to 1,400,000 inhabitants, or 1 to 

<MttiJi^^taMytani'*i,"fii'M«;Uwo»w»: 8,6 inhabitants. There has been conaderable 

Ponirflinei nai improvement linoe 1846, and a large nnm- 

taSS' ^"^Tfl?."^™::::: \m ^^ »" "^^ ^ •*« ahnahouses, woSionsa, 

TemponriiViniitAd.'.' M^ ^°d reformatories, who were formerly mendi- 

p™^™o('ih««ehiidrMito],o»iiihrt4t«iii. canto. Thronghont the states of GerTnany 

Di5«l%..v.v.v.".':."v:::::::::::".::;::::'.: us (with the eingTe exception, we beiieve, of sa- 

Proportiira to iw Mrtu In 1B«-M 9.TS varia) mendicity is strictly prohibited, and the 

P«™"Bti«(rfdl»thi"iiii8«^..."":".:::" mU P^per is remanded generaUy to the pariah 

- " 1808 ait where he was bom, which is liaUe for hit 

p«r»ntww«M™™orinibnt™dtoi8».-M 1^ Bupport, and employs him in its workhoow, 

□ , ., _,._i,_u 1. '" if he is able to labor. In Bavaria there is a 

8™mug.pth«»it.>llrtic.,^.h.T.: privileged ola» of b.ggu^ In »ver J of the 

HSSKmK'SSWSiiiBui !SS «■*" there 1.. poor tod, deriTOd from th. 

roandUig boqtitiiB, oipbui ujiami, &a. ifiofies oonflscataoQ, Of the convents at the time of 

'^^.^Ji^to^i*^*"**''"" LBtLooo tl»o "fo™«*ion. In Sweden, eaoh commone 

^laimfprt^rM^miaiiaiKJV.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. i^^floa OF parish is charged with the support of its re»- 

CItU iw, »ld to uuHtntioiB, pouioiH lo ident poor, and in many of the parishes the 

«oB»d<ia»>idl«^te. • ''T'^W foandirtions,legadea, and gifts for the relief of 

ToU nr.sssw the poor are so large as to reqnire v«ry little 



adffiioiMl tax«&m. The abandoned panpw, Tuu iT^PMroiM a KuucEmnn. 

or one irfao has acqaired no noidence, ia com- <>•. I'M. 

pelkd to enter the army or nayy. or, if nnfit 2?S?^lS°SrSid^to-;tail "' « 

RT either, mnat labor on the imblio works, or bantM ii,sm ilmi 

in a honao of oorreotion. In Denmark, aaaiat- *1?S?^ "*" "^ ''~'"'™" "*.,«.«_ „™-,. 

ADM ia reorded aa an adnnce made to the HSb;;<iii»™',;iUVid iB;tei. "^^ R,**,*!! 

iMmpflr, which he mnrt repay by hia labor. . i">oi« ii,b« lajtta 

TbipMishdergynwn, the loW director of the *iS£."!f;^"'!!!?^..'?..'!^ >ih 

poSoe^ And one or more notables or property Anne* wiiiii oott of (ojiport of 

ISS^con«ita»th.b«rfto,UofX.p- jSS.SSeUSJ'JiSSE.-ii Sm Vi& 

UKsbona for relief mnat be made. There are bUuutodTiiusofpuipeTliborintht 

legal provi»ons for the relief of parishes which q^^^"*" *^ti **i^»I 

ire orerbaraed with paupers. In RneaiH, pan- Weekly f^^'^ Irf' oaidiir piii * 

p«ra have been of two kinds, serfe and ne«. pnfaead 11.10 |I.M 

nw mastera are compelled to provide for bU HZbS»h?Kn^S"'Sw™nt **" 

iha needa of the pauper serf. The serfs on tiitb*aUM ufiit ii,ns 

ite crown lands, if sick, most be supported br 5"™!?" jlSfS" E?'''*" SS Si! 

BfiT fHuhea, Orj If they are unable, by the Pupan in Bnueqneoeeor Intunpv- 

^•riah. The panshes in the crown lands have "™ ;■■■■■ IM» iTiW 

partiaUj endowed. The emancipation of the B*t upnuutan for tha uppoit of 

HI the poor lAwa. In Tniley, amoiw the Mo- Movportwittpabiiotiiiaiaa. ynt 

hmu neda na, ^msgJTfaig fa cwaidereJaa eqnal- a a. »W -0«u»«*«. m«t «,«*« a( Jfert^ff-*' 

It a aalBj with prayer; the {dona Itoelem de- /iiaiKt 

Totca Uie tenth of his income to the poor, KuDberittbrgiiiiiiDKDrtiicyeir..... s,i«) i,<»t 

ud sU the moaques have treasuries for their ^^^^SbiJ* "* '*" Sllu 7^ 

lien^t. ICoet m tbe aaltans have endowed Dtaduured....!!!!!!!!""!!'.!!!!!!! T/ss ^^ 

hospitals and aaylums for the sick, the Inflrm, dw loi *at 

•leMtortiinate, the insane, and the blmd.- ^STSUSir "^ ^ '^^'*' tun fi OD 

h) tbe United States, different systems of Ditto u Kdmrord'i lalud vLn 

^o«g«menta« adopted mdiffe«mt portion^ ^^:r'^.'^??:^.f^,^: ^mm !.«,«» 

m the conn^. In Sew England, the general For itete (•open not in anuhmui*. fajiVt 

fsstorea of the English ]aw of 1601, though '"^St^'^K^jS^''' "" ""' ""* ,™bm rstMS 

TithoBt ita perversions, are preserved. The pmniitiononfcSii'oJetuinVwii.'. i^i,«4 j,m|«4 

readent p«npen are oared for in the parishes or Bate nr head oTpoiiaiitiDi] of ttuei- 

wwn»li»wSioh they were bom or have gained P«^««" *» P*"**" WJae lotM 

* MttlaiMnt. Bomedmea, where a &mily seem In ITew York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and most of 

likely to becocue panpera, their taxes are re- the older western and middle statM, care of the 

mitted for s aeriea of years by the town offioers, poor devolves Qpon county officers. Each oonn- 

toprerent th^ graiiu; a settlement. In the t7luisitsBlmshonBe,itsworkhoQ8e,anditagao], 

■laQer towna the able-bodied paupers receive and themorepopolons ones often also an insane 

wly temporary and occadooal relief, while the hospital. In these institntions tbe feeble and 

infirm, aged, or demented are provided for at infirm or insane pauper is cared for, and the 

t pooihonse, or a oontraot is made for their able-bo^ed oom^ellea to work, usually on the 

raffiort wi^ some citizen, who in bidding for ooonty taxm, which commonly oonsista of fyom 

it takes into accomit his ability to exact some 100 toSOOaores of land. Theamoont of labOT 

Iibor from them. Inthelargertownstbepoor- acoompUshed is but little, and does not mote- 

lioiuee or olmahousea have usually some land rially lessen the coat of support of the paupers, 

toaohed to them, and often workrooms for Thereisalsoprovision forrendering temporary 

(jther rimple labor, where such as are able to and occasional assistance to the outdoor poor. 

TDik are employed. Occasional and tempo- In New Tork, aa the great receiving port of 

rary asaisUnce is also rendered to the out- foreign immigration, a board of commissioners 

door poor st th«r homes, usually either in of emigration has been appointed by the state, 

tiod or fhel, though sometimes in dothing and who levy a tax of $2 on each immigrant arriv- 

anall sonis of money. There are beside, in all Ing at the port, or require bonds bom the own- 

the larger towna, ben^oent sooietieB, widows' ers of the immigrant ships that they shall not 

lociedes, and orfdian ai^loms, which ^d in the become chargeable to the state within S years, 

rtliefof the poor; and the religions denomino- These oommissioners have established on 

tioos to some extent provide fi)r their own Vard's island, New York, a hospital, reftage, 

poor members. There are state almshouses insane ho^ital, &c., where the foreign paupers 

for fiveiga paupers, or for Uioee who, from arriving there are maintained till the 5 years 

snjeaiise^hi^enotg^ed a settlement. Table ore completed, when, if they still continae 

IT. df ea the panper atatistke of Hassacbusetts paupers, ^vj are tamed over to the state an- 

for t^ yeora 1858 and 18C9, which Aimish a thorities. l^e commisuoners of emigration 

fur example of the New England ^stem. ore also liable for the mointenanoe of any for- 



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eign pMipem wbo, vithin fb« K jrean, httre b«* ment, exAeedlsg, ftooording to th« best aotbori- 

oome olumable to an; ot the isoaatj ahna- ties, IB per cent, of the irlude mnnber of pas- 

hoiiBMOft£«>tBt«. The state has slao prorid- puv, the oost for the support and relief tn the 

ed for the treatment of the paoper insane, and poor is In proportion to the pofnlation Ian 

tibe instmotaon ot joxasg deu am dumb, blind, than half in the state, and eren u the titj at 

and idiotao paiqwrs. New York bat abont half, that of England. 

Tamim Y^Tavtw^mm u, th B>ai> of Siw Ton ^ ^^ riaveholdhig states, tie ohUg^on <rf^ 

(umain ntSaw Turk ud Ananj ooimtiB). master to Bnpport the aged, eiek, neble, innrm, 

iM. ita. or mentallr disordered slave, has obvi^ed to * 

JrfSShSSi*"*' tu^Sa ^'*" considerable degree the necessity of panper 

Mtdincd t* rfiii-' '^^'^ laws. The state goremment, or the oodttr 

"Mivi::-" BS SSS "nthorities, in case of general loss of bread 

rS^SSS^.^.f^;; i^ i*^ crops, appropriate a apecttedanm, to be r^aed 

*■ feuiBi.. .'..'.... iM ana bytaziand apportioned to the poordtherln 

SSESK?aSS".''r?'^: Smt ^^ money or breadetoffii. In the new rtatea, the 

VilMoriiborcfHnpai NMM HD,B8T poor laws are not m all oasea rojlf dlgeated 

AsKMBtoqmMfbrdtDiAaiMaTdiet M8t,i>o nH^oi and In eacoessfbl operation, bnt they are geD> 

.. ^. „j_^ jfi^ eraUyonthemoddofthoseofNewToAand 

»T,i« lfn,Ki Ohio.— SeeDr. B. Bun, "The Hlatorrof the 

u««^g^«j«Mo«rp™... iotSi (bio^ p^^ Laws" (8vo., London, 1764); BkV.1L 

wS^^itS^TJiirf toiii: ^ ■■■■ Kden, "The State of the Poor, or ffiatorr of 

^jioiitpi Mit^ tittd......... ........ W.*J •CLU tbe Laboring Olastee in En^and from the 0<Hi- 

"'"' " ""' *~ flun SpeBt"^vda.4to., London, 1797) ;flirQe«fg« 

M» Hioholl, " Hifltoriea of the English, Bcotoh, and 

"g tirii Poor Laws" (4_ toU., London, 1854-^8); 

8U Stephen Oolwell, "Themes for the Protestant 

DMia^»b«w> VM MM OlorgT, by a Layman" (pUladelpbJa, ISW); 

^'^rtTT:^'.!^.!^'"^: .... tVM 0.dl^onokSiV2«cAori«rfPaaSfi«wI 

PHWcuidinBiidnis;«inariit* ti,n vn SKow (BmsBels) ; H. A. Frigier, Jkt rfftawa^a*- 

^.«l«.au»i»fcfinpponofi«i.^^^ «MtBOT ff^rmaei de la pojmlatwn doiu U grandtt tiOtt 

Fi^ia^'A"6^'iiiU'ii'v'^'i'-A •'-«•■" « vols. 8to., Parts, 1840); Ohristt^eMorean, 

inis«o(*xoantamiKm>. S,iiMW MVMW Z>u preilime de la mitire et de n tAutim (S 

flffSr?.*!?: lo^ |o.4iiT VOL). 8vo., Paria, 1861). 

™poOT;_^... w «» PAOBANIAS, a Spartan general, son of Oe- 

aSSStrf'SXJ^'t^aS*^ *^**^ "^ ombrotoe and nephew of &onidaa, belonging 

Id Haw ToAdt; (■imiiunua d» to the iL^ branch of the royal fsnilf. Heeno- 

FBtDenn...... -waipMi IS4M1 oeededhia&therBBgnardianoftheyoniigUng 

"^S^S^^fiS^to'SS; PHatarohML the eon of Leonidaa, whlS^offlS 

sS^Kr. t?V7. tan.* *mi« he retained nntjl his death. He first emnei 

^■^SJ^^toSSo it«wr i,TKU« into notice as leader of the comWnedtoroei of 

vSSavlti*^ a papiiaim'Wai the Greeks tn the great battle at Platffift amlnat 

^m«tanfctt£.pMTiD tbu' the Perrians nnder Mardonina in 47» B. a 

tt»rt^»«vtAiiW(« mu «U(Li The sQcoessfhlreenlt of the battle gave hfan so 

In the dtr ct New York, tie charge of the poor high a repatsdon, that in 478 be vas choaen 
and of crtminsla is in the hands of a boara of oommander of the fleet destined to sot sgidiwt 
4 oranmisrioners of obantiea and OOneotionB, thePersians. ThearmamentfintaaUfldagainst 
ander whose care are the BeiQeTne hoipital, in Oypnu, and restored to freedom most of tb« 
the dty; the slmshonies, woAbonseik inssne <^ies ot that Island, and then tnmtng to the 
■s^mn, island homital, small pox hospital, and Thradan Boqxmis rednced Byzantiom. The 
penitentiaiy, on Butokwell's island; 4ettyprlS' natnral insolence of Psasaniss now beoam* 
ons on NevTork island: the BandaB*ais)aDd eonqdcnona. After the battle of I^atna be 
nnrsery, and tie nursery bos^tal, on Randan's had bealM^ lliebes, and hsTing obtained pos- 
island; and the laty oemetery, on Ward's isl- session of Timagenidas, a leader of the Hedis- 
snd; uie charge of tie ontdoor poor and par- ing fiiotion, had carried him to Oorinli and 
tiaDy of the ottered home and odored orphan pnt him to deati without tiiaL In tie tripod 
si^mn. There are also In lie dtr a great dedicated at Delphi by the viotoriana Oreeks, 
number of societies and inatitntlonB having fbr be styled himself alone aa the leader of tie 
their obtoot Uie relief of tbe poor, or of par- Greeks and destroyer of the Fenians ; vrhioh 
ticnlar clasees of them. Te uve eadeaTored inscription wsa snbseqnently erased by the I*- 
to bring the stadstica of these t<%etier, so aa oedamonians themselves, who snbsntnted in 
toesbiUt at one view the public oharities of plaoeofhiinanie the names of the oonfoderate 
the dty. (See table YL on the preceding nations engaged in the battle. Uptm tie cap- 
page.) It will be observed that a large ma- tore of Byzanldnm he connived at tie eaoqte 
iori^ of those receiving relief are eitier of of the Perdan prisoners, who carried a letter 
foreign birA or bnt one remove from it Tet to Xerxes, oflbring to bring onder hts domhdoil 
notimhstaQding Uda very large teeign ele- Snarta and the rest of Greece, and demanding 


in retorn the hand of his daughter In marriagQ, The minnteneea and completenees of his de- 

siid thst a coTtBdeotial persoa nhonld be sent BoriptionB prove that he most hare visited per- 

to the seahoard, throogh whom to oorreapond. sonaliT all or nearly all the plaoee' vhioh he 

The Persian monarch acceded to these propo- deaoribee, and it is also probable that he had 

sidons, promising to fomish as tnach money Tisit«d the islands of the Mgmaii, Rome, Pales- 

and as manj men as wonld bo needed, and tine, and other parte of Sjria, His books era 

sending Artabazns down to treat with him. chiefly taken ap with descriptions of antiqni- 

PaQBanias now became more arrogant than ties, etataee, pictures, and pablic edifices, and 

ever. He aaamned the Persian dress, imitated the phfsioal peonliarities of the coontrics in 

the lamrions conduct of the Persian ohie&, which he trayelled. All the mjtholo^cal 

and ioameyed throogh Thrace with a body of tales connected with these are narrated. Tho 

Peraan and Egyptian goards. His treasonable general fidelity of hia topographical desorip- 

course at length came to the ears of the Spar- tioo has been thoroaghly tested by modern an- 

tans, and he waa recalled; bntalthonghpntapon thors. The first edition of his work, which 

trial, there was no evidence snffident to con- wss exceedingly incorrect, was printed by Al- 

viot him of treachery. Under pretenoe of tak- dng at Yenice (fbl., 1616). Since then there 

ing part in the war, he now sailed to Byzan- have been several, of whidi the latest are those 

tlnm, snd, resnming his oorreH)ondeiLoe with of J. H. 0. Schnbart and 0. Walz (8 vols. 8vo., 

ArUbazns, so conducted himself that the Athe- Lelpsio, 1888-'40), and of Dindorf (Paris, 

nians expelled him from t^e dty. He then l&U), The "Itinerary" was translated into 

retired to OolonnBa in Troas, where he con- En^ieh by Thomas Taylor (8 vols. Bvo., Lon- 

tinned his commonioationH with the Persians, don, 1798-'^. 

mitil he received a peremptory order from PAUSIA^ a Greek painter, a native and 

Sparta to return. Upon hia arriva] he was remdentof Bicyon, whofionriahedbetween 860 

immediately imprisoned, but soon released on and SSO B. 0. He was instructed by Pamphi- 

hts demand for trial, in which be trusted to Ine, and was a contemporary of Aristides, Me- 

olear himself by tiie use of money. Unob was lonthins, and Apelles. Pliny says that be was 

nected, bat inasmuch as nothing seriona psrticiUarly distingaished as a painter in en- 
i be proved, he remained at liberty and oansdo witii the cettTian, and be is believed to 
prosecuted his designs, and to carry them out have been the first to decorate the ceilings and 
tampered with the helots, to whom he ofi'ered walb of houses in this style. He was fond of 
freedom and the rights of oitizenship. Al- painting small pictures of boys, and from hia 
though some of the helots themselves divnl^ed intimacy with Glycera, a fiower ^1, whose 
the plot, the ephors feared to take decisive portrait by him ia highly extolled by Pliny, ho 
measures against a man of his position. At acqnired great skill in fiower punting, Aa- 
length an Argilian slave, who was intmeted other celebrated painting by him, representing 
wiu A letter to Artabazna, noticing that none a sacrifice, and remarkable for the foresbortea- 
of the previooa . messengers had come back, ing of the victim and the strong relief of the 
broke the seal and discovered that he waa to enrronnding fignres, was preserved in the por- 
be put to death. He immediately showed the tioo of Pompey at Rome. This st^le of paints 
letter to the ephors, and by their direction took ing is said to have originated with Pausias. 
refuge in the temple of Heptnne at Teenarofl, The greater part of his paintings were probably 
wheretwo of the ephorshid themselves. There transported to Rome when Bicyonwas obl^ed, 
they heard the conversation of Pansanias with in order to pay her debts, to part with all her 
his slave, which left no donht of his guilt. As art treasures which were pnhUe property, 
he woa about to be arrested in the street, he PATJW, Ooksbliits di, sometimes called 
fled to the temple of Athena Chalciceous, Niooiab, a Dntch historical wril«r, bom In Am- 
where he was waQed in, his own mother being sterdam in 1789, died in Xanten in 1799. Ha 
i^d to have 1^ one of the first stones for this was educated at GOttingen, and obtained 
purpose. He was carried out as he was dying through the influence of hie brother-in-law, the 
to save the temple from pollution. The data father of the revolutionist Anocharsia Ctoots, 
of his death Is later than 471 B. 0. Ha left 8 the ofRoe of canon of Xanten, in the dnohy 
sons, of whom Pliatoanax became one of the of Oleves. Bnbseqnently he wai made reader 
kings of 8p^^ to Frederic II. of Prussia. He wrote several 
PAIISAEnA8,aOreektopompher,sappoMd works In French, one of which waa SeehtreAet 
to have been bom in Lydla. Notning is known tur lei Amineaint (Svo., Berlin, 1770 and 1773), 
of his life except what be himself tells us, and designed to prove " the native inferiority of 
fromhimweleamthathewasengagedonapart the savage Americana." In the parts relat- 
or his work In the time of Antoninus Pius, who ing to Paraguay he bitterly assailed the Jes- 
died A. D. 161, and wrote his 8tb book dnring nits, and bis attacks on them made bhn nnpop- 
the latter part of the reign of Uarous Aurelius, nlar with the Catholic clergy. Another work, 
which dosed in 180. Eis work is entitled l^t Secherehet tur let ^yptUta et let Chinci* (2 
'EXXoSot nifuiryijinc, "Itinerary of Greece," vols. 8vo., BerHn, 1774; translated into Eng- 
wUch Is divided into 10 books, and comprises lish by Capt J. Thomson, S vols. 8vo., Lon- 
descriptions of the whole of Peloponnesns and don, 1796), was designed to prove " that no 
of the most iuterestmg parts of Hellas proper, two nations ever resembled each other leaa 


FAT£lf£KT fifi 

tbsD the Egjpdaai and the Ohiiiese." In this of the militarr roads, moiiT of which weia cou- 
treatue heobearea that both nAtioDs were cy>ii- stracted 'with unmeiue lebor throagh hiUg and 
denmed "to an «tenuJ medioorit;." His S^ mauea of rook, and, hy bridges and embank- 
cK&rehn «w in Qnet (S Tola. 8to., Berlin, 1767) ments, through ewampe oud aoroaa ravlaefl and 
TM tamnalatad into EngHah (London, ITBSV In riTera. The fioora of Bomau booaes were 
oonnqnenoe of the invauon of the i^mj of paved with pieces of bricka, tiles, etoaea, ha, \ 
CleTeslo'Ote]Krenclirevolnt3ouar7ami7,Panw sometimea with tiles grosnd to powder and 
beoame anbject to melancbolj, and horned his mixed in with mortar ; and agun witii pieces 
S»eh«rthn wr let Qenuatit, which waa never of marble imbedded in a cement gronno, and 
paUiahed. Althou^ a man of great learning well beaten or rammed down, whenoe the 
and abilitj, he waa exceeding!; dogmado in name pontiMntwn. Uoeaio pavementa were 
all hi a •tTTi tmgg. first made in the time of Bjlla, by whom, ao- 
FAVEUENT (Lat. jfOfMumtum, &om]»mo, cording to Flinj, one waa constmoted in the 
to beat or ram down), a hard covering of stona temple of Foctnne at Prnneste. Thej beoame 
irmi, wood, brick, cemen^ or aepbaltnm and -^vrj common in the bonaea of Fompeii, and 
sand for roads, wslka, and floors 01 hoosea. As were there prodaced with great taste in a 
stated h^ Bec^mann, the earliest mention^of varietvof beantifalpftttems,iniaarbleofdifier- 
paved highways is of thoee i>re^ed b^ Semi- ent colore, in tiles, and even glasa, aet In a £ne 
rsn^ aooordinK to the inscription which she cement and laid upon a deep bed of mortar. 
aet np, recorded by Yalerins Masimas, lib. iii. Some oftbededgns were of figures and scenes in 
cap. 7. Mdoma states that the Oartha^niana aotnal life, being really pioturea in mosuc An 
had Uie first paved roads. The streets of Rome aococnt was presented to tbe Britisih assooia- 
wMe not paved in the time of its kings ; bnt tion in 1850, ty Prof. Bnckman, of an ancient 
the ^[dan w^ waa constmoted h^ Appins Roman pavement discovered at CireuceEter, in 
Glandms 1S8 yean after their expoMon ; and which appeared a medallion of Flora with a 
many of tbe streets are known to have been head dress and fiowers of verdigris green when 
pared with stone in the 4th and 6th centmies first uncovered. This being scraped off, the 
after the bnilding of the city. Pavements of portion of tbe pavement beneath was fonnd to 
Uooka of lava worn into mU by the wheels of be a beantifnl raby glass, tiae color of which 
carriages are met with in Herculanenm and was derived from peroxide of copper, and this 
PconpraL From the descriptions of pavements hy decomporition had become converted ex- 
given hy Yitrnvias, together with tbe poem of temally into the green carbonate of copper. — ■ 
Btatina (m the Yia Domitiana and Uie frag- Though the paved roads of the ancient Romans 
ments of ancient paving still remaining, a very sorpaas all other stmctnres of the kind that 
clear idea may be formed of the care given by have been made by civilized nations since th^dr 
tbe Romans to tbe constmctdon of their fa- time, there are found in Fern remans c^ 
mona roads. These were l^d ont with a width works of a similar kind of unknown age, and 
of frcHD 8 to IB ftet by excavating a shallow exceeding them in grandenr and extent. Snch 
trench aloiw each tide. The qiace between were the great roads from Quito to Ga&;o, and 
these ma l£w dng down to a solid hed, or if continued south toward CbUi, laid oat throng 
this could not be reached piles were driven, monntaiuons and almost impassable re^ons 
upon -trUeh the materials of the road might be for distances variously estimated from ],S00 to 
supported. The lowest coursewas of broken 3,000m.,and about^O feetin breadth. "They 
stonea, none smaller than the fist ; over these were boilt of heavy flogs of freestone, and in 
waa a conrse S inches thick of rubble work, some parts at least covered with a bituminous 
or broken stonea cemented with Ume, well cement, which time has made harder than tbe 
rammed ; over thia was a conrse 6 inches thick stone itself." (Prescott, " Conquest of Fern," 
of finer materials, chiefly broken bricks and vol. L p. 63.) In Central America, among the 
pleoea of pottery, alao cemented with lime ; and mins of Falenqne, are also found pavements of 
np<Mi this was laid the jioMSMntum, which con- large square blocks of stone couBtmoted with 
dated of large polygonal blocks of the hardest great sliill and nicety. — In Europe during the 
rilicions stonea, sometimes of bassltic Ists, of middle ages comparatively little attention was 
irr^nlar tarv^ and nicely fitted together in a given to the paving of streets and roads. Cor- 
Bort of mosaic. In the dties the slabs of dova in Spun was paved in 8G0 by Abderrah- 
stone were sometimes of rectangnlar form and man II., Uie 4th caliph. Btreetfi in Paria were 
of softer material, as in the forum of Tr^an, first paved in 1164 by Philip Augnstns. The 
whkh was paved with travertine. In every improvement extended over the " Cross of 
iDStance gr^ care waa taken to fit the stones Paris," as it was called — two principal streets 
to eadi other so as to produce a perfectly even crossbig each other at right angles. In 1863, 
mrface. Stones corresponding to cnrb stones in excavating for a aewer in tbe me St. Denis, 
were sometimes set np to sustun a narrow this ancient pavement was met with about 8 
gravel walk on each side of the road, and some Inches below the surface. It consisted of blockt 
of theae were raised so as to serve for mounting of stone abont 4 inches long and 7 thick. A 
blocks for travellers on horseback. The Ro- few inches below this was found the still more 
~ ined to give great attention to the ancient roadway of gravel of tbe period of the 
e of the pnhlio ways in the city and Roman emperors. Many of tbe streets of Lon- 



don were in a perilom condition by reason of requlrina any repair, Tlio pavement has elnce 

deep pits and ^ongfas even as bte as the^ 16tb been lua in otber streets in Boston, and alao 

and yiQi oentoriei. Holbom was paved bj in Ohioago and other cities of the 17iiit«d 

rojal command in 1417 ; but the great market State* ; and it is highly Tecommended for its 

of SmHliflald remained witliont pavement SOO dnrabili^, the secnre footing it affords to 

years ]<»iger. — ^In modem times variooa methods horses, and its freedom from noise. On ao- 

and mateiials of paving have bera) employed, oonnt of its keeping long in good repair, it ia 

bi Holland all tiie streets are paved vith bricks, regarded as not oomparativ^ an expcnislTe 

and these ere alao nsed for the same pnrpoae fn pavement. Kr. Nicholson found its ccst in 

Tenioe. They obviously lack the strength and Boston wm sometimes a little nnder and some- 

dnrability reqaired for the passage over them times a littie over $3 per square yard, alloiv- 

of heavy loads. In other cities, instead of the ^ nothing for the patent riKht. At the 

broad flat stones nsed by the Bomans, roonded West it Is fonnd better to nse aari -wood ia- 

pebbles ot a few inohes diameter, called cobble stead of hemlock, pine, or spmoe, though no 

stones, found among the gravel of the dUnvimn doabt at increased cost. The wood may also 

or Blong sea and river beaches^ have been very be advantageously protected &om decay by 

generally used. These, when of lurd stone, kyaniting or by the appUoatioa of the solution 

dosely set, and well rammed down in a bed of of ohloride of zinc. In use It is fonnd that the 

Svel or sand, form an eoonomioal and very fibres become sURhtiy opened at the sorCace by 

aWe pavement, one which gives secnre foot^ the blows from the feet of the horses, and the 

ing to horses snd is easily repaired. It is objec- sand ground in by these and the proasnre of 

tionable on soooont of the rattling noise of the wheels contributes not a little to the pres- 

tbe vehicles drawn over it; snd in the great ervation of the wood. The fonndation of con- 

Uiorongtiiares of large cities, it lias been fomid crete laid npon and covered by coal tar forms 

almost essential to substitute for it a pavement an impervious covering to the soil, protecting 

of rectangular blocks of granite, trap, or other the atmosphere from nnwholraome emanations, 

bard rook. Blocks of wood have been at timea A pavement not much nniike the Nicholson 

in some repute, bat they have proved objection- pavement has been introduced into London, i 

able on account of soon booonung slippery, par- and Is very hij^y recommended in a report i 

tioularly when wet, and also of their tendency made to the conunisdoners of the Holborn i 

to decay. They were oommonly ont in hexa- board of works. May 10, 1658, b^ Mr. Braith- i 

gonal prisms and set nprigrht, eo that the wear w^te, who pronounces it superior to evei7 

came across the ends of tiie grtdn. Hemlock, other paving material that has come nnder hU 

being a chet^ wood, waa generally selected for notice. It is made of alternate rows of creO' 

the purpose. This pavement is not now, how- soted wood and broken granite cemented togeth- 

ever, in use, and wood was quite pven up in er with asphaltnro. ("Mechanics' Magame," 

America and In Earope, when a new method vol. Ixviil., p. 684, London, 16S8.) — The result 

of applying it was introduced into Boston in of a j^eat number of eKpenments in paving in 

1848 by Mr. fiamuel Nicholson. He laid a New York Is the selection of what b colled the 

pavement of apmoe block^ S inches sqnare, in Belf^an pavement, as combining in the highest 

alternate lengUis of 8 and 4 inches, so as to d^ree the advantages of economy in constmc- 

fono a checkered surface, a depression of 4 tion, durability, and a secure footing for horses. 

inches lying at each ride of each of the taller It is fbrmed of blocks of a blai^ trap rock 

blocks. These depressions were then filled nii made slightiy pyrmnidal in form, which are , 

to the level of the top of the long blocks wito placed with Qie base of the pyramid upward, 

ooaree pebbles or small ftiigments of stone, exposing a &/M of 4 to 6 inches in each direo- 

After being rammed, boili^ pine tar was tion. llie stone is found in great abtmdance 

poured over the whole surface, which pene- along the Hudson river opposite New York, 

trated the loose materiab and the substance of the formation being the some with that of the 

the wood also. A layer of sand abont an inch Palisades which appear ibrtlior up the river, 

deep was then spread over the surface and It is remarkably well adapted on account of its 

rammed. He also laid the 8 inch blooks in extreme tonghness end biu-dness to resist wear, 

rows close together, interposing between each and it presents always a snfflcientiy rough anr- 

row a strip of inch board, 4 inches high ; and fhoe to prevent horses from sUpping. Th^ 

in the space of one Inch thna made between streets <yt Naples are si^d to be paved with 

each row of blocks, the same application of stoneof this diaraeter, and notwithstanding the 

frwnents of stone, tar, and sand was made as oontinnous nse of the pavement for 1,000 years 

before. In some instances the blocks were It has hardly been worn one inch in deptL 

treenailed or pinned tt^elber; bnt this was The cost of tbis pavement In New York is from 

not oonffidered important, particularly if a floor- (1.86 to t2.&0 per sqnare yard. In this respect 

ing of boards was IMd npon the foundation of it is much to be preferred to the " Baas pave- 

conorete of coal tar, lime, and sand, which In ment," with whicii Broadway has been covered 

all cases was prepu^ for the blo<^ The at an expense of not less than $6 per sqnare yard- 

specimena of pavement thus prepared continued This Is of cubical blocks of hard greenstone 

in nse for 7 years, npon a road over which fi^m Staten Island or of trap from New Jersey, 

heavy loads were oonstantly paadng, withont of abont one foot square. Ia nse it has been 


finmS Alt Uoeks of tUa sice wear nnooth, vaDn, the Sn^iBh hare employed owmtehono 

eradng horeea freqnentljtodipaiid&ll; ud to some exteot The court of entrance ttf 

smdi sxpenae has alreu^ been iuonrred In Windiw castle, and the ataiblea of the dock 

either remoTing the Uows and snbatitatiDg 7ard at Woolwich, are thos paved, 

others <^ amalier rize, or in grooTing them FATIA, a N. pTorince of the kingdom of 

nptm the soifiMW. In bring the Btonea, the Italj.oompriaing the former Lombard province 

first reqniidte i> to obt^n a good foondation ; of Favia and the Piedmouteae diatriots of Bob- 

and tn sitoatloDB where the gronnd fs not bio,Lomel]ina,andV(^hera; Brea,l,SeOBq.m.; 

^winsj, all that is neoeessrf la, after the re- pop. in 1868,410,146. Itlswatwod l^thePo, 

movaT of tlie snperfiu^ esrtii, t<D spread npon the Ttolno, and tlie Olona, and the canals of 

the nabiral bed beBath either a la^er of dir Beregoardo andFaria and theKavi^o Qrande 

saod, or firat a layer of broken Btonea, wbiim pa«a through its botuodaries. The ooimti? ia 

ahonM be weQ rammed, and npon thia the generallv level, and the soil httiie. Much at- 

■tratimi of sand In which the paTlng stones are t«>tion is paid to the raiaing of ailk and the 

to be imbedded. Insomeinsbmoesthelbanda- breeding of cattle, and mnoh of the cheeae 

tion b prepared with a bed of oonorete, upon oaDed Farmeaan ia made here. The climate ia 

which the pavement ia laid ; and in France the not very healthy. Bv the peace of Yillafranea, 

moat dnraue paTonents are made by covering July 11, 1869, Favia, along with the other 

the oUL witii sand and gravel in which the new provinoea of Lombardy, was ceded to EYsnoe, 

etooea are bedded. It ia important to remove and by that power transferred to Sardinia. — 

aQ earthy matters which omild be ctHiverted The capital, Favu (ano. TKnnum), ia aitnated 

into mod by infiltration of water; foritafreez- on an eminence on the left bank of the Tidne, 

iseand thawing wonld Inevitat^ Uft the Btones, not &r fh>m the spot where that river UHa into 

and destroy tlie pavement Whenever a stone the Fo, and 10 m. S. 8. W. ftom Milan ; pop. 

ftom any eanse to dqtreeeed below the level of S6,O06. It la about 1 m. in extent each way, 

Ibe a^joinins stonea, it reoelves heavier ahooks and ia sarronnded by an old wall. A commn- 

6om the wheeta which pass ovw it, and ita nioation with the enbnrb on the other dde of 

Replacement goes on with acoelerated velocity, the river b made by a covered bridge of 8 

The bed ther^ore most be miiformly eoBd, and arohea bnilt in 18C1. From thto briage the 

thestrntea nnifonnly hard, and set together aa principal thoroo^ifitre, called theStradaNnova 

closely as possible. Over the whole when or Oorao, extends tlironRfa the dly. PaviAwaa 

finished sufficient sand is spread to AD all the at one time remarkable for the magnifloenoe of 

Intoraticefl, into which it aoon finds its wi^. Ka bnildings, and for ita nomwons lofb' square 

An arched form ia given to the paved floor, towers, designed for ornament, <^ need aa m^ 

the sidee abntttog aMinat the gutter and corb one or atrongfaolda, whence it waa called " the 

Btone^ which shoud be snfflciently deep or dtyof ahnndredtowere." Oftheedifieesnow 

von backed to prevent any spreading. In nring remaiidng, one of the moat noteworthy is the 

rectacgoltr blook^ they are laid in conrsea cathedral, b^H"* ^t^ ^^^^Q^BtUlnnfiniahediin 

naming diagonaDy across the street for the a side chapel of which is the magniflcant tomb 

a of prevHiling the formation of rata, of St. Augnatine. The dhnrch of Ban Uiohele, 

_ ml^t aoon appear along the edges of a Lombard building 180 fact long by 81 ftet 

» lyi^ in Icmf^mnal oonrsee. The dura- vide, waa finished during the 7th oentnry, 

tioa ot atone pavementa varies greatly accord- Santa Maria del Carmine, an immense Italian 

ing to the matwiale empl<^ed and modes of Qothic church btiilt In 1878, is a remsrkahle 

ooDstmction. In the most frequented streets spoctmen of the finest brickwork ; and the 

of Paris good pavements have been renewed aa church of San Franoeaco ia of the aame s^le 

often as once m 6 yeora, and others badly oon- and material. The celebrated church of San 

stmcted onoe In 8 years ; bnt where the amonnt Fietro in Oielo d'Oro, which centred the 

rf travd ia not very gt«at, the pavement has tomb of Boethins, is now mostly in ruina, the 

lasted 80 yearv withont renewaL The material portion ta good preservation being used as a 

larsely need in Paris for paving ia a somewhat storehonae. Of the law towers remaining, 

friuile aandatone from Fontaineblean. This is those of Belcredi and Maine are most deserving 

hardened by immersiiig it in liquid bitnmec of mention, each being abont 190 feet hi^. 

and it is thus rendered much more durable, About4m. iir.ofthedtyisthemoHtmagnifioent 

wUle the pavement ia also made more compact monastery in the world, the Certoaa of Pavla, 

and impervione towi^er. — Blocks of caetiron founded in 189S by Giovanni Galeaszo Yia- 

have been tried with considerabte sncoess both ooutl, the first duke of Milan. The onlverdty 

in TWlmil mid in American dtiee. Tarions of Favia la the most ancient in Italy, and is 

forme have been given to them with the view said to have been founded by Oharlemagne in 

of eecnring Hie greatest atrengOi and dUhdi^ 774; but It received ita greatest Impulse from 

the wei^ over the largeet si^face. They are the patronage of Oaleauo Yiaeonti. It haa a 

made roogh on the upper aide by grooves or libruy of about 50,000 volumes, a collecUon 

short prc^eotiiw poin^ ao that Uiey afford a of ooina, a museum of anatomical preparations 

firm looting to horses. Bnt for the expense of and of apedmena of natoral Mat(^, and a bo- 

thia pavement, it wonld probably be prdbrred tanlc guden iostitnted by the Irencb ; and 

to any other. — ^For atablea, gardena, and foot- there ia also attached a school of the fine arts. 


58 PA^W 

Of the two ocdlegM nOT beloiiffiig to the md- BudthepAwseoobt^nBeecnritj'. Thereforethe 
versity, the Ooll^o Borromeo ednoetes about bailee (or pawnee) is bound only to ordinair 
40 stndents, and the Oolle^ GhiflUeri about oare, that U, not to the extreme care to whidi 
80. The profteaora receive salariea Tarying he woold be boond if the benefit were all hu 
from $600 to (1,200 per ahhtii ti. Among the own ; but it is not enoogh if he takes the alight 
i^ttngnish^ men who have been iuatnictoTS care of it which would discharge his dnty and 
here may be mentioned Te8alina,0ardan,Spal- shield him from responaibilitj if the benefit 
luixoni, Volta, Scarh, and TambnrinL In were all the bailor's, the bulee lumself de- 
18fiS~'l the nnmber of profeasorebelon^gto riTing none from the transaction. Hence a 
the nnivereity waa 86, the number of assiBtanta pawnee is answerable for the lose of the pawn 
31, and the nomber of pnpils 1,133. Favia is or for injoiy to it, only'^en there has been 
a biehop's see, and oontuna a theatre, a gym- an abwnoe on his port of ordinary care, which 
naainm, 3 hospitals, and charitable institntioos. the law defines aa that care which a man of 
— JJthtnigh at tJie end of the Roman repnblio ordinary prudence would take of his own prop- 
Tioinnm was a place of considerable impor- erty of like kind and nnder similar drcmn- 
tanoe, it is mentioned first by the georawiberB stances. If therefore the pledge be lost by 
and historians of the emi»re. In A. D. 4£2 it some intrinsic defect, the operation of whii^ 
was taken by Attila; but Theodoria, king of might possiblyhaTebeen})reTeuted, or bysome 
the Ostrogoths, rebnCt and fortified it, and oasoalty which mi^t possibly hare been avoid- 
ereoted a palace. Daring the Gothic wars it ed,orbyasnperiorforceorTiolenoewhichmight 
was the principal etronghold of tiiat people in have been resisted, the pawnee b nevertheless 
northern Italy, and there the royal treasury not reqionable. unless he was wanting in the 
and valoables were kept ; and so well fortified ordinary care aoove described. — A pawnee has 
had it been, that dunng the Lombard inva- a property in the pledge, but it is fecial, not 
uon it resisted for 8 years a idege by Alboin. abBOIote, It is sumdent to maintain an action 
Taken by liim in G70, the Lombard monarchs against a third party for ii^nry to or abdoction 
chose it for their residenoe, and it remained of the pledge; and a jnd^oent in such an sc- 
the capital of th^ kingdom until 774, when Hoa, when brought either by the pawnor or 
Desiderius, the last Lombard kjjig, after a the pawnee, would be a bar to another action 
riege of IS months, was obliged to submit to brought by the other. — A pawnee has only a 
Oharlemagne. Before this time it had be- right to hold the ^edge ; therefore, if he uses 
gun to be called Papia, probably from the it, he does so at his own peril ; and if the thing 
fact that Titnnum when it became a municipal be lost or iqjured during such use, the pawnee 
town was enrolled in the Fapian tribe. Dur- is responsible, although the loss occnrs wholly 
ing the middle ages, the city underwent many without neglect on Ms part. So, too, if he de- 
vicissitndes ; it was at one time an independent rive a profit from this use, he must account for 
republic, at another ruled over by tyrants, and this oae of it unless the use was equally for the 
again subject to the authority of the Viscontis benefit of the pawnor. Thus, if the pawn be a 
of Milan. It is chieSy memorable in modem horse, the pawnee may use it enough to pre- 
history for the battle fou^t nnder its walls serve the health of the horse, and for this use 
Feb. 24, 1626, between the French under Fran- make no compensation ; but if he take a jonr- 
ols I. and the imperialists under Uarshal Lan- nej with the horse, he must allow the nsnal 
noy, in which the former were defeated and price. In all cases, the pawnee must socount 
nearly destroyed, and their king taken prisoner, tor income or profits derived from the pledge ; 
In 1627 and 1628 Favia was twice taken by the and if he is put to extraordinary expense or 
French and lud waste. In 1796 it was stormed trouble for the benefit of the pledg^ or to pre- 
and pillaged by Napoleon, alter an insurrection serve its value, although this would be for his 
in which his garrison had been expelled. It own benefit also he may chaise the owner and 
oame by the peace of 1S14 into the possession pawnor for all uiis, unless there be a bargain 
of Austria, and so remained untO 1S69. to the contrary express or implied. — From what 
PAWN, a word undoubtedly derived from has been said it inll be seen that if the pledge 
the Latin pignut, and meaning any article of be stolen, the pawnee is not liable unless there 
personal property given in pledge, or by way was neglect on his part ; but the question is at 
of security for the payment of a debt, or the once important and dimcnlt, as to the l^al 
disoharge of an obligation. The word is also presumption of neglect or care. By the ci\-il 
used as a verb, and signifies to give such ar- law, the presumption was against the pawnee ; 
tide in pawn or in pledge. It is a bulment, that is, if the pledge were stolen from him, he 
because the essence of the transaotion is the was responsible luiless he could prove that 
delivery of the pawn by the pawnor to the there had been no neglect on his part There 
pawnee. Tbefirstquestion that arises is, there- are reasons for snpposing that the law of Eng- 
fore: In what class of hailmentsis spawn to land and of thenmt«dState8isotherwiEe; and 
he placed, in reference to the obligationa of that if a pawnee can prove that the pledge was 
oare on the part of the bailee ) The answer is stolen from him, this will make it the loss of 
obvious ; the bailment of pawn is a bailment the owner, unless the owner can prove neglect 
for the benefit of both parties. The pawnor or de&ult on the part of the pawnee. — The 
obtains credit or del^ or other indiugutoe, distinotion between a mortgage and a pledge 


PAWN 69 

haa not been ngardpdu of mnoh moment, nor hu beat the rererse of this. ODehtASngmoli 

has it been ebupij defined^ ontil of lata ; but stock hj wej of eecarit; has regarded hinmlf 

recent b4]°^<>^''°'^ eepeoiallx in New York, only oa bonud to have that stock ready to be 

have given to it very great importance. Kotfa- letomed when the debtia paid, and in the 

ing is more common now than the giving of mean time he does what he pleases with it; 

pemmal propert}', and especiallT' of chosee in that is, he sells it, or transfers it bj way of 

aotion, as promiseorr notoe, and of stook or pledge, or makes nse of it as of bis own. But 

scrip of inoorpi»«ted oompsides, by way of se- recent decisions in New York have declared 

contr for loans or debts. Now this ^ving of that hj snch nse the right of the pledgee to 

security may be regarded as a mortgage or as a bold the stook is wholly losL The pledger 

pledge. Bntifitbeamortgage, thepartiesae- may therefore demand it at onoe, although lis 

quire one set of rights, and come onder one set debt be not paid ; and if it be not forthwith 

of obligatioiw ; aiM if it be not a mort^ige, but redelivered to him, be may have his aotion for 

a pledge, thdr lights and their obligations are damages, and in this action recover its value 

Tei7 d&erent. Ttie reason of this is, that it is at tbe time of the demand, and perb^a (fi>r 

of the essence of a pledge, that the tUng this is not quite settled) an^ higher valne it 

pledged shonld pass at once into the pomcaaion may have reached at any tune while in the 

once to the mortgagee, while the possession somewhat teohnical rale is recent, and may 
may and often does remwn with the mortgageor. need general confirmation before it can be re- 
Bx pn^>erty, in law, we mean what no other gwdea as established law. Bnt there is for it 
word ezprenea premsely, and none perhaps so this substantial reason. If a pawnee may use in 
nearly as ownership ; the above mle therdbre, this way stock pledged to him, he forces npon 
if pat into less tecnmcal phrase, might be ex- the pawnor the risk of his insolvency at the 
pressed thos. A pawnor retains the ownership time when the stook shoold be redelivered, 
of the pledge, bnt places it in the possession <^ For if the pawnee b« then insolvent, without 
the pawnee as his secnrity. Bat a mortgageor the stock in his hands, the pawnor has oaly a 
tranafersatoncetheownerHhipofthe property, claim ag^nst him for its valne, and most take 
retaining only a right to annnl and defeat thu his dividend with other creditors. Bnt if the 
trand'er by payment of a certain debt. (See pawnee retains in his hands the stock as the 
UoKTOAflB.) Now the practical effect of this pawnor's stook, the pawnor then retakes it as 
difference, which gives to it its importance, is nis property. — A plMger may always tranafer 
this. A mortgagee who acqnirea the proper- the pawn, bnt subject to the pawnee's claim ; 
ty in or the ownership of the thing mortgaged, and if the transferee pay the debt, the pawnee 
may do with Uiat ttdng whatever he may do most deliver the pawn to the transferee. The 
wiUi his own. He may sell it, or mortgage it, pawnee holds the pawn only as secnrity, not 
or keep It in his own hands, always snbject does it become absolntely his even if tbs debt 
however to tbe mor^igeca''srighttoiedeemitj benot paid at matarity. There is no forfeitore 
and it makes no difrarence to the mortgageor of the pawnor's right to redeem, until some- 
vhether, when be wanes to pay tbe debt and thing has been done which is the same thing 
redeem the thing mortgaged, ne finds it in one in itseffectthat forectoenreisinacaseof mort- 
hand or another. Bnt as a pawnee aconires gage. What this thing is may not be, in all 
no ownership whatever, he cannot sell the caaes and in all respects, quite certtun. There 
thing pawned, nor pledge it over, nor trans- is no donbt that the pawnee may apply to a 
fer it in any way. His whole right consists court of equity and have a decree of sale, and 
in tbe ri^t of possession. He may keep the may thereupon sell the pawn in oompliance 
pawn as a secori^ for his debt, becanse the witii the terms of the decree. Some authoii- 
owner has lost, not the right of property, but ties hold, or rather intimate that this, which was 
the ri^t of poasesnon ; but tbe pawnee can tbe andent and regular way, if not the only 
do noUiing elae with it Nor is this all ; for one, remains at this day the best and safest 
he not (ody msy^hut most keep the pawn in Bnt we are satisfied that it ia not necessary, 
his pospcflsion. This is his bargain with the and certainly it is not osnaL We consider it as 
pawnor by eonstrnction of law ; and he holds now eetabliuied law, that a pawnee, after the 
the pawn only on this condition. If therefore maturity of the debt, and after nnsrtisfled d«- 
tlte pawnee, for any reason or in any way, vol- mand, may sell the pawn, provided he do so in 
mitarily parts with the possession of the pawn good fUth and with all reasonable precautions 
by transferring it to a thhd person, his lien or m favor of the pawnor's interest. There is 
right ot poaseaaion is at once gone ; the pawnor perhqis no other way of doing this, which sat- 
at once recovers bis right irf powesuon, and Mes the law, than a sale by pnbUc auction ; 
may donand and repossess i|jmselfof the pawn, and at all events this ia the surest and most 
sUhoiigh tbe debt to secure which it was glvm proper way. Nor will a sale by auction be con- 
remains wboDy nnpdd. The oostom of brokers olnsire against the pawnor, nnless it ia oondnct- 
and others, who lend money or give other ao- ed, as to time, place, advertisement, notice to the 
Gcmmodation on the security of pledged stacks, pawnor, and in all other respects and cironm- 


stances, ill saoh wise as to IndieatoperiiBetBOod bonndoir has been entire^ duiiMd and the 
fiutti, and to Boonre a dae regard to tho i^ts whole of Pawtooket annexed to Bhoda Island. 
of the pawnor. The proeeeflb mnst be wplied The lirer has here a &11 of 60 feet, aapplying 
to the payment of the debt If aaj baliutoe eztensiTe witftx power. The first eottMt man* 
remains over, that must bs given forthwith to nfaotorT' in the ooantrj was eatsUiibed here 
the pawnor. If anj portion of the debt ro- by Bamnel Slater in 17S0, and for 40 years th« 
mains onpaid, the pawnee has an eqnallj valid place held the first rank amonc the nunn&o* 
clum to that amount as he had originally for taring towns of the oonntry. It now CMttalna 
the whole. It is not nnfreqoent for the par- 18 cotton mUla, B maobine shops, 8 fbmaoea, i 
ties to agree, when the pledge is made, as brass and copper ibonderiea, S not, bolt, uid 
to what shall be done With It ; as. for ex- tool eatablidunants, and 8 of jeweh?, beside 
ample, that the pawnee may, if the deot be nn- other mannfuttoriee of beltang, leathn\ eabinst 
p^ at a oert^n time, sell the pawn, if it con- ware, bair tHaOt, tin, eaniages, Ao. Tbei* are 
sist of Btooks, at the brolurfi' board. But any also an extennv« oalioo printing eatablish- 
andh agreement most be complied with literally ment and a manolkotoTy of Sre en^ea famona 
and aocoratdy. Thns, it would give no right throoghont the c»nntry. UoontaunsllobDreh- 
to make any nse of the stocks bdore maturity es, 1 pnblio library, S ^inting offloea, 4 banks, 
of the debt ; nor to sell them without previom S Institntdons for sannga, and 8 pnbUo balls, 
demand, nor in any other way than at the During 1860, 900 Tesads, chiefly laden with 
broken' board. (See oases oited before.) It Imnber, coal, and cotton, arrived. The ta>wn ia 
should be remarked, however, that negotiable beantifblly sitnated, and nas a moat {nctniiBeqiie 
bills and notes come nnder an exceptional mie. tqtpearanoe, ita atone biidgo and waterfall sod- 
When they are pledged, it is sud that the Ing to the effect of the scene. It has ^rect 
pledgee has mnoh more power as to the nee and oommnnication with Boston brthe Boston and 
oi^orition of them than of stocks; bnt this Providence railroad, and with Woroeater by the 
exception is not very aconratelv defined. So Providence and Vorcestn railroad. 
It should be sud, that althoogh delivery of FAX (Lat, peaoe), an instmment andently 
possession is sbsolntelyesaontial to tiie contract naed in the Roman Oatholio chnnih,aud re- 
of pledge, and if the pledgee voluntarily parta tained tor some time in the ohnroh of England. 
wiui his poeseedoa he loses all lien or right to Li the early i^^ of Ohristianity it was custom- 
hold the pawn, this does not apply where the ary for the bitiifnl at certain parts of the di- 
pBwnee, in good faith, for a speoJal reason, and vine service to practise literaUj Bt. Fatd'e re- 
tar a liinit^ time, returns the pawn to the oommendation: "Greet ye one another with 
pawnor, reserving bH his rights over it. The anhol7kisa,"aaM)peara from the ".^tostolical 
pawnor may in that case be r^arded as the Constitutions" (viiLll): "Let the bishop ealute 
agent ofthe pawnee, and as holdlog it for him. the church and say, 'Thepeaoeof God be with 
A pawnee, who takes a pawn as security for a you all ;' and let tiie people answer, 'And with 

riiflc debt or debts, cannot hold It as security tiiy spirit.' Then let the deacon say to all, 

other debts itom the pawnor, nnlcBS by a 'Salnte one another with a holy kiss; and let 

bargain between them. — It may be added that the clergy kiss the bishop, and the li^en the 

until a comparativel;r I'ecent date, nothing seems laymen, and the women tiie women." But in 

to have been given in pawn, at least wiUiin the oonrse of time, when the separation of the 

recognition of the common law, but personal aexes In the ohnroh ceased to be observed, a 

chattels. Bnt now personal property of all small tablet called the pate, the tabala paett 

descriptions, all ohoses in action, and even pat- (tablet of peace), or the oieulatoritim, was 

ont rights or oopyrighto, may be given either in kissed first by the bishop, then by the inferior 

pawn or in mortgage. clergy, and feially by the people. The oere- 

FAWN!E£S,atribeofIndians(4,600inl8S8) mony called giving the pax, as performed in 
inhabiting the coontry on the river Vlatte and Roman Oathoho chnrohos at the present day, 
its northern tributaries. They were visited by ia merely a relic of the old custom. Joat before 
Bonrgmont in 1724, at which time thoy occn- tiie oommimion at solemn high masses the offi- 
pied tiieir present position ; but until a^r the dating clergyman turns to the deacon, and ex- 
acquisition of Louisiana their existence waa tending hia hands and touching him on the 
scarcely known to the people of the Uiut«d arms, inclines his head toward the deacon's left 
States. They raise com and regetablea, and shoulder, saying : Pod teeum (" Peace be with 
their hunting ground once extwided as far thee"}; to whidi the deacon answers: Steam 
sonth as the Arkansas river, and as &r west as ipinfutuod'Andwith thy spirit"). Thedea- 
the sources of the Platte. Thdr langoage U con gives the pax in the same manner to the 
different from that of the nd|^boring Mbea. sub-deacon, and each of the inferior ministers 
They are remarkaUe for entwanoe, daring, to the one next below him in dignity. Tba 
oraft, and s killin horse stealing. people have no part in it. 

PAWTTJOEET, a town of Providence oo., R. PASTON, Bm Josbph, an En^ih hortionl- 

L,onbDtbiide8ofPawtncketriver,4m.K.from toriet and architect, bom at Ulton-Bryaot, 

Providence; pop. in 1860, 8,880. Until 1861 near ■Wobnm, Bedfordshire, in 1808. Hisedn- 

this town was partiy in HasMchosetts ; bnt by cation waa obtained at the Wobum free school; 

an agreement recently completed, tiie eastern bat bin parenta b^ng in homble droumatancea, 



be WW ttgfy tXBgfiH to ra^ tpon Unuelf for moner In ft hank to ftdr jdnt cndlt, » pt?- 
aapport ObtaininKAritaAUonatOliiswiokgthe ment to dtber (tf them wUlioiit the oonoent 
snbnrban viDft of Ue dnke of DeToiLshire, be of t^e oQter does not disohargo tlie debt. It 
gained tbe eonfldenoe of that uoblemaQ, who te said, however, that p^ment to either of two 
tranBferred bjm to Cfaatawortb, and aabae- or more ic&at ezeontors disoharges the debt; 
qnendf made him Qie manager of hia Derbr- bntpaTmeattooneoftwoormorejointasdKD' 
ahiro odatcB, and anperintmaent of tiie worax eee in liisolT«t<^, without the oonseiit of ue 
which rendered CSuOnrorUi tbe most oelebrat- ot^n, does not aischarge the debt In geuer- 
edoomitrjraent in England, In 1861 he laid be- al, payment to a tnutee is valid aa agfdnst an; 
ftore the Indldlnff oonmilttee of Uie great indofr olwm of the part} having the beniAoial inter- 
trial eiMbitiixi hia plan of tbe orjBtal paUoe. eat in tJie farOBt, even ifhe be demanded bj the 
and the derign proposed bj him was adopted trustee, nnlesa the pereon paying be a party to 
sod tile work carried on mider hia ■npetlnten- the frand or consent to it.— Formeriy, a pay- 
danoe. For this serdoe Faxton was Knitted, mentofapartof adebt wBsnosatJs&otionof 
ffince the completion of this edifice he has the whtde. even if that were agreed npon; the 
pnrsned the profeadon of an architect to aome reason beuf that the creditor who promised 
extent, and has been engwed in a variety of togireiipslargedeb^allt^whloliwaadneto 
oommeroiBl enterprises. He constructed tbe Idm, on the payment of a part only, made the 
greatty enlarged and remodelled cryHtal palace promise witJiont legal oonsideradon. Now, 
at Sydenham, and had the entire oha^ of howerer, it secma to be eetabUshed, that a &lr 
laying out tbe pleasure gronnds. fimntain^ and well understood compromise of a debt, 
Ac., of that mii<|tie enterprise. In 18M he honestly ouiied into effect, is a complete pay- 
was eleoted a member of parliament from mentordischargeof the debt Still, if a ored- 
Ooventoy, and in 18G7 was rejected. He iter compel payment of a part of his debt by 
was elecd»d fellow of the hortionltoral society process of taw, when he might as well have 
in 18M, and fellow of the T.lnnni^Ti society in sned fbr all, aa i^ when the several instalments 
188S ; sad in lB44t the emperor of Bossia ere- are all dae, he soes for one or two only, this 
ated him a kni^t of the order of St Vladimir. wUlbar hb claim for the remainder, becaose he 
Ha has written a "Fraotioal Treatise on the has no ri^t to pnt his debtor to the cost and 
Cnltore of tiie Dahlia" (1680), and a " Cottage tronble of repeated and mmeoeasery litigation. 
Oalendai','' beside editiiw or asalsting in edtt- — ^Payment of money is ofton made by letter; 
big "Pnton's Flower Qarden," "Pocket Bo- end aome difficnlt qneetfona have arisen uider 
traiioal IHotionary," " Hortionltnral Begister," this mode of payment The law may, however, 
and the "Botanical H^adne." be Btat«d thns. If the money reaches the cred- 
FAT3CEHT, in law, la the discharge of a itor, the debtor ia of oonrse disoharged. If it 
debt b7 s dafivery irf the amoant dne ; and doeenot,heiBetiIldiBoha^edif he waedh-eot- 
it is, of course, the mostdirect and most proper ed by the creditor to make the payment in this 
dbchatgefrfit, and the most oom[^te &&nce way, orifhecanderivesnohaidhority from the 
Bgrinat any clum founded upon it The part; certain and miqnestionable course or usage of 
entitled to receive the money may ^ve notice boslneBB; but not otherwise. The aame rue or 
to him who ahould pay it^ that ha requires the prindple wonld apply, if the creditor sent the 
payment to be made ttirectly to himself and money, not by m^ bat by an ezia«asniao, or 

thwi no other piQinKit dls^iargee the debt; '---■' '- — 

bat without Booh notice, p^meut nuj- be ef- . 

fiNtnaQr node in the ordmarr oonrse of boal- and p^ment la generally made bv them, the 
nes to the creditor's gmenu agent, or to Ids law on this SQtjject ia of mach hnportanoe. 
attorney. Bnt the agent or attorney most be The qneations are : If the notes are foiled, 
agent fbr that purpose. Hence pf^mott to a where is the losst If the notes are genmne 
mai^ wifo, (Md, servant, clerk, or even at- bnt the bank la Insolvent, wh«« Is the loeet 
ramey or anotaooeer, has not the e£EM of a b the first pisoe, it will be eeen In the article 
paymeot to tbe party hlnueli^ nnlesa this an- Tknox, that any one to whom bank notes are 
thori^ to reedve the money be ahown ; bat It o^ni. In payment may refose them and de- 
may be shown indireotly, by usage or other numd specfe. If he accepts them, and they are 
circomatanMS. Hcce, however, another general forgwfes, ^y do not discha^ the debt, being 
prindpleofi%en<7 comes in; and If the party oonridered in law mere nnUities, Iftheyare 
receiving the money bears to the party payfaig genuine, but not good by reason of tbe insol- 
tt aU the mearance of agency and antomty, venoy of the bank, the roles of law ore more 
and tfak 1^ ue sot or consent of tbe creditor, nncert^n. It may be sud, however, that gen- 
it Is tin same thing ae if he were actnaUy the erally, and where there is no frand or negU- 
agent So ao aotnal agutt can receive pay- gence on either ride, the loss in saoh cases Mia 
ment only aooor^ng to us anthority ; thus, if on the party paying, and he must make up the 
he is snthoriMd to reoetve payment of a debt dlffbrenoe between the aotnal and the nominal 
in mon^ and reecivfle It in goods or by note, value of the notes. If the debtor knew of the 
and gives a rooeipt therefor, the principalis insolvency and ^d not disclose it, here of course 
not bomid by the reoelpt^If there be Joint is taad- and the debtor is at once liable. And 
credtt»s, ae if two or more persons de^writ if the debtor did not actually know the Insol- 


62 PATUEtlT 

veiL07, but hftd saffldent m«aiia (rf knowing it, tion la dotenolned «r Bome rigbt aaeeitnited. 
and must be oonridered as ignorant of it dther Snch a third partr b««omefl a atakeliolder. For 
thron{^ dedgn or by negugenoe. mteti igno- the rights and dntiaa of a st^olu^er in a eaaa 
ranoe wonld afibot liim as knowledge wotdd of wager, see 'Waokb. Bntouemaybe asUke- 
do. Still, however, the general rote, whioh holder in other wajs. Thus an anctioneermar 
oasts the loss nprai Qie dehtor iriiere there la receive from a pnrcbaser a sum of monej t>j 
no fraud or &Dlt attending the p^ment, mnst way of deposit or seomity, to be kept bj bim 
be so far qualified, as that If tiie creditor re- tmtil the title to the property boof^t can be 
ceiviog the mone^, hj his snlweqnent neg^- inTeatigated ; and to paj it over to the seUer 
genoe, as by reodving and retalmng the notes if that be good,or totbe pnrchsBerif itbebai 
withoQt any inqniry or notice, prevents the If each a stakeholder pays the money over be- 
debtor &oia profiting by any remedy or in- fore the qnaetion is determined, he pays it hi 
demnity he nught have had if due notice had bis own wrong, and at hia own pfiril; for it ia 
been given him, the loBS to this extent mnst his doty simply to hold the money. And it b 
&11 on the creditor. — Payment ia also often aaid that if snch etakeholderpays me money to 
made by the debtor drawing bis cheek upon a creditor before his right is determined, iia 
a bank for the amount due, or by his pre- depoMtor may at once sne him and recover 
senting to the creditor some oUier man's the money without any reference to the stale 
check which he holds. Kow a check is a of the question between tbe creditor and Mm- 
draft, and, being payable to order or to boar- self. But if the deposit be made by check, tht 
er, is negotiable either by indorsement or by stakeholder may draw the money, and hold it 
delivery; and it ia in most respects embraced orevenoseit, withontmakiDghimselfliabUfcv 
within the law of promissory notos and bills <tf the amount.'— The law of appropriation of pay- 
exchange. (See Nbootublb Papu.) If Uie menta ig of mnch importance. It determioet 
creditor draws the money, then of oonrse pay- the right of applying a payment in one wsf iv 
meut is made. But if he fails to receive the in another, or to one debt or to another. Th« 
money, it is no payment, unless this &Uure be general rale, npon which all others are fannd- 
his own &ult; for he must not be negligent cd, is, that whoever paya money may direct tha 
with it. It need not be presented on the day appropriation as he pleases; or, inotherwonh, 
on which It was received, but it must be pre- pay it on such account as he chooses. But if 
aented within a reasonable time thereaft«r; for the party paying the money makes no snch »■ 
if the bank would have paid it when it was propriation, the party receiving it maymue 
drawn, but the check was kept a week, and such qiplication of it as he plcasee. And if 
then the hank failed, the creditor loses the neither party make any specino appropriatioii 
money by this unreasonable delay. What do- (and an appropriation may be made in vanom 
lay is excusable, and what ia not, is not settled ways), it rests with the law to make it acooid- 
by any positive rule, but ia determined in each ing aa the Justice and equity of the whole 
case by Its own (urcamatances. If the drawer case may require. These mes are held to ap- 
had no finds in the bank, and no adequate ply even where the debts are of very different 
arrangement for ftmds, when he drew the descriptions. Thus, if AowesBtlOOonabond, 
check, it need not be presented at all In and aa much more on a note, and as much more 
order to bind him, because the drawing of snob on nmple book account, and pays $100, the 
a cbeok, and nging it as payment, was itself a appropriation of this payment ehall be deter- 
frand upon the creditor. — Payment is some- mined to one or other of tbese debts, in ae- 
times made by note ; and if this be a negotiable cordance with the above rules. As the pa^er 
note, it may be an absolnto payment, discharg- may certainly appropriate the money as ha 
ing the original debt, and leaving the creditor will, if he declines doing so, this gives the 
no cl^m excepting on the note itself. The payee the power of appropriating it at bia 
law of Uassachnsetts was quite peculiar in this ideasure, althoni^ in a way adverse to the 
reapect; and as this was the law of Uaine p^er. Thus, if A's wife owed money to B 
when they formed bnt one state, it continued before marriage, and A also owes B, and A 
to be the law of Uaine after their separation, pays B a smn of money without specific appro- 
At present aome part of thla peculiarity re- priation, B may apply the money to the aebt 
mains. It may be said, however, to be the law of A'a wife. So, if A owes B two debts, one 
of those two states, that if negotiable paper is of which is more than 6 years old and so is 
^ven for the amount of a debt, the presump- barred, and the other is not, and pays money 
tion of law la that it was given and received as without appropriation, B may apply it to the 

Payment thereof; but tMs preamnptjon may debt whicn A was not legally compellable to 
e rebutted by proof that the parties did not pay ; but he cannot by such appropriation re- 
so understand it. Bnt in England and in all vive the remainder of tiie barred debt, and then 
the other states, and in the conris of the United make B pay the balance. The appropriation, 
States, the presumption of law is ag^nst the to have fan force, mnst be made at or very 
note being a payment of the debt, without near the time when the money is paid. For if 
affirmative proof that itwaa so understood and either party, at some subsequent period, finds 
intended.— Payment ia sometimes made to a ont what will be to his advantage, and thai 
third party, to be held by bim until some ques- nndertokea to make such a disposition of it, 



this irin not sveH Mm to Uie diaadrantage of "Yonng fTorral." The perfonnanoe Wbs en- 
the other; but the law will consider this as a drelj saooeeaflil, and he gnbseqnentlr appeared 
oaaa in which it most make an {^propriatioii before large and enthnsiastio andienoes m Bos* 
becanae the parties did not. So aJso an ap- ton, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and elsewhere. 
propriatioii hy either partj will not aS^ct the In 1818 he riaited England, and made his first 
other part?' imlees it w commnnioated to him. appearance at Drar; Lane theatre in the same 
Thna, mere entries in the books of either party year as Master Payne, the "American BobcItis," 
do not affect the other party ; but If these en- m his oriranal part of Yonng Norval. Both 
tries were shown to the other party, then they here and in the provinces Ms performances 
bind him. And althoogh the payment be gen- called forth mnoh applause, and he was gen- 
eral, the creditor cannot make tiie ^propria- erally admitted to be superior to Master Bet* 
tion, provided the debts dne to him are dne In ty and other yonthfol octom in similar parta. 
different rights. Thns if A ^ exeontor of 0, For nearly SO years after this he pursued a 
owes B a debt, and also owes him a private career of varied success in England, as actor, 
and perstmal debt, and pays money generally, manager, and playwright. He made tranalv 
B most appropriate it first to the payment of tdons of French drama^ and produced a numbar 
the private and personal debt. Nor has the of original plays snd adaptations, bicluding 
creditor the right of appropriation merely be- " Brntos," " Th6rS«e, or the Orphan of Gene- 
caoae the debtor did not make an appropria- va," and " Olari," all of which proved highly 
tion, if the payment were made in such a way ' succesafhl, slthough but a small share of the 
OB to prevent the debtor from appropriating it ; proflta came to the author. The first, prodaoed 
as on his account by some other person, or in in 1818, with Edmnnd Eean in the prindpal 
aaj way which impaired hia power of eiercis- part, was made up in a great measure from 7 
ing liis right. — Where the court makes the m>- different plays on the sobject, and still holds 
propriatioa because the parties do not, it will possession of the stage. " Olari," which waa 
generally favor the creditor so fhr as to ap- produced as an opera, contains the oelebrated 

Sly it to the most precarions and least secured song " Home, Sweet Home" (written when he 

ebL But if there be two or more debt^ was near starving in an attia in the Palais 

and the sum paid will exactly discharge one of Bo jal in Paris), which alone will preserve 

them, the court will consider that it was in- Payne's name from oblivion, and of which 

tended to pay that debt. If one of the debta 100,000 copies were sold in a sngleyesr. An- 

be contingent or uncertain, as if B were the other suooessfnl play by Mm was " Oharlea the 

Boraty of A and might be bound to pay a certain Second, " the pnncip^ part in which was a 

Bum tf A did not, and A also owed B a certain fkvorite with Charles feemble. In 1883 he 

andBpedfiosuin,and Apaysasum ^nerally, B returned to the United States: and after em- 

wiH not be permitted to hold it against his own ploying himself several years in literary pur- 

snretjsbip, bnt must apply it to the spaciflo suits, he received the appointment of Amenoan 

debt. On the other hand, a court sometimes consul at Tunis, which office he held at the 

protects a surety, and, in bis favor, will direct time of his death. 

an appropriation of money paid generally; as FATSOK Edwabd, an American clergy* 

if Abnyagoodsof B, and Oia thesnretyof A, man, bom in lUndge, N. H., July 26, 1788, 

and A pays to B money generally, B will be died in Portland, Me., Oct. 83, 1B27. He waa 

obliged, in Justice to 0, to apply the money to the son of a clergyman in bis native town, was 

payment for the goods. — Payments are some- ^adnat«d at Hu^ard college in 1808, and 

times made by a debtor, not volontarily, bnt then fbr 8 years took charge of an academy in 

by compulsion of law, or by his assignees. la Portland, la Sept. 1S05, he became a member 

sneh oasa there is no amiropriatlon by either of the Congregational chnrch in Bindge. WhUe 

party, bnt the payment is applied to all the in Portland he had given much attention to 

debts in proportion to their amount. theolo^oal studies, and, npon quitting his sitn- 

PAYITE, Jomr Howabd, an American actor ation as teacher, pursued them under the dl- 

and dramatist, bom in New York, June 9, 17S3, rection of his fiither, paying especial attention 

died in Tunis, Jnne 6, 1863. He erinoed in to the critical study of the Bible. On Uay SO, 

early yonth a remarkable predilection for the 1607, he was licensed to preach, and on Dea 

stage, together with considerable literary pre- 16 was ordained collewne of the Bev. Mr. 

codty. At 18 years of age, while a clerk In a Kellogg, pastor of the Congregational (dinroh 

mercantile house in New York, he secretly in Portland. There he remjifned till hia death, 

edited a Bttle periodical called the " Thespian altbongh his health fiuled shortly after his ao- 

Mirror," and showed so orach ability in this oeptance of the post, and was never completely 

capsd^ that a benevolent gentleman named reesteblished. He declined in 1826 a call to 

Seaman offered to defray the expenses of his Boston, and also in Jan. 183S one to New 

education at Union ooOege. The bankruptoy of York. He published " A Discourse before the 

his father led to his departure from this insU- Bible Sooie^ of Mune" (1814); " A Thanka- 

tuCion befom completiag the collegiate course, giving Sermon" (18S0) ; '' An Address to Sea- 

and as a means of supporting the family he men" (1831) ; and " A Sermon before the 

went upon the stage^making his debnt at the Marine Bible Society of Boston and its Vicin- 

Park theatre. New York, Feb. 24, 1809, as ity" (1824). Hia works have been oidlected la 



8 vols. 8vo^ Tith a memoir of Us Bib b^ the beat to lO". In the ^ring, in order to for- 

Eev. Asa Oummiags, Bit. ward tie orop, the earliest sorts may be sown 

PKA(Celtic,;iM;LBt.ffiufflJ, awellknown Inpotsand tranapJanted into rows, after tbe^ 

exogenoos plast with diadelpnons blossoms, have grown an inch or more bi^ The sorts 

whose seeds are employed for food. The aer- known to BgricaltnriBtB as field peas are also 

oral species of the pea are annual herbs with nnmerDos, but the principal are the gray and 

ahmptlj pmnate, tendril-bearing leaves, each the white ; and the heat Unda of splitdng 

having 8 paira of leaflets and l»ge folioceona peas are conndered to be the " pearl " and the 

stipolea ; papilionaceoos flowers, the oalyx with " Soffolk." — The pea, like the other memb^s 

5 foliaceoQs segments, the 3 enperior of which of the natural oi^er of legTimiTiota, is riclk in 
are the shortest ; the corolla of S irregnlar nctiteient, and is nitrogenous in its elements. 
petals, the npper or odd one (texiUum) ample Sir Humphry Davy foimd in 1,000 parts of 
and reflezed ; the style carinated, villose above ; ped flour SY4 parts of nutritive matter, eon- 
tbe fruit a pod (legnme), oblong, rather com- slsting of 601 parts of mndlage, SS sugar, 80 
preesed, but not winged ; seeds globose, nn- gluten, and 16 insoluble extract. The pea is 
merous, with a roundish eye (hilum) ; cotyle- suhlect to the attack of a coleopterous insect 
dons lai]ge and thick. The common pea (^ known as the bruchut pui, or pea weevil ; the 
turn mtitum, Linn.) is a hardy annnsi, native parent insect, visiting the yonng pods when 
of the soath of Europe, and has been for a long the enclosed seeds are banning to sweD, de- 
time nnder coltiTation. It has a weak stem, podts a tiny egg in the ponctures it effects op- 
whioh supports itself hj tendrils ; terete peti- posite to the pea ; this is hst^hed into a grab, 
oles beanng 3 pairs of ovate, entire, glancoOB and this in tnm b changed into tbe mature 
leaflets with nndulated marina, ufiuaUj oppo- weevil toward the end of the year. Snch seed 
site and mucrouuIat«, ovate, somewhat cor- peas ore called bu^y, and previous to sowing 
date, slipQleB crenated at their base; 2- or should be scalded. The stems and leaves are 
many-flowered peduncles, and rather fleshy also attacked by a species of mildew which 
leKumes. The usoal color of the Sowers is covers them with a filamectonB and grayish 
white, but sometunes red. There are 6 pria- web, impeding further growth of the pl&nta. 
dpal and quite distinct forms of the comm<m Deep and thorough watering at the roots will 
pea^ and &om these have originated many va- If applied in season remedy this evil, but 
rietiea; theyQre«ti«eAaTatvffl(Beringe)orsugar usuiuly the ii^nryis too extensive befbre be- 

Ka, with a tall stem, legomOB rather ooriaceons, ing discovered.— The eea pea (P. maritimvm, 

tween terete and compressed, and seeds glo- IJnn.) occurs on the sea beaches of Sngland ; 

bose and distant ; maorocarpumf with a large its seeds, though bitter and disagreeable, have 

stem, large falcate legume, very much com- been eaten in times of soarcity and afibrded 

presaed, and not coriaceous, every part h^ng relief. Several beautifol blossoming garden 

edible, snd large distant seeds; vmbellatua, plants known as evOTlasttng pea, Tangier pea, 

with quadrifid, acute Btipnle, many-flowered andsweetpea, are^>eoiesof btfAjnt(j,aclosdy 

peduncles, terminal, and somewhat umbeUato allied genns, but not employed for culture as 

(the Enjjish crown pea) ; guadratum (linn.), table esculents. 

with veiT dense and square seeds (the jxni PEABODY, AncnKw Fsxstob', D.D., an 
earri of uieFrench) ; and Aumtfc, with a weak American dereyman and echolw, bom in Bev- 
and dwarf stem, legumes smaller and rather eriy, Uass., llarch 19, 1611. He was gradn- 
corlaceous, seeds appmzimate and roundish ated at Harvard college in 1836, at the age 
(usnaUj known as the dwarf pea). Don gives of 16. The 8 years subsequent to graduation 
the names of 24 varieties of the common pea were spent by him In teaching, anatheSfol- 
used for sowing in European cardens; but 6 lowing years as a student in the Cambridge 
eepeoially are highly recommended by the best divinity school ; and in 18S2-'8 he was a tn- 
hortJcultarists, viz. : the early frame, early tor in mathematics in the college. On Oct. 
Charlton, blue Prussian (proliflc and snperior, 93, 1888, he was ordained in the south parish 
and suited for middle crops), bine imperial (a church in Portsmouth, K H., as ooUeagne pas- 
dwar^ fine, rich pea), and Emght'a marrowfat tor with the Kev. Natian Parker, D.D., whoae 
(a tall and luxuriant grower, rich-flavored, and death a fortnight later left him in sole charge 
of the latest crop). The following named va- of the parish, which he retained nntil Sept. I, 
rietiea are preferred in the United States, and 1860. He then became preacher and Flmnms' 
come into bearing in the order in which they professor of Christdan morals in Harvard nni- 
are here designated, viz. : Dan O'Rourke, blue versity, from which in 1862 he had received the 
imperial, champion of England, and marrow- degree of DJ). Dr. Peabody haa been an in- 
fat. — Peas seem to prefer a moderately rich, dustrious literary worker, as a contributor to 
warm soiL and one not recently manured, periodical literature, and a lecturer for lycenins. 
When needed for early use, they are sometimes He wsa for several years a leadingwriter in 
sown on a sunny border, sheltered by a hi^ the " American Uonuily" and the "New Eng- 
walL Sometimes likewise they are forced by land JTagasine," and for a long period one of 
beginning at the time of sowing with a tem- the principal contributors to the "Christian 
peratnre of 40° to 60° P., and gradually rising Esaminer." His connection with the "Morth 
to 60°, and after the flowering increasing the American Beview" in one or another capacity 



has been oninterrn^ed for neari^ « nurter of to tiie Arotio ocean, lie contributed }10,000, 
a centuij. and rnnoe less he has been its editor. In 1856-'7 ho gave the sam of 1300,000, with a 
He has also ptibliahed more than 100 sermoiui, pledge to mcrease it to $G00,000, to found an 
ontiooa, tracts, and pamphlets of rarions kinds, institute in Baltimore for the promotion of eel- 
a Tolurne of "Lectoree on Ohristian Dootrioe,'' enoe, literBtnre, and tlie fine arts. 
which has passed tbroDgh 6 editions, and " Ser- PEABODY, Willlah Bocbn Olivbb, an 
inonsofConsolation,"whiobhaapasBedthroagh American clergTman, born in Exeter, N. H., 
S ediljons. July 9, 1798, died in Springfield, Mass^ May 
PEABODT, Gkobse, an Amerioan merchant, 38, 1847. He received hts education at £zet«r 
bom in Dapvers, Maw., Feb. 18, 1T95. His academy and at Harvard college, where he was 
parents were poor, and his early edncation waa gradoated in 1817. Bubseqaently he studied 
aoqtiired in the district schools. At the age of for the ministry tinder the elder Dr. Henry 
11 he was placed as clerk with a grooer in his "Ware in the theological sahool attached to the 
native towi^bnt left him when ho nad attained sameinstitation, commenced preaching in 1819, 
his 16th year, and, after spenduig s year with and in Oct. 1920 wsa ordmned pastor of a Uni- 
his grsnd&ther in Thetfora, Vt, went to New- tarian society in Springfield, Mass., with which 
boryport as clerk for his elder brother, who he remained connected until his death. Aman 
bad opened a dry goods shop there. The shop of fine tastes and extensive knowledge, he waa 
being oonsnmed by fire, he next went with an partionlarly well versed in the principles of 
oncla to Geoi^town, D. 0., where for the fol- landscape gordetdng, and in several depart- 
lowing two years the bosiness was condaoted in ments of natural history : and to his exertions 
hia name, though a minor. Finding himself in Springfield is mainly indeh(«d for a cemetery 
dooger, d be continued in this telation, of ranking among the most beaudfol in the coon- 
bung hdd respcmsible for debts he had not try. He also did much to awaken a taste for 
contracted, be withdrew from tb« bnsineas in natural hiiBtory, through lectures at home and 
lSI4,and became a partner of Mr. Elisha Riggs contribndons to the "North American Review" 
in the wholesale dry goods trade, Mr. Ri^ on forest trees, insects, and birds. In oouneo- 
fiimishinir the neoeesatr capital, and intrusCtng tion with this subject he prepared at the re- 
Mr. Peabody. The next qnest of the Masraohnsetts legislature a " Re- 
> removed to Baltimore, port on the Birds of the Oominonwealth," 
where it soon attracted a large bnsinesB, and in which did mnoh to arrest the wanton destruo- 
1823 branch honses were establiabed in New tion of birds, and to convince the public of the 
York and Philadelphia, In I8S7 Mr. Peabody important part they play in the economy of 
crossed the Atlaatio for ike first time to buy natnre ; and he alsiD contribnted a memoir of 
goods. In 1830, by the retbement of Mr. Alexander Wilson, tlieoniithologist,to8parks's 
Rigga, ho became senior partner in the house. "American Biography." He was a freqnent 
More than once, on his visits to Eorope, he waa contributor to t£e religions and secolor press, 
intrusted with important negotiations by the and wrote a few hymnB and saored poems of 
state of Maryland, which were bvoriably con- merit A memoir of him by his brother, the 
docted with success. Early in 1887 he took np Bev. O. W. B. Peabody, with seleetions ttom 
hisremdenoepemuuientb'inEi^and. Iul8« his sermons, and a volume of his essays and re- 
he withdrew from the firm of Peabody, lUgga, views, have appeared sinoe his death. — Ouvkb 
and 00., and established himself in London as a William Boitbk, twin brother of the preceding, 
nierchant and banker. Through his exertions, died in Borlington, Yt, July 6, 1847. He was 
theconfidenceinAmericanresponsibility, which graduated at Harvard college in 1S17, snbae- 
had well nigh fkiled in the disastrous period of quently pratriised law for a number of years is 
1S37, was muntaioed. He rendered repeated and Exeter, N. H., during which time he edited the 
important ftivora in this respect to the state of " Roctungham Qoi^tte and Exeter News Let- 
Maryland, which were gratefolly acknowledged, ter," and in 1823 removedto Boston, where he 
but for which he refused all compensation. The cooperated witb his brotber-In-law, Mr. A. H. 
house he established in London has been ever Everett, in the editorship of the " Korth 
^ce its fbnndation the head-quarters of his Amerioan Review." At the same time he was 
countrymen in that city, and the centre of for several years assistant editor of the " Bos- 
Ameiican news and intelligenoe. In 185S, at ton Duly Advertiser." In 1843 he accepted 
the bi-oentennial anniversoi^ of his native town ^e profesaorahip of English literature in Je&er- 
of Danvers, be sent a toast in a sealed envelope, son collie, La., hoping to repair his shattered 
not to be opened till the day of the anniversary, healtbby areeidence in a milder climate. Fail' 
That toast was: "Edaootion a debt from the inginthb, he returned to Boston; and in 184fi, 
present to fatnre generations )" and in order to in compliance with a desire long entert^ed, 
psy his share of that debt, a check for $30,000 he was licensed to preach by the Unitarian as- 
wos endoaed, to be expended in the founding of sooiation of Boston. He soon aAer became the 
an institntei lyoenin, and library for the town, minister of a congregation in Burlington, Yt., 
By mbsequent nfts that amount has been in- in which office he continued during die re- 
creaaed to $00,000, and an additional $10,000 mainder of his life. 

has been beetowed upon North Danvers, for a PEAOE RIYER. Bee HuneoH's BaT Tkbbi- 

bronch library. To the first Grinnell expedition tost, vol. ix. p. 834. 
TOL. in. — S 



pRAOTT, a delidoiiB and well known tnat in apple orohsrdB; peach tiMS ttioi jdanted 
originating in Persia, and for a long period thrive for a fev ^ean, gnAwi^ ^vhig place 
familiar to horticoltitTiBta. The peaoh tree to the growing and ovenbadowiDg appk tnet 
(flmygdalv* Ptrrnca, Unn.) has heen found b; their natoral deoiine. In gardens it is weS 
growing wild in various parts of Turkey in to plant them on the bfirdftni nr thwt fhn wTlr^ 
Asia, and eeems to flonrish beat under coltl- and a sheltered ntnation near the dwelling 
vation between lat, 80° and 40* H^ extending honse often jworea advantageous. The peacE 
even farther N. in the United Statea. l^e is also raised in stmctTireB of glass, either 
peaoh tree belongs to the natnral order drw heated artifidall? hj fines or wanned by the 
foeem or almondworts, according to IJndle;^, son. It forces well, the precaution being takoi 
which are trees or shmbe with simple, alter- so to regulate theheatthetasafScientspaoeof 
Date leaves, QBOaUv bearing glands toward their time ahatl be allowed for the peribot foUatim, 
base; simple and mostlf glandolar stipoles: blossoming, and maturing of fruit. Safficient 
white or rose-colored fiowers, either prodnoea moisture should be Jndioionslj applied to the 
nngl7 or in umbels, the oalyx C-toothed, d&> roots during the ^wth of the tree and pre- 
oidnons, lined with a disk ; the petals 0, p»- vious to the ripening. Pruning la nnneoessajf 
rigynouB ; the stamens about SO, arising from In outdoor standard trees ; but if practised, the 
the throat of the calyx ; the anthers Innste, new shoots should be shortened so as to allow 
S-ceDed, horsting longitudinaUr ; styles ter- 6 or 8 inches of strong wood. In artifidal 
minal with a fuirow on (me side, ending in a management the pruning should be carefully 
uniform stigma ; the fruit a drape with the attended to. Frectnently old trees of esteemed 
nut (putamen) sometimes separating sponta- kinds become very irregular in their heads, by 
neonsiy from the flesh (sarcooarp), seeds mostly the tall and strogghng branches; and it has 
solitary; cotyledons thict plano-convex ; albn- been found to be a good plan to tie sod 
men none. To this order belong many valnable branches loosely together by ropes to prevent 
trees, snch as the almond, the plnm, the aprioo^ the winds fitting them down when laden 
cherry, fcs. The peach tree has a low and with fruit The fruit buds are produced upon 
brandling tmnk, an irregular head of numerons the young branches, and are round and plump; 
brittle branches and twigs, oblong-lancedato, theleafuid shoot buds are oblong and pointed; 
sermlaf« leaves, eolitaiy flowers, and a downy therefore In proning care must be taken to 
or smooth drnoe, with tender, snooulent, and oat down to the uomted buds, rather than to 
highly flavorea flesh. There seem to be no ^e round and plump ones, so that a new 
positive distinctions between the peaoh and leafy branch above the fruit can be secured, 
nectarine, the presence or absence of down The finer varieties of the peaoh, and those 
upon the fruit being apparently accidental, thought to be tender, are sometimes bained 
Nnmerons Instances are known where the against walls or on espaliers; but the greet 
same tree has produced both fr^ts, and some- &Gility with which the peaoh ordinarily grow^ 
limes upon the same branch, and where like- and uie abundant crops it produces almost 
wise a fruit has been partly nectarine and the without care, have made its cultivation a mat- 
rest peach. There aro two prominent oharao- ter of little attention here, not even receiving 
ters distinguishing the sorts, which are bow- so much as is bestowed upon other trees. — The 
ever fonnd equally la the nectarine, where the fruit of the peach tree abounds in varieties, 
fruits are known as freestones and clingstones, the London hortionltural society's catal<%ne for 
the flesh parting readily irom the stone or nut, 1843 giving a list of S8 distinct sorts, each of 
or else adhering closely to it. — The peaoh tree which has many synonymes. Downing rebkou 
considered as sn ornamental shrub has severs! the number ooltivated in Europe to be about 
beautiful forms or varieties, vit. : the doable- 60, while in this oonntry innumerable seedlings 
flowering, with large showy blossoms like small have been produced, and some of them of the 
roses; the whlte-blossomed, very ornamental, highest excellence. The comparative want c^ 
with fhiit of little value; the variegated- sunshine and of heat in England oansee the 
leaved ; and the flat peach of China, with al- flnest American sorts to fail there in point of 
most overereen foliage and rfngularly shaped flavor and worth, Amon^ the beet foreign 
fhiit, whicn can be treated as a pot plant with sorts may be cited the Barrington. Bellegarde, 
much facility. A curious variety with pendent ohanoellor, early Ann, Oeorge IT., Heath, 
branches and large white flowers, called the Malta, noblesse, and royal Oecn^ which suc- 
weeplog peach. Is of American origin. — The ceed under our cultivation ; and tne following 
peach succeeds as a fr^iit tree wherever the superior sorts are of American origin : Craw- 
winters are not severe enough to kill the young ford's esrly melaooton, Crawford's late melaoo- 
wood. In Ibigland it withstands the usud ton, Cooledee's favorite, late red rareripe, lemm 
winter weather ; it is a standard tree in Italy clingstone, Morris's red rareripe, Moms's white 
and the south of fiance. In the United rareripe, Oldmizon freestone, president, and 
States, where the winters are more severe, it red rareripe (early). There are many others 
still does well, owing to the higher tempwa- of perhaps equal worth, which are but little 
tnre of the summers. "Where the peach Is known beyond the localities where Uiey origi- 
not extensively grown in orchards, it is fre- nated. — The peach tree is very easily prt^^ia- 
qnently planted between other fruit trees, and gated. This may be done by the seeds of sn- 


eroaa impregnated, and b j budding the jonng tlie general appearance beW verj uuilar ; 

leedliDga of the met jear'e growth, towud the the ssroooarp is uneatable, o^g deatitDte of 

middle of September. This procesB is so BUc* pulp, tough, and fibroos. The pecnliar bitter 

ceesfbl that any other is seldom used. On principle rwident in the seeds of the rarietj 

planting oat the peach tree, it is foond advis- Known as bitter almond and in the leaves tn 

able to severeh- head it down, as therebj' the the peaoh is attributed to the presence of b^- 

growth b made more rigoroas and hardj. droojaitio acid. 

Close priming is often fbond serviceable in the PEAOOO£, agaOinaoeons bird of the pheas- 

sama way toi establiahed and standard trees, ant Eunilj, and sab-family pav^nina, whibh in- 

The pltun tree is used for stocb with advan- olodas, according to Gra?, the genera paw 

tage, especially fbr trees intended for walls and gimi.), polwleetron (Temm.), and enmoj^il^a 

espaUers, as thereby a dwarfer habit is ob- (Hodgs.), aU natives of India and its arofaipelft- 

tained. The beet soil fbr the peach is a rich go. In the genus pavo the bill is, moderate, 

sandy loam ; next to thiB, a strong mellow with the base of the culmen elevated, &e api- 

loam; then a light, thin, sandy soil. The last oal half arched and vaulted, and the sides cr~- 

haa been con^ered the best, bat it has been presaed; wings short and rounded, with 6th 
' and that the tree does not last so long as in qnUl the longest ; head plmned and created, 
richer soil. — The diseases incident to the and orbital region naked; the tail composed 

peach tree are the yellowa, the cnrl, and the of 18 feathers, loog and ronnded, but in the 

gam. The origin of the first and most fatal males concealed by the greatly lengthened oov- 

disease is not (uearly known, bnt it is sapposed eri^; tarsi long and strong, with large trans- 

to indicate an original and organic taint, trans* verse scales in front, and armed with a conical 

misdble through the seed; saoh trees as posr epur; toes moderate, the anterior ones nnited 

sesB it abonld be eradloatod and their eeads not at the base by a membrane. They are splendid 

sown. The oorl attacka the leaves, swelling birds, preferring in the wild state wooded di»> 

and distorting thwi, and oaoslng tliem to pre- triots and low Jangles; they are sufficiently 

maturely fall. This disease baa been attributed hardy to endure the severe cold of tiie monn- 

to the cold of die spring, or to ^ihldes, insects tains of northern India; they roost on high 

which nestle in the affected leaves; bnt as the branches, and make the nest on the ground 

same appears in conservatories and on trees among thick shrubs; the male does not attain 

grdwn m pots under glass, the flrst named con- his perfect train ont^ the 8d year. The wild 

jecture cannot be true. It is more probably birds aremorebrilliant than the domesticated; 

owing to the preaence of myoeloid threads of a QriSth says of them : " We find in their in- 

minute ftmgaa which, ^wing in the tJssae of comparable robe tH Qiat glistens in the roia- 

the leal^ produces a rf^d and abnormal growth, bow, and sparkles in the nune — the aznre tints 

and affoi^ thereby a snoonlent pabulum to the of heaven, and the emerald of^the fields." 

S hides as well as a secure and warm retreat. They are about the size of a hen turkey; the 

e gmn is owing to the depredation of the fiightislow and heavy; they arc polygamous 

peach tree borer (aforia seihom. Say), a lepi' and lay from 12 to 90 eggs, about the size of 

oopterons iiueot like a blue fly, which de- those of a goose, and raise only one brood in a 

pc^ts its eggs under the bark; these, hatcb- year. Some are more or less variegated, and 

ing into worms, devour the inner bark and ocoasdonally one is seen entirely w£it«. The 

cause the extravasation of the sap, which on food consists of grun, seeds, (hiits, and insects. 

exposure to tbe air is couverted Into gum. The common peacock (P. erittattit, Linn.) is 

D^troying the inaeot is the only cure. — The probably the most magnificent of birds ; its 

value of the fruit of the peaoh tree tu a com- form is elegant, its movements gracefbl, and 

mercid point of view in the United States is its plumage resplendent with tints of green, 

very great. Thousands of bushels of peaches golden, bronze, and blue ; tlie long tail coverts, 

are marketed &om tlie peach orchards of the whi<dk the male can spread like a fan, are beaa- 

middle states yearly. In western New York tifol beyond descripdon, with their metallic 

and in other pads of the country, the fruit is and iridescent hnea, white shafts, velvet-black 

dried by artinoial heat, tbe stones being taken centre, and brilliant terminal eye spots ; the 

out prerioosly, or even dried in the sun, and head is surmounted with a very elegant tuft of 

thus made a marketable article. A spirituous feathers ; every one must have seen its display 

liquor called peach brandy is distilled from the in public or private parka. The female b 

ripe tndt, and h<^ are fed from the refWe. brownish and sombre, and destitute of the 

The leaves of the peach tree, bruised in water train. The voice is harsh and disagreeable, 

and diatlUed, ^ve peach water, much esteemed resembling the syllabtes jxi^ which is the 

for flavoring artioles in cookery ; and when fVench name for the bird ; it is very fond of 

steeped in spirits they commanicate to them being admired, and its vanity has been pro- 

the fiavor of noyeau. The medicinal qualities verbkl from early antiquity ; it has been as- 

of the peaoh &ee may be considered as nn- sorted that the principu use of its train is, by 

tritious and refrigerant the bark, blossoms, Its sudden spreading, to bewilder and terri^ 

and dcins of the seeda oei:^ poisonous. The its enemies ; it has not this effect, however, 

■Imixid (A. eOfnmimU, Linn.) is oonaidared by npoa the tiger, to whl^ Utis Urd ttOa a tn- 



qiisnt TioUm. The peacock waa brought to Pal- covering the base ; timitrbvng, oorered in fSrant 
wtine by die fleets of Solomon, and to Bnrope irith divided scales, and armed with a aptu'; 
Its very early period; it is now dispersed m hind toe ahort and elevated; claws strong and 
ft domesticated state aU over Europe and the carved ; sides of the head covered with a pap- 
United Btatee. In anoieDt Rome Qieir eostli- lllose akin; the feathers loose and hair-like. 
nesB made them favorite lozmies fbr the table, The single species described (0. ourttvn, 
and a diah of peaoocks' bruna and tongaea woa EodgB.) & peonliai to the monntiiW of Thibet, 
regarded as a necessary part of an ostentatious and Is very rare ; the general color is white, 
feast; even in the iniddle ages they formed a with the primaries brown, the BecondaH«« 
atanding diah in grand entertainmenta ; the blnish dnereoos, the feet and orbitii region red, 
modems think their fleeh dry and tough, and and the crown bluish black, of rigid feathers 
keep them only as omamenta. In the domes- in vertical lamina ; an ear ti^ of long, decom- 
tjoi^ed state they agree well with turkeys, bnt posed white plomee ; the ttul with blo^, green, 
not always with the other occupants of the and purpliah reflections, the lateral fbathen 
poaltry yard ; it ia necessary to protect them with a snbtermin^ oval white spot. 
from the cold of onr northern winters; in the PEALE, OiiABLXa WiLsoir, an American 
wild state they have a propensity to roost on punter, bom in Ohestertoii, Ud., April 16, 
the branches of trees, and ahonld therefore 1741, died in Philadelphia in 1827. He was 
have an opportunity to perch, either on a tree, originally by trade a saddler, but at various 
Tall, or roof; barley is the most oommon food times of his life followed the oconpationa of 
given to them, and to thia may be added millet hameaa maker, watch and clock maker, silver 
and other grains, and legmninous vegetables ; aroith, painter in oils, crayon, and miniatnre, 
the females are apt to neglect their eggs and modeUer, preserver of tmimBia^ dentist, public 
yonng, hence the services of a hen turkey are lectorer, &e. Fiunting however was hia (diief 
generally reqnired to raise the brood. The employment, the others being incidental to it, 
green peacock (P. mutietu, Linn.), from Java, or assumed for temporary purposes. He re- 
hae the neck greenish and copper-colored, and oeived instmotiona in art from a Qeiman 
■ toft of long thin feathers barbed from the punter named Hesselins, who had been a pnfdt 
* i on the top of the head. Ur. Bclater of Bir Godfrey Kneller, and subseqaently from 

("Annals and Magazine of Natural History," Ooplev, then living in Boston. In 1770 he 
Aug. I860) makes a distinct species of the visited ^gland, and for several jrears was a 
blaok-ahouldered peacock of Latham, under the pupil of West. Eeturning to America, he es- 
name of F. nignpmnU; thia bird haa long tabliahed himself first in Annapolis and after- 
been known in aviaries, bnt has been oonad- ward In Philadelphia, and for many years was 
ored as a variety or hybrid of the other two; almost the only portrait p^ter deserring Om 
he regards it as intermediate in geographical nsme In NorlS America, his reputation being 
position as well as in characters between the such that people came to him from Canada and 
P. oTutaUu and nutiea*. — In the genus pob/- the West Inaiea to be painted. During the 
pUetron the bill is slender, straight, half vault- revolutionaij war he commanded a company 
M at the apex, and curved to the tip, with of volunteers, with whom he partioipated in 
compressed sides, and covered with plumes at the battles of Trenton and Gennantown ; and 
the base; the tall is lengthened, broad, and he also painted the portr^ta of many officers 
rounded, without the long coverts of the pre- and distlngoiahed men, which formed the nn- 
oeding genua; the tars) armed in the males olena of a national portrait gallery snbse- 
with 3 or 8 spurs, in the females tuberculate; qnently colleot«d by him. He also served in 
toes long and slender, the anterior united at Oie Pennsylvania legislature. About 178B he 
base, and the hind one elevated. There are commenced the formation of a mnsenm of 
abont half a dozen species, all showy birds, natural curiosities, the idea of vhich had 
found in mounttunons districts of India. The been suggested to him by the si^t of some 
iris peaoock (P. Ueaiearatum, Temm.) is about foseil bones, brought to him to be copied. 
OS large as a domestic fowl, mottled with aah- In a few years his collection of pictnres and 
eolored, white, and brown; winga and t^ and other objects waa removed to a lai^ buil^g 
tiielr coverts with rows of ^Ided. bronzed, pur- apeciajly prepared for their reception, which, 
[da and reddish spots, with bluish and^een under the name of Peale's museumj was long 
refleotlona. The Thibet peacock (P. TfWo- one of the principal flttractiona of Philaddphia. 
fMiM, Temm.) is a rather larger bird, and difFers Subsequently the entire skeleton of a msmmoth 
principally from the last in the blockiah linea was added to the collection, and In connection 
of the plumage ; the tail is reddish, each feather wiUi his museum Ur. Peale lectured on natnral 
luviug a double ooellated green apot; it is a history. He uded m founding the Pennsy]- 
hardy Urd, and a great favorite in tlie aviaries Tarda academy of fine arts, to 17 annual ^[hi- 
of the wealthy Ohinese. — la the genus erotto- bitions of whldi he was a contributor.— Hsir- 
ptilon the bill Is shorter than the head, broad at BBAin>t, Sd son of the preceding, bom in Bucks 
the base, with the lateral margins curved, the co., Penn., Feb. 82, 1778, died in Philadelphia, 
upper mandible spreading beyond the lower Oct. 8, 1860, At the age of 8 he was atoler- 
andoverhandngit; tul lengthened and broad, able draughtsman. In 1796 he established 
lonnded at the end, with the coverts slightly lumself in Obarleston S. C, as a portrait 



painter, and between 1801 at)d 1804 he rtnd- bQ the fine garden eorts of pears have or^ 

led in London under West. Bubseqnentl; he n&ted. The pear tree helotigs to the natnm 

passed MTeral years in Psria. and ezeonted order oSpomaeea, being ezogens with rose-fikfl^ 

portnuts of emiaent men for his bther's ran- manf-p<^ed, r^nlar flowers, and oarp^ sd- 

aenm. In 1809 he returned to Philadelphia, hering to the cujx by their backs. The dia- 

where during the next few yeara he pamted tinctive cbaraoters of the pear tree prt^ierlj 

many portrait!^ and also two pictures oele- bo called are: leaves simple, without glands; 

bated in their time, the " Roman Daoghter" flowers with ue osItz uroeolate, the fimb S- 

and the " Oooit of Death," the latter founded lobed, the petals S-spreading, fl^ and vhite; 

on a passage in Bishop Porteos's poem on etsmensindefinite,iiiaertod in the throat of the 

deatii. 'Tbis work, which was 24 feet m length <calfx; etyles mostly 5; fruit a fleahT p<«ne, 

b; 18 in breadth, and contained 28 flgoi^ conta&iingabout 6 cartdlaginonscaipela; seeds 

was exiilbited in the ohief cities of the United 9 in each carpel ; embryo erect with flat ootyle- 

Statee, and bron^t the author e. large snm of dons. The onltivated pear tree has been knows 

moner. Thenoefertili until near the doee of from Tery remote time& b^ng meu^oned hj 

bis kntg lifb, he devoted himself chiefly to por- tbe earliest writers and J BHiil 'ar to ^eophras- 

trut paintingj nnmbering some of the most tus and VirgiL Pliny describee numerous w 

eminent men in the oonntrj among bis ritters, rietles known to him, and fh)m hb remarks it 

The work in this department by w^oh he was would appear that the earlier ripening kinds 

cUefly known was his portrait of Washing- and the winter pears were then in anstenoe. 

ton made from life studies. He published a It Is co^Jeotnrea that the poar was Introdaoed 

book of European travels, and a small treatise into England by tbe Romans ; and some of the 

on elcmentery drawing entitled" Oraphics." older sorts still in existence are mentioned by 

PEANUT, the seed of tbe oroeAu hypogaa name in the account books of the excheqner 
(Line), an herbaceous plant belonging to the in the time of Henry YIU., and by Gerarde, a 
pnlaa family of the natnral order M^vrntncws. celebrated herbalist, who published a oatalogne 
This order comprises the l^uminouii plants, a of trees, &o., as early as 1G06; while, acoOTd- 
vaet group, widch, thongh differing in the ing to Killer, who wrote in ITSG, the nnmber 
stmotnre of the flowers, yet tmita in tbe com- of cultivated varieties known was 2SQ, frvm 
toon form of the seed vessel, which is that of a which he selects 70 or 80 as the best. Sinoe 
pod. The peanut has an aunual root ; a pro- that time the nnmber has been oonstantly in- 
cumbent stem from 9 to 18 inches long, branch- creasing from the efforte of the French^ and 
ing and piloee ; leaves borne on petioles and espeoit^y of Van Mons of Belgium, while in 
oondatang of 4 broad, blunt leaflets in pdrs, England and America very flne and Insoions 
sabaeadK minutely mucronate at the apex, sorts are annually springing into exietence 
entire and bordered by a pilose nerve, the sti- throngh the sowing of seeds and by hybridiz»- 
pnles adnata to the petJoIe. The flowers are tion. Through tbe efi'orta of gentlemen omi- 
papilionaoeous, the bairen ones yellow and nected with the London hortionltural sode^'a 
small, and the tertile destitute of oalyx, cord- garden, all the varieties that could be obtdned 
1a, and atamenfl ; the ovary after Impregnation were collected and classified ; and in its oatft- 
gradually elongates, and curving downward logue published in 1843 no fewer tlian. 443 
boriea ttaelf in the earth, where it matures into kinds are speoified, with their accompanying 
an oblong, terete pod, with thickened and re- synonyme^ In the United States the readers 
tionlately veined indehiscent valves; this when of the various horticnltnral magarinea arefi^ 
mature la of a pale yellow color, often eon- miliar with the hosts of improved and valuahls 
traoted in the middle, and oontiUni 1 to 8 seeds varieticR which have ^ce originated or been 
of an irregularly ovoid ahape, with thick ooty- introdnced to notice. — Ibe cnltivated pear tree 
ledons aiul a str^bt radicle. The seeds are thrives in any rich losmy soil, and manure jo- 
taH of oil, which when expressed is said to be diciously apj^cd proves very benefidaL Old 
in no way inferior to that of olives. The trees whicn have ceased to bear good fridt 
plant IB tropioal, and is largely cnltivated in have been reoovated by digging trmsA their 
hot countries for food, as in tiie southern roots and sppljing a oompost of w^ rotted 
United States, in Sonth America, and In Africa, manures mixed with vegetable matters, sof^ 
Tb« seeds are eaten both raw and roasted. mda, ashes, Ac The pwfection of the frmt 

FKAS, an ediUe fruit, the produce of tbe and the flavor of particular kinds d^end very 

pgrta eomtutuui (Unn.). In its wild state the much upon the nature and quality of the soO ; 

pear tree has a pyramidal-ehaped head, with and particular varieties have been fonnd to do 

thorny branches, at first erect and afterward perfeotiy well in situations which vary in some 

becoming pendnlous and curving downward ; essential particular from otiiers in their vioin- 

tbe leaves varying greatly in form, and downy Ity, The pear Is cnltivated in a variety of 

or glatmnia, narrow or broad ; the fruit small, modes, being set out as a standard tree, when 

KOBten, and unfit to eat. The wild pear tree la it is grafted apon some seedling stock and eof- 

a native of Europe from Sweden to Uie Uedi- fered to grow to great size ; or used as a dwarf 

terranean, and of Asia as far east as Ohina tree, by being grafted npon the quince root ; or 

and Japan. Erom the variety of the common planted near walls ana grown upon eepaliera, 

pear designated as tbe Mlwa by De Oandtdle when its truning aod pruning are Btul more 



ooiutrained and BitificiaL The modes of train- b«KU of pen? i 

ing dwarf and wall trees are TariooB, but on perrj poara are ... „ ., .__ 
voUb tjiio 8 principal methods are the fan- field, luid Teintoa eqaash. The great ^' to 
shape, the penduloos, and the horizontal. The which the pear tree may attain in^oates eome- 
maui object being, however, to distribute eqaal- what the valne of its wood as timber. It » 
It the vigor of the tree, it has been found that heavT', Etrong, and compact, and can be nsed 
uie last named mode is the best. This ia done In making Joiners' tools and in cabinet work : 
bj cutting back a central shoot and training it also fiinusbes a good i^el and excellent char- 
branohea horizontany to the right and left. coaL — The pear tree is mbiect to two principal 
For market gardening and for farmera the diaeaaes, which are very injnriona to the cnl- 
atandard treea are the beat, many bnahels of ^ tivator, known as blights, bnt originating from 
fruit being raised on single trees. For small very distinct oanses. The yonn^ branches ore 
gardens the dwarf trees are preferable, en- sometimes attacked by a mischievonB coleop- 
abliug many choice varietdes to be grown near terons insect, first described by Prof. Feck 
toge^er and on a email area. Sometimes anch in the "Ifassacbiisette Agricnitnral Bepod- 
trees are trained into artistical forms by tying tory," vol. iv. No. S, as the teoiytvt pyri, which 
ttie young and growing branches to st^es, or bores into the bark and wood, and cats off the 
by bending them down toward the earth, se- passage of the ascending am ; when this anp- 
Onring them ia snoh position by strings and ply fuls the branches suddenly perish. The 
pegs. In making a selection, the pecDfiarities other disease is the efiect of late growth dnr- 
of the different varieties, in reference to their ing the previoos antnnm and of imperfect ri- 
Stocks, soil, and crops, shonld be studied, pening of the wood, in conse<]QeDoe of which 
Borne will not grow in tie open conntry, and it becomes frozen and the tisanes killed and 
reqnire the shelter of the garden ; somedohest disabled fi^)m carrying on the vital flmctioni; 
grafted on the pear, and others on the quince; this is termed the sap blight or frozen sap blight, 
and others require more than ordinary man- Varieties of the pear tree which matnre tfaeir 
Bgement. The great varie^ of climate in the wood early are rarely affected in this way. — 
United States enables the froit grower to find The trae pear tree b not reprmented in the 
congenial situations for every foreign sort, and American flora, and its nearest species in the 
accordingly treatiaes on pear culture assign natural order pomaoea ie the American crab 
certain sorts to certun aectiona. For the farm, apple (,pyrv* eoronaria, Linn.) of western Kew 
standard trees of the following autumn and Tork, and the western and sontbem states, 
winter fhuts have been recommended, viz. : PEABOE, Zi.ob.uit, an English prelate and 
Oatillac, Chelmsford, black pear of Worcester, scholar, bom in 1690, died in Little Ealii^ 
Spanish bon Chretien, Uvesdale's St Germdn, Jane S9, 1774. He was the son of a Holbom 
andvicar of Winkfield. ForasncceBsi<niofear> diatiller, and was ednoatedat Ealing, at West- 
ly, aattmm, and winter fraits in small gardens, minster under Dr. Basby, and at ^inity col- 
amoMg others the following foreign Unda may lege, Cambridge. While in college he is said 
be named : Madeline, Williams's bon Chretien, to have written two numbers of rne " Specta- 
Bummer franc r6al, white doyennfe. fondante tor" (678 and 688), and Hoa. 114 and 181 of 
d'antomne, Marie Louise, Urboniste, Van the "Onardian." In 1716 he publidked an 
Mens' Lion leClero,beurr6Boac, winter Nelis, edition of Cicero i>e Oratore, with notes and 
and benrr6 d'Aremberg: and of American emendations, and dedicated it to Lord Chitf 
". . 9 -. - .. ^^^^ . 

seedlings, the Bloodgood, Dearborn's seedling, justice Parker, who caused him to r 
Andrews's, Beckel, Six, Columbia, &c. — The various preferments. ' In 1724 hb edition m 
value of the pear is twofold, viz. : for the des- "Longinus on the Sublime," with a new Latin 

Dried pears are as weU Jmown in fiance and made dean of Windiester, in 1748 bishop of 
Belgium as dried apples are with na. Deaaert Bangor, and in 17B6 bishop of Rochester with 
pears embrace not only the summer kinds the deanery of Westminster added, and later 
which ripen on the trees, bnt some of the win- was offered the bishopric of London, which be 
ter kinds which are not fit for eating until to- revised. When 78 yeara old he wished to re- 
ward the following spring. To ripen these it ugn his offices, and for that purpose had an 
has been found convenient to constraot frnit interview with the king ; but in consequence of 
rooms in which the pears are laid separately on the disapproval of the episcopal bench, Geoi^ 
ahelves and kept as nearly as posdble at a uni- III. refused him permission. Beside the works 
form temperature. Another use of the pear ia already mentioned, he published a "Review 
tor makinf^ from Ita juice a liquid called perry, of the Text of Paradise Lost," in oppoation 
which ifl ncher and more esteemed than cider, to the emecdationB of Bentley; "An Ac- 
In some parts of England, France, and Ger- count of Trinity College, Cambridge;" "The 
many there ore particular varieties called perry Miracles of Jesas Vindic^ad," in 4 parte (Bvo., 

rrs. Several trees of such ore mentioned by 1727-'6); beside a namber of aermona, trea- 

Boso as being about 400 years old; and ac- tises, and discourses on various snUecte. Bis 

cording to London a very extraordinary tree greatest work was published after nia death, 

in the parish of Holm-Laoey, Herefordshire, nnderthetitleof" A Commentary, with Notes, 

England, has yielded f^m its fruit IB hogs- on the Four Eyangeliata and the Acts of the 



ApoHilea, tt^ether with b hot Trandation of repast, moat hsn been of extraordinary size, sa 

Bt. PaoI'B I^istle to the OormthiaiiH" (3 vob. thej were valood at 10,000,000 eesteroee, or 

4b>.,1777). A oolleotion of " Sormona on Var about |8eo,000. At the Paria exhibition of 

riona Snl^oota," from Uie manuscripts of Biahop 1866 Napoleon m. exhibited an enormous 

Fearee, appeared in 1778 (4 vola. 8to.), with pear-Bhap«d pearl. The latest known in 

a detention to Qoorge m. hj Dr. Johnson. modem tames belongs to O. A. J. Hope. Esq., 

FEASL, a round, tnbercnlar, or irregnlar of England. It weighs G oz., and is 4^ mohea 

oonoretion, oonsiating chiefly of carbonate of in oironmferenoe and 2 inches in length, bnt 

lime, foond in nuiny bivalTe shells, eqieciaUy irregular and imperfect. The art of piercing 

iatbaatieulamargarit^ftra, or m^ea^na mar- and dtilUng them is well nnderatood and akil- 

garitifira of Be Lamarck, or the tme pearl folly exeontod by the Hindoo artisana. They 

oyster, and among ftesh water bivslTes in the drill a nnmber of holes of varying dzes over 

tmw inargarit^fervt. (See Ifvsszi.) In form the sorfaoe of a soft hoard, into whidi they in- 

tfH7 are osnaUy erpheriool, and their color ia sort the pearls, which are aecnred by dampening 

yeluwiah or blniah white. The purest white the board and so oansing the porea to expand 

pearls are most esteemed in EnroiM and Amer- and the wood to tighten round tiie pearls until 

ioLandthoseofyellowishtingebytheHindoos drilled, when the board is allowed to dry. A 

ana Arabs. Th«r hardness somewhat exceeds slight tap disengagea them. — The pearl oyster. 

that of ealeareous ntar, tboogh when treated from which almost all the pearla of oom- 
'tb aeid they are fonnd to possess the same meroe ore obtained, la a bivalve of nearly 
mposition with this mineral, with the addi- circnlar form, slightly convex, and sometimes 

tion of fine films of membrane or albuminoua as large as 12 inches in diameter. It ia met 
matter, whlob remains behind, retaining the with in different parts of the world, especial- 
form and Btmotare of the pearl, and in na- ly in the Indian ocean and the northern Pa- 
croons pearls the irideeoenoe also. They differ oiflo. Like the common oyster, pearl oysters 
in atrnctnreacoording to the portion of Uteani- congregate in large nnmbers on banks, and 
mal in which they are foond. Those developed are obtained year after year from the same lo- 
in the inner layer of the mantle and in ^e celities, Vhere the water Is shallow, they are 
gins are often of amall nze and numerous, and sometimes dredged, bnt they are gener^y 
are known as eeed pearls. Others are formed taken by divwa. The most famous pearl fish- 
around partldea of aand or other for^gn bodies eries are near the coasts of Oeylon, Japan, Java, 
lubodnced into the pallial cavity. These con- and Sumatra, and in the Persian gulf. The 
sist of ooneentrio layers of wavy oaldfied mem- coast of Colombia and Ihe hay of Panama were 
brane, bnt the external pearis from the outer long since famous for tiieir prodnot of pearls, 
layer of the mantle and attached to the shell and they have fomiahed large amounts of 
conaiatof a concentric layer of minute verHoal them, but generally of inf^or valne to the 
prisma The Chinese have long been in the oriental pearls. StUl, one posHessed by Philip 
habit of canaing the formation of pearls by in- IL of Sutln, obtained in 16H fivm Uargarit^ 
trodadng Into the shells small beads of mother- weighed S60 carats, and was valued at 1|160,- 
of-pearl or other substances, which soon collect 000. The Spaniards who first visited the 
an momstalion of oaloareona matter. It ia anp- American continent fonnd the natives decked 
posed that the natural accretion of the substance with necklaces and bracelets of pearls, and 
of pearls is always owing to some injury the Hontezuma is described in his first interview 
ftnirna.! hss rec^Tod. LinJuBUB first called at- with Cortes as wearing garments adorned wi^ 
tention to this phenomenon, and was knighted this preolons ornament. In the trade in pearis 
for demonstratmg the &ct — From a very early from the Bpaniah American coast which soon 
period pearla have ranked among gems, and sprang np, the ialet of Oubagua became famous 
been highly esteemed as ornaments. In the for the abundant supplies it famished. On the 
timeof Jobth^wereaooonntedofffreatTelne, V. coast of Central America pearls are still 
and frequent aQnrions are made to tnem in the procured. Tbey are of fine Instre, bnt of ir- 
Bcriptorea. The Greeks and Bomans used rwnlar fonns. Small resgelB from Uazatlan 
them in prc^nuon, and even decorated their and Aoapnloo are employed in thLi business. 
faet witit pearls. Pliny, after referring to the Beside the orew, they oarry Indian divers, called 
prodigal wtpli^ of pearls in his time, adds: hvM*, who receive fbr their services \ of the 
"Hay, even more than this, they put them on profita, the remainder being equally divided 
their feat, and that not merely on the laces of between the govemment and the owner of the 
their sandals, but they must needs tread upon vesseL Humboldt remarks with surprise that 
them and w^ with tJiem under foot as well." he had nerer heard of pearls found in the 
He also alhidee to the breastplate which Ctesar firesh water shells of Sonth America, though 
brought home and dedicated to Yenns Gene- several species of the tmio genus abound in 
triz,*tatingthatltwas formed of British pearla; the rivers of Pern. The aoddental discovery 
whieh confirms the statement of Suetonius, that at Paterson, N. J., in 1808, of some of un- 
pearls were Crasar's chief inducement for bis usual size, occauoned the New Jersey pearl ex- 
British expedition. The two famous pearls of oltement of that time, which was no doubt 
Cleopatra, which she proposed to dissolve in heightened by the largest having been found 
vinegar in honor of Ajitony at her Inxnrions at the commenoement of the search ; it was a 



pearl of mora tiian an Inch In diameter, per- Bahr^ lal&nds In the Penrian golf sre aaid to 
fectlT spherical and with fine orient; it vas yield annnallT- from $1,000,000 to $1,200,000. 
pnrchawdbyMesara. TMfanyoifNewToFk.and — Pearls are valned m well for the purity of 
dispoeed of through their establiahment in their Inatre as for their size. Hie smaller ones 
F^ris, where it is said to have become the are worth from EO cents to $S each ; sinzle 
property of the empress at a price esoeed- fine pearls are worth |6 and upward ; and m 
log $2,000. — Among the most famous pearl handsome neoklaoe of pearls as large as peas 
fineries are those ^ Osylon and Oorom&ndel, is worth from $600 to $15,000. Pearls in oom- 
which are now controlled by the iinglish gor- merce are classed as oriental and occidental, or 
eminent, as formerly by the East India com- Indian and Pacific, and divided into roeind, 
pany. Prom the time of Pliny, when the pear-sbq>e, and baroque ; when smaller than -fm 
Romans obtained iheir pearls fi^nn the same of an inch in diameter, they are termed aeeo 
region, Ceylon has always been celebrated for pearls. The Saaon, Scotch, Welsh, and Iriah are 
its pearlfl and its pearl divers. At present the from the aame eonrce as onr New Jersey pearl, 
fisheries are annually enrreyed and farmed out the ft^sh water mnssel (unto). The beantiAil 
to the highest bidders, each portion bebig pink-colored "West Indian conch pearl, and onr 
fished only once in 4 yean, that the young clam pearl, are not strictly pearls, being mere 
oysters may have time to grow. The diver* calcareons aggregations, seldom naoreons, and 
are natives trained to this pormlt, and aocos- never conoentrio as the tme pearl is. — Nacre ot 
tomed to descend to depths of 6 or 8 fathoms mother-of-pearl is tiie iridescent inner layer 
40 or DO times a day. They take down a large of the shell ; it is excreted as a fiSmy matter 
stone to hastes their descent, and a bag in on the interior, and becomes hard by the de- 
which they place the oysters, as they tear position of oarbooate of lime; it forms gener- 
them off from the rocks, lliey remain nnder ally the ohief part of the shell, the roogh ez- 
water a minute to a minntfi and a half, and terior epidermis being thin and dark-colored, 
come op with abont 100 oysters. The oc- The iridescence seems to be dne to the mi- 
onpatlon is very l^orions, and the divers nnte nndnlations of the concentric layers, from 
are unhealthy and diort-ltved from diseases whose ontoroppiog edges the rays of light are 
of the heart and Inngs and congestion of differently r^racted, or to the smsll folds of 
the brain daring immersion; they also run a ungle lamina; it has been snooessfblly imi- 
great risks from the attacks of sharks and tated on steeL Mother-of-pesrl is fkmiliariy 
the large hook squids. The fishing season known in its spplicatioo to ornamental pttr- 
eommences in March or AprQ, and continues poses, and thoosands of tons of the ehells are 
abont a monOi. For a few mon^s the bay of annually exported from the Indian and Pa- 
Oondatchy, on the "ff. coast of the island, which cifio oceans, valoed according to quality fi«m 
is the most attractive point in this fishery, pre- $70 to $660 a ton ; it is nsed pnncip^y for 
sents a most lively scene, in striking contrast buttons, knife handles, inlaying of &mitDrD, 
with its nsnally quiet aspect. Amotley crowd 4o., and is often beautifully carved. The na- 
of people of various nations, with their strange ere of the genera oDtetila, tvtio, haliotit, nou- 
diversitieR of dress, language, religion, and man- tilui, and other bivalve and univalve ahella, is 
ners, is collected from all directions — Brahmins also used as mother-of-pearl. — False or arti- 
andBomanOsthoIica, Mohammedans and Jews, fioial pearls were formerly made at Mnrano, 
merchants and ^vers — all eager and eicited In a suburb of Yenfce, of ^lass lined with a 
speculation and trade. Sometimes not fewer pearl-colored vamiah, or with quicksilvet; but 
than 160,000 persons are thus assembled, liv- the French have been of late years the moat 
ing under the temporary belter of light bam- successful imitators of the natural pearl, and to 
boo hntg. At daybreak the boata start oflT at such a degree of perfection have they carried 
the firing of a gun, and at noon their return is the art, that only the most careAil examination 
signalled inthoHsmemanner. On landing, the discloses thedifference between the trueand 
freight is delivered to the owners, and some the fidse gem. The artifldal pearls are lined 
of the shells are immediately opened and the with wax and fish scales, which sre taken from 
pearls extracted ; others are piled in large the body of the fish while living, in order to 
neaps and left in the sun till the bodies of the preserve the glistening hne. The roach and 
animals putre^, when they open of themselves dace, which fbmtsh the scales, are supplied by 
and the pearls are removed. These are passed the nahermen of the Seine, who derive a very 
tiirongh a succession of sieves, and thus thoee considerable profit from this souroe. A va- 
of corresponding (dies are brought together, riety of the smelt, said to be pecnliar to the 
A single BheQ often contains from 8 to 12, and Tiber, has long afforded the Roman Jewellers 
in some instances it is sud even 20 pearls, the means of coating waxen beads so that they 
The nsnal dimenrions of good oriental pearls haveagreaterresemblancetotherealpearlthaD 
are from the size of a pea to about 8 times that either the Yenetian or French ; but being ex- 
size. Those smaller are called oance pearls temal, it is much leas durable. The exact yM>- 
from being sold by weight, and the small- cess is k^itjealonsly secret. 
est seed pearls. To the latter are attribnted PEARLASH. See Potash. 
bnportant medicinal virtues by the natives of PEASANTS' WAB, a revolutionary move- 
Jq>an and India. The pearl fisheries of the ment tn aontliem and central Germany, which 


PKAflAKTff WAB 78 

accoroptnied the nfomution of Latiier. The insarreclions broke out In Franoonia over 200 
peaaantai* wu bu freqnentl; been represented castles and oooventa were destroyed. Tbenoe 
ms ona of the «SboU of the reUgiona refonn«- the war extended to BsTaria, Aastria, Hnn^u?, 
tiOD, ^rhile in &ct it waa mn^lj its corollair-, Oroatiti, and Bohemia In the eaat, throngh Hes- 
Bprin^ng from the same caase, whioh, in work- se, the Palatinate, Alsatia, and Lorraine in the 
ing Tipcn di&rent conditions of society, pro- west, and even to Thnringia and Sazony, where 
dnoed diSbrent results. Thus, while the refor- in Thomas Uanzer the peasants found an en- 
mation was principally a morement of the thnuaeticandgiftedleader. The Swahian peas- 
middle olaMM, as they are now termed, the ants, with whom the moTement had began, 
peasants' wars were the uprising of the lowest proclaimed the following proposItioiiB, the at- 
strata of socfety. Throngh the reformatdon the tainment of which was to he the common ob- 
AouiydMiu^ifthat modem term may be allowed, ject of the leTolntlon : I, the ministers shoold 
stroTd for mtBtery OTer the nobility ; vhile in be elected by the lay members of the dmrch : 
the poManta' wars broad, universal demooraoy. S, the proceeds of the tithing should be applied 
however onide in its fitrms, made ansneceasftil to the snpport of the poor and to mnoioipal 
effbrta to hriiig downtime lof^ and complicated pniposes, a reasonable salary only being appro- 
Btraotare ot a social system based npon privi- priwbed therefrom to the mhuater ; 8, servitode 
InipKi and iHiHnfitltmfi nf nlinnnfi Aatherefor- ehonld be abolished ; 4, the exclusive pririlegea 
matioa waa preceded in the ItiJt and IBth oen- of princes and noblemen in regard to huntmg 
tories by many nnsnooessftd attempts, ao waa and fishing ehonld be abolished ; S, the wood- 
thegreatMasants'warbyisDlatedinsaiTections. lands impropriated by the clergy and nobility 
In 1 470 Hans Bnohheim, called "Johnny the ehonld be retnmed to the village corporations; 
I^>er," proolumed himself a prophet, and ral- 6 to 8, the socage service should be fixed by 
lied the peasants of Franconia against the mle law, the ground rent reduced, and the fend^ 
of the bishops of Wllrzbnrg. In 14SS the tenure regulated; S, Justice should be admin- 
Ksmbriier (eheeae boys) in the Netherlands istered furly and firmly according to plain 
■ooceeded so &r as to tue and hold for some written laws ; 10, all fields and pasture grounds 
time the cities of Alkrnaar and Hoom. In the arbitrarily taken from the village corporations 
followingyearariidDgof the Alsadanpeasantay by the clergy and nohUity shonld be retnmed 
against tiie despotism of the burghers was sm- tothem; 11, tiie right of beriot shall be sbol- 
preasad with the utmost omelty. In 1609 the ished; IS, any of the preceding articles should 
peasants of SwabU formed a league, known un- be null and void whenever it should be proven 
der the name of the league of the hrc^aCStouI- not to be in accordance with the Scripture. In 
fcAuA^, which was promptly put down by the two oolunms, one led by Gotz von Berliching- 
nobili^. Another eff(^ was made by the peas- en, the other by Florlan Geyer, the peasant 
ante' league of the " poor Oonrad," but it army marched toward Worzhnrg, whose citi- 
proredaqnallyauBaooeesM. In 1018 the peas- 2ens made common cause with them. Bntin- 
snts of Hnngary, having been called to arms stead of vigorously pushing to the north and 
sgunst the Tnrb, vera fbrmed Into an army nnidng his forces with those of MQnzer, Gotz 
VS George I>6»a and levied a war of eztermf- von Berliohingen, who at heart was a trutor 
' ' " ' "" They muntained to the cause, whioh he had espoused from mer- 

, , ley were vanquish- oenary motives, remained inactive and gave the 

ed by John Zipdya. Yet of all these move- princes time to concentrate their armies, tsk 

ments no one was so well preconcerted and or- April, 162J;, Count Waldhnrg led the army of 

ganiaed, or eo well defined in its ol^eota, as the the Swabian leagne through Wltrtemberg, and 

peasants' war which ravaged a large part of defeated all detached corps of the peasants. 

QeTmaDy in 1624 and 1696. It broke ont in On Hay S a oolnmn of 36,000 peassnts waa 

Bwabi^ where the peasants, having conqnered routed after a bloody struggle near BOblingen. 

the abbey <rf EeD^)ten, compelled the prince When, on Uay 16, MQnzer's army had been an- 

abbot to rerign by treaty all rights and privi- nihilated near Frankenhansen, and at the si 

dniok HorlewagM) led the peaauits of the All- In two sanguinary battles near Scherweiler and 
gan against the prince bishop <rf Augsburg, and Lupstein, u^e war was virtually at an end. A 
within a few weeks tens of thonsands of peas- horrid but«hery followed. In the Palatinate 
snts rallied under the emblem of a plough 17,000 peasants c^itulated. The duke of 
wheel. Obtoiniut the secret support of lie Lorrdue pledged his princely word not to mo- 
expelled Duke IJlrich of WOrtemberg, they lest them on ^eir return; yet they had scarcely 
soon became masters of the country, and many laid down their arms wheu the soldiery was let 
noblemenfellvictlms to their hatred; noqnor- loose npon them, and they were massacred al- 
ter was givoi or asked. Hundreds of castles most to a man. The noblemen and burghera 
and ooavtnta were soiled and burned. The who had taken sides with them while tb^ 
people of the smaO dties and towns made com- euocess seemed probable, left them as soon as 
moo caose witli the peasants; a number of the tide turned, and even Joined their enemies, 
noblemen even took sues with them and f^ave The AJlgan peosante alone withstood the power 
them a more perfect military organisation, of the Bwabian league fbr some time longer. At 
Therever the news of theee snooessee went, last they saocombed to the greatest general of 


74 FKAT 

tlie lime, Oeo^« von Fnmdaberg. Tbe tbii- eral timllatitr of compodttoD, the moat vuiaUa 

qaiabed wore treated with enormoiiB orneUf. ingre^enta being the sand of accidental miz- 

TltonsandB upon thotuandB of prisonerB were tore. Be«de this they consist chieflj of hJU- 

bebeaded,h&nged,impaled,ortortiiredtodeath. cate, tmlphote, and carbonate of Ume, and sol- 

Himdreds of the imtsbtbuits of those oities phate ot iron. With these are phosphatea and 

which had emrendered to the peasanta shared hjdroohloratea of tJie same bases, and also (^ 

the aame fate. In Bothenburg, Weinsbergj and potash, eoda, magneda, and alnmiuo. The asb 

TflTibnrg wped&Il7, nearlj all the promment being deducted, the carbon generally ranges 

dtizena wore hanged. It is estimated that dor- from BO to 60 per cent, of air-dried peat, «« seen 

ing the brief duration of the war no fewer in the aualjsee presented in the article Fuel. 

than 100,000 or 1G0,0D0 people lost th^ Uvea. Recording to Ur. W. Longmaid, the best sam- 

The pTopofdliona of the peasants were as vio- piles contain ftom YO to 75 per cent, of oarbon. 

lently denoonced by the leaders of the ref- The more earthr varieties of peat^ thoQ^ 

otmation as ever the tenets of the oommnnista poorly adapted lor fael, are often valued as 

have been by the liberals of the present day. manures for the sake of the phosphates and 

The immediate effect of the peasanta' war, like other fertiUi^ salts they cont^ ; they are 

tliat of all ansnooessM revolnlionB, was a tea- most advantageously employed in the preparfr- 

foldincreaseof the abases agtunat which it had tdon of composts with animal manm^ and 

been waged. — See Zimmermanu. AllfemttM sometimes for tempering sandy or clayey soils. 

QmAieht« del grouen BavertJcrtegi (2 vols., Other important nses of the materiiJ will l>e 

Stnttgart, 1841 ; 8 toIs., 1856). noticed after describing its varieties and nan- 

PKAT, the spongy mass of vegetable matter ner of preparation for use. — Two sorts of peat 

composing the eoil of swamps. It consists of are recognized ; one in which the forms of the 

matted roota, leaves, and stems of plants, the roots, stems, and leaves are distinctly pre- 

fbrms of which are sometimes distinctly pre- served; and tbo other in which they are In 

served, and at others are lost in the mncky great part or entirely lost by decomposition, 

mlMtance prodnced by tlieir deoompoution. and Ibe result Is a dense, flne^rained snostance, 

It forms layers sevwal feet in thickness, and in of shining Instre like pitch. The former is of 

some localities repetitions of these are foond at recent growth, oonstitnting tbe upper layers 

different depths, alternating with others of of the bog, and is a spongy, elastic, and tough 

aand. The manner of formation of peat beds, material, unless by dr^age of the b(w it be- 

the gradual spreading of the spbagnons growth comes brittle. Its color varies from light to 

of whii& they are made np, frcmi the moist blackish brown, according to the extent of its 

idtoations in which it originates, over surfaces decomposition. Both cont^ a large amonnt 

natarally dry, and the conversion of these into of water, which escapes as the pest is dried, 

awampy gronnds, together wiUi other pecnliar- leaving behind, it may be, only | or 4 of the 

itiea of these deposits, have been described in original weight. Both sorts are combustible, 

the article Boa. Reference is there also made but the older peat is preferred, as by its greater 

to Qta immense bodies of peat in Ireland, where denmty it gives ont for the same bnlk a greater 

the material is most hignly vtdued as a fneL amonnt of heat. Even Ibis is rarely so heavy 

Feat also abonnds in ^otiand and upon the as the same bulk of water, only one of 37 sam- 

oontinent along the coasts of the German ocean, pies examined by Bir Bobert Eane and Dr. W 

the waters of which by their overflow have K, fiulUvan, and described in their report i] 

peat, of e 

where the dimate u moist, and the snbsoil is ohoidal earthy fhkcture, from Athlone bog in 

impervioos to water. In the soatbem bemi- Ireland. The vegetable strncture was almost 

sphere Darwin states that 45° marks its nearest entirely lost, and when apparent indicated re- 

^>proach to the equator. In the United States mains of ear«z, grasses, and erica In abnndance ; ' 

it IS little known sonth of the state of New its density was 1.058. Another sample, of 

Tork; but it is met with inbogsof condderable density 0.B84, stud to be a valnable fuel, found 

extent In the N. part of that state, in New in Eiversdsle bog near KJmegad, is described 

England, and in Canada. In the article Fnn. as an extremely hard and compact peat with 

(vol. vii. p. 781), the properties of peat for this no trace of vegetable strncture, and when 

use are briefly noticed ; and it is there observed broken exhibiting a resinous conchoidal f^ac- 

that its composition and valuable qualities are ture. The lightest varieties, of specific gravities 

greatly affecCod by the vamble quantities of O.fiS, 0.SS3, ic, were sponey masses of almost 

mineral matters which it contains. This is nnaltered ipl^num and nyprmm^ with re- 

rorely as low as 1 per cent, of the dried ma- mains of various grasses, twigs, bark, and roots. 

teriaJ, and in peat used for fuel sometimes The dense compact peat appears to represent 

reaohes 8S per cent., and even more. The ashes the first step in the progressive changes from 

consequently are often bulky, and according to vegetable substances to mineral coal. — The 

their proportion indicate to some extent the method of gathering peat, aa practised in 

relative values of different samples of peat. Europe, Is flnt to remove the snrface If^er, 

Ytom the nnmerons analyses that have neen which containa tlie living plants and ui«r 

made of them, tbey are found to present a gon- roots, extending to the depQi of 6 int^ee to one 


foot, inth ft ipade ocnatnioted to oat ^tber dendtf <tf whioh is about Dr. LoUte]^ 
S or 4 >id« of a paraMomm. the material ia reftorts of this ftiel that it atovs 71.24 lbs. to 
tban dividtd into oUrag Uoon^ vlkioh, b«ing the enbio foot, while Newcastle coal stowa 
raised up to Oie anr&oe and spread for a while about 49.69 lbs. It ooatains 9 per cent, of 
exposed to the nm and air. are afterward piled hrKioeoopio moisture, 66 of volatile matter, 
in OBQB staoka and are ums more afibetnaUr and 86 of charcoal, indailiiigS.8 of ash. Bong 
driad. HoweTer well dried in this maone^ diatalled ia an iron retort, aod the volatile pro- 
the peat still retdns from SO to SO per oent of dnots being passed through a red-hot iron tube 
ni(riatare. If thepeat Isof mDokT-oonidsteame, in order to eonvert the pwafflne and ingredients 
so as not to bear handling when dned, the of the tar into gaseons nrdrooarbons, ICK) parts 
practioe is to shorel it ont from its bed, and of peat yielded, of pmrnisoharooBl or peat coke, 
nuristening it with water oanae it to bethtw- 86 parts; nFnTnf>nla<'al liquor, 18.SS; thick tar 
onghly intermixed and broof^t to nnifonatex- ocmt^ning paroffine, 6.14; and illuminating 
tore bf the trampling 4^ mm and lieastB. fie- ga^ 40. The illommating power of the gas 
ing spread ont In an even bed, it is marked off was eqnsl only to that of 7 candles, bnt the 
in reotangnlar shi^wa ; andwhanthe water has quantity obtained was at the rate of about 14,- 
drsined away from i^the blocks ate cat out 000 feet per too, which is as much as is af- 
with a long knife and then are dried in the forded by the best Boghead oannel ooaL Wboi 
manner altneady deeiaibed. When the peat to purified by paadug it throngh an alkaline mix- 
thin and wet, it is gstiMred i^ by means ture, it was fonnd free frran solplinr, and in 
redgte, ladles, and eren with mstramenta tliia req>eot preferable to coal gaa. The qoali- 
s a tttherman'a net^ formed of an iron hoop tiea t£ the taai are highly extolled ; and one 
ik ooa ahatp edge, and haTing snmoidea of these b^ug its freedom from snlphur, it is 
m the other a ba; at strong doth throngh well adiq>ted for the i^notion of ores, m the 
which water can £aia The matwial thna treatment (rf which the presence of this element 
ooDectod is kneaded in a kind of trough till it is highly ot^ectionable. The patentees (Ueesrs. 
t^peais like mortar. Tlus to laid i^cn a levd Gwynne and oo.) propose to iq^Iy it to thuose 
fiooring of hay in large cribs or toooahs <f 12 by mixing the pnlvenied materials— wes, fnd, 
to 80 teet in width, the aides of which prevent and finx— and oompresainr the mixtura into 
its flowing away. When snffiuMLtly draned it globnlar massee, with whidi the fbriwoe shall 
to troddmby women and children, who wear beoharged.~^Then*eofpeatasafDel invariona 
npon thdr feet flat boards 8 inches wide and metailarsic operations, as practised in Europe, 
12 to 14 long. It thns beoomes more solid ; to notioed in the aTtioles Ohaboou. and Fcxl, 
and when it will bear a person's wtigfat it to and in the former the methods of charring it 
well beaten with paddles, and tiben diidded by are described. The caloiiGo power of good 
lines into squares of 4 or 5 inohea. On these dry peat, compared with coke of good bitomir 
lines the pest U ont into reotoiupdarhloeks, the nons oo^ to estimated by Mcjlet to be as 1 to 
, — -^ -•— '^'-' '- ■'iedepthoftheI«y«r,al>ont """■ ' . . .. 

rery thin an 
>f dredMS,] 

length of which to the depth ofthe btyer, abont 7.61, and as equal to the oonvereion of its own 

6 inebes. It to important that tJMse shonld be weight of water into steam of 313° from 60*. 

pretty wen dried before they are stored away. By oestnictiTe distillation peat affitids a vari^ 

for letmentatioa to liaUe to take place in large of osefol prodnota, as pyroligneoas add or 

doss stacks of the moist material, and generate erode aeetio add, ammonia, volatile and heai^ 

soffident heat to set them on fire. — Mndi at- dto from which paraffine may be obtained, 

tentioa has been directed tn Enrope of bte wood n^ththo, inflammable gases, charcoal, 

years to tiia nses to which peat to ^)pIioa> tar, &a Peat, more than ot£er combostiblo 

ble, and various processes have been pitted bodies, favors the prodaction of these organic 

by whioh its valne as a Aid to increased, or by oompcnrnds on sooonnt of the laive amonnt of 

which it to made to fomish a number of nsefol water in its composition, which keeps the 

prodnots. To rrader it more efficient as a Aid, temperature low dnring the distillation. The 

It has been powerfoUy compressed by hydranlio inflanoaable gaseoos bt^ies m^ be advaotage- 

maohinea, the blocks of peat being mteriaid ooaly emijoyed to prodnce by tiieir oombos- 

with matting. Ito volume to thns redoced tion the heat required for oontiDning the dis- 

aboDt f, and lbs wdght f The water that to tiUhig operation, or for the 6v^>oratinK pans or 

ezpelted carries with it a portion of soluble boilers. In 184B a patent was granted rh- thto 

mmraal matter, that would be left bdiind if prooess to Ur. Beaoe, and exteonve works 

the water were ev^»orated ; and thns the qnan- were afterward estsUiahed by the Irish peat 

tity of adi to dimin i shed. By another process company near A^, in Eildare, Irdand, for 

drying to e&eted by pladns the peat in a oen- carrying it on. The peat to distilled in for- 

triifiwa] madiine, Attet into it is ground to nooes, like the ordinary blast fbraacea, S3 feet 7 

powder, and then tLoronghW dried in oyHn* inches high, made pwfeotly tight I^ being en- 

derswhiohrertdveinaheiSeaduunber. From cased in b<»ler-pjate iron, and covered at t4^ 

thwe, while at a tempwatnre of abont 180°, at with a dose conical valve and a donble hopper, 

which the tarry pnqiertiea of the peat are Just Air to blown in in linoited <mantity through 

enongh davdc^md to canse it to oaka under ttiree tnydres at the base. The vdatile pro- 

^essore, the powder to pasaed under the press, doots are taken off at (lie top by two 12-mdi 

and to tmmediatdy converted into bloolcs, the pipes and o(»iveysd into a hydranlio main 8 

r«et In diameter, from wfaloh the tar and otlier 
liquids flow into a tank, and the gssea and to- 
fon liiroiigh series of eondenmiig and porifying 
pipes and other apparatos, in which Uieir sepa- 
ration ia effeotaaU7 completed. The diarooal 
is entirely oongnmedin the fornace. YaiionB 
experiments of diflbrent chemistB save great 
enoooragement to the companj. "Die r^nlta 
of acme of these trials are presented in the foi- 


lowing table, those of Bir Bobert Kane aod 
Frofeesor SolBvan having been arrired at b? 
the distillation of samples of peat from difier- 
ent looalities in Irelano, both in retorta and bj 
combustion of a portion of the material h; a 
blast of air, as the (^ration was thenpropoeed 
to be condnoted in the large waj. lliere was 
Utfle diffbrence obserred in Uie reeolts of these 
two methods. 


K— .-.-. 









The mannfactorj' is stated bj Br. Haspratt to 
have " now established itself, although it had 
many diffionltias to contend against." The 
following late commnnication from Dr. Snlll- 
Tsn, however, does not give a very favorable 
view of the operation : " Now that a ready 
market exists, I have no doabt that 8 lbs. of 
parafflne per ton of good dry peat conld be 
separated, especially by keeping over the sum- 
mer oUs nntll winter ; in cold winters perhaps 
even more. Gas eaoo^ can l>e produced to 
work the factory (heating stills, &c.), but it haa 
now been satiefactorily determined that the 
larser the mpply of gas, the less will be the 
yield of tar, aai viet terta. The yield of tar, 
when the temperature has l>eea carefoll; at- 
tended to, has ftdly reached the antaoipated 
quantity ; but neither the ammonia nor the 
wood spirit has. The real eonroe of profit, 
therefore, is the tar. Tar about S.6 per cent, 
paraSne 0.18 per cent." From these oonoln- 
rions it wotdd aopear that the chief valne of 
peat is likely to depend on its employment as 
fael; and as it is abuDdant in the northern 
parts of the TTDited States, and bnt little es- 
teemed, the experience of other nations with 
whom it is largely nsed merits attention. 
Houlded peat in small bricks, that dnk In 
water, is sanplied to Paris from several sonroes. 
It is brongnt ^m near Uanoonrt, a distance 
of 1? leagues, and scdd at the rate of 20 franoa 
for 2,804 lbs. avoirdnpois. In 186S one Orm 
oonverted from 10,000 t« 13,000 tons into 
obarcoaL obt^ning from 40 to 4S per cent 
niia sold at wholesale for 100 ftanos tbe 1,000 
kUc^nrnmes (8,204 lbs.), whioh was abont the 
same value as wood oharooaL tCneral coal 
and wood at the same time were worth abont 
\ as mnoh for tbe same weight Id tbe ex- 
hibition of Paria in 1S6J5 speoimens of peat and 
peat charcoal prepared by different patented 

hibited,that ' -'^' 

leoosness, del 
nesB, and attnicted particmar attrition. They 

ir homogeneoosness, densi^, and cheap- secretes 

were said to be eeonomieally employed for sta- 
tionary steam engines, and eyen for looomoUvea, 

PiEOAN, the name of a ^leeiea of Mwya, a 
North Amertoan genus of trees belonging to 
the natural otAei juglandaeta, representing the 
walnut &mily, and embracing many other spe- 
cies which prodaoe edible and deUdons-fiavor- 
ednute. (See HioxOBT.) The peoan ((7. elt«»- 
/ormi», NnttaL) is a slender tree with aregnlar 
trunk 60 or TO feet high, the pinnate leaves 
13 to IBlnches in length, the petioles angntar; 
the leaflets are sessile, from IS to IGin number, 
oblong-lanceolate, acnminate, serrate, under 
dde pnhesoent, terminal leaflet snbpetiolate, 
attenuated at ihe base. It hears annnaliy an 
abmidanoe of eweet and Savored nnte, Uielr 
hnsks being thin, and their shells eoft and 
eaaly broken, and of a yellowi^ brown or 
ashen brown oolor. Miohonx considera them 
anperior in point of flavor to any of the nnts 
of Europe, especially in some partioidar varie- 
ties. The peoan grows spontaneonshr on lirw 
banks from Dlinou southward to tussismpid. 
In gardens and in sheltered tdtuationa It bears 
tbe winters as far northward as the banks of 
the Hudson river in New York. It was Intro- 
dnoed Into France many years dnce. 

FEOOARY, a pachydermatoos mammal at 
the hog family, and genns dieotyUt fCuv.), 
peculiar to America. In this genus tne in- 
cisors are t ; the canines \z\, not projecting 
beyond tbe lips as in the wild boar, hut yerj 
mnoh as in other mammals, small, triangular, 
and veryahaip, thenpperoneadirectedstraifAt 
downward; the molars fzS, tnberoalate; uis 
fore fbet are 4-toed, and the hind ones 8-toed, 
the outer aooesso^ hoof being wanting; a 
mere tubercle in place of & tail ; aecor^ng to 
Ouvier, the metacarpals and metatarsals of the 
2 longest toes on all tbe feet are nnited as n 
mminants, but this Yan der Hoeven says is ftr 
from being always the case. On tbe back, a 
few inctaee from the taih in both sexes, con- 
oealed partly by tbe hair, is a gland which 
secretes a veryfetM flnid; thia l>ears a rude 
resemblance to a navel, and the generic nam* 
was derived from it, from die, double, and 
iBorvktf, cavity. The head is broad, pointed, 


PECK 77 

and ntber large in proportloa to the body ; «aine a member of the Ifethodkt ^tlacoiMl 

the ean modarate aad pointed, the ej«B ameSL ohnroh in 1818, and entered the ralnutr? in 

the BDoat bhmt, the lep thin and slender, and 1610. He was principal of the Oneida confer- 

tha akin ooreredvith dose, TerjBtiff and sharp enoe Bemisar; from 1886 to 1839. He has 

brisdes. The odlared pec«ai7 or Meiioan hog boen a member of 9 mooeaaive general confer- 

CD- Uirqtuttttt, F. Onr.) ia about Si feet in the enoea, and repreBented 4 annaal conferences in 

nule from snont to root of t^ the female that bodj. In 1840 he was appointed editor of 

being ft litUo amaQer ; it is ahorter bnt more the " Qnartorly Keviow" and of Uie books of 

compact than the domesticated hog ; the h^ the general catalogue of the Methodist book 

is rixtged with blaok aai white, rather long, concern, and in 184S editor of the "Ohriatian 

lightest at the tip; from each shoulder runs a Advocate and Journal," winch post he held 

more or less distmot white ooUor on each side until ISCS, when he entered the regular work 

of the neck. They usually go in couples or of the ministry. Dr. Peck has written "An 

in small parties of 8 or 10, and not so often in Examination of tTniTersalism," " The Lives of 

large flocks as the next species; they prefer the Apostles and EvauKslists, " Christian Per- 

woods and swampy grounds, but they wander fbotion," " Knle of FaiUi," " Eeply to Dr. Bas- 

wberever food is abondant, even int« the fields com on Blavery," "Wyoming, its History and' 

and enclosures of the planter, where they often Inoidente," "Manly Character, Lectures to 

commit great havoc; when attacked by wild Young Men," and "Early Methodiam in the 

beasts or by man, a flock will form a circle, Genesee OouJerenoe." 

with the yoong in the centre, and repel even PECK, Johk Mason, DJ>., an American 

the jagnar with their sharp teeth, in this way clergyman, bom in UtcJifield, Conn., Oct. 81, 

often killing di^ and severely wonnding the 1789, died at Bockspring, 111., March IB, 18C6. 

hDQter. The food consists of nuts, fruits. He received a limited education, and engaged in 

seeds, gndn, roots, and whatever living thing teaching for several winters, while he labored 

they osa find on or under the ground; they npon a &rm in summer. In IBII he removed 

are omniToroos, though less camivorona than to Qreene CO., N. Y., where not long after he 

the dcaoeatJa hog ; the flesh is white and tender, nnited with tjie Baptist church. He was li- 

more like that of the hare than the hog. and censed to preach in 1813, was ordained at Cats- 

with very little M ; when the animal is killed, kill K. Y., in 181S, and in 1814 became pastor 

it is necconary at once t« cat out the dorsal of the Bt^ldst church in Amenia, Dat«hes8 oo., 

^and, else Hie whole flesh would be tfunted by S.Y. ^ 1816 be restguedhis pastoral charge, 

its secretion and rendered unfit for food. They and went to Pbilsdeliddfr to study under the Bev. 

lire in holra in trees or in the ground, or in Dr. Btaughton. In May, 1817, newas set apart 

any cavity which affords shelter; they are as a missionary of the B^tist genersl oonven- 

often very bold, attacking the traveller with- Idon to the West, went to St. Loms, and for the 

out provocation, and oompelliog him to ascend next 9 years was an itinerant ndssionary in 

a tree for safety; & dog unaccustomed to hunt- IGssonri and Dlinois. In 1836 he visited New 

ing tham is at once surrounded and kiUed. England and New YorLsollciting aid to sna- 

Thos ^tedes Is found in Mexico and Texas, in t^ missionariee in the west, and to assist in 

the United States as far as the Bed river in Ar- founding a literary and theolo^oal seminary at 

kanras, in lat. 81°, probably as far west as Gall- Rockaprlng. These objects were secured, and 

fomia, and in Bouth America as &r as Para- the Bock^ring seminao' edifice was erected 

guay in lat. 87° 8. When taken young they on lands given by Ur. Feck. In April, 1829, 

are easily domestioated, bnt do not mix or breed he started "The PioneeTj" the first BapUat 

with the common hog ; they bring forth only Journal published In the Weet, which he mun- 

onoe a year, and one or two at a birth ; they tained for 10 or 13 years, at an annual loss to 

are rather aensitire to oold, and ea^y Irritat- himselfl In 1680 and 1631 he had charge of 

ed, and manifest pleasure by a hog-like grunt, the seminary as princlpaL In 1881, in oonneo- 

The white-lipped peccary (A labiattu, Cuv.) is Uon with the Bev. Dr. Going, he originated the 

of a general blackish oolor, with the lower Jaw American Buitist home misdon society. Inl8S3 

wMte; it is a larger animal than the laat, liv- tie published " The Emigrant's Guide," which 

ing in solitary forests in large troops, and is led to extensive emigration to Illinois and other 

hnnted by the natives for ita flash ; it ia found nortii- western states. Soon afterward he oom- 

in South America, but does not assodate with menced the publication of a monthly Sunday 

the other species. Travellers speak of a variety school paper, with a view to promote the or- 

or perhaps a distinct spedes in Honduras, of a gKolzation of Sunday schools in the West. In 

dirty black color with long tangled hair, going 1884 he published a " Gazetteer of Illinois," 

in latge flocks uid very ferociona when attack- In 1B85 Shortleff college was founded by his 

edjthis goes by the name of warree. exertions at Upper Alton, IlL, and the Book- 

PEOE, a dry measure equal to i bushel, or spriog seminary transferred to the new insti- 
S gaUooM. Being dependent on the bushel, its tntion. Mr. Peck during the year travelled 
exact C(q>acity may be learned by referring to 6,000 miles, and raised 120,000 fiir the endow- 
that titlet ment of the college. His next eflbrt was fbr the 

FECE, CtsoBai, D.D., an American clergy- organization and endowment of a theological 

sua and author, born Aug. 8, 1707. He be- seminary at Oovingtoa, Ey. In 134S-'S he 



t4M)k up hlB restdenoe in PhSadelidiik as wr- 181S. After tbe death of the qoeoi Dona 

reapoDOlng BecMtarf and g«iMnl agent of the UarU I. the father of Dom Pedro bec«iue kiog 

Amuiean BMitM pnbBoattoa society, and har- of Portngal under the title of John VI., and in 

Ing placed tne socie^f on a mbetantiBl basis ISSl retomed to thkt oonntry, leaving his son 

r«tnniedtotiieWe8t,andfor the next 18 rears as regent of BraziL Tbe arbitraiy acts of the 

was a pastor in Tarions ohorohefl of Uiasonri, Portngoese oorte^ vhich admited measaree re- 

niinois, and Kentockr, at the same time con- dadng Bradl agau to the rank of a o<jonj, and 

tribating largely to reriewa and periodicals, oommanding, among other things, the prince 

DuriDg this period he wrote a life of Daniel regent to come to Eorope tbr nis ednoation, 

Boone for Sparks's "American Biography," aroosed the indignation of the inhabitants. A 

and a memoir of Father Clark, a westeni revolution took place, and Dom Pedro, placing 

preacher, edited the "Anhsls of the Weet," himself at the head of tbe movement, vraa pro- 

and tuded in the organization of historical so- olsimed protector and perpetual defender of 

deties in most of the north-weHt«m states and Braeil; and the country being declared iode- 

territories. He left a very lai^e collection of pendent in Oct. 1832, he was proclaimed con- 

mannscripte, nuunly historical in their oharao- Btitntional emperor, and on Deo, 1 waa crown- 

ter. Harvard nniverBity conferred npon him ed. The diffionlties to be enooant«red were, 

tbedei^oe of D.D. in 16J(3. however, of tbe most serions character. So 

PEOTIO ACID, See Jkllt. eooner had the resistance of the Portogneee 

PEDDLER, Pkdlsb, or Pxnux, a word of boopa been pnt down than rebellion broke oct 

nncert^n origin, bot probably derived in some in the northern provinces, and at tbe same 

way from I^LpM, a loot, and perhaps through time the emperor was involved in a qnarrel 

the French word pied. A peddler may he de- with the constJtnent assembly, wberem the 

fined inlaw as one who travels about the conn- demooratio element was predominuit. In I8£6 

try carrying with him goods for sale, nsnally Portngal recogniied the independence of Bra- 

by retail. Formeriy, and in some oonntriee at zil, and a treaty was made on t«nns highly mi- 

this time, a large part of the internal com- satis&otory to the Portognese, In 1BS6, tbe 

meroe in things of domestic nse was carried on sovereignty of the province Oiqdattna (Banda 

in this way. Peddling is now superseded, to Oriental) being dispnted between Brttdl and 

a' great extent, by permanent stores or shops, Buenos Ayree, Dom Pedro declared war against 

to which bn^ers come. This ia the natural the latt«r, which terminated Tin&vorably to 

effect of the mcrease in the number of towns, his interarts. His father dying in 1B28, he be- 

or marts of trade, and of the greater facility came king of Portngal, but immediately abdi- 

of access to them by the improved roads of cated in tavor of his in&nt danghter. Dona 

modem times. It still exists, however, and in Uaria da Gloria, as the Brazilians fbared that 

thinly settled parts of this conntry may he they wereoncemoretobemadedependentnpon 

said to flourish. In many, if not hi all the tbe mother country. The internal disoontenta 

states, peddling ia regulated by statntory pro- increased ; ijie feeling in tbe (jiamber of depn- 

visions, which are sometimes very sbingent. ties against the emperor became of the most 

They are intended to guard buyers from fraud, violent oharaeter; and at length a popular tn- 

and also to protect the interests of regnlar mult in Bio Jan^ro compelled him to abdicate 

traders. From the probable derivation of tbe in favor of his son, April T, ISSI, and to retnm 

word, it might be inferred that peddlers travel- to hia native country. In the mean time tbe 

led on fooL In tbe United S^tes this is not crows of Portngal bad been usurped by his 

usually the ease at present, as they commonly brother Dom U&nel, and Dona Haria, after a 

carry their commodities in a cart or wagon, residenoe in En^nd, bad taken reftage in Bra- 

wbiob is somelimea a large one. In many sjl, whence she now accompanied her &ther to 

of the states they are obliged to take out and Eorope with the hope of conquering her throne 

pay for a license to carry on their trade. by his assistance. Dom Pe^ landed at the 

PEDEEj Okbat, a river of Sonth Carolina, Island of Terceira, one of the Azores, issued a 

which, rising in the S. W. of North Carolina, decree in favor of Dona Haria, and with the 

at tbe base of the Blue ridge, is called the aaaiptance of French and English volnnteers 

Yadkin until it enters the fonner state near b^an a war which terminated in 1884 by the 

its N. E. comer. Thence it flows in a nearly complete encceas of the qneen's party. (See 

S. direction, &lling into Winyaw bay at MioraL.} On Uay SS a convention was signed 

eeomtown. Among its tributaries in South by which Dom Miguel an%ed to leave the 

Carolina are Lynoh'a creek, and the Little Pe- kingdom for ever. Dom Pedro was now ap- 

dee. Black, and Vacoamaw rivers. It is navi- pointed recent during his dan^ter^s misoriQ', 

gable for amdl vessels toOheraw, about IBO m. but be died before it expired. In 1888 he had 

FEDOMETEB. See Oookbtsb. been excommnnicated by tbe pope for confis- 

PEDRO I. na ALOurrARi. of Brazil, and eating monastic propertyin Portugal. 

IV. of Portngal, bom in the palace of Quelnz, PEDRO 11. d« AioAsriiti, emperor of Bia- 

near Lisbon, Oct. 13, 1798, died there, Sept. zil, son of the precedmg, bora Dec S, 1825. 

94, 1884. On the invasion of Portngal by uie Be was little more than 6 yean old when bis 

French in 1807, the royal fiuuily fled to Brazil, &tber abdicated tbe crown in hia favor. Dnr- 

whiob was raised to tbe rank ot a kingdom in ing bis minority the comitiy was diatracted by 



rival tielioBB; uid at length, when Pedro IL lnlS60reviTedh!sol^mtotlietIirone.ln whloh 
was 14 jaars of age, a biU tbs passed in the he vas supported by the pope and Oharlei Y, 
legialatore deolaring that he had attained hia of France. Pedro songht reftige in Bayonne. 
a^orit;r- <^° ^^7 ^> 1^^> ^^ ascended the where he obtained the assistanoe of EdwKrd 
throne, and was crowned Jmj IB, 1841. The the Black Prince, who placed bim again on the 
disturbed state of the ooontr? still oontimied. throne : but disgusted with hia condnct he loft 
Several of the provinoes wwe in arms ; in that him to bte fate, and in the battle of Montiel, in 
of ^o Paolo (nder was restored by Gen. Oaxl- La Hancha, Pedro was defeated, and elain hj 
aa; bnt the war was prolonged in the provinoe the baadof his riTa], who saooeededhimnnder 
of Ifinaa Gerees nntil the decisive viotoiT of the title of Eenrj II, * 
the rojBliats at San Lnda in 18^. The Bnbse- I^DBO, Dom, duke of Ooimbra, and r^ent 
qaent reign of the emperor has been peaoefUL of Fortngal, bom In Lisbon, Deo. 9, 1S93, died 
with the exception of llie war earned on against ISaj 20, 1449. He was the second son of John 
Baeoos Attm, for the Independence of Urogoay I. of Fortogol and Pbilippa of Lancaster, 
aoA Para^oay. The troops of BrazlL J&tre daughter of John of Gaont. While jet yonng 
Bios, Oorrientes, and IJmgnaj, nnder Urqniza, he was intmated with the command of the fir^ 
defeated those of Buenos Ajres nnder Roraa on expedition againat Oeata. He next devoted 4 
the flflid cf Mimte Oaseros. A diapnt« with jeara (1424r-'6} to travel, rioting ail the conrta 
Great Britain on aoeonnt of the ncm-oItserTanoe of Europe, and penetrating even to Bagdad, 
of tlie treaty regolations in regard to the abo- where the anltan received him with great mag- 
lition of the alaye trade waa aatiabotorily set- nifioence. At Venice the repnblio presented 
tied by the prohibition of the traffic Under him with the works of Marco Polo, which ware 
fais rale Braiil is steadily increasing in power, reproduced in Portngal, After the death of Ed- 
the goreinmeut has been oonsofidated, the wBrdl.thepeoplebecamadiscontentedwiththe 
finances are in a good condition, and internal regency of the qaeen, who had been awointed 
improrementa are aotiTely carried on. Dom to that office dnrins the minority of A^naoT. 
Pedro possesses remarkable literary and soien- Dom Pedro skilfully fomented the dlssatisfao- 
tific acqiurementa and a liberal tnm of mind, tion, and was nominated by the cortea defend* 
and enJOTa the enthosiastio affection of his sub- er and regent of the kingdom, Not. 1, 1489, 
tecta. On Sept. 4, 1849, he married the prinoeaa He aboMied undue taxation, enconraged mari- 
ThereaaOhiisuna Maria, danghter of Francis L, time enterprise, waa the patron of letters and 
king of the Two Sidlies. He has two childrm, the arts^d himself a poet of no mean preten- 
the prteceaaes Isab^a and Leopoldina. sions. He sadoeeded in bringing about a mar- 
PEDRO v., king of Portomil, bom in Lis- riage between his daughter Isabella and th» 
bon, S^t. 16/1887. He is the son of Dona youn^ king (1446). A quarrel between himself 
Maria IL and Prince Ferdinand of Baxe-Ooburg, and big illentimate brotlier the dnke of Bragan- 
and Us mother dying In Nov. 185S, he sncceea- ^ each clamiing the dignity of constable of the 
ed to the throne under the regency of hia kingdom, broke out into open rnptnre and final- 
father. He visited England in the same year, ly into civil war. Bragan^a gained the king 
and France at the time of the great exhibition to hia interest. Pedro having retired to Ooim- 
in Paris in 1 8CSG, and also travelled in Italy, bra, bnt not caring to sustain a siege, advanced 
Snitzerland, Holland, and Belgium. During to meet the royal troops with a force of 1,000 
his minority the most important transactiona horse and 0,000 in&ntry. The hostile armies 
were the concludtm of extradition treaiiea with met at Alfarrobeira, May 20, 1449, and abattle 
France and Belgium, and commercial trestiea euraed, In which the regent's forces were de- 
with the states of South America. He assumed fbated. In the thick of the fight Dom Fediv) 
the reins of government Sept. 16, 18SS. On waa mied by an arrow. His niend, the ohlr- 
May 18, 1S58, he married the princess 6te- alrous Almada, was- also alun. Tlie duke's 

Jhante of HohenzoHem-Bigmaringen, who died head was cnt off and his body left expoaed on 

oly 17, 18S9. the field, bnt after the lapse of 4 days was 

PEDRO TBB OmnL, king of Oastile and buried by the ^emy in a chapel hard by, 

Leon, bom in Burgos, Ang. 80, 188^ ^ed whence at the entreaty of tbe qneen it waa 

March 14, 1869. B^ succeeded his fkuier Al- permitted to be removed to the family vatdt 

fonso XL in ISSO, and in 1858 married Blanche bi the monast ery o f Batalha, in 1466. 

de Bourbon, rister of the king of Franoe, but FEKBLESSHIBE, or Twhesdale, an inland 

in three days deserted her, and devoted himself connty In the 6. of Scotland, bonnded N. by 

to his nustress DonnaMana Padilla, whose rel- KdinbnrghahlrejE. by Selkirkshire, S. by Dum- 

atiree he raiaed to the higheat offlcea. Bnbae- fiiesshire, and W. by Lanarkshire ; area, 819 

"~hepoisouedhiaqiieen,andoraellyper- sq.m.; pop. in 1661, 10,786. It is watered by 

members of his own family and Oastillan the Tweed. The greater part of the surface 

grandees, nntil aninsorrectionwaer^edagdnst conalsta of mountain, moor, and bog, ^e eleva- 

him nnderthe lead of Henry of Trastamara, his tionofthe first Taryingftom9,400to 3,800 feet, 

natural brother, who claimed the throne. At Ooal and limestone hare been long wrought In 

the same time the pope esoommnnioat«d the variona places. There are manufactories of 

Ung and laid hia kingdom nnder an interdict, woollena. Peeblesshire returns one member to 

Henry waa defeated and driven to France, but pari^ment. 


80 ISEL 

FXSX. I. Sir Bobxbk an EngUah maim* liiSept. 161S, be was i^ipt^nted chief aecretair 
&otnrer, boni at Peel's Gross, near LauoaBter, fbr Inland, an ofBoe tbea cnnmcalf beatowed 
April 26, ITGO, died at Drayton Uanor, Stafford- upon (he most pronudng of the yondtftil mem- 
shire, Uay S, 1680. He uiheiited a moderate hen of the paitj in ^wer. In the then dis- 
propertj, and in 1773 entered into partneiBhip tnrbed politioal condition of Ireland the arriTsl 
iritii William Yates, a cotton mana&otnrer of of a secretary heading the high tory principles 
Bury, Lancashire, irbosa daughter he maiTied of Ur. Peel, and opposed to Oathdio emanei- 
in 178S. By indostry, activity, boldoesa of pation, was the et^ial for an attack npon him, 
enterprise, and consonunate sagacity, he smaas- whiohwasmfUnt^edwitlinnwaTeringseTeritr 
ed a fortune j))efore reaching middle life; bat daring his whole term of office. No term of 
be nevertheless contdnaed to conduct biudnees reproach was considered too strong, no abuse 
as a manufacturer for many years mbseqaent too violent, and the ultra Koman Cathtdica sel- 
with uninterrupted prosperity, having had, it dom called him by any other appellation than 
is Baid, in 1808 upward of 16,000 persona in " Orange Peel." O'Connell, who was then tiie 
his employ. In 1780 he published a pamphlet popular idol of the oppoMtion, ungled him ont 
entitled "The Kational Debt prodactive of for attack, and forthe Timlenoeofhislaogiiaffe 
National Prosperity ;" and in 1?Q0 he waa re- was cbaUenged by Peel, who proceeded to the 
tamed to parliament aa one of the members continent to afford his lulverBary a hostile meet- 
ff om Tamworth, a oonstitaency which he con- log ; but the duel was prevented by the arreal 
tinned to represent nntil 1B20. In politica be of O'Connell in London. His most important 
was a stanch supporter of Pitt and the tories, act while in Ireland was tbe eatabUahment of 
and in 1797 be testified his loyalty and patriot- the regular Irish constabulary, nicknamed the 
iam by sobBcribing, in conjunction with Mr. " Peelers," which was tbe first stop toward the 
Yato^ the sum of £10,000 to the "loyalty Introduction of that system of metropolitan 
loan." Daring the alarm cuised by the threat- police now familiar to every oon^derable pro- 
Hied invasion of the Frenob he was active in vincial town of Great Britain. Inl817heiras 
the fbnnation of volunteer corps, and raised retamed to parliament for the nnivernty of 
among bis own workmen a regiment called the Oxford; and in the succeeding year ha r»- 
Bnry loyal volunteers, of wuch he was q>- swned his Irish secretaryship, and soocMdad 
pointed lientenant-colonel. In 1800 be was 1&. Homer as obairman of the bullion oommit- 
created a baronet. He left property, real and tee, in which capaci^ he introdaced in 161t 
personal, eBtimated at above two miOions ster- the bill authorizing a retnm to cash payments 
nng, the greater part of which after liberal pro- which bears his nsme. It brought npon him 
visions for his numeroos family, was settled on no slight odinm, and was the first political act 
his eldest son. H. Sat Boncar, eldest Bon of in wbioh bis father, who still held his seat la 
Ibe preceding, an English statesman, bom near parliament and was a Btanoh supporter <^ I^tfs 
Bury, Iiancasbire,Feb. 6,1788, died in London, oarrencydootrinea,difirered from him, Jnl83S 
July 3, 18G0. He received his early education he succeeded Lord 81dmouth as home secretary, 
under tbe personal superintendence of his and during his term of office procured the pafr- 
btiier, and was subsequently sent to Harrow, saw of an important series of acts reforming 
where his industry and ambition soon placed and remodelling tbe criminal law. Upon the 
him at tbe head of the school. "There were dissolution of tbe Liverpool ministry in 1827 
always great bopee of Peel among oa all, be retired from ofSce ; but upon tbe aeoemaoa 
maetorsand scholars," writes Byron, wbo was of the torygovemment of thednke of WeDing- 
his schoolfellow, " and be has not disappointed ton in 18^, he resumed the seats of the home 
tbem." At IShewasenteredagentlemancom- department. The agitation of the repeal oi 
moner of Ghristehnrob, Oxford, and was grad- tiis penal laws affecting the Boman Catholics 
uated in 1S08 with unprecedented distinction, had now reached a point which compelled the 
bung tbe first wbo ever took the honors of a ministry either to consent to the meBsore or 
donbia first class — first in classics aai first in to resign office ; and in a speech ddiv««d mi 
mathematics. Upon attaining his m^ority in Uarch S, 1829, Mr. Peel, yielding to what he 
1809 he was retamed to parliament for the considered tbe exigencies of the moment pro- 
Irisli borough of Casbel, and entered public life posed Oatbolio emancipation. The orthodox 
aa a member of tbe tory part.y. His university tories at once denounced bim as an sptmtKte ; 
reputation and bis father s prases drew toward and upon offering bimeelf to the electors of 
bim more attention than is generally pud to Oxford oniversity, bis seat for which he bad re- 
yoong men entering upon a politicdi career; signed upon beoondna a convert to emandM- 
and he was wise enough during bis first year tion, be was defeated by Blr Bobert H. bi^ia. 
of parliamentary life not to nsk his prestlM He was however tempwarily retnmed ibr tbe 
by any set speech, contenting himself wiUi borongh of 'Westbuiy. and in 1880 became am 
brief remarks on comparativdy nnimportant of the members for Tamworth, which conatit- 
ocoaEnons. In 1810 be seconded the address nenoy be represented until his death. During 
in reply to the king's speech, and in 1811 the respite wbicli tbe mimstir gained by their 
was appointed nnder secretary of stato for the concession Mr. Peel remodelled on ita preaent 
colonies, a podtion not at that time of mucih basis the London police force — a measure with 
prominenoe, bat which he filled with credit which his namewiUeverbehonorablyaonnect- 



ad. He rrtired with his oallMgnM in Not. oeeding d&y, irhib riding oa Oonstitattoi biD, 

1880, baviiig a few montha preTions encceeded he was thrown from his horse, and died after 

ta> the b*rc»etcj and the greater part of the Ki'eat physical Buffering in conseqnenoe of the ia- 

immense eataCea of his father, and for the next juries received. Hia death excited a nniTereal 

4 jean remained in opposition. He oppoaed ueling of regret. It was admitted hf thoM 

the r^rm bill with earaeabieBB and ability, but who differed with him on the great political 

with bupaliod influence: and in the first see- meaanree he anooesaftillT advooated, that no 

Hon of ue reformed parliaiDent he fboud him- man ever ondertook publio afiairs with a more 

B^ Kt the head of a party nnmberinc not thorongh determination to leave the institQtions 

more than 800, bat whiim imder hia goidanoe of hia coontry in an orderly, honest, and ef- 

w» dereloped into a compact, powerftd, and fioient condition ; and hia friend the dnke of 

well dieeiplmed oppootirai. In 18S4, ap<m the Wellington once obserred of him: "Of all 

diseoJotion ol the Mellxrame miniatry, lie was the men I ever knew, he had the greatest re- 

gmmiuHied by the king tront Italy to form an card for tmth," In private life he woa honoved 

■dmiDidtration, which ne nndertook, although by all classes. Of hia eimplicity and inde- 

of the ofonion that the time waa inopportone pendenoe ot character it is anffldent to re- 

to attempt a conservative reaction. For ser- cord that he daolined a peerage and the order 

enl montha he straggled against a formidable of tbe garter, and left in his will a solemn in- 

oppaaMoa, bat was obliged in April, ISSR^ to junction to hie children ORBinst the accept- 

retire. For ft years he ramuned in opposition, anoe of such honors. By his wife, a dao^- 

h&ving within that time declined to form a ter of Qen. Sir John Floyd, he leCl. 7 ohildran, 

oatnoet, oiring to the rd^isal t^ ^leen 'Victoria 6 sons and 3 dang^tera, all of whom sorrived 

to dis^sa cntain ladiea of her boos^hold hav- him. III. Sn Robkkt, eldest son of the pre- 

ii% whig conneotiona; and in Bept 1841, he oeding, bom in Londonl May 4, 1822. He was 

became first lord of the treasory, wiHi a large educated at Harrow school and the oniTersity 

and well orgaaiMd surioritr in both honaee of Cambridge, and eitter«d public life in 1844 aa 

of parlianeBt. His ministry, though foimed an atlaehi to tbe British embassy at iUadrid. 

emphatieallr on protectionist prinotplea, did Snbsequenth^ he served as seoretary of legation 

not bwitate ultimately to adopt free trade and thargi m Switzwiand ; waa a Junior lord 

doetriDee; and Sir Robert himself inangorated of the admiralty ftom 1866 to 18S7; and in 

in 1842 a more liberal flnantial poUoy '^j re- Hie latter year was present at the coronation 

morii^ tbe dnttea on certain articles of !m- of Alexander H. of Rnssia, aa secretary of the 

port, md oratnderaUy abatdng them on many special ndseion despatobed by the Britiah gov- 

otbwa, indudiiig breadstnffl and raw materials emment to Moscow. He sncoeeded hia &ther 

of manttfeetore. At the same time an income In 1860, and unoe that period has represented 

tax tbr 8 yean waa imposed, by which the Tarn worth in parliament. Inl86Q hewaamai- 

eOTemment was enabled to repeal upward of ried to Lady Emily Hay, dan^tor of the mar- 

£18,000,000 of indirect taxes. In 1846 this quis of Xweeddale. lY. Fsxdebic, brother of 

tax was renewed fbr.S years ; and in 1846, tiie preceding, bom in London, Oct. 2B, 1638. 

in view of the approach of famine in Ire- He waa educated at Harrow and at Trinity 

land, the premier carried a total abolition of ocdlege, Oambridge, and in 1849 waa called to 

duties on breadata& So great a change in the Hie bar at the Kmer Temple. From Nov. 1661, 

oommerciai policy of tbe kingdom broo^t upon to Feb. 1866, with the exception of seveTal 

Sir B(^»ert a large degree m odinm among the mcoiths in 1863, be was under seoretary for the 

BgricnUnral classes, whose interests, it was sup- colonies, and ftom 1866 to 1867 under secretory 

posed, would be rained by tbe repeal of the for war ; and eince 1860 he baa been one M 

oom laws. A coalition of the protectitmlsta the secretariea of the treasory. In 1869 he waa 

and the wbigs, the fbrmer led by Diaraeli and retomed to parliament from Bory for a second 

Loid George Bentinck, overthrew him on the time. 

Irish coercion bill, end on Jane 39, 1846, he PEELE, GioBai, an En^ish dram^ist, bom 

reeigned office. In addition to tbe mesBDres in Devonshire about 1562 of 1668, died prob- 

mentioned,hlaadministiatiouirasdiBtiiigniBhed a]:dydK>rtly Neviona to 1698. He was edn- 

by several of a liberal ohoraoter totudimg Ire- ostedatBroadgateshalL now Pembroke oolle^ 

auL, aad for relieving tbe disabUitiea ot the Oxford, where he took bis baobelor'a degree in 

diaacoiten and Jews. Its for^gn policy was 167^, RibseqnwUy established himself In Lon* 

also cottdocted with snoeesa tn Eiirt^ and the don, and beoame a writer for the theatre, on 

East. On the other band, KrBobert did notb- occasional performer, and an intimato assotuato 

ing to ebeck the railwar mania of 164ff-'6, but of Hash, lUrlowe, and Greene. like many of 

rsiuieraiooaragedit, asasouroeof prom^ty, the oontemporary dramatists, he shortened bis 

Altbon^ ont of offioe, he still retdnedmndi Ufb by diaripation. Six dramas by him, oom- 

"" (^ and his efibrta tended to r^>eal the priringj however, probably not more than half 

„ aa loirs snd to advance tiie p^Mlple of Ms works of this class, have been collected 

of Jewish emandpatiiffl. He qK^ for the last by Mr. Dyoe, together wiui poems and miaoel- 

time in pariiament on Jone 88, 1860, in oppori- luieons writings (8 vols,, 1B8&-'S9). His best 

tim to Lord ^Imeiston's fiv^gn poUcy, as ex- pl^, " The Love of King David and Fair Beth- 

sm^iSed in the Greek qneeUon, On the sac- sobe with the Tragedy of Abaalom," is pn>- 
VOL. xm, — 6 


nomwod br Osmpbell " th« earliest fonntain of BetUehem, litobfield oo^ Oonn., Nor. 19, I'm, 

CM ADd harmony that can be traced in onr Hie father ms a fanner. At Hie age of 16, 
latio poetry." sad for B iriiit«n robse^uotly, be taiviht a 
FEER (Let. par, eqnal ; Fr. pair), & term district school, and vas afterwud an aMUtant 
originally applied, in t£e feudal law, to all the Instrnotor in prirata aoademias. In IBIS he 
TswalB of t&e mme lord, beoaose, whatever went to Phillips aeademy, Andover, Uass., fit- 
might be tli^TdatiTeoondition, they were all ted himself for otdlege, supporting himself to- 
equally his Taesak and boond to render their tirelj by his own ezerlions, ent«red Tale ooi- 
ftndal serrioe in his oonrta, or In war. It is lege in 1818, and was Kradoated in 183S. It 
now applied aometimee to thoae who are Im- was his porpoae to study theolt^, bat he ao- 

Cellea in an inqneat for trial of any person ■ oepted an inTitation to engage as an instraetor 
they are not only peers with each other, of the deaf and dnmb in tiie asylom at H«^ 
aBhavingeqnalpowerandanegnaldnty, bntby ford, where he was soon appointed steward. 
the common law of En^and evetj man ia to la 1681 he vaa appointed prindpal of Qte 
be tried " by bis peers." hi tbe triiit«d Stat«B inatitatdon for the deaf and dnmb at Nev 
this principle has no practical applicaticm,aa all York. For some years he was principal, sn- 
are equal m law where no one has any legal peristendent or steward, teaober, and ohapl^n, 
rani;. In Ensland the word Is moat common- as well as seoretary of the board of direeton^ 
ly nsed to de^^iate a lord of parliament, all of and maii^;ed all the detwls of tbe instjtoticai 
whom are called "the Ungfa peen," not be- alone. Ua appealed to the iMrislatore tot Qa 
canse they are in any aense equal with the eztoisioR of tiie odraJitaMs of instroction to 
king, bnt beoaose they oonstitnte his highest all tbe poor de^ mntes of snitablo ago in tbe 
court, and, whatever may be the Aegroo of rtate, and visited wiUi a olaaa of pnints the 
their nobili^, all, as nobles, are eqoal in the prindpal uties snd villagM of t3is states eibil^ 
dlsobarge of tbelr official doty, as In their iting the snocesa of bis metlkod ot instroction. 
votes in parliament, or npou the trial of any The want of snitable books for eleuMOtaiyteaoh- 
person impeached by the oommons; and aU intf of the daaees led him to pr^are a series 
share alike in all tbe priTlleges of the peerage, which arenowiQgraieralweintheiDBtitQtJonB 
rSee Lords, Hottbe OF,and PAXLUJtxsj.') The for deaf mutes in this comitry, snd to some ez- 
different d^reea of English nobility are, in tent in Great Briton. He alao investigated the 
the order of precedence, duke, marqnis, earl modes of instraotion adopted in other ooint- 
(whioh corresponds ia English to the word tries, uid partioiilariy tbe instmetioik in articn- 
connt on the continent of Enrope), visooimt, lation in Germany. Hewasaomttribnlortothe 
and baron. The eldest son of the first three " AmerioaaAnnsIsof thePeaf andI>nmb"frtHn 
is nnially eaUed by bis father's aeoond title, ilacommenoemeiit,aodlsnowone of itadirect- 
and their other sons by the term lord prefiz' ore. From 1846 to 18D9 he was preddoit of 
cd to their names. These titles are oaUed ti- the institittdon in New York, retaimng his pom- 
ties of courtesy, tlieir bearers having no legal tion as principal, which he still holds. In 18S1 
right to them. Tbesonsof avisooimtareoalled he visited Sorope wilJi three of bis poinls, and 
honorable. — In France, the word pair has re- made a oarefnl ccaminatioa of the principal 
mainedinnsetbrongballthegovemmeutsfrom deaf-mnte institotionB of England and the omi- 
fondal times, and is in nse now; bnt Qieflmo- tinent. He received the btmorary degree of 
tions and privileges of tbe peerege hs^e varied LL J), from the regents of the oniversi^ of the 
very much at different tdmes, the term bdng state of New York in 1849. In addition to the 
destitute of the definite me aning w hich It has " Oonrse of Instmotion" and the " Scriptnre 
attained in England. Louis JtViii. in 1614 e»- Lessons," he is the author of a great nnmber 
tabliehed a house of lords, or more sccorately of wo^ on file education of the deaf and 
a peerage, in some degree resembling the dumb. 

English system; but TillMe, the minister of FEET- w KKi; a common name of the jotted 

Charles X., cretried at one time T< new peers, sandpiper (tringoidet mamiariat, Gray), de- 

when ho wanted them for apolitical purpose. — rived from its note. 

A peeress is a woman who is noble by descent, FEGABUS, in Grecian mythology, a winged 
by creatiou, or by marriage. A peeress by horsewhidi sprang from MedDsawhmFeisens 
descent or by creation retains her title and no- struck ofTher bead for havii^ Interoomw with 
billty in law, although ahe marriaa a common- Neptune. His place, aoooiding to the most an- 
er; bnt a peeress by marriage loses her nobili^ oient writers, was in tiie pdaee c^ Jupiter, 
by ber marri|^ with a commoner, bnt com- whose thonderbolts be carried; but later au- 
monly retains her title in society as a title of thors plaoe bim amcmg tbe stus as the horse 
courtesy. It la one of the privileges of the of Aurora. When Beileropbon was endeavor- 
peerage of the realm not to be liable to urest Ing to kill the ClumiBra, Uinerra gave him a 
for debt. This rule applies equally to peerese- goldMi bridle with which he eaught Pegasn^ 
es, who are peers of the reabn, and con only and having slain the monster by hie means, eu- 
be tried by their peers, although they cannot deavoied to rise upon hie back to heaven ; but 
sit in parliament or on trials. Jupiter sent a fly to sling the home, and oansed 
PEET, Habvky Pbhidlk, LL,D., an Ameri- the rider to be thrown. When ML Heliocm 
can instniotor of the deaf and dnmb, bom in rose heavenward with delight at tbe sin^ng of 



the Mnaea, FegAsos b^ advice of Keptnne dwtrOTed bj the Bnrmeae in their final triompli 
sU^ped ita asoeat with a kick ; and on the spot over the coimtry in 1167. It has nnoe been re- 
whue hia hoof tonohed the ground there sprang bnilt, and the popnlation is fkst inoreaaing. It 
np Bippocroie, the inspiring well atib.6 Muses, was captored br the British in Jima, 16S3. 
la the later writers Pegssos is known almost FSI-HO, or fTosTH BirxB, a river of Chins, 
exoloriTel]' as the horse of tlie Mosea. which rises in the hwhlanda of HantohoiHia, 
PEQIT, a Britiah province of Indo^IUna about lat. 89° 80' NT, long. lia° 80' K, and 
(Farther India), on the E. aide of the baj of after a \mj oiroaitnone Imt generally £. ooorae 
Bengal, bonnded N. b^ the Bormeee empire, of S60 m. flows into the golf of Fe^e-U in lat. 
KbTtheTeiutsMrimjiroviDoes, S. bj the golf 88° 80' K., long. 117° 47' E. Near the month of 
of Hartaban- and W. bj tha province of Ara- the river are the villages of Ta-kn and Bi-kn, 
can wad the Day of Bengal, extending from Ut and a little higher np Tang-kn ; but the most 
IB' if to 18° 80' N., and from long. 84° 11' to nnpottant town on me Pei-ho, and the lai^gest 
SS'SS'E. ; extreme length 840 m., breadth portN. of Shanghu, iaI1en-tfdnattheJanoti(ni 
ITO m. ; area, 82,800 sq. m. ; pop. 570,180. of the graiid canal, abont 70 m. from the ae^ 
The most important towns are Rangoon, Uarta- Tong-onan, where all the boatc land thdr pas- 
ban, Pegu, and Prome. The whole provinoe is senKers and cargoes for Peking, ia mtnated 110 
intersected by branches of the Irrawaddy, ro. hif^er np, or by the nnoosities of the river 
which flows S. frtnu Bnrmah, and enters the 180m. from Ta-kn. The prinrapal tributaries of 
^If of ICartaban by an extensive delta, afford- the Pei-ho are the Hoen-ho, Tasya, Obn-lnng^ 
ing sevwal good harbors. The Sitang forma and Tnng-hni ; npon the last named, 13 m. 
the £. booodary line ; and both tbeee riven are from tlie main stream, Peking ia sitoated. The 
navigable by vessels of considerable size to dis- velocity of the stream, ariring ttom the great 
tances &r beyond the hmlta of Pegn. The altitude of ita aonroe, has sooivedoDt a narrow 
Yonmadoong monntaina extend along a great channel throngh the deep allnvial plain of Po- 
part of the W. frontier, bnt the snrface in obe-li, and cot into the sntwtratnm of clay 
other directions is level or imdnlating. The beneath it For the last 5 m. of ita oonrse the 
minerals include iron, tin, lead, and aeveral plain is little if at all above the level of hi^ 
kinds of predons stones. The climate is wann water at spring tidea, and the current oonae- 
and moist, but ia not oonmdered unhealthy, quently becomes mnoh weakened and the river 
The soil is remarkably fertile^ and v^etation ia oischargea itadf over an extensive bar. Tbia 
Inxnriant. Much of the eorfooe is covered with bar is fiinned of tenadoos olay, and the dia- 
forests, and agricnltnre has been neglected, land taooe at low water from a depth of 10 fbet 
that was cnltivated formerly bdng now overran without to 10 feet within is nearly 4} m. Ia 
with jandc The principal prodnctiona consist the channel leading over the bar thcve ia a depth 
of rice^ timber, partioalarly teak, gums, ivory, of 11 feet at hl^ water; bnt at low water 
and various wooda used in dyeing.— F^ was there is only 24 Indies in moat plaoes, and ex- 
formerly an independent kingdom, but after a tennve dry mnd banka on either hand. Within 
series of contests, extending over many ages, the tiar the channel winda upward for about 
it was conquered by the Burmese assisted by a mile between steep mud banks, which are 
the Portngnese. Tne P^aaiui revolted abont ooTn*ed at high water, and render navigation 
the middle of the 18th oentnry, snbdned the at that time very dangerous. At this distance 
BarmeaOj and made their king prisoner. A the banks become covered with reeds, the 
long aeries of ware fbllowed, in which the breadth ia about 100 yarda, and the current 
Burmese were assisted by the Enriish and the runs from 3 to 8 m. per honr. Porta and 
p^nans by the French ; and tne former at earthworks have been erected npon natural or 
length berame masters of the country. In artaflcialmoundawith an altdtnde of ftom 10 to 
1824 war broke ont between the British and 18 feet at high water, and, fhim the peculiar 
Bnnnese, and among other provinces Pegn conflguration of this reach, &oe and flmk it on 
WB3 oonqnered, tint restored at the oonolnsicn all sides. — The mondi of die Fel-ho waa the 
of hostilltiee in 1826. The imprisonment of scene of an engagement between Ei^lidi and 
the matter of a ship, end aome other British French gun boata and land foroea and ^» 
sntgecta, 1^ the govemor of Ran«xnLled to a Ohinese on ICay 10, 18S8, hi which the Ohineaa 
second war in 1803, which resolted in Fega be- were defeated. Another attack was made on the 
ing annexed to the Eugliah poaaessions in India, forta, June 35, 1369, by 11 Engliah gnn boats, 
(See BuBMAH.) — Paou, a town in the above de- manned br 500 men, with TOO mannea, when 
scribed province, is situated on a river of the the Engli^ were repulsed with h loss of 89 Ull- 
same nnne, which Ms into the Irrawaddy 58 m. ed and 840 wounded^ On Aug. 31, 1660, the at- 
N. F. from Rangoon ; pop. about 10,000. The tack was renewed with an English and Froioh 

streets are broad and regular, and paved with fleet of 800 sail and a land force (tf 36,000 man. 
brick^ and the bonees are bnilt of wood and The Ohinese fortifications were onitnred and 

elevated on posts. There is a remarkable pa- destroyed. The Engliah lost 19 kiljed and 183 

goda, shaped like a pyramid, built of brick of wonnded; theFrendi,801dlledandl00woiind- 

an octagonal form at the base, each side meaa- ed ; the Ohineae losa waa eatiinated at 8,000. 

nriug 163 feet. Fegn is aaid to have formerly PEINE FORTE ET I>UBK Fonnetly, in 

contained 160,000 inhabitanta, bnt it was nttedy England, when a priaoner indicted for a otqiital 



felony or petit treason stood mute, bb the piuel]rnierdAi]deTioa,whiohtiftd gradoallre*- 

phrsM was, tipon his axTBigmnent, Uiat is, re- tabliahed itaelf between tiie reigns of Edward 

nued to plead and so to pat himBelf apon his IH. and Henry IV., (ud wfts de^xQod to ddivec 

trial In the mode whidi the law prescribed, the prisoner the sooner from oia sofferings, 

answering eitiier not at all, or impertinently, to The penalty of p«tn« forte et dare was not 

the ohsj^ preferred against Mm, he waa eon- aboliabed until the 12th year of the reign of 

demnedtot£«pnni8hmentof j>mn«,7t>rt««tdt(fv. George m. (1772). — At common Inw a refosal 

This waa the penalty of hto contempt In refcs- to plead to an indictment of felony saved the 

ing to sahmit nimself to the legal form of triaL atx^ued from the form of trial, and therefore 

It wrought & fbrfeitore of goods, hot no at- from conviction and its conseqaenoes, cornip- 

tainder and cormption of hlood, and, therefore, tion of blood and escheat of his estate ; and it 

no escheat of luids. The peine forU et durt was for the pnrpoee of extorting a plea and of 

WM on infllotion of ettreme severity. The Becnring their escheats and forfeitnreH, that the 

booksof entries and other old books of the law, fendol lords devised this penalty of a ernel 

varjing only slightly in the description of the death. Generally, no donot, the device oc- 

a*)lmtent,agreethst the prisoner waa carried complished its end; thongh there were in- 
to prison, end laid m some low, dark stances of persons who snfiered death in this 
room, ahnost naked, upon his back ; his body mode in order to preserve their estates to 
was burdened with very heavy weights; he their familiee. The statnte 12 G«o^te UL, c 
received once each day portions of the meanest 20, prevented further coed of this huvh coer- 
bread and water, of bread one day and of water oion, by providing that, if any person thereafter 
the neztj and so on alternately ; and thus he should stand mate on his ornugoment, he should 
Continned until he died. In early times, it is be convicted of the felraiy oWoed, and Jadg- 
sopposed, the torture lasted only until the pris- ment and its consequences shoold ibUow in tiie 
oner dedared himself willing to plead ; bat same manner as if snch person had been con- 
later, says Hawkins, he conld not save himself, vioted by verdict or confesdoa of the felony 
if once tlie ponishment hod been ordered, charged against him. — The only instance, so 
Women were snbjected to the some torture. — fkr aswe are aware, in which jMtfw^rtoeCtiurt 
It is matter of aispnte how and when peine has been inflicted in this coontry, was when in 
forte et dtim was introdnoed ; whether it exist- Uassachosetts, in 1363, Giles Gory, on old man 
ed at common law, or was created by legialatiye of 80 years and the hnsband of a reputed wit^^ 
provision. The statute Westminster the first c. stood mate npon his trial, and was orademued 
B, which was enacted in the time of Edward L to be pressed to death. 

(and there is no mention of this peoaltj before FEfPUS, Lake, or Toannio Lun, a lake of 

that Tfaga), says that felons standmg mnte diall Enropean Russia, bounded by the government 

^Mmstmpriionjbrteetdvre; and as it does not ofEsthoniA,8t.FeterBbDrg, Pskov, and Livooia; 

expl^ tiieee words at all, it seems to imply extreme length 100 m., breadth from 10 to 86 

ttiat liieir meaning waa already familigi' in prao- m. ; area about 1,500 sq. m. The southern part 

tloe. 8!r Edward Coke contends therefbre that is connected with the norihem by a strait, and 

the punishment was known befi>re the statnte ; ia sometimes called Lake Fakor, the town of 

that by no oonstmction of the words of the act. tiiat name being utnated at its S. E. extremity. 

priton forte et dure, conld Jndges have framed There are sevwal small islands at both ends 

BorigoroaBasenteDceasthatwhiohwehavejost of the strait. Feipna recdves the rivers Em- 

described ; and as there is confessedly no other baoh and Eosa trem the S. W., and the Tchems 

statnte to which it oan be referred, it must be and Yoetaba from the E. and 8, E ; and the 

presnmed that it ousted at common law. Narva flows to the gulf of Finland from the 

fflr Hatthew Hale adopts this opinion, and N. E. end. The shores are low and marshy, 

Hawkins seems also to assent to it. It may be and the g r e ateat depth is about 60 feet, 
suggested in behalf of this view, tliat the an- PEIBOB, Bktmaihh, LL.D., an American 

thor of Fleta and Britton, both of whom wrote mathematician, bom in Balem, Uass., April 4, 

near the tdme of the above named statute and 1806. He was gradnated at Harvard college 

omunented on it, do not refer to it the ori^ in 1636, and after teaching for two years in 

of the peiMjbrte et dure, nor give indeed any the Bound Hill school at J^orthaoipton, was 

particular prominence to the similar words or ^pointed tutor in motbematioa at Oambridge 

the act thoiuih it is highly probable that they in 1881, nniverrity professor of mathematicB 

would have done bo if this statute had created and natural philosophy in 1888, and Perkins 

fliia, in any ujb, remarkable penalty. On the professor of astronomy and mathematics in 

other hand^ ^w^kstone thinks that the punish- 1B43. He still holds the last office, as also that 

ment had a statutable origin. He nrges that of consulting astronomer to the " American 

neillier Braotoo nor Glanvil, nor any other an- Ephemeris and Kautical Almonao," to which 

dent author previous to Edward I., makes men- poution he was appointed npon the establish- 

tion of It, and in &ot traces its introduction to ment of the tUmaian in 1849. ne is a member 

the lonsnage of the statute of Weslininstar Qie of the leading ecientifie societies d the United 

first. He concludes, however, that this reqnirea States, and was elected am assodate of the royal 

Imprisonment only, and s^s that the practice astronomical sooiety of London in 1849 ; mem- 

of loading the f^on's body with weights waa A ber of the royal society of London in 1863; 


preddent of the AjMrion wsocistion for the ma diaoorored and annomuwd br Peir«a fa 
■dranoeaoentof sdanoelbrtiieOlevelAiid meet- 1801^ and demonabvted fh>m pnrelf aaulTlioal 
i^ in 18S8 ; and on» of the eoientiflo ooim- oonaideralioits. In the fnU demoaiAradoB, 
ou which eetabUafaed the Dndley obaervttlory which for peooliar reasons he withheld for two 
in 1865. Th» mathem&tioal powers of Prof, jesre, he eHtoblished the important fact tliat 
P^roe were promineatlj maiufested in early no ring is capable of snstainiiig itself in atable 
lift. HewaasMi^ofBr. Bowditch, and the eqoilibrinni about t primaiy wlthont the mip- 
[ffoof sbeetot^uie translation of the Jf^nifu« port afforded br the attrsotioa of satelUtea 
eilettt pAsaed nnder his scmtiuj and saperri- properlj ntoated for the pnrpoae, nor under 
rionbttore going to tfae press. Whenthelate any nromostancee if solid. Dniingthefollow- 
Vi. QUI edited the " Ustnematioal IGaoeHanj," Ing year Prof. Pdroe prepared a Totome of In- 
Frc£ Priroe was ammig the most effluent ooa.- nar tables for die use of the .^oerioan " Kan* 
tribtitora. Aftwward he himself nndertool: tioal Almanac" Thoogh founded anon the 
the pnbSoatitBt of the "Onmbridge HisoellanT general theory of Flans, by the employmemt 
of Mathonatics, Flymos, and A^ronrany," of (d ooeffldents in a manner emidrioal, and i»ly 
whiidi however only 6 nnmbers appeared. It intended by the author to serve a t«i»orary 
was in this that he gave faia eelebrated and ex- pnrpose nntil the long ezpeoted taUes of Han- 
hanstire ^scosstos it the motion of a top spin- sen dionld appear, they still represent the ob- 
ning npon a plane aniftoe. A series of text serredplaoes of the moon with snob precision, 
boon on the difibrent branches of mathema- tint they are yet (1661) employed ui the al- 
tiea, pr^iared by PnA Ftiroe daring the yesra manao office aa the htuaa of all the oompntfr- 
I685-'4S, attoaoted the attention m edenlofio tions Into which the place of the mo<m enters. 
men by QuAr originality, and the ringnlar pow- Dotted comparisons of the errors of these ta- 
er of generaUzataon md condensation which bles with those of Hansen's, as determined by 
they d^^yed. The retnm of Encke's oomet aetoal obeerration, have been published in the 
in 1843, and the appearance of the great oomet "Astronomical Jonmal," and show that the 
of FebrouT and March, 184S, aerred aa an op- aooordance of Peiroo's tables during the last 
portonity for Prot. Peirce to attract pnbHo ii- 18 years ia quite comparable with uiat of the 
t«ntion to the need of a wdl flirnl^ed obser- tables which Hansen had obtained from 10 
yatory ft* the college, and to his efforts the years of profonnd research. In 186T appeared 
moraoent was dne which resulted in the e»- Peirce's "Treatise on Analytic HecHanlaa" 
t^lisbment of the present weH endowed insti- (4to.), designed to form one of a series of 4 trea- ' 
totion. The tret of his investigationa which tises, tiie others being respectively n^on " Oe- 
may be said to have oompelled the notice of lestlal lfe<Jianics," " Potential Physios,'' and 
Boientifla men throughout the world was liis "AnalytieUorphoIogy." As one isthasolen- 
<3itidBm of the oompntations and reeulte of tiflo council of the I)aaIeyobaerTatory, betook 
Xeverrier, npon which this geometer based his an active part In the struggle in 1869 betwew 
demonstration of the existence and place of the that body and the truBt«es of the InstitntioiL 
nnknown planet to whose attraction the ir- and in coqjmiction with Professors Baohe and 
regolarities observed In the motions of TTranus Henry pobUahed the defence of the director 
were to be attributed. Inthefaceof thestrik- of the observatory. Among the discoveries 
ing acoordance between the direction of the and important Investigations of Prof. Feiroe, 
pUKQet predicted by Leverrier, and that of the are especially to be named his theory of the 
planet Neptune discovered by Oalle, aearohing t^ls of oometa, published in the " Astronoml- 
at Leverrier'a request Peirce boldly aanonnoed eal Joamal," ahowing the mode and laws <^ 
to Qie American acaden^ that tiie planet Kep- their formi^n ; hie methods of iaveatlgeting 
tune did net accord with the computations of terrestrial longitudes and the form Of the 
Leverrier, and declared that its trne position in moon's limb by means of occaltataons of Qw 
qtace and its movements were incompatible Pleiades, published in the report of the super- 
will) them. A statement apparently so im- Intendent of the coast snrve^; his resesrehes 
probable attracted great attention and severe upon penonal equation, showing tbe ezistenoB 
critjcism. It is related that Ur. Edward £v- and means of measurement of a new and before 
erett, being present at the meeting, actually unrecognized form of personal error, in obser- 
addressed the academy npon the subject, and rations "by eye and ear,"" arising fhnn ibo 
b^ged that so utterly improbable a declaration proneness of every individual to award an un- 
n^tit not go out to the world with the aoad- due prominence to particular fractions of the 
emy's sanction. " It m^ be utterly improb- second ; and the singular and valuable " Orit»- 
able," retorted Peiroe, "but one thing is more rion for the B^eotion of DoublAil Observa- 
improbable still, that th.9 law of gravitation tlons," by means of which the propriety of 
and the truth of mathematical formulas ^nld eulurion of specially discordant observations 
foQl" Pmt Peiroe followed up his aunoonoe- from a series, is definitely determined in each 
ment by a thorough discusrion of tlie mutual individual oase by the mathematical lawa of 
influences of Uranus and Nqitane, whicdt, in probability, and removed &(mi the arbitrary or 
conjunction with the oompntations of Walker, uncertain Judgment of the computer. He haa 
soon placed the theory of the new planet npon also investigated the forms of equilibrium of aa 
a Arm basis. The fluidity of Saturn's rugB elastic ea<^ oontafning a fluid, researches whioh 



emAootad htm to hia &vorite theory of aiu- Ha Alt, hoirever, tbat taacibiiig rattwc than 

Iftio morpholo^ ; the phrllotactio series of preaching was hu rooatlou, and at Uet with- 

nnmbftra; and me corions and elegant cyolio drev from the mmistr^/iid in ooimaotion with 

eolation of the oelohrated " sohool-girl puzzle," a relative, Ur. Simeon jRitnam, opened a Bcbool 

to which problem its author had found DO B;m- at North Andover. In 1880, In oonqtliance 

meiaioal solution whatsoever. ^oC Feiroe re- with repeated aolicltationa, he returned to Nan- 

aeiTed the degree of LLJ). from the muTersitj tnoket, and for 6 rears managed a Urge school 

of North OaroW hi 1647. with hardly a resort to the use of the rod, bot 

PEIBOE, BsADFOBD K., an American der- with the most perfect order and sQoce6& Bj 

ra^nan, aod fonnder of a reformatory school for his luvent advice and in accordance with a plfua 

girIs,borninEoyalton,Vt.,Feb.8,1819. Hewaa devised mainly by him, the pnbUo schools of 

gradnated at the Wedeyan nniveTsity, Middle- Nantncket were reorganized npcm. a thorough 

town, Coon., in 1841, and in 1842 was received system of gradation, emhracing primaiy, int«r- 

M a Uetbodist Qunister into the New Enstand mediate, and grammar scbod% and a hi^ 

conference, and stationed at ITaltham, Uass. scbooL Of this last he became the principal m 

He was suDseqnently transferred to Newbory- 1687. In 1830 he was chosen principal of tiie 

ir^ OhorleBtown, and Boston. Hia health normal school jostfomided at Lezington, If ass., 

-.Wing, be received a local relation, and spent tbe first insUtntion of the kind established in 

the next 10 yesra in Boibnry, Mass. During America. The duties of this position proved 

this period he prepared a series of biblical ques- too ardaoos for his health, and at the end of 3 

tion books for Sunday Bcbools, a " Bible Sohol- years be was obliged to resign. After 2 yean 

are' Uanual," a " Oommentory upon the Book of rest he took charge of tne female normal 

of Aota," and several small books for Sunday school, now removed froai Lexington to "West 

schools. He also published a volume entitled Newton. In IB46 he was aoun compelled to 

"TheEmiaeDt Dead," which had a very large resign, and made a voyage to Europe, his friends 

Bale In 18S0 be was appointed agent for New and pupils having r^ed a parse of ftSOO tode- 

EugUnd of the American Sunday sobool onion, fray his expenses. After bis return In 1850, 

Ja 18G5 and 1666 he was elected state senator his health being partially restored, he became 

from Norfolk oo. He now entered heartily an assistant in a sobool at West Newton, and 

into a movement for establishing a reform there continued to teach till near the close of 

aohool for girls, and when It woe organizei his life. He published a "Letter on Normal 

under the name of the state industrial school Schools," addressed to the Hon. Henry Barnard 

ibr ^rls, at Lancaster, Mass., was appobted (18G1), and a prize essay on " Orime, its Cause 

nCorch, I8C6) Buperintendent and cbapl^ of and Oore" (1863). 

the institution, a position whlcji he still holds. PEIBBSO, Nicolas Claudx Fasbi, setguenr 
The school was opened Aug. 26, 1856, under a do, a French scholar, born in Beangender, Pro- 
plan fropoeed by Mr. Peiroe, It Is exclusively vonce, in 1S80, died in Aii in 1687. He travel- 
for girls, between the ages of 7 and I S, who led in Italy, Holland, and Great Britain, became 
have been guilty of petty crimes, or are ex- aoquajntod with most of tbe soientiflo and liter- 
posed to the danger of a vioions life. Theyare arymeu in those countries, and.extended his 
eiamined by a board of commisMoners appoint- researches to nearly eveiy branch of hmnaD 
ed hy the governor, having been committed on leamiiiK. He possessed a large fortune, which 
the warrant of a judge of probate. They are he ^pued to the patronage of scholars and men 
divided into families of 80, each under the care of letters, and tbe collection of books, onUqni- 
ofamotronandtwoasststants. Ontbegrounds, ties, and works of art. Scaliger, Sahnasins, 
which comprise about 80 acre^ there are 4 Holstenins, EiroLer, Uersenne, Grotina, and 
"homes," and a obapel and residences for the Valois were the recipients of his liberality. 
Enperintendent and the farmer. There are no He devoted much attention to natural history, 
walls or high fences, tbe restrunts being whollv and imported into France several niecies of 
moraL Corporal punishment is not permitteo, plants and trees. Although be pnblisbod notb- 
and the whole management is tbat of a well ing, he was deservedly styled by fiayle the 
ordered lamily. It has been thus far success- " procurator-general " of literature. Science is 
fol, more thui 100 girls having been sent out indebted to Mm for valuable observatitHis and 
into Booiety completely reformed. discoveriea ; he declared previous to Oovier 

PEIROE, OiBTB, an American teacher, born tbat fbssil bonea, which were considered remuns 

In Waltbam, Mass., Aug. 16, 1790, died in Vfeat of giants, belonged to well known animals. 

Newton, Mass., in May, 1869. He was graduat- Hia death was almost nniversally mourned ; ibe 

ed at Harvard college in 1610, and immediately Boman society of " Humorista" alone pnblidied 

afterward took charge of a privato scbocj iu poems in bis honor in no fewer than 40 differ- 

ITantucket, where he taught for 2 years. He ent languages. Out of bis voluminous corre- 

then returned to Cambridge and studied the- spondence, his letters to Holrtenius are peifa^» 

ology for S years, after whion he resumed bis of tbe greatest interest. They may be found 

Bctiool at Nantucket In 1618 he commenced in Boissonade's SoUtenii Epiitolm ad Ditenot 

preaching, and In the following year was settled (8vo., Paris, 181B}. His ttfe was writton tn 

as minister of a Congregational church at North Latin hy Qasaendi(4to., Puds, 1641; tronolated 

Keading, Mass., where he remained for 8 years, by Band, London, 1667). 


PBUMO, mfExntiOUiuMPt-Xintr, fiortii- oenwr, aflbrd quarters fertile tHX^&nd nurd. 

«ra oniUal), Om <iMpitu of the Ohineaa <aq>lra The Interior of this enoloeiire is uvided into $ 

and <ff flw proviBoe of Ohi-]i, wlBaatoi on the parts fe^ waU« nmning from N. to 8., and the 

TWerTang-initftimall tribotuTof thePei-ho, vhtde it oooapied by aniteofcoort ywdeuid 

in lat M* M' N- long. IIQ" S?' E., aboat 13 ^nrtments vMoh are saperior to aaj other 

m. ftom the Puwio, 40 m. frtKn the nearert btdldinn <^ the kind in Ohina. The 8. Mte, 

part «r the gi«at wall, and 100 m. H. W. from oaUed Ueridian gate, leads into the middle 

the pUf of Fe-ehe-U; pop. about S,000,000. diviaioii, in which are the iinperisl boildinga. 

■ It ataxda on an ^denaiTe sandj ^ain, and oon- It ia resMred for the nse of the emperor, Kod 

rista ot two parts, Kni-dhlng; Ute Tartar ^tj, when he paaaee tJuoo^ it a bell and «mg 

to the N., and Wid-ohing, the CBunese dtj, to iJaoed in uie tower atiOTe are stnuk. When 

the S. liie CTtinoee d^ k a paralklocraai ia nis' troops return in trinmph, the priaoners 

outline, with an area M 16 sqoare milea; the Uiey bring are here presented to lum ; and 

Tartar 0U7, whicJi a^loina one of the loni^r hwe the presents he confers on Tassals and 

rfdss of tne other, is uwot ti miles mnan, or ambassadors are bestowed with great pomp. 

IS square nuke in area. Both these divinons Psstfng through tliis gate into a urffer ooort, 

are enelosod t^ walls abont SO feet liigh,8S over a small (»eek spanned bjfi marble bridgea 

fiwt thfaik at the base, and 19 feet at the top. whioh are OTuamented witii soolptorea, a aeo- 

The waBs oonsist, fer the most psrt, at earth cmd ooort is entered, paved with marble and 

or mblu^ Iheed witii abme or i^ok, Ud in tennkiated on Ute aides hy fCatefL pcotiooa, and 

very dnraUe oement composed of ou? ^"^ pillared corridors. At the head of this oovrt 

lime, Tbof are amooth, bnt not quite perpen- m a soperb marble straotore 110 feet high, 

djeolar on ttie ontride, and tm the insids the called the " gate of extensive paaoe." It U a 

tvido reeedo one above snotlier like steps ; sort of bsloonj where the emperor, on New 

sad diare are Blo|dng e&baakments at inter- Tear's day, his birthday, and other oooasion^ 

rata to enable hcmeman to ssoend to the top. reodvee the homage of bis oourtiers assembled 

Square towers pv)eet40 or BO feet from the in the oonrt below; fi flighte of stairs decorated 

outride at dlstaneee of about 60 jards ; and in with iMlnstrades and eoalptnres lead ap to it, 

some places thwe are ditches. Outside the and S gates open through it into the next court 

walls there are sereral soborba, and extenaire jard. Bejond it are two batlg, one where hia 

earOtwoAs imon tbe K, H., and W. sides of nu^es^ ezamlnes the implements used in the 

the Tartar t&f, Hi* whole bdng nearlj S6 annual plonglung, and the other where he nroomferenee. Upon approaching ?»• feastshjs torSgngnests and other dlatjngnisbed 

Ung, verir Uttleis seen of the bnildinga inride, persona on New Tear's day. After ascending 

andthoNindpalreiieftotiheinonotonjof tdw a stairw^ and paaring another gate, the Eien- 

dead wall b the watch towers over the gatea, Tdng-kong.or the "tranquil palace" of heaven, 

the Sag stsflb in paira befejw the diSbrent ot- is reached, into wbloh no one oan enter with- 

fidal reridenoea, a few pagodaa, and tbe tops ont R>e(^ permissitai. In it Is the oonncil 

of large dmnps of trees. Tbe cities are en- dumber, and here caudidatea fbr offioe are 

tmed bf IB external gates; and there are 8 prcMnted to the sovereign. It b tlie loftiest 

wUdi open fN>m the Tartar dtj into tbe and most magnificent of all the palaces. Be- 

Ohinese. These gates are formed by arohe^ yond it stands the " palace of earth's " 

eaoh snrmoonted br a wooden towsr generallf where the empress roles bar miniature ooort u 
5 stories hi^ with embrasores in each story the imperial harem ; and between this and the 
oloaed bf shntten upon which ve painted N. wall of tbe prohibited eitf Is tbe imperial 

bnll's ejM that at a little dhtewce have the flower guden, designed for the ose of its in- 
appoarsnceofgnnii The gates are flirthtf dft> nutee. The gardens are adorned with degant 
fbnded bj a swni-«ironlar rampart In front of p«vili(His, teiiq>lee, and groves, and interspersed 
eaoh, with towers at the ends, so that the en- withoanids,fonntains,artid<uallakea.and9owsr 
tranee is fh>m the sides and not from the frtmt beds. In the £. division of the prohibited dtf 
of the gate. The Tartar ettj consiita of 8 en- are the offioeaof tbe calonet and tbe tTeasorj, 
dosorea, one within anotiur, eaoh surronnded North of these Is the " hall of Intense thoaght," 
bj tta own valL The inneiinost oimtains Iht where aacrifioes are offered to Oonfodna and 
imperial polaee and Ita snrronnding boildings; otlier M8m; near this is the library, a oata- 
theaeeoiidlioeca[dedb]rthe8eTenloffieeeap- logne of the eontoits of wbidk is pnblished 
pertdning to the government, and by manrpn- from lame to time. At the K. end of tbe£. 
Tste reddenta who receive apodal permission division are nnmerons palaces utd buildings 
to redde within its limits ; ud the outer one, ooonpied by princes of the blood and their oon- 
for the sost part, oonsists of dwellincr hoose^ nections ; and in this qnarter is dtnatod the 
with shops in the larger avenoea. — "Hie inner Fnng«en-1aen, a small temple where tbe cm- 
area is called Sn-ching, or prohibited city, and perorcomestoUeeehiaanoeatora, TheW.divi- 
its dremnArenoe is sbout 9 m. ; the weuI is sion contains a great variety of edifices devoted 
nearly as solid aa that vonud the city, and is te pnbUo and private porpoiea, among wbiob 
feoed with glased bricks and ooped with yd^ may be mentioned tbe hall of distlnguisbed 
low tjlea. n is entered bv i gtfes, eadi SQr< sovereigns, statesmen, and literati, tbe printing 
mosnted by a tower, wUeb, with one in eaeb office, tbe oourt of comptrollers for regulating 


the reoeteta and dMntrsements of the oonrt, wUcb Hi extenrire view ot Qte metrt^Us is 
and tiie Ohing-Iiwuig-mian, or ^udian torn- obtained. Near Qie N. E. end of the park ia a 
pie of ih« oitr. The nnmber of people within temple dedioatod to Tnenfl, the repntod diaoor- 
the prohibitea cit7 is not very great, and moet erer of the ailkvomi, near wiiioh a plantation 
of them are Mantdioos. — ^The second enolomre, of mnlberrir trees and a cocoonery are mun- 
whioh aarronnds the one jtut described, is tainedforthepreparationtrfdlk. bithen^b- 
called HwaDg-ching, or imperial citj, and is of boriiood of the "temple t^ great baptoneaa," 
oblong form abont 6 m. io circnit. It is en- and not far from the preceding, on the borders 
dosed bf a wall about SO feet high, entered by of the lake, is a gilded copper statue of Bndd- 
4 gates, and none may pass through them with- ha, 60 fbet high, with 100 arms. — l^e third or 
ont special pennissioa. From the B. gate, onter enolosnre sorronnding the imperial oit7 
called ti)e "gate of heavenly reet," abroad aVe- is called the Tartar city, and consists of several 
nne leads np to the prohibited city ; in front wide atreeta croadng each other at ri^t an- 
of it, outside the wall, is an extensive endo- glea. The principal government offices are 
snre hsTing an entrance from the 8. which no ritoated along the svemae leadii^ 8. from tiie 
oneispermlttedtopass throoghezoeptonfoot. imperial Atr to the Ohineae citr. Several 
On the right of the avenne within the imperial boards h&vethMr bnreanaontiieS. idde; th« 
dty ia a 1hi^ collection of bnUdings sorronnd- board ctf pnmsbmenta, irith ita snboidiBaU de- 
ed by a wall, where offerings are preBent«d partments, has its courts on the V. Bde^ and 
before the tableta of deceased emperors and the oenaorate atanda Immediatdy B. of it. The 
empresses, and worship is performed by the astronomical board, the medical «dl^e, the 
members of the impenal fiunily and clan to national aoademj, and the colonial' office are 
^eir departed fbrebthers. Upon the opposite also on this avenne. Near the colonial office 
Bide of the avenoo is the altar of the gods of is the temple where the nearest ancestors of 
the land and grain, where in spring and antnmn the reigning &mQy are worahipijed by his ma- 
the emperor alone makes offerings to these di- Jesty and the princes of his &milj on the first 
vini^ee, who are supposed to have been origi- day of everymonth. The temple is pleasantly 
nally men. On the E. side of the imperial mtnated in the midst of a grove, and the large 
city, N. of the great temple, and not for from enolosore around it is prettily laid ont with 
the £. gate of the prohibited city, is a deposi- trees and ahrabbery. Ilia observatory stands 
totycMFni!]dtarystores,with workshopHfortheir in the 8. E., partly npon the walL Jtwaaat 
manniketnre. The wtablishment of the Ens- one time anperintended by the Boman Oathtdio 
sian ooUege lies N. of this gate ; and in the K. nisdonariee, bat is now confided to the oaie 
E. part of this side are the residences of the of Ohlnese astronomers, whose predecessors 
Imnas, with noroerone temples, monasteries, were instraoted by them. Close to it is the 
and other religions edifices. Much of this hall of hterary examinations, where the oandi- 
quarter is occopied by dwelling honses and by dates of the ^vince aseemble to write ihw 
temples dedicated to varions inferior gods in essays. The Bnssian ehnroh of the Asamnp- 
Ohinese mythology. On the N. side, snr- tion is in the K. E. comer, and near it ia the 
ronnded by a wall more than half a mile in oir- splendid "temple of eternal peace" belonnng to 
cnit, is the £iDg-shan, or artifidal monntain, the lamaa. The lamas have about SCO Cliinese 
abont ISO feet high, with 6 summits, each of and Man tohoo pupils nuder their care, wholeam 
which is crowned by a pavilion. Tariona kinds the Thibetan langnage ; and a similar ct^ege 
of trees border its base and line the paths lead- for the Ohlnese and Mantehoo langnages atanos 
ing to the tops, and the enolosnre is enlivened near the temple. The Tartar dty is nnder the 
by tbepresence of nnmerons animals and birds, control of the general of the nine gates, who is 
The W. part is chiefly ooonpied by a park, in rcf^ongible fbr the peace and good ordw wUh- 
and aronnd which are fonnd some of the most in ite limito; the post is conferred only on 
beantiftil spots in the metropolis. An ariiflclal Mantchoos. Near nis establishment, or head- 
lake, more than a mile long, and with an aver- qnartera, which lie abont half w^y between 
age breadth of S20 yards, occniues the centre, toe imperial ci^ and the K. wall, ia a hi^ 
It is crossed by a marble bridge of 9 arches, tower oontainlsg an immenee bell and drnm 
and ita banks are shaded by groves of trees which annonnoe tiM honra of tbe m^l. This 
nnder which are well paved walks. There are tower is hidier than those over the gatet^ and 
many artifidal hills of rock-woit, groves, gar- ia one of the moat conspionona objects seen 
dens, and parterres of flowers. On the B. £. when wproaohing the dty ; and the bell is said 
side of the lake is a large summer hooae con< to wei^ 120,000 lbs. A large number of Ho- 
fflsling of several edifices, jiartJy in or over the iuunmedana reside near the 8. W. comer of 
water. On the W. side is the haU for the the imperial dty, where they hare a mosqne. 
examination of military candidates, where the Their ancestors were brought ft«m ToorUstas 
empcrorln person witnes»es their eihibitiona abontaoentiiryago,and allUohammedanevlB- 
of equestrian archery. At the N. end of the iling Peking resort to the quarter where they 
lake isabridge leading to an islet, the centre redde. 8oathofthemoeqneBtandathe"cbBreh 
of which presents the aspect of a hill of gentle of heaven's Lord," with a convent atteobed to 
ase«nt covered with groves, temples, and sum* it, which the Jeenito and Portuguese built dor- 
mer houses, and snnnonnted with a tower fhnn ing the time of their influence. Itwasthe finest 


■peolmeo of areUteetnre in the place, bnt is onrionB ^ipearanoe, bearing some reeemblanM 

aow going to deoaf. There sre thos religions to triumphal arohes, are ereoted in honor of 

edifloes in the ODdnMe metrapt^ appropriated dletingoished individnalo. Upon tho E. ode 

toman^ fiwins of religion: to the Greek and of the avenue vhich leads from the S. gate 

Uin6hiirohes,IalBnnsm,Bnddhlaminitaprin- of the Tartar oily and adjoining the outer 

cipal fonna, rstlonatiim, ancestral worship, and gate atande the alter to heaven, in an extensive, 

state wordiip, snd templee dedioated to Oon- enolMnre. The altar Is a ronnd terrace oon> 

fiidas and other defied mortals, beside a gr«at tiating of S stages, each 10 feet high, and to- 

nnmbor in widiii the popular idols of the oonn- spectivd^ 190, 90, and 60 feet in diameter, 

tTT are adored. Among them is the temple paved with marble and protected with baloe- 

wbere the tablets of the kings and empwors ti^ea. Within the enijosureia also the "palaoe 

offonnerdjnasties are coHeatively worshipped, of abstinence," where the emperor fasts 8 da/B 

with the exception of a few who nave betoi ex- preparatory to offering the annnal BBCrifioe at 

eluded on aooonnt of tiieir wiokednees. Near the wbitar solstioe. On the opposite side of tho 

this is Oie white pagoda t«m^e, m> oalled fhnn avenne ia tiie altar to earth, dedicated to the 

a costly obelisknear it ereotM bj Entdai Khan supposed Inventor of agricoltnTe ; it stands in 

m the IStb oentoTf, and retndlt and exqntdtelj an encloenre abont 9 m. in circnmferenoe, and 

ornamented in 1819. This temple oontatns a in reality ocaudeta of 4 separate altars : to the 

scab taken fh>mthe forehead of Bnddha, oamed spirits vt the heavens, those of the earth, the 

bj his coQstantlj knocking his head on the planet JDpit«r, and Slun-nnng, the inventor of 

grotmd in worship ; and aronnd the edifice are agrionltnre. The worship at this altar is pe^- 

106 small pUlarfl on which lamps are bnmed in formed at the vernal eqoinox, at which time 

his honor. Ontdde of the city on Che E. is the the ceremony of plonghiikg apart of the endo- 

"temple ofheaven," which oovers a large area snreis performed by the emperor, assisted by 

ai^ is soiTonnded with many spadons bnild- membera of the board of rites. A little W. of 

inxs; on the V. is a corresponding strootnre this endoflore is the pool dedicated to the spir- 

c^ted the " temple of earth ;" both of these are its of the waters, where his n^jesty performs 

connoted with the state religion. — The sonth- i^edal snpplications whenever the country euf- 

em or Ohineee dty is more populoos than the jers from drought or delnge. The sonihem 

~ ' ' " . i.- . .. ....- .. , . . ,...., ^^ strict miUtary 

n consequenee re> 

- - . . > Iw many persons inqnest of relaxa- 

than 100 feet wide, and extend betweot Mutes tlon and maripatioo. Daring the night the 

at opposite sidee of the taty ; bnt those mdeh great thoronchArea are nsDally qoiet, and are 

branch off from the chief thorouglifores are oimly Ufdited by lanterns whidi hang from the 

mere lanes. They are all nnpaved, and ao- doors of the honsea. The air is polluted by 

oor£ng to the state of the weather are either the etenoh arising ftom private veBsels and 

knee-deep wiOi mnd or covered with dust, public resenoirs for urine and all kinds of 

lliehoitaeaare boilt of brick, and seldomexoeed offal, which Is oareftiUy collected and carried 

one story in hdght. They are roofed with tiles oat of the gates in the same boxed carts in 

' of many oolors ; and most of the private red- whioh the vegetables are brought to market, 

dmces nave a parapet wbH In front, upon which Oarriages (or rather covered carts without 

note contdning flowen and ehmbs are i^aced. springe drawn by mules), saddle horses, and 

IB the back sbreeta the edifices have a mlsera- donkeys are used for locomotion, and can. be 

ble and aquaHd appevanoe, bnt in the prin- hired at numeroas stands thronghont the oil? ; 

ripal thoron^ifiues many <f them, particnlariy bnt sedans are not permitted to be used so 

the sbc^M, are iii^7 ornamented with paint- near the emperor except by privileged peraoos. 

ii^ and gH^ng. The shops are open in front. The Mantohoo women ride astride, and their 

and the goods are exposed in henw outside the nnml>er in the streets, both riding and walking, 

doors. At each side of tiieestablishmeat there imparts a peoalEarity to the crowd which is not 

is generally a wooden jaUar or si^board, high- seen in cities fbrther S. The varioas tribes of 

er titan the housetop, bearing mscriptions in central Asia have representatives among the 

^letters setting forth the anperiorqnalitiee of tihrong, and their different oostmnea add to the 

the wares and the probity of the dealer. Elaga liveliness of the scene. — The dimate of Peking 

and stnamers are hnng out from these posts, ia ezceasively eold in winter. The therm<»neter 

and lanterns of different material and fbnn are ranges from 10° to 95° in winter, and in som- 

arranged with great ingenuity and taate. Hob- mer it sometimes rises to 106°, bnt is generally 

witlulandiag uie breadth of the main streets, between. 70° and 00°. Water is frozen from 

tiiey are much obstrncted by the wares eX' December to March, and violent storms and 

posed ouMde the shops, and the number of whirlwinds occur in spring. Bnt upon the 

ocoopa&ms that are carried on in tents and whole the climate ia healthy, and epidemics 

in the open air in movable workshops. This are rare. — The manufactures of Peking are tri- 

erowd and bnsUe, however, is wholly confined fling, and the trade of the place is oon&aed to 

to die prindptd thoronghfiires, and the lanes anpplyiag the wonts of the inhabitants. The 

and cTOM streets are perfectly quiet. Whwe principal part of the provisions consamed 

Qt» vain streets intersect, moauments of very o(»nea from the S. provtaoea, or from the K, 

90 fXEore 

wtof Caii-U,tlMidaiB«4olniDga»d^|ao- inUc^WMd wWi mnali, oooia^ limlati, and 
dncing bat Utile. Th« tazea of dun* ar* £)P UkM, the baaks of which 1i»t« 1>«ea fhiovn 
the most part paid in kind, and large tpunti- ap or divensfied in imitation of natnre. Same 
ties of grun are stored in the princjp*! graan- parts are iJoUivatedtgroTea and tangled tbioketB 
lies t4 Peking at one seaaon of the fear ; bat ooonr here and thwe, and plaoee ate pnrpoee^ 
the sapi^r beoomea exhausted b^re the next left wild in ordw to contrast the better wiU 
harreeit is reaped, and when this haOT>enainaii7 the highly onltivated predncts of a palace, or 
of the people die of fbndne. Ooal is Invnght to fbnn a rnral pUhwajr to a letired nmuner 
from the B. and 8. W. iipi»i the backs of earn- house. The number of residenoes for the em- 
ela and mnlea ; and the houses are heat4d b^ peror or hia ministerB within this park is esti- 
Btores, the fuel being a eompoimd of ooal dnst mated at 80, each of which is sorronnded iy 
and earth. All the neoessariee of life are ex- manj houses ooonpied bj ennachs and ser- 
oeedinglj^ dear, and manj of the inhabitants vsnts. The annuner pakoe and priudpal ball 
are miserablv poor. — ^The goTemment differs of audience, the most extenuve and b^ £ar the 
from that of other cities in the empire ; it ia meet ^endid of theee resideiices, was pluk- 
separated from the a&trs of the deparbnwt, dered bj tlw Fr«nah and Eni^isa forces in 
and administered b; ofBoers reaidins in the 4 their advance upon PeUnK in Oct 1860. The , 
drcidta into which it is divided. A minister entrance or r«oeption balTwaa 110 feet long, 
of oneof the boards is uipointedsnperintendeat 42 flMt wide, and SO feet high. It was payed 
oftheoitj, andsabordmstetohimisamaror. with marble, and planted with gold, asnre, and 
These fhnotjonsries are quite independent of scarlet, in the most goraeonsBtrle. The throne 
the provincial governor, osirTing anj- a&irs of the enqterorwaamaleof adarkwoodbesQ- 
whioIi thef cannot determine diroctly to the tdfbllv carved, and the onshiona were embroi- 
emperor. The poUoe is mateiiallr aaristed in dered with golden dragons. The inner cham- 
ite doljes hj the gates which ai« placed at Ute ben and saloon wet« bandsomel]' fitted np. 
heads of the streets end dosed at nidkt, and The rolls of silk, satin, and crape, aQ of the 
watchmen patrol the citj, marking Uie time best qnalitf, not only fanushed torbans and 
bj sta-ikhig two pieoea of bamboo together. l>edolcthes for the EVenoh soldiers, but vera 
Ihere is freqnentlf mnoh troable in keepinK nsed to wr^> aronnd fowls, old pots, and other 
the popolace quiet, for in times of nnnsnal vulgar I>oot7. The jade stone and china were 
BoanAtf the^ rise in mobs and pillage Uie of great valne, and some Bivres china of Louis 
pnbllc granaries. There is a govenunent Joor- Qoatorze was fouod ; and a presentation sword 
nat called the "Peking Qazette" published with the Engliah ooat of srnu^ studded with 
daily in the fbrm of a pamphlet, which contains genu, and evidently of antiquty^gave rise to a 
from 60 to 70 pages. Nothing is printed in it good deal of speaalatioD. The JEo^iih treaty 
without first being examined ^ a political or of Ti^i-tsba was also discovered, and an hu- 
litentry eominiUee, and the official part em*, mense qoantitj of plnoder of all kinds made it 
natesfrom the emperor's cabinet. Itnotioeaall difficult to decide what to taka awn*. The 
pablio affairs^ and gives a sacoinct accoant of emperor had retired the day before, and all the 
tlie principal events. It contains the petitiona ladies had disappeared, but thnr little Japanese 
and memorials preeented to the emperor, to- dogs were miuiuig alraat in a distractM state. . 
gather with his replies and his orders and in- In the treasury there was about $SI,000 hi 
striiottons to the mandarins. Beoords of ja- gold and silver. The total value of the prop. 
didal events conclude the official part, which erty carried off and de«ti'Oyed amounted to 
the editors cannot chauge or alter in any re- seversl millions. Among the most curious dis- 
nect, without Hubjeottng themsalveeto the pen- coveries made were a suit of magnificent ar- 
uty of death. Examples of this punishment, mor, inlaid with gold, and the aelmet sor- 
oocnrring from time to time, maintain among mounted with an enormous pearl ; a saloon 
the pnhlio an almost religions respect for all furnished in oxaot imitation of the style of 
that appears in the "Gazette." Tlie journal is Louis XV., deoorated with the portraile of the 
retarded aa an expression of the emperor's ladies of the oourt of that monarch, and the 
will, which every one obeys, and before which name of each lady inscribed at the bottom of 
every one bows. — The environa are occupied the frame; and among the porcelain were some 
with groves, private mansions, hamlets, and col- immense vasee whioh had passed more than a 
tivatedfields,uior near which are trees, so that oentoryat the bottom of the sea, and to which 
the eit; viewed from a distance appears as if marine vegetation had dung in auoh a manner 
rituated ia a forest The pork of Yuen-ming- aa to produce the most ringolar ornaments. 
juen, or " round and splendid gardens," eo Borne valuable books snd patera were secured 
celebrated in the history of the foreign embas- for the Britosh mnnnnm, and the coat of armor 
dee to Peking, lies about 8 m. K. W. from the was reserved for the emperor of the I^vuch. In 
city, and is eirUmated t« contain 13 sq. m. The revei^fortheomelty with which some iWich 
country becomes hilly in this direction, and sd- and Rngiiah prisoners had been massacred, 
vantage haa been ti^en of the natural surface this palace was burned to the ground. — Though 
in the arrangemMit of the different parts of the Peking ia r^^arded by the (Siineae as one of 
ground, so that the whole presents every va- their most ancient cities, it was not made the 
riety of hill and dale, woodlands and lawna, capital of the oonntry until the otmqoest bj 


_ _ ^. _ . „, - - g of 8 MolMMBdail and 4 lay 

ert»Mih«d Ilia eonrt tint at Qua spot, th«a nuoobon, to itii& the OidnMa and Haatohoo 

called ffltuntieii Foo. He afterward temoT«d laiwii^es,w>thatuiterpretersooiiidbeprepat6d 

it to Baag-cbaw. The native entperora who aadoMnmonioatioBB oanied onmoresatidUMto- 

wwoeafled tbe MoBg(da held th^ oonit at rily ; the membov ta this college are ohaaged 

Nankmg, nutil the 8d prinos of the Ulng deeraniaUf. TheiuterooaraeoftbeEnglialiwiQi 

drnaatr traoabned tike Beat of govenuaeat to China, though it oommenoed later tbutUiat of 

PekioR in 3,411, where it hu ever liam re- most m the otlier jnaritiine natione of Europe, 

maiuad. Usder the Afonatja tii» aty was has been &r more important In its r«Balts.Th^ 

called Ehaif palik, ct titf of the khaa, «nd tm ooromerma] UaoMOtione with tiie Chinese be- 

the Ohineae taua it ia uoaSj oalled Eing^-eae, came bo complicated toward the eloae of the 

or ewital of the oonrt. It was at flnt enr- last oeotiuT, Uiat it was determined to smd an 

nHwded by a angle wall ineroed by 9 gatea, embaaay to the court of Chioa to plaoe thur 

whenoe It Ja aometinwe oalled the oity <x nine afiJure on a better footing. In iTsa Lord 

gatea; bat rinoe than the S.saborbBlia'n been Uaoartnerwaa deepatohed with a largesoite, 

enoloaad. The N. portion waataken po o a eo Jon and preeents for the emperor, which it is sup- 

of by the Mantohoos in 1U4 fin* bairaoka and poaed were looked npon aa Talnable tribute. 

naioeDoea. The goremment pnrohaBed tit* Thoof^ the embaesy niled in its most inqior- 

famldin^ fhnn the Ohineae and gave tJiem to Uat pointa, it nerertiielem prodooed aome 

thttr <^ows; but neoeamty soon oUiged theee good eSbotik and Sir many ; ears the trade 

TTum tcBB frugal and thrift tJ>§ n the natiTes, went on wittiont interruption, fnrtlier di0- 

to aell tiuBX and ecottent tiiemaelTea wUh oidtiea aridng between uie Ti'j' gii»T' and Ohi- 

hmnbler abodes; oooseqaently « great part of neee,a seooni wnbas^y was aent mtder Ij&ri 

the Tartar dty ia now tenantea by Ohineae. Amhent, aniving ■£ Peking in Ang. 1816. 

In the latter half of the llib eentory the <nty llda ndanon waa sommarily ^amissed withoot 

waa destroyed by an earthqaake, ana 400,000 an andienoe, beoanse the ambasBador would 

psraonsareeud to have perished. The Fortor not perform iota*, or u>pear before his m^J* 

roeae aent an embas^ ^ Ptklng In US17, bat vtj the d^ be arriTsa. A letter was autt 

the emperor reftued to reodTe itiatd the am< from the emperor to the prince re^jeut, in 

baaaadora were aent to Oaoton. Iltey were iin> wbieh among other things it was said: "I 

miaooed there till 16S8, when they WM« pot to have sent tidne ambsssador baok to hisown 

death. ABeemidraabassTWaBaeattromQoain ootmtry without punishing him for the high 

1662, bnt prooeeded no farther tiian Ualaooa; crime that he has committed." The inter- 

and a third deapatched ttom tbtt aame plaee in coarse of foreigners was for many years after 

IQftT bad ofA a satisbotory resnlt. Jn IIM this in a very nnaatdsiaotory condition. On 

another envoy waa sent, who arrived at Peking Jane 1^ 1868, Oonnt Putiatine, the Bossisa 

ioHiay, 1787, and bad nis andienoe of leave in ambnaimdor, sigied a treaty in which the chief 

July, reoeinng aome gifts hi ezotunge for the ptnnts conceded by the Oblnese were the right 

80 oheeta of p r e nen ta which he brought from of oonreqpondence npon an eooal footing be* 

the kjiu <tf Portiwil- No more advantage re- tween the Bnawan minister of foreign affitiia 

sohad from thia (£an friHU at^oftheprevioaa and the first minister of state at Pekmg; p^ 

embsMies. Another, and the ust that the Por- mission to s«id diphnnatic agents to that eUy 

tngnMO a^i^/eaehed P^ing in 17fi(^ and end- upon specnal oooasions ; liberty of oironlation 

ed mnoh the aame as the others. A Spanish t£rotighoat the empire for mJ8Bi<nuuies under 

amj who came out in 1660 was Impnsooed, a system of passports : and the right to trade 

snd only released thronj^ the intervention of at ports then open, and la addition at Bwatow, 

the governor of Hacao. A Dntch embassy in at a port in Formosa, and another in Hainan. 

16M reached PeUng, bat waa not snooeatflil ; On the 18th of the Bsme month the American 

and a aeoood in IW was Seated with coo- treaty was ngned by Ur. Baed, in which the 

tempt. The Bosriana have sent aeveral embaa- same privileges were accorded to the govem- 

Bsa to PeUng^and from thor frontier tmng in ntant of the United States, and a olaose added 

oattnetwWiCniina have oompelled the Ohineae conferring all privileges that might in future 

to treat tbem as equals. Thur first recorded be grtmted to " the most favored nation." A 

visit was in 1610, but it is donbtAtl whether it few days afterward the En^^ish and French 

can be properly atyled on embaasy. In 16BS treatdes were aigaed, respective^ by Lord 

theboondary line of the two em^ree was fixed Elgin and Boron Gros at Tien-tom. In due 

by tresty, and the following year the ratifies- course the ratified copies of the American and 

tion waa exehanged at Peki^. The next mio- Boasian treaties were exchanged at Peking ; 

elm was sent by Peter the Great in 1719, and but a dispute arising between the ambassadors 

the evident Importanoe of keeping on good of other powers and tiie Chine«e with rward 

tttma with the Bnaaiana led the Onlnese to treat to Qie route by which they should proceed to 

their envoys with mmsnal reqwot, and attend the oapital, Uiey were forced to retire. Early 

to the buaness wUOh th^ came to aettla. In in Oot. I860, an English and French foroc up- 

1727 another embassy soooeeded in placing the word of 86,000 strong, after destroying the 

B between the two nations on a still sommer palace and devastating seTarol cities, 

; and a misuou was established at qnietly encamped within the earthwork aboni 


A mil* outride tin K. mil of F«kiiig. Th» the gronnd of «bi«h}i«TU declared gnStr of 

emperor had escaped to an ancient palace be- hereej, are the foUowine ; 1, Adam was crwted 

yood the great wall, and had ]«ft hia brother, mortal, bo that he would have died whether he 

Prince Emig, who was anthoriied to treat aa had eliuied or not ; 2, Adam's ein iignred csHj 

jtoupotentiaTT with the invadera. The prince himaelf, and not the hamAn raoe ; 8, new-bora 

dioired great relnotance in complying with infanta are in the same condition in wldch 

acme of Qie demands made by Lord Elgin and Adam waa befbre the foil ; 4, the whole hnman 

Baron Groe, and only yielded when aasond race neither died in conaeqnenoe of Adani'i 

titat Peking wonld be ntterly destroyed in death or trangreBdon, nor rises from tlie dead 

case of his reftisal. One of the dty Rates was in conaeqaenoa of OhriBt'a raaurreolion ; 6, ia- 

idaced in the hands of the Trench and another fonts obtain eternal life, thon^ ttiey be not 

In those of the English ; and every thing waa bfutlted ; 6, the law is as good & meana of 

done tiiat appeared likely to hnmble the mtn- salvation aa the goi^el ; 7, there were boom 

later and mortify the pride of the Ohineee men, eren before the ^:^«aranoe of Ghriat, 

emperor. On Oct. 34, the day appointed by who did not commit cdn. These 7 propotitionB 

Lord £1^ for ezohanging the ratification! of (others count only 6, leaving ont the &th, w 

the treaty of Tien-tain, and signing the oon- Jotning it to one of the other propodticmi) 

vention of Peking, the streets leading to the were and still are regarded as the cardinal 

inxthibited dty were occupied and the aodienoe points of the Pelagian eystem, althongli it is 

nail within ita limits where the ceremony took difficult to decide how &r Felagins aiooorded 

place muTonnded by British troops. Lord EI- with ail of them, sinoe he expressed himaelf 

pa passed through the streets with a nnmer- very canljoiuly. In consequence of the con- 

vm escort, and entered the andienoe hall with demnaticHi of Oodesdna, PelasiaB himself wm 

hie suite, bowing coldly to Prince Knng, who aoon attacked tn Palestine, wh«« Jerome be- 

approached with the nsoal salutation of re- oame one of his most zealous i^qxHtrnta. 

nkeotfhl greeting, and appropriating to himself Jerome, ooi\joinUy with Orosias, a distrnde ot 

the most honoraUe seat, pladng Sir Hope Angostine, aocuaed Felaf^na at a moa baU 

Grant, the commander-in-ohief, in a chair on at Jerusalem in 4US, under John, biahop of 

his left. On the fbllowing day the same oere- that oitr. John, however, <Hd not pronouwe 

monies were perfbrmed between the IVench his condemnation, hot referred the whole n«t- 

and Ohineae plenipotentiariee. The substance ter to the see of Borne, then oconmed by Inno- 

of the treaty waa as fbQowfi : 1, the emperor cent L At another synod of 16 biahopa, held 

of Ohina expressed regret at (he misundenAaad- in the same year at Diospolia, under Eulogins 

ing oooaaioned by the affair at the Takn forts ; of Onssrea, Pelag^us was acquitted. The 

3, the right of ui6 queen of Great Britain to chorches of Africa, on the other hand, reiter- 

keep a resident minister at Peking was ao- ated their reijeotlon of the system in a ^nod 

knowledged ; 8, £S,100,000 was to be paid by of 69 bishops held at Carthage, aad in a synod 

the Ohineee government as indemnity; 4, Tien- of 61 Nun^an biahops at Mileum, both held 

tsin waa opened to trade ; S, the interdict upon in 416. Both ^noda urged Iimooait to ivo- 

the emigration of Chinese to the British colo- nounce on this aaltject, aa did elag, in » private 

nies was removed ; 6, a portion of the mdn- letter, Augnstine, who now entered the arana 

land opposite Hong Eong, called Oowloon, aa the most powwftd oppwient of Pelagianiim. 

was ceded to the British ; 7, the fanmediate The reply <« Innocent waa to tlu sattafoetka 

operation of the treaty and convention waa of the Amoan biahops, and Pela^us deemed it 

provided fbr. The Frencb also received a neceesary to addreea to him an ezplanatwy 

large indemnity, and Tien-tsin was to be oo- apology of his syatem, whioh, however, did not 

cnpied by the allies tiU their claims were sat- reach Rome nntil after the death of Innocent. 

isfied. Though this was the first formal em- His saooeasor, Zorimns, was iadnoed by the con- 

bassy sent by the French to Peking, they have fbagion of foith that Oceleatins, who was now 

by their misaionariea made the rest of the in Bome, had drawn np, and also by the letter* 

world better aoqnunted with Ofaina, and given and protestations of Pelagina, to declare the 

the Chinese more knowledge of western ooon- two accused eonnd in faith, and m^natly perse- 

triee, than all other Christian nations together, onted by their adversaries. The AMcan biah- 

PELAOnjS, the founder of a relirioos ays- i^s, 914 in number, met again in a synod at 

tern in the 5th century. Uttle is knows of <hi1hage, and stood by their farmer ^dsioa ; 

his life. He was a British monk named Hor- and Augnstiue appealed to the emperor Hono- 

gan (signifying sea-bom), of which Pelagios is a rins (418), who issued a rescript to the prefbct, 

transl^on, and by the uonrsioiia of barbariana ordering the immediate snppresnon of uie new 

waa driven ftom his native land. Ha went first heresy. Another council at Carthage, which 

toBome(409),whereheniadetheaoqualntanee waa attended bydelegates from all the prov- 

of OcaleBtins, and the two afterward (llOwent inoee of Africa and even from Bp^ speciSed 

to Carthage. Pela^ue soon Idt Africa tbr Pal- and solemnly condemned as hwetical 9 doo- 

esfine, bnt Ocelesthis, who endeavored to be re- trinee of PefagiuB. BimUar dedarataona were 

cdved among the preabyters of Carthage, waa issued by the bishops Theodotos of Antioch 

accused of heresy before a tynoi held at that and PrayUns of JeroBalem ; and Zosimns now 

place In 412 uidoondeoined. Thedootrinea on also lost confidence in the new teacher^ and 



pnblished Ub Spi»tola Thietoria, In whkih &m nee ; and there la reuon to Bmpect that tiie 
Pelagtaa doctrine is condemned. AU tlie biab- aime element entered Urgdf into the oom- 
ope of the iraatem chorohes were called upon poritlon of the I«tin people. At one time the 
to snbacribe to this efdstle; ntany Tielded, bnt popnlotdon of Etniria waa also Felu^an to a 
Julian, bishop of EolaninQ in Apulia, the most veiT- ^eat exlMit At the beginning of an- 
pft«d of all Pelagian tbeologtans, undertook thentio history the Felasgians of Asia irere tl 
the defence of Ihe system, th<^(^iFithontauo- declining race, holding only a tbw scattered 
oess. He had to aaerifloe lua office, and to posts, " the last atron^b<ddB,'' says Bawlinemi, 
raptdr with Feladna and Omlestins to Asia, ''of apeoplefbroedeTerywheretoyieldtoecm- 
where somemorefrnitlesaeffbrtaweremade to qnenav. The natnnl exidanation of the his- 
gun influential Ushqia, as Theodore of ICop- torical pheoMmena is that (in Pelas^ were the 
snestia and Keetorina of Constantinople, over ori{dnal population of w«item A^ and that 
to their cause. little is known of the rarther tli^ emlgrationa across the eea into Enrope 
history of Pelagjos, his two frienda, and their were ooouioned by the preasnre upon them 
doctrinea, except that the last were again con- of immlgranta from the east, Jl>diuia, Phry- 
denmedasheretioall^tJiemoimMnioaloonnoil gians, and Oarians, who forced them wMt- 
of Epheena in 481. The fiidlowers of Felagins ward, and so canaed their oooapation of Oreeoe 
never formed a sect properly so called ; bnt and Italy." The Pelasgisna of Enrope were 
Pela^anism, as a theolc^cu eystem, though celebrated for th^f^tderings, to which they 
condemned, retained its adrocates. The beet were qiparentJy omnpelled by the enoroacb- 
works on the history of Pela^ianlsm ue : "Wig- menta of strmiger races who drove them from 
, Vertuft eintr frof/matuehm DanUlbtng coonby to country. TtuAi leading tdiaraoter- 

de» Atiyiu&iiani»am* und PeloffianUnuu ^ istJos seem to iiaye been peaoeMhatttts, aori- 
Tols., Berlm, ISBb-'S ; English translation by enltnral pnranits, a love of navigation, and a 
Prof Emenon, New York, 1840) ; Jacobi, Dit nataral taste for art They were skilled i 

L Are dei .Puta gMM (Leipsio, 1648). fortifloatlon, and in every land which they 

PELARGONIUM. SeoGEKAinuii. onoe hihabited their preeraoe can still be 

PELABGIAN8 (Or. HtXaoyot), an andemt traced by nmnerons works of defence, built 

people, who in pre-historic timea oocnj^ed the of immense polygonal blocks <^ stone fitted to- 

Orecian peninsula, the islands and ooasta of gether withont mortar or oemeait, and of studi 

the .^Egffian, and portions of Asia Minor and sobatantial strength that they have outlasted 

Italy. Onr knowledge about them is very the etmotares of saooeeding ages and raoea. 

vague and contradictory. The term is some- These works are commonly known as Qyclo- 

timea used in a broad sense to include the pean, a name given to them for thedr grandeur 

great ethnological fiunily who were the ear- and antiqnity. The ultimate &te of the Pe- 

fieat inhal^«nts of Greece and Italy, and some- laagians b wrapped in mysteir. They diasp- 

timea in a narrower sense to mean only a ringle peued a few centnriea before Christ, prol^y 

tribe or nation of that &ndly. The moot an- absorbed by other races more or leae akin to 

dent writers give the name a wide rather than them. Li Greece proper they minted with 

a narrow meaning. Homer, who was the first the Hellenes, and in Asia Minor with the 

to mention them, connects them at onoe with Oarians, the Lydians, and the Phrygians ; 

Crete, Dodona, and Thessaly. jEschylna makes while in Italy they were either reduced to the 

Pdasgns, the king from whom the race de- condition of ser& or united with thetr eon- 

rived its name, a mler over the whole of querors to form a new people, the Latins. 

Greece; while Herodotus says that Greece "Their whole character," aan Bawllnson, 

was called Pelasda, and includes tmdcr the " was plastic and ylddlng, not firm n(«(bnna» 

common name of Felasgians the Athenians, tlve ; and their fide was to ftunish a mbstra- 

the Arcadians, the lonians of Asia Minor, the turn upon which stronger nationalities ectab- 

Lemniwta, the Samothraclans, and the Ores. lished and devdoped themaelves." 

tottians. On the other hand, Thucydides, PELKV ISLAcTDS, a chidn of idands in the 

whose authority is of the hi^est weight, IT. Fadflo ooesn, forming part and rituated at 

states that the Pelas^ans were only the most the "W. exbemity of the Oaroline archipelago, 

numerous t^ the many kindred races which between laLT* and 8° 80' N. and long. 184° and 

inhabited Greece. They came from the East 189' E. The group consists of about 30 prin- 

at a very early period, passing over from Asia dpal islands, nearly Mtdrded by a coral ree^ 

Manor, where uey bad built the two dtiea and covers an extent of about 190 by SO mi. 

which t>ore the name of Magneda, to the iai- Babelthonap, the largest of the iilanda, la about 

aods and the mainland of Greece, and estab- 38 m. longand 14broad,aod oontduamonu- 

Ija^'ig themselves principally in Thessaly, Ept- tdn n> high that the vrhiAa group m^ be aeoa 

ms,anjlPeloponnesns. The Aroa^Ans, lonians, fitHn its summit. 'Whanaeen' 

n aeen ftarn the aea the 

and Argiveeseemto have been Ftlmgian raoea. islands qipear nined and moantdnons; bnt 

Atdca wn Pela^ at a very remote period, the edl is ridi and totilB, and Ow wbde an 

and the earUeet population of Uaoedonla watwed by several broou and p<mda. They 

may hare been of the same stock. In Italy are well wooded, and produce breadfruit, oo- 

tbfl sonthem nationa, snoh as the Penoetiana, coannta, bananas, sugar oane, yama, lunona, 

(Eaotrians, and Japy^ana were of Pdasgio and oranges, beside numerous other tropical 



fimita and TcgsteUn. Horned cattle, jigt, tnost rtmndmdr in trtq^od n^aaa, freqant- 
eoata, aad fbwt are nimMtna; and tnrtM*, ing botii the eea ooaftand luteriw lake* and 
Sab, and ihell flah aboutd oa flw ooaata. The riTsre ; they are veiy ToracdoQi, fteding en- 
InbabitantB are of the ICaUr raoa. They p^ tirelj on flshea, and the ponoh ta eapaclou 
great attenliim ta tbe comTation of tnefr ttoongb to hold fish nffldent for the dinner of 
ground, and ohow oonrideraUe tngumitj In half a doEen men ; they are good swimmen, 
maUng their canoea, aome of vhkh can earrj diven^ and fliers, uid can Mrda eanlf ontreet. 
80 men. The men go voimlj nafced, and the In Ae morning and arening thej laare their 
▼omen afanoet eo.— The Pelev idanda are aaid roostang plaoea in flooka of abont a doaen, and 
to hare been diaeovered by the Spaniards in fiytothdrflahinggronnda; they fl^ until Mt- 
1645, and th^ vera afterward seen sereral imed, awaOowing their pr^ on Qm apot, and 
timaa by aibipB bomid to China by &e E. paa- retiring with a ful crop to some aotitary plaoe 
awe; but they were flrttbronght to the notice todiRWtit; Oiey often dose on the water dnr- 
oTthe eiriUzed W(v]d ^Vthe Iom of the Brit- ing t£e progreas of digeetlon. They Sj eoine- 
iah ship Aat«tope.Oq)t^ Wilson, In 1768. The times elevated, and at othwa skim near the nr- 
natires teeated the oraw of the wrecked fMg &ce, and, balaiuHng themselves when tliey see 
with tiie greatest kindness. O^t. Wilson took a flab, fall headltmg upon it with the apparent 
the son <^the ohief to England, where he was risk of breaking their necks. — The white peli- 
plaoed at sohocd and displayed oonnderabla can (P. onocmtalm, Linn.), the onocntaha of 
aptitnde for dvHiEed onstwns and an ezoellent Fliny but not of the Qreeks, is between S and 
^spoBition;bQtbediedofama]lpoz,attheage 6 feet long, and 13 to 18 in expanse of win^; 
of SO, the following year. Sareral oHier nar- tiie raiend odor is white, with roay tinges, 
ratires of voy^eis give on equally &T<waUe and the primaries are black ; the npper mandi- 
aooonnt of the islaodere ; but it w<rald appear ble ie bltdih with red and yellow tmta, and the 
tiiat a mors extended aoqnaintBnce with the hook on the end is bright red ; the poach is 
white man has made them tnadiMvaii The yellow. It la fonnd in 8. E. Europe, Asia, snd 
Kren, whalw, when pasring the 6. island in AfHoa, sometimes coming aa fiw w. as 0«r- 
18S8, waa boarded by 100 men who speared many, but not to Great Britain. The nest is 
to be Mendly, bat when iqtportmd^ offered sen^mly mode in a mde manner on inaooeEO- 
attaokedtheorew, and were only repnlsed after ble rocks, near fresh or salt water, and the ^gs 
a desperate fight, in which most of the ship's are!) to4; it bnitds Bometiiiies on treea r«noie 
company, 87 in number, were wonnded and 2 from water; t^e yonng are fed by the regnr^ 
offleerakiUed. Since then several T«asels hare tated food of tite parents: this operation is 
hadreiT narrow eaoapea tma btong ont off rendered easier by presBing the ponoh and lower 
while viritins the lalmda msadible sKainst the breast, and the contrast 
pelican; a genua of lar^ web-footed of the red iiook of the bill a^tdnst the white 
birds (fMlasnnut, Linn.). The bill is very l<mg, of the breast probably gave rta^ to the poetic 
nearly straight, and mnehdepreaaed; the npper idea of the ancients that the female pelican 
man^ble has an elevated ridge, beooming flat nonriahed her yomw with her blood. It ia a 
toward the end, the tip bdng strong, hoc«ed, very long-lived bird; in esptivity it will eat 
andooote; the lower nundilue is wider ^Qie rats and email mammals as well aafieh; Itsfledi 
base than the npper, and its branohea are unit- wasforluddento theJews,andfew wonldcare 
ed only at the t^ ; the nostrils are scarcely to eat it, as it is voy rau, flshy, and oily ; it 
peioeptible, in the lateral (pwm at the base ; is said to have been tamed and empl^ed in 
tliewingsaremoderate, the 9dqnill the longest, fishing, like the cormorant among the Chinese, 
and tJie aeomdariea neariy aa long as the pri- Its poach has been need to make caps and bon- 
mariee; the tail is broad, short, and rounded; nets and tobacco baas ; the fitamese make of it 
tiie tarri short and stout, covered with retioa- strii^ for mosioal instnanents, and the Nile 
lated acalee ; all fonr of the toes on the same and other boatmen use it with the lower jaw 
plane, the hind one tmned more or less inward, attached for baling water from their canoes; 
and all oonnected by broad webs, the middle it will hold in the living bird 10 to IS quarts 
toe the longest. The head ia moderate and of water, andhenoe the^licanisoaQed''rTvw 
created, the neck long and slender, and the feet oamel" by the Egyptians. A variety or ^wciea 
toward the middle of the body ; under the (P. eritpvt, Bm^.) in 6. E. Enrope ia some- 
lower Jaw, and extending to the throat is a what larger, of a more grayish while, with 
loose, naked membranoua ponch o^>Bble of oorled feathers on the b^ and ridee of the 

r It distention, which is naedaa aaooop-net head;theeeoolleotinflookB,aiideztendinglheir 

fish; aronnd the eyes and base of the hill lineintheformof aoreeoent^byfl^>ldngtheir 

are bare qtaoea. The skeleton is remarkable wings and pinning into the water, drive a 

for the greatextent of itsair cavitiee, the bmiea ahodof fish mto a small and shallow naoe, and 

w«l|^iing leas than 9 lbs.; ftom these the air there speedily obtain a full supply. — TheAmet^ 

penetratea into the areolar tissue under the ioan white or rough-billed pelican (P. tmAf- 

light; the (eeophwoi is very cspacious and &e is about 6 feet long, with an ^ar extent o 
stomadk small. The apedesare not nomerone, betweoi 8 and 9 foet, and a wei^t of IT or 
bnt are found in moot parts of the world, and IS lbs. It much resembles the P. onoentdhm. 



bdng of a g— 1 wUte eidor, ttegad iritfa doife obartMt bmnrn: back, vinga, and tdl 

TOMOW in tbebnMlingaeaaon; theprimariM gr^idi adi, nui^piMa vitli dns)^, the lut 

are Ufldc, and the iria wldte; the uad and with ttte abafta white at th« base and blaok at 

Bodt aM eorerad with ilamder, aanll, and tha end; primarias brownish black; below 

downy feathwa, elongated into a eraat on the dazk brownish ash, with narrow lonntixUnal 

m^sidraBningdownthebaokof theneek; white lines on the sides; iris white; iwa and 

on the body gaoerallr tha fbsthen are narrow feet Uack. The female is like tbe male, bat 

and Icmg; Ute erest i» rdlow, the eyea v«r7 Uie feathers of the head are more rigid; tite 

bri^it, aol in qniiiK the lega, £Mt bill, nd young are dosky brown. It ia found from 

poooh are orange red, fkding ta yellowish in North Oarobiia to Texas, and on the ooaat <d 

theantnmn. TheTnUiaUinebeslong^andtha OaMania; it is a oonstaitt resident in Florida, 

'-' 'heztandaStnobea on ttta and ia now ran N. of St. AngtHdne; it goat 

lua length a: 

. - „s are k»g, narrow, and rounded, tai It ia not seen on fredt water bejond the i^^ 
tite primariea mnoh eured; the tail ooulsta itfUietide, like the white pclioan. Tltefli^t, 
ofMfeatiiers; tbe homy and flbrona ridge (oi thon^ i^arentlr heaTy, te well eostained, 
tha iqiper mandible (rftlienialeBincreaaes with pertOTmedbj alternate easy flwpings and sail- 
age, and is used as a means of defenoe in their ings, and in long nndolating Imes; in oafan 
iMttles during the love season ; the f^malea are weather they pmorm intricate aerial eroln* 
rather mailer tlmn the males. Abnndant dnr- tions at a great height ; during flight Ae head 
ingUie winter in Elorlda, it is found in sommer isdrawn between tbe shonlders and tbefeet 
in ttie interior of theftir oomdrieaas&raalat. extended. The; are alwayH awake dnring the 
81° N. ; it doe* not occur on Hie ooaat of the ooming in of the tide, which is the favorable 
middla and northwn states, as the eonrse of time for flahing; they are nerer seen t&r from 
migration is along the great inland rrrera. above when a storm ia threatening, and their 
They- do not dire for their prey ^therfhna the appeara&oe at sea is regarded by aailors aa 
wing or the anrboe of the water, bnt thmst a nre «iga ot ideasant weather. Tliey pro- 
the head Tinder as &r as the neok will allow, core di£ fbod on the viag, plnngtng from 
fbeding moatly in shallow places, as they swim a hetf^t of 16 to 9S feet, witn tiie lower maiK 
■Icmg against wind and anrrent with ihe dible wide cqwn and the pouch exteaided,saoop- 

wLoes partially extended andUie npperman- log npiheiuhaad awaUowing them at once; 

diUe only of Uie IhU ^tpearing above the anr- their plnnge is very ringolsr, snd seems to the 

hoe; tbeyvesometlnHa Been uoompany with spectator oalonlatMd to break the neok; giving 

the Imnra speciea, next described; ooeaalink- no indication of b^g about tophmge, (~ "~ 

ally they drive fish to shallows, where they ing birds nsnally do, they fall soddenly 

speciea, next described; oceaalink- no indication of b^g about to phmge, aa dir- 

. rive fish to shallows, where they ing birds nsnally do, they fall soddenly aa if 

easily sooop tbon up with the poach. As from qioplexy, sbiUng Ute water with great 

they etKod npon the sand bars, ther have a force and q)lashing it MMat so that it is ii 

aedate and grave look, and a very indiorooB rible to detenodne whether the whole bony m 

habit of gaping or opening their long mandi- immersed or not. They do not owry fish or 

Ues ; they are rathw stapid, and not very sby ; water to their yonng in the ponoh, as has been 

inactive dnring most of the day, they fish in generally believed, and, aeeccding to Aadnban, 

early morning and evening; the gah ia very this part is always oontnnted dnring fli^L It 

awkward; th<7U« said to !» very teoadons isnot nncommon tosee theaeUrdswlth ahole 

ofltCs. They destroy a great number of email thfonf^ the pouch aaosed by the spine of a 

llah; several hundred minnows have been taken iah, mid tfadr throats are oooaaionally redden- 

fhnn the stomach and (saophagus of a single ed by the blood wbldi has flowed firom such a 

individnal ; when ^proa^ed after a fUl meal wound. They are fond of fidlowingporoolBea, 

they AsgOTge tb^ food UJn the vnUnrea ; tite picking up their share of the terrJled nah on 

fle^ is rank and fishy, and nnflt for food. The which these cetaceans feed ; and in thur torn 

see ia expanded by uie opening of the MD, ttid they involuntarily provide fbr the black-headed 

They breed to the tea conntdea, gall (larvM atrisUia, Lion.), which watchea 

bnt not generally in the sonth like the next tiielr plunges, and as they emerge alights on 

speoies ; they are foond in the Booky monn- their head or bUl, seizing any small fry which 

tains and in Oalifomia. — The brown pelican may protmde beyond tbe bill or ponoh; the 

(P. fateut, T jnn. ; genua onoerotdbu, wc^ler) peliouu do not seem to notioe the thefts or 

cUffera from Hm last species in habits, die, and diunor of the gnlis, and make no attempts to 

colora-,itiaaamallw bird, beingonlyabotit66 dislodge or drive them away ; this ia certainly 

inohea lonx, with an extent of wings of 7 feet a very onrions instanoe of animal instinct and 

andawelghtofTorglbe. Thebillisl8i-inab- Aratemisation. They are awkward walkers, 

ea long, grayish wiiite, tinged with dnsky and but bnoyant ewimmeta; when woonded they 

with spots trfoarmine ; there ia no ridge on the will bite severely; they fbed on flsh generally 

upper mandible; the orbital space is bine, the 9 or 8 inehea long, rardy taking one as long as 

eroBt light obestnut red, and the tdl baa only tha Inll ; they are powerful \ArSA, bnt very sen- 

SS feathers. The head and sides of the neck tittve to cold; the fleeh is tough and vnnt fbr 

are white; the hair-like feathers of the forehead fbod, and the eggs are not muoh better; the 

yellow; theneck bdiind and in front below seuaaa of sight and hearing are very acnte; 

alwajs kotip in flodu of from 90 to 60, amd be- of tho doled Biaha, an Arab tribe who i 
j^ to pair ij tbe nuddle of April; um nert Is refbge in one ^ tiie npttdou o&T«aii8 io wbioii 
nutde of sticlm, lined with lesres and graasea^ their oonntiT aboimda. Into Umbo fiutneaata 

oeata are bniltin the same tzee, and the trees loabilitr of an tatmj to penetnUe th«m, tl>« 

ore often neat together; th^ breed in oom- tribes had began to oonaider Utemselves inrm- 

panf with the egrets, barons, and qMonbiUs, dble. To sU summonses to Borroider tlw; 

and on islands frequented also bj white itnses reflued to Usten, and even prerented the ap- 

and frigate peUoans: if not distorbed ther dm proaoh (tf messengers by the discharEe of fin- 

t3i6 same breeding plaoee Tear after jear. The anna, altbon^ aware that death wonld be the 

egga, 8 in nomber, Si hjH iuehee, are tiaek' eonseqaenoe <rf th«T onwillingDesB to complj 

shelled and roo^ white, more or lees IJnged with the terms ofiered. After S8 hours i^eot 

with blood. The yonng are at first fed by re- in frnitlesa nesotiBtioim, P61isuer applied bntn- 

gnrgitatioa of the food of the parents, and bo ing fagota to me month of the cave, and snfio- 

abnndantly that the refeio fills the ur with t^e oMed nearly 600 of the Arabs. The transae- 

most diagiiBtiug odor ; they grow &st, and are tkm exrated great horror, as well in France ai 

veryfat; they are highly pmed as food by the in other conntrieB. Hsrsbal Sonlt, then mini»- 

Indians and n^roes, and form a lame ioueht ter c^ war, condemned it formally, bat Maralial 

for many a Toltnre. Bngeand declared Uiat bis subordinate had aot- 

p£LID£S. See Aobtllis. ed in accordance with his orders, and jostiBed 

FELIGMI, an ancient people Oi central Italy, the operation as " a necesn^ of war." In lUI 

of Sabine origin, who dwelt between tike Uar* F^Iisaier became brigadier-general, and in 18G1 

rotdni, Hie Marsi, Banmium, and the PruUani general of division. He remained in Algeria 

They were renowned as warliis, like the Hard nutUJan. 186C, when be was suddenly ordwed 

reputed as magicians, and long warred against to the Orimea as second in command to Gen. 

the B(»nsns, bat tog^ihw with their nei^bors Oanrobert ; and when on Uay 19 Oanrobert re- 

ccmdnded a peace with the republlo about the signed he was ^pointed in his place, which he 

end of the 4th oentury B. 0. They played a retained till the close of the war. Lnmedlatelj 

{vino^al part In Hm social war, one of thdr afier the fall of Sebastopol P^liseier was created 

ohief towns, Corflnium, near the Aternua, bfing marshal of France and duke of Ualako^ from 

selected by the allies as the future capital <tf the oaptnred Russian fortification of that name, 

Italy, and therefore somamed Italioa. They and was voted by the le^slative body a ponoon 

were finally enbdued in 89 B. 0., by 0. Pom- of 100,000 france. He replaced Oonnt Fereigny 

peios etrabo, Uie Mber of Fompey the Great as mmister to England In April, 1668, but vas 

a mountain range of Tbeasaly.eztwding along to take oonunand of tlM anny of obaorvatioD, 

the ooast of Uagneria, and forming the prom- the head-quarters of wMoh waa at Nancj. He 

ontorics of Sepks and .£antdnni. On uie N. haa been made a member of the jnivy oomicil, 

it is oonneoted by a low ridge with Ut. Ossa. avice-preudentof the senate, and in July, 1669, 

On its sommit there waa a t«mp1e of Ju^tcr waa ^qxrinted grand chancellor of the le^on 

Aotceos, and near this waa fobled to be the of honor. Quetti Victoria has also conferred 

oave of the centaur Ohiton. Its magnificent nptm him tlie honorvy grand cross of the or- 

foreets, for which it is still distingui^ed, for- dor (tf the bath. 

nished the limber for the ship Argo, (md the FELLEBIN, Joseph, s Ft«ncb antiqaai^, 
shaft of the celebrated spear of Aobillea. In bom in Uarly le Boi in 1664, died in Fans m 
their war with the gods, the gianta are atdd to 1769. He hdd a aubordinate office in the navy 
have attempted to scale heaven by piling Pe- department, and devoted the leisore bonis of 
lion and Ossa on Olympus, or Ossa and Olym- his long life to the collection of medals. He 
pas on Felion. The name I^essfaibi is now MoumnUted 82,600 q>ecimens, which he finaUy 
SfipJJ«dtotlieN.'W. summit of Pelion. sold to Louis XYI. for 800,000 francs. Hepre- 
PSLISSIER, AiunLE Jus jAmma, duke Tioosly had them engraved and pablJehed under 
of UalakoH; a marshal of France, bom at Ua- the title ot SmmU de midaiiiet tUt roit, ptit- 
rMnme, near Ronen, Nov. 6, lYO*. He studied plet et vOlti (10 toIb. 4to., Paris, lY6«-7% 
at the military schools of La Fldche and St. witli ex^anations and oritdcal observations. 
Oyr, and beoime a sub-lieutenant of artilla? PELLEW, EnwABD. See Ezkouvh. 
two dm before the retom of Nqtoleon from FEUJOO, Siltio, an Italian poet and pa- 
Elba. He served in Spain in 1838, beoame a triot, bom in Salnzso, Piedmont, m 1760, died 
oaptun in ISas, served hi Greece, and in 1680 at the viUa of Uonoag^eri near Toiin, Jan. 1, 
took part in the expedition against Algeria. In 1664. Hia father, who owned a mlk manuhfr 
1683 h9 returned to France m ill health, bnt tory at Pignerol, waa a man of literary taste, 
in 1889 be went back to Algeria asaUen- Abont 17M the fhmily removed to Tunn, and 
tenant-ccdonel, and remaned uwe man than ^vio studied nnder a priest until he aocom- 
10 years. In July, 1848, he waa made otdonel, Muiod bis dster, on her marriage, to Lyons; 
and oommanded the left wing of the am^ in There be remuned several years, gaining an 
the battle of laly. Daring the insurrection of intimate knowledge of the French Iwigoage and 



Utorstore, and & taste for I^euoh nanitan, tier, and spent the rest of hia life at Turin, set- 

Sb native land vas almoet forgotten, when tha lug as Beoretary to the marqais of Barolo. In 

readingofUgoFosoolo'spoenii/MpoMri, whioh 18S1 he published an acoonnt of his 10 years' 

speared in 1607, exeroised a great innoence snffering, in a work entitled Le mU prigKtU 

over his atndies and feelings: and in 1810 he ("II7 Prisons")- This volume, which at onoe 

retornad to Italf, takiox op his resideooe in became widelj celebrated on aocoimt of die 

Jfilan, wh«« his ikther had obt^ed a ntQ»> intense interest of the story, and the rirople 

tion ditder the goTemment. There he became pathoe and nnaffected piety pervading its 

a teacdier of French in the eoUtf/ic dtf/K cr/ont pages, has been translated into ]^(^iBh, 8 timea 

mJlMarJ, and spent his leianre honra m aoqnir- into Bpaiuah,fi times into German, and 14 timea 

ing the Bngliata and Qerman langoa^ and In into Frenoh. After his release ha spent bia 

poetioid stodies. Fosoolo ukd Monti, then at life ohieflj in litwary pmvaits. HJs 'MVorka" 

IClan, wahwmed him wumlj ; and soon after- were pnldiBhed in Fadoa in i toIb, (1881) ; and 

ward entering the familj of Oomit Lni^ Forro at Torin, nnder the title of " Three New Trtr 

I^mbertcBigM as tntor, he became acquainted gedle&" u>peared In 18S3 a Tt^nnie oontain- 

with many distingoished persona, among whoa ing im Giamvnda da Mmdritio, LnmUro da 

wne Ume. da Stafil, Sohlegel, Byron, Hob- I}ertotia,9tiA.SndiacU. The following year be 

honae, Davy, and Brougham. His first proda<^ pnbliahel the Iragedy of Tantmato Soro. In 

tion was the tragedy of LaodamUi, It was fed- 1887 a eolleotion of his " biedited Vorlcs" t^ 

lowed by that of Pnmeeiea da Bimini, foimded peared in 2 vols. One of his laat prodnotiooa 

npoa a piaHge ia Dante's Ii^amo. This Im- was a religioos treatise in prose, entitled " The 

mediatdy axdted oonsideraUe aensation, was Dntiesof San," Hielife was written by Ohiala 

acted in the principal theatres of Italy, and in 1863. 

^o PelUoo a high rank as a dramado poet. PKLOFIDAS, a Theban general and ststea- 

His next work was a traoalalion of Bynm's man, killed at the battle of Oynoeeephabe, in 

,.»r_. II. T H«,™ __.,, ,1. . ^ , . "■• - B_ o_ He was the son of 

of noble descent, and inher- 
d great posseeeions, of which he made a lib- 

Oanu^noia eral use. la a battle in wMob he woe ia im- 

first appeared. Sismondi, Romagnon, Giojs, minent danger of losing his life, he was saved 

and wier prwninent men of letters oontribnted by Epaminondas at great risk ; and from tUs 

to its ootmnns. On aoconnt of its liberal ten- time a ftiendahip began between these two 

denidea ttwaa early sat|]6cted to a rigid censor- patriots, which lasted ontil the death of Pd<n>- 

ahip by the Analrian anthoritiee, and in 1820 it idas. His wealth and his devotion to public 

waa enJorelysoppreasad. Ahoat this time PfJ- a&irs made Pelopidas a prominent member of 

lico ftwean to have beoome a member of the ^e popular party, so tht^ upon the seizare of 

reTolononary sooie^ of the carbonari. The the Oaomea oy the Spartan general Phcsbldaa 

insniTQctJons which broke out both in Naples in 882 B. 0., he with 800 others went into 

and Redmont m>w gave the Aostriaoa a pre- rolnntory esile at Athens. There he remained 

text for severe proceedings in the ease of sua- 8 years, seeking an opportunity of overthrow- 

peeted iadividaals, and on Oct 18, 18S0, Pel- ing the Bpartan rule in Thebes; and there 

lico was arrested. He waa first oonflned in the finally was ivqjected that enterpriae which, ao- 

^isoa of Santa Ifargherita at KGlan, and thence cording to Plutaroh, waa called by the Greeks 

was removed to a state prison on the island of " dster to that of Thnt^ybnlns," and whioh re- 

" '^ " ■ " ' "■■ ' ' " ■ ' ■ ■ - -Be. Via " ■ ■ 

^-— . ^--^Jall,pnt 

He waa oondemned to death, hot by an impe- philo-Laconlan polemarohs, slew Leontlades, 

San IGehele near Venloe, called " the Leads." stored demooraoy ta Thebea. with 6 others he 
Here he remained imtU his trial in Feb. 189S, entered Hut dty at nightfall, pat to death the 

rial FMoipt the sentence was commnted Ut 15 the leader of the Spartan party, with his own 

yeora <tf severe imprisomnent (careen dvro}, hand, and guned poseeeaion of the citadel by 

In April, 1833, he was token to the prison Hie garrison's oE^ttul^Jng and consenting to 

of Spielberg near Bmim in Uoravia, wlure, withdraw. From that tdme until his dea£ he 

throng the kindness of his gaoler, he was was every year elected one of the Btsotarchs^ 

treated with comparative indnlgenoe fbr abont and during tlie following year be bore a oon- 

18 montiis, beuig allowed to read the Bible, qilouons part in the war against the lAoedffi- 

Homw in Qreek, and eeveral favorite Italum, monians. In 876, while rebiming from an at- 

Qermau, and Sngliah antbora. Bat the goider tempt to aurpriae Orobomenns, he feU in at 

was reoioved, and from tliis tame his treatment Tegyra with a Spartan force soperior to his in 

during the remaining yeara of his Imprison- nnmbwa. Witea the meaaenger oommnnieated 

mant was exceedingly rigorone. "Thoaeoon- the news, si^^g: "'We havie fUlen into the 

demned to «irwn dWTff," says he, "weobliged midst of enemies," Feloi^daB answered: "Why 
r, to wear el 

a I>oards,an<_ . , _. „ „. ..„ „^ _, 

In this manner Fellioo dragged oa a miserabia vlotorioos. At Lenotra in 871 he ooOperated 

life, until, when nearly at ^e point of death, wiOt Epamlnondaa in inaplring reeolulioa into 

he was freed by an imperial order on Ang. 1, his timid countrymen, and In the Mvpoaol of 

1680. He waa taken to the Piednumteae fron- ''°"p'^'"e an Immediate battle. In the ea- 
VOL. xm. — 7 

''sayshe, "weobliged midst of en«amiee,"F6loiddaB answered: "Why 

I OS their feet, to sleep so, more than they into the nddat of na )" oimI 

on -bare boards^d to eat the poorest food." in the battle wbkh followed waa eompletely 

to labor, to wear ch^na os their feet, U 



gagement he commaaded the sacred band, promiiietit men Tbebea ererprodnoed; a do- 
which led the charge against the enemy's right voted patriot, a disinterefited oiend, and bo tb- 
iring, and by defeatmir it decided the fate of aorbed in hla devotion to the pnblio good, Uut 
the a&j. .dJterward ne seconded Epaminon- he n^ected all core of his private fortnne, 
das in peranading their oolleagDea in the armr and to the remonstroncea of hia fiiends voald 
to maroh into the Spartan territory, althoogh reply that money was certainly nsefiil to eodt 
by BO doing they would exceed their tenns of aa were lame and blind. Hih life was writtoi 
oiBce, an offence which aocording to law was by Flntarch, bnt the order of events given hj 
pnnianahle with death ; yet on their retom they mm differs somewhat ftom that given above. 
were trinrnphanUy acquitted. In 868 Pelopl- PELOPOHnfESIAN W AE. See Qkbecb. 
daa mafohed at the head of a Theban force to PKLOPOKNEeDS (Gr., " the island of Pe- 
sncoor the inhabitants of Thessalj, oppressed lops," so called by the Greeks because King 
by Alexander of Phcrte ; he occapied Larissa, Fdops was snppoaed to have settled a colony 
uid compelled the tyrant to acknowledge his there), a peniiumla at the B. end of Greece, 
anthority. Advancing into Macedonia, he com- forming one of tlie gT«at geographical divisions 
poved the differences between Alexander n. of that conntry, and now called the Mores; 
and Ptolemy of Aloms, and took aa hostages fbr area, 7,770 sq.m.; 1866,662,841. Itlies 
th«r flitnre good oondoot 80 boys, among betweenlat. 86°33'andS8°a0'N.,andlong.8r 
whom was Philip of Uaoedon. In 867 he was 6'and28''8a' £., and is abont 1S6 m. in length 
sent aa an envoy to the Perrian oonrt at Bosa, and the same in extreme breadth. The Greeks 
where, thongh he refhsed to make the custom- compared its sharie to that of the leaf of a vine 
ary proetralaon to the monaroh, he obtained or a plane tree. The coast ismnch indented, «> 
every thing for which he came, vir, ; a rescript the 8. by the gnlfs of Laconia or Kolokythia 
of Uie great king that Heseene and Amphipo- and of Messenia or Ooron. and on the E. by the 
lis aho^d be antonomons cities; that Athena galf of Anolis or Naaplia. It is connected 
ahonld order home all the Hhips in active ser- with centra Greece by uie iathmna of Oorinth, 
vice : and that Thebes shonld be deemed the which is 6 m. wide at the narrowest part, and 
head city of Greece, and any cities refusing to eepsrates the Oorinthian from the Sarmie 
acknowledge her leadership shonld be threat- gnlf. The sorface of the peninsola is gener- 
ened with oompnlBion by a Fenian force. Bnt ally monntainons. In the centre a long and 
this rescript was treated with contempt by lofty ridge bent into a oircnlar form endosei 
most of the Grecian cities, and in performing an elevf^ed be^, the famons vale of Aicadia, 
■ nuBsioainTheBsaly, Inordertoobtiunitsreo- the largest of the ancient states. Rve other 
ognition, Felopidaa was treacberoaely seized as ranges, running from the different sides of the 
a prisoner by Alexander of Fhene. A Theban central one to the '6 most prominent pmnte on 
force, in which Epaminondas served as a pri- the coast of the peninanla, enclose plains or 
vate soldier, was sent to resone him, bnt fuled valleys wluch formeriy were the seats of G 
in accomplishing its object in consequence of states : Ach^a in the N., Alalia in the E, 
the alliance of Qie Athenians with the tyrant. Laoonia and Meseenia in the B., and Elis in 
A second expedition nnder the leaderBbip of the W. The mean height of the monntains ii 
Epaminondas socc^eded in releasing Pelopidas, abont 1,200 feet, bnt on the W. side they at- 
who dnring his confinement is said to have tain a height of from 8,000 to 4,600 feet Jit 
treated Alexander with marked defiance. Bnt Oyllene, on the J]', side of Arcadia, risea to 
thepoweroftiie tyrant of Fhene was still pre- the height of 7,788 feet; and Mt Taygetns, 
dominant in llieBasly, and in coDseqnence of the ridge which stretches sonthward from Ar- 
repeatedmisEJonsonthepartoftiieinhaMtants oadiatoOapeUatapanCsnc. SWorvm), is at the 
cconplaining of his cmel^, Pelopidas was de»- highest pomt abont 8,000 feet above the sea. 
patted in 864 into that ootmtry at the head The principal rivers are the Alphens, now called 
of an army. Although the portents were nnfa- the Bonpbia, which rises in Arcadia and flows 
vorable, and his troops were terrified by an W. through Elis into the Ionian sea: and the £a- 
eolipse of the snn, he pressed on. Arriving at rotas, now tJieYasilipotamo, which riseeinthe 
Pbarsalns, he enoonntered Alexander at the N. of Laconia and fiows sonthward into the La- 
head of a larger force than his own, and a oon- oonian gtilfl The climate is mild and the soil 
test immediately ensned as to which shonld gtun frcitftiL The chief prodncUons are com, wine, 
possesdon of the billn cfdled Oynosoepbalfe. oil, and fruits, honey, figs, silk, cotton, and the 
After a severe stmggte, the tyrant was defeat- small raisins called oarrants, which are the 
ed; bnt Pelopidas, seeing Alexander himself, prindpal article of export At present the 
and burning with a deeire to revenge bis im- penJniola is divided into 6 nomee or province^ 
prisonment, mshed to the spot where he was viz. : Argolis and Oorinth, the capital of which 
standing, attended by a few soldiers only, and is Nanplia ; Achaia and Elis, capital Patns ; 
was slain. His death oansed great lamentation Arcadia, of^iital Tripc^tza ; Menenia, oa[dlal 
both amimg the Thebans and ThessaUane, the Kalamata ; and Laoonia, captal Sparta. Itsan- 
latter asking and obtaining p«inis^n to take dent popnlation has been computed at 9,O0IV 

thediiefpartinhisftuiersf FelopidaB,titkotigh 000,irt^ohl8probabl]ran 6zag^ntk>n,tbon^ 
inferior to Epaminondas in military skill and it was certainly mnoh more popnlons and flonr- 
mental power, was nevertheless one of the most Ishing than at present. It contalna many ruins 



of Amoos uident oKiea, among which those oomuTanoe of HippodanuA, and wer« expeUed 

of Sparta, M^ceiue, and Mantinea are the moat hj Felops from tne kingdom. Their goilty 

mtaresliiig. — About 80 ;reara after the &11 of mother fled to Argolig, when ^e died. Pe- 

Troj', Feloponneeoa was conquered hj the Do- lopa wan held ia great veneration after hii 

nans, led hj the descendants of Heiwiles, who death, and a aanotoar; was dedicated to him 

clumed poaaeaaion of the oonntry by aooestral in die I^to Altia at Olympia. 

r^ht. This event ia known in LiatoFT' aa the PElfeBOKE, a seaport and ooonty town of 

r«tam of the Heraclidse. The Doriana eatab- Pembrokeahire, Walea, aitnated on a oreek of 

liahed Beveral states, one of which, Sparta or IClford Haven, 206 tn. yf. from London ; pop, 

Laoonia, became under the inatitations of Lj- in 18C1, 10,107. At the "W. extremity of tiie 

enrgns the most powerM in Greece. A com- rooky ridg« on which the town stutda are the 

lunation of the Feloponnesiaa aUtea against mina of an ancient fortresa, erected in 1098. 

Athens in ttie latter part of the Gth centarjr Pembroke dock ia a government naval eatab- 

B. O. gave rise to the great conteet known aa liahment situated abont 2 m. N. W. from tJie 

the Peloponnesian war. In the decline of town. The dock yard contra an area of 60 

Greece In the Sd cantnry B. 0. a temporary acres, and is enclosed by a lo% atone wall, in- 

hnportasoe waa given to Peloponneana by the aide of which are the public offices, Ac. Tuere 

ActuBaa league, to which a politjcal organ- are 12 biulding sUps. 

ization waa given by Aratoa in 251, and FEUBBOHIB, B""- or. See Hxbbebt, "Ww 

which played a dominant part in the aflitlra luh. ^^ 

of Greece till the conqneat of the oonntry by FEMBE0KE3HIEE, a county of 'Walea, oo- 
the fiomans in 144. On. the divinon of the oupying the extreme S. W. point of the pnnd- 
BonuB empire Feli^tmesna became anbject pality, and bordering on the Bristol ma Irish 
to the emperor of Constantinople ; and on the ohamiets; area, 610 aq. m. ; pop. in 1861, M,- 
decUne of the eaetem empire it was taken 140. The chief towoa are Pembroke, Haver- 
poasessian of by the Venetiana, from whom ford 'West, St. Davida, lEiford, and Tenby, 
the Turks conquered it in the toiddle of the Milford Haven ia the chief port The coast line 
ICth century. The Venetians regained it in la very irr^dar, being indented with nnmerona 
1S99, but restored it to Turkey in 1715. Dor- baya and studded wi£ istanda. The rivers are 
ing tiio Greek revolution of 1831-'8 it was of tittle Importance. The aurface is gener^ 
the theatre of many interesting events, and the nndnlating, with low hills and rich meadows 
result of that straggle left it a portion of the and com fielda. The anthracite coal tract bi> 
present Ungdom ofGreece. (Bee Gbkkob.) Bect« the county. Oopper ore is found, alate 
PELOPS, in Grecian mythology, the aon of and ooal are worked, and the fisheries are val- , 
Tantatos and grandson of Jupiter. Hisbtber, nable. The county and ita towns return ft 
having inrited the gods to a banquet, killed members to filament. 
Pelops, and served ap his rematus at table. PEUISOOT, a S. S. oo. of Uo., in the ex- 
Cerea in a fit of abstraction ate a piece of the treme comer of the state, bounded E. by the 
shoulder; but the rest of the ImmortaU, per- Uiaaiasippi river; area, 800 sq. m.; pop. in 
ceiving whet the diah was, ordered Heronry to 1860.2,861, of whom 268 were alaves. Itssnr- 
reetore the youth to life by pntdng the fleui In face la nearly level, much of it being covered by 
a caldron. Pelopa waa aocordin^y taken out swamps, the laraest of which. Lake Pemiscol 
alive, and in place of the part which Oerea had haa an area of about 76 sq. m. It was formed 
eaten received a shonlder of ivory, whence all ia 18S1 outof NewUadrid co. Oapital, Gayoso. 
his descendants, the Pelopidn, were supposed FEUUIOAK, a preparation of preserved 
to hare one ahonlder remarkably white. Af- meat, made by cutting lean meat into thin 
terward he applied to <E^omaus, king of liaa, atripa, and, after they are thoroughly dried, re- 
for the hand of his daughter Hippodfunia; but dncing the substance to powder and mixing thia 
the king, having been told by an oraole that with melted faL It ia largely used by the 
his son-in-law would kill hhn, refosed unless northern Wf/agetirt, and constitutes an impor- 
Pelops ahonld conquer him in a chariot race, tant item in the anppliea tumished by the Hod- 
declaring however that be would take his life son's bay company to their employees, 
it he faued. Petopa bribed the king's chariot- FUN, an instrument for writing with a fltud. 
eer Uyrtilna to remove the linchpins of the Pena of aome aort have been tn use from very 
royal chariot, and in the race CBnomaos was andent times, adapted to the material upon 
thrown oat and killed. Thevictorthen took whichthewrittencharaotersweretobeimpreas- 
Hippodamiato wife, aasumed the government ed. Uponstone or metallio plates gravers c^steel 
ofn9a,and aoon made himself master of Olym- fervea for writdng, and snob are referred to by 
pia, wherehe restored the Olympic games with Job in speaking tn an "iron pen." For the wax- 
great qtlendor. He had promised Hyrtilns ea tablets of me andents a metallic atylns was 
half the kingdom, bnt after he had guned bis employed, one end of which was sharpened for 
oly'ect threw him into the aea. By ffippoda- marking, and the other waa flattened for eraa- 
mia helisd 16 otuldren, the two eldest of whom, Ingthemarka and amoothin^thewax. It was 
AtrvosandThyestes, beoomingjealouaof Ghn-- also the practice in andent timea, as among the 
sippus, who was their &ther's son by Axiocbe Obinese at the present day, to paint the letters 
or the nymph Danais, murdered him with the witb a fine hair pendL Pens of reeds also 


loo FEK 

were made at a verj earlj period for the am were devised to give in the greatest perfection 

«f a fluid ink npoB papTras. The reed eeleolr the required eltwticitf, and the capadtj- of 

edfor this pnrp&se u deeoribed as small and holding apropersapplyof ink, and of shedding 

hard, and abont the uze of a swan's qaill. It it freely when preyed upon the paper. Most 

was fbnnd in Egjpt and Armenia; and Cairo of these forms were more onrions tnan nseiid, 

and Alexandria were famooe markets in whioh and the manafactnre baa rinoe been chiefly 

it was sold. Along the shores of the Persian limited to the simpler shapes, snoh particalar^ 

gulf reeds are atilT colleot«d for this nse, and aa resemble the form of the old pen cnt from 

an distribnted throughout varioos parts of the goose qnill. The trade centred in Birming- 

Qm eastern oonntries, being better a^pted to ham, whioh supplies many countries In Eoiope, 

Ute ink and paper employed in th&e regions as also the principal demand for steel pens in 

than any other kind of pens. They are pre- the United States. The number of mann- 

pared by leaving them mider dung heaps for ^otorers in that city is reported to be 18, and 

aereral months, which causes them to acquire 8 more are engaged in maJdng pen holders, 

a mixed hlaok and ^Uow color, and a smooth The processes are brought to snoh perfection, 

ta^ hard sur&ce. The pith is dried up by the that better pens are now sold at 12 cents the 

heat generated. The mtrodnotion of paper gross than uiose which were produced in 1831 

rendered neoeesary pens of finer character, at a cost of tS6 the gross. The pricee vary 

and qniDs of the goose and swan next came from 4 cents tlie gross to T6 cents or |1. *" 

those of other birds, as of the crow, were estimated at not less than 1,000,000,000 pens 

found wen adapted. A great trade grew up annually. In the TJnited States aereral at- 

tn these articles, and oontinned for several tempts have been made at different times to es- 

oentdries. Poland and Bnssia were largely en- tablish this mannfaotnre ; but it has been fbond 

gaged in it, and immense floolu of geese were almost hopeless to try to compete with the 

raised in tJiose countries chiefly for uieir qnills. BirmingLun manufacturers, and though large 

In a riiuleyear St. Petersburg has famished to sums of money have been expended, the enter- 

Enfdudovw 27.000,000 qui^. Germany and prises have generally been abandoned. InKew 

theNetherlandshave also been large producers York city a manufactory bin operation, called 

of goose qnUls. From each goose the average fheWashington medallion pen factory, in whidi 
imnd)er ot good quills obtained is only 10 or the processes are cooducted upon the English 
IS, though eometjmea they have amounted to plan. ThesteelsheetsimportedfromSheffield 

without with a tlmi membrane. They are first in dilute sulphuric add, and rolled down to the 

sorted according to the length and tbicknees required thickness. The ribbons of ateel are 

of the barrel into primes, seoonds, and pin- then pouched in a cntter by hand into blanks. 

ions, and are then bnried for a short time In These are next pierced by a^unch in a hand 

hot sand, whioh dries the ontside skin, so that screw with a hole near the pomt and where the 

it Is easily scraped off. and the Inner lining slit will terminate. They are then annealed by 

becomes shrivelled and detached. The pro- leaving them 24 hoors In a pot in the mufSe 

cess is repeated if necessary. This treatment of a ftimace, AAer this they are stamped with 

is called, from having been practised in Hoi- their peculiar device, by means of a hammer 

land, "dutching." After One the quills are worked by a treadle so rapidly that one nri 

hardened by dipping them into a boihng solu- may stamp 90 poaa in an hour. The bla^a, 

tion of alum or of diluted nitric acid, which which are Btill flat pieces, are now shaped hy 

also renders the barret yeUow. A portion of being struck in dies; and after this they are 

the barbs is tiien stripped off, and the ^aiUs are hardened by heating and {Jamnng them into 

tied in bundles fbr the market — ^The unmense oil. When the oil has partluly dr^ed ofi^ 

oonsnmption of qnills [ooved the neceasity of they are Airther cleaned by alkaline washes, 

more durable snbstitntes. In 1808 Ur. "Wise and rolling in a rerolvhig dram with saw- 

of Great Britain prodnced pens of steel of bar- dust and sand. The tempering is effected by 

nil form, monnted in a bone case for carrying placing several thousand t<^ther in an iron 

in the pocket. These were expenrnve and lit- wlinder which a boy keeps taming over a Are. 

tie Dsed. Mr. Gillott of Birmingham com- By frequent trials it is ascertained when they 

tnancedthe monnfooture about the year 1823, have been sufficiently treated, and they are 

and introduced great improvements m the steel then taken ont and t^ad to dry qnickly. An- 

pen, making it of thinner and more elastic steel, other scouring in the revolving drmn succeeds, 

and of higher finish and temper, Ur. Ferry and the color is thus transformed from bluish 

also was among the first large mann&otmrers to nearly a clear white. The pens ore next 

of the artidle ; and by th^ improvemmte the ground on the nib upon emery wheels by (pils, 

cost was so much reduced, that a gross of the who take each one up in a pair of pliers and 

rs, now made irithont the barrel, conld perform tills operation with singnlor rqtidity 

pnndiafied for about the price of one of and exactness, completing about 10 gross in an 

those made by Mr. Wise. Otner makers ano- honr. This, called the "straight grinding," is 

deeded, and a great variety of forma of pen dlstingniahed from the" cross grin<Ung," which 


FDT 101 

is applied to HiebwAftftite pen Mtbia la held who was employed by Mr. Brown. He eon- 
intbe hand, oonsomiiig almost double the time, tmned to make these maolii&ee of vatiou 
The dita are next made by enttera workhig forma and of eztraordmarr perfection from the 
against each other in a aorew press, and the rear 1844, and famiBhed them to Ur. Bag- 
ronghnees thos oooaaioned ia removed by an- ley and Mr. Barney, who ware wall known aa 
other potiahing in the dram, after which the among the early makers of gold pena. To 
pena are browned or otherwise colored by these inventions is chiefly dne the exoellenoe 
beating them to the proper temperatara in a of the gold peas made ia tbla oonntry. lb, 
reTolvmg cylinder over a fire, and immernng Bendell ayatematized the prooeea, giving to 
th^n In a solution ot lao. The last process is each worionan hia peonliar branch, and thos a 
to examine them, reject the imperfect ones, and nioe^and eert^ty of good wwkwere attained 
pack the good ones in small pasteboard boxes by each one which waa essential to the pwfeo- 
for the market — The manu&otnre of pens of tion of the pea. The processes emplt^ed are 
elaatio material fiiTiiiahed wiOi durable points more nnmerona and delicate than one not ao- 
ot some extremely hard snbstance commenced quunted with the manofsctnre wonld readily 
in England with attempts to secnre Mte of l^nagine. In the factory of Mr. Leroy V. Fair- 
metal topena made of pass, tortoise shell, and child in New York they are now oondncted 
horn. IliesebegitmlQgBled atlasttothapro- with the original machines of 1&. Bendell, and 
dnctlonof gold pens, the mano&otore of which tiie Improrements and additions to these made 
ia carried to the highest perfection in New by Mr. Faircblld have materially eontribnttd 
York, ao that the oolr really excellent pen nsed to &o peonliar delicacy, elaeticlty, and flnldt 
in Bivopa ia obtuned troia this country. In of the perfect pen. In 1650 the bnaineea had 
1883 Vr. John Isaac HawUns, an American by grown to anoh importance In this establiab- 
birHi, rending in England, imbedded jdeoee of ment, that a steam en^e waa procured for 
diamMid and ruby in the points of tortoise shell running the machines, the first ^)plioalion of 
pena,' which were softened in water to receive steam power to this purpose. The number <rf 
the stones. The same mannfactorer, hearing pens which saoh a factory may prodnoe d»- 
that bits of an extremely hard naUve alloy of pendg entirely upon the amount of oare and 
iridium and osmium, sent bj Dr. 'Vollaston labor spent on each one. Of the more oom- 
to a penmaker to be used for points, had been men sorts 800 may be made in a day as readily 
returned as too hard for working, obtained as SOO in a week of the best. The following 
these for his own experimento, and was the is a general description of the different opera- 
first to produce the ^nons " diamond points" tions in the order in which they follow each 
Bolde^ed to gold pens. Mr. Mordon, a penoU other. The alloy of gold and silver of 16 oarata 
caee maker in London, also made some gold fine ia melted, and when at the ri^t tempers 
pens ; but the^ were of litUe value, being da- ture to prodnoe the peonliar grain that indioatea 
flcient in elasticity. The mannfiutore ot ttieee gold susceptible of the grsMeat elasticity, it is 
pens made hut alow progrees, great skill, the cast in hot Ingot moulds in cakes of about 20 
reanlt of long ooutintted experiment^ being oz.each. These are then rolled ont into sheets 
neoeaaary to prodnoe the exact Bluq»e anited for 10 or 19 foot in length and oonsiderably thicker 
the required elastidty of the pen, utd to com- than the finished pena. The sheets are Uien 
bine this with the proper die and form of the taken to the stock cutters, and short blanks are 
points. They were moreover ooatJy aa well on pnnched out ttom them bearing some reaam- 
aoconnt(^ the metal empli^redaatlie labor ex- trlance in shape to the pen. Eaon blank is then 
pended in the manufacture, llierl^tomab notched on the under ode ofthe point by a litlla 
gold pens WM purchased of Mr. Hawkina by toothed whed, against which the point ia held 
Mr. Cleveland, an Amraican dargyman then in as tiie pen rests in a seat made for tiie puipoae 
Sngland, who on his retarn induced Mr. Levi in the machine. An iridium point, earemQy 
Brown, a watchmaker in Detroit, to undertake selected with the aid of a microscope from the 
their manufacture. This was about the year stock kept on hand (see Ibisiuk), is then laid in 
1885. The ezperimeut was attended with lit- the notch ; there are sometimes two such points, 
tie success. Mr. Brown removed in 1840 to bnt generally only one, to each pen. A little 
New York and there introdnoed the business, borax is used to secnre It In its place, while by 
which gradually inoreased in importanoe as the thejetof a blowpipe the gold iaaoftened around 
Dualt^ ttf the pens was Improved, and the price Ae point end the metala are welded together. 
ffinUmshed by thdr more rapid production. The point is then applied to a copper emery 
At first the pens were cut with stdssora into wheel and brought to a aqnare evco &o& The 
shape ftom a thin flat strip of gold, and a alit pen ia then brightened up by a wadi of nibio 
being cut in the nib a bit of iridium waa sol- add. In what are called the breakdown rolla, 
derad to each point separately, and the points which are carried half round by a littie lem 
were Oen rounded up uito diape with a mallet held in the hand, the blanka are drawn out to 
upon a stick. The inferior pens tfaua made by the ftall length of the pen. The rolls take the 
hand sold fi>r $6 to $10 each. The first ma- pen by the point, and ae this passes between 
ehina^ and almoat the only important ones in them a spring set in the under one sinks into 
use applicable to the diSbrent branches of this the roll, thus guarding the point agunst the 
trotk, were invented by Mr. John Rendell, pressure which is qi^ied to the rest of the 


pen. The rolling ie repeated In otiher rolls, ^nallr the head of the eBtabliahment nhmlti 

celled ^tniahing rolls, of siinikr constntotion. each pen to thorough trial bj writiogwitii it, 

Thia proo«es learea the pen with no partioidar and otherwise proying its perfection. The pens 

etaMidty ; thia is imparled to the lower end are loade ohienj of B mzes, ratwing from \i of 

b^aaiciatl planishing hsmmer worked bj the auinchto2incheBinlength,aiidthelargerBtze9 

hand, while the pen is held across a little anvil in long nibs and short nibs. 8ome bsrrel pens 

of anrred sorfaoe. The next operatdon ia to alsoaremade,theIongestbeingabontSi inches 

trim the pen, whioh is done in a finishing cnt- long. In New York city there are 7 or 6 &c- 

ter, worked b; a hand lever, similar to t^at in toriea devoted to this manufaetare, some of 

which the blainks are punched. This takes off whioh prodnoe howeyer only cheap pens. In 

a narrow strip round the margin except at the Brooldjn, N, Y., there is one octoiy ; in 

point The name of the maker and sizo and Brooldjn, Oonn., 2 ; in H^densville, Hass., one ; 

number of the pen are now stamped on the and in Oincinuati, one. In the last are made 

back; and the pen is then ready to be "raised," the pens of Dawson, Warren, andHvde, which 

or bent into the partlallj cylindrical form. To rank among the best in the market. — Pens 

insure perfect shape and a permanent set to the have also been made of hardened gntta percha, 

new onrre, it has been fonnd neoeeaary to em- and of caontchono similarly treated ; bnt they 

plo7ftpreaaof great powerand diesof extreme hare not proved of mnoh service. The so 

exactness of figure; and this has perhaps prov- called " Protean foustun pen" contains a snp- 

ed the most difBcnlt part of the whole process, ply of ink in its hollow handle, and the tube 

The lever worked by the foot acte npon another which holds it extends nearly to the point, the 

with SQch increase of power, that the pressure presanre npon which in writing causes the ink 

obtained amounts to over three tons, from this to ooze down to it i ast as it is required. These 

the pen goes to the machine known as the pens are famished with holders suitable for 

*' ouriage cutting point," whore it Is nicely ad- cartying in the pocket, and thus are always at 

Jnsted across a horizontal axis, which is then hand fornsewiththeirownsnpplyDf ink. The 

turned over, bringing the iridinm point npon Introduction of metallic pena has not lessened 

the edge of a thm copper emery wheel kept theprice or the production of goose qnills. 

in rapid rotation. A slit is soon made throngh PENANOB (Lat. paaitrntia, repentance), a 

the iridium, dividing it into two points. In penalty accepted or self-imposed by way of sat- 

another latiio carrTing a cironlar saw only isfaction and token of sorrow for un. Ecolesi- 

half an inch in diameter, made of the finest steel astical pienances were inflicted under the Jewish 

and provided with very sharp teeth, the slit is dispenaation, and we read in the Old Testament 

extended up into the gold as far as is necessary, of mdividusJB and whole dtles <»' peoples fest- 

Baniisbutg ^e nibs, which snoceeds, spreads ing and performing other acts of humiliation. 

the gold, partially filling the vacant space of The idea of penance seems to have been familiar 

the slit, uid the proper elasticity is given to even to hesthen nations, The revolting ans- 

lie lower part of the pen by hammering. The terities practised by the Hindoo devotees, if 

edges ofthe slit are next smoothed and trimmed they can properly becalled penances, are among 

by running into it the edge of a very thin wheel the most strikii^ examplea of this class. In 

of tin fed with the finest emery. By the same the early Ohristim chumi penances were of S 

operator the set Is given to the nibs by bending sorts, secret, public, and solemn. The first 

them in with the fliers till they have each counted of such acaons aa are commonly im- 

a nnlfonn and precise curve. The pen being posed by confessors at the present day, as for 

now held in a steel holder that leaves only the mstance the recitation of certun prayers. 

point projecting, this is applied to the snrfoce of Public penanoe was in use from the earUest 

a revolving cylinder of copper fed with emery, days of the churchy and accompanied the read- 

and the iridium is chamfered on the back and mission to communion of personswbo had been 

' gronud on the under side into a somewhat excluded from it for grievous offences. It was 

hooked or beaked shape ; the edges of the nibs frequently very severe, and the penitents, be- 

are also smoothed and rounded. In another side being required to kneel in vrorship while 

suitable holder the pen is placed to be honed the rest of Jhe faithful were permitted to stand, 

or stoned on the back or convex side prepara- had to make a pnblio oonfesaion of their sins in 

tory to polishing, and in still another the lower the ohnrob. Of solenm penance, which seems to 

or concave side is exposed for the same pur- have originated about the middle of the 3d cen- 

pose. Similar holders are used for the polish- tury, or aoon after the rise of the Novatisn her- 

mg, whioh is done on wheels covered with felt, esy, there were 4 degrees. The first was that 

^ra snmJied with rotten stone. An application of the weepers, who remained at the Aw« of 

of lye IS now made to remove the oil, and the the ohnroh clad in aackdoth and ashes, and 

pen is completed by roughening the concave begged the prayers of the faithftil as they passed 

nrface of tlie mbsto prevent the ink flowing in. The 2d wsa that of the listeners, who were 

too freely. The finisher now takes the pen, re- permitted to enter the vestibule to hesr the 

o^justB the nibs, opens the alit agun on the slit^ reading of the Soriptnrea and the sermon, but 

ter, and smooths and polishes the points by went aw^ before the mass of the catechumens 

delicately touching them to the polishing wheeL oommencad. The proatrate, who belonged to 

This work requires mnoh skill and experience, the Sd class, knelt in the space between the 



doors of the ehnroh and thaomdo, or desk vlwra nunjsniall Btreazoa, bat no river of any great 
the episUe aod goqi«l were read. Thej were rise od the island. The sorboe ia nneren, and 
dismissed at the aame time with the oateohn- Interseoted bj a monntam rauKo, the higheat 
meDB. The 4th degree of penitenta were the point of whidi, West hill, is B,7l8 feet above 
emutftutttt QitersUf, oo-standera), who stood the level of th« aea. These heights terminate 
widk Hm falttkfhl b^ore the altar and remained on the E. and W, in level plains, and the shores 
throagjionttheBerrioe,bnt might nether make are bordered bj a belt of ooooannt treea: that 
oblatiooB with them nor reoeive the enoharist. on the E. aide being more fertile than the W. 
Daring tbe term of peoanoe e^^reasions of J07 plua, which ia swampy. The whole of the 
were to be laid aaida gtj dnoses p nt of^ and ooontry where not ooltivated ia densely wood- 
marriage, &as1ing, hnUihig, and Tsrions bodilj ed, and the forests extend to within a short 
grstifioationa ah£ained Imn. The men were diatanoe of the enmmits of the monntuoa, 
to ont tiieir hair and beards, and the women to which terminate in rooky peaks. The dimats 
appeiae with dishevelled looks. The penitents is, upon the whole, healthy. Tin ore ia said to 
were also expected to abound io good works, be abnndant in the moontuns, bnt the mines 
and be presrait, as far as it was permiCted them, have never been worked to any great extent. 
at erecy r^i^ona assembly. I^e oolleotion of Olovea, tea, cotton, tobaooo, coffee, angar, nnt- 
oanona wUc£ ^^inted the time and manner mega, rice, and nunerona tropical fcmte and 
of penanoes fi>r diSbrent sms was called the vegetables are grown ; and the foreeta yield 
I^nltentiaL 'Whether priests and deeoons were timber of a anperior qnality. Boffaloea, homed 
obliged to sntmdt to the same ceremonies of re- oattle, and pigs are abnndant, and there are 
oonSliation as l^men to not certain. The final some goats, bnt aheep do not thrive. There 
readnuerion of penitents to oommtudon was is a bank of pearl oysters on the E. ooast, 
attended with certain forms, and in ordinary The original inhabitants were a few Malays; 
oases the officiating miniater was a bishop, bnt since the Britiah have been in possession 
though t2ie inferior cler^ oonld admit a peni- of the island, people &om Eindostan, Bar- 
tent from a low degree into a hi^er one. In mah, Siam, Oliina, and all the neighboring isl- 
the eastern dhnrch, the ceremonies of eolema ands have settled upon it, nearly i of the 
penanoe were retained antU abont the close whole being OMneee. In 1854 the total valne 
of the 4th centnry, and in the western ohoroh of the imports waa $2,906,200. — The island 
imlil near the end of the 7th. It gradaslly be- of Penang formerly belonged to the king of 
came enstomary for the blahopa to commnte Qaeda, bnt waa ^ven by him in 1TB5 as a 
the canoniool penances for pious works more marriage portion with his daoghter, who mar- 
agreeable to the spirit of the age, sneh as pil- ried Oapt. Light, the master of a British ship 
gnmagea, works of cliarity, and alms deeds, and trading in the atri^ of Ualaooa. The Englisn 
Uicee in tnm were exchanged for indnjgences. East bidia company aoqiured possession of it 
(See LmiTUiCKOs.) — In the Bomsn Oathollo by purchase from Light, and appointed him 
ohnroh, penance is also the name of one of the governor; and afterward, in ooniaderation of 
7 sacram«ite instituted for the remission of an annnal inoome paid to tbe king, the aover- 
po6t-b*tpt,iBinal sins. It oonjdsts of 8 esaential eignty of the ialana and the oppodle coast was 
parts, oontrition. ooufeeeioa to an anOioriied o^ed to tbem. 

priest, and abaolation, to which may be added PENATES (LaLpemtt, Inmost), the honae- 

adispoedtion on tbe part of the penitent to make hold gods of the Romans, who dwelt in the 

satiabotion to God and man Kir his offenoes. innermoat parts of the house, and were the 

A ali^t penanoe by way of satisfaction Is al- gnudiana of the fiunily. They were of two 

ways eqjcrined npon the penitent by the con- kinds, private and public. The former liad al- 

feosoT ; and thoc^ a wiilmgnesa to reoeive it ways their place at the hearth. In their honor 

fa a reipuKte disposition on the part of the for- a perpetoal &n was kept burning, and at the 

mer, the neglect to AiMl it doea not invalidate departnre or return of any member of the ' 

the sacrament. (See OoimsaioK, AcbiculasJ) honaehold, the Penatea were anlnted in the 

PEKAN&, FiTLoPBirAsa ("Arecaislwid"), same manner aa the other dwellers in the 

or PmsoK or W^Lca'a IsLAm), au idand belong- bonae. The Lares are probably to be numbered 

ing to Oreat Britain, situated in Uie strait of among the Penates, although evidently not the 

Malaooa,extendingfr<nnlat 6° 16' to 0° 80' N., only Penates, asafamilyrarely had more than 

and from long. 100° 6' to 100° 3C' E. ; extreme one Lar, while the Penates are never spoken 

lengtii 15 m., breadth 12 m. ; area, 160 sq. m. ; of in the dngnlar. YaiTO says that the nom- 

pop. in 1856, S9,6S9. Georgetown is the oui- ber and names of the latter were indefinite, 

tal, and seat of government of the Britiah atruts The pnblic Penates of Some, depicted as two 

settlementa, which comprise Penang, the prov- young men holding lances in their hand, had 

inee of Vellealey, Malacca, and Singapore. The a sanotnary near the centre of the city in a 

ohannel dividing the island troai the munland spot called nib Velia. Baorifloeswere made to 

is navigable fbr large vesselB, and varies in them by generals when departing on their 

breadth from 8 to 7 m., the harbor of George- campaigns, and by oonsala, pnetors, and die* 

town being Uie N. port of it. The fbrm of tstors when t^ey gave np th^ office. 
Penang is Tery irregular, and the coaats are PEN'OIL, a delicate bmah made from the 

bold and indented by several bays. There are fine hairs of various (mimalii, eepeciaUy the 



, D-' -^ ■ . tl by ar- sohoola. . „-— 

Usts for lft;ing on their colon. The beirt, and Lezin^n ridlroad, which ptwes through 

being Belected, are urasged in a little roll, and the MpitaljFalmoiith. 

a imng is tightlj bound arotnid the end oon- PENDLETON', Eniiinro, an American states- 

methig of the roots. The point* are also tem- man and jorirt, born in Vi^inia, Sept, », 1T21, 

poiwrl? boond together. The roll is then in- died in 180B. He began his career as an ap- 

trodnced into the largo end of a quill tube, prentioe In the derk's office of Caroline co., In 

which has been softened hj moistnre, and is 1740 was made derk of the ooontj eonrt mar- 

f ashed throogh till the larger end is arrested tial, and In 1741 was licensed to practise law. 

7 the narrowneta of tlie apertnre. Ab the In 1?61 he became one of the county Justices, 

qnill dries, the increased pressiire caused by ila and in the foUowing year was elected to the 

contraction holds the hnrs securely in Qieir honse of bnrgesses. These posts he continned 

place, the points projecting through to make to fltl nntil 1774, at which tune he presided In 

the pendl or bmsh ; bat it is essential that the Oaroline court, and discharged the trust of 

preesore shiiald not be so great as to make the eoimty lientenant. He was elected to the co- 

points spread ^>art when ttiese are untied. The lonial convention of 1774, consequent on the 

ioeet pemnls require very careful selection and Boston port bill, and chosen by that oonTen> 

arrangement of the hairs, and much expeilence tion to tlie first congress. He aooordisgly 

for obtaining a ronnd and even point. The attended In Philadelphia in 1774, end again in 

holder of the pencil is made by inserting a 177B, in company with Peyton Bandolph, 

H^t std<& into the large end of the qoilL The 6e<H^ Washin^rton, Patrick Henry, Benjamin 

q^lls used raiy in size according to the kind Harrison, and Richard Henry LeeL In 1775 

of pendl, from that of the wing of the crow he prerided orer tlte colonial conTention, and 

to uiat of a swan ; larger penoila than these are was appointed president of the committee of 

made by the nse of a socket of sheet tin. — A safety. In Hay, 1776, he again presided in tbe 

lead penoO is a sort of crayon used in drawing, conTention, and drew up the celebrated resoln- 

made of slips of the mineral graphite or plnra- tion of that body, instructing the delegates 

bsffo, as described In the article QraJhitz. from Yiivinla to propose in conerees a deda- 

Oolored pencils are also prepared by the nee ration of indepenaence. After the inaugura- 

of various coloring substances in the place of tion of the commonwealth he was cdled to 

Epbit^ as reddle, a red ochre for red pencils, preside over the first house of delegates, and 

The ooloring substance is reduced to waBappoint«dbytbatbody,incoi]Junctionwith 

powder, formed into a paste with gum Arabic, Chancellor Wyttio and Mr, Jefferson, to rerise 

and moulded into hollow cylinders of wood, the colonial laws. In Uarch, 1777, by a fell 

Fendls for the slate are abipa of slate itself of his horse, he received an iigury of tiie liip 

made round and smooth. Artificial onea hare Joint which made him a cripple for life. In 

been made of the powder of slate moulded the same year he was nnanimonsly reelected 

with TuloaniEod India rabber ; butpendia into speaker of the house of bui^^esBes. On the or- 

which this materisl enters have always the un- ganlsatlon of the chancery court that year be 

pleasant odor of the Tulcanised rubber. was again nnanimouHly elected its president; 

PENDL^rOIf . I. A central co. of Ta., en- and when, in 1770, the court of appeals wss 

dosed between two ranges of the Allegbanies, constituted, he dso became its preddant. This 

and intersei^ed by the south branch of the Po- last responsible position he held till his death, 

tomao river and two of ita tiribntaries ; area He was elected to the stat« convention of 1788, 

about 800 so. m. ; pop. in 1860, 9,136, of whom in which was to be considered the proposed 

244 were slaves. Its snr&oe is monntainoos constitution of the United States, and was ap- 

and covered with forests, and the soil not very pointed to preside over its deliberations. In 

fbrtile. The productions in ISfiO were 100,888 thosedeliberationg he took a leading part, and, 

budids of Inoian com, 44,187 of wheat, 20,980 by a masterly advocacy of the great nationsi 

of oats, 7,0M tonsof hay, 20,107 lbs. of wool, compaot,JnsdSed the high encomium of Jefibr- 

and 69,803 of bntter. There were SO grist son : " Taken all in all, be was the ablest man 

mills, 40 saw mills, 7 wool-oarding mills, 7 tan- bi debate I ever met with." 

neries, 12 dinrohes, and S90 pupils attending PENDLETON, Bxsst, an American Jurist, 

pnblio sdiools. Oapital, f^«nklln. II. A for- bom in Virginia about the middle of the 16th 

merdistrict of B.O.,intiieN.'ff.comerofthe century, died in South Carolina in 1788. He 

state, now indnded in the two districts of Pick- emigrated to South Carolina before the revoln- 

ens and Anderson. HI. A N. co. of Ey., bor- tion, and In April, 1776, was elected to the 

dered N. E. by the Ohio river, and interseot«d Judidary of the colony. When the state was 

by the Licking; area, 800 sq. m. ; pop. in 1860, overrun by the British in 1780, he took up 

10,449, of whom 4B4 were slaves. It baa an arms on the patriotic side, and served until the 

undulating and well wooded surface and fertile dose of the war, participating in the final battle 

sdL The prodnotionB in 18C0 were 429,855 of Eutaw Springs. In 1783 he resumed bis 

iKidielsof Indian com, 44,307 of oats, SSb!8S7 judidal duties, and wss the author of the 

lb*, of tobacco, 20,163 of wool, and 858,827 of oountyoonrt act of South Carolina. Inl7BChe 

bntter. There were B grist mills, 2 saw mills, was one of the 8 Judges appointed to make a 

14 ohnrdies, and 880 pnpila attending pnblio digest of tbe laws of Uie state, ud in 1788 he 



was ft member of the ooiiTentlonwM(dkTiliA«d the Urd etacds; the bonea ire heavy, filled 
the o(nutitation of the United Statee. with marrow, and without air oaTitieB. The 
FENDTTLTTIL Bee Oixmkb asd Watohxb, Patagonian pen^ina of Shaw and Pennant 
and Ukohahio^ toI. xJ. p. 8S4. were difibrent birds to whiob the aanie name 
PEKDTTLTJU, Buxibtto. Bee Ouhnuci:. had been pven ; to avoid confiudoa O. R. Gray 
PENEUDPE, a gallinaoeona bird. SeeOvAn. oalla one the emperor and the other tbeUng 
PKHELOPE, the wife of Tllyssea and mother pen^oin, or A. Fontori aud A. Pmnantii, In 
of Telemaohtu. Bhe was the daughter of loa- the former the loigth is 60 inches and the bill 
rina, and having many enitors, her &ther prom- S, in the latter 44 and 4^ ; the general color of 
ised to ^ve her to the one who ahonld oonmieT both ia alate above and while below, with the 
in afoot raoe. TbeviotorwaaUlysaeeiandwlien bead and throat blaok, the latter in the first 
her &ther nrged her to remmn with him and ^ledee divided in front by a point of the white 
not aooonuiaiv her hoaband to Itbaoa, the feathers (tf the ohest, and in the Sd ending in a 
hero gave oer leave to do aa she pleaaed. She blnnt pcdnt ; there ia an orange yellow stripe 
indicated her resolntion to go with him by on the sidee of the head, dMoaoding and paas- 
eorering her &oe witb a veil to hide her ing gradnally in Mbtb former and andden^ in 
btoahea, wherenpon loarina erected a etatne of (he latter into the white of the chest. The 
Kodee^ on. the spot. WhQe Ulyaeee waa at ptmnage ia eolt and close, with a silvery gloss 
the nege of Troy, she was eorronuded by many below, this part b^ng used by for dealers for 
imporbmate suitors, whom she deceived byde- ttppeta and collars ; the neck ia short and stont 
claiing that ahe most finish a robe whidi she the akin hard and thick, and the bi^y loaded 
woa weaving before ahe oonld make np her with fat They are foand in immense nnmbers 
mind. Bat she nnravelled each night all that abont the stralta of Magellan, the Falkland 
she had done daring the day ; and when at laat ialanda, and the western gronp of the 8. Padflo 
the snitors dtaeovered her atratagem, Ulyaaee idanda ; Ih^ gronp themaelvea, when on shore 
onxntnnely arrived after 20 years' absence and (which is only dnrmg the breediiu; season), in 
UDed them all. She waa regarded aa a model regular ranka like soldiers, olasaed atrictly ao- 
of ft chaste, bithfnl, and indosfariona wift, ocnrding as tb^ are young, monlUng, Inonbat- 
thon^ some writers later than Homer give her ing, or with perfect phunage, those ^ one olaas 
a very di^rent chanuter, alleging that oy Her- not bung permitted to intmde npon aaodter. 
eorj or by all the snitors together ahe became They present a strange appearance as they ait 
the mother of Fan, and waa r^ndiated by her upright ; they employ their winga like anterior 
bnaband on hia retnm from Troy. limba on land, crawling along cm the belly 
FENQTJIK, a snb^milT of web-footed, im- pretty fast to and from their breeding place* 
perfteUy winged birda, mhabttlng the seas In the manner of qnadmpeda ; they are exoel* 
artmnd the roa^ooasts^ islands, and ioe Adds lent swlmmen, and fly awiftly under wat«-, 
of the eoQthemPaiMe ooeao, and the extreme naing th^ winga as fins, and breaating the 
portaone <rf Sooth .imwica and AMoa — the most violent waves ; thongh stupid and nther 
mandtoU of the French. Some of the earlier helpleea birds, they often boldly attack intm- 
wrlte ra give this name to the auk (aUa, linn.) ders on their breeding plaoe^ inffiotlng severe 
of the arotio seaa, but it will here be restricted wounds with their eharp billa; the food is 
to ita more modem t^Uoation to the antaretio principally animal, oonsiating nt fishes and 
snVfiumfy. — ^In the g«nis Oftmiodytet (Forst.) onrtaoeani. The egga are laid on the ground 
the bill ft dender, Iraiger than the head, onn- or in hcdea, and tm hatched by keeping them 
pressed on the rides, and ali^dy ourred at the dose between flie thi^ ; the males ooHeot 
point, which is aonte; the vfpec mandible k fbod for the females, which beoome very fat 
clothed with abort dose-set pnimes as far as the during incubation; the young birda also get 
nortiils, which are in alaterd groove in the mid- verynt before they quit the breeding plaoei^ 
die of uie bill, and the lower la covered with a which are covered with ezcrementa and re- 
smooth naked skin ; the wings are very small, mains tX dead birds, aocumnlated into heaps 
fin-shaped, without quill feathers, having only of guano during many snooesaive years. The 
short imbricated plumes with flattened uisfts, flew of the penfoin, thon^ black and fiahy, ia 
and are unfit for flight ; the taU is very short, considered eatable by hungry mariners.— In the 
flat, of narrow rigid feathers ; the tarsi very gentu eatanliaetM (BriasI) the bill ia moder- 
short and flattened ; the toes abort and de- ate, strong, oompreeeed, grooved on the ride& 
pressed, the anterior united by a web, and the and allghuy howed at the tip, with the end <a 
hind one very small and almost entirely con- the lower mandible tmneated ; the tall is long, 
nected to the inner aide of the tarsus; the of narrow ri^feathen; the toee are long and 
dawa large, fiat, and slightly curved. Aa in stnmg. Several apedea ere deacribed, inhabit- 
tiie other genera, the breast bone ia deeply In- ing in small parties the southern ocean, in opm 
cised behind on each ride ; the acapnia ia uuve water or on fields of ice, sometimoB more than 
and broad, aoii flat behind ; the bonea of the 800 m. fmn land \ they go to the shore only 
forearm and arm are very flat, the former mafc- In the breeding seaaon; they are more active, 
ing with the latter a rather obtoae an^ ; the if possible, than the preceding genua, and awlm 
feet are Terr far back, and the whole posterior and dive with great quickness ; their cries are 
ssi^oe of the tarsus toudiee the ground when harsh and disoordsnt, resembling the br^ of a 


106 FEHir TnilAU FEN2T 

dookej. lli« created pengnin (0. tihrytotomt, retnRi in the sama year vaa elected momber 

Gmel.) is u large aa a atoat doi^blau above of parliament from Wejmoiith, bnt was for a 

and TrMte below, with a ^r^i'viut white oreet tdme confined in the tower on the charge of 

on each side oi the bead, and red bill and feet ; having abaented himself from his oommand 

it inhabita tiie ▼iduit7 of the Falkland itlands withont leave. In 1660 he was made eommis- 

and Tasmania. — ^lo the genna (pAmJtMM (Briaa.) sioner of the navy, governor of Einaale, vioe- 

tlie biU is nmob aa in tiie last, with a more admiralof Mimster, andamemberof Qieoonn- 

booked tip and the nostrila imooTered in the cil of that province. He was also kniglited. 

middle of the lateral groove; the tail and tand Entering the naval serviM agun in 1614, be 

are verf short, and the toes and olavs long, was oqitain-oommander under the duke of 

The speoies are few, foimd aboot the rool^ Tork in the victory guned over the Bntoh off 

islands of the sonthem ooean, and on tbe W. Loweatofie in 1666. In 1600 he left the naval 

coast of South America and AMoa ; thehabita Bervioe,lnitreteinedhiaotberoffioeanntil 1609, 

are the same aa in tlte preceding genera. The when be went into retirement altogether. He 

Cape or Jaokaae pengida (iSl dBtaemu, linn.), was the author of several tracts deeigiied to 

frcon tbe Oape Of Good Hope, is black above imwive the naval servioe. 

and white below, with a wliite stripe over the PENlf, Wuxuh, an English Quaker, tbe 

eyes, the throat black, and a black line on tbe fbnnder of Fennaylvania, bom in Londixk, Oct. 

breast oontintied along each flank; the bill is 18, 164^died at Bnscombe, Berkshire, JiUy 80, 

brown, with a white band across the middle of 1716. He wae tbe eon of Admiral Pciio. who, 

its length: tbe length ia 21 inches; ita common notwithstanding bis hostile prcrfbssional rela- 

name is derived from the resemblance of its tions with the Dutch, took to wife a woman (£ 

v(doe to a bray, Itoomes tothaanr&oe of the that nation, Uargaret,dangbtOT of John Jaspw, 

water to breatlie vrith snob a spring and dives a merchant of Botterdam, to whose noble and 

again so qnickly, that it seems more like a flab religiona oharaoter and lodioiona government 

leaping for sport than a bird ; it seems per- the son owed many of tne excellent traits by 

feotly at home in this element. Hamboldt's wbiob he waa through life distiugaished. Wil- 

pengiun {8, HvniholdH, Ueyenl common on liam Penn received his first education at the 

the coast of Peru, resemblee the IssL but is free grammar achool of Chigwell, Essex, where 

larger; it u readily tamed, and follows its he experienced strong reli^oos impressions. 

master abont like e. dog. The Uagellaoio pen- When only 11 years of a^e be was the snUect 

gain (8. MageUafUevi, Forst) is 3 feet long, of de^ ezerdaea of spirit, which in tbe Ian. 

and sometimes weighs SO or 80 Iba, ; the gen- gnage of the time are represented almost ae 

oral color is black al>ove and white below, with miracnlons. Wbile alone In Ma chamber he 

white streaks on the sides of tbe bead and a thnoied himself snrronnded by an external 

black band on the breast ; it is fonnd abont the brightmees which seemed to answer to a myete- 

Bonthem parts of South Ainerica, and is well rions motion within, and be regarded himself 

known to navigators, who have Ions been in aa called by this experience to a consecration 

the tiabit of invading its breeding places, and of heart and life to tbe service of God. At 

UlllnE the birda for food or for sport. the age of 13 he waa removed from OhtgweU 

PEkS, Obanville, an English autbor, bom to receive privato instmction at home, and 3 
Dec. 9, 1761, died at Btoke Park, Bnokingbam- years later entered Christchnrcb college, Oz- 
shire, Sept S8, 1844. He was the gnuidaon of ford, where he numbered among his companions 
William Penn, served for a time as chief clerk John Locke. While in college, Fenn, tnrongh 
JntbeBritiHhwarofflce, andby tbadeathof his theinfinenoe of Thomas Loe, became a convert 
brother (1B84) came into tbe poeseasion of the to Qnakeriam, and not only refOsed to conform 
4unily estates. He wrote " Oritioal Bemorka to the worship of the establidied church ta to 
on Iraiab vii 18;" "Eemarks on tbe Eaetem wear the surplice of a student, which be oon- 
Ori^natjon of Uankind, and of the Arta of sidered a relic and emblem of popisb ecpersti- 
Oaltivated Life;" "A Comparative Estimate of tion, but, with some of his companions who 
tbe lOneral and Mosaic Gencalo^es ;" "Hemo- had embraced his principles, assaulted several 
ri^ of tbe Professional Life and Times of Ad- of the stsdente in public and stripped from 
miral Sir William Penn" (London, 1888), and them their robes. For this outrage he was ex- 
many other works, the most important being a polled, and on bis return home his father, a 
translation of tbe Kew Testament with anno- worldly and ambitious man who was aiming at 
t«tlons under the title of " Tbe Book of the a peerage, and was greatly vexed and mortified 
Hew Oovenant"i(2 vols., London, 1880). by his eon's &nalio^ ossodationa bdA condnct, 

FENIf, Sm WiLLUK, an English admiral, beat him and drove him from the house. A 
bom in Bristol in 1021, died in Wanstead, £s- reoonoUiation however soon took place, and in 
sex, Sept. 10, 1070. He early entered the naval 1002 the admiral sent bis son to Franoe, in 
service, asd before he was 32 years old had hopes that the gayety of Paria might counter- 
gone through the gradee of captain, rear ad- act the BobcmoBB of bis Quakerism. Theyonth, 
miral of Ireland, admiral to the straits, vice- however, had no taste for the disaip^on (tf 
admiral of England, and general. He was one tbe French capital, and preferred to stndy the- 
of the commanders in the expedition Uiat took oIckt at Bamnni' with the fimiona Oalviidalia 
Jamuca from the Spaniardain ISSfi, and on bia divine and professor Moses Amyrault. Aitor 



toATeSfatguftrHTorinlieinaTOoaQedlicfflw wajotli&aitiBaln&on. Fr«BentadtoFrinoM, 
by bis fi£her iiil6ft4, and is tlma mentioned by IMests, and People, that the; ma; repent, be- 
Pepya in Ills diftir, under date of Aog. 26: liere, and obey. By WiUiam Peon, wbom XK- 
" Mr. Penn, Sir William'a aon, ia come back vine Love oonatrfuna in an hoi;- contempt to 
from Franoe, and oome to viut mj vife: a trample on £g7pt'egloi7,tiot fearing tbeSJng'a 
moot modish pwaon, (crown, Ae Bays, a fine wrauu haTJng beheld uie Udesty of Him who 
gentlemao." WithontloBing his reli^ons seri- la inviHble." Thla was followed by a oon- 
onsneaa, he had acquired on the oontlnent more aiderable nnmber of tracts on similar topics, 
poliah and ooortesy and livelineaa of manners, which with his other writings hare been ool- 
In compliance witti his Other's wishes he en- looted and pnbliahed l^ Joseph Beese (3 vols. 
t»«d as a student of law at Lincoln's Inn, but foL, London, 17SS), In 166S be published 
shortly after, Jost as he became of age, waa " liie Bandy Fonndation Shaken," an attack 
driren bwa London by the great plagne of npon "thoseso generally believed and sppland- 
1606. Under the influence of that terrible ea dootrinee of one God sobsisting in three dis- 
TiaitstioD bis religions inipreesions acquired re- tlnct and separate persons; of the impossibility 
doabled foroe ; and when ids father returned of God's pardoning doners without a plenary 
&ainseainl666,hofonndhisBODmoredemare aatjabotion ; and of the jnstifioalion of impure 
in looks and formsl in language than ever be- persons by an impntstiTo righteousness." This 
fore. He made another effort to change these work caoeed a great exdt€^ent by its bold op- 
tendenoies by sending the yonng man to Ire- portion to the commonly received doctrine of 
land, and oommittingto him the management of the Trinity, and Penn w^ apprehended and im- 
tvo large estates which he owned in the conn- prisoned in the tower for 9 months, during 
tyofOork. PMin readily assumed this oharae, which hewrotehisprindpal and most popular 
md executed it to the entire satis&ction of nis theolofpoalvor^ "No Gross, No Grown j adia- 
fittbcr; bnt enoonnterlnff again at Oork his oonrseshowingtheKatureandDiscnpUneofthe 
former teacher, Thomas Loe, he was induced Holy Cross of Ohrist" By the interference of 
to attcmd Quaker meetings, at one of which, the duke of York he was at length released and 
Sept. S, 1667, he waa apprehended with others permitted to live in his father's house, though 
and carried befbre die m^or, on a charge of the admiral would not admit him to his presence. 
att«ndiDg unlawful assemblies. Befludng to He had however such confidence in bis son's 
give bonds for his future goo4 behavior, he waa integrity, that be gave him through bis mother 
sent to prison. He wrote^ however, to the a commission to go again to Ireland to look after 
lord prendent of the oooncU of Kunster, with his estates. On his retora Penn was reconciled 
whom be was personally acquainted, who pro- to his father, and lived with hin) on good terms 
cared his immediate dis<jiarge. From this tune till ^e latter's death in Sept. 16T0, though b»- 
he Identified bunself with the Quakers in every fore tiiab event the son had once more been 
thing ezoept costume, and on returning toEng- committed to prison with another Quaker for 
land-soon after became involved in disputes preaching in the streets. He wasnot, however, 
with his ftther, who wss greatly shocked at convicted ofthecharge,thejury,BfterBremark- 
Ua departure firom established forma, but finally able trial (during which they were kept for two 
o^rea to compromise the matter by tolerating days and nights without food, fire, or wster), 
every other pecnliarity if his son wonid only bnnging in a verdict of not guilty, for whiui 
agree to remove his hat in his presence and in each Juryman was fined 40 marks and sent to 
that of the king and the duke of York. Penn Newgate ; while Fena and Ms companion were 
before answering retired to hia chamber, and also &ied and impriaoned for contempt In wear- 
after deliberation and prayer declared that he ing their hats in presence of the court, Th^ 
ooold not remove hie hat by way of oompU- appealed to the court of common pleas, where 
meat to anyone. His father at once turned thedeoisionoftbelowercourtwasreversedgand 
him out of doors. This persecution confirmed the great principle of English law established 
Penn still more in his Quokcriem, and he soon tbat it la the right of the Jury to judge of the 
became a prominent preacher at the meetings evidence independent of the dictation or direc- 
of the Friends. Throogh the inflnence of his tion of the court. The admiral bequeathed to 
mother Iiis father's indignation was so t&r soft- his son on estate of £1,500 a year, with large 
ened that he permitted his son to return home, claims against the government ; and thcnceforut 
and used his interest with the government to the cares of busineas and the daties of his lay 
relieve bi'm &om the persecutions to whioh his ministry seem to have equally divided the time 
attendanoeattheproMbitedmeetltigsft^qnent- of Penn, InUoroh, isfl, while preaching In 
lysuttjeotedblni. In 1689 Penn m»de his first ameetioghooseinLondon, he was arrested and 
^>pearanca as an author bv issuing a cmde and committed to the tower, and was soon after- 
aerimonions tre^ise entiued "Tmtii Exalted, ward tried under the conventicle act, but ac- 
in A abort but sure Testimony against all those quitted for want of testimony. The magie- 
Teligk>us Faiths uid Worships that have been ti'ates, however, required him to take the oath 
fbnued and fbUowed in the darkness of Apos- of alle^ance, which he refosed to do from con- 
t^y; and for that Glorious Ught which is now acientionascrcples about swearing, and was con- 
risen and shines forth in the life and Doctrine sequently sentenced to Newgate for 6 months, 
of the despised Quakers as the alone good old 'WbUe la prison he wrote and published 4 trea- 



tiMa, one of tliem entitled " The great Case of onAj to his dotlea aa governor, and made traa- 
Xibert^ of Oonadmee," which is a good com- tiea witb 10 Indian tribe* ; and so long aa an; 
prehemriTe statement of the principle of reH- of the aboripnea remained in PenntjlTania or 
giooa toleratitai, then so little nnderstood. On its neighborhood, th^rtraditioiia bore testimoD; 
reg^niiiK his liber^ he made a tour in Hoi- to the strong Impreunon wbioh the justice and 
land and Germain, interceding with the mlera benerolenoe of Hignon as the Delawares called 
of those ooontries in behalf of the pereeonted him. or of Onaa aa he was styled by the Ito- 
Qoabira, and on his retam home in the h^tit' qnois, made on their savage hearts. Fenu vis- 
uing of 1672 married Onlielma Ham Springett, ited Kew York and New Jersey; and after 
daQghter of Bir William Bpringett, and went to meeting with the general assembly of the prov- 
resideatBiokmansworthinEertfordBhire. The luce at Hew OasUe in Uay, 1684, he intimated 
next few years were devoted to preaching and bis govamment to a cotmcil, and in Angaet 
to defending by his pen the doctrines of the termmated his first visit to America by s^ing 
Qnakers from vorions assailants, in reply to for England, leaving behind him a prosperoos 
whom he pnblished a nnmerons series of hbo- colony of 7,000 people. Dnring Us abeence 
riooB tracts and Iwoks. In 1674 his attention the Qnakers bod suffered severe persecntion in 
was colled to the Quaker colonies in Kew Jer- i&igland, and Penn's first care was to intercede 
sey by a dispute between Fenwi^ and Byllii^^ in th«r behalf with the king, frran whom he 
both Qnakers, about their proprietarr nglM in obtained the promise of ^ilire relief for Uiem 
thacolony. TbecasebeingEDbmittedtoFema'8 at an early period. Oharles II. died Feb. 11, 
arbitration, be decided in favor of Bylling& 108C. JamesU, who sacMeded, had been the 
who snbaeqnently, being too mnch emtiarrassed pnpil in naval a^irs of Penn's &ther, and was 
to improve hia property, made it over to Penn his own intimate fHend. Fenn took lodgiDss 
and two of hu crecOtoTB aa tnuteea. Pennim' at £enungton to be near the eonrt,nponwhidi 
me^ately engaged with zeal in the work of colo- be constantly attended, and where he had encb 
nization, and at length in 1681 obtidned from infiuence that his house was thronged by hnn- 
the crown, in payment of a debt of £16,000 dne dreds of snitors asking his intercesdon in th^ 
to his father, a patent for the territory now behalf. His intimacy with the king led to ibol- 
fi)rming the state of Pennsylvania. The char- ish stujiidonB that he was secretly a Jesoit, and 
ter vested the perpetnal proprietaryship of this in April, 1686, he published a pamphlet entitled 
vast region in nim and his neira, on the fealty "Fiction Ponnd Qnt," to rebut the charge. In 
of the annual payment of two beaver skins. 1S86, partly throngh his infinenoe, a proclama- 
Ee designed at first to oall his territory New tion was issned bj the king and conncil for the 
Wales, and afterward suggested Sylvania as ap> release of those imprisoned on acoonnt of re- 
plicabJe to a land covered with forests ; bnt ligiou, and upward of 1,200 Quakers were set 
the secretary who made out the patent insisted tree. This was followed in April, 1687, by a 
on prefixing "Penn" to 8yl»8nia. Fennofibred proclamation declaring liberty of conscience to 
him 20 guineas to leave off hia name, and, the all, and removing all tests and penalties. Fenn 
offer being reinsed, complained to the king, who meanwhile made a tonr on the continent, dur- 
iosisted that Pennsylvania shonld be the deug- ing which by order of the king he had a coo- 
nation, in honor, as he swd, of his late friend ference with William, prinoe ot Orange, whom 
the adiuiral. In Feb. 1682, Fenn became, with . he endeavored to convert to his views of ani- 
11 others, ft joint pnrchaserof East Jersey, which versal toleration. Soon after the revolution of 
was already a flonrishing colony. Aided by 1Q68, and the accession of WUliam to the 
the advice of Sir William Jones, and of Henry, throne of England, Fenn was called before the 
the brother of Algernon Sidney, he drew up connctl to answer to a charge of treason ; bnt 
a liberal scheme of government and laws for no evidence appearing against him, he was dis- 
hla coiony, and in Aug. 1082 embarked for the charged. Soon afterword, a letter Irom the 
Delaware, reaching that river after a voyage exiledjamesreqnestinghim to come to France 
of weeks. He was received by the settlers having been intercepted, he was again arrested 
with great enthudasm, and after several meet- and brought before the conncil in presence of 
ings for conference and treaties with the Indians, TTfag William ; but after a long examination, 
he held his famous treaty with them under a in which he declared his friendship for James 
large ehn free at Shackamaxon, now Kenaing- though he did not approve his policy, and said 
ton, probably on the last day of Nov. 1682. A heconld not prevent nim from writing to him, 
numerous aasembly of the I)dawares, Uingoea, he was discharged. A third time, in 1690, he 
and other Susquehanna tribes met on this occa- was arrested on a charge of con^iracy, tried 
mon, and fbnned with the Qnakers a treaty of by the court of king's bench, ana acquitted, 
peace and friendship, the only treaty, says Vol- Bnt in the following year the charge waa re- 
taire, "neverswom to and never broken." Soon newed by an informer named Fuller, whom the 
afterward he laid out the plan of Philadelphia, house of commons afterward branded as a 
to which he gave its name in the hope that cheat, a rogue, and a false accuser ; and to 
brotherly love might characterize its inhabit- avcdd arrest he concealed himself^ though not 
ants. Ho purchased the Iimd where the city verydosely. MeantimePenuBylraniahadbeen 
stands of the Swedes, who had purchased it greatly disturbed by civil and religious quar- 
of the Indians. He now devoted himself zeal- rels, and such representatjons of the state of 


STB hit «anwat atU^raon to Tsrions r^ tegii^ altogether proof against tlio temptati<mB 
and cepeeiBlb^ to the am^oration of to vUoh it vas exposed In that Bpleudid and 
uUtion of the Indiana and negroes. Qs polite, but deeplr corrupted eooiotririth which 

wmiAU pEini 100 

the eolony irere ttude in Eni^d, that In OoL that Penn was vitbont donbt a num of eminent 

1692 the king and qoeen depriTod P«nn of Tirtaea; thathehadaatrongsenseof rellnoiu 

hia antfawi^ as goremor, and directed Got. doty anJd a fervent degire to promote the n^>- 

Fletoherof NevYorktota^enponluniBelfthe pineeBof mankind; that on one or two points 

adDuniatoatioD 9t FennB^lTania. PownrM of h!^ importance he had notiouB more correct 

frienda, amons them Loolie, !nUotaon, and the than were, in hia ia,j, common even among 

dnkd of findon^iam, now intei«eded In hia men of enlarged mii^: and that he will al- 

bebalf with the king: and he had a hearing wajs be mentioned with honor as a founder 

before the oonmul on t^e chaima against Iiim, of a colony who did not in hia dealings with a 

and was honorably aeqaitted in Not. 1698. sarage people abase the strength demed from 

Bhorlly afterward, in Feb. 1094, his wife died, dvilmdon, and as a law^ver who, in an age 

and he bore testimony to her Tirtnonalife and ofperae(intion,made religions liberty theoomer 

Christian death in "An Aeoonnt of the Blessed stone ot a polity, the diatingniahed historian 

End of my dear wife Gnll^ma Uaria Penn," alleges that "his writings and his life fitmish 

Witliin two years he married a second wife, abundant proo& that he was not a man of 

FT«iiii«ti CUIowhill, a Qoaker lady. His gov- strong sense. Ha had no skill in reading the 

enunM^wasres' ' ' " '" ' '""' "' "^ — ' " " "^ — "' "' ' 

in Srot- 18», 1 __ . _. 

Amariea, accompanied by his wife and dangh- great erroia and ndafortonee. His enthosiasm 

ter. Hefomiduieo<donyinaproBperoaBO(ai- for one great principle acnnatimes impelled him 

dition, ita tronblea baring nbdded, and was to riol^ oOier neat prindplee which he 

v^^nly reeetred by the petmle. He Immedi- ought to have held sacred. Hor was his in- 

atoly gave his « ■ -"-■ *- ■ ' .-_.^-. .^ -___,-_.,v ._^.___ 

forma, and eepc . . 

the eontUtion of the Indiana and negroes. Qs polite, but deeply corrupted society with which 

plana, howsrer, were arrested by tidings from ne now mingled Unhfqtpily it cannot 

KngUnil that a measore was pending before be oonoealed that he bore a ehlei ^ut in some 
the honae of lords fer bringfaig all the jvoprie- transactions condemned, not mwely by the 
tary gorernmenta nnder the erown. This led rigid code t^thesociety to whioh he belonged, 
him to retnm to England in 1701. One erf hia bnt by the general sense of all honest men. 
laat ofBdsl aota beiore he embarked was to He afterward solemnly protested that his 
make Hiiladel^ia a dty by a charter signed hands were pnre from iUtdt gain, and that he 
Oct. 85, 1701. Boon after his arrival in Eng- never reodved any gratidty from those whom 
land the projoot of bringing the proprietan he had obliged, thoogh he might eadly, while 
Kovenunenta under the crown waa dropped, his inflaeuoe at oonrt lasted, have made 
For several yean after this he waa fatvolvadin £120,000. To this assertion fblioredit isdne. 
graat tronble by the sSUrs of Pennaylvsnia, Bnt bribes may be offered to vanity as well aa 
where hia son, whom he had sent there aa hia to onpi^ty; and It is Impossible to deny tiiat 
re|ffeaentative, had disgraced him by vidona Fenn was «0''^ ^^ bearing a part in soma 
and riotooB oondnot; while his trnabed agent m^natiflable transactions of which others en- 
in the colony, a Qnaker named Ford, proved J<^ed the proflte." Among the transactions 
diahoneet and left to his exeontors felse olaima to whkh Uacanl^ here allndes was an attempt 
Bgainat Penn to a very large amonnt. To to persnade Dr. Hongh, president of Magdalen 
avoid extortion Peon suffered himself to be oollege, Oifbrd, to comply with the wi^ee of 
committed to the Fleet prison in 1708, where King James in a matter whero compliance 
he remained a long tbne, till he was released woiHd have involved a violation of his official 
by the aaristanca of his friends, who com- oath, by holding ont to him the bait of a bish- 
ponnded with his creditors. Wearied at length opric Bnt Dr. Hongh himaeU^ In his account 
with the tronble and expense of hb govern- <a the oonvenatlon with Penn. intimates that 
meni^he had in 1713 made arrangements for the Qnakn waarady q>«akinginjest — "had a 
the transferto the erown of his rights as pro- mind to drdl imon us." Another and mora 
prietorfor£19,000,whenheBastainedrepeated aeriona charge ia that Penn sntmiitted to l>e 
ihodmof pan^^; and tbon^ he lived 6 yean made an agent of the r^aoions maids of honor 
longa, be never regained hia mental vigor, and of the royal court to extort money for pardons 
for suioh of that period was deprived of mem- frtjm the relatives <rf some young girls at Tann- 
ory and <rf the power of motion. He was inter- t(m who were implioated in Iftmmooth's rebel- 
red in Jordan's bnrial groond, near the village lion. The only feondation ii>r this eliaise la a 
of ObaUbnt Bt. Giles, in Bnokinghamshire. letter rotating to the transaction written by the 
— Tb» npntation of William Fenn m his own eari of Bnnderland, which t>egins thoa : " Jit. 
day did not «Mape suspicion and cenanre. The Fenne, her m^esty's maids of honor having 
extraotdinarr mingling <rf Qnaker simpUdfy acquainted me that they design yon and Ur. 
and oonrt innnence whioh marked hia life gave Walden in making a composition vrith the re- 
rise to uany ImpiotaHonB upon his character, lafions of the mdds of Tannton;" and Maoan- 
whioh hare been rerived in the present day lay assumed without hesitation that the person 
with mooh fbroe and pertinacily by Ltn^ Mao- to whom it waa addreased waa WiHiam Fenn. 
anlayln hia "History of England." Admitting Butitbas been recently proved by the re^ 



ten of the priv? coimoil, that at this vorj time of HindoetaD," formiiig the first portions (^ 
a certain George Fecme was engaged as a par- a work designed to embrace an account of 
don broker at Taimton, and it is moat probable every conntry in the world. Two additional 
thattheletterwaaaddreBsedtohimramertban Tolnmes were iseaed after his decease by his 
to the respectable and infinential Quaker. In sod, completing eastern Asia. Pennant also 
the edition of 1868, Uaoanlaj considers the wrote "A Tour in 'Wales" (4to., 1778); "A 
strictures on bis previous statements, and says : Joomey from Chester to London" (1762) ; an 
"If I thonghtthat Ihad committed an error, I " Aooonnt of London" (1790); and the "His- 
sbonld have, I hope, tbe honesty to soknowl- tory of the Farisbes of Whitefbrd and Holy- 
edge it; but after foil consideration, I am satis- w^" (17M). He wrote too mnch and too 
fied that Snnderland's letter was addreased to rapidly to be accoimted an anthority of the 
William Pens." — See "Life of William Penn," highest kind, altbongb his attainments, espe- 
by Qeorge E. ElUa, in Sparks's " American Bi- ciwy in the department of natoral history, 
wr^hyl*' 2d series, toL xii. (Boston, 1853) ; were of a verf respectable order. 
Hepworth Dixon's " Life of Penn" (new ed., FENNASTB MARTEN, Bee Pibhie, 
London, 180fl); and "Inqniry into the Evidence PENNSTLVAHIA, one of the 18 original 
of the Gba^es brongbt by Lord Maoanlay states of the American Umon, induded in the 
' against WiIlismPenn,"byJ.FBget(Edinbtu-g^ middle atates, and now the second in wealth 
185^. and popnlation in the Union. Its geographical 
FEKITANT, Thokas, LLJ>., an English nst- posiuon is nearly central as regards the area 
nralist and antiquary, born in Downing, Flint- of tlie original colonies, a position which is 
ahire, Jone 14, 1729, died there, I>ec. IS, 17SB, popclarly recognized in the cnstomary desig- 
He was educated at Wreibam and at Oxford, nation of thia aa the " keystone state." Peon- 
At the age of 13 he was presented with the aylvaDia was somewhat indefinitely bonnded 
"Omith5ogy"of Francis Willnghby, the read- aa ori^nally granted by chMter; hot in the 
ing of whicE inspired Tiim with a taste for nat- final aqjnstment of colonial limits it was made 
nral history. An aocoont which be wrote of a nearly perfect porallelo^am W, of the De!a- 
an eartbqoake felt in Flintshire, April 2, 1750, ware river, a small addition being made at its 
qipeared withont bis knowledge in the " Phil- point of contact with Lake Erie to nve i^ 
oeophioal Transacticna ;" and m 175S be con- access to lake navigation and a good Earbor. 
tribnted to the same work an article on certdn It is boimded N. by Lake Erie and New York, 
oonilloid bodies occurring in ShropEbire. This mainly along a ri^t line at tat 42° 15' K ; E. 
coming mider the nodoe of Linnana, he waa by the Delaware river, which separates it from 
elected upon hia recommendation a member of Hew Jersey along an irregolar line between 
the royal aooiety of UpsaL In 1761 appeared long. 74° and 75 W, ; 8. by Delaware and 
the firat part of bis ereat work on " Bribah Zo- Maryland along a right line at lat. 89° 48' N. ; 
ology." Thia treatise, wbicb was translated and W. by Virginia and Ohio, along a right 
into Latin and German, embraced nearly every line at long. 8B° 86' W. ; average length 810 m., 
species of the animal kingdom then known to width 160 m. ; area, abont 46,000 sq. m., or 
exist in Britun, with the exception of insects. 39,440,000 acres. The atate is divided into 66 
The best edition ia that of 1776 (4 vola. 4to.). counties, viz. : Adams, Alleghany, Armstrong, 
During the publication of the work, he trav- Beaver, Bedford, Berks, Blair, Bradford, Bncks, 
ellad on the continent (1766), and became ac- Butler, Cambria, Cameron, Carbon, Centre, 
qniunted with BufTon, Bailor, Trew, Grono- Chester, Clarion, Clearfield, Clinton, Oolnmbia, 
Tins, Pallas, and other men of stnenoe. On Crawford, Cumberland, Danphin, Delaware, 
his return he began a work on " Indian Zo- Elk, Erie, Fayette, Forest, ftanldin, Fulton, 
ology," which was speedily discontinued. He Greene, Hnntingdon, Indiana, Jefferson, Jnnia- 
made a journey into the northern part of ta, Lancaster, Lawrence, Lebanon, L^lgh, Lu- 
Scotiand in 1769, and another in 1772, of zeme, Lycoming, Mercer, IiTKeaniMifBin, Mon- 
both of which he published acconnt& In roe, Montgomery, Uontonr, Northampton, 
1771 iqipeared his " Synopsis of Quadrupedi" Northnmberlani Perry, PbUadelphi^ Pike, 
which waa snbseqnently enlar^ied and repnb- Potter, Schuylkill, Snyder, Somerset, Sullivan, 
liahed under the title of a " History of Quad- Snaquehanna, Ti(^a, Union, Venango, Warren, 
mpeds." BbortJy afterward he b^an a work Wasnington, Wayne, Westmoreland, Wyoming, 
oaUed"TheQeneraofBirda," which was never York. The chief cities and towns are: Harris 
completed. Hia "Arctic Zoology" (8 vols, bnrg, the seat of government; Pbilftdelphia, 
4to., 17&4r-'7) contains descriptions of many the commeroial centre of the state ; Pittsburg, 
ffiecies previously unknown, and in its oompilo- Beading, Lancaster, Pottsville, Easton, Erie, 
tion he was largely assisted by foreign natural- York, Nom^town, Allentown, Bcranton, Wil- 
iats. In 1798 ne published an autobiography liamsporL Danville, WUkosbarre, Carlisle, Get- 
entitied " The Literary life of the late Thomas ^sburg, Colarabia, Phraniiville, Chester, West 
Pennant," stating in the advertisement that his Chester, Lebanon, Ohambersburg, Holltdays- 
existence as an antbor ended March 1, 1791. burg, Brownsville, Beaver, Meadville, Hones- 
Speedlly reviving, however, be published aev- d^ Uauch Chunk, Port Carbon, and BristoL 
enl other works, amoog which were " Outlines — The following statement exhibits the decen- 
oflheGlobe,"Tols.i.aadfL,iuclading "Yiewa nial progress of population dnoe 1790 


c— . 





pu wL 











Beyond all these is the AUeghaof range proper, 
which eztends in a onrred line through tho 
entire at&te, oonneoting with the chief range 
of the same name in other states. Its highest 
ridges are the Eagle, Ohestmit, and Laurel 
ridSes, which are 3,B00 feet high on an average, 
with some peaks of 8,000 feet. The? pass out 
of the state at the 8. W. into Maryland snd 
Virgiaia. The ridges E. of the Allegh^ 
Batio to the total popnlation of the United range are too ahmpt for cultivation, hut its W. 
States in 1860, lO.OS per cent jpopnlatJon to slope is nearly all arable, even at an elevation 
the square mile in 1860, 88. The population of l.BOO or 1,800 feet The valleys of Pennsyl- 
of IS60 was classified as follows : white males, vaiua correspond to the mountain ridges in 'Qie 
1,143,7B4; white females, 1,119,426; colored central part of the state. They generally cross 
males, 86,869 ; colored females, 28,35T. Born the line of the great rivera conforming to the 
intheBtat&l,844,S7B; lnotberBtate9,181,129; mountain configoration. Uhester valley In the 
in En^and, 88,048; in Ireland, 161,728; in B. E., Wyoming and Lackawanna valleys in the 
Scotland and Wales, 16,213 ; in British Amer- K. E., Juniata and Sinnemahoning in the cen- 
ica, 2,fiOO ; in Germany, 78,592 ; in France^ 4,- tre, Onmberl^d in the S., and Monon^ela 
OSS ; in other countries, 7,796 ; unknown, 2,296, v^ey in the S. W., are the prindpal. Many 
Total of foreign birth, 286,986, or nearly 18 per deep narrow valleys oocnr in the monntunons 
—"• The leading occupations in 1800 wore : region which traverseB the state from N. E. to 

: remo) 
; 8.T?. 

agricultnre, 207,683 ; mann&ctures, 106,888 ; B.vf. in a belt 160 m. wide and 260 m. long.- 

commerce and trade, 31,809; learned prof^ The Delaware river, which forms the E. bonnd- 

riona, 9,901. Deaths in the year ending June 1, aryof the state, has tide water 133 m. from the 

I860, 28,661, or 1.2 per cent, of the popola- seatoTranton, and great depth at Philadelphia, 

tion- panpers, 11,6G1 ; deaf and dnmb, 1,146 ; ^e average depth at the wl^rf line of that cit>y 

blind, 969; insane, 1,914 ; idiotic, 1,467. — The exceeding 46 foet It is navigable fbr the 

aor&oe of Pennsvlvania is level in the B. £., largest ships to Philadelphia, for steamboats of 

hiDy and monntamons in the interior^and gen- large size to Trenton, and for sm^ steamboats 

erally level or arable in the W. The S. E. to Easton. It breaks thnragh the Blue rid^ at 

oonntiee are hat little elevated above the sea, the Delaware Water Gap, above which it is 

bnt in proceeding westward and northward a not navigable. The Basquehamia river drains 

series of ridges are met, rising higher and be- the central part of the state, and runs sonth- 

coming more abrupt to the Blue ridge and the ward to Ohesapeake hay ; it is a rapid, broad, 

ABeKnanies, These ridges and mountains all and shidlow river, not navigable for steamboats 

trend N. E. and S. W., those eastward of the in Pennsylvania, but it floats great qnantitiea 

Alleghany range being precipitous, bnt weat- of timber. Canals along Ita bwika convey coal 

ward from this range the surface declines and prodnce in great quantities. The Basque- 

toward the Ohio river and Lake Erie in grad- hsnna has two great branches, the North branch 

nal slopes. The passes of this interior range riamg in Kew York, and havii^ an irregolar 

are about 2,000 feet above the sea, the lower course of 260 m. to Northumberland, the point 

valleys of the Ohio where it leaves the state, of junction, and the West branch rising W. of 

and Uie plun bordering Lake Erie^being aliout the Alleghanies, through which it breaxs east- 

800 and 660 feet respectively. The Eiterior ward, and is 200 m. long. Below Northmnber- 

valley through which the Susquehanna river land, 160 m. from tlie sea, the course of this 

flows is but little elevated above the sea, and river b more direct. The Ohio river and ita 

it occopies a latge area, dividing the mountain* branches drain the W. part of the state ; the 

ons belt. The mountains of the state are part Alleghany river di^ns the N. W. psrii, and has 

of the great Appalachian chain. At the N. E, a length of 160 m., running sonthward to Rtts- 

thev connect with the Shawangunk monntaina burg ; the Honongahela, rising in Yiiginia, has 

of New York and the Bine ridge of New Jer- a course northward within the state of 70 m. 

sey, the last named being continued southwest- to Pittsburg. Both these last are navigable fi» 

ward through the entire state and into Kary- steamboats about 60 m. each, and the Ohio, be- 

land under the same name. The Blue ridge is low their pomt of junction, ia a ffreat thorough- 

abont 1,600 feet high. The only considerable breforsteamnavigation. The Juniata, a tribn- 

mountun 8. and K of this ridge is the South taryof the Bnsquehanna from the west, and the 

monntun, a broken ohiwi of ridges about 1,000 Lehigh and Sohnylkill, tributaries of the Del*- 

feet high at the highest portions. Next N. and ware, are the principal remaining rivers, each 

W. ot the Blue ridge a number of sharp irregu- having canals and lock navigation. There is no 

lar mountain ridg^sucoeed, the Tuscarora^Path considerable lake within the state, but it borders 

Valley, Broad Top, Sideling hilLBhade, Black onLakeEriefbradistanceofiOm., aff'ordingao- 

hog, and Tossey's mountain B. W. of the Sns- cess to its navigation and a snperior harbor at 

qnehaona ; and Mahanoy, Sharp mountain, Erie. — The geological formations of Pennsylva- 

Lackawanna, Wyoming, Uooaio, Pocono, and nia are limited to a few only of the great divi> 

Neaqnehoming, N. £. of the Snaquehanaa. rioDS of the rocks. Thesearemetamorphlo(i))- 



cloding the gneiseia as well la the altered lower the SonUi moimtaln and coming out on the 

pa]sozoicgroiipB);fliapBJffiozoio8er{eefhimtiia Delaware at tbe mouth ol the L^iigh, and 
Potsdam sandstone to the coal measnree; and thenoe to the bend of the river below Dnr- 
the middle secondarj red sandstone. The ter- ham. The lower eilnrisn forniationB contain 
tiar; and npper secondarv, developed on the the great depodte of hematite iron ore, se the 
E. ude of the Delaware, do not extend to liie Oheetmit hill mines near Oolmnbia in Loncos- 
other side of the river. The nortbera drift ter co., and the nimieroiu beds in Berks and 
formation of Band and gravel, which over- Lehigh oos. which form the chief dependence 
Hpreads all the states to the S., enters Penn- of the blast fOmacee on the Bchnylldll and the 
sjlvonia at its N. comer, and Is represented Lehigh rivers, (See Appalachiaii Uouktaikb, 
lif a thin sheet of gravel, which dwindles awaj Hkuatto:, and ^ir.) Hagnet^o iron ores also 
mthin 80 or 40 m. of the New York state line, occur in the some geolo^o^ position in nnmer- 
ezcept where it is traced dava the vallejr of ons localities. The Oomwall mine in Lebanon 
the Delaware at the E. and the branches of co., aitoated in the Potsdam sandstone close to 
the Ohio at the W. Along the middle portion the S, line of the red sandstone tract, is one of 
of the 'S. booadory of the state the height of the most important mbiea of tiiis ore In the 
the table-land appears to have been soffldent United States. — The red sandstone formation is 
to arrest the omrent b; which this formation & continnation of the same groap that crosses 
was deposited, for its bowlders and travel are New Jersey and Maryland. Its N. line, rang- 
rarely detected in this portion of uie state, ing with the Ifnaconetconc creek in New Jer- 
The gneissia rooiks, and the middle secondary sey. crosses the D^ware nver below Dnrhsm, 
red sandstone that lies within an elongated ha- and extending in a 'W. direction crosses the 
sin of tlie former more ancient gronp, aro lim- Schnylkill S m. below Beading and the Sos- 
ited to the S. H. connties of the state, the gneiss qnahitana 5 m. below Harrisbnrg. It then in- 
occupying a margin of varying width along the olines more to the S. and crosses the 8. line of 
DolawarebelowTrenton,&tFhiladelphiareBch- the state near the B. V. comer of Adams co. 
ing np the Scha^ldll about 10 m., and giving The B. line of the same belt enters the state 
place on the N. w . to a narrow belt of meta- opposite Trenton and pnranes a general W. 
morphio limestones, slates, and quartz rook, course, pasdog the BchuylkUl S m. below Nor- 
whioh separates it from the red sandstone, ristown, the Bnsqnehanna in the W. comer of 
This belt contains the quarries of white mar- Lancaster co., and the state line in Adams oc. 
ble that have supplied with this material the near the 8. E. corner. The tract thus inclndetl 
(dty of Fliiladelphia and the towns around. To is occupied almost ezduMvelT by the red sand- 
the N. and N. W . of It the gneiss a^ars again stones, red shales, and con^omerates of this 
and overspreads the N. part of dhoster co., formation, and by the nnmerons dikes of trap 
reaching to the red sandstone formation, along rook, many of which are of enormous dimen- 
the line of which, near PhcBnlxville, are the sions, and are traced for miles in different di- 
mines of lead and copper, of which some ao- rections. It is remorfcable that the dip of the 
count is given in the article Lbak. On the sedimentary rooks is not disturbed by these 
range of the gneiss toward the 8. W. ia the dikes from the uniform Inclination of the strata 
mine in Lancaster oo. which supplies the niokel at as^ea varying from 15° to SO" toward the 
to the U. 8. mint for the new cent, and more N., and thenoe to N. W. The sandstones afford 
of the metal also for exportation. Along the some good bml^nc stones, of which there are 
Hue of the gneiss and sandstone W. of Phcenix- quarries on the S^nylkill and the Delaware. 
riUe are the 'W^arwick and other mines of mag- Nert to this belt and Oie metamorphio rocks, 
netio iron ore. South from Philadelphia the which bound it on the N.wd V., lie the lower 
nieiss continues round the border of tLe state, sUnrian sandstones and limestones, whloh are at 
uie edge of ttiis formation N. of the Maryland the base of Qie long series of pal»ozoio formo- 
stote Ime coming to a point before reaching the tions Uiat occnp? ul ijie rema^iing portion at 
Susquehanna river. In this r^on, near the the state. The mvlsions of this serfes are given 
Ootarara oreek, are tracts of serpenthie rooks, in the article Gsoloot, vol. viiL p. 1S7; and 
forming what are called the " serpentine bar- Hhtj amount in aggregate thickness to over 
rens." In these rooks beds of chrome iron ore 85,000 feet. The lower members lie along 
have been worked to a considerable extent, and the N.'side of the Bonth mountain and the 
at times with great profit, affording lai^e qnan- W. dda of the oontinuation of the same range 
titles of the ore for the manofacture of chrome in the S. part of the state, and dipping N. 
-lunts at Baltimore and for the English mar- and W. they pass beneath the " anrond " mag- 
:et Traip dikes are of frequent occurrence, nesian limestones of the Eittatinny valley. 
not only over the gneiss region, bnt over all These limestones, corresponding to the Ohazy, 
the dis^ct of the metamorphio slat«s, lime- birdseye, and Black river limestones of New 
stones, and quartz rock, and the unaltered low- York, fill the whole broad valley between Uie 
er siloriau formadons Into which these pass. Eittalimiy and Bine mountains on one nde 
Nearly the whole of Ohester and Lancaster cos. and the South mountain on the other. (See 
are occupied by these groups, and to the N. Afpalaoblui ifoinrrAiira.) Their range ia 
W. of the red sandstone tracts they are met with marked by soil of great fertility, and the finest 
again In Berks and Lehigh cos., ranging with agrlooltunl region of the state is this great 




vaBef, oooopTliu; the chief portion 

W, ia 6 wide belt of oonntry, resohing to tha 
main AlleKhan/ moQutains, Angularly pictor- 
uqne, and BtroB^7 marked by ita pecoUar 
geological and topographical features. Long 
narrow ridges paraU^ to each other, after run- 
ning many miles in straight lines and then cnrr- 
ing together, and Tailed bf the oooarionjd ter- 
mmaUon of one of diem upon tlie plain <rf tiia 
vallers that lie between tJiem, are everrvbere 
enoonntered over this region of middle Penn* 
SflTsnia. The rirers ana the roads follow the 
long lines of the valleys, finding a passage 
across from one to another by the oocasional 
gaps and ends of the ridges. The great pile of 
the palsBOEoie formations, raised and crumpled 
in long folds, the bearing of whioh ia witii the 
monntiun ranges, presents ita variona members 
in r^alar snooeBson ; and each one of these 
along the line of its oatcrop impresses itspe- 
cnliarform of outline npon the snr&oe. When 
the limestone belts, by reason of their enormons 
^lioknesa or by their changing <Upa, are spread 
over a wide area, thia is a valley between the 
steep ridges, in which the eendstones, that have 
more stoatly resisted tiie deaading action, form 
bold difib and give a sharp outline tis tha 
ridges. Aa these formations are oontipaally 

idgea and valleys, in each of which the geo- 
logical formations are instantly recognized by 
the snr&ce contoor. The chief minenUa of 
importsuce in this series of formations below 
the coal mcaBnres are the iron ores, of which 
mention has been made in the article Inox. 
In ft few districts £. of the All^haniea tlie 
ooal measnres ^pear sometimes only over a 
Tety Umited area npon the soromits of the 
higneet ridgea, and with no great depth of the 
fhrmation ; and at others forming elongated 
banna or trongha, as those of the anthracite 
repon of N. E. Pennsylvania, in which the 
stntta onrve upward on each nde, giving place 
to the nnderlying formations ontidde of the 
basina. Within each basin these ab'ata present 
frequent changes of dip, the anccesnve anti- 
clinal and synclinal axes lying nearly on the 
Ceral range of the badu, and the flexures 
ig often sharp. The character of the for- 
mation and the annual product of the ooal to 
the dose of the year 1866 are described in the 
article AirrssAoiTB. Binoa that time the pro- 
dnotion of the different districts haa been as 
follows, the aggregate, aa ^ven in the table, 
including the production of a few nnimportant 
localities not particularly named. The figures 
represent tons : 




BT<— L 


















•Mi Hidn 




BT— 1. 






t&!^ ^SSS 







Hie anmmit of the AU^^ianies in Femuylvania 
ia Uifl E. mar^ of the great bitominons ooal 
field. Thehignestp(^teareoapped^thecon- 
^omerate whioh miderliea the ooal formation, 
or by the lower membera of this series, and 
the strata ffipinng gently toward the W., the 
fcwmation puns in tfili'.Viiiw in that direction, 
orerqireadiog nearly the whole western part 
of the state, except the N. W. comer. No 
means are horded of estimating the amount 
of ood produced, as the mining operations are 
not concentrated at a few points, bat are car- 
ried on everywhere, and more for local pur- 
poses than for transportation to marlcet over 
railroads and canals. From Westmoreland co. 
an omotrnt estimated at 100,000 tons per annum 
b eent to Philadelphia fbr mann&ctnring gaa. 
13ie vo^lKt is farther treated In the article 
Odai. llie other naefol mineral beds found 
intergtratified with the ooal are fire day, Umd- 
stone^ iron ore, and sandstone. All these oo- 

onr over the whole range of the formation, the 
iron ores abounding especially in the lower 
part of tiie measures, which brings them to 
the surface near the margin of the ooal field. 
Por the statistics ot the production of this 
metal, see Ibon. Salt ia obtained by boring 
throng the coal formation of the western por- 
tion of the state, and this bunness is exten- 
sively carried on in the valley of the Eaki- 
minetas. The annool product of salt is esti- 
mated at about 1,000,000 bushels. Bock dl or 
petrolenm has recently been obt^ed in laige 
qnandties, associated with the salt in the S. 
W. part of the state, for an account of which 
see PxTBOutuiL Among the mineral springs 
those of Bedford are the most oelebnded. — 
The sdl of the state is generally rich, that 
of Lancaster co. on the limestone In the S. E., 
■nd of some of tha oounties bordering the Ohio 
river and also underlaid with limestone in the 
W.,bd]ig particularly noted for produotivQoey. . 



bi the B. and E. tl>« abnndance of lime oonsU- 
tntea good grain soil* geanrtHj, and there tre 
nene of th« thin tMliarj Modi^ or of the weak 

TaHejs of Uie interior generally oontsin lime- 
stone, which Reoores ^od aoila. ia the N. 
grazing scnls pr^Kmd^ate ; these are rich on 
Die npper Biuqnehaiuta in the N. K, thin and 
oold ^ the hjgolande of the central conn tiea of 

stato i^ 

. borderofthe 

Uke the Ohio valley generally, alike 

_, to grain and grazing. — The improved 

lanoB of tlie Bt«te retried m 1S60 nombered 
a,63&610 acres in 187,677 &nns, or less than 
me third tlie snftaoe ; the opening of new lands 
in the 14. central coonties will have increased 
the proportion to aboat one third in 1860, Jho 
unimproved land held in farms in 1860 traa 
«,2»4,7a8 aoree. Extensive -wooded tracts well 
adaoted to agrionltnre yet remun nnocoapied 
in tiie N. oeotral comitiea. In 1860 there were 
prodooed in a» state 1O,8B?,601 boahels of 
wheat, 19,886,214 cf Indian oran, 21,688,166 of 
oats, 4,806,160 of rye, 8,198,6» of bnckwheat, 
166,684 of barley, 66,281 of peas and beans, 
0,980,783 of Irish potatoes, 62,172 ot sweet 
potatoes, 178,988 <^ clover and grass seeds, and 
41,m of fiaxseed; 1,842,700 tons of hay; 
912,061 ibs. of tobaooo, 4,481,570 of wool, 89,- 
878,416 of hotter, 2,606,034 of cheese, 2,826,- 
426 of nuple sugar, 889,609 of beeswax and 
honey, and G30,807 of flax. The valne of live 
stock was $41,600,068 ; of slaughtered animals, 
(8,219,848; of market prodnots, $688,714 : of 
orchard fniits, $728,889; and ot honsehold 
mann&otnres, $749,183. EstablishmentB for 
mannfoctore prodnoms $600 or more in valne, 
yearly, were reported in 1860 to the nmnber of 
31,60S, employing $94,473,810 ci^Jtal, and pro- 
dndng goods to the valne of $166,044,910. 
Tlie statistics of the leading dasses of mann&o- 
tares were aa follows in 1860 : 


The prodnction of pig Iron was 286,702 tons in 
1850^ t^ the n. S. oensna. The retDms of that 
OMuns were known to be in «ma at least for 
Phihdetohia, that dty prodixdDg mnoh more 
Id msniuactairea, and having a greater ntmiber 
of Mtahlishmenta^ thiD was tb«i reporind. — In 
fbrdgn oommom Peonqylvania holda the fifth 
idaoe ; but It imports throng the port of Kew 
York, in the name frf and for its merohants 
alone, larn amomits of valnablc fordgn goods, 
n9t inolnaed In the (^dal figures below. The 

value of Imported goods in tl>e fisoal year enA- 
ing Jnne 80, 186S,was $14,C20]881 ; of exports 
forthesame year, $6,876,688. forthecalendai 
year 1860 the total imports were $16,100,766, 
and the exports, $7,848,610. The atiipping 
cm^oyed was as follows in 1860 : entrances, 
44S American veesels, tonnage 184,820, and 
147 foreigD, tonnage 80,808; total entered, 696 
vessels, 171,128 tons; clearujces, EDO Ameri- 
can veraels, tonnage 105,1S7, and 181 foreign, 
tonnage 127,668 ; total cleared, 487 vessM^ 
282,986 tons. The total shipping owned in 
the Btate in 18G9 was, of regiatered tonnage, 
67,869 ; of enrolled and lioenBed, 220,884 ; totaL 
284,744. The number of orrivala at the port of 
Philadelphia In 1860 was, of foreign vesaela, 
682; veesels from domestic porta (inolnding 
boats and baives), 87,740 ; total, 88,836. Ves- 
sels bnilt in the state in the year ending Jnne 
80, 18C9, 108, tonnage 14,476.— The internal 
trade of Pennsylvania is very groat over its rail* 
roada and canala. The central railroad oondncta 
the largest trade to and from the western states ; 
the Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore 
road to and from the sonth ; the Reading and 
North Pennsylvania roada carry the north- 
ward trade, and the Now Jersey roada an 
immense traffic to and from New York. An 
extemdve canal system also exists, bnt it has 
been sold by the state in diviMong to various 
private companies and is less important now 
than it was a few years since. The Pennsyl' 
vania central railroad is 860 m. long from 
Philadelphia to Pittsbo^ and has a doable 
track for all but 66 m. Beyond Pittsburg, the 
Pittsbu)^, Fort Wayne, and Ohicago rtwroad 
haa a length of GO m. within the state, and 
the Pittabnrg and Btenbenville road 80 m. 
This central line has now 282 m. of canal, pur- 
chased from the state, and worked in conneo- 
tion with the rulroad by the same company. 
The Reading railroad has alengtii of 69 m. from 
Philadelphia to Beading, from which point it 
connects with Eamsbnrg over the Lebanon 
valley road ; with various points of the ooal- 
ndni^ region ; with Ootawissa, Williamspor^ 
and iSnira, N. T. The Sunbary and Erie road 
has a total length of 289 m., of which 80 m. are 

Ci, an&uahed. The total length of railroads 
operation In the state in 1860 was 2,948 m. ; 
their total cost waa $151,680,000. The total 
length (^ canals in use in 1860 was 1,080 m. 
On the L^igh, Schuylkill, Delaware, Busqafr- 
hanoa, and Monongohela rivers tbe canals and 
slack water navigations convey immense qnan* 
titiee of coal to market, and the rulroads in and 
leading from the coal fi^ds also find their chief 
freogbt m coal, both carrying, hi the year I860, 
over 9,000^000 tons. Great qnantltiee of lumber 
and timber are transported on the ansquehonna 
and Alleghany rivers out of the state to market. 
Western prodnce is carried nx>st lai^ely by the 
central railroad ; next by the ch^ of roads in 
the north, and by the rood from Baltim(»« at 
the sonth.— On Nov. 1, 1860, there were 89 
banks, tlie condition of which was as follows: 



MpUal,|S5,80B,668; loans and duooimts,$6C,- censes, (670,^00 ; fromtaxonloaiii^|180,468; 
8St,4T9 ; Btooks, |B,S77,774; real est;at«, $1,- ttom interest on louia bj the state, $414,094; 
VSS,366 ; otiier iuTeBtments, $I,04S,M1 ; doe from collateral iuheritanee tar, $146,847; frcnm 
bj other banks, (4,S48,889 ; cash ttems, $4,- sate of pnbHo works, $100,660, &o. The chl«f 
91S,2SS; ratecie, $7,816,769; circulation, $1C,- expenditures in 1860 were: for interest and 
830,033; doposits, $27,033,104; dne to Other pmicipalof the pnbhc debt, $2,614,M1; forei- 
banka, $4,118,625 ; otiier liabilities, $1,073,- pensea of the state government, $401,868 ; for 
169. A free banking lair woe passed in Uarch, common schools, $282,939 ; for chsiitable in- 
1880. "So banks are permitted to issne notes stitntiooB, $128,326; for honses of refb^ and 
below the denomioatdon of %S. There are also pemtentlaries, $88,446 ■ for abatement of the 
80 or 40 savings instttntions, proper to be state tax, $53,363. Balance in the state treas- 
ranked aa savings banks, not inclnded in the nry, Deo. 1, 1860, $722,465. — The charitable 
abore, and not reporting to the bank depart- and penal or reformatorr institutions of the 
mentof the state, 16 of which ore in Fhlladel- state are to some extent blended, but a nomber 
phia. — The government of Pennsylvania is of verj important obaritable institntiraia exirt, 
Quder a state constitntion adopted in 1790, pre- fbnnded and snpported whoUj hj private oon- 
Tionsto which the chief executive offioevas tribntions. There are two great penitentJaries, 
the president of the executive oonnciL TMa one at Pittabnrg and one at Philadelphia, both 
oonstitatJon was amended in 188B, IBSO, and originallj oi^snized on the syston of solitary 
1867. The legislative t)od7 oondsts of a confinement, and still so msint^ed. Thishu 
house of representatives of 100 members, been called the Pennsjlvonla System, which is 
ohosen annn^j from single districts ; and a asserted to work well, though when tried else- 
aenale of not less than one fourth or more thaq where It has in some oases been reported aa 
one third this nnmber^now 88 members— too severe. The constant visits and efforto of 
elected for 8 years. The execntive department the prison distapline society have here a fovor- 
oon^sts of a governor elected by the people for able Inflnence on convicts, relieving the severity 
8 years, whose sslary is $3,000: an auditor- of what wonld otherwise he absolutely solitary 
general and a sorveyor-genoral elected by thft confinement. The eastern penitendary, on 
people ; a secretary of the oommonwealth, ap- Jan. I, 1861, contained 464 convicts, and the 
pointed by the governor; a state treasurer western about 400. A bouse of refoee for ju- 
elsctedby the legulature^oft The legialature venUe delinquents exists in Philadelphia and 
meets and the executive oeparbnente report to one in Pittsburg, supported by the state, and 
it OD the first Tuesday of January of eaon year, one for adults has been authorized to be built 
The judicial department consists of a supreme at Philadelphia. There is a state lunatic asy- 
coort of 5 judges elected by the people for lum at Horrisburg, which has 200 patients ; a 
temu of 16 years, one In every period of S hospital for the insane at Pittsburg; on asylum 
years. These also have jurisdiction In courts forthedeaf and dumb, which haB216 patients; 
of oyer and terminer. There are 26 courts of and an institution for the blind with 16G pa- 
coDunon pleas for as many districts, hi each of Uenta. These are all supported in greater part 
which a preddent judge is elected by the peo- by the state, and the last two are situated 
pie for 10 years ; and one or more associate in Philadelphia. There b also an institnlion 
judges are elected for each county. The supported in part by the state for the training 
judges of common pleas in each county are of feeble-minded ohUdren, near Philadelphia, 
also juatioea of oyer and termioer, but may not Among the many charitable institutions sup- 
hold such courts when a judge of the snprema ported by private endowment, the Pennsylva- 
ooort is In the oonuty. There is a district nia hospital, and its insane department, both 
court for Philadelphia dty and county, and in Philadelphia, and the Gbard coil^e for or- 
one for ADeghany county, which includes Pltte- phons, are the most consplonous. (See Pbjla- 
borg. The jud^ of the supreme court and oelfhu.J — A liberal common school system 
the prerfdant Judges of common pleas reodve was adopted In 1888, under which the ooun- 
$1,600 anntuT ealaiT; the judgea of the city ties had power to establish free or partially 
distriota receive $2,000 to $l!!,000 saluy.— The free schools as each should choose, sn^rt be- 
valae of real and personal propoly in Penn- ins given by the state only to those counties 
^Ivania was assessed in 1858 at $666,049,867, which should tax themselves for the support 
on whidi a tax waa ptdd in 1660 of $1,479,877 ; of schools. The greater number of counlaes at 
the number of persons taxed was 640,179. once accepted the act, and orgfmized sohoou 
The public debt of the state, Dec. 1, I860, nuderit; but a few neglecting to do so, the 
was $87,964,602. The total revenues reoeived legislature in 1864 directed the maintenance itf 
into the treasniy for 1660 were $7,479,267, free schools in the Kitire state, and the as- 
and tiie total expenditures of the sajue year sessment ot Uie reqnlnte tax in the oountlea, 
$8,637,147, Induding apayment of $891,?&8 $200,000 or more being annually appropriated 
oa the pntdio debt Tm prlndpol revennea by Uie state from its gennvlrevennes, Tnlssy^ 
at th» state are derived from a tax of S| tern is now in lucceesftd operation, and very 
mills oa $1 of an real and personal estate ; eflbctively directed by state and oonntr atqnr- 
• -' ' ■■ ' "" Intendents, who report annually. The ocan- 
mon adioob in 1860 nnmbered 11,677, enln- 



■ive of FhSadelpIiia, in whtoh tiiere were BBS Sweden imder very high ampicw, nealj at 
pubUc whocds. The number of pupils who the Bame time that the Kew England oolo- 
attended pnbtlo Mboola in the whole st&te niea were sent ont, and a few jeara prerions to 
TU MT,414, The number of teachers was Oalverfa colonization of Ua^Iand. In 1627 
14,0M, of whom, ont of Philadephia, 8jl71 a well provided body of Swedes and Blnns set- 
were male and 4,^^ female teaoQera. The tied on both shores of the Delaware, making 
ooat of the whole syston for 1860 was $8,61B,- th«r way nearly to the site of Philadelphia. 
877, of which som $860,000 was ^tpropriated They made little progress in the occapation of 
tnxa the state tzeasnry, and the remainder the country, were compelled to snbmit to the 
asaened by tax in the eonntry diatriota and then flonrisbing Dutch role at TSew Amatcr- 
oUiea. The average term of all echools ont of dam in 16S6, and poased withotit redstance nn- 
Philade^hia WOB montha and Bf daya, and the der the English Jnrisdiction generally eatablisfa- 
aTOrage cost for each paplt S6 cts. In Phila- ed in 1664. In 1681 the territory weat of the 
delphb the acbools are wholly iree ; and in Delaware was granted to 'WiUiani Fenn, who 
tiie oonutry the state and oonnty qipropria- colonized it, ana foonded Philadelphia in 1682. 
tiona in moat cases render toition free. The Under the charter granted to Penn by Charles 
state and oonnty saperintendence cost $46,000 ; II. the present area of the state of Delaware 
and two state nomal schools are snpported at was incladed, and called the lower conntiea ; 
a ooat of $80^00, A ayatem of academies waa and they continued under the same proprie- 
o^aoised and endowed some years since, one taiy until 169B, when a separate legislature 
in each ooonty ; bnt many of these, with their was granted them, but not a distinct governor, 
endowment, nave been merged in ooHegea or The two colonies were so connected until the 
Gommtra aehools. Only 30, with 1,848 atndents, revolution of 1776. The grant to Penn was 
were in operation in 1660, There are 2S col- fortenitoryreally covered by the ragne grants 
legea, but one of which receives aid from the made to the New England colonies, Virginia, 
state ; of these, S are literary, 7 theological, 8 and Maryland ; and though the lihea on the K., 
medical, 1 law, and 1 agricnltnral. The eg- N., and W. were adjrartedwithontdifflcnly, the 
gregate nnmt>er of stndenta la about 2,SD0, of boundary between Pennsylvania and Uaryland 
whom 1,860 attend the medioal schools. These was lon^ a BQb)ect of contest by the heirs of 
last are tlte most celebrated and ancoesaM of the original proprietors, and it was finally set- 
thdr daaa In the oonntry. The medical depart- tied by the survey of Hason and Dixon, I>^nn 
ment d Penn^lvania oniversity was founded in 1768 and completed in 1767. (See Maboh 
in ITSS, and Jedbrson medicd college in 1884. Aim Dixon's LraxO The original Swedish 
Of the adolt population in leiH^ SI,888 ot na- colony was nnnsuolly free from tronUe with 
tive birth and 94,989 of tonUga birth conid not the Indians, and after Penn's colony vrae fonnd- 
raad and write. — The nmnber of ohnrohes in ed a remarkable and most saooesaM peaceftal 
the state reported in the oensos (^ 1860 waa policy was inaugurated with the savage tribes 
8,066, of outad^ to aoocHnmodate 1,674,878 m contact with the colony. Impressing them 
persons, and valned, with otbw ebnroA prop- by acts of Justice, firmness, and ^ood ^th, 
er^, at $11,686,116. . The number of Uetho- Penn seonred for his successors unmtermpted 
dist ehnrohea waa 889, Prmbyterian 775, Ln- peace with the Indiana until the opening of the 
theran 498, Baptist 880, German Reformed revolutionary war. The diaaatroua ei^iedition 
809, Frienda' 142, Eplaoopal 186, Soman Oatho- of Broddook and the aassacre of Wyoming 
lio 180, Mennonite 08, and Uoraviou 84. — proved, however, that the character of the In- 
Tbe nmnber of libraries In the state in 1660 diona was the same here as elsewhere. The 
was 898, oontiining altogether 868,000 vol- settlers of the lower conntiea were, after the 
mam. Of these, BO were public libraries, with Swedes, originally mainly Frienda. Their high 
184,606 Tolnmes ; 80 school Ubrariea, with 17,- character and steady enetgy mode tliia me of 
161 ; 880 Sunday school, with 68,071 ; 21 cot- the moat flourishing oolonial eatabliahmenla, if 
l«e, with 77,060 ; and 86 church libraries, with not, all things considered, qnlte the most soo- 
80,409. A large increase in the nnmber both of oesaftil. It beoome the eeatwleamhtg^ wealth, 
Ubrariea and volnmee has ooonrred slnoe 1860. and refinement long be&a« the revohition, and 
InthBsameyearth«rewere810newBpapersand continued to en^oy a high position throughout 
palodioals,ofw]ikh71wereliteraryBnanusoel- the changes incident to the founding of anew 
Uneona, 11^ poUtioal, 88 rdl^ns, and 13 nen- government. Its central podtion drew to it 

txtl and independent; 94 were issued daily, tiie sessions of the continental congress, and it 
SOI weekly, 19 semi-mDnthly, Ac The drou- waa the aeat of the general government then 
latlon of nnmbers, as tasned daily, weekly, and formed until 1800. Independence was pro- 
otherwise, was 988,218; and the total number daimed here, and the whole colony took a de- 
ofocq^annDally printed was 84,898,679. The cided, yet not a violent or embittered part in 
present Mtoal nnmber of dally Jonrnals is 87, the war of the revolution ; Brandywine, Oer- 
■nd the lane of othw ,PPB<v "'^ periodicals mantown, Yalley Forge, and other points be- 
has greatly fnoreased. — The Delaware bay and coming sacred to the wimh nation 6a memo- 
tiwr reoHved its first dvtliied colony tnaa rable events. The first large aooesdon to the 
BwedML An eztettstre sohamfl of ouonlza- population, next to the Fnends, was from a 
tjon fbr tb» new world waa projected In Qermanlmtnigrationbegnnabout 1760, which 

peopled several cooittiefi o^Jaoent to Fhiladel> hoe and a generallr fertile soli. Formerly it 

phis, and baa given prominence to that nation- oompriaed a very large temtorj, vhioh has been 

alitj in all the snbeeqaent hietorr of the state, gnaaailj cat np to form other oonnties, and its 

Next was a conmderacile inmw^ratiDn of Scotch outlines are rer; eocwntrio, being oomposed (rf 

oriran, bnt coming immediate^ from the N. of 8 parallelo^ims irregnlarly disposed. Tb6 pn>- 

IreUnd, wMohvaadiffoaed lai^j over all tha dnctions in 1860 were 119,634 hndula of IndiaD 

state. Since theee events the Dsnal interchange corn, 810,184 of oata, 231,S46 of potatoe&^ 28,- 

of popolation constantly going on in American 819 of wheat, 61,768 tons of ha7, 106,977 Hm. 

states has oocnrred, and PennsjlTania has con- of wool, and 784,165 of bntter. There wen 7 

tribnted verj lai^etj to tlie settlement of alt grist, 2 paper, and 180 saw mills, 2 foonderiie^ 

the new western states. 12 tanneries, 1 ship 7ard, 6 newsp^er offioo^ 

PEKNY, an English ootn of the vihie of A 86 chnrohea, and 22,910 pnpils atten^ng pnl^ 

of a shilling. The Saxons introdnced it and schools. Capital, Bangor. 

made it of silver, weighing abont 22^ gruns, PENOBSCOT, the prinoipsl river of Haina, 

or f It of the pound. It wai divided by a formed by thejunotion, near the centre of the 

deeply indented cross into 4 qoarters, which state, in the K part of Penobscot oo., of two 

nd^it be separated by breaking tliem apart ; chief bi-anchea. The W. and larger rises near 

wbenoo the introdnctton of the A^ctional terms the Canada border, flows N. E. to Oheennoook 

hal^ienny and farthings (fonr things). Its lake, ftom the 8. end of which it issnes, and 

wei^t was reduced by Edward L to -^ of an after a S. E. oonrse of abont SO m. enters a 

onnce, and in the reign of Elizabeth its vslne group of poods or lakes, Femadumcook, Ulli- 

was fixed at that of A of an ounce, which it konet,Twm lakes, and others, iagning&om them 

stiU retains. It has long been coined in cop- in two channels, which unite after a short ^s- 

per, but on account of the inconvenient aie of tance. The E. branch, also called Seboola iher, 

tho oopper pennies, a new bronze coinage has proceeds from a number of small lakes in the S. 

been detennined on In Ei^land, and is now part of Penobscot co., and has a nearly S. direo- 

(1861) esecutdng at Birmingham. Hon. The main'streiam pursues a course a lit- 

PEIfNTROYAL (mentha ptilegiuin, linn,), tie W. of S., receiving among its most impor- 

aEnropean species of mint, of smallerriEethan tant afflnente the Fi^taquis on the W. sod 

moat of the other species, and of which the en- the Uattawamkeag and Pasaadnmkeag on the 

tire plant except the root is considered medici- £., and falls into Penobscot b^- Its total 

naL Its stems are prostmte ; Its leaves ellipti- length, from the sonroe of the W. branch, ii 

cal obtuse, nearly entire ; its flowers home in ra- about 275 m., and from the jnncldon about 185 

diatJng, vertidllate, sessile spikes ttora the axils m. The principal towns on its banks are Caa- 
of the leaves ; calyx smooth at base and dosed tine, Bnoksports and Orrington on the E_ and 
by a ring of hairs when in irnit ; corolla purple. Bel&st, Prospect, Fraakfbrt, Hamden, and Baa- 

The plant sm^ like apeormlnt, but less fra- gor on the W., to the last of whioh, abont S 
grant, and has a bitterish and aromatio taste ; m. from its month, it is navigable for vessel* oi 
it yields a very volatile essential oil, whioh large size. Along its course it has nnmeroDS 
rises on distillation in water. It hod mnoh re- falls, affording vslnable water power. At Ban- 
pate at one time as an eminenagogue, ezpeoto- gor there is a tide of abont SO feet prodnoed by 
rant, and diaphoretic, acting on the ntems, and Uie pecnliar wedge-like shape of the lower part 
relieving hysteria, whooping oough, and aath- of the river. 

ma. It occurs In moist places, heaths, and PENOBSCOT BAY, a body of water on tlw 

downs. — The American pennyroyal {hed«oma S. coast of Maine, Into which flows ijie Penob- 

pulmioidei, Fersoon) la a warm-tasted, aro- soot river. It is about SO m. in length, ai^ 

mabo little herb, with nearly the same flavor contains a number of small idands. 

and odor as the true pennyroyal. It grows in PEN8A00LA, a city and the prinoipal set- 

open barren woods, or on sonny hills among port of West Florida, o^ttal of EsGamuis co., 

stones, and in fields. Its stem is 6 to 12 inches sitoated on the N. W. mde of the bay of the 

hi^ erecL branching, and hairy ; its leaves same name, about 10 m. fh>m its month, in lat, 

petiokd, oblong-ovate, obscurely serrate ; its 80° 24' N., long. 87° 10' W. ; pop. abont 4,000, 

whorb few-flowered ; corolla bluish pubeeoent. The oonntiy iiianediatety around Pensaoola ia 

ncrtmachloagerthantbecalyi; fertile stamens barren and sandy, bat little onltivated. Hid 

S, the other 2 rednced to abortive fllaments. covered for the most part with pines. The 

In popular medidne it is held in much esteem town itself, although a place of considerable 

OD account of its diaphoretic and oarmlnativd political and commeroial knportance during the 

properti es. Spanish and English oocnpation, bad until witJi- 

PENl* J WKlGHT, a weight of 24 graina, in a year or two past presented rather a de- 

which was that of the stiver penny in the oayed appearance, the houses being generally 

rel^ of Edward I. This has ever since eon- old-ibshioned Spanish straotaree, tiie streets 

stitnted one of the nnits of troj weight, being nnpaved, many of them with only woodw aide- 

equal to ^ of the ounce troy. walks, and but litlJe appearanoe of bn^eei 

PENOBSCOT, a oeatral 00. of Me., InterseoU aotdvity to be observed. Of late there hai 

ed by the Penobscot river ; area, 2,760 sq. m. ; been a large aooeenon both to ite trade and 

pop. in IBSO, 73,781. It has a divertiSed snr- popnl^on, in consequence of the approaoh to 


oompletioii of the Alabama and Florida r^- middle <tf April, when Fort Pideens was rdn- 

road, oonneotuig it with Montgomery; and it forced by about 1,000 T. S. troops nnder com- 

now bids fair to become one of the most im- mand of Lient. Ool. H.Brown. Col. Ohaseliad 

portant points in thegnlf of Meiioo. It has prerionBlybeeaBaperaededbyQeiL. Bragg, who 

a Tery admirable harbor, admitting Tesaela of now (May 15, 18S1) invests the fort wiui from 

a draiwht of SI feet, and aSbrding almost on- V,000 to 10,000 men. 

limitea aocommodatjon. The principal pnblio FEN8A0OLA BAY, an arm of the gulf of 
btdldlags are a oostdm house, Boman Gath- Mexico, in the western part of Florida, extend- 
olio, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Methodist, ing inland about SG or 80 m. in a K. £. direc- 
and Baptist chnrobea, and an academy. A tdon. At a little more than half thia distance 
tri-weekly and two dally newspapers are from the sea, it separates itself into two diri- 
pnhllshwL The remains of the old Spanish riona, Escambia bay on the W. and on the £. 
forta, San Mignel and San Bernard, may be the bay of Santa Uaria de Galrez, East bay, 
aeen in the rear of the city. The ci^ is sap- or Blaok Water bay, as it is rarionsly desig- 
plied with water of esoeileat ^aality from a sated. The former receives the waters of the 
number of springs. The climate is exceedingly Escambia river ; the latter, those of the 'BlvA 
haslthftil, except for oooaeional and rare yiA- Water and Yellow Water. The entrance of 
tations of yellow fever. The Creole element the bay, between Santa Eoaa island on the E 
predominates in the resident popnlation, a and tbe munland on the W., is little more than 
oorrnpt patoit of the French language is ei- 1 m. wid& bnt within it expands into a o^ia- 
tenriveiy spoken, and many of the nsages and cions harbor, from 4 to 10 m. in width, and 
costoms prevailing are quaint and primitive. — entirely luidlocked. There is a depth of abont 
There la some snoertainty with regard to the S2 feet of water on the bar. The entrance of 
original settlement of Pensaoola. It is believed Pensacola bay is defended by Fort Hckens on 
that a few French colouiste established them- the E., ritnateS on the extreme point of the 
selvea here abont the year 169S. There is no long, narrow Island of Banta Bosa, and Fort 
donbt, however, that the plaae wasin the poB- McKea on the W., sitnated on the mainland. 
session of the Bpaidarda m 1699, abont which Abont 1^ m. to the S". and immediately in 
tdme a colony of 800 emigrated thither from front of tiie entrance (the W, shore making an 
Yera Gnu. Their posseasion was for many abrupt tarn to the E.), stands Fort San Oarlos 
years dippnted by the French, and in 1719 the de Earrancafl. Near this fort are the light- 
place was attacked and taken possession of by hoase, extenrive barracks, and the naval hoa- 
Bienvine^ who held it nntil 1728, when it was pital. Abont a mile above the hospital ia tite 
restored to the Spaniards. In 17Q3 Pensacola, navy yard, sitnated on Tartar point, where Uie 
with the rest of Florida, passed into the occn- ahore again bends to the "S. The villages of 
panoy of the British. It was again besieged Warrington and Woolsey lie immediately a^ja- 
and taken by the Spanish general Oalvez in cent to the wall of the navy yard. 8ix uufes 
1781: and in 1783 the whole province was re- above is the town of Pensacola. Atthemon^ 
trooeded to Spain. In Nov. 1814, the British of Blackwater river is the village of Bagdad, 
forcea, whichhad been permitted by the Span- where there are extensive saw mills, sash 
iah anthorities to eetabush themselves at Pen- manufactories, dec. Milton, a thriving vil- 
sacola, were driven ont by Gen. Jackson, who lage of abont 1,800 inhabitants, la 8 m. above. 
assantted and took the city and a^iaoent forts. There is a large lumber trade on the shores of 
In May, 1818, Gen. Jackson again took pos- Pensacola bay and its tribntaries. 
•ession of Pensacola, and obliged Fort Barran- PENSIONARY, Obutd, an ofBoer of the 
oaa, to which the Spanish governor had retired, Dntch repnblio, who bore the title (dw of 
to capitulate. This movement was made in advocate-general, and was prime minister of 
oouMqnence of the inonraions of hostile Indians the states or legislative body of the province 
from Florida into United States territory, and of Holland. He was called grand pensiouaiy 
the inability or nnwillingneaa of the Spanish from the pension or salary attached to bis 
anthoritiea to suppress them. By a trea^ office. In the assembly of the states he ini- 
oondnded OoL 24, 1820, and ratted March tiated bills, drew up reports, and collected the 
99, 1821, the whole province was ceded to votes. He also conducted the diplomatic cor- 
the United States. On Jan. 12, 1861, imme- ren)ondence of the province, received ambas- 
diately after Florida had declared its eeceeuon sadors, and anperintended the finances. He 
from the Union, a body of about 600 troops, permanently represented Uie province in the 
Tolnnteera fri»n Alabama and Florida, com- states of the United Provinoes, end had great 
manded by OoL W. H. Chase, took possession infloence not only in the province of Holland, 
of the navy yard, Forts Barranoas and McBea, bnt in the whole republic. The term of his 
the naval hospital, and military barracks, all office was 6 years with privilege of re&lec- 
near the entrance of the harbor. Lient Slem- tion. The most distinguished of tne grand pen- 
mer, of the U. S. army, had two days previously sionaries were John De Witt, killod in 1C72, 
evacuated Fort Barrancas and transferred his Heinsius^ who was in office from 1689 to 1T30, 
command to Fort Pickens, immediately oppo- and Bchimmelpenninck, who was grand pen- 
site, on Santa Boaa island. The relative posi- sionary of the Batavian republic &om 1768 
tdon of both ddes continued the same until the to 180S, when the offiee was abolished. 


FKHTAkkrcK (Gr. imv«, Ato, and itrrpm, oal pmitj whiolt Iwtism oonfent. jhc da; ma- 

meuora), ■TArMooufatingttffiflMt, ofwfaioh qdi^aeuaoeof WUtBDndBjorWhUnuitid*, 

tho lat and U •noOuraaolTU or spondees, PENZA, a oentnl goTenanaiit <rf European 

the 8d alvm a i^Nntdw, and Uie 4th and 6tib Bvada, ritoated betireen lat tX" and SC' N. 
anapMato. KlegiaoTenee«onriBt of hexameters .and l<»g. 43° and 47° E., and boonded N. bj 

and pqnta metei B need alternately. N^ni NcTgorod, E. bj Skabirsk, B. by Saratov, 

FENTATEUOH (Gr. nm, five, and mwt, and W. hj Tambov ; area, 14,040 aq. m. ; pop. 

book), the 6 bO(^ of UOBW, bdng the &A S tnlSSS, 1,180,980. ThesarfiueiBleTeL lliera 

books <tf the Old Testament, vi£.: Qeneiis,Ex- are S small lalras, and seTeral Btreanu ; bntthe 

odtis, Levitioiu^ Nnrobers, and Deateronomjr. atHj rivers of anj importanoe ere the Sura and 
^BeaBrau, andBxBBXWfl.) ttte Moksba, both tribntarles of the Yolga. 

P£M!ECOST (Or. nrmawnh fiftieth), one Yalaable iron mines are worked near Trol^ 

of the S prinoipal festivals of the Jevs, so millstones are eiteninTel;^ qoarried, and larm 
ealled in Greek and modem langnagee beoanse qnantities of sulphur are fonnd. The cold In 
it iras odebrated on the GOth A&j after the winter is ver^ severe, bat the sonuner is miU, 
fleast of the passover, bnt oriffinaU; called and the climate general!; healthj. More than 
the "ftast of weeks" (Heb. hay iaihihabtMtk; half the sorfoce la arable or meadow land, and 
in the book of Tobit, Ayia hrm iffSoiu^ar, there are eztenmve forests. Great ^lenlion is 
the feast of 1 veeks), because it was oele- pidd to raising horses, homed cattle, sheep, 
brated T weeks after the 16th day of the 1st pigs, and bees. There are iron works, glass 
month ot the Hosaio calendar (Niaan). It works, tanneries, &o. — Pxsla.. the capital, is 
was md is still observed bv the Jews (now sitasted at the jnnotion of tne rivers Fenaa 
gaoeially also on the di^ following the SOth) and Snra, 46fi m. B. E. from Kosoow ; pop. 
as a day of pnblio r^oioing, and abo in com- abont 19,000. It stands on an eminence, and 
tnemorstion of the revel^on of the law on Is bnilt prinaipail7 of wood. There are mann- 
Binai, whioh hjppened on the same day. — The flwtories of woollen fabrios, linen, leather, 
Aaj is also kept as a high festival in the Ohris- soap, and silk. An annual fair is hdd, which 
tiu) ehoroh to oonunemorate the descent of lasts from Jnne tS to Jnly 4. 
the Holy Ghost npon the apostles, 10 days af- FENZAHOE, a aeanort and the most weit- 
ter Christ's ascension and the oommenoement erly town of England, on Uonnt's bavj Oom- 
of tike preaoUng of the gospel to the gentiles, wsll, 94 m. 8. W. of Traro and 9 m. E. If . E 
'tho ^KMtles, the women, and others, to the of Land's End; pop. in 1861, 9,314. The sit- 
nnmbeor in all of abont 120, being gathered to- nation of the town Ib exceedingly pictnresqos, 
gether at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, standing on a beantlAil shore finely onrved, 
"sodduily there came a sound from hearen as and sarronnded by roeky eminences. It has 
of a maUng n^^ty wind, and it filled all the several chnrohes wd pnblio bnildii^n the hall 
honsB where they were ntting. And there and mnseom of the Cornwall gaologioalsoaiety, 
qipeared nnto them cloven toi^ea like as of and a pier of oonidderable length with a U^t- 
flre, and it sat upon each of them. And they boose at its extremity, lln and copper, wluoh 
were all filled with the Holy OihotA, and be- abonnd in the neighborhood, are exported in 
gan to speak with other tongues as the Spirit large qnantities, as well as obina clay and fU' 
gave them utterance. .... Kow when this chuds. The climate is remarkably mild, and 
was noised abroad, the mnltitade come to- nnmerona invalids resort thither. Sir Hnm- 
gethn*, and were confbnnded, beoanse that phiy Davy was a native of Ponzanoe. 
every man heard them speak in his own Ian- I^ON, a Spanish word signi^ng a day 
gnage." (Acts li. 3-6.) It is farther related laborer. In Spanish America it is applied «•- 
that Peter Qiereapon preached to them, and pedaUy to Inoisn laborers. By the dvil law 
abont 8,000 sonls were converted. The pre- imder tiie Spanish colonial system, and bj 
eise natnre of the gift of tongnuu as the pow- facial statute in soma countries, as (or lit- 
er then conferred by the Holy Ghost is gen- stance by the law regnlating oontraots be* 
•rally called, is very variously es^Jalned by tween masters and servants in New Mexioo, 
oommantators. Some believe that the apos- peons are compelled to work for their empk^- 
tles were miraonloosly enabled to speak all ers, provided they are in debt to the latter, 
languages withont having learned them; others until the debt b pfdd. They receive wagesj 
soppoee the speaking with tongaes to have amounting In New Uexieo to $6 a month. It 
been merely a convulsive sort of utterance Is alleged that many proprietors, by entiotng 
followed by intelligible and inspired words, the peons In their employment into needless 
Other critics hold t&t the speakers ased either expenditures, and by wiling them soode and 
their own native languages, or an eostatio advancing them money, contrive to keep thsm 
tongne which by a miracle sonnded to each hopelessly in debt and in a consequent state 
hearer ss if it ware his own dialect A sy- of bond^^e. The creditor, however, has no 
nopsis of the different opinions is given by De power over the wife and ohildren of the peon, 
Tette. The fiastival of Pentecost was in the nor can the latter be sold like a slave, 
aariy ag«s one of the favorite seasons for ad- PEORIA, a central oo. of Dl., boonded 8. 
ndnistcnrfaig bmtism : and as those who reoeived E. by the Illinois river and Peoria lake, and 
it were elotfaed in white to qnnbollse the spirit- drained by Spoon river, Kiokapoo, Elbow, and 


120 '^'^^ 

Otnpeni ereeks; area, 000 sq. m.; pop. la van aninst the hostile Mbea on the hanka 
1660, 17,U7; In 1860, 8fl,M6. It has a gentlf of the fihine, and espeuaUy the Fri«aiu and 
nnduating tar&oe and rerj fertile soil. The the Alemanni, After repeated defeats, botli 
prodnotiosa In 1800 were 1,018,289 hushela of were enbdned. Bnt the latter dajs of Pepis 
Indian eom, 186,167 of wheat, 188,718 of oats, were troubled bj the rivalry between his l^t- 
13,668 tone of haj, and M,236 Iba. of wool. In imate wife Pleotmda and Ma raistresB Alpaida, 
I860 there were 10 grist mills, 16 saw mills, 8 the mother of Ofaarlea Uartel. Hia own son 
tanneries, 6 newspaper ofiioea, 72 chnrchee, and Grimoold was murdered; and he be^neathed 
7,&41 pnpils attending pablio aohoola, — Peobu, to his grandson nnder the regeno; of hia widow 
thaoapitel,is sitnated on theW. bank of the U- a power which was soon seized apon bfhis 
linols river, here croseed by 3 bridges, each natnral son, whom he had imprisoned, 
3,600 fbet long, at the oatlet of Peoria lake, 70 FEFOf thb Sdobt (U Br^, king of the 
m. N. &om Springfield, and 160 m. b? r^lroad Franks, t^e first of the Carioyiogiau d;naitj, 
B. W. from Chicago ; pop. hi I860, 14,762. bom aboot 716, died in 768. On the death of 
It haa regular river oommnnioadon bj st«am- his father Oharles Uartel in 741, he reoeived 
boat with St. Lonis, and is conneoted with as his Bhare of the Frankisb empire Nenatria, 
Ohtoago by the Elinois and Uiohigan oanaL Bargondy, and Provenoe, while his elder bro- 
The Peoria and Bnrean Yalley, the Logans- ther Oarloman had Anstrasia and the oooi^iea 
port and Peoria, and tbo Peoria, Oqnawka, on the right bank of the Bhine. Tostreagtheo 
and Burlington rulroads, which concentrate his pews', be placed on the throne a Iferorin- 
in the city, unite with the principal railroads gian prince, Ohilderio m., and contented him- 
of the state. It is a city and port of entry, well self with the title of mayor of the palace. In 
btdlt, r^olarly l^d ont, with wide pleasant concert with Oarloman, be forced the Bava- 
slreetB lighted with gas, and contain^ beside nans, the Alemanni, and the Aquitaniana into 
theoonntybnildingSiSeveralednoationalinstita- enbnussion; bnt Oarloman having in 747 ra- 
tions, and 24 ohurohea. The products of man- tired to a convent, Pepin, setting the Jort 
nfaotnre in 1860 amounted to f 6,717,000. The dainiB of his nephews aside^ made hima^ the 
neighboring blnfb contain inexhauatdble beds ruler of the whole Frankiah dominions. He 
of coal, and esoellent timber also aboundsin the now thought the time had come to add the title 
vicinity, giTing rise to a very extensive trade, of king to hb authority ; in oonseqnenca of 
PEPIN OF HfinisTAL, di^e of the Franks, which, avaiUng himself of a favorable decison 
bom abont the middle of tlte 7th century^ died of Pope Zacbary and the consent of the lords, 
in 714. He was the grandson of Fepin of he confined Ghilderio IIL in the monastery 
lAnden and the founder of the Oarlovingian of Bithin, near St, Omer, and was Bolemnly 
family. Inheriting part of the inflaenoe of his crowned and anointed by St. Boniface at Bois- 
anceatora, who held tjie hi^^eat rank among sons In 763. In the same year he received the 
the Ifudet or lords of Anstrasla, Pepin, in con- Bubmiesion of Soptimania, which for Bevertl 
cert with his oondn Uartin, the mayor of the years had been held by the Saracens of Spain, 
palaoe, led the rebellion against King Dagobert In 768 he forced the Saxons to reeogniu Ma 
n., who was murdered in 679. The two ohieft supremacy by paying a tribute of BOO horses 
then receiTed the title of "dokes of the and taking an oath to respect the Christian 
Franks," and the kingly title in Anatrasia was missionaries travelling among them. Pope 
aboHshed. They attempted to subdue Kens- Btephen HI. now visited France to solicit as- 
tiia, which was then ruled by the mayor eietance against the perseoutione of Aetolphna, 
Ebroin, bat were defeated at Lenoo&o near king of the Lombards. Pepin received the pon- 
Laon in 680, when Martin was killed and Pepin tiff with great honor, had the ceremony of cor- 
remained the only chief of the Anatrasiana. onation performed again by him, and started 
Oocatdonsl hostilities took place during the fol- for Italy at the head of his army. He croeoed 
lowing years, without any marked gnooeas ; bnt the Alps and besieged Astolphus in Paris, who 
Pepin <£d not give up hie ambitions designs, sned for peace and aseented to the terms dio- 
and in 687, having rooted the Qermans, he tated by his conqueror; bnt P^in had acarce- 
was enabled to invade Neuslria at the head of ly left Italy, when Astolpbns broke tha treaty 
a formidable army. The contest ended in the and threatened the city of Bome, Pepin haat- 
batHe of Testry, when Boman France, as north- ened to the rescne (7C£), couqnered the exaroh- 
em Gaul was called, eaccmnbed to Tentonio ate of Bavenna, and gave it^ with the Peuta- 
Franoe ; and thenceforth the doke was the ao- polls, to the pope, thus fonnding the temporal 
knowledged roler of the whole Prankish em- sovereignty of uie holy see. In 769 he invaded 
plre. He nevertheless permitted Merovingian Aqnitania, which, under the heroic Waifar^had 
princes to continue upon the throne ; but Thier- asserted its independence. A dreadtU war of 
rrin., Olovis O., Ohildebert III., and Dagobert 8 years was waged, and the king of the Franks 
In. were mere phantoms whom he kept under could only eecnre his conquest of that province 
guard in some villa, bringing them forth bnt by the asaaasination of his rival (768). Pepin 
onoe a year in the national meeting of Uay, died a few days after hia return from his urt 
while he wielded unlimited authority, control- expedilJoQ thither, leaving his kingdom to his 
ling the arietooraoy of the chiefs as he did two sons, Oarloman and Oarl, the latter of 
royalty. From 087 to 713 he was engaged in whom was afterward known as Charlemagne. 



Notirltiiita&Siig Ub shortnen of etstim, from vWe he died booh «fter. On account of hii 

vhioh Ms mrname was dativecl, Tv^ was alliance wKh the Noitiunen, he was staled 

noted for extraordhuiT phTsical sbength ; and " the Apostate." 

this, with oonrage and actirHj', soonred his In- FEPPKR, a name applied to a nomber of 

fluenoe over the torbnleut chieftains of Ten- pungent-ihiited plants belongs to distinct 

tonic France. orders. The black pepper {p^er nigrum, 

F£PIK I., king of Aqnitaoia, bom about 809, Lino.) is the borr? of a climbing vine of the 

died in 8Sfi. The second son of Lonis le D6- East Indies, \ety extensivelj cultivated there, 

bonnaire bj his first wife, he received from It is the tjpe of the pepperworts {piperacea, 

him in 817 the kingdom of Aqoitania, while Lindley), which comprise in their several 

Ilia fonngest brother Lonis had Bavaria, and species ahrabs and herbs with articulated 

llie eldest, Lothaire, was associated in the gov- stems, opposite verticillate leaves, which are 

imunent of the empire. In 899, when the em- sometimes alternate in conseqnenoe of Qte 

peror wished to change this arranrcment in abortion of one of the pairs ; etjpules none, or 

order to provide for Charles, who had been in piurs or single, and opposite to the leaf; 

txHD to turn hy his second wife, Jndith of Ba flowers nsnally sessilo, in spikes either terminal 

Tint, Pemn Joined his brothers in a rebellion orasillarr, n&ked,havingabractonthe ontnde, 

sgunit taeir &ther, whom they confined in a the stamens 3 or more, arranged on one side ; 

moniatery; bat soon becoming dissatisfied with anthers with lor 2 cells; stigmas 8; ovarvum- 

the overbearing manner of Lothaire, who bad pie, l-cel)ed : fruit somewhat fleshy, indehis- 

seiied npoQ the imperial aTithorit;^, Pepin par- cent, 1-seeded. Some doabt exists among hot4- 

ticipstea in the national assembly held in 8S0 nista whether the pepperworts are exogenons 

at Mmegnen, irhioh restored Lonia to hia or endogenoos ; the venation of their leaves 

thnme. His father now desiring to take and the general appearance of the wood favor 

Aqnitaoia from him, he. In concert with his theformersnpposition, whileobaervationsmade 

brotheiB, flew to arms again in 8SS ; and the bj Blame in regard to the spiral vessels seem 

three princes marched their troops to Alsace, to indicate that they are endogenous. The 

met the emperor at a place afterward known black pepper has broad-ovate, acnminate, 7- 

aa Lfigetifeld, took him prisoner by means of nerved, coriaoeoos, smooth leaves, pale beneath 

the trsachery of his own troops, conveyed h''^ and dotted when yonng ; the flowers are ntn- 

to Oompi^e, and forced hmt to do solemn at«d npon long, pendidons, tapering aments, 

Coe. Bat at the end of a few months and succeeded by round fleshy berries. These 

and Louis of Bavaria, diagnst«d onoe are gathered after tiie pepper vine is at least 4 

more with their elder brother's behavior, re- years old, and qniokly dried upon mate, when 

leased thdr &ther from his captivity and again they turn black. In this .condition they are 

leknowledged bis supremacy ^84). Pepin termed blaok pepper, and the white pepper of 

nssddicted to Intemperanoe,— Pbkk XL, his the shops oonaiste of the same berries freed 

eldest son, bereft of his inheritance, wltich was fh>m the bnsk or rind by maceration in water. 

B«nted to Oharles the Bald, the youngest son Pepper, though nsnally employed aa a grateful 

of Louis le IMhonnaire, was nevertheless ac- oondiment, is likewise prescribed aa a medi- 

knovledged as king by the Aquitanians. In cine in oases of relaxed nvnla and paralysig of 

UO he joined hia nnole Lothmre in his contest the tongue, and in the form of an ointment for 

•giinst Charles the Bald and Lonis the Ger- scald-head. Infhsed in spirit and water, it has 

nun, was defeated with him at Fontenay in been considered more speedy and milder in ita 

Ml, and once more, by the treaty of Terdnn operation as a remedy agunst the return of a 

in Si3, deprived of his kingdom. He still paroxysm of intermitting fever than the oin- 

boireTer held hia ground, forced Oonnt Wil- ohona alkahea. Pepper is a dangerous stimn- 

lisin of Tontonte into snbmission, routed the lant la excesMve doses, being fonnd hurtfbl to 

■nny erf Obarlea the Bald near AngouUme in the liver and ii^urious through its impression 

SU, snd finally in 846 obliged his uncle to on the nervous system. The ofBcinal onbeba 

naot him the best pert of Aqmtania as a fle£ (P. oubeba, linn.) and another species (euheba 

Bit his popularity among the Aquitanians van- eanino, Hiquel), both common in Java, are ex- 

idiedirh«ihealIiedhimselfwiththeKorthmen, tensively need in medicine. The leaf of the 

Abandoned tmth by his sutgects and his allies, betel, which b chewed with the areca nut, is 

he took reftage in Qascony, but was betrayed from the P. bttU of Uiquel. The fcava plant 

into the liands of Charles the Bald by the 6aa- is the mrwrcpiper methyttieum (Miqnel), whoee 

oon chief Saooher in 663. Imprisoned in a rootstooks are used by the Society islanders 

mooattery, he eooaped in 854, indnoed a nnm- for purposes of inebriation ; its medicinal prop- 

ber of Aqmtfidans to rise in his behalf again erties are stimulating, narcotic, sudorifio, and 

proonred the assistance of the Northman, and aromatic. It has a reputation, as a tincture, 

in 667 obliged Oharles to grant biin lands, against rheumatism. There ore many other 

But in a last attempt to take Toulouse at the species in this order which possess usefal Prop- 

hesd of Uls Northmen in 884, he fell into an erties. The African pepper consists of the 

■mbnah, wss sent to Pistes, where be was sen- seeds of the xylopia aromatica (Blume), grow- 

tenoed to death by the lords of the kingdom, ing in Sierra Leone ; and another spaoies of 

■iid was imprieoned by hia nnole at Senlis, Brazil and Guiana is employed for Uie same 


122 PKPfKBKT^i ^EPtS 

porpoM hy the negroes of thou oonntiieB. up. Thoiif^ an srdeiit roundhead in hie ;oiiih. 
These planlB belong however to the anonaeta. he expressed neat ioj at the restoratitoi of 
Hie importations of black pepper into the Charles II., and accompanied Montagn in the 
Unit«d Statea for the year endmg June 80, capacity of secretary to tiie two generals of the 
1660, amoonted to 7,091,760 lbs., valaed at fleet when be brot^^t tbe king over. In the 
$401,791, of which (107,413 worth was re£z- anmrner of 1600 be was appointed clerk of the 
ported. — The peppen of the kitolien garden are acts of tbe navj, an office which gare bim con- 
the fruits ofthecqidcQma, of the uatoral order stant opportmiities for intercourse with the 
tobmaeea. (See Oafsioch.) doke of York, who held the poet of high ad- 
PEPPEBELL, Sib Willum, an j&mericaa miial, sod wiUi whom he was soon in great 
general, bom at Eittery Pohit, He., in 1697, &Tor. HistalentsforboNDesswereof no corn- 
died there, Jiilj 6, 17&9. He was brought np mtm order. During the plague of 1665 be bad 
as a raerohant. About 1727 he was edeoted the whole monagemeDt of tbe naval affurs. He 
one of his m^estj's council for the province was one of tbe ooQunisffloners on the atfturs <d 
of Ifasaaohosetts, and he was regolarlj re- Tanker in 1662, and became treasurer to the 
elected tat 82 years in succession. living on conmiSsaion in 1666. At tbe same time be wss 
an exposed frontier, where tbe inhabitants wpointed surveyor-general of Uie victualling 
were constantly engaged in warfare with the ofBoe. When tbe officers of tbe navy boaid 
savages, a huve portion of bis life was spent in were called to tbe bar of the house of commons 
the camp. He rose to the highest honors, and in 1668, to answer for the disaster to tbe Brit- 
when the expedition against Lonishurg was ish fleet in the Dutch admiral De Rnyter'a ex- 
undertaken, the governors of Ife^t. England sedition against Chatham, Pepys was chMen 
gave him the command of the troops. Begin- ny bis coUea^es to conduct their defence, 
ning the siege in Uay, 1746, he soon compelled which he did in a speech of 8 honrs with com- 
tbe taij to sorreDder, and in reward for his plete success. His diary cootwua a corioos 
services wss made a baronet. In 176B he was record of Uie compliments which were paid 
appointed lieutenant-general. His grandson him on this occosioa : " Iifr. Yaugban did pro- 
was created a baronet in 1774, and embraced test . . , . that he had sat 26 years in parlia- 
tbe royal oause during the revolutionary war, ment, and never beard sacb a speech there be- 
in consequence of which his estates were con- faro; forwhiob the Lord OodmsKemethaokfull 
fiscated. The life of Qen. Fepperell has been and that I may make use of it not to pride and 
written by Usher Parsons (8vo., Boston, 1S66). vain glory, but that, now I have this esteem, 1 
PEFPERUINT. See Hint. may do nothing that may lessen it 1" Neverthc- 
PEP8IN. See Ohyme. less, though he was many years in parliament, he 
PEPUBOH, JoHAinr Ohbistoph, a Giennaii made no flgnro there. Shortly aAer the dose 
composer, bom in Berlin in 1667, died in Lon- of hia diary be travelled on the continent, and 
dos m 1753. For a number of years be held oolleoted a variety of information respecting 
an appointment at the Prussian court as harp- tbe Prendi and Butch navies. He was not 
siohora teacher, and about 1698 emigrated to without his enemies; the earl of Shaftesbuiy 
England, where he passed the remainder of bis att«mpted to show that he was " a pt^iat or 
life. As a composer he is chiefly known by popishly inclined," with a view to defeat him 
his adaptations of popular lurs for the " Beg- in a ctrntested election case before a committee 
gar's Opera," for which he also wrote an on- of the honseof commons, and some years afler- 
ginal overtore. He was the author of a ward attempted to implicate him in the murder 
" Treatise on Harmony" (1781), highly es- of Sir Edmundbury Godfrey. In 1678 King 
teemed aa a theoretdcol work. Charles appointed him secretary for the affiurs 
FEFYS, CoAXLK GamsTOFHBB. See Cot- of the na^ — ^^ ofBce which only involved 
TXNHAH. bim in fresh difficulties, for during the excite- 
FEFYS, Baiiusl, an English diaristj bom ment of the popish plot he was accused witJt 
Feb. 28, 1638, died Uay 26, 170S. He belonged Sir Anthony Deane of sending secret partica- 
to an ancient family, bnt hia father was a tailor, lars respectinic the English navy to the conrt 
and his own early llfeseems to have been passed of France, and of being an enemy to the Prot- 
in humble circumstances. He was educated estant religion. After 9 months' imprisonment 
at St. Paul's achool, London, and at Uagdalene ho waa discharged, the oompl^nant, CoL John 
college, Cambridge, where he held a scholar- Scott, a man of bad character, retracting hia 
ship, bnt it does not appear that he took a de- deposition. Pepys bad now lost his office, bat 
gree. Inl666 hemarried a yonn^girtwitbout in 1680 he attended the kmg at Newmarket, 
fortune, and went to live with his cousin. Sir where he took down in ehort^bond hia mi^es- 
Edward Montagu, afterward flrst earl of Sand- ty's narrative of his escape after the battle of 
wioh, whom he acoompanied a few years later Worcester, which has often been published. In 
on his expedition tj> the Sound. He waa imme- 1683 be accompanied Lord Dartmouth's eipedi- 
diately afterward appointed to a small office in tion to Tangier. Aiter his return be waa a^ 
the exchequer. On Jan, 1, 16GB-'60, he began pointed secretary for the affura of the admi- 
to keep a short-band ^ary, which ho continued ralty, a post which he continued to fill with 
iminterruptcdly until Uay 81, 1669, when he remarkable ability until the accession of WiUiam 
waa compelled by defective eye^it to give it of Orange, when he retired to private lifa Be 


WBspresidwtof tberoyalBDoie^froinlSMto longhaira; pcvchwitii its entrance craninonlr 
1686. In 1690 he vbb orreBted on s charge of directed baokvard ; mammie 8 or lees; stomaob 
being too favorable to the exiled James, bnt ample, and ctBcmn moderate. The largest are 
was soon released. — Cj bia will Fepja left to haidlj of tiie size of a bare ; they are fonnd in 
Magdalene college, Oambri<^ his Talaable ool- Australia and Tasnania, and feed on inaeots and 
lection of prints, books, and mannsonpts, now vegetable imbBtancea,— In the genua maeretii 
known as the Pepjsian librar;. Among tbem (Beid) the ears are very large, the tail long snd 
are mAnnscripte. naval memoirs, and a coUec- ODvered with long hair, the torsna long, the mo- 
tion of English ballads in fi large folio volumes, tataisoa hairy beneath^ the innermost biiid toe 
from whidi Bishop Percy partly derived hia wanting, and the opemng of the pouch directed 
** Beliqnee of Ancient Sn^^isn Poetry." His di- foward. The rabbit-eared peramelea (JT. loj/^ 
ary, after lying onreadformore than a oentnry, tit, Reid), of W. AQstralia,iBS8inohe8 long, of 
was deciphered by a yomw collegian, Mr. John which the tail is 10 ; ears about 4 inches ; fnr 
Smith, and part of it published, with a aeleo- very long and soft, without admixture of amny 
tion from hifl private correspondenoe. by Lord hairBj pie gray above, delicate vinous red on 
Braybrooke (2 vola. 4to., London, 1826). It has the mdes, and whit« below. It is called native 
rince appeared in several more complete edi- rabbit by the oolomsts of Swan river, where it 
tiona, and forma 4 vols, of Bohn's " Historical abounds in the grassy districts, usaaily seen in 
Library." It is nniversallf regarded as one of pairs ; it burrows in loose soU like the rabbit, 
the moat amuMng books of its kind ever print- retiring to its hole wheo pursued ; the fleab is 
ed, and it rives us aa insight into tbe manners eweet^like that of tiie rabbit ; its food oonaiatB 
and sooial Hfb of the time of Oharlea IL which of insects, especially of the larvra of a larM 
we can ohtun by no other means. Fepys pnb- httpreitu fonnd at the roots of the acacia, eqnal- 
lished " Usmoirg relating to the State of the ly relished by this animal and the natdvee. It 
Boyal Kavy" (Svo., London, 1S60), and a tax- Is active in the evening, sleeping by day in a 
ther pnblioatioa of them is in progress, edited rittdngpoatorewith the head between the legs; 
by E. "F. Kimbanlt; and hia "Jonnial of Toy- it is of a aavage disposition, even in captivity; 
■ge to and Residence at Tangier" has been it wijks upon the hind legs widely aeparatod, 
pabliahed from the USS. in the Bodl^an library the tail assialing in the support of the body, 
(2 voIb. 8vo.^841). and probably does not leap lie the kangaroo. 

PEPTS, WiLUAH Easblthkb, an English — In piramtU* (Geofflroy) the feet, t^, and 

chemist, bom in London in 1T7S, died there, ears are proportionately abort; the toj has 

Aog. 17, 18S6. Early manifesting a taste for coarse hairs mixed with it ; the tail is covered 

the natural acienoea, he became a member of with ve^ short hair ; the pouoh opens back- 

the Aakesian society, founded in 17S6, for the ward. The largest speoies is the Utick-tailed 

investigation of phUosophical Holyects, and bandicoot (P. nuiotvum. Gould), 28 inches long, 

coBtribated a number of papers to ita pro- of which the t^ is 7 ; fur moderately long and 

ceedings. Ont of this society sprang the Lon- harsh to the touch, pencilled with black and 

don institution for the advancement of litero- yellow above, more yellowisli on the ndee, 

ture and the diSusion of usefol knowledge, the and yellowish white below ; tail rat-like, with 

British mineralogical aociety, and the geolo^- small stiff hairs, black above and brownish 

cal aociety of London, in all of which Mr. Pepys white below ; it inhabits K. Australia. Other 

took an active part. The progress of chemistry qieciea are found in B. and W. Australia, many 

and electro-chemistry was for 80 yeara mate- with the hair harsh, flattened, and sharp, ana 

rially aided by his skill in the construction of are generally called bandicoots. — In the genua 

apparatus. A voltaic battery for electro-mag- ehteroput (Ogilby) the fore feet have only 9 

netic e^eriments devised by him is described imall, equal toee, with abort compressed najls; 

inth« " PhSoeophioal Tranaaotiona" for 1828. Iiind feet with one well developed toe, the 

FERA, a Buburb of Constantinople. See Joined ones very small and high np, and the 

CoKCTANTiNOFXK, vcJ. V. p. G87. onter a mere tubercle, all with nula: muzzle 

PERAMZLES, a family of smell maranptal long and pointed, eara very larse, fore legs 
mammals^ popolarly oalled bandicoots. The soaxWy aa thick as a goose quul, hind legs 
dentition is: mcisors y, canines {il, premo- longer and about aa slender; the pouch open- 
Ian |i}, and true molars }z}; the teeth are ing backward. According to Van der Eoeven, 
root«d, the premolars compremed and pointed, these are the only marsupials which have fewer 
and the molars tubercnlated. The head is than B toea on the fore feet. The pig-footed 
elongated, the face narrow and pointed, muffle perameles ((7. eattanotU, Oray) is about 10 
naked, nostrila lateral, upper lip alightly deft, inches long to the root of the ttul, the latter 
and the ears moderate or verv large ; the pos- being 4 inches more ; the fhr is long, loose, and 
tfirior limbs considerably the longest ; forefeet soft, brownish gray above, sometimes tinged 
6'toed, with rudimentary outer toes; hind feet with rostj, and y^towish white below; ttul 
with inner toe rudimentary or absent, the 8d abort-haired, black above and brownish white 

and 8d joined even to the end and with smaU below ; it inhabits S. Aoatralia, making a neat, 
nails, the 4th very large, and the fith moderate like other members of the family, of leaves and 

" ■ " ■' " ' ■ — .. " this fami^ have been 

y, Australia. 


or radimeatarT ; tul naually short and clothed grass. Fossil remains of this fami^ have been 
with amaUhaira,'but sometunes long witit very found in Wellington valley, Australia. 


PEBOGVAL, Oxcesnr DX. SeeO^reenr. mnetimesofS. In sqnsra measure 160 square 

PZEOEVAL, Spmkikh, an English BtateBnun, perohee make an sore, or 40 make one rood. 

bom in London, Nov. 1,1763, aaeaeaSnated In masonr; a perch is eqaal to SB onbio feet. 
Is the lob^ of the house of commons, Hay PEIBOH, a name properly reetrioted to the 

11, 1813. He vas the Sd son of John, earl of ferdda, a verj extensive funiiy of aeanthop- 

Egmont, bj his 2d wife, the granddanghter of terons flshes, characterized by a cOToring of 

Ibe 4th earl of Northampton, and vss educated ctenoid scales, tlie freedom and small size of 

at Harrow and at Trinity college, Cambridge, the infra-orbital bones, large month, many of 

In 1786 he was called to the bar of Lincoln's the fin rays nqjointed and inflexible spines, 7 

Inn, and in a few years was in posseeaion of a branchiOBtegal rays, and the Tentrals witb 5 

lucrative practice. In 1796 be entered parlia- articulated rays and placed onder or ia ad- 

ment for the borongh of Northampton, which vanoe of the pectorals. There are teeth on tho 

he oontinned to represent Qntjl the close of hia vomer and generally on the palate, and the 

lif^ and became a warm supporter of I^tt, fins are always at least 7 and sometimes 8; 

whose favorable notice he attracted by a pam- the cheeks are not cnirassed, and there are no 

phlet on the force and extent of impeaalunenfa barbels on the lips; the stomach is cseoal, and 

by the honse of commons. So hignH- did Mr. its pyloric opening on the side ; pancreatio 

Pitt esteem his financial abUitiee, tliat when cnca few and small, and the intestmal canal 

aboat to fight a dnel with Tiemey he recom- hot little folded.^ — Leaving for works on ich- 

mended, in case of his own fall, the appoint- thyology the considerBtion of the sabdiviriona 

mentof Perceval as his sacceeaor. In 1801 he of the perch ikmily, only the typical genera 

was appointed solicitor-general in the Adding- can here be allnded to, and in the first place 

ton mmistry, and in 1802 attorney-general, the genns peroa (Onv.), of which the common 

in which capacity he conducted the prosecn- fresh water perch (P. fiavuesM) of America 

tion in the celebrated case of Peltier, indicted and the P. JlwaiatiUt of Enrope are familiar 

for a libel on Bonaparte dnring the peace of examples. The old genus perea of Arte^ 

Amiens. He retained his position npon tho and Iiinnceus has been subdivided into 86 

return of Hr. Pitt to office, and npon the accea- genera according to the nnmlwr and shape of 

sion of Ihe Fox-Orenville ministry went into Uie dorsals, the characters of the teeth, the 

oppoMtion. In 1807 he was appointed ohan- serrationa of the gill covers and shonldera, 

ceUor of the exchequer in the dnke of Port- size of the scales, and other characters. In 

land's cabinet, and npon the death of that no- the restricted genna perea of Cnvier there are 

blemau in 1809 he sncceeded him as first lord 2 dorsals (the 8d flexible), all the teeth Tilli- 

of the treasury. He met with his death at the form without canines, uie opercnlar bonea 

bands of John Bellinghani, an English mer- serrated, the opercnlnm spiniferons, and the 

chant resident in Archangel, who, for some tongne smooth ; 14 species are described, all 

all^d irnnJ7 by the Rassian government for inhabitants of fresh water. The yellow perch 

which he had been nnable to procure re^eas (P. fiavttettu, Gov.) is greeniah ^llow above, 

either from the British ambassador in St. Pe- andgoldenyellowonthe8idea,withTtranaverBe 

tersbarg or from the British ministry, shot 1&. dark bands, widest above, and white below ; 

Percevsl throngh the heart with a pistoL centre of operonimn deep green, iris golden, 

Bellingham had previously resolved on the dorsals and caudal yellowish brown, pectorals 

destruction of the ambassador, whom he con- yellow, and ventrals and anal scarlet. It at- 

fessed he would have preferred to tail ; but no tains a length of 13 to 16 inches and a weight 

rirtnnity occnrring, he determined to shoot of 3^ lbs., though most specimens are below 
first member of the administration who 10 inches; it is very generally distribnted in 
came in his way. He was snbseqnenUy tried the lakes, ponds, and streams of the northern 
for murder, and, notwithstanding an attempt and middle states and of the British provinces; 
to prove him insane, was convicted and hanged, it is easily taken by the hook or net, and is an 
. Vr. Perceval's death cauaed a profound sensa- excellent fish for the table. The P. Jlwnattlit 
tion, and upon the reoommendatlon of the (linn.) is very common over Europe and most 
prince regent parliament settled an annuity of of the northern parts of Asia ; the body above 
£3,000 upon his widow, and caused the sum of is greenish brown, passing into golden-yellow- 
£60,000 to be vested in trustees for the benefit ish white below, and on the sides are from t 
ofhia 13 children. He vraa a man of respecta- to 7 blackish bands ; the dorsals and peotoralB 
ble abilities, but distingulEhed rather as a ekll- brownish and the other fins vermilion ; it is 
M lawyer and politician than as a great states- a bold biter, and ita flesh is excellent ; it is 
man. He was at one time the 1^^ adviser of voracious, omnivorous, and tenacious of lifb 
the princess of Wales, and was intimately oon- out of water ; the female is very prolific, de- 
nec^ with the preparation of the documents podtli^ an immense number of eggs united by 
referring to the "delicate investigation," which' a viscid sobstanoe into lengthened strings. In 
were pnhlished in " The Book." some allied species the ahigle dorsal is deeply 
PEROH, PoLZ, or Ron (Lat pertiea, a long notohed, and the villiform teeth are inter- 
staff), a measure of length used in surveying spersed with canines. — There are some sea 
land, equal to 6i yards or 164 feet Surveyors' perches belonging to the genusMrranwi (Onv.), 
chains are oomAionly of 4 perches in length, with a ^n^ dotBol, canines, preoperoulmn 


FIB0I7AL 12& 

nxmdad it th« Mgl« tad smooth, 3 or mor« This waa « ptamhlet of «bfrat 100 pagee, oon- 
^n«a on operoaloin, and the Jaws not soal^ ; risting prindpnllr of Teree with a few proae 
^ere an M apedea, manj of them handsome eawTa added, and was soon followed bj & 
fishes, ftbnndant in the warmer seas, and som« Mwnd part, onnpoMd entirelj of rerse. In ' 
of them known to the anoientsnnder the name 1824, t^ng^ the inflnoioe of l£r. Oalhoun, 
of jwrso. The aUied genua ontMai (Blooh), he waa appointed aaaiBtant snrgeon in the U. 
smaller, with brilliant oolors and soalf Jaws, S. anaj, mA. ms detailed to Weet Point as 
was iamons in ancient tbnBa, and, aooordlng profbaaorof cbemlstrjin lfaemilitai7aoadan7. 
to Ariatotle, waa called sacred b; the sponge Aa the dntiee were too laboriouB for him to 
&herB, beoanse no Torodons fishes oame to the find Idsnre ibr the parsnit of his stadiea, he 
places it freqnented to anno^ tLe ^vera. Li soon rengned, and was mode siuieon in oon- 
other genera the d<Hrail is migle and oanlnea nection with the reondting service in Boston, 
are absent, as in M»tivpri*ti* (Odt.). whidi There he oontribnted freqaentlj to the " Unit- 
includes the fish often caQed Uaok peron ; thia, ed States literary Gazette," and edited sev- 
with other fishes of the genera ladrax (Onv), eral works, raie of wMdi was a repnblioati(» 
Iftytte* (Cdv.), and others called white, raddy, of Tioeaimng Knox's " Elegant Xbtlnota." In 
and sea penmea, have been deecribed under 1827 he removed to New Haven, and the aame 
BAaa. The bream (pomotU mdgant. Oat.) year published the third part of " Olio," and 
is otuext called pond peroh ; the white perch began a revised translation of Halte-Bmn's 
of the Ohio is uie corvina o$oula (Leeoear). — geogrsphj, which was not finished nnUl 1S8&. 
The salt water peroli, oonner, or ohogse^ so Ho waa also during the fears ISST-'S engaged 
oommon aromid uie roci7 shores of New £^ig- In assisting in the prepEiration for the press of 
land Odd the British provinces, is a cyololabrou Webster's " Dictionarj," a post for which hie 
fidi of the genns ettaolcArv (Gov . and Ysl.). philologiosi attainments admirably fitted him. 
In this fish {O. etrraltut, De Ka;) the body is ms taste for nstcral historj in general and for 
ehHigated and soalj, the preoperonlnm finely exploration had led him to take op Om stn^ 
daibonlated, Hps uddk and fleshy, a row M of geology, and in 1884 be hod made on his 
conical teeth in each jaw and a baai of villi- own aoooont an examination of the ranges of 
form onea behind these, the scales cydoid, and trap rook in OonnecticDt Li the followW 
the ansi fin with 8 apinoos rays. It varies ex- year he was appointed, in oonneotion with 
ceedinAly in mze and colors, being &oin 6 to Professor Oharles Shepoid, to make a geolfwt- 
IS inohes long ; it is generally of a blaish cal and mineralogioal survey of the state. To 
colw, bat preeents vanona tints of brown, tMa work Percival bent all his eneigies. He 
mstr, ooppery, reddish, or green, often with made a plan of the snrvey, and In ue execn- 
blotw dots, and irregoUr bloiah lines on the tlon of it traversed the stt^ so thoronghly that 
head ; the front teeth are larger than the there was scarcely s spot in it which he had 
oUiera, and the npper jaw is very projectile ; not visited ; and at the dme appointed for the 
there is & single dorsal, with 18 sbxing spinous re^rt to be made the work was &r frtKn bdng 
i^s, with whose pierciog power every school finished. After oondderable dissatia&etlon on- 
boj on the coast la f^nuiar. It is on excel- other appropriation waa ordered; and when at 
lent fish for tiie table, and ia generally fried; the expiration of ttie qipointed period no re- 
from Jnne to October great qnantitieB are port waa forthcoming, inrinnataonat^ainat Par- 
taken in neta and by hook from boata, whaifa, oival become cnrreut. The idea of a fldl re- 
and bridges, and always meet with a reedy port was now abandoned, and atxt oondder* 
s^ ; l^ey are kept olive in large floating oars able diffloolty, reeolting partW from Uie enor- 
through wbioh Uie water constantly flows, mons aocmnnladon ot moterulo, a oond»aed 
whence the market is sapplied ; a string of report of 600 ntterly nnreadable pages waa 
theoe fish, of an average length of 8 inches pnblished in 18^ Abont this time Perdvol 
each, cleaned and Adnned, con be obtained for ocoasionolly otmtiSbnted to the New Haven 
abont a oent apiece. Journals metrical rernona of Oennan, Kavio, 
PEBOIVAL, Javxs Gatbs, an American and other lyrics, and in 18U published " The 
poet, bom in Berlhi. Conn., Sept. 16, 17SS, died Dream of a Day." The next 10 years, spent In 
in Bozel Gre^ Wis., Uaj 2, 1857. He early retirement were employed In his favorite stud- 
monibated a great fondness for titerstnre, and les, with debts constantly increasing, so that 

at the age of 14 wrote a borlesi^e poem on the he waa at one lime forced in order to save his 
times. ^B» waa gradoated at Yale college in library fn»n ettaehmeot to apply to his friends 
181S, and sAer teaching for a short time in for old; and abont |2,000 then fredy presented 

Philadelphia began the study of medicine, with to him waa sobsequenUy repstd, botili prindpol 

which he also Joined botany. Inl820hepnb- and interest In 1868 aa offer was made 1dm 

li^ed a volume of poetry, which contained Qu bythe Ajnerieon mining ccnonany to survey 

firat part of " Promeduns" and a few mints thdr lead mining repon in msoratsin, and in 

poenuk Admitted to pradioe In die same year, die following year he was qipolnted geologtat 

ne mode two nnanooasaftil attemple toeaUbKah of that state. The first r^ort was pnbliued 

himael^ the first in his native town, the seoond lnJan.l8S6j and while ha was engaged in the 

in Ohaileat(Hi, B. C, in which latter place ha preparation of the seoond hia healfca nve vaj, 

iwiod In Un the first mnnber of die " dio." oaa after a geatle deeUne he dleid.— ^Fardval's 


. ._ nanr I^AudiM of knowledge lUTiiig taken <«dera received in 1VG6 Ibe rec- 

wen of as atnfaiBjurj olutncter. He wu tor; ^ Wilbj and Tioarage of EasW-liftudnit, ' 
ft difigent stndent of the priuo^al modem Ikq- KorUuunptonahiTe. Eia first literary prodno- ' 
ffnagee of Xiu«iie, besde pftring mnoh atten- Idon was the tronBlaiJon firom the Portti|iie8e ' 
tion to Oaello, Welsh, the Norse and Blavio of a Ohineu novel entitled Mm Siov Chwm ' 
tongnes ; and at one time he made an elaborate (1761), which was soon foUoved by " Hiac«U»- ' 
report on the grammai' of the Basqne. He neons Pieces relating to the Ohjneae ;" a traneU- ' 
was one ctf the first of American scholars to tion fhnn the Icelandic into Latin andEogliBhof ' 
welcome the reeeaiohee of Bopp and Qrimm, 6 piecea of runic pcetr; (1763J ; a new reraion ' 
and othra Qerman philologists. 'With geog- of " Bolomon's Bong," with notes and a com- ' 
raphy he waa thorooghly acquainted, and waa mentary (1764) ; and a " Key to the New Tea- 
no mean i»«fl(nent in botany, ohenuntry, and tameut'' (1766). He was now intimate with ' 
natural hlatory. It ia by his poetry, however, most of the literary men of hia time, and in 
that he will be chiefly remembered. It haa 1764 Dr. Johnson passed 8 monthB at his vicar- 
been oolleoted and pnblished (S vola., New age, where he fonnd him eagerly engaged in ■■ 
York, 1834; Bosttoi, 1860). In hia private ohar- preparing the collection of old songs and bal- 
acter he waa ringnlarly modest and reserved, lada to which he owes all his present celebrity. '- 
and tronhled by a oonatitntional melancholy, Ihe " Rcliqaea of Ancient English Poetry" ap- : 
whicdi hia expwienoe in Ufa t«nded rather to peared in 176S. The greater part of the col- - 
deewn Afut to remove. lection was taken &om an old manoecript in 

FEIBOIVAL, TaoiuB, an English physician the editor's possession, and many other pieces i 
and moraliat, bom in WarrioKton, Lancashire, were obt^ed from the Pepysian library. The : 
in Sept 1740, died in Kanoneater, Ang. SO, reception of the book waa not at first enthnsi- i 
1804. He was ednoated at the Warrington astio, but it procnred for Percy the wpoint- ' 
Boadeniy,andinl761 went to Edinbnrgh, where ment of domestic chuil^ to the duke and : 
he studied medicine. Afterward he visited ducheas of Northomberland in 17SS, and chap- j 
London, Paris, Hambni^, and Leyden, at which lain in ordinary to the king in 1769. In 1778 \ 
last place he received the degree of M.D. in he waa made dean of Carlisle, and in 1783 biEh- 
1766. In 1767 he settled at Manchester in the op of Dromore in the county Down, where he 
practice of his profeemon. He devoted much passed the rest of his life engaged chiefly in the j 
of his time to the investigation of aalgeats con- dnties of hia diocese. In bis latter days he he- i 
nected with medidne, and to his inatrnmental- came totally blind. Dr. Percy was himself a 
ity the Hanoheater philoeophieal sodety owed poet of ooniiderable merit His " Nancv, wilt , 
its oripn. In the latt«r yean of his lUb he thonoomewithme!"and"TheHermitofWark- 
tomed his attention to mOTal philoaophy, and worth," a poem connected with the history of , 
several of his works on that subject became the noble family of Percy to which he was re- 
very popular. In religion he waa a dissenter. i>uted to belong, are wellknown; and the beau- 
He wrote a large number of worka, most of the tiful ballad of "The Friar of Orders Gray," , 
earher of which speared ori^pnally in the which appears in the " Eeliqnes," ia mostly his , 
"Philosophical Tranaactions" of London or own composition. He also published in 1770 , 
Manchester, and were republished In 1767 nn- the " Northumberland Household Book," and a 
der the titie of " Essays, Medical and £xf«ri- transl&tian of Mallet's " Northern Antiquities." ; 
mental." Of his other works may be mention- PERCZEL,M6eicz, a Hungarian general, bom , 
ed "Observations and Experiments on Water" in the county of Toloa in 1814. He stndied '. 
(8vo., London, 1768) ; " Observations on the at Pesth, served for some time in a corps of j 
Poison of Lead" (8vOyl774); and "Medical military engmeere, subseqnentiy representei hia 
Ethics, or a Code of Institutes and Precepts native county at the diets of 1889-'40, ]848-'4, 
adapted to the Profesmonal Gondoct of Pbysi- and 1847-6, and after the revolution of March, 
dana and Burgeons" (8to., Manchester, 180S>. 1818, waa elected by the city of Buda a mem- 
Of his works on morals may be mentioned her of the new national assembly. Belonging 
"Moral md Literary Diaeratations" (8vo., to the extreme liberal or radical party, he be- 
Warrington, 1784), and "A Father's Instmo- came a favorite with the jonth of the capital. 
tions, constating of Moral Tales, Fables, and On the approach of Ban Jellachich in 6ep- 
Eefleotiona, designed to promote the Love of tember he formed a body of volunteers, and 
Yirtne" (8vo., London, 1788). After his death assisted by the militia of various south-eastern 
hia oolleoted worka, with a memoir and selec- countiea, aa well aa by GCrgcy, he compelled an 
tions from his corresprndenoe, were published isolated Croatian corps to surrender at Ozora 
by hia aon (4 vols. 8vo., London, 180^. (Oct 7). This achievement rused Mm to the 

PEROUSSION, In medidne. Bee AnsanL- rank oif general, and he sabaequently acted 

TATioK, with Buooess on the Mnr and Drava, and cross- 

PEKODBSION CAP. Sea FoucorATBa. ing the frontier made a short incursion into 

PEROY, Tnoiua, D.D., an Eni^ish prelate Btyria. The advance of WindiaohgrAti in De- 

and sdiolar, bom In Bridgenorth, Shropshire, cember caused the recall of hia corps ; but be- 

April 18, 1728, died in Dromore, Irdan^ Sept fore he ooold join the retreating army of GOr- 

80, ISll. He waa the aon of a grocer, waa gev, be was suddenly attacked at Moor by 

edaoat«d at Ohristohoroh oollege, Oxford, and Jduduoh and hia force entirely scattered (Dea 



S9). He Boon collected tiie remans of his oorp^ hia goremmeDt lad to hostilities. AatlgtMias 

and tmdertook, in Jon. 1949, the defence of Uie fled to Macedonia, and Antipater, Oraternsj and 

leftbsnk of the middle Theise; bat after well Ptolemy formed a leagne and declared va 

BxecDted attacks on the Aostrians at BEolock against Perdicoas. He determioed to attack 

and Ozed6d, he was sopereeded hj the Polish Ptolemy, and, leaving Emneaes behind in oom- 

general Dembinski. In March he waa sent to mand m Asia Minor, set ont for EgTpt, and 

the eosth, relieved Peterwardein, stormed the marched as far as the Nile witbont opposition, 

ramparts of Bzent-Xam&s, the principal atrone- In attempting to cross that river he was ropeat- 

hold of the enemy, entered the Banat, and aa- ediy repnlsed, and in the last effort lost so monj 

-vanoed as far aa Pancsora (Haj 10). Alter men that the discontent in his army, vhioh for 

nnmeroos qaarrels with other generala and the a long time had existed in secret, broke oat in 

raamlxav of Kossath's new adminiatration, he open mutiny. A nnmber of officers, headed by 

was deprived of bis oommand at the end of fiolencns and Antigenes, went to his tent and 

Jmie. He collected a new body of volonteers. there despatched him. Perdiooaa was repnt«d 

Joined Wysocki at OzeglM in July, retreated a man of great military talents and peraonil 

with him toward Szegedin, and, again deposed, conrage ; but his disposition was cr^ty and 

fbnght with Dembinski in the &tal battle of oi^el, his ambition grasping and tmscmpnlons. 

TemesTfirfAug-fl), after which ho withdrew to PERDIDO, a amall river and bay, whioh 

Torkey, where he was for some time acknowl- fbrm the W. honsdary of Florida, separating 

edged aa the head of a radical fraction of the Escambia co. in that state, from Baldwin oo., 

Hnngaristt refugees. He repaired to England Ala. Perdido bay is more properly a l^e, Into 

in ISCl, and settled in the island of Jersey, which the river expands near its month. It is 

where he still re^des. landlocked, and its outlet into the gnlf of Mez- 

PEBDUXIAS, a general of Alexander the ioo Is so small, and enters at so aonte an angle 

Great, and regent of the Uaoedonian empire, with the line of coast, as to be almost tindia- 

aaaasainated near Memphis In 831 B. 0. He tingnisfaahle from sea. from which oirenmatanoe 

was descended probably from the royal hoose the river probably derived ita Spanish name 

of Oreetis, a Macedonian provinc^aod early Perdido, or "lost." There are generally but 

attached himself to the conrt of Philip, and 4 or 6 feet of water on the bar at its month, 

at the time of the assaaunation of thatmon- The Perdido was noted from a very early period 

arch was one of the officers of hla body guard, as the bomidary between the French and Span- 

In the earlier campaigns of Alexander he iah colonies ofLon isiana and Florida. 

commanded one of the diviaiona of the pha- P&RE DVOHESNB. Bee HAbbbt. 

Unx at the battles of the GraniouH, laraa, and PEREGRINE FALOOK See Famjcit. 

Arbela, was sabseqneatly transferred to the PEREIB A, Jaoobo BoDBiaTTSz. a Bpaniah in- 

oommand of a diviaion of the horse gnar^ and atrnctor of deaf mates, of Jewisn family, bom 

was freqnently employed in separate com- In Berlanga, EstremadnrfL in 1716, died in 

mftnda,not only in connection with others, but Paris in 1T80. He opened a school for deaf 

aa aole generaL When Alexander made a dis- mntea at Oadiz, bnt was not able to maintain 

trilration of hoDOra at Snaa, Ferdiccas received it, and about 1742 removed with his family to 

fbr his servioea a crown of gold^ and a daughter Bordeaax. In 174B he tangbtamnte in So- 

cjthe satrap of Media in mamage. After the obelle to pronounce some words. This coming 

death of the king, he bore a prominent part in to the knowledge of D'Aj^ d'£tavigny, the 

the troubles wtuch followed between the car- comptroller of that city, he bemed him to on- 

alry and the iof^try, and after the settlement dertake the edncation of hia aeof-mnte aon. 

of the qoarrel he was made regent under the Fereira consented, and the next year addreased 

title of ohiUaroh of the horse guarda. In tbia the academy of aoienoes in Oaen on the resiilta 

portion he succeeded in cmabin^ Meleager, hia of his instmotioo. After some yeara he ap- 

oo-regent, with alt of his prinotpal partiaana. peared before the academy of aoiencea in Paria 

Althoiighfeared and hated by the other leading with yonng B'fitavigny, whose proBciency ex- 

generala, be managed for a time to retain his cited their admiration. A few months later he 

power in aeourity. A revolt of the Greek bo1~ appeared with his pnpil before Lonis XV, The 

i&en in tiie npper provinces of Asia was put kmg examined the youth very thoroughly, and 

down by I^thon, one of hia officera. In 822 waa eo much pleased with hia profloiency, that 

B. O. he invaded Oappadooia, defeated its sa- he bestowed on Pereira a pension of BOO fhmcs. 

trap Aiiarthes in two battles, and having re- In 17M he presented one of hia pnpila before 

duoed tiie ooontry intmated ita government to King Stanislas of Poland. Several of his por 

Emnaaea. Afterward he maroned into Piai- plls were distingniahed in the subsequent his- 

dia, and captured I^randa and laanra He tory of EVance. One of them, Saboreuz de 

proposed to marry Nictea, daughter of Anti- Fontenid, wrote an account of hia teacher's 

pater, and pat to death Oynane, the half manner, and the thoroughneaa of his instruo- 

siBt«r of Alexander ; but this aroused so much ti on. (Be e Dxav un> Dumb.) 

indignation among the soldicre, that he waa I'JUtiSlKA, JoirATnui, an ^^lish phyaieiaii 

fbroed to inorry her daughter to the king At- and pharmaoolc^ist, bom in London, May 2^ 

rbidtana. An attempt to bring Antigonns to 1804, died there, Jan. 30, 1658. At the age of 

account for his conduct in the management of 14 he waa apprenticed to a aurgeon and a^afba- 



carj, in IBSl attotded tbs Ald«r«ato rtrMt jMn to Ohurlea V. and lUUp n., tm Ic^it- 

^peiuary, in 18S2 became apnpil of 6t. Bar- mated in his in&noT, and eancated at Jjoa- 

tholomew's hospital, and in MareTi, ISMt, re- Tain, Venice, and Uachii]. On hie &aier'B death 

oeiTsd a lioenw to practiM from the ao^dety of he became one of the tno chief Moretarte« of 

Xthecaries. On his appointment not long state. Adroit, indnBtrions, and a Bidlftal and 
r as apothecary of ue Alderagate street TmsorapoloaB poBtioian, he soon became the 
lUepensaiy, he became a piivaM tntor, and depoeitaryofPhilip'emostintimateconfideDfiee. 
pnblished a nnmber of voTka, chiefly for the When the king wished to put out of the way 
aae oi students abont to be examined. He JnandefisooTedo, the secretary and advker (tf 
tranriated tiia Latin pharmaoopcda of the Lon- 3<A3i of Anstria, whom he suspected of derigns 
don coUege of phyrioians, and nnbliahed a upon the crown, Peres was employed to have 
nnmber of Latin preaoriptioni onaer the title him aaaaarinatad (ISTSn, Eaeoredo was stabbed 
of Sdxta e Pratoriptit. Turning his attention in the street by Ured bniTOS, but it Is now be- 
to chemistry, he compiled " A Qoieral Table of Uered that Fmz had apersonal motive in cans- 
Atomic Nnmbeis," and in 16S6 was appointed ing his death, becanse E&coredo was aeqnunted 
lecturer in chemistry In the Alderagate street with the minister's inbigne with the princea 
school of medicine. The lectures which he of Eboli, the king's nd^rees. However this 
snbeeqnentJf delivered on materia medioa may be, Perez and the princess were arrested 2 
were originally published in the " Medical months afterward, ostennbly to Mtiatj the de- 
6aEetl«," and in 18S9 were revised and re- mands of Escovedo'a relatives, and the former 
published under the title of " Elements of was condemned to 2 years' imprisonment, 8 
Materia Uedioa and Then^wutios." To this years' exile from court, and a heavy fine. At 
work he owed his reputation. la ISM he first Philip appeared anxious to make his pun- 
received the degree of K.D. trom the nniver- ishment as light aa possible, and assigned hi^ 
sity of Erlangen, became the asme year assist- own hoose as the place of confinement ; but af- 
ant physician to the Loudon hospital, waa l«r he had obttuned all the papers which mi^t 
subsequently admitted aa a London licentiate prove his own share in the murder, he sent 
of the college of physicianB, and in 1840 was the ex-minister to the fortress of Turregnano, 
elected fellow of t^e college. In 1B43 he pub- and extorted from him on the rack a confesdon 
lished a work on " Food and Diet." In 1S61 that he hod killed Eseovedo, coupled however 
he was nmde full physician of the London hoe- with tlie declaration that he did it by the royal 
pltal. Beside the works already mentioned, command. Perez would probably have lost his 
whidi were chiefiy oompilirflonB, he published head but for the devotion of his wife, who h) 
several original treatises in various medical July, IfiSO, procnred him the means of escape 
and pharmacentical Joumala, and wrote a to Soragosea, where he placed himself nnder 
seriee of " Leoturee on Polarized Ught." At the protection of the /■a«ro§ or independent 
the time of his dealh he was examiner at the Jurisdiction of Aragon. The king, in violatioD 
London university. of these constitutional privileges, ordered him 

PEREIRA DE SOTTZA. Bee OunaB PuB- to be seized, bnt the peoi>le forcibly released 

B4. DB SouzA. him. Philip then oansed him to be transferred 

PEREIBE, tatOM and Isaao, French finan- to the prison of the inquisition on a charge of 
ders of Jewish orig^ bom in Bordeaux, the heresy. The populace again restored h iin to 
former in 1800, the latter in 1806. The^ are liberty, and uie conseqaenca was sn armed 
brothers, and grandsons of Jaoobo Kodngnes revolt whioh gave Philip a long desired oppor- 
Pereira. Having removed to Paris and entered tunitytoeztingnish the,^<«rMforeTer. In the 
into bnsinees, they became ardent votaries of mean time he escaped to France, and waa sent 
Saint-Simonism. Theywrote for various jonr- by Henry IV. on a secret mission toEn^knd, 
nals,inolndingtheProdve<«t(r,tbe(?l06e,theJra- during which he published a narrative of the 
KoDM^the Ttmpi, the Journal df» wnTiaitianett occurrences in which he had been concerned ; 
wUIm, and the Journal det dibati, in the Isst but such was his dread of Philip, who indeed 
of which Issoc originated a daily rmort of the attempted several times to have him assassin- 
bourse. Under ttiegoaranty of toe ttothsobilds ated, that he expressed himself in a guarded 
they obtuned the contract for building the and enigmatical way. which has contritaled to 
St. Qermain rulroad, of which Smile was the render the whole afiair one of the most mjs- 
ori^nator ; and afterward nnder the Bame an- terious romances of history. Becalled to 
spices they constructed the more important France in ICSS, he received a house for hu 
northern rulroad. They built the cAtnttn dtt residence and a guard to protect Mm , and in 
mfdjand tbeeanallaUmlontheirownrespon- the aome year was again sent to EngloM. Af- 
nl>ility. The orSdit mobiUtr was foonded in tor the accession of Phihp HI. his wife and 
1869, chlefiy through their agency, and they children, who had been kept in prison, were 
have dnoe been prominently concerned in its liberated (169S), but all his efforts to be rocall- 
management. (See Oninrr Uobujbr.) ed to Spain were In vain. He undertook a 

PXXEZ, Ahtobio, ft Spaniah statesman and thirdmissiontoEnglandishehalf of Ids native 
author, bcnn at Monreal de Ariza, Axagon, in oonntry in 1601, but miserably fkiled, and »• 
IHl, died in Fari^ Kov. 8, 1011. Ha was « tnmiag to Franoepassed his Met d^in pen- 
natural son of Gonaalo Pereij minlBtw tat 40 nry. Bedde hie S^aeuma already mentitmed, 



lie VTOte Cartat famiUan$, leTond politiaal the olabsstw boz of prfioiou oiiitm«kt Other 
works, and a life of Philip TT , which h" never m^Hjum of anttaoitj, as the PhcBHioiana, Aaay r- 
been printed. A ooIleotioQ of his vorks ap- iaua, and Peraians, are known to have made 
peared at Genera in 1654. His stjle, partiQu- great nse of perfiimeB ; and T;re was a &inoiu! 
hi\j in hia letters, ia often fault; and over- mart whence they were exported b; sea, as 
atrwned, bnt abounds in paaBsgce of eloquence Babjloa wae for the Bapply of the interior 
and pauioa, and in pointed sajines, many of (Ez^zxriL). — Theart oiperfttmerywaeprao- 
vhica bave become proverbial. He wrote in tised to an ^traordinarjeitent bj the andent 
remarkablr idiomatio Castilian. Uncb light Greeks and Bomana. The odor of perfHunes 
has been thrown upon his career by U. Uignet was an offering to the gods, and the ^parition 
in hia Anltmw Pern et Thilipp« II. (Paris, of these was always represented as acoom- 
1845 ; translated into English in 1846). panied by an ambrosial fragrance. Oila, po- 
FEBFUME, a term applied to the scent aris- matmns, and other perftunes were made in 
lug from odoriferona bodies, and also to these great provision and most lavishly used. After 
bodies themselvra when they are prepared e^- bathing and in their athletic exerdsea Uie 
pedally for the sake of their agreeable odor. Greeks applied them liberally to their persons ; 
The art of preparing them is called pei^miery, and, as Seneca atatee, it was their oostcan to 
and by the French is made to include the oom- anoint themselves twice or even thrice a di^ 
ponacUog of a great variety of articlee for toilet in order that the delicious fragrance might 
use, as pomades, hair powders, oiks depila- never cease. To such an extent was this oar- 
tones, cosmetics, dentifrices, soaps, &c., all of lied, that Solon enact«d a law forbidding the 
which are scented by the introdoctioQ of va- Athenians to use them. Their winea were 
rions perftunes. from the most ancient times perAuned by infusing in them roses, violeta, 
perfiinies of varioos sorts have been held in and hyacinths — the nrst step, perhaps, in Uie 
high estimation. They exert a pleasant infiu- preparation of alcoholic perfomes. O^ua was 
ence upon luost persons, though to a few they especially celebrated lor its perfiimes. One of 
are oflfenaive. Solomon (Prov. xxvij,) remarkii its piiucipal streela, called the Seplasia, it is 
that "ointmentandperftimer^oice the heart." stated, was made np entirely of shops devoted 
They were prescribed as medicines by Hippo- to this trade: and it was also largely oanied on 
crates, Criton, and other ancient phymciana. In several other towns of Greece and souQiem 
It is affirmed that after the destrootion of the Italy. Pliny in his " Nator^ History" has 
clovatreesbytheDntohintheisIaiidofTemate, given a very foil account of the extraordinary 
the 04dony sofiered from epidemioa nnknowa varieties of perAunes in use by the Bomans 
before; and in times when tne oholefa has pre- under the emperors. The perfiimera (itngtiea- 
vaiied in London and Paris, thoae employed in Urii} were mostly Greelu, and occupied a 
theperlomery&tdorieBhaveeacapeditsravages. special quarter of the oity. Their shops were 
The f^gyptiana prepared them for different pur- supplied with aiomatics from sU parts of the 
poses, as for embuming the dead, as offennga known world, and were a favorite resort fbr 
to the gods, and for dtmiestio uses. They fashionable loungers. Their productioos were 
anointed their bodies with oil, and it was the qoite as numerous as the pernunes of the pres- 
cQstom to poor sweet-scented oils apon the ent day, and muoh more profttsely used. The 
heads of newly arrived guests. In their tombs same taste continoed under the Greek em- 
are found boies of alabaster, onyx, glass, ivo* perors ; and in the oriental ohuroh the con- 
Ac, in which the ointments were kept, smuption of oromatics was bo great, that at 
e now in Alnwick castle contt^ one Idme a tract of land of 10 square miles in 
an ointanmt of which the scent is still retuned. Syria was espeolaUy devoted to the prodoetion 
The perfumes employed in embalmlzig are also of incense trees. The Arabs Introduoed th^ 
preserved in Uie mommies. (See EKBAuiraa.) use into Spain with many oariona reoe^iis, 
The Egyptians obttuned the materials of their some of which are still preserved and are enp- 
perAuoes, such as bitter almonds and orig^ poeed to have been handed down tram the 
nmn, from th^ own soil, and also imported Egyptians. In Uie middle agea France and 
perfames from Arabia and India. In the Old Iwy were most conspicuous for the manutao- 
Testament fr^aent reference is made to the ture and use of perfumes. Incense and fragrant 
use of perfumes by the Hebrews. The sweet t^Mis were oonsomed In the Oatholio chutes 
iuceiue bomed upon the altar was a peifbme ; even as far back as the bq>tism of Olovis, the 
and "the art of the wothecary," or as soma first OhiistJan king rf France, in 486. Oharle- 
read it "perfiuner," is distinctly namad in magna made nee of peiflmtes, and Philip Aa- 
Exod. xzz., where Slosea is directed to pre* gnrtnaimllSOgrantedacharter to the master 
pare the oQ of holy ointment from the [nmot paiftimera. A&oholio perfumes are supposed 
pal splG«^ myrrh, tweet dnttsroon, sweet oak' to have b«ea first made in the Uth oentoiy ; 
moB, cassia, and olive oil ; aad also to prepar» Andthefiretof Oieeeof whlohwebavean ao- 
a perftame of other qdoes named near the closa count is Hniusry water, distilled from rosemary 
of tha ame chapter. See also Psalm xlv. & ia 1870 by Elizabeth, queen oi Hungary, who 
Prov. Til. 17, Oant. L and iv., Jer. vi 20, and reeeived ue receipt firom a hemut. and by the 
various other places; and in the New Xeatfr use of it is said to have preserved her beanty 
auaa (Mark xir.}, the story of the woman villi to old age. Oatharine de' Uedici, when she 
TOL. xiu. — 9 



came to Kvnoe to marrr Henrrll., bronght fbrent mefliodB of treatment [H^naea oQa not 
with her a fsmona Florentine perfiamer named to be distiiigQished from those of varioos fruits ; 
RenS, and from that time the French made great the noisome oils of gas tar are made to yield the 
progress in the art ; bat from the reoeipte that nitro-benzole known as the oil of bitter almonds 
have been preaerred it appears that their pro- or esaenee of mirbane, which is now extensively 
eeasea were Tery rnde and nnscientiflo. In Eng- nsed for pertoning soap, and is even preferable 
land a taste for perftmies appears to have be^ for ooofectiouerj and calinaiy oses to the gen- 
proTftlent In the time of Snakespeare ; and in nine artiole (nnlees this is ^sdllod over pot- 
that 6t Dean Swift the shops of the perflmiers ash), as it contains no pmesic acid; and from the 
were the resorts of lonngers, as they were in drunsge of cow houses is extracted an essential 
ancient Borne: ingredient in the famous «au(^«miZ&,^0ur>. A 
nnt lma<d frora perflimtn' ibops new and [mlimit«d field is thus opened for the 
A cRnrd cf bihioubie fop*. artiflcial production of perftiniea; andit iabe- 
Bnt their nee most afterward have declined, lieved that by the employment of a few com- 
for in Ouunbere's " Oyclopsdia," pabliahed in mon essential oils and the organic radicals, all 
1740, it is stated that perfames were disnaed the odors in the regetablc, animal, and min- 
there. but were A la nwde in Italy and 8pwn. eral kiiwdom may be sncceBsftillj reprodnced, 
At the present time the mannfacture of per- The pernmieB derived from animal sonroes are 
fames is chiefly earned on in Paris and London, mask, dvet, ambergria, hartshorn, Ao. Theam- 
and in Tarions towns nearthe Hediterranean, bergnB.thonghhayiDglittlesoentitself^imparts 
eapecially in the sonth of France. The frnits a most ethereal and dehcate odor to other per- 
and flowers of those annny regions afford the fmnes. In an elaborate paper upon perfinnery 
great«st rariety of fragrant odors, and certain flimiahed by Hr. Engene Rimmel to the soci- 
dislricts are famona for theb pocnliar prodno- etyofartsof London,and published inNo. 391 
tiona; as Cannes for its perfoiues of the rose, of their " Jonmal" (Uay IS, 1860), scents in 
taberose, cassia. Jasmine, and the neroli, ex- general ase are clasofied in 18 gronps, and the 
tracted from the leaves of the bitter orange ; vegetable products nsed in this art are arranged 
Khnes for thyme, rosemary, aspic, and laven- in 10 divisions, as followa: 1, the floral series, 
der; Nice for the violet and reeeda; and Sicily viz., jaamine, rose, orange flower, cassia, tnbe- 
for the lemon, bergamot, and orange. In Eng- rose, violet, jonquil, and naroissns; the attar 
land some of the essential oils are prepared or otto of roses (see Attab of Bobzs) is the 
from native herbs upon a large scale, as at most valuable product of this division ; 2, the 
Kitcfaam in Surrey, wnere a ton of peppermint herbal series; 8, the an^ropojron aeries, agenna 
and of lavender is sometimes distilled at once, of plants of thb name in Ceylon, which famish 
In the northern United States man^ of the the lemon grass, ottronella, and ginger grass 
essences and essential oils are also largely pre- oil ; 4, the citrine series, comprising the berga- 
pared, the wooda Aimishing the wintergreen, mot, orange, lemon, cedrat, and l)jnett«, from 
sassafras, and other sweet-scented plants, and whose rinds an essential oil is obtained by ez- 
the ^dens the peppermint, rose, dto. In Lon- pression or distillation ; 6, the spice series, in- 
don, it is stated, there are about 40 mannfac- eluding cassia, cinnamon, cinnamon leaf^ dovea, 
taring perfumers, employing each from 20 to mace, nutmeg, and pimento ; 8, the wood so- 
100 hands ; and the total annaal value of their ries, consisting of sandal wood, rose wood, 
prodnctionB is believed to be fully £1,000,000, rhodium, cedar, and sassafras; 7, the root se- 
A large portion of this consists of fancy soaps, ries, comprising orris root and vetivert, of 
which are exported in sreat quanties to the which the latter, called by the Hindoos t^u-hva. 
United States. In Paris there are about 80 per> the root of 'Hx^ anatkenim muHeatwn, is made 
fomers, employing from 2,000 to 8,000 hands ; in India into mats and blinds, which being 
and the export trade averages annually from often watered and exposed to tiie sun shed a 
18,000,000 to 18,000,000 francs, having donUed most agreeable and lasting perfume; 8, the 
in the last 26 years. The home oonsomption seed series, composed of aniseed, dill, and ear- 
probably eqnals in value the foreign exports, away ; 9, the bobn and gam series, including 
— Periiunea are derived from a great variety Uie balsuns, camphor, myrrh, and other gams ; 
of flowers, fruits, seeds, woods, and other vege- 10, the fi^nt series, including bitter almonds, 
table prodnots ; and by the skilAil combining Tonquin beans, and vanilla. The artificial 
of diff^ent scents, some are obtained that imi- preparations, above referred to, and the ani- 
tate the odor of flowers which are not them- nal perfrmtes make two mora series. The 
selves nsed In perfrmiery. But it is not from greatest number of the materials, amoantins 
plants alone that perfumes are obtained. At to SB, is obtained from the sonth of France and 
the dose of the article Esskrtui. Otu allusiott Italy, which is the chief centre of manofac- 
is made to the strange sonroes which by the aid tnre for perfumery materials. The East ladies 
of recent oheanioal duooveries have been made and Obina furnish about 21, Turkey 2, Africa 
to Aimish some of the ohoioest perfumes. The 2. North America 8, Sonth America 6, and 
delicate scent of flowers has been traced to cer- iWland 4. The only artides named from the 
t^ oils and ethers, which can be elaborated United States are peppermint, sassafras, and 
from sabstances associated only with the most wintergreen. — The mannfaotore of perfbnies in 
disgusting odors. The feUd nisei oil by dif- the sonth of France is ezt«naiTe1y earned on in 



the Unna of Qraeee, Oiumea, and Nice. In wire bottom upon wUoliootton cloths soaked in 
Grane aboot TO estAblishmenta are engaged in the oil are laid, and the boxes or fHmea are piled 
tUs boaineBs and In il'« lilli" g essential ou, and upon each other to keep them close. When a 
in the other two towns about SO honses more, number of cIoUib are charged with the perfome, 
The qnantitiet of materials annasUf oonsnined the^ are sn^eoted to the action of a press for 
and their valnea are thus approzimateljr esti- reoovering tLe oil. Spirits are scented bj ma- 
mated: oeradon or hj digesting them with essential 

o™i««B«B» *.T«i!!!"^'™^**I?°**'!S'SSS oils in a water bath and agitating them at 

ISSi»™V.i".".:::::; iSlSSS- - - S^mS times for several days. Tha^sa^domOUjUuiw 

Tiaicts s^ooa UK" n,oao is prepared ontiusplanin Paris with the fbl- 

.JS^J^- S^ » " " mow lowing ingredients and proportions: alcohol, e 

.... .....^... „„„„-^ „- litres: orange flower water, 4 litres; balsam 

The mannfectnrea articles oonaiBt of ^ Pern, flO grsmmes; essence of bergamot, 

""Sirio'Sr^.'r wwooi!*, worth riKnrtil^SBft,™ 130 grammea; OMence Of doTOB, BO grammes: 

Huh w«i*r,*boDC.... 171,000 ■•>'>' »,ooo essence of neroll, 16 grammes; essence of 

°^«3Sr.b^' 1.110.M0 " " - - KSCOOO ^^'>' l^JFT^^' *T^ of mnSk, 180 

Orbcs flmr wMar, sranunes. The last named essence lb prepared 

Mifaiuj MS^OSO " " - IH^OOD bj digesting In Hie heat of Qie Sim foT 2 months 

Theee do not inotnde the eeaential oils, some of IS grammes of dvet and 15 grammee of music 
which are Terr valaable, the neroll, for in- in 9 litres of aloohol perftamed with ambergris. 
■tanc«, being worth abont $60 per lb. The Scented vtoegar is prepared in a similar waj, 
mppl J of theee articles is insofflcient fbr the vinegar bring subatitntea for alcohol. Another 
demand, and as the crop of some one of the method of preparing perfames has recently 
flowers oecaaionallj fuls, the manof^ctorera been discovered and introduced b; M. Milloo, 
are pnt to serious inconTenience. It is henoe a French ohemisL He fonnd that the aromatic 
reoommended to foster the extension of the principle of vegetshle matters might be ex- 
trade into otiier conntries, where the flowers traoted together with some fatt^ or waxy mat- 
might be sacceeaflilly cnltivated; as in Spain, ters by treating them with parified ether or 
Portonl, and varioos tropical conntries in snlphnret of carbon ; and that by evaporating 
both hemiqiherea. — Beveral methods are in the volatile scdvent at a temperature below 
nee for eztraoting "the odoriferous properties that of the smronnding atmosphere, the per- 
of plmtB, and impartiDg these to iplnts or fame is retained and fixed in the residnnm 
gre«B7 bodies. QmM of the prooeasea are no- without nndergoing any change. The snb- 
tioed in the artides Ei.c m Ooioata, Ebbkh- stance deposited by the treatment of different 
TTAL Ons, and X^muna. In the preparation plants Is variously colored ; it is sometimes 
of pomadee the beet fiit employed is the mi- solid, or oily or eemi-flnid, becoming solid after 
TQW ot the ox; bnt adieqier fat is often sab- some time. The solvent maybe collected as it 
stitnted for It, or a mixtnre of beef or veal &t oondenses in the distillation, and the same may 
and lard. Theaa are beatoi in a mortar, malted be nsed several times over; bnt it shonld sJ- 
in a water bath, and then strained. Btfore ways be fbr the same fiower, and with the same 
the mixture cools the essential oil selected for apparatns. The choicest parte of the plants or 
the perfiime is added and stirred in; or the flowers are carefally selected in this process, 
flowers thenuelTes are thrown in and left to and nsed exdnnvely, by which mode maoh 
digeet for several honrs, when they are taken more delicate resnlts are attained than by the 
ont, ttie &t is again heated and straiaed under ordinary mode of distillation. A remarkable 
preasore, uid fiWt ones ore pnt into it ; and peooliarity of the perfames thns prepared is 
this te continned for several days till the grease that they may be kept open to the air withoat 
has anffldently imbibed the odor. It is then being dissipated and lost They may he sejia- 
strained in cloth bags. This process is called rated from the waxy matter by alcohol, which 
maoeration. Inodorons oils, each as the oil of dissolves them together with a little of the 
behn, deeoribed by Piesse in his work on per- oily and coloring matters; and in this state 
fiuneiy, are well adapted for taldng op the they may be conveniently mixed with fate and 
pctAmies of flowers by this process. Pore wis.— Pastilles are ortides of perfomery made 
oHve <ril is largely ased for this purpose in the when set on fire to oonsame slowly and frfve 
aonth of Enrope. Bat fbr detioate plants, snoh out the odor with which they are charged, 
aa the jasmine, tat>eroBe, and cassia, the odor- They are composed of charcoal finely pulver- 
iferoos principle of which would be ii^ured by Ized, saltpetre, and the odoriferous substanoea, 
the heat, the process in nse is that of absMplicHi chimy gum resins, the whole moulded into lit- 
or etifituraju, Sqnare wooden boxes arej)ro- tie cones, which are made to adhere together 
Tided havuig bottoms of glass plate. Upon by the addition of mucilage. Tha pattulet da 
these isqvead a lafer of purified lard and net leraU ooosist of S4 grammes of ohbanmn, 34 
mixtnre^ and upon this freahly gathered flowers of etorax, 16 of nitre, and 134 of pnlveriied 
are mread eTOTmoming, aa long as the flower oharooaL Por rose pastiUes there are added 
is la bkxnn. The boxee are kept dint, and the to the above 83 granmies of rose leaTes and 2 
grease flnallT aequirea a very strong odor. To of essence of rose ; for orsnge flower pastilles 
" m the some way, the boxes have a fl4 grammes of galbannm, 83 of dried palver- 


ized orange peel, and S of easenoe of neroU ; flnaUf bequeathed his wbde kingdom to U>e 
for T&nills, 24 grammes oS galbanmn, 16 of Bomaiu, who after a ooDteet witb Aristonl- 
olovea, 82 of vaiiula, 1 of eesenco of cloves, and cqs, a natural son of Emnenes II., erected it 
id of eeBence of Tanllla. Odoriferous spirits into the proTince of Asia, of whioh Perga- 
fbr burning are prepared in a tdmilar waj, the mns became the splendid capital. It a^r- 
vanilla being generallj replaced by gnm ben- ward decayed, howeyer, being deprived of its 
zoin. — The powdered almond paste used in treasores of literature by Antony, who at- 
perflnnery is prepared from the residne of the taohed them to the library of Alexandria, and 
hmised kernels of aprioota or almondB, sweet sabeequently also of ita dignity as capital of 
or bitter, after the oil is pressed ont This is the prorince under the Byzantine rule. It 
gronnd and rifted. The paste is Tarionsly was one of the principal Asian seats of Chri»- 
prepared from tbe powder. One process is to tianity in its earliest period. It was finally 
roil t<^ether 260 Knomnes each of the powder daHtroyed dnring the l^rkish wars, but its ex- 
and of honey, witb 600 grammes of the oil of tensiTe ruins, including remsins of temples, a 
bitter almonda and the yolks of 4 eg^ Per- theatre, and an amphitheatre, are stiD visible, 
fnmed aoaps are prnwred by aobetttnting po- PERGOLEBI, Giovashi Battibta, an Italian 
made for aiegrease in mirtore with soda lees, composer, bom at Jesi, in Ancona, in 1710, 
PERGAHTI8, or PnBsuiuif. I. The name died at Torre del Greeo, near Naples, in ITST. 
of the citadel of Troy, frvqoently nsed by poets He wss educated at the Neapolitan conserra- 
for that dty itself. IL An ancient d^ of Asia iatj dei powri jn Qe»t Crttto; bnt disoover- 
Minor, in the Myslan dlstriict of Tenthrania, ing tiiat in Uiis institutioa taste and melody 
and capital of a Mnsdom of the same name: were sacrifioed to pedantry, he loft It at the 
It was bnUt in (he delij^tfbl'vlBUeyof the Oal- age of 14, and received lessons inrocal com- 
CUB, at the fbot of two hilla near the N. bank position from Vinci and Hasae. At SO years 
of that river, and at Its oonfinenoe vith the of age he procnred an engagement at the 
Oetius and Seliuns, the latter of which flowed teatre nuoea, Napiee, for which he wrote 
throngh the city. The aon^lls was bollt on eomio intermoEsos, Inclndii^ the Sena pa- 
one of the bills. Fergamna was fbnnded W » divna, sabMi^iently produced with neat en- 
oolony of Arcadians, or, aocording to other thnnann at Paris. In 1T8C he broaKbt ont at 
traditions, by Efddaariana tmder JuoolMtlos, Borne hia opera of Olympiads, which was, 
who was worshipped as th« patn»i of the ooldly received, notwithstanding it was highly 
place. Ita name is derived by some ftom that oommended by oontemporary mnriciana. His 
of Pergamns, the son of Pyrrbos and Andro- sacred oompositioas were better appreciated, 
mache, who ia eeid to have alain a Tauthranian and few works of their dan have been more 
king in single oombat and taken possession of admired than his mass in D, containing the 
his territory. Having belonged snooessively odebrated Qlaria in Eeeeltu, and bis Dixit 
to the Persians, the empire of Alexander the Domimu and Zavdate, Two years before 
Otreat, and the Thradan kingdom of Lysima- his death his health be^ to £ul rapidly, and 
ofaus, )t was betrayed by PhiletsBrua, the oom- by tiie ftdvice of his mends he removed to 
msnder of the strong dtadel, where Lyaiinachaa Torre del Gieco, near the fiiot of lit Veeaviiti. 
had deposited his treasures, tnto the hands of Here dnring his last iOnMS he composed his 
Selencna L of Syria. When Selenona died. Phi- cantata ot Otfvo td Suridiet, bis SblM £egina, 
lettBToa made himself Independent ^80 a. 0.). and his celebrated iStdbat Mater. 
His nephew and BncaeBBorBmnenesl.(26&-&41) PEBIANBEB, tyrant of Oorinth, sacoeeded 
extended his dominion ot» parts of uie n^h- hia &ther Oypselns probably abont 6S5 B. C, 
boring provinces, having vanqnisbedAntioehna died abont 685 B. 0. At first his reign was 
Soter in a battle near Sardis. Attains I. (Ml- ndld, but afterward became exceedingly In- 
197), a coQirin of £nmenes,ront«d the invading boman and oppreaaive. Eerodotna says that 
Ctaols, assomed the royal title, and assisted tho Feriander sent a herald to Thrasybolos, tyrant 
Romans in thedr ware agtdnst the AchEsana and of IJiiletna, to ask him what mode of govern- 
FhUipofUaoedon. ffls eon Emnenes II. (197- ment it was safest to adopt in order to rule 
109) eiq>ported the Bomans against Antioohns with aeonrity. Thrasybnlua, making no direct 
the Qre^ and after their viotory at M«gnaiil» reply. t«ok the messenger Into a com field, and 
(190) was rewarded by the annexation to hii walklDg throngh it broke oB and threw away 
dominions of the whole of l^ria, Lydia, Phry all tiie ears that overtopped the rest Perian* 
gla, and other nd^boring provmces. Fova- dsr nnderstood tbic meaning of the acticn, and 
nms now became one df Qie most iplenoid tiienoeforth oonstsntly de[>reeMd the power of 
dtjes of Ada, rivalling by its Ubrary, a re- the higjier ordera by pntung to death or bsn- 
nowned school of Uteratnre, and the invention Udng promineot dHsens. Altbongb the par- 
of parchment, the princbsl glories of the ca0- tieolar Inddents of his reign are ul or nestiy 
tal of the Ftolen^es. Attalas H. (lOS-lSln, all of donbtfiil authenticity, It seems t« be a 
the brother of Eomenes II., nudntained bis &at that his administraticm, snpported by ^ 
alliance with Borne, and like bis priedeoeesors powerfld bodr (puvd, was czoerainKly rigor- 
was a promoter of sdenoe and Uterstnre. Wb otia, that he sopprened common tablee, daba 
nspbew, Attains IIT. (188-188), ntled like a and pnblio ednoation, shed much blood, and 
mru^nnti, destroying his own relatives, and made exorbitant exaotitms. On One eoosiion 



it if sud that the wotnea of Oorinth, whom CSmoa and tha aristocrsoj, Ferioles oansed ft 
he had invited to a relMoos fasliTB], were tnoasot'e to be oamed in the popular assemblT, 
stripped bjlils order of t£eir lich attire and by which the court of the areopagiiBwasnearly 
ornaments. Later writara depiet him a* the shorn of its political power. This was a fatal 
foe of Inxnry and dissolnte habits, preventing blow to the ariatooraoy, and oonstitnted, widi 
the great aocamalatJOQ of wealth bv individn- other ohanges, a political revolntion. Among 
als, punishing also tttose who aqnandered their theea changes were the InstitatioD of dicaa- 
properlj, and onoe ordering the procaresees of terieeor jaryoonrts, In which Jurors were paid 
Gcvuith to be thrown into the sea. Bj Aris- for their attendanoa, and Qie ahnost com- 
totle be is t^ken of aa the first who broneht plet« abrogation of the jodidal power of the 
to a Bjatem the art of ruling despotically. His senate of DOO. The tablets containing the lawa 
foreign policy was Tigorona and sacceMfiiL Ac- of Solon were transferred fh)m the acropolis to 
oorduig to H^odotns, deoared hj a scandaloos ihe neighbc«hoad of the market place, as if to 
report, he had put to death hia wife Uflliaea, the eignifV that the gnardianahip of the laws had 
daoghter of Prodea, tyrant of Epidaoma, though pMsed into the hands of the people. The aa- 
he was warmly attaiuied to h^; and when in oendencyofPerioles and the popolarparty thus 
after yean his two sons TiaitAd the ooort of establiabed cost many a violent atm^^ The 
the latter, tiieir grandfather told Uiem the man- poet .^schylns cnli^^d all hia powers, in the 
nor of their mother'a death. The younger son, drama of the " Enmenidea," against these inno- 
Lycophron, on his retom reftised to have any vations; bat his opporition reenlted only in hia 
interooorsa with hia latbor; whereupon Peri- own flight &om the city, while Oimon himafllf, 
imder aent him away to Ooroyra, invaded Epi- who, in the stmgglo between the aristocratio 
daoms, reduced it, and took Frocles prisoner, and demo«ratio paoliee, had before nsTrovly 
Afterward ho endeavored to peranado L^co- escaped banishment, was soon after driren 
phron to retom and take ohai^ of the kmg- into exile by ostracism (abont 4C9). On the 
dom ; and finaUy the latter consented on eon- other hand, Ephialtea, a leader, with Pbriolea, 
dttioa that hia father should abdicate and live of tiie pminlar party, a man of ri^d Integrity, 
in Coroyra. Bat Hie inhabitants of that dty, who had been most oonspionoos in the passage 
wishing to keep Periander away, put his son to of the obnozioas meaeare astungt the areopagns, 
death. Periander Is said to have died of grief^ was, abont the time of Oimon's recall from 
after having lived about 60 years. He was aa baMahment (468), assassinated by a Boeotian 
enconrager of poetry and mueio, and was nsn- emissary of the aristocracy. Tlie humbled 
ally recktmed among the seven sages of Gireece^ aristocracy afterward united themselves nnder 
olthoo^ some pia^ in his st««d Myeon of the party lead of Thnoydides, the son of Uele> 
CfaensB in lAconia. Axion and Anachareia were sias. In the popolar assembly they were drill- 
patronised by him, and by Dic«enee lAbtjos ed into a compact party organiaition, occupy- 
ke is Bud to have written a di&otic poem of ing seats together instead of being mixed up 
3,000 vetMa. He was succeeded by a relative, with the general mass of oitizeas. Thus thefr 
Psainmetiohnfl, son of Gordias. applause or dissent could be made more effec- 
PBBIOAKDms. Bee Hubt, vol. iz. p. 13, tive, and in debate they oonld concert their 
PERICLES, an Athenian atatesnum, bwTi at measuru and use their strength to the best ad- 
Adi^ia abont 4Q6B.O., died there of the plague vantage. But thlsoonoertedaction soon brought 
in 489. He was of an anoieut and noble family; euspi^oa apon them, which passed, on account 
his father was Xanthippns, who, with the Bpar- of me fewness of tii^ number, into contempt 
tan general LeotjohidM, drsfeated the Perdana They complained cJ the administration of Pm- 
at Mycale ; hia mother was Agniste, niece of des, that the ftind derived from the oonfeder- 
Cliathuiea, who expelled tiie nrastratid* from aoy <^ Delos, intended for porposes of general 
Athens. On the father's side he was connect- defenoe against the Persians, had been mis^ 
ed with the family of Pisistratos, and on the pUed in uie adornment and stTangthening of 
mother'seidehewaBdesoendedfromthepriiioes Athena. Pericles olaimed the rightto use in 
of Sicjaa and the AlomteooidEe. When the this way so mnoh of the pTiblio treasure ss was 
iWiwrnninnn rose sgainrt Sparta in 464 B. 0., not needed for the common defence. He was 
and fortified themselves on Kt. Ithome, the soatuned, and Thocydides driven into banisb- 
Spartans invoked the aid of the Athenians to ment. Thb annihilated the aristocratic party^ 
reduce the pJaoe. Oimon, the leader of the and left to Pericles the nndisputed conduct of 
aristocraey at Athens, and the greatest com- sffiurs. He had succeeded to the poUtical priur 
mander of hia time, was sent with a large foroe dplea of Themistodes, and he labored first to 
in answer to tlie ^ipeaL Bnt he fidled to re- make Atiiens the capital of Greece, the centre 
dnee the fortress, was slated by the Spartans, of pditical power and infiaenoe, and tiie seat 
and returned home in disgraee. The popular of art ai^ r^nement : and secondly to derate 
party waa tliai led by Penclea, between whom the public spirit'of his countrymen. He gave 
and OimtMi there exiMed a hereditary food ; for respectabUity and ^oe to the dective franohlse 
it waa Xanthippoa, the fadier itf Pwide^ who by setting close guards agdnst a ftandulent 
had impeached IGltiades, the fiUher of Oimon. abuse offt, and thus made even the humblest 
Taking advantage of tiie nnpopnlarity which citizrafecdsranetbingofthedignitjof AAenian 
the ill fortone at Ut. Ithome brought upon cltiaenship. He trained the pec^ to naval 



afiUn br sending out everj year & aqnadron Aitangoru, the phUoMplter, was indicted fo 

of 60 tnremeB to cruise for 6 moaths in the imjaetj and banished. Aq)aeia was includei 

.^IgteaD. He planned great arohitectnral works in the tame charge, bot the psthetio eloquenci 

to embellish and strengthen the city. He boilt of Feriolea moved the dioastery to acqai 

the Odeon for theatrical exhibitionB, and the her. Boandais were propagated with iDt«n' 

Parthenon with its eidendid approMh called to eollj hie character in connection vritli Ihi: 

the propyltea. To render aeonre the oommuni- remarkable woman of .genins. (See Abpasia-I 

cation of Athens with the sea, ohieflf tbroagh But the machinations of his enemies wen 

his advice, the long walls had been bailt which Mile. The?' had Fbidiaa indicted for cm 

stretched to the Pirfens and Fhalerom ; and hezzlement, hnt here ag^ they were foiled, 

to increase this secnritj he afterward added A charge of impiety followed ; and ia tfai^ 

a thbd wall, and improved and beautified the thej were too sncoMsfnl. The great eoulptoi 

I^neoB. He further provided for the poorer was fonnd to have iutrodnced in his statue of 

olasBes and strengthened the state h; an en- Athena the portraits of himself and of Pericles 

lightened system of colonization. For the en- among the figures on the ahield of the goddess, 

tertainment of the people he added to the pomp But against Pericles himself at whom in real- 

uid magnificence of popular spectacles, estah- ity all these shafts seem to have been aimed, 

lisbed new ones, ana made the theatres and the malice of his enemies failed, and he con- 

pnblie festivals accesnble to the poorer classes, tinned, with one brief intermption, the idol of 

He democratized the legislative and Judicial Athens down to the day of his death. He was 

fimotiong of government by paying Jurors and bitterly denonnced for his defensive policy 

l^idators. Kor even were the higher classes in the first campaign of the Pelopcnseeian 

sacrificed that the democratic element might war ; bat his power and influence were too 

be fostered. Ijtorature, architecture, painting, solidly established to be quickly overthrown, 

and Bculptnre rose under him to the highest When in the second canipaign uie Peloponne- 

perfecUon. In his foreign policy he aimed at sians reappeared in Attica, the pl^e began 

the aggrandizement of Athens and the eiten- to rage at Athens. The people saw their lands 

sion and consolidation of her sway. Beginning laid waste by an enemy uid thedr crowded city 

as an ally, he in a few years reduced a portion desolated by pestilenoe. Bage and despair 

of the confederate states to the condidon of seized them, and now at length they turned 

tributaries, and bound the rest to military ser- npon Pericles. BtiU Pericles stood firm. He 

vice and a conformity of foreign policy. Upon songht to divert the pnblio mind by a foreign 

each of the subject states he imposed a demo- naval expedition ; and he himself took com- 

cratio form of government, and transferred im- mand of a fieet and devastated the coast of 

portant trials (Kim the local coorts to the tri- Peloponnesus. Betnming, he found the pnb- 

bnnals of the capital. The annual tribute or Uc mind yet more incensed against him. He 

oontribution to the confederate fond, the cos- was chaned with pecnlotion, the otnect of his 

tody of which had already been transferred enemies being to make him ineligible for the 

fh)m Deloa to Athens, he raised from 460 tal- office of generaL The char^ was mainlined, 

ents (|500,O00) to 600 talents, although the and he was fined. But a reaction soon fol- 

object of its establishment, namely, to resist a lowed, and he was reelected general, bis ene- 

Persian invasion, no longer occupied the public mies were foiled, and he regained all his popn- 

mind. During his administration, 1,000 Athe- larity. Uore t^rible calamities awaited him, 

nians were settled in the Thracian GhersonescL the pestUence stripping him of many of his 

600 in the island of Naxos, and 260 in the island personal and pcditical Mends, and finally of 

ofAndros. He appropriated the Greek city of nis sister and his two legitimate sons, San- 

Sinope, on the shores of the Euzine, for the thus and Paralos. Bnt tiie Athenians loved 

maint^iance of 600 Athenian citizens. The him as a father; and to alleviate his woe. 

islands of Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros, togeth- they legitimized a son named Pericles whom 

er with a large troot in Eubcea, were oovered Aspasia had borne him, thongh it was th^ 

with Athenian proprietors. Oolonles were great leader himself who baa proposed the 

pltmted at Thnrii in Italy, near the site of the Jaw which excluded from dtizenahip all who 

ancient Bybarls, and at Amphipolis in Thrace, were not Athenians on both the father's and 

To the former, foreigners were mvited from all the mother's side. Pericles fell a victim ts 

parta of Greece. — The overshadowing influence the prevailing epidemic about a year after- 

of Periolea made him an object of envy, Jeal- ward. When dymg, he reminded those who 

onsy, and hatred. His pubbo and private life stood around his bed, recounting his deeds, of 

werehothintarnass^ed. When the Pelopon- one circumstance they had failed to notice, 

nesion war impended, the hostile faction sue- bnt which he considered more glorious than 

oeeded in exciting the public mind against him any service they had ennmer^ed, namely, 

to a dangerous pitch. But his influence eon- " diat not a citizen of Athens bad been obliged 

tinned predominant. An attempt, instigated by to put on monming on his account"— Periclet 

tiie Lacedmmonians, was made to sacrifice him was reserved, ^peoriug in public but little, 

on acoonnt of a taint of sacriiege in his family and yet he contmued the idol of the people 

(see Aloilxon) ; but the attempt fuled. His for 40 years of public administration, 26 years 

eoemiss tried to wound him through bis friends, with others, and 16 alone. !E^ab> extols bit 



"m^«stio inteUigenoe." Thnojrdidea, tiis oon- vu erected in his honor bjpublio sabaoription 

tvmporarj, bb^ of ^in ; " PerioleH, powerfiil in the cemetery of P^e la Cnalse. 

team dignity M eharaoter bb well as from vie- PERIGEE (Qr. mpi, abont, and yq, earth), 

dom, and oonroionooBlj abOTO the least tingo the opposite of apogee, and, Ba oommonlj nn- 

of ooTTDption, held back the people with a fno deretood, that pout of the orbit of the moon 

hand, and waa their real leader instead of be- where ahe ia nearest the earth. The term is 

ing led by them. Far, not being a seeker of also sometimes ased to denote that point of 

power from unworthy Boarce& be did not the orbit of the earth where it is nearest the . 

speak with any view to present favor, but had son ; the snn is then said to be in perigee. It 

BTiffident sense of dignity to contradict them also ugniflea the least distance of a planetary 

en oooasion, e^n braving their displeaanre." bo dy fr om the earth. 

Snpolis, the eomiopoetj declares that "persna- PEElHElJON (Or. tti/m, abont, and ^Kios, 

sion itself sat upon hia lips." Aristophanes enn), that point of the orbit of a planet or a 

describee his eloquence as prodaoing on the so- oomet where it is nearest the snn. The dis- 

dal eliaments the same effects that Sunder and tanoa of this point from the son is called the 

lightnii^^wodtioe on the atmosphere. perihelion distonoe of the body. It is opposed 

P&Buik, Oisntis, a Frenoh banker and to aphelion. 
cUtesnau, boruiuOrenoble, Oct. IS, 1777, PEBIM, or Ukeith, an island in the strait 
died in Parle, Ma;f 16, 1883. He was study- of Bab-d-Mandeb, in lat. 13° 88' N., long. 48° 
ing at a college of the Oratorians in I^ons at 33' £. It is S} m. long and 2i m. broad, and 
the outbreak of the revolution, when he re- divides the entrauoe of the Bed sea into two 
Jtnoed his fainily at Paris. Having been draft- channels called respectively the Oreat and Lit- 
ed into the army, he served in tne corps of tie struts. The former, between Perim and 
earineers during Qie campugn of 179S-180O the coast of Africa, is IS m. broad; and the 
ia Italy. In 1601, on the death of his father, latter, formed by the island and Cape Bab-el- 
regent of the bank of France,^ he returned to Handeb, onthe coast of Arabia, ia 1) m. Both 
Fsm, and in. partnership with his brother straits are free from hidden dangers, but the 
Sd{non eatabliahed a banking house. He waa little one is generally used by vessels passing 
elected to the chamber of depnties, where he to or from the Bed sea. The ialand is a bare 
acted wiUi ttte oppodtion, but saw witii dis- black rock, almost destitute of vegetetion, and 
pleawire the revolution of July, 1880. He waa without water. On the 8. W, side there is an 
the last minister appointed by Charles X., who excellent harbor about 1^ m. long and nearly 
hoped to retrieve tus fortunes through his old } m. broad, with a depth of 7 fathoms. As Pe- 
opponent'a popularity ; but it was too late, and rim commands the entrance to the Bed sea, it 
' P«ier was inade one of a provisional com- has been twice occn[aed by the British. The 
nultee of goremment The reyolution being first time was In 179S, when the French army 
completed, he was elected (Ang. 8) president was in Egypt, but the island was abandoned 
of ihe chamber of deputdes, which post be In 1801. latterly the projected Suez canal 
left to enter the cabinet as minister without a has ag^n alarmed the En^iah for the safety 
special department, but reaumed it when of their Indian possessions, and they have 
LiSitte was made premier. Ee succeeded the once more estsbliabed themaelves on Perim. 
latter, March 13, 1881, taking the department b Feb. 1867. it was formally taken poaseaaion 
of the interior. He secnred the independenoe of, and fortjflcations which command the little 
of Balgimn by sending a French army there paaaage have been erected, 
in 1881 to oppose the mvaaion of the Dntch; FKRIODIOAL LITERATURE, as the term 
otdered a French fleet to the mouth of the ia usnally applied, comprises those serial pub- 
Tagos to assiat in the overthrow of Dom licatjous the principal object of which is not 
Ugael ; and oocnpied Ancona to obecic the tbe oonveyauoe of news, but the circulation of 
progress of the Austriana in Italy. But at interesting eaaays, talea, poems, and neefol in- 
Loma the inaurreotionaiy attempts of the 1»- formation of a literary, scientiflc, or artistic 
^timista or tbe repnblioans, lie formidable character. Periodicals are, forthormore, gen- 
revolt of the silk workers at Lyons, the indig- erally distinguished from newspapers by the 
nant feeling of the people on hearing of the fall greater care and reflection commonly bestowed 
of Tartaw, and the growing spirit of liberal- upon their articles, and by their shape, which 
ism, were difficulties with wnioh he found is always snob that the nnmbers may be easily 
hinuelf unable to cope. Nevertheless, he de- and conveniently bound and preserved in the 
voted himself to his task to tbe last In form of books. Periodical literature embraces 
March, ]S32, when the cholera broke out in two classes of pnblications, tbe first devoted to 
Paris, he devised excellent measures to oheok literature or criticism, and the second to the 
1^ pK^raas. He himself, in company with scienoet the arts, or to special' branches of 
the duke of Orleans, visited tbe patients in knowledge. A few, however, present charac- 
the Hitd Dieu, April 1. Five days later ha teristies which would place them in both of 
was attacked by tne disease, which at first these divisions. — The extension of knowledge 
aj^eared of a mild form, but soon lesnlted and the multiplication of books rendered it im- 
lataUy. Hia funeral was attended by au im- possible for the scholar to inform himself of tiie 
wam oonooorse (^ people, and a monument progress of learning In various countries, or to 



pnTO&ase and perase more tiian a BmaJl portion the Sewie amtemporaine (18SS), irith vliicb 

of the vorkf isBned from the prem ; hence the haa been tmited the Athintun lYanfou, is 

neoeidity for oritioal jonmals. This Kteran' ahly condneted by Calonne, The Setnu Bri- 

wantiraa first Inet Is France. In Jan. 1660, ConnuTve (1886), edited by Sanlnier and I^choL 

Denis do Sallo, aeannung the name of the eienr and filled vith traudotiona itoia the periodical 

de rodonville, isBned at Paris the first nnmber jonmala of Great Britain and tie United 

ot Oto Joantat de» lavantt. He retired from the Btates; tlie Betme 6ertit<mv[«e, deroted to 

editorship in March, when IS weekly niunbers Qennan Uteratnre ; ttie Setw det raea Latina 

had been printed, in oonseqnetice of complaints (1867), appropriated to the arts and letters of 

made by uie paptJ nuncio of the Gallican spirit those nations having a Latin frigln ; and the 

displsred in some of the articles, and waa sao- Bewt Europitnne (16G9), are the other exbtiiiff 

cee^ed by the abbfi Jean Gallois, nnder whose French reTOwa of note. To the admiaaon d" 

snpiervision the Jonrnal was pnbUshed at irr«g- poetry and tales into the reYiews, and to the 

alar intervals nntil 1S7S. Its pnbUcntiou was pnbHcatiou by almost every newspaper of ■ 

resomed by the abb6 J. F. de la Boqne In mereryyettilletcn, mnat be escribed the almost 

16Y6, who was followed by L. Coniin in 1687. total want in France of serials exactly GorTe- 

In 1701 it was placed nnder the protection of sponding to the Fn^sh nmg&rines. A fbv 

the chancellor of France, and a conunissioa of only of tiie most popmar kind, uke the Magati» 

learned men appointed to condnct it. It was piftM-M^e (1882), exist. — England jteeme, with 

intermpted by the revolntion at the close of the eweption of Italy, to lave been Ao firrt 

17S2, and an effort to reTive it in 1797 was conntiyto imitate the example of France. Siit 

only BO far succeaafiil that a volume of 8S4 the " Weekly Memorials for the Ingenlons," 

pages was published: it was, however, perma- the earliest issae of which is dated fat Jan. 

nentlyretetahlishedmlSie, and still continues, 1681^'S, lasted bntayear, and some of itsar- 

and is conspicnons for its learning and candor, tides were translations fbom the Jovrnal dt* 

As the Journal da latanli did not pay mnch socanlt. The " Universal Historical Biblio- 

regard to polite or amusing Uteratore, J, Do- thiqne" began in Jan. 1688, and expired in 

nean de Yis6 fonnded In 1672 the second liter- March. The "History of Leanung" (1691, 

aiy periodical in Prance, the Mereure galant, and again 18941, and the " Memoirs for the In- 

vbioh gave reviews of poetry and the drama, genious" (IBM), were also of brief duration; 

Its titje was changed in 1717 to ttie Mereure de hot the "Hlatory of the Works of the Learned" 

France, and it was conducted with ability by (1899-1711} was more auocessftil, though the 

Marmontel and others until 1818. It has since worka reviewed are chiefly continental A 

been revived fbr brief periods as the MiTiertt learned French Frotestant refugee, Michel de 

Fnmsaite (1818-'20) and the Mtreure du XIS' la Roche, edited in London the " Memoirs of 

giielt. In 1701 a society of Jesuits at Tr6voax Literature" (I70d-'14), and afterward in Hoi- 

began the Mtmoirei pour tenir A Vhittoirt det land the Sibliothique Angloim (1717-'27) and 

«;ien«e«a(iJa&eaU0-arti, more commonly known the Mimoiret litUrairet de la Qrande-BretagM 

as the Mimoiret de TrSnoua. It was charac- (1720-'24); bnt his "Memoirs of Literature" 

terized by the excellence of its critical jndg- was reconmienoed in En^and in 1726. In 

menta, and by the zeal with which it combated 1726 the title was changed to the " Present 

anti-Jesnitic^ opinions; it lasted nntil 1767. State of the Eepnblick of Letters," and An- 

The other noteworthy literary journals of drew Reid assnmed the editorship. It nn- 

Fraace iu the last century were the Annie tit- derweot another transformation in 1787, be- 

tiraire (17R4-'B1) of Fr6ron; theDieade (af- comfaig the "History of the Works of the 

terward Seme) pMleumMque (I794-I807), by Learned," which was continued nntil 1743. 

Qlngnenfi; and the Magatin eneyelopidigve Its place was then to some extent stqiplied 

(179B), by JDllin, the second series of which by the "literary Journal" (Dublin, 1744^'91, 

was styled Annalet eruyyelopedifuet, and the the earliest publication of the kind in Ireland. 

third Eetiue eneyolopidiqve. It was suspended Since the middle of the 18th centniy it has 

in 1883, when it was succeeded by the Sewe been generally customary in English l!l«ra- 

J^fl;atMeti(ran^^byJn]llen,ofwMchonly tnre to apply the word review to tJiose serial 

a few Totumea were issaed ; and a second at- publications whose province is criticism, ma^- 

tempt by Didot to reestablish it in 184S as the zhie to those whose pa^es are filled with mia- 

NoueeiU revve eTioyehpidique woe equally nn- cellaneone and entertaining reading, andjonmal 

snccessftil. In the present oentnry the Eetrua to periodicals of the saientiflo kind. The ear- 

j^atifaite (1828-'80 and 18S7-'9), by Guizot, liest of the first nameddass was the "Monthly 

the Reoie de Parit (182B-'4a), the Reave indi- Eeview" (1749-18*4), established by Griffiths, 

ptTidanU, txA many more have appeared and whocontlnaed toconductitformorethanhalf 

tieen discontinned. Bnt the Sewe det devx a oentury. It wasfoHowed within the next 60 

KkjftdM, commenced in 1839, among whose most years by the "Critical Heview" (1789-1817), 

frequent contributors have been Ste. Benve, fonnded by A. Hamilton and sopported by the 

Flanohe, Ohasles, IWmnsat, and De Bro^e, oontributiona of Smollett, J. Roberteon, and 

has been marked by an ability which has made other writers ; the "London Review'' (1776- 

it permanent and placed it at the bead of '80), succeeded by the "New Review" p781- 

Fr^cb critical seriala. A rival publication, '96) ofMaty, and incorporated in 1797 with thv 



"Analytioal Berttw" (1788-'M), which was oals, and whose ohltfderirewueiitdrtdniiimit, 

diiven from the field hj the " Anti-Jacobin or inrtmction in &ie garb of entertainment. 

Review and Magarine" (1798-1831), and the Ont of the want fait hj this new pablio vrew 

■' British Critio" (17SS-184S), edited at firat the EngUsh msgazinee, the earliest of whiah 

bf Nsres and Beloe, who advocated the prin- was the " OentlexoBn'e Uagarine," commenoed 

ciplee of thoEngliah high ohorch partr. At iu LondonbjOaveinlTSI, andcontinned after 

the h^jinning of the lOui centiuy the " Edin- his death by Hemy end Hichols, the editors 

burgh Seview" (ISOS), by the stfle and crit- asanming the pMndonjmona appellatiim of 

ical ability of its articles, at once eleTsted Sylvanna Urban. Johnson and oUier eminent 

the standud of this class of serisl literatore. writers <rf the 18th omtmy contributed to it ; 

^ee KDiirBDBoa Ksvikw.) It was a vioonras beside eketohes and easiQ^ it pnblished for b 

defender of whig policy, and soon had a timatheivoceedinffsof parliament; and it con- 

fomaidahle rival in the torj " Qoarterly Be- tains obitnaries snd mnoh other historical mat- 

riew" (1809) of London, raooeedTe^ e^ted t«r, which has been made easily aocesmble to 

hy <Hm>rd, J. T. Ocderidge, and Lookhart, the Investi^tor by the pnblicatton of G index 

and nnmberins among fta omtaribntors Soott, rolmnes. It is still continued, bat for many 

Sooihey, and Oroker. The "Weotanineter Be- years its pages have been almost wholly de- 

Tiew" (1SS4), styled fbr a period the " London voted to history and sroheology. Oave bad a 

and Westminster Review," was started by Ben- host of followers. Ihe "London Magacine" 

tham and other ntilitarians, and as tite organ (1783-'84], the " Royal Magazine" (lYGQ-Tl), 

of tlia radicals In politics has nwnti^ed a hl^h the "Oxford Magazine" ('1768-'S£), ti)c"Enro- 

positjon under the direotjon of Bowrii^, UiU, pean Uagazine" (1763-1836), tbe " Soots Maga- 

and Hiekson. The " Edeotio Review" (ISOfi), dne" (1789-1817), the earliest in Scotland, and 

in which piu>ers b J Adsm Olarka, Robert Hall, the "Monthly Ha^ziae"(l 796-1 829), sapported 

and John Foster appeared, was evenfelioai la by the efforts of Priestley, Oodwin, and others, 

religion and liberal in poUtica ; the " Ohristian were among the chief ones which originated 

Obflttirer" (180S), e^ted by Z. Uaoanlay, 0. in the 18th oentmr. " Blackwood's Edinburgh 

WUks, and others, is the oi^ian irf themoder- Magaane" (1817) is of a higher order than any 

ate chnroh party; and th6"I>nblin Review" of itspredeoessors, and has never been exoelled 

ClSSe) was bronght into exlatenoe by O'Oon- (see Bliokvood's Maoakimk) ; bnt the "New 

nell and his friends as the representative of Montlily Magadne" (1814), edited in tnm by 

GotJiolio literatnre. Usny able reviews have Oampbell,Hood,Balwer-Lytton,andAinsworth, 

within a few years ceased to exist Bnch are " Fraser's Magacine" (1880), and the " Dublin 

the "Foreign Qnarteriy Review" (1827-'46), UniTerdty Magazfaie" (1882), have approached 

which occntded itself nnder the editorship of it in ezoellenoe. " Tait's Edinbnign l^ga- 

Qilli^ and Frsser, with foreign literatnre ; the dne," " Sharpe's London Ifamdne," " Bent- 

" British Review" a811-'25); the "Rotro- ley's IDsoellany," and the "United Service 

specljve Beriew" (18aO-'30, and again 1B08), Journal," which is partly devoted to the mill- 

which gave reviews of old books; and the tarysdencesiareof a li{^t«rcbaraoter. Anew 

" Irish Beview" (1867). Thdr|Jaoe6 have been eraintJiissortofliteretarehasbeenintrodQoed 

filled by tite" British QoarterlyKeview" (1845), by the shilling magazfaies, of which "UaomU> 

snocesBor to the "BriOBh and Foreign Review" tui'sHagodne" (1809), the "OomhiUMagszine" 

(1881! -'4£), the "ITtatii British Review" a8fi9), e^ted by Thackeray, and "Temple 

QB44), the " New Qnartwly Review" (laiii), Bar" (LBW), by Bala, are the best, tiie last two 

the "Seottisb Review" (ISSSJ, ^e "London Re- having attained an emxmona (urcnlatJon. The 

■' ■ ■" ■■ "St. James's Magarine" is the newest of this 

class, having been established In April, 1861. 
printed qnarteriy, bnt the "Sotorday Review" The weekly magadnee began in 18S2 with the 
(186S), which combines p<^tical articles with "Pemiy Magazhie" (]e8S-'4fi) of Enigbt, and 
critical notices of new publications, is a sno- "Chambers's JoamtU." The former was not 
oe«fbl weekly; while the "literary Gazette" only veiy snooeBsfol, owing to its iUuHtrations 
(1817), "Athenienm" (18SB), "Oritio" (1861), and its dieapness, but it led to a crowd of imi- 
and "London Review" (1860) are also beb- tations both in Europe snd America. This 
domadal journals of oritidsm, giving a portion popular class of Journals, including tbe " Sot- 
<tf their ecaoa to literary intelligence. — The uroayM^^zine" and "FaniUy Herald," has of 
" Tatler" (1709-'10) and " Spectator" (1711- Iste been greatly improved, and far better ei- 
' 13 and '14) tzooed ont a new path iu litera- amples of the kind are " Howttt's Journal " 
tnre, in which many imitators, not only in (1847-'9\ "Household Words" (18SO-'G9), oon> 
En^and, bnt all over the continent, hastened ducted oy Dickens, "All the Tear Round" 
to follow. Of the mnltitude of similar Eng- (1869), by the same editor, "Onoe a Week" 
lish pnblioations, the "Rambler" (179Q-'B1) (1869), the "Leisure Hour" (1801), and many 
of Jonnson was the moat fiunons. The pleas- others. A peculiar department in periodical lit>- 
ing snd popolar pliers of Addiscm and Steele erature has been marked out and filled ^ee 
created a litrge cuss of readers who were oon- 1849 by "Notes and Queries," which forms a 
tent with a less amount of erudition than was medium of interoommnnioation fbr men of let- 
displayed in the pages of the oritiosl periodi- ters, and a repository for brief notes on cnriona 

" (18C8), tbe "National Review" (186{6, 
a few others. The reviews are generally 
ted ODBTterlT. bnt the " flatnrdnv RavIaw'' 



topics m the TsrionB branches of liUiratiire. BsTsrian ncaAnaj, and the above n 
— In Qennanj a tranalstion of the Journal det GCttingen periodical of tlie same name. Of a 
XKonU appeared at aa earljr day, bat in 16S3 lighter ana morepoimlAr tone are the BUUter 
an original work, the Acta Imiditorvm, waa fUTliterariiehe VntirltaUnnp(\SB&\'ptvAmA.j 
foanded by two private learned aodetiea at editedb^EotzebneaatheXieeFaf-iieM IToeAcn- 
Iieipaio. It was lees brilliant, although bjno ilaU; Via DeaiMtha llvuvm (18GS), byPrntz; 
means leaB entdite, than its French proto^pe ; the (7renfhit«n(1841),bjr Schmidt andFreTtag; 
bat being written in the Latin langaage, stenil j WtittmnannCt Mot»atM^fU (ISCC), and many 
orihodoz in ita Lutheran opinion^ and govern- more of Uie maoazine kind. The lUatVHria 
ed by no systematio code of critioiam or philos- HuniUai^oumai of Leipalo ie of the " Pennj 
oph7, it Mled to exerii the iuflaence or attain Uagaxine" school, and ergoya a Tory large cir- 
tbe snoceBe of the Paris periodical. Stippori«d cnlation. — In 1638, three years after the m>- 
by the contribntions of men like Leibnitz, pearanoe of Sallo's jonraal, the GuvtmU A' 
Seokendorf, and Cellarins, it ooatinaed ontil letlerati waa commenced at Borne by Naziari, 
1776. The first literary aerials in the Oerman and published tmtil 1676. Under the aame ti- 
langnage were written in the form of dialt^aea; de literary periodicals were afterward ismed 
they were the MiraatMgetpf&die (ia88-'9) of at Parma ridSft-'SO) by Koberti and Baoohini, 
Tbomaains, and the Monatlitht Uhterredungen at Venice (17I0-'S8) by the brothers Zeno, at 
(1B89-'SS} of Tenzel, who sabeeqnenUy edited Florence (1742), and finally at Pisa m 1771, 
the CuritvM BSiliotheh {1704-'7). The No- which last has been continned, with the ezcep- 
veUen oui d«r geUhrteti wid curievten Welt tion of abrief period (17S7-1801),dowii toonr 
Q69S) had bat a brief existenoe, and the own tune. The JSiblwUea volajiU (I67S-1718, 
l}0ttt»e/i^ Aeta Eruditomm (I712-'6S), an imi- and 17S8-'47), commenced by OineUi and con- 
tation of the Latin work, was the flret really tinaed by Sancaasani, waa of a leaa aolid charac- 
aacoessfnl nndertakin^ (^ the kind. Under ter: batthei^MwBBbtttfntHsipnbiiahedforsev- 
the titleof QtUhrta Ze*tung, almost STery large era! years anbaeqnentto 1740, and edited in pari 
town had at some period during the 16th oen- by lAini, was marked by machera^lion. Dis- 
tury its literary jonmal. Such, for inatanoe, tingnished at a later period have been the £i- 
were established at Franlcfort (178a''8e), Halle hlwt«ea ItaUaTut (1816-'40} of Milan, conducted 
fl766-'93), Kiel (1771-'e'ri, Gotha (1774-1804), at first by Aoerbi : the Antologia (1821-'8a) of 
Erfort (1t81~'96), and Erlangen (17S0-'97). Florence, under the direction of a society of 
But moreimportant were the jftw&idMi? con achotars; the(?tDrjiaiiijirca<ii«t(I8l9)of Eome. 
gelehrten Saeheu (171G-'9?), edited by Beok hegaahj OAexeichi ; the Qwrnale eneielvpediee 
and others, and whose clodng volnmes are en- 1806) of Kaplea, which waa followed in that 
titleildterarueh^Deahwurdigheitm; the OCt- city by the Proffre»»0 delU tdaae (1888-'48), 
tinyer geUhrte Ajteetgen, began in 1739 as the and ahioe by the Mvteo di teieiut t letteratura ; 
Zeitungan txm geUkrtcn SatMn, whose editors, and seTeral minor ones, like the PoUgn^ft 
among others, have been Holler, Heyne, and (IBII), and Magaaina pittoreteo, and the popu- 
Eichhorn, and which is still published; the \stAUvm (1824) of Rome. The chief critical 
AUgemeine Deutteha BMioihek (1766-1806), aerials at present are the-&Hrwtar0nt«mp0ranAi 
founded by Nicolai; the .£ri«/e,clMn«UMt«Z*f«- (1863) of Tarin, resembling in style and ap- 
ratuT betr^ttid (1750-^65), in which ILeasiiiK, pearance the SVench Servt det deux tnondei, 
Mendelsaohn, and Abbt took part ; the so call- and the Foliteenieo (1889) of Milin , which 
ed Bremer BeitrSge, through whose pages Qie- was suppressed in 1844 and revived in 1869. — 
aeke, Zacharifi, QeUert, Gilrtner, and other Spain was represented in periodical literature 
critics exercised a poweml infinenoe upon the during the 18th century by the Liario de lot 
German literary world; the Allgemeine lAte- UUraUit (1787-47); the PfiMo^or (1702), one 
ratuT-Zeitung, established by Bertnch at Jena of the " Spectator" school, and chiefiy written 
in 1785, but removed by Schlltz to Halle in by Olavyo; the Seminaru) erudito (1775-'Q1), 
1804, and continned until 1848 ; and the Je- by Balladeree, noted for its pahlicatioo of rare 
naiteAe aUgemeine Literatar-Zewaitg, foanded and important literary manuacripts ; the Memo- 
by Eichstiidt at Jena upon the removal of the rial lUerario (1784^1807) ; and tiie Varitdadet. 
last named, and also suspended in 1848. In which acquired a conmderable repotation under 
the last half century the Leiptiger LiteraUir- the management of Quintana. The Oronica 
Zeibmg (ie00-'84}, tiie Witmer JahTbileh4ff der eimtijiea y Utwima (1824), by Mora, enbse- 
Idteratur (l8I&-'48), Hermet (1816-'81), dis- qnently became apolitical sheet. The Ceneor 
tingaished for its erudition, and the</aAr&fleA«r (1820), by Liata, Hermosilla, and Minano, was 
,/6r KusenaehafilKhe Critik (ia27-'47) have for some years the best periodical which Spain 
oeaaed to appear. The leading existing crit- had seen ; this waa finally enperaeded by the'<n&I&nv«'/aArMteA«r JEmifa E^aaliola (1881), ^hich successively 
d«r Littratur (1608); the Jitpertorivm der chaiiKed its title to AocMta .FuropMt and £«rt«fa 
BmteBhen vnd Auetdnditehen LiUratvr of d» Madrid. Later are the Cartat EipalloUi* 
Oeradorf, a continuation of the B^pertoriian der (1681), the Antologia E^taiiola (1846), the Se- 
pMommfm Zifanjrfur (18S4-'48); the DeuU^te tiwtaMi})iHM>-Jm«rt(sana(I848),edited^Hora 
VierUljiiknKhir{fl (18S8), modelled upon the for a brief period only, the Seeitta de &paHa, 
£kigliah review ; the QelehrU Anieigen of the the Seminario pintonteo, and the Benela d* 



i i w t a f iiimiai. — Tha Jottmalda OMn^rainthe litenrj Jcmnul of Dttunark was tiie Ltfrde 
Mriier part of this oentuy was tbe first, aai Jidsndt (lT4»-'66). Tbea came &e Minena 
for A long time the onlf, literuy o^an of (1?S6) of Rahbek, oontinoed with a alight 
which FcKrtngal ooold boost. In 1387, how- ohangeof title until 1S19; the Daiuike T^Ukutr 
ever, the Panorama waa fbiuded, and still tor- (17B1-1808) ; the Skandinamk Miutum (1768- 
onUtea largely both in Spain and Brazil ; and 1808), revived aa the Idtteratw Seltkabt Shrtf- 
\a l&U the reiT ezoeOent £mita wtktnal ter (1805-'83>; and the Lairde ^fUrre^inger 
IMmmte was Mtabliahed b/ Oaatilho, bat ia (17»d-lS10), hj Ualler, Mj otmtinned hj the 
now edited by Kbeiro de S&. Other pnblioa* same editor under the name of LUleratnr-Ti- 
tioBB of the literarr olus are the (TournoJ da d«nde (1811- S&). Uolbeoh published the .^tA«ne 
aodeJade doi amiffotdat lett^it* and the ^bUo- (1818-'1T) and other periooicala, one of which, 
pliiio. — ^In HollfULd two oelebrated men, emi- the Sittoritk Tidihr\fl (1840), has Borvived 
nenUj qualified for the pnraoit, entered npon him, and is now edited b; Westergaard. The 
the career of literary jonraaliam in the latter taoremodernjoornalaarethelfdife^/orZi^ 
Mit of the 17th oantmT'. The Menurt aoeont teratur og SnUk (188ft-'42^, now traDsfonned 
(1484) of Deabordea at Amsterdam was a feeble into the qnarterlr For lAtterattir og Kritit 
prodnetiiMi; but Bayle In the same year began (1842); Maanedarift /or Litteratur (1829- 
biaJfov9dladelarip\aiiq[utdeiletfre»,widcii '88); the Sorditt Litteratvr-Tidmde (1816); 
was eontlnned with great saooeas nntll 1718. JTonJ og 3yd (1848-'S}, b^ Goldachuuilt, re- 
He npcfdilj fonnd a rival in Le Clero, who vived In 1866, and now changed to the ^tm- 
nndertook m 1688 the first of the three famoos tiM eg Ud» ; and the I>anth Maantd*br\ft, by 
seriesofreviewstowhiohhelaiitdebtediiDrBO Steenatrnp, oonunenoed in 1&G8. InlBG4the 
mnefa of his repntstion. These were the .Sf- Jfordiik DnieartitaU Tidibr-ift, a well managed 
MMUgw vnttWMlb et M»loriqw« (1686-'98), quarterly review, of whioh the nnmbera are al- 
tfae BuUothigve cAoHfa (1708-'18}, aikd the £i- temately pablished In Bwedieh and Danish by 
htiolUqiumuimti»etmed«rn«(in4r-'3T);tbef the four Boandinavian nniveraities of Oopen- 
are diarsoterized by fblness, variety, and jndi- hagen, Ohriatiania, Upsal, and Lnnd, origmat- 
oiona analyins and selet^on. The first peri- ed in the Danish capital. — The Sveruka Aiym 
odioal in Uie vemaonlar was the Boektai vaii (1783-'4}, written byDalin, a warm admirer 
Svropa (1093-1708, and 1716-'46), by Rabos of Addison, waa the earliest notable addition 
and BeweL which wax excelled by the E^Vi- made by Sweden to learned periodioal litera- 
hUfli dtr Galterd^ (1710-'48). J. van Effen, tore. In 1742 Oeldns foonded the TidniTigar 
imitating the English essayist, prodnoed his iToI- om dm lirdat Arbaten, which waa afterword 
lantUahe S^Mtator {1781-'5) with marked ano- edited by Salvias and GJOrwell as the Zdrda 
ceas; bntanewerainoritioiamwaB introdaoed Tidningar; but the first comprehensive critical 
in 1781 by tlie Vadarkmdtehe iMtere^fiungm, journal was the Snemka Mereuriut (1765-'6fi) 
whioh still ooniinDes. Tbo AUgmume Sontt- by QjOrwell The Fii:f«r^t(-Jbwnaf (1777''8), 
«KZ«a«r(od«n78S) maintained for many yean byRndin and Biatell, scarcely deserves meo- 
a high rank, but now exerts little inflnenoe. tion. The Pho*phoro» (1810-'1S), by Atterbom 
The SeeaMSKt (1808), lately superseded by the and Fahnblad, carried on by the latter as the 
JVimtaa £wmMa<^ has proved itaelf a powerful Smnth JAteratw-Tidning (181S-'24), and its 
rival to the £ettero^/MnmA. Other existing adversary the Idana n8n-'S4), edited by a 
perio^oals are the Jfiatrltmdteha Mvtmim sooiety styled Qothiita Mrhindet, both wieUed 
(1885), the J^udatrom (I8SS), and the Ifanor- a powwM influence in the literary oirclee of 
■eksr OD the plan of the London " Notes and Sweden, and originated two different schools 
Qoeriea." — The J3n>ri£ det jownaut (177B- of poetry and oritioiam. Among other periodi- 
18IB) is a Bel^an literary miscellany of con- cals may be mentioned Polyfem (1810-'12) ; 
Hdmble valne ; but it was not nntil the sepa- Snea (I818-'82), notioeabte for ite elevated 
ration from Holland that the periodioals of Bel- tone uid clever reviews of foreign books ; ■Tbur- 
gimn began to be of much interest. The JTes- noZ Jvr Littratarm (180d-'18), aubaeqnently 
migw dm tetenem, edited for many years by BL known as the ^ii^mdnna Jottmalen ^18]S-'2S); 
Qenois, Is fraqotnitly quoted, while the imief Siandia (1838-'T) ; lAteratuT^Foreningeni Ttd- 
issnea in the fletolah tongue have been the ning (1838-'6) ; and the LiUratufilad (1B88- 
Sed^rd^ulteit L»tt»o^^m (18S4>, by Blom- '40). The best of a later date are the Tidahr^ 
maert; tha.fi9^rt£HAifti«nM»(188e-'40),bythe fdr LtUrtituT (18(0), by Malmatrdm, and the 
weQ known acholar WUlenM; the Euntt- en Norduk lidtkrift, by Solman (1862).— JVw 
JsWstMb J (184Q-'4a) ; iiiitVbtmtht Bsderyler (1840-'4e),ooiidacted bymembersof theOhris- 
(1844), and one or two more popolar mlsoel- tianla university, and the North Tid*kr\ft J3r 
uiaM^^ta%itibt«tiaxA\b»BiJiiwwiqfuBritai^ Tidatukah og Litwatur, established in 1847, 
nigme (17H-181SJ, and its more original sno- and since edited by Lange, are the only eape- 
oeasor the BibUotMqve unituttlU (1816), which oiolly prominent literary organs which have yet 
'- -pabUihed in two paralld series,, one scienlifio arisen in Norway. The penodioala published in 
1 the other litarary, are widely oironlated the Icelandio language are not numerous. They 
both at home and abroad. The £miu Suitie comprise the SagtiailSd (1617-'S6), edited by 
has been oondnoted with muoh suooeM at Nenf- Finn ICagnusson, and now isgiied under the 
ehAtel ainoe 1887.— The earliest noteworthy name of Siimir (1827); Ijdhtir (1885-'4C); 

and th 



S^ S^agirtt (18il), a review edited oUaSy by Ontcov, Fown, and Lemberg.— The prindpal 
Jon Sigtirdsaon ; e^ Hordur/ari (lQi8-''i% hy literarv perio^cal of Bohemia, the GatmiM 
Oisli Brynjnl&ioii. In FinlaDd tae sole Uter- Cttknuia Mmevm (" Jonrnal of the Bohemian 
«ry jonraal deserriiig of notice ia the Sitomi, Muaenm"), was be^mi in 1827 b7 the patriotio 
which hag been iasned in the Swedish langna^ Falackr, edited from 1837 to 1843 bj Scfaa- 
elnoe 1840. — The exialiDg periodicals of BnsBia fiirik, and since that time b; Wocel. It has 
are more noted tot tli^ size tlmn their nam- done mnoh toward boilding up a Temaonlar 
ber, a Bis^e iwne eometdmes ooataJning 600 literature. — ^In the sonth-Siavio lands, the 2)a- 
pagee. Periodica) literstnre in that connby be- waJUriyika (" Dlyriou Uorning Star"), fonnd- 
gan with the Yethemyeif/aUhniya tetekineniya ed in 1S8S by 6f^, lasted until the Hnnga- 
("Uontlilj Ees^s"), edited by Mtlller from riaa etrng^e; and lately the 6la»n.ih mo- 
175S to 1704. Soon afterward oonunenced een«ib*("Blavio Herald'^ has made its appear- 
Bomarakoff's "Indostrioas Bee" (17CB), and anoe ^ Klagen&irt. — Foremost in point of 
E]ieraakoff'B"Lei8areHoiirs"(1769). Superior tisie amnvg the serial isenes of t£e Htm- 
to these, however, was the Vyettnii Seropi garian press was the Jfofryar muttvm (178B), 
("European Intelligeooer"), foonded in 1802 vlarted by Kaonczy, Szab6j sod Bacsfioyi; 
by the historian Kararoain, and eubBoquently bot it Boon expired, and Eaianozy for a wUle 
(1808) edited brZhokovaky. To tMs succeed- condaoted the Orphtnu. The Tudomdnyoa 
ed the £utt:w Vy«fritt, oondneted ftom 1608 gySjteniiny, or "Literary Uagazine," held 
to 1830 by S. S. QUnka, then by Oret«h and from 1817 to 1B4I, mider the editorship of 
Poleroy, and which, after having been suspend- YArAsniarty and others, the 6r8t place among 
ed for some yesn, wae revived at Moscow in Eongarian periodicals, but it had for a time a 
IBCfl byKatkoff. One of the ablest pnblioa- rivsl in the-^fef^ ^if^ratum ("Lifeandliter- 
tions wss the ^n otetoheiUa ("Bon of the atiire")) originated in 18SS by Eolceey and 
FaOierland"), founded in 1813, with which was P. Bzemere. The FiffyelmetS^ ot "Obeerver" 
united in 18S5 the Seeernoy Arihiv (1838X or (1637-'48), was an inflnentisl litenur serial 
" NorUieni Archives," at which time Bnlpiria under the chante of B^ca, who in conjunction 
andOretoh became joint editors -, the latter re- with Bchedel also condnoted the "Athenicnm," 
rigned it in 1880 Into the hands of Ifaasalsky, an Imitatton of the London periodical of the 
and a few years afterward it ceased to ap- same name, which enjoyed for a considerable 
pear. The "Telegraph" of Moscow {1626-'85), time a deterred success. The-Erdelj/imtaeum 
by Folevoy, began a new era in Buseian critar (" Transylvanian Museum") of DObrentei had 
oism ; it was suppressed by the government only a brief existence, but the Uj Magyar 
and its successor, Nadeahdin'a "Telescope,'' tmueaum, or "New Hungarian Musenm," has 
speedily met with a similar fate. They were during the last decenninm been the principal 
fbllowed in the old capital of Bnssia by the oriticid ionmal of Hungary. — 'O Aoyioc 'Spms 
Mothiitafiin (1B40), the organ of the Panslavio ("The Learned Mercnry"), the aarliest pen- 
theories. The Biblioteia diya feitmiya (" Li- odioal of modem Qreece, was maintained by 
brary for Beading") owed its origin (1834) to the contributions of Asopios and other promi- 
Greteh, who was followed in the oltair of edi- nent men. To it has sncoeeded the Evpa- 
torship by Benkovsky; under the direction of jrauot Bpananit, or "European Contribnter," 
Smirdm it b stiU one of the foremost periodi- esteblished by Rangab^ and others at AUiens 
oals of the oonntry, although a portion of its in 1840. — In India the issnes of the periodical 
contents oonMsts of translations, chiefly from press are of course formed npion English modds. 
Engliah works. The Sovremmnii (" Oontem- The earliest one of a literary character was the 
porary"), founded by Pnehkin in 1886, was "Calcutta Monthly Register" (1790), nhidh 
afterward oondneted by Pletneff : while the lasted for some months. Of tie snccessors the 
OMoUitostmya mitJti ("National Journal") best known are the " Oriental Magarineand In- 
waBeditedatflrBt(1840)ln-ByedinBky,andthen dianHurkam,"whioh began atMadrasinlSlS; 
by Kr^evsky, dicdnKdalung itself under both the "Madras Misoellray;" the "Calcutta Be- 

by the zeal with which it opposed Fanslarism. view" (1844), avalnabie existing quarter^; and 

Ontside of the country itself the Arehh JSir die the " Bombay Quarterly Review,'' which dates 

vUietuehqftlieke K'undewm Siualand, eiit^ ttt from 1865. At Singapore the "Journal of 

BerUu by Erman since 1841, gives a valuable the Indian Archipelago" has been published 

ritumi ot the labors of the Busman men of unce 1847, while the " Cliinese Bepository," 

science and letters. — The JMennih Wamatetti begun by Morrison at Canton, was from 1882 

I ("Varsaw Jonrnal"), fonnded by Moohnacki to 1861 filled with valuable articles relating 

and Podozaszynaki tn 1828, has oontuned many chiefly to the literature and histoiy of the ex- 

excellent essays by such men of learning as treme East. — ^The periodicals of Spanish and 

Lelewel, Miokiewicz, and Brodadnski. An im- Portnguese America have as yet hardly at- 

portant periodical wss edited by Lsoh Szyrma tained even a local snocess. Brazil did not 

und^the title of PamJsfntiFomatMitt ("War- possess a critical Jonrnal of the first class until 

saw Memoirs"). The''Athenfflnm"wasissoed Oliveira began in 1869 the Eeauta BnuiUira 

at the same place by Eraszewski, but ezjdred at at Bio Janeiro. Peru has nothing better or of 

Uieendof Soriyeara; and a number of Po- a later date to show than the old Merwrio 

lish literary senids have tq)peaMd at "mina, iVruatw (l7Bl-'6), The Itemtrio ChiUno, 



edited hj Vont daring the period of his eziJa nie, the first AmeriOftn periodioal vfaich w« 

from Bpaon, was a creditable prodnction, and forttmate enonglt to re»sh An age of over 10 

haa be«i followed hj one or two unsoocessfiil jitorB ; the " Literary Magacine" (Phfladdphlft, 

Attempts to establijh a permanent magazine in 180S-'8), by 0. B. Brown ; Uie " Monthly An- 

Chili. In Uexico the Oaieta de Uieratvra of thotogj" (Boatoa, 1803-'ll), oontaining artioles 

Bsmirez (1788-'S5) has aoaroel? been equalled by Tudor, Bnokmineter, J. Q. Adams, and Q. 

since the eatablishment of the republic. — Be- l^ckitor;the"Iiiberar7!HiBc«llBiij" Cambridge, 

Ternng the rule which had prevailed in the 1804-'CJ; the" General EepoBitory''(18ia-'J8), 

old world, the United States, ae was natnral at the same plaee ; the "Muror of Taste" (Phi]-' 

in B new oonnlTT' where scholars and instita- •delphia, 1610-'ll), br Carpenter, who paid 

tions of learning were as yet few, had its jonr- mn^ intention to dramatie matters ; th4 

lutls of entertainment long before its Jonmala "Uonajj- Register" (Charleston, 1806), the 

(rf emditlon appeared, llie date of the first first sonthem periodical; "Iiitarai7 Uiaoel- 

lit«rar7 periodical is IHl. In that year Frank- lany" (New Tork, 1811), by Baldwin; the 

lin iasaM the "Oeneral MMarine and ffistori- "AnaleotioU4EaeLne"(Philadelphia,1818-'S0)i 

cal Ohronicle" at Philadelphia, on the plan of designed eapecullyf<H' ofSeere Jn the navy, and 

the " Gentleman's Uagazme ;" bnt it existed edited in 181S-'14 by Irving; the " New York 

only half a year, while the " American Maga- Weekly Unseam" (1814-'lT); the"Portico" 

raive," b^nn tn the same year and oity by Baltimore, 181S-'19) ; BnokinKham's " Kew 

Webbe, was still less snocessful, two nnmbers England M^adne" (1881-'S) ; the "American 

oolvbein^pnblished. The other iaenes of the Uonthl^ Uagazine" (New York, 18l7''18)| 

kind prior to the revolntion were mostly short- the " Literary and Boientiflo Bepostory" (New 

lived. They were tlie "American Magarina York, 1620-'S1); " Atkbison's Casket" (Phila- 

and Historical Ohronide" (Boston, Got. ITU, delphia, 18Sl-'as), dinilaoed at laat by " Gr»- 

to I>eo. 1746); the " Boston Weekly Unseam" ham'a Uagarine," whleh from 1S40 to 1660 

(4 nos., 1743); the "Independent Befleotor" was the beet of itsolaes tn America; the"Ab' 

(New York, i7Sa-'4], which nambered among lantio Jd^arine" (Now York, 1844-'B), hr 

its contribntors Gov. livingeton and the BeVi Sands, contJaaed ttotil 1827 as the " New York 

A. Bnrr ; the " New England Uagaeine" (Bos- Beview ;" the " Southern literary Gaxette" 

ton, 1768), which ceased after the appearance (1888) ; the " New York Mirror" (1833), be- 

of ft few parts; the "American Hagacine" gan by Uorris imd Wood worth, tbe latter being 

(Philadelphia, Oct. 1767, to Oct 17fi8), pub- sncoeeded by Fay, who gave place to Willis, 

llshed by Bradford ■ the " North American friHu whicli time ontil 1643 llorris and Willis 

Uaguine" rWoodbndge, N. J., l768-'6e), by saooessfUly oondnoted It) th6"IUiiioislfoath- 

S. Nenl; Oie "American Hagorine" (Phila- ly Uagaaae" (Vatidalia, 18S0-'8a), the earliest 

delpfaia, 1769), by Nieob ; the " Royal Ameri- pnblioation of a literary oharaoter in the WaliL 

by Carey, who abandoned it to undertake the "I>ial"(Boaton,lMO--'44),editeddarliigitsfirat 

"American Uaseom" (1787-'97), a compilft- two ywe by Msigaret Fidler, and mnvraii 

tioa from the newq>^»erB and other Jonniala by K. Wi Emerson, Uie organ of lite s<jiool c^ 

of the time, of mnch historical valoe; the ]4ew England Irusoesdentall^; "Arotonu'* 

" Kaasadtowtts H^aztne" (Boston, 178»-'B6) \ (Netr York, 1840-'^), by 0. Mathevs and X. 

the "Ifew York Haga^ne" (I79a''S7)i the A. Dnycddnok : the " Msgnolia" (18ti->8) ; the 

"Farmer's Itnsenm" fWelpole, H. H., 1708)^ "International Magulne*' (SeW York, 1880- 

edited from 1796 nnol near the dose of the 'fiS), under the editorial ofalrKe of B. W. Qria- 

oentnry by Dennie ; the " United Btates Uaga- wold j " Pobiam'l Uonttdy" (New York, I8BS 

zbe" ^>luladelphis, lim, br Braokenrldoet -'7), of a hl^er eharaeter, botli in plan and 

the " American Univeraal Magadne" (Phlla- Bxeontion, than eny tiurt had nreoedea it ; anl 

delpbia, 1797]; and the "Uonthly Itagarine "RaB8eU'aMagadne"(Oharkeion,lB67-'e). All 

and American Review" (New York, 1709- the early magadnea drew largely from Engjidi 

1800), founded by the norellst Brown, bnt sonroea, bnt in 1811-'1S appeared at PhUadel- 

carried on afterward as tli6"AmeTioan Review phia the "6eleotVieW8 ot Utentnre," K^flT 

and LHerary Journal " (ISOl-'S). It would devoted to reprtnta froffl tbe ftreigh periodku 

hardly be possible to give a complete list of prees j It has been followed by the "Satard^ 

t^e numerous literary misoellanles which hare Magazine" (Fhilade^^ila, 18B1), the ■' UuMuai 

been nndertaken sinoe 1800 in the principal of Foreign Literature" (I^Uadelphia, 183S- 

ffltiee <a tlie Union. A large minority of them '89), the " Select Journal at Foreign Peiiodioal 

never aaoeaeded in obtai^ng anv thing like XJleratnre," edited by A. Nortcn and C. Fot 

mcceos or permanence. Among tnem was the som (Boston, 1888-'4), and by two existing 

"Portfolio^ (Philadelphia, lB01-'26), by Den- publkatioDfl, "littell'a Uving Age" (Boetoi^ 



1844) and tbe "Eeleotio Magazine" (Nev (Cinciiuuiti, 182&-'80), b; Fltait; the "Kew 
York, 18*41. A imjtitnde of mamudnes York Review" (ISST-'W), ertablished by 
filled "with u^t rea^ng, and designed more Hawks, and Bnbsecnieiitly edited hj J. Q. Oogs- 
particQlarly for circnlation among the women well and O. 8. Henry ; and the " Southern 
of America, have been pnbliahed, the ear- Qnarterly Review" {Charleston, 1842-'52), 
Ueet of which were the "I*die»' Maga- were well eondncted, bnt have been dlecon- 
rine" (Philodelplita, 1790) and the "Ladj's tinned. The same fate has befallen the" I>em- 
Weekly MiaoeUany" (New York, 180r-'8) ; ocratio Review" (New York, IBB^-'Ba), after- 
lat«r onea are the " Lowell Offering" (1841), ward the " TJnited Statea Review" (1868~'e). 
chiefly written by female operativeB in the and sabsequently revived by Florence and 
New England faotoriea ; the " Ladiea' Com- Lawrence as the " National I^ocratie Qnar- 
panion" Qfew York, 1820-'44) ; the " Colnm- terly Review ;" the " American Whig Re- 
bian lUgarine" (New York, 1844-'8) ; the view" (New York, 1846-'62), by Oolton and 
" Union Magazine" (New York, 1847), by Ura. Whelpley ; the " Maasachnaetta Qnarterly Re- 
:^klsnd, ^«rward pnblished at Ffailadelphb view" CBoston, lS47-'60), by T. Parker; and 
as "Bartain's Magaiine;" "Arthnr'a Uaga- the "New York Qnarteriy Review" (186S- 
dne" Philadelphia); "Hias Leslie's Maga- 'S). The "New Englander" began at New 
rine" (Philadelphia) ; and the still iasaed " Go- Haven in 1S4S, and the " National Qnarterly 
dey'fl Lady's Book" and " Fet«nion'B Magazine" Review" at New York in 1B60. A large nom- 
of Philadelpbia. Magazines for children appear ber of reviews, organs of the Tarions religiooB 
to have onj^uted with the " Young Miasea' bodies, are to be regarded partly as critical 
Magazine" (BrooUyn, 160S), and have been and partly as theolo^oal Jonmala. 8nch are 
fkvqnently pnblished since nnder snch titles the "Chnatian Eiaminer" (Boston, 1834), a 
■a '' YonQi'a Magazine," " Youth's Cabinet," supporter of MasBachnaetta Unitorianism, edit- 
" Parley's Magazme," and " Merry's Mnsenm." ed at viiriouB times by Palfrey, Jenka, Walker, 
Theejiattogmagadneaofahtgher order are the Greenwood, W. "Ware, Mta, Putnam, Hedge, 
"Eniokerbooker,"finuidedbyO. F. Hoffinauat and Hale, and which grew out of the "Ohris- 
Nev York in 1S8S, and edited rise* 1884 by tian IMaciple" (lB18-*24), conducted chiefly 
Louis Oaylord OlartE ; the " Sonthem literary in the first instance by Noah Worcester; 
UeM«iger"(Kchinond,18SS), edited for a bri«f the "Biblical Repository and Bibliotheca Ba- 
period by Poe; " Harper's Hew Monthly Mag- era," pnbliahed under that name since 18B1, 
azine" (New York, 1860), combining seleotJons fonned by the onion of the " Biblical Repod- 
from foreign pQblioations with a large amount tory" (which originated In 1881, and with 
of original matter, ably eondncted from the which was Joined the "American Quarterly 
outset, and having a circnlation for beyond Obserrer," 1883-'6) of Edwards with the 
that ever attained by any similar pnblioation ; "BibliothecaSaera"^ of Robinson; the"Metli- 
and the "Atlantic Monthly" (Boston, 1857), odist Qnarteriy Review," commenced as the 
edited by J. R. Lowell, snpported by original "Methodist Magazine" (1818); the "Biblical 
contribntionafromeomeof tneforemoetAmeri- Repertory and Princeton Review," began 
can ai^ ^iglkli novelists, eosayiets, and poeta. by Hodge in 18S6 as the organ of the Weat- 
Balher historical than literary have been the minster Oalvinista : the " Ouletian Review" 
"American Bedster" (Philadelphia, 1806- (1886),advocBtdnginre]igiouBmatterBthepriii- 
'10), and periodcala of the same name by ciples of the Baptista; the"PratestantEpiaco- 
Walah (Philadelphia, 1817) and by Stryker palQaarterlyReview"(18H),andthe"Ameri- 
(Philadelphla aid New York, 1846-'61), as can Ohnroh R«view" (New Haven, 1848) ; the 
well ae the "American Quarterly Register" "XJniTeraalistQnarterly" (Boeton,lB48), by 6- 
(Andcver, 18S9-'48), by Edwards. The " New H. Emerson ; the " Preabyterian Qnarterly Re- 
England Historical and Genealogical Regis- view" (Philaddphla, 1852), by Wallace; the 
ter" (Beaton, 1S6S), by Drake, and "Histori- "Evangebcal Review" (GhetlTabai^, Penu.), 
oal Magazine" (New York, 18S7), by Fol- by Sjanth and others; the "T^veraalisl 
■om, are also filled with American historical Quarterly Review" (Boston^ 1844) ; and 
and biographical matter. — The review liters- "Brownson'a Quarterly Review," begnn as 
tore of the TJnited States begins vrith the the " Boston Quarterly Review" (18S8), and 
" American Review of Histon* and Politics" since 1844 malntuning Roman Oatholic opin- 
(Philadelpbia, 1811-'1S), by Walsh; bnt the ions. Many of the colleges have individoally 
ablest amd most permanKit pnblicatdon of this pnblished literary Jouraals, of which the 
Bcrt baa been the " North American Review" "Yale Literary Magaone" (1886) ia the best 
(Boston, 1616), which haa been snccesdTd^ known; but In 1860 several of the higher in- 
effited or Tndor, E. T. Ohanning and R, H. stitationa of education in conjunction eslab- 
Dano, Edward Everett, Sparke, A. H, Everett^ lisbed the " University Qnarterly Review," 
FaUny, Bowen, and Peabody, and haa con- Minor critical Jonmels have been the "Ut- 
Btantly maint^ed a high character both fbr erary Review" QTew York, 1822-'4}, followed 
style and critical ability. The "American by Bryant's "New York Review and Athe- 
Qnorterly Review" (Philadelphia, 18a7-'S7) ; nieum Magazine" (18SB>, and tts snccessor, the 
the " Southern Review" (Oharleston, 1B2&-'8S), " United Statea Review and Literary Gazette" 
by Elliott and Legar6 ; the " Weatem Review" (lffl6-'7); and two or three periodic^ in 




imitatioii of tbe London literaij weeUiea have 
been attempted, saoh u the " New York lit- 
enrt Ooxette" a884-'B and 188S), the "Lit- 
ararr World" fNew York, lM7-'68), edited 
br Hofflnan and tiio Dafokiaoks, " Norton*! 
Uterarr Gazette" (Neir York, 18G4-'6>, and 
the "Criterion" (New York, 18B{S-'8).— Jonr- 
nala devoted to the Bcienoua and the arts, or 
to paiticQlar departments of human knowl- 
edge, began to be published in the latter yean 
of the 17th oentaiy, bnt were not nomeronB 
until the beginning of the 19th, since which 
tbe^ have mnltipliod with wonderful rapiditj-, 
until there is now Bcaroelf any subject of in- 
terest, or which con be made an object of In- 
TfiBtigation, which has not ita periodical or- 
Kans. The "Philosophical Transactions" (Lon- 
don, IBHS) and the Muetlkmea Ouriota (1670) 
of Germanj maj be regarded as the first se- 
rials devoted to the natural and philosophioal 
soienoes; and, indeed, a liberal deflnitdon of 
the lenn scienUflc periodical would embrace 
the whole of those works issued, sometimes 
irregularlj, sometimes at stated intervals, hj 
the leamed societies ot Europe and America, 
and generally known as " Transactiona." The 
first theological Journal was stjled Dot AlU 
und ifau» aut dtm SAat* theoloffitcher Winm- 
McA^fUn, founded in Qermany by Lcsoher in 
1701 ; in America the earliest publioations of 
the kind were the " Ohristjan History" Bos- 
ton, 1748-'H) and the "Royal Spiritual Haga- 
TJne" (1771). The first serial in connection 
with iarisprudence was the Jownal da paiait, 
eetabUshed by Qn^ret and Blondeau at Paris 
in 1B92. At the same place in 168S, the abb6 

de la Eoque had already b^nn the earliest 
roedmenof a medical periodical, the Jownavx 
de mideeiM. Philology was early represented 
by the Aeerra Philologiea of Boysen (Halle, 
171SX and Qermany boa conldnned to be, above 
all other countries, the seat of journals de- 
voted to lingnistics. Journals of mechanical 
sdenoe seem to have ori^oted in En^and, 
and the British publications of that citaa 
greatly excelled until within a few years those 
of the continent; but Germany within the 
last quarter of a century, has poBeeesed seri^ 
devoted to the interests of almost every trade 
and profession, SyBtematio periodicals, em- 
bracing the mathematical, natural, and phys- 
ical sciences, sprang into existence about the 
close of the laat century almost Bimultaneoosly 
in France and Germany, and have in general 
been both better oonducted and more success- 
ful than those of a corresponding class in Eng- 
land. Agricultural periodicals nave been es- 
pecially oyeotB of attention in France and 
America, whUe those of England and Ger- 
many ore in general of less value and interest 
Every civilized country now has ila journals of 
theology, Jnriepmdenoe, medicine, Uie natural 
sciences, the mechanical sciences, and agricul- 
ture, while in some many other spedalities are 
represented. Few, however, except those in 
French, German, and English, are of general 
interest beyond the confines of the langoagea 
in which they are written. The following 1^ 
therefore, is limited to those tongues ; it ^vea 
the titles, place of pnblicatiou, and date ca ea- 
tablishment of the more prominent scienlifio 
and special periodicals now (1861) published ; 

i^if**? d* FAgitcniltim Fnutcalte. 

Annul doiB 

1 d'AplciiKarg pnUqiH. Bt 

BnnL PumBST. 
Jmfsil do Cnltlvitean. Purli, ISGS, 
WtHhrlR fOi Dntaoha Iaiidawlitli& 

BrBUeUunlL LdFriiilStf. 
" — 'jndiwlrtwJuftUai* Zdlnnt By 

rton. Easbnish 

OnnmrHlit. OldcMl, 
Jamiul of t^imai* 

Jonnal of Oh AgrleoltDnl B< 

CotUntBT. KswTnfc,lM^ 
■WoMim FniMr. B; Hum. S'aw 

Aamlcaa Aarioiltaiilit. Htw Tort:, 

StnUnrt, ISC8. 

, &t^Uili*dbrl 

lsR,B»**«t*dbrtCwd. H*vT«ck, 


Ba*iia Tg—i— — M-r— Bt K 
' piitor. Faii,UH. 

^ttHbrin ni HOni-, I 
Wftpp«Dtauid«, Bftmn, 

otoglouuBtltaU. LoDOon, 

EIoirI- nsd 


AsulM 4m 'Aknaz pnUlgno d« Bd- 

flqiw. firuwli,l«t. 
ZAaduUt lb du Bnnnnii. Con- 

tlaiutlaa ot Cnlla'i JgoiMl ftr dia 

Brakiut DOTr ooDdnctsd bj Erb- 

—- B«Ua, IBW. 

Ksobliooh. ButiL, 

Cl*ll-lDfM)Iew. BfBoniBuim. Fr»l- 

CLiFllEBclnMr ■ndAttMtacTi JonruL 

LoudiHi, 18ST. 
Bolldtr. LcmdaD, ISO. 
Antalte«t> ud HMhudsl JonnuL 

Kow Twk, IBM. 

L-ArlMa. Ful^lBtL 

Ouatt* da* Betni-ArtL BrLaBluCi 

DlkneMotfarEawtlar-ARKim. BrK^- 

idawliitsr. DtUMldortien. 
Art^DiuuL Bt Hall. LondDiL IBSa 
d^on. Brl>anuid. How York, ISU, 

AidoiomlHtia M>iib4BbtaD. Foimdsd 
Aton. AIUnm,' 

ileal JonniL Bj QonJd. 


OmMda*. ibM, lera. 

Bn>Ua«u>Idad«UFnii(». FarlB,l»8. 
BnllalindDBIbllopblla. Bt Taebanai; 

BnllaUadoBlbllophllaBalg*. Fonndsd 

SaiwawB. Bj BannuDS. Lalpal^ 

Auelnr tSr BIbUogiwUa. Br Pat» 

boldL Halls, 1840. 
Utrauii^sa OentivlbUtt. BrSSankik 

Lelpdo, IBm 

Pobllabara- Clnnlar. London, 1S8S. 
Tha BoakHller. Lanlon. lUS. 
American PubUdura' ClnnUi. Srm 

Annala* ds Chlmla at da PbTritna. 
Formerly aditud br OaT-LyMMand 
Arago. now bj diarnial, Pilouii, 
LaTolslar, and othan. Paila,lT». 

Annilen dar Plinlk nod ChamlB. Br 
Poasndoia Xaipali^ IStA 

Jonma] itti praktudia CbamkL Br 
£>dmuuk and Warthar. Ulptf^ 

CbamlMhoi CantnlUatL Bt Sim, 

QowMriy Jonnial of the CbamlMl 

Sodetj. Ltindon, IM, 
Cbomloil NaiFi. Loodoii, IBGO. 

BrJounwnd. PuU,18afc 


OMnKcntUr. Be* Tack, IHI. 
Jonnut dM Buiqalm. B7 Ls Eb. 

JonraiS d«j AMnnoecs. Ful^ISM. 
UoBd* OnmnismltL Puli,U«; 
moalskca HaadslunihlT. BrS4liit- 

PkTnwtUaMr. Berlin, IMT. 
- - t^U^ufaui. LaiidaD,lSll 
mWrXradiHi, IMS. 
~ aa UuuliK. Landau, IS&l. 
iV IlMulna. EatalUihedb 


PcHUail KMbulo'i Jotaati. eiu- 

AiUuo. LcndoiiiiaA. 

'onniil of tba FnuUla IiiUtata. 

PUIideliJiIm, lEBl. 
SduitUloAmeiiou. BawTuri^lSM 

jOMuldrnPaU*. PntLlTM. 
EkovII K*u«nl dM Loi) at AnSt*. 

J<n«2dn£ndt olndML Pub,18H. 
Jonrul de PtooMdi*. FuhlSSt. 
SeTD« erlUqiis d« LteldiUoD. Br 
Tnmlon.iadTol'nnia. P«Tta,l»L 
EiltlAolM ZelMulft ni BaoUiwUMB- 
~ Bjt llut«iiul«r and oUun. 

^onrnildtrSdneatloDpiipiikln. Pub, 
BaTu'del'Iiinnutloniiabliqiu. FiiiM, 

^vS&tt fflM^UolOEle nnd Fids- 
eoclk. FoiiBdadbjJiKn, edited nmr 
G« OUtaoh ud flaokatun, Loliuls, 

KepertoiiDm der pIdagogiKlum Jodt- 

DilUtlk. B7 HdndL UnDkb, 1MB. 

£a(lt*liJoiinulDr£diu«tk>n. Idndiai, 

Amoiicu Joanul of Xdnoatias. B; 

fiirurd. Hntfivd, ISM 
LMttatmr dS Avh^ob. Bv Orudat. 


Fne UiBODg' QuaitarlrBei 

FnaHatoia'HaitbtTHaaHlD*. Boa- 
ton, isa 

IToiiTatlH Anulu it ToTWsa. Bt 
IblU-Bnm. (pubUgbederthealdsr 

XI fcom ISO8 to ISIO Pull. ISU. 
Un d« 1i EaeUt6 da eiagmpUB. 
Bt Uani7 and Hiita^Braa, Puis, 

.., n. eaUia,18S«. 

alofUia So]r*l eaofn^doal Bo- 

detr. Landm, 188L 
.„„ — itbaWoM. Brir.F.AIna- 

, Fwla,l 

TMnakclrta. Pirii,lUff. 

Bana dai SaianaM, (Foimattr the 



BeHluasdolhsn. TttMnRan, IBtl 

JshibBchor del DonlHdien BaehHwft- 

Miuohall l^BoUatUr. Eriugen, 

Lair Joonul. London, ISS. 
Iav Mwadno. tondon, ISn, 
LmlOEwvar. London, ISSL 
Juriit London, ISST. 
CilcultoLegnlOhierTar. IMO. 
La« Baportai. Br Bingar. Boaton, 


BflTiiUr, FaRen,indolhaii. Lon 
HaUiuntlia] fonnul. Br Bnnkle 

ArcMTaaitBfailaadalttdwbia. Puis, 

issa _ 

Bulletin J^>inl da TUnpootlqna. 

BanwdaThtenaBtlviB. Fails, 1884. 
AbeUlamMlaOa. PaiIa,lSU. 
Jonnil * ■ "" -' -■ 

AnIilT' nr ,. 

Br Tlrobow. _«— . 

ZaltaohrUt Hi TTudlnU. Br Halm 

aodotban. fltnt^it, 180. 
AngeiiH<nainadliilidI^Z<dtDi« Bf 

Foanar. Batlln, lEBO. 
Xdlnbnnti Kedlsal JonrnaL 
HadlocHCUniiEMl Bavler. 

Batroipaot of KaUdBa. 

InUa. Loildon,lBU. 
Madloal Oiltlflind Farslu__^ 

oaL Br Wlnilo*. Landon, IBn. 
Amaiioan Jonnialof Uia Uadlaal Sd- 

ledlcal and Bnnltal JoimaL ] 

Allnmrina homSonthliflha ^■^■""f 

ByUeyer. Lalpalii, ISSl. 
BomOopa^iJaoba VlartaUalindillt Br 

~ HUlai. LalialclHIL 
■cbrilt (Di bimiAopathlBelia Oalk. 

BrBlnohaL I>nadni,lBU 
Honli Ameilsan Jmmal of HasHi- 

opathj. Bav Tink, IBSl. 
AnfsTleao HonHaopatue XoTtaw. H«r 

Tork, law. 
AivlilTtOr OphUulmolB^ B7 AiU 

■ndotbers. B*r11n,lRlK. 
iRenfrennd. Br Koatar. Fadatbon, 

iLSMTion Jannul of Inmdty. mca. 

Art Dantatn. Br Pntanv. Park. 

BrlUihJomnalalDantilBclence. Lo>- 


tOB. N(„ . 

Jonmal da f 


, NaT York, IBSa 

aelUdMlnaTJUilDalre. Partt. 

ZrltnbiUt fb PUlaotiUa nWI nm- 
latlra Tbaslogla. ^L B. naUfc 

Jonmil daa Bcdaaeea mliltnlrK B) 

CoiTted. PartiilM. 
AUgamalBa MlUttr-Zilnuig. Bum- 

MUltall-'LltaiatDT-Zattnng. BjBlaMn, 

Berlin, IBML 
United Mrrlee JonmaL Londas, ISK 

Annalea daa Hloaa. (CanUnnaHoa «f 

Uia Joornal d« mnea.) Fada,IIM. 
Berv- luid battainnlnDlKba Zattang. 

BrHirtmann. QaedUnbins, ISB 
OaetainleUadw ZalBohillt lb Barf- 

nnd HdtleiimfaiBar. Br Hlniacaa. 

Uhdng JonmaL London, ISU 
HlDliivHacBilDS. Saw Totk, leat. 

franca Uaskak. ^EbobOm. PhU. 

Zrlucbrift nr UiBik. B7 BraidaL 

Lrl]«ic, 19S1I. 
DeutscliD Unilk-Zaltaiig. I^ BaCfa. 

Vienna, leSO. 
tnrligit'B Jonnul tf Undo. Boaton. 

Haalaal Oasatla and Xarla*. Saw 


Annalaa daa Bdanaaa natMnBic Br 
Bronnlart asd IDlna-Zdirarift, Fa- 

I;^W Faiis,iea. 

Ooamoa. Fonnded br Hoinirt aoe- 

tinned hi UOgBot. Ftrim UK 
AroUTnrllatnnnaoUokta. BrBdeb- 

aen. Baclln. l&B. 
Nator. Br Ul* sod WUler. Halle, 

ia»- — 

Kaamoa. BrBaetam. Ldpale. ISTT. 
j^nbiuia}! Adloao^ilcal JomniL Boil- 
ed ftnuarij br Tms^^kir, and 



mUpi^BOwby Bnwiter ind Jisu- 

Annli IBd ^tr^^" of Batnnl Hb- 

twry. Br jH^tne. Londaa, ISOT. 
Hatnnl HflUnT Berlair. Xoadoii, 

New Hbth^ 

Estub It Uuula da Koologl*. ] 

Godila-JUUTlU*. PulLlKtr. 
Eeltoekrtft tti wlM&HhAudi« liiv 

oloKl*. B* Stobold iBd KUUksr. 

ZoolwbL LodImlISU. 

Aaaalai da l» BodlfU ulvnioloclqgat 

Parte, 18% 
BrtdiiHtoitadia&JUBhrttt BrKraH^ 

BnllettadaUSodiUbobuilqDa. Futi, 

n«K. Br FBnrohT. Sittibon, 1S& 

»-. .—I- W.I, D. Kgjj ,„J 

tA lb UDMiliHlak flaonMBia, 
Br iMHilkinr aud Broon. 

Statbort, ISM. 
JooHrlJ tka Owdisloal Boda^. 

Jonmal da Coni^IloloBleL By Tlicher 

andBermdL F»Ia.lB9a. 
W.1.W— 1— i-j^ m iH^ BrFlfalfler. 

Jonnul flkr Oialtliolaela. Br ( 

nd BaUusiu. Baflln^lSU. 

IT Dcntai^n Mo^atillii- 

ilogiB. BrU 
-idBltieliL TnnEtHt, 19ST. 

ZaltMbillt fOr raralataluiidfl Spnoh- 
Fonabnnc. Br Knha BarUo, lew. 

FUlotflgiu. Br Leatich. GSukgeii, 


^-, ^mL Br H 

FhotdnvUeJouuL Ii<»doB.]U. 
HnintuiiaT^ Joomilof the Daciiern 

^paaadFtar •■■-■— "- 


EMn. Stott^Tt, . 

HatwatWi Bainn^ Jouii^ Londan, 

Amarleni BaDroad JmuiiaL Br Poor. 
Haw Tork, Vai. 


■anohift. TUbliinli, 1841. 
lanrBuloftlwBUUatlialBDclatr. Lon- 
dDD, IBSt. 

leruB ds Thtelofla. 
BtiMbonrs, 1»S. 

a iBd UmbrsIL Oolha, 

Zaituhilft lb dla 


liabiWT ud othan. OotWieW 
MtKlulft lb wlwana^JMCli* Tm- 

Olivia. BTEUfanbU. Jena, ISM. 
EniuaUcal llagiiliia. Londan, 1T>& 
}bilmaB Obaarrat. Londan, 1888. 

Tha Litanrr Chnrclunu. Loodon, 

Uananlnnr Barlav. Br Oarluit and 

BohalL tSU. 
ThMlorioa] ud LltaTBiT JonruL B/ 

Lord. Nair Tork, im 
AiiMTlMBn«ila(<slBaTleT. Br^ 

KBrnim. Kaw Turk, 1SI». 

BItale. Full, 1831. 
Bama OatboUqia. PoIl IBST. 
BansThModqaa. Fuk,18B& 
Thaoloalaoba QotrtalHluUt BrKnlin 

and olhen. Tablllgoa,18l9. 

-pnUtldacbfl QiurtiliahrUt 

La^alc, ISBt: 

AtcUtm bninta. Full, 1840. 
UoutwIliriA mi eaaeUehtfl nnd Vb- 

MMohaft daa JudanthODU. Br I'm- 

kaL L«lDda,lB!U. 
Intalleotiul Bapoattoir (SwedsBboi- 

gliD). London, 18W. 

BsTiie BpM buUata. BrFlintt. Paili, 

HualdofLl^L NevTorblSH. 

Joorotl daa Wnlou iraiuiUqnaa. 

Qoipgl HIiiloDuy. London. ISSl. 
Mlaalonnr Hanld. Bagnn u tlw Fan- 

oiAUL S«aton,lBO«. 
Bplril or UlMlona. NaT Tort, 1888. 

FEEI, tba naote of a class of imaginarj beings 
in tbe Persian mjthoiogj, snppo^ to be de- 
scended from the fallen angels, and to be oom- 
pellad to do penance fbr their sina before thej 
can enter paradise. Thejare aUiedtotheelveB 
and &iriei of tbe no rthe rn aatioos. 


PEBITONEtJK (Or. mpt, aronnd, and tmiw, 
to stretohX the thin, transparent serons mem- 
braiM whuh lines ibe abdominal oavitj of man 
aai vertebrates, reflected npon most of its oon- 
Uined organa and more or lea* oompletaljr qd- 
re]o[dng them, and Iceeping them in place b^ 
it* foUa and prolongationa. Li^e other Beraos 
manibranea, it is a oloBed aao, ooveting but not 
oontwiiiDg the oi^ana in ita oaTitr ; its internal 
aar£aee, in eontaet with itself^ is snooth and 
ahining, mmsteoed bj a eerona fluid wMoh per- 
nute the oatnral movranents of the organs npoQ 
aftob other, lite folds 'whiohanrromid the small 
intofftintfij with their Tcnnoln, nwes, and gl*.n'i«, 
Booatttiite the mewnterf \ this ia attaooed to 
the vertebral dAanm, retaining the oanal in ita 
proper plaoe, and at the same time allowing 
the neoMBary motions of eaoh portion; the 
fold* whlob embrace the eoloa and reotam ore 
VOL. Jan. — 10 

called respectively the niMfooZon and metoree- 
ttaa. The donble membranoos fold, prolonged 
like an apron from the convezitj of the stom- 
ach and colon, and floating free over and In 
front of the intestines, is the ommitiim or epi- 
ploon; it is sopplied with ncmerons vesBels, 
and is more or lesa charged viCh lat; it servM 
to keep the intestines in place, and to protect 
them and the vessels from external iqjnrf. In 
the male fcetna it senda a jtrolocgation which 
accompanies the testis in its descent and be* 
oomes the tunica vaginaliM, which in most oasef 
is shut off from the peritoneal oavit; and is the 
Dsnal seat of hydrocele : in the female a small 
prooesB enters the craral oanol ; the broad liga* 
ments of the nterns are also peritoneal ezpaa- 
riona. The kidneys and portions of other or- 
gana are outside of the peritoneam ; it forma 
the ligaments of the liver and covers the lower 
Burface of the diaphragm ; ita course upon the 
organs isvery oompllo^xd. It is liable to com- 
mon aonte inflammation, eioeedin^y ptdnM, 
and dangerone from its extent and oonneotloa 
with important oreana ; the poarperal state ia 
soUect to a speedur &tal form of peritoniUs. 
FEBirONITIS, bflammation of the serons 


ed in it Aonte idioMtUo Mritonitis 1b an a etrong and marked ebUl, vUch oftm lasta 
affeodon bo rare, that acrabta nave hwa raised several nonTs. The pun at first is oonfined to 
as to its ooonrrencs, the oasos tiiat have been the lover portion of the bowels, but as the peri- 
desoribad bj authors being attribnted to the tonitis ^eads it extends over the abdomen, 
mptnre of au anenrigm, or some minnte per- T^mpamtiaiBaniBiked sfrnptom, and from the 
ioratJon which has been oTerlooked in the luitf of the wallsof tbeabdomen,theBwellinz 
conrea of the eiomtnation. But though peri- is often enormous ; the pulse is very small and 
tonidsis one of therarestformsof inflammation, frequent, beating from 120 to 160 in a minute. 
there is not soffident gronnd for this opinion, Th^ patient oommonl? lias on her back with 
Dr. Bimpson of Ediabargh has collected a nam- the legs drawn up. Vomitiu^isapttobeearlj 
her of instances in which peritonitiB oocmred present, and the matters vomited, resembling a 
daring intra-nterine life ; other obserrers have mixture of verdigris and water, are character- 
fonnd it in new-born infants. Prolonged ex- istio of the disease. The secretion of milk 
posore to cold appears to be the onlj causa oeasee, and the loohial disoharge is generally 
to which Bpont^ieons peritonitis has been sappressed. The disease is the sconrge of lf< 
ascribed. The disease comjnonlj ooimnenoes ing-ia hospitals and asylnms, and sometimes 
with a obill more or less prolonged, and fol- oconra. epidemioallj. Similar in its character 
lowed by best of skin, frequency of poise, and to pnerfieral peritonitis is that form of the dis- 
pain in the abdomen greatl; inoreasea by prea- ease whioh sometimes, bnt rarely, comes on in 
Hore. Sometimes the pain is constant, some- meoBtniatJDgwomen;herotoo, as in the former 
times it is ag^avated in paroxysms ; at others cam, the disease appears to spread from the 
it b increased by motion, and ite patient oom- nterns to the peritoneom. — Kext to pnerperal 
monly lies on the back with the knees drawn peritonitis, that from perforation of the intes- 
up, to relax the abdominal mnscles and keep tine is the commonest form of the disease. It 
off the weight of the bedclothes. The respira- may arise from perforating nicer of thestomaob, 
tion is hnrried and is entirely thoracic, the abdo- from the nlceration of Peyer's glands in typhoid 
men being kept as still as possible; oongbing, fever, from ihsb of phthi^ or of dysentery, 
sneeiing, &o., are extremely painfm, and con- from the nlceration that somelimeB supervenes 
seqnentJy suppressed ; this is likewise the case in the appendix vermiformia, &o. ; and occar 
with the effort to evacnate the bladder, and in sionally it is caused by the mature of a cyst 
the progress of the disesse it is often necessary an abscess, or an aneurism. It is characterized 
to have reconrse to the catheter. In the oom- by the sndden occnrrenoe of acnte pain in some 
moncement, in a few cases, particnlarly in nms- part of the abdomen, which soon extends over 
cular snbjeeta, the abdomen is retracted ; bnt its whole snrface, is increased by pressure, and 
very generally swelling of the bowels occnrs. accompanied by a marked alteration of the 
In the progress of the complaint effiuion takes poise and the featnres. The disease is rapid in 
place into the cavity of the abdomen ; bnt this its oonrse, the patient generally dying within 
IS small in amount, and frequently cannot be 72 honrs, though life in some cases has beeD 
detected during life. The bowels are generally prolonged beyond a week. Peritonitis is apt to 
very moch constipated, though diarrhcea may arise in cases of ovarian cysts, of cancer and 
be present. Eiccongh and vomiting are apt to abscess of the lirer, &o. ; but the disease in 
come on, the matters vomit«d bemg at £rst these oases is commonly partial, and results 
the contents of the stomach, and afterward a only in the exudation of lymph and the glaing 
thin liquid in which a green!^ substance is dif- together of tha adjaoent snrfaces of the mem- 
fused. This last is ofren brought up in large brane. — When general peritonitis occnrs in 
c^aantities, and when vomiting once takes place a robust, healthy, young adult, the treatiaenb 
itnsnallypersistB tothelast. The disease when may be commenced by a ibU general bleeding; 
fatal is apt to fae rapid in its progreaa, and death in most cases the application of leeches to the 
commonly occurs at tiie end of a few days, abdomen, followed by the nse of warm fomen- 
though it may be delayed mnch longer; its ap- tations, will be all that is allowable. Main 
proadt is heralded by extreme frequency and reliance in the treatment Is ofren placed upon 
smallness of the pnlse, and coldness of the opium; tlus should be nven at intervals of 
extremities. Delirium is rarely present, the in- from half an hour to an hour, in such doses as 
telleot being commonly clear to the last On will completely quiet the pain, and Its use 
post-mortem examination more or less floeoulent should be steady persevered in nntil the ter- 
semm is fonnd in the oavity of the pelvis or of mination of the disesse. In this way a few 
the abdomen ; the intestines are gluad together patients have been cured whose cases seemed 
byooagDlable lymph, and the |)eritonetd snr- perfbotly hopeless. Mercury, aconite, and «e«-a- 
f^islbimd to have lost its polish and become frumvtru!^ nave also been used sucoessfblly. — 
sticky. Where the patient recovers, the intea- In some instances, and almost exclnsirely in ta- 
tines are left matted or glned together, by bercnlona subjects, peritonitis puts on a chronic 
which the j)eristaltio action may be materially form. According to Louis, who has studied 
interfered with, or fibrinous bands are formed this sayeot with his customary BoonraciT'. 
which may canse strangulation of the gut. — chronic peritonitis may be regarded as existing 
Puerperal peritonitis, the most frequent form, wherever: "1, the patient has suffered ft-ois 
ooonrs during ohild-bed. and oommenoes with general pain in the abdomen, not aoat«, bu' 



troablsBome and withoat diarrlioea; S, ri^ in- Begmente, ulveT-Bhi^ed eorolla with its tnbe 
craase tabes pl&oe in the volume and eonoritf longer than the oaljic, throat bearded, seg- 
of the bellf, early aooom[>aaied hj ma 'Ifest meuta of the limb flat, obliinie, tnmcBte at 
floctnation, vithont the existence of organic spex ; stamens 5, iiuertM in the throat ; stig- 
^sease of the abdominal viscera, partioQlarlf ma bearded, seated on a flat orbionlar diaS, 
of the liver, or of the heart or kldnsjB ; S,the which is grooved roond the oiromnference; 
more or less r^id sabaideDoe of the effiision, glands 2, aJtematins with the ovaries ; fruit 
leavingthe belly sUghHy and generalljewollen, oonidBting of 2 foIlioIeB and few-seeded, dehis- 
peimits the oonvolnCions of the intestines to be oing lengthwise ; seeds oylindrical, naked, witii 
seen distended inconseqaeneeoftliediffloiiltj fieehy albamen. The greater periwinkle {V. 
with which their eontenta are passed onward; major, Xinn.) has rather erect stems ; ovate, 
the whole attended by a weaniess which can aoat& dilated leaves ; fine porplish bloe flow- 
neither be aooomited for by the oondititm of era, the calyx with linear, Bnbolate, cili^ed dl- 
the liuw nor by the amonnt of the exore- visions, the oorolla with 6 broad obovate parts; 
tiona." To the eTinptoma givot by LoniB we Uie flowers iqtpear upon short erect Btema, 
loay add the dry orepitation on pressiire no- while the long trailing ones are barren. There 
tieed by Dr. Bright. The disease is generally ia a variety which is mach esteemed for Ita 
&tal, though Ita oonrse is a ohronio one, and ia variegated, yeUowish^white striped and mar- 
very liMeii^aenoed by b«atment. g^ned leaves. As a trailing evergreen tliia 
PERIWINELS, in sootogy, a pectiqibran- q>e(ueB is admirably odi^ted for covering the 
chiate gasteropod shell, of tiie genoa littcrma ground onder hedges, ornamental trees, and 
(F^mssac). Xbe shell ia nnlvalve, with a few umibbeiy that has tall and bare sterna. It 

Sirs] whorls, the homy operonlnm made np flowers all smnmer. In the northern state* it is 
to of a few spiral toms ; the tentacles are 2, commonly cultivated in large pots, whioh,plaoed 
the 3 eyes being at the base on the oii*nde ; npon pedestals, allow the long ^dnlons stems 
the month is at the end of a proboscis, tJ" e nils to huig graceftilly down. It is easily propa- 
cmnb-shaped, and the foot moderate, with a gated by the spontaneons rooting of ito branch- 
groove on the lower sorftoe. The common es, chiefly at the Um or points, or by the di- 
periwinkle of the English and rrench coasts vision of its roots. If the seeds are needed, the 
(L. littoralit, Linn.) is ronnd, brown, longitn- plant should be kept in a sbaOow pot with veiy 
dinally streaked wiUi blackish ; the shell is little earth and the lateral shoots out sway, 
thick, and withont peaily Uidng; it is ovlpa- The lesser periwinkle (^V. minor, linn.) has 
rona, snd lives in the lowest sone of sea weed proonmbent stems ; elUptio-lanceolate, glabrous 
between low and high water marks ; immeoae leaves ; segments of the oalyx linear-lanceolate, 
qnantidea are broo^ to the London market, blontiab ; segments c^ the corolla broadlih at 
and fonn a eonsidemile arlaole of food for the top; flowering stems nsnally erect; flowers 
poorer classes. llMroagh periwinkle (Z.n(^ bloe with a white throat, varying to purple 
Mat), from the ooean washing th« shores of and white, and of mneh smaller size than those 
Enrope, frequents a higlier cone of sea weed; of the preceding. Both are foond mowing 
this ia oTo-vlviparons, and the yonng acquire a ^ontaneonsly in varioos parts of Enrope. 
calcareous shell before they are excluded, for There are several beantiftu varieties of the 
which reason the species is not eaten. There common or lesser periwinkle, each as a dooUe 
are many other species, all marine, inhabiting blue-flowered, a doable red-flowered, a single 
abnoet ^1 parts of the globe, living on the white-flowered of great delicacy of blossom, a 
ro(^ between the tide marts; three species yellow variegated-leaved, and a wlute vsiie- 
sre very common on the coast of New Eng^ gated-leaved. The extreme hardiness of this 
land, o f sma ll size, and probably never eaten, speoiea renders it acceptable for planting in 
PERIWINEI^ (Ang. Sax-ptntwineU; Lat shady places, where it covers the groaod and 
pervinea ; Fr. mtmiwA*), in botany, the com- produces a pleasing efi^t, increa^ig ra|nd]y 
monnameofplantsof thegenusetttaidinn.), by ita rooting stems.. The herbaceons pert 
of the natnral order t^oeynaeect. The plants winkle ( K horbaeea, WUld.) ia an d^ant plant 
of thia order are perlgynons ezogena with of Hnngary, with berbaoeons prostrate stems, 

stipnleo, opposite and sometimes whorled oblong-Ianceolste, smooth leaves, stalked flov- 

leavee, and a somewhat corymbose inflores- era, and a oiliate oalyx : t3ie oorolla ia of a pale 

oence, with a free, 0-parted, persistent calyx; bine color. Tlie UadaRasoaf periwinkle (F. 

monopetalons, 6-lobed, deoidaons oorolla, with rotea, Tiaa.) has an erect Dranohmg stem, ovate- 

a contorted estivation ; iS stamens arising fi^nn oblong leaves, and twin sessile flowers of much 

the ooroBa alternating with its sccmenta ; ova- elegance. T^ere are two varieties, a pnte 

ries 1 or 2 celled and many-seeded ; styles 1 or white-flowered, and another with the aame 

" ^ — 1 1 ; frnlt a folhole, oapeole, drupe, oolor set off by an eye or colored spot in the 

prindpaliy tropical, a few representatives being open border during tiie 
cnownian ' . .-. . . ..■.-. ,™-.,^w ., 

or bony double or single; seeds with a fleuiy throat. Thwa are nne pot plwits, requiring 
or csrtilaginons albumen. The genera are mnoh heat in winter, bat doing well in a sumy 

of false swearing. He 
nder oath lawftuly ad- 
Tooeeding or coursed 

Lown in nortkem latitndes. Among the 1st- PEBJURT, the crime of false swearing. He 
IT ia the vinea, the distinctive characters of commits peijury, who. under oath lawftuly ad- 
bioh sre: a S-oleft oalyz with linear acute mioistereainaJndioialprooeedingorconrM^ 


taatlo& wtUbllr giTM &1m teatimonr matorial tnitli. The oath, as we bave alreadj' implied, 

to the isiDe or point in qoeaUoiL The ofienoe oan be well Bdministered onlj by competent 

ia tbns deSsed at oommon law. In manj of anthorU?, and before a ooort or maj^atrste hav- 

tJw TTtdted Statea It la portic&larlj defined bj ins I^al right to proceed in the cause. It 

bnt thwedoDotTairmBteriallTfrom aiimoes in the indiotment to all^ this compe- 

on law definition. It is to be obeeir- tent power and antbority wittiont aetdng fyrib 

ed, flrat, that a Jndidal prooedm* or cootb© of the feota which congtitnte ^nriadiction.— _ 
Jofitiee le essential to the commission of it. It proof of tbe faimtj of the testunonT', which is 
m&y be atated generallr that wherever, under alao an eeaentlal element of tlie offence, it ia 
the ocHnmon law of the land, an oath is required not reqnisite to redte the exact words uttered, 
in the regdlar admlDlstration of justice, there whh the sane nioetj aa in the case of ftnvery 
the crime ia poadble. The offence cannot be or liliel. It is anfBcie&t to allege anbstannally 
fbtinded<»itheviolationof a mere oatb of office, what the defendant eud aa to the matter in 
For example, an officer, pnblio or private, who qneetion, and that he knew it to be fidse. As 
neglects to ezecnte hia office in porsaanoe of we have alreadj seen, the nntmth maj lie not 
Ms oath, or acta oontrar; to the tenor of it, is tmly in evidence given in a oonrt of law, but 
net indictable for peijnrj. Nor can peijnrj It may lie in a &lse affidavit to & bill in eanltj 
eonirist of tlie violation of an oath taken In anf which prayn for an injnnetion, or to a petition 
pnrelf extra-jndicial proceeding; as a folie for the writ of A<i2«« eorjna. The peijorj 
affidavit to an acconnt to be rendered hj an maj also ooniiBt in a false oath made nnder an 
adndoiBtrator, or fiilee Gwearing before a justice insolvent debtor's act, ia false evidence given 
of the peace, before whom no canse m «nj before a grand jnij, or in the &]ae and mall- 
stage is pending. Bo, though false tcatlmonj, dooH exhibition of articles of the peace. It ia 
given before a commiaaioner appointed by a also well settled tliat the &lBe teatimonT' most 
eoart under tbe common mle, is peijnrj, yet it be given wilfUIv. It has sometimea beui held 
is not BO irtien ^ven in d^Hnitions taken by that the allegation of wilftil and corrupt &lse- 
Cooaent before nnanthorized persons. It mat- hood ia well snpported by evidence that the ac- 
tera not whether the nntrne evidence were onaed swore rashly to that which he did not 
given in tbe principal investigation of the mat- know, aod, though be believed tt, yet had no 
ter In iasne^ or wbetber it were in some pre- probable canse for Iwlieving. But tiie better 
Bminajy or intudental proceeding. If the mat> opinion seems to be, that peijnry ia not eom- 
ter sworn to in these prooeedings is material, mitted if the party esve his testimony in a&> 
thongh only remotely bo, the crime of peijnry oordance with his belief, no matter how care- 
Is poasible. Not only, therefore, may it be leaaly or rashly that belief may have been 
committed by a witness who is giving oral formed. In other words, a distinct cormpt 
teetimony in a trial in open conrt, ont It may intent is essential to the crime. — Finally, the 
be as well in the preliminary infbnnation or &lse testimony must be material to the point 
complaint before a madstrste, or in statements tn controversy. The degree of materiality 
made before the grand jnry, or In a deporicion is of no importance, nor is It neoessary that 
made before a oommiBaionn' doly anthoriKed to tlie fUae declaration immediately and directlT' 
take it. Bo the examination of a poor debtor tonc^ the issne ; it Boffices If it remoteljr 
before a magistrate la a conrae c^^stlee, and or collaterally affiict it. Peijnir then may be 
ftbe ewearing fliere is pe^nij. The hearing committed, if tlie teetimony tend to increase or 
of a canse mt»t flirQiermore be reaUy, not dtmlninh the damagea or punishment, or if it 
apparently only, a judicial proceeding. For, ccmcem the credibmty of tlie witness himad^ 
If a jadge who seemed to have authority, or of any other witneaa in the case. A blse 
yet had none in fact, administered the oatli, answer to a question put by wt^ ot eneb 
or if • suit, thongh properly broi^t, had examination may tberefore lay the fonndAtion 
yet In ftet abated by tbe death of a party, of an indictment ; and it haa been held to be 
and tJins passed out of the court's jnrisdio- peijnry where a party, after bdng poitlanlariy 
Hon, Mm swearing In either ease is not indict- cautioned aa to hta reply, answered Maely to ftn 
able. But peijnry is not exenaed ]f the plead- iuterri^toTy, put merely widi the des^ of 
inge were mere^ informal and amendable, impairing bis credit as to that part of the evi- 
OT If the prooeedings were voidable bnt not dence whic h was immediately materisL 
TOld. It is fteiher essential that an oath was FERKISfl, Eubha, an American physidan, 
lawftaQy administered. The indictment there- the inventor of tbe metaUio tractors, bom in 
fore UKi^ly reoites tfaot the party was in due Korwioh, Oonn., in Jan. 1740, died In Hew 
manner sworn and took his corporal oath to -York in 8ept. 1T90. He was educated by 
epeak the tn&. It is enough, however, to his &ther for the profession of medidne, and 
avow that the party woa duly sworn, witlxnit began Uta [OMtiea of U In I^ainfield, where 
anegfaig tlie mode In which the oath was od- he was T«y anooeeaftiL About 1790 he io' 
nbuflterad, Tet, If the allegadon be of a spe- Tented the metoUio tractor^ MHudBting of 
dfiomode,aTariMioe1n the proof wQlbefttal; two InatninMBts, one reeenAtting braaa and tbe 
and perhaps the Indictment would &il if it other steeL but pn^leese^ of a peontiar corn- 
charged that the party waa aworn, when in podlion or metvla, 8 inches in length and 
fbot ne only made aolemn affirmation ot the pointed at the ends. Th^ were oaea dUefiy 



In ]oeal htfUmmattopg, meh u p^u in tb« It is ondcntood tbat ho is ^^ming « toxb 

head, &oe, toeth, and sdo, in rbenroatiiBn sad book on astronomy. 

disMsee of ft similar diaraoter, tha points be- PEREINB, Jaoob, an Amerioaa inventor, 

ing ^pUed to tlie afitoted part, and then bom in Newbnryport, Mass^ in 1766, died in 

draini over it in a downwai4 direction for London, July SO, 18i9. He wm tqiproitioed to 

gboat 90 minntee. For a time this method a goldsmitli, and earlj distingaiBhed himielf bj 

of core eaiojed great npntation, not ontj- in the invention of a new method of plating ahoe 

Amariea bat in Eorope. In the United Stat«B bnckles, in the maoofaatnra of which he engaged 

the fuol^ of S institntdons recommended it. with oon^der^le snooees. Wlien he was abont 

hi OopennageD IS phjaidiaui and aorgeons, 21 jears of age he was emplojed hy the oom- 

moet of them instrootors in the roTsl Freder- monweslth of lfa«aohxisetts to make diea for 

io'a hoapttal, began a oonree of ex^erimenta, copper ooinige. Boon afterward he invented * 

an acooont of whioh was pnbHshed m an 8vo. machine for ontting and heading naila at one 

Tolmne, and gave their opinion in fiivor of operation, but he lost the fruits of this valnable 

the new Bjatem, vbioh the j called Perkiniam. improvement throogh the mismanagemuit of 

In London, where the tractors were introdnoed his partners, and was involved in great peonni- 

b7 Dr. Perkins's son, a Perkinian institntion, ary diatreu. In bank nota engraving he next 

under the preaideney of Lord Bivers, was ea- made most important improvements, snbsti- 

taUished, chiefly for the benefit cf ttie poor, tnting Bteel for copper pl^es, and, having ob- 

The cases of cores pablished nnmt>ered 5,000, tuned an elaborate and costly bnprsiwinn 

and were certlfled to by 8 profesaora, 40 phy- transferring this by preasnre to other atael 

ildaiig and snrgeons, and 80 clergymen. The plates, which could De afterward liardenad 

lift of persons claimed to have been cured by and osed for printing &om. (See EiiasiLvim, 

this remedy amonnted to an almoet &balona vd. vii. pp. 311, 31S, 214.) About 1614 be 

number; bat the tractors fell intone^eotid- went to Philadelphia and became asaouated 

most as speedily as they had beooma cela- with the firm of Murray, Draper, andF^rman^ 

brated. I^. Perkins Invented alao an antlaep- bank note engravers, and in 1818 went to £ng- 

tin medicine, and, ansioiu to test Ua efficacy land, aocompuiied b^ Mr. Fiunnan and a nnm- 

aiainit the yellow fever, he repaired to New ber of workmen, with the expectation of ob> 

York in llH during the prevalence of that tuning a contract for aapplymg the bank of 

dUeaae ; but after 4 weeks of unremitting toil, Engttmd with plates. In tlus he was diaq[>- 

ha himself died of the fever, pointed, bnt he obtained a similar ptivileM 

FEBKINB, GnoBOB Rosbbts, LL.D., an from the bank of Ireland, and in parbMarsl^ 

American mathematician and astronamer, born with Mr, Heath carried on hia bnaineas in Lon- 

ia OtMgo CO., N. Y., May 8, 1612. He waa al- don for a number of years. He also became 

most irlioUy self-edooatod, and at the age of intoreated in the aabject of steam artillery, ia 

IS va* employed as assistant engineer in the which Watt and others after him had already 

alackwater sorvey of the Sosqa^ianna river j made experiments with more or less niooes& 

bnt his labora were interrnptied by a severe Having oonsbncted a gan in which steam, nn^ 

lameneni which afficted him for several years, erated at an enormoas pressare, was naad aa 

ittheageof 19 he waaemployedasateaotier the prmielling power instead ta gnnpowder, 

Df Dkathematioa in the "liberal Institote" at he inst&nted a series of experiments in tb» 

(Sinton, N, T., where he remaned till 1838, pre»encoof the dnke of Wellington and a nam* 

when he became prindpal of the TItica acad- ber of artillery offioera, which demonstrated 

amy. In 1844, at the opening of the atato the fessibiUty of hia plan, thoogh it baa been 

Bormal school, he was dhoeen professor of generally condemned as inj^qtliutble to modem 

mathematics, and 4 years later was eleoted warfare. An iron target, at a distance of SB 

PtrnidpaL In 18S2 be was compelled by ill yards, waa shattered to atoms. Balls passed 

htalth to recdgn, and soon after anperintonded through 11 planka of tJie hardest deal, each 1 

the erection of the Dndley observatory. In inch thick, placed some distance apart, and 

ISGt he was eleoted prot^saor of mathematias with a pressore of only 65 atmospheres pen»- 

in the nniversltv of the stato of Iowa, bnt never trated an iron plate i inch thick. To demon- 

otleied apon his duties there, la 1608 he was strate the rapidity with which the halla mi^t 

^pointed depnty stato engineer and snrveyor be thrown, he screwed to a gun barrel a tnbe 

01 ttie atate of New York, an office which he filled with halls, which falling into the barr^ 

■till holds. He received from Hamilton col- by their own weight were discharged at tha 

'--atbehonorarydegreesof A.M, in 1889, and rate of nearly 1,000 per minute, Amovabla 

.D. lnl8G2. Haiatheanthorofaserieeof ioint being attAohed to the gun barrel and a 

1 text books for colleges, aeade- lateral direction given to it, a 

, - -1 pubUo soho<^ jjonmrisfaig " Pri- holes wss perforated in a plank nearly IS feet 

nury,'"'El8]]ieDtary,''"Praotioa]^"and"EQgh- long. The expense of working snoh a gun was 

er" arithmetias, pnUiahed b^ween 1840 and oalcolated at about ^ part of the cost of the 

1861 ; "IVeatise on Algebra" (1841) ; "Ele- powder required to disoharge an eqnal number 

meats trf Algebra" (184^ ; " Elements of Ge- of balls by the nsoal method. The greatest 

onet[7"(l847); "Trigonomet^andSnrv^ring" objeotioDS to the wplioation of steam to artil- 

0851) ; » Fltaa and Solid OacmietTy" (180^. lo^ are, the hnpoadbiUty of ^ving it the forot 


of gODpowddT, and tho complex nudilDeiy re- Ingnptulf thereqniredstmi. Inl8S8h«gav9 

quired, which in sctaal battle conld seldom be his muudou boiue and grotmda in Pearl street, 

praperlr managed. Ur. Perldns also invented vorth over (fiOjOOO, for a blind aBylnm (now 

u iDstrnmeat called the bathometer, to meas- the Perkiiu fautitntiOQ and Haaeachosetts as;- 

nre the depth ot water, and the pleometer, to Inm for the blind), on oondilaon that $60,000 

mark with preciBion the speed at which a vea- should be ruaed as a flmd for its eopport. 

sel mores tbrongh the water; and be was the When, in t^e last fear of his life, an effort was 

firat to demonstrate that water is compressible, made for a ftarther endowment of the Athe- 

FEREINB, Tboius Hahdastd, an American naom, he subscribed $8,000 ; and when it was 

merchant, bom in Boston, Hasa., Deo. 15, 1764, feared that the sabsoriptioa of $120,000 was in 

diedinBrookline, Jan. II, 18S4. HiB&therwas danger of fiulinz from the apparent imposrabil- 

a merchant. His earlj edncation was obtained itf of rairing uie last $40,000, he offered to 

at Ifiddleborongh, Barnstable, and Boston, and gnarantee the amotmt. 

he was fitted tbr college at Hingham ; but his PEEM, a govemment of Bnssia, Ijing partlr 
lore of a mercantile llfo was so strong that he in Europe and partl7 in Asia, bonnded S. b; 
was finally permitted to enter the oountmghonae Vologda and Tobolek, E. hj Tobolsk. 8. b7 
of the Messrs. Bhattuok in Boston, with whom Orenbnif;, and "W. by Viatka. It eztenas from 
he remained nntil attaining bis m^loritj^. He lat. 56° 18' to 61° 66' N., and from long, fiS° 
then spent some tinte witia his elder brother 80' to 64° E. ; extreme length SOO m., breadth 
Jamea, and became associated with him in a 460 m. ; area, 180,000 eq. m, ; pop. in 1866, 
mercantile house is Bt. Domingo. The cUmate 2,019,806. The TJral moontuns, whioh form 
proving pr^ndicial to his health, he retnm- the bonndarj' line between Enrope and Asia, 
ed to Boston, and attended to the interests of traTerw it in a N. and S. direction, dividing 
the honae there, while a joimger brother took the government into two naeqoal parte, that 
bis place at Bt Domingo. In 1789 he went aa in Europe being the larger. Favdinskoi Ea- 
■QpercarEO of the ship Aatnea, commanded hf men, the loitiest sommit in the government, is 
his relative Capt. Uagee, to Batavia and Oan- more than 6,000 feet above the sea; and the 
ton, and there laid the foundation of his sub- principal paas afvoss the Ural leads b^ Enu- 
sequent extraordinary mercantile success, bj gnr, between Perm and Tobolsk. From the 
fonning a thorough acquaintance with the principal chun the surface descends in a series 
oriental trade. After his rctom he made, in of terraces, and a great part of it is moautain- 
oonneetlon with Oapt Magee, several success- oue. The European portion belonvs princi- 
ftil ventures in the Pacific, on the north-west pally to the basin of the Caspian, and the Asi- 
ooast, and In China. In 1792 the insurrection alic to that of the Arctic ocean. The £aina, 
in St Domingo destroyed most of the proper^ an affluent of the Volga, enters the government 
of his brother's house there, and, minmg their from the N. W., and leaves it at the S. W., re- 
debtors, also brought them to the verge of oeiving many tribntariee, the most important 
bankruptcy. On thdr return to Boston, Mr. of which are Qie 'Vitohera, Eosa, Eosva, Obva, 
Perkins formed a partnership with his brother and Tchusovaya. The E. part has severed lakes, 
James, whioh for the next SO years was re- and is drained by numerous tributaries of the 
markable for the extent, foresight, and snooess Obi, the largest of wbicb are the Sosva, Losva, 
of ite enterprises. In 1795 he visited France Tura, Neiva, Irbit, Pialuna, Iset, and Myas. 
and Holland on bnaiuess, and was detained in The climate of the elevated regions and of Uie 
the former country some months, while the S. is cold and bleak. Gold, silver, platinum, 
later scenes of the revolution were in progress, iron, copper, lead, diamonds and other precious 
Here he had the opportonity of rendering im- stones, loadstone, salt, and marble are all 
portant services to the wife and son of Iji&y- found. The S. W. part is generally fertile, but 
ette, as well as to tome of his own country- elsewhere the soil is better suited for pasture 
men. In 1800 he was elected to the Hassa- than agriculture, and much of it is uncultivated. 
dhusette senate, and fbr 18 or SO years subse- Bye, barley, oats, potatoes, flax, and different 
qnently he was mo«t of the tdme a member of v^etables are grown. Oak, elm, cedar, pine, 
one or the other branch of the l^pslatnre. He and larch are the chief trees. The mines are 
was repeatedly offered a seat in congress or the extensively worked. In 1655 the 8 principal 
cabinet, but he had no taste for political honors, mines belonging to the crown yielded 8,106 
In the promotion of all objects which ooidd lbs. of gold, 11,498 cwt. of copper, 8 lbs, 9 oz. 
improve the physical, social, and moral condi- of platinum, and 59,811 cwt. of iron. Clotb, 
tionofthecommunity,Mr.PerkInEtookalively leather, soap, glass, and candles are made, 
interest. In 1816 the effort was made to en- About \ of the inhabitants are Russians, and 
dow the Uassachusetts general hospital, and the remiunder are composed of various Tartar 
$100,000 was required within a limited time, tribes, Uie descendants of the aborigines of the 
Mr, Perkins's name was placed at the head of country. By fer the greater part belong to 
the firstlist of trustees, and he andhis brother the Greek cburob, but there are some of other 
oontribnted $6,000 each toward the fond. In Christian sects, and about 4 per cent are Mo- 
1836 additions were to be made to the Boston hammedans. — The capital, Pum, is situated on 
Athennum. and Mr. Perkins and hu nephew the leftbankof the Kama, inlat. 66° I'N., long. 
each oontnbuted $8,000 toward it, thns mak- 66" 26' £.; fop. in 1661, 18,262. The bouses 



are ehleflj oonstrnotod ot wood. Than an aaXhiry, Htlka, wine, floor, salt flah, and idne 

choTohM, MTenI imbBo btdldings, a oonTent, board*. The chief importa from the United 

hospitals, a gTmnaaiiim, a theolo^oalMininatT, States in 1358 were 00,B66 banrels of fioor and 

eztennve iron fonnderiea, and ooppemfineriea. S^SOOdnune of codfish.— Beoife wasfoouded 

PEBMUTATIOK. 8«e OouBiKAXioir. by the Fortognese earlj in tlie leth centory, 

PESiSAXBVOO, an E. proTince of BrasO, was aaoked t?^ the Engliah onder Cwt Lancas- 

boaoded H. bj^ iLe provinoea of Oeara and Fara- t«r in 16G5, and was m tlie poeaeaaion of the 

hibBjE. br the Atlantio, S. hj Alagoaa and Ba- Dntoh from 1680 to 1654. 
hia, and W. by I%nhi ; extreme length 700 dl, PlXOK, FsANQoia, a French traveller and 

br^dth 2S0 m. ; area, according to tha lateet naturalist, bom in O^rilly, department of Allier, 

anthoritj-, about 63^000 aq. m,; pop. in 1866, Aug. 23, 177H, died there, Dec 14, 1610. Ho 

900,000. Theooastislowajidfrontedfajnniner- anliated as a volanteer in ITS2 was wounded 

DOS coral ree& which render naTigatioo danger- at the uege of Landan, and made a priaoner at 

Qos. The oonntiT is flat with a sandj soU for the batQa of EwBerskntem, and taken to the 

about 16 m. from the sea, bat it afterward be- dtadelofKagdebnrg. Ho devoted hiacaptivitj 

comes hilljj and gradoallr rises into monnt^us to reading travels and histories, and was re- 

and extensive table-lands. The moat impor- leased in 17S4. In 1800, through the inflnenco 

tant river is the Ban Franoiaco, which forms a of Jnasien and LacSodde, he waa attached, in 

part ol Oia boundary on the B., and receives the the oapaoity of coologist, to the expedition 

dr^nsge of the greater pert of the orovinoe sent bj the French government tmder Oapt. 

bj several tribntariee. In the N. £. m& Oapi- Bandin to explore Australia. He made corious 

Iniribe, Ipojuca, and aome smaller atreama flow experimenta ahowing that the coldness of the 

directiT to the ooean. Ifarbla ia ahondant, sea water increases with the depth, and euc- 

acd gold is fomid in small quantitiea. The soil ceeded in bringing home an invaluable zoolo- 

ia in many plaoes rich and fertile, and produoea ^csl oolleotton, comprising more than 2,600 

sogar cane, cotton, maiz^ mandioo, fnuta and Bpeoiesprevioualy unsown. The results of his 

T^etablee, and many kinda of medicinal herba. doaervations have been embodied in his interest- 

A great ^art ot the moontainonB oonntrj is log narrative of the Voyage d^ diowiertet aux 

ooveredwith forests, which jialdexoellenttim- ttrrtt autbnde* pendant le» anniet 1800-1804(3 

ber, dye woods, lulaamB, and gums. The man- vola. 4to., with an atlaa, Paris, 1607-'16). The 

nfactorea are trifling, but there ore nmnerons Sd volnme was prepared after bia death by 

sogar works and ^tiEeries where many ^vea U. de FreycineL He had previously publiahea 

are employed. Gtreat improvements have been OiienxitioTU ivr VanthropologU (Paris, 179EIJ. 
lately made in the roads of the province ; and PEROUBE, IiA, 8ee La P£HOtigE. 
a raUwt? ia in course of oonstruction which ia PEB^mTAL ilOIlOK, a term the primary 

U> open the interior for about SOO m. — The oapi- meaning of wUcb ia obvious onougb, and which 

tal, FXBBAHBDOo, or Bboifc, is aituated at mo ia in euoh amae ^tplioable to actn^ phenomena, 

month of the Oapiboribe, in lat. 8° 4' 8., long, aathei^anetaryniorements; but which haa been 

84° 63' W. ; pop. abont 80,000. It oonaiata wrested from tlus, its proper nae, to name aoy 

of 8 dis^ct parta^ Beoifbt B<wvista, and 8L imaginary mechaniam, each tiiat, within ita^ 

Antcono, and of the tows of Olinda, which is the power required to give it motion shall be 

aboid 8 tn. distant. Becdfe stands on a penin- continually restored or renewed, without aid 

snia, Boavista on tlia mainland, and St Antonio from an extenor source or cause. Of course, 

on an Island or sand bank formed by the river, anoh a machine, onoe in motion, mnst move for 

Becifb ia the prinnpal seat of commero& The ever, or mitil destroyed by the wear of its 

streets are narrow, and the houses generally parta. The idea neoessitates a circle or circuit 

built (rf brick fivm 8 to 6 storiea high. St. An- of parta, returning in some way upon itself; it 

tonioisconnected with Becifebya long bridge, implies the uniatermpted transfer of a certain 

Boavista ia the most modem quarter. The 8 quantity of motion from piece to piece tlirough 

divisions contain many chnrchea, monasteries, the drouit, or such accumulation at one point 

ohantable hutitatioas, and other pnblic build- as ahall overcome the resistance at another, so 

ingB. The town is extremely dirty, and drink- that an nudiminiehed force returns always upon 

ing water has to be brought in casks from Uie first piece (prime mover), the macliiue 

Biberibe near Ollnda. The harbor is formed heiog thus required to impel itself; and if pos- 

by a reef which acts oa a kind of breakwater, nble perform over and above this some useful 

bnt in stormy weather the swell passes over work. This problem, wrought upon through 

and through difibrent tmeningi In it. The 2,000 years, and never more faithfhlly than 

depth varies from 16 to 80 ftet, but the best witiiin a oentoiy past, yet without one instance 

sheltered part has only about 10 feet. It has a of poeilivcjy attested anocess, has, adde from 

good lighthouse and is defended by several fbrta. its demonstrated impossibility, deservedly at- 

The trade of Pemambnco is very important, t^ed to a "bad eminence" in the histoir of 

and has been steadily increasing for some years meobanios. Interminable have been the plans, 

past In 1868, 70 American vessels entered devices, wheels, combinations, mid engines to 

the port. The exports oonaist chiefly of aogar, which these attempts, always in Uie na- 

cotton, mm, hides, and dye woods : and the ture of things absurd, have ipven birth. Two 

imports of cotlon and wocdlen doth, hardware, among the moat distinguliAed of tbeae at 



tenvta an thst of the maraids of Tonwater, light, Hioto mv bat B euea snppoMble : 1. As 
1069, and that of Jean Ototto^ or Orifynaa, exterior moTisK poirer; but ttdj is of oohtm 
a Ennohman, 1719; both these w«« wbeeb, exdnded. 8. Totel annUiiUtioii of fHetion, re- 
moving b7 weights, their diameters 14 and 12 sistance of air, rigidity, or softness when ii^n- 
feet ; bnt proof of their Bnocessfid worUng re- rious, adhedon of parta to each other and of 
m^ns insbfflcient. — !E^rBt, what movements air to them all ; bat these co&ditioiia existing 
oazinot be claimed as flirmBhiug or solving &e in tiie Terj natore and circnmstancea of bodies, 
BO called perpetaal motion? The ^arth and to escape than is impossible. Their resnlta are 
other plan^ incessantly rotate and advasoe vear, and converaion of some of the force into 
in thw orbits ; bnt the resistances the^ meet heat ; in either case, a definite and large anb- 
belng 0, or Inflniteslniallj small, no percep- traction from the total pover. S. Can the 
tible retardation reeolta. Bj the first lair of force generated or transmitted through an^ 
motion, they can never stop, save owing to jdece or comteotion be greater than that im- 
Bome extraneoos opposing force; and so, the pressed upon orimpart&a to it bytlie pieces 
ur and gravitj being removed, every ball pro- preceding it in the oircnit? This mignt be 
polled troia a school boj's olnb mnst move fbr- aupposed, if any ordinarr machine had ever 
ward with its first epeed, in a right line eoA been f6and to yield a total work greater than 
for ever. In tmth, observation as yet reveals the total power pnt npon it. In fact, the work 
to na no body or particlo of m^l«r that Is not eqnals the power ; and part even of uie former 
in incessant motion thronsfa space. Thus, the is waste work, expended on redstancea. Pon- 
real difScnlty ia not to find in^iances of perpet- tively, then, no part or connection of a ma- 
nal motion, bnt to find any power adequate to diine can do what no entire ordinary maohine 
arrest sntdi motions. What the imf^Inative can do — augment the total power. The nrg- 
mechanist seeks la in no case a ma(£ine ex- in^ body or piece always loses what the urged 
pected to go fbr ever; it Is one that in time gams. H, De la Hire demonatratea that the 
mnst wear out by the mb and grating of its problem of a perpetual motion In this aspect 
parta; yet inconriatently, becanse ignorantlj, smonnts to tlua: to find a body both heavier 
be hopes to devise a machine that ahaU feed and lighter at the same moment; or to find 
itaelf with neediU power, and then yield a a body heavier than itself; or to find a force 
nrplos with which to grind, saw, pluie, &c greater than ttsetf. 4. Is it possible, by any 
The continual movement of the tides; tbense artM diaporition and combmation of cos- 
of a large tide wheel to fill a reservoir and trivanoes, multiplied to any desired extent, to 
feed constantly a smaUer wheel ; the tnming secure the end aoaght by anocessive accnmula- 
of light wheel-work continoally and rapidly by tlona of momentum within the parta t Thia 
means of contrivanoes for reversing mrection ^peara more plausible, but onlj because the 
and multiplying velocity of movement of a pis- oaae !a more complicated, and the law is here 
ton rod reetlng on a body of oil in a tube, or of not so easily traced. In thia direction the 
alongmetallic barfixed at oneend, and dneto larger number of specolatora have been led 
small expansions and contractions of the oil or astray. The lawqiplyiiig herelsthatof virtnal 
the bar ; the oacillationa of a pendulum aided velocities : what ia gained in the magnitude of 
by a spring ; the incessant pulsation of the effect of a Power, ia always loat in time j and 
heart through 80 or more years — none of these viee vena. The very fact of a necessary circuit 
afford the perpetnal motion aonght, becaoae of parts forbids the gain that otherwise might 
they are due to moving force from without, as occur by resolving the acting forces, or in anj 
ton«vil7,momentam, heat, elasticity, or finaUy way restoring or adding momentum in some 
to Kiod. While oceans continne to evaporate, of the parts; in other pieces, if not at once, 
T^na to fall, and rivera to return to the sea, bj the equal reaction must have its efi'ect 6. Can 
renewing our water wheels we secure perpet- a sorptne of moving power be obtained by some 
nal power and work. But the over-ingenions anccession of mechanical or electro-magnetio 
busy themselves with projecting a waterwheel with magneto-electric apparatnst The recent 
that shall pump back to the top of the fell all diaoovery that the various other fimns of force 
thewater required to run it, and meanwhile do have es«h ita exact equivalent in mechanical 
some nseftd work be^e. Now, any machin- unite (see Hkat), and that the conversion of 
ery ia only a ommected series of inert and in- forces either way is by equivalents, sets this 
active pieces, interposed between the pcant on question at rest, and showa that the law of 
which a motor acts and tiie material on which eouality of action and reaction ia to be extend- 
its work is to be done (see MioHAinos) ; and ea from rimjJe mechanics to all moving agen- 
this being true, the supposition that the whole ciee in nature. Thus U becomes a sure axiom 
work of a machine shall far exceed, or in the of adence, Qiat there can be no self-impelled 
leaat exceed, the whole power it can receive, ia meohaniam of human prodaction. A knowledge 
■Imply imposnble and abaurd. If it were pos- of thia truth would even now save the wasted 
elble, the only admissible cases mnst be those time, talents, means, and peace of mln^ if not 
in which momentum dne to inertia or to gravity, even the sanity of thouaanda. In New York, in 
or attraotions and repulslans, as of magnetio 1860, a mechanist having devised a modifiea- 
polea, can be made within the meohanlam to do tlon of the fly-wheel, by which a ^gle person 
tlie work of propelling it. Viewed in any oould aooumnlate power enough, on coupling 


FERBT 168 

InBtaiitlj>, to moTQ a hasvj load, proposed to Mminarjr, a higb aohool, a botanical garden, a 

pr<q>«l ui»rewitli by the poorer of one man t gOTemment sheepfold for merinoes, two hos- 

railvayoar. Mintaking a momentary tor a per- pitals, mannbctorles of irooUen cloth, laoe, 

manent reeolt, he believed tliat be bftd acliieyed leather, soap, and soda, and a cousiderBhIe oom- 

the perpetual motion; and a gentleman more meroe in r«d nine*, liqaenre, brandy, cdl, silk, 

learned in dTil than in meohanioal law, before Tool, iron, and oork. — Perpignan U upon or 

being warned of itaneoesearyAulnre, expended near the. dte of the audent EoBdno, a oity of 

on uiia eontriTanoe nearly (9,000. Hie type the Sordones. It was in rains abont A. I>. 

of s vast nomber of these att«apti, howevw, 830, and near it sprang np an insignifioant 

b a wheel, cylinder, or endleea belt vortieai hamlet called then Ooreob, which became the 

over pnileys, so oontiived that valuta shall present city of Perpignan. It belonged, with 

bll or roll ont from the axis of motaon, and the province, to the kingdom of Arsgon, bat 

press more, on the descending «de, and then was taken by the French in 147G, after having 

&U or ndl in toward the Bzia, presdng kee, on been rednced by flunine. Restored to Spain in 

the asoeudlnK side; the aim b^iKthos to get 1M2, it was indnded in the ae«don to Franoe 

an eioeatofoownwardjH-eesnre. BntoalonU- ofBa{isrillonlnl669. The Spaniards were de- 

ticHi from a to^ie drawu^ will always show a ftated by the French under the walla of the 

soffieiently greato- pn^rtion of the irti^ts mtj tn 1794. 

St any instant to be on the aeoen^ng dd« ; and PERQUIMANS, a N. £. co. of K. 0., bor> 

with inertia, ooncossion, and friction, the bal- d^ed B. by Albemarle sonnd, and drained by 

ance is always on the side ot the resistaiioes. Perquimans river ; area abont 200 sq. m. ; pop. 

One wonld let IS f^t of an endless oh^n glide in 1860, 7,848, of whom SfiC9 were slaves. It 

down a vertioal ^aft tnming on fine pivots has a nearly level sorftce, and the soil is gen- 

OD one mde, while bnt 10 feet of atraif^ chain erally fertile. The prodacHong in 1650 were 

rose on the other ; while another would oansa 4S,948 boshels of wheat, 41B,E5S of Indian 

heavy balls to drop into pockets tn the periph- eom, and 1,666 tons of hay. There were 8 

ery of a wheel on the deeoending side, the balls saw mills, S frrist mills, 1 tannery, IS ehncohes, 

to be discharged below, and then, by the ez- and 876 pnpllB attending pnUio schools. Oap- 

oeaa of power gained, to be fbd iloag and ele- Ual, Hertford. 

vat«d in an Archimedra screw. In these, as in PEIRRENOT, Ahtoinb. See Gkahtxujc. 

like devices, the actual and neoessary resolt is PERRON, AsQurrtL nti. See Ahqukth.- 

a perpetoal reet. At a leading patent (%encj Dctkbbok. 

in New York, it is stated that probahly IS per> PESRT, the name of oonnties in 10 of the 
sons aptir yearly for patents for professed ITnited States. I. A S. oo. of Penn., bonnded 
perpetnd moti<au ; oonstdering the nnmber of E. bythe Bneqnehanna, and intereected toward 
agaioiee, and the oertunty that many prtrfecta Uta S. by the Jnniata river and S. by Bher- 
of thektodarekeptw^tungfor the"wonlDg man's creek; ares, 040 sq. m.- pop. ia 1800, 
model," withont which they teH to be patent- 22,B40. Its sorfaoe Is moontainoos, Oxe Toe- 
able, it is safe to conclude tnat the nnmber of oarora range forming its N. W. boundary and 
these oontrivuicea at any time being plannedor the Blue monntalns the 8. E., bnt much of the 
constmoted must be, in the Umted States alone, land ia very fertile. The prodnotions in 1B60 
maayhmtdredi. — Foranacoountofeomeof the were 190,007 bushels of wheat, 1G6,S71 of In- 
remarkable attempts made in this direction dian com, 144,143 of oats, 16,690 tons of hay, 
dniing die present and two preoedingoentnries, 94,409 lbs. of wool, and 803,189 of butter, 
see "Perpetanm Mobile, or Search fi>r Self- There were 48 grist mills, 46 saw mills, S 
Uotive Power," by H. Dircks (London, 1801). woollen bctories, 36 tanneries, 4 foucdertee, 3 
PERPIQNAN, a dwindle 8. of France, oap- newspaper offices, 49 ohnrcbes, and 0,S78 pn- 
ital of the department of Pyrfo6e»-0rientalea, pUs attending public schools. It is intersected 
situated upon the li^t bank of the Tet, at its by the Pennsylvania railroad. Capital, Bloom- 
oonflnenee with the Basse, 84 tn. 8. ftvm Nar- field. II. A central co. of Ala., Intersected by 
bonne ; pop, in 1860, 10,644. It commands the the Oahawba river ; area, 960 sq. m. ; pop. ia 
8. E. enhance to Fivnoe from Spain bythe Py- 18S0, 87,737, of whom 18,208 were slaves. It 
rinses, and is strongly fortified with a wall and has an nndulating surface and fertile soil. The 
fosse, and commanded by a citadd with a productions in 1860 were 984,116 bushels of 
donblelineof defences, and a tall square tower Indian com, 184,616 of sweet potatoes, and 
or donjon. In character the city is Spanish. 24,634 bales of cotton. There were 6 grist 
Its streets are narrow and dirty, and mostly mills, S saw mills, 8 tanneries, 20 churches, 
shaded by awnings. The honses are semi- and 714 pupils attending public ecbools. Oapi- 
Horesque in style, fbrnished with wooden bal- tsl, Uarion. m. A S. E. oo. of Miss., inter- 
conies and inner conrta. Over the Basse there sected by Leaf river and Black creek, tribn- 
19 a bridge of a single arch, and one of 7 arches tariee of the Pascagonla, and dr»Ded by their 
over the Tet. The public buildings date from branches ; area, 1,044 sq. m. ; pop. in 1860, 
the Spanish period, and are built of brick or 3,S06, of whom 788 were slaves. It has a 
roUed pebbles. In the remains of the sndent broken snrfaoe and a not very fbrtile b(AI, cov* 
unirer^ty is Uie public Bbrarj, which contains ered wiOi forests of pine. The prodnotions In 
20,000 volumes. The dty has a theolo^noal 1860 were 68,860 bnabels of Indian oom, 44,- 



980 of Bveet pobttow, BS,000 tbs. of rice, and interseotod bj the Blinois oentrtl imlnwd. 
S8S balee of ootton. Tb«re were 6 cborcheB. Capitol, PincloiejTille. X A B.E. co.of lEo., 
Oapital, Au^Bta. lY. A central co. of Ark., eeparated from lilinois hj &e Uiraumppi rirtt', 
bonnded N. E. bj the Arkanaaa river, and in- and drained b7 several Gnudl Eitr«ama; area, 
teraected b; the Fonrche la Fdve, one of its 480 sq. m. ; pop. in 1860, 9,1^ of whom VS9 
brani^ee ; area, aboat 600 gq. va. ; pop. in were slaves. It has a divernfled niifiue and 
1960, 2,466, of whom 803 were slaves. It has fertile soil. The p^odQotdollsinl8S0were849,- 
a divernfled snrfaoe, and the soil is geaerallj 280 boshela of Isdian com, 66,895 of wheat, 
fertile, pariiciilarl; near the etreame. The 48 Qie of oats, 11,781 Iba. of wool, and 78,840 
prodaotjotie in 18U were 88,620 boshela of In- of butter. There were 7 grist mills, 4 saw niills, 
^an com, 263 of wheat, and 1,766 of oat«. 8 tanneries, 14 diarchea, and 860 pupils attend- 
Tb»re were 2 saw mills and a grist miU. Cw- inx public schools. Capital, PerrTnlle. 
ital, PerrTTille. Y. A W. co. of Tenn., bound- FERRY, Uaithew Calbbaith, an officer of 
ed W. \if the Tennessee river, and interseoted the TJ. S. navy, bom in South Kingston, R. I., 
br Boff^o river, a branch of Duok river ; area, in 17S6, died in New York, Karoh 4, 1868. 
^nt 400 sq. m. ; pop. in 1860, 6,042, of whom He was a eon (tf C^t. Obristopher R. Fer^, 
S48 were slaves. Its snrGaoe is divenified, and IT. S. N., and a brother of Capt. Oliver H. 
the ecdl is generallj fertile. The produotions Perry. Heenteredthenavyaaamidshipnumiii 
in 1860 were 896,680 bushels of Indian com, 1600, and served wider Commodores Bodgers 
28,484 of oats, 16,061 of sweet potatoes, 940 and Decatur. In July, 1818, he was promoted 
lbs. of tobacco, and 41,686 of bntter. There to the rank of lieutenant, in which ^adeheper~ 
were 10 grist mills, a saw mill, a furnace, 2 formed mnchardaous service, partacnlorlynpoD 
tanneries, 21 churches, and 686 pupils attend- the coast of Africa, and in protection of eom- 
ins pablio scboole. Capital, HmnphreyHville. merce &om pirates in the West Indies in the 
YI. A 8. £. CO. of Sj., dramed by the North years 1821 and 1622. In Ifarch, 1826, he was 
and Middle forks of the Kentucky river ; area, promoted to be oommander, and in 1637 to be 
about 700 »q. m. ; pop. in 1860, 8,960, of whom c^itun. Beside serving a great deal on for- 
78 were slaves. It has a mountdnous and mg- eign stations, ho took an important part in the 
god surface, the valleys being arable and fertile, organization of the steam naval service, and 
and the higher lands adapted to wool growing, conductedaseriesof ordnanceexperimenta. In 
The productions in 1850 were 124,206 bushels 18S8 he was ordered to Enrope on roecdal ser- 
of com, 4,768 of oats, 2,669 lbs. of tobacco, and vice connected with dock yarns and lighthoose 
ll,868ofwooL Therewerel0griBtmilla,2Baw administration. Ho subseqaeutly commanded 
nulls, and 7 chnrohes. Capital, Hazard. YIL the navy yard at Brooklyn, and (he squadron 
A S. E, CO. of Ohio, drained by a number of on the coast of Airica, the frigate Macedonian 
small streams; area, 400 eq. m,; pop. in 1860, bearing hisflag. In 1646 he was appointed sec- 
19,676. It has on undolatdng sariace and fer- ond in command of the eqnadron in the gulf of 
tile solL The prodactionB in 1360 were 429,- Uexicowithorderstohoist aredbroadpennant 
908 bnshelsof Indian com, 160,048 of wheat, in the steamer MiBsisoippi; and in Wardi, 
101,691 of oats, 9,887 tons of hay, 104,626 lbs. 1647, succeeded Commodore David Conner in 
of wool, and 261,806 of butter. There were the command of that squadron, which be held 
S grist mills, 7 saw mills, 2 woollen factories, until the close of the Mexican war, accompliah- 
2 newspaper offices, 61 chnrches, and 0,808 ing the reduction of the whole gulf coast of 
pupils attending publio schools. It b inter- Mexico, and occnpying every point through 
seoted by the Cincinnati, Wilmington, and which supplies oonld be sent into the enemy's 
Zanesville railroad. Oapital, Somerset YIII. conntry. All the operations of this important 
A B. 00. of Ind., bonnded S. and E. by the command were conducted by Commodore Perry 

Ohio river, which separates it from Kentuoty, with skill, and the most indomitable energy 
and druned by Anderson's and other creeks ; and perseverance. In March, 1662, he was ftp- 
^ aboat 400 eq. m. ; pop. in 1860, 11,867. pointed to the command of the Japan expe£- 

It has a very hilly snrfaoe and a soil ibrtile tion, and negotiated a treaty with that exclu- 

along the streams. The productions in 16S0 sive government, which opened the way to the 

were 282,836 bushels of Indian com, 88,476 of intercoorse which now sabuste between Japan 

oats, 8,848 of wheat, 999 tons of bay, and 10,- and the United Btates. The intereating and 

681 lbs. of wool. There were grist mills, 9 important results of this expedition have been 

saw mills, 8 tanneries, 1 newspaper ofBce, 8 pnblished in S vols. 4to. (Washington, 1666), 

churches, and 476 pupils attending public and in two abridgments. He returned to the 

•chools. Capital, Borne. IX. A S. co. of HI., United 5tateBinl866,anddiedwhilaonspeoial 

intersected by Beanconp oreek; area, abont service growing out of the eipediljon. 

480 sq. m. ; pop. in 1860, 9,602. It has a di- P£RBY,Ouveb Haz&xd, an American naval 

versified aurface, and mnch of the soil is fertile, officer, bom in Newport, R. L, in Aug. 1786, 

The prodnotions in 16S0 were 868,300 badiels died at Fort Spain, island of Trinidad, Aug. 23, 

of Indian oom, 66,863 of oats, 16,988 lbs, of 1619. He entered the navy as a midahipman, 

wool, and Ue,079 of bntter. There were 8 April 7, 1799, and was first in active service 

grist mills, a saw mill, a tannery, 6 churches, under the command of his father, Capt. C. B. 

and 840 pnpila attending publio schools. It is Ferry, in the frigate General Greene, 28, which 



perfoimad aa utire and importaut ornlM on 7 of that year In the John Aduns, 24, vMdh 

tha Wwt India station dnring 1799 and Iwra his flag. In Jalj he asoended the river 

1800. In 1802 he serred in the UeditemnBan Orinoco in the sohooner Noneooh (one of the 

in the frigate John Adama, Oapt OampbeU, Tenela of his sqoadron) to Angoatnra, the c4>> 

and ag^ on the same station m 1804-'S in ital of Yenezaela, where he was en^ged sev- 

theOtntstellationfHgate and ^Nanlilns sohooner. era! di^in tha transaction of biu£t«saTith 

In Jul. 1807, he waa promoted to the rank of the goremment. On leaving the rivw he was 

liantenant, and in 1809 was in command of seised with ydlow fbrer, which tenninated 

the schooner Berenge, 11, and amised aotively btaU^ tlw day the Nonsaoh arrived at Port 

upon tiie coast of me United States nndl Jan. Spidn. A few ^eara later his remains « 

upon tiie coast of me United States nndl Jan. Spidn. A few ^ears later his remains were 
1811, when the Revenge was wrecked upon transferred in a ehip of war to his native place. 
Watoh Hill reef near Stonington, Oonn. A On Sept. 18, 1660, a marble statue b; Waloatt 
ooort of ioqnirr ascribed the accident to was erected, wiUi imposing ceremonies, at 
tides and fhii^ waatlier, aoqoitting Lieot. Perr^ Olereland, Ohio, to the memar;' of Commodoro 
of all blame. At the opening of the war of Perrr, near tlie scene of his great battle, hj 
1813, Peny was in oommand of a diviraon of tlie dtiiens of that plaoe. 
gan. boats at Newport, R. L, and in Feb. 1818, PEBBEPHONE. Bee Fbobebtibx. 
ho was transferred, at hie own request, with a PEESEPOLIB (Gr., "city of the Persians;" 
portion of his officers and men, to the com- Pera. Ittaiiar), one of the ancieut oaj^tala of 
mai^ of Commodore Isaac Ohanncej on the Persia. It stood S6 m. N. £. of Bhiraz, on a 
lakeflL In the following Maroh he waa ordered spaolons ]^aln now called Merdosht, near the 
bj- Oonunodore Ohannoef to sapeiintend the oonflnsnce of tha Uedns and tlte Arazee (now 
eqaipment of a naval force on lake Erie, and Falwan and Bendemir). The plain is natonl- 
wbile fhns amploTed at the port of Preaqna I7 one of the richest and most Desntiftal In the 
Isle <now Kie), he waa oaDed awaj for the world, and is snmranded on all sides hy \ottj 
uomsat to aid in an attadt npcm Fort Geom. mountains rising from the verdant level like 
He cooperated gallantlr and ably with the ialanda from the ooean. At the foot of one of 
army in that affitir, at the head of a body of these momttains, which pri^eots somewhat be* 
seamen. Li Ang. 1818, Perr^, taking advsn- vond tha Hne of the range into the plain, is a 
toge of the mom«attxj absence of the British high terrace of the most massive Ofclopean 
•qiudron which had been watching him, sue- maaonrj', extending S. and S. about 1,600 feet, 
eeeded in getting the force which he bad eqnip- and from E. to W. aboat BOO feet. The whole 
ped ont ot the port bv lifting the larger vessels however is not one level platform, but is divid- 
on oamels, and, though verj de&cient in offlcers ed into three great terraces, of which tliat to 
and men, and imperfaotly equipped, breast the S. ia the smalleet and lowest, rising only 
the Britim eqnadron to an engagement on S^t SO or 28 feet from the plain, with a breadth of 
10, which rMuIted in the complBte saccess of 160 feet The great centre platform is nearly 
the American anas, (See Earn, Bxttli or 800 feet square, and rises 4S feet above the 
Lazb, voL viL p. 970.) After this biiliiant and level of the plain. N. of this is the third plat- 
important action, which rtused Peny to the form, aboat G50 feet in length and 86 feet in 
highest naval renown, he cooperated with (he height. On the northern and central platforms 
■rmy of Gen. Earrison by assisting in regaining are grouped varioos mined edifices, which 141- 
poneauon of Detroit, in transporting troops, pear to have been palaces or temples, and are 
and serving at the battle of the Moravian all that reauun <rf Feraepolis. llie principal 
Towiu. At the close of the operations of 1818, featnrea they present are talL slender, msnlated 
he gave op hia command. Oongreas bestowed oolnmna, stately portals, and rained walls oot- 
a gold medal upon bim for bis aervice^ and he ered by imndreds of sonlptored flgnres of men 
was promoted to the rank of oaptain, his 00m- and animals. The ohiaf mins are those of the 
mianoo beingdated Sept. 10, 1818, the day of great hall of 100 oolnmns, the Ohebil Ulnar or 
the battle, ^gh oirio honors were p^d him great hall of Xenes, the palace of Xerxes, and 
wherever he went, and mora than 40 ooontieB, the palaoe of Darins. The stairs which lead to 
towns, and villages have been named alter him these edifices are among the most remarkable 
in diffiarent parts of the Union. In Ang. 1614, of the arohitectiiral features of Persepolis, and 
tie iraa appointed to the Java, 44, a new frig- are peonUar to the place. The finest of these 
ate nnder equipment at Baltimore ; but as the is that which leads from the plmn to the north- 
Cb«eapeake was closely blockaded, it was impos- em terraoe. It oonsists of two donble flights, 
nbletogetbertoBea,andFer^, withhisoffii- each 22 feet wide, the steps rising only aboat 
oera and moL was actively onployed in annoy- &i inches, while they are nearly 15 inches deep, 
ing ib» British sqoadron in th^ descent of the tha ascent being so easy that persons on horse- 
Potomac frmn Alexandria, and in the d«ibnca back go np and down without difBoulty. Its 
ofBaltimore. After peace was proclaimed he wh(de style is ooloaeal, as many as S steps bemg 
cruised in the Java upon the coast of the Unit- cut in one blook <tf marble, and the stones of 
ed States, and in the Mediterranean until Jan. the panMndicalar walls being also of immense 
1816. In Hsrch, 1619, he waa appointed to rize. There are several stairs leading to the 
the connnand of a squadron for tne coast of summit of tiie terraces, most of which are or- 
Cotonthia, and sailed from Annapolis on Jone namented with sonlptnres, representing oolos- 


tribute. There are also man j inscriptiotu oo island of Seriphos, where Fersens \ras brought 

th« Btttin aad the boildingB, in three di^rent ap bj King Polydectes ; bat the latter, uudons 

olaasea of omteifom writitig, of which the at last to get him out of the wa^th^ he might 

Z^ ohrsTS oocnpiea the prominent place, gra&ff his paeEdon for DanaS, sent him to ^eh 

Thaw insoiiptionB liave bMn read bj Lassen the head ti the gorgon Uedosa. Having oV 

and BavHoton, who have thna ascertained tuned from the nymphs willed sandaL to 

that all the moat important works were con- bear him throogb the air, a ma^o wallet^ and 

strooted bj Darins Rjetasgie and Xerxes (621- the helmet of Pinto which rendered him in- 

4AS B. 0.)- Of the latest of these atrao- Tiaihle, from Kerooiy a uoble, and &om Mi- 

tnres, the great hall of Xerzee, or the Ohehil nerva a mirror in which he conM see the re- 

Minar as it is called bj the modem PeraianB, fieotioa of If ednso, dnce a sight of the monster 

Fergnason, the emiuoit writer on architeotiir& herself would change him to stone, he aocom- 

si^b: " It was not only one of the lai^eat bat plished his errand while the gorgons were 

one of the most splendid bnildiogi of antiqni- asleep. On hia way back he saved ijidromeda 

tj. In plan it was a rectangle of abont 800 trota. being devoored hf a sea monster, and 

net b7 SBO, and oonseqnenllj oorering 106,000 married her. (See Asdboiixda.) Arrinng at 

aqnare fbet (H acrea) ; it was tiitia lai^ uiaa Beriphos, he found hia mother pnraoed bf the 

the hrpostfle hall at Kamat, or any of the violence of Pol^ectea, whom he metamor- 

largest tcmplea of Qreeoe or Rome. It is phosed with all his meeta into stone by meaoa 

la^er, too, Uian buj mediaval cathedral ez- of the gorgon's head. He then returned witli 

oeptthatcufHllan; and although it has neither his wife and mother to Argos, and Acriainfir 

the stone roof of a cathedral, nor the maaBire- remembering the orade, fied to Larissa. Per- 

nees of an Egyptian bulling, atill its ase and seas, following him in order to persuade him 

proportiong, combined with lightness, and the to return, is said to have aceidentallj killed 

beauty of its decorations, must have made it him with a discus in the course of the eamea 

one of the most betntifnl buildings ever erect- which the Hog of I.aris8a was celebratug in 

ed, and both in derfgn and proportion far snr- Acriidns'a honor. TTnwilling to return to Ar- 

panting tliose of AssTTia, thongh possessing gos, be exchanged that kingdom with He^- 

mnoh of detail or ornament so amilar as to be penthes for the government of Tiryns. He 

almost identical in stj^le." — At the diatanoe of preaented the gonjon'a head to lliuerva, who 

1^ miles from the mina of Fetscpolis a Taller placed it on her i£ield. 

about S miles in width opens into the pl^ of FEBBEUS, or FKBaca, the last king of Mac&- 

Uerdusht; and in thegorgeof thiavalley, Jost don, rdgned from 178 to ISS B. 0. He was 

where it opens on the plain, stood the city of the son of Philip 11., or aa others call him T., 

Istakhar, so fbmoua in oriental story, and ac- and b^re coming to the throne served with 

oording to the Pernans the oldest oity in the some dist&ciion in the army. He persuaded 

world. Darius, soon after he ascended the hia fiither to put to. death a younger aon, 

throne, seems to have removed the seat of gov- Demetrin^ whom he suspected irf entertaiu- 

emment from Pasargadsi, the old oapit^ of ing ambitJons designs. Immediately upon his 

Persia, to Istakhar, and to have oommenoed in accession he confinned the treaty concluded 

the southern suburb of that dty the building by his &ther with the Romans, but began 

of the palaces and conrt quarter to which the secretly to prepare for war, and endeavored 

Greeks gave the name of Persepolis. After to form aUiances with the states of Greece, 

the destruction of the Persian monarchy by Hostiiitiea were hastened by an attempt of 

Alexander (who is reported by some of the Perseus to assaarinate Eumenea, king of Per- 

Greek historians to have set fire to the palaces gamus, who had reported to the eenat« the 

of Persepolie at the instigatiou of Thala the warlike preparations of the Macedonians. The 

eonrtesan, a statement not oorroborated by the senators pronounced Perseus an enemy of the 

Spearance of the ruins, which show no traces republic (172 B. 0.), and the consul P. Licinina 

fire), the oity shrank back to its original di- Orassus was sent with an army to invade 

mensions, and under its native name of Istai- his dominions. He met the Macedonians in 

khar became celebrated in the subsequent hie- Theasaly, where two alight engagements were 

tory of Per^ and remained an important fbnght (171)^erseQs winning one and Crassna 

^aoe to a comparatively recent period. — Bee the other. The war Iad«d 4 yeara, with dis- 

FerfTOBson's "Palaces of Nineveh and Persep- advantage on. the whole to the Romans; but 

olis Restored" (London, 18S1). at last the avarioe of Peraens alienated his 

PERSEUS, a Gredan legendary hero, the allies, and on June S9, 1S8, he was signally 

eon of Jnpiter and Danae. Acrisins of Argos, defeated near Pydna by the consul L. .i£iai- 

the father of Danae, iiaving been warned by an liua Paulus. He took rei^ige in Samothrace, 

oracle that the son of his daoght^r wonld where he soon afterward surrendered, and in, 

cause ids death, shut her up in a strong room ; the following year was carried to Rome to 

bnt Jnpiter came down through the roof in the adorn the triumph of the victor. j£milius 

form of a shower of gold, and l>ecame by her however treated him kindly, and, when he 

the father of Pfflseus, Acrisins oansed the wan afterward oast Into a dungeon by ordor 



of th« MBBte, procured Ua remoTsl to a looUng boEaar, or pcritspa among huipa ot 
plsea of honorable oaptivitr at Alba, where rabbiaE as flHhr aiu oonfiued as thow ont- 
he paned a fcw years and died, either of aide. " Any tttbig Tn<H« dumal oan hardlj be 
TtdnntarT Btftrratioii. or, aooording to a leaa oonoeiTed," aarB Ladj Sheil, desoritdog her 
probable aooonnt, of euiorced want of aleep. entranee into Tabriz in 1819. " The imaKee 
HelefttwoTOongohQdrera, Alexander, who IS of youth are not easily effiued; and tiie 
nid to lam beoome a a^bo to the monidpal- ' Arabian Nl^ta' and ' Xialla Rookh' will hold 
itj (tf Alba, and a dang^ter. Hia rotinger bro- their place in the memory whether it vill or 
ther and adopted heir, FhUlp, died In oaptavi^. noL Bnt onoe imdde the gate of a Feraian 
PERSIA (the natiTe name of which ia Iran), city, the oharm ia diasolTod, the raomoian's 
1 onmtry of Ada, Ixmnded N. by Boidan Ar- wfuid is broken, and reality takes the place of 
laeoia, the Gaai^aii eea, and Toorkistan, E. tiy romanoe, which ia destroyed for ever. Half 
Al^hjmiatan and Belooohistan, 8. by the In- the city aeemed depopnlated ; there were 
dim ocean, S. and B. W. by the Peraian gnl( large spaces wholly Taoant, with deep exoeva- 
aad W. by tiie Tarkieh empire. It lies bo- tions on edther hand, from wtuoh the earth 
tween 1st. 25° and 40° N. and long. 44° and 93° had been dog to bdld honaee. Dead dogs, 
SO* £. ; greatest length from N. W. to 6. K and here and there a dead horse half eat^ 
■boot 1,000 m., average breadth abont 600 m. ; ofitoded more than one aenae. The honaee 
area, abont 600,000 sq. m. ; pop. Tsrionaly ea- were (HghtfiiL Oooitnioted of brown nnbnrat 
timated at from S,000,D00 to 10,000,000. It la bricks, looking exactly like mod, and wltfaoot 
dirided into S6 provinoes. In the N. are CHii- a aingle window to the atreets, they preeented 
Un, Ibanderan, and Aatrabad ; in the W., a moat gloomy aspect. This ia a general [do- 
Axerba^fan, Ardalan or Eoordiabm, Loriatan, tnre of a Perdan town, and be it rem«nbwad 
and EhoodstsQ ; in the S., Fare, Lariatan, and that Tabriz is one of the beat and rioheet dties 
Eennan;intheK,Y6zd,TabsBorTnbna,&ha7n in the whole kingdtsn." The wretched k^ 
and ffiijoon, TocrtMa, lleehed, Damghan, uid pearanee <^ the ontaide of a, P^idan house, 
Bemnoon and the Oreat Salt desert. Thew oowerer, ia not a Jnat indication of the state 
eastern provinees oollectivelr oonatttnte £ho- Ot the Interior. The dwellings are generally 
nsaan. Oentnd Per^ or Lvk-AJemee oom- comfortable, and those id the ridier ela»es 
priaes the prOTincee of Sihamsab, Eaabin, T»- are often of great idze and contafai -reiy hand- 
Wan, Haniadan, Eoom, and Miahan. The aome and eommodlona »artmeDt8.~-The prin- 
prindp^ddeaan Teheran, theo^ta), Ispahan, dpalportaof PeraiaareBalftooahontheOaa- 
llie former capital and adll the Ui^est city of plan aea and Bndtire on the Peraian gnlf. The 
the kingdom, Tabriz, Ooroomeeyali, Hun»- other mnrta are of Uttleoonseqnence. There is 
dan, Bhosto', "ir<"hnn, Beehd, Balf^>0Bh, Aatra- a marked deficiency of good harbors on both 
bad, ICeahed, Nishapoor, Tezd, Boahires Shlnu^ the TS. and S. ooasts. Tbe deficiency of Tivers 
Lar, and Kerman. Several <s these cujea are in so Tast a oonntry is etill more remarkable; 
mnig the moat femons of the Bast (br wealth thwe ia aoaroely a navigable stream in tlie 
nd magnifioMice, bnt the vidtor from Emrme vhole kingdom. The largest rlveia are the 
or Amttica ia always greatly ffisappdnted by Earoon, which flows into the 8hat-el-Arab 
&eir ^pearanee, whidi at the present time or United Tigria and Etiphrate e, the Aras 
offen iittte to the eye of the beholder hot or Araxes, and the Safld End or White river, 
ndna, filth, and misery. The view of a Per- which flow into the Oaapian. While the greater 
lian d^ fhnn the exterior la nsoal^ monoto- part of Persia soflbra ftom want of water, the 

DonsandnniDtererting. The low ^d irregular norUiem provinoea bco^ering npon the Oas- 
bonsM, built moeUy of mad, resanble faenia plan sea are as remarkaMe lor the moltitnde 
of dirt more than human habitationB. The of thdr streams as Ota rest (NT the coostey is 

hrellinga of even the rich and powerfiil eel- fbr its aridi^ ; bnt they are for &e moat part 

dim exeeed a dn^e etoiy, and are ahronded mere torrents, fbll in winter and nearly dry- 

from awht by high bl&u walls. The only ingnpinsmmner. A striking oharacteiistlo of 

poblio boildinga an mosqnea, colleges, and the topographyofPeraiaia the frequent oeonr- 

oaraTanasriea, most of which are as mean as renoe of ult lakea, of which that of Ooroomee- 

die dweUinga. There are not many minarets rah is the largest. Itlsintheprovinoeof Aeer- 

«- domes of magnitDde, and few of these ex- ba(jao, between lat. 87° 5' and 88° 16' K., at 

inbit eitiiw elef^nee or Brandenr, The only the height of 4,800 £aet above the sea, and ia 

relief to the mtmotcoy m the view ia afibrded 80 m. in length and SO in breadth, with an 

by tbe nvdcoBj whidi are planted with foreat average depth of 12 feet. It Is fhst drying np, 

tnd fkint trees, and to a greater or lesa extent and is boidered by largo tracts covered with 

are aeeo near aQ the towns of Persia. The edt, with which its waves are intensely im- 

trar(dIer)»]aIlyain>Toaohestheee dties throng^ pregnated.-~Penda haa been called a oonntry 

a narrow and dlr^lane bounded by decided of momtaina, but U is for the moot part rather 

mud woDa, and must pick his vsj among a hi^ table-land, ridng 8,000 or 4,000 fbet 

bu^ts md fadlow^ tne fivgments of old above the aea, bonnded on all ddes except the 

bnMings, and the pUa whfdi hsve enpplled E. by lofty ranges, preSminent among which 

the day for oew onesi Entering the djlapl- is the mighty chain of the Elbroox. This 

dated gateway, he finds himself in a mean- great range, abiking off from the Oanoasna, 



«ntan tie Ungdoin at tiie N. frontier, irhidk try is arid and drearr, Uie nurantaliiB being 

it ooTws with • fdooiD^ man of block peaka, imtoIj maaBee of bare gray rook, riungftbrnptr . 

and from Ardebil mns parallel iritb tho 8. It froin the pl^ and onreliflved b^ trees or ', 

ahoraoftheOasiuanHftto Astrabad. Tbenoe ■hrabB. Tbe pbuna, even vbere th^ are not , 

it pata«s in aa eaaterlj direction to the N. of abaolatel; desert, are chiefly of barren gravd i 

Ifethed into A%h&niatan and Toorkigtan. A or olar, and fbr 10 montl^ of tha year are | 

branch of the Elbrooz called the Bahnnd moon- parehed with heat. The only trees to be seen < 

tains Btrikes off from Lake Ooroomeeyah in a are in the gardens of Tillages or on the banks ' 

H, E. direction, and spreads in Tariona oIn»- of the few streams where they have been , 

ters throngh Azerbalian. Another branch is planted for timber. The provinces on the Oaa- . 

the ZagroB ran^, which diTidee ancient A»- plan sea, howsTer, are exceptions to the gen- ' 

Syria from Uedia, and, splitting into a confiuad era! dreariness, and are aa beuitifiil bb wood, , 

maaa of ridges and vdleys in Koordistan, con- water, and grand and varied monnbun scenery ; 

tinnea eonthward nnder the app^tion of the can make them.— 0<nnpara1iTdy little is known ; 

Lnrfsbm and Bnohtiaree monntaina along the of the geology of Persia. The Elbrooz monn- 

weatem borders of the taUe-land, and after tains are sapposed to poeaeas a primitiTe char- : 

trsvereSag Fars stretches along the Fendan soter, Poipnyty, colored with chlorite, and 

RTilf at rariona distanoes from the sea as for as oompaot felds;^ with green earth, are foimd 

GMntooon near the 8. £. comer of the kin^- in abundance in the torrent beds, with occa- 

dom, North of the Eltirooi and between it sionally granite and monntain limestone. The 

and the Caspian are the proTinces of Gbilan, branches of the Elbrooz, however, lose this 

Uazanderan, and Astrabad, which are low, primitive character, and may be generally de- 

lerel, well watered, and fertile. The region BCribedaafollows:calcareoQBsnbs^ceeetretch 

between the B. boundary of the platean and along their eastern aldrts ; on their Bonthera 

the Persian golf and the Indian ocean is called acclivitieB schistose rocks appear ; clay inter- ' 

the Bnshtistan or " level country," and, with mingled with quarts occnpies the middUng and ' 

a breadth varying fWim 60 to IBO m., ezhibita higher regions ; while granite composes the ' 

a sacoession of sandy wastes, ocoaaonally re- lower tracts of their oortbern aepecta. Traces ' 

lieved by a plantatioa of date trees and a few of voloanio action are to be found in aeveral { 

Satohes of cnltivation in snob places as are parts of the Elbroor range; the pe^ of Demtt- 
leswd with a rivolet or a oopiona weH. vend, the highest of its smnmita, which, aocord- 
From the prindpal ranges we have mentioned ing to the l^est measarementa, rises 21,(>00 feet 
nm a mnltitnde of branehea that cover the aor- above the sea, is nndonbtedly an extmct vol- 
&oe of Perriawiths netwoi^ of rocky linea. cono; andthefreqnenteartbqQakeaiuthevioiii- 
Among them are to bo fonud plains and valleys ity of the moontains indioate the existenca of 
which wherever moistare abonnds are fertile, sobterraiiean fires over a wide-spread lesioii. 
bnt where water is absent aie deaerta of sand The most interesting geolopoal feature of tlie 
or aalt. The valleys at tha sonthem foot of Elbrooi mountains is toe turquoise mines, mtn- 
the Elbrooz are rich with verdure throughout ated abont 40 m. W. of Nishapoor. The base 
the year, and on the dope of the mountains N. of the ridge where they lie is composed of 
of Teheran is a tract 30 m. In length covered vtute, gray, yellow, red, or brown porphyritic 
with gardens and grovee and bearing the name earth, interspersed with veins of brilliant red, 
of 8ham'a-i-Iran, or "light of Persia." In disposed in hillocks, on the top of wluch rest 
the centra] provinoes the valleys are generally beds of limestone or porphyritic oonglomeratea, 
level. In Azerba^an they lie between a snc- The mines are opened m beds of porphyritio 
cession of eminences. Koordistan in theN. earth or rock, deeply tinged with iron, throng 
ia little more than a olnster of mountains with which the turquoise is disseminated in veioa, 
an almost Alpine olimate. — Salt deserts oconpy nodules, and irregular masses. B^g Ml of 
a great part ot the suribce of Pemia, and are flaws, it possesses no great mercantile valae. 
many of them covered by a saline efflorescence The Sahund mountains exhibit great maases 
which f^Utera vividly in the annehine. The of calcareous oonglomerate resting on a base 
Q?eat Salt desert, the most extensive of these of granite. Their summits are composed of 
tracts, lies in the centre of the conntry, and is porphyry, sometimee oontaining cryBtala of 
400 m. in length and SSO m, in breadth. The glossy feldspar and hornblende. Some of 
nature ofthisdeaertvarieB in different plaoes, the lower hills intervening between theee 
In some the surface is dry and produces a few mountains and Tabriz are covered with blodcs 
planta, such as prefer a eslt soil ; in others it and pebbles of a dark blue rook contuning cal- 
ls marshy, and in others the earth is covered oareoos matter. Iron is abundant in Perd&, 
with a crust of eslt. Over considerable tracts tliough it is little manufactured. Copper, lead, 
sand predominates, which in some plaoes is and antimony also abound, and salt, sulijhar, 
so light and impalpable aa to be cactremely and niqihtha are produced in great qnantatiea. 
dangerous to ttavellere, who are sontMhnea Eicellentcoal is found in the ElbrooK, and aJso 
overwbehned and buried in the dr^ raised by valuable varieties of marble. — The olimate of 
the wind. Here and there this desert is broken Peraa is so much modified by the elevation of 
by inhaUted oaaea, Uiou^ by none (tf very the surface that, according to the traveller 
great axtent The genemaspeot of the oonn- Kinneir, one may paas in a few boors from tlxe 


ir «f Kmtoellier to Che oolfl rfrotJC^Po- mring 
laraidtitdtlteoQMVhlghtrtpedciM^'EI- Soaotiftali 
cooz are cotqiM wWh snoir tkrOag^oiil ttM aoimolB al 


great hanrianoe, and there are manr 
1 species native to the conntrj. Wild 

„ aboand in the desert, among uiem liu) 

ttjiaLMn u Itmf Hob, tiger, wolf, Jooka), hjsoa, fox, wild boar, 

■no eerOTm— aiw ij wofwwiow mMDi- irfid ass, wild sheep, and antelopea and deer in 

mon at tU* MMor~ "Hia biit «f mmaaa ii ^at variety. The wild eheep is strong and 

iitteii9& Th« ^^i"* tikTe&er Morier states conragoons, and has large, crooked, aad twisted 

that at Shiras. amr 0W mMle of Jnoe the horns. The wild ass is shyand very fleet, ont- 

thennometer jffm aemify *(rtr under 100* in Btrfpping the beBt horses. Among the dome^ 

tbeabade, andfrmaotlxniaeVillO'. Intho tip minialB, the most common are the camd, 

low lands on the nniaii cntf the lleat of stun- cow, sheep, goat, ass, horse, and mole. The 

mer ia inereaaed brtlMinBda from the sandy native horses are large and strong, and the 

deaerta with which VUm ngio' aboaads,bDt breed has been mnch improved bvintennixtiira 

ttie winter and spring an da!. ' ill. Bat not- with the Arab. The^are remarkabieforth^ 

«%^mdmg the great extre.u of ttw Anate powers of endorance, and some of them will 

ef FBflnBfttka auddm trarsidona froaakeat carry their riders for a week t<^ether at tha 

w eMBTft to Tar; haaltky, wit4i<to exeaptbn rate of 100 miles a day. Those <tf the beat 

gf Snav ooaato of Oa Oaa^^wkere from oMMr freqo™*'?' wH for $1,000, and ar« used 

' ' VB of ngata- nr {Midering expeditions. From the prera- 

r the grMter lenoe it hot and and deserte, oamds are prdto^ 

, „ I ^plla, utd' die Tedaabeasteof tnirden,thoiigfaiimlesaremndi 

air tr fl^ flM tjw attiMM>pb#ii «o Near titat Baed among the moont^ons redone. From 

p(&hed metal may be expo^a to it withont ft»aeBroity of trees in Feraiab&ds are rare. 

Woming mated. — ^NotwiUi^^kw ttie gen- Hieaaants are found (Mi the eoasta of the Oaa- 

(nlly barren appearaMCt of ^Htfoi ^^ f"^ pian, and pelicans and bnstarda on the diorea 

tinted BoQ whera^r tt is Bom^mnk miAtk- «t the golf. Among the song birds are blaid:- 

are Sa ^raa4tti|^ fcrtfla. nBwll itnaBS birds, Crashes, and the bnlbnl or nightin«l& 

and qj^Jp <W TMM at h^ 7^ Mad pro- The rivers contain few fieh, bnt ralnable ilah- 

dnee'^^RMMwr)' resta. rtmac mentions a eiies are carried on npon the shores of tiba 

canal ^fi^iV«d to irrlgata a fruit garden of golf and the Oaspian.— The population of Per- 

irtdchVlinCvnBtwaa nearly $10,000. The eia oonsista of two very distinct classes, the aet- 

prinmpil p wodiwt a of Perdan agricidtore are tied inhabitants and the tribes who are called 

rbeat, Wriey, and other gruns, the wheat Eels, a Turkish word signiiyiag olana. Some 

b«inR as fce as any in the world. The vine of theee tribes have become stationary, and 

flotmdieB in several provinces, and the ^pes have devoted themselves to agriooltore, Uioo^ 

and the wine of SMraz are oelebi-ated m the still preserving their nidon as tribe mea ; bnt 

portry of the East. The rich provinces on the the rest of them are wanderers who with their 

Ciepian prodnce the mulberry in great abnn- families and flooks change their qnarten eacdi 

dance, amd inolnde silk and eogar among their summer and winter in search of pasture to 

chief staples. Cotton is prodnced in sufficient grounds more or leas distant belongmg to the 

raanlj^ to supply the wants of the people ; and tribe, and which oaanot be enorofwhed on by 

m Feb. 1861, uie Persian ambassador at Lon- other clans. A clan or eel is ruled by its ixj^iw 

don stated in a published letterthat sufficient orchief and by the heads of the different tMnfta 

eottm oonid be grown in the sonthem prov- or branches of the tribe. To theee chieft the 

iDMa to supply the wants of Europe. Among whole tribe is devoted with a patriarahsl loy- 

tfie other nsefol products of the soil are gum alty like that of the highlandera of Scotland to 

tr^acanth, asKtotida, ssffiron, henna, madder, the heads of the clans. The tribes oominiM 

ajnum, indigo, and tobaooo. Fruits are grown 4 races, viz., Toorks, Eoords, Leks, and Araba. 

is great perfection and abondanee. Datea are The first are invaders from Toorkistan, who 

tsgety Tised as food, and those of Dalald tn the from IJme immemorial have estabUshed them- 

provinee of Fars are paitioolarly celebrated for eelves in Per^a, and who still preserve their 

ridinasB and flavor. Pomegranates, shaddocks, language. The Koorda are not numerons In 

iiiiKs, apples, pears, apricots, and walnuts grow Ferna, the greater part of the nation living 

in perfei^OQ everywhere, and oranges on the in Turkey. They are sopposed to be of FeraiaD 

low lands. The melons are the largest and descent, and speak a dialeot of the Pertdaa 

fioest in the world. Though trees are very language. The Leks are of genuine Pereiaa 

Karee in the greater part of Persia, the monn- blood, and are snppoaed to be descendants of 

tiins of the Oaspian provinces are covered with the ancient inhabitants of the conntry. Tha 

forests of valuable timber, including oak, elm, Arab Eels are descended chiefly from the Ho- 

beedi, walntit, and boxwood. The Ucorioe hammedana who conquered Persia in the Stli 

DlsDt is finutd in provision on the plain of century, bnt they have lost thnr original lan- 

Merdndit tmd near ffliiraz. A plant resem- guage and become Perrians both in speech and 

bhng heoiloek, with a rich dark ^«eu verdnre appearance. The Eels genenUly live in tenti^ 

aad from 8 to S ftet high, yields the gnm am- uid are distingnisfaed far ooorage, manliness, 

tnontac Amongthevegetables, carrots, turnips, and indq>endtfice. Theyarehowever taveter- 

cabb^ea, and b«ets are common. Flowers ate robbers, and th^ torbulenoe has for eey 


eraloentoriefl been idiiefoanM of the troubled ths (lfl| who ntfbr mort frojn the t^prtwlon 

condition of tiis kingdom and of its freqiunt of the. .rnlers ; ;«t their houses are oomfort- 

rerolntiona. Their number is aotapnted at able ftod aeet, and thej &nd thsLr funilies are 

^000,000. The BhaheeMTflD, the Sheaghee, generallj well fed and clothed. Wages are 

the Hikiee, the y(t«>iifi'i| the Bejtit, the Za- high and food is chei^ ; and in spite of the 

faranloo, the ^elhor, the Zengen^ And one soms oooamonalljextoctAd .from them b^rapa- 

of the flooka and herds. Black bread, sonr are often exceedingly fair and beautiful, the 

milk, and oooasionallj a little meet form th^ frequent miztore of Georgiaa Hd Oircasnau 

food. The nmnber who more in a bodj depends hlood baring greatly improved Hi* appwKtmco 

on &» extent of pastnre they can ctumtand. of the native Persian race. Tbvj are Uvely 

They enoan^ asoally in form of a sqnare or and clever, and often acquire a great iafiiunoe 

street, thetentoftfaeohiefintheoentxe. When over their husbands, vhoM budaMa aftirs 

the pastures are bare they shift to some other they eometiniw direct and man^e. TImt* are 

epoL The women do not, like other Mobam- two kinds of marriageB : thoaa vbkb are per- 

medans, veil their faces, but ahue the fatigaea manent and leq^ectable, and In vUdi the hos- 

amd the dangers of the men. They are bold hand is reetxioted to 4 wives ; and aaetiwr kind 

and sldlftil riders, and can nee the gnn or the called teegAa, in. which a coBtiact of marriage 

spear on an emergency. Their character for ia made for a limited period, nevar STowrling 

oUiBtity ia higher than that of most Adatio SO years. The latter speciaa of marrian noay 

women. Among the settled inhabitanta of be contracted with an indafaite miuer of 

Fersia, the chief distdnction of classes is into women, who are generally boweTer of an in- 

the oonrtierB, or the dvil and military o9- ferior rank and perfonnm«ialacrvioea lor tbe 

oers of the govainment ; the oiUzena, oompria- proper wives. The childMo, e( Ix^ alasses 

ing merohonta, shopkeepers, artiaana, men of are regarded as perfectly •qnal in atatJon and 

learning, and of the rel^ooaorden; and last- legitimaoy. Among the e^Mtmaaattftfae peo- 

jy tiia peasanta or onltivatora of the gromid. pte a man has rarely morf than oaa wife, and 

The FerstaiiB connected with the govemmeDt the condition of the women aeaaa te fte ea^ 

are generally well infomed, aoote, polished and oomfortable. The ladies of the npperdaas 

in manner, lively, good-natived, and exceed- lead an idle, Immriona, and monotonous life, 

ingly aelf-posBMsed ; but th^ are acoosed of Contrary to the common opinion in CQuisten- 

bMng,with a few exoeplionB, deoeitfbl, treach- dom, they enjoy abmidant liher^, more per- 

eroQs. and venal, and, where they can be so baps than the same class in Europe. The 

with imptmity, am^ant and overbearing. The complete envelopment of the tkoa osd person 

inhabitants of the towns are a mixed race disgiiises them enectually from the nearest rel- 

of Turks, Tartars, Arabians, Armemans, and atives, and, destroying when convenient all 

Georgians, engrafted on the stock of the an- distinolion of rank, gives unrestrained freedom. 

dent Penians. They ore in general indnstri- Hnoh of their time Is spent in the public hath 

ou% obeerfal, pohte, Booiahle, and quick of bonse and in visits to theb Mends. Women of 

aptoehenrion, with better morals and more the higher cloasfre^neatly acquire a knowledge 

[Hinolple tjian the higher daseea. The mer- of reading and writing, and become famibar 

ebauta are numeross, and many of them are with the works of the chief Peraan poets, 

wealthy, though from fear of spoliattou they do These, however, are the best aspects of female 

not often dlsplsy their riches. Some of them life in Persia. On the other htmd, it is certain 

are among the most cultivated men intheoooa- that in the emderooTu or harems of the rich 

try. The eoclesiastical body, which includes there is often mnoh cmelty and suffering, and 

the ezponndera of the written law, ia very nn- the greatest crimes are perpetrated wim im- 

merooB, rich, and powerful, and oonsista of pnni^. There is nothing to che<^ the severity 

many orders, the hi^est of whom are called of an ill-tempered or ridons husband, tbon^ 

fHMtUmhedt, and are seldom more thaa 8 or 4 Bometimes an ill-treated slave or wife redrwaes 

in number. They rise to office by superior and terminateB her wrongs by administering a 

learning and sanctity, and their duties have dose of poison. The owners of land in Perma 

chiefly in riew the protection of the P^'e seldom ooltdvate it themselrea, but let it to 

^^nst the oppressiona of their rulers. The toiants, who divide the produoe with the Isnd- 

mollahs or common priests, who swarm in lords. The tenants are oonuuonly well treated, 

every city, have a very low reputation. Tbmr and have nothing to complain of ezoept the 

livegenerallybytbeir wita,andpraatiseBfitro£- occasional extortions practised bythegovem- 

ogy, write letters and oontraets, and thos eke ment officers, who when travdlinK demand 

out a half atarved existenoe. Their faypooi^, food and soppHes £» thfonselvea and their at- 

profligacr, and want of prindple areproverbid, tend«itB in the name of the govenoment.— The 

■ndto"liatelikeamouah"and to "lie like a foreign otonmerce ot Peroa ia oonqiaratiT^ 

moUeh"are sqrlngi Ten frequent in Ibemonlli amalL Silk is the great at^de, tboqdi boroes, 

* ~ The anltiTators of fhe soil are dried friut, and dniga are aent to Ind^; abeqi, 



aottMi, ud wooUoD nmvAebam to Ibrkej; AmongthesdenoesioOBtoQltivtted tisaitroa- 

and grain sad oottOD goods to Ramii The 0107, astrolo^, metBph7ucfl, logic, malLeinat- 

silk 1b of infoior qiulitr, end ia therefore not ioa, and ph^rsioe. AatroDomj is in a veij im- 

ad^ipted to the markets of Franoe, Knglmil, or perfect state, bring jot taught according to the 

Itol^. A larae [nvportdon of it is sent to Tor- Ptoletnaio sjBtem. Their metaphy^ and 

kej and to Bnsaia. The ralae of the annnal logic, though ingenioue, are puerile and dm- 

prodaot at the proTinoe of Ghilan b estimated leas. Obemistry is unknown, and geogr^hy 

at (3,000,000. The people have aoqoired great very imperfeotlyimdeiBtood. Alchemy is still 

dexterity in ite mannbotDre, and satins, saroe- stndied, and astrology is a popular pursuit, no 

net, brocades, Telveta, and 6*»iy kind of striped Persian undertaking any important afl^ vith- 

■ilk are made exeee^iudy strong and dnruikt oat first consulting an astrologer, and endeav- 

wtth briUunt ocdore. OUier arUcIea of export orbtg to ascertain a laoky day or honr for his 

«ra carpets and tUta, made ohiefly in Ehoraa- enterprise. In knowledge of medicine the Pen- 

san; Arabian cloaks and Toollanstuffl, made in sians are verj deficient. They are totally igno- 

Khoozistan; shawls made of the fine hair of rant of anatomy and nnacqudnted with the 

^ha goats d! Kennan; firearms, aworda, dag- dronlationof the blood, sudtheirpractjceo 

. and variooB Uiras of ouUery, made at sisteof little more than the exhibition of a few 

. Juui. The internal trade is earned on br simple drugs, whose qnalitiee they have leam< 

caravans, which bring from the oonntdes E. ed by experience. Among their peculiar metb- 

gen. and 

of Persia modin, leather, lamb skins, nimkecti, ods of cure may be mentioned that of a chief 
china, glassware and hardware, predons stones, who, when any of hie vassals was afflicted with 
ss&otii, indigo, and ^ioes. Tiie trade on the ague, combated the disease b^ tying his patiei^ 
OaflpianaeaismonopolizedbytheBusBians,and up by the heelewhea the periodical fit was ap- 
is carried on throogh theporta of Enaelli, fiat- pro^hing and applying the bastjnado severely, 
frooah, and Astrsbad. Inat on the Feraisn abuMng him bitterly all the time, a prooess 
golf ia Utrongh the ports of Bassoroh, Gom- which he maintained produced heat ana terror 
Dr(Kn,aitd&nsliire,bymeans(tfveaseleowned instead of a cold fit. Theflnearts are little 
chi^y t^ Armenian, Arab, and Indian traders, cnltivated, the Uohsmmedsn futh prohibiting 
Throng these porta Eoropean prodnotiona in repreeentations of the human form, though of 
the eo^te of broaddoths,- eotton goods, jewel- late years the prohibition ia not vary strictly 
ry, arms, onHerr, watches, earthen, glaM, and regarded, and the royal palaces at Ispahan 
metal wares are introdnced, hi exchange for contain some tolerable attempts at punting 
silk, gall nnta, madder, and other ijM. — The battles and hunting pieces. — Persia, having 
Pernana are Uohamuedana of the sect of the been from the remotest ages the seat of oivlli- 
Sheeahs or adherente of Ali, who deny the xation, and the scene of great politiosl vicism- 
ri^t of the first three caliphs to the pontifi- todes and revolution^ abounds in ruins, of 
cate, aikd honor Hassan and Hossein, the sons which the oldest and most remarkable are 
of All, as the proper heirs of the oahphate. those of Persepolis and latakhar. (See Pbbsi- 
They observe as solemn fiiats the dan on which pous.) There are other remarkable remains 
the children of Ali were mnrdere^ and curse of the same remote period intheplainsofUur- 
on these oooadons with tears and bitter widl- ghab, 49 m. If. N. £. of Persepolis, supposed 
ings the memories of the asmiiiHina Uoawylah to be those of the andent city of Pasargadffi. 
and Tezid. The belief in the establiahed rell- The most interesting of theee remains is the 
gion is however greats on the deolina a «p&- straotare called the tomb of Oyms. bi the 
oes of tesnsoendental mysticism called Soone- mountains which form the N, bomidory of the 
bdng veiT prevalent. The doctrinee of pldn of Kermanshah is the preclpltoos rook of 
sect are obsenre and little understood ex- Beaittoon or Behistnn, with sculptures and in- 
cept by the Boofees themsalvea. but they may acript^ona which have attracted much alten- 
be brlefiy and dmpl^ described as a contra- tion fhmi the learned, and have been recenV 
plattre form of religion, which, i^eoting dcg- ly deciphra«d by Bir Henry Rawlinson. Ths 
mas and aztemal fimna^ ehoa to look i^ the inscriptions were made by order of Darios in 
depths of eonscionsness and diaoover there the C16 B. G., and record the events of his ret^ 
presence and workmgs of the divine Ail-soul, At Sbabpoor, IS m. N. of Kazeroon, and in 
with Thich every thiiu; is nllomately identical ; many other parts of Poraa, there are intereat- 
whiob leoognizes individaality as an illodon, log rUna of the era of the Sassanian kings 
and oonfeaes the fundamental cmenese avea (A. D, 326-651).— The government of Perstais 
of what seems most diverse, as of good and a deQiotism. The king, or ihah aa he is called 
bod, of Hfe and death. These doc^inea are in Persian, is uncontrolled by any constitutional 
oftra pnfbaed by thorough infidels. The nnm- or legal checks, and con pat to death at pleas- 
ber of professed Soofees is estimated at 800,000, nre any of his subjects. The governors of 
bnt a still sreatn number are sapposed to ba provinoes sod high offldals of all kinds exer- 
sBcretljincaiied to their doctrines. Edooatlon, dse hi their re^eotivejnrisdbitionsncsrly ab- 
so &ras the aUlity to read and write isoon- solnte power, and it btl:'~ ' — "^ " '^'" 

jt iis 

iarga towns oonbdn cdlegea in which in- retwds the advancement of the oilimt^ in 
stmotloa, snoh aa it is, is ^ven gratuitously, spite of the intelligence and enterprise of the 
VOL. ira. — 11 


nie. EmrnwtAig&sdialilioldaapiib- Ktpeor&lKnrevw, OuitlietnieUabnTtfPeN 

MM, at irtiioh oom^ainta are Iwwd and ^ bo or as it is anthtiitieaUj known, iaas 

jQgtioe admiiiisteTed in the form of reward or follows. At a verf remote period a great 

pmushment. Hie prindpal miiiiiter or grand Arjan migration from be^mid the Indu en- 

viiier laaperKmageof greatpoverandinflii- tered Perria and Medijt, and oontfamed fi»> 

e&oe, and reorirea a ealarr o* 4i,000 tomans, eome omtmies. At length, in the 9th oen- 

alirarB expoaed like ^e meaneat anbjeot to oa- ^torward tbrmed the chief element of the H^ . 
pridooB ptmishmenta, and holds bis life at the dian nation enoonntered the Aasyrians, vh^ 
mer<7<tfthemoaaroh. Bedde ttie chief minis- were then a great power on the Tigris^ and 
ter there are secretuiee who preride over va- after a long strode were mbdned br the As- 
riona depvtmoits of state and finance. The yrian king Sargon in 110 B. 0. About 08S 
law, as in allHoIuunnwdsn eonntries, is fonnd- uie Uedes led hy Oraxares revolted, and, bar- 
ed np<ai the Koran and partlj on traditions. Ing taken NlneVw in 026, laid the fonnoatim 
Hie dvll law is adndnistoed hj the moUaba of the ICe^an emigre. OTazares is the Eai 
or priesta. whose deddons aregowralljr cfbot- Eabad of the native poets. To him sneoeeded 
ed Dj bribes or personal o<HUMeratlons. Orinn As^agee, after whom reigned another Oyax- 
inal oases are rrfbrred to oonrts i^pt^ted arcs, aooording to some the Darias of tiw book 
by the state. The ordinarT' ptmiahmenta are ot Daidel, and the Kai Eans of the Persians, 
fines and flc^lglngB. Oapitu oStaieea are mm- Hissnooeaeor, EaiEhii8ran,isthe07Tnsofthe 
ished bf strangling, deoQ>it«tion, or Rtabmng^ Greds, aooordins to whom be was the t^ef of 
and great ofi^ders are Bometimee toitored to the tribe of Fernans who inhabited Perais, the 
death. The reveone of Qte shah amotmta gen- modem Fars, and were subjects of the Hedes. 
erallr to $S,000,000 or $9,000 000, and Is prinr Abont 669 Ottos was acknowledged as sover- 
oipaUy dcolred from a tax on land. There are eignofthennitednatjoaof MedesandPerrians, 
also taxes on gudens,Tin^arda, shops, hoiaee, in which henoeforth the Peruana had the pre- 
animals, and Tarions kinu ot goods, and in dominanoe. HeoonqnM«dBab7lon,andfoimd- 
eomeproTincea a poll tax on all males above 14 ed a great empire. At bis deaUt In 6S{> he was 

Siarsofage. BnudlastbererenaeiSiConrfder- snooeeded b^ his son Oambjses, who added 

g the rize of the kingdom, snch is the che^ ^gSV^ ^^ ^ P^^ ^"^ ^'^ nortliem Africa to 

nees of ererT' thing in Penia that it is gen- toe empire. Oniing a tTrannioal rdgn of 7 

erallr sofficient to meet the mqmiditvres. A jears he 0)»nmitted great ontrsges, not only on 

lane army is maintained, part of it dlso^tUned tlie Egyptians, but on the prmdpal men of 

and (dSeered by European adventorera. The Perda. Among others, be put to death on 

regnlar infkntry is n<mtinally rated at 100,000 snspioion of treason his brother Bardea, whom 

men, bntdoesnotinrealityexoeed 70,000. The the Greek writers erroneonsly call Smerdis. 

beet tr^ed portion of the fbroe is the artillery, At length in 622, while he was yet absent in 

which nombera 6,000 men. This arm of the Egypt the tnagiana or priestly aristocrat 

service was fonnd to be very effldent in 1880, brought forward one of their own number 

in several severe oonfiicta with the nomadic named Gomatea, whom they imposed npon the 

tribes whose power has been broken bythe peopleaethemiirderedBardeB,towhomhQbore 

present shah. The cavalry nnmber from 80,- some personal resemblance. The people, dia- 

000 to 60,000, and are veil armed and monnt- gnsted with the tyranny of Oambysee, readily 

ed. They are said to be able to enconnter aooepted the nsnrper as king ; and OambTse^ 

in tJie field the Biiaaiau Gossaoks, and to on learning the news trf the revolt, oommitted 

be superior to the TnrkJBh irregnlar horse. — snioide, aoooiding to the Behlsttm inscription, 

The earliest history of Ferna, as it is related or acoordins to the Qreek writers died from 

by Che poet Elrdnii, the only native historian a womid which he accidentally gave himaelf. 

1^ andent times, is a mass of l^ends, mostly After a reign of 6 months the nsnrper w&a de- 

Erelj faboloDs, though some doabtlees have a tectod and pnt to death by a oonsidnM^ of Per- 
ns of reality, in which figure the dynasties don chiefe, one of whom, Darayavndi, the 
of Mohabad, of the Juonlans, of Shah Kaliv, DariosEystaspeeof theOreeks,wa8raadekii)g. 
and of Yessan, which seem to have been alto- Sarina reigned 88 years, and oondderaMj en- 
gether mythical. Kext succeeded the Pishdad- larged the empire, making extensive oonqnesta 
yan dynasty, founded by £aimiiis, of whioh in the east in the regions bordering on the 
the most oelebrated Ungs were Tobmnras, the Indus, and in the west carrying his arms into 
reputed fbunder of Iqishan ; Jsmahid, the Europe and overmnning Tbraee and Uaoedo- 
founder of Istakhar, a monarch mnoh renown- uia. In an attempt to subdue the Greeks his 
edinorientsl story ;Afradab Land AfrasiabH., foroee were completely routed at Usrathon 
the latter of whom was defeated and dethroned in 460, and 4 years aft^rwud he died, and "was 
by the national hero Bnstam, who placed on the euooeeded by his son Xerxes, who renewred 
throne EalEnbad, the founder of a djmasl^ of the invodon of Greece InpeniMi, and at first 
which theencceedingmonarohawereEai^us, with a certain degree of aneoea^ bnt flnaUy 
Km Shneran, Lnhrasp, Gashtai^ Bahman or lost both his immense fleet and army at Sala- 
ATdashlTDinudaat,DaraI.,andDaraII. From mis, Flatffio, and Myctde, and waa aasassi- 
the researdies of reoent European scholars it nated In 466. Six sovereigns bearing the 


FEBSU 168 

names of Aiiszerzes, Xences, and Darius mo- forhiaBnceenftilrepQlieof aTartar loTadon; 

'c«ed«d, with the last of whom, Dorios Oodo- and Obosroes or Khoara Knahirran, who i> 

mamu^ the Ban II. of the Feruan hiitoriaa^ oonsidered ij tho PeralaQS a model of jnstioo, 

terminatddthadTnBstrofOrnu. FBrda,whioh geiierorit7,audsonndpoIio7,aiidvho waa both 

for two oentaries had been Uielea^ng power of agreatrnler and grrat oonqaeror, compelling 

the wwH, witli a dominion extending over an tna emperor Jnstanian to a oiagraoMlkil peaoe^ 

areaafS,000,000or4,000,000BqiuirQmilefl,aikl and adTandng the Pentan anna to tkeltedi- 

a popnlation probablr of serem hmidrad mil- terranean on the west, berond the Oxna and the 

]u»ia,aalnniHedtoAlexandntheOreat,whoin- Indoa on the east, and li^ Arabia on tiiasonOi. 

raded it in 8M with an armrof8S,000 Greeks, ma reign of 48 yeara, from A.D. 681 to 619, 

and, after ds&adng Hit Fendans in Um great was the golden age of modem Fer»a,aoooidiiiE 

batueaof the Oraniaaa,lKQS, and Arbek,be- to the native poets and lustoriana. ffisgrand- 

oameontbe death of DannB(wDowasmardered aon,£hoBnt Farria or Ghosroea II„ who aoo- 

in his fl^ht from Arbda] the nndiapnted master oeeaedbimafteraninterraloftwouiOTtrdgni, 

of the em^re. After the death of the Uaoe- ia also &mODs fi>r liis oonqneets, which Qzwtd- 

daiiianoonqneror,]>isgNieralsfbr several yean edthronj^STria and PalaMdne into EgTpt, and 

dinxrted b; foree of anna the pomnarion of his even to Tripoli and Carthage, wltile at the 

Arialso domiidonB; bat about 807 Selenooa aame time iai. anbeeqnentljldsvifitoiiomi ar- 

Keator beoame mastw of PeraEa, which he mies wwe fyr 19 jears encamped near Oon- 

transmitted to his aooceaiors Antloohiia Sotar atantinotde. He is atill more celebrated in the 

BodAntloahiuTbeQS. Litherdgnofttaelatter, East for Ilia Inzorr and magnlfioeooe^ and ori- 

sboatSM, the Parthians, a tribe Inhabiting the ental historr abounds in tales of his palaces, 

north of Persia, who from remote times had bis amerb throneti, his immense treaama, his 

^ -•■■■■'" * '■ ' ' s,hiBW,00OArab 

liorsea, and his 8,000 beautiflil woman, the 
the ArsaoidtB of the olasaio writers, the Aah- most lovely of whom was Sbirin or Irene, 

..a snt^feot to fliePeraian& rerolted nnder nnriTalled poets and mnslolans,h! ,. 

Arsaoes and founded the thirdPerdandynaatr, horses, ana bis 8,000 beautiflil won 

theArsaoidn of the olasaio writers, theAah- most lovely of whom was Sbirin < 

ktniana of the Persiaus, bj whom Aisaceswas a Qreek and a Christian, whose beautir ana 

called Ashk. This d;nBst7 lasted tiil A. D. wbose love form the sal^Jeot of a thonsand 

SSfL nnder 8i monarehis, of whom little is poems. His &Torite reeidmioe was Dastagerd, 

anthentioaUf known, this period ot nearl* S E.oftheTigris,<>mOtei^KaL 

ceidnries being the most obsonre in the bis- The latter jears of his reign wwe unforbmate 

torr of Perdo. Their oqtltala were SeleneU and in^orteus. The en^ror Hencl]n& snd- 

and Otedidioii, and the moat oelebrated erenti dexdyrondngftomthealothuidBelf-indiiligenoa 

of their annaJs were their wars with the Bo- whi^ had nitlierto marked his lifb, invaded 

msni, beeinning abottt 68 B. 0. witii tie Inva- Persia with a powerM armj, azA in 8 reaia 

^Q of tiieir empire b^ Crassns, whose armjr Ohosroee was stripped of all bis foreign eon- 

was ont to pieces and he himself slain. Several quests, his &mous pslaoe at Dastagerd was 

long contests ensued, tn which the Parthlana plondered and burned, and final^ he himself 

vere sometiniea vlebnions and stonetimes d» was dethroned and murdered hj his eldeat son 

fitted, tin in the bwinning of the Sd oeirtnrr ffiroea or Sherooeh in ASS. From thb time till 

the rtctoriea of the Soman generals threw Par- the acoeadon of Yeidec^ HI. in Q83, Persia 

tltia Into anch conftidon &at Artazerzes, or was ^ven up to anarohy. The Udhammedaa 

Ardishir as he la called by the native histori- Arabs were already attatMng the empire, and 

ana, rialming to be a deso^dant of the andent Tezdegird In vain attempted to stem the tide 

nrfil &mily of Oyma, revolted and overthrew of armed &natios that poored ftom the adjacent 

and put to deatii Artabanas T^ the last of the deserts. On theplahiB of NahavaDd in 641 a 

AtMoida, and proclaimed himself sovereign of great battle, in wUoh 100,000 men are reported 

Puria with tbe title of Shahanshah or ''^king to have Men, decided the &te of Persia. The 

of Ungs," whieh la itiU aaatuned by the Per- defeated monarch, flying from the fleld, took 

liin monareha. He also restored the ancient refbge in bis eastern provinces, where for eev- 

t^ipaa of Zomaatw and the autborllT' of the eral years he wandered a fOf^tive till hi 861 he 

ma^ which had iUlen Into discredit. The vae murdered by a miller, and with him ended 

ijTutij whicli he foimded, under die name of the line of the Sassanian kings and the reli^on 

the Bsssanldsa, consisted of S8 or 28 monarcha, of the magi. After horrible msasaeree the 

and continued upward <tf 400 years. Among people, pennaded by the awoid, embraced 

^e TQost &monB of theae kings were Sipor or Honaminedaniam, only a small, obsonre, and 

ohahpnr, the son of Artaxerxee, who carried persecuted remnant ^ring to adhere to the 

on smeoeasfhl war with the Bwnans, In which andent ftiOi of Persia. (See GuraBas.) For 

he defiNted and took priaoner the emperor the next two OMttariee TtsaAs was subject to 

Taleiian;Saporn.,whosereignbeganwithhis the oalipha. But in 888 an adventurer named 

birui, lasted 71 years In the ^ oentnry, and Snfflu-, who had been a pewterer and afterward 

▼as lairked by bloody wars with the Bomaa a bandit, gathered a native force and expelled 

Binperors Constantius and Julian, the tatter of the viceroys of the oalipb. He founded a dy- 

vbom was defMted andsUn In the contest! nasty known ss the Sn&rides, of which three 

ysranesV, or Bshrum Qour, who was oele- more prhiceam^tained a precarious antlioritT, 

brated for hia mnntfleenoe and geoeroai^, aud tiU in tiie be^nning of the lOlli century Perna 


161 FEBSIA PERSIA. (LAJiatiAai ahd Litbutdsi) 

VAB divided between the fomilies of Barnard elB of James Morier, " n^I Baba," " Zohrab,*' 

and DUaml, the flnt of which reigned over "A7esha,theMaidof Eara,"and "TbelGrza,^^ 

eagtom Persia and A^haniHUut, and tiie second are excellent illnstrations of Persian society, 

orrer the rest of the conntry. Under these dy- character, and scenerj. 

nasties Persia fell beneath the joke c^ the Bel' PERSIA, Laitodaox asd I^itzbatitbb op. 

JookB,andwaam]edb;TognilBc^AlpAi«htn, In treating the Persian laHKoagewa have to 

and Kalik Shsh, all of whom were conqnerora considor not onlj the modem Persian, tbe 

giBatlj celebrated in oriental historj-. Their Bpoken and written dialect of the Persian peo- 

dynasty deolined and perished in the 12tli oen- pie dnring the past B centnries, bnt also those 

taij, uid after a long period of anarchy Persia more ancient idioms once prevailing in or near 

Was OTeiTon and ocmqoered by the Tartars led the same territory, which are most intimately- 
bjEolakaEhangthegrandaon ofGenghis, wl ' ^ "' "' 

eetabli^ed the seat of his empire at Aurosba 

AMrba^an. The nert important event hi the dialects, viz. : 1, the Achamenian Peraan, or 

history of Persia was Qie conqoestanddevasta- Old Persian, the language of the conraform in- 

tion 1^ Tameilane toward the end of the 14th scHptions ; 2, the Avestan, Zend, or Old Bac- 

Mntnry. tTnder his successors civil war almost trian, the langoage of the Zendaveeta, tiie Bible 

ooatinoally prevailed, until in tbe beginning of of the Zoroastrian religion ; 6, the Eazvareah 

the 16th oentoiT Ismael, a descendant of a &- orPehlevl; 4, tlieFarsee; fi, the modem Per- 

mOQs s^t, Sheik Snffee, succeeded in making nan itaell lliese form togeOier a well marked 

himself master of the kingdom and founded the nom> of olosely related duilects, clasdfable as 

'8n%vesn dynasty. He died in 1S28, and was "UM Iranian branchof the Aryan division of the 

Boooeeded by bis son Tamosp, whose reign d Indo-Knropean family. The name Aryan is 

K3 years was eminently prosperons. Abbas, sometimw ^plied to the whole family, bnt ie 

the sncoessor of Tamasp, was a still greater mnch more properly restricted to that princi- 

•OTereJgn, thongh to his own fiimily he proved pal division of it which indndesthe Indian and 

a sangidnary tyrant. After his death in 1028 the Persian langnages, or the Sanscrit and its 

the Snfiavean dynasty gradually declined, and dialects and derivatives on the one dde, and 

was at length overthrown by the Afghans, who those langnages which we have mentioned 

oonqoered Perda in 1Y89, and mlM it for 1 above on tbe other. The word is one which 

years with horrible tyranny, till they were ex- both peoples have applied to themselves as their 

railed by the celebrated Nadir Shab, who In distinctive title (Sansc. drjru, Avestan airya), 

VIM himself ascended the throne. Hia r«ign and the most ancient forms of their respective 

was memoraUe tor sncoess ovw forragn ene- languages, as we shall see below, are hardly 

miss and for bloodv craelty to his family and more than dialects of a ungie tongue. Iran 

people. AA»r his death a series of revolntions is a Airther derivative from tbe same word 

oocnrred from oonfficting ol^ma to the throne, (At, atryona), and is nsoally and properly em- 

«nd order was not fblly restored till the close ployed in a wider sense than Persia (which 

of the 18th oentnry, when Agha Mnhammad fairly belongs only to the B. W. province of the 

Sihan became shah, and partly by policy and Per^an kingdom, containing Bhiraz and the 

partly by omelty sncceeded in qnelling the mins of ancient Persepolis), to designate tbe 

spirit of rebellion. His snccessors were Fsth' whole territory extending from the highlands 

Ali Bbah, who died in 1884, Mnhammad Shah, that overlook the Tigris to those that border 

who died in 1848, and Nasoreddin, the present the bidos, and to the Bolor Tagh, or from the 

shah. The prlnoipal events in th^ reigns P^-^an and Arabian gnlfs northward to the 

have been wars wiOt Rnssia, the first of winch Oanoasns, the Oac^dan and Aral seas, and the 

tarminatedinlSlSand tlie8eoondinl828,botb river Jaxartes: a territory which has been 

MT tbem disastronsly to Perua, whidh lost sno- midnly oconpted from the earliest times by a 

cesdvely the provinces of -Georgia, Hingrelia. homogeneons people, of kindred language, re- 

EUvan, Nakkshinn, and the greater part of liglon, and institutions. The Perdan or Ira- 

Talldi, the Bnsdan frontier being advanced to niangroupof languages is one of very high in- 

Ararat, and the left bank of the Aras ; and a terest to tne phUologiEt and the historian, from 

war with England, wbtoh began in 1866 by a the variety of the dialects and the long historj- 

qnarrel with the English minister at Teheran of lingnistio development which they illustrate, 

tf>oiit a woman with whom be was accused of fttnn the marked value of the literary and his- 

Uving In adultery, and terminated March 4, torioal monuments wbidh they contain, ftom 

186Y, after repeated victories of the ti^gliah the importance of their modem representative, 

troops in the eoutii of Persia under tbe com- Its wide extension and refined cultare, and 

mand of G^erals Outram and Eavelock. — See ftom the prominence of the Perrian race dur^ 

Sir J. Malcolm's " History of Perma" (2 vols., Ing 2,000 years of the world's bistoiy. There 

London, 181G); "Historical and Deeoriptive are several other langnages beside those men- 

Aooonnt of Persia," by James B. Fraser (Edin- tioned above which stand in a near relation to 

burgh, 1884 ; New York, 1886} ; " Glimpses of tbe Iranian group, and are by some authorities 

Life and Manners in Persia," by Lady Shell Inoludedinit; they are the Soordiah, the Af- 

n.ondon, IStSfl) ; " Outram and Eavelook's (diaa or Pnshtn, the Belooohee, tbe Ossetic in 

Persian Campaign" (London, 1SS8). The nor- the Ooncaaas, and the Armenian. But their 


'PSBSJA. (LAaaoAai un> LinuTDXt) 

thero be any prtmrie^ in treating tiiem tinder equality of the rate at which different desoen- 

the head of Perdkn. I. The AehvnenianPeF- diutta of the same original tongue, onder dif- 

tian, or OH Fenian. Thia appears to nave ferent oonditjona, are foimd to develop then>* 

been the language of the 8. W. part of the selres and become oompted and altered, that 

Iranian territory, or of Persia proper, daring no definite ooncloaion can be drawn from the 

tbe period of widest extent and greatest comparison. We can only sa^ tliat the Avee- 

power and gliny of the Persian emmre, nnder tan is an andeat Iranian dialect, doubtless 

Darins the Auuemenian, son of Hystaspes, older, and perhaps mnoh older, than the Chris- 

and his sncceasors (GSO to 880 B. 0.). Its tdan era. As regards its locality the ease is 

only remaining monmnents, beside the proper more clear j the intwnal evidence of the Aves- 

namna handed down to ns by the olassfoal ta is aneqmrocally in favor of placing it in the 

writers, are the inscriptions of the Aohteme- N. E. poriion of Iran, in Bactria, on tbe head 

nian princee, written in the oharaoters called waters of the Ozns, or In ne^hborlng prOT- 

coneiibrm or arrow-headed. These inscrip- Inoes ; and other teromony points to tbe same 

tions are pretty folly treated of in the artdde oonolndon. It is the ancient Persian of the 

OrrsimFowt LtaampnoN^ and speoimens with north-east, as the Achiemeiiian ie of the BonUi-. 

transIatioDS of the inscribed texts have there west, ibe knowledge of this language was 

l>e«n given ; so that little need here be aaid in brought to Europe just a centiuy a^, by An- 

addition rejecting their language, and that ^etu-Dnperron, who went to India on pnr- 

littls will find its most qipropriate place pose to recover the Zoroastrian soriptares and 

in oonneotion with what we shall s^ of the tbe means of their comprehension. Of its 

next language, tbe Avestan, which is far more ra^mmatioal strnotnre he obtained no valnable 

comp^tely preserved and better understood, knowledge, snd bis translation of the texts 

IL The Aneftan, or Old Baetrian, This Ian- was extremely inaocnrate ; his Parsee teachers, 

gaage is ordinarily known as the Zend, bat the in the decay of traditdonal learning among 

title is so nnfortnnote s misnomer that itsnseia them, having been able to give him but im- 

alt<^ether to be diaconntenaaced and avoided, perfect information from the traoslations and 

The name Zend (of disputed etymology) prop- comments in their hands. The possession and 

erlj belongs, not to the langtiage in whicu the study of these anxiliarieB themselves, and more 

Avesta is written, hut to a translation of the especially the comparison of the AvestMi with 

Aveeta into Hnzvaresh or Pehlevi. The ap- the so nearly related Sansorit^ have enabled 

pellation Old Baotrtan, which is favored by modem scholars to gain a far better nnder- 

some of the later German scholars, as Spiegel standing of this ancient idiom, wid of the 

and Hang, is open to two olHedions, viz. : that works composed in it The Dane Eask (about 

it contains a theory respecting the locality of 1826) was one of the first to lead the move- 

the dialect, which, though highly probable, is ment ; it was continued by Bopp, in his " Com- 

not octoally eatabliahed as true; and that it paTa1iTeOrammar"(Berlin,18S8-'G3>,aQdmore 

seems to imjtly a modem Baetrian, not known espemally by Bomouf of Paris (lB29-'fi2], who 

to philologists. Aveetan Is tbe simplest and was for manv vears the chief representative of 

most cbaracteristio title which can be given it Avestan philology ; Olgbausen, Lassen, Roth, 

denoting it as the tongue in which is composed Benfey, Nockbaus, Holtnnann, and Hang have 

the Avesta. This work, the sacred ecrlptnres done mnoh in the same canse ; bnt &e chief 

of Uie religion of Zoroaster, formerly professed laborers in its behalf at present are Bpiegel 

by all Iran, and still bold by the Farseea of In- of Erlangen and Wcstei^eard of Oopenhagen, 

dia, as well as by a few scattered oommonitieR both of wboin have begun to publish complete 

of Qaebres left behind in Persia, is its sole editions of all the monoments of tbe language, 

monument. The question of its age depends with translations and other needed helps to 

upon that of tbe period of Zoroaster himself, their oomprehenaon. No grammar or diction- 

and of the bistoiy of the Zoroastrian scriptures, ary of tiie Avestan has, however, as yet been 

only a small portion of which, if any put, can made public, and the facilities for its stndy are 

be as andent as tbe founder of Uie religion; very limited. — The Avestan is written in sn 

and both these questions are as yet entirely alphabet which, unlike most of those of the 

undetermined, in spite of the many attempted Indo-European languages, reads from right to 

gotationa which th^ have received. (8eeZxi)i>- lefb. It came nltimatdy from a Sendtio source, 

ATEBTA, snd ZoBoisTBB.) In the character bnt is proximately an expanded form of that in 

of tbe language, as compared with Its next which the Hnzvaresb is written, and of an a^e 

neighbors and nearest congeners on either considerably posterior to the Christian era; it 

hand, the Achfemenian Persian and the Vedio baa nothing whatever to do with any of the 

Sanscrit, there b nothing which should lead conform modes of writing. How the Avesta 

OS to any well grounded opinion as to Its ab- was recorded prior to its transcription into tiiia 

solute period. £ the scale of lingnistic devel- oharaoterwe can only coi^ectnre. It is a com- 

opmeut, in remoteness of descent from the plete alphabet, retaining no trace of a sytlabie 

common aooeetor. It occnpies nearly the same oharaoter, hut giving a separate sign for every 

place wttb the Acnsmei^an, while both are less analyzable sound, vocal or consonantal, Kud 


166 PEB81A. (Laksuaos un» LmsuoBi) 

emit, tn a few oases, difibrent dgns fbr soimdi fbr one who wonld af^nmsh the bneeHgaiion 
between vhich It is not easj to establish a of ^ <MeBt Iranian dialecte. In order to 
phooetlo distinction. It has 18 characters for lUnetraio the close oonneotion of the three 
Towels, and 88 for oonsonanto, as follows ; Idioms, and to show the prominent part which 
Towels— 11, d, i, L V, il, e, i, i, e, 6, i nasal a, the Sanscrit baa plajed in the interpretation 
and a diphtliongB] So ; oonsonants—^ttnral, 1, of the other two, we pve below a brief sen- 
I^ 7i 7i ff^ *Vi "C V palatal, eh, j ; dental, t, tenoe from the ATcata (the ^Mn TeAt), with 
t (almost solely final), tA, J, itt, n, fl; labial, tlia oorresponding Sonserit below, and alao 
p,/,h,m; sendTowels, y (three characters, re- the Aohnmenian forms, bo fkr as thej are 
garded as eqmTsIent ; two initial onlj), r, e fbmid to ooonr. Of coarse, the psralletimi is 
(two eaolTalent characters ; one initial onlj), "^oi by snj means ererywhere so dose ; we 
« ; sibilanto, ;, «, lA, s, aA ; aspiration, h. "Hie hare porposelj selected a passage In which 
words are written apart from one another, eTer7 word admitted of comparison ; Tet, if a 
with a dot or point between them, and exhibit &Torable, it is also a trathful and teUing ez- 
noneoflliatinterfiuion of adjacent ending and hibition of the exceedinglj near accordance, 
beghudng whiclk is charaoteristia of Sanscrit both in granunBr and in vocabnlarj, of the 
ea^oaj. The principal distinctions of this most andent representatiTes of the Iranian and 
al^iabet from the Banecrit are ; the abeenoe of Indian branches of the Aryan form of speech : 
the lingnal series (a apodal Indian develop- a,. 4«rf( ,^™.„uM(*w*...^fl»«o«»n™«» 
Inent) and of the eemiTOWel l, the addition Ca Bui. d*U nw nan (aTUnha ^^. ■1>*™ ninnum 

"' e intermediate towcIs « and e, and of the '"'' "'" ~*~- 

bmationsof vowels, of diphthongs and trifdl- AcL UUIialivntfiaetlnit]tUaiiimdairuitdm 

thongs, is also vei; expanded ttid intricate ; At. BuuivaiiM u ytotaam. . 

more so, it has been ooiOectnred, than the Ian- ?^ SVfe^ S jitoatm. 

Straining after the designation of vowel distino- MUin ttu ehiir hkiuiiIij ant in o^ntrics, d>T^ mort^ 

tions. Among the ohief phonetic pecnliarities udjotnu.'' 

of the langnago are ; the general aspiration of In the Avestan nouns, snbstantive and a^jec- 
amnt«bdbreasemivow^nasal,ordbilant,as tive, we find the 8 nnmbers of the Sanscrit, 
jai/ktMiMA>TJagmiiAi,jfaforpra, ihthathra and its 8 cases ^nstnunental and locative, be- 
toi Jciiatra ; the epenthtms of t when preceded aide the 6 of the Latin) ; bnt in the texts the 
b7adental,alat^, orr, eepedsUvthelstter, as oases are not a little oonfbnnded together as 
airya ^si aryOffaiti foT pati; akoof uwben regards their usage. The dnsl number, and 
preceded bf r, as oureat for areat; and the some of the cases, are not to be traced in the 
converdon, as in Greek, of a primitive * into A, Aduemenlan dialect, probably owing to the 
as Aapta for lapta, Greek itrra, Lat, teptam ; scantiness of its monninents. He genders are 
hawva for sorea, Greek JXoi, LaL taievM. The 8, as in all the other earl]' langnagee of tLe 
alphabet of the Achnmecisn Ferdaa differs family. The whole wparatoe of derivative 
tnra this leas in phonetic character than in its anfflxesandt^formsofdeclendon is nearly the 
sosnty and imperfect provision for the repre- same in both tike Persian dialects as in the In- 
tention of sonnds ; its vowel system, espe- dian, allowing fbr phonetic tranamntations and 
dally, ia written with Semitic nlggardlinesB ; some anomalies and irregnlarities. The same 
it has a partially sj^bio character, possessing nay be s^ npon the whole, of the prononna 
in certain oases dlfi&rent dgns for a consonant and nnmerals. The verbsl roots are nnifonnly 
according as it is followed by a, i, or v. It monoeyll^io ; but those of eecondu? or de- 
laoks all the sonant aspirates of the Avestai^ rived formation are notably more nomeroiiB 
and agrees with it in behig destitute of an I. than in Saniicrit Ve find again, also, Uie S 
It has a apedal weakness in tolerating no final voices, active and middle, the i nnmbers, and 
f orn, wnldi has caosed it the loss of many the 8 peracms of the bidian language. The 
characteristic infleotions. In general, it agreeB tenaea are 5 : present, imperfect, aorirt, per- 
fn phonetic charaoter with the ATestan where bet and fliture. The first B eihibit spedal 
the latter diffiwvfitnn the Sanscrit, The gram- modifications of the root oorreap<»iding with 
matical forma of both the ancient Iranian di- the ooojngational chanuMeriatios of the San- 
aleeta correspond rery dosely with those of sorit, bnt these modiflcaticms are more apt 
the SaasoiL It is only by the hdp of the here than there to extend themselves irregn- 
latter langnage that a dear nndsrstanding of larly to the other tenses also. The future la 
the Avestan grammar, and throngji it of the almost lost from ase, and itsplace is suppUed by 
Aclueraenian, could posdbly haTe been at- the preaent saignsctive. The perfect and fa- 
tained. The scantiness of the materials, and tnre have only an indicative mood ; tiie other 
the cOTTDptions of the recorded tazts, wotdd tenses poesess, in more or less ootnpletenesa, 
have frustrated any attempt to constmct the an c^t^ve, a aubJunotlTe, and an imperative, 
etymological part of the andent Feraion Ocosdonal instancea of peripiusstioaUy formed 
grammar fitnn a study of the Persian monn- tenses oocur. Of derivative forms of the verb, 
ments alone. An aognaintanoe with the San- we meet with passives, cansativ«e, deddera- 
acrit is the first and indispensable requisite tives, and intrainvea, as also denominatives. 

FEB8IA (LtaaVMa axb Lnxunnu) 187 

Ibew ttxpbaMaaM applj tmtMOr to th« «anwA-£^>RuA&_^Vleiiiia, 1856), in the border 

Avtotui; th« Manlaneas <f the Aohsmoitiaa lands alooRUie Tigris, sndia referred to the fith 

monmnratsifltheeanMthatoftJieTsrbaletnio- omtmr after Ohnst, and later. It has a pe- 

tnre th^ laogni^ ea^ubits vaily fragments. odUaj alphabet, and one of extrwue dlffionUT, 

Tetirtiatireharasaidoftbeeaitemisdoabt- owiageepedallrtotbedafiMtiTedistinatioiiof 

leaa tma in dl main-parttoolan <tf the weatem its atgna; Uliu, «, e, and n are written with 

diileot^ tba reoorda nuke known no diaocffd- preidM^the same oharaoter; also a and U; 

aneea between the two <tf snfBtdent aeoonnt to also i, y, ;,>, and d; these lait, however, 

be notioed here. A portion irf the Aveeta, the httog in some 1C8S. dietanpnahad from one 

M called ffiMi, or metrical asotipti<niB of anottiw bj diaoiilioal points. There are alao 

pnlse, somewhat akin to the hynina of the In- nmnerone eomponnd letters, dignwhsand Iri- 

man Veda, is eomposed in a dialeot ditforlna {p«pbs,<rfanotleeBambignoDaandp«pleziiig 

■tightly from that of the rest of the work, and ohuaeter. This alphabet, and the neoeassrilj 

ipparentJr of frei^ andqidty. So Ukewiee resnWng nnoertain^trf reading of ^moetarerr 

aomegraramatioaldiSbreneeehaTe been pointed word written with it, is tho roost formidable 

oat between tfao inscriptions of the earlier and ^ffloal^ in the war ot a oomprehention of the 

thme of the later Aeh»m«niaQ princes.— The lanxnage. ItiBofSeniltioorigin,readsfromright 

two dialects of wbioh we have tJinsbrtraated to left, and, »o&raa it Koee, is mainly oolnoi- 

fonn a lub^roi^ that of Hm andent Iranian dent with the Avestan ^phabet ; whiob, as al- 

dialects; the renuining three abo stand in a read^ noticed, is looked np<m as an expanded 

K«dil relation totwe anothv, as the modem andcompleted form of it, or of its proximate ori- 

PeniinidJoma. UL TktStma/rtA. Thislan- gioal. Aaboth the Hnzrareah si:d the Parsee 

gnage li also called bf the name of PehleTi, doselr aoeord with the modem Persian, being 

vhichiitobe d]eearded,aBatermofdonl>tAil but ^htly more antiqne dialects of it, and as 

etjm(dog7ai^ meanhift and as Tsrionslr and amainp&rt of t^cdrlingnistio value Ilea in the 

BonMwhat indsfiolteir ^tpdied bj the Fersians. li^t whioh ther oast upon the UatotT of the 

It ii r^traeenled \f t> compete Tendon of the Fersl^ we shall, in woer to greater dearaass 

Avegta (to whieh belongs the name Zend), and as well as to eoonomj of space, meak of thdr 

b; a few indq>«nd«>t tezis in addition, bnt ^ phonetic and ^rammatioal form in connection 

crauHtaHng a part of the Zwosstrian scrip- withonr descn^lon of that of tjie modem dia- 

tans; cMef amtmg these additional texts ia loot 17. ZA« Pome. The name Farseeis ap-