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Full text of "The new American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge"

UNIVERSITY 
OF PITTSBURGH 




Bar. M. 
qAI15 
A667 
V. 6 



LIBRARIES 



NEW 

AMERICAIf CYCLOPiEDIA. 



VOL. VI. 

COUGH-EDUCATION. 



Zv/ 



THE NEW 



AMERICAN CYCLOPyEDIA: 



{rjjiilar Jl^^^i^^^^^^l 



OF 



GENERAL KNOWLEDGE. 



EDITED BY 

GEOKGE EIPLEY and CHARLES A. DANA. 

voimiE n 

COUaH-EDUCATION. 



NEW YORK : 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

us & 445 BROADWAY. 

LONDON: 16 LITTLE BPvITx\IN. 

1865. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by 

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 

In the Clerk's OiBce of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of 

New York. 



THE 



NEW AMEPJCAN CYCLOPiEDIA. 



COUGH 

COUGIT, a violent expiratory movement, ex- 
cited by some stimulus in the respiratory organs, 
in which the air is forcibly expelled, carrying 
witli it the mucus or other products accumula- 
ted in tlie air passage?. Any irritation from acrid 
vapors, liquid or solid foreign bodies, too abun- 
dant or morbid secretions, or even the action of 
cold air on the irritated mucous membrane, may 
produce a cough ; the impression is conveyed 
to the respiratory nervous centre, the medulla 
oblongata, by the excitor fibres of the par vagum, 
and tlie motor impulse is transmitted to the ab- 
dominjil and other muscles concerned in respi- 
ration. Coughing occurs when the source of 
irritation is in or below the posterior fauces ; and 
sneezing when the irritating cause acts on the 
nasal mucous membrane. The act of coughing, 
as defined by physiologists, consists in a long 
inspiration which fills the lungs ; in the closure 
of the glottis, when the expiratory effort com- 
mences ; and in the bursting open of the closed 
glottis by the sudden blast of air forced up from 
the air passages. The cause of cough may be in 
the respiratory system, or it may bo symptom- 
atic of disease in the digestive and other organs. 
The cough in laryngitis, croup, and folliculitis 
arises from irritation in the throat and larynx ; 
in bronchitis, pneumonia, pleurisy, and phthisis, 
the cause is in the thoracic cavity. Cough may 
te dry, as in the first stage of pleurisy ; or liumid, 
as in certain stages of pneumonia and in advanced 
consumption ; this act may be single, and with 
distant intervals, or paroxysmal and long con- 
tinued, as in whooping cough, phthisis, and bron- 
chial catarrli ; it may be accompanied by a ring- 
ing metalUc sound, as in croup and wliooping 
cough, by a hollow resonance or gurgling, as in 
phthisis -with cavities, and by hoarseness, as in 
laryngeal disease. The character of the cough 
is characteristic of certain diseases ; tliat of 
■whooping cough and of croup is highly diagnos- 
tic ; in pleurisy it is dry and hard ; in pneumo- 
nia, generally humid, with viscid rusty sputa ; 
in consumption it varies with the stage of the 
affection ; but in all these, taken in connection 
with other symptoms, the cough is a valuable 
diagnostic sign. Many rales, characteristic of 
morbid changes, are only or best recognized in 
the increased respiration after coughing. Cough 
is frequently accompanied by pain, as in acute 



COULOMB 

pleurisy, pneumonia, and bronchitis; at other 
times painless, but exhausting, as in tlie parox- 
ysms of spasmodic coughs. Cough, symptom- 
- atic of otlier than pulmonary disease, is not ac- 
companied by any characteristic phenomena dis- 
coverable by auscultation and percussion. The 
gravity of cough as a symptom depends on the 
disease in which it occurs ; spasmodic coughs 
generally are not dangerous, except from tho 
liability to rupture of vessels, or other simply 
mechanical consequences. For the relief of 
cough the prescriptions are almost innumerable, 
consisting of compounds of narcotics, antispas- 
modics, demulcents, expectorants, and altera- 
tives, according to the character of the symp- 
tom, the stage of the disease, and the fancy of tha 
physician. 

COULOMB, Charles ArousTE de, a French 
philosopher, born at Angouleme, June 14, 1736, 
died in Paris, Aug. 23, 1806. In early life he 
was sent to the "West Indies as an engineer, 
and remained there employed in the construc- 
tion of military works 3 years. In 1773 he 
presented to the academy a memoir on coliesion, 
and in 1777 Avon a prize for improvements in 
the mariner's compass, and in 1781 another for 
a theory of machines. As a commissary of the 
government he won great praise from the in- 
habitants of Brittany for his defence of their 
interests against the schemes of certain pro- 
jectors of canals, and was publicl}' honored with 
gifts from them. Leaving Paris at the time 
of the revolution, he devoted himself to the 
education of his children and the study of elec- 
tricity. His published memoirs are upon the 
statical questions of architecture ; the mariner's 
compass ; modes of working under water ; sim- 
ple machines and the stiftness of ropes ; wind- 
mills ; the force of torsion ; a stationary compass, 
in which the needle is hung by floss silk ; electri- 
city and magnetism, to Avhich he devoted 9 
memoirs ; the friction of pivots ; the circulation 
of sap in the poplar ; the work of day labor- 
ers; and the cohesion of fluids. His fame rests 
principally on his electrical experiments and 
calculations. For our knowledge of the forces 
of electricity we are perhaps as much indebt- 
ed to him as to any one. In private character 
he was as estimable as in science he was pro- 
found, thorough, and exact. 



6 



COUNCIL 



COTJN'CIL (Lat. eoncilhim, an assembly for 
consultation), in ecclesiastical history, an assem- 
bly of bishops legitimately convoked, to deter- 
mine questions concerning the faith, rites, and 
discipline of the church. Councils are either 
provincial, national, or general, according as 
they are composed of the prelates of a province, 
a nation, or of all Christendom; and their juris- 
diction is of corresponding extent. The name 
is also given to the diocesan synod, called by 
the bishop for the direction of the spiritual af- 
fairs of his diocese. Provincial councils are 
called and presided over by a metropolitan bish- 
op. Their chief design is to make local discipli- 
nary regulations ; and though they may discuss 
questions of faith, their decisions concerning 
doctrines have no force unless confirmed by the 
authority of the Catholic church. The general 
councils of Basel and Trent enjoined that pro- 
vincial councils should be held once in 3 years, 
but in recent times the injunction is often dis- 
regarded. In France no metropolitan bishop is 
permitted to call a council unless by express 
sanction of the civil power. National coun- 
cils assemble under the presidency of the pri- 
mate or of a legate of the holy see ; they are 
composed of all the bishops of a kingdom, and 
are called by princes for the regulation of na- 
tional ecclesiastical affairs. These councils were 
frequent in France under the first 2 lines of 
French kings. More than 100 bishops were as- 
sembled by Napoleon in Paris in 1811, to con- 
sider the right claimed by him of nominating 
bishops and cardinals. As, however, they sup- 
ported the resistance made by Poj^e Pius VII. 
to the imperial designs, they were dismissed be- 
fore they had passed any decision. Among the 
latest national councils are that of Presburg, in 
Hungary, in 1822, and that of Wi'irtzburg, in 
Bavaria, in 1849. — The general councils, called 
also oecumenical (from Gr. oiKovixevr], the habita- 
ble eartli), are summoned by the pope, are com- 
posed of all the bishops of Christendom, and are 
designed to adjudge questions of schism and her- 
esy, belief and discipline, which affect the univer- 
sal church. Though the first 8 general councils 
were convoked by the Christian emperors, as 
Constantine, Theodosius, and Justinian, it wasbe- 
cause the church did not then extend bej'ond the 
limits of the empire, and therefore the Komau 
emperor had the same right to call a general 
council Avhich after the division of the empire 
belonged to the emperor of Germany, and the 
kings of France, Spain, and England, to call na- 
tional councils. It is moreover maintained by 
Eoman Catholic writers that the first general 
councils were summoned by the emperors at 
the request or with the consent of the popes. 
Bishops and their representatives alone have a 
judicative riglit in councils, though the privi- 
lege has often been extended to abhots and the 
generala of monastic orders. Tiie lower orders 
of the clergy and the doctors of the church may 
be invited, and may pai-ticipate in the delibera- 
tions of the assembly, but have only a consulta- 
tive voice. The cases in which priests and dea- 



cons have voted (St. Athanasius, for instance, 
having been but a deacon when he took the 
leading part in the council of Nice) are excej)- 
tipnal, and thouglit to be founded on the circum- 
stance that they were the representatives of 
bishops. The poj)e, in i)erson or by legates, 
presides over the council and directs its trans- 
actions; the emperors who ])resided in some 
early eastern councils having done so only in an 
executive and protective capacity. The deci- 
sion is usually according to the majority of the 
votes cast ; but in the council of Constance the 
4 nations, Italy, France, Germany, and Eng- 
land, each voted separately. General councils 
do not create new dogmas, but iaiterpret and 
declare what was originally contained in Scrip- 
ture and tradition, and according to Eoman Ca- 
tholic belief are under the immediate guidance 
of the Holy Spirit, and therefore infallible, when 
they pronounce concerning matters of faith. 
Their infallibility, however, does not extend to 
questions of discipline, history, politics, or sci- 
ence, nor even to the grounds of their decision, 
nor to collateral observations. The disciplinary 
ordinances are usually termed canons (canones), 
and the decisions concerning doctrines, dogmas 
(dogmata) ; in the council of Trent, on the con- 
trary, the latter Avere styled canons, and the 
former distinguished as capita or decreta. — The 
Eoman Catholic church recognizes 19 general 
councils : that of Jerusalem, held by the apos- 
tles, about A. D. 50 ; the 1st of Nice, in Bithy- 
nia, convened in 325; the 1st of Constantino- 
ple, in 381 ; the 1st of Ephesus, in 431 ; that 
of Chalcedon, in 451 ; the 2d of Constantinople, 
in 553 ; the 3d of Constantinople, in 680 ; the 
2d of Nice, in 787 ; the 4th of Constantinople, 
in 869 ; the 4 councils of Lateran, at Eome, in 
1123, 1139, 1179, and 1215 ; the 1st and 2d of 
Lyons, in 1245 and 1274; that ofVienne, in Dau- 
phiny, in 1311 ; that of Constance, in 1414 ; that 
of Basel, in 1431 (till its dissolution by the pope) ; 
and that of Trent, in 1545. The council of Pisa 
in 1409, that of Florence in 1439, and the 5th of 
Lateran in 1512, are also regarded by some as 
cecumenical. The conference of 192 prelates at 
Eome in 1854, which proclaimed the dogma of 
the immaculate conception, was not a council. 
The Greek church receives as authoritative the 
decisions of only the first 7 general councils. 
The Protestant churches generally admit the full 
authority of none of them, and esteem as oecu- 
menical only the G which directly followed the 
apostolic council of Jerusalem. The synodical 
assemblies of the Protestant clmrches, as the 
councils of La Eochelle and of Dort near the 
period of the reformation, the general synods 
of tlie Evangelical church of Germany, and 
the convocations of the Anglican church at the 
present time, cannot in their nature be oecumen- 
ical. — The most complete collections of the acts 
of councils are those of Fathers Labbe and Cos- 
sart (Paris, 1671 et seq., 18 vols.), with supple- 
ments by St. Baluzius (Paris, 1683 et,seq.) ; Ilai'- 
douin (Paris, 1715,12 vols.); Coleti (Venice, 
1728 et seq., 23 vols.) ; Mansi (Florence, 1759-'98, 



COUNCIL 



COUNT 



81 vols.) ; and Discli, the Concilienlexicoii, em- 
bracing all tlio councils from the first at Jerusa- 
lem (Augsburg, 1843-'45, 2 vols.). Tlie best col- 
lections of the old French councils are that of 
Sirmond (Paris, 1629, 3 vols.), -with supplements 
by La Lande (Paris, 1G06) ; of the later French 
councils, that of Udespuu (Paris, 1049) ; of Ger- 
man councils, that of Schannat, Ilartzheim, 
Scholl, and Neissen (Cologne, 17o9-'90, 11 vols.); 
of German national, provincial, and diocesan 
councils, from the 4th century to the council of 
Trent, that of Binterim (Mentz,1835-'43, 7 vols.); 
and of Spanish councils, that of Aguirre (Madrid, 
1781 et seq.). (The history of particular councils 
is given in special articles under the names of 
the cities in which they were held.) — Li political 
liistory, the term council is variously applied to 
either permanent or extraordinary deliberative 
assemblies. The political aifairs of the cantons 
of Switzerland are intrusted to councils. Certain 
courts of justice in France were formerly termed 
councils. — The Couxcil of Ten was the secret- 
tribunal of the republic of Venice, instituted in 
1310, after the conspiracy of Tiepolo, and com- 
posed originally of 10 councillors in black, to 
whom were soon added 6 others in red, and 
the doge. This councU was appointed to 
guard the security of the state, and to antici- 
pate and punish its secret enemies, and was 
armed with unlimited power over the life and 
property of the citizens. All its processes 
were secret. At first established temporarily, 
it was prolonged from year to year, was de- 
clared perpetual in 1335, and maintained its 
power till the fall of the republic in 1797.— The 
Council of the Axciexts {conseil des anciens), 
in France, was an assembly instituted by the 
constitution of the year III. (adopted in the 
year IV., Sept. 23, 1795), which shared the 
power with the executive directory, and com- 
posed, with the council of 500, the legislative 
body. It had 250 members, either married or 
widowers, domiciled at least 15 years in France, 
and one-third of whom were to be renewed an- 
nually. It sat in the Tuileries, in the hall of 
the convention, and had tlie power to change 
the residence of the legislative body. It con- 
firmed or rejected, but could not amend, the 
measures proposed by the council of 500. It 
was overthrown on the 18th Brumaire. — The 
Council of Five Hundred {comeil des cinq- 
cents)^ instituted at the same time as the coun- 
cil of the ancients, was composed of 500 mem- 
bers, aged at least 30 years, domiciled 10 years 
in France, and one-third renewed annually. 
It sat in the hall du manege^ in the rue de 
Rivoli, and proposed laws which were read 3 
times, at intervals of 10 days. On the 18th 
Fructidor, year V,, 42 of its members were 
expelled, but it recovered its power with the 
revival of the Jacobins, and was violently dis- 
solved by Napoleon, on the 18th Brumaire, 
year VIIL (1799).— The Council of State 
existed under various names in France from the 
reign of Philip the Fair. It was composed chief- 
ly of the principal otiicers of the crown, was de- 



pendent upon the will of the king, and followed 
him in his journeys to advise him on public af- 
fairs. The number of councillors of state va- 
ried from 15 in 1413, to 30 in 1G73. It was 
linuted at the revolution to the king and his 
ministers, was dissolved in 1792, and was insti- 
tuted anew in the year VIIL, when it was di- 
vided into the committees of litigation, the 
interior, finances, and war. In these coimnit- 
tees were elaborated tlie important laws of the 
consulate and the empire. This council was 
modified under the restoration, and now con- 
sists of G sections. (See Regnaiilt's Jllstoire du 
conseil d'etat dejmisson origincjusqii a nos jours^ 
1851.) — In England, the Privy Council was 
formerly the adviser of the king in all weighty 
matters of state, a function which is now ofii- 
cially discharged by the cabinet. By acts 2, 3, 
and 4 of William IV., a judicial committee of 
the privy council was constituted witli high 
powers. All appeals from the prize and admi- 
ralty courts, and from courts in the plantations 
abroad, and any other appeals wiiich by former 
law or usage had been made to the liigh court 
of admiralty in England, and to the lords com- 
missioners in prize cases, are directed to be made 
to the king in council. These appeals are then 
referred to the judicial committee of the privy 
council, which reports on them to his majesty. 
This committee consists of the chief justice of 
the king's bench, the master of the rolls, the vice- 
chancellor of England, and several other per- 
sons, ex officio, and any two privy councillors 
may be added by the king. — In Prussia, by a law 
established March 20, 1807, the council of state 
{Staais Eath) consists of the princes of the royal 
family who have attained their majority, and"of 
the highest oflicers of the state who enjoy the 
special confidence of the king. Its decisions 
have no validity without the royal sanction. 
— ^A Council of "\Yae is an assembly of the 
principal oflicers in an army or fleet, called by 
tlie officer in chief command to deliberate and 
advise concerning measures to be taken. The 
council of administration, in the army of the 
United States, imder the congressional act of 
July 5, 1838, appoints the chaplain, fixes a tarifl:' 
to the prices of sutlers' goods, and makes ap- 
propriations for specific objects from the post 
and regimental funds. — In some of the United 
States there are bodies termed councils, wliich 
are elected to advise the governor in the exec- 
utive part of his office, and have power to reject 
or confirm his nominations to office. 

COUNSELLOR, a lawyer whose peculiar 
function is pleading in public, the same as the 
English barrister. The duties of a counsellor 
and attorney at law are usually performed by 
the same individual in the United States ; but 
in England and in the U. S. supreme court they 
are distinct, the counsellor being retained for 
oral pleading and for advice on intricate law 
points, while the attorney addresses himself to 
advice on ordinary matters, to the ])ractice of 
the courts, and to communication with clients. 

COUNT ( Fr, comte ; It. conte)^ a title of no- 



COUNT 



COUNTY 



bility used in most countries of continental Eu- 
rope, and corresponding with that of earl in 
Great Britain. It is derived from the Latin 
comes, meaning companion, wliich, under tlie 
republic, designated young Eomans of family 
accompanying a proconsul or proprastor during 
his governorship or command, in order to ac- 
quire a practical knowledge of political and mili- 
tary affairs. Under the empire a number of 
persons belonging to the household of the court, 
or to the retinue of the chief of the state, re- 
ceived the title of comes, with some addition 
desigcating their function or office. Comites 
as well as jurisconsulti surrounded the emperor 
when sitting as judge, to assist him in the liear- 
ing of causes, which were thus judged with the 
same authority as in full senate. This mark of 
office was first converted into a title of dignity 
by Constantine the Great. As such it was soon 
conferred not only on persons of the palace, or 
companions of the prince, but also on most kinds 
of higher oflicers. These dignitaries, according 
to Eusebius, were divided into 3 classes, of which 
the first received the distinguishing appellation 
of illustrious, the second, that of most renowned, 
and the third, that of most perfect. The senate 
was composed of the first two. Among the 
multitude of officers who, at this period of the 
Eonian empire, were dignified by the title of 
comes, and of whom some served in a civil, some 
in a legal, and others in a religious capacity, we 
find comites of the treasury, of sacred expendi- 
tures, of the sacred council, of the palace, of the 
cliief physicians, of commerce, of grain, of the 
domestics, of the horses of the prince or of the 
stable {comes staiuli, the origin of the modern 
constable), of the houses, of the notaries, of the 
laws, of the boundaries or marks (the origin of 
the later margrave and marquis), of the harbor 
of Rome, of heritages, &c. Most of these titles 
were imitated, with slight modifications, in the 
feudal kingdoms which arose on the ruins of the 
Roman empire. Thus we can easily trace in some 
of the above mentioned titles the origin of the 
modern grand almoner, grand master of ceremo- 
nies, grand master of tlie royal household, grand 
equerry, &c., in which tlie word grand is used 
as a substitute for the ancient comes. Under 
tlie Franks counts appear as governors of cities 
or districts, next in rank to the dukes, command- 
ing in time of war, and administering justice in 
time of peace. Ciiarlemagne divided his whole 
empire into small districts (pagi., Ger. Oaue), 
governed by counts, whose duties are minutely 
described in the capitularies of tlie monarch. 
The Frankish counts had also their deputies or 
vicars (inmi or mcarii, whence our viscount or 
tice-comes). Under the last of the Carlovingian 
kings of France the dignity of the counts became 
hereditary ; they even usurped the sovereignty, 
and their encroachments remaiued unchecked 
even after the accession of Hugh Capet, w^ho 
was himself the son of the count of Paris, and 
it wag not imtil the lapse of several centuries 
that their territories became by degrees reunited 
with the crown. The German term for count, 



G^?'r//( which is variously derived from grau, gray 
or venerable; from ypactxo, to write, whence the 
mediasval Latin word graffare, and the French 
greffier ; from the ancient Grman gefera, com- 
panion, and gerefa, bailiff or steward, whence the 
English sheriff) first appears in the Salic law in 
the form of grafio. "With the development of 
the feudal system, as well as of that of imperial 
dignitaries in Germany, we find there counts 
palatine {comes palatii, palat'mus, Pfalzgraf), 
presiding over the supreme tribunal ; constables, 
afterward marshals {Stallgraf) ; district counts 
{Gaugraf) ; counts deputy {Sendgraf), control-r 
lers of the preceding ; mavgra\es{Markgraf), 
intrusted with the defence of the frontiers 
(Marl:) ; landgraves {Landgraf), counts of large 
possessions ; burggraves {Burggraf), command- 
ers, and afterward owners of a fortified town. 
(Burg), &c. With the decline of the imperial 
power most of these titles became hereditary, 
as well as the estates or territories with which 
■they were connected, the dignity and possessions 
of the counts ranking next to those of the dukes 
in the empire. But there were also counts 
whose title depended solely on their office, as 
counts of the wood, of the salt, of the water, of 
mills, &c. The dignity of count is now merely 
a hereditary title, mostly attached to the posses- 
sion of certain estates, and bestowed by the 
monarch, but including neither sovereignty nor 
jurisdiction, though connected in some states 
with the peerage, as was the case for instance 
under the late constitution of Hungary. In 
England, where the wife of the earl is still 
termed countess, the dignity of count was at- 
tached by William the Conqueror to the prov- 
inces or counties of the realm, and given in fee 
to his nobles. The German term has been 
adopted by several nations of Europe, as for in- 
stance by the Poles (hraiia), Russians (graf), 
and Hungarians {grof). 

COUNTERPOINT. See Harmony. 

COUNTERSCARP, in fortification, the obit- 
er slope or boundary of a ditch. The inner 
slope is called escaipe. The term is applied 
also to the whole covered way, with its para- 
pet and glacis, as when the enemy is said to be 
lodged in the counterscai*p. 

COUNTERSIGN, the signature of a secreta- 
ry or other public officer to attest that a writ- 
ing has been signed by a superior. Thus the 
certificates recognovit^ relegit, et subscripsit are 
common on charters granted by kings in the 
taiddle ages. — In military affairs, the counter- 
sign is a particular Avord given out by the high- 
est in command, intrusted to those employed 
on duty in camp and garrison, and exchanged 
between gaiards and sentinels. 

COUNTY (Fr. comte), in Great Britain and 
some of the British colonies, and in most of the 
United States of America, a political division 
nearly corresponding to a province of Prussia 
or a department of France. It is synonymous 
with shire, with which designation it is often 
interchanged in England, but never in Ireland. 
The division of England into shires or counties, 



COUP 



COUPwIER DE M£r£ 



thongli popularly attributed to Alfred, "u-as prob- 
ably of earlier date, since several of them, as Kent, 
Sussex, and Essex are nearly identical with an- 
cient Saxon kingdoms. There are now 52 coun- 
ties in England and "Wales, 33 in Scotland, and 
32 in Ireland. The county is an administrativo 
division, and its principal officers are a lord lieu- 
tenant, who has command of the militia; acustoa 
rotulorui7i, or keeper of the rolls or archives ; a 
sheriff, a receiver-general of taxes, a coroner, 
justices of the jieace, an under-sheriff, and a 
clerk of the peace. The assize court, county 
court, and hundred courts, are the chief judicial 
tribunals. There are in England 3 counties pala- 
tine, Chester, Lancaster, and Durham, the earl of 
each of which had all thejurd. regalia, or rights 
of sovereignty, in his shire. The first two of 
these have been long annexed to the crown, and 
Durliam, previously governed by its bishop, was 
annexed in 1836. The United States are divided 
into counties, with the exception of South Caro- 
lina (divided into districts) and Louisiana (divid- 
ed into parishes). In each county there are 
county officers who superintend its financial af- 
fairs, a county court of inferior jurisdiction, and 
stated sessions of the supreme court of the state. 
COUP (French), a blow, is used in various 
connections to denote a sudden, decisive action, 
as cov]) de main, in military language, a prompt, 
imexpected attack; coup cVceil, in the same, a 
rapid conception of the advantages and disad- 
vantages of position and arrangement in a battle ; . 
coup de grace, a killing stroke, finishing the tor- 
ments of the victim ; coup de theatre, a sudden 
change in the action ; coiq) desolcil, a stroke of 
the sun ; coiq) d'etat, a sudden, arbitrary, and 
forcible measure in politics, used mostly for the 
violent overthrow of a constitution. 

COUPON (Fr. caliper, to cut), an interest 
certificate attached to the bottom of bonds on 
which the interest is payable at particular pe- 
riods. There are as many of these certificates 
as there are payments to be made, and at each 
I)ayment one of them is cut off and delivered 
to the payer. 

COURAYER, Pierre Fraxc^is le, a Roman 
Catholic ecclesiastic, born in Vernon, ISTorraan- 
dy, 1681, died in England, 1776. He had taken 
refuge iu England (1728) in consequence of a 
" Defence of English Ordinations," which he 
had published (1723) as a result of the convic- 
tions to which he was brought by a correspond- 
ence with Archbishop "Wake. The correspond- 
ence took place Avhile Courayer was canon of 
St. Genevieve, and professor of theology and 
philosophy. The university of Oxford confer-, 
red on him the title of doctor of laws, and 
Queen Caroline settled a pension of £200 on 
liim for a French translation of Father Paul's 
" History of the Council of Trent." He also 
translated Sleidan's " History of the Reforma- 
tion," and wrote several theological works. He 
entertained many religious opinions contrary 
to the doctrines and practices of the church of 
Rome, but declared himself, two years before 
his death, still a member of her communion. 



He was buried in the cloisters of "Westminster 
abbev. 

COURCELLES, Thomas de, a French theolo- 
gian, born in 1400, died in Paris, Oct. 23, 1469. 
He was educated at the university of Paris, of 
which institution he became one of the bright- 
est ornaments. In 1430 he was chosen rector 
of that university, and in 1431 was made canon 
of Amiens, Laon, and Therouanne. Ho took a 
])rominentpart in the trial and condemnation of 
Joan of Arc, but was not present at her execu- 
tion. In the process of her rehabilitation in 1456 
Le made no excuse for his conduct in this affair. 

COURIER DEMERE, Paul Louis, a French 
scholar and publicist, born in Paris, Jan. 4, 1772, 
murdered near "Veretz (Indre-et-Loire), April 
10, 1825. Having received an excellent educa- 
tion, he took, while in the army of Italy, every 
opportunity of visiting libraries and works of 
art, and denounced in his private correspond- 
ence the spoliation of the latter by the French 
soldiery. Returning to France in 1800, he at- 
tracted the attention of Hellenists by the publi- 
cation of his remarks upon Schweighiluser's 
edition of Athenjeus. In 1806 he was again 
with the army, stationed in dangerous and iso- 
lated parts of Calabria, and afterward at Naples 
and Portici, where he occupied his leisure 
hours in translating Xenophon's treatise on 
cavalry, and on equitation. Censured for lin- 
gering in Rome and Florence instead of attend- 
ing to his duties, he threw up his commission, 
but rejoined the army just before the battle 
of "Wagram, after which, however, he left it 
entirely. "While in Florence, he had discov- 
ered iu the Laurentian library an unedited 
manuscript of Longus, " Daphnis and Chloe," 
which he published in Greek and French in 
1810. Having, however, in copying the manu- 
script, accidentallj' blotted it with ink, he was 
accused of doing so purposely, and ultimate- 
ly expelled from Tuscany, while the 27 remain- 
ing copies of the 52 he had printed were seized 
by the Tuscan government. This proceeding 
was pro.bably prompted by Courier's castigation 
of the Florentine library authorities in a spirited 
letter addressed to M. Renouard, and prefixed to 
his Longus. On his final return to France in 
1814, he married, at the age of 42, a young lady 
of 18, a daugliter of his friend, the Hellenist 
Clavier. The restoration gave him opportuni- 
ties of trying his strength in politics. He de- 
nounced the follies of the new administration 
in numerous pamphlets, which produced a strong 
impression iq)on tlie public mind, but involved 
Courier in troubles with the government, and 
he was arrested on several occasions. His most 
effective pamphlet, Pamphlet des pamphlets, 
appeared in 1824, and was called by his biog- 
rapher, Armand Carrel, " the last note of the 
expiring swan," I'n* during the spring of the 
following year lie was found shot near his 
country seat. Five years later it was ascertain- 
ed that he had been murdered by his game- 
keeper, Fremont, who had died of apoplexy, 
but no clue Avas discovered to the motive which 



10 



COUKLAND 



COURT 



prompted him to tho deed. Courier's pam- 
phlets are masterpieces of style. Tlicy have heen 
published, togetlier -R-ith his trauslations from 
the Greek uud other works, in Paris, 1834-, in 
4 vols., and reprinted l)y Didot in 1 vol. The 
best edition of liis translation of Longus is that 
of 1825. 

COUKLAND, or Kotjland, one of the Baltic 
provinces of Russia in Europe, bounded N. by 
the gulf of Riga and Livonia, E. by the guvern- 
ment of Vitepsk, S. by that of Kovno, and W. by 
the Baltic sea; area, 10,008 scj. m. ; pop. in 1851, 
539,270. The face of the country is level, but 
interspersed with some hills, the highest of 
which has an elevation of YOO feet. The i)rov- 
iuce contains a great mauy forests, especially 
of pine and fir, and there are said to be no 
less than 300 lakes and ponds, beside a large 
number of small streams and brooks, and sev- 
eral rivers. Among the larger rivers are the 
Du.na, Aa,- and Windau. The soil is not rich, 
but when properly tilled is productive. The 
principal products are wheat, rye, barley, oats, 
peas, beans, hemp, flax, and linseed. Clay, 
iron, lime, and gypsum are found, and ai*e 
wrought to some extent. The manufactures 
are unimportant. The province is formed of 
the old duchies of Courland and Semigallia, 
united with the ancient bishopric of Pilteu, 
and the district of Polangen, which once form- 
ed part of the duchy of Litliuania. It is divid- 
ed into 5 arrondissements, each of Avlnch is sub- 
divided into 2 captaincies. It has 2 shipping 
ports, Libau and Windau. Capital, Mitau. The 
predominant religion is Pi'otestautism, and the 
ecclesiastical affairs are conducted by the consis- 
tory of Mitau. There are about 15,000 members 
of the Greek church and 45,000 Roman Catholics, 
who together pos.sess but 19 churches, and are 
subject respectively to the bishops of Samogitia 
and Pskof. There are also many Jews, Poles, 
Russians, and various residents of other nations, 
among whom are the Krowincks, a race of Fin- 
nish descent. The nobility and the city jwpula- 
tion, and the higher classes generally, are of Ger- 
man descent, while the peasantry and the lower 
classes are chiefly of Lettish origin. Courland 
was ruled for a long time by sovereign dukes, 
as a dependency of the Polish crown. By the 
marriage in 1710 of Duke Frederic William 
with the princess Anna of Russia, the influence 
of that empire became predominant in Courland. 
It was strengthened in the following year, when 
after the duke's death Anna Avas appointed 
regent, under the protection of Peter the Great. 
After Anna's accession to the Russian throne in 
1730, her uncle Ferdinand officiated as duke of 
Courlaud until his death in 1737. Subsequently 
tho duchy was ruled by Anna's favorite, the 
adventurer Biron, who died in 1772, and be- 
queathed it to his eldest son Peter. The latter, 
failing to give satisfaction to the country, was 
obliged to cede Courland to Catharine II. in 
1795. Since that time it has formed part of 
Russia, though retaining some ancient privileges. 
The civil governor of Courland is now (1859) 



JI. de Breveru, who resides in Mitau, while the 
general direction of aflairs devolves upon the 
governor-general of the Baltic provinces, in 1859 
Prince Italiski. 

COURT (Lat. curia, the senate house), in the 
early middle ages, the feudal lord and his fam- 
ily, with their companions and servants — all the 
persons, collectivuly regarded, who occupied the 
various departments of a feudal castle. After 
the rise of the modern inonarchies the name 
Avas given by preeminence to the family of the 
sovereign and their attendants, the residents in 
the royal ])alace. Pomp and obeisance had 
Avaited on the ancient Roman and oriental mas- 
ters of empires, and when Charlemagne founded 
the empire of the West he adopted the titles 
and ceremonial Avhich Avere in use in the palace 
of the emperors of Constantinople. The mar- 
riage of the emperor Otho II. Avith the Byzan- 
tine princess Theophania, also contributed to 
spread in Europe the usages of the imperial 
court of the Orient. The cours 2}lenieres,vfh\ch. 
followed the establishment of royal over feudal 
supremacy, Avere assemblages of all the nobility 
of the kingdom around the monarch. Charles 
V. in A'ain sought to introduce permanently into 
the German courts the severe and stately man- 
ners of the Spanish ; and the Spanish reverences 
and bending of the kuee Avero soon succeeded 
by the fashion of merely bowing the head. The 
French court, as organized by Francis I., became 
a model of politeness and taste to all Europe. 
Afiirming that " a court without ladies is a year 
without spring, and a spring Avithout roses," 
this monarch introduced more of elegance and 
freedom into society, and substituted the spirit 
of gallantry for that of courtesy. A distinction 
Avas made between the severe manners of the 
palace and the freer etiquette allowed in the 
held and in travelling. The French court ob- 
tained its highest prestige for Avit and grace 
under Louis XIV. In England, the courts of 
Elizabeth and Queen Anne have been most 
illustrious for the learned and witty men that 
attended them, and that of Chai-les II. Avas 
most famous for its gayety. The court ton is 
any peculiarity of manner imitated from the 
personal habit of the sovereign. The Spanish 
language Avas spoken in tlie German imperial 
court till about the end of the 16th century, 
Avhen it was succeeded by the Italian. Near 
the end of the 17th century the French had be^ 
come the usual court language in all the coun- 
tries on the continent, but about the beginniug 
of the present century Avas partially succeeded 
by the German in most of the German courts. 
— The right of admittance or presentation at 
court belonged originally only to the nobility. 
It was extended also to the higher clergy, and to 
some distinguished persons, as great artists or 
scholars, Avhose accomplishments were regarded 
as giving them personal nobility. The i-eigu 
of Frederic the Great and the period of the 
French revolution relaxed the conditions of 
presentation, though Napoleon in his ncAV im- 
perial court revived all the dignities and strict- 



COURT 



11 



ness of ceremonial wliich had existed under the 
old regime. The precedence of dii)lomatic agents 
and others at court is determined partly hy the 
relative rank of states, important ropuhlics, as 
the United States and Switzerland, receiving 
the same lionors as kingdoms ; and ])artly Ijy 
the degree of relationship to tlio sovereign, since 
nearly all the European dynasties are united to 
each other hy family ties. 

COURT, in law, an institution having a two- 
fold object, viz. : the conservation of public 
order by the suppression of violence and crime, 
and the adjudication of disputes on civil mat- 
ters l)etween the individuals constituting a com- 
munity. The first of these is most prominent 
in a rude state of society ; the latter, in an 
advanced stage of civilization. In the earlier 
and ruder condition, the laws have principal 
reference to protection from personal violence, 
and the judicial function is chiefly exercised 
in rendering speedy justice to the ofienders. 
Another peculiar distinction is also observable 
in the administration of laws at the different 
periods above referred to. In the earlier, it is 
vested in the executive, which at that time 
is usually the sole constituent of the govern- 
ment, and this continues to be the character- 
istic of every nation Avhose advance beyond 
semi-barbarism is arrested, or whenever from 
a state of partial civilization it returns again 
to its original rude condition. Such was the 
primitive administration of laws in the states 
of Greece ; the king or chief of a people was 
not merely a military leader, but also a judge ; 
and this is now the case in oriental autocra- 
cies, Avith only the modification that where the 
territorial jurisdiction is large, as in Turkey 
or Persia, the laws are administered by depu- 
ties, but who, in like manner as the sovereign 
of a small state, each within his respective 
district, perform the functions of executive 
and judicial officers. A third circumstance 
may Ije observed, viz. : that in the earlier pe- 
riod a large discretion is exercised in judicial 
proceedings. The laws being few, cases will 
occur that are not provided for; and again, per- 
sonal security being the chief object had in 
view, summary justice is naturally preferred to 
the more tardy form of proceeding which would 
be involved by a regard to the rules of evi- 
dence which in a more advanced stage of so- 
ciety are deemed essential ; indeed, tliese rules 
are an after growth, and require a long expe- 
rience and an intellectual habit to develop. — 
The Roman consuls were at first executive and 
judicial magistrates. The progress of the peo- 
ple in civilization was indicated by their de- 
mand of some check upon the arbitrary judg- 
ment of the consuls in their judicial capacity, 
which led to the compilation of the laws of the 
12 tables; a still further advance was shown in 
the separation of the judicial from the consular 
office, and the appointment of the prajfor. But 
although the Roman mind was eminently legal, 
it did not during the existence of the republic 
attain to a clear idea of the importance of a su- 



pervisory power for the correction of the errors 
of inferior tribuiuds. The assemblies of the 
people, both the centuriata and tribvta^ had in- 
deed a judicial power, but it was exercised in 
the hearing of cases in the first instance, and 
those chiefly of persons charged with cajjital 
offences. But in civil causes (judicia jyrivata) 
there was not properly an appeal from the judg- 
ment of the prtetor, or of the judges (or more 
properly juries) appointed by him. The near- 
est approach to it was the power exercised by 
the prietor in certain cases of setting aside the 
sentence oi tliajudiccs for fraud, and so the as- 
sistance of the tribunes was sometimes invoked 
against the corrupt conduct of the praitor lam- 
self. Under the imperial government an ap- 
peal was allowed from all inferior judges to the 
emperor, Avhich was in fact usually heard by a 
court composed of the chief officers of state and 
distinguished jurists. Even this court was not, 
however, strictly subject to the rules which are 
in modern times deemed essential to an ap- 
pellate court. It not only decided cases brought 
before it by appeal from the final judgments of 
inferior tribunals, but would take original juris- 
diction in many cases while they were i)ending 
before a subordinate court, and not merely 
made decisions Qlecrctd) in such cases, but also 
gave opinions {rescripta) to magistrates or pri- 
vate persons upon questions proposed by them. 
— In the constitution of judicial tribunals under 
modern European governments there has been 
a great advance beyond the Roman in all of 
the particulars which we have named above 
as appertaining to the administration of law. 
The separation of the judicial from executive 
functions has become gradually recognized as 
a political principle. In England it was asserted 
at an early period for the protection of personal 
freedom against royal power, but it was imper- 
fectly carried into effect until within the last 2 
centuries, when the tenure of judicial office was 
made independent of the pleasure of the king. 
The clause of Magna Charta, Commiuiia 2ylacita 
nmi sequcntur curiam nostrum^ sed teneantur in 
aliquo loco, though seemingly intended for the 
mere convenience of suitors, by prescribing a 
certain place for the trial of their causes, in- 
stead of compelling them to travel about with 
their witnesses wherever the aula regis held by 
the king in person might be, in reality had the 
effect of breaking up that court, and ultimately 
of establishing the several courts of common 
pleas, king's bench, and exchequer, presided 
over by justices appointed for that purpose. 
The king's bench alone, Avhich retained jurisdic- 
tion of criminal cases, continued for some time 
afterward to be migratory, whence the com- 
mon form of process returnable to that court 
was vlicumque fuerimiis ; and this prevailed 
after the court became fixed like the others at 
Westminster, and its itinerancy was but a mere 
legal fiction. But the judges of all these courts 
were ai)pointed by the king, and could be re- 
moved by him at will ; and this power of re- 
moval continued until by statute 13 TVilliam IIL 



12 



COURT 



(IVOI) it was enacted tbat the commissions of 
the judges should be quamdiu se bene gesserint, 
instead oi durante bene placito as formerly, and 
that they should be removable only upon an ad- 
dress of both houses of parliament. The chan- 
cellor alone, who presides over the department 
of equity, is subject to removal at the pleasure 
of the king, and his office is held entirely by a 
political tenure. There are 4 courts of original 
and general jurisdiction, viz. : tlie king's bench, 
common pleas, exchequer, and chancery. These 
may be considered the outgrowth of the com- 
mon law, though according to a popular mode 
of expression chancery is distinguished from 
the other three, as if not of common law origin, 
but the equity administered in that court was 
chiefly indigenous. The ecclesiastical and admi- 
ralty courts, on the other hand, derive their mode 
of administeringlaw from aforeign source, though 
the limit of their respective jurisdictions is pre- 
scribed by acts of parliament, or by long usage, 
which is supposed to be fomided upon statute. 
The court of king's bench, in the distribution of 
judicial powers upon the breaking up of the an- 
cient aula regis, retained, as we have mentioned, 
jurisdiction of criminal cases ; but to this was 
added all that class of cases which, though in 
reality civil actions between private citizens, 
yet, as they involved an allegation of force (as 
in actions for trespass, where the act complain- 
ed of was alleged to have been done vi et armis), 
were deemed quasi criminal. But notwithstand- 
ing this narrow limit of its cognizance of civil 
cases, it remained in one sense the highest court 
in the realm. It has always been the represen- 
tative of the king's prerogative, has exercised 
authority over all other common law courts so 
far as to restrain them within their proper ju- 
risdiction by writ of prohibition, and has always 
exercised summary power, in all cases not other- 
wise provided for, to compel inferior courts and 
magistrates to do their duty. By a fiction of 
law it has also acquired jurisdiction over all 
civil cases except actions relating to real estate, 
and may in one form of action, viz., ejectm^t, 
even try titles to land ; which fiction consists 
of an allegation in pleading that the defendant 
has been arrested upon process of that court for 
a trespass, w^hereupon the plaintiff" complains 
against him for another and the real cause of 
action. The court of common pleas had origi- 
nally exclusive jurisdiction of all merely civil ac- 
tions not involving any criminal otfence, and it 
still retains sole cognizance of actions relating to 
realty except ejectment, which, as before meji- 
tioned, may be also brought in the king s bench. 
The business of the court of exchequer was ori- 
ginally the collection of debts due to the crown, 
the proceeding for which was by bill, somewhat 
in the nature of a bill in chancery, whence this 
wascalled the equity side of the court ; butjuris- 
ilicticm was obtained of all personal actions by 
a fiction, viz., an allegation that the king's debt- 
or hath suffered an injury whereby he is less 
able to pay his debt, quo minns sufficient cxistit^ 
whereupon he was allowed to implead in this 



court the person charged with the wrong. This 
was called the common law side of tlic court. 
The old forms of process and proceeding pecu- 
liar to these courts have been recently abrogated, 
but the jurisdiction acquired by them remains. 
Substantially the same process and mode of 
pleading is now used in the three courts, by 
Stat. 2 William IV., c. 89 (1832), and other acts, 
the provisions of all which are included in the 
more general revision by stat. 15 and 16 Vic, c. 
76 (1852), and IT and 18 Vic, c. 125 (1854). As 
to the nature and extent of the jurisdiction of 
the court of chancery, see article Chancery. 
From all these courts an appeal lies to the house 
of lords. There are, however, some intermedi- 
ate appeals. From each of the three courts it has 
been long the practice to adjourn cases of great 
importance, before judgment, to the court of 
exchequer chamber, consisting of the barons of 
the exchequer, the chancellor, lord treasurer, and 
justices of the king's bench and common pleas. 
There is also an appeal, in certain cases after 
final judgment, to the same court (in which cases 
on appeal the judges of the court from which the 
appeal is taken do not sit), and from that court 
an appeal lies to the house of lords ; and so in all 
other cases which are not reviewed in the court 
of exchequer chamber. Cases in chancery are 
usually heard in the first instance before the 
master of the rolls or a vice-chancellor, from 
whom an appeal lies to the chancellor (with 
whom two lords justices have been recently 
associated for the hearing of appeals), and from 
them to the house of lords. A writ of error, it 
is said, may also issue from the king's bench to 
the common pleas, but it seems to have been 
rarely used. The trial of all common law causes 
in the first instance is before itinerant or circuit 
judges, one of whom must be a justice of one of 
the superior courts of Westminster, which judges 
are sent annually into every county of the king- 
dom for the trial of civil and criminal cases 
which are to be brought before a jury. They 
were first appointed in the reign of Henry II., 
and were then called justices in eyre (justiciarii 
in itinere), but are now designated as justices of 
assize and nisi prius. Tlieir commission also au- 
thorizes them to try all criminal cases, which 
part of their duties is expressed by the old law 
phrases of oyer and terminer (to hear and de- 
termine), and general gaol delivery ; the for- 
mer relating to cases upon which an indictment 
is found by a grand jury at the same circuit, the 
latter to indictments previously found upon 
which there had been an arrest and imprison- 
ment of the parties indicted. The commissions 
of assize and nisi prius relate to civil causes. 
Assize in the old English law was the name ap- 
plied to the trial of issues relating to the free- 
hold, by a species of jury called recognitors, 
who were alloAvcd to decide upon their own 
personal knowledge without the examination of 
witnesses ; in modern law the term designates 
issues in actions relating to real estate. Ifisi 
prius is a phrase in the writ issued to the sher- 
iff for the summoning of a jury, by which he is 



COURT 



13 



comrriandod to bring them before the court at 
Westminster at a certain day in term, unless be- 
fore that time the justices of assize should come 
into his county ; and as the justices according- 
ly come, the sheriff returns the writ at the court 
of assizes. — In France, the administration of jus- 
tice, which originally belonged to and was ex- 
ercised by the suzerains or feudal lords in per- 
son, was, by a process similar to what took place 
in England, vested in certain officers appointed 
for that purpose, who at first were considered 
as the mere deputies of the suzerain, but were 
afterward recognized as having independent of- 
ficial functions. One peculiarity prevailed in 
all the seigniories, viz., that whether the sei- 
gneur or his deputy, or the latter judicial magis- 
trate (under the name of iailll), presided, it was 
necessary for the adjudication of any question 
to call together the principal vassals, who in 
fact constituted a court, although at first they 
were spoken of rather as advisers of the sei- 
gneur than as judges ; but afterward, when the 
baillies held the courts, they were obliged to 
submit every case to the judgment of the assem- 
bled vassals, who then began to be called peers. 
These courts decided all questions between the 
vassals themselves or between vassal and sei- 
gneur, except that in the latter class of cases such 
questions were excluded as involved a contest 
between the seigneur and the vassals generally, 
which questions were brought before the suzer- 
ain or superior lord of whom the seigneiu* held. 
In other cases, where the seigneur refused to de- 
cide,or interfered with the proper administration 
of right, an appeal was often made to the su- 
perior lord ; and so also for an unjust judgment, 
probably, however, only in a case of flagrant vio- 
lation of right. The former appeal was called 
en defaut de droit^ the latter en faux jitgement. 
In either case, however, the gi'ound of the ap- 
peal was some misconduct of the seigneur or his 
representative, and not strictly for a review of 
a case fairly conducted. But instead of such 
appeal,the vassal who thought himself aggrieved 
by the judgment of his seigneur could challenge 
him to combat, first renouncing fealty to him. 
From these seigneurial courts subsequently grew 
up the parlements. There was at first but one, 
viz., the court of the king. The first Capetian 
sovereigns created 4 grand lailliages to hear ap- 
peals fi-om all judgments rendered in the courts 
of the seigneurs, and to judge in the first in- 
stance where there was a conflict of jurisdic- 
tion ; but these tribvmals were not uniformly 
acknowledged, and the vassals still resorted to 
the court of the king. In conseqiience of the 
accumulation of business, and the great expense 
of attending upon that court at various places, 
Philip the Fair, by an edict in 1302, made the 
sitting of the court permanent at Paris. He 
also established aparlement for Languedoc. The 
exchiquier of Normandy was fixed at Rouen 
permanently by Louis XII., and was entitled by 
FrancUs I. a cour de 2^<^^'>'lement. Others were 
afterward established, and these courts con- 
tinued to be the appellate tribunals mitil the 



revolution, Henry II. established presidencea 
(presidiaux) in the princijjal cities, reserving 
to th© parlements only the more considerable 
causes and inspection of the inferior courts. 
The parlements^ which originally consisted of 
the peers of France, were finally composed of 
lawyers appointed by the king. They were 
abolished id 1790, and in their palce, so far as 
respected appellate jurisdiction, was substituted 
the court of cassation. This court was com- 
posed of 52 judges, who, by the charte consti- 
tutionelle of 1814, received their appointment 
from the king, but were not removable. Tri- 
bunals of appeal were created a few years 
after the establishment of the court of cassa- 
tion (1802), which after the restoration were 
called cours roijales, and under Napoleon IH. 
covrs imperiales. The exact limits of the juris- 
diction of the latter courts and of the court of 
cassation are not defined with much precision. 
The court of cassation, which now consists of 
45 judges, 3 vice-presidents, and a president, is 
divided into 3 chambers, viz. : a chamber of re- 
quests, a chamber of civil, and a chamber of 
criminal cassation. Demands in cassation (appli- 
cations for reversal of judgment) are first heard 
by the chamber of requests, which either rejects 
them or sends them to one of the other chambers 
to be adjudicated. The appeal to the cours im- 
periales is directly from the tribunals of first in- 
stance, tribunaux civil d^arrondissement, which 
are the same that were established in 1790 under 
the name of tribunaux de district. — This brief 
review of the courts of the two countries of Eu- 
rope most celebrated for their jurisprudence, 
will sufficiently illustrate how far they fulfil 
the conditions of a sound administration of jus- 
tice in two particulars, viz. : freedom from ex- 
ecutive control, and a due regard to the correc- 
tion of errors by a review of the first judgment 
in an appellate court. There are, however, 
other important considerations to which we 
may properly advert. Judges should be inde- 
pendent not only of executive influence, but 
also of all personal responsibility to litigant par- 
ties. There is a singular feature in the French 
law which indicates either a low state of judi- 
cial integrity or an entire oversight of an im- 
portant principle of jurisprudence. By a pro- 
ceeding called j>rise d jyartie, which has been 
recognized from an early period, a judge is lia- 
ble to be sued by the party against whom he 
has rendered judgment. The old rule was, that 
he could be made responsible only when the 
judgment was without excuse (doit etre affecUe 
et inexcusaMe) ; by an ordinance of Francis I. 
(1540) a judge was not liable except for fraud 
or extortion (sHl n''y a dol, fraude, ou con- 
cussion). Still he was subject to a suit for 
damages, and several old writers commented 
strongly upon the peril to society in subject- 
ing judges to such a liability, especially for 
judgments in criminal proceedings. But not- 
withstanding these remonstrances, the proceed- 
ing has always been and still is allowed. Mer- 
lin mentions a number of cases in which the 



14 



COURT 



judge would be held responsible, among -which 
are: 1, arresting a person witiiout ])roper com- 
plaint, excc;i)t in case of flagrant crime {hors le 
cccs de Jlagraiit delit) ; 2, arrest without proof, 
or for an olfence wliich was not punishable by 
impi-isonmont ; 3, where the judge has exceed- 
ed his power by taking cognizance of a matter 
witliout liaving jurisdiction; 4, evoking a case 
from an inferior tribunal under pretext of an 
appeal, and tlien not disposing of it. The pro- 
visions of the code of civil procedure lack pre- 
cision. The cases oi prise d 2)artie are : 1, for 
fraud or extortion, in the language of the ordi- 
nance of Francis I.; 2, where it is expressly 
prescribed by law ; 3, where the law has de- 
clared judges liable for damages ; 4, if the judge 
has denied justice. (Code de 2}rocedure, § 505.) 
The English law, on the contrary, affords an 
ample protection to judges. The rule is, that no 
private suit will lie against judges of a court of 
general jurisdiction, either for error of judgment 
or even for misconduct in their judicial func- 
tions ; and the same protection is extended to 
judges of courts of inferior jurisdiction when act- 
ing within the limit of their authority. For offi- 
cial corruption, or other criminal conduct, a judge 
may be impeached and removed from office, and 
is also liable to be proceeded against by indict- 
ment; but no other redress is allowed to a 
suitor who may have sustained injury by such 
misconduct. If, however, a judge having a lim- 
ited jurisdiction shoidd exceed it, that is to say, 
should undertake to act in a matter not within 
his jurisdiction, then he becomes liable to a suit 
for damages, even if it was a mere mistake of 
judgment. Thus the court of Marshalsea, which 
had jurisdiction only of cases in which one of 
the parties was of the king's household, or tres- 
passes committed within the verge of the court, 
having given judgment for a debt of which they 
had no cognizance and imprisoned the debtor, 
the judges and even the ministerial officers were 
all held liable to damages, the proceeding being 
coram non judice (case of the Marshalsea, 10 
Coke's Ecp. 08); but in the same case it was 
said that where a court has jurisdiction of a 
cause and proceeds erroneously, an action will 
not lie against the party who sues or against 
the officer or minister of the court. A single 
exception may possibly exist in respect to the 
inamuuity given to judges of courts of general 
jurisdiction, viz. : where they act extra-judicial- 
ly, as in the case mentioned by Hawkins : " If a 
judge will so far forget the honor and dignity 
of his post as to turn solicitor in a cause in 
which he is to judge, and privately and extra- 
judicially tamper with witnesses or labor jury- 
men, he hath no reason to complain if he be 
dealt with according to the capacity to which 
he so basely degrades himself." The rule, how- 
ever, as above stated, has been sustained by the 
most eminent English judges. (See Groenvelt 
vs. Burwell, 1 Salk. 396 ; Miller r.s. Scare, 2 Bla. 
Rep. 1141 ; and Mostyn vs. Fabrigas, Cowp. 
161.) In tlie case last cited, a governor of Mi- 
norca was sued in England for a false imprison- 



ment alleged to have been committed by him 
Avliile governor. Lord Mansfield said, if it 
had been done judicially it would have been a 
complete bar to the action, but as governor he 
had no such exemption, and he mentioned sev- 
eral cases of naval officers in the British service 
against whom actions had been brought and 
damages recovered for acts done by them of- 
ficially in foreign parts. There was an inter- 
esting discussion of this subject in the courts 
of the state of New York in the case of Yates 
Ds. Lansing, which was an action against the 
chancellor, and the English doctruie was fully 
considered and sustained. (5 Johnson's Rep. 282 ; 
9 id. 375.) The same exemption from private 
suit on account of judicial acts which is given 
to judges is also extended to jurors, who, by the 
English and American law, are judges of facts. — 
Another important requisite for the proper ad- 
ministration of law is certainty in the rules of de- 
cision. A discretionary power has been shown 
by common experience to be unsafe, however 
specious the idea may be of determining each 
case upon its own equity. A general rule, known 
beforehand and rigidly adhered to, is preferable 
to an oscillating and precarious judgment, al- 
though cases of individual hardship will occur 
in the application of such rules. There will, 
however, be cases not foreseen or provided for; 
in respect to these, shall the judges exercise a dis- 
cretionary power, or should there be a judica- 
tory to take special cognizance of them, or lastly, 
should legislative action be invoked? The Ro- 
man pra3tors intermingled equitable relief with 
their judicial decisions. In the English judi- 
cial system the court of chancery has had au 
exclusive but still limited authority to give relief 
in certain cases upon principles of equity ditter- 
ing from the strict rules of law. Yet even in the 
administration of equity that court soon became 
bound by its own precedents, from which it was 
not at liberty to depart, and the chancery law 
of England is at this day as Avell settled as the 
law administered in the other courts. Bacon 
proposed in his aphorisms De Justitla Univer- 
sally that there should be what he calls pr^- 
torian courts, having power as well of relieving 
from the rigor of the law as of supplying the 
defects of law, that is, prescribing the rule in 
cases not otherwise provided for {De Aug.., lib. 8, 
c. iii., aph. 31). The English courts all decide 
according to precedents, or if no former decision 
can be found, then by analogy to what has been 
decided in similar cases, or upon some general 
principle which has been recognized; and in 
cases entirely new have sometimes sought aid 
from the Roman law. There is one class of 
cases, however, in which positive law alone is 
acted upon, and that is in respect to crimes 
and their punishment. Crimes must be de- 
fined by law, whicli may be either by statute 
or by ancient prescription, but courts have no 
power to declare new crimes; and so in re- 
gard to punishment, courts can enforce no 
other penalty tlian what has been previously 
fixed by law. The parlements of France were 



COURT DE GfiBELIN 



COURT OF LOVE 



15 



in like manner bound by the arrets reglcmen- 
taircs, rules of decision establislied in former 
cases. On tlie reorganization of the courts in 
1790 an attempt was made to abrogate all power 
of deciding from analogy, or even by a resort 
to general principles of jurisprudence; and all 
cases not provided for by express law were 
to be referred to the national assembly for the 
purpose of having such law enacted as would bo 
applicable to the particular case. This crude ex- 
periment was so unsatisfactory that in the Code 
Napoleon it was thouglit necessary not only to 
restore to the courts the power of deciding upon 
general principles and analogy, but it was even 
made penal to do otherwise {Code Niqwleon, art. 
4). — The courts in the United States have a gen- 
eral correspondence with the English judicial 
system. The' modifications are chiefly these: 
1. In the federal courts, as well as the courts of 
most of the states, the equity powers of the 
English chancery have been vested in the other 
courts, though the English system of equity is 
still substantially administered. Hence our 
courts may be said to have an equity and a com- 
mon law side. 2. Local circuit judges have been 
generally substituted in place of the itinerant 
or nisi prius judges of England, The judges of 
the supreme court of the United States have 
each a certain territorial limit in which they 
respectively act as circuit judges. In the state 
of New York 8 judicial districts have been 
established, and the supreme court is consti- 
tuted of 4 judges in each district, who in their 
respective districts are independent, resembling 
in that respect the French parleme?its, but in 
another respect they are all members of one 
tribunal, as each judge is competent to act in any 
district, either by voluntary arrangement with 
the judges of such district, or by direction of 
the governor. But the prevailing system in 
most of the states is the appointment of local 
judges for the trial of causes who are uncon- 
nected with an appellate tribunal. 3. In many 
of the states the judges are elected like other 
public officers by popular vote. 

COURT DE GEBELIISr, Antoint:, a French 
author, born in Nimes in 1725, died in Paris, 
May 10, 1784. He was the son of Antoine Court, 
and early in life oflSciated for a short time as a 
preacher. Subsequently he devoted himself to 
the study of ancient mythology, in which, as 
in many other branches of knowledge, he was 
deeply learned. He established himself in Paris 
in 1763, and between 1775 and 1784 published 
the 9 vols, of his great work entitled Ze monde 
primitif^ in which he traces the history of the 
moral and intellectual world. The work was 
the fruit of 20 years' severe labor, and was to 
have embraced several additional volumes, the 
preparation of which was prevented by the 
author's death. He sympathized deeply with 
the American struggle for independence, and co- 
operated with Franklin and others in the pub- 
lication of a work advocating the American 
cause, entitled Affaires de VAngleterre et de 
VAmerique. He was the author of a defence of 



animal magnetism, and of a variety of works, 
historical, philosojihical, and jiolitical. 

COURT MARTIAL, a tribunal authorized in 
the United States by tlie articles of war, and in 
England by the mutiny act, for the trial of all 
persons in the army or navy cliarged with mili- 
tary offences. According to articles G4 et seq. 
of the congressional act of May 29, 1830, any 
general officer couTmanding an army, or colonel 
commanding a separate department, may ap- 
point a general court martial, except when 
such officer or colonel shall be the accuser, in 
which case the court shall be appointed by the 
president of the United States. A general court 
martial may consist of any immber of commis- 
sioned officers from 5 to 13, but shall not be 
less than 13 when that number can be con- 
vened without manifest injury to the service. 
The commanding officer decides as to the num- 
ber. Such a court has no jurisdiction over any 
citizen not employed in military service. The 
sentence of the court shall not be carried into 
execution until the whole proceedings have 
been laid before the officer commanding the 
troops for the time being. In time of peace, 
no sentence extending to loss of life, or the 
dismission of a commissioned officer, and either 
in peace or war, no sentence against a general 
officer, shall be carried into execution until con- 
firmed by the president of the United States, 
to Avhom, thi'ough the secretary of war, the 
whole proceedings shall be transmitted. Every 
officer connnanding a regiment or corps may ap- 
point a court martial consisting of 3 commis- 
sioned officers, to judge offences not capital com- 
mitted in his own regiment or corps. Such a 
court martial may be appointed also by the offi- 
cers commanding garrisons, forts, or barracks. 
But in neither of the cases has it power to try 
a commissioned oflBcer, or to inflict penalties 
beyond certain limitations. 

COURT OF LOVE (Fr. cour d'amour), in me- 
diajval France, a tribunal composed of ladies 
illustrious for their birth and talent, whose juris- 
diction, recognized only by courtesy and opinion, 
extended over all questions of gallantry. Such 
courts existed from the 12th to the 14th centu- 
ry, while the romantic notions of love which 
characterized the ages of chivalry were pre- 
dominant. The decisions were made according 
to a code of 31 articles, which have been pre- 
served in a MS. entitled De Arte Amatoria et 
Bepirolatione Amoris, written by Andre, royal 
chaplain of France, about 1170. Some of the 
troubadours were often present to celebrate the 
proceedings in verse, and the songs of these 
minstrels were not unfrequently reviewed and 
j udged by the tribunals. Among the ladies who 
presided were the countess De Die, called the 
Sappho of the middle ages, and Laura de Sade, 
celebrated by Petrarch. King Rene of Anjou 
attempted in vain to revive the courts of love, 
and the last imitation of them was held at Rueil 
at the instance of Cardinal Richelieu, to judge 
a question of gallantry which had been raised in 
the hotel de Eambouillet. 



16 



OOUETEN 



COUSIN 



OOURTEN', "William, an English manufactu- 
rer and merchant, born in London in 1572, died 
there in May, 1636. Ilis fother had been a tai- 
lor at Menin, in the Netherlands, and escaping 
with diflSculty from the persecution of the duke 
of Alva, had arrived in London in 1568. The 
Courten family were engaged in the manufac- 
ture of French hoods, then mucli in fiishion, 
and at the death of the parents about the end 
of Elizabeth's reign, the sons were opulent mer- 
chants in silks and linens. In 1631 William 
and Peter received the honor of knighthood, 
when their returns amounted to £150,000 a 
year. They made large loans both to James I. 
and Charles L, and had a claim upon the crown 
of over £200,000. The first severe loss which 
Sir William Courten sutFered was occasioned 
by Lord Carlisle, who seized as a grant from the 
crown the island of Barbados, on which the for- 
mer had built a factory, as a place discorered and 
protected by himself. His agents at Amboyna, 
in the Spice islands, were subsequently murder- 
ed by the Dutch, and all his property there de- 
stroj'ed. Engaging in the Chinese trade, the 
loss of two richly laden ships completed his 
disasters, reducing him to poverty a short time 
before his death. — William, last male descend- 
ant of the Courten family of merchants, born 
in London in 1642, died at Kensington Gravel- 
pits in 1702. Educated by his wealthy rela- 
tives, he began early to travel and to display a 
love of natural history. He resided and stu- 
died at Montpellier, and when of age returned 
to England to claim the shattered fortune of 
his family. After a long lawsuit he changed 
his name for that of William Charleton, and 
retired to Montpellier, where he lived for 25 
years, enjoying the society of Tournefort and 
Sir Hans Sloane. He returned again to Eng- 
land, and took chambers in the Temple, where 
he lived during the last 14 years of his life. 
Locke was one of his intimate friends. He 
made a large collection of coins, precious stones, 
and various curiosities in medallic and antiqua- 
rian history ; and his industry is proved by his 
catalogue, which embraces 46 volumes. His an- 
tiquarian collection, which he left to Sir Hans 
Sloane, now belongs to the British museum. 

COURTOIS, Jacques, or Coetesi, Jaoopo. 

See BoRQOGNONE. 

COURTRAI, or Courtrat (Flemish, Kort- 
ryk)^ a town, capital of tlie arrondissement of the 
game name, in the province of West Flanders, 
Belgium, 75 m. from Brussels; pop. in 1857 of 
the arrondissement 136,505, and of the town 
22,216. It is situated on the river Lys, an af- 
fluent of the Scheldt. It is handsomely built ; 
contains several fine edifices, including a town 
hall, 2 fine churches, an exchange, a college, and 
2 orphan asylums. In one of the churches (Notre 
Dame) is Vandyke's great painting, the " Eleva- 
tion of the Cross." The inhabitants are actively 
engaged in the linen manufacture. The fine lin- 
ens known under the name of Courtrai cloth 
are made in the neighboring districts. The flax 
culture in the neighborhood of Courtrai has a 



world-wide reputation. There are also large 
bleaching grounds and manufactories of thread 
lace and silk lace. The town was the Cortoria- 
cum (afterward written Curtricum) of the Ro- 
mans. It was near Courtrai that the famous 
battle of spurs was fought (1302), .so called from 
the number of spurs collected from the French 
knights who fell in it. The name of Courtrai fre- 
quently occurs in the history of the Netherlands; 
it was often taken by the French, who finally 
destroyed its fortifications in 1744. 

COUSIN, Jean, a French painter, sculptor, and 
engraver, born about 1501 at Soucy, near Sens, 
died about 1589. His paintings on glass, many of 
which were executed in churches, royal palaces, 
and princely residences, are still highly valued, 
some having been preserved", as the " Legend 
of St. Eutopius " and the " Sibyl- consulted by 
Augustus," in the cathedral church of Sens. A 
large specimen of his oil paintings on canvas, 
the ''Last Judgment," is in the Louvre. He is the 
author of two treatises, Le livre de perspective^ 
and La vraie science de la p>ortraiture. He is 
reckoned by many as the foimder of the French 
school of painting. 

COUSIN, Victor, a French philosopher, bora 
in Paris, Nov. 28, 1792. His father was a clock- 
maker, a faithful disciple of Jean Jacques Rous- 
seau, and a revolutionist. The first public school 
that he attended was the Charlemagne lyceum, 
in which he was noted for his severe studies and 
gained the highest prizes. Especially interest- 
ed in rhetoric, the imitative arts, and music, he 
determined to make literature his vocation, and 
as a distinguished student his name was in 1810 
placed first on the list of pupils admitted into 
the newly organized normal school. He became 
assistant Greek professor in this school in 1812, 
master of the conferences in 1814, held at the 
same time a chair in the Napoleon lyceum (Bour- 
bon college), and during the Hundred Days was 
enrolled in the elite corps of royal volunteers. 
Meantime his attention had been diverted from 
belles-lettres to philosophy. The attractive lec- 
tures of Laromiguiere, one of the society of Au- 
teuil, and the most graceful of the followers 
of Condillac, first interested him in sensation- 
alism or ideology, the reigning philosophy of 
the 18th century. The spirit of the age was, 
however, set against this system ; Napoleon had 
denied to it the power of showing any thing 
grand in human nature or destiny ; and the re- 
action against it was animated by the religious 
enthusiasm of the Catholics De Maistre and 
De Bonald,by the loyal and poetical sentimental- 
ism of Chateaubriand, and was spread through 
literature and art by Mme. De Stael and Quatre- 
mere de Quincy. In philosophy Laromiguiere 
indicated a point of departure from it by ad- 
mitting the active and voluntary force of senti- 
ment in alliance Avith the passive and receptive 
faculties of the understanding; but the first who 
openly revolted from the authority of Condillac 
wasRoyer-Collard, who developed in France the 
spiritual theories of the Scotch school, and of 
whom Cousin was the favorite pupil. When at 



COUSIN 



17 



the close of 1815 the former was raised to civil 
office under tlie restoration, Cousin became his 
successor as deputy j)rofossor of philosopliy intlie 
Sorbonne, and for 5 years he lectured botli at 
the university and the normal school. From 
the speculations of Maine de Biran concerning 
the will, he derived the germs of his ideas of 
personality, causality, and liberty; and his ear- 
liest courses followed the system of Reid, and 
were devoted in general to an exposition of ideal 
truth. The vacations of 1817 and 1818 he sj)ont 
in Germany, acquainting himself Avith tlie lit- 
erature and tliiulcers of tliat country ; and the 
metaphysics of Kant tinged the lectures deliv- 
ered after his return. In 1820, in consequence 
of the royalist reaction in the state, his views 
of free agency Avere thought to have a political 
intent, and his course was indefinitely suspended. 
Two years later the normal school was closed by 
a royal ordinance. The leisure thus afforded he 
occupied in prosecuting his editions of Proclus 
(6 vols. Paris, 1820-'27), of Descartes (11 vols. 
Paris, 182C), and his translation of Plato, with 
summaries, on which he employed, like Raphael, 
the labor of his pupils subject to his own revis- 
ion (13 vols. Paris, 1825-'40). He also took 
charge of tiie education of a son of Marshal 
Lannes, and in 1824 visited Germany with his 
pupil. He was arrested at Dresden, on suspicion 
of being an accomplice of the cai-bonari, Avas ta- 
ken to Berlin, Avhere he suflfered a captivity of 
6 months, and Avas visited in prison by ITegel, 
whose philosophy was then predominant in 
Germany. He also became intimately acquaint- 
ed Avith Schleierraacher and Schelling. Return- 
ing to Paris, he published in 1826 the first series 
of his Fragments 2yhilosophiqucs (followed by a 
series oi Nouveaux fragments in 1828), favored 
the increasing liberal party, and in 1827, when the 
Villele ministry was supplanted by that of Mar- 
tignac, he was restored to the chair of philos- 
ophy in the Sorbonno, with Guizot and Ville- 
main for colleagues. The successful triumvi- 
rate at once attracted audiences to the univer- 
sity unexampled in numbers and enthusiasm 
since the time of Abelard. Stenographic reports 
of their lectures were also distributed through- 
out France. Cousin had already unfurled the 
banner of eclecticism in the preface to his Frag- 
ments philosopliiqiies^ and he noAV fully devel- 
oped the theory that 4 pure systems of philos- 
ophy have alternately prevailed, each of Avhicli 
is the perversion of a truth, and that the human 
mind can cease to revolve in the circles of past 
error only by uniting the elements of truth con- 
tained in each system, so as to form a composite 
philosopliy superior to all systems. He found 
in the East, in Greece, in mediosval scholasti- 
cism, and in all modern speculations, only differ- 
ent phases of sensualism, idealism, scepticism, 
and mysticism. With equal delight and skill 
in metaphysical exercises, his forte lay in de- 
veloping a system from its central principle till 
it took in the imiA'erse in its consequences. His 
eloquence Avas at once impetuous and grave, his 
style and splendid language recalled the stateli- 
TOL. TI, — 2 



ncss of the old French classics, and his enthusi- 
astic discourse ran Avithin an hour over nature, 
humanity. Deity, philosophy, history, religion, 
destiny, industry, society, and great men. The 
students, accustomed to the calm dissertations 
of the sensationalists, followed with admiration 
his adventurous flight through all truths and all 
errors. The speculations and strange technology 
of the German i)liilosophical development from 
Kant to Ilcgel he was the first to unfold to French 
audiences, giving popular expression to theories 
of the absolute. His lectures derived additional 
interest from the political temper of the time, 
a liberal audience gladly discovering political al- 
lusions in the Avords of a liberal professor. It 
Avas at this jjcriod that Cousin enjoyed his highest 
reputation as an expositor of philosophical ideas. 
At the revolution of 1880 he took no part in the 
3 days' struggle, but immediately after dedicated 
a volume of Plato to the memory of one of his 
pupils Avho had fallen in the fight. Under the new 
regime he might have entered Avith Guizot, Ville- 
mnin, and Thiers into the chamber of deputies, 
but chose to adhere to his philosophical studies, 
declaring politics to be only an episode in his ca- 
reer. Ho soon became counsellor of state, mem- 
ber of the royal council of public instruction, 
officer of the legion of honor, titular professor in 
the Sorbonne, member of the French academy to 
succeed Baron Fourier (1830), and of the acad- 
emy of moral and political sciences at its founda- 
tion (1832), director of the reestablished normal 
school, and peer of France. As the recognized 
head, too, of what Avas termed the official phi- 
losophy, he Avas exposed to constant and contra- 
dictory attacks from the clergy and the opposi- 
tion. He reorganized the system of primary 
instruction in France, arranged the admirable 
I)lan of studios Avhich is still retained in the 
normal school, and visited Prussia (1833) and 
Holland (1837) to observe the institutions of 
public instruction in those countries, concern- 
ing which he publishecffull and valuable reports, 
Avhich Avere translated into English by Mrs. 
Austin. He urged that national instruction 
should be associated Avith religion and founded 
on the Christian principle, and maintained that 
education Avhich is not specially religious is 
likely to be hurtful rather than beneficial, since 
it opens ncAV avenues to immoral tendencies 
Avithout providing efficient checks. This vieAV 
he illustrated Avith great learning on the sub- 
ject in speeches delivered in the chamber of 
peers. In 1840 he entered as minister of public 
instruction into the cabinet of Thiers, Avhich 
lasted but 8 months, in which time he made the 
programme of philosophical studies in the ly- 
ceums, and suggested other improvements, of 
Avhich he gave an apologetic account in the ^eri;e 
dcs deux mondes for Feb. 1841. In 1844 he gain- 
ed his greatest parliamentary distinction by his 
speech in the chamber of peers in defence of 
the university and of philosophy, which was 
published in a A^olume. Though surprised by 
the reA-olution of 1848, he gave it his aid, and 
began the series of publications undertaken by 



18 



COUSIN 



tlie institute at the request of Gen. Cavaignac 
to confirm the morale of the people, lie issued 
1 beautiful popular edition of llousseau's Pro- 
fession defoi (hi vicaire Savoyard, and in short 
treatises entitled Philosophie 2iopulairc and Jus- 
tice et charite combated the doctrines of social- 
ism. Since 1849 he has disappeared from pub- 
lic life. — After 1830, when he ceased for the most 
part to deliver academic lectures, he became one 
of the writers for the Journal des savants^ and 
for the Eevue des deux mo?ides, in which many 
of the articles composing his volumes of Frag- 
ments de 2}fiilosophie ancienne, Fragments de 
philosophic scholastique, Fragments de jjhiloso- 
phie moderne, Fragments litteraires, and other 
collections, first appeared. His other chief phi- 
losophical publications are, an introduction to 
tlie historj' of philosophy (1828), a history of 
philosophy in the 18th century (1829), a trans- 
lation of Tennemann's history of philosophy 
(1829), a treatise on the metaphysics of Aris- 
totle (1838), lectures on the philosophy of Kant 
(1841), lectures on moral philosopliy delivered 
between*1816 and 1820 (1840-'41), a work en- 
titled Pii vrai, du beau, et du Men (1853), and 
editions of the Sic et JVon of Abelard (1836), of 
the works of Maine de Biran (1834-'41), of the 
Pensees of Pascal (1842), of the works of Andre 
(1843), and of the works of Abelard (1849). All 
of his editions are remarkable for the thorough- 
ness with which the text has been revised from 
original MSS., and many of them contain docu- 
ments from old libraries which had not before 
been discovered. One of tlie most acceptable 
fruits of his research is the recovery of the origi- 
nal MS. of the " Thoughts " of Pascal, where, 
through the erasures, cftrrections, interpolations, 
and reconstructions, the reader is introduced into 
the laboratory of Pascal's eloquence. The biog- 
raphy of Jacquehne Pascal (1844) is founded 
chiefly on inedited or unknown documents. — As 
a philosopher, the plan qf Cousin has been to 
publish systems, and from systems to deduce 
pliilosophy. The most characteristic feature at 
once of his method and his results is his theory 
of the reason. The reason, in his view, has 
spontaneous consciousness of absolute truths, 
and furnishes to the mind ideas of infinite objects 
Avhich could not be formed by any power of ab- 
straction from observation of particular, finite, 
and contingent things. To know these ideas is 
the aim of pliilosophy, and the reason would be 
perfectly cognizant of them if it were not mis- 
led by the senses, passions, and imagination. 
There is something true in eveiy system of phi- 
losophy, since error can never reach to utter ex- 
travagance. This element of truth exists in the 
reason, and may be found by impartial exami- 
nation of the consciousness, and of the history 
of humanity. From the drama of changing 
systems, which is the history of philosophy, let 
the truth which constitutes the positive side 
of every system be taken, exclusive of whatever 
constitutes its negative and false side. The ideas 
thus obtained will furnish a spectacle of the uni- 
versal consciousness, and will be the sum of eclec- 



tic philosophy. If the question be raised con- 
cerning the authority of the reason, and the cer- 
tainty that its ideas are universal truths, Cousin, 
in order to answer, passes from psychology to 
ontology. Human reason, he says, is not a part 
of the human personality, but is in its nature 
impersonal, absolute, and infallible, the logos of 
Pythagoras and Plato, a mediator between God 
and man. Its qualities are those precisely 
opposed to individuality, namely, universality 
and necessity, and its spontaneous ideas rightly 
understood are revelations of a world unknown 
to man. This theory finds its completion in 
theodicy. As every phenomenon implies a sub- 
stance, as our faculties, volitions, and sensa- 
tions imply a person to whom they belong, so 
absolute truths have their last foundation in an 
absolute being, and ideal truth, beauty, and 
goodness are not mere abstractions, but are the 
attributes of the infinite Being whom we call 
God. Eclecticism is rightly regarded by Cousin 
in his work on the true, the beautiful, and the 
good, the last expression of his opinions, less 
as a doctrine than as a banner, as less an instru- 
ment of philosophy than of morality, as less 
elfective to discover truth than to advance vir- 
tue. He has suppressed the words in his Frag- 
ments philosophiques in which he aflirmed the 
system of Sclaelling to be true, though Schell- 
ing had then declared for "either Bruno or 
absolute unity ;" and with less reliance upon 
metaphysics, he maintains the spirit and ten- 
dency of all his speculations to promote that 
philosophy which began with Socrates and 
Plato ; which the gospel spread through the 
world ; which Descartes subordinated to the 
severe forms of modern genius, and which always 
contributes to subject the senses to the mind, and 
to elevate and ennoble man. — His latest publi- 
cations have been histories and biographies illus- 
trating French society in the 17th century. In 
the stately proprieties and careful speaking and 
writing which distinguished the period of the 
Fronde and of the hotel de Rambouillet he finds 
admirable examples of conversation, festive en- 
tertainments, heroic actions, noble sentiments, 
and great characters. His series of studies on 
Madame de Longuevilld (1853), Madame de 
Sable (1854), Madame de Chevreug'e and Ma- 
dame de Ilautefort (1856), and that entitled Za 
societe Frangaise ati XVII' siecle, d''apres le 
Grand Ci/rus de Mile, de Scudery (1858), have 
the same elevation of thought and sentiment, the 
same poetical and eloquent style, whicli mark 
his discussions and histories of philosophy ; and 
like many of these, also, they abound in dates, 
citations, documents, and annotations. — The 
principal American editions of Cousin's philo- 
sophical writings are the " Introduction to the 
History of Philosophy,'' translated by llen- 
ning Gottfried Linberg (Boston, 1832) ; the 
" Elements of Psychologv,"from his lectures, by 
C. S. Henry (Hartford, 1834 ; last edition, New 
York, 1856) ; selections from his works, with 
introductory and critical notices, in Piipley's 
"Philosophical Miscellanies" (Boston, 1838); 



COUSTOU 



COVENTRY 



19 



liis " Course of Modern Philosophy," by O. "W. 
Wight (Xew York, 1855) ; and his " Lectures on 
the True, the Beautiful, and the Good," also by 

0. W. Wight (New York, 1857). 
COUSTOU, the name of 3 French sculptors. 

1. Nicolas, born in 1058, died in 1733. His 
masterpiece is the " Descent from the Cross," in 
the church of Notre Dame, at Paris. II. Guii.- 
LArME, brother of the preceding, born in 1678, 
died in 1746. Among his best works is a mar- 
ble statue of Cardinal Dubois. III. Guillaume, 
son of the foregoing, born in 1716, died in 1777. 
His fame rests upon the statues of Mars and 
Venus, which he executed for Frederic the 
Great, 

COUTELLE, Jean Maeie Joseph, a French 
engineer, born at Mans in 1748, died there, 
March 20, 1835. Franklin's invention of light- 
ning rods made a great impression upon his 
mind, and the first instrument of the kind in 
Mans was to be seen in his house. He devoted 
himself particularly to the improvement of air 
balloons. For some time he commanded the 
aerostatic corps which accompanied the army 
of the Sambre-et-Meuse, and afterward he fol- 
lowed Bonaparte to Egypt, but liis balloons were 
destroyed at the battle of Aboukir. He was 
promoted to the rank of colonel, but in 1816 
he was removed from active service. The cele- 
brated work on Egypt, published by the French 
government, contains 2 essays of his, one on 
the topography of Mt. Sinai, and the other on 
the meteorology of Cairo. 

COUTHON, Georges, a French revolutionist, 
a lawyer by profession, born near Clermont in 
1756, guillotined July 28, 1794. He was a mem- 
ber of the constituent assembly, and afterward 
of the convention, moved the resolution which 
decreed the arrest of the Girondists, and offici- 
ated as commissioner in Lyons, where he ordered 
the most beautiful buildings which had belonged 
to the royalists to be destroyed. He was noted 
for his violence, and for his fanatical devotion 
to Robespierre, whose fiite lie shared. 

COUTTS, Angela Georcuaka Burdett, an 
English philanthropist, born April 25, 1814. 
She is the youngest daughter of the late Sir 
Francis Burdett, and on her mother's side a 
granddaughter of the wealthy banker, Thomas 
Coutts. Her early prospects were not bril- 
liant, as her father's family was a large one, 
and her grandfather's fortune, which had been 
left to his widow (the actress. Miss Mellon, 
whom he married late in life), had apparently 
been diverted into another channel by the 
marriage of the latter with the duke of St. 
Albans. The duchess, however, having no. 
children of her own, determined that the for- 
tune of her first husband should revert to his 
family, and made Miss Angela Burdett her 
heiress, on condition that she should assume 
the name of Coutts. In 1837 Miss Burdett 
Coutts succeeded to tliis vast property, esti- 
mated at between 3 and 3 millions sterling, and 
since that time has dispensed large sums annu- 
ally — amounting jjrobably to her entire income 



— in various charities. One of the most im- 
portant of thesti was the building and endow- 
ment, in 1847, of a church, with a parsonage 
and schools attached, the site of which in Roch- 
ester row, Westminster, one of the neglected 
parts of London, was selected by the late Dr. 
Blomfield, bishop of London, who also acted on 
other occasions as her agent or almoner. The 
outlay for this work amounted to £30,000. She 
has also endowed a bishopric in Adelaide, South 
Australia; and in 1858 appropriated £15,000 
for a similar purpose in British Columbia. 

COUTURE, Thomas, a French painter, born 
at Senlis, Dec. 21, 1815, was a pupil of Gros 
and of Paul Delaroche. His principal work, 
the " Romans of the Decadence," first exliibited 
at Paris in 1847, is now in the gallery of the 
Luxembourg palace. His pictures are remark- 
able for vitality and broad effects of color. In 
1855 he exhibited "The Falconer," and has 
since been employed upon 3 new pictures, called 
"Volunteer Enrolments," the "Return of the 
Crimean Troops, " and " Baptism of the Impe- 
rial Prince." 

COVENANTERS. See Cameroxiaks. 

COA'^ENTRY, a city, municipal and parlia- 
mentary borough of Warwickshire, England, 
on the Sherbourne, 10 m. N. N. E. of Warwick, 
and 94 m. by the London and northwestern 
railway N. N. W. of London ; pop. in 1851, 
86,812. In conjunction with some adjacent 
villages it was formed into a separate county 
by Henry' VI., but an act of -parliament in 
1842 united it with Warwickshire. Its name, 
a corruption of Conventre^ or "convent town," 
came from a Benedictine priory, founded in 
1044 by Leofric, lord of Mercia, and his lady 
Godiva, of which the cellar, 225 feet long 
by 15 feet wide, still exists. The ancient part 
of the city has narrow, ill paved, and crooked 
streets, built up with antiquated houses; the 
modern part is laid out with great neatness, 
filled with handsome and comfortable dwellings, 
and supplied with gas and water. There are 3 
ancient and 3 modern cliurches, and several 
chapels. Among the educational establish- 
ments is a free school, founded in the time 
of Henry VIII. by John Hales, having an in- 
come of £950 per annum, 2 fellowships at 
Oxford, 1 at Cambridge, and 6 exhibitions at 
either university. There are 6 endowed and 
various private schools, a government school of 
design, mechanics' institute, 2 libraries, a con- 
vent of the sisters of charity, hospital, dispen- 
sary, savings bank, theatre, county hall, drapers' 
hall, barracks, and a great number of charitable 
foundations. St. Mary's hall, a venerable build- 
ing of the 15th century, with a principal room 
63 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 34 feet high, has 
a curiously carved roof, and a large painted 
window. It was built for the Trinity guild, 
but is now used for public celebrations, meet- 
ings, etc. The manufactures of Coventry were 
celebrated at a very early date. At the com- 
mencement of the 15th century an active trade 
was carried on here in woollen cloths, caps, and 



20 



COVERDALE 



COVINGTON 



bonnets, and there were flourishing manufac- 
tures of caps, woollens, and broadcloth. After- 
ward blue thread, called " Coventry true blue," 
and still later tammies, candets, shalloons, and 
callimancoes, were staple manufactures ; but the 
articles now most largely made are silks, rib- 
bons, friuges, and especially watches, the last 
more extensively than even at London. The 
ribbon manufiicture employs about 6,000 per- 
sons in the city, and 14,000 more in the neigh- 
boring villages. Coventry was anciently de- 
feuded by walls and towers, but only a small 
portion of the former and 3 of the latter re- 
main ; the rest were destroyed by Charles II. 
on account of the favor shown by the citizens 
to the parliamentarians. Two parliaments were 
held here, one by Henry IV. in 1404, tlie other 
by Henry VI. in 1459. The people were noted 
for their love of all kinds of shows, pageants, 
and processions, descriptions of which have 
furnished matter for several curious and inter- 
esting works. The religious dramas called mys- 
teries were performed here with peculiar mag- 
nificence as early as 1416, and not unfrequently 
in the presence of royalty. A procession still an- 
nually takes place here, commemorative of the 
legend of the countess Godiva, who is said to 
have obtained from her husband Leofric the re- 
peal of certain heavy imposts under which the 
citizens complained, on condition that she should 
ride naked through the streets of Coventry at 
noonday. Slie ordered the people to keep with- 
in doors and close their shutters, and, veiled 
only by her long flowing hair, she mounted 
her palfrey and rode through the town, un- 
seen except by an inquisitive tailor, immortal- 
ized under the sobriquet of "peeping Tom," 
whose curiosity was punished by instant blind- 
ness. This story, on which Alfred Tennyson 
has founded a beautiful poem, was first recorded 
by Matthew of Westminster, Avho wrote in 
1307, 250 years after its supposed occurrence. 
The procession, as now held during the great 
fair, which takes place in Trinity week, dates 
from 1677, and before the passage of the muni- 
cipal reform act was solemnly attended by the 
city authorities. The principal characters are St. 
George of England on his charger, and the lady 
Godiva, who is represented by a female with 
flowing hair, clad in a close-fitting flesh-colored 
garment, and riding a gray horse. Strong ef- 
forts have been made to suppress this exhibition, 
but without success. — Coventry is connected 
with the grand trunk navigation by the Cov- 
entry and Oxford canal, and with the chief 
emporiums of the kingdom by the great north- 
western and 2 branch railways. It sends 2 
members to parliament. The meaning of the 
phras'fc " sending to Coventry " is variously 
given. Some suppose it to have originated 
witli military men, who were formerly regarded 
with disfavor by the inhabitants. 

COVERDALE, Miles, bishop of Exeter in 
the reign of Edward VI., born in Yorkshire in 
1487, was educated in the house of Augustine 
friars at Cambridge. Attached iu his early years' 



to the religion in which he had been educated, 
he was ordained a priest of the order of St. Au- 
gustine in 1514, at Norwich. Afterward chang- 
ing his opinions, he dedicated himself solely to 
the service of the reformation, and was among 
the first at Cambridge to renounce allegiance to 
the church of Rome. Finding residence in 
England unsafe, he went abroad, and assisted 
Tyndale in his translation of the Bible. In 1535 
he published a translation of his own, Avith a 
dedication to King Henry VIII. ; of this edition 
no perfect copy is now known to exist. The ver- 
sion of the Psalms in this translation is that now 
used in the " Common Prayer " of the Episcopal 
church. In 1538, by special license, Coverdale 
published a quarto edition of the New Testament 
in English. The skill of the French printers, 
and the comparative cheapness of labor and 
materials at Paris, made King Henry desirous 
of printing an edition of the Bible in that city. 
Permission was granted by Francis I., then king 
of France, in the last named year, and Coverdale 
went thither to superintend it ; but before the 
completion of the undertaking it was denounced 
by the inquisition, and the impression of 2,500 
copies condemned to the flames. Owing to the 
cupidity of the ofiicer to whom tlie execution 
of the sentence had been confided, a few 
copies were sold as waste paper, and so pre- 
served. These, with presses, types, and printers, 
were shortly after transported to England, and 
used under the superintendence of Coverdale in 
printing the " Great Bible" of Cranmer. Cover- 
dale held the office of almoner to Queen Catha- 
rine Parr, and officiated at her funeral in 1548. 
In 1551, when appointed to the bishopric of 
Exeter, tlie customary payment of first fruits 
was remitted to him, at the solicitation of 
Cranmer, on account of his poverty. On the 
accession of Queen Mary, and the consequent 
restoration of the Roman Catholic religion, 
Coverdale was deposed from his bishopric, and 
escaped a long imprisonment only on condition 
of leaving the country. He found an asylum, 
first in Denmark, and afterward in Geneva, 
where he assisted in the English translation 
known as the " Genevan Bible." He returned 
to England on the accession of Elizabeth, but 
was not restored to the see of Exeter. His last 
days were spent in translating the writings of 
the continental reformers, and publishing origi- 
nal tracts in support of the principles of the refor- 
mation. The date of his death is uncertain, but 
he Avas buried in the church of St. Bartholomew, 
London, Feb. 19, 1568. On Oct. 4, 1835, was 
celebrated the 3d centenary of the publication 
of his Bible. 

COVINGTON. L A S. co. of Ala., border- 
ing on Fla., drained by Conecuh and Yellow- 
Avater rivers; area, 1,240 sq. m. ; pop. in 1850, 
3,645, of whom 480 were slaves. The sur- 
face is uneven, and mostly occupied by pine 
forests, the lumber obtained from Avhich forms 
tlie chief article of exjjort. The soil is sandy 
and i)Oor. In 1850 it produced 80,205 bushels 
of Indian corn, and 416 bales of cotton. There 



COVINGTON 



CX)WL 



21 



were 9 churches, and 144 pupils in the public 
schools. Capital, Montezuma. II. A S. co. of 
Hiss., drained by affluents of Leaf river ; area, 
680 sq. in.; pop. in 1850, 8,338, of whom 1,114 
were slaves. Pine timber occupies portions of 
the surface, but it is not a])undant. The soil is 
light and sandy, and in 1850 produced 108,920 
bushels of Indian corn, 9,417 of oats, 51,849 of 
sweet potatoes, and 1,164 bales of cotton. There 
were 2 churches, and 126 pupils attending schools 
and academies. The county was named in honor 
of Gen. Covington. Capital, Williamsburg. 

COVINGTON, a thriving city of Kenton co., 
Ky. ; pop. in 1853, about 13,000. It stands on a 
beautiful plain on the Ohio river, opposite Cin- 
cinnati, and at the mouth of Licking river, on 
the other side of which is the town of Newport. 
It is regularly built, and in its general arrange- 
ment greatly resembles Cincinnati, of which 
it may be considered a suburb. Many persons 
doing business in Cincinnati have their residence 
here. Covington contains a number of cot- 
ton, woollen, silk, and tobacco factories, an ex- 
tensive pork and beef packing establishment, a 
large city hall, 3 banks, 2 female academies, 10 
churches, and the western theological college, a 
wealthy institution under the charge of the 
Baptists. 

COW. See Cattle. 

COWELL, John, an English civilian, born at 
Ernsborough, in Devonshire, in 1554, died at 
Cambridge, Oct. 11, 1611. He was educated at 
the university of Cambridge, where he subse- 
quently became fello^\', professor of civil law, 
and master of Trinity hall. In 1607 he pub- 
lished a general law dictionary, styled the 
"Interpreter," which, though displaying exten- 
sive erudition, involved him in much trouble, 
the house of commons having commenced a 
prosecution against him for maintaining in that 
work that a British monarch might make laws 
without the consent of parliament. The king, 
James I., however, interposed, and proceedings 
were stopped. Beside the above named work, 
Cowell also wrote " Institutes of the Laws of 
England." 

CO WES, West, a seaport town and watering 
place of the isle of Wight, Hampshire, England, 
situated on the W. side of the mouth of the 
river Medina, which enters the Solent channel 
nearly opposite the estuary called Southampton 
water ; pop. in 1851, 4,786. It is finely situated 
on rising ground, and presents a handsome ap- 
pearance from the harbor,with its houses rising 
one above another, its castle and crescent-shaped 
batter}', and its modern villas crowning the 
eminence. It has a number of good hotels and 
lodging houses for summer visitors, an assembly 
room, a town hall, a mechanics' institute, 5 
places of worship, the club house of the royal 
yacht squadron, which holds its annual regatta 
here, and a marine parade, which lies S. of the 
castle, and forms a fashionable promenade. The 
streets, however, are steep, narrow, and in many 
quarters disfigured by old and wretched dwell- 
ings. Its beautiful scenery, good situation, and 



facilities for sea-bathing at a fine beach very near 
the town, render it one of the most popular bath- 
ing places in England. The harbor is excellent, 
and there is constant steam communication with 
Portsmouth, Yarmouth, Southampton, &c. A 
brisk trade is carried on in provisions and other 
marine stores; wheat, flour, malt, barley, wool, 
and salt are largely exi)orted to France, Spain, 
Portugal, and the Mediterranean ; vessels of 
war, yachts, and other craft of superior sailing 
qualities, are built in considerable numbers. 
The registered shipping of the port, Dec. 31, 
1856, showed an aggregate of 168 vessels, ton- 
nage 7,683. Number of vessels entered dur- 
ing the year, 1,454, tonnage 62,048 ; number 
of vessels cleared, 519, tonnage 13,055. — East 
CowES, a small place, on the opposite bank 
of the Medina, communicates by ferry with the 
above town, of which it may be considered a 
suburb. It contains the custom house of the 
port, a church, a botanic garden, and a number 
of handsome dwellings. Osborne house, the 
marine villa of Queen Victoria, is in the vi- 
cinity^ 

COWETA, a N. W. co. of Ga. ; area, 378 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1852, 12.498, of whom 4,823 were 
slaves. A^ilue of real estate in 1856, $2,131,799. 
It is bounded N. W. by the Chattahoochee, and 
E. by Line creek. It has an uneven surface and 
a fertile soil, most of wliich consists of a sandy 
loam. Oak, hickory, and pine are the principal 
kinds of timber. In 1850 the productions were 
10,369 bales of cotton, 516,910 bushels of corn, 
93,104 of oats, and 94,357 of sweet potatoes. 
There were 27 churches, and 800 pupils attend- 
ing academies and schools. A gold mine was 
worked here during the same year. The coun- 
ty was formed in 1826, and named in honor of 
Gen. William Mcintosh, a half-blood Creek In- 
dian and head chief of the Coweta villages. 
Capital, Newnan. 

COWHAGE, bristly hairs from the pod of 
the rmicuna pritriem, a perennial climbing plant, 
which grows in the West Indies and other 
parts of tropical America. The pod is imported 
for the sake of the hairs, which are used in 
medicine. They are sharp, penetrating spiculse, 
which produce an intense itching sensation when 
handled. In the West Indies they were long 
since found to possess valuable qualities as a 
vermifuge, probably by penetrating and thus 
destroying the worms. They are consequently 
adopted in medical practice, and introduced into 
the pharmacopeias. The medicine is prepared 
by dipping the pods in molasses and scraping 
the hairs into this, until a mixture is obtained 
as thick as honey. Cowhage has also been ap- 
plied as an external irritant by making it into 
an ointment with lard. 

COWL (Sax. cvgle ; Lat. cucullus), a sort of 
hood, originally worn by all classes, and still 
retained by certain orders of monks. It con- 
sists of a conical covering for the head, at- 
tached to the robe or cloak, and sometimes 
made to draw over the shoulders also. Ac- 
cording to Mabillon, it was at first the same 



22 



COWLEY 



COWPENS 



as the scapular. The Benedictines and Bernar- 
dines have 2 sorts, one black for ordinary occa- 
sions, and another white and very large for days 
of ceremony. The proper shape of the cowl 
has been the subject of long and bitter dissen- 
sions in the Franciscan order, which 4 popes 
exhausted every means to heal, and which were 
only remedied by time. 

COWLEY, Abraham, an English poet, born 
in London in 1018, died at Chertsey, in Surrey, 
July 28, 1G67. Ilis father died before his birth, 
and he was brought up under the care of his 
mother, by whose solicitation he was admitted 
into Westminster school. Spenser's " Fairy 
Queen" first led him to turn his attention to 
poetry. A volume of his poems was published 
when he was 15 years old, including some of 
his compositions written at 10 years of age. 
While he was yet at school, he produced a com- 
Bdy entitled "Love's Eiddle," written in the 
pastoral strain. In 1636 he removed to Cam- 
bridge, and two years afterward published his 
" Love's Eiddle," with Naufragium Joculare^ a 
oomedy in Latin prose, now totally forgotten. 
In 1643 he was ejected from Cambridge, on ac- 
count of his ])olitical opinions and independence, 
and went to Oxford. He was strongly attached 
to the fortunes of Charles I., and in the struggle 
which followed was a devoted partisan of the 
royal cause. When Oxford was taken posses- 
sion of by the parliament, Cowley followed the 
queen to Paris, and there became secretary to 
Lord Jermyn, afterwai'd the earl of St. Al- 
bans ; he was frequently occupied in writing 
and deciphering the secret letters that passed 
between the king and queen, an office of delicate 
nature and of great responsibility. He was ab- 
sent from England all together upward of 10 
years, and during that time he undertook some 
very perilous journeys to Jersey, Scotland, 
Flanders, Holland, and other countries. In 1656 
he repaired secretly to England, but was arrest- 
ed and only set at liberty on his giving bail for 
£1,000. In that year he published his poems, 
and in his preface appears to have inserted a 
passage suppressed in subsequent editions, which 
n^as thought to intimate a change in his loyal 
feelings, and he also speaks of his desire to 
•' retire to the American plantations and forsake 

•<: this world for ever." On the death of Oliver 
Cromwell he returned to France, where he re- 

•i; mained in his former station until the restora- 
tion of the Stuarts. He was made a doctor of 

V medicine at Oxford in 1657, but there is no 
reason to suppose that he ever practised. He 
considered a knowledge of botany indispen- 
sable to the medical profession, and retiring 
to the county of Kent, busied himself with 
gathering plants. He also wrote a Latin poem 
on plants in 6 books. When the restoration 
took place, Cowley looked for some substantial 
reward for his services in the royal cause, but 
he received nothing. He had been promised by 
Charles I., as well as by his son, the mastership 
of the Savoy, " but lost it by certain persons ene- 
mies to the muses." It is said that in revenge 



he altered a comedy, the "Guardian," and 
brought it out anew under the title of " Cutter 
of Coleman Street." It was harshly treated 
on the stage, and regarded as a satire on the 
royal party. He took the failure of his play 
considerably to heart, but denied that it was 
intended in any manner as a reflection on the 
royalists. This assertion, however, gained lit- 
tle credence, nor did he mend matters by the 
publication of an ode called the " Complaint," 
in which he bewailed his misfortunes, and styled 
himself the melancholy Cowley. lie now left 
London, and secluded himselffirst at Barn Elms, 
a suburban village, and afterward at Chertsey in 
Surrey. In his retreat he was at first but slen- 
derly provided for, but by the influence of the 
earl of St. Albans he obtained such a lease of 
the queen's lands as secured him a tolerable in- 
come. Although very highly esteemed as an 
author by Johnson, and by Milton even ranked 
with Shakespeare and Spenser, there is proba- 
bly no English poet of equal pretensions less 
read at the present day. His "Essays" have 
great merit as agreeable specimens of prose com- 
position. He was buried near Chaucer and Spen- 
ser in Westminster abbey, where in 1675 the 
duke of Buckingham erected a monument to 
his memory. — An edition of his "Works," with 
his " Life " by Bishop Sprat, was published in 
1688 (folio), and his "Select Works," edited by 
Bishop Hurd, in 1772-'7 (3 vols. 8vo.). 

COWLEY, Henry Eichard Charles Wel- 
LESLEY, baron, a British diplomatist, born July 
17, 1804, nephew of the first duke of Welling- 
ton, succeeded his father in the peerage, April 
27, 1847. At an early age he entered the diplo- 
matic service, and having been successively em- 
ployed in the embassies of Vienna, Stuttgart, and 
Constantinople, he was sent as minister plenipo- 
tentiary to Switzerland in 1848, and afterward 
to Frankfort-on-the-Main, where he acted as 
minister to the German confederation. In 1852, 
when Napoleon became emperor. Lord Cowley 
was chosen to replace Lord Normanby as am- 
bassador to France, and in concert with the 
earl of Clarendon attended the peace congress 
of Pai-is, which opened Feb. 25, 1856. 

COWLITZ, CowLiTSK, or Cowelitsk, a S. 
W. CO. of Washington territory, bounded S. W. 
by the Columbia, S. E. by the Calama, which 
separates it from Clark co., and intersected by 
Cowlitz river ; area, 1,050 sq. m. Capital, Mon- 
ticello. 

COWPENS, n post village in Spartanburg 
district, S. C, near the border of North Caro- 
lina, in the neighborhood of which a signal vic- 
tory was gained by the American forces, com- 
manded by Gen. Daniel Morgan, over a British 
division under Col. Tarleton, Jan. 17, 1781. lu 
the latter part of December, 1780, Morgan was 
directed by Gen. Greene to occupy the country 
between the Broad and Pacolet rivers in the 
Spartanburg district, and Cornwallis, then at 
Winnsborough, in Fairfield, apprehending that 
the important post of Ninety-six was menaced, 
despatched Tarleton with 1,100 choice troops, 



COWPENS 



COWPEK 



23 



comprising 350 of his famous legion and por- 
tions of the Yth and 71st regiments, witii 2 
pieces of artillery, to force Morgan either to 
fight or retreat into Nortli Carolina. Tarleton 
commenced his march on Jan. 11, and moving 
■with gr^at rapidity reached the Pacolet on the 
evening of tlie 15th. Morgan had intended to 
dispute the ])assage of the river ; hut being in- 
ferior in cavalry, he deemed it prudent to retire 
toward Broad river. Tarleton pressed on in 
pursuit, and on the morning of the 17th came up 
with Morgan in an open wood known as Han- 
nah's Cowpeus, being part of a grazing estab- 
lishment belonging to a man named Hannah. 
The American troops, about 1,000 in number, 
occupied 2 gentle eminences, on which they 
were drawn up by Morgan in 2 lines, the 1st 
composed of Carolina militia, with an advanced 
corps of volunteer riflemen under the command 
of Col. Pickens, and the 2d of Maryland reg- 
ulars and Virginia riflemen under Lieut. Col. 
John E. Howard. In the rear was a reserve of 
cavalry, consisting of Lieut. Col. Washington's 
troop, 80 strong, and about 50 mounted volun- 
teers under Major McCall. Tarleton, disregard- 
ing the fact that his troops were fatigued by a 
long night march, with characteristic impetuosi- 
ty ordered an attack. The British advanced to 
the charge with loud shouts, receiving an eflfect- 
ive discharge from the American riflemen, who 
in obedience to Morgan's orders fell back upon 
the 1st line. The latter stood firm until within 
bayonet thrust of their opponents, when they 
also fell back upon the 2d line, composed of 
continental troops, which was thus compelled 
to bear the brunt of the fight. Col. Howard 
at lengtl), fearing that he might be outflanked, 
attempted to change his front to the right, the 
order for executing which was misinterpreted 
into one for a retreat, and the whole line was 
thrown into some confusion. At this moment 
Morgan ordered them to retreat to the emi- 
nence behind which the cavalry were posted. 
The British, feeling sure of victory, rushed for- 
ward in some disorder, when they were met by 
a fierce charge from Washington's dragoons. 
At the same time Howard's troops facing about 
gave them a deadly volley of musketry, which 
they followed up so eflectively with the bayo- 
net that in a few minutes the British line was 
broken, and cavalry, infantry, and artillery were 
in full flight. Tarleton endeavored in vain to re- 
form his troops ; a panic had seized upon them, 
and even his favorite legion, with which he had 
accomplished so many dashing exploits, galloped 
away without having crossed a sabre. Tarle- 
ton liimself, with a small band of horsemen, 
made a precipitate retreat, hotly pursued by 
Col. Washington, by whom he was wounded 
in the hand. The British loss in this action 
amounted to more than 300 killed and wounded, 
and between 500 and 600 rank and file prisoners. 
The Americans had 12 men killed and 60 
wounded. The spoils of the victors were 2 
field pieces, 2 standards, 800 muskets, 100 dra- 
goon horses, 70 negroes, and some baggage. 



COWPER, Edward, an English inventor and 
improver of machinery, also favorably known 
as a lecturer on the mechanic arts, born in 1790, 
died in London, Oct. 17, 1852. During the 
greater part of his life he was a printer, and 
some of the most important improvements in 
machine printing are due to him. Among 
others may be mentioned the giving a diagonal 
action to the rollers on the self-acting inking 
tables. During the latter part of his life he 
was professor of mechanics and manufacturing 
arts at King's college. He wrote an elaborate 
article on a " Button," and delivered lectures on 
the London crystal palace, in 1851. 

COWPER, William, lord chancellor of Eng- 
land, born at Hertford in 1664, died Oct. 10, 
1723. He was called to the bar in 1688, the 
year of the revolution, in which he took part 
so far as to form a small company of volunteers, 
and set out to join the prince of Orange. After 
the settlement of the government he returned 
to his practice, and soon became the decided 
leader of the home circuit, with a large practice 
in the court of chancery. He entered parlia- 
ment as a whig in 1095, and gained by his 
maiden speech the reputation of a consummate 
debater. Tlie whig party having gained the as- 
cendant in 1705, the great seal was committed 
to him as lord keeper, and the next year he 
was raised to the peerage and made lord high 
chancellor. His judicial business was transacted 
with credit, and his honorable disinterestedness 
is worthy of remembrance in having abolished 
the custom of " yearly gifts" from the oflBcers 
and lawyers of his court, which prevailed there 
before his time as well as in the other courts 
of the kingdom, and which had produced to the 
chancellors some £3,000 per annum. He pre- 
sided at the impeachment of Sacheverel, and 
soon afterward upon the defeat of the whigs 
resigned his oflice, went into opposition, and 
remained one of the chiefs of his party in 
council and debate until the accession of George 
I., when in 1714: he was again made lord 
chancellor. For some time he enjoyed the 
entire confidence of the king, and had an im- 
portant share in the political direction of afiiiirs 
during the settlement of the government under 
the new dynasty and the rebellion of 1715 in 
favor of the exiled family, but again resigned in 
1718, in consequence of the feud between the 
king and the prince of Wales. He continued 
to take part in the proceedings of the house of 
lords as long as he lived. Although a lawyer 
and a judge of authority and respectable stand- 
ing, his principal character in history is that of 
a politician, where he generally appears as the 
advocate of liberal principles, both in relation 
to secular and religious matters, but not always 
free from the errors and inconsistencies of the 
time. He was celebrated as an orator for his 
graceful and charming manner and delivery, 
with which he was said to captivate the hearts 
of liis auditory ; but he was nevertheless the 
mark for much political detraction, and the hero 
of a curious story circulated all over Europe by 



24 



COWPER 



the authority of Yoltaire, that he manned and 
lived at the same time with 2 wives, and wrote 
a little hook in defence of the practice. Al- 
though there was apparently no other founda- 
tion for it than some early irregularities, it 
gave him the common nickname of " Will 
Bigamy." 

COWPER, William, an English poet, horn 
Nov. 15, 1731, at Great Berkhamstead, Hert- 
fordshire, died at East Dereham, Norfolkshire, 
April 25, 1800. His father, the Rev. John 
Cowper, was one of the chaplains to George II. 
and nephew to the lord chancellor Cowper. His 
mother died when the poet was but 6 j-ears of 
age, and the touching lines in which he recalls 
her memory show the deep impi'essions slie had 
left on his mind. He was sent early to the day 
school of his native town, and went afterward 
to Westminster, where he suffered from the tyr- 
anny of older and stronger boys. At 18 he be- 
gan to study law with a solicitor, Mr. Chap- 
man, in whose house he slept for 3 years, but 
who set his student the example of paying little 
attention to his profession. He then took rooms 
in the Inner Temple, was admitted to the bar, 
and here for the next 12 years lived indolently, 
neglecting tlie law for literature and gay society. 
He formed literary acquaintances, wrote verses, 
and contributed several papers to the " Connois- 
seur." In his 31st year he formed an attach- 
ment for his cousin Theodora Cowper, sister of 
Lady Hesketh ; but their union was forbidden 
by her father, first for prudential reasons, and 
then because of their consanguinity. Having 
received an appointment through his uncle. 
Major Cowper, as reading clerk to the com- 
mittees of the house of lords, he seemed destined 
to ease and competence ; but his natural timid- 
ity and nervousness interposed. He shrank 
from the thought of appearing before the lords, 
and when a new office was provided for him by 
the same kind relative, the clerkship of the jour- 
nals to the same house, he was seized with a fresh 
alarm when called upon to stand an examina- 
tion as to his qualification for the place, and in 
his mental excitement sought to destroy himself. 
He soon afterward became insane, and was re- 
moved by his relatives to an asylum at St. Al- 
bans under the care of Dr. Cotton. During the 
remainder of his life he experienced several long 
returns of mental alienation. He fancied him- 
self destined to eternal woe. He shunned the 
society of his friends and near relatives, to find 
relief in that of strangers. In all his sufferings, 
however, his relatives watched over him with 
tenderness and provided for him a modei*ate 
support. At Huntingdon, whither he removed 
in 1765 from tlie care of Dr. Cotton, he met 
with the Unwin family, who received him into 
their house as a boarder, and for whom he 
formed a lasting regard. When, on the sudden 
death of her huskand, two years afterward, 
Mrs. Unwin removed to Olney in Buckingham- 
shire, Cowper went with her ; and here they oc- 
cupied a house next that of the Rev. .John New- 
ton, curate of the parish, for whom he had pre- 



viously contracted a high esteem. Olney is fa- 
mous as the favorite residence of Cowper. Here 
he passed many years of his life, occupied with 
religious exercises and in active charity among 
the poor. Here, too, were written those poems 
that served to lighten his mental suftering, 
though they could never wholly relieve it. At 
the age of 50 (1782) he published the 1st vol- 
ume of his poems, the subjects of several of^ 
which had been suggested by Mrs. Unwin. The 
volume was tolerably well received; but the 
ballad of " John Gilpin," which he wrote from 
a story told him by Lady Austen, gave him 
a wide renown. It was read to crowded audi- 
ences in London by Henderson tlie actor, and 
one publisher alone sold 6,000 copies of a print 
of John Gilpin on his famous ride. The ballad 
had been published anonymously, and lay for 
3 years neglected until suddenly it caught the 
attention of the public. Lady Austen next sug- 
gested to him the " Task," which appeared in 
1784, and gained general popularity. The 
amiable, intelligent Lady Austen, and the older 
and more austere Mrs. Unwin, were now his 
constant associates ; but jealousy, it is said, arose 
between them, and Lady Austen left Olney in 
displeasure. He next translated Homer in 
blank verse, and published it by subscription in 
1791. His last literary occupation was a trans- 
lation of Milton's Latin poems, with a com- 
mentary on his works ; but this performance 
the condition of his mind prevented him from 
completing. His faithful friend Mrs. Unwin hav- 
ing become paralytic, his cousin Lady Hesketh 
came to take charge of his household ; but in 
1795 he removed fi'om Olney with Mrs. Unwin 
to the house of his relative, the Rev. Mr. John- 
son, at Tuddenham, and finally to East Dere- 
ham. A pension of £300 had been settled upon 
him by the king, chiefly through the active 
solicitations of the amiable poet Hayley ; but 
Cowper, when it was announced to him, show- 
ed no marks of pleasure. In 1796 Mrs. Unwin 
died ; the poet, it is said, looked in silent agony 
upon her corpse, and then turning away, never 
afterward mentioned her name. A slight re- 
covery of his mental powers enabled him in 
1799 to revise his Homer, and to write his last 
poem, the " Castaway," a picture of his own sad 
fate, but he died of dropsy in the spring of the 
following year. — Cowper's writings are original, 
truthful, and striking. In poetry he was one of 
the first to break away from the despotism of 
Pope, and invent an original rhythm. He is 
never melodious, but always natural and at his 
ease. He loved nature, flowers, animals, and 
rural life, and paints scenery with great power. 
His descriptions are sometimes coarse, but al- 
ways clear and effective. The moral teaching 
of his poetry is high, and he strove to force upon 
his material age the noblest conceptions of the 
spiritual and the divine. With this religious 
turn of thought he joined humor and forcible sa- 
tire. He translated Homer with more accuracy 
than Pope, but his blank verse wants harmony 
and grace. His prose is excellent, and his let' 



COWRY 



COX 



25 



tors arc not surpassed by any in the language. 
Here, in his Imppier moods, all is playful humor, 
ease, gayety, simplicity, and wisdom. His mind 
seems to break from its clouds into moments 
of perfect sunshine. In character Be was pure, 
his disposition amiable ; he gained the love and 
respect of gifted men and virtuous accomplish- 
ed women ; he Avas charitable and active in 
doing good ; tender and confiding to his friends, 
and capable of unchanging atfection. So good 
a man might well have looked for happiness 
both here and hereafter ; but it was Cowper's 
lingular fate to pass a lifetime in despair. Hope 
Avas an impulse he never knew or never ven- 
tured to indulge. His appearance was intellec- 
tual and well bred, his manner pleasing, and 
liis whole life that of a tasteful recluse. Ho 
cultivated flowers, and watched with interest 
the progress of his garden. IIo petted tame 
leverets and immortalized them in verse. He 
was careful of his dress, and though afraid of 
strangers, took pleasure in a narrow circle of 
well bred, intelligent associates. His clouded 
mind, his mental agonies, and his generous 
kindly nature, endeared him to bis friends, who 
loved, pitied, and admired him; sentiments that 
posterity must continue to share. — The life of 
Cowper was first written by "William Hayley, 
for an edition of his posthumous writings (Chi- 
chester, 1803-'6). It has also been written by 
Thomas Taylor (London, 1835); by the Eev. T. 
S. Grimshawe, for an edition of his works and 
correspondence (London, 1836); by H. F. Cary, 
for an edition of his poems, including his transla- 
tions of the Iliad and Odyssey (London, 1839) ; by 
Sir Harris Nicolas, for an Aldine edition of his 
poems (London, 1843); and by Robert Southey, 
for a complete edition of his works (London, 
1833-'37). The last biography and edition are 
much the best, and have recently been repub- 
lished, with additional letters, in Bohn's " Stand- 
ard Library," in 8 vols. 

COWRY, the common name of the shell- 
fish cyjircfa, of the family cyprmdm. Many 
species are met with most abundantly in the 
warm seas of the eastern hemisphere. Those 
of special interest are the C. annuhis, used by 
the Asiatic islanders to adorn their dress, for 
sinkers to their fishing nets, and for barter ; and 
the C. moneta, or money cowry. The latter is 
an eastern and Pacific shell, and is an important 
article of trade, being largely imported into Cal- 
cutta and Bombay from the Laccadive and Mal- 
dive islands. Their value in Bengal used to be 
rated at 2,4:00, then at 2,560, but now more than 
3.200 to the rupee, the worth of which is about 
60 cents. They are largely imported into Liv- 
erpool, about 60 tons being received in 1848, 
and nearly 300 tons in 1849, Their rates are 
often quoted upon the price currents of New 
York and London. They are sent to the west- 
ern coast of Africa for barter with the natives. 
A species of this family called the C. princeps, 
"the brindled cowry of the Persian gulf," is 
very highly prized by conchologists for its rarity 
and beauty. Only two specimens are known ; 



one is in the British museum, and the other was 
sold a few years since in London, at the sale of 
the collection of the late earl of Jifountnorris, 
for £40. A specimen of the C umMlicata was 
sold in 1850 for £30. The cowries, from the 
great variety and beauty of the markings upon 
their smoothly-polished surface, have long been 
in demand among civilized and uncivilized na- 
tions for ornaments to their dress and habita- 
tions. 

COX, I. David, an English landscape painter, 
born at Birmingham, April 29, 1793. His paint- 
ings, chiefly on Welsh subjects, are in water col- 
ors, small, and apparently rapid and careless, but 
full of the impression and effect of nature. IIo 
succeeds best in sketching rain and Avind, bursts 
of sunshine on dark moors, the dank herbage of 
marshes, and rural scenery beneath the threat- 
ening storm. He published in 1814 what is still 
considered the best " Treatise on Landscape 
Paintingin WaterColors." His son David is also 
a painter of some ability. II. Fraxcis Augustus, 
D.D., an English clergyman of the Baptist denom- 
ination, born March 7, 1783, died in Sept. 1853. 
He was graduated at the university of Edinburgh, 
and commenced his pastoral labors at Hackney, 
near London, in 1811. Here he principally re- 
sided, and beside the care of a large congregation 
and various other employments, he took an 
active share in procuring the establishment of 
the London universit}'. He attained a prom- 
inent position in his denomination, and was 
chosen about 1840 to make an ofiicial visit to 
the IJnited States, for the purpose of draAV- 
ing closer the bonds of fraternal feeling be- 
tween the Baptists of the tAvo countries. Dr. 
Cox was a contributor to the "Eclectic Re- 
view" and other periodicals, and published a 
" Life of Melanchthon," " Female Scripture Bi- 
ography," and other works. III. Richard, 
bishop of Ely, born at Whaddon, Bucks, about 
1500, died in 1581. He was educated at Cam- 
bridge, and when Christchurch college at Ox- 
ford was founded by Cardinal Wolsey, was cho- 
sen one of its oflicers, but afterward forfeited 
this position and was lodged in prison, iu conse- 
quence of his adoption of the doctrines of Lu- 
ther. Upon the accession of EdAvard VT. he 
became tutor to the king, chancellor of Oxford, 
canon of Windsor, dean of Westminster, and a 
privy councillor. When Mary began her reign 
he fled to the continent ; but when Elizabeth 
succeeded, he returned to England, and Avas 
made bishop of Ely, which see he held for 21 
years. He took an active part in the prepara- 
tion of the liturgy. The revision of the Gospels 
and the Acts of the Apostles, in that edition of 
the Scriptures called the " Bishops' Bible," Avas 
by him. He Avas also one of the compilers 
of Lily's " Accidence." IV. Saaiuel Hanson-, 
an American divine, born at Leesville, N. J., 
Aug. 25, 1793. In 1811 he commenced the 
study of the law at Newark, N. J., but aban- 
doned it at the end of one year to take up 
that of theology, and Avas ordained by the 
presbytery of New Jersey, July 1, 1817. In 



26 



OOXOIE 



COXE 



the autumn of 1820 he reraovecl to Few Tork 
to assiiiiio the charge of the Spring street Pres- 
byterian cliurcli. After gaining here the repu- 
tation of an ardent and striking preacher, he 
sailed for Europe in 1833 to recruit his health, 
and after his return took the chair of profes- 
sor of sacred rhetoric at Auburn, N. Y., in tlie 
autumn of 1884. In May, 1837, he removed to 
Jjrooklyn as pastor of the tirst Presbyterian 
church, and remained in this connection until 
1854, when he was obliged by inlirmity of the 
voice to give up his charge, and retired to 
Owego, N. Y. Having had the degree of D.D. 
conferred on him in the summer of 1825 by Wil- 
liams college, he indignantly repudiated, in a 
letter to the "New York Observer," Nov. 16, 
1825, the " semilunar fardels." Having lent his 
countenance and sympathy to the foundation 
of the American anti-slavery society, he was 
one of the sutl'erers by a mob excited in oppo- 
sition, and had his house and church sacked, 
July 10, 1834. At that time he passed for an 
agitator upon all topics; and always throwing 
himself impetuously into the service of every 
cause Avhich he has espoused, he has successive- 
ly appeared as the zealous advocate of aboli- 
tion, temperance, colonization, new school Pres- 
byterianism, the evangelical alliance, &c. Of 
late years, however, he has changed his views 
on the slavery question, and has identified him- 
self with the conservative treatment of that 
question. As a writer and preacher he abounds 
in quaint conceits and learned allusions, with a 
substratum of strong common sense and ardent 
feeling, and holds a high rank in the religious 
and intelligent community. He was moderator 
in 1846 of the general assembly of the Presby- 
riau church, and has freciuently been delegated 
to attend tlie religious anniversaries in London. 
He is the author of " Quakerism not Christian- 
ity," "Interviews Memorable and Useful, from 
Diary and Memory," and other publications. 

OOXOIE, or Oosis, Michael, a Flemish paint- 
er, born at Mechlin in 1497, died in Antwerp 
from the fall of a scaffolding in 1592. He was 
a pupil of Bernard van Orley, and went after- 
ward to Rome, where he acquired celebrity and 
was much employed as a fresco painter. He 
married in Italy, and after his return to his own 
country his works were in great demand, and he 
acquired a large fortune by them. Many of them 
were taken to Spain, and he had 3 palaces or 
houses full of the most valuable at Mechlin. He 
is now better known by his copy of the " Adora- 
tion of the Lamb," by the brothers Van Eyck, 
in the church of St. Bavon at Ghent, than by 
his original productions. This copy was made 
for Philip II. of Spain, and cost 2 years of con- 
Btant labor, for which the artist was paid 
4,000 florins. It was finished in 1559. Com- 
plaining that he could not find a blue good 
enough to paint the mantle of the Virgin with, 
the king wrote to Titian for some ultramarine, 
of which, when it came, Coxcie used to the value 
of 82 ducats on the mantle alone. The copy 
Was painted with extreme care, and was for a 



long time kept in the chapel of the old palac* 
at Madrid, whence it was sent to Brussels by 
Gen. Belliard during the French occupation of 
Spain. It was in several parts, which are now 
scattered in the royal gallery of Berlin, in the 
Pinakothek at Munich, and in the collection of 
the king of Holland. Without much originality, 
Coxcie yet conferred a service upon the art in 
his native country by introducing there the 
knowledge of the Italian masters and their style. 
He is distinguished for lightness, grace, and an 
agreeable individuality. Among his best pro- 
ductions are the illustrations of the fable of 
Psyche, which were engraved by Agostino Ve- 
neziano, and have furnished the models for in- 
numerable paintings on glass. 

COXE. I. Aethuk Cleveland, D.D., an 
Episcoi)al clergyman, son of the Eev. S. H. Cox, 
born at Mendham, N. J., May 10, 1818. He was 
graduated in 1838 at the university of New York, 
took orders in 1841, and has been settled succes- 
sively at Morrisania, Hartford, and Baltimore, in 
which last named city he is now (1859) the re(?- 
tor of Grace church. He has written "Chris- 
tian Ballads, " a volume of religious poems (New 
York, 1840), " Saul,a Mystery," and other poems, 
beside a volume of travels in England (1856), 
and a collection of sermons (1855). II. Tench, 
an American writer on political economy, bora 
in 1756, died in Philadelphia, July 16, 1824. He 
was the author of " An Inquiry into the Prin- 
ciples of a Commercial System for the United 
States" (1787), "View of the United States" 
(1794), "Thoughts on Naval Power and the 
Encouragement of Commerce and Manufac- 
tures" (1806), " Memoir on the Cultivation, 
Trade, and Manufacture of Cotton" (1807), " On 
the Navigation Act" (1809), " On the Arts and 
Manufactures of the United States" (1814). IIL 
William, archdeacon of Wilts, an English his- 
torical and biographical writer, born in Lon- 
don in March, 1747, died at Bemerton in June, 
1828. He was elected a fellow of King's col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1768, and in 1771 was ap- 
pointed to the curacy of Denhain. Shortly 
after this he commenced a series of extended 
visits to the continent, in the capacity of pri- 
vate tutor to young members of the nobility, 
which, with occasional intervals for literary or 
professional labor, embraced a period of inoro 
than 20 years. The result of his observation 
and researches was given to the world in a num- 
ber of elaborate books of travel, and of history 
and biograpliy. In the former department he 
published between 1779 and 1789 " Travels into 
Poland, Russia, and Denmark," and " Travels 
in Switzerland," beside some miscellaneous 
works on Russian discoveries, on hospitals in 
northern Europe, and other subjects. In 1798 
appeared his " Memoirs of the Life and Admin- 
istration of Sir Robert Walpole," accompanied 
by many valuable state papers, of which Pitt 
observed that it gave him his first correct notion 
of the character of Sir Robert. His next im- 
portant publication, " History of the House of 
Austria" (which forms a part of Bohu's " Stand- 



COYPEL 



CRAB 



27 



ard Library"), is carefully and impartially Avrit- 
tcii, and is still regarded as a standard autliority. 
It Avas succeeded by "History of tbe Kings of 
Spain of the House of Bourbon," in 1813, "Me- 
moirs of John, Duke of Marlborough," in 1817- 
'19,"Memoirsof the Administration of the Right 
Hon. Heiu-y Pelham," published posthumously 
in 1829, and by a variety of minor publications. 
He was appointed archdeacon of Wilts in 1805, 
and during the last 7 or 8 years of his life was 
afflicted with total blindness. 

COYPEL. L NoiiL, a French painter, a suc- 
cessful imitator of Poussin, born in 1G28, died in 
IVOT. Among his most celebrated pictures are 
the " Death of Abel" and the "Assumption of the 
Virgin," the latter in the hotel of the Invalids. 
II. Antoine, a son and pupil of the preceding, 
born in 16G1, died in 1722. He Avas inferior to 
his father, but graceful in the treatment of 
his subjects, and a man of literary accomplish- 
ments. He was appointed painter to the king 
in 1716. His principal works are the "Assump- 
tion," in the church of Notre Dame, "Christ 
Curing the Blind," and " Christ among the 
Doctors." Some of his etchings are executed iu 
a masterly manner. The " Nnmismatic History 
of the Reign of Louis XIV.," chiefly from his 
designs, is a work as remarkable of its kind as 
his frescoes of the chapel at Versailles. III. 
NoiiL Nicolas, stepbrother of the preceding, 
born in 1G92, died in 1735, also painted many 
works for the churches of Paris, of which the 
best are the ceiling of the chapel of the Virgin 
in the church of St. Saviour, and the " Assump- 
tion" in the same chapel. IV. Charles Awtoine, 
son of Antoine, born in 1694, died in 1752, 
chiefly excelled as painter of portraits, the best 
of Avhich is that qf Adrienne Lecouvreur. 

COYSEVOX, Antoine, a French sculptor of 
Spanish origin, born in 1640, died in Paris, Oct. 
10, 1720, produced several fine statues of Louis 
XIV., a statue of Conde, and of other eminent 
persons. Among his best works are the tombs 
of Mazarin and of Colbert, the monument of 
Lebrun, and 2 statues of a flute-player and Flora, 
now in the gardens of the Tuileries. 

COZZENS, Fkederio Swartwout, an Amer- 
ican author, born in New Y'ork, March 5, 1818. 
He was educated in his native city, and has al- 
ways resided there. In 1853 he collected a se- 
ries of articles, which he had previously con- 
ti'ibuted to the " Knickerbocker Magazine," in a 
volume entitled " Prismatics, by Richard Ilay- 
warde." The nom de phone which he assumed 
was the name of one of his ancestors, an Eng- 
lish Moravian missionary in America. In 1856 
he published the " Sparrowgrass Papers," con- 
sisting of sketches which had before appeared 
in " Putnam's Magazine," describing the rural 
life of a cockney. Mr. Cozzens is a leading 
wine merchant, and publishes in connection 
with his business a periodical entitled the 
" Wine Press," for which, as well as for other 
publications, he has written intei'esting essays 
on the culture of the grape. In 1858 Mr. 
Cozzens attended the copyright congress of 



Brussels as delegate of the New Y'ork publish- 
ers' association. 

CRAB, a crustaceous animal of the tribe 
hrachyura and genera cancer^ luj}a, and many 
others, several species of wliich are common on 
the coast, and serve, like the lobster, for food. 
The most common is the lujta dicantha of Milne- 
Edwards, found most abundantly south of Cape 
Cod, and especially in Cliesapeake and Dela- 
Avare bays. Its feet are flattened, its teeth long 
and projecting like spines. From the color of 
its long hands it is sometimes called the violet 
crab, though the color of the body is greenish. 
In the summer months it is regarded as a greet 
delicacj^ on the shores of tlie Chesapeake. A 
number of the species of the smallest crabs are 
known only as they are found in tlie intestines 
and maws of the cod, haddock, and other fish, 
to which they seem to furnish one of the prin- 
cipal sources of food. Another little crab, the 
'pinnotheres ostrcmn, unprotected by a shell of 
its own, finds a shelter within those of the 
oyster, mussel, pinna, &c., which it does not ap- 
pear to molest ; indeed, it is supposed by some 
that it affords aid to tlie shellfish in securing 
the prey which nourishes both. This was the 
opinion of Pliny, and of later naturalists also. 
Others state that in the case of the pinna, at 
least, the little crab warns the shell fish of dan- 
ger when its enemy the cuttle fish approaches 
to devour it. The little crab is often found with 
the oysters cooked for the table. Several spe- 
cies of the genus ^fl<7;/?'t/s are also unprovided 
with a shell of their own; but these seek for 
some empty univalve shell ; and an individual 
finding one which on trial fits his size, he takes 
possession of it, and drags it about with him on 
the sands, till his enlarged dimensions cause him 
to seek a more capacious tenement, or till a 
stronger crab, driving him out, suddenly slips 
in, and leaves him to look for another. These 
are known as hermit or soldier crabs. In Ja- 
maica they pass into the interior several miles 
from the sea, carrying with them their coverings 
of marine shells. — Beside the salt-water crabs, 
ther# are others, as the thelphusians, that live 
on the banks of rivers and in humid forests, 
burrowing in the ground. In Italy and further 
up the Mediterranean these are eaten, particu- 
larly in the season of Lent. There are others 
also in warm climates of terrestrial habits, one 
group of which is called oci/poda, swift-footed, 
from their rapid running, which is such, as Cuvier 
states, that a horseman has some difficulty in 
overtaking them. The 0. ai'enaria, or sand 
crab, of Catesby, is an American specimen of 
this genus, found in the West Indies and on 
the mainland. During the summer they live 
in holes on the sea-shore just above high-Avater 
mark, retiring into them during the day and 
coming out at night. When disturbed they run 
A^ery rapidly, threatening at the saiue time Avith 
their elevated claws. At the close of the summer 
they emigrate in troops into the interior, and, 
finding a convenient place for passing the win- 
ter, dig holes into which they bury them 



28 



CRAB APPLE 



CRABBE 



selves", and so completely hide the entrance to 
their retreats, that no indication of them is 
peen upon the surface. In the spring they reap- 
pear, and return to the sea-shore. They liave a 
gingular habit in their nocturnal excursions of 
entering into tlic houses, the doors of which in 
the warm nitrlits are often left open, and tak- 
ing posses-^ion of small articles of clothing, as 
cravats, collars, stockings, &c. If disturbed in 
their pilferings, they scramble away, making a 
great clattering upon the floor ; the articles that 
disappear with them are usually etFectually con- 
cealed in their holes. They are often seen in 
great numbers in the roads, and it is curious to 
observe their rapid sidelong retreat, as one is 
riding by on horseback, and when overtaken 
liow they run as rapidly back the other way 
without turning round. In the Moluccas a crab 
is described by the name of purse or robber 
crab (pagttrus Intro of Fabricius), which is said 
to feed upon fruits as well as flesh, and to climb 
the palm tree called the pandnnus odoratissi- 
mus, to eat the small cocoanuts it bears. They 
are seen in great abundance in Lord Hood's 
island in the Pacific. When met in the road 
they set themselves in a threatening attitude, 
making a great snapping with their pincers and 
retreating backward. 

CRAB APPLE. See Apple. 

CRABB, George, an English barrister and 
philologist, born at Palgrave, Dec. 8, 1778, 
died at Hammersmith, Dec. 4, 1854. Intended 
for the medical profession, his delicate nervous 
organization made him incompetent to follow 
it. He devoted himself to teaching, studied in 
Germany, and published on his return German 
text books, which were long in use. In 1821, 
after having been married 22 years, he was 
graduated at the university of Oxford, with 
reputation for mathematical attainments. He 
was 51 years of age when he was admitted to 
the bar. His oftensive manners prevented his 
success as a practitioner, but as an author he 
made several contributions to legal literature, 
which became standard works. Among these 
is a "History of English Law." He is^nost 
generally known by his treatise on " English: 
Synonymes," explained with copious examples, 
published in 1816 (7th edition in 1844, after 
which the book was stereotyped). He was the 
author also of a historical and of a technological 
dictionary. 

CRABBE, George, an English poet, born at 
Aldborougli, in Suftblk, Dec. 24, 1754, died at 
Trowbridge, in Wiltshire, Feb. 3, 1832. Hi/i 
father, who was a collector of salt duties, ex- 
erted himself to give his son a superior edu- 
cation. At the age of 14 years, having made 
some progress in the study of mathematics and 
the classics,V George was destined to the medical 
profession, and was apprenticed to a surgeon 
near Bury St. Edmund's. Three years later he 
was transferred to another surgeon at Wood- 
bridge, with whom he completed his appren- 
ticeship. Ilis father was a subscriber to a 
" Philosophical Magazine," the last page of 



which, devoted to poetry, he was accustomed 
to tear off before sending the numbers to be 
bound. These rejected sheets had first excited 
the poetical tastes and powers of his son, who, 
both during his school days and amid the pur- 
suits of surgery, made many ambitious attempts 
at versifying. While at Woodbridge he com- 
peted successfully with a poem on " Hope " for 
a prize offered by the "Lady's Magazine," to 
which he continued to contribute. In 1775 
his first separate publication, a poem on " In- 
ebriety," was issued anonymously at Ipswich. 
He soon after repaired to London to pursue his 
medical studies, but returned within a year, 
with his pecuniary resources exhausted. Never 
pleased with his profession, he soon determined 
to abandon it for literary adventure in London, 
and, provided with a loan of £5, he worked his 
way in a sloop from Aldborough to the metrop- 
olis, where he arrived in 1780. His first poet- 
ical pieces found no publisher ; and his first 
printed poem, the " Candidate," which appear- 
ed anonymously in that year, was coldly re- 
ceived, and brought him no profit in conse- 
quence of the immediate failure of his publisher. 
His letters to Lord North, Lord Shelburne, and 
Lord Thurlow, enclosing some of his poems 
and asking assistance, received no answer. 
Threatened with arrest, lie applied without an 
introduction to Edmund Burke, at whose door 
he left a simple and manly letter, and then 
calmed his agitation by walking Westminster 
bridge backward and forward throughout the 
night. From his kind reception by Mr. Burke 
begins his success in literature. He was re- 
ceived into the family of the statesman, was 
introduced to Fox, Reynolds, Johnson, and his 
other distinguished friends, and had the ad- 
vantage of his criticism and advice concerning 
the poem of the " Library," which was pub- 
lished in 1781 (2d edition in 1783), and which 
was favorably noticed. Lord Thurlow, with 
tardy generosity, now invited him to breakfast 
and presented him with a bank note for £100. 
By Mr. Burke's recommendation, he qualified 
himself for holy orders, was ordained a deacon 
in 1781, and a priest in the following year, and 
after a short experience as curate in his native 
parish, received the situation of chaplain to the 
duke of Rutland at Bel voir castle. In 1783 he 
f)ublished the " Village," which had been re- 
vised both by Mr. Burke and Dr. Johnson, and 
obtained immediate popularity, some of its de- 
scriptions, as that of the parish workhouse, 
being copied into nearly all periodicals. Lord 
Thurlow, declaring that he was " as like to par- 
son Adams as twelve to a dozen," presented 
him in 1785 to two small livings in Dorsetshire, 
where, having married a lady who was the ob- 
ject of his early love, he lived in retirement. 
After the publication of the " Newspaper " in 
that year lie did not resume authorship till 
1807. He exchanged his livings in 1789 for 
others in the vale of Belvoir, where he resided 
most of the time till after the death of his wife 
in 1813, when he was preferred to the rectory 



CEABBE 



CRACOW 



29 



of Trowbridge. lie assigned tlie deatli of his 
distinguisliod friends and advisers as liis reason 
for publishing nothing, and passed his time in 
domestic enjoyment, in various studies of nat- 
ural liistory, especially of botany, iii educating 
liis sons, in writing three novels which he after- 
ward burned, and in fultilling his professional 
duties. In 1807 his "Parish Register," which 
liad been read and ajjproved by Mr. Fox, was 
received with universal api)robation, and was 
followed in 1810 by the "Borough," and in 
1812 by "Tales in Verse." The latter years 
of Crabbe were occupied with the conscientious 
discharge of his duties to his parishioners of 
Trowbridge, by whom he was beloved, with 
studies of botany and geology pursued with in- 
creasing interest, and with occasional visits to 
London, and associations with a younger gen- 
eration of poets, among whom were Moore, 
Rogers, Cami)l)ell, Scott, Wordsworth, and 
Southey. In 1819 he completed his last pub- 
lication, the " Tales of the Hall," for the copy- 
right of which and of all his previous works he 
received from Mr. Murray the sum of £3,000. 
In 1822 he visited Sir Walter Scott at Edin- 
burgh, then in the midst of tunudtuous prepa- 
rations for the king's visit, and the biographer 
of Scott regrets that the two poets had not 
rather met among the books, and trees, and 
simple peasants of Abbottsford. His health 
began to decline in 1828, but his mind still re- 
tained its clearness and clieerfulness. The 
shops of Trowbridge were closed on the days 
of his death and funeral, and his parishioners 
erected a monument to his memory in the clian- 
cel of their church. He had spent for many 
years the principal part of his professional in- 
come in charity. — The finest productions of 
Crabbe, and sure foundations of his fame, are 
the '' Village," "Parish Register," and some of 
liis shorter tales, which are unrivalled for their 
severe and minute descriptions of humble life. 
The whole force of his genius, rarely diverted, 
by bright ideal scenes or pictures of elegance 
and' refinement, was bent upon delineating the 
circumstances and anatomizing the characters 
of poverty, vice, and misery. He is styled by 
Byron "nature's sternest painter, yet the best;" 
and though he flattered the poor by no Arca- 
dian pictures, he was far from being their sat- 
irist. The amenities of tlie refined society 
■which he enjoyed in mature manhood never 
occuj)ied liis imagination so much as the remi- 
niscences of struggle, suffering, passion, and dis- 
aster with which his youth was familiar ; and 
it was with deep sympathy that he described 
the ruined and friendless inmates of the work- 
liouse, explored the haunts of smugglers and 
gypsies, wrote of erring and crazed maidens, 
and lingered over the darkest forms and refuse 
members of humanity. But though his delin- 
eations, with their Dutch minuteness and ac- 
curacy, always reveal tenderness and benev- 
olence rather than harshness in the poet, they 
yet sometimes become wearisome and displeas- 
ing, failing to excite an interest in the gloomy 



subjects which they expose. A complete edi- 
tion of his poetical works in 8 vols., the first of 
which contained his life written by his son, 
with his letters and journals, was published by 
Murray, in London, in 1834, and republished 
in one vol. in 1847. — Geouge, an English clergy- 
man, eldest son of the ])receding, born at Stra- 
thern, near Belvoir castle, in 1785, died at Bred- 
field, Sei)t. 16, 1857. He was educated at 
Cambridge, was for many years curate of 
Pucklehead, and afterward vicar of Bredfield, 
])ublished in 1840 a work entitled " Outlines of 
Natural Theology," and is chiefly known for 
his interesting biography of his father, which 
first appeared in 1834. 

CRABETII,DiRK AND WorxER, two brothers, 
natives of Gouda, in Holland, celebrated mas- 
ters of painting on gla.«s, lived in the 16th and 
the beginning of the I7tli century. They painted 
the windows of St. John's church at Gouda, 
which are considered the most finished produc- 
tions ever executed in that branch of art, and 
also the windows of other churches in Belgium 
and Paris, and probably also Spain. The two 
brothers were excessively jealous of each other, 
Wouter being superior in correctness and neat- 
ness of design, and Dirk in brilliancy of coloring. 

CRACOW, formerly the capital of independ- 
ent Poland, from 1815 to 1846 of the republic 
of the same name, now of a western circle of 
Galicia, and seat of a bishopric, is situated in 
a plain surrounded by hills, on the left bank of 
the A^istula, which there becomes navigable, 
and is crossed by a new massive bridge, con- 
necting the city with the suburban town of 
Podgorze ; lat. 50° 3' K, long. 19° 55' E. ; pop. 
about 40,000, of whom nearly ^ are Jews. It 
consists of the city proper and several suburbs, 
the chief of which are the Kleparz, Stradom, 
and Kazimierz, the latter on an island of the 
Vistula, inhabited almost exclusively by the 
Jews, who have there 7 synagogues. Except 
this part, which is mostly a narrow and gloomy 
abode of misery, Cracow, with its old castle, 
once tlie residence of the kings, on the top of 
the Wawel, its large central square, its numer- 
ous churches, cliapels, turrets, and steeples, of- 
fers the aspect of a han,dsome and picturesque 
old city; though several conflagrations, of which 
that of 1850 was one of the most destructive, 
have changed parts of it, and tlie ancient forti- 
fications have been converted into modern en- 
circling promenades. The royal castle, whose 
history is connected with that of the legendary 
Krakus and his daughter Wanda, of the Piasts 
and Jagiellos, having been destroyed by 2 con- 
flagrations, restored by King Augustus II., for- 
tified under the direction of Dumonriez, after- 
ward the French general, in 1768, and repaired 
by the xVustrians, has finally been converted b}* 
the latter into barracks for the garrison of the 
city. But the beautiful Gothic cathedral of 
the ancient residence still contains, in its nu- 
merous and splendid chapels, the tombs and 
monuments of St. Stanislas, whose remains 
are preserved in a silver cofiin, of Casimir the 



30 



CEACOW 



Great, Jagiello and his wife Hedvig, the 3 

Sigismuiids, Stephen Bathori, John Sobieski, 
Copernicus, Prince Poniatowski, Kosciuszko, 
Dombrowski, Artliur Potocki, and other kings, 
queens and celebrated men of Poland. Its bell, 
cast in 1520, its archives and library, as well 
as the royal insignia, preserved in the vaults, 
are also shown to visiting travellers as worthy 
of their curiosity. Beside the cathedral, Cra- 
cow has more than 70 Roman Catholic churches, 
numerous convents and chapels, and one Prot- 
estant church. Other remarkable buildings are 
the episcopal palace, with a museum of Sarma- 
tian antiquities, the city hall, and the Jagiello 
university. The latter, founded by Casimir the 
Great, and completed under Ladislas Jagiello, 
was for centuries one of the most flourishing 
institutions of Europe, but lost its importance 
througli the influence of the Jesuits, and having 
been reorganized in 1817, had again to suffer 
restrictive alterations in 1833. A library con- 
taining numerous old books and valuable man- 
uscripts, a cabinet of natural history, a botanical 
garden and observatory, belong to it. Cracow 
has also a number of other institutions for public 
education, arts, sciences, and benevolence. In the 
vicinity of tlie city, the hill of Wanda, wliich com- 
Tnemorates the ]->atriotic suicide of the daughter 
of Krakus, the Bronislawa (glory of arms), with 
a mound 150 feet high, erected in memory of 
Kosciuszko, and Lobzow, a summer residence 
built by Casimir the Great, attract the atten- 
tion of travellers and patriots. The commerce 
of Cracow, though greatly decreased since 
the fall of independent Poland, and especially 
since the annexation to Austria, is still con- 
Biderablc. It is still a centre of trade between 
Russian Poland, Galicia, and Hungary, and a 
chief depot for Hungarian wines, salt, and wax. 
The celebrated salt mines of Wieliczka are a 
few miles distant from Cracow. Railroad 
lines connect it with Warsaw, Berlin, Vienna, 
and the interior of Galicia. — The foundation of 
Cracow is attributed by the legends of Poland 
to Krakus, a Slavic chief, who is supposed to 
have lived about the year 700. Under Ladislas 
Lokietek (the Short), who was crowned here in 
1320, it became, instead of Gnesen, the capital 
of Poland. This dignity it maintained down to 
the reign of Sigisinund III., who made Warsaw 
the seat of the court and government (1609). 
The kings of Poland, however, still continued 
to be crowned in the cathedral of Cracow. It 
was conquered in 1039 by the Bohemians, in 
1241 by the Tartars, in 1G55 by the Swedes un- 
der Charles X., in 1702 by Charles XII., and in 
1768, after having for some time supported the 
cause of the confederation of Bar, by the Rus- 
sians. After the fall of Kosciuszko, who made 
Cracow the starting point of his revolution, it 
was, on the last partition of Poland (1795), ta- 
ken by Austria. In 1809 it was annexed, to- 
gether with western Galicia, to the duchy of 
Warsaw, which had been created 2 years before 
by Napoleon. After the fall of tliis emperor it 
was erected by the congress of Vienna, together 



with a small but fertile territory of about 500 
sq. m. on the left bank of the Vistula, bounded 
by Russian Poland, Galicia, and Prussian Si- 
lesia, into an independent and neutral republic, 
nnder the protection of Russia, Austria, and 
Prussia. This miniature state, the last remnant 
of Polish independence, had a representative 
assembly, which held sessions in the last month 
of every year, and an executive senate headed 
by a president, who was elected for 3 years by 
the assembly, and confirmed by the protecting 
states. It contained about 150,000 inhalJitants, 
of whom more than y'^ were Jews. The latter, 
however, enjoyed no civil rights, and were 
also subject to many humiliating medifeval re- 
strictions. Grain, excellent fruits, cattle, coal, 
iron, and sulphur, and the reviving commerce 
of Cracow, were the chief sources of wealth. 
During the Polish revolution of 1830- 31, Cracow 
was under the influence of the national party^ 
and many of its inhabitants fought in the ranks 
of the Polish armies. Having become a place 
of refuge to a small part of the corps of Rozycki 
toward the close of the war, it was occupied by 
the Russian general Rtldiger. The republic 
was now purged by the 3 protecting powers of 
all revolutionary elements, and finally reorgan- 
ized in 1833. But new national agitations 
brought about another military occupation in 
1886, this time executed by troops of all the 3 
powers. This was followed by the expulsion 
of more than 500 persons, who were escorted 
to Trieste, to be transported from that port to 
America. Scarcely had the troops retired, 
Avhen new conspiracies, and the assassination 
of a Russian spy, served in 1838 as a reason for 
a fresh occupation by the Austrians, which last- 
ed till 1841. The revolutionary outbreak of 
Feb. 1846, which Avas prepared by a most ex- 
tensive conspiracy for simultaneous action in 
all the provinces of ancient Poland, was for a 
moment successful in Cracow alone. The Aus- 
trians, who had again occupied the city, were 
driven beyond theVistula, the restoration of Po- 
land as a democratic republic was proclaimed, 
and a provisional government organized under 
Tyssowski as dictator (who died at Washington 
in 1857). But the early detection of the conspi- 
racy in the duchj'- of Posen, the easy suppres- 
sion of the outbreak in Russian Poland, and par- 
ticularly the great catastrophe in western Gali- 
cia, where the peasantry massacred the insur- 
gent nobility with their followers and families, 
soon annihilated the hopes of the friends of 
Poland. Three armies were approaching. Thus 
pressed, the small body of Poles surrendered 
to the Prussians (March 3), and the republic 
of Cracow Avas soon after annexed to Austria 
by a resolution of the 3 protectors. Thus the 
stipulation of the congress of Vienna, Avhich 
guaranteed the "perpetual freedom and inde- 
pendence" of tlie last small remnant of Poland, 
was set aside by 3 out of 8 contracting powers, 
without the consent of the others. The event 
was announced as a fait accon)2)U by Prince 
!Metternich, and remained so in spite of the 



CRAFTS 



CRAIK 



31 



protests of the governments of England and 
France, the clamors and indignation of the 
western press, and the vehement sj)eeches of 
Connt dcMontalenibort in the French chamber 
of peers. The movements of 1848 but slightly 
disturbed the i^cace of Cracow. An extensive 
system of fortilications, undertaken by the Ans- 
trians, is now in course of completion, 

CRAFTS, Samuel CirANDLKii, governor andU. 
S. senator of Vermont, born at Woodstf)ck, Wind- 
ham CO., Conn., Oct. 6, 1708, died at Craftsbury, 
Vt, Nov. 19, 1853, was graduated at Harvard 
university in 1790, and removed to Vermont 
soon after the state was admitted to the federal 
union. He was elected town clerk of Crafts- 
bury in 1792, and held that office for 37 succes- 
sive years. In 1800 he was appointed assistant 
judge of Orleans county court, and so continued 
till 1810, wlien he was appointed chief judge 
of the county court, holding that office till 1816. 
From 1796 to 1815 he was register of probate 
for Orleans district. In 1825 he was again ap- 
pointed chief judge of the county court, in wliich 
office he remained 3 years, and from 1836 to 
1838 he was clerk of the county court. In 
1793 he was elected a delegate to the conven- 
tion which met at Windsor to frame a state 
consitution. In 1796 he was elected a member 
of the house of representatives, and was re- 
elected in 1800, 1801, 1803, and 1805. In 1798 
and 1799 he was clerk of the general assembly. 
In 1828 he was elected governor of Vermont, 
and reelected in 1829 and 1830. In 1829 he 
was a member of the constitutional convention, 
of which body he was elected president. He was 
elected a representative in congress in 1816, and 
held that office for 8 successive years. In 1842 
be was appointed by Gov. Paine a senator in 
congress to fill a vacancy. When the general 
assembly was convened, he was continued in the 
U. S. senatorship till the close of the term by 
the election of that body. With the termina- 
tion of this office (March 3, 1S43) his active 
public career was closed. In June, 1802, while 
there were but a few log huts on the site of the 
present city of Cincinnati, he commenced a tour 
of observation to the lower Mississippi, and, in 
company with Michaux the younger, made a 
botanical reconnoissance of the valley of the 
great West in canoes and arks at a time when 
there were no steamboats on that river. 

CRAFTS, William, an American lawyer 
and author, born in Charleston, S. C, Jan. 24, 
1787, died at Lebanon Springs, N. Y., Sept. 23, 
1820. He was graduated at Harvard college 
in 1805. Choosing the legal profession, he be- 
gan to practise in Charleston, and his eloquence 
made him a most successful advocate, especially 
in criminal cases. During several sessions he 
was a member of the state legislature. As editor 
of the Charleston " Courier," he contributed to 
that journal a large number of graceful essays 
suggested by to})ics of the day. He was a favor- 
ite orator on public occasions, and in 1817 deliv- 
ered the Phi Beta Kappa address at Cambridge. 
He wrote a few poems, chiefly on local subjec-ts, 



among which are " Sullivan's Island ;" the 
"Raciad ;" a "Monody on the Death of Deca- 
tur," an improvisation published on the day 
after the news of the commodore's death was 
received ; " Kitty," a companion piece to Hal- 
leck's " Fanny ;" the " Sea Serpent, or Glou- 
cester Iloax," a drama in 3 acts, founded on 
the reputed capture of the sea serpent at Glou- 
cester, which proved to be a liorse mackerel of 
mammoth projiortions ; and contributions to 
the Omnium Botherum^ a quizzical serial, the 
object of which was local satire. A selection 
from his writings in prose and verse, including 
several of his orations, was published at Charles- 
ton in 1828, with a memoir of his life by the 
Rev. Samuel Gilman. 

CRAG, in geology, sandy strata overlying the 
London clay, found particularly in the counties 
of Suflblk and Norfolk, England. Two divisions 
are recognized — the upper, called the red, and 
the lowei', the coralline. The former is mostly 
made up of red ferruginous quartzose sands; the 
strata of tlic latter are more calcareous and 
marly, and more abound in masses of shells and 
corals, which are sometimes sufficiently compact 
for use as building stones. The formation is 
particularly interesting on account of the fossils 
with which it is filled, the great proportion of 
which are of species still living. 

CRAIG, a S. W. co. of Va,, formed since 1850 
out of portions of Giles, Botetourt, and Roanoke 
counties, and named from Craig's creek, by the 
sources of which it is drained. The surface is 
mountainous, and the principal range of the 
AUeghanies extends along the N. AV. border. 
The valleys are generally fertile, and produce 
corn, wheat, oats, and hay. Capital, New Castle. 
Value of real estate in 1856, $852,959. 

CRAIK, George Lillie, an English author, 
born in Fifeshire in 1799. Having studied 
theology at the university of St. Andrew's, 
he went to London in 1*824, and wrote for 
the society for the diffusion of useful know- 
ledge the 2 volumes of the " Pursuit of Know- 
ledge under Difficulties," published in Knight's 
library of "Entertaining Knowledge." lie was 
a principal contributor to the " Penny C^yclo- 
pjedia " in history and biography, and in 1839 
became the editor of the "Pictorial History of 
England," and wrote those chapters on reli- 
gion, government, laws, industry, and litera- 
ture, which were afterward expanded into 
separate works in Knight's " Weekly Volume " 
as " Sketches of the History of Literature and 
Learning in England" (6 vols.), and tlie " History 
of British Commerce" (3 vols.). In the same 
series appeared " Spenser and his Poetry" in 
1845, and " Bacon and his Philosophy " in 1846. 
He Avrote in 1847 another volume of the " Pur- 
suit of Knowledge under Difficulties," contain- 
ing female examples only. He was appointed 
in 1849 ])rofessor of history and English litera- 
ture in Queen's college, Belf;ist, and has since 
written "Romance of the Peerage" (4 vols.), 
" Outlines of the History of the English Lan- 
guage," the "English of Shakespeare," &c. 



32 



CRAIK 



CRANBERRY 



CRAIK, James, M.D., tbe family physician of 
"Washington, born in Scotland in 1731, died in 
Fairfax co., Va., Feb. 0, 1814. lie was with 
"Washington in the expedition against the French 
and Indians in 1754, and the next year attended 
Braddock in his fatal campaign. In 1781 he 
was director of the hospital at Yorktowu. To 
him we owe the anecdote respecting the dan- 
gers incm-red by Washington, and his remark- 
able escape, at Braddock's defeat. Fifteen years 
afterward, while exi)loriiig wild lauds in the 
western districts of Virginia, he encountered a 
party led by an aged Indian chief, who inform- 
ed liim, by an interpreter, that he had made a 
long journey to see Col. Washington, at whom 
in the battle of Monongahela lie had fired his 
rifle 15 times, and ordered all his young men 
to do the same. In fact, Washington had 2 
horses killed under him, and his coat was pierced 
with 4 bullets. After the revolution Craik set- 
tled near Mount Vernon, and continued to be 
the physician of Washington until his death. 

CRAMER, Joim Anthony, a philologist, 
born in Switzerland in 1793, died at Brighton, 
England, Aug. 24, 1848. He passed the greater 
part of his life in England, having received his 
education at the university of Oxford, where ho 
became principal of New Inn hall, and professor 
of modern history. lie published many valu- 
able works on philological subjects, beside de- 
scriptions of ancient Greece, Italy, and Asia 
Minor. 

CRAMER, John Baptist, a musical artist and 
composer, born at Mannheim, Baden, in 1771, 
died in England, April 16, 1858, where he pass- 
ed most of his life in great esteem as a com- 
poser and as a performer and teacher on the 
piano forte. Ilis exercises and studies for the 
instrument are used in all parts of Europe and 
in America. His compositions are considered 
models of clear and simple construction, beauty, 
and grace. 

CRANACn, or Kp.anacii, Lucas, a Ger- 
man painter, whose lamily name was Sunder, 
born in Ivronach, near Bamberg, in 1472, died 
in Wittenberg, Oct. 16, 1553. He was court 
painter to three electors of Saxony — Frederic 
the Wise, Jolin the Steadfast, and Frederic 
the Magnanimous. He accompanied the first 
to the Holy Land in 1493, and shai'ed the im- 
prisonment to which the last was subjected 
after the battle of Muhlberg, in 1547. In 1533 
he was appointed burgomaster of Witten- 
berg, and thenceforward enjoyed the intimate 
friendship of Luther, Melauchthon, and the 
other great reformers, whom he frequently in- 
troduced into his pictures. The school of Sax- 
ony, of which he was the head, is parallel to 
that of Albert Diirer, with whom he had much 
in common, although tlie earnestness and grand- 
eur of the latter are replaced in Cranach by a 
graceful and almost childlike simplicity. Like 
Lurer, however, he was at times too much 
swayed by the fantastic element, then so preva- 
lent in German art. Ilis works are numerous 
in Germany, particularly in Saxony, and some 



good specimens are to be found in Florence. 
One of the most celebrated is an altarpiece at 
Weimar, representing in the middle the crucified 
Saviour, on one side of whom stand Jolm the 
Baptist, the artist, and Luther ; and on the 
other is the Redeemer, victorious over death 
and the devil. On the wings are portraits of 
the elector and his family. The picture has re- 
markable i)ower in parts, and the portrait of 
Luther is singularly grand. In the Avings of 
another altarpiece in the city church at Witten- 
berg, representing the last supper, he has intro- 
duced Luther, Melanchthon, and Bugenhagen, 
performing various religious duties. In myth- 
logical subjects he was not less successful, and 
his nude female figures have sometimes much 
grace and beauty of form. He also excelled in 
portraits, and has left accurate likenesses of 
some of the most notable men of the time. As 
an engraver he was inferior to Diirer, but his 
wood cuts are highly esteemed. Christian Schu- 
chardt is the author of Lucas Cranach des 
Altcren Lcben iincl Werl-e (Leipsic, 1851), and 
the editor and proprietor of an illustrated pub- 
lication, with designs of Cranach's work, of 
which the 2d instalment (Seeks Blatter mit 
siehoi NacJibilchingen von WerJuen Lucas Cra- 
nach d. A.) appeared at Weimar in 1858. — 
His son, Lucas the younger, who officiated also 
as a burgomaster of Wittenberg, and who died 
in 1586, formed his style on that of his father 
and of Diirer, and attained great excellence as 
a painter. 

CRANBERRY, the small, red, acid fruit of 
the vaccinium macrocarpon^ and other shrubs 
of the same genus, distinguished by slender 
creeping stems, small evergreen leaves whitened 
beneath, and erect pedicels terminated by a pale 
rose-colored nodding flower, with a 4-parted 
corolla. Tlie cranberry shrub grows best in 
lowlands, where the decay of organic matter 
furnishes the different organic acids. It is in- 
digenous on both continents, wild in many parts 
of North and South America, in England and 
Ireland, in the marshy grounds of central and 
northern Europe, and on the wastes of Siberia. 
The American cranberry is larger than the Eng» 
li'sh, and of richer flavor. The 3 principal va» 
rieties recognized in the markets are the cherry, 
bugle, and bell cranberries. The best of the 
cherry variety are very dark colored. Cape Cod 
is noted for its cranberry grounds; its climate 
and soil are both favorable to their growth, and 
the product is large and of the finest quality. 
The estimation in which this fruit is held both 
in Europe and America has caused many at- 
tempts, generally with little success on uplands, 
to produce it by artificial cultivation. Recently 
a wild upland cranberry has been discovered on 
the Neepegon coast of Lake Superior, where it 
flourishes on the poorest soils. The fruit is of a 
pale red color, smaller, softer, and sweeter than 
the lowland varieties, and well suited for jellies 
and preserves. The lowland ber^ries succeed 
Avell on beach sand, or on soil composed of 
beach sand and peat. On heavy soils the vines 



CKANBERRY 



CRANCII 



33 



become luxuriant, but do not fruit well. A 
loamy soil is fitted for a cranberry ground by 
liaving beach sand applied to it; lowlands 
are improved for this purpose by being coated 
with sand. Taking off the sod and exposing tho 
soil to a winter's frost, ameliorates its condition 
and rids it of weeds. Btagnant water kills the 
vines. If they are grown on swampy ground, 
its surface should be drained. The vines may 
be flooded in autumn and the water drawn olf 
in the spring, which saves them from danger by 
frost, but makes them blossom later. If vines are 
taken u]) in the autumn to be planted again in 
spring, they should be protected in a cellar dur- 
ing the winter. A southerly aspect and shelter 
from cold winds are desirable. The vines should 
be chosen with great care, some of them being 
imfruitful; tho best may be distinguished by 
the wiry texture of the wood, and the greenish 
brown color of the leaves. The poorer plants 
are more vigorous, brighter, greener, and have 
a more bushy foliage than the best. The vines 
should be planted in the spring, or in the au- 
tumn if the " patch" can be well flooded in 
winter. The transferring of the sods which 
bear the vines is going out of practice. A bet- 
ter method is to use cuttings from 4 to 6 inches 
long, the middle of which is covered in the soil, 
and the ends left projecting ; or 2 or 3 cuttings 
may be planted together with a dibble. Vines 
have been cut into pieces 2 or 3 inches long by 
a common hay cutter, sown broadcast, and har- 
rowed in. Propagation from seed is not to be 
depended on, the seed not germinating readily 
except in favorable localities ; the seedlings are 
easily injured ; there is much loss of time; and 
even in the third year little fruit is borne. The 
vines should be planted in rows 2 feet apart. 
The weeds should be kept down for 2 seasons, 
after which the vines will begin to take full 
possession of the soil. Cranberry vines are 
sometimes burned (but not when the ground is 
very dry) to destroy the worm. Flooding is 
also a remedy for this. The fruit ripens in the 
vicinity of New York about the middle of Oc- 
tober. The persons who pick the berries are 
usually paid by the bushel. The vines should 
be picked clean. When gathered before they 
are ripe (as is sometimes done to save them from 
frost), or if the dew be on them, they do not 
keep well. The cranberry rake may sometimes 
be used to advantage ; it is made of bent sheet 
iron, whose lower edge is a row of teeth shaped 
like the letter V ; when drawn over the ground 
the plants escape, but the fruit is gathered. The 
berries may be rolled over an inclined plane to 
separate the good from the bad. Leaves, straws, 
prematurely ripe and diseased fruit, should be 
removed. Cranberries for Europe are packed 
in water in small kegs, and sometimes in sealed 
bottles fdled with water. By the American 
aborigines poultices were prepared from cran- 
berries to extract the venom from wounds made 
by poisoned arrows. 

CRANCII, William, an American jurist, 
born in Weymouth, Mass., July 17, 1769, died 
VOL. VI. 3 



in Washington, Sept. 1, 1855. He was the only 
son of the Hon. Richard Cranch of Quincy, 
Mass., who emigrated to the United States from 
Devonshire, England, in 1746. The father was 
for many years a judge of the court of common 
pleas in Massachusetts, and at one time a state 
senator. He was so well read and learned, 
though educated as a watcbmaker, that the 
elder Adams said in 1815, in a letter to the 
Rev. Dr. Morse, that he was " a man who had 
studied divinity, and Jewish and Christian anti- 
quities, more than any clergyman now existing 
in New England." From his mother, a woman 
of rare accomplishments and virtues, William. 
Cranch received the beginning of his education, 
including instruction in the elements of algebra 
and Latin. He was graduated at Harvard college 
in 1 787, commenced the study of the law, and was 
admitted to the bar in July, 1790. After prac- 
tising for 3 years in the courts of Massachusetts 
and New Hampshire, he removed in 1794 to 
the district of Columbia, where he passed the 
remainder of his life. In 1800 he was appointed 
one of the commissioners of public buildings, and 
on Feb. 27, 1801, was nominated to the senate by 
President Adams, and by that body confirmed, 
as one of the assistant judges of the U. S. cir- 
cuit court for the district of Columbia, Gov. Tho- 
mas Johnson of Maryland and James Marshall 
(brother of Chief Justice Marshall) sitting with 
him as associate judges. In 1805, upon the re- 
signation of Chief Justice Kiety, who had been 
made chancellor of Maryland, Judge Cranch re- 
ceived the appointment of chief justice of the 
court from President Jeflferson, and in virtue of 
that office became sole judge of the district 
court of the United States for the district of 
Columbia ; a court of the same jurisdiction as 
that of the United States district courts in other 
parts of the country. These honorable posi- 
tions Judge Cranch held until Sept. 1, 1855, the 
day of his death. For 55 years he was judge" 
of a U. S. court, for more than 50 years chief 
justice; and in all this period of time, notwith- 
standing the facilities of appeal to the supreme 
court of the United States, and, in the district 
of Columbia, upon judgments of a much smaller 
amount than those rendered in the U. S. circuit 
and district courts in the states, only 2 of his 
own decisions were overruled or sent back for 
amendment by»the highest court in the country. 
In all the courts of the country and to all the 
members of the bar Judge Cranch is well known 
as the reporter of the decisions of the U. S. su- 
preme court. In this office he was preceded by 
Mr. Dallas, and succeeded by Mr. Peters. He 
also made full and accurate reports of the cases 
decided in the circuit court of the district of 
Columbia from 1801 to 1841, which were pub- 
lished in 6 large volumes a feAV years before his 
death. In conformity with an act of congress 
he also prepared a code of laws for the district 
of Columbia, but this code, like that prepared 
by Philip Doddridge, M. C. from Virginia, some 
years later, was neglected by congress. As a 
judge he was always fearless, independent, wise. 



34 



CRANOH 



CRANE 



and just. His proximity to the federal author- 
ities brought him more thun once into conflict 
with the executive department, and upon ques- 
tions involving the riglits and integrity of the 
judicial service. In all such conflicts he proved 
an able and upright judge. His legal acquire- 
ments were extraordinary, and he studied his 
cases with a patience and research that never 
grew weary. Among the last services imposed 
upon him by congress, was the final hearing of 
f)atent causes after an appeal from the commis- 
sioner of patents. He was alike familiar with 
the modern lights of jurisprudence and with all 
the black-letter authorities. Long after he had 
reached the age of threescore and ten years lie 
still gave to study 12, 14, and even 16 hours a 
day. He could not only toil like a very Her- 
cules in his profession, but he loved that pro- 
fession and all its labors with his whole heart. 
He also had a fondness for art and for music, and 
with the latter he liad a practical acquaintance 
which he enjoyed through life, especially sacred 
music, with all the earnestness of youthful en- 
thusiasm. He was eminently a religious man, an 
example of Christian charity and all the ameni- 
ties of life. During his long career he possessed 
the respect of all who knew his abilities and 
services, and the confidence of all who knew 
him as a man. His habits of life were singularly 
simple, his manners modest and reserved, and 
his character child-like and confiding. His wife, 
Nancy Greenleaf, of Boston, died 12 years be- 
fore him. They had 13 children, of whom the 
sons were liberally educated, while the daughters 
enjoyed every advantage of instruction which 
the federal capital could afford, all upon the fa- 
ther's salary of $2,500 and $2,700 a year, out of 
which they also were able to live respectably 
and bestow something in charity to the poor, 
— CnRisTOPHER Pearse, SOU of the preceding, an 
American artist and i)oet, born at Alexandria, 
I). C, March 8, 1813. He was graduated at 
Columbian college, in "Washington, in 1831, 
studied for 3 years in the divinity school of 
Harvard university, became a licentiate, but 
gradually withdrew from the clerical oflice, and 
in 1842 determined to devote himself to land- 
scape painting. He resided in New York in 
the practice of his art from that time till 1847, 
when he visited Italy for 2 years. He went 
again to Europe in 1853, and hafsince then lived 
in Paris; and his productions have given him 
a prominent position as an artist. Mr. Cranch 
was one of the contributors to the "Dial," ed- 
ited by li. ^Y. Emerson and others, and soiije of 
his best poems were published in that periodi- 
cal. In 1854 a volume of his poems appeared 
at Philadelphia. His latest publications are 
two stories, entitled the " Last of the Hugger- 
muggers " (Boston, 185(5), and "Kobboltozo" 
(1857), the latter of which is a sequel to tlie 
former. He continues to write occasionall}^ for 
various American journals and magazines. 

CRANE, a wading bird of the order ffi-alltp, 
family arJeidrp, and subfamily gruinm ; under 
this subfamily are included the genera grim, 



scops, and lalearica. The genus grm, which 
includes the typical cranes, has the bill longer 
than the head, straight, sharp-pointed, com- 
pressed on the sides, and slightly curved at the 
tip ; the wings are long, the tertials lengthened 
and pendent; tail short; tarsi very long and 
slender, covered with transverse scales; toes 
rather short, the outer united at the base to the 
middle one, the lateral ones equal ; hind toe 
short and elevated ; claws short and strong. 
The cranes are large birds, frequenting marshes, 
muddy flats, cultivated and open plains, migrat- 
ing to warm climates in winter, and returning 
to the north to breed. They fly usually at night 
in large flocks, following a leader in 2 diverg- 
ing lines, at a great elevation, and sometimes 
uttering loud cries. Their food consists of rep- 
tiles, fish, mice, and other small animals, insects, 
seeds, roots, and grain. The common crane of 
Europe is G. cinerea (Bechst.). The American 
crane ( G. Americana, Linn.) is a good example 
of the genus. It has the bill dusky, and yellow 
toward the base ; the head small, neck very 
long, body rather slender, tibia bare to a largo 
extent ; the bare parts on the top and sides of 
the head carmine, "Hiith small black hairs ; feet 
black ; plumage pure white except the primaries 
and their coverts, which are brownish black. 
The length to the end of the tail is 54 inches, 
and to the end of claws 65 ; extent of wings 
92, bill 5'-, tarsus about 11 inches. Young birds 
are of bluish gray color, with the feathers tip- 
ped and margined with yellowish brown, and 
the abdomen grayish blue; in this state the 
bird was described as G. Canadensis. This 
species, called whooping crane from the loud 
noise it makes, is by some considered specifi- 
cally distinct from the true G. Canadensis (Linn.), 
to which the name of sand-hill crane has been 
given. The cranes are found in the Avestern 
and southern states from the middle of October 
until about the middle of April, when they re- 
tire to the north. They are very shy, and 
difficult to approach from the acuteness of their 
sight and hearing ; when wounded, they should 
be approached with caution, to avftid the blows 
of their sharp and poAverful bills. They roost 
either on the ground or oij high trees, accord- 
ing to circumstances. The nests are made 
among the high grass, of coarse materials, flat, 
about 18 inches in diameter, but little elevated 
above the surface ; the eggs are 2 in number, 
bluish white, and are sat upon by both birds. 
They become gentle in captivity, feeding on 
vegetable substances. The genus scops em- 
braces the Numidian crane (-S'. virgo, Linn.), 
ash-colored, with a black neck, and 2 white 
tufts of elongated slender feathers covering the 
ear ; this is often kept in captivity, and is quite 
gentle. The genus iaiearica, peculiar to Africa 
and the islands of the Mediterranean, has the 
bill shorter than the head, thick and strong ; the 
cheeks are naked, and the base of the bill and 
the throat beneath are wattled. Tlie crowned 
crane (B. jntvonina, Linn.) is a slender, graceful 



CRA^^: 



35 



belly, ■white wings, and fulvous rump; the 
naked cheeks are bright rose color, and the hind 
head is crowned -witli a tuft of yellow feathers 
or hairs, resembling the flower stems of broom 
corn, which may be extended at i)leasure ; it is 
also often kept in captivity for its beauty and 
docility ; its voice is remarkably shrill. In its 
•wild state it feeds on fish. 

CRAXE, a machine for raising heavy weights, 
and moving them short distances. In its simplest 
form it consists of an upright post ■with a horizon- 
tal beam called a jib, framed in or near its top, 
and braced by a stick called a stay, wliich is fram- 
ed in the post and the jib. It is held upright, with 
freedom to turn round, by a pin in each end of 
the post, one •working upon a solid support be- 
low, and the other in a beam above ; or the 
upper support may be in a collar encircling the 
post and secured to a stationary object, as a 
wall or another post. A pulley is set in or sus- 
pended from tlie further extremity of the jib, 
by which the -weight is taken up, the fall of 
the tackle passing around the drum of a winch 
attached to the lower end of the post. Such 
cranes are employed in founderies and upon 
piers, where large blocks of stone or other heavy 
materials are shipped or unshipped, and are set 
upon some barges to be always at hand for 
moving their heavy freight. Their construc- 
tion is, however, generally a modification of 
the simple form described. The liorizontal jib 
Las often a narrow rail upon its top, upon 
which a flanged wheel traverses, supporting 
the pulley. This admits of the weight being 
brought nearer to the post, so that it may be 
placed upon any part of the circular area in- 
cluded in the sweep of the jib. Cranes are 
often made with the jib set at an inclination cf 
45"^ or thereabouts, and stepped at its lower end 
in a framework of iron, which carries also the 
winch, and may be turned around the post which 
it encircles. In tliese the foot of the post is set 
strongly in mason work, and no support is re- 
quired to steady it at top. The jib is kept up 
by tension bars placed above it and extending 
horizontally from its extreme end to the top of 
the post. A convenient crane for laying small 
stone, employed in constructing the dry dock at 
Brooklyn, was made with a boom 30 feet long, 
working upon a horizontal iron bolt attached 
to the frame of the winch. The working part 
of the winch, its pinion with a crank at each 
end of the axle, and the \Yheel driven by the 
pinion, with the barrel upon its axis, were set 
upon tbe side of the mast opposite to the boom, 
and tlie fall passed up to the top 40 feet from 
the ground, and thence over the end of the 
boom to the pulleys suspended below it. The 
mast worked ui)on a pivot stepped upon a stone 
foundation, and its upper end was stayed by guys. 
The boom could be lowered or raised by a pulley 
passing from its extremity to the top of tlie mast, 
the fall coming down and made fast at its foot. 
In some cranes, made to lift very heavy weights, 
the foot of the jib, instead of resting upon the 
crane post, is set against a circular rail let into 



the masonry, thus relieving the post of a great 
portion of tlie strain. Cast iron has been Inuch 
employed for some years past, instead of timber, 
for the construction of cranes ; and Mr. Fair- 
bairn, of England, has introduced the use of 
plates of wrought iron, riveted together and ar- 
ranged in tubular form, on the principle adopted 
in the building of the Britannia tubular bridge. 
His crane, designed to raise 12 tons, has been 
tested with 20, and is supposed capable of bear- 
ing 60. It sweeps a circle of 53 feet radius. 
The under side of the jib is of cellular construc- 
tion to resist pressure, and there are long plates, 
and T iron on the upper side to resist tension. 
The jib being curved like the neck of a crane, 
allows a largo boiler or other article to be raised 
to the top. — The power employed to work cranes , 
is usually that of men turning the winch. In 
some situations they are conveniently connected 
with macliinery running by steam or other 
power, and their movements are controlled by a 
lever brought to bear with as much friction as 
may be required upon the barrel of the winch 
by a rope held in the hand of the man wlio 
manages the machine. They have also been 
made to work by the pressure of a column of 
water upon a movable piston, a valve in the 
supply pipe being used to control the move- 
ment. Steam, also, has been applied to work 
a small engine connected directly with the 
barrel of the winch. — The most powerful of 
all cranes ever built are those contrived by 
Mr. Albert Bishop of Xew York, and generally 
known as Bishop's boom derrick. Derrick is a 
name commonly applied to cranes used on ship- 
board. Several of these have been in use since 
the year 1853 in New York harbor; the sta- 
tionary ones are for moving boilers and heavy 
machinery in or out of steamships. One was 
built upon a scow, that admits of its being float- 
ed about wherever required for raising sunken 
vessels. On Sept. 27, 1858, the first one of 
the kind built in England was launched in 
Bow creek, London, which far exceeds in capa- 
city those made in the United States. It is 
built upon a huge iron hull of 5,000 tons 
measurement, 257 feet long, and 90 feet wide. 
This is stayed- by trusses of wrought iron and 
tie rods, that give it greater strength than that 
of any other vessel ever put together, not except- 
ing the Great Eastern. The propelling power is 
furnished by 2 pairs of oscillating engines of 
160 horse power each, with Barran's patent 
cup surface boilers ; and 2 other oscillating en- 
gines, of 30 nominal horse power, are provided 
for working 10 sets of crabs, independently of 
each other. Their combined hoisting power is 
rated at 1,000 tons clear of the water; and 
the load can be swung upon an arc the radius 
of which is 60 feet, and moved in or out upon 
tliis radius. The post is a stand like a tripod, 
except that it has 4 legs. These are of wrought 
iron, strongly braced with iron, and their cap 
is 80 feet above the deck. This is a huge iron 
saucer containing iron balls, upon which the 
cross or yard called the boom is supported, and 



36 



CRANE 



CEANMER 



rolls around ; this, too, is of wrouglit iron, 120 
feet long and vvcigliing 80 tons. Upon its cen- 
tre stands a ■vvroiight-iron cylinder called the 
king post, 50 feet higli, 7 feet in circumference, 
and weighing GO tons. From the top of this 10 
tension braces of iron rods pass down on one side 
to the boom, along which they are arranged like 
the supporting wires of a suspension bridge, and 
a smaller number pass to the end of the boom 
on. the other side; from this end powerful rods 
are let fall to the deck, where they are secured 
to a circular railway, tliat admits of their moving 
as the boom is swung round. Along the suspen- 
sion arm of the l)oom are placed 10 heavy pul- 
leys, the falls of which pass down to the crabs 
or winches in the base of the stand. The 
tackles of these concentrating below in one re- 
semble the arrangement of the web of the spi- 
der, where numerous strands are brought to 
combine their strength at one point. These 
tackles connect witli the great chains employed 
in lifting sunken ships. The weight of iron in 
the hull is 750 tons, and in the derrick itself 
about 250 tons, making 1,000 tons, independ- 
ently of the weight of all the machinery. The 
total cost was £45,000. Tlie machine is intend- 
ed to go out to sea, and to be employed near Liver- 
pool as well as London, until others are construct- 
ed for each place. The paddles for propelling the 
vessel are very small, arranged upon an endless 
chain, and are compared to the legs of a caterpil- 
lar. In 1857 there were on the English coast 
1,141 wrecks reported, and there is no doubt 
a very large proportion of these vessels could 
have been raised, if such machines had been 
available. 

CRANE, "William M., a commodore in the 
U. S. navy, born at Elizabethtown, N. J., Feb. 1, 
1776, died in Washington, March 18, 1846. He 
was the son of Gen. William Crane, who served 
as colonel in the revolutionary army. He en- 
tered the navy as midshipman in May, 1799 ; 
was made a lieutenant in July, 1803 ; served be- 
fore Tripoli under Commodore Edward Preble, 
and was present at all the attacks made upon 
tlie city. He was serving on board the Chesa- 
peake at the time of her action with the Leop- 
ard. At the commencement of the war with 
England he was appointed to the command of 
the brig Nautilus of 14 guns, in which he was 
unfortunately captured in July, 1812, by a Brit- 
ish squadron, soon after sailing from New 
York. On his exchange he was ordered to the 
lakes, where, in command of the Madison and 
Pike, in the squadron of Com. Chauncey, he 
served with distinction for the remainder of the 
war. From 1815 until his death, Com. Crane 
was very constantly employed in important ser- 
vice. During one cruise of over 4 years in the 
Mediterranean, lie conmianded successively the 
Independence ship of tlie line, the Erie sloop, 
and the frigates Constellation and United States, 
In 1827 he was appointed to command the 
American squadron in tliat sea, the Delaware 
ship of the line bearing his flag. While on this 
service he acted as joint conn aissiouer with Mr. 



OflBey, U. S. consul at Smyrna, to open negotia- 
tions with the Ottoman government, preliminary 
to a commercial treaty, Avhich was concluded 
soon afterward. In 1841 he was appointed 
navy connnissioner, and in 1842, when the navy 
department was reorganized, was made chief 
of the bureau of ordnance and hydrography, 
wliich he administered until near his death. 

CRANK, an axle bent twice at right angles, 
or it may be 4 times, so as to return upon its 
original line, in which case the axle may be 
supported on each side the elbow. When it is 
made to revolve, a rod playing loosely upon 
the elbow will be carried forward and back ; 
thus an alternating motion is obtained from a 
rotary ; and on the same plan an alternating 
motion may be converted into a rotary motion. 
Watt applied it to the steam engine, taking the 
idea from the crank of the knife-grinder's ma- 
chine, by which the alternating motion given 
to the treadle with the foot causes the wheel 
to rotate. It has continued in one form or an- 
other to be indispensable in almost every kind 
of steam engine. 

CRANMER, Thomas, the first Protestant 
archbi.shop of Canterbury, born at Aslacton, 
Nottinghamshire, July 2, 1489, died March 21, 
1556. His family is said to have been ancient, 
though by some authorities his father is called 
a yeoman. Having acquired the rudiments of 
knowledge at Aslacton school, he was senl at 
the age of 14 to Jesus college, Cambridge, where 
he remained 16 years. He was not only an ac- 
complished scholar, but versed in pursuits that 
belong especially to active men of the world ; 
and h e lost his fellowship through marriage. His 
wife dying soon, he turned his attention to the 
church, and in 1523 was made doctor in divinity, 
appointed theological lecturer of Jesus college, 
and examiner of candidates for holy orders. 
While married, he had been common lecturer 
of Magdalen (then Buckingham) college. When, 
on a visit to Mr. Cressy, at Waltham, 1529, he 
met the secretary and almoner of Henry VIII., 
who pressed him to give his opinion on the 
question of the king's divorce, Henry being 
anxious to get rid of Catharine of Aragon, in 
order that he might wed Anne Boleyn. Cran- 
mer said that the opinion of the learned men of 
Europe sliould be taken on the question whe- 
ther, according to the canon law and the Bible, 
a man could marry his brother's widow ; and 
that the pope could not resist that opinion if it 
should bo pronounced in favor of the king, 
while if it were against him the king ■would 
himself have to submit. This was told to 
Henry, who was struck by it, and he ordered 
Cranmer to come to court. The personal inter- 
view that followed was very satisfactory to 
Henry, who recjuired Cranmer to reduce to 
writing what he had to say in favor of the di- 
vorce, made him a royal chaplain, and put him 
in the household of Anne Boleyu's father. 
Cranmer completed his work on tlie divorce, 
bringing his ciiief arguments against that papal 
dispensing power under which Henry had mar- 



CRANMER 



37 



ried liis brotlior Artlmr's widow, to the royal 
satisfaction ; and then was appointed to super- 
intend the execution of the i)hin he liad sug- 
gested, lie began at Caniliridge, wliere he en- 
countered much o[)position. Oxford was more 
pliant. On the continent he succeeded better, 
and many learned and i)ious men gave such 
judgments as were pleasing to Henry and las 
agent. He was also ai)[)ointed to accompany 
Lord Wiltshire, Anne Boleyn's father, and oth- 
ers, on a mission to Bologna (1530), where the 
emperor then was, and to the pope. Clement 
VII. liad for several months j)reviously resisted 
all solicitations to pronounce judgment on the 
cause, but at length liad been induced by the 
influence of Charles V. to sign a brief forbid- 
ding Henry to marry before the publication of 
his sentence. On the arrival of the ambas- 
sadors, the operation of the brief was sus- 
pended ; the pope received them cordially, con- 
ferred an office on Cranmer, and promised to 
do whatever his conscience would permit in 
favor of Henry. The emperor took a more 
decided stand against the demands of the em- 
bassy, and was gracious only to Cranmer, who 
was really the most efficient member of the 
divorce party. When Lord Wiltshire returned 
home, Cranmer went to Germany, for the pur- 
pose of working on the minds of the Lutheran 
clergy, and to perform certain diplomatic du- 
ties. He was not successful, but the Lutherans 
converted him. Though yet a Catholic clergy- 
man, nominally, he married the niece of the 
celebrated Osiander of Nuremberg, an excel- 
lent woman. Love had probably much eftect 
on his mind, and tended to change his religious 
belief. He was made archbishop of Canter- 
bury in 1533, soon after his return to England. 
Undoubtedly he desired not this promotion, 
which exposed him to great danger, and tlie 
nolo episcopari in his case meant something; 
but Henry was not the sovereign to digest a 
refusal, and Cranmer, before swearing obedience 
to the pope, made a private protest substan- 
tially declaring he did not consider tlie oath 
binding. He immediately proceeded with the 
divorce, and declared the marriage between 
Henry and Catharine null and void from the 
beginning. The queen refused to appear in his 
court. It is not true that lie married Henry 
and Anne, as he was not even present at the 
ceremony, and knew not of its occurrence until 
a fortnight had elapsed ; but he delivered the 
crown and sceptre to Anne at her coronation. 
When the pope had excommunicated Henry, 
Cranmer became an active agent in the reform- 
ation, and urged forward measures calculated 
to make the breach comj)lete, his principles and 
his fears alike dictating that course. Yet he 
was always opposed to cruelty, and, provided 
his own safety was assured, would have been 
content that all others should live and prosper. 
He tried hard to save More and Fisher. His 
personal enemies he forgave with a readiness 
that somewhat lessens admiration, because it 
suggests that he had small sense of either favors 



or injuries. When Anne Boleyn was arrested, 
lie was ordered to go to his ei)iscopal palace, 
and there to remain, an act intended to frighten 
him into taking some part in the queen's degra- 
dation and murder. The king and his instru- 
ments knew his timid nature, and that his high 
office and pure {)ersonal character would help 
gloss over a foul transaction. At first, the pri- 
mate was disposed to show some spirit, and he 
wrote a letter to Henry which was favorable 
to Anne, though not strikingly so ; but before 
the letter was sent, he was summoned to the 
star cliainber, where he had an interview with 
some of the high officers of the crown, and 
others, and their communications caused him 
to add a postscript to the effect that he was 
persuaded of the queen's guilt. Mr. Froude, 
who would, to borrow a saying of that age, find 
Abel guilty of the murder of Cain, in his zeal 
to show that whatever Henry VIII. did was of 
necessity right, draws from this postscript the 
utterly illogical inference that the evidence 
against Anne placed before Cranmer was con- 
clusive ; whereas it is probable the primate was 
frightened by the persons who liad been ap- 
pointed to work upon his timorous nature. His 
feelings were ever good, but he had no courage. 
After the scandalous trial and condemnation of 
Anne, she was taken to Lambeth, where Cran- 
mer, sitting in judgment, pronounced her mar- 
riage null and void from the first (1536). The 
archbisliop had his share in the persecutions 
that were carried on by Henry, and in some in- 
stances took part in sending to death persons 
who believed what soon afterward he came to 
believe Iiimself, if he did not believe it at tlie 
time he condemned them. When Cromwell 
suspended the power of all the prelates and 
ordinaries in the kingdom, in virtue of his 
power as vicar-general, and because of the 
general visitation that was to be made, Cran- 
mer set the example of submission, and placed 
the church at the feet of tlie king, liaving 
previously contended that the king alone had 
the power of appointing spiritual officers. He 
seems to have been ready to go as far as Eras- 
tus himself in maintaining the authority of 
the civil power. The suppression of the mon- 
asteries was supported by him, but he was 
desirous that some of the property seized 
should be used for the purposes of religion 
and education, instead of being given to mer- 
cenary courtiers. He took an active and prom- 
inent part in placing the Bible in the hands 
of the English people in their native tongue. 
In 1534 he carried through the convocation a 
resolution that the Bible should be translated, 
and the holy volume appeared in 1540, Cran- 
mer's portrait being conspicuous in the frontis- 
piece. Through Ins influence the creed, the 
Lord's prayer, and the commandments were 
taught in English. Yet the Protestant doctrines 
were far from being established in England, .and 
in 1539 the famous " six articles '' were adopted, 
in opposition to Cranmer's advice and exer- 
tions. They were Catholic in character, avA 



38 



CRANMER 



one of them bore hard upon Oranmcr. He was 
married, and the 3d declared that it was not 
permitted to priests to marry and liave wives 
after ordination. On this point Cranmer con- 
tended strongly, and Henry, who liked him as 
well as he was cajjable of liking any one, bore 
with his opposition, but would not abandon his 
purpose. He then submitted, and sent his wife 
and children to Germany, where they remained 
until Henry's death. After this, Cranmer was 
less prominent at court than he had been, and 
though he continued to have the king's favor, 
he was once on the eve of being arrested. He 
supported the project of marrying Henry to 
Anne of Cleves, received that lady after her 
arrival in England, and presided in convocation 
when that body declared the marriage dissolved 
(1540). He interceded for Cromwell, but hief- 
fectually. It was by him that Henry was inform- 
ed of the alleged criminality of his 5th queen, 
Catharine Howard (1541) ; and as she belonged 
to, and was in the hands of, the Catholic party, 
which aimed at the primate's destruction, it is 
not uncharitable to suppose that he was a will- 
ing informer. It shows the estimation in which 
he was held by the king, that he was selected 
by him for consoler when he was dying, and 
that Henry's last earthly act was to wring his 
hand as evidence that he put his trust in God 
through the Saviour. By the royal will, Cran- 
mer was appointed a meniber of the council of 
regency that was to rule during the minority 
of Edward VI., who was but 9 years old (1547.) 
During the " boy king's " hfe, Cranmer's influ- 
ence was great, and was directed to the estab- 
lishment of that ecclesiastical polity which has 
ever since endured in England, with the brief 
interval of Mary's reign, and which now, after 
the lapse of 3 centuries, affords no indica- 
tions of decay. He was the' founder of the 
church of England, and of most that is peculiar 
in the nature of that venerable institution. 
Most of his actions of that time will bear crit- 
icism, but not all. Against the prohibition of 
the canon law he had a prominent part in the 
legal murder of Lord Seymour of Sudely, at 
the instigation of that lord's brother, the pro- 
tector Somerset. In the harsh treatment of 
the Catholic prelates he was the principal 
agent. When it was found necessary to over- 
come Edward's natural repugnance to the burn- 
ing of "heretics," Cranmer was employed to 
convince him that such conduct was proper. 
He sentenced persons to the stake for the very 
opposite belief to that for which he had taken 
part in condemning others in the reign of Henry ; 
and when he was reminded of his horrible in- 
consistency_ by one of his victims, the effect 
was to irritate him against her. This was 
worse than his assisting at Henry's condemna- 
tion of Lambert, which is considered one of the 
worst deeds of that iron age. Cranmer was an 
adherent of Somerset in the contests that di- 
vided Edward's court, and -by the protector he 
was supported in his ecclesiastical reforms. 
When Edward resolved to leave the crown to 



Jane Grey, Cranmer was reluctantly induced 
to sanction the act, which was as absurd as it 
was illegal. He adhered faithfully to her, and 
fell with her. Ho had nothing to liope from 
Mary, and his last official act was to serve at 
the funeral of Edward. The next day, Aug. 9, 
1553, he was ordered to confine himself to his 
palace at Lambeth, and to furnish an inven- 
tory of his movables. He bore himself meek- 
ly, but he denied, in language worthy of Lati- 
mer, that he had consented to the performance 
of the mass in Canterbury cathedral. For this 
ho was summoned before the council, and on 
the 13th of October was committed to the 
tower, on the charges of treason and sedition. 
Having been attainted by parliament, and it 
being resolved to proceed against him for her- 
esy alone, he was sent down to Oxford with 
Latimer and Ridley, to go through the form 
of disputing with Catholics on the contested 
points of religion. All were condemned, of 
course, though the Protestants were not so 
much as heard. To the demand of the com- 
missioners before whom they were then taken, 
whether they would return to the old faith, 
they answered in the negative. Cranmer was 
then cited to appear at Rome within 80 days, 
and as he could not do so, he was condemned 
as contumacious. At first he was firm, but the 
terror caused by that form of death to which 
he had sentenced others, and by which Ridley 
and Latimer had suffered so much, overcame 
him. He faltered, and then recanted, but not 
until, in a moment of courage, he had written 
to the queen in behalf of Protestantism. He 
signed 6 recantations, and so acted as to show 
he was the victim of abject fear. But all this 
was of no avail. Mary hated him because of 
what he had done against her mother and her- 
self, and it must be allowed that her conduct 
was natural. Gardiner and Bonner hated him 
because of the personal oppression they had 
suffered at his hands. Both queen and bishops 
were resolved upon his degradation, and equally 
that it should not save his life. He was ordered 
to prepare for death. He then was guilty of 
the falsehood of saying that his recantations had 
been freely made, and he begged for a short 
delay in order to give further proof of his re- 
pentance. This granted, he made his last con- 
fession, in which he declared that he had been 
the greatest of persecutors, and compared him- 
self to the penitent thief; nor was there any 
abjectness to which terror is capable of driving 
the coward, of which he was not guilty. He 
concluded with begging pardon of bis oppres- 
sors, humiliating himself before the queen. 
Had Mary and her associates been equal to the 
enjoyment of refined vengeance, they would 
have granted him life and immediate liberty ; 
but they determined that he should know he 
had degi'aded himself in vain, and so taste a 
double portion of the bitterness of death. On 
March 21, 1555, much to his astonishment, he 
was directed to prepare himself for the stake. 
A paper consisting of an abstract of his recan- 



CRANTARA 



CRASHAW 



39 



tations was given liim, which he was to read 
at the stake. lie transcribed and signed it, and 
kept a copy, which he altered, and made a dis- 
avowal of all his recantations. After listening 
to a sermon in the church of St. Mary, he 
boldly spoke out, and declared himself a Prot- 
estant, saying he died in his former faith, be- 
lieving neither in the pa])al supremacy nor 
transubstantiation. He apologized for his re- 
cantations, and declared that the hand which 
had signed them should first burn. lie was 
burned opposite Baliol college, and when the 
flames were rising around him he thrust his 
right hand into them, and is said to have held 
it there until it was consumed, crying aloud : 
" This hand hath otYended — tliis unworthy right 
hand." He showed no unmanly weakness in 
tliat terrible hour, repeating, with his eyes cast 
upward, the words: "Lord Jesus, receive my 
spirit!" and then expired. — Tlie principal au- 
thorities for the career of Cranmer are Strype's 
"Memorials," the "Lives" of him by Todd and 
Le Bas, the historical works of Burnet, Hallam, 
Turner, Lingard, Froude, and Macaulay. Mr. 
Froude appears to doubt if he suggested the 
plan of proceeding with respect to the. divorce 
question in which his career as a courtier and a 
statesman is commonly supposed to have origi- 
nated ; and Lord Macaulay has spoken of liim 
as severely as he speaks of Marlborough. The 
"Life and Times of Thomas Cranmer," published 
at Boston in 1841, is a valuable American con- 
tribution to the history of the founder of the 
English church. 

CRANTARA (Gaelic, crean tarigh, the cross 
of shame), a military signal employed by the 
Scottish highland chiefs. It was a firebrand or 
wooden cross, which, after being dipped in the 
blood of a goat, was sent by a swift-footed her- 
ald to tlie nearest hamlet, where he delivered it 
without uttering a word, save the name of the 
place of rendezvous. The fleetest runner of that 
hamlet was instantly despatched with the signal 
to the next, whence it was borne to a third, and 
so on, till every village within the chief's do- 
main had received the summons. The last time 
the crantara was circulated in Scotland was dur- 
ing the rebellion of 1745. 

CRANTOR OF SOLI, an academic philoso- 
pher, and the 1st commentator on Plato, flour- 
ished at the close of the 3d century B, C, He 
studied under Xenocrates and Polemo, and was 
the author of several works, all of which have 
perished. Most of his writings related to ethical 
or metaphysical subjects. One of his most cele- 
brated productions was a treatise on " Grief," 
of which Cicero made liberal use in his " Tuscu- 
lan Questions," and in the Coiisolatio, composed 
by him on the death of his daugliter. 

CR AN WORTH, Robert Monset Rolfe, bar- 
on, late lord high chancellor of England, born at 
Cranworth in Norfolk, Dec. 18, 1790. He was 
educated at Cambridge university, and in 1816 
was called to tlie bar, where he soon acquired a 
lucrative practice. In 1834 he was appointed 
solicitor-general, and again in April, 1835, re- 



taining the office until 1839, wlicn he was made 
one of the barons of the exchequer. In Dec. 
1850, he was appointed vice-chancellor and rais- 
ed to the peerage as Baron Cranworth. In Dec. 
1852, he was appointed lord high chancellor by 
Lord Aberdeen, and licld the great seal until the 
formation of the Derby ministry in 1858, when 
ho retired from office. 

CRANZ, David, a German missionary and 
historian, born in Pomerania in 1723, died at 
Gnadenfrei, in Silesia, June 6, 1777. He be- 
came in 1747 secretary to Count Zinzendorf, 
entered a community of Moravians, went in 
1761 as missicmary to Greenland, and after his 
return in 1766 was successively pastor at Rix- 
dorf and at Gnadenfrei. He wrote a Eistorie 
von Gronland (Barby, 1765 ; 2d edition, with 
additions, in 1770), and a Br uder- Eistorie, or 
history of the Moravian Brethren, published 
at Barby in 1772, and continued by Hegner, 
1791-1816. 

CRAPE, a delicate transparent fabric, made 
of raw silk with the gloss removed. Crapes 
are either crisped or smooth. The crisped which 
are double require that the silk should be spun 
harder than for the single, as the degree of twist 
regulates the crisping. All crapes are woven 
and dyed with the silk in the raw state. In 
finishing, they are stiffened with gum water. 
Crapes of superior quality are manufactured at 
Lyons in France, and at Yarmouth and 'Nor- 
wich in England. Bologna, however, claims the 
invention. 

CRAPELET. I. Charles, a French printer, 
born at Bourmont, Nov. 13, 1762, died in Paris, 
Oct. 19, 1809. He came to Paris at the time 
when great attention was beginning to be paid 
to the improvement of typography in finish and 
elegance. He practised his profession there for 
20 years, and his editions are highly esteemed 
for their correctness. The most remarkable 
productions of his press are 12 copies, in letters 
of gold, of the Oiseaux dores of Audibert. 11, 
Georges Adeiex, a printer and author, son of 
the preceding, born in Paris, June 13, 1789, died 
at Nizza, Dec. 11, 1842. He maintained the 
reputation of his father, and the works which 
he published are esteemed for correctness and 
beauty of execution. Among them there are 
editions of La Fontaine, of Montesquieu, Vol- 
taire, Rousseau, and Sismondi's Eistoire des 
Fran^ais. The idea of publishing a collection 
under the title of Anciens monuments de Vhis- 
toire de la langiie Franpaise originated with 
him. He wrote an account of the progress of 
the art of printing in France and Italy in tho 
16th century, and its influence upon literature 
(8vo. 1836),'and was the author of " Souvenirs 
of London," and of a history and description 
of that city, beside several translations from the 
English. 

CRASHAW, Richard, an English poet and 
divine, born in London, died in Loretto about 
1650. The son of an Anglican clergyman, he 
was educated at the Charterhouse, London, till 
in 1632 he went to Pembroke hall, Cambridge, 



40 



CRASSUS 



where he was graduated in 1G33, and became 
follow of Peterhouse in 1G37. In 1634 he pub- 
lished anonymously itt Cambridge a volume of 
Latin poems under the title of Eplgrammata 
Sacra^ in which occurs the celebrated verse on 
the miracle at Caiia: 

Kympha pudica Deiim vidit et eruhiiif. 
(The modest water saw its God and blushed.) 

Tlie Englisli verse (which often has "conscious" 
instead of " modest") has been attributed also 
to Milton and Dryden. Crashaw was afterward 
admitted to holy orders, and lived for several 
years in St. Mary's churcli, near his college, oc- 
cupied with religious offices, and with compos- 
ing devotional poems. He is spoken of as 
now "offering, like a primitive saint, more 
prayers by night than others usually offer in the 
day." At this period he was noted as an elo- 
quent and powerful preacher. In 1644, for 
refusing to accept the covenant, the parliament- 
ary array ejected him from his fellowship, and 
he removed to Paris, where he became a Roman 
Catholic. Cowley sought him there in 1646, and 
finding him in great poverty, obtained in his 
behalf the favor of Henrietta Maria, queen of 
Charles I. of England, who gave him letters of 
recommendation to dignitaries of the church in 
Italy. He went to Rome, and became succes- 
sively secretary to one of the cardinals, and a 
c^non in the church of Loretto. His English 
poems, entitled " Steps to the Temple, Sacred 
Poems, with other Delights of the Muses," were 
published in London in 1646 (2d edition in 1648). 
A posthumous volume appeared at Paris in 1652 
under the title Carmen Deo nostra. Several of 
his pieces are admirable translations from Latin 
and Italian. He was an admirer of mystical 
writings, especially of those of St Theresa, and 
his poems are remarkable for the beauty, force, 
and passion with which they treat religious sub- 
jects. He has also left some miscellaneous poems 
of remarkable beauty. One of tlie finest of Cow- 
ley's compositions is a monody on his death. 
Editions of his collected works appeared in 1670 
and 1785. His complete works, edited by W. 
B. Turnbull, were published in London in 1858. 
CRASSUS. I. Luoius Lioinius, celebrated as 
the greatest orator of his age, born in 140 B. C, 
died in 91. When 21 years old he distinguished 
himself by tlie prosecution of C. Carbo. As 
consul of the year 95, with Quintus Mucius 
Scffivola, he contributed to the enacting of a 
law expelling all allies, not citizens of Rome, 
from the city, which rigorous measure was one 
of the sources of the social war. Sent as pro- 
consul to the province of Gaul, his administra- 
tion was distinguished for strict justice. While 
censor in 92, he caused the schools of tho Latin 
rhetoricians to be closed, as pernicious to the 
morals of the people. Shortly before his death 
he vehemently defended the laws proposed by 
the tribune Marcus Livius Drusus against L. M. 
Philippus, one of the consuls. Crassus was fond 
of elegance and luxury ; his house on the Pala- 
tine hill was remarkable for its splendor, and 
adorned with works of art. In Cicero's De 



Oratore he figures as one of the speakers, and 
is supposed to express the opinions of the author. 
II. Marcus Licinius, one of the first triumvirs, 
killed near Carrhfo in Mesopotamia, 53 B. 0. 
He was the descendant of a family several mem- 
bers of which had attained high honors in the 
republic, and borne the surname of Dives (rich). 
His father, who was consul and censor, was in 
the civil war a zealous partisan of Sylla, and 
died by his own hand after the victorious return 
of Marius and Cinua in 87. Young Crassus es- 
caped to Spain, whence he Avent to Afi'ica after 
the death of Cinna, and from there to Italy 
(83) to fight against the Marian party. Enrich- 
ed with the spoils of the defeated and proscribed 
party, his avaricious and speculative spirit found 
ample means to augment his wealth to an im- 
mense amount by purchases at auction, by farm- 
ing, mining, and letting out houses and slaves, 
and thus fully to deserve the family surname. 
His riches and hospitality gave him influeuce 
and favor with the people, which paved his 
way to civil and military distinctions, though 
lie was possessed of no remarkable talents. In 
71 he was praetor, and received the command 
against the revolted slaves under Spartacus ; he 
rapidly raised 6 legions, and defeated Spartacus 
in a bloody battle on the river Silarus, in which 
that terrible enemy of Rome was slain. Crassus 
received an ovation, being crowned, as conquer- 
or of slaves, with a wreath of laurel instead 
of myrtle, and was elected, together with Pom- 
pey, consul of the following year. Rivalling the 
influence of his great colleague, he bribed the 
people of Rome by extraordinary banquets and 
distributions of corn, but was finally recohciled 
with his rival, and united with him and CiBsar 
in forming the first triumvirate (60 B. C). Caesar, 
who received the province of Gaul, a field for 
vast conquests, lulled by some minor undertak- 
ings the attention of his colleagues, who sup- 
ported him by the influence of their fame and 
wealth. The compact was renewed, and Cras- 
sus was again elected with Pompey consul for 
the year 55. According to the new terms, 
Ccesar was to continue his government in Gaul, 
Pompey received Spain, and Crassus Syria. 
Lavish preparations betrayed his intention of 
entering upon a great expedition against the 
Parthians, which promised to become a source 
of boundless conquests and riches. In antici- 
pation of these, his joy is said to have been 
childish ; and the opposition of the tribunes, 
as well as various omens which alarmed the 
people, could not deter him from his undertak- 
ing. He marched through Macedonia and Thrace 
to Asia, crossed the Euphrates (54 B. C), ravaged 
Mesopotamia, but returned to Syria, where he 
spent the winter, before starting on a new cam- 
paign in 53. He recrossed the Euphrates, fol- 
lowing the false advice of an Arabian chief, and 
was attacked by Surena, the general of Orodes, 
king of the Parthians, near Carrhfe, supposed to 
be the biblical Haran. The Romans were de- 
feated with immense slaughter. Crassus re- 
treated to the town, but was compelled by a 



CRATER 



CRATIPPUS 



41 



mutiny of the soldiers to accept the invitation 
of the enemy to a conference, in which he was 
killed. The circumstances of this event are vari- 
ously related. Plis head was sent to the Parthian 
king, who is said to have poured into his mouth 
melted gold, saying : " Now he satiated Avith 
what thou covetedst through life." 

CRATER (Gr. KparTjp, a howl), the opening on 
the tops or sides of volcanic mountains, through 
which the lava and ashes arc ejected. The cra- 
ter of Etna, like many of the most ancient vol- 
canoes, does not retain the bowl-like shape to 
which the name owes its origin ; tliat of Vesu- 
vius, liowever, preserves its primitive form. 

CRATERUS, a general of Alexander the 
Great, received after the death of that con- 
queror, in 323 B. C, together with Antipater, 
the government of Macedonia and Greece. He 
assisted Antipater in the Lamian war, and also 
against the ^Etolians and Perdiccas, and fell in 
a battle against Eumenes (321). 

CRATES. I. A comic poet of Athens, flour- 
ished about 450 B. C, and was contemporary 
Avith Cratinus. Eminentasanactor,lieoftenper- 
formed the principal parts in the plays of Crati- 
nus. As a comic poet he was the first Athenian 
who A'entured to follow the example of Epichar- 
mus so far as to bring drunken characters on the 
stage. Aristotle in his " Poetics" bears testi- 
mony to the excellence of his works. Little, 
however, is really known of them. Meineke, 
who has made a careful analysis of the state- 
ments of ancient writers on the subject, gives 
the titles of 14 which Avere ascribed to him. 
Fragments of 8 of these are still extant. II. 
A Cynic philosopher, born at Thebes, early re- 
moved to Athens, where he became the pupil 
of Diogenes, and afterward one of the most 
eminent in that school of philosophers. He 
flourished about 320 B. C. According to Dio- 
genes Laertius, he liA-ed a Cynic of the straitest 
sort. Fearing that the quiet of philosophical 
pursuits Avould be disturbed by the cares of 
Avealth, of Avhich he had an abundance, he is 
said to haA'e thrown his money into the sea; 
or, according to another account, to have placed 
it in the hands of a banker, with the condition 
that if his sons should have the misfortune to 
be fools, they should inherit the property, and 
that otherwise it should be distributed to the 
pool*. " For," said Crates, " if they are philoso- 
phers, they will not need it." III. An Athenian 
philosopher, the pupil and friend of Polemo, 
and his successor in the chair of the academy, 
flourished in the first/half of the 3d century B. C. 
He contributed little to the progress of philosoph- 
ical inA'estigation, and is known mainly as the in- 
structor of Arcesilaus and others, IV. An emi- 
nent Greek grammarian, called also by Suidas a 
Stoic philosopher, founded the celebrated Perga- 
mene school of grammar, and became the great 
rival of Aristarchus, of the Alexandrian school. 
From his work on Homer, he is said to have 
been called 'O/jT^ptKos. He wrote commentaries 
on Hesiod, Euripides, and Aristophanes. Only 
a few fragments of his works are preserved. 



CRATINTS. I. A comic poet of Athens, 
mentioned by Quintilian and Horace as one of 
the 3 great masters of the old comedy. He 
was a native of Attica, born about 520 B. C, 
died about 445 B. C. His private life seems to 
have been marked by many irregularities and ex- 
cesses. Suidas calls him the " wine-bibber," as 
Aristophanes and Horace, indeed, had done 
before him. He was already far advanced in 
life before he entered upon his dramatic career. 
The " Archilochoi," supposed to have been his 
earliest production, Avas not exhibited till he 
Avas upAvard of YO years of age ; but he lived to 
achieve much for his profession, and at the ad- 
vanced age of 97 died at the height of his fame, 
having just triumphed over Aristophanes him- 
self. He found the Greek comedy a mere play- 
thing, employed to excite merriment and laugh- 
ter, and at once converted it into a terrible 
Aveapon for the chastisement of public and pri- 
vate vice. Horace particularly commends the 
public spirit and tlie impartial justice with 
Avhich he exercised his censorship OA-er the 
morals of his age. Tlie uniform testimony of 
ancient Avriters places Cratinus in the first rank 
as a comic poet. His great rival, Aristo- 
phanes, was fully aAvare of his power. In the 
'• Knights " he compares him to a torrent car- 
rying every thing before it, and tells his fellow 
citizens that Cratinus Avas entitled to a high 
place in their regard, to a choice seat at the Dio- 
nysia, and to a public support in the Prytaneum. 
According to the best authorities he wrote but 
21 dramas, 9 of which were successful in the 
Dionysiac contest. Not a single one of his 
dramas is noAV extant ; only a few fragments 
remain to attest the excellence of his admired 
productions. II. A poet of the middle come- 
dy, contemporary with Plato the philosopher, 
sometimes confounded with his elder and more 
celebrated namesake just mentioned. Eight 
plavs are ascribed to him. 

CRATIPPUS. I. A Greek historian contem- 
porary with Thucydides. He continued the work 
of the great historian, and brought it down, 
according to Plutarch, to the time of Conon. 
The well-known words of Dionysius : " He wrote 
what Thucydides left imwritten," evidently 
show that Cratippus not only continued the his- 
tory of Thucydides, but also supplied whatever 
omissions he thought he found in it. II. A cele- 
brated Peripatetic philosopher. He was born at 
Mytilene, on the island of Lesbos, where he es- 
tablished a school of philosophy ; but afterward 
having repaired to Athens, he became the in- 
structor of Brutus and of M. Cicero, the son of 
the great Roman orator. Cicero himself pro- 
nounces high encomiums upon him in the Be 
Officiis, declaring him the ablest of the Peripate- 
tics Avhom he had ever known, and equal at least 
to the best of the school. Though highly esteem- 
ed by the ancients, he never produced, so far as 
we can learn, any important philosophical work. 
Cicero tells us that he believed in inspiration 
and in dreams, but rejected all other kinds of 
diA'ination. He is supposed to have been the au- 



42 



CRAVEN 



CRAWFISH 



thor of the -vrork on dreams cited by Tertullian 
in his work De Animd. 

CRAVEN, a S. E. co. of N. C. ; area estimated 
at 1,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1850, 14,709, of wliom 
5,951 were slaves. It borders on Pamlico 
sound; and is intersected by the Neuse river, 
navigable throughout the county. The surface 
is low, swampy, and in great part covered Avith 
pine forests, the turpentine and lumber pro- 
cured from which are among the chief articles 
of export. The agricultural products in 1850 
were 17'4,3G6 bushels of corn, and 92,788 of 
sweet potatoes. This county was formed in 
1729, and was at l^rst a precinct of ^ybemarle 
county. It .was named in honor of the earl 
of Craven, one of the lords proprietors of the 
soil. Capital, Newbern. 

CRAVEN, Charles, secretary to the pro- 
prietors of South Carolina, and governor of the 
colony from 1712 to 1716. He was the hero 
of theYamassee war in 1715. That tribe of 
Indians having imited the savages from Cape 
Fear to the St. Mary's, for the destruction of 
the colony at Ashley river, Gov. Craven im- 
mediately proclaimed martial law, laid an em- 
bargo on all ships to prevent the departure of 
men or provisions, and at the head of 1,200 
men, a part of whom were faithful blacks, met 
the Indians in a series of desperate encounters, 
and finally drove them beyond the Savannah. 

CRAVEN, Elizabeth. See Anspach. 

CRAWFISH, a macrourous or long-tailed 
crustacean, of the order decwpoda, and genus 
astaeus ; this genus is fluviatile, while the lob- 
ster, belonging to the same family but to the 
genus homarus, is marine. The body is elon- 
gated and somewhat compressed, and the ab- 
domen large; it is covered by a corneous en- 
velope or carapace, terminating anteriorly in 
a wide, short, flattened beak, which covers the 
base of the eye pedicles. There are 2 pairs of 
antennae : the 1st pair of moderate length, with 
2 terminal filaments ; the external, or 2d pair, 
being much longer, with a large lamellar ap- 
])endage on the upper surface of its pedicle. 
The mouth apparatus consists of 2 mandibles, 
2 pairs of jaws, and 3 pairs of jaw feet, mov- 
ing horizontally. The legs are 5 pairs, the 1st 
the largest, and ending in a 2-bladed nipper 
or claw, by which objects are seized in the pur- 
suit of prey, and in self-defence ; the 2d and 
3d pairs are also didactylous, but smaller, and 
the 4th and 5th are single-pointed. The 5th 
thoracic ring is simply articulated to the pre- 
ceding ones. The abdomen is of about the 
same width for its whole length, presenting on 
each side a series of laminaj prolonged so as 
to encase more or less the base of the false or 
swimming feet ; the last segment is very wide, 
forming, with the 2 larainto from the 6th ring 
on each side, a large caudal fin, nearly even 
when expanded, tiie external plate having a 
transverse joint at its posterior 3d, the mid- 
ille plate being round at the end, with a tooth 
on each side posteriorly. The sternum forms 
no plastron, as in the crab ; the pincers of the 



1st pair of feet arc not so large in proportion, 
and are without the angle seen in the lobster. 
Tlie swimming feet are 5 pairs, long and nar- 
row ; in the females all end in wide leaf-liko 
l)lates, with ciliated edges ; in the males the 
1st pair are styliform. The gills are very nu- 
merous, disposed in tufts, and arranged in rows 
at the base of the walking feet, and within the 
carapace ; they are separated by cartilaginous 
plates, whose motions serve to introduce and 
expel the water, which issues at an aperture on 
each side of tlie mouth. According to Milne- 
Edwards, the duodenum has a great number 
of internal villosities, no valve between it and 
the rectum, the latter smooth, and no coBcal 
appendage, the opposite of which is the case 
in the lobster. The eyes have compound fa- 
cets, and are supported on movable pedicles 
arising from the 1st segment of the head, and 
may be in a measure withdrawn into cavities 
answering the purposes of orbits. The organs 
of generation are distinct in the two sexes ; 
the number of eggs is very great, and they are 
carried for a time attached to the false feet, 
under the tail. Like other decapods, the craw- 
fish changes its shell annually, coming out with 
a new and tender one, wliich becomes hard in 
a few days; at each moult the animal in- 
creases considerably in size, and the change ap- 
pears to be continued through life ; the shell, 
which is an epidermic covering, consists of 
cliitine united to calcareous salts. This genus 
also has the power of reproducing claws and 
feet which have been lost by accident. Their 
food is almost exclusively animal, both living 
and dead matter being eagerly devoured ; fish, 
moUusks, aquatic larva), terrestrial insects, and 
sometimes their own species, form the princi- 
pal sources of their subsistence. Tlieir ene- 
mies are also many ; mammals frequenting the 
water, aquatic birds, voracious fishes, and even 
insect larvre, destroy great numbers of them, 
esj)ecially in their young state. They are con- 
sidered luxuries on the table, and those who 
will not eat them catch a great many for bait 
for white perch and other fishes ; they are 
caught in nets, and may be easily taken from 
holes and under stones. In some of the Rus- 
sian rivers they attain a large size, and are 
cauglit for the sake of the calcareous masses 
found in their stomachs before the period 
of moulting ; these concretions, the famons 
" crabs' eyes " and yeux cVecrecisses of the 
old iiharmacopceias, consist of carbonate and 
phosphate of lime, and are jio better than pre- 
pared chalk for the correction of stomachal 
acidity, for wliich they were formerly muclx 
employed. They delight in clear and running 
streams, but are common in lakes and ponds ; 
they conceal themselves by day, and feed by 
night. The color is generally a light yellowish 
brown. The European crawfish (A.fluviatilis, 
Fabr.) has the large claws studded with gran- 
ulations, and the beak Avith a tooth on the side 
near its internal third. Among the American 
species are the A. affinis (Say), and A. Bartonii 



CRAWFORD 



43 



(Bosc), foiind in the soutliern and western riv- 
ers ; in these the claws and the carapace arc 
less granular. Other species are described in 
South America and Australia hy Milne-Ed- 
wards. Crawlish swim rapidly by means of 
the tail, whose strokes propel them backward ; 
they crawl well on tiie bottom, and are some- 
times seen at a considerable distance from 
streams, using lioles filled with Avater, and oc- 
casional pools, as places of retreat. From their 
propensity to eat carrion, Audubon calls them 
"little aquatic vultures." They are fond of 
burrowing in the mud, and fi-om this habit are 
often great pests, undermining levees antl em- 
bankments, frequently to the serious loss of the 
miller and the planter ; it is stated that on ac- 
count of the depredations of these animals, the 
owners of the great dam in the Little Genesee 
river have been once compelled to rebuild it. 
In the Mammoth cave of Kentucky some of 
the crawfish are blind ; they have the eye 
pedicles, but no facets, only simple integu- 
ments covered with hairs ; veryprobably, as 
in the case of the blind fish of the same cave 
(amhiyopsis spelcevs), internal rudiments of a 
visual organ would be found, especially as it is 
said that some of these Crustacea have well de- 
veloped eyes, as also do the crickets which live 
in the cave ; the non-development of the ex- 
ternal eye may be owing to the absence of the 
stimulus of light through several generations. 
There is no evidence that the species within 
and without the cave are diflferent, and it is 
altogether probable that the progeny of the 
blind crawfish would have eyes, if raised un- 
der the ordinary influences of sunlight. The 
popular name of the crawfish is " fresh-water 
lobster." 

CRAWFORD, the name of counties in several 
of the United States. I. A N. W. co. of Penn., 
bordering on Ohio, intersected by a number of 
creeks ; area, about 975 sq. m. ; pop. in 1850, 
37,849. It has an undulating surface, and a 
soil of good quality, but better adapted to 
grazing than to tillage. Iron ore and lime 
marl are found in considerable quantities. 
Lumber is abundant, and forms one of the 
chief articles of export. Grain, potatoes, hay, 
and dairy produce, are the other staples. In 
1850 the harvest amounted to 887,556 bushels 
of Indian corn, 142,414 of wheat, 418,751 of 
oats, and 105,662 of potatoes. There were 
1,267.436 lbs. of butter made. The public 
schools numbered 9,906 pupils ; there were 63 
churches, 5 newspaper offices, 140 saw mills, 
15 flour and grist mills, 3 woollen fjictories, 2 
iron founderies, 16 tanneries, and various other 
mills, factories, &c. The county was organized 
in 1800, and named in honor of Col. Wil- 
liam Crawford, who was killed by the Indians 
at Sandusky, Ohio, in 1782. Capital, Mead- 
ville. II. A W. CO. of Ark. ; area, 585 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1854, 4,058, of whom 530 were slaves. 
It borders on the Indian territory, and is 
bounded on the S. by Arkansas river, here nav- 
igable by steamboats. The surface is mountain- 



ous, and some of the highest summits in the state 
are in this county. Boston mountain is estimated 
to have an elevation of 2,000 feet. Stone coal 
and other minerals are found in several parts. 
The productions in 1854 were 360,669 bushels of 
Indian corn, 20,025 of wheat, 69,600 of oats, and 
329 bales of cotton. In 1850 there were 6 church- 
es, 2 newspaper offices, and 405 pupils attending 
public and other schools. Capital, Van Buren. 
III. A central co. of Ga. ; area, 289 sq. m. ; 
pup. in 1852, 8,912, of whom 4,803 were slaves. 
It is bounded S. W. by Flint river, and drained 
by several creeks. The land is uneven, and of 
various qualities. In the north it is moder- 
ately fertile, and in the south sterile. The ar- 
able land produces cotton, grain, and sweet 
potatoes ; tlie rest of the surface is chiefly cov- 
ered witli pine forests. In 1850 the coimty 
yielded 7,477 bales of cotton, 339,426 bushels 
of Indian corn, 35,284 of oats, and 93,100 of 
sweet potatoes. Tliere were 20 churches, and 
367 pupils attending public schoools. Named 
in honor of William H. Crawford, U. S. 
senator from Georgia. Capital, Knoxville. 
Value of real estate in 1856, $1,172,600. IV. 
A N. CO. of Ohio; area, 412 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1850, 18,177. The surface is level, but ele- 
vated, and the soil of moderate fertility. The 
southern part is occupied by pastures, and the 
principal production of the northern is wheat. 
In 1850 the county yielded 275,653 bushels of 
Indian corn, 133,153 of wheat, 16,000 tons of 
hay, and 108,874 lbs. of wool. It contained 
39 churches, and the public schools numbered 
4,740 pupils. Capital, Bucyrus. V. A S. co. 
of Ind., bordering on Ky., bounded S. by the 
Ohio river, and drained by Blue river ; area, 
280 sq. m. ; pop. in 1850, 6,524. The valleys 
of the streams are productive, but nearly all 
the rest of the land is rugged and sterile. Coal, 
iron, and limestone are the most valuable min- 
erals. Lumber, flour, pork, and beef are ex- 
ported in considerable quantities. The produc- 
tions in 1850 were 183.930 bushels of Indian 
corn, 2,009 of wheat, 37,397 of oats, and 918 
tons of hay. There wore 11 churches, and 
1,418 pupils attending public schools. Capital, 
Leavenworth. VI. An E. co. of 111. ; area, 420 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1855, 10,152. It is separated 
from Indiana on the E. by the Wabash river, 
and drained by Embarras river and its N. fork, 
the former passing through the S. W. part, and 
the latter flowing along the W. boundary. 
The surface is occupied in great part by fertile 
prairies. In 1850 the productions were 453,- 
955 bushels of Indian corn, 16,943 of wheat, 
5,001 of oats, and 1,411 tons of hay. There 
were 7 churches, and 620 pupils attending pub- 
lic schools. Named in honor of AVilliam H. 
Crawford, U. S. senator from Georgia. Cap- 
ital, Palestine. VII. A S. E. co. of Mo. ; area, 
1,380 sq. m. ; pop. in 1856, 7,672, of whom 237 
were slaves. It is intersected by Maramec 
river, and drained by 2 of its branches. The 
surface is much diversified, and in many parts 
hilly. It is occupied by tolerably fertile prai- 



44 



CRAWFORD 



ries and tracts of excellent timber. ' The val- 
leys and river bottoms are generally very fer- 
tile, bnt the county is less remarkable for its 
agricultural productions than for its great min- 
eral wealth. The hills contain very rich mines 
of coi)i)er and iron, the latter being extensively 
worked. Lead is also found in various locali- 
ties, and stone is obtained in the vicinity of 
the iron district. The productions in 1850 
were 297,133 bushels of Indian corn, 26,482 
of wheat, 48,440 of oats, and 597 tons of hay. 
There were 7 churches, and 280 pupils attend- 
ing public schools. Capital, Steelville. VIII. 
A S. W. CO. of Wis., separated from Iowa by 
the Mississippi river, bounded S. E. by the 
Wisconsin ; area, G12 sq. m. ; pop. in 1855, 
3,323. The surface is hilly, and occupied part- 
ly by prairies. The productions in 1850 were 
9,055 bushels of Indian corn, 9,522 of wheat, 
16,044 of oats, and 8,688 of potatoes. There 
were 4 grist mills, 9 saw mills, 1 newspaper 
office, 1 church, and 226 pupils attending pub- 
lic schools. Organized in 1818. Capital, Prai- 
rie du Chien. IX. A N. co. of the S. penin- 
sula of Mich., recently erected, and not in- 
cluded in the census of 1850. It is drained 
by the sources of the Au Sable river. X. A 
newly formed and thinly settled co. in the 
W. part of Iowa, intersected by Boyer and 
Soldier rivers ; area, about 600 sq. m., very 
little of which is under cultivation ; pop. in 
1850, 235. The productions that year were 878 
bushels of wheat, 470 of oats, 11,135 of Indian 
corn, 1,080 of potatoes, 3,867 lbs. of butter, and 
810 of wool. 

CRAWFORD, George W., an American 
etatesman and lawyer, born in Columbia co., 
Ga., Dec. 22, 1798. He was graduated at 
Princeton college, in New Jersey, in 1820, and 
on his return to Georgia became a law student 
in the office of the Hon. Richard Henry Wilde 
in Augusta, and was admitted to practice in 
1822. In 1827 he was elected attorney-general, 
which office he retained until 1831. In 1837 
he was elected a representative in the legisla- 
ture from Richmond co., and, with the excep- 
tion of one year, he continued to represent that 
coimty nntil 1842. In 1843 he was elected a 
representative to congress, but the same year 
was nominated by the whig convention as their 
candidate fur governor, and elected by a large 
majority. Ilis administration gave great satis- 
faction, and he was reelected in 1845. In 1849 
Mr. Crawford was appointed secretary of war 
in President Taylor's cabinet, which office he 
held until the death of the president, when ho 
re-;igned. He has since lived in retirement at 
his home in Richmond co. 

CRAWFORD, Nathaniel Macon, D.D., an 
American divine, born near Lexington, Ogle- 
thorpe CO., Ga., March 22, 1811, was graduated 
at Franklin college (university of Georgia), Aug. 
5, 1820. He studied law witli liis father, the 
Hon. William II. Crawford, and was admitted to 
the bar, but never practised. In 1837 he was 
elected professor of mathematics in Oglethorpe 



tiniversity, Ga., which office he held nntil 
the close of 1841. In 1843 he was licensed to 
preach, and was ordained in the Baptist ministry 
in 1844. He was pastor of the Baptist church 
in Washington, Ga., during the year 1845, and 
of the Baptist church in Charleston, S. C, in 
1846. From 1847 to 1854 he filled the chair 
of Biblical literature in Mercer university at 
Penfield, Ga. In December, 1854, he was elect- 
ed to the presidency of Mercer university, and 
held the office during the years 1855 and 1856, 
when he resigned. He filled the chair of men- 
tal and moral philosophy in the university of 
Mississippi during the spring session of 1857. 
In September of that year he resigned this posi- 
tion, and accepted a professorship in the western 
Baptist theological seminary at Georgetown, 
Xy., where he remained until July, 1858. In 
the mean time, having been reelected to the 
presidency of Mercer university, and strongly 
solicited to return to that institution, he did so, 
and is now (1859) its presiding officer. In 1857 
he was elected president of the Bible revision 
association. Dr. Crawford has written many 
articles for periodicals, and several small works 
on some of the tenets of his church. In 1858 
he published a volume of 442 pages entitled 
" Christian Paradoxes," wliich has been favor- 
ably received by the denomination and the press 
generally. He is considered one of the first pul- 
pit orators of the Baptist church in the South. 

CRAWFORD, Qdintin, an English translator 
and author, born at Kilwinning, Sept. 22, 1743, 
died in Paris, Nov. 23, 1814, He went in early 
life to the East Indies, where he served in the 
war against Spain, After the peace he became 
president of the company of the Indies at Ma- 
nila, and in a short time gained a considerable 
fortune. Returning to Europe in 1780, he trav- 
elled in Italy, Germany, and Holland, and finally 
established himself at Paris, where he formed 
valuable collections of books and paintings. 
Obliged to leave France at the revolution, he 
resided successively at Brussels, Frankfort, and 
Vienna, but returned as soon as he was able to 
Paris, to the task of restoring the collections 
which had been dispersed and sold in his ab- 
sence. After the rupture of the peace of Amiens, 
he was allowed to remain at Paris, through the 
protection of Talleyrand and the empress Jose- 
phine. He was the author of a " History of the 
Bastile, with a Disquisition upon the Prisoner 
of the Iron Mask," " Essays on French Liter- 
ature," "Historical Essay on Swift, and his In- 
fluence on the English Government," "Sketches 
relating to the History, Learning, Religion, and 
Manners of the Hindoos," and other works, 
some of which are published in English and 
some in French. 

CRAWFORD, TnoMAs, an American sculp- 
tor, born in New York, March 22, 1814, died 
in London, Oct. 10, 1857. In early childhood 
he manifested an extraordinary fondness for art, 
and from the time when he could guide a pencil 
correctly until the age of 14 his leisure hours, 
and many of those which should have been em- 



CRAWFORD 



45 



ployed in study, were devoted to drawing and 
sketching, or to explorations of print sliops and 
picture auctions. His father placed liiui at a 
drawing school, and finding him averse to a 
n)ercantile or ])rofessional life, allowed him to 
enter the establishment of a wood carver. lu 
this occupation his talent developed rapidly, 
and at the age of 19 he entered the studio of 
Messrs. Frazee and Launitz, monumental sculp- 
tors in New York. At the same time he at- 
tended the schools of the national academy of 
design. Ilis ambition, however, prompted him 
to enter a higher walk in bis art, and at the ex- 
piration of 2 years, during which he executed 
several monumental designs, and worked upon 
portrait busts of Chief Justice Marshall and 
others, he adopted the advice of bis friend 
Launitz, and departed for Italy. He arrived in 
Rome in the summer of 1S35 with a slender 
purse, but with Avhat to an enthusiastic art stu- 
dent was of more value than money, a letter of 
introduction to Thorwaldsen, with which he had 
been furnished by Launitz. The Danish sculp- 
tor received him kindly, and invited him to 
work in his studio, an offer which Crawford 
accepted forthwith. For several years he labor- 
ed with an earnestness which excited in his 
friends mingled feelings of admiration and anx- 
iety. He indulged in no relaxations, and seemed 
indifferent as to his health or physical wants, 
but was Avholly absorbed in the study of his 
art. Such devotion could not fail to attract at- 
tention, and the young sculptor began to be 
intrusted with commissions for portrait busts 
and copies in marble. The sums received for 
these barely sufficed for his support and the pur- 
chase of the uecessai'y materials ; but he was 
glad to work for any remuneration, feeling that 
he was in no position to refuse, and that excel- 
lence could only be attained by incessant labor. 
As an illustration of his enthusiasm and physical 
energy, it is stated that during 10 weeks in 1837 
lie modelled 17 busts to be put in marble, and 
copied in marble the figure of Demosthenesin the 
Vatican, Hi 1839, having previously executed 
a few original pieces, he designed his " Orpheus," 
the work which first brought him into notice in 
America, and which elicited the warm com- 
mendation of Gibson and Thorwaldsen, the lat- 
ter of whom, it is said, called it the most classic 
Btatue in the studios of Rome. Mr. Charles Sum- 
ner, who saw it in Rome in the latter part of that 
year, was so struck with its merits, that on his 
return to Boston he procured, by subscription, 
the means of sending Crawford an order for a 
copy in marble. Its reception in America, 
where it was exhibited with others of Crawford's 
works, formed an era in the life of the artist, 
from which dates the commencement of the 
reputation he subsequently enjoyed. The statue 
is now in the possession of the Boston Athenteum. 
Crawford was now enabled to give more atten- 
tion to ideal composition, and the numerous 
designs in mythology and sacred history which 
he undertook indicated a steady gain in execu- 
tive skill and confidence. To this period may be 



referred his more purely classic subjects and his 
scriptural bass-reliefs, remarkable for the spirit 
and propriety of their treatment. His industry 
seemed to increase with the favorable turn in his 
fortunes. He fitted up large studios in the piaz- 
za Barberini, which soon became a favorite re- 
sort of strangers from the number of striking 
original works always to be seen there. In 1844 
he visited America, and was married to Miss 
Louisa Ward, daughter of the late Samuel Ward, 
of New York. During the next summer he mod- 
elled a remarkable bust of Josiah Quincy, sen., 
for the library of Harvard university, and re- 
turned to Europe with numerous commissions 
for new works. In 1849 he made a 2d visit to 
the United States, and Avithin a few days after 
reading in a Richmond newspaper the proposals 
for the monument to be erected to Wasliington 
by the state of A^irginia, he prepared and des- 
patched his model, which was unanimously 
adopted as the best offered. From the period of 
his return to Rome in 1850 until he was incapa- 
citated for work, ho was chiefly engaged on that 
series of grand historical and allegorical pieces 
which attested the finest development of his 
artistic powers. One of the most remarkable 
of these was the bronze statue of Beethoven, 
which he was commissioned by Mr. Charles C. 
Perkins, of Boston, to execute for the Boston 
music hall. The completion of this work at 
the fouudery in Munich was celebrated by a 
musical festival, at Avhich the royal family of 
Bavaria and an immense concourse of people 
were present. It was deposited in its destined 
place with no less ceremony. The artist declined 
to receive any remuneration for his personal la- 
bor in this work. The colossal equestrian statue 
of Washington, 25 feet in height, was subsequent- 
ly cast in Munich under the artist's personal 
superintendence, and arrived in A^irginia in the 
beginning of 1858. The people of Riclimond 
testified their enthusiasm by dragging it to Cap- 
itol hill, where it now stands. Its pedestal 
rests upon a star-shaped elevation with 6 points, 
on which are to be placed statues of Pat- 
rick Henry, Jefferson, Lee, and other illustrious 
Virginians. None of the latter were completed 
at the artist's death, but will be finished from 
his designs. The admiration which these works 
excited in Europe procured his admission to the 
royal academies of Munich and St. Petersburg, 
and the academy of St. Mark in Venice. Craw- 
ford had meanwhile received an important com- 
mission from congress to furnish marble and 
bronze statuary for the new capitol at Wash- 
ington, and among the most remarkable of his 
designs were those which he prepared for the 
pediment and the bronze doors. In the former 
the figure of liberty, who is supported on either 
side by allegorical representations of the arts, 
commerce, civilization, &c., is particularly fine. 
In the latter are representations of law and jus- 
tice. The grandest work of this series, however, 
and perhaps of all which he has designed, is the 
colossal statue of the genius of America, wliich 
is destined for the pinnacle of the capitol dome. 



46 



CKAWFOED 



It is a majestic and graceful female figure draped 
to the feet, and wearing an expression of con- 
scious power and magnanimity. Tliis work, 
the model of wliich received the sculptor's last 
touches, is yet to be cast in bronze. As an il- 
lustration of the versatility of Crawford, it may 
be mentioned that while engaged on tliese works 
he executed his touching group of tlie " Babes 
iu the Wood," and the " Hebe and Ganymede," 
beside various portrait busts, including one of 
James Otis for the chapel iu tlio Mt. Auburn 
cemetery, near Boston. In 1856 he revisited 
America, leaving his family there, and returned 
alone to Kome. A cancerous tumor on the brain 
soou after manifested itself, and he was obliged 
to renounce the practice of his art. He was 
successively removed to Paris and London for 
the benefit of medical treatment, and died after 
an intensely painful illness. The industry of 
Crawford finds few parallels among ancient or 
modern sculptors. During his artistic career he 
finished upward of 60 works, many of them 
colossal, and left about 50 sketches in plaster 
and designs of various kinds, most of which will 
be finished by his assistants. His chief mytho- 
logical subjects are the " Genius of Mirth," the 
"Muse," "Autumn," " Cupid," "Flora," " lo," 
the "Peri," "Apollo," "Homer," "Diana," 
"Vesta," "Sappho," the "Archer," "Paris pre- 
senting the Apple to Venus," " Mercury and 
Psyche," " Jupiter and Psyche," " Psyche 
Found," " Nymph and Satyr," a series of 4 bass- 
reliefs, " Boy and Goat," &c. His Scriptural 
compositions included "Adam and Eve," "Da- 
vid and Goliath," "David before Saul," the 
"Shepherds and "Wise Men before Christ," a 
group of 24 figures ; " Christ disputing with the 
Doctors," 12 figures ; " Christ ascending from 
the Tomb," and " Christ raising Jairus's Daugli- 
ter;" the " Daughter of Herodias," "Kepose in 
Egypt," "Eve Tempted," "Eve with Cain and 
Abel," "Lead us into Life Everlasting," a single 
figure of Christ, " Christ blessing little Chil- 
dren," and " Christ at the Well of Samaria." 
Among his miscellaneous works, in addition to 
those mentioned, are the group of the "Dan- 
cers," 2 life-size statues of children, which have 
had much popularity, statues of Channing, 
Washington AUston, Henry Clay, and busts of 
Commodore Hull, Charles Sumner, Ivenyou 
the English poet, Mrs. Crawford, the latter a 
masterpiece of finish, and many others. 

CRAWFORD, William Harris, an Amer- 
ican statesman, born Feb. 24, 1772, in that part 
of Amherst CO., Va., afterward erected into Nel- 
son CO., died in Elbert co., Ga., while on his way 
to attend the court of which he was judge, 
Sept. 15, 1834. His father, Joel Crawford, was 
of Scotcli descent, and a frontier farmer iu 
moderate circumstances. Following the tide 
of emigration then setting southward along 
the Blue Ridge, ho removed in 1779 to Edge- 
field district, S. C, and settled on Stevens's 
creek, which enters the Savannah some 30 miles 
above Augusta. He was a whig in his political 
principles, and when in 1780 the British over- 



ran the states of Georgia and South Carolina, he 
was taken prisoner, and thrown into Camden 
gaol, from which imprisonment he was released 
on the security of some of his loyalist neigh- 
bors. In 1783, the revolutionary war being 
concluded, he removed across the Savannah 
river into Georgia, and settled on one of its 
tributaries, Kiokee creek, in the present county 
of Columbia. The elder Crawford died a few 
years after, leaving his family in reduced cir- 
cumstances. The young Crawford had early 
displayed an aptitude for learning, and by at- 
tendance at such schools as the neighborhood 
afforded, had qualified himself to act as teacher. 
Upon this occupation he entered at the early 
age of 16, and followed it at intervals for sev- 
eral years, thus assisting his mother in the 
support of the family. Dr. Waddell having 
established his classical academy in Columbia 
CO. — the same at which John C. Calhoun and 
William Lo\vndes were not long after pupils — 
young Crawford resolved to improve the oppor- 
tunity thus afforded. He entered this academy 
in 1794, then 22 years old, and remained there 
2 years, the latter portion of the time acting as 
nsher. He then became assistant teacher and 
afterward principal of an academy in Augusta, 
and having pursued in the mean time the study 
of the law, was in 1798 admitted to the bar. 
The following spring he removed to Lexington, 
Oglethorpe co., and commenced practice. Soon 
after his admission to the bar he assisted in 
compiling the first digest of the laws of, Geor- 
gia. Botli his physical and mental endowments 
were Avell calculated to insure him success as 
a lawyer. He was of a very strong constitu- 
tion, was 6 feet 3 in height, was every way 
finely proportioned, and, though not graceful 
in his manners, of easy and agreeable address. 
He was quick in his perceptions, rapid in com- 
bination, and clear and distinct in his opinions, 
which he maintained witli unshaken firmness. 
He did not go much into detail or incidents, but 
rested on a few strong points. He indulged in 
no rhetorical flourishes, and his speeches, al- 
ways to the purpose, seldom exceeded half an 
hour in length. In 1802, the then leader of the 
bar on that circuit having been elected to con- 
gress, Mr. Crawford succeeded to his place. The 
next year he was himself elected to the state 
legislature, of which he continued a member for 
4 years. In 1804 he was married to Susannah 
Girardin of Augusta, after a 7 years' engage- 
ment, which he now first felt himself in a pe- 
cuniary position to fulfil. Upon his marriage, 
which proved a very happy one, he settled on a 
small estate near Lexington called Woodlawn, 
Avhere, except \lhen engaged in the public ser- 
vice, he continued to reside for the remainder 
of his life. By this marriage he became the 
father of 5 sons and 3 daughters. The only 
measure of general interest in which he appears 
to have participated as a member of the state 
legislature, was a resolution introduced by him 
and adopted by both branches, urging Jefferson 
to stand for the i)residency a third time. In the 



CRAWFORD 



47 



local aSah'3 of the state he took an active in- 
terest, and gave such evidences of liis ability, 
that in 1807, on the resignation of Ahraliam 
Baldwin as United States senator from Geor- 
gia, Mr. Crawford was chosen to fill his place. 
But he did not reach this elevation without 
going through what may be considered as at 
that time almost the ordinary routine of public 
life in Georgia. He had been engaged in two 
duels. lu the first, which gvew rather out of 
professional than political differences, he killed 
his opponent, a Mr. Van Allen, a lawyer, lately 
from New York, and a cousin of Martin Van 
Buren. His second duel, in which ho was him- 
self wounded in the wrist, was fouglit with 
Gen. John Clark, who remained for 20 years 
his bitter political opponent, and the head of a 
political party warmly opposed to him. Mr, 
Crawford reached Washington at a very im- 
portant crisis. The restrictions upon commerce, 
growing out of Napoleon's decrees and the 
British orders in council, had thrown the coun- 
try into a great excitement, wliich was soon 
still further increased by the embargo policy re- 
commSnded by President Jefferson, and adopted 
by congress. Mr. Crawford had been elected 
to the senate as a supporter of the administra- 
tion; but though the embargo was warmly 
urged as an administration measure, he showed 
his independence by voting against it. It was 
impossible, however, if he wished to maintain 
his pohtical associations, to persevere in this 
opposition, and at the next session of congress 
he both spoke and voted against its repeal. The 
calm and sound judgment of Mr. Crawford, and 
the moderation of his political views, recommend- 
ed him to the esteem and confidence of Mr. Galla- 
tin, of whose policy as secretary of the treasury 
under President Madison he became the exponent 
in the senate. It was in this character that, in 
1811, having then been reelected to the senate, 
he sustained with much ability the proposal of 
Mr. Gallatin for renewing, upon certain condi- 
tions, and under certain limitations, the charter 
of the first bank of the United States. Upon 
this question the contest was very severe. In 
addition to those old democratic champions. 
Smith of Maryland, Leib of Pennsylvania, and 
Giles of Virginia, the opposition in the senate 
was led on by the impetuous young Henry Clay, 
at that time a vehement advocate of the doctrine 
of the unconstitutionality of a United States 
bank. After a warm debate the enacting clause 
of the bill was struck out by the casting vote 
of Vice-President Clinton, a similar bill in the 
house being indefinitely postponed by one ma- 
jority. That session was exceedingly stormy. 
Toward the close of it a collision took place be- 
tween John Randolph and Eppes, the son-in- 
law of Jefferson, both members of the house, 
which drew out a challenge from the latter. 
Mr. Crawford, probably from his experience as a 
duelist, Avas invited to act as one of the seconds, 
in which capacity he successfully exerted him- 
self to bring about an explanation without any 
fighting. When, in March, 1812, Vice-Presi- 



dent Clinton was disabled, by the sickness of 
which he soon after died, from acting as presi- 
dent of the senate, Mr. Crawford was cliosen 
president ^jro tern. ; an appointment the more 
important as after Clinton's death, in case the 
office of president became also vacant, Mr. Craw- 
ford as i)resident of the senate would have suc- 
ceeded to it. In common with Madison, Gal- 
latin, and other older members of his party, 
Mr. Crawford was opposed to the policy of war 
witli Great Britain, and in that point of view he 
was more consistent than some others in warmly 
opposing any augmentation of the navy. But 
Madison and Gallatin having yielded to the 
demands of the younger and more ardent sec- 
tion of the party, Mr. Crawford went with them 
and voted for the war. In 1813, having just 
refused the secretaryship of war, Mr. Craw- 
ford was appointed minister to France as suc- 
cessor to Joel Barlow. The political confusion 
of that country, incident upon the downfall of 
Napoleon, was not very favorable to diplomatic 
discussions, but he had the opportunity of wit- 
nessing some of the most remarkable occur- 
rences of modern history. He also took a warm 
interest in the negotiations at Ghent, and was 
decidedly in favor of peace if it could be ob- 
tained, without any mention of the impressment 
question, and that too even without waiting for 
definite instructions to that effect from Wash- 
ington. He first received the news of peace at 
the house of Madame de Stael, where it was 
communicated to him by the duke of Welling- 
ton, with whom he had formed a friendly ac- 
quaintance. During his residence in France he 
acquired the friendship of Lafayette, who ap- 
pointed him agent for his American lands, and 
with whom after his return home he carried 
on a confidential correspondence. In 1815 he 
asked a recall, and the senate having refused to 
confirm Gen. Dearborn, whom after the peace 
Madison had nominated as secretary of war, Mr. 
Crawford, while still on his voyage home, was 
appointed to fill his place. The next year, on 
the retirement of Alexander J. Dallas, he was 
appointed secretary of the treasury. There 
were those who desired to support him as a 
candidate for the presidency instead of Monroe ; 
indeed, he received a large vote in the con- 
gressional caucus ; but upon Monroe's accession 
he contimicd to hold the secretaryship of the 
treasury, having J. Q. Adams and J. C. Cal- 
houn as his colleagues in the cabinet. The 
course of events, and especially the experience 
of the late war, had led a portion of the demo- 
cratic party to alter their views very essentially 
as to tiie powers and duties of the federal gov- ■ 
ernment. Abandoning that strict limitation 
of federal authority, power, and patronage, of 
which Jefferson had been the champion, many 
among them had begun to favor a liberal inter- 
pretation of the powers of the government, and 
a generous expenditure of money, especially in 
facilitating trade and intercourse between the 
states by means of internal improvements. John 
C. Calhoun was at this time an active champion 



48 



CEAWFOED 



CEEAM OF TAETAE 



of these new views. They were opposed by 
Crawford, both in bis character of a statesman 
and as the head of tlie treasury, at that time 
limited in its resources, and driven to loans even 
in time of peace. lie was for adhering to tlie 
old Jctfersonian policy, and was denounced in 
consequence in Calhoun's newspaper organ at 
"Washington as a " radical." Thus sprang up a 
warm political and even personal hostility be- 
tween these two able men, entered into also by 
their respective states, between which a strong 
feeling of jealousy, and even antipathy, trans- 
mitted froni colonial times, was not yet entirely 
extinct. This feeling of hostility was aggra- 
vated upon the coming up of the question of a 
successor to Mr. Monroe. Mr. Crawford, ever 
since the withdrawal of his claims at the former 
election in favor of Monroe, had been considered 
as in some sense the destined successor. He was 
nominated as such by a congressional caucus, 
held Feb. 14, 1824. That caucus, however, Avas 
but thinly attended, and failed to conmiand 
general respect. All the other candidates, Cal- 
houn, Jackson, Adams, and Clay, joined against 
him ; and among other violent assaults upon him, 
was one in the house of representatives itself, 
introduced just at the end of the session, based 
on certain charges made by Ninian Edwards, 
late a senator from Illinois, and just appointed 
minister to Mexico, to which country he was 
tiien on his way. Instead of allowing these 
charges (which involved official misconduct as 
secretary of the treasury, and had already been 
brought forward in a AVashington newspaper) 
to lie over till after the presidential election, 
which seemed to be the object of those who had 
introduced them, Mr. Crawford and his friends 
demanded an investigation at once. This was 
granted, and a committee was appointed, of 
which Daniel "Webster, Edward Livingston, and 
John Eandolph were members. Mr. Crawford, 
though sick in bed at the time, dictated a con- 
clusive reply, and the affair ended in a unani- 
mous report of the committee declaring the total 
futility and falsity of the charges, and in the 
resignation by his accuser of his diplomatic ap- 
pointment. The disorder under which Mr. Craw- 
ford was laboring was paralysis, brought on, it 
is stated, by the improper use of lobelia for an 
attack of erysipelas during a temporary absence 
from "Washington. Ilis sickness was long and se- 
vere, and though perhaps it had little influence 
on the vote given for him as president (he ob- 
tained all the electoral votes of Virginia and 
Georgia, 5 in New York, 2 in Maryland, and 
one in Delaware, 41 in all), it wholly destroy- 
ed any chance of his election by the house, 
and i^emoved him henceforth from the polit- 
ical arena. Mr. Crawford continued for some 
time a great invalid. He could not see to write, 
and had not the physical ability to encounter 
any labor. He was assisted in preparing his 
last treasury report by Asbury Dickins, tlien a 
clerk in his department, who had also assist- 
ed in preparing his defence against Edwards. 
He gradually improved, but never fully recov- 



ered, J. Q. Adams offered to continue him as 
secretary of the treasury, but he declined, and 
returned home to Georgia. Notwithstanding 
his political rivalry with Mr, Clay, he still re- 
mained on friendly terms with him, and in a let- 
ter written in 1828, assured him that as between 
Jackson and Adams he should have decided as 
Clay did. Mr. Crawford's pecuniary means were 
not large, and a vacancy occurring in May, 1827, 
on the bench of the northern circuit, the same 
in which he had formerly practiced, he accept- 
ed a temporary appointment from Governor 
Troup to fill it. In November folloAving he was 
chosen by the legislature for the remainder of 
the vacant term, in which position (the judges 
holding office for 3 years only) he was con- 
tinued at two subsequent elections in 1828 and 
1831. During his time there was no court for 
the correction of errors in Georgia. There was 
a convention of the circuit judges annually to 
consvilt on questions submitted by each other, 
but no judgment could be rendered, the action 
of the convention being wholly advisory. Dur- 
ing the 7 years that he presided as judge of the 
northern circuit, Mr. Crawford acted as chair- 
man of this convention. Though his disorder 
aifected him both physically and mentally, 
and though sometimes annoyed by the " silly 
speeches" of counsel, he made a much better 
judge than would have seemed possible to those 
familiar with his paralyzed state. He was 
strongly opposed to the nullification movement. 
To the last, he retained his social temper and ad- 
mirable conversational talent. He loved to tell 
anecdotes, and told them well. He was a hearty 
laugher, negligent in his dress, simple in all his 
arrangements, and totally regardless of artificial 
dignity. He was extremely affectionate to his 
children, teaching them himself, romping with 
them, arguing with them, and accustoming them 
to treat hira familiarly and confidingly. In the 
family, "Woodlawn was familiarly known as Lib- 
erty hall. His wife and several children sur- 
vived him. In religion, he inclined to the Bap- 
tist persuasion, and though not zealous was a 
sincere believer. He is generally regarded as 
the greatest of the citizens of Georgia, 

CRA"WFORDSVILLE, a prosperous town of 
Union township, and capital of Montgomery co., 
Ind. It is finely situated in a fertile and undu- 
lating region on the banks of Sugar creek, and 
contains a number of imposing private and 
public edifices. It is remarkable for its educa- 
tional advantages, and is the seat of "Wabash 
college, founded in 1835, and regarded as one 
of the best institutions of the kind in Indiana, 
The original college buildings, together with a 
library of 3,000 volumes, were destroyed by fire 
in 1838. CrawfordsviUe also contains a county 
seminary, a female academy, and 2 newspaper 
offices, A railroad connects the town with La- 
fayette, 28 miles distant. Pop. in 1853 esti- 
mated at 2,500. 

CREAM OF TARTAR. The chemical compo- 
sition of this useful salt is: tartaric acid two 
equivalents, = 132 ; potassa one, — 47.2 ; and 



CRfiBILLON 



CRfiCY 



49 



water one, = 9. It is a bitartrate of potassa 
purified from the crude tartar or argol, which 
collects in a crystalline deposit upon the bot- 
tom and sides of wine casks during the fer- 
mentation of the wine. As the saccharine 
matters which hold this in solution are con- 
verted into alcohol, the salt is precipitated in a 
crude state, together with some tartrate of 
lime and the coloring matter of the wine. Red 
Avines give a red color to the crude article. 
"When the crude salt is dissolved in boiling 
water, and this is allowed to cool, crystals of the 
cream of tartar are deposited and form a crust 
on the bottom of the vessel, cold water holding 
in solution only yj j of its weight of the salt, and 
boiling water ^\. The crust is redissolved in 
boiling water, and 4 or 5 per cent, of pipe clay 
is added. On evaporating the solution, the clay 
precipitates with the coloring matter, and the 
salt of tartar is deposited in white crystals. 
These are bleached by being spread upon cloths 
for some days and dried, and then constitute 
the cream of tartar of commerce. It is usually 
sold as a powder, and in this state is liable to 
have been mixed with various substances used 
for its adulteration, as chalk, clay, gypsum, sand, 
flour, &c. It is therefore better to purchase it 
in the crystalline form in which it is received 
from the French manufacturers. It is, how- 
ever, never pure, always containing a small 
percentage of tartrate of lime. Cream of tar- 
tar is much used in medicine, as well for its 
agreeable cooling properties when made into a 
drink, as for its more powerful qualities as a 
cathartic when administered in large doses. A 
refreshing beverage called imperial is prepared 
by dissolving half an ounce in 3 pints of boiling 
water, and adding 4 ounces of white sugar and 
half an ounce of fresh lemon peel. Cream of 
tartar and tartrate of antimony compose the 
medicine tartar emetic. Rochelle salt is pre- 
pared by adding cream of tartar to carbonate 
of soda, by which a tartrate of potassa and 
soda is produced. When decomposed by heat, 
cream of tartar is converted' into a pure car- 
bonate of potassa. Mixed with half its weight 
of nitrate of potash and deflagrated, it forms 
the flux called black flux, used for crucible as- 
says. "White flux is prepared with two parts 
of nitre to one of cream of tartar. In making 
bread, cream of tartar, is often usefully employ- 
ed, mixed with half its weight of carbonate of 
soda. The excess of acid produces a slow effer- 
vescence, and the escape of cai'bonic acid gas, 
distending the dough, causes it to rise. 

CRfiBlLLON, Prospeij Jolyot de, a French 
tragic poet, born at Dijon, Jan. 13, 1G74, died 
in Paris, June 17, 1762. His father placed him 
in the oflice of an attorney who happened to be 
an enthusiastic lover of the drama, and encour- 
aged his young clerk to devote himself to dra- 
matic literature. His first tragedy, Idomenee, 
performed in 1705, though not a masterpiece, 
was superior to the weak imitations of Racine 
and Corneille current at that time. His next 
play, Atree^ appeared in 1707, and produced an 

VOL. TI. — 4 



irnpression by its gloomy plot and energetic style. 
EJectre succeeded in 1709 ; and 2 years later, 
Jihaditmisie ct Zenohie, which is still consid- 
ered his best production. The mainsi>ring of 
Crebillon's i)lays is terror, and it must be 
conceded that ho uses it with power. His 
next tragedy, Xcr.vt's^ was a failure ; and Semi- 
omnis, performed in 1717, and Pi/rrhus, in 
1726, were little more successful. He now kept 
aloof from the stage for 22 years. Having 
squandered his large earnings and lost his fa- 
ther and his wife, he retired to a miserable 
garret, where his sole companions were dogs, 
cats, and ravens, and wlierc he lived neglect- 
ed by all his friends, except his son, who tried 
in vain to withdraw him from his isolation. 
In 1731, however, the French academy elected 
him one of their number ; and the new acade- 
mician wrote a poem as his reception discourse. 
Some 14 years later, Mme. de Pompadour, who 
was dissatisfied with Voltaire, thought of bring- 
ing Crebillon into competition with him. The 
old di"amatist received a pension of 1,000 livres, 
and was encouraged to resume his former call- 
ing. He now completed his tragedy of Catili- 
?irt, which was, Dec. 12, 1748, performed in a 
style of unusual splendor at the king's ex- 
pense, and warmly applauded by the court par- 
ty, while his superiority over Voltaire as a tra- 
gic poet was loudly proclaimed. The latter, 
smarting under what he considered an insult, 
replied by undertaking subjects already treat- 
ed by his rival, and handling them in a manner 
evincing a greater degree of skill, if not of 
genius. Crebillon's last effort was his Triumvi- 
rat, which lie wrote when over 81, and which 
was received with forbearance and respect. 
Among French tragic poets Crebillon ranks next 
to Corneille, Racine, and Voltaire. — Claude 
Prosper Jolyot de, a French novelist, the son 
of the' preceding, born in Paris, Feb. 14, 1707, 
died there, April 12, 1777. Ilis character aflbrded 
a striking contrast to that of Ins father. He was 
a gay companion, full of wit and humor, and 
he wrote a series of novels which were in ac- 
cordance with the licentiousness of the age, and 
brought him not only great fame but also a 
wife; Miss Stafford, a young, handsome, rich 
English lady, of noble birth, havingbeen so much 
pleased with them as to cross the channel, and 
to offer her hand, which was at once accepted 
by the lucky author. Crebillon's novels, not- 
withstanding their popularity during the 18th 
century, are now but little read. The least ob- 
jectionable is entitled Zes egaremcnts du cceur 
et de Vesprit. He was also a ready and witty 
song-maker, and aided in the establishment of 
the lyric society known as Le cavenu. 

CR£CY, or Cresst (anc. Crisincinn), a vil- 
lage of France, in the department of Sorame 
(Picardy), 11 m. N. of Abbeville; pop. 1,785. 
The village is situated on the small river Maye, 
a tributary of the Somme, in the midst of a 
grain and grass-growing country. It has tan- 
neries, soap and oil manufactories, and con- 
siderable trade in wood from the adjoining for- 



50 



CRfiCY 



CRIIDIT MOBILIER 



ests. An annual fair is held here, Aug. 25 and 
26. The objects of interest are the tower of 
Edward III., the valley of Cleves, and the stone 
cross of the king of Bohemia. Cardinal John 
Lemoirie was born here. — Crecy owes its celeb- 
rity to the famous battle fought, Aug. 26, 1346, 
between the English under King Edward III. 
and the French under King Philip of Valois, in 
which the French army was destroyed. The 
English, on one of their plundering expeditions 
into Xormandy, had penetrated within sight of 
Paris, and -svere retreating to the coast when the 
French army came upon them. Some discrep- 
ancy exists in the estimate of the respective 
forces. Froissart, whose statement is followed 
by Hume and others, makes the English 30,000 
to 40,000, and the French 100,000 to 120,000. 
Turner, in his " History of England during the 
Middle Ages," says the English army was in 3 
divisions : the 1st, under the Black Prince, Ed- 
ward prince of Wales, comprised 800 men-at- 
arms, 2,000 archers, and 1,000 Welsh; the 2d, 
under the earl of Northampton, 800 men-at-arms, 
and 1,200 archers ; and the reserve, under the 
king, not engaged in the battle, 700 men-at-arms 
and 2,000 archers. Allowing for retainers, the 
total number may be computed at 17,000. It 
is difficult to comprehend how a greater number 
of fighting men could be assembled on the coast 
■with the imperfect means of transport then at 
command. Reducing the estimate of the French 
in the same ratio, we may assume the battle to 
have been fought between 17,000 English and 
50,000 to 60,000 French. Even these numbers 
give it the magnitude of a great battle. Ed- 
ward saw^ the danger to which a liasty retreat 
would expose him in face of the enemy's su- 
perior force ; he therefore determined to make 
a stand, in hopes to check their further advance. 
Selecting a rising ground near Crecy, he drew 
up his army on the ascent, and threw up trench- 
es on his flanks, with a wood in his rear which 
he also secured by intrenchment. Villani al- 
leges that Edward had 6 pieces of artillery, 
which he posted so as to sweep the enemy's ad- 
vance. Artillery had been recently invented, 
and was known both in France and England, 
but does not appear to have been in use in the 
field iintil the present occasion. Philip was con- 
fident that he had only to force the English to 
an engagement to destroy them utterly ; hence 
ho neglected precautions, and advanced his 
troops pell-mell from Abbeville, with little at- 
tention to order or discipline. His advanced 
guard of Genoese bowmen began the attack, but 
rain having fallen, their arrows fell short. The 
Englisli, taking their bows from their cases, 
sent a shower of clothyard shafts that drove 
the Italians back on the cavalry of the duke 
d'Alengon, who, enraged at their cowardice, or- 
dered his troopers to cut them down. The 
English artillery opened fire, and the prince 
of Wales (aged 15) charged with his men-at- 
arms on the struggling mass. An opportune 
movement of the French retrieved their for- 
tunes, and for a long time the battle hung doubt- 



fully. Lord Cobliara despatched Sir Thomas 
Norwich to the king requesting him to send 
the reserve to the assistance of the prince. 
"No," said Edward; " teU my boy he must 
win his spurs." This speech invigorated the 
English. They again charged. The duke d'Alen- 
Con was killed; the French line was broken, 
and the Welsh, rushing into the meUe, with 
their long knives stabbed the horses and butch- 
ered those wlio fell. Philip made a final effort 
to recover the day, but without effect. The rout 
Iiad become a flight. Edward's reserve, and 
indeed the whole English army, pursued the 
fugitives, sparing none, till darkness put an end 
to the bloodshed. Next morning the English 
were guilty of an act which disgraces their vic- 
tory. Fog having come on, many parties of 
French were wandering in search of the main 
body ; the English set up on the eminences the 
French standards they had taken, and aU who 
were allured by the signal w^ere massacred. 
Thirty thousand French perished, including 
2,600 knights and gentlemen, and 4,000 men-at- 
arms. Beside the duke d'Alen^on, the king's 
brother, the kings of Bohemia and Majorca, the 
dukes of Lorraine and Bourbon, the counts of 
Flanders, Aumale, Blois, Yaudemont, the arch- 
bishops of Niraes and Sens, and many other 
French lords and German barons, were slain. 
Froissart relates the singular fate of King John 
of Bohemia. Being old and blind, he ordered 
the bridle of his horse to be tied on each side to 
the horses of two cavaliers of his train, and thus 
guided, charged into the battle, where be fell, to- 
gether with his attendants. His crest, consisting 
of 3 ostrich feathers, with tlie motto Ich dien 
(I serve), was, according to the custom of chiv- 
alry, adopted by the Black Prince, and is still 
the crest of the prince of Wales. The English 
loss was, comparatively small. In brief, this 
battle broke, for a time, the power of France, 
and enabled the English in the following year 
to become masters of Calais. 

CREDI, Lorenzo, a Florentine artist, born 
about 1453, died about 1586. He was a fellow 
pupil of Leonardo da Yinci in the school of Ve- 
rocchio, and so closely followed his style that 
some of his copies of Leonardo's works are 
scarcely to be distinguished from the origintJs. 
His " Holy Families," of which he painted a 
great number for private collections, are grace- 
fully designed and highly finished. His most 
esteemed works are a " Madonna and Child with 
Saints Julian and Nicholas," now in the Louvre, 
and the " Birth of Christ," at Florence. 

CREDIT MOBILIER, a joint stock company 
founded in Paris, upon the principle of limited 
liability, under the sanction of the government, 
by a decree dated Nov. 18, 1852, with a capital 
of 60,000,000 francs, divided into shares of 500 
francs, payable to bearer, for the transaction of 
general banking business, and with the profess- 
ed object of aiding the progress of public works, 
of promoting the development of national in- 
dustry, and of consolidating into a common 
stock the shares and bonds of trading compa- 



CRfiDIT MOBILIER 



CREEKS 



51 



nies. According to !N[.*Tsaac Pereire, one of the 
original founders of the company, " it is to ]>hiy, 
with respect to the fixed capital emiiloyed in 
industry, a part analogous to that whicli hanks 
of discount fill with respect to its circulating 
capital." It is autliorized to suhscribe for or to 
acquire public securities as well as shares and 
bonds in industrial enterprises, particularly rail- 
ways, canals, mines, and other public works; 
to issue its own bonds for an amount equal to 
its subscriptions and purchases, and, after the 
complete issue of tlie original capital of G0,000,- 
000 francs, to issue its bonds equal to 10 times 
this amount, i. e. to 600,000,000 francs. By the 
terras of its charter, the company has unlim- 
ited power to engage in the most extensive 
operations, the only restriction being not to sell 
in advance public securities, nor to buy them 
on time. The following was the status of the 
company on Dec. 31, 1857: 

Assets. 

Francs. 

Rents, debentures, railway and other shares.... 83,063,991 41 
Investment in various securities, continuations 

and advances on shares, debentures, &c 49,841.4.50 13 

Premises and furniture 1,449,4:36 50 

Balance on hand and dividends due, Dec. 31, 

IS."}; 7,261,925 2S 

Total 141,616,803 31 

Liabilities. 

Francs. 

Capital G0.0()0,0(»0 00 

Deposits, current accounts 6S,.'i46,431 62 

IMlls payable, and sundries 3,911,264 65 

Interest and dividends .3,025,-373 75 

Kescrvo fund 2,000,000 00 

Balance of profit and loss account 4,133,733 29 

Total 141,016,803 31 

Showing a decrease in operations of about 40,- 
000,000 francs compared to Dec. 31, 1856, and 
of about 50,000,000 francs compared to Dec. 
31, 1855. The net profits of the company show 
considerable fluctuations. They were, in 1853, 
3,500,000 francs; 1854,9,800,000; 1855, about 
28,000,000; 1856, about 15,000,000; and in 
1857, only 4,133,733 29. M. Percire, in his 
financial statement of Dec. 31, 1857, attributes 
tlie unfavorable result of 1857 mainly to the 
financial crisis, and the violent fall of the Credit 
Mobilier shares at the beginning of 1858 to the 
attempt upon the emperor's life. — Among the 
most famous enterprises of the Credit Mo- 
bilier, from the time of its foundation, may 
be mentioned the consolidation of the Paris gas 
and omnibus companies; the creation of the 
company of the grand hotel du Loui-re in the 
rue de Rivoli, and of the maritime company of 
clippers; the immense operations in railways 
in Spain, Russia, Switzerland, and Austria; 
loans to an aggregate amount of about 1,500,- 
000,000 francs to French railway companies; 
and various other colossal transactions. By 
one of the most eloquent opponents of the 
company, M. Berryer, it has been character- 
ized as "the greatest gambling house which 
the world has ever seen." — Prominent among 
the continental institutions which, with some 
modifications, hare been formed after the model 
of the Credit Mobilier, is that of Geneva, found- 



ed with the assistance of that of Paris in 1853, 
and that of Vienna, established in the early 
part of 1856. The Germans have been mo.-^t 
active in founding similar companies, and not 
less than 3 books on that established at Vienna 
were published in 1857, and another book in 
the same year on that founded in Leipsic in 1856. 
CREEKS, or Muskogees, a southern tribe of 
North American Indians, now established in the 
Indian territory, who occupied prior to their 
removal the territory S. of the Alleghanies 
and S. W. of the Savannali, including the whole 
of the present state of Georgia and the greater 
part of Alabama. The Muskogee tradition, of 
immemorial antiquity, is that a long time ago 
some strangewandering clans of Indians from tlie 
northwest found their way down into Florida, 
into what was afterward known as the coun- 
try of the Seminoles. Meeting with plenty 
of game, they est.ablished themselves there in 
the vicinity of the powerful Appalachian tribes, 
by whom they were styled Seminoles, signify- 
ing wanderers or lost men. Increasing in num- 
bers and power, they excited the jealousy of 
their neighbors ; Avars ensued, and finally the 
Seminoles became masters of the country. The 
game of the region in process of time became 
insufiicient, and emigrations followed. They 
spread northeastward almost to Cape Fear, and 
westward as fiir as the Tallapoosa and Coosa 
rivers, branches of the Alabama, where tliey 
were encountered • by the powerful Alabama 
nation. They gained the friendship of this • 
tribe, and incorporated it into their own body. 
They now distinguished themselves from their 
ancestors, the Seminoles, by the name of Mus- 
kogees, the English name of Creeks being 
afterward given them from the character of 
much of the country in which they were 
found. Other accounts make the Seminoles 
to have wandered from the Muskogees, who 
were settled in the country IsT. of Florida. 
Though spread over a fourfold wider territory 
than the Choctaws, they did not surpass them 
in population, their fighting men numbering 
about 4,000. They were famed as brave war- 
riors, and extended their power and importance 
rather by the union of subject tribes than by 
increase of their original stock. By a liberal 
and protective policy long exercised toward 
vanqui-shed and declining tribes, they encour- 
aged their incorporation with themselves. The 
AJabamas and Coosades were the first who 
adopted the ceremonies and customs of the 
Creeks, and became part of the nation. The 
Natchez, or Sunset Indians, from the Missis- 
sippi, united with them some time prior to the 
revolution, after being driven out of Louisiana. 
Subsequently the Shawanese joined them in 
large numbers. The confederacy was divided 
into the npper and loAver Creeks, the former 
ha\ing their principal seat upon the head waters 
of the Alabama, the latter near the junction of 
the tributaries which form the Appalachicola. 
In 1705, the Creeks aided the English Caro- 
linians against the Spaniards of Florida. In 



52 



CREEKS 



1715 they supported the Yamassees in the at- 
tack upon South Carolina, which was defeated 
by the efficient conduct of Gov. Craven. In 
1721 tlie Savannah was fixed as their eastern 
boundary, though they permitted the English 
to maintain a post on the Altamaha. In 1733 
Oglethorpe met them on the bluli' of Yamacraw, 
on the Savannah, and they agreed in formal 
council to yield to the colonists all the lands 
below tide water between the Savannah and 
the Altamaha, except 3 islands on the coast. 
Six years later Oglethorpe again visited them 
at Cowetas, on the Chattahoochee, and by a 
new treaty they acknowledged themselves sub- 
ject to the king of Great Britain, ceded to the 
English, with some reservations, the coast from 
tlie Savannah to the St. John's as far into the 
interior as the tide flows, and were confirmed 
in the possession of the rest of the territory 
between those rivers and between the sea and 
the mountains. During the war of the Amer- 
ican revolution, the Creeks adhered to the Brit- 
ish. After the conclusion of peace, the Geor- 
gians claimed that by treaties concluded in 
1783, 1785, and 1786, this tribe had ceded to 
that state a considerable tract of their lands W. 
and S. of the Oconee. The Creeks, having an 
able chief in M'Gillivray, whose father was a 
Scotchman, denied the validity of these trea- 
ties, and, though they had always been allies of 
the English colonists against the Spaniards, 
now entered into close relations with the Span- 
ish government of Florida. This was the pe- 
riod of their greatest power, when they number- 
ed 6,000 warriors. British gunsmiths had long 
resided among them, so that they were well 
supplied with arms, Avhich they could skilfully 
employ. In 1787 war broke out between them 
and the Georgians, who sufl:ered severely. In 
1789 they first entered into negotiations with 
the United States, and were disposed to ac- 
knowledge the president as their " great fiither " 
instead of the British king, but abruptly broke 
off the conference when they found that the 
commissioner did not propose to restore their 
lands. Mutual depredations prevailed on the 
frontier between the Creeks and Georgians, till 
the boundaries were settled by a treaty in 1796, 
according to which the tribe was to receive an 
annuity of $6,000, and to be provided -with 2 
blacksmiths, in exchange for permitting certain 
posts and trading houses in their territory. 
They had of late years made some progress ia 
civilization, and, though still for the most part 
hunters, cultivated corn and sweet potatoes, 
and had a few slaves. In 1813 the example 
of Tecumseh, who visited them, excited them 
anew to war. Young men began " to dance 
the dance of the Indians of the lakes," and old 
men regretted and wished to revive the origi- 
nal savage simplicity of the nation. Tlie upper 
Creeks especially betrayed a hostile disposition, 
and had long caused apprehensions on the part 
of the whites in Alabama and Georgia. On 
Aug. 30, 1813, Weatlierford, a half-breed chief, 
at the head of 1,500 warriors, surprised Fort 



Mimms on the Alabama,* and but 17 persons out 
of a garrison of 275 survived the carnage. Four 
invading columns, amountuig to more than 
7,000 men, were speedily organized in Tennes- 
see, Georgia, and the Mississipi)i territory, to 
avenge the massacre. Gen. Jackson, the first 
in the field, captured 2 villages (Oct. 28 and 
Nov. 2) in the " hickory ground " between the 
Coosa and the Tallapoosa, in the latter of which 
no quarter was given. On Nov. 9 the savages 
were again defeated by him with great loss at 
Talladega, and soon after they were succes- 
sively routed by each of the other 3 invading 
forces, which, howevei', failed to meet in the 
heart of the Creek country. In Jan. 1814, the 
fiercest party of the savages, called Eed Sticks, 
attacked Gen. Jackson on his march, and obliged 
him to fall back to Fort Strother, from which 
he had advanced. He soon after received re- 
enforcements, attacked on March 24 the main 
body of the Eed Sticks at the great bend (also 
called the great horse-shoe) of the Tallapoosa, 
and ended the Creek war by a defeat and mas- 
sacre from which not more than 20 warriors 
were believed to have escaped. A treaty was 
concluded on Aug. 9, by which the Creeks sur- 
rendered a large part of their finest territory. 
In 1818 they made 2 large additional cessions, 
for which they received $20,000 down, and an 
annuity of $10,000 for 10 years ; and in that 
year they joined Gen. Jackson in the campaign 
against the Seminoles, On Feb. 12, 1825, they 
ceded all their lands in Georgia; but corrup- 
tion being proved on the part of their agent, 
M'Intosh, ho lost his life and the treaty was 
abrogated. By a new treaty, Jan. 24, 1826, 
they ceded all their lands in Georgia E. of tho 
Chattahoochee, and on Nov. 15, 1827, all their 
remaining lands Avithin the actual limits of 
Georgia. On March 2, 1832, they ceded all 
their lands E. of the Mississippi, and agreed 
to emigrate at the option of the United States. 
On Feb. 14, 1833, the federal government 
fixed their boundaries in the Indian territory, 
and agreed to patent their lands, in fee simple, 
during their existence as a nation and occu- 
pancy of them. Under this arrangement they 
have been removed. They occupy a fine coun- 
try, next N. of the Choctaws and Chickasaws, 
on the northei'n side of the Canadian river. 
They have entirely abandoned the chase, and 
devote themselves to the cultivation of the soil 
and the raising of stock, the latter being a 
profitable pursuit. Few are engaged in trade 
or indicate any aptitude for the mechanic arts. 
They retain more of the government by hered- 
itary chieftainship and circles than any other 
of the transferred tribes, and in their new lo- 
cality are still divided into upper and lower 
Creeks. They have a written constitution; 
aud the members of their council, which has au 
annual session, and their principal chief, are 
elected by the free citizens. They are owners 
of slaves, and are said to owe to them much 
of their advancement in agriculture. By the 
census of 1856, the entire tribe numbered 



CREEPER 



CRELL 



53 



14,88S, showing a great decrease during the 
preceding 20 yekrs, their aggregate in 1833 
having been 22,664, exclusive of about 1,000 
shaves. There is a fund of §200,742, held in 
trust by the United States for the henetit of 
Creek or])hans. 

CREEPER, a bird of the order passeres, tribe 
tenyirosirc.1, and family ccrthidw; to the sub- 
family certhinn', containing 5 genera, and to the 
genus ce?'^AjV{ (Linn.), belongs our commonbrown 
creeper ( C./nmiliarh, Linn.), The bill is mod- 
erate, slender, curved, with compressed sides 
and acute tip ; the wings are moderate and 
rounded ; the tail long and graduated, with the 
ends of the feathers rigid and acute ; tarsi short- 
er than the middle toe ; all the toes long and 
slender, with curved and sharp claws. There 
are 2 species, one inhabiting Asia, and the other 
Europe and North America; those who con- 
sider the American bird different, because found 
here, without being able to give any specific 
characters for it, may call our bird C. Americana 
(Pr. Bonap.). The creepers are found wherever 
trees are thick, climbing up the trunks with the 
aid of the tail, running along and ou the under 
surface of branches in search of insects concealed 
in the bark. The upper parts of our species are 
reddish brown, the head darker, the rump light- 
er ; all the feathers have a central dull whitish 
streak ; wings deep brown, the coverts tipped 
with dull yellow, and the secondaries barred 
■with the same ; lower parts and band over eyo 
silvery white ; sides tinged with brown ; webs 
of the quills, except of the outer three, crossed 
with a dull yellowish hand ; tail yellowish brown ; 
length of bird 5^ inches, extent of wings 8^ ; 
the female is smaller and darker. It is ex- 
tensively distributed over this country, alighting 
on all kinds of trees, preferring the tallest, in 
company with the smaller woodpeckers and 
nut-hatches. It breeds in holes in trees, often 
taking the abandoned nests of woodpeckers and 
squirrels ; the eggs are 6 to 8, of a yellowish 
white color, with irregular purplish dots, espe- 
cially at the larger end. It feeds on ants, larva?, 
email insects, and particles of lichens, in the 
winter coming into the orchards near houses. 
It is an exceedingly active and restless bird, 
shooting down from the top of an examined 
tree to the base of another, which it ascends as 
before. To the same ftimily belong the tree- 
creepers (d€ndrocolaptina>), larger birds, with 
long curved bills, peculiar to South America ; 
their habits are the same as those of the genus 
certhia. The black and white creeper is the 
mniotilta varia (Lath.), of the family liiscinidce. 

CREFELD (Ger. Z?Y/eZf/); a nourishing town 
of Rhenish Prussia, the principal seat of silk 
manufacture in Prussia, connected by railway 
with Cologne and Dusseldorf, 12 m. from the 
latter city ; pop. about 40,000. Its most im- 
portant public editices are a Roman Catholic 
church, 2 Protestant churches, a synagogue, an 
orphan asylum, and a deaf and dumb institution. 
The silk manufacture was introduced in the 17th 
century by a colony of Huguenot refugees. It 



employs about 2,500 looms in tlie town and its 
vicinity ; and the annual products are estimated 
at $5,000,000, There are also manufactories of 
woollen, cotton, and linen fabrics in Crefeld, as 
well as potteries, tanneries, and distilleries. It 
Avas formerly a place of considerable strength, 
and its walls are stiU standing. 

CREICnTOy, Joirx, an Irish soldier of for- 
tune, born in the county of Donegal in 1G48, 
died in 1733. He entered the horse guards of 
Ciiarles II., and displayed great zeal and activity 
in the campaign of that corps against the Cove- 
nanters of Scotland. TVlien James II, was suc- 
ceeded on the throne by William III., he attempt- 
ed to excite a rebellion, but was imprisoned at 
Edinburgh. After several years he was permit- 
ted to return to Ireland, where in his old age he 
met Switt, who was interested in his history, and 
m-ged him to write a narrative of his adventures. 
His "Memoirs," revised by Swift, appeared in 
1731, and contain curious Scottish particulars 
relative to the reign of Charles II. and James 
II., and interesting notices of characters and 
events which served as materials for Sir Walter 
Scott in the composition of his " Old Mortality," 

CREIGIITON, Jorrx Oede, a commodore in 
the U. S. navy, born in the city of New York, 
died at Sing Sing, March 18, 1846. Heenteredthe 
navy as midshipman in June, 1800, and served 
under Commodore Preble before Tripoli. In 1 807 
he became a lieutenant, and was attached to the 
frigate Chesapeake in June of that year, when 
she fought the British ship Leopard. He was 
afterward attached to the frigate President, and 
was first lieutenant of that ship in her action with 
the British ship of war Little Belt, May 16, 1811. 
In 1813 he commanded the brig Rattlesnake, 
was promoted to the rank of master commandant 
in that year, and to that of captain the year fol- 
lowing. In 1829-'30 he commanded the squad- 
ron on the coast of Brazil. 

CRELL, or Crei-lifs, Johaxx, a theologian 
of the school of Faustus Socinus, born near 
Nuremberg in 1590, died in Cracow, June 11, 
1633. He removed to Poland in 1612, and offi- 
ciated at Cracow as rector of the Unitarian di- 
vinity school, and afterward as preacher. He 
made some valuable contributions to theological 
literature, among others a German translation 
of the New Testament. He also wrote a reply 
to Grotius's De Satisfactione Christi. — There 
were 2 other Socinian theologians of the same 
name: CnRisxopn, who died Dec. 12, 1680, and 
his son Samuel, born in 1657, died June 9, 1747. 

CRELL, NIKOLAI'S, prime minister of Chris- 
tian I., elector of Saxony, born in Leipsic about 
1550, beheaded at Dresden, Oct. 9, 1601. Antici- 
pating great danger to the cause of the reforma- 
tion from the sectarian conflicts among the Prot- 
estants, he recommended an approximation to 
Calvinism (Crypto-Calvinism), with a view of 
putting an end to their conflicts and of present- 
ing a united front against the Roman Catholics ; 
but by order of Christian's successor, the intole- 
rant regent Frederic William, he was doomed to 
10 years' imprisonment and finally put to death. 



54 



CPwEMA 



CRENIO ACID 



CREMA, a town of Lombardr, in tlie prov- 
ince of Lodi-Crcnia, on the Serio, 25 m. E. of 
Milan ; pop. about 9,000. It is well built and for- 
tified, and has several handsome chnrches and 
palaces, as weU as manufactories of lace, hats, 
thread, and silk. Crema was founded in the Gth 
century by some fugitives whom the oi)presslons 
of Alboin, the tirst Lombard king of Italy, had 
driven from their homes. During the wars of 
thcGueliihs and Ghibellincs it was destroyed by 
Frederic I., but was afterward rebuilt. In 1797 
it was captured by the French. 

CREMERA, now Aqt-a Teaversa, a small 
river of Etruria Avhich falls into the Tiber, a 
short distance above Rome. On the banks of 
this river the 300 Fabii encamped, when, after 
marching from Rome, they undertook to wage 
war against Veil, and here tliey were surprised 
by their enemies, and cut off, 477 B. 0. 

CREMIEUX, Isaac Adolpue, French min- 
ister of justice in 1848, born of Jewish parents 
at Nimes, April 10,, 1796, studied law at Aix, 
and was admitted to the bar of his native town 
in 1817. His success there established his rep- 
utation at Paris, where, however, he was not 
fortunate in his first important forensic effort 
as counsel for Guernon-Ranville, a minister of 
Charles X., who had been arraigned as one of 
the authors of the fiital ordinances of July, 1830. 
Overcome by the excitement of the occasion 
he fiiinted, and was unable to continue the de- 
fence. But he soon regained his prestige in the 
courts, and after having purchased from Odilon 
Barrot his office and function as advocate, he 
defended Arinand Marrast, Raspail, and other 
eminent republicans prosecuted by the govern- 
ment, with great ability before the court of ap- 
peal. In 1842 he took his seat in the chamber 
of deputies on the extreme left as deputy from 
Chinon. He opposed the game laws, supported 
free trade principles, and by his systematic 
attacks on the policy of the government con- 
tributed not a little to pave the way for the 
revolution of 1848. "When this at last broke 
out, he told Louis Philippe and his queen, whom 
on the day of their flight he met in the place de 
la Concorde, that there was no hope left, and 
recommended them to leave France immediate- 
ly. He then proceeded to the chamber of dep- 
uties, inclined to support the regency of the 
duchess of Orleans ; but Avhen this was rejected, 
he proposed a provisional government, of which 
he became a member, the ministry of justice 
being intrusted to his charge. On June 7, 1848, 
he left the government in consequence of a prose- 
cution against liis friend Louis Blanc, but re- 
mained as a member of the constituent as- 
sembly. On Dec. 10, 1848, he voted for Louis 
Napoleon's election to the presidency, without 
however ceasing to advocate in the legislative 
assembly the views of the extreme republican 
party. When the day of the coup cVetat came 
(Dec. 2, 1851), he was arrested, but soon releas- 
ed ; he has since resumed Ids jiractice as a law- 
yer. His appearance is unprepossessing, but his 
eloqucrtce is remarkable and full of oriental vi- 



vacity. He is wealthy and hospitable. Yl\s salon 
is a favorite resort of musicians, he being him- 
self a great amateur. He is also distinguished 
as a zealous defender of his Jewish brethren, 
among whom he earned great popularity by 
accompanying Sir Moses Montefiore to the East 
in behalf of the persecuted Jews of Damascus 
in 1840. 

CREMNITZ. See Kremxitz. 

CREMONA, a province of the Austrian 
crownlund of Lombardy, bounded N. by the 
provinces of Brescia and Bergamo, E. by Man- 
tua, S. by the Po, and W. by the Adda. Its 
greatest length is about 45 m., its breadth about 
15 m. Area, 523 sq. m. ; pop. about 200,000. 
The principal products are flax, wine, oil, cattle, 
and horses. It produces wine to the extent 
of about 2,000,000 gallons annually. Silk is 
the most important manufacture. The prov- 
ince formed part of the duchy of Milan un- 
til 1800, when, conquered by the French, it 
constituted the eastern part of the department 
of Alto-Po until 1814, when it came into pos- 
session of Austria. It is divided into 9 dis- 
ti'icts and 186 communes; contains 11 small 
towns and 162 villages. — Cremona, the capital, 
pop. about 37,000, 45 m. from Milan, contains 
45 churches, of which the cathedral is the most 
remarkable, rivalling, in the opinion of Lanzi, 
the pictorial magnificence of the Sistine chapel, 
and containing many works of art. The greatest 
architectural celebrity, however, of Cremona is 
the Torazzo, or belfry tower, ending in a spire, 
the highest of all the towers in N. Italy, reach- 
ing the elevation of nearly 400 feet, with about 
500 steps to ascend to its summit. There aro 
also many sumptuous palaces, with fine picture 
galleries, and a campo santo^ now used as the 
repository of the archives, which contains an 
underground vault and a curious mosaic pave- 
ment. Cremona is the seat of a bishop, of the 
provincial authorities, and courts of law ; con- 
tains a citadel, a gymnasium, a lyceum, an acad- 
emy of fine arts, infant schools (founded here 
in 1829, previous to their establishment in any 
other Italian town), and schools opened at cer- 
tain hours on Sundays and other holy days. It 
carries on an extensive trade by means of the Po, 
and the various canals communicating with that 
river. Cremona was a Roman colony, founded 
in 219 B. C. ; it was often attacked by hostile 
Gallic tribes, and was destroyed by them in 
193. In A. D. 69 it was plundered and burned 
by the troops of Vespasian, Avho subsequently 
rebuilt it. In later periods it was often con- 
quered, and had many misfortunes ; last of all 
in 1849, when it was bombarded by the Ans- 
trians. — Cremona is the general name applied to 
the violins made at Cremona, by the Amati fam- 
ily and Stradivarius, in the 17th and 18th cen- 
turies. They excel all others in purity of tone, 
and bring enormous prices. The name is also 
erroneously given to a stop in the organ which 
is intended to imitate the krumhorn, a species 
of cornet. 

CRENIC ACID, Crenates (Gr. Kprjvr], a 



CREOLE 



CREON 



spring or fountain), an acid and its compounds, 
so named by ikrzelius from having been first 
found by liim in spring water, being among tlie 
products of vegetable decomposition, and con- 
stituents of liumus. Tliis acid and tiie apo- 
crenic acid associated witli it dilfer from the ex- 
tract of mould or geine of Herzelius in contain- 
ing nitrogen. Liebig, Graham, and other distin- 
gnislied chemists, do not recognize the existence 
of this substance. The following description is 
given of it as obtained by Berzelius: a sour, 
yellow mass, reddening litmus, soluble in water 
and alcohol ; forming salts (crenates) with 
bases, wliich salts are soluble in water, but not 
in alcoliol ; obtained from ochreous sediments, 
by boiling with caustic potash, saturating with 
acetic acid, and precipitating with acetate of 
cojiper the crenic acid as a crenate of copper. 
Tliis is decomposed l)y sulidiuretted hydrogen, 
and puritied by Avashing with alcohol. Its for- 
mula is giv^en as 004111 oOm, or C7H8NO6. 

CREOLE, a corruption of the Spanish word 
criollo, which signifies one born in America 
or the West Indies, of European ancestors. In 
this sense, all the native white people of the 
United States are Creoles. But the word in its 
English use has undergone both a limitation and 
an extension. It is limited to persons born 
within or near the tropics; audit is made to 
include persons of all colors. Thus the term 
Creole negro is employed in the English "VYest 
Indies to distinguish the negroes born there from 
the Africans imported during the time of the 
slave trade. The application of this term to 
the colored people has led to an idea common 
in some i)arts of the United States, though 
wholly unfounded, that it implies an admixture, 
greater or less, of African blood. The Creoles 
of the West Indies and the adjacent coasts of 
the continent are distinguished by marked phys- 
ical peculiarities from their European ancestors. 
Bryan Edwards, who had ample opportunities 
for observation, and who is a very competent 
observer, describes them, in his " History of the 
West Indies," as obviously a taller race on the 
M'hole than the European, but in general not 
proportionately robust. lie had known several 
■who were full 6 feet 4 inches in height, but they 
wanted bulk to come up t9 the idea of mascu- 
line beauty. This peculiarity, however, it is to 
be observed, is not confined to the Creoles of 
the tropics. The same remark has been made 
respecting the descendants of Europeans born 
in the United States and in Australia. The 
Creoles are distinguished (and this is an exclu- 
sive peculiarity of them) for the freedom and 
suppleness of their joints, which enables them 
to move with great ease, agility, and grace. 
From the same cause they excel in penmanship, 
and in every thing requiring flexibility of move- 
ment. The effect of climate is likewise obvious 
in the structure of the eye, tlie socket being 
considerably deeper than among Europe<ans, 
thus affording a protection against the glare of 
the sun. Their skin feels considerably colder 
than that of Europeans — a circumstance ob- 



served in a still stronger degree of the negroes, 
and going to show an effort of nature to protect 
their bodies against the heat. Even though 
living in the same way with Europeans, tl)ey 
are rarely subject to those inflammatory dis- 
orders, tlie yellow fever included, Avhicli ])rove 
so often fatal to the former. This is i)articu- 
larly true of the Creole women of the West In- 
dies, who live in general very quiet and regular 
lives, and who in their diet are abstemious even 
perhaps to a fault. Simjjle water or lem<«iade 
is the strongest beverage in which they indulge, 
and a vegetable mess at noon, seasoned with 
Cayenne pepper, constitutes their principal 
meal. To a stranger newly arrived, they ap- 
pear as if just risen from a sick bed. Their 
voices are soft and spiritless, every step betrays 
languor, while their cheeks lack entirely the 
bloom of the rose. They have, however, in 
general beautiful black hair, and the finest eyes 
of any women in the world — large, languishing, 
and expressive. They are also noted for their 
fine teeth. Tlie early display of mental powers 
in young creole children, and their superiority 
in this respect over European children of the 
same age, has been noted by all travellers. It 
is difficult, however, to rear white children in 
that climate; though perhaps the difficulty 
arises in no small degree from the mode of liv- 
ing indulged in. . The peculiarities of the white 
Creole are to be found also in the mixed race, 
with more of force and vivacity on the part of 
the latter, the women especially, as being less 
enervated by the climate. A high degree of tei>- 
derness and compassion, and great adhesiveness 
of affection, characterize the Creole women of all 
colors. There may be observed also a marked 
distinction between the Creole negroes and those 
imported from Africa. The former are more 
slender, agile, and graceful, though not less 
strong or capable of labor, with quicker per- 
ceptions and more volatile dispositions. If the 
white race deteriorates by its transfer to the 
West Indies, the black race evidently improves 
physically as well as mewtally. How far the 
native-born whites of the high tropical table- 
lands of Mexico and South America resemble 
or differ from the white natives of the lower 
and hotter regions, no traveller seems yet to 
have accurately noted. 

CREON. I. A mythical king of Corinth, in 
whose reign Jason returned to Greece with the 
sorceress Medea. Visiting Corinth on his way 
home, the hero beheld the beautiful Creiisa, the 
only daughter of the king, and became enam- 
ored of her. Creon promised to give her to him 
in marriage if he would divorce Medea. Jason 
consented to do so, and the king at once ordered 
Medea to quit his dominions. The sorceress 
begged to be allowed to remain for a single day, 
and when this request was granted she pre- 
pared in the interval a magical robe, which 
she sent as a present to Creiisa, who, uncon- 
scious of danger, put it on, and was burned to 
death. Creon, who had kissed her while in the 
agony of death, also caught fire and perished. 



/ 



56 



CREOSOTE 



CRESCENT 



II. A king of Thebes, who, alarmed by the rav- 
ages of the Si)hinx, offered his crown and his 
sister Jocasta to any one that could solve the 
enigma propounded by the monster. CEdipus, 
having succeeded in doing so, ascended the 
throne and married Jocasta, not knowing that 
she was his mother. The fruit of this mar- 
riage was 2 sons, Eteocles and Polynices, who, 
after their father's death, having long been 
at enmity, finally slew each other iu single 
combat. Creon, now resuming the govern- 
ment, ordained that Polynices should remain 
unburied, and that any who infringed this de- 
cree should be buried alive. Antigone, sister 
of Polynices, buried her brother in disregai-d 
of this edict, and was imprisoned in a cave. 
Here she instantly killed herself, whereon Ilae- 
mon, her lover, rushed to her prison-house, and 
slew himself on her corse. 

CREOSOTE, an oily, colorless liquid, of a 
burning and bitter taste, and a peculiar smoky 
odor. It was first obtained by Dr. von Reich- 
enbach, in 1830, among the products of the 
distillation of wood, and named from the Greek 
Kpeas, flesh, and o-oj^o), to preserve, in reference 
to its peculiar antiseptic properties. It pos- 
sesses neither acid nor alkaline reaction. It 
boils at the temperature of 397°, and does not 
freeze at 17° below zero. At 68° its specific 
gravity is 1.037. It evaporates without resi- 
due, leaving upon paper a temporary greasy 
stain, and upon the skin a white spot. In con- 
centrated form it acts as a caustic. It may be 
inflamed from a candle, and then burns with 
much smoke. It is but partially soluble in 
water, but is itself a powerful solvent of the 
resins, fots, indigo, camphor, &c. Its composi- 
tion is variously stated. According to Ettling 
it consists of carbon 77.42, hydrogen 8.12, and 
oxygen 14.46. Its most remarkable quality is 
that for which it was named. Meats are pre- 
served by soaking them in a dilute solution of 
creosote for a quarter of an hour, and then 
draining ofS the water and drying. Hams and 
tongues acquire a very delicate flavor after be- 
ing immersed for 24 hours in a mixture of 1 
part of pure creosote with 100 of water or 
brine. A process has been patented in Eng- 
land for impregnating salt with the volatile pro- 
ducts of wood tar ; meats prepared with it are 
both smoked and salted. It is the creosote in 
pyroligneous acid and in the smoke from 
wood that gives to these the property of curing 
meat. Either crude pyroligneous acid or wood 
tar may be used to furnish creosote. The 
liquid distilled off the latter divides into 3 lay- 
ers, the lowest containing the creosote. The 
acetic acid also present in it is removed, after 
separating this layer from the other, by means 
of carbonate of potash. Tlie oil which after 
some time collects upon the liquid is distilled, 
producing a heavy liquid, with other lighter 
fluids. The latter is agitated with phosphoric 
acid, and again distilled to remove ammonia. 
It is then mixed with solution of caustic potash 
of specific gravity 1.12, which dissolves the 



creosote, but leaves the eupione insoluble. This 
is decanted oft". The liquid is then left for some 
time exposed to tlie air till it acquires a brown 
color. Sulphuric acid is then added, which 
sets the creosote free, so that it may be de- 
canted; but it requires to be agaNi treated 
with caustic potash and sulphuric acid, and the 
process repeated until the creosote, on exposure 
for some time to the air, ceases to turn brown. 
It still requires, after thorough washing with 
water, to be distilled from hydrate of potash, 
or from a strong solution of caustic potash. 
The first portions that come over are water, 
and are rejected. Creosote is known to be im- 
pure by turning brown on exposure to the air ; 
strong acetic acid also detects its usual impurities, 
dissolving with the creosote, and leaving them 
floating on the surface. As a medicine, creosote 
has been much used, both as an external appli- 
cation and in doses inwardly administered. It 
is introduced into ointments and applied to 
wounds, burns, ulcers, and scaly eruptions. It 
checks hemorrhage, nausea, and vomiting, and 
applied to an aching tooth, often instantly re- 
lieves the pain. It has been successfully given 
in diarrhoea, cholera morbus, cholera infantum, 
&c. ; indeed, there is hardly a substance iu ma- 
teria medica that has been administered to such 
a great variety of diseases, and, in many of 
them, with such decidedly favorable results. 
In an overdose it is a poison, and no antidote is 
known; emetics and stimulants are the only 
treatment. A few drops of creosote added to 
a pint of ink will prevent mouldiness. 

CRESCENDO, in music, an Italian term sig- 
nifying that the notes over which it is placed 
are to be gradually swelled. It is common to 
designate it by the following sign -==;. 

CRESCENT (Lat. crescere, to increase), origi- 
nally an epithet applied to the moon in its 
first quarter, when its disk is enlarging and its 
horns are acute. Any figure or likeness of the 
new moon was afterward termed a crescent, 
which became a favorite form for ornaments. 
The Syrian Astarte and the Greek Artemis were 
often represented with it placed horizontally 
over their brows, having its horns turned up- 
ward. An ivory crescent was worn as a sort 
of buckle for the cothurnus by wealthy Atheni- 
ans, and Roman matrons enlarged it as a dec- 
oration for the hair. Throughout antiquity the 
crescent was especially a Byzantine symbol, and 
it appears on Byzantine imperial medals from 
the time of Augustus. When the Turks became 
masters of Constantinople they adopted this 
symbol, inscribed it upon their standards, ban- 
ners, and mosques, and named their dominion 
the empire of the crescent. — In 1448 a military 
order of the crescent was instituted by Ren6 of 
Anjou. It Avas composed of 50 noble knights, 
each of whom wore an enamelled crescent on 
the right arm, from which was suspended a 
number of small wooden columns equal to that 
of the combats in which he had been engaged. 
In 1799, after the battle of the Nile, tlie sultan 
Selim III. presented to Nelson a splendid cres- 



CRESCENTINI 



CRETACEOUS GROUP 



57 



cent adorned witli diamonds. It became a 
favorite ornament of tlie English admiral, who 
often declared himself a knight of the crescent. 
This circumstance induced the sultan to found 
in 1801 the order of the crescent, to be con- 
ferred as an honor upon foreigners who had de- 
served well of Turkey. 

CRESCENTINI, Girolamo, a masculine so- 
prano singer, born near Urbino, Italy, in 17G9, 
died at Naples in 1846. He was received with 
the utmost enthusiasm all over Europe, espe- 
cially in Vienna. He was a great favorite with 
Napoleon I., who engaged him for his private 
chapel in Paris in 1800 ; but subsequently he 
returned to Naples, where he taught music with 
great success, and published collections of exer- 
cises in musical vocalization. 

CRESCENZI, PiETRo de', a Bolognese noble- 
man, born about 1230, died in 1320, the author 
of tlie most valuable work on agriculture of 
the middle ages, entitled Oi^us Ruralium Com- 
modoi'um, which contained not only the person- 
al experiences and observations of the author, 
but the best information that could be gained 
from the agriculturists of anti(iuity. It has been 
translated into several modern languages, and 
the best Latin edition is that of Gessuer, 2 vols., 
Leipsic, 1735. 

CRESPEL-DELLISSE, Lours Franqois Xa- 
YiER Joseph, a French scientific agriculturist, 
born in Lille, March 22, 1789, established the 
first important manufactory of beet-root sugar in 
his native city, in 1810, in concert with Messrs. 
Dellisse and Passy. Subsequently he founded 
nearly 20 agricultural establishments in various 
parts of France, of which he made his refinery 
at Arras the centre. 

CRESS, the name of several species of plants, 
with acrid or pungent leaves, most of which be- 
long to the natural order cruciferce. The water 
cresses (nasturtium and sisymhrium) are the 
most common varieties. They grow abundantly 
on the brinks of rivulets and small ponds, may 
be eaten as a salad, and are valued as antiscor- 
butic medicines. 

CRESSON, Elliott, an American philan- 
thropist, born March 2, 1796, died Feb. 20, 
1854. He was a successful merchant in Phila- 
delphia, where he resided all his life, and a 
member of the society of Friends. His benev- 
olent disposition was especially turned toward 
the Indian and negro population of the United 
States, At one time he proposed to become a 
niissionai-y among the Seminoles of Florida, and 
afterward engaged in establishing the first Afri- 
can colony of liberated slaves in the territory 
of Bassa Cove. In the winter of 1838-'39 he 
made the tour of the New England states as 
agent of the national colonization society, and 
the nest winter was spent in a similar mission 
in the southern states. He everywhere recom- 
mended his measures with the eloquence of sin- 
cere conviction, and met with much favor and 
success. He sailed to England in Dec. 1840, 
where he spent 2 years in advocating the pro- 
ject of colonization, as also 3 years from 1850 



to 1853. His time and labor were contributed 
without pay, and by his will ho distributed his 
estate to a great variety of charities. He be- 
queathed in this way an amount of $122,000, 
mostly to institutions already established, but a 
bequest of a landed estate of over $30,000 was 
to establish a home for aged, infirm, or invalid 
merchants or gentlemen, who may have become 
unable to procure the comforts appropriate to 
their condition in life. 

CRESSY. See Crecy. 

CREST (Lat. crista)^ originally the reddish 
caruncle and tuft of feathers which rise on the 
heads of some birds, as the cock. It also des- 
ignates the plume or other ornament worn by 
warriors and cavaliers on the top of the helmet 
or casque. By Herodotus the invention of mar- 
tial crests is attributed to the Carians, whose 
painted bucklers, and casques mounted with 
feathers, gained them the appellation of cocks. 
The crests of the Homeric heroes were often 
bunches of horse hair, and both the Greeks and 
Romans esteemed the capture of an enemy's 
crest an honorable feat of war. Crests, made 
of the feathers of the ostrich or heron, or of 
painted wood or parchment, were worn by 
knights at mediaeval jousts and tournaments. 
"When the shield was not borne, they afforded 
the principal critericm of nobility. 

CRESWICK, Thomas, an English landscape 
painter, born at Sheffield, Yorkshire, in 1811, 
His first pictures, consisting of views in North 
Wales and Derbyshire, were exhibited at the 
royal academy in 1828. His pictures are gen- 
erally elaborate, with admirably pencilled foli- 
age and atmospheric effects, and a precision of 
drawing never degenerating into stiffness. He 
was elected an associate of the royal academy in 
1842, and an academician in 1851. His pencil is 
discernible in several recent illustrated works. 

CRETACEOUS GROUP (Lat. creta, chalk), 
a series of stratified rocks forming the upper 
division of the secondary formation, distin- 
guished as containing the last strata of which 
the fossil animal remains are wholly of extinct 
species. The group is subdivided into upper and 
lower ; the former is often called from its prin- 
cipal member the chalk, and the latter for the 
same reason the greensand. The group under- 
lies the tertiary beds of the London and Paris 
basins, rising up toward tlie straits of Dover on 
each side, along the coast of which its while chalk 
cliffs form prominent objects in the scenery. 
The formation is represented in New Jersey by 
beds of yellowish limestone and of greensand, 
which contain fossil shells, some of which belong 
to the same species, and most of them to the 
same genera, with those found in the cretaceous 
rocks of Europe. The same genera of fish also 
are common to the group of the two countries. 
The formation is traced through the eastern part 
of North Carolina and central part of Georgia, 
and after sweeping round the southern termina- 
tion of the Alleghanies in Alabama passes 
through that state and Mississippi northward 
into Tennessee and Kentucky. It is recognized 



68 



CRETE 



CRETINS 



near Council Bluff on the Missouri, in Texas, 
upon the Andes near Bo^^ota, S. A., and also in 
llindostan. Thus at widely separated points in 
the ancient seas of 4 continents were similar 
deposits produced during tiie same geological 
period, chara(!terized by the animal remains 
they include, of tlie same general type, and often 
of the same species. For relations of this group 
to those which precede and succeed it, see Ge- 
ology ; and for further details regarding its 
members, see Chalk, Gault, and Greensand. 

CRETE. See Candia. 

CRETINS (called in Carinthia, Toclem ; in 
Styria, Tosten ; iti Austria, Trottehi ; in the 
Tyrol, Talheii; in SaUzburg, Tottelii; in Wiir- 
temberg, Fexen ; in Sardinia and some other 
countries, Lalleii; and in many portions of Ger- 
many, Geschupf)^ persons in whom partial or 
complete idiocy is combined with great bodily 
deformity. The most vivid and accurate descrip- 
tion of their appearance is that given by Berch- 
told Beaupie in his Dmertation sur les Cretins: 
" Who is this melancholy being who bears the 
human form in its lowest and most repulsive ex- 
pression ? I see a head of unusual form and size, 
a squat and bloated figure, with a stupid look, 
with blear, hollow, and heavy eyes, with thick 
projecting eyelids, and a flat nose. His face is 
of a leaden hue, his skin is dirty, flabby, covered 
with tetters, and his thick tongue hangs down 
over his moist livid lips. His mouth, alwaj's 
open and full of saliva, shows teeth which are 
going to decay. His chest is narrow, his back 
curved, his breath asthmatic. I see indeed arms 
and legs, but his limbs are short, misshapen, 
lean, stiti', without power and without utility. 
The knees are thick and inclined inward, and the 
feet flat. The large head drops listlessly on the 
breast, the belly resembles a bag, and the integ- 
uments are so loose that they cannot retain the 
intestines in its cavity. This loathsome idiotic be- 
ing hears not, speaks not, and only now and then 
utters a hoarse, wild, inarticulate sound. Not- 
withstanding his greediness, he is scarcely able 
to support life. One passion alone seems some- 
times to rouse him from his usual insensibility ; 
it is the sexual instinct in its rudest brutality. 
At first we should be inclined to take this being 
for a gigantic polypus, something in imitation 
of a man, for it scarcely moves ; it creeps with 
the painful heaviness of a sloth ; and yet it is 
the monarch of the earth, but dethroned and 
degraded. It is a cretin." The name cretin is 
of uncertain origin ; Virey derives it from Chre- 
tien, Christian, because the inhabitants of the 
countries where cretinism prevails were very 
generally disposed to regard tlie cretins as in- 
capable of sinfulness ("souls without sin," they 
call them), and hence regarded them as favored 
of God, or "good Ciu-istians." Blackie, how- 
ever, whose essay on tliis subject gives evidence 
of very thorough research, derives it from the 
lioinauce or Grison cretina, a corruption of the 
Latin creatura, a creature. Tliis unfortunate 
class are far more widely distributed than has 
been generally supposed. Throughout the whole 



sxib- Alpine region in Europe, as well as in some 
of the more level regions, they are found, and 
often in great numbers. The goitre or bron- 
chocele, so prevalent throughout the whole of 
the Alpine countries, is often accompanied by 
cretinism, and is, with very few exceptions, al- 
ways found on the cretin. Switzerland, and 
especially the cantons Valais, Vaud, Uri, Aar- 
gau, Grisons, and Glarus, seems to be the 
home of this friglitful deformity. It is endemic 
in portions of Rhenish Prussia, Baden, Sardinia, 
Bavaria, upper Austria, along the banks of the 
Danube, particularly in Judenburg, Bruck, Gratz, 
Marburg, and Cilly, in Wiirlemberg, Denmark, 
Norway, in the Alpine departments of France, 
in portions of Turkey and Russia, and in the 
highlands of Scotland. In Africa, it has beeu 
found prevalent along the northern slope of 
the Atlas range. In Asia, the districts around 
the base of the Himalaya range furnish great 
numbers of cases, as well as China, Chinese Tar- 
tary, and Sumatra. In South America, cretins 
are found in considerable numbers on the eastern 
or Atlantic slope of the Andes, and scattered 
cases occur along the Alleghany, Green moun- 
tain, and Iloosic ranges in the United States. In 
some parts of Canada cases have also been ob- 
served. The number of cretins in the sub-Alpine 
districts of Europe, whether considered actually 
or relatively to the population, is frightfully large. 
In some localities in Switzerland, Rhenish Prus- 
sia, and the Alpine districts of France and Savoy, 
the number is so great, that in whole villages 
not an able-bodied man can be found. — The 
causes of cretinism are involved in some ob- 
scurity, though Avithin the past 20 years many 
of the ablest medical men in Europe have been 
investigating the subject with great care. The 
localities in whicli it is most prevalent in the 
Alpine districts are low-lying valleys, narrow, 
and exposed to the direct rays of the sun but 
for a few hours each day, and usually having 
but one outlet. In these, the air is often stag- 
nant and the heat intense ; the water is also in 
some cases charged with mineral impurities, 
especially the salts of lime ; the food of the in- 
habitants is often scanty in quantity, and infe- 
rior in quality ; they are in many cases grossly 
intemperate, and intermarriage with near rela- 
tives, and those afi'ected with goitre or incipient 
cretinism, is common. In other countries it 
occurs on open plains, but in other respects under 
circumstances analogous to those already named. 
"Whatever may be the obscurity in regard to the 
c«,uses of this fearful disorder, there is none in re- 
gard to the indications to be fulfilled in its treat- 
ment. Thelife of the cretin is usually short; few 
are found above 30 years of age, and any treat- 
ment liaving in view the improvement of their 
health must, to be of benefit, be applied to the 
young. The recovery of a patient beyond the age 
of 12 years is almost hopeless. The first thing 
to be accomplished is the removal of the young 
cretin, as soon as possible after the disease exhib- 
its itself (for in many of the cases cretiuisn; 
is not developed till the period of dentition, and 



CRETINS 



CREUZER 



59 



Boinetirnes even not until the Gtli or 7tli year), 
to a pure bracing atmosphere. It lias been 
ascertained that on the Alps it seldom occurs 
at an elevation of 3,000 feet above the level of 
the sea, and never at the height of 4,000 feet. 
Hence, those who have attemp^ted its treatment 
in Europe have preferred elevated locations. 
The treatment requires an abundance of i)uro 
water, for drinking, washing, and bathing; warm 
and cold baths anddouclies; friction of the skin 
with brushes and stimulating liquids, to rouse its 
action; warm clothing; gymnastic exercises of 
the simplest character, passing on to those more 
difficult and fatiguing as they can be borne; 
the adnuiiistration of some of the mineral ton- 
ics; nourishing and abundant, but simple food; 
iodine in some form, cod-liver oil, and the ad- 
ministration of some of the pliospliates to give 
more firmness to the bony structui'e. Galvanism 
and electro-magnetism are also of benefit. As 
the essential nature of the disease seems to be a 
combination of rachitis (rickets) with retarded 
mental development, the bodily treatment must 
resemble as far as possible that ordinarily adopt- 
ed in the treatment of rachitis and other scrof- 
ulous affections. The effort to develop the 
mind must follow, and with considerable inter- 
val, the attempt to restore the body to a healthy 
condition. The method of training for this pur- 
pose is similar to that employed in the instruction 
of idiots. The measure of success has been some- 
what greater than with idiots, partly perhaps 
from the fact that instruction has usually been 
commenced at an earlier period, and partly be- 
cause the mental paralysis (if we may be allowed 
the expression) was less profound than in the 
case of the idiot. The idea of restoring the 
cretin to health and to the exercise of his 
mental faculties had occurred to several indi- 
viduals, and had been made the topic of some 
essays in the early part of the present century, 
by Fodere, Wenzel, Virey, Abercrombie, and 
others ; yet no systematic effort for the purpose 
•was made till 1839, when Dr. Guggenbiihl un- 
dertook the establishment of an institution for 
the care and cure of cretins. He l(?cated this 
institution on the Abendberg, in tlie canton of 
Bern, in 1840, and has devoted his life to the 
W'ork of their training. That, like the good 
abbe de I'fipee, whom in many respects he re- 
sembles, his enthusiasm may at times have led 
him to regard the intellectual progress of his 
pupils as beyond what they had actually at- 
tained, and to mistake answers learned by 
rote for the results of mental activity, is very 
possible; but, granting all that his detractors 
say to be true, he has undoubtedly restored 
many of this abject and degraded class to intel- 
ligence, activity, and life. There are now 5 
other institutions on the continent expressly for 
the treatment of cretins, aside from those in- 
tended for the instruction of idiots and imbe- 
ciles not affected-with cretinism. They are Dr, 
Erlenmayer's at Bendorf, with 25 or 30 i)upils; 
Dr. Zemmer's at Mareaburg, witli about GO pu- 
pils; Dr. Mailer's at Winterbach, with about 



the same number ; a small one at Ecksberg, in 
Bavaria; and another in the valley of Aosta, 
in Piedmont, occui)ying the old lejiers' hospi- 
tal at the monastery. These all owe their ori- 
gin to the examjileof Dr. Guggenbiihl, but they 
have hardly attained to his measure of success. 
Some of the idiot schools also admit a few cre- 
tins ; but the entire provision for their instruc- 
tion in Europe furnishes accommodation for 
not more than 250 children, while at the low- 
est estimate there are more than 50,000 cretins 
on the continent. Several of the smaller gov- 
ernments of Germany have, however, taken 
the preliminary steps for the organization of 
cretin hospitals. 

CREUSE, a department of central France, 
traversed by the river Creuse, from which it de- 
rives its name, and by other streams, none of 
Avhich are here navigable ; area, 2,133 sq. m. ; 
l)op. in IBoG, 278,889. It is very mountainous, 
and contains granite, coal, gypsum, and potters' 
clay. The soil is poor, except in the N. E. part ; 
agriculture is backward ; the climate is damp and 
changeable ; and the domestic animals are of an 
inferior breed. The crops of grain are insufficient 
for domestic consumption. Fruit, rape seed, and 
hemp, however, are raised abundantly, and quan- 
tities of honey are collected. The chief manufac- 
tures are carpets, tapestry, coarse woollen goods, 
cotton, leather, paper, glass, and porcelain. 
There are no canals, but the department is tra- 
versed by a railway from Chateauroux to Li- 
moges. It is divided into 4 arrondissements, 25 
cantons, and 261 communes. Capital, Gueret. 

CREUTZ, GusTAF FiLip, cf)unt, a Swedish 
poet and diplomatist, born in Finland in 1726, 
died in 1785. Ilis poems w^ere published in 
1795, including Atis og Ccimilla, a pastoral 
epic in 5 cantos. While Swedish ambassa- 
dor to Paris, he concluded, April 3, 1783, a 
commercial treaty with Benjamin Franklin, as 
representative of the United States. On his re- 
turn to Stockholm he was appointed minister 
of foreign affairs, and chancellor of the univer- 
sity of Upsal. Gustavus III. purcluised his 
library, which is now in the palace of Haga, and 
on April 26, 1786, the king in person pronounced 
his eulogy, before a chapter of the Swedish 
order of the seraphim, of which Creutz was a 
member. 

CREUZER, Geop.g FEiEDnicn, a German 
philologist and antiquary, born at Marburg, 
March 10, 1771, died in Heidelberg, Feb. 16, 
1858. He was the son of a bookbinder, com- 
menced his studies in his native city, and com- 
pleted them at the university of Jena. After 
his return to Marburg he was appointed to a 
professorship of Greek, and subsequently of rhet- 
oric, poetry, and Greek literature, which, how- 
ever, he soon gave up, having accepted in 1804 
the professorship of philology and ancient liter- 
ature at the university of Heidelberg. Here he 
remained industriously engaged as a teacher 
till 1845, and as an author to the end of his 
life. The philological seminary, which was 
founded at Heidelberg in 1807 according to his 



60 



CREUZNACH 



CRIOHTON 



plana, has since exercised a marked influence 
upon tliat branoli of science in Germany. His 
literary tame rests chiefly on his " Symbolics and 
Mytholoicy of the Ancient Nations, and particu- 
arly of the Greeks" (-i vols., Leipsic, 1810-'12; 
3d edition, 4 vols., Leipsic and Darmstadt, 1837- 
'44). This work, which contends for a bold 
and mystical theory as to the extreme antiquity 
and oriental origin of the Greek mythological, 
or rather theological systems, drew upon the 
author a series of critical attacks from G. 
Hermann, J. H. Voss (in the "Letters on 
Homer and Hesiod," and in the letter to Creu- 
zer " On the Essence and Treatment of Mythol- 
ogy"), Lobeck, and a host of minor writers. The 
most remarkable of his other publications are : 
the edition of Plotinus's Opera Omnia (3 vols., 
Oxford, 1835) ; those of Cicero's Be Natura 
Deoruvi, Be Bivinatione, Be Legibus, Be Re- 
miblica^ «&:c., executed in conjunction with G. H. 
Moser ; " Historical Art of the Greeks" (Leip- 
sic, 1803); Bionysus, seu Commentationes de 
Berum Bacchicarum Originihus et Causis (2 
vols., Heidelberg, 1808); "Sketch of Roman 
Antiquities," (2d edition, 1829); "Contribu- 
tions to the History and Antiquities of Rome" 
(1836 ; French, in the Memoires de Vimtitut 
royal^ 1840) ; " Contributions to the Gallery of 
Ancient Dramatists" (1839) ; his autobiograph- 
ical works entitled " From the Life of an Old 
Professor" (1848), and " Paralipomena of the 
Life of an Old Professor" (1858) ; " Contribu- 
tions to the History of Classical Philosophy" 
(1854). A collection of his " New and Correct- 
ed "Works" (1837-54) contains a new edition 
of his German writings. Several of his works 
have been translated into foreign languages, 

CREUZNACH, a Prussian town and water- 
ing place in the district of Coblentz, picturesque- 
ly situated on the river Nahe, 8 ra. from Bing- 
en, pop. about 9,000, with extensive saltworks 
in the neighborhood, and saline springs, which 
are chiefly used for the cure of scrofulous dis- 
eases. In the vicinity are the ruins of the castle 
of Ebernburg, destroyed by the French toward 
the end of the 17th century, in former times a 
place of refuge for Ulrich von Hutten, Melanch- 
thon, and other friends of Franz von Sickingen, 
to whom it then belonged. 

CREWE, a market town of Cheshire, England, 
32 m. S. E. of Liverpool, and important as a di- 
verging point of 5 lines of railway, leading to 
Manchester, Birmingham, Chester, and other 
large towns. Pop. in 1851, 4,491, 

CRIBBAGE, a game at cards played by 2 
persons with a full pack of 52 cards. The 
points constituting the game, 61 in number, are 
scored by pegs on a board perforated with the 
necessary number of holes, called the cribbage 
board. The advantage lies with the dealer, 
who makes up a 3d hand for liimself, called the 
crib, partly out of the hand of his opponent, to 
offset Avhich the latter at the commencement 
of the game is entitled to score 3 points. There 
is a variety of this game called 3-handed crib- 
bage, played by 3 persons with a triangular 



board. Four-handed cribbage is played by 4 
persons in partnership of 2 and 2, as in whist. 

CRICHTON, James, commonly called the 
" admirable Crichton," born probably in the 
castle of Cluny, in Scotland, Aug. 19, 1560, 
died in Mantua, July 3, 1583. He was of high 
descent, his fiither being lord advocate of Scot- 
land, and his mother being a Stuart of the lin- 
eage of the reigning family. He was educated 
in Perth, till at the age of 10 he was sent to 
the university of St. Andrew's, then re])uted 
the first school of philosophy in Scotland. 
Aldus Manutius mentions Rutherford, Buchan- 
an, Hepburn, and Robertson as eminent schol- 
ars who were his masters. His ardor in study 
and progress in knowledge were astonishing. 
In his 12th year he took the degree of bachelor 
of arts ; in his 14th, that of mastet ; and, though 
the youngest of all, he was then esteemed the 
third scholar in the university. Before his 
17th year, according to the current narrative, 
he had mastered the whole circle of science, 
could speak and write 10 languages, had ex- 
cellent skill in painting, drawing, riding, fenc- 
ing, dancing, singing, and playing on musi- 
cal instruments, and possessed extraordinary 
physical beauty, symmetry, and strength. He 
soon after repaired to Paris, and according 
to Sir Thomas Urquhart, who is supported by 
no other authority, immediately determined, in 
compliance with mediajval scholastic usage, to 
challenge the philosophers and scholars of the 
city to a public disputation. To this end he 
affixed placards to the gates of the different 
schools, halls, and colleges of the university, 
and to the pillars before the houses of men of 
learning, inviting all learned persons to meet 
him on that day 6 weeks, before 9 o'clock in 
the morning, at the college of Navarre, where 
he would " be ready to answer to what should 
be propounded to him concerning any science, 
liberal art, discipline, or faculty, practical or 
theoretic, not excluding the theological or juris- 
prudential habits, though grounded but upon 
the testimonies of God and man, and that in 
any of these 12 languages : Hebrew, Syriac, 
Arabic, Greek, Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, 
English, Dutch, Flemish, and Slavonian, in 
either prose or verse, at the discretion of the 
disputant." The interval he passed in hawking, 
hunting, tilting, throwing the lance, games of 
chance, and other amusements of the gay city, 
provoking the satire of the students by his non- 
chalance ; but on the appointed day he encoun- 
tered the gravest philosophers and divines in 
presence of over 3,000 auditors, acquitted him- 
self with marvellous learning during a disputa- 
tion of 9 hours with the most eminent doctors, 
and was presented by the rector amid the ac- 
clamations of the assembly with a diamond ring 
and a purse full of gold. From this time he 
was known by the epithet of " the admirable." 
On tlie very next day he entered a tilting match 
at tlie Louvre, and bore off" the ring from aU 
competitors. After serving two years in the 
civil wars and distinguishing himself alike for 



ORIOHTON 



61 



martial and mental prowess, he proceeded to 
Italy, and was in Rome in 1580. There, ac- 
cording to Dr. Mackenzie, who is bnt partially 
supported by Boccalini, he gave another de- 
monstration of his talents and knowledge in a 
disputation before the pope and all the hig?iest 
dignitaries of the church and the universities. 
His challenge was : N^os Jacohus Crichtomts, 
Scotus, cuicunque rei propositi ex improviso 
respondelimvs. lie soon i)roceeded to Venice, 
where a Latin poem addressed to Aldus Manu- 
tius the younger gained him the friendship of 
that celebrated printer, and where he was inti- 
mately associated with Sperone Speroni, Lo- 
renzo Massa, and Giovanni Donati. He was 
presented to the doge and senate, and delivered 
before them an oration which was equally ap- 
plauded for its brilliant eloquence and consum- 
mate grace. He also disputed on questions of 
divinity, pliilosophy, and mathematics, with so 
much ability that Imperiali says " he was es- 
teemed a prodigy of nature." After residing 
for 4 months iu Venice, where he suffered a 
severe illness, he went in 1581 to Padua, the 
fame of whose university was then spread 
throughout Europe. In honor of his arrival 
the learned men of the place were convened in 
the house of a person of rank, and Crichton, 
being presented to them, began his perform- 
ances by an elegant poem in praise of the city, 
the university, and the persons present. He 
then during G hours disputed with the doctors 
on topics of science, especially on the errors of 
Aristotle and his interpreters, delighting the 
assembly as much by his modesty as by his 
wonderful learning and judgment. In conclu- 
sion he gave an extemporaneous oration iu 
praise of ignorance, with so much ingenuity, 
says one of his biographers, that he reconciled 
his audience to their' inferiority. Some one 
having charged him with being a literary im- 
postor whose attainments were only superficial, 
he caused a placard to be posted, in which he 
undertook to refute innumerable fallacies of 
Aristotle and the schoolmen, and to answer his 
antagonists, on any topic which they might 
propose, either in the common logical way, or 
according to the secret doctrine of numbers 
and mathematical figures, or in any one of a 
hundred ditlereut sp6cies of verse. The trial, 
before an audience containing many competent 
judges of such pretensions,' was held in the 
church of St. John and St. Paul, where for 3 
days the young man maintained his proposi- 
tions with such spirit and energy before an 
immense concourse of people that he is said 
to have obtained praises more magnificent 
than were ever before heard by men. This, 
the last of his scholastic contests, was styled 
by Aldus Manutius, who was a spectator of his 
triumpli, a " miraculous encounter." He pro- 
ceeded from Venice to Mantua, where, accord- 
ing to Sir Thomas Urquhart, as much a fabler 
as a historian, he fouglit a famous gladiator, 
who had foiled the ablest masters of fence in 
Europe, who had marked his way to Mantua 



by blood, and had recently slain the 3 best 
swordsmen in that city. Crichton, having 
challenged him, is said to have shown such 
dexterity in the fight that he seemed but to bo 
in play, and at length to have pierced the heart 
of his opponent wliile " his right foot did beat 
the cadence of the blow." There is other evi- 
dence that Crichton was attracted to Mantua, 
and that the duke of that city made him pre- 
ceptor of his son, a riotous and passionate youth. 
For the amusement of his patron, he composed 
a comedy, in which he himself rei)resented 
15 difl^"erent characters with wonderful effect, 
and which was esteemed one of the most in- 
genious satires ever made upon the follies of 
mankind. This was the last display of his ex- 
traordinary talents and endowments, and im- 
mediately preceded his tragic death. On a 
night of the carnival he was assailed in the 
street by 3 armed persons in masks. Turn- 
ing upon them with his sword, he at length 
disarmed the principal aggressor, who proved 
to be bis pupil, the son of the duke, Crich- 
ton immediately fell upon his knee, and pre- 
sented his sword to the prince, who instantly 
pierced him through the body. In consequence 
of this event the court of Mantua went into 
mourning for 9 months, and it was said that 
the elegies and epitaphs written on his memory 
and aflixed to his hearse exceeded in bulk the 
works of Homer. Though his splendid repu- 
tation and career are linked with romance, and 
though the 4 Latin odes and the few prose 
fragments which alone remain of his composi- 
tions do not convey an impression of remarka- 
ble powers, yet the historical evidence is suffi- 
cient to prove that he was a very extraordinary 
person in respect of capacity and energy, and 
that he possessed wonderful proficiency in 
science, literature, and gentlemanly accom- 
plishments. — Sir Thomas Urquhart's " Discov- 
ery of a Most Exquisite Jewel " (London, 1652) 
was written about 70 years after Crichton's 
death, and abounds in extravagant opinions ; 
his unsupported testimony is therefore not au- 
thoritative. Dr. Mackenzie, in his " Lives of 
Scotch "Writers," quotes from Pasquier an ac- 
count of the exploits at Paris of a wonderful 
youth, which might have applied to Crichton, 
but that the year 1445 is given as the date of 
his appearance. Neither Tytlcr, Pennant, nor 
Dr. Johnson (81st "Adventurer") made rigor- 
ous examination of the ancient authorities. The 
chief contemporary evidence is given by Aldus 
Manutius, who was indisputably a witness of 
Crichton's intellectual exertions at Venice and 
Padua, and whose Paradoxa Ciceronis has been 
the foundation of subsequent biographies. An 
Italian broadside printed at Venice in 1580, 
discovered by Tytler, confirms the current ac- 
count of Crichton's accomplishments. Im- 
periali, in his Mtisceum Historicttm (Venice, 
1640), gives information derived from his father, 
who as a youth had seen Crichton at Padua. 
Scaliger also relates traditions of him as a 
" very wonderful genius " which he obtained 



62 



CEICKET 



in Italy. There fire several other confirmatory 
allusions to him in writings belonging to the 
first half century after his death. 

CRICKET, an insect belonging to the order 
arthoj}iera, the group saltatoria, and the family 
(tchetddce. Like other insects of the order, the 
crickets have straight wings, which, when not 
in use, are folded lengthwise along the back, the 
upper wings having a narrow border which is 
folded down so as to cover also the sides of the 
body; the jaws move transversely like those of 
beetles ; they do not undergo a complete meta- 
morphosis, the young resembling the parents 
except that they have no wings; in the pupa 
state they have the rudiments of wings, eat vo- 
raciously, and grow rapidly. In the snltatoria, 
which include also grasshoppers and locusts, the 
thighs of the hind legs are greatly developed, 
enabling them to take long leaps. In the fam- 
ily to wliicli the cricket belongs, the wing cov- 
ers are horizontal, the antenna) long and taper- 
ing, the feet 3-jointed (except cecant/ms, which 
has 4 joints to tlie hind feet), 2 tapering downy 
bristles at the end of the body, between Avhich, 
in the females, there is a long and sharp piercer. 
The common house cricket of Europe (acheta 
domestica, Linn.) is about an inch long, of a yel- 
lowish or clay color mixed with brown ; it 
dwells in the cracks of walls and floors, and 
in warm places, as the vicinity of ovens, where 
it remains concealed during the day, coming 
forth at night in search of bread, meal, and al- 
most any article of domestic economy which 
contains moisture ; it is said also to devour 
other insects. The female has a long ovipositor, 
and the male makes a loud noise or chirp by 
rubbing the hard internal border of one wing 
cover against a horny ridge on the under sur- 
face of the other ; for this familiar sound the 
cric'Ket has been immortalized in the verse of 
Cowper and the prose of Dickens, and its merry 
chirp is interwoven in some of the most cheer- 
ing superstitions of England ; its very presence 
in a house was a sign of good luck, and its fl}-- 
ing away a very bad omen. It is a most inde- 
fatigable musician, commencing its tune at twi- 
light and keeping it up without intermission till 
daybreak ; its note is so agreeable to some that 
it is kept in cages by the fireside, as a pet song- 
ster, and Scaliger is said always to have had a box 
of them singing on his table, though this last 
refers more particularly to the field cricket. 
This species (A. cam2>cstris, Fabr.) is lai'ger than 
the preceding, of a blackish hue, with the base 
of the wing covers yellowish ; in July the fe- 
male lays about 300 eggs, which are hatched in 
15 days ; the young have no wings, and feed on 
vegetable matters, changing their skins before 
winter ; they remain torpid in winter, and be- 
come perfect insects in the following June. This 
species is spread over Europe, where it affords 
great sport to cliildren, who hunt for it with an 
ant attached to a hair; from the eagerness with 
which it comes out of its hole in the earth when 
any foreign body is presented to it, thus falling 
Into the hands of its enemies, has arisen the ex- 



pression prevalent in France, " silly as a crick- 
et ;" in England the people are more apt to say 
" merry as a cricket." Their holes are made at 
first horizontal and then vertical, and they re- 
treat into them backward ; they eat grass, seeds, 
and fruit, carrying them to their holes ; they 
are fond of drinking the dew on leaves and 
flowers, but are very careful to avoid wetting 
themselves in their journeys. The young live 
together in peace under stones and sticks, but 
when they have attained the full size they are 
constantly fighting with each other ; the field 
crickets are sometimes made use of in ridding a 
dwelling of house crickets, the larger instantly 
declaring war against the smaller species and 
driving them out. The boys in Germany are 
very fond of keeping crickets in boxes for the 
sake of their song, and for the purpose of mak- 
ing them fight; what the game cock is to the 
Havanese, and the bull-dog to the English, the 
cricket is to the youth of Germany ; according 
to the direction in which they meet, they will 
butt like rams, kick like horses, or scratch like 
cats, never ceasing till one leaves the field or is 
disabled. There are several species of cricket 
in A"merica, though there is no house cricket. 
Our common field species (A. aibreviata, Har- 
ris) is named from the shortness of its wings, 
which do not extend beyond the wing covers ; 
it is about f of an inch long, black, wnth a brown- 
ish tinge at the base of the wing covers, and a 
pale line on each side most distinct in the fe- 
male. Another species (A. nigra, Harris) is 
entirely black, with very short wings, and meas- 
uring § of an inch in length. Crickets are 
generally nocturnal and solitary, but some spe- 
cies are often seen in the daytime crawling 
along our garden paths in great numbers. Our 
nocturnal crickets do not excite the same pleas- 
ant associations as the European species do ; 
they do not enter our houses unless by accident, 
and their monotonous notes, continued during 
the autumn nights, are to most persons dismal 
and sad. Where crickets are numerous, they 
injure vegetation, eating the tenderest parts of 
jdants, destroying great numbers of melons, 
squashes, potatoes, &c. ; they devour other in- 
sects, and thus in a certain degree are of service. 
They may be destroyed by arsenic mixed in gra- 
ted vegetables, or in bottles partly filled with 
fluid, into which they crowd to drink ; cats are 
fond of them, inlaying with them like mice be- 
fore eating them ; swine also devour them ea- 
gerly. There is here a third species (A. vittata, 
Harris, genus iiemolius of Serville), destitute 
of wings, varying in color from rusty black to 
dusky brown, with black lines on the back and 
posterior thighs ; it is about f of an inch long, 
social in its habits, frequenting the meadows 
and roadsides in the daythne. There is another 
kind inhabiting shrubs, vines, and trees, con- 
cealing itself in the daytime among the leaves ; 
these are very noisy, producing their sounds by 
the rubbing of the wing covers, and if one gets 
into a chamber it will effectually prevent sleep ; 
the antennoi and legs are very long and slender. 



CRICKET 



63 



and the piercer is only half as long as the body. 
They form the genus acanthus^ and arc called 
tree or cHmbing crickets; there are 3 species 
in the United States, of which the ffi*. niveits in- 
habits Massachusetts. The male is of a pale ivory 
color, with the upper side of the 1st joint of 
the antenuio and between the eyes ochre yellow, 
and a minute black dot on the under side of the 
1st and 2d joints of the antenna) ; the length is 
about 7i an inch. They sometimes pierce peach 
twigs for the purpose of laying their eggs, and 
they injure tlie tobacco plant by eating holes in 
the leaves. Tliey are difficult to catch, from 
tiieir extreme shyness. The eggs are laid in the 
beginning of autumn, but are not hatched till 
the following sunnuer; they attain maturity by 
the 1st of August, and in southern climates be- 
fore that time. The females are the largest, and 
are almost white, dusky beneath, with 3 dusky 
stripes on the head and thorax, and tlie wings 
with a greenish tinge and larger than the covers. 
CRICKET, an atldetic game much played in 
England an<l America, which, according to 
Strutt, takes its origin from the ancient game 
of club-ball, which was played with a straight 
bat, but without wickets. In an illustration 
of club-ball found in a Bodleian MS. dated 
1344, a female is represented in the act of 
throwing the ball to the batsman, wlio elevates 
his bat to strike it, while behind the woman 
are other figures of both sexes waiting to catch 
or stoj) it. By name, cricket cannot be traced 
further back than to a passage in Phillips's 
"Mysteries of Love and Eloquence," in 1685. 
In the beginning of the last century, it is alluded 
to in an old ballad publislied by D'Urfey, " Of a 
Noble Race was Shenken:" 

Ilur was the prettiest follow 
At foot-ball aud at cricket. 

Of the ancient mode and of the rules for play- 
ing cricket but little has come down to us; the 
game is now governed by a set of laws, arising 
from the necessities of the play, elaborated by 
nearly a century's practice, and forming a com- 
plete code. Till within the last 80 years cricket 
was but rarely played in England, though there 
is plenty of evidence of its existence as a game 
in the IGth century, and probably even earlier 
than that. In America its introduction has 
been quite recent, and it has become generally 
popular only within the last 4 jeais. It is now 
the favorite outdoor game, both of town and 
country. It lasts from spring till autumn, 
though chiefly played in the latter, depending 
a great deal on the weather, as it requires a 
dry sod, as well as freedom from any present 
foil of rain. The essentials for jilaying are : 1, 
the ball ; 2, the bat ; 8, the wickets ; 4, a 
field of as short and level turf as can be obtain- 
.ed. It is also well to have a line of 22 feet in 
length, and a frame of wood 6 feet 8 inches by 
4 feet, for measuring the ground and fixing the 
bowling and popping creases, a tent in case of 
rain, scoring books, gloves and leg guards to 
protect the hands and legs in fast bowling, and 
spiked shoes to prevent slipping. — The game is 



played either as "single wicket" or as "double 
wicket." Single wicket requires one Avicket, 
one popping crease, one bowling crease, one 
ball, one bat; and it may be played by any 
number of players, arranged in two sides, not 
exceeding 7 or 8 on each side. The laws of 
this game difier somcAvliat from those of double 
wicket, whicli is played Avith one ball, 2 bats, 2 
wickets, 2 popping creases, 2 bowling creases, 
and 2 sides of jjlayers, one of which must con- 
sist of 11, and the other, though not limited, is 
usually of the same number. The laws of the 
game in the United States are the same essen- 
tially as those in England, and the code, revised 
by the Marylebone club, held as the highest au- 
thority in this game, is as follows : 

Double Wicl-ef. 

1. The ball must weigh not less than .5i oz. nor more than 
5} oz., nor measure less than 9 inches in circumference nor 
more than 9i inches. At the beginning of each innings 
either party may call for a new ball. 

2. The but must not exceed in width 4^- inches, nor in 
length 3S inches. 

3. The stumps must be 3 in number, 27 inches out of the 
gi'ound ; the bails 8 inches in length, the stumpj of equal 
and sufHcient thickness to prevent the ball from passing 
through. 

4. The bowling crease must be in a line with the stumps, 
6 feet 8 inches in length, the stumps in the centre, with a 
return crease at each, toward the bowler at right angles. 

5. The popping crease must be 4 feet from the wicket, 
parallel to it, and unlimited in length, but not shorter than 
the bowling crease. 

6. The wickets must be pitched opposite each other by 
the umpires, at the distance of 22 yards. 

Of the remaining rules we give a brief ab- 
stract : 

7. Neither party without the consent of the other shall al- 
ter the ground. 

8. After rain, both parties consenting, wickets may be 
changed. 

9. The bowler .shall bowl with one foot behind the bowl- 
ing crease, and after bowling 4 balls shall change wickets. 

iO. The ball must bo bowled, not thrown or jerked; the 
hand in delivery must not be above the shoulder. 

11. Bowler at his wicket may require striker to stand on 
either side. 

12. If bowler tosses the ball over the striker's head, or 
bowls so wide that it is beyond batsman's reach, one run 
shall be counted to party having innings by the umi)ire. 

18. If the bowler deliver a " no ball," or a " wide ball," the 
striker shall be allowed as many runs as he can get, and 
shall not be put out except by running out. 

14. At the beginning of each innings each umpire shall 
call play. 

15. The striker is out if the bails be bowled otT, or stump 
bowled out of the ground ; 

IG. If the ball, fiom stroke of bat or hand, but not wrist, 
be caught before it touch the ground, and held ; 
17. If, in striking, both feet are over the popping crease ; 
IS. If he knock "down his own wicket; 

19. If he prevent the ball from being caught, the striker 
of the ball is out; 

20. If the ball be struck and he strike it again; 

21. If his wicket is knocked off before he can ground his 
bat over the popping crease ; 

22. If any part of his dress knock the wicket down ; 

2-3. If he touch or take the ball, except at the request of 
the opposite party ; 

24. If he stop a ball by any portion of his person, which 
ball would otherwise have hit the wicket. 

2.5. If the players cross, he that runs for the wicket that is 
dovra is out. 

2G. No runs are counted, the ball being caught. 

27. The striker being run out, that run is not counted. 

28. '■ Lost ball " being called, the striker is allowed 6 runs ; 
he .shall have all that he has run if thero are more than 6 
before calling "lost ball." 

29. The bowler may put striker out if before delivery the 
Btriker is beyond the popping crease. 

30. The striker shall not leave his wicket and return to fin- 
ish his innings after another has been in without the consent 
of the opposite party. 



64 



CRICKET 



CRILLON 



31. No substitute shall be allowed without the consent of 
the opposite party. 

32. Opposite party must also consent as to what place sub- 
stitute may have. 

83. Opi)6sit6 party count 5 if any fieldsman stop the ball 
with his hat. 

S4. The ball having been hit, the striker may guard his 
wicket with his bat, or any part of his body, save his hands. 

85. The wicket keeper shall not take the ball for the pur- 
pose of stumping until it has passed the wicket; he must 
not move till the ball be out of the bowler's hands. 

86. The umpires are sole judges of fair and unfair play. 
37. The umpires in all matches shall pitch fair wickets. 
88. They shall allow 2 minutes for each striker to come 

In, and 10 minutes between each innings; when they call 
"j)lay," the party refusing loses the match. 

S'J.' They arc not to order a striker out unless appealed to 
by the adversaries. 

40. If one of the bowler's feet is not on the ground behind 
the bowling crease, and within the return crease, the ball so 
delivered must be declared by tlie umpire "no ball." 

41. If either of the strikers run a short run, it must bo 
called by umpire "one short." 

42. No umpire shall be allowed to bet. 

43. No umpire, but with the consent of both parties, may 
be changed during the match. 

44. After the delivery of 4 balls the umpire must call 
"over," but not until the baH shall be ttnally settled in the 
wicket keeper's hand. 

45. The umpire must call " no ball " instantly on delivery 
of wide ball when it passes the striker. 

46. The pla}-ers who go in second shall follow their in- 
nings if they have obtained SO runs less than their antago- 
nists, except in all matches limited to one day's play, when 
the number shall be 00 instead of SO. 

47. No person shall use the bat after one of the strikers 
has been put out until the next striker shall come in. 

Single Wicket. 

1. When there shall be less than 5 players on a side, 
bounds shall be placed 22 yards each in a line from the off 
and leg stump. 

2. The ball must be hit before the bounds to entitle the 
striker to a run. 

3. When the striker shall hit the ball, one of his feet must 
be on the ground and behind the popping crease, otherwise 
it is " no hit." 

4. When there are less than 5 players on a side, neither 
byes nor overthrows shall be allowed, nor shall the striker 
be caught out nor stumped out. 

5. The fieldsman must return the ball so that it shall cross 
the play between the wicket and the bowling stump, or be- 
tween the bowling stump and the bounds. 

6. If the striker has made one run, if he start again he 
must touch the bowling stump. 

7. The striker is entitled to 3 runs for "lost ball" (refer- 
ring to law 2S of double wicket). 

S. When there are more than 4 players on a side there 
shall be no bounds; all hits, byes, and overthrows shall then 
be allowed. 

9. The bowler is subject to the laws of double wicket. 

10. Not more than one minute shall be allowed between 
each ball. 

In single wicket the stumps are driven into the 
ground, subject to the laws 3 and 5 of double 
wicket ; in front a popping crease is marked off, 
as in law 5; at 22 yards' distance a bowling 
stump is fixed ; a bowling crease must be mark- 
ed at the proper distance, as in law 4, and here 
the bowler must deliver his ball, as defined by 
laws 9, 10, 12, 13, and 14. The game is defended 
by tlie batsman, or striker, who stands at the 
popping crease. The attack is conducted by 
the other side, plnced in the field according to 
their numbers.-^Double wicket usually consists 
of 2 sides of 11 players each ; one of these has 
the innings by lot, and 2 of their party defend 
the wicket with their bats. By the other side, 
who are now fielding, the attack is maintained; 
if the bail is knocked off, or the stump is bowl- 
ed out of the ground, the striker is out, and is 
replaced by another till all the side are put out. 
If, on the other hand, the ball is struck, each 
run counts one, and the side which makes the 



greatest score is the winner. Two captains are 
chosen, one for each side, generally the 2 best 
bowlers, and they choose their assistants, and 
allot each their respective places when fielding. 
When matches are made between 2 clubs, the 
men are selected by a committee from each 
club. One bowler at a time is indispensable, 
who bowls 4 balls, called an "over ;" then the 
whole of the fielders walk over to the opposite 
side, and another over of 4 balls is delivered 
from the opposite wicket by another bowler. For 
fast bowling the men are stationed as follows : 
Immediately behind the wicket is the wicket 
keeper, whose duty it is to stop the ball, an office 
of no little labor and risk, for which tubular 
gloves and leg and body guards are absolutely 
required. Behind the wicket keeper are the 
long stop and assistant ; the short slip is in a 
line with, and on the right of, the wicket keep- 
er ; the long slip is in the same line farther to 
the right ; the leg is behind and to the left of 
the wicket keeper ; behind the bowler and on 
his left is the long field off, to the bowler's 
right the long field on ; to the right of the 
striker are the mid wicket, cover point, and 
point. The duty of these is merely to stop the 
ball, and they take their names from the places 
assigned. There are 2 kinds of bowling, fast 
and slow ; the fast is almost always " round- 
handed;" the straight underhand balls are 
much more easy to guard ; where, however, the 
ball twists, the matter is much more difficult. 
In round-handed bowling the ball has a turn on 
its own axis, independent of its forward motion, 
and when it appears as if rmming clear of the 
wicket, it yet will twist and take the outside 
stump. "Where the bowling is slow, and there 
is but little hard hitting, the fielders are brought 
nearer in, to get, if possible, near catches, from 
the tendency of good slow balls to rise if only- 
tipped. The tei'ms descriptive of the varie- 
ties of balls are " lengths " and " not lengths," 
the latter consisting of toss, tice, long hop, half 
volley, and ground ball. In bowling, the ball 
should be delivered with a run, and should be 
held with the seam across, so that the ends of 
the fingers touch it. — The dress of a cricketer is 
almost always a light flannel jacket, with trou- 
sers of the same, or of white duck ; a straw hat 
or light cap is generally adopted ; leg guards 
and body guards are used in batting and wicket 
keeping ; and gloves, Oxford shoes, or shoes 
with spiked soles, complete the arrangement. 

CRILLON, a French family derived from the 
Piedmontese Balbes who emigrated to France in 
tlie 15th century. I. Louis bes Balbes de Ber- 
TON DE Ceillon, the hero of the reigns of Henry 
II., Francis II., Charles IX., Henry III., and 
Henry IV., born at Mursin Provence in 1541, died 
in 1G15. He was the first to assume the name of 
Crillon, from a small estate of that name situated' 
in the present department of Vaucluse. Having 
become glorious by his exploits, the name was 
adopted by the whole family. As the youngest 
of 6 brothers, he was destined for the order of 
the knights of Malta, studied with zeal and dili- 



CRILLON 



CRIMEA 



65 



gence at tlie school of Avignon, and eagerly 
pursued bodily and chivalric exercises. Under 
Francis dc Lorraine, duke of Guise, he completed 
his education as a warrior and cavalier in his 
16th year. Under the command of the duke he 
was the first on the walls of Calais, which had 
been for 2 centuries in the hands of the English, 
and was now taken after a siege of 8 days (1558). 
He equally distinguished himself at the capture 
of Guines. Adored for his extraordinary brav- 
ery by the army, he was presented by his com- 
mander, the duke of Guise, to Henry II., as the 
chief instrument of his victories, and richly re- 
warded by mimerous clerical estates, it being 
at that period customary in France to bestow 
benefices on laymen, to be managed for their 
benefit by members of the clergy. In the en- 
suing civil wars of France he served against 
the liuguenots, defeating the conspiracy of Am- 
boise, formed against the Guises (1560), and 
fighting in thebattles of Rouen, Dreux, St. Denis, 
Jarnac, Moncontour, and St. Jean d'Angely. 
As a knight of Malta he fought under Don John 
of Austria at Lepanto, against the Turks (1571), 
was wounded, and sent with the news of the 
victory to Charles IX. of France, and Pope Pius 
V. Already called " the brave " by the court 
of Finance, and "the man without fear " by thd 
army, he became the object of general admira- 
tion. He now had his fi^rst duel with Bussy 
d'Amboise, who, meeting him in the street, asked 
him haughtily : "AYhatis the hour?" and was 
answered: "The hour of your death!" lie 
afterward saved the life of Bussy, and won 
his friendship. He took no part in the massacre 
of St. Bai-tholomew's (1572), which he free- 
ly condemned, though he continued to serve 
against the Huguenots. The duke of Anjou, 
brother of the king, having been elected king 
of Poland (1573) after the extinction of the 
house of Jagiello, he followed him to that 
country through Germany, where he defended 
his dignity against the insults of the irritated 
Protestants, and on his flight thence, when he 
succeeded as Henry III. to the throne of France. 
On his return he was distinguished with new 
honors by the cities of Venice and Lvons. When, 
after the battle of Coutras (1587), Henry III. 
openly commenced hostilities against the league, 
and the states assembled at Blois decreed the 
assassination of the duke of Guise, who had fol- 
lowed his father in the leadership of the Catho- 
lics, the monarch offered Crillon tho honor of 
killing the duke, which he refused. He after- 
ward fought for the king against the league, 
and, after the assassination of Henry III., served 
Avith equal- fidelity the new king, Henry IV. 
The battle of Ivry (1590) ended his services in 
the civil wars. Henry IV., who called him 
" the brave of the brave," said : " I have 
never feared any but Crillon ;" and wrote 
to him after the battle of Arques: "Hang 
yourself, Crillon; we have conquered with- 
out you." In the war against Spain, Crillon 
was active again. The peace of vSavoy ended 
his military career, when he retired to Avignon, 
YOL. TI. — 5 



The chivalric bravery of Crillon was equalled 
by his generosity, which prompted him even to 
pardon an attempt at his own assassination. 
The estates of tlie family were inherited by 
Thomas, the 3d of the brothers, and made in 
the 4th generation a duchy by Benedict XIII. 
II. The 2d duke of Crillon was Louis, born in 
1718, died in 1796 at Madrid. Having entered 
the French army at the age of 13, he fought un- 
der Villars in the camjjaign of 1733 in Italy, and 
distinguished himself in Germany. Entering tlie 
Si)anish service in 1762, he conquered Minorca 
(1782), and was rewarded by the title of duke 
of Mahon, and became captain-general of the 
provinces of Valencia and Murci;^i. His Memoircs 
(Paris, 1791) contain many particulars valued 
by men of military science. III. Louis Ax- 
ToiNE Fi{AN(i'ois DE Paule de Ckiixox, dukc of 
Mahon and grandee of Spain, son of the preced- 
ing, born in 1775, died in 1832. Made a colonel 
in the Spanish army at the age of 15, he was 
captured with his regiment on the invasion of 
France in 1 794. After the peace he served, with 
the permission of his government, as volunteer 
under Moreau ; then again in Spain, where he 
became commander of a division, governor of 
Tortosa, and in 1807 captain-general of Guipnz- 
coa, Alava, and Biscay, in which capacity he 
faitlifully guarded the northern fortresses against 
the generals of Napoleon, until he was expressly 
commanded by the king, who rejected his warn- 
ings, to surrender them to the French. After the 
fall of the Bourbons he swore allegiance to Jo- 
seph, brother of Napoleon, and was made lieu- 
tenant-general of the Spanish army, and succes- 
sively captain-general of Navarre, Toledo, and 
Cuenca. Proscribed by the returning Bourbons 
in 1814, he fled to France, where he remained, 
and received the title of lieutenant-general. Of 
the 2 sons of his brother, Felix Dorothee, who 
was peer of France, and died in 1820, one served 
under the restoration, in the army, and as peer 
of France, the other under Napoleon and the 
restoration. 

CRIMEA, a peninsula forming the southern 
extremity of the Russian empire in Europe. It 
extends between lat. 44° and 46° N. and long. 
32° and 37° E. ; greatest extent from E. to AY. 
190 m., from N. to S, 123 m. ; area about 8,000 
sq. m. This peninsula is connected with the 
main body of the empire by the narrow isth- 
mus of Perekop, the breadth of Avhich is less 
tlian 5 m. Though only the 260th part of Eu- 
ropean Russia, the Crimea, in consequence of its 
geographical, commercial, and strategetical posi- 
tion, is one of the most important divisions of 
tlie empire, commanding as it does the naviga- 
tion of the Black sea. It has a coast line of 550 
m. Along its N. E. shore there extends a long 
and narrow inlet of the sea of Azof, from which 
it is separated by a tongue of land, or rather a 
sand bar, about 70 m. in length and 1 to H ni. 
in breadth. This inlet is so shallow that in 
some places it has the appearance of a morass, 
and its very name (Sivash, or Putrid sea) indi- 
cates its general aspect. The eastern part of the 



66 



CRIMEA 



Crimea forms a minor peninsula, stretching 
eastward to the strait of Yeuikale, the Cimme- 
rian Bosporus of the ancients. While tlie N. por- 
tion of the peninsula is only a continuation of 
the steppes of S. Russia, harren, cheerless, and 
swept by chilling winds, the S. portion, sloping 
from a mountain chain which stretches from Se- 
hastopol to Kafta as a barrier, enjoys a semi- 
tropical climate and a great richness and variety 
of vegetation. Hence the N. portion lias from 
time immemorial been occupied by nomadic 
tribes, eking out a scanty subsistence by cattle- 
raising ; while on the S. slope higher forms of 
culture have been developed by the Greeks, tbe 
Genoese, the Tartars, and the Russians, succes- 
sively. There is only a comparatively narrow 
belt of arable soil on the northern slope, and on 
this belt the most important towns are situated, 
such as Sebastopol, Bakhtchissarai (the old capi- 
tal of the Tartar rulers), Simferopol, Staroi Krym, 
au<l Karasoo-Bazar. To the northward of this belt 
extends the steppe, its monotony relieved only by 
numerous herds of cattle and thousands of cranes, 
storks, and gulls, swarming around the salt- 
water lagoons and marshes. The mountain chain 
(Jaila), mentioned before, appears to be a west- 
ern continuation of the Caucasus, from which it 
is separated only by the strait of Yenikale. In 
theTchatir-dagh, or Tent mountain (theTrapezus 
or Table mountain of the ancients), it attains- to 
an elevation of 5,051 feet above the level of the 
sea, and terminates to the southward of Sebas- 
topol in the promontory called Crion Metopon 
(Rajii's Face) by the Greeks, and Ai Burun (Holy 
Cape) by the Tartars. The S. coast, to which 
the principal chain sends several small branch- 
es, is exceedingly picturesque in appearance. 
Wherever the slope of the hillsides is not too 
steep, they are covered with vineyards and the 
country houses of the rich ; the valleys, watered 
by numerous small streams, are carefully culti- 
vated and produce rich crops of grain and fruit ; 
the mountains abound in valuable timber. The 
N". steppe, on the other hand, is almost entirely 
destitute of fresh-water springs and rivei's, and 
its soil is generally impregnated with salt. — The 
2 principal rivers of the Crimea ai-e the Salghir, 
which rises from a cavern near Simferopol, at 
the northern foot of the Tchatir-dagh, and emp- 
ties into the Putrid sea, and its tributary, the 
Karasoo (Black Water), which rises from the 
same mountain a little further E. Of the small- 
er streams, the Alma, running a little N. of Se- 
bastopol from E. to W., has become widely 
known by the battle fought on its banks, Sept. 
20, 1854. — The climate of the Crimea is salu- 
brious and delightful in the springtime, but ir- 
regular and generally very hot in summer, a 
temperature of 100° F. being quite common. 
The autumn is considered unhealthy, fever and 
ague prevailing at that time of the year in 
the lowlands. In winter the weatlier is often 
extremely severe, more so than in most other 
parts of Europe in the same latitude. The 
apples raised in the southern Crimea are ex- 
cellent, and command high prices in the mar- 



ket of Moscow. All the varlons kinds of grain, 
including maize, also peas, hemp, and tobacco, 
are grown in the fields; olives, melons, water- 
melons, gourds, cucumbers, in gardens ; quinces, 
plums, peaches, apricots, cherries, mulberries, 
walimts, hazleriuts, chestnuts, are among the 
vegetable products of the Crimea. Of wild ani- 
mals, only deer, wolves, badgers, foxes, liares, 
Aveasels, and jerboas are found ; camels are 
employed on the northern steppes, where also 
butialoes and oxen, sheep and goats, are raised. 
Tlie horses of the Crimea are mpre remark- 
able for activity and intelligence than beau- 
ty. The birds most common are crows, owls, 
thrushes, blackbirds, partridges, quails, king- 
fishers, pigeons, and poultry, geese, swans, ducks, 
teals, gulls. Among the insects, the hideous 
rana variahilis, scorpions, tarantula spiders, and 
scolopendras may be mentioned. Bees are abun- 
dant ; so are fish on the coast, but not in the 
rivers. Tlie production of grain increased from 
350,000 quarters in 1841 to 850,000 in 1851. 
Agriculture is most developed in the district of 
Berdiansk, peopled by foreign settlers. The 
Crimea possessed in 1851 about 2,000,000 sheep, 
half of which were fine-wooled, 85,700 horses, 
and 248,260 horned cattle. The salt manufac- 
ture is monopolized by government; the most 
celebrated salt mines are those of Perekop and 
Eupatoria. The number of vines increased 
from 5,929,500 in 1832 to 35,577,000 in 1848 ; 
and the entire vintage of the Crimea amounted 
in 1851 to about 3,500,000 gallons. TheCrimean 
wines which are exported are generally of a sec- 
ondary quality, and are chiefly used for mixing 
with other wines. The vineyards of Prince Wo- 
ronzoA'are highly esteemed, and yield a sparkling 
wine, something like champagne. The principal 
articles of export are salt, wine, honey, wax, 
leather, hides, wool, lamb skins, and morocco 
leather; and an active transit trade exists, corn, 
seeds, tallow, tobacco, and silk being brought 
here for barter with European, and especially 
Russian manufacturers. — The population of the 
peninsula is a mixture of the Greek, Italian, 
Tartar, and Slavonian nationalities. There are, 
beside, Armenians, Caraite Jews, Greeks, gyp- 
sies, and also 9 German colonies established in 
1804-'5, and reenforced in 1816-'17 by 1,400 
Swabian fiimilies, but numbering at present only 
about 1,800. The Tartars (Mohammedans), in 
former times so numerous that they were able 
to muster 100,000 warriors, still constitute the 
principal part of the population, the entire num- 
ber of which is given at 200,000. — The Crimea, 
Avith a part of the province of Taurida, was 
acquired by Russia toward thfe end of the 18th 
century. Its aboriginal inhabitants, the Cim- 
merians, having been driven out by otlier Scy- 
thians, left only a small remnant (the Tauri) in 
the n^.ountain recesses, and from them the an- 
cient name of the country, Tauris or Chersone- 
sus Taurica, was derived. It was celebrated by 
the legends of Iphigenia and Orestes ; was the 
chief possession of the Greek kingdom of the 
Bosporus ; was licid under Roman protection, 



CRIMEA 



CRIMINAL LAW 



67 



and eubsequcutly conquered by the barbarian 
tribes which invaded the eastern provinces of 
the Roman empire. Early in the middle ages 
it belonged to the Byzantine empire. Toward 
the end of the 12th century the Genoese and Ve- 
netians obtained a foothold. Kaffa and Cherson 
were established by the former, Tana by the 
latter. The Tartars overran the peninsula in the 
13th century, and maintained their rule for more 
than 200 years, when they became subject to the 
Ottomans. Still all tlicir municipal institutions 
were left undi&turl)ed by the conquerors, who 
even allowed the Tartars to retain their own 
khans (princes), though as vassals of the sultan. 
In the latter portion of the 17th century the Rus- 
sians began to covet the Crimea, and in 1771 they 
succeeded so far as to wrest it from Turkey and 
clothe it with a nominal national independence. 
In 1783 the khan Shahin Gherai, having been 
expelled from the Crimea by the anti-Russian 
party, ceded his country to Russia, and in 1784 
the peninsula and its adjoining provinces were 
annexed to the emi)ire. The peninsula is di- 
vided into 4 districts : Simferopol, Feodosia, 
Yalta, and Eupatoria. The capital, Simferopol, 
has only 8,600 iidiabitants, and has lost all ves- 
tiges of its former splendor as the residence of 
the Tartar khans. It had been outgrown by 
Sebastopol before the destruction of that place 
in 1855, and by Eupatoria (Kozlov), Bakhtchis- 
sarai, Feodosia, and Kertch. The latter, the 
old PunticapcEum, is almost the only town in 
Russia that is built entirelj* of stone ; its popu- 
lation amounts to about 10,000 souls. Karasoo- 
bazar, situate to the N. E. of Simferopol and con- 
taining about 15,000 inhabitants, is the principal 
seat of what little industry the Crimea can boast 
of. — The Crimea was, in 1854 and 1855, the prin- 
cipal theatre of the war between the allied west- 
ern powers and Russia. The armies of the allies 
effected a landing at the bay of Eupatoria, Sept. 
14, 1854. On their southward march toward 
Sebastopol they encountered the Russian forces, 
commanded by Prince MentchikofF, on the banks 
of the Alma. A bloody battle was fought (Sept, 
20), in which the Russians were compelled to 
retreat. On Sept. 25 the British forces seized 
Balaklava, and on Oct. 9 the regular siege 
of the southern portion of Sebastopol com- 
menced, the Russians having sunk vessels in the 
entrance to the harbor and thus rendered the 
city unassailable by maritime force. On Oct. 
25 and Nov. 5, the Russians vainly attempted 
to annihilate the besieging forces in the bat- 
tles of Balaklava and Inkerman, but afterward 
confined themselves mainly to the defensive, 
their frequent sorties being intended more to 
harass and retard the siege than to relieve the 
■place definitively. Among these conflicts some 
assumed almost the character of regular field 
battles; for instance, an unsuccessful attack of 
the French upon a new redoubt (Feb. 23, 1855), 
their first assault upon the Malakofi" and Redan 
(June 18), and the battle of the Tchernaya (Aug. 
16), in which the Russians, numbering 50,000 
infantry and 6,000 cavalry, made a last effort to 



break the aggressive force of the enemy. The 
trenches having been driven so near the Rus- 
sian defensive works that another assault could 
be ventured, the final bombardment was opened 
Sept. 5, and lasted for 3 days. On Sept. 8 the 
Malakotf and Redan were stormed and taken 
by the allies after a desperate struggle. The 
Russians, after having blown up their exten- 
sive fortifications on the southern shore of the 
harbor, retreated to the north side, which the 
allies never seriously attempted to conquer. 
The latter, having destroyed thp costly docks, 
arsenals, and ship yards of Sebastopol, remained 
inactive in their camp, and, with the exception 
of the capture and sack of Kertch on the strait 
of Yenikale, no further feats of arms were ac- 
complished. The forces of the allies were with- 
drawn in the summer and autumn of 1856. In 
the latter part of 1858, two brothers of the em- 
peror made a tour of inspection in the Crimea, 
and it was rumored that it was the intention 
of the government to establish a city like Se- 
bastopol at or near the strait of Yenikale. — On 
April 10, 1856, Col. Munro exhibited in the 
London society of antiquaries a great number 
of relics discovered beneath a spot between 
Balaklava and Sebastopol which had been used 
throughout the war as the provision depot of 
the English camp. The first intimation of the 
antiquities Avas the turning up of a coin of Ro- 
nianus, and at length an oblong enclosure was 
cleared out measuring 150 feet by 93, having at 
one end a circular form and walls 10 feet in 
thickness, comprising a Cyclopean wall and an 
inner wall of wrought masonry. These re- 
mains are supposed to be those of a temple, 
dating from 400 to 200 B. C. Beside a beauti- 
ful small female head in ten-a cotta, presumed 
to be Astarte or some other divinity, which 
has been presented to the queen of England, 
16 vases and fragments of pottery, glass beads, 
fibular, spear heads, and other antiquities, were 
discovered on the same occasion in the Crimea. 
On Dec. 5, 1856, Dr. Duncan McPherson, who 
had otficiated as inspector-general of hospitals 
of the Turkish contingent, gave before the 
same society a description of the excavations 
conducted under his care, on the site of Pante- 
capfEum and the Mons Mithridates, in the im- 
mediate vicinity of Kertch ; and has since pub- 
lished a splendid illustrated work in folio, with 
drawings of tombs and other relics, including 
some curiously constructed chambers. Many 
of these antiquities have since been deposited in 
the British museum. 

CRIMINAL LAW. This branch of juris- 
prudence is the earliest in development, but the 
latest to be reduced to a rational and consistent 
system. Tlie predominance of penal laws may 
be seen in the early legislation of every nation. 
The reason is, that in a rude state of society 
personal violence is the most pressing subject 
for which laws are required. Laws are accord- 
ingly enacted for the emergency, and, as might 
be expected, having reference to the immediate 
occasion, they partake rather of blind popu- 



68 



CRIMINAL LAW 



lar impulse than tlie calm deliberation of legis- 
lative wisdom ; not that the laws are in fact 
dictated by the will of tlie people, but the legis- 
lators themselves are under tlie influence of the 
same prejudices tliat actuate the popular mind. 
The consequence is, that excessive severity at 
first prevails, which in the course of time is 
meliorated by evasion of the laws, and the con- 
trary extreme of undue laxity has in many 
instances succeeded. The latter eftect can bo 
guarded against only by a timely revision of 
the laws, and an accommodation of them to the 
more humane views resulting from an advance 
of civilization. But, as we shall have occasion 
to show more particularly in the course of this 
article, the practical wisdom required for such 
a revision is the very latest growth of civiliza- 
tion, and belongs to the highest branch of po- 
litical science. It has indeed been erroneously 
supposed that criminal law is extremely simple 
as compared with the laws relating to property. 
This idea has grown out of tlie fact that legis- 
lation respecting crimes has by necessity been 
called for when as yet the state of society was 
unsettled. Laws were made for individual 
cases, and by consequence were destitute of 
sound legal discrimination ; yet by long use, and 
for want of the capacity required for system- 
atic review and amendment, they have become 
fixed in all their incongruity. This irregular 
character of criminal laws is not peculiar to one 
or a few nations, but is observable in all systems 
of jurisprudence which have not in a later and 
more mature age imdergone revision. Henco 
criminal law has more a statutory or positive 
character than the more gradually developed 
system of laws aftecting property. In the ab- 
sence of general principles aud of all harmo- 
nizing method, each statute or pi'ovision of law 
is isolated, distinct, and positive, and therefore 
precludes aU reasoning by analogy and aU mod- 
ification for the sake of conformity to the 
changing circumstances of society. So far, then, 
criminal law may be said to be simple, inasmuch 
as each statute is the law of the particular case 
referred to, and there can be no expansion or re- 
production by analogy. Yet there are princi- 
ples applicable to this branch of the law, which 
may, in like manner as the elementary rules of 
civil law, be developed into a harmonious sys- 
tem. Another peculiarity of criminal law, or 
rather of its administration at an early period, 
is the want of discrimination as to the palliative 
circumstances of crime. Motives are compara- 
tively little considered in early penal laws, or 
in the judicial proceedings founded upon tliem. 
Gibbon's remark, that " the life or death of 
a citizen is determined with less caution and 
delay than the most ordinary question of cove- 
nant or inheritance," is true only of a jurispru- 
dence which has retained its early crude legis- 
lation respecting crimes without subsequent 
revision. To a considerable extent this was the 
state of the English criminal law at the time 
Gibbon wrote, but it has since that time under- 
gone a radical change. There is a third charac- 



teristic of the early administration of criminal 
law, viz. : the comparative disregard of the rules 
of evidence. The fact of being charged with a 
crime, especially if there be some strong circum-, 
stance of suspicion, naturally induces a preju- 
dice against the accused. He is deemed guilty 
until he proves himself innocent ; contrary to 
the more humane axiom of a later age, that a 
man is to be deemed innocent until he is proved 
to be guilty. The very atrocity of the crime 
of which a man is accused is an aggravation of 
popular prejudice, and in a semi-civilized com- 
munity is almost equivalent to condemnation. 
The patient investigation of a case, the careful 
weighing of all the evidence, particulai'ly that 
which is derived from circumstances, and the 
impartial judgment unswayed by popular ex- 
citement or the exacerbated passion of the in- 
jured party, belong to a more advanced stage of 
civilization and jurisprudence. Illustrations of 
the foregoing remarks will be found in tlie penal 
laws of nations the most celebrated for their 
legislation. The laws of Draco, which on ac- 
count of their undiscriminating severity were 
said to have been written in blood, are not to 
be deemed the mere expression of the cruel 
heart of the legislatoi-, but rather the reflection 
of the sanguinary disposition of the Athenian 
people at that period. So the decemvirs who 
prepared (perhaps merely compiled) the 12 
tables did not declare crimes nor impose pen- 
alties abhorrent to the popular disposition, but 
rather were actuated by the same impulses 
and prejudices which prevailed in the minds of 
the people. It was not indeed a democratic 
influence, for some provisions were made ex- 
pressly for the support of patrician power over 
the plebeian commonalty ; but, allowing a certain 
degree of discrimination in the estimation of 
crimes as affecting one or the other class politi- 
cally, the code of the decemvirs may be as- 
sumed to be a fair expression of the temper of 
the Roman people. Upon analysis of these 
celebrated laws, all the defects which we have 
specified as incident to early legislation become 
apparent. The penal largely predominates over 
the civil, and in respect to crimes and their 
penalties there is an absence of what we should 
deem a just discrimination respecting the rela- 
tive measure of crimes and the punishment due 
to each, and there is a want of due regard to 
motives or other palliative incidents. Muti- 
lation of the person was punished by the re- 
taliatory infliction of the same injury upon the 
wrong doer. A false witness was to be thrown 
headlong from the capitol. The killing of a 
man, or making use of magical words to hurt 
him, or the preparing of poison for him, or giv- 
ing it to him, were subject alike to the penalty 
of death. A parricide was adjudged to be sewn 
lip in a sack and thrown into the river ; the ad- 
dition to the contents of the sack of a cock, a 
viper, a dog, and an ape, were the fanciful de- 
vices of those who executed the law, and not 
prescribed by the law itself, though in the In- 
stitutes of Justinian they appear as if the whole 



CRIMINAL LAW 



had been originally so enacted. Slander by 
words or detamatory verses was punished by 
beating witli a club, and the authorities cited by 
Gibbon seem to prove that the punishment ex- 
tended to death. This was undoubtedly a polit- 
ical law, intended in the first instance for the 
protection of. the decemvirs themselves against 
any rude complaint by the people. It remained, 
however, um-epealed, thougli, like other enact- 
ments, probably unexecuted, except for tyran- 
nical purposes. The treading down of another's 
corn field at nigjit was i)unished with death ; 
but the cutting down of trees, whatever might 
be the value, was subject to a mere fine of 25 
pounds of brass. But the most apt illustration 
of the irrational severity of these laws was the 
treatment of an insolvent debtor, who, without 
any other imputation of fraud than the fact of 
owing the debt and not having paid it, could be 
taken home by the creditor and kept 60 days, 
fettered with irons not exceeding 15 pounds in 
weight ; at the end of which time, if the debt 
remained unpaid, he could be brought before 
the ])eoi)le on 3 market days, on the last of 
which his body could be cut into pieces accord- 
ing to the number of creditors, or, if they pre- 
ferred, he could be sold into foreign slavery. 
The excessive severity of a law defeats the very 
object had in view in enacting it. " The crim- 
inal code of the decemvirs," says Gibbon, "was 
abolished by the humanity of accusers, witness- 
es, and judges; and impunity became the conse- 
quence of immoderate rigor." Magistrates were 
• prohibited from inflicting on a free citizen any 
capital or even corporal punishment. All cases 
aftecting the life or Uberty of a Eoraan citizen 
were, by the laws of the 12 tables, to be tried 
by the comitia centuriata. The multiplication 
of these cases led to the giving power annually 
to the prfetors to sit in judgment on state of- 
fences, with a certain number of judges drawn 
from the rolls of citizens ; and new prretors 
were appointed with special powers for the trial 
of offences relating only to individuals. There 
was a general amelioration of the laws by th© 
operation of these different provisions. As 
there was no arrest until sentence had been 
pronounced, the judgment could be evaded by 
going into voluntary exile, and the interdiction 
of fire and water {i. e. exile) became the ex- 
treme limit of judicial severity even upon con- 
viction in capital cases. A new administration 
of criminal law was, however, introduced Avith 
the imperial government. The senate was made 
the instrument of imperial power, for the con- 
demnation of criminals charged with offences 
against the state ; and the ordinary magistrates 
became invested with powers which under the 
republic liad been reserved to the people, either 
in the comitia or in the popular body oijudices, 
who sat with the praator. Anj^ Roman citizen 
might be a public accuser and prosecute crimi- 
nal actions, but it seems not to have been usual, 
except when aome political object was sought, 
or where the accuser had some relationship to 
the injured party, either by blood or profes- 



sionally, as in the case of patron and client. It 
was a peculiarity of the Roman criminal law 
that, liowever mild it became in respect to 
free citizens, it was enforced against slaves 
and foreigners with all the stringency of its 
ancient severity. — The laws of the Germanic 
nations equally illustrate the propositions above 
stated, and especially the absence of all classi- 
fication of crimes, and the disproportion of 
penalties to the different degrees of moral tur- 
pitude. The Salic law contained 348 penal 
articles, and only 65 on all other subjects. Of 
the penal laws, 150 related to cases of robbery, 
74 of which referred to the stealing of animals; 
cases of violence against the x)erson were the 
subjects of 113 articles, of which 80 related to 
mutilation of the person, and 24 to violence 
against women. The want of generalization is 
noticed by Guizot, as proving defect of intel- 
lectual development and the precipitation of 
the legislator in enacting laws : " Every case of 
robbery, of violence in the very fact, is taken 
hold of in order to immediately inflict a penalty ; 
and there was no idea but of adding a new 
article of law whenever a new crime was com- 
mitted, however trifling its difference from 
those which had been already provided for." 
Yet these laws present the same contrast that 
we have seen in the Roman, in the mildness of 
the penalties inflicted upon free men, and the 
cruelty of the punishments to which the slaves, 
and even bond laborers (colo7ii), were subject. 
Composition (tcehrgeld or widrigeld), a pecu- 
niary mulct, was the penalty enforced upon a 
free man, varying in amount with the atrocity 
of the offence ; Ijut upon slaves and laborers, 
tortures and death were freely inflicted. Similar 
provisions were contained in the laws of the 
Ripuarian Franks, the Burgundians, and the 
Anglo-Saxons. It was, however, understood 
that the injured party had a right to refuse 
composition, and to seek satisfaction by his 
own hand; which la~t alternative was regulated 
by certain rules, and hence received the desig- 
nation of judicial combat. This was a peculiar 
feature of the Germanic law, and was not con- 
fined to criminal cases, but became a common 
mode of deciding questions of fact even in civil 
suits ; and the right was reciprocal, that is to say, 
either party had the right to call the other to a 
decision of the controversy by combat. So either 
party had the right to challenge witnesses, and 
even judges, to combat, upon the allegation 
that the testimony was untrue or the judgment 
unjust. Montesquieu maintains that the judi- 
cial combat was introduced as a natural conse- 
quence of what he calls negative proof, that is, 
the denial of the charge by the party under 
oath, which was a purgation in criminal cases, 
and was also admitted in civil cases with the 
addition of the oaths of a certain number of 
others, called conjuratores or compurgatores, 
who merely deposed that theybelieved the party. 
The defect of this kind of proof, as well as of 
the other mode of determining facts, viz., by 
ordeal, rendered the trial by combat a necessity ; 



70 



CRIMINAL LAW 



at least it was far more satisfactory to the 
rude minds of that period than either of the 
others, in whicli perjury and deception were pal- 
pable. Another mode, which was much in vogue 
among the Anglo-Saxons, and which was mahi- 
tained for a long period in the English law, was 
the compurgation before alluded to. Whether 
the compurgators were the same as the sectatores 
spoken of in the Saxon laws is uncertain. It 
has been supposed by some writers that they 
had a function somewhat similar to that of the 
juratores of a subsequent period. In one re- 
spect they Avere alike, inasmuch as they stated 
upon oath their opinion of the case, which opin- 
ion was not founded upon evidence, but upon 
some private knowledge which they were sup- 
posed to have of tlie matter in controversy. 
There was probably a distinction, however ob- 
scure ; the one (the juratores) became the mod- 
ern jury, the other (the compurgators) contin- 
ued to be called rather as witnesses, though they 
testified only to belief in Avhat the party had 
sworn. The proceeding by compurgators was 
called wager of law, which took the name from 
the formality of giving gage or security that the 
party would at a certain day make his law, that 
is, that he would take an oath and bring 11 
compurgators to swear that they believed him. 
In modern practice it seems to have been ad- 
mitted only in an action of debt, instances of 
which may be seen in 2 Salk. 682, and 2 Barn, 
and Cress. 538 ; but at the period of which we 
speak it was a method of proceeding in criminal 
as well as civil cases. The juratores appear to 
have been in the first instance charged with the 
preliminary inquiry as to the guilt of any per- 
son charged with certain crimes, and upon their 
■* finding him guilty he was put to the ordeal or 
compurgation. This seems to have been the 
practice in the reign of Henry IL But we learn 
from Bracton, who wrote in the reign of Henry 
III., that the practice then was to commit the 
decision of the case finally to the jury, unless 
there was a demand of combat by one of the 
parties, or unless the defendant elected to wage 
his law. There was still, however, nothing like 
the modern proceeding upon a jury trial. The 
jurors were not expected to decide upon evi- 
dence produced by the parties, but upon their 
own knowledge or information collected by them. 
The direction of the judge was, that whereas 
such a man is charged with such a crime, the 
jury are to make known the truth thereof. Pros- 
ecutions for crime were usually upon appeal 
of a private party. Any one of legal capacity 
to sue could prosecute for treason, but ordina- 
rily only near kindred by blood were admitted 
to bring suit for homicide ; a woman could pros- 
ecute only for the death of her husband, or for 
a rape committed upon lierself, and the appeal 
in the former case is said by Bracton to have 
been only de morte viri inter hrachia interfecti. 
In other cases the party injured was in gen- 
eral the prosecutor. There was, however, as 
before mentioned, another mode of charging a 
person with crime, viz., xier famam patrice., a 



sort of indictment by the jyatria or jury. It 
does not appear how the prosecution was con- 
ducted in such a case ; but as there was never 
any attempt to determine facts according to 
rides of evidence, it is probable that the first 
finding or indictment was conclusive, unless 
the party accused purged himself or took some 
exception to the jury. — It would exceed our 
limit to pursue the history of the English crim- 
inal law through all its changes. Passing to its 
present state, we find forms of proceeding emi- 
nently adapted to sound judicial investigation. 
The function of the j^rt^riVf, or jury of inquisition, 
spoken of by Bracton, is now performed by a 
grand jury, not less than 12 nor more than 23 
in number, upon whose indictment most crimi- 
nal cases are brought before the courts for trial. 
The exceptions are : 1, cases of homicide where 
a coroner's inquisition has been returned ; 2, 
actions which, by statute, may bo brought by 
a private prosecutor, or informations by the 
master of the crown oflSce npon the relation of 
a private individual ; 3, informations filed ex 
officio by the attorney- gen oral in cases of atro- 
cious misdemeanor endangering the govern- 
ment. All criminal prosecutions, except the 
few cases where by statute a common informer 
is authorized to bring an action, are in the name 
of the king, and conducted by his law oflBcers. 
Private suits for crimes, which were formerly 
allowed under the name of appeals of felony, 
were long since practically abandoned, and 
were finally abolished by statute 59 George III., 
c. 46. So also the wager of battle by the same 
statute, and wager of law by 2 and 4 Wil- 
liam IV., c. 42. The indictment, which is the 
basis of tlie arraignment and trial of criminals, 
was formerly required to be drawn with great 
technical strictness, and was often quashed for 
defect of form. Thus it was necessary to set 
forth the full name of the person charged and a 
designation of his business and place of resi- 
dence, also the time and place when and Avhere 
the ofifence was committed. Certain technical 
Avords were also required, as descriptive of the 
crime charged, as (when pleadings were in 
Latin) the words proditorie et contra ligientice 
sv(B dehitiim, in treason ; murdravit, in an in- 
dictment for murder; rapuit, in rape; and so 
in other cases. No expressions equivalent in 
meaning could be substituted; and after the 
pleadings were, by statute 4 George IL, c. 26 
(1730), converted into English, the correspond- 
ing vernacular terms, as "murdered," "rav- 
ished," &c., were retained Avith the same 
strictness. And so in felonies it Avas neces- 
sary to charge that the act Avas done felonice ; 
in burglary, turglariter. In indictments for 
murder it Avas required also to state the dimen- 
sions of the Avound, and in all indictments the 
value of the thing which was the subject 
of the offence, as in larceny, or Avith which 
the offence Avas committed, as in murder. In 
the former case, it Avas said to be required in 
order to distinguish whether it Avas grand or 
petty larceny ; in the latter case, because the 



CRIMINAL LAW 



1 



instrument with which a homicide was com- 
mitted was forfeited as a deodand. This ab- 
surd regard to mere form lias been, liowevcr, 
abrogated: 1st, by statute 7 George IV., c. G4, 
which proliibited an arrest of judgment or a 
reversal on writ of error for any of these formal 
defects, but which still left the objections to be 
taken advantage of by demurrer ; and finally, 
by 14 and 15 Victoria, c. 100 (1851), commonly 
called Lord Campbell's act, by Avhich the court 
is directed to disregard the omission of mere 
formal words, as " with force and arms," or 
"against the peace," &c., or any mistake in 
time or i)lace ; and a statement of the manner 
or means by which the deceased came to his 
death is dispensed with, and amendments of in- 
dictments either in matters of fdrm or substance 
are allowed upon such terms as the court shall 
deem reasonable. As to the designation of 
crimes and their punishments, the English law 
was, until a recent period, in a chaotic state. 
Statutes had been accumulated according to the 
exigencies occurring at different times, until, 
by their number, such was the difficulty of de- 
termining what was obsolete and what in force, 
and of reconciling apparently conflicting provi- 
sions, that practically the common people had no 
knowledge of the penal laws to which they were 
subject, and cases were constantly occurring of 
the trial and conviction of criminals charged with 
offences, the nature of which, as defined by law, 
and the penalties prescribed therefor, they were 
entirely ignorant of; their ignorance, according 
to the old maxim, ignorantia juris non excusat, 
being no defence. So also the extreme and dis- 
proportioned severity of ancient laws enacted in 
a turbulent period, or in an unsettled state of so- 
ciety, still prevailed in England at the beginning 
of the present century. According to Blackstone, 
there were 160 offences which by various acts of 
parliament had been declared felonies without 
benefit of clergy, that is to say, punishable by 
death. It will be sufiicient to mention the cases 
of grand larceny, or stealing above the value of 
12 pence ; embezzlement of a master's goods by 
a servant ; burning stacks of corn, hay, &c., in 
the night time ; killing horses, sheep, and other 
domestic animals; breaking down dikes or 
bridges, or breaking away the banks of fish 
ponds ; cutting down trees in an avenue, or 
growing in an orchard; the malicious teai'ing 
or defacing of the garments of a person passing 
in the street; all of which, and various other 
acts of no greater degree of criminality, wei'e 
thus punished. The origin of this severity in 
the majority of such cases was no doubt owing 
to the great prevalence of a particular griev- 
ance in some locality, and, according to the 
former mode of reasoning, the frequency of an 
evil called for increased severity of punishment ; 
but it has happened that when the emergency 
has ceased the law remained. Common hu- 
manity was outraged by the continuance of such 
a system of criminal law in a civilized commu- 
nity ; public attention was at last directed to 
the necessity of reform, and a revision has 



been made by several different statutes, chiefly 
the following: 7 and 8 Geo. IV., c. 27 (1827), 
for repealing various statutes relating to benefit 
of clergy and for other purposes; 7 and 8 Geo. 
IV., c. 29, for consolidating and amending laws 
relating to larceny ; 7 and 8 Geo. IV. , c. 30, for 
consolidating and amending laws relating to ma- 
licious injuries to property ; 9 Geo. IV., c. 31 
(1828), 1 Victoria, c. 85 (1837), which is are- 
vision of the last preceding act, in respect to at- 
tempted homicide ; 1 Victoria, c. 86. in respect 
to burglary and stealing in a house ; 1 Victoria, 
c. 87, respecting robbery and attempting to rob ; 
and 1 Victoria, c. 89, as to burning dwelling 
houses and other buildings, destroying vessels, 
exhibiting false signals, «5cc. From examination 
of these statutes, it is apparent that it was diflft- 
cult to make a thorough change at once, and 
many successive efforts against ancient preju- 
dices were required. Thus by one of the acts 
of 1827 the distinction between grand and petty 
larceny was abrogated, and every theft which 
had come under either denomination was de- 
clared to be simple larceny, punishable only by 
transportation or imprisonment, with the addi- 
tion of whipping, in the discretion of the court. 
Yet by the same statute stealing from the per- 
son was punishable by death ; so also the break- 
ing into a dwelling house with intent to com- 
mit a felony, or breaking in and stealing from 
a dwelling house a chattel of any value, or steal- 
ing from a dwelling house and at the same time 
putting any one in fear, or stealing to the value 
of £5, stealing a horse, cow, &c., or killing with 
intent to steal the carcass or skin, were all pun- 
ished by death; so also, by the act of 1828, an 
attempt to murder by administering poison,^ or 
by suffocating, or strangling, or by shooting 
with loaded weapons, or stabbing, &c. In the 
amendatory acts of 1837, transportation or im- 
prisonment was substituted in most of the cases 
in which capital punishment had been retained 
by the previous acts. By the existing laws of 
England, the cases in which the penalty of death 
is inflicted are the following: treason; mur- 
der; burglary with intent to kill, or accom- 
panied Avith violence to any person; robbery, 
if at the same time any injury be done by a 
weapon ; burning a dwelling house, there being 
a person therein at the time ; crimes against na- 
ture, called buggery and sodomy ; casting away 
a vessel, whereby the life of any person is en- 
dangered ; exhibiting false signals, with the in- 
tent to bring vessels into danger. In all other 
cases, the penalty is penal servitude or imprison- 
ment for different periods, according to the de- 
gree of the oftence. In the United States, by 
the federal laws, capital punishment is inflicted, 
in cases within the jurisdiction of the U. S. 
courts, for treason, murder, arson, rape, piracy, 
robbery of the mail (if it be with jeopardy to the 
life of any person), rescuing a person convicted 
of a capital crime, burning a vessel of war, and 
corruptly casting away or destroying a vessel 
belonging to a private owner. The severity of 
the punishment in the case of rape is because 



72 



CRIMINAL LAW 



tho offence of which the U. S. courts would 
have cognizance must be coinmitted on board 
of a vessel on tho liigli seas or in foreign parts. 
By the laws of the several states capital punish- 
ment is generally limited to three cases, viz. : 
treason, murder, and arson. — It remains to speak 
of some principles recognized in criminal law as 
to the nature of crime in respect to individu- 
als and to the community, the degree of guilt 
of the person accused, and the rules of evidence 
by which the offence is proved. I. It is com- 
mon to divide wrongs into private and public 
injuries, and it has been erroneously supposed 
that when the offence is of such magnitude as 
to become the subject of a public prosecution, 
the private right is merged. As respects some 
lesser crimes, as assault and battery, obtaining 
money by fiilse pretences, libel, and the like, 
there is a right of private action independent 
of the proceeding by indictment, and it is not 
necessary that the individual injured should 
procure a criminal conviction at all. In cases 
of larceny, robbery, and other wrongs affect- 
ing propert}', it is generally assumed that there 
must first be a conviction of the crime before 
there can be a civil suit for a recovery of the 
property taken, or damages in lieu thereof. 
Tlie only reason assigned for this in the Eng- 
lish law is, that the injured party may thereby 
be more strongly induced to procure a convic- 
tion of the offender for the benefit of society. It 
seems, however, not to be admitted in this coun- 
try as satisfactory. In the state of New York, 
by statute, tlie right of private suit is not in 
any manner aftected by the fact that the wrong 
complained of was a felony (2 R. S. 292). Pro- 
vision is made by law in England and in the 
United States for the restoration of property 
to the owner which had been stolen or other- 
wise obtained by a criminal act, upon convic- 
tion of the offender (21 Henry VIII., c. 11 ; 2 Rev. 
Stat. N. Y., 746, § 31) ; and in the state of New 
York, redress is given for all other private in- 
juries by a suit against the trustees of the es- 
tate of a convicted felon (2 Rev. Stat. 700). In 
England, as felony worked a forfeiture of the 
personal estate of the convict, including estates 
in laud for life or a term of years, there was 
usually nothing to look to as an indeumity for 
private injury ; yet the right of prosecuting for , 
such injury after conviction of the offender is 
admitted in some old cases ; and so after acquit- 
tal, if there has been no collusion, an action for 
damages can be maintained (12 East. 409). II. 
As to the degree of guilt of the persons accused. 
This involves several inquiries, the first of 
which is capacity of mind. There must be tho 
mens doll ecqjax ; for although ignorance is not 
in general admitted as an excuse for crime, yet 
this is to be understood of such only as have 
sufficient understanding to distinguish between 
right and wrong. The precise limit of capacity 
cannot be defined. A vicious life undoubtedly 
produces hardness and insensibility, and there 
is often to be seen such natural depravity as is 
Wholly inconsistent with the existence of any 



moral discrimination. Yet the law does not 
take into account any such perversity of nature, 
if there is any intellectual power, which is 
rather vaguely denominated reason. In what 
degree this power must exist is not susceptible 
of being defined by any general rule, and is 
often the subject of perplexing doubt in the ap- 
plication of tho rule to particular cases. Chil- 
dren before the age of discretion are exempt 
by law from responsibility for crime, but the 
exact period when such discretion shall be pro- 
nounced to commence is not fixed. By the 
Saxon laws the age of 12 was fixed as the ear- 
liest possible development of legal understand- 
ing; between that and the age of 14 there 
might bo guilt according to the actual capa- 
city. But the rule of the English law now is, 
that capacity is not to be judged by age in any 
case, except that under the age of 7 a child can- 
not be held guilty of felony ; but there is a re- 
ported case of a child of 8 years of age who 
was convicted of arson and hanged ; so a girl 
of 13 was convicted and executed for killing 
her mistress. In all cases capacity is to be 
judged by actual proof. Idiocy and lunacy 
excuse from the guilt of crime. If there was a 
total want of reason at the time the act was 
committed, whether the deprivation be perma- 
nent or temporary, the law acquits from all guilt ; 
but if there be partial reason, as if there is 
thought and design, or faculty to distinguish the 
nature of actions, then there will be legal respon- 
sibility for every act. Intoxication i» not ad- 
mitted as an excuse for criminal misconducts 
In this respect the rule of the common law is 
different from that of the civil law. By the 
latter, capital punishment was never infiictedfor 
acts committed in a state of ebriety. The 2d 
ground of exemption is where there was no crim- 
inal intent, but the act has been committed either 
by accident, mistake, or necessity. Accident ex- 
cuses, except where it has happened when a man 
was engaged in the commission of some unlaw- 
ful act. A distinction is also made in respect to 
such unlawful act, as whether it was what is 
termed by the law malum in se, or only malum 
prohibitum^ the criminality being less for any ac- 
cident occurring in the latter case tlian in the 
former. There was much good sense in the rules 
of the Roman law in respect to culpability for 
accident. Gross negligence was held as culpable 
as a wrong intent {non minus ex dole quam ex 
culpa quisque hac lege tenetur). Thus, if a man 
was lopping a tree near the road, and it should 
fall and kill a person passing by, he Avas held 
guilty if he had omitted to give proper warning. 
If a soldier exercising in a place appointed for 
that purpose should accidentally kill a slave 
by throwing a javelin, he was without fault ; but 
if it had happened in a place where he had no 
right to exercise, he was held guilty. Mistake 
is admissible when it relates to a fact, though, 
as before mentioned, mistake of law is no ex- 
cuse ; as if a person should kill another that 
he supposed was breaking into his liouse, and it 
should turn out to be a member of his own fam- 



CRIMINAL LAW 



CPJNOIDEA 



73 



ilj, lie -would be excused on the ground of hav- 
ing mistaken the person. Necessity, as a legal 
excuse, includes that class of cases which the 
law designates as duress. In the English law 
one other case is also included, viz. : tlie crimi- 
nal misconduct of the wife by the command or in 
the presence of her husband. Tiic reason given 
in this case is, that the wife is supposed to be 
under the power of lier husband ; but a better 
reason may i)rol)ably be derived from the old 
law, by which the husl)and had tlie benefit of 
clergy if lie conkl read, but the wife had not, and 
the rule was introduced lYom a motive of hu- 
manity. The exemption was allowed only in 
felonies other than treason and murder, but was 
not admitted as a defence to a charge of any 
misdemeanor less tliau felony. As the reason 
of the rule does not exist in this country, it may 
be presumed there is no such exemption other 
than what may arise from actual coercion. Du- 
ress is compulsion by the menace of death or 
other bodily harm, or by actual force. Black- 
stone limits the expression " bodily harm" to 
mayhem, or loss of limb, according to which 
the fear of being beaten would be no duress, so 
neither would the fear of imprisonment. In 
this country, on the contrary, a tlireat of any 
bodily harm, or even of the destruction of prop- 
erty, would be held to be a duress in that connec- 
tion. But when it is set up as a justification for 
the commission of a criminal act, perhaps nothing 
less than the fear of losing life, or of some perma- 
nent bodily injury, would be admitted as a legal 
excuse. As to the law relating to principals and 
accessories, there is less discrimination than is 
called for by our natural sense of justice, as well 
as b}' a due regard to public policy. An accessory 
before the fact, who is one that has procured or 
advised the commission of the crime which is 
the subject of prosecution, is properly held 
liable in equal degree with the principal for the 
act which has been committed, and all its nat- 
in*al consequences, but not for another and dis- 
tinct crime which may have been committed by 
the principal while engaged in the commission 
of the ofi:ence to which he had been instigated. 
As if A procures B to beat C, and in conse- 
quence of such beating C should die, A is guilty 
of murder ; but if A hires B to beat a man, and 
he should set fire to his liouse, this being a dis- 
tinct ofl:ence, A Is not indictable for it as acces- 
sory. An accessory after the fact is one who, 
knowing a felony has been committed, receives, 
relieves, and assists the felon. The rule of the 
common law, by which even furnishing neces- 
saries to a felon will render a man an accessory 
after the fact, is unreasonably severe. By sta- 
tute of the state of New York, only he is held as 
an accessory after the fact who has aided the crim- 
inal to avoid arrest, conviction, or punishment (2 
R. S. G99). The criminality of an accessory after 
the fact is in England and this country deemed 
less than that of the principal. The punishment 
is imprisonment only, even if the otifence com- 
mitted by the principal is punishable by death. 
III. The rules of evidence and mode of proceed- 



ing in criminal trials can be but briefly referred to. 
The most important principle of tlie English and 
American law, and what chiefly distinguishes it 
from the criminal codesof other countries, is that 
tlie person accused is not compelled to testify. In 
the preliminary examination upon arrest, where 
tlie arrest precedes indictment, he is indeed al- 
lowed to make his statement, and such state- 
ment may be used as evidence against him. But 
lie is usually informed by tlie magistrate that ho 
is not bound to answer the charge unless he 
chooses to do so. Anotlier rule, which follows 
naturally from the preceding, is that it is not 
necessary to ])rove the guilt of the accused by 
more than one "witness, except in the case of 
treason and perjury. In the tribunals of some 
other countries a different rule prevails, because 
it is the general practice to put the accused under 
rigid examination ; and if he denies the crime, it 
is an oath in his own favor, which ought not to 
be overbalanced by a single oath against him. 
It was the ancient practice in England not to 
allow tlie accused to produce witnesses ; and 
when the courts so far relaxed this strictness as 
to hear witnesses for the defence, it was still 
without oath, and the evidence was therefore of 
less weight. But by statute 1 Anne, c. 9, wit- 
nesses are required to be examined on oath for 
the prisoner as well as against him. The priv- 
ilege of defence by counsel was, until a recent 
period, denied in the English courts in trials for 
treason and felonies, while by a strange incon- 
sistency it was allowed in trials for misdemeanor. 
In cases of treason, which was a class of trials 
in which there had been the greatest outrage of 
common rights, relief was given by statute 7 
and 8 William III., c. 3, which allowed counsel 
to be assigned to the prisoner upon his request ; 
and in cases of felony, by statute 6 and 7 William 
IV., c. 114, by which all persons arraigned upon 
a criminal charge are allowed to make defence 
by counsel. In the United States, this right 
was thought of such importance that it was se- 
cured by article 6 of the amendments to the 
federal constitution, and in the several states a 
similar provision has been made either by the 
constitution or by law. In France, the practice 
formerly was to hold the accused to answer in 
person without the aid of counsel ; but it is now 
an admitted right that every person charged 
with a criminal offence is entitled to the aid of 
counsel for his defence, and it is made obligatory 
upon the judge to assign counsel when the ac- 
cused has none. (See Code des delits et des peines, 
art. 187 and 321 ; Code d''instruction criminelle, 
art. 294, 295.) 

CRINOiDEA (Gr. Kptvov, a lily, and tihos, 
shape), animals in shape like a water lily, con- 
sisting of an expanded or spreading disk upon 
the end of a long, slender, jointed stem. The 
name was given by Mr. Miller, author of an 
elaborate work, entitled " Natural History of 
the Crinoidea, or Lily-shaped Animals." They 
constitute an extinct family of echinoderms of 
the radiated division of animals, and in the 
forms of the eucrinite and pentacriuite were 



74 



CRISPIN 



CRITTENDEN 



wonclerfuUy abundant in tlie limestones of the 
Silurian period. Tlieir remains now constitute 
the great portion of the material of strata which 
extend over large districts of country, and are 
several feet thick. 

CRISPIN AND CRISPINIAN, the tutelary 
saints of shoemakers, put to d«ath about A. 1). 
287. The tradition is that they were brothers 
belonging to a noble Roman family ; that, be- 
coming converts to Christianity, they took ref- 
uge in Gaul from the persecution under Dio- 
cletian ; and that they preached the gospel at 
Soissons by day and exercised the trade of shoe- 
makers by night. They had converted multi- 
tudes before their martyrdom under Maximian. 
Their names are found in the principal early 
martyrologies, and their festival is observed on 
Oct. 25. They were tlie patrons of the religious 
community of Freres coi-donniers, founded in 
Paris in lG-45, suppressed in 1789, and which 
has since reappeared and been dissolved. 

CRISSx\, an ancient town of Phocis, called 
" the divine " by Homer. It occupied a beau- 
tiful situation at the foot of Mount Parnassus, 
with lofty mountain heights towering above it, 
and with the beautiful Crissrean plain spread 
out beneath it. The modern town of Chryso, 
occupying the same site, contains some few re- 
mains of this interesting city. Crissa and Cii'- 
rha were long regarded by scholars as but differ- 
ent names for the same place, but Ulrichs, Leake, 
and Grote have shown that Cirrha was the port 
town of Crissa. The taxes which Cirrha levied 
upon pilgrims on their way to Delphi caused 
the first "sacred war," which resulted in the 
destruction of the town. The fate of Crissa 
itself is not known. 

CRITIAS, an Athenian, pupil of Gorgias the 
Leontine and of Socrates. lie was a man of 
uncommon energy of character, possessed high 
and varied culture, but was absolutely wanting 
in moral principle. He was at once politician, 
poet, and orator. Some fragments of his elegies 
are still extant ; a work of his on politics is 
sometimes mentioned, and Cicero tells us that 
some of his speeches, then extant, would place 
him as an orator by the side of Pericles. The 
moral instructions which he received from So- 
crates, however, seem to have produced but lit- 
tle impression upon his corrupt nature. lie is 
now known in history mainly as the cruel and 
vindictive leader of the 30 tyrants. In that 
memorable but brief reign of terror which im- 
mediately succeeded the Peloponnesian war, he 
rioted in slaughter and blood. He was con- 
spicuous among his colleagues for rapacity and 
violence, and punished with death the sugges- 
tion of moderate measures. He was slain in an 
engagement with Thrasybulus, who with his 
band of jjatriots marched to the relief of the 
city (404 P,. C). 

CRITO, a friend and disciple of Socrates, 
whom he is said to have sujjported with his for- 
tune. He made every arrangement for the es- 
cape of his master from prison, and used every 
argument whicli ingenuity or affection could 



suggest to induce him to save his life by fleeing 
from his i)ersecutors. His eloquence was, how- 
ever, in vain, and Socrates drank the fatal cup. 
Crito is a prominent interlocutor in one of Pla- 
to's dialogues, which is named after him. He 
was himself a voluminous writer on philosophi- 
cal subjects, but all his writings have perished. 

CRITOLAUS, a celebrated Achajan dema- 
gogue, Avho incited his countrymen to insurrec- 
tion against the Romans. He commanded the 
Achaean army at the battle of Scarphsea, 146 B. 
C, and when overthrown by Metellus, he either 
committed suicide or perished in the marshes of 
the coast. 

CRITTENDEN. I. An E. co. of Ark., sepa- 
rated from Tenn. by the Mississippi river; area, 
994 sq. m. ; i>op. in 1854, 3,459, of whom 1,032 
were slaves. Its western border is formed by the 
St. Francis river. The surface is level and allu- 
vial, and part of it often overflowed by the Mis- 
sissippi. Portions of the land are quite swampy, 
but the rest is generally fertile. In 1854 the 
productions were 217,500 bushels of corn, and 
1,275 bales of cotton. Capital, Marion. II. A 
"W. CO. of Ky., formed in 1842 ; area estimated 
at 420 sq. m. ; pop. in 1850, 6,351, of whom 848 
were slaves. It is separated from 111. by the 
Ohio river, and bounded by the Cumberland on 
the S. W. It has a level or gently undulating 
surface, except in the eastern part, where it is 
hilly. The soil is generally good. Hard coal, 
lead, and iron are found in great abundance. 
In 1850 the productions were 386,705 bushels 
of corn, 5,759 of wheat, 45,460 of oats, 505,- 
637 lbs. of tobacco, and 12,545 of wool. There 
were 14 churches, and GOO pupils attending 
public schools. Capital, Marion. 

CRITTENDEN, John Jay, an American 
statesman, born in Woodford co., Ky., about 
1785. "While he was still young, his father, who 
was a farmer, was killed by the fall of a tree, leav- 
ing his mother to bring up, with slender means, 
a large family of children, among whom several 
were noted for intellectual ability. Mr. Critten- 
den commenced life as a lawyer in Hopkinsville, 
but soon removed to Frankfort, where he en- 
joyed an excellent practice and won distinction 
as an advocate. In 1816 he was elected from 
Franklin county to the Kentucky house of repre- 
sentatives, of which he was for several years 
speaker. He took his seat in the U. S. senate, 
Dec. 1, 1817, his term commencing at the same 
date with tlie presidency of Mr. Monroe, whom 
he supported. During his 2 years of service, he 
moved the reimbursement of fines under the se- 
dition law of 1798, which he pronounced uncon- 
stitutional ; spoke warmly in favor of a bill in- 
troduced by Mr. Morrow of Oliio, which was 
designed to open the public lands to actual set- 
tlers ; and as chairman of a committee to whom 
a house bill, putting fugitives from labor on the 
same footing with fugitives from justice, was 
referred, reported it back with several amend- 
ments, one of which provided that the identity 
of the alleged fugitive should be proved by other 
evidence than that of the claimant. From 1819 



CRITTENDEN 



CROATIA 



75 



to 1835, Mi-.Ciittc'iKleii i)ractise(l law .it Frank- 
fort, oconsiuaally roprescntiug his county in tlje 
state legislature. President J. Q. Adams nomi- 
nated him judge of the U, S. supremo court in 
1828, but tho senate refused to confirm him, and 
Mr. McLean was subseiiuently put in his place. 
In 1835 he was again chosen U. S. senator, 
served a full term, and was reelected, but in 
1841 resigned, having accepted the i)Ost of .nt- 
torney-general under President Harrison. On 
Sept. 11 of the same year, with the other mem- 
bers of the cabinet, excepting Mr. Webster, he 
tendered his resignation to President Tyler in a 
brief and dignified letter. He was immediately 
elected to the senate for the residue of Mr. Clay's 
term, that senator having resigned, March 31, 
1842, after tho passage of the tariff bill; and 
Mr. Crittenden was reelected for a full term 
from March 4, 1843. In 1848 he retired, hav- 
ing received the whig nomination for govern- 
or of Kentucky, to which office he was elect- 
ed by a large majority. He was attorney-gen- 
eral in President Fillmore's cabinet from July 
20, 1850, till the accession of President Pierce. 
In the spring of 1854 he was induced by long 
standing relations of friendship with the Ward 
family to undertake the defence of Matthew F. 
Ward, indicted for the murder of Prof. W. II. 
G. Butler in his school at Louisville. This step 
created at the time much popular excitement 
against Mr. Crittenden. He had previously been 
reelected to tlie U. S. senate for a term which 
expires in 1861. In early life Mr. Crittenden 
belonged to the republican and subsequently to 
the whig party. lie is now called an Ameri- 
can. He was one of Mr. Clay's most devoted 
friends, and supported him in most of those 
measures with which his name is identified. lie 
has always favored the protective policy, and 
voted for the tariff of 1842 and against that of 
184G. He was for a U. S. bank and against the 
sub-treasury system. In 1835 he opposed Mr. 
Calhoun's bill empowering postmasters to take 
from the mails documents hostile to slavery. 
He opposed the remission of Gen. Jackson's fine 
for contempt of court in declaring martial law 
at New Orleans. The question of apportion- 
ment coming up in 1842, Mr. Crittenden favor- 
ed the smallest ratio of representation, arguing 
that with more representatives the house would 
become more democratic. In 1841, a bill es- 
tablishing a preemptive system in favor of ac- 
tual settlers on the public lands being under con- 
sideration, lie moved an amendment denying the 
privileges of the act to aliens Avho had not made 
a declaration of tlieir intention to become cit- 
izens, which he supported in several speeches. 
Upon the Oregon question Mr. Crittenden spoke 
often, deprecating haste and excitement, favoring 
peace, though not at the expense of honor, and 
supporting such measures as seemed likely to 
conduce thereto. Tiie same tone runs through 
his speeches on the annexation of Texas, which 
he opposed as unconstitutional, unwise, and 
unnecessary, and on the Mexican war, which he 
strove to bring to a peaceful termination as soon 



as practicable. lie manifested a similar spirit 
in 1858 in the debate upon the alleged illegal 
exercise of the right of search by Great Britain. 
In 1848 he ojjposed Mr. Ilannegan's bill provid- 
ing for the military occupation of Yucatan, as 
subsequently in 1858 ho took ground against 
interference in the affairs of Central America. 
It was Mr. Crittenden who in 1847 introduced 
the bill in the senate which authorized the pur- 
chase of provisions and the employment of pub- 
lic ships for tho relief of the starving in Ireland 
and Scotland, supporting it in an eloquent and 
feeling speech. In 1848 he offered a resolution 
congratulating France upon the successful revo- 
lution of February, from which, in common with 
most Americans, he anticipated the establish- 
ment of a lasting republican government in that 
country. He opposed the admission of Kansas 
tmder the Topeka constitution in 1850; voted 
against the repeal of the territorial laws, and in 
favor of Mr. Toombs's Kansas bill, on the ground 
that, however objectionable some of its features 
might be, it was a measure of peace. In 1858 
he opposed the admission of Kansas under the 
Lecompton constitution, on the ground not only 
that that instrument did not represent the will 
of the majority of the people, but that it was a 
fraud upon them. From his age, ability, and 
position as the representative of a slave state, 
as well as from the bold and dashing style of 
its delivery, his speech on this question carried 
great weight with it. He subsequently offer- 
ed a substitute for the bill, which, somewhat 
modified, afterward passed tho house, but was 
defeated in the senate. It provided for the 
submission of the Lecompton instrument to the 
vote of the people of Kansas; if a majority ap- 
proved, it was to become their constitution ; 
otherwise they were empowered to form a 
new constitution. Throughout the acrimonious 
Kansas debates Mr. Crittenden never forgot 
that he was an American senator, and more 
than once found himself arbiter of disputes 
between others. He is sometimes called the 
patriarch of the senate, a designation to which 
his character as well as his age entitles him. 
He has always been considered an excellent ex- 
temporaneous debater, and has not yet lost the 
fire and spirit of his youth. Mr. Crittenden has 
been twice married ; his second Avife, who is 
now living (1859), was the widow of Gen. Ash- 
ley of Kentucky. 

CROATIA, one of the crown lands of the 
Austrian empire as reorganized by the funda- 
mental statute of 1849, consisting of the for- 
mer kingdom of Croatia (a dependency of Hun-* 
gary), the kingdom of Slavonia, the Croatian 
Littorale, and the town and territory of Fiume. 
Croatia (or the 4 counties of Agrara, Waras- 
din, Kreutz, and Fiume) and Slavonia have an 
aggregate area of about 7,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1851,"'878,456; in 1854, 967,136. Croatia is 
bounded N. by Styria and Hungary, E. and S. by 
the Military Frontier district, W. by the Adriatic, 
Illyria, and Styria. It is moimtainous, being 
almost wholly filled up by the continuations of 



(G 



CROCKETT 



CROCODILE 



the Julian and Dinaric Alps. Its principal rivers 
are the Save, "with its tributary the Kulpa, the 
Dravo, and the Mur. The 2 last form the fertile 
island of Murakuz, area nearly 350 sq. m. The 
climate is mild and wholesome, at least in the 
interior. Croatia is poor in natural resources. 
The grape and chestnut are cultivated extensive- 
ly, but grain and fruit are grown only in the coun- 
ty of Kreutz and the Littorale. The mountains, 
although poor in minerals, abound in valuable 
timber, but very little use is made of it. A 
fine marble is worked in the Littorale. — The in- 
habitants, principally Croatians and liascians or 
Servians, with a small proportion of Germans, 
belong with few exceptions to the Roman Catho- 
lic church. They are very little cultivated, in fact 
semi-barbarians. Their idiom is an Illyrian dia- 
lect belonging to the S. branch of the Slavic lan- 
guages. The industry and commerce are scarcely 
worth mentioning. "Wine and timber are the 
only articles of export to the neighboring prov- 
inces. For the domestic trade Agram, Karlstadt, 
and Old Sziszek are the principal marts. The 
Littorale has some shipping and ship-building ; 
also several extensive paper manufactories. Pub- 
lic education was in a deplorable state until 
1851. Up to that time there was only one school 
for every 29 sq. m. and every 3,743 inhabitants. 
Since then, the Austrian government has in- 
troduced a complete system of common school 
education, the results of which are as yet not 
very perceptible. There are also in Croatia 5 
colleges and 2 academies. The province is gov- 
erned by a ban (governor). Justice is admin- 
istered by 57 district courts, 4 superior courts, 
3 supreme courts, and a court of appeals. — 
Croatia, which in antiquity formed a part of 
Pannonia, was a province of the Roman em- 
pire from the time of Augustus, being attached 
to lllyricum. It was conquered by the Goths, 
recovered under Justinian, invaded by the 
Avars, and in the 7th century settled by Croats, 
who after long struggles with the Franks finally 
formed a vassal state of the Byzantine empire. 
Toward the end of tlie 10th century the princes 
of Croatia assumed the royal title. It was con- 
quered by the Hungarians in 1091, by Venice in 
1117, and again by the Byzantines in 1168. Hav- 
ing once more been independent for a century, 
it was ultimately annexed to Hungary in 1342, 
and subjected to the Ilapsburg dynasty in 1527. 
In 1848 the hatred of the Croatians against the 
Magyars made them one of the principal instru- 
ments of the Austrian government in crushing 
the Hungarian revolution. 

CROCKETT, David, an American back- 
woodsman and member of congress, born at 
Limestone, on the Nolachucky river, in Ten- 
nessee, Aug. 17, 1786, died in Texas, March 6, 
1836. Ilis father, of Irish birth, after various 
other avocations, opened a tavern on the road 
from Abingdon to Knoxville, where David 
passed his youth from 7 to 12 years of age, mak- 
ing acquaintance with hard times and doubtful 
characters. He was sent to a country school, 
but on the 4th day quarrelled with the school- 



master, and after playing truant for a time 
in the woods fled from home to avoid a flog- 
ging threatened both by his fatlier and master. 
For 5 years he roamed about the middle states 
with drovers and carriers, till in his 18th year he 
returned home, attended school for 2 months, 
learning his letters for the first time, and 
soon after married and went to live in the 
wildest portions of the state, distinguishing 
himself as a hunter. In 1813 he served in the 
Creek war under Gen. Jackson, and after the 
peace settled on Shoal creek, in a desolate re- 
gion of Tennessee. A community of reckless 
characters having flocked together after 2 years, 
it was found necessary to establish a temporary 
government, and he was appointed one of the 
magistrates. He soon after became a candidate 
for the legislature, and though he had scarcely 
yet read a newspaper he made a successful elec- 
tioneering tour by the skilful use of his rifle, 
his companionable habits, and his faculty for 
telling amusing stories. He was twice reelected 
to the legislature, but devoted himself especially 
to bear hunting, till in 1827 he was elected by 
the party of Gen. Jackson a representative in 
congress. At Washington he immediately ob- 
tained general notoriety by the eccentricity of 
his manners and language, and was regarded as 
a gifted and genial specimen of the " half horse 
and half alligator." In 1829 he was again chosen 
to congress, but soon after changed from a parti- 
san to an opponent of Jackson's administration ; 
and in 1831 it required his most strenuous exer- 
tions to secure a reelection. From this time the 
influence of Jackson became predominant in the 
West, and especially in Tennessee, and Crockett 
therefore withdrew from the political arena of 
the United States. He sought a new career in 
Texas, then in revolt against Mexico, and after 
a series of military exploits met his death while 
bravely defending Fort Alamo, in San Antonio 
de Bexar. The fort, containing about 140 Texans 
commanded by Col. Travis and under him by Col. 
Crockett, was attacked in the latter part of 
February by a Mexican army numbering 2,000 
men. Amid scarcity of provisions and constant 
watching, shells and assaults were successfully 
withstood till on March 6 only 6 of the garrison 
survived. These, including Col. Crockett, then 
surrendered, but by order of Santa Anna the 
latter immediately perished with a dozen sword 
thrusts. The exaggerated stories of his wit and 
peculiarities afterward made him almost a myth- 
ical person. His autobiography was published 
at Philadelphia in 1834. 

CROCODILE, a genus of reptiles which, 
with the alligator of America and the gavial 
of the Ganges, constitute the family of croco- 
dilians. Some authors elevate the family into 
an order, the emydosauri of Gray, the loricata 
of Fitzinger, and the rhizoclonta of Prince Bo- 
naparte, the latter including the large fossil 
ichthyomnriis and plesiosau7'US. In the class of 
reptiles they are higher than the saurians, and 
second to the testudinata ; among them are 
included some of the largest, most powerful, 



CROCODILE 



77 



and best protected of their class. The croco- 
dilians, inchiding tlie alligator and gavials, are 
characterized as follows : tho skin is tougii and 
thick, and protected by firm scales, of different 
shapes and sizes, forming a coat of mail sword 
and bullet j>roof; different species have been 
distinguished according to their arrangement on 
the neck ; they are square on the upper and 
under surfaces of tlie body and on the tail, 
large and ridged longitudinally on the back, 
small and rounded on tho sides of the body 
and neck and limbs ; on the head the skin is 
applied directly on tlie bone, following its em- 
inences and depressions, and unprotected by 
scales, in this differing from the true saurians ; 
tlie scales are thinnest below, and of a lighter 
color, almost white, the upper tints being 
greenish with dark spots, or an obscure 
brown. Under the jaw, in the longitudinal 
folds of the skin, open the ducts of odorifer- 
ous glands, which secrete a viscid matter hav- 
ing a strong and disagreeable musky odor ; 
similar pores open near the cloaca. For the 
details of the skeleton the reader is referred to 
Cuvier, Meckel, Oken, and other writers on 
comparative anatomy. The vertebras are con- 
cave anteriorly and convex posteriorly, and 
are 7 or 8 in the neck, 12 in the back, 5 in the 
loins, 2 in the sacral region, and from 34 to 42 
in the tail ; the number is the same in indi- 
viduals of a species at all periods of life. The 
vertebras of the neck have long articulated 
transverse processes, or cervical ribs, which 
prevent any extensive lateral motion of the 
neck ; on the under surface of the caudal ver- 
tebrae is a series of V-shaped bones, the hasmal 
arches, for the protection of the vessels. The 
ordinary ribs are 12 to 13 on each side. The 
sternum is prolonged even to the pelvis, and 
gives attachment to 6 or 7 pairs of cartilages, 
not extending to the spine ; these serve to 
strengthen and protect the abdominal walls, 
and are represented in man by the transverse 
lines of the rectus abdominis muscle ; the 
sternum is also prolonged as a point in advance 
of the ribs ; there are no true clavicles, and 
the bones of the pelvis remain separate. The 
lower jaw is longer than the cranium, because 
the condyles of the temporal bones, correspond- 
ing to ossa quadrata, are placed considerably 
behind tlie articulation of the head with the 
spine, and are united to the skull as in the tur- 
tles ; the gape of the mouth is really longer 
than the extent of the head, from this back- 
ward situation of the glenoid cavity. The 
muscles which move the jaws arise so far back, 
that they act in part upon the whole head, ex- 
plaining the assertion made from the time of 
Aristotle to that of Cuvier, and at various 
times believed and disputed, that the crocodile 
has the ability to move both jaws ; when the 
lower jaw is fixed upon the ground, the action 
of the muscles may raise the whole head, and 
with it the upper jaw, otherwise immovable. 
The jaws have no lateral motion, and none 
from before backward, the articulation beinir 



a simple hinge joint. Tliero are no cutaneous 
lips, the teetli being visible even when the jaws 
are closed. The teeth are numerous, conical, 
isolated, unc(iual in size, hollowed at the base, 
arranged in a single row, implanted by a true 
gomphosis in the substance of the maxillary 
borders in special alveoli directed from before 
backward, and provided with a kind of gmn ; 
the new teeth push up into the hollow of 
the old, and cause their absorption ; the new 
teeth are larger, but the same in number at all 
ages. The tongue is tlat, wide, fleshy, and at- 
tached all around to the jaw bone ; it is not 
divided at the tip, and cannot be extended, be- 
ing apparent only when the jaws are separated, 
and forming the floor of the mouth ; it cannot 
be used to seize or retain their prey, nor for 
respiratory purposes; it is for the most part 
smooth, except at the base, where irregularly 
contorted folds are prominent. The nostrils 
open at the end of the muzzle, near together, 
and may be closed by valves; their cavity 
forms 2 canals extending along the cranium, 
and opening, not into the mouth, as in other 
reptiles and birds, but into the posterior fauces 
behind the soft palate, as in mammals ; the 
hyoid bone sends upward a rounded cartilagi- 
nous continuation, which can be made promi- 
nent at the will of the animal ; the soft palate 
hangs down to meet this, by which the cavity 
of the mouth can be completely shut off from 
the fauces; by this arrangement, when tho 
animal is under water, with only the tip of the 
nose in the air, and even with the mouth filled 
with water, respiration can be perfectly carried 
on ; and by the same mechanism the act of 
swallowing can be accomplished beneath the 
surface. Unlike the saurians, this family have 
the external opening of the ears protected by 2 
folds of the skin, resembling lids, by which the 
meatus can be closed ; the opening is just be- 
hind the eyes. The eyes are very small, and 
provided with 3 lids, an upper and lower, with 
a tliird or nictitating membrane moving trans- 
versely, transparent, and evidently designed to 
protect the cornea and permit vision under 
water; the pupil is a vertical slit, and the 
crystalline lens almost spherical. The anterior 
limbs have 5 toes, the external 2 without nails ; 
the posterior limbs are 4 toed, more or less 
webbed, the external one Avithout a nail ; tho 
limbs are so short that they barely raise tho 
body from the ground, and are almost at right 
angles to the spine ; their gait is, therefore, 
slow and awkward. The tail is longer than 
the trunk, flattened on the sides, surmounted 
with crests continued from the back, and ser- 
rated below ; tlie powerful muscles of the dor- 
sal region are carried to their greatest devel- 
opment in the sides of the tail, which is tho 
principal organ of locomotion in the water. 
The stomach is muscular, but in no way re- 
sembling the gizzard of a bird ; in this cavity 
are frequently found stones and pieces of wood, 
which were once supposed to be swallowd in- 
tentionally to assist in triturating the food, or 



78 



CPwOCODILE 



for the purpose of distendinj^ the stomach dur- 
ing the seiison of liibernation whicli some of 
them undergo ; it is altogether probable that 
such foreign bodies have been accidentally 
swallowed during the repasts of the voracious 
animal. The lungs consist of 3 principal cav- 
ities, communicating freely with each other; 
the walls are divided into innumerable cells, 
the tleshy compartments of whicli form a very 
intricate network, resembling the columna) cor- 
ner of the heart; when fully expanded, they 
will contain a large quantity of air. The most 
interesting organ is the heart, as it shows an 
approach to, and as it w^ere the coimecting 
link with the birds. In reptiles generally the 
heart consists of 3 cavities, a ventricle and 2 
auricles — the ventricle receiving both arterial 
and venous blood, and sending this mixed fluid 
over the system at the same time that it sends 
to the lungs blood of which a portion has just 
been received purified from them. In the croc- 
odilians the ventricle has a complete division 
into right and left, and the circulation is so 
arranged that while the head and anterior 
half of the body receive pure arterial blood 
"when the animal is in the air, the posterior 
half receives a mixed arterial and venous blood ; 
the mingling of the 2 bloods taking place, not 
in the heart itself, but by an opening between 
the 2 aortas — a fact unknown to naturalists till 
the time of Meckel and Panizza. For full 
details on this point the reader is referred to 
the " Journal of the Boston Society of Natural 
History," vol. vi. pp. 113-118. The ordinary 
course of the circulation would be through the 
venaj cavte to the right auricle, thence to the 
right ventricle ; from this more than half of 
the venous blood goes to the lungs by the pul- 
monary artery, the rest being distributed to the 
lower extremities through the left or venous 
aorta; from the lungs the pure blood comes 
to the left auricle, thence it passes to the left 
ventricle, and then by the right or arterial 
aorta to the head and anterior extremities and 
body generally, after mixture with the venous 
blood. In the common circidation, or when 
the animal is in the air, there would probably 
be but a trifling, if any, mixture of the bloods 
through the opening in the aortic wall, and 
during the contraction of the ventricles the 
pressure of the valves of the aortre against the 
opening would prevent the mingling ; but dur- 
ing the diastole of the ventricles, when the 
valves close to prevent regurgitation into the 
heart, the aortic opening would be free, and 
the bloods could mix in whichever direction the 
pressure was the strongest ; the opening, hoAV- 
ever, jierforms its special function after the 
animal has been under water a long time, 
v,iio"n there is no respiration nor pulmonary 
circulation, no blood in the left ventricle, and 
none sent through the true aorta ; were it not 
for this opening, the head and anterior limbs, 
■which are sui>plied by the right aorta, Avould be 
unprovided with blood ; it has been naturally 
concluded that venous blood is sent through the 



opening from the left aorta to supply these 
parts. By its 4 cavities the heart of the croco- 
dilians resembles that of the birds, and also, by 
the mixture of the blood in the vessels, tliat 
of the fu?tal mammalia. Meyer compares the 
left aorta to the ductus arteriosus, and he be- 
lieves this structure to be a temporary con-' 
dition, disappearing as the animal advances 
in age. In the dissection alluded to above, the 
specimen was 7 feet long, and old enough to 
be impregnated ; the edges were firm and well 
defined, like those of a persistent foramen ; and 
physiological reasons have been given why it 
should be permanent in this family, when the 
respiration ceases during submersion and hi- 
bernation. In the males the genital organs are 
simple ; as in turtles and birds, the cloaca is 
longitudinal. The female alone prepares the 
hole in the sand in which the eggs, sometimes 
60 in number, are placed probably during 
the night ; she covers them with sand and 
leaves to hide them from the ichneumon and 
certain reptiles which feed upon them ; the 
eggs are hatched in from 3 to 6 weeks, accord- 
ing to season and latitude. The amphibious 
habits of the crocodilians are indicated by the 
nostrils, separation of the posterior fauces 
from the mouth, shape of the limbs and tail, 
and structure of the lungs and heart. The 
crocodiles proper are distinguished from the 
alligators by their head being longer in propor- 
tion to the breadth, by the less number of 
teeth (30 below and 38 above, according to 
Cuvier), by the 4th lower tooth on each side 
being received into a groove in the upper jaw 
instead of a pit when the mouth is closed, by 
the dentated crest on the external border of 
the hind legs in most of the species, by the 
complete webs of the hind toes (at least the 
external), and by the larger cranial openings 
perceptible through the skin behind the eyes. 
Nothing is more characteristic than the nar- 
rowing of the muzzle behind the nostrils 
caused by the groove just alluded to, added to 
the perforation of the upper jaw by the 1st 
lower teeth ; the plates of the nape occupy the 
middle portion only, a space before and behind 
being without them ^, as age advances the head 
becomes very rough. The species are difiicult 
to distinguish from each other, and the varia- 
tions within the limits of species are consider- 
able. Europe has no crocodile, nor crocodilian, 
in its present fauna; America has 2, Asia 2, and 
Africa 1 ; other species are described, of un- 
known habitat, and of uncertain characters. 
The following species will sufiiciently charac- 
terize the genus : I. Tlie common crocodile of 
the Nile (crocodilns vulgaris, Cuv.), one of the 
sacred animals of the Egyptians, is mentioned 
by Herodotus, and w^ell described by Aristotle 
in his " History of Animals ;" the latter also 
mentions the spur-winged plover, which enters 
the mouth of the crocodile to pick out and eat 
the insects attached to the mucous membrane. 
This species has the Avidest jaAvs, cervical 
plates, the dorsal plates quandrangular with 6 



CROCODILE 



79 



lonsjitnclinal series of moderate ridges ; cra- 
nium rather flat ; teeth 66, 36 above and 30 be- 
low, tlie longest being the 3d and Dtli of the 
upper jaw, and the 1st, 4t]i, and lltli of the 
lower ; 16 to 18 transverse rows of bony jjlates 
from the shoulders to the tail, and on the latter 
from 26 to 38 circles of scales surmounted 
by a thin, flexible, serrated crest, double for 
about half its length. The color of the upper 
surface is olive-green, spotte<l with black on 
the head and neck, and marbled with the same 
on the back and tail ; 2 or 3 wide, oblique black 
bands on each flank ; beneath greenish yellow ; 
claws brown. It grows to the length of 20 to 
25 feet, and jjossibly longer. A variety of this 
(C. pnlustru. Less.), found in Asia, has tlie 
head rougher, the scales of the sides, flanks, 
and upi)er part of the neck convex and ridged, 
and the color above olive-yellow, marbled with 
blackish brown. A 3d variety (C marginatus, 
Geoff.), a native of southern Africa, has the 
jaws narrower and elongated, the cranium 
slightly concave, 6 narrow nuclial plates, the 
upper parts deep bottle-green, -with small 
brown waving lines disposed in a radiating 
manner. This variety grows to a large size, 
and is doubtless the one so often seen by Dr. 
Livingstone ami Mr. Gumming in their journey- 
ings in South Africa. Dr. Livingstone mentions 
the following facts from personal observation : 
Sixty eggs have been taken from a single nest ; 
they are about the size of a goose egg, of the 
saTue diameter at both ends, white, and par- 
tially elastic from having but little lime in their 
composition and a firm internal membrane ; 
the nests are within a few feet of the water, 
and are used for successive years if undis- 
turbed ; the female assists the young out of 
the nest, and leads them to the edge of tlie 
water, where she leaves them to catch fish for 
themselves ; fish is the principal food at all 
ages ; a wounded animal, or even a man, going 
into a lake infested by them, is almost sure to 
be seized ; they seldom leave the water to 
catch prey, but often come out to bask in the 
sun ; they fish chiefly by night, and when eat- 
ing make a loud champii:^ noise ; the natives 
are very fond of the eggs^eating only the yolk. 
The Egyptians kept crocodiles in their temples, 
where they were fed by the priests and orna- 
mented with gold and precious stones ; these 
were highly venerated by the people, and after 
death they were carefully embalmed and buried 
with great ceremony ; it is very common to find 
mummies of crocodiles in their tombs, and 
many may be seen in our museums. The ich- 
neumon, a carnivorous mammal allied to the 
civets, renders important service to man by 
destroying the eggs of the Nilotic crocodile. 
The common crocodile is not confined to 
Africa, but occurs in Asia, especially on the 
Malayan peninsula; it is often met with 3 
or 4 miles at sea, and has been known to 
attack boats returning from fishing, and oc- 
casionally with the loss of human life. II. 
The most common Asiatic species is the 



double-crested crocodile (C. bij^orcattis, Cnv.), 
so named from tlie 2 rough lines on the ujjjier 
jaw extending forward from the anterior angle 
of each eye ; the lateral borders are irregularly 
convex, and deeply grooved for the lower teeth ; 
tlie upper surface is very rough, especially in 
large individuals; the teeth are generally 66, 
36 above and 30 below, the largest being the 
2d, 3d, 8th, and 9th above, and the 1st and 4th 
below ; the hind legs are as long as the trunk, 
the fore legs are a third sliorter ; the armature 
of the neck consists of 6 shields, 4 in a square, 
and 1 on each side of these, of an oval shape 
and strongly crested; on tlie back are 16 or 17 
transverse rows of ridged plates, of an ovoid 
form ; the tail has 38 or 40 scaly rings, double 
crested for half its length. The color is yel- 
lowish green, with black oval spots above. It 
grows to a length of at least 20 feet. In Gi- 
roniere's " Twenty Years in the Philippines " 
(pp. 215-222), is an account of the capture of an 
immense individual of this species, measuring 
27 feet in length and 11 feet in circumference 
under the arm-pits ; the skull of this specimen 
is now in the cabinet of the Boston society of 
natural history, and measures nearly 4 feet 
from the nose to the end of the lower jaw ; 
the head and soft parts attached weighed over 
400 lbs. It is found in most of the rivers and 
lakes of eastern Asia and the Indian archipelago. 
III. The lozenged crocodile (C. rhomlijer, Cuv.) 
of the West Indies has the forehead surmounted 
by 2 ridges diverging backward, the upper jaw 
much arched transversely, the jaws narrow, 
the body thick, the toes and swimming mem- 
branes short, the scales of the flanks, sides, 
and upper part of the neck tuberculated, and 
the limbs without serrated crests ; the sides of 
the upper jaw are very prominent between the 
6th and 11th teeth ; the teeth are 64, 34 above 
and 30 below, the largest being the 2d and 7th 
in the upper jaw, and the 4th and 10th in the 
lower ; on the nape are 4 small shields in one 
row, and on the neck 6 oval ridged plates, 4 in a 
row and 2 behind these ; dorsal scales square, 
in 18 transverse rows. The general color is 
dark brown above , with zigzag lines of deep 
j'ellow, and spots of the same on the flanks 
and limbs ; yellow and chestnut below. It at- 
tains a considerable size. IV. The long-nosed 
crocodile (6'. aciitiis, Geoff.) is found also in the 
West Indies, particularly in St. Domingo, and 
in the northern parts of South America. It is 
characterized by its lengthened muzzle, convex 
forehead, and tlie irregular disposition of the 
outer dorsal scales ; the hind feet are strongly 
webbed ; on the nape are 2 or 4 shields, and 
on the neck 6, as in the Nilotic species ; the 
teeth 66, 36 above and 30 below, the longest 
being the 4th and 10th in the upper jaw, and the 
4th in the lower. The color is brown and yel- 
low above, and yellow below. It is said to grow 
to a length of 20 feet. The C. cataphractus 
(Cuv.) and C. Journei (Bory de St. Vincent) form 
the connecting links between the crocodile and 
the gavial. — Crocodilians existed in great vari- 



80 



CKOCUS 



CROGHAN 



oty in former geological epochs, and in coun- 
tries further norili than the present habitats of 
these reptiles. The most remarkable differ- 
ence between tlie fossil and existing species is 
in the form of tlie vertebra) ; the existing croco- 
dilians have these bodies concave in front and 
convex behind, and tlie same is true of the 
species of the tertiary epoch ; but the fossils of 
the older strata have the vertebral bodies flat, 
or biconcave, as in fishes, or else the anterior 
face convex and the posterior concave, just the 
opposite to the existing forms. Those cf the 
tertiary epoch are generally found in fresh- 
water deposits, and near the mouths of sup- 
posed rivers, so that their habits were then 
probably the same as nqw ; they have been 
found as far north as England and France, in 
Asia, and in the greensand of New Jersey. 
During the secondary period there existed croc- 
odilians with tlat or biconcave vertebra?, resem- 
bling gavials in their lengthened cranium ; from 
their stronger armature, more numerous ribs, 
and the strata in wliich they have been found, 
they were probably marine. Among the genera 
are teleosaurus (Geoff.), mystrioscnirus (Kaup.), 
macrosjjondylus (II. de Meyer.), gnathosaurus (H. 
de Meyer.), &c., found in the liassic, oolitic, and 
calcareous strata. Those with an anterior con- 
vexity and posterior concavity, of which the 
type is steneosaurus (Geoff.), resembled also 
the gavials, and have been found in the lias 
and oolite of England. 

CROCUS, a genus of plants of the order iri- 
dacece. There are 2 sorts of crocuses, those 
Avhich blossom in spring, such as crocus vermis, 
with purple or white flowers and finely netted 
root coats, and C. Siisiamis, or cloth of gold 
crocus, with small, deep yellow flowers, the 
sepals of which are curiously veined with dark, 
chocolate-brown lines ; and those wdiich blossom 
in the autumn, such as the saffron crocus (C. 
sativus)^ an oriental plant, cultivated for its 
long, orange-colored, drooping styles, and the 
Sicilian crocus (C. odorus), whose flowers are 
fragrant. The saffron crocus blossoms in Octo- 
ber, but it is not commonly seen in our gardens. 
It is, however, extensively cultivated for its 
produce of saffron in some parts of England. 
Good saffron consists of the stigmas only, which 
are small, narrow, and extremely light interior 
parts of the flower. The crocuses are mostly 
hardy little plants, and once introduced into 
the flower borders, they will continue and in- 
crease without care. 

CRCESUS, king of Lydia, succeeded to the 
throne before the middle of the 6th century 
B. 0. Writers of high repute have, how- 
ever, conjectured that he had already been 
for 15 years associated in the government 
with his father, and that many of the events 
recorded by Herodotus as belonging to his reign 
are to be referred to this period of joint gov- 
ernment. This view is rejected by Rawlinson 
in the notes to his translations of Herodotus. 
His reign, according to Rawlinson, extended 
from 568 to 55i B. C. He ascended the throne 



in a time of peace and prosperity ; he was the 
heir to untold treasures; success crowned all his 
early efforts ; he subdued the Greek cities on the 
coast of Asia Minor, formed an alliance with 
the Grecian islands, and extended his con- 
quests toward the east to the river Ilalys. He 
was now a mighty monarch, ruling over 13 
nations, and in alliance witli the powerful rulers 
of Media, Babylon, and Egypt; the vast wealth 
which he had inherited had been increased by 
the tribute of conquered nations, by the confis- 
cation of great estates, and by the golden sands 
of the Pactolus. We may perhaps form sopie 
idea of the extent of this wealth from the 
rich votive ofterings which he deposited' in 
the temples of the gods. "Herodotus him- 
self saw the ingots of solid gold, 6 palms long, 3 
broad, and 1 deep, which to the number of 117 

were laid up in the treasury at Delphi 

He had also beheld in various parts of Greece 
the following offerings, all in gold, which had 
been deposited in the temples by the same opu- 
lent monarch : a figure of a lion, probably of 
the natural size ; a wine bowl of about the same 
■weight as the lion ; a lustral vase ; a statue of 
a female, said to be Croesus's baking woman, 4-|- 
feet high ; a shield and a spear ; a tripod ; some 
figures of cows, and a number of pillars; and a 
2d shield in a different place from the 1st, and 
of greater size." But in the midst of all his 
wealth and prosperity, Crcesus began to be 
alarmed at the rapid conquests of Cyrus, and 
when at length he saw the Median power fall 
before the Persian arms, he resolved to avenge 
liis brother-in-law Astyages, the dethroned king 
of Media. He accordingly crossed the Halys, 
and offered the Persians battle ; but after an in- 
decisive engagement returned to Sardis. Cyrus 
pursued him, took the city, and made him his 
prisoner. The Lydian king was condemned to 
be burned alive, but was finally spared, being 
saved, according to Herodotus, by recalling a 
saying of Solon, and became the confidential 
adviser of his conqueror, whom he survived. 

CROFT, Wii.LiAM, an English composer, born 
in Warwickshire in 1677, died in 1727. At the 
age of 31 he obtained the position of composer 
to the chapel royal and organist to Westminster 
abbey, which he held until his death. As a com- 
poser of cathedral music he held a high rank. In 
1724 he published, under the title of Musica 
Sac7'a, an edition of his select anthems, 2 vols, 
folio. Some of these are still performed in the 
English church service. 

CROGHAN, George, an American ofl[icer, 
son of Major William Croghan, and nephew of 
George Rogers Clark, of the revolutionary army, 
born near Louisville, Ky., Nov. 15, 1791, died 
in New Orleans, Jan. 8, 1849. He was gradu- 
ated at William and Mary college, Va., served 
in 1811 as a volunteer aide-de-camp to Col. 
Boyd at the battle of Tippecanoe, was made 
captain in tlie following year, and major March 
30, 1813. On May 5, 1813, he distinguished 
himself as aide-de-camp of Gen. Harrison in the 
defence of Fort Meigs; and on Aug. 1 and 2 



CROKER 



81 



ho successfully defoiuled Fort Stephenson, at 
Lower Sandusky (now Fremont), Ohio, with a 
garrison of 160 men, against the determined 
attack of Gen. Proctor, with a force of over 
1,000, half regulars and lialf Indians; and 
this, notwithstanding tlie fort was so weak- 
ly constructed and poorly provided, tliat he 
luul actually heen ordered to ahandon it. For 
this exploit ho was rewarded with tho hre- 
vet of lieutenant-colonel, and 22 years after- 
ward (Feb. 13, 1835) with a gold medal from 
congress, lie was made inspector-general, with 
tho rank of colonel, Dec. 21, 1825, and in that 
capacity served with Gen. Taylor in Mexico. 

CROKER, John Wilsox, a British statesman 
and author, born in Galway, Ireland, Dec. 20, 
1780, died at Hampton, near London, Aug. 10, 
1857. His father, of English descent, was for 
many years surveyor-general of Ireland. He 
was educated at Trinity college, Dublin, where 
he greatly distinguished himself, especially in 
the proceedings of the since suppressed "histor- 
ical debating society." In 1800 he received 
the degree of bachelor of arts, and was imme- 
diately entered as a student at Lincoln's Inn, 
but remained in Dublin, and was called to the 
Irish bar in 1802. lie devoted his leisure to 
literature, and published anonymously in 1804 
his " Familiar Epistles on the Irish Stage," 
and in 1805 his " Intercepted Letter from Can- 
ton." Both attracted much attention, from the 
talent and especially the proneness to sarcasm 
which they indicated. In 1807 lie gave another 
])roof of his vigorous ability in an elaborate 
p imphlet on the " Past and Present State of 
Ireland," in which he advocated Catholic eman- 
cipation. In that year also he entered parlia- 
ment as member for the borough of Down- 
patrick, and the tory party soon conceived 
high expectations from his public life. When, 
in 1809, charges of maladministration were 
brought against the duke of York, and a par- 
liamentary inquiry was instituted, Mr. Croker 
was one of the most effective defenders of his 
royal highness, and in the long debate which 
ensued he delivered, on March 14, the best 
speech that was made on tke side of the min- 
istry. He was associated with Gilford, Scott, 
George Ellis, Frere, and Southey in establishing 
the " Quarterly Review," the first number of 
which appeared in 1809, and he continued till 
his death to be one of the most frequent, pow- 
erful, and sarcastic contributors to that period- 
ical. In 1809 the Perceval government ap- 
pointed him secretary to the admiralty, and 
he retained that office, fulfilling its duties with 
unremitting application, till 1830. He sat in 
the house of commons through 8 successive 
parliaments till 1832, having been returned for 
Yarmouth, Athlone, Bodmin, and in 1827 for 
the university of Dublin. In 1828 he was 
sworn a privy councillor. He favored the pro- 
ject of Catholic emancipation, was among the 
first to advocate a state encouragement of the 
fine arts, and urged the purchase of the Elgin 
marbles in a speech much in advance of the 

VOL. VI. — 6 



general treatment of the subject by parliament. 
An accomplished diibater and master of satire, 
lie was a prominent and most resolute oppo- 
nent of the reform bill, which he believed 
would ultimately revolutionize the country. 
The passing of that bill destroyed him i)olit- 
ically, for, unlike his comrades, he declared that 
he never would sit in a reformed ])arliament, 
and he never did. lie preferred rather tho 
occupation of " tomahawking lilteral authors " 
in the " Quarterly," his contributions to which 
were so caustic that for many years it was cus- 
tomary to attribute all the most malevolent 
and ablest articles of that periodical to \n3 
pen. He gained the reputation of " a man 
who would go a hundred miles through sleet 
and snow, on the top of a coach, in a Decem- 
ber night, to search a parish register, for the 
sake of showing that a man is illegitimate, or 
a Avoman older than she says she is." In 1826 
he reviewed, in the London " Courier," Scott's 
" Letters of Malachi Malagrowther," in a way 
that called forth a delicate rebuke from Scott, 
who had long been one of his most cordial 
associates, and who bow declined to endanger 
an old friendship by meeting him in " the ra- 
pier and poniard game of wit." Beside his 
review articles and many pamplilets and print- 
ed speeches on political questions, he published 
poems entitled " Talavera," " Songs of Tra- 
falgar," and several jileasing lyrics, of which 
the fine lines on the death of Canning aro 
among the most successful ; " Military Events 
of the French Revolution of 1830;" "Letters 
on the Kaval War with America ;" " Stories 
from the History of England for Children," 
of which over 30,000 copies have been sold, 
and which Scott in a preface acknowledges to 
have been the model of his " Tales of a Grand- 
father." He also translated Bassompierre's 
"Embassy to England," edited the "Suffolk 
Papers," the "Letters of Lady Hervey," Lord 
Ilervey's "Memoirs of the Reign of George 
II.," and Walpole's " Letters to Lord Hertford," 
and furnished an edition of Boswell's "Life 
of Johnson " with copious annotations. The 
last work was received with general appro- 
bation, and is esteemed a valuable contribu- 
tion to literature, though it was severely re- 
viewed by Mr. ilacaulay in the pages of the 
" Edinburgh Review." In return, the harsh- 
est and most effective criticism upon the first 
volumes of Macaulay's "History of England" 
was from tlie pen of Mr. Croker. The lat- 
ter was also long at feud with Mr. Disraeli, 
who lampooned him in the character of Rigby 
in " Coningsby," and whose political preten- 
sions, and especially his famous budget of 1852, 
were consequently assailed with masterly .ran- 
cor and ridicule in the " Quarterly." He had 
a controversy with Lord John Russell upon 
the publication by the latter of the " Memoirs 
and Correspondence " of Moore, on which he 
wrote a scathing article, followed by several 
skilfully written letters in ,the " Times." Mr. 
Croker possessed brilliant conversational pow- 



82 



CROKER 



CROMPTON 



ers, a talent for repartee, and a minute acquaint- 
ance with the i)rincipal questions of politics and 
belles-lettres. As a political gossip and satirist, 
he excelled especially in humorously noting the 
incidents and analyzing the motives of persons 
and j)arties at critical seasons of ministerial 
change. A selection from his numerous contri- 
butions to the " Quarterly Review " has been 
published. 

OROKER, Thomas Ceoftox, an Irish author, 
born in Cork, Jan. 15, 1798, died in London, 
Aug. 8, 1854. When 15 years of age he was 
apprenticed to a merchant, and began to make 
occasional rambles on foot through the south 
of Ireland. During these excursions, contin- 
ued for many years, he made the researches 
among the peasantry and the collections of le- 
gends and songs which furnished the materials 
for his " Researches in the South of Ireland " 
(1824), and for liis " Fairy Legends and Tra- 
ditions of the South of Ireland" (1825). The 
latter Avork contained several contributions 
from Maginn, Pigott, Keightley, and Hum- 
phreys, which were omitted in subsequent edi- 
tions, and it was at once highly praised by Sir 
Walter Scott. In 1819 Mr. Croker had obtained 
a clerkship in the admiralty, and he was con- 
nected with that department till 1850, when he 
retired with a pension. In 1829 he published 
the " Legends of the Lakes," and rhymes of a 
pantomime founded on the story of " Daniel 
O'Rourke," which were followed in 1832 by 
the tales of " Barney Mahoney" and " My Vil- 
lage." The two latter are his principal attempts 
at strictly original composition, his other works 
being collections of legendary and poetical lore. 
"My Village" contains minute descriptions, but 
is written without passion or imaginative pow- 
er, and was the least favorably received of his 
publications. The Irish adventures of Barney 
Mahoney are pleasantly and plainly told. In 

1838 he published the " Memoirs of Joseph Holt, 
General of the Irish Rebels in 1798," and in 

1839 he edited the " Popular Songs of Ireland," 
with historical and personal annotations. lie 
also contributed frequently to magazines, among 
others to " Eraser's" and the "New Monthly," 
and was an activemember of numerous literary 
and antiquarian societies. His works give not 
only the fanciful traditions of Ireland, but also 
sketches of its romantic features and ruins, and 
interesting notices of the humors and character- 
istics of the Irish. 

CROLY, Geokge, LL. D., a British clergyman 
and author, born in Dublin in 1780. He was 
educated at Trinity college in his native cit}', 
and has been for many years rector of St. Ste- 
phen's, Walbrook, a metropolitan parish in Lon- 
don. To this position, in which he has obtained 
an extended fame as an eloquent and impressive 
preacher, he was presented by Lord Brougham 
when lord chancellor of England. His literary 
career began with a poem entitled " Paris in 
1815," in which he describes the Avorks of art 
collected by Napoleon in the Louvre, prior to 
their restoration to the various galleries of Eu- 



rope after the surrender of Paris. This was 
followed in 1820 by the "Angel of the World, 
an Arabian Tale," and by several satires and 
lyrics, which were first collected in 1830. His 
tragedy of " Catiline" appeared in 1822, and 
though not produced upon the stage was most 
favorably reviewed by Prof. Wilson, and has 
maintained its reputation as an admirable speci- 
men of the unacted drama. In 1824 his comedy 
of " Pride shall have a Fall " was performed at 
the Oovent Garden theatre with great success, 
which was partly owing to its literary merit, 
partly to the circumstance that its illustration 
of the airs and graces of a fashionable cavalry 
regiment had a direct application at the time, 
and partly to the extraordinary personation of 
one of the characters by Frederic Yates. He 
published in 1827 " Salathiel, a Story of the 
Past, the Present, and the Future," founded on 
the legend of the wandering Jew, which is one 
of his most finished and popular productions. 
It was followed by two other works of fiction, 
"Tales of the Great St. Bernard," and "Mars- 
ton" (1846). The "Modern Orlando (1846), 
though fragmentary, is one of his best poems. 
He has made valuable contributions to his- 
torical and biographical literature by his " Per- 
sonal History of King George IV." (1830), his 
"Character of Curran's Eloquence and Poli- 
tics," and his "Political Life of Burke" (1840). 
He has also edited the works of Pope (1835), 
and the select works of Jeremy Taylor (1838), 
for which he furnished memoirs and annotations. 
His publications on professional subjects have 
been a new interpretation of the " Apocalypse 
of St. John" (1827), a work entitled "Divine 
Providence, or the Three Cycles of Revelation" 
(1834), and numerous sermons on questions of 
public interest, several of them being upon the 
Anglo-Catholic controversy. He was one of 
the early contributors to " Blackwood's Maga- 
zine," has furnished critical articles of a high 
character to various periodicals, and collected 
in 1842 a volume of " Historical Sketches, 
Speeches, and Characters." He is reputed an 
excellent scholar, and his writings are distin- 
guished by a vigorous and imaginative style. 

CROMLECH, or Cromt-eu, a ju-imitive kind 
of sepulchral moniuneut among tlie ancient 
Scandinavian and Celtic nations. It consisted 
of a large flat stone laid on other stones set 
upright to sustain it. These monuments are 
supposed by some antiquaries to have been 
also used as altars on which sacrifices were 
offered to the heroes who repose beneath. 
Though the cromlech and kist-vaen are fre- 
quently confounded, they are different in cer- 
tain respects. The cromlech is open at the 
side and ends, and larger, whereas the kist-vaen 
is closed up on every side. The word cromlech 
is probably derived from the Armoric crum, 
crooked or bending, and lech, or leJt, a stone. 
By the inhabitants of Wales and Cornwall 
cromlechs are called coetne Arthor, or Arthur's 
quoits. 

CROMPTON, Thomas Bonsor, an English 



CROMWELL 



83 



manufacturer, born at Farnworth, May 20, 1792, 
died at Sandy, Bodfordshire, Sept. 8, 1858. lie 
was the proprietor of Farnworth mills, and of 
extensive paper mills at Worthington, near \Vi- 
gan, supplied the principal newspapers and 
merchants of London with paper, invented the 
continuous drying apparatus now in general 
use, was also an extensive manufacturer of 
cotton, and for some time the proprietor of the 
" Morning Post " and other newspapers. Inde- 
fatigable in business, he was at tiie same time 
an ardent sportsman, public-spirited, a conserva- 
tive in politics, and noted for his hospitality. 

CROMWELL, Oliver, lord protector of tlie 
English commonwealth, born at Huntingdon, 
April 25, 1599, died at the palace of White- 
hall, Sept. 3, 1G58. His family belonged to 
the class of English gentry, and his social po- 
sition was well described by liimself, when he 
said : " I was by birth a gentleman, neither 
living in any considerable height, nor yet in 
obscurity.'" Mr. Forster has printed, from 
the register of burials of the parish church of 
Felstead, tlie entry of the interment of Crom- 
welFs eldest son, Robert, in 1639, in wliich the 
Puritan squire is spoken of as a man to be hon- 
ored ; and as this entry was made by the vicar 
before Cromwell had risen to eminence, the 
fact is important, as showing the estimation in 
which he was held by those who knew him best. 
No such tribute is paid to any other person in 
the register. The Cromwells were connected 
with the St. Johns, the Hampdens, and other 
eminent English historical families. The great 
grandfather of Oliver was Sir Richard Wil- 
liams, a nephew of Thomas Cromwell, earl of 
Essex, whose name he took. His grandfather 
was Sir Henry Cromwell, Avho had been 
knighted by Queen Elizabeth, and who Avas 
famous for his charities. Robert Cromwell, a 
younger son of Sir Henry, married a widow 
lady named Lynne, daughter of William Stew- 
ard, of Ely, who was descended from the 
youngest son of Alexander, lord steward of 
Scotland, founder of the house of Stuart. Mrs. 
Cromwell and Charles I. were 8th cousins, and 
Oliver was three generations nearer to Alex- 
ander than was the king whom he supplanted. 
The income of Oliver's parents was £360 a 
year, a large sura for those days. Robert 
Cromwell was a justice of the peace, and sat in 
one of Elizabeth's parliaments. Mr. Sanford 
has satisfoctorily disposed of the story that he 
was a brewer by trade. Many curious anec- 
dotes are related of the youth of the future 
protector, most of which were probably coined 
after he had risen to distinction. A monkey 
snatched him from his cradle, and took him to 
the housetop. A curate saved him from drown- 
ing, and lived to tell him that he repented the 
deed when he was warring against the church. 
He had a fight when 5 years old with Prince 
Charles, afterward Charles I., and flogged him, 
when the royal family was on a visit to his 
uncle, at Hinchinbrook. A gigantic female fig- 
ure drew his bed curtains, and told liim that 



he should become the gi-eatest man in England, 
but did not mention the word king. He was a 
froward boy, and much given to the ancient 
youthful pursuit of robbing orchards, and to 
I)ractical jokes. He took to learning by fits and 
starts, and, much to the surprise of his master, 
wiio had tiogged him severely and often, made 
but little progress. In 1616 he was sent to 
Sidney Sussex college, Cambridge, where he is 
represented as having lived a wild life ; but as 
in after days he showed a fair knowledge of 
Latin, it is to be supposed his studies were not 
neglected. In 1617, after his father's death, he 
left Cambridge, and was, according to some of 
his biographers, entered of Lincoln's Inn. The 
accounts of his London life are flatly contradic- 
tory. One represents him associating with the 
best company, while the other paints him as 
a coarse debauchee. His youth was probably 
spent like that of most men of his class, and was 
that neither of a saint nor a devil. He was fond 
of rough sports, such as have generally been 
pursued by Englishmen. In 1620 he married 
Elizabeth, the daughter of Sir -James Bourchier, 
and soon afterward his mind took that serious 
turn which had so great an eftect on his life. 
He is said to have given the best proof of his 
sincerity by making restitution to persons of 
whom he had won money. He was an active 
religious man, prayed, preached, and exhorted 
with unction, and assisted those of his brother 
Puritans who needed aid in his neighborhood. 
He was a member of the parliament which 
met in 1628, sitting for Huntingdon. During 
the 11 years that followed the dissolution of 
that parliament, and while Charles I. was en- 
deavoriug to establish a despotism over Eng- 
land, Cromwell lived either at Huntingdon, at 
St. Ives, or at Ely, his devotional feeling in- 
creasing in depth and strength, while his at- 
tachment to the country party was deepened 
and confirmed. There used to be current a 
story that, in 1638, despairing of his coun- 
try's welfare, Cromwell embarked for New 
England, in company with Pym, Hazelrig, and 
Hampden, but was prevented from sailing by a 
royal order in council. This is now abandoned, 
as the ships were allowed to proceed, in con- 
sequence of the petition of the passengers and 
others. The opposition which he made, not to 
the di'aining of tlie fens, but to the interference 
of government in the work, was successful, and 
won him great fame, and from the people the 
title of '• lord of the fens," while it showed to 
the country that he was a man of immovable 
resolution. In 1640 he was chosen to the short 
parliament ; and when the second parliament 
of that year was called, Cromwell contested 
Cambridge with the poet Cleaveland, a zeal- 
ous royalist, and is said to have defeated him 
by one vote. Cleaveland is reported to have 
said that that single vote had ruined both 
church and kingdom; but this was probably 
an invention of later times, as in 1640 Crom- 
well was not so high in general estimation as 
to be reckoned among the great leaders of his 



84 



CROMWELL 



party, nor was it supposed that tliat party 
aimed at any tiling whicli implied hostility to 
the estahlished order of things in church and 
state. From the time that he entered the long 
parliament, Cromwell went with the root-and- 
branch men, but he was not so conspicuous as 
to be noted until after the commencement of 
the civil war. Yet he served on many commit- 
tees, and took part in debate. Sir Philip War- 
wick, who heard him speak with heat and 
earnestness in the first days of the session, felt 
j^" his respect for the commons lessened because 
they hearkened much unto him. So little was 
lie known to some noted men, that, on the day 
be made the speech here mentioned, Lord Dig- 
by asked Hampden who the sloven was ; and 
received for answer that, if ever there should 
come a breach with the king, that sloven would 
be the greatest man in England. Cromwell 
was not much given to talk, but he was an ac- 
tive party man, and labored with zeal in the 
common cause. " It has been ascertained," says 
Mr. Sanford, " that within the first 10 months 
of the long parliament, and before the recess, 
which began on Sept. 9, 1G41, Cromwell was 
^ specially appointed to 18 committees, exclusive 
of various appointments among the knights 
and burgesses generally of the eastern coun- 
ties. The most important matters fell within 
the province of several of these committees." 
He supported the grand remonstrance, and all 
the other measures of the parliament that were 
meant to bridle the faithless king. "When the 
war commenced, he became the most active of 
all men in the field, which he was the first to 
enter. Before the royal standard Avas set np 
he went down into Cambridgeshire, where he 
had previously sent arras, and formed the nu- 
cleus of his " Ironsides," at the same time seek- 
ing to give to the forcible resistance that was 
to be made to the king a systematic charac- 
ter among the leading men of the district, to 
the end of rendering their military means sol- 
idly available. He contributed liberally of his 
money to the cause. He seized the plate of 
Cambridge university, which was to have been 
sent to Charles I., and took the magazine that 
was in the town. His uncle. Sir Oliver, was a 
royalist, and the nephew, though he treated 
him personally with the most distinguished 
consideration, took from him every thing with 
which he could assist the king. He was pres- 
ent at the battle of Edgehill. He was made 
Colonel Cromwell, and acted under the earl of 
Essex, the parliamentary lord general. Ho 
showed himself to be a cavalry officer of re- 
markable capacity and resource. He would 
have done nmch in any contest, for his mili- 
tary genius was of a high order ; but the pe- 
culiar circumstances of the civil war enabled 
him to accomplish something that borders on 
the marvellous. From the first he saw that 
tlie ])arliament could not contend against the 
king's forces unless it should have in its ser- 
vice men capable of meeting the loyalists on 
6ome ground of principle; and against the 



chivalrous honor that actuated the better por- 
tion of the latter, he ])urposed to direct the 
religious spirit of the Puritans. Hampden, to 
whom he unfolded his scheme, thought it " a 
good notion, but impracticable ;" but Crom- 
well found it no such difficult matter. He 
raised a cavalry regiment, 1,000 strong, which 
he drilled and exhorted until it became the 
finest body of trooi)S in the world, and was the 
seed of that army which won the parliament's 
cause, and then overthrew the parliament itself. 
This regiment was composed mostly of free- 
holders, or the sons of freeholders, and was re- 
cruited from among Cromwell's neighbors, per- 
sons who had heard him preach before the war 
was thought of. Both friends and enemies bear 
the fullest evidence to the discipline, valor, skill 
in arms, freedom from military vices, and re- 
ligious zeal of these Cromwellian soldiers. Their 
commander told them that they were to fight 
the king, and said he would himself as soon 
shoot that personage as any other whom he 
should encounter in the hostile ranks. This 
was contrary to the idea and practice of the 
parliament, which fought the king in his own 
name, a fiction quite in keeping with English 
political practice, but which had no hold on 
the Ironsides, who cheered their colonel's words, 
and ever acted in their spirit. The early mil- 
itary services of Cromwell were useful, and 
were soon followed by others of a brilliant 
character. He surprised a party of loyalists in 
Sulfolk, kept the same party quiet in the east- 
ern counties, and near Grantham totally routed 
a body of cavalry that was seeking to obtain 
control of Lincolnshire. His next action was 
the relief of Gainsborough. The royalists, 
under Col. Cavendish, were advancing in force 
upon the town, when Cromwell threw himself 
in their front. Though the enemy was triple his 
own numbers, and Avas drawn up on the sum- 
mit of a hill, the base of which could be reach- 
ed only through a gateway in a fence that was 
commanded by that enemy's fire, he led on his 
men, charged up hill, and carried the position. 
Some of the enemy fled, but Cromwell, then 
exhibiting for the first time that mode of action 
which gave him so many victories, did not pur- 
sue them, but re-formed his troops, and fell 
upon those who stood, routing them, and driv- 
ing them into a bog, where they were all butch- 
ered, including their general. This victory 
raised Cromwell's reputation, and the more so 
that most of the parliamentary generals showed 
little conduct, and were often beaten. He con- 
tinued his services in Lincolnshire and the 
neighboring counties ; and parliament ordered 
that 2,000 men should be added to his com- 
mand, to be disciplined after his fashion. He 
was united with the earl of Manchester in com- 
mand of 6 associated counties, and their forces 
were joined at Boston, Oct. 1643. Sir T. Fair- 
fax had previously joined Cromwell. Oct. 11, 
Sir John Henderson, at the head of a superior 
body of royalist cavalry, came up with Crom- 
well and Fairfax on Winceby field. A terrible 



CROMWELL 



85 



action folio-wed, in which ITenderson was beat- 
en, thoufjh Ills force was three times as numer- 
ous as tliat of the parliament. Cromwell had 
a horse killed under him, and while rising was 
himself struck down ; but soon recovering, he 
joined in the battle, and much distinguisJied 
himself. After this success, and until the 
weather forbade further operatioiis, Cromwell 
continued to act in the field. Parliament made 
him lieutenant-governor of the isle of Ely, and 
ha was engaged during the winter in raising 
funds from Peterborough and Ely cathedrals, 
and from the university of Cambridge, and in 
reforming the university, G5 fellows being 
ejected. On Feb. 16, 1644, he was appointed 
one of the conmiittee of both kingdoms, which 
was then constituted the executive authority for 
the conduct of the war, and affairs genei-ally. 
The campaign of 1044 placed Cromwell clearly 
before the country. The earl of Manchester 
and Cromwell joined the army of Fairfax and 
Leven, and the battle of Marston Moor was 
fought, July 3, and resulted in the total defeat 
of the royalists. The victory was principally 
due to the valor, energy, and coolness of Crom- 
well and his Ironsides. Cromwell then accom- 
panied Manchester in the march that was made 
to the south, where things had gone against 
the parliament. He commanded the horse. 
The second battle of Newbury was fought, Oct. 
27, 1644, the king being with his army. The 
royalists retreated in the niglA, though it can 
hardly be said they were defeated. Cromwell, 
who had highly distinguished himself in the 
action, and in the proceedings preliminary to 
it, vainly entreated of Manchester to pursue. 
So little energy had that general, that he allow- 
ed the king to return, assume the offensive, and 
carry off the artillery and stores that were in 
Donuington castle. Manchester was not only 
listless, but he was a leader of the moderate 
party, the Presbyterians, who were not for 
pushing matters to extremity with the king. 
He did not wish to have the royal army de- 
stroyed, ds it Avould have been had Cromwell 
moved forward with his cavalry as soon as the 
retreat was discovered. The Independents, of 
whom Cromwell was the ablest, and who had 
been little heard of at the beginning of the dis- 
pute, were now fast rising to importance in the 
state and in the army, their growth being not a 
little stimulated by the conduct of the Presby- 
terians, who were seeking to establish a tyran- 
ny as severe as that of Laud and Strafford, and 
which would have been unrelieved by any of 
those embellishments that belonged to the sys- 
tem of the latter. Cromwell determined that 
the army should pass under the influence of the 
Independents. He was supported by all the 
best men of the parliamentary party — Fairfax, 
Marten, Ireton, Vane, and others. The time 
had come for energetic action, and Cromwell, 
from his place in parliament, accused Manches- 
ter of backwardness, and of not desiring vic- 
tory. He narrated all that had happened at 
Newbury, and bore hard upon the various com- 



manders wlio belonged to the moderates. Man- 
chester retorted, in the upper house, and, in a 
narrative tliat he had written, accused Crom- 
well of being the cause of the failure of the 
campaign. He also said that Cromwell was 
hostile to the peerage, and to the Presbyterian 
ascendency, which was no doubt the truth. 
The famous self-denying ordinance was brought 
before the house of connnons, Dec. 9, 1644. 
It forbade any member of parliament from 
holding either civil or military office during the 
war, Cromwell supported it with great plain- 
ness of speech, portraying the state of affairs 
with rough candor, and showing that the Avant 
of success was due to the selfish ambition of 
certain members of both houses, who held 
places and commands, and who had no wish, 
therefore, to bring about by vigorous action 
the settlement of a quarrel the continuance of 
wliich they found so profitable. He also point- 
ed out the vices and corruptions that had found 
their way into the army, to the destruction of 
its efficiency ; and he declared, that " till the 
whole army were new modelled, and governed 
under a stricter discipline, they must not ex- 
pect any notable success in any thing they 
went about." The first ordinance failed, but a 
milder one was successful. It provided that 
members of parliament who then held offices 
should be discharged. The 3 armies then ex- 
isting were formed into one, 22,000 strong. Sir 
T, Fairfax was made lord general, and Skippon 
major-general. The office of lieutenant-general 
was not filled up, undoubtedly because it was 
meant Cromwell should have it, in spite of the 
self-denying ordinance. The army was entirely 
new modelled, and many officers were dismiss- 
ed. Cromwell had been employed, with Sir 
"William Waller, in the mean time, against the 
royal forces in the west ; and when the time 
came for him to retire, Fairfax sent a petition 
to the commons, asking that Cromwell might 
command the horse in his army ; and many of 
his officers signed the petition. The house 
cheerfully complied, and Fairfax was allowed 
to employ him for such time as the house 
should dispense with his attendance. The 
model had been successful in raising the char- 
acter of the army, under Cromwell's direction. 
Before the house had received Fairfax's peti- 
tion, Cromwell had been several times engaged 
with the enemy, and had been victorious in 
every encounter. Matters looked ill for the 
cause everywhere save in those places where 
Cromwell was present, and there can be no 
reason for supposing that Fairfax was not sin- 
cerely desirous for his lieutenant's presence, on 
plain and obvious military grounds. He wrote 
to him as goon as he received the commons' 
permission, and on June 13, 1645, Crom- 
Avell joined the army at Northampton, th'e 
royal forces being 6 miles distant. His arrival 
caused the army to become active, and he was 
the real commander of it at once. Causing 
Ireton to ascertain the whereabout of the roy- 
alists, which he did with skill, he declared for 



86 



CROMWELL 



action the next daj'. Fairfax acquiesced, and 
on June 14 was fought the battle of Naseby, 
wliicli was fatal to the house of Stuart. Be- 
lieving his enemies were retreating, the king 
■was led to abandon an excellent position at 
Harborougli, and to draw up his army on 
ground favorable to those enemies. The ac- 
tion of Marston Moor was repeated on a larger 
scale. Portions of each army were successful, 
but Cromwell held his Ironsides mostly well in 
hand, and assailed a body of royalist infantry, 
after he had routed half their cavalry, and so 
decided the event of the day. The royalists 
were iitterly beaten, 2,000 of them being slain, 
and 8,000 captured. All their artillery, many 
thousand stand of arms, a hundred pair of 
colors, and all the spoil of the king and camp, 
fell into the hands of the victors. The most 
important capture was that of the king's cab- 
inet, which alforded abundant proofs of its 
owner's total insincerity. Cromwell led the 
pursuit to Harborough, whence he wrote an 
account to the speaker of the commons of the 
victory. This letter reached the commons before 
tliat of Fairfax, and that was Cromwell's ob- 
ject in writing it so soon. The reading of it 
■was the announcement to the Presbyterians 
that power had departed from them. Its tone 
has been called regal, and it was written in the 
terms of a master. The very day the news 
reached parliament, the commons resolved that 
his services should be continued in Fairfax's 
army during the pleasure of the houses, the 
lords substituting three months. He followed 
up the victory with wonderful celerity and 
success. Leicester was retaken, Taunton re- 
lieved. Goring beaten, and Bridgewater storm- 
ed. Soon afterward he put down the " club 
men," a third party, which might have reached 
to formidable dimensions if they had not been 
thus firmly dealt with at the outset. After 
taking Sherburne castle, Fairfax and Crom- 
well besieged Bristol, which was held by 
Prince Rupert at the head of 5,000 men. 
Cromwell, who was ever for bold measures in 
war, advised that the place should be stormed. 
This counsel was followed, but the attack fail- 
ed. It was, however, made with so much spirit 
that Rupert surrendered, and the soundness 
of Cromwell's policy was vindicated. He then 
proceeded against Devizes, which he stormed. 
Berkeley castle shared the same fate. "Win- 
chester surrendered. Basing House, which had 
previously defied all attacks of the parliamen- 
tarians, fell before him. Longford House capit- 
ulated at once. He defeated Lord Wentworth 
at Bovey Tracy, inflicting a heavy loss on him, 
and taking, among other spoils, the king's stand- 
ard. He and Fairfax stormed Dartmouth, 
defeated Lord Hopton at Torrington, and drove 
the last remains of the western royalists into 
Cornwall. Finally, Sir Jacob Astley, at the 
head of 3,000 horse, was routed at Stow-on- 
tlie-Wold, March 21, 1646, which was the last 
action of the English civil war. Sir Jacob was 
captured, and when taken to the head-quarters 



of the victors, he said : "My masters, you have 
done your work, and may go i)lay ; unless you 
choose to fall out among yourselves." Crom- 
well had indeed done his work, to use an ex- 
pression of that time, not negligently. He had 
applied Stratlbrd's idea of " Thorough " in pol- 
itics to military operations ; and nothing like 
what he had accomplished in less than 10 
months from the time he had joined Fairfax 
at Naseby had been seen in England since the 
time when Edward IV. crushed the Lancas- 
trians at Barnet and Tewkesbury. The whole 
of England, as it were, had been subdued, 
though on the 13th of the preceding June the 
chances were decidedly in favor of the king, 
whose cause had been greatly^ advanced in 
Scotland by the victories of Montrose. Had 
Cromwell died in 1646, he would have been 
entitled to a high place in the list of great 
commanders. In original genius for war hardly 
any man ever surpassed him. Yet it was to 
success in politics that he owed his success as 
a soldier ; for if he had not carried the self- 
denying ordinance through parliament, the 
royal cause must have triumphed in 1645. 
The " new model," emphatically his work, as 
well as his conception, — he had explained it to 
Hampden in 1643, — was the cause of the mil- 
itary superiority of the parliament. The time 
was now come when he was to be as eminent 
in the cabinet as he had been in the field. Par- 
liament heaped^great rewards on him. Lands 
of the yearly value of £2,500 were conferred 
on liim, taken from the estates of the marquis 
of Winchester, and from those of the Somer- 
sets and Herberts. It was resolved that the 
king should be recommended to create him a 
baron. The king had thrown himself into the 
hands of the Scotch forces then in England, 
and had been delivered up to the English par- 
liament. The conduct of Cromwell for some 
time after this event is the subject of much 
dispute. He is supposed to have stirred up 
that agitation in the army which was directed 
against the king, and against any settlement 
with him, and which CroniAvell is charged with 
only affecting to condemn, though at a later 
period he visited some of the agitators with 
military punishment. The army, perhaps the 
most intelligent body of soldiers that ever ex- 
isted, appear to have formed a just estimate of 
the character of the king. They saw he was 
not to be trusted, and they determined not to 
trust him ; and ultimately they determined to 
punish him for his attacks on the liberties of 
England, and for shedding innocent blood. It 
is not probable that they saw their way more 
clearly at first than other parties saw theirs, or 
that they arrived at an immediate conclusion. 
As in all other cases, events were evolved from 
events. That Cromwell had something to do 
with urging on. the army to oppose the par- 
liament, is very fjrobable ; and the army, in 
order that it might not be sacrificed by the 
Presbyterians, who controlled tlie parliament, 
seized the king's person, which it held until 



CROMWELL 



87 



late in 164T. If the parliament had dealt hon- 
estly and fairly witli the army, tlio troubles 
miglit have been broiiglit to an end in 1G47, 
supposing the king to have been capable of 
dealing candidly with the jiarliament. It was 
the dispute between the army and the parlia- 
ment that encouraged the king so to act as ren- 
dered a settlement impossible. Though every 
one of his schemes had failed, though all his 
armies had been annihilated, though the Scotch 
had delivered him up to tlie English, and though 
the army of the latter had seized and were hold- 
ing him, he fell into the sad mistake of supposing 
that he was necessary to tliem all, and tliat he 
could choose as he pleased with wliich party to 
treat. Dominated by an enormous egotism, he 
set himself to work to outwit Cromwell. That 
the latter entered into a treaty with the king, 
and tliat he was supported by Fairfax and other 
distinguished soldiers of his party, are indis- 
putable facts. The sincerity of Cromwell in 
this business is doubted by many; that of 
the king is believed in by no one competent 
to form an intelligent judgment. It cost 
Charles neither difficulty nor ])aiu to deceive, 
and he seems to have preferred crooked Avays, 
even when it was for his interest to walk 
in those which were straight. Cromwell's sin- 
cerity there is no good reason for doubting. 
He contemplated the settlement of England on 
some such basis as the great political dispute 
was settled 40 years later. Ilis object was a 
free polity, government by parliament, toler- 
ation, the dismissal of the ultra royalists, and 
the reinstatement of strict legality. That he 
looked for some individual benefits is true. lie 
was to be lord lieutenant of Ireland, a knight 
of the garter, and earl of Essex, a title to wliich 
one of his family might properly aspire, now 
that the last of its Devereux wearers was in 
his grave. Those who accuse Cromwell of hy- 
pocrisy in this instance, and assert that he was 
looking already to supreme power in the state, 
misjudge his position entirely. He could look 
no higher than the king professed to be willing 
to elevate him ; and he could propose to him- 
self no higher object than that of settling the 
kingdom in peace. That he then thought of 
the throne for himself, under any title, is very 
improbable. Such an ambition would, at that 
time, have been quite inconsistent with that 
good sense which was the prevailing element 
of liis character. He had acliieved much, but 
not sufficient to warrant an aspiration at once 
so irregular and so lofty, and so contrary to all 
modes of English thought. Had the king ex- 
hibited evidence of honesty, Cromwell would 
have closed with him, and would have be- 
come the founder of a line of nobles ; but 
the most complete proof was obtained by him 
that Charles was practising the grossest de- 
ception, and that instead of a garter for his 
knee, he intended to decorate his neck with 
a rope. Then it was that Cromwell resolved 
upon the king's destruction. The army leaned 
strongly to republicanism, and contained not a 



few persons wlio entertained extreme opinions 
in religion and politics. Always disliking the 
king, and convinced of his insincerity, the sol- 
diers saw Cromwell's course with unfriendly 
eyes. Tlie king souglit to cheat every party, 
and was so weak as to say to Ireton, Crom- 
well's son-in-law, and who acted with him in 
all this business : " 1 shall jday my game as well 
as I can ;" to Avhich that stern and honest 
republican replied : " If your majesty have a 
game to play, you must give us also the liberty 
to play ours." The king's " game " became 
hopeless from the moment he had Cromwell 
for an antagonist. The king soon saw that he 
had made one of his mistakes. He believed 
his life was in danger from the more violent 
portion of the soldiery, known as Levellers ; 
and Cromwell is supposed to have feared that 
the monarch would be seized by them, and to 
have operated on the royal mind, which was 
also startled by intimations from the Scotch 
commissioners. Charles, therefore, left Hamp- 
ton court, in disguise, on the night of Nov. 11, 
1647. He took refuge at Carisbrooke castle, 
in the isle of Wight, instigated by Cromwell. 
Hammond, governor of the island, was a con- 
nection of Cromwell's by marriage. The reso- 
lution of the house of commons, not to hold 
any more treaties with the king, led to much 
excitement in England, and to some fighting, 
Cromwell proceeded to Wales, where he put 
down the royalists with the strong hand. 
Then came his campaign against the Scotch, 
popularly called the commencement of the sec- 
ond civil war. The majority of the Scotch 
were for setting up the king again, and they 
invaded England with a large army, which 
was joined by some English cavaliers. Hast- 
ening to the north with such rapidity that 
the Scotch knew not of his arrival, Crom- 
Avell effected a junction with Lambert. Their 
united forces numbered only 8,600 men ; the 
enemy were 21,000. On August 17, 1648, 
the battle of Preston was fought, and it was 
Naseby over again. The enemy lost several 
thousand men in the battle, and the duke of 
Hamilton, their commander, was among the 
prisoners. Following up the Scotch with great 
vigor, Cromwell completed their ruin, so that 
they were mostly killed, captured, or dispersed. 
Not in the days of the Edwards and Henrys 
had the English been more successful over their 
ancient enemies. Perhaps none of Cromwell's 
military actions were of a higher order than 
those of this campaign. They displayed alike 
daring valor and consummate generalship. 
The victor pushed on to Edinburgh, where 
he was welcomed by the extreme anti-Stuart 
party, headed by the marquis of Argyle. The 
king's fate was determined by these successes. 
He had been engaged in his usual " game," and 
gave further evidence of his bad faith. The 
array caused him to be removed from the isle 
of Wight to Hurst castle, Avhere he was civilly 
treated, but whence escape was impossible. 
The parliament voted to close with the king, 



88 



CROMWELL 



but the majority were turned out of the house 
of commons by Col. Pride, or by other soldiers. 
The king was then brought to Windsor castle, 
by a detachment commanded by Col. Har- 
rison. The ordinance for erecting the high 
court of justice was passed, and tlie king was 
tried and executed. That Cromwell was at 
tlie bottom of these doings there can be no 
doubt in minds that consider all the circum- 
stances, lie was the most powerful man in 
the state. So far as any one man could be said 
to rule, he was then the ruler of England. 
That he acted with free will may be doubted. 
It may be that he was obliged to comply with 
the demands of the army, that body being de- 
termined that the king should suifer. He may 
have been urged on by the knowledge he had 
that the king could not be trusted. His name 
stands third on the death-warrant of the king, 
which he signed as a member of the high court. 
He refused to use his influence to save the 
king's life. Tlie story that he visited the body, 
and remarked on the likelihood that the king 
would iu the course of nature have reached to 
extreme old age, is a melodramatic invention, 
and to be classed with the scene in Scott's 
" Woodstock," in which he is represented as 
going into a fit of delirium on looking at Van- 
dyke's picture of the king. There appears no 
ground for believing that his conscience ever 
troubled him for the part he had in that " mem- 
orable scene." When the council of state was 
constituted, for performing the executive duties 
of government, Cromwell was appointed one of 
its members. He was made lord lieutenant of 
Ireland, and proceeded to that country, in 
much state, at the head of 12,000 men. He 
reached Dublin, Aug. 15, 1649, and instantly 
commenced a campaign as brilliant as it was 
merciless in its character. Drogheda was 
stormed, and the entire garrison either butch- 
ered or sent as slaves to the plantations. Most 
of the victims were English royalists, and their 
commander was an Englishman. Cromwell's 
object was to strike terror into the enemy, and 
so prevent further resistance. He did not wish 
to be long absent from England. He was 
mostly successful, but at Wexford the horrors 
of Drogheda were repeated ; and at Clonmel 
he met with so stern a resistance that he grant- 
ed an honorable capitulation. This was owing, 
not to his humanity, but to his impatience to 
cross the channel. Appointing Ireton, his son- 
in-law, lord deputy, he hastened to London, 
which he reached May 31, 1650, and was re- 
ceived with great enthusiasm. His presence 
was much needed. The Scotch had set up 
Charles II., and made a covenanted king of 
him. They intended to invade England, for 
the purpose of forcing him on that country. 
The government of the commonwealth deter- 
mined to anticipate them, and to send an array 
into Scotland. Fairfax, being under Presby- 
terian influence and petticoat government, re- 
fused to serve. Cromwell was made general- 
hi-chief, and lord general. He entered Scot- 



land, July 23, at the head of 11.000 men. 
Lesley, an experienced soldier, commanded 
double tliat number of Scotch, and, had he been 
left free to ft)llow his own will, would have 
batfled tlie invaders. He held a strong posi- 
tion between Edinburgh and Leith, and while 
he refused battle, harassed Cromwell, and de- 
stroyed all sources of supply. The country 
was wasted on all sides, the Scotch following 
their old modes of resistance to English inva- 
sion. There was some fighting, in which the 
Scotch showed spirit, but generally were beat- 
en. Cromwell was forced to retreat to Dun- 
bar. On Aug. 17 he again advanced, his aim 
being to cut oflt" the communication between 
Edinburgh and the western counties ; but for 
this movement Lesley, with the prescience of 
a true soldier, had been prepared, and he in- 
stantly took a new position, not less strong 
than that which had previously baffled the 
English. The latter vainly assaulted several 
posts garrisoned by the Scotch, and occasion- 
ally were defeated in affairs of cavalry. The 
foot had some skirmisliing, and there were brisk 
cannonades. In the end, Lesley won, Cromwell 
retreating, and the Scotch horse harassing him 
as his demoralized army, which had suffered 
much from sickness, fell back once more upon 
Dunbar, liis grand depot and base of opera- 
tions. In a worse position no army ever found 
itself than that in which Cromwell had now 
placed his. Dunbar is in a valley, surrounded 
on three sides by hills, through Avhich there 
are but two narrow passes. The Scotch had 
possession of the hills and passes, and by the 
labor of a few hours might have shut up the 
English in a trap. Such was Lesley's plan ; 
but he had in his own camp far worse enemies 
than he had in that of Cromwell. The preach- 
ers were bent upon Cromwell's destruction, 
and thought it could be accomplished with the 
sword. Their influence was overwhelming, 
and, after they liad succeeded in driving from 
the army all the cavaliers in it, they compelled 
Lesley to lead it into the plain, thus giving up 
an impregnable position. Meantime, the Eng- 
lish in Dunbar, after discussing some desperate 
expedients, the adoption of either of which 
would have been an admission of defeat, re- 
solved to send out a strong column to the 
right on the morning of Sept. 3. This col- 
nmn marched, and fell in with the Scotch, 
who had just descended from the hills, where- 
iipon the battle commenced. The result was 
doubtful, as between the infantry, until a 
body of English cavalry came to their country- 
men's assistance, and so the Scotch were rout- 
ed, their very excess of number causing their 
defeat to be the more complete. On the other 
Aving, and in the centre, the English were also 
successful. The vanquished lost 12,000 men, 
mostly prisoners, all their artillery, 200 colors, 
and 15,000 stand of arms. Like Inkermann, 
Dunbar was the soldiers' battle, being Avon by 
hard fighting, and Avithout any generalship on 
the part of the victoi', who frankly disclaimed 



CROMWELL 



89 



all merit, and -who had put his men in a po- 
sition wliere nothing could save them from 
destruction save tlie folly of the enemy. Ad- 
vancing for a third time into Scotland, Crom- 
■well took Edinburgh, the castle of which held 
out until Dec. 2-i. The winter was passed in 
political intrigues and in some military opera- 
tions in the southern districts. In the spring, 
when about to take the field in force, he was 
seized with ague, and was not able to act until 
July 1, 1G51. Lesley had done his best to re- 
organize his army, and thougli much harmed by 
tlie continued interference of tlie preachers, ho 
baffled Cromwell for some weeks. The latter, 
by a bold manoeuvre, sent a corps into Fife- 
shire, which defeated the Scotch there, and the 
consequence was that the English were enabled 
to besiege and take Perth. "While thus en- 
gaged, Cromwell learned that the enemy had 
marched into England, which course had been 
taken by Charles IL in the belief tliat he 
sixould be joined by the English cavaliers, and 
the people generally, almost all of whom were 
opposed to the new government. The Scotch 
reached Worcester, where they halted ; but if 
they had pushed on to London, it would havo 
fallen into their hands, and with it the whole 
country. The prompt and skilful measures 
taken by Cromwell on hearing of Charles's 
march had brought 30,000 English troops to 
the vicinity of Worcester, including regulars, 
train bands, and militia. The king had but 
13,000. On Sept. 3, the anniversary of Dunbar, 
the battle of Worcester was fought, and ended 
in the annihilation of the invaders, 2,000 of 
whom were killed, and 8,000 captured. Crom- 
well believed it to be " a crowning mercy," as 
it was, for it was fatal to the royal cause ; and 
had tlie victor not died prematurely, or had 
his successor been a man of talent, a new dy- 
nasty, if not a new polity, would have been set 
up in Britain. It is related, as an evidence of 
his elation after the battle, that he oifered to 
knight some of his officers. The government 
showed itself most grateful, not to say servile, 
to the victor. An estate of £4,000 a year was 
conferred on him, and Hampton court was 
prepared for his abode. He was made chan- 
cellor of the university of Oxford. Sept. 3 
was ordered to be observed annually " for all 
time to come," — which the event showed to be 
8 years. But nothing short of supreme power 
would content him. lie was determined to 
be master of all. His demeanor changed, and 
he bore himself as Cassar is said to have 
done after he had struck down the last of 
his open enemies. He was determined to set- 
tle the state, but in his own way, and with 
himself as its chief. In 1647 he would have 
been content with the highest honors of a sub- 
ject, could he have relied upon the king ; but 
in 1651 he had put the king to death, had con- 
quered Wales and Ireland, had won three of 
the greatest battles of that age, and had driven 
the whole Stuart family from all its dominions. 
With the increase of his influence, and power 



his political horizon had extended. Unques- 
tionably he aimed at the throne, not from any 
love of the mere trappings of monarchy, to 
which his robust nature was indifferent, but 
because he knew that the kingly office and title 
were grand elements of strength. He wished 
to be a liberal, constitutional monarch, and had 
he been met in his own spirit such a mon- 
arch he would have become. But he encoun- 
tered opposition from many who had thus far 
acted with him, and the soldiery themselves, 
attached though they were to his person, and 
ready to do most of his Avork, were sincerely 
devoted to republicanism. With their consent 
he might be any thing he chose but king. 
The best of the republican statesmen, headed 
by Vane, were for maintaining the existing 
order of things ; and they were right, the gov- 
ernment that existed since Charles I.'s execution 
having proved itself worthy of trust, and hav- 
ing managed the internal affairs of the state, 
and its foreign policy, with a vigor and a pru- 
dence that had not been known since the death 
of Elizabeth. Could Cromwell have been con- 
tent with a just share of power in the new gov- 
ernment, it would have been maintained ; and 
as the new system would then not have dc 
pended on the life of one man, the royal fam- 
ily would have been kept out for ever. But 
he was bent upon being sole ruler. The 19 
months that followed the final overthrow of 
the royalists were spent in discussions and in- 
trigues, and they constitute the least reputable 
part of Cromwell's career. On April 20, 
1653, he drove the remnant of the long parlia- 
ment out of the house of commons by force. 
The council of state was broken up the same 
day. For some weeks England was as near to 
an anarchy as any civilized nation has ever 
been ; but on June 6, CromweU issued sum- 
mons to 156 persons to meet at Westminster, 
as a parliament. All but two obeyed, and 
the new parliament met July 4. This was 
the famous Barebone's parliament, which has 
been a by-word for two centuries. One of the 
members was named Bai'bone, and this was 
scurrilously changed into Barebone. All but 17 
of the members were summoned for England, 
Ireland and Wales haA-ing 6 each, and Scotland 
5. Cromwell made to this bodj' a long speech, 
and resigned his power into its hands. The 
parliament was a well-meaning body, but it 
contained few men of influence, and its con- 
duct, though honest, only added to the public 
confusion. On Dec. 12, a portion of its mem- 
bers resigned their power into the hands of 
Cromwell, and the rest either retired silently 
or were driven out by soldiers from their haU. 
On Dec. 16 came forth the new institute of gov- 
ernment, by which Cromwell was made lord 
protector, and the supreme legislative authority 
was vested in him and a parliament. The par- 
liament was to be imperial in its character, and 
not to exceed 400 members for England, 30 for 
Scotland, and 30 for Ireland. The protector 
was to be assisted by a council of state. There 



90 



CROMWELL 



were many judicious provisions in the institute, 
among wliich was an improvement of the rep- 
resentation, similar in principle to that which 
was adopted hy England in 1832. Parliament 
was to meet hi Sept. 1654, and until that time 
the protector and his council were to have un- 
limited power. Cromwell was to hold office 
for life, and the council of state was to choose 
bis successor, hut at a later period Cromwell 
was authorized to name him. So far as he 
could, the protector revived monarchical forms. 
A variety of ordinances were passed of an arbi- 
trary character, and many of the government's 
deeds would have disgraced the worst times of 
the Stuarts. Cromwell's defence is the neces- 
sity of the case, which must pass for what it is 
worth. There was no lack of vigor in the gov- 
ernment, and thougli the protector did all that he 
could to conciliate the royalists, which was not 
much, he found them inveterately hostile, and 
their baser spirits bent on assassinating him. A 
plot was detected in 1654, and two of the con- 
spirators were executed. Following the course 
of the government he had overthrown, the pro- 
tector's foreign policy was bold and manly, 
save that in making peace with the Dutch he 
abandoned the high position which the states- 
men of the commonwealth had assumed, though 
the war had been successful. A favorable 
treaty of commerce was made with Sweden. 
Parliament met Sept. 3, 1654. Care had been 
taken to exclude from it men whose hostility 
to the protectorate was supposed to be un- 
changeable, and no man who had been on the 
royal side in the civil war was even allowed to 
vote for members. Still some inveterate repub- 
licans were chosen, and Bradshaw, their leader, 
moved for a committee of the whole to delib- 
erate whether the house would approve of the 
new system of government, which was carried. 
Warm discussions followed, upon which the 
protector locked the members out of their hall, 
and woidd allow none to return to it who 
would not sign an engagement that the gov- 
ernment was legal. Nearly two-thirds signed, 
but the rest refused ; but the servile major- 
ity soon fell to questioning the " institute," 
and government was in a minority, where- 
upon Cromwell dissolved the parliament. A 
despotism was established, followed by both 
royalist and republican plots, which failed, 
and many of those engaged in them were pun- 
ished. Numerous arrests were made of per- 
sons not even suspected of crime, the object 
being to strike terror into the public mind. 
The royalists were very harshly dealt with. 
England and Wales were divided into 12 dis- 
tricts, the military command in each being vested 
in a major-general. Beside having control over 
most of the ordinary affairs of life, the commis- 
sions of these officers contained a special order 
from tlie protector that they should observe 
and follow such directions as they should from 
time to time receive from him. Never before 
or since has England known so iron a rule, and 
to the wrongs that were conmion under it must 



be attributed not a little of that folly whicli, 
5 years later, brought about the restoration 
without any thing having been done to secure 
the rights of the people. To atone for this 
denial of freedom to his subjects, the protector 
gave them glory. France and Spain contended 
for the English alliance, and France succeeded. 
The Spanisli possessions in America Avere as- 
sailed, and Jamaica was taken. Admiral Blako 
was successful in the Mediterranean, against 
the Barbary powers and Tuscany. The influ- 
ence of England put an end to the massacre of 
the Vaudois. Rich spoils were taken from the 
Spanish fleets. Appeals were made to Crom- 
well for assistance from various states. These 
XJroceedings were expensive, and funds ran so 
low that it became necessary to call a parlia- 
ment, to meet Dec. 17, 1656. The elections 
caused much excitement. To prevent their 
return, eminent republicans were imprisoned. 
But the majority was adverse to Cromwell, 
who thereupon excluded more than 100 of 
them from the house. Wishing to gain popu- 
larity, he allowed parliament to put an end to 
the power of the major-generals. It was 
moved that the protector should take the title 
of king, and, after much debating and intrigu- 
ing, this was carried, as were some other pro- 
visions calculated to restore the old English 
polity. Cromwell longed for the crown, but 
he dared not accept it against the determined 
opposition of some of the highest military oflS- 
cers, and the general sense of the army. He 
accordingly refused the offer. The other provi- 
sions were adopted, and the lord protector was 
newly inaugurated, with great pomp and so- 
lemnity. Parliament adjourned, to give him 
time to create a house of lords. When it re- 
assembled, the excluded members having been 
restored, the commons refused to recognize 
the other house, and Cromwell dismissed this, 
his last parliament, his last words to it being : 
"Let God judge between me and you!" to 
which some of the republicans answered : 
" Amen !" The brief remainder of his life was 
passed amid plots, having his murder for their 
end. He had such good intelligence that every 
thing became known to him, and the plots 
uniformly failed. Yet the precautions he had 
to adopt were of a humiliating character, and 
resembled those of the Greek tyrants. He 
was much in need of money for the public ser- 
vice, but he dared not impose taxes by his own 
authority. Meantime his foreign policy went 
on successfully, the bonds of alliance between 
England and France being of the strongest 
nature. English forces fought side by side 
with the French against the Spaniards, the 
latter having some of the banislied English 
cavaliers under their banners. Cromwell told 
the men of the army he sent to Louis XIV.'s 
aid that they were to show the same zeal for 
the monarch that they showed for himself; 
and Louis and his minister (Mazarin) evinced 
their attachment to Cromwell in various ways. 
Hud the protector lived, he would probably 



CROMWELL 



91 



liave found the means of carryinjif on his gov- 
eniineiit. Anotlier parliament was thought of, 
from which the republicans were to be ex- 
cluded, aud Croniwell's last public act was to 
dissolve the committee that had the subject 
under deliberation. In the sununer of 105.S liis 
2d daugliter, Elizabeth Claypole, died ; and 
as she was his favorite, and liis disposition was 
alfectionate, tlie effect on his shattered body 
and disturbed mind was serious. After some 
previous illness, he was forced to confine him- 
self to his room, Aug. 24, 1G58, from a ter- 
tian fever. On Sept. 3, the anniversary of 
Dunbar and Worcester, and known as his 
" fortunate day," he died, at 4 o'clock in the 
afternoon, and in the midst of the most ter- 
rible st<n-in of those times, which both friends 
and enemies connected with his death, but with 
ditl'erent associations. The remains of the ])ro- 
tector were soon consigned to Henry VlL's 
chapel, as it was impossible to keep them, cor- 
ruption having followed death innnediately, 
witli singular rapidity and violence ; but the 

Sublic funeral, a gorgeous ceremony, took place 
iov, 23. After the restoration, his body was 
disinterred, and gibbeted at Tyburn, and then 
burietl under the gallows, the head being placed 
on Westminster hall. There was long current, 
however, a story tliat the protector's body, by 
his own directions, was buried in Naseby field, 
at midnight, in a grave 9 feet deep ; and in it- 
self this story is not improbable, but it was 
coupled with the assertion that the body gib- 
beted at Tyburn was that of Charles I., which 
was discovered at Windsor in 1813, so that the 
tale can no longer be regarded as true, though 
it is with reluctance that its want of foundation 
is admitted. — Cromwell had 5 sous : Robert, 
born 1G21, died 1639; Oliver, born 1623, died 
in battle, 1648; James died in infancy; Rich- 
ard aud Henry survived him. lie had 4 daugh- 
ters : Bridget, married, first to Ireton, and then 
to Fleetwood, a woman of decided character, 
died at the age of 57, in 1681 ; Elizabeth, born 
1629, married to John Claypole, died 1658 ; Mary, 
born 1637, married to Viscount (afterward 
earl of) Fauconberg, died 1712; Frances, born 
1638, married, first to Robert Ricli, 1657, and. 
Rich dying in a few months, then to Sir John 
Russell, died 1721, The wife of the protector 
survived him 14 years, dying Oct. 8, 1672, after 
having lived in retirement since the downfall 
of her family. — There are many lives of Crom- 
well, the best of which for general readers 
is that to be found in Mr. Forster's " States- 
men of the Commonwealth of England." 
Mr. Carlyle's "Oliver Cromwell's Letters and 
Speeches" is a work of great excellence, but 
the author's purpose of seeing no wrong in his 
hero's conduct lessens its value. Mr. Gleig's 
" Lives of tlie most eminent British Military 
Comnumders " contains a good military biog- 
raphy of tlie protector. Most of tlie other biog- 
raphies are worthless, either from the ignorance 
or the prejudices of their authors. Claren- 
don's great work has always been popular, and 



it bears hard upon Cromwell. Even the able 
volumes of M. Guizot, who has gone over the 
whole 35 years from the accession of Charles I. 
to the restoration, are tinged with his peculiar 
views, and are not always just either to the 
statesmen of the long parliament or to Cromwell 
individually ; but they contain much matter not 
to be found elsewhere. Mr John Langton San- 
ford's " Studies and Illustrations of the Great 
Rebellion" contains much valuable matter con- 
cerning Cromwell, admirably told, but it ter- 
minates with the battle of Marston Moor. It 
corrects many errors in Cromwell's history that 
have long been received as trntlis. — Richakd, 
3d and eldest surviving son of the foregoing, 
and second lord protector, born at Hunting- 
don, Oct. 4, 1626, died at Cheshunt, near Lon- 
don, July 12, 1712. He became a student 
of Lincoln's Inn, 1047, where he remained 2 
years. He did not study much, but devoted 
himself to the pleasures of the field and the 
table, to the former of Avhich he had become 
attached while leading a rural life in the early 
years of the civil war. In politics he is said to 
have been a royalist, and to have interceded 
with his father for the king's life. In 1649 he 
married Dorothy, daughter of Richard Mayor, 
of Hursley, where they resided during most of 
Oliver's protectorate, Richard indulging in 
hunting and hospitality. Oliver did not think 
highly of his son's capacity, and was pleased to 
see him remain in the country. "When the 
protectorate was established, Richard was 
elected to parliament, for various places, on 
different occasions, and Oliver endeavored to 
train him to the art of government. He suc- 
ceeded his father as chancellor of Oxford uni- 
versity, was made a colonel, and a lord of trade 
and navigation. "When the protector sought to 
create a house of peers, his eldest son was 
placed at its head, with the title of the Right 
Hon. Lord Richard, &;c. On Oliver's death, 
Richard succeeded to the place of lord pro- 
tector as regularly and as easily as Charles I. 
had succeeded James I. A parliament was 
called, which met Jan. 27, 1059, to which he 
made a sensible speech, and for a short time 
things went on well. In parliament, however, 
he was not strong, and tlie army was not at- 
tached to one who was at heart a royalist. A 
meeting of the officers was held, at which it 
was resolved that the army should be com- 
manded by some one person. The protector 
applied to parliament for advice, at the sugges- 
tion of the council ; and that body condemned 
the action of the army, and declared that the 
oflicers should hold no more meetings without 
the protector's permission. This brought mat- 
ters to a crisis. The officers compelled Richard 
to dissolve parliament, which event was soon 
followed by his own resignation. He was not 
equal to the place in which circumstances had 
placed him. To the remonstrances his deter- 
mination excited he replied that his resolution 
w^as fixed, that violent councils did not suit him, 
and the like. His retirement drew upon him 



92 



CROMWELL 



reproaches from all sides, wliich have been re- 
peated for two centuries. Even Macaulay speaks 
of him as "that foolish Ishbosheth," who could 
not preserve " an authority which any man of 
urdiiuiry firmness and prudence would have 
retained." Just before the restoration, the 
Cromwellians wished to replace Richard at the 
head of the nation, but it was too late for such 
an act to be attempted, even if he had himself 
been willing to return to Whitehall. lie retired 
to Ilursley, his wife's estate, that lady feeling 
far more the fallen condition of the family than 
her husband. In July, 1G60, he left England for 
the continent, but less on account of political 
than for personal reasons. His debts amounted 
to £30,000. He resided at Paris, under the 
name of Wallis, for 20 years, making two visits 
to Geneva. lie was little known, and sometimes 
had his feelings wounded by expressions of 
contempt for his poltroonery from strangers. 
He returned to England in 1680, his debts hav- 
ing been paid, took the name of Clarke, and 
resided at Cheshunt. His life was retired. 
One of his few friends was Dr. Watts, who 
never heard him mention his former greatness 
more than once, and then indirectly. A law- 
suit with his daughters, in his extreme old age, 
brought him before the public, in the reign of 
Queen Anne. The jndge treated him with 
much consideration, and his conduct was ap- 
proved by the queen. Richard won his cause. 
He lived to be nearly 86, dying at Cheshunt, in 
the house of Sergeant Pengelley, who was sup- 
posed to be his natural son, and who rose to emi- 
nence in the law. He was buried in the chancel 
of Ilursley church, where one of his daughters 
erected a monument to his memory. He left no 
legitimate son. His son Oliver, who appears to 
have been a man of some capacity, was active in 
the revolution of IBBS-'O, and offered to raise a 
regiment to serve in Ireland, provided he were 
allowed to nominate his captains ; but the name 
was yet too f(-)rmidable to warrant government 
in accepting the offer. He died May 11, 1705. 
— Henuy, 2d surviving son of the first lord 
protector, born at Huntingdon, Jan. 20, 1628, 
died March 23, 1673. lie was educated at 
Felstead, but as he entered the parliamentary 
army at the age of 16, he could not have known 
much of schools. Before he was 20 he had a 
troop in the lord general Fairfax's life guards. 
He was made a colonel in 1649, and went with 
his father to Ireland, where he served through- 
out those fierce wars that subjugated the coun- 
try, distinguishing himself on several occasions. 
In tlie first parliament that his father called; 
the "Barebone's parliament," he sat as one of 
the 6 Irish members. lie was married, in 
1653, to Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Francis 
Russell, a lady of whom much that is good is 
reported. The university of Cambridge elected 
him to parliament in 1654. In 1655 he was 
sent to Ireland as a major-general, and event- 
ually he was made lord deputy. lie was well 
received in that country, and he justified the 
reception by the admirable manner in which 



he governed it. Men of all parties united in 
praising his wise and benevolent action ; and 
Ireland rose rapidly to prosperity under his 
rule. He is said to have inclined in politics to 
royalist principles, which was not uncommon 
with members of Cromwell's family. When 
Oliver died, Henry exerted himself to have his 
brother's authority acknowledged in Ireland, 
and with entire success. The troubles that 
befell Richard in England, however, soon had 
a prejudicial effect on Irish affairs. Henry was 
annoyed in various ways by his brother's ene- 
mies, and he sought to throw up the govern- 
ment of Ireland, in order that he might reply 
to attacks that had been made on him in Eng- 
land, and to assist the protector. His request 
was refused, probably because the republicans 
feared him, well knowing that he was a very 
different man from Richard. When the pro- 
tector retired, Henry resolved to place the 
Irish government in the hands of Charles II. ; 
but the long parliament recalled him, and 
placed the government in the hands of com- 
missioners. He obeyed the summons, and par- 
liament expressed approbation of his conduct. 
So poor was he that he had not money enough 
of his own to pay his expenses from Dublin to 
London. The readiness with which he surren- 
dered his government does not confirm the 
common impression that if he had been ap- 
pointed his father's successoi', he would have 
maintained the place. He lacked ambition. 
Henry resided for some years with his father- 
in-law. Sir. F. Russell, at Chippenliam. Thence 
he went to a retired estate of his own, called 
Spinney Abbey, near Soham, Cambridgeshire, 
where he passed the remainder of his days in 
farming. Charles II. is said to have visited his 
house when going from Newmarket to London ; 
and when he heard that Henry was suffering 
from the stone, he expressed sympathy with him, 
and, according to one account, even prescribed 
for him, the king being a dabbler in medicine. 
It was of this complaint that Henry died. He 
Avas buried in Wicken church, and a stone was 
placed over his remains, with a Latin inscrip- 
tion, stating merely the place of his residence, 
his age, and the dates of his birth and death. 
He had 7 children. His last male descendant, 
and great-grandson, died in 1821, at Cheshunt, 
aged 79. He had been a solicitor, and was the 
last representative of the great protector. 

CROMWELL, TnoMAS, earl of Essex, born 
toward the close of the 15th centuiy, died 
July 28, 1540. The exact date of his birth 
is unknown, though one account says he was 
born in 1498. His father, one of the Lincoln- 
shire Cromwclls, moved to the capitid, and 
had an ironfoundery at Putney. The name of 
Ills mother is nowhere given, but she is called 
a gentlewoman by some writers. Cromwell's 
father died when the future statesman was very 
young, and the accounts that are given of the or- 
phan's early days are unworthy of confidence. 
He is said to have been a clerk at Antwerp, 
and to have been one of a party which went 



CPwOMWELL 



93 



an a private mission to Rome. The first clear 
sight of him represents him a ragged youth in 
the streets of Florence, in 1515, where lie attract- 
ed the attention of Frescohaldi, then a great 
banker, and having extensive business connec- 
tions with England. To his inquiries, Crom- 
well stated who he was, and that he had been 
page to a French foot soldier. Frescohaldi took 
him to his house, relieved his wants, and fur- 
nished him with the means of returning home. 
lie found his mother, who had married a sec- 
ond time, again a widow, and he carried on his 
stepfather's business, that of a clothier. This 
brought him into connection with the court, as 
he furnished the royal liveries. lie had some 
employment in the household of the marchio- 
ness of Dorset, and finally jjassed into the ser- 
vice of Wolsey, who saw his talent, and as 
early as 1525 employed him to visit and break 
up certain small monasteries, the property of 
which had been granted by the pope for the 
foundation of colleges. There is a story that 
Cromwell was with the army of the constable 
Bourbon, which took Eorae in 1527 ; but if it 
lias any foundation, he must have been in 
Italy as an agent of the English government, 
and not as a military adventurer ; for he was 
with Wolsey not 4 months before Eome was 
stormed, and again less than a year after that 
event. Another story is, tliat he saved the life 
of Sir John Russell, at Bologna, for which there 
ajjjjears to be some foundation. He remained 
with \yolsey until the cardinal's ruin, and 
contended so ably in the house of commons 
against the bill of impeachment that had been 
])referred for the completion of the minister's 
fall, that he caused it to be thrown out. This 
fidelity to his patron won him great applause, 
including that of Henry YIII., who could ap- 
preciate generosity in others if he could not 
practise it himself. His talents, too, must have 
recommended him to the king, who made him 
his secretary in 1533, and government organ 
in the house of commons. This necessarily 
made him the leader of the English reforma- 
tion, a part for which his early life is supposed 
to have prepared him. Fronde assigns to liim 
the honor of being the only man in England 
who saw his way distinctly through the cliaos 
of that time, the privilege of genius, that of 
seeing what other men could not see, being his. 
He had no party ; he was despised and feared 
by the nobility, who saw in him the friend and 
I)upil of AYolsey, Wolsey's genuine successor in 
the race for power ; while the Protestants could 
not understand either the character or conduct 
of the man who was doing their work better 
than they could do it themselves. But his 
power rapidly became great, and for several 
years he was, after the king, the most power- 
ful man in England. In 1531 he was concerned 
in obtaining from the clergy the enormous sum 
of £118,000, a fine for their having supported 
Wolsey's legantine authority. Promotion rap- 
idly followed his entrance into the king's ser- 
vice. He was knighted, sworn of the privy 



council, and appointed to several ofiices. The 
high posts of secretary of state and master of 
the rolls soon followed, and he was elected 
chancellor of the university of Cambridge. In 
1535 he was created vicar general, or visitor gen- 
eral, with j)ower to visit all the monasteries in 
England, and issued a commission for a general 
visitation ofthereligioushouses, the universities, 
and other spiritual corporations. He did not be 
come vicegerent in ecclesiastical matters until 
July, 1536, having just previously been created 
Baron Cromwell, and lord privy seal. The visita- 
torial power was executed with great vigor, the 
other side said with groat cruelty and gross 
injustice. The proceeding Avas one of the first 
importance, and struck a deadly blow at the 
ascendency of Rome in England. The kingwas 
satisfied with Cromwell's proceedings, and the 
work of the reformation was much advanced. 
Sweeping changes were made in the religious 
system of England. The articles that were 
adopted by the convocation of 163G were not 
acceptable to either Protestants or Catholics, 
but government, of which Cromwell was chief 
minister, was strong enough to enforce them. 
The complete edition of the English Bible, 
known as the "Great" or " Crumwell," was 
published 3 years after, with the arms of Crom- 
well on the title page. The minister, though 
he was regarded by the nobility with the deep- 
est aversion, as an upstart, was now at the 
height of his power, Avhich he maintained for 
some years, continuing to receive rewards and 
Ijromotion from the king. He was appoint- 
ed justice of the forests north of the Trent, made 
a knight of the garter, and elevated to the 
dignity of lord high chamberlain, receiving at 
the same time the title of earl of Essex. Ho 
W'as created constable of Carisbrooke castle, and 
received the castle and lordship of Okehara, to- 
gether with valuable estates made up from the 
possessions of the dissolved monasteries. The 
reforms he effected were extensive, and in 
many instances they were useful, and of lasting 
value ; but the readiness with whicli he accept- 
ed so large portions of the spoil that had been 
created by the success of his policy must ever 
be a stain on his memory. His appointments 
and titles, too, gave much offence in infiuential 
quarters. One great family was mortally of- 
fended by his taking the title of lord high 
chamberlain, and another by his elevation to 
the earldom of Essex. The people hated him 
because of the taxation with which he bur- 
dened them. He had enemies on all sides, 
and friends nowhere. The fluctuations of 
Henry's mind were such that no reliance could 
be placed on the royal support, the king sac- 
rificing his instruments with even more than 
the proverbial readiness of despots. The party 
hostile to him — headed by the duke of Nor- 
folk and Gardiner, and Catholic in doctrine, 
but compelled to submit to the new order of 
things by the iron energy of the king — was 
continually on the watch to entrap him ; and 
toward the close of his career they had much 



94 



CROMWELL 



CRONSTADT 



encouragement from the king, who is said to 
have treated his cliief minister to harsh words 
and liard blows. Cromwell daily became more 
identified with the Protestants, partly from 
conviction and partly froni circumstances ; and 
this must have rendered the king hostile to 
him, for Henry was to the last a Catholic in 
all great essentials, and merely wished to be 
his own pope. It is not probable, therefore, 
that Cromwell could have much longer main- 
tained his position, even in a contest confined 
to domestic politics ; but an incident bearing 
upon foreign policy occasioned him to fall rap- 
idly. With the view of connecting England 
with the Lutherans, he had promoted the mar- 
riage of Henry with Anne of Cleves. The lady 
wa3 very pious, very virtuous, and very unpre- 
possessing. Henry was disgusted with her, and 
refused to regard her as his wife. An attempt 
to form an Anglo-German league failed, and 
Henry was left alone at the very time when 
Charles Y. and Francis I. were drawing to- 
gether, and tlie Lutherans were deluded by the 
emperor. Cromwell continued to protect the 
Protestants, and onl}- a few days before his fall 
he sent a Catholic bishop to the tower. On 
June 10, 1540, he was arrested, on the 
charge of high treason, while sitting at the 
council board, and sent to prison. Parliament 
was in session, and a bill of attainder was soon 
passed. Tlie only friend Cromwell found was 
Cranmer, who desired lie should be spared. 
The prisoner made a pathetic appeal to the 
king, who was moved by it, but would not 
pardon him. He was beheaded July 28, suf- 
fering cruelly at the hands of an unskilful ex- 
ecutioner. Government had the baseness to 
place in his mouth a dying speech that he 
never made, but which has passed into his- 
tory, so that he was represented to have died 
in the faith of that church which he had done 
so much to overthrow in England. There are 
few great men of whom so little is accurately 
known as Thomas Cromwell. He played for 8 
years the highest part in England, and in one 
of the most fruitful of revolutions. He stamped 
his mind on the English constitution in church 
and state. That he was guilty of many acts of 
injustice and cruelty is indisputable, but his 
memory is entitled to the plea that he was 
placed in a position where no man could have 
I)reserved his virtue. The best account of 
Cromwell is to be found in Mr. Fronde's 
" History of England from the Fall of Wol- 
sey to the Death of Elizabeth." Cromwell 
was married to a lady of the name of Williams, 
by whom he had one son, Gregory, who was 
made Baron Cromwell of Okeham, at the same 
time that his father was created earl of Essex. 
This son was married to Elizabeth Seymour, a 
sister of Henry YnL\s third queen. The pos- 
terity of this couple long enjoyed the title of 
Lord Cromwell. 

CROXSTADT, or Kroxstadt, the most im- 
portant seaport and naval fortress of Russia, the 
seat of the admiralty, and the station of the 



Baltic fleet, is situated in the S. E. part of a 
small, arid, and rocky island, called Kotlinoi 
Ostrov (Kettle island), at the E. extremity of 
the gulf of Finland, opposite the mouth of the 
Keva, in the government, and 20 m. W. of St. 
Petersburg ; pop. in winter, when the hai'bor is 
deserted and ice-bound, about 10,000 ; in sum- 
mer, including the garrison, sailors, workmen, 
and students, sometimes 60,000. The town 
was built by Peter the Great in 1710, the island 
having been conquered from the Swedes in 1703 
by MentchikoflT, whUe Charles XH. was en- 
gaged iu his Polish campaign ; it received its 
name in 1721, was fortified during the same 
reign, and subsequently under Elizabeth, Catha- 
rine n., Paul, Alexander L, and Nicholas, be- 
ing destined from its foundation to become the 
great bulwark of the new Russian capital, and a 
chief naval stronghold of the Baltic. The 
southern channel, which separates the island 
from the mainland, is narrow and commanded 
by a small fortified islet, and allows single vessels 
only to pass ; the opposite channel, the broader, 
but from its sand banks still less practicable en- 
trance to tlie shallow eastern bay, called the 
bay of Cronstadt, is commanded by the batteries 
of the rock of Riesbank, and the citadel of 
Kronslott, situated on 2 small islands. Numer- 
ous forts and batteries defend all other parts of 
the island, which forms an irregular triangle, 
having its base toward St. Petersburg. Near 
its N. W. point is a lighthouse. The town is reg- 
ularly built, has fine and well paved streets and 
squares. 3 gates, 3 Greek churches, 1 Anglican, 
1 Lutheran, 1 Roman Catholic, and 2 Greek 
chapels. Other remarkable buildings are the ex- 
change, custom house, arsenal, admiralty house, 
cannon foundery, barracks, and magazines; the 
marine hospital, with 3,000 beds ; a house of 
Peter the Great, now the country residence of the 
military governor, whose garden still contains 
a few oaks planted by the hands of that czar ; 
and a palace in the Italian style, erected by 
Mentchikofi", and now used as a naval school, 
containing 300 pupils for the navy, and 20 for 
merchant vessels. The last of these buildings 
is situated between the 2 canals of St. Peter 
and Catharine, which intersect the town. The 
former canal is constructed of granite, and is 
2,1G0 feet long by 30 yards wide; it is in the 
form of a cross, and communicates by one of 
its arms with a vast dock, where 10 ships of 
the hue can be repaired at once. The Cath- 
arine canal, 2^ miles long, communicates with 
the mereliant harbor, thus enabling the mer- 
chantmen to take their stores and provisions 
directly from the warehouses of the town. The 
quays, constructedby the emperor Nicholas, are 
all of granite, and on a grand scale. Except the 
government buildings, about 200 in number, all 
the older houses of the town are low, and mostly 
of wood. The harbor of Cronstadt, to the S. of 
the town, consists of 3 sections : tlie military, 
outer harbor, capable of containing 35 ships of 
the line, beside smaller vessels ; tlie middle har- 
bor, for the fitting out and repairing of vessels, 



CROXSTADT 



CROPSEY 



95 



the bulb of new ones being brongbt over for 
eqaipineut from St. Petersburg ; and the inner- 
most harbor, running parallel ■svith the preced- 
ing, used only by nierehantmen, and suflBcient for 
1,000 sail at a time. All these are well secured, 
but in consequence of tlie freshness of the water 
fromthe proximity of the mouth of the Xeva, ves- 
sels cannot be preserved in them longer than 20 
years. From November to tlie end of April they 
are blocked by ice. Notwithstanding the short- 
ness of the shipping season, and the shallowness 
of the bay, which at the bar is only 9 feet deep, 
f of the foreign trade of Russia passes through 
this port. Entrances in 1856, 3,432 vessels, ton- 
nage 547,951 ; clearances, 3,028 vessels, tonnage 
469,812. In summer the surrounding sea is 
enlivened by steamers regularly running be- 
tween Cronstadt and St. Petersburg, Ilelsing- 
fors, Stockholm, Stettin, Lubeck, Havre, &c. 
Cronstadt was inundated in 1824, and blockaded 
in 1854 bv the British fleet under Xapier. 

CRONSTADT, or Kp.oxstadt (Hung. Brasao), 
capital of a district of the same name, in the 
Austrian crownland of Transylvania. The dis- 
trict lies X. of the Carpatliian mountains, an 
arm of which traverses it, and is watered by the 
Aluta and its tributary-, the Burze, which gives 
it also the name of Burzenland. The soil is 
well cultivated, and produces all sorts of grain 
and pulse. It has gold, silver, and lead, and 
various mineral springs. The country abounds 
in game, fish, and bees, in horned cattle and 
pine timber. The population, about 100,000, is 
mainly composed of descendants of German set- 
tlers, of Wallachians, Hungarians, Greeks, and 
Armenians. — The town, pop. about 36,000, is 
beautifully situated in a narrow valley, enclosed 
by mountains. Charming villas on the slopes, 
with here and there an old castle on the heights, 
give a varied and picturesque aspect to the sur- 
rounding scenery. It consists of an inner town, 
which is surrounded by a wall and entered by 
5 gates, and 3 suburbs, of which one, called the 
upper town or Bolgar, extends into the moun- 
tain passes, winds up the slopes, covering them 
with beautiful country mansions and well kept 
gardens and orchards, and is the favorite resi- 
dence of the wealthy "\Vallachians. The 6 prin- 
cipal streets of the inner town are well paved and 
clean ; the houses generally well built. It has 
a large market place, with 2 fountains, and at 
the main gate an esplanade covered with ave- 
nues of shady trees. The Protestant gymna- 
sium, with a good library, the Roman Catholic 
high school, and the military hospital, deserve 
attention. There is a considerable trade in cat- 
tle, wine, corn, salt, and manufactured goods. 
The foundation of Cronstadt is traced back to 
the-13th century. In the 16th it was the start- 
ing point of the reformation in Transylvania, 
which was promoted by Honterus, a disciple 
of ilelanchthon, who is said to have been in 
intimate correspondence with Luther, and to 
have also established the earliest printing press 
here (1533), its first productions being the Augs- 
burg Confession and Luther's writings. Here, 



too, the first paper mill was erected. Cronstadt 
was formerly surrounded by strong fortifica- 
tions, which are now in ruins. North-east of 
the town is a small citadel, situated on the sum- 
mit of an isolated hill, which was not without 
imjjortance in the Hungarian war of l&48-'49. 

CROOKS, Geokge R., D.D., an American 
clergyman and lexicosrapher, born in Philadel- 
phia," Feb. 3, 1822. He was graduated at liick- 
inson college in 1840, and entered the ministry 
of the Methodist Episcopal church in 184L His 
field of labor embraced portions of Fulton, 
Knox, and Peoria counties, in Illinois, his reg- 
ular work being to pn-each 30 sermons every 4 
weeks, beside having the pastoral oversight of 
a large territory. In 1842 he was elected clas- 
sical and mathematical tutor in Dickinson col- 
lege, and in 1843 he succeeded the Rev. L. 
Scott (now bishop) as principal of the gram- 
mar school of the college, and became associ- 
ated with Professor McClintock in preparing 
'•A First Book in Latin." and "A First Book 
in Greek.'" both of which have met with pop- 
ular favor as text books. In 1846 he was 
elected adjunct professor of ancient languages, 
which position he held until 184S, when he re- 
sumed the pastoral oflBce. He has had charge 
of prominent churches in Philadelphia, "Wil- 
mington, and New York, and as a preacher 
holds a place in the front rank of the profes- 
sion. He has published an edition of Butlers 
''Analogy," containing a complete analysis of 
that work, with a new life of Bishop Butler, 
together with copious notes and an index. His 
last and most important work is a new Latin- 
English lexicon, adapted to schools and colleges, 
prepared in conjunction with Prof. Schera, of 
Dickinson college. 

CROPSEY, Jasper Fp.a>-x, an American art- 
ist, born at "SVestfield, Richmond co., N, Y.. Feb. 
18, 1823, About the age of 14 he commenced 
the study of architecture, which, at the end of 
5 years, "he was obhged to relinquish on account 
of iU health. Ha\ing received a few lessons in 
water colors, he devoted himself thenceforth to 
landscape painting, and his third pictm-e, a 
view of Greenwood lake in New Jersey, pro- 
cured his election as an associate of the Amer- 
ican academy of design, of which in 1850 he 
became a full member. In 1847 ill health 
compelled him to visit Europe, where he spent 
3 years in close study of his art. Among his 
most successful productions after his return to 
America were the "Sibyl's Temple," and 
" American Harvesting," engraved by the 
American art imion ; "Peace" and '• "VTar," 
and " Niagara Falls."' In June, 1856, he em- 
barked for'England, where be has since resided. 
Among his latest works are a series of Amer- 
ican scenes, which are to be executed in 
chrorao-lithography ; several designs for illus- 
trated books of poems ; and compositions en- 
titled " The Olden Time — A Tournament, and 
Return from Hawking."' His subjects are chief- 
ly landscapes, to which allegory and history are 
sometimes made accessory. 



96 



CROSLAND 



CROSS 



CROSLAND, Mes. Newtox, better known 
by Jicr maideu name of Camilla Toulmin, an 
English autlioress, born in London about 1817. 
Her futlier, a solicitor, died when she was a 
child, leaving tlie family mainly dependent upon 
the exertions of his son, who had also been 
trained to the law. Upon the death of the 
latter. Miss Toulmin, who had early manifested 
literary tastes and abilities, was forced to look 
to her pen for the means of support. She first 
appeared in print in 1888 as the authoress of a 
short poem in the " Book of Beauty," soon after 
which she became an active contributor to 
" Chambers's Magazine," the " People's Jour- 
nal," and other periodicals, and edited for sev- 
eral years the " Ladies' Companion and Monthly 
Magazine." She has also published a volume 
of poems, " Lays and Legends illustrative of 
English Life," " Partners for Life, a Christmas 
Story," " Stratagems, a Tale for Young People," 
and a number of other works of fiction, design- 
ed to promote the moral and social culture of 
the people. She was one of the earliest to 
write for this end, and is regarded as a pioneer 
in the cause. In 1848 she was married to Mr. 
Newton Crosland, a merchant of London, in 
the environs of which she resides. She has re- 
cently become a convert to the doctrines of 
" Spiritualism," and has published a work illus- 
trated with drawings by alleged spiritual agency. 

CROSS (Lat. crux, Er. croix), an ancient 
instrument of torture and death, commonly 
formed of two beams crossing each otlier. 
There were various forms of the cross : the 
crux commissa consisted of a transverse beam 
placed on the top of a perpendicular one, 
like our letter T ; the crux immissa or caj^itata 
was a transverse beam crossing a perpendicular 
one at some distance from the top ; and the 
crux decussata, or St, Andrew's cross, was 
made like the letter X. The Greek cross is a 
form of the crux immissa, the 2 beams crossing 
each other in the middle so that the 4 arms 
shall be of equal length. All these are varieties 
of the compound cross, beside which there was 
the simple cross consisting of a single stake on 
which the criminal was fastened or impaled. 
The shape of the cross on wliich our Saviour 
suffered is not known, for the historians who 
record its discovery give no description of it. 
It was probably the crux immissa, and such in- 
deed is it commonly represented on ancient 
coins. A piece of wood bearing an inscription 
was placed on or above it, and there is reason 
to suppose that the feet of our Saviour were 
partly supported by a block placed beneath 
them, and to which they were nailed. Be- 
side this, there was often a small resting 
place on which the body could slightly sustain 
itself as on a seat. The church early learned 
to regard the cross as an emblem no longer of 
disgrace but of victory. It became the favorite 
symbol of Christianity ; it was fashioned in 
wood, stone, and metal ; it was placed on tombs, 
altars, and religious structures, and some- 
times on the front of private dwellings ; and 



the faithtul, not content with beholding its visi- 
ble image, marked it with the hand on their 
persons. The sign of the cross was intro- 
duced into the ritual, and \ised in baptism, 
confirmation, and the Lord's supi)er. The 
Catholic churcli employs it in all sacred rites ; it 
is the customary mode of benediction ; it is 
many times repeated in the mass, and none of 
her sacraments can be rightfully administered 
without it. Roman Catholic bishops, abbots, 
and abbesses wear tlie cross suspended over the 
breast ; and most of the priestly vestments dis- 
play it embroidered in various forms. From 
the catacombs we have many curious examples 
of symbolical crosses, surrounded by other 
emblems, one of the commonest of which is a 
fish, denoting the water of baptism, or the 
" fishers of men ;" or because the Greek word 
tX'^vs, a fish, comprises the initial letters of 
the Greek for " Jesus Christ, Son of God, Sa- 
viour." The dove, the serpent, A and i2, Avere 
sometimes added to such representations, and 
often the cross was interwoven with the Greek 
letters X and P, the first two of the word XpLo- 
Tor, or with a circle, the emblem of eternity. 
The latter is the sacred tau or crux ansata. The 
famous Za5a7'2<??i or imperial standard of Constan- 
tine bore an image of the flaming cross which 
appeared to him in the heavens, and displayed 
the motto: Ei/ tovtco viko, "By this conquer." 
From that time the sign of salvation glittered 
on the shields and banners of the Roman armies. 
Christian churches were soon built in the shape 
of a cross ; and with the supposed discovery by 
the empress Helena, mother of Constantine, of 
the identical wood upon which Christ suffered, 
the veneration of the faithful took a new form. 
In 326 Helena, as related by Socrates, Sozomen, 
Rufinus, and Theodoret, visited the scenes of 
our Lord's sufierings. Every trace of the great 
events which had hallowed the environs of 
Jerusalem had been obliterated by tlie heathen, 
and a temple to Venus stood over Mount Cal- 
vary ; but from a Jew who had treasured up 
Avhat traditions he could gather, the empress 
learned the probable place of Christ's burial. 
The spot being excavated, 3 crosses were found, 
and the title which that of Jesus bore was dis- 
covered lying by itself. It is related that the 
cross of Christ was distinguished from the other 
two by miraculous cures wrought by touching it. 
A church was built over the spot ; a part of the 
sacred relic was deposited in it; a part was 
sent to Rome and placed in the church of Santa 
Croce in Gerusalemme, built expressly to re- 
ceive it ; and the rest was inserted by Constan- 
tine in the head of a statue of himself at Con- 
stantinople. The first was carried away from 
Jerusalem by Chosroes, king of Persia, in 614, 
but was afterward recovered by the Roman em- 
peror Ileraclius, who restored it to its former 
])lace in 629. In the old chronicle of Geoffrey de 
Vinsauf, called the " Itinerary of Richard L," we 
are told how the crusaders bore it with them 
to battle, how it was taken from them by Sala- 
din at the battle of Uattiniu 1187, and how the 



CROSS 



CROSSE 



97 



pilgrims -Nvlio went to tlie holy city in 1192 
during the 3 years' truce were allowed " to see 
and kiss the true cross of our Lord." A piece 
of it is shown at Rome ; anotiier was preserved 
in Poland till the 17th century, wlien it was 
])resented by John Casiniir to the princess pala- 
tine, Anna Gonzaga, who becpieathed it to the 
jnonks of St. Germain in Paris ; and innumer- 
able minute fragments are held by Catholics 
throughout the world. A festival in honor of 
the finding or " invention " of the cross is still 
celebrated May 3, and the feast of tlie " exalta- 
tion of the cross," in commemoration of its 
restoration by lleraclius, is kept Sept. 14. The 
latter, however, according to some authorities, 
was instituted in the Gi'eek church in honor of 
the appearance of the cross to Constantine. The 
ceremony of the " adoration (or more properly 
kissing) of the cross," Avhich takes place in 
all Catholic churches on Good Friday, consists 
in presenting the feet of a crucifix to the lips 
of the peoi)le. — Architectural crosses were of 
several kinds, the principal being boundary, 
market, preaching, and memorial crosses. The 
first not only defined civil and ecclesiastical 
limits, but were sometimes endowed with the 
privilege of sanctuary. Market crosses were 
built partly to afford shelter in wet weather, 
and partly in token of the rights of neighboring 
monasteries to which belonged the tolls of tho 
market. They are to be seen in many parts of 
England. At preaching crosses, sermons were 
delivered and proclamations were read. Me- 
morial crosses marked the scenes of battles, 
murders, and other events, or in Alpine regions 
still denote the most dangerous parts of the 
mountain roads. Fifteen beautiful memorial 
crosses were built by Edward I. at the places 
where the body of liis queen Eleanor rested 
during its removal from Grantham to West- 
minster. The processional cross, carried at the 
head of solemn processions, is often highly or- 
namented. There are many examples of the 
use of the cross as a sacred emblem among pa- 
gan nations, the earliest being found in Egypt 
and India. It is claimed that some have even 
been noticed in America. 

CROSS, Joseph, D.D., a Methodist clergy- 
man, born in Somersetshire, England, in 1813. 
He came to the United States at the age of 12, 
and entered upon the ministry in Genesee, N. 
Y., at the age of 16. lie was for some time 
connected with the Transylvania university 
at Lexington, Ky., as professor of English 
literature, and has occupied some of the most 
important stations in the Methodist Episcopal 
church south. In 1855-6 he travelled exten- 
sively in Europe, and wrote letters which were 
published extensively in the southern journals, 
lie was a member of the general conference 
of the M. E. church south, which held its ses- 
sluu in Nashville, Tenn., in 1856, and was the 
official reporter of that body. He has pub- 
lished " Pisgah Views of the Promised Inheri- 
tance," "Headlands of Faith," "A Year in Eu- 
rope," "Life and Sermons of Christmas Evans, 

VOL. VI. — 7 



from the "Welsh," and "Prelections on Charity." 
He is at present the principal of a female sem- 
inary at Spartanburg, S. C. 

CROSSBILL, a bird belonging to the order 
passcrcs, tribe conirostres, family fringiUidw, 
and genus loxia (Linn.). The bill in this genus 
is moderate, broad at the base, with the cul- 
men much curved, and the sides compressed 
to the very acute tip ; the mandibles cross 
each other, having their lateral margins bent 
inward ; the wings are moderate, the tail short 
and emarginated ; the tarsi short, robust, and 
feathered below tlie knee; toes short, hind one 
with its claw very long, claws cmwed and 
sharp. These birds are found in the nyrthera 
parts of both hemispheres, occurring in flocks 
in the forests of pines and firs, the seeds of 
which they eat ; by means of the powerful bill 
and its peculiar construction, they pry asunder 
the scales of the cones ; they also do much 
mischief in orchards by tearing open a]jples 
and pears in order to get the pips. The Euro- 
pean species is the L. curvlrostra (Linn.). The 
American crossbill is the L. Ainericana (Wils.). 
The length of the latter is 7 inches, and ex- 
tent of wings 10 inches ; the bill is brown, 
lighter on the edges, darker at the tip ; iris 
hazel ; general color a dull light red, inclining 
to vermilion, darker on the wings ; quills and 
tail brownish black ; the abdomen paler red, 
passing into whitish. The young males have 
tints of yellow and green, mixed with brown ; 
in the female the upper parts are grayish 
brown, tinged with green, and the rump gray- 
ish yellow, as are also the lower parts. They 
are found in Maine and Canada even in midwin- 
ter, and on the shores of Lake Superior are seen 
in large flocks in the coldest weather, about the 
mining locations ; they are also met with as far 
south as Pennsylvania. They fly quickly in an 
undulating manner, making considerable noise ; 
they are easily domesticated, and in their wild. 
state seem not to fear man. The eggs are 4 
or 5, of a greenish white color, thickly covered, 
especially at the large end, with dark brown 
spots. The white-winged species {L. leucop- 
tera, Gmel.) also inliabits the northern pine and 
spruce forests, the whole breadth of the conti- 
nent, probably up to 68° N., where the woods 
terminate ; it only resorts to temperate cli- 
mates when forced by severe weathei*. The 
principal difference consists in the more slen- 
der bill, and in 2 white bands on the wings, 
formed by the secondary and first row of small 
coverts ; the habits of the 2 species are the 
same. The singular form of the bill in this 
genus is a striking example of the adaptation of 
means to ends, which everywhere meets the 
student of natural history. 

CROSSBOW. See Arbalast and Archery. 

CROSSE, Andrew, an English electrician, 
born in Bromfield, Somersetshire, June 17, 1784, 
died July 6, 1855. He was matriculated at 
Brazenose college, Oxford, in 1802, but in 1805 
returned to settle on his estate of Fyne Court, 
which he had some years previously inherited 



98 



CliOSSE 



CROSWELL 



from his father, and where lie passed the greater 
part of liis life. Having a strong predilection for 
the study of electricit}', lie provided himself with 
the necessary apparatus, and pursued his experi- 
ments without regard to theories. One of his 
first discoveries was the production of crystals 
by the effect of electricity. ]5y the action of 
the voltaic hattery, excited by water alone, \\\)on 
a tumbler of water taken from a cavern in the 
neighborhood lined with aragonite crystalliza- 
tions, he procured in a few days crystals of car- 
bonate of lime. For 30 years he prosecuted 
these experiments, and succeeded in obtaining 
41 mineral crystals, or ininerals uncrystallized, 
in the/orm in which they are produced by na- 
ture, including one, subsulphate of copper, en- 
tirely new, lie was of the opinion that it was 
possible to form diamonds in this wa}'. As he 
worked alone and never published the results 
of his discoveries, they were unknown to the 
scientific world until the meeting of the British 
association for the advancement of science in 
Bristol in 1836, when he was induced to explain 
them ])ublicly. The announcement excited un- 
usual interest, and Mr. Crosse was publicly com- 
'plimented by the president, the marquis of 
Northampton, and by Dr. Buckland, Dr. Dal- 
tou, Prof. Sedgwick, and other eminent scien- 
tific men. For many years previous he had 
been in tlie habit of employing the electrical 
fluid for ascertaining the state of the atmosphere 
and for other purposes, and had constructed a 
mile or more of insulated wire above the tree 
tops in the neighborhood of his house to aid his 
experiments. In 181 G he predicted, at a meet- 
ing of country gentlemen, " that by means of 
electrical agency we shall be able to conminni- 
cate our thoughts instantaneously with the 
uttermost ends of the earth," although it does 
not appear that he ever attempted to fulfil his 
prediction. The discovery, however, with 
which his name is chietiy connected, is that of 
the apparent production of insects by the action 
of the voltaic battery upon certain chemical 
fluids. In 183G, while pursuing his experi- 
ments in crystallization with a highly caustic 
solution, out of contact with atmospheric air, 
he noticed the appearance of an insect of the 
acarus tribe, of which upward of 100 more were 
formed witliin a few weeks. The discovery 
caused a considerable sensation, and although 
Mr. Faraday and Mr. Weeks of Sandwich amply 
confirmed the statements of Mr. Crosse by their 
own experience, the latter was accused of the 
impiety of assuming to become a creator. 
Crosse, who was a man of sincere religious con- 
victions, was much afl^ected by these imputa- 
tions, although he could give no explanation of 
the manner in which the insects were produced. 
In answer to a person who had attacked him 
with unusual virulence, he said that he was sorry 
if the faith of his neighbors depended upon the 
claw of a mite. Recent experiments on the 
same subject by Prof. Schulze of Germany 
failed to obtain tlie appearance of insects or 
animal germs, thus conlirmiug the probability 



which !Mr. Crosse never disputed that the ova of 
the insects were derived from the atmosphere, 
or conveyed into the ajjparatus by some natural 
means unknown to the experimenter. Among 
the practical benefits of his experiments was 
the discovery of a process for purifying salt 
water by means of electricity, lie also made 
some curious discoveries with reference to the 
etfects of positive and negative electricity upon 
vegetation. lie was a benevolent man, an active 
magistrate, and a useful friend to the poor. A 
memoir, including iiiany original poems written 
by him, was published after his death by his 
widow. 

CROSWELL, Edwix, an American journal- 
ist and politician, nephew of the succeeding, 
born in the village of Catskill, N. Y., about 
1795. Upon the completion of his education, he 
became an assistant editor of the " Catskill Re- 
corder," a journal established in Catskill in 1790 
by his father and uncles. The first article whicli 
he wrote for the press was a vindication of the 
drafted soldiery of the state who had been call- 
ed out for the defence of New York, in the last 
war Avith Great Britain. His political affinities 
Avere Avith the party Avho advocated the Avar, 
and after the retirement of his father, his man- 
agement of tlie paper Avas such as to attract 
tlie attention of public men prominent in the 
political history of the state. In 1823-''-t, upon 
tlie death of Judge Cantine, printer to tlie state 
and editor of the " Albany Argus," he Avas 
invited by Mr. Martin Van Buran, Mr. Benja- 
min F. Butler, and others, to assume the con- 
trol of that paper. Thenceforward he became a 
resident of Albany, and Avas closely identified 
Avith the groAvth and pi'osperity of the " Ar- 
gus," and Avith some of the most important po- 
litical moA'ements of the time. 'He converted 
the "Argus " from a semi-weekly into a daily 
journal, increased its circulation very largely, 
and made it one of the chief organs of the dem- 
ocratic party, not merely in the state, but in 
the country. The organization of tlie party 
was at that time as perfect as political sagacity 
could make it, and to Mr. CrosAvell, as a mem- 
ber of the so-called " Albany regency," a group 
of politicians who directed the councils of the 
party in the state of Ncav York, was assigned 
the delicate task of composing, through the col- 
umns of tlie " Argus," all intestine difficulties, 
and preserving order in the ranks. To the 
tact Avith Avhich he discharged this duty has 
been ascribed, in no inconsiderable degree, the 
ascendency which the democratic party long 
maintained in the state. The ininor party 
presses habitually copied the leading articles 
of tlie "Argus," as the embodiment of the 
soundest democratic principles ; and so potent 
was the inftuence of Mr. OrosAvell's name and 
of his paper, that for many years to discredit 
the authority of the " Argus " Avas equivalent 
to a renunciation of party ties. In 1840, Mr. 
CrosAvell Avas succeeded as state printer, a posi- 
tion he had held for the previous 17 years, by 
Mr. ThurloAV "Weed, editor of the " Albany 



CROSWELL 



CROTOXA 



99 



Evening Journal." In 1844 Mr. Croswell was 
reinstated for a period of 3 years. Various 
changes liad meanwhile atfeoted tlie lianiio- 
nious action of the ])arty which he iiad so long 
promoted, and he found himself oiijfosed to 
some of his earliest political associates, among 
others to Mr. Van Buren. The "Argus," liow- 
ever, continued to be one of tlie ))rincipal or- 
gans of the democratic party, and Mr. Croswell 
invariably sui)i)orted its candidates for national 
offices. In the more difficult matter of state 
politics, his intluence has necessarily been of 
less weight than formerly. In 1854 he retired 
from the "Argus" and from all connection 
with the newspaper press, after an eventful 
editorial life of about 40 years. Ilis pen has 
occasionally been employed on addresses and 
other literary prod\ictions not of a professional 
character, and he is said to be ])rei)aring for 
publication his personal reminiscences of the 
men and events of his time. 

CROSWELL, Hakky, D. D., an American 
journalist and clergyman, born at West Hart- 
ford, Conn., June 10, 1778, died at New 
Haven, March 13, 1858. lie was lirst publicly 
known as the editor of the " Balance," a 
journal founded by him in 1802 at Hudson, 
N. Y., in which he was associated with Ezra 
Sampson, by education a Presbyterian clergy- 
man. Mr. Croswell, who was a federalist, 
wrote in the then prevailing spirit of bitter- 
ness, and became involved in many libel suits 
and i)rosecntions, celebrated at the time. In 
one of these, for an article on Jefterson, ])ul)- 
lished in the " Wasp," a journal under his di- 
rection, Alexander Hamilton made his last 
forensic etlort in his defence. Mr. Croswell 
afterward removed to Albany, and established 
a federal paper ; but turning his attention to 
theology, he retired from journalism and took 
ordei's in the Episcopal church in 1814. He 
became rector of Trinity clmrch, in New Ha- 
ven, Feb. 22, 181G, and was in the latter part 
of his life almost as remarkable for the dig- 
nity and gravity of his deportment as he had 
been in his earlier career for its impetuosity. 
He was the author of several devotional works, 
and a memoir of his son, the Rev. William 
Croswell, D. D. — William, D. D., son of the 
preceding, born at Hudson, N". Y., Nov. 7, 
1804, died in Boston, Nov. 9, 1851. He was 
graduated at Yale college in 1822, and took 
orders in the Protestant Episcopal church in 
1828. In 1829 he became rector of Christ 
church, Boston, in 1840 of St. Peter's, at Au- 
burn, N. Y., and in 1844 returned to Boston to 
assume the charge of the church of the Advent, 
whose services he directed in conformity with 
the ancient rubrics rather than the practice of 
other churches or the sentiments of his ec- 
clesiastical superiors. His views in regard to 
the external arrangements of the church led to 
a controversy with Bishop Eastburn, by whom 
he was officially censured ; but his church 
prospered none the less, for the life of the 
pastor was a beautiful example of self-deny- 



ing charity and religious devotion. He became 
suddenly ill Avhile conducting divine service in 
his church on Sunday afternoon, and lived but a 
short time after being removed to his residence, 
Hisjioemsare mostly short lyrical pieces, in com- 
memoration of the observances and memorial 
seasons of the church to which he Avas devoted. 

CROTCH, William, an English composer, 
born at Norwich in 1775, died at Taunton, Dec. 
29. 1^'47. When scarcely 2 years of age he 
could play tunes on the harpsichord, and a year 
later was able to add a bass. This precocity 
attracted the attention of Dr. Burney and 
other distinguished musicians, but the expec- 
taticms excited by it were never fultilled. 
Crotch became an accomplished musician, but 
his compositions, of whicli he published a 
great number, have no special merit. He was 
made a doctor of music by the university of 
Oxford, in which he also filled the chair of 
professor of music. 

CROTON, a river of the state of New York, 
flowing through Dutchess, Putnam, and West- 
chester counties, and entering the Hudson river 
about 35 m. above New York city. From 1 his 
stream the city of New York is supplied with 
Avater through the Croton aqueduct ; for a de- 
scription of whicli, see Aqueduct. 

CROTON OIL is expressed from the seeds 
of the croton tiglliim^ a native of Ceylon, 
Molucca, Hindostan, and of other parts of x\sia. 
These seeds are rather larger than a common 
pea, of an ovate foi-m, and of a brownish color. 
The kernels contain about 50 per cent, of oil, 
which is of a pale yellow color. It has a slight 
odor, and a bitter, burning taste. It is a speedy 
and powerful purgative, and acts with good 
effect upon the patient when taken in small 
doses. Taken in large quantities, it produces 
vomiting and great pain, and is sometimes fatal 
in its effects. It has been long used in India, 
and was known in Europe as early as 1630, 
but attracted little notice. It was intro- 
duced into England in 1820, but does not yet 
receive the attention which it deserves. In 
cases of constipation, where all other medi- 
cines fail, it has proved highly beneficial. It 
is also employed in dropsy, apoplexy, and in 
almost all diseases in which the patient has a 
tendency to torpor. Externally applied, it is 
found advantageous in cases of gout, rheuma- 
tism, neuralgia, glandular swellings, and in pul- 
monary complaints. Thus applied, it produces 
inflammation of the skin, with pustular erup- 
tions. The oil is sometimes incorporated with 
the lead plaster, melting at a gentle heat 3 
parts of the latter with 1 of oil. Much of the 
croton oil imported to this country is not gen- 
uine, being procured from plants different from 
the C. tlgllum. 

CROTONA, or Crotox, an ancient Greek 
colony in soutliern Italy. The city stood near 
the mouth of the river ^Esarus, on the E. coast 
of the Bruttian peninsula. It was founded by 
a body of Achffians and Spartans, probably 
about 710 B. C, and soon became distiu- 



100 



CROUP 



guished for size, wealth, and power. Accord- 
ing to Livy, its walls enclosed a space 12 m. in 
circumference. In the war with Sybaris, 510 
B. C, Crotona is said to have sent into tho 
field 100,000 men, and to have conquered tho 
Sybarites with a force of 300,000. Some time 
afterward the Crotonites were themselves de- 
feated by the Locrians near the river Sagras, 
and never again recovered their national im- 
])ortance. In the 2d Punic war they were no 
longer able to defend their own Avails, and a 
few years later a Roman colony was sent out 
to recruit the exhausted ])Opulation of the city. 
Crotona was celebrated in ancient times for the 
school of Pythagoras. 

CROUP {cynanche trachealis, angina mem- 
'branacea, and diphtJieritis trachealis, of au- 
thors), an acute inflammation of the mucous 
membrane of the larynx, trachea, and bron- 
chial tubes, characterized by the production of 
false membranes on their internal surface. 
There is a spasmodic affection of the larynx 
(laryngismus stridulus), sometimes erroneously 
called croup, but which is entirely different in 
its nature, symjjtoms, gravity, and treatment. 
Croup is sometimes preceded by the symp- 
toms of a common cold, with hoarseness and 
a harsh cough, pain in the head, fever, and es- 
pecially by swelling and redness in the back 
of the throat ; but it may come on suddenly 
during the night, and in the midst of apparent 
health. The first symptom observed may be 
the peculiar ringing, brazen cough, occurring 
most likely in the night ; then the voice be- 
comes sharp, the respiration noisy and difH- 
cult, and accompanied by a crowing sound dur- 
ing inspiration ; the face is red and swollen, 
the eyes sutfused, the skin hot, the pulse hard 
and quick ; the head is thrown back, and 
every thing indicates the distress of the suf- 
ferer ; the occasional cough brings up notliing 
but some thick mucus, tinged perhaps with 
blood. A treacherous calm may succeed this 
agitation, and the patient may fall asleep ; but 
a new paroxysm will soon reawaken him, more 
severe than the first iniless the disease be cut 
short by approjiriate remedies. In the inter- 
vals the child may seem well, except from a 
hoarseness of the voice and a slightly noisy 
respiration. As the disease advances, the 
breathing becomes more difficult, the cough 
more suffocating, the voice stifled, and the 
countenance livid ; the extremities become cold, 
and coma or convulsions close the scene. Not- 
withstanding the difficulty of breathing, swal- 
lowing is generally easy ; false membranes of 
greater or less exent are occasionally coughed 
up with a partial, or, in rare cases, complete 
relief. Tlie disease may run to a fatal termi- 
nation in a few hours, or it may continue many 
days, ending in death or recovery. According 
to Bretonneau, croup is only an extension of 
a diphtheritic inflammation from the pharynx to 
the air passages; indeed, perhaps in the major- 
ity of cases tho false membrane may be seen 
upon the tonsils and posterior fauces before 



the larynx is affected ; and it is often the good 
fortune of the physician to arrest this fearful 
disease, when this early indication of danger i3 
understood and attended to. The brazen re- 
spiratory sound is heard chiefly during inspira- 
tion ; and when false membranes have formed 
in the larynx there is generally a prolongation 
of the expiration. The dysi)noea occurs usually 
at night, and during sleep ; its suffocative symp- 
toms, change in the features, dilatation of the 
nostrils, and agitation of all the respiratory 
movements, are found in no other disease. 
Auscultation detects nothing characteristic in 
the lungs, except diminution or absence of the 
respiratory murmur in proportion to the ob- 
struction in the larynx ; all rales, except those 
caused by the flapping of membranes which 
have extended into the bronchi, must be the 
result of complications not belonging to pure 
croup. The disease may be said to be peculiar 
to childhood, between the 1st and 10th years, 
though older children, and even adults, are oc- 
casionally affected ; it is most common in cold, 
damp seasons, arid those characterized by sud- 
den changes, and in low, marshy localities; it 
prevails sometimes epidemically and endemical- 
ly, but is never contagious ; it often occurs soon 
after the eruptive fevers, whooping cough, and 
catarrhal diseases, especially during epidemics ; 
there seems to be a predisposition to it in cer- 
tain families, and those who have been once 
attacked are liable to other seizures. The 
pathological characters are redness and swell- 
ing of the mucous membrane of the air pas- 
sages, and the presence of a membranous 
concretion of various extent and consistence, 
though death may occur from the violence of 
the inflammation and its extension to the lungs 
before the formation of the latter. Croup is 
a very dangerous disease ; leaving out of the 
case the many affections which have been 
erroneously called croup, it may be stated that 
the mortality is certainly 66 per cent, in well 
defined cases, and probably considerably great- 
er than that under the old forms of treatment. 
At the present time bleeding is very rarely 
resorted to, imless locally by leeches ; emetics 
can hardly be recommended as general prac- 
tice, except for the dislodgment of false mem- 
branes evidently loose ; mercurials, both inter- 
nally and by the skin, have always been re- 
garded with favor in tins country, but are of 
questionable utility in most cases, and posi- 
tively injurious in many ; the prostration fol- 
lowing the fractional exhibition of antimonials 
has not been found to arrest the disease ; pur- 
gatives, expectorants, blisters, tonics, and anti- 
spasmodics have been freely used to little pur- 
pose. There is probably no better general treat- 
ment than the following, recommended by 
Prof. John Ware : 1, to avoid all reducing, 
depleting, and disturbing measures, as bleed- 
ing, emetics, purgatives, and blisters ; 2, to 
keep the patient under the full influence of 
opium, combined perhaps with calomel ; 3, 
constant external api^lication of A^armth and 



CROUSAZ 



CEOW 



101 



moisture, and of a slightly stimulating mer- 
curial liniment ; 4, sponging witli warm water, 
ami poultices of flax seed or mullein leaves to 
the throat ; 5, the inhalation of watery vapor. 
A great improvement on tlie use of acid gar- 
gles, alum and calomel insufflations, and acid 
caustics, is the now prevalent application of 
nitrate of silver. Tlie fibrinous exudation is 
a secretion from the muciparous glands of the 
mucous membrane, irritated by some unknown 
specific cause ; as this exildation almost always 
begins in the upper portion of the air passages, 
and progresses downward, it may often be 
checked by the application of a strong solution 
of nitrate of silver to the tonsils and opening 
of the glottis ; in an hour or less the operation 
may be repeated, and the caustic ai)plied with- 
in the glottis; this will generally be followed 
by vomiting and the discharge of any exist- 
ing membrane ; the caustic and the emesis 
will, if any thing can, arrest the exudative in- 
flammation. After this first and most important 
step, the treatment of Dr. Ware can hardly be 
improved; in the later stages, when compli- 
cated with bronchitis, prussic acid is the best 
remedy for the distressing spasmodic cough. 
In desperate cases, tracheotomy has been per- 
formed with immediate relief and ultimate re- 
covery ; of course it would be useless when the 
false membranes liad reached the bronchi. All 
remedies, however, to be eifectual, must be ap- 
plied very early in the disease. — Laryngismus 
stridulus, or spasmodic croup, as it is some- 
times called, occurs during the first 2 or 3 years 
of life, from the irritation of dentition, de- 
ranged digestion, or insufiicient nutrition ; the 
spasm sometimes extends to the muscles of the 
extremities. The inspiration is crowing, not 
followed by cough. It seems to be essentially 
a spasm of the glottis, not immediately danger- 
ous, and is to be treated by tonics, alteratives, 
attention to the general health, and the re- 
moval of any obvious causes of irritation in 
the dental or digestive systems. Recovery is 
general ; and many of the tar-spread remarka- 
ble cures of croup are nothing more than cases 
of this spasmodic or croup-like disease, which 
may even cease without treatment. 

CROUSAZ, Jeax Pieki?e de, a Swiss philos- 
opher and mathematician, born at Lausanne, 
April 13, 1663, died March 22, 1748, studied at 
Geneva, Leyden, and Paris, and was ordained 
pastor of a church at Lausanne. In 1699 he 
was appointed professor of Greek and philoso- 
phy in his native city; in 1724, professor of 
mathematics and philosophy in Groningen ; 
and in 1737, professor of the same in Lausanne. 
Beside his sermons, he published many works 
upon logic, education, and philosophy, and also 
upon higher geometry. 

.CROW (corvus), a genus of birds belonging 
to the order passeres, tribe conirostres, and fam- 
ily corvidm. More than 20 species are de- 
scribed, found in most parts of the globe ; 
some remain stationary within a certain dis- 
trict, while others migrate from place to place 



with the changes of the seasons ; they gener- 
ally assemble in flocks in cultivated places, in 
search of worms, grubs, caterpillars, small ani- 
mals, the eggs and young of birds, carrion, and 
various grains and cultivated vegetables ; a few 
species frequent the sea sliore, to feed upon the 
dead fish cast up by the waves, or in quest of 
shell-fish, which they break by letting them 
fall from a considerable height upon the rocks. 
The genus corvus includes the raven, the rook, 
the jackdaw, and other species not usually de- 
nominated crows, which will be noticed under 
their proper heads. Four species only will be 
described here, viz. : the American, the Euro- 
pean, the hooded, and the fifh crow. I. The 
American crow (0. Americanus, Audubon) was 
first separated from the European species by 
Audubon, and there can be but little doubt 
that they are distinct. The bill of the adult is 
2g- inches along the ridge, of a black color, 
straight, strong, and compressed ; the upper 
mandible a little convex, the lower mandi- 
ble straight ; the edges of both sharp and in- 
flected. The nostrils are basal, lateral, round, 
and covered by bristly feathers directed for- 
ward. The head is large, and the whole form 
of the bird compact and graceful ; the legs are 
strong and of moderate length ; the tarsi are 
2^ inches long, black, and covered with scales 
anteriorly; the toes and claws are black, the 
latter being moderate, arched, compressed, and 
sharp ; the 3d toe is the longest, the other 3 
being nearly equal. The plumage is of a gen- 
eral deep black color, with purplish blue re- 
flections, and tinged with purplish brown on 
the back of tlie neck ; the under parts are less 
glossy, and the feathers are less compact than 
those of the back ; the plumage of the head 
and neck is well blended ; the wings are long, 
the 1st primary short, and the 4th the longest, 
the primaries are tapering, and the secondaries 
broad; the tail is long, rounded, of 12 feathers 
with their shafts undulated. The length of 
this crow is 18 inches, and the extent of wings 
3 feet 2 inches. The iris is of a brown color. 
The female is slightly less glossy than the male, 
and the young are of a dull brownish black, 
Avith less brilliant reflections. There is proba- 
bly no bird more generally and unjustly perse- 
cuted than the crow ; every farmer thinks him- 
self privileged to destroy it, and counts the 
death of every one as a gain to agriculture. 
Of course the bird, in order to save his race 
from extermination, must employ all his cun- 
ning and ingenuity to avoid his enemies ; hence 
liis extreme shyness, and certain flight at the 
sight of any one armed with a gun, the de- 
structive properties of which he seems weU 
acquainted with ; perched on a high tree, he 
sounds the alarm at the approach of danger, 
and all the crows within half a mile fly ofl:* at 
the well-known cry of the watchman. Thou- 
sands of crows are destroyed every year by 
guns, traps, and poisoned grain; and multi- 
tudes of the young birds are killed in their 
nests by every urchin who can climb a tree. 



102 



CROW 



Though the crow pulls up a few seeds of the 
geriniiuiting corn, his services to the agricul- 
turist far outwoig-h his doprcdations; he daily 
devours insects, gruhs, and "worms, -whioh hut 
for hini would devastate whole fields of the 
young corn; lie destroys innumerahle mice, 
moles, and other small quadrui)cds, every one 
of which commits 10 times the mischief he 
does; he will cat snakes, frogs, lizards, and 
other small reptiles, and also fruits, seeds, and 
vegetables, and, if hard pressed for food, will 
even descend to carrion. lie will steal and 
devour the eggs of other birds, and will occa- 
sionally prey upon a weak or wounded bird ; ho 
delights to worry the owl, the opossnin, and 
the raccoon, and will pursue the thievish 
hawk, and even the eagle with all the forces 
that he can raise in the neighborhood ; he is 
said to follow the larger carnivora, probably to 
partake of the bits which they may leave. On the 
whole, the crow is a persecuted, comparatively 
harmless, and indeed a most serviceable bird, 
and deserves better treatment from the Ameri- 
• can farmer. Audubon says to the farmers : " I 
would tell them that if they persist iu killing 
crows, the best season for doing so is when 
their corn begins to ripen." Wherever the 
crow is abundant the raven is scarce, and vice 
versa. The crow is common to all parts of the 
United States, assembling, after the breeding 
season, in large flocks, many of which remove 
to the southern states in the winter. It builds 
its nest in thick swamps, or on the sides of 
steep rucks, as nnich concealed as possible ; the 
l^eriod of breeding varies from February to 
June, according to latitude. The nest is 
made of sticks interwoven Avith grasses, plas- 
tered within with mud, and lined with soft 
roots, feathers, or wool ; the eggs are from 4 
to 6, of a pale greenish color, spotted and 
clouded with brownish green and purplish 
gray ; both sexes sit upon the eggs, and watch 
over their young with the tenderest care ; in 
the southern states they raise- 2 broods in a sea- 
son. Several nests are often found near each 
other, and when any stranger approaches the 
community, the noise of the assembled multi- 
tude is almost deafening until the intruder re- 
tires. The young, when just about to leave 
the nest, are considered in some localities tol- 
erable food. The Hight of the crow is swift, 
capable of being sustained a long time, and 
sometimes at a great height ; on the ground its 
gait is graceful and slow; it often alights on 
the back of cattle, to pick out the worms from 
the skin. Their well-known notes, " caw, caw, 
caw," are very discordant, especially in early 
morning when they scatter into small Hocks in 
search of food, and toward evening when the 
returning parties are selecting their roosting 
places for the night. The crow is very coura- 
geous against its bird enemies, and Avill not 
hesitate to attack any marauding hawk which 
comes Avithin its range. It makes a very' in- 
teresting pet, as it displays considerable intelli- 
gence and docility ; but its propensities are de- 



cidedly thievish. Like many other birds of a 
black color, tlie crow is occasionally perfectly 
white. The sight of the crow is very keen; 
and it is l)y this sense, and not by the sense of 
smell, that this bird is guided in its search of 
food, and in the avoidance of its human ene- 
mies. When on its marauding excursions af- 
ter eggs, which it carries away on the bill, it 
is often attacked and driven away, especially 
by the courageous king-bird. II. The Euro- 
pean, or carrion crow (C. corone, Linn.), is 
larger than the preceding species, being from 
20 to 22 inches long, witli an extent of wing 
of 40 inches ; the bill is stronger, deeper, more 
convex on the sides, and the edges more in- 
flected ; the feet and toes are larger and strong- 
er, and the claws robust in proportion. Were 
it not for its smaller size and some differences 
in the form of the feathers, it might be con- 
founded with the raven, as its proportions are 
about the same, the body being full and ovate, 
and the neck short and strong. The palate is 
flat and the tongue oblong, while in the Amer- 
ican species the palate is concave and the 
tongue is narrower. The plumage is moder- 
ately full, compact, and very glossy ; the feath- 
ers of the hind neck are narrow and with their 
points distinct, but in the American bird they 
are broad, rounded, and so blended, that the 
form of each is not easily traced ; the feathers 
of the fore neck are lanceolate and compact at 
the end, as in the raven, but in the American 
crow they are three times as broad, rounded, 
and entirely blended ; in other respects the 
plumage is alike in the two birds, the neck of 
tlie former being tinged with green and blue, 
but in the latter with a distinct purplish brown. 
From this description it can hardly be doubted 
that the American and European crow are dis- 
tinct species. The female is similar to the male 
in color, but somewhat smaller ; the tints of 
the young have less of the metallic lustre. The 
carrion crow preys upon small quadrupeds, 
young hares and rabbits, young birds, eggs, 
Crustacea, mollusks, worms, grubs, and grains ; 
but, as its name imports, its favorite food is 
carrion of all kinds ; it often destroys young 
lambs and sickly sheep ; it is very fond of at- 
tacking parturient elves, frequently killing both 
the mother and the young, tearing out the eyes, 
tongue, and entrails, in the manner of the vul- 
tures ; whatever its food may be, it is exceed- 
ingly voracious. Unlike the American species, 
the carrion crow does not associate in large 
flocks, but is generally solitary or in pairs, ex- 
cept in breeding time, when a whole family 
■will remain together for some weeks. Its flight 
is sedate and direct (hence the expression, "■ as 
the crow flies," for a straight line), and perform- 
ed by regular flaps of the fully extended wings ; 
it does not soar to any great height, and pre- 
fers the open moors, flelds, and shores to moun- 
tainous districts. Its gait is similar to that of 
the raven, and its cry is a croak quite different 
from the bark-like cawing of the American 
crow. It builds its nest, of large size, amid 



CROW 



103 



high rocks, 'or on tall trees, and lays from 4 to G 
eggs of a pale Lhiish green color, spotted and 
blotched with dark brown and pnrplisli gray ; 
these colors, however, vary coiisi(h'ral)ly ; the 
eggs are about If inches long, and 1^ indies in 
their greatest width. Tliey not nnfreciuontly 
build in the noigliborhood of farm liouses, in 
order to be near any rejected oilVil, and watcli 
their ojjportunity to pounce upon chickens or 
ducklin<rs, and to steal eggs from any of the 
domestic fowls. The carrion crow is very 
easily tamed, and is capable of strong attach- 
ment ; its docility is great, and its memory as- 
tonishing ; its propensities are thievisli ; like 
the raven and the jackdaw, tlie carrion crow 
may be taught to imitate the human voice. 
According to Temminck, this species occurs 
over all western Europe, but is rare in the 
eastern parts. III. The hooded crow (C. comix, 
Linn.) has the head, fore neck, wings, and tail 
of a black color, with puriilisli blue and green 
reflections ; the rest of the plumage is ash-gray 
tinged with purplish, the sliafts being darker ; 
the female is similar to the male, somewhat 
smaller, the black on the fore neck less in ex- 
tent, and the gray of the back less pure ; tlie 
plumage of tlie young is black, with the excep- 
tion of a broad baud of dusky gray round the 
fore part of the body. This species, with the 
exception of the color, much resembles tlie car- 
rion crow ; it is somewhat smaller, the lengtli 
being about 20 inches, and the extent of wings 
39 inches. It is abundant in tlie northern parts 
of Scotland, and it occurs in all parts of Europe ; 
it prefers the coast, and tlie neighborhood of 
large maritime towns. It is not gregarious, not 
more than 5 individuals being often seen to- 
gether ; it is quite as omnivorous as the preced- 
ing species, though it prefers fish and mollusks 
to the carcasses of larger animals ; it has sa- 
gacity enough, when it cannot open crabs and 
shell-fish, to raise them into the air and di'op 
tliem on the ground for the purpose of break- 
ing them. It is very fond of perching upon a 
stone or tree in dull weather, and croaking for 
a long time, being answered by others who 
have stationed themselves at a distance ; this 
liabit has been considered by the common peo- 
ple as indicative of rain. Its ordinary flight is 
slow and regular, and its gait npon the ground 
remarkably sedate and dignified. It is a jieacea- 
ble bird, rarely attacked by, and rarely attack- 
ing others. It does not soar, nor skim the hill- 
sides in search of food, but skulks along the 
low grounds in the vicinity of water ; it de- 
stroys many of the eggs and young of the plover 
and the red grouse and other birds frequenting 
the moors. They remain paired the greater 
part of the year, and almost always construct 
their nest on a rock near the sea ; the eggs, 
usually 5 in number, are of a pale bluish green 
tint, marked, especially at the large end, with 
roundish spots of greenish brown and pale pur- 
plish gray. The hooded crow is generally found 
in ditferent localities from the carrion crow ; 
and, when existing in the same district, the 



species keep separate, the latter being much 
more shy and wild. It is said, and probably 
with truth, that the species breed together, pro- 
ducing hybrids intermediate between the two ; 
it must be ditlicult to distinguish such hybrids 
from the present species, as the space occupied 
by the ash-gray varies greatly in ditierent in- 
dividuals. IV. The fish crow (C. ossifragus, 
Wils.) is smaller than the common crow, hav- 
ing a length of only 16 inches and an extent of 
wings of 33 inches ; the bill is nearly 2 inches, 
and the tarsus 1| inches long. These two birds 
resemble each other in general appearance ; >the 
bill in the fish crow is concave on the sides at 
the base, and flat in tiie middle ; the plumage 
in its general color is deep black, with blue and 
purple reflections above, and blue and greenish 
beneath ; the bill, tarsi, toes, and claws are 
black ; the iris dark brown. This species is 
abundant in the southern states, in maritime 
districts, at all seasons; it is occasionally seen 
as far north as New York in spring and sum- 
mer, returning to the south in winter. The 
fish crow is not persecuted like the common 
species, and is therefore quite familiar in it3 
habits, approaching houses and gardens with- 
out fear, and feeding unmolested on the best 
fruits. Its favorite food, as its popular name 
implies, is fish ; at early dawn the flock takes 
wing for the sea-shore, in a very noisy manner ; 
they skim along the shallows, flats, and marshes 
in search of small fish, which they catch alive 
in their claws, retiring to a tree or stone to de- 
vour them. Like others of the genus, this spe- 
cies will feed on all kinds of garbage, on crabs 
and mollusks, on eggs and young birds, on the 
berries of various kinds of ilex and sfillingki, 
on mulberries, tigs, whortleberries, pears, and 
other ripe fruits ; they are in the habit of at- 
tacking on the wing the smaller gulls and terns, 
and of forcing them to give up tlieir recently 
caught fish. They breed in February and 
March in Florida and South Carolma, and a 
month later in New Jersey ; the nests are 
usually made in the loblolly pine, on the ends 
of the branches about 30 feet from the ground ; 
the nest and eggs resemble those of tlie com- 
mon crow, but are smaller. The note is difier- 
ent from that of the other species, resembling, 
according to Audubon, the syllables ?ia, ha, 
hae, frequently repeated ; at night they are still, 
in the morning very noisy, and in the breeding 
season not disagreeable nor monotonous. Their 
flight is strong and protracted ; they generally 
fly near the water, but occasionally they rise to 
a great height. On the ground their move- 
ments are graceful ; and they are fond of open- 
ing and shutting their wings, a habit common 
to the other crows. They can disgorge their 
food like the vultures, when wounded and at- 
tempting to escape ; they are easily approached 
and shot, and in winter, when their food is 
chiefly fruit, they are veiy fat, and considered 
good eating. The female is smaller, and the 
gloss on the plumage is less bright, with brown 
reflections on the upper parts ; the length is 15 



104 



CROWE 



CROWN 



inches, and the extent of wings 31 inches. — 
The habits of the crows seem to be the same 
in all countries. The carrion crow of Ceylon 
detects the wounded deer, and discloses its 
retreat to the hunter by congregating on the 
neighboring trees. Whenever this bird sees an 
animal lying on the ground, it soon collects all 
its comrades in the vicinity ; one of the boldest 
hops upon the animal's body ; as this is not un- 
common in their search for ticks, the creature 
lies still, grateful for the expected riddance of 
the vermin. Finally the crow looks into the 
eyes ; then the animal, if able to defend itself, 
removes the dangerous friend by a shake of the 
head ; but if the eyes be dim from disease or 
wounds, full well the crow knows it, and 
plunges its powerful bill into the eyeball of the 
struggling suSerer, and feasts upon its favorite 
morsel ; the rest soon join, and attack the parts 
giving easiest access to the entrails. The hood- 
ed crow of Ceylon, like the other mentioned in 
Layard's " Ornithology of Ceylon," lives amid 
the densest populations, stealing every thing 
eatable that comes in his way ; if the spread 
table be left for a moment, the marks of feet 
upon the cloth, of bills in the butter, and the 
disappearance of small bits, show that the rob- 
bers could not have been far oif ; indeed the 
sable watchmen sit perched on rafter and roof, 
with inclined heads, ready for every opportu- 
nity to attack the box of rice or the store of 
dried fish. They are useful scavengers, and 
are rarely molested by the natives, of whom 
they stand in no fear ; but at the appearance 
of the white man with his gun, the whole cor- 
vine community is in an uproar, and flies hur- 
riedly to a safe distance till the danger is over. 
CROWE, Cathaeink (Stevens), a living Eng- 
lish authoress, born at Borough Green, in the 
county of Kent, married in 1822 Lieut. Col. 
Crowe of the royal army, and began her litei-- 
ary career in 1838 by the publication of a tra- 
gedy entitled " Aristodemus." Adopting a more 
popular style of composition, she soon after pub- 
lished a novel called "Manorial Rights," which 
was succeeded by the "Adventures of Susan 
Hopley." The latter was marked especially by 
a rapid succession of various incidents, and waa 
reproduced in a dramatic form. Her 3d novel, 
"Lilly Dawson," appeared in 1847, and was de- 
signed to show the influence of the afiections 
upon the development of the intellect. In 1848 
she translated from the German of Kerner the 
"Seeressof Prevorst;" and being thus intro- 
duced to the study of the phenomena of animal 
magnetism, she has since published several 
tales, some of them of a fantastic character, con- 
taining incidents and observations with refer- 
ence to the supernatural world and to dark 
points of experience. The "Night Side of 
Nature" (1848) was a skilful effort to awaken 
an interest in the whole doctrine of spirits. 
Among her later publications are " Pippie's 
Warning," " Light and Darkness, or the Mys- 
teries of Life," the " Adventures of a Beauty," 
and " Linny Lockwood." 



CROWN (Lat. corona)^ a wreath-shaped or 
circular covering for the head, made either of 
leaves and flowers or of metals and precious 
stones, and worn as a decoration or honorable 
distinction. The legends of the Greeks attrib- 
uted its invention to Prometheus or Janus, and 
the earliest Greek crowns were worn chiefly on 
festive occasions, and were twined of twigs of the 
tree or plant sacred to the divinity who presided 
over the festival. They rarely contained more 
than a single kind of leaves or flowers, as the ivy, 
myrtle, roses, violets, and lilies. The ivy was in 
especial esteem on Bacchanalian occasions, since 
it was believed to be a preventive of drunkenness. 
Circular garlands were common ornaments also 
for priests, altars, temples, graves, and sacrificial 
offerings. At the national games, a crown was 
the reward granted to the victors. It was 
made of wild olive for the Olympic heroes ; of 
laurel, for the Pythian; of olive, and afterward 
parsley, for the Nemean ; and of pine, for the 
Isthmian. — The Romans gave crowns to the con- 
querors in the circus, and to the best actor at the 
theatre. They also invented a great variety of 
crowns, made of different materials, each with 
a separate name, which were bestowed in honor 
especially of military achievements. The corona 
ohsidionalis was presented by besieged cities or 
armies to the general who delivered them ; it 
conferred the highest honor, was rarely obtained, 
and was made of weeds and wild flowers gather- 
ed from the spot where the troops or citizens 
had been beleaguered. The corona civica was 
the reward for a soldier who should save the 
life of a citizen in battle, by slaying his oppo- 
nent and maintaining the ground ; it was an 
oak wreath, and was the second of the military 
crowns in honor. The corona rostrata or nava- 
lis was bestowed upon the Roman who in a naval 
combat had first boarded the enemy's vessel, 
or the commander whose skill and courage had 
gained a signal victory ; it was of gold, and 
decorated with representations of the beaks of 
ships. The corona muralis was given by the 
general to the soldier who first scaled the wall 
of a besieged town ; it was of gold, and deco- 
rated with turrets. The corona castrensis was 
ornamented Avith palisades, and was given to 
the soldier who first surmounted tlie intrench- 
ments and forced an entrance into the enemy's 
camp. The corona triumphalis was a vrreath 
of laurel (afterward of gold), given by the sol- 
diers to the victorious general on the day of his 
triumph. The corona ovalis, of myrtle, and of 
less estimation than the preceding, was given 
to generals who enjoyed an ovation instead of 
a triumpli. The corona oleagina Avas a wreath 
of olive, and was bestowed upon victorious sol- 
diers as well as generals. There was also a 
crown of olive or gold peculiar to the priests, 
which was also regarded as an emblem of 
peace ; radiate crowns attributed to gods and 
deified heroes and emperors ; and a crown of 
verbena, worn by brides, by whom it was gath- 
ered and braided. The custom of crowning 
poets with wreaths of flowers existed both 



CROWN POINT 



CRUCIBLE 



105 



among tlie Greeks and Romans. — The crown 
under different names, as crown, tiara, mitre, 
and diadem, has been a badge of civil and 
ecclesiastical supremacy from remote antiquity. 
The mitre of the Jewish high priest and the 
radiate crowns upon coins of ancient Persian 
kings are examples. The Roman and Byzan- 
tine emperors wore crowns of various kinds, 
the diadem, a sort of fillet, becoming common 
after the time of Constantine. The imi)erial 
cr4)wn of Charlemagne, imitated from Byzan- 
tine usage, was closed above like a cap, and 
terminated in a circle of gold. During the 
middle ages the emperors of Germany received 

3 crowns : that of Germany, which was of sil- 
ver, and was assumed at Aix la Chapelle ; the 
crown of iron, wliich had formerly been pecu- 
liar to the Lombard kings, and was assumed at 
Pavia ; and the imperial crown, which was re- 
ceived at Rome, and was surmounted by a mitre 
similar to that of bishops, but somewhat smaller. 
The crown of iron, though chiefly of gold, de- 
rived its name from an iron band which encir- 
cled it in the interior, and Avhich was said to 
have been made from one of the nails which 
served in the crucifixion of Christ. It is still 
I)reserved in the cathedral of Monza, and is one 
of the crowns of the Austrian emperors, who 
are now masters of the Lombardo- Venetian 
kingdom. Napoleon wore it when he was 
crowned king of Italy at Milan, The kings 
of France of the 1st race wore a diadem of 
pearls in the form of a fillet ; those of the 2d 
wore a double row of pearls ; those of the 3d 
wore a circular band of gold enriched with 
precious stones. Philip of Valois introduced 
the 3 fleurs de lis about 1330. Francis I. re- 
turned to the crown of Charlemagne, arched 
over the head, in order not to leave this mark 
of superiority to Henry VIII. and Charles V. ; 
and from that time this has continued to be 
the crown of France. — A fillet of pearls appears 
from coins to have been the most common 
crown of the Saxon kings of England. Stephen 
introduced the open crown with fleurs de lis, 
and Richard III. first placed the arched crown 
with crosses and fleurs de lis upon the great 
seal. The crown which, with slight variations, 
has been continued by succeeding sovereigns, was 
introduced by Henry VII. At present it is a 
circle of gold, adorned with pearls and precious 
stones, having alternately 4 crosses patee and 

4 fleurs de lis ; above these rise 4 arched dia- 
dems, which close under a mound and cross. 
The whole covers a velvet cap trimmed with 
ermine. — About the 10th century, when the 
feudal lords disputed the royal supremacy, all 
the ranks of the nobility assumed a sort of 
crown. (See Coeonet.) — The popes have for 
many centuries worn a triple crown, which is 
designed to signify their ecclesiastical, civil, and 
judicial supremacy. It consists of a long cap 
or tiara of golden cloth, encircled by 3 coronets, 
one rising above the other, surmounted by a 
mound and cross of gold. 

CROWN POINT, a township of Essex co., 



N. Y., on the W. shore of Lake Champlain, 
about 75 miles N. of Albany, and noted as the 
site of a famous fort, now in ruins. 

CROYDON, a market town and parish of 
England, co. of Surrey, on the river Wandle, 
near Banstead downs, 10 m. S. of London, with 
which it comnmnicates by the London and 
Brighton railway. A branch line also connects 
It with Epsom. Pop. of the town in 1651, 
10,2G0. The houses are mostly Avell built, and 
the streets, the principal one of which is a milo 
long, are paved and lighted with gas. It has 
an elegant and capacious churcli of freestone, 
built in the 15th century, 2 modern churches, 
several chapels and schools, a hospital, an alms 
house richly endowed for the maintenance of 
34 decayed housekeepers, a literary and scienti- 
fic institution, a handsome town hall, a barrack, 
a gaol, breweries, bleacheries, and calico print 
"works. The manor of Croydon (called in the 
Domesday book Cruie-dune, chalk hill), together 
with a royal palace, was given at the Norman, 
conquest to Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, 
whose successors resided here for a long time. 
The palace has been gradually rebuilt since 1278, 
at which period it was in its original state, and 
the oldest portion now left is of the 14th cen- 
tury. In 1780 it was converted into a calico 
factory, which has since been abandoned. A 
girls' industrial school is taught in the old chapel. 
The manufactures of Croydon have been declin- 
ing for several years. 

CROYLAND, or Crowland, a town of Lin- 
colnshire, England, at the confluence of the 
Welland with 2 smaller streams, 8 m. N. of 
Peterborough ; pop. in 1851, 3,183. It is a 
place of much interest to antiquaries, partly for 
its curious triangular foot bridge, dating from 
the reign of Edward II., but chiefly on account 
of the ruins of a famous and magnificent abbey, 
a portion of which is still used as a church. 
This abbey was founded by Ethelbald, was sev- 
eral times destroyed, and rebuilt each time with 
greater splendor than before. 

CRUCIBLE, a small vessel made of refrac- 
tory materials for withstanding high tempera- 
tures, and used in metallurgic and chemical 
operations for containing substances to be melt- 
ed. The name is said by some to have been 
given to them by the alchemists from the Latin 
crux^ crticis, in consequence of their custom 
of marking them with the sign of the cross. 
Others derive it from the Latin crucio, to tor- 
ment, because the contents, in the language of 
the same alchemists, were thus treated in the 
operations to which they were subjected. They 
are made in various forms and of different ma- 
terials, according to the purposes required of 
them. The qualities they should possess are 
infusibilit)-, capacity of bearing sudden changes 
of temperature without breaking, resistance to 
the chemical action of the substances fused in 
them, and a texture impermeable to liquids 
and gases. But substances which possess some 
of these qualities are deficient in others, and 
consequently they are dift'erently made for dif- 



106 



CRUCIBLE 



CRUCIFIX 



ferent uses ; and ■when made of one material as 
the best to withstand the lieat or the most eco- 
nomical, tliey are lined -with another whicli bet- 
ter resists the chemical action of the substances 
to be operated upon. Charcoal being one of the 
most unalterable substances known, when pro- 
tected from the action of the air, it was much 
used for crucibles by the old assayers ; a piece 
of proper shape was merely hollowed out and 
bound round with wire. An improvement upon 
this is to line earthenware crucibles with char- 
coal, well selected, so as to be free from impu- 
rities, and after being pulverized passed through 
a very fine sieve, and made into a paste with 
water. This being thoroughly kneaded, the 
crucible, moistened by dipping it in water, is 
filled with the paste by ramming in small por- 
tions at a time with a wooden pestle. Out 
of this filling a cavity of proper size for the ope- 
ration is excavated with a spatula, and its sides 
are well rubbed and smoothed with a glass or 
metallic rod. For many purposes these, called 
brasqued crucibles, are tlie best of all. The 
lining of charcoal strengthens the sides, so 
that they will not be liable to lose their shape 
by softening -in the fire; the earthen wai'e is 
protected by it from contact with the con- 
tents ; and it is out of reach of the action of 
the air. Moreover, in reducing the oxides of 
the metals the charcoal affords the carbon re- 
quired by the oxygen to disengage it from its 
metallic combinations, and convert it into the 
volatile form of carbonic acid gas. — The best 
earthenware or porous crucibles are made of 
the purest clays, such as consist only of alumina 
and silica. The texture depends upon the degree 
to which the materials are pulverized. The 
close Wedgwood crucibles are made of the best 
materials finely ground; but they do not with- 
stand sudden changes of temperature so well as 
the coarser Hessian and English crucibles. The 
former, which have been long known as the 
cheapest and among the best clay crucibles, are 
made in the vicinity of Almerode, in Germany, 
of an aluminous clay, which is mixed with quartz 
sand. They are 3-sided at top and round below. 
Their composition, according to Berthier, is silica 
70.9, alumina 24.8, oxide of iron 3.3, with traces 
of magnesia. They are remarkable for their 
refractory properties of withstanding sudden 
changes and high degrees of temperature. Small 
ones may even be heated to redness and thrown 
into cold water without breaking. They will 
soften, however, at the high heat of the furnaces 
in which they are used, and the coarseness of 
their material renders them very porous. Salt- 
petre and common salt, and other substances 
used as fiuxes, are liable when fused to find their 
■way through them. Porcelain or Wedgwood 
crucibles are more impervious to vapors and 
fluxes. The French crucibles of Beaufay are 
perhaps more refractory than the Hessian. They 
arc made near Xamur, of clay without additional 
mixture of sand ; when moulded they are washed 
over with a tliin coating of pure clay, prepared 
by pulverizing clay that has been baked. They 



are of ijiore dense material than other clay cruci- 
bles, and hence better resist the passage of 
fluxes. Their conijjosition is, by the analysis 
of Berthier, silica G4,G, alumina 34.4, oxide of 
iron 1. The English or London crucibles are 
made of triangular or circular form, and have 
covers of the same material. The Cornish cru- 
cibles made for the use of the assayers of the 
cop{>er ores in Ct)rnwall are cylindrical, and 
resemble in their properties the llessian. Stour- 
bridge clay, tlie material of fire brick, is used 
for the manufacture of crucibles, mixed with 
half its Aveight of pulverized coke. — Blue pots, 
or black lead crucibles, as they are often in-. 
correctly called, are made of the mineral graph- 
ite or plumbago, Avhich is composed of car- 
bon with 4 to 10 per cent, of iron. The Bub- 
stance is finely pulverized, mixed with a third or 
half its weight of clay, moulded into the pots, 
some of which are large enough to serve for 
assaying furnaces, and then baked. These are 
excellent crucibles for resisting changes of tem- 
perature, as well as the chemical action of their 
contents; but their higher cost limits their, use 
to certain purposes only. They are used in 
melting cast steel in the large works where this . 
is manufactured. They may be protected on 
the inside from the action of the oxides, which 
tend to remove the carbonaceous material, by a 
lining of clay or other substance. These are 
made of excellent quality in Boston and in Jersey 
City. — For different chemical operations cruci- 
bles are employed made of various metals. 
Those of platinum are in continual use in the 
operations connected with chemical analyses. 
But these, though they bear the highest tempera- 
ture, are attacked by many substances which do 
not affect other metals, as silver particularly, 
and crucibles of this material are therefore re- 
quired as occasional substitutes. Cast-iron cru- 
cibles are cheaply made, and are very service- 
able in many assays of sulphurets especially. 
TJie iron itself serves to desulphurize the natu- 
ral compound of this substance, as the carbon 
of the brasqued crucibles deoxidizes the oxides. 
Assays of galena may be rapidly made one after 
another in cast-iron crucibles, by introducing a 
portion mixed with twice and a half its weight 
of carbonate of soda and fusing ; the galena is 
decomposed, and sulphuret of iron is produced 
at the expense of the crucible ; the lead set 
free may be poured out, and a new portion in- 
stantly introduced, and thus the operation may 
be continued as long as the crucible lasts. 

CRUCIFIX (Lat. crucifi(jo^ to fix to a cross), 
a sculptured or carved representation of the 
Saviour attached to the cross. The simple cross 
was the etcdiest symbol of Christianity, The 
Cth Gicumenical council (G80) ordered that Christ 
should be rcin-esented according to his human 
features, rather than in the symbolical figure of 
the paschal lamb, and in the succeeding century 
the crucifix became common throughout the 
church. There are still preserved in a museum 
in Rome crucifixes which date from the 8th cen- 
tury. This image is used by few Protestants, 



CRUCIFIXION 



CKUIK8IIANK 



107 



but is placed by Roman Catholics in churches 
and oratories, especially on altars, and is some- 
times Avorn on the person. 

CRUCIFIXION, a raodo of punishment 
v'hich existed amonj^ several ancient nations. 
Thucydides speaks of Inacus, an African kinijr, 
who was crucified by the Egyptians. Polycrntes 
suftered the same fate from the Persians, accord- 
ing to Herodotus. It was common among the 
Cartliaginians. Alexander the Great made a 
most ferocious use of the cross after the capture 
of Tyre on the defenders of that city. King Tar- 
quin the Proud is said to have been the first to 
' cause executions in this way at Rome. The sur- 
vivor of the 3 Iloratii had been ])reviously con- 
demned to this punishment for the nnu'der of his 
sister, but had been pardoned. It was an infa- 
mous i)unishment, applied especially to slaves, 
and hence termed by Tacitus servile siipplicium. 
The cross was usually raised in some frequented 
place outside of tlie city. In Judtca this kind of 
execution was practised under the Romans. The 
crucifixion of the Saviour is a favorite subject 
with the great painters of the middle ages. 

CRUCIGER, Kaspar, a German Protestant 
theologian, born at Leipsic in 1504, died at Wit- 
tenberg in 1548, He studied at Wittenberg, 
where he became connected with Luther, by 
whose favor lie was appointed to tlie rectorate 
of Magdeburg in 1524. In 1528 he became 
professor of theology and court preacher at 
Wittenberg, in which ofKces he remained till 
his death. His services to the reformation con- 
sist chiefly in his having aided Luther in trans- 
lating the Bible, and having taken part in the 
most important religious conferences of the 
time. — His grandson, Georg (1575-1037), was 
the instructor of Maurice of Hesse, and per- 
suaded that prince to embrace the reformed 
doctrines. He was afterward professor of phi- 
losophy at Marburg, and in 1618 attended the 
council of Dort. 

CRUDEN, Alexander, .author of the "Con- 
cordance" to the Bible, born in Aberdeen, Scot- 
land, May 31, 1700, died in London, Nov. 1, 
1770. He was educated at Mareschal college, 
and intended for the church, but was employed 
for 10 years as teacher. In 1732 he went to Lon- 
don, where he was engaged as corrector of the 
press b}- a publishing house, with which occupa- 
tion he combined that of a bookseller, opening 
a small shop under the royal excliange. He had 
already commenced his "Concordauco to the 
Holy Scriptures," which wascom])leted and pub- 
lisbed in 1737, and dedicated to Queen Caroline, 
from whom he hoped for some substantial proof 
of royal munificence, a hope never realized ; the 
queen died in 16 days after the presentation of 
the work. Cruden was afflicted with a pecu- 
liar mental malady, and 3 times in his life he 
was confined in a lunatic asylum — once soon 
after his departure from college, again imme- 
diately after the publication of his " Concord- 
ance," and a tliird time 15 years later in 1753. 

CRUGER, JoHK Harris, commander of a 
eorps of royalists in the war of the American 



revolution, born in New York in 1738, died in 
London in 1807. In 1704 he was mayor of 
the city of New York and speaker of the colo- 
nial assembly. He was a member of the colo- 
nial convention called in the next year to resist 
the stamp act, and composed the declaration of 
rights. After the outtireak of the war ho ad- 
liered to the crown, held the connnission of a 
lieuteiuuit-colonel, and conducted in 1781 tho 
gallant and successful defence of Fort Ninety- 
six, S. C, when it was besieged by Gen. Greene. 
His cor])s formed the British centre in the bat- 
tle at Eutaw Springs. — His brother, HexeY 
Cruger, born in New York in 173'J, died in 
the same city, April 24, 1827, establislicd him- 
self in trade in Bristol, England, and in 1774 
was elected to tho Britisli parliauK'ut, having 
Edmund Burke fot his colleague. He advo- 
cated on all occasions a conciliatory course to- 
ward the Americans. 

CRUIKSHANR, George, an English humor- 
ist, born in London in 1794. His father Isaac 
Cruikshank, and his elder brother Robert, were 
caricaturists and engravers, and lie picked up a 
knowledge of the art from seeing ihem work. 
He was admitted a student of the royal academy 
xmder the superintendence of Fuseli ; but find- 
ing the rooms uncomfortably crowded, he gladly 
accepted an otfer from a publisher to illustrate 
juvenile books and nudce cheap caricatures. 
Cruikshank was an enthusiastic liberal, and the 
first objects of his satire were political. For 
several years, to use his own words, he " lived 
upon the great usurper Bonaparte." He soon 
became known as a clever political caricaturist, 
and was employed by a number of publishers; 
but the works whicli first gave him an extensive 
popularity were the illustrations to a series of 
squibs on the public and private life of the 
prince regent, published by Hone between 1819 
and 1821, and entitled the "Political House that 
Jack built;" the "Matrimonial Ladder," and 
Kon mi ricordo, in allusion to the marriage 
and trial of Queen Caroline; the "Man in the 
Moon," &c. The artist was most successful in 
the humor of his illustrations, and such was 
the excited feeling of tlie time and the clever- 
ness of the satire, that some of the pamphlets 
reached a sale of 200,000 or 300,000 copies. 
After this Cruikshank abandoned ]»olitical cai-- 
icaturing, having first projected a work to illus- 
trate the results of what was called " seeing 
life." The story, written by Pierce Egan, had 
an extraordinary sale in England and America, 
under the title of "Life in London ;" but as the 
moral aim of the artist was entirely overlooked 
by the author, Cruikshank retired from the 
work before its completion. From 1824' until 
the present time Cruikshank has been almost 
incessantly engaged in illustrating books; a 
complete collection of which would exhibit a 
fertility of invention and humor, a dramatic 
power, and a technical excellence which have 
seldom been combined in one artist. So pro- 
lific, however, has been his pencil, that it is 
hardly possible to give a complete list of hi3 



108 



CKUIKSIIANK 



CRUSADES 



^vorks ; lie lilmsclf has not prints of tlie whole 
of them. Among those which obtained the 
greatest popularity are "Points of Humor," 
" Mornings at Bow Street," Fielding's " Tom 
Thumb," "John Gilpin," the " Epping Hunt," 
"Three Courses and a Dessert," "Sunday in 
London," which lias a satirical humor not un- 
worthy of Hogarth, Fielding's, Smollett's, De- 
foe's, and Scott's novels, "My Sketch Book," 
"Illustrations of Phrenology," "Illustrations of 
the Time," &c., &c. In 1835 he commenced the 
"Comic Almanac," which was for many years 
the vehicle of some of his happiest designs. lie 
also illustrated Dickens's first work, " Sketches 
by Boz," and subsequently " Oliver Twist," 
which originally appeared in " Bentley's Miscel- 
lany," while under the control of Dickens. For 
the same magazine, after it came under the 
editorship of Ainsworth, he furnished the de- 
fc^igns for "Jack Sheppard" and "Guy Fawkes," 
and upon the establishment of " Ainsworth's 
Magazine" illustrated several novels by Ains- 
worth which appeared there serially. He sub- 
sequently started a periodical of his own, called 
the "Omnibus," which was edited by the late 
Laman Blanchard. His illustrations of Max- 
well's " History of the Irish Rebellion," pub- 
lished about this time, afford some happy spe- 
cimens of his efforts in a serious style. In 1847 
appeared " The Bottle" in a series of 8 prints, 
by many deemed the most important work of 
his life, and of which the germ can be traced in 
the " Gin Shop," the " Upas Tree," the " Gin 
Juggernaut," and others of his earlier works. 
The striking manner in which the evils of in- 
temperance were depicted made the work im- 
mensely popular, and many thousand copies 
were sold at a shilling each. The artist subse- 
quently published a sequel in which the career 
of the son and daughter of the drunkard was 
followed up. Since the publication of these 
prints Cruikshank has been a determined advo- 
cate of total abstinence from intoxicating drinks, 
and has done good service in that behalf with 
pen and pencil in his pamphlet, " The Glass." 
Of late years he has illustrated few noticeable 
books, but his etchings for the "Life of Sir John 
Falstaff," by Robert B. Brough, published in 
1858, are executed with a delicacy and spirit 
worthy of his best years. At nearly 60 years 
of age Cruikshank again applied for admission 
as a student at the royal academy, and has lat- 
terly given much attention to oil painting. He 
contributes to the annual exhibitions in London, 
and in several of his pictures has shown great 
aptitude for this new branch of his art. Few 
artists of the present day have given more at- 
tention to etching, and his plates frequently 
present a vigor of touch and a breadth of chiaros- 
curo recalling the efforts of the old engravers. 
He has been much addicted to athletic sports, 
and from his dramatic abilities was selected as 
one of the actors in the amateur performances 
undertaken by Dickens and others in organiz- 
ing the guild of literature and art. 
CRUIKSHANK, William, a Scotch anatomist, 



one of the medical attendants of Dr. Johnson in 
his last illness, born at Edinburgh in 1746, died 
in London, June 27, 1800. After having studied 
from 1764 to 1771 at Glasgow, he went to Lon- 
don with a letter of introduction to the cele- 
brated "William Hunter, who appointed him li- 
brarian, and afterward his assistant. After Dr. 
Hunter's death, he continued in concert with 
Dr. Baillie to preside over his school. His 
"Anatomy of the Absorbent Vessels," which 
appeared in 1786, attracted much attention 
among medical men in England and on the con- 
tinent. In opposition to the views of Haller, he 
asserted that when portions of nerves are cot 
out of living animals they may be reproduced. 
His paper on this subject was published in the 
"Transactions" of the royal society for 1794. His 
memoir on the yellow fever, which toward the 
end of the 18th century prevailed in the United 
States, and especially in Philadelphia, was pub- 
lished in the latter city in 1798. He is the author 
of other medical writings, of which the most im- 
portant are those on insensible perspiration. 

CRUSADE (Port, cruzado)^ a Portuguese 
coin, either of gold or silver, named from the 
cross, and palm leaves arranged in the form of 
a cross, which figure upon it. The first cru- 
sades were struck off in 1457, on the publica- 
tion of a bull by Pope Calixtus III. for a cru- 
sade against the Turks. The crusades are called 
old or new, according as they were struck before 
or since 1722, the former being valued at 400 
rees (about 60 cents), and the latter at 480 rees. 

CRUSADES (Fr. croisade), the name given to 
the expeditions by which the Christian nations 
of Europe, in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries, 
sought to recover Palestine from the Mussul- 
mans. The Holy Land was among the early con- 
quests of the Saracens, the caliph Omar having 
taken Jerusalem A. D. 637. Thus all the places 
most sacred in the eyes of Christians passed un- 
der the control of the votaries of a new reli- 
gion ; and though some of the Saracenic rulers 
were men of liberal ideas, and of liberal prac- 
tices as well, and treated pilgrims humanely, 
others were of different character, and behaved 
tyrannically. The Abbassides were a superior 
race, and the most famous caliph of that line, 
Ilaroun al Rashid, sent the keys of Jerusalem 
to his great occidental contemporary, Charle- 
magne, which assured the safety of Christian 
visitors to that city. The holy sepulchre and the 
church of the resurrection were in the hands of 
the Christians ; and the tribute exacted from the 
Christian inhabitants and pilgrims was small. 
The Fatimite caliphs, who became masters of 
Jerusalem in the 10th century, pursued the lib- 
eral policy of the Abbassides until the time of 
Ilakem, who was a fanatic, and persecuted the 
Christians, interfered with the pilgrims, and de- 
faced the holy places. His conduct excited much 
indignation in the West, which abated when 
his successors returned to the wiser course of 
his predecessors. The church and the sepul- 
chre assumed their former state, and pilgrimage 
became more common than ever, embracing 



CRUSADES 



109 



men of evorv cuiiJition, from great churclnnen 
and nobles to peasants, und women of all ranks. 
Tlie Fatimite or Egyptian caliphs, though they 
never again sought deliberately to i)nt a stop to 
pilgrimage, did not always protect the pilgrims, 
who had much ill usage to comjilain of, and who 
made it known to all Cliristcndom. Wlien the 
.Seljook Turks con(|uered Palestine, they in- 
flicted all manner of atrocities on the Chris- 
tian residents, and treated pilgrims witli great 
indignity and cruelty. AV'hile the rage that 
this caused througliout Europe was at its height, 
tlie Byzantine emperor, Michael VII., fearing 
that the Turks would take his capital, sent 
an embassy to Gregory VII. entreating assist- 
ance. Tlie pope addressed the rulers of the 
European states, urging war on the Turks, and 
foreshadowing the crusades. Again Alexis Com- 
nenus sent a similar embassy to Urban II., when 
events were precii)itated by the action of an ob- 
scure man. Peter tlie Hermit, who had become 
imbued with deep religious enthusiasm, was a 
monk, and by birth a Picard. Visiting Jeru- 
salem, after having led the life of an anchoret, 
he wa.s an eye-witness of the insults and cruel- 
ties of the Turks, and experienced some of them. 
He was soon possessed of the idea that he was 
to become the deliverer of tlie holy sepulchre, 
and told the patriarch of Jerusalem that ho 
would cause the western nations to drive out 
the infidels. The patriarch gave him letters 
entreating aid, and Peter visited Urban II., 
who saw that he was an enthusiast, and not 
tiie less likely to move Christendom because of 
his austerity, vehemence, and humble condition. 
The ])ope encouraged him, and Peter departed to 
])reac]i a crusade in Italy and France, which he 
did with such efiect that all other business was 
neglected, and the minds of men of all degrees 
were most powerfully affected. Peter had an 
eloquence suited to his purpose, but he could 
have effected little if he had not found ma- 
terial on which to act. Christendom then 
had but little light, but it had much sincerity, 
and it felt the disgrace involved in allow- 
ing the Holy Land to remain in the hands of 
the Turks. Pilgrimages had become so com- 
mon that they were made by companies of thou- 
sands ; and their violent interruption was every- 
where felt and resented, lluman ])olicy turned 
religious zeal to a useful purpose. Those states- 
men who were capable of taking a broad view 
of affairs may have thought that there was great 
danger that the Mussulmans would come to the 
West if the Christians should not go to the East. 
The pope wished to bring the Byzantine em- 
pire into the Latin fold. He held a council at 
Piacenza, A. D. 1095, which was numerously 
attended, and at which the Byzantine envoys 
l)leaded their country's cause. It was deter- 
mined to hold a more general council, which met 
at Clermont, Nov. 1095, and where French, Ger- 
mans, Italians, and others were present. The 
pope's eloquence was so effectual that the mul- 
titude exclaimed : " God wills it ! God wills it !" 
when he declared the holy war was commanded 



from on high. The pope suggested that those 
who entered on the enterprise should assume 
the cross on tlie shoulder or breast. This was 
agreed to, and the first clergyman who took it, 
from the hands of Urban II., was the bishop of 
Puy. The count of Toulouse was the first tem- 
poral prince who assumed the cross. The cross 
was originally red, but diffeix-nt colors were sub- 
sefjuently adoi)ted by diflerent nations. Every 
l)erson who assumed the cross was known as a 
croise, or crusader, whence the name of the en- 
terprise. The crusading spirit spread over Brit- 
ain and the northern nations, much inflamed by 
the decree passed at Clermont that whoso should 
go on the expedition should be regarded as h;iv- 
ing performed all penances. It was to be a pil- 
grimage on the largest scale, with the pilgrims 
armed. The spirit was shared by all classes, 
and by people of every description, including 
the worst criminals. The number that assumed 
the cross was almost incalculable. In the spring 
of 1096 a large body of the lower orders, under 
the lead of Peter the Hermit, began the march 
across Germany. They were compelled to di- 
vide, and the smaller j^arty, led by a Burgundian 
knight, Walter the Penniless, going in advance, 
Avas annihilated in Bulgaria. The larger i)arty 
suffered severely, and was guilty of great atro- 
cities, but Peter brought the bulk of it to Con- 
stantinople, where he was joined by Walter. 
They were landed in Asia, wiiere they were 
nearly all destroyed by the Turks, Peter having 
left them. A 3d. division, consisting of Ger- 
mans, was led by a monk named Godeschal, 
and was massacred in Hungary. A 4th, esti- 
mated at 200,000, and composed of various 
peoples, was led by some nobles, from Germany, 
but it was destroyed by the Hungarians, after 
having perpetrated terrible outrages. The real 
crusade was a very different undertaking from 
these rabble gatherings. No king joined it, but 
it was headed by a number of eminent feudal 
princes — Godfrey of Bouillon, duke of Brabant, 
Robert, duke of Normandy, Hugh, count of 
Vermandois, Raymond, count of Toulouse, the 
counts of Flanders and Chartres, Bohemond, 
prince of Tarento, Tancred, and others. God- 
frey, who was one of the first characters of 
the age, is often mentioned as the leader of the 
crusading hosts, but he held no such position, 
though much was conceded to him. After many 
adventures, including contests with the Greeks, 
to whose emperor most of the chiefs took the 
oath of fealty, the crusaders were united in 
Asia Minor, where they besieged Nice, which 
surrendered to the Greeks. Their first great 
encounter with the Turks took place at Dory- 
lajum, July 4, 1097, and, after a long doubtful 
contest, ended in their victory. Pursuing their 
march, thousands died of privation, and many 
more lost their horses. Had the Turks then 
vigorously assailed them, they would have been 
destroyed. Antioch was besieged, and taken 
after many months, but less through crusading 
valor than by the treachery of a citizen, June, 
1098. Here the victors were besieged in their 



110 



CRUSADES 



tnrn by a great Mns.«nlmaTi army, gathered frurn 
(litforent parts of the East, and vliich liad fail- 
ed to take Edessa, where Baldwin, brother of 
Godfrey, had established a principality. The 
crusaders were apparently on the eve of destruc- 
tion, when tliey were saved by a revival of the 
enthusiastic spirit in which their undertaking 
had originated. It was declared that the steel 
head of the lance that pierced the Saviour was 
found under the altar of the church of St. Peter, 
and its possession was regarded as an assurance 
of that victory which the invaders won soon af- 
ter, the Mussulman forces being destroyed or 
driven oft". This victory was the conseciuence 
of dissensions among the Mussulmans. Months 
elapsed before the original purpose was resumed, 
and then but 21,500 soldiers marched upon Je- 
rusalem, 1,500 only being mounted. Meeting 
with no re«5istance, they arrived before the holy 
city, which, though valiantly defended, fell into 
their hands after a siege that closed with an 
assault, and a massacre of almost unequalled 
atrocity. Godfrey of Bouillon was chosen first 
head of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099. 
This event marks the completion of the first 
crusade, though the war between Christians 
and Mussulmans was continued, involving the 
destruction of new immense hosts of Germans, 
Italians, and French, under the duke of Bavaria 
and others. When Edessa fell into the hands 
of the Turks, 1145, Christendom was again 
aroused, and listened readily to the entreaties 
for assistance that came from the East. St. 
Bernard preached a second crusade in France, 
Germany, and elsewhere. Louis VII. of France 
and Conrad III. of Germany assumed the cross. 
The emperor led an inmiense force by the old 
route of Hungary and Bulgaria to Constanti- 
nople, meeting with the usual Greek treachery. 
He passed into Asia, but soon lost more than 
four-fifths of his army, which was betrayed by 
Greeks into the hands of the Turks. Conrad 
made his way to Nice, at the head of a small 
force, where he found Louis with his army. 
After a variety of adventures, in which the 
French were nearly destroyed, the em]3eror and 
king reached Palestine, and with the fragments 
of their armies, aided by the templars, hospi- 
tallers, and forces of the Latin kingdom, be- 
sieged Damascus, where they failed completely. 
The monarchs returned to Europe. For some 
years the Christians in Palestine defended them- 
selves with success against the Mussulmans, but 
the rise of the celebrated Saladin to power in 
Egs-pt and Svria was fatal to their cause. De- 
feated in the'battle of Hattinor Tiberias, 1187, 
they surrendered even Jerusalem to Saladin soon 
after that event. Tyre was the only place of any 
consequence Avhich they retained. The news of 
the fall of Jerusalem caused much excitement 
in the West. A 3d crusade was resolved upon. 
The emperor of Germany, Frederic Barbarossa, 
and the kings of France and England, Philip 
Augustus and Henry II., took the cross. Nu- 
merous bands of Christians soon reached Pales- 
tine, and Acre was besieged by an immense 



host, fjaladin aided the besieged from without, 
and this contest was waged for almost two 
years. Tlie German emperor had organized a 
great army, better provided, disciplined, and led 
than any previous crusading force. This army 
inarched by the usual overland route. In Asia 
Minor they defeated the Turks, but not without 
experiencing heavy losses. Frederic lost his 
life while attempting to cross the Calycadnusin 
Syria, after which little was done by his army, 
the relics of which finally reached Jicro. Mean- 
time, Ricliard I. of England (Henry having 
died in 1189) and Philip Augustus had arrived 
with their forces at Acre, which surrendered 
(1191), the crusaders, in violation of their 
word, butchering 5,000 Mussulmans who had 
been left in their hands as hostages. Philip 
Augustus soon withdrew from the crusades, 
alienated and disgusted by Richard's arrogance ; 
but he left a portion of his army to aid that 
leader, who marched toward Jaffa, defeating 
Saladin on his way in a pitched battle. Jafta 
Avas abandoned to him, but this was nearly the 
term of his crusading career. He wished to 
proceed immediately to Jerusalem, but was 
thwarted, and 2 mouths were lost. The cru- 
saders then marched to Ramla, near Jerusa- 
lem, but were forced to fall back. The next 
year Richard resumed operations, and the city 
miglit have been taken if the enterprise had ■ 
been vigorously pushed. Why it was not, is 
unknown. Richard retreated to the sea-coast. 
His last act was to relieve Jafta, which Saladin 
had assailed. A truce was agreed to, on terms 
quite as favorable as the Christians could have 
expected, access to the holy places at Jerusalem 
being allowed by Saladin. Thus terminated 
the 3d crusade. The 4th was of an exceptional 
character. Intoided though it was to injure 
the Mussulmans, ])robably it did more to enable 
the Turks to estal^lish themselves j)ermanently 
in Europe than any other event. An attempt 
made to preach a new crusade, after the expi- 
ration of the true; between Richard and Sala- 
din, had little success out of Germany. From 
that country bands of nobles and others pro- 
ceeded to Palestine, wliere they served to keep 
up the remains of the Latin kingdom, frequent- 
ly defeating the Turks, but accomplishing no- 
thing of consequence. In 1200, Innocent HI., 
an able and aspiring pope, resolved to get up 
a new crusade. Tfie eloquence of Foulques 
of Neuilly was employed to excite enthusiasm, 
and with considerable success. The 4th crusade 
was now commenced. It was mainly French 
in its character and composition. The counts 
of Cham]iagne, Blois, and Flanders, and Simon 
de Montfort, were the principal leaders. The 
marquis of Montferrat, in Italy, acted with them, 
and was followed by many Italians. The cru- 
sading spirit extended to Germany and Hun- 
gary, in tlie latter country the king assuming 
the cross. The French crusaders despatched 
a deputation to Venice to make arrangements 
for the transportation of their forces to Pales- 
tine by sea. For a reasonable compensation the 



CRUSADES 



111 



Venetians engaged to transport a large army; 
but when, in 1202, the crusaders assembled 
at Venice, they couhl not pay the sum named, 
whereupon it was agreed that they should, 
in lieu of money, aid the Venetians to suinhie 
Zara in Dalmatia, wliich had revolted. This, 
tliough not under the command of their chief, 
tlio marquis of Moutferrat, and in deliance of 
jiapal prohibition, they accomplished. The 
Venetians were commanded by tiie doge, Enrico 
Dandolo, then nearly blind, and 93 years old. 
Montferrat then joined them again. Here the 
combined forces entered into an agreement witli 
Alexis, son of the de})Osed Byzantine emperor, 
Isaac Angelus, to restore the fallen monarch to 
his throne. The opposition of the i)ope to this 
singular undertaking had little etfect. The ex- 
pedition proceeded to Constantinople, which 
was taken, and Isaac Angelus and his son were 
raised to the throne. Soon, however, dissen- 
sions broke out between the parties to the al- 
liance. Tlie restored princes were compelled 
to tight their restorers, but against their will, 
and with no good to themselves ; for the Greeks 
hated them, overthrew them, and placed an- 
otlier member of their family on the throne. 
Isaac died of terror, and Alexis was slain. 
The crusaders, affecting to be the champions 
of the dead princes, waged successful war with 
the new emperor, besieged and took Constanti- 
noi)le, which they pillaged, and established a 
Latin empire, the territory compiered being di- 
vided between the Venetians and their western 
associates. The ultimate effect of tliis crusade 
was to weaken the principal barrier against 
Mu--iulman progress westward, so that when 
the new Turkish power was established in Asia 
Minor it experienced but moderate resistance 
from the side of Byzuntium. The 5tli cru- 
sade, 1216, was the -nork of Innocent III., 
and was joined by Hurgarians, Italians, Ger- 
mans, English, and French. Andrew II., king 
of Hungary, led a largo army to Palestine, 
and, in connection with ihe dukes of Austria 
and Bavaria, made one c;.inpaign, Avlien he re- 
turned home. The Germans remained, and 
having been joined by others, they transferred 
the war to Egypt (1218). L)amietta was be- 
sieged and taken, and the crusaders received 
large reenforcements from England, France, 
and Italy. The Mussulmans now offered Je- 
rusalem, and even all Palestine, to the victors, 
on condition that they sliould leave Egypt, 
and most of them were for accepting terms 
so favorable, and wliich embraced all that the 
first crusades had been intended to gain. But 
the papal legate, and the templars and hospi- 
tallers, who were joined by the Italian leaders, 
were able to bring about the rejection of 
the offer. After a delay of months the cru- 
saders advanced upon Cairo, but the expedition 
failed entirely, and they were glad to humble 
themselves before the sultan, wlio allowed them 
to leave the country. The pope, Ilonorius 
III., attributed the failure to the emperor Fred- 
eric II., who had not kept his crusading vow. 



It was not until 1228 that the emperor went 
to Palestine with a small force, he being tlien 
excommunicate, the effect of which ^Avas much 
to weaken his offensive power. Yet he did 
much, and made a treaty with the sultan, by 
wliich the Christians were to be allowed to 
visit Jerusalem freely, and Bethlehem, Naza- 
reth, and other places were made over to them, 
lie was permitted to visit the church of the 
sepulchre, from the altar of which he took the 
crown, and put it on his head. Thus the 5th 
crusade was brought to an honorable termina- 
tion, and the emperor returned to Germany in 
1229. The folly of the Christians soon led to 
the loss- of all the good that Frederic had gain- 
ed for them. They quarrelled, and some of the 
independent Mussulman rulers were thereby 
encouraged to refuse to be bound by the treaty, 
and were successful in their Avarfare. Again 
Europe Avas filled with complaints. A Otli cru- 
sade was proclaimed, but with no good result; 
and the sultan of Egypt, resolved to be before- 
hand with his enemies, entered Palestine, and 
drove the Christians from Jerusalem. Hereupon, 
the nobility in England and France, in 1238, 
resolved to go to the relief of Palestine. The 
French, under various leaders, arrived there first, 
and achieved some brilliant successes. These 
were followed by reverses and dissensions, and 
most of the French left the country. The English 
then arrived, headed by the earl of Cornwall, 
brother of Henry III., Avho was well received by 
all the Christians, whose affairs he completely 
reestablished. Jerusalem and most of the Latin 
kingdom were ceded to them, and numerous ca])- 
tives were released. Cornwall then dei»arted, 
having effected a great service, and the Gth cru- 
sade, like the 5th, Avas brought to an honorable 
end in 1240. The 7th crusade grcAv out of that 
vast Mongol movement Avhich terrified the 
world in the 13th century. The Kharizmiaii 
horde, flying before the Mongols, sought refuge 
in Egypt, but Avere persuaded by the sultan to 
attack Palestine. They entered that country, 
and, in 12-42, stormed Jerusalem, perpetrating 
horrors equal to those Avhich had marked its 
Christian conquest in 1099. Christians and Mus- 
sulmans Avere compelled to league against them, 
but they were crushed by the savages and their 
Egyptian allies. Acre became the refuge of 
the remnants of the Christians, and was the 
only place of importance left to the cross. The 
Kharizmians Avere soon destroyed or expelled 
by the Egyptians themselves, Avho now held 
Jerusalem. These events had the usual ettect 
on Europe. At the council of Lyons (1245), a 
Tth crusade Avas proclaimed. It Avas. chiefly 
to France and England that the eftbrts for for- 
Avarding it Avere confined ; for though the king 
of NorAvay took the cross, he never drcAV his 
sword in its cause, and Germany and Italy 
were not in a state to afford any assistance. 
Louis IX. of France, knoAvn as St. Louis, avos 
the leader. A large army Avas assembled at 
Cyprus, Avhence, after a long delay, it proceed- 
ed to Egypt. The English joined it there. At 



112 



CRUSADES 



CRUSENSTOLPE 



first, the crusaders wore victorious. Damietta 
•was taken, and they directed their steps to 
Cairo. Maiisoura fell before them, but the rash 
behavior of some of the French leaders caused 
them to pay dearly for the victory. The Egyp- 
tians resisted bravely and skilfully. Communi- 
cation between the invaders and Damietta, the 
base of their operations, was cut off". They 
were shut up in their camp, where sickness and 
famine thinned their number. Attempting to 
retreat, they were utterly routed, and the king 
and his brothers, with many nobles and knights, 
became captives. The rest of the army were 
slaughtered, 30,000 falling in all. The king and 
his companions were finally released, but not 
until they had experienced many dangers. Da- 
mietta was given up, and large sums were 
promised to the victors. Most of the survivors 
regarded the crusade as at an end, and departed 
from a land which had received them so rough- 
ly. Not so Louis, a man of great conscientious- 
ness. He went to Acre, and determined to 
remain in Palestine. This resolution he main- 
tained for 4 years, exerting himself strenu- 
ously for the Christian cause, fortifying sev- 
eral places, and preserving union among the 
Christians. Compelled by the condition of 
France to return there in 1254, his departure 
was followed by Christian dissensions. The 
templars and hospitallers made open war on 
each other. The Egyptians, having extended 
their power over the Syrian Mussulmans, now 
fell on the Christians. The war lasted for years, 
and was characterized by constantly occurring 
Christian reverses, in spite of the valor of the 
losing party, never more heroically displayed 
than in that dismal time. At length the Latin 
principality of Antioch fell in 1268, myriads 
of Christians being slain, or sold into slavery. 
Nothing was left but Acre. For the last time 
Europe was moved to serious exertion, and the 
8th crusade was undertaken. Louis IX., undis- 
couraged by his Egyptian failure, assembled a 
large force, which sailed in 1270. He landed in 
northern Africa, near Tunis, influenced by a false 
report of the dey's conversion to Christianity, 
and the hope of seciiring him as an ally. He met 
with no firm resistance in the field, but the 
light troops of the Moors harassed the French 
exceedingly. Sickness raged in the invading 
ranks, and after crowds of brave soldiers and 
illustrious nobles had fallen, the king himself 
died. The French immediately gave up the cru- 
sade ; but they had been joined by a band of Eng- 
lish auxiliaries, headed by Prince Edward, after- 
ward Edward I., and these immediately resolved 
to proceed to Palestine. Spending the Avinter 
in Sicily, they sailed for Acre in the spring of 
1271, the last expedition of the kind that ever 
reached that place. The force was only 1,000 
strong, but the name of Plantagenet was great 
in the East. Sultan Boudocdar, who had been 
so successful over the Christians, immediately 
retreated. Edward managed to asssemble 7,000 
men, witli which force he defeated a large Mus- 
sulman army, and then stormed Nazareth, which 



became the scene of a sweeping massacre. Here 
lie was struck down by disease, and his follow- 
ers died in great numbers. His life was at- 
temjjted by an assassin. On his recovery, see- 
ing that success could not be looked for, he con- 
cluded a truce of 10 years with the sultan, and 
departed for his own country ; and so ended 
the last crusade, 177 years from tlie time the 
first had been preached. Gregory X. sought 
to evoke a 9th, but with no success. In 1289 
Tripoli, on the Phoenician coast, the last fief of 
the kingdom of Jerusalem, was taken by Sultan 
Kelaoun. In 1291 the remnants of that kingdom 
fell into his hands without resistance, save Acre, 
Avhich he besieged at the head of an overwhelm- 
ing force. The greater part of the inhabitants 
withdrew, but the soldiers of the 3 military or- 
ders, and some others, defended it resolutely to 
the last. The city was stormed, and the de- 
fenders massacred, or sold into slavery ; 60,000 
are said to have been killed or taken, probably, 
an exaggeration. — The most important works 
treating specially of the crusades are the Gesta 
Deij)er Francos, site Orientalium Expeditionum 
et Ecgni Francorum Ilierosolyviitani Historia, a 
variis Scri2)torihvs Litter is commendata, edente 
Jacoho Bongarsio (2 vols. foL, Hanover, 1611 ; 
this is a collection of the ancient histories of the 
crusades, the principal of which are also found, 
translated into French, in Guizot's Collection des 
memoires 7'elatifs a Vlmtoirede France); Mailly, 
Es2Jrit des croisades (Paris, 1780) ; Choiseul 
Daillecourt, De V injiiience des croisades sur Vetat 
des 2}evpl€s en Europe (Paris, 1810) ; Michaud, 
Mistoii-e des croisades (Paris, 1813-'22); Ileeren, 
an essay, Ueier den Einjiuss der Kremzuge 
(Gottingen, 1803); Wilken, GescMcMeder Krexiz- 
eiige (Leipsic, 1807-32) ; Haken, Gemdlde der 
Krevzzilge (Frankfort, 1808-20); Sporschill, 
GcscMcMc fZerAreti^att^e (Leipsic, 1843 et sec[?)\ 
Navarrete, Dissertacion historita soire la parte 
que tuvieron los Es2jarioles en las guerras de ul- 
tramaro o de las cruzadas (Madrid, 1816); and 
also Mills's " History of the Crusades" (London, 
1819), the latter volumes of Gibbon's "De- 
cline and Fall of the Roman Empire," and 
Procter's " History of the Crusades" (London, 
1854). 

CRUSENSTOLPE, Magnus Jacob, a popular 
Swedish author, born at JonkOping, March 11, 
1795. He published 3 novels in 1821, which 
were followed in 1828 by a political work 
{Politiska (isigter), in which he eulogized what 
he termed the era of liberty, extending from 
1719 to 1772. In concert with Hjerta he be- 
came in the same year editor of an opposition 
political paper, but the two collaborators soon 
separated, each to found a journal of his own. 
Hjerta established the Aftonhladet, which still 
exists, advocating extreme democratic ideas, 
while Crusenstolpe became editor, in 1830, of 
the Fddcrneslandet, in which he renounced the 
liberal principles which he had formerly main- 
tained, and which ceased when the patronage 
of government was withdrawn from it in 1833. 
In 1834 appeared his SUldringar ur det inre af 



CRUSIUS 



CRUSTACEA 



113 



da/jens historia, a piquant melange of trutli and 
poetry on questions of social order, which pass- 
ed through many editions ; and subsequently he 
purchased the Tessin library, celebrated for its 
historical manuscripts, from which he took his 
materials for h\sFortefeuilIe (5 vols., 1837-45), 
and for his Hislorhh taftn af Gustav IV. 
Adolph'sforsta lefnadsar (1 837). For one of his 
works, Stullnififfrtr och forhullandcn., which re- 
flected upon the government, he was imprisoned 
for 3 years, a condemnation that resulted in sev- 
eral violent riots. In 1840 appeared the 1st 
vol. of his most successful work, Morianen (6 
vols,, Stockholm, 1840-'4r4), a romantic descrip- 
tion of the history of Sweden during the IIol- 
Btein-Gottorp dynasty. This, as well a^ many 
of his subsequent novels, has been translated 
into C4ennan. 

CRUSIUS, CoRisTiAX ArausT, a German 
theologian and philosopher, born at Leuna, near 
Merseburg, Jan. 10, 1715, died in Leipsic, Oct. 
18, 1775. lie was educated at Leipsic, where 
he was professor of theology at the time of his 
death. lie was among the principal opponents 
of the reigning philosophy of Leibnitz and Wolf, 
which he challenged at once in the name of 
reason and faith, asserting its incompatibility 
with Christian dogmas ; and \\9 sought to estab- 
lish a new philosophical scheme which should 
be perfectly orthodox. Philosophy is in his 
view the whole body of rational truths, whoso 
objects are eternal, and is divided into logic, 
metaphysics, and disciplinary or practical phi- 
losophy. He subordinated the scholastic prin- 
ciple of contradiction to that of conceptibility 
{Gcdenklarlceit), founded logic upon psychology, 
attributed to the soul fundamental faculties and 
a liberty almost as complete as that of the Deity, 
and made the certainty of human knowledge 
consist in an inward constraint and inclination 
of the understanding, the guarantee of the truth- 
fulness of which exists in the divine veracity. 
Tliese views are Cartesian ; and in regarding 
time and space not as substances but as modes of 
the divine existence Crusius approached the the- 
ories of Clarke and Newton. His doctrines found 
many adlierents, and were especially combated 
by Plattner. Though arbitrary hypotheses and 
mystical views are mingled with them, they are 
the product of acute thought, and were esteemed 
by I^int among the happiest attempts that had 
been made in philosophy. The most important 
of his publications are : Entwurf der notJiirend- 
igeii Vcrnunftwahrheiten (Leipsic, 1745) ; Logilc^ 
oderweg zur Geioissheit und Zuverldssigkeit der 
menschlichen Erkenntniss (Leipsic, 1747) ; and 
Anleititng iiber naturllche Begebenheiten or- 
dentUch und vorsichtig zu denken (Leipsic, 
1774). ^ 

CRUSTACEA. The name ixoKaKoa-rpaKa was 
given by Aristotle to the soft-shelled aquatic 
animals, as the lobsters, crabs, shrimps, &c., to 
distinguish this group from the harder shelled 
animals, which he called oa-TpaKoBfpua, or tes- 
tacea — the mollusca of our present system of 
arrangement. In this system the Crustacea con- 
VOL. VI. — 8 



stitute one of the classes of the primary di- 
vision articulata of the animal kingdom, and 
the term malacostruca has been retained for one 
great section of the class, while anotlier is called 
the entomostraca, or shelled insects. The sub- 
divisions of these sections are variously ])re- 
sented by dilTercnt authorities. Those of the 
malacostraca, as given by Milne-Edwards, are 
generally adopted. They are as follows : 
I. Eyen on peduncles, and movable. 

Orders. 

I Brachyoura, short-tuilort — as crabs. 
Decapoda. < Anotnoura — as hcnnit crabs, kt. 

{ Macroura, long-taildl — as lobsters, slirirnps, &c. 

.,, ,„,7^ ( Unipeltata — us squilla. 

btomai^oda.-^ Bipiltuta-as phyllosoma, lucifor, &c. 

II. Eyen sesxile and immovnhle. 
Amphipoda — as gammarus, &c., having feet siiiii)lo an'l claw- 
shaped. 
Lonnodlpoda — as leptomera, &c. 
Isopoda — as oniscus or wood-louse, armadillo, &c. 

The entomostraca are divided by the same 
authority into the 

OTtlere. BrANCUIOPODA. 

riiyllopoda — as apus, &c. 
Cladocera— as daphnia, <fec. 

Entomostraca Peoper. 
Copepoda — as cyclops, ifcc. 
Osirapoda — as cypris, &c. 

IIaustellata (suctorial crustaceans). 
Arancei/ormes — extremities long and slender, adapted for 

walking. 
Siphonostomata — extremities not adapted for walking. 
/.er/ia'i/oTOifts— extremities rudimentary. 

The Crustacea are furnished with organs of res- 
piration fitted, unlike those of the other articu- 
lata,for use beneath the surface of the water ; and 
they are provided with a shell which is eitlier a 
horny tegument, as in the case of the shrimj), or 
a calcareous crust, as in the lobster — not stony 
like those of the mollusca. It is in fact an exter- 
nal articulated skeleton secreted from their own 
bodies, and periodically thrown off and renewed 
by the growth of a new sliell. In casting its 
shield the animal is said to first pine away and 
become smaller, until at last it readily slips out 
of its covering. Lobsters have been known, 
when captured, to efl:ect their escape by thus 
slipping out and leaving their shell in the hands 
of the astonished fisherman. Sometimes Avhen 
caught they voluntarily ctist off" a limb by which 
they are held, and which they often can very 
well spare, having always at least 4 pairs beside 
a pair of claws. In some genera they are so 
numerous that the animals approximate to the 
myriopoda. A lost limb too is replaced, gain- 
ing in growth at eacli moulting, while the Tnidy 
is unconfined. These organs, Avith those of res- 
piration, and the tail also, are supported by 
the body ; the antennsa or feelers, eyes, and 
moutii belong to the head. The organs of sight 
and touch are remarkably well developed; and 
it is not a little interesting to find in those very 
ancient representatives of this class, the trilo- 
bites, whose period of existence was as remote 
as that of the formation of the older silurian 
rocks, the same peculiarities and perfection in 
the structure of the eye as are seen in the highly 
complicated organization of that of the fly and 
the butterfly of the present day. The organs of 
hearing, it is thought, may be detected in some 



114 



CRUSTACEA 



of the genera of the decapoda, and tlie habits 
of many of the Crustacea seem to imply the 
possession of the sense of smell. The shelly 
covering corresponds in its protuberances and 
depressions to the form of the important organs 
of the body within. Tlie progressive motion 
of tlie animals is sometimes by walking, some- 
times sidewise, backward, or forward — by climb- 
ing, as seen in their progress over the weeds 
and rocks at the bottom of the water — by 
swimming, and also by leaping. The lobster, 
clumsy as he appears, and loaded with his 
heavy claws, is often seen to dart backward 
by suddenly flapping his tail toward the tho- 
rax, throwing himself a distance of more than 
20 feet with the swiftness of a bird or a dol- 
phin. By the perfection of his sight he can 
dart like a mouse directly into his hole, scarcely 
large enough to admit his body. The young 
shrimps on the ebb of the tide are often seen 
along the shallow margin of the water, as ob- 
served by Paley in his "Natural Theology," skip- 
ping into the air in such numbers that they re- 
semble a cloud or thick mist hanging over the 
edge of the water to the height of half a yard. 
The trilobites were fitted by their organization 
for swimming just beneath the surface of the 
water, and with the back downward. Like the 
crustacean insect, the wood-louse, they possess- 
ed the faculty of rolling themselves into a ball 
as a defence against attack from above. The 
Crustacea are found for the most part in salt 
water; some species, however, live in lakes 
and rivers, and a few upon the land. Some of 
them are of considerable size, the largest being 
the lobsters ; but for the most part they are very 
small. The salt water is almost filled with 
varieties of them so minute that they are rarely 
observed, and it is said that a portion taken up 
at random will always be found to contain a 
number of them. Numerous species furnish 
food for man, and all are preyed upon by the 
inhabitants of the deep. Some species of the 
whale subsist upon minute Crustacea drawn in 
swarms into their huge mouths, and caught in the 
fibrous web that lines them, while the water is 
ejected. Many of the terrestrial Crustacea, as the 
land crabs, are said to visit the sea periodically 
to deposit their spawn. They burrow also in 
the mud and in damp places, and their gills are 
always moist. The oniscus, or wood-louse, has 
no such arrangement of the gills, and is conse- 
quently confined to damp places. Some species 
of the anomoura or hermit crabs, known also as 
soldier crabs, are found living in the sea, and 
others upon the land. Their singular habits are 
noticed in the article Crab. The entomostraca 
are mostly fresh-water insects, many of them 
microscopic. They subsist upon animalcules and 
microscopic plants. In their progress from the 
egg to maturity some of them, as the cyclops, 
undergo curious transformations. Some live in 
salt water, and one species, the hrancliiims stag- 
mills, called also the brine worm, lives in the con- 
centrated solutions of salt, such as those of the 
brine pans of salt works, which contain 2 lbs. 



of salt to a gallon of water. This active little 
shrimp is thought by the workmen to contribute 
to the purity of the brine. Some, like tlie fresh- 
water cyclops, sustain intense cold without in- 
jury, being sometimes frozen into the ice, and 
coming out on its melting as active as ever. 
Many are parasites, as the lerneas, and are 
classed by themselves by some naturalists, with 
the name epizoa. The Ici-neoneinia monilaris 
infests the head of the sprat, attaching itself 
near the eye. It is lumiaous in the dark, and 
the fishermen saj' that a shoal of sprats is of- 
ten headed by those thus infested, which they 
call lantern sprats. The cod also, and other 
large fish of our deep waters, have their para- 
sitical Crustacea. The limuli, or king crabs, or s 
"horse-shoes," common upon our coast, are 
placed by Milne -Edwards in a sub-class, which 
he calls xiphosura. It differs from the other 
genera by having no organs for conveying food 
to the mouth. The name is from ^tc^os-, a sword, 
w^ith reference to the long, pointed, spear-like 
appendage usually called the tail. This is used 
by the natives of the Moluccas to point their 
weapons. A buckler entirely hides from view 
the limbs and organs of the animal as he moves 
along upon the sand, or in the water upon the 
bottom. They are found as fossils in the strata 
of tlie coal and Jura formations of Europe. — The 
Crustacea furnish a great number of species that 
are much esteemed as food by man, as the lob- 
sters, crabs, shrimp, prawn, &c., and the busi- 
ness of capturing them is extensively pursued 
along the shores where they abound. Lob- 
sters and crabs are caught in pots, or traps of 
basket work, made like the wire mouse-trap 
with conical openings that admit the entrance 
but not the exit of the animals. These are sunk 
upon the ledges of rock along the coast, after 
being baited with refuse fish, each trap having 
one end of a line attached to it while the other 
is fastened to a floating buoy. The fishermen 
visit the traps daily, draw them up, and tak- 
ing out the animals, sink them again. Im- 
mense quantities are caught on the coasts of 
Norway and Scotland for the English markets, 
Avhere they are carried alive, being kept in per- 
forated "cars" like small boats, sunk to the 
level of the surface of the water, the same as 
are used by our fishermen. The northern mar- 
kets of this country are supplied with lobsters 
from Massachusetts bay, about 200,000 being 
taken annually. They have been caught weigh- 
ing 28 lbs., but the average size is about 4 lbs. 
On being thrown into boiling water, the natu- 
ral black or dark color of the shell is changed 
into red by the solution of the bluish black pig- 
ment diffused through the tegument, and the 
substitution of a red-colored oil, which is insol- 
uble in water. Lobsters are commonly boiled 
before they are offered in the market, though 
it is customary in some places to sell them alive 
to insure their freshness. They are kept many 
days by having the gills always moistened. 
Crabs are taken nearer the shore than lobsters, 
and many of those which live uj)on the land are 



CRUVEILHIER 



CRYSTALLINE LENS 



115 



much esteemed as articles of food. Those caught 
in the waters of Cliesapeakc bay are preferred 
in their soft state, and are regarded as great 
luxuries. In Europe, where they are also a 
favorite article of food, they arc preferred after 
tlie new shell has become hard. 

CRUVEILHIER, Jean-, a French physician, 
born at Limoges, Feb. 9, 1791. He studied un- 
der Boyer and Dupuytren, was a professor at 
Montpellier, and becanio attached to the fac- 
ulty of Paris in 1825. In 1820 he reorganized 
tlie anatomical society, which in 1709 had been 
founded by Dupuytren. The first part of his 
great work on pathological anatomy (completed 
in 1842) appeared in 1829, lie has also written 
on descriptive anatomy, and on the anatomy of, 
the nervous system. 

CRUVELLI, Sophie (Baroness Yigiee), a 
German vocalist, born in Bielefeld, Prussia, Aug. 
29, 1830. Iler family name is Cruwell, which 
she Italianized into Cruvelli. Her musical edu- 
cation was acquired in Paris, but she made her 
dehut upon the German stage, to which her rep- 
utation was for several years confined. She 
afterward sang in Milan, Venice, and other Ital- 
ian cities. In 1852 she made her first appear- 
ance in London at the queen's theatre, then 
under the direction of Lumley, and was success- 
ful. Ilcr voice, a soprano of great strength and 
purity, her dramatic powers, you'th, beauty, and 
commanding person, created an extraordinary 
enthusiasm in her favor, and both in London 
and in Paris, which she visited in the same year, 
she became perhaps the most popular singer of 
the day. The constant demands upon her voice 
were beginning to impair its quality, when in the 
latter part of 1856 she was married to the baron 
Vigier, since which time she has not appeared 
upon the stage. Ahmed Pasha, son of Mehemet 
Ali, lately left her a fortune of 1,000,000 francs, 
and an almost equal sum in diamonds, 

CRUZ, JuANA Inez de la, a Mexican poetess, 
born near the city of Mexico in 1651, died April 
17, 1695. She was very quick at acquiring 
knowledge, and was able to speak and write 
Latin with fluency. She was only about 17 
when she resolved to become a nun, and enter- 
ed the convent of St. Jerome at IStexico, where 
she remained until her death. During her life 
she was called the " tenth muse," and in Spain, 
where she is known as the "nun of Mexico," 
her poems have been very popular. Her writ- 
ings have been collected in 3 vols. 4to. 

CRYOLITE (Gr. /cpvoy, ice, and X(4of, stone), 
a mineral so named from its fusibility in the 
flame of a candle. It is a compound of sodium, 
fluorine, and aluminum, and is used for the prep- 
aration of the new metal aluminum. Large 
quantities are imported into England for this 
purpose from Greenland, where it was discover- 
ed by a missionary and carried many years ago 
to Copenhagen. It was supposed to be sulphate 
of barytes, until examined by Abilgard, who 
found it to contain fluoric acid. Klaproth after- 
ward detected soda. It is a snow-white min- 
eral, partially transparent, of vitreous lustre and 



brittle texture. Its hardness is 2.5 ; sp. gr, 3. 
It cleaves in 3 directions, 2 of which are rect- 
angular. It occurs in veins in gneiss with pyrites 
and galena, and has been found at Arksut, in 
West Greenland, and at Miask, in the Urals. 
At the former place it constitutes a mass 80 feet 
thick and 300 feet long, included between layers 
of gneiss, and associated with argentiferous ga- 
lena and copper and iron pyrites. — See a paper 
communicated to the geological society by Mr. 
J. W. Taylor, 1856. 

CRYPTO-CALVINISTS, a name given in 
the latter half of the 16th century to the favor- 
ers of Calvinism in Saxony, on account of their 
secret adhesion to the doctrines of Geneva. 

CRYSTAL PALACE, the name of the struc- 
ture in which tlie great exliibition of works of 
industry of all nations was held in London, in 
1851. It was erected after a design of Mr. (af- 
terward Sir) Joseph Paxton, on the S. side of 
Hyde park, opposite Prince's gate, and composed 
mainly of glass and iron, with its floors of wood. 
Its length was 1,851 feet ; width in its broad- 
est part, 450 feet ; area, 21 acres. It contained 
illustrations of modern industry from about 
17,000 exhibitors, was opened May 1, 1851, 
visited by over 6,000,000 people, closed Oct. 11, 
1851, and the building taken down shortly after- 
ward. A new and permanent crystal palace has 
since been erected (opened June 10, 1854), at a 
cost of about £1,450,000, 8 m. from London, 
on Penge hill, near Sydenham, Avith splendid 
gardens and waterworks, and arrangements for 
musical and other public entertainments, and 
containing, beside industrial exhibitions, an ex- 
tensive museum of ancient and media3val art 
and of minerals, representations of antediluvian 
animals, specimens in all branches of zoology 
and botany, and other departments of science. — 
Crystal palaces, in imitation of that of London, 
and for the same purpose of universal industrial 
exhibition, were opened in New York, July 14, 
1853, in Munich in 1854, and in Paris, May 1, 
1855. The New York crystal palace was situat- 
ed in Reservoir square, and designed by Messrs. 
Carstensen and Gildemeister. The main build- 
ing covered 173,000 square feet, galleries in- 
cluded, with an additional building of 33,000 
square feet. It was composed of 45,000 square 
feet of glass, 1,200 tons of cast and 300 tons of 
wrought iron, and surmounted by a dome. This 
beautiful structure was destroyed by fire, Oct. 
5, 1858. 

CRYSTALLINE LENS, a lenticular trans- 
parent body, placed between the aqueous and 
vitreous humors of the vertebrate eye, at about 
its anterior third ; it is about 4 lines in diame- 
ter and 2 in thickness in man, and its axis cor- 
responds to the centre of the pupil. The lens 
is flat in proportion to the density of the me- 
dium in which the eye is habitually placed, 
being very flat in birds of the highest flight, and * 
very convex in aquatic mammals and diving 
birds ; in fishes it is almost spherical. This 
most important retracting structure of the eye is 
imbedded in the anterior portion of the vitreous 



116 



CRYSTALLOGRAPHY 



hnmor, and is enclosed in a membranous cap- 
sule, to which it is prevented from adhering 
by the " liquid of Morgagni." Its structure is 
complicated, but it consists, when fully formed, 
of fibres arranged side by side, and united into 
laminio by serrations of their edges ; the fibres 
originate in cells ; the vessels are confined to the 
capsule, and are derived from the central artery 
of the retina ; when hardened in spirit, it may be 
split into 3 sections, composed of concentric lami- 
naj ; it is made up of 58 parts of water, and 42 per 
cent, of soluble albmnen ; the central parts are 
the densest, and tliis property increases with 
age. Beside its refractive power, necessary for 
distinct vision, it is generally believed that a 
change in its place, by means of the ciliary 
muscle and the erectile tissue of the surround- 
ing ciliary processes, is the mechanism by which 
the eye is adapted to distinct vision at varying 
distances; beside the anatomical arrangement 
of the parts, this view is rendered more prob- 
able by the development of this muscle in pre- 
daceous birds whicli have a great range of vision, 
and by the loss of this power of adaptation 
when the lens of the human eye is removed or 
displaced in the opei'ation for cataract. For the 
diseases of the lens and its capsule and their 
treatment, the reader is referred to the article 
Cataract. 

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, the science of form 
and structure in the inorganic kingdom of na- 
ture. In the organic kingdoms, the animal and 
vegetable, each species has a specific form and 
structure evolved from the germ according to a 
law of development or growth. In the inor- 
ganic kingdom also, which includes all inorganic 
substances, whether natural or artificial, a spe- 
cific form and structure belong to each species, 
and the facts and principles involved therein 
constitute the science of crystallography. The 
forms are called crystals ; so that animals, plants, 
and crystals are the 3 kinds of structures char 
acterizing species in nature. As the qualities 
of crystals depend directly on the forces of the 
ultimate molecules or particles of matter, crys- 
tallography is one of the fundamental depart- 
ments of molecular physics, and that particular 
branch which includes cohesive attraction. Co- 
hesive attraction in solidification is nothing but 
crystallogenic attraction, for all solidification in 
inorganic nature is crystallization. The solidi- 
fication of water, making ice, is a turning it into 
a mass of crystals ; and the Avord crystal is ap- 
propriately derived from the Greek Kpva-raWos, 
ice. The solidification of the vapors of the at- 
mosphere fills the air with snow-flakes, which 
are congeries of crystals or crystalline grains. 
Solid lava, granite, marble, iron, spermaceti, 
and indeed all the solid materials of the inor- 
ganic globe, are crystalline in grain; so that 
there is no exaggeration in the statement that 
the earth has crystal foundations. The ele- 
ments and their inorganic compounds are, in 
their perfection, crystals. Cai'bon crystallized 
is the diamond. Boron is little less brilliant or 
hard ; find could we reduce oxygen to the solid 



state, it would probably (as we may infer from 
its compounds) have no rival among nature's 
gems. Alumina is the constituent of the sap- 
l)hire and ruby, and silica of quartz crystals. 
Magnesia also has its lustrous forms. The met- 
als all crystallize. Silica and alumina combined, 
along with one or more of the alkalies or earths, 
make a large part of the mineral ingredients of 
the globe, its tourmaline, garnet, feldspar, and 
many other species, all splendent in their finer 
crystallizations; and limestone, one of the home- 
liest of all the earth's materials, as we ordinarily 
see it, occurs in a multitude of brilliant forms, 
exceeding in variety every other mineral spe- 
cies. The general principles in the science of 
crystallogi'apliy are the following : I. A crystal 
is bounded by j^lane surfaces, symmetrically ar- 
ranged about certain imaginary lines, called 
axes. II. A crystal has an internal structure 
which is directly related to the external form, 
and the axial lines or directions. This internal 
structure is most obviously exhibited in the 
property called cleavage. Crystals having this 
property split or cleave in certain directions, 
either parallel to one or more of the axial 
planes, or to diagonals to them ; and these di- 
rections are fixed in each species. In some 
cases, cleavage may be effected by the fingers, 
as with mica and gypsum ; in others, by means of 
a hammer with or without the aid of a knife- 
blade, as in galena, calcite, fluor spar ; in others, 
it is indistinguishable, as in quartz and ice. 
In all species, whether there be cleavage or not, 
crystals often show a regular internal structure 
through the arrangement of impurities, or by 
internal lines, striations, or imperfections; and, 
when there has been a partial solution or ero- 
sion of the crystal, there is often a development 
of new lines and planes, indicating that the gen- 
eral symmetry of the exterior belongs to the 
whole interior. III. The various forms of crys- 
tals belong mathematically to 6 systems of 
crystallization : the monometric, dimetric, tri- 
metric, monoclinic, triclinic, and hexagonal. 
The greater part of the crystalline forms may 
be regarded as based on 4-sided prisms, square, 
rectangular, rhombic, or rhomboidal in base; 
and the rest, on the regular 6-sided prism. 
The 4-sided prisms are either right prisms (erect) 
or oblique (inclined). Any such 4-sided prism 
may have 3 fundamental axes crossing at the 
centre, 1 vertical axis connecting the centres 
of the opposite bases, and 2 lateral, connecting 
the centres of either the opposite lateral faces, 
or the opposite lateral edges. The G-sided 
prism is right, and has 4 axes, 1 vertical and 
3 lateral. In the right 4-sided prisms, the in- 
tersections of the axes are all at right angles ; 
in the obliipie, one or all of them are oblique 
angles. A. Right or orthometric systems. 1. 
Monometric system : the 3 axes equal, and thus 
of one kind. The system is named from the 
Greek /xovos, one, and fieTpov, measure. The 
cube, for example, has 3 equal axes with rect- 
angular intersections ; the axes connect the 
centres of the opposite faces. The regular oc- 



CRYSTALLOGRAPHY 



117 



tahcdron, rliombic dodecahedron, and tetralie- 
dron, are other solids of this system. Tlie oc- 
tahedron is contained under S equal equilateral 
triangles, and is like two 4-sided pyramids placed 
base to base. The lines connecting the ai)ice3 
of the solid angles are the axes ; as in the cube, 
they are 3 in number, eijual in length, and rect- 
angular in their intersections. The rliombic 
dodecahedron is contained under 12 equal rhom- 
bic foces, and is an equilateral solid like the cube 
and octahedron. All the forms of the mono- 
metric system are thus equilateral, and every 
way symmetrical. No one of the axes is dis- 
tinguished as the vertical. Examples: garnet, 
diamond, gold, lead, alum. 2. Dimetric system : 
the vertical axis unequal to the lateral, and the 
lateral equal ; the axes tlius of 2 kinds. The 
dimetric system is named from the Greek Str, 
twice, and /.itrpou, measure. The square prism 
is an example. As the base is a square, the 
lateral axes, whether connecting the centres of 
opposite lateral faces or edges, are equal ; while 
the vertical may be of any length, longer or 
shorter than the lateral. Under this system, 
there are square octahedrons, equilateral 8-sided 
prisms, and 8-sided double pyramids, beside 
other forms. Examples: idocrase, zircon, tin. 
3. Trimetric system : the vertical axis unequal 
to the lateral, and the lateral also unequal, or, 
in other words, the 3 unequal. The trimetric 
system is named from the Greek t/jis-, 3 times, 
and /ierpof, measure. In the rectangular prism 
(a right prism with a rectangular base), the 3 
axes are lines connecting the centres of opposite 
faces, and are unequal. In the right rhombic 
prism the vertical axis coanects the centres of 
the bases, and the lateral, the centres of the op- 
posite lateral edges. They have the same rela- 
tions as in the rectangular prism ; that is, they 
are rectangular in their intersections and une- 
qual. Of the 2 lateral axes in this system, the 
longer is called the macrodiagonal, and the 
shorter the brachydiagonal. Examples : sulphur, 
heavy spar, epsom salt, topaz. B. Oblique or 
clinometric systems. 4. Monoclinic system : one 
only of the intersections oblique. This system is 
named from the Greek fiofos^ one, and kXii/o), to 
incline. If we take a model with 8 unequal axes 
arranged as in tlie trimetric system, and then 
make the vertical axis oblique to one of the 
lateral, we change the system into the mono- 
clinic. While the right rhombic prism belongs 
to the former, the oblique rhombic prism, and 
other related forms, belong to the latter. Ex- 
amples : borax, glauber salt, sugar, pyroxene. 
5. Triclinic system : all the 3 intersections ob- 
lique. The system is named from rpis, 3 times, 
and kXivco, to incline. The forms are oblique 
prisms contained under rhomboidal faces. The 
axes, whether connecting the centres of opposite 
faces or of opposite edges, are unequal, and all 
the intersections are oblique. Examples : blue 
vitriol, axinite. 0. The axes 4 in number. 6. 
Hexagonal system. In the regular hexagonal 
prism, the vertical axis connects the centres of 
the bases, and the 3 lateral, the centres of the 



oj)posite lateral faces or edges. Examples: beryl 
or oinerald, apatite. Beside the hexagonal 
j)rism, the system includes the rhombohedron 
and its derivative forms, inasmuch as the sym- 
metry of these forms is liexagonal. The rhom- 
bohedron is a solid, bounded like the cube by 
() equal faces equally inclined to one another, 
but those faces are rliombic, and the inclinations 
are oblique. The relations of the rhombohedron 
may be explained by comparison with a cube. 
If a cube be placed on one solid angle, with the 
diagonal from that angle to the op[)osite solid 
angle vertical, it will have 3 edges and 3 faces 
meeting at the top angle, and as many edges 
and faces, alternate in position, meeting at the 
opposite angle below; while the remaining 6 
edges will form a zigzag around tlie vertical 
diagonal ; these 6 edges might be called the 
lateral edges, and the others the terminal. 
The cub(?, in this position, is in fact a rhombo- 
hedron of 90". If the cube were elastic, so that 
the angles could be varied, a little pressure 
would make it a rhombohedron of an angle 
greater than 90°, that is, an obtuse rhombohe- 
dron ; or by drawing it out, it would become a 
rhombohedron of an angle less than 90°, or an 
acute rhomboliedron. The diagonal here taken 
as the vertical axis, is the true vertical axis of 
tlie rhombohedron ; and as there are 6 lateral 
edges situated symmetrically around it, there 
are 3 lateral axes crossing at angles of 60°, 
as in the regular hexagonal prism. Examples : 
calcite, sapphire, quartz. IV. The relative values 
of the axes in any species are constant. In the 
monometric system, the axes are equal, and the 
axial ratio is, therefore, that of unit}^ Calling 
the 3 axes a, b, c, it is in all monometric spe- 
cies a : b : e = 1 : 1:1. In the dimetric system 
the vertical axis («) is unequal to the 2 lateral 
(b, c). Calling the lateral 1, the vertical may 
be of any length greater or less than 1 ; and 
whatever the value, it is constant for the spe- 
cies. Thus in zircon, the value of a is 0.6407, 
and the axial ratio \s a : b : c = 0.6407 : 1 : 1. 
In calomel, the ratio is 1.232 : 1 : 1. In the tri- 
metric system, the 3 axes are unequal, but the 
ratio is constant for each species, as in the di- 
metric. Taking the shorter lateral axis (b) as 
unitv, the ratio for sulphur h a : b : e = 2.344: 
1 : 1.23; for heavy spar, 1.6107 : 1 : 1.2276. 
In the monoclinic system, the obliquity of the 
prism is a constant, as well as the relative values 
of the axes. In glauber salt, this inclination is 
72° 15', and the ratio of the axes \s a : b : c = 
1.1089 : 1 : 0.S962. In the hexagonal system, 
as in the dimetric, the vertical (a) is the vary- 
ing axis ; but its value is constant for each spe- 
cies. In quartz, a:b:c:d = 1.0999 : 1 : 1 : 1 ; in 
calcite, 0.8543 : 1 : 1 : 1. In other words, tak- 
ing the lateral axes at unity, the vertical («) in 
calcite is 0.8543. Crystallography owes its 
mathematical basis to this law. The constancy 
of angle for each species, stated in § II., is here 
involved. V. Each species, while having a con- 
stant axial ratio, may still crystallize in a variety 
of forms. Thus the diamond, which is mono- 



118 



CRYSTALLOGEAPIIY 



metric, occurs in octaliedrons, in dodecahe- 
drons, and in solids like octahedrons, but hav- 
ing low pyramids of 8 or faces iu place of 
each octahedral face (called tris-octahedrons 
and hex-octahedrons), and in various com- 
binations of tliese forms. So dimetric spe- 
cies, as idocrase, may occur in simple square 
prisms, or in square prisms with the lateral 
edges truncated or bevelled, or with difl'erent 
planes on the basal edges or angles, or in 8-sided 
prisms, or in square octahedrons, &c. In the 
species calcite, the number of derivative forms 
amounts to several hundreds. This simjile fact 
shows that while cohesive attraction in calcite, 
for examjile, sometimes produces the fundamen- 
tal rliombohedron, it may undergo changes of 
condition so as to produce other forms, and as 
many such changes as are necessary to give rise 
to all the various occurring forms of the species, 
with only this limitation, that they are(all based 
on the fundamental axial ratio, 0.8543 : 1. VI. 
In all cases of derivative or secondary forms, 
either (1) all similar parts (parts similarly placed 
with reference to the axes) are modified alike, 
or (2) only half, alternate in position, are modi- 
fied alike. This law may be explained by refer- 
ence to a square prism. In this prism there are 
2 sets of edges, the basal and lateral ; the 2 sets 
are unlike, that is, are unequal, and included by 
different planes. One set may therefore be 
modified by planes when the other is not ; more- 
over, when one basal edge has a plane on it, all 
the others will have the same plane, that is, a 
plane inclined at the same angle to the base ; 
or if one has a dozen ditferent planes, all the 
others will have the same dozen. Again, if a 
lateral edge is replaced by one plane, that plane 
will be equally inclined to the lateral planes, 
because those planes (or, what is equivalent, 
the lateral axes) are equal; and in addition, all 
the lateral edges will have the same plane. In 
a cube, the 12 edges are all equal and similar; 
and hence, if one of them has a plane on it, 
there will be a similar plane ou each of the 12. 
Hence, we may distinguish a cube, modified 
on the edges, however much it may be distorted, 
by finding the same planes on all the 12 edges 
of the solid. The 8 angles of a cube are similar, 
and hence they will all have similar modifica- 
tions. This remark applies also to the 8 angles 
of a square prism. The square prism and cube 
differ in this, that in the cube, when there is one 
plane on each angle, that plane will incline equal- 
ly to each of the 3 faces adjoining, because these 
faces are equal ; while in the square prism, the 
plane will incline equally to the 2 lateral planes 
and at a difierent angle to the base. This gen- 
eral law, " similar parts similarly modified," is 
in accordance with what complete symmetry 
would require. The exception mentioned, of 
half the ])arts modified without the other half, 
is exemplified in boracite, iu which half of the 
8 solid angles of the cube have planes unlike 
those of the other half — a mode of modification 
that gives rise to the tetrahedron and related 
forms ; iu tourmaline, in Avhich the planes at 



one end of the crystal difier from those at the 
other ; and in pyrites, in which on each edge 
there is only one plane out of a pair of bevelling 
planes. All such forms are said to be hemihe- 
dral (Gr. Tjjjuav, half, and idpn, face), while 
the former are said to be holohedral (from 
oXos, all, and i8pa). Many hemihedral crys- 
tals, when undergoing a change of temperature, 
have opposite electric poles developed in the 
parts dissimilarly modified. VII. The derivative 
forms, under any species, are related to one an- 
other by simple multiples of the axial ratios. 
In calcite, the fundamental rliombohedron has 
the axial ratio just mentioned, 0.8543 : 1, that 
is, a — 0.8543. There are a number of deriva- 
tive rhombohedrons among the crystalline forms 
of this species ; one has the vertical axis -Ja ; 
another ^a ; others |a, |a, 2«, 3a, 4a, and 
so on, by simple multiples of the vertical axis 
of the fundamental form. So in zircon, of the 
dimetric system, while a (vertical axis)=0.6407, 
the lateral being unity, there is one derivative 
octahedron with the axes a : 1 : 1 ; another, 
2a : 1 : 1 ; another, 3« : 1 : 1 ; and there are 3 
other forms (8-sided pyramids) whose axes are 
severally 3a : 3 : 1 ; 4a : 4 : 1 ; 5a : 5 : 1 ; or 
writing out the value of a, they are 1.9221 : 3 : 
1 ; 2.5G28 : 4 : 1 ; 3.2035 : 5 : 1. It is obvious 
that if an octahedron of zircon have the vertical 
axis 2a (or the whole ratio, 2a : 1 : 1), its interfa- 
cial angles may be calculated, the value of a be- 
ing known = 0.6407. The calculation is sim- 
pler still, provided the basal angle of the pyra- 
mid, a : 1 : 1, be known; for the tangents of I 
half the basal angles will vary as the vertical 
axes, or, in this case, will be as 1 : 2. Moreover, 
if the angles of the octahedron, a : 1 : 1, be 
known from measurement, the value of the axis 
a may be thence calculated. The derivative 
forms thus enable us to ascertain the dimensions 
of the axes of crystals. Crystals are often much 
distorted, and cubes are thus changed to square 
prisms, rectangular prisms, and other forms ; 
and prismatic and octahedral crystals are liable 
to similar distortions. But the distortions sel- 
dom affect the angles. These facts still further 
illusti-ate the mathematical basis of crystallogra- 
phy. They also show that the modifications 
wliich cohesive attraction (or, what is the same, 
crystallogenic attraction) undergoes in order to 
produce the various derivative forms of any 
substance, take place according to a law of sim- 
jde ratios, VIII, The physical characters of 
crystals have a direct relation to the forms 
and axes. Cleavage, hardness, color, elasticity, 
expansibility, and conduction of heat, differ 
in the direction of different axial lines, and are 
alike in the direction of like axes. The differ- 
ence of color between light transmitted along 
the vertical and lateral axes of a prism is often 
very marked, and the name dichroism (Gr. 8is, 
twice, xpo«, color), or the more general term 
pleochroism, is applied to the property. The 
hardness often differs sensibly on tlie terminal 
and lateral planes of a prisni, and also, though 
less sensibly, iu other different directions. 



CRYSTALLOGRAPHY 



119 



IX. Tlie angles of the crystals of a species, 
thougli essentially constant, are subject to small 
variations. The unequal expansion of inequiax- 
ial crystals along different axial directions, allud- 
ed to under the last head, occasions a change of 
angle 'svith a change of temperature; other 
small variations arise from impurities, or iso- 
morphous substitutions, or irregularities of crys- 
tallization. Tliere are also many instances of 
curved crystallizations which are exceptions to 
the general rule. A familiar example of curv- 
ing forms is atlbrded by ice or frost as it covers 
windows and pavements. Diamonds have usu- 
ally convex instead of plane laces. Rhombohe- 
drons of dolomite and spathic iron often have 
a curving twist ; half the faces are concave and 
those opposite convex. Other imperfections 
arise from an oscillating tendency to the forma- 
tion of 2 planes, ending in making a striated 
curving surface. Thus y-sided j)risms of tour- 
maline are reduced to 3-sided prisms with the 
faces convex. X. While simple crystals are 
the normal result in crystallization, twins or 
compound crystals are sometimes formed. The 
6-rayed stars of snow and the arrow-head forms 
of gypsum are examples of compound crystals. 
In the stars of snow there are 3 crystals cross- 
ing at middle ; in the arrow-shaped crystal of 
gypsum, 2 crystals are united so as to form a 
regular twin. Many of these twin crystals may 
be imitated by cutting a model of an oblique 
prism in two vertically through the middle, and 
then inverting one part on tiie other and uniting 
again the cut surfaces. In such a twin, the top of 
one half of the crystal is really at the bottom, and 
the bottom of the same half at the top. To ex- 
plain its formation, it is necessary to suppose 
that the nucleal or first particle of the crystal 
was a double molecule made up of 2 molecules, 
in which one was thus inverted on the other. 
Such twins, as well as other facts, prove that 
molecules have a top and bottom, or, in more 
correct language, polarity, one end being posi- 
tive and the other negative, this being the only 
kind of distinction of top and bottom which we 
can suppose. Axial lines or directions of at- 
traction are in fact necessarily polar, if it be 
true, as is supposed, that molecular force of 
whatever kind is polar. In the case of the 
compound crystal of snow, the nucleal particle 
must have consisted of 3 or 6 molecules com- 
bined. Those prismatic substances are com- 
pounded in this way which have the angles of 
the prism near GO' and 120°, and for th% reason 
that 3 times 120°, or 6 times 60°, equal 360°, or 
the complete circle. In a case where this angle 
is nearly i of 360^ (as in marcasite), the twins 
consist of 5 united crystals. In compound crys- 
tals of another kind, the composition is pro- 
duced after the crystal has begun to form, in- 
stead of in tlie first or nucleal particle. A 
prism, as in rutile, after elongating for a while, 
takes a sudden bend at each extremity at a 
particular angle, depending on the values of the 
axes. In another case, as albite, which is tri- 
clinic, a flat prism begins as a thin plate ; then 



a reversed layer is added to either surfiice ; then 
another like the first plate ; then another re- 
versed; and so on, until the crystal consists of a 
large number of lamella), the alternate of them 
reversed in j)osition, yet all as solidly united as 
if a simple crystal. Such a kind of composition 
may be indicated on the surface in a series of 
fine striations or furrows, each due to a new 
plane of composition ; and they are frequently 
so fine as to be detected only by means of a 
magnifying glass. This mode of twin is addi- 
tional proof of the polarity of the crystallogenic 
molecule. If there w'ere not some inherent 
difference in the extremities or opposite sides 
of the molecules or their axes, which is equiva- 
lent to polarity, there could not be this series 
of reversions during the fonnation of the crys- 
tal. External electric or other influence may 
be the cause of the reversion. XI. While sim- 
ple and twin crystals form when circumstances 
are favorable, in other cases the solidifying 
material becomes an aggregate of crystalline 
particles. Regular crystals often require for 
their formation the nicest adjustment of circum- 
stances as to supply of material, temperature, 
rate of cooling or evaporation, &c. ; and hence 
imperfect crystallizations are far the most com- 
mon in nature. A weak solution spread over 
a surface may produce a deposit of minute crys- 
tals, which, if the solution continues to be grad- 
ually supplied, will slowly lengthen, and pro- 
duce a fibrous or columnar structure. In other 
cases, whether crystallization take place from 
solution or fusion or otherwise, the result is 
only a confused aggregate of grains, or the 
granular structure. Under these circumstances, 
the tendency in force to exert influence radially 
from any centre where it is developed or begins 
action, often leads to concentric or radiated 
aggregations, or concretions. The point which 
first commences to solidify, or else a foreign 
body, as a fragment of wood or a shell, be- 
comes such a centre ; and aggregation goes on 
around it until the concretion has reached its 
limits. Basalt and trap rocks which have been 
formed from fusion are often divided into col- 
umns, and the columns have concave and con- 
vex surfaces at the joints or cross fractures, 
proving tliat they are concretionary in origin. 
The centre or axis of each column is the centre 
of the concretionary structure, and therefore it 
was the position of the first solidifying points 
in the cooling mass. The distance therefore 
between the initial solidifying points determines 
in any case the size of the columns ; and as the 
columns are larger, the thicker the cooling 
mass, the distance is greater, the slower the 
cooling. The cracks separating the columns are 
supposed to be owing to contraction on cooling. 
XII. The system of crystallization of a given 
substance sometimes undergoes a total change, 
owing to external causes. Carbonate of lime 
ordinarily crystallizes in rhombohedrons, and is 
then called calcite ; but in certain cases it 
crystallizes in trimetric prisms, and it is then 
called aragonite. The aragonite appears to 



120 



CRYSTALLOGRAPHY 



form when the solution has a higher than the 
ordinary temperature. This property of pre- 
senting two independent forms is called dimor- 
phism. Beside difference of form, there is in 
all such cases a difference of hardness and 
specific gravity. Carbon crystallizes in one 
set of forms, whicli are monometric, in the 
diamond, and in another, hexagonal, in gra- 
phite. Glass and stone are dimorphous states 
of tlie same substance, and the former may 
be changed into the latter by slow cooling. — 
Modes of crystallization. Crystallization re- 
quires freedom of movement among the par- 
ticles engaged in the process. It may take 
place : 1. From solution, where a solvent 
serves to disunite the molecules of a solid, and 
give them the free movement required. The 
crystallization of sugar or alum from a concen- 
trated solution is an example of this method. 
The alum solution is simply set away to cool, 
and the crystals slowly form and cover any ob- 
ject that may be placed in the solution. With 
many solutions evaporation cautiously carried on 
"will throw down a crop of crystals. Sea water, 
on slow evaporation, first deposits gypsum, af- 
terward common salt, and then its magnesian 
salts. 2. From a state of fusion or of vapor. 
Heat in this case is the dissevering agent, and 
the removal of heat permits resolidification. 
Thus water becomes ice, and aqueous vapor 
snow ; and melted lead, sulphur, and other 
substances, may come out in perfect crystals. 
If a mass of melted sulphur, or of bismuth, af- 
ter it has crusted over, be tapped and the inte- 
rior run out, the cavity within will be found 
lined with crystals. Camphor, when sublimed 
by a gentle heat, condenses again in delicate 
crystallizations. 3. From long continued heat 
without fusion. The heat used for tempering 
steel is far short of fusion, and yet it allows of 
a change in the size of the grains throughout 
the mass. Heat has crystallized beds of earthy 
sediment, and thus changed them into gneiss 
and mica schist without fusing the rocks ; and 
there is reason to believe that even a low de- 
gree of heat long continued is sufficient for 
these results. By this means statuary marble, 
one of tlie earth's crystalline rocks, has been 
made out of fossiliferous limestones. The white 
marble of Berkshire, Mass., is of the same for- 
mation with the Trenton limestone, a rock full 
of fossils, in central New York and elsewhere. 
Such altered rocks are termed in geology meta- 
morpliic rocks. Nearly all the gems, and f;ir 
the larger part of the crystalline rocks of the 
world, were crystallized by some metamorphic 
process. Long continued vibration is known to 
change the crystalline texture of iron, making 
axles of wheels coarse-grained and brittle. In 
vibration there is some heat developed, and 
this may aid in the process. 4. From any cir- 
cumstances that favor the combination of the 
elements of a compound. Crystallizations often 
take place at the moment of the combination. — 
Origin of the modifications of crystals.. The 
particular modifications of form presented by 



the crystals of any substance sometimes depend 
on the nature of the solution depositing the 
crystals, and sometimes on wider terrestrial 
conditions. Common salt, crystallizing from 
pure water, almost invariably takes a cubic 
form ; but if boracic acid is present, the crys- 
tals are cubes with truncated angles; or if the 
solution contains in-ea, the crystals are octahe- 
drons. Carbonate of copper, in course of depo- 
sition, has been observed to change the form 
of the wystals on the addition of a little ammo- 
nia, and again to a still different form on add- 
ing sulphuric acid. Sal ammoniac ordinarily 
crystallizes in octahedrons ; but if urea be 
present, it forms cubes. A floating crystal 
forming in a solution has been seen to assume 
secondary planes on becoming attached to the 
sides of the vessel. There are many examples 
where a substance, as calcite, for a time crys- 
tallized under one form, and afterward be- 
gan a new form around or orf top of tlie first. 
At Bristol, Conn., 6-sided prisms of calcite have 
been found surmounted by short, flattened cal- 
cite crystals of the variety called nail-head spar. 
AtWheatley's mine, Phoenixville,Penn., the same 
species, under the form of the scalenohedron, 
has been found covered and altered to a 6-sided 
prism. Such facts prove some change, and 
probably a change in the nature of the solution 
supplying the carbonate of lime, the ingredient 
of calcite. In nature the crystals of a substance 
over a wide region are often identical in form. 
The calcite of tlie Niagara limestone at Lock- 
port, N. Y., in all cases has the form called 
dog-tooth spar, or the scalenohedron ; that of 
Booneville, N. Y., the form of short hexagonal 
prisms ; that of the Rossie lead mine, a combi- 
nation of other more complex forms. This is a 
general fact with regard to the crystallizations 
in rocks. In massive aggregate crystalline 
rocks there is a tendency to parallelism in 
the crystals, and hence, at a granite quarry, 
it is easier to split the granite in one direc- 
tion than in others, owing to an approximate 
parallelism in the cleavage planes of the feldspar. 
To obtain large crystals artificially from solu- 
tions, a large supply of material is of course ne- 
cessary. The most successful mode is to select 
certain of the best crystals that have begun to 
form, and supply them from time to time with 
new portions of the solution. They will thus 
continue to enlarge, the crystallizing material 
tending to aggregate"' about the ready formed 
crystals, rather than commence a new crop. 
Cavities in rocks sometimes contain a vast 
amount of large crystals. At Zinken in Ger- 
man}', a single cavity was opened last century 
■which aftorded 1,000 cwt. of quartz crystals, 
one of which weighed 800 lbs. In all such 
cases the supply of material was gradually in- 
troduced ; for so little silica is taken up by al- 
kaline waters that the solution of silica filling 
the cavity at any one time could make but a 
thin lining over its interior. When water 
freezes, there is at first a sheet of ice made by 
the shooting of prisms over its surface. After 



CSANYI 



CSOMA DE KOROS 



121 



this, as the cold continues, the crust increases 
in thickness hy gradual additions to the under 
surface, thereby causing an elongation of pris- 
matic crystallizations downward. The body of 
the ice is consequently columnar, although not 
distinctly so when examined in its firm state. 
In the melting of the ice of some lakes in spring, 
as has been observed at Lake Cliamplain, this 
columnar structure usually becomes apparent ; 
and it is soniethncs so decided, that when the 
ice is even a foot thick and strong enough to 
bear a horse and sleigh, the horse's foot Avill 
occasionally strike tlirough, driving down a 
portion of the half-united columnar mass, which 
may rise again to refill the place as the foot is 
withdrawn. When in this condition, a gale at 
night sometimes leads to a disappearance of all 
the ice before morning. A fact like this illus- 
trates what must be the condition of the earth's 
crust if it has slowly cooled from fusion. The 
crystallizing rock material below, as the crust 
slowly thickened, would not necessarily take col- 
unmar forms; but there would be some system 
of arrangement in the crystals which would be 
of a world-wide character; and as the cleavable 
species feldspar is a universal mineral among 
igneous rocks, the earth's crust would derive 
some kind of structure — a cleavage structure, it 
might be called — from these conditions. Crys- 
tallization thus pervades the globe, and has had 
much to do in determining its grander surface 
features, as well as making gems, solidifying 
sedimentary strata, and furnishing material for 
the statuary and architect. It has also afforded 
man one of his best avenues for searching into 
nature, opening to view facts on which are based 
some of the profoundest laws in cohesive at- 
traction, heat, light, and chemistry. 

CSANYI, Laszi.6, minister of state during 
the Hungarian revolution, born in the county 
of Zala in 1790, executed atPesth, Oct. 10, 1849, 
served as an officer in the Napoleonic wars from 
1809-15, was disabled by a wound, and retired 
to private life. Having become a member of the 
liberal opposition in his native county, he took 
part in the Hungarian revolution in 1848, acted 
as a commissary of the revolutionary govern- 
ment in the attempt to relieve Vienna, and dur- 
ing the retreat of the army of the upper Danube 
to Pesth, which he was the last to leave, and 
afterward went to Transylvania in order to 
organize that province under Hungarian rule. 
There his severity against the German and Wal- 
lachian population brought him into collision 
with the military commander, Gen. Bem, in 
consequence of which he was recalled. When 
the diet had proclaimed Hungary an independ- 
ent state, he was appointed to a seat in Sze- 
mere's cabinet, of which he became the most 
active member. When Gorgey, whom he zeal- 
ously supported, surrendered to the Russians, 
Csanyi, exhausted and grieved, refused to leave 
his country. Before the Austrian court martial 
he frankly confessed his revolutionary princi- 
ples and acts, and was sentenced to death and 
hanged. 



CSOKONAT, YiTEz Mihaly, a Hungarian 
poet, born at Debreczin, Nov. 17, 1773, died 
Jan. 28, 1805. He was educated at the college 
of his native town, and appointed professor of 
classical literature there in 1795. He was soon, 
however, expelled from this situation on account 
of his irregularities. He then commenced the 
Btudy of the law, which he soon gave up, and 
during the rest of his life had no regular em- 
ployment. His works, principally love poems 
and pieces of a light and lively character, havo 
been published in numerous editions, 

CSOMA DE KOROS (Kokosi), Saxdor, a 
celebrated traveller and Thibetan scholar, born 
at Koros, in Transylvania, about 1790, died at 
Darjeeling in India, April 11, 1842. Of a noble 
but poor family, he studied gratis at the school 
of Nagy-Enyed, where at an early age he 
avowed his intention to make the discovery of 
the original home of his race, the Magyars, the 
task of his life. The researches of Klaproth 
led him to seek the traces of the Ooigoors, a peo- 
ple of central Asia mentioned by Arabian Avrit- 
ers. In 1815 he went to Gottingen, where he 
studied medicine and oriental languages, and on 
his return finally started (1820) for his great 
journey of discovery, with scanty means furnish- 
ed by the liberality of a friend, in the poor dress 
of a Transylvania countryman, but with the he- 
roic determination of a Columbus. He passed 
through the Balkan to Constantinople, visited 
Egypt and Syria, and wrote his first letter to his 
friends from Teheran, dated Dec. 21, 1820. The 
resemblance of a number of Thibetan words to 
Magyar incited him to acquire the language and 
to visit the country of Thibet. He traversed 
Little Bucharia, tlie desert of Gobi, reached the 
regions of the Himalaya, wandered through its 
valleys, partly with the English traveller Moor- 
croft, partly alone, and spent 4 years (1827-'30) 
in a Buddhist monastery at Ivanam, on a high 
mountain on the confines of Thibet and India. 
For his maintenance on his travels he relied upon 
his medical knowledge and the hospitality of the 
Asiatic people. But his taciturn habits and aus- 
tere modesty prevented him from communicat- 
ing, in writing or conversation, the particulars 
of his travels and extraordinary sojourn among 
the Buddhists, when he arrived at Calcutta with 
immense philological collections, gathered in the 
narrow cells of the snow-bound monastery, and 
comprising no less than 40,000 Thibetan words. 
A severe disappointment awaited him here. He 
had already given up the illusion in regard to 
the Magyar and Thibetan languages; he now 
learned with deep grief that his collections, 
made for the purpose of tracing the Ooigoors, 
were all superfiuous, as his discovered sources 
were translations of well-known Sanscrit works. 
But in the eyes of British scholars in India he 
had discovered incomparably more than was the 
object of his patriotic researches. He became 
the oracle of Tliibetan literature and Buddhistic 
science, before him almost terra incognitce. He 
was the object of general attention in Calcutta, 
and Hungary and Transylvania learned from 



122 



OTENOIDS 



CUBA 



England the fame of their countryman. But ho 
modestly -witlidrew from society, and destined 
the money -which he received from home (the 
diet of Transylvania having voted him an ample 
pension) for -works of science for the institu- 
tions of his country. When offered a remu- 
neration by the Asiatic society of Bengal for 
an elaborate catalogue of the 1,100 Thibetan 
■works of their library, which before had been 
like sealed books, he declared if lie -were rich 
he -would willingly pay for the pleasure of 
the work. "With unabated zeal he continued 
his profound studies of the languages and reli- 
gions of the East, until he again started in 1842 
for the prosecution of his originally intended 
discovery ; but on his journey he Avas suddenly 
overtaken by illness, lie refused to take medi- 
cine, and died without a struggle or a groan. 
His works are: "Essay toward a Diction- 
ary Thibetan and English" (Calcutta, 1834); 
" Grammar of the Thibetan Language" (1834) ; 
an "Analysis of the Kahgyur," the great sacred 
book of the Buddhists, published in the 20th 
vol. of the " Asiatic Researches ;" and numer- 
ous articles on Thibetan literature in the " Jour- 
nal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal." 

CTENOIDS, one of the 4 orders into which 
Prof. Agassiz formerly divided fishes, according 
to the peculiarities of their scales. The ctenoids 
comprise those which, like the perch family, 
have hard rough scales, with their posterior 
edge dentated or serrated; this order has a 
bony vertebi'al column, serratures on the gill 
covers, and generally spines in the dorsal fin. 
The other orders were cycloids, ganoids, and 
placoids. The cycloids, of which the salmon 
and the herring are examples, have soft cir- 
cular scales and tin rays, and simple head bones, 
with simple outlines; these, the most numer- 
ous of existing fishes, have also a bony verte- 
bral column. There is not any strongly marked 
division between these orders, which are con- 
nected together by many intermediate types, 
and their general organization is not in harmony 
with this single basis of diiference. The ganoids 
have angular scales covered with a substance 
resembling enamel; they include many fossil 
species, and the sturgeon and gar-pike of the 
present day, approaching the reptiles in some 
particulars of bony structure. The placoids, 
including the sharks and skates, have only en- 
amelled granules in the skin ; these are cartila- 
ginous fishes, and have as many gill openings 
as gills. This system is now abandoned by its 
author as too exclusive, being founded on a 
single element of classification ; yet he still re- 
tains the principle, as indicating certain natural 
relationships, and hopes, by combining it with 
the fin system of Cuvier and the anatomical 
system of J. Miiller, and by further researches, 
to arrive at a truly natural classification of fishes. 

CTESIAS, a Greek ])hysician and historian, 
contemporary of Xenophon, born at Cnidus, in 
Caria, is supposed to have repaired to the Per- 
sian court about the year 416 B. C. He accom- 
panied Artaxcrxes H. on his expedition against 



liis brother Cyrus, dressed his wounds after the 
battle of Cunaxa, and returned to Cnidus in the 
year 399 B. C, During his residence at the Per- 
sian court he formed the design of writing a his- 
tory of Persia. As physician to the great king, 
he was allowed access to the state archives, from 
which lie had the opportunity of collecting ma- 
terials. His work, entitled UepsiKa, in 23 books, 
brought down the history of Persia to the au- 
thor's own time. It was often quoted by ancient 
"writers. There are many important discrepan- 
cies between Ctesias and Herodotus ; and recent 
researches in oriental history show that on most 
of these points the former is entirely untrust- 
worthy. Only a few fragments of this work 
are now extant. Of a second work, entitled 
li'StKn, we have also a few fragments. 

CTESIBIUS, a native of Alexandria, cele- 
brated for his mechanical inventions, probably 
flourished in the latter half of the 3d century 
B. C, or the early part of the 2d. He is said 
to have been the first to apply the elastic force 
of air as a moving power. He invented numer- 
ous machines, among which may be men- 
tioned his clepsydra or water clock, and his 
hydraulic organ. 

CTESIPHON, an Athenian orator of the 4th 
century B. C, son of Leosthenes. After the 
disastrous battle of Chajronea he moved that 
Demosthenes, in consideration of his great ser- 
vices in the cause of the state, and the great 
sacrifices which had been made in behalf of 
his country, he honored with a golden crown ; 
whereupon he was prosecuted by ^schines, 
but was triumphantly defended by Demosthenes 
himself, who, though not the nominal, was yet 
the real defendant. 

CUBA, the largest of the West India islands, 
lying at the outlet of the gulf of Mexico, and 
thence extending E. S. E. into the Caribbean 
sea. Its "W. extremity bends toward the S. 
W., and approaches within 130 m. of Yucatan. 
The S. point of Florida is the same distance 
due N. from its extreme N. portion, which is 
in lat. 23° 10' N. Its S. W. portion reaches 
the lat. of 19° 50', and is distant from Hayti 
48 m., the windward channel flowing be- 
tween the two islands. Punta de Maysi, the 
E. point of the island, is in long. 74° 7' W. 
from Greenwich, and Cape San Antonio, the 
W. extremity, is in 84° 57' 12". The greatest 
length of the island, measured through the 
centre, is given by different authorities from 
750 to 793 English miles ; the greatest width, 
50 m. W. of Santiago, is about 127 m. ; from 
Havana to the S. coast at Batabano, it is only 
about 28 m. across the island. The area of 
the island has been variously estimated. In 
1825 it was computed by Senor Bauza, at the 
request of Humboldt, and found to be 3,681 
s(iuare maritime leagues of 20 to the degree. 
This included the isle of Pines, on the S. coast, 
the area of which is 98 leagues. The latest esti- 
mates of the area, converted into English stat- 
ute miles, are from 42,383 to 45,277. The 
isle of Pines contains beside 810 sq. m., and 



CUBA 



123 



other small islands 9Y0, making that of tho- 
wiiolo territory belonging to Cuba from 44,163 
to 47,057 sq. m. The length of shore lino on 
the S. side is 301 leagues, and on the N. 272 
leagues ; that of the whole island may be called 
about 2,000 English miles. — The principal feature 
in the topography of Cuba is a range of moun- 
tains more or less broken, which extends through 
the central portion of the island from one end to 
the other. From this backbone the streams flow 
ia short courses to the sea on either side. At 
the E. extremity the mountains spread over a 
wider territory than elsewhere, and some of 
them attain a height of 8,000 feet. From Punta 
de Maysi to Cape Cruz the range called Sierra 
del Cobre, or Copper mountains, skirts the S. 
coast for about 200 miles ; and back of it, par- 
allel with the line of tliis coast, runs the river 
Cauto toward the W., which empties into the 
bay of Buena Esperanza on the S. side of the 
island. This, the longest of the rivers, is navi- 
gable for schooners about CO m. above its 
mouth. At the W. end the mountains also 
approach the coast, especially on the N. side. 
In several other places groups of high hills form 
thd margin of the island; but for the most part 
low tracts intervene between the central eleva- 
tions and the shore on either side ; and in the 
wet season these are inundated, and rendered 
almost impassable by the depth of water and 
the tenacity of the deep black mud. From 
Jagua to Point Sabina, on the S. side, the 
country is a continuous swamp for 46 leagues, 
and the same may be said of many other less 
extensive tracts on the N. side. The soil of 
these districts is a rich alluvial mould, in part 
derived from the decay of vegetable matter, 
and in part from the disintegration of the cal- 
careous strata that make up the greater portion 
of the rock formations which appear along the 
coast, where this is low, and which compose a 
large portion of the hills near the sea, or be- 
tween it and the central axis of the island. 
These limestone formations are singularly cav- 
ernous, and many of the streams, some even of 
the larger rivers, are swallowed up in their re- 
cesses; in the dry season the greater number 
of them seem thus to disappear wholly or in 
part. To the facility with which rocks of this 
character are acted upon by water is owing 
the extreme irregularity of the coast line, its 
frequently recurring deep indentations, in fact 
its numerous harbors, and its capes and islands, 
which are indeed mostly coral reefs, or lime- 
stone ledges of similar nature. The forma- 
tion of these is seen to be still in progress 
upK)n the coast, and the ledges are observed to 
be filled with remains of sliellfish of species 
now living in the waters. The limestone rocks 
of the hills are of older date ; many are re- 
ferred by Humboldt to the Jurassic period. 
Others may be seen associated with the mica 
slates, granitic rocks, and serpentines that make 
up the central hills of the island, which are of 
metamorphic character, true marbles; such have 
been found in the vicinity of Puerto Principe, and 



proljably such arc the marbles reported to occur 
in the isle of Pines. Petroleum springs are 
sometimes met with flowing out of the lime- 
stones; but these are of more frequent occur- 
rence in the serpsntincs. The metamorphic 
rocks form a large portion of the island, trav- 
ersing it from one extremity to the other, 
and everywhere they are accompanied by ores 
of copper in small or large quantity. The 
chief development of these is in the moun- 
tains near Santiago de Cuba, where they wero 
known and worked in the I7th century. The 
mines wero however abandoned, and remained 
neglected for more than 100 years, when they 
were reopened by Englishmen in 1830. They are 
situated at Cobre, 9 miles from Santiago de Cuba. 
The ores, principally pyritous, are in quartz 
veins in the metamorphic rocks. In 1850 the 
shipments to Swansea amounted to about 25,- 
000 tons, averaging about 16 per cent, of metal. 
Up to Jan. 1854, the principal company, called, 
the consolidated copper mines of Cobre associa- 
tion, had divided, since their organization in 1834, 
£61 12s. per share on £40 paid in, and the shares 
were at a small premium. The royal Santiago 
mining company, formed in 1837, had paid up 
to 1848, in dividends, £33 4s. per share on £13 
paid in ; but their mines have since been un- 
profitable, and in 1853 the shares were assessed. 
Other copper mines less productive have been 
worked in other parts of the island, as near 
Trinidad, between Nuevitas and Puerto Prin- 
cipe, and various other places. Near Villa Clara 
the copper ores have proved to be argentiferous, 
7| oz. being obtained from the quintal (107f 
lbs.) of ore. Lead, antimony, and chrome have 
been found near Ilolguin, but they are not 
worked. Magnetic oxide of iron is an abundant 
ore, and is found of excellent qualities, but is 
nowhere worked. Gold was exported in no 
very great amount by the early settlers, and has 
been met with in recent times in the deposits 
of the rivers Holguin, Escawbray, and others, 
but not in quantity to encourage further explo- 
rations. Coal is not a product of the island ; 
but a highly inflammable substance called chap- 
apote, and sometimes bituminous coal (see Bi- 
tumen), is met with in masses of extraordinary 
extent, occupying fissures in the serpentines, and 
the kindred diorites and euphotides. The va- 
rieties from difterent localities, most of which 
are near Havana, yield different proportions of 
volatile matters. Mr. T. G. Clemson found in 
one sample 63 per cent, and the fixed carbon 35 
per cent. Mr. John H. Blake found 50 per cent, 
volatile, and the ultimate analysis yielded carbon 
71.84, oxygen 6.22, hydrogen 8.40, ash 13.5. The 
abundance of this product, and the facility of 
obtaining it, have led to its extraction and its 
employment to some extent, as a fuel for steam 
and manufacturing purposes. Its composition 
and cheapness recommend it for tlie production 
of gas and lampblack. Several chalybeate and 
tepid springs near Havana, and those particu- 
larly of San Diego, 40 leagues to the S. W., have 
acquired some celebrity for their supposed me- 



124 



CUBA 



(licinal effects. From the analysis piven these 
must be ascribed to sulpliuretted hydrogen, and 
sometimes to iron. Common salt may be class- 
ed among tlie mineral products. It is obtained 
from the lagoons, along the N. coast principally, 
■which are filled by the high course tides, and 
retain the salt as the waters evaporate in the dry 
season. About 100,000 lbs. are thus obtained 
annually at Point Hicacos and Choco. — The 
productions of the forests of Cuba are noted 
alike for their valuable qualities and the beauty 
they impart to the scenery. Some of the hard- 
wood trees are unsurpassed for durability, and 
with this property combine excessive hardness 
and toughness. Few of these varieties are ex- 
ported or known except in the West India isl- 
ands; but their importance was long ago> ap- 
preciated in Cuba, and in the early part of the 
18th century led to the establishment of ship- 
building by the Spanish government. From 
1724 to 1796 Havana was the great nursery of 
the Spanish armada, 114 vessels of 4,902 guns 
being constructed there in that time. The busi- 
ness was abandoned in consequence of its tak- 
ing employment from the mother country. 
Among these valuable woods may be named 
the well-known lignum vitro ; the cocoa wood 
or cocus, which somewhat resembles the lignum 
vitoa, and is used for similar purposes, as also 
for pins and tree nails and for turnery, making 
excellent flutes; the lance Avood, largely ex- 
ported for carriage shafts, surveyors' instru- 
ments, and other uses. Mahogany is so abun- 
dant, and the quality of the wood is so superior, 
that it has been, since its first use in London 
in 1724, an important item in the exports 
of the island. Belonging to the same nat- 
ural order is the cedrela odorata of Linnteus, 
a tree which furnishes the wood known in 
Europe as the Havana cedar, and there much 
used, as also in the United States, for the in- 
side of drawers and wardrobes. It is the 
material of the cigar boxes. Humboldt, citing 
the several species of palm, of which he enu- 
merates five, remarks that " we might believe 
that the entire island was originally a forest of 
palms and wild lime and orange trees. These 
last, which have a small fruit, are probably an- 
terior to the arrival of the Europeans, who 
carried there the agrumi of the gardens, which 
rarely exceed 10 or 15 feet in height." Though 
the forests are extensive and almost impenetra- 
ble, they are inhabited by no wild animals 
larger than the wild dogs. These prowl around 
the settlements at night, with habits like wolves, 
which they much resemble in appearance also, 
and, devour calves, pigs, and poultry. The jutia 
is an animal of the size of a muskrat, which 
resembles in its habits the porcupine and the 
raccoon of the northern states, living in the trees 
and feeding on the leaves and fruits. More than 
200 species of birds are known upon the island, 
and many of them are remarkable for the beauty 
of their plumage. Fish also are of great va- 
riety, and, exposed in the markets, attract the 
attention of strangers by their singularly bright 



colors. Tlic waters also abound in Crustacea 
and mollusca, and the huge reptiles, the alligator 
and sea turtles. Crabs of whitish and disgust- 
ing appearance frequent the land near the coast, 
living in holes. They often enter the houses at 
night. Every spring they migrate from the 
N. to the S. side of the island. Insects are 
numerous and of many troublesome kinds ; 
the most to be feared are the tarantula and 
scorpion ; the most beautiful are the large fire- 
flies or cocKyos, which emit a steady mild 
light, so bright that a few of them confined to- 
gether under glass and fed with sugar cane serve 
as a lantern, or enclosed in gauze bags are 
worn by ladies as sparkling ornaments for their 
dresses. — Cuba, lying just within the torrid zone, 
enjoys throughout the year a warm climate ; 
but this is tempered in the summer months by 
the cool N. E. trade winds, which blow indeed 
almost every day in the year from early in the 
forenoon to sunset, and also by the rains which 
prevail from May to November. The clouds 
which bring these jirotect the earth from the 
fierce rays of the sun, and the atmosphere is 
cooled by the copious evaporation of the waters. 
In the elevated districts the heat is rarely op- 
pressive, and in iha summer for weeks together 
the thermometer seldom varies 4" or 5° from 
83°. The difference between the mean tempera- 
ture of the hottest month and that of the cold- 
est is 21.6° in Havana and 14.4° in the interior. 
Only once in 13 years at Vera Cruz was the ther- 
mometer observed so high as 89.6°, and its range 
for 3 years at Havana was between 61° and 86°. 
In the winter it has been known to fall in the 
interior to 50°, and ice has been formed at night 
after the north winds have prevailed for several 
weeks ; but this must be in consequence of local 
radiation of heat, as the atmosphere is never 
cooled to the freezing point. Fires are not re- 
quired for their warmth, and young children 
are accustomed to go unclothed throughout the 
year. Strangers from the north are more sensi- 
tive to the changes of the climate than the na- 
tives ; and during the prevalence of the " north- 
ers," or the wind storms from the north, often 
experience positive discomfort from the cold. 
In the summer bilious fevers of the yellow fever 
type are prevalent, but more particularly viru- 
lent along the coast than in the interior. From 
December to May the climate is dry and salu- 
brious, and the roads, which during the hot 
season were deep with mud, become baked and 
open in wide cracks by the contraction of their 
material. There is no record of snow having 
ever fallen in Cuba except on Dec. 24r-25, 1856, 
when the coldest term ever known on the island 
was experienced. The thermometer then de- 
scended at Havana to 43° F. (lowest previously 
50° in Dec. 1826) ; snow fell near Villa Clara, in 
the most central part of Cuba, and in the same 
vicinity ice formed to the thickness of a dollar 
on the lagoons of a sugar estate. Hail is fre- 
quently seen, particularly in the eastern depart- 
ment, between February and July. The only 
occasion known of its falling at Havana was in 



CUBA 



125 



March, 1852. Great thunderstorms occur from 
June to September, and in the same period silent 
lightnings are common. Eartli(piakes seldom 
occur in the western districts, but are frecpient in 
the eastern, especially in that of Santiago do 
Cuba. In 1853 that city experienced two violent 
earthquakes, producing much injury and causing 
its decline. The salubrity of the climate is vari- 
ously estimated. Some writers consider it un- 
favorable to prolonged life. The most remark- 
able instances of longevity have been found 
among the negro and aboriginal races. — It is 
considered by Cuban statisticians that all the 
reports on the population of the island have 
been quite incomplete. Some of these estimate 
that the total population at the present time is 
about 1,500,000. The portion not reported is 
believed to consist chiefly of slaves. The follow- 
ing is a synopsis of some of the reported enu- 
merations : 



Vonrs. 


Whites. 


Free Col. 
una Bl. 


Slaves. 


Total. 


1775 


96,440 
311.051 
418,291 
425,767 
457.133 
501,9sS 
549,674 


30,847 
106,4S4 
152,833 
149.226 
164,410 
176.647 
174.S10 


44,333 
256,942 
436,495 
323,759 
323,897 
830,425 
374,549 


171,020 
704,477 


1S27 


1S41 


1,007,624 
898,752 


1S46 


lSi9 


945,440 


1S53 


1,050,000 
1,107,491 


1S57 







Census of 1S53. 



CUaaea. 


Wtst'n 

Dcp't. 


East'n 
Dep't. 


Total. 




397,451 

95,442 
268,717 


104,537 
78,205 
61,708 


501.988 


Free colored .ind black 


176,647 
830,425 






764,610 


244,450 

.... 


1,009,060 
40,940 


Floating population, white 


Total 


1,050,000 





The following estimate was made of the clas.ses composing 
the white poi)ulation, which, as given above with the lloat- 
ine population, supposed to consist wholly of whites, amount- 
ed to 542,985, viz. : 90,000 from Sp.iin, 25,000 from the Canary- 
islands, 3,000 French, 1,000 English, and 3,000 Americans and 
others, leaving about 421,000 as the number of n.-itive whites. 
Census of 1S57. 



Classes. 



"White persons 

Free colorLMl and black , 
Slaves , 



Aggregate 

To which is to be added the num- 
ber of emancipados .' , 

Asiatic colonists (or coolies) 



Total population. 



West'n 1 East'n 
Dep't. Dep't. 



423,908 

94,857 
806,036 



125.766 

70,953 
66,423 



549,674 
174,810 
874,549 



272,142 



1,096,943 

5.240 
6,303 



1,107,491 



Nearly the whole of the native whites are de- 
scendants of the peninsular Spanish races. In 
the period following the conquest (A. D. 1511), 
none but Castilians were allowed to come to 
America ; but at present the industrious Cata- 
lans or Catalonians, and the hard-working Isle- 
fios (islanders of the Canaries), are found to pre- 
ponderate throughout the island. Until 1801 
Spain maintained a commercial monopoly of 
the island, which system, combined with o'ther 
features of its government, restricted the settle- 
ment of Cuba almost exclusively to Spaniards. 



The Spanish whites are divided primarily into 
old Spaniards, or peninsulars, and Creoles ; and 
these classes are widely separated by a recipro- 
cal aversion, amounting to hostility, and even 
hatred. The former hold all the offices, and 
look down upon the Creoles with contempt. 
They transact most of the commerce, and mo- 
nopolize the most i)rofitable traffic. The Cata- 
lans, industri<nis, shrewd, hard-headed, and 
very loyal, faithful to their motto, "Five years 
of privation and a fortune," are to be found in 
every town and hamlet, and in every stage of 
social development. The opulent Creole plant- 
ers and merchants are distinguished for intel- 
ligence, enterprise, courteous manners, and ge- 
nial hospitality. — The African race was intro- 
duced in 1524: to serve as slaves. Its natural 
increase has not corresponded to the analogy of 
the climate with that of its own country. This 
result has been owing mainly to the perpetua- 
tion of the slave trade, which has kept up a > 
great excess of the male sex, and encouraged 
the exaction of the greatest possible amount 
of labor from all the slaves. On the large 
estates there is some semblance of family life 
among the negroes, but the children are not 
often numerous. Even on the best of the 
sugar estates the slaves (both sexes) work 16 
and sometimes 19 hours a day, from Novem- 
ber to Ma}', during which season labor is car- 
ried on unceasingly, the slaves working by 
watches in gangs. Upon many of the smaU 
tobacco plantations, also, their toil is similarly 
severe. The slave trade is actively prosecuted 
in direct violation of the most positive treaty 
obligations, and the annual importations are 
estimated at 10,000 to 20,000. The profits of 
the trade are enormous, and traders can well 
afford to give large bribes to the officials. 
"When a slaver is captured, her case is adjudi- 
cated by the so-called "mixed commission." 
If a lawful prize, she is retained as such by 
her captors; and her slaves, styled emanci- 
pados^ are apprenticed, under the charge of 
the Spanish authorities, for a term of years 
(8 or 10 to 15), at the end of which they are 
entitled to freedom. Only a small proportion, 
however, become free, because the masters to 
whom they are hired sell them, and at the end of 
the period report that they are dead. The impor- 
tation of coolies, or Chinese laborers, was com- 
menced in 1847. iSTominally they are "free 
colonists," but in reality slaves. Professedly 
they are employed by contract for a term of 
years, usually 8, " without prohibition of exten- 
sion for any longer period to fit the life of the 
subject or the interests of the master." By the 
close of 1853 about 6,000 had been introduced. 
From 1853 to April 10, 1855, about 4,000 were 
landed, and 960 were lost daring voyages by 
disease, suicide, &c. From April 10, 1855, to 
May 13, 1858, 23,146 were delivered, and 
3,844 died on the passage. This makes an ag- 
gregate delivery from 1847 to 1858 of about 
33,000, with an average mortality on shipboard 
of over 17 per cent. The introduction of In- 



126 



CUBA 



dians from Yucatan, on the " contract plan," 
was begun about 1853, and met witli some op- 
position from tlie Mexican and Central Amer- 
ican governments. The whole number delivered 
to May, 1858, was 1,385. The mulattoes form 
§ of all the free colored ; but of the slaves their 
proportion is about ^'jj. They generally employ 
themselves as tailors, carpenters, musicians, 
coach builders, and paiuters; and they are 
usually excellent workmen. There yet exists 
a poor remnant of the aboriginal race; but 
the majority of this class are crossed with mu- 
lattoes. — Productive industry in Cuba is mainly 
devoted to agriculture, with direct reference to 
the exportation of the staj^les. The manufac- 
tures, properly so called, are of little impor- 
tance ; and as a class, the people are disinclined 
to mechanical pursuits. The mining interests, 
chiefly in copper, do not contribute so much to 
the wealth of the island as would at first seem 
• from their extent, since these are worked mainly 
on foreign account. The fertility of the soil is 
proverbial, and its actual production has long 
been highly remunerative ; and j^et it appears, 
according to the returns of 1853, that not more 
that Jg part was then under cultivation. The 
following table exhibits the distribution of the 
surface, stated in cahallerias (the cabelleria is 
equal to about 33 acres) : 



Description. 


WeBl'n dept. 


East'n dept. 


Total. 


Barren lands, mines, &c 

Mmmtains, forests, &c 


142,133 

174,418 

102,022 

15,183 

34,098 


179,269 
202,584 

47,226 
5,153 

14,474 


321,407 

877,002 

149,243 

20,341 

48,572 








Total 


467,859 


448,711 


916,570 







The chief products are the sugar cane, tobacco, 
coflEee, cotton, fruits, and garden vegetables. 
Rice, sago, maize, and even cacao, are cultivat- 
ed on a small scale, not enough to supply the 
consumption of the interior. The lands of Cuba 
are recognized as superior to those of the other 
Antilles for the production of the sugar cane ; 
but there is great irregularity in the extent of 
the cultivation and yield of this staple, depend- 
ing on soil, weather, condition of plant, &c. 
Sugar estates, called ingenios, are tlie largest 
agricultural establishments on the island. Many 
of them produce 8,000 to 9,000 boxes of sugar 
(each 400 lbs.), and a few of them are much 
larger. Their formation requires great outlay, 
and their management is very expensive ; but 
their production is correspondingly great, and 
the foreign demand for this crop is steady, so 
that their owners become immensely wealthy. 
From 1853 to 1858 the yearly exports of Cuban 
sugars were from 700,000,000 to 750,000,000 
lbs. Most of the tobacco is produced in a very 
few districts, Avhich are particularly favorable 
to its culture. The best lands for this plant are 
comprised in an irregular oblong tract, near the 
W. extremity of the island, on the S. coast. It 
is about 73 miles long by 18 wide, extending 
from the Rio Hondo west to the Cuyaguateje 
or Mantua river. Outside of this, toward the 



meridian of Havana, the tobacco is less fragrant, 
but of fine color, and the latter quality gives it 
the preference with foreigners. Coflee was for 
a period (from about 1820 to 1832) the second 
staide in importance, but afterward its produc- 
tion was greatly decreased, owing to the duties 
charged on its importation into the United 
States, and to the competition of Brazil, Java, 
&c. Cuban coftee, however, is of superior qual- 
ity. Maize, rice, sago, pulse, yuca, the sweet 
potato, plantains, and fruit are grown on 
nearly all estates, and especially on the small 
farms at some distance from the towns. Maize 
produces two crops a year, but is quite variable 
in its yield. — The foreign commerce of Cuba, 
in proportion to its population, probably ex- 
ceeds that of any other country on the globe, 
Since 1850 the valuation of the yearly exports 
has ranged from $27,000,000 to $32,000,000, 
and that of the imports has averaged about 
the same; but it appears that in these valua- 
tions the custom or rule is to understate the 
exports, and overstate the imports. Yet the 
commerce is much restricted by- the policy 
of the government. The duties discriminate 
greatly in favor of the Spanish flag in all re- 
spects, though chiefly in favor of all imports 
by Spanish and Cuban vessels, and of imports 
of products of Spain. The tonnage duties sim- 
ilarly favor national vessels. Under this sys- 
tem, the greater part of the imports since 1829 
have been brought under the Spanish flag. 
Of late years the proportion has averaged 
two-tl)irds. The effect of the system may be 
readily seen in the importation of flour and 
provisions. Under fair regulations these would 
mainly be brought from the United States. 
But the duties on flour are as follows : from 
Spain in Spanish and Cuban vessels, $2 50 per 
barrel; from other counti-ies in same vessels, 
$8 50, and in foreign vessels, $9 50. In 1854 
the imports of flour from Spain were valued 
at $2,677,791 ; from the United States, $29,- 
830. Under such burdens prices are main- 
tained at high rates, materially diminishing 
consumption. Duties are collected on exports 
as well as imports, and the yearly totals of each 
are about as 1 to 4. Only between 4 and \ 
of the exports are carried in Spanish ves- 
sels. Over \ is taken by the United States, 
and about \ by England. Despite all restric- 
tions, \ of the whole commerce is with the 
United States. According to U. S. treasury 
reports, the balance of trade against the latter 
amounted, from 1851 to 1856 inclusive, to about 
$10,000,000 yearly, and in 1857 was over $30,- 
000,000. — The railroads, amounting in ail in 
1857 to 397 miles, have done much in maintain- 
ing and increasing domestic and foreign trade. 
The first was opened in 1837 from Havana to 
Bejucal, 15 m., in the next year to Gtiines, 45 
m., and by subsequent extensions now forms 
the principal trunk line in the island. The 
common roads throughout Cuba are very bad, 
and in the rainy season frequently impassable. 
Several improved roads, having toll gates, lead 



CUBA 



127 



out from ITavana. The electric telegraph was 
introduced in 1852, and its lines now extend 
between the principal cities and towns. The 
coast shipping has remarkably increased since 
1840. Steamboats ply regularly from the va- 
rious ports of the island to each other and to 
foreign ports. The circulating medium is chief- 
ly metallic, and was exclusively so until Jan. 
1857, when the first issue of paper currency was 
made by the Spanish bank, which was formally 
organized in Feb. 1850, having a capital of $3,- 
000,000. — Education has made great progress 
since 1842. In Havana there are several in- 
stitutions of a collegiate rank, with a number 
of seminaries, and in other cities there are ad- 
vanced schools. The number of newspapers 
and periodicals published in Cuba in 1857 was : 
at Havana 21, Matanzas 3, Cardenas 1, Cienfue- 
gos 2, Villa Clara 2, Remedios 1, Santo Espiritu 
2, Trinidad 1, Puerto Principe 1, Santiago de 
Cuba 5, Bayamo 1 ; total 40. — In its govern- 
ment, Cuba is subject in all branches of the ad- 
ministration to one authority, the representative 
of the Spanish crown, who is appointed by and 
accountable only to the home government. He 
is president of the royal court of judicature 
{real audiencia)^ superior civil governor, captain- 
general, superior commandant of marine, su- 
perintendent of the treasury, viceregal patron 
and viceregal protector of public instruction. 
Of the 6 principal branches of administration, 
the political and military are particularly under 
his charge, and the judicial, financial, naval, 
and ecclesiastical branches are mainly direct- 
ed by their respective chiefs of liigli rank. 
Each division has its determinate territorial 
subdivisions. The ecclesiastical administration 
is divided between 2 dioceses, the archbishop- 
ric of Santiago de Cuba and the bishopric 
of Havana, which are respectively superior 
one to the other in cases of appeal. Tlie Ro- 
man Catholic is the only form of worship toler- 
ated. The revenues are divided into maritime 
and inland, the first comprising customs and 
lighthouse dues, ship visits, &c., and the sec- 
ond various. The following is a synopsis of 
the receipts of the treasury for 2 years : 



SourceB. 


1S56. 


1S51. 


Increase. 


Customs 

Taxes 

Lottery 


?9,7:59.5.i4 12 
4,022,056 71 
1,829,107 37 


110 49o,S5S S7 
5.1S(!,2s9 72 
1,681,410 12 


$757,.334 25 

1,164,233 01 

352,302 75 


Total 


$15,090,688 20 


.$17,363,558 21 


$2,273,870 01 



The principal items composing the receipts from 
customs in 1857 were : duties on imports, $7,- 
074,207; duties on exports, $1,777,868; ton- 
nage dues, $931,869 ; registry fees (of cargoes, 
visits, &c.), $159,131. One-half of the revenue 
is absorbed in supjjorting the military depart- 
ment of the government. The regular armed 
force consists on an average of 20,000 men, and 
is kept in a high state of discipline, and in 
complete equipment. ISTearly the whole of the 
troops are composed of soldiers from Spain, 
whose period of service in Cuba is generally 



limited to 3 year.?. The organized Cuban militia 
numbers between 3,000 and 4,000. The squadron 
on service usually consists of 26 vessels, with 200 
guns, and over 3,000 men. — Cuba was the first 
land of importance discovered by Columbus in 
his first voyage. After touching at the islands 
which he called San Salvador, St. Mary of the 
Conception, Fernandina, and Isal^ella, his ships 
entered the mouth of a large river into a country 
called by the natives Cuba, and which he named 
Juana, in honor of Prince John, the son of his 
royal patrons. After the death of Ferdinand it 
was called Fernandina, and .still later Santiago, 
in honor of the patron saint of Spain, and again 
Ave Maria, in honor of the Virgin. The large 
river Avhich Columbus entered is supposed to 
be the outlet of the harbor of Nuevitas, on the 
N. shore ; at ebb tide a swift current flows out 
like tiiat of a river; and the breadth of tlie isl- 
and at this point is reconcilable with the state- 
ment of some of his people having penetrated 00 
miles into the interior, and j'et bringing back no 
account of discovering the sea on the other 
side. From this point he explored the coast 
to the E. extremity of the island, seeking for 
gold, and then passed around to Ilayti. The 
discovery of Cuba was on Oct. 28, 1492, and his 
arrival at Hayti was on Dec. 0, The first settle- 
ment of Europeans in Cuba was made by an ex- 
pedition of 300 men under Diego Velasquez, 
fitted out by Diego, the son of Columbus, in 
1511. They founded Baracoa near the E. end 
of the island, and in 1514 Santiago, which 
was made the capital, and Trinidad on the 
S. coast. A place on the S. coast in the par- 
tido of Giiines was settled in 1515, and called 
San Cristoval de la Havana. The name Avas 
transferred to the present capital in 1519. 
The Spaniards found tlie aborigines of the isl- 
and an effeminate and inoffensive people, en- 
tirely unable to resist the invaders of their 
country, or endure the severities imposed upon 
them. Velasquez encouraged settlers by grants 
of lands and of Indian slaves, and engaged 
them in agricultural pursuits, and especially 
in the cultivation of the sugar crop, for whicli 
the soil and climate seemed to be admirably 
adapted, and which was also introduced into 
Ilayti. As early as 1534 the officials, as cited 
by Sagra in the appendix to his Hhtoria Jinica^ 
2)olitica, y natural, applied to the emperor for 
*' 7,000 negroes, that they might become inured 
to labor before the Indians ceased to exist." 
Gomara, the historian, states that there was not 
one Indian left after 1553. They were destroy- 
ed by cruel treatment and unaccustomed labor, 
were swept otF by small pox, committed suicide 
in great numbers, and many fled in their boats 
to Florida. "With the extinction of the Indi- 
ans the agriculture of the island declined, and . 
it became mainly a pastoral country. The 
extensive plains bordering the coa.«t aff"orded 
a fine range for cattle, and their hides fur- 
nished the chief product for exportation, even 
to the 18th century. Bees were introduced 
from Florida, and wax and tobacco also became 



128 



CUBA 



at last of more importance than hides ; and 
these are still important products, though now 
surpassed by sugar and coffee. The port of 
Havana soon came to be regarded as the prin- 
cipal stronghold of the island. The settlement 
there was twice destroyed by the French in the 
IGth century — once in 1538, and again in 1554, 
after it had been reestablished and fortified 
by Fernando de Soto. ISTew forts were added 
in the same century, and these form a part of 
the defences now known as the Moro castle and 
the Punta. The wall around the city was com- 
menced in 1G65. In 17G2 Havana fell into the 
hands of the English, who retained it about a 
year, when they gave it up in exchange for Flor- 
ida. Up to this time the population of Cuba had 
increased but slowly, and the productions were 
very limited. According to an official docu- 
ment, published at Havana in 1811, and based 
on the records of the custom house, the total 
import of slaves prior to 1763 had amounted to 
but 00,000. In 1765 the island contained about 
half that number of negro slaves, ■with as many 
free colored persons, mostly mulattoes. Its trade, 
hitliei'to limited to Cadiz, was, except the import 
of slaves, now made free to all Spaniards from 
the 9 principal ports of Spain. But at this time 
it was so small as scarcely to employ 6 vessels. 
From 17G3 to 1789 the import of slaves was 
about 1,000 a year, which hardly kept np the 
number. In 1789 the Spanish slave code was 
promulgated, and the slave trade, hitherto a 
monopoly, made free. Under the administra- 
tion of Las Casas as captain-general, which 
commenced in 1790, Cuba made rapid progress 
in commercial prosperity, and in its public im- 
provements. In the 31 years from 1789 to 1820, 
the import of slaves amounted to 225,000, an 
average of 7,500, and from 1810 to 1820 it was 
11,500 a year. The decline of Ilayti opened a 
market for Cuban sugars, the production of 
which rapidly increased. In 1809 and 1811 
the island was partially opened to foreign ves- 
sels. With the reestablishment of peace in 
Europe the demands for Cuban products re- 
vived, and notwithstanding the treaty of 1820, 
by which Spain agreed with England to put a 
stop to the slave trade, the importation of 
slaves Avas continued on a larger scale than 
ever*. In the 25 years from 1S17 to 1842, it 
was estimated by the English commissioners 
to have reached the number of 335,000, or 
upward of 13,000 a year. This continued vi- 
olation of treaty obligations led Great Britain 
to propose in 1841, as the only means of put- 
ting a stop to it, the establishment of a mix- 
ed tribunal in the island, with power to give 
liberty to all negroes who had been imported 
contrary to law. This proposition excited the 
greatest alarm among the Cuban proprietors, and 
the Spanish government, in consequence, began 
to take steps to stop the traffic. In 1845, for the 
first time, a law was enacted making the intro- 
duction of slaves a criminal oftenco. From these 
and other causes, during the 10 years from 1842 
to 1852, the importation was considerably re- 



duced, amounting in the whole to about 55,000. 
In the years 1845 to 1847, by the energy of Gov- 
ernor-general Concha, it was brought almost to 
an end. But the increased consumption of su- 
gar in Great Britain, in consequence of the re- 
duction of duty, and the placing of foreign and 
British sugars on the same level, gave a new stim- 
ulus to the traffic. The efforts of the Spanisli of- 
ficials for its suppression Avere relaxed, and it still 
continues to be prosecuted, as already stated, 
mainly, as the British allege, in vessels purchased 
and fitted out in the United States, and whicli 
retain the American flag till they are ready to 
leave the African coast. With the renewal of 
the slave trade the British renewed their re- 
monstrances, and their former proposition for 
liberating the illegally imported negroes. This 
subject was much pressed from 1850 to 1853, 
but seems since then to have been abandoned. 
Some remarkable changes were made in 1854 by 
the Spanish administration of the island, in re- 
lation to the free blacks, who form so consider- 
able a part of the population. The ecclesiastical 
rule Avhich forbids the celebration of marriages 
between blacks and whites was abrogated, 
and a militia composed of free blacks and 
mulattoes, to the exclusion of the Avhites, was 
directed to be organized throughout the island, 
and Avas put on an equal footing in regard to 
privileges Avith the regular army. At the same 
time the AA'hite inhabitants Avere disarmed. Both 
these measures, Avhich are still maintained, Avere 
adopted, in part at least, as a means of strength- 
ening the government against the discontent of 
the white planters, and the danger of fillibuster 
expeditions from the United States, of Avhich at 
this time serious apprehensions existed. From 
the moment the United States acquired Florida, 
the government at Washington began to take a 
deep interest in the future of Cuba. Fears Avere 
entertained lest the island might fall into the 
hands of the English or French, and both Spain 
and those nations Avere informed that the United 
States Avould never consent to that arrangement. 
They Avere willing that Cuba should remain a 
colony of Spain, but would never allow it to 
pass into other liands. Spain was repeatedly 
urged by the American government to make 
peace with the Spanish American republics, lest 
they should invade Cuba, and bring about not 
merely a political revolution, but a change in its 
social system. The claim of the English to make 
the slave trade suppression treaty an occasion for 
interfering in the domestic concerns of the island 
became a ncAV occasion of jealousy. But a prop- 
osition made in 1825 on the part of Spain, that in 
consideration of certain commercial concessions 
the United States should guarantee to her the 
possession of Cuba, was declined by Mr. Clay, 
then secretary of state, on the ground that en- 
tanglements of this sort were contrary to the 
established policy of the United States. In 1848 
President Polk authorized the American minis- 
ter at Madrid to offer to purchase Cuba, and to 
pay $100,000,000 for it; but this proposition 
Avas rejected by Spain in the most peremptory 



CUBE 



CUBIT 



129 



manner. It was not till after this that the at- 
tention of the American people, as distinct from 
the government, was first attracted to this (ques- 
tion of the annexation of Cnha. The occasion 
was the resort to the United States in 1849 of 
Loi)ez, and other Cubans, who, in consequence 
of some attemi)ted revolutionary movements, 
had been obliged to fly the island. They rep- 
resented the Creole population as greatly dis- 
satisfied with the Spanish rule, and ready for 
revolt, and annexation to the United States. 
Recruits were collected for a descent upon the 
island. The first attempt was defeated by the 
vigilance of the government of the United States ; 
but in Aug. 1851, Lopez sailed from New Or- 
leans in a steamer with 500 men on board, of 
whom a considerable part were Americans. 
They effected a landing, but made no impres- 
sion, and were soon taken prisoners. Lopez was 
garroted at Havana, Aug. 10 ; some of his com- 
rades were shot, but the majority were trans- 
ported and afterward pardoned. The sympa- 
thy which these movements, and other subse- 
quent projects of the same sort, had found in 
the United States, and the refusal of President 
Fillmore in 1852 to join with France and Great 
Britain in a treaty guaranteeing to Spain the 
possession of Cuba, made the Spanish govern- 
ment still more alert in guarding against revolu- 
tion, and especially against the entrance into the 
island of revolutionists from the United States. 
This led to occasional collisions with American 
citizens ; and the firing on the American steam- 
er Black Warrior by a Spanish vessel of war, 
during the administration of President Pierce, 
seemed at one moment to threaten hostilities. 
The disposition on the part of the creole plant- 
ers to throw off the Spanish rule, or at least 
any overt exhibition of it, subsided after the 
failure of Lopez, but the idea of the acquisition 
of Cuba is still entertained in the United States. 
In Aug. 1854, Messrs. Buchanan, Mason, and 
Soule, U. S. ministers at London, Paris, and 
Madrid, held a conference on the subject of 
Cuba, at Ostend and Aix la Chapelle, and drew 
lip a statement of their conclusions, popularly 
known as the Ostend manifesto. In this docu- 
ment they argued that the island ought to be- 
long to the United States, and that Spain would 
find its sale to be highly advantageous ; and 
finally, that in certain contingencies, such as the 
emancipation of the slaves by the Spanish gov- 
ernment, the United States ought to possess them- 
selves of the island by force. A proposition was 
strongly urged in the senate of the United States 
in the session of 1858-'9 to place $30,000,000 in 
the hands of the president with a view to the ac- 
quisition of the island ; but after debate, it was 
withdrawn by its author, Mr. Slidell of Louisiana. 
CUBE (Gr. Kv^os, a die), in geometry, a solid 
body terminated by 6 square equal faces, occu- 
pying among bodies a place analogous to tliat 
of the square among surfaces. The problem of 
the duplication of the cube, or of constructing 
a cube of twice the volume of a given cube, 
is celebrated in the history of science. It occu- 

YOL. VI. — 9 



pied geometers in the time of Plato ; and it was 
a Greek tradition that once during a pestilence 
the priestess at Delos had responded that in 
order to appease the gods her altar must be 
doubled. The altar was cubical, and a new one 
was therefore built whose sides were of twice 
the dimensions of the old one. Tlie priestess 
responded that her command had been wrongly 
interpreted, and from that time the geometri- 
cal duplication of cubic figures was a constant 
problem, like the quadrature of the circle. The 
cubature of solids, or the reduction of any body 
to a cubic form of equal volume, is performed 
by first reducing the given volume to one of the 
geometrical figures the law of whose curvature 
is known, as the parallelopipedon, cylinder, 
cone, or sphere. — In arithmetic and algebra, a 
cube is a number formed by raising another 
number to its third power; thus, 27 is the cube 
of 3, being equal to 3X3X3. The number 
which is thus multiplied to make a cube is called 
the cube root. 

CUBEBS, berries of the cnhela officinalis, a 
climbing perennial plant of the natural order pi- 
feraceae, which is found wild in Java and other 
parts of the East Indies. It is supposed they 
were first brought into Europe by the Arabians ; 
and in former times it appears they served the 
purpose of black pepper, their aromatic, warm- 
ing, and pungent properties rendering them an 
agreeable condiment. In India they have long 
been used as a medicine in disorders of the di- 
gestive organs, on account of their carminative 
properties, and in diseases of the urinary organs 
for their stimulating effect. It is imported in 
the dried berries, which are of the size of small 
peas, and of a dark brown color. The volatile 
oil they contain is thus better retained than if 
the berries were pulverized, as they require to 
be to prepare the medicine. Beside the volatile 
oil they also contain the peculiar principle cu- 
bebin, a white, inodorous, and tasteless sub- 
stance, not volatUizable by heat, and almost 
insoluble in water. The oil, having the medicinal 
properties, is often used instead of the powdered 
cubebs. It is obtained sometimes to the amount 
of 7 per cent, by grinding the cubebs, and dis- 
tilling with water. 

CUBIERES, Amedee Lottis Despans, a French 
general, born in Paris, March 4, 1786, died Aug. 
6, 1853, took an active part in tlie Avars of Napo- 
leon, was commander of the French army at An- 
cona from 1832 to 183*>, created a peer of France 
in 1839, appointed minister of war in 1839 and 
again in 1840. Afterward he was implicated in 
a charge of having bribed M. Teste, the minister 
of public works in 1842, for the purpose of ob- 
taining a grant for the working of salt mines. 
Tried m 1847, lie was found guilty, sentenced 
to civil degradation, and to pay a fine of 10,000 
francs. In 1852, however, he was reinstated in 
his position. 

CUBIT, an ancient measure, taken from the 
human arm as measured from the elbow to the 
end of the middle finger. Its length was in 
practice somewhat indefinite, and varied among 



130 



CUBITT 



CUCKOO 



different nations. According to Dr. Arbnth- 
not, the Roman cubit was 17 j% inches, and the 
Scripture cubit less than 22 inches. 

CUBITT, TnoMAs, an English architect and 
builder, born at Buxton, Norfolk, in 1788, died 
at Denbies, Surrey, Dec. 26, 1855, was the son 
of a laborer, went to the West Indies as a ship 
carpenter, and on his return set up in business 
for himself. In 1823 he took on building leases 
some suburban property of the duke of Bed- 
ford, and finally laid out and built that part 
of the west end of London known as Bel- 
gravia. He afterward laid out and built Kemp 
Town, Brighton, and the queen's residence of 
Osborne, in the isle of Wight. He took a hearty 
interest in all the plans for social and sanitary 
improvement, and set an example among his 
own workmen by promoting benefit societies 
and associations for mutual improvement. 

CUBITT, Sir William, an English civil en- 
gineer, born in Norfolk in 1785, was brought up 
as a joiner, adopted the trade of a millwright, 
and invented self-regulating sails for windmills. 
About 1808 he entered a machinist's establish- 
ment at Ipswich, and was so successful there 
that he determined on settling in London, which 
he did in 1826. At the commencement of the 
railway movement he became engineer of the 
London and Dover line. He was knighted in 
1851 for his services as one of the superintend- 
ing committee of the great exhibition. 

CUCKING STOOL, or Tumbrel, a machine 
formerly used in England for the punishment 
of scolding women and dishonest brewers and 
bakers. It consisted of a stool or chair attacli- 
ed to a long pole, mounted in such a manner 
that the chair with the criminal in it might be 
swung over a pond and submerged. 

CUCKOO (cuczilus, Linn.), a genus of birds of 
the order scansores, and family cucuUdce,inhah\t- 
ing the temperate and warmer regions of the 
old world ; the cuckoos of America belong to 
another subfamily of the same order. The true 
cuckoos, as exemplified in the genus eucnlus, 
have the bill broad, rather depressed at the base, 
curved, gradually compressed to the acute tip ; 
the nostrils are round and exposed ; the wings 
are long and pointed, the 3(1 quill being the 
longest ; the tail is long and graduated, or even, 
and the outer feather of each side is shorter 
than the others ; the tarsi are very short and 
partially feathered ; the toes, 2 before and 
2 behind, are unequal, the outer anterior one 
being the longest, and united to the inner at the 
base. More than 40 species of this genus are 
well determined, of which the best known and 
most interesting is the common European 
cuckoo (C. canoriis, Linn.). In this bird the 
corners of the mouth and eyelids, and the in- 
side of the mouth, are of an orange color ; the 
plumage of the head, neck, breast, and upper 
parts, is a deep bluish gray ; the under parts and 
the axillary feathers are white with distinct 
black bars; the quills are blackish gray, the 
inner webs with transverse white bars ; the tail 
is darker, approaching to black at the end, and 



often with a green gloss, tipped with white, and 
each feather marked along the shaft with tri- 
angular white spots, which, meeting similar 
spots on the outer feathers, give an almost 
barred appearance to the tail ; the feet are gam- 
boge yellow, and the bill black. The length of 
the bird is 14 inches, and the extent of wings 
25 inches. The young birds are of a brown 
tint, with reddish-brown bars and white mark- 
ings, the white of the under parts being barred 
with black. The female very closely resembles 
the male. The cuckoo is associated with the 
return of sunny skies and the renewal of vege- 
tation, and is a most welcome " messenger of 
spring;" it arrives from southern Europe in 
Great Britain in April, and generally departs in 
August. It is very generally distributed over 
Europe, decreasing in numbers toward the 
north ; according to Temminck, it extends its 
migrations to northern Africa. The most sin- 
gular habit of the cuckoo is that it deposits 
its eggs in the nests of other birds, leaving the 
care of the young entirely to the foster pa- 
rents thus selected ; the latter adopt the young 
cuckoo as their own, often to the destruction 
of their proper offspring, which are thrust out 
of the nest by the usurping stranger. The 
reason of this departure from the usual habit 
of birds is not well ascertained; it is common 
in the genus cuculus, and is also practised by 
our cowpen bird {molothrus pecoris, Gmel.). 
The cuckoo selects the nest of a bird smaller 
than itself, and of a great variety of species, as 
the warblers, sparrows, finches, and larks, and 
in it deposits a single egg, very small compared 
to the size of the bird ; it is believed by Mon- 
tague and others that the female has the 
power of retaining the egg in the oviduct until 
she can find a nest suitable for its reception; 
she lays several in the course of the season. 
The young cuckoo is said to eject its compan- 
ions from the nest by lifting them out on its 
shoulders; from this habit has arisen the Ger- 
man saying, "as ungrateful as a cuckoo." The 
well-known notes of this bird, as heard in the 
breeding season, resemble very much its name ; 
the song is loud and joyful, and confined to 
the males, and is silent before their departure. 
Its food consists of the larvfo of insects and 
caterpillars ; before swallowing the latter it is 
in the habit of cutting off the hinder end and 
freeing the body from the intestinal canal by 
repeated jerks with its sharp bill. The males 
are more numerous than the females, and are 
bold and fierce, and rarely kept as pets. In 
autumn they are fat and esteemed as an arti- 
cle of food ; the ancients were very partial 
to them, and their flesh was supposed to have 
valuable medicinal properties. — The Ameri- 
can cuckoos belong to the subfamily coccyzino'^ 
or ground cuckoos, and to the genus coccyzus. 
In this genus the bill is long and rather slender, 
and curved ; the nostrils are oval ; the -Sd and 
4th quills are the longest ; the tail is long, broad, 
and rounded on the sides ; the tarsi are shorter 
than the middle toe, and naked ; the toes are 



CUCKOO 



CUCUMBER 



131 



nnequal, and the claws long, compressed, curved, 
and acute. Tliere are 3 species described, be- 
longing to North and Central America, though 
a few stragglers have occasionally been seen in 
Europe ; they are shy birds, frequenting the 
dense woods and solitary sv/amps. I. The yel- 
low-billed cuckoo {C. Americanus, Linn.) has 
a length of 12| inches, and an extent of wings 
of 16 inches ; the bill is 1 inch long, for the 
most part of a yellow color ; the iris is hazel ; 
the general color of the upper parts, with the 
wing coverts and two middle tail feathers, is 
light greenish brown, deeper anteriorly ; tail 
feathers, excepting the two middle ones, black, 
with a broad white space at the end of the 3 
outermost, the 4th white on tlie outer web; 
the primaries have their inner webs brownish 
orange ; the under parts are gi'ayish white. 
The female diflfers little from the male. Its notes 
resemble the word " cow, cow," repeated sev- 
eral times with increasing rapidity; hence one 
of its names, cow bird; it is also called rain 
crow and coucou. It is found in all parts of 
the United States, though nowhere in abun- 
dance. Its food consists of caterpillars, insects, 
wood snails, berries (especially the mulberry), 
and grapes ; it sucks the eggs of other birds, 
and itself falls a victim to many species of 
hawks. Its flight is rapid, but the gait on the 
ground is very awkward ; its favorite retreat is 
the thickest foliage. Unlike the European cuc- 
koo, this bird builds its nest and rears its young 
in. the usual manner ; the flat nest is very simply 
composed of a few dry sticks and grass, on a 
horizontal branch of a low tree ; the eggs are 
4 or 5, of a bright green color. It migrates 
southward, generally beyond the limits of the 
United States, as cold weather approaches, in 
flocks and high in the air ; single birds begin 
to enter our borders early in March, arriving as 
far as New York early in May. II. The black- 
billed cuckoo (C. erythrophthalmus, Wils.) is a 
little smaller than the preceding species, from 
•which it is also distinguished by its dark-color- 
ed bill, a bare scarlet space around the eyes, and 
the browner tint of the under parts. The pres- 
ent species does not frequent the interior of 
deep woods, but prefers the edges of forests on 
the border of the sea and lakes. It feeds prin- 
cipally on shellfish and aquatic larvfe and in- 
sects ; it is very fond of the small frogs so nu- 
merous after summer showers. Its flight is 
more rapid than that of the yellow-billed spe- 
cies ; in other respects, as in its migrations, gen- 
eral habits, aud manner of constructing its nest, 
it much resembles the last named bird, and has 
frequently been mistaken for it. The eggs are 
of a greenish blue color. HI. The mangrove 
cuckoo (C. minoj; Gmel.) is 12 inches long and 
15 inches in extent of wings ; the general color 
of the upper part is light greenish brown, the 
head tinged with gray ; primaries umber-brown ; 
tail feathers, excepting the two middle ones, 
brownish black with white tips ; the under parts 
brownish orange ; in other characters it much 
resembles the vellow-biUed cuckoo. Its habits 



are the same as those of the other species of the 
genus ; it feeds on insects, fruits, and the eggs 
of other birds ; it is vigilant and shy, not ex- 
tending its migrations northward beyond Flori- 
da; it prefers the mangrove-covered islands, 
building its nest amid their dark foliage. The 
flight is rapid and elevated during the migra- 
tions. The female is paler than the male, espe- 
cially on the lower surface, which is grayish. 

CUCUMBER {cucuml% Linn.), a vegetable 
fruit in a genus of cucurbitaceous plants, to 
which likewise belongs the melon, having an- 
nual fibrous roots, brittle climbing stems, rough, 
unequally divided leaves, and tendrils formed 
of the abortive stipules. The cucumber is thus a 
sort of gourd represented in its real type, better 
perhaps, by the colocynth gourd — a bitter, pow- 
erfully purgative species, known as C (citi-ullus) 
colocynthis (Persoon). In position these plants 
are to be placed between the myrtles and pas- 
sion flowers — to the latter, indeed, so closely 
allied that they scarcely differ except in some 
particulars of structure, the habit of both being 
the same. It has been conjectured that long 
continued cultivation has done much toward 
ameliorating the bitter and dangerous prop- 
erties of this group of plants; and several 
allied kinds in their wild state, it is known, 
have proved deleterious. All the numerous 
cultivated varieties of the melon and cucumber 
are delicious or wholesome fruits. The writer 
has raised cucumbers from seeds received 
from the East Indies, which looked like the 
common cucumber, only smaller ; they were so 
intensely bitter as to be worthless ; and the 
stem end of the better sorts of the garden cu- 
cumber is frequently bitter and disagreeable. 
The drastic property is strong in many of the 
allied genera from Brazil, and in the spirting 
cucumber it exists in concentrated virulence. 
The common, cucumber (C. satkus, Linn.) is too 
well known for any lengthened description. It 
is a native of tropical Asia. In cultivation, the 
cucumber requires a deep and ricli soil, an 
abundance of moisture, and continued heat. If 
planted sufficiently late to escape the frosts, it 
will grow with scarcely any care ; it is subject, 
however, to the depredations of numerous insect 
foes. The best way to prevent these is to cover 
the young plants with boxes having gauze tops, 
which should be kept over them until the foliage 
is large and abundant. The cucumber loves to 
support itself by its tendrils in an upright posi- 
tion upon pieces of brush wood, and the clean- 
est and best fruit is thus obtained. This will 
be found to be a good practice, too, where there 
is but little room for a horizontal growth upon 
the ground. As an early vegetable, scarcely 
any other plant can be so successfully forced in 
the hot-bed ; but the best sorts should be select- 
ed for the purpose. Great skill oftentimes is- 
requisite in the management, to keep the plants 
vigorous and healthy, and to sustain an un- 
checked growth. Beside affording in its fruits 
a palatable and cooling salad, the cucumber has 
been used in medicine, for pectoral complaints 



132 



CUCUTA 



CUENCA 



and as a febrifuge. Its expressed juice is em- 
ployed as a cosmetic ; and it is said to give a 
pleasant suppleness to the skin. It enters into 
the composition of some of tlie French po- 
mades ; and the pulp boiled for a long time in 
lard makes a soothing and cooling ointment, of 
repute among domestic curatives. 

CUCUTA, Vallets of, a district of New 
Granada, in the province of Pamplona, about 90 
m. in circumference ; pop. about 30,000. The 
surface consists of a succession of hills and val- 
leys, the former sterile and the latter uncom- 
monly luxuriant. At Cucuta, or Rosario de 
Cucuta, the capital of this district, was held the 
first general congress of Colombia. 

CUDBEAR, the name given by the Scotch to 
a dyestuff prepared from different genera of 
lichens. It is obtained in the form of a powder 
of a lake or red color, and is the same substance 
which, prepared by the English in the form of 
a violet-colored paste or a purple liquid, is called 
archil ; and also the same as the solid cakes 
manufactured by the Dutch and called litmus. 
It is used, like archil, for giving to woollens and 
silks a great variety of colors, but does not an- 
swer for cotton, having no affinity for its fibre. 

CUDDALORE, a town of Hindostan^ on the 
Coromandel coast, in the S. division of Arcot, 
100 ra. S. from Madras, on the estuary of the 
river Punnair. It was acquired by the East 
India company in 1681; Avas captured by the 
French in 1758, and retaken by Sir Eyre Coote 
in 1760. With the assistance of Hyder Ali 
the French took it again in 1782, and greatly 
strengthened its fortifications. The following 
year it was besieged by the British, but the de- 
claration of peace put an end to the siege, and 
in 1801 they acquired the place by treaty. 

CUDDAPAH, or Kirpa, a town of British 
India, capital of a district of the same name, in 
the presidency of Madras, 78 m. W. from Nel- 
lore. It is a military station, near one ©f the 
lines of the Madras railway, on the river Cud- 
dapah or Bogawunka, and was once the capital 
of an independent Patau state. It is famous for 
its diamond mines, on the Punnair river, 7 ra. 
N. E. from the town, which have been worked 
with various success for several hundred years. 

CUDWORTH, Ralph, an Enghsh divine and 
philosoplier, born at Aller, in Somersetshire, in 
1617, died at Cambridge in 1688. At the age 
of 13 he was entered at Emmanuel college, 
Cambridge, in which he afterward became fel- 
low and tutor. In 1639 he took the degree of 
master of .arts, in 1644 that of bachelor of di- 
vinity, and in 1645 was appointed regius profes- 
sor of Hebrew, in which office he continued 
during 30 years. In 1641 he was presented to 
the rectory of N"orth Cadbury, and in the next 
year published a sermon on the true nature of 
■the Lord's supper, which attracted the notice 
of several learned writers. After a short ab- 
sence from Cambridge, caused by pecuniary 
embarrassments, he returned in 1654, when he 
was elected master of Christ's college. His 
Bubsequent preferments were a vicarage of 



Ashwell in 1662, and a prebend of Glouces- 
ter in 1678. In performing the duties of his 
professorship he devoted much attention to He- 
brew literature and antiquities, and he was one 
of the persons consulted by a committee of par- 
liament concerning a new translation of the Bi- 
ble. In 1678 he published his great work, which 
had been written several years before, entitled 
the " True Intellectual System of the Universe," 
the epithet " intellectual " being intended to 
contrast it with any physical theory, as the 
Ptolemaic or Copernican. The design of the 
work was to establish human liberty against the 
fatalists, and according to the scope of the au- 
thor it was to consist of 3 parts ; the first being 
a refutation of atheism and atheistic fatalists ; 
the second, of those who admitted a Deity, yet 
acting necessarily and without moral perfections; 
and the third, of those who granted the moral 
attributes of God, but affirmed that human ac- 
tions are governed by necessary laws ordained 
by him. Only the first part of this scheme was 
completed, and the " Intellectual System " con- 
sists of a most erudite argument against atheistic 
fate. To account for the operation of physical 
laws without the continued agency of Deity he 
devised the theory of a plastic nature, which he 
treats as a real being, giving it " a drowsy uu- 
awakened cogitation," and which he makes the 
immediate and obedient instrument in the exe- 
cution of divine purposes. He also reviewed 
the systems of ancient speculation in order to 
show that a belief in one sovereign and omni- 
potent God underlay the polytheistic views of 
the pagan na^ons. Dr. Cudworth left seve- 
ral large ethical and theological works, which 
still remain in manuscript in the British mu- 
seum. His "Treatise concerning Eternal and 
Immutable Morality," was first published by 
Bishop Chandler in 1731. Its design is to 
prove that moral differences of right and wrong 
are antecedent to any divine law, and it was 
probably a partial acconiplislnuent of the sec- 
ond division of his proposed " Intellectual Sys- 
tem." Cudworth was one of the most emi- 
nent of several Cambridge divines who were 
termed Latitudinarians ; and the clear and fear- 
less statements which he made of the arguments 
of his opponents caused him to be accused by 
some of his contemporaries of heterodoxy, and 
of raising " so strong objections that he did 
not answer them." Bishop Burnet speaks of 
him as " a great man in all parts of learning, 
divine and human; an honor to Emmanuel col- 
lege where he was educated, to Christ's college 
where he afterward presided, to the whole uni- 
versity of Cambridge which he adorned, and to 
the church and age in which he lived." The 
" Intellectual System " was republished in Lon- 
don in 1743, in 1820, and in 1845 ; the last edi- 
tion is iu 3 vols., and contains translations of the 
valuable notes of Dr. Mosheim. All of his print- 
ed works appeared at Andover, Mass., in 1837. 
CUENCA, a S. province of New Castile in 
Spain, between lat. 39° 20' and 40' 47' N., long. 
1° 5' and 3° "W. ; bounded N. by Guadalajara, 



CUENCA 



CUFIC INSCRIPTIONS 



133 



E. by Ternel and Valencia, S. by Albacete, "W. 
by Ciudad Real, Toledo, and Madrid; area, 
about 12,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1857, 243,260. 
It is one of tlie most mountainous provinces 
of Spain. The products are timber, excel- 
lent honey, several minerals, oil, fruit, hemp, 
flax, and grain, and wine in the S. W. part. 
The principal exports are saft'ron and a supe- 
rior quality of wool. Only one sixtli ])art of 
the soil is cultivated, and most of the rest is 
used for pasturage. There are several medicinal 
springs in the province. The woollen industry, 
for which it was renowned in former times, has 
much declined. It is divided into 9 districts and 
318 parishes. — The capital, Ccenca, pop. about 
7,000, 85 m. from Madrid, is one of the most pic- 
turesque towns of Spain, about 3,400 feet above 
sea level, between the heights of San Cristobal 
and Socorro, at the confluence of the Huescar 
and Jucar. Once celebrated alike for arts, liter- 
ature, and industry, it is now remarkable only 
for its Moorish aspect, for its cathedral, and for 
its scenery. The beautiful forests, called los 
pinares de Cnenca, adjoin the town, as well as 
many lakes and streams containing trout, while 
the mountains abound in curious plants and 
geological objects. Near the cathedral is the 
bishop's palace. Beside a number of churches, 
the city contains 2 hospitals, 3 colleges, and a 
clerical seminary. The most remarkable of 
the bridges of Cuenca is that of San Pablo over 
the Huescar. The town is surrounded by high 
old walls, and has woollen factories, paper mills, 
and establishments for washing wool. 

CUENCA, or Rambae, a city of the re- 
public of Ecuador, and capital of a canton and 
province of the same name, in the district of 
Assuay ; pop. about 25,000. It is built on a 
beairtiful plain 8,640 feet above the sea, near the 
river Matadero, and about 4 m. from the Ma- 
changara, from which streams irrigating canals 
lead toward the city. It has broad and regular 
streets, contains a Jesuits' college, a cathedral, 
8 churches, the governor's residence, and aweU 
arranged prison, has manufactories of good pot- 
tery, and is regarded as one of the linest cities 
of the republic. Its private houses, however, 
are mostly low and mean-looking. Its trade is 
chiefly in grain, hats, bark, and dairy produce. 
In the neighborhood is the hill of Tarqui, which 
was fixed upon by La Condamine, Bouguer, and 
Godin, for establishing their meridian line in 
1742 ; and on the plain which lies around it was 
fought, in 1828, the battle of Tarqui, between 
the armies of Colombia and Peru. — The province 
of Cuenca is mountainous, well watered, and 
fruitful. It produces grain, sugar, cotton, bark, 
and cochineal, has manufactories of tapestry, 
drugget, and cotton, and contains gold, silver, 
copper, mercury, and sulphur, but the mines are 
not worked. It is divided into the 3 cantons of 
Azogues, Cuenca, and Gualacco. 

CUEVA, JuAX DE LA, a Spanish poet, born 
in Seville about 1550, died about 1608. He 
wrote several dramas on national subjects; an 
epic {La conquista de laBetica, printed in 1603) 



on the conquest of Seville by St. Ferdinand — an 
unsuccessful imitation of Tasso's "Jerusalem 
DeHvered ;" and over 100 hallnds (Coro Feheo 
de romnnres hint or if den, Seville, 1587-'88), 
mostly taken from the histories of Greece and 
Rome, and only 4 or 5 from tliat of Spain. His 
fame rests more particularly upon his having 
been the first Spaniard to attempt didactic 
poetry; his poem, entitled Egemjilar j)oetico, 
which he wrote in 1605, but which was first 
printed only in 1774 in the 8th vol. of the Par- 
nmo Bsjmflol, constituting the earliest and most 
original efi:ort of the kind in Spanish. 

CUFFEE, Pafi,, a philanthropic negro sea 
captain, born on one of the Elizabeth isles, near 
New Bedford, Mass., in 1759, died Sept. 7, 1818. 
His father was a native of Africa, and once a 
slave ; his mother was of Indian extraction. 
Endowed with a commanding presence, strong 
common sense, and untiring industry and enter- 
prise, he accumulated a handsome fortune in 
seafaring pursuits, and for many years com- 
manded his own vessel, having a crew composed 
entirely of negroes, and visiting many Amer- 
ican and foreign ports. He was an esteemed 
member of the society of Friends. It is related 
of him that on one occasion, when the custom 
house officer of Norfolk, Va., refused him a clear- 
ance on the ground that he was a negro, he pro- 
ceeded at once to Washington to submit his 
case to President Madison, with whom he was 
well acquainted. " James," said he to the pres- 
ident, " thy customs collector at Norfolk re- 
fuses me my clearance ; I wish an order from 
thee, which shall compel him to give it me." 
JPresident Madison inquired into the circumstan- 
ces, and wrote the required order, by which he 
obtained his clearance without further delay. 
In the latter part of his life Captain Cuflfee 
encouraged the emigration of the free people of 
color in this country to Sierra Leone. He cor- 
responded with prominent friends of that enter- 
prise in Great Britain and Africa, and in 1811 
visited the colony in his own vessel to determine 
for himself its advantages. In 1815 he carried 
out to Sierra Leone 38 colored persons as emi- 
grants, 30 of them entirely at his own expense, 
and on his arrival tliere furnished them with 
the means of subsistence, spending in this en- 
terprise nearly $4,000. He was anxious to 
carry other companies of emigrants ; but while 
waiting for the permission of the British govern- 
ment, American vessels being at that time ex- 
cluded from the trade of the British colonies, 
he was seized with the illness which termi- 
nated his life. — Rev. PArL, a native Indian 
preacher to the Shinnecock tribe of Indians on 
Long island, born in 1757, died March 7, 1812. 
He was for 13 years in the employ of the New 
York missionary society, and was regarded as 
an able preacher. He Avas a successor of the 
celebrated Rev. Samson Occom and the Rev. 
Peter John. 

CUFIC INSCRIPTIONS axd COINS, so 
called because they bear the Kivji or Cufic 
writing, a character named from Cufah, a city 



134 



CtlFIO INSCRIPTIONS 



CUJAS 



of Irak-Arabi, on the Nahr-Cufah or Eu- 
phrates, in the pashalic of Bagdad. Ciifah was 
built by Sa'ad, in A. D. 639, under Omar, the 
2d caHi)h, after his capture of Modain, tlie capi- 
tal of Sassanidic Persia. It was the residence 
of Ali, the 4tli caliph, and, a century later, of 
Abiil Abbas, the founder of the Abbasside dy- 
nasty; it also possessed a celebrated school. 
After the foundation of Bagdad by Abu Giaffar 
Al Mansoor, the 2d Abbasside, Cutali was neg- 
lected and began to decay. At the time of Mo- 
hammed the Arabs of Iledjaz used a writing 
similar to the Neskhi, which may be seen in 
some papyri in the Memoires of the French 
academy and in the "Asiatic Journal." Ac- 
cording to Arabic tradition, writing at that 
time was newly invented and in little use. 
Whether the Arabs of Yemen, Irak, Mesopo- 
tamia, and central Arabia, had derived their 
writing, much earlier, from the Phoenician, or 
Palmyrean, or Sassanidic, is not ascertained. 
The Kiufi^ however, is probably derived from 
the Syrian estrangJielo (a-TpoyyuXoy, round). It 
is coarse, stitf, angular, and not so distinct as 
the modes of writing derived from it. It con- 
sists of 18 forms of letters, 8 of which, by being 
marked with diacritic points, represent 10 sounds 
of the modern Arabic writing — these we include 
in parentheses — namely : «, h (t, th), the English 
j (h, I'h), d (^d\ the English th, as in this), r 
(s), s (sh), ss {dz, Spanish c in celebi'e), t, ain 
(ghain, both peculiar gutturals, or rather fau- 
cals),y^, ^- hai'sh, k soft, I, m, n, h (or merely 
the spiritus lenis '), u, i or y (German i, j). In 
manuscripts, the vowels are sometimes marked 
with red or yellow points. This writing was 
Bsed in manuscripts for about 3 centuries ; and 
on coins, sepulchral monuments, in titles of 
books, for about 7 centuries after Mohammed. 
Even now the writing of the African Arabs 
and Moors resembles the Iviufi ; while the Ori- 
entals, who are very fond of flowing, elegant, 
slender letters, use, especially for copying, the 
Neskhi, whose introduction is attributed to Ibn 
Mokla, in the 4th century of the Hegira. There 
are also many other modifications in Persian, 
Turkish, Hindostanee, and Malay chirograplis. 
— Cufio characters are found on the coins of al- 
most all Mohammedan nations. The coins of 
the earlier rulers are mostly without an effigy, 
and ill-stamped ; but the most celebrated ones 
show the face of the ruler, although this is anti- 
Mohammedan ; and those of later times exhibit 
either a sign of the zodiac or stars, or the herald- 
ic sign {tamgna) of the Turkish sovereigns. The 
inscriptions on the coins contain the name of the 
potentate by whom they are issued, the year of 
coinage, &c., and most frequently the phrase : 
" Coined in the name of Allah," either around 
or on the edge, and sometimes in 2 lines. The 
form is, on the whole, either Byzantine or Per- 
sian, in the style of Nushirvan or Chosroes I., 
and of Parvis or Chosroes II., both Sassanides. 
The dates of these coins extend from the Oramy- 
iades, who ruled at Damascus from A. D. 661 to 
750, down to the emirs of Ghizni, who bore sway 



in Turkestan, Persia, and India as late as the 
12th century ; most of them, however, belong to 
the 10th century of our era. Those of gold are 
called dinar ; those of silver, dirhem ; those of 
bronze or copper, fuls. Of some only halves 
and (juarters of the original pieces now exist. 
The inscriptions are in several languages, some 
in two at once, some even in Arabic and Rus- 
sian. They are found in Africa and Asia, from 
the Caspian and Euxine to the Baltic, in Pome- 
rania, Brandenburg, &c., where they have been 
brought by commerce; and they are also met 
with in Spain, Naples, Sicily, &c. Glass medals 
are also found bearing Cufic inscriptions on 
either face or on both ; they are about \ inch 
thick, and some have a higher margin on one 
side than the other. These probably belong to the 
Fatimite dynasty of Egypt ; and some of them 
come down to the Mameluke sultans (1766). 
It is uncertain whether they were current as 
money. — See G. C. Adler, Museum Borgianum 
(Altona, 1780) ; Silvestre de Sacy, Memoires de 
Vacademie Pi'cuiguise ; Lindenberg, Siir quelques 
medailles Coujiques et sur quelqiies MSS. Cou- 
j^(7W€s (Copenhagen, 1830); 'i&.oW&v^Orientalische 
Palaographie {Gotha, 1844); and other treatises, 
especially those of Fraehn, published at Kasan 
and St. Petersburg. 

CUIRASS, defensive armor for the body 
from the neck to the waist. It is generally made 
of well-hammered plate iron, and its name is 
probably derived fi-om the French cuir, leather, 
of which material armor Avas very frequently 
composed in the early ages. The iron cuirass 
succeeded the hauberk or hacqueton in the reign 
of Edward III. The cuirass, under a variety of 
forms and names, was known to the ancient 
Greeks, Romans, Persians, and Egyptians. After 
long disuse it was adopted by Napoleon for his 
heavy cavalry, and his example has been fol- 
lowed by the English (who arm 3 regiments 
with it) and continental nations. 

CUJAS (CujAcius), Jacques, a French ju- 
risconsult, born in Toulouse in 1522, died in 
Bourges, Oct. 4, 1590. lie was the son of a fuller, 
and was educated at the university of Toulouse ; 
spent several years in acquiring a knowledge 
of law, and of the ancient languages, history, 
grammar, philosophy, mathematics, and even 
of poetry, and at the age of 25 commenced a 
course of instruction on the Institutes of Justin- 
ian. In 1554 the professorship of Roman law 
in the university of Toulouse became vacant, 
and Cujas, not being chosen to it, left Toulouse, 
and accepted a vacant chair at Cahors ; but in 
1555 he repaired to Bourges, then perhaps the 
chief seat of the study of civil law. The jeal- 
ousy of rival professors having forced him to 
leave this place, he went to Paris, and publish- 
ed a portion of his works, including the Observa- 
tionumet Emendatiomim XXVIII libri, which, 
in the hyperbolical language of the time, received 
the name of opus iricomparabile, opus divinum. 
In 1557 he was invited to fill a chair in Valence, 
whence, in 1560, one of his rivals in Bourges be- 
ing dead, he was recalled to that city, and there his 



CULDEES 



CULLEN 



135 



principal works were published. In 1566 ho re- 
paired to Turin to lecture in the university, and 
in 1567 returned to France, lixinj^ his residence 
at Valence. In June, 1576, he tinally returned 
to Bourges, wliich he never afterward (juitted. 
The latter part of his life was clouded by domestic 
cares and by the distress of mind which the un- 
happy condition of his country created. After 
the assassination of Henry III., tlie league, who 
were powerful in Bourges, endeavored to extort 
from Cujas a written opinion in favor of the 
claims of Cardinal Bourbon to the succession. 
At considerable personal risk he opposed the 
demand, exclaiming: "It is not for me to cor- 
rupt the laws of my country." llo died soon 
after, broken-hearted, it is supposed, at tlie evils 
which preyed upon France. Tlie jurisconsults 
of Europe agree in considering him the greatest, 
as he was among the first of modern interpreters 
of the civil law. Beside the Institutes, Pan- 
dects, &c., of Justinian, he published, with ex- 
planations, a part of the Tlicodosian code, and 
the Basilica^ a Greek version of the laws of 
Justinian, and commentaries on the Consuetu- 
dines Feudorum^ and on some books of the De- 
cretals. His " Observations and Corrections," 
extending not merely to books of law, but to a 
number of Greek and Latin authors, have been 
of great value to philologists. The edition of 
Fabrot (Paris, 10 vols, folio) was the first com- 
plete collection of his writings ; but the reprints 
at Naples in 1757, and at Venice and Modena 
in l758-'82, in 11 vols, folio, contain important 
additions. Cujas was not less distinguished as 
a teaclier than as a writer. 

CULDEES, a religious fraternity who at one 
time were spread over the greater part of Great 
Britain and Ireland. The origin of the name is 
uncertain, some deriving it from the Celtic cyl- 
Ze, a cell, and dee, house, and others from the 
Latin cultor Dei, worshipper of God. Their 
history has been raised to importance by cer- 
tain modern writers, who claim that in the 2d 
or 3d century they were the priests of a Scot- 
tish Christian church which had no bishops, 
and resembled the Presbyterian organization. 
It is not known when the order became ex- 
tinct. 

CULLEN, Paul, an Irish Catholic prelate, 
archbishop of Dublin, born about 1805. He 
studied theology in Italy, received orders, and 
for 15 years held an ofiice in the chancery of 
the Vatican which gave him direction of the ec- 
clesiastical affairs of his native country. He was 
also for some time rector of the Irish college at 
Eorae. On the death of Dr. Ci-olly, archbishop 
of Armagh, in 1849, the sutfragan bishops failed 
to agree in nominating his successor, and Pius 
IX. therefore conferred this dignity upon Dr. 
CuUen, with the rank of primate of Ireland and 
apostolic delegate. He was consecrated Feb. 
24, 1850, and soon became conspicuous by his 
hostility to the system of mixed education 
which prevailed in the Irish schools, and his 
support of the scheme for founding a Catholic 
university at Dublin. To further the latter ob- 



ject, in obedience to the instructions of the pope, 
he called a synod at Thurles, which took such 
measures that tlie university was soon establish- 
ed. In March, 1852, Dr. CuUen was transferred 
to the diocese of Dublin. He thus ceased to bo 
l)rimate, but his title of aijostolic delegate was 
renewed for life, which places him at the head 
of the Irish clergy. A curious work against the 
Copernican system, maintaining on theological 
grounds fliat the earth is the immovable centre 
of the universe, has been atributed to him, it is 
said, without rea-son. 

CULLEN, William, a Scottish physician, 
born in Hamilton, Lanarkshire, April 15, 1710, 
died near Edinburgh, Feb. 5, 1790. He studied 
medicine at the university of Glasgow, and at 
the same time served an apprenticesliip to a 
surgeon apothecary of that place. At the age 
of 19 he procured the berth of surgeon on a 
merchant ship engaged in the West India trade, 
and in 1732 returned to Scotland and com- 
menced his professional labors in the parish of 
Shotts. After several years of practice and stu- 
dy he entered into a partnership with "William 
Hunter, afterward celebrated as a comparative 
anatomist, by the terms of which they were 
each to spend a winter alternately at some med- 
ical school, while the other remained in charge 
of the business in the country. In 1741 Hunter 
repaired to London for the purpose of study, 
and having with the consent of CuUen settled, 
there, the partnership terminated. In 1745 
Cullen took up his residence in Glasgow, and in 
the succeeding year commenced a course of 
lectures in the university on the theory and prac- 
tice of medicine. In 1751 he became professor 
of medicine, and lectured on chemistry, materia 
medica, and botany, giving much attention to 
the application of chemistry to agriculture and 
the useful arts. In 1756 he removed to Edin- 
burgh to assume the chair of chemistry. He 
continued to be connected with the university 
until his death, and for nearly 34 years lectured 
with great reputation on chemistry, materia 
medica, and the theory and practice of medi- 
cine. He also delivered several series of clin- 
ical lectures at the royal infirmary. He pos- 
sessed in a rare degree the faculty of presenting 
an abstract subject in a clear and attractive 
light, and his lectures, which were nearly ex- 
temporaneous, seldom failed to excite the inter- 
est, and even the enthusiasm, of his pupils. As 
an illustration of this, it is stated that the class 
in materia medica, which under the former pro- 
fessor, Alston, a man of great learning, had not 
exceeded 8 or 10 in number, was at once in- 
creased" by Cullen to over 100. His works are: 
" First Lines of the Practice of Physic," con- 
taining his system of the nature and cure of 
diseases, which superseded that of Boerhaave; 
" Institutions of Medicine ;" Synopsis Nosologies 
MethodiccB ; a " Treatise of the Materia Medi- 
ca ;" and some minor miscellaneous publications. 
The first of these was translated into several 
languages, and went through many editions. 
His clinical lectures were also published after 



136 



CULLODEN HOUSE 



CULTIVATOR 



Iiis death, probably from notes taken by one of 
his i)upils. 

CULLODEN" HOUSE, a family seat in Inver- 
ness, Scotland, which gave its name to the 
battle that ended the career of the pretender 
in the rebellion of 1745. The English troops 
were led by the duke of Cumberland ; the 
highlanders were commanded by Charles Ed- 
ward in person. The prince's army was com- 
posed of highlanders ; he was almost destitute 
of artillery, in which arm the enemy were very 
powerful. The wild, undisciplined courage of 
the highlanders was vainly opposed to the dis- 
cipline and cannon of the regulars. After a 
desperate attack and great carnage on both 
sides, the English troops stood firm, and the 
highlanders, unsupported and unofficered, broke 
and fled in all directions. The battle was fought 
on Drummossie moor, April 16, 1746. 

CULLOMA, or Columa, a post town of Cali- 
fornia, and formerly the capital of El Dorado 
CO.; pop. in 1852, 2,000. It is situated on the 
south fork of American river, and on the road 
from Sacramento City to Nevada. In the vicin- 
ity are a number of saw mills, one of which, 
called Sutter's mill, is memorable as the spot 
where gold was first discovered in California. 

CULM, or KuLM (Polish, Chelmno)^ a district 
and city in the Prussian province of West Prus- 
sia, in a very fertile region. The city is situated 
on a branch of the Vistula ; pop. 7,800. It was 
founded by the knights of the cross in 1230, 
and became the residence of a bishop. It was 
under Polish sovereignty from 1454 to 1772, 
■when it was given to Prussia by the first divi- 
sion of Poland. The inhabitants, of German 
origin, had their chartered city rights, copied 
from those of Magdeburg, collected and re- 
vised as early as 1394, which was ever recog- 
nized in old Prussia under the name of Culiner 
Hamlfeste, or Jus Culmense. 

CULM, in Bohemia. See Kulm. 

CULMINATION", the passage of a star over 
the meridian, that is, over the highest point of 
its diurnal path. Metaphorically the term is 
used of any thing attaining its highest state of 
development. 

CULNA, a town in British India, in the district 
of Burdwan, lieutenant-governorship of Bengal, 
lat. 23° 14' N., long. 88° 20' E., pop. 60,000, on 
the right bank of the river Iloogly, 26 m. E. 
of the city of Burdwan, a station for steamers 
plying between Calcutta and the upper prov- 
inces, and long noted for its trade in rice, grain, 
silk, and cotton. It is the station of the Free 
church mission, and has an English school con- 
taining about 120 boys. — There is a town of the 
same name, lat 23^ 13', long. 89° 42', in the dis- 
trict of Jessore. 

CULPEPPER, a N. E. central co. of Va., bor- 
dered S. by Rapidan river, N. E. by the N. branch 
of the Rappahannock, drained in the N. part by 
Hazel river; area, 673 sq. m. ; pop. in 1850, 12,- 
282, of whom 6,683 were slaves. The surface 
is gre.atly diversified by hills and valleys, and 
the soil very productive. The Rappahannock 



and ITazcl rivers are here navigable, the latter 
for small boats only. There are one or two 
mineral springs in the county, but they are 
yet very little known. Indian corn, wheat, 
oats, and wool are the staples. In 1850 the pro- 
ductions were 191,395 bushels of wheat, 359,- 
670 of Indian corn, 62,599 of oats, and 45,444 
lbs. of wool. There were 17 churches and 488 
pupils attending public schools. A number of 
woollen factories and flour, grist, and saw mills 
were in operation during that year. Value of 
real estate in 1856, $3,068,610. The county 
was formed in 1748, and named from Lord Cul- 
pepper, governor of Virginia in 1681. Capital, 
Fairfax, or Culpepper Court House. 

CULPEPPER, John, an early surveyor-gen- 
eral and political leader of the provinces of 
North and South Carolina, was a refugee from 
the southern or Clarendon colony, and in 1678 
was the head of an insurrection in the northern 
or Albemarle colony in favor of popular liberty. 
The navigation acts, by which excessive taxa- 
tion was imposed on commerce, and an abridg- 
ment of political freedom by the " denial of a 
free election of an assembly," were the chief 
grievances. Under his direction, the people 
deposed the president and deputies of the pro- 
prietaries, seized the public funds, appointed 
new magistrates and judges, called a parlia- 
ment, and took all the functions of government 
into their own hands. The insurgents, having 
completed their institutions, sent Culpepper to 
England to negotiate a compromise. He was in- 
dicted for high treason, but through the influ- 
ence of Shaftesbury he was acquitted on the 
ground that no regular government had existed 
in Albemarle. He returned to Carolina, and in 
1 680 laid out the city of Charleston, reducing the 
paths, streets, and squares to comparative regu- 
larity, and enclosing the town site with a line 
of fortifications. 

CULPEPPER, Thomas, lord, governor of 
Virginia from 1680 to 1683, died in 1719. Un- 
der his administration an act was passed to en- 
courage emigration by enabling the governor to 
naturalize any person by instrument under his 
seal ; also an act of indemnity for all olfences 
committed in the rebellion under Gov. Berkeley, 
and one to prevent the frequent meeting of 
slaves. He was one of the grantees of the ter- 
ritory of Virginia, and in the year 1669 pur- 
chased of his co-grantees their rights to the 
country lying between the Rappahannock and 
Potomac rivers. 

CULTIVATOR, in England, an implement 
used after the plough, preparatory to planting ; 
in the United States, an implement for the same 
purpose, and also for scarifying the earth be- 
tween the rows of growing plants, and turning 
it either to or from them, as desired. In the 
former country all implements for the latter 
purpose are called horse hoes. The American 
classification originated in our early manufac- 
turers so constructing their patterns that the 
same implement could be used for both pur- 
poses. Some leading manufacturers are now, 



CULTIVATOR 



cmi^ 



137 



however, advertising gang cultivators, cultiva- 
tors, and horse hoes; the oflice of the first heing 
limited to that of the English cultivator, the 
second heing for operation bolli before and after 
planting, and the third for the latter purpose 
only. But, as other manufacturers apply tliese 
terms almost indiscriniinatclyj while the New 
York state agricultural society awarded a pre- 
mium to an implement in 1854 as the hest cul- 
tivator, and again to the same implement in 
1856 as the best horse hoe, tliere seems to be, 
as yet, no distinctive adherence to names, and 
no proper uniformity of classification. Culti- 
vators, in a general description, are combined 
modifications of the plough and harrow. In 
England they are usually made with rectangular 
frames, constructed on 3 or 4 wheels, and pro- 
vided with a series of complex levers, by which 
they can be raised or lowered for greater or 
less penetration of the teeth or shares below 
the surface. They are made of two classes, call- 
ed grubbers and scarifiers, or cultivators; the 
first class being for cleansing the earth of roots 
and weeds, and the second for dividing and pul- 
verizing, without any particular overturning 
like that given by the plough. The teeth of 
the former may be compared to fork tines, and 
of the latter to bent coulters, with small dou- 
ble mouldboards. In the United states there 
seems, however, to be an increasing desire to 
have cultivators overturn as well as scarify the 
earth, and hence the introduction of the gang 
cultivator, as above classified. This implement 
consists of a line of small steel ploughs, attach- 
ed to a beam which passes over the ground at 
such an angle to the line of di-aught that each 
plough turns over and pulverizes some 7 inches 
of earth from the land side of the preceding 
one. This beam is fastened to the draught 
beam, which is armed in front with a coulter, 
and behind with a double-share cultivator tooth, 
which serves to balance the implement as it does 
its work. American cultivators, for the double 
purpose above described, are either triangular 
or rectangular frames, with a greater or less 
number of properly shaped and arranged mould- 
board-like teeth, and with theix centre beams 
projecting in front for the proper attachment 
of wheels and draught clevises. They have 
handles like those of a plough, and their several 
beams are so connected by joints that their 
widths can be increased or diminished as they 
are required for working between drills or before 
planting. Horse hoes, according to the above 
classification,differ from cultivators chiefly in the 
form and arrangement of their teeth, which, hav- 
ing to operate in ground grown more or less hard 
between the time of planting and that of the 
first hoeing, have more of a cutting form, while 
they can be adjusted to turn the earth from the 
plants wlien these are young and tender, and 
toward them when demanded by a more ad- 
vanced growtli. Horse hoes in the United States 
are single implements, while in England they 
are generally constructed to work between a 
number of rows of plants at the same time; 



their use in the former country being chiefly 
for the culture of potatoes and Indian corn, 
the rows of which are at wide distances. So 
great is the public sense of the recently discov- 
ered importance of a thorough and repeated 
pulverization of the soil for the easier and 
more effective operation of those forces by 
which the various necessary gases are carried 
to the roots of plants, and for the proper de- 
composition of humus and the manures, that 
these implements are now made in all parts of 
the country; one house alone making 4,000 of 
them in one season, while another, which con- 
fines its operations cliiefiy to making tlie teeth 
of the implement for some of the various smaller 
establishments, sold 40,000 of these between 
Feb. and Aug. 1857. 

CULVERIN (Fr, cordeuvrine, from Lat, colu- 
Jr/«?/s, serpent-like), a long and slender piece of 
ordnance, equal to an 18-pounder, and carry- 
ing a ball to a great distance. 

CULVERT, an arched channel for the con- 
veyance of water under ground. Channels of 
this description are very common in the em- 
bankments of railways and canals. 

CULVERT, Geoege, a head chief and war- 
rior of the Choctaw nation, born in 1744, died 
at Fort Towson, Ark., Nov. 1839, served under 
AVashington in the revolution, and from him 
received a commission of major of militia in the 
U. S. service and a sword. He served under 
"Wayne, and also imder Jackson against the 
Seminoles in 1814. For his bravery, Jackson 
presented him with a colonel's commission, and 
afterward (during his presidency) with a sword. 
He educated his sons and established them on 
plantations among his people. 

CUM/E, or CuMA, one of the most ancient 
and celebrated of the Greek cities of Italy, sit- 
uated on the Campanian shore a little N. of 
Baiffi. It is said to have been founded by a 
joint colony from ^olian Cyme and Euboean 
Clialcis. The time of its foundation is uncertain, 
but of its extreme antiquity there can be no 
doubt, for it was in the zenith of its prosperity 
and power, ruling over the Campanian plain and 
the Tyrrhenian sea, while Rome Avas yet in its 
infancy. Cumas was the mother of many famous 
and flourishing colonies in Italy and Sicily ; and 
of the extent of its commerce and opulence, be- 
fore the establishment of the Etruscan suprem- 
acy, the harbors of Dicasarchia and Misenum 
were splendid evidences. As the Etruscans be- 
came powerful, however, the Cumteans declined, 
first losing their maritime superiority, then the 
dominion of the Campanian plain, and ultimately 
every thing without their city wajls. After being 
thus stripped of their possessions, and when be- 
leaguered both by sea and land by their victo- 
rious foes, they applied to Hiero of Syracuse for 
succor, and by means of the auxiliaries he sent 
tliera they were enabled to defeat their enemies 
once more, and to secure tJiemselves from at- 
tack for many years. But the warlike Sam- 
nites, after wresting all their southern conquests 
from the Etruscans, laid siege to Cuma3, took 



138 



CUMANA 



CUMBERLAND 



it, 420 B. C, put most of the male inhabitants 
to the sword, or sold them as slaves, and planted 
a colony of their own countrymen in the cap- 
tured city. In 33S B. C. Cumaj became a Roman 
municipimn. During the second Punic war Han- 
nibal besieged it in vain. During the wars of the 
Goths and Byzantines Cumte acquired a tem- 
porary importance as the last stronghold of the 
Gothic kings in Italy. After its capture, however, 
by the army of the victorious Narses (A. D. 552), 
it rapidly sunk into insignificauce. Some re- 
mains of the city are still to be traced on the Me- 
diterranean shore. A cavern in the rock on 
which the acropolis stood is still pointed out as 
the place where the famous sibyl resided and ut- 
tered her oracles. In 1853 the prince of Syracuse 
discovered there a magnificent temple of Diana ; 
and over 150 tombs were explored in the same 
year, resulting in the discovery of a great variety 
of antiquarian treasures. An interesting paper on 
the waxen heads found in one of the tombs was 
read, May 28, 1856, before the London archaao- 
logical association, by Mr. Pettigrew, who exhib- 
ited a glass vase, a tooth comb, and other anti- 
quities obtained there by Mr. "Wansey, who had 
attended the prince of Syracuse in some of his 
excavations. 

CUMANA, a province of Venezuela, com- 
prising part of the region sometimes called New 
Andalusia, bounded N. by the Caribbean sea, E. 
by the gulf of Paria, S. by the Orinoco, and 
W. by the province of Barcelona; area, 17,309 
sq. ra. ; pop. in 1846, 75,828. A range of moun- 
tains crosses it parallel with the sea, and sends 
off several ridges toward tlie south. These hills 
are steep, but not very high, and covered with 
dense forests. The valleys and plains, watered 
by many rivers, the chief of which are the Cari, 
Mamo, Limones, Guaraco, Guarapichi, Mauza- 
nares, and Cariaco, and dotted over with lakes, 
produce excellent pasturage, sugar, and grain. 
The peninsula of Araya, on the N- coast, has 
been noted for several centuries for the produc- 
tion of salt, the consumption of which in Bar- 
celona for curing provisions amoimts to about 
1,200,000 lbs. per annum, -J- of which is obtained 
from Araya. The principal exports are dried 
fish, salted meat, hides, cotton, cocoa, and me- 
dicinal plants. — CuMANA, or New Toledo, the 
capital of the above province, is situated near 
the mouth of the gulf of Cariaco and on the 
river Manzanares, 1 m. from the sea ; lat. 10° 27' 
52" N., long. 04'^ 4' 47" W. ; pop. about 12,000. 
It is defended by the fortress of San Antonio, 
built on a rocky eminence, on which are also 
the ruins of the castle of Santa Maria. It has 
an excellent port, capable of receiving all the 
navies of Europe, but its shipping is insig- 
nificant. It has sulfered too severely from earth- 
quakes to present much architectural beauty. 
On Oct. 21, 1766, severe shocks destroyed the 
entire city in the space of a few minutes ; and a 
similar visitation, Dec. 14, 1797, laid %-. of the 
town in ruins. The climate is exceedingly hot, 
the temperature from June to October reaching 
90° and 95° F. during the day, and seldom fall- 



ing below 80° at night. Cumana was founded 
by Diego Castellon in 1523. It has 3 suburbs, 
the aggregate population of which nearly equals 
that of the city itself. 

CUMANIA, Great and Little, two districts 
of Hungary. — Geeat Cumania (Ilung. Kagy 
Kumdg), in the circle " beyond the Theiss," 
consists of a low plain, subject to frequent inun- 
dations from the rivers, and occupied to a great 
extent by swamps ; area, 424 sq. m. ; pop. about 
55,000, of whom the majority are Protestants. 
Cumania differs from most Hungarian districts 
in having no large land-owners, or feudal lords. 
The inhabitants, before the revolution of 1848, 
had a government of their own, and sent repre- 
sentatives to the Hungarian diet. They are a 
robust, plain, and patriotic people, fond of rural 
pursuits, and moderately wealthy. — Little Cu- 
mania (Hung. Kis Kunsdg) consists of several 
detached portions of land in the circle " this side 
the Theiss," and is more than twice as large as 
Great Cumania, having an aggregate area of 
about 1,000 sq. m. ; pop. about 64,000. In phys- 
ical aspect, general characteristics, and the con- 
dition of its inhabitants, it closely resembles 
Great Cumania. — Both districts have their name 
from settlements of Cumani, a people of Tartar 
race, who from the 11th to the 14th century 
acted a conspicuous part in the history of the 
nations of eastern Europe. 

CUMBERLAND, the name of counties in 
several of the United States. I. A S. W. co. 
of Maine, area about 990 sq. m., bordering on 
tliQ Atlantic, and bounded on the N. E. by the 
Androscoggin river; pop. in 1850, 68,892. 
The coast is indented by a number of bays, the 
principal of which, Casco bay, affords facilities 
for navigation and the fisheries hardly surpassed 
on the Atlantic coast. The surface of the 
county is pleasantly diversified by several smaU 
lakes or ponds. From Sebago pond, the largest 
of these, a canal has been opened to the ocean. 
The soil is fertile and well cultivated. In 1850 
it produced 233,870 bushels of corn, 266,586 of 
potatoes, 130,465 of oats, and 94,535 tons of 
hay. There were 134 churches, and 22,724 pu- 
pils attending public schools. Capital, Port- 
land. II. A S. W. CO. of N. J., area 480 sq. m., 
bounded S. "\Y. by Delaware bay, and E. by 
Tuckahoe creek ; pop. in 1855, 18,966. AVith 
the exception of some ranges of hills between 
the streams, the surface is generally level. East 
of Cohansey creek, which intersects the county, 
the soil is light, sandy, and overgrown with 
pine forests ; west of the creek it is composed 
of clay and sandy loam. Marl is obtained in 
this part, and Greenwich township has some 
mines of iron. In 1850 the productions were 
370,267 bushels of corn, 78,000 of wheat, 84,408 
of oats, 116,144 of potatoes, 21,795 tons of hay, 
and 174,802 lbs. of butter. There were 40 
churches, and 4,215 pupils attending public 
schools. This county was formed in 1748, out 
of a part of Salem county. Capital, Bridge- 
ton. HI. A S. E. CO. of Penn,, area 545 sq. 
m., lying chiefly within the Kittatinny or Cum- 



CUMBERLAND 



139 



bcrland valley, between Blue and South moun- 
tains ; pop. in 1850, 34,327. The Susquehan- 
na river flows along its eastern boundary, and 
Conedogwinit creek intersects it. Limestone 
of superior quality exists here in profusion, and 
iron ore has been found in some places. The 
soil is remarkably rich, ami agriculture is in 
a very forward state. The productions in 1850 
were 487,182 bushels of wheat, 3G1,166 of corn, 
422,100 of oats, 31,788 tons of hay, and 782,587 
lbs. of butter. There were 40 flour and grist 
mills, 17 saw mills, numerous founderios and fac- 
tories of various kinds, 5 newspaper offices, 74 
churches, and 8,887 pupils attending public 
schools. Organized in 1750, and named from 
Cumberlatid county, England. Capital, Car- 
lisle. IV. A S. E. CO. of Va. ; area, 310 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1850, 9,751, of whom G,329 were slaves. 
The surface is moderately uneven, and the soil 
was originally productive, but now in some 
places worn out. The principal rivers are the 
Appomattox, which forms its S, E. boundary, 
James river, which flows along its N. frontier, 
and "Willis river, which intersects it. In 1850 
it yielded 118,616 bushels of wheat, 220,535 of 
corn, and 2,476,135 lbs. of tobacco. There 
were 16 churches, and 275 pupils attendfng 
public schools. Value of real estate in 1856, 
$2,043,148. The county was formed from 
Goochland in 1748. Capital, Cumberland 
Court House. V. A S. central co. of N. C. ; 
area estimated at 1,680 sq. m. ; pop. in 1850, 
20,610, of whom 7,217 were slaves. It is inter- 
sected by Cape Fear river, and in great measure 
occupied by vast forests of pitch pine. Large 
quantities of turpentine and lumber are obtain- 
ed from these forests, and exported by means of 
steamboats down Cape Fear river. The soil is 
generally good, and the surface considerably di- 
versified. About ^ of the county lies within 
tlie hilly and granite region of North Carolina; 
the remainder is low and level. Several plank 
roads have recently been built in different parts, 
and by the facilities which they present for the 
transportation of the produce of the interior, 
have contributed greatly to the prosperity of 
the county. In 1850 the harvest amounted to 
376,843 bushels of corn, 142,396 of sweet pota- 
toes, and 156 bales of cotton. Organized in 
1754. Capital, Fayetteville. VL A S. co. of 
Ky., bordering on Tenn., bisected by Cumber- 
land river (from which it is named) ; area, about 
375 sq. m. ; pop. in 1850, 7,005, of whom 1,485 
were slaves. The surface is hilly near the river, 
and the soil of moderate fertility. Productions 
in 1850, 7,850 bushels of wheat, 434,340 of corn, 
30,020 of oats, and 1,238,802 lbs. of tobacco. 
Number of pupils in the public schools, 1,552. 
There is a remarkable '• oil spring" near the 
river. Capital, Burksville. VII. An E, co. of 
Ilk; area, 310 sq. m. ; pop. in 1855, 6,099. It 
is intersected by Embarras river, and diversified 
by forests and prairies. The soil is fertile, 
and in 1850 produced 217,015 bushels of corn, 
5,122 of wheat, and 33,906 of oats. There were 
2 churches. Capital, Greenup. 



CUMBERLAND, a river of Ky. and Tenn., 
rising in the Cumberland mountains, near the S. 
E. boundary of Ky., flowing W. and S. W., and 
entering Tenn. between Jackson and Overton 
counties. After a circuit of nearly 250 m. 
through middle Tenn., it makes a bend to the 
N. "W., recrosses the Ky. border about 10 m. 
from the Tenn. river, and runs nearly parallel 
with that stream until it joins the Ohio at 
Smithland. Its whole course is estimated at over 
600 m. At high water it is navigable by steam- 
boats to Nashville, 200 m. from its mouth, and 
by small boats for a distance of nearly 500 m. 
Not far from "Williamsburg, in Kentucky, it has 
a remarkable vertical fall of 60 feet. It drains 
an area of about 17,000 sq. m. 

CUMBERLAND, a thriving town and capital 
of Alleghany co., Md., on the left bank of the 
Potomac river, and on the Baltimore and Ohio 
railroad; pop. in 1850, 6,073. It is the W. ter- 
minus of the Chesapeake and Ohio canal, and 
the E. terminus of the national road. A few 
miles west of the town, upon the summit of the 
AUeghanies, commences the district known as 
the Cumberland coal region, which extends west 
to the Ohio river. The mines of the eastern por- 
tion produce an excellent quality of semi-bitumi- 
nous coal, and are worked by several mining 
companies. In 1857 the quantity sent to mar- 
ket was 612,291 tons. Iron ores in the same 
region, and others of the older formations nearer 
Cumberland, have given support to a few blast 
furnaces. The town contains the county build- 
ings, several cluirches, 3 newspaper offices, 1 
bank, and 1 savings institution ; has an excellent 
trade, and next to Baltimore is the largest town 
in the state. 

CUMBERLAND, a N. "W. co. of Nova Scotia, 
bordering on Northumberland strait, and partly 
separated from New Brunswick by Chignecto 
bay; area, 1,020sq.m.; pop. in 1851, 14,339. 
Its coasts are marked by an immense number 
of small bays and good harbors. The surface 
inland is rough and mountainous. The wealth 
of the county consists principally in coal mines, 
which are very extensive and among the most 
valuable in Nova Scotia. The North American 
mining company aumially obtains from these 
beds large quantities of excellent bituminous 
coal. Gypsum is also found, and grindstones 
are made from the rock which underlies the sur- 
face. Capital, Amherst. 

CUMBERLAND, a N. co. of England, sepa- 
rated from Scotland by Sol way frith and the Esk 
and Liddle rivers, and bounded "W. by the Irish 
sea; area, 1,565 sq. m., or 1,001,600 acres, f 
of which are under cultivation ; pop. in 1851, 
195,492. The surface of the N. and N. "W. parts 
is low and flat or gently undulating ; the mid- 
land districts are traversed by hills, and the E. 
and S. "W. parts are occupied by lofty mountains, 
among which are the famous summits of Skid- 
daw (3,020 feet above the sea). Saddleback 
(2,787 feet), and Ilelvellyn (3,055 feet). In 
this picturesque district are lakes UUs- water, 
Thirlmere, Bassenthwaite, Derwent-water, But- 



140 



CUMBERLAND 



CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIANS 



tennerc, Crnmmock, Lowes-water, Ennerdale, 
and Wast-water, renowned for their romantic 
scenery, and often visited by travellers. The 
principal rivers are the Derwent, Eden, and 
Esk. Tlie soil of the valleys and river bottoms 
is generally rich ; the lowlands have been much 
improved by draining and are very productive ; 
the mountainous districts are fit for little but 
sheep pastures. Agriculture has improved of 
late years, and a great deal of grain and other 
produce is exported. The chief minerals are 
coal, iron, silver, plumbago, copper, lead, and 
limestone. The first 3 are abundant, and the 
iron ore is said to yield more than double the 
average proportion of metal. The lead mines 
near Alston belong almost exclusively to Green- 
wich hospital. A considerable extent of the 
great Roman wall erected by Hadrian is in 
this county, and many Roman remains of va- 
rious kinds have been found here. The county 
suffered nuich from the Picts, Scots, and Danes, 
and was the arena of almost constant warfare 
during the border troubles. At the time of the 
conquest it Avas in such a state of desolation 
that William remitted its taxes, and it was not 
included in the Domesday book. The chief 
towns are Carlisle, "Whitehaven, Cockermouth, 
Penrith, Keswick, and Egremont. It is trav- 
ersed by the Lancaster, Kendal, and Carlisle, 
the Newcastle and Carlisle, the Carlisle and 
Mar^-port, and the Workington and Cocker- 
mouth branch railways. A ship canal extends 
from Carlisle to the Solway frith. The county 
returns 4 members to the house of commons. 

CUMBERLAND, Richard. I. An English 
divine, born in London, July 13, 1632, died 
Oct. 9, 1718. He was a good linguist and 
zealous student, and when upward of 80 took 
up the study of Coptic, in which he attained 
considerable proficiency. He was appointed 
bishop of Peterborough by William III. without 
solicitation, the monarch having been informed 
on trustworthy authority that Dr. Cumberland 
was the fittest person for the vacant see. IIo 
learned the fact of his nomination by reading it 
in the newspaper of the day. His principal works 
are a translation of Sanchoniathon's "Phoe- 
nician History," with notes and dissertations; 
Originis Gentium Antiquissimce ("Attempts 
for discovering the Times of the first Planting 
of Nations") ; and an "Enquiry into the Laws 
of Nature" (written originally in Latin, and 
translated by tlie Rev. J. Tower). II. An Eng- 
lish dramatist, born in Cambridge, Feb. 19, 1732, 
died May 7, 1811. He was great-grandson of 
Bishop Cumberland, and grandson of Richard 
Bentley. His connections procured him an 
early introduction into political life; and after 
having filled the oflice of secretary to Lord Hali- 
fax, with other minor appointments, he was in 
1775 made secretary of the board of trade, an 
office which was abolished in 1782, when lie re- 
ceived a compensation allowance. He i)ublished 
the " Observer," a series of essays, in which he 
displayed considerable classical learning, with 
much wit and elegant composition, H© wrote a 



large number of dramatic pieces, the most sxic- 
cessful of Avhich were the " West Indian" and 
the " Wheel of Fortune," still stock pieces on 
the stage. He was a copious writer on a great 
variety of subjects, and among his works are 
several novels and a collection of anecdotes of 
Spanish painters. He published his memoirs 
in 1806. 

CUMBERLAND, William AuorsTrs, duke 
of, 3d son of George II. of England, born April 
26, 1721, died at Winsdor, Oct. 31, 1765. He 
was present at the battle of Dettingen, where 
he was wounded. In 1745 he received the com- 
mand of the allied army, and fought the cele- 
brated battle of Fontenoy against Marshal Saxe, 
in which the French were victorious. He was 
next sent against the pretender in Scotland, and 
overthrew the army of malcontents at the battle 
of Culloden ; but the glory of this victory, such 
as it was, was stained by the cruelties and ex- 
cesses of the victors. He was appointed by the 
king commander-in-chief of the British army, 
and was next sent to the Netherlands ; "was 
defeated at Lafeldt by Marshal Saxe in 1747, 
and gained no advantages in this war, which 
wgs terminated by the peace of Aix la Chapelle, 
At the commencement of the 7 years' war the 
king of England's Hanoverian doininions had to 
be defended at any cost to the English nation; 
accordingly the duke of Cumberland was des- 
patched to Germany, when the victory of Mar- 
shal d'Estrees at Hastenbeck forced him to the 
disgraceful convention of Closter Seven (1757), 
by which the English army, 40,000 strong, was 
disarmed and disbanded, and Hanover was placed 
at the mercy of the French, who ravaged it at 
their will. On his return to England the king was 
so dissatisfied that theduke of Cumberland threw 
up his appointments, and was never again invited 
to take oflice. — For the duke of Cumberland, 
afterward king of Hanover, see Ernst August. 

CUMBERLAND MOUNTAINS, that portion 
of the Appalachian group which ranges along 
the S. W. border of Virginia and the S. E. of 
Kentucky', and thence passes across the state of 
Tennessee into the N. E. part of Alabama. It 
spreads over a width of about 50 m., parallel 
ridges alternating with longitudinal valleys. The 
ridges rarely exceed 2,000 feet in height. They 
are rocky and little cultivated, but the valleys 
are fertile. These mountains lie west of the 
range of the granite and metamorphic rocks, 
■which compose the mountains on the W. bor- 
ders of North Carolina and the N. part of Geor- 
gia. They are upon the range of the great coal 
formation of the middle states, and essentially 
composed of the ^ame groups of stratified rocks 
as those of the Alleghany mountains. Chestnut 
ridge, and Laurel hill in Pennsylvania. The 
Tennessee river and its branches drain its E. 
slopes, until this river crosses their range and 
unites with the Cumberland, the sources of 
which are on its W. side. 

CUMI5ERLAND PRESBYTERIANS, a de- 
nomination of Christians which took its rise 
during the religious revival in Kentucky and 



CUMING 



GUMMING 



141 



Tennessee in 1801-3. So great was the excite- 
ment, and so vast the multitudes who camo from 
all parts of the country to the cain[) meetings, 
that it was found impossihlo to supply the de- 
mand for ministers, and laymen were appointed 
to preach by tlie presbytery of Transylvania. 
Their reception, however, was strenuously op- 
posed by some of the clergy, and they were re- 
fused ordination. A new presbytery, which was 
formed in 1803 in tlie southern part of the state, 
denominated the Cumberland presbytery, subse- 
quently received them and granted them ordi- 
nation, at the same time taking on trial as licen- 
tiates others of similar qualifications. The action 
of the presbytery in this matter was reviewed 
by the synod of Kentucky, which denied its va- 
lidity, and appointed a commission to examine 
the newly ordained ministers both in regard to 
their attainments and the doctrines which they 
held. The result was, that the course pursued 
by the Cumberland presbytery was condemned, 
and the sentence of the synod confirmed by the 
general assembly of the Presbyterian church. 
The presbytery, demurring to this decision, 
withdrew from the jurisdiction of the general 
assembly, and in 1810 organized a distinct and 
separate body, which has since that time been 
known as the Cumberland Presbyterian church. 
Their progress as an independent church was 
marked with great success, so that in 1813 they 
formed a synod and adopted articles of religion 
and a form of church government. In doctrine 
they occupy a sort of middle ground between 
Calvinism and Arminianism. Tliey reject the 
doctrine of eternal, unconditional election and 
reprobation, and believe in the universality of 
the atonement and the final conservation of 
the saints. Their government is presbyterian 
in form, embracing the session, presbytery, sy- 
nod, and general assembly, all of which are 
constituted in the same manner as those of the 
Presbyterian church. Thoagh they have local 
pastors, they have adopted the itinerant system 
of the Methodists. By this system of circuits 
and stations their ministers have spread them- 
selves over the "West and South, and even to 
California. Their general assembly has under its 
supervision 17 synods, 48 presbyteries, 1,000 
churches, 300 ministers, 480 licentiates and can- 
didates, and a membership of 100,000. Several 
religious journals are published under their aus- 
pices, and they have flourishing colleges in Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, and Ohio, beside 10 seminaries. 
CUMING, HuGir, a living English naturalist, 
born about 1800, and residing in London. His 
collection of shells, over 60,000 in number, has 
for several years been famous as one of tlie finest 
in Europe. In 1848 it represented more than 
19,000 species and varieties, and has since been 
nmch increased from the principal cabinets on 
the continent, whicli Mr. Cuming visits annually, 
carrying the duplicates of his rarities and ex- 
changing them. His specimens are wonderfully 
perfect in form, texture, and color, and have been 
amassed not only by diligently frequenting tha 
shops of commercial naturalists in seaports, but 



also by passing 30 years of his life in travel and 
personal researches, collecting every variety of 
moUusks from their native seas and rivers, in 
the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans, aud in 
the islands of the Malay archii)elago. lie baa 
thus been able to describe the native habitats 
and habits of most of his shells. His stores are 
freely opened to scientific men, and have fur- 
nished subjects for many important papers in 
scientific ])ublications. 

CUMMIN SEED, the fruit or seed of tho 
cuminura cyminum, an umbelliferous plant, cul- 
tivated in the East from the remotest times for 
its seeds, which have a bitter and aromatic 
taste, and a peculiar odor. The Latin poets al- 
lude to their power of producing languor. They 
are obtained in Egypt, Greece, Malta, and Sicily. 

GUMMING, Jonx, D.D., a popular preacher 
of London, born in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, 
Nov. 10, 1810, was educated at King's col- 
lege, university of Aberdeen, and prepared for 
the Scottish church, but on completing his theo- 
logical studies, engaged as tutor in a school near 
London. Here he continued until 1832, when, 
having been previously licensed by the Scotch 
presbytery of London, he became the minister 
of the Scotch church in Ci"Own court, Covent 
Garden, a relation which he still liolds. He is 
distinguished for eloquence, both in the pulpit 
and on the platform, for controversial acuteness, 
and for his devotion to the interests of the Scot- 
tish cluirch. Of this latter cause he has been 
the principal representative in London, opposing 
himself steadily to the non-intrusion movement 
of which Chalmers was the leader. As an au- 
thor, Dr. Gumming is well and favorably known 
both at homi* and in this country, and most of 
his numerous works have been republished in 
America. His " Apocalyptic Sketches," "Lec- 
tures on the Parables," and "Voices of the 
Night," liave had a wide circulation. 

GUMMING, EoTTALETN George Goedox^, a 
Scottish sportsman and author, born March 15, 
1820. He is the second son of Sir William 
Gordon Gordon Gumming, and from an early 
age had abundant experiences in hunting as 
a deer-stalker in the highlands of Badenoch. 
He spent some years in the military service 
in India and the Gape of Good Ho])e, but left 
the army about 1843. Between October of 
that year and March, 1849, he made 5 hunt- 
ing expeditions into various parts of South Af- 
rica, which he has recorded in his "Hunter's 
Life in South Africa," published in London in 
1850, and republished in the United States. His 
adventures, as related by himself, partake so 
largely of the marvellous that their accuracy has 
more than once been called in question. A more 
serious charge against him is his indiscriminate 
and useless slaughter of a variety of harmless 
animals, which he destroyed apparently for no 
other purpose than to increase the list of his 
victims. He derived a considerable profit from 
the skins, tusks, and other trophies of the chase, 
of which he opened a remarkable exhibition on 
his return to England. He claims to have killed 



142 



CUMMINGS 



CmTEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS 



more than 100 elephants. Of late years he has 
found sport chiefly in the Scottish highlands. 

CUMMINGS, Joseph, D.D., president of the 
Wesleyan university at Middletown, Conn., born 
in Falmouth, Me., in 1817, was graduated at that 
institution in 1840, and was chosen professor 
of natural science in the Amenia seminary, 
N. Y. In 1841 he was licensed to preach, and 
in 1843 became principal of the seminary. In 
1846 he joined the New England conference, 
and occupied several important stations, after 
which he was appointed professor of theology 
in the Methodist general Biblical institute, at 
Concord, N. II. Subsequently he was president 
of Geneva college, N. Y., for 4 years, when he 
was elected to his present position. 

CUNDINAMAROA, a central department of 
New Granada, comprising the table-land of Bo- 
gota, a small part of the llanos near the sources 
of the Meta and Guaviare, and the valleys of the 
lower Cauca and the upper and middle Magda- 
lena ; pop. in 1853, 564,955. It is well timbered, 
contains gold, silver, copper, lead, coal, and rock 
salt, and produces almost every kind of crop com- 
mon to New Granada. The cataract of Tequen- 
dama and the natural bridges of Iconozo and 
Pandi are in this department. Capital, Bogota. 

CUNEGO, DoME^nco, an Italian engraver, 
born at Verona in 1727, died in Rome in 1794, 
His principal works are 22 plates in Gavin Ham- 
ilton's Schola Italiana, and his outline of the 
"Last Judgment," from Michel Angelo's fres- 
coes in the Sistine chapel. 

CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS, or Spheno- 
GRAMS (Gr. (T(})r]v, Lat. cuneu.% a wedge), called 
also Claviform, Cludifoem (Lat. clavus, medi- 
a3val cludus, a nail), and Arrow-Headed Ijt- 
scRiPTioNS, are monumental records of the in- 
habitants of the ancient Assyrian, Babylonian, 
and Persian empires. They consist of letters, 
some syllables, and a few monograms or com- 
pends, which contain two principal elements, 
namely, a figure resembling a wedge, nail, or 
arrow-head, and a less frequent figure like a 
broken bow or a swallow-tail (Fr. cTievron). 
Some other shapes, such as a hammer, a dag- 
ger, angles of parallel insertion, mere lines, &c., 
all without a curve, are less frequent. Tliey 
are eitlier cut or stamped upon the substance 
bearing them, according to the nature of the 
material. They occur on tablets cut in rocks, 
on stone slabs, on bass-reliefs, on winged bulls, 
on vases, gems, seals (some being so minute as 
to require a microscope), on sun-baked or kiln- 
burnt bricks or small cylinders ; and mostly in 
horizontal lines. They are read from left to 
right. Most of them are found within the 
boundaries of the ancient great Persian empire, 
a few only having been discovered elsewhere. 
Democritus called them Assyrian letters, and is 
reported to have written a treatise on them, 
and to have translated an epigraph on a pillar. 
The companions of Alexander the Great saw a 
tablet so inscribed near Anchiale in Cilicia. 
Pietro della Valle sent the first Babylonian 
brick to Athana.sius Kircher in 1622. Figueroa 



saw sphenograms at Persepolis about the same 
time. Mandelslo (1637), Chardin (1673), Kiimp- 
fer, and Herbert, found traces of gold in some 
on the Chehel-minar (40 pillars, formerly 
called Hezer-situn, 1,000 columns, of which only 
15 were standing at the time of Ker Porter's 
visit in 1815). Chardin, Cornelius Le Bruyn, 
and Gemelli-Carreri, at the close of the 17th 
century, copied some on the site of Persepolis 
and elsewhere. Tavernier and others also pub- 
lished some account of them in 1663. Ker- 
manshah (Carine), W. of Behistun, was visited in 
1737 by Otter, and in 1743 by Em. de St. Albert, 
whom D'Anville quotes as the first writer on 
sphenograms ; by Ivodja Abd ul Kunim of Cash- 
mere in 1741, &c. In 1765 Carsten Niebuhr 
copied some at Persepolis and elsewhere, more 
accurately than had been done before, also giv- 
ing measurements of various edifices. In 1786 
Bishop Beauchamp found bricks at Hillah, and 
his nephew, the abbe Beauchamp, visited other 
places beside the site of Babylon, and in 1790 
wrote on the manner of searching for these 
monximents. Andre Michaux had sent a sphe- 
nogrammatic flint to Paris in 1782, and made 
researches on the rocks of Alvand (or Ervend, 
ancient Orontes), near Hamadan (eastern Ecba- 
tana), in 1785. These places were also examined 
by Olivier in 1796, McKinneir in 1810, K. Por- 
ter and Bellino, by Keppell in 1824, Malcolm, 
Moriei', Steuart, and Vidal, Avho copied two 
tablets. F. E. Schulz, who was killed by tlie 
Koords in 1829, copied, during two journeys, 
many inscriptions on the rocks, on church walls, 
grottos, &c., in and near the city of Van. One 
of these sphenograms contains 98 lines with 
1,500 characters, and 42 others contain about 
900 lines. Col. Monteith found two near 
Ardzish, and another on the road to Erzroum, 
the furthest one to the N. W., in the valley of 
the Little Euphrates. The indefatigable Raw- 
linson copied some peculiar ones on the Tash- 
Tepe, on religious subjects, and saw another on 
the Keli-Shin, a mountain pass, which was 
covered with ice. A sphenogram of the same 
nature was found by Moltke on the Euphrates, 
on a very high rock above Kumurhan, on the 
route from Ephesus to Babylon, witliin the 
chain of the Taurus, between the Armenian and 
Mesopotamian regions. It was copied by Miihl- 
bach, in 1840. Lepsius published a spheno- 
graphic bass-relief from a rock on the Nahr el 
Kelb (Lycos) near Beyroot, in 1838, commemo- 
rating the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses, hav- 
ing near to it a pillar of Rliamses II. (Sesostris). 
Gen. Dagua copied one with the head of Darius 
under hawk's wings in token of his apotheosis, 
near Abu Kesheid, on the canal from the Nile 
to the Red sea. "Witsen described a spheno- 
gram at Tarku (Albana), N. of Derbend, on 
the Caspian sea, in the beginning of tlie 18th 
century. Schulz had intended to go in search 
of sphenograms to the country of the Sha-to, 
on Lop lake, where fire-worshippers are said to 
dwell. Copies of ancient [MSS. belonging to the 
Christians of St. Thomas, in Malabar, now in the 



CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS 



143 



library of Cambridge, England, contain some 
very ancient Persepolitan letters, witli 4 otliers 
in ancient Hebrew, and one in an unknown char- 
acter. J. Tod affirms that he saw many sphen- 
ograms on rocks, j)illars, &c., at Mundore, in the 
state of Jhodpoor. Sir Harford Jones sent a 
great Assyrian epigrapli on stone to the East 
India company in London, in 1803. W. Ouse- 
ley furnished materials for si)henograi)hic lit- 
erature in 1811. The widow of Claudius J. 
Rich republished (London, 1839) his journey 
to Babylon and Pcrsepolis, made in 1811, with 
some valuable notices, especially on Babylonian 
antiquities. The greatest of all sphenograms, 
that of Behistun, discovered by Iver Porter, 
telescopically examined by Coste and Flandin, 
and explained by liawlinson, is spoken of be- 
low. The rudest cunei, as to design and ex- 
ecution, are those found at Shuster (in Khuzis- 
tan or Susiana). Layard describes a species, 
containing many i^eculiar groups, found near 
Mal-Amil, between Shuster and Ilamadan. A 
new period of sphenographic discoveries, joined 
with those in ancient Asiatic architecture and 
other great mementoes of bygone civilization, 
was inaugurated by P. E. Botta, the French 
consul at Mosul, who, encouraged by J. Mohl, 
disinterred a great palace at Khorsabad, in 
March, 1843 {Monuments de Ninive^ with de- 
signs by E. Flandin, 5 vols., Paris, 1849-50). 
His rival, the Englishman Austen Henry Layard, 
exhumed 3 palaces in the mound of Nimroud in 
1845, and one in thatof Kuyunjik in 1848, dur- 
ing two visits, beside making discoveries in otlier 
places. Two of the former are the most ancient 
of dll. The German Oppert is now (1859J en- 
gaged in examining the site of Babylon, on be- 
half of the French government. The number of 
sphenograms thus brought to light is surprising. 
A summary of the discoveries at Nineveh, Baby- 
lon, and Persepolis, was published in London, by 
Vaux, in 1851. — The origin of sphenography is 
enveloped in utter darkness. Ker Porter thinks 
it antediluvian, and connected with the tower of 
Babel. Brandis and others derive it from icono- 
graphy, in the manner of the Egyptian demotic 
and the Chinese system of writing. Thougli no 
cuneiform manuscript has yet been found, Qua- 
tremere supposes a cursive style, for the pur- 
poses of common transactions, to have been the 
prototype of the monumental style, as well as 
of the square character of the Hebrews, after 
their return from the Babylonian captivity. 
Pauthier endeavored to prove the origin of 
cunei from a cursive style, analogous to the Zen- 
dic, Sassanidic, or Palrayrenic letters. Schott- 
gen attributes the introduction of sphenography 
into Persia to Darius. Barrois very expedi- 
tiously explains all styles of sphenography by 
dactylology, or the use of the fingers, in indicat- 
ing the sounds of language. Gell discovered in 
1812 a bronze table relating to the Olympian 
games, probably of tlie 50th Olympiad, or 577 
B. C, in sphenoid letters. Some, probably ac- 
cidental, resemblance to cuneiforms is also per- 
ceived in the runes of Helsingoland. W. Price 



saw in 1825, at Shiraz, an old manuscript in two 
kinds of letters, one of which seemed to him to 
resemble the Persian style of cunei. Niebuhr 
distinguished 3 styles in the Persepolitan epi- 
graphs, and classified the most remarkable 
groups. In 1798 0. G. Tychscn supposed that 
royal titles were written over the portraits of 
kings, and gave some hints as to the means of 
reading tliem. With Mimter, he recognized 
the key in a frequently recurring word, which 
he suspected to signify king. Miinter, with 
Herder, in 1800, supposed tliat there were 3 
modes of writing, viz.: alphabetic, syllabic, and 
monogrammatic ; he thought that religious mat- 
ters were written in Zend, and political affairs 
in Pehlevic. Joseph J. Hager, in 1801, believed 
the Babylonian to be alphabetic, sacred, and not 
composed of mere magic signs, as some had 
thought ; having inverted the cylinders, he tried 
to read it in the Chinese direction downward 
and leftward. A. A. Lichtenstein (1798-1803) 
asserted the Assyrio-Persian, as he named it, to 
be in Cufic letters, containing sentences from 
the Koran, and the deeds of Tamerlane in 
Neo-Persian. The abbe Beauchamp believed 
the epigraphs to have been directions for the 
masons, as the inscribed side of the Babylonian 
bricks is found turned inward in the walls. 
Witte even alleged that the characters had 
been produced by worms. G. F. Gi-otefend, 
following the method of Sylvcstre de Sacy in 
deciphering the Pehlevic inscriptions of the Sas- 
sanides at Naksh-i-Rustam (1803), although he 
had not a profound knowledge of oriental lan- 
guages, attempted, on the suggestion and with 
the aid of Fiorillo, by logical induction, to un- 
ravel 2 inscriptions copied by Le Bruyn and 
Niebuhr, on which Tychsen had made trials. 
He guessed the 2 other writings accompanying 
each inscription to be of the same contents with 
the inscription. After a careful scrutiny of the 
forms of groups, Grotefend examined the Greek 
historians, Mlinter's essay, and Heeren's his- 
torical researches, to ascertain the age of the 
Persian kings. Then he tried to find in the 
epigraphs the names of Cyrus and Cambyses ; 
but the groups had not the same initials. Cy- 
rus and Artaxerxes were too unequal in length. 
Darius ami Xerxes, not offering either of the 
difficulties, were at last discovered. The groups 
that might denote the father and the son were 
also found in proper relation with each other, on 
both specimens ; so that the import of 4 words 
could be relied on. Now the value of each 
group, as a letter, was to be ascertained. An- 
quetil-Duperron's Zend Avesta was resorted to. 
But as Darius is there called Eanteraffcsh, Grote- 
fend examined WeoroJceshe, which is the name 
of Araxes, and so arrived at the sound of the 
letter x in Xerxes, fixing its sound to be Jcsh. 
By repeated examinations, and aided by ma- 
terials furnislied to him by Bellino and others, 
he determined the values of d^d, r, «, s, kh, p, 
t, Eng. j and /, and came near to b, dh, Jim, 
respectively, by calling them v, th, 7i. He thus 
gave a series of 29 letters and one compound 



144 



CimEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS 



sign for king, nnd read: DarheusTi^ Ksharsha, 
Goshtaspahe, AlchcotshosTcoh ; wlncli liawlinson 
reads: Ddrynvush, Khshurlchsha., Vishtdspuhyci, 
HakhamanisJilyn. These cftbrts were made 
from 1802 to 181G, aud were publislied in Ilee- 
ren's works in 1815, and in English in 1833. 
In 1820 Eask rectified Grotefend's 6 by chang- 
ing it to m and tsh to ?i, whereby the word 
answering to Acluemenlus became clear. St. 
Martin, following Klaproth, spoiled the 7n by 
changing it to a, and the ?i to m; but he agreed 
with both his predecessors as to a, ii, t, d, p. s, 
and determined correctly v, sh, y, among las 
25 letters. Eugene Burnouf (Commentaire du 
Yapia, Paris, 1833) made out the key to the 
grammar of the language of the Persian text. 
This language is derived from the Zend, has 
decaying grammatic forms, foreshadowing the 
Neo-Persian, and approaches the Semitic type 
by the disappearance of vowel signs. lie assigns 
to 15 letters different values from those given 
by his successors, and makes 32 letters in ail, 
admitting I, which is rather ?• or ru. Burnouf 
and Christian Lassen had worked independently 
at first, but joined their eflforts afterward. Las- 
sen's exertions date from 1836, 1839, aud 1844, 
when on receiving exact copies of various Perse- 
politan epigraphs, made by N. L. "VVestergaard 
on the spot, he changed some of his previous 
views, and admitted 32 Persian letters and 2 com- 
pounds {thr, rp), arranging them analogously to 
the Dcvanagarl, after a rectification of the values 
of all his predecessors. H. C. Eawlinson, who 
had commenced the deciphering of the same 
style in 1835, having obtained an impression on 
paper, made by skilful Ivoordish climbers, of the 
high trilingual rock-hewn epigraphs of Belris- 
tun, published his views in 1847 ("Journal of 
the Asiatic Society," vol. xii.), almost totally 
agreeing with Lassen, and admitting 35 letters 
and 2 monograms (dah, people, and luhmi, 
earth). E. F. F. Beer reviewed Grotefend, 
Burnouf, and Lassen in 1837, and gave some 
useful hints. Jacquet also discussed the sub- 
ject in 1838 ; he supposes the Behistun epi- 
graphs to belong to Semiramis, and commits 
other inaccuracies. — The 2d Achfemenian style 
of trilingual sphenograms, hypothetically named 
Median by Westergaard, was to a great extent 
deciphered by him in 1844 (Memoires de la 
societe royale dcs antiquaires du nord, Copen- 
hagen). He gives IG groups of consonants, 
beside t and th, G vowels, and 72 pure syl- 
lables, with 2 ending in s (as, ahs) ; out of 82 
perfect and 10 mutilated and spurious groups. 
lie also derives compounds for 2jJi(tph, lyh. thr, 
dah, and humi, counting some groups both as 
letters and as syllables. The reading of the 
whole is, however, yet hypothetical to a great 
extent, owing to the uncertainty of scholars 
as to the language in which this version of the 
Persian text is written. Edward Norris calls 
this version Tartaric, and goes so far as even to 
construct a Scytliian grammar, by means of the 
Ostiak and Cheremisse dialects ("Journal of 
the Asiatic Society," xv.). Ilaug also wrote on 



this version in 1855. — Tlie 3d Achcomonian style, 
called Babylonian by Rawlinson, very much re- 
sembles the Assyrio-Babylonian, and is yet a 
problem both as regards its phonetism and its 
language. This is almost generally admitted to 
be a Semitic dialect. Ernest Renan, one of the 
greatest modern Semitists, asserts tlie 2d style 
to be Semitic, although he denies the employ- 
ment of such uncouth letters for a language 
whose alphabet he asserts to be more ancient 
and better than the oldest sphenograms. Oppert 
thinks the language of the 2d style nearer to 
Ehkili and Mahri, which are classed under the 
name of Cushitic, as a branch of the Semitic 
family. Pehlevi or Iluzvaresh, an Aryo-Semitic 
idiom, seems to be the real language of the 2d 
or Median text. This disagreement of author- 
ities, amounting even to a confusion of the two 
versions of the Persian text with each other, 
shows how little is yet known about either. 
M. A, Stern, encouraged by Benfey of Bonn, 
asserts that he has found the key to the 3d style, 
which is to liini nearly Hebrew and Chaldaic, 
and which he professes to read almost without 
any difficulty. He rejects the whole theory of 
Rawlinson and of Hincks, who admit a great 
many ideograms, and a confused polyphony in 
the values of the characters. He reads each 
syllable otherwise than De Sacy, adopts literal 
groups, and classifies 257 of them in 26 catego- 
ries, headed by 18 Hebrew letters (omitting I 
and ain), adding 32 groups for combined sounds. 
He accepts Botta's homophons, and sneers at 
Rawlinson for denying triliteral roots, and elicit- 
ing the sense of only 200 words from the Behistun 
text, whereas he himself has found 4 times as 
many, in proportion, in 15 short epigraphs. Botta 
does not venture on the slippery path of exegesis, 
but arranges the Ninevite sphenograms on the 
basis of 15 dominant figures, and gives a general 
catalogue of 642 groups, with their variants, in 
15 classes, which are named from the number of 
elements composing them, and contain lespect- 
ively as follows: 1st class, 4; 2d, 16; 3d, 29; 
4th, 54; 5th, 91 ; 6th, 84; 7th, 77; 8th, 85 ; 9th, 
72 ; 10th, 51 ; 11th, 29 ; 12th, 22 ; 13th, 12 ; 14th, 
10 ; 15th (15, 16 or 17 elements), 6. He also gives 
tables of substitutions and parallels of the spheno- 
grams of Van, Babylon, and the 3d Achsemenian. 
Edward Ilincks, considered by some as the de- 
cipherer of the cunei of Van, having written 
on the Khorsabad style of Botta, afterward 
abandoned many of his rash assertions, and 
published his Assyrio-Babylonian phonetic char- 
acters, in 1852 ("Transactions of the Royal 
Irish Academy," 1S55). He abandons the me- 
thod of proper names, but relies, especially in 
triliteral roots, on radical analysis ; asserts that 
all groups represent syllables, and that the 
characters of single syllables, exclusive of the 
4 vowels (a, e or o, i, u), have 7 different forms 
(for instance, ^?a, pe, pi, pu, ap, ip, vp') ; also 
that the syllabic values of many signs are fixed 
with all but mathematical certainty. J. Brandis 
attempts to exhibit what has been gained for 
history from the deciphering of the Assyrian 



CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS 



145 



8i)hcnograms ; nlso the fundamentfil traits of the 
Assyrio-Babylonian system (1850); but liH at- 
tempts fall very short of the mark in respect of 
both these objects. Barrois indulges his imagina- 
tion both on sphenograms and hieroglyphs, and 
strenuously endeavors to write out the law tablets 
of Moses in arrow-heads. — The Assyrian, Baby- 
Ionian, and Elymnaan systems and languages still 
wait for an (Edipus to solve their riddles. It is 
certain that from time immemorial 3 peoples of 
ditfereut characters and languages were living in 
close contact and in various relations as to polit- 
ical power, in the countries where sphenogra- 
phy was practised. These 3 groups of nations are 
the Semitic, Aryan or Iranian, and the Turanian 
(Aniranian, Scythic, Tartaric, or Allophylic of 
various writers). Westergaard distinguishes 5 
styles of sphenograms, viz. : the Babylonian, As- 
syrian, and the 3 on the Achairaenian monu- 
ments. Rawlinson assumes that there are 5 As- 
syrio-Babylonian styles, viz. : the primitive Ba- 
bylonian, Achffimeno-Babylonian, Medo-Assy- 
rian (at Van, Layard's earlier Assyrian), Assyrian 
(Layard's later Assyrian), and Elymtean or Susi- 
anian. Of these the Assyrian of Nimroud is, how- 
ever, more ancient than the Babylonian, which 
is rather elongated and hence apparently derived 
from the former. The styles of Khorsabad and 
Kuyunjik are less ancient than that of the 
northwestern palace at Nimroud. Botta, Stern, 
and others attribute many of the variations to 
provincial and calligraphic causes. As to their 
configuration, the Babylonian sphenograms are 
most complicated, the Persian the most simple 
and of the latest date, having probably ended 
with the overthrow of the Acha3menian empire 
by Alexander. The vertical cunei prevail in the 
Persian, while the other languages abound in the 
horizontal. There the words are divided at the 
end of the lines; not so in others, which exhibit 
the Semitic mode, by carrying the cunei some- 
times even over to the back of the slabs. In 
the Assyrian the wedges have 4 directions, often 
crossing each otlier, and the names of persons, 
God, countries, &c., are preceded by determi- 
native monograms. The Babylonian cunei lie 
in 8 directions, and every epigraph on bricks 
begins with a star-like figure of 4 wedges cross- 
ing each other; it has also parallel angles insert- 
ed within others, and opening downward and 
rightward ; also many dagger-like' lines. Of this 
style. Rich distinguishes 3 species. Rawlin- 
son thinks that the following list contains all 
the Persian epigraphs: 1, Morier's on the 4 
broken pilasters at Murgab, near Pasagardte, 
N. E. of Persepolis, containing " I, Kurush, king 
Achannenian ;" 2, that at Persepolis, on the 
palace of Darius, twice over the doors ; 3 and 4, 
on 2 slabs, enumerating nations; 5, at Alvand; 
6, at Naksh-i-Rustam, near Persepolis, on the 
rock-sepulchre of Darius, containing more names 
of conquered nations than that of Behistun ; 7, 
one of about 60 lines, of which Westergaard 
copied but 2, containing probably moral and re- 
ligious precepts ; 8, near Suez : " Darius, king 
great;" 9, that on the windows of the palace of 
VOL. VI. — 10 



this king, in 18 places, all trilingual; 10, that 
of Behistun; 11, 3 only on Babylonian cylin- 
ders : " I, Darius, king." All these, except tho 
first, are of Darius; the 8 now following are of 
Xerxes: 1, at Alvand, a single line, perhaps on 
a road-mark ; 2 to 5, on various parts of his 
jjalace ; G, at Van, probably engraved on his 
return from Europe, copied by Schulz, and 
more completely by E. Bore, in 1828, a 13aby- 
lonian transcript; 7, on the palace of Darius, 
at Persepolis, stating: "My father built this 
house," &c. ; 8, Darius, trilingual, on the vase 
of Caylus, where the hieroglyphs show the 
phonesis : Khshaijursha naga wazarlca. No 
sphenograms of Artaxerxes Longimanus or 
of Artaxerxes Mnemon have yet been found. 
The 2 of Artaxerxes Ochus exhibit barba- 
risms ; they are : 1, on the staircase of the 
terrace of the palace of Darius, relating his 
descent from Arshama and Vishtilspahya, &c., 
and invoking the blessing of Ormuzd ; 2, the le- 
gend in Babylonized orthography : ArdaMcha- 
shcha naga tcazai-lxt, " Artaxerxes, king great," 
upon an Egyptian vase, in hieroglyphs and the 
3 Achajmenian species, preserved in the treas- 
ury of St. Mark's, at Venice. The most recent 
of all known sphenograms, with mixed charac- 
ters, is that of Tarku, which Burnouf attributes 
to one of the 30 Arsacidas, kings of Parthia 
(250 B. C. to A. D. 226). Herodotus mentions 2 
pillars of Darius on the Bosporus, erected Avhile 
he was assailing the Scythians, with the names 
of the nations in his army ; the one in Greek, 
the other in Assyrian. — Rawlinson's Behistun 
inscription consists of 4^ great Persian columns 
and 11 detached pieces, embracing as much of 
the language as had been previously discovered 
from all otlier monuments put together. The 5 
columns of the so-called Median are partly mu- 
tilated, and the Babylonian version is only on 4 
columns. This document is inscribed upon the 
sacred rock on the W. frontiers of Media, on the 
high road from Babylonia eastward. The hill 
of Bagistane (God's place), rising abruptly from 
the plain to a vertical height of about 1,700 
feet, was most fit for a memento of the deeds 
of Darius, immediately after he ascended the 
throne. It informs the world, that while occu- 
pied in the reform of the national faith, an in- 
surrection was easily checked in Susiana ; that 
soon afterward a pretended son of Nabonidus of 
the house of Nabonassar was conquered in Ba- 
bylon ; that a league between Media, Assyria, 
and Armenia was defeated with great difficulty 
by himself in person ; and that several other 
insurrections, especially a most dangerous one 
in Persia, raised by another pseudo Smerdis, had 
been suppressed. "When probably on the road 
to Babylon to quell a new rebellion, and he heard 
of its being put down, he engraved his thanks- 
giving to Ormuzd on this sacred spot, in the 5tli 
year of his reign (516 B. C). The incision is 
about 300 feet from the base of the rock; and 
its inaccessibility preserved it from the icono- 
clastic fury of Islam. For extent, beauty of 
execution, uniformity, and correctness, this in- 



146 



CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS 



scription is perlmps uncquallea, tlie Persian be- 
ing superior to any engraving even at Persep- 
olis, the Median equally admirable. A coating 
of silicious varnish is yet visible on the tablet, 
•where it has not fallen off from the limestone, 
■which is softer than this covering. Darius be- 
gins by proclaiming his genealogy and titles 
in the following strain: Adam Ddrayatush^ 
Jchshdyathii/a vazarha, l-Jishdijatliiya khsJidya- 
thiytmdm, khuJidyathiya Pdrsiya^ Iclishdyathiya 
dahyaundm^ Vish(dS}jaJiyd piitra^ Arshdmahyd 
napd, Hulihdmanisliiyd. Regularly translated 
into Latin, which language admits the inflections 
of the original, this is : Ego Darius, rex magnus, 
rex regiun, rex Persia^, rex gentium, Ilystaspis 
Jilius, Arsamis nejyos, AchcBmenius. Some defec- 
tive Persian passages are restorable from both 
versions or from either, and vice versa. All other 
paragraphs or specilic proclamations begin thus: 
Thdtiya Ddrayavush khshdyathiya {Prcedicat 
Darius rex). The 0th of the 1st column enu- 
merates, after the heading, the provinces of 
iis empire, thus : Imd dahydva tyd mandpatiyd- 
isha, vushnd Auramazddha adamshdm Mshdya- 
thiya dham (Ecce regiones quibus ego ptotitus ; 
gratia Ormuzdi ego /actus rex sum): Pdrsa, 
''Uvaja, Bdhirusli, Athurd, Arabdya, Mudrdya, 
tyiya darayahyd, Sup)arda, Yund, Mdda (re- 
stored from the Scythic Ma-pata), Katapatulca, 
Parthva, Zaraka, Hariva, ' Uvdrazniiya, Baklita- 
rish, Suguda, Geiddra, Salca, Thatagush, Hara 
\ivatisTi, Maka,fraJiarvam dahydva XXIlI{Per- 
sia, Susiana, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Misra 
^jEgypitus^ quceviaritimw, Saparda, Ionia, Me- 
dia, Vappadocia, Parthia, Zarangia, Arya, Cho- 
rasmia, Bactria, Sogdiana, Gandaria, Sacep, 
Sattagydia, AracJiosia, Mecia, simul 2'>'>'ovincicB 
XXIII). J. Oppert, one of the latest investigators 
of Babylonian and other kindred antiquities, pub- 
lished in 1857 the translation of the inscription 
on the sepulchre of Darius I. at Naksh-i-Rustam. 
lie believes it to be next in importance to that 
of Behistun ; and he calls the first version of 
the Persian text Medo-Scytbic, and the second 
Assyrian. It runs thus : Baga vazarTca Aura- 
mazdd hya imdni bumim add hya avam as- 
mdiiam add hya martiyam add hya Siyatim 
add martiyahyd hya Ddreiyamim Idisuyathi- 
yam ahunaus aivam 2)(truvnd77i Ichshdyathiyam 
aivam paruimdm framdtdram, «S:c. ; in Latin : 
Deus magnus Ormazdes, qui hanc terrain crcavit, 
qui istud cailum fecit, qui hominem fecit, qui 
imperium dedit homini, qui Darium regcm con 
stiiuit unum multorum rcgem, unum multorum 
imp)eratorem, &c. Next follow his titles and 
genealogy, and the names of his provinces, viz. : 
Mdda, llvazd, Parthava, Haraira, Bdlhtris, 
Sugda, Uvarazmis, Zaranlca, Harauvatis, Thata- 
zus, Gdnddra, Hindus, Said humargd, Bakd 
tigrakhauda, Yaund Salcd tyaiy jyaradarniya, 
Shudra Yaund, Putiyd, Kusiyd, Maciyd, Kar- 
Tcd ; in Latin : Media, Elyma'is, Parthia, Aryana, 
Bactria, Sogdiana, Chorasmia, Sarangia, Ara- 
chotis, Sattagydia, Gandaria, India, Scythcejyas- 
tores, Scythoisagittarli; qui trans mare : Scodri 
lonescrinibusplcxis (European Greeks),P«i, Cus, 



Maxyes (I.ibyans), Carthago. Then follows a 
passage concerning the usurper Pseudo-Smerdis: 
Auramazdd yathd avaina imam bumim ydtum 
pamva dim mand frabaramdm Ihshdyathiyam 
ahunaus, &c. ; adam aim gdthavd niyasddayam, 
&c. ; in Latin : Ormazd quum vidisset hanc ter- 
ram magicam (under the superstition of the 
Magi), tunc earn mihi tradidit, &c. ; ego in rectum 
rejwsui, «&c. Oppert agrees with Niebuhr and 
Ileeren, in following Herodotus in the belief 
that the rebellion of Gaumata, recorded at Be- 
Listun, was that of Smerdis the Magian both as 
a national and religious, or Medo-Magian, leader. 
But Rawlinson and others contend that it Avas 
merely an attempt to substitute the rule of tlie 
priests for that of the warriors. Magism, as the 
religion of Turan, was opposed to the Mazdeism 
of the Aryan Persians and Medes. The latter 
was upheld by the Achc'cmenian dynasty, as a 
state religion, even after it had yielded to the 
former in Media. On account of the restoi'ation 
of the temiiles and worship, after the over- 
throw of Gaumata, Darius was believed by some 
to have been contemporary with Zoroaster. The 
Acha3menida3 were one of the 13 tribes of the 
Pasagardffl. The families of the 6 conspirators, 
who had assisted Darius against the first rebel 
Magus, had the privilege of furnishing wives to 
the Achosmenians. There was no other nobility 
by birth in Persia. — The oldest Assyrian records 
are those of conquests. In the N. W. palace at 
Nimroud there are slabs, vases, &c., bearing the 
names of kings, an Egyptian cartouche, and the 
best sphenograms yet discovered. A second 
period shows still further traces of an intei-- 
course of the empire with Egypt, as early as the 
18th Egyptian dynasty. Egyptian monuments 
confirm this intercourse reciprocally, as shown 
by II. Brugsch {Geographie der Nachbarldnder 
Aegyptens, Leipsic, 1858). The results of a thor- 
ough and unprejudiced comparison of the As- 
syrian monuments with those of Egypt, are 
likely to upset a great many theories on the 
races, politics, religion, industry, and fate of the 
early inhabitants of western Asia. — Among the 
numerous legends on Babylonian bricks, cylin- 
ders, &c., the standard one of Nebuchadnezzar 
is the most remarkable. It begins with his 
titles, continues with prayers to Sferodach and 
Nebo, then records the wonders of Babylon, 
viz. : the great temple of Merodach (the mound 
of Babel is its tower), the Borsippa temple 
(Birs Nimroud), and other temples, and finally 
describes the city, thus : " The double enclosure 
which Nabopolassar, my father, hod made, but 
not completed, I finished. With 2 long em- 
bankments of brick and mortar he bound its 
(Euphrates) bed, made a bridge, &c. The Irgar- 
Bel and the Nimiti-Bel — the great double wall 
of Babylon — I finished," &c. In tliis legend the 
names of many works at Babylon and Borsippa, 
mixed with invocations to the gods and wishes for 
the duration of various edifices, are mentioned 
in great detail. It may also be remarked that 
the bricks were mixed with chopped straw, 
and often glazed ; that the walls built with them 



CUKHA 



CUNNINGHAM 



147 



were cemented with Litiimen. No remains of 
columns occur, eitlier .atEabylon or at Nineveh. 
The bricks may liave been pubHc ducuinents, or 
dedications to the gods; the cylinders may 
have been used instead of seals; in short, most 
of the points concerning these remains are yet 
involved in obscurity. — See also Thomas Mau- 
rice, " Observations on the Ruins of Babylon " 
(London, 1816); Obry d' Amiens, Revue du me- 
moire de BurnoaJ\ &c. {Journal Axiatique^ i. ii. 
183G); Cullimore "On Oriental Cylinders" 
London, 1842); Ilolzmann, Beiiribje zur ErklCv- 
rung penischcr KclJschrift (Carlsruhe, 1845); 
" The History of llerodotiis," by George liaw- 
linson, assisted bv Sir Henry Rawliuson and Sir 
J.G. Wilkinson (London, 1858-'9). 

CUNHA, Tristan da, a Portuguese naval 
commander of the latter part of the 15th cen- 
tury. He figures in Camoens' "Lusiad" as a 
discoverer of a group of islands, the most im- 
portant of which continues to bear his name. 

CUNHA MATTOS, Ratmusde Jose da, a 
Brazilian general, born Nov. 2, 1776, at Faro, in 
the Portuguese province of Algarve, died in 
March, 1840. He entered the Portuguese army in 
1790, and served 3 years in the south of France, 
and 18 years in the island of St. Thomas, Africa; 
was then called to Eio de Janeiro, and after- 
ward acted for some time as governor of St. Tho- 
mas. From the first he distinguished himself 
both as a soldier and as a writer on the countries 
through whicli he passed. In 1817 he returned 
to Brazil,and was appointed commander-in-chief 
of the artillery of Pernambuco, and subsequently 
military governor of the province of Goyaz. 
Here he collected valuable materials for a work 
upon the interior of Brazil, which was published 
in Rio de Janeiro in 1836. To this city he re- 
moved in 1826, on occasion of his election to the 
Brazilian legislative assembly. The military 
academy of Rio was placed under his direction 
in 1832, and shortly afterward he was promoted 
to the highest rank in the Brazilian army. lie 
was secretary for life of the industrial aid so- 
ciety, and one of the founders and for several 
years vice-president of the historical society of 
Rio de Janeiro. 

CUNHA BARBOSA, Januario da, a Bra- 
zilian prelate and statesman, born July 10, 1780, 
died Feb. 22, 1846. Brought up for the priest- 
hood, he was for son^e time chaplain of John 
VL, and afterward professor of moral philoso- 
phy. In conjunction with Ledo he established 
(Dec. 15, 1821) a political journal at Rio de Ja- 
neiro, entitled Reverhero constitucianal flumi- 
nenst\ in which he exerted a powerful influence 
upon the public mind in favor of Brazilian inde- 
pendence. After this had been declared, Cun- 
ha was at the instigation of his enemies arrest- 
ed, Dec. 7, 1822, and banished to France. Two 
years afterward the government offered him a 
reparation for the injustice of which he had 
been the victim, by appointing him officer of 
the newly founded order of the Cruzeiro, and 
canon of the imperial cliaiiel. In 1826 he took 
his seat in the first Brazilian legislative assem- 



bly as member for the province of Rio de Ja- 
neiro. The rest of his life was devoted to the 
political and intellectual development of Brazil. 
In concert with Gen. Curdia Mattos, he found- 
ed the liistorical and geographical society of 
Rio de Janeiro, and conducted the Revista tri- 
menaal, which recorded its proceedings. At tho 
same time he was editor of the Diario do go- 
veriw, a politicid journal favorable to the policy 
of the government, and of the Auxillador da 
industria nacioiidl, a paper devoted to the in- 
terests of agriculture and industry. These mul- 
titudinous journalistic labors did not interfere 
with his clerical duties, nor Avitli the various 
trusts which devolved upon him as examiner of 
the synod, imperial historiographer, and director 
of the national library. He was just about to 
propose a comprehensive educational reform 
when he died. He left 2 small volumes of 
poems. 

CUNIN-GRIDAINE, Laurent, a French 
manufacturer, born at Sedan in 1778, rose to 
the position of minister of commerce in 1837. 
Apprenticed in early life to the extensive cloth 
manufactory of Gridaine and Bernard, he becamo 
the son-in-law and partner of M. Gridaine. In 
1817 he was chosen to the chamber of deputies, 
Avhere he afterward opposed the administration 
of Polignac. After the revolution of 1830 he 
became secretary and vice-president of the 
chamber, and officiated as minister of commerce 
almost uninterruptedly from 1837 to 1848. 

CUNNINGHAM, Alexander, a Scottish 
classical scholar, son of the minister of Cum- 
nock, Ayrshire, died in 1730. The date of his 
birth is uncertain, as is also the place of his 
education, althougli circumstances indicate that 
he studied at Leyden and Utrecht, and defrayed 
the cost of his studies by acting as private tutor. 
By the interest of the Queensberry family, whom 
he had taught, ho received from the crown the 
appointment of professor of civil law in the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. In support of this office 
the Scottish parliament in 1698 voted £150 ster- 
ling annually for 10 years. The magistrates of 
the city, however, were jealous of the power 
assumed by the crown to nominate to professor- 
ships, and in 1710 they gave the place to another. 
Mr. Cunningham retired to the Hague, where 
he spent the rest of his days in philological pur- 
suits. He enjoyed the friendship of Leibnitz, 
Le Clerc, and indeed of most of the scholars of 
the day. Ho published annotated editions of 
Horace, Virgil, and ^Esop. Some of his criti- 
cisms aroused a lively controversy witli Dr. 
Bentley. His chief work, which he did not 
live to complete*, was a critical digest of the 
Pandects of Justinian. He had also in contem- 
plation a work on tho evidences of Christianity. 
— Another man of celebrity, named Alexander 
Cunningham, flourished at the same time. Tho 
two are often confounded. Both wer« Scotch- 
men, educated in Holland, tlie sons of clergy- 
men ; both were classical scholars, and, in their 
yottth, tutors. The present Cunningham, a his- 
torian, was born at Ettrick in 1654, died in Lon- 



148 



CUNNINGHAM 



CUPEL 



don about 1737. His pupils liaving introduced 
him into the upper circles of society, he returned 
from Holland to England in the suite of the prince 
of Orange. Subsequently he was George I.'s 
minister to Venice, from 1715 to 1720. Long 
after his death his Latin manuscripts fell into 
the hands of his relative, Dr. Hollingbery, arch- 
deacon of Chichester ; and in 1787 lh\ William 
Thomson published a translation, entitled the 
" History of Great Britain, from the Kevolutiou 
in 1688 to the accession of George L" 

CUNNINGHAM, Allan, a Scottish poet and 
miscellaneous writer, born at Blackwood, in 
Dumfriesshire, in 1785, died in London, Nov. 5, 
1842. He was of humble parentage, his family, 
which had formerly been wealthy, having lost 
its patrimonial estate by taking the side of 
Montrose. He learned from his father a love 
for old Scottish tales and ballads, and was sent 
to school till his 12th year, when he was ap- 
prenticed to a stonemason. In his 18th year, 
having already written several poetical pieces, 
he sought the acquaintance of the Ettrick Shep- 
herd, who has left in his "Reminiscences" a 
notice of him as at that time " a dark, ungainly 
youth, with a broadly frame for his age, and 
strongly marked manly features, the very model 
of Bnrns, and exactly such a man." Oromek, 
who had collected the poetical relics of Burns, 
having determined to gather the remains of 
Nithsdale and Galloway song, engaged Cun- 
ningham for an assistant, who furnished him 
materials sufficient for an octavo volume, which 
was published in 1810. It soon appeared that 
Cunningham was the original author of the 
most beautiful pieces in the collection. At the 
age of 25 he went to London, and during 4 
years established a literary reputation by nu- 
merous contributions to periodicals, especially 
to the "London Magazine." At once a mason, 
poet, and journalist, in 1814 he was selected by 
the sculptor Chantrey to be his foreman and the 
confidential manager of his establishment, in 
Avhich congenial position he remained till the 
artist's death. To him Chantrey was indebted 
not only for many suggestions, but for numer- 
ous critiques in periodicals by which his repu- 
tation was extended. Though relieved from the 
necessity of depending on authorship, Cunning- 
ham continued a diligent and constantly im- 
proving writer. Some of his songs, with which 
his fame began, and upon which it will mainly 
rest, were declared by Sir Walter Scott to rival 
those of Burns. His various publications are : 
"Sir Marmaduke Maxwell" (1822), a wild dra- 
ma founded upon border superstitions ; sever- 
al novels, often written with beauty and force, 
but distinguished by exaggerated ornament and 
extravagance of imagination, as "Paul Jones," 
"Sir Michael Scott," "LordRoldan," and" Tra- 
ditional Tales ;" the " Life of Burns" (1834), and 
the "Life of Sir David Wilkie" (1843); the 
"Maid of Elvar," a poem; the "Songs of Scot- 
land, Ancient and Modern, with Introduction 
and Notes" (1826), which contains mahy of his 
own best poems; the "Lives of the most emi- 



nent British Painters, Sculptors, and Archi- 
tect^" (1830), which was characterized by Prof. 
Wilson as " full of a fine and instructed enthu- 
siasm ;" and the literary illustrations to Major's 
" Cabinet Gallery of Pictures." His ballads 
and smaller poems are graceful, natural, airy, 
and eminently Scotch. — Peter, eldest son of 
the preceding, an English autlior, born in Lon- 
don, April 7, 1816. He was made clerk in the 
audit office by Sir Robert Peel at the age of 18, 
is one of the regular contributors to " Eraser's 
Magazine," and had the charge and arrangement 
of the works of art in the Manchester exhibition 
of 1857. He has written an excellent " Hand- 
book of London," full of pleasant and curious 
local information, together with other interest- 
ing topographical works. He edited the poems 
of Drummond of Hawthornden (1833), and has 
edited the " Works of Goldsmith," and a new 
edition of "Johnson's Lives of the Poets," and 
is now (April, 1859) completing Croker's edition 
of Pope. 

CUNNINGHAM, John, a British poet, born 
in Dublin in 1729, died in 1773. He was the son 
of a wine merchant, adopted the stage as a pro- 
fession, in which, however, he did not attain 
celebrity, although he was much respected, and 
wrote several small volumes of poetry, distin- 
guished by pastoral simplicity and sweetness 
(London, 1766, 8vo. ; reprinted in the 14th vol. 
of Chambers's collection of the poets). 

CUNOCEPHALI, or CTNooEpnALi (Gr. kvwk, 
dog, and Ket^aX?;, head), in the mythology of the 
Egyptians, a kind of dog-faced baboons, greatly 
venerated by them, and supposed to be en- 
dowed with wonderful powers. By the as- 
sistance of these animals they discovered the 
particular periods of the sun and moon, and it 
was said that half of the animal was often buried 
while the other half survived. The dog-head 
was a favorite symbol with the Egyptians. 
The god Anubis was represented in this man- 
ner, though the head of his image, as is ren- 
dered probable by modern researches, is that of 
a jackal. Cunocephali have also been found in 
India and elsewhere. 

CUPEL, CuPELLATioN. lu the article Assay- 
ing the method of separating the unoxidizable 
metals gold and silver from the easily oxidized 
metal lead, by the process of cupellatipn, has 
been described. The cup-shaped vessels, called 
cupels, in which the melted alloy is exposed to 
a current of air playing upon its surface, are 
made of a paste formed of the ashes of burnt 
bones, mixed with water, to which a little glue 
may be added or not. This is kneaded into the 
form of a shallow cup, and dried not so rapidly 
that the paste shall crack. Cupels are manu- 
factured on a large scale, to be used in separat- 
ing silver and gold from lead, and from lead and 
copper ; on a smaller scale, for use in the mints 
and assay office ; and of very small size for blow- 
pipe operations. The great cupels or tests used 
in large metallurgic operations are of oval form, 
4 feet long and 2^ feet on the smaller diameter. 
They are constructed within a hoop or frame 



CUPICA 



CURACOA 



149 



of i-inch bar iron, 4 inches deep, with several 
Avidc cross hars arranged to form an open kind 
of floor, upon wliich the sifted bone ash, mixed 
■with about -^V its bulk of fern ashes or ^\- its 
weight of pearlasli, is firndy rammed. In tliis 
a cavity is scooped out Avitli a trowel about 2| 
inches deep, leaving a wall of bone ash 2 inches 
thick at top and 3 at bottom, one end only re- 
taining 5 inches thickness — the bottom 1 inch. 
At the thick end or breast a segment of the 
bone ash is removed, leaving an opening between 
the cupel and the hoop. The wliole piece is 
then set in a furnace, of which it forms the 
floor, and after being cautiously heated, the 
alloy, called rich lead, is poured into it. At 
the end opposite the breast the nozzle of a 
powerful blowing apparatus is placed, so as to 
direct a current of air over the surface of the 
melted metals. A portion of the litharge sinks 
into the cupel, and the remainder is blown across 
and falls through the opening in the breast into 
a vessel placed to catch it. 

CUPIOA, a village and seaport of New Gra- 
nada, on a small bay of the same name, near 
the entrance to the bay of Panama; lat. 6° 40' 
N., long. 77° 50' W. It has been proposed as 
the Pacific terminus of an interoceanic ship 
canal ; its distance from the head of navigation 
on a branch of the Atrato river, which flows 
into the gulf of Darien, being only 17 miles. 

CUPID (Lat. cupido, desire), called by the 
Greeks Eros, the god of love. In the earlier 
times of Grecian mythology Eros was one of 
the chief and oldest of the gods, and an im- 
portant agent in the formation of the world, he 
having brought order out of chaos. But later 
he was the god of sensual love, and one of the 
youngest of the celestials. It is from this later 
Eros that we have our common idea of Cupid. 
He is the son of Venus ; but the honor of his 
paternity is variously given to Mercury, Mars, 
and Jupiter. He is usually represented as a 
winged boy, with a bow and arrows ; sometimes 
he is figured as blind, and he usually accompa- 
nies his mother Venus. He held sway over 
gods and men, and the great Jupiter himself 
was not secure from liis attacks. He was very 
mischievous, and his Avantonness furnished the 
later poets with the theme for many stories. He 
had sharp, golden arrows, to excite love, and 
blunt, leaden-headed darts, to inspire aversion 
in the breasts of his victims. 

CUPPING, a method of local abstraction of 
blood, through small scarifications of the integu- 
ment, by the assistance of bell-shaped glasses 
exhausted of air ; when the object is merely to 
draw blood to a part, for purposes of revul- 
sion, the exhausted glass is used without in- 
cision of the skin ; the latter is called dry cup- 
ping. The old method of exhaustion was by 
burning a bit of ])apcr, or a few drops of alco- 
hol, in the inferior of the glass, which was then 
immediately applied to the skin ; a more con- 
venient and certain exhaustion is now obtained 
by means of a small syringe attached to the 
cup ; by the latter method the risk of burning 



the patient is avoided, the locality may be c-are- 
fully selected, and the pressure accurately grad- 
uated. Even for dry cujiping it is well to ap- 
ply heat to the skin, in order to render it more 
vascular. If, after the blood be drawn to the 
I)art by a dry cup, it be desirable to deplete 
the vessels, the skin may be cut by a bistoury or 
lancet, or by an instrument for the purpose, 
called a scarificator ; this consists of a square 
box of brass, in which are mounted from 6 to 16 
blades, which are set and discharged by a 
spring; the depth of the incision can be ex- 
actly regulated, and the action is so instan- 
taneous that very little pain is felt. From these 
little wounds the pump draws into tlic glass 
from 1 to 5 oz., according to its size; after 
sufficient blood has been drawn, a piece of ad- 
hesive plaster is put on to close them and pre- 
vent suppuration. Dry cupping is of great 
utility in congestions of tlie brain and lungs, ap- 
plied in the first case to the nape, shoulders, 
and arms, and in the second to the back and 
base of the chest ; also in diseases of the eyes. 
The amount of blood taken by cups can be well 
measured ; they are less disgusting than leeches, 
quite as eftectual when they can be applied, and 
not liable to be followed by inflammation of 
the wounds ; they are employed both after, and 
in place of, general bleeding. In pneumonia, 
pleurisy, and abdominal inflammations, and va- 
rious local affections, they are applicable when 
venesection would be out of the question, and 
are generally preferable to leeches. Cups may 
be used to prevent the absorption of the virus 
in poisoned wounds and bites. M. Junod, in 
France, in 1838, invented a monster apparatus, 
capable of receiving the whole lower extremity, 
in which by means of a pump the limb could be 
compressed or placed in a comparative vacuum ; 
the derivative and revulsive effects of this appa- 
ratus were most energetic, amounting, if desired, 
to the production of syncope. 

CURAQOA, CuRAf;AO, Curazoa, or CrRAs- 
»ou, an island of the Dutch "West Indies, in the 
Caribbean sea. 46 m. N. from the coast of Ven- 
ezuela; lat. 12° 3' to 12° 24' N.,long. G8° 47' to 
69" 16' W. ; length from N. W. to S. E. 36 m., 
breadth 8 m. ; pop. in 1857, 17,864, of whom 
15,076 were Catholics, 1,922 Protestants, and 
866 Jews. It has a hilly surface, with rugged 
coasts, and is exceedingly barren. The climate 
is dry and hot, though tempered by sea breezes, 
and the island is visited by the yellow fever ev- 
ery 6 or 7 years. Fresh water is scarce, and is 
obtained either from rain or deep wells. Severe 
droughts frequently occur; the soil is so poor that 
provisions are imported, and some of the prod- 
ucts once cultivated, as indigo, cotton, and co- 
coa, are now entirely neglected. Sugar, tobacco, 
maize, cochineal, cattle, horses, asses, sheep, and 
goats are raised; the tamarind, banana, cocoa 
palm, orange, and various kinds of kitchen vege- 
tables, grow well, and from the lime is made the 
celebrated Curazoa liqueur. Excellent fish are 
taken off the coast, but the staple of the island 
is salt, which is obtained by natural evaporation 



150 



CURASSOW 



to the amount of about 250,000 barrels per an- 
num. Iron and copper ores exist, but are not 
worked. Tlic total imports are valued at $1,- 
000,000 annually, and tbe exports at $1,125,000. 
The principal harbor is that of Santa Anna on 
the S. W. coast, one side of the narrow entrance 
to wliich is defended by Fort Amsterdam, while 
on the other stands "Willemstad or Ouragoa, the 
capital of the island and of a government wliich 
includes this and the neighboring islands of 
Buen Ayre, Oruba (or Aruba), and Little Cura- 
goa, and presided over since 1855 by R. F. van 
Lansberge. Cura^oa was settled by the Span- 
iards in the ICth century, taken by the Dutch 
in the I7th, captured by the British in 1798, re- 
stored to Holland at the peace of Amiens, again 
seized by England in 1800, and finally given up 
to the Dutch in 1814. 

CURASSOW, a name given to two genera of 
birds of the order gallinw, and the fiimily cra- 
cidee ; the two genera are crax and pauxi^ both 
peculiar to America. The curassows have the 
bill moderately long, strong, generally elevated 
at the base, with the culmen curved, and the 
sides compressed to the obtuse tip ; the nostrils 
are lateral and large, with an opening partly 
closed by a crescentic or rounded membrane ; 
the hind toe is long, and on the same plane with 
the others. In the genus craz the bill is mod- 
erate ; the wings short and rounded, with the 
6th to the 8th quills equal and the longest; the 
tail long-and rounded ; the tarsi robust, longer 
than the middle toe, and covered in front by 
broad scales ; the toes long, strong, and covered 
with prominent scales, the lateral toes being 
equal ; the claws are moderate, compressed, and 
curved. Six species are described, of which the 
most interesting are: 1. The crested curassow 
(C. alector^ Linn.), of a general black color, 
with the lower belly white, and the cere yel- 
low ; the head is ornamented with a crest of 
recurved and frizzled feathers, radiated, alter- 
nately white and black ; the sides of the head 
and base of the bill are bare ; at certain ages the 
body, wings, and tail are banded with white. It 
is 3 feet long, about as large as a turkey. This 
species has frequently been carried to Europe 
from Guiana, and is the one generally seen in 
collections ; in addition to its pleasing appear- 
ance, it is mild and social in its manners, and 
affords a savory and nutritious article of food. 
It inhabits the forests of tropical America in 
large flocks, whose peaceable members seem 
not to fear man unless in the neighborhood of 
dwellings. The nest is of very rude construc- 
tion, placed upon dry branches on trees, and 
lined with leaves ; the eggs are from 2 to 6 in 
number, white, resembling those of the turkey. 
Though living in the wildest localities, it exhib- 
its a remarkable disposition to become tame, 
and flocks of them are frequently domesticated ; 
they perch in elevated situations, on roofs and 
high trees; they are easily reared, as almost 
any kind of vegetable food agrees with them ; 
maize, rice, bread, potatoes, and all kinds of 
fruits, are eagerly eaten by them. There is no 



doubt that these and the allied species could bo 
introduced with advantage into the list of do- 
mesticated birds, both in this country and in 
Europe. 2. The globose curassow (C. globicera, 
Linn.) is distinguished by a callous globular tu- 
bercle at the base of the bill, inclining back- 
Avard, covered, like the base of the mandibles, 
with a bright yellow cere ; the general color is 
black, with the vent and tip of the tail white. 
This bird unites with the preceding and the next 
species, producing hybrids, which may be more 
or less continued by intermixture of the prim- 
itive stocks, presenting a very great variety of 
colors; from this has arisen many a supposed 
new species. 3. The red curassow (C. ruhra, 
Linn.) has no tubercle on the bill, and has the 
region of the eyes feathered ; the color of the 
under i>arts is a bright chestnut, with the head, 
neck, and tail banded with black and white, and 
occasionally with yellow. 4. The wattled curas- 
sow ( G. carimculata, Temm.) has the head black, 
the belly chestnut, and'the cere and naked parts 
red, with a black crest. The other species are C. 
globulosa (Spix), and C. urumutiim (Spix). — In 
the genus pauxi the bill is short, and the cul- 
men is elevated and much curved ; the 6th and 
Yth quills are equal and the longest ; the greater 
part of the head is covered with short velvety 
feathers. Three species are described : 1. The 
cushew curassow (P. galeata, Lath.), with a 
hard and thick oval tubercle, of a blue color, at 
the base of the bill ; general color black, but 
about the vent and the end of the tail white ; it 
is abmit the size of a turkey, and, like the other 
curassows, is readily domesticated. 2. The 
razor-billed curassow (P. mitit^ Linn.) is smaller 
than the preceding, being about 2^ feet long ; 
of a black color, with the belly chestnut. 3. 
The P. tomeiitosa (Spix). — The curassows (or 
hoccos, as they are sometimes called) and the 
pauxis, with the penelope or guan, are to South 
America what the turkey is to North America ; 
in the state of domestication they exhibit the 
same traits and habits as ordinary poultry ; they 
are polygamous, many females being attached 
to a single male ; they are easily acclimated in 
Europe, and of course would be in the United 
States; they live in peace with other gallina- 
ceous birds, and rarely utter any discordant 
cries — qualifications of which many of our do- 
mestic fowls are destitute. The flight of the 
curassows is heavy and ill sustained ; but they 
run with great rapidity, carrying the tail in a 
pendant position. According to Sonnini, their 
cry may be represented by the syllables " po- 
hic ;" in addition to this they make a dull hum- 
ming sound, as does the turkey, variously 
modified by the remarkable sinuosities of the 
windpipe. The trachea in the cracidce differs 
from tliat of other gallinaceous birds in its re- 
markable circumvolutions. In the curassows 
proper they take place at the lower part of 
the neck, or in the thoracic cavity ; in the 
pauxis they are directed on the muscles of the 
breast, immediately under the integuments ; but 
in none of them does the trachea form itfe con- 



CURATE 



CURCULIO 



151 



volutions in th« interior of the breast bone, as 
in the swans. In the crested curassow the 
trachea is flattened, chietly membranous, with 
the rings entire and very distant from each 
otiicr; it describes a broad curve between the 
bones of the furca, goes back 2 inches over the 
muscles of tlie neck, and then makes a second 
circumvolution, from wjiich it takes the usual 
form as far as the lower larynx, where it is 
suddenly dilated. In the pa lui, the trachea at 
the opening of the tliorax ascends over the 
riglit great pectoral muscle at a distance from 
the crest of the breast bone, continues along 
this muscle, and forms a curve passing some- 
what behind this bone ; it then proceeds over 
the left pectoral muscle, making a turn on the 
side of the breast bone, passing behind it above 
the first curve ; then it turns again to the right, 
and passes over the riglit clavicle into the cav- 
ity of the chest. The windpipe may be short- 
ened or lengthened by muscular action. This 
conformation is doubtless connected with the 
loud and sonoi'ous voices of tliese birds. The 
curassows are extensively distributed over 
America, being found in tlie Guianas, Brazil, 
Paraguay, Mexico, Central America, and prob- 
ably in some of the "West India islands. It 
would be worthy of trial to introduce this 
family of birds into our southern and middle 
states ; they would in course of time add an 
important article of food, and afford a new 
source of profitable industry. 

CURATE (Lat. curare, to take care), the 
lowest degree of clerical rank in the church 
of England, so called from having the care of 
souls. The curate is the substitute or assistant 
of the actual incumbent. Perpetual curacies 
are those where there is neither rector nor 
vicar, but the tithes having been appropriated, 
the lay appropriator is obliged to appoint a curate 
at a stipend. In large parishes it is usual to ap- 
point more than one curate to officiate in the 
parish church, and to assist the incumbent in 
his duties. There are also curates in chapels 
of ease, and in the modern foundations known 
as district churches, which belong to ecclesias- 
tical subdivisions within parishes, and subor- 
dinate to the rector or vicar in some matters, 
though independent in others. By act 1 and 2 
Victoria, the lowest stipend to be paid to a 
curate is £80 ; the sum rising, in proportion 
to the population of th« cure, to £150, as a 
maximum. Curates who are not merely assist- 
ants to a rector or a vicar, are usually incum- 
bents of cliurches in which no vicarage was 
ever established, or incumbents of foundation 
later than the date of the foundation of parish- 
es, and endowed by the special bounty of par- 
ticular persons. 

CURCULIO, or Plum Weevil, a small beetle 
of the family curculionida, and genus rhynchce- 
nm (Fabr.), i?. nenitj^har (Ilerbst.). The per- 
fect insect is about \ of an inch long, of a dark 
brown color, variegated with white, yellow, and 
black spots; it looks like a dried bud when 
6haken from a tree, and remains motionless 



when disturbed, feigning death. The head is 
furnished with a long curved snout, bent under 
the thorax when at rest, which is used to make 
the crescent-shaped cut in which the egg is de- 
posited ; tlie jaws are at tlie end of the snout ; 
the thorax is uneven, and the wing cases are 
ridged and humped, covering 2 transparent 
wings by which the insect flies from tree to 
tree ; behind the humps there is a yellowish 
white spot ; each thigh has 2 small teeth on the 
under side. These beetles appear between the 
first of x\pril and the middle of June, according 
to the forwardness of vegetation. "When the 
plums are about the size of peas, the female be- 
gins to sting the fruit, making an incision in the 
skin, in which she deposits a single egg ; she 
goes from plum to plum, placing an egg in each 
until her store is exhausted, hardly a fruit es- 
caping when these insects are abundant. The 
grubs, resembling whitish, footless maggots, 
with a rounded, distinct, light brown head, are 
hatched by the heat of the sun, and immediately 
burrow obliquely to the stone ; the fruit, weak- 
ened by the gnawing of the grub, becomes 
gummy, and falls to the ground before it is 
ripe ; by this time the grub has attained its full 
size, quits the fruit, and enters the ground be- 
tween the middle of June and the middle of 
August in New England ; it there becomes a 
pupa, and comes forth a perfect insect in about 
3 weeks. Several broods may be hatched in a 
season, the latest ones remaining as pupa) in 
the ground all winter ; some good authorities 
believe that the curculio passes the winter 
above ground in the perfect state, and therefore 
that any operations in the soil at this season can 
be of no advantage in guarding against its rav- 
ages. Not only plums, but nectarines, apricots, 
peaches, cherries, apples, pears, and quinces, 
are attacked by the curculio. The grubs are 
sometimes found in excrescences on plum trees, 
in which the beetle, finding in them an acid 
resembling that of the fruit, has deposited the 
eggs, and hence has often been wrongfully 
accused of producing these swellings. As the 
curculio is a good flier, any efforts to prevent 
its ascending the trunks of trees must be of 
no avail. Among remedies which have been 
found successful on a small scale, the following 
deserve mention : sudden jars of the limbs in 
the morning and evening in June, when they 
are depositing their eggs, will cause many to 
fall upon sheets spread beneath the trees, from 
w'hich they may be collected and destroyed; 
scattering air-slacked lime in damp days on the 
trees once a week for 6 weeks, beginning soon 
after the fruit is discoverable ; sprinkling flour 
of sulphur over them about the time the fruit is 
setting, and once or twice afterward; applying 
by means of a syringe a whitewash solution, 
rendered sticky by a little glue. All fallen fruit 
should be destroyed by heat, that the grubs may 
not escape into the ground, and give rise to a 
new generation ; diseased excrescences should 
be cut out ; the admission of swine and poultry 
about the trees wiU cause many of the larvae to 



152 



CURES 



CURLEW 



be devoured before they can enter tke ground. — 
Tlie gray-sided curculio is pale brown, from -J- 
to 5 of an inch long ; the larvjo live in the trunks 
of the white oak, on which the beetles may be 
found about the beginning of June. Other 
curcuUonidm destroy pine trees, and infest va- 
rious kinds of nuts in this country. In Europe 
there are many species which as yet are not 
found here. The most destructive of the fam- 
ily are those which attack wheat and other 
grains. (See Weevil.) 

CURES, la ancient geograph}", a town of the 
Sabines, 25 m. from Rome, near the left bank 
of the Tiber. In the time of Romulus, accord- 
ing to tradition, the people of Cures were unit- 
ed with the inhabitants of Rome, whence the 
latter were afterward designated Quirites. The 
colleague of Romulus, Tatius, and Numa Pom- 
pilius, the 2d king of Rome, were both natives 
of Cures. The city fell into decay at a very 
early period, was revived by Sylla, and was at 
last destroyed by the Lombards in the 6th cen- 
tury. The modern village of Correse occupies 
its site. 

CURETES, priests and ministers of Cybele 
or Rhea. The rites and orgies with which they 
celebrated the worship of their deity were al- 
most identical with those of the Corybantes. 

CURFEW, the evening bell (spelled also 
curfeu, carfou, and courfeu, a corruption of Fr. 
couvre fev), so called from the evening bell 
having been the signal to extinguish fire on the 
hearth and remain within doors. The practice 
was common in the middle ages. Polydore 
Virgil states that Williana the Conqueror intro- 
duced it into England as a measure of police. 
The obligation of extinguishing fire and light 
on the ringing of the curfew was abolished in 
England by Henry I. in 1100, but the evening 
bell itself was continued. We find entries in 
the municipal records of " ryngyng ye curfewe," 
" a man to ring the curfew," " new rope for the 
curfew bell," and so on, as late as the beginning 
of the 16th century. The evening bell and 
prayer bell, still tolled at stated hours in some 
places, had their origin in the couvi-e feu. 

CURI^, the name of certain divisions of the 
people of ancient Rome. Romulus divided the 
wliole population into 3 tribes, and each tribe 
into 10 curia). Although there were afterward 
35 tribes, yet the number of the curiai remain- 
ed always the same. At first these curia) pos- 
sessed considerable political importance, but 
from the time when Servius Tullius instituted 
the centuries, their influence became slight. 
The place where a curia met was also called 
curia, and the place where the senate met was 
designated by the same name. In the Roman 
provincial cities, the name was applied to 
the body which administered the aftairs of the 
town, and was responsible to the Roman gov- 
ernment for the taxes. In the middle ages the 
name was also given to a solemn assembly of 
the counts and prelates of the empire. 

CURIATIL See IIoratii. 

OURIO, C. ScEiBONius. I. A Roman publi- 



cist, a son of C. Scribonius the orator, died in 
53 13. C. He was tribune of the ])eople in 90 B. 
C, praitor in 82, and consul in V6. On the ex- 
piration of his consulship, he obtained the pro- 
vince of Macedonia, where he distinguished 
himself by waging successful war against the 
barbarians dwelling north towai-d the Danube. 
In 57 he returned to Rome and was a])pointed 
])ontifex maximus, which oflBce he held till his 
death. He had some reputation as an orator, 
and was at once a virulent enemy of Caesar and 
an intimate friend of Cicero. II. A son of the 
preceding, was made tribune of the people in 50 
B. C. On the outbreak of the civil war Ca3sar 
sent him to act against the party of Pompey in 
Sicily. He succeeded in driving Cato out of 
that island, but venturing to cross over to Afri- 
ca, he was defeated and slain. 

CURLEW, a bird of the order grallm, fam- 
ily scolo2Mcidm, subfamily limosinm (which in- 
cludes both curlews and godwits), and genus 
numcnius (Lath.). The bill is long, slender, 
curved from the base, with sides compressed 
and grooved ; the upper mandible projecting 
over the lower, aud obtuse ; wings long and 
pointed, the 1st quill the longest ; tail short 
and even ; tarsi long and slender ; toes mod- 
erate, lateral ones unequal and united at their 
bases ; hind toe long, slender, and partly rest- 
ing on the ground ; claws short and dull. There 
are nearly 20 species described, scattered over 
tlie temperate regions of tlie world in the win- 
ter, and going north in summer ; they frequent 
the borders of the sea, and muddy and sandy 
shores, sometimes visiting moors and marshy 
plains, in search of worms, larva), Crustacea, 
and mollusks, which they extract froni the 
moist ground, often from under water, with 
their long bills ; they also eat berries from the 
fields and woodlands. The nests are formed on 
the ground in holes, lined Avith grass, and the 
eggs are generally 4 in number. The long-bill- 
ed curlew, or sickle-bill {N. longirostris, Wils.), 
is the largest of the American species, and may 
readily be distinguished from all others by the 
length of the bill, which is from 7 to 9 inches ; 
the total length to end of claws is 29 inches, 
the extent of wings 40 inches, and the weight 
about If lbs. The general color of the plumage 
is pale reddish brown, the head and neck 
streaked with dusky ; the upper part of the 
throat, and a band from the bill to the eye, light 
buflf; above marked with blackish brown, tail 
barred with the same ; abdomen plain yellow- 
ish red ; feet bluish. Though found in the 
north, it is most abundant at the south, where 
it resides all the year aud breeds ; it feeds dur- 
ing the day in the marshes, retiring to the 
shores in large flocks at night ; the favorite 
food is small fiddler crabs. They are easily 
shot, though rather tenacious of life, frequenting 
for some time the same resting place ; they an- 
swer readily the fowler's calk The flesh is 
tough and fishy, and decidedly inferior to the 
smaller species. They are occasionally seen as 
far north as Boston. The Esquimaux curlew, 



CURLEW 



CURRAN 



153 



pometimes called dongh-Lird (iVl horealis, Lath.), 
has a bill about 2^ inches long, and tarsi 1| 
inches; the length to end of claws about 17 
inches, extent of wings 28 inches ; weight ^ lb. 
The upper plumage is dusky brown, marked 
with numerous spots of light l)ro\vnish yellow; 
a line of white from the bill to the eye ; upper 
j)art of head brownisli black, with streaks and a 
median line of grayish or yellowish white ; 
throat white ; neck and breast yellowish gray, 
with longitudinal marks and spots of dusky ; 
abdomen dull yellowish white ; Hanks with 
brown bars ; tail and its u])per coverts pale 
grayish brown, with deep brown bars, and 
brownisli white tip ; primaries dark brown, the 
first shaft white with dusky tip. The females 
very closely resemble the males. In tlie New 
England and middle states this bird arrives 
from the north in the latter part of August, re- 
maining through October, when it moves off 
to the south in flocks, going north again to 
breed in the spring. In Labrador its favorite 
food is the curlew berry, a small black fruit 
growing on a creeping shrub an inch or two 
high ; in the open grounds in the vicinity of 
the sea, it feeds on insects, especially grasshop- 
pers, seeds, worms, and berries. In the au- 
tumn they are very fat, hence their common 
name, and are considered great delicacies. 
They are not shy, running, squatting, and fly- 
ing very much like a snipe. The lludsonian 
or short-billed curlew (iV. ITuJsonicus, Lath.) is 
considerably larger than the last named species. 
Its bill is about 4 inches long ; the total 
length to end of claws 21 inches, extent of 
wings 83 inches, and weight a little over a 
pound. The upper part of the head is deep 
brown, with a central and 2 lateral Avhitisli 
lines ; between the bill and eye, and behind 
the latter, brownish ; the neck pale yellowish 
gray, with longitudinal brown streaks ; chin 
grayish white ; upper parts generally blackish 
brown, with numerous brownish Avhite spots ; 
wings and rump lighter ; tail and its upper 
coverts with brown and yellowish gray bars, 
the former white-tipped ; primaries brownish 
black ; lower parts grayish white, the sides 
cream-colored and barred with grayish brown ; 
shaft of first quill white. This species often 
associates with the sickle-bill, and arrives in 
large flocks on the New Jersey shore in May 
from the south ; they soon move northward 
to breed; they return toward the last of Au- 
gust, remain a few weeks, and then proceed to 
the south to spend the winter. The habits and 
food are about the same as in the other species. 
The flight is high and rapid, and in their mi- 
grations accompanied by a constant whistling; 
they fly steadily, answer the sportsman's whistle 
readily, and are easily shot ; they are consid- 
ered excellent eating. Like the long-billed cur- 
lew, this species will linger around its wounded 
companions until many of a flock are killed ; 
the latter, however, is much the rarest bird in 
most parts of the northern states. The largest 
of the European curlews is the iV". arquatus, 



(Linn.), of the size of a capon ; the general color 
is brown, with the edges of tlie feathers Avhit- 
ish ; the rump is white, and the tail barred 
with Avhite and brcnvji. It is a well-flavored 
species. The whimbrel (A'', phaopns, Linn.) is 
about half the size of the preceding, which it 
resembles in its plumage. 

CURLING, a favorite Scottish game, played 
on the ice with large stones of a spiierical form, 
flattened so that their length shall be equal to 
twice their thicknes.s. They are carefully se- 
lected, so that they shall not be liable to break, 
have their under side polished, and vary in 
weight from 30 to 60 lbs. They have handles 
of wood or ii'on by which they are impelled 
over the ice. The path in which the stones 
move is called the rinJc, and may be from 30 
to 50 yards long. At each end of the rink a 
mark or hole is made in the ice, called the tee. 
The players are divided into two parties, and 
each ])erson endeavors either to leave his own 
stone as near the tee as possible, to remove 
those of the opposite party, or to guard those 
of his own side. When all have played, the 
one nearest the tee counts one, and the second, 
third, &c., if of tlie same side, count each one 
more. The side which first scores 31 wins. 

CURRAN, Jonx Philpot, an Irish orator, 
born at Newmarket, county of Cork, July 24, 
1Y50, died at his residence in Brompton, a sub- 
urb of London, Oct. 14, 1817. His father was 
officer to a manorial court, and a person of great 
cultivation of mind, and his mother an accom- 
plished woman, who made great elforts to pro- 
cure for her son every possible advantage of 
education. After having been under the in- 
struction of Nathaniel Boyse, the resident cler- 
gyman, who, as he himself says, made a man of 
him, and through a preparatory course at the 
free grammar school of Middleton, he entered 
Trinity college, Dublin, with a view of prepar- 
ing himself for the church, but afterward deter- 
mined to adopt the profession of the law, and 
in 1773 became a student of the Middle Temple, 
London, the Rev. Mr. Boyse having advanced 
him funds for that purpose. The succeeding 
year he married the daughter of Dr. Creagh, of 
Dublin, and in 1775 was called to the Irish bar. 
For some time he gave the rein to his generous 
social disposition. A club which he formed, 
under the name of the monks of St. Patrick, 
gathered together the leading liberals of the 
Irish metropolis. Here Curran shone in all his 
brilliancy. At the same time he was often in 
great pecuniary straits. He relates that one 
day, unable to pay his rent, he returned to the 
house in a state of despondenc^y, when he 
found a brief awaiting him with 20 guineas. 
This brief was the commencement of his for- 
tune, and was put in his way through the kind- 
ness of Lord Kilwarden, who, although differ- 
ing with him in politics, continued his friend 
through life. His clients became so numerous 
that he was soon in easy circumstances. In 
1782 he was returned to the Irish parliament as 
member for Kilbeggan . His attacks on the gov- 



154 



CURRAN 



CURRANT 



cmment soon led to clnob, first with Mr. Fitz- 
gibbon (afterward earl of Clare), tlien attorney- 
general, and next with Major Ilobart, both end- 
ing without injury to either party. Step by step 
he rose in liis profession, till ho became the most 
popular barrister of his time. He had a dashing, 
fearless way that suited his auditory. His elo- 
quence was thorouglily Irish. Rarely attempting 
to convince by argument, he always addressed 
Ininself successfully to the feelings. His style of 
metaphor was bold and original — often extrava- 
gant. In the cross-examination of witnesses he 
exceeded the recognized limits of forbearance, 
and was frequently bullying and insolent. On 
one occasion he so goaded Mr. St. Leger-, a wit- 
ness in the case of an assault by an Irish noble- 
man n])on an aged priest, that he had to fight 
him. In persuasive powers Curran had no rival. 
His diction was fluent and charming, and 
he not .unfrequently wound up his address by 
some solemn adjuration from Scripture. His 
voice was not naturally good, but he improved 
'it by careful training. Personally he was tlie re- 
verse of prepossessing, having a soft and boyish 
look. In the height of his prosperity he met 
with a severe domestic blow in the elopement 
of his wife. He obtained a verdict against the 
seducer, but would not touch the damages 
awarded. He even allowed the faithless wife 
a stipend, and went to London to see her when 
she was supposed to be on the point of death. 
Ireland was at that period in an excited po- 
litical condition. The question of Catholic 
emancipation especially agitated the people. 
Curran advocated liberal principles in the house 
of commons, and defended liberal politicians 
in the courts of law. Although his talents 
in parliament were conspicuous, it was in the 
courts that he shone preeminent. There he 
made his finest political orations. His defence 
of the leaders of the rebellion of 1798 was 
his crowning effort; his most noted speeches 
being those in defence of Tiieobald Wolfe Tone, 
Major Rowan, Oliver Bond, the brothers 
Sheares, Jackson Finney, and Finnerty — in the 
latter of which he made a powerful appeal for 
the liberty of the press. During the sympathy 
excited for the French revolution Curran remain- 
ed faithful to England, even while exhausting 
every element of opposition against her govern- 
ment. In 1800 the union of Ireland with Britain 
was accomplished. Curran, who had opposed it, 
viewed Ihe event with despondency. Indeed, 
he had at one time decided to abandon the coun- 
try and seek a new home in America ; but other 
events, which followed rapidly, dispelled this 
idea. The peace of Amiens, in 1802, permitted 
him to visit the continent. On July 23, 1803, 
the rising under Robei-t Emmet took place. Cur- 
ran had a deeper interest in this event than he 
himself was aware of, for an affection subsisted 
between Emmet and his daughter Sarah. The 
young man was executed, Sept. 20, 1803. Dur- 
ing this year he made his celebrated speech in 
defence of Owen Kirwan. Political matters 
continued in much the same state until 1800, 



when the death of Pitt threw the power into 
the hands of Fox and the liberals. Curran was 
offered the post of master of the rolls in Ireland, 
which he accepted, although more desirous of 
the office of attorney-general. The duties of the 
office were unworthy of his abilities, and were 
hampered by ])etty jealousies. From this time 
his genius declined, and he sank into a state of 
hypochondria from which he never recovered. 
Occasionally the influence of travel or of music, 
in Avhich he had some skill, would revive hira, 
but only temporarily. In 1814 he exchanged 
his place for a pension of £2,700 per annum. 
He resided chiefly in his mansion at Brompton, 
where he enjoyed the acquaintance of Sheridan, 
Home Tooke, Lord Erskine, the prince regent, 
and other notables. Godwin the novelist, and 
Moore the poet, were his devoted friends. In 
Sept. 1817, he wrote that he had "closed his 
accounts Avith hope." Afterward he complain- 
ed of " a mountain of lead at his heart." Oc- 
casional flashes of his former wit lit up his de- 
cline. Speaking of a passing attack of apo- 
plexy, he described it as "a runaway knock at 
death's door." On Oct. 8 he was seized with 
a second fit, of which he died in the following 
week. His " Speeches on the late very inter- 
esting State Trials " appeared in Dublin in 1808, 
and his " Speeches, with Memoirs by a Barris- 
ter," in London, 1817 (new edition, with memoir 
by Davis, 1845). His "Letter to the Rev. H. 
Weston" was published in 1819. — See also "Me- 
moirs of the Life of Curran," by Alex. Stephens 
(1817); "Memoirs of the Legal, Literary, and 
Political Life of the late Rt. Hon. John Philpot 
Curran," by William O'Regan (1817) ; "Recol- 
lections of J. P. Curran and some of his Contem- 
poraries," by C. Phillips (1818) ; " The Life of 
the Right Hon. John Philpot Curran," by his 
son William Henry Curran (1819). 

CURRANT (ribes, Linn.), the name of a small, 
valuable, and well-known garden fruit, of which 
there are numerous varieties. Two principal 
species are commonly known, but there are 
several beside. The H. ruiriwi (Willd.), ac- 
cording to Persoon, grows spontaneously in 
Sweden, and in the northern parts of England, 
and is the origin of the garden kinds. It bears 
abundance of semi-transparent red berries in 
racemes, which diminish in size at the apex of 
the bunch. Tliere is a white-fruited variety, 
more esteemed by some on account of its less 
acid juice. Great improvements have been 
made on these fruits by repeated experiments, 
and not only the plant has been rendered more 
robust, but the size of the berries has been in- 
creased. The London horticultural society's 
catalogue for 1842 gives a list of 10 sorts of the 
red and 3 sorts of the white currant, of which 
the red Dutch and the white Dutch, known 
also iinder many synonymes, have stood high 
in the estimation of practical gardeners. Knight 
succeeded in raising some improved kinds 
from seed, favorably known and bearing his 
name. Several lately introduced from France 
bear fruit of remarkable size and flavor ; scarce- 



CURRANT 



CURRIE 



15£ 



ly any difference is to be seen in tlie size 
of the first and of the last berry on the ra- 
ceme, and indeed they could be compared to 
miniature bunclies of grapes. It has been 
thought that the red currant is a native of 
this country, an opinion founded on its iden- 
tity with the li. albincrvium of Michaux. Ac- 
cording to tlie " Flora of North America," the 
red currant appears to be ''abundant in our 
northern latitudes, agreeing in every respect 
with the European form." It occurs through- 
out Canada to the mouth of Mackenzie riv- 
er, at Sault. Ste. Marie, and at the sources of 
St. Croix river (Torrey and Gray). It has 
been noticed growing wild on the rocky banks 
of the Wiuooski, in Vermont. Josselyn, who 
wrote in 1GT2, makes mention in his "New 
England Rarities " of " red and black currants." 
The bhack currant {R. nigrum, Lam.), differing 
from tlie connnon currant in the great size of 
the plant, in smoother leaves, in tlower and in 
fruit, also in possessing a powerful aromatic prin- 
ciple with proportionately less acidity, has by 
successive experiments become ranked with 
tlie most valuable of the smaller garden fruits. 
Tiie variety known as the black Naples has 
larger berries than any other, and is considered 
tlie best. The fetid currant (i?. pi'ostratum, 
L'Heritier), with pale red and bristly fruit, ex- 
haling, as well as the leaves, a disagreeable 
odor, grows on mountain sides and in cold 
woods at the northward, reaching as far as 
Lake Superior and the Rocky mountains. The 
thirsty wayfarer and the hunter, on meeting 
with its berries, find them not too unpleasant 
for refreshment. The Ji. Jloridum (L'Her.), 
with rather large yellovr-greenish flowers, and 
with smooth, black fruit, occurring in Avoods 
from Canada to Kentuck}', is our native black 
currant, but is inferior in value to the European 
species. The Missouri currant (i?. uureum^ 
Pursh.) is remarkable for its early yellow blos- 
soms, exhaling a delicious, spicy odor,, and 
considered a highly ornamental shrub. The 
red flowering currant {R. sanguineum^ PIi-)j 
from western America, and abundant among 
rocks along the streams throughout Oregon, is 
a very beautiful shrub, bearing clusters of light 
crimson blossoms, which appear early in spring. 
Its fruit is insipid, but its flowers recommend 
it for the garden. Another, with flowers not so 
brightly colored {R. malvaceum, Sm.), has been 
noticed as a native of California. The genus 
rihes, embracing the gooseberries, comprises in 
North America something like 28 distinct spe- 
cies. — The propagation of the currant is easy, as 
it will grow in almost any garden soil, in the open 
sun or in the shade of fences, Avhere the fruit is 
longer in ripening but still sure. The best mode 
to be pursued is, never to allow suckers taken 
from the roots of old plants to be used for new 
planting out ; but to employ well ripened, 
straight, and stout shoots, removing all the 
buds or eyes from the lower portions which 
are to be inserted in the soil, which will 
prevent future suckers from springing up 



around the stem. Sometimes, after the stem 
has been trained upright for 2 or 3 feet, tho 
branches are spread thinly upon a low es- 
palier; or, in case this is not used, a thin, 
spreading head is carefully grown. All super- 
fluous wood, as it makes its appearance, is 
removed, and about midsummer the ends of 
the fruit-bearing branches are pinched off", in 
order to allow the fruit to swell and increase. 
But the currant will reward the least degree of 
attention that is given to it. Thejuice of the cur- 
rant contains sugar and malic acid,to the presence 
of which is owing its pleasant flavor. Currant 
wine is considered a valuable beverage, and for 
preserves, tarts, or for the dessert, currants are es- 
l^eciaUy esteemed. When freshly gathered they 
are refrigerant and very grateful to the palate. 
An excellent jelly is prepared from them, and 
for other domestic purposes their reputation is 
well known. The fruit of the black currant is 
far less esteemed, indeed to many persons is 
positively disagreeable. A jelly made of it is 
used as a remedy for hoarseness or sore throaty 
and lozenges made of the berries, and especially 
of their skins, are of niuch service in pectoral 
complaints. A wine is made in Russia from the 
black currant berries, and in Siberia the leaves, 
dried and mixed with souchong, are made into 
a drink resembling in flavor green tea. Tho 
fruit, leaves, and wood are tonic and stimulant. 
"NYe have seen the dried fruit of the better 
garden sorts used in making puddings which 
possessed much merit. — The word currant is 
said to be a corruption of Corinth, the original 
place whence the small raisins were brought 
known as the currants of commerce. The Io- 
nian islands, Greece, and Turkey are the princi- 
pal currant-exporting countries, and directly 
from those countries, and indirectly through Eng- 
land, not less than about 2,500,000 lbs., valued 
at about $150,000, were imported into the Uni- 
ted States in the year ending June 30, 1857. 

CURRENCY. See Money. 

CURRENT RIVER, an affluent of Black river, 
Arkansas, rises in Texas co., Mo., and has a S. "W. 
course of over 250 m. It is navigable by flat- 
boats, and abounds with excellent fish. Jack's 
Fork is its principal branch. 

CURRENTS. See Atlantic Ocean. 

CURRIE, James, a Scottish physician, born at 
Kirkpatrick-Fleming, Dumfriesshire, May 31, 
1756, died at Sidmouth, Devonshire, Aug. 31, 
1805. In early life he went to Virginia, with 
a view of following commercial pursuits, but 
returning after the breaking out of the Ameri- 
can war, he commenced the study of medicine 
at Edinburgh, was graduated at Glasgow in 
1780, and in the following year began to prac- 
tise in Liverpool. lie was very successful in 
applying aflTusions of cold and tepid water to 
the cure of disease, and his great work on this 
subject, " Medical Reports on the Effects of Wa- 
ter, cold and warm, as a Remedy in Febrile Dis- 
eases," appeared in 1797, a 2d volume in 1804, 
and a 5th edition in 1814. Beside several other 
medical works, he wi-ote "A Letter, Commer- 



156 



CURRITUCK 



CURRYING 



cial and Political, to "William Pitt," under the 
assumed name of Jasper Wilson, which attract- 
ed much attention. In 1800 he puhlished an 
edition of the works of Robert Burns, in 4 vols., 
for the benefit of the poet's family. This edi- 
tion has been frequently reprinted. It contains 
an account of the life of Burns, and a criticism 
on his writings, to which are prefixed " Some 
Observations on the Character and Condition of 
the Scottish Peasantry." 

CURRITUCK, a N. E. co. of N. C. ; area es- 
timated at 200 sq. m.; pop. in 1850, 7,236, of 
whom 2,447 were slaves. It borders on Va., 
and embraces within its limits several islands 
separated from the mainland by Currituck 
sound. The surface is level, and the soil sandy. 
In 1850 the productions were 292,593 bushels 
of corn, 66,832 of sweet potatoes, and 20,382 
lbs. of butter. The county was named from a 
tribe of Indians wdio once possessed the land. 
Capital, Currituck Court House. 

CURRY, Daniel, an American clergyman 
and author, born in Peekskill, N. Y., Nov. 26, 
1809, was graduated in 1827 at the Wesleyan 
university at Middletowu, Conn., and was in the 
same year elected principal of the Troy confer- 
ence academy, Avhere he remained several 
years. In 1841 he removed to Georgia, where 
he was regularly inducted into the ministry of 
the Methodist Episcopal church, and was station- 
ed successively at Athens, Savannah, and Colum- 
bus. When the difficulties arose on the subject 
of slavery, which finally resulted in a division 
of the church, he connected himself with the 
northern branch, and entered the New York con- 
ference. After having been stationed in the cities 
of New York, New Haven, Brooklyn, and Hart- 
ford, he officiated for 3 years as president of the 
Indiana Wesleyan imiversity. He then return- 
ed to Brooklyn, and is now (1859) pastor of 
the Methodist church in Middletown. He has 
contributed largely to various magazines of 
the day, and among his works are his " Life of 
Wycliffe " and " Metropolitan City of America." 
He has also published an edition of Southey's 
"Life of Wesley," with notes. 

QURRY POWDER, a powder used in cook- 
ing, prepared in the East Indies. The ingre- 
dients in its manufacture are turmeric, corian- 
der, black pepper, 4 oz. each ; fenugreek, 3 oz. ; 
ginger, 2 oz. ; cummin seed, ground rice, 1 oz. 
each ; cayenne pepper and cardamoms, | oz. each. 
Curry powder is subject to extensive adultera- 
tion, and with very pernicious ingredients, red 
lead being frequently detected in it. As this is 
a highly poisonous oxide, the quantity taken in 
curry powder at a meal has been known to 
produce a serious effect. It is therefore a safer, 
as well as a more economical plan, to purchase 
the materials, and prepare the article. 

CURRYING, the art of finishing tanned lea- 
ther to give it the smoothness and pliancy it 
requires for most of its uses. The skin is first 
softened by soaking it in water, and it is then 
beaten with a mace or mallet upon a hurdle or 
lattice-work support. It is next laid over a 



plank called a beam, which projects at a slant 
from the floor, and the workman, leaning over 
the end of this, and against the skin to hold it 
in its place, shaves off the inequalities on the 
flesh side with a broad blade, called a head 
knife or beam knife, the edge of which is turned 
over. This instrument is held firmly in both 
hands ; and as it is used, the currier continually 
examines with his fingers the effect i)roduced, 
and moves the skin to bring all parts of it un- 
der its action. After it is sufiiciontly shaved, 
the skin is thrown into cold water, and well 
scoured upon a stone slab, the flesh side being 
laid next the stone, and the grain or hair side 
well rubbed with a tool of metal or stone called 
a stretching iron, "which is held in both hands. 
The w'hitish matter (bloom) gathered from the 
tan pit is thus forced out, and the inequalities 
of thickness still more reduced. Tools of sev- 
eral kinds are employed for scraping and dress- 
ing down the irregularities of the surface — 
sometimes a circular knife, among others, shaped 
like a bowl, the bottom being open for the in- 
sertion of the hand. By these operations the 
skin is softened and prepared for the dubbing 
(daubing) process. Each side of it is well rub- 
bed with an oily compound made by boiling cod 
oil with the skins of sheep ; and the leather 
is then hung up to dry. Either before or after 
this it is subjected to the action of rubbing with 
the pommel or graining board, an instrument 
shaped somewhat like a brush, with a leather 
strap on the back to give a secure hold for the 
hand slipped under it. It is entirely of hard 
wood, the under or rubbing surface made with 
transverse grooves like a crimping board. The 
leather is folded over, leaving the flesh side out, 
and is strongly rubbed with the pommel. It 
is then spread out, leaving the other side ex- 
posed to receive a similar application. By this 
operation the flexibility is greatly increased. 
After this graining process, the leather is in 
goodicondition for storing and keeping till want- 
ed for sale ; or, after delicately shaving the 
flesh side with a very sharp knife, it may be 
immediately submitted to the process of wax- 
ing. A color composed of oil and lampblack is 
well rubbed in on the flesh side with a hard 
brush till the surface is thoroughly black ; upon 
this is applied with a brush or sponge a coat of 
stiff size and tallow, and when dry it is rubbed 
with a broad smooth lump of glass. The sizing 
and rubbing are then repeated. Leatlier thus 
treated is distinguished either by tlie name 
"waxed," or " black on the flesh," and is used for 
the uppers of men's boots and shoes. If curried 
on the other side, it is called "black on the grain," 
and this sort is used for the uppers of ladies' 
shoes. The treatment is the same for both up 
to the waxing. To the leather to be made 
black on the grain is applied a solution of cop- 
peras, the effect of which is to produce a black 
dye by the union of the iron of this salt with 
the gallic acid of the tan. It is then rubbed 
with a brush dijjped in stale urine, and when 
dry the application of oil and lampblack is 



CURTIS 



157 



made ; and when this is dry another applica- 
tion of the coi)i)eras with rubhing. After this 
it undergoes the treatment with the pommel 
again, and several other processes of rnbbing, 
polishing, and dubbing or oiling. 

CURTIS, Benjamin Robfuns, an American 
jurist, born in Watertown, Mass., Nov. 4, 1809, 
was graduated at Harvard college in 1829. lie 
was admitted to the bar in 1832, and com- 
menced the practice of the law at Northfield, 
Mass., but soon removed to Boston, wbere he 
took a high rank and secured an extensive busi- 
ness, lie was remarkable for the extent and 
readiness of his legal attainments, the clearness 
and accuracy of his statements, and the vigor- 
ous grasp of his logic. Upon the death of the 
late Judge Woodbury, he was appointed a judge 
of the supreme court of the United States in 
September, 1851. This office he held till the 
autumn of 1857, when he resigned it. Since 
his retirement from the hench, he has resumed 
the practice of his profession in Boston. Few 
distinguislied lawyers in our country have devot- 
ed themselves so exclusively to their profession 
as Judge Curtis. He was for one or two years 
a member of the house of representatives in 
Massachusetts, but has taken very little part in 
politics. — Geokge Ticknoe, an American law- 
yer and juridical author, younger brother of the 
preceding, born in Watertown, Mass., Nov. 28, 
1812, was graduated at Harvard college . in 
1832. He was admitted to the bar in 1836, and 
has ever since heen engaged in the practice of 
the law in Boston. He has made several val- 
uable contributions to the literature of his pro- 
fession. He is the author of treatises on the 
" Rights and Duties of Merchant Seamen " 
(1844); on the " Law of Copyright " (1847); 
and on the "Law of Patents" (1849). These 
are all works of acknowledged merit. He has 
also compiled a volume of "Equity Precedents," 
a digest of English and American admiralty de- 
cisions, and 2 vols, of the series of digests of 
the reports of tlie United States, published by 
Little, Brown, and co., were prepared by him. 
He has also published (1854) the first volume 
of a Avork entitled " Commentaries on the Ju- 
risprudence, Practice, and Peculiar Jurisdic- 
tion of the Courts of the United States," 
■which was highly commended by Chief Justice 
Taney. But the work by which he is best 
known is a "History of the Origin, Formation, 
and Adoption of the Constitution of the United 
States," the first volume of which "was publish- 
ed in 1855, and the second in 1858. This is a 
work of careful and patient research, candid 
political judgment, and great clearness of style. 
Mr. Curtis served for 2 or 3 years as a member 
of the Massachusetts house of representatives, 
hut he has allowed politics to interfere but lit- 
tle with the labors of his profession, and his 
historical and constitutional investigations. 

CURTIS, George William, an American 
author, born at Providence, R. L, Feb. 24, 1824. 
His father, George Curtis, was from AYorcester, 
Mass. ; his mother was a daughter of James 



Burrill, a U. S. senator from Rhode Island, who 
distinguished himself in opposition to tbe Mis- 
souri compromise. Mr. Curtis received his early 
education in Mr. Green's school at Jamaica Plain, 
Mass. When he w:is 15 his father removed from 
Providence to New York, where he began an 
apprenticeship to trade in the counting-house of 
a dry goods importer. He remained in this posi- 
tion, however, only a year. In 1842 he went 
with his elder brother to reside with the asso- 
ciation for agriculture and education at Brook 
Farm, in West Roxbury, Mass., Avhere he passed 
a year and a half in study and agricultural la- 
bor ; after which, attracted by the cultivated and 
intellectual society at Concord, Mass., in whoso 
circle Mr. Emerson and Mr. Hawthorne were 
included, Mr. Curtis, with his brother, spent 13 
months there, living with a farmer, and both 
taking part regularly in the ordinary work of 
the farm ; and then G months in tilling a small 
piece of land on their own account. In 1846 
Mr. Curtis went to Europe, and after a year in 
Italy entered the university of Berlin, where ho 
remained a few months, and witnessed the rev- 
olutionary scenes in that city in the spring of 
1848. The 2 subsequent years he ^lent chiefly 
in travel through central and southern Europe, 
and in Egypt and Syria. In 1850 he returned 
to the United States, and in the summer of that 
year published his first book, the " Nile Notes 
of allowadji." He soon after joined the edito- 
rial staff of the " New York Tribune," and in the 
summer of 1851 wrote a series of letters to that 
journal from various watering places, which 
Avere afterward collected in a volume, under 
the title of " Lotus Eating." Ilis second book, 
however, was the "Plowadji in Syria," publish- 
ed in 1852. In the autumn of 1852 "Putnam's 
Monthly" was commenced in New York, of 
which Mr. Curtis was one of the original edi- 
tors, and with which he continued connected 
till the magazine was merged in another, and 
virtually ceased to exist. "Prueandl," which 
was published in 1856, was made up from some 
of his contributions to that periodical. The 
second publishers of "Putnam's Monthly" were 
Dix, Edwards, and co., and in this house Mr. 
Curtis was a silent partner, pecuniarily respon- 
sible, hut taking no part in its commercial man- 
agement. In the spring of 1857 the house 
was found to be insolvent, and he then, in 
connection with Mr. Miller, who had been its 
printer, assumed its assets and liabilities, in the 
hope of saving the creditors from loss. The at- 
tempt was unsuccessful, and he was compelled 
in a few months to abandon an enterprise iu 
which his private fortune had been entirely 
sunk. As a lyceum lecturer, upon which field 
of labor Mr. Curtis entered in 1853, he has met 
with great success. He delivered a poem at 
the university of Rochester in 1853, and another 
hefore a society in Brown university the year 
following. His orations on similar occasions 
have heen numerous. In the presidential can- 
A'ass of 1856 he enlisted with great zeal as a 
public speaker on behalf of the republican party. 



158 



CURTIUS 



cusn 



In the winter of 1858 ]ie appeared as the ad- 
vocate of the rights of woman, in a lecture en- 
titled " Fair Play for Women." To the current 
literature of the day he has been a constant con- 
tributor since 1853, tlirough " Harper's Month- 
ly," as well as through " Putnam's Monthly," 
as long as it existed, and through "Harper's 
Weekly," newspaper, since the autumn of 1857. 

CURTIUS, Ernst, a German ])hilologist and 
arcliajologist, born in Liibeck, Sept. 2, 1814, 
became professor in Berlin in 1843, was tutor 
of Frederic William, the son of the present re- 
gent of Prussia, until 1850, and appointed in 
1856 professor in Gottingen, as successor of 
the famous Ilerrman. lie has written largely 
on Grecian antiquities. Among his more re- 
cent works is Die lonier vor der lonischen 
Wanderung (1855). — His brother, Geoeg, born 
April 16, 1820, officiating since 1851 as profes- 
sor in Prague, has written several philological 
works, including a Greek grammar for the use 
of colleges (2d ed. Prague, 1855). 

CURTIUS, Marcus, a Roman hero, who lived 
about the middle of the 4th century B. C, and 
who is said to have sacrificed himself for the 
good of his country. The legend which relates 
this event is in substance as follows : An earth- 
quake once happening at Rome, a large portion 
of the area of the forum sank down, and a vast 
chasm appeared there. All attempts to fill it 
up were vain, and the city was smitten with 
consternation, especially as the haruspices had 
declared that it could only be filled by casting 
into it that on which the greatness of Rome de- 
pended. While every one was hesitating and 
doubting as to the meaning of the haruspicial 
declaration, the heroic Marcus presented himself, 
and proclaiming that Rome contained nothing 
more indispensable to her greatness than a val- 
iant citizen fully accoutred for battle, he ofl:ered 
himself as a victim ; and, having arrayed himself 
in complete armor and mounted his war horse, 
he galloped into the abyss. Then the earth closed, 
the chasm vanished, and the foruni resumed its 
wonted aspect. But the place of the chasm, 
and of the sacrifice of Marcus, was ever after 
called Lacus Cvrtius. Other versions of the 
legend are given by different authors, but the 
above has obtained the greatest currency. 

CURTIUS RUFUS, Quintus, the Roman his- 
torian of Alexander the Great. Respecting his 
life and the age in which he lived we have no 
accurate information. Some critics make him 
contemporary with Vespasian, and some with 
Constantino, but it is probable that the former 
are nearer tlie truth. The history of Curtius 
is entitled I)e Eehvs Gcstis Alexcmdri Magni. 
It consisted originally of 10 books, but the first 
2 have perished, and the 8 that remain are not 
by any means perfect. It is not a good his- 
torical authority. The best edition is that of 
Zumpt (Berlin, 1849). 

CURULE CHAIR, a state chair among the 
ancient Romans, permission to use which was 
a mark of high honor, and only granted, under 
the republic, to the dictator, consuls, praetors, 



censors, chief asdiles, the flamen dialis, and those 
deputed by the dictator to act under himself. 
In tlie times of the empire this honor was grant- 
ed to others. The magistrates entitled to use 
this chair were called curul'e magistrates, and 
when they went to council, the chair was borne 
on a chariot (currvs), whence its name. At 
first it was only adorned with ivory, but in later 
times it was overlaid with gold. 

CURVE, or Curved LixE, in geometry, aline 
which continually and continuously changes its 
direction. In the higher geometry, a curve is a 
line in which the coordinates of each point fulfil 
the same laws. The circumference of a circle is 
the simplest of all curves. The laws which each 
point in it must obey are various. One is that 
each point is equally distant from the centre ; 
another that each part of the line is equally 
curved, &c. The circle is taken as the measure 
of curvature. The circle which would exactly 
fit any curve at any point is called the circle of 
curvature at that point, and its radius, the ra- 
dius of curvature. A law by. which this radius 
increases and diminishes in going to different 
points is usually considered the most vital law 
of the curve, or intrinsic equation. 

CURZON, Paul Alfred de, a French painter, 
born Sept. 7, 1820. He excels chiefly in land- 
scape painting, has explored the Morea in com- 
pany with Edmond About and Charles Gar- 
nier, and has executed many good pictures, es- 
pecially those of the Acropolis of Athens, and 
the shores of the Cephissus, which were favora- 
bly noticed at the xmiversal exhibition in Paris 
in 1855. He also received a second medal in 
1857. 

CUSH, the name of the eldest son of Ham, as 
well as of a southern region of the scriptural 
world, which is rendered Ethiopia by the Sep- 
tuagint, the Vulgate, and by almost all other 
versions of the Hebrew Bible, and MoJu-enland, 
or land of the blacks, by Luther. Tliere can be 
no rational doubt that Ethiopia, in its more com- 
mon and limited sense, was designated by that 
appellation in Hebrew, though Bochart has con- 
tended for its meaning exclusively southern 
Arabia. Ezekiel (xxix. 10) speaks of it as lying 
beyond Syene, which perfectly agrees with the 
classical definition of the boundaries of Ethio- 
pia; Mizraim (Egypt) and Cush are often con- 
nected by the prophets, and mentioned together 
in the Psalms (Ixviii. 31). The Cushites appear 
together with other African nations in histori- 
cal relations ; their black complexion is alluded 
to in the Bible as well as in the Mishna. But 
whether Cush did or did not include any other 
region in the world known to the Hebrews, 
especially southern Arabia, is a question Avhich 
has elicited a great deal of ethnological contro- 
versy. Michaelis and a number of other critics 
defend the affirmative. Gesenius maintains the 
negative. Tlic former opinion is strengthened 
by a number of scriptural passages in which 
Cush appears together with Arabian tril)es, by 
its being rendered Arabia in the Chaldee para- 
phrase of Jonathan, and by the existence of a 



CUSIIING 



159 



tribe called Beni Chusi in Yemen, according to 
Niebulir. We find, beside, tlie land of Cush com- 
passed by tlic river Gilion (Gen. ii. 13), and Cush 
as the father of Niinrod, who founded empires in 
Asia; tiie same name is connected by Ezekiel 
■with Elam or Susiana, which again agrees with 
the classical names of Cissians and Cossajans 
given to tlie inliabitauts of the latter country, 
and with its modern name, Khusistan, The 
Hiniyarites, an ancient people of southern Ara- 
bia, are styled by Syrian writers both Cushajans 
and Ethiopians. The classical term Ethiopia, 
too, comprised many distant and distinct na- 
tions, having in common only their sun-burnt 
complexion. Homer calls tliem " a divided race, 
the last of men, some of them at the extreme 
west, and others at the extreme east." Strabo 
says nearly the same. Herodotus speaks of an 
eastern or Asiatic, and a western or African 
Ethiopia. The prevalent opinion of the latest eth- 
nological and biblical scholars is, tlierefore, that 
Cush in its limited meaning designates Etliiopia, 
but is also the name of several other Asiatic re- 
gions situated along the shores of the southern 
ocean, and inhabited by people of the Ilamitic 
family. " Recent linguistic discovery," says 
George Rawlinson (" Translation of Herodotus," 
book i. essay xi.), "tends to show that a Cush- 
ite or Ethiopian race did in the earliest times ex- 
tend itself along the shores of the southern ocean 
from Abyssinia to India. Tlie whole peninsula 
of India was peopled by a race of this character, 
before the influx of the Aryans; it extended 
from tlie Indus along the sea-coast through tlie 
modern Beloochistan and Kerman, which was 
the proper country of the Asiatic Ethiopians; 
the cities on the nortliern shores of the Persian 
gulf are shown by the brick inscriptions found 
among tlieir ruins to have belonged to this race ; 
it was dominant in Susiana and Babylonia, 
until overpowered in the one country by Aryan, 
in the other by Semitic intrusion ; it can be 
traced, both by dialect and tradition, throughout 
the whole south coast of the Arabian peninsula ; 
and it still exists in Abyssinia, where the lan- 
guage of the principal tribe (theGalla) furnishes, 
it is thought, a clue to the cuneiform inscriptions 
of Susiana and Elymais, which date from a pe- 
riod probably a thousand years before our era." 
CUSIIIXG, Caleb, an American statesman 
and jurist, born in Salisbury, Essex co., Mass., in 
Jan. 1800. lie belongs to an old colonial fam- 
ily, which has been largely represented in offices 
of public service. At the age of 17 he was grad- 
uated at Harvard college, and for nearly 2 years 
subsequent performed the duties of tutor of 
mathematics and natural philosophy in that in- 
stitution. Meanwhile he entered upon the study 
of law, and after the unusual ]n-eparatory period 
of 5 years, was admitted to the bar, commenc- 
ing practice at Newburyport. Although he at- 
tained high professional success, he continued 
to give a part of his attention to literary studies, 
and became prominent among the contributors 
to the " North American Review," by his pa- 
pers upon historical and legal topics. The po- 



litical life of Mr. Gushing commenced in 1825, 
wlien he wa^ elected a representative from New- 
buryport in tlie lower house of the Massachu- 
setts legislature. In 1826 he was elected to thq 
state senate. At the beginning of his public 
life he was a member of the then republican 
jiarty. In 1829 Mr. Gushing visited Europe on 
a tour of pleasure, and remained abroad nearly 
2 years. The fruits of this tour were his " Rem- 
iniscences of Spain," a collection of miscellanies 
published in 1833, which indicated a minute ac- 
quaintance with Spanish history and literature. 
To this succeeded, in the same year, his elabo- 
rate and learned " Historical and Political I'e- 
view " of the revolution of Three Days in 
France, and of the consequent events in other 
European nations. A portion of this work, 
which was issued in 2 volumes, had previously 
appeared in the " American Annual Register." 
In 1833 Mr. Gushing resumed political life, and 
was again elected a representative from Newbu- 
rj-port to the Massachusetts legislature, in whicli 
position he continued 2 years. In 1835 he was 
elected from the Essex north district of Massa- 
chusetts a representative to congress, in which 
body he served for 4 consecutive terms. Having 
supported John Quincy Adams for the presiden- 
cy, Mr. Gushing thenceforward, until the admin- 
istration of Pi'esident Tyler, remained a member 
of the whig party. At that time, however, in 
company with Mr. Wise of Virginia and others, 
abandoning his former political associates, he 
supported the administration, and has ever since 
been connected with the democratic party. His 
congressional career Avas distinguished by un- 
usual application to public service, as well as by 
eloquence and parliamentary accomplishments 
of a high order. His influence was felt, not less 
in the labors and deliberations of the committee 
room, than in the debates of the house, as is at- 
tested by the numerous and voluminous reports 
which he had occasion to prepare and submit 
for its legislative action. In 1843 President 
Tyler nominated Mr. Gushing as secretary of 
the treasury, but the nomination was rejected 
by the senate. The appointment of comiuission- 
er to China was then tendered him, and in the 
summer of 1843 he proceeded to that country. 
In 1844 he negotiated the first treaty of the 
U. S. government with the emperor of China. 
On bis return home he was again elected to rep- 
resent Newburyport in the state legislature, and 
during the session of 1847 became conspicuous 
by his advocacy of the Mexican war, a measure 
not at all favored by a majority of the people of 
tlie state. A bill to appropriate funds to equip 
the Massachusetts regiment of volunteers liav- 
ing been defeated in the legislature, Mr. Gushing 
furnished the requisite sum from his own means. 
lie was then appointed colonel of the regiment, 
and in tlie spring of 1847 accompanied it to the 
Rio Grande in Mexico. Soon after his arrival 
at the seat of war, where he was attached to 
the army under command of Gen. Taylor, he 
received the appointment of brigadier-general. 
Durini? the war he was one of the 3 officers con- 



160 



GUSHING 



CUSHMAN 



stitnting tlie board of inquiry for the investiga- 
tion of the charges against Generals Scott, Pil- 
low, and Worth. In 1847, while still in Mexico, 
he was nominated by the democratic party of 
Massacluisetts as its candidate for governor, but 
was defeated. In 1850, for the 6th time, he rep- 
resented Newburyport in the legislature of his 
native state, where he was active in opposing the 
election of Mr. Charles Sumner as U. S. senator, 
and the coalition between the free-soil and dem- 
ocratic i)arties. In 1850 he was elected as the 
first mayor of the city of Newburyport, and in 
the year following was reelected lor a second 
term. In 1852 Mr. Gushing was appointed a 
justice of the Massachusetts supreme court, a 
position which he filled with marked abilit}'i;n- 
til March, 1853, when he was invited by Pres- 
ident Pierce to fill the oftice of U. S. attorney- 
general, from which he retired, March 4, 1857. 
Notwithstanding the number and complexity 
of novel questions (arising partly from the ex- 
pansion of the national domain) submitted for 
the attorney-general's consideration, the duties 
of the otfice were never, on the whole, more 
thoroughly and ably performed than by Mr. 
Gushing. The opinions given by him as legal 
adviser to tlie cabinet have been published, and 
although more voluminous and covering a more 
extended variety of topics, they are in no respect 
surpassed by those of his otlicial predecessors. 
In 1857, 1858, and 1859 he again served in the 
legislature of Massachusetts. In addition to his 
speeches in congress and at the bar, Mr. Gushing 
has delivered many addresses on occasions of 
literary and political festivity, and is the author 
of various published letters, elaborately discuss- 
ing the political questions of the time. 

GUSHING, Luther Stearns, an American 
jurist, born in Lunenburg, Mass., June 22, 1803, 
died in Boston, June 22, 1856. lie became clerk 
of the Massachusetts house of representatives in 
1832, judge of the court of common pleas in 
1844, and after 4 years on the bench became 
reporter to the supreme court. In the last 
capacity lie published 8 vols, of reports. lie 
was a leading editor for some years of the " Jurist 
and Law Magazine," and left several able Avorks 
on jurisprudence, including "Rules of Proceed- 
ings and Debates in Deliberative Assemblies " 
(18mo. 1854); "Introduction to the Study of 
Koman Law " (12mo. 1854) ; "Law and Practice 
of Legislative Assemblies in the United States " 
(8vo.l855). 

GUSHING, Thomas, LL. D., lieutenant-gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, born in Boston in 1725, 
died Feb. 19, 1788. He represented the city of 
Boston in the general court, became speaker of 
that body in 1763, and so warmly espoused the 
cause of his country in the disputes with Great 
Britain that Dr. Johnson, in his "Taxation No 
Tyranny," made this remark : " One object of 
the Americans is said to be, to adorn the brows 
of Mr. Gushing with a diadem." lie was a 
member of the 1st and 2x1 congresses, and after- 
ward of the council of his own state. On the 
adoption of the present constitution he left the 



bench of SufFolk co., where he had filled the of- 
fice of judge of the courts of common pleas and 
of i)robate, and was elected lieutenant-governor, 
a station wliich he retained until his death. 

GUSHING, William, LL.D., an American 
jurist, born in Scituate, Mass., in March, 1733, 
died in 1810, He was graduated at Harvard 
college in 1751, and in 1772 succeeded his fa- 
ther, John Gushing, as justice of the superior 
court of Massachusetts. He became chief jus- 
tice 5 years later, and on the organization of the 
federal government in 1789 was raised by Presi- 
dent Washington to the bench of the U. S. su- 
preme court. 

GUSHMAN, Charlotte Sattnders, an Amer- 
ican actress, born in Boston, Mass., July 23, 
1816, the oldest of a family of 5 children by a 2d 
marriage. In consequence of the bankruptcy of 
her father she was called upon at the age of 12 
to contribute to the family support. Possessing a 
fine voice and much musical taste, she had al- 
ready acquired some local reputation as a vo- 
calist, when she was engaged to sing in a con- 
cert with Mrs. Wood, who declared her voice 
to be the finest contralto she had ever heard, 
and advised her to cultivate it for the stage. 
Against the advice and wishes of her friends 
she resolved to adopt this course, and made her 
dehut at the Tremont theatre, Boston, April 18, 
1835, as the Countess, in the English adapta- 
tion of Mozart's Nozze di Figaro. Her success 
was such that an engagement was procured for 
her to sing in English opera at New Orleans. 
Scarcely had she arrived there when her voice 
failed her under the effect of a sudden change 
of climate and of an unwise attempt to convert 
it into an available soprano. In this emergency 
slie resolved to become an actress, and under 
the tuition of Mr. Barton, an actor who proved 
a sincere friend, studied the part of Lady Mac- 
beth, in which to the surprise of all she made 
her appearance Avith complete success. The 
piece Avas repeated many nights, and she re- 
turned to New York Avith considerable reputa- 
tion for histrionic abilit)'. She accepted a 3 
years' engagement at the BoAvery theatre, but 
after pei-forming a week to large audiences, she 
Avas prostrated by fcA'er, the result of over- 
excitement and exertion, and during her illness 
the theatre, and with it her entire theatrical 
Avardrobe, Avas destroyed by fire. After an in- 
terval of several months she accepted an en- 
gagement as stock actress in the Park theatre, 
and for 3 years appeared in a great variety of 
jiarts, thus perfecting herself in stage business 
and acquiring the versatility for Avhich she after- 
Avard became distinguished. During this jieriod 
she assisted her younger sister, Mrs. Merriman, 
better known as Miss Susan W. Cushman, to 
make her dehut on the stage, and afterward ap- 
peared Avith lier for several seasons at Philadel- 
phia and NeAV York. For the purpose of en- 
couraging and improving the young actress, and 
of obtaining for her prominent female charac- 
ters, Miss Cushman Avas accustomed to take the 
chief male parts in the plays in Avhich her sister 



CUSIIMAN 



161 



appeared. In tliis manner they performed 
iu "London Assurance" in New York for up- 
ward of 90 niglits; and for one season in Phila- 
delphia they i)layeu all the principal charac- 
ters. Miss Cushnian afterward undertook tho 
direction of one of the Philadelphia theatres, 
which she retained until invited by Mr. Mac- 
ready in 1814 to accompany him on a profes- 
sional tour in the northern states, in the course 
of which slie undertook the higher range of tra- 
gic parts with great success. In 1845 she went 
toEngland, and, unknown and unheralded, made 
her first appearance before a London audience, 
at the Princess's theatre, as Bhmca, in Milmau's 
tragedy of "Fazio." Her reception was en- 
thusiastic, and for 84 nights she appeared in a 
variety of characters, including Lady Macbeth, 
Julia in the " Hunchback," Mrs. Ilaller, Bea- 
trice, Lady Teazle, Rosalind, and Juliana in tho 
" Honeymoon." Iler sister having joined her, 
they acted together for several years at tho 
Ilaymarkot theatre in London and in the chief 
provincial towns of Great Britain. In 1849 she 
revisited the United States, and, in addition to 
her ordinary characters, assumed tliat of Meg 
Merrilies, in the play of " Guy Maunering" — a 
striking personation, and one which she may 
be said to have created. After another profes- 
sional tour in England she returned to America, 
and having accumulated a fortune by her pro- 
fession, took a formal leave of tlie American 
stage. She subsequently acted a round of en- 
gagements in England, and appeared again in 
the United States in 1857 and '58, after which 
she returned to Rome, where she had previous- 
ly resided. As an actress, particularly in the 
higher walks of the serious drama, Miss Gush- 
man ranks with the most eminent living, and 
in her Shakespearean characters is distinguished 
for a rigid adherence to the letter as well as the 
spirit of the text. — Her sister Susan, who attain- 
ed considerable popularity in such parts as Ophe- 
lia, Juliet (which she acted to her sister's Romeo 
for upward of 200 niglits in England), Olivia, &c., 
was married in March, 1848, to Br. James S. 
Muspratt of Liverpool, where she now resides. 

CtJSIIMAX. I. Robert, one of the founders 
of Plymouth colony, born in England about 
1580, died in 1625. He joined the nonconform- 
ist exiles at Leyden, and in 1617 was sent by 
them to London with John Carver, as their 
agent to negotiate with the Virginia company 
for leave to settle within their domain in North 
America, and to petition King James for "liberty 
of conscience there." Not gaining the last 
point, which was the chief desire of the exiles, 
he returned to Leyden, after an absence of about 
6 months. In the latter part of the same year 
he, with the same colleague, was again de- 
spatched with written terms from the Leyden 
Congregational church, but gained no better re- 
sult, for the company was now distracted by 
dissensions among its officers, so that "no busi- 
ness 'could well go forward." In 1619 Mr. 
Cushman was sent the 8d time on the same 
embassy (associated with Elder "William Brew- 
VOL. VI. — 1 1 



ster), and a patent was finally obtained in tho 
name of John Wincob, which, however, was not 
used, as that person did not emigrate. In 1020 
he was desi)atched the 4th time to London, with 
Carver and Martin as his associates, to receive 
money and provide for their embarkation. Tho 
" Merchant Adventurers " of London now began 
to withdraw their means and i)romises, and in- 
sisted upon two stringent alterations in the terms 
of their contract previously agreed upon with 
his associate. Cushman assented to them, a 
step which gave temporary dissatisfaction to 
many of his friends, though they afterward per- 
ceived that it saved the expedition and their 
ventures in it from utter failure. He procured 
the Mayflower, a pilot, &c., and finally sailed in 
her, as " assistant governor " to the passengers, 
from Southampton, Aug. 5, 1620, in company 
with the Speedwell. Eight days out, the S])eed- 
well proving leaky, both vessels put into Dart- 
mouth for repairs, and remained there 8 days. 
They took their 2d departure Aug. 21, and in 3 
days the Speedwell was reported leaking again ; 
both vessels then put into Plymouth, when the 
Speedwell was dismissed as unseaworthy, and 
her company compelled to remain. Mr. Cush- 
man was appointed to the care of those left 
ashore, and followed in the next vessel, the For- 
tune, 55 tons, bringing most of them and others, 
and reaching New Plymouth, Nov. 9, 1621. On 
Dec. 12 ho preached in the "common house" 
of the little colony the first sermon in America 
that was printed : " On the Sin and Danger of 
Self-Love" — a practical, far-seeing discourse, 
abounding in wisdom, and enriched with very 
many illustrations and examples drawn from 
sacred history, evidently written to allay any 
dissatisfaction that might have been apprehend- 
ed among the colonists. He sailed for England 
the next day,in the same vessel by which he came, 
which was captured by the French, plundered, 
and detained 2 weeks on their coast. After his 
arrival he wrote and published an eloquent vin- 
dication of the colonial enterprise, and appeal 
for Christian missions to tho American Indians; 
which was the first published argument for Eng- 
lish emigration to this country. He continued to 
reside in Lcmdon, acting as agent for the colo- 
nists. In 1623, he with Edward "Winslow, en- 
voy from New Plymouth, procured from King 
James, through Lord Sheffield, a charter for ter- 
ritory on Cape Ann. Early in 1625, while pre- 
paring to emigrate thither by the next ship, to 
join his son, and make New Plymouth his per- 
manent residence, he died. II. Thomas, son of 
the foregoing, born in England in 1608, died at 
Plymouth, Dec. 11, 1691. He came with his 
father to New Plymouth in the Fortune, Nov. 
9, 1621, and was left in the care of Gov. Brad- 
ford, in whose fiimily he lived till manhood. 
He married Mar}-, 3d child of Isaac Allerton, 
who was the last survivor of the Mayflower 
passengers, and who died in 1699, aged 90. His 
life and death are best depicted in the following 
extract from the Plymouth 1st church records, 
vol. i. : 



J 62 



CUSK 



CUSTIS 



"1C91. It jiliMsed God to seize upon our pood Elder, Mr. 
Tlioiiiax CushuKin, by sickness, and in tiiis year to take him 
ft-om us. IIi^ was chosen and ordained Klder of this Oliurch, 
April 6, 1(>49 ; lie was neere 43 yoares in his oltice, his sick- 
nesse lasted about eleven weeks ; he had bin a rich blessing 
to this church scores of years, he was grave, sober, holy and 
temperate, very studious and solicitous for the peace and pros- 
perity of tlie church, and to prevent and heale all breaches: 
He dyed, December 11, neare the end of the 84th yeare of 
his life; December 16: was kept as a day of humiliation for 
Lis death,— the Pastor prayed and preached. Mr. Arnold 
and the Pastor's 2 sons assisted in prayer; much of God's 
presence went away from this church when this blessed pil- 
lar was Removed. 

"A liberal contribution was made that fast day for the El- 
der's widow, as an acknowledgement of his yrcat services to 
the church whilst living. 

"August 7, 1715. A contribution was moved and made, 
both by the church and congregation, to defray the expense 
of Grave Stones sett upon the grave of that worthy and useful 
servant of God, Elder Thomas Cushmau; the whole congre- 
gation were very forwanl in it." 

A massive granite momiment to the memory 
of tliese 3 Cushmans was erected at Plymouth 
by their numerous descendants, and publicly 
consecrated, Sept. 16, 1858. 

OUSK, a fish belonging to the cod family or 
gadidce, and to the genus hrosmius (Cuv.), char- 
acterized by an elongated body, a single dorsal 
fin extending the whole length of the back, 
fleshy ventral fins, and one barbel at the chin. 
The American cusk, wliich is considered specifi- 
cally distinct from the European, is the B.flaves- 
cens (Lesueur); the color varies from brownish 
with yellowish sides, to whitish with brownish 
patches ; the immature fish is of a uniform dark 
slate color, sometimes with transverse yellow 
bands ; the dorsal, caudal, and anal fins are bor- 
dered with bluish black, and edged with white ; 
the dorsal and anal are continued to the base of 
the tail. The length of the fish varies from 2 
to 3 feet and more, one of the first dimensions 
■weighing about 4 lbs. ; it is taken generally 
on the middle bank, with the hook, by tbe 
deep water cod-fishers. In the spring it is seen 
in Boston market, when it is less esteemed than 
cod, but in the winter it commands a higher 
price; as a fresh fish it is considered a deli- 
cacy, and salted is generally preferred to cod. 
It is found along the shore of the British prov- 
inces, and even to high latitudes. The European 
species, B. tulgaris (Cuv.), called torsk or tusk, 
is also a northern fish, occurring plentifully 
amoi^g the Shetland islands, where it forms a 
considerable article of trade ; it is caught, salt- 
ed, and dried in the same manner as cod ; it is 
common on the coasts of Norway, Iceland, and 
the Faroe islands. It resembles very much the 
B. flavescens, and the two are considered by 
some as varieties of one species. 

CUSP (Lat. cmjnx^ a spear-point), in astron- 
omy, a horn or point of the moon, or of any 
other luminary. In geometry, it denotes the 
point or corner in which two branches of the 
same or of different curves meet. In architec- 
ture, it is applied to the spear-shaped ornaments 
which terminate the internal curves of trefoiled 
and quatrefoiled Gothic arch windows. In as- 
trology, it denotes the first point of each of the 
12 houses in a scheme of the heavens. 

OUST, Sir Edward, an English major-gen- 
eral, master of ceremonies at the court of Queen 



Victoria since 1847, born in London in 1794, 
served in the army under Wellington, and was 
for several years, until 1882, a member of the 
house of commons. 

CUSTINE. I. Adam Philippe, count de, a 
French general, born in Metz, Feb. 4, 1740, guil- 
lotined in Paris, Aug. 29, 1793. lie served 
with distinction in the 7 years' war, and in the 
American war of independence under Wash- 
ington. On his return to France he was ap- 
pointed governor of Toulon, and in 1789 was 
elected by the nobility of Lorraine as deputy 
to the states-general. He was a partisan of 
the revolution, but his , noble birth and as- 
sociations with the nobility made him a con- 
stant object of suspicion to the republicans of 
plebeian origin. He returned to military life, 
and was in June, 1792, appointed commander-in- 
chief of the French army on the lower Rhine. 
He took possession of Landau, Spire, AVorms, 
Mentz, and Frankfort-on-the-Main ; but sud- 
denly evacuated the German towns, and with- 
drew to Alsace. This gave umbrage to the 
leaders of the convention ; but he succeeded in 
vindicating himself, and received the command 
of the northern army. However, he was finally 
accused of treason, sentenced to death on Aug. 
28, 1793, and guillotined on the following day, 
but asserted to the last his loyalty to the prin- 
ciples of the revolution. A few months later, 
his son, Rexaud Philippe, his aide-de-camp, 
was doomed to share the same fate. II. As- 
TOLPHE, rtiarquis de, grandson of Count Adam, 
born in Paris in 1793, died at his chateau of St. 
Gratien, near Pau, Sept. 1857, was the author of 
several novels, of which Eomuald and Le monde 
comvie il est (the former of a religious, and the 
latter of a philosophical tendency) have been 
translated into German. A tragedj' of his, 
Beatrix Cenci^ disappeared from the stage after 
a single representation. He travelled exten- 
sively on the continent, in England and Russia, 
and published 3 works of travels, of which that 
on Russia, La Rnssie en 1839, achieved the 
greatest popularity. It is written in a some- 
Avhat flippant, but entertaining, and in many 
respects instructive vein. It passed through 
many editions, and was translated into English 
and German, 

CUSTIS, George Washington' Parke, -the 
adopted son of George Washington, born at 
Mount Airy, Md., in April, 1781, died at Ar- 
lington house, Fairfax co., Va., Oct. 10, 1857. 
He was the youngest child of John Parke Cus- 
tis, a son of Mrs. Washington by her first hus- 
band, and an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington at 
the siege of Yorktown. John Parke Custis died 
at Eltham, Md., of camp fever, just after the sur- 
render of Cornwallis, leaving 4 children, the 2 
youngest of whom were adopted by Washing- 
ton. George Washington Parke Custis was 
brought up at Mount Vernon, subsequently pur- 
sued his classical studies at Princeton, and re- 
mained a member of AVashington's family until 
the death of Mrs. Washington in 1802, when he 
went to reside at Arlington, an estate of 1,000 



CUTCII 



CUTHBERT 



1G3 



acres in the neigliborliood of 'Washington, which 
he had inherited from his father. lie erected 
the mansion known as Arlington house, and 
devoted his life to Utei-ary and agricultural 
pursuits. After 1852, when his sister Eleanor 
Parke Custis, who was married to Major Law- 
rence Lewis, died, he was the. sole surviving 
Tuemher of A7ashington's fanuly, and his resi- 
dence was for many years an attractive resort 
on account of the many interesting relics of that 
family which it contained. Mr. Custis was the 
author of a number of remarkable orations, of 
several plays, and of the "• Recollections of Wash- 
ington," published at various times in the " Na- 
tional Intelligencer," of Washington. He was 
fond of painting, and in the latter part of his 
life executed a number of pictures of revolution- 
ary battles. He was married in early life to 
Miss Mary Lee Fitzhugh, of Virginia, and left 
a daughter and several grandchildren. 

CUTCII, or CuTcn Bnooj, a native state of 
Iliudostan, under the political superintendence 
of the Bombay government, bounded iST. W. 
and X. by Sinde, E. by the Guicowar's domin- 
ions, S. by the peninsula of Cattywar and the 
gulf of Cutch, and S. W. by the Arabian sea. 
It lies between lat. 22° 47' and 24° 40' K, long. 
08° 26' and 7P 45' E.; greatest length from E. 
to W. 205 m., breadth 110 m. ; area, exclusive 
of the great salt marsh called thcRunn of Cutch, 
which covers the N. part of the territory', and 
communicates with the gulf, 6,704 sq. m. ; pop. 
500,536. The Runu is 160 m. long from E. to 
W., from 4 to 80 m. wide, and about 7,000 sq. 
m. in area, including several islands. During 
the rainy season it is impassable except in a 
very few spots, and the S. part of the state be- 
comes a vast island ; but as the waters subside 
tolerable pastures appear here and tiiere, and 
barren sand banks, covered with saline incrus- 
tations, are left exposed. The rest of the sur- 
face is hilly, and exhibits traces of volcanic 
action. Earthquakes are occasionally felt, and 
in 1819 a severe shock was experienced, which 
destroyed several hundred lives, and raised an 
enormous mound of sand and earth, several miles 
in extent, while a corresponding depression took 
])lace in the neighborhood. With the exception 
of a few fertile tracts, the country is generally 
sterile, and almost destitute of perennial rivers. 
The staple agricultural product is cotton, beside 
which there are plantations of sugar and of the 
common grains of India. Timber is scarce, but 
there are valuable minerals, including coal, iron, 
and alum. Cutch produces excellent horses, a 
poor breed of oxen, and numerous sheep and 
goats. Wild asses are met with in large herds 
near the Ruun. ' The principal towns are Bhooj, 
the modern capital, and Anjar. The dominant 
race is a Rajpoot tribe, formerly noted for their 
almost universal practice of female infanticide. 

CUTCII, Gulf of, an arm of the Arabian 
sea, running IST. JST. E. between Cutch and the 
peninsula of Cattywar (Guzerat), 110 m. long, 
and 25 m. wide at the entrance. It has often 
been described as very dangerous to navigation, 



but though full of eddies it is tolerably free from 
rocks, and is crossed by the natives at all sea- 
sons without fear. 

CUTCH GUNDAVA, a province in the K 
E. of Beloochistan, bordering on Sinde and 
Afghanistan, and bounded W. by the Ilala 
mountains, in which is the famous Bolan pass. 
It lies between lat. 27° 40' and 29^ 50' N., long. 
67° 20' and 69° 17' E. ; length from N. to S. 
about 160 m., breadth 130 m.; area, about 
10,000 sq. m. ; pop. about 100,000. It consists 
mainly of a vast arid plain, little cultivated, but 
in some parts thickly peopled. The S. E. part 
is occupied by the desert of Shikarpoor, 40 m. 
in extent, the soil of which is hardened clay, 
almost destitute of vegetation. The climate is 
proverbially sultry, water is scarce, and the chief 
productions are bajra and Indian millet. There 
are some fertile tracts, however, devoted to the 
cultivation of cotton, sugar, madder, and fruits. 
Capital, Gundava. 

CUTHBERT, a saint and bishop of the Eng- 
lish church, born near Melrose, probably in the 
first quarter of the 7th century, died March 20, 
687, which day is observed as his festival. 
He was early attracted to the monastic life by 
the virtues of St. Aidan and his pious brethren, 
and was constrained by a timely vision to join 
himself to the fraternity. In 664 he was chosen 
prior of Melrose, and some years later was 
transferred to the charge of the monastery of 
Lindisfarne, or the " Holy island," a few miles 
S. of Berwick. His fondness for ascetic prac- 
tices was not satisfied by the comparative ease 
and indulgence of this large establishment, and 
after a few j-ears he retired to the lone and des- 
olate isle of Fame, where he might enjoy a 
life of solitude. The island Avas barren, with- 
out wood or water ; but the industry of the 
hermit, aided, according to the legend, by re- 
peated miracles, opened springs, awakened 
fertility, and covered the ground with fields of 
grain. The fame of his holiness brought to him 
many visitors, among them Elfleda, daughter 
of the Northumbrian king Oswj-, with whom 
he usually conversed through a window in the 
wall, not stirring out of his cell. For the pur- 
pose of more efiectual isolation he dug a trench 
around his cabin. But he was compelled at 
last to yield to the persuasions of the Northum- 
brian king and church, and take the bishopric 
of the province of Lindisfarne. He held this 
oflice for 2 years, wlien, worn out by labors and 
austerities, lie died in the island of Fame. His 
body, buried at his request in the monastery of 
Lindisfarne, was exhumed 11 years later, when, 
according to Bede, it was found to be undecayed. 
The Danish invasion, breaking up these northern 
convents, dispersed the monks over all the north- 
ern region. The bones of St. Cuthbert found a 
final resting place on the banks of the river 
Wear, and a convent, cathedral, and city were 
successively built around them. The legends 
and relics of St. Cuthbert remained for ages the 
chief treasure of the cathedral of Durham. He 
received the name of the " Thaumatxirgus of 



164 



CUTLER 



Britain," His memory was renerated for many 
centuries, and no intercession was deemed so 
powerful by the peasantry of tlie north of 
England. Pilgrimages were n:ade to his shrine 
as to the shrine of St. Thomas of Canterbury. 
Diseases of the eye and palsy of the limbs were 
cured by the sight of his relics, or by kneeling 
at his tomb. A tooth of the saint was preserved 
in a nunnery in Paris, and a copy of John's 
Gospel in MS., taken from Cuthbert's coffin, 
was still extant in the last century. The Ko- 
man Catholic church celebrates on Sept. 4 the 
festival of the translation of St. Cuthbert's relics 
from Lindisfarne to Durham; in some parts 
of the region of Northumberland the day is still 
observed as a holiday. — St. Cuthbert of Durham 
is to be carefully distinguished from Cuthbert 
the Benedictine monk, who was a pupil of Bede, 
attended him in his last hours, and wrote a me- 
moir of his life. Another Cuthbert was arch- 
bishop of Canterbury for 18 years from 740 to 
758. 

CUTLER, Maxasseh, an American clergy- 
man, born in Killingly, Conn., in 1744, died at 
Hamilton, Mass., July 28, 1823. lie was grad- 
uated at Yale college in 1765, engaged in tlie 
whaling business, and opened a store at Edgar- 
town, on Martha's Vineyard. "While thus act- 
ively employed, he still continued his studies, 
and was admitted to the bar of Massachusetts 
in 1767, and pleaded a few cases in the court of 
common pleas. But this profession was not a 
congenial one ; he cherished a preference for 
the ministry, and determined to prepare him- 
self for it. After living in Edgartown 3 years, 
he removed with his family to Dedham, for the 
purpose of pursuing his theological studies with 
the Rev. Thomas Balch, whose daughter he had 
previously married. He was licensed to preach 
in 1770, and preached 6 months as a candidate at 
the Hamlet parish, then apart of Ipswich, Mass., 
but which was incorporated as a separate town 
under the name of Hamilton in 1798. Over 
tliis parish he was ordained, Sept. 11, 1771. At 
that period the difficulties between the colonies 
and Great Bi-itain were assuming a threatening 
aspect, and he watched with deep interest the 
approach of the revolution. "When the news 
of the battle of Lexington reached him, he made 
a short and stirring address to the minute men 
mustered in Ipswich on that occasion, and ac- 
companied them on horseback to Cambridge, 
coming in sight of the enemy as they were re- 
treating into Boston. Desirous of serving his 
country in deed as well as in word, he received 
a commission, Sept. 1776, as chaplain of the regi- 
ment commanded by Col. E. Francis, under 
whom and Col. Titcomb he served a year. To- 
ward the close of the revolutionary struggle, as 
the physician of the Hamlet parish was employ- 
ed in the army, and the people left destitute of 
medical advice, Mr. Cutler applied himself to 
the study and practice of medicine. For several 
years he administered to the bodily as well as 
spiritual maladies of his flock, for the former 
services receiving little or no compensation; 



yet notwithstanding these arduous labors, he 
soon became noted for his scientific taste and 
attainments. In 1781 he was elected a member 
of the American academy, and in the volume of 
memoirs published by that society in 1785 will 
be found scientific papers from his pen, bearing 
the following titles: "On the Transit of Mer- 
cury over the Sun, Nov. 12, 1782;" "On the 
Eclipse of the Moon, March 29, 1782, and of 
the Sun in the following April ;" "Meteorological 
Observations, 1781, '82, '83 ;" "An Account of 
some of the A''egetable Productions naturally 
growing in this part of America;" and in the 
3d volume of the memoirs appeared " Remarks 
on a Vegetable and Animal Insect." His botan- 
ical paper was tlie first attempt at a scientific 
description of the plants of New England. Dr. 
Cutler may well be termed the pioneer of botany 
in that region. He was induced to pursue this 
branch of science by casually meeting with an 
English work on botany, and his attention 
being thus drawn to the plants growing in his 
own immediate neighborhood, he examined and 
described 350 species according to the Linna;an 
system. In the pi'eface he remarks that he may 
be guilty of many errors, as he had never before 
that year (1784) looked at plants with an eye 
to their scientific arrangement. During the 
same year he, with 6 others, ascended the White 
mountains ; this party are said to have been the 
first white men who ever reached the summit. 
Dr. Cutler carried up instruments, and computed 
Mount Washington to be 10,000 feet above the 
level of the sea, thus giving it too great an ele- 
vation. W^ith Dr. Peck's assistance he prepared 
the chapter on trees and plants in Dr. Belknap's 
" History of New Hampshire." Owing to the 
difficult and uncertain condition of affiiirs at the 
close of the revolutionary war, Dr, Cutler 
thought he could improve his condition by re- 
moving to the West, then a wild and almost un- 
explored part of the union. In 1786 a number 
of officers of the army met to form the Ohio com- 
Y>any for the purpose of having their bounty lands 
located together. Major Winthrop Sargeant, 
one of the most efficient of their number, was 
acquainted with Dr, Cutler, and consulted with 
him about the proposed colony ; the result was 
that he became a member of the company, and 
was appointed by its directors an agent in con- 
nection with Major Sargeant, with whom in 
this unexpected capacity Dr. Cutler visited the 
seat of government, and made a contract Avith 
the proper authorities for 1,000,000 acres of 
laud north-west of the Ohio river. They also 
obtained a grant of 500,000 acres more, as an 
allowance for bad lands and incidental charges. 
By order of the directors Dr. Cutler, on his re- 
turn home, immediately prepared to fit out an 
expedition for the intended settlement. He 
had a large wagon built and covered with black 
canvas, on which were painted in white letters 
the words : " Ohio, for Marietta on the Mus- 
kingum." The use to wljich this vehicle was 
appropriated, the circumstances under which it 
left New England and reached, that then un- 



CUTLER 



CUTLERY 



165 



cultivated wilderness, have placed this explor- 
ing wagon liistorically by the ?ide of the May- 
flower. Forty-five men were engaged to ac- 
company it, and to help to settle and defend the 
new country for the space of 3 years. These 
emigrants started from Dr. Cutler's house, Dec. 
1787 ; they were well armed, and fired a volley 
as a salute on their departure from his door. 
Their number having been increased to 60, 
they commenced the settlement of Marietta, 
April 7, 1788, under Gen. Rufus Putnam. Id 
the further discharge of his agency Dr. Cutler 
started in a sulky for Ohio, which he reached 
in 29 days by a route of 750 miles. On Aug. 
27, 1788, he performed the burial service for a 
child of Major Cushing, the first funeral that 
occurred among the whites at Marietta, While 
there he examined the fortifications and mounds 
in the neighborhood, which he considered were 
the work of a nation more civilized and powerful 
than any existing tribe of Indians. During the 
few weeks of his visit at the "West, he was treat- 
ed with great kindness, and highly honored; but 
he felt that at his age he had better remain in 
New England, and he bade a final adieu to the 
colony which he was in a great measure the 
means of founding. In 1795 President Wash- 
ington tendered to him a commission as judge 
of the supreme court of the Ohio territory, 
Avhich honor he declined. He was afterward 
elected by his people representative to the state 
legislature, and from 1800 to 180-i he served as 
a representative in congress. — Jervis, son of 
the preceding, one of the earliest emigrants to 
the western states, born in 1769 at Hamilton, 
Masss., died at Evansville, Ind., June 25, 1844. 
In 1788, at the age of 19, he joined the little 
company who, under Gen. Rufus Putnam, set- 
tled at Marietta, Ohio, then in the midst of In- 
dian battle grounds. He was afterward able to 
Bay that he was the first man who ever cut 
down a tree for an emigrant's clearing in that 
great state. He was the last survivor of that 
pioneer company. 

CUTLER, Timothy, D.D., president of Yale 
college, born in 1685, died in Boston, Mass., 
Aug. 17, 1765. He was graduated at Harvard 
college in 1701, and after a ministry of 10 
years at Stratford, Conn., was chosen president 
of Yale college in 1719. In 1722 he renounced 
his connection with the Congregational church- 
es, whereupon the trustees of the college passed a 
vote " excusing him from further service as rec- 
tor of Yale college," and requiring in future from 
their rectors evidence of the " soundness of their 
faith in opposition to Arminian and prelatical 
corruptions." He then went to England, where 
he took orders. Returning to Boston in July, 
1723, he became rector of Christ church, where 
he remained till his death. He published a ser- 
mon delivered before the general court at New 
Haven, in 1717, and one upon the death of Tho- 
mas Graves, 1757. A series of his letters pub- 
li'shed in Nichols's ''Illustrations of Literary 
Histor}'," have considerable historical value. 

CUTLERY (Fr. coutellerie), a general term 



including sharp cutting and many pointed in- 
struments, made of iron and steel, as knives, 
forks, razors, kc. Instruments of this charac- 
ter were made in ancient times of various hard 
stones like flint ; and shells also are still used 
by rude nations in the want of better cutting 
instruments. The ancient Egyptians appear to 
have possessed the art of giving a hardness to 
bronze, which adapted it to purposes for which 
only the best tempered steel is now found suit- 
able. The Greeks also employed it before they 
were acquainted with the properties of steel ; 
but these they appear to have understood in 
the time of Homer, distinct reference being 
made in the Odyssey to the process of temper- 
ing it. Their citations, as also those of the 
Romans, of districts famous for their production 
of iron, might still be correctly repeated ; yet 
the ancient swords found in Herculaneura and 
Pompeii, the surgical and other cutting instru- 
ments, are not of the material, ferrum, always 
connected by the Latin writers with the weapons 
named, but of bronze. The manufacture of ar- 
ticles of cutlery was practised by the ancient 
Britons at as early a period certainly as the 
time of the Roman invasion, when they pos- 
sessed broadswords, scythes, hooks, and spears, 
made from the products of their iron mines. 
Sheffield was a noted place for their manufac- 
ture in the time of Chaucer, who says of the 
miller of Trompington : 

A Shefeld thwytel bare he in his hose. 
Forks were not used till a much later period ; 
even in the time of James I. they were regard- 
ed as a curious device of the Italians, worthy 
of a formal notice by the traveller Coryat. 
— Steel is the x^rop^r material for the cut- 
ting edges of all articles of cutlery ; the backs 
may be made, if preferred for the sake of 
nsing a cheaper material, of iron, to which the 
steel is welded. So also of the handles of the 
instruments, or the tangs by which they are 
secured to handles of other materials. The 
steel for many instruments may be the blistered 
steel, or this after it has been fagoted and 
drawn down by tilt hammers to the bars call- 
ed shear steel. This is a tough variety, easily 
worked, and answers very well for table knives, 
plane irons, scythes, <fcc. But when a fine fin- 
ish is required, or great hardness, the blistered 
steel should be converted by fusion into cast 
steel, and the ingots be forged into bars, and 
these into the shapes required. Simple articles 
of cutlery, as chisels, are made by hammering a 
bit of cast steel into the shape of the cutting 
end, giving length enough to allow of consider- 
able wear. This is made very thin, as it is in- 
tended only for the edge, and upon it is laid 
and welded a flat slip of iron, which has been 
forged into the shape of the chisel, and upon 
which the shoulder is shaped by driving it into 
a cavity in the anvil or a block with a suitably 
formed die to give the shape desired, and ham- 
mering upon the shank above a swage which 
fits around it like a collar. One side of the 
chisel is thus iron intended to be ground away : 



16G 



CUTLERY 



the other side is the steel, •which may be tem- 
pered to a proper degree of hardness. Small 
chisels are hammered entirely out of slender bars 
of steel. — The materials employed for scissors 
are still more various. Common qualities are of 
shear steel, with the blades only hardened. The 
best qualities are of cast steel, with blades, bows, 
and slianks all hardened. Large scissors, as 
the shears used by tailors, are of steel only in 
the blades, the rest being of iron ; formerly only 
the edge was of steel. Some scissors are made 
of a good quality of cast iron, to which the 
English manufacturers give the name of run or 
virgin steel. Even of these there are inferior 
qualities, made for exportation, of common cast 
iron. A dozen pair of these sell for 3^d. But 
scissors of the best steel are manufactured with 
bows and shanks of gold that sell for more than 
10 guineas the single pair. When made wholly 
of steel, the blade is hammered out at the end 
of a small bar, which is cut oft' with enough of 
the steel for the shank and bow. Through this 
a hole is punched, which is enlarged over the 
point of a small anvil or beak iron. By ham- 
mering and filing the exact shape is given ; 
the joint is then squared, the hole bored for the 
rivet or screw, the blades are ground, and the 
bows smooth filed and burnished with oil and 
fine emery. Any ornamental devices are given 
by swaging in dies which contain the patterns. 
The blades are hardly measured except by the 
eye in the process of forging, and not being 
made Avith reference to pairing, the matches 
are afterward selected among many blades. 
Being sorted, and a pair screwed together, they 
are made to " walk and talk " well, as the 
" putter together " calls their playing with a 
smooth motion. After this follow various op- 
erations of hardening, grinding to give the ex- 
act shape, glazing and polishing, and the final 
burnishing with polished steel tools, which is 
done by women. An ingenious device is intro- 
duced, by which the cutting edges of the blades 
are brought in close contact with each other 
only at the point where the cutting is eifected, 
which point moves from the end next the pivot 
to the extremity of the blades, in the opera- 
tion of closing these. This consists in giving a 
slightly bowed shape to the blades, and raising 
upon the inner surface of each, close behind 
the pivot, a little triangular prominence, which 
makes the blades cant more and more toward 
each other as they are closed. The efiect of 
these bulges and of the bow shape may be ob- 
served on holding a pair of scissors edgewise to 
the light ; when closed the blades are seen to 
touch each other only at the point and at the 
centre on these enlargements, which are called 
the riding part. The arrangement also gives 
a certain degree of elasticity Avhich adds to 
the smooth action of the instrument. — The 
blade of a table knife and of other large knives 
is hammered out upon an anvil at the end 
of a bar of shear or cast steel, and cut off". It 
is then welded on to a bar of wrought iron 
about i an inch square, and enough o" this is 



cut off to form the bolster or shoulder and the 
tang. The blade is heated and hammered, or, 
as it is called, smithed, which serves to con- 
dense the metal and enables it to receive a 
higher finish. The mark of the maker is then 
stamped upon it, and it is hardened by heating 
to redness, and ])luuging into cold water. • It is 
tempered to a blue color, and is then ready for 
grinding. The small blades of penknives are 
hammered entire out of the best cast steel. A 
temporary tang is drawn out to secure the blade 
in a small handle while it is ground. A num- 
ber of blades are heated together for tempering, 
by being placed over the fire upon a flat plate 
of iron, their backs downward ; Avhen at the 
proper degree of redness so as to take a brown 
or purple color, they are dipped in water up to 
the shoulder. For razors the very best cast steel 
is selected, and when the blade is shaped uj>on 
the anvil from a bar as thick as the back of the 
razor and ^ an inch wide, it is well smithed to 
condense the metal as much as possible. Only 
the best steel will bear the working down of one 
part of the blade to the requisite thinness, while 
the back is left thick. By grinding on a dry 
coarse stone, the shape is furtlier improved, and 
the scale is removed, which might interfere with 
the tempering. This operation is performed 
after the blade is drilled for the pin of the joint 
and stamped. It is next ground on a stone wet 
with water, and is afterward submitted to 
several processes of glazing and polishing, the 
last being effected on a soft buff wheel, cov- 
ered with dry crocus and slowly revolving. 
Forks are hammered out of square steel rods, 
coumionly of -^ inch. The tang and shank are 
roughly shaped at the end of tlie rod, and are 
then cut oft' with about an inch of the square 
steel beside. This is drawn out flat for the 
prongs ; and the shank and tang are then 
shaped by the die and swage. The other end, 
heated to a white heat, is laid in a steel die upon 
an .anvil, when another die attached to the 
under face of a heavy block of metal is allowed 
to fall upon it from the height of 7 or 8 feet. 
The prongs are thug shaped, and all but a thin 
film of steel removed from between them. This 
is afterward cleaned out with an instrument 
called a fly-press. A number of forks are then 
collected together and annealed by heating and 
allowing them to cool slowly. This renders 
them soft, so that they are easily shaped by the 
file and by bending. They are hardened by 
another lieating to redness followed by sudden 
cooling in cold water, when they are at last 
tempered at the heat at which grease inflames. — 
The process of tempering, to which all ai'ticles 
of steel cutlery are subjected, is intended to 
remove the brittleness consequent upon the 
hardening of the steel. This is effected by re- 
heating it to a proper temperature and suddenly 
plunging the metal into cold water. The higher 
the temperature of this reheating, the softer and 
stronger is the steel ; at lower degrees of heat 
a greater hardness is secured, but with propor- 
tional brittleness. The different temperatures 



CUTLERY 



167 



■with tho corresponding colors appropriate for 
the tempering of various articles are given as 
follows by Mr. Stodart : 

1. 480" F. ; very pale ^t^a^v yellow ; teiiiiuT suituble for lan- 

cets. 

2. 450"; a shade of darker yellow; razors and surgical in- 

struments. ' 
8. 470°; darker straw yellow ; penknives. 
4. 490°; still darker straw yellow; chisels and shears for 

cutting iron. 
6. 500"; brown yellow; axes and plane irons. 
6. 520°; yellow, slightly tinged with purple; table knives 

and cloth shears. 

I- Sn^' 'i"'l* P"?!^: [swords and w.-itch springs. 

8. 650 ; dark purple ; ) i & 

9. 570°; dark blue; small fine saws. 

1^ tnA. 1 vi . I larire saws with teeth to bo sot 

?-r?oo'H-r Vi A with pliers and sharpened 

11. 010°; still paler blue; 1 ,vith a file. 

12. 030°; same, with tinge of green; too soft for steel in- 

struments. 

The film which presents the color appears to be 
owing to the oxygen of the air, as it could not 
be produced by Sir Humphry Davy in nitro- 
gen. The action is probably upon the carbon 
of the steel, and the. effect is to partially pro- 
tect the steel from oxidation producing rust. 
— In ])laces where the manufacture of cutlery is 
carried on upon an extensive scale, as at Shef- 
field, the grinding and polishing is conducted 
in large mills or " wheels " devoted to this pur- 
pose. The rooms of these establishments, call- 
ed hulls, are furnished each with G arrange- 
ments for grinding, which are called troughs. 
They consist of the stone for grinding, a pol- 
isher, and the pulley for driving them. The 
stones are of various sizes, from 4 inches to 2 
feet in diameter, adapted to the articles to be 
ground. The convex surface of the small 4 or 
5 inclt stones gives the concavity on the face 
of the razor blades. Some are used dry, and 
others, employed for grinding articles, the tem- 
per of which might be injured by the heat, are 
kept wet. The dry grinding is more expedi- 
tious, but unless the troughs are furnished with 
a ventilating fan and flue for carrying off the 
fine metallic particles and the dust from the 
stones, the health of the workmen is very seri- 
ously affected. Fork grinding, Avhich is always 
done without water, is described by Dr. Hol- 
land of Slieffield as probably more destructive 
to human life than any other pursuit. The air 
of the rooms becomes filled with the fine dust, 
and tlie inhaling of this produces cough and in- 
flammation of the lungs, reducing the average 
age of tlie fork grinders to 30 years or less. 
Glazing or lapping succeeds to the grinding. 
Each process consists in applying the articles 
to the face of a revolving wheel, upon which a 
lump o"f emery cake is occasionally rubbed. 
The glazier is a wheel made of 6 or 8 pieces of 
some close-grained wood, arranged so that the 
grain lies as much as possible in the line from 
the centre to the circumference. The lap is a 
thin wooden wheel faced around its edge with 
a rim or tire of metal. This usually consists 
of 4 or 5 parts of lead to 1 of tin, and is secured 
by being run when melted between tlie project- 
ing edges of the face of the wheel. After being 
cast it is turned true, and is then indented or 



grooved in order to make it hold the dressing 
of emery and oil. Various qualities of polish 
are produced upon steel blades by drawing 
them from end to end across the revolving la]), 
according to the fineness of the emery witli 
which this is fed, or tiie smoother face given 
by tlie application of a sticik of charcoal suc- 
ceeded by that of a smooth ])iece of flint. For 
giving the finest polish to razors and other ar- 
ticles of fine cutlery, polishing wheels of wood 
are used with faces covered with leather and 
charged with dry crocus. — The handles of ar- 
ticles of cutlery are made from a variety of 
materials ; as the ivory of the elej)liant and 
walrus, different kinds of horn, mother-of- 
pearl, tortoise shell, and some sorts of wood, as 
cocoa and snakewood. Ivory is used more than 
other materials for table knives, &c. A solid 
piece of the right size is cut out, and the hole 
for the tang is bored in one end. Sometimes 
this is made entirely through the handle, so 
that the end of the tang may be secured by 
riveting upon a metallic cap which is thus at- 
tached to the extremity of the handle. When 
it passes only part way through, it is secured by 
cement, or by a late contrivance of the Messrs. 
Eodgers of Sheftield — a little spring catch fast- 
ened to the tang, which falls into a notch mado 
in the cavity in the handle as the tang is intro- 
duced, and prevents its being withdrawn. Bal- 
ance handles are made with lead introduced 
into the further end of the cavity for the tang, 
the object being to counterbalance the blade, 
so that the knife when laid down rests only 
upon the outer extremity of the liandle and the 
projecting shoulder of the blade at its other 
end. Common knives are made with a thin flat 
tang, to which strips of wood or bone are se- 
curely riveted for a handle, one on each side. 
The handles of penknives are much more elab- 
orate in their construction, involving a greater 
variety of processes than the blades themselves. 
The springs are nice pieces of work requiring 
their peculiar temper, and a flnal glazing upon 
their backs. The slips for the handles demand 
great care in their fitting and frequently in their 
ornamentation. The tliin plates, called scales, 
which form the sides and divisions of the handle, 
must be exactly adjusted to all the other parts, 
to which they are secured by rivets passing 
through the springs and outer pieces. It is 
stated that a three-bladed knife passes through 
the finisher's hands about 100 times. — The man- 
ufacture of table cutlery is of recent introduc- 
tion in the United States. It was commenced 
in January, 1834, by Mr. John Russell of Green- 
field, Mass., and some time afterward was un- 
dertaken by the Messrs. Ropes of Portland, Me., 
and the Messrs. Lamson of Shelburue Falls, 
Mass. It made but slow progress until the pro- 
cesses were improved by the application of ma- 
cliinery to form the blades, by the plan of Mr. 
Russell, which has since been introduced in the 
European works. The establishment of the 
Green river manufacturing company, near 
Greenfield village, has produced fur several 



168 



CUTTACK 



CUTTLE FISH 



years past table cutlery and bntcher and shoe 
knives to the amount of $300,000 annually, giv- 
ing employment to from 300 to 340 men and 
boys, and consuming every year 100 tons of cast 
steel, 180 tons of Granadilla wood for handles, 
50 tons of ebBny, 50 tons of horns of cattle, 
16,500 lbs. of ivory, 150 tons of anthracite, 
15,000 bushels of charcoal, 175 tons of grind- 
stones. Their knives are found in all parts of 
the United States, and are exported to South 
America, and some even to Australia and other 
parts of the world. The aggregate value of 
cutlery produced in Massachusetts in 1855 was 
$578,625, chiefly in Franklin county. As re- 
gards the quality of the articles, Fleischmann, 
in his work on the branches of industry in the 
United States, remarks that " the manufac- 
turers of cutlery have far surpassed those of 
the old world in the manufacture of tools, and 
that not merely in the excellence of the metal 
used, but especially in the practical utility of 
their patterns, and in the remarkable degree of 
finish of their work." This finish, it may be 
remarked, appears to be applied in American 
work only where it will be conspicuous, and 
hence useful ; but in the machinery of Ameri- 
can clocks and watches it is saved as a useless 
expense, adding as it does in English work of 
this class much to the cost, with no correspond- 
ing benefit. The value of cutlery exported from 
the United States during the year ending Sept. 
SO, 1857, was $12,663, and of imports, $2,140,- 
824, viz. : from England, $1,953,396; Germany, 
$87,540 ; France, $73,315 ; other countries, 
$26,573. During the 11 months ending Nov. 
SO, 1858, the imports of cutlery and hardware 
from England amounted to about $2,800,000. 

CUTTACK, a province of British India, in 
the Bengal presidency, bounded E. and S. E. by 
the bay of Bengal, and lying between lat. 19° 
40' and 21° 45' N., long. 85° 8' and 87° 31' E. ; 
area 6,705 sq. m. ; pop. 1,556,395. It is divided 
into the districts of Pooree, Cuttack proper, and 
Balasore. The district of Cuttack has an area 
of 3,061 sq. m. It is well watered and has a 
diversified surface, the coast being level and the 
N. W. part traversed by wooded hills which pro- 
duce teak and other valuable timber. Wheat, 
maize, rice, sugar, pulse, spices, and dyestuffs are 
the principal productions. The best salt in India 
is made on the coast, and iron is found among the 
bills. The climate is hot and unhealthy. The 
province was acquired by the British from the 
rajah of Berar in 1803. In 1817 it was the 
theatre of a serious revolt, and in 1857 was 
somewhat disturbed, though free from any con- 
siderable outbreak. The Cuttack Mehals, a group 
of 18 petty states, with an aggregate area of 16,- 
929 sq. m., and a pop. of 761,805, became sub- 
ject to the East India company on the acquisi- 
tion of the province. They comprise a small 
proportion of arable land, but are valuable for 
their timber. — Cuttack, the capital of the above 
district, is situated on a tongue of land between 
2 branches of the Mahanuddy river, 60 m. from 
its mouth and 220 m. S. W. from Calcutta ; pop. 



estimated at 40,000. Embankments faced with 
stone protect it from the frequent overflows of 
the river, which has been known to rise 6 feet 
above the level of the town in a single night. 
It is half in ruins, has little trade, and contains 
no handsome buildings. Many of its private 
dwellings, however, are well built of brick or 
stone, and it has manufactories of cooking uten- 
sils and shoes. Near it is the decayed fortress 
of Barahbattee, now used as a quarry. The 
town was the capital of the ancient province of 
Orissa, and its name, from the Sanscrit catak, 
signifies a royal residence. It was captured by 
the British in 1803. 

CUTTER, a small vessel with one mast, and a 
straight running bowsprit, which may be run 
in upon deck. It differs from the sloop by hav- 
ing no stay to support its jib. They are fast- 
sailing, and are often employed by smugglers, 
and also by the government for the purpose of 
apprehending them ; in the latter case they are 
termed revenue cutters. 

CUTTLE FISH (se2na officinalis), a mollus- 
cous animal or shellfish, a species of the family 
sepiada, of the class of cephalopods. The shell 
of the animal, which characterizes the family, is 
a broad laminated plate imbedded in the back 
part of the mantle, and terminating behind in 
an imperfectly chambered apex {mitcro\ which 
is supposed to answer as a sort of guard or fen- 
der in the collisions the animals are exposed to 
in swimming backward. This shell is a friable 
calcareous substance known as cuttle bone, or 
pounce, and used for polishing soft metals. The 
bone of a Chinese cuttle fish has been found 1^ 
feet in length. As a fossil the bone has been 
met with in the eocene clays of tlie London 
basin, and of forms indicating different species 
from those now living. The cuttle fishes are 
provided with 8 arms and 2 long tentacles, all 
of which radiate from around the head. The 
tentacles are provided with suckers, and reach 
beyond the arms to seize prey, and serve also to 
moor the animal. The suckers hold so fast to 
objects that the limb will part from the body 
before they let go. By means of their arms 
they walk on the bottom with their heads down- 
ward; the same organs aid them in swimming, 
and a propelling force is moreover obtained by 
violently ejecting water from their branchial 
chamber. As a means of defence they are pi'o- 
vided with an ink bag, the discharge of which 
opens into the funnel by Avhich the water is 
ejected from the 2 gills ; when attacked the ani- 
mal instantly darkens the water with the black 
fluid from this bag, and retreats in the obscurity 
it occasions. Several species of sepia produce 
this inky substance. It was well known to the 
ancients, and is described by Aristotle. It ap- 
pears to have been used for writing; and in 
modern times it has served for the prepara- 
tion of the brown pigment called sepia, but this 
is now prepared from lampblack. The ink 
consists of carbon in a finely divided state, of 
albumen, gelatine, and phosphate of lime. The 
bag must be dried immediately when taken from 



CUTTY STOOL 



CUVIER 



16S 



the animal, as it is liable to putrefy. The dried 
material is triturated with a caustic alkali, and 
then boiled with a solution of the same. After 
filtering, the alkali is neutralized by adding an 
acid, and the precipitated sepia is collected, 
washed, and dried. Buckland states that he 
had some sepia prepared from ink bags of ex- 
tinct cephalopods found preserved in a fossil state 
in the lias formation, and that the pigment was 
of such excellent quality as to attract the atten- 
tion of a celebrated painter. Cuttle fishes are 
found in the open sea in almost all parts of the 
world ; and they appear near the coasts periodi- 
cally in shoals. They have large eyes placed on 
the sides of the head, which seem designed for 
use in the night or in the darkness of deep 
waters, as the animal avoids the light of day. 
No other mollusca attain so large size as the 
cuttle fish. One has been met with of about 6 
feet in length. 

CUTTY STOOL, the stool of repentance, 
formerly employed in the Scotch kirk, for of- 
fenders against the law of chastity. The crim- 
inal having been deprived of church ordinances, 
and duly taken to task privately for his or her 
otfence, was required to make a public ac- 
knowledgment of the sin prior to being re- 
stored to communion. The penance consisted 
in occupying the cutty stool, in face of the con- 
gregation, and being lectured by the minister 
on the enormity of the offence. Sometimes the 
offender was clad in a white sheet, the stool of 
repentance being painted black, and placed con- 
spicuously in an upper gallery. The custom 
has fallen into disuse. 

CUT-WORM, the caterpillar of an owlet moth 
of the tribe of noctum^ and group agrotidida. ; 
this name has also been given to many other 
grubs and worms living in the ground. This 
caterpillar remains by day about the roots of 
plants, and comes forth at night to cut oflf the 
tender stems and leaves of cabbages, beans, corn, 
and many other culinary plants. Some of the 
moths of this family fiy by day, others only at 
night ; the wings are nearly horizontal when 
closed; the thoi\ax smooth and slightly convex ; 
the antennae of the males generally with 2 rows 
of fine tooth-like points on the under side ; the 
fore legs are often quite spiny. Most of these 
moths appear in July and August, laying their 
eggs in the ground ; in Europe the caterpillars 
are hatched in early autumn, and feed on the ten- 
der roots of i^lants ; descending deeper in win- 
ter, they remain torpid until spring. The cat- 
erpillars of the agrotidians are smooth, shining, 
naked, dark-colored, with longitudinal pale and 
dark stripes, and a few black dots on each ring ; 
cylindrical,