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14 2- 







THE ClAtUX^ OF XBZ pmtED STATES, . . .\ 

FROM THE lb*nT«S»S OF 3Sa TO 54«, 









^ ^ot, 30 -1 

l.i. I tF 


173G5(r ^ 

Entertd according to Act of Congress, in the year 1832, 

By William Kenrick, 

ki the Clerk's office of the District Court of the District of 


i'M 1 1 




I AM happy in being enabled to inecrtbe fj^ work to 
a gentleman, whos^ name WW intiitfiately asaodblsd 
with all the great improvements coimectod with AgrW 
culture and Horti<s«ilti$ve^ diadi^g the |98t <|atrt«r of 
a centurj. ^ The many vahiabfo jir>iT<|iimn ijm 
donations from Mr Knight, and other soorc^s, t>y j^' 
so extensively disseminated; your ^sinterested and 
distinguished zeal, to encourage an j enlighten, in all 
useful pursuits, and especially those to which this work 
id principally devoted, are not only highly appreciated 
by cotemporaries, ^ut posterity will know and acknow- 
ledge their value. ' 

Please to accept this dedication, not only as an a^ 
knowledgment of the many favors received, but as an 
expression of my high estimation of your manifold and 
successful efforts !n all that concerns the best interests 
of OUT country. 

With the highest respect and esteem. 
Your much obliged, 

and most obedient servant, 


. <( 


Page ZV) 28tfi line, for from ten to two francs, read from ten 

80US to ttDofranci. 
*' 68, middle of the page, for Maseau, read Mtueem. 

78, 8th line, for Groper, read Grosser, 
" . 85, 13th line, for RuLuuU read MtmaltU. 
*' 88, 18th line, after the words M. Christ, enuM the aiz 

next words which follow. ^ 

" 196, 23d line, for Pamsel, read Panieel. 
*< 214, 6th line from the bottom, for skinned, read thinned. 
<< 231, Ist line, for marbled read marked, 
*' 253, 20th line, for Pr coze, read Prtseox, 
*< 259, 25th line, fbr Imperative, read Jinperatriee, 
'* 260, 1st line, the same error a^ain occurs. 
" 267, 11th line, do. do. do. do. 
<* 263, 20th line, for Qneen Gage, read Green Gage. 
** 817, 23d line, for noon, read soon, 
*^ 339, 26th line, for Oxycoccum, read Oxyeoecus. 
** 365, 18th line, for Porteau, read PoiUau. 
*' 368, 20th line, for equal to five de^frees above the zero, 

&c, read equal to from ten to fourteen degrees ^ 4rc. 
*< 371, 20th line, for Lin-kiv, read Lin-kio, 
** 874, 35th line, for Tarpa Natans, read Trapa JVatans. 
" « 39th line, for Tuma, read tuna. 
" 884, 10th line, for Alianthus, read AUanthus, 
** 889, 15th line. Magnolia purpurea, &c, erase line. 

896, for A singular shrub, rising, &c. read Jl singular 

shrvibt Branchings ^e. 



For particulars^ see Index, Nos. 1, 2, and 3, a< (fte end qf 

the Volume. 

Dedication, ..... iii 

Introduction, , . ... . vii 

Acknowledgments to Authorities and Correspondents, iz 
List of Authors and Works quoted or referred to, x 

Climate, see Introduction, and pages, 61, 87, 88, 318, 326 
On the Decline of the old varieties of Fruit ; Observa- 
tions on the new Fruits ; Modes by which they 
are produced, .... xiii 

On the Growth of Trees, . . . xx 

Transpiration, . . . . ib.^ 

Transplanting. . . . . . ib. 

Propagation ..... xxi 

Inoculating, ..... xxii 

Grafting, ..... xxiii 

Fruitfulness of Trees, of Girdling, Dwarfing, &c, &c, xxv 
Quenouille, . . . . . xxx 

Pruning, see also each particular article, . xxxii 

Noxious Insects ..... xxxiii 

Hailstones and Rain, .... xxxvi 

Apple, ...... 25 

Old Pears, ..... 126 

New Pears, ..... 153 

Quince, .... 205 

Peach, * . . . . . . 208 

Nectarine, ..... 241 

Almond. ...... 246 

Apricot, ..... 249 





. 255 








. 294 

Grape Vine, 


Lime Plant, 

. 328 





. 335 




. 337 



Mountain Ash, 

. 339 

Cranberry Viburnum, 


. Persimon, 


. 340 

Silver Leaved Sheparc 



Raspberry, . 


. 341 




^ . 343 



. 354 

Nuts, Walnuts, Chesnuts, Filberts, &c, &c, 354—360 

Melon, . ... . . . 360 

Appendix, ¥rmXs adapted to Southern climates, $fc, 365 

Olive, . . . . . . 365 

Orange, ..... 375 

Pine Apple, ..... 378 

Plantain, ..... 379 

For numerous other varieties, adapted to the Southern 

Section of the Union, see Index JVb. 2. 
Ornamental Forest Trees and Shrubs, see Index JVb- 3. 383 
Ornamental Flowers, a Select List, . . 400 

Index, ...... 407 

to Southern Fruits, . . . 418 

— = to Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, &c. . 419 

Select and recommended List of Fruits for a moderate 

collection, ..... 421 


HoRTicuiiTirRE is the most ancient employment of man. 
Its utility and importance have been acknowledged by all in suc- 
ceeding generations. To the poor, its resources yield subsia- 
tence — to the rich, and to those spirits who cannot idly slum- 
ber, a pleasing occupation. 

A science whose pursuits are alike so conducive to the health 
of the body, and of the mind — so calculated to render mankind 
useful, virtuous, and happy, has never wanted advocates. 

Ithas found them, with the best, and the most enlightened of all 
ages — with every friend to his country, and to the human race. 
In our own country it has, and more eapecially of late, received 
that encouragement which its utility demands. This is suffi- 
ciently evinced in the simultaneous organization of the numerous 
societies for its promotion, and that of agriculture. With us, its 
progress has been only commensurate with the indefatigable zeal 
of a I^well to enlighten and encourage, and a host in numbers, 
and renowned in intellect, to codperate in its advancement. 

The Massachusetts Horticultural Society deserve of me also, 
in this place, a particular notice. This Society, although yet in 
its infancy, has accomplished much. And to the unwearied 
researches and enlightened zeal of its president. General Dear- 
born, I am greatly indebted, for much valuable informatioo 
which I have to him accredited in the following pages. Also to 
those numerous individuals whom I have elsewhere named. 

England, by the exertions of their most intelligent and influ- 
ential men, and by their societies, particularly the London H(w- 
ticultural Society, and its excellent president, Mr Knight, has 
confessedly done a great deal for the edvancement of the sci- 
ence ; and we are greatly indebted to their luminous writers 
on these subjects ; also to those of France and Belgium, and 
to the Horticultural Society of Paris. 

In England however, they cannot duly appreciate the valueofour 
native fruits, and those of oth^t climates equally favored wiUi us. 

• •• 

yrm introduction. 

Their hi^h northern latitude forbids it ; although they have done 
wonders in counteracting the hostility of their seasons and climate. 

In their vast collection of fruits, which they have congrented 
Irom all climates, in their Horticultural Society's garden at Chis- 
wick, I find by their Society's CaUlogue for 1826, that they 
have at least fifty varieties of the native peaches of Amer- 
ica — the selections from the extensive native orchards of this 
fruit, raised in the middle and western states for distillation. AH 
these, so fine in our climate — so much admired by travellers, 
with but ttoo exeeptiofit, are rejected as *< toortJUesr* — not be- 
ing adapted to their latitude, and not arriving to their full matu- 
rity and excellence, even on the walls to which tiieir cultiva- 
tion is confined. — ISee Fb/.2. JVo. 64 of the Pomological Mag- 

Other varieties of native fruit, so superior in our own climate, 
are by them almost as little noticed. The apples of America, — 
the nne selections during two centuries, from the innumerable 
native orchards. 

The finest fruits of Italy, and of other countries, possessing a 
climate analogous to our own, seem in some measure to have 
shared the same disastrous fate. The Mela Caria or Pomme Fi- 
nale, which is supposed to be the finest apple in the world, and 
which is cultivated so extensively as an article of commerce in 
Italy, proves in the climate of England a very ordinary fruit, 
as their writers inform us. On the other hand, it is very doubt- 
ful whether some of the native fruits of northern countries, do 
not lose a portion of that high reputation which they may have 
there acquired, when brought down to our own latitude, and com- 
pared with the native fruits of our own and other equally favor- 
ed climates. — [See Astraean^ page 87, aUo page 61.] 

The temperature of our climate, on our extensive Atlantic 
coast, differs considerably from those parts of Europe and of Af- 
rica in corresponding latitudes. 

The climate of a country is variously modified by its proximity 
to mountains and to the occau. And it has been observed, that 
the western coasts of continents and large islands, possess a 
higher mean temperature than the eastern coasts. Our climate, 
therefore, on the shores of the Atlantic, must correspond nearly 
with that of the eastern coasts of China, Japan, and Chinese Tar- 
tary, and the islands on its coast And our territory which is ' 
bounded on the Pacific Ocean, may correspond nearly with that 
of Europe on the coasts of the Atlantic, between the same paral^ 
lels of latitude. 

Elevation above the level of the ocean, has the same efiect in 
lowering the mean temperature, as an increase of latitude. Mons. 
de CanooUe, has ascertained by experiments on some mountains 
in France, that the elevation of one hundred and eighty or 
two hundred yards, afiects the mean temperature in the same 


proportion as a decree of latitude to the north, on that same me- 
ridian ; and jn a umilar proportion for any increase of height 

The olive and the vine may indeed wrow within the tropics ; 
bat we are assured they produce little or no fruit, except in 
the mountainous elevations. The cereal varieties of grain, the 
annual plant sand productions, those most necessary to the subsis- 
tence of man, have by him been acclimated from the borders of 
the tropics, to very high northern latitudes. 

Man himself has become habituated to all climates. The horse, 
the mostnoblo of animals, and the ox, the most useful, s'eem un- 
der the guardianship of man, in some measure, alike constituted. 
The horse and his rider traverse the earth from the burning des- 
erts of Sahara, to the frozen regions of Siberia, and the bounda- 
ries of the Arctic circle. 

The location of a garden should if practicable, be on the south 
side of a hill in northern latitudes. It should be screened on the 
north and (he east, either by high walls and fences, or what is far 
better, either by hills or a deep and dense border of evergreen 
and other forest trees. Intermixed with fruit trees and shrubs of 
ornament, and of easy access to water. A walk within the bor- 
der should surround the whole ; and where beauty and taste are 
to be considered, the irregular serpentine or gently waving line 
should be preferred. The straight line is too monotonous and 
artificial; it is but too manifestly a perversion of nature. In cer- 
tain cases, however, a very broad and straight avenue, suitably 
lined on both sides, has a very noble and striking effect. 



The descriptions of the fruits contained in the following pages 
are drawn from the most authentic testimonies and authorities. 
Their names, I have generally designated at the head of each par- 
ticular article. Although most of these fruits are already in our 
country, many of them are neio, and of very recent introduc- 
tion ; but a portion only of the new kinds have as yet produced 
fruit with us. 

In the (fescriptions of the new foreign, and to us unknown kinds, 
I have sometimes adopted the accurate descriptions of the English 
for the exterior, while for the more important descriptions of the 

aualities and flavor of these same kinds, I have had recourse to 
le French authorities, or those possessed of climates analogous to 
our own. 

Let me not be misunderstood. The descriptions which most 


fyreiga authors have given U9, are heyond a donbt true, as they 
have proved in former ages, and may still prove in some exposi- 
tions, soils and climates ; and they may prove generally true in our 
own ai^e and climate — but not always — especially with ref^ard 
to some old varieties. Once with us they might have been true, 

— perhaps with all. But that age has gone by, and we have now 
done wiUi many of them. 

My obligations to Mr Lowell I have elsewhere acknowledged 

— and my obligations to Gen. Dearborn, the President of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society. I am also under very par- 
ticular obligations to Mr Manning of Salem, for the many descrip- 
tions he has afforded me. All those articles marked R. M., Esq. 
are described on his authority, and are such as he has proved 
them to be in our climate. Those marked S. H . S. are on the 
tnthority of Stephen H. Smith, Esq. of Providence, R. I. such 
have been by him* approved as adapted to our climate. To 
hhn, therefore, I am particularly indebted. I have availed 
abo of the valuable descriptions in the New England Farmer, of 
the following gentlemen : Messrs Downer ef Dorchester ; Buel 
of Albany, N. Y. ; and Floy, of the city of New York, in the 
London Horticultural Transactions. Also I have availed of com- 
munications from the following gentlemen. Messrs S. G. Per- 
kins of Boston ; John C. Gray, of Boston ; Robert Carr, propri- 
etor of Bartram*s Botanic Garden near Philadelphia ; B. V. 
French, of Boston ; Micah Leiand, of Sherburne ; Gorham Par- 
sons, of Brighton ; Wm. Prince, and Wm. Robert Prince of the 
Linnaaan &tanic Garden, Flushing, N. Y. These last named 
gentlemen are the authors of a work on Horticulture, also an- 
other on the Vine, and another on Fruits ; Andrew Parmentier, 
late of the Horticultural Garden, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; E. M. Rich- 
Wds of Dedhaim ; John Prince, of Roxbury ; Leonard Stone of 
Watertown ; E. Vose, Jr. of Dorchester ; A. D. Williams of Rox- 
bury, and others. 



Adlum. Memoir on the cultivation of the vine in America, 
and the best mode of making wine, by John Adlum. 12mo. 
Washington, 1828. 

Annales d'Horticulture. Annates de la Soci6t6 d*- 
Horticulture de Paris, a valuable publication in monthly 
numbers, 8vo. 

Barnxt. Description of the great collection of Strawberries 
at Chiswick, in vol. vi. Hort. Trans, by James Bamet, occupying 
eiffhty pages quarto. 

BoN Jard. Le Bon Jardinier, edited by Messrs Poiteau and 


Vilmorin, for the year 1828. Paris; a work annually published 
for nearly seventy years. 

Bosc. Louis Auguste Guillaume Bosc, F. L. S. H. S.; author 
of several articles in Nouveau Cours Complet d*Agriculture, 
and other works. 

CoBBETT. American Gardener, by William Cobbett, a cele- 
brated political writer. 

CoxE. View of the cultivation of Fruit trees, &c, in the Uni- 
ted States of America, &c, by William Coxe, Esq. 8vo. Phila- 
delphia, 1817. 

Chev. Parmenttbr. The Chevalier Jose|>h Parroentier of 
Enghein ; description of various new Fruits in Hort. Trans. 

De CAND0L.L.E. L. A. Do Caudolle, author of several arti- 
cles in Nouveau Cours Complet d* Agriculture. A celebrated 
writer on Botany, &c. 

DoM, Ency. Domestic Encyclopaedia by A. F. M. WilUch, 
M. D.f edition of Dr James Mease. 5 vols. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1803. 

Dun. O. DuH. Trait6 des ArbresFruitiers par Henri Lewis 
du Hamel du Monceau. 2 vol. 4lo. Paris, 1768. 

N. DuH. Nouveau Duhamelou Traite des Arbres, Fniltiers, 
Nouvelle Edition, Augment^, &c, &c, formerly conducted by 
Dr Loisleur Deslongchamps, now still continued by M. M. Poi- 
teau and Turpin, several vols. folio,with colored plates, Paris. 

En. Enc. Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. American Ed. byDr 
Brewster. The article on Horticulture to which this principaUy 
refers, was drawn up by Patrick Neill, Esq. 

Fes. Am£r. Gard. New American Gardener, containing 
practical directions on the culture of fruits and vegetables, &c, by 
Thomas G. Fesseoden, Editor of the New England Farmer, Boston. 

For. Treatise on the culture and management of Fruit treei, 
&.C, by William Forsyth, Esq., seventh ed. 8vo. London, 1824, 

Hooker. ' Pomona Londinensis, containing representations 
of the -best fruits cultivated in Britbh Gardens, by William Hook- 
er, Esq.F. L. S. H. S. 4to. with colored plates. 

Hort. Soc. Cat. Catalogue of the fruits cultivated in the gar- 
den of the!Horticultural Society of London, at Chiswick, 8vo. 1826. 

Hort. Tram^s. Transactions of the Horticultural Society 
of London, 4to. 8 vols. 

Jefferson-. Notes on Virginia, &c, by Thomas Jefierson, 
late President of the United States. 

Mr Knight. Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq. F. R. S. L. 
S. &c. President of the London Horticultural Society, and the 
author of nearly an hundred articles in the London Hort Trans. 
&c, &.C, and author of several works on Rural Economy. 

LiNDL. A Guide to the Orchard and Kitchen Garden, or an 
account of the most valuable fruits and vegetables cultivated in 
Great Britain ; with calendars of the work required in the orch- 
ard and kitchen garden during every month in the year ; by 
George Lindleyi C. M. H. S. London, 1831. 


LouDoif. Encyclopaedia of Gardening, &c, by John C. Lou- 
don, F. L. S. H. S. &c, London, 8vo. 1825. A work of 1288 
condensed pages, and several hundred engravings. 

Loud. Gard. Mag. The Gardener's Magazine, by the aame 
Author. An ezcellentperiodical work in semi-monthly numbers. 

MiCHAux. The North American Sylva, or a description of 
the forest trees, &c, &c, with 156 colored engravings, by F. An- 
dr6 Micbaux, 2 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1819. 

I4ii'i'i:R. The Gardener's and Botanist's Dictionary, &c,by 
Phillip Miller, F. R. S. 2 vols, folio. Revised by Professor Mar- 
Cyn, London, 1819. 

Neilt.. Patrick Neill, Esq. A. M. F. L. S. author of the ar- 
ticle on Horticulture, in the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, and oth- 
er works. Secretary of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, &c. 

Nouv. CouAs CoMPLKT d'Agri. Cours Compi«bt. 
Nouveau Cours Complet d'Agriculture, ^- c, ou Dictiocnaire rai- 
sonn6 et Universel d*Agriculture, by tlie members of the section 
of Agriculture of the Institute of France, viz. M. M. Thouin, 
Parmentier, Tessier, Huzard, Silvestre, Bosc, Chassiron, Chap- 
tal, Lacroix, De Perthius, Yvart, De Candolle, du Tour, Du- 
ehene, Feburier, De Br^bisson and Rosier, (R.) 16 vols. 8vo. 
Paris, 1823. 

Phillips. Pomarium Britanicum ; an historical and botan- 
ical account of Fruits known in Great Britain ; by Henry Pliil- 
lips, F. H. S. &c, 8vo. London, 1823. 

PoiTEAu. A Poiteau, one of the conductors of the Bon Jar- 
dinier and the New Duhamel ; and author of many of the articles 
in Annates d'Horticulture, &c. 

Pom. Mag. Pomological Magazine, or figures and descrip- 
tions of the most important varieties of fruit cultivated in Great 
Britain, 3 vols. Svo. London, a very late work. 

Ptrus Malus Breftt. Pyrus Malus Brenifordiensis, or a 
concise Description of selected Apples, by Hugh Ronalds, F. H. 
S. &c, with colored engravings. 

QuiNTiNiB. Jean de la Quintinle, Treatise on the Fruit Gar- 
den, &c. Evelyn's Translation, I^ondon, 1693. 

Rosier. Cours Complet d'Agriculture, theorique, pratique, 
economique, &c, ou Dictionnaire Universal d'Agriculture, &.c,16 
Tols. 4to. Paris, 1801. 

Dr Pascalis. The Silk Culturist, &c, published in num- 
bers by Dr Felix Pascalis, Philadelphia. 

Speech LT. William Speechly, a Treatise on the Culture of 
tlie Vine, &c, 8vo. 

Dr Thacher. Author of the American Orchardist, and 
various other works on history, medicine, &c. 

Thouin. Monographic de Greffes, ou Description techniqae 


de diveres sortes de Greffes, employees pour la muldplicatioD dei 
V^g^teaux, par le Chevalier de Andr^ Thouio, Professor, &c, in 
the University of Paris. Paris, &c, &c, folio with plates. 

Van Mons. Dr Jeau Baptiste Van Mons. Catalogue des 
Arbres Fruitiers, &c. Lovaine, 1823. Also, Pomographie Bel- 
gique Moderne, 4to. with plates. This work is still in progress, 
and but a small part has yet been received from him. They are 
in the Library of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Dr Willtch. All thus designated, refer to the Domestic 
Encyclopaedia ; these were drawn, as I am informed, from the 
works of 1. L. Christ, a clergyman of Kronberg, near Frankfort 
on the Maine. 




The decline of many of the most valuable old varieties of fruit, 
has been noticed by several writers of different countries ; and 
particularly by Mr Knight, the President of the London Horti- 
cultural Society. In the vicinity of Boston, it has been more 
e^»eifally observed in regard to the old Pears ; for our best ap- 
ples and some other species, are mostly native fruits, or of modem 

Let no one suppose that the intelligent Horticulturists here 
have never been acquainted with the best of the old Pears, which 
the intelligence and industry of ageshad concentrated iu France. 
Who is not aware, that in every good collection, a proportion of 
the very best are always sent ? — How opposed alike to reason 
and to probability is the supposition, that even one of the best 
should have escaped. — They must have been here received, in 
the numerous and ever varying selections — in the unnumbered 

Rosier, in the origuial edition of his celebrated Dictionary of 
Agriculture, which was completed in 1801, has candidly informed 
us, that for his description of fruits, he is almost wholly indebted 
to the no less celebrated Duhamel Dumonceau ; and from the 
whole list of Pe^rs which he has described, he has recommended 
as their essence, for a moderate collection, fifty three trees of 
nineteen varieties, in different proportions. These are every one 
of them known amongst us ; and more than half of them, inclu- 
ding the very best, are decidedly the kinds long since, from their 
defection, proscribed by those who cultivate for the markets of 
Boston. And of the list of twelve trees of nine varieties, which 



he has recommended as the best of all, for a very small garden, 
three quarters of them at least, are of the kinds which have long 
since ceased to produce perfect fruit with those who cultivate 

for our markets. 

We regret the circumstance, but have ceased to wonder at the 
cause — since the same complaints of defection have already 
reached us from other quarters — even from the capital of that 
country, for which those celebrated works were principally 

designed. 4. . . ^u 

I shall in the following pages, designate some of those, in the 
class of old varieties, once the finest of all old pears, whoso 
duration we had hoped, but in vain, to perpetuate. For except 
in the city, and some very few solitary and highly favored situa- 
tions in the country around, they have become either so uncer- 
tain in their bearing — so barren — so unproductive — or so mis- 
erably blighted — so mortally diseased — that they are no longer 
to be trusted :— They are no longer what they were once with 
us, and what many of them are still described to be by most for- 
eign writers. 

The gentleman who prepared the article on fruits in Fessen- 
den's JVew American Gardener, has warned us to beware re- 
specting some of them. He is well known with us as first rate 

In the markets of the city which formerly abounded with them, 
they are no longer or but rarely to be seen : — The cultivators 
who furnish its supplies have given up their cultrvation. "Like 
the barren Fig tree they have been destroyed — but not without 
cause ; lor if they had not been accursed, their fertility and good 

aualities were gone ; and they were no longer fruitful but as 
fie sources of vexation. 

The practice of renaming those unknown varieties, whose orig- 
inal names are lost, after these old kinds is objectionable, inas- 
much as it is calculated to 'mislead — and to falsify the proofs of 
their mortality. From some fancied similitude, the barbarous 
names of antiquity are brought down upcj us, applied to exis- 
ting varieties. — From semblance of name alone, the * Gergon or 
Jargon' of antiquity has reappeared, — it has been reclaimed, not 
merely as kindrea, but as in all probability identiccU with varie- 
ties still existing.* 

* See t. 108 of the Pomological Magazine, where the authority of 
Menage and Duchat, and of Merlet are brought forward to justify 
the supposition, that «.he Jargonelle, asserted by them to be derived 
from Jargon, anciently Gergon, in Italian Gergo, in Spanish Geri- 
concaf all corruptions of Grcecum, and by ihe inference of Merlet the 
Pyrum TarenJtinum of Cato and Columella, the Numidianum Cfrce- 
cum of Pliny, the Grceculum of Macrobius ; that all these, named or 
described near two thousand years aso, are but one and the same, 
and no other than the Jargonelle of the present day. 



According to the theory advanced by Mr Knight and others, 
and confirmed by their experience, (he different rarieties of fruit 
have their periods of existence fixed by the laws of nature ; and 
after a certain time, either sooner or later, comes on their de- 
cline and final extinction. 

I shall offer some evidence to shew that the complaints of de- 
fection are not confined to us alone — they have reached us from 
other and remote quarters. In the markets of fruits and legumes 
at Paris, as M. Masson the Commissaire General has intormed 
us in his report published in the Annalesd' Horticulture for 1828, 
some of these same ancient, and with us once celebrated kinds, 
are no longer cultivated even with them. — He expresses aston- 
ishment at the catLBe — but the conclusion seems irresistible, that 
with them, as with us, they are no longer worthy of cultivation j 
and that out of that city, and in its vicinity, and the country 
around, these once famous fruits are at this day, aa liable to 
blight, and as unworthy of general cultivation, as in the neigh- 
bornood of Boston. 

The following are his words extracted from his report: *One 
is astonished on viewing in the markets of Paris so very few 
melting Pears. We no longer see the Sucre Vert, the Sucre 
Musqu the "jBezi de la Motte nor the Bezi d'Airy ; [Bezi d'- 
Hiri ?] vert/ few Chaumontelles, very few Culotte de Suisse ; 
no Royale d"* Hiver [Royal Winter], no Virgouleuseyandwhatis 
to b§ deplored, no Colmars,' [Some of these expressions, it 
sedms evident from what follows, were designed to be understood 
only in a general sense. K.] ' These three last species sell from 
ten to two francs each, [about forty cents] and their cultivation 
is neglected. 

* The Rousselet, so perfumed, so sought after by the confection- 
ers and distillers, is no longer of good quality. How different this 
Rousselet from that which they cultivate at the hamlet of Cor- 
montreuil, at the gate of Rheims ! At that place they cultivate 
the Rousselet almost exclusively, and these altogether on espa- 
liers. These espaliers offer at the end of August a sight the 
most rich and beautiful.' 

M. Poiteau when speaking of the decline of the old French 
varieties of Pears in the vicinity of Paris, an4 the urgent neces- 
sity of a renewal of the kinds, has informed us in the Annales 
d'Horticulture for May 1828, that notwithstanding the unwearied 
efforts which have been made in that country during several of 
the latter ages, by their most intelligent cultivators, in rearing 
new and valuable varieties from the seed ; yet such attempts 
having been conducted on wrong principles, have resulted in 
' absolute nothingness.* They must, he asserts, look elsewhere 
for new vnrieties to replace the old : — any where else but to 
their own country : — even to America, — but more especially to 


The same writer further informs ui, that the celebrated Duba- 
mel, during the long coarse of his scientific career, planted the 
seeds of all the best fruits which were eaten at his table, without 
beine able to produce a aingle fruit worthy of cultivation. 

Others in that country — as the Alfroys, for a succession of 
generations, have adopted^e same course, planting the seeds of 
the very best fruits, and with no better success. 

It would thus appear that all the finest yarieties of apples and 
pears having been raised in successive generations of fruit, from 
the original crabbed and worthless origin, that after the improve- 
ment has Kone on for five or six generations, to the production of 
a perfect fruit, it can be carried no further ; that exhausted nature, 
if urged beyond certain bounds recedes, and^a retrograde course 
commences. For the seeds of the best fruits, which are sown, 
she generally gives back nought but the worthless. In illustra- 
tion of the truth of this position, M. Poiteau has stated it as a fact, 
recorded by several authors, that the seeds of the Winter Bon 
Chretien always produce a detestable fruit. And Mr Knight has 
positively asserted, that the seed of the wild pear, fertilized by 
the stamens of the blossoms of an ameliorated one, will yield a bet- 
ter fruit than the seeds of an ameliorated pear. 

The mode however adopted in Belgium, with such wonderful 
success, in procuring new anil extraordinary varieties, differs very 
materially from the process of Mr Knight : for it appears that 
they commence by simply sowing the seeds, not of the best, but 
rather of the most austere and indifferent varieties, for a succession 
of a few generations, till the perfect sorts are produced. 

It is asserted by Mr Knight, that generally, the old varieties 
of fruit begin to decay, first, in the colder latitudes ; and that a 
fruit which there begins to decay, may yet be successfully cul- 
tivated in a more southern climate, or what is equivalent, in the 
confined and warmer atmosphere of cities. Those varieties 
therefore, which no longer succeed with us, may yet continue 
for a while to flourish in the milder regions of the Union, and 
especially in the interior, beyond the limits and influence of 
those cold eastern breezes from the Atlantic, which, rising with 
the diurnal appearance of the sun^ visit us so regularly and con- 
stantly at stated seasons. 

There are some however, who dissent from the opinions ad- 
vanced by Mr Knight and otiiers — opinions which seem justified 
by the experience of ages. — They do not indeed deny the fact 
of their decay, but they deny the cause. In their attempts to 
sustain the credit of the old bruits by rendering them immortal, 
they would ascribe their deterioration to any other cause-, ^to 
some supposed alteration of climate, and not of ours alone, but of 
the climate of all those countries where the same proofs of their 
mortality have appeared. 

We atoait the proofs of such changes; — meanwhile iu their 


absence, I believe all will agree, that in adopting his theory, we 
adopt the safest course. 

Mr Koigrht in England, and the Comte de Coloma of Malines 
and sume others, have fortunately succeeded in rearing several 
new and valuable varieties of fruit, from the seeds obtained by the 
process of cross fertilization. 

The following is the mode as described by M. Fries Morel : 
It is extracted from the Annales D' Horticulture, and is alike ap- 
plicable to fruit trees, to trees of ornament, and to flowers. 

[I adopt in this place with some abbreviation — the transla- 
tion of the Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn as it appeared in vol. viii. 
No. 34, of the New England Farmer for May 12, 1830.] 

« • « « <The operation must be performed, before the blos- 
som is entirely expanded. The corollas should be carefully 
opened, and the anthers immediat^y extracted with delicate 
scissors, sreat caution being taken not to wound the fillets which 
support them, or any other part of the flower. The ikvorable 
moment for executing this, is that which precedes the rising of 
the sun ; because at that time the pollen being humid, it is closely 
attached to the anthers. 

Between eight and nine o'clock, the plan's being exposed to 
the full influence of the sun, the perfectly matured pollen from 
another variety must be taken with care and placed on the stigma 
of the flower or blossom which it is intended to fertilize, and from 
which the anthers have been extracted ; repeat this operation 
two or three times during the course of the day. 

If the process has been successful the flower on which the 
experiment has been made, will wither and fade [if a carnation] 
in twentyfour or thirtysix hours ; on the contrary, if the fertili- 
zation has not been effected, the corolla will preserve entire for 
ten or twelve days and more, all its freshness and splendor ; it 
will then be necessary to repeat the operation, which should 
always be performed in dry weather ; and it is proper that the 
plant should be protected from the rain and mist, till a swelling 
is perceived in the ovary or germ. 

By frequent waterings and exposing the plants to the north, 
the maturity of the pollen and the stigma may be retarded. 

When the fertilization has really taken place, the pollen, whioh 
had been artificially placed upon the stigma, remains so closely 
attached, that it cannot be removed with a hair pencil ; it changes 
form and color, and soon disappears ; but this is not the case il 
the fertilization has not been perfect, and the pollen is easily de- 
tached from the stigma ; its color and form is not changed, and 
it remain'? visible, until the total destruction of the flower. 

The greater the quantity of the pollen, the larger is the number 
of the seeds produced ; but the number of seeds produced by art, 
is never so great, as when the operations of nature are leA to 
herself alone. 



The plant which has been artificially fertilized yields seeds, 
which (if a flower) produce generally flowers formed like that 
from which the anthers were extracted, but the colors resemble 
that which furnished (he pollen.' * * * And in the case of the 
new varieties of fruits thus produced, the new varieiy it is as- 
serted, will inherit mainly the qualities of the kind which fur- 
nished the pollen, while on the other side it will acquire some 
of the constitutional peculiarities of the fruit which matured the 

The pollen of blossoms, and flowers accordinfi^ to Mr Lindley, 
when viewed through a microscope, is found to consiitof ex- 
tremely minute hollow balls, filled with a fluid in which swim 
particles of a figure varying from spherical to oblong, and having 
an apparently spontaneous motion. The stigma is of lax tissue, 
the intercellular passages of which have a greater diameter than 
the moving particles of the pollen. 

When a grain of pollen comes in contact with the stigma, it 
bursts, and its contents are disseminated among the lax tissue upon 
which it has fallen. The moving particles descend through 
the tissue of the style until some of them find their way, by 
routes specially destined by nature, into a small opening in the in- 
teguments of the ovarium. Once deposited there, the particle 
swells, increases gradually in size, separates into radicle and 
cotyledons, and finally becomes the embryo of a seed or plant. 

These observations of Mr Lindley are extremely curious. No 
cross fertilization, it is further stated, can take place between plants 
or fruits unless nearly related. None for instance, can take place 
between the pear, apple or quince : or between the plum, peach 
or cherry, &c. 

I will now proceed to show another and difierent mode, by which 
the Belgians have, by experiments on a most extensive scale, suc- 
ceeded in obtaining probably a far greater number of new and su- 
perior varieties than all that ever existed before. 

The following is the mode, according to Van Mons, and is ex- 
tracted from the Annales d* Horticulture tor May, 1828, and M. 

[I adopt here the translation of the Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn, 
which was published in the New England Farmer, vol. vii. No. 

' The Belgians give no preference to the seeds of table fruits, 
when they plant to obtain new ameliorated kinds. When their 
plants appear they do not, like us, found their hopes upon indi- 
viduals exempt from thorns, furnished with fctrge leaves, and 

• The English writers hj tome mistake, seem to have confounded 
the system which I have just described, wiih that which I am now 
about to describe. — It will readily be perceived that there is no 



remarkable for the size and beauty of their wood ;* on the con- 
trary they prefer the most thorny subjects, provided that 
the thorns are long, and that the plants are furnished with 
many buds or eyes, placed very near together. This last cir- 
cumstance appears to them, and with reason, to be an indioatioQ 
that the tree will speedily produce fruit. As soon as the young 
individuals which ofier these favorable appearances, aiford grafts or 
buds capable of being inoculated upon other stocks, these opera- 
tions are performed ; the apples on paradise, and the pears on 
quince stocks, to hasten their fructification. The first fruit is gene- 
rally very bad, but tho Belgians do not re'gard that; whatever it is, 
they carefully collect the seeds and plant them ; from these a 
second generation is produced, whfch commonly shows the com> 
mencement of an amelioration. As soon as the young plants of 
this second generation have scions, or buds^ proper for the purpose, 
they aro transferred to other stocks as were the preceding ; the 
third and fourth generation are treated in the same manner, and 
until there are finally produced ameliorated fruits worthy of being 
propagated. M. Van Mons asserts, that the peach and apricot, 
treated in this manner,afibrd excellent fruit in the third generation. 
The apple does not yield superior fruit before the fourth or 
fifth generation. The pear is slower in its amelioration ; but M. 
Van Mons informs us, that in the sixth generation, it no longer 
produces inferior, but afibrds excellent fruits, intermixed with 
those of a middling quality.' 

Intelligent writers, those on whom we may rely, have assured 
us, that the new and numerous class of fruits which have arisen 
during the last forty years, is far more precious and inestimable 
in point of quality, than all previously known. They refer in this, 
more particularly to pears. 

Highly satisfactory specimens of some of the new species 
which are described m the following pages, have been seen and 
exhibited amongst us ; enough to convince us of the decided ex- 
cellence of at least a portion of them ; but as yet but a small pro- 
portion of the new foreign varieties here described have borne 
iruit in our country. 

The unwearied labors of a Vfep Mons, of Knight, of Coloma, 
of Hardenpont, of Duquesne, of Nelis, of Liart, of Dorlain and 
others, have probably effected more during the last forty years, 
than all that had been previously accomplished during twenty 

All these fruits m recommended as highly deserving of trial 
in our climate. — ^rom them, we must make our selections at 
another day, of such kinds only, as prove on trial, alike adapted 
to our climate, the very best in quality* and the most productive. 

* It has been asserted that such individuals as are here thus de- 
scribed and rejected, generally produce early and inferior varieties 



Trees derive their principal nourishment through their roots ; 
not however by their lateral surfaces, but by the extreme ends 
of their minute fibres, which are as so many innumerable mouths 
or spongelets. Their blunt points being formed of a spongy sub- 
stance, through which they absorb or drink in their supplies of 
nourishment 7rom the contiguous earth. 

This nourishment or sap ascending, is distributed through the 
branches to the leaves. In the leaves it is elaborated ; the more 
aqueous parts pass off b^ transpiration ; it is now changed, and 
is quite another substance from the sap in its ascent ; it now de- 
scends peculiarly prepared to nourish and give flavor to the 


The transpiration of trees and plants, has been found by experi- 
ments to be very great. When compared with that which takes 
place in the human system, it is found to be in very great dis- 
proportion. It has been stated on good authority, that there are 
some plax^ which perspire twice their weight in twentyfour 


When trees are removed for the purpose of being transplanted, 
their roots should, if possible, be preserved fresh and entire. If 
these precautions have been omitted, (heir whole bodies and 
roots must be immersed in fresh water during twentyfour hours ; 
and their tops must be lessened in proportion to the loss their 
roots have sustained. The sources by which they derive the 
nourishment which they receive from the earth being diminished, 
the whole sap of the tree and even its vitality would otherwise 
pass off by transpiration. 

October and November, after the first hard frosts have arrested 
their growth, is esteemed by mantf the best season for transplant- 
ing hardy trees. — The peach, tne plum, and the cherry, and 
evergreen trees, are thought by many to answer best by being 
transplanted in spring. But any, even the most delicate of trees, 
answer well if transplanted in autumn, provided a little protec- 
tion is afforded at their roots* during the first and most trying 
winter. This protection may consist of a flkv inches of Utter 
firom the stable, placed around their trunks and over tlieir roots. 
Moss from the meadows evergreen boughs are however pre- 
ferable for delicate plants, as these substances, being almost in- 
corruptible, never injure what they were designed to protect. 
It has been lately announced as an important fact, that the de- 


struction uf delicate plants which is sometimes occasioned by 
winter, is caused by the alternate freezing and thawinj; of the 
earth at the surface — that death commences at the aufface, 
which this protection will prevent. 

When trees are transplanted in Autumn, the earth becomes 
duly consolidated at their roots, and they are ready to vegetate 
with the first advancement of spring. 

The holes for receiving the trees, should bo dug from four to 
six feet in diameter according to the size of the trees usually 
transplanted, and eighteen inches deep ; the yellow subsoil 
should be cast out to this depth and replaced at bottom with rich 
soil intermixed with a portion of manure. The tree should gen- 
erally be set about two inches deeper than it stood before, but 
not deeper than this ; the fibres should be spread horizontally in 
their ^natural position, and the soil intimately and compactly 
placed about their roots ; manure may be placed above, and be- 
nq^tb, and on every side, but ought never to be suffered to come 
in contact with the roots, as it is liable in this case to corrupt and 
injure them : finish by treading the ground very hard. — When 
evergreen trees are set it is generally considered indispensable to 
pour at once a few gallons of water around the tree previous to 
treading hard the earth ; finish earthing and tread hard an hour 
afterwards. This is an excellent and safe mode with regai-d to 
any tree. 


Some trees are propagated by seeds, some may be propagated 
by layers and cuttings. In raising trees (rom the seed it is gen- 
erally a good rule to plant or sow them as soon as gathered from 
the tree. Those seeds however which are enveloped in a pulp, 
must be firat separated. Those of the hawthorn and many 
other sorts possessed of a gummy or resinous pulp, will not veg- 
etate till the second year, unless first separated and subjected 
to the action of frost. The seeds of the locust, and others 
possQilsed of hard shells, rei)|^re to be covered with boiling 
water, and set in a warm place till swollen ; as they become 
swelled they are to be separated, and fresh boiling water poured 
over the remainder etery twenlyfour hours — seeds thus pre- 
pared quickly vegetate. ^ 

Layers are thejimbs or suckers of trees bent down without 
being separated ffom the parent tree, and covered with soil ; 
their extreme ends only being left out ; thus buried they will 
soon strike root, generally. Some pal^cular kinds of trees how- 
ever, with extreme difficulty ; such must be tongued, an opera- 
tion which consists in cutting the layer half off, beneath the 
surface, and below an eye, and splitting it up an inch or more ; 
ihe cleft to be kept open by a small wedge. This operation 


should be performed in spring ; and the plant when well rooted 
may be separated in the autumn or spring following. 

CuTTFifGs. There are many kinds of trees which may be 
raised from cuttings. Cuttings should generally be from eight 
inches to a foot in length, and cut off at bottom close below an 
eye, and planted in a humid soil two thirds of their length be- 
neath the surface, and the ground trodden hard. With some 
particular kinds however it is necessary to square the bottom of 
the cutticg, and to press it hard down on the bottom of a pot. 
Other kinds must be shaded from the sun till rooted — they re- 
quire artificial heat in the soil, and a confined atmosphere ; thi.4 
last is effected by covering them with a bell glass, which mod- 
erates their transpiration. 


Inoculating is the operation of transferring any particular ffnd 
desirable variety of tree upon the stock of an inferior or wild 
variety. The operation is principally practised on small trees, 
and only during the time the sap flows freely, and chiefly during 
the months of August and September. 

Select for the buds the ripest young twigs of the year, and 
cut off the leaves, leaving the footstalk entire. Having selected 
a smooth place in the stock, make a perpendicular slit down- 
ward quite through the bark, an inch or a little more in length. 
Make a cross cut at the top of this slit,' quite through to the 
wood, a little slanting downwards ; next with the ivory haft of 
the knife, raise the bark on both sides from top to bottom, being 
very careful not to injure in the least the cambium or sap wood. 
Next, and with expedition, proceed to take off a bud ; this is 
effected by entering the knife a little more than half an inch 
below the bud or eye, quite through the bark, and separating 
the bark from the wood to the same distance above the eye : al- 
ways leaving a very thin slip of wood of about one third of 
the length of the bud ; this thin alip of wood occupies the mid- 
dle section of its length. The bad is to be immedidtely inserted 
in the stock to the bottom of the slit, and between the bark and 
the wood ; and the top of the bud being squared even with the 
cross cut, every part except the eye, is firmly bound and covered 
with. strong wet bass matting. • 

It is immaterial whether the cross cut is^ade at the top, 
or bottom of the slit : whether the bud is inserted downwards, 
or upwards ; it jrencrally succeeds equally in both cases. 
The mode of taking on the bud with a thin slip of wood 
occupying the middle pection of its length, is called the new or 
American mode ; as I finrfit described by no European author. 
It is the mode best adapted to a warm climate. But when the 
season is far advanced and the sap flows less freely, it is deemed 


the surest mode to take out the whole of the wood, always leav- 
ing the root of the bud. 

The string is to be taken off as soon a^ it begins to girdle the 
tree, which is generally in about ten days. 

In spring, between the time the frost is out of the ground and 
the rising of the sap, cut off the stock a quarter of ^n inch above 
the bud — sloping downwards on the opposite side. 

SCAI4LOPG BUDDixG is performed by cutting from a small 
stock, a thin narrow scallope of wood, about an inch in length ; and 
taking from a twig a thin scallope of wood of the same length ; 
this is instantly applied and fitted perfectly at top and bottom, 
and on at least one of its sides, and firmly bound with wet bass 
matting. This mode may be practised in spring, and if it fails, 
a second chance will be offered in July. — The French are stated 
to practise this mode on roses. 

The above are the principal modes of inoculating adopted in 
practice, although Professor Thouin has described no less than 
twentythree distinct modes of operation. 

Dr Van Mons buds his roses in June, so that they grow and 
frequently blossom in the same year. He prepares the young 
and unripe wood by separating tb^ leaves, leaving only their 
footstalks; in fifteen days after, their buds are swollen, and are 
now fit for insertion : &e stock is cut off six inches above the 
insertion of the bud, at the time the operation is performed. 
They are bound with thin strings of bass matting, previously 
drawn through a sohition of alum and white soap, and dried, 
which renders them impervious to water. 


Grafting is usually performed in spring. Professor Thouin 
has described forty modes, but the following will answer for all 
general purposes. 

Whip Grafting or splice grafting. This mode is practised 
principally on small stocks ; and it succeeds best when the scion 
and stock are of an equal size. 

The scion, which consists of the young wood of the former 
years growth, is cut to the length of about four inches. This 
and the stock are each to be cut sloping for an inch or more, and 
tongued. Tonguine consists in cutting a slit in the middle of 
the slope of the stock downwards, and a corresponding slit in the 
scion upwards ; both are now to be very nicely joined, so that 
one of the sides at least, if not both, shall perfectly coincide, and 
to be securely bound with a wet bass matting string, and covered 
with composition, or with grafting flfcy. As soon as the scion 
and stock are completely united, the string is to be removed. 

Clsft Grafting. This mode of grafting is usually practised 


on stockf of from one to two inches in diameter. It is tlius per- 
formed. Tlie head of the stock is carefully sawed off at a part 
free from Icnots, and tlie top pared smooth ; with a thin knife 
split down the stock throuen the centre, to the depth of about 
two inches, and insert a wedge to keep it open for the reception 
of the scion. The scion is (o be prepared in the form of a wedee ; 
with an eye if possible in the upper part of the portion tnus 
formed per&ct success is the more certain when this is the case. 
The scion is now to be carefully inserted, so that the inner bark 
of the scion and of the stock may both exactly meet. Large 
stocks require two scions, one on each side ; sometimes four are 
inserted. The whole fs now to be carefully coyered with the 
composition, or ffralUng clay, except two or three eyes of each 
scion. This moae of grafting is equally applicable to very sniall 
stocks, but these being weak must be bound with a string of bass 

Saddle Grafting. This mode of grafting is performed 
chiefly on yery small stocks — it is much practised by Mr 
Knight. The upper part of the stock is prepared in the form of 
a wedge, by two sloping cuts, one on each side. The scion is 
prepared by splitting it apwirds, and paring out the middle part 
on each side to a point When the stock and scion .are of equal 
size, the a^jnstmenl may be made perfect; but if unequal, 
one side at least must exactly meet. The whole is secured by 
a string of matting and coyered with the composition, or clay. 
The string howeyer is to be remoyed when a perfect union has 
taken place. 

Root Graftiitg. This operation is often performed on 
grape yines, just below the level of the surface, by the usual 
mode of cleft grafting. It is also performed on portions or pieces 
of root where suitable stocks are scarce. 

Side G^cAFTing. This mode is sometimes practised on (hose 
parts of a tree where a limb is wanting. — There are two ways 
m which it is performed. 1st. The scion is prepared in the same 
manner as for splice grafting, and the bark and wood on the side 
of the stock is cut sloping, and the scion beinff adjusted as care- 
fully as possible, it is bound on and covered with clay. 2d. The 
scion being cut sloping as in whip grafting, a cioss cut is made 
in the side of the tree on the top of a perpendicular slit; the 
bark of the tree above the cross cut is pared down slanting to 
the wood. The bark is now raised as in inoculating, and the 
scion inserted, and bound fast, and covered with clay. 

Grafting by approach. This is often practised on trees 
and shrubs which succeed with difficulty by other modes. The 
tree to be grafted must her growing very near the tree which is 
to furnish me grafts. — The limb or limbs of each tree which is 
to be thus united, must be pared with a long sloping cut of seve- 


al inches, nearly to its centre ; and the parts of each tree thus 
prepared, are to be brought together and firmly secured by a 
bandage of matting, so that the bark shall exactly meet on at 
least one side, and covered with clay or composition. When a 
complete union has taken place the trees are separated with a 
knife, by cutting off below the junction. 

Grafting day is made of one third part of fresh horse manure 
free from litter, one third of cow-manure, and one third of good 
clay, with a small^mixture of hair, well beaten and incorporated 
several days before using. .^ 

Grafting composition is made of three parts of rosin, three 
parts of bees' wax and one part of tallow melted together ; when 
well mixed, it is poured into water and worked up like shoema- 
kers* wax by hand. This composition may be spread while in a 
melted state pretty thickly with a brush on very stiong brown 
paper. This paper is to be cut into small strips of suitable sixe, 
and is very quickly applied. In cool weather it may be instant- 
ly warmed with the breath, so as to become adhesive. 


Modes by which they are by artificial means rendered pro- 

Whatever operates in repressing the too vifforoas g^wth of 
the tree^ by obstructing the free circulation oi its sap or juices, 
and by causing it to accumulate and become concentrated, has 
a tendency to render the tree fruitful. 

While a tree is yet young and flexible, and exercised by everv 
moving breath of wind, its pores continue open, and the sap is 
rapidly and uninterruptedlv diffused ; its whole juices are ex- 
pended in the formation of lectf buds. But as thev grow older, 
their consistence becomes changed and more inflexible ; their 
bark also becomes more thick and rigid, and may therefore 
operate by compression ; and the sap which before passed on un- 
interuptedly, is now retarded in its process ; it accumulates and 
developesjrmY btids, and the tree falls into bearing. To effect 
this object by Artificial means, various modes have been adopted. 
1st. Ligatures, or ringing, or girdling ; variously termed decor- 
tication or circumcision. 2d. By bending their branches. 8d. 
By frequently transplanting and confining their roots to a very 
limited space, and diminishing their supplies of food. 4th. 
By careful and judicious modes of pruning. 5th. By dwarf- 
ing or engrafting on stocks of a very slow growth. Or lastly, 
by a combination of each and everv mode as in the case of Chi- 
nese dwarf trees and the Quenouilles of the French. 


Subsection 1st. — Girdling or Decortication, 

Its effect in causine productiveness, increasing the size of the 
fVuit, and hastening its maturity. 

According to the theory and experiments of Mr Knight, ^hich 
I extract from his writings in the London Horticultural Transac- 
tions, * The true sap of trees is wholly generated in (heir leaves, 
from which it descends through their hark to the extremities of 
their roots, depositing in its course the matter which is successively 
added to the tree, whilst whatever portion of such sap is not thus 
expended sinks into the alburnum, and joins the ascending cur- 
rent, to which it communicates powers, not possessed by the re- 
cently absorbed fluid. When the course of the descending cur- 
rent is intercepted, that necessarily stagnates, and accumulates 
above the decorticated place ; whence it is repulsed, and carried 
upwards, to be expended in an increased production of blossoms, 
and of fruit; and consistently with these conclusions 1 have 
found that part of the alburnum, which is situated above 
the decorticated space, to exceed in specific gravity, very 
considerably that which lies below it. The repulsion of the 
descending fluid therefore accounts, I conceive satisfactorily, for 
the increased production of blossoms and more rapid growth of 
the fruit upon the decorticated branch : but there are other causes 
which operate in promoting its more early maturity. The part 
of the branch which is below the decorticated space is ill supplied 
with nutriment, and ceases almost to grow ; it in consequence 
operates less actively in impelling the ascending current of sap, 
which must also be impeded in its progress through the decorti- 
cated space. The parts which are above it must therefore be less 
abundantly supplied with moisture ; and drought in such cases 
always operates very powerfully in aiicelerating maturity. When 
the branch is small, or the space from which the bark is taken 
off IB considerable, it almost always operates in excess ; a morbid 
state of early maturity is induced and the fruit is worthless.' 

* If this view of the effects of partial decortication or ringings 
be a just one, it follows that much of the success of the operation 
must be dependent upon the selection of proper seasons, and upon 
the mode of performing it being well adapted to the object of the 

* If the design of partial decorticationhe the production of blos- 
soms, or the means of making the blossoms set more freely, the 
rin^ of bark should be taken off early in the summer preceding the 
period at which blossoms are required ; but if the enlargement and 

' more early maturity of the fruit be the object, the operation should 
be delayed till the bark will readily part from the alburnum in 
the spring. The breadth of the decorticated space must be adapt- 
ed to the size of the branch : but I have never witnessed any 


excopt injarious effects, whenever the experiment has been made 
upon very small or very young branches, for such become de- 
bilitated and sickly, long before the fruit can acquire a proper 
state of maturity. I have found a tight ligature, applied in the pre- 
ceding summer, in such cases to answer in a great measure all 
the purposes of ringing, with far less injurious conseqtiences to 
the tree.' 

* * * * I am not friendly to the process of ringing in whatever 
manner it may be performed ; and I think it should never be 
adopted, unless in cases where blossoms cannot be otherwise ob- 
tained, or where, in very early forcing, the value of a single crop 
of fruit exceeds the value of the tree. 

I have quoted more at large from Mr Knight because this arti- 
cle was written by him from, long experience. And at the dis- 
tance of fifty years from the time when, at ten years of age, he 
made his first experiment. 

Ringing or decortication is equally applicable to the vine as 
well as all other fruits, and operates in increasing its size and 
early maturity- It may be practised alternately on portions of 
the same tree in alternate years. 

It thus appears from what is here stated that the most suitable 
time for girdling the tree to increase the size of the fruit and to 
hasten its maturity, is at the time the tree is coming into leaf. 
But when the design is the production and increase of blossom 
buds, for the production of fruit in the following year, the 
operation may be deferred till the last of June or beginning of 

The operation consists in making two annular incisions quite 
round the limb through the bark, at the distance of about three 
eighths of an inch asunder, more or less, according to the size and 
thriftiness of the tree ; making a perpendicular slit and remove 
the ring of bark to the wopd. 

Subsection 2<?. — Barking the stems of fruit trees and 


.Mr Loudon has recorded (Afag. vol. vii. p. 662) a mode which 
has been declared by one of the best practical men in the Nether- 
lands, a never failing method of greatly improving the quality 
and size of the fruit on apple and pear trees, and vines. At the 
winter pruning, which is given there in February, he cuts off 
with his common hooked pruning knife all the outer bark down 
to the liber, of every tree above eight or ten years old ; not so 
deeply 'however with the young as with the old trees. It is as- 
serted by those who have witnessed, that this man's practice has 
never failed of being successful. And another who has tried it 
in that country asserts, that since he had his trees nettoyis, he 


has alwnys had large and better flavored fruit. This practice, 
says, Mr Loudon, * was brought into notice in Britain by Mr 
Lyon of Edinburgh about 15 years ago, and is not uncomn.on in 
England with apple and pear trees, and very general with regard 
to vines under glass.' 

Subsection Sd, — Of Bending the Limbs, 

This appears to be the most simple, easy, and effectual mode of 
rendering trees productive. When judiciously performed, its 
effects are very extraordinary. 

The effects appear to be perfectly understood by the Chinese in 
training their dwarfs. Its effects are also exemplified in the 
mode of training trees en quenouille, which 1 shall presently ex- 
plain. Also on the vine, by which means prodigious crops are 
produced. [See the article on the cultivation of the vine at 
page 326.] Also in the fig, for by this mode Mr Knight has 
obtained eight crops in a year. (See this article at p. 334.) The 
system is equally applicable to every species of rruit tree. It 
consists in bending every limb, or twig, to a position below the 
horizontal, while it is yet in a vigorously growing state, generally 
the last of June ; with some kinds which nave a prolonged vege- 
tation, it may perhaps with more advantage be deferred tillJuly, 
as in the case of the peach. The effect produced in the first 
instance is a momentary stoppage in the growth ; the juices are 
concentrated and form fruit buds for the production of fruit in 
the following year. But the growth of all parts of the tree must 
at the same time be restrained, and if shoots burst forth in other 
parts of the tree they must be nipped in to a few eyes as soon 
as they have advanced a few inches. 

Subsection 4th, — Of particular Modes of Pruning. 

Mr Dalbret, Superintendent of the compartments in (he Royal 
Gardens, devoted to the culture of fruit trees and economical 
plants, (near Paris,) has delivered a course of lectures on Pruning' 
in the school of Practical Horticulture. He has practised on his 
theory for a number of years, and is therefore enabled to appreciate 
its value. ^ Among the operations which are very rarely prac- 
tised, and which are scarcely known at a distanc3 from the capi- 
tal, he has insisted, with propriety, upon the eradication of all 
useless buds, which occasion more vigor in the branches destined 
to produce good wood and fruit ; and upon the necessity of not 
leaving too many lateral shoots or twigs which exhaust the tree ; 
but few should be preserved for yielding fruit each year, and the 
others should be cut off within a half an inch of the branch, which 
will cause fruit spurs to appear. He has also demonstrated the 
utility of pinching or cutting off the ends of the shoot?, particu- 


larly of stone-frait trees, to check the excessiye vigor of the main 
branches, and to cause the branches which uselessly consume 
the sap, to yield fruit ; this operation consists in cutting off these 
yet herbaceous, or young and tender shoots, when they have 
attained the length of six or eight inches, at a half an inch, or at 
most an inch above the old wood ; if it is done later, the opera- 
tion will be injurious, instead of insut'in^ fruit for the third year.' 
[JVeio England Farmer^ Vol. 8. This it from an artiele in- 
serted by the Hon. H. A. 8. Dearborn from the Annates d^Hor* 
ticulture.'] For some further particulars, see Currant, p. 293. 
Also see Peach at p. 240. 

Subsection Btk, — Dwarf Trees* 

Grafting and its effects. — The effect of grafting in rendering 
trees suddenly productive is well known. This effect is pro- 
ducod on the prmciples before explained. 

Dwarfs are extensively used in France for almost every 
variety of fruit tree, particularly those called QuenouiUes. 
And they are asserted by them and the English writers to be not 
only admirably adapted to large fruits, as they are not so much 
exposed to high winds, but for pears more especially ; they are 
declared to produce better fruit, to come into bearing earlier, and 
to bear more abundantly. 

Dwarfing is effected by inoculating fruit trees on stocks of 
comparatively slow growth ; the circulation is in consequence 
retarded, and the effect thus produced is somewhat like that pro- 
duced by girdling. The apple is dwarfed by being inoculated 
on the Paradise or Donein stock ; — the peach on a slow growing 
plum stock ; and the pear by being inoculated on the quince 
stock. I have elsewhere described a new mode of dwarfing the 
pear, and enumerated its manifest advantages over the usual 
mode. (See page 202.) It is asserted that the pear should be 
dwarfed only for the production of summer fruit. (See page 203.) 
As an argument to prove that the fruit of the pear thus produced, 
cannot partake of the austere quality of the quince, it is asserted 
that both the quince and pear are alike nourished from earth by 
the samefoodf in quality and substance — the leaves bein^ excla- 
sively the laboratory in which the juices are prepared which form 
the fruit. Even the difference in ihe varieties of fi-uit of the same 
species in taste and flavor,is supposed to be owing to no other cause 
than some diflferent and peculiar formation or property of the leaf. 
The Chinese form their dwarfs on the most fruitful limbs of bear- 
ing trees : these when rooted are separated, and when the fruit 
is at maturity, being much in demand in China, they bring a price 
in proportion to the crop they bear ; especially oranges, peach-« 
es, plums, grapes, he. They even extend their pcactice to 
flowering and other ornamental trees. 


Tlie following ia extracted from the account of John Living- 
stone, Esq. of Macoa. See vol. iv, of the Lond. Uort. Trans. 

In spring, at the time when the trees o£ fruit or of ornament 
are in blossom, they commence their operation by selecting only 
those branches which are most loaded with blossoms. They re- 
move the bark quite round the branch, to (he breadth of about 
half its diameter. This part is covered with a large ball of a 
composition similar to graiting clay. For large branches of elm, 
&c, a covering of straw or coarse cloth is used ; but for the 
orange, peach, &c, the composition is of itself sufficient No 
contrivance for the application of water is ever seen in this part 
of China. On this point I have made diligent inquiry among the 
best informed, and have always been assured, that the sap of the 
boughs is alone suffieient to keep up a proper supply of mois- 

When it has been ascertained that the roots formed are suffi- 
cient to preserve the living system, and this time varies from .six 
weeks to three months according to circumstances, from the 
commencement of the operation, the branch is separated ; the 
exuberance of growth is repressed by clipping the branches and 
leaves ; and after being removed to pots, their branches are bent 
and contorted by wires and other mechanical means. ***** 
Their fruitfulness is preserved by cramping their growth ; 
by confining their roots in very contracted earthen vessels ; in 
carefully regulating and stinting their supplies of nourishment ; 
in bending and contorting their limbs into many fanciful shapes ; 
and confining them thus by wires. In the orovince of Fo-kien 
where the best dwarfs are said to be formed, to entice ants to 
destroy the heart wood, sugar is- introduce^ into small openings 
made for this purpose. 

The account ot the mode of dwarfing trees in China, given 
us by Staunton in his account of the embassy of Lord Macart- 
ney to that country, differs little from that of Mr Livingstone.* He 
states however, that straw is used with the clay, and a vessel of 
water is placed above, with an aperture sufficient to allow the 
water to fall slowly in single drops. This was the mode in some 
of the provinces. 

Suhsedum 6tk, — Qnencuilk, 

This term is applied by the French to trees trained in a regular 
pyramidal form ; uom their resemblance to the ancient distaff; 
they term it en qugnouiUtk 

In the Department of Maine and Loire, as we are informed in 
the Annals of the Horticuhural Society of Paris, Uiey train their 
lE^ea en qtienouilley not onlf of the pear and apple, but of the 
pMicby the apricot, the plum and the cherry, the vine, and 



other fruits. The pears for this purpose are inoculated on the 
quince, and the apple on the Paradise stocks. 

The trees they use are principally raised at Angers, where 
the soil :s of such extraordinary fertility, that it m possible to raise 
a tree or quenouille, with all its lateral branches, in a single 
year from the bud. 

There are some kinds of pears which do not incline to throw 
out lateral shoots. When therefore the tree has ^rown to a 
sufficient height for the first tier of branches, they pinch off the 
top for their productiop. When the vertical shoot has risen to a 
sufficient height for another set of branches, it is pinched off 
again, and another tier is produced. And thus the process is 
continued, till the requisite height is attained, and the tree is com- 
pletely furnished with its branches, from the bottom to the top. 
When the lateral shodts incline to grow too fast, these must also 
be nipped in, that the equilibrium and perfect proportion of the 
tree raa^ be preserved. 

This IS an operation which requires much judgment and ex- 
perience in its application. It is observed that it always causes 
a momentary suspension of the growth. If the pinching or clip- 
ping off be too near the top, but one single and vertical shoot will 
be produced ; if the top be shortened a little lower, two branches 
only will put forth ; but if it be shortened a little lower still, 
three or four lateral shoots will put out just below, and a top or 
vertical one. 

Mr Loudon in his Magazine has described, * A long row oi 
pear trees in the garden of Chiswick trained •» quenoUUle, or 
more correctly as regards those of Chiswick, enpyramide, which 
with the additional ieatute of the points of the shoots tied down, 
has a very fine appearance.* * * * < In short this single row of 
pear trees is the most interesting feature of the garden. The 
shoots of the current year are bent down tehenfuUy groumy and 
fixed in a pendant position by shreds oi bass ; in the course of the 
winter these shreds are removed, to admit of pruning, when the 
shoots are found to have taken a iet. In the course of the sum- 
mer such as grow too vigorously are again tied, the object being 
to check the vigor of the young shoots, and by impeding the re- 
turn of the sap, to cause it to expend itself in those young shoots 
in the formation of blossom buds.' 

These pear trees at Chiswick, as Mr Lindley informs us, are 
all inoculated on the quince ; they are trained perpendicularly 
with a single stem, to the height of about seven feet ; with tiers 
of branches at regular distances, each being generally about 
eighteen inches long, and the tiers from nine to twelve inches 
apart. " * * If the plant be strong and vigorous, it will throw 
out many more branches than are necessary ; these must be 
thinned out, the best only being preserved ; these are to be tied 
down, and their luxuriance being thus materially checked, they 


are in camequence tiwya welt ruraiihed wilh fruit beiring 
spurs; Ihey are prodriclive, md (he fruit thoy produce tM far 
superior lo ihal which Is produced on Ihe common stapdard. 

B4pn«Dtuiaa dF auaai 
We Hre further informed 

nouiilee require but iiltle n , . .__ 

being deeuied sufficient ; Iheir fruit heiog within rt 

easilj (binned lo enlarge its size ; it is more secure against high 
winds ; and being near the ground, the additional warmth it re- 
ceives, laateriaily insures its ripenii|g in perfection. 

SECT! UN IX. — pr(;nino. 

If the branches of a young (rea iiiuing at and above the re- 
quisite height, be made by pruning to diverge from the trunk in 
OTary direction abora the horiionlal, and the interior of these be 
carefally kept from any interferanco with each other for a fow 
years, little pruniag will over afterward a he necessary. 

The complicated syalemsof the English for pruning the ipnle 
pear, peach and plum are not in all respects so necessary for us ■ 
they ara In part adapted exclusively to a cold climate, !t is not 
nacesaary with us, to lay i^en and etpose every part of the tree 
lo the direct rays of the sun : the atouaphere being in out cii- 


c. — NoxioDa INSECTS, &.C. 

Subseclion 1st. — Aphis, Puceron, Vine Pretter. 

Of this genus of insects there ire maay varieties ; they prej 
on the leaves of ditfercnl plants. — Various modes for Iheir ei- 
terminatioQ have been successfully tried. Infuuona of tobacco- 
waler, or of aloes, or elder leaves, or of cayenne peper, thrown 
on the leaves with a syringe is said to be effectual. Willis's 
syringe is the best known lor (his purpose. Sulphur dusted on 
them with ft Bivandonn puff has been highly recommended. 
Limewater ansnersin many cases uidovenaDBp suds. — Lastly, 
viuBRar is a powerful application. 

Subsection ^d.~^Bore^. 

ITie borer Is a d< « the wood ol 

the apple and qui ih or a Hllle 

below, where the lave once en- 

tered the tr^, the; b^ introduc- 

ing into the aperi the aperture 

must afterwards be ; eggs which 

produce this iDset T April to the 

beginning of June d secure the 

trees effectually, n o surround it, 

a little before the SI __ d,eitherwith 

a small conical mound of nnleacbed ashes, or clay, or mortar, or 
with a wrapper ot browo paper, as recommended (or the peach. 
(See page 239.) For small trees, a solution of two pounds of good 

Ctasli ID seven quarts of water, applied with a brush, from the 
ight of a foot quite down to the surface, is a very cheap, easy, 
and effectual mode of preserving trees from Iheir attacks ; pro- 
vided the application is made at the suitable seaeoD. 

StthsecHon 3d. — Curetilio. 

The curculio, in those parts of the country where it has gain- 
ed a habilancy, la the most destructive of all enemies to fruit. 
The curculio is a winged insect or beetle which rises from its 
earthy bed, and chrysalis stale, about the time the young fruit is 
forming in spring. They crawl up the trees, and when sufficient- 
ly numerous, they puncture, and depoaitaa egg in every fruit, 
particularly those possessed of smooth fkins, as the apricot, 
nectarine and plum.' They are stated la continue their work 
nf deslruclion till autumn \ the egg thus deposited toon hatches, 
and proiluces a v.'orm, which preys on the fruit, causing it in most 


cases to fall prematurely. With those fruits which I have just 
named the destruction is usually almost total, in those parts of the 
country where this insect abounds. Yet it is stated as a fact by 
Dr Tilton, that two trees frequently standing so near to each 
other as to touch, the fruit of one has been destroyed and the 
other has escaped ; so little and so reluctantly do these insects 
incline to use their wings. After the fruit thus injured has pre- 
maturely fallen and gone to decay, the worms descend into the 
earth, there they remain during winter in their chrysalis state, 
till the warmth of spring again calls them forth to renew their 
depredations. The cherry, though equally liable to their attacks, 
yet from the multitude of fruits which they produce and their 
early maturity, usually escape with but a partial destruction ; and 
the peach escapes in a great measure, from the rough and woolly 
nature of Its skin. — The apple, although equally obnoxious to 
its attacks, frequently survives, although disfigured in its form 
and lessened in its sjze. The pear, although sometimes attacked, 
yet seems to escape the best of all. 

Various modes nave been recommended and practised to de- 
stroy this insect or avert its attacks. Some have recommended 
kinaling small and numerous fires in the orchard by night, on the 
supposition that like the miller, they would be attracted by the 
light, and precipitate themselves into the flames.* And some 
have asserted that the odor of tar annoys and disconcerts them ; 
and have therefore recommended to suspend slips of shingles to 
various parts of the tree, which are to be frequently dipped in 
tar. — If the odor of common tar has indeed been found so 
efficacious as is asserted, I would recommend that the coal tar, 
which may be purchased at the gas works in all our principal 
cities, be tried with the same intent This last substance has, it is 
asserted, an odor so lasting, and so powerful and annoying, that 
experiments are making by gentlemen in Nantucket, by cover- 
ing with this substance the exposed plank of their ships which 
sail. to the Pacific, to preserve them irom the destruction caused 
by the sea worm. 

It has been noticed, that trees situated in lanes and extensive 
yards, where numerous cattle are confined,* generally escape the 
attacks of the curcnlio. This is supposed to be in part owing to 
the ground being trodden so hatd as to render it difficult for the 
worm to enter the earth, and to the annoyance and fright to 
which this timid insect is subjected, by the cattle rubbing 
against the trees. The insects, according to Dr Tilton, in such 
cases of fright, roll themselves into a little ball, and fall to the 
ground, where they become liable either to be trodden to death, 
or devoured by the farm yard poultry as a delicious morsel. 
Poultry of all species have been recommended as very useful , from 
the multitudes of insects they devour, they being particularly 
fond of tbe^beetle tribe. 


A case is mentioned by Dr Tilton [see Dom. Eoey.] of Col. 
T. Forest of Germantowni who * havinff a fine plum tree near 
his piimp, tied a rope from the tree to his pump handle, so that 
the tree wis gently agitated every time there was, occasion to 
pump watei^. The consequence was that the fruit on this tree 
was preserved in the greatest perfection. 

Hogs are stated to be extremely useful in orchards, by devour- 
ing at once the fallen fruit and the insect which it contains. And 
provided the hogs are sufficiently numerous to devour every 
fallen fruit, they will shortly exterminate the insects from the 
orchard in which they are permitte<l to roam. 

Paving the ground. This is said to be a most effectual mode 
of preserving iruit from the attacks of the curculio ; — by pre- 
venting its descent into the earth it finds no winter habitation. 
The ground should first be well manured, and the whole surface 
well paved with the common stones which so often encumber 
the fields. The trees in this case may be set very close. The 
excess of rain being carried off by the pavement, and their iux- 
uriance being thus restrained, such trees must not only produce 
great crops, but firom the effect of the sun on the naked pave- 
ment, the fi'uit must be of the finest quality. [See what is fur- 
ther said at page 326. J * 

Subsection 4th. — Slug Worm, 

These insects sometimes appear on the upper surface of the 
leaves of fruit trees, especially those of the pear, in the month of 
July ; and sometimes they appear again early in Autumn. They 
are covered with a glutinous substance, and their destruction is 
easily effected, by simply sifting air slacked lime over them, dry 
ashes however answers equally as well. For large trees, an ob- 
long tin vessel, perforated at the bottom with numerous small 
holes, and partly filled with lime or ashes, may be suspend- 
ed by a string from a lon^, slender, and elastic pole. This be- 
ing shaken over a tree, distributes the lime amongst the leaves, 
and the slue^s are speedily destroyed. A man may go over a 
large tree in a few minutes. (Fes. Amer. Gardener.) 

Subsection 5th. — Wasps, 

Mr Bartram has recommended, for the destruction of Wasps 
which devour and puncture the grapes in vineyards, that shallow 
vessels, containing sugar and water, or molasses and water, should 
be placed on the windward side of the vineyard. The sweet per- 
fume attracts them from a great distance from the leeward ; they 
are thus destroyed, by partaking inordinately of the liquid. • 

Mr Knight has informed us, that the wasps disappeared from 
his vine house after he had surrounded it in part with a hedge 
of the yew tree. 


"For the destruction of some other varieties of insects, see Ap- 
ple at page 108 and 109. Also Pear at p. 203 and 204 ; — Peach 
at page 238 ; and i^am at Page 271. 

Subsection 6th, — The White Mealy Insect. 

This iDsect is described by English writers as an insect of a 
most pernicious character, covering the trees and branches. It 
is little known. I must refer to them for the remedies. 


* Take half a peck of quick lime, half a pound of flour of 
iolphur, and a quarter of a pound of laii^ black. Mix the 
whole together with as much boiling water as will .form the in- 
gredients into a thick paint This composition is recommended 
to be applied to the stems and limbs of Apple trees which are 
infested with the White Mealy Jrueet, having previously removed 
the moss and loose bark by scraping them on with a strong knift, 
or some other instrument adapted to the purpose. 

|n using the composition, it will be most efficacious if applied 
In a warm state, or something more than blood heat.' — ZdruUey, 

On youn£ trees, Mr Lindley further informs us, ** vinegar will 
effectually westroy this insect ; but would be too expensive to be 
applied when the trees are large.'* 


In France, where the vine is so extensively cultivated, they 
are subject to be annoyed by hail storms, whicn at once destroy 
the fruit, and the prospects of the husbandman. Hail storms 
have been successfully prevented by paragreleSf or electrical 
conductors, consisting of pointed wires, elevated on tall poles, 
and communicating with tne earth. These are erected at suita- 
ble distances or stations of about 40 toises asunder, over some 
extensive tracts of vineyards in that country. And the clouds, 
which but for this expedient, would descend in electrified mes- ' 
iengers of hail, now descend only in showers of rain. Those 
sprcharged electric bodies, denominated thunder clouds, never 
being resolved into drops, or descending in rain, till an electrical 
communication iseflfeci^; either with the neighboring clouds or 
with the earth ; either in the vivid and visible flashes of light, 
or in the invisible and secret though certain agency of the con- 

Raiit has also in that country been prevented, according to 
the records of undoubted authenticity, which 1 have lately seen. 
Tlus has been effected by kindlins numerous fires over extansive 
tracts of country. And rain has been averted during their con- 






Eablt Sumuer Pbasmain. Coxe. 
. This apple is of medium size; its color bright red, on 
the Hunnr side a. little streaked or blotcbed with deeper 
red ; a, fine yellow ground ia occasionallj viaible ; on the 
opposite side a paler red ; its form is oblong ; the eje add 
stalk are both deepl; sunken ; the ^ealf very tender, very 
juicy, fine flavored and excellent. R ripens the middle of 
August. An excellent apple either for the dessert orTor 
cooking ; an abundant bearer and highly deserving of ciil> 


An apple of medium size ; it 
good ; it ripens the last of Julj 
apples in its season. This fruit 
Mass. and was lately introduced to 
ards of that place : it is consid 

3 . ' 



This fruit ori^ated in a pasture near Montreal and was 
named from Henry Corse, Esq. the gentleman who first 
introduced it to notice. He has described it as an apple of 
extraordinary flavor : ' it commences ripening in Au- 
gust, and has this singular peculiarity in maturing : it is 
six weeks from the time the first are fit for the table be- 
fore the last are so ; it should be perfectly matured on the 
tree and eaten immediately.* 


BouoH, of Coxe. Swket Bouoh, of some collections. 

The size of this fruit yaries from the medium to large ; 
its color pale yellow ; its form oblong ; its skin smooth 
the eye and the stalk which is short are each sunken ; the 
flesh is white, tender, juicy, sweet and excellent. An ex- 
cellent dessert apple and one of the best of its season ; it 
ripens the beginning of August. 


Priitce's Early Harvest. Pr. Cat. 
Prince*! Harvest, ) r c^w. 

Early FREiYftH Reinnetts > 

An apple above the medium size ; its color at maturity 
pale yellow ; its form globular, somewhat compressed at 
Hs summit and base ; its stalk long, the eye and stalk are 
each sunken ; its flesh white, juicy, tender, rather acid, but 
pleasant. It ripens the last of July : good for cooking. 
It has been noticed at Salem, as Mr Manning informs me, 
that this variety begins to show evident symptoms of de- 
cay. Not very productive. 


Early Rkd Margaret T According to the Pomolocical 
Margaret Apple < Ma^zine, and Lindley's 
Red Juneating f Guide. 

-CLASS 1. SECT. t. 

leep red, with 
■ide a green- 
aai ita atalk 
[esh is whito, 
ulf. This ia 

This fruit ia luge and vetj beautiful ; ita faim flattened ; 
akin amootb, of b. yellow color in the abade, finely contrast- 
ed with the bright red next the sun ; atalk abort, thia and 
the eye are deeply sunk ; Sosh white, tender and aprightly ; 
lemarkably light, wbich eminently qualifiea it for drying. 
An apple for the table or cooking. Itripena in August and 
coDtinuea to the end of September. The tree is of a rig- 
orous growth and uncommonly handsome ; it beara con- 
Btaatlyand abundantly. A very popnlar apple in the Phil- 
adelphia markets. 

PORTER. S. D., Eaq. 

The tree growa upright ; it is of medlom rigor ; a good 
bearer. Fruit above the medium size ; ita color light yel- 
low, with an occasional blush on the sunny aide ; its fonn 
oblong, and very regular ; its flavor aprightly and pleasant 
It commences ripening the middle of August, and lasta a 
month. This native apple is a popular fruit in the Boston 
market. It originated at Sherburne, Maaa. on the grounds 
of the Rev. Samuel Porter. 

, RED dUARRENDON. Py. Mai. Brent PL i. 
Dkvonibibi Qttabbkndoii. 
* A much esteemed Devonahire apple of the middle size 
■pherical form, [over three inches in breadth] b^t a good 


deal flattened and hollowed at the eye, of a deep red col- 
or approaching^ to purple ; of a brisk, pleasant and 
peculiar flavor, and is a rery desirable dessert apple.' 

< Season from Au^. to November. Tree grows large, 
spreads much and seldom cankers.' This variety is found 
very productive at Gov. Gore's. 


This apple it is presumed is an extraordinary fruit Ac- 
cording to the account of Henry Corse, Esq. who forward- 
ed scions to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 
April, 1831, it originated in the vicinity of Montreal, and 
is of accidental origin ; the tree bore fruit for the first time 
about a dozen years before. * A large, beautiful and excel- 
lent fruit, ripens in September, and sells at Montreal read- 
ily for firom fifty to sixty cents a dozen.' 

SAPSON. S. H. S., Esq. 


The fruit is of medium size ; color bright red, deeply 
stained in its flesh, which is very juicy and pleasant This 
is a very beautiful fruit, an abundant bearer and much es- 
teemed. Ripe from August to October. 


A very early summer firuit of medium size ; covered 
with stripes of red on a greenish yellow ground. It rip- 
ens the last of July and is a pleasant fruit We have not 
found this apple a productive variety. 


Sweet Harveht. Coxe. 
QuEEx, of Thacher*8 Orchardist 

According to Mr Coxe the Summer Queen is an apple 

of the finest quality and most beautiful appearance. The 

APPLES. -^ CLASS I. 8XCT. I. 99 

fruit is large, contracted at tlie crown ; the eye Banronnded 
by protuberances ; the stalk long, deeply inserted in the 
midst of projections. The color in the shade is fine yel- 
low, striped with red, butAextthe sun a fine red striped 
with deeper red. The flesh is yellow, rich, sweet, per- 
fumed. This beautiful fruit ripens in August and is dike 
suitable for the dessert or for cooking. The tree is a 
great and constant bearer ; the tree grows vigorous, its 
bjranches incline downward ; the leaves large. 

SUMMER ROS£>. Coxe. R. M., Esq. 

Habvsst Apple. lb. 

This fruit is of medium size ; its color a bright shin- 
ing yellow, streaked or marbled with red ; its form rather 
flattened ; its stalk and eye each a little sunken ; its flesh 
juicy, sweet and of excellent flavor. It ripens early in 
August A beautiful apple, and valuable either as a des- 
sert fruit, or for cooking, for which last purpose it may be 
gathered late in July. 


The tree grows^vigorous and upright, and is productive. 
The firuit is of medium size ; its color an uniform and 
beautiful red, on the sunny side a deeper red ; its form is 
oblong and very regular; its flavor sprightly and very 
pleasant It ripens the first of August and continues 
ripening till Sept at Boston : where it is coming into 
much favor as a summer f^uit A native ^uit found on 
the farm of Capt Benjamin Williams of Roxbury. 






A beautiful apple of medium size ; its color yellow, 
streaked and stained on the sunny side with bright red ; 
its form obloog, a good deal contracted at its summit-; its 
stalk deeply sunken ; the flesh white, firm, juicy, and good. 
This apple ripens in October and November. A very 
fine fruit and externally resembles the Hubbardston Non- 
such; Mr Coxe has asserted that it is a fine market apple. 

AUNT'S APPLE. Coxe. No. 59. 

< This is a beautiful and large apple, of an oblong make, 
resembling the Priestley in shape ; the skin smooth streaked 
with a lively red, on a yellow ground : the flesh is yellow, 
melting, and juicy ; of an agreeable flavor but not rick* 
It ripens in November, and from its handsome appearance, 
is a valuable market fruit ; the tree is small, its growth 
delicate, its fruitfulness great It is extensively cultivat- 
ed in several of the eastern counties of Pennsylvania.' 


GREQSOIf. lb. 

The tree is small, of a regular form, a spherical head, 
the young wood slender and upright The tree is a great 
bearer, and bears young. In full bearing the fruit is rather 
small. The fruit is flat ; of a bright yellow color in the 
sha^, a beautiful red next the sun, streaked with deeper 
red, with numerous daris spots scattered over its surface ; 
the flesh ia pale yellow, tender, juicy, sweet and rich. A 
dessert firuit ftom October to winter ; a fine fhiit Mr 
Coxe states that it makes good early cider but is not soffi- 
ently strong for. bottling* 



A seedliDg originated by Henry Corse, Esq. of MontreaL 
He states t]iat it matured fruit for the first time in 1829 ; 
it is large and very handsome, and of very peculiar and 
good flavor.' 


This fruit is as large as the R. I. Greening, its skin is 
partially covered with thin russet with a fkint hlush next 
the sun ; its flesh is sweet, with a slight and very agreea^ 
ble acid. It ripens in October and November. 


Eltow Pippin, Kir lOHT'sGrOLDEir Pippiw > According to 
^ Kitioht's Pippin, Elton Golden Pippin 5 Pom. Mag. 

A tree of this variety was sent in 18^ by Mr Knight to 
the Hon. John Lowell, and buds or scions have been by 
him distributed to all who have applied. The fruit is rath- 
er larger than a Golden Pippin, cylindrical, flat at the ends. 
The eye is large, open and level with the top ; stalk short, 
not deeply inserted ; sMn nearly smooth, yellow, sprinkled 
with numerous indistinct specks ; , flesh yellowish, crisp, 
with a brisk, rich, subacid juice. Ripe in October and 
November and will keep till Christmas. Raised by Mr 
Knight from the seed of the Orange Pippin, and the pollsA 
ci the Golden Pippin. 

The Downton Pippin is a most abundant bearer, ex« 
tremely well adapted for the market, and an exeellent 
apple for cider. The trees come very soon into besriog. 
The specific gravity of its juice is li)80. 

DRAP IVOR OF FRANCE, of Coze, and Sonsld, IhU 
notof Duh. R. M., Esq. 

Cloth or Oolb. 
This apple is very large and handsome ; its color a fine 



yellow ; with occasional dark specks and faint blotches ; 
its form globular, a little compressed at the summit and 
base ; its stalk short and slightly sunken ; its flesh white, 
firm and good flavored. It ripens in September and lasts 
till November ; a fine fruit and a most productive variety and 
highly deserving of cultivation^ 


CoDi.iir, of Coze. 

Fruit very large, and handsome ; its cdor a fine yellow 
a faint or deep red blush usually appearing on the sunny 
side ; its form is oblong, a little contracted towards its 
summit ; the stalk is short, it is sunken, as is the eye ; its 
flesh is white, tender and of an agreeable acidity. A 
good apple fi>r the table and excellent for cooking. The 
firnit is fit for use from September till November. A hand- 
some tree and a profitable sor for the market 

FALL PIPPIN. Coxe. Pom. Mag. Lindley. 

American Fall. Py. Mai. PI. zxxiz. 
Reinnetb Blanche D'Espaone. Pom. Mag. 
D*£8PA6NE, Db Rateau, Cobbett's Fall, Concoic- 
BBE Ancxen. According to Pom. Mag. 

This extremely valuable variety, is said to be the nation- 
al apple of Spain, there called Camuesar, In quality it 
stands in the first class ; its firm, rich, high flavored flesh, its 
beauty, and capability of keeping, being hardly exceeded. 
Fruit very large, roundish oblong, ribbed on its sides, un- 
even and broad in its crown. Skin smooth, yellowish on 
the shaded side, becoming pale yellow ; brownish red next 
the sun, sprinkled with blackish spots; flesh yellowish, 
crisp, tender, with a very rich sugary juice ; stalk very 
short. A free and abundant bearer. Ripe in November, 
and retains its good qualities till February. So the above 
authorities describe it. Mr Coxe agrees in substance with 
the above ; calls it one of the finest and most beamtiful 

APPLES. — * CLASS I. SECT. !!• 33 

apples of its season. It ripens in October and keeps well 
as a fall apple. 



This apple is of middle size, rather globular, somewhat 
flattened ; the eye is small in a shallow depression ; the 
stalk is short and sunk in a cavity — and scarcely projecting 
above the base. Skin light green, stained with bright red, 
with small streaks of darker red ; of a deep red on the 
sunny side. Flish white as snow, very tender, juice sac- 
charine with a miisky perfume. Ripe in October. A dessert 
apple of a most beautiful appearance, and highly prized by 
those who have cultivated it This apple undoubtedly orig« 
inated in Canada. 


This fruit resembles the American Nonpareil, but is 
earlier than that variety, and a mgre superior fruit This 
is a very productive variety, and a very saleable fruit 


The fruit is of medium size ; its form inconstant, and va- 
rying from flat to oblong, a cavity at its summit and base ; 
the color at maturity is a fine yellow, clouded with spots of 
black ; the flesh is yellow, breaking, juicy, rich, and deli- 
cious. It ripens early in October. This apple according to 
Mr Coxe is not only a most excellent dessert fruit, but makes 
exquisite cider. The tree is of vigorous growth, of a 
beautiful form and very productive. My authority further 
states that this tree is much cultivated in the lower coun- 
ties of Virginia where it has a high reputation. 


An apple of medium size and globular form; its flesh 


rich, juicy, high flavored and excellent A superior fruit, 
ripening in November. This variety I received of Mr 
David Towne of Topsfield in Massachusetts. There are 
several inferior varieties of this name. 


A very large and beautiful fruit ; its color a deep red on 
the sunny side ; on the opposite side paler red ; its form 
globular, flattened at its base and summit ; the stalk and 
eye are deeply sunken ; the flesh at maturity pleasant It 
ripens in October and keeps till November. A new 
variety from Vermont, introduced by the Messrs Winship 
of Brighton. 

GRAVENSTEIN. WUUch. Hort Trans, vol. iv. p. 
216. Pom. Mag. t 98. 

The fruit is large, of a globular form, commonly a little 
flattened, but varying to a little oblong and angular at the 
crown. The eye is in a broad deep cavity, surrounded by 
projecting knobs. The stalk is very short and deeply 
sunk ; the skin is smooth, of a yellowish green or clear 
straw color, with broken or irregular red stripes on the 
side next the sun. The flesh is crisp, of a pale yellow, 
with a vinous and highly flavored juice. It ripens in Au- 
tumn and will keep till April. A dessert apple supposed to 
have originated at Gravenstein in Holstein, and is esteem- 
ed the best apple in Germany and the Low Countries. 

I will now give Dr Willich's account of this superior fruit 
which he obtained frem Germany, as he did most of his 
other descriptions; it is better adapted to us. <The 
Gravenstein apple, a species of Calville, (obtained from 
Italy) is an uncommonly fragrant, large, delicious fruit, and 
though its pulp be somewhat coarse, the sap is copious and 


pleasing to the palate ; its color is a deep yellow, freqaently 
marked with red on the south side. This apple is equally 
useful for the tahle and other purposes of economy ; as it 
not only affords excellent cider, hut also when dry a very 
palatable dish ; it may be kept fresh during the greater part 
of the winter. The tree is of vigorous growth, and bears 
abundant fruit' Gorham Parsons, Esq. has produced spsei- 
mens of this capital variety. There are said to be two kinds 
of the same name. Gen. Dearborn) through Capt. D'Wolf 
of R. I., has introduced trees here from Copenhagen. The 
growth of this last indicates that it is identical with those 
received here from the Netherlands. The trees are vigor- 
ous and upright in their growth, the young wood dark shin- 
ing red, the leaves dark shining green. 


The tree is of medium vigor, of compact form and very 
productive. , The fruit is rather large, of a spherical and re- 
gular form ; the eye and the stalk are sunken ; the color 
pale green in the shade, but bright red next the sun, and 
streaked with deeper red ; the flesh white, stained more or 
less with red, is tender, juicy, rich, with an agreeable suba- 
cid flavor. It ripens in October. This variety is a native ; 
it originated on the farm of my father, John Kenrick, Esq. 
in Newton, Mass. 


\ \ 

This apple has been highly spoken of by the late Hon. 
Timothy Pickering. 

It is a large apple, its color of an almost uniform bright 
red interspersed with deeper and fainter stripes of the 
same color ; its form globular ; its stalk and eye sunken in 
deep cavities ; its flesh rich, juicy, a pleasant subacid and 
excellent I received this firuit firom Mr David Towne of 


Topsfield, near Salem. It is one of the most popular and 
saleable apples in that market It ripens in Oct and Nov. 


A fruit of medium size ; its color pale red, interspersed 
with small broken stripes of pale yellow and deeper red ; its 
form globular ; its flesh tender, juicy, agreeably acid, and 
good. It ripens in September. 

LYSCOM. R. M., Esq. L. Peters, Esq. 

A large striped apple, of excellent quality, butlittlelcnown 
considering its merit. It ripens in October and originated 
on a farm in Soutbborough formerly owned by Mr Lyscom. 
Specimens of this fruit were exhibited at the Hall of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 


The tree is very strong, vigorous and upright in its 
growth ; the leaves remarkably large, of a deep green 
above, downy beneath. The fruit is very large and beauti- 
ful, of a pale yellow color ; its form very regular, oblong, 
contracted towards its summit. The flesh is tender, rich, 
juicy, a pleasant fruit ripening in October. Mr Coxe has 
however stated that its quality is exceeded by many excel- 
lent apples of its season ; an American fruit 


HiNCHMAM*. Coxe. 

Fruit large, oblong, contracted towards the crown ; a 
beautiful fruit with a smooth skin of a red color dotted with 
yellow ; of a pleasant flavor. The tree is of vigorous growth 
and an abundant bearer, its branches very spreading. It 
ripens in autumn and keeps till into winter. 

I ' 



The fruit is rather large, flattened at its base and summit ; 
the color yellow or orange ; flesh very sweet and excellent. 
It ripens in September and keeps till December. This 
fruit is in high estimation at Providence where it is brought 
in sloops from Hartford, Conn. 

Dr Mease in the Domestic Encycloptedia has given a 
similar description of a fruit called at Philadelphia Ydlaw 
Stoeetingy brought there from the vicinity of Hartford. 

PUMPKIN SWEETING, of New England. 

A very large apple ; its color a yellow russet ; its form 
globular ; the eye and the stalk are sunken : its flesh very 
sweet and good ; a highly esteemed baking fruit, ripening 
in October and November. The trees of this variety grow 
very vigorous and upright, and the leaves are very large. 


This apple is much cultivated in Delaware, Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey ; taking its name from'the families by whom 
it was introduced into notice. Its form is flat, the size 
middling, resembling the Vandevere in appearance, but is a 
more juicy fruit ; the skin a pale yellow, with ^nt red 
streaks towards the sun ; the flesh tender and sprightly ; 
it is much admired as a cooking apple — makes tolerably 
good cider, but not of the first quality ; and is a fine table 
apple. The tree grows large, it ripens in the fall and keeps 
for several months. — It is known by the name of Seek-no- 
further, in the Philadelphia market, where it is a highly 
popular fruit in the fall months.' 

RAMBOUR FRANC. Cours Com. d»Agr. v. xii. p. 212. 

Rambour d*Ete, Rambour Raye, Pommk dk NoTmx 

Dame. lb. 
Rambour Gros, of the English. 

Fruit very large, flattened at its summit and base ; color 



whitish yellow, striped with red ; irregularly formed ; flesh 
acid, not very agreeable, but good cooked ; when too ripe 
it is insipid. Ripe the beginning of September to the end 
of October. The tree is vigorous and productive. Mr 
Coxe describes this as a large good cooking fruit 


The fruit is of medium size, of a conical form ; its color 
a deep red ; its flesh is stained with red, of a vinous and 
sweet taste and the perfume of violets. This variety loses 
its excellence if kept till February, becoming woolly or 
mealy. It is more beautiful on the doucin stock. 


Prince's Large Red and Green Sweeting. Coxe. 

This fruit is very large, some of the largest have weighed 
a pound ; its color yellow, striped with red, and partially 
covered with deeper red on the sunny side ; its form oblong, 
somewhat contracted towards the summit ; the eye sunken, 
the stalk short and deeply sunken ; the flesh tender and 
sweet ; a very fine fruit, ripening in September. 


This fruit is as large as the R. I. Greening ; its color 
green in the shade, with a blush next the sun ; it is melt- 
ing, and of a delicious flavor. The tree grows strong and 
healthy, and the fruit ripens in October and November. 

SEEK-NO-FURTHER, of the Bostonians. 

This fruit is large ; its form globular, inclining to oblong ; 
and contracted towards the summit ; its color at maturity, 
a pale greenish yellow, covered more or less throughout, 
with pale red stripes of a deeper red on the sunny side ? 


the eye and stalk sunken ; the flesh yellow, tender, rich, 
juicy and excellent It ripens in October and is in use till 
November. The tree is a moderate bearer, its form rather 
low, its branches inclining to shoothorizontally. 

SPICE. Coxe. 
Cumberland Spice. lb. 

The trees of this variety are vigorous and productive. 
The fruit is large, rather oblong, contracted towards the 
summit; the stalk thick and short; color pale yellow, 
clouded with black near the base ; the flesh is white, ten- 
der, and fine. It shrivels in the last stages of its maturity. 
A fine dessert 'apple, ripening in autumn and keeping till 
into winter. My authority states that this variety came 
from Cumberland county, New Jersey. 

STRAAT, Buel. 

Is an autumn fruit, it is stated to be tender, juicy, well 
flavored, and according to Mr Buel, in excellence it is not 
surpassed by any fruit in its season ; a native. 

TRIANGLE. Little. 

This apple was here received of Henry Little, Esq. late of 
Bucksport, Maine, but now of Ellsworth dn the same State : 
80 named from its form, which approaches to triangular. 
He states it to be a good bearer and a dessert apple of 
great excellence. It originated on the grounds of Judge 
near Bucksport. 

VAN DYNE. Floy, in Hort Trans, vol. vi. p. 417. 

A very large fruit, much in its appearance like the Fall 
Pippin and often weighing from twenty to ^wentyfour 
ounces ; in shape it is not so flat as the Fall Pippin and its 
flavor not so fine. It is however a beautiful fruit, and sells 


well in the market on account of ita size. It originated in 
New Jersey, opposite the city of New York, in the orchard 
of Mr Van Dyne, hence its name. 


A very large apple ; its color a yellow russet ; its form 
rather ohlong, swollen at the base,and contracted towards its 
summit ; its flesh pleasant, and agreeably acid. An ex- 
cellent cooking apple and pleasant fruit. It ripens in Oc- 
tober and keeps till December. The trees of this variety 
grow very vigorous and upright, and the leaves are very 
large. Well known about Boston. 




This fruit is large and oblong, of a bright deep s^iarlet 
or a crimson on the sunny side ; of a paler red on the op- 
posite side, covered with numerous white specks ; the flesh 
is juicy, of a rich pleasant acid and high flavor. Season 
from Dec. to Feb. or March. This is one of the most 
beautiful and excellent varieties. Originated it is said at 
.^opus in New York. It is a great bearer. Its young 
shoots are rather slender, of a dark color. It is distinguish- 
ed not only by this, but by the form of its fruit, and its su- 
perior productiveness from the Flushing Spitzenberg« 



This capital variety is a native of Massachusetts ; a large, 
beautiful and famous fruit ; its color on the shaded side is 
yellow^; but on the sunny side a bright deep red, which some- 
times extends almost over its whole surface, and is occa- 
sionally interspersed with stripes of a deeper or a lighter 
shade ; its stalk and eye are sunken ; its flesh is yellow, 
juicy, rich, saccharine, wi^h a most agreeable acid, and 
excellent flavor. The tree bears enormously every other 
year and in the interval, occasionally a moderate crop. 

No apple in the vicinity of Boston is so popular as this, 
at the present day. It is raised in large quantities for the 
market It ripens in November and may be preserved till 
February and March, and is recommended for extensive 

BALTIMORE. Hort Trans, vol. in. p. 120. 

A remarkably large apple raised by Mr Smith near the 
city of Baltimore. An apple sent to London as recorded 
in the Lond.Hort Trans, vol. iii.p. 120. Its circumference 
was fourteen inches and three quarters, and height four 
inches. Its weight twentythree ounces and a half. Its 
form wao flat ; skin a pale citron, with a ^nt blush on the 
sunny side. Flesh well flavored and close at the core. If 
this variety should prove a good bearer it will prove a 
valuable acquisition to our list of fruits. I have heard 
nothing said of its productiveness. 


This is said to be a large and beautiful fruit, of good fla- 
vor, ripening in winter. 



Ykllow Bellflower. 

A very large and beautiful apple, its color bright yellow, 
with an occasional blush on the sunny side ; its form oblong, 
contracted towards its summit ; the stalk rather short, and 
both this and the eye deeply sunken ; the flesh tender, 
juicy, rich and finely flavored, and is alike excellent for the 
dessert or for cooking. It ripens early in November and will 
keep all winter. The pericarpium containing the seeds is 
very large and at maturity the seeds are heard distinctly 
to rattle when the fruit is shaken. 

Mr Coze has stated that this fruit from its beauty and 
excellence is the most popular apple in the Philadelphia 

BLUE PEx\RMAIN. S. H. S., Esq. 

This fruit [not uncommon near Boston] has much to re- 
commend it. It is a large fruit, of a red color next the 
sun, and covered with a dense blue bloom ; it is good for 
the table, excellent for cooking, and ripens from October to 
January. The tree grows strong and healthy and is very 

CARTHOUSE or GILPIN. Coxe. R. M., Esq. 

This fruit is small ; the skin very smooth ; its color a 
deep crimson, a few stripes of yellow are occasionally vis- 
ible ; its form rather oblong ; the eye and the stalk, which 
is short are each deeply sunken ; the flesh at maturity is 
yellow, tender, and of good flavor. It is in eating from Jan- 
uary till May. An excellent fruit and a great bearer. 

Mr Coxe supposes this apple was brought from Virginia 
and observes that it is not only highly esteemed for its ex- 
cellence as a table fruit in spring, but that it has the prop- 
erty of hanging long on the tree in autumn, and is a good 
cider fruit. 



July Flower. Corkish July Flower. Hort. Trtiif. 

vol. III. p. 323. 
Calville d'An oleterre. fiaumann Cat. 

' A very old variety, being included in Evelyn's list It is 
a little above the middle size, of oval shape, with irregular 
ribs; the eye small, the stalk short and prominent, color 
olive green streaked with dull red. The flesh light yel- 
low, of a rich aromatic flavor and fragrant perfume. ' It 
bears at the extremity of the branches, but is not very 
prolific ; it keeps through the winter.' A tree of this vari- 
ety was sent by Mr Knight in 1823 to the Hon. John Low- 
ell and has been by him distributed to all who have applied. 


This is of a large size ; the surface smooth as if oiled, 
and striped with dull red and green ; its flavor juicy, 
mildly acid and well flavored. A good keeping winter 
fruit; a native. 


A fruit of medium size, of an oval form, in the shape of 
an egg : its skin is smooth, covered with irregular and bro- 
ken stripes of pale red on a yellow ground ; the flesh firm, 
juicy, of a rich and excellent flavor. This is a remarkably 
dense apple. I received this fruit of Mr O. Fisher of Ded- 

Eppes' Sweet. lb. 

This apple is large ; its color yellow with a faint blush 
on the sunny side ; fine for the table and baking ; its flesh 
very sweet and excellent It ripens in winter and keeps 


till ApriL A native handdotne apple, very productive ; a 
profitable apple to raise for the market ; and recommended 
for extensive cultivationi The original tree is now stand- 
ing on the farm of W. P. Endicot, Esq., Dan vers, near 

DUTCH CODLIN. Py. Mai. Brent PI. xxxvi. Lind. 

French Codlin. Forsyth. 

Gi«0RT of THK Wkst, of some collectioni. 

* Fruit very large, of an oblong figure, with five ribs ex- 
tending from the base to the crown ; the three upper ones 
being the broadest, and the two lower ones the shortest 
and most acute, in the manner of the Catshead. Eye 
small and deep; stalk short and thick ; skin yellow, but 
when fully ripe, of an orange color on the sunny side. 
Flesh white, rather dry, juice a little sugary or subacid. 
A culinary apple from Michaelmas to Christmas.' 


This fruit is large and rather flat : color a deep scarlet 
or crimson on the sunny side ; on the opposite a paler 
red covered with numerous stripes and small white specks. 
Its flesh white, saccharine, subacid and of peculiar flavor. 
Season from December to May. The young wood of 
this variety is distinguished from the i£sopus by its strong- 
er growth and reddish color. It is an ordinary bearer. 


An apple above the medium size ; its color pale, cov- 
ered with small specks, with a bright blush on the sunny 
side ; its form globular ; its eye and stalk sunken ; its 
flesh firm, very sweet and fine . An excellent fruit, ripen- 
ing in December and keeping till March. This tree is of 
slow growth. An apple was sent from Philadelphia to the 


Massachusetts Horticultural Society in November, 1831, 
uuderthe name of Paradise Winter Sweet, which was to 
all appearance no other than this identical fruit. 

GOLDEN HARVEY. Py. Mai. Brent. PI. xxiii. 

Brandt Apple. 

* A dessert apple not larger than the Golden Pippin ; 
the eye broad ; the stalk long and slender; color light yel- 
low, with a flush of red and embroidered with a roughish 
russet. It is called Brandy Apple from the superior spe- 
cific strength of its juice : is of remarkably close texture, 
very rich in flavor, and will keep till April or May. The 
tree is of slender growth, and does not bear well for the 
first two or three years, but after that, it seldom fails. 
Blossoms small : color lilac and white.' Specific gfravity 
of its juice 1.085. A tree of this variety was sent by Mr 
Knight to the Hon. John Lowell in 1823, and has been by 
him distributed to all who have applied. 

GOLDEN PEARMAIN. Coxe. Py. Malus. 

Ruckman's Goldex Pearmaix. Red Ri^sset. lb* 

The tree is of vigorous growth and compact in its form. 
The fruit is of medium size, flattened ; its skin is russetted, 
and of a dull red color next the sun ; the flesh is tender, 
rich, but not abounding in juice. A great and constant 
bearer. This variety is according to Mr Coxe valuable 
for cider as well as for other uses. 

GREEN NEWTOWN PIPPIN. Coxe and others. 

This variety is said to have originated in Newtown, 
Queen's County, Long Island. It is of middle size, its 
form is rather flat, its greatest diameter being about two 
inches and three quarters. Its color is green, but towards 
spring it changes tq a yellow. Its flesh is whitish and 


finn ; juice saccharine, with a hrisk lively acid, and a 
flavor somewhat aromatic. 

This apple is stated by Mr Coxe to be a great bearer ; 
and to produce a large quantity of cider, not however of 
the richest quality. It is further stated to be regarded as 
one of the best winter apples by inhabitants of the middle 
states, retaining all its flavor and juices till June. Many 
fine varieties are said to have been raised from this. In 
the Northern States and especially Massachusetts this 
apple is not so extensively cultivated, there are seve- 
ral sorts much morepopular than this, and much more pro- 
fitable for extensive cultivation ; with us it is beginning to 
decay, as I have understood from very good authority. 

GREEN SWEETING. Thacher's American Orchar- 
dist, p. 143. 

The account of this apple is partly from Thacher's 
American Orchardist and partly from a communication of 
Dr Thacher in the New England Parmer, vol. viii. p. 121. 

} A large handsome apple, resembling in size and form the 
Tolman Sweeting, though it far surpasses that variety in 
good qualities, abounding more in rich syrupy juice. It 
possesses the valuable property of retaining its soundness 
and flavor till the middle of June or July. It is an excel- 
lent appie for baking, a good bearer, more uniform and 
abundant in its bearing than trees in general, and deserves 
to be more extensively cultivated. It is supposed to have 
originated in the old Plymouth colony. 



Winter PsAaMAiN. Syn. Coxe. 

Fruit above the medium size, slightly ribbed at its sides : 
its color yellow, covered with bright stripes of red 


throughout, but a deeper red next the sun ; the flesh very 
juicy and high flavored. A beautiful and excellent apple 
either for the dessert or for cooking. October to April, 
Mr Coxe has added that this variety is supposed to be the 
most hardy and uniformly productive apple of the middle 
states. The tree grows handsome. 


A large apple, a capital fruit; its color in the shade 
is yellow ; but on the side next the sun and indeed over 
most of its surface it is bright red, interspersed with numer- 
ous small irregular stripes of a deeper red ; its form globn- 
lar, a little depressed at its base and summit ; its stalk and 
eye are each sunken ; its flesh yellow, juicy, rich, sprightly 
saccharine and very superior. It is a great bearer, and by 
many esteemed even superior to the Baldwin, and very su- 
perior to any other fruit known here bearing the name of 
JSTonsuch, A very superior and celebrated native fruit, and 
recommended for general cultivation. It ripens in Februa- 
ry and lasts till April. Originated in Hubbardston, Mass. 


This fruit is of medium size, resembling the ^sopus 
Spitzenberg : but rather preferable for the table, the flesh 
being more tender, Hess acid, and equally high flavored. 
A winter fruit. 


\ * 


Fruit very small ; its skin smooth and at maturity of a 
beautiful yellow, with a deep red cheek on the sunny side ; 
its form rather flat; the eye and stalk sunken; the flesh 
white, firm, and of a pleasant taste : its fruit grows in clus- 
ters, it is a great bearer and in eating from November till 


March. A beautiful and admired dessert fruit but not highly 
flavored. The tree does not come suddenly into bearing. 
It is a very saleable fruit on account of its great beauty. 

MAMMOTH. Py. Mai. Brent PI. vii. 

A remarkably large variety of the Newtown Pippin, of an 
oblong but irregular shape ; [the figure measures four inches 
and a half in breadth] ribbed at the eye, which as well as 
the stalk is deeply seated ; straw color flushed with light red : 
the flesh breaks easy and bakes well : it keeps till Februa- 
ry or March. The tree grows upright, with broad leaves. 
Blossoms rose color and white. Nothing is said of the 
productiveness of this variety. This is believed to be an 
American variety. 

MARQUISE. Dr Fiske. 

The fruit is of handsome size, of a red color ; the flesh 
melting, juicy, and of very fine flavor. The tree is of up- 
right growth, a good bearer, and the fruit keeps till April. 
This variety and the account of the fruit was communica- 
ted by the Hon. O. Fiske of Worcester, Mass., where 
this fruit lately originated. He states that in the opinion 
of good judges, this variety is one of the finest of apples. 

MARIGOLD. S. H. S., Esq. 

A very handsome fruit, striped on a yellow ground ; its 
flavor good. This fruit keeps till June. The trees of this 
Variety being young, their productiveness is not yet satis- 
factorily ascertained. This may possibly be the synonym 
of a variety elsewhere described. 


The fruit is large and handsome, oblong, flattened at the 
base, contracted towards the summit; its color bright 


yellow at maturity ; the flesh is tender, juicy, rich and high 
flavored. It ripens in November and keeps well all winter. 
The tree is upright and handsome, of vigorous growth. 
Mr €oxe has stated that it derives its name from that of a 
resident of New Jersey who brought it first into notice. 

New York Gloria Mundi. 

An apple of extraordinary size ; an apple of this variety is 
understood to have weighed two pounds ; its skin is smooth, 
of a yellow color, interspersed with numerous spots of white ; 
its eye and stalk are each deeply sunk : its flesh white, 
tender, juicy, and good, but not high flavored ; an excellent 
cooking apple. Its great weight and size render it liable 
to be blown down by high winds. On this account Mr 
Coxe has recommended that only a few trees of this kind 
should enter into a good collection : he also has stated that 
this variety originated on Long Island. 

MURPHY. R. M., Esq. 

-Its wood is of a remarkably dark color. Its fruit is of 
very handsome size, or the size of the Baldwin ; but of a 
darker red, covered with dark red stripes, numerous blotches 
of a darker red on the sunny side ; its flavor is very good. 
Raised from seed by Mr David Murphy of Salem, Mass. 
It ripens in November and keeps till January. 

ORTLEY. Hort Trans, vol. vi. p. 414. Floy, in lb. 

Fruit and scions of this variety were sent to the London 
Hort Society by Mr Floy who has given the following ac- 
count of the fruit. Received of Mr Ortley fi-om New 
Jersey, an excellent keeping apple, distinct from the New 
town Pippin, and of finer flavor; the tree grows more 
thrifty and is a free bearer. The following is the descrip- 


tion given of the specimeDs sent by Mr Floy at the meeting 
oftbat Society 15th March, 1825. The apple closely re- 
Hemblea the Newtown Pippin, but is a little more oval. The 
eye is large and deeply sank ; the stalk alender in a deep 
even formed basin ; akin bright clear yellow in the shade> 
but bright scarlet with a few spots of russet next the sun ; 
fleah yellowish, crisp, and breaking, very juicy, with the 
ianie pine-apple flavor which distiuguishea the Newtown 


This fruit in one of tlie most saleable apples in the mar- 
ket of Providepce ; its akin is smooth, of a yellow color in 
the shade, witJi a blush next the sun; its flavor la pleasant 
and good ; an excellent dessert fruit. It ripens from No- 
vember to February. 

Pennock, of Cose. 

This apple ia very large and handsome; its color deep 
erimsoD, intcraperaed with small spots or blotches of a dark 
color on the side next the sun, with streaks of yellow indis- 
tinctly visible ; its form generally flattened at ita base and 
summit, which are botha little inclined ; its flesh is yellow, 
tender, juicy, Bweet, and escellent. It ripens in Novem- 
ber and will keep till March. An excellent fruit, highly 
deserving of cultivation. The fruit has not been seen here 
BO large as at Philadelphia. Mr Coxe has stated that this 
tree is a gr'jat and constant hearer, keeps well, and is a pop- 
ular apple in the Philadelphia market, and that it ia an 
American variety. 

PICKMAN. R. M., Esq. 

A fruit of a globular ibrm, And of a strair color; its 


flavor combined with a good portion of acidity, is very rich 
and good. A winter fruit, fine for the table or for cooking. 
A good fruit and very productive and deserving of cultiva- 
tion. This is much cultivated by Mr Ware at ornear Sa- 
lem, who thinks it a native. 


So named from its native place, and its resemblance to 
the iEsopus Spitzenberg. It is a very superior winter fruit, 
ajid a native. 


This fruit is large ; the skin smooth, of a dull red color, 
striped and spotted with pale green ; its form oblong ; the 
flesh is white, of a pleasant aromatic flavor ; an excellent 
fruit for the dessert or cooking : the tree is a great bearer 
and the fruit ripens in December and keeps all winter. 
This variety originated according to Mr Coxe in Pennsyl- 
vania, and was first cultivated by a Mr Priestley. 

RED CALVILLE. Bon. Jard. Lindley. 

Calvillk Rouge, Calvil.l.i: Rougk d'Htyer. Bon 

The fruit is large, its length is equal to its breadth, which 
is greatest near its base. The eye is deeply sunk and the 
stalk is inserted in a sunken cavity; the skin is a bright 
red ; and on the side next the sun^ a deep crimson : flavor 
good. A beautiful apple, ripe in October and may be kept 
till winter. Tree grows remarkably upright 

(P) REINETTE FRANCHE. Cours C. d'Agr. v. xii. p. 215. 

Fruit larg0, round, irregularly formed and very much 
pointed with brown ; sometimes slightly red next the sun ; 
the flesh is firm, yellowish white, sugary, agreeable. This 


apple will keep a year ; and is, notwilhstanding the excel- 
lence of the Reinette Grise and the Reinette du Canada, 
the best of all ; but it varies much in goodness, in size, 
and duration, according to the soils, expositions, seasons, 
&c. Mr Coxe speaks well of this fruit. 

(P) REINETTE GRISE. Cours Com. d*Agr. v. xii. p. 214. 

The fruit is of medium size, flattened at its summit and 
base ; the skin thick, rough, greenish yellow in the shade, 
reddish yellow next the sun ; the flesh is firm, yellowish 
white, sugary, high flavored, with a very fine and very 
agreeable acid. This is regarded as one of the best of 
apples ; but notwithstanding this, the Reinnette Franche 
disputes the claim. It keeps long after winter. Mr Coxe 
speaks well of this fruit. 


Jersey or Burlingtox Greening, of Coxe. 

A very large apple ; its color a yellowish green, cover- 
ed with dark spots or blotches ; its form is rather globular, 
flattened at the base and summit ; its stalk and eye deeply 
sunken ; its flesh is yellow, tender, rich, juicy, of an agree- 
able flavor in which acid predominates. The fruit is at 
maturity from November to March. This tree is a most 
abundant bearer every other year, and has been on this 
account most extensively cultivated in Rhode Island and 
Massachusetts, and is here preferred for its productivenesu 
to the Green Newtown Pippin. 


Formosa Pippin. Hort. Trans, vol. iii. p. 322. 
Tavers Apple. Hort. Trans, vol. iii. p. 322. 
(fLORT OF York. Hort. Soc. Cat., according toLind. 

This apple is esteemed by the English as with us a very 
first rate fruit. This fruit is of middle size, form globular^ 


but somewhat flattened. Skin pale yellow, mottled thinly 
with red on the sunny side, a thin russet around the crown 
and stalk ; the flesh is pale yellow and firm. The juice 
is saccharine, with a most agreeable acid, rich, aromatic 
and of delicous flavor. It ripens from December to Feb- 
ruary, and is rafher an ordinary bearer. 


This capital old variety is a native of Massachusetts. It 
is a large fruit ; its color a uniform brownish yellow rus- 
set, sometimes intermixed with green ; on the' sunny side 
an occasional blush ; itd form globular, flattened a little at 
its base and summit ; its stalk and eye are sunken ; its 
flesh white, juicy, rich, sub-acid and excellent ; an old 
and famous variety in Massachusetts, a great and constant, 
bearer ; it seldom fails. Great quantities of this fruit are 
raised in the neighborhood of Boston for the market and 
for exportation, and although the Baldwin, the Hubbardston 
Nonsuch, and perhaps some other winter fruits, far exceed 
this variety in beauty and excellence of flavor, and at 
least equal it in productiveness, the Roxbury Russet sur- 
passes them all in its property of long keeping. They are 
fit for use in winter and keep till June or July. 


< This apple is a native of one of the Eastern States ; it 
is a large fruit, of a round but oblong form ; the skin smooth, 
of a yellowish green color; the flesh yellow, juicy, rich 
and tender ; an agreeable early winter apple : the tree 
bears well, the trunk straight and tall, shooting its bran- 
ches upwards in a regular form. 

SWAAR. Coxe, No. 101. 

< In the Low Dutch this name is said to signify a heavy 



apple. It is a highly celebrated winter table fruit in some 
parts of New York, and New Jersey ; it is a large green 
apple, of great and uncommon flavor and richness ; highly 
deserving of cultivation in every collection of fine fruits.* 

(R) SWEENEY NONPAREIL. Hort Trans. vol. iv. 
p. 526. Lindley. 

Raised by J. N. Parker, Esq. at Sweeney in Shropshire in 
1807. This variety was sent by Mr Knight in 1822 to 
Hon. John LoweU and has been by him distributed to all 
who have applied. The tree is stated to be an abundant 
bearer and sometimes the fruit grows large ; the largest 
ever produced was eleven inches in circumference and 
weighed 9| ounces ; fruit rather large, in form of a 
•Nonpareil; three inches in diameter but less in height ; 
eye small, not deep ; stalk in a cavity, wide but sliallow ; 
color green with white spots and patches of russet all 
over ; sometimes a brilliant color next the sun. Flesh firm, 
crisp, with abundance of juice, in which a powerful acid is 
combined with much sugar. A dessert apple from No- 
vember to March. 

WINE APPLE. Coxe. R. M., Esq. S. H. S., Esq. 

Hays Apple. Coxe syn. 

A very large and beautiful apple ; its color bright red ; 
a few small stripes and blotches of yellow occasionally 
appear on the shaded side ; the form is globular, a little 
flattened at the ends ; its stalk short, and deeply sunken ; 
its eye in a deep cavity ; its flesh rich and excellent. It 
ripens the last of October and may be kept till February 
or March. A very fine and productive apple and highly de- 
serving of cultivation. An excellent judge of fruit in 
Rhode Island pronounces this variety one among the best 
of apples ; Mr Coxe has stated that in New Jersey it is 
variously called Large Winter Red and The Fine WitUir ; 


that it is not oply an admired table fruit, but excellent 
for cooking as well as for cider ; that it bears abundantly, 
and is one of the most saleable apples sold in the Philadel- 
phia market. The tree grows large and handsome. 


Grafton Sweeting, Seayeji Sweeting. 

This apple is large; its skin smooth, of a bright yel- 
low color, but on the sunny side a fine blush ; its form 
oblong, a little contracted towards its summit, its stalk and 
eye sunken ; its flesh yellow, juicy, sweet and fine flavor- 
ed. A profuse bearer and very valuable either for baking 
or as a dessert fruit. It is at maturity from November till 
March. The trees are of vigorous and upright growth, 
leaves large. 


Calville Blanche d*Hiver. Duh. 
Bonnet Carre. lb. 

'♦ This fruit is large ; its color at maturity of a bright yellow, 
with a bright red blush on the sunny side ; its form rather 
flat, and ribbed ; its eye and stalk deeply sunken ; its flesh 
white, tender and pleasant, but not high flavored. It is 
worth cultivation however. It fipens in November, and 
keeps till March. 


Large Yellow Newtown Pippin. Coxe. 

Mr Coxe esteems this iruit in all its varieties the finest 
apple in our country, and probably in the world. He in- 
forms us, * that it varies much in quality with soil, aspect, 
cultivation, climate, and age : although peculiarly adapted to 
strong high ground, it may be raised in great perfection 
in all good wheat and clover land ; the better the soil, the 
better will be the fruit ; for the growth is not vigorous. 


and in every soil the bark has a rough appearance ; it ri« 
pens in November and is often kept till May and June : 
it is a superior table fruit and an excellent kitchen and 
cider apple. The tree does not arrive at maturity till 
twenty or twentyfive years of age.' 





The most celebrated cider apple of Newark, New Jersey, 
where they make so much cider and some of the finest 
in the world : cider made from this fruit, according to my 
authority, when fined and fit for bottling frequently com- 
mands ten dollars per bairel at New York. It is cultivated 
more extensively there and particularly on the Orange 
mountain than any other apple. The tree is of strong, and 
vigorous growth, the wood hard, a certain bearer, and won- 
derfully productive. One tree in Essex county. New Jer- 
sey, produced one hundred bushels in a year. It requires 
ten bushels for a barrel of cider, which is so strong that it 
will produce fourteen quarts of distilled spirits. The fruit 
is below medium size, rather long, and contracted towards 
the crown ; stalk very long, (hence often called Long Sttm^) 
deeply indented at the summit and base ; color yellow, 
covered with many black spots ; flesh yellow, firm, tough ; 
flavor pleasant, and sprightly, but rather dry ; cider rich, 
sweet, of great strength. The fruit falls about the first of 
November, is remarkably sound, and will keep well. It 
originated in Essex county, New Jersey. 


TALIAPERO. Hon. J. C. Gray. 

For this fruit and the information concerning it I am in- 
debted to the Hon. John C, Gray, of Boston. The fruit 
is the size of a grape shot, or from one to two inches in 
diameter ; of a white color in the shade, but for the most 
streaked with red ; with a sprightly acid ; not good for 
the table, but apparently a very valuable cider fruit This 
is understood to be a Virginia fruit, and the apple from 
which Mr Jefferson's favorite cider was made. 


Hewes' Virginia Crab. Coxe, No. 86, 

A very small globular shaped cider apple j ite color a 
dull red, intermixed with streaks of pale yellow ; the 
j nice acid and austere. An old and celebrated cider apple. 
Mr Coxe states that the origin of this apple is satisfac- 
torily traced to Virginia, where trees of nearly a hundred 
years of age were standing in an orchard, at the time he 




A very small and beautiful apple, growing in clusters ; 
its color at maturity bright scarlet ; its form globular ; its 
stalk long. Its principal use is for preserving, for which 
purpose it is much admired. The tirees though of delicate 
growth are upright and handsome; the leaves shining 



and beautiful ; they produce abundantly, and when at ma- 
turity rather resemble plums or large cherries at a distance, 
and have a beautiful aspect 


The appearance of this tree and its leaf are similar to 
the above ; its fruit is globular, and beautiful, the size of 
a middling plum ; its stalk is long, and the fruit grows in 
large clusters ; its color a fine clear yellow, or of a rich 
golden hue. This variety is yet rare with us ; it is a vari- 
ety even more productive than the red ; and a tree loaded 
with its golden fruit, presents in autumn a beautiful sight 
to behold. 

d'Agr. vol. XII. p. 221. 


The tree is handsome and upright, does not grow large ; 
the flowers are large, very double, and in clusters, and are 
beautiful, resembling small roses of, a delicate rose color. 
It is not uncommon with us ; when in blossom its appear- 
ance is superb. According to my autliority it originated 
in China ; the fruit is small, but tolerable for eating. 


The following are stated to be some of the most esteem- 
ed varieties of native apples of Virginia. Part are de- 
scribed from the authority of Mr Coxe, and part on the au- 
thority of a Virginian, which I extract from that highly 
valuable Journal, the New England Farmer, vol. viii. No. 
1. The account of these was thus communicated to the 
public by Wm. Prince, Esq. proprietor of the Limuean Bo- 
tanic Garden, Flushing. 


BEVERLEY'S RED. A Virginian. 

The fruit is very large, the skin smooth, of a crimson 
color ; flesh very white of a pleasant flavor. A winter fruit 

Described in a former page. 

CURTIS. A Virginian. 

The skin is smooth, of a red color ; flesh juicy and 
pleasant. Ripe middle to end of August. 


Described in a former page as an apple of high reputa- 

. LIMBER TWIG. A Virginian. 

Branches drooping or pendant ; the fruit is a greenish 
color, with a blush next the sun ; the flesh very juicy, and 
very pleasant at maturity, which is not till into winter. It 
keeps a long time. 

PRYOR'S RED. A Virginian. 

The fruit is very large ; color brownish red ; its flesh at 
maturity juicy, and very fine. A winter fruit. 

RAWLE'S JANETT. A Virginian. 

The form is globular , flattened at the summit and base ; 
the color red and green; flesh very fragrant, more juicy, 
and of superior flavor to the Newtown Pippin, and keeps 
equally as well. 


Fruit fine, of a large size, flattened ; skin rough, of a 
fine russet color, but red next the sun and faintly streak- 
ed with russet : flesh a rich yellow, firm, but at maturity 
tender, sweet, alld of very sprightly flavor. A good table 
apple ; excellent for cider ; and highly esteemed by the 
planters of Virginia near Richmond, from whence Mr 
Coxe states he procured it. 'Tree tall, and upright, of 


regular form ; foliage luxuriant. It bears uniformly and 
abundantly. It ripens in October and will keep till Febru- 
ary or March. 


The fruit is as fragrant as a pine-apple melon. It ripens 
the last of June and beginning of July. 

SUMMER CHEESE. A Virginian. 
Brought from Old Jamestown seventyfive years ago; 
a delicious fruit. 


The fruit is of medium size ; color green, striped with 
red ; flavor very superior. A winter fruit. 


The fruit is large, its form flattened and inclined ^ the 
color yellow ; stalk short ; eye deeply sunk ; flesh firm, 
breaking, juicy, rich, sprightly. It ripens in December 
and is much esteemed in Virginia. 






The following list consists of celebrated French, Ger- 
man, and a few Italian apples. Also the principal part of 
those sorts which Mr Ronald states are rendered exquisite 


on their walls : Such, evidently need our climate to bring 
them to their full maturity and excellence. 1 have great 
confidence in the judgment and experience of Mr Ronald. 
Mr Loudon I think has stated, that he had eight hundred 
varieties of apples in bearing. Except these, I believe I 
have brought down to our latitudes but eight other varie- 
ties of English apples ; all celebrated for their excellence, 
cither for the dessert, or for cider ; and four of these were 
originated, if not sent us, by Mr Knight Also two highly 
celebrated Russian apples. I have, however, I must con- 
fess, the greatest hopes in those very sorts, which, like 
some of our best American varieties of fru^t, prove good 
for nothing in England, except on their walls, and per- 
haps not even there — I mean the celebrated Italian apples, 
for reasons I have stated under the head of climate. Also 
for other reasons stated at the head of Class III. 

As to those recommended by Poiteau as the best known 
in cultivation for them ; I have only to hope that he does 
not refer in particular to the latitude of the North of 
Prance ; (I have under * climate' attempted by evidence 
to show, that the climate of Paris is not a parallel in many 
respects even to that of Boston.) Gentlemen of intelli- 
gence and judgment who have resided both at Paris and 
in England, have assured me that the apples of those 
places are not comparable to ours. The late Governor 
Eustis, I have good authority for stating, expressed the 
same opinion. A gentleman of the greatest intelligence 
near Boston who has made trial of a great many celebrated 
varieties of English apples, has lately stated to me, that 
he has been disappointed in them. 

R. Sorts particularly recommended by Mr Ronald as 
being rendered exquisite on walls and highly deserving 
such a situation. 

P. Sorts designated by Poiteau as the best in general 
cultivation in France, and by him particularly recommended. 

W. Sorts described by Dr Willich from the selections (as 
I am informed) of the celebrated German writer M. Christ. 






From the 5th vol. London Hort. Trans, p. 242, 1 extract 
the following account of this very extraordinary fruit It 
is f^om a communication of M. Thouin. This tree pro- 
duces three crops of fruit annually: the first flowering 
is in April, and abundant ; the second is in June and less 
abundant ; the third takes place in August, September, 
October and November. The tree originated on the farm 
of the Baroness de Micoud, near La Charity sur Loire, in 
the department of the Nievre, and bears three thousand 
apples annually. The tree is striking in its appearance ; 
< the dense, dark green, shining foliage during three fourths 
of the year, enamelled with numerous branches of delicate 
rose colored blossoms, and scattered over with fruit of 
a diversity of color, renders it a most interesting object of 
cultivation, especially as an ornament to our lawns and 
shrubberies, producing an effect not less novel than agree- 
able.' The fruit of the first crop is globular, depressed at 
its summit and base ; its height two inches, its diameter 
nearly three ; it is divided from its base to its summit by 
thr^e or four ridges, which give it an angular appearance, 
the eye and the stalk are each sunk in a cavity ; the color 
is a deep dull red next the sun, but lessened in the shade, 
interspersed with stripes and spots of pale red. The flesh 
is yellowish white, fine, breaking, juicy, a sweetish acid, 
and agreeably perfumed, with a crystalline appearance. 
It commences ripening the middle of July and the fruit is 
mostly ripe in August and continues ripening till Novem- 


ber. The crop of the second flowering is fit for the table 
in the end of October ; they are the size of hens' eggs 
and are of equally good quality with the first. The crop 
of the last flowering are small, no larger than the Pomme 
d'Api ; they are checked in their growth by frost ; but will 
ripen in doors, and may be eaten raw, but if roasted or 
stewed they acquire a sweet and delicate flavor. 


Pomme Rose Panache'. lb. 

* A very early, and beautiful summer fruit, of a delicious 
flavor and taste; it is of a middling size^ rather oblong 
than round ; of a fine red color, mixed with yellow on the 
shaded side, streaked with a deeper red on the southern 
aspect, but everywhere marked with deep yellow dots. 
Its pulp is of a glossy white, tinted with rose colored streaks 
about the core and beneath the skin ; mellow and uncom- 
monly mild ; the fruit ripens in August ; and the tree does 
not attain a large size.' 



(R.) BRADDICK'S NONPAREIL. Hort. Trans, vol. 
III. p. 268. Lindley. Py. Mai. PI. xxxiv. 

" Fruit globular, flattened, three inches broad, not quite so 
deep ; not much diminished towards the eye, which is in a 
deep basin, and russetted around ; skin smooth, yellowish 
brown in the shade, but brownish red next the sun. f'lesh 


yellowish ; sweeter and more molting than the old Nonpa- 
reil ; juice sugary, rich, aromatic : a valuable dessert ap- 
ple, ripe October till Christmas, raised by John Braddick, 

(R.) BRINGEWOOD PIPPIN. Lindley. Py. Mains. 

Fruit small, globular, flattened at the crown ; eye small, 
open ; stalk half an inch long but protruding beyond the 
base ; color bright golden, full of pearly specks, a few 
russety stripes next the sun ; flesh very firm, breaking, 
somewhat dry ; juice saccharine, highly perfumed, aroma- 
tic. A most excellent dessert apple from October till 
March. Raised by Mr Knight from a seed of the Golden 
Harvey and pollen of the old Golden Pippin. 

(R.) DELAWARE. Py. Mai. Brent. PI. xxxviii. 


* It is of medium size and flat form, has five prominences 
round the eye, which is seated in a broad cavity. It is of a 
rich golden color, blotched with deep red, and has a very 
unique and striking appearance on the tree when ripe ; 
the flesh is firm, rich and highly flavored : this is a very 
desirable article for the dessert from October till Christ- 
mas ; the tree grows difibsely and bears well ; the 
blossoms are white with lilac. This sort is believed to be 
from America.' 


PI. VI. 

A Russian apple of middle size ; shape globular, about 
three inches and a quarter in breadth ; color golden, richly^ 
streaked with bright red. This is a very beautiful sort, of 
pleasant flavor, with enough of acid ; it is valuable either 
for the table or for sauce : ripens in September and Octo- 


ber ; grows freely and bears well. The flowers lilac with 

EMPEROR ALEXANDER. Hort Trans, vol. ii. p. 
407. 1 28. Lindley. 

Alezaitder, Aporta. 

The trees of this Russian variety while young, grow 
strong and upright, afterwards more irregular. It is an 
abundant bearer, the fruit hangs on till a late period. A 
specimen was sent from Riga in 1817 measuring 5^ inches 
in diameter, 4 inches deep, and 16 inches in circumference, 
and weighing 19 ounces. Fruit very large, cordate, nar- 
rowed at the crown ; eye deeply sunk in a broad cavity ; 
stalk short, sunk to the level of the base ; greenish yel- 
low, slightly streaked with red in the shade, but beautiful- 
ly marbled and streaked with bright red and orange next 
the sun ; flesh yellowish white, crisp and very tender, juicy, 
rich, sugary, of an aromatic flavor. Ripe in October and 
willkeep till Christmas. A valuable and excellent dessert 
fruit. This fruit will probably ripen here in September. 

Brent PI. xviii. 

*Jt is of American origin ; considerably larger than the old 
sort, of an oblong shape, diminishing towards the eye, which 
is a little flattened, of an agreeable yellow color mixed 
with a greenish hue, and freckled with dark points ; the 
flesh has a brisk flavor with mor^ acid than any other of 
the golden pippins ; the tree is also more robust, bears 
well and is but little subject to canker. The diamfeter of 
this apple according to the figure is two inches and a half 

P.) GALO BAYEUX. N. Dub. PL cciv. 

A beautiful apple, cultivated at Vire, in the department of 


Calvados, not known in the environs of Paris. They 
hesitate not to declare it is well worthy to occupy a dis- 
tinguished place. The tree is of medium vigor, upright, of 
a handsome aspect, and very productive; the fruit is 
large, very regular, and constant in its form ; the large 
fruit is flattened : when overloaded the fruit is small and 
lengthened ; its medium size is 3 inches in diameter and 
2i| in depth. The eye is small, the stalk short and 
fleshy, and each in a regular cavity. The skin is rough, 
washed almost throughout with red on a yellow ground, in- 
terspersed sometimes with dark spots : the flesh slightly yel- 
low, savory, agreeably perfumed ; the juice pleasant and 
sweet : pleasant as the Fehnouillets, bul with a peculiar and 
indescribable flavor. One of the most beautifiil and best of 
dessert apples ; it ripens 15th September. Mixed with a 
certain proportion of acid apples, it makes superior bottling 

GRANGE. Py. Mai. Brent PI. xxxii. 

• For this excellent variety, as well as many others, we 
are indebted to Mr Knight, president of the Hort. Society. 
It is of medium size, a rich golden color, embroidered with 
some russet, and light and dark specks ; of a globular 
shape, rather flattened, and without any inequalities of 
surface ; the eye is large and prominent : the flesji is yel- 
lowish, close in texture, of a pleasant flavor. It is excel- 
lent either for the dessert or for cider, and is in use from 
October to Christmas. The tree grows well and is little 
subject to canker.' Specific gravity of its juice 1.079. 

GROSSE PIGEONET. N. Duh. PI. cxciii. 

This fruit is the largest and most beautiful of all the 
Pigeonets ; its form regular, oblong, contracted towards 
its summit ; its height three inches, its breadth two ; its 


eye and stalk suDken ; its skin fine with gray'specks ; its 
color in the shade yellow ; but of a beautiful red onTthe 
side next the sun, the whole covered with a blue bloom ; 
its flesh white, breaking and very fine ; its juice abundant 
of a very agreeable acid. This fruit ripens in October 
and keeps to the last of November. 

(R.) KING OF PIPPINS. Py. Mai Brent PL xxxviii. 

* Is of middle size, and oblong shape, the eye a good 
deal depressed ; of a clear golden yellow color, with a 
flush of fine red, a little striped on the exposed side. The 
fruit is rich and juicy, equally adapted to the taBIe or kitch- 
en use ; this is a first rate sort which no garden should be 
without It is of upright growth and bears well, but like 
other superior kinds is rather apt to blight in unfavorable 
seasons.' Late autunm. 

Brent PI. xii. 

* Is an improved variety of the old Golden Reinette. 
The fruit is in general more clear and beautifiil, the flavor 
equal. The tree bears as well, and is more healthy in its 

NOBLE PIPPIN. Dr Willich. 

Pepin NoBi.E,^of the catalogues. 

*' An exquisite fi*uit for the table : of an oblong shape, 
tapering towards the eye , smooth, bright yellow, with a 
few red streaks on the southern side. This apple ripens 
early and remains sound till the end of April. The tree 
though not growing tall, bears ample fruit, even in those 
seasons which are unfavorable to the blossoms ; it thrives 
in situations where other trees will not prosper.' 


(R.) PADLEys PIPPTN. Pom. Mag. t 151. Lind. 
Padlet's Rotal Georoe, of Ronald ? 

The fruit is rather small, and flattened ; eye very small 
^n a shallow depression ; stalk slender, piojecting beyond 
the base, and in a slight cavity : skin pale dull yellow, but 
tinged with orange next the sun and mostly covered with 
rough russet Flesh greenish yellow, breaking, saccharine, 
with a very pleasant aromatic flavor. A very excellent 
apple in November and December, raised about 1810. 

(P.) PIGEONNET. Bon. Jard. 


Maseau de Lievre. lb. 

The fruit is of medium size, its form oblong ; its color is 
red, striped with deep red next the sun ; its flesh is fine, 
pleasant, and agreeable : it ripens in autumn and keeps 
till December. 


Hardinqham Russet. lb. 

Fruit about the medium size, roundish ovate, angular at 
its sides ; its height nearly equal to its breadth ; eye small 
slightly depressed ; stalk in a cavity ; color greenish yel- 
low, on the opposite side yellow russet ; flesh very pale 
yellow, crisp, short and tender ; juice more abundant than 
in any other apple I have ever met with ; saccharine, with 
that just proportion of acid which characterizes our most 
valuable fruits, and of a spicy aromatic flavor, with a high 
perfume. A dessert apple from the end of September to 
the middle of October. Lindley further adds that this 
most valuable apple has taken its name from the abundance 
of its juice which somewhat resembles that of a pine-apple, 
and that it is undoubtedly one of the best apples of the 
season, and highly deserving of cultivation. 

APPLES. -^ CLASS II.' SECT. 11. 69 

POMME ALEOSE. N. Duh. PL cccx. 

The fruit is very large, contracted towards the crown ; 
its diameter 3i inches, its height 2^. The stalk short, and 
thick, in a wide cavity ; the eye slightly depressed in a 
narrow cavity ; its color yellow in the shade, dull red next 
the sun, and striped with deeper red, sometimes dark 
stripes almost approaching to black. Flesh greenish white, 
very tender and fine, of a peculiar flavor ; juice slightly 
acid, not abundant. August till January. 

(P.) POMME PRINCESSE. N. Duh. PI. viii. 

The tree is of medium size ; irregular in its growth, its 
young wood is strong ; its leaves are oval, serrated, deep 
green above, pale and downy below ; the fruit is of me- 
dium size, 3 inches in diameter, 2^ in height ; its stalk 
short, in a slight cavity ; the skin is fine, of a beautiful 
yellow in the shade, striped with red next the sun ; and 
covered with brown irregular points ; its flesh is yellowish 
white, fine, and excellent; its juice not abundant, but 
agreeable and sweet. This excellent apple ripens in 
October and keeps till January. It is one of the best 
species of Reinettes ; it was not known to Duhamel 
and is even rare at this day. 



A delicious autumnal fruit vieing with the pear rennet : 
it is of the Calville family ; moderately large ; somewhat 
oblong ; whitish and covered on the south side with red 
streaks. The tree does not rise to a considerable height' 

(R.) RED INGESTRIE. Py. Mai. Brent. PL i. 

* A first rate dessert apple of medium size, color a bright 


golden yellow, tinged on the sunny side with bright scarlet ; 
form somewhat globular, about two inches deep and two 
inches and a half in diameter ; eye and stalk sunken ; 
flesh very juicy, crisp and high flavored. In perfection 
through September and October.' . ree of wide spreading 
growth. Raised by Mr Knight from the Orange and 
Golden Pippin united. 

(P.) REINETTE DE BRETAGNE. Bon. Jard. p. 245. 

The fruit is beautiful, its color a deep lively red, dotted 
with yellow ; its flesh is firm, sweet, slightly acid, and ex- 
cellent This is a late autumn or November fruit. 

Complet d' Agriculture, vol. xii. p. 215. 

Differs little from some of the other Reinnettes, but ap- 
pears to be more hardy. It has resisted the severity of those 
seasons which destroyed the fruit of the other Reinnettes. 

(R.) SCARLET PERFUME. Py. Mai. PL xxxvii. 

Cole Apple, (b. and Pom. Mag. 

< It is a new sort, moderately large, flattened at the eye 
and stalk, nearly globular, with slightly projecting ribs ; if 
divided transversely one line across is longer than the 
other, giving the fruit the appearance of being flat sided ; 
the color of three fourths of the apple is a rich deep red, 
very little striped ; the flesh is juicy and rich, with a little 
spicy flavor ; very desirable for the table ; but from its size 
is fitter for culinary purposes. It is ripe in September and 

(R.) WYKEN PIPPIN. Lindley. Loudon. 

Fruit below medium size, flattened at its base and sum- 


mit ; eye small in a shallow basin ; stalk short, not deep 
sunk ; color yellowish green with specks of gray, but pale 
dull brown next the ^sun. Flesh greenish yellow, firm, 
breaking, sugary, with a little musky perfume. A dessert 
apple from October to December. Raised from a seed 
brought by Lord Craven from his travels in Holland or 
France. A great favorite throughout the whole country of 
Warwick. All the cottages around Wyken have from two 
to twelve trees each of this apple in their gardens.' 



BARCELONA PEARMAIN. Pom. Mag. t. 85. Lind. 

Speckled Golden Reinette, Glace Rox7GB» Klei- 
ner Casseler Reinette. According to Pom. Mag. 
and others. 

Reinette Rouge, Reinette Rousse, Reinette des 
Carmes, of various collections according to Lindley. 

I will not vouch for the correctness of the last syno- 
nymes. But this is not the Reinette Roiisse or Reinette des 
Carmes of the Cours Complet d'Agriculture, which is very 
different from the fruit I am about describing. 

Fruit of medium size, oval, not angular, rather long ; eye 
small, not deep sunk ; stalk short, rather tliir.k ; covered 
with numerous irregular russet spots ; a brownish yellow in 
the shade, but deep red next the son : flcsii firm, yellow- 
ish, with a rich aromatic but slightly agreeable acid. A 
dessert apple from November till February. A good 
bearer and deserves to be more extensively cultivated. 


82. Lindley. 


Fruit below the medium size, roundish, depressed; the 
eye small, slightly sunk ; stalk short, rather thick ; color 
pale yellow, but slightly tinged with red next the sun, 
sprinkled with brown spots. Flesh yellow, tender, juicy, 
and pleasant An excellent dessert apple from November 
till April. Raised by John Motteux, Esq. of BeachemweU. 
The tree is hardy and a very good bearer. 

BLENHEIM ORANGE. Py. Mai. PL xxxr. Lindley. 

Bi^ENHEiM Pippin, Woodstock Pippin. According to 

The fruit is large, of a globular form, broadest at the 
base ; its diameter 3 to 4 inches, its depth 2i| to 3 ; the 
eye hollow and open, of a yellow color in the shade, but 
dull red next the sun, with streaks of deeper red ; flesh 
yello^ breaking, sweet, juicy, extremely pleasant and high 
flavored. This is one of the largest varieties of dessert 
apples and lately originated near Blenheim. Its season 
from November to March. 

(W.) (P.) BORSDORFER. Dr Willich. Bon. Jard. 

Red Borsdorfer, of Dr Willich. 
BoRSDORFF, of Liodky. 
Postophe d'Hiver. Bon Jard. 


The two first authorities I name, describe this fruit as a 
delicious German apple, of a large size, beautiful as the 
Canadian and in size and form like the Victorious Reinnette, 
and almost excelling the latter variety ; ita form globular, 
slightly narrowed at its crown, and indented at its summit 
and base ; yellow in the shade, but for the most part a fine 
glossy red { dots of yellow and sometimes warts dispersed 
over the whole. Its flesh uncommonly white, tender, juicy 


sweet, partaking of the odoar of roses. The core is encom- 
passed with a bright red vein. It ripens about Christmas, 
when the Borsdorfor begins to decay. The tree cdmes early 
into bearing and bears abundantly every year ; and the 
vernal blossoms resist the severity of night frosts. The 
leaves are more level, more round and shining than other 
species. The Bon Jardinier has designated this as one of 
their best varieties. This variety is here, but I doubt wheth- 
er it has yet produced fruit. 



Iroit Apple. lb. 

* Received by the Horticultural Society of London under 
the name of Iron Apple of Mr Booth of Hamburgh, — pro- 
bably so called from the weight and solidity of its fruit 
It is very large and handsome, rather conical in shape, 
slightly ribbedi yellow colored, with red stripes. It is a 
capital sauce apple, juicy, and of very pleasant flavor ; in 
use from December t^l April.' This may improve its char- 
acter in our climate, and be what it probably was in Brabant 

(P.J CANADIAN REINETTE. Pom. Mag. Bon Jard. 

Rbinette de Canada of the Bon Jard. p. 343. 
Grosse Reinette d'Axoleterrs of Duh. According 

to Lindley. 
Reinette de Canada Blanche. Hort. Soc. Cat. 
Reinette Grosse de Canada. Hort. Soc. Cat. 
Reinette de Canada a CdTEs. Hort. Soc. Cat. 

Reinette de Caen ^ According to Pom. 

Portugal Apple > ^-^^ 

Mela Januera ) ^' 

The tree is large and very productTve ; the fruit is very 
large and beautiful ; its form is globular, flatted at its sum- 
mit and base ; its eye is in a middling cavity, with project- 
ing ribs extending thence half way down its sides; its 
stalk is short, inserted in a wide cavity : its skin is yellow 


in the shade, slightly red next the sun ; its flesh is yellow- 
ish white, firm, juicy, with but little acidity, and very good. 
It has cavities at its centre and it keeps till February and 

(R.) CHRISTIE'S PIPPIN. Py. Mai. Brent PL xii. 

Raised by a Mr Christie at Kingston. It is about the size 
and shape of a Nonpareil, the eye very neatly placed in an 
open cavity: lemon colored,'with a very little faint red 
striping. This is a very nice dessert apple: the pulp is 
soil, with an agreeable sweetness and enough of acid ; in 
eating from November till January. The tree bears abun- 
dantly, but is of delicate growth.' 

Brent PL xii. 

An estimable dessert apple of Nonpareil size [small] ; 
very flat in shape, and the eye much sunk in a wide cavity ; 
the color yellow, a good deal covered with full red ; it is of 
high saccharine flavor and of close consistence; the fruit 
keeps till February or March. The tree grows upright and 
bears well ; the flowers are pink and white.' 

PIPPIN. Py. Mai. Brent PL xii. 

* A dessert apple from Somersetshire, which vies with 
the'Golden Pippin in richness of flavor, and much excels it 
in other respects ; it is rather larger [about two inches 
and a half in diameter according to the figure] of a 
golden hue with red stripes, very handsome. This is es- 
teemed the finest Christmas apple we have ; keeps weU till 
February or March. The tree is of wide spreading growth, 
seldom cankers, and never fails bearing. Blossoms white 
with a little light pink.' 


D'ASTEMS. Py. Mai. Brent PL xxxi. 

STRiriiiNO d'Hiver. 

' A noble kitchen fruit, large, and of a globular shape ; 
little flattened at the eye, which is large, and deeply dunk ; 
green, with some dull red streaks chiefly on the top of the 
fruit. It is a first rate sort, firm, with rich flavor, and 
dresses well ; will keep till March or April.' Evidently a 
southern fruit, may recover even a better character with us. 

DUTCH MIGNONNE. Pom. Mag. Py. Mal.» 

J)irTCH Minion. Py. Mai. Brent. PI. xxvi. 
Retnettk Dorc'e, of Mayer 


Christ** Golden- Reinette of the Taschenbach. 

According to the Pom. Mag. 

The firuit is over medium size, a little flattened and di- 
minished at its crown ; the eye small, the stalk rather short 
and slender ; they are both deeply inserted ; the skin is 
greenish yellow in the shade, but on the side next the sun 
light red, striped, and marbled with deeper red. The flesh 
is firm, crisp, juicy, sub-acid, aromatic. An excellent sauce 
apple and dessert firuit. Season November to April. Tree 
strong and healthy, an abundant bearer. 


* The Easter, or Pasque Apple, is one of the principal 
and^finest of the Calvilles : it is large, with high projecting 
ribs, and of a bees-wax color ; has a white, tender, juicy 
pulp ; and emits a very grateful odor, similar to that of 
roses. The tree bears abundance of fruit, but does not at- 
tain a large size.' 

(R.) FEARN'S PIPPIN. Py. Mai. Brent. PI. xii. 

< A middle sized table apple, globular, a little flattened, 
yellow colored, about three quarters covered with deep 


red ; the eye rather prominent. This is generally ranked 
among the first rate dessert apples at Christmas : it is of 
close texture and rich flavor ; ripening December, January 
and February. The tree grows and bears well. Blossoms 
white, with a little pink. 

(W.) (P.) PENNOUILLET GRIS. Bon Jard. Lind- 
ley. DrWillich. 

Aww'lTb''''"'^''"''^^"^' jaccordiDg to Lind. 
Caraway Russet. Hort. Soc. Cat. 
Browh Apple, OF Burnt IsLAXD. lb. 
Winter Amiss Rennet. Dr Willich. 
Spice Apple, Hort. Soc. Cat. 
Rook's Nest Apple, lb. 

The tree is of medium vigor and very productive ; the 
young wood and the leaves are whitish. The fruit is un- 
der medium size ; of a globular form, depressed and coni- 
cally indented at its summit and base ; its stalk short ; the 
skin is yellowish gray, or of a gray fawn shade, covered with 
thin russet and sometimes warts, and a slight brown next 
the sun ; the fleshlit maturity is tender, and has the pecu- 
liar aromatic flavor of anise. December till February. 

(P.) FENNOUILLET JAUNE. Bon Jard. Lindley. 

Embroidered Pippin. Lindley. 

Drap d'Or. Bon Jard. 

Cloth or Gold. 

PoMM T. BE Caractere. Boh Jard. and Dub. 

The tree is of a large size aiid very productive. The 
fruit is of medium size, globular, inclining to ob- 
long, a litUe contracted towards the summit, and very 
regular in its form ; its eye is slightiy depressed and its 
short stalk is deeply sunk ; its skin is a beautiful yellow, 
marked with fine russet lines resembling letters ; hence 
its name Pamme CarticUre, Its flesh is firm, delicate, sac- 
charine^ and excellent, with the flavor of the Fennou- 
illet or Annise. It is in eating from December to February. 



APPLES* •— * CLA88 II. SECT. IH. 77 

PENNOUILLET ROUGE. Cours Complet 4*Agri- 
culture. Lindley, 


Fruit of medium size^ globular, flattened ; of a deep 
gray color in the shade, streaked with brown, red nezt the 
sun ; the flesh very firm, sugary, high flavored^ musky. 
This very excellent apple keeps till March : it requires a 
light warm soil, and cannot be too much multiplied. So 
states my first authority, Lindley adds, that it is fi very 
handsome apple* 

tM.) GfREEN NONPAREIL, Py.Mal..Brent PI. xjoD ^ 

Pet WORTH Nokpariel. 

* Raised at the Earl of Egremont's ; larger Mtk) t' A 
old Nonpareil, but of nearly the same shape'; its xolU 
green. This is a valuable apple for the table ; crisp, juie* 
and high flavored ; it will keep till February or March, fl 
is a good bearer, and of stronger growth than thfe -Driginal ' 
The figure of this j&uit is of middle size measuring threl 
inches in width- ^ 

HUBBARD'S PEARMAIN. Lindley. Pom; Mag. 
Golden Viifmo, of Pom. Mag. 

Fruit small, wate, or globular, regular infbr^; ey< 
«mall, slightly depressed; stalk short; yellowish g«jen ii 
the shade, but orange or pale red next the suiii Fleal 
yellow, firm, rather dry, juice sweet, rich, of a modt high 
ly perfumed aromatic flavor, A dessert apple from Novem 
ber till March or April. A real Norfolk apple, well know. 
m the Norwich market The merits of the Hubbard';' 
Pearmam as a table apple, Lindley adds, are unrivalled, an d 

Its superior from the commencement of its season to tb 
end, does not, in his opinion, exist in that country. Tre 
small, hardy, an abundant bearer.' 





(P.) JERUSALEM. Bon. J&rd. p. 344. 

POMME PiGEOir. lb. 

The tree is of medium vigor and very productive. The 
fruit is small, its form conical ; its color that of the change- 
able rose ; its flesh is fine, delicate, granulous, and very 
good. It ripens in February. 


Gropbr Bohiyoepex«. 
Been Apple. Dr WilHch. 

* A very valuable fruit for economical uses, and likewise 
for the table. It is of the larger kind ; bulky towards the 
stalk and tapering towards the head, of a yellowish white 
cast, with red flame colored streaks on the south side. 
Its pulp is white, tender though firm, and of an agreeable 
taste ; the aj^Ie being edible in December, is easily pre- 
served till the next crop. When dried in slices, it affords 
delicious food ; and also a fine dish when preserved in a 
fresh state. The tree is of pjrramidal form, rises to a con- 
siderable height ; has a durable wood, does not shed its 
blossoms ; and is very productive, so that it seldom fiiils 
of being fertile for a single season. 


* Is a capital domestic fi^it, frequently of a large size, 
with irregular angles, and acquires a fine yellow shade on 
the floor. It may be preserved till the succeeding summer ; 
and maintains the first rank for boiling or baking, in the 
various dishes of pastry, where it becomes sweetly mellow, 
and has a delicate taste. When other apples, (that of 
Borsdorf excepted) lose their flavor by culinary prepara- 
tions, the Long Carthusian is greatly improved by the 
action of heat The tree is of an ordinary size.' 


(R.) MARGIL. Lindley. Hooker's Pom. Lond. 

Fruit small, ovate, its length exceeding its diameter ; eye 
small, angular ; angular at its sides ; stalk short ; color bright 
orange, streaked and mottled with rich red and brown, 
occasionally slightly russetted ; flesh yellow, firm, break- 
ing, juicy, sweet, of a highly aromatic flavor. November 
tiU March. A very excellent dessert fruit, a hardy tree 
and very excellent bearer. 

R.) MARTIN NONPAREIL. Hooker. Lindley. 

This fruit is thus in substance described by Mr Hooker 
and Mr Lindley, and is figured in Py. Mai. Brent 

' This firuit is smal],jrather cordate, tapering very little 
towards the eye, flattened at both extremities ; the eye 
small, and sunken ; the skin light dullish green, a tawny 
yellow on the sunny side, the whole surface covered with 
a portion of russet brown ; sometimes it is tinged with 
red ; the stalk short, not deeply inserted ; the flesh yellow- 
ish, compact, of excellent flavor, sweet, with a fine acid ; 
the core is very small. A new sort, remarkable for long 
keeping; they have been kept a year. This is not a 
handsome fruit A dessert apple from December till May. 
Mr Lindley calls this ' a great bearer, and highly valuable 
to those who cultivate fruit for the morket, as it js in per- 
fection till a very late period.' 

(R.) MELA CARLA. Hort. Trans, voli vii. p. 259. 

Malcaale. Hort. Trans, and Lindley. 
CHARLES Apple. Hort. Trans. 


The firuit is rather large, its form inclining to globular, but 
slightly ovate ; its eye, and its stalk, which is about an inch 
in length, and slender, are each inserted in small deep cav- 


ities. Its beantiful waxen'^skin is without a spot, except 
being a little marbled with a very faint green near the eye ; 
its color in the shade is a pale yellow which unites rather 
abruptly with the flaming crimson with which it is covered 
next the sun. The flesh is white, tender, delicate, sweet, 
with the fragrant perfume of roses. It ripens in Septem-* 
her and wiU keep till spring. This apple is a native of 
Finale in Liguria ; it is cultivated extensively in the ter* 
ritories of Genoa as an article of export and commerce to 
Nice, Barcelona, Marseilles and Cadiz. A far fiuned fruit. 
In the climate of Italy this is supposed to be the best 
apple in the world. But in England their writers state it 
is a very ordinary fruit ; they indulge the expectation how- 
ever that it may prove good on their walls. It is highly 
deserving trial with us, in our climate. 

(W.) MELA DE ROSMARINO. Dr Willich. 

White Itai^ian Rosemart Apple. lb. 

* A very beautiful species of Calville, having no 
ribs, but a most glossy skin which resembles the finest 
virgin wax ; is on all sides marked with clear white dots, 
and on the south somewhat red ; of an oblong figure and 
the size of a goose egg. Its flesh is white as snow, un- 
coomionly tender and yielding a saccharine juice of a 
slightly aromatic flavor. Its large pericarpium contains 
twenty kernels in five cells ; the fruit becomes eatable 
about the middle of November, and remains sound until 
February. The tree is of low growth. 

NOBLESSE DE GAND. Py. Mai. Brent. PL xxv. 

' A large sauce apple, straw colored, without stripes, 
nearly globular, but contracted towards the eye. It is a 
firm weighty fruit, rich in flavor, with a due proportion of 
acid.' A very excellent new sort, in use January and Feb- 



ruary ; evidently a southern fruit, may recover even a bet- 
ter character with us. 

NORFOLK BEAUFIN. Py. Malus. PL xxxiii. Lind. 

Norfolk Beefiit. 

[For drying and preserving. This species or description 
of fruit may improve with us.] * Fruit rather large, flatten- 
ed, rather irregular, obtuse angles extending from the base 
to the crown ; eye large and deep ; stalk short, fleshy, deep- 
ly sunken ; deep green in the shade, but nearly the whole 
surface covered with livid red, but deepest next the sun ; 
flesh very Arm, subacid, not very juicy. A cooking apple 
from November till May or June. A fruit of great merit, 
independent of what has been stated, furnishing a luxury 
at table during winter. These apples are dried by the 
bakers of Norwich, annually ; and sent in boxes to all 
parts of the kingdom, where they are universally admired.' 

(R.) ORANGE PIPPIN. Py. Mai. Brent PL xvi. 

Isle op Wight Pippix. lb. > ^^^^ ''"'^®- 

< In shape, size, and color much like a middle sized 
orange ; a very pretty apple, of pleasant flavor and juicy, 
equally desirable for the dessert or for sauce ; in use in 
December and January ; a good grower and bears welL* 
Specific gravity of the juice 1.074. Mr Lindley calls it a 
very beautiful apple, and according to Mr Knight, it is an 
excellent cider apple. ' Supposed to have been brought 
from Normandy to the Isle of Wight' 

(W.) PEAR RENNET. Dr WiUich. 
Reixette Poire, of the catalogues. 

* Both an autumnal and winter fruit, presents a capital 
yellow apple, of a tender yellowish pulp, the juice of 


which has the acidulous flavor of Rhenish wine ; it is suffi- 
ciently mellow in the beginning of November, and may 
be preserved through the greater part of winter. The 
tree is of slender growth. 

POMME D'APl GROS. Py. Mai. Brent. PI. xx. 

A globular apple of middle size, flattened at the eye 
which is moderately sunk in a broad cavity ; the stalk 
deeply inserted : it has a grass green color till|about Christ- 
mas, when it changes to a pale yellow. This is a valuable 
sort, either for the table or for the kitchen ; is of an agree- 
able flavor and will keep till March. The tree grows in an 
unusually compact form, and is an exuberant bearer. Blos- 
soms pink and white. 

(R.) POMME GRISE. Py. Mai. Brent 

Fine — Description not at hand. Believed to be of Ca- 
nadian origin. 

POMME PE LESTRE. Bon. Jard. p. 344. 

This apple was found in the department of Vienne m 
1813, and has been preserved during three years. It is 
highly esteemed. 


Reinette Pique's. 

*A smooth reddish apple, approaching to a chesnut 
color ; in shape and size resembling the largest Borsdorfer, 
covered with white punctures, each of which is surround- 
ed with a green edge : its pulp is firm, mellow, and of an 
excellent vinous flavor ; being eatable in February and 
March. The tree becomes of a tolerably large size.* 


(W ) (P.) REINETTE DORE'E. Dr WiUich. Cours 
Complet d'Agr. vol. xii. p. 213. 

Rbinxtte Jaune Tarditk. Cours Complet d'Agr. 

Dr. Willich. 
Late Yellow Reinette. Dr Wiilich. 

Fruit middle sized, a little flattened, of a deep yellow 
color in the shade, with specks of gray; but reddish 
next the sun ; the flesh is white, firm, saccharine,' high fla- 
vored, a little acid. This apple is equal in goodness to the 
Reinnette Franche, and is nearly gone when this last begins 
to be fit for use. I'hus far has the second authority de- 
scribed it Dr Willich diffeiB little from this, except he 
describes it as * mellow, juicy, and of a very agreeable, 
saccharine and vinous taste ; at maturity at Christmas and 
lasts till March.' 

Complet d' Agriculture, vol. xii. p. 215. 

Fruit of medium size, flattened ; of a gray fawn color, 
blotched with red next the sun ; flesh breaking, little per- 
fumed, mild, sugary, very agreeable. This apple is excel- 
lent, and maybe preserved a long time. It is preferred to the 
other Reinettes by those who dislike their odor and their 
acidity. Calvel. 

plet d' Agriculture, vol. xii. p. 215. 

Fruit of medium size, oblong, of a yellowish green col- 
or, pointed with brown ; the flesh is a little acid and very 
agreeable. It keeps through part of the winter. The tree 
is very vigorous. 

(R.) SCARLET NONPAREIL. Pom. Mag. t. 87. 
Lindley. Pyrus Malus, PI. xxxiv. 

Fruit middle sized, three inches broad, not quite so4eep ; 


roundish, not angular ; eye depressed ; yellowish green 
in the shade, deep red next the sun, streaked, sprinkled 
with pale brown dots. Flesh firm, yellowish white, juicy, 
rich, and excellent A'dessert apple, ripe from November 
till March. Raised in 1773 and extensively cultivated 
and admired in England for its beauty and excellence. 

(R.) SYKEHOUSE APPLE. Hooker's Pom. Lend. 

PI. XL. 

Stkbhousb Russet. Hooker. 

The trees grow freely, are of erect habit, and when 
well established bear fruit abundantly. The shoots are 
slender and very downy at their summits. 

< The firuit is small, roundish, depressed at its sunmiit and 
base ; the eye is open, irregular and sunk deep in the fruit 
Stalk short, deeply inserted. Color green with a good 
deal of Russet, but in a good season it becomes a handsome 
apple, with some red next the sun. The flesh is greenish 
yellow at maturity, rather firm, but of pleasant flavor 
and extraordinary richness. It ripens in January and is 
justly regarded as one of the best dessert apples at pre- 
sent known.' 



* An uncommonly fine, large, and well formed apple, 
which on being deposited on the floor, acquires a deep 
yellow tint, marked with starry points, and frequently 
brown rough spots, or large warts ; its eye represents a 
regular star ; its flesh beneath the tender skin, is yellow, 
firm, though delicate : yielding abundance of juice, that 
possesses a pleasant aromatic flavor ; it ripens about 
Christmas and may be kept till March. The tree grows 
luxuriantly, and becomes of considerable size.' 


LA VIOLETTE. Cours Complet d* Agriculture, vol. 
XII. p. 220. 


Fruit of medium size, oblong ; color deep red next the 
sun, yellow striped with red in the shade ; the flesh is fine, 
delicate^ saccharine, having a little of the perfume of the vi- 
olet ; reddish beneath the skin, greenish towurds the centre. 
This variety is one of the best of apples and keeps till May. 
The tree is vigorous and bears much resemblance to the 
Calville d'Et^. 

(IL) AUo tathe above list all Nonpareils and all Gold- 
en Pippins fwt descnbed^are io he added onthe atUhorUy of 




POXLEY. Lindley. 

This apple was raised by Mr Knight from the Siberian 
Crab and Golden Pippin. It is described as a very small 
apple, growing in clusters, of a bright gold color. 

Specific gravity of its juice 1.080. According to Mr 
Knight this is a very hardy variety. 


This fruit was raised by Mr Knight from the Syierian 


Crab and Golden Harvey ; and was sent by Mr Knight to 
the Hon. John Lowell and distributed by him to all who 
have applied. Its size is small, not much larger than the 
Siberian Crab, of a yellow color with a blush on the sunny 
side. It is supposed to contain a larger proportion of sac- 
charine matter than any other apple known. It does not 
abound in juice and it is supposed would be a most valua- 
ble variety to mix with the more austere sorts. The trees 
are most abundant bearers. 


This fruit, which was raised by Mr Knight from the 
Siberian Crab and Golden Harvey, is stated to be a small 
globular fruit, of a bright gold color, stained with deep red 
on the side next the sun : the fruit growing in clusters 
on slender branches : the juice exceeding sweet, ripe the 
middle of October. Specific gravity of its juice 1.091. 

CLASS 111. 


Besides these, all the apples described from the Eng- 
lish authors in the second class ; also all of Russian, and 
all of Canadian origin, and those which succeed best in 
New England of the first class. 

I have assigned this list to high Northern Latitudes, for 


the reasons which are contained in the first article in this 
clasd. [AsTHACAif.] Also for other reasons which are con- 
tained at the heac) of Class II. and for those reasons 
which I have stated under the head of Climate, in the 
former part of this work. Under the serene skies, and 
aided by the powerful sun of a Canadian summer, it is to 
be hoped they may prove an acquisition, and fully equal 
to what they are described. 



ASTRACAN. Pom. Mag. Dr WilUch. 

White Astracait, Pom. Mag. Lindley. 
Glace de ZE'iiAirDE, ^ Accordine to Pom 

Transparent be Moscoyie, > 'M^s 
Pyrus Astracanica, 5 

RuKRiAN Ice Apple, of Dr Willich. 


PoMME d'Astrachan, > AocorUing to Dr Willich. 
Transparent, 5 

The fruit is of medium size ; with red streaks next the 
sun ; of a globular form,with angular sides ; plaited at the 
eye, which is slightly depressed ; the stalk is short, the 
skin smooth, and covered with pale bloom ; the flesh is 
white as snow, semi-transparent. ******** This 
fruit is said to grow wild about Astracan. I subjoin Dr 
Willich's account ; the observations therein contained may 
be novel to some and are deemed worthy recording. • This 
is unquestionably one of the most eligible summer fhiitii 
provided the situation and climate be proper for its growth, 


that is not tinder 49^ of polar -elevation. In such a regicm 
it acquires a saccharine juice, which is so copious, that in 
so apple weighing 4^ ounces, there will on expression be 
ibond Bi ounces of liquor, and but one ounce of pulpy fibre. 
It is one of the most smiling fruits, yellowish white with 
fine red fiaming streaks on the side exposed to the sun ; 
and may be eaten at table or converted into cider. There 
are two varieties of this apple, a larger and a smaller, hut 
neither of the trees grow very tall.' — Domestic Encydo- 
prndioy vol. IV. p. 179. 

In the latitude of Paris, M. Poiteau informs us that this 
firuit is but at mediocrity as to quality. And a gentleman 
here who well knows, has informed me that in our latitude 
it is several degrees below mediocrity. Dr Willich informs 
us his descriptions were taken fi'om a < Gtmuin Orchard' 
ut ; • and a gentleman here on whom I can rely iias just in- 
formed me it was from the writings of the celebrated M. 
Christ. It was probably from the Taschenhach. Ute au- 
ihoriiy is good. 

BOROVITSKY. Pom. Mag. 1 10. Lindley. 

Fruit of medium size, roundish, angular ; the eye and 
stalk ate sunk in deep wide cavities ; color pale green in 
the shade, but pale red next the sun, striped with deeper 
crimson red ; semi-transparent ; flesh white, firm, juicy, 
with a sweet, brisk, sub-acid, very pleasant flavor. Ripe 
mid- August. An early beautiful dessert apple sent fhin 
the Taurida Gardens near St Petersburg to the London 
Horticultural Society. 


* Is a seedling raised by Mr Brown at Slough, of me- 
dium size, oval shape, straw color, with a flush of unmixed 
red, both eye and stalk prominent: the flesh delicate and 

A^PLlM — bL&ftli lit. SECT. I. ^ 

Ml of richly flavored juic^. Thia w a first rate table 
a{j|)i1«^, ripening in September, a great bearer, and being 
Recently raised from seed grows freely without canker,* 

CARLISLE CODLIN. Py. MaL Brent. PI. in. 

^ This apple is much esteemed in the North as a kitchen 
fruit ; it is also acceptable in the dessert: it is of moder- 
ate size, oval shape, and a straw color : makes excellent 
sauce, and of fine flavor. In use from August till Christ- 
mas, and is a profuse bearer. The tree grows freely in an 
fipfri^ht fbrm.' 

EARLY CROPTON. Py. Mai. Brent PL vin. 


* An Irish apple of the middle size and flattish shape of 
kd olive green color much variegated with red, has a rich 
Ml^dharine flavor, ripens in August ; it iSmost esteemed for 
flM dessert, but excellent also as a sauce apple. The tree 
gitoifB well, and like most Irish sorts, keeps free from cair- 
ker. The flowers are large, pink and white.' 

EfARLY J0LIBN. Lond. Mort. Trans, vol. v. p. 967. 

A very superior variety of iScotch origin, exhibited by 
ftif Itonald, 17th August. Fruit larger than the Golden 
ftp^n, irregular in its form, angular on its sides, promin- 
eiitly ribbed round the eye ; skin glossy, pale yellow or 
^eleiih color ; flesh yellowish, firm, crisp, with a fine brisk 
jttfce. The tree grows freely, is productive, the fruit growi 
id canisters. 

KESWICK CODLIN. Lindley. Py. Mai. PI. iii. 

Fruit rather large, obtusely ribbed firom snmmit to base ; 


obliquely formed ; the eye large and deep ; the stalk short 
and sunk to a level with the base ; the skin pale yellow ; 
juice plentiful and sub-acid. Originated at Keswick ; the 
young fruit answers for tarts even in June. The young 
trees are vigorous, and these as well as the older are ex- 
cessively productive. Lindley states that this and the 
Hawthomden are the most useful of all apples for the poor 
cottager's garden. 

KED ASTRACHAN. Py. Mai. Brent. PL v. 

* Is of medium size, nearly globular, of a rich crimson 
color, with a fine bloom covering nearly the whole/ of the 
fruit. This is a new and very early apple, ripening fre- 
quently in July, when it has few competitors. The .flesh 
is white, crisp, juicy, and of agreeable flavor ; the leaves 
are singularly long and partake, with the branches, of a 
purple color.' The figure of this eminently beautiful 
fruit was taken from an imported specimen, and measures 
three fnches and a half in breadth and is stated to be too 

RIVELSTONE PIPPIN. Lond. Hort Trans, vol. iv. 
p. 522. Lindley. j 

' Received from Scotland ; it is an abundant bearer as a 
standard. The fruit is of middle size, somewhat angular at 
the sides ; the angular projections uniting round the eye in 
large knobs ; the stalk is short and thick, inserted in a very 
regular cavity ; skin greenish yellow, thickly sprinkled with 
yellowish russet spots, and neatly covered with bright red ; 
flesh yellow, firm, rather dry, but sweet and of very good 
flavor. Ripe in August' 

SACK AND SUGAR. Py. Mai. Brent. PL i. 

* A dessert apple, below the middle size, a* whitish apple. 


Form a little conical, an inch and three quarters in depth 
and two inches and a quarter in diameter ; eye sunken ; very 
juicy and of an agreeable flavor. Ripens from the 
middle to end of July.' Tree free and of spreading 
growth ; a profuse bearer. 

SUGAR LOAF PIPPIN. Pom. Mag. t 3. Lindley. 
DoLGOi SquozNOi. According to Pom. Mag. 

Fruit ovate or oblong, generally contracted towards the 
eye, which is much hollowed : stalk medium length, in a 
regular deep cavity: color a clear light yellow with 
green dots ; yellow next the sun, nearly white at maturify ; 
flesh whitish, firm, crisp, very juicy, with a most agree- 
able, lively, sweetish, sub-acid flavor. An excellent sum- 
mer apple, ripe early in August, but if kept ten days it 
becomes mealy. A Russian apple sent from the Taurida 
Gardens near St Petersburg to the London Horticultural 
Society under the name of Dolgoi Squoznoi, the first sig- 
nifying longf the second transparent, * 

WORMSLEY PIPPIN. Py. Mai. Brent PI. iv. 
Knight's Codlik. 

' A large globular apple ; the eye much sunk ; [about 
three inches in depth and three inches and an half in di- 
ameter ;] the color straw, thick set with dark specks : the 
flesh is juicy and perhaps unrivalled in the richness and 
excellence of the sauce it produces ; but there is a tender- 
ness in the fruit which causes it sometimes to blight. 
Ripe beginning of September. The tree is of robust growth 
and naturally bears welL' 

M MEW AllBlltCAK (MtCHAftbtSY. 


AttUM^ Ffttrit. 

ALFRISTON. Rort Tram. voL iy. p. 2ia lindley. 

Frat very lar^ytfome have weighed 29 ounces. Rais- 
ed by Mr SlMph«r^ is tifence soraeiiines ^led Sk^hetdPi 
Jtpple : elosely r^sei&bles the ReinttUi Blanche d*EspagiU. 
Vdoable for its beatrty, size, and long keeping*. Filik 
targe, narrowed towards the crown, broadly ribbed at ih 
Mm ; eye is a cavity, stalk sunk &ee^; yellow at nMttvK 
fi^ in ^ i^Mide, bM orange nei^ the sun, and 8ligl(tl|f 
rtmki ted. Flesh yellowish white, breaking, tender, reff 
joiey, saccharine, oombined with a smcGrt acid. M§ti» 
diking apple from October to* Christmaff. 

BEAUTY OF KENT. Py. Mai. Brent PL xv. 

* A large apple of a pyramidal shape, with ribs enlarging 
towards the eye ; its color yellow, enriched with bright red 
Stripes, and irregular discolorations on the sun side. This 
iff a beautiful and much esteemed sauce apple, in use 
through November, December, and January. A strong 
spreading grower, but apt to canier if not in congenial 


' A beautiful apple ; rather large, straw colored, enriched 
over three fourths of its surface with bright red stripes. It is 
an excellent apple, juicy and high flavored, fit either for the 


table or for sauce, bat particularly the latter. Ripe in Oc- 
tober. It is a general favorite in the West of England. 

DOWELL'S PIPPIN. Hort Trans, vol. v. p. 268. 

* In size and form this apple resembles the Ribston Pip- 
pin, but is more pointed at the head, and the eye is sunk 
in a more confined and deeper cavity ; the skin is green, 
nearly covered with a clear thin russet, and a slight tinge 
of brownish red on the sunny side ; the flesh is rather of 
a finer texture than that of the Ribston Pippin, but in color 
and flavor closely resembles it' An excellent dessert 
apple firom October to Christmas. Raised in the garden of 
Stephen Dowell, Esq. at Braygrove, in Berkshire*' 

EDGAR. Py. MaL Brent PI. iv. 

' This apple is of medium size, globular shape, yellow, 
laced with some bright red striping. It is a beautiful fruit, 
and excellent either for the dessert or for kitchen use : 
in perfection throughout November and December. It 
grows well and is a good bearer.' 

FLOWER OP KENT. Py. Mai. Brent PI. xv. 

* A large and elegant fruit ; [the figure measures four 
inches and a half in width] globular, but rather broadest 
at the base ; the eye is large and open ; color yellow, flush- 
ed with bright red ; the flesh is well flavored with plenty 
of acid and juice ; bakes well, and is in use through No- 
vember and December. The tree grows well and is hard- 
ier than the Beauty of Kent' Blossoms white with blush.' 

FRENCH PIPPIN. Py. Mai. Brent PI. xxix. 
French Russet. lb. 

* A sauce apple above the middle size, of globular shape ; 


the eye small and prominent : its color is a yellowish green, 
the sun side faint red ; about half the apple is generally 
russetty. It has a pleasant flavor, but is rather light in 
substance, for which defect it makes ample amends by a 
vigorous growth, ample produce, and seldom sufiering by 
canker or blight Its season is from November till Janu- 

GOLDEN BURR. Py. Mai. Brent PI. xzxiz. 
Burr Kitot. 

* So named from knots or joints on the shoots, which 
renders it easy to be grown by cuttings. It is a large 
apple, of globular form, smooth glossy surface, yellow, with 
a flush of red ; this is a very useful fruit in November and 
December, and a profuse bearer. The tree grows in a 
close cpmpact form, and seldom cankers.' 

HOLLANDBURY. Py. Mai. Brent PL xl. 


' A very large and beautiful sauce apple ; tankard 
shaped ; with four or five slightly projecting ribs ; both eye 
and stalk deeply seated in a narrow cavity : it is of a straw 
color, three fourths covered with unmixed crimson. The 
fruit has a very elegant appearance on the tree for some 
time before gathering, but liable from its weight to be blown 
down in tempestuous weather. The tree is diffuse in its 
growth, and the leaves unusually small for so large a sort ; 
it b a good bearer, and in use from October till Christmas.' 

[The figure of this beautiful fruit measures over four 
inches and a quarter in its breadth.] 

KENTISH BROADING. Py. MaL Brent PI. xxiv. 
'Is very large, [the figure measures four inches in 



breadth, broadest at the base, and rather flattened in form ; 
the eye a little depressed and angulated ; the stalk small 
and deeply inserted ; rather russetty and slightly striped. 
This is a noble apple for kitchen use, very rich and juicy 
and bakes well. In perfection in November and Decem- 
ber. It is a tree of free growth, and is a good bearer.' 

KENTISH PILL BASKET. Py. Mai. Brent. PL ix. 


* A very large noble apple of a globular shape, [the fig- 
ure measures four inches and a quarter in diameter] color 
pea-green with some red blotching ; the eye rather deeply 
sunk ; it is a very excellent apple and useful from its size 
and abundance in bearing. The tree grows large and 

KERRY PIPPIN. Pom. Mag. t. 107. Hooker's Pom. 
Lond. t. 20. Hort Trans. voL iii. p. 454. Py. MaL 
Brent. PI. iv. 

* Is of Irish origin, and perhaps altogether the best of 
our summer dessert apples ; a little larger than the Golden 
Pippin, of an oblong form ; a rich golden color, faced with 
bright red ; the stalk is small and prominent, and generally 
attended by a small protuberance ; the flesh is firm, of a 
rich saccharine, yet poignant flavor : in perfection through 
September, October and November. The tree grows 
finely, seldom cankers or blights, and bears plentifully, 
chiefly in clusters at the extremity of the branches.' 


* A fine large kitchen apple, nearly globular, but termin- 
ating in a small contracted eye ; straw color, variegated 
with scarlet streaks ; the flesh is white, juicy, and agree- 
ably flavored. The tree grows large, and bears plenti- 
foUy.' . 


LONDON PIPPIN. Py. Mai. Brent PL xiv. 

FlVB CROWlfBD PiPPIlf . lb. 

< So called from the five protuberances round the ejre, 
which is prominent It is of the medium size, straw color, 
with crimson covering the greatest part of the fruit This 
is a very useful sauce apple from December till March. 
The tree grows large, is very durable, and bears plenti- 

[The figure of this fi*uit measures near four inches 

LUCX^OMBETS SEEDLING. Py. Mai. Brent PI. xrr. 

*A fine large globular apple, with slightly projectiiig 
ribs ; pea green color, lightly streaked and dotted with red. 
It is a noble sauce apple, ripe in November, December and 
January, very juicy, with a rather spicy flavor, and bakes 
well. The tree grows spreading and healthy.' 

[The figure measures four inches in diameter.] 


* A very large sauce apple, being frequently fourteen 
and fifteen inches in circumference ; rather oblong, with 
some irregular projections ; of a lemon color, with a little 
red on the exposed side ; it is well tasted, and dissolves to 
a fine pulp in dressing : mature in November, December 
and January. The tree grows luxuriantlyi and bears well.' 


*In form nearly globular, of middle size, has some slight 
irregularity of surface ; lemon colored, streaked nearly all 
over with brilliant red ; the flesh is sugared and juicy : it is 



an excellent sauce apple and bears well* Ripens in No- 
vember and December.' 

RYMER. Py. Mai. Brent PL xli. 

' This fruit is large, of a globular shape, a rich crimson 
color on a yellow ground: it ranks very high as a sauce 
apple, is juicy, and high flavored ; a great bearer, and ap- 
pears very rich and beautiful on the tree, which grows 
strong and healthy : it is in use from October till Christ- 
mast. Blossoms pink and white.' 

[The figure of this fruit measures nearly four inches in 

SALOPIAN PIPPIN. Py. Mai. Brent. PI. v. 

* A Shropshire apple, middle size, lately introduced to 
the neighborhood of London by Mr Williams, its shape 
globular, a little compressed [three inches and a quarter 
in its breadth,] a pea green color ; with a slight flush of 
pale red, and sprinkled over with brown spots : it has great 
merit as a sauce apple, as it dresses well, is juicy, and well 
flavored : in use from October till Christmas. The tree 
grows in a compact form, and is a constant bearer.' 

SCARLET CROFTON. Hort Trans, vol. in. p. 453. 

The fruit is of medium size, flattened ; its diameter ^^ 
inches, its height being less, angular on its sides ; the eye 
wide and but slightly depressed ; stalk short ; yellowish in 
the shade, but bright red next the sun, and slightly russet^ 
ed all over. Flesh firm, crisp but never meally, juicy, 
and of a rich saccharine flavor. An Irish dessert apple 
from October till Christmas. 


SOPS OF WINE. Py. Mai. Brent PI. ii. 

* An apple of moderate size, nearly globular, [three 
inches in breadth] of a crimson or purplish color, deepest 
on the exposed side, richly striped, dotted with yellow, 
and covered with bloom like a plum : the flesh is of a 
pinkish hue, suffused with a rich vinous juice. It is a val- 
uable dessert apple. Ripe in October, and keeps till 
December.' The tree is of wide and open growth. 

Nothing is said of the productiveness of this variety. 

Brent Pi. xxxvi. 

< A large globular apple, [the figure measures over four 
inches in diameter] having irregular ribs, terminating in 
strong wrinkles round the eye. It is finely variegated with 
red stripes, or blotches on a greenish yellow ground ; the 
stalk small and rather long. The flesh is tender, juicy, and 
of an agreeable flavor. A very useful kitchen fruit in Octo- 
ber and November.' 

YELLOW INGESTRIE. Py. Mai. Brent PI. r. 

< Fruit small, shaped much like the old Golden Pippin. 
Eye very small, flat Stalk half an inch, rather deeply in- 
serted just protruding beyond the base. Skin bright 
gold, with a few^early specks imbedded. Flesh yellow- 
ish white, very tender and delicate. Juice plentiful, rich, 
and high flavored. A beautiful little dessert apple in Oc- 
tober and November. Raised by Mr Knight of Downton 
Castle. — Lind. Guide, 




AROMATIC RUSSET. Py. Mai. Brent. PI. viii. LincL 

< Fruit middle sized, a little conical, but flattened at both 
the base and crown ; eye small, a little depressed ; stalk 
very short, deeply inserted; skin green, covered with 
thin grey russet, and a little tinged with dull red on the 
sunny side ; flesh greenish white, firm, crisp, but tender. 
Juice saccharine and perfumed. A dessert apple from 
November to February. The wood of this tree is straight 
and rather slender ; an excellent bearer.' 



' A fine, large oblong kitchen apple, pea green with a 
slight tinge of red : the flesh is firm, sweet and juicy ; it 
bakes excellently, and is a very valuable sort: for use in 
December and January.' 

BURRELL'S RED. Py. Mai. Brent PI. xlii. 

* It is above the middle size, of a conical shape, wrinkles 
encompassing a small, shallow eye ; the stalk is deeply in- 
serted ; it is of an entire beautiful red color approaching to 
scarlet. The flesh is juicy, rich, with an agreeable acid. 
This is a very desirable apple through November, De- 
cember and January. It is a robust grower and bears 


CLAYGATE PEARMAIN. Hort Trans, vol. v. p. 
269 And 402. 

Discovered in a hedge by Mr Bruddick at Clay gate, a 
hamlet in the Parish of Thames Ditton ; a firuit of excellent 
quality ; the tree prows spreading and drooping, is not a 
strong grower, but bears freely. A large and very hand- 
some pearmain ; of a dull yellow color, nearly covered 
with broad stripes of deep red ; flesh yellow, rather dry 
like all apples of this class, but sweet and rich. Keeps 
till March and April. A valuable addition to our stock of 
table apples. 

COCKLE PIPPIN. Py. Mai. Brent xxin. 

* An excellent apple, of middle size, much cultivated in 
Sussex. It is of an oval form, rather tapering to the eye, 
pea green color, a good deal embroidered with russet : a 
compact, long-keeping.8ort, juicy and high flavored ; es- 
timable either for the table or kitchen use. Grows in a 
spreading form, is in general healthy,' and bears well.' 
November till May. 

CORNISH AROMATIC. Py. Mai. Brent PI. xix. 

* A kitchen apple, said to have been cultivated for some 
centuries in Cornwall. It is a large apple, of a light yel- 
low color, three fourths covered with red stripes, contract- 
ed at the eye which is prominent, and encircled by project- 
ing plaits. In use from November till January ; an ex- 
cellent sauce i4>ple but with very little of the spicy flavor 
which its name imparts. The tree grows well and is a 
good bearer.' 

COWARNE'S QUEENING. Py. Mai. Brent xxv. 


* A large, oval shaped apple, of a golden color, with some 

APPLES. —CLASS lU. SECT. Ill* 101 

unmixed red on the outward side. It is an excellent ssuee 
apple, in use from November till January. The tree gro^s 
in an upright compact form, and is a firee bear^,* 



' It is large and of globular shape, ttr&w colored with a 
flush of unstriped carmine. A very beautiful sauce apple, 
juicy, with an agreeaUe acid ; it is a very useful apple in 
January and February. The tree grows we& and bears 

DUKB OP WELLINGTON. Py. Mai. Brent PL xit. 

DUMXI.0W's^SBBDLZirO. lb. 

'A capital kitchen apple, above the middle size, of a 
globular shape ; clear yellow color, with a bright cherry 
cheek, without streaks or any unevenness of surface. It is 
a weighty apple, of crisp consistence, and sweet, with 
a due proportion of acid. In use firom November tiH 
March. The tree grows large and spreading.' 

HAMBLEDON DEUX. ANS. Py, Mai. Brent PL xlii. 

' A large noble apple, globular, straw colored, with a little 
russet near the stalk, and bright red stripes over the great- 
est part ; the eye and stalk very little depressed. It is 
richly flavored, but rather deficient in juice ; keeps well 
through the winter, and is on the whole a useful sort' It 
would probably be still more deficient in juice in the cU-^ 
mate of the^United States, 

HAWTHORNDEN. Py. Mai. Brent PL iii. 

< It is a little above the middle size, ofglobular shape, 
light straw color, with frequently a flush of scarlet on the 
sunny side : the firuit is brisk and juicy. This is perhaps 


the most vseAd kitebeii apple we ha?e, and which Scotland 
liM the in^rii of produciag. The tree preaenrei a bushy 
fonn, and iie?er fails bearing a good crop.' 

KIRKE^ LORD NELSON. Py. MaL PI. xiy. Lind. 

Fruit aboTO medium size ; 3 inches in diameter but less 
in height, of a very regular form ; much like the Emperor 
Alexander, apd Uke that narrowed at the crown. The eye 
is open in a moderate deep basin ; clear pale yellow in 
tiie shade, but red towards the base ; and a vivid red streak 
with deeper red next the sun ; flesh yellowish white, firm^ 
very juicy, of a pleasant aromatic flavor. A beautiful des- 
sert cooking apple from November to January. 

LEMON PIPPIN, Py. Ma]L Brent PL ix. 

' An dd and much esteemed kitchen apple, of middle 
size and oval shape, much like a lemon both in form, and 
color, having generally a small protuberance at the stalk : 
it is of a firm texture, brisk flaviMr, juicy and with plenty 
of acid ; will keep excellent till March, is a good bearer ; 
and the tree generally thrives welL Blossoms pink and 

MARMALADE PIPPIN. Py. Mai. Brent R. xxviii. 
WBi.m Pippiir. lb. 

* An oblong apple of middle mze, flattened at the eye ; 
of a lemon color, siQgularly mottled with whitish spots. 
It is a good sweet juicy api^e, a great favorite in Wales ; 
of hardy growth and a profuse bearer, and will keep till 
February. Blossoms white with a little pink.' 

NORFOLK STORING. Py. Mai. Brent PI. xxxiii. 

* A little larger than the Norfolk Beuflin, and of a lighter 
red color ; the flesh is tenderer, more juicy, and of richer 
flavor. It ripens in December and January. G|t>ws vigor- 
ously and bears welL' 




< A Fine, large, firm apple, of an oblong shape, yellow 
color, richly striped with bright red; the flesh highly 
flavored, and dissolves readily in baking : this sort keeps 
well through the winter. The tree spreads much, grows 
freely, and bears plentifbUy. This is a very desirable 
kind. Blossoms early, deep led. 

T. p. 268. 

Raised by Mr John Barnard of Waltham Abbey firom a 
seed of the Golden Noble, [which is a large fimit] it 
resembles it, but is much larger. 

Form globular, sometimes contracted at the crown ; eye 
in a shallow basin ; stalk short, deeply sunk ; cdiox yellow 
at maturity, but dull scarlet next the sun ; flesh yellowish, 
soft, juicy, and very sweet. Most excellent cooked, retain^ 
ing[a high flavor. Keeps well till January. The tree 
bore its first firuit in 1819 — and the specimens were ex- 
hibited in 1821. The tree is a free grower and bears 


* A very valuable large kitchen apple, flattened in ^ape, 
and ribbed irregularly : . [the figure measures four inches 
in diameter] of a green color with dark red stripes : it has 
a pleasant flavor, is juicy and bakes excellently. The tree 
is of robust, hardy, bushy growth, seldom cankering or 
fruling to bear. This is reckoned a first rate sort in the 
North.* November to April. 




HAGLOE CRAB. Lindley. 

This old cider apple, is described as a small ill-shaped 
fruit ; yellow on one side, and red, mingled with russet om 
the other. Specific gravity of its juice 1081. 

The most famous cider in the worid was fbrmeily made 
of thia fruit. 

This apple has been many years in the United States ; 
but we hear nothing of the superiority of any liquor made 
from it in our latitude, it may deserve trial in Canada. 

All the English cider apples described in the 1st and 2d 
class will probably succeed in Canada. 


The seeds or Pomace of the apple should be sown in 
autumn in a rich soil. — When the young plants appear 
in spring they should be carefully thinned to the distance'of 
two inches asunder, and kept free from weeds by carefblly 
hoeing during the remainder of the season, or till of suf- 
ficient size to be removed. 

At one or two years of age they are taken up, their tap 
roots shortened that they may throw out lateral roots, they 
are transferred to the nursery, set in rows about four feet 
asunder — and at one foot distance firom each other in the 
row. In the sunmier following they are inoculated, or 
they are grafted or inoculated the year following* 



An apple tr^e, when finally transplanted to the orchard, 
ought to be at least 6 or 7 feet in height, with branches in 
proportion, and fhll two years from the bud or grafl, and 
thrifty ; apple trees under this size belong properly only to 
the nursery. 


The distance asunder to which apple trees should be 
finally set when transplanted to the orchard, depends upon 
the nature of the soil, and the cultivation to be subsequent- 
ly given. If the soil is by nature extremely fertile, 40 feet 
distance may be allowed, and even 45 and 50 feet in some 
very extraordinary situations : for before the trees become 
old, they will completely shade the ground. If however 
the soil is not very extraordinary by nature or so rendered 
by art, this distance' would be too great ; for the trees 
would become old and their growth would be finished, be- 
fore the ground could be covered by their shadow ; — 30 feet 
only may therefore be allowed in land nsuafiy denomi- 
nated of good quality, and but 30 to 25 feet in land of ordi- 
nary quality. 

The quincunx mode is recommended for close^arrangO'- 

The size to which an apple tree may attain, and the 
ground which should be alloted to it, depend also, in some 
measure, on the particular variety of apple ; some sorts 
being well known to attain to a much greater size than 
that of others. 

The period of growth or the duration of the apple tree is 
comparatively limited ; this is sufficienly evident firom the 
perishable nature of its timber. Those species of trees 
only, will continue living and growing for numerous cen- 
turies, whose timber may be preserved incorruptible during 
he lapse of a long succession of ages. 



A rich soil, rather moist than dry, is that adapted to the 
apple tree, but what is usually termed a deep pan soil is 
to be preferred. i 

On such a soil, whether on the plains, or in the yalley, or 
on the sides and summits of our great hills, which almost [ 

always consist of good land, and even in situations the roost 
exposed, the apple tree will flourish. 

One of the most productive apple orchards in this imme- 
diate vicinity, is situated on the North and Northwest sides 
of a hill, the most exposed to cold winds. The soil of great 
hills is generally of far superior quality to that of the^ 
plains, and it is a very mistaken opinion which seems adopt- 
ed by some, that the soil of all hills must of necessity be 
dry and deficient in moisture. It is the plains and the 
knolls that are but too generally thus deficient, not the 
great hills, which almost always abound in springs. 

Land half covered with rocks and incapable of being 
cultivated with the plough, is in some respects admirably 
suited to the apple tree. For in such situations they are 
not liable to suffer from drought : they receive nearly a 
double portion of moisture from the rains that fall, and a 
greater degree of heat by the reflected rays of the sun. 

They may even flourish on sandy plains ; if, where the 
tree is to be placed, an excavation is formed 6 or 8 feet in 
diameter, and 3 or 4 feet in depth : and if half filled either 
with useless small stones intermixed with rich loam, mud 
from the low grounds, clay, or gravelly clay, or mixtures of 
any of these substances, with a portion of manure, and 
the remainder of the excavation filled to the surface with 
rich loam. 



If the ground intended for the orchard cannot conveni- 
ently he kept wholly in a state of cultivation during the 
first years, a portion at least ought to he. 

A strip of land to each row of 8 or 10 feet in width, well 
manured, may he kept cultivated, and ' the vegetahles, 
which may here he raised will [amply repay the expense 
and lahor hestowed during the 4 or 5 first years. After 
this if the trees have grown well, as they prohahly must 
have done, cultivation at a distance in the intervals he- 
comes even more important than within the limited distance 
of a very few feet from the trunk of the tree. 

For on examination it will he found that the small fibres 
or sponglets, by which alone the tree derives all the nour- 
ishment it receives from the earth, are now remote from the 
trunk of the tree ; they are now to be found seeking pas- 
ture beyond the limits of its shade, and it becomes neces- 
sary that the whole ground should be kept in a high state 
of cultivation for the 4 or 5 following years ; after this 
period it may be occasionally laid to grass, which however 
should be broken up at frequent intervals, the land being 
always kept in good heart. 


The most suitable season for pruning is that interval be- 
tween the time the frost is out of the ground in spring and 
the opening of the leaf. 

Trees ought not to be pruned in February and^March at 
the time the frost is coming out of the ground. This is the 
season when most trees and particularly the vine and sugar 
maple bleed most copiously and injuriously. It causes 
inveterate canker, the wounds turn black, and the bark for 
perhaps several feet below, becomes equally black, and per- 
fectly dead in consequence of the bleeding. 


I have given directions for pruning the trees while young 
under the general directions in the former part of this 
work, and will add, that when those directions have been 
followed, when large and profitable crops are desired, 
our cultivators] generally avoid robbing their trees unne- 
cessarily, of a particle of bearing wood. 

Those limbs which interfere with other limbs by gall- 
ing, the suckers and dead wood are alone removed : 
for they consider that the warmth of the atmosphere is of 
itself sufficient in our climate to ripen the firuit, without 
attempting to admit the sun to every part of the tree. 

These directions aie to be more especially observed in 
regard to old trees in their declining years — their trunks 
being too old for the reproduction and sustenance of a crop 
of new and firuitful wood, — nothing should be taken away 
but the dead branches and suckers. We have seen old 
trees whose branches were annually loaded with fruit, de- 
spoiled at once by the hand of man of half their bearing 
wood, under the mistaken idea that the destruction of the 
one half of the tree would confer a benefit on the remainder, 
and render them still more productive. We noticed how- 
ever that the effect thus produced was directly the reverse, 
as their total destruction usually followed as a consequence, 
not long after. 


The apple tree has four destructive enemies. The cat- 
erpillar, the borer, the canker worm and the curculio. 

The caierpUUar usually makes its first appearance with 
the opening of the leaf of the apple tree : they are readily 
and easily destroyed if taken in season. They are brought 
down either by the hand or by the excellent brush invent- 
ed by the late Hon. Timothy Pickering which must be 
attached to a pole. They should be taken early in the 
morning before they leave their nests. When brought 


down they must be destroyed. The trees should be exam- 
ined a second time not long after. 

The borer. The modes of preserving apple trees from 
the depredations of the borer may be found in the former 
pari of this work. 

Of the canker toorm. In the immediate neighbor- 
hood where I reside the canker worm is unknown — I 
must therefore avail of the experience of others. 

The canker worm, after it has finished its work of de- 
struction in spring, descends to the earth, which it enters 
to the depth of from one to five inches. After the first 
frosts of October, or from the 15th or 20th, those nearest 
the surface usually begin to rise from their earthy bed 
transformed to grubs or millers. They usually rise in the 
night and invariably direct their course to the tree, which 
they ascend and deposit their eggs on the branches, which 
are hatched in April or May. They frequently rise during 
moderate weather in winter, when the ground is not frozen, 
and in March, and till towards the end of May.. When the 
ground in spring has been bound by a long continuance 
of frost, and a thaw suddenly^ takes place, they are isaid 
sometimes to ascend in incredible numbers. 

Here, then, at the bottom or trunk of the tree, it is neces- 
sary to arrest their progress and prevent the ascent of the 
grub or miller. 

The usual mode, or the mode generally adopted in prac- 
tice, is tarring. With this design the bark around the cir- 
cumference of the trunk is scraped smooth, and the crevices 
where the application is to be made, are filled with clay 
or mortar : over this a strip of canvas 3 or 4 inches in 
width is to be bound around the tree, the lower band to 
consist of a large tow cord to prevent the running down o f 
the tar, and its consequent pernicious effect on the tree* 
On this strip tlie tar is laid with a brush. The operation 
must be performed every afternoon a little before sunset, 



when the weatiier is moderate, and the surface of the 
earth not frozen, from the first hard frosts which commence 
in October and during winter till about the last of May. 
For the tar, by the heat of the sun, or by dry winds or 
other causes, sometimes bec<mies dry on its surface in a 
very short time, and in such cases it offers no obstruction 
to the passage of the insect Dr Thacher in his Ameri* 
can Orchardist, has recommended that a small portion of 
soft grease or train oil should be mixed with the tar to pre- 
serve it from drying. It should be observed that the in- 
sect on finding its passage obstructed, firequently deposits 
its eggs in great numbers near the base of the tree in the 
cracks and fissures of the bark. These may be destroyed 
by the solution of potash. But the tar does not at all 
times afford a perfect security, for when vast numbers 
arise at once from the earth, a bridge over the tar is speed- 
ily formed of the carcasses of those whieh first attempt the 
ascent, and over these an innumerable host may safely pass, 
and the labor of tarring, previously bestowed, is lost for 
that season. 

The tarring process is a tedious one, requiring constant 
attention during a long period ; the omission of a single 
night favorable to the ascent of the grubs, may prove fatal to 
the trees for that season, and the labor previously bestowed 

Various other modes have therefore been proposed with 
the design of preventing their ascent : but however in- 
genious or effectual they may have proved, they have not 
to my knowledge yet been introduced to general practice. 

Dr Spofford of Bradford, Mass., has recommended as a 
simple and effectual remedy, that after scraping smooth the 
bark around the tree, a strip of list, an inch or two in width, 
should be closely secured around its circumference, and 
over this a small quantity of the mercurial ointment or 
unguentum, is to be applied. This appears to be extremely 


simple, cheap, and easy ; as it is said to require but a singW 
application during the season, and to become, by the oxygen 
it imbibes from the atmosphere, more poisonous — some 
time after it has been applied. The Hon. H. A. S. Dear- 
bom in the course of his experiments on the canker worm, 
which are recorded in vol. viiL of the New EIngland 
Farmer, Nos. 23 and 48 — has informed us that the applica- 
tion above described, totally failed with him — it offered no 
obstruction whatever. 

What the particular causes of the failure in this instance 
were, provided it has in other instances {uroved effectual, 
we cannot conjecture ^ unless we suppose that the insects 
passed over while the mercurial preparation was yet in a 
new and fresh state ; and before it had time to imbibe that 
portion of oxygen from the atmosphere, which Dr Spofford 
has asserted, renders its poison more active and effectual. 

The Hon. J<^ Lowell has stated in voL iii. No. 4, of 
the Mass. Agr. Repository, that he caused the ground 
around 60 apple trees to be dug to the depQi of four inches^ 
and to the distance of two or three feet from the roots ; it 
having been ascertained by Professor Peck that the insect 
seldom descended into the ' ground at a greater distance 
than three or four feet frcnn the trunk. The ground being 
laid smooth, three casks of effete or air-slacked lime were 
spread over the sur&ce thus prepared, to the depth 
of about an inch. These trees wore tarred as well as 
the others, and although grubs or worms appeared on 
most that were not limed, not a single grub was to be per- 
ceived on the trees limed. 

Mr Lowell has spoken of the result of the experiment 
as of a single trial, and the first of the kind to his know- 
ledge on record, and expresses his hopes that it may in- 
duce others to pursue still further the experiment; for 
wliUe tarring is injurious to the tree, and expensive in its 
application, the lime, which may consist of sweepings 
of the lime-store, is comparatively cheap : — it requires 



but a single application in a season, it is not only destruc- 
tive to animal substances but is useful as a manure. 

Professor Peck has recommended that the ground should 
in October be carefully inverted with a spade to the depth 
of five inches, and as far as the branches extend ; the clods 
broken, the surface raked sn^ooth, and rolled with a heavy 
roller ; the rolling to be repeated in March. Lime reduced to 
an impalpable powder, he thinks, might be with a4vantage 
applied to the surface thus smoothed, not only as being 
adapted to close the openings which may appear, but use« 
ful also from its caustic qualities. 

On the lands of my father, John Kenrick, Esq. in Newton, 
a single canker worm has never been seen ; yet in view 
of the magnitude of the evil he has in some of the publi- 
cations recommended that, instead of the mode of invert- 
ing the soil, as recommended by Professor Peck, the whole 
infested soil beneath the tree be removed to the neces- 
sary depth with all the grubs which it contains, and carted 
to the barn-yard in October, and replaced either with com- 
post, or rich soil intermixed with manure. 

Other modes of tarring have been suggested; two 
boards have been recommended to be nicely adjusted to the 
tree by cutting a semicircular portion from each ; and tar is 
recommended to be applied to their under surfaces, where 
it is supposed it may retain its fluidity much -longer by 
not being so much exposed to rain and the influence of the 

P. J. Robbins of Roxbury, has recommended as an effect- 
ual remedy ; that a strip of sheet-lead of 4i| inches in width, 
be formed into a tube or gutter by bending over a wooden 
cylinder ; this is again bent round the tree by passing a 
rope through it. After being adjusted to a level it is se* 
cured by nailing its inner edge to the tree. This being 
soldered at the ends, is filled in autumn with winter strained 
oil, spirits turpentine, or other liquids, and above this is 


placed a strip of oiled sheathing paper, cut in proper fcmn 
as a screen from the falling rain. 

The plan invented by Mr Abel Houghton of L3nin, and 
said to have proved effectual, differs from the above, as 
the circular gutter, is formed of thick pasteboard painted 
it is filled with oil, and a pastepoard screen projects from 
above covered with painted canvas, to shield it from the rain. 

On similar principles Mr Briggs of Bristol, R. I. has sue* 
cessfully stopped the ascent of the grub by gutters formed 
of tin. Four straight gutters are connected by soldering 
at their comers ; these being adjusted to a level are sup- 
ported on strips of boards nailed to the tree ; the inner 
edge of the gutter is so bent as to project over the outer 
edge to shield it from rain. The space between the gutter 
and tree being filled with swingling tow properly secured, 
and the gutter being filled half full of water, a quantity of 
thin whale oil is added, and the security is supposed to be 

The Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn has further suggested that 
gutters formed of earthen Danvers ware, laid on the earth 
around the tree, might perhaps prove cheaper ; and these 
being filled with a fluid might be equally as effectual. 

Lastly, we would recommend for experiment, on the sup- 
position that some one of them may prove effectual, the ap- 
plication of the following substances. For more particular 
account of them all, see the article Insects in the former part 
of this work, 

1. Chloride of lime, to be placed around the roots of the 
tree in a circular gutter formed of any material and screen^ 
ed from rain. 

2. Cinders from the blacksmith's forge applied in a sirni^ 
lar manner, which have been found by Professor Thouin 
so effectual in obstructing the march of the toire-worm. 

3. The application of coal tar, instead of common tar^ to 
prevent the ascent of the grub. This substance as has al« 




readjf been stated, poweBses either qualities so poisonous or 
an odor so powerful, that its application is now said to be 
effectual in preventing the ravages of the worm which is 
so destructive to the plank of the ships which navigate the 
ocean in warm latitudes. 

4. The garden cmnpinmdf sold at the bookstore of Mr 
Ives in Salem, and at the seed-store of Mr Russell in 
Boston, is understood to possess powerful qualities. 

When the canker worms have once gained possession of 
the tree, it is by no means deemed an easy task to dislodge 
them. Dr Richardson of South Reading, however, informs 
me, that he is confident from his experiments, that they 
may be dislodged and destroyed with but little trouble or 
expense, by a showering of a strong decoction of tobacco 
water with WUUs^s sjftinge. Attempts have been made to 
destroy or dislodge them by fumigations of oil, sulphur, dtc, 
but the accounts of the ipefficacy of such attempts are 

Curcidio, For an account of the various modes adopted 
to avert the ravages of this destructive insect, see the artif 
cle huteti in the former part of this work. 

THE APPLE, [PyrM Malus,] 

Is a spreadiog tree with a spherical head. In its wild 
state it is denominated a crab-apple, and is a thorny tree, 
with small leaves, and a small, unpleasant acid fruit; and 
from the crab-apple it is supposed all our finest varie- 
ties have been produced by cultivation. The apple is sup- 
posed to have been introduced into Britain by the Romans ; 
and although Mr Bartram has described a crab-apple, a na- 
tive of our country, the pyrua coronaria, a globular formed, 
beautiful yellow fruit, an inch in diameter, excellent for 
preserving, with blossoms of a gay and beautiful appear- 
ance in spring, yet it is supposed that our stock of apples 
originated not from this, but firom {Europe. 



Apples when well ripened, form an extremely whole^ 
some food in their raw state ; and from the qualities which 
they possess, their habitual use according to Mr Knight, 
destroys the artificial appetite for strong fermented liquors 
and the preparations of alcohol. They abate thirst, and 
boiled or roasted, says Loudon, < they fortify a weak stom- 
ach and are excellent in dysentery, and equally efficacious 
in putrid and malignant fevers, with the juice of lemons 
and currants. Scopoli recovered from a weakness of the 
stomach and indigestion by using them.' Dr Willich has 
also informed us (Dam. Ency.) that, ' In diseases of the 
breast, such as catarrhs, coughs, consumptions, &c, in their 
roasted, boiled, or stewed state, they are of considerable 
service. They may also be usefully employed in 4ecoc* 
tions, which, if drank plentifully, tend to abate febrile 
heat, as well as to relieve strictures in pectoral complaints.' 
The usual modes of cooking or preparation for common use 
are too well known to need describing. 

< Deduit of Mazeres [Philips] has found that one third of 
apple pulp, baked with two thirds of flour, having been 
properly fermented with yest for twelve hours, makes every 
excellent bread, foil of eyes, and extremely palatable. In 
perfumery the pulp beat up with lard fi^ms pomatum,' 
' and Bosc observes, that the prolonged stratification of 
apples with elder flowers in a close vessel, gives the far- 
mer an odor of musk extremely, agreeable.' (Loudon). 
An excellent j€%, says Mr Fessenden, (New Amer. Gard.) 
is thus prepared firom them. They are pared, quartered, 
and the core removed, and put in a closely covered pot 
without water, in an oven or over a fire. When well 
stewed, the juice is to be squeezed through a cloth, a little 
white of an egg is added, and then sugar ; and lastly, it is 
skimmed, and by boiling reduced to a proper consistence. 



Apples are preserved by drying ; for this purpose they are 
pared by machinery constructed for this purpose, quartered, 
deprived of their core and either strung on twine or laid in 
shallow boxes with bottoms formed of laths at suitable dis- 
tances, and the drymg is effected in the sun or in ovens ; 
in this state they may be long preserved : they answer 
equally well for cooking, and form a profitable article for 
stores, and for sea exportation. 

Mr Knight in his treatise on the apple and the pear has 
informed us, that the juice of both these fruits may be used 
advantageously on long voyages. He has often reduced it 
by boiling to the consistence of weak jeUy ; and in this way, 
although intentionally exposed to the atmosphere at differ- 
ent temperatures, he has preserved it for several years 
without the slightest change. In this concentrated state it 
has been supposed that a few pounds added to a hogshead 
of water might form a good liquor, nmilarto perry or cider. 
It might also, as he supposes, answer as a substitute for the 
rob of lemons and oranges, and at much less expense. 

The late Hon. Timothy Pickering has related the ac^ 
count of the efficacy of sweet apples in the cure of a sick 
horse : it is also stated that horses, cattle, and swine fatten 
in a remarkably short space of time when fed on-sweet ap- 
ples. It is true, cattle may have been injured by breaking 
into orchards anddevouring at once an inordinate quantity of 
the forbidden fruit : but this is equally true, when they have 
broken into cornfields ; yet neither are injurious when used 
as regular food. And it is thought by many that the ear- 
liest fruit, the windfalls, may be more profitably consumed 
by permitting cattle and swine regularly to range the or- 
chards, than by being gathered for the purposes of distilla- 

The unfermented juice of sweet apples icr sometimes by 
boiling converted into molasses in those places where this 
article is not easily obtained, But for tiie manufiicture of 


molasses it is not altogether improbable tiiat the potato, 
from some late experiments, may offer in future a much 
more profitable resource. 


Various theories have been offered for preserving apples 
in a sound state for winter use or for distant voyages. 
Some have proposed gathering the fruit before it is ripe 
and drying it on floors before it is put up ; this has been 
tried ; the apples lose their sprightly flavor^ and keep no 
better than by some less troublesome modes. Dr Noah 
Webster has recommended that they should be put down 
between layers of sand which has been dried by the heat of 
summer. This is without doubt an excellent mode, as it 
excludes the air, and absorbs the moisture, and must be 
useful when apples are to be shipped to a warm climate. 
But apples thus preserved are liable to imbibe an earthy 

Chopped strati has also been highly recommended to be 
placed between the layers of fruit : but I have noticed that 
the straw, from the perspiration it imbibes, becomes musty, 
and may probably do more hurt than good. When apples 
are to be exported it has been recommended that each 
be separately wrapped in coarse paper, in the. manner oran- 
ges and lemons are usually put up. IJhis is without doubt 
an excellent mode. And Mr Loudon has recommended 
that apples destined for Europe should be packed between 
layers of grain. 

Great quantities of fine winter fruit are raised in the 
vicinity of Boston and put up for winter use, for the mar- 
kets, and for exportation. The following is the mode al- 
most universally adopted by the most experienced. And 
by this mode apples under very favorable circumstances, 
are frequently preserved in a sound state, or not one in 
fifty defective, for a period of seven or eight months. The 
fruit is suffered to hang on the tree to as late a period as 


powible in October, or till tiird ftoata have loosened the 
■talk, ud thej ue in imminent dko^r of being blown down 
bj high winds ; inch as have already fallen are carefullj 
gathered and inspected, and the best are put up for earlj 
winter uee. They are carefUly gathered from the tree by 
hand and as carefully laid in basket*. New, tight, well sea- 
soned flour barrela from the bakers, are usually preferred; the 
baskets being filled are cautiously lowered into the barrels 
and reversed. The barrels being quite filled are gently sha- 
ken, and the bead is gently pressed down to its place and se- 
cured. It is observed that this pressure never causes them to 
' rot next tht ktadf and is necessary, ae they are never allowed 
to rattle in removing. No soft straw or shavings are admitted 
at the ends ; it causes mustiness and decay. They are next 
corefUll; placed in wagons and removed on the bulgt, and 
laid in courses in a cool airy situation on the north side of , 
buildings near the cellar, protected by a covering on the 
top of boards, so placed as to defend them from the sun and 
rain, while the air is not excluded at the sides. A chill 
does not injure them, it is no disservice ; but when' extreme 
cold weather comes on, and they are in imminent danger of 
being frozen, whether by night or day, they are carefully 
tolled into a cool, airy, dry cellar, with openings on the 
north side, that the cold air may have free access : they 
are laid in tiers, and the cellar is in due time closed and 
rendered secure from frost. The barrels are never turn, 
bled or placed on the bead. t when 

grown in dry seasons and on dry latheied 

late, and according to the above < ig is on- 

necesaory, it is even ruinous, ands be prac- 

tised till the barrel is opened for > ]y tried. 

When apples are to be expor i recom- 

mended that > they should if pot n deck ' 

otherwise between decks.' — B le place, 

and in the most dry, cool and airy part. 


Cider, or the fermented juice of the apple, coDBtitiitefl the 
piincip&l vinoua bevenge of the citizeiiB of New England, 
of the middle states, and of the older states of the wesL 
Good cider ia deemed & pleuant, wholesome liquor during 
the heat of aninmer ; and Mr Knight has asserted, and 
also eminent medical men, that ationg astringent ciden 
have been found to produce nearly the aame effect in 
cases of putrid fever as port wine. 

The unfermented jaice of the q)ple consiats of water 
and a peculiar acid, combined with the saccharine principle. 
Where a just proportion of the latter is wanting, good cider 
cannot be formed ; in the process of fermentation the 
saccharine principle ia in part converted to alcohd. 
Whore the proportion of the aaccharine principle is want- 
ing, the deficiencj must be supplied either by the addition 
of a saccharine substance before fermentation, or by the 
addition of alcohol either before or afler femientation. For 
it cajinot be disguised, that all good wine or cider contains 
it, elaborated by fermentation, either in the caak, or in the 
reservoirs at the diatillery. 

Theatrengthofthe cider dopenda on the specific gravity 

of the juice on expression ; this may be readily aacertained 

by weighing or by the hydrometer. 

I have described some of the moat approved varieties of 

ty of their juices is designated 

ave stated; which ia always in 

measure and quantity of water, 

ig lo the experiments of Major 

strict of Columbia, it appeared 

ugar were dissolved in a gallon 

cupied by 1000 grains of rain , 

IS. From this it would appeal 

he best known apple, contains 

r in a gallon. Mr Marshal hu 


asserted that a gentleman, Mr Bellamy of Herefordshire, 
(Eng.) has by skill < produced cider from an apple called 
Hagloe crab, which forj richness, flavor, and price on the 
spot, exceeds perhaps every other liquor which nature or 
art has produced. He has been offered sixly guineas for a 
hogshead of 110 gallons of this liquor.' Newark in New 
Jersey, is reputed one of the most famous places in Ameri- 
ca for its cider. The cider apple most celebrated there is 
the Harrison apple, a native fruit : and cider made from this 
fruit, when fined and fit for bottling, frequently brings $10 
per barrel, according to Mr Coxe. This and the Hughs' 
Virginia crab are the two most celebrated cider apples of 
America. Old trees growing in dry soils produce, it is said, 
the best cider. A good cider apple is sacchailnis and 

To make good cider the first requisite is suitable fruit ; 
it is equally necessary that the fruit should be not merely 
mellow but ihorougJdy mature^ and ripe if possible at the 
suitable period, or about the first of November, or from the 
first to the middle,, after the excessive heat of the season 
is past, and while sufficient warmth yet remains to enable 
the fermentation to progress slowly as it ought. 

The fruit should be gathered by hand or shaken from the 
tree in dry weather, when it is at perfect maturity ; and 
the ground should be covered with coarse cloths or Russia 
mats beneath, to prevent bruising, and consequent rotten- 
ness, before the grinding commences. Unripe fruit should 
be laid in large masses, protected from dews and rain, to 
sweat and hurry on its maturity, when the suitable time 
for making approaches. The earlier fruits should be laid 
in thin layers on stagings to preserve them to the suitable 
period for making, protected alike from rain and dews 
and where they may be benefited by currents of cool, dry 

Each variety should be kept separate that those ripening 
at the same period may be ground together. 


In grinding, the most perfect machinery should be used 
to reduce the whole fruit, skin and seeds to a fine pulp. 
This should if possible be performed in cool weather. 
The late Joseph Cooper of New Jersey has observed em- 
phatically, that ' the longer a cheese lies after being ground, 
before pressing, the better for the cider, provided it escapes 
fermentation until the pressing is completed,^ and he further 
observes, * that a sour apple after being bruised on one side, 
becomes rich and sweet after it has changed to a brown 
color ; while it yet retains its acid taste on the opposite 
side.' When the pomace united to the juice is thus suffer- 
ed for a time to remain, it undergoes a chemical change ; 
the saccharine principle is developed, it will be found rich 
and sweet ; sugar is in this case produced by the prolong- 
ed union of the bruised pulp and juice, which could never 
have been formed in that quantity had they been sooner sep- 

Mr Jona. Rice, of Marlborough, who is understood to be 
noted for his success in the manufacture of good cider, ap- 
pears so sensible of the important effect of mature or fully 
ripe fruit, that provided this is the case, he is willing to 
forego the disadvantage of having a proportion of them quite 
rotten. Let me observe that this rottenness must be the 
effect in part, of bruises by improper modes of gathering 
— or by improper mixtures of ripe with unripe fruit. He 
always chooses cool weather for the operation of grinding : 
and instead of suffering the pomace to remain but 24 or 
48 hours at most before pressing, as others have directed, 
he suffers it to remain from a week to ten days, provided the 
weather will admit, stirring the mass daily till it is put to 
the press. [See his communication in vol. vii. p. 123, of N. 
E. Farmer.] 

The best cider is made, according to Dr Mease, by the 
following process. The liquor on coming from the press 
is strained through hair cloths, or sieves, and put into clean, 



tight, strong hogsheads ; these are filled and the hang left 
out and placed in cool airy cellars or on the north sides of 
buildings where the air circulates. In a day, or sometimes 
less, according to the state of the weather and maturity of 
the fruit, the pulp begins to rise and flows from the bung 
for a few hours or a day or two at farthest ; at the inter- 
Tals of 2 or 3 hours the hogshead is replenished, and kept 
fbll from a portion of the same liquor kept in reserve for 
this purpose, as it is deemed necessary that the whole 
pulp should overflow, that none may return again into the 
liquor. The moment the pulp has ceased rising, white 
bubbles are perceived — the liquor is in this critical mo- 
ment fine or clear, and must be instantly drawn off by a 
cock or faucet within three inches of the bottom. 

On drawing off the cider it must be put into a clean 
eask and closely watehed, the fermentation restrained or pre- 
vented : when therefore white bubbles as mentioned above, 
are again perceived at the bung hole, rack it again imme- 
diately, after which it will probably not ferment till March, 
when it must be racked off as before and if possible in 
clear weather. As soon as safety will admit after the first 
racking, a small hole must be bored near the bung and the 
bung driven tight, this must be finally sealed and a spile 
inserted, giving it vent occasionally, as circumstances re- 
quire. In March if not perfectly fine, it is drawn from the 
lees in a clear day and fined : this is usually effected by 
dissolving in a few quarts of cider three staples of isinglass, 
stirring it often ; this is poured into the hogshead. It must 
be drawn off again in ten or twelve days after, lest the sedi- 
ment should rise ; if not fine now, repeat the fining again. 

In Herefordshire, according to Dr Mease, (Dom. Ency.) 
the sediment of the first racking is filtered through coarse 
linen bags ; this yields a bright, strong, but extremely flat 
liquid ; if this be added to the former portion, it will 
greatly contribute to prevent fermentation, an excess of 
which will make the cider thin and acid. 


The firat fermentation in cider i» termed the vinous ; in 
this the sugar is decomposed and loses its sweetness, and 
is converted into alcohol ; if the fermentation goes on too 
rapidly the cider is injured ; a portion of alcohol passes 
off with the carhonic acid. 

The design of the frequent rackings, as above mentioned ^ 
is principally to restrain the fermentation ; but it seems to 
be generally acknowledged that it weakens the liquor. It 
is not generally practised, although the finest cider is often 
produced by this mode. 

Various other modes are adopted with the view of re- 
straining fermentation. Stumming by brimstone is thus 
performed. After a few gallons of cider are poured into 
the hogshead, into which the cider is to be placed when 
racked off, a rag mx inches long, previously dipped in melt- 
ed brimstone, is attached by a wire to a very long tapering 
bung ; on the match being lighted, the bung is loosely in- 
serted : after this is consumed, the cask is rolled or tumbled 
till the liquor has imbibed the gas, and then filled with the 
liquid. This checks the fermentation. Mr Rnight, from 
his long experience and observation in a country, (Here- 
fordshire, Eng.) famous for its cider, has lately in a letter to 
the Hon. John Lowell stated, that the acetous fermentation 
generally takes place during the progress of the vinous, 
and the liquor from the commencement is imbibing oxygen 
at its surface. He highly recommends that new charcoal 
in a finely pulverized state be added to the liquor as it 
comes from the press in the proportion of eight pounds to 
the hogshead, to be intimately incorporated ; < this makes 
the liquor at first as black as ink, but it finally becomes 
remarkably fine.' 

Dr Darwin has recommended that the liquor, as soon as 
the pulp has risen, should be placed in a cool situation in 
casks of remarkable strength, and the liquor closely con- 


fined from the beginning. This experiment has been tried 
with good success ; the fermentation goes on slowly, and 
an excellent cider is generally the result. 

A handful of well powdered clay to a barrel is said to 
check the fermentation. This is stated by Dr Mease. And 
with the view of preventing the escape of the carbonic 
acid, and to prevent the liquor from imbibing oxygen from 
the atmosphere, a pint of olive oil has been recommended 
to each hogshead. The excellent cider exhibited by Mr 
Rice was prepared by adding two gallons of New England 
rum to each barrel when first made, — In February or 
March it was racked off in clear weather, and two quarts 
more of New England rum added to each barrel. Cider 
well fermented may be frozen down to any requisite degree 
of strengh. In freezing, the watery parts are separated 
and freeze first, and the strongest parts are drawn off from 
the centre. I finish by adding the following general rules, 
they will answer for all general purposes, they are the con- 
clusions from what is previously stated. 1. Gather the 
fruit according to the foregoing rules ; let it be thoroughly 
ripe when ground, which should be about the middle of 
November. 2. Let the pomace remain from two to four 
days, according to the state of the weather, stirring it 
every day till it is put to the press. 3. If the liquor is de- 
ficient in t;he saccharine principle, the defect must be reme- 
died in the beginning, either by the addition of saccharine 
substances or alcohol. The cheapest if not the best for this 
purpose is the neutral spirit^ which is a highly rectified spirit 
obtained from New England rum, and is devoid of the haui 
gout or any offensive flavor. 4. Let the liquor be immediate- 
ly placed in a cool cellar in remarkably strong, tight, sweet 
casks ; after the pulp has all overflown, confine the liquor 
down by driving the bung hard and by sealing ; a vent must 
be left, and the spile carefully drawn at times, but only 
when absolutely necessary, to prevent the cask from burst- 


ing. The charcoal recommended by Mr Knight deserves 


Is made of the best quality from hard old cider ; it must 
be placed under sheds in casks but two thirds full, with the 
bung out, and exposed to a current of air. 

Sour casks are purified by pouring in a small quantity of 
hot water, and adding unslaked lime : bUng up the cask and 
continue shaking it till the lime is slaked. Soda and chloride 
of lime are good for purifying. When casks are emptied to 
be laid by, let them be thoroughly rinsed with water, and 
drained, then pour into each a quart of cheap alcohol, shake 
the cask and bung it tight, and it will remain sweet for 
years. Musty casks should be condemned to other uses. 
Cider should not be bottied till ptrfeiMyjme^ otherwise it 
may burst the botUes. The botties should be strong and 
filled to the bottom of the neck. After standing an hour, 
they should be corked with velvet corks. The lower end 
of the cork is held for an instant in hot water, and it is then 
instantly after driven down with a mallet. The botUes 
must be either sealed or laid on their sides, in boxes, or in 
the bottom of a cellar and covered with layers of sand. 

Dr Mease (Dom. Ency.) has stated * that the apple flour- 
ishes in every part of the United States except the low 
lands of the maritime parts of Carolina and Georgia.' And 
good judges assert that the apples of England and of the 
North of France are not to be compared for excellence of 
flavor to those produced in our climate. 

The process formerly adopted for obtaining new and 
excellent varieties of apples was,,to plant only the seeds of 
the very best fruit, and to select from these only those indi- 
viduals with large leaves and strong wood. Reason seemed 
to dictate this mode f but reason united to experience has 
taught a diflerent. See the first section in the former 
part of this work. 


PEARS. (Pyrus.) 



AMBROSIA. Lindley. 

Earlt Bxvrbx'. 

Fruit of medium size, roundish, flattened, the eye sunk- 
en ; skin smooth, greenish yellow, with small gray specka : 
lender, rich, sugary, juice periUmed. Last of August 

AUGUST MUSCAT. Various Authors. 

AvRATS, Muscat d*Aout. 

Small, turbinate, flattened ; yellow, but light red next 
the sun ; flesh breaking, saccharine, perfumed. Season last 
of July ; it succeeds tolerably on the quince. 


SupRXM B, of the French. 
Bxi«Lifi8iMB d'E'tb'. Ibid. 
Summer Bkautt. 

Fruit of medium size ; color of a deep beautiful red next 
the sun, bright lemon color in the shade ; form globular, in- 
clining to pyriform: half melting, agreeable, but not of ex- 
traordinary flavor. Ripe the last of July. A fruit of mid- 
dling quality, but beautiful. 

BERGAMOTTE ROUGE. Different authorities. 


Fruit rather small, short, turbinate, pale yellow, but red 
next the sun ; tender, melting, juicy, sugary, high flavor- 
ed. August Succeeds on the quince. 

<>LD PBARI. 137 


Petite Cassolette. N. Duh. 
La Cassolette, ^ f Q^.^ ^^ 

Friolett, hhe French. 

Muscat Vehd, J*"****^ 

LBCHErRiAirn, ^ 

Oreex Muscat, > Of di^erent Authoin. 

Small Cassolette, ) 

A small pyrifonn fruit, of a bright green color, slightly 
red next the sun; flesh breaking, of a sweet and musky fla- 
Tor ; ripens at the end of August and is a tderable fruit 

EARLY ROUSSELET. Numerous authors. 

RoussELET Hatif, Ferdrbau, Poire de Chtprv^ of 
the French. 

The fruit is small, turbinate ; the skin smooth, yellow, 
but red next the sun ; it is tender, juicy, sugary, perfumed. 
Last of July. It succeeds on the quince. 

EPINE D'ETE'. Lindley. Bon. Jard. 

Fondants Mus^ue', Satiit Vert, Satin Green. 

Medium size ; greenish yellow at maturity ; pyramidal ; 
flesh melting, juicy, rich, musky. Ripe the middle of Au- 
gust It succeeds on the quince. 

FOND ANTE DE BREST. Numerous authors. 

Inconnue Cbeneau. 

Fruit of medium size ; turbinate, but tapering towards 
the crown : skin shining, bright green, spotted, but red 
next the sun. Flesh white, breaking, sweet and agreeable. 
Beginning of August It does not succeed on the quince. 


Fruit small, nearly globular ; skin green, but slightly 
brown next the sun ; flesh gritty, saccharine, a little per- 
fumed. Ripens the last of July. The tree is of feeble 
growth ; the fruit grows in clustexsi and it is productive. 


GROSSE BLANQUETTG. Bon. Jard. Quint Lind. 

Roi Louis, Blanqust. 

Below medium size, turbinate or pyramidal; pale yellow, 
but red next the sun ; half melting, saccharine and good 
flavored ; middle of July. It succeeds on the quince. 

GROS ROUSSELET. Quint Lindley. Bon. Jard. 
- Roi d'E'te'. 

Tree well formed and pyramidal : fruit medium sized, py- 
ramidal, turbinate, deep green in the shade, brown red next 
the sun and lusseted all over: flesh half breaking, sweet, 
juicy, perfumed. Middle of August — it succeeds on the 


Grossb Qui88b Madams, Epargnx, St Samsov, 
St Lambxbt. 

Fruit rather large, very oblong ; color green, a little 
marbled with red next the sun; flesh melting, juicy, with 
a slightly acid, rich and agreeable flavor. It ripens early 
in August ; is one of the most productive of all pears and 
the very best in its season. In the vicinity of Boston this 
excellent fruit is raised in large quantities for the market 
It is for this purpose but too generally gathered when but 
half or two thirds grown and mellowed by being closely 
confined in large masses. I am sorry to add that the wood 
of this capital old variety begins to show sympton^s of 
canker and decay at Salem. 


Fruit pyriform, very small ; skin very smooth, yellowish 
white ; flesh white, breaking and of a musky flavor ; ripe 


by the middle of Aagast A beautiful little pear, but a poor 


Petit Muscat, of the French syn. 
Primitive, Pr. syn. 
Sept en Gueuile, syn. of the French. 
Supreme, of some Amer. and foreign coll. 

Fruit very small, yellow, but brownish red next the sun ; 
roundish turbinate ; half breaking, of a musky flavor. It 
produces its fruit in clusters ; middle of July. This fruit is 
not recommended. It began to blast at Salem in 1830 and 
1831. Quintinie called this a bad pear 140 years ago. 


Blanquet aLoxqqueub. 

Fruit small, pyramidal, in clusters ; pale green, flesh 
half breaking, sweet and perfumed. July. It succeeds 
on the quince and bears well. 


^.trS^rc;KM.,.}»y- of «>« French. 

Greex Chissell. 

This pear is of medium size, pale yellow, with an occa- 
sional blush next the sun : form turbinate ; flesh wiute, 
melting, perfumed. End of July. A fine old fruit. This 
variety exhibits strong symptoms of decay. 

MANSUETTE. Bon. Jard. Lindley. 
Maivsuette Solitaire. 

Fruit large ; its form varies from pyramidal to turbinate ; 
yellow in the shade, faint red next the sun ; flesh half melt- 
ing, juicy, and of middling quality. August* 


MUSCAT ROBERT* Var. authorities. 
Musk Robixc, Poirk a la Rbinb, Poire d*Ambrs, 



Small, turbinate ; the skin is smooth, yellowish green ; 
flesh tender, half breaking, juicy, musky. It ripens early 
in July and succeeds tolerably on the quince. 

ORANGE MUSQUE'E. Var. authorities. 

Medium size, round, slightly flattened ; color yellow, 
blotched with bright red; rich, juicy, musky, pleasant Last 
•f July. It succeeds on the quince. 

ORANGE TULIPEE. Bon. Jard. p. 304. Lindley. 

Poire aitz Mouchbs. 

Fruit medium sized, oval, turbinate, green in the shade, 
clear red, marbled with gray next the sun ; flesh half 
breaking, juicy, agreeable. Last of August It succeeds 
on the quince. 

PRINCE'S PEAR. Ed. Enc. vol. x. p. 565. Lindley. 

Poire de Prince, Chair a Dame, Cher a Dame. 

A small roundish fruit, of a yellow color, but red next the 
sun ; turbinate; flesh half breaking, juicy, high flavored. 
A good bearer and succeeds on the quince ; ripening the 
last of July. 


Oblong, pyramidal, compressed above the middle, yellow- 
ish green in the shade, dark dull red next the sun : flesh 
half beurr^, very juicy, saccharine, a slight musky perfume« 
Last of July. 



ROBINE. Quintinie. 

Ayerat, Rotale d*£ti, Mvscat Pba& or Auovit, 
Pear Rotal. 

Fruit small, roundicih, turbinate ; its color yellow, a little 
spotted i the flesh white, half breaking, sweet, musky. It 
ripens the last of July, bears best on the quince. 

ROUSSELET DE RHEIMS. Quint Lind., Bon. Jard. 
Petit Rousselet. 

Fruit small, pyramidal, greenish yellow at maturity, but 
brown red next the sun, with russetty spots ; flesh half 
beurre, flue, very perfumed. Good to put in brandy and !• 
dry. Ripens in August and succeeds on the quince. 

ST. JOHN'S PEAR. R. M., Esq. 
Amire Joannet, O. Duh. 


Fruit small, yellow, pyriform ; flesh tender, sweet, not 
high flavored, juicy, but soon turning mealy, one of the 
very eadiest of all pears and the best of its season. In 
France it ripens at the period of St John's day : hence its 

SALVIATI. Quintinie. 

A medium sized nearly globular fruit, yellow, but red 
marbled next the sun ; the flesh tender, juicy, rich, sweet 
It will ripen early in August and does not succeed on the 



Poire Sanb Peau. 

Fleur de GuiGNXg, of the French. 

A small oblong pear ; a smooth thin skin ; pale green, 
tinged with red next the sun. Flesh half melting, of a 
sweet and pleasant flavor. A good fruit, ripe in August 


SUMMER ARCHDUKE. Var. authorities. 

Archtduc d'E'tb', OoHioif ette, Amirs Roux, Browjt 
Admiral, Grkat On loir. 

Fruit medium sized ; yellow, but reddish brown next the 
sun ; form roundish turbinate ; melting, juicy and good fla- 
Tored. Early in July ; it does not succeed on the quince. 

SUMMER BERGAMOT. Lindley and others. 


Milan Blano. 

Below the medium size, globi^ar, depressed; color 
greenish yellow, russetted and speckled next the sun. 
melting, juicy, saccharine and high flavored. August — it 
succeeds on the quince. Quintinie calls this a bad pear. 


Bon Chritien d'E'te', Gracioli, of the French. 

. Fruit very large, irregular, knobby ; often four and a half 
inches long and three in diameter ; skin smooth, pale yel- 
low, but slightly^red. next the sun ; flesh whitish yellow, 
firm and breaking ; juice sweet and very agreeable. It 
ripens]in August and soon rots at the core. Celebrated 
more for its great age and beauty than anything else. A 
poor bearer, and neither highly esteemed or recom- 
mended. Quintinie, 140 years ago, called it a bad pear. 

Thorny Rose, Epine Rose, Poire db Rosb, Rosen- 


Below medium size, globular, depressed ; skin yellow- 
ish, but next the sun bright red ; flesh white, juicy, rich and 
sugary. A beautiful, excellent productive variety ; its 
form that of an apple ; it succeeds on the quince. Will 
probably ripen here the last of July. 


WINDSOR, fe. M., Esq. 
CuissE Madame, of the French. 

A middle sized oblong pear ; color green, but brownish 
red next the sun ; half melting, sweet, a little musky, 
rather coarse ; an indifferent fruit. Ripe early in August. 
Quintinie designates this as a bad pear. 



AUTUMN BERGAMOT. Pom. Mag. Quint. Lind. 

Common Bergamot, York Bergamot. 

Fruit small, globular, depressed ; the skin rough, yellow- 
ish green, but dull brown next the sun ; flesh pale, melting, 
gritty at the core, juicy, sugary, perfumed. This is stated 
to be one of the best pears of the season in September. 
It succeeds on the quince- 


A large pear of a yellow color | flesh coarse grained, 
but sweet ; middling* for table use, good for baking, bears 
well and comes early into bearing. This fruit ripens in 
September, and is of middling quality. 


Poire de Cadette. 

Fruit middle sized, a little turbinate: stalk thick, a little 
sunk ; yellowish, but slightly red next the sun ; excellent, 


and little inferior to any of the other bergamots. It tuc- 
ceeds on the quince. September. 

BEURRE' D'ANGLETERRE. Lind. B. Jard. p. 327. 


The tree bears largely. Fruit middle sized, pyramidal ; 
skin smooth, gray, tinged with red next the sun ; flesh half 
beurre ; but melting and juicy in dry soils, sweet and agree- 
able. September ; it does not succeed on the quince. 

BEZID'HEHY. Quintinie. Lindley. 

Besidert, Bezi d'Airt ? of M. MaMon. 

An old medium sized pear, of an obovate form; skin 
smooth, yellow, stained with red next the sun ; breaking, 
sweet, musky, rather dry ; an excellent baking pear in Oc- 
tober and November. I suspect this pear is done. The 
Bezi iPAiry of M. Masson, which is without doubt 
the same, is no longer cultivated for the markets of Paris. 
Quintinie 140 years ago called this an indifferent pear. 

BEZY DE MONTIGNY. Bon. Jard. Lindley. 

Medium sized, pyramidal, compressed towards the sum- 
mit ; color yellow ; flesh white, a little gritty ; very melting : 
sweet, musky. It succeeds on the quince ; middle of Sep- 

BEZI DE LA MOTTE. Quintinie. Pom. Mag. 

BixN Armudi, Beurre BiiAiic *dk Jersey, according 
to the Pom. Mag. 

Fruit rather large and roundish turbinate ; yellow at na- 
t6rity, covered with russetty specks : flesh melting, juicy, 
rich, sweet and high flavored. Ripe the middle of October 
and keeps through November. An old variety ; no longer 
or rarely seen in the Paris market, and evidently no longer 
worthy of cultivation there. 


BROCA'S BERGAMOT. P. Mag. Ed. Enc. Hooker. 

Gansgl's Bergamot, Ives' Bergamot. 

Fruit varying from medium to large ; ovate, flattened ; 
color dull brown, slightly red next the sun ; flesh white, 
melting, sweet, rich, high flavored. It ripens in October. 
A delicious pear, but near Boston it proves a very bad 
bearer ; seldom cultivated. 


La Beurre, ) 
Beurre Oris, y of the 
Beurre Doie, > French 
Beurre Rouge, ) 
Beurre Vert, 
Beurre, of i)uh. 

AmBOISE or AmBROISE } e r\ t a. 

IsAMBERT. ^ Of Quint. «yn. 

Gray Beurre, of Fessen. New Amer. Gard. 
Gold EX Beurre, of For. and others. 

Fruit rather large, obovate, tapering to the stalk ; green- 
ish yellow, covered with thin russet, but occasionally dusky 
red next the sun ; melting, buttery, rich, and excellent. 
October. One of the most ancient and once the best of 
all pears ; in the gardens of the opulent in the city it is still 
productive and fair ; but it is rarely if ever seen in the 
markets : with cultivators who furnish its supplies it has 
become an outcast, blasted, worn-out variety. 

CRASSANNE. Quintinie. Ed. Enc. vol. x. p. 566. 

Beurre Plat. 

This pear, according to Quintinie, derives its name from 
ecrase (to crush,) others say from crassus (thick); fruit 
above medium size, roundish turbinate, greenish yellow, 
coated with russet ; flesh tender and melting, with a rich 
sugary juice. Ripe last of September ; succeeds on the 
quince ; not to be trusted he'-e ; it is subject to crack and 


DOYENNE' GRIS. Hort. Trans. Pom. Mag. 1 74. 
R. M., Esq. 

Gray DoTENNK, Red Doyeitne, > According to 

Doyenne Rouz, Doyenne d'Automne, ) the Pom. Mag. 

Fruit medium sized, turbinate ; stalk very short, in a car- 
ity ; color bright cinnamon russet, but red next the sun ; 
flesh yellowish white, melting, saccharine, rich, and of ex- 
cellent flavor. Season, October. It succeeds on the quince. 
This once exceDcnt variety is now as liable to blast at 
Salem as the St Michael. 

ELTON. Hort Trans, vol. ii. PL i. Lindley. 

A pear of medium size, oval form, broadest towards the 
crown : color greenish russetty gray, but russetty orange 
next the sun ; its stalk is stout, deep ; flesh breaking, of an 
excellent flavor, but grows meally if kept too long. An 
old variety, introduced to notice by Mr Knight It ripens 
the middle of September and will remain in eating five 

FRANCHIPANNE. Bon. Jard. Lindley. 


Fruit medium sized, pyramidal, turbinate, swollen in the 
middle, compressed between this and the stalk ; yellow, 
but red next the sun ; half melting, saccharine, with a pe- 
culiar perfume ; it succeeds on the quince. September. 


Fruit middle sized, regularly formed and tapering to- 
wards the stalk ; skin green, slightly russeted ; flesh yellow, 
melting, sweet, with a very small core, almost free from 
grit. A Scotch variety of great excellence and extensively 
cultivated ; a great bearer. Ripens in September. 



Sucre' Vert. 
Fruit middle sized ; skin smooth, and even at maturity 
of a uniform green color ; pyramidal, inclining to globu- 
lar, and very regular; flesh melting, very sweet and juicy. 
It ripens the last of October. The French assure us that this 
pear has of late disappeared iQrom the markets of Paris ; 
and it proves with us, at this period, an indifferent fruit. 

GRISE BONNE, of Coxe. 

Spice Catharine, Green Catharine. 

Fruit rather small ; regular, tapering towards the stalk, 
which is long ; swelled towards the crown ; the eye 
even with the surface ; skin "green, covered with 
dark blotches ; flesh rather breaking, of a very musky, 
spicy flavor. It ripens the middle of August. The tree 
is a very great bearer. 

HOLLAND GREEN. Coxe. R. M., Esq. 

Holland Table Pear, syn. of Coxe. 

This fruit is rather large, of an irregular or turbinate 
form; color green, sprinkled with russet; flesh greenish 
white, melting, juicy. It ripens in September and October, 
and is a pear of middling quality. 

JALOUSIE. Bon. Jard. Lindley. 

Fruit rather large, roundish, turbinate, swollen, com- 
pressed towards the stalk ; chesnut color, but dull red next 
the sun, thinly russeted, beurre, saccharine, high flavored. 
October ; it does not succeed on the quince. 

LANSAC. Bon. Jard. Lindley. Quintinie. 

Datjphine, Satin, Dolphin. 

Under medium size, nearly globular ; color yellowish : 



flesh melting, saccharine, high flavored. It succeeds on 
the quince. October. 

MARQUISE. Quintinie. Bon. Jard. Lindley. 

Fruit large, pyramidal, swollen at its crown ; yellow, but 
faint red next the sun ; flesh white, melting, buttery, pleas- 
ant, sweet October. It succeeds on the quince. 


MessireJban, Pr. Mil. Coxe. Quio. 
White Monsieur John, > f . ^ 

Gkay Monsieur John, ) 
Messirk Jean dore, of Duh. 

Brown Orange, > ^g. . , ^. .. 

Chaulis, 'J of old author.. 

Fruit short, turbinate ; of medium size ; of a yellow or 
sometimes gray russet color ; flesh breaking, juicy, of a 
rich flavor, but subject to grittiness. It ripens late in Octo- 
ber, is a good bearer, and by some much esteemed; by 
others it is thought a fruit of but middling quality. 

MOORFOWL EGG. Ed. Enc. Lindley. 

Fruit small, globular, ovate, swollen in the middle, orange 
brown next the sun, with spots of russet ; flesh yellowish 
white, a little gritty, tender, mellow, saccharine, a little 
perfumed. This is a hardy Scotch fruit. September. 

MOUTHWATER. R. 1^., Esq. 
Verte Longue, J of the French. 


Green Mouth water, > ^f «^„ ^^ . «., 
Gro8 MouiLLEBoucni, r^ ^^'^- ^'^^ ^'^' 
Long Green. 

This fruit is rather large, varying from pyramidal to tur- 
binate ; color dark green, skin smooth. Its flesh is melt- 
ing, flavor rather sweet, rich and pleasant. Ripe th* 
beginning of October ; an old but esteemed variety. 



Bon Chretien Musque^ Bon Cretien d'E'tb' 

M usque', but not of Coxe. 

Fruit rather large, pyramidal, with occasional ridges or 
prominences ; skin smooth, yellow, tinged with red next 
the sun ; flesh white, breaking, sweet, and musky. Ripe 
early in September and liable to crack. An old varied, 
but little esteemed or cultivated. 


A large pear, of a yellow russet color ; its form inclining 
to turbinate ; flesh breaking and rather acid. It ripens in 
September and is not recommended for cultivation. Good 
only in some particular seasons. Leaves without serratures. 


Fruit of medium size, swollen in the middle, tapering to- 
wards the ends : nearly as broad as long. Skin smooth, 
green, but red next the sun ; flesh white, juice agreeable. 
Season, November and December. It succeeds on the 


Lowre's Bergamot, of different catalogues. 
A fruit of middle size, not very rich, but good. It ripens 
in September. 

RED BERGAMOT. R. M., Esq. Coxe. 
Bergamotte Rouge. 

A round or turbinate, middle sized fruit ; color yellow, 
but on the side next the sun dull red ; flesh breaking, of a 
perfumed and good flavor. This fruit ripens early in No- 
vember, and is a fruit of middling quality. 



EicglishRkd Cheek, English Catharine. 

Fruit middle sized ; bright yellow with a deep dull red 
next the sun ; bell shaped, sweet and 4)lea8anty but soon 
turning mealy ; not esteemed a first rate fruit, nor worthy 
of extensive cultivation. It ripens the beginning of Sep- 

ROUSSELINE. Quintinie. Bon. Jard. 

Muscat a longue c^ueue de la fin d'Automns, 
RussELiN, Long tailed Muscat. 

Small, pyramidal, turbinate ; yellow, but bright red next 
the sun ; half beurre, saccharine, musky, agreeable. Oc- 
tober. It succeeds not on the quince. 


A fruit of a clear yellow color ; pear shaped, with a long 
stem ; quality indifferent, and may be a misnomer. It 
ripens in September. 

Bon Chretien d'Espaqke, of the French. 

A large pear, yellow at maturity, but bright red next the 
sun ; the skin smooth ; form pyramidal ; flesh breaking, 
juicy and sweet This pear ripens in November and De- 
cember, and is esteemed an ordinary fruit for the table, but 
good for baking. 


Culotte de Suisse, Verte Longue Panache, Suisse, 

of the French. 
Stuiped Dean, Verte Lonoue Striped. 

A medium sized pyramidal fruit ; skin smooth, green, but 
slightly red next the sun, variegated with yellow stripes on 
all sides ; melting, juicy, musky and indifferent Septem- 


ber. The young wood, like the fruit, is striped ; it has dis- 
tinct dark veins. The trees seem declining with us. It 
was never deemed a profitable variety ; it is almost gone 
from the markets of Paris ; and is not recommended, ex- 
cept as a curiosity. 

SWAN'S EGG. Lindley. 
MooRFowL Egg, of some American collections. 

Fruit small, oval, turbinate ; yellowish green, but a dull 
russetty brown next the sun ; ^esh tender and melting, 
with a rich, saccharine, musky flavor ; an excellent fimit. 
This is stated to be a great bearer, and a great favorite in 
Scotland. The tree is very remarkable for its tall, upright, 
and vigorous growth. 

VERMILION. Bon. Jard. N. Duh. Lindley. 

Beauty of Autumx, Bellissime d'Adtomne, Petit 

Fruit medium sized, very long, pyramidal; the skin 
smooth, yellow in the &hade, bright deep red next the 
sun ; flesh white, breaking, half melting on some soils, 
sweet, high flavored. Ripens early in October and succeeds 
on the quince. 



AMBRETTE. Bon. Jard. Quintinie, (not of Coxe.) 

Ambre Oris, Belle Gabrielle, Trompe Valet, of 
Knoop, according to Lindley. 

Tree thorny ; a medium sized, round pear, fine, melting, 
saccharine ; musky in warm soils and dry seasons. It 


ripens from November to February. It succeeds on the 


Poire Anqe'i.ique, St Martial, St Mabcel, Groi 

Fruit large, pyramidal, turbinate ; skin smooth, yellow- 
ish, flesh a little melting, pleasant, sweet January and 
February. It succeeds on the quince. ^ 

ANGEOiiaUE DE ROME. Bon. Jard. 

Fruit of medium size; skin rough, pale yellow, but 
slightly red next the sun ; melting, sweet, very good. It 
ripens late in autumn or winter, requires a good soil and 
succeeds on the quince. 

BELLISSIME D'HIVER. Bon. Jard. Lindley. 

Teton db VEifus. 

Fruit large, turbinate'; skin smooth, yellowish brown, 
speckled, but fine red next the sun ; flesh tender ; good to 
cook. Its season, November to April. 

BERGAMOTTE DE PAQUES. Bon. Jard. Quintinie. 

Easter Beroamot, Beroamotte d'Hivbr, Bugi, 
La Grilliere, Paddimgton, Tarling, Terlino, 
Winter Beroamot. 

Fruit rather large, shore, roundish turbinate ; swollen at 
the crown ; at maturity yellow ; half beurre, sweet, good. 
December to May. It succeeds on the quince. 


Bonne de Soliers. 

Fruit rather large, roundish turbinate, swollen in the 
middle ; skin smooth, greenish white, full of specks, brown- 
ish red next the sun ; flesh buttery, melting, juicy, sweet, 


agreeable ; it ripens in January and keeps till March* It 
•ucceeds on the quince. 

BEZY DE CAISSOY. Quintinie. Lindley. Forsyth. 

Wilding of Cassory, Small Winter Butter Pear, 
RoussELET, d'Axjou, and according to Lindley, 
Terreneuvaise of Jersey. 

Fruit small, round, flattened ; yellow, faint red next the 
sun ; flesh tender, buttery, rich, good. An extraordinary 
bearer, growing in clusters ; ripe November till January 
or March. So much says Lindley and Forsyth, but Quin- 
tinie, 140 years ago, called this an indifferent pear. 


D 'AuCH, but not of Forsyth. . 

Very large and beautiful; its color green, changing to yel- 
low at maturity ; its form an irregular pyramidal or cala- 
bash ; and the whole fruit is covered with slight projec- 
tions ; flesh breaking, juicy. It ripens in November and 
December. Not recommended for general cultivation. 

BON CHRETIEN DE VERNOIS. Bon. Jard. p. 326. 

Size and form of the Winter Bon Chretien. The skin 
is^thin, of a yellow color; it is more melting and superior to 
that variety and without grittiness. A gentleman here is 
persuaded it is the same as the Winter Bon Chretien. 


Bezi DE Chaumowtel, O. Duh. 
Poire de Chaumontelle, N. Duh. 
Beurre d'Hiver, of some authors. 

This noble old variety is a fruit varying in size from 
large to very large ; its color at maturity yellow, tinged 


with red next the sun ; its form variable ; flesh melting, 
juicy, sweet, musky, excellent* It ripens from December 
to January. 

'rhiB fruit is still fine and fair in the city and some few 
sheltered situations ; but has long since disappeared from 
its markets, and is rarely at this day to be seen in the 
markets of Paris. In this neighborhood it is so liable to 
blight and so unprofitable, that its cultivation is generally 
abandoned. It still answers, however, in Salem and its 


PoiRK DS CoLMAR, N. Duh. 

Poire Manne, Duh. syn. 

Berg A.MOTTE Tardive, > of Knoop accordiog to 

Incomparable, ) Lindley's Guide. 

This fruit is rather large ; skin smooth, of a green color, 
changing to yellow at maturity, and occasionally a faint 
blush next the sun ; form pyramidal, inclining to turbinate ; 
flesh melting, juicy, saccharine and of excellent flavor. 
This fruit ripens in December and may be kept all winter- 
It succeeds well in the city and some very few sheltered sit- 
uations near it : but owing to its decay, it has long since 
disappeared from the Boston market; and the French 
writers regret that this variety is no longer seen in the 
markets of Paris. 

E'CHASSERY. Mr Lowell. R. M., Esq. 


Ambrette, of Coxe, of Fes. New American Gardener.' 

BeZY DE ChASSERY, > r 4U i7< u 

Besiderv Sandbv, S "y- °^ '•>« ^'■«'"='» 
Winter longGreex, ) r- »r-i . .u 

Besidebv Landry, 5 *y°- "^ ^^'^ ^"<^ »"'«"• 
TiLTON, of New Jersey. 

The leaves of the Echassery have serratures — the 
Ambrette none. A pear below the medium size, varying 

OLD PEARS. *** 145 

from nearly globular to oblong ; its skin thick, rotigh, russet 
green, becoming a little yellow at maturity ; the eye on a 
level with its regular and rounded crown ; its flesh melting, 
juicy, and of a sweet, rich, musky flavor. It ripens 
in December, and will keep till March. The gentleman 
who wrote the article on Fruits, in Fessenden's New Amer- 
ican Gardener, thus speaks of this fruit. Mt is an ordinary 
pear in its appearance ; a strong, vigorous, great-bearing 
tree. Not knowing its character, it was first eaten as soon 
as it was soft ; but accident obliging us to keep it longer, 
it proved to be one of the best winter pears grown in .our 
climate. It has high praise in France. Its merit with us, 
however, is, that it bears our climate perfectly. One 
small tree imported in 1812, bore five bushels of fruit in 
1826. It keeps well, owing to the defence of its coarse, 
thick, incorruptible skin.' The tree requires a dry, warm soil. 

EPINE D'HIVER. Quintinie. Lindley. 


Fruit rather large and long, turbinate; skin smooth, 
yellow at maturity ; melting, buttery, juicy, saccharine. It 
succeeds on the quince ; it ripens in November, and keeps 
till January. 

FRANCRE'AL. Bon Jard. Quintinie. 


The tree is productive ; it succeeds on the quince ; leaves 
downy ; fruit globular, swollen in the middle ; yellowish 
green, but brownish red next the sun, and a little russetty ; 
good to cook from October to mid- winter. 


Muscat Allemand, Coze. > rks^- « av ^^s 
Muscat L^Alleman , J Different authorities. 

This pear is rather large, of a greenish yellow color, at 


maturity, but of a nissetty red next the sun : form some- 
what turbinate, swollen near the base, which is flat ; flesh 
melting and muskj. This is a winter variety, and does 
not appear to be in much repute. 

Bbroamotts D'HoLLAifD, IVAiiBir^ir. 

Fruit very large, globular,, but broadest at the crown, 
flattened ; greenish yellow ; half breaking, high flavored. 
It keeps till May, and succeeds on the quince. 

IMPERIAL OAK LEAVED. Bon Jard. Lindley. 
Imperial a Fsuillks de Chens. 

The tree grows large ; its leaves resemble those of the 
oak ; middle sized, oblong, turbinate ; yellow ; flesh half 
buttery, with a sugary, well flavored juice. It succeeds on 
the quince. January to May. [Lindley.] The Bon Jar- 
dinier calls it a iruit of inferior quality. 

L'ORANGE D'HIVER. Coxe. R. M., Esq. 


The leaves are without serratures. Fruit the size of a 
•mall orange, globular, flattened ; skin thick, of a dull 
mssetty yellowish green ; flesh melting, juicy and fine 
flavored. It ripens in November, and keeps till January ; 
and is good only in particular seasons. 

LOUISE BONNE. N. Duh. R. M., Esq. 

Good Lovisb, Ayanchib. 

A large pear, of a pale green color at maturity, which 
sometimes approaches to white ; its fortn long, and a little 
resembling the St Germain ; flesh melting, juicy, and sweet 
on dry soils. This is a good firuit, ripening in November 
and Deceinber. 


MARTIN SEC. R. M., Esq. 
Dry Martin. 

Fruit middle sized, pyriform, tapering to the stalk, which 
is situated on its summit ; of a russet color, changing to 
bright red next the sun ; flesh breaking and sweet, but 
deficient in juice. An indifferent fruit, ripening in Decem- 
ber and January. 

MARTIN SIRE. Bon Jard. Forsyth. 


Fruit large, pyramidal, irregular ; color fine green or 
yellow, but red next the sun ; breaking, {feasant, sweet 
Season, January ; it succeeds on the quince. 




Fruit small, round, in shape of the Echassery ; skin 
yellow, spotted, rough ; flesh fine, melting, juicy, sweetf 
perfumed ; in moist seasons and soils it is insipid. It 
ripens in November and December. 

NAPLES. Lindley. Bon Jard. Forsyth. Quintinie. 

Easter St Germain, Lent St Germain, of Lind* 

Fruit medium sized, formed like the calebasse ; color 
yellow, but brown red next the sun ; half breaking, pleas- 
ant February and March. Quintinie puts this down as 
an indifferent fruit, 140 years ago, 


A large pear, of a yellow color, with a very short stalk ; 
the tree grows very crooked, and of an irregular form, 
bending by the weight of its load of fruit ; a middling fruit 
ov^j for 1;he 1;ab}e, but an excellent baking pear ; i^ most 


extraordinary bearer, and recommended for extensive cul- 

PASTORALE. Bon Jard. Quintinie. 

MutsTTS D'AuTOMiTE, Pbtit Ralxait. 

Fruit large, very long, and in shape like the Saint Le- 
zain ; yellow, but red next the sun ; half melting, a little 
musky, good ; sweet on dry soils, in dry years, austere 
otherwise ; Quintinie describes it, 140 years ago, as an 
indifferent pear. November to January. 


RoTALE D'HiYKB, of the French. 

This fruit is above medium size ; skin smooth, yellow at 
maturity, but bright red or marbled next the sun ; form 
pyramidally turbinate ; flesh yellowish, nearly melting, 
juicy, rich, sweet, and well flavored. It ripens in Decem- 
ber and keeps till March. An ancient and once celebrated 
variety ; but now gone ft'om both the markets of Paris and 
Boston. It is yet fair in our city, but is generally blasted 
and good for nothing in its vicinity. 

SAINT AUGUSTINE. Quintinie. Lindley. 

Fruit oblong, pyramidal, swollen, and rounded at the 
base ; bright lemon color, but a blush of red next the sun ; 
flesh tender, not buttery, saccharine, agreeably acid. 
December. It succeeds on the quince. 


IifCONNUE L.A Fare. 

This celebrated ancient fruit is large, of a green color, 
covered with russet spots ; at maturity a yellowish cast ; 
form pyramidal^ tapering regularly from the crown to the 
stalk; its flesh very melting, very juicy, saccharine, slight- 
ly acid, and delicious. It ripens in November, and may be 

0I4D PEARS. 14& 

kept till March. Such was the Saint Germain once with 
us. In the city it is even now uniformly fair, and perhaps, 
in some very few sheltered situations in its vicinity. This 
pear is no longer cultivated for the Boston markets ; it is 
considered a worn out, and abandoned variety. 

SAINTE PERE, Bon Jard. Lindley. 
Poire de Saixt Pere. 

Fruit large as the Passe Colmar. [But Lindley says, 
below medium size.] Turbinate ; skin rough, yellow ; flesh 
white, tender, astringent ; better cooked than raw. Feb* 
ruary, March. 

TRE'SOR D'AMOUR. Bon Jard. Lindley. 
Tre^sor, Amour. 

' Fruit very large, shaped like the Gros Rateau Gria, but 
more compressed towards the crown and stalk. Skin rough, 
yellowish, but brown next the sun ; tender, juicy, very 
good to cook. Duhamel has stated that this is far prefera- 
ble to either the Catillac or Gros Rateau. Pecember till 


Chambrette, Bujaleuf, Poire de Glace, of varl* 
ous authors. 

This fruit is rather large, skin smooth, of a deep green 
color; at maturity pale yellow ; form obovate, inclining to 
pyramidal; flesh melting, juicy, rich, high flavored, and 
excellent It ripens in November, and may be kept till 
February. This ancient and famous fruit is still good in 
the city, but is no longer cultivated for the markets of 
Boston or Paris. They brought in the markets ef Boston, 
$1 per dozen in the winter of 1831. But the cultivatofg 
will no longer suffer their ground to be encumbered with 
this decayed, and now. worthless variety. 



Poire D'ANOoisi^ ) j.^ p ^ 

Bow CHRETIElf lyHlVER, 5" "^^ t^"^". 

Very large, color at maturity yellow, with a slight stain 
of red next the sun ; form truncated, or pyramidal, tapering 
towards the summit which is narrow; its crown large, 
side? angular, stalk very long, surrounded hy protuberances ; 
flesh breaking, rather sweet and juicy. This variety often 
grows enormously large, a winter fruit, and may be pre- 
served till May. This pear is very liable to crack, is not 
greatly esteemed either for its bearing or other qualities ; 
the pound pear is thought very superior to it in all respects. 




Fruit very large, rather turbinate ; pale yellow, but 
deeply stained with red next the sun ; flesh firm and break- 
ing, its flavor astringent A good bearer ; an excellent 
baking pear, in use all winter. 

DOUBLE FLEUR. Quintinie. Bon Jard. Lindley. 

Fruit rather large, round ; at maturity yellow, but purine 
red next the sun ; breaking, juicy, good only for cooking. 
February till April. It succeeds on the quince. An orna- 
mental tree for its double flowers ; iMt Quintinie calls it «b 
indifferent fruit. There is another variety, the PimoM^ 


with striped young wood, Tftriegated leaves; the fruit 
striped with green, yellow and red. 

GROS RATEAU GRIS. Bon Jard. Quint Lind. 

Black Pear of Worcester, Lindley. 

Love Pear, Parkinson's Warden, 

Pound Pear, but not of Laogley, 

Poire D'une Litre, 

Grande Monarque, 

Groote Mogul.. The two last of Knoop. 

Fruit very large, roundish turbinate ; skin rough, yellow- 
ish green, but obscure red or brown next the sun ; flesh 
▼ery hard, coarse, austere ; but g^od baked or stewed. It 
does not succeed on the quince. November to February. 


Rather large ; its color a yellowish or iron russet ; form 
rather oblong, regular, narrowing a littl^ towards the sum- 
mit; flesh breaking, juicy and astringent. This pear keeps 
till May, is a good bearer, and an excellent baking sort 

POIRE DE TONNEAU. Bon Jard. Lindley. 

Belle de Jersey, UvEOALE'a St Germain, 
Pickering, Union, Udale's Warden. 

Fruit very large, oblong, tapering to the crown, but 
compressed between the middle and the stalk; in form oi 
a cask ; skin smooth, dark green, but brown next the sun ; at 
maturity yellow and red ; flesh white, hard, austere ; juice 
astringent : an excellent pear to cook. 


Medium size, turbinate form, of a dark russetty yellow 
color ; an autumn fruit and excellent f<Nr cooking* This is 
a very productive variety. 

POUND. Coxe* Fes. New Amer. Gard. 

One of the most valuable of our winter baking pears. It 


is hig;b]j esteemed and is raised in ccmsiderable qoantitie* 
and barrelled for the markets or for exportation. The trees 
are extraordinary for their vigorous growth and productive- 
ness ; the fruit is very large, oblong, pyramidal, rounded 
at the crown, diminishing towards the stalk, which is very 
strong ; of a rusty green, but brownish red next the sun ; 
firm, breaking, juicy, and astringent: most excellent for 
baking or preserving. It will keep till April or May. 

It may not perhaps be improper here to subjoin a list of 
such still existing varieties, as M. Quintinie has in his day, 
in a more extensive and partly obsolete list, denounced and 
designated as pears of indiJfererU quality, and bad pears, I 
refer to the edition of Mr Evelyn, printed in 1693. I do 
not, however, assert that this list is to be considered an 
infallible guide, but T believe it to be generally so : and 
if true at that dista'bt day, how much more reason have we 
for believing it is at least equally true now. 


1. Besidery, [Bezi d'Hery.] * 

2. Bezi de Cassoy, 

3. Brutte Bonne, 

4. Caillot Rpsat, 

5. Chat Bhlble, or Cat Burnt, 

6. Double Fleur, 

7. Doyenn^, [St Michael.] 

8. Finer of Orleans, 

9. Frangipane or Jasmin, 

10. Musk Summer Bon Chretien, 

11. Naples, [Lent St Germain or Batter 8l G.] 

12. Pastourelle, 

13. Queen of Winter, 

14. Spanish Bon Chretien, 

15. Tuliped, 


16. Winter Orange, 

17. Winter RuBsett, 


1. Armenian, 

2. Bellissime, 

3. Bequ^ne, [Good for Baking.] 

4. Cadet, 

5. Catillac, [Good for Baking.] 

6. Double Headed, [Deux T^tcs.] 

7. Gilogile, 

8. Grise Bonne or Crapudine, 

9. Jargonelle, [not otir JargontUty hut of (he French, 

It is our Quisse Madame,] 

10. Love Pear, [Good for Baking.] 

11. My God Pear, [Ah, Mon Dieu.] 

12. Milan de Beuvriere, [Summer Bergamot] 

13. Red Orange, [Orange Rouge.] 

14. St Francis, [Good for Baking.] 

15. Sanguinole, 

16. Supreme. July. 

17. Swisse. 



BELLE DE BRUXELLES. N. Duh. PI. cclxxxiv. 

This new variety originated in Brabant, was introduced 
to Paris by M. Noisette. 
The young wood is large, short, gray in the shade, red 


ne3Ct the sun ; leaves small, oblong ; fruit large, pyramidal, 
its stalk on its summit ; skin beautiful, clear, yellow, but 
bright red next the sun. * * * The fruit is the largest and 
the most beautiful of the season, which is early in August. 

CALEBASSB MUSQUE'E. Knoop, according to 


This fruit is four inches long, irregular, broadly angular, 
and knobby ; its diameter three eighths of its length, com- 
pressed below the middle ; the color deep yellow next the 
sun, and partially covered with thin orange gray russet ; 
flesh breaking, a little gritty, juicy, very saccharine. 
This pear will probably ripen the last of August with us. 

COLMAR D'ETE'. Annales d'HorticuUure. 

The tree resembles the Colmar, but its bark is always 
creased ; it is a great bearer. A very good species, origi- 
nated by M. Noisette and but little disseminated. August 
and September. 


This pear lately originated at Brinley Place, the mansion 
of the Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn, in Roxbury. The tree is 
about thirteen years old, and of vigorous growth ; fruit 
of medium size ; it is rounded at the erown, and regularly 
diminishes in a parabolic manner to the stalk, which is 
inserted in a small cavity ; the skin is smooth, thin, green, 
sprinkled with russet points, and a fawn colored blotch 
around the stalk, which is short, and curved ; at maturity 
the skin is a delicate yellow. This pear was examined by 
the committee of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 
in August, 1831. It was very melting and of the finest fla* 
vor, fully equalling in this respect the very ancient and once 
famous and delicious St Michael ; and was named by them 
Jftarhorn^B SwUian^* The tree produced fruit for the first 

NEW PBAR8. 155 

time in that year, and promises to form a valnable addition 
to our stock of summer fruit. - 

EARLY BEROAMOT. Pom. Mag. t 101. Lindley. 

A medium sized pear, of a green color, tinged at OMtturity 
with yellow ; streaked with brownish red next the son ; 
form roundish, flattened at its base ; flesh yellowish white, 
very juicy, a little breaking and gritty, but very rich and 
sugary. Ripe in August 

A new fruit sent by M. Thouin to the London Horti- 
cultural Society in 1820. A most excellent early variety ; 
an abundant bearer, and deserving of cultivation. 

GREEN SUMMER SUGAR. WiUich's Dom. Ency. 

Sugar Pear of Hoterswerda, 
Sucre D'Hot£r»W£rda, 

** An excellent new fVuit, of moderate size, raised from 
the seed of the Green Sugar, (Sucre Vert) cultivated in 
Lower Lusatia ; it is oblong, but arched towards the crown ; 
of a grass green shade, spotted in every direction with 
green and gray dots ; the pulp is mellow, without gritti- 
ness, and surpasses in taste all other summer pears. Its 
juice is of a vinous subacid taste, decidedly superior^ at 
least in taste, to the Green Sugar. If it be sufiered to 
ripen on the tree, it acquires a greenish yellow shade. 
Ripe from the middle to the end of August, and it can be 
preserved only a few weeks. The tree bears fruit every 
year ; the blossoms resist the most unfavorable weather ; 
and the wood remains sound in the severest winters. 

INNOMINEE. Dr Van Mons. 

The fruit is very large [the engraving sent by Dr Van 
Mons, measures over 4 inches in length, and nearly 3} in 
breadth ;] and from the contraction of the short neck, it 
resembles the Frederie de Witiemberg, The stalk is long. 


large and straight ; skin clear green, but yellowish at ma* 
turity, marbled with pale brown ; flesh delicate, melting, 
saccharine, with an agreeable perfume. Although between 
a summer and autumn fruit, it does not become mealy. 
Scions of this new variety were received of Dr Van Mens, 
by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, the last of 
August, 1831 , but they had perished. — AVi^ England Far- 
fner, voL x. No. 7, being an extract from the translation of 
the Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn, from an article written by 
Dr Van Mons, in the Rome dtM Retmei. 

JULIENNE, of Coxe. 

L*Archiouc D'E'te', Summer Beurrk', Syn. of Coxe. 
Summer Dotennk, Summer St Michael, so called 

near Boston. 
Bloodgooo Pear, of New York. 

* Medium sized, smooth, bright yeUow at maturity, with a 
faint blush next the sun : form rather obovate, tapering 
towards the stalk, which is short ; flesh perfectly melting, 
rich and juicy. The tree bears young, and most profusely, 
and ripens the last of August This is one of the most 
beautiful and valuable fruits of its season, and deserving 
of extensive cultivation. 

LAMMAS. Lindley. 

Fruit rather small, pyramidal ; color pale yellow, but 
slightly streaked with red next the sun ; flesh molting, 
juicy, and of very good flavor. A very excellent sort for 
the market, being one of the very earliest ; a very good 
bearer, a profitable fruit, and a handsome upright tree. It 
will probably ripen with us in July. 


This fruit is below medium size ; color greenish or pale 
lemon color, tinged with brown next the sun ; form tur- 



binate, narrowed at the crown ; flesh tender, melting, sac- 
charine, of a rich musky flavor. Ripe in July. The bran- 
ches are slender and drooping. It is an excellent early 
fruit, and a great bearer. It is very plenty in N(»wich 

PREMATURE. Loudon's Mag. vol. in. p. 224. 

A new pear, which very lately appeared at Edinburglik 
A good bearer, about the size of the Crawford, but more 
juicy and delicious, and remarkably early ; it commands a 
good price in the market. Ripe early in August in that 
country ; reputed a most superior early fruit. 

SABINE D'ETE'. Lend. Hort Trans. Lindley. 

Raised in 1819, by Mr Slofiels, of Mechlin ; named for 
Mr Sabine. The form is pyramidal, terminating in around 
blunt point at the stalk ; color yellow, but fine pcarlet nei^t 
the sun ; ^the whole surface smooth, regular, and polished ; 
flesh white, melting, juicy, and highly perfumed. It ripenpi 
early 4n August. The young wood is slender, it bears 

SEIGNEUR D'ETE'. Lon. Hort. Trans. Lindley. 

This pear has been known many years in Flander& It 
is above the middle size, a blunt oval ; color fine orange, 
but bright scarlet next the sun, and marbled ; flesh melt- 
ing, free from grit ; a rich and beauti^ pear. It ripens 
the beginning of September, and will probably ripen here 
in August. The tree is handsome, and bears well. 






In this section are included all those new Tarieties whose 
period of maturity has not heen ascertained. 


Froit ahoye the medium size, obliquely pyramidal, with an 
uneven knobby surface ; stalk short, thick, sunken ; skin 
greenish yellow, almost covered with cinnamon russet ; flesh 
almost white, gritty, but tender and mellow ; juicy, saccha- 
rine, with a slight musky perfume. It ripens in October, 
will probably ripen here in September. This new variety 
originated in Flanders. It is of the Bon Chretien shape, 
and uncommonly fine. 


*Very excellent, and rose flavored.' *This variety,' Mr 
Knight has further stated, * and the Monarch will not be 
excelled by any other variety in your climate, both grow 
rapidly and bear abundantly. November.' Scions of this 
pear were sent by Mr Knight in February, 1833, to Mr 
Lowell, and the Massachusetts Agricultural Society. It 
is new and was originated by him. 

Amort, Oiatoir. 

This pear derives its several titles from the circum- 
stance, tiiat the garden in Boston where the tree now 
stands, has been possessed by three different owners by 
the above names. A largv fruit ; form inclining to oblong, 
Melting, and of most excellent flavor. It ripens in Sep- 
te«b«r* We believe the tree to be an ordinary bearer. 



A new pear, lately originated in Flanders, which Dr. 
Van Mons has characterised as * admirMeJ* 


Fruit middle sized, ohlong, shaped like a Colmar ; but 
irregular in its outline ; stalk sunken ; of a pale yellow 
color, with much thin russet next the sun ; flesh rather 
gritty but mellow, with a sugary and slightly perfumed 
juice. A new, hardy, Flemish variety, ripening the begin- 
ning of October. It will probably ripen here in Septem* 

ASTON TOWN. Hooker's Pom. Lond. PI. xviii. 

The fruit is small, and somewhat resembles the Swan's 
Egg ; it is of a greenish color, spotted with russet ; the 
flesh is melting, highly flavored, richly sugared and per- 
fumed ; sometimes a little stony. It is in perfection earlr 
in November, but will not continue long ; not a handsome 


Williams' Bon Chrbtikw according to some. 
The Bartlett Pear is undoubtedly an imported fruit, 
and so named for the gentleman in whose garden it was 
found, and whcf has so liberally extended the variety : 
Enoch Bartlett, Esq. of Dorchester, one of the Vice Pres- 
idents of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. It is 
a very great favorite wherever known, and it seems capa- 
ble of sustaining its character in a diversity of soil and 
climate. It flourishes at Malta. I must confess that the 
description of the Williams' Bon Chretien is so perfectly 
similar, and the tree and its leaf agree so exactly with this, 
that I am induced to believe them one and the same, and 
my description will answer alike for both. This last is 


Stated to have sprung from seed, about 1796, in the garden 
of a Mr Wheeler of Berkshire, England. It was subse- 
quently extensively propagated by Mr Williams near 
London — hence its name. The Bartlett pear is large, 
oblong, irregular, turbinated, or somewhat truncated. The 
stalk thick, fleshy, an inch long ; the eye not sunken ; the 
color at maturity yellow, tinged with red next the sun ; 
flesh whitish, very melting, delicate ; juice perfumed, 
sweet and abundant. Ripe in September. A most pro- 
ductive and excellent vaiiety, and recommended for gene- 
ral cultivation. 


ScHdNE AND GuTE, of the Taschenbuch, according to 
the Pom. Mag. 

This very valuable variety was sent to the London Hor- 
ticultural Society in 1826, by Messrs Baumann of Boll wil- 
ier — and much as our autumn pears have been improved, 
this ranks among the very best of them, being a delicious 
bergamot of the best kind. This fine, new pear has 
been erroneously cultivated in Europe, under the names 
of Charles D'Autriche, Belle de Bruxelles, and Bergamotte 
Crassanne, which are distinct fruits. ' A harvest pear, 
magnificent, very large, globular, depressed, the stalk long ; 
skin greenish yellow, but next the sun y^low, with spots 
of russet ; flesh white, sweet, exceeding rich and agreeable, 
perfumed. The tree is very productive. It ripens in Sep- 

BELLE LUCRATIVE. Lindley. Braddick. 

A bOftUtiful and hardy new Flemish variety, which Mr 
Braddick pronounces a first rate fruit. Fruit middle sized, 
roundish, tapering to the stalk ; its surface a little uneven ; 
of a pale yellow color, mixed with green and slightly rus- 
seted ; flesh a little gritty, but very soft and mellow ; very 


juicy, sugary, with a slight musky perfume. Ripe the be- 
ginning and middle of October, but will probably ripen 
here in September. 

BELMONT. Mr Knight. 

< Very excellent here in November.' Scions of this new 
variety, which was originated by Mr Knight, were forward- 
ed by him in February, 1832, to Mr Lowell, and the Mas- 
sachusetts Agricultural Society. 


A middle sized pear ; flesh melting, and excellent flavor- 
ed. Ripe in September. 

BEURRE' DE BEAUCHAMP. Van Mons. Nouveau 
Cours Complet d'Agricultuie, vol. xii. p. 127. 

Fruit nearly round ; color yellowish green, speckled ; 
flesh almost white, half melting, having a peculiar flavor 
which is very agreeable. It ripens in November. The 
tree is very productive, says Van Mons, who sent us the 
specimen. — Bosc, 

BEURRE' BOSC. Van Mons. Nouveau Cours Com- 
plet d'Agriculture, vol. xii. p. 125. 

Fruit very long, terminated by a crown three inches in 
diameter ; skin gray fawn color, but yellowish at maturity ; 
flesh white, melting, half buttery, excellent ; ripe at the 
end of November. In its form and flavor, it much resem- 
bles the Calebasse Marianne. Figured PL 18, of the 
^nales ginirdks des Sciences, — Bosc, 

BEURRE' COLOMA. Chev. Parmentier. 
This new Flemish pear is of large size ; flesh melting ; 
juice sugared, and of good flavor. It is ripe in autumn. 



BEURRE' CURTET. Van Moiu. Annales dHorti- 

Fruit oval, rounded ; its lengfth three inches, breadth the 
same ; skin green, thin, striped, and stained with red next 
the sun ; flesh white, melting, full of sweet juice, quicken- 
ed by an aromatic tartness, peculiar to the Bergamots. 
Last of September to middle of October. — JVWr England 
Farmer^ vol. x. No. 29, inserted by Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn. 
Obtained in 1828, by M. Simeon Bouvier, an apothecary of 
Jodoine, who has dedicated it to fif . Curtet, a physician of 

BEURRE' DELBECQ. Loudon, from Boll. UniYer., 
for Mar. 1826. 

This is a new autumn pear, and is said to be a yery su- 
perior fruit. The tree is more iofiy and of handsomer 
form than any other variety. It was raised by Van Mons 
from seed sown in 1813. 

BEURRE' DORE . WiUich's Dom. Ency. 


This is a luscious fruit nearly related to the White Doy- 
enne, having a similar taste, and ripening about the same 
time, of a larger size, and possessing a finer coat than tlie 
latter ; its peel being glossy and smooth, resembles unpol- 
ished gold ; is occasionally streaked and marked with bright 
yellow spots. There is no red color on this pear, but its 
soQth side displays greater brightness than the opposite 
part which has been shaded. 

BBURRE' DUQUESNB. Chey. Ptrmentier. 

A large new Flemish pear, originated it is said, by Va& 
lions. Flesh melting, and of good flavor. It ripens in 

NKW PBAEfl. 168 

BEURRE' DUVAL. Chev. Pannentier. 

A pear of large size, the flesh melting, and flavor good. 
It ripens in November. This new variety was raised in 
Flanders by M. Duval. 

BEURRE' KNOX. Mr Knight Lindley. 

This new variety was raised by Dr Van Mons. It wa» 
forwarded by Mr Knight in 1823, to the Hon. John Lowell, 
and has been by him distributed to all who have applied. 
Mr Knight describes it thus. * Large, pear shaped, yel- 
low ; season November and December ; an excellent pear.' 
Oblong, formed like the Brown Beurre. Of a pale, green 
color, thinly russetted next the sun. Flesh a little gritty, 
but mellow ; juice saccharine, but without any pecidiar 
flavor. Middle of October to last of November. 


This fine variety was imported in 1822, from France, by 
John Prince, Esq. of Jamaica Plain, in oxbury. The tree 
was on a quince stock, and has proved a most extraordi- 
nary bearer, which may possibly be owing in part to this 
cause : I would hope otherwise. Mr Prince, however, is 
persuaded, it will produce larger fruit on a pear stock. A 
most capital variety from the middle of September to the 
first of December. A pear of very handsome size, form, 
appearance, and of excellent quality, and as such recom- 
mended for general cultivation. The name of this frait 
and its sudden appearance seems involved in mystery. Its 
description and history cannot I believe be traced to any 
author. It is evidently no old Drench pear^ but new : and 
some apprehend that it is no other than, identically, the 
Urbamste, with a new title, usurped in honor of Charles X. 


A middle sized pear as a large as St Germain or rather 
larger ; oval| obtuse, angular, swollen in the middle of its 


height ; green, changing to yellow at maturity ; flesh fine, 
white, melting, perfumed. An excellent frulL September^ 


Fruit in form of the common Doyenn^, not quite so long, 
and larger in circumference ; demi Beurre ; well calculat- 
ed for large orchards, being a great bearer. Produced by 
M. Noisette. 

BEURHF SPENCE. M. Van Mons. Bradd ck. 

According to the account published by Dr Van Mons in 
the Rtvue des Revues for March, 1830, this pear possesses 
a melting and delicious flesh, and merits a distinguished 
place in our gardens. It ripens in Belgium the last of 
September. This pear Dr Van Mons formerly pronounced 
the best of all he had ever produced ; a fruit to his taste 
inestimable and having no competitor. We have this on 
the authority of Mr Braddick, who coincided with him in 
this opinion ; and Mr Turner pronounced it the very best 
of all the new Flemish pears. This was the opinion Dr 
Van Mons had formed some years before he had made trial 
of a very considerable proportion of all his new sorts. 

BEZI DB LOUVAINE. Van Mons. NouveauCoon 
Complet d' Agriculture, vol. xii. p. 126. 

Fruit long, its transverse diameter two and a half inches ; 
skin a delicate green, but brown red viiext the son ; its 
•talk short ; flesh buttery, very agreeably perfumed, it 
r^ns in October. Figured PL 101, of the AmnaUs gin^ 
rales des SeUnees. — Bose. 

BISHOP'S THUMB. Lindley's Guide. 

Fruit over medium sise, very oblong ; it is twice as lotg 
as broad, and t^>ers to its summit The stalk is longi 


crooked ; color dark green, covered almost throughout with 
iron colored russet, but brownish red next the sun : flesh 
yellowish green, melting, juicy, rich, saccharine and high 
flavored. An excellent, but ordinary looking fruit, ripen- 
ing in October. 


A most excellent new Flemish pear. It is above the 
middle size, oblong, regular in its outline ; stalk short, 
stout ; skin pale green, mostly covered with deep cinnamon 
russet ; flesh yellowish white, a little gritty, but rich and 
buttery, and full of a highly saccharine, rich flavored juice. 
End of October to end of November ; with us it may be 
a month earlier. 


A very large pear; some have weighed a pound : form 
oblong, irregular, pyramidal or truncated ; color a russetty 
yellow, with a blush next the sun. John Heard, Jr. Esq. of 
Boston, has sent specimens of this fruit to the Horticul- 
tural Society of Massachusetts, weighing 13 ounces ; but 
the opinions respecting its quality seem at variance. The 
Chevalier Parmentier, however, describes it as a melting 
and excellent fruit. A new Flemish variety ; season No- 
vember to December. A beautiful fruit, and the tree is 
evidently a good bearer. 


* A rather small, but excellent variety.' This new pear 
was originated by Mr Knight, and scions were sent by him 
in February, 1832, to Mr Lowell, and the Massachusetts 
Agricultural Society. 


* An excellent variety here.' This new pear was origin- 
ated by Mr Knight, and scions were sent by him in Febru- 


try, 1832, to Mr Loirell, and the Massachusetts Agricol-. 
tora] Society. 


A variety lately received from Warren, Rhode Island, 
where it is understood to be a native and in high estima- 
tion. The tree is vigorous, upright, very handsome ; it 
ihea not suddenly come into bearing. Fruit medium sized, 
oblong or obovate, greenish russetty yellow, but slightly 
red next the sun ; melting, juicy, and agreeable. It ripens 
in September. 

plet d' Agriculture, vol. xii. p. 124. 

The fruit is very much lengthened, knobby ; of a uni- 
form red color ; its flesh is melting, sugary, agreeable, so 
ftr as I could judge from the fruits sent me by Van Mons. 
It ripens the beginning of October, and grows soft soon 
after. — Bosc. 

plet d' Agriculture, vol. xii. p. 128. 

Fruit very long, of an orangt color, about three inches 
in its transverse diameter, rather narrowed in its length ; 
stalk short ; flesh white, melting, very sugary, and very 
perfumed. This is one of the best of all pears. It very 
much resembles in its form a calabash. The tree is thorny. 
This pear is figured PI. 40, of the Annaies ghUraUM des 
Sciences. — Bosc. 


Bburrb de Capiaumont, Cabbiomont, erroneously. 

This new variety was raised by M. Capiaumont of Mons. 
It was sent in 1823, by Mr Knight, to the Hon. John Low* 
ell, and has been by him liberally distributed to all who 


have applied. The tree is of vigorous and upright growth, 
it comesearly into bearing and is very productive ; the 
young wood is stout, and of a yellowish color ; fruit large, 
oblong, pyramidal, tapering to the stalk, which is situated 
on its summit ; its diameter is three quarters of its length, 
and is greatest at one fourth of its height The eye is 
level with the surface ; color yellow, tinged with fine red, 
or cinnamon next the sun ; flesh yellowish, melting, but- 
tery, very rich and high flavored. A most delicious and 
beautiful fruit This excellent variety is said to be a great 
favorite in England, and deservedly so in the vicinity of 
Boston. It ripens in September. 

CAPSHEAP. S. H. S., Esq. 

Hadlbt Pear? supposed. 

A large pear of a globular form, inclining to turbinate ; 
a melting, buttery, sweet, and rich flavored fruit, of an 
orange russet color. September and October. Highly 
esteemed where cultivated. A valuable pear, introduced 
here by S. H. Smith, Esq. of Rhode Island. 

CHARLES D'AUTRICHE. Lindley. Hort. Trans, 
and other sources. 

Charles of Austria. 

A fine and beautiful fruit, raised by Dr Van Mons. Mr 
Knight is confident it will be productive. We have seen 
the frtiit ; a genuine specimep, as here described, was ex- 
hibited in 1830, by S. 6. Perkins, Esq. to the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society. Fruit large, three and a half 
inches long, and three inches broad ; oblong, contracted 
towards the stalk ; greenish yellow, with brown spots, and 
partially russetted ; flesh melting, white, very juicy, with 
a rich high flavor, but with little if any perfume : it will 
ripen here in October. 



A new pear, BtUad to have been raued by Vaa Hoiw. 
SpMimena of thU fruit vei« aant in 1830, by Mr Prince 
of the LinDBUi Botanic Garden, la the Maaaachuaetta Hor- 
ticultDral Society. A large oblong pear, color ^eeoiab 
niaaet, meltiog, juicy, and of excellsDt flavor. It ripeni 
in autDinD and ila productivenera is not ascertained. 


Thia native pear ia atated by Hr Smi^, to be eitraoi- 
dinary for its aize and beauty ; aome specimena have 
weighed neai a pound. The color ia yellpir or orange, 
with a bright blueh of crimson next the sun ; the flesh ia 
rich, juicy and melting ; littje inferior to the old St Mi- 
chael. The original tree was first shown to him in 1830, 
growing in Cumberland, Rhode Island. It is about 30 
years old,apparently hardy, and free from blight. It ripena 
in autumn, and may be kept till into winter. 

the UaBsBchu- 
•e about 40 yean 

a| jshing of Hing- 

ba im size, oblong, 

CO phort; the skin 

■n L the sun ; fleah 

wl !, sprightly, and 

of _ ^at and constant 

bearer ; and although growing in an uncultivated pasture, 
it has produced annually 14 bushels of fruit, and may be 
recommended with confidence, as one of our finest native 
varieties. Season middle of September. 

DARIMONT. Lindley. 

A new, hardy Flemish variety. The fruit ia of medinra 
atze, oblong ; in some specimens slightly pyramidal, taper- 


ing a litdo towards the stalk, which is short and dightly 
sunken ; color a yellowish gray russet ; . flesh white, 
gritty, but melting, with a saccharine, slightly musky, and 
somewhat astringent juice. It ripens in September and 

DEARBORN. Dr Van Mons. 

It is described by Van Mons as a new pear, which amar 
teurs have pronounced exquisite, and which he has lately 
so named in honor of the Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn, Presi* 
dent of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 


Devices D'Ardehpont. Lindley. N. Dub. 

This last name I have put down as a synonyme, behev- 
ing it a corruption. Dr Van Mons represents the Delices 
d'Hardenpont as very large. I extract from the New 
Duhamel the following description of the fruit, which was 
sent to them from Brussels. — * Delices D'Ardenpont, 
Raised by ^. D'Ardenpont, amateur and proprietor near 
Brussels. Its height is three inches, diameter nearly 
the same ; stalk fifteen lines. Skin a little thick, smooth 
green, but yellow at maturity ; flesh white, nearly melting ; 
juice pleasant, sweet, and abundant. It ripens at Brus- 
sels fourth of November.' 

DIX. S. Downer, Esq. 

This very fine native pear originated in the garden of 
Madam Dix in Boston. It sprung firom the seed about 
eighteen years since. The tree is of medium vigor, the 
young wood is thorny. It is very productive. Fruit large, 
oblong : skin rough, thick, green, but yellow at maturity, 
with a fine blush on the side exposed to the sun ; the stalk 
short and situated on its summit. Flesh melting, juicy, 
rich, and of fine flavor, and thought to be even superior to 


|hd St Gennain. It ripem from the middle to the last of 
October, and bids fidr to be one of our very best autmnn 
{tears, and may with safety be recommended for general 
cultivation, for its beauty, fine flavor, and bearing. 


The scions of this pear were received about a dozen 
years ago, of Dr Hunt of Northampton, who received it 
from a friend in Connecticut, without a name. ' The tree 
is of uncommonly vigorous growth, and a great bearer. 
A beautiful pear, of ^ good size, oblong form, yellow color, 
with a remarkably short stalk ; it is tolerable for the table, 
and excellent for cooking in October.' This sort must be 
deemed a valuable and profitable variety for extensive cul- 

DOYENNE' PANACHE'. Hort. Trans, vol. iv. p. 177. 

Formed like the Doyenne Gris ; bright clear yellow, 
fiuntly striped with green and red ; with small russet brown 
dots. The flesh is white, melting, sweet, and very agree- 


A new, fine, handsome Flemish pear, raised by Van 
Mens ; a hardy tree. Fruit above the middle size, pyra- 
midally oblong, narrow at the crown, and compressed to- 
wards the stalk ; skin pale green, thinly covered with 
specks of gray russet; flesh white, a little gritty, but 
tender ; juice saccharine, with a slight musky perfume. 
Ripe the beginning of October, and will keep to the end. 
This may probably prove with us a September fruit 

DE RACHINdUIN. Annales d'Horticultnre. 

I extract from the translation of the Hon. H. A. S. 
Dearborn, inserted in vol. ix. No. 22, of the N. E. Farmer. 


' The' fruit is round, compressed ; skin rough and hrown, 
like that of the Mons. Jean ; flesh very melting, huttery 
and sugary, and high flavored. November and December. 
This variety merits dissemination for the beauty of the 
tree, and the quality of its fruiL It grows in clusters 
and was produced by M. Noisette.' 


Fruit middle sized, round, in form of a Bergamot ; skin 
a cinnamon russet : flesh white, breaking, a little gritty, 
but mellow, saccharine, very excellent, with a little per- 
fume. A very handsome, new and excellent pear. It 
ripens in October. 

Trans, and various authorities. 


I have before mentioned, on the authority of M. Poiteau, 
the aboitive attempts of the most distinguished cultivators 
in France, during the last ages, in raising new and valua- 
ble varieties of fruit from the seed. Such attempts seem 
to have failed, because conducted on principles adverse to 
success. Nature, however, has sometimes, unaided by art, 
accomplished in that country, more than man by false 
science and misguided effort was enabled to do. Such 
appears to have been the case in the Duchease d^AngouUme^ 
said to have been discovered growing wild in a hedge of 
the Forest of Armaill^ near Angers, in the department of 
Maine and Loire. It was there found in July, 1815, on 
the return of the Bourbons for the second time to France. 
Hence its name. *■ A pear of first rate excellence, the 
finest of the late autumn pears, it is not less remarkable 
and distinct from others in its appearance, in its irregular, 
knobby surface, covered with broad patches of brown. It 


anivef at a weight very unusual in dessert pears. Speci- 
mens from the island of Jersey have been seen weighing 
twentytwo ounces. Form roundish, oblong, tapering to- 
wards the stalk, with an extremely uneven surface ; stalk 
and eye deeply sunk ; skin dull yellow, covered with broad 
russet patches ; flesh rich, melting, very juicy, and high 
flavored, with a most agreeable perfume. The trees are 
stated to bear very early and with 'certainty ; it succeeds 
equally well on the quince stock or pear.' It will ripen 
here about the last of October. Specimens of this fruit 
have been produced by Hon. John Lowell, and S. G. Perkins, 
Esq. which have been pronounced of very first rate qual- 
ity. Mr Loudon, another good authority, informs us, it is 
now well ascertained to be a great bearer. 


FoNDAifTE DE8 B018, of Vao MoDs^and LoDd Hort. Cat* 
Imperatrice de IaA Fraitce, > accordiog to Lindley 
Bril.i«iant. 3 and Pom. Mag. 

BoucHE NouYEiiLE, ) accordlng to Lindley and Pom. 
FiiBMiiH Beautt. 5 Mag. 

This new Flemish pear is of the first rank in quality ; 
it is large, very beautifiil, and bears abundantly as a stand- 
ard ; and will without doubt, one day become a most im- 
portant variety in the list of cultivators. Fruit large, [the 
engraving sent by Dr Van Mons is near four inches long 
and over three inches broad ;] obovate, obtuse at the stalk ; 
greenish yellow russet, but tinged with crimson red next 
the sun ; flesh rather firm ; yellowish white, sweet, rich, 
melting and excellent It must be gathered while it adheres 
yet firmly to the tree. This is the only way to have it in 
the utmost perfection. It ripens in October, and will keep 
a month or two.' It will probably ripen with us a month 


PORELLE. Mr Knight. Dr Diel. Pom. Mag. Dr 


Poire Tritite, or Trout Pear, of the French. 

A beautiful and excellent pear of medium size ; form 
obovate ; of a clear lemon color in the shade, a deep, rich, 
sanguine hue, and spotted next the sun ; of a delicious 
aromatic flavor, and unusual fertility. Thus have the above 
first rate authorities described it. Its season is from October 
to December. Mr Knight, in 1823, sent this variety to the 
Hon. John Lowell ; but it has not yet in our climate fulfil- 
led expectation, and cannot be recommended till further 
trial. It is a native of Northern Saxony. 


This firuit was raised by Dr Van Mons, and Mr Braddick, 
who received the variety from him, thus describes it. The 
tree is hardy ; it is more vigorous, the wood is stronger 
than the Marie Louise. The fruit is melting, it is of a 
larger size, and of a flavor even superior to that excellent 
variety. It falls early into fruit, and is an exceeding great 
bearer. It ripens in October, and continues in eating for 
six weeks. [See Mcarie Louiae,} — Loudon's Magazine, 



A very large pear of great excellence, raised by Van 
Mons, and was so named by him, in honor of, and at the 
particular request of Frederic, King of Wurtemberg. It 
is five inches long, and four in diameter ; of a globular 
form towards the base, very contracted towards ^e aum« 
mit, which is very narrow and pointed. 


The tree is stated to be a fiill and constant bearer. A 



mitive pear, of a round or turbinate form, of medium sice ; 
•kin dark yellow russet; melting, juicy, sugary, and of de- 
licious flavor. It ripens the middle of September, and lasts 
a month. To have this fruit in perfection, it should be 
lathered a little before its maturity, and ripened in the 
shade. This fine native fruit was raised from seed, by Mrs 
Fulton of Topsham, Me, It is highly deserving the 
attention of cultivators. 

GEND£SEIM. Lindley. 

Fruit middle sized, pyramidal, little uneven in its outline ; 
•kin yellowish green, covered with specks and thin patches 
of gray russet ; flesh a little gritty, but mellow, and full of a 
saccharine, rich, and slightly musky juice. A new Flem- 
ish pear, and a hardy and productive tree. Ripe the end of 
September and begioning of October. With us it may 
pnobably ripen a month eariier. 


A native pear, a capital variety, which deserves to be rank- 
ed with the Seckel and Bartlett ; raised by Mr Heathcot 
at the farm of the late Gov. Gore, from the seed planted 
in 1812. The tree is remarkably upright and handsome 
in its growth ; the young wood is red and thorny. The 
firuit is rather large ; its diameter is three fourths of its 
length ; contracted towards the stalk ; the color fine yellow 
or straw, tinged with red next the sun ; the flesh is rich, 
melting, and of most excellent flavor. Competent judges 
have decided upon this. It is a constant bearer, and the 
young ^e produced in 1831, five bushels of pears accord- 
ing to Mr Toohey, who has introduced this pear to notice. 
It ripens in September, and is highly deserving of cultiva- 




This new variety was obtained from seed jby M. Noisette. 
It is larger and later than the Beurre d'Angleterre. 

GROS DILLEN. Hort. Trans. Lindley. 

DiLLEX. Lindley. 

One of the new Flemish pears, so highly recommended by 
John Braddick, Esq. * Fruit large, ovate, irregularly tur- 
binate ; about three and a hfldf inches long, and three inches 
in diameter ; eye fiat ; stalk short and thick ; skin yellow- 
ish green, slightly speckled with brown ; flesh white, with 
a slight musky flavor, and very little core. Ripe early in 
October, and will keep a few weeks. A fine buttery pear 
of the first order, and very handsome. Received ftom 
Dr Van Mons of Brussels, in 1817.' 


Fruit of medium size, smooth ; pale green, with russetty 
specks. Bon Chretien formed ; obtusely ribbed towards the 
crown, and narrowed towards the stalk; melting, very 
juicy, saccharine, and very musky. This fruit will probably 
ripen with us in October. 


Fruit middle sized, turbinate, irregular ; slightly angular 
near the crown ; stalk stout ; skin rugose ; pale yellow, 
mixed*^with green, partially covered with orange russet; 
flesh yellowish white, slightly gritty, but very buttery and 
melting ; juice abundant, very saccharine, extremely rich, 
and possessing a high musky and perfumed flavor. A very 
valuable and excellent pear, raised Jby Mr James Gent 
Hacon, of Downham market, in Norfolk. The tree sprung 
from seed sown in 1814, is sixteen feet high, with pendu« 
lous branches. It bears abundantly, and may justly bo 



considered one of the best pears ever raised in England. 
It obtained the silver medal as a prize in It^, and is in 
perfection in November and December. 


L'Epergite, former name. 

This fine native pear originated in Cambridge, Mass. 
The tree is of vigorous, upright and handsome growth ; the 
young wood yellowish red, and thorny ; firuit, above me- 
dium size, form very oblong, swollen at the crown ; con- 
tracted towards the stalk, which is inserted in a cavity ; the 
color a russetty yellow, tinged next the sun with russetty 
red ; flesh white, juicy, melting ; flavor like the combined 
flavors of the Seckle and Jargonelle. The tree does not 
readily come into bearing, but afterwards bears abundantly. 
It is lipe by the middle of September. This excellent 
pear is highly prized in the Boston markets, and is deterv- 
ing of general cultivation. 

HAZEL. Hort. Trans, vol. vir. p. 310. Lindley. 

A small fruit, of a yellowish color and freckled ; of an 
•ral, turbinate form; flesh white, juicy and pleasant 
Season, end of October to end of November. A Scotch 
froit, and said to be extensively cultivated in Scotland for 
its good quality and abundant produce. 

HENRI dUATRE. Lindley. 
Henrt Fourth. Ibid. 

Fruit below the middle size, pyramidal, oblique at the 
crown ; skin pale yellow, mixed with green, but orange 
brown next the sun, with russetty specks ; flesh pale yel- 
low, a little gritty, but very tender and melting ; juice 
abundant, highly saccharine, with a slight musky perfume. 
A very excellent pear, a hardy tree ; the fitiit ripens the 
end of September, and will keep a few weeks. It was 
raised by M. Witzhumb, and may ripen here in August. 


HENRI VAN MONS. Dr Van Mods. * 

The following is an extract of an article in the New 
England Farmer, vol. x. No. 7, translated hy Hon. H. A. 
S. Dearborn, from the Revue des Revues ; written for that 
periodical, by Dr Van Mons. 

' The fruit is very large ; contracted in proportion to its 
length, and swollen about one third of its height ; but the 
largest fruit often assumes a cylindrical form. The skin 
is smooth, and at maturity a greenish yellow, but of more 
or less brilliant red next the sun. The flesh is tender, 
buttery, sweet, sHghtly mingled with acid, which renders 
it very agreeable. It is an excellent autumn fruit, and its 
true pear flavor should make it in great demand. Named 
in honor of M. Henri Van Mons of Brussels.' Scions of 
this fruit were forwarded by Dr Van Mons, to the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society, but not arriving till August, 
1831, they had perished. 


I have adopted this name for a fruit which was exhibited 
at the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, in October, 
1831, by Mr Hooper of Marblehead, the produce of a tree 
imported from Bilboa in Spain. It is evidently a new fruit 
with us, being unlike any other we have ever before seen. 
It is of medium size, oblong, contracted above the middle 
of its height, and tapering towards the stalk ; color a bright 
golden yellow, interspersed with patches of golden russet; 
perfectly melting, and of fine flavor. A beautiful fruit, a 
great bearer, and highly deserving extensive cultivation. 


A native pear, originated by George S. Johonnot, Esq. 
of Salem. It first bore fruit in 1823 ; a medium sized 
fruit, of irregular form ; stalk very short and thick ; skin 
very thin, of a dull yellowish brown hue ; of good flavor, 
and ripe in September* 


REISER.* Lindley. 

A medium sized pear; at maturity of a yellowish ^reeiif 
with spots of russet ; stalk short and thick ; form turbinate ; 
flesh greenish white, a little gritty, but melting, saccharine ; 
flavor not peculiar ; a hardy tree, an abundant bearer. It 
will probably ripen with us the middle of September. 

LA COLOMA. Van Mons. Nouveau Cours Complet 
d' Agriculture, vol. zii. p. 127. 

Fruit medium sized, oval, but swelled in the middle ; 
color yellowish green, but yellow at maturity^ which is in 
November ; flesh melting, perfumed, and very agreeable, 
judging from the specimens of fruit sent ua by Van Mona 
firom Brussels. — Bo$c, 

Incommunicablb. Ibid. 

Fruit above the middle size, oblong, pjrramidal, con^reas- 
ed towards the stalk, which is stout and short ; skin pale 
grass-green ; flesh yellowish white, a little gritty but melt- 
ing ; juice saccharine, with a slight musky perfume. A 
new Flemish variety ; it bears well and regularly, as a 
standard at Chiswick. Ripe middle to end of October. 
This fruit will probably ripen with us a month earlier. 

LA VANSTALLE. Van Mons. Nouveau Cours Com- 
plet d'Agriculture, vol. xii. p. 127. 

Fruit perfectly pyramidal ; high colored with red ; of 
medium size ; flesh granulous, becoming insipid, and finally 
soft ; it keeps till the middle of October. I did not find 
this fruit excellent ; it is however, better than the Doy- 
enne, [St Michael.] — Bo$c. 

LODGE. Col. Carr. 

A new seedling raised in the neighborhood of Philadel- 
phia. A tolerably large pear, of a brown color ; melting. 


jaicjT, and of delicious flavor ; thought by some to be supe- 
rior to the iSeckel. It ripens early, but keeps well ; and is 
thought to be highly deserving of general cultivation. 


A new and superior variety raised from seed by the Abbe 
Duquesne. Scions of this fruit were sent by Mr Knight, 
in 1823, to the Hon. John Lowell : and specimens of this 
fruit have been produced agreeing perfectly with the de- 
scription. Fruit oblong, tapering towards both ends ; size 
varying from medium to large; stalk an inch long; skin 
nearly smooth, yellowish green, interspersed with patches 
of cinnamon colored russet ; flesh white, exceedingly juicy, 
melting, buttery, and rich. It ripens in October, and keeps 
tin November, and is described as a pear of extraordinary 
excellence. The Forme de Maria Louiatj although it has 
Seen confounded with this, is evidently distinct. It was so 
'.ailed after this, from its resemblance of form. In Dr 
Van Mons' catalogue for 1823, there are more than one un- 
named sorts called Forme de Marie Louise — more than 
one. Forme de Ndpoleon — at least twenty unnamed varie- 
ties called Forme de DoyenrU, 

NAPOLEON. Pom. Mag. 

Me^daille. Hort. Soc. Cat 

Sauyageon Liart, of some, according to Van Mods. 

This new and excellent variety was raised by M. Liart, 
and not as is stated in the Pom. Mag. by Dr Van Mons. 
Mr firaddick has stated that he found the Napoleon in every 
good collection on the continent ; also the Maria Louise. 
This variety was sent in 18*23, by Mr Knight, to the Hon. 
John Lowell, and has been by him distributed liberally to 
all applicants. And the fruit conforming to the descriptions 
has been produced among us. Fruit large, form of the 
Colmar, contracted in the middle ; stalk half an inch long. 


slightly depressed ; skin smooth, bright green, but at ma- 
turity pale green ; flesh very melting, with a most unusual 
abundance of rich agreeable juice. It ripens with us in 
September. Wood strong, dark yellowish green, with 
whitish spots ; leaves tapering to a point, widely serrated. 
This variety is stated to be a great bearer, and to succeed 
equally upon the pear or quince stock. 

NAUMKEA6. R.M.,£sq. 

This pear lately originated in Salem, and derives its title 
from the ancient Indian name of that town. Fruit nearly 
round, or roundish oblong, stalk long ; color a yellowish rus- 
set ; a valuable pear, and a great bearer. Ripe in autumn. 

NEW BRIDGE. Lindley. 

Below the medium size, thinly russeted ; of a lively 
shining brown next the sun ; turbinate ; flesh melting, a 
little gritty ; the juice sugary, but without any peculiar 
flavor. This pear will probably ripen with us early in 
September. ^ 

NOIR GRAIN. Bon Jard. 

BxuRRB NoiR Grain. 

This pear is of medium size, extremely productive, and 
highly esteemed in Flanders. Ripe in September. 


'A rich melting pear, season November.' This new 
pear was originated by Mr Knight, and scions were sent by 
him in February, 1832, to Mr Lowell, and the Massachu- 
setts Agricultural Society. 


This name I have at present adopted for a pear, name 
lost, received some years since from the late Eben. Preble, 
Esq. It was selected from his extensive importations 

NEW WARS. 181 

from France, as a kind evidently unknown with us, here- 
tofore. The tree is of medium vigor, compact in its form ;. 
the leaves are dark green above, very downy or woolly be- 
neath ; &uit medium size, turbinate ; skin smooth, pale 
green at maturity ; > flesh white, melting, juicy, rich and 
excellent. Ripe in September. The tree is a very great 
and constant bearer ; and is recommended as well deserv- 
ing cultivation. It is evidently new, and Mr Manninghat 
suggested that it agrees well with the description of the 
Francreal d'Et^. 


Prixcess o^ Oraitqs. 

' The fruit is roundish turbinate, the size of the White 
Doyenn^, [St Michael ;] skin bright reddish orange russet; 
flesh yellowish white, sugary and rich, in some seasons 
perfectly melting, but occasionally a little gritty. From 
its great beauty, as well as the good quality of the fruit, 
this variety is highly recommended to notice, as a valuable 
autumn pear, ripening in October. Raised by the Comte 
de Coloma in 1802. 


The imperfect description of this flruit is from a speci- 
men, sent by Messrs Prince, of the Linnsean Botanic Gar- 
don, Flushing, to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 
in 1830. It is understood to have been raised by him, firom 
the St Michael and St Germain. The fruit was of a size 
rather large, form regular, inclining to oblong ; of a yellow 
color, melting, and of excellent flavor. It ripens in au- 
tumn, and will keep till winter. 

POIRE D'ANANAS. Braddick. Loudon. 

This new Flemish variety, which Mr Loudon character- 
izes as * excellent,^ Mr Braddick has recommended as of 



tot rate excellence, and nearij allied in appearance and 
flavor, to the Paese Colmar and Present de Malines. A 
winter ihiit. Another account describes the Poire d' Ana- 
nas as of medium size, very handsome, melting, with a fine 
pine-apple flavor, [hence its name d' Ananas ;] ripening in 
November, and considered in Belgium as one of their very 
best sorts ; the tree of dwarfish habits, and flowering freely 
and at the extremity of the branches. 


Fruit middle sized, pyramidal, uneven on its surfiice. 
Of a dull green color, mixed with yellow and spots of rus- 
set ; flesh very tender, slightly gritty, and lull of a rich, 
very saccharine, musky juice. A very excellent pear, and 
hardy tree ; it highly deserves cultivation. Ripe the be- 
ginning of October, and fine to the end. In our climate 
this fhiit will probably ripen a month earlier. 

POIRE NEILL. Lindley. 

This fruit is sometimes nearly four inches long, and three 
and a half inches in diameter ; pyramidally turbinate, ta- 
pering to the stalk ; sometimes obliquely formed ; the stalk 
is short and obliquely inserted ; skin pale yellow, inter- 
mixed with gieen, and mottled with thin gray russet ; flesh 
wMte, a little gritty, but very soft and mellow, abounding 
wi& a saccharine and lightly musky juice. A very fine 
and handsome new pear from Flanders, a hardy tree. Ripe 
the beginning of October, and good to the end. It will 
probably prove with us a September finiit 

Seedless Pear. 

Size and form of the Colmar ; skin yellow, touched with 
green ; melting, a HtUe coarse grained, abounding in sweet 
musky juice. It ripens in Normandy the beginning of Oc- 



A middle sized pear, a little oblong, contracting towards 
the stalk ; of a greenish yellow color, and good flavor. It 
is expected this may prove a valuable fruit Raised by 
Dr Joseph Wight of Raymond, Me. 

RICHE DETOUILLE. Lindley. Lond. Hort. Trans. 

RiCHE D*Appoie. 

This pear resembles the St Germain in size and shape. 
It is large, oblong, the eye prominent ; it tapers to the 
stalk, which is rather thick and long ; skin claw citron 
yellow, covered with numerous asperities, and rough like 
an orange or lemon, and tinged with scarlet next the son ; 
flesh white, melting, not perfumed, but sweet and very 
pleasant. A new variety ripening late in a«ltanm or win-' 
ter ; it succeeds on the quince or pear. 

SAINT 6HISLAIN. Van Mons. Mr Downer. 

Saiitt Galbn, of the Bostonianf. 

This variety of pear was raised in Belgium by M. Dor» 
lain. 'St Galen,' one of the new varieties sent from the 
Horticultural Society of London, to S. G. Perkins, Esq., 
size middling, color yellowbh green, flavor sprightly, rich, 
sugary. It comes in eating from the middle of September 
to the first of October. 


A most delicious pear, size varying from small to medi* 
um ; form obovate ; color varying from yeUowish to brown- 
ish russet, but generally red next the sun ; of a melting, 
spicy, and of a most extraordinary rich and delicious flavor. 
In this respect it is supposed to exceed any other native 
fruit. It ripens the middle of September, and lasts till the 
middle of October. The tree is of moderate growth; up- 
right, compact, and beautiAil in its form. It is extnordi- 


nary productive, and produces its fruit in clusters: it is 
recommended as indispensable in every good collection. 
The time when, or the place where this pear originated, is 
involved in obscurity. Dr Hosack has stated in his letter, 
recorded in the London Hmrticidtural Transactions, that it 
was first introduced to notice near Philadelphia about 70 
years ago. It was found either on the grounds of Mr 
Seckel or Mr Weiss. 

SERRUAIER D'AUTOMME. Annales d'Horticulture. 

I adopt in this place the version as it appeared in vol. ix. 
No. 2S, of the New England Farmer, of the Hon. JI. A. 
S. Dearborn. / M. Van Mons says the tree is tall and 
majestic ; the leaves small, elongated, and^apositely fold- 
ed.' The fruit is very large, oblong, obtuse at both ends ; 
skin of a delicate green, it becomes yellow at maturity. 
The flesh is ivhite, tender, melting, fiill of very abundant, 
sugary juice. The epoch of its maturity is towards the 
end of October, and it may be preserved three weeks. 
Produced by M. Van Mons. 

SIEULLE. Bon Jard. 1828. 

Raised by M. Sieulle, at the seat of the Due de Choiseul 
at Praslin. It first bore fruit in 1815. The fruit is of me- 
dium size, globular form, flattened at the ends, but swollen 
towards the base. A long stalk ; skin fine, of a yellow 
lemon color, and slightly red next the sun ; flesh half 
melting ; juice sweet, rich, abundant and agreeable. It 
ripens October and November. The tree is vigorous and 

Bon Chaetien Panache^ lb. Pi. 115. 

Introduced by M. Vanieville, from Metz, in 1810. The 
tree comes early into bearing, the young wood is striped ; 


the fruit is very large, and formed like the winter Bon 
Chretien, irregularly striped with yellow on a green foun- 
dation ; flesh almost melting, sweet, and very agreeable in 
its raw state. This interesting species merits to be exten- 
sively multiplied. 

SUMMER FRANKREAL. Pom. Mag. p. 106. 

Frankrsal D'E'tx', Diel's Pom. 
PoiiDAKTBi Knoop Pom. 
France Cannel, Knoop. 
Gros Micxt D'E'te', Pom. Mag. 

The fruit is rather large ; color pale yellowish green ; 
form turbinate ; stalk short and thick ; flesh white, firm, 
juicy, buttery, melting, rich and excellent It will ripen 
with us probably, the lastof August. This is said to be a 
great bearer. 

SYLVANGE VERTE. M. Pierard. Hon. J. Lowell. 

A most superior pear. It originated at the village of Syl- 
vange, near Verdun in France ; at what period is uncertain. 
Scions of this variety were sent by Mr Knight in 1823, to 
the Hon. J. Lowell, and the fruit has been produced by him 
and Mr Parsons of Brighton, corresponding in excellence, 
to the description of M. Pierard — this variety has been 
by them disseminated widely with their wonted liberality. 
It is rather a large pear, varying in its form, irregular in 
its outline, swollen towards the middle, flattened at its 
head, rounded towards the stalk, or terminated by avery 
blunt point ; bright green on the shaded side, dark green 
next the sun ; the whole skin is rough, with spots or specks 
of a gray or black color. The stalk is short, slender, ob- 
liquely inserted ; the eye small and but slightly depressed 
in a knobby cavity. The flesh is greenish near the skin, 
white in the centre, soft, saccharine, and of a peculiarly 
agreeable flavor. It ripens in October and will keep till 
December. Mr Lowell states that it proves an exuberant 


It is in Herefordshire a variety of first rate excellence, 
rivalling the Brown Beurre in its most perfect state.' This 
pear has not yet heen sufficiently proved in crar climate. 



BEURRE' D'AREMBERG. Pom. Maff. Bon Jard. 
Loudon. Knight Annales D'Horticiuture. 

PoiBE D'Absmbeho, ^ 

Due D'Arxmberg, > Pom. Mag. 


Beubub' D'Arembebt, Boo Jard. 
Beurre' Deschamps, Van Mods. 
Beurre' Dbs Orpheliits, of Deschamps. 
Beurre' D'HAROEirpowT, erroaeousiy. 

The English and French writers speak of this pear, as 
one of the very hest of all in cultivation. And Mr Loudon 
has stated that it is one of the greatest hearers — comes 
early into hearing, and keeps well. It was raised by the 
Abbe Deschamps, in the garden of the Hospice des Or- 
phelins at Enghein. Deschamps at first called it Beurr6 
des Orphdiru, and M. Van Mons soon after named it Bturri 
Deschamps, Others are stated to have called it Beurri 
lyHttrdenporU, and finally Beurri D^Aremherg. M. Noisette 
is stated to have sent to England the Gloux morceau, anoth- 
er fine pear but larger, for this variety, which has led to 
mistakes there, if not in our own country. Mr Knight who 
commends this as a very first rate fruit, forwarded scions 
of the variety in 1823, to the Hon. John Lowell, by whom 


it has been liberally disseminated. The Pomological Mag- 
azine thus describes the tree and its fruit Wood deep 
yellowish brown, sprinkled with gray spots ; leaves middle 
sized, ovate oblong, of a rich dark green color; fruit 
large, turbinate ; skip of a delicate pale green, dotted with 
russet, which becomes a deeper yellow at maturity ; flesh 
whitish, fine, very juicy, perfectly melting, without any grit- 
tiness, and of a very extraordinary rich, sweet, high flavor- 
ed quality. It will keep till March, and is truly character- 
ized in the Horticultural Transactions, as deserving to 
be placed at the head of all pears in cultivation. It is a 
great bearer either on a quince as a dwarf, or as a 

BEURRE' DIEL. Pom. Mag. 

Dorothee' Royale, of Van. Mods. accordiDg to Lindley. 

Beurre' D*Yelle. 

Poire de Meloit. 

Beurre' Rotale, >of various collectioDS accordiDg to 

DiEL*8 Butterirxe, 3 the Pom. Mag. 

This noble pear was raised by Van Mons and so named 
in honor of Dr Augustus Frederic Adrian Diel. Its great 
merit, independent of its excellence, is its fertility. It is 
of the first rank among dessert pears. The tree is of 
rigorous growth ; the young wood is long, strong, flexuose, 
olive green, downy at the ends ; the leaves large, roundish 
or broadly cordate, smooth. Fruit when in perfection four 
inches long, and three inches broad ; it is much swollen a 
little above the middle, going off to the eye either abruptly 
or gradually, and tapering straight to the stalk, without any 
contraction of the figure, which is much like the Bon Chre- 
tien, but without the protuberances. The skin at maturity 
is bright orange with little trace of russet ; its dots sur- 
rounded with red ; the eye in a deep cavity surrounded by 
knobs ; the stalk strong, one and a half inches long, in a 
deep narrow cavity ; flesh clear white, a little gritty towards 
the core, but perfectly tender, melting, juicy, with a deli- 


eioos, rich, saccharine, aromatic flay<Mr, without any percep- 
tihle acid, core small, seeds usually abortive. 

BEURRE' RANGE, of Van Mons, of the French, 
Lond. Hort Trans. Pom.^ Mag. 

Hardenpomt du PaiNTBMps, of Mr Knight, and some 

Bkurrb' Epiitb, of some collections. 

This new variety was raised at Mons, by the late Coun- 
sellor Hardenpont. It is described by Dr Van Mons, as 
being the best of the late pears, keeping till May. Mr 
Knight in 1822, sent this variety to the Hon. John Lowell ; 
and it has been by him extended to all who have applied. 
The Pomological Magazine describes it thus : — The tree ii 
vigorous and a good bearer after a few years, its mode of 
growth is straggling, the shoots sometimes growing pendu- 
lous ; wood brownish yellow. Fruit middle sized, oblong, 
tapering to the stalk, which is long and slender ; skin deep 
green, flesh green, melting, having a delicious, rich flavor, 
with very little acid ; it shrivels in ripening. 

BEURRE' WITZHUMB. Van Mons. Nouveau 
Cours Complet d' Agriculture, vol. xii. p. 126. 

Fruit oval, knobby, three and a half inches in diameter ; 
skin rough, green, brownish red or dark brown next the 
sun ; flesh greenish white, semi-transparent, melting, per- 
fuiiied. It ripens in December. This beautiful and excel- 
lent pear is figured PI. 105 of the AnndUs generales cka 
Sciem:es, — Bosc. 

BEZY-VAET. Dr Van Mons. ' 

Bezt de Saint Vaast, according to Dr Van Mons. 

The following from the New England Farmer, vol. x. 
No 7, is an extract from an article, written by Dr Van 
Mons in the Revue des Revues ; inserted by the Hon. H« 


A. S. Dearborn. * The Bezy-Vaet, according to tradition 
and from the name which it bears, was probably obtained 
by the late Abbe Saint Vaast, or had been disseminated 
by him. The fruit belongs to the sub-species of RoussdeU ; 
its size and form are those of the Colmar ; ground deep 
green, blotched with purple, and stained in spots of rusty 
red; flesh both melting and buttery, slightly yellow, 
it abounds in sugar, and exhales a perfume which cannot 
be compared to the aroma of any other fruit The period 
of its maturity is December and January, but it can be 
prolonged by gathering the fruit fifteen days earlier than 
usual. It is superfluous to add, that it is worthy of boipg 
received by amateurs. 

CARDINALE. N. Duh. PL 68, 

Poire D'Amiral, of M. Hervy. Ibid. 

We are astonished that a pear so beautiful, and of merit 
far before many other sorts, should as yet be so little ex- 
tended in the environs of Paris. The tree is of medium 
vigor ; its young wood of medium size, and of a red color. 
A superb, oblong pear, of a pyramidal form, with a well 
rotinded base ; yellow in the shade, but beautiful red next 
the sun ; flesh white, half melting, coarse grained, very 
juicy, sweet and agreeable. It keeps till March, and mer« 
its to be better known. 

CHAPTAL. N. Duh. PI. 388. 

This new pear, dedicated to Comte Chaptal, minister of 
the interior, was obtained by M . Hervy in l^GO. The tree 
is of middling growth, and resembles a wild pear ; fruit 
very large, turbinate, swollen ; skin smooth, green, but at 
maturity yellow, with a slight blush next the sun. The 
flesh is breaking, but Calvel has described it as half melt- 
ing; the juice abundant, sweet, slightly acid, and per- 


Aimed. This handsome pear keeps till April and May ; it 
is excellent cooked, hut may be eaten raw. 

COLMAR DEW£Z. Loudon, from Bull. Univ. Sept 

This pear lately originated in the vicinity of Brussels, 
is said to contain a rare assemblage of extraordinary qual- 
ities ; flesh white, tender, and exquisitely melting ; juice 
abundant, mild, and of an elevated, agreeable perfhme, 
equal to the Hardenpont d'Hiver, improperly called Benrre 

COLMAR SABINE. Van Mobs. Nouveau Cours 
Complet d' Agriculture, vol. xii. p. 133. 

The fruit is formed like the Beurri [oval, oblong, taper- 
ing to the stalk.] Its diameter two and a half inches ; of 
medium size ; the color beautiful green, dotted with brown ; 
stalk long ; its eye rather deep ; the flesh white, buttery, 
very sugary, not at all musky. It does not ripen till spring. 
Figured vol. 3d, PL 30, of the AnntUes generaks dea Sei- 
tftees Physiques, — Bosc, 

COLMAR VAN MONS. Nouveau Cours Complet 
d' Agriculture, vol. xii. p. 13^5. 

Fruit pyramidal, yellow, with fawn colored points; of 
medium size ; flesh half breaking, sugary, very agreeable ; 
it ripens in January, and will keep two years, according to 
Van Mons. I have eaten of this fruit The tree is ex- 
tremely productive. — ^otc. 

DUCHESSE DE MARS. Chev. Parmentier. 
Duchess of March. 

This pear is of large size ; flesh melting, and of good 
flavor. It ripens in March. 



Beroamotte de la Pen-tecotb, but not of Parmentier 

or Dr Van Mods. 
Bezi Chaumomtellb TRifi QROs, of M. Stofiels of 

Beurre' D'Hiyer de Bruxrlles, of the Taschenbucb. 
Doyenne IVHiver, of some collections, accordinip to the 

Pom Mag. 

This fine new fruit probably originated in Flanders. It 
is not to be confounded with the Easter BergamoUe, a good 
but inferior fruit * Of aU the very late keeping pears, 
this is decidedly the best [for England.] Fruit large, 
roundish oblong, broadest towards the eye ; stalk short, 
thick, deeply inserted ; green, but yellow at maturity, with 
specks of russet brown ; flesh yellowish white, perfectly 
buttery and melting, and extremely high flavored ; wodd 
reddish yellow, sprinkled with distinct whitish spots ; leav«f 
oblong, folded together. It is a most profuse bearer on a 
quince stock. It ripens from November to May. 


BoN Chrbtiex Nouvellb Espece. lb. 

Fruit large, oblong, turbinate, tapering and slightly com- 
pressed towards the stalk. Large specimens measure four 
and a half inches long, and three and a half broad. Skin 
at maturity yellow, mottled with russet next the sun ; flesh 
yellowish white, breaking, a little gritty, but mellow at 
maturity ; juice saccharine, with a slight musky perfume. 
Season the beginning of November till the end of January. 
A very fine new Flemish pear ; it succeeds well on the 
quince, and as an open standard. 

GLORIA. Mr Knight. 

CoLMAR D'Hiybr, former name. 
A name implying everything that is excellent. It has 




not yet been sufficiently proved in our climate to recom- 
mend it ; although Mr Parsons had a tree in bearing in 1831, 
he was yet unable to ascertain the quality. * Shape vary- 
ing from nearly globular to pear shaped, color yellowish 
green. A melting pear of first rate excellence, and very 
productive. Season, January.' This variety was sent by 
Mr Knight to Hon. John Lowell, in 1823. 

6LOUX MORCEAU. Hort Trans. Lindley. Knight 
Gloot Morcsau, Lindley and 10016 others. 

* A very large Belgic variety of great excellence.' — [Mr 
MMighL] Large specimens measure four inches long, and 
tbree and a half in diameter. Much like the D'Aremberg 
in form, but larger, more oval, not so turbinate ; the stalk 
an inch long and rather deeply inserted ; the eye deep in 
an uneven hollow ; the skin is pale, dull olive green, in- 
elining to yellow ; covered with russetty specks, and round 
the stalk russetty blotches. Flesh whitish, firm, veiy juicy, 
but a little gritty at the core. A beautiful and fine variety. 
Ripe in November, and will keep till March. 

GRAND£ BRETAGNE DOREE'. Braddick. Loudon. 

A new variety procured by Mr Braddick of M. Stoflfols, 
of Malines, in 1819. This pear Mr Braddick pronounces 
a first rate firuit ; it has been preserved by him till April. Its 
size is medium ; its form a regular obovate ; color at matu- 
ri^ yellow. Mr Loudon pronounces it an excellent fruit 
with a peculiar terbinthinate flavor. 

ICKWORTH. Mr Knight. 

* Melting, rich, rose-flavored.' March and April. This 
new pear was originated by Mr Knight, and scions were 
sent by him in February 1832, to Mr Lowell and the Mas- 
sachusetts Agricultural Society. 


JOSEPHINE. Chev. Parmentier. 
Jamtnettb, of some, according to Van Mods. 

This new Flemish pear is of large size, flesh melting, 
juice sugared, and flavor excellent. It ripens in winter. 

LA POURCROY. Van Mens. Nouveau Cours Com- 
plet d' Agriculture, voL xii. p. 132. 


Fruit oval, two and a half inches in its transverse ^am- 
eter ; skin yellow, spotted ; stalk strong ; eye little sunk ; 
flesh yellowish white at maturity, melting, slightly acid, 
excellent. It ripens in January. Figured PI. 86, of the 
Jinnalts genercUes des Sciences. 

LEWIS. Mr Downer, 

A valuable native pear ; it originated on the farm of Mr 
John Lewis in Roxbury, Mass. The size is medium, form 
somewhat globular ; the stalk is long ; the skin is dark 
green and coarse ; the flesh is whitish, very melting, juicy, 
and excellent It ripens by the middle of November, and 
may be kept till February and March. The tree when 
loaded droops like the willow ; this new and excellent pear 
is a very great and constant bearer ; it is productive to a 
fault, and possesses the valuable property of hanging on 
the tree to a very late period ; and is highly deserving of 
cultivation. This fruit sells very high in winter in the 

L'OKEN D'HIVER. Van Mons. Nouveau Cours 
Complet d'Agriculture, vol. xii. p. 132. 

Fruit oval, a little lengthened ; its transverse diameter 
five inches ; stalk short ; eye sunk in a cavity ; skin of a 
clear yellow, washed with fawn color ; flesh white, melting, 
pleasant, perfumed, excellent. It ripens in March. Fi- 
gured PI. 74, of the Annalts generates des Sciences, 


MONARCH. Mr Knight. 

< This pear,' says Mr Knight, * in my estimation, and that 
of a great many others, is without a rival, though its high 
musky flavor offends some persons.' Again he says, ' The 
Monarch and ^lihorpe CrcusannCf will not be excelled by 
any other varieties in your climate ; both grow rapidly and 
bear abundantly.' Again he adds, * the Monarch grows so 
j^t and bears so well, that I am planting it for perry, con- 
vinced it will make a very fine liquor.' Season in Elng- 
land, December and January. Scions of this pear were 
sent by Mr Knight, in February, 1832, to Mr Lowell, and 
the Massachusetts Agricultural Society ; it was originated 
very lately by him. 

LOWELL. Mr Knight. 

A new pear produced by Mr Knight. Scions of this 
sort were forwarded by him in 1828, to the Hon. John 
Lowell. Mr Knight describes it as follows — * I send a 
plant and cuttings of a pear, which I have named for you, 
the Lowell Ptar, Our climate is hardly warm enough for 
it, but in yours I think it will prove excellent, and a very 
productive variety. 


Fondants de Pamsel, )of Van Mods, according to 

Pa88e CoLMAR EpiNEutE, j the Poid. Mag. 

Poire Precel. 

Passe Colmar, Vineuse, > ^ p ^ 

Beurre D^Arobnson, 5 

Passe Coi«mardit Precel, ^ 

CoLMAR EpINEUSE, C M ..* Q/w r»«» 

Beurre' Colmar Dit Preoel, ( ^^^^ ^^' ^*^- 
Chapman's, j 

A most valuable new pear, raised by Counsellor Harden- 
pont of Mons. Scions of this excellent variety were sent 
in 1823, by Mr Knight, to the Hon. John Lowell, and it 
has been by him liberally disseminated. The Pomological 

N£W PEARS. 197 

Magazine thus in substance describes it. Fruit middle 
sized, obconical, flattened next the eye ; stalk moderately 
thick, an inch long, slightly sunk ; skin at maturity yellow- 
ish, sprinkled with russet, a tinge of red next the sun ; 
flesh yellowish, melting, buttery, juicy, very rich, and most 
excellent With us this variety ripens in November, and 
with care may without doubt be preserved till February. 
Tt proves with us a most delicious variety, and a very ex- 
traordinary productive sort, and is recommended for exten- 
sive cultivation. Its excellent qualities and great produc- 
tiveness have been satisfactorily ascertained by Hon. J. 
Lowell, and John Prince, Esq. of Roxbury, and others. 
The last gentleman exhibited in 1830, a small branch two 
feet in length, containing thirtyone pears, and weighing 
nine and a half pounds. 

PENGETHLY. Mr Knight. 

* A large dark brown pear quite new and now ripe.' 
This pear was originated by Mr Knight, and scions were 
sent by him in February, 1832, to Mr Lowell and the Mas- 
sachusetts Agricultural Society. 

PETRE'. Philadelphia Horticultural Transactions. 
Col. Carr. 

This native fruit is described as < large, fair, melting, and 
of delicious flavor ; it ripens in September, and keeps till 
late in winter.' Col. Carr has added the following. ^ The 
tree was planted by the elder John Bartram, in 1735, and 
has been in full bearing 70 years, and has probably yielded 
400 bushels of fruit, which has frequently sold for $5 a 

PRESENT DE MALINES. Braddick. Loudon. 

This pear is rather large ; somewhat Bon Chretien shap- 
ed, smooth, and of a beautiful yellow throughout ; a melt- 


ing pear of a rich and musky flavor, and excellent quality. 
Thus has Mr Loudon described it. Mr Braddick has stated 
that the tree is healthy, of vigorous growth, falls early 
into fruit, and promises to bear abundantly, and is a good 
fVuit for keeping. Raised by the Count de Coloma, of 

PRINCE DE PRINTEMPS. Braddick. Loudon. 

A new Flemish variety, pronounced by Mr Braddick a 
first rate iVuit. It was procured by him from M. Stoffels, 
at Malines, in 1819. Mr Loudon to whom a specimen was 
sent in April, 1826, pronounces it melting, sugary : but 
eaten too soon to judge of its merits. It is under medium 
size, turbinate in form, and of a green color. 

ROI DE ROME. Chev. Parmentier. 

A pear of middle size, melting, and of good flavor. It 
ripens in December and January. Originated in Flanders 
by the Abbe Duquesne. 


This new pear, which was raised by Dr Van Mons, is 
pronounced by Mr Braddick a pear of first rate excellence. 
It is rather large and oblong, rounded at the crown, and 
tapering towards the stalk ; irregular. The color green 
and brown ; a winter fruit This variety was procured by 
Mr Braddick of M. StoflTels, of Malines, in 1819. 


A native pear originated oh the /arm of the late Judge 
Thompson, near Portsmouth, N. H. It is a middle sized 
firuit, of a turbinate form, a good deal russetted ; highly 
esteemed in that vicinity^ for its good qualities as a desaert 
fruit, its extraordinary productiveness and long keeping. 
It m fVeqnently preserved tHl June, 



The following is an extract from the New England Far- 
mer, vol. X, No. 7, as translated by the Hon. H. A. S. 
Dearborn, from the Revue des Revues, The size varies 
according to the quantity produced. Its form nearly 
spherical, swollen and flattened near the eye, contracted 
towards the stalk. The skin is thick and rough, of a 
brownish red next the sun, with purple spots ; on the op- 
posite side deep green. 1'he flesh is buttery, saccharine, 
full of agreeable and sprightly juice, and very high flavor- 
ed. This excellent pear is decidedly a winter fruit, and 
sometimes keeps till spring. It was raised by Dr Van 


* A very large and excellent pear ; season January.' 
This new pear was originated by Mr Knight, and scions 
were sent by him in February, 1832, to Mr Lowell and tho 
Massachusetts Agricultural Society. 


La Bonne Malinoise. Mr Knight. Pom. Mag. Lond. 

Hort. Trans. 
Nelis D*Hiv£r. Bonne de Marines, of the Hort. 

Trani. vol. iii. p. 353. 

A new variety raised by Mr Nelis of Mechlin. Scions 
were sent by Mr Knight in 1823, to Hon. John Lowell, and 
the variety has by him been distributed to all applicants. 
All accounts agree that this is a most excellent winter 
pear, ripening in December and January ; and by many 
deemed even superior to the Chaumontelle. A pretty 
good bearer — another account represents it a tolerable 
bearer. Fruit middle sized, or rather large, obovate, some* 
what obtuse at the stalk, which is over an inch long and 
thick ; skin yellowish, sometimes nearly covered with rus- 
set brown ; flesh yellowish, melting, buttery, juicy, very 
rich and high flavored. 


PEAR, (Pyrus). 

The pear is a tree of a pyramidal and elegant form. Its 
branches in a wild state are covered with thorns. It grows 
spontaneously as we are informed, in every part of Europe, 
as far north as the latitude of 51^. It will also succeed 
in all those parts of the United States where the apple tree 
will flourish, provided the soil is suitable. In New Eng- 
land it flourishes as in its native soil. It is distinguished 
from the apple tree not less by its form, than by its dispo- 
sition to emit suckers from its roots, whenever these be- 
come obstructed by stones or other substances, or become 
bruised or broken. The pear tree is a tree of longer dura- 
tion than the apple. It is stated ' they will continue in 
health, vigor, and productiveness, for centuries in dry 
soils.' — Loudon. 

The timber is of a yellowish color, very firm, compact, 
and fine grained, and according to Mr Phillips and others, 
< it is used for joiners' tools, measuring rules, picture fi-ames, 
&c ; these last are stained black, in imitation of ebony ; 
and the Persians make their beautiful Kdshdks or spoons 
from this wood. The Mohammedan religion forbid the 
use at their meals, of those made of gold or silver.' ' The 
leaves will produce yellow dye.' In those parts of Europe 
possessing a climate similar to our own, in Italy and 
France, the pear is said to be in higher estimation as a 
dessert fruit than the apple. 

U»t8, — Good dessert pears are generally preferred to 
apples ; ' they are characterized by a sugary, aromatic 
juice, with the pulp soft and subliquid, or melting, as in 
the Beurr^ or Butter pears ; or of a firm and crisp con- 
sistence or breaking. Kitchen or cookitig pears should be 
of large size, with the flesh firm» neither breaking, nor 
me|ting, and rather austere thaa sweet.' — Loudon. 


Perry, poire of the French, is the fermented juice made 
in the same manner as cider, from fruit of any size ; 
and the best liquor is stated to be little inferior to wine, 
and according to Loudon, * the more austere the fruit, the 
better will be the liquor. The pear is also good for baking, 
compotes, marmalade, &c. Pared, and dried in the oven, 
the fruit will keep for several years, either with or without 
sugar. This mode of preparing the fruit is about as com- 
mon in France, as the making of apple pies is in thb coun- 
try ; and what is favorable to the practice is, that bad eating 
sorts answer best for drying. Bosc has described two 
methods of drying pears for preservation ; and adds, that 
he has tried them after three years keeping, and found 
them still very good.' The pear is also preserved in sugar 
or molasses. Thirty years ago, the number of varieties of 
pears obtained by cultivation, as stated by Dr Willich, 
was 1500. But the number of good sorts is stated by Lou- 
don, < to be fewer in proportion than that of apples. Dr 
Van Mons, and the Abbe Duquesne since that period, have 
obtained from seed during sixteen years, upwards of 800 
new and approved sorts, from probably 8000 new seedlings.' 
From no less than 80,000, is my impression, but I state from 
memory only. I have detailed their modes of procedure, 
as stated by Dr Van Mons, in the former part of this work. 
Their practice was the reverse of all the popular theories 
of the day. The results, unlike anything of the kind be- 
fore known. 

Propagation. — The pear tree is raised from seed or from 
suckers. The seeds should be sowa in the same man- 
ner as directed for apples ; and as they incline to grow 
with a single tap root, some recommend that they should 
be transplanted into beds when but two inches in height, 
to force them ta throw out lateral roots : others defer this 
operation till they are a year old, when they are taken up, 
deprived of their tap roots,* and transplanted into beds. 


where they are suffered to remain a year or two ; after which 
they are again transplanted to the nursery rows, and their 
management afterwards is not unlike that of apples. 

The pear tree in the climate of New England is not so 
easily nurtured from the seed as the apple ; their long tap 
roots expose them to be thrown out of the earth by the 
frosts of winter. But afterwards they resist the most se- 
vere frosts. 

Grafting and Inoculaling, ^—The most durable stocks 
for grafting and inoculating are those of the pear. < Ihi- 
breuil,* says Loudon, ' recommends the quince stock for 
clayey and light soils, and the free stock ( pear) for chalky . 
and silecious soils.' He further informs us that ' grafted 
on the white thorn, [which like the quince renders them 
dwarfish,] pears come very early into bearing, continue 
prolific, and in respect to soil, will thrive well on a strong 
clay ; which is unsuitable to those on quinces knd wildings. 
But they are supposed to have an unfavorable influence on 
the fruit, in rendering it small and hard.' I am also informed 
that the pear will grow on the common American tfat>m. 
By grafting or inoculating on the quince, pear trees 
come much sooner into bearing, their productiveness is 
increased, the good quality of the fruit is not changed, but 
the size and longevity of the tree is diminished. Such 
pear trees are termed dwarfs. This mode is said to be ex- 
tensively adopted in France ; but all kinds of pears will 
not grow on the quince stock. Those dwarfs trained in 
the form of a distaff*, are called in that country QuenouUUs ; 
for the mode of training which, see the former part of this 

A new mode of dwarfing pears, has lately been introduc- 
ed into practice in that country. The quince is inoculated 
on the pear stock, and after this has grown a year, the pear 
is inoculated into the quince, an inch above the insertion 
of the preceding year. By this process, the section thui 


fonned of the quince, being of slower growth than that of 
the pear, both above and below, the circulation becomes 
obstructed, the tree soon becomes productive, and the sec- 
tion of the quince being thus elevated, is not so liable to 
the attacks of the borer as at the surface of the earth. 

Sod. — The pear is said to delight in rich soils and gen- 
tle declivities ; they will succeed in the most common, 
deep, dry soil, and throw out numerous lateral shoots. 
But they do not flourish in moist situations ; in a cold, 
strong, moist soil, they throw out very few lateral roots, 
the fruit is not so fair, nor of so good quality, and the trees 
are not so long lived. 

With respect to distance, the same observations to be 
found under the head of ^pple, may apply here. Bttt 
the pear from its pyramidal form, requires much less space. 
Twenty feet in suitable soils is a good distance ; but less 
answers in poorer soils. But QuenouiUes, are said to an- 
swer even at four feet distance, producing large crops ; and 
as they occupy but little space, and come suddenly into 
bearing, they are for profit, said to be extensively cultiva- 
ted in France. Pears produced on quince stocks are said 
to be much improved in flavor ; all but winter firuit, which 
is said to become worse. 

As to pruning, Mr Knight has directed that for stand- 
ards (pyramids) very little pruning is necessary, except 
taking out those few limbs that interfere, keeping the head 
open, and the tree well balanced. 

The diseases and enemies of the pear tree are few. — 
They are as follows : 

Ist. The Slug-worm. I have given directions for the 
destruction of this insect under the general head of Insects, 

2d. The worm which in summer envelopes the leaves 
and branches with its silken covering, devouring the leaf 
to its skeleton. These are to be removed, together with 
the leaves on which they are found feeding, and destroyed. 


3d. CSircuHo. An account of this insect is to be found 
under the general head of Insects. 

4th. The insect called the American blight. See also 
insects under the general head. 

5th. Blight, or as it is sometimes called fire-blightf is a 
malady not very uncommon, which sometimes affects the 
pear tree during the months of June and July, causing the 
tree or a portion of its branches suddenly to turn black, 
with a mortal affection ; its leaves wither at once, as by a 
stroke of the sun, and in a few hours become of a brows 
or black color. Mr Lowell is persuaded that this disease is 
caused by an insect, called the Scolytus pyri. He observes, 
'on the first appearance of this disease, I instantly sawed 
off all the limbs affected, and proceeded to examine them. 
I found at last the enemy, not at the point where death en- 
sued, but some inches below it. The insect was very small, 
and apparently incapable of such extensive mischief, but 
the effect was certain, and the manner of producing that 
effect was obvious. It had eaten a complete circle of the 
^bumuro, or sap-wood, not exceeding the size of a knit- 
ting needle, so as completely to intercept the passage of 
the sap.' This insect was shown by Mr Lowell to the late 
Professor Peck, and in the account of the insect which was 
soon after published in the Massachusetts Agricultural Re- 
pository, the Professor observed, that the mischievous effects 
of this insect may be observed in June and July, and that 
the dead part of the branches should be cut off, and with- 
out delay burnt. Mr Lowell has stated, [New England 
Farmer, vol. v. p. 2,] that by steadily pursuing the system 
of cutting off the limbs many inches below the apparent 
injury, and burning them, the insects have been extirpated 
from his estate. 

The account of Professor Peck was republished in the 
New England Farmer, vol. ii. p. 42. Some writers have attri* 

avmcEs* 206 

bnted this disease to a stroke of the sun. Others attribute 
it to mamiring too high, some to excessive moisture at the 
roots, and too much pruning, which is supposed to cause a 
surfeit and produce stagnation. But all agree that the only 
remedy is to saw off the limb. 

QUINCE. (Cydbnia.) 

The Quince tree is a spreading tree of low growth, its 
limbs generally distorted. It is said to be a native of 
Austria, of Candia, and other parts of Europe. According 
to Goropinus, < quinces were the golden apples of the Hes- 
perides, and not oranges, as some commentators pretend.^ 
— PhUlips. 


The quince is not eaten in a raw state, but is highly es- 
teemed in cookery ; preserved in sugar they are delicious ; 
mixed with apples in pies, they communicate a fine flavor. 
They are also made into marmalade by the confectioners. 
' One quart of the juice of quinces, mixed with one 
pound of sugar and fermented, affords a delicious wine ; 
on adding to the same quantity, one pint of the best French 
brandy, and four ounces of sugar, a celebrated liqueur is 
prepared on the continent, which is greatly prized as a 
cordial and stomachic, wh^n taken in the small quantity of 
two or three spoonfuls before breakfast'. — Dam, Ency* 

Phillips relates the case of a gentleman completely cur- 
ed of an asthmatic complaint of long standing, by the use 
of ituince WtMy made after the following receipt < The 
qniE&ces are cut open and deprived of their seeds, for tiiese 


communicBte an DDpleuuit Obvot. After beiog g^roond 
fine, a g&llon of water u to be added to ever; gnUon of 
pomace ; after atanding a da; or two it ia presaed ; and to 
ever; g^allon of liquor thua produced, three and a quarter 
poandi or good moist sugar is added. 1 he liquor ia placed 
in casks which are to he stopped quite close till March, 
when it is racked off, and hotded in the second year.' 

OaAi<«B Quince, Mat^fornia, or JlpjAt fjutncc, ia a 
large, roundish, heautifut fruit, ripening in Novemher. 
The leaves are oval andwoolly the lower side. 

OsLono oa pBia Qdince. CJAonga. 'I his fruit is pear 

shaped, lengthened at the base. The leaves are oblong 


PosTDOAL QoiHca. iMtitanica. This frnit ia of an 

irm, aometimes pear shaped ; very juicy and 

it is highly esteemed. Loudon states that it 

y bearer. Leaves obovate, woolly above. 

t may be added the Witder Quinn, and the 

: QuinM or Co^^nwiter Mvtqm, and the fbl- 

Sawah Q,tTii(c>. Cydvna Japoniea, or Japan Pear. Pg- 
rmt Japeniea. A shrub growing six or eight feet in height ; 
branches contorted and thorny ; leaves amall, oval ohlong, 
of a dark shining green. Its flowers splendid, of a fine 
■carlet, en inch and a half in diameter, and produced in 
clusters early in April. A native of Northern Asia, and^ 
one of the most ornamental plants of the seaBon, and very 
hardy. The fruit is of good size, but is not thought equal 
to the other varieties. There it a variety with white dou- 
Ue flowers — and anolher witii double red flowers. 

Chinese Qdihce. CogruutUr dt la China. N. Duh. 
P], ISS. A new ornamental variety — unlike all others. 
The ftuit ia as sing'.lar as superb; Uosaome fifteen to 
eighteen lines in diameter ; of a fine rose color ; their od<« 


that of violets. Leaves obovate, stiff, pointed, finely serra- 
ted, shiningr green above, becoming reddish in autumn, 
downy beneath. The fruit is oblong, truncated, regular ; 
the skin smooth, yellowish green ; the flesh is yellowish, 
dry, coarse grained, harsh, austere ; its juice acid and not 
abundant. This fruit seldom arrives at maturity in th« 
climate of Paris. But hopes are entertained that by plant- 
ing the seeds, new and fine varieties will be produced, 
ripening in due season. 


The quince is raised from the seeds, from layers and 
from cuttings, planted in a moist soil. The valuable vari- 
eties are propagated by grafting or inoculation. Quinces 
are extensively used in France as stooks on which are 
inoculated pears. This is said to improve the quality and 
productiveness of the Beurr^ or Butter Pears, especially 
the summer and autumn kinds. But breaking or winter 
pears are seldom or but rarely inoculated on the quince 
stock, as they are not improved. 

Soil, Situation, Pruning. Quinces require a rich, 
moist soil, and a sheltered situation. They flourish near 
brooks and rivulets. They require little pruning, except 
taking out old useless wood and useless suckers, and eight 
or ten feet asunder is a good distance. Like the apple tre« 
they are liable to the attacks of the borer. The sam« 
remedies are equally effectual. 


PEACHES. (Amygdalus Persica.) 

The systematic classification of Peaches, first begun bj 
Miller and Duhamel and afterwards greatly improved by 
Mr Robertson [See Lond. Hort. Trans, vol. in. p. 384,] 
was brought still nearer to perfection by the Count Lelieur, 
by the Editors of the Bon Jardinier, and by Mr Lindley. 
The systems of these last named differ not, however, from 
each other, very essentially. 

Tlie Peach and the Nectarine, both considered by the 
French writers as one and the same firuit, yet form separate 
classes. — These are again divided into 1st, Clingstones, 
PavieSf or those whose flesh adheres to the stone ; — 2d, 
Freestones, or those whose flesh separated from the stone. 
' The flowers form three divisions, accordingly as they vary 
i(i size ; and lastly the leaves, from the difierence in their 
formation, are divided into three classes. Thus by these 
various distinctions, together with the varying qualities of 
the fruit itself, the accurate observer will be enabled with 
facility, if not with certainty, to identify and to describe 
with accuracy any particular variety. 

Mr Lindley has divided Peaches into three classes as fol- 
lows. [See Lond. Hort. Trans, and Lindley's Guide.] 

Class I, Those whose leaves are deeply and doubly 
serrated, having no glands. 

Class 11, Those whose leaves are crenate or serrulate, 
having globose glands. 

Class III, Those whose leaves are crenate or serrulate, 
having renifomi glands. 

Each of these classes are formed into three divisions. 

Div. \st. Those trees producing large flowers. 

Div, 2d, Those trees which produce flowers of medium 

P£ACHE8. 909 

Div. dot. Those which produce small flowers. 

The subdivisions are as follows : 

Suhdiv, 1st. Peaches, or those possessing downy skins. 

Svhdiv. 2d. Nectarines, or those which have smooth 

Each of these subdivisions are again formed into two 

Sect. 1st. Pavies, or clingstones. 

iSiec*. 2rf. Freestones. 

Thus the whole are classified in the thirtysix sections. 

The form of the glands, as well as their position is, ac- 
cording to Mr Lindley, perfectly distinct * They are fully 
developed with the complete formation of the leaf, contin- 
uing to the last, permanent in their character, and not 
affected by cultivation. 

* The globose glands are situated, one, two, or more, on 
the footstalks, and one, two, or more, on the tips or points 
of the serratures of the leaves. The rcniform glands grow 
also on the footstalks of the leaves ; but those on the leaves 
are placed within the serratures, connecting, as it were, 
the upper and lower teeth of the serratures together ; 
their leaves, when taken from a branch of a vigorous 
growth, have more glands than the leaves of the globose 
varieties. It will however, sometimes happen, that glands 
are not discernible on some of the leaves, especially on 
those produced from weak branches ; in this case, other 
branches must be sought for ^hich do produce them.' 

In the following list I have divided the Peaches into but 
two classes. 

Class I. Includes Freestones, or Peaches which part 
freely from the stone. This class is divided into two sec- 
tions, and three subsections. 

Class 11. Includes the Pavies or Clingstones, arranged 
in the order of their maturity. 




Freestone Peaches, chiefly of French origin, arranged 
in the order of their maturity or time of ripening, as ascer- 
tained by M. Poiteau. As to the remaining freestones 
which are not described in this section ; finding it difficult 
if not impossible to ascertain the true comparative times 
of their maturity, I have placed them in a separate section. 

Brown Nutmeg, Avant Feche Rouge, of the French. 

The growth of this tree is exceeding slow, its habits 
dwarfish. Fruit globular and very small ; color yellowish 
white, but next the sun bright scarlet; it is sweet, juicy 
and good.^ It generally ripens the middle of July ; and is 
chiefly valuable for its early maturity. 

Avant Pecue Blanche, BonJard. 

The leaves have large serratures, are without glands ; 
flowers large and pale. The tree is feeble and of delicate 
growth ; fruit small, round, always white, juicy and sweet. 
It ripens in July, and is only cultivated for its precocity. 


Avant Blahche, of the French. Anne. 

The trees of this variety are of feeble growth, their 
flowers large, their young wood is subject to mildew. 
Fruit small, white, globular ; flesh white, melting, saccha- 
rine, and good. The chief merit of this variety is its ri« 
pening early, which is generally the last of July. 

PEACHBS. 21 1 


The Petite Mignonne is in the third rank in the order of 
maturity ; the tree is of feeble growth, and productive. 
The leaves have reniform glands ; flowers of medium size ; 
the fruit is very small, round, its suture pretty deep, a 
small point at its summit; skin downy, fine, pale yellow, 
but red next the sun ; flesh melting and white, but red next 
the stone ; its juice abundant, a little sweet, vineuse, and 
of the best quality. It ripens the last of July. 


MiGjNGNNe Hatiye, Bon Jard. 1828, p. 293^ 

The leaves have globose glands ; the flowers are large. 
A variety of the Grosse Mignonne, but much smaller ; it 
is sometimes pointed at its sunmiit. 

EARLY PURPLE. N. Duh. Bon Jard. 

PouRPRE Pative. La Vineuse. Peche du Viw. Ibid. 

One of the most beautiful of peaches ; encompassed by 
a middling suture ; its form globular, flattened at the 
base ; its height twentysix lines. Flowers large, and 
brighter than those of the Grosse Mignonne ; fruit large, 
and of a deeper red ; flesh equally melting, and fine, vin- 
ous and high flavored. 

GROSSE MIGNONNE. Pom. Mag. t. 23. 

Mignonne, Grosse Miononne, Veloute'e de Mer- 
le t, of the French. 

Grimwood's New Roital. George, Early Vineyard. 

Royal Kensinoto5, of Lindley, accordiDg to the Pom. 

Morris' Red Rareripe. 

This last synonyme I have added on the authority of a 
gentleman near Boston, of great inteUigence and experi* 


ence. This petch, exhibited by Mr Vose, has been ad- 
judged as deserving the premium of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, for one or two successive years, and 
is probably one of the most beautiful and delicious varieties 
in cultivation. 'Leaves serrated, with globose glands. 
Flowers large, dark purplish red. Fruit large, depressed, 
hollowed at the summit, with a moderately deep suture : 
skin thinly clad with down ; color rich deep red next the 
sun, thickly mottled on a yellow ground towards the shade. 
Flesh pale yellow, rayed with red next the stone, from 
which it parts freely, melting, juicy, with a rich vinous fla- 
vor ; stone small for the size of the fruit, ovate, very rug- 
ged.' Last of August 


Leaves large and finely serrated ; tree vigorous and 
hardy. Fruit large, very downy, rather long ; somewhat 
unequally divided by a deep suture, terminating in a point ; 
of a beautiful deep red next the sun ; flesh white, marbled 
next the stone with red ; juice sweet, high flavored, with 
a vinous acid, and very good. The stone is large, oblong, 
accuminate. It ripens at the end of September, a free- 
stone, and one of the best of peaches. This is not the 
Vineuse de Fromentin of Noisette, which ripens the 15th of 

BELLE BEAUCE. N. Duh. PI. cccxiv. 

So named for M. J. Beauce of Montreuil. A variety of 
the Grosse Mignonne. The fruit is very large and beauti- 
ful, round, divided by a deep suture, flattened at the sum- 
mit; color fine yellow in the shade, laved with a beautiful 
bright red next the sun, and downy ; flesh white, very fine^ 
melting, with a little yellow streaked with red near th6 
■tone; juice abundant, sweet, excellent. The stone is 
large and red ; the fruit ripens the last of August 



MIGNONNE FRIS£% of Poiteau, accordiDg to the 
Bon Jard. 

Pecher a fleur Frise^e. N. Duh. 

The tree is vigorous ; the fruit has all the beauty and 
excellent qualities of the Grosse Mignonne, and is evidently 
a variety of that kii^. The stone is rough, of a deep red, 
and retains shreds of the flesh when separated. This sin- 
gular new variety ripens the last of August 

BELLEGARDE. Bon Jard. p. 295, 296. 

Noire ' de Mojntreuil, Oalande, Ibid. 
Violet Hative, of some English Authors. 

The tree is vigorous and prx)ductive ; the leaves have 
globose glands, flowers pale; fruit medium size, much 
colored, and almost black ; the flesh resembles very nearly 
the Belle de Vitry ; it is firm, saccharine, vineuse, and one 
of the best of peaches. It ripens in August Mr Hooker 
has described this fruit as one of the very best of peaches 
for their climate. 

WHITE MAGDALEN. R. M., Esq. Bon Jard. 
Magdeleink Blanche, Bon Jard. 

The tree is vigorous ; the leaves without glands, and 
have deep serratures ; flowers large and pale. Fruit large, 
white, a little red next the sun ; flesh white, fine, melting, 
and agreeably musky. It ripens in August A fruit of 
middling quality. 

MALTA. R. M., Esq. 

Peche Malte, Duh. 

Belle de Paris, Bon Jard. for 1828. 

Malte de Norman die, Hort. Soc. Cat. 

Italian Peach, of Mil. according to the Pom. Mag. 

Fruit above the medium size ; pale yellowish green ; 


but next the sun somewhat marbled with purplish red ; 
globular, a little flattened, encircled with a slightly de- 
pressed suture ; its flesh yellowish, juicy, rich, vinous and 
of superior flavor. An excellent and moat productive vari- 
ety, ripening in September. 


Albe&gk Jaune, Pechb Jaune, RoUSANIfE. 
Saint Laurent Jaumk. Bon. Jard. 
Petitb Roussanne, Boo Jard. 
RosAMNA, Lindley. 
Albbrgb, Coxe. 

A middle sized globular fruit, of a yellow color, but next 
the sun deep red at maturity. A deep suture extends from 
summit to base. Flesh deep yellow, but red next the 
atone, melting, juicy, rich, sweet, vinous and excellent. 
A superior fruit, ripening in August 



CHEV&KirsE Hative, Bon Jard. p. 296. 
Early Chevreuse. 

The leaves have reniform glands ; the flowers are of 
medium size. Fruit large, inclining to oblong, sometimes 
a little pointed; yellowish in the shade, marbled with 
bright red next the sun ; flesh white, but red at the stone ; 
melting, juicy, very sweet, vinous and excellent August 


Maodeleine oe Covrson, Magdeleimb Rouge, 
Pays ANNE, Bon Jard. p. 295. 

The tree is vigorous. The leaves have deep serratures 
and are without glands ; flowers large and pale. The 
fruit is rather large, round, of a beautiful red next the sun ; 
flesh firm and yinous. It ripens the beginning of Septem- 


BOURDINE. Bon Jard. 1828, p. 296. 


Flowers small and imperfect, the leaves have globose 
glands. The fruit is large, round, sometimes a point at 
its summit ; deep red next the sun ; flesh melting, sweet 
and vinous ; its stone is small. It is productive in unshel- 
tered situations, ripening its fruit the middle of September. 

BELLE DE VITRY. Bon Jard. 1828, p. 295. 

Admirable, Duh. Coxe. R. M., Esq. 

A large fruit of a fine red color next the sun ; on the 
opposite side a yellowish white ; form globular, divided by 
a suture, a broad deep cavity at its base ; flesh white, 
stained with red at the stone ; melting, juicy, sweet, vinous 
and excellent. A superior fruit, ripening in September. 


Pec HER D'IsPAHAN. Ibid. 

This singular tree was discovered in 1799, by Brugniere 
and Olivier, at Ispahan, the capital of Persia, in the vast 
Royal Gardens, where were concentrated most of the fruits 
of Asia. The branches are very slender and numerous, 
the leaves very narrow, finely serrated, of a delicate green 
color, and unlike that of any other variety we have ever 
known. The fruit is nearly spherical ; its skin is a whitish 
green ; slightly downy ; flesh greenish white, melting, and 
separates from the stone ; juice is abundant and delicious. 


CHEVERStJSK Tardive, N. Duh. PI. 238. 

The vigor of this peach is remarkable, its fertility ex- 
traordinary. The fruit should be skinned to render the 
remainder more beautiful. Leaves large, plain, rumpled or 
plaited ; glands at their base, large and reniform ; flowers 
small and little colored ; its unripe fruit flattened, downy, 
with protuberances, and very homely ; at maturity however, 
its form is more regular, globular, a little oblong, one side 


swollen, the other flattened ; a point at its sunnmt, of a 
fine form and good size. Skin downj, of a lively red, bat 
next the sun a parple red ; yellowish green in the shade ; 
flesh white, streaked with red next the stone ; meltings, 
▼ery good ; juice sweet, sprightly and vinoRs. Sept 15. 


PxcHE A Flxubs Doubles, Bod Jard. ' 

The leaves have reniform glands. The tree is cultivated 
for the beauty of its flowers, which are often semidouble 
and very large. Fruit good, and pretty numerous. Sept. 


Pou&pRSK Tardive, N. Dub. 

The tree is hardy and vigorous, but does not grow very 
large. Tbe leaves are strikingly crisped or frizzled in au- 
tumn, and by this distinguished. The fruit is of medium 
size, round, and one of the most downy of all peaches ; 
often more swelled on one side, than the other ; its diame- 
er twentyeight lines ; skin thick, a little yellow in the 
shade, and laved generally with a fine deep red next the 
sun ; juice high flavored and sweet ; the stone is oval, 
small, with large protuberances, and separates from the 
flesh ; an excellent peach, the best of the season ; it ripens 
the beginning of October. 

Bon Jard. 

Abricote'b, Admibablb Javkk, Pechs D^Oramob, 
Bon Jard, 1828, p. 294. 

Grosse Jaum e, Peche de Burai, Sandalis Herma- 
phrodite, ibid. 

The leaves have reniform glands. Flowers large. Fruit 
very large, yellow on every side while immature, but at 
maturity a little laved with red next the sun ; flesh firm, 
yellow, with a little of the flavor of the apricot. The 
climate of Paris is a little too cold to ripen this fruit to its' 
fiill perfection. It would be better suited here, and will 
without doubt prove excellent 


CARDINALE. N. Duh. PL ccxxxvii. 

The leaves have large serratures ; flowers large and 
pale ; fruit medium sized, flattened at its summit ; swollen 
on one side of the suture ; skin dull gray violet, very 
downy and hoary ; its flesh marbled with violet red, but 
slightly tinged with yellow next the stone ; not very juicy, 
and deficient in flavor ; good for preserving. It ripens at 
Piuris from the 10th to 30th October. In wanner climates 
they have been assured it is good, and in Italy excellent. 


Pecukr Naiw. N. Duh PI. cccci. 

A singular and most diminutive tree. The young wood 
is stout ; its eyes very numerous, and close ; its leaves 
numerous, large, of a deep green, pendant, deeply serrated, 
without glands. Flowers pale, large, and from twelve to 
fifleen lines in diameter. Fruit round and pale ; some have 
measured two inches in diameter : flesh juicy and generally 
bitter. This very ordinary fruit does not ripen till late, 
the middle of October ; it is only cultivated for curi- 
osity ; it is often cultivated in a pot and brought with its 
fruit to the table. 

NIVETTE. Bon Jard. p. 296. 
Yeloute'e Tardive, Jard. Fruit according to Bon Jard 

The leaves have globose glands, the flowers are small. 
Fruit large, a little oblong, downy, green in the shade, and 
deep red next the sun ; flesh firm, saccharine, and high 
flavored ; it requires a warm exposure. This fruit will 
ripen with us in September. 

ROYALE. Bon Jard. Forsyth. Pom. Mag. 

RoTALEi Pom. Mag. t. 73. 
The leaves have globose glands, the flowers are SBUill. 
The firait much resembles the Admirable, it v> v^^ lu^g^y 



globular, a little oblong ; pale >ellowiah green, but pale red , 
marbled with deeper red next the sun, and downy ; a small 
point at its aummit ; flesh white, melting, juicy, saccharine, 
and high flavored. It is red at the stone, from which it sep- 
arates. September, 


Maodslbine a MoTENirs Flkuri, ^ 
Magdeleink Rouge Tarditb oit a >BonJard. 

Tetite Flbitri. 5 

RoTAL George, of the English, according to the Pom. Mae. 
Red Magdaleic, Millet a MieitoMirE, Lockter a 

MioifONifE. Ibid. 

That the Red Magdalen and Royal George are identical, 
has been renewedly asserted by a gentleman here of great 
observation and experience ; I have ventured therefore to 
restore the original, and suppress the English name of 
Royal Gtorgt^ except as a synonyme. The leaves are 
serrated, without glands, flowers small. The young wood 
is liable to mildew. The fruit Lb large, globular, with a 
suture moderately deep on one side ; dark purplish red 
next the sun, yellowish white in the shade, mottled with 
red at the junction of the colors ; flesh white, rayed with 
red next the stone, from which it separates ; melting, jjoicy, 
and high flavored. September. 


The tree is one of the most vigorous in its growth 
known, and very productive. The fruit is large, of a pale 
yellowish green, but bright red darkly marbled next the 
son ; form globular, a little lengthened ; it is encircled by 
a broad deep suture, terminating in a large obtuse point at 
its summit: flesh melting, of a greenish yellow, but at the 
stone it is red ; and of a sweet and excellent flavor. It 
ripm in September. There are two or three varieties 
bearing this name. This is the variety described in the 
New Duhamel, and is a most superior fruit 



It was found difficult if not impossible to arrange the 
retnainder of this class in the perfect order of their matu- 
rity, as many of them are new, and the relative periods of 
their maturity have never yet been satisfactorily ascertained. 
They are therefore divided into three subsections, arranged 
for the latitude of Boston. * 

Subs, L Includes Early Peaches, or those which com- 
mence ripening during August. 

Suhs, IL Includes the Early AutfmMiy or those which 
commence ripening early in September. 

Subs, III, Includes Late AutumUf and Autumn PeaeheSj 
and all whose periods of maturity are unknown. 


Early Peaches, or those which commence ripening during 

ACTON SCOTT. Hort Trans, vol. ii. p. 140. 

Raised by Mr Knight from the Noblesse and Nutmeg. 
Fruit below the medium size, it is small, and flattened ; 
color pale yellow, but bright red and marbled next the sun, 
and downy ; flesh yellowish white to the stone, melting, 
juicy, sweet, slightly bitter, and pretty good. It ripens 
early, or about two weeks after the Early Anne, f 


Cooledge's Early Red Rareripe. 

The tree is very vigorous and productive. A large, very 
handsome globular fruit ; pale in the shade, but of a fine red 
or crimson next the sun ; very melting, juicy, sweet, and 


of E vinous flavor. This fruit ripens very early, soon after 
the Early Ann ; and is esteemed a first rate fruit by the 
cultivators for the markets of Boston. It was originated 
by Mr Joshua Cooledge of Watertown, Mass. 


A very large, handsome, and superior fruit, of a globu- 
lar form ; color yellow, but of a fine deep red next the sun ; 
its flesh melting, juicy, saccharine, vinous, and most excel- 
lent. It ripens in August ; and is one of the very best 
'^ of all peaches, and is undoubtedly of American origin. 


A medium sized peach, of a bright orange color ; flesh 

yellow and of fine flavor. An American fruit, ripening at 

New York the middle of August. 


Large, its color when fully exposed, of a deep red, which 
covers most of its surface ; form globular ; its flesh stained 
to the stone with red ; melting, juicy, rich, slightly acid, 
vinous, And excellent. An excellent fruit, and deserves 
to be recommended. 

EARLY YORK. S. H. S., Esq. 

A large fruit of an excellent quality. It ripens in Au- 

EMPEROR OF RUSSIA. Floy in Hort. Trans. 

Skbrated Leaf, or Unique. 

The tree is of medium vigor ; the young wood is subject 
to mildew. The leaves are deeply serrated or jagged like 
a saw. ' The fruit ripens early, soon after the Sweet Wa- 
ter Peach ; the fruit is deeply clefl, one half of it projecting 


considerably beyond the other; the stone is free and large ; 
the flavor of the flesh is very good. This sort originated 
in the woods of New Jersey, twenty years ago. All the 
stones of this fruit produce plants with jagged leaves.' 

FAVORITE. R. M., Esq. Coxe. 

This fruit is of large size ; its color pale, but of a 
very beautiful deep red next the sun ; its form oblong ; 
its flesh juicy and excellent. It ripens about the middle 
of August. An excellent peach, but a poor bearer. 

Queen Charlotte, New Early Purple. Ibid. 

Leaves doubly serrated, without glands. Flowers mid- 
dle sized, dark ; fruit rather above the middle size, swol- 
len on one side ; skin pale greenish white ; but of a full 
deep red, and marbled next the sun ; flesh greenish whit« 
but pale red next the stone, from which it separates ; juice 
plentiful, rich, and extremely well flavored. Very early. 


A large peach, of a yellowish white color, with a fine 
red blush next the sun ; its form a little oblong ; flesh 
sweet, rich, juicy and excellent. It ripens the last of 
August A beautiful and superior variety. 

RED RARERIPE, var. S. H. S., Esq. 

The leaf of this tree is smooth and without serratures ; 
the fruit is large, its suture deep ; covered with minute 
specks or dots of red in the shade, but of a red color next 
the sun. This peach is decidedly one of the very best of all 
peaches. It ripens soon after the Nutmeg Peach; and 
the tree is not liable to overbear. It ripens early in Au- 



SPRING GROVE. Hort Trans, vol. ii. p. 214. Pom. 
Mag. t 97. 

The leaves are crenate with globose glands ; the flowers 
large and pale ; a medium sized fruit, of a globular form ; 
greenish yellow, but bright crimson next the sun ; flesh 
greenish yellow to the stone, from which it separates ; 
juicy, rich and high flavored. Very early. This fruit was 
raised by Mr Knight from a stone of the Early Purple and 
Red Nutmeg. 

SWEET WATER. Floy in Hort Trans, vol. vi. p. 410. 

A' medium sized peach ; very juicy, sweet, and fine fla- 
vored. It ripens the beginning of August, about one 
week later then the Elarly Anne ; and is much larger than 
that variety and finer flavored. This is stated to be an 
American variety. 


Early Autumn Pectches, or those which commence ripening 
early in September, 

DOUBLE MONTAGNE. Lindley's Guide. 

Sioir, of Forsyth. 

Early Double Mountain ? of American collections. 

Leaves doubly serrated, glandless. Flowers large. A 
Buddle sized, roundish firuit. Skin greenish white, but 
•oft red, marbled with a deeper red next the sun ; flesh 
white, very delicate, melting; juice plentiful, and highly 
flavored ; stone ovate, rugged ; it separates from the flesh. 
A beautiful and excellent peach ; it ripens a week or ten 
dliys sooner than the Noblesse. 


DOUBLE SWALSH. Liudley's Guide. 

SwALZE OR SwoLZE, of Lang, accordinii; to Lindley. 

Leaves crenate, with reniform glands ; flowers small, 
dark red ; fruit middle sized, ovate. Its suture deep, it is 
swollen on one side. Skin pale yellow, but bright deep 
red next the sun ; flesh soil, melting, and white, but pale 
red at the stone, from which it separates ; juicy and well 
flavored. It ripens at the time of the Grosse Mignonne. 


Leaves doubly serrated, without glands ; flowers large, 
of a beautiful pale rose color ; fruit middle sized, yellowish 
green, marbled with bright red next the sun ; flesh yellow- 
ish green to the stone, from which it separates ; juice plen- 
tiful, of a rich poignant flavor. This fruit will probably 
ripen with us the last of August. 

GEORGE FOURTH. Pom. Mag. t. 105. Lindley. 
Floy in Hort. Trans, vol. vi. p. 213. 

The leaves are large, crenate ; glands globose ; flowers 
small, red ; fruit globular of medium size and downy ; pale 
yellow in the shade, dark red next the sun, one side project- 
ing from its suture beyond the other ; flesh pale yellow, but 
red at the stone from which it separates. A fine peach of 
a rich and excellent flavor. It originated in the garden of 
Mr Gill, in Broad-street, New York. 


A large yellow peach ; a little oblong ; flesh yellow, 
melting, juicy, sweet and good. It ripens early in Sep- 
tember. The tree is extremely vigorous. 

Pearl Street. 

So called from the name of the gentleman, residing in 
Pearl-Btreet, Bostoni with whom this sort originated. The 


tree w of moderate growdi, very productive, but the young 
wood is extremely liable to mildew. A medium sized 
globular fruit ; color pale yellow, tinged with red next the 
sun ; flesh yellow, juicy, sweet and excellent. A handsome 
fruit and a fine variety. It ripens about the first of Sep- 


Leaves crenate, with globose glands ; flowers large, pale 
rose; fruit above the middle size, globular, depressed; 
skin yellowish white, but of a beautiful red or carmine 
color next the sun. Flesh melting, yellowish white, but 
deep red near the stone ; juice plentiful, sugary and of a 
high vinous flavor ; stone small, deeply rugged. * This is 
not only one of the handsomest, but one of the best peaches 
in our collections, not even excepting the Bellegarde, and 
cannot be too extensively known.' It will probably ripen 
with us the last of August. 

White Blossom. 

A fruit of globular form, below the medium size ; very 
white ; skin thin and delicate ; very melting, sweet; rich, 
juicy and excellent. It ripens in September. The 
blossoms of this tree are white ; and it is readily distin- 
guished fi*om other varieties by its yellow wood and leaves, 
and its indistinct resemblance to a Willow. This sort 
deserves to be recommended, for although the fruit is small, 
it compensates for this by its beauty, flavor, and abundant 
bearing. This sort is sometimes incorrectly called White 

WASHINGTON. Floy in Hort. Trans, vol. vi. p. 412. 

A very first rate fruit Color a pale yellow in the shade 
but da]^ red next the sun ; flesh very juicy and delicious ; 
the stone small. Ripe the beginning of September. 


White Rareripe, Coxe. 

A large fruit of extraordinary excellence ; the color pale 
yellowish white ; flesh yellowish white, firm, melting, rich, 
and of excellent flavor ; the stone is not uiifrequently 
cracked. Mr Coxe states that it is the most admired fruit 
of the season, which is August, and that if not too ripe, it 
makes a most delicate preserve. 


A large fruit, a little oblong ; color in the shade is deep 
yellow, but dark red next the sun ; its flesh is melting, 
juicy, rich and excellent. Early in September. 


Late Autumn, and Autumn Peaches, including aU those 
new varieties whose periods of maturity are neither named 
or known, 

ENGLISH CHANCELLOR. Pom. Mag. t. 61. Lind- 
ley. Bon Jard. 

Chancei.l,iere, of Duh. according to Pom. Mag. 

Leaves crenate, with reniform glands ; flowers small, 
reddish ; f^uit large, a little oblong, a little downy ; its 
suture well defined ; pale yellow, but deep crimson next 
the sun; marbled at the junction of the colors; flesh yel- 
lowish white, but red at the stone, from which it separates ; 
juicy, rich, and of a vinous flavor. 

CHINA FLAT PEACH. Hort. Trans, vol. iv. p. 512. 

Java Peach. 

A most singular^ peach. This description is from a 
fruit- raised by John Braddick, Esq. This peach is 


said to be much cultayated and esteemed in China, and 
will probably succeed well with job. The diameter 
from the eye to the stalk is teas than three quarters of 
an inch, and consists wholly of the stone and a skin 
which covers it. The thickness of its sides is one inch 
and an eighth, while its traHsTerse diameter is two inches 
and a half. The skin is pale yellow, mottled with red 
next the sun and covered with fine down. Flesh pale 
yellow, a beautiful radiated circle of fine red surrounding 
the stone, which is flatly compressed, small, rough and 
irregular. The fruit is melting and good, being sweet and 
juicy, with a little Noyeau flavor and bitter aroma. 

COLUMBIA. Coxe. R. M., Esq. 

A large and very singular peach, with an extremely 
rough and thick skin of a dull red color, marbled with 
blotches 'of a dark dusky red; its fbrm rather flattened 
with a suture weU defined ; flesh yeUow, melting, juicy, 
rich, fibrous and well flavored. It ripens in September. 
This peach is a curiosity. Mr Coxe who named, and pro- 
bably originated this variety, calls it a fruit of uncommon 

Hort. Cat. 

BARRiirGTON, Pom. Mag. 

' Leaves crenated, with globose glands ; flowers large ; 
fruit large, roundish, somewhat elongated ; pale yellowish 
green, but deep red and marbled next the sun ; flesh yel- 
lowish white, rayed with crimson next the stone, firom 
which it parts freely ; melting, juicy and very rich ; a pro- 
ductive and handsome variety.' 

Kbicrick's Hbath, of Pr. Cat. 

This noble variety was received of the late Gen. Heath 

PBACB18. 237 

of Roxbuiy, of revolutionary memory, hence its name. 
The tree is very vigorous and productive, and is probably 
a native. The fruit is very large, oblong and beautiful ; 
specimens have frequently been seen weighing half a 
pound; color pale yeUowish green, but beautiful deep 
crimson or violet next the sun; encompassed by a slight 
suture, which terminates in a point at its summit, dividing 
it into two unequal parts ; its flesh is melting, juicy, rich, 
vinous, agreeably acid and good. It ripens the middle of 

HILL'S MADEIRA. Coze. R. M., Esq. 

Fruit very large, globular, white, with a blush next the 
sun ; melting, juicy, and fine flavored. It ripens in Septem- 
ber. This fine fruit, according to Mr Coxe, has weighed 
twelve ounces, and was raised by Mr Hill, of Philadelphia^ 
from a stone brought from Madeira. It proves however, 
with us a poor bearer, and as such is not recommended. 
Tree very vigorous. 


In the absence of the true title, I have for the present 
adopted the above for a new native variety, received of 
Col. Carr, of Bartram's Botanic Garden. It is described 
as a fruit possessing remarkably fine qualities, and highly 
spoken of by the Philadelphia Horticultural Society. 

NOBLESSE. Hooker's Pom. Lond. p. 2. 

Mxllish's Favorite, Pom. Mag. 

The tree is of vigorous growth and very productive ; 
blossoms very large, of a bright rose or pink cc^or ; the 
leaves are deeply serrated. [Without glands, says Lindley.] 
The fruit is generally large and round, but sometimes ob* 
long, with a very small nipple ; marbled with red and dull 
purple next the sun ; flesh white, tinged with yeUow ; 


white at the itone'; rery sweet and melting, but perhaps 
less vinous than some others ; it ripens well and early. 
The stone is short in proportion to the fruit, round and 
Terj prominent, rough, and separates very readily from the 


This fruit is large ; its color yellow ; its form globular ; 
its flesh very sweet, juicy, rich and excellent It ripens 
about the middle of September. 

PRESIDENT. R. M.,JE:8q. Pom. Mag. 

<^ayes crenate, with globose glands."* A large downy 
fruit, roundish, approaching to oblong ; a shallow suture ; 
pale yellowish green, but red next the sun ; flesh whitish, 
juicy, melting, rich and high flavored. It parts from the 
stone, which is large, pointed, rugged. September. Spe- 
cimens of this superior firuit were exhibited at the Hall of 
the' Massachusetts Horticultural Society, by Mr Manning. 


Described as a very fine large red peach, of excellent 
quality ; lately originated near Philadelphia, from stones 
brought by Lieut Morris of the Navy, from the Island of 
Juan Fernandez, in the Pacific Ocean. There are four 
varieties bearing the above title, and numbered from one 
to fbur inclusive ; all fine. 


This native fruit is said to surpass all other peaches in 
beauty. Its skin is smooth, somewhat mottled, and of a 
beautiful waxen appearance. The flesh, which is melting, 
juicy, and of excellent flavor, parts from the stone. This 
variety originated with Mr Van Zandt, of the State of New 
York, and from him indirectly, and from the Messrs Prince, 
of the Liinnean Botanic Garden, I received the above 

PEACHES. 5)39 

account. The^ trees are here from both sources, but have 
not yet borne fruit. Its growth is very vigorous and up- 


The branches of this variety droop, and its appearance 
resembles that of the Weeping Willow. For this pecu- 
liarity it is chiefly remarkable. The fruit hat been de- 
scribed as of good size, of an oblong form, of a yellow 
color and good quality. 


Large, globular ; flesh yellow, juicy, sweet and excellent 
This fine variety ripens early in September. 


A native fiuit of a large size, and globular form ; color 
a deep yellow in the shade, but a dark purplish red next 
the sun ; flesh deep yellow, rich, sweet, juicy and of a 
most delicious flavor. The tree is of very rapid growth. 
A first rate fruit. Ripe middle of September. 

MORRIS AN I A POUND. Ploy in Hort. Trans, vd. 
VI. p. 410. 

The firuit is very large, weighing from twelve to fourteen 
ounces ; very juicy and delicious, parting from the stone. 
This excellent fruit is farther stated to be one of the finest 
of fall peaches and in great repute, ripening late, about the 
middle of October. Mr Ploy first received this variety of 
Gouverneur Morris, of Morrisania near New York, but it 
was originated by Martin Hoffman, Esq. 




Clingstones or Pavies^ or Peaches whose flesh adheres to (he 
stone, arranged in the order of their maturity. 
This class of peaches, it is said, are preferred to all 
others by the inhabitants of warm climates. 

New York Early Nkwingtoic, Coxe. 

A bcautifU clingstone ; its color in the shade is white, 
but next the sun it is red ; its form is globular ; its flesh is 
juicy, rich and high flavored ; the stone is small, and the 
fruit ripens late in July, or early in August. 

CONGRESS. R. M., Esq. 

Large yellowish white ; but bright red next the sun ; 
melting, juicy, and of fine flavor. This variety may not 
prove a good bearer. It ripens in August and September. 

LA FAYETTE. R. M., Esq. 

A very beautiful fruit ; color yellow, but bright red next 
the sun ; its bearing is not ascertained. It ripens in Au- 
gust, and is a clingstone. 

DIANA. Coxe. 

A large oblong peach ; color white in the shade, but red 
next the sun j flesh very juicy and delicious. This beautiful 
fruit is a clingstone, ripening in August and September. 

PAVIE JAUNE. N. Duh. PI. ccclxxxix. 

Persica Newtonit, Ibid. 

Pavib AiiBEKOB, PsRSBquB Jaunb, Boo Jtrd. 


The petioles have reniform glands ; the fruit is very bean- 
tiful, very large, round, a little flattened at its summit, and 

PEACHE0. 231 

marbled with a groove ; its diameter thirtythree lines ; its 
skin is downy, yellow in the shade, and of a very deep red 
next the sun ; flesh yellow, firm, not fibrous, and red or 
of a blood color next the sk)ne, to which it adheres ; its 
juice is abundant, sweel and vinous. The stone is oval, ob- 
tuse, and of middling size* Ripe 12th September, at Paris ; 
excellent in warm summers. 


This fruit is large, globular ; pale yellow, but a beauti- 
ful red next the sun ; flesh yellowish white, very juicy, 
sweet, rich and fine flavored. An excellent and most pro- 
ductive variety, ripening in September. 


This fruit is large and globular; pale yellow, but of a 
fine bright red next the sun, sometimes marbled with deep- 
fir red ; flesh yellowish white, very juicy, rich, sweet and 
well flavored. An excellent fruit, a clingstone, ripening 
in September, and very productive, 


This fruit is thus very correctly described in the Pomo- 
logical Magazine. * Leaves crenate with reniform glands ; 
flowers small, reddish ; fruit large, round, variable ; color 
a beautiful red next the sun, marbled and dashed with 
darker shades ; pale yellow in the shade ; flesh very white 
tinged with yellow, but firm, of a deep crimson next the 
stone, to which it firmly adheres ; juice abundant, and of a 
very rich and sweet flavor ; stone middle sized, roundish 
oval, very slightly pointed.' It ripens with us in Septem- 
ber. Mr Manning has stated that neither this, the Old 
Newington, nor the Oldmixon Clingstone, can be distin- 
guished from each other by their external appearance, and 
are all first rate fruits. \ 



Incomp ARABLE, of the English. 

Leaves crenate with reniform glands ; flowers small, 
pale ; fruit large, roundish, swollen on one side ; skin pale 
yellow, but pale red shaded with light scarlet or deep crim- 
SQkn next the sun ; flesh pale yellow, but red at the stone 
to which it closely adheres ; juice sugary, and well flavor- 
ed ; stone roundish, and almost smooth.' Ripens at the 
time of the Catherine. 

GROSSB PERSEQUE. Bon Jard. p. 298. 


The tree is productive in unsheltered situations. The 
leaves have reniform glands ; the flowers are small ; the 
fruit is large and oblong, with swellings on its surface, of a 
red color next the sun. It requires a warm exposition, and 
will probably ripen late in September. 

PAVIE MAGDELETNE. Bon Jard. p. 294, 296. 

Pavie Blaivc. 

The tree is vigorou8> the leaves are wkhoot glands, and 
deeply serrated ; flowers large and very pale ; the fruit is 
large and downy ; white in the shade, and a beautiful red 
next the sun ; flesh white, fine, melting, and of an agreea- 
ble musky flavor. This fruit will ripen with us about Uie 
middle of September. 


A large fruit ; its color inclining to white, but next the 
sun a fine blush ; of a globular form ; flesh melting, juicy, 
sweet and excellent. A superior fruit ripening in September. 


Pink Afple, or Kennedy's Lemon. 

This fruit is rather large, oblong and pointed ; color in 
the shade deep yellow, but of a dark fine red next the sun ; 

the flesh is yellow, rich, vinous, a little acid ; it is stained 
with red next the stone. Septembet. 


This fruit is of the largest size ; of a clear golden yel- 
low in the shade, but bright red next the flon ; its form 
resembles a lemon, and some have weighed twelve ounces* 
Its flesh is fine, and it ripens in New York late in Sep- 

MONSTROUS POMPONNE. Bon Jard. p. 297. 

Pavie db Pomponnk, Gros Me'lbcotox, ^ 

Gros Persequb Rouge/ S of the French. 

Pavie MoNSTRsuz, PAVist^oHNV, ) 

The leaves have reniform glands ; flowers large ; the 
fruit is the largest of all peaches, and often terminates in 
a point at its summit ; it is downy ; color waxen white in 
the shade, of a very lively and deep red next the sun ; flesh 
firm, and excellent cooked. It requires a warm exposition 
and ripens in favorable seasons the end of October at Paris, 
This fruit will ripen eariier with us. 

PAVIE TARDIP, N. Duh. PL ccc. 
Late Pavie. 

The tree is very vigorous in its growth ; the petioles 
have large brown reniform glands ; the fruit is large, com- 
pressed at its sides ; contracted towards its base ; it is 
divided by a suture on one side, which terminates in a 
point at its summit ; its height and breadth are three inches ; 
the skin is thick, more yellow in the shade than the Pavie 
de Pomponne, and laved with a fine red next the sun ; its 
flesh is more yellow and less firm than the Pavie de New- 
ton, [Pavie Jaunej less red towards the stone, to which it 
adheres ; its juice is more abundant, and as we think more 
excellent. It ripens at the end of Octdber, and may be 


preserved a long time. This fine new fruit will probably 
ripen earlier with us. 


The trees of this variety are vigorous and productive. 
The fruit is large, rather oblong ; color on the shaded side 
white, changing to a fine deep red next the sun ; flesh 
melting, very juicy, sweet, vinous, and excellent. This 
excellent variety ripens in October, and may be preserved 
till late in November, and is the latest variety which will 
generally answer in Massachusetts. 


The fruit is very large, rather oblong, terminated by a 
point at its summit ; of a cream color, with an occasional 
blush next the sun ; its flesh is tender, melting, extremely 
juicy and rich. It ripens late, too late for the climate of 
New England, except in very favorable seasons. Mr Coxe 
informs us that this fruit was raised from a stone brought 
from the Mediterranean, by Mr Daniel Heath ; and in 
his estimation is superior to all other peaches known ; the 
stone generally opens, and the fruit if not too ripe, is one 
of the most admired preserved in sugar ; that it ripens 
in October, and keeps tiU December. 

PEACH. (Jlmygdtdui Persica.) 

The peach tree is a tree below the middle size, with 
spreading branches, of rapid growth, and not of long dura- 
tion. Persia is considered the original country of the 
peach, although it is said to have been cultivated from time 


immemorial in most parts of Asia. Sickler asserts, accord- 
ing to Loudon, that * in Media, it is deemed unwholesome ; 
but when planted in Egypt, it becomes pulpy, delicious and 
salubrious.' * The peach according to Columella, when 
first brought from Persia into the Roman Empire, possess- 
ed deleterious qualities ; which Mr Knight concluded to 
have arisen from those peaches being only swollen al- 
monds, (tuberes) or imperfect peaches; and which are 
known to abound in the prussic acid. The best peaches 
in Europe are at present grown in Italy, on standards.' 
— Loudon. 

The best peaches of France, according to Phillips, are 
those produced at Montreuil, a village near Paris, where 
the whole population are exclusively employed in their 
cultivation, and by this have been maintained for several 
ages. They are cultivated here on lime-whited walls of 
great extent. Their climate requires iti 

In the United States they flourish as in their native land, 
producing fruit of excellent quality, wherever the maize 
or Indian corn will ripen to maturity. In New Jersey there 
are those who cultivate this fruit exclusively ; and at 
Shrewsbury on a single plantation, as I am informed, 10,000 
bushels are annually produced for the New York market. 
It is also extensively cultivated in the middle, southern 
and western states, for the purposes of distillation ; on the 
refuse of the orchard or distillery, numerous swine are 

Uses. The peach is not only a first rate dessert fruit, but 
it makes a delicious preserve. In cooking the most deli- 
cious pies are made of them. For this purpose they re- 
quire no preparation ; they are used whole, simply placed 
in deep layers, sprinkled with sugar, and enveloped in the 
pastry ; no further additions are necessary ; the stone or 
kernel communicates its flavor, which is superior, to that of 
the costly spices. Peaches are preserved by drying, and 


in this state they may be preserved a long time ; they Bte 
either eaten like raisins, or used in cooking ; and might 
form a profitable article for sea stores or for exportation^ 
The following is the mode of drying practised by Mr 
Thomas Bellangee, of Egg Harbor, New Jersey. He has 
a small house provided with a stove, and drawers in the 
sides of the house lathed at their bottoms with void inter-' 
vals. The peaches should be ripe and cut in two, not 
peeled, and laid in a single layer on the laths, with their 
skins downward, to save the juice. On shaving in the 
drawer they are soon dried by the hot air produced by the 
stove. In this way great quantities may, successively, in 
a single season be prepared, with a very little expense in 
the preparation of the building and in fuel. From the 
kernels, according to Bosc, an oil is drawn possessing all 
the qualities of the oil of almonds. 

The young leaves according to Phillips are used by 
cooks to flavor blancmange, custards, puddings, &c ; and a 
liquor resembling the delicious Noyeau, is prepared by 
steeping peach leaves in white brandy ; this liquor is sweet- 
ened with sugar candy and fined with milk, and is difficult 
to be distinguished from the genuine Noyeau of Martin- 
ico. The leaves, if I am not nustaken, contain prussic. 
acid ; but so does the bitter almond ; and this last article 
forms the basis of the Noyeau, which is prepared in Bos- 
ton, as the manufacturers themselves inform me. Olivier 
asserts, [according to Bosc in Nouveau Cours Complet 
d' Agriculture,] that the inhabitants of Scio, employ the 
leaves in dying silk of a deep green. They are also 
employed in medicine as a vermifiige, febrifuge, &c. Col- 
lected in autumn, they are used in die preparation of 
leather ; and from the wood of the peach tree, says Phillips, 
the color called rose pink is produced. 

A good peach, according to Miller, possesses a firm flesh ; 
a thin skin, of a bright or deep red color next the sun^and 


of a yellowish greeo in die shade ; the pulp pf a yellowisfa 
color, full of high flavored juice ; the fleshy part thick, and 
the stone small. Good peaches however, vary much in 

The French consider the Peach and the Nectarine as 
the same fruit. They divide them into four classes — Ist, 
the PickeB, or Freestone Peaches ; — 2d, Pomes, or Cling- 
stone Peaches ; — 3d, the Pichea lisse, or smooth Peaches, 
Freestone Nectarines ; — 4th, the Brugnons, or Clingstone 
Nectarines. These again are distinguished hy glandular 
or glandless leaves, and by the blossom. 


The peach tree is usually raised by planting the stones 
in autumn. Some, however, preserve them in soil exposed 
to the frosts of winter ; in spring they are cracked, and 
either sown in beds or planted in the nursery in rows four 
feet asunder, and about a foot distant in the row. In the 
same year or the year following, they are inoculated. The 
peach tree is usually inoculated on the peach stock. They 
are however, sometimes propagated on the almond ; some* 
times on the plum stock. Mozard, according to Loudon, 
• prefers plum stocks where the soil is strong and black ;* 
' and Dubreuil recommends a plum stock for a clayey aioil ; 
and the almond stock, for such as are light and sandy« 
The same opinion is held by the Montreuil cultivators.' 
At Montreuil we understand the plum stock is not used 
because the soil is dry. 

Soil, Distance. — The most suitable soil for the peach 
tree is a rich, sandy loam : a light soil answers well. The 
soil of Montreuil as above stated is di^. The peach tree will 
not flourish on a cold, stiff*, wet soil. On such a soil they 
may grow vigorously, but they produce but little fruit, and 
that of ordinary quality. Some assert that they are more 


uniformly productive on the nortb side of hills, as it pre- 
vents their too early advancement hefure the vernal frosts 
are past. Ten or twelve feet asunder is deemed a good 
distance for the peach tree. 

Maladies. — The maladies to which the peach tree is 
suhject are, 

1st. The Curctdio, For the remedies for this, see instctsy 
in the former part of this work. 

2d. The worm which feeds on the sap-wood beneath the 
bark, principally near the surface of the earth. 

The worm is produced by a fly which, from the middle 
of June, to the first of August, deposits its eggs on the 
bark of the tree, generally at its root, where the bark is 
tender. These are soon hatched, and the worm shortly 
penetrates beneath the bark, where it commences its work 
of destruction, devouring the sap-wood often around the 
whole circumference of the tree, causing the gum to ex- 
ude and often death. 

Much ha^ been written and said pf this insect ; yet the 
prevention is veiy easy, provided there is a necessity for 
it, which is not the case in all soils and «ituations. It 
seems with us only an occasional evil, and the remedies 
are seldom required. Whenever serious suspicions arise, 
let every tree be carefully searched at the surface of 
the earth, and the worm destroyed by probing with a pen- 
knife or pointed wire. About the beginning of June, form 
around the trunk of the tree a small conical mound, to the 
height of eight inches or a foot above the natural surface 
of the earth. Unleached ashes which might be preserved 
for this purpose, are without doubt the best and most useful 
substance, and each tree will require about a peck. But 
anything else, even soil is found to answer. The design 
of this is, to protect that portion of the tree where the bark 
is most tender; let this mound be levelled in October, 



"and the bark will harden again beneath where it was placed. 
I am inclined to believe the potash wash before described, 
Would answer every purpose, as it does with the apple 
tree if applied at the suitable time ; also the wash recom« 
mended by Mr Lindley. The (ktrden Compound, sold by 
Messrs Russell of Boston, and Ives of Salem, I am per- 
suaded would be effectual. Also coal tar, A gentleman 
of Nantucket is trying the coal tar with his peach trees. 
He is also trying it on the plank of his ships which «ail 
to the Pacific, to preserve them from the attacks of the sea 
worm ; the odor it exhales is powerful and lasting. 

Another cheap, easy and effectual mode is practised by 
Mr Vose of Dorchester. About the last of May, the soil 
is removed to the depth of two inches round the trunk ; a 
composition of clay, ashes, &c, is applied with a brush, and 
over this stiff brown paper is wrapped around the tree to 
the height of a foot, and the earth replaced. Mr Ellis of 
New Jersey, has found that r^e straw bound round the 
trunk from the surface upwards is effectual ; and Mr Wil- 
son of New York, in his Economy of the Kitchen Garden, 
has recommended grading clay to be applied round the 
trunk. Lime mortar mixed with sulphur is found good. 

3d. But there is another malady which I believe is un- 
known in New England, at least I have never seen or 
heard of such a disease with us. It is by some called the 
yeUows : and according to Mr Coxe, < the malady which de» 
stroys much the largest portion of the trees, has hitherto 
baffled every effort to subdue it ; neither the source nor 
the precise character of the disease, appear to be perfectly 
understood.' The trees are further stated to languish, the 
leaves turn yellow, and they perish shortly. The disease 
is contagious, soon spreading through the whole orchard ; 
and if trees are brought from a sound nursery, and planted 
on the same land, they usoally perish during the first sea- 


•OQ. And the infected soil cannot be again occupied as a 
peach orchard, until some years of intermediate cultivation. 
The only remedy I have heard of for the destruction of 
this disease, is to destroy at once the infectious trees, be- 
fore the disease is communicated to the whole orchard ; 
which according to Mr Prince of the Linnean Botanic 
Garden, as stated in Tkacher^i Orehardist^ is at the time 
the trees blossom in spring. 

PRurfiif o, Sac. — In our climate the peach is almost uni- 
▼ersally cultivated as a standard. They are rarely pruned 
at aU ; they are sometimes however, renovated by heading 
down ; this operation should be performed just before the 
sap rises in spring. Trees are very rarely seen trained to 
walls, except occasionally, in the gardens of the opulent 

To render peach trees very productive, it has been re- 
commended to shorten the new young wood in June, by 
cutting in a few inches; and the shoots proceeding 
from these are to be shortened again during the course of 
the summer. This mode is favorable to the production of 
fruit buds, and the trees will produce more abundant crops 
the following year. This pruning or shortening may be 
most profitably performed with very large shears, with long 
handles, such as are used for clipping hedges ; and I am 
persuaded that with such an instrument, a man might prune 
a great many trees in a day. 

With respect to trees trained to walls, Jean Pierre Sa- 
vard at Montreuil, according to Loudon, varies the position 
of the branches every year, by elevating to a greater angle 
the weak, depressing the strong, cutting out the old, naked, 
or twigless shoots ; thus presenting at all times a well bal- 
anced tree. 

The inference is, that these weakly shoots by being thus 
elevated, grow stronger ; and the branches by being annu^ 
ally bent, become more fruitful on the principles before 
explained. Girdling increases the size and hastens the 

NECTARINE8. ' 241 

matuidty of-the fruit; it should be performed as soon as 
the tree comes into leaf. If fruit is desired of large size, 
the trees must be thinned when the fruit is of the size 
of small gooseberries. The size may be thus increased 
•without diminishing the quantity. 

NECTARINES. (Amygdalus Nectarina.) 



AROMATIC. Lindley. 

Leaves crenate with reniform glands ; flowers small. A 
middle sized, rtither globular fruit ; deep red or blackish 
brown next the sun ; flesh pale straw, but red at the stone ; 
juice of a rich vinous flavor. 

EARLY VIOLET. Pom. Mag. Bon Jard. 1828. 

VioLETTE Hative, Petit Violette Hativb, of the Fr. 
Violet, Lord Selbit's Elruoe, of the English. 

Leaves crenate with reniform glands ; flowers small ; the 
tree is productive. The Bon Jardinier classes this with 
Pavies. Fruit varying in size, generally medium ; pale 
yellowish green, but dark purplish red next the sun ; flesh 
whitish yellow, but red next the stone, melting, juicy, rich, 
sweet, vinous, and excellent. August. 

ELRU6E. Pom. Mag. 

Leaves crenate with reniform glands. One of the very 
best and most high flavored Nectarines ; large, roundish 


ov&l, deep violet or blood color next the sun ; flesh whitish, 
mc Itiog, very juicy, rich, and high flavored. August. 

FAIRCHILD'S EARLY. Lindley. Forsyth. 

Leaves crenate, with r^niform glands ; flowers large ; 
fruit very early, and very small ; globular ; yellow in the 
shade, deep scarlet next the son; flesh yellow, not juicy, 
bat well flavored. 

Lisse'x Jaune, lb. SiiooTH Tkllow. 

The leaves have reniform glands : flowers large. — A 
■mall fruit ; skin smooth, yellow, a little washed with red 
next the sun. Its flavor that of the apricot. It ripens 
very late at Paris, where it requires a warm exposition. 

LEWIS'S NECTARINE. Lond. Hort Trans, vol. vi. 
p. 394. 

A fine new variety raised from the stone of a peach by 
Mr Lewis of Boston. Sent to Mr Knight and the Lond. 
Hort Soc. by Samuel G. Perkins, Esq. of Boston, a corres- 
ponding member. A beautiful fruit of middle size, heart- 
shaped ; bright yellow, but intense red mottled next the 
«un ; flesh a rich orange color, firm, not remarkable for 
sweetness ; flavor very pleasant and peculiar. 


A seedling raised by S. G. Perkins, Esq. from the Lew- 
is's Nectarine. A very beau'tiftil fruit, globular, bright yel- 
low, but of a dark purple crimson next the sun. A fine 
fruit of handsome size. 


A new and beauliftil Variety raised by John Williams, 
Esq. of Pitmaston. A good sized globular or heart-shaped 


NXCTAR1NE9* 343 

fruit, a point at its summit, of a rich yellow color, but dark 
crimson or purple next the sun. Flesh golden yellow but 
red next the stone from which it separates ; it is melting, 
juicy, saccharine and high flavored* 

SCARLET. For. Wndley. 

Leaves crenate with reniform glands 4 flolrers small. A 
middle sized fruit, rather ovate, of a fine deep scarlet next 
the sun ; flesh greenish white, but red at the stone ; sac- 
charine and well flavored. 

TEMPLE'S. For. Lindley. 

Leaves crenate with reniform glands ; flowers small. A 
fruit below medium size, rather oblong ; pale red next the 
sun ; flesh white ; it shrives at maturity ; very juicy, rich, 
and of fine flavor. 

Mag. Hooker. Lindley. 

New White, Emmebson's New White. Lind. P. Mtg. 

Leaves crenate, with reniform glands, flowers large. A 
middle sized roundish very pale fruit, slightly tinged with 
red next the sun. Flesh tender and juicy with a fine vin- 
ous flavor. Tne Pomological Magazine describes this as 
a clingstone ; Lindley as a freestone. 



VIOLETTE CERISE. N. Duh. Jgpn Jard. 

Cerise. Bon Jard. Cherrt. 

The flowers are small; leaves narrow with reniform 
glands. Tree small and delicate. A very small fruit, the 


size of a Green Gage plum ; vqry beautiful, of a fine 
cherry red next the sun *— good, but not high flavored. 

GOLDEN For. Lindley. 

Leaves crenate with reniform glands ; flowers small. A 
fruit of a size rather large, globular, ovate, orange in the 
shade, bright scarlet marbled with deep red next the sun. 
Flesh firm, yellow, pale red at the stone, and of good fla> 

GROSSE VIOLETTE. Bon Jard. p. &98. 


Bruonoh Grosse Violettb. lb. 

Flowers small ; the leaves with reniform glands ; fruit 
rather larger and its flavor less vinous than the Violette 
Hative, (Early Violet.) Its skin is more marbled and wash^ 
ed with violet red. Its maturity is also later ; it is the 
15th Sept. at Paris. Probably the last of August here. 

- ITALIAN. Lindley. Forsyth. 

Bruonon. For. 

Leaves crenate, glands reniform, the flowers smalL A 
^arge, globular,^pale yellow fruit, marbled with dark red 
next the sun ; of a firm yellow flesh, red at the stone, juicy, 
rich, and good. This variety must ripen here in August. 

RED ROMAN. Lindley. For. 

Leaves crenate with reniform glands; flowers large. 
(Lindley,) A very large globular fruit, dark red or purple 
next the sun, yellowish in the shade ; flesh yellowish, but 
red next the stone ; juicy, saccharine and vinous. Early 
in September. 


Newinoton, Late Nkwington. 
The leaves are doubly serrated without glands ; the 


flowers large. Rather large, globular, fine yellow, but 
bright red marbled next the sun ; of a firm pale yellow 
flesh, but red at the stone ; juicy, rich, sweet, vinous, and 
excellent. Early in September. 


Leaves doubly serrated without glands ;. flowers large. 
Pretty large, somewhat ovate ; tawny colored, marbled 
with dull red or orange next the sun ; flesh pale yellow, 
but red at the stone; very juicy, sugary, and of the most 
delicious flavor. This may ripen here early in August 

VERMASH. Hooker. Pom. Lond. Pl.xxix. 

Not the Vermash or Peterborough of Mr Forsyth. The 
tree is of moderate vigor and very fertile ; flowers large, 
pink ; a small roundish fruit ; skin very smooth, intense 
red next the sun ; flesh white, but red at the stone, of a 
high delicate flavor, melting, juicy, sweet, relieved by an 
agreeable acid. This nectarine is esteemed by Mr Pad- 
ley, one of the best at present known, it succeeds the 
Early Violet. 


B^UGNON Violet Musque'e, Bruonoit Musque, Bon 

Red Romamt, of For. 

The flowers are large, leaves with reniform glands ; 
' fruit as large as the Grosse Violette, but brighter and of a 
more lively red next the sun ; skin very smooth, amber 
color in the shade ; flesh yellow, but red at the stone ; sac- 
charine, vinous, musky. September. 




The Nectarine is said to be a native of Persia ; it only 
differs from the peach in possessing a very smooth and 
glossy skin, and a palp of a firmer consistence. The 
French consider the nectarine, one and the same fruit as 
the peach. It is esteemed, however, by some, more whole- 
some and delicious. According to some authorities, its 
name is derived from nectar^ the liquor with which as was 
sttpposed, the heathen gods were wont to be regaled. 
Owing to the smoothness of its skin, it is, like the plom, 
extremely liable to the destructive attacks of the curculio. 
For the preventives, see Curculio, in the former part of 
this woric. Its use and cultivation are the same «8 the 
peach. They are usually inoculated on the nectarine, plum, 
or peach stock. 

ALMOND. (Amygdalus.) 

The almond according to the best authorities, is a na* 
tive of Asia. It is ^extensively cultivated in the south 
of Europe and fiarbary, as a fruit tree, for domestic use, 
and for exportation. The tree bears a striking resemblance 
to the peach, but the leaves are more smootii. The sweet 
aknonds are used for the dessert, fbr confectionary, and 
for perfumery. The bitter almonds are used in medicine. 
They abound in the prussic acid, and form the basis of the 
delicious cordial called Crime dt ^oyeau. The common 
almond and the hard shelled sweet almond, are planted 
principally as stocks for the inoculation of the better vari- 

ALMOND. 247 

eties of almonds and the peach. The almond is enveloped 
in a pulp of ordinary flavor. The principal sorts recom- 
mended by the best authorities are the following : 


Amavde Sultan a Coque Tendre. 

The shell is large, about an inch and a half in length, 
it is flattened on one side, and rounded on the other ; it 
is smooth and tender ; the kernel is sweet and good. This 
sort is said to be much cultivated in France for food. 


Amande DES Dames, N. Dub. PI. ixxv. 

The fruit is two inches in length ; the shell is oval, and 
over an inch in length ; it is soft and porous, the kernel is 
large, sweet and excellent. This is said to be much cul- 
tivated in the south of France for exportation. This fruit 
is recommended in the above work as one of the best for 


This variety much resembles the Amande Princesse, but 
is not so large. 


This resembles the Amande Princesse, but is of small 



Of this variety there are several ; the two principal 
which are enumerated, are these. 

Amanbb Amsas A CoQus TsiroBB. 


Amamde Amere a CoquE Dure. 

peach: almond. 

Amande Pecher. 
These are hybrids, produced between the almond and 
peach ; some are large, juicy, but of bitter flavor ; some 
are tolerable for eating with sweet kernels. 

Amandier A Grand FLEtxR. N. Duh. PI. ccclxxxii. 

* This new variety originated at the Luxembourg; the tree 
is of fine form ; its bark is shining, its leaves large ; the 
flowers are superb, of a beautiful white, and two inches in 
diameter. The fruit is small, oval, obtuse, downy, its 
length fifteen lines ; its shell is very hard, the kernel plump, 
sweet, and very good. Nothing is more beautiful than 
this almond in spring; it merits a distinguished place 
among the trees of ornament.' 


Amandier dk Ge^oroie, N. Duh. PI. xcii. 

This is one of the most ornamental of all shrubs ; it 
blossoms very early in spring, and the whole young wood 
is covered with the red blossoms which are extremely 
double and resemble small roses ; their diameter is about 
an inch. This variety has some single blossoms which 
produce a fruit which is oblong, pointed, and about an 
inch and a quarter in length ; its skin green, and downy ; 
it contains an almond which is bitter. 


The varieties of almond are propagated by inoculation, 
either on the native stocks of the common almond, or on 


stocks of the peach or plu^i. Their cultivation is the same 


as that prescribed for the peach ; they are equally'as hardy. 

APRICOTS. (Armeniaca.) 


Abricot Alberge, Bon Jard. 

A large tree and very productive, but best in the open 
ground ; the flesh is melting and vinous, and excellent for 
preserving. The kernel is large and bitter. Early in Au- 
gust. Ther6 are two varieties, superior in size and flavor; 
that of Montgametf and that of Tours. - 


An oval fruit, flattened or compressed, of a straw color ; 
juicy, and high flavored. 

ANGOUMOIS. Lindley. BonJard. p. 305, 

Purple Apricot, of Lindley* 

Alexandrian Apricot, according to Lindley. 

Abricot Violette, Luxem. Cat. 

Black Apricot, of Forsyth, accoNKng to Lindley. 

A smal], globular, downy fruit, a little oblong ; of a pale 
red color, becoming deep red or purple next the sun ; flesh 
pale red, but orange next the stone, a little acid, but good, 
with a strong odor ; the kernel is sweet, and the fruit looks 
at a little distance like an Orleans plum. Early in July. 


Highly esteemed for its productiveness. A middle sized 
fruit of a red color next the sun, covered with numerous 


dark spots ; flesh yellow, and of a brisk flavor. It separatef 
from the stone ; the kernel is bitter. 

BLACK APRICOT. Bon Jard. N. Duh. 

Violet Apricot^ Prunus Dasicarpus, of Wild. 

accordiD|r to the Bon Jard. 
Abrioot Noir, Abricot du Pape, (Pope) Bon Jard. 

The tree is very vigorous ; it inclines to grow crooked ; 
its appearance more resembles that of a plum than an 
apricot. I cannot recommend it ; I suspect it is a poo; 
bearer. Fruit small, the color of the lye [lees] of deep 
colored wine ; flesh obscure fiei^ red ; quality below me- 
diocrity. August Baid to be from Siberia. 


Abricotik, Abricot Preoocs, Abricot Hatif Mus- 

qvK, of the French. 
Red Masculine, of the English and Lindley. 

A small nearly globular fruit, vermilion color next the 
sun, yellowish in the shade ; flesh yellowish, of medium 
quality } flavor musky, kernel bitter ; its chief merit is its 
early maturity. Beginning of July. 

GROS MUSCH. Bon Jard. p. 306. 

The tree is vigorous ; the fruit is perfumed ; the suture 
is very deep on one side, it is contracted on the other ; 
a freestone ; the kernel is sweet July. 


Origin unknown ; it bears freely, ripening early, acquir- 
ing a high luscious flavor, superior even to that of the 
Moorpark. Middle sized, roundish, slightly compressed ^ 
its color and form that of the Moorpark ; flesh bright deep 
clear orange ; tender, juicy, with a particularly rich, delicate 
flavor, resembling that of the Green Gage plum ; kernel 
sweet July. 


MOORPARK. Hooker's Pom. Lond. 

Anson's, Temple's, Dunmors's Breda, according to 

The tree is of vigorous growth and extraordinarily pro- 
ductive ; the fruit is very large, of a bright gold color, or 
orange, with dark spots next the sun ; flesh orange color, 
melting and excellent ; the stone is large ; there is a per- 
vious passage through it, through which a needle may be 
passed. It is in the edge of the stone, a little aside from 
the centre, in a longitudinal direction. 

MUSCH. Bon Jard. p. 306. 

Brought a few years since from the city of Musch, on 
the frontiers of Turkey, on the side of Persia. It is round, 
deep yellow, remarkable for the transparency of its pulp, 
through which the stone is visible ; the flesh is very fine 
and agreeable. Early in July. 

ORANGE. Lindley. 

Early Orange, Rotal Orange, Rotal George. 
Hort Soc. Cat. 

Fruit larger than the Masculine, roundish ; color orange, 
spotted with red or dark purple next the sun ; flesh deep 
orange, succulent and well flavored ; not perfectly a free- 
stone ; kernel sweet. 

PEACH APRICOT. N. Duh. PI. civ. Bon Jard. 

Abrtcot Peche. N. Duh. Bon Jard. 
De Nancy, of some. 

The best and the largest of all apricots ; form variable, 
generally flattened ; from eighteen lines to two inches in 
diameter ; skin slightly downy ; fawn color next the bud, 
touched with' reddish spots or points ; flesh fliwn colored 
yellow, melting, excellent ; neither dry nor clammy like 
most apricots ; juice abundant, high flavored, peculiar. 
Excellent in the open ground. Early in August. Mr 


Loudon and Mr Coxe fully concur that this is the best and. 
largest of all apricots known. 

PORTUGAL. Bon Jard. 

Abricot dk Portugal, or Male, Bon Jard. 
A small globular fruit ; flesh melting and very good. 

PROVENCE. Bon Jard. 

A small fruit with yellow flesh, sometimes a little dry, 
but of a sweet vinous flavor ; stone rugged ; kernel sweet. 

ROMAN. Pom. Mag. Lindley. Bon Jard. 

Abricot Commuit, Bon Jard. 

Blotched Leaved Turkey, Lindley and Pom. Mag. 

The English describe this as the most common and pro- 
ductive variety. The Bon Jard. however, describes it as a 
vigorous tree, a large fruit in well cultivated ground, supe- 
rior to the Angoumois, but insipid when too ripe ; kernel 
bitter. Ripe in July. 

ROYAL. Bon. Jard. Pom. Mag. 

A new variety, obtained at the Luxembourg ; better 
than the peach apricot. Wood strong, longer jointed than 
the Moorpark ; leaves large, roundish cordate, or ovate ; 
fruit next in size to the Moorpark, rather oval, compressed ; 
dull yellow, slightly red ; flesh pale orange, firm, juicy, 
sweet, and high flavored with a slight acid *, kernel slightly 

ROYAL PERSIAN, Hort. Soc. Cat Bon Jard. 

Breda, Hort. Soc. Cat. 

HoLLANDE, Amande Aveline, Bor Jafd., and the 

This fruit is small ; flesh yellow, melting, vinous, having 
the taste of the Aveline or Filbert ; kernel sweet July. 


TURKEY. Pom. Mag. 

Larob Turkey. Hooker's Pom. Load. 

* An excellent apricot scarcely known,' little inferior to 
the Moorpark. No gardens in which good apricots are 
valued should be without this. Fruit middle sized, very 
handsome, deep yellow, with rich orange red blotches next 
the sun ; form globular ; flesh yellow, firm, juicy, sweet, 
with a little acid, very rich and excellent ; a freestone ; 
kernel sweet as an almond. 

Abrtcot Blanc, Bon Jard. 

The flesh is whiter than the Angoumois, and better, hav- 
ing a little of the flavor of the Peach. It ripens a littie 
after the Early Masculine. 

APRICOT. (Armeniaca.) 

The Apricot is a low tree of very irregular growth ; the 
fruit in its exterior resembles that of a smooth round yel- 
low peach ; its flesh however is more firm ; but its smooth 
compressed stone resembles that of a plum. According to 
Phillips, it may derive its name from Pr coxaoi early fruit; 
or by corruption apr<tcox hence Jjpricock or •Apricot, Its 
native place has been assigned to Armenia ; M. L. Legnier 
however asserts, says Phillips, that it is not known to grow 
in the natural state in any part of Armenia. The inhabi- 
tants of the deserts called Oasis, gather and dry large 
quantities of Apricots which they bring down to Egypt for 
sale ; it there grows spontaneously ; hence Legnier assigns 
it to Arabia. Pallas states it to be a native of Caucasus, 
the mountains there being covered with it to their tops. 


Grosier says it covers the barren mountains west of Pekin. 
(Phillips ;) and Regnier and Sickler, says Loudon, assign it a 
parallel between the Niger and Atlas. 

Uses. As a dessert fruit the Apricot is esteemed next 
to the Peach ; it is also esteemed a most superior fruit 
when used in pastry, for marmalade, jellies and preserves ; 
it is also stated to make a delicious liqueur. In France and 
Germany, according to Dr Willich, the Orange Apricot is 
usually preserved in a dried state for winter, when they 
form a delicious ingredient in pies, tarts, &.C. The Chi- 
nese, we are told, form lozenges from the clarified juice, 
which dissolved in water yield a cool refreshing beverage. 
Oil is also extracted from the kernel ; and Loudon informs 
us that the young shoots yield a fine golden-cinnamon 
color to wool. 

Cultivation, &.c. The Apricot is generally inoculated 
either on the apricot, plum or peach stock ; the soil, and 
the maladies to which they are sometimes subject are simi- 
lar to the peach, but from the smooth skin which they pos- 
sess they are more liable to the attacks of the Curculio. 
For the preventives see Curculio, in the former part of this 

Soil, &c. The apricot is inoculated either on the apri- 
cot, plum or peach stock. It requires a rich black mould. 
'Riey will not flourish in a sandy, gravelly, or cold damp 
soil. The distances asunder to which they ought to be set 
and their cultivation is similar to that of the peach. 

PLUMS. 255 

PLUMS. (Prunus.) 


Pritxe Abricote', Prune Abricotb'e de Tours, of 
the French. 

The branches are downy, the fhiit is large ; its form 
globular, depressed, divided by a deep suture ; whitish yel- 
low, but faint red next the sun, and covered with bloom ; 
its flesh is firm, juicy, sweet, musky and excellent. It 
ripens in August. 

BELLE OF RIOM. N. Duh. PI. cccxci. 

Roundish oval, flattened at its base ; its height sixteen 
or seventeen lines ; skin bright red, marbled with yellow 
and covered with violet bloom ; flesh yellow, firm, but melt- 
ing and very good ; juice very sweet. A new and excel- 
lent firuit, will probably ripen here the middle of August. 


This plum is said to be large ; its color yellow ; its form 
oblong ; its quality very rich and excellent. 


Bleecker's Germax Gage. 

This plum is stated to have been raised by the Rev. Mr 
Bleecker of Albany, from tho stone of a German prune ; 
it is described as a large globular fruit, of excellent quality 
and a great bearer. 


A round plum of a blue color, juicy and high flavored *, 
it readily parts from the stone ; it ripens in September and 


hangs long on the tree afler arriving at maturity. A fine 
fruit, a great hearer. 

BLUE NOVEMBER GAGE. Corse in N. E. Fanner. 

'The Blue November Gage is extraordinary for its late 
ripening and the length of time it will remain upon the 
tree ; I have picked them in December ; it is of good fla- 
vor, and of medium size, they are all [the JVbto BenOy the 
Mmiralf the ^Field Marshal^ and the Ruing Sun] very 
productive, some of them bear too much.' 


Galissonnierk. N. Dub. PI. lxxxiii. 

The tree is of medium vigor, diffuse in its growth ; fruit 
small, oval, firey red ; flesh coarse-grained and sour ; juice 
abundant and aromatic. It is supposed to possess medicinal 


MiRABOLAN, of the FroDch. 

A native fruit, small, heart-shaped ; skin smooth, of a 
bright red color ; flesh yellow, tender, juicy, pleasant, not 
very highly esteemed except for its beauty ; good for cook- 
ing ; it ripens early in August 

COE'S GOLDEN DROP. Hooker's Pom. Lond. No. 


Cos's Sbsdlino, Burt Seedling. lb. 

Raised by Mr Coe of Bury, Norfolk. The tree is vig- 
orous, its leaves uncommonly large, of a dark shining 
green above ; fruit oblong, rather bell-shaped ; firom two 
to two and a half inches long, one fiflh less in breadth. 
Skin greenish yellow, spotted next the sun with violet and 
crimson ; flesh gold color. ' This may confidently be re- 
commended as superior to any late plum at present culti- 

PLUMB. !257 

vated in Britain.' Mr Knight esteems this variety not at 
all inferior in richness of flavor to the Green Gage and 
Drap d'Or/ He states that it hears well as a standard. A 
tree of this variety was sent hy him in 1823 to the Hon. 
John Lowell, and it has heen widely disseminated in this 

COOPEI^'S PLUM. Coxe. Pom. Mag. 

Cooper's Large Red. 

La Delicieuse, of the French, according to the Pom. 

Raised hy Mr Joseph Cooper of New Jersey, from a 
stone of the Orleans ; very large, rather ohlong, two 
inches in length ; dark purple next the sun ; flesh yellow- 
ish green, very rich, juicy and delicious. Mr Coxe informs 
us * that it makes an exquisite preserve if deprived of its 
skin before too ripe. The tree grows vigorously and to a 
great size. This Mr Coxe assigns as the cause of the de- 
fect of this plum, which is liable to rot. 

CORSE'S ADMIRAL. Corse in N. E. Farmer. 

Was raised by Henry Corse, Esq. of Montreal. * The 
color of this fruit is dark purple, about the size of the 
Magnum Bonum or Yellow Egg, but of good flavor' — * very 
productive and excellent.' 


Was raised by Henry Corse, Esq. of Montreal. * This 
plum is about the size of the Admiral and bright red ; the 
most showy plam that I have ever seen, and of good fla- 
vor' — * very productive and excellent' 

• CORSE'S NOTA BENA. Corse, in N. E. Parmer. 
This plum was raised from the stone by Henry Corse, 
Esq. of Montreal, who has made annual experiments since 


1812, and has succeeded in rearing several varieties of 
undoubted excellence ; this variety he considers the most 
superior of ali, and very productive. 

CORSE'S RISING SUN. Corse in N. E. Farmer. 

This plum was raised by Henry Corse, Esq. of Montreal. 
' This fruit is about the size of the Bingham ; bright yel- 
low, with a tinge of red on the sunny side ;' * very produc- 
tive and excellent. 


The tree is of regular form and medium height ; the 
fruit is large, nearly round, depressed ; its breadth eighteen 
lines ; skin brownish red, covered thick with azure bloom ; 
flesh firm, yellowish ; juice agreeable and sweet ; an ex- 
cellent plum. August. 

Damask of Provence. 

Fruit roundish, a little oblong ; its height eighteen to 
twentytwo lines ; skin reddish violet^ covered with thick 
bloom ; flesh yellowish, tolerably high flavored, but does 
not fully correspond with the beauty of its skin \ juice 
sweet This plum is one of the earliest ; it ripens a month 
earlier than the Royale de Tours. Its early maturity and 
beauty renders it worthy a distinguished place ; but its qual- 
ity is but third rate. 

DAME AUBERT. N. Duh. PI. lxxi. 

Wentworth, of the English. 

Gros Luisaittb, of some French lists. 

A tree exceeding all others in the vigor of its growth, and 
the size of its leaves, which are deep shining green above, 
downy below ; fruit very large, elliptical, two and a half 
inches long; skin thick, yellow, covered with bloom; flesh 

PLUMS. 259 

yellow, coarse grained, adhering to the stone ; juice sweet, 
but vapid if too mature ; a plum admired for its size and 
beauty, but only fit for cooking. September. 


A very small, oval, dark blue fruit, covered with light 
blue bloom ; flesh very acid ; and fit only for cooking and 
preserves ; tree of feeble growth. Very late. 

DIAMOND PLUM. Loudon's Mag. vol. iii. p. 215. 

The Diamond Plum is perhaps the largest plum known. 
In form and flavor it resembles the Magnum Bonum, but 
its flavor is perhaps rather superior ; its color is a dark pur- 
ple. The tree grows vigorously, and in orchards would 
form a fine contrast to the White Magnum Bonums. Pur- 
ple Magnum Bonum .would we think have been a more 
suitable name for it, as conveying a good idea of the fruit 
and the tree. The tree sprung from the seed in the nursery 
of Mr Hooker, in Kent. 

Red Diapre. 

The tree is of vigorous growth, tall and handsome ; the 
fruit the most beautiful known. We have seen larger, 
but never such beautiful colors. Form, oval, two inches 
and one third in length, a little pear shaped; color 
dull red, covered with azure bloom ; flesh yellow, coarse 
grained. August. Always esteemed for its size and beau- 
ty ; it makes excellent prunes. To be perfect it only needs 
a finer flesh and a little less marc. 

DOWNTON IMPERATIVE. Hort. Trans, vol. v. p. 

Raised by Mr Knight, froiB the seed of the White Mag- 
num Bonum and pollen of the Blue Imperative. In shape 


like the Blue Imperative, but larger. Skin dark yellow, 
and very thin ; the flesh yellow, soft, juicy, with a high 
flavored acidity. All these are characteristics indicating 
much excellence. 


The tree is extremely vigorous in its growth: said to 
be a remarkably large fruit, of most superior quality ; and 
to have been imported by Mr Duane, of New York. Its 
original name lost. 

Monsieur Hatif, Duh. 

A globular fruit of medium size, of a violet or deep pur- 
ple color next the sun ; and covered with a dense bloom ; 
flesh yellowish, melting, juicy and good. This fruit ripens 
in July. 


White Primordian, of the English. 

Jaune Hative, Prune de Cataloone, Duh. 

Small, oblong, whitish yellow ; flesh rather dry, sweet, 
and musky. One of the very earliest plums, ripening in 
July. It is chiefly valued on this account 

GOLI A H. Hort Trans. 

St Cloud, of some collections. 

This fruit is very large, compressed ; the skin is a deep 
reddish purple ; the flesh pale, firm, and well flavored, but 
not rich. It is very useful for culinary purposes, and is 
remarkable for its great size, some of them weighing four 
ounces, and measuring seven inches and a quarter in cir- 
cumfereiice. Branches downy. Ripe early in September. 
Lindley says this is a great bearer, and a very fine hand* 
some plum. 

PLUMS. 261 


From information from a variety of sources, I shall at- 
tempt the description of this plum which is said to be iden- 
tical with a new plum known at Philadelphia, as the Keuer. 
The fruit is extraordinary large, of a globular fonn, resem- 
bling in this last respect and its color, the Green Gage, 
but far exceeding it in size ; a first rate fruit, sweet, and 
very fine flavored. 


Great Queen Claitde, of the English. 
Grosse Reine Claude, Daxtpkine, Abricote Vert, 
of the French. 

A middle sized round fruit, of a yellowish green color, 
a purplish russetty red next the sun ; melting, juicy, and 
of delicious flavor. Last of August. Lindley informs us 
that this name of Gage was derived from the circumstance 
of the Reine Claude being sent from France to the Gage 
family, with the name obliterated ; and through ignorance 
of the real name, it was called Green Gage, 

Large Late Red Damask. 

The fruit is very handsome, oval ; its height twenty lines ; 
skin thick, hard, bright red covered with azure bloom ; its 
flesh yellow and melting ; its juice sweet and good. This 
fine fruit will probably ripen here the last of August. 


The tree is of irregular and confused growth ; the fruit 
is nearly globular in form, yellow, with points of red; 
melting, sweet, very good. Early in August. 

IMPERATRICE. Hooker's Pom. Lond. PI. iv. 

A medium sized and rather long fruit, pointed at the 
base, rounded or broad oval at the other extremity ; skin 


fine violet, covered with bloom ; flesh yellowish next the 
sun, a little firm, at maturity very rich and sweet One 
of the best of late plums. 


' This new plum is a large regular oval, of the character 
of the Red Magnum Bonum, deeply cleft, of a pale red 
color ; becoming much darker if suffered to hang on the 
tree till perfectly ripe ; it is of good flavor and highly per- 
fumed ; its size and beauty will recommend it to notice. 
It is also admirably adapted for culinary purposes.' 


Damas D'Italik, Duhamel. 

This fruit is rather large ; its form globular, a little flat- 
ted at the base ; blue or violet next the sun, and covered 
with pale blue bloom ; its flesh is yellow, and tolerably 
high flavored, and separates from the stone. It ripens in 
August This variety is beautiful, and extremely produc- 



This variety, according to Messrs Parmentier and Chew, 
is not only a most valuable plum for drying, but in Italy is 
esteemed a most superior firuit, when gathered at maturity 
from the tree. 

JERUSALEM. N. Duh. PL cccciii. 

The tree is vigorous, and diffuse in its growth, extraor- 
dinarily productive ; the leaves large, dark green above, 
downy below. The firuit one of the most beautiful known ; 
it is oval, roundish, depressed ; its diameter twenty lines ; 
skin thick, blue next the sun, and covered with deep blue 
bloom ; flesh yellowish, coarse grained, but melting ; juice 
abundant, high flavored and sweet. August 

FLUMS. 263 

KIRK'S PLUM. Lindley. 

Branches smooth ; fruit rather large, roundish oval, 
broadest at the base ; skin dark purple, covered with a 
copious azure bloom, which is difficult to remove ; flesh 
greenish yellow, firm, juicy, rich, and separates from the 
stone. A very handsome variety, and most excellent 
bearer ; supposed to be of foreign origin. August. 


Horse Plum. 
A large round fruit, dark blue color covered with a fine 
blue bloom ; the flesh firm, yellowish green, juicy, sweet 
and good ; the flesh adheres to the stone ; the tree is pro- 

LEX PLUM. R. M., Esq. 

A large blue plum ; its flesh is yellow, rich and sweet. 
An excellent fruit and very productive. 

LUCOMBE'S NONSUCH. Pom. Mag. 1 99. Lindley. 

This plum is large, compressed at the summit and base, 
its breadth two inches ; its color at maturity as well as its 
form resembles the Queen Gage, but more streaked with 
yellow or orange ; its flesh and quality inferior to the last 
named variety, but superior to the Orleans. A remarkably 
handsome, productive and valuable new variety, ripening 
in August. 

MIMMS. Pom. Mom. t 6. Hort. Trans, vol. iv. p. 208. 

The fruit is very large, a little oblong, its diameter two 
inches and a half; color bright purple next the sun, and 
covered with thick bloom ; its flesh is yellowish green; 
tender, juicy, and very agreeably flavored ; resembling in 
this respect the Orleans. It separates from the stone, 
which is ragged with a thin, uneven edge. A late plum, of 
the largest size. 


MONSIEUR. N. Dah. PL cczlii. 
PRVitm DK MoKsiEUR. Ibid. 

Braoshes pubescent, downy ; leaves the least serrated 
of all plums. A handsome fruit, depressed ; its diameter 
firom fifteen to twenty lines ; violet red, covered with azure 
bloom; flesh green or yellowish, melting; juice sweet, 
sometimes very agreeable. It parts from the stone, and 
ripens twelve or fifteen days after the Monsieur Hdtif, 

MOROCCO. Pom. Mag. 1. 103. Lindley. 

Black Damascus, Early Black Damask, Black 
Morocco, Early Morocco, according to the Pom. Mag. 

Branches downy ; a blackish purple fruit of medium 
size, covered with pale blue bloom ; globular, a little de- 
pressed ; flesh greenish yellow, juicy, rich and high flavor- 
ed ; a productive firuit. July. 


Prune Pc he, N. Duh. PI. cvn. 
CalkdoitiaN) Howel's, of the English. 

The tree is very vigorous, not lofty ; the young wood 
is short, gross, and varnished thick with numerous eyes ; 
leaves large ; one of the most beautiful plums known ; 
round, a little lengthened ; its height two inches. The skin 
at maturity varies from red to deep red ; it is covered with 
azure bloom ; flesh yellowish, coarse grained, astringent ; 
joke abundant, mild ; a superb fruit, it only needs a finer 
flesh. It will probably ripen here early in July. 


Rid Damask. 

Damas RouoSyof the French. 

A middle sized firuit, of a form nearly globular, of a red 
•olor in the shade, but blue or purple color next the sun, 

PLUMS. 365 

and covered with blooin ; its flesh is pale yellow, juicy, 
rich and astringent, and readily parts from the stone. A 
fine fruit and a good bearer; it ripens in August. 


Said to be a variety of the gage, approaching in its size 
to the Washington, and much resembling it in point of 

PRECOCE DE TOURS. Hooker's Pom. Lond. PI. 


Early de Tours. lb. 

The tree is vigorous and fertile, and according to Mr 
Hooker the best early variety in that country* Poiteau 
calls it ordinary. Fruit small, 'oval, dark purple, covered 
with fine bloom ; flesh greenish yellow, tender, juicy, of 
very agreeable flavor. July. (Hooker,) * Fruit the form of 
an eggf very productive.' f JV. Duh) 

PRUNE DE BRIANCON. N. Dub. PI. cccxiii. 

The fruit is always extraordinarily numerous and com- 
pactly clustered on the branches like grapes. They are 
of medium size, yellow, oval ; insupportably acid before" 
maturity ; when too mature, insupportably insipid. Sep- 
tember. This plum is cultivated only for the oil which is 
drawn from its kernels, known in commerce as the Oil of 

Imperial Violette, of the French, 

A large, oval plum ; two inches to two and a half in 
length ; deep red next the sun and covered with blue 
bloom ; flesh yellowish, harsh, acid. It parts from the 
stone, whicl^ is sharp pointed. Good for cooking and fit 
for little else. August. 


RED PEDRIGON. Lindley. Dr Willich. 

Branches downy ; an excellent plum of the first class ; 
middle sized, roundish oval, of a fine red color with gq\d 
colored dots and a fine bloom ; flesh bright yellow, trans- 
parent ; juice sweet and delicious. Peeled and dried it 
makes excellent prunes ; not inferior to the white Per- 
drigon. August. 


This plum is large ; its color bright red, covered with 
pale bloom ; its flesh is yellow, sweet and excellent ; it 
ripens in September. This is a very handsome and pro- 
ductive variety and highly deserving of cultivation. The 
origin of this sort is unknown. 

REINE CLAUDE VIOLETTE. Loudon's Mag. vol. 
III. p. 106. 

Purple Gaoe. 

A new seedling variety of the Gfreen gage, of a pur- 
ple color, equally good, and a better bearer. It hangs 
longer on the tree and is the best red plum we have. 
The Pomological Magazine confirms this account and 
adds, that it is not like the Green Gage disposed to crack. 

ROY ALE. N. Duh. PI. ccxlii. 
La Rotale, of Hooker's Pom. Loud. 

A large, very handsome fruit, its diameter eight lines ; 
skin thick, a homely dull brown red, concealed however 
by a thick violet or azure bloom ; flesh fine, yellowish 
green, firm and crackling ; juice abundant, high flavored 
and delicious. An excellent plum. September. 

ROY ALE DE TOURS. N. Duh. PL xiii. 

The tree is of extraordinary vigorous growth, its princi- 
pal stem rises vertically ; the fruit is globular, flattened ; its 
length eighteen lines ; a red violet next the sun and cover- 

PLUMS. 267 

ed with azure bloom ; flesh yellow, fine, good ; juice 
abundant and sweet ; higher flavored and of superior qual- 
ity to the Monsieur Plum ; and it ripens eight or ten days 
earlier. July and August. 

ST CATHARINE. Hooker's Pom. Lond. PI. xxiv. 

A medium sized, oblong fruit ; narrowest towards the 
Btalk, broad and flattened at the opposite end ; skin bright 
gold color next the sun, spotted with red at maturity and 
covered with bloom ; flesh yellow, tender, sweet and of 
fine flavor ; stone oval, flat, it separates from the flesh. It 
ripens a little before the Imperative, and is not uncommon 
around Boston. 

SEMIANA. N. Duh. PI. ccxvi. Lindley. 

Prune Suisse, N. Duh. 

Prune D'Altesse, Monsieur TARDir. 

Fruit very handsome, round, flattened ; its diameter 
eighteen to twenty lines ; color varying from bright violet 
red, to deep blackish blue, and covered witli azure bloom • 
flesh greenish yellow, crackling and melting, juice very 
aburt'lant and delicious. Not uncommon near Boston. An 
exctlient fruit ripening in September. 


The tree is very vigorous and productive ; the fruit is 
large, of an oval form and purple color ; its flavor excel 
lent ; this is a highly esteemed variety. 

SURPASSE MONSIEUR. Bon. Jard. p. 308. 

* This superb fruit was raised by M. Noisette. It is 
more beautiful and more perfumed than the Monsieur, and 
the tree has the precious advantage of producing on its 
suckers plums in all their beauty and excellence.' 


Lombard Pi<um. 

Samples of this fine variety were sent from Springfield, 
Mass. by Charles Steams, Esq. August 18, 1830, to Mr 
J. B. Russell, publisher of the New England Farmer, 
Boston. The fruit grew in the garden of Maj. E. 
Edwards. Remarkably large, beautiful, and very produc- 
tive. This variety was imported from Holland, its name 
lost. A very showy saleable fruit but not high flavored. 

VIRGINALE. N.Duh. PI. xxxv. 

The tree is strong, vigorous and productive ; the firuit i» 
round, slightly depressed ; its color yellowish, touched 
with violet or rose next the sun, and covered with dense 
bloom ; flesh melting, juice abundant and very agreeable.. 
It adheres to the stone. This firuit ranks among the best 
of plums. 

WASHINGTON. Pom. Mag. R. M. Esq. 

Bolmer's Washington. Franklin. 

A very large globular plum inclining to oval ; greenisb 
yellow next the sun, approaching a pale orange ; and 
covered with a bloom and occasionally crimson specks ; 
this plum has sometimes weighed over four ounces ; its 
flesh is yellow, and firm, sweet and delicious ; it parts 
readily from the stone and ripens in September. This plum 
although not quite equal in flavor to the Green Grage, is a 
very valuable variety and of American origin. 


This plum is a first rate fruit ; the tree is very vigor- 
ous and upright in its growth, and extraordinarily produc- 
tive. The fruit is larger than the Green Gage and of 
excellent quality. A single tree of this variety at Charles- 
town, owned by Mr Samuel R. Johnson, has for several 

PLUMS. 269 

successive years yielded crops which were sold at from 
$40 to $50 per annum. This valuable variety was raised 
by Wm. Prince, Esq. of the Linnsean Botanic Garden, 
Flushing from a seed of the Green Gage. 


Imperiale Blanche, Duh. Egg Plum, of the Eng- 

White Mogul, White Holland, of the English ac- 
cording to Lindley. 

This fruit is of extraordinary size, oval, yellow covered 
with pale bloom ; the flesh yellow, firm, acid and austere ; 
it adheres to the stone which is oval and very pointed. 
This plum is excellent for cooking or preserves^nd suita- 
ble for nothing else. It ripens early in September. 


Branches downy ; a middle sized oblong fruit ; taper- 
ing from the stalk ; of a pale yellow, with red spots next 
the sun ; and covered with white bloom ; flesh yellow, rich, 
saccharine, separating from the stone. Last of August. 

in Hort. Trans, vol. iii. p. 392. 

Raised by Mr John Wilmot. Earlier than the JVctir 
Orleans, as early as the Morocco, and Precoce de Tours, 
as large as the Old Orleans, and more juicy ; a certain 
bearer ; a fruit above the middle size, round, its suture 
deep ; dark purple next the sun and covered with bloom ; 
flesh greenish yellow, of excellent flavor, sweet combined 
with a pleasant acid ; it separates from the stone. Mr 
Hooker considers this plum as decidedly superior to any 
of its season at present cultivated. Its beautiful appear- 
ance will obtain it a preference in the market. 



The plum tree rises to a height of from fifteen to eight- 
een feet, with moderately spreading branches. It is sup- 
posed to be originally from Asia, but is also found growing 
in a wild state in North America. It is more hardy than 
the peach, as it flourishes in Canada ; from the confines of 
the tropics, to high northern latitudes. 

Uses. — The finest varieties are esteemed delicious des- 
sert fruit ; the more ordinary varieties are used for pies, 
tarts, preserves, &c. The Perdrigons, the Quetsches or 
prunes are dried, and in this state may be long preserved ; 
they are imported, principally from Spain, Portugal, and 
Marseilles. Prunes are deemed extremely wholesome 
food, and possessed of considerable medicinal efficacy. 
Ripe plums are deemed wholesome, if eaten in moderate 
quantities ; but unripe plums are extremely unwholesome, 
more so it is said than any other kind of unripe fruit, pro- 
ducing dysentery, &c. The plum is said also to be capable 
of producing a good wine ; good brandy is also procured 
firom it by distillation. The wood of this tree is beauti- 
fully veined ; it is therefore stated on good authority, to be 
highly prized by turners, cabinet makers, and for making 
musical instruments. 

Soil and Cultivation. — The plum tree flourishes best 
in a rich, sandy loam, neither too dry nor too moist. A 
cold, wet, clayer soil, or a dry, sandy situation, is not 
deemed so favorable. 

The varieties of plum are inoculated on the plum stock. 
Those raised from the seed are preferred, and some varie- 
ties will flourish on the peach stock ; but this is not deem- 
ed so suitable for a high northern latitude. 

The mode of pruning, and the distances to which the 
tree should be set asunder, varies but little from that of 

CHERRIE8. 271 

the peach. The plum from its possessing a very smooth 
skin, is extremely liable to the attacks of the Curculio ; 
for the modes of prevention, see Curculio in the former 
part of this work. Particular varieties of the plum tree, 
are also liable to be attacked by a worm, which causes 
large black bunches to be found on the limbs. Some vari- 
eties, however, are exempted from this disease. The rem- 
edy is easy, and consists in separating every bunch, every 
badly affected branch, or even tree, and committing them 
to the fire. No affected tree should be suffered to exist 
near the orchard. In this way, and in this alone, the worm 
and the disease may be exterminated with a little trouble. 

CHERRIES. (Prunus Cerasus.) 

The French have divided their cherries into at least four 
classes. The following list however, I have divided into 
but two classes. The distinction thus formed will be appa 
rent, by a slight inspection of the tree, to the most super- 
ficial observer. 

Class I. Includes the Bigarreaus and Heart Cherries, 
and similar kinds. The trees of this class generally grow 
tall and handsome, in a pyramidal form ; the leaves are 
large, of a light green color ; the young wood is large, and 
the fruit generally sweet 

Class 11. Includes the Dukes, the Morillos, and similar 
kinds. The trees of this class are generally of low growth, 
and very compact form ; the leaves are stiff, of a dark 
green ; the young wood is slender, the fruit is generally 


sub-acid or sour. In addition to these, a few ornamental 
varieties of four distinct species will be described. 




Raised by Mr Knight, from the Bigarreau and May 
Duke combined. The blossoms of this new variety it is 
stated are produced in abundance, before those of any 
other sort ; and while the May Duke in the same aspect is 
yet a very inferior fruit, the Early Black Cherry has assum- 
ed its rich dark hue, and its flesh is then firm and juicy. 
It resembles in its external appearance the Waterloo, but 
the stalk is shorter. It is abundantly sweet, and though 
not very rich, of a pleasant flavor ; remarkably early. 


Below medium size, perfectly round ; color of amber, 
but red towards the sun ; of a very delicate appearance. 
The flesh is melting, the taste lively and very sweet. It 
ripens with the May Duke. This variety was found in an 
old garden in Providence ; its origin unknown. 

AMBRE'E. For. Lindley. 
Cerise Ambre'e. 

A large cherry, with a round head, flattened at the op- 
posite end ; marbled with red and yellow in the shade, 
bright red next the sun ; flesh white, somewhat transparent, 
very juicy, sweet, and excellent 


Heart shaped, bright amber color ; of a very sweet, 
excellent flavor. The growth of this tree is extraordinarily 


vigorous and upright, and is not exceeded in this respect 
by the Napoleon Bigarreau and the Black Tartarean. 



The tree is vigorous and productive ; the fruit large, 
heart shaped, red, marbled and shining ; a beautiful fruit, 
an inch in height ; flesh white, very little breaking, juice not 
abundant, rather sprightly. Middle of June. We do not 
find this fruit so extraordinary as Duhamel has described it. 

Bigarreau Noir, N. Duh. PI. cxxxviii. 

A new fruit, so named by M. Chatenay, of Vitry ; it i» 
but little extended. Fruit six lines in length, a little heart 
shaped ; at maturity black and shining ; flesh black violet 
and marbled, firm and breaking. This Bigarreau is one of 
the best species. Last of June and beginning of July. 


Bigarreau Gros Noir. 

Described to me by the late Andr6 Parmentier, Esq. as 
one of the largest and the very best of all cherries. 

Comp. d' Agriculture, vol. iii. p. 571. 

La Bigareautier a Gros Fruit Rouge. Ibid. 

A large fruit, of a deep red next the sun, a lively red in 
the shade ; juice reddish and somewhat perfumed. An 
excellent variety ripening late in July. 


Bigarreau Napoleon, Lourman, Hort. See. Cat. 

Lauermanx, I)r Willich. 

Gros Bigarreau de Lauermaxn. 

The tree is extraordinary for the vigor and beauty of its 


growth ; the leaves are very large, and plain or smooth on 
their upper surface. This is one of the three new varieties 
recommended to me by the late Andr^ Parmentier, Esq. as 
the best of all cherries. We have never yet seen the fruit, 
but find it is thus described. The largest and most beau- 
tiful of the heart shaped cherries ; it has an excellent taste. 
In shape it resembles the variegated half ounce cherry, and 
frequently surpasses it The flesh is remarkably white, 
solid, and of a sweet, agreeable flavor. It ripens in June 
or July, when the skin on both sides acquires very bright 
red spots, that are imperceptibly lost in the whitish and 
yellow part of the centre and the shaded quarter. 



BiGARREAu Marbre' de Hildesueim, Coufs Coui- 
plet d'Agriculture, vol. iii. p- 680. 

This is one of the three new sorts so highly recommend- 
ed to me by the late Andr^ Parmentier, Esq. as a most su- 
perior fruit The Napoleon Bigarreau, and the Large 
Black Bigarreau were the other two. It is very late. 

GRAPPION. Hooker's Pom. Lond. Lindley. 

Bigarreau, Hooker's Pom. Lond. 
Turkey Bigarreau* 

YsiiLOw Spanish, as supposed, of some American collec- 

Very large, obtuse, heart shaped, yellowish amber color, 
but fine red next the sun ; flesh firm, white, sweet and well 
flavored. A beautiful and excellent fruit,' not very pro- 
ductive. The tree, says Mr Hooker, * evidently exhibits 
the characteristics of age and debility ;* although of luxu- 
riant growth. Lindley states that it exceeds in growth all 
cherries grown in Britain. 


A cherry of a globular form, and middle size ; dark pur- 


pie or nearly black ; flesh very tender, rich, and of excel- 
lent flavor, and ripens early. This tree grows strongan d 
very upright. This new variety was sent by Mr Knight, 
in 1823, to the Hon. John Lowell ; and was raised according 
to Mr Lindley, by Miss Elizabeth Knight, of Dounton 
Castle, about the year 1806, from a seed of the Bigarreau, 
which had been fertilized by the May Duke. 


GuiGNiER A Fruit Nom, Duh. 

Rather large, heart-shaped ; dark purple, approacliing 
to black at maturity ; flesh dark red, tender, of excellent 
^ flavor. Ripe early in July — and is a good bearer. 


Spanish, Dr Wlllich, Dom. Ency. 

A noble fruit for drying, preserving, &c ; of a large 
size; dark red approaching to black; flatly compressed 
below ; and having a short stalk. Its juice is of a deep 
red dye ; of a mild, subacid and pleasant taste. 


Black Russian, Black Ciroassiax, Superb, Cir- 
cassian. Pom. Mag. 

Frazer's Black Tartarean, Ronald's Black 

A very large heart-shaped fruit, of most superior qual- 
ity ^ color dark shining purple or black ; flesh firm, dark 
red or purple, sweet and of most excellent flavor. The 
very best cherry yet known with us. The tree and fruit 
combine an assemblage of gopd qualities which never' 
meet but in a very extraordinary fruit ; an elegant, very 
rapid growing tree, of great productiveness, very large and 
beautiful fruit, and excellent quality. Supposed to have 
originated in Spain ; thence carried to Circassia, or Russia ; 


from Russia it was brought to England in 1796, by Mr 
John Frazer. (Pom, Mag.) But according to Mr Hooker 
it was brought from Circassia in 17d4, by Mr Ronalds. 


» A new and valuable variety reared from the stone, by 
Samuel Downer, E8<I., of Dorchester. The tree is very 
handsome, vigorous and upright in its growth ; a constant 
and great bearer. A large, light red cherry inclining to 
heart-shape ; flesh firm, flavor good and sprightly. Very 
late ; it ripens after most other superior varieties are gone, 
and is on this account the more valuable, and highly prized 
in the markets. 

DOWNTON CHERRY. Hort. Trans, vol. v. p. 262. 

A new variety, raised by Mr Knight, firom the Elton or 
Waterloo. It is nearly 'round, inclining to heart -shape ; of 
a pale yellow color sprinkled with minute red spots and 
larger patches of dull red or maroon ; flesh pale amber 
color, tender and juicy, very sweet and high flavored. 

ELKHORN. Downer. 
Black Ox Heart. 

A large cherry ripening between the Black Heart and 
the latest varieties ; its flesh remarkably hard and very 
peculiar ; and though not high flavored, it is supposed by 
some, that from its solid consistence, it may be profitably 
cultivated, to be transported from a distance, to market 
Mr Prince has stated that he brought this fruit to New- 
York from Maryland, and considers it on many accounts a 
valuable fruit 

ELTON. Mr Knight Hooker's Pom. Lend. PI. vii. 

Raised by Mr Knight from the seed of the Bigarrean 
and poUen of the ^White Heart The tree is very vigor- 


ous, and very productive. The fruit is pretty large, heart- 
shaped ; pale glossy yellow in the shade, but marbled with 
bright red next the sun ; stalk slender, two inches long ; 
flesh firm, sweet and rich. Very early. Sent in 1823, by 
Mr Knight to the Hon. John Lowell. 

FLORENCE. Hort Trans, vol. ii. p. 229. 

Large, heart shaped, depressed ; of a yellow amber color, 
marbled with bright red in the shade ; bright red next the 
sun ; tolerably firm, juicy, rich and sweet. A beautiful 
cherry introduced by Mr Houblon, from Florence. 


Large, oblong, or heart-shaped, of a dark red color ; its 
flesh pretty firm, of a pleasant and fine flavor. July. 


Apple Cherry. 

This native fruit originated on the farm of Deacon Sam- 
uel Gridley, of Roxbury, near Boston. The tree grows 
upright, is vigorous and productive. The fruit is of the 
size of a Black Heart, and of a black color ; the flesh is 
firm, like the Bigarreau class, and of a fine flavor. It 
comes to maturity soon after the early cherries are gone, 
and is much esteemed by those who cultivate it for the 
market, for its good qualities and abundant produce ; but 
from its solid consistence it is liable when at maturity, to 
crack in rainy weather. 

HARRISON HEART. For. Lindley. 

A large heart-shaped cherry, yellowish or amber color ; 
but light red next the sun ; flesh tender and high flavor- 
ed. This variety is ripe early in July. Said to have been 
introduced into England by Gov. Harriso;n, from the East 




Late Black Heart. 

Large, black, and heart-shaped ; a most excellent cherry, 
and a g^reat bearer, and more valuable for ripening late, 
when most varieties are gone. , 


The trees vary in their forms ; they are generally tall 
and very upright and productive — calculated for shades. 
The fruit varies in color from white to black ; equally so 
in size and form ; its j9esh is generally soil, juicy, pleas- 
ant and often excellent 


A moderate sized cherry, of moderate flavor. Chiefly 
valuable for its very late maturity. Said to have originated 
in Rhode Island. 

WATERLOO. Hort Trans. 

A large, round, dark red fruit, inclining to black at ma- 
turity. The flesh is firm and of an excellent flavor. 
Raised by a daughter of Mr Knight, and sO named from 
its perfecting its first fruit soon after the battle of Water- 
loo. The tree is of strong but irregular growth. This 
firuit was sent by Mr Knight, in 1823, to Hon. John Lowell. 

; WHITE OXHE ART.. R. M., Esq. 

Tradescant, of Cose. 

A large heart-shaped cherry, but bright red or amber 
color next the sun ; flesh remarkably firm, the flavor ex- 
cellent ; it ripens early in July and the tree is an indiffer- 
ent bearer. 


Tramsparbkt, White Transparent Crimea. 
A beautiful cherry, pale yellow, approaching to an am- 


ber next the sun ; a much admired fruit of excellent fla- 
vor; a good bearer, ripening early in July. This tree 
grows vigorous and upright ; it is thus readily distinguish- 
ed from a former and abandoned variety of .the same name. 




Griotte de Portugal, Duh. 

Portugal Duke,' of the Pom. Franc, according to 

A large globular red cherry; like the May Duke it 
grows in clusters ; but the tree grows more vigorous than 
that variety. An excellent cherry and a great bearer 
ripening in July. 

DoucETTE, Cerise de Palembre. 

A raiddle sized roundish fruity growing in pairs on a 
forked stalk. Skin transparent, red, mottled with amber ; 
flesh amber colored, tender and sweet; ripe rather before 
the May Duke ; it bears well as a standard and is very de- 
serving of cultivation. (Pom, Mag.) The Bon Jardinier 
describes it as very large ; of a beautiful red color and ex- 
cellent flavor; not very productive J 


Specimens of this fine cherry were exhibited by Hon. 
H. A. S. Dearborn, President of the Mass. Hort. Soc, July 
24, 1830. The tree is very vigorous and productive. 
The fruit was judged * truly magnificent ' in its appear- 


ance; its color red mottled with white spots; a valuable 
fruit from its late maturity. 

CERISIER DU NORD. Bon Jard. p. 315. 

Very late ; good for ratafia and for preserves. A varie- 
ty of the Duke. 

Grottier db ViLLXNifES, Nouv. Coors Comp. d'Agr. 

A very large fruit, of a beautiful color, and very agreea- 
ble flavor. It ripens late^and the tree is not very produc- 


The adopted name for a cherry imported ftom France 
by the Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn, name lost. A large red 
cherry highly spoken of by the Mass. Hort Soc» The 
tree is of the Duke species. 


Griotte D'ALEMAoiTEy Nouv. Cours Complet d'Agr. 
Dx Chaux, Dit Comte de Saint Maur. lb. 

Equally as large as the Archduke ; almost as black ; 
flesh deep red, and very acid. It ripens the middle of July. 
The tree is of middle size and not very productive. 

Cours Complet d'Agr. vol. xii. p. 579» 

Peach Lbavxo, Balsamixx Leavxd or WiiiLOW 

Fruit large or small. It is only remarkable for the sin- 
gularity of its leaf. 

GRIOTTIER D'HOLLANDE. Cours Complet d'Agr. 

vol. III. p. 575. 
The largest of all the Griottiers ; nearly globular, of a 


very beautiful red color ; flesh fine, reddish white, very 
agreeable. It ripens the middle of June. The flower^ 
are large but liable to prove abortive. 

LATE DUKE. R. M., Esq. 

June DukE, of Coxe. 

A cherry of large size ; flesh very rich ; it ripens the 
first of July and lasts long on the tree, improving in its 
flavor. The tree is of vigorous growth and an abundant 


A large globular red cherry, usually growing in clusters 
At maturity the flesh is tender, juicy, of an agreeable but 
acid flavor. This sort is usually gathered in June and 
while it is yet sour, and immature, for the markets, being 
one of the earliest varieties. The tree is of very moder- 
ate vigor, and compact in its form. 


Ceresier de Montmorency agrgs Fruit. Bon Jard. 
Long stem Montmorency. 

Fruit large, flattened at its extremities, of a lively red 
color ; flesh of a yellowish white, slightly acid and excel- 
lent. The tree is not very productive, it ripens in July. 
The Short Stem Montmorency, or Gros Gobet, is a finiit of 
less size, and the tree less vigorous. 


Milan, Lang. Cerise du Nord of Noisette, accord- 
ing to Lindley's Guide. 

Middle sized, round ; nearly black when at maturity ; 
tender, juicy, of an agreeable flavor, in which much acid 


predotniiiBteB. July. This fiuit ia used for preserving 
and B single tree ia enough for a ramilj. 


A tree of iDoderate size of the Duke or Kentish species. 
A very large, dark, round cherry, neuly black, of a rich_ 
Bcid flavor ; and deemed superior U> all European Morillos . 
The stone ia very large and resembles that of a pluro. A 
native fruit from Virgiuia, introduced by Wnt. Prince, Esq. 
of the Linnean Botanic Garden, FluEhing, N. Y. 

growth ; its flowers 
ig cluBtcra of small 
hen in full bloBsom 
The tree bolooga to 

ith ; its leaves an 
otiah ; its blossoms 

however arc not less beautiful than the preceding. The 

tree ia of the aecond class. 





Small, pale red fruit of indifferent flavor ; a poor bearer. 
'The growth of this tree is strong, but crooked, its leavea 
of enonnooB size ; it is said to have received its naoie fron 
the supposition that its fruit would prove equally large in 
proportion to ite leaf; cultivated only as a curiosity. The 
tree belongs to the first class. 



A native ; it is found growing wiltl in the foreets and 
pastures, and is a distinct apecies from any others here 
described. The trees grow large and the fruit ia produced 
in clusterB like curranta ; it is very smalt, of a pleaaant 
sweet, a little bitter, and very astringent taste. This 
varietf is one of the most esteemed of all for brandy. 


Cbribieb de SiBEBiB. N. Dub. PI. ZIIV. 
This beautiliil tree is of low growth, its branches slen- 
der and drooping; its leaves a 
acutely pointed ; they are of a 
and of a pale ahining green b< 
nnnTeTOua, of a bright red color 
highly omameulBl tree is ^ 
elevated height on the Mazzarj 


The native country of the cl 
Asia. It waa brought to Rom 
by Lucullua, from a town in P< 
its name. 

Uses. — The cherry ia a highly esteemed snmmei des- 
sert fruit It is also extensively used in cookery, in piee, 
tarts, &c. From the juice a fine wine may be prepared, 
and from the fermented pulp, a spirit ie distilled. The 
Mazzard cherries, the Motillos,andthefiniitof the Virginia 
cherry are steeped in brandy or rum, to improve its quality 
and flavor. The gum which exudes irom the cherry tree,' 
is stated to be in every respect equal to gum arable, and is 
eo extraordiDHrily nutritive, that according to Hasae^uist, 
more than a hundred men were kept alive daring a aieg« 


of nearly two months, with no other sustenance than a little 
of this gum gradually dissolved in the mouth. The wood 
of the cherry tree is hard and tough, and is much used by 
the turner and cabinet maker; especially the Virginia 
cherry, which is capable of receiving a fine polish, and has 
reddish streaks resembling mahogany. The bark of this 
last species, according to Dr Mease (Dora. Ency.) is pow- 
erfully tonic and has frequently been substituted with suc- 
cess for the Fteruvian Bark. The bark of the roots is more 

Soil jlvd Cultivatioh. — The stones of the cherry are 
sown in autumn, in a rich, well prepared soil. The second 
jear they are transplanted to nursery rows four feet asunder, 
and at a foot distance from each other in the row. They are 
inoculated the third year. The best soil, is a rich, dry, 
sandy loam, and an elevated situation. A cold, clayey, 
moist soil, does not suit them. If the tree^ows in suitable 
form, pruning is neither much practised or recommended. 

MULBERRY. (Morus.) 


Morus Nigra. 

This tree is a native of Asia Minor. It rises from 
twentyfive to thirty feet. The leaves are large and rug- 
ged. Its fruit is aromatic, juicy, subacid and good. An 
agreeable wine is made from its juice. 


MoRus Rubra. 
A native of America. The tree rises to the height of 


from thirty tolbrty feet ; the leaves are large, dark green, 
rugged. The fruit is of a very deep red color and excel- 
lent. This variety is esteemed superior to the Black Mul- 
berry as a fruit, and the tree is more hardy. 


MoRus Alba. 

A native of China. It is a tree of rapid growth, and 
extensively known for the uses of its leaf for the food of 
silk-worms. Its fruit is white, very insipid and worth- 


Broussonetia Paptrifera. 

The tree rises to a large size, with a round head ; the 
leaves are rough, either Qordate, entire, or divided into two 
or three lobes. It is a native of China or Japan, and from 
its inner bark, paper is made in those countries. The fruit 
is round and curious. The trees are male and female ; 
they are of rapid growth, and ornamental. 

Soil, Cultivation, &c. — These varieties of mulberry 
will flourish in almost any soil, but grow most luxuriantly 
in a deep sandy loam, rather in a humid than dry soil. 
They are propagated by seeds or by layers, and sometimes 
by cuttings. The seeds are obtained by washing the 
bruised pulp of thoroughly ripe fruit ; they are* carefully 
dried, and sown early in April like carrots, in a rich soil, and 
covered to the depth of half an inch with loam, and press- 
ed down compactiy. The second year they are transplant- 
ed to nursery rows. 

•1 ^ 



A new and most valuable species of mulberry for the 
nourishment of the silk worm. It was first discovered 
about 1815, by M. Moretti, Professor in the University 
of Pavia, and from a single young tree he had in 1826, 
multiplied them to 120,000. The tree is presumed to be 
hardy ; the fruit which is at first violet, becomes at matu- 
rity perfectly black. The leaf is ovate, sharp pointed, 
entire, cordate at the base. It is thin, smooth on the under 
and especially on the upper surface, which is of a beautiful 
And rather deep shining green ; it is not near so thick as 
that of the large white mulberry, called in France, the 
Mmirable, and is thinner than those of the Spanish mul- 
berry, (Morns Nigra,) It is neither wrinkled or plaited. 
It is in general nearly eight inches wide, and ten inches 
long. This mulberry will be most profitably cultivated in 
the form of a hedge, and from the superior size of the 
leaf, they are gathered with the greatest facility. Its 
superior quality has bean proved by the experiments of M. 
Gera and the Count Dandolo, who assert, that they produce 
silk of a more beautiful gloss and of finer quality than 
common silk. (Set the whole article inserted by the Hon. H. 
j|. S. Dearborn, in the JVetc England Farmer , voL 8, JVb. 29- 
h is from the AnnaUs d* Horticulture, and is extracted from 
Uie Report of Dr FontaneUles, on a letter published by M. 
Gera, «n 1826, in the Journal of Physics and of Chemistry 

MORUS MULTICAULIS, or Many Stalked Mulberry. 

True Chinese Mulberry, Morus Alba Sinensis. 
Perrottet Mulberry. 

[For no inconsiderable portion of the following interest- 
ing particulars, I am indebted to the researches of the 
Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn, President of the Massachusetts 


Horticultural Society. From the vari 

extracts inserted by him in the New England Farmer, for 

1830 and 1631, I have chiefly compiled this account] 


A iree of oinaiDeat frDro China — A fruit tree — a new and 
iDOSt valuable fipeciea of Mulberry, for (he nourlBhraent of lb« 
■ilk worm, which is cejiiesonled. as possessing such decided >u- 
perioi'ily over all uthers.aa lo be. speedily subdituted for Ihem Id 
every legloD of the gfobe. 

This tree has not yet to my knowledge boiDe fruit in America. 
It was even unknown in Europe as a fruit tree, till in 1830, 
for the first time, it produced its fruit in France, Tlie Iruil, ac- 
coiding to M. Audibert, was produced in great abundance ; it 
was long, black, and of sufficiently beautiful appearance ; its 
(aate very ecod, having a tasle inlermedlale between the red snd 
black mulberry. The tree is very vigorous and upright in its 
growth. The leaves, in a light, friable, rich, and humid auil, 
are large and cordtfuriu, hut in a dry and arid soil, they are of 
less size, eliplical, and wilhout (he heart-shaped indenlatioo; 
their breadth is elated to be six inches, and their length eight ; but 
io rich soils they are souie.limes eight inches in breadth, and lea 
in length, or even more. They are curled or convex on their 
surface, of a deep shining green, and eminently beautiful. 

Some account of this plant so Idlely introduci-d to France and 
tn Europe, is coi'taiued in the Silk Outturist, No. 2, a valuable 
work, published by Dr Felix Pascalis.of New York. Itiacoo- 
Uineil in a letter to the author fiom Havre, and is as fallows. 

' Samuel Perrotlei, a membfi of the Linnaan Society of Paris, 
employed by Government .isa travelling Botanist, returned lo 

this port afier a voyagu of Ihirtyfou 

bini, eightylDiir boxe! of vaiiouu 
hundred and fif\yeigb( species of li' 
five hundred an.l llilrtyfour individ 
had been procured in the seas of A 
or in the lands of Cayenne. Fro 
present century, there had never b 

■nd fatnilies, and vegetable produc 

them passed undtr my ejaminatiou, and they rather appeared to 

have come out of a green house than from a ship, 

■ In (hi* immense collection was (he Morus MullUauli*, thus 
called by Perrotlet ; for the fir^t lime ascertained to be the real 
Chinese Mulberry, Miirua Alba Siiistuti, of which every silk 
povrer and culturisi shoulil endeavor (a multiply the species. It 
has been deposited in (he Royal Garden. Monsieur Perrattet 
says that it grows with many shootd from the roots, with tender 


Stems, and Itrge foliage, of a much more nourishing nature than 
the European mulberry. 

* Chinese inhabitants assured him^ that to this tree, the disci- 
ples of Confucius are indebted for the prosperity and solidity of 
their empire. 

* The Mortu MulHcaulis is already propagating in France 
,and probably will be substituted and preferred to all the other 
varieties. Amon? the other qualities of the plant, it is affirmed 
in China, that a less quantity of this foliage is required for the 
precious insects, than of that which we are obliged to provide 
for them. Monsieur P. has left the tree in Cayenne, where it is 
now flourishing in dry and barren soils.* 

Remarks on the culture and uses of the MoruM MuUieauUa by 
M. Perrottet, Agricultural Botanist^ and Traveller of tti 
Marine and Colonies — From the * Annates of Fromont.' 

* The Mortu MuUicaulis , which we noticed for the first time 
in the AnnaUs de la Societie Unnetme de Paris for 1824, ap- 
pears to have originated in the elevated regions of China ; from 
whence it has been disseminated throughout the low plains near 
the sea shore. His believed it is cultivated in all parts of that 
vast empire, where the education of the silk worms is an object, 
of commercial importance. From Canton it was introduced into 
Manilla and all the Islands in the Asiatic Archipelago, where it 
was only cultivated for ornamenting gardens. The Chinese are 
entitled to the credit of this intr^uction, who in emigrating 
from their country have from motives of industry, endeavored to 
multiply it, that they might render it useful to them, in the new 
country of their adoption. 

* The fortunate discovery of this precious shrub occurred in 
the garden of a Chinese cultivator at Manilla, who, after having 
informed us of its properties, and the important purpose for 
which it was used in his own country, yielded to our solicitations 
and sold us two bushes for ten Spanish piastres, assuring us that 
he had introduced it into Manilla, where it had been considera- 
bly extended. 

< In August we brought it from Manilla, the capital of the 
Philllppine Islands, and first introduced it into the Isle of Bour- 
bon, from thence into Cayenne and France. At a later period it 
was sent from Cayenne to Martinique, and from France to Guada- 
loupe, and also to Senegal, where it has been considerabl]^ mul- 
tiplied. The numerous plants which are already disseminated 
in the divers climates of Africa, America, and Europe have heen 
all produced from the two individuals, which we procured at 

* * * < Among the number of mulberries, now cultivated by 
the Chinese, for the education of silk worms, the Morus .MuZtt- 
eaulis appears to be the most esteemed of all, not only for the 
facility with which it i^ propagated and grows, hut still more 


for the essentially nutritive property which the leayes possest. 
We have been enabled to verify, this important foct during 
the five years which we passed in Senegal. * * * The charac- 
ters which essentially distinguish this mulberry from the other 
varieties, are those which result, 1st, from the remarkable property 
which the roots possess of throwing up numerous small flexible 
stalks, without forming a principal trunk; 2d, from the gfreat length 
which these stalks assume in a very short time; 3d, from tne 
remarkable development which the thin^ tender, and soft leaves 
speedily acquire, and the promptitude with which they are renew- 
ed. * * * and 4th and lastly, from the extraordinary facility 
with which the stalks and branches strike root, as cuttings, with- 
out particular care, ^ven before, they have acquired a ligneous 

* * * t Besides the advantages which we have akeady nameil, 
we may still add» that they are admirably calculated-for forming 
regular plantations ; it not being natural to grow tall or form any 
trunk properly so called ; they can be placed very -near without 
an injurious effect ; and by heading down tha stalks annually 
near the ground, a rich vegetation is produced, with a complete 
development of vigorous branches and leaves ; and finally it is 
easy to multiply them by thousanda from the roots in the course 
of a.year, and to form vast and regular plantations of them the 
second. But a few years then are sufficient to obtain considera- 
ble fields of them in full vigor, sufficient to support an immense 
quantity of silk worms, and that with the greatest facility, as 
they are reproduced in a manner almost indefinite. * * * Reg- 
ular plantations of it can be found without difficulty, by plant- 
ing the shrubs at a distance of six or eight feet from each other, 
a space sufficient for the extension «f the branches, to facilitate 
the culture and for collecting the leaves. This last operation is 
so much facilitated by the flexibility of the stalks, that a child is 
sufficient for furnishing the food of a large establishment of, silk 

Climate, Soil, &c. -^» * * < This species will be readily 
acclimated in.Europe ; because it originated in an analogous re- 
gion as to climate, * to that which we inhabit. It appears not to 
suffer from the excessive cold of the northern, or the intense 
heat of the intertropical regions '^ for the plants deposited in the 
gardens of the government at Cayenne, acquired in the space of 
eight months a truly remarkable development, and at the time 
oi our departure from that colony, in June, 1821, they were cloth- 
ed with leaves of an extraordinary size. .Those, also which we 
cultivated at Senegal, although situated under a dry and scorch- 
ing sky, and planted in an arid soil, offered an appearance suffi- 
ciently satisfactory, but they had acquired less development in 
all respects, than those which have vegetated under the humid 
climate of Guiana. It appears expedient then, that plaptatioDS 



of this mulberry should be made upon a humid rather than a 
dry soil, to obtain in all respects a satisfactory result. 

* « • 4 < Besides, this mulberry braves the roost vigorous win- 
ters. We saw on our arrival M Havre, in July last, in the field 
of M. A. Eyries, plants, which had endured, in the open ground, 
the winter of 1828, and which appeared vigorous and beautiful.* 
— ^Thus far M. Perrottet. 

On this last and other points, let us now hear the testimony of 
M. Poiteauin ih9 Jlnnalei d' Horticulture, 1880. 

* By the information which we receive irom all qutrters, it a)>- 
pears, that this mulberry is destined to replace the common white 
mulberry, everywhere, for nourishing silk worms ; its property 
of continuing low and bushy, so that the leaves can always be 
gathered without a ladder ; and the large size, abundance, and 
tenderness of the leaves, cannot fail to give it a decided prefer- 
ence. It has been sufficiently ascertained, that they are eaten 
with avidity by the silk worms, and that the silk which they 
form is of the first quality. This mulberry has not suffered in 
the least from the rigors of the last severe winter. 

* The zealous traveller, who has given to France, America, 
and Africa, this piecious plant, has acquired a just claim to 
public ffraUtude, and it is not only easy, but proper, to give him 
at this time a proof of it, by affixing his name to the tree which 
has given him celebrity, and which will contribute so much to 
the prosperity of French industry. • • • « JVote to the Per- 
rottet MtHberry (Morus Multieami$.) 

M. Audibert is also decidedly of theopinion that the best mode 
of cultivating the Morue Mutticaulis, for the support of silk 
worms, is in nedges with low stocks. M. Barthere of Toulouse 
in the South of France, who has considerably extended their cul- 
tivation, fully coincides in the same opinion ; and is confident 
that in grounds and vineyards which could hardly give two per 
cent, this tree will now insure ten per cent. 

This tree, according to M. Perrottet and Dr Deslongchamps, is 
easily propagated either by layers, by cuttings, or even by cut- 
tings of a single eye, placed beneath the surface and shaded from 
the noonday sun. 

The experiments instituted at Paris by Dr Deslongchamps, 
have confirmed all that had been previously asserted respecting 
the quality of the silk produced by this plant ; he has further 
stated that the cocoons, made by the worms fed only on this 
plant, are even rather heavier. 

Dr Felix Pascalis in an article in Silliman's Journal of Sci- 
ence for July, 18.30, after informing us that in the preceding 
March he had received two plants ofthis mulberry from France, 
has added — * AAer the discovery of this plant, a doubt no 
longer exists, that two crops of silk may be raised in a single 


At Madam Parmontier*^ Horticultural establUhnteat, two 
crops of silk were produced in the summer of 1832. — The first 
were fed promiscuously on the Mortu MulticatUiSj Morus Al- 
ba, and other mulberries. The cocoons thus produced were 
about two thirdij white and the remainder of an orange color. A 
suitable portion of these cocoons were collected for seed, having 
no regard to color: — These being subjected to the hatching 
process, produced a second crop the 30th July. These last 
were fed exclusively on the Morua MvXticaulis : they passed 
through the different stages of their larva existence in the short 
space of 26 days. The cocoons which were obtained from this 
second crop were of a much larger size than those of the first 
crop, but what is of still more consequence (Aey were of the 
whiteness of snow ^ and have a most beautiful shining appear- 
ance. (See New Englamd Farmer, vol. xi. No. il.) At Madam 
Parmentier'sin 1831, 1 witnessed the silk worms feeding with avid- 
ity on the leaves of the Morus Multicaulis, and was informed that 
they had left eleven other species of mulberries to feed on this. At 
that place we are also informed, the Morus Multicaulis has with- 
stood the rigors of the last six winters uninjured and unprotected. 
Although being possessed of an active and prolonged vegetation, 
it is not to be expected that the unripened wood of the tender 
tips, should always escape. 

( iutroduced this plant to Massachusetts in the spring of 1831, 
from the Messrs Prince of the Lii^naean Botanic Garden, Flushing; 
I also received plants of the same from Madame Parmentier's of 
Brooklyn, L. I. and I have also received them from France from 
M. Andre Michaux, author of the American Sylva. 

CURRANT. (Ribes.) 

The currant is said to be a native of the north of Eu- 
rope. The white currant is stated to be but a variety of the 
red^ produced by cultivation. The black is a distinct spe- 
cies ; of this we have an American variety. 

Uses. The red currant is i|sed as a dessert fruit, as it 
possesses a pleasant acid taste ; it is also used in pies, tarts, 
preserves, jellies, &,c. Currant wine is made by adding to 


the e^flteseei juice Of fifty pounds of ripe cuTmote, seven 
gallona of water and thirtythree poundB of good dry Ha- 
TAnna snpR. Tfaia liqnor ia put into good casks which 
must never be quite filled, as the palp must never be suffer- 
ed to work out, AS its presence is essential to the goodness 
of the liquor. The bong is letl oat fortyeight hoars, then 
laid on loosely a fortnight, then driven tight, and in five 
months it will be fine- and fit for use. The firat young 
leaves of the common currant bush, gathered as soon as 
they put out, and dried en tin, «an hardly be distinguished 
it is said, from green tea. From the black currant a jelly is 
mode, orcoosideiable medicinsl efficacy; a wine is also made 
from thero, reputed to possess far superior medicinal virtues 
to Port wine. This and the jelly have been bi^dy recom- 
meoded for disorders ssary arti- 

cles in the stores of [odies, A 

liquor is prepared fro if r Porsytii 

states is possessed ol i obstinate 

coughs, &c. Tbo CI e bruised, 

and being placedjn i ' speciesof 

alcohol is poured over then, the jar is then covered close 
for a fortnight; after this the liquor is strained and bottled. 
We are also infomed that h small leaf of the black currant 
gatiiered in spring and laid for a few minutes in an inlusion 
of Bohea tea, corotnumcatek its flavOFv which has been 
compared to that of green tea. 

Black EitOLim. 
The berries are of large aizoand the trees «re very pro- 

Am Ate Air BbACI CttXBANT. 

This possesses similar qutlities to the precodiiij, butit 
is not so highly esteemed. 



Black Naples. 
This is a now variety, l^ghly r^co^imepded* 

The fruit of this variety is pale red. 

Large red, or Red Dutch. 
The growth is strong and upright, the berries large, it is 
extraordinarily productive and good. 

Largs White or^panish Imperiai.. Large Dutch 
"White. " 

' The young wood grows- upright.^ The berries Mid clui- 
ters arq very large, of a yellowish white col©r, and ex- 
cellent quality ; it is extraordinarily productive. The 
branches of the.beariagL'Woodtri^l beneath the weight of 
their fruit. 

Jeffebsoit OR Misbcuri Fragrant Currant. 

This variety is very distinct from; the other kinds. Its 
growth is fall ; -its berries are very few, are black, and of 
ordinary quality ; its flowers are m clusters of a yellow 
color, and extraovdinury fragrance. 

. ii 


The currant requires, a rich poi), its cultivation is similar to 
that ot the gooseberry whicli see. 

Pruning. -^ « Mr Macdonald' [Edin. Ency. vol. x. p. 676J 
■raises currants both red and white of the finest qualify. He 
prunes .the busheaat the usual season in midwinter, shortening 
the last year's shoots to^an inch or an inch and a half. Next 
summer the'plants show plenty of fruit and at the same time 
throw out strong shoots.' As soon as th«r berries begin to color, 
he cuts off the summer shoots to within five or six inches above 
the fruit. This is commonly . done with garden shears, with 
which a man may go over half an acre of bushes in a day. Sun 
and air thus get free access, and more of the vigor of the plant 
is directed tothofrUit; the ^berries are found not only to be of 
higher flavor, but larger than usual. Mr A. D. Williams of 
Roxbury, practises winter 'pruning on perfectiy similar princi- 
ples, and with the most decisive results. 



GOOSEBERRY- (Ribes Uva-^rispa.) 

A If ATiVE of America and of Europe. A low branching 
prickly shrub ; a fruit wonderfully improved by cultivation. 
According to Loudon it is found wild in Piedmont where it 
is eatable, but astringent and neglected. In Italy and 
Spain scarcely known, and little esteemed in France. * A 
moderate temperature and humid climate seems best to 
suit tiie fruit' Cultivated in greater perfection in Lan- 
cashire than any other part of the world. But Neill 
observes, 'It must be admitted that although the 
largest gooseberries make a fine appearance on the table, 
they are deficient in flavor, or their skins are thick and 
■trong compared with some of smaller size.' Some large 
kinds, however, are of good quality. 

Uses. The gooseberry is considered jan exceUent itei- 
sert fruit either raw^r preserved in sugar ; and veiy valua- 
ble fruit for pies, tarts» sauces, &c. In cool cellars they 
may be preserved for winter use, in bottles filled first with 
gooseberries and then with water, and closely corked and 
sealed. But by plunging the bottles in cold water which 
is to be heated gradually to the boiling point, they are said 
to keep better. 

According to Phillips, wine made from green goose- 
berries is but a shade inferior to champagne ; and the ripe 
black gooseberry affovds a luscious wine. Phillips asserts 
that fields might be covered with this fruit for the making 
of wine, as profitably, as the vineyards of the South. 

VARIETIES, (cki^yfrwnLmtiaey.) 
The following varieties firom Lindley^ the Pomologtoal 


Magazine and Mr Hooker, are recommended by them as 
the best selection from many hundred varieties. 


Capper's Top Sawter. 24 dwts. 

Branches somewhat drooping ; fruit late, very large, ob- 
long, pale red, hairy near the base ; very excellent 


Branches erect ; fruit late, middle sized, somewhat ob- 
long, dark red, hairy ; most excellent. 

Farmer's Roarin o Lioi7« 31 dwts. 16 grs. 

Branches somewhat drooping; fruit late, very large, 
oblong, dull red, smooth ; the largest of all th# gooseberries. 

Kxight's Marquis of Stafford. 

Branches aomewhat erect ; fruit late, large, roundisb 
oblong, bright red, hairy, excellent 

Mellino's Crowx Bob. 92 dw|f. 

Branches drooping; fruit rather late, large, oblong, 
bright red, hairy ; very good. 

Old Rough Red. 

Branches somewhat drooping ; fruit small, round, dark 
red, very hairy ; most excellent for preserving as goose- 
beny jam, and best for bottling when green. 

Wilmot'b Early Red. Hooker's Pom. Lond. 

One of the very best of all gooseberries and is cultivated 
by Mr Wilmotto a great extent in his celebrated fruit gar- 
den. He prefers it to all others he has seen. He states 
that it is of large size, very early, of excellent flavor anil 
incredibly productive. 



EARI.T 'GaBBN Hairt. 
Branches erect ; fruit e&rly, small, round, deep green, 
hairy; exceUent 

Edward's Joi^t Tar. 19 dwts. 17 grt. 

Branches somewhat drooping ; fruit eariy, of %, middle 
size, roundish oblong, smooth, with yellowish veins. 

Massbt's Heart of Oak. 16 dwts. 

Branches drooping, fruit rather early, large, oblong, 
smooth, with pale yellow veins ; excellent 

Ktxoi7*8 Grbkit Mtrtlk. 

.Branches somewhat drooping ; frtnt late, -large^ oblong, 
smooth, tapering to the base, pale green. 

Parkixbon's Laurel. 17 dwts. 18 grs. 

Branches erect ; fruit ratlier late, large,.rouodi8h,. oblong, 
pale green, very downy. 

Waiitwright's OcBAir. 20 dwts. 8 grs. 

Branches drooping ; "fruit early, large, oblong, or ovate, 
smooth ; the largest of this color. 

X^LEWORf h's White IiIon. 19 dwts. 9 grs. 

Branches somewhat drooping ; fruit late, roundish ob- 
long, slightly hairy, sometimes nearly smooth. 

Cromptokt's Shxba QuEBir. 18 dwts. 

Branches somewhat erect; fruit ea^fly, pretty large, 
roundish-oblong, downy ; excellent. 

Moore's White Bear. 

Branches somewhat erect ; fruit early, large, roundish, 
oblong, hairy, or somewhat bristly. 


Sauni>zr's Chxshirk La8s. 20dwt8. 

Branches erect ; fruit very early, large, oblong, downy ; 
excellent for tarts early in the spring, when few are ready 
for that purpose. 

Wellijtgton'sI GLCfRY. 28 dwts. 14 gre. 

Branches erect ; fruit pretty early, large, somewhat ovate, 
very downy ; excellent 

Woodward'b WhitJ^mith. 16 dwts. 7 grs. 

Branches erect ; fruit pretty early, large, roundish ob- 
long, brownish when exposed, very downy ; very excellent, 
and more in esteem ^^an any other gooseberry of this 

Dixoir's -Golden Yellow. 

Branched drooping j fruit early, pretty large, roundish 
oblong, greenish yellow, sn^ooth. 

GoRDoif 's Viper. 24 dwts. 17 grs. 

Branches drooping ; frixh early, large, somewhat turbin- 
ate, greenish yellow, smooth. 

Hamlet's Kilton. 

Branches somewhat drooping^ fruit early, large, round- 
ish oblong, bright greenish yellow, slightly hairy. 

Kardcastle's Gunxer. 27 dwts. 1 gr. 

Branches somewhat erect; fruit rather late, large, obo- 
vate, with large veins, hairy or bristly. 

Hill's Golden Gourd. 

Branches somewhat drooping ; fruit very early, large, 
oblong, greenish yellow, slightly hairy ; very excellent. 

Prophet'^ Rockwood. 23dwt8. 4grs. 

Branches erect ; fruit very early, large, roundish oblong, 
dark yellow, slightly hairy. 



(Hker varietiet recommended in the Pom, Mag. 

Rbd. — Boardman^s British Croum^ large. — Red War- 
ringtonf large, late. — Red Champagne^ small. — Early 
Blacky smalL 

White. — White Crystal^ small. — White Champagne 

Green. — Pitmaston Green Gage^ small. 

Yellow — Haywood^s Invincible, large. — Yellow Cham- 
pagne, small. — Rumbtdlionf small. 


Gooseberries require a very rich soil ; and in an airy situation or 
shade they are but little liable to mildew. They are raised 
from cuttings planted very early in April, in a moist soil ; every 
eye should be cut out except the two uppermost above the sur- 
face. In autumn cut off the lower shoot very close ; and short- 
en down the one left to six or nine inches. The bushes must 
be so managed as to be fumbhed with limbs diverging in every 
direction, continually increasing] in number as they advance 
from the centre. With this object in view, the young leading 
shoots of the last year are annually cut back to six or nine in- 
ches, and a proportion of the others are cut quite close. Thus 
the bushes will continue extending, every part bsing duly filled 
with bearing wood ; suflScient spaces being left to admit the sun 
and a free circulation of air. The largest prize gooseberries are 
said to be raised on vigorous young bushes, which have not 
more than five or six branches, and but one, two, or at most three 
berries on a branch. 

GRAPE VINE. (Fitus vinifera.) 

The vine is a native of. the temperate regions. It 

is cultivated most extensively for wine, in every part 

of Europe favorable to its growth, from the Mediter- 


ranean Sea and its Islands, to the latitude of 490; and even 
farther north, in the interior. Also in South Africa, and the 
African Isles, and in Greece. It is also cultivated in Bar- 
bary, EgypfJ and every part of Asia where the climate is 
suitable ; but not so much for wine, its use being forbidden 
to the disciples of Mohammed. It does not flourish within 
the tropics ; it may indeed grow there, but produces very 
little fruit, except in the mountainous elevations. 

Uses. — The grape has been esteemed in all ages a de- 
licious and wholesome dessert fruit. They are also used 
for pies, tarts, preserves, &c. 

Raisins are the matured fruit of the grape, either dried 
in an oven; or what is the more common, if not the prefer- 
able mode, is the following. The clusters, without being 
separated from the branches, are dipped in a ley of wood 
ashes, containing a small portion of sweet oil, and then 
dried by exposure to the sun. The best kind are thus pre- 
pared. Raisins are deemed a wholesome and nutricious 
food when eaten in moderation. They are extensively 
used, both for the dessert and in cookery. Raisins make 
good wine. Lastly, the grape is most extensively cultivat- 
ed for the same purpose. 

The vine is extremely long lived. It has been stated 
that some have lived six hundred years — also that there 
are vineyards in Italy, which have flourished three hundred 
years ; and Bosc states, that there are vipes in Burgundy, 
four hundred years old. In America they ascend to the 
tops of the highest trees of the forest. Vine timber is 
further stated to be extremely valuable, and of great du- 
rability, and is used for furniture, statues, &c. The great 
doors of the cathedral of Ravenna, according to Phillips^ 
are made of vine-tree planks, some of them twelve feet 
long, and flUeen inches broad. 

3Q0 MBw AMsaieAN orchakdist. 


In the arrangement of grapes, I have divided the whole 
into four sections. 

Section L Those called Chasselas grapes ; these are 

Section II. Those called Muscats, or Fron^gnacs. The 
Muscats are more tardy in ripening than the Chasselas 

Section III. Other highly approved foreign varieties. 

Section IT. American, grapes. 



The Chadselas grape»arein high estimation at Paris, and 
in the north of France, as well for their excellent quality, as 
for their early maturity. 


RoTAL MuBCADiNK, D'A&Bo&iB, lb. FoT. Lindley. 
Chassklas de Fontainbleau, Bod J«rd. 
Sweet Water, according to some good authority. 

The wood grows pretty strong ; the bunches are large 
and shouldered ; the berries are large, round, greenish 
yellow, golden or amber colored at maturity ; the flesh is 
juicy, rich, vinous, and excellent ; a capital and very pro- 
ductive variety. At Paris it is generally cultivated on 
walls ; near Boston it is considered one of the very best 
for our climate; ripening well its fruit in open culture, 
in favorable seasons and situations. A gentleman here of 
great experience and observation, is confident, that die 
Sweet Water, and the Chasselas de Fdntainbleau, are 
but one and the same ; and that the difference which they 
sometimes assume, is owing to no other causes^ than a 
difference of exposition. 

\ ORHtKB. 



berries smaller than the White Chasselasi of a dark red 
color, sweet and of good flavor — not so early as the White 


A new variety raised by Mr Knight, from the seed of 
the Chasselas, fertilized by the pollen of the Aleppo. The 
berries are striped, and very beautiful, with a thin skin, and 
juicy. The leaves in autumn become variegated with red 
and yellow ; a very productive and hardy variety, ripening 
well in the open air. Thuv has Mr Neill described it ; but 
according to Mr Lindley, the bunches are long, the berries 
rather small, globular, deep puqde next the sun, tender, 
rery saccharine, and of pretty good flavor* 



The Muscats or Fronttgnacs, are highly esteemed Tor 
their delicate and delicious musk flavor. They are not 
quite so early in their season of maturity as the varieties of 

BLACK FRONTIGNAC. Forsyth. Lindley. 

Blue Frontiohac, Viox,et Fhontionac, according to 

Muscat Noir, of the French. 

The bunches are rather short, and below medium size, 
and loosely formed ; the berries are of medium size, round, 
black, and covered with blue bloom ; the flavor is vinous, 
sweet and musky. This is not so highly esteemed at Paris 
as the White Muscat. It rarely ripens in open culture, 
either there or near Boston. 

GRAPES. 303 


Grizzly Frontignac, lb. 
Muscat Rouge, fion Jard. 

The bunches are rathetlarge, long, and flooderately com- 
pact ; the berries are pretty large, round/ of a red color, 
and of a high vinous, and musky flavor. This variety 
ripens earlier than the White Frontignac, and although 
not to high flavored as that variety, it is more esteemed in 
France than the Violet and Black Muscats. 

Red Froxtignac of Jerusalem, of Miller. 

U resembles the White except in regard to color ; the 
bunches are rather large, and shouldered ; the berries 
rather large, oval, of a red color; the skin is thick, the flesh 
firm, juicy, saccharine, musky, and high flavored. Bradley 
calls this one of the very best grapes. It is also said to be 
more esteemed about Paris, than the White Muscat ; and 
there, against good walls, it ripens very well. 


Muscat de Frontignax, Bon Jard. ''^ 

Muscat Blanc, lb. 

Bunches very long, Conical, compact; berries the size 
of the Chasselas, round, a little elongated^ white, but 
slightly yellow next the sun ; pulp white,, crackling, of an 
exquisite sweet and musky . flavor, . Yery productive. 
Highly esteemed near Boston, where its cultivation is 
prinei|laAly confined to vineries,^ as it^eldom comes to ma- 
turity in out of door cultivation. 


Muscat D'AlexandrIa. Blanc, Bon Jard. 
Passe longub Musque, lb. 
Muscat of Jerusalem, Miller. 
Passe Musque'e, Hort. Soc. Cat. ^ 

Bunches vejry large, long, irregulariy farmed ^ berries 


very scattering, large, oval, of an amber color at maturity. 
The skin is thick; pulp hard, musky, juicy, racy, and high 
flavored. The berries have one or two seeds or none. 
Highly esteemed by the English ; it is also highly esteem- 
ed at Paris ; but they consider their climate too cold for 
all the Muscats. The Muscats are there placed in the 
angles formed by two walls, one facing east, the other 
south. In the Catalogue of the London Horticultural So- 
ciety, the Malaga is put down as a synonyme of this ; but 
I have doubts on the subject. ' 


The bunches are rather large ; the berries are large, 
oval, of a fine amber color, sometimes clouded with russet 
next the sun. The skin is thin, the flesh delicate, juicy, 
and vinous. A productive variety. 





MoRiLLON Hatif, Bod J&rd. 
Precoce de la Madeleine, lb. 
Madeleine Noire, Hort. See Cat. 

Bunches small; berries very small, round, blackish 
violet and covered with bloom ; sweet, bat possessing little 
flavor ; one of the very earliest of all grapes, and only 
valuable on this account There is a white variety, but 
not of first rate quality. 


Bunches very large and shouldered, sometimes weighing 


over two pounds ; berries extraordinarily large, oval, and 
black ; and equal in excellence of flavor and quality, to the 
Black Hamburg in the opinion of good judges. In highly 
favorable seasons and situations, it ripens it9 fruit well in 
the vicinity of Boston. This variety was imported by S. 
G. Perkins, Esq. from the Cape of Good Hope. This grape 
is an acquisition to the country. It is a most productive 
variety ; and three vines in open culture have ripened at 
Mr Perkins's, more than 500 pounds in a single season. 


The bunches are middle sized, and loosely formed ; the 
berries are globular and of different sizes ; the large ber- 
ries have two seeds, the small have none ; their color 10 
black; flesh delicate, juicy, and of most superior flavor. 

Warner's Black Hamburgh, according to Lindley. 

The bunches are large, well shouldered and oompai^t ; 
the breadth is nearly equal to the depth ; berries large, 
oval, of a deep purple color or nearly black, and covered 
with a blue bloom ; flesh tender, saccharine, and of excel- 
lent flavor ; a very productive and excellent variety ; a 
great favorite at Boston, and much cultivated in their 
grape houses. In favorable seasons and situations it ripens 
at that place in open culture. The wQpd of this variety is 
strong and luxuriant ; the clusters of fruit are beautiful, 
and sometimes weigh two pounds. 

BLACK LOMBARDY. Loudon's Mag. Lindley. For. 

West's St Peter's, Lindley. 

The wood is short jointed ; the leaves are rather smaU, 
deeply serrated, shining beneath, and changing to purple 
in autumn. The bunches are long and large shouldered ; 



the berries are large, roQDd, blaak at matarity ; the skin is 
thin, the pulp jnicy and high flavored. 

BLACK PRINCE. NeiU. Hort Trans. 

The leaves are broadi with deeply divided lobes, widely 
serrated, their long footstalks tinged with red ; they change 
in autumn to pale red and dark purple. The bunches are 
very long, sometimes, but rarely shouldered ; the berries 
are ovSl, dark purple, and covered thick with blue bloom ; 
the flesh is pale, juicy, sweet and well flavored ; each usu- 
ally containing five seeds. This excellent grape, it is 
stated^ sometimes ripens even on the open walls in the 
south of 'England ; the bunchetf have sometimes weighed 
a pound and a half! 


The bunches are large, long ; the largest are shoulder- 
ed ; the berries are large, black, of an oval form ; the skin 
is thick, the flesh is firm,' juicy and very high flavored. 
The wood is long jointed. 

BI.ACK Grape from Pai^xiyiitx, SpeecUy. 

The bunches are large, long, sometimes shouldered; 
it resembles the Black Hamburg, but is longer ; the ber- 
ries are large, roundish oval, of a black color, and thin skin ; 
very juicy, delicate and fine flavored ; the wood is very 
strong. . Near Boston, this grape is sddom cultivated, 
except under glass. It is not here so generally known as 
the Black Hamburgh. 


The bunches are small, short and compact ; the berries 
are small, round, black, with a thin skin ; very sweet, with 

cnftA^ES. 307 

little perfume. This grape will ripen in opeiTcultare, near 
Boston, in favorable seasons and situations. 


A vine of raost luxuriant 'growth ; the buhches are of 
good size ; the berries large, of a blue or black color, and 
good flavor. This variety was imported from Vienna, by 
Col. Gibbs, of Sunswick, New York, from the Imperial 
Gardens at Shcenbrun, near Vienna. It is supposed to 
be one of the -most hardy of foreign sorts, and suitable for 



The bunches ore short and compact ; the berries small, 
round, black, and covered with blue bloom ; the flesh is 
tender, juicy, very sweet, and high flavored ; tiie leaves 
are covered with hoary down like meal ; hence the name 
of MiUer^s Grape. One of the hardiest varieties, and ex- 
tensively cultivated in Burgundy for wine ; more celebrated 
for this use than for the dessert. 

CONSTANTIA. Mr Perkins. 

The wood of this variety is large ^ the leaves rough and 
downy ; the bunches aie of good size ; the berries are 
round, of a purple color, and of a most delicious sweet 
flavor. It ripens well in the open air in our climate^ but 
only in highly i^eltered situations. The berries contain 
but two seeds, and sometimes but one. Thi^^ grape was 
imported by S. G. Perkins, Esq. from the Cape of Good 
Hope, and is supposed to be one of the most valuable in 
the country, and remarkably productive. 

ESPERIONE. Hort. Trans, vol. in. p. 93. 

^he bunches are large, the size of the Black Hamburgh; 


shouldered, pretty compact The berries are round, or 
flattened at Uie head, sometimes with a suture on one side ; 
color deep blue or black and covered with bloom. The 
flesh adheres to the skin, and though neither melting nor 
high flavored, is pleasant. The wood is strong and luxuri- 
ant, high colored; the buds are large, round and woolly. 
The Esperione is productive to an extraordinary degree, 
very hardy, very early, equally so with the Sweetwater and 
Muscadine ; and in unfavorable seasons, has a decisive ad- 
vantage over these and indeed almost any other hardy 
grape. ' 


The bunches are large and well shouldered, they some 
what resemble the Black Hamburgh. The berries are oval, 
flattened at the head, indented at the side, of a purple or 
black color, covered with blue bloom ; the flesh is tender, 
juicy, rich, sweet, and of excellent flavor. 


The wood is of medium strength, and of a red color. 
The bunches very large and compact The berries are 
large, oval, black, and covered with azure bloom ; the skin 
is thick, the flesh gieen, melting, the juice abundant, and 
Without color, pleasant and sweet It has generally three 
small seeds. It produces abundantly, ripening the mid- 
die of September ; in good years it ripens well 6n espaliers. 
Its cultivation is not yet extended in the environs of Paris, 
but it merits to be cultivated for the table. 


The bunches are of good size, sometimes very large ; 
the berries are large, oval, of a dark purple or violet color, 
and covered with bloom ; the skin is thick ; the flesh juicy 


but darker red next the sun; sweet but not very juicy; 
they have generally but two seeds. This vine was intro- 
duced from BoQibay by Sir Joseph Banks in 1817. The 
grape keeps a long time, and is extensively cultivated at 
Poonah, and the ripe fruit sent thence annually to Bombay 
and its dependencies. This grape deserves trial in the 
Southern States. 

RAISIN DE CARM ES. Hooker's Pom. Lond. PL x. 

Raisiit de Cabo. For. Ed. Eocy. 

The vine is vigorous and bears well ; the fruit is in 
long, loose bunches ; berries very large, interspersed with 
a few of small size, of an irregular oval form ; skin rather 
thick, of a dusky reddish purple, covered with bloom ; the 
flesh is rather firm, extremely rich, though somewhat acid ; 
the seeds are large, seldom more than one. 


Warnxr*! Red Hamburgh. lb. 
B&owir Hambxj&oh. Hort. See. Cat 


The bunches are large and similar in size and shape to 
the Black Hamburgh ; berries rather large, oval, dark red 
or puiple ; the skin ia thin ; flesh juicy, delicate and vinous. 
This variety according to Mr Lindley, is the famous Hamp- 
ton Court .vine. 

White Muscadine, Pom. Mag. 

CoMMOir MutCADINB. lb. 

Amber. Muicadinb, of For. 

Early White Grape of Xenerifte, of Speechly. 

The bunches are generally small, but very numdrous^ 

« GRAPES. 311 

but they are sometimes considerably large, loosely formed 
and shouldered ; the berries are round, medium sized, of 
an amber color ; the flesh is firm, saccharine, rich, but not 
high flavored ; very productive — and for the certainty of 
its ripening, it is considered one of the best European 
varieties for a northern climate. 


Vertus, Bourd£lai8, Bpn Jard. p. 367. 

The bunches are compact and very large, often of ex- 
traordinary size ; the berries are very large, oblong, pale 
yellow ; the flesh hard, juicy, and agreeable at maturity. 
A very late variety ; its principal use is for its verjuice or 
for cooking, for which purpose it is gathered in an immature 
state. There is a red or black . variety possessing the 
same, qualities. 


CoRiNTHE Blanc. Duh. and the Bon Jard. 

Bunches small, oblong, compact; berries very small, 
lound, yellow, juicy, sweet, and without seeds. The Via- 
let Corinthe only varies from this in color — and is proba^ 
bly identical with the Black Corinth^ Zante, or Black Asca-* 
Ion — known in commerce as the Zante currants, which 
we receive from the Mediterranean in a dried state. It 
has been estimated that 6000 tons are annually shipped 
from-the Ionian Islands. 


The bunches are small and long^ the berries are very 
long, swollen in the middle,, and diminishing towards each 
end, and very scattering ; the skin is white, thick, the flesh 
sweet and very good. This grape neither ripens well 
either at Paris or at Boston in open culture ; an unproduc- 
tive but curious variety. 




Malvoise'e MusauB, off Bradley. 
It resembles the White Muscadine, bat the bunches and 
berries are smaller; it is very sireet and of high flavor; 
bears well and is a valuable grape. It require* a vinery in 
England — so say Forsyth and Lindley. Bradley says it is 
one of the richest musked grapes — that it came from 

Montserrat and grows plentifully about Turin. 


vol. III. p. 249. 

Raised by John Williams, Esq. of Pitmaston, from the 
seed of the Auvemat or Miller's Burgundy. The bunches 
are rather larger than the Auvemai, compactly formed ; it 
ripens earlier than this variety or the Sweet-water,^ The 
berries are round, a little flattened at the apex, of an am- 
ber color, but bronzed with russet next the sun ; the fl«sh 
is tender and pleasant. 


The bunches are large, berries round, white, of a good 
size, and of a fine flavor ; the vine is luxuriant ; this is a 
variety lately received here, and was sent to Col. Gibbs, of 
Sunswick, New York, from Vienna. It ripened well in 1831. 


One of the coarsest of the grape kind ; bunches large, 
broad shouldered, of very regular form ; the berries are 
large, white, oval*; the pulp firm and hard, of tolerable fla- 
vor if well ripened ; an excellent bearer ; and the bunches 
when ripe will remain many weeks longer than any other 
, variety. This grape woul^ not probably ripen in the open 
air in the climate of New England. Mr Speechly has 
stated that he raised at Welbeck a bunch of this variety 
measuring nineteen and a half inches in breadth, twentyone 


eEAF£3. 313 

three fourths incfaiea in depth, in circumference four and a 
half feet, and weighing^ nineteen and a half pounds. Tliis 
is supposed to foe the kind mentioned, Numbers xiii. 23. 

TOKAY, Duh. 
White MoRiLLonr, Speechly's syn. 

Bunches of moderate size, compactly formed ; the 
berries iaclining to oval, are rather small, faintly tinged 
with gray or red ; saccharine and pleasant This grape 
ripens in good seasons near Boston in open culture ; and 
is the variety of which the celebrated Tokay wine is 


. Ybroelho. lb. Bon Jard. p. 367. 

The vine grows vigorously ; is remarkably productive ; 
the bunches are variable in size, but beautiful ; the berries 
are oval, of a fine amber color, of a very rich saccharine 
taste and good flavor. Much cultivated in Languedoc and 
there chWed Verdal, It was brought from thence to Paris, 
where it is highly esteemed as the best and sweetest of all 
dessert grapes ; but it there requires a warm summer and 
the best exposition to bring it to maturity, when the 
bunches become beautiful, the berries large, each contain- 
ing two seeds. This is the Verdellio Grape, of Madeira, 
of which Madeira wine is principally made. 

WHITE HAMBURGH. Speechly. Lindley. 

White Raisix, Raisin Muscat. 
White Lisbon, Hort. See. Cat. 
White Portugal. lb. 

The bunches are large and loosely formed ; the berries 

large, of an oval form and greenish white color ; the skiu 

is thick, the pulp hard, and the juice sweet, and slightly* 

mixed with acid. Mr Lindley informs us, that this grape 

is by many much admired, that it keeps long *, and is the 



that is annaally imported into thai eonntry from For- 
togali to the value of £10,000 in the winter season, and 
sold in the nhopa for Portugal grapes. We may perhaps 
ascribe its long keeping to its hard pulp and thick skin, 
and would suggest that it might prove a profitable article 
of cultivation and export from the Southern States. 


Saint Pikrre. Bon Jard. 1828, p. 868. 

The bunches are large, very beautiful and compactly 
formed ; the berries are round, white and excellent My 
impression is that this grape must be a highly valuable new 
variety and well deserving trial with us. 

ALEPPO. Speechly. 
Raiiiii SmtsB. 

The bunches are formed of berries of different colors f 
the berries are round, of medium size, some are black, 
some white, but mostly striped with black asd white ; the 
skin is thin, the flesh juicy, and of superior flavor ; the 
leaves are beautifully and variously striped in autumn with 
red, green and yellow. This grape is rarely cultivated 
near Boston except under glass. 




This grape is a great and sure bearer. I avail of 
the description given by Mr Bartram, in a letter to Dr 
ICease. < It is a large grape, black or blue, the size of the 


G&AnE8. 315 

Vitus vini/eraj of the old continent ; the grapes approach 
to an elipUcal figure ; they are, when perfectly ripe, 
as sweet as any grape ; many persons think them too 
luscious. Before they are quite ripe, some think they 
possess a little of the stingy taste df the fox-grape ; but 
my taste could neve^ discover it.' Major Adlum states 
that he has made a wine of this grape, which Mr Jefferson 
has pronounced * worthy the best vineyard in France.' Not 
80 suitable for the climate of Boston as the Isabella and 
Catawba. ^ 

Blajtd's Madeira, Mazzei. 

This fine native grape does not ripen in our climate ex- 
cept in favorable seasons. It is thus described by Mr 
Bartram in a letter to Doctor Mease, as inserted in Dr J. 
Mease's edition of Willich's Domestic Encyclopied^a. 

* The bunches are large, branched and well shaped, six 
dr eight inches in length ; the berries large, and round or 
oblate ; when perfectly ripe, of a dark purple or red wine 
color ; the juice sweet and lively, having a little musky 
flavor, with a small portion of an agreeable astringency 
somewhat like our best bunch wild grapes, though much 
sweeter than any of them. If this grape is what 1 take it 
to be, a genuine American, it is a hybrid, or variety.' 


This superior variety was introduced to notice by Major 
John Adlum, of Georgetown^ D. C. and is esteemed by 
him the very best grape for making wine, known ; and the 
wine made by him at his vineyard of this grape, is deemed 
by good judges excellent The bunches are of very hand- 
some size and form, and shouldered; the berries are of a 
deep purple next the sun; the skin is thin, juicy, sweet, 
rich, and vinous, with a very little of the native, or musky 
taste. This vine is very vigorous and hardy, requiring iao 




protection, and is a great and certain l>earer. This and the 
Isabella are decisively the very best native grapes hitherto 
known with as. Mr Adlum has stated that he has no 
doubt but by his discovering the Catawba grape to be an 
excellent wine grape, that it will be worth to the United 
States one hundred millions of dollars before the end of 
this century. See his Memoir on ihe Cultivation qfiht Vint 
in America. 


This grape is said ID be very hardy, and very productive | 
the fruit of a blue color, very juicy and sweet, free from 
pulp and musky taste. 


This fine native grape was introduced into New York, 
about sixteen years since, by Mrs Isabella Gibbs, the lady 
of George Gibbs, Esq. of St Augustine, then a resident of 
Brooklyn, L. I. It was received frona Dorchester, South 
Carolina, and was named Isabella, in honor of that lady, 
by William Prince, Esq. of tlie Linniean Bolimic Garden. 
From him I first received thkvine, about 1820. The vine 
is extraordinary for the vigor of its growth, and wonderful 
productiveness. It has been stated that a single vine in 
the garden of Gen. Swift, of New York, produced above 
eight bushels per annum, during each of the years 1820 
and 1821 ; and the astonishing produce which we have 
here witnessed, confirms our belief in all that has been 
stated. The bunches are of large size ; the berries are 
large, of an oval form ; the color is dark purple, approach- 
ing to black, and they are covered with bloom ; the skin 
is thin, with but very little pulp ; the flesh is juicy, rich, 
sweet, and vinous. By hanging the bunches in a room, it 
has been ascertained that they lose that very small portion 
of muekiness which they possess. This grape makes ex- 
cellent wine, and requires no protection in our climate. 



This grape, according to Professor Rafinesque, has ber- 
ries very large, of a deep purple, pulp dissolving in a sweet 
musky juice. Major Adlum says, the Tiuffborough makes 
an excellent red wine 


This is understood to be a very fine, white grape, found 
near Orwisburg, on the Schuylkill, in Pennsylvania. Pro- 
fessor Rafinesque speaks of three varieties, purple, white, 
and black ; * berries depressed, sweet and good.' 

* V 


Of this grape there are two varieties, the black and the 
white; both possessing similar qualities. The young 
wood is very slender, the leaves shining above and beneath. 
The fruit very juicy and sweet -Wine is made of this 
grape, of an excellent and very pe'culiar flavor. Much 
wine is said to be made of this grape in North Carolina. 
Many barrels are made in a single season from a single 
vine. They are trained cm arbors over the large court, 
which usually separates the main houses in that country 
from the kitchen, which is in the rear ; and a single vine will 
noon cover a space of a hundred feet by forty. The cli- 
mate of New England is not so well suited to this vine. 
Accounts have been stated [see New England Farmer] 
of single vines which would produce forty bushels in Caro- 
lina. They are said to flourish, and their roots will find 
nourishment in sandy land, good for nothing else. 


This grape, according to Professor Rafinesque, produces 

smaller berries than the Frost grape ; * juice dark red, sweet 

and rough.' Major Adlum caUs it a very great bearer, and 

^ sUtes that the wine of this rape, mixed with the Schuvl- 

27* ^ 


kni, gives it a degree of ronghnew, between Port tnd 



The vine is propagated by layers ; also by cuttings which should 
be cut wiUi two or three eyes, and cut close below the lowest 
eye, and set in a humid soil, with but a single eye above the 
surface ; or it is raised even from the cuttings of a single eye. 
They mav also be grafted at the root by the common mode of 
deft grafting. 

In treating of the culture and management of the vine, I 
shall con6ne my remarlcs chiefly to its cultivation in tlie open 
air ; and principally to the modes of management practised in a 
country possessing a cUmate not very unlike our own, where 
the vine has been cultivated as an article of subsistence for two** 
thousand years, and where five tnillions of acres are cultivated 
as vineyards. 

The climate of Paris in the north of France, differs not ver^ 
materially, on the whole, from that of New England in the lati- 
tude of Boston, from ati the information I am able to obtain. 
Their spring commencing in March, are intermixed with the 
storms and frosts of winter. Our springs, not commencing till 
a later period, are rather intermingled with the heat of sum- 
mer. Tho vine with us, never or but rarely commences to ve- 
getate till the vernal frosts are over. Their summers are indeed 
of longer duration ; but to compensate for this, the heat of ours 
is much more intense, and the pn^ress of vegetation proportion- 
ably more rapid. We have a finer sun and more unelouded skies. 

In the middle and nortiiem departments of France, we are 
informed that in vineyard culture, the vines are generally kept 
low, like plantations of raspberries. At the Cloa de Vougeaudf 
the cultivation is the same. This is the best vineyard in France, 
and was sold or sacrificed in 1794, for 1,100,000 francs. I sub- 
join in this place the remarks of the Hon. John Lowell, extract- 
ed from the volumes of the New England Farmer. 

* From a history of the culture of the vine in France, which 
I have carefully gone over, I find (hat the plan of planting their 
vines very near to each other, in all the middle, and especially 
the northern Provinces, has been of high antiquity. In 1763, 
an innovator appeared in France. M. Maupin in his treatise, 
entitled, ** A new method of Cultivating the Vine," contended 
that the vines should be planted four feet from each other. All 
France was alive to this question. The experiment was fairly 
tried and &iled, and the French returned to (heir old system of 
close planting and short pruning.' 

One account of the mode of cultivating the vine at Thomery, 
has alreadv been published by the Hon. John Lowell, from the 
jBon JardttUer. In that work this mode of training and pruning, 
and this mode alone, are described by M. Poiteau and Yilmorin, 

(nEirriVATtoR. %ld 

fts they considered it the perfection of ever^ mode that had ever 
been devised. I have incorporated, verbatim , large portions of 
this account with some portions of Mr Robertson's, which were 
published in the volumes of the London Horticultural Society. 
%It Robertson's account is from the Bon Jardinier and the 
Ponume JFrangaiae, of Comte Lelieur, and other sources. It is 
as follows. 
A light and deCp soil, is that which i4 best adapted to produce 

S rapes of excellent quality. In poorer soils the vine languishes ; 
I soils more consistent and strong, its productions will be too 
gross, too watery ; and its fruit will have fewer good qualities. 
In the climate of Paris, the vine requires a warm exposition, in 
order to ripen perfectly its fruit, and it is seldom, except pro- 
tected by a wall facing to the south, or east, that it finds the' 
heat necessary to its perfection. 

Of all the modes adopted, of training, or of pruning the vine, 
we shall speak only of one ; that practised at Thomery, a village 
near Fontainbleau, because it appears to us preferable to all 
others, both for its simplicity and its results. 

As to its results all the world know them. The grapes of 
Fontainbleau are proverbial. It is wall known that the most 
boautiful, and the best grapes in the markets of Paris, come 
from Thomery, under the name of the Chasselas of Fontainbleau. 

It has been supposed, that the excellence of these grapes is 
owing to the nature of the soil, and the favorable exposure of 
Thomery. By no means. Thomery has not a happy exposi- 
tion. The quality of the soil is inferior, in many parts sterile, it 
is on the side of a hill facing north and east, and sloping to the 
river Seine, which washes its base ; the soil is clavey^ cold, and 
almost incredibly hard to cultivate. We must admit then, that 
it is to their treatment of their grapes alone, that tlieir excel- 
lence and superiority is owing. 

Before we describe their method, we would remark, that they 
are very cautious in selecting their varieties. They select their 
.cuttings from such branches only as bear fruit, distinguished by 
some superior quality, as siz^, early maturity, setting sure, or 
any other property they would wish to perpetuate ; and they 
maintain that they thus actually improve their quality. The 
kind most in repute at Thomery, is the Chasselas de Fontainbleau. 
When other varieties are planted, the latest kinds are always 
trained to the lowest bar, as they are there found to ripen earlier. 

The walls with which they form their inclbsures, and against 
which they train their i^rapes or trellises are about eight feet 
high, built of clay, plaistored on the outside with a cement of 
lime and sand, and covered with a chaperon or coping, projecting 
nine or ten inches on each sidel To this coping they attribute 
Uie good effects of protecting the wood and blossoms of the vine 
from the late spring frosts and heavy rains, sheltering the grapes 
and protecting them in good condition on the wsul, even till 
after Christmas ; and moaerating the laxoriance of the vine. 



The above plan of the me'lliod oJ training grapes at Tbo- 
nrery, is from an engraving in Loudon'a Magazine ; the waU 
ia repreiented as but partially covered. 


On the southern, eastern and western exposures of these, ihej 
are furnished with trellises, the upright standards of which, are 
two feet apart, and the horizontal rails are nine inches apart ; 
the lower one six inches only from the ground. 

The erape border along this wall, is dug or manured to the 
width of five or six feet, and to the depth of fifteen or eighteen 
inches. If the soil is moist or strong, they slope the border so 
as to throw off the rains from the walk ; this prevents the accu- 
mulation of water at the roots of the. vines, and is essential to 
success. When the border is prepared, they open a trench at 
four feet distance from the wall, and parallel to it, two feet wide, 
and nine inches deep. They have ready prepared, a quantity of 
cuttings sufficient for the wall ; these are about two feet long, and 
from being taken with a piece of old wood attached to the heel, 
are called croissettes, [form of a cross,] but this form is not con- 
sidered indispensable. These they lay across the trench at the 
bottom, with the top towards the wall, and at the distance of 
twenty inches asunder, and cover them with four or five inches 
of soil, and tread them down ; at the same time raising the upper 
end which was towards the wall nearly to a perpendicular ; then 
fill the trench two thirds full, and spread Uie residue over the 
border. They then put into the trench, three inches of manure, 
which keeps the plants fresh and moist, and prevents the ground 
fivm becoming dry and hard. 

In March, [November with us] they cut in the plant 
to two eyes above ground; they weed, dress and water 
the border during the first season, if needful, for the young 
planted grape requires a gentle degree of moisture. They tie 
the young shoots of the year to some supporters, an# do every- 
thing to favor its growth. The second year, if any of the plants 
haVe more than one branch, they preserve only the strongest. 
They bury the new wood as the first year, and so on till they reach 
the Wall. At every time they lay the shoot they cut in, till 
they reach strong, ripe wood, well furnished with good eyes. 
It will generally take three years befbre it reaches the wall, but 
in the meantime, they gather some finp bunches. 

We now come to the formation of the cordons or horizontal 
branches. If the wall is eight feet high, it will require five 
cordons ; [or ^ve tiers of branches] the first six inches from the 

ground, and the four others eighteen inches asunder, upon the 
orizontal rails of the trellis, which had been previously so 
arranged as to effect this object. The stalk destined to form the 
lowest cordons, [or horizontal branches to right and left,] will 
be cut just at the required height, if it has at tnat place a double 
eye. If it has not, you must cut it above the eye which is next 
above tiie lowest rail of the trellis. These two eyes are des- 
tined to furnish the two lowest branches or horizontal arms, the 
one to the right, the other to the left, on the lowest rail. The 
one that is too high must be bent down gently, and that which 
is too low trained up, and then bent. The first year however, 
these branches are trained obliquely, as they would not bear be- 

MBW AwuucAtf mmAiiDisr* 

lafh^al Hid cflik&ilAd to ttieir destined borlfcontal position till the 
faejit ydAr> WhdB both ar< finally s eeured to the trellb in the 
itme horizontal line* 

The second cordon Tor horizontal line of brinchesj bding at 
two feet distance from the irround, cannot be formed as soon its (he 
fyat ; the thh*d will be still later, and so on. Whatever he the 
faeiflrht to which you design to advpncQ ypqr 9(alk or stem, you 
ougnt not to advance it more than twelve or fifteen inches each 
year, and preserve its lateral buds to increase its growth , and 
fiimish fruit But as soon as the stem has reached the requisite 
heiffht, it is absolutely necessary to suppress and cut off all late« 
ral bods on the main stem throughout. 

Let us DOW suppose, that all the stems have arrived at (heir 
required or destined height, and that the two last branches are 
extended, the one to the rights and the other to the left, to form 
the two arms of the cordon, [horizontal branches] we will now 
show how these two arms are to be cut, till they have gained 
the lengA of four feet each. The first year you will cut so as 
to leave three good eyes or buds, from four to six inches apart. 
Two of thrae eyes will form bearing wood, the third will be 
employed to lengthen the branch. Care must be taken to train 
vertically the shoots destined to bear the fruit ; the other is train- 
ed obliquely the first year, and bent down and secured in its hori- 
zontal position afterwards. At the second pruning, the bearing 
shoots thus trained vertically must be cut, leaving only two eyes, 
or buds; and the terminal branch must, iz like manner be so 
trimm»d, as that there wHl be three eyes, two ef which wtll be 
reserved for bearers, and the third to prolong the ^oot as in thz 
former yezr, and so proceed till each lateral branch shall have 
reached the length of four feet Each branch ought then to 
have eight bearing eyes or shoots, all if possible, on the upper 
aide. When all the five plants shall have reached their height 
•nd length, 3rou will have on a surface of eight feet square, 
eighty coarsens or bearing branches of two eyes each, each pro- 
ducing two branches, which will each bear at least two bunches 
of excellent grapes, or three hundred and eighty bunches on 
eight feet square of surface, [sixtyfour square feet] 
. According to Mr Loudon, at Montreuil, thoy practise a more 
•xpedidous, though perhaps less perfect mode ; and Instead ot 
requiring three yeare for the vise to reach the frail, the vines 
are laid in horizontally, a few inches beneath the surface, and 
their tops brought (o the wall at once. In this case the vines 
are bent and surrounded by brick bats, and thus forced to throw 
oat innumerable rooti. 

The eyes at the bottom of the shoots of the grape are very 
close together and extremely small. There are no less than six 
in the space of two lines or the sixth of an inch. When you 
cut the bearing branch long, say one or two inches, these little 
eyes become extinct or lie dormant and do not push — but if 
YOU cut close to them, tlipy develope, — they grow, znd produce 
beautifttl elustors. Able gardeners are well aware of this, they 



always cut their coursons or bearing branches at the distance of 
a line (or one twelfth of an inch) sometimes even less. It is for 
this reason that these branches never become long under tiieir 
management. Those who are ignorant of the nature of the vine 
cannot conceive how a bearing branch shall have ^ven fruit for 
twenty years, and not be at the end of the time an inch long. 

As s K>n as the young shoots of the vine have grown to a suffi- 
cient length, they are attached to the treiilage, the stronger ones 
first, but loosely, until they have icquired sufficient elasticity^ 
Great caution is here necessary ; you ought not to force them 
into a vertical position till the berry is large, for they break o£F 
easily when young. 

The lateral shoots which break near the eyes or on the young 
wood and the tendrils should be suppressed while young. And 
if there be more than two buds which start from the sa • e cour- 
son, [spur,] the supernumerary ones must be suppressed, even 
though they exhibit fruit. Two bourgeons (branches,) each' dec- 
orated with two beaud^l clusters are more valuable, than a 
greater number of inferior size. But caution is here necessary ; 
those supernumerary shoots which start from the base should not 
be removed too soon, for if removed too suddenly it gives a shock 
to vegetation, ot* occasions wasteful bursts of sap ; you wait un- 
til the wood has acquired some' consistence and until new chan- 
nels are provided for the expenditure of the sap by the expan- 
sion of the leaves, and until after the grapes are set. 

At Thomery, the young wood is pinched at its extremity after 
the bioom is set, as soon as it reaches the cordon next abofve it. 
This has the eSect of momentarily suspending the flow of sap in 
the?e shoots, and by that means it accelerates their maturity 
and renders them more ligneous. It promotes the growth of the 
eyes and is indispensable for filling the lower eyes, of the spurs 
on which cultivators rely for the next year's crop ; pinching or 
^pping the wood either prematurely or tardily is alike produc- 
tive of bad coifsequences. Weak shoots are pinched sooner in 
proportion to their strength, but none are permitted on any ac- 
count to push beyond the cordon. Should it appear that the 
shoots of the extremities of the cordons [horizontal arms] im- 
poverish those of the centre, the former are pinched repeatedly 
until the equilibrium is restored. 

The season they generally prefer for the winter pruning^, is 
from the first of February to the first of Malrch, before the first 
movement of the sap takes place. The earliest pruned vines are 
found to break first. The' vignerons avoid cutting close to the 
eyes, lest they might be injured by the wood dying down to 
them ; the wood of the vine from its spongy nature not healing 
readily and being liable to decay at a wound. To guard against 
this they always cut midway between the eyes, stoping the cut 
to the opposite side of the shoot, so that the eye may not be. 
damaged by itJ^bleeding. 

When vines are planted at once close to a wall, and in a level 


deep border^ and at an extended distance, they absorb an im- 
moderate de^e of nourishment, which ^ves rise to a rank and 
late vegetation which retards the ripemns of the fruit. At 
Tbomery the vines beinfi; planted so close, have a more limited 
ran^e for food, and the numerous roots produced by the frequent 
laymg in of the stems occupy the sloping borders so fully as to 
prevent any redundancy of moisture, and excess of nourishment ; 
all luxuriance is restrained ; by this means the branches com- 
plete their growth within the bounds prescribed, they are fur- 
nished with short well ripened shoots, closely set with bearing 
eyes, which when the ground is well manured, seldom faU to 
produce abundant crops. 

We admire, say Messrs Poiteau and Yilmorin, as many others 
do, those branches of the vine, which are carried to two hundred 
feet in length, — and we adndt that there are parts of a wall 
which can only be covered by branches, the roots of which are 
very distant, but we recollect that when a branch has extended 
beyond a certain distance, it no longer gives fine clusters but at 
its extremities — the spurs of the centre no longer produce any- 
thing but inferior bunches, [Grappillons] and gradually die of 
Inanition. This inconvenience doubtless occurred to the Tbom- 
ery gardeners ; and by ah admirable calculation, they fixed 
upon the length of eight feet for each vine ; *" * * yet though 
only eight feet in length, they do not throw out extraordinary 
shoots, because the plants being set but twenty inches asunder, 
their roots dispute or contend with each other for nourishment. 
The #over of the wall also, extending over the vine nine Qr ten 
inches, by contributing to check its too luxuriant growth, its fruit 
has all the qualities which it is susceptible of acquiring. 

* According to this system, when once the cordons are com- 
pleted, the pruning and training become so uniform and simple, 
that it may be entrusted to any intelligent workman. But what 
may render the practice of still ereater consequence in a nortl» 
em climate is, that the fruit of these small spurs always ripens 
earlier than on the strong wood,* 

TiLLAox, MAicuRiifo, &o. — In tillage they use no other* 
instrument than the hoe, they stir the ground but lightly, lest 
they should injure or disturb the roots; this is done twiee in the 
year, first after the summer training, which generally takes 
place [there] in May ; and ag^in when the leaves fall ; the 
ground \3 besides always kept perfectly clean and loose on the 
surface, to admit the air and dews. They manure their vines 
every three years, always preferring old manure, nearly eon- 
sumed, and of a light warm nature. They are justified in this 
practice by the result, for their grapes are always superior in 
size and delicacy of flavor, to any others to be met with, either 
al Paris or elsewhere. 

Management and Care or the Fruit, dbc. — While 
the fruit is yet very small, the bunches should jie looked over 
and the extremities of such as are very long cut off, for they 


generally ripen late, and imperfectly. Such varieties as the 
Frontignans wiiich have very close bunches should have their 
berries thinned out at the time when they are about the size of 
peppercorns. When the grape has nearly attained its size, it is 
beneficial to water the fruit from a water-pot in the form of rain. 
This makes the skin tender, and increases the size of the berries. 
You gradually uncover the berries and expose them to the sun 
to heighten the color, and improve the flavor ; if the leaves are 
removed with this intent, they are separated at the extremity of 
the footstalk, which is left behind to attract the sap and nourish 
the bud at its base. 

If they wish to leave them out till after frosts, they are either 
covered with paper bags, which are of use also in protecting 
them from insects and birds, or they are often preserved till 
Christmas by screening them from frost with cloth, matting, or 
fern. The fruit is always gathered in a dry day, if stored moist 
it would quickly spoil. Those intended for keeping are cut be- 
fore they are quite ripe, some are hung up on hair lines, in re- 
verse, with the shoulders down, as that position prevents the 
berries lying so close as to rot — and some are spread on beds of 

The village of Thomery is situated in the Forest of Fontain- 
bleau , about a league from the palace (about 28 miles distant 
from Paris.) It was formerly occupied by vineyards producing 
a poor vin dupayst^^nd has not been inclosed for the cultivation 
of table fruit, until within the last forty years. At present 
about six hundred acres are walled in for tnis purpose, in numer- 
ous small properties and divisions. 

It has been objected to a vertical wall, that by obstructing the 
free circulation of the air it causes mildew ; and the Hon. R. 
Sullivan, of Brookline, whose successful cultivation of the vine 
is well known, has suggested to me, that an inclined plane would 
on many accounts be the most eligible. The experiment of 
placing boards beneath the fruit in vineries, at just sufficient dis- 
tance as to allow the grapes to hang freely, nas been tried in 
Denmark with gteat success. In France, in 1827, one portion of 
a vine growing under a south window, having ascended over the 
slated roof of the portico, it was found that the fruit on this part 
of the vine had become black, while the fruit on the other parts 
of the vine was still green. 

I would suiigest that walls of masonry or of rough boards, 
covered with black paint, coal tar, &c. or rather with slates, should 
be constructed facing the south, and elevated to an angle of 
fortyfive degrees. Over this the trellis is to be elevated at a 
suitable distance. Here they would sooner receive the benefit 
of the morning sun, and a double benefit from the noon-day sun, 
both by his direct rays and by reflection. The morning dews 
would be dissipated by the direct influence of southerly winds, 



or by the indirect influences of northerly winds, in the eddies and 
counter currents. 

Water must not by this or any other mode be suffered to ac- 
cumulate in unusual quantities at the roots of the vines ; it 
must be carried off by sloping or paved borders, or other modes. 
And lot it be further observed, that from accounts we have re- 
ceived, the proportion of rain which annually falls with us, is 
to that which falls in Europe, as fortyeight inches to twentyfour, 
or thereabouts. 

Paviito the Ground. — It has been remarked that vines 
and fruit trees planted against buildings with a pavement which 
prevents the ground from being either manured or cultivated, 
produce not only more abundant and finer crops, but are longer 
lived. ^Robertson,) 

* At Tnomery,* says the Comte Lelieur, * the grapes on the 
lower cordon of a vine planted to a wall of about fifteen feet 
high, having been injured by the drip of its eaves dashing the 
earth of the border against them, the owner paved it ror a 
breadth of about two feet from the wall. The good effects of 
this remedy were soon apparent, not only in the preservation of 
the fruit from injury, but in the improvement of its size and fla- 
vor ; the reflection of the sun's heat from the pavement, aug- 
menting both, and hastening its maturity.' The growth of the 
vine also became more moderate and regular. 

The long canes of the vine, the production of a single year, if 
lefl to themselves will only break and produce fruit at their ex- 
tremities. To enable them to produce fruit throughout their 
whole length, art is necessary. This art is perfectly understood 
by those who cultivate the grape in vineries near Boston, where 
astonishing crops are produced. Before vegetation commences, 
the vine or long cane of the former year's growth is tied in a 
coil ; by this treatment the buds break and grow equally from 
its extremity to its base. 

When the buds have grown an inch or a little more, it is un- 
coiled and secured to it^ destined position on the trellis. 

The practice of training vines in a serpentine or spiral manner 
to render them productive is not new ; but it is too little known 
or too much neglected. 

According to (^haptal ' there are but two ways of forming and 
managing vines for vineyards — viz. by stakes, or espaliers. The 
method of cultivating vines on poles or props ought to be com- 
manded by climate. This method belongs to cold countries 
where the vine has need of the whole heat of the sun. By 
raising them therefore on poles, placed perpendicular to the 
ground, the earth being uncovered, receives ail the activity of 
tne rays, and the whole surface of the plant is exposed to their 
action, and allows the vines to be placed nearer to one another, 
and the produce to be thus multiplied on equal surfaces. But in 
warmer climates the earth requires to be sheltered from the 


excessive heat of the sun ; the vines are therefore suffered to 
creep on the ground.' (Extract from Cbaptal in Dom. £ncy.) 

The most favorable exposition for vineyards with us on the 
shores of the Atlantic, is without doubt a southern or south - 
westerly ; remote as far as practicable, from woods, swamps and 
standing water. An easterly exposition does not suit them ; the 
cold eastern sea bi'eezes are unfavorable from their humidity. 

The following mode may be recommended for open or vine- 
yard culture. 

The first year suffer but a single shoot and that the lowest to 
grow, the supernumerary ones arc to be checked and taken off 
gradually, this shoot is to be trained to a pole, the lateral shoots to 
be taken off as they are produced at the distance of a single eye 
from the main stem. When a few feet in height, the top is 
to be occasionally nipped in. Late in October cut this down to 
two good eyes ; in November (if a European vine) bury with 
leaves, litter or soil. The next year, three good eyes only are 
suffered to giow, which are to be trained to a pole and pruned as 
before. In autumn preserve the two uppermost, which it strong 
must be cut to the length of five feet ana trimmed throughout, and 
secured to the surface by hooks and covered with soil. The re- 
maining one is shortened to three good eyes and buried as in the 
former year. In the following spiing, two good stakes will be 
required ; the vines left at full length are each to be twisted sev- 
eral times around a pole and secured at top, and these will throw 
out shoots from every eye, which will each probably produce two 
bunches. These bearing shoots are to be nipped in, four or five 
eyes beyond the fruit. The shoot cut down will this year fur- 
nish three shoots, these are to be trained as at first directed to 
another pole, for these three are to furnish fruit for the following 
year, and are to be pruned and laid down at full length in autumn. 
As to those which nave once borne fruit, they are not permitted 
to bear fruit a second time, but are each cut down to two eyes, 
to furnish the reserve wood for the following year ; and so pro- 
ceed till four bearing limbs are annually elevated and twisted 
around two poles, and au equal number of supernumerary or 
reserve branches are annually raised up and trained to two 
other poles. Always observe to cut so as to have your wood 
start from a low point, near the surface ; for this purpose it may 
be sometimes necessary to cut back the old wood. 

In vineyards, close planting is most expensive at first, but the 
ground is more suddenly and profitably completely filled ; and 
small vines are more easily managed than large ones ; 2700 
vines ma}' be a suitable number for an acre. The bearing wood 
on trellises should in early spring be bent and confined in a ser- 
pentine manner with short turnings; but the young reserve 
branches which must never be allowed to produce fruit the first 
year, should be trained strdGght, or with a little deviation. 

Vines may in vineyard culture be in like manner trained to 


Id the northern departments of France, vines are trained to low 
stakes which are renewed every year. When the vine has risen 
to the top, it is bent over and passed to the top of the next stake, 
where it is secured ; this checks its luxuriance. 

The numerous and flourishhig vinevards of America, which 
have been of late years established in the fiddle. Southern, and 
Western States, for the manufacture of wine, consist principally 
of the native varieties which I have described. American 

5 rapes are found to do best for America in vineyards. It was 
earned a capital error that European kinds were at first tried in 
preference. Ours require no protection in winter. The average 
value of vineyards in France per arpent (1 00 rods and 22 ieet 
of our measure) as stated by Mr Young, was $210 — but the very 
best vineyards were worth from $2000 to $3000 per arpent. 

Maladies. — The chief malady to which grapes are subject 
in low confined situations is mildew. This is remedied by 
dredging the fruit with flower of sulphur, on its first appearance. 
But the most approved mode of applying sulphur is as follows: 

On the bottom of a vessel place a pint and a half of sulphur, 
on this lay a lump of good unslacked .lime the size of a fist, and 
on this pour two gallons of boiling water; after the lime is 
slacked, stir it well, and when the hquor is cold, add more cold 
water and stir it again, and as soon as the liquor has become 
clear, pour it from the sediment into a barrel which must be 
filled with cold water. When the grapes have attained the size 
of peas thiow the liquid on the fruit with a syringe and repeat this 
twice a week for three successive weeks. With Willis's Sy- 
ringe whole vineyards may be despatched in a very little time. 

LIME PLANT. (Podophyllum peltatum.) 

A hardy and singular production of nature. The stem, 
foliage, flower and firuit are formed in the earth ; and after 
the plant has come up, there is nothing more than an ex- 
tension of parts. The stems, at the height of from eight 
to twelve inches, branch out in two arms ; at the extremity 
of each is a large palmated leaf. In the fork proceeds the 
fruit stem. The fruit is about tl^ size of a large lime, 
green while growing, and yellow when ripe ; it has the flavor 

Pio. 329 

of a pine-apple, and as to eating, is little inferior to th&t 
fruit. The plant requires a moist soil in a cool, shady, 
situation. It may be propagated by seed, but best by di- 
viding the roots, which are jointed and creeping. The 
root is medicinal.' A native of America. — J^ew England 
Farmer, vol. viii. No. 16. 

FIG. (Ficus carica.) 

The fig tree is a native of Asia. It forms an important 
article of culture in Barbary, Greece, Italy, Spain, and the 
South of France fi>r drying, and on all the coasts of the 
Mediterranean, and its Isles. In these countries it is a 
deciduous tree, growing to a large size ; but in tropical 
countries it is an evergreen. It is also cultivated pretty 
extensively near Paris, for the supply of its markets. 
Here they are kept low, that they may be with the greater 
ease protected in winter. They are planted on the south 
sides of walls, buildings, and the southern declivities of 
hills. Phillips informs us, that there is an orchard of a 
hundred standard fig trees near Worthing, in Sussex, Eng- 
land ; its extent is three quarters of an acre. The trees 
are of the size of large apple trees, and ripep their fruit 
as well as in any part of Spain. They are annually pro- 
ductive, and very profitable, ripening in August, Septem- 
ber, and October. 

Uses. — The fig is a wholesome and delicious article of 
the dessert ; and in those countries where it is extensively 
cultivated, according to Loudon, ' it is eaten green or dried, 
fried or stewed, and in various ways, with or without bread 
or meat, as food. Figs i^e prepared by dipping them in 



scalding lye, made of the ashes of the fig tree, and then 
dried in the sun. And according to Dambourney, [See 
Dom. Enc] ' in dying, a decoction of the green branches 
and leaves imparts a deep gold color, of a brownish red 
shade ; but the leaves alone impart a vexy deep yellow col- 
or. And the substances thus dyed, retain a very agreeable 
fragrance for many months, even after being wastied. ' The 
wood of the fig tree is almost indestructible, and was for- 
merly much employed in the East, for ^e ptesei^ation of 
embalmed bodies.' [lb.] 


ANGELIQUE. Lindley. BonJard. 

Mblitk, Courcourblle Blaitchk. Hort Soc. Cat 
Ykllow Angklique. Bon Jard. 

The fruit is small, its color yellow ; form pyramidal ; iti 
pulp is white, but red at the centre, and of excellent fla- 
vor. This sort is cultivated in the neighborhood of Paris. 


Sometimes called the Purple Fig, is of an oblong shape, 
and the tree is a great bearer. August 

LARGE BLUE. Lindley. 
Large Purple. 

Fruit large, oblong ; skin purple, or dark brown, cov- 
ered with a thick blue bloom ; pulp deep red, of a very 
good flavor ; a very hardy sort, and a most excellent bearer. 

BORDEAUX. Lindley. 
Poire Figue, Violbttede Bordeaux, of the French. 

The fruit is long and pyramidal, rounded at the crown, 

length three inches ; its color at maturity a deep violet • 

ts pulp is deep red or purple, succulent and sweet This 

FIG. 331 

fig ii? stated to be cultivated throughout France, and al- 
though not of very high flavor, it is very productive, pro- 
ducing annually two crops. 



The form is long and pyramidal ; the color brown, with 
but little flavor. The Pomological Magazine and Lindley 
agree, that it is sweet, extremely rich, and high flavored; 
9^ that it is the^ largest and best purple fig they have, 
adapted to tlieir climate. It is early. 


An oblong firutt, of a dark purple color, almost black, 
and covered with purple bloom ; the pulp is bright red and 
high flavored. The tree is a good bearer. £nd of August 


The fruit is large and long ; the skin daik purple at ma- 
turity ; the flesh extremely sweet and delicious. 


A large and almost ^globtilar fruit, of a yellowish color 
at maturity ; the pulp is of a light red color, and of good 
flavor. The tree is considered rather a shy bearer. 


Sometimes called Blue Ischia, is a very good sort ; the 
firuit is short, of medium size, a little flattened at the 
crown ; at maturity the skin is dark purple or almost black, 
and the inside of a deep red ; the pulp very high flavored. 
The tree is a good bearer. End of September. 


Sometimes called Chesnut colored IscMa, — A very large 
globular firuit; its pulp is purple, sweet, and of very good 


flavor ; it ripens earij, and seldom fails of prodacing a 
good crop. Middle of Aogost 


The frait is oblong ; its summit nearly globular ; iti 
skin is green, thin, and brown at maturity ; its flesh is pur- 
ple and high flavored. 


The fruit is large, the color yellow, the flesh purple and 
well flavored. 


A small roundish fruit ; its skin purple ; its pulp of a 
dark red color, and high flavored. The tree bears well. 


A small roundish fruit ; the skin of a brown color at 
maturity ; the pulp is red and high flavored. The tree 
bears abundantly. 

MALTA. Mr NeilL 

A small brown fruit ; the pulp is sweet, and well flavor- 
ed. When permitted to hang on the tree till it shrivels, 
it forms a fine sweetmeat. 


FiGUB Blanche, of the French. 

The fruit is small ; its form turbinate ; its height two 
inches, its diameter nearly the same ; color at maturity 
yellowish white ; its pulp is white, dry, sweet and rich. 

MURREY. Mr Neil. 
Brown Red Naples. 

A large globular shaped fruit, of pretty good flavor; it 
is distinguished by the murrey colored skin. September. 

pio. 933 


The fruit is long, compressed at its summit ; the color 
dark browii ; the flesh is of a reddish color, and of good 
flavor ; the seeds are large. 

NERII. Lindley. 

Fruit rather less than the Marseilles, and more long in 
shape ; skin pale greenish yellow ; pulp similar in color to 
that of the pomegranate. This is much the richest of the 
yellow, white, or green species, and there is in its juice a 
slight degree of very delicate, agreeable acid. The Nerii 
Fig is cultivated by Mr Knight at Downton Castle. 


Round White* 

This ^g is esteemed the most suitable for the climate of 
Paris ; it is the most multiplied, and is there preferred to 
all others for its productiveness, and the superior quality 
of its fruit. The fruit is turbinate,' two inches in diame- 
ter ; color at maturity yellowish green ; the flesh is white, 
very sweet and delicious. The first crop begins to ripen 
at the en d of June. The second crop begins to ripen the 
middle of September, and lasts till hard frcsts commence. 


Browx Italian, of Forsyth, according to Lindley*8 Guide. 

Fruit smaU, and round ; of a red or purple color ; pulp 
ver delicious. 

VIOLETTE. Lindley and Bon Jard. 


Fruit small, of a deep violet color ; form globular, 
slightly turbinate, and about two inches in diameter ; flesh 
white near the skin, the centre tinged with red, and excel- 
lent. This sort is cultivated in the vicinity of Paris for 
the market. 


Its form is glabnlu ; its pulp aweet, but without much fla- 
vor. It ripens early. Indeed, it seldum fails of producing 


The fii; tree is raised from seeds, from layerg, and from cul- 
tlDES. Thsy require i atrong, loamy, but uDt wel soil. They 
diOisr from iriiMt olher Ireea iu producing several crops annually. 
Even in the climate of Uoston. I am perdua<led that figs af good 
quali'y may be raised, if the trees are placed in warm silualions, 
■oulh of walls, or buildingd, on the deciivilicsol hills, as al Ar- 

Eeoteuil, near Paris. Mr Knlgbt has obtained, in his hol- 
ouse, eight succeaaive crops in a year, by beading the liuibs in 
a poalliOD below ihe horiionlal. And Mr Lowell, in his eiperi- 
mcDta, has succeeded in obtaiaiog four crops. The trees will 
produce tolerable crops in the second jeir if rung or decortica- 
ted, and by (his piocess the maturity of the fruit is accetemled 
and its al£e increased. Its maturity Is alw hastened by a prac- 
lice which prevails ia France, which consials in pricking Ihc 
fruit with a straw or quill dipped in olive oil. In Italy, accord- 
ing to Loudon, a n aund wilh a knife is sometimes made c^d (he 
broad end of the Gg, or a very smalt part of the akin ia removed 
for the same purpose. Lastly, by Iha mode communicated by 
(he Hon. John Lowell. In the New England Faimer, vol. x. p. 
SZ, lor 1381, it is as fallows : 

' The fig, like the fruit of the vine and peach, atlaioB a 

certain slse, and then remains slilionary for sevosl weeks, until 

It begins to color, when its -volume, In three or four days, is 

greatly Increased, often doubled and even trebled. My tij(a [in 

'entyeighth August,] were dark green, showing no 

Sen. I took about a third of a lea-apoanrul of 
dipping my finger In it, I rubbed it very slightly 
temaltng, leaving the others untouched, as a lest 
At the end of three days, the color of most 
lied with oil began to change, and Ihe 9ii:e to in- 
aow on the Blih liay, ibey have nearly the color of 
nd are (wice and (niee limes as large as those not 
oil, which still remain of a dark green color.' 
. recommends that for cold climates like England, 
aid be table-trained ; (hat la, to keep the branche* . 
about two feet from the ground ; thus formlDg a 
HID (he iTunk. In (he winter (hey are eaaily low- 
irtb, and secured by books and protected. 


Mr Loudon seems persuaded that by combining the system 
recommended by Mr Knight, with that recommended by the 
Rev. G. Swayne, the most desirable results would be produced ; 
they are both calcuated for cold climates. 

Mr Knight highly disapproves of training the branches of fig 
trees perpendicularly. If the stems are many, he reduces them 
to one only. And from the tops and parts near it, lateral branches 
are trained horizontally and pendantly, and secured close to the 
wall. All troublesome luxuriance is thus restrained, and the 
wood becomes extremely fruitful. 

Mr Swayne trains his trees horizontally. His " specific" is 
designed to remedy the deficiency of bloom in the early spring 
on the whole of the last year's wood, excepting on a few joints 
at its extremities. The remedy which he has for a long time 
successfully practised, is, to simply rub off, as soon as they can 
be discovered, all the figs which are produced after mid-summer 
on the same year's shoots. Those figs which thus exhaust the 
tree, and will never ripen without artificial heat, are thus remov- 
ed, and new figs are formed in embryo, for the crop of the fol- 
lowing year, on one, if not on both sides of every fig thus dis- 
placed. The tree should be examined once a week from the 
commencement of the operation, which should be begun early 
in August or September, to the end of the season, according to 
latitude and climate. 

Protection. — In the north of France, fig trees are protect- 
ed in winter by being secured to the earth by hooks, and cover- 
ed with soil ; sometimes straw is used. In England, Forsyth and 
others recommend to protect with straw, meadow hay, moss, &c, 
and over this branches of pine, or other evergreens are secured. 
They flourish with little care and no protection in the Southern 

BERBERRY. (Berberis.) 

The berberry or barberry is a prickly shrub rising to the 
height of ten feet with many branches. The bark is ash 
colored outside and yellow within ; its fruit is on clusters 
of a red color and acid taste. It is said to be a native of 
Asia, but abounds in the Northern and Middle States of 
America. Some species of grain are liable to become af- 
fected by rust, if raised in its vicinity, particularly rye. 

Uses. — The fruit is used for pickling, and for preserving ; 


a decoction of the berries sweetened, is deemed a useful as 
well as pleasant drink in fevers. The inner bark is said to be 
used in France for dying cotton and silk of a bright yellow ; 
also for staining wood by cabinet makers ; and in Poland 
it is used for coloring leather. 



Of this there are two vaiieties ; one the common ber- 
berry with stones ; the other without 

White Berberrt. 
Fruit large, agreeable but not productive. 

Black Sweet. Loudon. 
Requires a warm situation. 

Chinese Berberry. 

This variety, in some respects resembles the red ; but 
differs some in appearance, and is deemed the most orna- 

HoLLT leaved Berberry, Berberis Aquafolium, 

A new and curious variety from the Rocky Mountains ; 
very different from all others. This appears to be a variety 
with thornless wood ; and with leaves larger than the other 
species, with prickly points. The blossoms are produced 
in numerous yellow clusters, and are handsome ; I have 
never seen the fruit. 

Soil Awn Cultivation. — The berberry prefers a dry 
soil, but will succeed in almost any soil or situation. It is 
raised from seeds, from layers, and suckers. 

BLACKBERRY. (Bramble. — Rubusfruticosa.) 

Bush Blackberry. Iltibiu Americanus. 
A shrub rising to the height of ten feet, somewhat ribbed 


or angled and armed with hooked spines. The fruit, which 
grows in clusters, is oblong, an inch in length, of a shining 
black, of an agreeable taste, sweet or subacid and astrin- 
gent. This plant thrives in a rich moist sandy loam, and is 
often cultivated in gardens, where its fruit is much improv- 
ed in size and its crops very abundant. 

Trailiito Blackberry, Dewberry, Ruhits procumbens. 

This is a plant with low trailing branches, its stems are 
weak and bend to the earth and there take root. The fruit 
is large, nearly globular, of a black color and covered with 
bloom, of a sweet subacid lively taste ; this plant succeeds 
in dry hilly land. 

Uses. — ^ The blackberry is considered a pleasant and 
wholesome dessert fruit if used with moderation ; it is 
used in pies, tarts, &c. A jelly is made of the blackberry 
of considerable medicinal efficacy in nephritic disorders. 
It is singular that a fruit so productive as the tall black- 
berry should be so little cultivated. Both species may be 
propagated either from seed or from layers. 

White fruited Bramble, alba, 
A variety with white fruit. 

Double White flowerim-g, Rubiu albo-pleno. 
A beautiful and very ornamental variety. 

CRANBERRIES. (Oocycoccus macrocarpus.) 

A low trailing vine, an indigenous fruit, growing wild in 
bogs and meadows. The berry has a very acid taste, and 
is much used in pies, puddings, tarts, preserves, &(V The 
cranberry is a plant of easy culture ; and with but little ex- 
pense, not a doubt exists that meadows which are now 
barren wastes, or yield nothing but coarse herbage, might 



bd converted into profitable cranberry fteldi. According 
to London, Sir Joseph Banks, who obtained this plant from 
America, raised in 1813, on a square of eighteen feet each 
way, three and a half Winchester bushels, which is at the 
rate of four hundred and sixty bushels to the acre. A 
man with a cranberry rake will in a good cranberry mea- 
dow, gather from twenty to fifty bushels in a day ; any 
meadow will answer ; Capt Henry Hall of Barnstable, has 
cultivated the cranberry twenty years. They grow well 
on sandy bogs after draining ; if the bogs are covered with 
brush it ii removed, but it is not necessary to remove the 
rushes, as the strong roots of the cranberry soon over- 
power them. It would be well if previous to planting the 
land could be [toughed ; but Capt. Hall usually spreads 
on beach sand and digs holes four feet asunder each way, 
the same distance as for com ; the holes are however 
deeper. Into these holes, sods of eranberry roots are 
planted, and in the space of three years the whole ground 
is covered. The planting is usually performed in autumn. 
Mr F. A. Haydeq, of Lincoln, Mass., is stated to have 
gathered from his farm in 1830, 400 bushels of cranberries 
which brought him in Boston market $600. [New Eng^ 
Farmer, vol. ix. No. 18.] Any dry soil with a mixture of 
bog earth will, it is said produce, abundant crops. 

ELDER. (Sambucus nigra.) 

A low bushy tree, of an ornamental appearance ; its bark 
is smooth and gray, becoming rough by age ; leaves pinnate ; 
berries black and abundant, of a sweet but not agreeable 
flavor ; the tree and its leaves are narcotic. Noxious in- 
sects avoid it. 

Uses. — Although the berries are deemed poisonous to 
poultry in general, yet they are employed in the manufiicture 


of an excellent, powerRil and enlivening wine, remarkal^y 
wholesome. But the wine of white elder berries is said 
to resemble grape wine. A syrup and cordial are also 
prepared from the berries ; and in Germany a very pure 
and strong spirit is said to be distilled from the fruit The 
inner green bark is said to be an ingredient in black dye. 
And Professor Martyn, according to Loudon, has stated that 
the tree is a whole magazine of physic to rustic practitioners, 
nor is it quite neglected by more regular ones. Fruit trees, 
plants, &c, whipped with the fresh branches, are effectually 
secured from the depredations of noxious insects. The 
wood of old trees is hard and fine grained, and takes a 
fine polish, and is used by turners as a substitute for box 

MOUNTAIN* ASH. (Sorhm aucuparia.) 

The berries of this tree are eaten, according to Loudon, 
in some parts of Scotland and Wales . They are also 
used for preserving ; they are also stated to afford an agree* 
able fermented liquor ; and by distillation, a considerable 
quantity of strong spirit. According to Mr Neill, in France 
they are frequently grafted on the service tree, and thd 
fruit is thus rendered of larger size, and more abundant. 
It is one of the most ornamental of all trees, when loaded 
with its large clusters of red berries in autumn. 



The cranberry tree or shrub, rises to a very moderate 
height, its fruit is a berry about the si2e of a cranberry, of 
a bright red color, and very austere taste. They are val- 
uable for pies, tarts, preserves, &c. The tree is propagat- 
ed by layers, and suckers or seeds. 


PERSIMON. (Dioipyrus virginiana.) 

Ambrican Date or Pruitk. 

The Persimon floorishes as far north as the river Con- 
necticut, to the latitude of 42^ but is dwarfish. In a 
suitable soil and climate, it rises to the height of sixty 
feet or forty diameters of its base. The leaves are oblong, 
entire, of a fine dark green above, and glaucous below, 
and from four to six inches long. The fertile and barren 
blossoms are produced on different trees. The fruit, which 
if abundant, is round, of the size of a small plum, of a 
reddish color, and fleshy ; they contain six or eight small 
stones ; their taste is very astringent, but when ameliorated 
by firost, they are sweet and agreeable. The fruit when 
bruised and fermented produces brandy, which becomes 
good by age. This tree is raised from the seeds which 
should be planted in autumn. And fine varieties may be 
propagated by inoculating or grafting. 



A beautiful hardy tree, so called fi'om its silvery leaf. 
This tree was discovered by Professor Nuttall, in Missouri, 
in 1810, and was introduced here by the Messrs Winship. 
The tree is of upright growth and thorny ; the leaves are 
small, of a delicate silvery appearance. The fertile and 
barren flowers are produced on different trees ; the fruit 
is of the size and appearance of a large currant, of a 
fine scarlet color; it grows in clusters, and at matu- 
rity has a beautiful appearance. It is of a rich taste, and 
valuable, either with or without preparation, for preserves, 
tarts, &c. 


RASPBERRY. (Rubus ideaus,) 

The Raspberry is a shrub of low growth ; its leaves 
pinnate and composed of five leaflets. Its root is perenni- 
al ; its top generally biennial ; it produces its fruit on the 
wood of the former year. Its flowers are in panicles. 

Uses. — The Raspberry is an admired dessert fruit, but 
sugar improves its flavor. It is fragrant^ subacid, coolings 
and grateful to the taste, and like the strawberry, it does 
not produce acidity on the stomach. The juice fermented 
with sugar, produces wine, very fragrant and of the most 
delicious flavor. It is also used for jams, pies, tarts, saucds^ 
preserves, &c. And according to Loudon, it is much used 
for distilling, to make a cordial spirituous liquor, to which 
it gives name ; and raspberry syrup is next to the straw- 
berry in dissolving the tartar of the teeth. The wine 
mixed with water, according to Dr Short, ' is a good reviv- 
ing draught in ardent fevers.' He further recommends it 
in scorbutic disorders.' — PhiUips* 

For a choice selection, tl^ following are particulai^ 
recommended by thediflerent authors, whose names I have 
annexed, as the very best. 

1. Red Ajttwerp, NeiU. For. Loudon. Pom. ^ag. 

Burley Jlntwerp, 

An excellent and productive fruit, large, and highly es- 
teemed near Boston. The branches must be bent down 
in autumn, and protected with soil during winter. 

2. White Antwerp , NeiU. For. Loudon. Pom. Mtg. 

YeUow Antwerp, 

^ The firuit is large and fine ; highly esteemed near Bos- 
ton, and very productive ; like the red, it requires protectioii 
in winter. 



S. BAHirrr. For. London. Pom. Mag. UndlsT. 
Cormooirf JW JVaJj/le SwiUin;, Zarfc Bed. 
Prodacei luge fruit and abundut cropi, a profitable vaii- 
4. Rio Came, For. London. 
A good vut for Uie main crop. 

B. DoiTBLt BcARiRO, Nein. LoadoD. Pom. Mif. Und- 
Ptrpelttat Bearing, Red Double Searmg, Sibtrum. 
Prodnces s crop in Julj, and another in September and 

fl. WlLLtAHl' DonBI.1 BlAKIMG. 

PUmatlen'e Double Bearing, London. 
•. WiLLtAMi' PsiaaKvino, Liadley. 

10. Woodwakd'i Rid Glube, Uudloj. Fonytb. 

11. Red Alpihb Mokthlt. 

mraiabiiuitr da Jllpt de recom- 

mended in (he Bob Ji 
There are two Ameri ft from 

the above, wtiich ma; ; theaa 

are l9. Black Araericai Amen- 

eau Raspberry. 

Other varietiea are named bj Lindley, but not partica- 
larlj lecommeoded, ae the Antwerp QyaUe Bearing Yd- 
lou ; AntiBtrp Late Bearitig, or KiwatPt Jlntaerp ; Brtnt- 
Jord Cane ; RougkCane; LordExmouth; Oai HiU ; CM 
What; Prolific Early: Red MaUa; Spring Grove; Sa~ 
pert i Tlnflor'j Paragon, or SeaHa Paragon ; ffUn^t 


A motit, rich nil, U recooimandod tar Iba raspberry ; and Mr 

Nelll antrU that they do well oTcn whan moderately ibwlad. 


In forming plantations, Lindley has directed, that the rowi 
should run from east to west, and the tallest sorts be planted in 
the north rows, and in the rear, at a large distance asumler; and 
those of small growth in the south rows, and at less distances 
asunder in the row. Thus all the yarietles receive the full ben- 
efit of the sun. He directs as follow9 : 

Ist or north row, Cornish, set 4 feet asunder in the row. 

2d Row, Woodward*$ Red Globe, do. 

8d Row, Red AnHoerp, set 3i feet asunder in the row. 

4th Row, White Antwerp, do. do. 

6th Row, Cane Raspberries , set 3 feet asunder. 

6th Row, Double Bearing, or No. 8. do. do. 

Large plantations of any kind, are to be set out on the same 

He also recommends that three young plants should be placed 
in each hill, in a triangular form, six inches apart. These ihould 
be cut at the time, within a few inches of the ground. In au- 
tumn cut out all the wood that has borne fruit. Also, all weakly 
shoo*s, and shorten the strong shoots to four fifths. Stakes or 
rails are not absolutely necessary. The tops of each stool may 
be tied to^cether in summer at their tips, or Neiil recommends to 
tie one half of ^wo hills together at the tips, thus they form 
arches or festoons. With regard to the double bearing varieties 
it is recommended to cut down every alternate stool to within a 
few inches of the ground, in the annual pruning. Thus a succei- 
siun of large late crops is always maintained. 

Neiil informs ifs that the lUfpherry plantation is in its prime 
the third year, but muM be annihilated after it has stood six 
yean ; and new opes must in the meantime be formed. 

STRAWBERRY. (Fraganm.) 

The strawberry is a low creeping perennial plant ; a 
native of the old continent ; also of America, where it is 
found growing wild in the woods. Botanists consider them 
^ genus, comprehending three species. 

Uses. — The strawberry is a fragrant, delicious, and 
esteemed dessert frait, whether eaten alone, or with cream 
and sugar. It is deemed very wholesome, as it never 
causes acidity on the stomach. Boerhave, according tft 
Phillips, considered its use as one of the principal reme> 


dies in pntrid fever; and Hoffinan asserts that he has 
known consumptive people cured by the use of Strawber- 
ries. It is also asserted that by eating plentifully of Straw- 
berries, rheumatic complaints are averted or cured. They 
also dissolve tartarous incrustations on the teeth. And 
lastly Phillips asserts, that the pine strawberries make an 
agreeable dessert wine, as rich as mountain ; but possess- 
ing greater fragrance and acidity. 


Mr Bamet [see vol. vi. of the Lend. Hort Trans.] has 
divi4ed strawberries into seven classes. Mr Lindley has 
adopted the same course. And in describing the size of 
the fruit, I shall have reference to the general size of the 
particular class. I have adopted the same system. 


The Alpine and Wood strawberries agree in their gene- 
ral habits and character. The fruit however, differs. The 
Alpines have conical fruit, and are fruitful in autumn. The 
Wood strawberries are more globose ; they only produce 
fruit in summer. — Bamet. see vol. vi. of Hort. Trans. 

Red Alpihk, Frasier de$ Alpi, with runners. 

Th# fruit is small and conical, ripening in summer and 

Red Busk Alpine. 

Possesses similar qualities to the White Bush Alpine, 
but differs in color. 

White Alpine, Frasier des Alps h fruit Blanc, with 

The fruit is small and conical, ripening successively in 

summer and autumn. 

White Bush Alpiwe. 

This has the same qualities, but is thought to be more 
productive, as it does not exhaust itself by runners. 


Red Wood, Frasier Cfommun, 

An old variety extensively cultivated near Boston for the 
markets. It ripens in summer. The fruit is scarlet and 
round ; very productive and highly esteemed. 

White Wood, Frasier Commun hJiruU Blane. 

This variety ripens in summer, the fruit is white and 
round ; an old, good flavored variety, much cultivated and 
.esteemed near Boston. 


The fruit of this class is middle sized, conical, with a 
neck, of a very dark color at maturity, the seeds slightly 
imbedded ; the flavor very rich, and highly perfumed ; the 
leaves of thts class are small, rugose, pale green. — Bar- 
netf see voL vi. of Hort, Trans, 

DowNTON, ShighVs Seedling, Pom. Mag. Lind. Bamet. 

The fruit is large, dvate, with a neck ; the early fruit is 
sometimes of a coxcomb shape ; of a dark purple scarlet ; 
the flesh is scarlet, firm, of an aromatic flavor. Originated 
by Mr Knight 

Sweet Cone, Pom. Mag. Lindley, 

Small, conical, with a neck, hairy, bright shining scarlet ; 
flesh pale scarlet, hollow, very high flavored. 


The leaves of this class are nearly smooth, of firm tex- 
ture, with obtuse serratures, of a dark green ; the fruit 
large, varying from nearly white to almost purple ; the 
seeds prominent on a smooth surface ; the flavor sweet 
and oflen perfumed. — Bametf see vol, vi. of Hort, Trcans, 


Black Paiitob, WUmofM Black hmperial, Lindley. Bar- 

Middle sized, spberical, depressed, hairy, of a ?ery dark 
violet color ; with a highly polished surface ; the flesh of 
a rich doll scarlet, with a very small core, high flavored. 

Eltoit Sbsdi^iico, Pom. Mag. Liodley. Barnet. 

The fruit is large, ovate, often coxcomb shaped, of a 
rich, shining dark red ; the seeds yellow, with ridged inter- 
vals ; the flesh is firm, with a small core, deep red, juicy, 
with a sharp rich flavor. 

Ksbm's 8BSDi«iiro, Pom. Mag. Lindley. 

JTeefi'a Black Pine, Keen* s JVcw Pme^ JTeeti'a JVew Seedling, 

The firoit is very large, globular or ovate, of a dark pur- 
plish scarlet, hairy. It sometimes assumes the coxcomb 
■hape. The surface polished, seeds slightly imbedded; 
flesh firm, solid, scarlet, high flavored. Introduced to the 
vicinity of Boston, by Mr Pratt Also to this country and 
to notice by Mr Haggerston, of the Charlestown vineyard. 
In this strawberry are combined four eminent qualities, 
which never meet but in a very extraordinary fruit ; great 
beauty, extraordinary size, exceUent fla?or, and extraordi- 
nary productiveness. The fruit grows high, which is much 
in its favor. Raised by Mr Michael Keen, firom the seed 
of Keen's Imperial, which is a good fruit, but very inferior 
to this. 

MuLBBBBT, Cherokee, Xing, Mdkane, 

A strawberry much cultivated near Boston, and highly 
recommended by Messrs Senior and Haggerston. From 
them I understand this fruit was sent to the late Gov. Gore, 
and to England, by the late Hon. Rufus King, from the 
back parts of New York. The fruit ia of medium size, 
ovate, with a short neck, of a dark red ; flesh tender, of 
a red color, and good flavor ; very productive. 


Old Pine or Caroliita, Pom. Mag. Lindley. Barnet. 
Old PinCf Barham Down, Bhuk Carolina^ Coxcomb Pine^ 
Devonshire Scarlet Pine, Kew Pine, Large Carolina, Large 
Pine, Miss Gunning's, Jforth'a Seedlings Old Carolina, &d 
Scarlet Pine, Pine, MegenVs Favorite, Swlet Pine, Vamvth- 
ed, Windsor Pine, 

Fruit large, ovate, conical, with a neck, sometimes cox* 
comb shaped in the early fruit, of a bright scarlet ; the 
flesh pale scarlet, rich, juicy, with a very grateful flavor ; a 
good bearer and very highly esteemed. 


The leaves of this class are very villous, hoary, with 
small leaflets of thick texture, with very obtuse serratures ; 
the fruit is very large and pale, with prominent seeds ; the 
flesh in the type, which is the true Chili, is insipid. — Bar' 

net in vol, vi. qf Land. Hort. Trans, 

■ I 

Wilmot'S' Superb, Barnet. Lindley. 

The early fruit is very large, irregular, sometimes cox- 
comb shaped. Afterwards they are invariably round, very 
hairy, pale scarlet, and polished. The ^eeds are brown and 
projecting. Flesh very firm, pale scarlet near the outside, 
but whitish within, with a small hollow in the centre, and 
a core ; flavor good, buttery, and rich, mixed with acid. 


The French cultivate several varieties of this strawberryr 
The Green Pine is much known in England, but it sel- 
dom bears perfect fruit ; it bears well only in some parti- 
cular situations. Their character is dwarfish, much resem- 
Ung the Wood Strawberry. The leaves are light green, 
and strongly plaited. — Barnet^ vol, vi. Lon. Hort, Trans* 


Lindley has described the Gebeit St&a wberrt. [FVa- 
iter Veri,) Caucasian, Green Alpine, Green Wood, Pine 
Jtpple. But ascribes their defection to the multitude of 
nmnersy and has no doubt but if these were restrained, 
they would prove productive. 


The leaves of this class are highly elevated, rough, and 
of thin texture ; the scapes or stems tall and strong ; the 
fruit middle sized, pale greenish white, tinged with dull 
purple ; the seeds slightly imbedded ; the flavor musky. — 
Bamdy in Hort. Trans, voL vi. Supposed to he so named on 
mceount qf their bearing their Jruit high ; Hautboisor High 

Laaox Flat Hautboii, Barnet Pom. Mag. Lindley. 

Bath Hautboiif Formosa Hautboitf Sawder's ffautbois, 
8alttr*s Hautbois, Weymouth Hdutbois, White Hautbois. 

The fruit is large, round, depressed, light red ; the seeds 
are imbedded ; the flesh is greenish, juicy, delicate, with 
out a core. 

Prolific or Coicical Hautbois, Barnet Pom. Bfag. 

Double Bearing, Dtoarf, Hermaphrodite, Hudson's Bay, 
Regent's, Saeonibe, Sir Joseph Banks's, Sjning Grooe. 

The fruit is large, conical, of a dark purple color ; flesh 
solid, greenish and high flavored. An abundant bearer, 
and by far the best of the Hautbois strawberries. The 
flowers are the largest of the class ; and it usually produ- 
ces two crops. 



The Fragaria Virginiana of botanists, is the type of 
this class. The leaves are nearly smooth, thin, dark green, 
with sharp pointed serratures ; the fruit mostly small, of a 
bright scarlet color ; the seeds more or less deeply imbed- 
ded, with ridged intervals ; the flavor acid, with a slight 
perfume. — Bamet^ in Hort. Trans, vol, vi. 

BijAck RosEBERRr, PotD. Mag. Barnet * Lindley. 

The fruit is of good size, obtusely conical, deep puri^ish 
red and shining ; the seeds are slightly imbedded ; flesh 
dark red near the outside, solid, buttery and juicy, and of 
excellent flavor. 

Duke of Kekt's Scarlet, Barnet. Pom. Mag. Lindley. 

Austrian Scarlet, of Lindley, Cluster Scarlet, Globe Scarlet, 
J^ova Scotia Scarlet, BtJce of Fork's Scarlet, Early Pro- 
* lific Scarlet. 

The fruit is nearly globular, of rather small size, of a 
fine scarlet ; seeds deeply imbedded, with sharply ridged 
intervals; the flesh is solid, pale scarlet; flavor sharp, 
pleasant, and peculiar. 

Ghove End Scarlet, Barnet. Pom. Mag. 
Atkinson* s Scarlet, Wilmofs Early Scarlet. 

A first rate strawberry and an abundant bearer. The 
fruit is of considerable size, depressed, spherical, of a 
bright vermilion color ; seeds slightly imbedded with flat 
intervals ; flesh pale scarlet, firm, with a core ; flavor 
agreeable and slightly acid. 

Old Scarlet, Pom. Mag. Lindley. Barnet. 

Ecarlate de Virginie, of the French, Scarlet^ Early 
Scarletj Original Scarlet, Virginia Scarlet. 

A middle sized globular fruit, of a light scarlet cdor, 
slightly hairy ; seeds deeply imbedded, with ridged inter- 


vals ; flesh pale scarlet, finn and high flavored ; a good 
bearer, lipeniDg early ; chiefly valuable for preserving. 

RotBBBftAT, Baraet Pom. Mag. Lindley. 

Aberdeen Seedling, Prolific Pine, Ro$e Strawberry, Scotch 

An abundant bearer ; the fruit is large, conical, pointed, 
dark red, hairy, with a very short neck. The early fruit ia 
sometimes coxcomb shaped ; seeds yellow, deeply imbed- 
ded with ridged intervals ; flesh firm, pale scarlet, with a 
core ; flavor not rich, but agreeable, and much admired by 

The whole lift of Strawberries which I have just described, 
f with the exceptioo of the Black Prince, the Wumof$ Superb, 
the Mufherry, and the Wood, and the Buah Mpine,) are but the 
$^ect likt which is particularly recommended in the Pomological 
Magaxioe, for a small garden. 

Mr Lindley has since particularly recommended the same list 
for a small garden, with the exception of the Bromley Hill, and 
the addition of the Black Prince, and Wilmofs Superb. 1 have 
added the Mulberry on good authority here ; also I have 
adited the two varieties of Wood Strawberriee, and the two 
varieties of Bu$h Alpine. 

Mr Lindley has described sixtytwo varieties. Mr Barnet has 
.cecomroended for a select li$t,iht same generally, as the Porno- 
jDgical Blagazine, and Mr Lindley. 

In 1822, the London' Horticultural Society, by their circulars 
congregated from all qnarters, a vast collectlonof strawberries at 
Chiswick. The whole were examined by Mr Barnet ; there 
were 200 distinct names or synonymes, and 54 varieties ; his 
account of them occupies 80 pages quarto. — See Hort. Drone. 
vol, VI. p» 146. 

Let us enumerate the names of the strawberries which Mr 
Lindley has described, and which are not recommended either 
by him, or in the Pom. Mag. for a email garden. Some of them 
may yet perhaps prove fine in our climate, as is the case with the 
Mmberry Strawberry ; and all are evidently thought worthy in 
a large collection. 

In this list I omit the numerous synonymes generally. 

- 1. American Scarlet. 2. Autumn Scarlet. 3. Bath Scarlet. 

4. Bishop's Seedling Scarlet. 6. Blood Pine. 6. Bostock or 

Wellington. 7. Bullock's Bkx>d. 8. Carmine Scarlet 9. 

Charlotte. 10. Chinese. 11. Clustered Scarlet.. 12. Coxcomb 


Scarlet. 13. Common Hautbois. 14. Conical Hautbois. 15. 
Dutcb. 16. Dwarf White Carolina. 17. Garnestone Seedling. 
18. Gibbs's Seedling Black. 19. Glazed Pine. 20. Globe Haut- 
bois. 21. Green. 22. Grimstone Scarlet. 28. Hudson's Bay 
Scarlet. 24. Keen's Imperial. 25. Knight's Large Scarlet. 26. 
liowisham Scarlet. 27. Methven Scarlet, or Methven Castle. 
28. Moriissania Scarlet. 29. Mulberry. 30. Nairn's Scarlet. 
31. Narrow Leaved Scarlet, 32. Oblong Scarlet. 33. Pitmaston 
Black. 34. Pitmaston Black Scarlet. 35. Red Wood. 36. 
Round White Caroline. 37. Scone Scarlet. 38. Sir Joseph 
Banks's Scarlet. 39. Surinam. 40. True Chili. 41. Variega- 
ted Pine. 42. Vernon's Scarlet. 43. White Wood. 44. Wil- 
mot's Late Scarlet. 45. Yellow Chili. •■• • 

Other varieties which were unknown, or are not described by 
those authors, and which may prove fine in our climate. 

1. New Black Musk Hautbois. 

2. French Musk Hautbois. 

3. Southborough Seedling. 

4. Large Lima. 

5. Melon, &c, &c. 


Lindley directs that as early in summer as the young runners 
have taken root, they should be transplanted into nursery beds 
five or six inches asunder. By this management they will by 
Autumn have become fine strong plants capable of producing 
fruit the following summer. ^ 

For the reception of these plants he directs the ground to h^ 
trenched 20.inches deep : and a quantity of half rotted manure in- 
corporated to half this depth. For .economy he has also recom- 
mended in the final transplanting to set tbfe plants in beds of four 
rows each ; the rows running in a longituiUnal direction. The 
distance between the beds to vary froia 2 feet to 2^ feet accord- 
ing to the sorts to be planted, as some' varieties require much 
more space than others. As to the distances of the rows asunder 
and the distance of the plants in the rows, I will lay down on 
Lindley's authority the following rules. 

3d Class. In rows 15 inches asunder ; — the plants 15 inches' 
distance in the row. Wilmot'a Superb Uie same. 

2d and 4th Classes (except Wilmot's as above.) In rows 
15 inches' asunder and 12 inches distance in the row. 

6th and 7th Classes. In rows 12 inches asunder; and 12 
inches' distance in the row. 

1st ani 5th Classes. In rows 12 inches asunder; and 
9 inches' distance in the row. 


During the first year the runners are to be carefully destroyed 
before they have taken root. Around such as show fruit, grass 
or straw is placed ; (Keen recommends the same ; for the plant 
derives its name from this circumstaDce.^ This protects aKke 
the soil from washing rains ; from a scorching sun, and the con- 
sequent evaporation of its moisture ; it protects the fruit from 
becoming soiled. But as soon as the fruit is g<ithcred this cover- 
ing is to be removed; and the soil kept clear of weeds by the 
hoe fill autumn. 

In autumn he directs the leaves to be cut off (only a. portion I 
presume) and all the spaces including the alleys to be dug care- 
fully over with a pronged fork, so as not to injure their roots. 
Both Keen and Mr Knight however direct manure to be applied 
before this last operation is commenced ; and Mr Knight has par- 
ticularly cautioned against digging so deep as to disturb the roots, 
as it weakens the force of the plants. 

The second summer Lindley further states that the plants will 
bear their best crop and finest fruit ; the beds and outside of the 
alleys should be covered with mown grass or with straw three 
or four inches thick ; by this method he states he has found the 
fruit not only more abundant but of finer quality. 

It has been recommended to raise the Alpines from the seed. 
But Mr Williams of Pitmaston (Hort. Trans.) condemns the 
practice. — Lindley joins him in thb ; for having procured a good 
sort it is recommended to increase and continue it : and have no 
mixture of inferior sorts with the idea that such mixtures will im- 
prove. Some have directed in regard to the Alpines and Haut- 
bois that a certain proportion of male or sterile plants should be 
preserved. But the experience of Lindley and some others seems 
opposed to this practice. — These sterile plants, never producing 
fruit, out-grow all the rest ; they overrun those which produce 
fruit and soon take possession of the whole soil ; they are neither 
useful or necessary, but on the contrary ruinous, as the whole bed 
soon becomes barren. But by excluding the sterile plants in the 
beginning — the whole will remain proauctivc. 

As to the Alpines, Lindley directs to set them out in August; 
and by spring the beds will be covered with runners; these are 
not to be disturbed or removed, as in the case of other sorts ; for 
they will produce fruit during autumn. 

Management of Alpine and other sorts of Straiaberries , tchen 
large ana late crops are desired. — The Alpine strawberries are 
chiefly valuable on account of their continuing fruitful af\er all 
other varieties are gone. In order to make the utmost of this 
yaluable property which they possess, Mr John Williams of Pit- 
maston has directed (see Hort. Trans.) to form the beds in 
August; by spring the beds will be well stocked with plants. 
When they have come into full blossom in spring, cut off every 
flower without injuring the loaves. Tliis operation is to be 


again repeated as soon as a second set of blosBoms appear. The 
third set of blossoms are suffered to remain : — and the plants 
having by this system accumulated strength, heavy crops are pro- 
duced after other strawberries are gone, and when alone the Al- 
pine strawberries are highly valuable. 

Another mode has been stated by which a large crop of th« 
common varieties of strawberries are produced in autumn. When 
the first crop is gone, the plants are shorn of every leaf; and at 
suitable intervals profusely watered : by this mode it is stated 
they not only renew their leaves, but a crop of blossoms and fruijt 
is produced. 

With regard to the produce of strawberries, all agree that die 
crop of the second year is more valuable than any succeeding 
crop. I will briefly detail three different modes in relation to 
this subject. 

1st. The mode adopted by Mr Keen. 

2d. That adopted by T. A. Knight, Esq. 

3d. A mode not unfrequently adopted near Boston. 

Mr Keen forms his beds in tiie spring. ^ The Hautbois and 
Pines are placed in rows 3 feet asunder and 18 inches in a row. 
[Other classes at a proportionate distance.] The object in placing 
tbem at this |^eat distance is that there may be room for the feet 
of the gatherers : also room for the vines to spread to the end of 
the thin] year ; when the bed is taken up and the ground planted 
anew. The first year little fruit is expected — the second year 
a very great crop — the thii'd year a very moderate crop. M.T 
Knight condemns this system in part ; his mode is as follows : 
like Mr Keen he forms his beds in the spring : he places the Pine 
and Hautbois in rows, 16 inches asunder and only 8 inches in the 
row — [other classes at a proportionate distance.] This is from 
three to four times the nvmber of plants on the same ground as 
Mr Keen. Mr Knight takes off no runners except for the pur- 
pose of forming new beds : and he thinks he must obtain near 
twice the produce in the second year, which all acknowledge to 
be the fruitful year, from the same ground as Mr Kten. Per 
Mr Knight leaves no unoccupied ground for the feet of the gath- 
erers : as he considers the amount thus destroyed very inconsid- 
erable compared with the waste of land. Mr Knight destroys 
his beds in the autumn of the second year after the nrst great or 
mam crop is taken off. He esteems this the most economical 

In the vicinity of Boston the following mode is^oflen adopted. 
The rows are formed from 18 inches to2 leet asunder. The run- 
ners during' the first year are destroyed. In the second year they 
are suffered to grow and fill the interval, asd in tlie autumn of 
that year, the whole old rows are turned under with the spade 
and the rows are thus shifted to the middle of the space. The 
sasne i>rocess is repesAed eff«ry «eeoiid year. 



MEDLAR. (Mespilw Germanica.) 

A low spreading tree ; the branches are woolly ; the 
leaves are oval, lanceolate, serrate and woolly towards their 
points. The fruit is round or turbinate, the size that of a 
plum. The pulp is thick and contains five wrinkled stones. 
An ornamental shrub when in bloom, and a native of the 
south of Europe. 

UsKS. — ^The fruit is much esteemed by some ; but it is 
never eaten till ameliorated by frost and in a state of decay. 


NoTTisoHAM Medlar. Loudon. 

A firuit of a quick and pungent taste. . 

German Medlar or Dutch medlar, Loudon. 

A low, crooked, deformed tree, with very large leaves, 
entire, and downy beneath ; the flowers are very large ; 
the fruit very large, somewhat resembling an apple in 
shape. This variety is the largest of the medlars and is 
deemed the best 

Soil and Cultivation. — Raised by seeds, planted while 
fresh and in autumn ; also by layers— or by grafting and 
inoculating, either on the Medlar or on the Quince, the 
Hawthorn or the Pear. They require a loamy, rich soil, 
rather moist than dry, on a dry subsoil. 


WALNUT. {Juglans regia.) 
Ekolish or Madeira Nut. 
This is stated to be a native of Persia and China. It is 
a lofty spreading tree, with pinnated leaves, of a powerful 

NUTS. 365 

odor. The fruit is roundish oblong, smooth, green, inclos- 
ing a nut of a yellow color and irregular form, which con- 
tains a four lobed kernel of an agreeable taste. 

Uses. — ^The walnut is an esteemed dessert fruit ; it also 
forms an excellent pickle when gathered, while it is yet so 
tender as to be easily prpbed with a needle. In France, 
according to Phillips, an oil equal to the oil of almonds is 
drawn from them. This oil does not congeal by cold, is 
highly prized by the painters for mixing delicate colors 
and varnish ; and is excellent in medicine. He further in- 
forms us that the young preserved nuts are an excellent 
sweetmeat; good to be eaten in the morning, in time of 
pestilential distempers, to prevent infection. — A most su- 
perior family medicine when eaten in the small quantity of 
a single nut. They are prepared as follows ; Green wal- 
nuts in the state fit for pickling are boiled till tender; 
then take them out, and to every pound of nuts add a pound 
of moist sugar, a little water, lemon-peel, mace, cloves, 
and simmer till the syrup is thick, and let them stand ten 


days : then clarify half as much more sugar, and boil as 
before ; and when cold cover them close for use. 

The decoction of the leaves annoys or destroys noxious 
insects and worms. 

The timber is very extensively used {pr gunstocks, being 
deemed lighter in proportion to its strength and elasticity 
than any other wood. 

Cultivation, Soil, &c. — The walnut is raised from 
the seed planted in autumn; the second year they are 
transplanted and deprived of a portion of their tap root 
They require a rich soil of loam and sand rather than clay. 
Fine varieties may be inarched; — or budded from the 
minute buds at the base of the young shoot, inserted in the 
summit of the two years old wood. 


BLACK WALNUT. (Juglana Nigra.) 

A majestic tree with a round spreading head which 
sometimes rises to the height of 70 feet, with a diameter of 
from 4 to 7 feet The leaves are pinnate and consist of 
six or eight pair of leaflets. — They are acuminate, serrate 
and downy. The fruit is large and surrounded with a thick, 
globular, smooth, green husk ; the shell is rough, uneven 
in its surface, odoriferous, hard, thick, and black. It in- 
closes a four lobed kernel which is large and sweet. 

Uses. — From the nuts an oil is expressed equal to dive 
oil lor food and useful for the painter. From the husk a 
brown dye is procured of difierent shades. The sap wood 
is white, but the heart is violet, becoming nearly black. 
It is very strong, fine grained, compact and heavy, and ad« 
mits a beautifbl polish : and is employed for furniture, and 
the stocks of muskets, and for the naves of wheels. It is 
strong and durable ; and it is said to be never attacked hj 
the eea worm. 

Cultivation, Soil, &c. — ^The cultivation of this tree is 
the same as the walnut. It flourishes in any good soil ; 
but prefers the deep, fertile, and alluvial soils on the mar- 
gins of creeks and rivers. 

BUTT£RNUT. (Mi^m CaikarHca. OU AW, WbiU 

Walwui. ) 

A large tree with a broad spreading head. In suitable 
situations it rises 50 or 60 feet, with a diameter of from 3 
to 4 feet at this distance above the ground. 

When young, this tree and its leaf strikingly resemble 
the Black Walnut ; but when older they are easily distin- 
guished. The fruit is similar in most respects to that va- 
riety, but is oval oblong ; and the nut which is inclosed 
is oblong, rounded at the base and pointed at its summit 
The kernel is sweet and abounds in oil. 


Uses.— The fruit is eaten at thw uwweiii mt piemffig^ 
it is superior, and is equally prized as the walnut. Its fruit 
preserved in the same m^nna^^s directed for the walmit, 
ia p.aiiaUy « ■w^tient;^ and of equal medicinal efficacy. Pills 
formed by eyaporating a decoction of the inner bark to a 
yiscid consistence, are said to form one of the yery best 
cathartics known. The timber is of a reddish hue, not 
strong, but light and durable. It is neyer attacked by 
worms. It is not liable to split, and its uses are the same 
as the basswood. 

CuLTiyATiON. — The cultivation of the Butternut is the 
same as the walnut ; it flourishes in any good soil ; on coldy 
unprodustive, and rocky soils, on the steep banks of riverSk^ 

CHESNUT. (Castanea.) 

The European Chesnut was so named, according to Phil' 
lips, from Castanea, a city of that name in Thessalia, from 
whence the Romans first procured them. The chesnut is 
a large tree of a fine form, rising sometimes to the hei|;ht 
of 80 feet The leaves are of an elongated form, coarsely 
serrated, of a fine shining green. A large globular prickly 
burr inclosed two or three nuts of a dark brown color. 

Uses. The firuit is used either boiled, roasted, or in a 
raw state. Phillips informs us, that in the south of France, 
in Italy, and Savoy, they are made into puddings, cakes and 
bread. And " chesnuts stewed with cream make a much 
admired dish : they make excellent soup ; and stewed and 
served up with salt fish they are much admired." We are 
dso further informed that there is now at Fortworth, in 
Gloucestershire, a great chesnut tree, fiflytwo feet round ; 
which in 1150 was so remarkable that it was called Tk6 
great Chesnvt oflhrtworih. And Marsham states that this 
tree is 1100 years old. Lastly, the timber of this tree is 
almost incorruptible, and more durable than oak. Its dura^ 



matj te c miimmui grgte with the long life of the tree. The 
American Chesnut differs very little from that of Europer— 
The fruit is smaller, bm cttually gfood. Its growth is very 
rapid. The bark for tanning is superior w^mJl 

CuLTiVATioif. — ^The Chesnut is raised from the seeds 
planted in autumn — the second year they are transplanted. 
A sandy or gravelly loam with a dry subsoil best suits them. 

CHINQUAPIN. (Castanea pumOa.) 

The Dwarf Chesnut rises to the height of 10 or 12 feet, 
but sometimes 30 or 40 feet. The tree and its fruit are 
vith but little variation, a miniature of the Chesnut just de < 
scribed. But the timber is finer grained, more compact, 
heavier, if not more durable. It flourishes in any dry soil. 
Its cultivation k the same as the walnut and chesnut It 
is not found wild, north of Pennsylvania.. 

SHAGBARK HICKORY. (Juglans squamosa.) 

The Shagbark or Shellbark is an elegant tree of a tall 
and stately form, rising to the height of 80 and 90 feet^ Its 
height is very tall in proportion to its dimensions near the 
base ; often from 45 to 50 diameters. 

Its leaves are oval, acuminate, in five leaflets, of a beau- 
tiful shining green above, glaucous beneath. When it has 
arrived to middle size, the outer bark separates in long thin 
plates or scales, warped out at the ends, giving the tree a 
shaggy and bristling appearance. In this respect it differs 
not only from other trees, but from other hickories : also in 
the fruit which is round or oval, its hull very thick, cover- 
ing a nut whose shell is always thin, and four lobed kernel 
sweet. The timber of the Shagbark always splits clear ; 
it works smooth ; it is very compact, strong, and elastic, and 
is preferred to any other wood or hickory for axe handles, 
ox bows, and various domestic utensils where all these 
qualities are jfequired. 

NUTS. 360 

CuLTivATioir, Soil, &c. The cultivation of this tree is 
the same as the walnut. It flourishes in any good soil, even 
in low wet land. — 

PACANE NUT. (Juglans olivmformis.) 

A beautiful tree, rising with a straight, well proportioned 
trunk to the height of 60 or 70 feet. Each leaf consists of 
six or seven leaflets. The nut, which is encompassed with 
a thin hull, is an inch and a half long ; cylindrical, pointed 
at its extremities, and has four slightly projecting angular 
ribs. The shell is smooth and thin, the kernel four lobedj 
and sweet. 

FILBERTS. (Corylus.) 

A large shrub, with wood of an ash color ; leaves alter- 
nate roundish cordate. Its fruit is well known and highly 
esteemed. The American Hazelnut is a small variety. 
They are extensively cultivated in Europe. " In the neigh- 
borhood of Avelino, in Italy," says Swinburn, " thQ whole 
face of the neighboring valley is covered with them, and 
in good years they yield a profit of 60,000 ducats. — And 
from a single wood near Recus, in Spain, sixty thousand 
bushels have been gathered in a single year and shipped 
from Barcelona, whence they are called Barcelona nuts." — 

Phillips further informs us, the produce of a single acre 
planted with filberts, has sometimes been sold for fifty 
pounds. And Loudon states that its returns are very pro- 


1. Frizzled Filbert. Pom, Mag. One of the very 
best. The fruit is produced in threes or fives, sometimes 
more ; rather small, oblong, flattened, the shell moderately 





ftiok fitted with tbe kernel^ which u of good flftvor. Very 

C08FORD Nut. Pom. Mag. A large oblong nut ; shell 
thin ; kernel wbitOy 8we6t» and of excellent qoallty. Very 

Red F11.BERT. Loudon. Pom. Mag. Very fine flavored, 
hut not productive. 

Cobnut. Loudon. A large nut, shell thick, kernel sweet. 

Pearson's Prolific. Pom. Mag. A great bearer. 

Spanish or Barcelona. A large nut with a thin shell ; 
this is the sort we usually import. 

Knight's Large. Pom. Mag. Very fine. 

Cultivation. — By seeds is not the best mode of rais- 
ing ; except to procure new varieties ; by lay^s is best, as 
this preserves the kinds. A deep, dry, sandy loam, oa a 
dry subsoil, is the best ; according to the English writers, 
a well manured soil. In a rich moist soil they grow too 
lazufiantly to produce firuit They require pruning and 
trimming, to be kept low ; the leading shoots are everf 
year to be shortened two thirds or more. 


MUSK MELON. (Cueumis nuio.) 

A delicious, large, oblong or globular ^it, too generallj 
known to need a particular description, ft is a native of 
Asia, and besides its use at the dessert, it forms while young 
an excellent pickle. 


1. Black Rock. Lindley. 

Very large, oblate, yellowish skin. Flesh thick, orange 
colored, and of excellent flavor. 


11. Melon or Keisino. Hort Trans. 

A beautiful egg shaped fruit, bright lemon color. Flesh 
Tcry thick, nearly white, very juicy, delicate, sweet and 
high flavored like a Beurr^ Pear. 

12. Montagu Canta loupe. Hort. Trans. 

Forai round or oval, small, greenish white ; flesh thick, 
reddish, soft, sweet, juicy and delicate. 

18. Orange Cantaloupe. Lindley. 

A small, round yellow fruit; flesh deep orange red, 
juicy, sugary, and extremely highly flavored. 

14. KoMANA. Neill. 

A middle sized, oval, pale yellow fruit, ribbed ; flesh 
yellow, firm, and well flavored. 

15. Scarlet Rock. Lindley. 

An oblate, deeply ribbed, pale green fruit ; flesh red- 
dish ; tender, juicy, sweet, and highly flavored. 

16. Silver Rock. Lindley. 

Middled sized, oblate ; skin green and yellow, blotched ; 
flesh pale red, sweet and well flavored. 

17. Smooth Scarlet-fleshed. Lindley. Hort. Trans. 

Form round or oval ; akin greenish yellow ; flesh scarlet, 
Ann, and high flavored. 

18. Sweet Melon or Ispahan. Hort. Trans. 

Fruit large, ovate ; skin smooth, of a sulphur color ; flesh 
white, very thick, crisp, sugary, and very rich. 

19. Dampsha Melon. Zamsky. Hort Trans. 

Fruit oblong, yellowish green ; flesh green, melting and 
of excellent flavor. 

20. Green Valencia. Hort. Trans. 

Form oval, pointed, slightly ribbed, of a dark green color ; 


and boil it in alum water until clear ; throw it into spring 
water, where it may remain two or three hours, changing 
the water frequently. ' 

<< To one pound of fruit, take two of sugar, make a sy- 
rup of half the quantity and boil in it all the citron until 
done, when it will be transparent. At the expiration of 
two or three days, take the jelly from it, add the remain- 
ing half of sugar ; boil and pour it over the citron, which 
will be ready for use. Season it with ginger, sliced lemon 
is preferable.** 

The inspissated juice of the watermelon of the sweetest 
kinds, affords a bright, light colored syrup. A conserve 
and marmalade is also prepared from the fruit. At Sarpa 
on the River Volga, says Pallas, they brew beer from the 

Varieties. — 1. Long Carolina ; 2. Round Carolina. 

Cultivation. — The cultivation of the watermelon is 
in all respects the same as the musk melon. Innumerable 
and nameless fine varieties continually appear. But the 
same precautions are necessary to preserve the seed in its 
purity as are recommended for the musk melon. They 
require a highly manured rich warm soil. 


The other varieties are nsed at the dessert as a pickle. For 
piclcliog the uDripe fruit is steeped in water some days, and then 
in a ley of water and Barilla, or kali and lime; and afterwards 
hottled or barrelled with salt and water. According to some they 
are scalded. 

But the principal use of the Olive is for the production of the 
oil known in commerce as the Olive oil. For this purpose they 
are gathered by hand when five sixths are ripe, in a fine dry day, 
and laid on scaffilds three or four inches thick : here they are to 
remain 5, 6, 7 or 8 days, till the moisture contained in their pulp 
has evaporated, when they are ground and put into bags of homp 
or rushes, carried to the press, and the oil is extracted by its action, 
without however crushing the stone. This oil is of the first qual- 
ity, and is used as an article of food and medicine. Thai which 
is afterwards obtained by crushing the stone, from the remaining 
pulp, and from the kernel by the application of hot water, is of in- 
ferior quality. This last is used by the apothecary for various 
unguents ; it is used in the preparation of wool in the manu- 
lacturea ; in the preparation of soap, &«. 


In the New Duhamel and Bon Jardinier we have the follow- 
ing account of some of the best varieties known in cultivation. 

1. Olive Galininguk. Ouliviere. Laurinr. O. An- 
gtUosa, Gouan. 

A hardy variety ; its fruit is reddish ; it is used in many 
places for preserving ; its oil is of medium quality, according to 
Gouan, but very good according to others. 

2. Olive Aolandeaxj. Caianne. Dec. O. Subrotunda. 
Fruit small, round, very bitter ; oil excellent 

3. Olive Amellon. Amellinoxje, Plant d'Aix. O. 
Amygdelina, Gouan. 

This is a variety the most generally cultivated ; its fruit some- 
what resembles an almond ; it is sometimes used for preserving, 
but its oil is very sweet. 

4. Olive Cormeau. O. Cranimorpha. Gouan. 

The branches incline towards the earth ; it Is very productive 
the fruit is small, crooked, pointed, very black; stone sharp at 
its two extremities. 

6. Olive Ampoulleau, Barralinoue. O, sphariea, 

Th6 fruit is more round than any other variety ; the oil is deli- 

0LITE8. 367 

6. Olive Picholine. Laurine. O. obUmga, Gouan. 
The fruit is reputed best for preserving. The oil is fine and 

sweet. According to Rosier, some have given the same name to 
another and different fruit. 

7. Olive Verdole. Verdau. O. Viridula, Gouan. 

It preserves its green color a long time ; it is subject to perish 
at the period of its maturity ; it is highly esteemed at Pont-Saint- 
Esprit ; but neglected elsewhere, is this owing to soil or culti- 

8. Olive Moureau, Mourette, Mourescole, Ne- 
grette. 0» prcBcox. Gouan.* 

Fruit oval, very deep color ; the stone is small ; oil esteemed ; 
there are several varieties of the Moureau. 

9. Olive Bouteilleau, Boutiniane, Nopugete. O, 
racetnosa. Gouan. 

This is little sensible to cold ; it is loanable in its produce ; the 
oil isi good. 

10. Olive Saterxe, Salierne. O. atrortibens. Gouafe. 

The tree is of small growth, and ia sensible to cold. It grows 
in flinty and calcareous rocky soils. The fruit is a black 
violet ; the oil is of the fines: quality. 

11. Olive Marbree. Pigau. O. variegata, G^uan. 

Fruit variable in size and in form ; it changes from green to 
red marbled with red, violet and white. 

12. Olive Tttrquoise. O. odorata. Rosier. 

Leaves large and numerous : fruit long, of an agreeable odor 
excellent to preserve. 

13. Olive D'Espagne, L'Espanole, a variety of Aiguie- 
res. O. hispanica. Rosier. 

The largest olive of France ; esteemed for preserves ; the oil 

14. Olive Royale, Triparde, Triparelle. O. Regia, 

Fruit large, suitable to pickle. Oil of bad quality. 

16. Olive Pointue. Punchude, Rougepte. O.atrovirens. 

Fruit long, pointed at its two extremities ; red at maturity, oil 

16. 17. Amongst all the varieties in cultivation we must not 
omit to mention the Sweet White Olive and the Sweet 


BiiACK Olive, which, when rip«, may, unlike the others, be 
eaten without preparation. 

By the aid of the researches o( the Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn 
I am enabled to give an account of two other varieties. They 
are two varieties of the most hardy description, and the most im« 
portent of all for the United States. In the southern part of 
the Crimea which lies between the latitude of 44^ and 46<' two 
varieties of olives have been discovered which have existed 
there for centuries. They yield great crops and resist the frost. 
The trees of one of these varieties is of a pyramidal form and pro- 
duces an oval fruit ; the other has pendant branches and a large 
heart-shaped berry. Tliese olives have been cultivated in the 
Russian imperial Garden ofNikita. (o preserve and multiply the 
species, with plants which had been received from Provence, and 
have endured the rigorous winters of 1825 and 1826, while those 
of Provence, in the same exposure, perished even to the root. 
Measures have been recently taken in France for the introduc- 
tion into that country of ** these two precious varieties t which are 
eapabl4,*if resisting ten or twelve degrees of cold below the zero 
of Reaumur's Thermometer" — equal of five degrees above the 
xery ot Fahrenheit. — [See Vol. viii. page 285, N. E. Farmer.] 

Cultivation, Soil, &c. — The olive is raised from seeds : 
For this purpose the fruit is stripped of its pulp and steeped in an 
alkaline solution, and planted in autumn or March. Also by 
cuttini^s^ layers, suckers from the roots and by inoculation. But 
it U propagated in Italy, from the uovoli, which are small knots, 
swellings or tumours in the wood, occasioned by the sap not 
flowing freely to the roots, but swelling through the bark of the 
stock, thus forming excrescences containing embryo buds. 
These are easily detached by introducing a sharp penknife close 
to the trunk of the tree which sustains not the least injury by 
thift operation. — Remarks of Signor Manetti qf Monza, near 
MUan^ Lombardy, Loudon*s Mag. Vol, viu p. 663. 

The olive flourishes best in a rich, moist, deep soil; but the 
fruit is of much better quality in a dry flinty soil intermixed 
with calcareous rocks : it also suffers less from the frost in such 

The olive was extensively cultivated in France ; but the 
winters of 1709, 1766, and 1787 were dreadfully destructive ; 
the dreadful winter of 17S9 destroyed all the olives between 
Aries and Aix where, in 1787, oil was produced to the amount of 
300,000 francs. During the intensely cold winter of 1820 near- 
ly every tree in Provence was killed. Under these discourage- 
ments its cultivation is in that country principally confined to a 
portion of the teiritories of Provence and of Languedoc ; — to the 


departments of the eastern Pyrennees and the Maritime Alps : not 
one fourth part of the oil consumed in France is now produced in 
the country, and it is stated that more that 50,000,000 francs are 
annually paid for supplies imported from Spain, Italy and the 

M. Andre Michaux is persuaded the olive will one day be ex- 
tensively cultivated in the Southern States of America. Mr 
Jefferson is persuaded that there is no tree so useful for tbe sus- 
tenance of man ; and informs us that the supply of its oil would 
of itself create its own demand. 

CAROB. (Ceratonia caroubier.) 

A tree cultivated extensively in tlie south of Europe. The 
pods of this tree contain a sweet, eatable fcecula. A medium 
sized tree which flourishes in the central part of France. The 
flowers are in clusters, of a deep purple. Fruit a foot loi^, con- 
taining a reddish pu!p of an agreeable taste when dry. It is raised 
from seeds and the wood is ^most incorruptible. 

CUSTARD APPLE. (Annona. — Coroasal) 

Of this fruit there are several varieties. — Their fruit in con- 
genial climates is said to be highly esteemed as an article of the 
dessert ; particularly the ehertmoyer (A. eherimoyla) of Peru, 
which produces its frUit in the south of Spain, is described as a 
superior fruit. This variety is also cultivated in Brazil. 

The Mligator Apple (Jl. palustrU), — the Sweet sop (A. 
squamosa)^ and Sour sop (A; muriata) are esteemed West In- 
dia fruits. The fruit resembles a middle sized apple filled with 
a soft sweet pulp. The tree is deciduous, it is propagated by 
seeds, and by grafting either in the roots or above. 

There is a variety a native of Kentucky, (A. Glabra.) IBon 
Jard. Loudon. Cat. Hort. Soe.] 

EUPHORIA. (Dimocarpus, Longan.) Loudon. Hort. Soc. Cat 

This tree has compound leaves like the ash. It ^rows in Chi- 
na , the fruit is a berry of a light brown color ; it is surrounded 
with a thin leathery coat. The pulp is a thin, colorless substance, 
and contains in its centre a brown seed. The flavor of the pulp 
is slightly sweet, subacid, and particularly pleasant to the taste. 
The iruit is sometimes imported in a dried state from China, and 
has a rich, sweet taste. v_ 

It is raised from seeds and layers. The Li-tchi and Rambutan 
both possess superior qualities to the Long-yen. 

GRAN A DILL A. {Passiflora.) Loudon. Bon Jard « 
Of this fruit there are a variety of species. 



This plant flourishes near Paris, with a little protection in win- 
ter. The leaver are oval, five or six inches long and entire : the 
stem four cornered. The flowers are odoriferous, red within, and 
white outside. The fruit is described by Mr Sabine as very 
large, six inches long and fifteen in circumference. Greenish 
yellow at maturity, soil and leathery, with a smooth skin. The 
rind i/ very thick, the pulp soft and succulent, of a purple color, 
mixed with seeds in a sort of sack. Wine and sugar is common- 
ly added. The flavor is sweet, and slightly acid, and it is very 
grateful to the taste and cooling in a hot clinMite. A native of 

2. Apple-fruited or Sweet Calabash. P. Ma\for» 

Fruit round, smooth, two inches in diameter, of a dinfcy yellow 
color. The sVin is thick, the pulp pale yellow, and very agree- 
able. A native of the West Indies. 

3. Purple-fruited Granadilla. (P. Meamata.) 

The color of the fruit is livid purple, tAe shape elliptic. It is 
two inches long and an inch and a half in diameter The pulp 
is orange color, the seeds numerous ; the taste acid, with the 
flavor somewhat like an orange. A native of Brazil. 

4. Flesh-colored Granadilla. May Apple. (P. Incar- 
not a.) 

A native of Virginia ; the flowers are sweet scented, variegated 
with purple. The fruit is about the size of an apple, orange 
colored with a sweetish yellow pulp. 

Cultivation. — All the soils may be propagated from seeds, 
firom layers and from cuttings. 

GUAVA. (Psidium.) Loudon. Boa Jard. 

1. White Guaya. P. Pyrjferum. 

A West India tree, naturalized in the interior of France where 
it produces perfect fruit. A tree 9 to 12 feet hi^h, with nama- 
roos branches. The fruit is the size of a hen's egg, roundish or 
oblong, smooth, yellow. The rind is thin : pulp fine, full of hard 
seeds, flesh-colored, sweet, aromatic, and pleasant. It is eaten 
with avidity, both by West Indians and Europeans, raw in the 
dessert and preserved in sugar. 

2. Red Guava. P. Pom\ferum. 

A beautiful fruit,' formed like a pomegranate ; but is not so, 
agreeable as the white. 


3. Cattley's Guava. P. Cattleianum, 

A new species from China. This fruit is larger thafO the others 
I have described, nearly spherical, of a fine, deep claret color. 
The skin has the consistence of a ripe fig but is thinner ; the inte- 
rior is a soft, fleshy pulp, purplish red next the skin, and changing 
to white at the centre. It is juicy, and much in consistence like 
the strawberry, to which it bears some resemblance. 

The Guaya is raised from the seeds. This last and the cherry 
fruited are stated to he the best. The plants of the yellow and 
red have produced abundant crops in England. 

JUJUBE. Zizypus sativus, Loudon. Bon Jard. 


A branching, thorny shrub from Syria, of the easiest ijulture 
in Italy, Barbary and China, and abundant bearers. It is much 
cultivated in Provence, from whence they are sent to Paris. 
They are served up as a sweetmeat in Italy. The leaves are 
oblong, obtuse, shining; the flowers very small and yellow. 
The fruit is yellow the size and shape of an olive. According 
to Loudon the kaki are orange or apple shaped. 

^ LIN-KIV, (Ed, Enc. Art. China.) 

A species of water chesnut, grows in China, of a cooling and 
agreeable taste, sometimes sold like filberts, in a green stale ; 
sometimes dried, powdered, and made into soup, and sometimes 
baked in the oven with sugar and honey. They sow the seeds at 
the end of autumn in the shallowest places of ponds and rivers in 
a south exposure. 

LOQUAT. {Mespilus Japonica.) Loudon Hort. Soc. Cat. 


A plant nearly hardy, from Japan, cultivated in the south of 
France and at Malta. A lofty tree with thick knobby branches — 
the leaves are narrow, a span long ; the fruit has five cells and is 
produced in clusters, and is about the size of a gooseberry, and in 
taste resembling an apple. It is raised from seed, from cuttings, 
and layers, but the best way is to graft it on the common Mes- 
pilus. Str Joseph Banks considers the fruit equally as good as 
that of the mango. 


A new genus of fruit, it grows in Chili, in taste and size, it is 
somewhat similar to a peach. — Ed, Enc. Art. Chili. 


This plant grows in Chili ; and is said to be a new genus, its 
feeds afford an oil which has been preferred to any of the French 
olive oils. — Ed. Enc Art.^i/t. 


OLEASTER ELEAONUS. Jlngu$tifoliut. Hort. Soc. Cat. 
Bon Jard. 

A tree of medium sife, with leaves of a white color and lanceo- 
late ; the flowers small, numerous, and of a yellowish colur, and 
an af^reeable odor. The fruit is held in some estimation in Per- 
sia, and the fruit or Persian datCf when dried, resembles an oblong 
plum, with a tough reddish skin, with a flavor not unlike that of 
the date, but more grateful. Raised from layers. 

PINUS PINEA, or Stone Piiri, 

Is a tall evergreen, growing spontaneously in Italy, Spain, and 
Portugal. The kernels which are contained in the cones are 
eaten in those countries at the dessert, being preferred to almonds. 
They are esteemed useful in colds,coughs, &c. The trees flourish 
in any soil, but prefer a sandy loam. 

PISTACHIA. (Pistaeia vera.) Bon Jard. 

A native of Syria. A tree rising to the height of twenty feet. 
The flowers are in clusters, and Uie barren and fertile blossoms 
are produced on different trees* but the barren may be engrafted 
into the same tree producing fertile flowers. The fruit is of a 
crimson green color and contains a greenish kernel of an agree- 
able flavor. 

The Pistachia has been naturalized to the middle of France,and 
it flourishes at the Luzemberg, producing good fruit, but itis there 
trained as an espalier. 

PRICKLY PEAR. {Cactus, CacHer). 

Of this singular fruU there are several varieties; we enume- 
rate C. oppunta. — The upright prickly pear, a native of 
Virginia. The stems are jointed and without leaves, they are 
broad, flat, thick, with bristling spines, and trail on the ground. 
The fruit is in form of a fig or pear, with clusters of spines on the 
skin ; its pulp is of a reddish purple color, and of an agreeable sub- 
acid flavor. Loudon enumerates several varieties, as the great 
IncUan fig or upright prickly pear (C /una) ; oblong Indian fig 
( C. fieus indiea\y Ilc. 

The Virginia Prickly Pear (C. oppunta) has, as I am informed, 
flourished unprotected, and with no attention survived several 
bard winters near Boston. Accident produced this discovery. 
Mr Braddick, according to Loudon, has tried the plant in open 
ground, unprotected, during several hard winters. He cultivates 
them in a composition of half lime rubbish or carbonate of lime, 
and the other half equal parts of clay and bog earth. The plant 
is raised on a small hillock : stones and pebbles are laid to pre- 
vent the leaves or fruit touching the ground. Raised from seeds 
or cuttings. 



The pomegranate, (Punica.) Loudon. 

Is a low, deciduous tree, rising from fifteen to twenty feet high, 
armed with thorns; the leaves are long and narrow. A native 
of the south parts of Europe and China. It is URed for hedges in 
Languedoc and Italy. There are several varieties enumerated 
by Loudon. 

1. The Subacid fruited ; 2. Large flowered, single Hed and 
White ; 3. Tfie semidouble^ and double Red and White 3 4. 
The Yellow flowered ; 6. The variegated flowered ; 6. Prolif- 

Pomegranate. {Punica granatum,) 

Sweet Pomegranate. N. Duh.Pl. 22. 
Grenadier d fruit Doux. Ibid. 

The flowers are of the most brilliant red ; it blossoms succes- 
sively from June to September, one of the greatest oman^eniv- 
of the gardens. 

The fruit is large, compressed at its base and summft, its di- 
ameter three or four inches ; its skin is thick, of a leather like 
consistence, of a deep yellow color ; spotted with red points, 
and colored with red next the sun. Its interior is divided into va- 
rious unequal compartments, in which are contained a great num- 
ber of angular seeds of the size and color of red currants ; the 
pulp contains a juice, sweet, abundant and agreeable. 

Cultivation. — The Pomegranate is raised from seed, from 
layers, from cuttings and suckers. It may be inoculated or 
grafted. It requires a strong rich soil. 

TEA. (Thea.) 

The tea tree is a native of China. It is chiefly cultivated be- 
tween the 30th^ and 40th*' of latitude. It is a low tree, resem- 
bling in its appearance a myrtle ; — its roots that of a pear ; 
the flowers those of the wild rose. The fruit is of the size of a 
small plum, two or three growing together. 

The quantity ot tea annually imported into Europe and Amer- 
ica from China, probably exceeds 100,000,000 lbs. Good tea is 
deemed wholesome, if taken in moderation with a due proportion 
of cream and sugar ; but the fresh baves of the shrub when 
made into tea, are highly narcotic, producing giddiness and stu- 
pefaction, before the noxious properties are dissipated by roast- 
ing. And it is not recommended to drink of its infusion till it has 
been gathered and prepared a year. There are, it is asserted, 
but two kinds of tea, the green and the black. The rest are 
either combinations of these, or products of different soils, or 
times of gathering and modes of management. The tea plant 
might be easily cultivated in the Southern States, and grows well 
in the Carol inas and Georgia. It is said to have been success- 



fully cullivated by a loclety of nun* at Wurtzburg, in Francooia, 
in the lat of 49* or 50*' north. 

The tea tree, in China, prrows equally in the level and moun- 
tainouf districts ; but flourishes best in a lieht rocky soil. The 
seeds are sown In March, end transplanted into rows four feet 
apart and three feet in the row ; but it is not generally allowed 
to grow more than six or seven feet high. The trees begin to 
yield crops at the end of three years, but at the end of six years 
the trees must be renewed, as the leaves begin to grow hard 
and harsh. The leaves which are gathered early in the spring 
are of a bright green color. Those of the second crop are of a 
livid KTeen — and those which are gathered last, or in the latter 
end of spring, are of a dark green, and of the third quality. The 
leaves of the extremities of the branches are moat tender. Those 
of the lower parts are the most coarse. After the leaves are gath- 
^ed, they are exposed to the steam of boiling water. They are 
then made to shiivel or roll together, by bemg placed on plates 
of copper or iron, or of baked earth, over the fire, and next dried 
by exposure to the sun. But the green teas and those of the first 
quality are not dried by exposure to the sun, as this causes them 
te turn black. And in the preparation of some of the fine sorts, 
especially that called Tchu-tcha, every leaf is rolled singly in 
the hand with great care ; after drying, it is packed in boxes 
lined with lead. — Dom. Ency. Ed. Encu. Art. China, 

This last operation of rolling every leaf singly, by hand, of the 
finest kinds of tea, would never answer in a country like ours 
where labor is comparativelv dear. If the operation is performed 
at all it must be by machinery invented and constructed for 
Uie special purpose. 


A fruit of China, which resembles a fig, about the size of an 
ordinary apple, and which when dried, and flattened, are called 
Tchee-ping, and then equal to the best figs of Europe. — £<2. 
Ene. Art China, 


This plant grows in ponds, and is eaten like the Chesnut, and 
Mr Neill informs us that the canal of Versailles is covered with 
the plant, and that the root is sometimes served up at the table. 


A species of Indian fig, grows in Chili, and is equal to any 
European fig. <— Ed. Ene. Art. Chili, 

Fruits which ri.ouRisH onlt in Coitntries situated 


All the following fruits will probably succeed in the south of 
Louisiana, and especially in Florida from the latitude of 25® to 
SO^, and many of them in the south of Alabama and Mississippi. 


ORANGE. (Citru8.) Loudon. 

Scientific writers have divided the Orange tribe into five lead- 
ing species, which are all natives of Asia, viz. The common Or- 
ange, the Lemon, the Citron, the Lime and the Shaddock. The 
common character belonging to them, is that of tow evergreen 
trees, with oval, lanceolate, or ovate, entire, or serrated loaves. 
Those raised from seed, have often auxiliary spines ; the flowers 
in' peduncles. The fruits are round or oblong, and of a yellow 
color. The petiole in the Orange and Shaddock is winged, but 
naked in the lime, lemon, and citron. The orange and shad- 
dock are oblate or spherical, and of a red or orange color ; the 
lime is of a pale color and spherical ; the lemon oblong with a 
rough skin and a protuberance at the end. The citron is very 
rough, oblong, with a very thick skin. 

All the species of citrus according to the authority of Loor 
don, endure the open air at Nice, Genoa and Naples ; but at 
Florence, at Milan, and often at Rome, they require protection. 
The orange has been long cultivated in Florida, particularly at 
St Augustine — the orange groves are said to be extremely pro- 
ductive and profitable. 

The orange has been much cultivated in Louisiana, and may 
perhaps succeed well in the extreme south of Mississippi and 

" In the south of Devonshire" according to Loudon and Phil- 
ips, '< and particularly at Saltcombe, one of the warmest spots in 
England, may be seen in a few gardens, orange trees that have 
withstood the winter in the open air upwards of a hundred 
y^wpo. Tb« fruH ck9 Iftrge aa^i as fan e as any from Portugal. 
Trees raised from the seed, and inoculated on the spot, are found 
to bear the cold better than trees that are imported." 


1. Common Orange. Citrus aurantiutn. Loudon. 
" A middle sized evergreen tree, with prickly branches in its 
wild state. The fruit is nearly round, and from two to three inches 
in diameter, and of a golden color. A native of India and China 
but now cultivated in most countries of Europe ; — in Spain and 
Italy in the open air." The orange I have just described is 
commonly called the sweet or China orange. 

2. Mandarin Orange. Citrus nohilis. Philips. 

So called from its superiority to all other oranges. Introduced 
to England in 1806, and not yet cultivated or generally known 
in Europe ; it appears as hardy as. other kinds. A most delicious 
variety ; — the rind is of a deep saffi'on color, or between an 
orange and scarlet. The large variety often measures five 
inches in diameter : but the Chinese greatly prefer the smaller 


variety of this orange, which the Botanic*] Register has stated 
to be an entirely distinct species from the common China oranee. 
Citrus aurantium, A native of Cochin Ciiina — and culti- 
vated at Canton. It would thus seem that there are two varie- 
ties of (he Mandarin. Loudon says it is distinguished from 
other oranj^es by its curious form, and is the most delicate of 
all the orange tribe. Whence its name of Mandarin or Noble 

3. Seville Orange, Bigarade ot ihe Fr. Bitter Orange, 

This orange, which is a common sort, has an agreeably bitter 

4. Blood oa Maltese Oaange. Rev. Mr Bigelow's 

This, according to Mr Bigelow, is the boast of the Island of 
Malta, and a most delicious fruit, " The pulp inclines to the 
color of red, but not so much in mass, ns intermixed in streaks. 
It is not only more luscious, but less husky than the ordinary 
varieties of orange, and in size is far surpassing." 

The above appear to be the most esteemed oi all known. 

Uses. — The use of the orange as a dessert fruit is well 
known. The juice of the orange, from its pleasant sub-acid fla- 
vor, is serviceable in inflammatory or febrile diseases ; by dimin- 
ishing heat and allaying thirst. ' It is a powerful anUscorbutic. 
Orange Wine {See Dom. Ency.) is thus made. A gallon of 
water and three pounds of sugar arc boiled and skimmed for 
twenty minutes, and when nearly cool, the juice expressed from 

eight Seville (sour) orauttcs «• -aJed, tt^g^ithcr with tho .IkA 

vines of the outer rinds. The whole to be placed in a barrel and 
after frequent stirrings for two days, to be bunged down for six 
months or more till fit for bottling. The outer rind also forms 
the basis of an excellent conserve, and \_8ee Dom. Eney.\ when 
preserved in sugar, U deservedly prized at the dessert, bemg 
one of the best stomachics, and a grateful aromatic bitter. The 
flowers of the orange tree have a highly «* odoriferous perfume ; 
they have a slightly pungent, bitter taste ; and communicate 
their flavor by infusion to rectified spirits : or by distillation to 
spirit and water. An essential oil is also prepared from the flow- 
ers of a perfume more delicate and agreeable in its fragrance 
than even the Ottar of Roses, It is prepared in Italy and Portu- 
gal, and there called Essentia A*eroK.— [lb.] 

CITRON. (C, Medica.) Loudon. 

A beautiful, evergreen, prickly, and upright tree, rising to Ae 
height of eight feet, with horizontal or reclining branches. The 
leaves are smooth, oblong, ovate, alternate, serrate, pale green. 
The fruit is six inches long, ovate, rough, with a protuberance at 


the summit. There are two rinds, the outer rind is thin, the inner 
thick, white and pulpy. The outer rind has innumerable glands 
filled with a fragrant oil. 

This fruit ripens successively at all seasons. The citron and 
lemon are not deemed so hardy as the orange, and will not en- 
dure so great a degree of cold. 

Uses. — The Citron forms an excellent preserve or sweatmeat. 
The juice with sugar and water, forms the refreshing beverage 
called lemonade, it is used in cookery and in medicine, and is 
powerfully antiscorbutic. There are many varieties. 

LEMON. (C Mediea, var limon) Loudon. 

The lemon and the citron differ but very little. The wood of 
the Lemon tree is more knotty, the bark rousher. The fruit is 
rather longer, more irregular, less knobby at the extremities and 
the skin thinner than that of the Citron. The uses are the same. 
Of the lemon, there are many varieties. 

LIME. (Citrus acida,) Loudon. 

A crooked tree, with many diffuse, prickly branches, which rises 
to the height of eight feet. The leaves ovate, lanceolate, nearly 
entire. The fruit nearly globular, an inch and a half in diameter, 
with a protuberance at its summit; the skin shining, yellowish, 
green and very odorous : the juice very acid. A native of Asia. 

Uses. — The lime is said to be rather preferred to the lemon 
in the West Indies, as the acid is by many thought more agreea- 
ble than that of the lemon. Hedges are formed of the tree in 
the West Indies. 

The varieties of limes are very few. 

SHADDOCK. (C JDeeumana.) 

Orange Pamplemouse of the French. Loudon. 

The tree rising above the medium size, the branches spreading 
and prickly. Leaves ovate, neither acute nor obtuse ; the petioles 
cordate, with very broad wings. Fruit spheroidal, its surface 
regular, of a greenish yellow color : the rind is white, thick, 
fungous, bitter ; the pulp is red or white, with a subacid, sweet 
juice. This fruit is deemed the least useful class. Yet its ex- 
traordinary size gives it a striking appearance. It is stated to 
grow sometimes to the diameter of from seven to eight inches, 
and to the weight of fourteen pounds. But it requires two years 
to arrive at maturity in the climate of Europe. The leaf is the 
most beautiful of all the orange tribe. The juice is excellent to 
allay thirst, and from the thickness of the skin, it will keep longer 
in sea voyages than any other species. 

Cultivation. — The trees are propagated either by saedi^ 


cattingfl or layera. If raised from seeds they mnst be inoculated 
or grsited when of suitable size. For the seedlings are stated to 
vary as much in quality, as the seedlings of the apple and pear. 
The cuttinss are prepared by strippine the lower leaves, and 
cutting at the bottom cIom to an eye ; these are to be placed in a 
pot touching the bottom, and put in a warm situation, carefully 
shaded, and covered with a hand glass till rooted. 

All the varieties require a strong soil, and a protected and fa- 
Torable situation in unfavorable climates. 

PINE-APPLE. (BromtUa ananas.) Hort. Trans. Loudon, 
by Phillips, Lindley and other sources. 

The Pine Apple is a native of Brazil and of Mexico, from 
whence it has been introduced to Asia, Africa and Europe. Ac- 
cording to Swinbum, it flourishes unprotected at Reggio near 
Naples. In America, it ffrows as far north as the Bermudas. 
According to Loudon ** it Is by no means so delicate as many im- 
agine ; as it will bear a higher decree of heat, and a degree of 
cold which would have destroyed the foliage of the vine and 
peach in a state of vegetation. The most northerly points where 
they are known to be cultivated in Europe unprotected in the 
open ground, is at Reesio near Naples. Lat. 40® 60^ 

In America, at the Bermudas ; in the latitude of 32®. Not a 
doubt can, I think exists but this fruit may be cultivated in Florida, 
between the latitudes of 25® and 30®. 

"The leaves of the pine -plant are long, narrow, channeled, 
and in general furnished with spines or prickles on their edges. 
The flowers are on a loose spike, on a scape, which is leafy at top ; 
as the spike ripens, it takes the form of a fleshy scaly strobile, or 
iruit composed of many berries, which have scarcely any cells 
or seeds." 

The fruit, in form bears some resemblance to the cones of some 
species of pine ; its flesh is pretty firm, of a delicious fragrance ; 
and for richness of flavor it is tnought unrivalled. Some have 
described its flavor like that of *^ strawberries with wine and 
sugar." Extraordinary specimens have weighed from nine to ten 

Usxs. --- The ptne-apple is considered the first of the dessert 
fruits ; it is also preserved in sugar, and is used in the prepara- 
tion of marmalades and other oonfectionaries. And the juice of 
the pine-apple fermented, affords a delicious and wholeeome 
vinous liquor. 


1. Antigua Qvxxir. Lindley. 

Fruit large, oval, pips large and prominent; flesh deep yellow, 
rich and highly flavored. 


2. Black Awtigua. Brown Antigua, Neil], Lindley. 

Leaves of a brownish tinge with strong pricliles. Fruit shaped 
lilce the frustrum of a pyramid, but somewhat oval, of Urge size ; 
flesh pale yellow, and high flavored. 

8. Black Jamaica. Neill. Lindley. 

The fruit is large, pyramidal brownish yellow. Flesh deep 
yellow and high flavored. 

4. EirviLiiE. Coxcomb. Lindley. 

The fruit is pyramidal or oval-oblong, of medium size, deep 
orange ; flesh pale yellow, and well flavored. 

5. MoNTsERRAT. MdianBlock Pine, Ripley. Neill. Lhid. 

The leaves are broad, long, recurx'ed. Fruit roundish ovate, 
color pale ; pips angular ; flesh pale yellow, very sweet and hign 

6. New Black Jamaica. Lindley. 

The leaves are long, the fruit is large, pyramidal, dark brown ; 
flesh pale yellow, rich, and very high flavored. 

7. White Providence. Jfew Providence, Loudon. Lind. 

The leaves are very large and long ; the fruit is the larsest 
of all pines, oval—oblong. Flesh very pale, sweet, and juicy. 
Weight from six to fourteen pounds. 

Queen. Old Q^een, JSTarrow leaved Q^een, Lind. Neill. 

Esteemed the hardiest kind. Fruit of medium size ; oval form, 
of a gold color ; flesh yellow, juicy and sweet, with a very pleas- 
ant acid. 

9. Russian Globe. Lindley. 

Fruit large, oval, dark orange; the flesh yellow, rich, and high 
flavored. A very excellent fruit. 

Cultivation and Soil. — The pine apple is propagated 
by seeds, only for obtaining new varieties. But generally form 
suckers, or else from the crouma or excrescences crowing on the 
fruit. The most suitable soil appears to be a mixture of go6d 
loam or with a suitable proportion of sand and vegetable mold 
or manure. The pine apple requires much heat and moisture. 

PLANTAIN. (Miua paradiaiaca.) Phillips. Loudon. 

Some assign this plant to Guinea, some to the East Indies, 
whence it was carried to the Canary Islands and the West Indies, 
and to Egypt. It is an herbaceous perennial plant, as it dies, or is 
out down annually. It rises with a soft, herbaceous, conical 
stalk, fifteen or twenty feet high, with leaves issuing from the 
top, six feet long and two feet broad. The fruit is produced on 
the summit in spikes, which sometimes weigh forty pounds. It is 
nine or ten inches long, and formed like a cucumber, but pointed 


It the endfl ; of t pale jellow color, and loft, sweet, luscious fla- 
Tor. The fruit makes excellent tarts, and excellent sweetmeats, 
and is the most wholeeonie of all confectionary. It forms a princi- 
pal part of the food of the nezroes, who either broil or roast it ; 
they boil it with their salt beet; pork, and salt fish, and preier it to 
bread, as do the Europeans. Or Wright says, the Uland of Ja- 
maica would scarcely be habitable without this fruit, as no spe- 
cies of provision could supply its place. Dampier calls it the 
king of fruits. A plantation afionls a succession of fruit for a 
whole year. It thrives only in rich, flat ground, and is propa- 
gated by suckers from the roots. 

BANANA TR£E. {Mwa iapientum,) Loudon. Phillips. 

It differs little from the plaintain, havini; its stalks marked 
with dark purple stripes and spots, and the fruit is shorter and 
rounder. The fruit is more mellow, and is either eaten raw, or 
roasted, in fritters, preserves, marmalade ; and the fermented juice 
afibrds an excellent wine. This fruit, according to Swinbum, 
grows in the open air at Reggio. From the fibres of the tree 
of the Banana, cloth and cordage is made of uncommon strength. 

AKEE TREE. {Blighia $apida.) Loudon. 

The fruit is esteemed in the West Indies as very wholesome and 
nourishing ; a native of Guinea, and grows from tweotv to twenty- 
five feet high, with numerous branches; leaves like the ash, 
alternate and pinnate. The fruit is reddish or vellow, the size of 
a goose egg, with a pulp of a grateful subacid flavor. It is propa- 
gated in a rich soil, from seeds, cuttings and layers. 

ALLIGATOR PEAR or Avocado Pear. {Laurtu persea.) 

It grows in the West Indies to the height of thirty feet with a 
largo trunk. The leaves are like the laurel, of a deep green. 
Fruit the size of a large pear, and held In great esteem where 
it grows. The pulp is pretty firm, and has a delicate, rich flavor 
— so rich and mild, that most people make use of some spice or 

Eungent substance to give it poignancy — either wine, lime juice, 
ut mostly pepper and salt. It is raised from seeds. 

THE ANCHOVY PEAR. (Grias eauliflora.) Loudon. 

This is, in the West Indies an elegant tree, rising to the height 
of fitly feet The leaves are two or three feet long, and oblong. 
The fruit is oval, the size and shape of an alligator's egg. It is 
pickled and ea'en like the mango of the East Indies, which it 
ffreatly resembles in taste. It is raised from the stones, and grows 
in moist bottoms or shallow waters. 



Is by some supposed a new genus, its branches form a quad- 
rangular pyramid ; the leaves are three inches in length, heart 
shaped, hard and shining ; its fruit attains the size of a man's head, 
and in taste resembles llie chesnut. It grows in Chili. — Ed. 
JEnc, Art. Chill 

BREAD FRUIT. {Artocarpw ineisa,) 

A native of the South Sea Islands, where it obtains the size of 
the oak ; the leaves alternate, glaucous, and two feet long. The 
whole tree and its fruit, while unripe, abounds in a tenacious 
milky juice. The fruit is the size and shape of a child's head, 
with a rough surface and thin skin. It is eatable to the core, 
which is the size of the handle of a small knife. The eatable 
part is as white as snow, of the consistence of new bread. It is 
roasted before it is eaten. It is slightly sweet, and its taste some- 
what insipid at first. 

Raised from seeds, layers, or suckers. 

DURION. {Durio zibethina,) Loudon. 

A lofty East Indian tree, with leaves like a cherry, the flowers 
in clusters of a pale yellow. The fruit the size of a man's head, 
roundish or oblong, it resembles a rolled up hedgehog, with a 
hard bark or rind. The pulp is of a creamy substapce and of a 
delicate taste. Rumphius says it is by much the most excellent 
fruit of India. Its smell is at first, heavy and unpleasant, but 

♦firw o Ji nfugtnmaH in. Ihio- fi«ii;t «/^Ti«.it <«»r it thft mnat ej^Cellent 

of all. ^ 

MANGO TREE. (Mangtfera mdiea), 

A large spreading East Indian tree, with lanceolate shining 
green leaves, of a resinous smell. The fruit is a drupe kidney 
shaped, some are as large as a man's fist ; it is covered with a 
smooth, softish, pale green, yellow, or half red skin, and con- 
taining an ovate, woody, fibrous, compressed nut or stone, with- 
in which is an ovate kernel, soft and pulpy like a damascene 
plum. *< When ripe it i% replete with a fine agreeable juice. It 
eats like an apple, but is more juicy. It is esteemed very whole- 
some, and except pine apples, it is preferred to any other fruit 
in India." 

Raised from cuttings or from seeds. 

MANGK)STAN. {Goreinia mangoitana.) Loudon. 

A native of the Molucca Islands, but cultivated in Java and 
Malacca. An elegant tree, rising twenty feet, with a paraboUo 


head, a taper stem, branching like a fir tree, with oval leaves 
•even or eight inches long. The flower like a single rose. 
The fruit round, the size of an orange, the shell like the pome- 
granate. The seeds are disposed like those of the orange, and 
surrounded by a soft juicy polp of a rose color, of a delicious fla- 
Tor, partaking of the strawberry and the grape, and is esteemed 
the richest fruit in the world. It is wholesome alike for those 
in health or in sicknees. 
Raised from seeds or cuttings. 


A species of water chesnut, which grows only in the southern 

provinces of China, in shallow rivers and ponds, with leaves like 

a bullrush, and holtow like the stalk of an onion. Its fruit in a 

capsule of its root, like the husk of a chesnut. — Ed. £7nc.- Art 


ROSE-APPLE. (Eugenia.) Loudon. Bon Jard. 
Jamrosadk. E. Jambos. 

A tree from India, rising to the height of from ten to thirty feet ; 
leaves long, lanceolate and shining. The flowers are in clus- 
ters, of a yellowish white. The fruit the size of a hen's egg, 
with.Ahe taote of an apricot, and flavor of the rose. Some are 
white, some are red, and some are yellow. 

{E. Mallaeeanena,) Mai^av Appi«e. Another species ; the tree 
and the leaves are larger. The fruit is ovate, an inch and a half in 
diameter, fleshy, with a sweet odor like the rose, agreeable to the 
taste and BUthf, nnA di^Amed whole«w^»«^ Pnmn»nn 5n n^at^f 
the Houu Sea islanOs. TtsBj are raisea rrom see<l8, and require 

a warm, moist atmosphere. 

TAMARIND. (Tamarindui.) Phillips. 

So called from Tamar (Date in Arabic.) The tamarind is 
cultivated in Arabia, Palestine, Egypt, and the East and West 
Indies. The tree is very large, with spreading branches and 
thick beautiful foliage. The leaves are pinnate, smooth, oblong, 
entire, of a bright green ; they close at night. The fruit is a pod 
from two to five inches long, inclosing from two to five seeds. 
The outer pod is thick, the inner as thin as parchment, inclo- 
sing the pulp, which is a soft pulpy substance. The fruit may be 
preserved in jars, with alternate layers of sugar. But in the 
West Indies the following mode is adopted. The ripe fruit is 
taken out of the pod, and placed in layers in a cask ; and the 
boiling syrup from the first copper in the boiling house, just be- 
fore it begins to granulate, is poured in till the cask is filled ; 
when cool the cask is headed for sale. 

The tamarind is raised from cuttings or from seeds. 


TRYPHASIA. (Jiurantiola,) Hort. Soc. Cat. 

Three Leaved Tryphasia. Limoma tr^oliata. 

The fruit resembles a small orange, and is aromatic. It rises 
to a compact shrub or tree. 

VARRONIA PLUM. (Varronia alnifolia.) Hort. Soc. Cat. 

This fruit resembles a small plum. It grows against t south 
wall (in England.) It has borne fruit in the Botanic Garden of 
Madrid, and is believed to be a native of Mexico. 


I will here briefly enumerate or describe a few of the most 
ornamental hardy trees, shrubs, &c. Those sorts particularly, 
which may be easily obtained, and at moderate prices. A just 
proportion of which are at this day considered indispensable ap- 
pendages in every handsome garden. 

In the disposition of trees and shrubs for avenues and the bor- 
ders of walks, it is recommended to set them on either, or on both 
sides, in four ranks or ranges, according to their heights. 

The first ranee, or that nearest to the avenue or walk, to con- 
sist of roses and shrubs of the lowest growth. 

The second range to consist of shrubs, &c, which never attain 
to a greater height than from six to ten feet. 

The third range, to consist of those trees which ''never attain 
to a very great height. 

The fourth range, or outer rank, to consist of those trees only, 
which attain to the greatest elevation. 

Thus when the whole have attained to their full height, the 
effect will be not less striking than beautiful. 

A broad and extended avenue, thus lined on both sides, 
with the ranks or ranges at proportionate distances asunder, and 
rising in regular gradation from the centre, as they will when 
fully grown, would present to the view of the beholder a spec- 
tacle rarely witnessed with us. 

Those marked thus * are evergreens. 

" ** " t will admit of frequent repetition. 

** ** " tt being very handsome, will admit of very 

frequent repetition. 

'* ** " S. S. require protection in winter, in nor- 

thern climates. 




ttABXLE OR SiLvxR LxAr. Popuhu alba, 

A tree of rapid growth, rising: to a great beight ; the leaves 
are cordate, pointed, of a very dark grsen above, perfectly- 
white and woolly or downy beneath. The petioles are slender, 
and like the aspen, are set in motion by every breath of wind ; 
and the lively contrast of the upper and under surface gives the 
tree a striking appearance. 

ttALiAKTHus OR Trkk OF Heaveit. ^Uontkua glandvloia. 

A tree from Japan or China, which there rises to an enormous 
height ; with a small and very straight trunk ; the leaves are 
pinnate, and from three to four feet in length. An elegant tree 
of extremely rapid growth. It answers well in the latitude of 
Boston. It is sometimes called Tallou or IHllou, 

Ash. Fraxintu exeelsoir. 

A fine stately tree, which rises to the height of sixty feet, with 
pinnate leaves. 

tMANNA Ash. F, rotundifolia. This tree grows very tali 
and stately, with pinnate leaves. Manna is procured from this 
variety. That which naturally exudes is called tear manna ; 
but that which is obtained by incision, is called canulated or 
flaky manna. 

Beech. Fagiu, 

The F. ferruginea or Americait Beech, is a tree of very 
compact and handsome form, and is deemed a handsome tree. 

tBuTTON Wood. PUitanuB oeeidentcUis. 

A tree which sometimes attains an enormous size. Its growth 
is very upright ; its leaves very large and lobed — a noble tree 
for lawns and avenues, although its appearance is rather stiff. 

UCatalpas. Bignonia eatalpa, 

A native of America ; a large tree with a round head ; the 
leaves are very large and cordate ; of a bright green. The flow- 
ers are in very large clusters, of a white color touched with pur- 
ple ; they appear in July, and are very showy and beautiful. 

Virginia Cherry. See page 283. 

ItHoRSE Chksnut. JEscutus hyppoea^tanum. 

A noble and extremely hardy tree, evidently fiom Northern 
Asia. It rises from fifty to sixty feet in elegant and compact 


proportion. The leaves are large, of a dark green, and the tree 
forms an impervious shade ; the blossoms appear in May or 
June, they are in large clusters, of a white color mottled with 
red, and of a superb appearance. The fruit is large, inclosed in 
a prickly hull. 


We enumerate two varieties, 1st, Deeidwms Cypress ; (C^- 
pressus disticia,) a native of the southern states wnere it grows 
to an enormous size, very erect and stately and bears the cli- 
mate in the latitude of Boston. 2d, *tW7iite Cedar, (Cupres- 
sus thyoides,) a tree which rises with a very straight trunk from 
seventy to eighty feet, the leaves are flattened and branch- 
ing ; a beautiful evergreen tree. 

tELM, Ulmus. Scotch Elm, JVych ELm^ Ulmus moniana. 

This variety has large leaves. The tree grows erect, and 
sometimes attains an enormous size. The bark assumes a black 
cast. The timber is very valuable. American Elm. (U. amer- 
icana.) The growth of this variety is somewhat irregular — it 
attains a very large size and height, and the branches droop like 
the willow. It rises sometimes to a hundred feet. Med Elm, 
Slippery Elm, {Ulmus rubra.) Another handsome variety. 
Cork hark Elm, (U, suherosa.) All these varieties are fine for 
avenues and lawns. 

tLiME or Linden. Tilia. 

The European Linden rises in an elegant and pyramidal form; 
the American has a round head. The blossoms though not 
showy, have a sweet odor. Both varieties are of rapid growth, 
and form fine shade* in streets and lawns. 

t'HEMLOcK, Pinus canadensis. Weeping Spruce, 
An elegant tree, and neglected for no other reason than because 
it is so common. The foliage is very delicate. It differs from 
most other evergreen trees, as the Weeping Willow from most 
deciduous trees. 

JLarch, Pinus larix, Larix europea. 

Sometimes called Scotch Larch. This is a noble tree of a py- 
ramidal form ; its branches are disposed in stages, and grow in a 
horizontal direction ; it is of extremely rapid growth, will flour- 
ish in almost any soil ; and resists the severest cold ; a beautiful 
tree while in leaf ; its timber is valuable and of great durability. 

^American h AB,cn, or Hacamatac, Pinus microcarpa. 

This tree is of a rapid growth, it attains to the height of forty 
feet. The tree is beautiful whilo in blossom and in leaf, and has 
a sweet odor. 



Locust. IUfbinap$eudoaedeim^ 

A tall, beautifal tree, of very rapid growth, with pinnate 
leaveii ; the flowera are produced in racemes ; they are white, 
and have a fragrant sweet odor. This tree, so valuable for its 
timber, is liable to the destructive attacks of a worm — and it has 
the demerit of throwing up innumerable suckers from its roots. 

IHoKBT Locust or Thrsb Thobkkd Acjlcia. Ole» 
dUiehia triaearuhoi. 

A tree ol rapid growth, which attains a stately size ; a 
handsome tree with pinnate leaves ; the seed pods are a foot 
or more in length. The tree is armed with triple or 
branching thorns, sometimes a foot long, of formidable appear- 
ance. A hedge properly trained, would soon be impassable to 
man or beast. The stems should be allowed to rise six feet in 
height, when they must be checked in their advancement to 
force out lateral shoots. 

ttMAGKOLiA, Bluk Floweriko. M, ocuminota. 

This tree is very hardy. It rises erect and in beautiful form to 
a great height io a congenial climate. The leaves are handsome, 
the flowers are of a blue color. 

tScAALST Maple. Jicer rubrum: 

A large tree of a very handsome form ; the leaves are cordate, 
lobed, dentate, downy beneath. The blossoms appear early in 
April ; they are of a rich crimson hue. The leaves in autumn 
change to beautiful deep crimson. 

SuoAA Maple. Jiter soce^orinicm. 

A tree of medium height ; the leaves are large, three or five 
lobed ; from its sap sugar is produced ; a tree of utility and orna- 

*t| White Pike. Pinus $trohu$ or Weymouth Pine, 

This tree rises to an enormous height, with a straight trunk ; 
the leaves are very long and have a very delicate appearance! 
This tree so majestic in its appearance, so beautiful, and yet so 
useful, contends with the oak as monarch of our forests. 

^ttSiLVEA Fir. Fir Balsam, Balm qf Gilead. Pinus bal- 

A native of the Northern parts of America. An evergreen 
tree of a tall and elegant appearance : the leaves are dark green 
above and of a silvery hue beneath ; a tree much admired for 
the beauty of its form and foliage. 

♦ISpruce. Pinus, 

The Black Spruce, P. nigra, and the Red Spruce, P. rubra. 


JVorway Spruce, P. dbieSf are all ornamental varieties and de- 
serving a place in every large garden. The branches of most of 
these varieties incline to grow norizontally. 

ttSYCAMORE. Aeerpseudo platantu. 

The tree grows tall and of elegant form ; the leaves are very 
large, broad, of a dark green hue. A tree of ornament. 2d, Stri- 
ped leaved Sycamore. A. fol. var. A variety with beautiful 
striped leaves. 

ttTuLip Tree. Liriodendron tuliptfera. 

A very majestic tree which rises with a straight trunk to the 
height of eighty or a hundred feet. The leaves are large, of a 
singular form, of a bright green. The flowers appear in June 
and much resemble the Tulip, of a greenish yellow, touched 
with red. 

ttWEEPijTQ Willow. Salix babylonica. Parasol. 

A well known tree, rising to the height of forty or fifty feet ; 
its branches drooping ; one of the mo9t elegant of all shade 
trees. Its outline when standing insulated is pleasing and very 
striking. The JVapoleon Weeping Willow is the same, but 
is raised from the branches brought by Capt. Jacob Smith of 
Khode Island from the tomb of Napoleon at St. Helena. 2d, Golden 
TVillow, S. vitellinay a variety *rith bark of a gold color which 
attains a stately size. 



tAcACiA, Purple Flowering. RoMnia viscoaa. 

A tree which never grows tall, the young wood is glutinous 
the flowers are of a purple color and in large racemes. 

tliARGE Double flowbrixg Almond. See page 248. 


tCnixESE Double rLOWERiNO. See page 58. 

^Red Siberian Crab. See page 57. 
t Yellow Siberian Crab. See page 58. 

^Curled Leaved Ash. F. atrovireui. 

A very curious and striking variety, a most singular tree. The 

growth is very upright ; the young wood very thick and blunt ; 

the leaves curled; of the darkest green shade. 6. t Golden 

Ash, {F. aurea.) The bark of this singular variety is of a 

gold color. 


tf < 

Chikeik Ami. ' f^ r mium t hm t U . 

An ornameQtia tnd singaUr variety— the leaves are imtll 
and very narrow, of a dark gyten shade. 

tWsEPiN-o Ash. P,pendula, 

A variety with pendant branches ; and very ornamental. 

UPuRPLE Beech. F. purpurecL, 

A tree remarkable for its leaves, which are of a dark crimson 
or purple hue, which appear to most advantage in June or July. 
In autumn they fade to purplish green. 

ttMovurTAix Ash. Sorbua aueuparia or Roan tree, 

A tree lising in an elegant and pyramidal form to the height of 
thirty feet. The tree itself is an ornament and its flowers which 
are in large clusters. In autumn the tree is covered with large 
clusters of red berries, and its appearance at this time is very 
striking and beautiful. 

*Red Cedar. Juniperus virginiea. 

This tree when properly trained makes an elegant hedge. By 
clipping it grows remarkably compact. 

tDouBLE FiiOWEBiNO Cherrt. See page 282. 

8. S. ttFRANKiiiiriA. Oordana pubeaeens, 

A tree growing from six feet to thirty in a congenial climate. 
Universally admired for its large and beautiful white flowers, 
with a yellow centre and of extraordinary fragrance. 

Hercules* Club. Angelica tree, Ardlia spinosa. 

A tree of low growth, of a singular aspect, the limbs are cov- 
ered with stiff thorns. The flowers are in large bunches and last 
a long time. 

Judas Tree. Ccreie eUiquastrum. 

A low tree, which produces its flowers very early, before the 
appearance of the leaf; it is at that time an ornamental variety. 

Kentucky Coefbe tree or Bonduc. Gymnoeladus eana- 

A singular tree in Its appearance ; the young wood is re- 
markably stout and thick ; the berries are said to be used as 

I^LABURiroM. CytisBW labumumt or Golden Chain, 

An elegant small tree, producing a profusion of long bunches 
of yellow flowers. There are two varieties, the common and 
the Alpine or Scotch ; the latter is the most beautiful and is 
believed to be the hardiest. 

^:'^ ORIf XmHtAL TRE88, d&C. WO 


Of this splendid tree there are many varieties. 
1st. Chinese Purple Flowering, {Magnolia obovata), with 
flowers of a fine violet purple outside, aod White within. 

tt2d. The Chandettp- Magnolia or Ytilan. (Magnolia con- 
spieua.) Another ^inese variety with large elegant white 
flowers, shaped like a Chandelier. 

tt3d. The Magnolia cordata or Yellow Twice flowering. The 
flowers of this variety are yellow, it does not grow large. 

|t4th. Magnolia glauca ; for description see third section. 

tt5th. Splendid Magnolia macrophylla, large leaved. The 
leaves of this variety are over two feet in length. The blossoms 
very large* and of a yellowish white, very beautiful with a fine 

itMagn0lia purpurea. Highly spoken of by Mr Loudon. 

tXMagnolia tripetaia. ( Umbrella Tree.) A tree which rises 
to a very moderate heieht, with very large leaves, and very large 
single flowers four inches in diameter, of a white color and fra- 
grant odor. 

S. S*tt€rreat Flowering Magnolia. (M. ^randiflora). — A 
tall, superb evergreen tree, rising in a congenial climate to the 
height of sixty or eighty feet ; the leaves are oblong, of a shining 

freen. The flowers are very large, of a fine fragrant odor. It 
oes not bear a northern climate. 

ttMouNTAiir Snow Drop. Chionanthus montana. 

This tree rises from ten to twelve feet in height ; the leaves 
are oblong, broad, laurel shaped, of a blackish green ; the flow- 
ers are in clusters, very singular, and while, like flakes of snow. 
Last of May and June. 

tCHiNEjsE Paper Mulberry. Brousonetia papyrtfera. 

A large tree with a round head ; the leaves are large, rough, 
some are cordate, some entire, some five lobed. The fertile and 
barren blossoms are produced on difierent trees. This tree is of 
rapid growth and ornamental. 

ttCHXNSSE Mxjlbsrrt. Motus muUieauJIia. See page 286. 

A tree of rapid and upright growth ; the leaves are very large 
and cordate ; fiieir upper surface is curled or convex, of a deep 
shining green, and very ornamental. 

ItOsAGE Oranoe. Madura aurantiaea. Bow-wood. 
A native of the Arkansas and Missouri, where it rises in beau- 
tiful proportion to the height of sixty feet, and has been pronoun- 


990 NEW iltftJUCAN catmOkKDl^. 

ced one ot the most beaotiliil of alj our native trees. The leaves 
are ova) and laDceolate, of a bright shining green ; they resemble 
those of the orange, and the branches like those of the orange, 
are covered with long thorns. The fruit is large, the size of an 
ostrich's egg, and of a curious and beautiful appearance, but not 
eatable. The wood is very fine, remarkably strong and elastic, 
and on this account is preferred by the Indians to all other wood 
for their bows. The wood yields a fine yellow dye, and it if sup- 
posed will be admirable for hedges. I know no material so beau- 
tiful and yet so hardy for this purpose. It deserves trial. 

Pkach. t Double Flowering Peach, See page 216. 

X\ Weeping Peach. See page 229. 

ttS. S.Prideof IirniA. Melia azedaraeh. 

A tree from India or China of very rapid growth, much used 
in the southern cities for ornamenting streets. The leaves are 
pinnate, of a deep shining green, and beautiful ; the flowers are 
in large oblong clusters, oi a bluish white or lilac, and of a fra- 
grant odor. 

tSHEPARDiA. or Buffalo Berry Tree, {silver leaved,) See 
page 340. 

^•Swedish Juitiper. Juniperus aueeica. 

A hardy tree, which does not rise to a verj great height. Its 
appearance is very singular when trained in a narrow pyrami- 
dal form by tying inthe branches. 

Black Willow. Salix nigra, 

A low tree ; the young wood of this variety is of a shi- 
ning deep violet or black, and covered with a pale blue glaucous 

tRiNo Willow. Salix annularis, 

A very curious and singular tree, the leaves are curled in the 
form of a ring or hoop. Also called Hoop willow, 

ttVENETiAN Sumach, Mhtu cotinus. Smoke tree. Purple 
Fringe Tree. Aaron^B Beard. Jupiter's Beard, 

An elegant shrub or tree, rising from six to twehre ioet, with a 
round head ; the leaves are round, and have the odor of citron. The 
flowers are very striking, and have a beautiful appearance ; they 
appear in June, are in large tufts of a purple color. In Septem- 
ber and October they change and appear like masses of wool. 
One of the moat beautiful shrubs ; its appearance is very con- 
spicuous and superb. 




tRosE Acacia. Hobinia hispida. 

A low growing shrub, which produces a succession of large 
clusters of pale blue or purple flowers. 

ItALTHEA. Hibiscus syriacus. fl, pleno. Altheafrutex. 

A native of Asia. But bears the winters at Boston perfectly 
well. One of the most ornamental of all shrubs, rising to the 
height of six or eight feet. The leaves are three lobed. The 
chief varieties of the Double Athea are the Double Blue, Double 
Purple, Double Red, Double White Striped or PheasanVs Eyed, 
and Double TVhite, &c. &c. This last does not flower well in 
the latitude of Boston. The Altheas commence flowering not 
long after the hardy roses are gone and continue blooming till 
late in Autumn. They are indispensable in every good garden. 


This variety of honeysuckle is much admired. The pink and 
the white are the most common and are natives of our woods, they 
are extremely beautiful when in bloom. The varieties known 
in cultivation may exceed a hundred. 

tCALTCANTHus. C floridus, Alspice, or sweet scented 

A hardy shrub, rising six or eight feet in height, the flowers 
are of a brown purple, of an agreeable odor like spices. The 
leaves are very fragrant. 


A variety with white flowers ; there is another Chinese variety 
with yellow flowers. 

tWEBPiKO Cherry. See page 283. 


Of this shrub there are the Colutea arborescens, with clusters 
of yellow flowers during summer — and seed in a thin inflated 
membraneous case ^ also the C. Pocoekii with dark yellow flow- 
ers. Both are ornamental. 

Missouri or Jefferson Cttilb.a,nt. 'Mibes Missouriensis. 

A shrub rising to the height of six feet, with clusters of bright 
yellow flowers, of a fragrant odor in spring. 

8M NEW MmaoAft orghardht. 

fjTDiAir CuAKAVT. Shfti^horia gtomerata, 

A low shnib, the leaves are very small, oval. The fruit, for 
wUeh alone it i3 most remarkable, is profusely clustered on the 
branches, and of a red color, but not eatable. 

DiBCA Palustris. 

Leather woodf so called, from the uncommon flexibility of the 
tree, and its branches. It rises from four to six feet, in form of 
a tree ; the flowers are yellowish white, the leaves are oval. 

Bloodt Dogwood. CornuB $angtUnea. Red twigged D0g- 


The flowers are produced in clusters, but neither these nor the 
leaves are very striking. In winter the wood assumes a beau- 
tifal crimson color, and is in that season much adnured. 

White Floweriitq Dogwood. Comus aiba. 

A shrub not very uncommon in our woods, producing a pro- 
fusion of blossoms, of a dull white, resembliii^ the single rose. 

tEivoi«i8H Fi,T HOXXVS17CKI.E. LonUera xfjloBteum, 

A small tree or shrub, rising to the heicht of seven or eieht 
feet ; the leaves are dark green above, oowny beneath. 'Hie 
flowers small, of a straw color, but not very conspicuous. The 
berries are bright red — and the shrub is considered ornamental. 
The flowers appear in June and July. 

tTARTAREAM' HoirETsucKLB. Louicera tartarica. 

A shrub rishag from four to five feet in height. The flowers 
are small, of a pale red color, and appear early in April. This 
ahrub is much esteemed. 

ttDwARF riiOWKRiifO Ho&sB Chbsitut. JEsculusnuuro*' 


A native of America. It rises to the height of hve or six feet, 
producing large spikes of beautiful white flowers of a fine odor 
and elegant appearance. 

S. S.tHALssiA. Snow Drop Tree or ^ver hell. 

There are two varieties of this tree, the H, diptera^Aud H, te- 
traptera. The former the two winged, the latter the four winged 
— the blossoms are pendant and of a pure white. 

^Hawthorn. Cratagus oxyaeanthtu, 

A tree of medium size. There are several varieties which are 
very ornamental when in bloom. These are the Double White 
and the Scarlet, This plant is much used in Europe for hedges, 
but is not so well calcuhited for our hot summers. 



*ttRHODooEN DROIT MAXIMUM. Rotx Bat. Qteat Bhodc- 

An evergreen shrub, a native of America. It rises from six 
to sixteen feet in height, with numerous branches. The leaves 
are large, oblong and thick ; of a dark shining green, and beauti- 
ful. In July the flowers appear in large convex clusters, at the 
ends of the shoots, of a reddish hue ; they are extremely beauti- 
ful, and last a long time. A moist soil is the most suitable.' A 
very hardy variety. 


A beautiful variety, of foreign origin. The leaves are large, shi- 
ning and beautiful. The flowers appear in midsummer, on the 
ends of the shoots, in large clusters, and are of a violet or pur- 
ple color. A very beautiful shrub. A moist, sandy soil suits it 
best. This variety is believed not so hardy as the former species. 

ItSirow-BALL or Guelder Rose. Viburnum opulus. 

An elegant shrub, blooming very early and profusely in spring, 
in large, round, white clusters like balls of snow. 

Japajt Sophora. Sopharajctponiea. . 

A tree rising with a straight trunk, to a great size in congenial 
climates. The branches are pendant ; the flowers in clusters of 
« dull white. It was for a long time known that this tree produ- 
ced the Japan Imperial yellow dye ; but she bark, leaves, and 
wood failed of producing it But it is lately discovered to be 
produced from its fruit. 


Of the Spirseas, there are several varieties ; they are all orna- 
mental. We enumerate 

1. OuKLDKR RosK SpiRJBA. Sftraa opulifolia or J\tine 
bark, A shrub rising six or eight feet, with large round clusters of 
white flowers in spring. 

tt, SiBKRiAir SpiRiEA. S. lovigata. A shrub rising five or 
six feet high, producing beautiful spikes of white flowers in spring. 

8. Red Flowxrim'G. 8, tomenio$a. Produces handsome 
red spikes of flowers, and is neglected only because it is so 

f 4. Nepal. S. Bella, Produces elegant red flowers. 
IStrawberrt Tree. Euonymui. 

Of this tree or shrub there are several varieties. In autumn 
tfa» trees are covered with a profusion of red berries, and are 
thtn deemed very ornamental. 


SvHlnOA. Philadelpbui cerottarit. 


tt White Flower iiro MBXB&xoif, if beautiful but tafler 
than the red. 


The Tree Paonies are asserted to be as hardy as oaks. The 
flowers are of large size and splendid in appearance. They are 
fhnn China. 

St JoHir*s Wobt. Byperieum, 

Of this there are Myeral Tarieties ; the ff. fruteMeem is a low 
shmb which produces in summer a profusion of flowers of a yel- 
low color. 

ttScoTCH Broom. Sparttum Bcoparium, 

A singular shrub, rising with many flexible stalks like a broom ; 
the flowers are yellow and very showy, the appearance of this 
•hrub is striking. Siberian broom, a low trailing shrub 
producing a succession of yellow flowers. 

ttSNowBERRT. SymphoTta rtuemoaa. 

A very hardy shrub from the Rocky mountains. The berries, 
which are the size of a cranberry, are in clusters, and are very 
white and delicate like wax, and very ornamental. 

ttRosx. Rosa, 

The rose is^ustly called the queeo of flowers, for its size, and 
various beautiful shades and delightful fragrance. The colors 
vary from a pure white to red, to deep violet, and nearly to black. 
The yellow rose is not very uncommon. The rose is an indis- 

f reusable requisite in every good garden. The lists enumerate at 
east one thousand names of hardy roses. 

S* S.ttCHiif A Roses. 

These require a little protection during winter, in the north- 
em states. They are mostly ever-blooining, and universally ad- 
mired on this account. They should be planted in the open 
ground in June, and may be again taken up in September ; or 
protected with moss or evergreen, and suffered to remain out 
during winter. The most common are the China Bluth and 
Sanguinea, The Champney*$ Blush Cluster and JVhisette ; of 
these last there are many varieties, all blossoming in superb clus- 
ters. Others less common, are the Kniehfs Resplendent ; the 
QranAvai or Hermite, more splendid still ; both these last are 
of a dark crimson hue. The Blush Tea Scented of exquisite fra- 
grance, and the Undulata. The MtUtiflorus, Blush, and White 
and the Lady Banks' White and Yellow, and the Grevilli are 
all running roses, and blossom in beautiful clusters ; but they do 
not blossom well except in a warm exposition. The Belle de 
Monza, the Yellow Tea Scented are not common, but celebrated 


new kinds. There are many kinds not lets beaatiAil peAapa 

than these, but still less known. 

UDahlia, Georgixa. 

Altho^t^ this phint belongs to the herbaceous class, I bare 
yet ventured to insert it here. A nob)e plant, a native of Mex* 
ico. A plant but lately known amongst us, rising from three to 
ten feet in height It flowers pro&llfy'iu autumn* after the 
hardy roses are past, and coi^oes In flower till hard frosts com- 
mencc. The flowers are magnificent ; they ase of a great vari- 
ety of shades, and surpass those of the rose and camelia in aixe 
and splendor, although they fall short in fragrance. Its roots 
are large, oblong tubers, and some have supposed, they might by 
preparation answer as food for man or the domestic animals. 


Aristolochia Sipho. 

A rapid growing vine, with very large leaves, which are 
round, cordate, entire, of a bright green ; the flowers, which ap- 
pear in June and July, are of an obscure purple, and of curious 
form, resemblina^ a pipe. Admirably calculated for arbors from 
the large size of the leaf. 

UBiQNONiA Radicans or Trumpet flower . 

A rapid growing plant, a native of America, which extends its 
branches to a great distance ; the foliage of a fine green and 
numerous ; from every joint roots are emitted which attach 
themselves to the earth and walls and structures of wood. Th« 
flowers are in clusters, each flower about four mchcs m length, 
in form of a trumpet, of a beautiful;flame color. 

There is a variety called the Minor. 

ttBiQNONiA Grandifloba. 

A variety from China, but not so rapid in its growth ; a fo» 
climber. The flowers are large, and more in the form of a befl 
San trumpet, and of a fine flame color. Both are very diowy 
and beautiful. 

tJCHiNESE Gi^rciNE, Glycine nnensis or Wistaria catm- 

A beautiful vine of rapid and very extended growth ; the 
dowers are very numerous, in long clusters J^ «*^emes of a puir- 
pircolor. This plant is from China, and is highly spoken of bf 

Mr Loudon. 



' UCisVBTmm. Flowbhing Oltciite. Olyeinefruteseens. 

This appears to be of more vigorous growth than the Chinese, 
in our climate. A very rapid growing vine. The flowers of 
a deep purple color, and in long clusters, or racemes, of a beau- 
tiful appearance. A native of the southern states, but hardy. 


Hedera helix. 
This perhaps b one of the most beautiful of all plants for cov- 
ering arbors and walls. I suspect, however, our summers are 
too warm for At, On the north sides of buildings alone, I have 
obferved, it flourishes in all its unfading beauty. 

lYiRGiifiAN IvT, or American Ivy, Cisaus hederaeea. 

A remarkably rapid growing vine, and eminently calculated 
for covering walls, &c. The leaves are large and palmated, 
changing in autumn to a fine crimson. This ivy is deciduous. 

ttRosA RuBiFOLiA or Rotpberry leaved Rose. 

This is the handsomest and finest of all the hardy running 
roses yet known. Its growth is very rapid and strong. When 
well established, it will run near twenty feet in a season ; and 
although the flowers are small and perfectly single, yet they are 
in superb clusters like the Noisettes, and of di&rent shades on 
the same bunch. A nativ« of the wgst. The Ayrshire cannot 
compare with it. This rose flowers in July, after most other 
hardy roses are gone ; and may, perhaps, lixe the Cherokee of 
the south, make a fine hedge. 

*8. 84 Orsvilli, very rapid growing ; flowers in fine clus- 
tMS of different shades. 

•S. 8. Bi^usH MtTLTiFLORA. Rapid growing ; flowers in«u- 
perb clusters. 

♦8. S. White Mi7ltih.ora. M, alba. Superb white clus- 
ters of roses ; beautiful. 

•S. 8. Lady Bahks's. Two varieties, the white and the yel- 
low ; both very beautiful, floweruig in clusters. 

*8. 8. Chebokee. Not remarkable for the beauty of its flow- 
ers, of very rapid growth ; used in Carolina for hedges. 

Virgin's Bower. Clematis, 

Of this plant there are several varieties, some are hardy and 
some are tender. The Traveller's Joy^ (C. viialha.') is one of 
the most hardy and rapid growing varieties. 

HovEYsucKi^Es* LouvceTa. TxjovMng Honeysuckles. 

tEARLY White iTAiiAw. Lonicera caprifolium. 

The flowers of this variety are white, and of a very delicate 


appearance; they appear very-early, but their duration is short ; 
the vine is of very rapid growth. 

^Early Variegated Belgic. 

A variety similar to the monthly, variegated in its hlossoms, 
but it differs from that in flowering but once, very early and 

ttCniNESE Variegated Monthly, or Chinese twining. 
Lonicera flexuosa sinensis. 

This beautiful honeysuckle is from China, and like many oth- 
er productions of that country, it appears to be perfectly hardy. 
The vines are very flexible, and of rapid and very extended 
growth ; it rises to a very great height j the flowers are in pairs, 
or triple, covering the plant in profusion from spring to autumn ; 
they are beautifully variegated with red, white and yellow. 

it Variegated Monthly Honeysuckle or Belgie. Lo- 
nieera Belgicum. 

One of the most beautiiul of all varieties ; the flowers last 
from spring till late in autumn, the colors are variegated with 
white and yellow and red ; they are very fragrant. 

ttScARLET Trumpet Monthly or Coral. Lonicera sem- 

Almost an evergreen ; |pe of the most rapid growing of all. 
The flowers are of afine scarlet, in form of a trumpet, andare pro- 
duced in profusion from spring till winter ; the foliage is large and 
beautiful, of a dark shining green. A native. 

ttYELLow Monthly Trumpet, Lonicera frazera. 

The foliage of this is of a bright green. The flowers difier 
fmm the Scarlet Trumpet only in being of a bright yellow color ; 
like that it is a native of America. 

^Orange Pubescent. Lonicera ptibescens. 

This is a native of the northwestern coast of America. The 
leaves are downy ; the flowers are large, and of an orange color. 

S. S.t Japan Honeysuckle. Lonicera japoiHca. 

The flowers.of this variety are produced in profusion, of a 
pale yellow color. It is highly spoken of by Mr Loudon, but it 
does not withstand our winters without protection. 

There are many other varieties. The Douglasi, a native of 
America, has very large foliage. 

Etruscan or Tuscany, Orange Colored. L. etrusca. 
A new and beautiful variety, with flowers of an orange color. 



The Ii«t9 of flowera recommeoded by most authors are much too 
extensive for general purposes. I have made choice of the list 
recommended by Mr Niell, (Ed. Ency. vol. x. part 2, ou Horti- 
culture,) with some omi5Bions and some additions. It includes 
the most showy and conspicuous varieties, and however small the 
list, I am perfectly aware it may be thought by some too extended. 

1. Florists* Flowers. 

These flowers are in a peculiar manner distinguished by the 
title of Florists* Flowers. They are cultivated in beds by them- 
selves ; the principal are these, 1. the Tulip ; 2. the Ranuncu- 
lus ; S. tlie Anemone ; 4. the iris ; 5. the Dahlia ; 6. the Pink ; 
7. the Carnation ; 8. Polyanthus j 9. Auricula ; 10. Hyacinth ; 
11. Polyanthus Narcissus, and 12. the Crocus. 

2. Perennials. 

Tall growing showy flowers, to intermix in the shrubbery 

For the shrubbery border, the following are recommended as 
the most suitable tall growing herbaAous plants : 1. Hollyhock, 
(Althaa rosea,) of difierent colors, September till hard frosts ; 2. 
Goat's Beard :;>piraea, {S. aruncus) ; 3. Foxglove {Digitalis) Bi- 
ennial ; 4. Monkshood, with blue and yellow flowers {Aeoni- 
turn) ; 5. Larkspur, {Delphinium grandiflorum^ and exahatum,) 
and (jb. sinensis) ; 6. Columbine, {Aquilegia vulgaris) ; 7. Iris 
of the large species, Oermanieay sambueina, and siberiea / 8. 
Willow herb, (Epilobium angusttfolium) ; 9. Double Fever- 
few (Pyrethrum parthenium) are showy in flower ; 10. Tall 
species of Asters ; 11. Tall species of Solid ago ; 12. Perennial 
Sunflowers, particularly Helianthus decapetelus and ff. multi- 
florus ; to these may be added, 13. Ruabeckia laeiniata ; 14. 
I add to this list the Tiger Lily, (Lt'/ium tigridum). Besides 
taH plants, some of humbler growth may be added, as patches of 
15. Sweet Woodruff, {Jsperula odorata), and patches of 13. 
Double Wood Anemone, {Anemone nemorosa)^ and 17. the Lily 
of the Valley, {Conwillaria majalis) ; there is a double red 
flowered variety of this. I add the Vueea aln\folnia and fila- 

Border Flowers. 

The borders for perennial flowers are seldom less than four or 
five feet in breadth. One of the most ornamental tall growing 
perennials is 1. Double Scarlet Lychnb, (XycAnis chalcedoniea 


FLOWERS. 401 ; 2. Hyssop leaved Dragou's head, {Draeocephalum ruy- 
sckiana), and the Great Flowered {D. grandifiorum)^ with ele- 

fant blue flowers ; 3. Silver-rod or Branched Asphodel, {Aspho- 
elus ramosus), with fine white flowers ; 4. ( Verhascum ferru- 
; gineum), Rusty Flowered, and {V. phceniceum), or Purple 

Flowered may be admitted ; together with 5. the Fine Branched 
Lythrum, (L. virgatum), which is covered for three months 
with purple flowers ; 6. Two or three species of Centaurea, 
such as (C. orienlalis), with yellow flowers, and (C. Cauca- 
sica,) with white flowers, and (C. montana)^ with blue flowers ; 
all hardy perennials ; 7. Double Siberian Larkspur {Delphinium 
datum) , flowers, fine dark azure ; 8. Phlox pyramidalia and 
P. paniculata, are handsome showy flowers ; 9. Linear Leaved 
Willow herb, {Epilohium angustissimum) , foliage fine, and 
flowers large, of a beautiful purplish red ; 10. Coreopsis verti- 
cellatay flowers fine deep yellow ; 11. Of the species of Speed- 
well, these are elegant, Veronica virginianOt flowers blush col- 
ored, and with white flowers ; and V. longifolia^ flowers blue, 
white, or flesh-colored ; 12. Variegated Wolfsbane, {Aeonitum 
varie^atum) ; 13. Rudheckia purpurea, with large flowers ; 13. 
Liatns spicata, deserves a place in every collection ; 14. Acan- 
thus mollis ; 15. Of the fine genus Spiraaj the Queen of the 
meadow, (iS. wZman'a), and Drop wort or {S. filipendula ; 16. 
Of Campanula or Bell Flower, a hundred species have been 
named,^ there are several showy Perennials, as Peach leaved (C. 
persieifuliay with single blue, and single white, and with 
double flowers ; Nettle leaved Bell Flower, (C trachelium) ; 
Pyramidal or (C. pyramidalis), highly prized. To this may be 
added Splendid Sage, {Salvia spler^ens), a native of Brazil. 

Ornamental Plants of middling size. 

1. Of the species of Achillea ; Sweet Maudlin, {A. ageratum), 
Sneeze wort, {A. ptarmica), with . double flowers ; 2. Spring 
.Adonis, {A. vernalis), with large yellow flowers, in April; 
3. An elegant double variety of Rose Campion, {AgroB- 
temma coronaria); 4. Perennial flax, {Linum perenne) ; 6. 
Round headed Rampion, {Phyteuma orbicularis)] 6. Sweet 
William, {JDianthus harbatus) ; 7. Of the species of Eryngium, 
E. a/pinwm, and E. amethystinum, are very ornamental. Also, 
the Statiee or Thrift,\n particular, S. latifpiia.scopana, tartar- 
tea and spedosa ; 8. Fraxinella, or {Dictarnnus aJbwi), is both 
beautiful and curious ; by approaching a candle to the flower m 
a warm, dry and clear night i« June, a slight explosion takes 
place from the inflammable gas it exhales ; 9. Cardmal Flower, 
(Lobelia cardinalis). « very elegant scarlet flowering plant, but 
is in a great measure now supplanted by the {L.fulgens), of sUU 
greater brilliancy; 10. Catananche casrulea, flowers of a fine 




blue ; 11. Canadian Columbine, {AquUegia canadenaU), highly 
ornamental; 12. Garden Wall Flower, {Chtiranthus cheiri)* 
when double and of a dark color is much prized ; 13. The Red 
and Scarlet Cbelone, (C. obliqua and barbata), very late and 
pretty ; C. major, fine peach colored flowers, the most showy 
of the genus ; 14. German Godilocks, (Chrysoeoma linosyris), 
with bright yellow flowers in the form of an umbel ; 15. Trito- 
ma mecUa, produces its beautiful spikes of orange flowers in 
autumn ; 16. Two species of Monarda ; the Oswego Tea 
or (M. cUdyma) with scarlet flowers, and M. fisttUoaa, 
with purple (lowers ; 17. The Perennial Lupin, {Lw^xn peren- 
fUf), out a moie showy plant is the L. nootkatensts ; 18. Of 
the Perennial Poppies, the Oiicntal, {Papaver orientalis) with 
large bright orange flowers, and the Welch (P. eambricum) 
with flowers ol a deep yellow ; 19. Red Valerian, {Valeriana 
rubra), highly ornamental when of a dark color ; there is a white 
variety which forms a fine contrast; 20. Several kinds of Paeony 
are magnific entborder plants, as the Double Dark Red , and Double 
Blush, (varieties of P. officinalis), and the White Flowered, (P. 
olbiflora), and (P. whiihji), (P. Jragrans atid P hihnci) several 
other new fine kinds might be here added; 21. Smooth Leaved 
Bellflower, {Campanula nitida), very ornamental and com* 
pletely covered with blue flowers. There is a double variety of 
this, but it is very rare ; 22. Of the numerous genus of Asters with 
fine blue flowers, the Italian Starwort (^. amellus), the Alpine^ 
(fd, alpiniu), and the (j9. apectabilis) ; Ragged Robin, (Lychnis 
fios euculi), beautiful when double ; 23. The varieties of X«. dioi- 
ea, with double red and double white flowers are very showy ; 
lometimes called Bachelors* Button ; 24. The Plantain Leaved 
Crowfoot (Ranunculus amplexicaulis), pure white flowers in 
April or May ; 24. Garden Rocket, {Hesperis matronalis) 
double white and double purple, these arc excellent border flow- 
ers, being at once both showy and fragrant ; 26. Virginian Spi- 
derwort, ( Tradescantia virginica), with fine blue flowers, and 
with red, and white flowers, blooming from spring to autumn ; 
26. Asiatic Globe Flower. (Trollius asiaticus), its rich orange 
colored flowers are very brilliant ; (T. europaus), flowers fine 
yellow and handsome ; 27. American Cowslip, {Dodecatheon 
"^ Vu/®*'^ Jiuf*'** flowers in May and June. The varieUes 
of the Chinese ChFy$anthemuras of almost every color are par- 
Ucularly elegant. 1 inust not omit the Day Lily, Hemerocallis, 
large shmmg leaves, of various beautiful colors. 



L Double Purple Jacobea, {Sentcioelegans), strictly speak- 
ing, this IS only an annual, but double varieties maybe continued 
by cutimgs ; 2. Several varieties of Phlox are very ornamen- 



tal, pariieularly the commoa Lyehnidea, (P. MUaveoleiu) ; tlie 
early flowering, (P. divaricata) ; awl leaved or (P. aubulata) ; 
and the fine leaved, or (P. setacea), with (P. ovata)^ and (P, 
stolonifera), or creeping ; 8. The great flowered Siberian Fumi- 
tory, (Fumaria ndbUis), is very handsome and continues long in 
flower ; (F./ormosa), with delicate blush colored blossoms ; and 
the Yellow species, (P. lutea^) is valuable ; 4. Common Bloody 
Crane's bill. {Geranium sanguineiim) is not unworthy 0(9. 
place ; and the striped variety ( G. laneastriense), and the 
streaked Cranes-bill, (G?. striatum) ; 5. The Yellow Species of 
Monkey flower from Chili, (Mimuliis luteus) is an acquisition, 
and very pretty ; and 6. Different species of CEnothera, though 
of humble growth, produce fine yellow flowers, particularly & 
frazerianUt (E.frutieosa, and OS. pumila ; 7. Marsh Marigold 
(Calthra palustris) is likewise very showy, and for several 
we^ks makes a brilliant appearance, but prefers a moist border. 
Feathergrass (Stipa pinnata) is justly admired for its light, airy 
and delicate appearance ; 8. Violets of different kinds are well 
known, the Canadian, ( Viola canadensis) is particularly elegant, 
and the Sweet or March Violet, ( V. odorata), so fragrant, but the 
large flowered variety is beautiful ; 9. The Anemones with blue 
flowers, as the splendid Pasque-flower, (M. Pulsatilla), and dif- 
ferent varieties of the Star Anemone {Jl. hortensis, and jS.. apen- 
nina and A. pratensis) ; 10. The Gentians are also fine border 
plants, particularly the Gentiana asclepiadea and G. cruciata, 
both with blue flowers. 

2. BlEIifNIAIiS. 

Some of the most common are, 1. Honesty or Satin Flower, 
* (Lunaria annua), both white and purple ; 2. French Honey- 
suc kle, {Hedysarum eoronarium) red and white ; 3. Yellow 
Horned Poppy, (Glaucium luteum) ; 4. Tree Primrose of sev- 
eral species (CEhothera biennis, Sfc,) and Moth-mullein, (Ver- 
bascum blattaria,) yellow and white flowered. 

Flowers for Rock work. 

Masses covered with Lichens, especially 1. Lichen atro-fla" 
ims, geographicus, ventostis, perelluSj and stellaris, are very 
desirable. The following are very proper and ornamental ; 2. 
Cotyledon umbilicus j and all plants which grow naturally in dry 
soil are fit for rock work ; 3. IHanthus deltoideSy Z>, armeria and 
J), casius ; 4. The Red Valerian, Valeriana rubra, and the 
white variety ; 6. Erinus alpinus ; 6. Mad wort of different spe- 
cies, particuLirly Myssum saxatile and deltoideum ; 7. Cerasti*- 
vm repena ; 8. Erigeron alpinum ; 9. Cyelamem europaum 
and herderafolium ; 10. Spring Gentian, {Gentiana verna) \ 
11. Soldanella alpina ; 12. Saxifraga oppositifolia and (S. 
granulata,fl. pi.) -, 13. Verbascum myconx ; 14. Lychnis alpi- 




na ; 16. Primvla ntoo/ia, P. integr\folia^ P. helvetica, and 
P. marginata ; 16. Basil leaved Soapwort, Saponaria oey- 
moidea) ; 16. Stone crop, in particular, Sedum album, glau- 
eum, rvpestre, aizoon, and texangulaire ; 17. The Cob-web 
species of House-leek, {Sempervivum arachAoideum.) 


In the pond may be placed various marsh plants, as 1. Aiarsh 
Calla, {Calla palustrii); 2. Yellow and white fringed Bog Bean, 
(Menyanthes nymphotdes) ; 8. The Flowering Rush {ButomuB 
umbellatus) ; 4. Water- Violet, {Hottonia valustris) ; 6. The 
Cat*s Tail, {Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia), has a singular 
appearance. Lastly some of our own native aquatics, may be 
recommended for their beauty and fragrance. The Nymphs, 
and in particular, the White and Yellow water Lily, Jv*. alba 
and J>r. lutca, and though rather tender for our climate, the Chi- 
nese JVympJue melumbiuni. 

S. Annuals. 

1. The Indian Pink, {Dianthw ehinensis) ; 2. The Winged 
Thunbergia, (T. alata) ; and 3. The Sensitive Plant, (Mimosa 
sensitive^, though strictly speaking, biennials, are often cultiva- 
ted as annuals. Many of the annuals are very beautiful ; those 
of each species only which are the most showy, will be particu- 
larized. 4. Elegant Coreopsis, (C. tinctoria), is very showy ; 
#. Beautiful Clarkea, (C. pulchella) ; 6. White and Purple Candy 
Tuft, {Iberia unibellata) ; 7. Daisy leaved Catch-fly, red and 
white {Silene bellidafolia) ; 8. Venus*a Looking Glass, (Campa- 
ntda speculum) ; 9. Sweet Alyssum, {A. marttatum) are very « 
ornamental } 10. Convolmdus, major and minor ; II. African Ma- 
rigold, {Tagetes ereeta), and French do. (T. patula) ; 12. Love 
in a Mist {^gella damascena) ; 13. Variety of Scabious, (Scabi- 
08a) ; 14. Ten weeks' Stock Gilliflower, {Cheiranthiis annuus) ; 
15. The rich and elegant Double Balsams, {Impatiens balsamina), 
their capsules are curious; 16. (Hibiscus trionum), with yellow 
flowers; 17. Many varieties of Larkspur, (Delphinium ajacis), 
single and double ; IS. Varieties of Lupin, (Lupinus), and 
of 11). Sweet Pea (Lathyrus odoratus) ; 20. Scarlet Malope, (M. 
trifida) ; 21. Carnation Poppy, varieties, (Papaver somntfe- 
rum), are very showy ; 22. Purple Eyed Crepis, (C. b^ba- 
ta) ; 23. Tangiers Scorzonera, (<S^. tingitanum) ; 24. The Eternal 
flower, varieties, red, white, purple and blue, (Xeranthemum), 
is excell d by none, its splendid flowers retain their beauty 
through the winter, and make a fine appearance in vases ; 25. 
Mignonette, (Reseda odorata) is universally admired. The fol- 
lowing are less hardy and should be sown in a warm situation 
and transplanted, to bring them forward early. 26. Amaranth, 


Cdmaranthtbs eattdatus), or Love lies bleeding, and 27. Prince's 
Feather (^. hypochondHacus) ; and 28. The Chrysanthemums, 
particularly C. tricolor, and C. lutea. The following are tender 
annuals, and may be planted early in a hot bed, and transplanted. 
Crimson Cypress Vine, (Ipomaa quamodit) ; 29. Many varie- 
ties of Cock's-Comb (Celosia cristata), with scarlet, purple, 
and yellow heads, are extremely ornamental ; 80. Globe Ama- 
ranth us, {Gomphrasna globosa), of various sorts, with the Afna- 
ranthus tricolor, with each leaf of three colors, blight red, yel- 
low and green, are very showy ; 31. The I^g plant is showy on 
account of its elegant berry, of the size and shape of a large egg; 
S2. The Ice plant is curious, {Mesernbryantheraum crystaUi' 
num), its leaves and stalks being covered with crystalline glob- 
ules like icicles ; 33. And the well known Sensitive plant, {Mimo- 
sa pudica). 

The seeds of flowers are sown in the spring, in fine and new- 
ly prepared fresh soil. Very fine seeds should be covered but 
a quarter of an inch deep, larger seedt deeper in proportion to 
their size ; and the ground is then to be immediately trodden 
hard ; this enables it to retain its moisture at the surface, which 
cooperating with the warmth on the seeds, they vegetate at oncCv 




Its History and Uses 246 

Great Double Flowering 248 

Dwarf Double Flowering ib. 

Other Varieties 247 

American Citron 363 

Its Description and History 114 
Its Uses . 115 to 125 

To Gather and Preserve 117 
Cultivation, &c. 104 

Of Pruning . ... 107 
Insects, &c. which annoy 108 
Climate of the Apple 61, 86, 

87, 88, 126 
Varieties. Ameriean and of 
Foreign Origin, adapted 
to our Climate, of the Ist 
and 2d Classes. 
MsopvLB Spitzenbere 40 

American Nonpareil . 30 

Amer. Summer Pearmain 25 
Aunt's Apple . 30 

Baldwin ... 41 

Baltimore . , . ib. 
Barcelona Pearmain 71 

Beachemwell Seedling , 72 
Beauty of the West 41 

Bellflower 42 

Beverly's Red 59 

Blenheim Orange 72 

Blue Pearmain . 42 

Borsdorfer ... 72 

Brabant Bellflower 78 

Braddick's Nonpareil 63 

Bringewood Pippin 64 

Calville Rou^e de Micoud 62 

Canadian Reinette 78 

Carthouse or Gilpin 42 

Catline ... 30 

Chinese Double Flowering 58 

Christie's Pippin 74 

Cornish Gillinower 43 

Corse's Favorite 26 

Corse's Indian Prince , 31 

Cos Apple ... 43 

Court Pendue Plat 74 

Court of Wyck , 74 

Crow's Egg ... 43 

Curtis ... 69 

Danvers Winter Sweet 48 

Dartmouth Sweeting 81 

D'Astems ... 75 

Delaware, ... 64 

Downton Grolden Pippin 31 

Drap D'Or, of France ib. 

Dutch Codlin 44 

Dutch Mignonne 75 

Dutchess of Oldenburg 64 

Early Bough 26 

Early Harvest 26 



Earlj Red Juneatiog 26 

Easter, or Pasque Apple, 75 

Emperor Alexander, . 66 

English Codlin 82 

Fan Pippin, 32 

Faroeuse ... 88 

Fearn*8 Pippin . 75 

FennouUIet Grise . 76 

Jaune ib. 

Rouge 77 

Flushing Spitzenberg 44 

Foxley ... 85 

Franklin Golden Pippin 65 

French Nonpareil 83 

Galo Bayeux 65 

Gardner Sweeting 44 

Gloucester White 33 

Golden Harvey 45 

Pearmain, ib. 

Russet 83 

Grand Sachem . 84 

Grange ... 66 

Gravenstein 34 

Green Newtown Pippin . 45 

Nonpareil 77 

Sweeting 46 

Gros Pigeonett 66 

Harrison ... 56 

Herefordshire Pearmain 46 

Hubbaid»8 '« 77 

Hubbiirdston Nonsuch . 47 

Jerusalem ... 78 

Jonathan ... 47 

Kenrick's Red Autumn 35 

Killam Hill . . . ib. 

King of Pippins 67 

Kirk's Golden Reinette 67 

Lady Apple ... 47 

Lady Haley's Nonsuch 86 

Large Been Apple 78 

LaViolette ... 86 

Limber Twig 59 

Long Carthusian Apple 78 

Lyscom ... 36 

Maiden's Blush . 27 

Mammoth 48 

Margil .... 79 

Marigold ... 48 


Marquese ... 48 

Martin Nonpareil 79 

MelaCarla ... 79 

Mela de Rosmarino . 80 

Michael Henry 48 

Monstrous Bellflower 36 

Pippin 49 

Murphy . . ib. 

Newark King . 36 

Noble Pippin 67 

Noblesse de Grand 80 

Norfolk Beaufin 81 

Orange Pippin . ib. 

Sweeting . 37 

Ortley ... 49 

Padley's Pippin 68 

Pear Rennet 81 

Peck's Pleasant 50 

Pennock's Red Winter ib. 

Pickman . « . ib. 

Pigeonett ... 68 

Pine Apple Russet ib. 

Priestley ... 51 

Prince's Table Apple 69 

PommeAIeose, . . ib. 

d'Apl Gros 82 

• de Lestre ib. 

Princesse 69 

Porter ... 27 

Pownal Spitzenberg . 51 

Pumpkin Sweeting 37 

Punctured Reinette . 82 

Pryor's Red . 59 

Rambi, or Romanite . 37 

Rambour Franc . 87 

Rawle's Janett . . 59 

Red Autumn Calville 38 

- Calville ... 51 
Ingestrie . 69 

- and Green Sweeting 3S 

- Quarrendon . ^ 27 
Reinette de Bretagne . 70 
de Champagne SS 

Doree . . ib. 

Franche . 51 

Grise . . 62 

de Granville 70 

Princewe Noble 83 



Rhode Island Green 
Kibston Pippin . 
Roxbury Russet 
Royal Pearinain 
Saint Lawrence 

Sawyer Sweeting . 
Scarlet Nonpareil 
— — Perfuine 
Seek-no-further . 
Siberian Bitter Sweet 

Crab, Red 

-: -, Yellow 

Sopsavine . 
Spice . i^ 
Straat . * . 

Streaked Rose Apple 
Striped June ** 
Summer Cheese 




Sweeney Nonpareil 
Sykehouse Apple 
Van Dyne 
Victorious Reinette 
Virginia Crab 


Waxeii Apple 
Williams's Apple 
Wine Appfe 
Winter Seek no further 


White Calville 

Wycken Pippin 
Yellow Newtown Pippin 
York Russetting 








































Vagid^ of the 3d Class, qf 
fdgk reputation in Eng' 
land. These deserve trial 
in Canada and the north- 
ernmost States. 
Alfriston ... 92 

Aromatic Russett 99 

Astracan ... 87 

Beauty of Kent 
Bedfordshire Fouiidling 

Brown's Summer Beauty 
Burrel's Red 
Carlisle Codlin 
Claygate Pearmain 
Cockle Pippin 
Cornish Aromatic 
Cowarne's Queening 
Devonshire Golden Ball 


Dowell's Pippin 
Duke of Wellington . 
Early Crofton 


Edgar .... 
Flower of Kent 
French Pippin 
Golden Burr 
Hagloe Crab 
Hambledon Deux Ans, 
Kentish Broading . 


Kerry Pippin 

Keswick Codlin . 

Kirke's Lord Nelson 

Lemon Pippin 

Lewis's Incomparable , 

London Pippin . 

Luccombe s Nonsuch 

Marmalade Pippin 

Norfolk Storing 

Potter's Large seedling 

Rawlin's fine Red Streak 

Red Astracan 

Rivelstone Pippin 


Sack and Sugar 

Salopian Pippin . 

Scarlet Crofton 

Sops of Wine 

Striped Holland Pippin . _._ 

Striped Monstrous Reinnette 98 
Sugar Loaf Pippin . . 91 
Wormsley Pippin . . ib. 













Wtlthtm Abbey Seedling 108 
Yellow Ingestrie . 98 

Torkfhire Greening . lOS 

ItsHiftory ... 258 
Its Usee and CultiTation 254 

Algiers . 
Broesels • 
Black Apricot 
Early Bfasculine 
Gro8 Match 
Moorpark • 

Muscn, . 
Peach Apricot 

Royal Persian 
Turkey . 
White Apricot 

Its history and uses 
Chinese • 
Holly leaved . 
Other varieties . 


Its uses, Slc, 

Varieties described . 337 

BxiTDiiro Limbs', its ef- 
fects in causing product- 
iveness xziii, 240, 326, 835 

Canker Worm 

Its history and uses 
Its cultivation, &c, . 



Amber Cherry 


American Amber . 

Arch Duke . 

Belle de Choisy 

Belle et Magnifique . 

Bigarreau de Rocmont . 

, Black . 

, Large Black, . 

, Large Late Red 










— — , Late, of Hildse- 

heim . 274 

, White, or GrafBon ib. 

Black Eagle . . ib. 

Black Heart ... 275 
Black Spanish . ib. 

Black Tartarean . ib. 

Cerisier du Nord . . 280 
Cerise de Villennes . ib. 
Dearborn's Red French ib. 
Double Flowering, Lare e, 282 

, SmsQl, ib. 

Downer's Red Heart . 276 
Downton ... ib. 

Elkhom . . . . ib. 
Elton . ... ib. 

Florence . . 277 

Gascoign's Bleeding Heart ib. 
German Duke . . 280 
Gridley ... 277 
Griottier k Feuilles de Pe- 

cher . . . 280 
Griottier D'HoUande . ib. 
Harrison Heart . 277 

Herefordshire Black 278 

Knight's Early Black . 272 
Late Duke . . . 281 
May Duke ... ib. 

Mazzard Cherry . . 278 
Montmorency . . 281 
Morello . . . . ib. 
Plumstone Morillo . 2^2 
Remington White Heart 278 
Tobacco Leaf . 282 

Virginia Cherry ; 288 

Waterloo 278 

Weeping Cherry . . 283 



WKite Ox Heart . 
White Tartarean 






Climate. See Introduce 
tion. Also pages 

61, 87, 88 and 318 

It uses and cultivation 


Cranberry Viburnum 839 

Cross FERTiiiiZATiON xvii 

CuRCULio . . . xxxiii 


Its history and uses . 291 

Cultivation and pruning ' 293 

Black English . . 292 

Black Naples . . 293 

Large Red . . . ib. 

Large White . ib. 

Other varieties described ib. 

Cuttings . xxii, 318 

Debarking, its effects xxvii 

Decortication xxvi 

Dwarfing . 


Its history and uses 
Its cultivation 
Common Blue 
Large Blue 
Bordeaux . 
Black Genoa 
Purple Genoa . 
White Genoa 

. xxix, 202 

Black Ischia . . SFi 

Brown Ischia . . lb. 

Green Ischia . . . 332 

Yellow Ischia . , ib. 

Black Italian . . . ib. 

Brown Italian . . ' ib. 

Malta . . . ib. 

Marseilles ... ib. 

Murrey . . . . ib. 

Long Brown Naples . 338 

Nerii . . . . ib. 

Figue Blanche Ronde . ib. 

Brown Turkey . ib. 

Violette ... ib. 

Small Early White . 384 

Flowers . . 400 

Fruits, Old, their decline xiil 
Fruits, New, modes by 
which they are produ- 
ced . . xUi, 125, 201 

Its history and uses . 294 

Varieties described . ib. 

Its cultivation, pruning, d&c, 298 


xxiii, 318 

. 329 


. 330 


. ib. 


. 331 


. ib. 


Grape Vine. 

Its history and uses 298 
Cultivation . . .318 

Thomery mode . . ib. 

Maladies ... 328 

Foreign Varieties. 

Aleppo .... 314 

Black Cape . 304 

Black Damascus . 305 

Black Hamburg . ib. 

Black Lombardy . . ib. 

Black Prince . 306 

Black Raisin .. . . ib. 

Black St Peters . . ib. 

Black Sweet Water . ib. 

Blue Cartager . . 307 

Bordelais . 311 

Burgundy, Miller's, . 307 



ChasMlas, White, . 

— •, CMden, 

, Black, . 

— — , Musk, 
, Red, 

, Variegated . 


ComichoD Blanc 
Early Black July 
Early White Muacadine 
Frankenthal . 
Frontlgnac, Black, 

I 1C6G, 

. White 

Ores Guillaome 
Grot Maroc 

Langfbrd*8 Incomparable 
Malmsey Muscadine . 
Muscat, yar* . 

, Red,of Alexandria 303 

, White, of do ib. 

', White, of Lunel 304 









Pitmaston White Cluster 

Poonah . 


Raisin de Cannes 

Red Hamburgh : 

Reiner de Nice 




Verdal . 

White Hamburg 

White St Peter^s 

American Varieties 
Bland . 
Isabella . 
Worthington . ' . 

Growth or Treks 












Hail Storms 



. xxii 

IirsBCTs, xxxiii, 108, 203, 288, 


Limb Plant 
Medlar, var. . 




Musk Melon, 20 varieties 860 
Water Melon ... 363 
Its uses ... ib. 

MouiTTAiN Ash . . 839 

Cultivation ... 285 
Black Mulberry . 284 

Red Mulberry . . ib. 
White Italian . 285 

Japan Paper . .lb. 

Dandolo, or Moretti . 286 
Morus Multicaulis, its his- 
tory, uses and cultivation 


Its history and cultivation 246 

Freestone JVeetarines. 
Aromatic . . 241 

Early Violet . . ib. 

Elruge . . . . ib. 
Faircliild*8 Early . 242 

Jaune Lisse . . ib. 

Lewis . . . ib. 

Perkins's Seedling . . ib. 
Pitmaston Orange . ib. 

Scarlet * . . .240 
Temple's ... ib. 

White, or Flanders . ib. 

Clingstones or Pomes, 
YioletU Cerise • . .243 







Grosse Violetle 




Red Roman . 

. ib. 

Scarlet Newlagton 


Tawny Newington 

. 245 



Violet Musk . 

. ib. 

English, or Madeira Walnut 354 
Black Walnut . . 356 

Butternut . . 356 

Chesnut . 
Pacane Nut 
Filberts, vjirieties. 

Paving causes productive- 






Its history and uses 234, 235 

Cultivation . . . 237 

Insects which annoy . 238 
Pruning .... 240 

Classification . . 208 

Freestone Peaches. 

Acton Scott . . .219 

Belle Beauce . . 212 

Belle Chevereuse . . 214 

Bellegarde ... 213 

Belle deVitry , . 215 

Bourdine . . . 215 

Buckingham Mignonne . 226 

Cardinsde . . . 217 

China Flat Peach . . 225 

Columbia ... 226 

Cooledge's Favorite . 219 

Double Flowering ,21 6 

Double Montague . . 222 

Double SwUsh . . 223 

Dwarf Orleans . 217 

Early Anne . . 210 

Early Mignonne . .211 

Early Purple . . ib. 

]$^ly Royal Georjo , 220 


Early Yellow Malacatune fw 

Early Red Rareripe 

Early York 

Emperor of Russia 

English Chancellor 


Ford's SeedUng 

George Fourth 

Grosse Mignonne 


Hill's Madeira 


Jaques's Rareripe 

Late Chevreuse 

Late Purple 


Mifflin's Pennsylvania . 

Mignonne Frise4 

Morrisania Pound 

New Royal Charlotte 




Orange Peach 

Petite Mignonne . 

President . 

Red Cheek Malacatune 

Red Magdalen 

of Courson 

Red Nutmeg 

Red Rareripe 

Robinson Crusoe 



Smooth Leav. Royal Groorge 224 


Snow Peach 
Spring Grove 
Sweet Water 
Teton de Venus 
Van Zandt's Superb . 
Yineuse De Fromentin 
Weeping Peach . 
White' Magdalen , 
— p^«~ Malacatune . 

Yellow Admirable 
■ ■ " Alberge 





Tellow Rareripe iSi 
Red Rareripe . 229 

Patiet or CUHg$taHe$. 

Catharine ... 281 

Coogreas . 280 

Diana . ib. 

Earlj NewingtoD ib. 

Grosse Perseque . . 232 

Heath Clingstone 284 
Hoyte*B Lemon Clingitone 238 

Hyslop's Clingstone . 234 

Lafayette . . 230 

Lemon Clingstone . 282 

Monstrous Poroponne 283 

Oldmixon Clingstone . 281 

Old Newington . . ib. 

Pavie Admirable . 232 

— ^ Jaune . 230 

Magdelcine 232 

Tardif ; . .233 

Washington Clingstone 232 


Its description and uses 200 

Cultivation, &c. 201 

Insects, &c. which annoy 203 

List of indifferent Pears 152 

Listof bad Pears 153 

Class of Old Varieties. 

Angellque de Bordeaux 
Angelique de Rome 
August Muscat . 
Autumn Bounty 

'■■ Bergamotte 
Beauty of Summer 
Bellissime d'Hiver 
Bergamotte de Cadette 


— — — Soliers 

— — — Rouge 
Beurre d'Angleterre 
Bezi de Caissoy 
Bezi d*H6ry 
Bezi de Montigny 






Bezi de la Motte . 184 

Bon Chretien d'Auch 148 

de Vernois ib. 

Broca's Bergamot 185 

Brown Beum ib. 

Cassolette 127 
Catillac ... 150 

Chaumontelle 148 

Colmar 144 

Crassanne . 135 

Double Fleur . 150 

Doyenne Gris . 186 

Early Rousselet . 127 

Echassery 144 

Elton . .136 

Epined'Et6 . 127 

d'Hiver . . 145 

Fondante de Brest . 127 

Francbipanne . 136 

Francreal . . . 145 

German Muscat . ib. 

Green Chissel . . 127 

Green Pear of Yair . 136 

Green Sugar . . 137 

Grise Bonne . . ib. 

Grosse Blanquet . 128 

Gros Rousselet . . 128 

Rateau Gris 151 

Hollande Bergamotte . 146 

Holland Green . . 137 

Imperial Oak Leaved 146 

Iron Pear . 161 

Jargonelle . 128 

Jalousie . . 137 

Lansac • . . . ib. 

Little Blanquet • 128 

Little Musk . 129 

Long Stalked Blanquet ib. 

Li'Orange d'Hiver . 146 

Louise Bonne ib. 

Magdeleine . . * 129 

Mansuette . ib. 

Marquise . . 138 

Martin Sec . . 147 

Sire . . ib. 

Merveille d'Hiver . ib. 

Monsieur Jean . . 188 

MoorfowlEgg . . iht 



Mouth Water . ,. 188 

Musk Summer BoQ Chretien 139 

Muscat Robert . 


Newtown Virgalieu 

Orange Musque 

Orange Tulip6e 


Poire de Tonneau 

Poire du Vitrier 


Prince's Pear 


Quisse Madame 
Red £ergamot 

Cheek . • 


Rousseline « 
Rouselet de Rheims 
Royal Winter 
Saint Augustine 


Fere . 

John's Pear . 


September Orange 


Spanish Bon Chretien 

Striped Long Green 

Summer Arch Duke 

-~ Bergamot 

Bon Chretien 

' — Rose 

Swan's Egg . 

Tresor d'Amour 





Winter Bon Chretien 

Modern- Pears. 
A JVeto Class. 
Alexandre de Russie 
Althorpe Crassanne 
Archiduc Jean D'Autriche 
Autumn Colmar 
















Aston Town 
Belle et Bonne 

de Bruxelles 

La Belle de Flanders 
Belle Lucrative 
Bergamotte« Early 
— — ^ des Paysans 
Beurr6 D'Aremberg 

de Beauchamps 

■ Bosc 


Curtet . 



Dore . 



Du Roi . 




Remain . 

de Saint Quentin 



Bezi de Louvaine . 


Bishop's Thumb 

Bon Chretien Fondante 

Bourgmestre . 

Broome Park 

Brougham Hall 


Calebasse Fondante 





Cardinalo . 


Charles D'Autriche 

Colmar D'Et6 

Dewez . 



— - YanMons 




















































Cumberland • Io8 
Cnshing . . ib. 

Dtrimont ... ib. 
Dearborn . . 169 

Dearborn** Seedling . 154 

Delices D'Hardenpont 119 

DeRacbinquin . . 170 

Dix .... 169 

Dr Hunt's Connecticut 170 

Doyenne Panach6 ib. 

Santelette . ib. 

Double D'Automne . 171 

Duchesse D'Angouleme ib. 

de Mars 192 

Flemish Bon Chretien . 193 
Forelle ... 173 
Forme de Mario Louise ib. 
Frederic de Wurtemberg ib. 
Fulton ... ib. 
Oendeseim . . 174 
Gloria ... 193 
G1q«x Morceau 194 
Grande Bretagne Dore ib. 
Green Summer Siigar . 155 
Golden Beurre of Bilboa 177 
Gore's Heathcot . . 174 
Gros Dillen . 176 
Grosse Angleterre de Noi- 
sette . . ib. 
Grumkower Winterbirne ib. 
Hacon's Incomparable ib. 
Harvard . . . 176 
Hazel . * • . ib. 
Henri Quatre ib. 

Van Mons . . 177 

Ickworth ... 194 

Innominee . • 155 

Johonnot . . . 177 
Josephine .195 

Julienne . • • 156 

Reiser . . . • ^7^1 

La Coloma « • ib. I 

LaFourcroy . . 195 

LaVanstalle 178 

Lammas • • 1^ 

Lewis ... 195 

L'lncommanicable . 178 

Lod^e , , , ib. 

L'Oken D'Hlver . 


. 190 

London Sugar 


Lowell . 

. 196 



Marie Louise 

. 17» 

Napoleon . 

. ib. 


. 180 

Noir Grain 


New Bridge 

. ib. 

Passe Colmar 



. 197 



Pitford Pear . 

. 180 

Preble's Beurr6 



. 157 

Present de Malines 


Princesse D'Orange 

. 181 

Prince du Frintemps 

. 198 

Prince's St. Germain 


Poire D' Ananas 




Neill . 





. 183 

Riche D'Epouille 


Roi de Rome 

. 198 

Sabine D'Et6 


Saint Ghislain 

. 183 



SeignieurD'Ete . 

. 157 

Serrurier D'Automne 




Striped Bon Chretien 

. ib. 

Summer Francreal 


Surpasse St. Germain 

. 198 

Svlvange Verte . 

. 198 

Tillington . 



. ib. 

Vicomte de Sj^Iberch 


Washington . 

. 187 

Wilkinson . 



. ib. 

Winter Crassanne 


Winter Nells 

. ib. 

Wormaley Grange 



, 340 




PiGKLK of the Walnut . 855 

Pickle of the Butternut 357 
of the Olive . 366* 


Its history and uses . 270 
Its cultivation, &c, . ib. 

Apricot Plum . . . 255 
Belle of Hiom . . ib. 

Bingham . . . ib. 
Bleecker's Gage . ib. 

Blue Holland . . . ib. 
Blue November Gage . 256 

Canada Plum . . . ib. 
Cherry Plum . . ib. 

Coe's Golden Drop . . ib. 
Cooper's Plum . . 257 

Corse's Admiral . . ib. 

Field Marshal . ib. 

-— Nota Bena . . ib. 

Rising Sun . 258 

Damas de Maugeron . ib. 
Damas de Provence . ib. 

Dame Aubert . . . ib. 
Damson . . . 259 

Diamond Plum . .. ib. 
Diapr^e Rouge . . ib. 

Downton Imperatrice . ib. 
Duane's Purple French 260 

Early Monsieur . . ib. 
Early Yellow . . ib. 

Goliah . . . . ib. 
Green Gage . . 261 
Gros Damas Rouge Tardif ib. 
Grosse Mirabelle . . ib. 

Huling's Superb . . ib. 
Imperatrice . . ib. 

Imperial Diadem . . 262 
Italian Damask . . ib. 

Italian Prune . . . ib. 
Jerusalem ... ib. 

Kirk's Plum ... 263 
l/arge Sweet Damson . ib. 

Lex Plum . . . ib. 
Lucombe's Nonsuch . ib. 

Minims . . . '. ' ib. 
Monsieur . . . 264 

Morocco . . . - . ib. 

Nectarine Plum . ^ 

Orleans . . . . ib. 
Peter's Large Yellow Gage 2H55 

Precoce de Tours . . ib. 

Prince's Imperial Gage 268 

Prune de Brian<;on . 265 

Red Magnum Bonum . ib. 

Red Perdrlgon . . 266 

Red Queen Mother . ib. 

Reine Claude Yiolette ib. 

Royale . . . . ib. 

Royale de Tours . ib. 

Saint Catharine . . 267 

Semiana ... ib. 

Smith's Orleans . . ib. 

Surpasse Monsieur . ib. 

Variegated Plum . . 268 

Virginale ... ib. 

Washington . . . ib. 

White Magnum Bon vim 269 

White Perdrlgon . . ib, 
Wilmot'sNew Early Orleaq|ib. 

Orxamentaz*Tr£E8, &c, 384 
Index, . . 419 

Proditctiveness of Trees 
caused by artificial means 
XXV, 202, 240, 293, 319, 326, 335 


Its history and uses 
Its cultivation 
Chinese . 
Musk . 
Other varieties 










xxxvi, 326 


Its description and uses . 341 

Its cultivation . . 343 

Red Antwerp . . 341 

White Antwerp . ib. 

Other varieties described 342 



Sklbgt List or Fbvits 

Southern Fruits 

Shepardia . 

lis uses . 
Its cultivatiou 

Alpines . , 
Black Prince . 
Black Roseberry , 

Duke of Kent's Scarlet 
Elton Seedling 
Green Strawberries 
Grove end Scarlet . 
Keen's Seedling . 
Laree Flat Hautbois 
Mulberry . 
Old Pine, or Carolina 
Old Scarlet . 
Prolific Hautbois . 

Six Roseberry . 
^55! Sweet Cone 




Wilmot's Superb . 
Wood Strawberries . 
List of other varieties 


Tea. See Index to Appendix. 
Its imitation . - 292 



Wine of Quinces 

of Cherries 

of Mulberries 

of Currants 

p- of Elderberries 

of Gooseberries 

of Raspberries 

of Strawberries 

See also Grape Vine 


. 125 


. 284 

. 839 

. 341 





Akee Tree 

Alligator l^car 

Anchovy Pear 

Aurucanian Pine . 


Bread Fruit . 



Custard Apple, Varieties 



Granadiila, Vafrieties . 

Guava, Varieties . 


Lemon . . . • 



Lin-kio . 

. 871 






. ib. 





Mango Tree 

. 381 


Mangos tan 




. 872 



Its history and uses 



. 868 

Varieties described 





Its history and uses 





Blood or Malta Orange 

. tJ» 



China Orange 
Mandarin Orange 
Seville Orange 

Pine Apple 
Its history and uses 
Varieties described 
Pinus Pinea „ 
Pistachia . ; 

Its de:3cription and uses 




376 4 Rose Apple 

Prickly Pear, Varieties 










Trapa Natans 



Varonna Plum 

Wine of the 0%nge 

Pine Apple 




Abele . . . 384 

Acacia, Purple Flowering 387 

, Rose . . 891 

Ailanthus, or Tree of 

Heaven . . . 384 
Almond, Large Double 

Flowering . . 248 
Almond, Dwarf Double 

Flowering . . 395, ib. 
Althea frutex, varieties 391 
Apple Chinese, Double 

Flowering . . 58 

Red Siberian Crab 


Aristolochia Sipho 


— r- Curled Leaved 



Weeping ^ 


Broom Siberian . 396 

Button Wood . . 334 

Calycanthus . . ' 391 

Chinese White 

and Yellow . . . ib. 
Camelia ... 395 
Cedar Red . . .388 

White . . 385 

Cherry, Double Flowering 282 

-, Virginia 

. 339, 388 

* o • ib. 

Azalea . . . .391 

Beech . 334 

■ Purple Leaved 888 

Bignonia Radicans . 897 

-— Chinese, or Gran- 

mflora . . ib. 

Bmotoi Scotch • . .896 

Colutea, two Varieties 
Currant, Indian . 

, Missouri 

Cypress, Deciduous . 
Daphne Mezereon, Red 

-, White 



Diervilla, Yellow 
Dirca Palustris 
Dogwood, Bloody 

, White Flowering ib. 

Elm, American White . 385^ 

> Red . ib. 

, Cork Bark . . ib. 

, Scotch . . ib. 

Flowers . . . 40(F 

Franklinia ... 888 



Glycine FnitMceiM 
-, CbiDete 


HercolM' Club . 


, EnglishFly,t^M^M392 

, Tartarean, ib. 

, Early Bel^c 899 

Italian . ib. 

Montl|l| Variegated ib. 

, Chine2r4o. Twi- 
ning . 

, Scarlet Monthly 


, Yellow do. 

, Orange, or Pubea- 


, Japan 

, Estruacan 

Horse Chesnut, White 

Horse Cbesnut, Dwarf 

Indigo Shrub 

Ivy, Evergreen, or Giant 

, Virginian 

Judas Tree 

Juniper Swedish 

Kentucky Coffee 

Laburnum, two Varieties 

Larch, Amei ican 











Lilac, White and Purple 

, Persian, two Var. 

, Chinese, cut Leaved 

Lime, or Linden, two Var. 
Locust .... 
Honey Ldcust, or Three 

Thomed Acacia ib. 

Magnolia, Blue Flowering ib. 

_- , Chandelier . 8S9 

_-: , Chinese Purple ib. 

. — , Cordata . ib. 

,Glauca . . 898 

, Great Flowering 889 

•m , Splendid . ib. 

., Tripetala • ib. 
Maple, Scarlet . 886 

Maple, Sugar . 886 
Mountain Laurel 893 
Rose, or Rasp- 
berry ib. 

Snow Drop 889 

Mulberry, Chinese 286, ib. 

, Japan Paper 285, ib. 

Osage Orange . • ib. 
Paeonia,Tree . . 896 

Peach, Doubfe Flowering, 216 
— 229 












Pine .... 
Pride of India 
Prim, or Privet . 

, Chinese 

, Variegated Leaved 

Quince, Chinese 

-, Japan, or P^rus 

Rhododendron Maximum 

^ Ponticum 

Rose « 

China, or Monthly 

Varieties . ib. 

Rosa Rubifolia . 398 

St. John's Wort . . 394 
SUver Fir . . 386 

Spruce, Varieties ib. 

Shepardia 340 

Snowball, or Guelder Rose 394 
Snowberry . . 896 

Sophora, Japan 394 

Spiraea Bella . . ib. 

Guelder Rose . ib. 

Nepal . . ib. 

Red Flowering ib. 

Siberian . . ib. 

Syringa European Fragrant ib. 
Garland, or Large 

Sycamore, European 

Striped Leaved 

Tulip Tree 
Venetian Sumach 
Virgin's Bower 
WiUow, Black 

, Golden 

, Ring 

— , Weeping 





. 890 


. 390 


. 890 


Napoleon ib. 





The following recommended list for a moderate collection of 
fruits, has been formed with particular care. And except a 
very few of the Nectarines and Apricots, an^ihose very few 
Cherries, &c, marked thus ♦, all of them have been proved in our 
country and latitude, and are the selections from very extensive 
lists of importations and of native friiit. But as a great number 
of the new fl-uitsof the highest character, have not yet borne fruit 
in our country, and are therefore excluded, this list will require 
from time to time a revision. 

The numerical figures refer to the page where each fruit is 


Summer Fruit. Benoni,25; American Summer Pearmain, 
25 ; Early Bough, 26 ; Juneating, 27 ; Porter, 27 ; Sapsons, 28 , 
Summer Rose, 29 ; Williams, 29. 

Autumn- Fruit. American Nonpariel, 30 ; Drap D'Or of 
France, 31 ; Fall Pippin, 32 ; Fameuse, 33 ; Gravenstein, 34 ; 
Kenrick's Red Autumn, 35 ; Killam Hill, 35 ; Orange Sweeting, 
37 ; Pumpkin Sweeting, 37 ; Red and Green Sweeting, 38 ; Saw- 
yer Sweeting, 38 ; Straat, 39 ; York Russetting, 40 ; Red Sibe- 
rian Crab, 67 ; Yellow Siberian Crab, 58. 

Winter Fruit, ^sopus Spitzenberg, 40 ; Baldwin, 41 ; 
Bellflower, 42 ; Carthouse or Gilpin, 42 ; Danvers Winter Sweet, 
43 ; Hubbardston Nonsuch, 47 ; Jonathan, 47 ; Lady Apple, 47 ; 
*Mela Carla, 79; Ortley, 49; Pennock's Red Winter, 50; Red 
Calville, 51 ; Rhode Island Greening, 52 ; Ribston Pippin, 52 ; 
Roxbury Russetting, 53 ; Wine Apple, 54 ; Winter Sweeting, 55 ; 
Yellow Newtown rippin, 55. 


Summer Fruit. Green Chissel, 127; Early Rousselet, 
127; Jargonelle, 128; St. John's, 131 ; Skinless, 131. 

Autumn Fruit. Andrews, 158; Bartlett, 159 ; Beurre du 
Roi, 163, believed to be identical with Urbaniste, 186 ; Capiau- 
mont, 166 ; Capsheaf, 167 ; Charles D'Autriche, 167 ; Colmar 
Souverain, 168 ; Dix, 169 ; Buchesse D'AngouI^me, 171 ; Fulton, 
173; Gore's Heathcot, 174; Harvard, 176; Golden Beurre of 
Bilboa, 177*; Julienne, 156; Marie Louise, 179; Napoleon, 
179 ; Seckel, 183 ; Swan's Egg, 141 ; TilUngtoD, 186 ; WilkinsoD, 



187 ; Dr. Himt*« CoonecUcut, fine fior bakins, 170 ; Newtown 
VirgiUeu Baking, 147; Prince's St Gennam, 181. The two 
list, and some few others may be preserved UU Winter. 

WiiTTKB Fbitit. Diel, 189 ; Echassery, 144 ; Lewis, 195 ; 
Passe Cohnar, 196 ; and the Sylvandie Verte, 186, which may 
be kept till long into winter. 

WiirTKK Bakxito Pkam. Catillac, 160 ; Pound, 161. 


Freestowes. Early Anne, 210 ; Early Sweet Water, 222 ; 
Early Red Rareripe, 220 ; Cooledge's Favorite, 219 ; Early Royal 
Georee, 220; Red Rareripe, 221', Eariy Orange; Old Mix- 
on, 221 ; Grosse Mignonne, 211 ; Orange Peach, 228 ; Malta, or 
BeUe de Paris, 213; President, 228; Yellow Alberge, 214; 
George Fourth, 223 ; Jaques, 223; Belle Cbevreuse, 214 ; Morris' 
White Lucious, — ; Snow Peach, 224; Yellow Rareripe, 229 ; 
Belle de Vitry, 215 ; Red Cheek Malacatune, 225 ; Yellow Red 
Rareripe, 229; White Malacatune, 226j Red Magdalen, 218 ; 
Teton de Venus, 218 ; Heath, 226 ; *Yellow Admirable, ^16. 

Pavies, or Clingstones. Oldmlxon, C 231 ; Old New- 
ington, 231 ; Washington, 232 ; Lemon, 232 ; Hyslops, 234 ; 
Heath, C. 234. The last is rather too late for the latitude of 


Early Yellow, 260 ; Apricot Plum, 255 ; *Coe's Golden Drop, 
266 ; Duane's Purple, 260 ; Green Gage, 261 ; Italian Damask, 
262 ; Large Sweet Damson, 263 ; Lex Plum, 263 ; Orleans, 264 ; 
Peter's Large Yellow Gage, 265 ; Red Queen Mother, 266 ; 
Huling's Superb, 261; Royal de Tours, 266; Red Gage; 
St Catharine, 267 •, Semiana,267 ; Smith's Oriean8,267 ; Prince's 
Imperial Gage, 268 ; Washington or Bolmer, 268, and the White 
and Red Magnum Bonnms, mr preserving. 


• Knight's Early Black, 272 ; Amber, 272 ; May Duke, 281 ; 
American Amber, 272 ; *Large Black Bigarreau, 273 ; *Napoleon 
Biearreau, 273 ; Arch Duke, 279 ; Black Tartarean, 275 ; White 
Tartarean, 278 ; Graffion, 274 ; Black Heart, 275 ; Gridley, 277 ; 
Waterioo, 278 ; Belle et Magnifique, 279 ; Late Duke, 281 ; 
Downer's Red Heart, 276 ; Herefordshire B1ack^78 ; Plumstone 
Morillo, 282 ; ^Late Bigarreau of Hildesheim, 274. 


Brussels, 249 , Moorpark, 251 ; Orange, 251 ; Peach Apri- 
cot, 261 ; Royal Persian, 252 ; White Apricot, 258 ; Turicey, 
253; Museh,251. 


select list of vruits. 423 


Early Violef, 241 ; Elruge, 241 ; Lewis's, 242 ; Perkins's Seed- 
ling, 242 ; Pitmaston Orange, 242 ; Golden, 244 ; Vermash, 246 ; 
Rea Roman, 244 ; Scarlet rf ewington, 244. 


The American Red Mulberry, 284, is preferred for its flavor, 
and productiveness, and is hardy. The '^Morus Multicaulis, 
286, has not, it is believed, yet borne fruit in America, but is un- 
derstood to be productive and good. 


EuROPEAir. White Chasselas, 300 ; Golden Chasselos, SOI ; 
Early White Muscadine, 310; and in warm expositions, the 
Black Hamburg, 305 ; Black Cape, 304 ; Ck>nstantia, 307 ; White 
Frontignac, 303. The Muscats of Alexandria, 303, require more 
heat, and are fine. The Black Prince, 306, and Esperione, 307. 
Other varieties, yet untried, are described; but may require 
considerable heat. 

American Grapes. The Isabella, 316 ; Catawba, 315, these 
are fine hardy kinds ; but the Bland, 315, though fine, seldom 
succeeds north of the Middle States. The Scuppernong, 317, suc- 
ceeds well only in the Southern States. 


Black English, 292 ; Black Naples, 292 ; Large White Spanish 
Imperial, 293; Large Red Dutch, 293. 


White Antwerp, 341 ; Red Antwerp, 341 ; see other varieties, 
p. 242. 

For Gooseberries, 294, and Figs, 330, I have described but 
a moderate collection. 


The Keen Seedling, 346, and the Mulberry, 346, and the Pine 
Apple, or Pine, are in the most repute near Boston, as the Wood 
Strawberries were formerly. All described, however, from page 
944 to 350, are but a moderate selection from the very numerous 
varieties in cultivation. 



PLANTS, &o. 

For Sale, at the Nursery of William Kenrick, in Newton, a •nmer- 
otu assortment of the finest kinds of Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plnms, 
Cherries, Apricots, Nectarines, Quinces, Figs, Raspberries, Goose- 
berries, Currants, &c j a fine assortment of Grape Vines — varieties 
of Mulberries, including the White Italian, by the 100 or 1000, and the 
Moms Multicaulis for the nourishment of Silk Worms. A choicQ 
collection of Strawberries, selections from the very numerous yarie- 
ties in cultivation. 

Also, a very extensive and choice collection of ornamental Trees 
and Shrubs, and Honeysuckles, and several hundred varieties of the 
finest kinds of Roses, of a ^eat variety of shades, from pure white, to 
red^ and from deep red to violet and nearly to black. Dahlias of many 
varieties and splendid colors, and a fine variety of the most showy her- 
baceous perennial flowering plants and PsBonies. 

The stock now ready for sale, although very extensive, will yet be 
considerably augmented by the Autumn oflSSS, including a portion of 
the inoculations of 1832, which alone consisted of 40,000 fruit trees, to- 
gether with those of the preceding years, — and comprising 150 varie- 
ties of the finest new Pears — an equal number of Peaches — about 
200 of the finest known kinds of Apples, and other varieties in pro- 

The location of this Nursery, is five miles from Boston by the Cily 
Mills and Western Avenue 3 — a mile and a half from the Cattle Fair 

Trees and Plants securely packed for any part of the country, or for 
any foreign port, and delivered in Boston free of expense for transpor- 
tation. « 

Orders maybe addressed to William Kenrick, Newton, or left with 
Geo. C. Barrett, who is agent, at the New England Farmer Office and 
Seed Store, No 51, and 52, North Market Street, Boston, where cata- 
It^es may be obtained gratis, oir application. 



(Successor to J. B. Russei^l,) 

Respectfully informs the public that he has purchased the stock and 
stand of Mr Kussell, and will continue his Warehouse for every kind 
of Seeds, suitable for cultivation in the United States, the British 
Provinces, or the West India Islands 5 comprising an extensive variety 
of Grass Seeds, the most common as well as the rarer sorts 3 seeds ojf 
native American forest trees, shrubs, and flowers ; kitchen garden veg- 
etables 3 medicinal, pot, and aromatic herbs 3 fruits, esculent roots, dl» 
namental flowers, occ 3 all of which are disposed of, at wholesale and 
retail, at fair prices. 

Connected with the Seed Trade, we have a large assortment of the 
most approved Books on Agriculture, Horticulture, Gardening and 
Botany 3 and can supply Agricultural Libraries and others with books, 
jiot usually found elsewhere, on favorable terms. 

The smallest order from the country for seeds, plants, books, Sec, will 
meet prompt attention. Orders for seeds, &,c, should be addressed to 
" George C. Barrett, Proprietor of the New England Farmer Seed 
Store, No, 51 d& 52 North Market Street, Boston."