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Full text of "New Amsterdam and its people : studies, social and topographical, of the town under Dutch and early English rule"

Gc M. i 

974.702 

N422i 

1995336 



REYNOLDS H,STOR^«i„ 



GENEALO 



NEW AMSTERDAM 

AND r 

ITS PEOPLE 



Studies, Social ayid Topographical, of the Town 
under Dutch and Early English Rule 



J. H. IJ^ULKS, 



WITH MAPS, PLANS, VIEWS, ETC. 



Maar gij, 6 wcl, en aliier-heerlijkst-Land, 
Wcest dailkbaar, an des nilldcn Gcvcis hand. 
Di= u ah in m. Lu.t-hof h.cft geplanc. 

Die gij u kind'rcn 
Mcugt latcn tot cen Etuwig-eygendom, 
Tot dat het Zaad dcr Vrouwe wcdcruni 
Vcrscliijn : tot ons veilossing : Wcllckom! 

Wiezal 't hemljind'm.? 

j.™„S■E■=NDA^ 






NEW YORK 
CHARLES SCRlliNER'S SONS 
1902 



78 10 80 ? 



139S336 



NEW AMSTERDAM 
AND ITS PEOPLE 



&:^-^.^.. 



mi' 



Copyright, igo2, 
' Charlls Scribnik's Sons 

PiiblishfU, Octuber, 1902 



UNIVERSITY PRESS • JOHN WILSON 
AND SON • CAMliRlDGL, U.S.A. 



PREFACE 



j( TT is perhaps unfortunate, in some respects, that Washing- 
l _!_ ton Irving chose to employ his great kilents in writing 
the anmsing " Kuiclierbocker History" of New York. A 
bui-lesque history of }^u\v York Joes not seem to be called 
I lov per se, anymore than a burlesque history of the Plymouth 
C, Colony, and the presentation of a fictitious type of the colo- 
t iiists of the former is calculated to work the same sort of 
< inconveniences as would the selection, for example, of Colonel 
- Pride or of Praise-God Barebones as a type of the latter. 
Ji ]{eaders of such works are supposed, it is true, to bear in 
' mind the fact that they are considering the humorous descrip- 
tions of non-existent characters ; but when for any reason 
^ the work becomes almost a classic, as it were, of the literature 
J of the country, the type therein portrayed passes insensiljly 
Sin the popular mind into something like the embodiment of 
N truth. 

The superficial American who travels in England, or the 

^ superficial Englishman who travels in America, when he 

' j'^vi'ites a book about his travels, is a^it to set forth tiie few 

'j)eople he has chanced to meet as reiiresentatives of national 

^types of character. Both of these worthies are even more 

'prone to do the same thing when they travel in a foreign 

country with the tongue of which they are of necessity but 

imperfectly acquainted, but in such cases their performances 

usually fall beneath the dignity of criticism. 

No community, however, can be riglitly judged in this 
manner, for in each (jne are to be found traits of character 
abiiust as diverse and distinct as are the individuals who 
compose it. New York is no exception to this rule. Within 



^t^«W:» 



vi PREFACE 

the period of tlie first thirty or forty years of the colonization 
of New Amsterdam there are to be met with, in the town, 
representatives of every country of Europe west of the line of 
the Slavonic peoples. The Dutch, of course, greatly predom- 
inated, but tiieir characteristics also are exceedingly varied. 
In the public and private i-ecords of the colony there are to be 
found traits of profound and of thoughtless men, men crafty 
and men open-minded, mild or haughty, religious or profane, 
moral or immoral, learned or ignorant, freedom-loving or 
despotic, small-minded men in oilice, puffed up with notions 
of their boundless importance, men of shrewd business ca- 
pacity, and reckless speculators, — all very much as may bo 
found upon the island of Manhattan in tiiis year of grace 
nineteen hundred and two. v^^bout the only type which the 
author has been unal.>lc to meet with in his researches is 
the dunder-headed Dutchman of fictitious history and of his- 
torical fiction, — the embodiment of the popular idea of the 
Dutch phlegmatic temperament; a marvellous compound of 
Captain Buusby and the Fat Boy in Pickwick. 

At a later period Mr. D. T. Valentine began the first really 
earnest and systematic attempt to bring out the actual features 
of the old Dutch establishment. The labors of tins gen- 
tleman were severe, though not very methodical, and he is ' 
entitled to great credit for the mass of materials which he has 
brought together out of their original obscurity. Mr. Valen- 
tine, however, was not very well acquainted with the Dutch , 
language, and, worse than that, lie was peculiarly prone to 
giving fanciful explanations to imperfectly understood facts. ' 
These sometimes led to the most extraordinary and absurd 
conclusions. Thus, for example, when some years after the 
surrender to the English, the ferry-master at Haarlem discov- 
ered that he was being deprived of his legitimate fees by a ' 
practice which had grown up among the drovers of driving '; 
their horses and cattle through tlie woods to a ford across 
the narrow Spuyten Duyvil Greek, near the present King's 
Bridge, and there wading across at certain stages of the tide, 
iic applied for permission to erect a tavern at this spot for the 



PKEFACE - vii 

purpose of watcliiiig the \viiding-[)]ace. Mr. Valentino appears 
tu have fouinl a puitiou of the record grautiiiy tlio ierry- 
niaster the jirivilege of eBtabhahing the tavern at what is 
ilesiguated by tlie iUiterate ycribe as " the wedding-pLiec." 
Thereupon Mr. Valentine has given a romantic account, tu the 
effect that this paltry tavern, in its lonely and then ahuust 
inaccessible location in the wilderness, reaived its tiame 
from leing the favorite resort of iveddliiij partial fntii New 
Amsterdam. 

Again, in the case of Gerrit Ilendricksen, who was faniil- 
iai'ly called — in all probability from some })cculiarity of his 
person or habitual dress — " de Iduiiw boer" literally, the blue 
boor or farmer, Mr. Valentine, having found certain deeds 
ill which the property is described as adjoining "de blauw 
boer," has in some inexplicable manner translated the jjhrase 
iis " The Blue Boar," and (perhaps with visions of the Boar's 
Head in Eastcheap in his mind) has gravely stated that the 
prenuses referred to ivere occupied as a tavern with the sign of 
the Blue Boar. 

Many other examples of J\lr. Valentine's inaccuracies miglit 
be given, but the foregoing will suffice. They seem to have 
been very carefully followed in many instances by subsequent 
writers whose accounts are based upon his researches. Even 
in the case of so graceful a writer as the author of the " Tour 
around New York," his work is marred by numerous errors 
whenever he quits the domain of personal reminiscences. 

Since, then, Washington Irving has described New Amster- 
dam, not as it was; and since Mr. Valentine has described it, 
in many respects as it was not, there seemed to be some room 
for an attempt to extract from the original records sometliing 
which should more closely represent the actual conditions 
existing in the Dutch town, — whence the present essay. 

The work is mainly based upon topographical researches, 
the dangerous field of family genealogy having been avoided 
by the author as far as possible, except where it seemed 
nei!cssary to introduce genealogical matter in order to eluci- 
daLo various portions of the text. 



viii PREFACE ; ? 

The especial acknowledgments of the author are due to^ 
Mr. W. Eanies, Librarian of tlie Lenox Library, for many 
favors in tlie prosecution of his researches, and more particu- 
larly for placing at his service the extensive and very valuable' 
Bancker Collection, so-called, of plans and surveys, in the| 
possession of the Library. These, though only of indirect' 
benefit to the autlior in the present work, are invaluable to| 
the student of the topography of New York in tlie later 
Colonial period. 

So, too, tlie especial thanks of the author are owing to his 
friend, Mr. A. J. F. van Laer, Librarian of the Manuscript 
Dejaartment of the State Library at AUiany, for the unwearied 
patience and courtesy with which he has met the author's 
somewhat large calls upon his time and attention, and for the 
valuable information received from him upon many points. 
The enthusiastic interest which this gentleman has shown in 
the history and antiquities of the offshoot from his native 
country, which, planted upon the island of Manliattan in the 
early portion of the seventeentli century, has grown from 
feeble beginnings till it is threatening to rob London itself of 
the municipal pre-eminence of tlie world, cannot but be grat- 
ifying to a native New York student of the history of the 
latter metrojxilis. 

J. H. L 



CONTENTS 

CIIAI'TEll I 

Page 
Early (Iuowtii ok tiik Ski tlemknt. — The Common I'ASTtiKi: 

FlliLl>. — iiuUlJIl StKAKT and liKOUWEK SlRAET. — ThiI-IF 
GEltAERDY AND THE WlUTE lIoUSE TaVEIIN • 1 

CHAPTER 11 

WiNCKEL StKAET, AND THE IIoUSE OF DOMINIE BoGAKDUS. — 

The West 1ni>ia Company's Old Stouehouse. — Scuiucyeks 
HOEK 13 

CHAPTER III 
The West India Company and its Coi.o.niai, Okeiceks. — The 

QuAUKEL llETWKEN DlKECTOU KlEFT AND DoMlNlE BoGAUDUS. 

— The Wreck oe the "Princess" 21 

CHAPTER IV 
"The Five Stone Houses." —The Brugh Steegii, or Bridge 
Lane. — The Brewery of the West India Company.— 
Pieter Cornelissen and his Garden. — Hendrick Kip, 
The Tailor 31 

CHAPTER V 
Hendrick Kip and his Hoi-se. — The Kip Cottages on Stone 
Street. '^Jan Jansen van St. Obin and the Sla 



..." - -■ - ^'"'' 

Gideon ' 



CHAPTER VI 
The Water-side. — Dr. Hans Kiersted. — The Houses of 

CORNELIS VAN StEENWYCK AND JoHANNES NeVIUS. — CaP- 

tain Paulus Vanderguift.'^The New Storehouse of 
THE West India Company. — The Warehouse ok Augus- 
TYN Heermans— Secretary Van Tieniioven. — The Old 
Church and Parsonage 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER VII 



Adam Roef-antsen, thic Fihst Schoolmaster in New Amsiku- 
DAM, AND HIS House on Sione Stuket. — Captain Wii.i.i m 
TOMASSEN 61 

CHAI'TKR Vlll 

Surgeon Van der Bogaekdt and his House. — His Tragical 
Death. — The Privateer "La (iAiiCE" and hek Pki/es. — 
Isaac de Foreest 68 

CHAPTER JX 

Tuk Van Corti.andt IIo.mesteau. — ("atherikk van Cort- 
landt and her Church at Sleepy Hollow. — Van Couwen- 
hoven's Houses on Stone Street. — Pieter Hartgers, 

THE WAMPUiM Co.'^IMISSIUNEK 75 

CHAPTER X 

The "Ditch," or Guait. — Teunis Ckaie and iiis Houses on 
THE Ditch.'^The Jews in New Amsierdam. — .Sch.omdn 
La Chair, thk Nutary, and hjs Tavern. — The Banish- 
ment OK IMlCHIEL PlClH'ET 81 

CHAPTER XI 
CoRNELis Melyn, Patroon OF Staten Island,^* The Indian 

TrOURLES. — JOCHEM PlETERSEN KuYTEK. — ThE STRUGGLES 

OK Melyn and Kuyter against the Colonial Authorities. 
— The Baron Van der Capellen. — Siiiout Claesen, of 
IIOORN 94 



CHAPTER XII 

Jacob Steendam, the Dutch Poet, and uis House. — His 
Poetical Works. — "Den Distelyink." — Poems on New 
Netuekland. — His La iter Years at Batavia .... 

CHAl'TER XIII 

Jacob van Couwenhoven and his Brkwei!y. — Prixse 
Stkaet, and "The (iAitiiENS." — Slyck Steegh, or Mill 
Lane — Thk. Bark Mill, — Domimk Mujhaelis and the 
EiRST Dutch Church. — Evert Duvckink 



,;i 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER XIV 

Page 
Tub Houses of Bauent Jansen, Jan Nagel, Claes Carstkn- 

6EN, AND JOCUKM CaLDEH. — I'lETER AnUIUKSSE.N' AND HIS 
TltOUULES WITH TilE INDIANS. — NlCilUl-AS DE ilKYKR. — 

Wessel Eveutsen, the 1<'isheuman. — UuT Jacoiisen . . 161 



CHAPTER XV 

The "Great Tavern," ajterwards ihe Town Hall. — 
Its II18TORIUAL AND Pdmitcal Assoctation.s. — Dominie 
Bogardus's Party. — The Cuur'I's. — The Shjrt Ca.se. — 
Governor Lovelace's Taveiin 175 

CHAPTER XVI 
The "English C^uarter," and the (Ju.iNTs to Thomas 
WiLLET and to Richard S.mith. — William Pater.son, 
the Scotchman, and his Adventures. — Who was he?^=AL 
An Historical Proi:le.m ^ . 192 



CHAPTER XVII 
Hanover Square and UuitoER's Path. — Rukger Jouissen, 

THE SMITlfl^THE TlIIRTY YeARS' WaU. ~ HeNDRICK Jan- 

aEN, THE Tailor, and his Oi'inion ok Director Kii-.et. 

— S.MITH SiREET 223 

CHAPTER XVIII 
GovERT Loockkrmans and his Family. — Elsie Leisler. 
— The LoocftER.MANs' House and its Associations. — 
Captain Kidd 235 

CHAPTER XIX 
Sergeant Daniel Litscho and his Tavern. — Andries Jocii- 
emsen. — The " Ouitioek." — Wall Street and the 
Palisades oe 1053. — Tymen Jansen, the Ship Carpenter, 
and his House 2G7 

CHAPTER XX 
The Smits Vly, — IIendrick Jansen's Grant. — Aucustyn 
Heermans and his HousE.-i^MAUYN Adriaensen and his 
Attack on DikectoU Kieet 279 



xii CONTENTS ; . . 

CHAPTER XXI 

Paqk 
The Maagde Paetje, ou Maiden Lank. — Skipper Counelis- 

SEN. — FkEDEUIK LuiiliEKTSEN AND II13 JIoUSE. — JaN AND 

Maky Teeck. — Sander Leendektsen's House. ^ .Jan 
ViNJE, THE First White Child horn in New Netuer- 
land. — ViNJE's Brewery 2^6 

CHAPTER XXI [ 
Secretary Van Tieniioven's Bouweisy ok " WALLKNaTEiN." 
— Tub GouwENiiERG. — Van Tienhoven's Lane. — The 
Vanuerclyfe Family 3u9 

CHAPTER XXUI 
The Hamlet at the FeriIy. — I>amiii:kt INIoil. — Ha(!e 
Bruynsen, the Swede. — Diuck Vollikert.sen and his 
Brotuer-in-Law, Abraham Vlrplanck. — Thomas Hail's 
Place 311) 

CHAPTER XXIV 

The Town's End and Bestevaers Krkupelboscii. — Isaac 
Allerton and III8 Warehouse. — Loockermans' Farm — 
The Ferry. — Harry Brazier's House. — Diuck, the 
Potter 329 



APPENDIX I 
The Justus Danckers View oe New Amsterdam .... 317 

APPENDIX II 
Tue Descendants of Cornelis Melvn 300 

INDEX 357 



V 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



View of New AnisterJani about 1C50 Frontispiece 

(KuvtrscJ from a copy of tlie elchiin; of Justus Danckers' Amsler- 
dam, in the author's possession.) 

Plan of New Amsterdam about 1G44 To face i>uije 1 

New Amsterdam about 1G30 " 2 

(From the View in Hartgers' " Beschrijvingh van Virginia," 
Lenox Library, New York City.) 

Schreyers Hoek Toren, Amsterdam " 18 

(From Wagenaar's "Amsterdam.") 

The West India Company's House, Amsterdam . . " 22 

(From a print of \W.i.) 

The West India Company's Warehouse " 24 

(From a print in the aullior's poSBes.sion.) 

Plan of the Ground between Brugh Straet and tlie 

East River, New Amsterdam, in 1U55 .... " 44 

Cornelis van Steenwyck " 48 

(From the portrait in Manual of the New Vorlt Common Coun- 
cil, 18G4.) 

Viewof the Marckveldt and 't Water, 1G52 ... " 58 

(Enlarged from the Justus Danckers and Visscher Views of New 
Amsterdam.) 

Plan of Brouwer Straet and Iloogh Straet from Fort 

Amsterdam to the Sladt Iluys " 80 

View of the East River Shore in the vicinity of the 

"Graft," 1652 "104 

(Enlarged from the Justus Danckers and Visscher Views of New 
Amsterdam.) 

The Heere Graft, Amsterdam, 1795 "122 

(From an aiiuatint engraving in Ireland's "Tour through Hol- 
land.") 

View of the Southeast Corner of Broad aud Stone 

Streets " 124 



xiv LIST OV ILLUSTRATIONS 

Jacob Steendam — The Kooniaii Portrait . . To face page 130 

(From a print in the Lenox Library, New Yorli.) 

South William Street — The Ancient Sly ck Steegh . " 150 
View of the Oude Kerk, or Old Church, Amsterdam . " 16G 

(From Wagenaar's " Ambterdam.") 

Stone Street " 170 

The Old Stadts Ilerbergb, or City Tavern, Amsterdam " 17G 

(From Wageiiaar's " Aiiistordaui.") 

Plan of the Stadt lluys, or Town Hall of New Am- 
sterdam " 178 

The Stadts Ilerbergh and vicinity, 16rj2 "182 

(Enlarged from the Justus Dancliers and Visscljer Views of New 
Amsterdam.) 

The Stadt Huys and Burgers Path, Ki7') " 188 

(From the Danlier and Sluyter View, If . a L. I. Historical 
Society.) 

Coenties Alloy " 192 

Portrait of William Paterson " 20G 

(From a Wash drawing in the British Museum.) 

View of Old Slip " 222 

Hanover Square " 224 

Plan of New Amsterdam, from the f Ladt Hiiys to the 

Town Palisades, 1G53 " 240 

North Side of Wall Street " 272 

Plan of New Amsterdam, from the Palisades to the 

Ferry, 1CJ5 " 278 

Augustyn Heermans " 282 

(From the Portrait by himself on his Map of Maryland, British 
Museum.) 

Looking up Maiden Lane from Pearl Street . ... " 29G 

View of Gold Street " 298 

Intersection of John and I'earl Streets " 310 

A Part of Van Tienhoveu's Lane, 19U2 " 312 

"The Swamp," 1902 " 32G 

Allerton's Warehouse and tiie Old Ferry, 1679 . . " 33G 

(From the Danker and Sluyter View.) 



NEW 



AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 



NEW AMSTERDAM 
AND ITS PEOPLE 



CHAPTER I 

EARLY GROWTH OF THE SliTTLKMENT.— TIIB COMifON 
PASTURE FIELD. — BRUGJI STRAET AND lUiOUWER 
STRAET. — FUILIP GERAERDY AND THE WHITE IWR^E 
TA VERN 

Nor you, yo prriuJ, im[)nte to these the fault, 

If liieui'ry o'er thmr tuuib uo truphit-s raiie, 
Where tliruugli Iho luutj-Jrawn ui.sle ami fretteJ vuult 

The pealiug anthem swells the uote of praise. 

Gray. 



T 



HE city of New York has beon fortunate in the pres- 



j i study of the beginnings of tlie great centres of population of 
the world possesses a peculiar interest for many, but the early 
history of some of these cities, such as Rome, London, and 
Paris, is lost in the obscuritj- of ages long past ; while others, 
such as St. Petersburg, and, to a certain extent, Berlin, built 
in pursuance of a rigid, pre-arranged plan of the governmental 
powers, possess no more of antiquarian interest tiian does the 
gi'QWth of New York under the Commissioners' plan of 1807. 
In New Amsterdam, however, the early growth of the town 
was not only in accordance with tlie process of natural accre- 
tion, hut it was maile under the auspices of the West India 
Company, a private corporation, which kept a rather jealous 
eye upon its officials and its colonists, and maintained a con- 
Blant intercommunication with them, by means of rejjorts, 
lettii-s of instruction, and a system of records of even the 
niu;.. trivial transactions. These documents, tlumgh most nf 
1 



2 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE | 

the veiy earliest of tliem are supposed to have perislieil, are 
quite complete and full from the year 1G38, and from them it^ 
is possible to gain a comprehensive view of New Amsterdam 
at almost any subsequent period dui'ing the Dutch rule. 

The early course of building at the new settlement is pretty 
well known. The original log blockhouse, with its surround- 
ing palisades, undoubtedly occupied a part of the sit« of the 
later Fort Amsterdam ; that is to say, it stood within the space' 
embraced by the present Bowling Green, Wliitchall, Bridgi;,; 
and State streets. Clustering around this structure were the- 
small cabins of the first settlers, most of whom were mere^ 
Indian traders. Many of these cabins were doubtless de-j 
stroycd soon after the larger fortifications were "staked out,"| 
as it is expressed in a letter of 1G2G. The remainder of thet 
thirty dwelling-houses which had been built before the close! 
of that year were apparently scattered in the vicinity of the^ 
bloeldiouse, in such positions as had been chosen by the- 
builders, no system of streets existing as yet, and the liouses! 
possibly not being considered as permanent. Afterwardji, inj 
a few instances these earliest settlers received grants of the 
plots which they had thus pre-empted, in this way causing 
some irregularity and inconvenience in the ground-plan sub- 
sequently adopted.^ These early cabins are said to have been 
" of bark." They were probably duly fianied of liew 
timber, but owing to the lack of saw-mills at this lime had 
been covered, after the fashion of shingling, with the thick 
bark of the chestnut or of other suitable forest trees. The 
roofs were all thatched with the native reeds.^ 

1 See, however, the remarks in note, post, page 33, as to tlie indications of 
system of streets ; or ratlicr hiucs, earlier tlian that finally adopted. 

"^ It is the writer's opinion that the very valuahle engraved view of New A 
sterdam, usually spoken of as the " Hangers view," whieh is supposed to \» 
the earliest one extant of the settlement, is to l>e referred to the period abovi 
spoken of in the text, and may he fixed with comparative certainty to some tirai 
between the years 1628 and lG;i2, a date considerably earlier than is usually 
scribed to it. A .slight examination of this view by any person acquainted v 
the early topography of New Amsterdam will show that it is a reversed one; 
and as such must, in all probability, have been taken by means of a plain 
camera obscura, — no doubt from some point ou the Long Isl.-uid shore, — auj 



THE COMPANY'S BOUWERYS 3 

Soon after the first body of agricultural settlers sent over 
by Uie West India Comi)any had arrived, at about the period 
h&i mentioned, and after the Director, Peter Minuit, had 
effected the purchase of Manhattan Island from the Indians, 
a body of negi-o slaves belonging to the Company was set to 
work clearing a large space of ground east of the present 
iSiiwery, and extending from a fresh-water swamp occupy- 
ing the site of the present Roosevelt and James streets to 
Kighteenth or Twentieth Street. This tract was divided into 
six "bouwerys" or farms, which, with the buildings creeled 
upn them by the West India ComiKiny, and with certain 
stock furnislied by that body, were leased to various tenants. 

In addition to these farms, several clearings were begun by 
iiulividuals, who were promised grants of land on favorable 

BtTer restored to its true position. The furroct view appears by siijiply lioliliiig 
» mirror to the reversed one. Ilavijig been obtained by this nietlioJ, it is evident 
Ibat the sketch must ajipruach aecuriicy iu its main details, subject, of course, to 
►jiue iuipairmeut owing to the small scale upon which the picture is drawn. 
Kxamiuing it, now, closely, we find one of its principal features to be a row of 
Itfpped g.ables runuint; parallel with the east side of the fort, and belonging to 
Kiuic buildings of more tlian ordinary size. Those can be uono other than tlie 
Conipauy'a "Stono Houses" upon Winckel Straet. Between them and the river 
timra no sign appears of the church, erected iu 1G33. A small cluster of cottages 
U ecen upon the westerly side of the liroad Street swamp and its ditch ; another 
giuup near the inter.sectiou of the present Beaver Street and Broadway; and a 
fiiw more near the windmill upon the North liiver shore. The buildings shown 
Dumber about thirty or thirty-five. Upou the East Kiver shore is shown the 
tluff, just west of which the City Tavern was erected in 1041 ; a thicket or grove 
npou its summit undoubtedly conceals from view a building of much interest, the 
old biirk mill, iu its isolated location east of the swamp or Blummaert's Vly, in 
llie loft of which building the first church services were held. Most of these 
localities will be treated of more iu detail in the text. As for the nuitter which 
K'cma to have somewhat puzzled Mr. G. M. Asher in his " Essay on the Books 
Hud l\-imphlets relating to New Netherland," — that uo buildings are sliown 
williiu the fort, the answer is tliat uono were as yet built there ; aud the main 
de»ii,'ii of the view is evidently to show the uewly planned fortification, as origi- 
nally contemplated, for it will he noticed that the walls show embrasures, which, 
u far as we are informed, never existed there, tlie structure as finished being 
merely a sodded earthwork, upon which the guns were mounted eti barbette. 
Tlicre is also a fifth bastion shown, upon the south side of the fort, of which 
no M ntion is made in the records or in maps. It is not at all improbable that 
llii I . lew was originally annexeil to a plan, or report of the engineer, to the West 
luLi ii Company. 



4 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS TEOPLE 

terms by Uic Cuinpaiiy ; while to aid in providing for the 
luaintouance of its oilicials and servants of various degrees, 
the West India Company caused to be cleared and placed 
under cultivation the tract extending from Fulton to Cliaro 
bers Street, and from Broadway to the North River, well 
known at first as the " Company's Bouwery ; " then, after 
the surrender, in 16G4, as the "Duke's Farm," and the 
" King's l'\irm," by virtue of its conliscation to the Crown 
and later as the "Church Farm," the proj^erty cjf Tiinitj 
Church. 

The cleared land upon all these Louwerys, however, was 
immediately taken up for the cultivation of tobacco or grain, 
and no suitable pasture wiis found for the cattle. To remedy 
this, the Company cleared in part, and enclosed for a common 
pasture field, a tract of twenty-five or thirty acres, extending 
from the west side of Broadway to the present Nassau and 
Chatham streets, and from tlie line of Ann Street up to a 
small pond known as the " Little Kolck," near the present 
Duane Street.^ To this pasture field and to the Company's 
Farm a road extended from the fort, along the present Broad- 
way, then turning eastward and again northward, it skirted 
the common pasture field, follo\\ing the lines of tiie present 
Ann, Nassau, and Chatham streets as far as a point about at 
the junction of North William and Chatliam streets, where it 
deviated to the eastward for the purpose of going around the 
lugh ground known as Catiemut's Hill (this portion of the' 
road has long been closed), after which it passed along 
the present Chatham Square and the Bowery, giving access to 
the farms already mentioned. After the lapse of many years 
when the enclosure spoken of was no longer uswl for a com 
mon pasture, andwlien the fences had been removed, the road 
naturally struck a diagonal lino across the open space, tl 
marking out the present Park l{ow. Tiie earlier route, 
above mentioned, however, was in all probability the first 

1 Thero was, however, a temporaiy pasturngB encloaure laid out at tlie time 
of the arrival of tlie first agricultural colonists. This, the weU-kuowu Schaajjen 
Weide, or Sheep Pasture, south of Wall Street, will he spoken of hereafter. 



FIRST SAW-MILL 5 

nrmd of any considerable ]eng(h on ManhaUan Lsland ■ ante 
d«Ung hy several years the river road along ,h. upper portion 
of tlio present Pearl Street. "^ ^^ ^ ^'''" 

lo land. Ihis null, worked by wind-power, after tiie Holland 
a.sluon. was ereeted on tbe shore of Nutten, now Gover o^s 
. an , -a situation whieh will seen, the leJs singul" on^ 
call, to nnnd not only the facilities for floatinglogs o t e 
-pot fron. the neighboring shores, but also the hur,c?L ae 
.ml more on the island itself, overgrown with the forest c 
che.tnut,oak,and luckory trees wluch iad given tl 'hn 
..« ..a.ne^ With the .Ivent of this null, of e^urse te buU 
."g« of New An.terdan. began to ..sun.e a n r id 

a..,>carance. Within a few years afterl633 they had ex n 
c^torly along the north side of Pearl Street (whieh We ^ 
n-rly along the shore of the river) ahnost as far as the nrl 
eut Ilroad Street, where at this tin.e tl,e tide ebbed and flol'd 

rough a .na 1 salt-water ereek whieh received the draZ 
of a considerable area of wet land lyir.g a short distance back 
from U,e river. Here a bridge was built, which afford d 
..ces. to a few scattered houses along the shore beyond 
r,mn ""I'^'-t'"^'^'; oi the settlement grew, the West L.dia 
Company determined to provide more effectually for its pro- 
U.cti on ; and the fort, laid out in 1628, according to the^n 1 l 
taiy science of the day, by an engineer sent fn.m Holkn 
had been completed by the year 1635, together with the 
>-anous ofl,ces of government whieh it contained. It w" 
es.gned at hrst to surround the fort with a broad esplana C 
u h, plan was afterwards for various reasons abandoned 
V f ;^^^<^"^'^^^-"-l' l^owever, certain buildings of the 
West India Company were constructed east of the fort, to 
ac the esplanade, and at a dist^xnce of nearly two hundred 
f- from the wall. These were a row of five stone 1 les 
contanung various workshops of the Company, and will be 
■loken of more in detail hereafter; they ila3ll a most im 
-rtnnt part in the toj^ography of the rising town. wtn"\ 

' See pos., pages .52 and 27,, as to ,he lane k„o,v„ .s t,. Slyck Stcegh. 



6 NEW a:\isterdam and its people 

became desirable, a few years after the construction of th( 
buildings, to lay out additional streets for the increasing po 
ulation, one street was laid out from tiie south end of tliii 
row of buildings towards tlie bridge at liroad Street liefoi'^ 
spoken of, and this received the name of IJrugh Straet, d 
Bridge Street, its present designation ; while a jiarallel one 
from the north end of the row of shops, was called, from thj. 
West India Company's brewery, which stood up(jn it, by tht 
name of lirouwer Straet, and wlicn, a nunibcr of years aft<3r- 
wards, it was the lirst street in the town to be paved wit!( 
cobblestones, it was called the Stony Street, and is to-daj; 
still known as Stone Street. 

In the mean time, Mdiile these changes were going on ii 
the village, most of the available farming laud in the lowei 
half of Manhattan Island had been appropriated. A grea' 
deal of the territory, jjicturesque enough to the eye, offered 
few inducements to the Dutch farmers, who arrived in in- 
creasing numbers, — it was " scrubby," as they wrote home 
Consequently, these began to turn their attention to the 
neighboring parts of New Jersey and of Long Island, when 
at Pavonia and Bergen, at Gouwanus and the Wallabout, 
and along the " Mespat Kill," — the present nialodor 
Newtown Creek, — and upon the East River shore, thej 
settled along the edges of the marshes, "like frogs around 
a pond," as Pliny has it. Tiiese first settlements over the 
river were made about in the years 1636-40: a ferry now 
became desirable, and was probably started about this period, 
at a point where the river was narrowest, near the present 
Dover Street. To meet the travel from this ferry, a road Avasf 
extended eastward till it came out upon the river shore nearl 
the present Hanover Square, and from that point it followed 
the water-side to the ferry. East of the present Broad 
Street, it became known as the Hoogh Straet, or High Street; 
along it and along the East River shore, houses began to' 
spring up, and this part of the town became for a long time' 
the principal seat of the social and business activity of the: 
place. 



THE WHITE HORSE TAVERN 7 

By the year 1655, considerable attention had been paid to 
regulating the streets and removing encroachments, and New 
Amsterdam had begun to assume the appearance of a settled 
town. Selecting that period of time for a survey of some of 
tlie features of the Dutch settlement, let us take our st;ition 
at the head of Brouwer, or Stone Street; in front of us, across 
iho Marckveldt, — later Whitehall Street, but now usually 
known as an extension of Broadway, — rise the sodded ram- 
jtarts of Fort Amsterdam, with one of its brass six-pounders 
trained directly down the narrow street. Inside the fort 
w-dUs appears the broad stone back of the Governor's house, 
flanked by two great exterior chimneys at the ends; and to 
the left or south of this, likewise within the fort, is the 
Dutch church with its steep double-galjled roof and low bel- 
fry. Beyond these buildings may pei-Jiaps be seen the tall 
flagstaff with the orange, white, and blue colors of the Wi;st 
India Company, and a glimpse may be caught likewise of the 
slowly revolving sails of the Company's gnst/-mill, on a little 
knoll outside tlie fort, on the site of the present Battery 
Park. Behind us, the unpaved street ^ slopes down towards 
a small bridge at the ditch, or graft, in what is now Broad 
Street; and at our right, upon the northeast corner of the 
street, is the White Horse Tavern of Pliilip Geraerdy. 

Just what induced Philip Gdrard, as he called himself, or 
Geraerdy, as his Dutch neighbors called him, to quit Paris 
(for that was his native place), and to try his fortunes in the 
little village springing up around tlie fort at New Amster- 
dam, it is not easy to surmise. The Paris of the first half of 
the seventeenth century was, even more than the Paris of 
a century later, the centre of the political, literary, and social 
life of Europe ; and it is not to be supposed that the native 
Parisian of that time had greater predilections for the dull 
life of a colonist than the Parisians of later days. Cardinal 
Richelieu, the most subtle politician of that age, with his 

' The resideiita of lliis street petitioned on tlie 15tli of Marrli, ICiS, that they 
Cii^lit be allowed to pave the street with cobblestones at their own expense, but 
t I action was taken in the matter for a considerable period. 



8 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

tenacious purpose of humbling tlie House of Austria, liad 
indeed recently thrown France (in alliance willi Sweden), 
into the bloody struggle of the 'J'hirty Years' War, which was 
then desolating Germany and the Flemish provinces : there 
was a constant demand for recruits for the French armies, 
and Philip was of the military age, — born about 1G02, — 
and as the great Frencli and Swedish genei'als of that day 
had the habit of verj- freely exposing their men to the enemy, i 
Philip may have consideied the somewliat monotonous ser- '• 
vice of the West India Company a refuge from the risks of ' 
that most bloody warfare, — as, in fact, did many others. ! 

However this may be, Philip Gerard and Marie Pollet, his \ 
wife, found their way to New Amsterdam prior to 1G39, and | 
soon established a small tavern — in fact, small enough to be | 
sometimes designated a mere koek-liuys, or cake-house — 
upon the corner of the Marckveldt and Brouwer Stract. 

The change which awaited Philip in quitting the French 
metropolis must have been a great one. There, all was bust- 
ling life, but surrounded everywhere by memorials of times ; 
long past : in the Rue St. Denis and in the Rue St. Jacques 
he must have often watched the crowds coming and going 
along those liistoric highways over which the traffic of nigh 
two thousand years had passed ; from the river-side, at the 
old palace of the Louvre, he had doubtless often viewed that 
scene, never to be forgotten, where between the ancient, over- 
hanging houses on both sides of the Seine, the isle of La Citd 
appeared, with its tall old mansions and sharp open point at 
the Place Dauphine, — like a vast galley in full sail down the 
river, the great bronze equestrian statue of Henri Quatre at its 
i:iraw, and the heavy square towers of Notre Dame closing the 
view. From the same point too, as he looked southwards, he 
could see the tall graceful spire of Ste. Genevieve, where it 
marked ilie tomb of King Clovis ; and tui-ning down the 
river he could Avatch, at his right, the gay throngs of the 
people of fashion in the garden of the Tuileries, or, across 
the river at his left, the frolicking, brawling, drinking, fight- 
ing, and love-making crowd of students of the Ihiiversity, in 



THE WHITE HORSE TAVERN 9 

the Pr6 aux Clercs, — likuly enough he had mingled with the 
latter many a time. 

Now, however, in New Amsterdam, all his surroundings 
were new and humble: from the garden behind liis tavern 
(which garden stretrhi.'d in an irregularly shaped plot of 
nearly one hundred and fifty feet in length towards the centre 
of tlie present block, and together with the site of the tavern 
itself is at present covered by the massive pile of the Produce 
Exchange), he kjoked, in the first years of his residence here, 
down a low slope of oi)en ground to a stretcii of bogs and 
Lushes extending northwards, with a little sluggish brook 
winding through it. This was lilonunaerls Vly, called after 
two or three eai'ly settlers of tliat name ; it is now covered by 
Broad Street and its buildings. Encircling this marsh, the 
ground rose into low hills, in former years a common pasture 
groimd for cattle, and afterwards a waste sjiot, where, between 
boulders and blackberry bushes, the negro slaves of the West 
India Company were allowed to cultivate for their own use 
little patches of Indian corn, beans, and other vegetables, till 
1638, when the land was leased by the Company for six years 
to Jan Damcn, whose farm adjoined it, and Mdio placed part 
of this ground, along Broadway, under cultivation, and used 
part as a sheep pasture. Between these enclosed fields of the 
company and tlie low hillock upon which Geraerdy's tavern 
Btood, a small arm of tlie marsh extended westwards. This 
the Company had attempted to drain by constructing an open 
ditch along the line of the present Beaver Street; and along 
this ditch two or three cottages were built: from Beaver 
Street down to Stone, along the present Broadway, were one 
or two more houses, and down Stone Street as many more ; 
tliese were all of Philip Geraerdy's immediate neighbors, 
when he built the White Horse tavern in 1641. The tavern 
was, as has been said, a small affair, — only eighteen by twenty- 
five feet in size, — and the carpenter who erected it estimated 
that seventy-five florins, or thirty to forty dollars of the 
1 lesent currency, would compensate him for his time. Its 
" one door and one window " opened into an apartment which 



10 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

was in all probability kitchen, dining-room, p;ulor, and tap- 
room, and its thatulied roof was still in existence as bite : 
1658. Philip's tavern connections were not, in fact, of tl 
highest. The magnates of the city usually patronized the 
"City Tavern," on the water-side; the country people from 
across the Hudson River resorted to the tavern kept by Pieter 
Kock and Amietje his wife, on the opposite side of the 
Marckveldt, near where they lauded their market boats ; and 
the Long Island farmers were in the habit of stopj,ing at 
Sergeant Litsclioe's tavern on the present Pearl Street, 
There remained, however, a considerable class to draw custom 
from, comiDOsed of the servants and "cadets" of the West 
India Company, from the adjacent fort, — bumptious young 
fellows from all parts of Northern Europe, who caroused and 
brawled at the tavern when off duty, and who not infrequently 
paid for their pranks by " riding the wooden horse," and by 
other military punishments. Here, too, when now and then a 
French privateer came into port, the French sailors were Avont 
to resort, to negotiate for the discounting of their prize money, 
or for forwarding it home; for Philip seems to have been a 
man of considerable business capacity, and besides his i 
language was acquainted with botli Dutch and luiglish, occa- 
sionally performing the duties of an interpreter. 

It was not all cakes and beer at the sign of the Wliito 
Horse, however. In 1G44, part of a shipment of wine, the 
whereabouts of which became a subject of investigation by 
the authorities, was shown to liave found its way to Philip 
Geraerdy's cellar ; and here, too, men of more consideration 
than the general run of liis customers occasionally resorted, 
such, for instiince,as Jan Damen, the thrifty farmer just out of 
town, whose well-managed farm lay in part bet^^'een the pres- 
ent Maiden Lane and Wall Street. Philip duly appreciated 
such clients, and when Jan Damen became unsteady upon his 
legs, would obligingly see him home when the road was dark.i 
He did this upon one occasion, to his great inconvenience, as 
he tells. It was a very dark night in the spring of 1643, 
when they reached Jan Damen's farmhouse, not far from the 



THE WHITE HORSE TAVERN 11 

present Pine Street. Tluit iiidivulual seems to have been in a 
ratlier quarrelsome mood, for Geraerdy Jiad taken the precau- 
tion to draw his guest's sword from its scabbard and to carry 
it liimself. At the house they found Jan I^amen's serving- 
man in a very unamial)le temper at being waked between twelve 
and one o'clock, and he threatened to shoot his employer. 
" Finally," says Diilip, " the above Damen and his servant 
iJirck began to fight, the man having a knife, and Jan Damen 
a scabbard, over which Jan Damen fell backwards, deponent 
having his drawn sword in his hand for the purpose of .separat- 
ing tliem. Jan Damen stood up and jumped into the house ; 
he returned immediately with a knife, and as it was very dark, 
Jan Damen struck deponent under the shoulder-blade," etc. — 
tlie surgeon declared it to be a pretty dangerous wound. 

Tlie White Horse fcivern appears to liave been a j^i-etty 
orderly place, upon the whole, but now and then a)i aflray 
would occur there to enliven tiie town ; upon one of tiiese 
occasions, tlie majesty cjf the VVor.shijjf ul West India Company 
Wi\s seriously affronted in the person of Hendrick van Dyke, 
the ensign of its garrison, who was afterwards "fiscal," or 
prosecuting attorney of the colony. His assailant was an 
individual rather obscurely spoken of as " Black John," who, 
as it would seem from his remarks, had come from the seaport 
of Monnikendam, a few miles from Amsterdam on the Zuyder 
Zee. Surgeon Van der Bogaerdt of the Company describes 
the courtly flow of compliments between the actors in the 
affair, and its unexpected ending. He says that "being at the 
house of Philip Geraerdy, he heard Black John say to Ensign 
Van Dyk: ' Brother, my service to you ! ' to which the ensign 
answered, ' Brother, I thank you.' Instead of handing over 
the can. Black John struck the ensign with the can on the 
forehead, so that the blood flowed, saying that is his Monni- 
kendam fashion, and then threw the ensign over on his back ; 
— and all this happened without their having any dispute or 
words with each other." 

Philip Geraerdy throve in his calling, and within ten or 
iwelve years from the erection of the little tavern upon the 



12 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

corner, he liad built ii new house for his own resiilcnee, in his 
garden, and .some fifty or sixty feet down Stone Street.' By 
that time, indeed, he may have rented out liis tavern, for in 
1653, upon occasion of aiding in a loan to the magistrates 
to build the palisades at Wall Street, he is described as a 
" trader," — which usually indicated a person who was doing 
a little bartering with the Indians. He seems, moreover, to 
have turned his thoughts towards acquiring a bouwery upon 
Long Island, for in that same year 1053 lie received (likely 
enough, in consideration for his loan) a grant of some fifty 
acres of fine woodland, sloping down gently to tlie shore of 
the East River, a short distance ncjrth of the present Astoria. 
His plans, whatever they. may have been, were never real- 
ized, for he died in 1655. His widow soon married Matthew 
de Vos, a very re.speetable notary of the colony. Philip left 
a young son, Jean or Jan Geraerdy, to whom liis stepfather 
appears to have been a careful guardian. They resided for a 
number of years upon tlie premises in Stone Street, but after 
his mother's death, Jean Geraerdy sold the property, and in 
1676 appears, in an instrument then executed by him, to have 
been a resident of Rhode Island. Curiously enough, one may 
see his name, at the present day, in the Italianized form of 
Gerhardi, in immediate proximity to its original location in 
New Amsterdam. 

1 This building appears to have been of brick, and was apparently one of the 
best in New Amsterdam, for it was sold at public auction on tlie 9th of December, 
1672, to Captain Thomas Delavall, for 5195 florins, or about at the e(iuivalent of 
$2100 of the |jreseut currency, — a large price considering the value of money 
at the time, and the ruling prices for real estate. IJelavall soon sold the property 
to John Kyder, another Englishman, from whom it was purchased in IGSO by 
Frederick PliiUipse, Lord of the Manor of I'hillipsburgh in Westchester County, 
who owued much other property in this vicinity. The house was undoubtedly 
built about 1653, in which year Frans Jansen, the carpenter, sued Geraerdy for 
the work done, a claim which the latter resisted on tlie ground that the contract 
for work on the garret portion of the building "has been most scandalously 
fullilled." 



CHAPTER II 

WINCKEL STRAET, AND THE lluUSE OF DOMINIE BOGAR- 
DUS. — TUE WEST INDIA COMPANY'S STdRElIUUSE. — 
SCHREYERS IIOEK 

\V;it liier leeft eu oyt vergaJord 
Jlecft iiju uur eu sterveiis-tijJ : 
Wat hier (door verscUiiig) iiaderd 
Oolc eeu droevig-scliuijdeii luijd : 
Wivt iu vrieud.scliftjj is vcrbouden, 
Door verkiesiiig, boveii 't bloed 
Word to reulit wel uoyt gescliouden j 
't Lij-zijn noclitaiis broken nioct. 

Jacou Steendau : " Deu Distelviuk." 

THE lounger, smoking lus pipe of a sumniei- evening 
upon the wooden beucli in front of the White Horse 
tiivern, at tlie period of which we have been speaking, — 
about the year 1655, — looking across Brouwer or Stone 
Street, would have seen a row of live small houses, with 
their gable ends to the Marckveldt, or Whitehall Street, and 
occupying the entire front between Stone and Bridge streets, 
now covered by the Kemblo Office building. These houses 
did not front upon the Marckveldt, but upon a small lane 
parallel with it, and only twenty-two feet in width, which 
was known as Winckel Straet. At the back of the houses 
were small gardens or enclosures, which opened out into the 
Marckveldt. These buildings seem to have been erected 
about the years 1G-15-4G, and not improbably by the West 
India Company itself. Allusion has already been made to 
the Company's row of stone shojis which extended from 
fitone to Bridge Street, and wliich was intended to face the 
I road esplanade of the fort. After the Indian troubles had 
liiokeu out, iu IGW, there was for a time a desire on the part 



14 NEW vVMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE ; 

of some of the colonists to acquire building situs uuder the 
immediate shelter of the fort; iu order tu accommodate 
them as far as possible, the Company, among various otlier 
provisions for their aid, determined to appi-opriate a portion 
of the esplanade for building purposes. Tlio narrow Winckel i 
Straet was therefore laid out along the front of the Com- i 
pany's shops; and upon the west side of the new street or '■ 
lane were built the houses referred to. i 

At the period of our surve;y, the two northerniuost of j 
these houses were owned, as to the one next to Stone Street, 1 
by llendrick Jansen, a baker; the other belonged to Maxi- ! 
niilian van Geele, a merchant of Amsterdam, who seems to \ 
have used it as a temporary residence in the Colony. The 
two southernmost houses belonged, the one to a certain 
Caspar Stymetz (some years afterwards it became of in- 
terest as then belonging to the iinglish (Jovei'nor, Colonel 
Lovelace, and, as so belonging, having been plundered and 
confiscated by the Dutch when they recaptured New Am- 
sterdam in 1G73); the house at the corner of Bridge Street 
was owned by an Englishman, George Holmes, the pro- 
prietor of the solitary tobacco farm at Deutel, or "Turtle" 
Bay, on the East River, who, like many others of the farmers 
at this time, had a residence within the town. 

The middle house of this row, however, is of more general 
interest, as having been the last place of residence in New 
Amsterdam of Dominie Everardus 15ogardus, usually spoken 
of (though not with strict accuracy) as the first minister of 
the Dutch church at the settlement. 

It is the fortune of Dominie Bogardus that his name shines 
with a somewhat reflected lustre from that of his wife, 
Annetje Janse, of wide reputation, ■ — -the energetic lady from 
whom so large a portion of tlie population of New York and 
vicinity claims descent, as shown in the various Trinitj' 
Church litigations. 

From the upper windows of his house, looking out over 
the Marckveldt, Dominie Bogardus could probably have seen, 
across the southeastern bastion of Fort Amsterdam, the roof 



W.. 



li 



ANNETJE JANSE BOGARDUS 15 

of the cottage in Pearl Street of his respected niotlier-in-hxw, 
Catharine or "Tryn" Jonas. Tliis huly had long occupied a 
responsible position under tlie West India Company, no less, 
in fact, than that of its olTieial midwife, — the tlirifty cor- 
poration going so far as to make this provision for the welfare 
of its colonists. Tryn Jonas was duly sensible of the dignity 
and importance of lier ollice, which she exercised with great 
independence, even to the extent of refusing upon various 
occasions to attend certain of her patients with whose ante- 
cedents she was not satisfied. Her daughter Anuetje was 
married, as early as 1620, and several years before leaving 
Holland, to Ivoeloff Jansen, who came from the valley of the 
Mouse, not far from where the crowded s])ires of Maestricht 
looked over the complicated girdle of bastions and ravelins 
and lunettes and hurnworks which encompassed that famed 
fortress. 

Reaching the Colony in 10^0, Roeloff Jansen and his wife 
repaired at first to Fort Orange, or Albany, where, in ad- 
dition to his employment as an agricultural foreman to the 
patroon Van Rensselaer, he appears to have entered upon a 
trading business with the Indians, and it was in the course 
of his expeditions in this latter capacity tliat his name was 
given to the beautiful stream in Columbia County, which 
still, between solitary overhanging woods, ripples as merrily 
over its thick bed of pebbles as when it was first named 
Roeloff Jansen's Kill. 

Prior to 1G3G, however, Roeloff Jansen had taken up his 
residence in New Amsterdam, and acquired a tract of about 
sixty acres along the North River, where it formed a sort of 
peninsula between the river and the swamps which then 
covered the sites of Canal Street and West Broadway. Here 
he had probably erected a small farmhouse upon a low hill 
near the river shore at about the present Jay Street; but he 
had hardly jnade a beginning in the work of getting his 
bouwery under cultivation when he died, leaving to his 
widow Annetje the arduous task of caring for a family of 
fivi' small children, in a colony hardly settled as yet. 



IG NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS I'EOi'LE 

In 1633, the Reverend Everardus Bogardus had been sent 
over to succeed the somewhat interrupted and broken min- 
istry of Dominie Jonas ]\Iichaclis. A new tliough ratlier 
homely church had been built for him uj)on the East River 
sliore, or upon tlie present Pearl Street, between Whitehall 
and Broad streets, and adjoining it was the parsonage. The 
Dominie was an unmarried man, and lived in solitary state 
at the parsonage for several years, drawing his I'ations from ' 
the West India Company, like the rest of its ofiicials and 
employes, — ■ till 1G88, when he married the widow Annetje J 
Janse (or Roeloffse, as she is called, indifferently, following • 
the Dutch fashion), after a marriage settlement which is J 
still extant had been drawn up, jiroviding for the securing i 
to her first husband's ciiildren the sum of 200 guilders | 
each. I 

Thus, in addition to his clerical duties, the Dominie as- i 
sumed the cares of a lauded proprietor, not only witli regard | 
to the North River farm, — which soon became known as " the 
Dominie's Bouwery, " — but also as to another and less con- 
venient tract which he and his wife had acquired. This was 
situated some three or four miles up the East River, where, 
at the mouth of the Mesj^at Kill, two or three low hillocks of 
ground rose out of the surrounding marshes, then much 
sought for on account of their supply of salt haj' for tlie 
cattle. This tract, which covered about one hundred and 
thirty acres of upland and meadow, the Dominie had leased 
out as early as the summer of 1G42, though no house was 
erected upon it as yet. Tlie locality, which, graded down to 
a few feet above the water level, is now occupied by the 
dismal suburb sometimes called Hunter's Point, soon acquired 
the name of "Dominie's Hoek," and has been constantly 
confounded by writers upon New Amsterdam with the North 
River bouwery, some of them going so far, in order to make 
it fit in with their theories, as to supply the name of Mespat 
Kill to the sluggish little rill flowing tlu'ough the swamps 
along Canal Street. 

In the year 1642 it was determined to build a new and 



;;]'i 'Si 



THE HOUSE OK DOMINIE BOGAKDUS 17 

substantial clmrch witliin the walls of the fort. The nio- 
lives for this cliange of location are undoubtedly to be found 
in tlie apprehension of Indian troubles, too well justified by 
llie event. The new church proceeded rather slowly in 
building, but within two or three years services were held in 
it in its unfinished condition. The old church and the par- 
sonage were then converted to other uses, and Dominie 
iSogardus appears to have purchased for himself the new 
lidiiso on the VVinckel Straet to which reference has been 
nmJe. 

Here the Dominie spent the closing years of his ministry. 
His riding mare duly saddled and bridled, and brought down 
from the North Kiver bouwery, where her pasturage was 
jiruvided for with great care in the lease to the tenants, was 
probably a familiar sight in the ]\Iarckveldt, as she stood at 
licr owner's back gate (just on the spot where the main 
entrance now is to the Kendile Building), waiting for him to 
Bet out on his pastoi'al visits about the town, and to a nundjer 
of rude farmhouses in their half-cleared bouwerys, for two 
or three miles up the island. 

A good deal of the life of the little community centred 
around the house of Dominie Bugardus; on the opposite side 
of the Winckel Straet was the noise and stir of the workmen 
in the Company's shops; on the other side of his house was 
the Marckveldt, where the country people came with their 
butter and eggs and poultry and vegetables, and now and 
then an Indian was to be seen with game or fish. A little 
beyond, on the right, where Bowling Green now is, the sol- 
diers of the garrison held their drills, or lounged the time 
away on pleasant days when off duty. A little more than a 
block away, down the Marckveldt, to the left, was the shore 
of the East River and the small public dock with its crane 
for hoisting merchandise to or from the lighters, and, lying 
at anchor beyond, could generally be seen the vessels in 
port. 

Between the Dominie's house and the shore was a building 
V, liich seems to have occupied most of the Marckveldt front 



18 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE \ 

on the east side, between Bridge and Pearl streets. This 
was the storehouse of the West India Company; its exact' 
site is uncertain, but it must have stood upon ground noij 
embraced in Whitehall Street, for in the grant, in 1646, bj' 
Director Kieft to Doctor Hans Kiersted, of the lot which is 
known to have been the present northeast corner of Pearl 
and Whitehall streets, it is described as having to the west 
"the Company's Warehouse on the Strand." The edifice 
can be readily distinguished in the Justus Danckers' View 
of New Amsterdam, forming the frontispiece of this work.: 
A building for this purpose, and upon this site, was probably 
one of the earliest erected by the Company ; and as such a 
structure would naturally be of a substantial character, we 
are led to infer that the first building must have been burned 
or accidentally destroyed, for in a report made in 1G<58 it la 
stated that "the place where the public store stood can with 
difficulty be discovered." It must have been rebuilt soon after 
1638, however, for in 1640, many complaints of overcharges 
having been made by the people, the Council ordered that a 
board containing the prices current should be kept in a con-| 
spicuous position at the store. This building, however, seeins; 
to have ceased to be used for store or warehouse purposes- 
soon after the advent of Director-General Stuyvesant, when] 
a new and larger structure appears to have been erected as a 
public store, or "pack-huys," — and used at the same time by- 
the government as a custom-house. This latter building, of' 
which further notice will be taken, ^ stood upon the north side 
of Pearl Street a short distance east of the old storehouse. \ 

The architecture of the old building was of the simplest* 
character, and the purposes for which it was used in its later' 
years are not known; it was in all probability removed withiu 
a short period as an obstruction to the thoroughfare of the! 
Marckveldt. | 

To the right or west of the Marckveldt, and a short dis-l 
tance beyond where it terminated upon the shore of the East: 
River, was a low baidi of land projecting out to a point the 

^ See ijage 5VI, jmst. 



SCIIREYERS IIOEK 19 

•ite of whicli is now in tliu Battery Park, a short distance 
porth of the Staten Island Ferry-house. This was the 
Capskc, — ^the "cape," or "point," — being the southern ter- 
Diination of Manhattan Ishmd; but it was more generally 
known in Dominie Bogardus's time as "Schreyers Iloek." 
The sojourner at Amsterdam, strolling down one of the lines 
of street bordering the broad stream of the Amstel as it winds 
llirough that city, comes out upon a point of land projecting 
k filiort distance into the harbor, at the right of the river's 
luouth. Near it stands a venerable old battlemented tower 
of btoue, with its roof thrown up into a high conical peak of 
curious form. Here, hi the seventeenth century, the Dutch 
emigrants and their families usually embarked in small boats 
U> reach the East Indiamen or other vessels which lay in the 
larbor, a short distance out beyond the curving double line 
of " booms " near the shore. Here, too, their relatives and 
friends were wont to assemble to take their last leave of 
Uiose who were bound for the uttermost parts of the globe, 
'—for Ceylon and liatavia, for Brazil and' New Netherland, 
— and whom in most cases they never expected to see again 
|upon earth. From the natural scenes of grief displayed upon 
tliese occasions, the locality acquired the name of Schreyers 
lloek, "the Weepers' I'oint," and the tower still retains the 
tiinie of Schreyers lloek Tooren. Amsterdam influences 
prevailed in New Netherland, and the point of land near the 
public dock, on which the people of New Amsterdam were 
accustomed to gather upon the important occasion of the 
jailing of a vessel for Holland, to wave their farewells to 
friends returning to the old country, naturally acquired the 
name of the similarly situated locality at Amsterdam, just 
leferred to, and became known also as Schreyers lloek. 
\ Upon this point of land was to have been seen, a short time 
prior to the period of our survey, in l(j55, a deserted cabin, 
IJiJ near it, upon the shore, was drawn up a warped and 
decaying catboat. These were the property of one Thomas 
Baxter, an Englishman who, falling out with the Dutch 
•utliorilies, had abandoned his possessions liere and taken 



20 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

refuge in New England, where, upon occasion of tlje war 
between the English Commonwealth and the Netherlands m 
1653, he took out so-called letters of marque from the little 
Colony of Rhode Island, wliich asserted thus early its dignity 
With a small armed vessel ho pestered the Dutch greatly 
and captured two or three of their ships. His property on 
the Sclireyers Iloek was confiscated, and upon its site, 
greatly raised by lilling in, was built Dircctor-CJencral 
Stuyvesant's residence, which afterwards became known as 
"The White Hall," part of tlie ground of which is now 
occupied by the large and somewhat antiquated-lookiug 
brick building at tlie corner of State and Whitehall streets. 
There are some reasons to suspect that this name was derived 
from the old palace of Whitehall at Westminster, at that 
time in its last days, and that it was given rather derisively 
by the English to Director-General Stuyvesant's not very 
imposing mansion. 



I ^ 



CHAPTER III 

tllK WEST INDIA COMPANY AND ITS COLONIAL OFFI- 
Vy.US.-THE QUARRKL BETWEEN IJIRECTOR KIEET AND 
t>OMlNIE BOGARDUS. - THE WRECK OF TUE " PRINCESS " 

Who holds tlie reins upon you? 

Tlie latest gale sel free. 
What meat id iu your iQangers'! 

The glut of all the sea. 
'Twixt tide and tide's returning 
Great store of newly dead, — 
iE; The bones of those that faced us, 

f .: And the hearts of those that fled. 

i!;. Kii'i.iNO : " White Horses." 

%' 

NO sketch of Dominie IJogardus would be comiilete 
without some reference to tlie di«[)utes between him 
land the Director Kieft, which occupied the closing years of 
tba Domiuie's ministry at New Arastei'dam. 
I' TLe Dutch West India Company, which at one time gave 
promise of becoming one of the greatest trading corporations 
trer organized, — which as early as 1G26 had a fleet of 
levonty-three vessels, many of them armed, at its disposal; 
Vid which claimed or actually occupied, not only the vast 
^lerritories of Brazil, but immense tracts of land upon the 
:eoasts of Africa, besides New Netherland, and its possessions 
lii the West Indies, — was frequently unfortunate in the 
administrative officers of its colonies. These men, usually 
:»dvanced through various gradations from clerks' desks in 
Uie liistorio buildings upon the Ilaerlemmer Straet and on 
IheY-Graft, in Amsterdam, which were successively the head- 
quarteis of the West India Company, were often entirely 
lacking in the qualities essential to a successful magistracy. 



f.-.' .7^1 



22 NEW AMSTEKDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

Relieved from the pcrsojiul supervision uf the general officei f 
of the Company, and with extensive powers conferred upo 
them over the new settlers, they became veritable Sanchi 
Panzas in the colonies. Of these, perhaps the worst speci 
men was Willem Kieft, Director-General at New Amsterdaa 
from 1G38 to 1G47. 
/ It is somewhat difficult to describe the character of thii 
man, or to decide which was its leading trait, — his hypot 
risy, his self-importance, liis administrative incapacity, or tlie 
rancorous venom of his disposition towards his opponents. 
He had, in fact, all of the offensive qualities of his successor, 
Director Stuyvesant, without the tenacity of purpose and 
will of the latter. / He was perhaps more thoroughly 1 
and despised by all classes of the community than any other 
inhabitant of New Netherland. Moreover, he was as sensi- 
tive to criticism upon his official acts as are most small-minded 
men placed in positions of considerable power, and, like such 
individuals, he was prone to look ujion the least animadver- 
sion upon his conduct, or upon any doubts expressed in rela- 
tion to the wisdom of his administrative policy, as "treason"] 
of the most glaring description. ] 

J The motives which impelled Kieft to order the cruel mas- 
sacre of the Weckquaskeek Indians, in 1G13, are not fully 
known, but seem to have been, in considerable measure, 
owing to a desire of obtaining easy possession of the lands 
occupied by them. That tribe, fleeing before a raid of their 
dreaded enemies, the Mohawks of the north, abandoned their 
village on the Hudson River near the present Hastings, in 
Westchester County, and came in the depth of winter to 
Manhattan Island, and to Pavonia on the west side of the 
Hudson River, where they encamped in a very destitute and 
starving condition. Their pitiable plight excited the com- 
miseration of many of the Dutch, who furnished them with 
food. Not so with Kieft, however; to him it appeared only 
as a good ojiportunity, prepared by Providence, to make the 
ravages "wipe their chops," — as be feelingly expressed it, 
— to settle up old scores, and by exterminating the Indians 



KIEFT'S INDIAN rOLICY 23 

to facilitate the expansion of the Colony; and hia famous 
order was issued aceordin{rly : — 

" February 25th, lU-i3. We autliorize Maryn Andriessen, 
«l his request, with his associates tu attack a party of savages 
ikulkiug behind Corlaers Hook or plantation, and act with 
Uiem in such a manner as they shall deeni proper and the 
limo and opportunity will permit. Sergeant Kodolf is com- 
manded to take a troop of soldiers and lead them to Pavonia, 
ihere to drive away and destroy the savages lying near Jan 
Evertsen's, but to spare as much as possible their wives and 
children and take them prisoners. Hans Stein, who is well 
«flquainted with the haunts of the Indians, is to go with him. 
The exploit should be executed at night with the greatest 
caution and prudence. God bless the expedition! " 

Captain David de Vries, sitting by the fire in the Director's 
kitchen at the fort that cold winter's night, and anxiously 
awaiting the results of the "exploit," to which he was vio- 
lently opposed, tells the rest: — 

"At midnight I heard loud shrieks, and went out to the 
parapet of the fort and looked towards Pavonia. I saw 
nothing but the Hashing of the guns. 1 heard no more the 
cries of the Indians." 

More than a hundred Indians — men, women, and cliil- 
dren — were killed by these two parties; they were merely 
butchered in cold blood, for they were completely taken by 
surprise, — even to the extent of imagining at first that they 
were assailed by their enemies, the Mohawks ; and they made 
scarcely any resistance. "No barbarity," says Valentine, 
"was too shocking to bo infiieted upon them." 

The natural consequences of such an act as this followed 
swiftly. Most of the outlying farms around New Amster- 
dam were devastated, and the settlers slain or carried into 
captivity, by the enraged Indians. There were but few of 
the inhabitants of New Netherland who did not severely 
snlTer, either directly or indirectly, by this foolhardy and 
crujl policy of Kieft, and he and his advisers were bitterly 
ailacked by all classes of the community in consequence. 



2-4 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOl'LE I 

Among the must oiitapoken of their antagonisLs was Dominie! 
Bogardus, wlio, as Valfiitiiie says, " fuluiiiiatcd against 
them in the pulpit unLil lie fairly drove tlioiii out of the 
congregatiou." 

There is considerable evidence that the Ddminie was of a 
rather convivial disposition, though it is not to be bclicveil 
that he was guilty of anything like the excesses with which 
Kieft afterwards charged him. It was at the wedding oi 
j\lagdalena Verdon to Adam Brouwer, a young soldier from 
Cologne, in the employ of the West India. Company, on 
March 21, 1645, that the Dominie made some public remarks 
of a rather personal nature respecting Kieft, which seem to 
have induced that individual to open fire, as it were, upon 
his reverend opponent. Two days afterwards, accordingly, 
he sent the clergyman what he calls " a Christian admonition 
■ — which the latter declined to receive, and proceeded with 
his denunciations of Kieft and Ids policy. At last, on the 2d 
of Januaiy, 1G4G, Kieft issued his final and celebrated raani 
festo, beginning in the imposing form: "In the name of tlie 
Lord, Amun! The Honorable Director and Council, to the 
Ileverend Everardus Bogardus, Minister of the Gospel in 
this place." Though couched in this ofhcial form, the whole 
proceeding is transparently the work of Kieft personally. 
As his grievances consisted, in large measure, in Dominie 
Bogardus's public criticisms upon his administrative acts, he 
opens his manifesto, with fine relevancy, by attacking the 
Dominie's personal habits, critically distinguishing the acts 
which he had done, for the six or seven years preceding, 
when "pretty drunk," from those performed when "thor- 
oughly drunk." He then proceeds to animadvert upon 
Dominie Bogardus's conduct in regard to certain matters of 
church discipline, about which ICieft had as much concern as 
the druuuner of the garrison. Gradually getting to the gist 
of the matter, he reminds the clergyman of his remarks in a 
sermon preached by him a short time before, in which he had 
alluded to certain monsters of the tropics, — " but you know 
not, said you, from whence, in such a temperate clime as 



•i^ 



I..''.;-; !, ,:''\:'- 



KIEBT'S My\NIFESTO 25 

this, such monsters of men are pruduceil. They are the 
mighty ones who place their confidence in men, and not in 
llie Lord! Children nright have told to whom you alluded." 
Having thus shown liow aptly ho felt these remarks, as well 
ait certain others of which he complained, to have applied to 
himself, the Director j)roceeds to business: "All these things 
U'ing regarded by us as having a tendency towards the 
general ruin of the country, both Church and State being 
endangered where the magistrate is despised, and it being 
considered that your duty and oath imperatively demand 
iheir proper maintenance; whereas your conduct stirs up the 
[Mjople (already too much divided) to mutiny and rebellion, 
. . . our sacred duty demanded that we seek out a remedy 
against this evil; and tliis remedy we now intend to emi^loy, 
in virtue of our high commission from the Company, and we 
design to prosecute you in a court of justice; and to do it iu 
due form we made an order that a copy of these our delibera- 
tions should be delivered to you to answer in fourteen days, 
protesting that we intend to treat you with such Christian 
lenity as our conscience and the welfare of State and Cliurch 
sliull in any way permit." 

The papers presenting Dominie Bogardus's side of this 
controversy have all perished, but it is very evident that lie 
stoutly maintained his ground, and goaded his small-minded 
antagonist into a state of fury with each successive rejoinder 
he made. He lost no time in replying to the document above 
set forth, by a communication which Kieft characterized 
as "useless and absurd, as not answering in any respect the 
cliarges conveyed to said Bogardus on the 2d January, 1646. 
Wiieiefore it is decreed that said Bogardus shall, within tho 
time limited, answer precisely the contents of that papier in 
an affirmative or negative manner, under penalty that action 
be taken against him as a rebel and contumax." 

Dominie Bogardus soon sent in a further rejily to the 
Director which was still less to his liking than the former 
( ic, for upon the 18th of January, IG-Ki, he caused an entry 
{•■ be made in the Council Minutes, in which he characterized 



26 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE ' 

"a certain paper of Kevereiid Pogurdus," aeiiL to liiiu by that 
gentleman tliroiigh the court messenger, as 'Milled with use- 
less subterruges, calumnies, and iiijuries, besides with a 
profanation of God's holy word, and designed to vilify His 
magistrates, of which said Reverend liogardus, according to 
his custom, makes use to obscure the truth, ami not at all 
answering our griefs and charges." 

Tliis pjaper warfare of legal threats on the one hand, and 
of apparent denunciation and defiance on tlie other, was kept 
up for several montlis; Dorninie Pogardus evidently deny- 
ing the jurisdiction of the Director and his Council to try the 
cause against him, and Kieft being apparently not sure of 
his ground, and living in the constant fear of aftercla^is from 
the home government. In the mean time the Dominie was 
harassed by a sort of flank attack in the shape of a suit for 
slander brought against him by Oloff Stevensen van Cort- 
landt, a deacon of his church and a prominent citizen of New 
Amsterdam. This latter proceeding, however, was not so 
much the work of Oloff Stevensen as of Kieft himself, — 

" lago hurt him, 
lago sot liiiJi on," — 

and finally, by the mutual good offices of several of the 
leading men of the community, a reconciliation was brought 
about between the Dominie and his deacon. 

During the spring and summer of 1G4G, the Dominie and 
the Director-General, looking across the ]\Iarekveldt, might 
perhaps have often seen one another sitting at their open 
windows upon fine days, engaged in writing their mutual 
diatribes; but with the latter period came a change, for it 
was known then that Kieft's oflicial days were numbered, 
and that a new Director and Council were to be appointed. 
The prosecution of Dominie Pogardus seems to have re- 
mained in abeyance for a time, and to have finally taken tlio 
foim of charges preferred against him to the Classis of 
.i\ msterdam, but of their precise nature we are ignorant. 



THE SHIP "PRINCESS" 27 

The latter part of the summci of 1647 was a period of much 
•clivity in New Amsterdam. Out in the East Kivor, a little 
way from the sliore, the ship "Princess " lay at anchor, soon 
to sail for Amsterdam with a heavy passenger list. Kieft and 
one or two of his late advisers were to return to the Nether- 
lands with the formidable task before tliem of explaining to 
tiio Directors of the West India Company the justice and 
expediency of his recent measures with the Indians. He had 
succeeded, at the first coming of Director- General Stuyve- 
ennt, in ijoisoning tlie mind of the latter against several of 
his, Kieft's, principal opponents, and two or three of them 
Lud been heavily lined and banished from the Colony; in this 
nundjcr were Captain Jochem Pietersen Kuyter and Cornells 
Melyn, ■ — two able and determined men, of whom further 
notice will be taken hereafter; they were now making ready 
for the voyage, with all their detestation of Kieft transferred 
to his successor, and fully prejjared to renew the battle before 
the States-General. With them and in close sympathy, went 
Dominie Bogardus to meet Kieft's charges before the ecclesi- 
astical tribunal. Among the passengers, too, was Hendrick 
Jansen, a tailor, whose coarse but vigorous denunciations of 
Kieft had stirred up the latter to procure his banishment also. 
Besides these there were merchants and traders retunung to 
buy goods at Amsterdam, among whom was Simon Dircksen 
Pos, one of the pioneer Indian traders in New Netherland. 
Several of the servants of the West India Company, whose 
terms of employment had expired, were also among the jjas- 
sengers, as were also some of the colonists, who, their prop- 
erties having been destroyed during the Indian troubles, had 
given up the struggle and were now only anxious to get back 
with their families to the old country. 

Many of these passengers were intrusted with various 
commissions by their friends remaining behind, and the Sec- 
retary of the Colony was kej)t unusually busy in registering 
powers of attorney or " procurations " to collect debts, to 
leceive legacies, to ». make purchases, to settle litigations, 
and to transact other similar business in various parts of 



28 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

Europe. Along the water-side the porters of tlie Company 
were actively employed in transferring bales of furs and of 
tobacco, with other articles of freight, from the Company's 
pack-huys, to the little dock near the foot of the present 
Whitehall Street, and thence by lighter to the "Princess." 
Among the articles siiippcd, too, was the wonderful white 
beaver-skin tipped with yellow; this sport t)f nature had 
been brought in by an Indian, and was now sent over to the 
Netherlands as an unheard of rarity. There was also Kieft's 
collection, made for the West India Comjianj^, of about a 
hundred specimens of the minerals of New Netherland, con- 
spicuous among which were the various pieces of pyrites 
which he liad obtained to the west of Hudson River, and 
which he believed to contain gold. Much more valuable 
than these was a number of "very exact maps and accounts 
of New Netherland," which would have been now of almost 
priceless value. 

Finally, when the last chests and packages were shipped 
and the last passengers had gone on board, the ship's anchor 
was weighed amidst the ringing of the church bells and the 
firing of cannon from the fort; the last farewells were waved 
between the passengers on the vessel and the crowd on 
Schreyers Hoek, and the "Princess" sailed down the harbor 
on the 17th of August, 1647, long watched from the shore 
as she receded through the heavily wooded shores of the 
Narrows. Many weeks passed before any further tidings of 
her reached New Amsterdam. 

On the southern coast of Wales, at the mouth of a broad 
valley sloping down from the " lilaek Mountains " of Breck- 
nock and Carmarthen shires, lies the old town of Swansea, 
upon what is thought by many to be the most beautiful spot 
upon the coast of the English island. Walter Savage Landor 
gave it the preference, in an artistic point of view, to the Bay 
of Naples. Here, looking seaward upon a fine day, over 
the steely-blue waters of the Bristol Chaiuiel, the Exmoor 
Hills, and beyond them the mountains of Devonshire are 
seen in the far distance across the broad estuary, where 



i^ 



n 



WRECK OF THE "in{lNCEyS" 29 

"Silent, majestical, and slow, 
The wliiti; ships hover to and fro, 
With all their ghostly sails unfurled. 
As beings from anotlier world 

Haunt the dim confines of existence." 

From the town westward the shore of yellow saiul curves in 
■ bold, semicircular sweep, not unlike that of the JSay of 
Naples, and ends in the massive limestone rocks known as 
"Tlie Mumbles," now crowned by a lighthouse of elegant 
form. Looking landwards, the valleys stretching inland are 
seen to be separated by massive spurs of the mountains of 
Wales, which terminate abruptly above the beach. Jlere, to 
muuy of the passengers and crew of the "Princess," was their 
journey's end, 

" And very sea-mark of their utmost sail." 

The captain of the vessel missed his reckoning in a violent 
September gale, and ran up the Bristol Channel. The ship 
was thrown upon the rocks near Swansea, and soon went to 
pieces; of about one hundred persons on board, eighty 
I«rished, among whom were Kieft and Dominie liogardus, 
— all their dissensions being terminated by the Great 
Arbitrator. 

After the death of her husband. Now Amsterdam seems 
to have become distasteful to Annetje Janse Bogardus, and 
about the end of 1G17 she and her family removed to Fort 
Orange, or Albany, where she had spent some of her earlier 
years, and where she purchased a house and garden sj)ot at 
tlie northeast corner cf Middle Lane (now James Street), and 
Joncker or the present State Street; here she died in 1GG3. 
The Dominie's house on the Winckel Straet and the Marck- 
veldt in New Amsterdam was retained by his family for a 
number of years; and about the period of our survey, in 1G55, 
it seems to have been occupied by a tenant, Warner Wessells, 
a man of some [jrominence in the town who purchased it a 
year or two afterwards. The quiet street leading up the hill 
at Albany, upon which Annetje Bogardus dwelt, has now 



.30 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

become a broad and busy thoroughfare, over which the 
crowds passing to and from the Capitol travel daily, and a 
bronze tablet upon the RIechanics and Farmers Savings Bank 
at that place marks the site of her house ; but nothing per- 
petuates the memory of the dwelling in New Amsterdam 
where she and her husband, calumniated and harassed by 
their malicious and unscrupulous enemy, passed many dark 
and stormy hours.' 

' It is uuderstood, however, that steps have beeu very recently taken towards 
having a commemorative tablet erected upon, or very near to, the situ of Dominie 
Bogardus's house in Whitehall Street. 



CHAPTER IV 

'TUE FIVE STONE HOUSES." — THE BRVGII STEEGH, OH 
BRIDGE LANE. -^ THE BREWERY OF THE WEST INDIA 
COMPANY. — I'lETER VURNELISSEN AND HIS GARDEN. 
-HENDRICK KIT, THE TAILUR 

ON the east side of the Winckel Straet, to which pre- 
vious reference has been made, stood five stone build- 
ings, of probably two or tlacL' Ht(jrius in litnglit. These are 
usually misnamed, by writers upon New Amsterdam, "The 
Cuiiipany's Storehouses ; " they were, however, in no sense 
; storeiiouses, except in so far as they may have served to store 
materials for the work which was carried on there. They 
\ were in fact used as worksliops for the various branches of 
I liibor conducted under the direction of the oflieers of the West 
i' India Company, and seem to have contained the shops of the 
carpenter, the blacksmith, tlie cooper, and the armorer of the 
Company, with probably others, such as those of the tailor, 
the shoemaker, the halter, etc., for the garrison and for the 
i other employes of that economical corporation, which aimed 
' at supplying, through its own workmen, most of the wants 
' of its servants. Perhaps the most singular appurtenance of 
the Five Houses was a goathouse in their rear, which was 
built in Director Van Twiller's time, as \\e are informed by 
. an entry in the records, in 1639. 

Of the precise date of the erection of these buildings we 
: are ignorant, but it must have been very early, for in 1638 
i', we are told that they were " in need of considerable repair." ' 
\ After the surrender to the English, in 1664, the "Five 

• Tlu'io buildiiigs are clearly distiuguisliable u|)oii tlio " Hartgera View " of 
162S or U.30, and were inobiibly tlicu just erected. See ante, page 2, uute. 



32 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

Houses " were confiscated as tlie jji-opeil}' of the West India 
Compiiuy.i Being no longer required for llreir original pui- 
poses, they were put to various uses by the English ; among 
others they were used for a time partly as oilicers' quarters, 
and partly as a hospital for the garrison ; but becoming diLip- 
idated, they were demolished about the year 1G80, and the 
sites sold. The narrow Winckel Straet was tlien closed and 
giunted to tlie owners of the private houses fronting iqjon it 
on the west, whose lots had previously been rather shoil 
in depth, and were now made to front upon Wliitehall 
Street. The site of the Eive Sliops of the W'est India Com- 
pany is now covered, so far at least as the end towards Stone 

1 Iniinediatcly after tlie .siirreiKler to the lOiiglisli iu 1G64, aii .ittaclinieut wai 
sued out agair.st tlieae liouses upon an allogeil claim agaiust the West ludii 
Com])auy by one George Baxter. Baxter was au Euglishiiiau of a ratlior tur- 
bulent disposition who had been for a uuinber of years iu the C'omixiiiy's set- 
vice, and was a lieutenant under the notorious Captain John UuderhiU. At 
early as 1C41, he had attempted to farm a tr:iet upon Manhattan Island, enibraC' 
ing the site of the present Bellevuo Ilo.spital, and forming a part of what waB 
afterwards kuowu as the Kip's Bay Farm. Subsequently ho acquired a tract 
of laud near Graveseud upon Long Island. He is understood to have been a 
brother of Tlion>as Baxter, whose difficulties with the Dutch Colonial admiuistra- 
tiou and the confiscation of whose property have been previously alluded to 
{ante, p. 19). lulluenced by motives apparently not uuconueeted with Va 
brother's misfortuues, George Baxter, in the beginning of 1G55, was instrumental 
in stirring up considerable resistance to the Dutch authorities at Graveseud. 
He was promptly arrested and imprisoned at the Town Hall in New Amste^ 
dam, but while thus in prison he prevailed upon one Thomas Greedy, a resident 
of the newly planted settlement of Middelburg (now Newtowu) upon Long 
Island, to make an attempt, with the aid of a negro man, to drive away hij 
(Baxter's) cattle, which had been seized by the Graveseud magistrates, and 
were in their custody. For this offence Greedy received a sentence of twelvs 
years' bauisbmeut, and the property of Baxter was confiscated. Upon the su^ 
render iu 1664, however, Baxter, evidently believi.ig that tlie English day had 
come, presented a claim of i;i78 florins against the Company for his losses, aud 
attached their bouses as above stated. Cornells vau Kuyven, the former Secre- 
tary of the Colour, who had been appointed by Governor Nicoll a trustee or 
receiver of the West ludia Company's property, appeared before the magistrates, 
and recapitulated to them Baxter's doings of nearly ten years before. He was 
roughly interrupted several times by Baxter, who gave him the lie repeatedly in 
the presence of the court. The tribunal was not very sympathetic, for it not 
only fined Baxter for contempt of court, but appears to have taken no further 
uiitice of his proceedings, 



'■* THE BRUGII STEEGll 33 

Street is concerned, by what is known u.s the " Merchants' 
Uuilding." 

The land occupied by tiie West India Company's siiops, 
bclweeu Stone and JJridge streets, seems to have been partly 
Umnded upon the east by a narrow and obscure lane, known 
M the Brugh Steegh, or " Bridge Lane," which was a cross- 
way to facilitate conununication witii tlie bridge over the 
•uull stream which ran through tiic jircscnt Broad Street, 
and which was probably in use before Brouwer or Stone 
SUvct was opened through ; it may indeed have been the 
Tcmains of an earlier plan of streets than the one iinally 
tdopted, for there are evidences of its having extended 
Uirough the present blocks as far north as Beaver Street, and 
through what was sometimes called tlie Church l^ane (being 
a narrow passageway lying west of the lirst ciiurch building), 
MUth into Pearl Street.' Tiiis lane ei-osscd tlie site now 
occupied by the building known as No. G on the south side 
of Stone Street, and bore off souiewliat to the east as it 
ipproaciied Bridge Street. It was about twenty-two English 
feet in width. 

Upon the west side of this lane and extending to within a 
few feet of Bridge Street, stood a house used at one time ap- 
parently as the odieial residen(;e of the ofiicer known as the 
fiscal, or public prosecutor, of the colony. In 16-17, it being 
then perhaps no longer used for such purposes, we find 

* There are, in fact, certain obsi'uro indications prescmteil by the " llartgers 
View," and by some of tlie early records, that the first villajje cunsi.stcd of three 
narrow parallel laue.s running north and south, and one — the so-called Beaver 
I'ath — running east and west. t)f these hiues the easternmost appears to 
have been the Brngli Steegh ; the middle one seems to have occu)iiod tlie easterly 
portion of the present Whitehall Street and the Rowling Green, and to have 
been merely widened upon the west, and thrown into the later JIarckveldt; 
while the westernmost of the lanes, with the buildiugs upon it, would then have 
occupied the present Bowling Green, into which it would have been thrown, and 
ita buildiugs demolished at the time of the construction of the fort and its .ap- 
proaches, lCi8-35. As for the Bc.aver I'ath, there can be little doubt that it was 
arigin.ally a continuation to the North Kivor shore of the present Beaver Street, 
«uil was not, as h.as been claimed, the present Morris Street, 'riio portion west 
if liroadw.ay was closed and granted to privati- jiarties before IGJO. 
3 



M nil ) 



;>^;" 



34 IJEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PKOIM.E 

Director-General Stuyvesant recoinnjoiuling tlie esfcihlishmeut 
of a more purmaneiit achool Ihan had hitliurto existed, and 
that it shoukl be kept " in tlie kitclien of tlie fiscah" After 
the opening of Stone Street, not long before the date last 
mentioned, the lane was no longer nuieh needed for public 
use, and it appears to have fallen into the condition of a 
mere open passageway. It was not linally closed, however, 
till 1G74, when with other public lands it was used to afford 
small building sites for several persons, whose houses liad 
been demolished as being too near tlie fortilications. 

Just east of the Brugh Steegli stood the brewery of the 
West India Company, upon land now occupied in part by au 
engine-house of the New York Fire Department and in part 
by the building No. 10 Stone Street. This brewery must have 
been erected at a very early date, and undoubtedly gave to 
the street its original appellation of the " 15rouwer's Straet." 
Valentine finds the derivation of the name of this street in 
the fact that Oloff Stevenscn van Cortlandt, wlio resided 
upon the north side of the street, nearly opposite to this 
building, was iiimself at one time engaged in the business of 
brewing. It does not appear, however, from tiie early records 
that his brewery actually stood upon Stone Street ; it seems 
to have been rather upon the lane known as the Marckveldt 1 
Steegh, of which a fragment survives to-day as Marketfield 
Street ; at all events, the brewery of the West India Com- 
pany must have antedated Van Cortlandt's residence here by ; 
at least half a score of years. When Peter Stuyvesant was 
sent over as Director-General, in 1G47, after the ruinous 
achninistration of Kieft, he saw that something must be done 
in the way of raising taxes from the people of New Amster- 
dam, so as to relieve the West India Company of part of the 
burden of maintaining tlie colony. He could think of no 
better device for tliis end than by enforcing a stringent 
excise tax upon wine and beer. In order to carry tliis out 
successfully, it would be desirable for the company to discon- ,^ 
tinue its o^vn brewing operations, and to throw the business 
into the hands of private parties. This Iciil, without doubt, to 



y PIETER CORNELISSEN'S GARDEN 35 

i 

'i ibe abandonment of the Company's brewery, and, in lGt)l, 
iLe ground is referred to as being " where the Company's 
l«w-liouse formerly liath stood." That the building luul 
tLou been demolished is not necessarily implied, and does not 
mxm to have been the case, for on the rude plan of New 
Yiirk ultached to the NicoU Map, of about IGCG, a building of 
(aura Ihaii ordinary size is shown as occupying this l()cati(jn. 



; Upon a September day in the year 10371 tlie yaclit " Dol- 
phin" lay at anclior near tiie nioutii of the Texel. Here, 
iiniJst the crowd of Dutch men-of-war, or merchant vessels, 
llist Indiamen, Baltic coasters, colliers from Newcastle, and 
tilling smacks from all parts o.f the North Sea, which filled 
llut great commercial highway of the Netherlands, leading 
f(oin the Zuydcr Zee out into the German Ocean, the 
♦kipj^ier of the " Dolphin '' hailed his brother skipper of the 
"Herring." He was in very poor trim lor an ocean voyage 
U) New Amsterdam, to whicli port he was bound ; his vessel 
|!; was leaking badly; ho had no carpenter, and his crew 
'Wt: itoutly refused to go to sea without one. Could the skipper of 
R: lLo"Heriing" do anytiiing for him? On board of the " ller- 
\^ ring" was a young carpenter named I'icter Cornelissen, whom 
-. Uio skipper of his vessel was able to spare ; and as lie was 
^' willing to go, he embarked on board of the " Dolphin " and 
luaclied New Amsterdam in safety, after a perilous voyage in 
which most of the cargo was ruined, lie never returned to 
Europe, but became a denizen of New Amsterdam. It was 
upn such slight accidental circumstances as these that^ 
many of the colonists came to America. iS)3633^ 
At New Amsterdam, Cornelissen entered tlie service oi the 
West India Company as a house carpenter, or " timmerman," 
wid thus acquired the appellation which lie retained the 
remainder of his life, of Pieter Cornelissen Timmerman. 
Looking about him for an available building spot in New 
Amsterdam, Pieter Cornelissen found, along the south side of 
tJie newly laid out Brouwcr or Stone Street, a long, narrow 
slrij) of vacant gi'ound, extending from the West India Com- 



»l 



30 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

{)any's Brewery down to witliin tliirLy or forty feet of 
present Tiroiul Street. IJragli or Jiridge Street, ay lias 
viously been stated, was in use as a street for a conside: 
time before Stone Street was marlied out, and the grante 
land upon it were so deep that notfung remained aft«rwa' 
upon the Litter street but this strip aec^uired by Corneh 
which was only about fifty feet wide at one end, and at 
end towards Broad Street not more than twenty feet 
It seems to have been still further curtailed of its dimensi 
by a subsequent widening of iirouwer Straet, to the ext 
of several feet, the Director and Council restirving 
right to so widen the "road" in the grant to Cornelissen 
1G40. Pieter Coinelissen does nob seem to have erected 
house upon tliis property, but he planted it with fmit trM 
in preparation for doing so. The present locality of the soufl 
side of Stone Street, towards i5road, is little suggestive i 
cherry, peach, and pear trees, yet here they stood in bearing i 
the year 1G51, at which time Cornelissen de.partcd from Nei 
Amsterdam, probably under the orders of the C!onipany, (a 
the Dutch settlements on the South or Delaware liiver. 
turning subsequently to New Amsterdam, he rebuilt, after 
destruction, in 1655, by the Indians, the mill upon VV^essell'i] 
Creek, in the late town of Newtown, upon Long Island. Thii] 
mill site, in a picturesque spot not far from the resort noil 
known as North Beach, was used for its original purposei] 
until comparatively recent years, being of late known 
" Jackson's Mill." Pieter Cornelissen did not operate it very 
long himself, but he purchased laud in the immediate neighbor- 
hood, and was the ancestor of a worthy family not yet extinct 
there. Before leaving New Amsterdam, in 1G51, he found a 
purchaser for his property on Brouwer Straet, in the person ol 
Jacob Kip, the son of llendriek llendrieksen Kip, the latter 
of whom owned the adjoining property fronting upon Brugh 
or Bridge Street, where his house stood, llendriek, the 
father, who was sometime of Amsterdam, seems to have been 
one of the earliest settlers in New Amsterdam, and ids house 
here had probably ^eicn built for several years previous to his] 
ground brief for the', land in lG-12. 



HENDRICK KIP THE TAILOR C7 

Hcndi-ick Hendricksen Kip was perluips one of tlie most 
'flJarous tailors who ever drew needle. If, as Valentine 
wliiit problematically asserts, his eognomen of " Kip " 
it "chicken," it must have referred to a gamecock of the 
|»l breed. He pitted himself against the redoublahle Director 
Kitftat au early period, and never smootlied his rul'lled feathers 
all ihe latter had departed for the Netherlands upon his recall, 
fvea refusing to give liim a parting shake of tiie hand in 
liklien of amnesty. It was several years before that event, or 
iliout 1643, that Hendrick, according to an officious informer, 
Wiered a witticism of appalling audacity towards his " divinely 
" ■ afpoiuted magistrate " (as Kieft was fond of calling himself), 
Hjing that "people ought to send tlie Kivit" (meaning 
••pee-wit," or " lap-wing," — a play at once upon Kieft's name, 
j<rson, and character) " home bytlie Pauwe" (peacock), " and 
t!M to give a letter of recommendation to IMaster CJerrit" (the 
f«blic executioner, or Jack Ketch, of Holland) ; " he, liimsclf, 
would willingly send a pound Flemish, in order tliat he sliould 
kl him die like a nobleman." This generous offer had refer- 
toce to the custom in the Germanic countries of ijiflicting 
fupital punishment upon the nobility by decapitation, and 
tpon the lower classes by hanging — a custom alluded to by 
Heine in his appeal to the Kaiser Friedrich Rothljart, or 
fUrbarossa, for impartial rule in the " Holy German limpire," 
«pon his future awakening from his legendary slumber : 

" Nur manchnial wechale ab und lass 
Den Adel hUiigen, und kopfe 
Ein bisschen die Biirger und Uauern, wir sind 
Ja alle Gottesgeschdpfe." 

Change once in awhile, and let the nobleman be hung, and 
ihfl peasant's head be chopped off. Are we not all alike 
God's creatures ! 






V ti 



CHAPTER V 

HENDRICK KIP AND II IS HOUSE.— THE KIP COTTAGH 
ON STONE STREET. -JAN JANSEN VAN ST. OlilN 
TUE SLAVE SHIP" GIDEON" 

Uiii Cliristi willcn vcrachone, o Ilerr, 
D:i3 Lebeii der scliwarzeii Sunder ! 
Erziirnten sic dicli, so weisst du ja. 
Sic sind so dumm wie die Riuder. 

Verschone ibr Lebon um Christ! willn, 
Der fiir uiis alio gcstorben ! 
Deim blcibcQ iiiir iiicht drcibundert Stiick, 
So iat mein Gescbiift vcrdorbeo. 

IIkine. 

IN the last preceding chapter, some allusion was 
the hostility of Hendrick Ilendrickseu Kip, the tailor i 
Brugh or Bridge Street, towards Director-General KiefL 
So hostile was he, in fact, that he actually refused upon out 
occasion to give him something which is usually very freelj 
tendered, — being such a cheap gift, — namely, advice. It 
was after Kieft and his associates had patched up a proposed 
treaty wth the Indians to end the ruinous war which he had 
brought on tlie colonists in 1643. The Council, on the 30ti 
of August, 1645, ordered the court messenger to "notify all the 
inhabibints to assemble in the Fort when the colors are hoisted 
and the bell rung, to hear the proposals on which a peace is 
about to be concluded with the Indians, and if any one can give 
good advice, then to offer it freely." That worthy made Ms 
report to the Council that " all the citizens in the Manhat- 
tans, from the highest to the lowest, will attend, except one 
Hendrick Kip, a tailor." 



?! 



HENDRICK KIP'S HOUSE 39 

Although Hendiick seems to liiive been more fortunate than 
■uny others in keeping out of tlie chitches of Kieft, yet the 
|Ovenuuent had its eye upon liim; and when his more indis- 
creet " huysvrouw " made pubUc statements that " the Direc- 
tor and Council were false judges, and the fiscal a forsworn 
fi*cal," it pounced upon lier at once on a charge of a sort of 
Uu-majeste. The good lady stoutly denied tlie charges, but 
ber hushrnd, with a piieuonienal astuteness, appeared before 
the court and stated that " liis wife has been so upset and so 
oat of health ever since Maryn Adriaensen's attempt to mur- 
der the Director-General, that when disturbed in the least she 
knows not what she does." The reference was to the assault 
•ttempted upon Kieft, nearly three years before, by one Maryn 
Adriaensen, in a quarrel about tlieir respective shares of culpa- 
bility in bringing about the Indian War. The jjrosecutor and 
the defendant in the court proceedings were ordered to produce 
their evidence, but nothing further appears to have been done 
in the matter, Kieft being soon afterwards recalled. 

With his well-known views respecting the imbecility of the 
late administration in New Netherland, Ilendrick Kip was 
chosen one of the committee known as " The Nine Men," 
which drew up a remonstrance to the States-General against the 
policy adopted by the colonial government of the West India 
Company, and the ruinous results brought thereby upon the 
colonists. The new Director-General, Peter Stuyvesant, im- 
mediately took up the cudgels in behalf of all maligned magis- 
trates, and sent the Secretary Van Tienhoven over to the 
Netherlands to refute the cliarges made before the States- 
General. The "refutation" consisted principally in vilifying 
the members of the Committee who had dared to sign the 
remonstrance. "As to losses," said the Secretary, "Hendrick 
Kip was a tailor, who never lost anytliing," which in Van 
Tienhoven's mouth was only another way of saying he had 
uothing to lose. 

This, however, was not true. Kip's worldly condition was 
i )ubtless not equal to tliat of some of the other colonists, but 
Ills house, in its gaitleu of about sixty-five feet front upon 



40 NEW AMSTERUAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

Bridge Street, was quietly occupied by liiiu fur many yeara; 
while upou the laud adjoining it on Stone Street, where Pieter 

Cornelissen had planted his garden (previously described), J 

llendriek's two sons, Isaac and Jacob, and his son-in-law, Jan a 

Jansen van St. Obin, built houses for themselves. All these '^ 

houses liad a clear outlook upon the East Piver, and upon 1| 

the vessels in port (wiiich usually aiichoreil directly in front !j| 

of them), and to the wooded Long Island sliores beyond, — ^ 

for no houses were built at this point along the river shoi'c at % 

Pearl Street, to intercept the view, prior to 1G5G. Tlie last fl 

buildings upon the shore at tliat time, coming eastwards from a 

the fort, were the former iJuteh church and its parsonage, fi 

erected in 103^, the church standing nearly opposite the i| 

weslerl}' corner of llendrick Kip's garden. i| 

It lias been already stated that the two sons and the son-in- ^ 

law of llendrick Kip had their dwellings upon the south side § 

of Stone Street, in what had previously been Pieter Cornelis- § 

sen's garden. These were pi'obably small cottages, as the m 

plots of ground upon which they stood were of small size ; and 3 

they were built just about the period of our survey, in 1G55, w 

though the precise dates are uncertain. Their owners were l] 

quite young men at the time, and recently married. The jl 

easternmost of these houses, which extended within forty or '^ 

fifty feet of the present Broad Street, was that of Isaac Kip, .^| 

afterwartls a Hudson liiver trader; and near it on the west « 

was that of his brother Jacob, — the site of both these build- M 

ings being now covered by Davidson's Cafd. Jacob Kip, the J; 
second of these brothers, was a man of considerable activity , 

and enterprise. His marriage, in 1654, to Marie de la ,'' 

Montague, daughter of Doct(jr Jean (or Johannes, using the % 

Latinized form, by which he was generally known) de la .|i, 

Montague, seems to have served him in the way of advance- M 

ment, his wife's father— a French Huguenot, and a man of -jl 

education — having stood high in the favor of Kieft and of f^ 

the Directors of the West India Company. As one of the city ^^ 
magistrates, and as Secretary of the Court of Burgomasters, 
Jacob Kip's bold, business-like signature is familiar in the i* 



JAN JANSEN VAN ST. OBIN 41 

tii records, and indeed he was a clerk to Director-General 

jSlajrvcsant at a still earlier date, in 1650. In Liter years, lie 

:*me somewhat of an investor in unimproved or farm lands 

Manhattan Island, and about the year 1670 he bought an 

i "frontier" plantation which had seen many vicissitudes, 

•dJ there established a farm, to the vicinity of which he gave 

a immo that became historic, the memory of which has not yet 

lirely faded away ; namely, that of "Kip's Bay," on the 

Eist River at about Thirty-Fifth to Thirty-Seventh streets. 

!*■; Jan Jaasen, the brother-in-law of the two young Kips, who 

l;,'»lso occupied a house upon the south side of Stone Street, 

11 »omcwhat to the west of the cottages of the latter, was a j)er- 

!^l»in of a rather dilTcrent disposition. lie was undoubtedly of 

I Dutch or of Flemish extraction, and is usually spoken of in 

iJiO records of tho time as Jan Jansen van St. Obin ; but in 

the church record of his marriage in 1649 to Baertje (or 

Bertha) Hendrickse Kip, his place of nativity is given as 

"Tiibingen," — presumably the city of that name in the 

Duchy of Wiirtemberg, in (iermaay. While there may be 

grounds for supposing, from the similarity of sound, that the 

bttcr designation is a misUike or a corruption of some other 

name, the locality of "St. Obin" seems to be unknown in 

Dutch topography. Jan Jansen's father, Jan Wansaer, seems 

to have been a resident of Casant, not far from Antwerp. 

Jan Jansen van St. Obin was a person of nautical proclivi- 
ties, insomuch that he became a part owner of the small French 
frigate " La Garce," which sailed as a privateer under letters 
from the Dutch government. She afterwards got into trouble 
with the Admiralty about her prizes, but at the time of Jan 
Jaiisen's interest in her (for he appears to have sold out his 
glmre in 1646) we may presume that she confined her atten- 
tion strictly to the Spanish and Portuguese craft which were 
within the line of her legitimate business, though the captains 
of {)rivateering vessels in this war were sometimes rather 
obtuse upon such points, and took almost anything that came 
aloiii;. Whether Jan Jansen sailed personally in the priva- 
teer is not known, but certain it is that occasionally, about 



42 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

this time, his business seems to have called him away from 
New Amsterdam for protracted periods, at which times lie bad 
the practice of depositing with various prominent men of New 
Amstei-dam considerable amounts of personal properly, taking 
their receipts for it, which he caused to be promptly entered 
upon the books of the Secretary of the Colony. Upon one of 
these occasions, tlie deposit was of quite a large amount of 
silver ware, — rather an unusual stock for a New Netherlaud 
" trader," and which leads to the conjecture that it may have 
been picked up by him somewliere upon the Spanish main, 
or perhaps in the West Indies. Jan Jansen, however, was 
not always fortunate in his adventures, for shortly prior to 
1654, a bark in which he wa.s then interested was captu 
— or "stolen," as the Dutch authorities expressed it — by 
Thomas Baxter, claiming to act under letters of marque 
issued at Kliode Isbuid, to which previous allusion has been 
made. Baxter, who was probably not much hampered by 
Admiralty rules, promptly disjiosed of his prize to Thomas 
Moore of New Haven, but the Dutch government contrived 
to bring such pressure to bear upon the latter that, together 
with Isaac AUerton, the leading merchant in the New England , 
trade, at New Amsterdam, he gave a bond for the restoration 
of the vessel or its value. 

Jan Jansen van St.Obin is perhaps most prominently known 
as the pilot of the slave ship " Gideon," which arrived at the 
harbor of New Amsterdam, with a cargo of two hundred and 
ninety slaves, in August, 16G4, a few days before the appear- 
ance of the Enghsh fleet concerned in the capture of New 
Netherland. These slaves, Director Stuyvesant wrote, were 
" a very poor assortment. The females certainly all so poor 
that we apprehend the largest part of them will remain at our 
charge, or we must otherwise part with them at a very low 
price." The Director-General's estimate of the condition of 
these blacks appears to have been a pretty just one, for we 
afterwards find Johan de Decker (who had been a member of 
Director Stuyvesant's Council, but who, having become ob- 
noxious to the new authorities, had been ordered to " within 



THE SLAVE TRADE 43 

the space of ten claycs tiansporte liimselfe out of this governe- 
nient"), presenting a petition from Amsterdam to tlie Duke 
of York for the restoration of certiiin negroes, forming a part 
of the Gideon's "assortment " which had been seized at New 
Amsterdam by order of Governor NieolL It appears fi'om 
this document that twenty of these negroes had been allotted 
to the petitioner by way of settlement of his arrears of salary 
at New Amsterdam : ten of them he liiul otherwise disposed 
of, "having ye other tenne negroes in (now so called) New 
Yorke in ye custody of one Resolved Waldron to dyett and 
keep them for your petitioner." The " Gideon " had evidently 
lacked tlie master mind of "The supercargo, Mynheer van 
Koek," of Heine's balliid, who, l)eing distressed by the an- 
nouncement from the physician of his slave-ship that the 
negroes were dying upon the passage in great numbers, from 
melauclioly, devised the genial scheme of forcing tliem by 
the lash to daily dances to quick music, in order to keep up 
tiieir spirits and drive dull care away. 

Whether Jan Jansen, as pilot of the " Gideon," received 
his pay in tlie same commodity as De Decker, we are not in- 
formed. He certainly suffered no diminution of respectability 
in the community of his time by reason of his occupation ; 
furthermore, tiie gains were large, and that alone would have 
been quite sufficient with most of his neighbors to smother 
any inconvenient suggestions that miglit have arisen : — 

" Glass beads, and brandy, and scissors and knives, 

And other cheap trash for them giving, — 
The profit at least eight hundred per cent, 

If I keep the half of them living. 
For fetch I three hundred blacks aliye 

To the port of Rio Janeiro, 
'T is a hunilred ducats apiece for me, 

From the house of Gonzales Perreiro." 

If any supersensitive persons were found who ventured to 
question the right and justice of this traffic, a host of sup- 
porters were as ready then as now, with about as much or as 
little hypocrisy, to show the divinely appointed rights of the 



44 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

superior race over the inferior, and the law of Destiny wliich 
imperatively demanded that the latter sliould be Hogged, as it 
were, out of darkness into the liglit. 

It is only fair to say, however, that among the Dutch of 
New Netherland the slave trade cxhiljited its least repulsive 
features. No important diflieulties occurred between the 
blacks and their masters in New Amsterdam, nor do the 
former seem to have been often the subjects of any serious 
criminal prosecutions. Tlie negroes settled down into house 
and farm servants; the relations between them and their 
masters were usually of a soinewljat patriarchal nature, manu- 
missions were frequent, and sincere attachment was often 
manifested on bolli sides. It was the h3'sterical English and 
their Recorder, Horsmanden, who were responsible for the 
ghastly tragedy of the "Negro Plot " in the next centuiy, and 
for the iiendish torture of the numerous innocent victims of 
that insane delusion. 



MiMi. .P'/A 




^*;"/^y ^p/""^ 



rF 



Y- v;fi 



^1 U^ 






CHAPTER VI 



THE WATERSIDE. — DR. HAN.'S KIERSTED.— TITE HOUSES 
OF CORNKUS VAN STEENWYCK AND JOHANNES NEVWS. 
-CAPTAIN PAULUS VANDEHGRIFT— THE STOREHOUSE 
OF THE WEST INDIA COMPANY. — THE WAREHOUSE 
OF AUGUSTYN IIEERMANS. — SECRETARY VAN TIEN- 
HOVEN. — THE OLD CHURCH AND PARSONAGE 

SOME notice should be taken of tlie buildings along the river 
siiore, east of the Marckveldt, or Whitehall Street, and of 
tlieir occupants in the year 1055. Tliese houses fronted upun 
an open street, then called 't Water, — the modern Pearl 
Street, — but upon the opposite side of the roadway was the 
open shingly beach of the East River. The houses here, at 
the time of our survey, stood in compact order, and were 
Bubstantially built, most if not all of them being of brick. 
Though the deeds or ground briefs for most of the parcels of 
land at this locality were made from 1G45 to 1G47, it is ditli- 
cult to believe that they had not been in several instances 
built upon at an earlier period. Nearly all of tlie buildings 
were used for mercantile pui-poses, the front portions of the 
Bti-uctures being probably used as stores, while the occupants 
availed themselves of the other portions for tlieir dwellings. 
Tliis place was, in short, the seat of tlie larger part of tlie 
wholesale and retail trade of the town. 

Of the first building, in proceeding eastwards from the 
llarckveldt, wliich building was tiie former storehouse of 
the West India Company, mention lias already been made.' 
The next house, which soon became the corner one by the 
removal of the structure of the West India Company, was long 
the residence of Doctor Hans Kieisted, tlie leading physician 



if 



':■ ^:# 



4G NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

and surgeon of the town. I Luis Kierstetl and his brother 
Jochem (the latter of whom perished in 1(547, iu the wreck 
of the " Princess ") were Germans from Magdeburg; and aa 
tliey were early residents of New Amsterdam, there is reason 
to suspect that they were refugees after tlie dreadfid sack of 
Magdeburg by Count Tilly's savage troops in the year 1G31, 
at which time ILms Kiersted was about nineteen years of age. 
lie is found, as eai'ly as the year 1U88, holding the position of 
ollicial surgeon of the West India Com[)any at New Amster- 
dam, and the Dutch records contain many of his oilicial cer- 
tificates given within the next eight or ten years as to wounds 
received in various affrays by the tpiarrelsome soldieis of the 
garrison at Fort Amsterdam. 

In 1G42, by his marriage to Sarah Uoeloffse, Doctor 
Kiersted became son-in-law to Annetje Janse Bogardus,. and 
within a few years after that event, — as early as 1G4U, —we 
iind him residing here upon the water-side, where his humble 
stock of drugs would doubtless have formed a great contrast 
to that of the modern "pliarmacy " which has been established 
next door to the original site of the trade iu New Amsterdam. 
IJefore It; 18, "Doctor Hans," as he was frequently called, 
had quitted the service of the West India Company, and was 
engaged in his own private practice, which seems to have 
been a reasonably lucrative one, for as early as 1G40 he was 
the owner of a "plantation" upon the Bouwery Lane, about 
a mile and a lialf out of the town. Doctor Kiersted died 
shortly prior to 1GG7, but fifty years later his property at the 
corner of Pearl and Whitehidl streets was still in the occu- 
pation of his descendants. 

The next neighbor upon the east of Doctor Hans, in the 
year 1G55, was a man who, though not particularly con- 
spicuous at that time, subsequently became of considerable 
prominence in the town; this was Cornells Jacobsen van 
Steenwyck, formerly of Ilaerlem in Holland. The period 
of liis coining to New Amsterdam is not known, though lie is 
mentioned as early as IG.'il, and it appears probai)le tliat lie 
was a brother of Abraham Jacobsen \i\n Steenwyck, \\ho is 



CORNELIS VAN STEENWYCK 47 

(band at New Amsterdam as early as 1G43. Cornelis van 
Sleenwyck was a inercliaut, and in all probaLility had his 
«Uire in this building, which occupied the site of the present 
No, 27 Pearl Street; it was a modest house, like that of his 
Bt-iglibors on either side, and it iiad not been built by Van 
SUfnwyck himself, but was purchased by him in li'ifi'd from 
• Norwegian, Koeloff Jansen llaies, who seerns to liave b(!en 
ibe tirst owner of the property. 

Cornelis van Steenwyck soon became interested in shipping 
veutures; in 1G54 he was a partner with several of the prin- 
timl men of the town ' in the ship " Golden Shark," then 
»eiit on a voyage to the West Indies, and in the next year 
»e find him, with several others, signing a protest against tlie 
•ction of the Director and Council, who had refused to allow 
Uia signers to proceed upon a contemplated voyage to llol- 
Liiiil, — for this each of the signers was lined 25 guilders by 
liie despotic Stuyvcsant. In spite, however, (jf dilferences 
witli the authorities, Van Steenwyck seems to have thrived 
<o well that, in IGGu, the Director-General himself had 
become a borrower on behalf of the needy West India Com- 
ptny from that merchant, who agreed to advance the sum of 
12,000 guilders (about $1800) in wampum, upon a draft on 
llie West India Company, backed U[) by the curious collateral 
Mcurity of four brass cannon in luirt vVmstcrdam. He had 
at this time indeed become one of the leading merchants in 
New Amsterdam, with a keen eye iur prolits in almost any 
direction, handling at one time a cargo of salt, and at another 
a cargo of negro slaves. His business, at the time of the 
surrender to the English in 1GG4, had outgrown his modest 
store on 't Water, and for several years he had occupied a 
more elaborate establishment at the corner of the [iresent 
Itridge and Whitehall streets, just back of the house in 
which he had dwelt in 1G55. 

With a fair knowledge of the English language, and with 
a disposition readily to accept the English rule, Cornelis van 

' With Paulus Loeiidcrtseu van iler (Jrift. Cornelis ScUutt, Allan! Anthony, 
an! iloveit Loockerniaus. 



48 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 



Steenv/yck soon acquired the coniideiice of the new authori- 
ties, and was a member of the Colonial Council under Go?- 
ernors Nicolls and Lovelace. Purtiiermore, he was populK 
with tlie Dutch citizens, was one of the burgomasters of tU 
city both before and after the surrender, and was mayor froa 
16G8 to 1070, and again in 1082 and IGSi!, shortly before hi» 
death. In his latter years Cornelis van Steenwyck, who had 
long been considered to be a man of wealtli, probably kept up 
as luxurious a style of living as any one in the Colony at thai 
time, but at the period of oursurvey he was an unmarried man, 
and his store on 't Water was doubtless not materially different 
from the ordinary general store of a small trading town.' 



The next neighbor of Cornelis van Steenwyck upon the 
east, in the year of our survey, was a man who was aflerwardi 
of some jjrominence as notary and Clerk of the liui'gomastt'i'S, 
or City Clerk, as he may be called, whicii ollice he hel 
early as 1G58, and whicli he Idled for a number of yean 
subsequent to that time. This was Johannes Nevius, who 
is said to have come from Solen or Zoelen, a village of the 
district known as Tlie Betuwe, which skirts the south bank 
of the Rhine below Arnhem, and who was himself, at the 
period of our survey, one of the city magistrates or sehepem, 
of New Amsterdam, and was a merchant or tradej- who 
seems to have been associated in business with his wife's 
step-father, Cornelis de Potter, a merchant of note in the 
town. 2 Looking a mile or so up the East River from his 
windows upon the water-side, Johannes Nevius could see 
the dwelling-house and the pastures and grain-iields of his 
father-in-law's farm just where the Breucklyn Road came 
down the hill at the present Fulton Street in Rrooklyn. 
Here De Potter had purchased, as early as 1G52, from 
Cornelis Dircksen, the old ferryman, and from one or two 

1 For skLtch ly Mr. D. T. Valeutiiiu, K'^ing iii:uiy ciiiiuiia particplara of 
Coruelis van Steeuwyck, see Miiii. N. Y. Cum. Cuuucil for l«Ot, \>. OJS. 

2 In 1054 Nevius ami Cornolis de Potter were sued us buiut; jointly indeljtcii 
for tlie c-oustructiou of a vessel culled the " New Love." 




rouiiiAiT OK CoRXKi.i^ \-AN- Sti:i:n\vv( 



I ':; 



1 



r 



THE TOWN CLERK NEVIUS 49 

other owuers, the ferry property with sixty or seventy acres 
of land lying nortli of Fulton Street; and with the curious 
fcppurtenanco of " thirty-five goats and a half on Jan Harris' 
Una at Gravesend," — evidently a share or interest in a herd 
kt'pt there. He does not seem to have managed the ferry in 
pcreon, but leased it to others. 

Ariaentje Bleyck, the wife of Johainies Nevius and step- 
daughter of Cornelis de Potter, appears by her marriage 
fiecorJ in the Dutch Church on Nov. 18, 1G58, to have been 
1 native of, or at any rate to have resided at, Batavia, in the 
uloud of Java. It was there, in all probability, that her 
motiier, Swantje Janse, married Cornelis de Potter (who was 
doubtless a widower at tlie time), since his own daughter 
Elizabeth, who in the same year of the marriage of her step- 
»iiiter was united in matrimony to Isaac Bedlo, afterwards a 
man of note in New Amsterdam, appears likewise in the 
marriage record as from Batavia. 

Johannes Nevius did not long occupy the house on 't 
Water in New Amsterdam, for in ll)."i8 he sold it to liis 
neighbor Cornelis van Steenwyck. Subsequently tlie jjuild- 
ing, which covered the site of the present house. No. 2'J Pearl 
Street, became of interest, as the residence for a long time of 
Dominie Samuel Drisius, minister of tiie Dutch C!hurch at 
New Amsterdam from 1G52 to 1G71.' 

la the very interesting and important view of New Am- 
Bterdani which appears upon the map of Nicolaes Visscher, 
of about 1G52,2 as well as in the Justus Danckers view 

' Johannes Nevius, after the surrender to tlie Eugliah in 1664, found himself 
greatly hampered in his office of city clerk, by reason of his imperfect knowleJgo 
of the Eiigliali langn.igo. After using the services of an English assistant for a 
time, he appears to have given u|i his ofiico, and to have devoted his latter years 
U) the management of the ferry establishment belonging to his then deceased 
f»ther-iu-law'3 estate. There is a bill extant for ferry services performed by 
Juhaniies Nevius, which was presented to Secretary Nicolls, of the Colonial 
(jovernmeut, in 1676, by the widow of Nevius ; she liad previously, in 1672, upon 
her i-.ctitiou setting forth that she was a widow " with ei.x snjall helpless chil- 
dfiM, " been allowed an extension for six years of her husband's ferry lease. 

' Jiutitledj "Novi Belgii, Novteque Anglia; iiecnon partis Virginia; Tabula 



-. ■'. i '-■!■, 



50 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

shown iu the frontispiece of the present work, three tall 
buildings fronting the East River shore occupy a conspicuous 
position. These buildings adjoin one another, and the west- 
ernmost of them was only separated by an alleyway from the 
house of Johannes Nevius, just referred to above. They 
were all erected, as may be asserted with much positiveness, 
between the years 1G47 and 1051, though the situs of one or 
two of them may liave been occupied by earlier and smaller 
buildings. The westernmost of the three houses was in 1655 
the property of Captain Paulus Leendertsen van der Grift, 
an old resident of New Amsterdam, who with his brother 
Jacob is supposed to have come over from Amsterdam to 
New Netlierland a number of years before the date men- 
tioned. Captain Van der Grift was in the service of the 
West India Company as early as 1G44, in which year, at the 
island of Curaijoa, he was appointed to the connnand of the 
ship "Neptune," in wiiich Fortune was not always favorable 
to him, for his declaration is still extant tliut in the folh)wing 
year he was driven by stress of weather to the coast of Ire- 
land, where he had to land and to sell a part of his cargo of 
tobacco consigned to Amsterdam. 

Captain Van der Grift appears to have been in considerable 
favor with Director-General Stuyvesant, who in 1G47, at the 
beginning of his administration, appointed Van der Grift 
Superintendent of Naval Equipments at New Amsterdam, 
and one of the City Surveyors; he likewise gave him a seat 
in the first administrative council under his r(5gime. The 
Captain, however, did not allow his sense of justice to be 

multis in locia EmenJ:ilaaNicolo Joaunia Visschero." This view, which iu its way 
ia a (iuisliiid pruductioii, and almost llie only oiio wc posriuss o£ New Amsterdam, 
drawn with a due regard to tlio rules of perspective, is, there can be little doubt, 
tlie work of Augustyn Ileermans, wlioso storehouse forms a conspicuous feature 
iu it. The prominent points of interest in the town are all (lesignated by Dutch 
inscriptions; and the city tavern, wliich, in the beginning of the year 1603, became 
tlio Town Hall, or " Stadt Iluys," and is alw.ays spoken of thereafter by that desig- 
nation, is still ciUcd the " Stadls Herbergh," or tavern. In the second edition oi 
Adriaenvan der Donck's " liesclirijving van Nieuw Nederl.andt." in 1C5G, a rough 
copy of this view, without the inscriptions, is inserted, wlience it has frequently 
been spoken of as the Van der Donck view. The relations of this view to the 
one ' f Justus Dauckers have been discussed in an a]jpeudix to this volume. 



VAN DER GRIFT'S WAREHOUSE 61 

I drerbalanced by Stuyve.sant's favors, and in 1G56, being 
'ipjiointed arbitrator with Captain Thoniaa Willet to dispose 
•I » claim made against tlie Director-General by one Richard 
Lonl, a mercliant of Hartford, for damages for tlie non-per- 
fcinnance of a trading contract, he joined Captain Willet in 
Itporting in favor of a judgment against Stuyvesant for 200 
jiwunds sterling. 

As early as 1G44, Captain Van der Grift is said to have 
been in possession of the lot upon 't Water on which his 
inrchouse was afterwards erected, but he only received his 
(annul grant of the land on the 19th of July, 1G49, at which 
ilile there is reason to believe that the building was com- 
f/leted. There can be little doubt tiiat it is this edifice that 
U referred to in the historic " Vertoogh,"or " Remonstrance," 
prvifieuted to the States-General by Adriaen van der Donclc 
aiid others, to call attention to the abuses prevailing in the 
Colony of New Netherland, which document bears date 
July 28, 1G49: "Paulus Lenaertse hath but trifling wages, 
and yet has built a better dwelling-house here than any other 
pereon. How this is dcjue is too deep for us, for though the 
Director is aware of tliese things, he nevertheless observes 
jilence when I'aulus Leuaertse begins to get excited, which 
ho would not suffer fioni any other person, and this gives 
rise to uufavoraljlc surmises." As a man of whom Stuyve- 
jaut stood in awe, the choleric Ca[)taiii must have conuiianded 
a high degree of respect in the town. 

Of the nature of the business carried on at Captain Van der 
Grift's warehouse we have not much informati(jn. It was, 
however, for a considerable period the principal shipping 
office of New Amsterdam at which intelligence was to be 
had, and arrangements were to be made for freiglit and pas- 
sage when vessels were "up for the Netherlands." As the 
Captain kept up an active life, occasionally himself making 
voyages, — in 1G54 he was commissioned as conunander of 
tlie ship " Dolphin " for a voyage to the West Indies, — liis 
Lutiness at the water-side in New Amsterdam must have 
1k' ;n conducted by his agents, but who these were we do not 



NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 



I 



know. If Captain Van dur Grift ever actually resided in this 
house it was probably for no long period, for at an early dute 
he built a residence upon the North River, west of Broad- 
way, where, in the Indian attack of 1655, he is said to have 
been severely wounded by a blow from an axe, at the liands 
of one of the savages. 

After the surrender to the English in IGG-i, Captain 
Van der Grift was one of the irrecoiicilables, and in or about 
the year 1G71 he closed out his interests in New York, by 
the sale of all his real estate to various parties, and returned 
to the Netherlands. His storehouse on 't NVater, above 
referred to, occupied the site of the present building. No. 31 
Pearl Street. 

It was apparently a short time prior to the year 1G49 
that the Director-General and Council decided to build a 
more spacious and substantial storehouse, oi- "pack-huys," 
for the West India Company at New Amsterdam, than it hud 
previously possessed. The building erected in pursuance of 
tliis resolution stood next eastward from Captain Van der 
Grift's warehouse, and was the middle one of the three tall 
structures previously referred to as appearing upon the 
Visscher and upon the Justus Danckers views of New Aui- 
sterdani. The edilice was probably of brick, and is without 
doubt the one referred to iu a connnuuication wi'itteu in 
the year 1G49, iu which we find the economical Board of 
Directors of the West India Company, at Amsterdam, cen- 
suring the authorities of New Netherland "for building a 
storeliouse, or undertaking the same, oiu: hundred feet long 
and nineteen feet broad, without knowing precisely wiiat 
for." This structure was evidently used, in pait, at the 
last-mentioned date as a custom-house; for in "Tlie Peti- 
tion of t!ie Commonalty " to the home autliorities, made in 
that year, speaking of importations into the Colony, "the 
cargo," say the petitioners, "is discharged into the Com- 
pany's warehouse, and there it proeei'ds so as to be a grief 
and vexation to behold, for it is all measured auew, un- 



T[IE "PACK-IIUYS" 53 

Jttckcd, Ihrown ahoul ;iiul cuiiutcd, without eitlicr rule or 
$ldct; besides, the Cunipuiiy's servants hito sliarp and earry 
ftway." 

When, in 1064, Now Nctlierland was surrendered to the 
English, the pack-huys was conriscated as being tlie property 
f(Bf the West India Company, and the building became the 
, custom-house of tlie new administration, for wliich pur- 
'jurto it was used until tlie middle of tlie following century, 
irhen, having bet-u negligently allowed by tiie colonial 
lulhorities to fall into disrepair, it came to be considered 
fiUngerous, and M'as i)resented as a nuisance by the Grand 
Jury about the year 1750, soon after which it was ordered 
to bo demolished, the Custom-IIouso having been in the 
W«ui time removed to the western side of Broadway. The 
lito of this interesting building, the worn threshold of wliieh 
I'luust have been trodden by nearly every man of jirominence 
In tlio business and political life of New Amsterdam and of 
Ju'ew York in the latter half of the seventeenth and in the 
first half of the eighteenth century, was the westerly portion 
pi the present large tea warehouse. No. 33 Pearl Street. 

The third, or easternmost of the tliree prominent houses 
Upon the Visscher and Danckers views of New Amsterdam, 
loferred to above, had been built before the year 1651, by 

|Augustyn Ileermans, of whom a more extended notice will 
bo given hereafter, in connection with his residence in what 
called the Smits Vly. At an early date — certainly as 
'early as 1644, and in all probability for a number of years 
k'foro that time — Augustyn Ileermans bad been the agent 
or factor at New Amsterdam of the mercantile firm of Peter 
fiabry and Sons, of Amsterdam. No mention is made of the 
•ite of the first trading house or store of Ileermans, but it is 
very likely to have been the same spot where afterwards, 

'about 1650, he erected a substantial warehouse, the descrip- 
tion of which is still extant. The building was, so we are 
told, twenty-eight feet broad and sixty-four feet long (about 
twent} -six by fifty-nine English feet), "with a cellar under 



54 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

the whole." Its walls were two feet in thickness, and it was 
" three royal stories high ; " that is, three full or higli-ceiled 
stories, not including the lofts under the tall-gabled roof. In 
the rear it appears to have possessed an out-kitchen, fitting 
it for a residence as well as for a storeliouse. This spacious 
building seems to have been in part used as a tobacco ware- 
house, in which trade Heermans was largely interested, for in 
a petition made by him, in 1658, for permission to make a 
voyage to the Dutch and French West Indies, he describes 
himself as " the first beginner of the Virginia tobacco trade." 
The site of this jniilding is at present covered by the easterly 
portion of the warehouse, No. 33 Pearl Street, and by the 
westerly portion of No. 35. 

Heermans was also engaged in business adventures of a 
different nature, for in 164;6 we find him, with several other 
citizens of New Amsterdam, partners in a small privateer 
called "La Garce," which annoyed the Spaniards a good deal, 
but which finally made an illegal capture which nnist have 
entailed considerable loss upon her owners. It may have 
been owing to this cause that, in 1651, Augustyn Heermans 
had fallen into financial difficulties; and upon the 17th of | 
July of tliat year, he made a conve3'ance of his warehouse on 
't Water to Cornelis van Wcrckhoven, as curator, or trustee 
of the estate of Peter Gabry, deceased, the head of the 
Amsterdam firm of which Heermans was the factor. His 
other creditors, however, began to press Heermans, and in 
1652 he found himself obliged to leave New Amsterdam 
temporarily, and to make an assignment of his property to 
his neighbor. Captain Paulus Leendertsen van der (jrifl, and 
to Allard Anthony. A settlement, however, was soon made 
with the creditors, and on the 8th of May, 1653, we find the 
latter executing an agreement to abide by the valuation 
which should be placed by arbitrators upon the warehouse 
which had been previously conveyed in trust for the Gabrys, ; 
and which, as it would appear, the creditors claimed had 
been 'put in at a figure below its value. The arbitratore 
accordingly reported that the building was worth 8500 



SECRETARY VAN TIENIIOVEN 55 

fttilders, or about S3-100 of tlie present currency. No 
hirther opposition appears to liave been made by the cred- 
itaw, and Ileermans was soon upon his feet again, finan- 
eiilly. The warehouse remained in the possession of the 
Gibrj'S till the English capture of New Amsterdam, in 1664, 
*Lcn the building, like the pack-huys adjoining, was coh- 
tttc&ted on the ground that it belonged to the subjects of a 
koetile foreign State. A few years afterwards we find it in 
the occupation of Captain William Dyre, collector of the 
port of New York. By the Danker and Sluyter view, of 
1679, it would apjiear that prior to that date this building, 
with the adjoining pack-huys, had been newly fronted, giving 
the two structures the appearance of one edifice, of consider- 
fthle si^e. 

The two large modern warehouses, Nos. 33 and 35 Pearl 
Street, occupy sites around which many interesting associa- 
Uona cluster. In addition to that portion of the buildings 
npon the site of which stood the edifices already described, 
tho eastern portion of No. 35 Pearl Street was, in 1655, the 
(ita of a dwelling-house of little less interest. Here might 
have been seen daily, passing to and from this house at 
ihe period named, or taking liis ease upon fine days, at its 
threshold, in the very rare intervals of his leisure, — for ho 
led a busy life, — a middle-aged man of corpulent habit 
"with red and bloated visage and light hair." This was 
Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary of the Council, more 
{jarticularly identilied than any other individual with the 
history of New Netherland during at least a score of the 
earlier years of its existence. While little is known about 
iho younger years of this man,^ we find that he early acquired 
an influence in the government of New Netherland, which 
he preserved under such dissimilar administrations as those 
of Directors Van Twiller, Kieft, and Stuyvesant. This in- 
fluence ho managed to preserve too in spite of many rash 

' According to V.ilentine, he was book-keeper of wagca for the Wcbt InJia 
I, .lajiauy, as early as 1633. 



56 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS ]>E()PLE 

and unfortunate schemes, for which ho was in Lirge measun 
responsible, and in sjjito of the incessant attacks of hij 
enemies, who comprised a large part of the community. Hij 
character has been drawn in the "Vertoogh," or "Remon- 
strance of New Netherlaud," in 1649, by no friendly hand, 
but in a manner which seems to be justified by the facts we 
know of him. "He is," say the authors of tliis vigorous 
paper, " crafty, subtle, intelligent, sharp-witted, — good gifts 
when properly applied. . . . He is a great adept at dissimu- 
lation, and even when laughing, intends to bite, and pro- 
fesses the warmest friendship where he hates the deepest. 
... In his words and acts he is loose, false, deceitful, and 
given to lying , prodigal of promises, and when it comes to 
performance, there is nobody at home. . . . Now, if the 
voice of the people be the voice of God, of this man hardly 
any good can with truth be said, and no evil concealed." It 
was Cornells van Tienhoven who shared with Kieft the 
odium of the Indian War of 1643, as well as of tlie earlier 
expedition against the Ilaritans which resulted in the destruc- 
tion of the lirst colonists of Staten Island. Of his flagrant 
immorality even the sanctimonious Stuyvesant had full 
knowledge. During his sojourn in the Netherlands in 
1650-51, while acting as Stuyvesant's agent to refute the 
charges made against the colonial government, he almost 
openly defied the States-General,^ yet he contrived to remain 
in apparently undiminished authority at New Amsterdam, 
defying and harassing his enemies as usual. 

At the period of our survey, however, the Secretary's time 
was growing short, and it was in June of the next year, 
1656, that he appeared with apparently undiminished assur- 
ance before the burgomasters of the town, and, announcing 
that he had been dismissed from oiBce, he requested that a 
formal certificate might be given to him of his efficiency in 
the office of schout, or sheriff, which he had also held. In 
the fall of the same year he disappeared from New Amster- 
dam; some articles of his attire found on the river shore 
1 See post, page 119. 



[ i .H_: 



-I. ■ . . ? -(-^ 



VAN TIENIIOVEN'S FAMILY 57 

Induced the belief that he had coinmittud suicide, while 
maiiy stoutly asserted that he had ahsconded to gut out of 
Iho reach of his numerous enemies. There seems to be, 
however, no reliable evidence that he was ever heard of 
afterwards; and there would appear to have been little 
opportunity for a man of such prominence as the ex-Sec- 
retary to get away from New Netherland without discovery 
and to keep himself in complete concealment. 

Van Tienhoven's residence on 't Water (which does not 
•ppear upon the Visscher view of New Amsterdam of 1651 
or 1G52) had not been built by the Secretary himself, but 
probably by one Jacob Ilaie, from whom Van Tienhoven 
had bought it in the spring of 1653, the liouse appearing to 
have been then recently erected. Next to it, ujion the east, 
lay a vacant lot composed of a part of tlie tlien closed 
Church Lane, — originally a continuation of tlie lirugh 
Steegli. This liad been granted in the early jjart of 1647, 
U[)on the lireaking up of the old church property here, to 
Oioff Stevenson van Cortlandt, who however did not build 
upon it, but sold it to Jacob Varrevanger within a year or 
two; and in 1055, the year of our survey, it was acquired by 
Van Tienhoven, who seems to have built upon it before his 
disappearance from New Netherland. The Secretary, prior 
to 1G38, had married Kachel Vinjc, the stepdaughter of Jan 
Damen, one of the leading men of the Colony; and after the 
disappearance of her husljand, she lived here with her young 
children for a few years till her death in 1663. The cliil- 
dren, of whom Lucas, the eh ;t, was about fourteen years of 
age at his mother's death, and his sister Jannetje was six, 
appear to have been cared for by their uncle Pieter Stouten- 
burgh,! and after they had grown up and come into posses- 
sion of the considerable landed estate left by their parents, ^ 

1 He had married Aefje van Tienhoveu, sister of the Secretary, in 1649. 

' Rachel van Tienhoven had inlierited onefourUi part of tlie Danien farm, 
Ij'iii^' between Wall Street and Maiden Lauo, wliile Cornelis, her husband, besides 
j.vcral parcels of laud in the town proper, was the owner of the farm lying 
lil\ieen the modern Maiden Lane and Ann Street. 



„.; # 



58 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

Lucas van Tieuhoveii, who became a physician of promi- 
nence, occnpied for many years tlie former residence of his 
father on 't Water, while his sister Jannetje, who had 
married a j)erson named John Smith, resided in tlie housa 
adjoining upon the east on tlie site of the present No. 3T 
Pearl Street. 



The dingy warehouses of the present day, in the locality 
at which we have now arrivcid, with their closed shutters, 
give the impression that they are in a condition of perma- 
nent slumber-, only waking up at intervals to receive or to 
discharge an occasional truck-load of merchandise, and then 
relapsing into somnolence. There is little in the surround- ?^ 
ings now to call up ecclesiastical associations, yet here, upon 
the site of the warehouse, No. 39 Pearl Street, ^ stood tho 
first church building erected between the Plymouth Colony 
and Virginia (the churches of wliich settlements antedated 
this by but very few years), and where Dominie Dogardiis 
preached to tlie ancestors of many of the principal New York 
families. Not even a cheap memorial tablet marks the sijot. 

The church edifice, wliich was constructed of wood, in the 
year 1633, was doubtless not built for architectural effect; 
since critics speak of it, at the time of the building of the 
new church within the fort, as "a mean barn."^ Tlic \\'aters 
of the East liiver washed the shore a few rods in front of 
the entrance to the church, from which, upon fine Sabbath 
mornings, the congreg' 'on must have often looked across to 
the white sand bluffs o. he heights of Long Island, shining 
in the sun, and crowned by unbroken forests which extended 
to tho horizon. vVt the west side of the building a narrow 
lane or passage ran through from Prugh Straet (modern 

1 And probably iipoQ a few feet of tlie buildiiif; No. 37. 

^ Tho pcojjle generally, however, are stated to have been opposed to the build- 
ing of the new church within the walls of tho fort, and this measure is described 
by contemporary writers as having been largely the work of Director Kieft him- 
self, who may even then have had in contemplation his jdan of cxtiTniinating 
tlie neighboring Indians, and was therefore desirous of providing against future 
contingencies. 



ii 



n 



^^S^^^'ai tax. i' 



il ESI 

[^ .; "taiical 



o^^X w^ 







#5J=^/^ 








7<- 'C, 



THE OLD CHURCH AND PARSONAGE 59 

Bridge Street) to the shore, while upon its east side, and 
prubiibly fronting the Bnigii Straet, stood tlie modest parson- 
»ge with the Dominie's stable near it, this latter structure 
iUnding apparently upon the lane and in the rear of the 
church. It was at this parsonage,' in all probability, that the 
bistoric wedding took place, in the fall of 1G42, of Doctor 
Hans Kiersted to Dominie Bogardus's eldest stepdaughter, 
bara Roelofse. Director-General Kieft, who was then on 
good terms with the Dominie, was present, and had a plan 
for getting a liberal subscription for the new church upon 
tliis occasion. "The Director," say the authors of the 
"Kemonstraucc of New Netherland," "thought this a good 
time for his purpose, and set to work after the fourth or fifth 
drink; and he himself setting a liberal example, let the 
wedding guests sign Avhatever they were disposed to give 
towards the church. Each then, with a light head, sub- 
scribed away at a handsome rate, one competing with the 
oilier, and although some heartily repented it when their 
senses came back, they were obliged nevertheless to pay." 
When the new church in the fort was sulliciently advanced 
ill building, so that religious services might be held within 
it, and about the year l(i43 or 1G44, the old church building 
Ijccame a sort of "lumber house" of the West India Com- 
pany, where tobacco, furs, and other articles were stored and 
prepared for shipment, and where wood was piled and sawed, 
sometimes by prisoners serving out sentences. In 1647 the 
Church Lane and the pjarsonage were sold,— the latter to one 
Pieter Lourensen. Finally, in 1056, the Company decided 
to sell the old church at auction, and upon such sale it was 
purchased by Jacob van C wenhoven, a trader and general 
speculator, who soon trausierred it to Isaac de Eorcest; the 
latter owned tlie building many years, and it appears to have 
been generally used as a warehouse of some d(!scription, but 
it was afterwards made a dwelling-house, and was for a long 

' The site of this parsonage would appear to liavo lieen tlie rtar of the 
miricrn building, No. 45 Peurl Street. There is here, for some rea.son, a break ia 
Ihc consecutive numbering of the modern houses. 



u^ 



60 NEAV AMSTERDAM AND ITS PE()1'1>1-: 

time the residence of Alhml Anlhony or of liis family; |l 
was standing as late as 1718. If, as sceuis to be the ease, i|| 
is the building prominently shown near the shore and eiistojl 
tl)e pack-buys of the West India Company, in the Visschetj 
view of New Amsterdam, it would appear to have been a lot j 
structure with not the slightest pretensions to ornamentatioi j 
of any description ; it was doubtless sufliciently spacious ill 
its ground-plan, but presents a rather "squatty " appearance, 
and the term "barn," as applied to it, is not inapt. ^ 

lieyond the church and the j)nrsonage, as far as the ditch, i 
or "graft," in the present Broad Street, tlie ground was ojkb ; 
and ungranted at the time of our survey, but in the following ] 
year 1656, the remainder of the ground embraced in tin ] 
present block between Bridge and Pearl streets was granted, ' 
in four small parcels to different persons, who soon built upon 
their lots here. 



■ As to apparent defects < 
t:w of New Amsterdam, sc 



riiiK just .It tliis 
larks iu Aiii)eiidi; 



lustus Daucken 



CHAPTER VII 

injil ROfT [NTSEN, TII/C FIRST SCHOOLMASTER IN NEW 
AM>rj-hl)iM, AND HIS IIOUSIC ON STUNE STREET.— 
CAPI 1/V U'lLlEM TuMASSEN 

Fiom lience the low muriiiur of hi.s pupils' voices, conniug over their lessons, 
[wUkl oe nearJ lu a ilrowsy summer's day, like the hum of a heehive, iuterruptcJ 
'nivkud tlieu hy the authoritative voice of the master, in tho tone of menace or 
lunJ; or, peradventure, by the appalling sound of the birch, as he urged 
JUt UrJy loiterer along the tiowery path of knowledge. 

Iitvi.Nt; ; •■ Legend of Sleepy UoUow." 

WE take our stiition af,raiii at the garden attached to 
Philip Geraerdy's Wliite Jlorse tavern, which has 
tntn ah'eady descrihed as liaving- heeu upon the north side of 
Sloue Street near WhitelniU. Here tlie proprietor, hoeing 
LU beans and cahbages and parsnips in the early summer 
gjorning, has probably often stopped to discuss the news of 
day with his neighbor, Adam Koelantsen, the first school- 
Bttster of New Amsterdam, over tlie fence of rough palisades 
which divided their respective gardens. Adam Koelantsen 
Groen — for that was the full name, of which he occasionally 
Bade use — came over from the ancient little town of 
Dockuni, situated in h'riesland, in the exti'eme noith of the 
Nellierlands and within six or eight miles of the shore of I he 
North Sea, where it stood rrouuded by rieli but treeless and 
monotonous meadows, anc. jy the numerous salt-pans along 
Ihe river Ee. 

Adam Roelantsen arrived from the Netherlands while still 

t young man and as one of the earlier colonists ; he was born 

llx)ut IGOG, and was at New Amsterdam before the year 1G33. 

Tilt t'risians seem freciuently to possess an aptitude for tlie 

U txa I sciences, particularly for mathematics, which reuders 



^i 



62 NEW AMSTEllDAM AND ITS TEOPLE 

them valuable as sclioolleachers, but as to Roelantsen's laboa 
in this capacity, very little is kuowu. He could hardly liaTf 
taught many pupils at his earliest house, for it was veij 
small, having in all probability been one of the original loj 
and bark cottages of the settlement ; it stood upon a men 
slip of land but little larger than the house itself, and wliicl 
lay Ijetwcen Geraerdy's garden and tlie llrouwer or Sto« 
Street, and was probably tlie remains of a larger plot enclused 
before the street was projected. To the eastward, ou the i 
north side of Stone Street, Uoelantsen had a garden of fair 
extent, rather more than fifty by one hundred feet in are* 
A curious fact, showing the eonditioji of tlie rising village, ii 
that in 1641, Jan Damen's cattle, pasturing on the Wed 
India Company's land above the present Beaver Street, leased 
by Damen, broke out and made their way into this garden of 
Koelantsen, — tliere being apparently at that time no enclosed 
land- lying between, — wliere they coimiiitted depredations for 
which he was awarded damages in tlie sum of twenty-three 
carolus guilders, — some eight or ten dollars of tlie present 
currency. 

Roelantsen possessed one trait wiiieh jnust have seiiously 
impaired his usefulness as an instructor: he seems to have 
been fond of prying into his neighbor's private affairs; and 
he not only kept a sliarp eye on their actions, but when he 
discovered anything jiarticularly racy, he retailed it out mth 
great unction. 'I'liis, as early as the year 1G38, had brought |. 
out quite a crop of slander prosecutions, not only against 
Roelantsen, but by liim against some of his assailants. Tiiese 
usually terminated, however, after the New Amsterdiira 
fashion, in wliich e jiaities, after accusing one aiiotlier of 
the most villanou^ actions, rusiied to the court for redress, 
and when the cause came on for hearing, — either because 
they had no evidence to support or io defeat the charges, or 
else for the purpose of saving the costs of tlie trial, — tliey 
commonly retracted all that had been said on eitlier side, and 
gave each other clean, not to say com[ilimeiitary, bills of 
eliaracter, whicii were iluly spread upon the minutes of the 



ROELANTSEN, THE SCI100J>MASTER 63 

court. Iloelantsen, indeed, was not a i)opuLir man, and as early 
U 1643 he had a rival at New Anistenlaui in the person of Jan 
Stevensen, another schoolmaster; but as little is known of the 
Utter in that capacity as of Koelantsen liiniself. Tlie proba- 
bilities are, however, that Adam was forced to res(n-t to other 
nicaus of eking out a livelihood for himself and for his young 
(ijiuily. Mr. Valentine says, from certain court proceedings 
id 1G38, that there is "some reason to suppose that the town 
KJioohnaster also took in washing." 'i'his was, in fact, a suit 
by Roelantsen for the washing of defendant's linen, in which 
llie defence was that " the year is not yet elapsed." It evi- 
dently referred to the business, still conducted to a consider- 
»blo extent in Holland, of contracting for the wasliing for 
urious periods, for individuals or for families, the work being 
arried on by employees of the contractor. 

Affairs did not thrive with Adam Roelantsen, who seems to 
have found himself considerably burdened witli debts. Part 
of these were no doubt incurred in building a new and larger 
house for himself a little to the east of his old one, upon the 
uorth side of Stone Street, in the spring of 1642. Ilis origi- 
tml dwelling, wiiich stood just about where the open court of 
the Produce Exchange now is, on Stone Street, was occupied 
for a short time after the completion of the new one, by 
liegroes of the West India Company, but towards the end ui 
1G42, he sold the materials of the old building to one IJldrich 
Klein. 

Prior to 1646, Roelantsen, ticking with him his eldest son, 
then a small bcjy, iiad departed for the Netherlands, u[)on 
what business we are uninformed. During his absence his 
wife Lyntie iVIartense died, leaving several small children 
(the youngest of whom were only about four and two years 
old respectively), with no one to look after them. Ujjon the 
S)tli of March, 1G46, tiie sad plight of the eliildren was brought 
U) the attention of tiie members of the (Council, who after due 
deliberation adopted tlie somewhat ponderous rescjlution of 
a| ; iiinting foui- of the nearest neighbors — to wit: Philip 
(i.Kierdy, Dr. Hans Kiersted, Jan Stevensen, the .schoolmas- 



64 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS rEOPLE 

ter, and Oloff Steveusen van Coitlandt — as curators ot 
guardians, to look after the children " till the arrival of the 
father or some Jievvs of him." 

At last, about the month of July in the same year, Adam 
made his appearance in the ship " St. Jacob " from Amster- 
dam, but he did not come under auspicious circumstances. 
He had first to settle with the authorities for removing some 
of his goods from the public store before they were inspected; 
and after this he was sued for the board of himself and his 
son during the voyage, by tlie owner of the vessel : he was 
able, however, to defeat tliis latter claim by sliowing that the 
skipper of the "St. Jacob " had promised him his passage "if 
he would perform seaman's work on the vessel, and his son 
said the prayers." 

There may be some just grounds for suspicion that Adam 
lloelantsen was preparing for a new marriage, for in the fall 
of 1646, we find him contracting for new wainscoting and 
other improvements for his house ; if this were the case, his 
plans were seriously interfered with by an untoward occur- 
rence in December of that year. He had about that time 
offered a grievous insult to the wife of one of his neighbors, 
and the matter, taken in connection with Adam's previous 
doings, was brouglit to the notice of tlie Council; after de- 
liberation that body adjudged that he sliould be publicly 
flogged, and banished from the Colony, as a nuisance. This 
sentence, like many others of the Council, was largely in 
terrorem, for four days afterwards, or on tlie 17th of Decem- 
ber, 1646, they entered a furtJier order: " In consideration that 
the aforesaid defendant has four small children, without 
a mother, and a cold winter is approaching, the actual ban- 
ishment of the above sentence is delayed by tlie Director- 
General and Council luitil a more favorable ojjpoitunity, 
when the defendant may leave the country." lioelantsen 
remained in New Netheiland, in fact, for at least tlu-ee years 
longer, but during the earlier portion of that period he seems 
to have been regarded as a mere privileged prisoner, and per- 
haps was such in a legal point of view. The carousing fiscal, 



ROELANTSEN AND THE FISCAL C5 

or prosecutor, Hendrick van Dyke, seems after a while to 
luve found Roelantseu a useful person to attach to himself as a 
»ort of servant or lackey ; and in tliat capacity he had placed 
bini, one evening in August, 1647, to keep watch before one of 
(be taverns in the town, within which tlie liscal was engaged 
in some parting festivities, in all probability, with some of 
his friends who were just on the j)uint of dej)arting on tlie 
fiUil voyage of the •' Princess." Just why Van Dyke needed 
t sentinel does not appear, but it is a fair conjecture that he 
feared the austerity of Director Stuy vesant, and was uncertain 
of liis standing in the new regime of that magistrate. At 
any rate, the attractions of the tavern proved too strong for 
Roelantseu. " Some time afterwards," says one of the party 
present at the t;vvern upon this occasion, " said Roelantsen 
came in, and the fiscal asked, 'What are you doing here? 
Why do you not watch at the door?' Said Roelantsen 
answered there was nothing to watch. The fiscal, replying, 
said, ' You are my servant ; you must wait at the door,' and 
at the same time struck said Roelantsen with the back of his 
hand, and at the same time cried out, ' Throw the blackguard 
out of doors.' Tiiereupon the above-named Adam Roelantsen 
was thrust out of doors/' it may perhaps have been to quiet 
llie hubbub caused by this afl'air that in this same year we 
find Roelantsen appointed provoost, or jailer. He remained 
at New vVrasterdam till the latter part of the year 1G49; on 
llie 4th of December of that year, being then apparently on 
the point of embarking for the West Indies, lie executed a 
letter of procuration to Jacob Tysen or Marritje Claes " to 
have during his absence a fatherly and motherly care of his 
children, who remain here with them." If he actually left New 
Amsterdam at this time he must have found his way back, 
for in 1653 lie appears to have been a "wood sawyer" for 
tiie Company, employed in its packing house, tlie old church 
on Pearl Street. He seems to have sunk into the condition 
of a drudge of the West India Company, but was still at his 
oil! tricks, for he had an affray with one Stoffel Els worth 
aliuut the time mentioned and received a severe beating from 

5 



CG NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

him. His house and garduii on Brouwer or Stone Street 
had been taken into possessiou by one Claes Jansen Ilust, 
probably a nioitgagee, before Roulautsen's departure in 1649, 
for, in August of the same year, it had been sold by the cura- 
tors of the estate of the former, who was then deceased, to 
Captain Willem Tomassen, " Skip[)er, under God, of tha 
' Falconer,' " who held the premises at the period of our survey 
iu 1655. 

The description of this building, wliieh stood upon the eastern 
portion of the site of the present Produce Excluinge, has been 
pretty clearly preserved to us. It was a clapboard structure, cov- 
ered with a reed roof, and eighteen by thirty feet in size. Like 
most of the buildings in the thickly settled districts, it stood 
with its gable end to the street. At the front door was the usual 
" ported " with its wooden seats. Outside of the frame a chim- 
ney of squared timber was carried up. Within, the iireplace , 
was provided witii the luxury of a mantelpiece, and we may 
presume that the living room was ornamented with tlie "lifty- • 
one leaves of wainscot," for which jVdam Roelantsen had cou- 
traeted a few years before. The house contained the usual 
"bedstead" or permanent frame built in, for state occasions, 
being somewhat of the nature of a bunk. It is perhaps a 
little difficult to go back now, in unagination, to the time 
when Adam Roelantsen and his family, upon the fust mild 
evenings in spring, could listen from this house to the chorus 
of the " spring peepers " from Rlommaert's Vly, along the 
present Bro;u.l Street; what time the air, perhaps, was heavy 
with the smell of bunnng brush from Barent Dircksen's new 
clearing, just north of Maiden Lane ; yet an unbroken succes- 
sion of human life has, in fact, occupied this spot from such 
period, through nearly nine generations. 

As for Captain Willem Tomassen, he appears to have been 
a resident of New Netlierland prior to 1643, in which year he 
leased from Cornelis Dircksen the then recently established 
ferry of the latter to Long Island, together with a house, gar- 
den, and some thirty odd acres of land at the foot of what is 
now Fulton Street, in Brooklyn, but which was then a mere 



CAPTAIN WILLIAM TOMASSEN G7 

track, winding up a wooded nivino to iiffoid access to the scat- 
Ured clearings in tlic vicinity of Gowaaus and of tlie Wall- 
about. How long Captain Toniasseu's connection with the 
ferry lasted we do not know. lie was a man of other affairs, 
and in 1647 was skipper of the " Great Gerrit," trading to 
Amsterdam, lie seems to have been held in high estimation 
by Director-General Stuyvesant, fur soon after the ariival of 
llie latter to enter upon his administration at New Amsterdam, 
he nppointed, in May, 1047, Captain Tomassen " storekeeper to 
watch over the company's effects," and also commander of the 
company's ships and forces in the absence of the Director-Gen- 
eral. At the time of this appointment, Captain Tomiissen gave 
up the command of his vessel ; but two years later, at the time of 
bia purchase of the Koelantsen house, we iiudhim in command of 
mother ship, the " Valckenier," or " Falconer," not a very large 
vessel, as in 1650, when he brought over one hundred and forty 
paasengers on one of his trips from the Netherlands, we are 
informed that he had to leave many behind who ^vere anxious to 
take passage with linn, but for wlioni there was no room on 
board. In the house whicli we have described he resided for 
jeveral years, but died within a year or two of the period of our 
gurvt} He was fond of using the latinized form of Gulielnms 
for his name, which was corrupted by his Dutch neighbors into 
"Ithncr," by wliich appellation lie occasionally appears upon 
the old records. 






CHAPTER VIII 

SURGEON VAN DER BUGAEUDT AND JUS IIUUSE— HIS 
TRAGICAL DEATH. — THE PRIVATEER "LA GARCE" AND 
HER PRIZES. — ISAAC DE FORE EST 

THERE were sinister memories connected witli the house 
on the north side of Stone Street, next to that of Caiitaiii 
Tomassen, as we proceed eastward. At the period of our 
survey, in 1655, it was owned and occupied by Isaac de 
Foreest, a man of prominence in tiie town, but its fust owner 
and builder was Hannanus Meyndertsen van der IJogaerdt, for 
several years the surgeon of the West India Comiiany at New 
Amsterdam. 

Few men commenced life in New Netlierland under more 
favorable auspices than did Surgeon Van derBogaerdt. C'oni- 
ing over to the colony in the ship " Eendracht " from Amster- 
dam in 1630, when he could have been liardly more than a 
medical student, he seems to have acquired and to have main- 
tained the confidence of the company's superior officers for a 
long series of years. He appears, indeed, to iiave had an intimate 
acquaint;vnce with many of the brawls and scandals that took 
place in the town, but probably this was only in tlie line of 
his professional duties. The Director and Council seem to 
have been disposed to advance Van der Bogaerdt in lines not 
comrected with his profession, and in 1639 he made a voyage 
to the West Indies as supercargo of the ship " Canary Bird." 

As to his ancestry in tlie Netherlands, or as to the particular 
place from winch he came, we have no definite information. 
l''iom his will, made in 1638, just prior to his voyage to the 
^\'^est Indies above referred to, we learn that his wife, Jelisje, 
was the daughter of one Claes Jauseii, from Zierikzee, in Zear 



THE PRIVATEER "LA GARCE" 6'J 

hiid, an ancient little town rich with its memories of desperate 
•Iruggles with the Spaniards ; the fame of its citizen-soldier, 
Lieve Heere, who precipitated himself into the sea voluntiirily, 
lest a despatch which he was carrying througli the lines of 
iLe Spanish besiegers should fall into their hands, has been 
ihe theme of poets in other tongnes besides that of the 
Dutch. 

Surgeon Van der Bogaerdt appears to have been related, 
either personally or on the side of his wife, to Claes Cornelissen 
Swits, whose tragical death, upon his solitary bouwery, at the 
hands of an Indian in 1642, was one of the remote causes 
which led up to Kieft's massacre of the Indians in tiie follow- 
ing year, and to the ruinous struggle which succeeded it. 
About the beginning of the summer of 1642, we iind the 
lurgeon selling to two Englishmen, James Smith and William 
Hrown, his interest as "co-heir" in the plantation of the mur- 
dered man. At about the same time he executed a power of 
ftttorney to one of his brothers-in-law in the Netherlands to 
collect certain rents for him in the province of Zealand; but 
whether his interest in these aiose in the same manner, 
by reason of the death of Claes Cornelissen, we have no 
information. 

As early as 1645, Surgeon Van der Bogaerdt appears to 
have been living on " the road," as it was tlien often called, 
the name Brouwer Straet not being as yet in much use ; here 
he had a plot of between fifty and sixty feet front, for which he 
did not obtain his "ground-brief" till the early part of 1647. 

^ His residence here must have been somewhat interrupted, how- 
ever, for in 1646 he had obtained the important appointment 
of commissary at Fort Orange, or Albany. The surgeon ap- 
pears to have been a man who was somewhat well to do, for 
in the early part of 1647, he had purchased a share in the 
privateering frigate " La (Jarce," to which a previous allu- 
sion has been made. This vessel, under the command of 
Captain Blauveldt, a very active and enterprising officer, had 
hijome famous at New Amsterdam (where she paid frequent 

5 \ isits) as early as 1644, when Captain Blauveldt captured 



70 NEW AMSTERDAIM AND ITS PKOl'LE 

after a severe contlicl, and broiiglit into pnit, two Sp.misk 
barks. " La Garce " oontiiiueil assiduously for several yean, 
to hunt Spanish prizes, but unforlunatcly Captain Blauveldl 
was so busy that lie apparently had no time to go on sbon 
occasionally to get infornialiou as to whether the war wai 
still continuing between the United Netherlands, whose com- 
mission he carried, and the government of Spain. As a matter 
of fact, the lojig struggle between those coinitries was tcr 
nated by a treaty of peace in 1G47, in which the independence 
of the Netherlands was at hist fully acknowledged ; though 
the great Treaty of Westphalia, wluch definitively restored 
peace to the larger portion of Europe, was not signed untile 
the following year. In view of these events, the people of 
New Amsterdam were astounded to see, in the spring of 1649, 
about a year and a half after the treaty of peace, Captain 
Blauveldt and " Ln Garce " come sailing proudly up the har» 
bor, bringing with him as a prize the Spanish bark " Tabasco," 
which he had captured in the river of the same name, empty- 
ing into the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Captain 
lilauveldt could not understand the scruples that were raised 
about the lawfulness of his capture. lie said if there had 
been a treaty of peace with Spain, he had never heard of it 
Besides that, he said, the Spaniard had never heard of it 
either, and when lie summoned her to surrender, liad answered 
by firing upon him. Rloreover, he insisted, " La Garce," 
though sailing under Dutch colors and owned by Dutch pro- 
prietors, was really a French-built vessel, and France and 
Spain were still at war. The captain's arguments were not 
convincing, however, except possibly to the owners of " La 
Garce." The cause dragged along in the prize courts upon 
one technicality and another for a number of years, and the 
" Tabasco " was at last decided not to have been lawful prize. 
Long before this happened, however, one of the owners. Sur- 
geon Van der Bogaerdt, had ceased to have any interest in 
" Iva Garce" and her prizes. At Albany, in the winter of 
1047-48, he was accused of a criminal offence of grave nature. 
Ue took refuge in the Mohawk Country among the Indians, 



DEATH OF SURGEON VAN DEK BOGAKKDT 71 

with whom he had heconu! well ucqiKiintcd in the, course of 
bu official buttiness iit AUjauy, and when a parly was scut by 
Ihe magistrates to arrest him he maile a determined resistance. 
In the course of the fray, the Indian cabin, in which he had 
furtified himself, which seems to have been a building of some 
liie and importance, was set on lire, eitlier accidentally or 
d^ignedly, and Harmanus van dcr Bogaerdt perished in the 
(Ixnies. This affair made a great sensation in New Amster- 
«liini, where his wife would seem to have beau living at tho 
Ume. The Indians demanded to be reimbursed for the de- 
itniction of their building, and in February, 1048, the 
Director-General and Council ordered a part of Van der 
Ikigaerdt's garden, upon Stone Street in New Amsterdam, to 
be bold for the jjmposo of indemnifying the Indians. The 
jart sold seems to be the easternmost portion of the exten- 
«\tj site of the Produce Exchange. 

Van der Bogaerdt's widow married within a few months after 
Ills decease one Jean Labatie, or Labbate, as the Dutch called 
him, a person of French extraction, who was at the time 
mahter carpenter of the West India Company in New vVmster- 
dani. They appear to have remained in possession of the 
iorgeon's house on Stone Street (which occupied, it would 
icem, a portion of the site of the building No. 11 Stone 
Street, together with a few feet of that of the Produce Ex- 
change) till the latter part of 1G52, when they sold it to Isaac 
de Fureest. They had also some claim to tlie adjoining gar- 
den, previously ordered to be sold by the Council, or liad 
themselves redeemed it, for in 1654 they sold out their inter- 
est in that parcel to one Paulus Sclirick. Labatie afterwards 
removed to a farm Jiear Albany, and later became one of tho 
hrbt settlers at Schenectady. 

Isaac de Foreest and his elder brother Ilendrick occupy a 
prominent place in tlie early history of New Nethcrland, as 
hi\mg been the pioneers of the settlement of Harlem. They 
WLie both young men when they came over from Leyden to 
Ne\, Amsterdam in 16.36, — Isaac only about twenty years of 
age, and his brother Ilendrick, though a married man, not 



il* 



72 NEW AiMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE I 

much older. From tl.e rough, forest-clad hills, seamed witi^ 
deep ravines, a part of which now occui)y the north end oj^ 
the Central Park, these two brothers, as they explored th«i 
island of the RIaunhatoes, soon after their arrival, must hm] 
seen, as they looked to the northward, toward the wide salt>water^ 
estuary which we now know as Harlem Kiver, a level expanse 
of some seven or eiglit hundred acres in area, broken only by ■ 
one or two isolated rocky eminences crowned with trees.' 
Through the midst of this ran u small fresh-water stream, and' 
there is little doubt that portions of the plain had been long 
cleared and cultivated by the Indians. Here Hendrick de 
Foreest selected a tract of about two hundred acres, lying' 
between the heights and the little stream flowing through the 
flats, and here, not very far from the present Harlem Lake in 
the Central Park, he commenced the erection of the first' 
house of European settlers upon the north end of Manhattan 
island. Isaac de Foreest was probably an assistant of his 
brother in liis early operations, but Hendrick soon dying, his 
widow married again, and the bouwery passed into the hands 
of strangers. Isaac de Foreest therefore sought to establish 
a new plantation for himself, and he secured about one hun- 
dred acres of ground, extending in a long, narrow strip for 
nearly a mile from about the present Fifth Avenue and One 
Hundred and Twelfth Street to the river shore in the neigh- 
borhood of First Avenue and One Hundred and Twenty-sixth 
Street. It was near the latter spot that in 1641 he had a 
dwelling and a large tobacco-house built by two English car- 
penters. He obtained a ground-brief or patent for this land 
in 1647. It had probably been devastated by the Indians in 
1643, as most of tlie outlying plantations were, and Avhether 
De Foreest kept up his buildings there we do not know. In 
1650 he sold the farm to Willem Beeckman ; it was selected 
for the site of the village of Harlem, and Isaac de Foreest's 
lane, or carf>path, upon tlie east side of his farm, became the 
main street of the new settlement. 

De Foreest himself, for some time before the last-mentioned 
date, liad been dwelling upon tlie Winckel Straet in New 



.V.'. 



t 



ISAAC DE FOREEST, TME BREWER 73 

Amsterdam, where he owned tlie house next to that of Uonii- 
nie Bogardus, to which jjrevious reference has been made, in 
Uiese sketches. Soon after his purchase of Surgeon Van der 
Bogaerdt's house on Stone Street, he sold his former dwelling- 

i^ house upon the Winckel Straet, and continued to make the 

^ Stone Street house liis residence during most of the remainder 
of his hfe. As early as 1653, De Foreest was known as a 
successful brewer in New Amsterdam, and two or three years 

|: later he petitioned the Council for permission to contract for 

J: til the beer that one of his rivals in business could brew, in 
order to save the latter from pecuniary embarrassment. As 

I to his place of business in tlio earlier years we are not in- 
formed, but as early as 16G0 his large brewery stood upon the 
north side of the Prinsen Straet, now called Beaver Street, a 
ehort distance west of tlie modern William Street. De For- 

i eest's brewing operations did not prevent his being engaged 
lo some extent in public business, and in 1656 lie was ap- 
pointed "Master of the Weigh House." This building, in- 
tended for the weighing, measuring, gauging, etc., of goods 
Lid been ordered to be constructed in 1653, and stood near 
Uie little dock upon Schreyers Hoek. It was afterwards re- 
moved to a spot upon the south side of Pearl Street, at the 
head of another small dock on the line of the present IMoore 
Street, built about 1659. 

About the time of the surrender of New Amsterdam to the 
English in 1661, Isaac de Foreest incurred considerable cen- 

i sure from a part of his fellow-citizens. It seems that while 
the English vessels were lying in the harbor before New 
Amsterdam, with their force as yet unknown, De Foreest was 
taken prisoner, apparently by an English detachment which 
had landed upon Long Island and which encountered him at 
that place. He was tiiken to the ships, but was soon released, 
and sent back to New Amsterdam ; there he reported that 
Colonel NicoU had a force of about eight hundred English 
soldiers ready to make a landing. After tlie surrender, it was 
discovered (according to tlie representations made by the 
West India Company to the States-General) that the English 



■■«1 



74 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOl'LE 11 

I 
only had a few more than two liumlied iiioii,~ii force liardly | 
equal in number to the garrison. Tliere was great inihgnation | 
among the soldiers of the garrison and the more patriotic j 
Dutch citizens, and some talk of repudiating Stuyvesant's ■ 
articles of surrender. The Director-General's long course of ' 
petty tyranny, however, had so alienated the mass of the ' 
citizens that they seem to have looked upon the arrival of 
tiie Englisii as a positive relief; tliey would do nothing, 
and the otliers had to swallow their indignation as best they 



II 



CHAPTER IX 

THE VAN CORTI.ANDT HUMEHTEAD. — CATHERINE VAN 
CORTLANDT AND llEIt CHURCH AT SLEEl'Y IIOLLOW.- 
VAN COUWENIIOVEN'S HOUSES ON STONE STREET. - 
PIETE HARTGERS, THE WAMPUM COMMISSIONER 



UPON the north side of Stone Street tliere stand two 
unpretending brick warehouses of the style of half a 
century ago. Between their high blank walls is a narrow 
laiiu, or passageway, which seems to lead to nowhere in par- 
ticular, and which is closed to the street by a curious port- 
cullis arrangement of iron bars. The ground covered by 
these buildings, Nos. 13 and 15 Stone Street, and by the 
|);isijageway, together with a small additional strip upon the 
west, forms a spot which ought to be of some interest to a 
good many of the citizens of New York, for it is the ances- 
tral site of one of their oldest families, the Van Cortlandts. 

From the small town of Wyck te Durstadt, a few miles 
southeast of Utrecht, Oloff Stevensen van Cortlandt came 
over to New Amsterdam in 1637 as a soldier in the service 
of the West India Company. Director-General Kieft, who 
came to the Colony in the year succeeding Van Cortlandt's 
arrival, seems to have taken a fancy to the young soldier, 
and transferred him from the military to the civil service, 
giving him the appointment of commissary, or superin- 
tendent of cargoes at the port. The direct compensation of 
this oijBce was not very lucrative, however, for in 1641, his 
salary was raised to 30 guilders, or about $12 per month; the 
probabilities are that his services in the office to which he 
was thus appointed were only needed at the comparatively 
infrequent intervals of the arrival or departure of a vessel in 
[iit. At any rate, we find him at about this period with a 



76 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

" plantation " on his hands near where the village of GrecB- 
wich was subsequently located, — the ijresent Ninth WarJ 
of the city. Probably enougli, this came to liini through |i 
mortgage from one Thomas Betts, or Bescher, as he is some- 
times called, wiio seems to have occupied it for a time. Thii 
man is said to have been an Englisliman, and appears to hayel 
succumbed about this time to the twofold misfortunes of an 
encumbered farm and a worthless wife. In tlie spring of 
16-11, Van Cortlandt leased the plantation to three pcrsoM 
who seem to have been Englishmen, for tlie rental of three' 
hundred pounds of tobacco per year. More than by liii 
farming investments, however, Van Cortlandt's prospect! 
were improved by his marriage in 1642 to Anneken, sister of 
Govert Loockermans, the leading mei-chant and Indian 
trader of the Colony at that time. Soon thereafter he re-' 
ceived from Director Kieft the somewhat important appoint-' 
ment of keeper of the public store, and thenceforwards his 
advancement in wealtii and influence was quite rapid. 

Van Cortlandt was living upon "the road," or Stone Street, 
as early as 1646, and had obtained his deed or ground-brief 
for the land in the preceding year. In addition to liis ap- 
pointments inider the West India Company, he was the 
agent for the ex-Director Van Twiller, who, upon his return 
to the Netherlands in about the year 1638, had retained 
quite extensive landed interests in the Colony. Van Cort- 
landt also took a prominent j)art in the affairs of tlie church 
at New Amsterdam, of which he was a deacon ; and mention 1 
has already been made, in a preceding chapter of tiiis work, 
how Director-General Kieft induced him to bring a suit for 
slander against Dominie Bogardus, which suit, liowever, was 
afterwards settled amicably between the parties. Following 
this affair there seems to have been some diminution of Van 
Cortlandt's influence with the oflicers of government at New 
Amsterdam; he was certainly out of his office of keeper of 
the stores as early as the spriug of 1647, and in that same 
year he was chosen by the pojiular party of New Amsterdam 
as one of the representative "Nino Men," who afterwards 



OLOFK VAN CORTLANDT 



77 



drew up the historic "Remonstrance" to the States-General 
»gainst the misrule of the West India Company and its 
ofTicers in New Netherland. Van Cortlandt signed this docu- 
ment with the remarkahle statement appended to his signa- 
ture that it was "under protest." Just what he meant by 
Uiis is not entirely plain, but it appears to have been a sort of 
"hedging" device. The Secretary Van Tienhoven, who 
went over to the Netherlands for the purpose of answering 
the " Remonstrance," on behalf of the colonial authorities, did 
not fail to vilify, after liis usual fashion, Van Cortlandt for 
his ambiguous conduct: "lie has profited by the Company's 
service," said the Secretary, "and is endeavoring to give his 
benefactor the pay of the world, —that is, evil for good." 

Politics being unsatisfactory, Oloff van Cortlandt now 
appears to have given his attention more particularly to 
private business, and in 1648, according to Valentine, he 
became a brewer. No reference to the site of his brewery is 
found in the Dutch land records. Many years afterwards, 
when the Van Cortlandts had acquired much property in 
the Marketfield Lane, adjoining the rear of tlieir original 
grant upon Stone Street, their breweries and ajipurtenances 
are referred to as large buildings apparently occupying sites 
in the interior of tlie Uuck. The lane, or passageway, pre- 
viously spoken of may, indeed, have been the original ap- 
proach to these structures from Stone Street. As to Van 
Cortlandt's house, the records seem to be equally silent. 
Muniments of the family may possibly be in existence which 
could throw liglit upon these points, but one or two so-called 
descriptions of the ancient buildings which have heretofore 
appeared in print would appear to be entirely fanciful. 

Here, then, Oloff Stevensen van Cortlandt spent many of 
the closing years of his life. If he sometimes remembered 
the village of his last abode in the Netherlands and the 
waters of the Rhine flowing silently by it through the old 
Lech channel which Civilis and the Batavians had excavated 
more tlian fifteen centuries before; if he called to mind the 
surrounding lowlands, yellow with the wheat harvest; and 



78 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

the Amersfoort Hills Luyond, — quite niountiiius to th^; 
Netlierlanders, — where white fields of buckwheat checkered 
the purple of tiie heaths and the green of the woodlands, — ^ 
ho never allowed these memories to call him back to the old 
country, though he early acquired an ample competence for 
his day. Ho remained quietly in New Amsterdam, holding 
the office of Burgomaster of the city for ten years, from 1G55 
to IGUo, and when the English made their descent upon New 
Amsterdam in 1604, Director-General Stuyvesant appointed 
him one of the commissioners to negotiate tlie surrender to 
the English. After his death in 1G83, members of his family 
long retained this property or a portion of it, but it event- 
ually passed out of their hands. The "brick dwelling-house, 
kitchen, brew-house, malt-house, mill-house, liorse-mill, out- 
houses, storehouses, and stables," which stood here in the 
next century, have all disappeared, but an edilice erected by 
Oloff van Cortlaudt's daughter Catherine, who was a child 
of two or three years of age at the time of our survey, in 
1G55, has been more enduring. The little chuich of gray 
stone, in the building of which in 1G90 she took sueii a lively 
interest, still stands, mucli as of old, upon the Albany post- 
road, near the site of the upper manor-house of her iiusbaiid f 
Frederick Phillipse, north of Tarrytown. The ancient ro;id, 
somewhat widened since Catherine van Cortlandt's day, still ' 
winds around the shady knoll upon which her church stands, 
and climbs the hill beyond; but the tenants of the manor, the 
slaves of the Phillipses, and the straggling Indian hunters 
who frequented it in her time have long since vanished from 
memor)'. The few slabs of brown stone scattered here aud 
there around the church, when she passed among them, — 

" With slow feet, treading reverently 
The graveyard's springing grass," — 

liave expanded, in the course of two centuries, to almost 
a "city of the dead;" but at the foot of the knoll, the 
I'ocantico, enriched with legendary charms by the genius of 
Washington Irving, Hows from out its woody solitudes, as 



THE VAN CORTLANDT FAMILY 



79 



it did when the foundress of the church looked down upon 
it, — of whom, turning to the list of nieniLers in the records 
of this ancient Dutch church, we reud : — 

" First and before all, the right honorable, God-fearing, very wise and 
prudent my lady Catharine Phillipse, widow of the lord Frederick Phil- 
lipee of blessed memory, who has promoted service here in the highest 
praiseworthy manner." 

Oloff van Cortliindt's descendants were extensive land- 
holders, aud, either directly or by marriage, tliey controlled 
at one time all tiie land along the east side of the Hudson 
River, from the highlands above the modern Peekskill to 
the Spuyten Duyvil Creek, a distance of about thirty miles, 
and extending several miles back into the country. Tlieir 
name is perpetuated in that of the town of Cortlandt in 
Westchester County, and in Courtlandt Street and the Van 
Cortlandt Park in the City of New York. 

The interval upon the north side of Stone Street between 
the Van Cortlandt house and the present Broad Street is now 
occupied by buildings fronting upon tlie latter street, but it 
was not so occupied originally. In the spring of lt)45, Peter 
Wolphertsen van Couwonhoven, one of several members of 
a family who came from Amersfoort, only a few miles away 
from Oloff van Cortlandt's last dwelling-place in the Nether- 
lands, obtained a grant from Director Kieft of a plot of 
ground, nearly fifty by one liundred and twenty-five feet in 
area, at the corner of Stone Street and the present Broad 
Street, the latter being at this point, and at tlie time men- 
tioned, a mere narrow road or lane al)0ut twenty-live or thirty 
feet in width, and with an artificial ditch or channel skirting 
its east side. Here Van Couwenhoven built near the corner 
of the streets a modest liouse — one story and a garret only 
— which in tlie next year, IGftl, he sold to Arnoldus van 
Hardenbergh. He then immediately acquired from the 
Director-General the grant of another parcel of about the 
same size, lying between tlie, first and Van Cortlandt's gar- 
den, and proceeded to build another house here. This he 
held for several years, until 1G52, when he sold it to Pieter 



80 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS I'EOPLE 

Hartgers, who was the owner at the period of our survey. 
Ilartgers, who had married one of the step-daughters of 
Douiiiiie Rogardus, was engaged nuieli of his time in trading , 
with the Indians, and oceupied this house very irregularly, ' 
Finally, he appears to have taken up his residence in Fort ^' 
Orange, or Albany, where he received grants of land, and 
where he was one of the magistrates in 1G58. lie acquired 
the reputation of a great expert as to the values of the 
Indian wampum, or shell money, and was appointed in 1G59 
a comnussioner at Albany to estimate the same. His inti- 
mate acquaintance with the Indians led him to make long 
expeditions into the forests to drum up trade with them, a 
course of business which, excited great jealousy among his ■ 
less enterprising rivals. He retained the Stone Street house, ' 
but whether as a storehouse in his business, or in the occu- ' 
pation of tenants is not known. At the time of the sur- 
render to the English in 1G64, Ilartgers became obnoxioua 
to the new government from some cause or other, — [lossibly 
from a refusal to take the oath of allegiance, — and his prop- 
erty was confiscated. A curious circumstance, showing the 
scarcity of money in the Colony, is that so late as IGG'J this 
liouse was the subject of a mortgage to secure " three hun- 
dred and thirteen whole beaver-skins." 

As for the corner plot mentioned above, after its sale in i 
164G to Arnoldus van Hardenbergh for 1000 guilders, or i 
about $640 of the present currency, it appears to have be- ■ 
come encumbered with debts of its owner to one Ilendrick i 
Scharf, of Amsterdam, and an arrangement was effected in 
the year 1(J52 by which the house and garden was turned ; 
over to the brother of Arnoldus, Johannes Hardenbergh, 
who was at that time a merchant of Amsterdam. He was ! 
the owner of this property at the time of our survey, but it 
is not certain whether he ever actually resided here. He ■ 
died before the year 1659, in which year the place was sold 
liy the curators of his estate, and soon after this date the 
garden was sold oft' in small lots fronting uiion the Graft, 
or Broad Street. I 



CHAPTER X 

THE "DITCH," OH GRAFT. - TliUNlS CUAIE AND HIS 
HOUSES ON THE DITCH.— THE JA' (('^' /A' NEiV AMSTER- 
DAM—SOLOMON LA CHAIR, THE NOTARY, AND HIS 
TAVERN.— THE BANISHMENT OF MICIllKL PICQUET 

Ein Jalirtausend sclion uuJ liiiiger 
Duldcu wir una briiderlich; 
Ha, du duldust, dasa icli atiue, 
l)as3 du rascst, diildu ilIi. 

Jetzt wird uusre Freundschaft fester, 
Uud noch tuglich uimiut sie zu; 
Denii ieh sellist begaun zu raseu 
Uud ich werJe fast wie du ! 

Hkine ; " An Edom." 

IT required some education in the ways of tlie Nether- 
landers to render the Graft, or tlie modern Broad Street, 
at which we have now arrived, a very desirahle place of resi- 
dence in the year 1G55. I'ho liog or morass towards the 
head of the present street was known as Blommaert's, and 
afterwards as the Company's Vly, in the earlier days of 
the settlement, and had long heen an eyesore to the officers 
of the Company. As early as 1G38 it apjjears that measures 
to drain it were in contemplation; and when Director Kieft 
leased the land north of the present Beaver Street to Jan 
Damen, in the spring of that year, the curious reservation 
was made that " in case the Company think proper to plant 
vineyards or gardens in the Vly, the lessee shall permit the 
same." The natural outlet of this swamp was a small fresh- 
water run whicli emptied into the East River near the inter- 
section of Broad with the present Pearl Street, just south of 
which last-named street was the original shore line. Before 



u 



NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 



I 



1G43, an artificial channel or ditch had been constructed 
carry off the waters of tlie swamp: this was oidy a few feef 
in width, and was carried along tlie middle of the pi 
Broad Street; upon its west side there was left a roadway of' 
twenty-five or thirty feet in width extending from the shoie, 
to the present Beaver Street, but upon its east side no such' 
roadway appears to have been originally in contemplation,'; 
for the first grants of land here came in several instances- 
quite to the ditch and consequently infringed upon the' 
eastern half of the present Broad Street. This was the con- 
dition of the Graft at the period of our survey, but a little 'j 
later, larger views prevailed with the Director and Council, 
and in 1657-59, arrangements were made with the land- 
holders on the east side of the Graft; a strip corresponding 
in size with that upon the west of the ditch was added to the , 
street, thus bringing it to its present width, and the ditch ^ 
was widened and deepened so as to form a canal extending ■ 
nearly to Beaver Street, through which canal the tide ebbed 
and flowed. To protect the sides of this canal, it became ' 
necessary to slieatlie it with planks, and this was done by the 
public autliorities at considerable expense, and to the great ] 
dissatisfaction of the property owners along it, who made ', 
such determined opposition to the collection of the assess- 
ments laid upon them, that the West India Com[>any was 
fain to contribute nearly half of the cost of the work in order 
to prevent public disturbances. , 

Low-lying and damp as the "Ditch Street" must have been 
before the construction of the canal in 1G57, it doubtless 
possessed attractions for Tennis Craie, who obtained from 
the Director and Council, in April, 1G47, a ground-brief for 
a parcel of land at the southwesterly corner of the present 
Stone and liroad streets, being in area about thirty-seven 
feet front on the former street and fifty-live feet on the 
latter. 

Craie, who had come from Voido, a small border town *} 
upon the Mouse River in Upiier (lelderland, must have been 
among the earlier eniigrants, for he had established himself 



*!> 



TEUNIS CKAIE 83 

in New Amsterdam as early as 1G;J9, in wliich year, follow- 
ing the curious custom of the colonists and of the West 
India Company, he had hired, or rather leased for six years, 
aa the legal instrument expresses it, two milch cows, im- 
ported from the Netherlands by the Company. The rent 
under this singular contract was to be fifty pounds of butter 
annually, and the risk of death of the cattle, and the ultimate 
increase of the same, were to be shared in ct)ninion liy Craie 
and the Company. In all probability he was at tiiis time 
located upon some clearing outside of the village,^ for in the 
winter of 1642-43, just before the Indian war broke out, we 
find him making a contract with one \Valtcr Davel to put 
a post-and-five-rail fence around his plantation. Like most 
of the farmers of Manhattan Island at that jieriod, however, 
his plantation seems to have sullered devastation at the 
hands of the Indians i-n the war which followed Kieft's cruel 
and foolhardy outrages upon the latter in the early part of 
1G43. Driven to the village for security, wo find Craie 
looking about for an abode there in the following summer. 
It was no time for building operations, but he found a small 
house which seems to have been in a somewhat dilapidated 
condition, and which stood upon the road along "The Ditch," 
at the northwest corner of the present Bridge and Broad 
streets. It was in all probability the first house built along 
the line of the latter street, and had been originally acquired 
by Abraham Rykcn (the ancestor of the Kikers of later days), 
in company with one Jan Pietersen from Amsterdam. These 
persons had sold the house in the spring of 1G43 to Michiel 
Picquet, a Frenchman from the ancient city of Rouen in 
Normandy. Picquet, who had a plantation on Long Island, 
did not purpose to occupy this small house himself, and in 
August, 1C43, Teunis Craie, searching for a habitation at 

1 This cleariug appears to have occupied a portiou of tlie tract lying .ilong the 
East River, between the so-called " Great liouwery " of the West India Company 
(afterwards granted to ])ircetur-Gciier;il Sliiyvesant) and Deiitel or "Turtle" 
Hay; — or speaking in a general way, hotweeri the modern Twenty-first and 
Forty-fifth streets. Tliis tract jiassed tliruugh njuny vicissitudes in the earlier 
years of the Colony, 



84 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

the village, was able to liire the house of its owner at the 
yearly rental of -10 guilders, or about $10; the rent was 
certainly not exorbitant, but as its owner had only paid 150 
guilders, or about $60, for the premises, it gave him fair 
returns for his investment. In addition Craie agreed "to 
plaster and make the liouse tight once," and to enclose a 
yard in the rear "to lay wood in." Even this humble little 
cottage near the fort was looked upon in the troubled condi- 
tion of the times as a place of refuge. The owner stipulates 
in his lease to Craie that "if in consequence of enemies, 
Indians, or other inconveniences, necessity require IMichael 
Picquet to lodge in said house with his family and baggage, 
he may do so without deduction of rent." 

Here, then, Tennis Craie apparently resided until he 
acquired the adjoining lot to the north, already spoken of, 
and built a house for himself in or about the year 1047. His 
house, which stood upon the corner of Stone Street, faced 
"The Ditch," or Broad Street with its gabled front, and the 
capacious Dutch oven in its rear about fdled up the short lot. 
Just south of the latter appendage, and likewise upoii the 
rear of his lot, stood his well, — a famous one in the neigh- 
borhood. To it, and along the south side of his house, 
extended a path, which subsequently, when in the course of 
a few years he had built another house upon the south- 
ern portion of his ground, and also fronting Broad Street, 
became a gated alleyway between the two houses, in which 
the formidable "drip" of the steep Dutch roofs produced a 
miniature cascade whenever a hard rain fell. 

The small house of Tennis Craie upon "The Ditch " pos- 
sesses some interest as having been the spot upon wliich the 
Jews fust attempted to establish themselves in the rising 
village of New Amsterdam. The Portuguese Jews — so- 
called — had for a considerable period been numerous and 
influential in Amsterdam, where al)out twenty years after 
the period of our survey (or in 1071), they built the great 
synagogue, massive and imposing in its simplicity, and 
bttnding upon a commodious square, bounded on two sides 



THE JEWS IN NEW AMSTERDAM 85 

by broad canals, the Muyder Graft and the Nieuwe Heere 
Graft, — one of the choicest locations iu the city, from which 
it overlooked, across the latter canal, the greenhouses and trim 
alder hedges and beds of rare plants of the Ilortus Medicus, 
the celebrated Botanical Garden of Amsterdam. This divi- 
sion of the Jews of Amsterdam known as the Portugnese, 
embraced, however, many of other nationalities, particularly 
French and Italians. They formed the aristocracy of the 
sect, and were moreover divided by differences of dogma 
from their nuich humbler bretliren, whose modest place of 
worship stood at no great distance from them across the 
Muyder Graft, and bore the formidable appellation of the 
Hoogduytsse Joode Kerk, signifying, however, nothing more 
than the High Dutch Jewish Church, whose congregation, in 
addition to the High Dutch, or Germans, embraced also the 
Polish and Silesian Jews; they had few affiliations with the 
Portuguese. 

In so far as the Jews were merchants and capitalists, their 
presence was by no means unwelcome iu the metropolis and 
larger cities of the Netherlands, where every nerve was 
strained to extend the commercial influence of the country; 
but in the colonies, largely composed of the poorer classes of 
emigrants, and where the competition of the Jewish traders 
was dreaded by the small shopkeepers, they were looked 
upon with much less favor; consequently, in November, 
1655, when Asher Levy, a butcher by trade, who afterwards 
became a citizen of prominence, and who was one of the 
pioneers of the Jews in New Amsterdam, petitioned the 
Council that he might be permitted to mount guard with 
the other burghers (during the Indian troubles of that year), 
in place of paying a commutation tax levied upon him as a 
stranger, the privilege was not only refused by Stuyvesant 
and his Council, but the insulting comment was minuted 
upon his petition, that "if the petitioner consider himself 
aggrieved, he may go elsewhere. "^ 

^ The first Jews to arrive in New Amsterdam came in the French bark 
"St. Charles," in the summer of 1654. They were brought by Jacques de la 



86 NEW A.MSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

It was about this time tluitCraic, possibly disUubtHl by the 
then threatening condition of affairs in llic ('ulony, offered 
at public auction the southernmost of his iioiiscs on "Ths 
Ditch," or tlie present Broad Street. It was struck down 
to one Salvachir d'Andradi, whose name indicates that he ;■ 
was one of the Portuguese Jews; tiie purchaser immeihately 
made an aj)[incatii)ii to the Council with the rc(|Ur.sL that lie 
might bo permitted to take and register his dred for tiie 
house; permission, liowever, was refused by that body.' Craie 
now petitioned tlie Council to take, by virtue of its right of 
pre-emption, the property off his hands at the figure bid for 
it at public sale, or otherwise to alloAv him to give his deed 
to the Je\vish purchaser, but this was likewise refused by 
the Council. Craie was persistent in the maUer, and on the 
14th of March, 165G, having a few days before sold the 
house to Pieter Schabanck and Gysbert van Imbroeck, he 
again applied to the Council, alhiging that he was then 
about to sail for the Fatherland, that he had been obliged 
to dispose of his house for a h'ss sum than D'Andradi liad 
offered at the auction sale a few months before, and request- 

Motte, the master of tlio vessel, from the harbor of Hahia in Rr.-izil. They 
numbered, according to a statement made by one of tlicm, Soluinun I'ictcra, 
" twenty-three souls, big and little," but as to wliat brought this colony from the 
Brazils we have no information. A considerable sum remained due to the 
master of the " St. Charles " for their board and passage, and as the principal 
men among them had signed an agreement whereby they became jointly and 
severally liable for the whole amount, very rigorous proceedings were taken 
against them. An auction sale was held of their goods, and the proceed.s Icing 
insulTicient to discharge the indebtedness, two of them, David Israel and Moses 
Ambrosius, were ordered to be taken into confinement and held until the amount 
was made up. Among Iho sufferers was Asser " Leeven " or Levy, spoken of 
in the text ; all of his goods wore sold at auction, although before the sale ho 
h.ad offered to pay all charges incurred by himself. The New Amsterdam 
Court held him, however, to be a surety for the debt of all the others. 

1 Salvador d'Andradi was one of scver.al Jewish partners who brought over 
a consignment of goods in the sliip " Great Christopher," in the early part of 
ICiS. The other partners were Abraham de I.ucina, David Frera, Joseph 
Dacosta, and one other, who.sc name has not yet entirely died out in New York, 
— Jacob " Cawyn," or Colin. They arrived just in time to be roundly taxed 
fjr the new city fortifications along Wall Street, although, as we have seen, they 
Here not allowed to become landholders. 



I 



LA CHAIR, THE NOTARY 87 

ing the Council to reimburse him one half of the difference 
in price; his request agiiiii fell upon unsympathetic ears. 
Craie does not ujjpear to liave departed for tlie Netherlands 
at this time; but tliero is every reason to believe that his 
representations of tliis affair reached the Directors of the 
West India Company at Amsterdam, who promptly repudi- 
ated tho action of Stuyvesant and the Council, and on the 
14th of June, 1056, an order was made permitting the Jews 
to establish a "quarter" in New Amsterdam: their numbers, 
iiowever, remained but small for many years. ^ 

As for Tennis Craie's first-built house upon tlie corner of 
Stone Street, ho sold it about this time to an individual who 
gave him far more trouble than his Jewish purchaser of the 
adjoining premises, and that was to an impecunious gentle- 
man of the legal profession, Solomon Pietersen La Chair by 
name, who seems to have carried on his law oilice here in 
conjunction with a small tavern, or ale-house, to which Ids 
huysvrouw, Anneken, attended during his absence on tho 
multifarious duties of his profession in the Colony, — duties 
which carried him sometimes to Breuekelen, sometimes to 
Gravesend an<l occasionally as far as Fort Orange, or Alljany. 
For travelling facilities he seems to have made use of a small 
yacht. 

La Chair, of whom many curious particulars were brought 
to light by the discovery in the New York County Clerk's 
Office, some thirty or forty years ago, of his register of busi- 
ness as a notary, and who seems to be regarded by j\Ir. D. T. 
Valentine as the Father of the Bar of Ncav York, — using of 
course that term in its technical and not in its vulgar sense, 
— was undoubtedly a man of considerable attainments, pro- 
fessional and otherwise, and possessed a very fair business 
knowledge of English. His first appearance in New Am- 
sterdam, so far as we are informed, was in the year 1655, 
when he petitioned the Burgomasters for permission to keep 
tavern in the house of Teuids Craie, then hired by him. 

1 Their synafjofiue iu Mill Street was not established till more tlian forty 
years after the order of Council above mentioneil. 



88 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE f 

It seems very probable tliat he had just arrived in New 
Amsterdam at this time, and resorted to tavern-keeping until 
he might be better able to gain a footing in the practice of 
the more learned profession. 

The location he had chosen was not an unfavorable one; 
as he sat at the front of his house in the intervals of busi- 
ness, possibly poring over one of liis commentaries on the 
Roman-Dutch law, — in which quotations from the Mosaic 
code, from the Greek and Latin classics, and from the 
Fathers of the Churcii, were freely intermingled, in a manner 
equally ponderous and bewildering, —he had before him just 
at his right hand the bridge across the Ditch, or "Graft" in 
Broad Street, which was about midway between the present 
Bridge and Stone streets, and over which all persons from 
the Long Island ferry, as well as from the eastern part of 
town, must pass on their way to the Secretary's ollice and tu 
the other government offices near tlie fort; while beyond the 
bridge, looking over the gardens of three or four housesi 
along the shore, he had a clear view of anything that was 
going on around the City Tavern, which served also at this 
time as the Town Hall for public gatherings and the meet- 
ings of the burgomasters, and was also the seat of the 
ordinary courts. 

But, as has been already suggested, La Chair was chroni- 
cally impecunious: he did not pay his rent, and was sued 
for it; he did not pay the wages of the pilot of his yacht, 
and was sued for them; he did not pay for various articles 
purchased by liini, and was sued for the price by the sellers; 
he did not pay until driven to tlie last ditch of resistance 
certain fines and taxes imposed upon him, and then he ac- 
companied the payment witii such disparaging remarks upon 
the collecting oflicers — in one case asserting that his money 
was paid to no other purpose than " to liave a little cock 
booted and spurred " — that those aggrieved individuals 
found it necessary to lay the matter before the Council in 
order to soothe their wounded feelings; much after the 
manner of their prototype, Dogberry : 



TEUNIS CRyUE'S MISFORTUNES ' 89 

"Moreover, sir (wliicb, indeed, is not under white and black), 
this plaintiff here, the offender, did call me ass. 1 beseech you' 
let it be remembered in his punishment." 

In the siime way, when in the early jmrt of 1656 La Chair 
purcha«ed the house he occupied of Teunis Craic, agreeing 
to ijay for it in instalments, the sum of 2000 guilders, or 
about $800, —following his u.sual custom, he allowed him- 
self to be sued for the very first instalment. This seems to 
have been settled at the lime, but two years later the owner 
was obliged to bring suit for the last instalment, in answer to 
which La Chair entered the airy plea "that the money was 
ready at one time, but has slipped through his fingers;" it 
appears, in fact, to have slii)ped through irrecoverably, for 
we soon afterwards find Craie again in possession of liis 
house, which in 1660 he disposed of to 01of¥ Stevensen van 
Cortlandt, La Chair in the mean time having removed to 
another part of the town, where he died a few years later, 
so insolvent that the court pondered a long time as to whether 
a certain elaborate "gown and petticoat" of Anneken, his 
widow, should be sold for the benefit of his creditors, or 
whether they should be left to cheer the widow's heart in 
her second nuptials with one William Doeckles. 

It seems to have been the case that Teunis Craie's opera- 
tions in real estate in New Amsterdam had not been very 
profitable to him, and he suffered a further misfortune in the 
fact that a woodland tract of some sixty or seventy acres, 
which he had acquired in 1653 upon Long Island (fronting 
the East River, a short distance north of the present Astoria), 
was rendered comparatively worthless to him for many years 
by the order of the Council, in 1656, forbidding isolated 
farms or plantations, in order to prevent depredations by the 
Indians. In 1673 he had obtained a judgment of 186 florins, 
or about $72, against Allan! Anthony, the former sheriff, a 
man of considerable political influence; this judgment he 
had been unable to collect for nearly a year, and in 1 674 he 
applied to the court for permission to levy on the goods of 



90 



NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 



the late sheriff, "'earnestly entreating this Wiirsliipful Court 
once again to take his most pitiahlo eondition into considera- 
tion and to give order that the said Judgment may be put 
into execution without further delay, to the end that he may 
again receive his disbursed mone}' to use it in iiis old age." 

Craie liad retained a mere slip of ground upon the south 
side of his original grant, and here he built one of tlie tiniest 
dwelling-houses ever erected in New York;^ the lot upon 
which it stood was less than ten feet front by about fort}' feet 
deep; it occuiiied very nearly the site of the covered drive- 
way of the building No. 92 Broad Street, within which it 
might almost have stood, among the bales of hay and bags 
of feed now occupying that locality. Here Teunis Craie 
appears to have resided for a number of years, partly sup- 
ported by the not very lucrative oiHcial employments which 
Mr. Valentine enumerates as having been held by him, such 
as town crier, measurer of apples and onions brought to 
market, and tally-master of the bricks and tiles imported 
from Holland. In 1677, his widow Catrina conveyed the 
small house above mentioned to the deacons of the Reformed 
Church, in consideration of her support and maintenance, 
she being then poor and aged. She had died prior to 1682, 
in which year the officers of the church disposed of the 
property. 

However much Teunis Craie might have felt 

" The sliugs and arrows of outrageous fortune," 

he was lucky in comparison with his neighbor and former 
landlord, Michiel Piequet, whose humble house stood at the 
northwest corner of the present Bridge and Broad streets, as 
previously described. This man had endeavored, in his lease 
to Craie, as we have already seen, to guard himself against 
"enemies, Indians, or other inconveniences," — but he failed 



smaller one is, however, to lie seen at present (1900) in Rtone Street, 
he rear of the old Stadt Hw/s ground. This diminutive structure, kiiuwn 
.'(2^ Stono Street, has onlj- about seveu feet front. 



PICQUET PUT TO THE TORTURE 91 

to provide against one of the worst inconveniences of all, — • 
namely, that of an unbridled tongue. He ajipcars, in fact, 
to have been something of what the good Dame Quickl)', 
of Eastcheap, held in such abhorrence, — namely, a "swag- 
gerer." In common with most of the citizens who had 
suffered from the Indian wars, he entertained a bitter hatred 
of Director Kieft, and he ap[)ears to have been a warm 
partisan of his neighbor, just over " the Ditch " in Broad 
Street, — Cornelis Melyn, the leader of the opposition to the 
arbitrary despotism of Kieft and of Stuyvesant. Soon after 
Stuyvesant's arrival at New Amsterdam, in the early part of 
the summer of 1647, and before Kieft had sailed for the 
Netherlands on the fatal Voyage of the "Princess," Picquet 
was accused of having berated Kieft as "a betrayer of his 
country, a villain and traitor; and saying if nobody would 
shoot him, he (said Picquet) would do it himself; that his 
legs should never carry him out of the country ; that Cornelis 
Melyn had full a hundred men at his connnand, and there 
would be great bloodshed on the spot where the ex-Director 
surrendered his authority to General Stuyvesant; and if the 
latter did not behave himself better than the old Director, 
he, too, should pass under the door; (striking under his 
arm)," — a somewhat vulgar allusion to the standard method 
of punishment of refractory small boys. 

Although this style of talk was probably a fair sample of 
the ordinary ale-house discussions of the period, and although 
it was generally winked at by the authorities in the case of 
any person likely to have influence enough to carry his com- 
plaints to the home country, it was not to be endured in the 
case of this obscure Frenchman. Picquet was taken into 
custody "for that scandalous and godless act," and was, in 
fact, ordered to be put to the torture, — probably for the 
purpose of extracting information respecting the matters 
hinted at in his vaporings. It should not be forgotten, in 
this connection, that the history of New York goes back to 
the time when the rack was an acknowledged feature of 
judicial procedure, 



92 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

Some kind of settlement was made of this affair, and 
Picquet received Director-General Stuyvesant's pardon, but 
his rancor had apparently not abated, and he had profited 
but little by his former experience, for in a short time lie was 
again placed under arrest, charged with saying that he would 
shoot the Director between his bouwery (at the present 
Ninth Street) and the fort. The ignorant and probably weak- , 
minded character of this man is pretty well shown by the 
record of his examination taken upon this occasion. When 
asked what he had to say, he declared that the witnesses 
against him were unworthy of belief because they "had ;( 
stolen watermelons and some boards. Asked if he could 
prove it, says he has no proof, but that God was his wit- 
ness." The trial of this case was attended with one public 
benefit; it displayed at a very early date in his administration 
the thoroughly hypocritical character of the new Director- 
General. Stuyvesant, at first, with a great parade of his vir- 
tue, refused to sit as a judge upon the trial on account of Jiis 
personal interest in the matter. Afterwards, finding in all 
probability the other members of the Council too leniently 
disposed to suit his views, ho sulkily took his seat with the 
others, and was the only member of the court who voted tliat 
a sentence of death should be passed upon the prisoner. 
The judgment of the court was sufficiently severe, however; 
Michiel Picquet was sentenced to be transported to Holland 
on the ship "Falconer," to serve a term of eighteen years' 
imprisonment in 't Rasphuis, the criminal prison of Amster- 
dam, so-called from the common occupation of the prisoners 
at that time in rasping tlie heavy Brazil wood into dust for 
dyeing purposes. 

Before the sailing of the vessel, however, the prisoner 
made his escape from Fort Amsterdam. The Council, with 
a polite attention to form, somewhat similar to that of 
the executioner's clownish assistant, calling the condemned 
criminal to execution, in "Measure for Measure": "you 
must be so good, sir, to rise and be put to death," — ordered 
Picquet to be summoned three times "by the ringing of 



BANISHMENT OF PICQUET 93 

the bell, to come and defend his case." That ohstinate and 
uuaccommodating individual having failed to appear, how- 
ever, the Council proceeded, on July 4, 1(347, to do the best 
it could in vindication of its slighted autliority by passing a 
fuitlier sentence of banishment against Ficquet, and of con- 
fiscation of his property. His house at the corner of Bridge 
and Stone streets is soon found — probably by direct grant 
from the Director and Council — in the possession of Hen- 
drick Willenisen, a baker, who occupied the premises for 
many years. ^ 

' As for Ficquet, he must have subsequently cither surrendered himself or 
been captured ; for in the fall of 1047 he, together with the Scotchman, Andrew 
Forrester, agent of the Earl of Stirling, who had heen imprisoned by the author- 
ities at New Amsterdam, for asserting his principal's claim to Long Island was 
«eut away in the ship " Valckenior " for transportation to the Netherlands. The 
Tesdel, however, ou its way, touched at an English port, and while there, both the 
prisoners made their escape. (Letter of the Directors, etc., to General Stuy- 
veoant, dated April 7, IG48.) 



h/!> '* 



CHAPTER XI 

COKNELIS .)/■/:/: YiV, PATROON UF STATEN ISLAND— THE 
INDIAN TROUBLES.— JOCilEM PIETKRSEN KUYTER.- 
TIIE STRUGGLES OF MELYN AND KUYTER AGAINST 
THE COLONIAL AUTHORITIES. — THE BARON VAN DER 
CAPELLEN.— SIBOUT CLAESEN, OF IIOORN 

He was oue ;, 

Of many tliousand such tliat die betimes, 'J 

Wliose story is a fragiiieut known to few. 
Tlieu conies tlie man wlio lias tlie luck to live, 
And lie's a prodigy. Coiniiute the chances, 
And deem there's ne'er a one in dangerous times 
Who wins the race of glory, but than him 
A thousand men more gloriously endowed 
Have fallen upon the course ; a thousand others 
Have had their fortunes foundered by a chance. 
Whilst lighter barks pushed past them. 

T.iYi.uu : " i'hilip Van Arteveldc." 

IT has been already stated that the bridge over the little 
stream in Broad Street was originally a short distance — 
some lifty feet or thereabouts — north of Bridge Street. This 
location carried the road towards the ferry around a parcel of 
land situated upon the river shore, upon which stood the house 
of a man who for half a score of years filled a very conspic- 
uous position in the public eye, — Conielis Melyn, of Antwerp.' 
There is something about the determined character of 
Cornelis Melyn, and the long struggle which he carried on 
against the petty despots who represented the authority of the 



' The name Melyn, like so many others of the modern family names anioi 
persons descendeil from a Ciermanic ancestry, is quite likely to have heuu deriv 
from some former place of residence of the family, which in this c;ise, it is n 
im| mbable, was the village of Meliii, about si.xty miles southea.st of Antwerp, 
the direction of Maestricht, from which it is not far distant. 



1 



ANTWERP IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 95 

West India Company in New Amsterdam, which lends an air 
of historic dignity to the man, and marks him as one of the 
first of a long line of ciiampions in the colony, of individual 
rights, as against arbitrary and irresponsible power. He came 
naturally by his hatred of despotism. At his native Antwerp, 
ill the first half of the seventeenth century, lie could have 
talked with men who remembered when it was not unusual 
fur two thousand vessels or more to be lying in the port of 
that city, or for a hundred to sail up the Scheldt with each 
favoring tide. They could have told liim of misfortune after 
misfortune under the Spanish rule, of wars and grinding taxes, 
of the introduction of tlie Inquisition, of the dreadful sack 
of tlie city by the mutinous Spanish garrison in 1576, when 
six thousand of the citizens perished by the sword, by fire, and 
by water ; and he iiimself could have seen how the growth of 
the commerce of Amsterdam, after its emancipation from the 
Spanish incubus, had drawn away to itself the trade and the 
most enterprising of tlie tradesmen of Antwerp. Now, as he 
trod tlie streets of tlie city, their spaciousness contrasted 
sti-angely with tlie solitude tliat reigned in them ; he passed 
by quaint old mansions, of which the half were closed and 
uninhabited; but few vessels were to be seen now in the 
Scheldt or along the canals, and upon the quays the grass 
grew ; the busy crowds had forsaken tlie great Exchange, and 
there were seen there now "little more than peddlers and 
fishwomen." There was one spot in the city which must have 
stirred strongly the feelings of Cornelis Melyn, and that was 
where a tall crucifix of gilt bronze, marked, according to 
story, tlie site of the insulting statue erected half a century 
before, by order of tlie bloody Duke of Alva, where he himself, 
in full armor, was sliown as trampling upon two prostrate 
figures, designed to represent the lords and commons of Flan- 
ders. Tiie statue had perished long before in a tumult of the 
indignant citizens, but the memory of it was not likely soon 
to fade away in the decaying city. 

And yet Antwerp still retained much of its former charm : 
" A gilded lialu, liovering round decay," 



^yi 



96 



NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PJCOPLE 



which had induced John Evelyn, visiting it about this time,' 
to speak of it in his diary as "sweete Antwerp" — "nor did 
I ever observe a more quiet, cleane, elegantly built and civil , 
place than this magnificent and famous citty of Antwerp." 
From the well-known station of view across the Scheldt, ; 
called, " Het Vlaamshe Hoofd," the Point of Flanders, and i 
seen in a bright afternoon, when the rays of the declining 
sun threw into light and shadow the quaint carvings of llie 
old nurnsions, of the churclies and public buildings, and of tlie 
wonderful spire of the cathedral, towering more than three 
hundred feet above them all, the city lay stretched along the 
Scheldt like a gilded pageant. 

Within the city, too, still dwelt men of genius and of learn- 
ing ; indeed, in Melyn's day, Antwerp had atfciined the height • 
of its gi'eat artistic fame, and he may have often seen or talked 
with Rubens, Van Dyke, and Teniers, chief of a long line of 
predecessors and of followers in the painters' art. Still, wliat- 
ever pleasant memories might cluster about tlie old city, its 
prospects under foreign rule were becoming darker and darker; 
and Cornelis Melyn, a man of competent means and past his 
younger years, — he was born about the year 1G02, — deter- 
mined, doubtless not without some pangs, to try his fortunes 
in the New World. Leaving liis family in Europe, he sailed 
for New Amsterdam in 1639. Here his attention was attracted 
to the rounded, forest-clad hills and intervales of Staten Island, 
and to its wide plains, upon which only one or two grants of 
land, and those of no great extent, had as yet been made. He 
sent an application next year to Amsterdam for a grant from 
the West India Company to himself of the remainder of the 
island. This Avas favorably entertained, and he thereupon 
brought on his family from the Netherlands and set to work 
vigorously to take the arduous steps necessary for developing 
his tract. In 1642 he received his ground-brief or patent for 
the island, upon which he had already established a number of 
settlers, among whom, as it is supposed, he himself resided. 

The period in which Melyn began tlie clearing for his pian- 
tatinns upon Staten Island was an inauspicious one. The good 



THE RARITAN INDIANS 



97 



k't 



X nnderstandiiig wliich had pvcviiiled between tlie Dutcli and 
tlie native Indians for many yeara after tlie firsit settlement of 
the former had begun to be seriously disturbed as the colonists 
glow stronger and became more aggressive. It was in the year 
1040, and in all probability soon after Melyn had made his 
appUcatiou to tiie West India Company for land upon Staten 
lahnd, that a party of Karitau Indians, whose haunts were 
upon that island and upon the mainland in the vicinity of the 
n\tr which still beai^s their name, Avas charged with having 
committed some l)etty depredations upon the plantation of 
D i\ id Pietersen de Vries, who had already commenced a clear- 
uig upon the grant of land he had obtained on the island. To 
Ijunish the savages for this aifair (which appears to have been 
gicatly exaggerated, even if the charges were not wholly 
untrue), Kieft, wlio seems to have been painfully conscious 
th it he had done nothing as yet to distinguish himself in his 
oflice, now determined to send an expedition against these 
Indians. The party was headed by Secretary Van Tieidioven, 
whose treacherous and cruel disposition was well adapted for 
matters of this kind. The force numbered seventy men, and 
taking the Indians Ijy surprise at their villages — which seem 
to have been in the neighborhood of the present Perth Amboy, 
or Woodbridge — they slaughtered several of the savages, and 
buined the crops in their fields. Van Tienhoven and his band 
of Dutch warriors returned to New Amsterdam, it is true, 
unharmed and in high feather after this feat ; but the '• lieathen " 
Kiutaus, as Kieft was fond of calling them, were upon one 
point just about as fully enlightened as their Cliristian ene- 
nues. They understood thoroughly the lex talionis, and they 
had, moreover, abundant opportunities for putting it in prac- 
tice. They soon found tlieir opportunity, and attacked the 
lonely plantation of De Vries upon Staten Island, where they 
killed four of his tobacco planters, destroyed the crops, and 
tired the buildings. Tlie parties were now in one sense quits ; 
the Indians were henceforth upon their guaitl, and any further 
expeditions against them Avere not likely to be attended by 
success. In this emergency Kieft bethought himself of liiring 



w 



98 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOl'EE 

the other Indians to nmrder the Ilaritans ; the Council makeii 
a report on the 4tli of Jnly, 1G41 : " \Vherefore, consiJeringl 
the circumstances, we have adopted tlie means \vhieh seem toy 
us best suited to tlie emeryeney, viz.: To secure tlie help off 
our Indian allies in tlieir (the Karitaus'} neighbor) iO(xl, ove 
wliose territory the enemy must cross," — that is, in atteiupU3| 
iny to reaeli New Amsterdam, — " and wjio may stop tlieiu inj 
their wild forays, or at least give timely notice of their ap-| 
proach. And in order to encourage tlieni tlie more, and lurej 
them with greater ardor to espouse our cause, we engaged tol 
pay them, for every head of a Ilaritiui, ten fatiioms of sewant,",., 
— worth about seventeen dolhu's of tlie present currency, 
"and for eveiy head of any of those who murdered our peopled 
on Staten Island, twenty fathoms of sewant." These measures ': 
liad little effect except to furtluir enrage the Indians against'' 
Kieftandthe Dutch. It was uiuler these iiiauspieioas circum- 
stances that Cornelis Melyii began his setlleuient upon Stiiten 
Island. 

He seems to have lemained luimolested by the Indians for 
a considerable timi', and this was doubtless owing to the 
numerical strength of iiis colony. AVe have no exact infor- 
mation upon this point, but as he had spent large sums of '■ 
money in furnishing stock and implements, he had undoubt- 
edly secured a goodly number of colonists. At this period 
he was evidently in harmony with Director-Cieneral Kieft, 
who apparently had private business relations with him. 
Indeed, it is said that his refusal to admit Kieft to full part- 
nership in his Staten Island venture was one of the causes of 
the Director-General's bitter hatred of him afterwards, — - 
though this is abundantly explained by other causes. 

In the mean time, trouble was threatened in another quar- 
ter. This grew out of the murder, in the summer of 1G41, of 
Claes Cornelissen Swits, commonly known as Claes liade- 
maker, or C'laes the wheelwj-ight, by an Indian of the Weck- 
qnaskeek tribe of Indians, iidiabiting the shores of the 
Hudson, in the lower part of the present Westchester County. 
The murder is supposed to have l)een an act of private re- 



KIEFT'S PLANS AGAINST THE INDIANS 99 

venge for the slaying and robbery of an uncle of the mur- 
derur many years before, by some of the hiwless Europeans 
iiifobting the settlement, the Indians having failed to obtain 
miy redress from the Dutch autlanities. A prompt demand 
w.is made upon the tribe Cor the surrender of the murderer of 
Claes Cornelissen. This, however, was not complied with, 
tlio Indians claiming, probably enough with truth, that he 
w.w out of their reach. 

At this time, according to the l\Iemorial afterwards pre- 
sented to the West India Company, on behalf of the people 
of New Amsterdam, "a hankering after war had wholly 
seized on the Director," and the affair of Swits seems to have 
afforded Kioft a long sought for op[)ortunity to carry out his 
plans. It is rather difficult to understand the tortuous policy 
of this man. That he was desirous of ridding the vicinity of 
New Amsterdam of the troublesome native tribes and of get- 
ting possession of their lands as one of the fruits of conquest, 
is quite evident; on the other hand, making due allowance 
for the blind arrogance so frequently showii in dealings by 
individuals of a so-called " dominant race " in their dealings 
with a supposed inferior one, Kieft must have been Avell 
aware that acts of violent and wholesale aggression against 
the Indians would inevitably be resented by them, and that 
in such case their [tower of irdlictiug injury upon the scat- 
tered colonists and their farms would be most formidable. It 
Ls difficult to reach any other conclusion than that the Di- 
rector-General meant, from tiie first, to entrap the neighboring 
Indians and to exterminate them at one blow, if possible, 
trusting that, afterwards, distance and dissensions among the 
tribes would prevent retaliation from the remoter Indians. 

The business was by no means an easy one, however. If 
he succeeded, he might doubtless expect to go down to pos- 
terity as a hero and a great pi'onroter of civilization ; but, on 
the other hand, if he should fail, and disastrous results to the 
colony should ensue, there would be a heavy account to settle 
with his superiors, the West India Company. Under these 
circumstances, he craftily determined to try to im])licate the 



100 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE * 

whole body of colonists in the onslaught ho was preparing 
to make upon the Indians, and to make it appear tliat lie^ 
was merely acting at their instance and request, thus re-: 
lieving himself from liability for the bloody experiment. 
Accordingly, on tlie 29th of August, 1G41, tiie " hcadd of 
families" in New Amsterdam, who had jireviously lual un- ! 
commonly little to say about the affairs of the connuunity 
were startled by having certain propositions iniblicly sub-;,' 
mitted for their discussion by the benevolent Director- 
General and his Council, to the following effect: 

" 1. If it is not just that the murder lately committed by a 
savage upon Claes Swits be avenged ; and in case the Indidua 
will not suriender the murderer, if it is nut just to dcstioy 
the wdiole village to Avliich he belongs ? 

" 2. When and in what manner this shoulil be executed? 

" 3. By whom can it be effected? " 

The occasion was a momentous one : the citizens met and 
appointed a coniniittee of twelve, composed of some of tlie 
most energetic individuals among them, this committee form- 
ing the somewhat celebrated body known as " the Twelve 
Men;" at their head was Cornells Melyn. Most of the 
members of this body were men wiio had much at stake in 
the event of hostilities with the natives. Tiiey appear to 
have understood Kieft's design from the iirst, but their posi- 
tion was a dillicult one : if they should advise the Director and } 
Council against attempting to enforce by violence tlieir claims '.., 
against the Indians, they knew that tiiey would be cliargedat "^1 
once with pusillanimity, lack of patriotism, and disalfection 
to the government by the Director and his Council, following 
the usual custom of those in autlnnity when their line of 
governmental action, (no matter how unjust, impracticable, 
or dangerous it may be), is opposed or criticised by the sub- 
ject : furthermore, it might have a bad effect upon the natives 
to place themselves formally upon record as )}eing oi){)osed to 
the employment of force. 

Accordingly, with all these things in view, they drew up, in 
the fall of the same year, lt)41, an answer to the Director's ques- 



COMMITTEE OF "THE TWELVE MEN" 101 

, in which answer considerable astuteness was displaj'cd. 

''"' la Uiis document the Committee, while assenting to the use of 

I Joreo if necessary against the Indians, recommend many safe- 

,' KO&nl& m the way of peaceable demands, mild deuicanor towaixls 

IJM) n.itives, etc., and tinally an expedition against them (prob- 

' ally for the purpose of securing hostages), when the Indian 

mmori shoidd be absent on their liuuting expeditions. The 

' iliiig to the Director-General, however, lay in the following 

clau.se . " That as the pco[ile recognize no other liead than 

Iho Director-General, therefore they prefer that he should 

lead the van, while they, on their part, offer their persons to 

follow his steps and to obey his commands." 

The Director-General had been outwitted: the answer of 
•'the Twelve Men" was coldly received by liim, and no 
measures of importance were taken for a considerable period 
against tlie Indians. ]\Ielyn and his connuittec, however, 
proceeded further, and therein seems to lie their great mis- 
take. In tlieir appointment by the people, though it had really 
been made only for a special and limited purpose, they 
thought tliey saw an opportunity for establishing a popular 
voice in tlie affairs of tiie colony, wliich had hitherto been 
entirely lacking. Accordingly, on tlie 21st of January, 1612, 
"the Twelve Men " sent in a petition to the Director-General, 
designating themselves as " Selectmen on behalf of the Com- 
monalty of New Nethcrland," — and praying for a redress of 
certain grievances ; they requested that " the Council sliall 
from this time be rendered complete in members, especially 
as the council of a small village in Fatherland consists of 
five and seven schepens; that, from now henceforth, the 
Director and Council do not try any criminals, unless five 
Councillors be present, inasmuch as tlie Commonalty talk 
considerably about it ; " they further request that representa- 
tion should be had in the meetings of the Council, " so that 
taxes may not be imposed on the country in the absence of the 
Twelve." 

Kieft was furious; the body which he had created to 
.iirther his own crooked designs had not only thwarted him 



102 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

in them, but now was insolently attempting to interfere in higl 
favoiite method of government, which was the absolute con-i 
trol of affairs by himself, with two or three dependent 
obsequious councillors to use as "buffers," to protect himself 
from injury; a few days after the receipt of this petition, '. 
made a brusque order, forbidding " the Twelve Men " from 
holding any further meetings. ^ 

IMatters ran along in this way until the following winter, 
when the Weckquaskeek Indians, lleeing before the raid of 
the Mohawks from the north, sought refuge in the vicinity of J 
New Amsterdam, as has been already noticed.- Kieft waa 
now in high spirits : his long-souglit opportimity for cxter- 'f 
minating the Indians was at hand; he seems to have per 
suaded himself that Providence had been playing directly | 
into his hands, but still he did not wish to rely entirely upon 
Providence; he must have some means of implicating the ^ 
people at large in the business; but this was not an easy % 
matter, since he had forbidden the committee which they had 
appointed from holding any meetings, and he knew very ^ 
well that if he should call them together again, they would in 
all proljability disapprove of a general massacre of the Indians. 
He concluded, under these circumstances, to adopt what was j 
perhaps one of the most impudent tricks ever devised by men % 
in authority to try to give an appearance of justification to 
their own unwarrantable acts. There was much public gos- 
sip respecting a certain Shrovetide dinner, about this time l 
(February, 1643), at the farmhouse, on Broadway near the 
present Pine Street, of Jan Damen, — one of the Committee 

1 "February 8tli, 1G42. — Whereas the Commonalty, at our rc(|ucst, ajipoiiited 
The Twelve to communicate their good counsel and advise on the subject of the !S 
murder of Switz, and this being now completed we do hereby thanU them for the 
trouble they have taken, aud shall, with God's help, make use of their rendered 
written advice in its own time. . . . The said twelve men shall now henceforth 
hold no further meeting, as tlie .same tends to a dangerous consecpience and to 
the great injury, both of the country and our autliority. We do therefore hereby 
forbid them calling any manner of assemblage or meeting, except by our ex))ress 
onler, on pain of being punished as disobedient subjects." 

■^ See page 22, ante. 



]\rA.SSACRE OF THE INDIANS 



103 



of Twelve, — at wljich \voro prcsent, witli KiufL, ('m-iielis van 
Tienlioveii, the scci'etary, iunl Abraham Verphmek (Iwo of 
llie soias-in-law of Dainen), and Maryn Adriaen.sen, a sort of 
dependant and debtor of the latter; at this dinner the Slirove 
jiancakes were, it was said, washed down with nij'sterious 
tcxisLs to the success of some great enterprise which was on 
foot. 

However this may be, a petition was entered upon the 
minutes of the Council in the following remarkidilo terms: 

To the Honoral>le "Willeiii Kieft, llirector-General of New Nethcr- 
laud, and his Honorable Council: — 
The whole of tlie freemen respectfully represent that though 
heretofore nmch innocent lilood was spilled by the savages without 
having had any reason or cause therefor, yet your Honors made 
peace on coudilion that the chiefs should deliver the murderer 
into our hands (eitlier dead or aUve), wherein they have failed up 
to the present time: tlie reputation which our nation hatii in other 
countries has tlius been diuiinished, even notwithstanding innoceut 
blood calleth aloud to God for revenge; we therefore request your 
Honors to bo pleased to authorize us to att;^ck the Indians as 
enemies, whilst God hath delivered tliem into our hands; for 
wliich pur[iose we otler our persons. Tins can be effected at one 
place by the freemen, and at the other by the soldiers. 
Your Honor's Subjects, 

(Signed) MAI!V^f Aduiaknsen 
Jan Janskn Damen 
Abm Planck. 
(Lower stood) 

]5y their authority 

Corns van Tiknuovkn, Secretary. 

The savage mas.sacre of the Indians followed, and then the 
swift retaliation upon the Dutcli, winch in the course of a 
few months reduced the thirty or forty farmhouses on Man- 
hattan Island to four or five which still remained standing, 
and whicli drove in the survivors of the Indian depredations 
to dwell in "huts of straw" around Kort Amsterdam. The 
number of colonists at Cornelis Melyn's .settlement upon 



Wf 



104 



NEW AjMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 



Staten Island seems to liave retanled its fate for a time, 
was still unattacked as late as October, 1G43, tliougli " liourly'! 
expecting an assault," — which soon afterwards came, and ' 
left it a desolate waste. Melyn had, in tlio mean time, 
removed his fuiuily to New Amsterdam, and sought out a ' 
place of abode there. 

East of "the Ditch" in Broad Street lay a low rise of' 
land along the East River; towards tlie shore, it terminated . 
in a crumbling bank of no great height, above the slony 
beacli, and at a distance of about two hundred and lifty feet 
back from the shore, it fell uwdy into a low and damp depres- 
sion, which formed an easterly arm to the swamp occupying ■ 
the vicinity of Broad Street, and which was calletl, in the 
early days of the colony, " Blonnuaert's Vl}-," as iuis already 
been stated. Along the middle of this low ridge, the oflieers 
of the Company had establisiied the road leadii]gout from tlie 
bridge to the ferry to Long Island. It so(ju acipiired the 
name of lloogh Straet, — -the High Street; after the sur- 
render to the English in IGG 1, it gradually came to be called 
Duke's Street, in honor of the Duke of Ycjrk ; and at present 
it forms the easterly portion of Stone Street, Ijeing nearly 
a continuation of the .street originally known by tiiat name. 
Upon the south side of this street, just west of tlie present 
Coenties Alley, and situated well back towards the sliore, the 
Director and Council hax:l erected, in 1641, the commodious 
building known as the Great Tavern, afterwards in part used 
as the Town Hall, of which further notice will be taken here- 
after. From the present Broad Street to the Great Tavern, 
all the laud lying between the Iloogh Straet aiul the shore 
had been taken up, at an early date, by two individuals, one 
of whom was Burger Jorissen, a man of prominence in the 
town, who had built a house here, and received a groimd-brief 
for it in 1643 ; he occupied a plot of about one hundred and 
thirty-five English feet frontage, next adjoining the tavern. 
The other occupant was located upon a much smaller plot, 
about at the corner of the present Broad Street, this was one 
Eben Reddenhaus, a Ge^nan from the principality of Waldeck, 



il 






l5| 



? s 










h^' 






J '. 



'::''%u. ^r 



'■^'%^ 



CORNELIS MELYN'S HOUSE 105 

who had recently (in 1641) married in New Amsterdam, 
aud built a house here, but who died soon afterwards. There 
rtraaiued but one more avaiLable parcel along the river in this 
vicinity, and tliat one covered the end of the present Broad 
Stieet, at that time (as already stated) not designed to be 
kept open as a street. Of this parcel, Cornells IWelyn jcceived 
a grouud-brief in 1643 ; it was about sixty-two English feet 
in front along the road, which with the bridge lay north of it, 
and it extended in depth about eighty-eight English feet to 
tlie river shore ; through it the stream or ditch from Blom- 
inaerts Vly ran into the East liiver. 

Here, then, Cornells Melyn built his house, evidently a 
modest one, designed only for occasional irse in troublesome 
times. It would a[)pear to have been a two-story house of 
small size ; in all probability built of brick. This house was 
removed about 1657, when the authorities determined to 
change the ditch in Broad Street into a " Graft," or canal, 
with a roadway on eacli side of the same ; its location appears 
to have been in the easterly half of the present Broad Street, 
midway between Stone and Pearl streets. Desiring to con- 
trol more land in this vicinity than his original small plot, 
Melj'n bouglit, in August, 1644, from the widow of Eben 
Reddenhaus, for the sum of 250 guilders, or about $100, her 
house and ground, and in December of the same year, from 
Burger Jorissen, liis house and larger parcel for 950 guilders, 
or 1380, so that he now owned all the land along the river 
from " the Ditch " to the City Tavern. 

Melyn's residence in New Amsterdam, taken in conjunc- 
tion with the forlorn condition of the colonists, seems to have 
stimulated him to more active exertions. In the fall of 1643, 
lie, with his associates, then known from their number as " the 
Eight Men," addressed Memorials both to the States-General 
of the Netherlands and to the West India Company, setting 
forth the melancholy state of their affairs, and depicting in 
vivid colors the ravages of the Indians ; they tell how " daily 
in our houses and fields have they cruelly murdered men and 
vTOraen, and with hatchets and tomahawks struck little chil- 



106 



NEW AiMSl'ERDAM AND ITS I'l Ol'i I 



dren dead in their narcnls' arms or before tlieii d(jois, oi cxr- ■ 
ried them away into bondage ; tlie houses and gi un ban loks 
are burnt with tiie produce ; cattle of all descriptions ait Jiin 
and destroyed, and such as remain must perish this ap[iiodcli- 
ing winter for want of fodder. iUiiiost every jjl icc is abm- 
doned. . . . We \vretcln;d people nuifit, skulk nmUi \vi\cs and 
little ones tliat still survive in poverty togetlier, in ind iiound 
the fort at the Manhattans, where we arc not silo tvi n for 
an liour." Those Memorials, however, contained scjUKlhuig 
in the nature of a threat, which, while it was n itui il inough 
under the circumstances, was probably not well advised. 
" Sliould suitable assistance not arrive (contraiy to oui ex- 
pectations), we shall through necessity, in ordei to bi\e the 
lives of those who remain, be obliged to betake oui-,Ll\es to 
the English at the East, who would like nothing bcttci thau 
to possess this place." These suggestions, though possibly 
they may not have had much eft'ect upon the mtmljcis ot 
States-General, seem to liave sunk deeply into tht minds of 
some of the Directors of the West India C'onipiuy, ind to 
have created with them a prejudice against the mem )ii dists 
which afterwards l)ore bitter fruit for the lattci. 

In the mean time, Kieft had been bestirring himsilf to clear 
away the odium for the Indian massacre from his n luu, and 
to make it appear that it had been the worlv of the pcojile, m 
opposition to his own personal views ; and he had sent ac- 
cordingly to the West India Company a pamphlet contammg 
a ri^sunid of the whole affair, which pamphlet, according to 
Dominie Bogardus, "contained more lies than lines." The 
effi'ontery of the man was so amazing that in 1044 Jlclyn and 
his associates determined to send a private communication 
or memorial to the West India Company directing their atten- 
tion to the falsehoods which Kieft was endeavoring to dis- 
seminate. This document, bearing date 28th October, 1644, 
though drawn up under circumstances of great provocation, 
contained much vituperation of Kieft and his advisers, and 
proved to be the source of much trouble for Cornelis iVIelyn, who 
was considered, probably with justice, as having been its author. 



CAPTAIN KUYTER 



107 



A I: 



Although the proceedings of " the Eight Men" were con- 
ducted with accieey, and though Kieft does not appear to 
hiive been aware for a considerable period of the communi- 
cation of 1G14 to the West India Company, there seems to 
have been early manifested a bad state of feeling on his part 
towards Cornelis Melyn, which displayed itself in various petty 
annoyances towards the latter. In 1G45, he was charged by 
the fiscal with having sold wine to the Indians, but nothing 
appears to have come of the affair. Melyn had at this time 
leased about two acres of ground from the ol'Iicers of the 
Compan}^, covering the site of the present Trinity Church 
and tlie northern portion of the churchyard, and extending 
to the river bank. This he employed for tlie purpose of 
raising grain, evidently for his family use. On the 31st of 
May, lG-16, Kieft and his Council, pettishly alleging that 
Melyn, " having planted and fenced a piece of land north of 
the Company's garden, taking in more ground than belonged 
to him, sweeping away with a curve behind said garden, and 
making use of the sods and earth of the Company's soil for 
security of said land," ordered that "he may cut his grain, 
and then deliver up tlie Company's ground in the same con- 
dition as in the S^jring." 

In the mean time, Cornelis Melyn acquired, at about this 
period, a neighbor who was to prove a faitliful ally to him, 
and whose fortunes were to be bound up together witli his 
own for several years to come. This was the worthy Captain 
Jochem Pietersen Knytcr, an ex-sea-captain in the Danish 
service, and one of the pioneers of the settlement at Ilarlcm. 

The humble cottage of Eben Reddenhaus, w hich had been 
bought by Melyn, as above stated, and whicii stood near 
tlie nortlieast corner of the present Pearl and Broad streets, 
was in a sliort time sold by him to one Seger Teunissen. 
This man was soon afterwards killed by the Indians, and 
upon the West India Company's officers taking charge of his 
property, they found in a trading "yacht" belonging to him 
certain goods which had not been entereil with the revenue 
officials. Kieft, in pursuance of his usual arbitrary course of 



10« NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE | 
conduct, and, as was claimed, without any form c.f trial .„d 
in disregard of the rights of Teuuissen'slidow, L di'ate 
ordered his property to be confiscated and sold; and t ^ 

P;etersenKuyter^:,jtyt;n^;:r^^^^^^^ 

l::sr::;::r''^^^-^->^^--^-^^--^-o;ed;:;:: 

Jochem Pietersen Kuyter was a native of the District of 
Ditinarssen, that portion of the Duchy of llolstein wl r 
on the German Ocean, between the Lutli tf 2 l^ 

the Eyder nvers, the broad flat meadows of which dtrl 
well stocked with the black and white cattle of the co ^^y^ . 
the passenger, coming down the Elbe from Ilambu g t; 
see stretching away to his right. ^ ^ > 

There was much in the situation and prosnects of Ku.n.r ' 
that was similar to those of Cornelis Melym Ce L It e^ ' 
he was a man of education and of some nfeans, who h, d ome 
over n. the year 1639, well furnished with cat le, imp menTs 
-d labor forcomniencmg a plantation on a fairly laZ^"^' \ 
As an energetic colonizer, in the prime of his activify ^ he • 

the West India Company, which desired to attract such men ^ 

Bronck, upon a tract of nearly four hundred acres o fine •■ 
arming hand, of which he had obtained a gran fro I th 
W St India Company. This tract stretched alfng th Harlem 
River from about the present One Hundred and ° '''''"' 

,1 



STUYVESANT'S ARRIVAL 



109 



time away from the settlement and at the other end of Man- 
hattan Island, lie interested himself in the progress of the 
village, and in 1642 was one of the " kerkmeesters " chosen 
to oversee the erection of the new church in the fort ; not, 
says Riker in his " History of Harlem," without an eye to the 
ser\dces of his workmen, " who were skilled and Mould pre- 
pare the timber." By this time his plantation was well 
established and was yielding good returns of t(jbacco. Con- 
I* scious of its exposed position, ho, like most of the Board of 
Twelve ]\Ien (of which he was a member), was averse to using 
violent measures witli the Indians, and he foretold to Kieft 
the quick retribution which would ensue for their massacre. 
His own bouwery house, being well palisaded about, escaped 
the first devastations of the Indians, but on the 5th of March, 
1644, he being then absent from tlie farm, tlie buildings, though 
guarded, were set on lire in the night and dcstruycd by the 
savages. 

Like Melyn, Kuyter was now forced to seek an abode for 
huuself in the village of New Amstei'dam, and in this way 
apparently he came to purchase the small house at the corner 
of Broad and Pearl streets, already spoken of. Henceforth, 
he and Cornelis Melyn were closely associated in their rela- 
tions towards Kieft and towards his successor, Director- 
General Stuyvesant. 

This latter person, who had taken the place of Kieft by 
appointment from the West India Company in 164G, liad 
been long looked for, and in May, 1647, he arrived at New 
Amsterdam. Most of the inhabitants of the town were as- 
sembled on Schreyers Iloek and at the little dock when the 
new Director-General landed ; and they accomiianied him to 
the fort, where Kieft was ready to sunender the govermuent. 
In doing so, he, witii great assurance, thanked the citizens for 
the attachment and fidelity they had always shown to him, 
and requested their formal indorsement of his administration. 
On all sides a loud sliout of dissent went up from the crowd, 
half of whom, probably, had been ruined as the result of his 
atrocious Indian policy; and Melyn and Kuytur declared 



iiy JNEW 7\MSTERI)AM AND ITS PEOPLE 

roundly that tliey had nothing to tliaiik hiiu for, and no 
approval to give. 

Tills scene seems to have made a deep impression upon one 
person at least, and that one ^\■as the new Director-General. 
It was not that he approved of Kieft's conduct tow aid the 
Indians ; on the contrary, lie believed in giving the lattui just 
and conciliatory treatment, not so nuich, in all probability, on 
account of the absolute right of the nnitter, but by lea^on of 
the power possessed by tlie natives of doing harm to tlio col- 
ony. Like most despotical-minded men placed in po'iitious 
of considerable power, however, Stuyvesant entertuned a 
profound jealousy of tliose wlio would bo likely to ciilicisa 
liis acts or to attempt to thwart liis will, and such men lie 
saw at once in Cornelis Melyn and in Jf)chem Pntcisen 
Kuyter, and he undoubtedly entered upon liis aduiiuistiaLiuu 
willi a hearty hatred of them. 

His hatred Avas not long in showing itself. Within a few 
daj'S after Kieft liad delivered up his otlice, filelyu and Kuyter, 
as representatives of the old board known as " the Eight 
]\Ien," brought a formal compkiint against Kieft, and asked 
for an inquiry into the abuses of his late government, and 
respecting liis treatment of the Indians. They received a 
prompt answer from Stuyvesant that he considered tlie de- 
nials of the late Director-tieneral as of more weight than any 
evidence his antagonists could bring to support their charges ; 
he would recognize them in no political capacity', but consid- 
ered them merely as " perturbators of the public peace." The 
Director-General and Council accordingly declined to entertain 
their complaint. 

Melyn and Kuyter had in fact ventured upon very danger- 
ous ground. Unwittingly they had come before a magistrate 
as thoroughly i)rejudieed as any judge that ever sat upon a 
bench of justice, ministering to his own interests and passions 
while making pretences of doing equity. At the time of 
their private communication to the West India C'ompany, 
respecting Kieft, in October, ll)44, Peter Stuyvesant had heen 
admitted as one of the Directors of that Company. No direct 



TRIAL OF MELYN vVND KUYTEU ni 

: , Ktion appears to have beuu taken in the matter by tlie West 
. India Company, but when .Stuyvesaut eame from tlie Nether- 
. lands in tlie apiing of 1047, lie brought to Kieft a copy of the 
letter of " the Eight Men," whieli seems to have been the 
Ci-at infuriuation Kieft had received of that conununication. 
Tiioroughly enraged, and very sure of his judge, Kieft, on 
June 19, 1(J47, brouglit criminal charges against ftfelyn and 
Kuyter fur libel and for in<lucing the rest of " the Eight i\Ien " 
to join in a false statement to the West India Company. 
Small grace was allowetl to tlic accused men by Stuyvesaut. 
Tiiey were ordered to file their answer to the ciiarges within 
twenty-four hours. A small extension of time must have 
been granted to them, however, fiu' their answer bears date 
June 22, IG17. In tliis document they boldly reiterate the 
charges, and offer to bring forward the four survivors of the 
" J5oard of Eight Men," to testify that as a matter of fact 
they liad signed the charges against Kieft of their own will, 
and not thrtmgh any influence of the persons accused. In 
reply to Kieft's demand that they should be sent to the Neth- 
erlands "as pests and seditious persons," they aver their ^vil- 
lingness to go tliere "as good patriots and proprietcn-s in New 
Netherland." Stuyvusant's previous conduct had taught them 
what they had to expect from him, and they made no attempt 
to conciliate him; on the contrary, their answer contains a 
most cutting as well as just allusion to "the meanness and 
cowiirdice of those in authority who insult tlmse who dare 
not answer them." They had undoubtedly deteiuiined, in 
anticipation of Stuyvesant's decision, to carry their cause 
before tlie States-CJeneral of the Netherlands. 

Tlie decision of Stuyvesant and his Council was not long 
delayed. On the 25th of July, 10-17, Jocliem Pietersen Kuy- 
ter, one of whose atrocious acts consisted in "raising his 
linger in a threatening manner " to Kieft, was sentenced to 
three years' banishment and a fine of 150 guilders ; while 
Melyn was found guilty of an assortment of crimes, embrac- 
ing treason, bearing false witness, ami libel and defamation; 
he was sentenced to seven years' banishment and a fine of 



iNli^W AMSTERDAM AND ITS TEOPLE 



300 guilders ; Stuyvesant was exceedingly loath to let Melyn 
escape out of his clutches, and pleaded hard in the Council 
for a sentence of death upon him, citing in support of his 
views many pedantic quotations from the Hebrew and Roman 
Law; but the Council, thougli disposed to be suiliciently ol>- 1 
sequious, could not be brouglit to vote for the death penalty. 
Stuyvesant, in fact, seems to have had some forebodings of 
future trouble from Molyn and Kuyter, but as tlicy could not 
be legally put to death, and as it would have been a constant 
source of danger to liave kept them in conlinenient in New 
Amsterdam, where they were botli veiy popular, he had to 
let them go, contenting himself witli maligaautly observing 
to ]\Ielyn, " If I were persuaded you would appeal fiom my 
sentences, or divulge them,' I would have your iu;ad cut off, 
or have you hanged on the highest tree in New Nethurland." 
Did these things bring to the miutl of Cornelis Melyn the 
stjitue of Alva at Antwerp with his foot upon tiie necks of 
the Estates of Flanders ? It was an old story ! Tliis petty 
despot in the fort at New 'Amsterdam only showed the same 
traits, upon his small stage, as tlie tyrants whom the men of 
the Low Countries iiad fought for generations upon a larger 
field. Stuyvesaiit's notions of authority were only tliose of 
the Count of Flanders : 

" The Lion stirred and awoke with a snort, 
And he swelled witli rage tih his breath came short : 
'Ere the brown leaf meet with the flake of snow 
On tlie roundabout stair, to Ghent I '11 go. 
" ' For a little bird sang, and I dreamed as well, 
That the men of Ghent were as false as liell; 
Coming by stealth when naught I feared. 
They trod on my toes and pulled my beard.' 

" Ere a anowHake fell, the Lion he went, 
And he roared a roar at tlio Gates of Ghent; 
The gates they shook, though they were last barred. 
And the warders heard it at Oudenarde. 

" At the very first roar, ten thousand men 
Tell sick to death; he roared again, 
And the blood of twenty tliousand flowed 
By the bridge of Roone, as broad as the road. 



IMELYN AND KUYTEIl SAIL 113 

"Wo worth Uioe, Ghent! if liaving heard 
The first and secuiid, thou bidest the third. 
Fhit stones and awry, grass, potshL'rd, and shard, — 
Thy place shall be liko an old churchyard." 

Only about three weeks remained for Melyn and Kuyter 
to Battle their affairs, to make ready such documents as they 
could with safety, to lay before tlie States-General upon the 
appeal whicli tliey had determined to make, and to prepare 
for tlieir long absence, if unsuccessful in their endeavors. 
The ship "Princess," upon Avliich tliey must depart, lay in the 
harbor biking in her cargo, and was announced to sail about 
tlio middle of August. The intervening time doubtless wit- 
nessed many long and earnest consultations at the two small 
Louses between " the ditcli " and the river shore. On the 
11th of July of this y,,,r, 1U47, Melyu had made a deed 
(probably in anticipalion of the storm whicli was brewing) of 
his house in the present Broad Street to his eldest daughter, 
Cornelia, wiio on April 30 of the same year had married Cap- 
tain Jacob Loper, a Swede of Stockholm by birth, but wJio 
for some time iiad held a naval ap[)ointment in the Dutch 
service. 

Finally, on the ITtii of August, 1647, Melyn and Kuyter, 
togetlicr with Kicft, Dominie Bogardus, and several oilier 
prominent characters of New Amsterdam, sailed from tliat 
town as previously mentioned,^ on the fatal voyage of tlie 
" Princess," Mulyn being accompanied by a young son. The 
voyage could not have been marked by much cordiality be- 
tween tile cx-Director-General and the men whom he had 
harassed by ins prosecutions; but when the "Princess" 
struck upon tlie rocks near Swansea, the near approacli of 
deatli seems to have had an illuminating effect upou the 
mind of Kicft: "Friends," he said, with a sigh, to Kuyter 
and Melyn, " I have been unjust towards you ; can you for- 
give me ? " 

Cornelis Melyn was one of the few who escaped death in 
the shipwreck, but his son was drowned. As for Kuyter, he 



-114 Nl<:W AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

told how lie Imd lashed himself to a portion of the after deck 
of the vessel, and how when the fust dim light broke after ' 
that night of horror, he had discovered himself to be alone 
upon the floating fragment, except for what he took to be 
another person likewise lashed fast. Speaking, and receiving 
no answer, he concluded that the man was dead ; it turned 
out to be a cannon, which with the wreck and Kuytcr Avas 
tiuown by the violent surf upon the beach, where, bieaking 
from its lashings it was found, — to their utmost amazement, 
— by the miners of Glamorgan and Caermartiien shires, who 
crowded to the spot as soon as it ^vas day, and who afterwards 
set up the cannon as a memorial of the wonderfid event. 

Melyn and Kuyter afterwards caused the sea in the vicinity 
of the wreck to be dragged for their chests, and in this way 
they were fortunate enough to recover a portion of their 
valuable papers, teaching the Netherlands from England 
towards the close of the year 1G47, they immediately pro- 
ceeded to lay their case before the States-General, at the 
Hague. Tliey found tiiat body favorably disposed towards 
them ;i their misfortunes had attiacted public attention to 
them to a much greater degree than they were likely other- 
Avise to have received; furtheniiore, the government of the 
Netherlands was by no means averse from exercising a re- 
vision ovei' the affairs of the AVest India Company; and 
the whole prosecution of the criminal proceedings liad been 
disposed of with such manifest injustice toward tlie con- 
demned persons tliat the States-General acted witli little 
delay, and on the 28th of April, 1648, it issued an order, in 
the form of a mandamus, permitting an appeal to be liad by 
Melyn and Kuyter from tJie criminal judgments pronounced 
against them by Director Stuyvesant and his ("omicil, order- 
ing a suspension of all i)roceedings under said judgments, 

' Much more so than vio.ro the Directors of the West ludia Ciiin|jany, who 
on April 7, 1G48, wrote to Stuyvesant: "Cornelia Melyn is well known to us, and 
we shall understand how to refute his coni]jlaint. It is to he rof.netted that 
[inople have hecome so intiin.ate witli siu-Ii fi'llows, when tlioy (.nj,'lit to have 
pivpii a good exain|jlo to others," — rofurrinj; doubtless to his anp|jorter3 iu the 
Stages General. 



•? 



MANDAMUS TO STUYVESANT 115 

and jummouiiig Stuyvesaiit to appear before Uiein to justify 
Ills acts. Umlei' tlio proceiliire of tlie iJutcli law, sueli 
orders were required to be served by a uiessenger of the 
States-General, or by a marshal or notary ; but to avoid the 
inoonveuience of this in the iireseiit case, a sfieeial order 
wa3 made allowing the service on Stuyvesant to be made by 
auy person whom Melyn and K'uyter miglifc appuiuL. it was 
an.iiiged that Mel}'n should rcLuru to New AmsLcrdaiu with 
the order of the States-General, while Kuytcr sliould remain, 
to be prepared for any treachery or exertion of arbitrary 
power on the part of Director-General Stuyvesant. In order 
to further guard against such danger, Melyn also procured a 
letter of safely for himself, directed to Stuyvesant, from the 
St.idtholder of the United Provinces personally, — William 
II., Prince of Orange, father of the great pnliticiun best 
Viiown to lis ;is William 111., King of I'^ngland. 

Armed with tlieso documents, j\Ielyn sailed in the winter 
of 1G48-49, apparently landing at lioston, and thence travel- 
ling through New England to New Amsterdam. lie was 
naturally exultant at his victory over tJie Director-General, 
and seems to have shown some lack of discretion, exhibiting 
his papers from the Netherlands in several places, and talking 
in rather a high strain. At New Haven he met one of his 
townsmen, Eghbert van Dorsum, who afterwards made a de- 
position that Melyn had saitl " that the High and Mighty 
Loidj, the St;ites of tlie United Netherlands, were greatly 
surprised that the English had not forcibly dragged Director 
Stuyk^esant out of tiie Fort, and hung him on tlie highest 
tiee , also that he had brought Kieft to his grave and 
that he would bring Stuyvesant also there : " tiiere was other 
talk, according to the informant, but he went away, "so that 
he might no longer listen to the inattle." 

Upon his arrival at New Amsterdam in March, lG-19, 
Melyn took care to revenge himself upon tlie Director- 
General for the insults lio had previously received from him 
by liaving as many of the citizens of New Amsterdam :is he 
could get together present to witness the mortification of that 



116 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

official when the order of the States-General was servetl upon 
him: he even attempted to lengthen out the turtuie of lus 
arbitrary and crestfallen opponent by reixding aloud to him | 
the contents of the document, but this Stuyvcsant prevented ,= 
by angrily snatching tlie paper from him, — no doubt to the fj 
great delight of the crowd; he, liowever, sullenly announced jji 
his intention of respecting the orders of the I'rinee of Orange t 
and of the States-General. 

In the mean time, encouraged by the results of the applica' 
tion of Melyn and Kuyter to the States-General, the jurist j; 
Adriaen van der Donck, in conjunction with several otiier 
opponents of tlie administration at New jVinslerdam, pre- 
pared in July, 1619, the historic document known as " Tlie 
Remonstrance of New Netherland." This vigorous paper, 
attacking the whole policy of the West India Company in 
relation to its colony of New Netlierlaud, was carried over to 
the Fatherland by a deputation including Van der Donck 
and Melyn. 'J'heir departure was liastenod by the fact that 
the Director-General had quietly sent over the Secretary Van 1 
Tienhoven to represent him before the States-(ienend. The 
Secretary' probably carried with him a letter from Stuyvcsant 
to that body, bearing date Aug. 10, 1649, ostensibly for the pur- 
pose of acknowledging the receipt of their mandamus, but in 
reality fdled witii insinuations against Cornells Melyn, Two 
weeks after the departure of Van Tienhoven the deputation 
sailed, — probably by tlie next vessel, — and hjr the second 
time Melyn watched the house of his family near the East 
River shore fade away in the distance ; he left them behind 
him, to be subjected to various petty annoyances from the 
Director-General. In the sununer of the year 1649, Melyn's 
son-in-law. Captain Loper, applied for permission to trade in 
the South or Delaware River, but although the Council w;i8 
in favor of granting the application, Stuyvcsant sullenly re- 
fused to do so, giving no other reason than that he had re- 
ceived express orders from his superiors " to keep an eye on 
Cornelis Melyn." " We Avish," says Janneken, the wife 
of Cornelis Melyn, in a letter to her husband, dated December 



DELAYS IN THE NETHERLANDS 117 

17, 1640, " thai God would be pleased to send tlie delegates 
bock quickly, with business aecoinplished, for here iiiatlers 
continue so bad as to excite luurmurs against Heaven." 

Matters, however, did not move qmckly; the management 
»nd even the future existence of the West India Company 
lUelf were now in question before the Stiites-Gcneral, and 
lithough that corporation had much declined from its former 
power, it had still sul'licient resources to make a vigorous 
fight in its own behalf and in that of its officers. To the 
charges made by Van dor Donck, r\Ielyn, and others, it sent 
to the _States-(jreneral on the 27th of January, 1G50, an 
answer couched in bitter terms against tiie petitioners.* 
Following the practice adopted by the States-General, all 
matters relating in any way to the West India Company 
were referred, in the liist instance, to a standing committee 
upon the affairs of that body, there sometimes to slumber 
a, long while. iMelyn seems to liave become wearied of the 
delays, and on the 8th of February, 1650, he complains to 
tlie States-General that owing to the absence from New 
Amsterdam of the Secretary, and to tlie obstacles thrown in 
his way by the authorities at that place, he has been unable 
to obtain certain papers necessary for his suit ; and ho prays 
that august body to take into consideration the fact that he 
"hath now groped such a length of time, since the year lGf3, 
in this labyrinth, without any error or fault of his, for the 
advancement of the public interests." 

The records which are accessible fail to show the final re- 
sult of the appeal of Alelyn and Kuyter to the States-General 
from Stuyvesant's arbitrary judgments, but whether these were 
finally overturned or not, no further molestation to those per- 
sons appears to have ever taken place by reason of them, and 
both Kuyter and Melyn were now anxious to return to New 
Netherland and to take advantage of tlie quiet now prevailing 
with the Indians, to restore their wasted plantations. 

' The malignant disposition of tho officers of tlie West India Company towards 
Melyn, Kuyter, and Van der Donck, — especially towards Jlelyu, — aresliowu in 
almost every letter sent by tliera to New Netherland about this time. 



118 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS TEOrLE 

In his long sojourn at the Hague, Cornells Melyn had been 
frequently brought into contact witli a person of soniu note 
in the government at that period. It has been already stated 
that the papers relating to tlio affairs of the West India Com- 
pany which were presented to the States- General were re- | 
ferred in the first instance to a standing committee of that | 
body. At the head of this committee was Ilenryk van der 
Capellen : this gentleman was a deputy to the States-(icneral 
from the county of Zutphen, and was a member of the Dutch • 
nobility, being Lord of Esselt and Ilasselt, near the east shore •' 
of the Zuyder Zee. He is frequently spoken of in the docu- K 
meuts relating to New Netherland by his title of Baron van der ■ 
Capellen tho Ryssel, and wa.s a man of independent fortune.' [] 
The Baron van der Capellen appears to have taken a lively 
interest in the affairs of Cornells Melyn, and not only did ho , 
forward tlie interests of the latter in the reports of his com- 
mittee to tiio States-General, but he finally entered into an ''| 
iigrcement with him for tlie improvement and development of 
his Staten Island manor, or rather patroonshii), in which 
Van der Capellen purchased an interest. 

The associates now made active preparations for carrying 
on the work of improvement. Van dor Capellen purchased, 
in the summer of 1050, a ship called Nieuw Nederlaiidsche 
Fortuyn, — Tlie Fortune of New Netherland, — wliich he 
designed to send over to his colony ; the vessel sailed for New 
Amsterdam in the fall or winter of that year, carrying a 
superintendent, carpenter, seven farmers, and a company of 



VI 



1 lu ail mterestiiig connauuiciaion resiicclirij tho ancient V.in dor Cipc-llen 
family, Mr. Arnold J. F. v.iu Lacr, of llie manuscript dcpartineut in tlie Stats 
Lil)rary at Albany and formi-rly of Utrcclit in the Netherlands, observes : " This 
ia one of our iiruniinent historic fmnilies, having ])layod an important part in 
the eighty years' war with Sjiain. Tliey wore oriEinally from France, where they 
received, as early as tlio eleventh ar.d twelfth centuries, favors from tlie court; nnd 
the house, in which the tiile of baron has been used for centuries, is to tliis day p'l 
closely allied with the oldest families in the country." Hcnryk viin der Capellen, 
referred to in the text, is understood to have died in 1659, Icaviu;,' no descendants; 
it ia uncertain whether his Slateu Island estate was surrendered to the West 
India Company, or whether it was confiscated by the EnEjlish, in the hands of 
his collateral heirs in 1664, aa being the property of subjects of the Netherlands. 



STUYVESANT CONFISCATES "FORTUNE" 119 



Mventy persons in all, uitli their necessary equipment, for 
the colony. Witli them returned Cornelis Melyn, who on tho 
preceding July 1 had received from the States-Genei-al letr- 
tcre of protecli(jn against his inveterate enemy Stuyvesant.^ 

The ship " Fortune," forced by stress of weather, touched at 
the lihode Island Colony, and thence pursued her voyage to 
Now Amsterdam ; by this deviation from her course, she had, 
it was claimed, infringed upon some of the customs regula- 
tions; and the Director-General grasped with avidity the 
opportunity of revenging himself upon Cornelis Melyn, whom 



1 It may not be out of place here to give some account of the further progress 
of the proceediugs before tho States-General against Director-General Stay vesant 
»nd the West India Company, iu the investigation sought for by Adriaeu van der 
Uonck and his associates in the "Kemoustranco" of 1649. On the 9th of August, 
1650, tlie committee of the States-General reported that the matters alleged 
ought to bo in(|uircd into, and tliat Cornelis van Tienhoveu, Stuyvesant's secre- 
tary and representative, then in the Netherlands, should be examined upon inter- 
rogatories. That wily individual, after having upon tho 29tli of November, 
1650, delivered a scurrilous reply to the " lleuionstrauce," managed to evade 
an examination till tlio latter part of tlie winter of 1650-51, when it was found 
that he was preparing to return to New Amsterdam. Thereupon tho States- 
General, on February 7, 1651, made an order that he sliould not leave the country 
till he had answered certain prepared interrogatories; and on March U a 
further order was served upon him and Jan Jauson Damen, his father-in-law, 
who had accompanied him from New Amsterdam as Stuyvesant's private agent, 
to appear for examination before the legislative body. The parties concerned, 
well assured of the backing of the West India Company, coolly set at defiance 
the mandato of the States-General. Jan Damen, bearing with him a deed from 
the West India Company to himself, as agent for Tetrus Stuyvesant, of "the 
company's great bouwery " (well known for nearly two hundred years as the 
Stuyvesant Farm, on Manhattan Island), which deed bore date March 12, 1651, 
immediately sailed for New Amsterdam, as the secretary of the company calmly 
notified the States-General, on the 2Ist of that month. Much irritated, tho 
States-General now ordered tho Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Com- 
pany not to allow Van Tienhoven to leave Amsterdam, and to notify the skipper 
of their sliip " Watcrhont," by which he was preparing to depart, not to receive 
him till he had obtained their permit. This order was treated with the same 
contempt as the former ojie, and on May 5, Van Tienhoven set sail for New 
Amsterdam. The matter appears to have now been allowed to drop. That 
such disregard of the authority of the State.s-Geueral was suffered, appears to 
have been partly "owing to tho dislike of the States-General to interfere in 
provincial matters, partly owing to the ill-defined limits of its authority, and 
partly owing to the inexpediency of exciting hostile feelings or dissensions in the 
then threatening state of affairs between tho United Provinces and England. 



WKVV AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE k 
he affected to consider as a concealed partner i„ the enter- I 
prise. He proceeded in the most arbitrary manner; the crew $ 
of the "Fortune " were arretted and thrown into prison, and 1$ 
the vessel was condemned and sold. Stuyvesant had, liowever ^ 
in this matter, attacked a person who was too iniluential to be 1 
assailed thus with impunity. The Baron van der OapeUen i 
immediately instituted proceedings before the States-General 4 
against the West India Company for the illegal seizure of his .^ 
vessel; he was awarded heavy damages, and the Company f 
had to pay roundly for the privilege of maintaining tlieir " 
despotic servant in his office at New Amsterdam 
_ As for Melyn himself, mc do not find that he actually came 
in person at this time into the clutches of Stuyvesant, and 
there is reason to believe that instead of coming up to the 
town on the incoming vessel, he landed at his " manor " upon 
Staten Island. The men of Melyn's colony, and those of his 
partner, \ an der Capellen, must have made quite a consider- 
able force and Stuyvesant does not appear to have considered 
It advisable to make any hostile incursion against him i His 
property in New Amsterdam, however, embracing what re- 
mained of his purchases of 1644, and extending along the 
river shore from near the present Broad Street to the City 
Tavern, at the head of the present Coenties Slip, was confis- 
cated by Stuyvesant's orders. A portion of it, adjoining tJie 
tavern, was added to the ground of that cstablislm.ent, and 
he remainder w.rs divided into four parcels extending from 
the road, or the present Stone Street, to tlie river sh^re 
and these were granted to various persons in September, 165l' 
Cornells Melyn now continued to reside for several veara 
upon his Staten Island estate, not venturing, accordi/g to 
statements made by some of his contemporaries, to set his foot 
in New Amsterdam. Hi, neighbor and friend, Jochem Pieter- 
sen K"yter had made his peace with Stuyvesant, whom with 
two others he had admitted in 1651 into joint ownersliip with 

-JnltJ' T TT' '; '''" '''P'' "' ""^ '""«' ^ '"g« -■""^ of Indians 
b... .mem.ea, honever, the^- must be accepted with caution. 



IMPRISONMENT OF MELYN 



121 



himself in his plantation on the Ilaiiem flats, whero he was 
DOW actively engaged in restoring his impaired fortunes ; but 
'in 1654 he was murdered by the Indians at Harlem. Kuy- 
tor's widow soon married Willem Janseu, the farmer or super- 
inteuduiit of the llailem plantation, but during the Indian 
outbreak in tlie fall of 1G55 she too was killed by the natives. 
Ku)ter left no children, and his small house at the corner of 
llioiid and Peail streets stood fcir several yeais vacant and 
ownerless, a melancholy memorial of the Indian troubles. 
Finally, the crumbling away of the river-bank in front of it 
led to action by the magistrates, and a " curator " was ap- 
pointed, who, on January 12, 1G58, sold the liouse at public 
auction to llendriek Jansen Vandervin. 

As for Cornells Melyn, we find that in the summer of 
1655 he was a prisoner in New Amsterdam ; but of the cir- 
cumstances leading to tiiis imprisonment, we have no informa- 
lioii. On the 31st of August of tliat year, upon a petition of 
Melyn's wife, asking that her husband might be removed to a 
more convenient place, " on account of liis sore leg," the 
Council made an order that she might be permitted to remove 
liim to a more convenient place, "in the City Hall, or else- 
where," on condition that he should furnish bail. At this 
very time, Director-General Stuyvesant w;is busy in fitting 
out the force with which, on the 5th of September of this 
year, he started against the Swedes on the Delaware ; and it 
is difficult to avoid the suspicion that he had availed himself 
of his miliUiry preparations for the purpose of getting his old 
adversary into iiis power. 

However this may be, Melyn must have soon returned to 
Ins colony upon Staten Island, for there, in the course of the 
Indian hostilities whicli followed the outbreak of September 15, 
1655, at New Amsterdam, he and several members of his 
family were made captives by the Indians, and his jjlantation 
^\as again destroyed. This misfortune was the ruin of 
Melyn's prospects upon Staten Island, which was left by the 
natives, according to the rci)ort of Secretary Van Tienhoven, 
"without an inhabitant or a house." The Indians, upon 



122 



NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPJ.K 



lie, Lo Ikivc trealed tliuir piisonon- 
ml Hoou tlulivurud tlieiu up for t'v 



this occasion, seem, ; 
without much harsh 
moderate ransom. 

No further particulars respecting the prosecution of Cor-J 
nelis Mclyn by the New Amsterdam authorities have comef 
to our notice, but it is evident tiiat he soon abandoned tliej 
colony. In the early part of 1657, he and his son -Jacob, hav^' 
ing repaired to New Haven, there took the oath of allegiance 1 
to tlie English government. He subsequently went again to ' 
the Netherlands, and there, in June, 1659, for the sum of 
1500 guilders, he surrendered Ids patroonship of Staten Island '^ 
to the West India Company. Aftei- the fall of Stuyvesaut ' 
and the capitulation to llie ICnglish in 1664, Jacob Melyn ^ 
returned to New York, and resided there for a number of 
years. His father, Cornelis llelyn, was still residing. in New :_|J 
Haven in 1662, but the time of his death is uncertain. 

The remaining members of Cornelis Melyn's family seem 
to have still resided at the house in the easterly half of tlie 
present Broad Street, which, in 1647, he had given to his 
daughter Cornelia: her lirst husband, Captain Jacob Leper, 
had died prior to 1653, and she married in that year Jacob 
Schellingcr, a merchant of Amsterdam, who was carrying on 
business in New Netherlaiul, and who, after the retirement of 
Cornelia Melyn, became the mainsta}^ of the family. Jan- 
netje, the wife of Melyn, and his daughter Cornelia and her 
husband were for several ycais engaged in fieiiuent litiga- 
tions with Captain Adriaen Pos, the agent of Melyu's co- 
partner, the Baron van der Capellen, respecting the division 
of the Staten Island propei'ty, and the settlement of various 
conflicting claims in connection therewith ; but it docs not 
appear that Cornelis Melyn, for the space of nearly five years, 
again set foot in New Amsterdam, to encounter liis old enemy, 
Director-General Stuyvesant, — "a tyrant, as we liave now 
and then been accused by the ignorant," as he complacently 
remarks of liimsclf. Melyn was certainly in New Amster- 
dam in 1661, however, no doubt protected by his English 
ciii/ensliip. 



Or'f ,1. U^^' 



THE MELYN HOUSE REMOVED 123 

1K. Tlie Melyn Iiouhc in Broad Street did not remain long in 
existence after ita builder had (iuitted it. After the Indian 
troubles of 1655 had in sonic measure subsided, it was de- 
tided to open up and to regulate several streets, in order to 
afford accommodation to the increasing number of those who 
tlesired to build in tJie town. One of the changes proposed 
in tiio early part of 165G was to widen and deepen " The 
Ditch," so as to form a canal navigable for small boats, with 
a sufficient roadway on each side of it ; this, when completed 
by sheathing tlie sides of tlie canal with planks, formed the 
well-known lleere (iraft, which covered the site of tlie pres- 
ent Broad Street, and which was a reminder, in a humble 
way, of the lleere (haft in Amsterdam. ^ 

To carry out this Avoik, it became necessary to renrove the 
house of tiie Melyn family, and in June, 1656, Jacob Schel- 
liiiger, Melyn's son-in-law, was nutilied not to proceed with 
tlie rest of his immediate neighbors in the construction of 
sheet-piling along their respective water-fronts, " as his house 
lies in the canal and on the road." A year or two afterwards 
it was demolished, and there was given by the burgomasters 
to the Melyn family, in partial compensation, a small lot of 
ground, only about eighteen feet square, at the southeast 
corner of lloogh Straet (present Stone Street) and the (J raft; 
this lot had been gained by tlie straightening of lloogh Straet 
which took place about this time, tiie western end of that 
street being shifted some twenty or twenty-five feet north- 
wards, in order to make it connect more Jiearly with Brouwer 

la) of Anistoi-ilnm, of which a view is given 
J bonlering passageways is ahout one linn- 
. ]5egiuuiiig and ending at or very near 
the Port, suniotiniea called, not very correctly, the ]{ivcr Y, it extends in a semi- 
elliptical curve around a considerable section of the city. A large portion of 
the Graft v/ns constrncted from about 1610 to 1615, and in the middle of the 
seventeenth century it formed the boundary of the city to the eastward, though 
a largo extent of buildings had grown up to the west of it. The Hrore Graft 
soon became one of the principal thoroughfares of Amsterdam, and (though 
containing no public buililiugs of much note), it soon came to be a favorite 
residence of the principal nicrrhaiifs, bankers, and others of the wealthier portion 
of the commuuity. 



1 


rhe Hcere Graft (c 


rmo 


dern Gracl 


inth 


s work, is a canal 


, wh 


ch with its 


dred 


and tifty English 


feet 


in breadth 



iM'.VV AMSTKHDAAI AND ITS PKOl'LE 



! 



Slraet (or tlic present Stone Street, Avest of Broad) ; ii'i 
inspection of the locality \\ill show tliat the lines of tlicMf 
streets are not continuous at the present time. Here theJ^ 
Melyns built their second dwelling, a small brick house, au4 
hero sonic of them resided for many years. Nominally, ths f 
jjroperty Ixdonged to tiie infant children of Captain Jacob 
Leper and of Cornelia Melyn,^ but it soon passed into the 
hands of other memVicrs of tlie family. 

On May 27, 1684, after Jannetje, the widow of Cornells 
Melyn, had ch)sed her eventful and troulilcd life, her eldest 
son Jacob received a conveyance (;f this pruijcrty through the 
administrators of his mother's estate. lie did not remain per 
mancntly in New York, but was engaged in the business of i 
leatlier-dresser in Boston ;' and in May, 1G97, ho sold the housa \{ 
for X360 to William Bickley, a mereiiant of the city, who had 
previously resided in it for some time as a tenant. It is a 
curious fact that this small plot of ground lias retained its 
dimensions through the vicissitudes of nearly two centuries 
and a half, and is to-day occupied by a small and somewhat 
dingy brick building with a wealth of rusty iron fire-escapes; 
it appears to have stoutly resisted absorption by the more 
imposing structure wliose blank walls of yellow brick over- 
tower it on two sides. 

Just south of this house, along the present Broad Street, 
was a small si)aee of ground wlueh belonged to the Melyn 
family, and which became available for building purposes 
when the lieere Graft was opened and regulated, in 1G57 
or thereabouts. Here, at a date unknown, but doubtless 
within three or four years after the period last mentioned, 
a cottage was built which was afterwards occupied for many 
years by Isaac Melyn, a younger son of Cornells. Isaac 
Melyn appears to have been engaged in shipping ventures 
as early as 1672 : he was at that time owner or master of 

I The record of baptisms iii the Dutcli Church coutaiiis the iiiinics of two ot 
the chililreu ut Ca[ilaiu Loper; naiucly, ,Jacol,us, (Jclober 25, IGIS, an. I Jaime- 
ken, October 30, UiSO. The daughter Jauuekun Tiiurried, October 9, 167-i, Joris 
Davidson of Albany : as to the sou, see Appendix II. to this volume. 




^ ^jSi-^-f^^^TJ'^' 






lilt S 1 nil \ 1 Cul M It ( 1 1 K( \D \M SluNE SrUEETS. 
bl „ tU 1 3 f U la r M 1 llou ^ J tli I f 



, ''^""-i 



i f 



SIBOUT CLAESSEN 



12," 



tbe sliip " Exjjectation," and having a controversy with some 
freighters resjiectiiig damage occasioned by a leak, lie received 
Uie permission of tlie (iovernor and Council to have the 
cargo unloaded and examined by arbitrators. Tlie liroad 
Street premises were sold iu 1722 by Joanna, the wife of 
Jonathan Dickinson of Elizabetlitown, New Jersey, who was 
tl.6 only surviving child of Isaac Mclyn, to William Ver- 
jilanck, a merchant of New Yuik. ^ 

At the time of our survey of New Amsterdam in 1055, a 
dwelling-house had been jeceutly built on tlie south side of 
lloogh Straet, immediately east of the spot upon which the 
later, or seeoiul, Mclyn house was, within a year or two 
jflci-wards erected ; its site is at present covered by the 
northerly end of tlio large building whic;h encloses two sides 
of the small Melyii plot, above described.^ The lot upon 
\\hich this dwelling-house stood liad been sold by Cornelis 
Alelyn, soon after his relurn from the Netherlands, in the 
tally part of 1G51, to Sibout Clacssen, a carpenter by trade, 
from the ancient town of I loom, then a famous seaport 
upon the Zu3der Zee, some sixteen or eighteen miles nortli 
of Amstei'daiu. As Director Stuyvesaiit liad, at this time, 
caused proceedings to be instituted against Melyn for an 
alleged infringement of the rcvciuKi laws, umler which pro- 
ceedings tlie balance of his land along the I'.asL River shore 
was afterwards ccuiliscated as above stated, ^ he apparently 
refused td^ recognize the validity of Melyn's transfer to 
Claesseu, and would not allow any deed of the property to 
be registered. CUacssen, however, not only nuiint^iined pos- 
session of the premises, but thril'tily endeavored to take ad- 
"vantage of the irregularity, by refusing to jjay Melyn the 
puce agreed upon. Stuyvesant's persecutions seem to have 
deterred Mclyn for some years from jjrosecutiug his demand 
fui the purchase-money, and \vhcn he tinally sued Claesseu 



1 For furtlier dolaila 
II til this vuhiine. 
^ Seti anlt, page 124. 



iiulib Mflyii, 



12G 



NEW AMSTKllDAM 7\ND ITS PEOPLE 



before the Court of ilie Burgomasters, the cause languished' 
along for several years, and was not tenninatcd in i\Iulyn'» 
favor until IGGl. 

The rear of this lot of Sibout Claessen, which extended to 
the shore, was encroached upon by the tides in violent storms; 
and, for the purpose of preventing it from being washed away, 
Claessen, first among the owners upon tlie siiore, constructed 
a sheet-piling of planks along the bank in the rear of 
premises. This he had done prior to lGo4, and upon 
complaint the other owners, as far east as the present (-(;entiea 
Alley, were ordered to carry out a similar work along their 
respective lots, the burgomasters engaging to construct the 
same protection to the shore in front of the Town House. ^ 

1 Sibout Claessen occupied the property on Iloogh Straet (Stone), .ibove de- 
scribed, for m.'iny years. He Lad no children, but liad married the widow oj 
Aert Teuuis?en, a farmer at Iloboken who was l;illed by llie Indians wliile on a 
trading excursion in the vicinity of Sandy IIoolc, in the year 1643 ; to her two 
daugliters Wyntjo, tlio wife of Simon Harontscu, and Susanna, wife of Kyiiier 
AVilleniscn, girls of about seventeen and fourteen years at tlie time of our survey, 
Claessen left hia estate, at liis deatli in 1080. In 1G4C Claessen received a graut 
of about one hundred .icres of laud, " at tlie Uook of the Ilellogaat called llootu's 
Hook." Tliis was a headland on tlie Kast River shore, near the foot of the pres- 
ent Eighty-ninth Street, and the name is supposed to have been given to it by 
Claessen in remembrance of the locility of similar a]ipeUation, e.vst of theeutrauce 
to the harbor of his native city of lloorn. Claessen soon parted with the land 
upon the East Kiver, but the name was long f;uiiili:ir , indeed, it ap)irars upon 
a map puldished as late aa 187.') or thereabouts, in the corrupted form of 
" Harris' Hook." 



ii 



CHAPTER Xll 

t/iCOfl STEENDAM, THE DUTCH POET, AND HIS HOUSE.— 
UIS POETICAL WORKS. - " DEN DISTEL VINE." - POEMS ON 
XEW NETHERIAND.-HIS LATTER YEARS AT UATAVIA 

Dor Cliristliclicn Keligion 
War er vou liertzeii zugethon, 
Dieselb zu fiirdern und zu eliren, 
Uud recliteii Gottsdieiitit zu vtriueliren. 

Das iat der scliatz in dieser Welt, 
])er ul)eitrifft alls Gut uud Gilt, 
Wekliun der Kust nit frosseii i.mg, 
Kr Ideiljt Lisa ai. dou Juii.'steii 'i'a.'. 



BETWEEN tlie lot of Sibout Cliiessen and the Town 
House, upon the south side of the High Street, hxy tlie 
cijiiliscated laud of Covuelis Melyn. This (after deducting 
a portion, which was added to the grounds of the Town 
Jlouse), had been divided into four parcels, which were sold 
to as many different individuals in September, 1G51. Of 
these parcels, the one next to Claessen's lot was held at the 
time of our survey by Mattheus, or Matthew de Vos, a 
respectable 'notary of the town, who has been previously 
mentioned in these sketches.' In the year lO.W it appeal's 
to have been still vacant und unimproved,- but the next year 
it was sold to Adolph rietcrsen, a house carpenter who 
\ seems to have built upon it and occupied it as a residence 
\ for many years. '^ Of the remaining parcels of this series the 





See ante, p. 12. 


















As, by the Nvay 


it happe 


ns to be at 


the 


present time 


(1900) 


the 


ot b 


boaiJed off {i-oiu tUe 


street. 
















This person a| 


pears to 


lave beeu 


also 


oecasiuually 


emplu. 


ed-- 


-pos 


<or 


the couvcuieiii'O 


uf tlie use 


of his ear 


leiitt 


r'b rule - iu 


jieaouri 


'H ""' 1'^' 



128 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOl'LE M 

two nearest to the Town Hall were held in 1(355, one Ijfe 
Sybrant Jansen, sometimes called Galma, ■ — it is uncert»a|' 
whether this was as yet built upon; the other, adjoining tl>|.>'^ 
enclosure of the Town House, was owned by Captain Adriaeif 
Blonmiaert, skipper of the West India (company's shqiM 
"New Amsterdam;" it was probably built upon as early M- 
1655, but the house seems to have stood upon what wtf^. 
really the rear of the lot, near the shore, so as to enjoy tbfti 
immediate proximity of the Town House. m 

As for the intervening parcel of land, (U- the one situatal' 
between the lot of Matthew de Vos upon the west and that' 
of Sybrant Jansen upon the east, it possesses far more cl _ 
interest and is in fact one of the historic sites of Net; 
Amsterdam. Here stood, without doubt, the original houae 
of Burger Jorissen, the smith, erected certainly as early u 
1641, and one of the lirst dwelling-houses, if not the veiy 
lirst, to be built in the viUai/e of New Auistovdam, east of the 
present Broad Street. Sold to Cornelis Melyn in 1644, u 
already stated,' it was granted in 1651 as a [lart of his con- 
fiscated estate to Cornelis van Tienhoven, the favored Secre- 
tary under Director-General Stuyvcsant; and upon the 12th 
of October, 1654, it was purchased from Van Tienhoven by 
Doctor Jacob Varrevanger for Jacob Steendani, the Dutcl), 
poet, who resided here at the tinie of our survey. 

The passer-by in Stone Street, between Broad Street and 
Hanover Squai-e, will, if he have sufficient leisure to look 
about him, be qiiite sure to have liis attention directed to a 
two'^story and basement brick dwelling-house standing oddly 
in the midst of the dull warehouses of that locality. For a 
New York building, the house is ancient, — that is to say, 
it was probably erected in the lirst or second decude of the 
nineteenth century. Time has dealt hardly with the edifice 



of land for individuals. In this connection ho executed, in 16G4, 


immediatelj 


after tlie surrender to tlie Unglish, "a survey "of a small parcel 


. of land for 


Burger Jorissen, and iu this occurs perhaps the first use of the new 


name of tlie 


town wliich can be traced to private ciliioua. riuterscn's phonetii 


; spelling ol 


the name was " Nn larck." 




' See aute, pp. 104, 100. 





STEENDAM'S HOUSE IN STONE STREET 1:^9 

In some respects; its brown-stone doorsteps and window-sills 
are crumbling away, and its iron railings are deeply bitten 
with rust. The Jower portion of the building seems to be 
devoted to certain mechanical trades, , but the second story 
gtiil displays its fringed ^vindow-shades and linen-covered 
parlor furniture, as it may have done three quarters of a 
century ago.^ It is no very violent supposition that this old 
house, No. 2(J Stone Street, may be the innuediate successor 
of the original house of Burger Jorissen, as afterwards held 
hy Cornells Melyn and the Secretary Van Tienhovcn. Upon 
llie Justus Danckers view of New Amsterdam, the period 
of which cannot vary much from the year KiaO, this build- 
ing appears to be clearly shown, and its position being an 
isolated one, the representation is likely to approach accu- 
racy, at any rate in its essential details. Tiie house thus 
depicted is a modest-looking structure of a story and a half 
in height; its gable eiul fronts the road, but it has a door- 
way towards the south, looking in the direction of the City 
Tavern and of the river, the intervening space being as yet 
unoccupied by any buildings. 

At the "stoep" before this doorway a slight play of the 
imagination will suffice to i)lace us: the elevated railway 
and the warehouses on Pearl Street and tlience to the river 
Lave all disappeared, and in their place the waves ripple 
upon a shingly beacli; at our front the garden extends a 
huudrecl feet or more to the bank overlooking the shore; and 
a well with its rude sweep is seen among the vegetable beds 
and the currant bushes; to the left of us the Iloogh Straet 
stretches for a space, till it is gradually lost as it curves 
around the large house and grounds of Govert Loocker- 
mans;^ between these and the old City Tavern, or Town 

1 Afler the coiiipleliciu of tlie jireseut work, aud lu tliu hitter [j:irt of 1901, or 
iu the bcgiiujiug of 1902, the old hiiildiug spoken of iu thu text as occupyiug the 
site of Steeiidain's house was demolished. The vaeaiit spot upou which it stood 
can be seen iu the view of the site of the Melyn house at the corner of Broad 
and Stone streets, facing page 124 of this work, at the left-hand tide of the 
print. 

■^ Situated on the jircsent Hanover Square. 



fit 



..fC 



130 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

Hall, which is backed by a swelling knoll and some forest : 
trees near the shore, a vista opens far up the dark blue waters ' 
of the East River; across the river (in which, not far from 
the shore, a few New England coasters and one or two of the ' 
high-sterned sea ships of the West India Company are lying i 
at anchor),! the last rays of a summer sun gild the forests on 
tlie hills of Long Island; and at our side, in a halo of the 
smoke of his evening pipe, is the patient, tho\ightful, firm, 
but somewhat careworn face of Jacob Steendam, long-time 
servant of the West India Company, the iirst poet of New ' 
Netherland, and — if we leave out of view Welde and ,| 
Mather's crude metrical version of tlie Psalms, published 
in New England in 1640, and Mrs. Anne Bradstreet'a ' 
abstractions, publislied there at about the same period - 
in all probability the earliest poet of North America.^ 

Jacob Steendam's life had been one of hardship and of 
adventure. Like Catullus, he found his haven — 

" Mullas per gentes, el inulta per ivquora vecius" *,* 

and it was this wandering life that called forth the lines, — 

" Steendam I die door zoo veel zeeii, 
Eeu reex van vijftien ronde jaeren 
U aen de Maatschappij verbint," — 

Thou, Steendam, who o'er many a sea, 

111 service of tlie Company, 

While fifteen years around have rolled, etc., 

addressed to him by his friend, the Dutch poet, Pieter 
Verhoek. 

1 lu Burger Jorissen's day, in 1641, a drunken gnnLer, upon one of the 
vessels anchored near the shore, did coiisidcraldo daiuafje to this house, by the 
discharge of a ijhotted ciuiuon in firing a salute. 

2 George Sandys, while treasurer of the Colony of Virginia in its early days, 
is said to have occupied a portion of his time in preparing his trantlatiou of Ovid. 
Ab his stay in the colony was but a limited one, however, and as his works con- 
tain nothing relating to America, it is dillicult to see why ho should be called aa 
American poet. As for tho Rev. William Morrell, who resided for a very short 
time in the I'lymouth Colony soou after its foundation, his verses jinblished 
after his return to England, about the year 10:25, in the pedantic Latin of hia 
day, and which he called "Nova Anglia," are to be looked upon more as a liter- 
ary curiosity tliau auything else. 



•=?■;''•.«. ,^-':|r' 






n ■•;vJ- 



iiM^ 



ENKIIUYSEN 131 

According to the best information accessible, Stecndam 
' waa born about 1G16 in the city of Enkliuyseu. This old 
town, in the extreme northeastern part of the province of 
Holland, and at the entrance to the Zuyder Zee, though 
now much decayed, was in Jacob Steendani's time in high 
prosperity. Its streets of substantial stone houses were 
lilled with a busy throng of ship-builders, pilots, seamen, the 
tlshermen of several hundred herring smacks then owned in 
the city, and the numerous artisans and tradesmen supplying 
the wants of this maritime population. The little city, too, 
was proud of its historic and scientific renown; in 1572 it 
was the first town in North Holland to raise the standard of 
liberty against the oppression- of Spain, and its citizens had 
fought valiantly in the Dutch fleets and armies; the ships 
built here found their way to all parts of the globe ; one of 
tliem, "The Maid of Enkliuyseu," was in the New Amster- 
dam trade; the spirit of geographical research and of explo- 
ration became active, and Enkhuysen boasted of several 
renowned geographers and naturalists. 

The city lay in the midst of a world of waters, extending, 
as far as the eye could reach, to the north, east, and south; 
only northwards, across the wide mouth of the Zuyder Zee, 
the houses and steeples of the old Parisian city of Staveren 
appeared to rise out of the sea: — 

j^ " Am fernen Ilorizonte 

Eischeint, wie ein Ncbelbild, 
Die Stadt, niit ihren Tiirmen 
lu Abeuddiimmrung gehullt;" 

and far to the east, the light upon the island of Urck shone 
dindy through the misty nights \ipon the Zuyder Zee. 

To a mind like tliat of the young Jacob Steendam, there 
must have come many romantic visions, as the Amsterdam 
ships passed daily by Enkhuysen on their way to and from 
many strange lands, while now and then Dutch men-of-war 
or privateers sailed by with their Spanish or INuluguese 
piizes. The love of adventure was strong within him, and 



i ^ 



132 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

at an early age he went to Amsterdam, whei-o he s( 
entered the service of tlie West India Company.^ But', 
little is known respecting the position he occupied under 
that corporation, nor of his particular travels ; when about 
twenty-iive years of age, however, he was sent, in the inter- 
ests of the Company, to the coast of Guinea, and was present 
at the taking of Fort Axen or Axeni from tiu! Portuguese, 
in 1642,2 .iftci. ^y\^■^^,\^ \^i^ ^l^-^ll^.^ detained him ui-on tiiu Afri- 
can coast till the year Itil',), when he appears to have returned 
to Amsterdam.'* 

At least as early as IGIjG, when not more tlian twenty 
years of age, Steendam iiad written verses, and aliuut 
l(J-19-50 he published a collection (jf tbeiii, called "Deu 
Distelvink, " — "The Tliistle-tiuch," — which lias now be- 
come exceedingly rare. This is a little volume of lyrical 
pieces, chiefly love songs, poems descriptive of his own perso- 
nal experiences and spiritual and devotional verses luarked 
by a dee[)ly religious feeling which was characteristic of the 
man, and which was well alluded to by the Dutch author, 
Joban Nieuwhoff, in bis eulogistic lines upon Sleendam:- 

" De gaaven van zyn (ieest, in uiautzang uilgeleozeii, 

Verstreckeii Gndt.s gemeciit eeii Ilai'ii die iruorau streeld 
Miit Davids lleiiiel-taal. Wie kaii zijii kiiiist volloovun? 
Des Ilcereu Lotgezang gaat alle Lulf te bovea." 



^ ' " Aniaterdam, 

Waar ilut ik jeugdig kwarn, 

Vau u ik lest iniju af-scliuijd uam," etc. 

a " Wy hebbeu kort daar iia (met seven klooke-Sehepeu), 
Don SpeL eeii Fort uutuiuiid; tiat wy met muet angre'peu ; 
Waar op ik bcii geleyd self in hot oog van Mars," ete. 

a In a poetical epistle, dated at Fort Axeni in (Jninea. 7 Aug., 1G42, to "the 
Tery bright young dauglitcr and poetess Aafje Curnelis, at Kucluiysen," Steen 
dam gives several of the detuil.-i of his jouruey to Africa. lie sailed out of the 
'I'exel on the lUh of October, I6U, with a fleet of twenty-seven sail, bound to 
various quarters of the globe, and whieh narrowly escaped destruction in a severe 
Sturm wbi(di overtook them on the 17th of October, oft the Isle nf Wi^'ht. Ou 
December 19, he arrived at the (iastlu of Delmiiii in Guinea. 



THE POEMS OF STEENDAM 133 

His spirit's gifts divine, set forth in flowing song, 

Unto God's people give a harp which channs the ear 

Wilh JJavid's licav'nly theme. His art, what song may praise? 

The hymn of praise to God transccndetli all our lays. 

Ijlany of the poems of Steenclain are signed with the whini.si- 
tti\ pseudonym "Noch Vaster," — "still iirrner," — wliich lie 
Sjleems to have adopted from some faneied a[)positeness tu his 
|own luinie, Steendam signifying "stone dam." 

lis familiarity with nautical affairs gives a flavor of the 
•'wa to many of the verses of Jacob Steendanj. Jii sdine cjf 
fUiem, which are written with a vigor calling to mind t!ie 
ea-verses of Camphell, one can almost hear the salt liiee/,c 
I whistling through the cordage of- the West India Company's 
llect as it sails smilhwards : — 

'•Ye plouglier.s of the ocean 

And harrowersof theseal 
The ship Deventer goes before, 

And with tlie Hoe sail we. 

And tlie Swan and Iliad we see. 
To the (iiiinea coast of Africa wo hie, 

To the golden Moorish land, 

Wherein God's mighty hand 
llalli planted our dominion far and nigh." ' 

Always, whether upon tlie sea or the land, the poet finds 
some subject of moral reflection. In the "eyndelose wech," 
the endless wake of the ship as she sails through smooth 
waters, he sees the swift flowing away of an aimless human 
life; in the image of the anchor, he sees the right use of 
Time. So, too, hoar "The Thistlcfinch " singing to the 
newly married couple: — 

1 " (iij ploogcrs van den Oceaan 
Kn Eggcrs in de Zee. 
't Schip Deventer wil voor ons gaan, 
Wij volgen met de Ree, 
De Swaun en Hindo mee; 
Ons Oog-wit is Guin^ 
In Africa. 

Het goud rijk Moren-land, 
Daar God lirachtig heeft gepl.mt 
Onsen Handel, voor en na." 



NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 



" A ship willi sturdy tinilicrM 

No haven long may stay, 
Tho' Neptune's foaming billows 
, Are roai-ing on hur way ; 
But yet she hastens out, 

Her tarry tackle shiiiing: 
Along her brown hull's sides 

A thousand Hides arc twining. 
' T is patience shows tho helmsman 

'J'he goal for which lie steers, 
Tho' Thetis frowns upon him, 

And Triton's rage he hears; 
Who with his dolphins all 

The very clouds is scaling ; 
The surly Sun-God too 

Ilis face and rays is veiling. 
' Now read my hidden meaning: 

Ye and the ship are one ; 
I'he waning of affection, 

The storm and reefs to shun. 
A hehnsman is provided. 

And youth's bright dreams to cht 
The world's ways are the Sea, — 

The Gulf where many perish." i 



1 geti 



"Een schip se 
Iloud geeii havens-stue ; 
Schoon dat Neptunus sell, 
Kuysclicnd op de Ree, 
Nochtaiia het ijld eich uyt 
Met syn bepekte takels; 
Kn bruyn geverfde huyd, 
GehccUt met duyaend scliulitls. 

"Godiild vertoond den Stuuriiiiui 
't Wit daar liy opdoeld 
Al siet tiein Tlietia suur an. 
En of Triton woeld ; 
Die met syn Dollepliijn 



iicrd, 



Tot an do Wolken i 
Daar Delius h( 
Gcsicht en Str 



ygerd 
cygerd. 



' Let nu eena op raijn Mening; 
Gij dan sijt het scliip; 
d' Onlieyluu, echls-verkk'ninj: 
Is 't oiiweer en klip; 
Uen Stuunnan is u geeft 
En jeugds genegendlieden 
Dc Zee (die mi'nig vreest) 
Vertoond dcs Werclds zwien.' 



"DEN DISTELVINK" 135 

In one souse, Stcendani's name anil liis favorite poetical 
'jetiulonym are particularly apiinjpriate: there is one quality 
conspicuous all through his writings, and it is tliat of stead- 
fitstncss. Some of his imagery is not of the most delicate 
description, and liis phrases are occasionally prolix and in- 
Tolvcd; l)Ut the earnestness of the man so illuminates his 
work that one would be no more disposed seriously to criti- 
cise his verses than those of Wordsworth or of Whittier. 
He seems from tlie very beginning to have kept steadily in 
view a plan of progression from higlier to liigher aims, — a 
design which he never lost sight of, and which he has set 
forth (luauitly in the opening lines of >' Den Distelvink." 

" Here by the Amslcl's .slreaiu the Tliisllofiucli is singing, 
As thoiigli 'twere but to-d;iy lie from the ncbt -were winging. 
See how the callow bird, with artlessness elate, 
Already seeks to pair and blytliely calls his mate. 
'T is sure that as he chirps so eist his elders suug, 
For as the old birds sing, so chirp and pipe the young. 
Though with the nightingale's his song may not compare, 
lie speaks in his own tongue and sings to his own air ; 
For tender little birds have feeble bills, I trow : 
liut yet, O loving youths, another tune ye '11 know, 
If ye can only wait until his pinions grow. 
And upwards to the clouds he'U soar from earth below." ' 

Seven years spent under the tropical sun of Africa had 
addgil more than the years might indicate to the cares of 
Jacob Steendam and to his sense of the seriousness of life, 
when, in 1649, the long wished-for opportunity arrived for a 

1 " Ilicr siiigt den Distelvink omtrent des Amstels Stroiiicu, 
Ala of liy iiyt den dop eer.st heden was gekoincn; 
Sict docii lict naakte Dier betoont syii blydeii aart, 
llet soekt en snioekt syn lielft, en weuscht te /ijii gepaart ; 
't Is acker so liet pijpt ook eerst sijn ouders songeu 
Want so den ouden siiigt so pijpcn ook dc jongen. 
Schooii dat bet niet en queelt gelijk den Nacbtegaal, 
llet singt op sijn manicr en spreekt sijn cygen taal. 
Want sacbte vogelljes die licbljen wec-ke nebbon ; 
Ghy snlt (o soete jcuebt) ecu audcr deimtje bebben 
Indieu gij.w^eliten kunt, tot dat hel veeren krygt 
En van de'adi-d oni buoeb tot door de wolken stijgt." 



136 i\i:W AMSTERDAM AND ITS THOPLE 

return to tlie Netherlands. His liealtli liad suffered in the 
pestilential climate of the country', — "this poisoiums Africa," 
as he calls it;' and he tells in his verses of tlie confused 
visions of "the World, the Flesh, and the Devil," which 
crowded upon him in the delirious liours of his fevers. 
Then, too, he suffered in one of the strongest attachments of 
his devoted nature, in the breaking up of the companionship 
between himself and his close friend Johannes FouUon, one 
of the princii)al mercantile agents in Africa of the West 
India Compan}^, — a young man of about the ])oet's age, who 
returned to Holland in lli-lf;. Many of Steendam's verses 
are addressed to this friend. 

Jacob Steendam seems to have reached the Netherlands in 
the early part of the year 1(34!), for on or about the 21st of 
July of that year the lirst part of "Den Dislclvink " was 
published at Amsterdam, and on the 20th of November of 
the same )'ear, the second part of tlie work was published I 
at the same place, while the tbiril and concluding ]>ortion 
appeared on the Gth of Jul}', IGfiO. Piior to this latter date 
Steendam seems to have been married to Sara de Rosschou, 
whose praises he had sung in some of the verses of the last 
part of "Den Distelvink." 

About the year 1052, Steendam arrived at New Amster- 
dam, but whether he was still in the emjiloyment of the 
AVest India Company is not known. In July, 1G53, he 
purchased a small house and lot in Pearl Street directly 
under the 'Avails of the fort, and here he appears to have 
resided for a short time, till he acquired, in the following 
year, the house upon Iloogh Straet, above described, which 
was his residence at the period of our survey. Besides the 
above parcels of land in New Amsterdam, Steendam owned 
for a time a house and garden upon tlie east side of Broad- 
way, about midway between the present Beaver Street and 

^ " Hy sal u (behouden) brongon 
Uyt (Jit giftig Africa; 
Hy sal u (le tijil verlougcu, 
Tot in 't oud-Batavia," etc. 



STEENDAM JN NEW AMSTERDAM 137 

Exchange Place, and a garden spot, or piece of vacant 
ground, of about half an acre in extent, on the north side 
of the then recently laid out Prinse Straet (now forming an 
eiujterly extension of Beaver Street), between the present 
Broad and William streets. 

As to Steendam's occuiiatiou while in New Amsterdam, 
but little is known. A Ijill for a dozen cushions, supplied 
hy him to the burgomasters of the t(j\vn for their use in the 
Town Hall, has been taken as an evidence that he was in 
possession of the trade of an upholsterer, but this is a mere 
conjecture, and ho calls himself indeed upon several occasions, 
a "trader." Like most of the citizens of New Amsterdam 
(vho possessed some capital, however, he was interested in 
farming operations, and soon after his arrival he became the 
proprietor of a plantation at Amersfoort upon Long Island, 
and of a tract of about thirty acres, doubtless woodland, 
upon the shore of the Mespat Kill, at present known as 
Newtown Creek. He seems to have been a p)rosperous man, 
and several mortgages to him appear upon the recoids during 
his sojourn in New Netherland. 

Steendam rem;uned about eight years in New Amsterdam, 
returning to the Netherlands in the latter part of the year 
1660, as nearly as can bo ascertained. He was deeply 
interested in the affairs of the Colony, and he deplored the 
neglected state into which it had been sulTered to fall, 
betwssn the indifference of the Dutch government on the 
one hand, and the failing circumstances of the West India 
Company on the other. It was with a view to excite public 
attention in the Netlierlands to this condition of things that 
in 1659 Steendam sent there his first poem on tlie affairs of 
the Colony; this was called "The Complaint of New Am- 
sterdam to her Mother." After his return to Amsterdam, 
and about the year 1661, he published a poem of some 
length, entitled "The Praise of New Netherland," dedicated 
to Cornells van Ruyven, then Secretary of the Colony, and 
this was followed in 166:^, or soon thereafter, by a third poem, 
bearing the odd appellation of " Prikkel-Versen " (which has 



138 



NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 



been well rendered as "Spurring Verses'"), and designed for 
tlie purpose of urging on a proposed atteuipL by the city of 
Amsterdam to plant a colony on the Delaware River, upon 
land granted for that purpose by tlie West India Company. 

At tlie period of Jacob Steendam's residence in New 
Amsterdam, the creative powers of nature were still in full 
operation in the innnediate vicinity of the settlement. A 
walk of ten minutes from his home brought him to rural 
solitudes along the Maagde Paetje, or Maiden Lane; a walk 
of less than an liour br(jught him to the primeval forest 
beyond Director Stuyvesant's bouwery. The sight of the 
bountiful gifts of nature, 02)en to all, seems to have inspired 
him with a wonderful confidenco in the future of the land. 
The prospect was undisturbed by the troublesome questions 
of a vast and increasing proletarian population ; of boundless 
municipal and private extravagance; of an army of non-tax- 
paying professional politicians, drawing their support from 
the tax -paying classes; of enormous taxes, draining the life- 
blood from trade and commerce; and of vice too great for the 
police power adequately to coj^jo with. All these problems 
were far distant; the virtues and vices of the community 
were those of an infant state of society. Many of the people 
were poor, but those who were able and willing to labor 
could easily supply their simple wants, even though it were 

" Jlet suppaan eii Harte vleysch," — 



with suppaan and venison; and all might reasonaljly expect 
materially to better their condition. 

Steendam exulted in the land and in its capal)ilities ; at 
the edges of the uplands, from under the roots of the beeches 
and alders, a thousand springs of the purest water gushed 
forth; around the settlement lay, in all directions, the virgin 
soil, "red, white, blue, and black," possessing the most 
varied qualities; everywhere he saw the "kills " rolling their 
full streams through the woods; all tliese it was his delight 
to extol in his verse. lie had iicrhaps looked from the 



STEENDAIM'S LOVE OF NATURE 



139 



Bergen Heights upon tiie waving sea of n-eds extuiuling to 
tlie forest-clad hills I'ar away to the west; ujion the Leach at 
Corlaer's Iloek, he had wandered among the great bouhlers 
of gneiss and sandstone and trap, the detritus of the glacial 
age; from his house upon the East River shore he had often 
■watched the great forests of Long Island beyond the sand 
bluffs; these, loo, all appeared in his song. He was a close 
observer (jf the exuberant animal and vegetable life around 
Lim: from Ids own door he had seen the stately flight of the 
eagle, or the poising of the hawk over the ICast Kiver, and 
the tumbling of the porpoises in the bay; in sheltered coves 
along the shores of "the Company's Eouwerys " and their 
meadows, the wild ducks and geese swam in their seasons; 
at the edges of the swamps along "Bestevaars Killetje, " back 
of Director Van Twiller's tobacco fields, and not far per- 
haps from where Washington Square now is, the wild tur- 
keys fed; quail started up before him in the pastures along 
the Bouwery Lane; in the thickets upon the Sand Hills 
the partridge whirred past him ; and as he rambled along the 
banks of the "Great Ivill," the otter slid into the water 
before him; the raccoon and fox, the marten and the mink, 
the rabbits, and the flying-squirrels, "leaping through the 
air,"-— he tells of them all. 

Everywhere, too, in the autumn woods, he saw the nut 
trees, with the ground beneath them covered with their 
unga*,hered stores; in the common pasture fields and in the 
newly cleared lands, in early summer, he admired the profu- 
sion of the strawberries, "which in jjroud scarlet shine;" in 
hedgerows and waste spots, — likely enough along Secretary 
Van Tienhoven's lane, where narrow and dingy Ann Street 
now is, — he had gathered the bark and the tender shoots of 
the medicinal sassafras in early spring, or the wild cherries 
in late siimmer; in the wet borders by Maagde Paetje, mint 
and catnip, tansy and the bee-haunted thyme grew thickly; 
and the gardens of the colonists were filled with kitchen 
vegetables without limit. To Steendam's enthusiastic mind, 
the whole country was a garden, and he sings : — 



140 



NEW A?»ISTER1)AM AND ITS PEOPLE 



" Siet, niijn tuyn leyd an twee Sti'Oincn 
Die van 't Oost, en 't Nourdeii komen, 
En haar storten in de Zee, 
Visch-rijk boven alien Wee." 

North and east two streams snpplying, 
'Twixt the two my garden lying ; 
Here they puur into the sea, 
Rich with fish, beyond degree. 

Tlie teeming life of tlie watciy, in t'lict, excites Lis special 
admiration, and he tells of the shad and the striped bass, of 
tiie sea bass and the blacklish, of the erabs, lobsters, mussels, 
and oysters, — 



' .So large that one, ii 
Of those ot Kniupe.' 



size, exceodeth three 



Even the humble sunlisii and perch of the Kolck pond are 
not forgotten. 

In his close observatioii of nature (more tlian in his facility 
of expression), Steendam has something of kin to Robert 
Burns, and he cotdd have well aii[)rcciaLcd the Scotchman 
when he sings : — 

"Evil winter bleak has charms for me 
When winds rave thro' the naked tree ; 
Or frosts on hills of Oehiltreo 

Are hoary gray ; . ' . 

Or blinding drifts wild-furious fiee, 
f Dark'ning the day. 

" O Nature 1 a' thy shows an' forms 
To feeling, pensive hearts hae charms I 
AVhether the simmer kindly warms 

Wi' life an" light, 
Or winter howls, in gusty storms, 
The lang, dark night I " 

Upon such a night — perhaps in the year of grace 1655 — 
Jacob Steendam sits in his armchair, meditatively contem- 
plating a blazing hickory log which lies in the ample fire- 
place of his house on Iloogli Straet: — 

" 't is noten-hont dat niemand hceft geplant,' — 



STEENDAM RETURNS TO HOLLAND 



141 



nut-wood, planted by no human hand! Outaide, the wind 
whistles about the exposed dwelling; the snow drives 
tlirough the dark street, where the shuttered windows give 
uo light; and lie hears the waves of the East River dasli- 
ing with freezing sjiray upon the stones of the beaeli below 
tiie piling baek of his liouse; but within doors the blaze of 
the odoriferous wood grows brigliter and hotter, and ho 
exclaims: — 



" Wieus heete vlam geeu vooht iioch koude wijkt, 

AVitMis guur, en reuk, (vol angenuaiulir^t), lijkt 

Na Kdeu's veldeii." 

Whose genial flame yields to uo damp nor cold, 
Whoso odors fragrant are as those of old, 
In fields of Kdeu. 

The liouso ujion Iloogh Strart was sold by Steendam in 
September, lli5G, to Jan Cornelissen van J loom, the ancestor 
of the Van Ilorne family of the Colony. The poet remained 
several years longer in New Netherland, however, and for a 
time, about the year 1G57, he is said to be "at present resid- 
ing in New Haven," but as to the business wliieli took him to 
that place, and as to thu leugtli of his sojourn there, we 
have no inforuiation ; but in the summer of 1G60 we find him 
preparing to return with his family to Amsterdam. He now 
entered into the employment of the Dutch East India Com- 
pany, and in ItiUG he sailed from Anisteidam for Hatavia on 
the island of Java, the emporium of the Dutuh eolojiies in 
the eastern seas, he having received the appointment of Zie- 
kentrooster, or visitor and consoler of the sick at that place, 
— an inferior ministerial oflice in the church. At Ratavia, 
Steendam was chosen, in 1GG8, governor of the Orphans' 
House in that city, and he held that ofilice for several }'ears, 
still exercising occasionally his poetical gifts, for he pub- 
lished here anotlier collection of lyrical pieces, called "Zeede 
Zangen voor de Ratavische 'Jonkheit," — "Moral Songs for 
the Ratavian Youth." 

Here, then, Jacob Steendam eudiul his days amid sti'ange 



IJ 



142 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

and uiifiuniliar sceuea. As he walked down the broad Ilcere 
Struct ol' that rising city, he could catch glimpses, on either 
liand, of canals with their Lorderiiig roadways, as he had 
often seen them at Amsterdam or at Rotterdam, hut where 
the low-roofed Dutch houses which lined them were oddly 
overtopped by tufted palm-trees, and tlie canals themselves 
bore uncouth names, such as the Lion's Graft, the 'Ligcr's 
(iraft, or the Crocodile's Graft. Li the crowded market-placo 
he saw, besides the Dutch and Portuguese from Europe, 
men of the varied races of southeastern Asia, — Chinese and 
Malays, Siamese and Cambodians, natives of Sumatra and 
of the Spice Islands, with the fat, sleepy-looking Javanese; 
occasionally perhaps a military detachment would pass him, 
on its way to some service or another in the island, where the 
Dutch soldiers, with their heavy muskets and with their 
licld artillery, contrasted strangely with the long-haired, 
turbaned Amboynese auxiliaries, in the pay of tiie East 
India Company, bearing murderous-looking scimitars and 
oblong shields almost as huge as those which Jacob Steen- 
dam's ancestors had carried, when under the leadershijj of 
Civilis they had slaughtered the Roman legions sixteen 
centuries before. 

Every clay, when the morning breeze sprang up, a crowd 
of vessels sailed into the port, as they had thronged by 
Enkhuysen with a favoring wind in Steendam's younger 
days; but here the Dutch ships were mingled with Chinese 
junks, and with all the extraordinary forms of naval archi- 
tecture made use of by the islanders. Looking landwards 
from the city walls, the broad plantations of rice and of 
sugar-cane which stretched away t(nvards the dark mountains 
of Java, lay in a quivering haze in that climate wliere 

" With fearful power llie noonday reigns, 
Ami the palin-treus yield no shade." 

*f 
The slow flow of the Jacatara River through the iieart of the % 

city may have served to recall to Steeudam memories of the '^ ' 

AuL-tel and of Amsterdam; but there was little to bring to * 



i 



STEKNDAM'S FAMILY 143 

his mind liis house upon tlic East River shore at New 
Amsterdam, and tliat New Netliorland of wliich he had 
sung : — 

" Dit is liet Land daar Melk en Iloenig vloeyd ; 
Dit is 't goweest daar 't Kruyd, (als Dial'lcni) groeyd ; 
Dit is do I'l-Miia daar Aioiia-Koedc bluL'yd ; 
IJit is het Eden." 

Tliis is the laud where milk and honey flow ; 
Where wholesome hrrbs freely as IhisLles grow ; 
The land where Aaron's Rod its buds doth show ; 
A very Eden 1 

Jacob Steendam appears to liave died at Batavia in 1G71, 
or soon thereafter, when his wife was continued in the super- 
vision of tliu Orpliaiis' House at that place. Upon tlie death 
of the hitter in lt)73, her daughter Vredegond succeeded to 
the same position, tliough very young. This daugliter of 
Steendam, who was bajjlized in the Dutch Churcli at New 
Amsterdam, April 4, 1(J55, was in all proLability born in 
tlie house upon Iloogh Straet, above described. Besides her, 
Steendam had two other children baptized in the Dutch 
Church during his sojourn at New Amsterdam; namely, 
Samuel, on November 18, 1057, and Jacob, on December 4, 
1658; whether the sons reached maturity is not known. i 

1 Most of the scanty particulars we have lespectiiig the life of Steendam have 
been gathered by Mr. Ileury 0. Murjihy, aud are given iu his valuable mono- 
graph on i.ho anthology of New Notlicrland. 



.i^r 



CPIAPTER XIII 

JACOB VAN COUWENUOVICN AND HIS BREWERY. — PPJNSE 
ISTRAET, AND "THE GARDENS." — SLYCK STEEUII, Ok 
MILL LANE. — THE BARK MILL. — DOMINIE MICUAELIS 
AND THE FIRST DUTCH CHURCH.- EVERT DUYCKINK 



•llolhul! Holland! See, we aever 
Like a tleut, cucli wundiu- ever 

To-nr.Is l.i^ fureiipiioiiitca iilaeo. 
Farewell, farewell ! wliate'er betide us 
Thin we know, thai God will guide us. 
Whom we pray'd to he hesido us; 

I'raised ho His {jrace ! 
Amsterdam, 

Where in my youth I eanie, 
From you niy last departure 1 must tell ; 
Aud all my h-iend.s toi,'ether, fare ye well 



lea\ 



'Iranahited from Stlkndam's " Den Distelvink.' 



NEARLY opposite the liouae of Jacob Steeudam, upon 
lloogli Stiaet, and occupying a part of tlie site of the 
baiUling wliich stands upon the northeast corner of the piesent 
Bioad and'Stone streets, but fronting upon the latter street, 
stood at tlie time of our survey a house belonging to Jacob 
Wolfertsen van Couwenhoven. Tiiis man, witli his two 
brothers, Peter and Gerrit, were the sons of Wolfert (Jeiut- 
seu, of Amersfoort, a town of considerable size, about twenty- 
five miles S(juthuast of Amsteidam, and a few miles south of 
liie Zuyder Zee. That town had suffered grievously in 1029 
from its occupation by an Austro-Spanish army, in tlie drag- 
ging war which Spain was vindictively carrying on against the 
United Provinces, and there is strong probability that it was 
liiis misfortune that led Wolfert Gerritsen and his sons to seek 



l.Uu. .t' 



JACOB VAN COUWENHOVEN 115 

a home in New Notheihuul in the following year. The sons 
themselves at tliis time would «eeiu to have been men of mature 
years; at any rale, Jacob van Couwenhovca was familiarly 
known about the town, in 1655, as " old Jacob." The father, 
for several years prior to 1G39, hired one of tlie newly cleared 
farms of the West India Company,' being the one commonly 
known as " Bouwery No. 0," tlie farmliouse of which stood 
upon the east side of tlie present Chatham Square, its land 
lying generally between the present Division Street and the 
river shore. 

The brothers appear to have been men endowed with gen- 
erous and kindly dispositions; and in 1G4G, after the death of 
their fatiier, and of their brother Gerrit, when they came to 
divide their slender patrimony, tliey allowed, by an agreement 
which is still extant, to Jan, one of tiie young cliildren of their 
deceased brother, 100 guilders more than to the others, 
"because he has not as good health as the others, and is weak 
in his limbs, and to all appearance will not be a stout man." 

Amersfoort, the native town of the Van Couweidioven 
brothers, with its great church spire towering high above a 
picturesque landscape of hill and dale, — quite different from 
the general character of the scenery of the Nctlievlands, — - 
was, in the seventeenth century, the seat of an active transit 
trade of tobacco, beer, malt grains, etc., between the Nether- 
lands and Germany ; barges from Anisterdam and from all tiie 
ports of the Zuyder Zee sailing up the small river Eem to the 
town, whence a short land carriage brought their freight to the 
banks of the Rhine. Many of tlie inhabitants of Amersfoort 
were familiar with the brewer's trade, and among these was 
Jacob van Couwenhoven. He appears to have had the design, 
from an early day, of establishing a brewery in New Amsterdam, 

' Hia first employment was iit Reusaolaerswyck. near Albany, where for a tima 
he was superintendent of farms for the patroon Van Heussokvor. After coming 
to New Amsterdam, lie was one of the purchasers, in 1G36, of a tract of laud from 
the Indians at what is uow known as Flatlanils, south of Brooklyn, but to which 
hu gave the name of New Amersfoort. His lauds here, after his death, passed 
to liis sons, and the descendanls of his son, Gerrit, under tlie name of Conweu- 
hoven, or Kouwenhoveu, are still numerous upon the westeru end of Long Island. 



146 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

and for this purpose, as early as 1615, he had obtained from 
Director-General Kieft, the grant of "a lot for a dwelling- 
house, brewery, and garden, lying behind the public inn." 
This was a plot of ground of about sixty-five English feet 
front, by more than one hundred feet in depth, situated also 
on Hoogh (Stone) Straet, and a couple of hundred feet east of 
the parcel we are more particularly describing. Here, Jacob 
van Couwenhoven commenced Ofjcrations by building for 
himself a substantial stone dwelling-house ; by the time tliis 
was completed, he found himself so heavily in debt, — the 
unusual sum, for those days, of about 3,500 guilders, or 
$1,400 on his house alone, — that his brewery project was 
deferred, perforce, for a number of years. Van Couwen- 
hoven was, in fact, an in-, 3terate speculator, and wherever 
any piece of property was offered for sale at what he thought 
was a " bargain," such as the old church building near the 
shore, or the old horse mill property upon Slyck Steegh (now 
South Willianr Street) back of his hou.se, he stood leady to 
buy it, without the least regard to his ability to pay for it. 
It was perhaps in this way that he liad become, prior to 1G54, 
possessed of the plot of ground we are more particularly 
describing, at the corner of " the Ditch " and of Hoogh 
Straet: that piece of land had been originally granted to one 
Antony Jansen, but had been abandoned by him and allowed 
to become, as the records express it, "a stinking pool," and 
in 164G it had been regranted to the prominent shipping 
merchant, Govert Loockermans, who wis a brother-in-law of 
Jacob van Couwenhoven, their wives being sisters. Hester 
Jansen, the wfe of Jacob van Couwenhoven, had died seem- 
ingly in the early part of the year 1655, and he, with his 
family of four or five young children, still occupied the stone 
house down Hoogh Straet at the time of our survey, while 
the plot at the corner of the present Broad Street, upon which 
a brick dwelling-house had been built, probably either by 
Govert Loockermans or by Jacob van Couwenhoven liimself, 
was at this time occupied by the mother of his deceased wife. 
Adjoining this latter house, upon the east, stood, in 1655, 



•ill 



VAN COUWENIIOVEN'S BREWERY 147 

two small housus owned b}' Mighiul Paulusseu, who followed 
the occupation of a carter. The westernmost of these was 
hired out to different tenants, and in the latter part of 1655 
became the abode of Joseph d'Acosta, one of the P(jrtuguese 
Jews, whose rough reception at New Amsterdam in the previ- 
ous year has been already alluded to ; '■ the easternmost of the 
two houses was occupied by Paulussen himself; he was from 
Vraendoren, in the Netherlands, and had married, in 1640, 
Maria, daughter of Joris Ra[)palje, who with her elder sister 
Sara are supposed to have been almost tlie first children of 
European extraction who were bora in the colony. - 

It was uj)ou the site of these latter houses, adjoining his 
own plot, which lay to the west, that Jacob van Couwen- 
hoven about this time determined to erect his long-planned 
brewery. There was a good well upon the premises which 
was probably an object to liim in his undertaking, and which 
possibly still exists under the buildings at present covering 
the site. In the course of the next year, 1656, he had made 
arrangements with Paulussen for the acquisition of the 
ground and houses of the latter; the buildings were de- 
molished or removed, and here, upon the site of the present 
Nos. 27 and 29 Stone Street, Van Couwenhoveu connnenced 
the erection of his brewery, which was a substantial edifice 
of stone, and evidently of considerable size, for it is usually 
spoken of, in the records, as "the great stone brew-house." 
All thisjtime he was greatly hampered by his debts: in Au- 
gust, 1656, one of his creditors, Pieter Jacobsen Marius, made 
an application to the burgomasters that Van Couwenhoven 
should be required to sell some of his property, and apply 
the proceeds to the liquidation of his debts ; " otherwise," the 
petitioner says, "he knows not when he shidl obtain his own." 
Van Couwenhoven appeared and stated to the burgomasters 
that he had already placed in the hands of the Schout, or 
bailiff, his deed of the old church pro])erty upon tlie strand 

1 Spe iiute, page 85. 

2 The claims vl Jan Viuje to the hOLor of having heeii the first white child 
born in Now Notherlaud will be cousiderea farther ou. 



148 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

(purchased by him only tliree or four weeks before), to be 
held ;is security. As Jacob was one of the ohiest citizens, 
generally well esteemed, and prominent in the church (he 
had been, in 1647, one of the cliurch-wardens, in conjunc- 
tion with Director-General Stuyvesant, and Jan Jansen 
Damen, specially chosen to complete the church ediiice in 
the fort), the burgomasters were loath to adopt extreme 
measures ; he was therefore iiotiiied by the magistnites to sell 
his property at private sale, and satisfy his creditors within 
fourteen days, or in default thereof, tlie Schout would be 
ordered to sell the same at public auction. Under this spur, 
he sold the old church lot, on the 8th of September, 1656, to 
Isaac de Foreest, and in December of the same year he sold 
at public auction his stone housv,, a little farther down Hoogh 
Straet, to Nicholas de Meyer, after which he seems to have 
taken up his residence upou his lot, at the coj-ner of the 
present Broad Street, adjoining his as yet unfinished brewery. 
He was still heavily embarrassed, liowover, but in the latter 
part of 1656, we find his friend, Isaac de Foreest, coming 
forvvaixl to assist him. De Foreest presented at that time a 
petition to the Director-General and Council, for permission 
to contract in advance with Jacob van Couwenlioven for all 
the beer the latter could brew in the space of a year, " so 
that such a well-situated brewery as that " (of Van C(juwcn- 
hoven), "may not be abandoned, but to the contrary may 
become the means to maintain decently that man with his 
family, while otherwise his ruin might be unavoidable." 

These various measures seem to have been of no more than 
temporary relief. In September, 1655, " old Jacob " had mar- 
ried Magdaleutje Jacobse ; his first wife's children seem to 
have been possessed of some property which was in their 
father's hands and which was deemed by tiieir other relatives '.| ^ 
to be in jeopardy; for upon January' 3, 1657, Pieter van 
Couweuhoven his brother, and Govert Loockermans, the hus- 
band of his late wife's sister, make an application to the 
Council for the appointment of guardians for the children, 
alleging that Jacob " has been inclined to enter into second 



VAN COUWKNIIOVEN'S BREWERY 149 

nuptials, and is grossly uncuinbered with several heavy debts, 
which he is daily increasing." 

Jacob van Couwcnhoven treated with contempt, however, 
the demand of the guardians for an accounting: he could not 
keep track of his own affairs ; how then could tlicy expect 
liim to know anything about tliose of any one else. The 
guardians were forced to report to the Council that although 
they had " strained every nerve," they could get no account 
from Jacob of his situation : an order of Council for his arrest 
followed promptly, but, as uotliing further appears, it is to be 
presumed that Van Couwenhoven patched up some kind of 
an account of his children's estate. 

The brewery was hnished, probably by 1657, but the affairs 
of its proprietor were apparently hopelessly involved, and by 
the year 16o3 Van Couwenhoven had surrendered his brew- 
ery and its contents to liis creditors ; the latter appear to have 
permitted Jacob to operate the brewery for several years, but 
in December, 1670, some months after Jacob van Couwen- 
hoven's death, his executors conveyed the profjerty to several 
individuals, — Oloff van Cortlandt, Johannes van Brugh, Cor- 
nells van Borsum, in right of Sara Kiersted, his wife, and Hen- 
drick Vandewater, who ajjpear to have been a sort of syndicate 
of creditors. 

Upon the westerly side of the house and brewery of Jacob 
van Couwenhoven, a narrow and irregular passageway ran, 
in 1655, along the ditch occupying the middle of the present 
Broad Street; and the grants of land along it infringed 
largely — in some cases to the extent of twenty feet or more 
— upon what we now know as Broad Street.' At the period 
mentioned, four liouses had been built along the easterly side 
of this passageway : of these, it will be sufficient to indicate 
in a general way the sites and the owners' names, as none 
of the latter were of particular prominence. At tlie north 

1 In 1670 the Court of Burgomnsters made an order that the fence of Van 
Couwenhoven'B property here " should be drawn back and het on tlio common 
line " of tlie street. 



J A. 



1- ;'i-\ 1- 



150 



NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 



corner of the present South William Street stood the housa 
of Adriaen Vincent, who in 1649 is spoken of as " hite cadet 
in the company's service," and as having come from " Aeckqn," 
which is perliaps a village of that name, some six or seven 
English miles from the old city of Ghent. Vincent had ac- 
quired this plot of land and built here about 1646. 

About forty feet farther north was tlie house of Simon 
Felle, a Frenchman from Dieppe in Normandy who in 1652 had 
purchased a house and a small plot of ground from Adrieen 
Vincent : four years later he married Anneken Vincent of 
Amsterdam, a relative, either sister or daughter of Adriaen. 
Fifty feet more intervened between this house and that of 
Abram Rycken, one of the older colonists, and the ancestor of 
the lliker family of the present day ; lie had built here as 
early as 1647. A similar interval brings us to the house of 
Jochem Beekman, a shoemaker, which stood near the corner 
of a narrow cross-road, later known as Prinse Straet, and 
which, somewhat widened, exists to day as an easterly exten- 
sion of Beavor Street ; Beekman luid purchased a small plot 
here from Abram Rycken, and had built in or about 1652. 

As for tlie Prinse Straet, it and a line a few rods north of 
the present Beaver Street, west of Broad, formed the southerly 
limit of the West India Company's reserved parcel of pasture- 
ground, which has akeady been spoken, of ' as having been 
leased to Jan Jansen Damen in the spring of 1638 : upon the 
termination of that lease, 1644, the Director and Council de- 
termined to prant portions of the land in building plots, and 
for that purpose the narrow Prinse Straet was laid out along 
the southern bounds of the field. At the period of our sur- 
vey the street apparently contained but two houses : one was 
upon the north side, and about eighty-five feet east of the 
present Broad Street; it had been built about the year 1652 
by Albert Pietersen, from Hamburgh, a trumpeter in the 
service of the West India Company. The other house stood 
upon the south side of the street about fifty feet from Broad 
Street, and belonged to Loui-ens Petersen, who had found 

' Seo niUe, page 9. 



! ^^e 










THE TUYNEN OH "GARDENS" 151 

his way to New Amsterdam from the yeaport of Tonsberg 
at the mouth of the Christiania Eiord in Norway. The 
house is mentioned as standing here as early as 1617. Be- 
yond this point, tlie old pasture-field had been recently 
broken up into plots of about one-half acre each, which 
in 1651 had been granted to several of the magnates of the 
settlement, — to Nicasius de Sillo, member of the Council, to 
Secretary Van Tienhoven, to Carol van IJrugge, late commis- 
sary at Fort Orange, and to Dominie Samuel Drisiua. These 
plots extended up to the present Wall Street, and were not 
as yet improved at the time of our survey : they were the tuy- 
nen or gardens ; and a few years afterwards, when the pres- 
ent Exchange Place was laid out through them, it was called 
by the Dutch, Tuyn Straet, and by the English subsequently, 
Garden Street. 

Back of the house and brewery of Jacob van Couwenhoven 
ran a narrow lane, not very agreeable to the eye, perhaps, in 
the seventeenth century, but of considerable interest at the 
present day, in the widened and somewhat extended form 
under which it is known as South Wilham Street. It is of 
especial interest because it is one of the earliest and quite 
probably the very earhest of the Dutch thoroughfares re- 
maining as originally located. Its origin can be traced 
back clearly to the year 1625 or 1626, — to a period when 
there was as yet no occasion for a road along the East Kiver 
shore, when Broad Street was a swamp and nothing more, — 
when Beaver and Marketfield, Stone and Bridge streets had 
not been thought of, and when the site of Broadway was 
covered with trees and bushes. 

When the first Dutch vessels arrived in 1625, with agri- 
cultural colonists for Manhattan Island and for its immediate 
vicinity, they brought with them over one hundred head of 
cattle, besides a considerable number of horses, sheep, and 
hogs. As the few inhabitants of the place, who for the pre- 
vious thirteen or fourteen years had been clustered about the 
log block-house under llendrick Corstiaensen's command, 



152 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 



were mostly Indian traders, depending for their sustenance 
upon supplies from the neighboring Indians and from the ; 
Netherlands, they had not engaged in agriculture, and in iill 
probability the island was still in an uncleared condition, ■ 
almost up to tlie blockliouse itself, since the wood which the 
inhabitants needed for building purposes or for fuel would 
naturally, owing to the difTicullies of land carriage, have been 
floated or brought by boat from points along the shores. 
There being no place in which the cattle of the new colonists 
could be securely kept upon Manhattan Island, we are in- 
formed that on their arrival they were at iirst landed upon 
Nutten, now Governor's Island, and allowed to roam at large 
there until a proper enclosure could be constructed for them 
upon the island of Manhattan. The necessary clearing and 
enclosure was commenced at once, aiul was without doubt the 
tract of ground extending from a short distance north of the 
line of the present Beaver Street to a line about forty or 
fifty feet north of the present Wall Street, which latter limit 
marked the southern boundary of the Vinjd or Damen farm, 
which must have been soon established after the period above 
mentioned. It is uncertain whether this enclosure extended 
farther west than the present Broadway, though it is quite 
probable that it reached the North River shore : upon the 
east it probably extended a short distance east of the present 
William Street. This tract, or the portion of it east of 
Broadway, formed the reserved land or pasture of the West 
India Company, which, as we have seen (ante, page 9), was 
in 1638 leased to Jan Jansen Damen, having been then 
supplanted by the later pasture-ground, or " commons," now 
forming the City Hall Park and its vicinity. 

The land thus enclosed, however, was nearly cut in twain 
by the as yet undrained swamp along the present Broad 
Street, and a passageway became necessary to the eastern 
portion of the enclosure ; from the rude bridge thrown across 
the brook which drained tlie swamp, a narrow lane led along 
the line of the present South William Street, and turning 
northwards near the spot now occupied by the western end of 



THE SLYCK STEEGH 153 

the well-known Delmonico building which stands at the in- 
tersection of South William and Beaver streets, it reached 
the pasture at a point a little north of the line of the latter 
street. The northern turn to this lane became unnecessary 
after the opening of Smith's Street (present William Street) 
ia 1656 or 1657, and tJjat portion of it was granted within a 
fuw years thereafter to private parties. It is shown, upon 
"the Duke's Plan " of 1601, and upon the NicoU plan of 1068, 
as still partially open, but built upon and obstructed. After 
lloogh (Stone) Straut had become a thoroughfare along the 
river, an opening was nrade from the lane into the latter 
street, and tliis still exists under the name Mill Street or Lane, 
a mere open passageway between two buildings. 

As might be supposed, this narrow lane running through 
low ground and trodden at first by the negro wood-choppers 
and bark-gatherers of the West India Company, then by the 
cattle driven to and from the pasture field, and eventually 
abutted upon by the rear of the houses and lots along Hoogh 
Stiaet, was never considered a particularly choice locality. It 
was not until 1672 that it was ordered to be paved, and then 
apparently only with foot-paths. In the Oude Zyd, or old 
quarter of the City of Amsterdam, there was a narrow street 
of just about the same length as this lane, running between 
two of the canals of the city. It was situated in a district 
replete with interesting associations ; standing at the western 
end of this street, where it opened upon the canal known as 
the Achter Burg Wal, one saw at his left several ancient 
buildings whose arched gateways opened into spacious en- 
closures, — these were relics of the old Romanist days, two 
convents long before suppressed and converted into a portion 
of the Great Ilospitiil of Amsterdam ; beyond them was the 
old church of the Knights Templars, and the ancient Turf 
Market; these edifices and grounds half surrounded another 
building, of a very different character, on the opposite side of 
the Achter Burg Wal canal and at its termination; it was 
tlie famous Heerelogement, — the City Hostelry, open to none 
but persons of standing and distinction; its capacious quad- 



154 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS l^EOPLE 

rangle stood surrounded by moats like a fortress, and was ap- 
proached over an arched bridge. To the right of tlie observer, 
across the same canal, Avas another famous building, — the 
ancient convent of St. Cecilia, changed in the year 1594 to 
another hostelry of exclusive character, known as tlie Prins- 
scnhof, which was .associated with the names of many per- 
sons of distinction who had sojourned there : prominent among 
tiiese were Marie de I\I6dieis, t^ueen of France, and her beau- 
tiful but unfortunate daughter, Henrietta Maria, wife of 
Charles I., King of England. Tlie other, or eastern end of this 
street, also oi)ened out upon noteworthy localities: inmiedi- 
ately to the right were the walls of the Oude IVIannen Huys, 
or Homo for the Aged, — one of the noble charities of the 
good Hester Klaas, iii tlie sixteenth century ; while at the 
tUstance of two or tliree blocks to the left stood the Dol Huys, 
or Hospital for the Insane, — likewise a sixteenth-century 
foundation ; and beyond this was the great house of the East 
India Company. 

Notwithstanding the proximity of its lofty neighbors, how- 
ever, the little street in question remained very unassuming 
indeed, and had received the humble appellation of Slyck 
Straet, or the Muddy Street. It was perhaps in remembrance 
of this street at home — since nearly every street in New 
Amsterdam bore the name of a corresponding street in the 
old city — that the lane we have been describing received the 
designation of Slyck Steegh. When the English began to 
come into the town, after the surrender in 1G64, the names of 
the streets were changed or modified in many instances. The M 
Slyck Steegh is spoken of in certain deeds about the year 1679 'b1 
as " Dirty Lane," and about 1683, as " the Mude Street." Al- ^i 
though Dirty Lane was a familiar, not to say prominent, London 
street in the seventeenth century,i the name never became 

1 " lie moimted eynoii-men, ami rode 'em 
To Dirty Laue and Little Sodom," etc. 

[Butler's Iludibras, I'art II., Canto i., 367] 
In 1830, besides the historic "Dirty Lane" of " Iludihras," — in Southwark, 
near the notorious "Mint,"— there was anotlier street, with the same official desig- 



THE OLD BARK MILL 155 

popular in New York, and the Slyck Stecgh gradually came 
lo be called, from tlie horee-mill upon it (of which we shall 
speak), Mill Street or Lane. It retiiined this name till about 
1832,' when it was extended through into William Street, and 
its former historic name was changed to the singularly inap- 
propriate one of South William Street. 

However uninviting the Slyck Stxiegh may have been from 
an esthetic point of view, New Y'orkei's should not forget that 
upon its northern side w:^ erected, in 162U, the earliest build- 
ing in New Amsterdam, of which the site can be pointed out at 
the present day. By a communication from the colony in 
the above year,^ it is stated that Francois Molemaecker (the 
mill-might) is employed in the construction of a horse mill, 
with a spacious room, to accommodate a large congregation, 
and it was at that time also proposed to add to it a tower, in 
which the bells captured by the Dutch and brought from Porto 
Jlico were to be hung. This mill, with its small belfry tower, 
the conical roof of which can be distinguished in the Justus 
Danckers View of New Amsterdam, of about 1650, was erected 
upon the north side of the lane afterwards known as the Slyck 
Stfiegh, and upon ground at present covered by the buildings 
Nos. 32 and 3-1 South William Street, occui)ied as a wine 
storehouse. The mill, which was one of three erected by the 
West India Company at its new settlement,^ was employed in 
the grinding of bark to be used for tanning purposes, and its 
location near the edge of the Broad Street swamp was doubt- 
less determined by the availability of the ground for tan pits. 

Here, then, in the loft, or upper story of the bark mill, in 

nation, in the Strand, near the Savoy, and still another one in Shoreditch, not 
Tery far from St. Leonard's church. _ _ 

1 In the eighteenth century, it waa occasionally spoken of as "The Jews 
Lane," from the Jewish synagogue which stood upon its north side. 

2 Sot forth in Wagenaar's Hist. Verhael., Amst., 1G21-32. 

8 The others were wind-niiUa, one a saw-mill situated on Nutten or Governor's 
Island ; the other, a gri.t-mill, seems to have .stood upon the bluff above the North 
River shore, a short distance northwest of the fort. Upon its accidental destrnc- 
tion by fire, a new one was built a little southwest of the fort. It is the earlier 
grist-miU which is shown iu the Uartgers View of New Amsterdam, of about 1 632. 



156 NEW AAJSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

1628, Dominie Jonas Michaelis assumetl the charge of the first , 
religious coiigivgation within the limits of the present State of 
New York. Me was a man of middle age, wlio was born in 
North Holland in 1577, and who had entered as a divinity 
student at Leyden, in the year 1600, where he is said to hiive 
been contemporaneous with the famous Dutch scliolar, Ger. 
Johannes Vossius, and with Jacob Cats, wlio afterwards 
attained such great fame as a poet, in tiie Nellierlands. Of 
his further history we know but little, save that it is stated 
that he was settled as jjastor at Niuuwbokswoude, a village in 
North Holland, in 1612, and two years later, in the church at 
Hem (Hemsleede '?). In 1624, upon the taking of San Salvador, 
in Brazil, from the Portuguese, by the Dutch Admiral, Heyn, 
Dominie Michaelis received the appointment of minister at 
that place. The town being retaken in the next year by the 
Portuguese, however, Michaelis was transferred to the Dutch 
possessions on the coast of Guinea, then recently captured 
from the Portuguese ; he did not remain here long, however, 
for in 1627 he returned to the Netherlands, and in January of the 
following year he sailed for New Amsterdam. He was evi- 
dently a man of considerable mental attiiinments, for at New 
Amsterdam he preached at times in the French language to 
the Walloon settlers. His sole literary remains of which we 
have knowledge are to be found in a letter to the fatlierland, 
bearing date August 11, 1628, in which he appears to be 
an earnest and patient minister of the Christian religion, 
struggling against more than common trials in the new 
country in which he had cast his lot.^ 

Both Dominie Michaelis and his congregation must have 
often found tliemselves contrasting painfully the new condi- 
tions surrounding them with the old. Among the men and 
women who met here to worship, there were those who remem- 
bered the Oude Kerk — the old church — of Amsterdam, 
with its thii'ty environing cliapels, dark with the very rich- 
ness of their stained glass adornment, and where a score of 
many-branehed lustres shed a soft light on the benches of the 

1 See the letter, with notes of Doctor O'Callaghan, in 2 N. Y. Col. Doc. 703. 



1 


1 




IV; 






i. ■■ 


tll^ 


1 


I', 






^^ ^ ^ V, r 



V * 



DOMINIE MICHAELIS AND HIS CHURCH 157 

grave magiatrates of the city, and on the marble tombs of great 
men who had died for their country on hind and on sea, in the 
yet unhnislied war for Dutch independence ; others had mem- 
oiies of the great church of St. Lawrence at Rotterdam, look- 
ing down majestically upon the placid canals which environed 
it, and upon the statue of that giant of intellect, Erasnuis ; 
some had listened to tlie cliiming of the four hundred bells of 
the "New Ohurcli " of Delft, or had contemplated with reverence 
the tomb of William the Silent in that famous edifice; some 
Lud worshipped in the sublime cathedral of Antwerp, the lofty 
and solenui Gothic arclies of wliich Avcre a sermon in them- 
selves. Now, from the windows of their unadorned loft over 
the bark mill on the edge of Blommaert's Vly, they looked 
northward over a rough piusture-field gently sloping up to a 
low ridge of hills, where the trees which then covered the 
Pine Street and Cedar Street of to-day were gradually disap- 
pearing under the axes of the negro wood-choppers; looking 
to the east, between them and the East River sliore, and upon 
the broad river itself, and in the Long Island forests beyond, 
no signs of human life were discernible, unless jjerchance an 
Indian canoe or two paddled along the shore; oidy to the 
southwest, across the narrow swamp which intervened, a few 
thatched cottages clustered around the slowly rising walls of 
tlie fort. 

To numy of the congregation of Dominie Michaelis in this 
rude place of worship, the lessons of religion must have 
appealed witli pecuhar force amidst the hardships and uncer- 
tainties with which they were surrounded, and in the loss of 
most of tlie old associations of their lives. Death came, too, 
and within these rough walls often sounded the solemn words 
of the reader: "Ik ben de opstanding en het leven; die in 
niij gelooft, zal leven, al ware hij ook gestorven ; en ecu 
iegelijk die leeft, en in mij gelooft, zal niet sterven in 
eeuwiglieid," — recalling to his hearers the profound mystery of 
the Resurrection and tlie Life ; even the good Dominie liimself 
must have heard them with new emotions when, in the very year 
oi his arrival, lie, with his two Uttle motherless daughters, fol- 



158 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

lowed the funeral procession of his dececosed wife over the 
little bridge, across the Marckveldt, and to tlie barren spot 
just north of it, upon a hillock overlooking the North River, 
where the dead of the new settlement slept their last sleep in 
unmarked graves. The retirement of Dominie Michaelis, and 
the advent of Dominie Bogardus, in 1633, was marked by the 
erection of a separate church building near the river shore, 
and upon the present Pearl Street, of which previous mention 
has been made.^ The bark mill, no longer required for pubho 
uses,^ seems to have been in part turned into quarters for some 
of the negro slaves of the West India Company. In a deed of 
1G43, this, with a parcel of land adjacent, is spoken of as " the 
negroes' plantation," being doubtless a vegetable plot culti- 
vated by theni; in another instrument, of 1656, it is alluded to 
as " the house the negroes live in." Somewhere about this i:| 
latter period, a new bark mill was establisiied by private parties, % 
very near the southwest corner of the present Broad Street !| 
and Exchange Place, and the old mill, which was under the '' 
control of the Deaconry of tlie Church in 16G0 (and which 
may, indeed, have been so controlled from the period of its use 
as a church), was sold in 1663 to Covert Loockermans, and 
remained in existence many years.^ 

The only other house which appears to have existed upon | 
the Slyck Steegh, in 1655, was that of Evert Duyckink. This ' 
man, who was a glassmaker from Borcken, in Westphalia, a 
small town a few miles beyond tlie boundary of the Nether- 
lands, received a grant of somewhat more than half an acre 
of ground upon the north side of the Slyck Steegh, in 1643. 
Marrying, two or three years later, ITcndrickje Simons, a young 
woman from liis own district in Westjihalia, he appears to 
liave built upon this ground, and to have resided here a 



I 



1 See ante, page 58. 

2 It seema to be the mill referred to in a report of IMS to the West India 
Company, as being tlieu out of repair. 

' lu 16C7 Loockermans sold tlie old mill to Jacques Houascau; the latter sold 
tlie premises to Carston Janscn iu January, 1671, aud in 1G7'J Jauseu's e.\ecutor '^ 
sold tlie same to Clement Sebrab. 7v 



rlOIl 
but 



EVERT DIIYCKINK'S HOUSE 15£ 



tamber of years.' ^J'lie location of Us house is uncertain, 
there are sonic reasons for supposing that it stood nearly 
hundred feet east of the bark mill, and upon or very 
lii>iir the site of the present buildings, Nos. 20 and 22 South 
William Street, but some twenty-tive feet or more back 
from the north side of the lane. In IGT'i, Duyckink, who 
bat] some time before removed to another part of the town, 
wld his house on Slyek Steegh, with what then remained of 
his original plot (being in size about three city lots), to Jacob 
Melyn, the son of Director-General Stuyvesant's old antago- 
nist, Cornelis Melyn. Jacob Melyn held this property for many 
jcars, but it does not seem to have been a prolitiible invest- 
ment for him, for in or about 1G97, he being then a resident 
of Boston, we find him giving a letter of instruction to 
Abraham Schellinger of Ivisthanipton, J^ong Island (who was 
[iruhably his nephew, the son of his sister Cornelia, wife 
of Jacob Schellinger, already referred to), to repair to New 
York and endeavor to sell his house on Mill Street, "and if 
no sayle can be obtained, nor person be to be gott to live in 't on 
any acct., then to naile up doors and windows with roff 
boards, and secure the glass." The agent was not, however, 
foiced to this last resort of a disgusted landlord, for in May, 
1G97, he sold the premises to Doctor Johannes Kerf byl, formerly 
of Amsterdam, a prominent physician of his day in the city. 
Doctor Kerfbyl was a resident of the city as early as 1G8G, when 
we find him dwelling upon the west side of Broad Street. lie 
is said to have been, a graduate of Leyden, and was at one 
time a member of the Governor's Council at New York, but 
his success excited jealousy among some of his neighbors, and 
he was denounced as a "charlatan." It was probably the 
Doctor's son, of the same name as his father, who was natu- 
ralized by Act of Parliament, in 6 Anne (1707). As for the 

■ His f.imily incluJeJ Cornelis Janseri, au orpli.in lad of tliirteeu years at the 
period of our survey, whose parcuts had beeu killed by tliu ludiaiis at their 
(arm at Sapokaiiicau (the later Greeiiwicli), m the war of 1643. Their three 
ihildrfiii, aged respectively four, three, and one years of age, at that time, were 
rtceived iuto different fainilies in the town. 



160 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE . j^ 

Doctor himself, he must have died soon after his purchase of;? 
this proj;erty in 1697. The premises then passed into the 
hands of Jewish, purchasers, and became the site of the first 
Jewish synagogue in New York, which was established here 
between the years 1G97 and 1700.^ 

1 The closed portion, or northerly turniug (before referred to) of the Slyck 
Steegh, appears to have been iu part in the possession of one KicharJ Elhott, t 
cooper, in the latter part of the seventeenth century. This man, who was a resi- 
dent of !Ne\v York as early as 1672, dwelt here for many years with his wife and 
four sous. Of the latter, three died young and unmarried, wliile the fourth son, 
Henry, went to sea about the year 1701, and was never again heard of. Both 
Elliott and his wife died prior to the year 1714, and .as no person appeared to 
claim any interest in the property, it remained apparently ownerless till 1721, 
when, under the legal procedure then .in force, the property was adjudged to have 
escheated to the British Crown for want of heirs. Thereupon the Council made 
the following curious order, — a handsome tribute to the worthy and modest 
pastor of the little French Huguenot Church on King (now Pine) Street: "For- 
asmuch as his Majesty's Council of this province did conceive that the granting 
thereof " (that is, of Letters Patent of the escheated land) "as an encouragement 
to learning, could not but be acccjjtable to his Majesty, and that they knew not of 
a more proper and deserving person of such favor than Mr. Lewis Ron, minister of 
the French Church in this city, who in Divinity, History, and Cronology [sic], 
and many other parts of learning, is as great a master as any in his Majesty's 
colonies in America;" they therefore give their assent to the issuing of Letters 
Patent to him. This is apparently the property now occupied by the rear addi- 
tion, upon South William Street, of tho Delmouico building. 



CHAPTER XIV 

THE BOUSES OF BARENT J AN SEN, JAN NAGEL, CLAES 
Cih^TENSEN, AND JOCUEM CALDER. — PIETER AN- 
DRIJ SSEN AND HIS TROUBLES WITH THE INDIANS.— 
NICHOLAS DE MEYER. — WESSEL EVERTSEN, THE FISH- 
LR)HN.-RUT JACOBSEN 

UPON the north side of Iloogh (Stone) Straet, and im- 
mediately east of the ground where, soon after tlie 
ptuod of our survey, Jacob van Couwenhoven erected his 
brewery, already mentioned, tliere stood, in the year 1655, 
three small houses in close juxtaposition. The eight-story 
yellow brick building of an electrical construction company, 
which now covers tlie site of these humble dwellings, towers 
above the surrounding warehouses, as the cottages them- 
selves were over-towered in the seventeenth century by Van 
Couwenhoven's "great stone brew-house." 

The first, or westernmost of these buildings, was the house 
of Baitnt Jansen. He was one of the earlier colonists, but 
hardl} anything in relation to him can be gleaned from the 
recoids His very patent or ground-brief for this land can- 
not be found, and its existence is only learned by allusions to 
it in other instruments. It was a parcel of about thirty-seven 
English feet frontage upon Hoogh Straet, and it extended 
back to tlie Slyck Steegh. Upon its western side it would 
appear that Barent Jansen must have built a small house at 
an early date. Intimately connected with Jansen in some 
way — probably by marriage — was one Olaes Carstensen, a 
Norwegian of middle age, from the village of Sonde in the 
southern part of Norway. 

Barent Jansen m\ist have died before the spring of 1647, 

il' 



i 



1 


Carste 


Qsou was, it seems, i 


. high 


repute among 


his a 


cquaiutance with the India 


1 lanf. 


uage. Kiker, i 


slates that 


he acted as intcr| 




u,,on the occ-a 


luili 


1113 at 


the general gather 


ng uy 


on Schreyers 


Au^ 


,.st 30, 


1645. 








Thia a 


m, who was born in 


1G53, 


seems to have 



'i 



1G2 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

for in March of that year a grant which liad been made to 
him, of fifty morgens, or about one hundred acres of land on 
tlie west side of the Hudson River, but for which he had 
never received his ground-brief, was vested, by tlie Director 
and Council in Claes Carstensen. In what way this latter 
individual obtained an interest in the Hoogh Straet property 
we do not know; but soon after 1U47 he is found in posses- 
sion of a small house upon the easterly half of the Jansen 
grant, which house he sold a few years after that date to Jan 
Nagel. As to the house upon the westerly side of the plot, 
supposed to have been built by Barent Jansen, it api)eais in 
1GG2 as then in the joint occupation and tenure of Claes 
Carstensen and of Jan Barentsen Kunst, probably the young ';; 
son of Barent Jansen. ''' 

Claes ■ Carstensen, together with Jan Forbus (usually 
spoken of as Jan do Swede), Pieter Jansen Nooriuan, Dirck 
Volckertsen and Jacob Ilaes, formed a little clique of 
Scandinavians, closely associated in various enterprises, and 
owners at an early date of a large portion of the lands em- 
braced in the present Williamsburgh and Green Point in 
Brooklyn.! ., 

The dwelling-house held by Claes Carstensen upon the 
eastern part of Barent Jaiisen's ground, as above mentioned, 
was sold by liim in 105^ to Jan Nagel, who lesided here 
at the time of our survey. This man, who was from 
Limburg in the Netherlands, had come to New Amsti;rdam, 
like many others among the colonists, as a soldier in the 
employ of the West India Company, and is spoken of in 
1G47 as "late cadet" in that service; in later years he was 
commonly known as "Sergeant Nagel." Jan Nagel must 
have died about the year 1657, but his son, of the same 
name,2 became prominent some twenty years later, as one of 

the colonists on account of .3 
his " History of Harlem," 
ion of the treaty with the 
Hoek, south of the fort, on 

have been really named Jeuriaen 



THE NAGEL FARMHOUSE 1C3 

the earlier settlers of the town of Ilaerlem, who with his 
associate Jan Dylcman, ancestor of the family of that name, 
restored to cultivation the farms on the extreme northern 
end of Manhattan Island, which had heen devastated hy the 
Indians in 1G55, and had lain waste and ahandoned for more 
than a score of years. The small antiquated yellow farm- 
house, which, with its decaying orchard and neglected fields, 
— almost the last remnants of the farming days of Manhattan 
Island, — was still to be seen as late as the beginning of the 
year 1901 upon the banks of the Harlem River just below 
King's Bridge, and which often excited the curious attention of 
the traveller approaching New York City on the trains of the 
Now York Central Railway, must liave stood very near the 
site — if not exactly upon it — of the Nagcl farmhouse of 
the seventeenth century; ' and the uncared-for burial-ground 
of several generations of that family lies a few hundred feet 
west of the site of the house. The spot, with its memories 
of Indian warfare, of the murdered Tobias Teunissen, and of 
the marching, counter-marching, and fighting of Americans, 
British, and Hessians in the War of the Revolution, ought to 
liave been jireserved and maintained by the City of New 
York, as one of the very few surviving mementos of early 
days. 

But to return to our survey of Iloogh Straet; the third, or 
easternmost of the three small houses previously spoken of 
as occupying, in the year 1G55, the site of the present large 
building known as Nos. 31 to 35 Stone Street, was the 
cottage of one Jochem Calder, who had obtained a ground- 
brief for the land in 1G45, and who seems to have built within 
a short time thereafter upon the westerly side of his plot of 
about thirty-seven English feet in frontage. Very little 

Jansen Nagel, but, like many others of tlie colonists, bo was rarely known by his 
christened name. He married, wliilo still very young, liebeuca, the daughter of 
Resolved WalJron. 

^ It was destroyed by fire soon after the date above mentioned. The small 
Ivutch bricks which arc worked into the substantial foundations of this house 
afford additional support to the statements iu the text. 



■A ■. '.',.:,^'- '.3- -''' v' 



164 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE t' 

information, however, can be gathered from tlie records 
respecting this man; he had died prior to 1659, in wliich 
year his widow Magdalena married Gysbert Teunissen. 

Passing over two garden spots, or vacant places, belonging 
to this last-mentioned plot and to the next one, we come to 
the house of Pieter Andricssen, upon the site of wliich at 
the present day stands the building No. 41 Stone Street. 
Andricssen was a native of the province of Brabant, in the 
Netherlands, and came over to New Amsterdam in 1G39 in 
the ship "De Brant van Trogeu " ("TJie Conflagration of 
Troy"), with Captain Jochem Pietersen Kuytcr and Jonaa 
Bronck. Upon their arrival at New Amsterdam, vVndriessen 
and one Laurens Duytts, his fellow-passenger upon the vessel, 
were hired by Jonas Bronck to undertake the clearing of a 
tract of five hundred acres which Bronck purchased from the 
Indians upon his arrival, and which lay upon the mainland 
beyond the Ilarlcm lliver; it covered what is now known as 
Morrisania, and Pieter Andricssen and his co-laborer were 
therefore the pioneers of the present Borough of the Bronx.i 
How long Andricssen was em[)l()yed upon Bronck's land we 
are not informed. Jonas Bronck died about the year 1G43, 
and his property passed into other hands. In KJlf), Andrics- 
sen obtained the grant of his lot of about tliirty-seven feet 
front on Hoogh Straet, and no doul>t soon built there, as the > 
ofBcei-s of the West India Conij)auy were, as a rule, dis])0sed ' 
to insist upon a speedy improvement of plots granted by them 
in the town. In the fall of the same year, however, he also 
acquired a farm of about one hundred and fifty acres upon 
the East River shore of Long Island, being a tract upon 
which one Jan Jacobsen Carpcnel, familiarly known as Jan 
of Haerlem, had previously begun a clearing. This farm, ; 
which covered the middle portion of the locality along the 

1 The agreement betweeu Brouck, Andriossen, aud Duytta iu 1C39, is still 
extant. Bronck was to advance to the two men 121 tiorins to pay their hoard 
upon the ship. The two wore to have liherty to plant tobacco and maize upon 
Bronck's land npon condition that they should break up a certain (|uantity of 
i.ew land every two years, surrendering the other lo the owner, for the jjlauting 
of grain. 



PIETER ANDRIESSEN'S /ARM 165 

East River shore, generally known some years ago as Ravens- 
wood, extended about half a mile back from the river to a 
iiiiall stream called in later times Suns wick Creek, which is 
yet to be seen flowing through a narrow salt meadow. The 
site of the farmhouse here was nearly opposite the foot of 
the present Fifly-fiflh Street on Manhattan Island. Pieter 
Andriessen, however, had an additional occupation to that 
of a farmer; lie was a chimney-sweei), — an emploj'nient of 
considerable importiince in those days of wood fires and of 
thatched roofs, — and from that fact he was commonly 
known in the town us I'ieter do Sehoorsteenveger. As this 
occupation of Rieter must have necessitated his frequent 
attendance in the town, and as ho does not ai»pcar to have 
married till a comparatively late day, he seems to liave been 
in the habit of shifting his quarters backward and forward 
between his house on Iloogh Straet and his plantation on 
Long Island, as occasion might require. Neither of these 
establishments was on a very magnificent scale, it is probable, 
and the fai'm on Long Island seems to have been tenanted by 
several negro slaves of Andriessen. 

In 1G48, Picter Andriessen appears in the list of tavern- 
keepers in the settlement. As, however, his house upon 
Iloogh Straet was directly opposite the " Great Tavern " of 
the West India Company (afterwards the Town House), it is 
hardly probable that he would have been permitted to main- 
tain a tavern there, and he is much more likely to have kept 
liquor upon tap at his Long Island farm, to aceomniodate his 
few neighbors and their workmen, as well as the wood- 
cutters, quarrymen, and boatmen whose employment called 
thera up and down along the East River. 

In September, 1G55, after the outbreak of the Indian 
troubles of that year, there w;is a general flight to New 
Amsterdam of the panic-stricken settlers who had survived 
the first onslaught of the Indians. Hastily throwing their 
personal effects into the boats with Avhich most of them were 
provided as means of conveyance, and turning loose into the 
woods the cattle, which in general they could not remove, 



](i() Ni;\V AMSTKItDAM AND ITS I'KOl'LE M 

they ub;iiulunei.l tlieir exposed plantations;, and with their i^ 
families toolc refuge under tlie guns of Fort jVmsterdain. -K 

Unlike the Indian attaeks of 1(;4:3-14, that of 1055 was ,^;' 
directed, in many instances, not so uiucli to murder and id p 
general devastation, as to securing captives for tlie sake of a M 
ransom. In this way the abandoned plantations were often '|s 
spared, in the hope apparently of entrapping the colonists. J 

Four weeks had gone by since the first attack by the M 
Indians, when Picter Andriessen determined to take a party ^ 
out to his jilantation on Long Island, in order to try to re- 1 
cover some of his cattle. The party, consisting of Andriessen 
and five others, sailed up the East River one October morning, 
and finding nothing to alarm them, landed at Andriessen's 
farm, and set about scouring the neighboring woods and 
thickets for the animals. The Dutch, however, had been 
discovered by a party of Indians, who, to the nundjer of 
about thirty, set upon them and took them all prisonera. 
Sending two of their captives back to New Amsterdam, with 
a statement of what the captors required in the way of cloth, f| 
lead, gunpowder, kettles, guns, knives, shoes, axes, etc., — 
as a ransom, — the savages retained Andriessen and three of 
his companions as their prisoners, all but one of these being 
wounded. As, however, Andriessen's party liad left the 
town without the knowledge and consent of the military 
authorities, and indeed against an express prohibition, the 
Director and Council, after nuich discussion of the case, 
declined to act for various reasons, one of which was "be- 
cause when the other savages, who keep yet seventy-three 
prisoners of our nation, understood that such an extravagant 
ransom ^ has been paid for four, they would demand a more 'f , 
enormous sum." Andriessen and his comrades, therefore, E\ 
remained in the hands of the savages for a while longer; but 
within a couple of weeks, — apparently stimulated by the 
threat of the Indians, to carry the remaining captives into the 
interior of the country — the authorities at New Amsterdam 

1 The value of the goods re(iuired muy have amounted to $150 or $200 of 
the present curreucy. 



DE RUYTEIi'S CIIICKrN EXPEDITION 1U7 

came to an agreemeut wiUi the natives respecting the amount 
of ransom, and most or all of the prisoners were restored. 

Matters, however, remained iu a very unsettled condition, 
in spite of the apparent settlement with the Indians; and 
frequent reports of depredations iu the vicinity of New 
Amsterdam (of which the natives generally disclaimed any 
knowledge), kept the community in a constant state of uncer- 
t;unty and dread. While things were in this state, tliere 
sat, on the night of the 4th of November of this year, 1G55, 
around a blazing fire on the wide kitchen hearth of Pieter 
Andriessen's rough farndiouse near the East Uiver shore, his 
negro slave Ste[)hen, and a crony of the latter. Captain 
Francis Fyn's negro man, who had rowed across fiom his 
master's farmhouse on Varckeu (now IJlackwell's) Island, 
for a social evening. Witii this pair of worthies was Claes de 
Ruyter, a Dutchman of jovial disposition from New Amster- 
dam, who is understood to have been a former trooper in the 
West India Company's service. Tlie negro Stephen had 
evidently been sent to take charge of his master's pi-operty, 
either l)ecause lie ran comparatively little risk of being car- 
ried off by the Indians, or because Pietor Andriessen himself 
was not yet recovered from the effects of his late encounter 
with the savages. The presence of Claes de Ruyter, how- 
ever, at tiiis time and place, is not susceptible of so easy an 
explanation. 

Rations seem to have been rather scanty with the party at 
Pieter Andriessen's house; the keen autumn air had given 
them sharp appetites; and as the long evening, wore away, 
some one — we will suppose it was Stephen — remembered 
that there were some chickens left upon the farm of the 
nearest neighbor, Joris Stevensen de Caper. The trio 
promptly agreed that these fowls ouglit not to be left for 
the Indians, or for wolves, wild-cats, and foxes, and an expe- 
dition was determined upon to recover some, at least, of 
them. A walk of about a mile, over rough pasture-fields, 
and through woods and thickets, brought the party in sight 
of the low farmhouse of Joris Stevensen. This house, of 



168 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

which all vestiges have long ago disappeared, was situated 
on the edge of the salt marshes nearly half a mile east of tlie 
present Queeirs County Court House in Long Lsland City, — 
just where De Caper, or "the sailor," could bring his market- 
hoat almost to the door of his house by sailing up a small 
creek called Canapaukah, a branch of the Mespat Kill, or 
present Newtown Creek. Joris Stcvensen's family had 
abandoned their exposed dwelling, as had most of the 
farmers' families in the country, but the men came to the 
farm occasionally to attend to necessary work. To guard 
against any interference by possible inmates of the liouse, 
the marauding party connuenccd operations by a vigorous 
battering against the door of the house, accompanied by a 
whole storm of blood-curdling yells and war-whoops, in 
which we may suppose that Claes do Kuyter, who was 
familiar with the Lidians, and who often acted as go-between 
for them and for the whites, boro a prominent part. The 
expedition was, in short, entirely successful, and Claes and 
his companions returned to Pieter Andriessen's farndiouse, 
where they calmly proceeded to pluck and to dress their 
plunder. 

Li the mean time the Joris Stevensen farm had not been 
entirely deserted. That individual himself, together with 
his father-in-law, Harmon Hendrickseu, and one Tennis 
Jansen van Commel, had been engaged during the day in 
threshing out some grain, and at night had disposed them- 
selves to sleep in the bani. Scared almost out of their wits 
by the supposed Indian attack, and fearing to be discovered 
or burned in the barn, they had escaped into the night and 
sought places of concealment for themselves in various 
directions. One of the fugitives made his way across the 
fields to the house of his neighbor Andriessen; here he dis- 
covered a light, and approaching carefully to reconnoitre, he 
heard, to his great joy, some conversation in Dutch ; there- 
upon he boldly entered the house, where his appearance was 
about as agreeable to Claes de Ruyter and the negroes as was 
that of Banquo's ghost to Macbeth in the banqueting hall 



•^ 



BURNING OF JACOB IIAES'S HOUSE 1G9 

tt the palace of Fores. The party had, in fact, just spitted 
Joris Stevensen's fowls, and were caught red-handed. Claes 
ftas profuse in his apologies, expatiated on the desperation 
of starving men, promised to pay for the fowls when he 
returned to town, and incidentally suggested that it was 
not necessary to say anything about a trilling matter of this 
knid. 

News of this affair found its way to New Amsterdam, 
ho\i'ever, and produced a considerable effect upon the author- 
ities there, for it showed tliem that other agencies besides the 
Indians miglit be at work keeping up the state of disorder in 
the country. While this occurrence was }(;t fresh, <jn the 
morning of the 8lh of November, 1056, tiic people of New 
Amsterdam were again excited by a spectacle whieli had been 
too connnon during the preceding few weeks, — a column of 
smoke rising above the woods from some burning building 
along the East Iliver shore. The precise location of the fire 
^\as not determinable from the town, but soon news arrived 
from up the river that it was the farndiouse of Jacob liaes, 
situated beyond the Noormaus Kill, on the shore of what is 
now called Green Point. On this same morning, Director- 
General Stuyvesant, with Nicasius de Sille, one of the mem- 
beis of his Council, appeared before tlie court of burgomasters 
in the Town Hall with a request, which was duly entered 
upon the minutes of that body, " that the fiscal rigidly 
examine Teunis Jansen as to what he saw at the house 
of Pieter Schoorsteenveger; whereas, now Jacob Ilaey's 
house is burning, and it might possibly happen in the same 
manner." 

An examination into the late pranks of Claes de Ituyter 
followed, accordingly, but we do not find that it threw any 
light upon the later affair, and the matter seems to have been 
dropped without any further proceedings. Stuyvesant and 
his Council were determined, however, to prevent troubles 
of this sort in future; and upon the 18th of January, 1656, 
followed the famous "Order against Isolated Plantations," 
commanding all the subjects of the Colony to settle close to 



170 NEW A]\ISTERI)Ai\I AND ITS PEOPLE 

one another in villages, neighliorhoods, and luunlels, by the 
following spring, imposing a penalty upon such jiersous as 
remain upon exposed plantations, and giving tlieni notice 
that they must not exjiect any aid from the authorities iu ^ 
case of trouble with the natives. Four years later, in fact, 
owing to fre<juent disregard of the ordinance, notice Avas 
given by tlie Council t(j farmers still living upon isolated 
farms, to pull down their houses, and it is believed that a 
few houses were actually destroyed under tlie orders of the ^ 
authorities, before the surrender to the English, in 1GG4, 
rendered the ordinance of tlie Council obsolete. 

After these proceedings of the Council, there is room to 
suppose that Pieter Andriessen became, for a time at least, 
a permanent resident of his house on Jloogh Straet. He 
married, iu 1661, Geertruyd Sanisens, a widow, and we find 
that in lG(i4 he liad a daughter, Jannetje, baptized in the 
Dutch Church; but in 1668 it appears that both lie and his 
wife had died, and two years later the Iloogh Straet house 
was sold, by the representatives of her estate, to Bareut 
Coersen. 

Next adjoining the house of Pieter Andriessen upon the 
east, in a garden of nearly seventy-five feet front upon 

Hoogh Straet, stood at the time of our survey the dwelling- 1 

house of Jacob van Couwenhoven, previously alluded to,^ S^^ 

which was sold in the following year to Nicholas de Meyer. |. 

This building was of stone, and of nuich greater pretensions ^j. 

than most of its neighbors, for at its sale to De Meyer, which ^ 
^?as at public auction, it was already mortgaged for about 

3500 guilders, or $1400 of the present currency; it stood ^; 

upon the site of the present buildings, No. 47, and a part of ^ 

No. 45 Stone Street. This house was occupied as a residence ■» 

for more than thirty years by Nicholas de Meyer. He was '■! 

from Hamburg, then claimed to be under the jurisdiction of f: 
the Duchy of Holstein, from which cause he was occasionally 

culled by the Dutch of Now Amsterdam, Nicolaas van Hoi- \ 

1 See anle, p. 146. 




ITONK hlKKKT. 



!,ooking,' towanls H; 



r 



NICHOLAS DE MEYER 171 

steyn. Tlie ordinary appellation of De Meyer (that is, the 
"steward" or " faniier ") seems, however, to have Leen 
preferred by Nicholas and his descendants, and became tlie 
family name. Nicholas had married, in 1C55, Luda, or 
Lydia, daughter of the cx-iiscal, or prosecutor, Ifendrick 
van Dyke; he became, in later years, a inan of considerable 
prominence iir the city, having been one of tlie magistrates 
iu 1CG4, at the time of the surrender to the English. After- 
wards, in 1G76, he was mayor of the city. ' He was a man 
of active business interests and took a considerable part in 
develoi:)ing the settlement of the village of Haerlem, where he 
had purchased various parcels of land amounting to between 
sixty and seventy acres in extent; he also owned a wind-mill 
near the intersection of the present Chatham and Duane 
streets, and a brewery in the Smits Vly, or modern Pearl 
Street, near Piatt Street. After the death of Nicholas dc 
Meyer, in 1690, the property upon Stone Street was divided, 
and the original homestead passed to his daughter Anna 
Catrina, wife of Jan Willem.sen Noering. The eldest son 
of Nicholas, Wilhelmus or William de Meyer, became a 
prominent citizen of Plsopus and Kingston in the present 
county of Ulster. 

As we advance along the road, or "High Street," farther 
eastwards from the fort, the plots granted to settlers become 
larger, for they were given at a time when there was no 
immediate likelihood of a demand for the laud for the con- 
struction of dwellings. In this way, Wessell Evertsen, the 
next neighbor to Van Couwenhoven and to Nicholas d( 
Meyer, obtained in 1646 the grant of a parcel of land with a 
frontage of nearly two hundred and twenty-live feet along the 
road, and extending back to the Slyck Steegh. Evertsen 
came from the old town of Naerden, upon the south coast 
of the Zuyder Zee, some thirteen or fourteen miles east ol 
Amsterdam, — an interesting place, with many a tradition 
of Spanish atrocities perpetrated here in the war for inde- 
pendence; a picturesque spot, too, where tlie flat western 



172 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PI^OPLE 

coast of tlio Ziiyder Zee, and llie iiilenniiiablo dyked 
meadows in the dirtictioii of Amsterdaiii, give jilace to tlio 
heights of Gooilaud; and wliere, to tlie observer gazing 
southeastward, — 

" A bi'igliter, livelier sceiio succeeds ; 
lu gioups the scattering wood recedes, 
Hedge-rows, and huts, and sunny meads, 
And corn-fields glance between," — 

till ho might well imagine himself among the fields of 
Kent or of Essex, i-aliier tlian in a corner of the [)rovince 
of Holland. 

Having come to New Amsterdam, Everlsen married, in 
1043, Geertje liouwhens, a young woman from his old home, 
and had probably built upon liis plot on Iloogh Straet, as 
early as 1G45, a year or so before ho obtained his ground- 
brief. He was a seafaring man, and in 1648 is spoken of 
as "late master of tlie yacht Saint Martin;" but his main 
occupation, which he followed for many years at New 
Anijsterdam, was that of a lisherman, and from his jjouse, 
which, adjoining a capacious garden, stood about upon the 
site of the present building, No. 55 Stone Street, a path or 
lane, wliich i-einained open for many years, led down directly 
to the mooring-place of his boats u[.on the East lliver shore. 
A couple of hundred feet to the west of this last-mentioned 
spot was the tall building of the city tavern, for the bright 
lights of which Wessell Evertsen had doubtless often strained 
his eyes, sailing up the bay, belated on liis fishing trips, — 
nuich as he might have watched, at home in the fatherland, 
for the lights of the historic Castle of Muyden on the Zuyder 
Zee, as he ran up, on dark nights, from Amsterdam to 
Naerden, through the broad channel of the Pampus. 

Here, then, upon Hoogh Straet, Wessell Evertsen lived 
for many years, and saw a large family grow up around him. 
The extreme eastern end of his plot of ground he had sold 
as early as 1G49 to one Rut Jacobsen, but he retained the 
balance of it till about 1657, when the increasing demand for 
'i 



ELLIOTT'S ALLEY 173 

building lots in thu town induced liiui to sell one suiull parcel 
after another, till iu the course of live or six years he had 
disposed of all tlio ground except that in the immediate 
vicinity of his dwelling-house. Evertsen appears to have 
died shortly before 1G70, but the place remained in the pos- 
session of his descendants as late as the year 172G. 

The parcel of land just before alluded to as forming the 
eastern end of Wessell Evertsen's grant, and as having been 
sold by him in 1G49 to Uutger (commonly known as Rut) 
Jacobscn, must have been built upon by the latter at about 
the period named, and it was doubtless at the same time 
that the narrow lane bounding it upon the west, and which 
formed the southerly turn to the Slyck Steegh, was laid (jut. 
This passageway, under the name of Mill Lane, is still to be 
seen opening into Stone Street, as was previously noticed;^ 
and the site of Jaeobseii's plot is at present occupied by a 
low but spacious brick building of two stories, conspicuous 
for its large windows, and occupied by the Board of Slarine 
Underwriters. The entrance to this structure is upon South 
William Street, where was originally the rear of Jacobsen's 
premises. As for the passageway now called j\Iill Lane, and 
sometimes Mill Street, it was known for a time, abo\it the end 
of the seventeenth century, as EUet's or Elliott's Alley, from 
Richard Elliott, previously mentioned (ank, page IGO, note), 
who lived just at its head upon the Slyck Steegh. Rutger 
Jacobsen, at the time of his purchase of this property upon 
Hoogh Straet, was a resident of Rensselaerswyck''^ (now 
Albany), and although he undoubtedly resided at times in 
New Amsterdam, he does not appear to have given up his citi- 
zenship at the former place, for in ltJ56 he was one of the mag- 
istrates of Rensselaerswyck, and as such, in that year, he laid 
the corner-stone of the new Dutch Church, the site of which 
was at the intersection of the present State Street and Broad- 

' See ante, page ITiS. 

- Jacoljsuu came trom SchoourowoerJ iu tlie Netlierlaiiils, a village somo 
twelve Euglisl) miles south of Utreclit. His daughter Margiietje marrieil, iu 
ir,i;7, Jau Jauseu Bleecker, from Meppel iu the jiroviuce of Overyssel, auccator of 
the lileecker fauiili', well kuowu iu iho aunals of Kew York. 



174 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

way, in the city of Albany. The house at New Aoibterdam 
was retained by Jacobseu till the fall of IGtiO, when it was sold 
at public auction to one Johannes Withart. It would seem to 
have been used by Rut Jacobsen either as a place of tempo- 
rary residence for himself and family when in New Amster- 
dam, or as a storehouse connected with the North River 
trade, he having been, as early ;is 1G49, the owner of a 
sloop plying upon the Hudson between Rensselaerswyck and 
New Amsterdam. After Witliart these premises came to be 
noted as the residence of Nicholas Bayard, long conspicuous 
in the aft'aii'S of the city, mayor in 1G85, the deadly personal 
enemy of Jacob Leisler, and the man above all others respon- 
sible for the judicial murder. of Leisler and his son-in-law 
Milborno in IGUl ; bold and turbulent, he pitted himself 
against tiie Earl of Helloraont, Governor of the Colony, was 
himself condemned to death for treason, and very narrowly 
escaped Leisler's fate. His large farm and country seat west 
of the Bowery became one of the prominent features of New 
York in the eighteenth century. lie purchased the house 
upon Stone Street from Johannes Withart in 1G85, the year 
of his mayoralty, but had resided in it for a number of 
years before that period. 



CHAPTER XV 

THE "GREAT TAVERN," AETERWARDS THE TOWN HALL.— 
ITS HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL ASSOrl A J'lUNS. — DOM- 
INIE BOGARDUS'S PARTY.— THE COURTS. — THE SHIRT 
CASE.— GOVERNOR LOVELACE'S TAVERN 

Tlie Taveruer tooke me by the sieve, 

" S' " sajth he, " will you o' wyue assay 1 " 

I uuawerd, "that cau uot inutch iiie greve 
A peuy cau ilo uo more tliau it uiay ; " 
I (Irauku a pyut, auJ for it dyil pay, 

Yet sure a liungreil fro theuce I yeiie, — 

And warityiige my mouy 1 cold uot spede. 

Lvduaie: " Ijoudou Lyckpeny." 

THE traveller, in the middle of tlie seventeentli century, 
appiotiching Amsterdam up the broad estuary of the 
Y, from the Zuyder Zee, and rounding a point of flat meiulow- 
land intersected by canals, where some years later the vast 
dock-yards, timber Avharves, and storehouses of the Admi- 
ralty and of the East India Company arose, saw at his left 
hand, stretching for two miles along the sliore, the array of 
Louses of that famed city, broken here and there by canals, the 
mouths of which were occasionally marked by ancient stone 
towers of quaint form, tlie survivors of the bulwarks of former 
days. At a distance of a few Inuidred feet from the shore 
extended an apparently interminable double line of "booms," 
— stout piles driven into the earth and fastened together at 
the tops by string pieces, and to these were moored an ahuost 
countless host of vessels of all descriptions, — 

" Meer vlolen als hexit de itrercU, op hel Y ; " 

the smaller craft only were permitted to pass within the line 
ci booms. Sailing by the mouth of the broad Amstel River, 



V/^ 



17G NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS I'ROPLE 

crowded with boats and barges, as it flowed placidly thiough 
the heart of the city, and passi. j the Hiuvriiig pakkers Toortn, 
— the Ilerring-packerti' Tower, — where it stood guard over 
the eiitrauce to the canal, called the " Cingel," the voyager saw 
before him a long pier running out from the shore to a point 
be3'ond the line of booms ; at its extremity was a large, higli- 
peaked wooden building, constructed upon piles, mooied 
around which was a swarm of yachts and rowboats of vau- 
ous descriptions. This building was the St;wlts Herbergh, or 
City Tavern of Amsterdam ; it had been built in the eaily 
part of the seventeenth century, to furnish lodging and enter- 
tainment to seafaring men, and to travellers who might airive 
in the city by night-coming vessels, or after the closing of the 
land gates. The commodious quarters afforded by this tavnn, 
and its agreealjlc outlook over the land and water, caused it to 
be held in high repute. 

About the year 1640, when the trade of New Amsterdam 
was already considerably extended, it was thought desirable, 
by the olhcers of the West India Company, to afford bettei 
accommodations for strangers in the town than Avere furnished 
by the small and rude t;ivenis which already existed there 
It was decided to establish, somewhat after the patteui of 
Amsterdam, a Stadts Ilcrbcrgh, or City Tavern, undei the 
auspices of the West India Company. This building was a 
substantial edifice of stone, and was completed during the 
year 1641. It was designedly placed in a very conspicuous 
position near the shore of the East River, which one of its sides 
faced, and at the time of its erection it formed a most piomi 
nent landmark, standing entirely apart from the houses of the 
town. Back of it lay the road, or Iloogh Straet, from which 
a lane or passageway on the east side of the building gave 
access to the open space between it and the shore. This lane, | 
after the City Tavern had become, in 1654, the Stadt Hujs, or 
Town Hall, was frequently spoken of, in English times, as 
the " State House Lane," or "Hall Lane;" it exists at the 
pKisent day as the narrow passageway, known as Cocnties 
Alley, a curious little dark street between high and almost 



% 



THE STADTS HERBKlKiJI 17T 

blank walls; it is overhung by rusty fire-escapes, uud furnished 
with miniature sidewallis, of about two feet wide. 

The original ground-r^ot attached to the City Tavern, 
appears to have been a strip about tifty feet in width, extend- 
ing from Hoogh Straet to tlie liast Jliver shore, but in the 
year 1651, upon the confiscation of ijic adjoining land of 
Cornelis Melyn,^ enough of tliat land appears to have been 
added to the tuvern plot to make the wiiole parcel about one 
hundred and five feet in front upon the shore, and a few feet 
less tiian that distance upon Hoogh Straet. The premises, so 
enlarged, seem to have been then surrounded by a fence ; pre- 
viously, they had been open and unenclosed. The additional 
ground was doubtless used for a time for garden purposes.- 

Collating carefully the various deeds for portions of these 
premises, made from time to time in the eighteenth century, 
after the Town House had ceased to be used for public pur- 
poses, — some of which deeds refer expressly to lines of the 
old building, while other dimensions of the latter result from 
well-known principles of architecture, — the conclusion is 
reached that the ground-plan of the City Tavern must have 
been about forty-two feet front ^ by about thirty-two feet in 
depth; in height it contained two stories,, with a basement 
underneath and spacious lofts above.* In tlie rear of the 
building was an extension or addition, of whicli only tiio 
eastern wall is definitely fixed; this ajjpears to have been a 
long, narrow structure usei.l for kitchen purposes, and prob- 
ably containing other offices of a similar nature. The present 
northerly line of Pearl Street would seem to have encroached 
somewhat upon the site of the City Tavern, as will be seen 
from the accompanying plan. 

' See ante, page 11!0. 

2 Miuutes of the Burgomasters, 15 November, 1C58. On Johannes Novius, 
the Becretary's iietitiou, wherein lie reciuests that lie may jilaiit the garden Leliiud 
the Town Hall, — Ordered, that the jjetitioner may plant the garden, in conjunc- 
tion with the court messenger. 

' That is to say, its later front upon what is now Pearl Street ; its original 
fri.nt was towards the west. 

« Under its steeply pitched roof. 



I 



178 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

The Stadts Ilerbergh appears to liave been opened for ths 
entertainment of the public about the beginning of the year 
1642, Philip Gerritsen from Ilaerlem being the tirst landlord,' 
and the premises being leased to him and afterwards to 
Adriaen Gerritsen (who had married Philip's widow), dowu 
to the beginning of the year 1G52, when we find Abraliara \\ 
Delanoy conducting the tavern. The terms of the leaso i 
were sufficiently liberal. Philip was to pay the company % 
three hundred guilders per year, or about $120 of tlie present '*'' 
currency ; he was to sell the company's wines' and brandy 
only, for which he was to be allowed a profit of six stivera 
(about twelve cents) per quart, tlie company agieeing not to 
allow any wines to be sold at retail out of its cellar, " wiiich 
might be drunk in clubs, and would tend to the lessee's 
injury." The Director-General, at the same time, promised 
to have a well dug near the liouse, and to cause a brew-house >^ 
to be imt up in the rear of the tavern or else to give the use 
of the company's Ijrew-house, and moreover to permit a space ^f 
to be fenced off in the rear of the house. ' t- 

The City Tavern was hardly^ more than opened before it 
became historic. Many of the fugitives from the outlying 
settlements, in the Indian War of 1G43, were quartered here. -.1 
On the 18lh of September of that year, there arrived in the t,f 
town the distressed colonists of Achter Col (near the preseut 
Elizabethport), which had been destroyed on the preceding 
night by the Indians. These people, who had collected in a 
building there, managed with great difiiculty to make their 
escape in a canoe after tlie house in which they were gathered 
had been set on fire; they kept off the Indians by means of 
their firearms, but lost everything else. They were lodged in 
a body at the City Tavern at the expense of the West ludia 
Company. 

Here, too, in the beginning of 1651, was quartered the crew 
of the ship " Nieuw Nederlandsche Fortuyn," — the vessel of :*i 
the Baron van der Capellen, — seized and confiscated by order 

1 riiilip Gerritsen's lease lionrs date February 17, 1643, but ruus from the 
iBt of January, 1642, for six years i 



I Plan of the Stadt Huys or Town 
Hall of New Anistci'dam 



Compiled by J. //. INNES 




References: 

a. Main l,u,U:nj; of the &adt Huyi. 

b. Exirniion, suffosrd to hnuc been a kilchcn, rlc. 

c c. Small loll granted by the HurgomaslerSj /66^ — 66. 

d. La„e or Alley to the Stadt Huys enclosure. 

e. Site of ta-vern built h Gwv. Lo-velace, tbjo. 
ff Present line of Pearl Street. 



■41 



THE CITY TAVERN AND ITS ASSOCIATIONS 179 

of Director-General Stuyvesant ; nominally, on account of an 
illeged infraction of the revenue laws, but really to gratify 
his hatred against Cornelis Melyn, whom he believed to be 
': t partner in the vessel, ■ — for which proceeding tlie West 
India Company had to make satisfaction afterwards in the 
Netherlands.^ 

Tlie tavern, indeed, from an early day was in frequent use 
as a place of detention for suspected persons and fur various 
political or other prisoners. For this purpose, some portion 
of the building — probably a part of its basement — must 
have been specially prepared. Afterwards, when tiie edilice 
came to be the Town House, a part of it was used as one of 
the regular prisons of tlie town, and tlie provost, or jailer, 
was obliged to divide his altuntioiis between the prisoners 
confined liero and those within the f(jrt, wlio were also in liis 
charge. 

In this way various persons wlio liad become obnoxious lo 
the Director and his Council \\ere kept in detention iium 
time to time at the City Tavern, and later at tlie Town 
House. Here was kept in durance, in llJ47, tlie Scotcliman 
Andrew Forrester, of Dundee, the agent of the Earl of Stirling, 
for asserting his principal's riglits to Long Island, under liis 
purcliase, in 1629, from the Plymouth Company, — till lie 
was packed off in the fall of that year to tlie Netherlands to 
vindicate his conduct before the States-General. Here, in 
1655, tlie Englisliman, George Haxter, was confined: he had 
been for many years in tlie employ of tiie ('oiiipany in a 
military capacity, but had fallen out witli the Director-Gen- 
eral and Council, and had attempted to raise a sedition against 
the Dutcii autliorities at Gravesend. To tlie Town Hall, in 
the spring of 1G5G, were marched the luckless iMiglish in- 
truders, twenty-three in number, who had attempted, under 
a claim hostile to the Dutch, to make a settlement at the 
present Westchester. Sailing up the Ivist liiver in his ship, 
the " Weigh-Scales," Stuyvesant's lieutenant, " the valiant 
Captain Frederick de Koninck," and his forces proceeded in 

• See unte, page 1 19. 



'V:^ 



180 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

boats up the Westchester Creek, and captured the entire new 
colony, which, with the exception of a few who were left to 
guard their wives, children, and property, he conveyed to New 
Amsterdam, where they were lodged in what they call "a 
dungeon at the Court House " till they were ready to comply 
with the demands of the Dutch authorities. 

Such matters as these, however, did not interfere with the 
attractions of the City Tavern as a social resort, and it sooa 
came to be patronized by many of the better class of citizens, 
and by the officials of the West India Company, who fre- 
quently made up parties for a supper and a social evening 
there. These were not always free from unpleasant occur- 
rences, aa we learn. On the night of the 15th of March, 1644, 
there were gathered in Philip Gerritsen's parlor in the City 
Tavern, Doctor Hans Kiersted, Dominie Bogaixlus, Nicholaua 
Coorn, Jan Jacobsen, Gysbert Opdyck.i and other persons, 
with their wives, spending — so we are told — a very agree- 
able evening together. How tliis gathering was put to fligiit 
by the swashbuckler. Captain John Underbill, is told by sev- 
eral of the parties present : " About an hour after supper there 
came in John Onderhil, with his lieuteniint Baxter, and 
drummer, to whom the above-named Philip Gerritseu said, 
' Friends, I have invited these persons here, witii tlieir wives ; 
I tlierefore request that you will betake yourselves to anotlier 
room, where you can be furnished with wine for money.' 
They finally did so, after many words. Having been gone 
a sliort time, said Onderhil and his company, wlio liad then 
been joined by Thomas Willet, invited some of our company 
to take a drink with them, which was done. George Baxter, 
by Onderhil.'s orders, came and requested that Opdyke would 
come and join them,-— which lie refused. Thereupon lie, On- 
derhil and his companions broke into pieces, with drawn swords, 
the cans whicli hung on tlie shelf in the tavern ; endeavoring 
by forcCj having drawn swords in their hands, to come into 
the room where the invited guests were. This was for a long 

1 Ciimmissary at the SoDtli or Delaware River aettlemeuts, and origiual 
graLiei; of Couey Island. 



i 



DOMINIE BOGARDUS'S PARTY 181 

■■jmne resisted by the landlady, with a leaden bolt, and by the 
Undlord, by keeping the door shut; but finally John Onder- 
■jbil and his associates, in spite of all opposition, came into 
the room, where he uttered iiany words. Captain Onderhil, 
Iwldiug his sword in his hand and the scabbard in his left 
|»nd, — the blade about a foot out of the scabbard, — said to 
ihe minister, as reported, whilst he grasped liis sword : ' Clear 
out of here, for I shall strike at random 1 ' In like manner, 
lome English soldiers came immediately (as we presume, to 
his assistance), the above named Onderhil being then guilty, 
witli his companions, of gross insolence." The uproar now 
iRSumed larger proportions, and the fiscal, or public prose- 
i cutor, and a guard from the fort were sent for, without their 
presence producing much effect on the drunken Englishmen. 
The latter still refused to withdraw from the scene of festiv- 
ity; and it was presumably in reply to an adnionitioa of 
Dominie liogardus, coupled with a suggestion of sending for 
the Director-General himself, that Underbill said to the 
Minister, as dcijosud to by the witnesses : " If the Director 
come here, 't is well. 1 liad rather speak to a wise man than 
a fool." This irreverent reply seems to have taken all the 
spirit from the guests. "And in order to prevent further 
and more serious miscliief, — yea, even bloodslied," say the 
witnesses, lugubriously, " we broke up our j)leasant party be- 
fore we had intended." 

Indeed, the affrays at the City Tavern were not always 
devoid of bloodshed. In 1647, one Simon Root picked a 
quarrel and fought here with Pieter Ebel, the jailer, in which 
the former had the misfortune to have " a piece of his ear " 
cut off by a cutlass in the jailer's liand. Root made a formal 
application to the Director and Council for a certificate of 
this fact, which was granted to him, — presumably for the 
purpose of sliowing that the injured member liad not been 
"cropped" to satisfy tlie demands of justice. 

The "(ireat Tavern," some time before it became the Town 
Hall of New Amsterdam, had come to be the seat of a good 
deal of business of a public nature. As early as 1647, it 



i- ; - ■'•,.. d< i. : :; -fit 






182 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

was one of tlie three places in which all public notices 
posted, the otliers being the fort, and the barn of the Weit 
India Company. Kere, too, for a number of years, the Dire^ 
tor and Council ieeni to have frequently sat as a court foi 
the trial of the minor cases coming before them. These 
were often not exactly legal Solons, and the cases which cami 
before them were not infrequently of the most trivial de?, 
scription, for they had to deal with the childish squabbles 
sailors, soldiers, and rude and ignorant men and women from 
half the countries of Europe, for the latter class was not rare 
among the colonists. The fact that such quarrels had to bs ^^ 
adjudicated before the highest legal tribunal of the colony, / 
frequently lends a humorous character to the proceedings, of m 
which the members of the court often seem to be aware and % 
which shows itself in their decisions far more than doesM 
that ponderous gravity upon which various ^vritcrs have been fl. 
so fond of expatiating. The great Shirt Case, which occupied''^ 
the attention of the Director and his Council, in August, 1646, 'ij-; 
may serve as an illustration of what has just been said. In S.. 
that case, one Claes I'icLersen, a sailor, proceeded by attach- ^ 
ment jirocess to recover two shirts, in the possession of an- ^■ 
other sailor, Jan Jansen from Iloorn. Upon the hearing, the ^■ 
defendant Jansen protested, rather guardedly, that the shirU M 
resembled some he hiid bought in Holland. The court de- %■■ 
cided that as they had never discovered any fault in the plaintiff *^ 
Pietersen, the possession of the shirts should be given to him, f- 
and that if the defendant could not prove that the shirts be- ^ 
longed to him, he should remain silent. The defendant Jan- ill 
sen, not being satisfied with this disposition of the case, then * 
commenced a suit against Pietersen, somewhat in the nature V 
of an equitable bill of discovery, to compel him to disclose % 
where he got the shirts. Pietersen's answer to tliis was that %; 
he purchased the shirts at Amsterdam, but was unable to say -K 
in what street. The equities of this important matter having ' 
been duly weighed by the Council, that body decided that ■■.;. 
"they find not a particle of guilt in the defendant; where- '' 
fore the plaintiff is commanded to keep silent, on condition ■; 






lii 




^ . 



MEETING OF DELEGATES 



183 



that the defendant^ tvhen he yoes to Holland, and shall have 
arrived at Amsterdan. remains hound to point out the shop 
where he bought the shirts." 

Matters of a more imporkxiit nature sometimes occupied 
the attention of tlie Director and Council. Here, in tlio fall 
and winter of 1653, was held a meeting of delegates from 
the Dutch and English villages around New Amsterdam,! 
for the pur[)Ose of devising some plan of common defence 
against threatened Indian attacks, the West India Company 
faihng to provide adequate protection. The English dele- 
gates had additional grievances which they proceeded to air 
at tliis meeting, under the form of a '• remonstrance," both 
to the Director and Council and to the States-General of 
tlie Netherlands : — they were not as well treated as they ex- 
pected to be when they came to settle under the rule of the 
New Netherland autliorities ; moreover, discriminations were 
made agiiinst them and in favor of the Dutch. These men, 
some of whom — as tlie Middclburg or Newtown delegates — 
had not yet been in the country much over a year, calmly 
proceeded to inform the Director-General that " instead of 
hberty, an arbitrary government is rearing its head among 
them, and laws affecting the lives and property of the com- 
monalty are enacted without the knowledge or approbation 
of the latter." The unquestionable truth of these assertions 
only made them the less palatable to Stuyvesant, and had 
his path been clear, he would undoubtedly have terminated 
the proceedings of the Convention at the City Tavern in 
short order. Just about this time, however, tlie Dutch and 
Englisii fleets, under Van Tronip and lilake, had been pound- 
ing each other to pieces in the English Channel, in the course 
of the war growing out of the Navigation Act, — with con- 
siderable disadvantage to the Dutch. It was imj^ossible to 
tell what the English in the New England colonies might 
take it into their heads to do; the Director-General therefore 
restrained himself so far as to send a written communication 



Two sessions were held, one begiuning ou the 25th of November, and the 
ir on the 10th of December, 1G53. 



184 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE || 

to the convention, in which, after reminding the delegates that :| 
they were an ill'^gal body, with wliose doinga he was not at ^ 
all obliged to concern iiiniself, he proceeded to examine and tm 
to deny their statements, merely referring to the Enghsh as '^ 
the "instigators and leaders of these novelties." 

The same cause which had induced the Director-General 
to demean iiimsclf with unwonted moderation towards the 
delegates led tlie latter to assume a lofty tone. The English 
delegates from lleemstede, Rusdorp, Vlissingen, and Middel- 
burg 1 (whose constituents, all told, probably did not amouut 
to a thousand men, women, and children), already saw, in 
their mind's e3'e, the fleets and armies of Cromwell advancing 
on New Amsterdam ; they immediately again demanded the 
redress of their grievances, and notified Stuyvesant that in 
case of refusal they would appeal to his superiors at Amster- 
dam. This was too much: the persecutor of Melyn and of 
Kuyter never could Dear to hear talk of an appeal from his 
decisions ; he flew into a rage, and dispersed the convention 
so quickly that the delegates hardly hatl time to pay their 
tavern bills. True to their word, the delegates sent their 
" remonstrance " to the Amsterdam Chamber of tlie West 
India Company, but it was rejected by that body with scant 
courtesy. 

A municipal government, modelled to a certain extent 
upon that of the towns of the Netherlands, having been 
granted to New Amsterdam by the West India Company, 
in answer to long-continued requests from the citizens, the 
new form of administration, under a schout, or sheriff, two 
burgomasters, or superior magistrates, and five schepens, or 
councillors, took effect at the beginning of the year 1653; 
and the City Tavern was appointed as the place in which 
the new municipal body should hold its sessions, both ad- 
ministrative and judicial, for in addition to . the ordinary 
business of town or city government, the burgomasters and 
schepens also formed a court of limited jurisdiction in both 
civil and criminal matters. It soon became evident, how- 
> The later Hempstead, Jamaica, Flushiug, and NewtowD, 



CITY TAVERN BECOMES THE TOWN HALE 185 

ever, that it was highly desirable, for vaiious reasons, that 
the munieipalit" shuuld have entire control of the building in 
which its business was carried on. The West India Com- 
pany, in the embarrassed state of its affairs, had never cleared 
I';' ' away its debts for the construction of the City Tavern ; and 
upon the 24th of December, 1653, the burgomasters and 
Bchepens sent a petition to the Company at Amsterdam, 
asking for a grant to them of the building, offering on tlieir 
part to jiay the debts whicli remained due upon the same. 
This petition was favorably entertained by the Amst£rdam 
Chamber of the Company, which, on the 18th of May, 1654, 
granted the City Tavern "to the use of the Regents for the 
time being, and for their business, but no one shall claim from 
this any right to it individually, or to alienate or mortgage it 
collectively." ^ 

The City Tavern, accordingly, became known henceforth 
as the Stadt lluys, or To^v^l Hall, and several important 
changes soon took place around it. The building appears to 
have stood originally upon the lower part of the slope of a 
knoll of moderate elevation rising to the east of it, in such 
a manner that while the eastern portion of its basement was 
below, the western portion was above tlie surface of the 
ground, and in this latter, facing tlie fort and the town, was 
the entrance, or one of the entrances to the tavern. Soon 
after the municipality acquired this building, fears began to 
be entertained that the bank or open space between it .and 
the river might be seriously encroached upon by the waves. 
It was decided therefore to fill out and to grade between the 
Town House and the water's edge, and to protect this im- 
provement from the tides by constructing a sheet-piling of 
planks in front of it. In pursuance of this design, Charles 
Bridges (or, as the Dutch called him, Van Brugge), who 
held, in right of his wife, Sarah, the ground occupied by the 
knoll above mentioned, lying east of the Town Hall, was 

1 The fee simple of this property, whit;h was afterw,ird8 granted by the city, 
came to it, of coarse, through the coufiscation of the property of the West India 
Compauy by the English after tlie surrender, in 1604. 



186 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

notified, in April, 1656, by the court messenger, " for the 
good of this ton'n, to let him take, ■without any hindrance, 
from the hill before his lot, as much earth as shall be re- 
quired for filling in before the Town Hall." 

The ground now covered by Pearl Street and a part of 
Coenties Slip having been thus filled out and levelled, the 
main entrance to the hall was made on the side towards the 
river, and a small cupola for a bell having been placed upon 
it, the building assumed the form in which it has been 
presented to us by the sketch of the Labadist missionaries, 
Danker and Sluyter, upon their visit to New York in 1G79- 
80, — probably the only reliable representation in existence 
of this building as it was in its later days.^ 

Whether tlie Town Hall continued to be used for tavern 
purposes, after its acquisition by the burgomasters, is not 
clear. On the one hand, the business of the municipality 
could have required but a small portion of the building, and 
it was certainly used for festive purposes ; upon the con- 
templated absence from New Amsterdam of Director-General 
Stuyvesant, in the winter of 1654-55, the burgomasters make 
the following entry in their minutes, under date of Saturday 
afternoon, December 12, 1654: "that, as the Right Honorable 
intends to depart, the burgomasters and schepens shall com- 
pliment him before he t^ike his gallant voyage, and for this 
purpose slmll provide a gay repast on next Wednesday noon 
at the Town Hall, in the Council Chamber. Wherefore a list 
of wliat was required was made out, and what was considered 
necessary was ordered." 

1 The view of the Stadt Hays, given by Mr. D. T. Vulentine, in his History of 
New York, and also in the Manuals of the Commuu Council (which view has 
generally been inserted in the works of later writers), besides being architectur- 
ally impossible, with its leaning or " drunken " stepped gables, is also inaccurate 
in several other respects. As for the appearance of this building in one of Mr. 
V.'a imaginary sketches, purporting to be a view of the vicinity in 1658 (Man. 
Com. Counc, for 18G2. p. 529), the slight mistakes are made of placing the hill 
along the shore to the west, instead of to tlie cnst, of the Town Hall, and in crown- 
ing that edifice with a cupola, some ten or fifteen years before it w.as placed 
there. 



STADT nUYS WANTED FOR A SCHOOL 187 

On the other hand, however, tlie space in and about the 
Town House \v .s frequently made use of in sucli a way as 
to seem incompatible with the employment of any part of the 
building for tavern i)urpoaes. In 1655, the structure is st<ated 
to be encumbered witli a large quantity of salt, placed there 
on storage, and cerbiin lodgers had also got possession of 
different parts of it, or of its outbuildings, — one of these, in 
particular, was a person who, having liad the misfortune to 
lose his own house by fire, had taken up his quarters here, 
"in the little sail loft." At this time the burgomasters ordered 
the premises to be cleared. In the same manner, in 1660, it 
was found that the yard or enclosure of the Town House was 
being used for the storage of lumber, brick, etc., and it was 
ordered that a gate should be made in the rear, and that the 
jailer should see that the trespasses were discontinued. 

Whether any portion of this building was used for school 
purposes, as has been claimed, is doubtful. On the 4th of 
April, 1652, the Chamber of Directors of the West India 
Company at Amsterdam gave the appointment of school- 
master at New Amsterdam to Jan la Montagne, and he was 
permitted to use the City Tavern, " if practicable." Some 
time must have elapsed, however, before such an arrangement 
could have gone into effect, and in the beginning of the suc- 
ceeding year the City Tavern was appropriated to the use of 
the burgomasters, as already shown. The writer has not been 
able to find any evidence that the building was used for school 
purposes, under the regime of the burgomasters : on the con- 
trary, in November, 1656, Harmanus van Hoboken, then 
schoolmaster, petitions those magistrates " to grant him the 
hall and side room for the use of the school, and as a dwell- 
ing, inasmuch as he, the petitioner, does not know how to 
manage for the proper accommodation of the children during 
winter, for they much require a place adapted for fire, and to 
be warmed, for which their present tenement is wholly unfit." 
The schoolmaster then goes on to show that he has a wife 
and children, and is in straits to find accommodation for them, 
and he asks that if the burgomasters cannot grant him the 



^ti' 



388 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

rooms requested, they will allow him the rent of the back 
room of a certain house, then occupied by one (Jeurt Coerteii. 
To this petition, the burgomasters answer that " the hall and 
little room are not in repair, and are, moreover, wanted for 
other purposes. He (petitioner) is allowed to rent said 
house, for which one hundred guilders shall be paid liim 
yearly." 

Here, then, in the Stadt Iluya of New Amsterdam, the 
worthy merchants and brewers, Indian traders and sliip cap- 
tains, who usually composed the body of burgomasters and ;}V 
schepens of the little municipality, met and passed their ordi- 
nances for the government of the town, or sat as a court of 
justice to consider the numerous and sometimes queer con- 
troversies which were brought before them. Naturally, they 
were not men who were overstocked with legal lore. Pon- 
derous folios and quartos, in hog-skin, of the civil and im- 
perial laws, of tlie ordinances of the States-General and of tlio 
States of Holland, and the well-tluimbed " Iloseboom's Re- 
cueil" of the Statutes and (histoms of Amsterdam, lay before 
the magistrates, inviting them to lose themselves in the mazes 
of those abstruse treatises ; they preferred, however, as a rule, 
to render their decisions by tlie aid of what is sometimes 
known as " horse sense." They were fond of settling cases 
informally by inducing, parties to accept their advice befoie 
going to trial : failing this, they were apt to send the cases 
for arbitration to one or two " good men," whom they would 
select out of the community, with instructions to reconcile 
the contending parties, if possible ; in one case, in the year 
1662, where a question of tlie sewing of linen caps was in- 
volved, the court went, so far as to appoint ceitain "good 
women " as arbiti'ators. 

As to the portion of tiie Stadt Huys building used for the 
sessions of the court, Mr. D. T. Valentine has found some 
evidence, apparently, that it was the eastern side of the 
second story, — for he asserts this to have been the fact. In 
1670. however. Governor Francis Lovelace, who liad acquired a 
ph)t of ground immediately adjoining the Stadt Huys, upon tlie 



GOVERNOR LOVELACE'S TAVERN 189 

' weat, commenced the erection of "iiu inn, or oidiniuy " upon tlie 
plot, and sent a communication to the magistrates in the early 
part of that year to know whether tiiey would allow him "to 
build the upper part of the house something over the passage 
of the town which lieth hetween the State House and the 
Wtt, and to make a doore to go from the upper part of the 
bouse into the Court's Chambers." This proposition — which 
was agreed to by the magistrates, leaving it to the governor's 
discretion to pay what was thuuglit fit for " the vacant strooke 
of ground " lying between the buildings, and moreover " not 
to cut off the entrance into the prison doore, or common 
gaol" — would seem to indicate that the court-room was 
npon the western side of the second floor, in 107U, at any rate. 
The term " chambers " used in the communication is hardly 
likely to have referred to private rooms of tlie magistrates, as 
tavern connection, though possibly very convenient in some 
cases, might have led to public scandal against those high 
iials. The tavern of Governor Lovelace, above referred 
to, is shown upon the Danker and Sluyter view of 1G79. 

The Stadt Iluys grounds were infringed upon, not only by 
the grant to Governor Lovelace, but by several oilier grunts, 
made from time to time. During tlie years 1G64 to 16GG, the 
entire front along Duke Street, as it was then called, or the 
present Stone Street, was granted in very small lots to va- 
rious individuals, and only an alley or passageway to the rear 
of the hall was rotiiined : this passageway opened upon Stone 
Street just about where the doorway of the present building 
No. 40 Stone Street now is. Towards the close of the seven- 
teenth century, the hall building began to show signs of dilapi- 
dation, to such an extent tliat, although it had only been 
standing a little more than fifty years, it gradually came to 
be considered unsafe. In 1G96, the subject of erecting a new 
City Hall was under discussion; in 1698, the ground for the 
new building was selected, at the northeast corner of Wall 
and the present Nassau streets, and finally, in August, 1699, 
the historic building and its site were sold at public auction. 
Within the walls of tliis edifice, or, in fine weatlier, upon 



190 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE y 

the open space between it and the river, the citizens of New ' 
Amsterdam were wont to gather and to discuss matters of pub- 
lic and of private interest, as well as the news of the day, 
through more tlian half a century of a period to wliicli are 
usually ascribed some of the most interesting occurrences o( 
modern times. Here, as tidings from across the ocean tardily , 
came to be known, men talked of the destruction of the mon- 
archy in England and of the new commonwealth there; of 
the latter days of tlie Thirty Years' War ; of Louis XIV. aud 
of the French power, threatening all Europe ; of the great 
naval wars between England and the Nctiierlands for tho 
supremacy of the seas ; of the Turkish hordes before Vienna, 
and of their fliglit before John Sobieski ; of the wonderful 
revolutions which placed William of Orange upon the throne 
of Engkmd and at the front of European politics. The names 
of Cromwell and of llichelieu, of Mazarin and of Colbert; of 
the murdered King Charles, and of the fugitive King James; 
of great admirals and generals, Van Tromp and De Ruyter, 
Turenne and Luxemliourg, — ^were once familiar sounds in 
this locality.' Now, all is changed: crowded warehouses 
cover the land far out into what was the river of those 
days ; and in front of the spot where were the windows of 
the court-room in wliich Leisler and Milborne were con- 
demned to suffer death for treason, the trains of the elevated 
railway sweep round into Coenties Slip. 

The site of the beginnings of its municipal government 
would have been carefull}^ preserved, or at any rate honored 
with a substantial monument, by almost any small town of 
New England, but in the City of New York it luis not been 
thought necessary to mark the site of the Stadt Iluys by 
anything more tluin a small bronze plate placed high up on 

1 Council Miuutes, G .July, 1072. " Tuesil.iy next, about 10 or II of ye clock 
before noon is appointed to ni.ike proclamation of tlie Warre," at tlie State 
House. This was the war by England aud Franco against the United Provinces, 
in which war Now York was cajitureJ by the Dutcli in tlic following year, and ia 
which William III. the young I'riuce of Orange, newly appointed C'omniandcr-iu- 
chief of the forces of the Netherlands, displayed his abilities under very trying 
cirourastauces. 



SITE OF THE STADT HUYS 



the front of the modern building standing at this point ; the 
inscription upon this plate may doubtless be read from the 
itreet by any pe^aon provided with a good opera-glass. 
Tlie corporation which has so much of the tax-payers' money 
to spend for all sorts of necessary and of unnecessary objects 
has perhaps spent a good deal of it to worse advantage than 
if It had acquired the site of its first home, and thereon built, 
for some of its municipal purposes, a building designed to 
reproduce as far as possible the historic structure. 

Tiie site of tlie Stadt Iluys is at present occupied by a 
common warehouse, tall and dismal, and by a liquor saloon 
which may represent a continuous How of the tap at this spot, 
(roui tbe days of the Great Tavern and of Governor Love- 
lace's ''ordinary." 



CHAPTER XVI 

TEE "ENGLISH QUARTER," AND THE GRANTS TO THOMAS 
WILLET AND TO RICHARD SMITH.— WILLIAM PATER-' 
SON, THE SCOTCHMAN, AND HIS ADVENTURES.- WHO ' 
WAS HEi — AN HISTORICAL PRdllLEM 

THE present block of ground lying between Stone and 
Pearl streets, Coenties Alley and Hunover Square, 
which constituted, in the seventeenth century, the small 
tract situated east of the Stadt Huys and between Hoogb 
S tract and the river shore, became, at an early day, a sort of 
English quarter in the town. Here, in 1645, Thomas Willut 
received a grant of the land lying "next to the Greut 
Tavern," a parcel of irregular sliape, averaging about one 
hundred and seventy-five feet in width, and extending from 
the road, or Hoogh Straet, to the river, — a distance of 
something over one hundred feet. This parcel seems to 
have formed a hill, or bluff of moderate height, which was 
levelled — in part, at any rate — about the year 1G5C!, fur 
the purpose of filling out and grading the open space along 
the shore which formed what is now Pearl Street in this 
vicinity, of which proceeding some notice has already been 
taken. ^ Who this Thomas Willet, the original grantee, was, 
has not been very clearly ascertained. He has been con- 
stantly confounded by various writers with Captain Thomas 
Willet of Plymouth Colony, who afterwards engaged in trade 
between New Amsterdam and the New England towns, and 
who, after the surrender to the English in IGG-i, was ap- 
pointed the first mayor of the City of New York. That he 
was of kin to Captain Thomas Willet is not at all improbable; 
but examination fails to disclose the nature of the connection, 

1 See ante, page 185, 



I 



THOMAS WILLET 193 

^ if any existed. About all that seems to bo known of the 
antecedents of Thomas Willet of Now Amsterdam is that in 
his marriage reccd in the Dutcli Church ho is described as 
being from Bristol, in England. 

Thomas Willet, the grantee of the Hoogh Straet land, 
appears in 1(J13 — then being a young man of twenty-two 
years of age — as one of the iMiglish .soldiers in the employ 
of the West India Company. As such, he was one of tliDse 
who took part in the massacre of the Indians, by Director 
Kieft's orders, on the night of February 25, 1(J43, at Pa- 
vonia; and upon the next day he was one of tlie witnesses of 
the killing of the Dutchman, Dirck Straetmaker, and his wife, 
who in spite of warnings to the contrary had insisted on visit- 
ing the scene of the liorrid butchery of the preceding night, 
where the bodies of the slain were still lying; he and lus 
wife were there nuirdored by some of tlie enraged Indians 
who had already begun to gather in the vicinity, — the 
Dutch soldiers being too far away to afford relief. 

It was in the fall of this same year, ltJ43, that Thomas 
Willet married an Englhsh girl, Sarah, the daughter of 
Thomas Cornell. The latter, with his family, had emigrated 
to America several years before, from the shire of Essex in 
England, and had acquired from the Indians a tract lying 
just east of the Bronx River; liere he established a planta- 
tion, which with those of his neighbors, Jonas Bronck and 
Edward Jessup, formed the outposts of civilization in the 
vicinity of New Amsterdam along the East River; Thomas 
Cornell's tract soon took the name of tloniell's Neck, and 
liis farmhouse was situated nearly two miles southeast of the 
present village of West Farms. 

After his marriage to Sarah Cornell, Thomas Willet ap- 
pears to liave remained at New Amsterdam for several years, 
still apparently in the enrploy of the West India Company. 
His presence, with his captain, Underhill, at the time of the 
drunken onslaught of the latter on Dominie Bogardus's party 
at till! City Tavern, in 1G44, has idreaily been sj)okeu of.^ 

1 See anie, page 180. 



19-1 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

Although his ground-brief for tlic land on Iloogh Struct Avas 'M 
only obtained in 1G45, there is evidenee tluit he had built ,iM 
upon the t)lot before that time, his house oceupying very 
nearly the site of the present building, No. 48 Stone Street, 
— now an old tea and coffee warehouse. In the summer or 
autumn of 1(J15, he appears to have been engaged in a joint 
mercantile speculation with the skipper Juriacn Blanck aud 
Doctor Kiersted's brother Jocheni, in relation to which the 
partners had a disagreement which brought them into court. 
After this we have no further notices of Tliomas Willet; he 
must, however, have died within a year or so from the last- 
mentioned date, for in November, 1G47, his widow Sarah 
married Charles Bridges, of Canterbury. 

At the mention of Canterbury, tlioughts of the old city 
of the monk St. Augustine aud of Thomas h IJecket will 
occur to many, — wheie the majestic cathedral, tlie niother- 
churcli of England, still looks down (or recently did, for 
some serious inroads have been made by modern innovations) 
on massive city walls and gates, upon quaint streets lined with 
overhanging houses, and upon the Stour, placidly flowing by 
the city and through hop fields and meadows, orchards and 
gardens, — much as it all was in (^liarles Bridges' time; for 
Canterbury is one of those eddies, lying outside tlie main cur- 
rent of time, where all things slowly revolve in a limited circle, 
while the greater flow sweeps by with its perpetual change. 

Causes of which we are ignorant ti'ansferred Cliarles 
Bridges from the ancient capital of the Kent-men to the 
Dutch island of Curagoa, in the West Indies, prior to 1G39, 
in which year we And him making a voyage to New Amster- 
dam as supercargo of the ship "White Haven." Bridges 
early became a thoroughly Teutonized Englishman, and was 
not only called by the Dutch, but called himself, by the 
Dutch equivalent of his name, Carel van l.rugge. He rose 
into prominence in the Dutidi island, and in 1G44 was ap- 
pointed memb(!r of the Council anil keeper of the stores at 
that place, lie seems to have been somewhat of a favorite 
with Director Stuyvesant, and when tiie latter was trans- 



J.-' .1- ■ 1 ■•: I 



■ni ;i. 



■I A 



CHARLES BRIDGES 195 

fcrred from Cura?oa to New Anisteidam, in tlie early part 
o( 1G47, Bridges, or Van Brugge, accompanied liini from the 
^' West Indies, and upon reaching New Nellierhmd, lie received 
fe Ibe appointment of commissary at Fort Orange, or Albany, 
ihere he appears to have taken the place of the unfortunate 
jurgeon, Ilarmanus van der Bogaerdt.' As he was married 
iuiit about this jjericjd to the widow Willct, it may be presumed 
ihat he resided at Fort Orange fou some time, as we hear 
nothing further of him till 1G51, wlien be was again in New 
Amsterdam, holding the ollice of connuissary of provincial 
accounts, and in 1(352 ho was made Provincial Secretary. 
For many years. Bridges and his family, including his young 
Itep-sons, William and Thomas VVillet, resided part of the 
Uine in the house on Iloogii Straet, which had belonged to 
Mrs. Bridges' first husband, or in Vlissingen, now Flushing 
upon Long Island, where Bridges early acquired interests. 
After the surrender of New Netherland to the English, 
m lGG-1, Charles Bridges, or Van Brugge, says Doctor 
O'Callaghan, "resumed his English name, appearing under 
It as one of the patentees of Flushing. With the return of 
the Dutch in 1U73, he became again Carel van Brugge ami 
was appointed clerk of the English towns upon Long Island, 
rtsidhig at Flushing, where he died, August, 1G82." His 
wife Sarah, who survived him, married for her third husband 
John Lawrence, Jr., of Flusliing; and some time prior to 
lb86, the property on Hoogli Straet was divided between 
Lawrence and Thomas Willet, son of the original grantee, 
Lawrence retaining the house and the eastern half of the plot 
of ground. 

At the time of this partition, however, Thomas Willet's 
pitrimony had been reduced in size by the sale of two small 
pircels from it many years before, by Charles Bridges and 
ins wife, as it would seem. Of these parcels, one was a lot 
adjoining the Stadt Hiiys Lane, which came into the pos- 
hi 3sion of George Woolsey, probably soon after the period of 
oar survey. Woolsey was, it is believed, a native of the 



196 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

ancient fishing town oi Yarnioutli, in the County of Norfolk.' 
on the east coast of Enghind, and as early as 1646 was thi] 
clerk or manager of Isaac Allerton, the active trader througk| 
whose hand^ passed most of the trade between New AuisteN 
dam and the New England settlements, and whose warehoim 
stood upon the shore of the East River near the soutliw 
corner of the present Pearl Street and Peck Slip, h M 
December, 1647, about a month after the marriage of Charla 
Bridges, we find the marriage of George Woolsey to Rebecca 
Cornell, who was in all probability a sister of Mrs. Bridges, ''^ 
Just when Woolsey acquired this lot at the Stadt Iluys Lane S 
we are ignorant, as we are also of the time at which he built a 
upon it; it was undoubtedly not until after the grading of >; 
the hill at this point, in 1656, in order to fill out in front of ;i|) 
the Town llall, as already mentioned; perhaps it was not 
until after 1659, when his employer, Isaac Allerton, died, aad 
the business passed into other hands. Be this as it may, we 
find George Woolsey residing here for several years, until in 
1668 he sold the premises to William Paterson. The dingy 
brick building which now occupies this site — a bagging and 
cooperage warehouse. No. 75 Pearl Street, the entrance to 
which stands in the perpetual twilight of the elevated rail- 
way structure above — is dull and commonplace enough to 
afford some ground for an impression that no associations of 
interest could possibly have marked the spot; yet here was 
apparently the residence for a time of a singular character, 
whose history, if fully known, might throw a great deal of 
light upon one of the historical mysteries of the seventeenth 
century, which has hitherto baffled many determined investi- 
gators. The matter seems to be of sufficient interest and 
importance to justify a digression from the plan of our 
survey. 

William Paterson, to whom George Woolsey sold his 
house near the Town Hall, was a Scotchman who appeared 
in New York in or about the year 1668. He called himself 
a merchant, or trader, but his trading consisted principally, 
so far as we are informed, in the importation of liquor — 



WILLIAM PATERSON'S HOUSES 197 

mainly rum, of course — from the West Indies. One cir- 
eumstance attending Paterson's coming to New York cannot 
til to arrest our attention; while most of the new traders, 
both Dutch and English, who had come to the small town, 
had engaged in business here cautiously, usually hiring a 
bouse until they were well established, and at most only pur- 
chasing a location for their store or warehouse, Paterson, 
within a very short time after his arrival, acquired possession 
of 110 less than six different pieces of property, four of which 
already contained houses upon them, wliile upon another of 
his lots he himself seems to have had a building erected soon 
tfter his j)urcliar,e.' 

Of Paterson's life at New York we know but little; he 
appears to have possessed a keen sense of injustice, coupled 
with a quick temper, and this soon brought him into trouble 
there. In the early part of the spring of 16G9, Paterson had 
brought a suit upon an account and other raattei-s against 
one John Garland, and had recovered judgment. He was 
now endeavoring to obtain either the collection of his debt or 
security for the same from Garland; when another suit was 
brought against the latter by Isaac Bedlo, before the mayor 
and aldermen in the municipal court. Bedlo, being himself 
an alderman at the time, was of course a member of the 
court. This cause came on at the City Hall upon the 16th 
of March, 1G69; no opposition was made by Garland, and 

1 These parcels acqaired by Paterson were as follows : — 

I. The hiiuBe and lot above mentioned .-js having been purchased of George 
Woolsey, at the corner of the present Coenties Alley and Pearl Street. 

II. A small bcuBO and lot on the ea.st side of the present William Street, near 
Wall. 

in. A house with nearly half an acre of pronnd lying upon an interior lane or 
passatjcway at one time called Smith's Street, hut afterwards closed, a frontage 
having been obtained upon the later Smith's now William Street. 

IV. A house and lot ou the south side of Pearl Street between the fort and 
the river. 

v. A small parcel of ground forming the portion lying towards Stone Street 
of the building known at present as the Old Cotton Exchange, fronting Han- 

VI. A email lot of vacant ground at the southeast corner of the present Wall 
and William streets. 



198 NEW AMSTEIIDAM AND ITS PEOPLE f. 

judgment was urdurcd iigiiiiist him upon tlie spot, for 3,727 
florius' wiimpum, and an execution was ordered to be issued 
immediately. Paterson, who was present in tlie court, de- 
nounced this proceeding indignantly; it was only he said, ' 
"in color to deceive him and to prevent him from collecting ' 
his debt from Garland ; " furthermore, the court was in no 
condition to pass any judgment, because, excluding Alderman j 
Bedlo, the prescribed number of naembers was not complete. ,Jt' 
As a matter of fact, the court was composed entirely of old t; 
Dutch residents, and consisted, besides Cornells van Steen- ' 
wyck, the mayor, of Alderman Jiedlo, Francois Boon, and ,^' 
Christoj)her Ilooghlandt. In a matter taking the form of an >! 
issue between one of their own members and a stiangcr Scotch- ,^, ' 
man, the action of the court was not likely to be materially "> 
different from that of more highly organized tribunals in ii 
similar cases, and we find that Paterson's protest not only f - 
received but scant consideration, but that, to complete the f' 
rather suspicious appearance of tiie case. Garland's attorney, 'tj' 
who was present, rose and stated to the court that his client '^^, 
"found himself very much aggrieved by said judgments, and <;' . 
asked for an arrest" (that is, stay of proceedings) "till the jg 
return of his Honor the Governor, that he might petition for ;^* 
an appeal in said causes; " this the complaisant court allowed ff 
him at once. #): 

Paterson does not appear to have become speedily recon- 
ciled to the proceedings of the Solons of the Mayor's Court 
in his case. He transferred a portion of his wrath to the 
Marshal of the Court, who held the executions against Gar- ,' 
land; and in a few days we find that officer, Henry Newton, ;, 
bringing "an action of Disfamation " against Paterson. In 1 ,, 
this he declares ^ that the Scotchman " hath greatly disfamed '1' ■ 
this plaintiff in doing his office as Marishal of this citty, in :*' 
calling this plaintiff Roag, & would proeve him to be one .'" 
before the Govern''." The indignant court upon this occa- ' ■ 
sion imposed upon Paterson for the insult to their officer a ' 
fine of 25 guilders, "and recommend him to take warning 

1 On the 6th of April, 1669. 

1' 



I AFFAIR OF CAPTAIN BAKKK iy» 

not to affront or abuse any of the ollicers fur the future any 
more, or that a greater penalty shal be imposed upon him 
according to the merits tliereof." 

Greatly irritated, no doubt, by these proceedings, Paterson 
seems soon to have departed from New York upon what 
appears to have been a trading or mercantile expedition to 
Albany; there bo speedily fell into a worse dilTiculty than 
his previous one, and became the central figure in an affair 
which was the great topic of the day throughout the Colonj', 
and which threatened for a time to bring about very serious 
difficulties between the Dutch colonists and their English 
rulers. 

The captain of the English garrison at Albany at this time 
was one John Baker. If, as has been asserted, all the 
varieties of human character have been portrayed in the 
writings of Shakespeare, it is quite manifest that this man's 
type is to be found in Ancient Pistol. He was a swash- 
buckler of the first magnitude. Just what excited Captain 
Baker's ire against William Paterson at Albany we do not 
know, but to all appearance it was jealousy. Paterson, as it 
would seem, had, upon coming to Albany, hired a small 
house of Jochem Wessells, a baker by occupation, but who 
was at this time engaged in trading with the Indians. There 
is some evidence that this Jochem was the son of Paterson's 
near neighbor in New York, the old fisherman WesscU 
Evertsen; the sites of his house, and of that occupied by 
r\terson, were near the north gate of Albany, along the 
river shore, in a place upon which are situated at the present 
day some very dismal old houses, just north of the depot-yard 
of the New York Central Railway. The house hired ol 
Jochem Wessells was tenanted by Paterson and his servant- 
man, who seem to have taken their meals at the house ol 
Paterson's landlord. It was at the bench in front of the 
latter house, where Paterson sat on the evening of July 31, 
1GG9, smoking a pipe after supper and conversing with 
Gertruyd, Jochem Wessells' wife, when Captain Bakei, 
coming from a neighboring tavern, walked up to Paterson 



zw JNhU AMSTERDAM AND ITS TEoPLE <i 

and accosted him with a very foul imputation and insult. ■ j 
Paterson replied in a auitable manner and with cool temper, '4 
but Captain Baker, whose evident intention was, as Patei'soa \ 
states, "to pike a quarrel," after threatening to cut off f 
Paterson's ears, etc., struck him in the face. Paterson -] 
hereupon stepped back into the doorway and warned hia , 
adversary against repeating the act, while Joeliem's wife I 
endeavored to separate the two men, but Baker again struck 
Paterson, and this time succeeded in bringing the Scotch ■ 
blood into full play. Paterson sprang at his enemy, grasped ] 
him around the body, hurled liim to tlie ground, and thrashed 
him at his pleasure, till the bystanders interfered in compas- 
sion on the unlucky captain. Baker, beside himself with ■ 
rage, now repaired to the fort, where he ordered out a small 
detachment of his men, with whom he returned to the scene 
of battle. Finding the door of Jochem Wessells' house 
fastened, Baker ordered his men to burst it open, but the 
whole business was so manifestly lawless that the soldiers 
refused to obey his orders, whereupon the captain burst open 
the door himself with the butt of a musket. Not finding 
Paterson here, he having retired to his own house, the cap- 
tain contented himself with striking and abusing Jochein 
Wessells' wife, whom he ordered to be put under arrest; 
after which, in Paterson's words, "he came running with his 
said guard to the house and lodging of this complainant, and 
without knoking or warning of this complainant that he 
would be in the house, he charged his said guard to break 
open the door of the complainants house . . . which they 
likewise refused to do; and this complainant, hearing the 
noise, being just ready to go abed, called out to them and 
said, ' Stay, Captain Baker, I will open the door.' But the 
said Baker replied, ' No, but I will break it open, ' which he 
likewise did, . . . which being done, he came in with his 
sword drawn and pointed at this complainant with intent to 
have killed him, which he likewise would have done, in ease 
it was not hindered by the Providence of God." ' 

' The form of this providential hindrance is shown by the testimony of a 
■wit)ios3, one I.amhcrt Aclbcrts v.au Neck, a Dutch merchant from New York, 



ARREST OF PATERSON 201 

Paterson was now taken as a prisoner to the fort by 
Captain Baker, but that son of Mars in his blind fury had 
unwittingly stirred up an enemy against himself likely to 
give him much more trouble than did the bruises inflicted 
upon him by William Paterson; this was the Dutch com- 
munity of Albany; the rights of criminal and of civil juris- 
diction secured to their courts by the articles of surrender to 
the English had been so grossly violated by tliis exploit of 
Baker, that though the Dutch probaljly had but little personal 
interest in the stranger, William Paterson, yet as a matter of 
principle they took up his cause at once, and as one man. 
Late as it was on the night of the 31st of Jul}-, the magis- 
trates were convened, and proceeded in a body to the fort, 
where they demanded Paterson's release. This was refused 
by Baker at first, but within twenty-four hours he began to 
see the danger of his position, and assented to Paterson's 
discharge. 

In the mean time the Dutch magistrates permitted no 
delay. Though the next day was Sunday, the 1st of August, 
they held an extraordinary session in the afternoon, at which 
Paterson was present, and at which papers were prepared 
for transmission to the Governor and Council at New York. 
These were probably presented in person by Paterson, and 
they were quickly acted upon by the Governor, as the act 
with which Baker was charged was of a nature to stir up 
strife and sedition. Baker was consequently ordered to 
answer the ch.vrges at once, and he did so in a curious docu- 
ment, in which with the usual impudence of his kind he 
states that merely on account of his having spoken "in a 
familiar jesting manner" to Paterson he was made the victim 
of a most atrocious assault by that individual, "for in a very 
outrageous manner, he flew upon this defendant with so fierce 

who was among the crowd attracted to the spot by the uproar. He pays that 
Paterson offered to opeu tlie door, " but liefore he came the door lay prostrate 
at his feet. Then Captain Baker said, ' Here, you Scotch dog, you must come 
along ; ' and violently entering with his sword drawn, Mr. Paterson caught him 
around the body, and Captain Baker tried to run Mr. Paterson througli witli his 
sword from above." 



202 NEW AMSTEllDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

an assault that he boat liim to the ground, defendant not ia 
the least suspecting that he durst have been so iiresumptious 
as to have attem[)ted sueh an action in the street, without 
respect to this defendants (oflice ?) under yo' lion'." The 
captain furthermore avers that he did not so much care for - 
the beating he received personall}', " but that he considered 
it done in contempt of Government," and that he therefore 
considered it his duty to place Paterson under arrest; "but 
he falsely allegeth that I kept him prisoner for twenty-one 
liours, for after one hour was expired, he stay'd the rest of 
the time for his recreation." lie considers Paterson as a 
contentious fellow, who "liath stuffed this, his information, 
with lyes & idle allegacions; and further that he is not 
the first by many that he hath affronted and abused at 
Albany." lie hopes that Paterson will now bo made a §', 
severe example of. %, 

The reading of this precious production appears to have ® 
completed the disgust of the Governor and Council. An M 
order was made upon the 18th of August suspending Captain ,*;{ 
Baker from his command, and allowing Paterson to prose- O 
cute him in the civil courts, and ordering the soldiers of bis 
guard to give in their depositions. As they all gave in their 
depositions with great promptness against their commander, 
one may infer that he was not a very popular officer. 

On the 2Gth of August, an attachment or arrest, in the 
sum of £200, was issued against Captain Baker's house and ft 
effects at A'bany, and — strangely enough — upon the night v^ 
of the 28th of August an attempt was made to burn the l^M 
house of William Paterson, in New York. As to this latter Mj 
affair and its cause, we have nothing but surmises; all that |( 
we are informed is that upon the 2d of September, the «J 
culprit, Daniel Dillon, aged sixteen years, for attempting to _|| 
set fire to William Paterson's house " by putting a brand of ■« 
fire under the door of said bouse," was sentenced "to be '^ 
whipt twelve slashes," to be kept in prison at the pleasure 
of the court, and to be banished from the city "during 
his life." 



PATERSON LEAVES NEW YORK 203 

A special court, composed of several prominent citizens, 
and headed by Cornelis van Steenwyck, the Mayor of New 
York, had been ajipointed to try Paterson's cause against 
Captain l?akcr. There was evidentlj- a desire in several 
quarters that tlie matter sliould nut be carried to too rigorous 
conclusions, tiie offence, in its criminal aspect, including 
technically the capital crime of burglary. Captain Baker had 
humbled himself su far as to write tlie following document: 

" Mr Paterson : I am contented to submit to the order of ye 
Committee appointed by his honor the Governor Col. Lovelace, to 
determine the diflorenco betweene you and myselfe, and do cou- 
fesse what I did at Albany to you was Kashly and unadvisedly 
done, and I am wiiliny; lu he friends witli you & desire yr excuse 
for my Passion, and so do tlriuek to you." 

Paterson himself seems likewise to have been anxious to 
have this troublesome case disposed of as soon as possible. 
His sojourn at New York and at Albany had been attended 
with several annoying experiences, and at this time he 
appears to have l>een endeavoring to close up his not very 
profitable "trading" ventures at New York, preparatory to 
returning to Scotland. Upon the Gth of October, IGGO, we 
find that the special court or commission appointed to try 
Baker's case, having made a recommendation that the parties 
should come to some agreement, reports that " Mr. Paterson 
flong up his papers and left the case to be decided by the 
committee." They thereupon, having found that Captain 
Baker was in fault, order him to pay to Paterson the sum of 
200 guilders sewant, or about $80 of the present currency, — 
so the case ai)pears to have ended.' 

Paterson, at about this time, or in the fall of 16G9, quitted 
New York without having disposed of any of his lands and 
houses in that town. How these were managed,'* or in what 

' By an order of the Council dated May 14, 1C70, Captain Baker was dismissed 
from the service. 

' Probably by agents, for a number of years afterwards we are informed 
that "Mr. Bayard" — probably Nicholas R.ayard — bad a letter of attorney from 
}*ater3on, " in 1G09, when he went away." lu the following year he gave another 
letter of attorney to one William Taylor. 






204 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

condition they -were left we do not know, fur no further 
entries ;ippear in the records respecting him or liis property 
until the capture of New York by the Dutch took place, in ji 
the year 1G73. At that time all of Paterson's property in the 
city was confiscated and granted to various persons by the 
Dutch Governor Golve, on the ground that Paterson, being 
a resident of Scotland, was not protected by the articles of 
surrender. After the restoration of New York to the Eng- 
lish, and about 1G75, it would appear that Paterson, through 
an attorney, attempted to recover some compensation for the 
loss of his projierty, but the records are extremely meagre, 
amounting to little more than a calendar, in which Paterson's 
claim appears two or three times. The occupants of the 
premises were sustained by the court in their possession 
under Governor Colve's grants; but a memorandum was 
made that "in consideration of Mr. Paterson's loosing his 
houses" he should have "for each house a lot of vacant 
ground in some convenient place within this city, to bee laid 
out by the magistrates with the lirst convenience." No 
action, however, appears to have taken place by the magis- i 
trates to carry out this recommendation. 

Paterson appears, however, to have had sufficient influence 
in England to induce the Duke of York to interest himself 
in the affair, for upon the 17th of May, 1070, we find the 
Governor and Council making a minute in their records, 
wherein after reciting that Mr. Paterson's case "having 
been taker into consideration in obedience to His Royal 
Highness' commands," they proceed to state that "such of 
his houses as were disposed of in the time of the warre being 
confirmed to ye Possessors by the Court of Assize, it is not 
knowne how hee can be relieved therein." 

Ten years were now suffered to elapse by Paterson, when, 
in June, 1084, he being then described as a. merchant of 
Edinburgh, we find him executing a power of attorney to 
George Lockhart, chirurgeon, a Scotchman residing at the 
time in New York,i authorizing him "to sue for and recover 

> l.ockhart was quite prominently iuteresteii in the proprittary grant o{ 
Easi. Jersey, of which he claimed himself to he a large owner, la 1683, he 



a 



A HISTORICAL (QUESTION 205 

all and sundry houses, plantations, etc., belonging to me in 
New York, Albany and the colonies of New England, or in 
any other parts of America whatsoever, and to sell and 
dispose of the same," etc. Under this power of attorney 
(which was executed at Edinburgh before Watts Marshall 
and J. Barbour, witnesses) several releases \\ere executed 
in the year 1G85 by Loekhart, to the former grantees of 
Patersou's property. 

These proceedings terminate Patersou's connection with 
New York, so far as appears from the records, and we are 
now brought to the question of historical signilicance sug- 
gested in the early portion of the sketch of tliat individual's 
transactions at New York. 'I'he question is this: Was 
William Paterson, trader at New York in the years 1GG8 and 
16ljy, the same William Paterson who nearly a quarter of a 
century later, in England, originated the plan for the estab- 
lishment of the Hank of England, and thus laid the founda- 
tion for the whole system of modern Jinance? 

About the early life of the man who may be regarded as 
the real founder of the Bank of England, there has hitherto 
been an almost impenetrable veil of obscurity, and it seems to 
have been Patersou's desire to increase, as far as possible, 
the air of mystery which encompassed him. A voluminous 
Avriter of pamphlets in favor of the varied projects of his 
fertile brain, he chose to issue them anonymously. Vigor- 
ously attacked aiid denounced by his numerous enemies on 
account of his linancial theories, and later by reason of his 
unfortunate Uarien scheme, which had like to have set the 
whole island of Britain by the ears, he rarely condescended 
to notice tlieir vilification of himself and their insinuations 
as to his past life. Probably the necessity of reply was not 
very great, for neither Paterson's enemies nor his friends 
seem to have been able, in spite of what must have been the 

made a proposition to tlie Board of Proprietors of tliat province, tliat upon re- 
coiving tlie appoiutmuiit of marslial, with a grant of ton acres in tlie village of 
Perth, he would at his owu expense build a jjrison aud towu-houso there. (See 
Lioc. relating to Colouial Uistory of N. J., i. 430.) 



20G NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

most strenuous exertions on their part, to find much that was 
definitely known either against liim or in his favor. " Of his 
early life," says Macaulay, "little is known except that he 
was a native of Scotland, and that he had been in the West 
Indies. In what character he had visited the West Indies 
was a matter about which his contemporaries differed. Ilia 
friends said that he had been a missionary; his enemies that 
he had been a buccaneer, lie seems to have been gifted by 
nature with fertile invention, an ardent temperament, and 
great powers of persuasion, and to have acquired somewhere 
in the course of his vagrant life a perfect knowledge of 
accounts. " 

Premising that the name of William Paterson is a very 
conuuon one in Scotland, the fact remains that there are 
several singular coincidences which seem to go far in sup- 
port of a theory that the persons referred to above under the 
same name are one and the same indiviilual. The principal 
accounts of what is known of the life of William Paterson 
liave been written by Mr. Saxe Bannister' and by Mr. Wil- 
liam Pagan,2 but neither of these writers has contributed 
much to our knowledge of Paterson's earlier years. 

In discussing this matter, it is necessary first of all to 
notice an alleged discovery made by Mr. Bannister, which, if 
the facts stated therein be reliable, effectually disposes of any 
notion that William Paterson, the financier and projector of 
the Scotch colony of Darien, could have been the person of 
that name in New York in 1GG8-IJ9. This is a statement 
respecting his own age, claimed by Bannister to exist in the 
will of William Paterson, — a statement not only of an 
extraordinary nature in itself, but one which, though of the 
utmost importance to their respective writings, is treated 
with such amazing carelessness, liy both Bannister and 
Pagan, as to deprive their remarks upon the subject of any 
substiintial value. 



ife and Trials of William Paterson, liy S 



burgh, 1SC5 



anu iriaiu oi vvuiiam ratersoii, liy li. Uanniater, l».'i8-bH. 

Birthplace aud Parentage o£ William Pattrsuu. By W Pagan. Ediu- 






W-yy^ 



■.^«^: 



WILLIA:\I PATERSON the financier 207 

After fixing, uccordiiiy to liis belief, tliu place of Pater- 
linn's birth to a farm called Skipmyro in the parish of 
|Tin\vall, in the southern portion of Dumfries shire, in 
Scotland ' (of which parish, however, no ancient baptismal 
iccords exist), Bannister remarks (j)age 35): "The time of 
his birth can be settled exactly from his will, in which lie 
Hates himself to be, at its date, the 1st day of July, 1718, 
listy-three years and three months old, which refers his 
birth to March or April, 1(J55." On page 425 of his work, 
Ifiinnister gives in full (or in what purports to be so) the will 
of William Paterson, in which there is not the least allusion 
to his age ; nor is this explained or corrected in a subsec^uent 
edition of Bannister's work. 

To make matters worse, Pagan, in his sketch of Paterson's 
life, says (page G) that the will, as quoted ly Mr. Bannister, 
from the record in Doctors' Commons, London, runs as fol- 
lows, etc., etc.: "In witness whereof I have hereto sub- 
scribed my name and put my seal, at Westminster this 1st 
day of July, 1718, in the sixtieth year and third month of 
my age. (Signed) Wm. Paterson." 

Under ordinary circumstances, it would be necessary, first, 
to resort to the original will, to know what this statement as 
to age really was (if it existed in fact), and then to examine 
why this strange clause was inserted at all in the instrument, 
— for most persons who are familiar with the forms of Eng- 
lish wills must recognize the fact that a statement of age is 

' Not far from where, in an almost Italian landscape of lakes, groves, meadows, 
coniHelds, and distant mountains, Loclimabou stands, in the vale of Annan, — the 
land of the Johnstoncs, sung by many a Scottish jjoot, and enriched with many 
a legend of border warfare : 

" As I came by Lochmabcu gate, . , 

There I saw the Johnstones riding: ■ ' • 

Away they go, ami fear no foe, 

Wi' their drums a-beating, colors (lying. 
A' the l.ids o' Auuandale 

Came there their valiant chiefs to follow, 
Bravo Burleigh, Ford, and Uamerscale, 

Wi' Wiuton, and the gallant Hollo," etc. 



../« I; 



208 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEUlT.E ^h 

most unusual in such documents, and is apparently made 
for some distinct purpose. 

There are, however, so many clear indications that this 
statement of age (either of sixty or of sixty-three years) U 
erroneous, and that l\iterson's age must have heen at least 
ten years greater than the highest age given above, that we 
may assume, for the present purpose, that one or the other of 
these ages is really given in the will, without at all conceding 
the accuracy of the statement there made. What Pateraon's 
mental condition was at the time of making this will (exe- 
cuted only a few months before his death) we cannot tell. 
He had undoubtedly fallen upon dark days, had given up the 
house in Westminster, in which he had long resided ; and at 
the time of making his will, he was staying at the Ship Inii *< 
(on tlie north side of the Strand, some half-dozen houses west 
of old Temple Bar, in London), in a condition which appeara 
to have approached destitution. WheUier age, poverty, 
disappointments, and sickness may have impaired the once 
active memory of this sti'ange character, or whether the age 
statement was designedly inserted to increase the mystery . 
about a period of his life whicli he wished to remain obscure, , 
one can only surmise. Some matters in apparent contradic- 
tion should now be noticed. 

I. William Paterson's ingenious and profound financial 
theories are known to have been elaborated by him and ;- 
brought to public attention in several European countries ■' 
(though unsuccessfully) as early as 1G8G or 1G87, — at which 
period, if his age as given in the will is correct, he nuist have 
been only twenty-eight or thirty years old. This, of course, v 
is not impossible, and Paterson's ideas are undoubtedly, to a '\ 
certain extent, the intuitions of genius ; but they are intui- 
tions founded upon a knowledge which must have been i 
acquired only by long and varied observation of human • 
nature, and by experience of the most diverse business i 
operations; insomuch that it is very difficult to believe that '• 
lie should have been able to acquire and to digest such 
knowledge at the age named. 



HODGES' PAMPHLET U.N i-Aii^nsuxN ^^a 

II. It seems to be generally conceded that Pateison's 
wandering life began with his flight from Scotland in his 
youth, to escape trouble arising in some way out of the reli- 
gious persecutions under which the Scottish Presbyterians 
were suffering at the hands of the dominant Church of Eng- 
land part , whicii, though few in numbers, became the 
ruling faccion at the Kestoration of monarchy in Eng- 
land in IGGO. It appears to be further conceded that after 
a short sojourn in England, during which lie followed the 
avocation of a pedler, he made his way thence to the West 
Indies. 

In an old pamplilet in the Bodleian Library, Mr. Eliot 
Warburton, who wrote a semi-historical romance, of which 
Paterson was the hero, found it stated, as he claims, that 
Patersou's family, being alarmed by intelligence of warrants 
having been issued against him, on a charge of being a con- 
federate of the proscribed Presbyterians, "he went speedily 
away into England, and took refuge tiiere wiLii a relative of 
his mother, a widow at Bristol." 

A scurrilous pamphlet was written by one Hodges, in the 
interest of Paterson's enemies, at the time of the Darien 
scheme, or about the year 1G99. In this it is said that he 
" came from Scotland in his younger years, with a pack on 
liis back, whereof the print may be seen, if he be alive. 
Having travelled this country some years, he seated himself 
under the wing of a warm widow near Oxford, where, 
finding that preaching was an easier trade than his own, he 
soon found himself gifted with an anadets spiiit. Prophets 
being generally despised at home, he went on the propaganda 
fide account to the West Indies, and was one of those who 
settled the isle of Providence a second time. But meeting 
some liardships and ill-luck there, to wit, a Governor being 
imposed on them by tiie king of I'higlanil, which his eon- 
science could not admit of, the prospects of their constitution 
were altered, and they could no longer have a free port and 
sanctuary for buccaneers, pirates, and such vermin. . . . 
This disappointment oljliged J'/'tdicant Paterson to shake 



^^^ iMLvv iiiUMtlilJAIM AND ITS PEOPLE 

the dust from off liis slioos, and leave tliut ishind under liis 
anathema.'" Now let us see what the reference to the island 
of Providence lueaiis. 

It was about in the year 1GG4 that the freebooter, Mans- 
veld (of unknown nationality), who had acquired a leadership 
among Uie buccaneers or piratical adventurers who then 
swarmeu in tlie West Indies, conceived the design of form- 
ing a permanent establishment or headquarters upon one of ^i!: 
the islands of the West Indian seas. The spot selected was tS 
the small island of Santa Catalina, afterwards known as Hi 
Providence, situated a little more than a hundred miles east ^'• 
of the "Mosquito Shore" of Honduras, and some four huu- ^^ 
dred miles southwest of the island of Jamaica; it was called |(- 
Old Providence, to distinguish it from New Providence in m 
the Bahama Islands. This island was already in the posses- Ws 
sion of the Spaniards, who had fortified it; but in the year ; 
above named, Mansveld attacked it with a mixed force of 'i;' 
French and English buccaneers, caijtured the island with the ; 
Spanish soldiers, and established there a gari-ison of his own •m 
men. In order to lend an air of legitimacy to liis operations, \' 
^lansveld attempted to secure the sanction and aid of the % 
English rrovernor of Jamaica; this, however, he was unable *' 
to get, — not at all on account of the character of his per- * 
formauce, but apparently because of the jealousy of the W 
governor. While attempting to secure aid elsewhere, Mans- k 
veld died, and the command came to bis lieutenant, the W 
notorious Henry Morgan, a Welshman. » 

In the mean time, while the affairs of the buccaneers were ^ 
yet in uncertainty, tlie Spaniards, in the suumier of 1CG5, 
as we learn from Spanish authoiities, recaptured the island, 
taking the garrison of buccaneers prisoners. Morgan, how- 
ever, never lost sight of bis predecessor's design, and after 
some time spent in recruiting his force of adventurers, and 
in committing depredations upon the Spaniards, he ap[)ears 
to have regained possession of Old Providence at a date 
which is not accurately known, the accounts being very 



11 



PATERSON IN THE BAIIA:\IA.S 211 

vague and couiliutiiig, but which is aujipo.seil to liavu been 
in 1G6G or l(JiJ7.i 

Banuister lias aijpurently coiifouiuled tiiis island, of Santa 
Catalina, or Trovidenco, with New Providence in the Baha- 
mas, for he says , page 45 of his work): "In a contemporary 
tract, written by James 1 lodges, who was tlien employed Ijy 
the English minister to attack the Sc(jttish Company, it is 
asserted that Paterson joined in the settlement of New Provi- 
dence in the liahanias,^ a highly probable fact." 

Now as fortius latter island, its history, in brief, is this: 
it was first settled in 1G29 by the English, and was held by 
Uiem till 16-11, when they were expelled by the Spaniards. 
The latter, liowever, did not attempt to esbdjlish themselves 
npuu this island, and it remained unoccupied till the year 
1(367, when it was again taken possession of by the iMigli.sh, 
— at which date William Paterson was ojdy ten or twelve 
years old, if the statement in the will is correct; so that it 
would not at all be "a liighly probable fact" that he was 
"one of those who settled the isle of Providence a seccjiid 
time," but, on the contrary, highly improbable. 
The reference Ijy Hodges, however, to Patersou's presence 
f at the island of Providence is so distinctly in the nature of a 
slur, and derives its point so directly from his alleged connec- 
tion with the bucciineers, that one can scarcely come to the 
conclusion that any other meaning ^vas intended by that 

1 The ialauil was retaken by Murj;au in all probaliility before the treaty of 
lJ-23 May, 10C7, cujuluJeJ between Great liritain and Spain at Madri.l, by 
whieh the occupaiion of several disputed territoriei by the re.s]jeelivo powers was 
ratified and eoulirined to each. It is thonglit by the writer to be this sort of 
legalization of jjosseasiou and its attendant results wliicU are referred to by 
Hodges in the extract given in the text, when he sjieaks of a governor being 
imposed on the so-called " settlers " of the island of Providence. This treaty of 
I6C7, though it was immediately and grossly violated by the buccaneers, was pro- 
Krved by the terms of the more elaborate and better known treaty of peace and 
tniity, oblivion of injuries, etc., negotiated between the two countries by Lord 
Gudolphin in the year 1670: "Que de ninguna nianera se entiendau abolidos 
derogados por los preseutes articulos y couvenciojies el tratado de paz b aniistad 
ajustado on Madrid el dia \l de Mayo," etc. 

2 This is merely Bannister's inference. The pamphlet does not say so at all, 
aa V. .11 be seen from the quotation above. 



212 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

writer than that. Palersoii was j)resent at the first or second "^ 
capture of Santa Cataliiui. The iinportuuco of IlodgesVX 
statement, however, lies nut in its proving or tending to S 
prove that Paterson actually was at either Providence or^? 
New Provi lence in the years 1GG4 to 1GG7, but that his-f 
contemporaries generally must have ascribed to him an age 
sufficiently great to have relieved this statement from the | 
charge of absurdity to which it would have been open, had 
Paterson been born in the year 1658 or in 1G55; in other -^ 
words, that he was generally considered at the time of 
Hodges' pamphlet, in 1699, to lie a man of fifty years of age ,\; 
and over, rather than of about forty. '';, 

III. It has been already stated that writers are agreed ' 
that William Patersou's departure from Scotland was ia 
some manner owing to the persecutions by the Church of 
England party against tlie Scottish Presbyterians. These 
persecutions had their origin in what is known in English 
Church history as the "Act of Uniformity," of October, ' 
1G62, under wliich tlie Scottish cleigymen were oi'dered to ; 
conform to the rites of the Church of England. Refusing to ' 
do so, most of them were driven from their pulpits; and as il 
they persisted in preaching at what were known as conven-^ 
tides, or gatherings in private houses, or in the woods and 
fields, a severe act against this jn-actice was passed in 1661; 
and this proving ineffectual, in 1GG5 a force of troops was 
sent into the west of Scotland to put down the refractory 
clergy and their suijporters ; and during the period from 
1GG5 to 1667, the troops being then commanded by Sir James , 
Turner and the notorious "Tom Dalziel, " great cruelties*''' 
were inflicted upon tlie unfortunate Presbyterians, and multi- i 
tudes of them were compelled to fly from the country. The i 
persecutions by the English Church party were sjiasmodic in | 
their nature. A lull foUoNved Dakiel's bloody performances, 'I* 
and then, in 1669 and 1670, persecution again broke out, -J 
and many more of the Scots fled from their country. It is • 
evident, however, that if the dates of Patersou's birth, as .,' 



PATEKSON'S PRESENCE IN NEW YORK 213 

ven by Bannister and by Pagan, — 1655 or 1G58, — are, 

ther of them, correct, it could have been neither of tlicse 

rsecutions that drove William Patersou out of Scotland. ^ 

long period of inaction now followed, while the English 

urt was coquetting with the dissenters, in order to gain 

leir political support; and it was not until 1679-80, the 

icriod of the murder of Archbishop Sharpe and of the 

jattle of Bothwell Brigg, that the non-conformists again 

felt the heavy hand of the government, at which time the 

lllusious referred to above, as to Paterson's subsequently 

taking part in the settlement of the island of Providence, 

tc., would have lost all meaning. 

If William Paterson, the linancier and statesman of Great 
Iritain, was born in the 3'ear 1655, or in 1658, we know 
nothing definite, and are not likely to ever know anything 
of his early history, because all the theories which we can 
reasonably form seem to be met by apparently irreconcilable 
facts. If, on the contrary, Paterson was a man at least ten 
years older, we have certainly a succession of events which 
are not only consistent with the historical data which we 
have respecting him, but are also consistent with his having 
been a resident of New York and of Alliany in the years 
1668-69. In this aspect of the case one might readily form 
theory that William Paterson, — then a young num of 
eighteen or nineteen, — driven from his home in Scotland by 
the Conventicle Act of 1661, liad found his way to the West 
hidies, and had placed himself under Morgan's command, in 
time to take part in the capture of the island of Providence 
ill about the year 1666; and that after the treaty of 1667, 
either tiring of liis connection with his rough associates, or 
the strong moral sense with which he was undoubtedly 
endowed, rebelling against their performances, he bad 
quitted his companions and made liis way to New York in 
the next year. We have even the fact that in 1668, a 
piratical or quasi-piratical vessel actually arrived at New 

Ti)L' so-called Couveiiticlo Act and itd jjciiaUies ouly applied to persons over 
jiiteen y.jars of age. 



211 NRW AMSTKIIDAM AND ITS I'KOI'LK 

York from tlio Wust Imlics, and was Uie .suLjuct ol certain 
proceedings there in tlie Court of Admiralty. Tiiis was the 
so-called privateer "Cedar." She seems to liave been a 
Spaiiisli vessel which iiad recently been cajitured with a 
cargo of Canipeachy wood, in tlio West Indies, by Captain 
Tlionias Salter of Tort lioyal in tiie island (jf Jamaica, wlio 
is described as "commander of aptrivate man-of-war." Sailer 
placed a crew upon the vessel, under the command of Wil- 
liam Smith as master, with orders to carry her to Jamaica; 
but Captain Smith determined to make a voyage on his own 
account, and accordingly sailed for New York. Whom tho 
vessel brouglit with her we do not know, as the proceedings 
only allude incidentally to a few of the crew; but it is cer- 
tain that the first information we have of William Paterson 
in New York was veiy soon after the arrival of this vessel. 
If, as a matter of conjecture (for there is certainly no proof), 
any portion of the spoils of the Spaniards in tiie West Indies 
— or possibly of Morgan's sack of the town of Porto Bello, 
in 1GG8 — actually went into the purchase of Patcrsoii's 
various parcels of real estate in New York, ho was fully 
confirmed in its possession, and released from any possible 
apprehensions of the criminal law, by Lord G(jdolpliin'8 
" Treaty of Oblivion " with S[)ain, which was promulgated 
in July, llJGU,! thougli it was not formally r;itified by the i 
Hritish and Spanish governments till the following year. It ^ 
will be noticed that this date coincides closely ^vith Pater- 
son's departure from New York and his presumed return to 
Eurojje. 

1 See Bridges, " Annala of Jamaica," page 2CG. This famous treaty contains 
tho followiiig provisions (Article VII.) ; " Quo todas l.as ofciisas, perdidas, danoa 
e injuriiis quo las naciones lOsjiariola e' iuglcsa liuvierou padecido reciprocameiito ' 
eu la America eu qualesquiera tieinpoa passados, por qualquier causa o pretexto ; 
por una d otra de las partes, se pongan eu olviilo, y se borren euteraiiieiite de la 
inemoria, como si uunca huviesseii succedido." 

"That .ill offences, losses, depredations, and wrongs which the Spanish and 
English u.ations shall have reciprocally suffered in America, in whatever times 
past, upon wiiatever cause or pretext, upon citlier side, shall be buried in obliuion 
and eutirelt; banished from vieiiwrtj, as if they had uover happened." 



SIGNATURES OF I'ATEIiSON 



There is anotlier matter of sonic importance wliicli reniaiiLS 
to be considered. In^ the Colonial liocords at Alhany we 
possess two of the original signatures of William I'atursou uf 
New York. One of tliese is affixed to the complaint made 
by him against Ca[)taiu JJaker, already alluded to; the other, 
to a bond given by Paterson to prosecute that ollicer. lljion 
comparing these signatures with the known signatures of 
William Patei-son, the'. Scottish statesman, much ajiparent 
dissimilarity .appears on a casual view. Examining them, 
however, more carefully, we find that the apparent difference 
is chiefly owing to a scries of complicated and clumsy flour- 
ishes at the beginning and at the end of the signatures of 
1669. Leaving these out of view, and remembering that — 
upon the theory that the signatures were made by the same 
individual — we are comparing the handwriting of a very 
young man, of not nuicli school education, and fresh from a 
life of liardship and adventure, with that made forty or fifty 
years later by the fluent writer and pamphleteer, deeply 
iuimersed in important jjolitical and business enterprises, — 
and there certainly seems to be a very striking, indeed, 
almost startling resemblance between the signatures. The 
very peculiar form of the capital letter P will be uoticed at 
once. A comparison of the signatures is as follows: — 




1. Signature of William Paterson to the complaint against 
Captain Baker, August 14, 1669.1 




From N. Y. Colouial MSS. Vul. 22, pugo 



216 NEW AiMSTERDA^I AND ITS I'EOrLE 

2. Same from bond or recognizance of Patersou to prose- 
cute Captain Baker for burglary, etc., August I'J, ltj69.i 




3. From an original letter of" _ 1099. in .tlic Advocates 
Library, Edinburgh. (Taken from 15annister's Work.) 




4. From an original letter in the - British State Paper 
Office, of December jl8, 1718. (From Bannister's Work.) 

As ta the body of the' documents in the Colonial Kecords 
which have just beeit alluded to, they are evidently drawn 
up by another hand,^," doubtless either by an attorney or by 
the court clerk; but the language of the complaint is, in all 
probability, that of the complainant himself. Now those 
familiar with the writings of the financier and statesman will 
remember that he is exceedingly prone to allude frequently, 
in a reverent manner, to the interpositions of Divine Provi- 
dence in the affairs' of men. His account of the Darien 
expedition, especially, contains many sucli allusions, and 
one can hardly peruse them without recurring at once to the 
woids of the complaint at Albany: "lie came in with his 
sword drawn and pointed at this complainant, with intent to 
1 I'rom N. y. Col. MSS., Vul. 122, jwge 8y. 



I 



MYSTEIIY OF I'ATERSON'S LIFE 217 

; have killed him, wiiick he likewise would have dune, in ease 
it was not hindeied by the I'rovideueo of God." 

Ill studying the lif» of William Paterson, as presented to 
us by liis biographers, one receives the impression that he 
is considering the career of a man of strong and vigorous 
character, of great natural abilities, of wide experience of 
men and of affairs, it is true; but still of one who has been 
exalted by circumstances into a position of great public 
prominence,^ beyond what he could have anticipated, or 
perhaps even have Iiopcd for. Some unknown sentiment, 
however, possibly pride, or possibly a sense of moral pro- 
priety, seems to be operating- constantly upon him, inducing 
him to throw himself into the background, as it were, and to 
cover liis own individuality with an air of mystery and of 
obscurity, especially in so far as his early life was concerned. 
Deeply interested in, and intimately acquainted with, the 
trade of the West Indies, as he was, and voluminous writer 
as he was upon that subject, — projector of the Darieii colony, 
in which expedition-he took a pei-sonal jiart and of which he 
has given a long account, — he afl'ords us nowhere any definite 
information as to how he acquired his knowledge relating to 
those parts of the globe, or as to his personal experiences 
there, except the one allusion which seems, as it wci'C, to 
escape from him inadvertently, when speaking of his en- 
countering in the West Indies, upon the Darieii ex[)edition 

1 " The gre:it projector," say3 Macaulay, in speaking of the Darion scheme, 
"was the idol of the whole nation. Men spoke to him with more profound 
respect than to the Lutd High Commissioner. His antechamber was crowded 
witli solicitors desirous to catch some drops of that golden shower of which he 
was supposed to he tlio dispenser. To ho seen walking with him in the High 
Street, to he honored by him with a private interview of a quarter of an hour, 
were enviable distinctious." And again: "His countenance, his voice, his ges- 
tures, indicated boundless self-importance. When he appeared in public he 
looked — such is the language of one who probably had often seen him — like 
Atlas, conscious that a world was on hia shoulders. But the airs wliich he gave 
liimself only lieightcned the respect and admiration which ho iii.s])lr((l. His 
demeanor was regarded as a modch Scotchmen, wlio wished to be thouglit wise, 
looked as like I'atersou as they could." 



I 



218 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOl'LK 

ill 1G'.)8, a ceiliiin Captnin Uicluird Moon, lie says: "This 
liiaii 1 had knowfiiu JiUiiaica many jeais before;.''! 

AVas William raka-sou'a sLrangc aelf-coucealmciit due to 
the unliai)py experiences of his younger years in Ihe West 
Indies and in NeW York, which (after the fashion of Lord 
Godolpliin with tljp exploits of the ICnglisli frecljooters) ho 
wished to Le "buried in oblivion, and entirely lianishcd from 
memoi-y " '! We can only answer in the favorite words of the 
Jewish historian, Josephus, when he encounters a particu- 
larly knotty question of history or of luunan conduct: "Now 
as to these matters let every one determine as he pleases." 

To the eastward of the house and land of Charles Bridges 
(formerly that of Thomas Willel) was, at the time of our 
survey, a narrow lane, leading from the High Street down to 
the East I{iver shore. This lane, which occupied the site of 
tlie present building, No. 52 Stone Street, and which luis 
been previously alluded to,^ is shown upon "The Duke'a 
IMan," oi iLlGl, but appears to have been closed within thu 
next two or three years, "^ as it is not shown u[)()n the NieoU 
map of about lliliti; it is, however, alluded to in a deed of 
1G72, as "a certain narrow lane," and may have been still 
used, in part, as a private hme at the latter date. This lano 
separated the oi'iginal grant of 1'homas Willet from that of 
ins ICnglish neighbor, Richard Smith. 

Richard Smith, a native of Gloucestershire, in England, 
was one of the pioneers of the New England settlements. 

1 Paterson arrived at New York in August, 1G99, on his return from the 
Darieu Expedition, lie was at this time, as lie tells us, so sick that his life was 
despaired of. The order permitting liim to hriug his liaggago ashore is tu bo 
found in the Council Minnies; it hears date Aug. is, ICO'J. 

2 See ante, page 172. 
8 On the the 28th of March, 16.58, Solomon La Chair, who at that time had 

a lot upon which he kept a small tavern, wliicli lot immediately adjoined the 
lane referred to above, on the west, requested of the burgomasters to know 
" wliether the street lying beside his lot to the left of Carel van Uruggc, and 
bought from him, sh.all be given for a lot, or it a street shall remain." To this 
rei|ui-3t, the magistrates caused a reply to be made, that "the street remains 
pro\isionally for the use of the city till further order." 



• RICHARD SMITH 219 

He came at an early day to IMyiiiouth Colony, and was one 
of the principal iiien among those who, i)ushing out tlirougli 
the sandy forests westwards, a score of miles or more, 
founded the old, town of Taunton, where the dark waters of 
the Taunton Ruvcr llowcd sluggislily through overhanging 
woods and bushes. Smith ajun'urs to have been a man of 
some indci)cndoi^e iu his views upon cluiuh dogmas, — like 
Roger Williams, witii whom lie was intimately connected; 
and his intole&nt associates in the Taunton settlement 
annoying him oil this account, he removed still further to 
the west, and, having purchased a tract of land from the 
Indians, on the west side of Narragansctt Bay, he erected a 
trading house, about 1(1^8, in what is now North Kingston, 
in tiie State of Rliode I,sl;uid, — his nearest English neighbors 
for several years being at AVarwick, nearly ten miles up the 

It was probably at Taunton that Richard Smith became 
ac(iuainted with the Re\(;rend Francis Doughty, a dissenting 
English clergynijui, wlio h.ul come over to the Plymouth 
Colony, lioping to enjoy libeity of conscience tliere, but who 
was harassed and forced to take refuge beyond tiie Narragan- 
sctt Bay, much as Richard Smith had been. These men, 
with a few others, resolved to resort to New Amsterdam in 
search of a settlement; and there, on the 28th of March, 
1642, Francis Dougiity obtained, for the benefit of himself 
and of his associates, from Director-General Kieft, a patent 
for more than thirteen thousand acres, forming the large)' 
portion of the .subsequent town of Newtown, upon Long 
Island, in the present Borough of Queens, New York City. 
Richard Smith seems to have taken part in the settlement 
wliich was immediately commenced near the Mespat Kill 
(now Newtown Creek), and it seems quite probable tliat 
"Smith's Island," a small island in the Newtown Creek, 
upon which, some ten or twelve years later, it was proposed 
to establish a village to be called Arnheni, received its 
name from this man. 

Ill 1613, after tlio breaking out of the Indian war, the 



li^O NEW AMSTERDAM A.\'I) ITS PKOPLIO £ 

settlement along tlio Mespiit Kill was desti-oyed hy tlie 
natives; ami Uic]iai<il Smith, in order to attend to his inter- 
ests here, probably found it necessary to establish a residence 
in New Amsterdam, whiuli he did by acquiring, in 1045, the 
plot upon Iloogh Sti'aet which we are now considering, and 
by building a house fur himself about upon the site of the 
present warehouse, -No. 50 Stone Street. The building 
would appear to have been of the usual English cottage 
typo, —a low double house, broad side to the street, —for, 
in 1051, we are informed, in au instrument affecting the 
property, that the eHkt end of the structure was then occu- 
pied by one Randel Ilewit. 

Smith himself, in all probability, only made occasional use M^ 
of this house, either for a residence or for storehouse pur- W 
poses. lie still retained his trading house on Narragansett 
Bay, and as early as 1051 he was the master of a coasting 
vessel, —a bark called the " Welcome," with which he made 
occasional voyages to the Dutch settlements on the South or 
Delaware River. i Ills New Amsterdam possessions appear ..^* 
to have been, much of tiic time, umler tiie care of his son, M 
llichard Smith, junior, —wlio afterwards became prominent 
as the patentee of most of the territory now known as Sniitii- 
town, in Suffolk County on Long Island, bearing there the 
api^iellation of Richard Smith, senior, to distiuguisii him from 
his son Richard, grandson of tiie original colonist. 

Richard Smith seems to have been somewhat unfortunate ^ 
with his property in New x\nisterdain. As early as 1051, 't| 

1 The nature of a part of Smith's traJins operations appears in a suit brought 
by hun against Cornells Melyn of Staten Island, in IGf.O. It secn.s that about 
the year 1055, Melyn was owing Smith something- like nine p„un(ls sterling- 
and the latter agreed to take, in satisfaction for his debt, " two ankers of strong 
waters." wh.ch were to bo delivered to hi,n at Melyn's house upon Staten Island 
Smith, however, del.iyed removing his property until the Indian War of 1655 
broke out, m whieh the Indians destroyed IHelyn's bouse and made short work 
,1 N .T , ^TK' ". '''""= ^'•'"^'■^•" Subsequently, during Melyn's .absence in 
the Netherlands, Smith came with several Englishmen, and, as was claimed by 
Melyn, terrified the wife of the latter into signing a proniissory note a.s agent of 
her husband, for tlio amount of the original debt. The matter appears to have 
been compromised between the parties. 



RICHARD SMITH'S HOUSE 22\ 

he had sold the liousc to one Gillis Pieterseu, but appears tn 
have soon had it back upon his hands, iirobably by virtue ol 
a mortgage wiiich he held. During the long absences ol 
himself and <^ his son, the place appears to have becomi 
neglected. The easternmost lot of the property having been 
sold within a year or so after the time of oar survey, to Ih. 
glassmaker, Evert Duyckingli, who had built upon it, wi 
find, in 1G59, the burgomasters of the town, who erroneousl) 
supposed thafjDuyckingh owned tiie wliole parcel, serving :i 
notice upon him to improve the same; in answer to this In 
appears before the magistrates, and disclaims the ownersliip 
of the properfcy^ but says tliat he is authorized by the owm i 
to sell it, and that "Mr. Smit himself has valued it at livi 
hundred beavers." liy 1GG2, Smith liad succeeded in cloh 
ing out his interests in New Amsterdam, liis house and mosi 
of the plot of land having been sold to one Jan Hendricks( ii 
Stilman, a well-known character of the town, to whom tin 
nickname of Koopal, or " Buy Kverytiiing " had been give] 
by his neighbors; the house, at tliis time, is somowhai 
dubiously described as "a superstructure." 

Tills transaction apparently terminated the connection vi 
Richard Smith with the town of New Amsterdam. He lived 
for a number of years afterwards, and is spoken of in terui 
of warm esteem by iiis friend, the famous Roger William: 
"Mr. Richard Smith," says the latter, writing in IGT'J, "h^ 
his conscience to (ioil, left fair possessions in Clostershin 
and adventured, with his relations and estates to N. Em: 
huid, and was a most acceptable inhabitant and prime leadin 
man in Taunton, in Plymouth Colony. For his consciem 
sake, many differences arising, he left Taunton and came I 
tlie Nahiggonsik coiuitry, where by (xod's JMercy, and tli 
favor of the Nahiggonsik sachems, he broke the ice at h. 
great charge aiul hazai-d, and piit up in the thickest of th 
barbarians, the iirst English bouse amongst them. . . . H 
kept possession, coming and going, himself, children, an. 
servants, and he had quiet possession of his housing, land 
and meadow; and there, in his own house, with much seren 



I. ^ 



222 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

ity of soul and comfort, he yielded up his spirit to God, tlie 
Father of Spirits, in p^p,co." 

A short distance east of Richard Smith's plot of ground 
upon the East River, tiie'lxind between the road and tlie river 
sliore was intersected by the gully or ravine, known as 
"Burger's Path." A' small parcel of ground intervened, 
however, containing about fifty English feet front upon the 
road, or Hoogh Sti'aet, and extending some eighty feet or 
thereabouts to the crumbling bank above the beach. Upon 
tliis ground, just about at the period of our survey, Abraliam 
j\Ia)'tensen Clock and Tryntje, his huysvrouw, had built for 
tliemselves a small house. This stood apjjarently near the 
bank of tlie river, and about at the southwestern corner of the 
site of the modern building now known as the Old Cotton 
Exchange. Abraham Clock received his ground-brief for 
tiiis 2)arcel of land in the year lti55, it being described as a 
"lot on the east side of the Iqt of Richard Smitli, and on the 
west side of tlie road whicli Burger Joris uses to go to the 
river side." The premises seem to have contained a well of 
some repute, the site of wliicii is clearly marked in tlie con- 
veyances of tiii.s property, and whicli may, indeed, slill exist 
under the Old Cotton Exchange which at the present day 
covers Abraham Clock's modest holding, — house-site, gar- 
den, and all. This well was at the right of tlie entrance to 
tlie modern building, upon Hanover Stjuare, and about eigh- 
teen feet back from the street line. 

Of Abraham Clock, but little is known; he was living 
here as late as IGOi, but died within a few years alter that 
date. One of the trials of his humble life at this spot was 
tliat his plot of ground was subject to the encroachments of 
tlie waves at high tides. Later, in 1G72, when his widow, 
Tryntje, had been ordered to fill out the stri.'ct, or Waal, in 
front of her premises, and also the hollow way uiioii the east, 
she declared herself unable to have the work done; and llie 
magistrates of the city decided to rendei- her special aid, "as 
she has so much to do." 



fS 



c 



4 . 



CHAPTER XVII 

BASOVEIi SQUAIiE AND BUHGEU'S PATH. — BURGER JORIS- 
SEN, THE SMITH. —'the THIRTY YEARS' WAR-llES- 
DRICK JANSEN, THE TAILOR, AND HIS OPINION OF 
DIRECTOR KIEFT.-SMJTU STREET 



M ,' 



" Tliat frae Novombor till October, 
Ac market-day tlioiv was iiae sober ; 
That ilka inclder wi' the miller, 
Tliou sat as lang as thoii had siller; 
That cv'ry iiaig was ca'd a shoo on. 
The smith and thoo gat roaring fou on." 

liui:NS: "Tain o' Sliantcr." 

WE are at Ilanovcr Square, — not a very stately locality, 
perhaps; but a place replete with historical associa- 

'^lions, — of Burger Jorissen, rough aud intemperate at times, 

"but a vigorous pioneer of the new colony ; of IlenJrick Jansen, 
ihe virulent enemy of Director Kieft; of Go vert Loocker- 
mans, the shipping merchant, a pioneer of the commerce of 

I New Amsterdam, as enterprising in his way upon the sea as 
Has Burger Jorissen upon the land. Half of the political 
history of the colony, during the reign of William III., centres 

i about this spot, witli its memories of Nicholas Bayard, of the 
judicially murdered Leisler and Milbornc, and of tlie patient 
lud long-stiffering Elsie Beisler and her widowed daughter 
Mary Milborue. The tortuous policy of King William's 
government with the piratical ixdveuturers, too, should not be 

, forgotten ; and there are not wanting associations here to call 
up the names of the Earl of Bellomout and of Captain 
William Kidd. The S([uare might well have received the 
name of Orange, or of Nassau, as representative of King Wil- 
liam's times, but it was named at a somewhat later date. 



224 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 



I 



when llie elector of Hanover eanie to tlie throne. The Scotch 

Jacobites, at this time, witli their bitter hatred of what tliej 

considered as the usurpation of a petty German prince, \\ere 

singing: ^ 

" Wha Uie deil hae we gotten now for a king, >' 

lUit a'' wee, wee German lairdie 1 f 

And when we gaed to bring him lianie, 

lie was delving in Ida kail-yardie ; 

Sheugldiig kiiil and laying leeks, 

Wi'out the hose and but the breeks ; 

And up his beggar duds he cleeks, — 

The wee, wee German lairdie." 

The Hanoverian party was in control, however, and tli«/, 
little triangular patch of ground in New York received the 
name of Hanover Square, in honor of King George I. 

It is not, we have said, a very stately locality. The tall 
buildings of the Coffee and of the (Jotton Exchanges look 
down upon an open space covered with smooth asphalt over 
which crowds stream in all directions, — mainly to and from 
the station of tiie elevated railway which mars its southern 
side; no sprig of green vegetation is in sight, and warehouses 
along the south side of Pearl Street cut off ail view of the river. 

A very different scene presented itself in the seventeenth 
century, however. Then, from the narrow roadway along the 
north side of the " square," all the intervening ground, to the . 
river's edge beyond the present Pearl Street, was a grassy ; 
bank shaded by native forest trees, under whieii stroUera 
from the town sometimes whiled the time away, or visiting 
Indians camped. Immediately in front of the spot where now 
stands the building known as the Old Cotton Exchange, a 
gully or shallow ravine led down to the river beach; this had 
been deepened, for the purpose of making a passage or cart- j, 
way to the shore, by Burger Jorissen; insomuch that in » 
1646 the council made an order that he " must rail or fence ' 
tiie road which is made before his door, so that no persons 
may fall in ; and that it be a good wagon road." i Tiiis pas- 

1 The comlitii.ii iif this lucality iu 1079 is sliuwn in the pUite at |i:ige 188 of 



br.:-, 



THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR 225 

sageway was known as " liurger's Path " for more than a 
century. Nearly opposite it, upon tlie north side of Hoogh 
Straet, just about at tiie little bookstore in the rear portion of 
the building, now (1901) occupying the northwest corner of 
William and Stone streets, stood the house built about 1644 
by Hendrick Janseu, tlie tailor, but soon sold to Burger 
Jorissen. Immediately east of this, at the present corner of 
the last-mentioned streets, but infiinging somewhat upon 
Stone Street (which has been straigliLcncd), was the black- 
smith's shop of Jorissen. William Street did not as yet exist, 
and its ground, with about half of the New Cotton Exchange 
upon the east of it, formed originally I'urger Jorissen's gar- 
den, and possibly a small orchard, — for his plot contained 
about three-quarters of an acre of land. About a hundred 
and twenty-live feet fartlier down the road stood the comfort- 
able residence of Govert Loockermans, in a large enclosure of 
ground sloping down to a small pond, and with green fields 
behind it; a small intermediate house stood along the road 
which seems to have been at an eaiiier date tlie dwelling- 
Louse of Dirck Cornelissen, and to have passed into the posses- 
sion of Loockermans upon his marriage to Dirck Cornelissen's 
widow. A short distance, still farther, at a small turn in tlie 
road, stood two or three more houses, one of which was the 
old tavern of Sergeant Daniel Litscho, and these were the last 
buildings towards the city gate at the present Wall Stieet. 

Burger Jorissen was, in all probability, a refugee of the 
Thirty Years' War. That terrible struggle, Avhich desolated 
the Gei-mauic countries from 1G18 to 1648, undoubtedly 
played a part which has never been fully appreciated, in the 
colonization of New Netherland. It was a conflict which 
carried with it carnage and devastation and misery enough to 
satisfy fully the appetite for military "glory" of the most 
ferocious, tlie most ignorant, or tlie most foolhardy. Not the 
lines of marches alone, but whole provinces were ravaged 
indiscriminately by bands of marauders of both the contend- 
ing parties. " No act of cruelty," SLiy the deputies, from 
r(,uierania, to the emperor, "could be mentioned, or even 



NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 



« 



thought of, that these savages had not exercised ; and many 
hundreds of the wretelied inhabitants, in order to jirevent 
these horrible aets -from being inflicted upon themselves, and 
to escape from dying through starvation, had committed 
suicide." The original causes of the war were soon lost sight 
of; and no man knew exactly what he was iighting for. 
Scores of leaders s^jraiig i.\[>, nuide names for themselves, pei- 
isiied by the sword, and were forgot ten. 'J'here came eventu- r- 
ally a time when half of the soldiers in the armies had never ^ 
lived in anything but a state of warfare, and when the mihtaiy 
occupation was tlie only one that many men could turn to for 
their support. The most fortunate of the iniiabitanls wtie 
tliose wiio could escape from their country, and altiiough this 
was not an easy matter, hosts of them did make their escape, 
mostly into the Netlierlands, whence many .sought tlieii for- 
tunes in the Dutch establishments in Asia and in Amenta 
Burger Jorissen's home — the town of iliischberg in Sile- 
sia— was in one of those cpiiet nooks of (leiniany \\iiicii we 
are least likely to associate with war and bloodslied. Sui- 
rounded by gardens and liy meadows and pastures, wliitcned 
here and there by the linen bleaclieries for wiiieh it \sas 
famed, tiie town lay upon a mountain stream called the Bober 
River, and at the roots of the Riesen Gebirge, the Giants' 
Mountains of Bohcinia, about which Tieibel has sung, —of 
the sunshine pouring througli tlie tlr-trces, the deer rustling 
in the thickets, the strcaiiilels tumbling over mossy rockt. 

" Wie lielilich ilL'.sst durcli griine Taniien 
Aiif liuliiiiens Ilbli'ii dcr Sonne Stralil 1 
Diirch's Dickicht rauscht das Reh von ilaniion, 
Dinch Felseu bhnkt der Quell ins Tlial, 
Und fern zu lilauen Bergi;.s\vaiten 
Verlieit sicli ti;iunieiid Aug' unJ Sinn." 

The young blacksmith, Jorisscn, — for that was his trade, — 
had attained the age of twenty years, when, in 1G32, the tide 
of war swept over Silesia, it having been overrun in that year 
by the Swedes and Saxons, after the great victory of (lU.-itavus 



BURGER JORISSEN 



227 



Adolphus at Leipzic. As most of tlie inhabitants of tliis 
piirt of Silesia were TAitlierans, however, they probably suf- 
h fered no great ineonvenienee at tliis time, but in tlie following 
year, after the death, of Cxustavus Adolpluis at Lutzeii, the 
Suedes were driven out by a division of Wallenstein's army, 



jt from the enraged 

pei'iud that Burger 
so, noUiing would 
lliat he should have 



and the Silesiaus had little favor to expi 

Roman Calliolic party wiio now liad tin 

not at all improbible that it was at Ihi; 

Jorissen quitted his native country. II 

have been more natural at this time than 

first taken refuge in "Sweden, and this may account for tlie 

fact that as soon as ho subsequently became settled in New 

Netherland, ho married, in 1G39, a young Swedish woman, 

Engeltie j\bins. 

However this may be, Burger Jorissen found his way to 
New Netherland in 1637, in which year he came to Reiisse- 
laerswyck, now All)any. lie did not remain there long, how- 
ever, for in 1G39, tlie year of his marriage, he was at New 
Amslerdani, at which time he was so well tliougiit of by 
Director-General Ivicft that he granted to tlie young sniitii, 
for four years, "tlie use of an anvil and bellows, witli half of 
the smith's liouse." It has been already statetl ' that, sume- 
wliere about 1641, Burger Jorissen built the house upon 
lloogh Straet, which, three years afterwards ho sold to Cor- 
nehs jMclyn, and which at the time of our survey was in the 
possession of tiic poet, Jacob Steendam. Burger Jorissen 
was evidenlly a thilfly man, and was soon in a position to en- 
gage in other pursuits than those of his handicraft. At an 
early date, he was the owner of a sloop with which lie occa- 
sionally made a trading voyage up the Hudson River; in the 
capacity of a trader, liowever, his relations with the colonial 
authorities were not always harmonious, for in the fall of 
1648, the Council placed liim in an embarrassing position by 
forbidding him either to depart or to come ashore from his 
vessel, "till he has rendered a correct account and paid tlie 
duties." It may have been tlie possession of this vessel, with 

'1 tieuarit,', iKi-ed 104, li;8. 



a 



228 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE M 

its facilities for easy trausportiition, tiiat induced Joiisseu, \'^ 

before 16-12, to begin the clearing of a plantation for himself, j 
in a remote part of what was afterwards the town of Newtowu 

upon Long Island, but wliich was at this time, with the exeep- ■ 

tion of two or tlirce widely scattered planhUions, an unhrukeii ' 
wilderness. 

Nearly a mile up the Mcspat Kill uf the Dutcli, — tlie ; 
present Newtown (!rcek, — there comes in from tiie uorlli 
through the salt nieaihnvs a tributary creek of considerable 
size, known to the indians as Canapaukah, and this in earlier 
days was navigable for vessels of light draft for about a mile 
towards its iiead, and to a spot where it approached very near 
the upland. This was the. place, iu an amphitheatre of low 
hills, or rather knolls, looking towards tlie south, that Burger 
Jorissen selected for liis plantation. In IG 13, hu received a 

grant of the land, some fifty-eight or sixty acres, from tiie Dutch y ^ 

government. The locality was known, until recent years, by '§.|» 

the name of " The Dutch Kills ; " and the site of lUirger Joris- ' -1 

sen's house is occupied, there is little r(jom to doubt, l)y an ;;;i 

ancient farndiouse of the eigliteenth century, which may be ' ? 

seen upon the left-hand si<le, or north, of the Long Island ■,:;i 

railway, a half-mile or so beyond the (Jueens County Court '^'1 

J louse at Long Island City. The small morass below it is tlio ,^| 

remains of the mill-pond establisiied liere sonic years later by '^M 

Burger Jorissen. In addition to this plantation, Jorissen Ma 

seons to have made use for a time — no doubt by the per- %.\ 

mission of the Director and Council — of the island known \-\ 

afterwards as Luyster's Island, lying close to the Long Island ' { 

shore, beyond Hell Gate, and a short distance west of the ■■j,i 

resort now known as North Reach. This island, as being a 4| 

place of security, appears to luive been used by him for the ■ i || 

purpose of herding swine upon it, they being easily conveyed 'f^ * 

to and from it by his vessel, and being there comparatively if 

free from danger of the attacks of wolves. -y | 

lUirger Jorissen does not appear to have originally intended " 1 

his Long Island bouwery for his own residence. It was leased V ; 

out, as early as 1G42, and when he sold his house upon lloogh ■. ■, 



JANSEN AND DIRECTOR KIEFT 229 

Straet to Cornelis Melyn, in 1644, he immediately took posses- 
sion of anotiier residijAce upon tlie same street, the house near 
the present Hanovei' Square, of which we have spoken above, 
and whieli he purchased in the hist-mentioned year from Hen- 
driek Jansen, the tailor; this latter personage — characterized 
by a singularly virulent animosity against Director-General 
Kieft, which he displayed all through that officer's administra- 
tion, and which nothing could restrain — deserves some par- 
ticular mention. As early as 1G39, Hendrick Jansen is found 
occupying a small jjarcel of land at the southwest angle of 
the river road and Maagdc i'aetje, or the modern Pearl Street 
and Maiden Lane, he being one of the very first settlers along 
the East River shore. Selling this property in the latter part 
of 1641, he appears to have soon acquired the land and built 
the house near the present Hanover Square which he after- 
wards sold to Burger Jorissen, though he did not get his for- 
mal deed for it until 1644, — very possibly on account of his 
difliculties with Director Kieft. Jansen's animosity to the 
Director-General, from whatever cause it originated, began 
early. On the 27th of May, 1638, within a month or two of 
the beginning of Kieft's administration, Jansen was prosecuted 
by the fiscal for slander: upon this occasion, we find that 
Hendrick displayed a sagacity which cannot fail to excite our 
admiration, for his defence was that he uttered the slander 
when asleep. He had to do, however, with an adversary who 
was little less astute than himself, and at the instance of the 
fiscal, the Council made an order " that the defendant produce 
proper affidavit that ho was asleep when the slander was ex- 
pressed." This proceeding, with its distinct flavor of modern 
comic opera, does not appear to have resulted in anything very 
serious, but in 1642, at a gathering at Burger Jorissen's house, 
at which Jansen was present, " very drunk," as the witnesses 
say, he was much more violent in his language, complaining 
of Kieft as being hostile to hiin, and refusing him any credit. 
" If I could cringe and fawn like Frenchmen and English- 
men," he said, " I too could get credit. In short, an effort is 
being made to crush the Netherlanders, and foreigners are en- 



I 



230 NEW ARrSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

courageil," tlien, snapping liis ilugers, " I don't care a fig for 
it! What does tlie villain mean?" Then followed, according 
to the witnesses, a highly nncomplimentaiy and also unprint- 
able reflection upon the Director-General. This affair found 
its way to the cars of Kieft and the CJouncil, and Ilcndriek 
Jansen was promptly ordered to be put in irons ;,he was kept 
in imprisonment for a month, and was then sentenced to ban- 
ishment, but for some reason this was not carried out. Jan- 
sen was still in the country at the time of tiie Indian massacre 
in the beginning of tlie next year ; and at a period when all 
tongues were employed in denouncing Kieft, we may be sure 
that Ilendrick Jaiiseii's was not silent. In June, 1G43, he 
was ordered by the Council to " get ready to depart on the 
' Prince Maurice,' which lies ready to sail," but he found means 
of evading this command. On the 29th of September, 1G44, 
he was again before the Council, and was sentenced to a fine 
of 500 guilders for slandering the Director-General, for which 
amount his son-in-law, Gillis Pietersen, gave his promissory 
note.^ It was perhaps in preparation for this outcome that thir- 
teen days before, or on the ICth of September, 1G14, Jansen 
had transferred to i5urger Jorissen his " house, garden, and 
brew-house " for the sum of 1900 guilders, or about #720 of the 
present currency ; and these premises became the abode of 
Jorissen during the remainder of his residence in New Amster- 
dam. As for Ilendrick Jansen, he remained in the colony till 
the summer of 1647, when he prepared to return with Kieft |[) 
to the Netherlands, designing, perhaps (as there is little doubt 
that several others of Kieft's enemies did), to call the ex- 
director to account in the Eatherland for his arbitrary pro- 
ceedings. Jansen seems to liave been well thought of by his 
neighbors, and carried with him several letters of procuration 
to attend to various 'business for them in the Netherlands. .■'Jj^ 
lie sailed in the "Princess," and is supposed to have been one || 
of those who perished in the wreck of that ill-fated vessel. .j 

Burger's "smithy," which he soon built near his new house '; 

' This may possibly h:ive been a compromise of the sentence of two years 
bof'u-(^, bnl it has tlie ajij (.-arauce of having been a new prosecution. 






BURGER'S "SMITHY" AND BREW-HOUSE 231 

upon Hoogh Straet, became a well-known point, as Burger 
himself came to be a well-marked character in the town. The 
circumstances of his life had contributed to give him a some- 
what rough exterior, but he seems to have been good-hearted 
and generally liked. The small "brew-house" which he had 
received from Hendricli Jansen, and the acquaintance with 
^ tlie brewer's processes, which he as well as many other men of 
I his day possessed, was not an umuixed good to hhn. In 1646, 
I he was prosecuted and fined for selling beer without paying 
f the excise tax. He denied the general charge, but admitted 
i that three half-barrels were drunk in his house " with some 
! company." Somewhat sore over this affair. Burger threatened 
! the fiscal, or prosecuting officer, that he would "cut a slice" 
' out of that official's body, before he got away from the country. 
s The aggrieved fiscal inmiediately instituted a prosecution of 
) his own against Burger for these injurious words, whereupon 
[ the latter appeared before the Council and begged pardon of 
t the ofiicer. The fiscal was obdurate, however, and insisted 
that Burger should be fined : the matter was referred to cer- 
I tain arbitrators, who reported to the Council that they had 
met, but that Burger " made game of them." The Council 
itself now took tlie affair in hand and not only fined Burger 
60 guilders, but upon his addressing that body in a manner 
which it considered derogatory to its dignity, it ordered him 
"to remain four and twenty hours in chains." 

Nearly ten years later, Burger retained some of his old 
characteristics, for in 1G55 he was prosecuted for assaulting, 
in his own house, wlien drunk, Joshua Atwater of Stratford, 
Connecticut, in a dispute about an account; this proceeding 
also Burger regarded as highly unjust to himself, since his 
witnesses showed that he had paid the difference in dispute, 
confessed liis fault, "and separated with a drink in friendship 
and harmony." 

Burger Jorissen contiiuied his active life at New Amster- 
dam and its vicinity for many 3'ears. Before 1654, he had 
thrown a dam across the Canapaukah Creek near his bouwery 
upon Long Island, and established a mill there, which was 



232 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

famous long after his day under tlie appellation of " Burger's 
Mill." Tliis mill was iu existence less than a century ago, 
and the mill-dam remained till about 18G1, when it is said to 
have been demolished by the building of the Long Island 
railway over ita site.' Jorisscn became a noted character in 
the locality of his bouwery ; the creek up wliich his boat used 
to sail to tlie foot of 'ilie mill-dam is still oceitsionally known 
as "Burger's Kill;" and a siuull ran of water whieli lio 
widened and deepened through the swampy land lying east 
of the mill-pond, to increase the water supply for his mill, 
was long known as " Burger's Sluice." Tliis until witliiu a 
compai-atively few years presented itself as a veritable artist's 
study, with its banks lined with alders and overarched by 
swamp maples and whitewoods, with their swinging vines of 
the wild grape. It i,s now merely a bare and half dry ditch. 

About the year 1654, the opening of several additional 
streets in New Amsterdam was planned, one of which, it was 
pretty well decided, was to pass through Burger .lorissen's 
garden ; lie therefoi'e dcteiiuined to sell the house in which 
he liad now resided for alxnit ten years, ajid to build a new 
house iov himself upon tlie east side of his land. The old 
house, with a long narrow strip of land extending back about 
to the present Beaver Street, was sold in the summer of 1655 
to one Marcus Hendricksen Vogelsang, who, however, only 
kei)t it till the next year, when it came into the possession of 
Michiel Jansen, a farmer whose plantation at Gamoenepa, or 
Communipaw, had recently been devastated by the Indians, 
at which time, as he states in a petition to the Director and 
Council, " he lost all he had acquired for seventeen years, and 
was left without means wliatever to support himself and six 
children."' Jansen lived here a sliort time, but afterwards 
returned to his Itouwery at (lamoenepa. 

' Thia Michiel Jansen, from Broockhuyson, came over from tue Nether- 
lands, in 1636. According to the railing cat.ilogue of Secretary van Tienhoven, 
he liad been a " hoere kneeht," or farm lahorer. lie first went to Kcnssclacra- 
wy( k with liis wife and two children. Here he prospered ; lint on account of 
Boiiio dis.agreoment with the leaders of that colony, ho left and came to New 
Amnerdam. For a while he farmed several parcels of land upon Manhattan 



I 



SMITH'S STREET 253 

By the end of 1656, tlio new strt'cl had been laid out: it 
i leems to have received its name of Smitli's Street from the 
blacksmith whose land it ran through ; ^ and it continued to 
be known by that name until far into the next century, 
when the name of King William, which had been given to an 
extension of this street, was gradually applied to the whole, 
liiich came to be thus known as William Street. About 
11j60, Burger Jorissen sold off in small parcels all of his laud 
remaining upon the west side of William Street. His later 
house, the site of which is covered by the New Cotton 
Exchange, was at the eastern corner of William and Stone 
streets, and here he resided during the remainder of his shiy 
in New Amsterdam.^ He left the town, however, soon after 
the surrender to the English in 1664, and took up his resi- 
dence upon his Long Island bouwery, selling his house in 
New Amsterdam to 'Jliomas Lewis, in the year 1668. Dur- 
ing the short remainder of his life upon Long island, he 

Islaud, Imt eventually bought llio farm of Jan ICvertsen Hout, on tlio opposite 
side of the Nortli Itiver, paying for it 8000 guililer.-i, or aliout $.3200 of the pres- 
ent currency. lie appears to have died at his plantation in Coinmunipaw some 



I prior 1 



the autumn of 1003. 



1 'I'his appears to bo a much more .satisfactory explanation of the name of the 
street than that it received its dcKignation from Jau Smcdes, the gl.i.ss-maker who 
lived towards the termination of the Slyck Steegli near where the new street was 
laid out. Ho had not been a man of much prominence in the town, and had 
nothing in particular to do with the laying out of the street, so far a.s can be dis- 
covered. A petition which was made to the burgomasters on the 19th of April, 
1657, by " the neighbors in the Glazier Street," for " a cartway to the Strand, as 
was promised them," has been taken to refer to the newly opened street, and 
consequently as supporting the notion that the name was derived from Jan 
Smedes. As, however, not only this individual, but also the other principal glass- 
maker of the town. Evert Duyckingh, resided in the Slyck Steegh. it is much 
more likely that this is the " Glazier Street " referred to, and tliat the petition is 
cither a protest against the closing of the easterly portion of the Slyck Steegh 
(which was afterwards carried out), or else that it related to the passageway 
into Hoogb Straet, wliich still exists under the name of Mill Street or Lane, and 
the lane or passagew.ay nearly opposite, which is now closed, but wl)i(h then led 
from Hoogh Straet down to the shore of the river. 

•^ In the early portion of the eighteenth century, tliis house became of interest 
as bciiig the residence and place of business of William Bradford, the first estab- 
lish' d printer in New York; here, in 1725, is supposed to have been issued the 
first r, umber of the " New York Gazette," the pioneer newspaper of the city. 



'■ - ■'■■ i 



234 NEW AMSTERDvVM AND ITS PEOPLE 

became a man of considerable pidmiiience, and was one of 
the patentees named in the NicoU Patent of the town of 
Newtown in 166t>.-G7, and one of several eonnuissionera 
appointed in 1670 to lay out and regulate ruads in tiiat town. 
He died in 1671 at iiis farm at " 'J'he Dutch Kills," leaving a 
family of several adult sons. His widow, Engeltie, however, 
— apparently desirous of returning to the scenes of her earlier 
life, — purchased, some time before 1G83, the old house of 
Richard Smith, upon lloogh Straet, of which prior mention 
lias been made.^ Here she resided for many j^ears, with her 
sons Hermanus and Johannes Purgcr, — for Burger hence- 
forth became the family name : all three of tliem appear as 
members of the Dutch church, in the list of 1686. Engeltie 
appears to have been a vigorous old lady of somewhat mas- 
culine disposition. She was frequently, as witness or liti- 
gant, before the court at the Stadt lluys, where she was much 
dreaded on account of her loquacity, the magistrates being 
forced to protest against her upon their minutes, as being 
addicted to "an outpouring of many words." She attained 
a great age, but, as slie states, in an aflidavit which she made 
in the year 1701 before the Mayor, tiiat she is "aged seventy 
years, or thereabouts," — which would have made her about 
eiglit years of age at the time of her marriage to IJurger 
(orissen, in 1639, — the inference may perliaps arise that lier 
memory in her later years was not as good as it had formerly 
been. 

> See nn/e, pages 220, 221. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

COVERT LOOCKEIiMANS AND I/IS FAMILY. - ECSIE LEISI.ER. 

— THE LOOCKEIiMANS' HOUSE AND ITS ASSOCIATIONS. 

— VAfTAIN KIDU 

' Le temps cniporto siir son ailo 

iit le iiiiiilL-i.ij.a et I'hiro.ulclle, 

■ ; . Et la vie et Ics jours jjordus : 

'., Tout s'cu va coiuine hi fumoe, 

'• L 'espcrance et larenoiuuice! " 

A. ui! Mlssht. 

IF any person cmlowed with the gift of au insiglit into the 
future liad prcvlioted to Govert Loockemians, the young 
assistant of the cook on tlie yaclit " St. ]\Iartin," iqjoii his 
arrival in New Amsterdam, in the year 1633, that he was to 
become the leading merchant of las day in a town which two 
i'-*t;enturic3 and a lialf later was to occupy the position of tho 
' ^pcond city of the world ; that in the next generation his son 
khould be a magistrate and physician of note in a then flour- 
ishing but as yet non-existent community, two hundred 
miles away from New Amsterdam through trackless forests; 
that his step-daugliter's husband slioidd take entire possession 
of the government of the New Netlierland C'olony, claiming 
to hold the same for the King of England, which king should 
at the same time be the Stadtholder of the United Nether- 
lands and the head of the iiistoric Nassau-Orange family; 
that this same husband of his step-daughter, together with 
her daughter's husband, should suffer the penalty of death 
for treason in a prosecution principally urged by the members 
of a family into which his (Loockermans) own daughter 
should have married ; that the house which he should build 



NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLl'; 



for his residence in New Arasteitlain siioulil ai'Utr bis death 
be the liuiiie of a man who (wiieLher jnslly or unjustly) 
should sulTer as Llio niDst notorious [Avulu of his aj^^e, hut 
that this same man sliould represent an assoeiation of which 
no less a personage than the aforesaid King of England wuh 
one of the parties, — if all tliis had been told to Govort 
Loockermans, he 'would probably have regarded it as tho 
ravings of delirium. 

The original home of Govert Loockermans was at Turnliout, 
a town aljout twenty-five miles northeast of Antwerp, and 
not within the United I'rovinccs, but in tliat portion of tlie 
Netherlands wliich remained under tlie Spanisli and afterwards 
under the Austrian rule. Coming to New Netherland in 1633 
in a humble capacity, as already mentioned,' he acquired tho 
favorable opinion of .Director-General Van TwiUer, who pro- 
cured him a situation as clerk in tiie employ of the West 
India Company: how long he remained in tlie service of the 
company wo do not know, but he is said to have been one 
of the party sent out by Director-General Kieft, in 1640, 
under Secret;xry Van Tienhoven, against the Raritan Indians, 
— upon which occasion, says Clute, in his "Annals of Staten 
Island," he distinguished himself by killing one of the natives 
in cold blood. 

This story, liowever, may be a mure invention of Loocker- 
mans' enemies, for it is known that a little later he was ac- 
cused of undue partiality towards tlio Indians, witii whom, 
as a fur trader, lie must necessarily have had to keep on 
good terms. In 1648, one Govert Aertsen, owner of a sloop 
making occasional voyages to New England, made tiie extraor- 
dinary application, to the Council at New Amsterdam, for 
a formal ceitificate that his name was not Govert Loocker- 
mans. It appeared tliat he had recently been with his sloop 
at Rhode Island, and there some of the inhabitants became con- 
vinced that he was Govert Loockermans, against whom they 
were at that time higlily incensed for having sold powder and 

' It is Secretary Van Tjenhoven who, in hia sneering way of speaking of the 
prii.cipal men of New AnisterJam, calls him "a cook's mate turneil trader." 



i' 



GOVERT LOOCKERMANS 



237 



lead to the New J']iigl;iiid Indians. Despite his piotestationa, 
Aui'lseu came very,- near lieing thruwu into piisaii tliere, a 
clamor having been made for the conriscation of the vesseh It 
is this incident, in part, tiiat leads to the conjecture that (lovert 
ijiK)ukermaiis' patiunymie was really i\ertsen, or Acrsen, 
lliuugh (as in uiaiiy other instances) the pairuiiymie was 
not generally used by him. 'J'he term " lAKicl.erman " is so 
clearly suggestive of the .ship's locker that tlial designation 
would seem to have been originally applied to him t'lom his 
early avocation, and to have been in the end accej)ted by him 
for convenience' sake. This conjecture certainly tends to 
ex])lain (as will be' al'terwards nuuiLioued) what is othci-wise 
a matter of considerable uncert.nnty; namely, the uumner 
iu which Loockermans acquired the plot upon whieli he 
resided, at the present HaJiover Square. 

About the latter part of lG-10, (iovert Eoockermans re- 
visited the Netherlands, where he remained some months, 
and where, at Amstenlam, in the eai'ly part of the year llJ41, 
he married A riaentje Jause. A short tune later, aceonq)auied 
by his wife, he sailed for New Amsterdam in the ship " King 
David," having under his charge, as agent for the firm of 
Gilhs Verbrugge and Compan}^ a cargo of goods for New 
Netherland. With liini came, iu all probability, his sister 
Anneken, who, in the early [)art of 1(»42, was married at New 
Amsterdam to Ololf Stevensen van C'orllandt, of whom 
mentio)! has already been nnide.i 

Govort Looekernvans now soon became engaged in import- 
ant trading operations upon his own account. In 1(112, he 
bought, in conjunction with one Cornells I^eendertseu, from 
Isaac AUerton, the leading New England trader, for the 
sum of 1100 guilders, the bark called the " Hope ; " and 
from this time, for a long period, he was closely coauectod 
in business enterprises Avith Allerton. The two acquired 



• See anic, page 7G. Tliis laily, llie anci 
CortlaiiJt, liveit long iu liijjli esteem at 
liiisliaiul, ami the jioetiual epitaph compost 
the Kevereud Ileuiicus ' !•"•■*, '^ sLill exta 



of Van 
veJ lier 



238 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS ]M5(JPLE ^ 

jointly, in 1643, a parcel of ground upon the east side of the M 
present Broadway, about two hunilred and seventy-tive feet « 
north of Heaver Street, — a large plot, of about one lumdi-ed ft 
feet front, and extending some two hundred and fifty feet '% 
down the liiU to-^viirds the Broad Street swamp. Wliat this m 
property was used or designed for, wliether for warehouse '^T 
purposes or for speculation, or whether it was held to euver 
some indebtedness to these associates, does not appear. U is 
a curious fact that altliough Govert Loockermaus \\as for ,. 
many years engaged in nrcrcantile ventures, we nowhere *; 
meet with any allusions to a warehouse owned by him; 
this may, indeed, liave been located at liis residence near tha 
East River shore, the large size of the building rendering tliis 
qirite probable, or it is pussiblo tliat he may have made use 
of Allerton's large buililiug at tiiu present Pearl Street and 
Peck Slip. 

Loockermans was a bold and enterprising trador, careless 
of whose corns he trod upon, — metaphorically speaking, — 
in Ins pursuit of gain : ready, apparently, at any time to 
furnish the Indians with lirearms, powder, and balls, in ex- 
change for their furs ; and declining to pennit any inter- 
ference in his business by persons of adverse interest. In 
1644, he had been up tlie Hudson, ui)on a trading voyage 
to the north, in tlie yacht, tlie "(lood Hope," antl on his 
return, wlien passing Bear's Island, below Albany, where the 
patroon Van Rensselaer had erected a small fortification which 
was guarded by one Nicholas Koorn, tliat individual, accord- 
ing to the story oi several of the men of Loockermans' crew, 
" cried out to Govert Loockermans, when we were passing by: 
' Lower thy colors.' ' For whom should I do so ? ' retorted 
Loockermans. Then Koorn reidied : ' For the stiiple right of 
Rensselaerswyck.' Then Govert Looekennans answered, 'I 
lower not the colors for any individual except for the Prince 
of Orange and the lords, my masters ; ' — -wlien directly 
Nieliolas Koorn fired a gun. The first shot went through 
the sail, broke the ropes and the hulder ; a second discharge 
p.issed over us; and tiie third, done by a savage, perforated 



LOOCKEU.MANS' VOYAGES 239 

our princely colurs a"bout a foot above tlie head of Loocker- 
mans, wlio kept coijeStautly the colors in his baud; but wo 
continued our course, notwithstanding this insulting assault, 
without returning the fire, or making any other reprisals 
whatever, and descended gently the river." Other witnesses, 
however, testified that (iovert's demeanor was not quite so 
knub-like, but that' he cried out to Kooiii anil his men: 
" Fire, ye dogs ; aiid tlie devil takti ^'ini ! "' 

Loockermans' voyages extended all along the coast, from 
New luigland to Virginia, and at several jjlaces he accjuired, 
at diR'erent times, lai'ge tracts of wild lands, as, for example, 
in Maryland, and at -various points upon Long Island. On 
l\Lanhattan Island he held also a number of parcels of ground, 
— notably, almost all the land lying between the present 
Ann Street and the Versche Water, or Fresh Water, — the 
little run of Nvater forming one of the outlets of the Kolck 
pond, and emptying into the East liiver near the present 
James Street. Most of Loockermans' transactions in New 
Amsterdam real estate are very diilicult to trace, however, 
from a peculiarity he seems to have had of avoiding, as far 
as possible, the registry of liis " ground-briefs," and much is 
discoverable only through allusions and recitals in other 
documents. 

For this reason, we cannot tell exactly when Loockermans 
acquired the hirge parcel of ground upon the j)resent Hanover 
Square, whci'c he resided for a great part of his life. It, or 
a portion of it, is recited to have been granted by the Dutch 
government in 1G43, but whether to Loockermans or to 
some other person does not appear. There is evidence, how- 
ever, that the westerly portion of the land, embracing aljout 
one hundred and fifteen feet in frontage, and extending along 
Hanover Square nearly to the easterly line of the present 
Coffee Exchange, was originally granted either to Cornells 
Lcendertscn, Loockermans' business associate (who died prior 
to IGJG), or to Dirck Cornelissen, who appears to have been 
hi-! son. The hitler married, in IGtG, INfarritjc Janse, widow 
of the s]iip-car[)cntcr, Tyiucn Jaiisen, but died within two 



1^40 NEW AMSTEliUAil AMI) ITS PEOPLE 

or three years; his vidow marryiiiy (Juvert Luockeriii uis in ■ ^- 
1649, thib property passed to the latter, in right of his ^\lfe. ^ 
Dirck Cornelissen's house, which appears to have btuod A 
about on the western eud of the present Coffee I'^xchuige, 
was sohl in 10G7'-..or IGGS to Iteyuhout UeynlioutsLU by 
LooekL-nuans, 

As to the easterly portion of J^ooekermans' land, ^\hich 
covered originally about one hundred and thirty feet liout, ,^ 
unless he is the person (as it seems quite probable that he 
is) referred to as Govert AertseJi in a deal of 1645 tiom 
Dirck Volekertsen, we have no infurnudion as lo iiuw lie 
acquired tlie land. The description given in tliat deed is as 
fcillows: "A house and lot, wliere Direk Cornelissen next 
adjoins on the west side, and Jan Danien," — ■ the so-calleJ 
outhoek, — "on the east." No disposition of this parcel by 
(Jovert Aertsen can be found, and williin two or three }t.ais 
from the last-mentioned date Loockennans is known to iid\e 
been in possession of it. '^ 

In whatever manner lie had acquired it, however, ^\e find 
Govert Loockennans, as early as 1049, in possession ot thib p 
large parcel of ground, — ^ nearly three hundred I'ect in fiout y 
age along the River Road, and jjart of it extending l)iek 
nearly or quite to the present Wall Street. Here lie bteiiib 
to have at first established, his residence in a house afteiwaids 
occupied by Daniel' Litscho and. subsequently by Andiies 
Jochemsen as a tavern, the site of which is at present coveied 
by No. 125 Pearl Street; but in a few years lie had built 
a new residence for himself on a portion of his ground a 
little fartlicr west along the road. Tliis Litter building ap- 
pears to liave been a stibstantial edifice, of some size .md 
pretensions, and is quite clearly shown upon the " Duke's 
Plan," supposed to represent the town as of the yeai IGGl. 
As early as 1G54 it was enclosed witli a high wall, pro\ided 
with a gate kept locked and barred by night: tliesc pii titu- 
lars we learn from tlie prosecution of one Willemscn for 
burglary at tliis house in tliat year, as it was thouglit tli it 
he must have liad confederates to liolp liim climb tlie ^\ dl 







^from the Stddt Buys to the Town 
Palisades A.D. /6^j 
I '.ppP^^ed from the Butch and 



\fSk ^"S^'^h Records by 



.7. H. JXXES 



THE LOOCKEllMANS HOUSE 241 

It is tho fact that Loockerinans' house was tlius piotccled, 
that leads to the conjectui'e that a puiliou of it iiuiy have 
been used as his warehouse. 'Die site of this liouse is now 
occupied by tlie two unpretending l)iuldings extending fi'om 
the Coffee L^xehange to tiie corner of tlie modern Hanover 
Street, and numbered 119 and 121 Pearl Street. 

There can be little doubt that tliis was the same building 
shown as occupying' tliis spot in a plan made in the year 
1719. This building was, as has been said, of large, and, in 
fact, of unusually large, dimensions. It was of ai)0ut tliirty- 
eight feet in front by forty-eight feet in deptli ; uiid a kilchen 
extension of about twenty feet square upon its east side 
gives suggestions of ([uarters for the domestic slaves,' as 
the size of the main building docs of its partial use for 
warehouse purposes. Along tiie east side of the building 
lun, in the year last abo"ve mentioned, a narrow cartway, now 
forming a part of what is known as Hanover Street; and 
nearly a hundred feet in the rear of the house, upon the 
back lane called "the Sloot," or ditch, stood a capacious 
stable, or coach-house, some twentj^ by forty feet in size. 
It is quite likely, however, that this last structure wius built 
after Loockermans' time. 

Govert Eoockermans' first wife had died before 16 19, leav- 
ing iiim with two little daughters, Mai'rilje and Jannetje, 
who were respectively aljout eight and six years of age at 
tiie period mentioned. lIi)on tlie 20th of July of that year 
he married, for his second wife, the widow, iWarritje Janse. 
This lady had been^'the wife of lymen Janseii, a ship car- 
penter in the employ of tlie West India Company, to whose 
house upon the present Pearl Street just north of Wall, we 
sliall have occasion to allude hereafter. Tymen Janscn had 
been ioi several years from 1(j-33 the principal sliiijwright 

1 la lier will, made iu 1G77, Loockermans' wiiiow Marritjo pcviJcH fur two o£ 
the slave " boys," Manuel and Francis. The former was to be freed at tlie age 
of twenty-live : as to the latter, she reciuires that her children " shall maintain 
him with dyett and clothing, and good discipline ; not willing, neither desiring 
tiKil they should sell hiin alien and transport, neither to deliver him to the 
scr.ice of a stranger." Lib. 1, Wills, N. Y. Surr. dllice. 
IG 



z±z JNi^W AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

of the Company, at Now Anislfnlani, and had constructed 
many vessels liere r he had died some years before 1649, 
liowever, leaving his widow with a daugliter Elsie, known 
according to the system of nomenclature in use among tlia 
Netherlanders as Elsie Tymense, and who was about fifteen 
or sixteen years of age at the time of her mcjther's marriage 
to Govert Loockermans. Previous to tliis time, and in the 
year 1C46, Marritje Janse liad married Dirck Coruelissen of 
Wensveen, whose house and land upon the present Hanover 
Square has just been referred to. Coruelissen died a year or 
two after his marriage, leaving a son called Cornelis Dircksen, 
an infant of about *wo years of age at the tune of his 
mother's marriage to I^oockermans. 15y his wife I\Iarritje, 
Govert Loockermans had one child, Jacob, born in 1652, who 
in later years, following the English nomenclature, which 
was gradually adopted by the Dutch after the surrender to 
the iMiglish in 1GG4, was known as Jacob Loockermans. 
The above-named persons constituted tlie family of Govert 
Loockermans; and out of their S(jmewliat complicated rela- 
tionship grew, apparently, certain imjjortant consequences 
in after years. 

Elsie Tymense did not remain many years in her stejifather's 
house on the East Kiver shore, for in the early part of 1G52 
she married a well-to-do merchant, Pieter Cornelissen Van- 
derveen, from Amsterdam, and resided for a number of years 
in her husband's liouse, near the southwest corner of the 
present Pearl and Whitehall streets, where she was long a close 
neighbor of Director-General Stuyvesant and his family. 
Vanderveen having died about the year ICGl, Elsie marri«J 
Jacob Leisler, of Frankfurt,' two years later, and he, wlio had 
come to New Amsterdam in the military service of the West 
India Company, — ]\Ir. Valentine calls him an " ofiieer," — 
now assumed the charge of her kite husband's L .aess, and 
soon became, himself, a leading merchant of tlie town. 

At his house upon the East Piiver shore, (iuvert Loocker- 

' 'Vliutlier it was tljo city of that uaiiie upuii the .Mu) u liivur, ur tli:it upou the 



■I 



THE RIVER FRONT 213 

' mans lived an active life for many years. He does not seem, 
to have cared to mingle much in the politics of his day, though 
in 1G47 he was one of the committee called " the Nine Men," 
chosen hy the people, and who afterwards laid the grievances 
of the colonists before the authorities in the Netherlands. In 
1657 he also served one year as one of the city magistrates, or 
"schepens," and at the same time he also held the ollice of 
head or foreman of the fire company. He took an interest 
besides in the affairs of the city militia company, in wliich 
he was a lieutenant at the time of liis death, under Captain 

^ Ahu-tin Cregier. 

It has been already stilted that the Loockernians' house stood 

' within somewhat spacious grounds ; about one hundred and 
fifty feet in its rear there was a wet depression, where there 
Beems to have been at one time a small pond ; here a drain 
ditch was afterwards constructed, and this ditch, or " sloot," 
gave its name to a narrow lane which was in existence here ■ 
before the year 1728, and was long known as " Sloat Lane." 
It is now covered by the extension of Beaver Street. Besides 
thus caring for his rear grounds, Loockermans had an eye to 
his fine river frontage. At an early day, he had built, at his 
own expense, a wall or piling all along the siiore in front of his 
premises, in order to protect the bank. Towards tlie western 
end of Ins land and near Burger's Patli, there was considerable 
ground lying between the road and the shore, and Loockermans 
made a petition to the Director-General and Council in 1G5G 
for a grant of this ground " on whicli in future some build- 
ing might be erected to the damage of petitioner." The 
ground was granted to him accordingly, with the reservation 
to the West India Company of the right to build a breastwork 
along the piling. As has been previously stated, a good por- 
tion of it, covering the present Hanover Square, was over- 
grown with forest trees ; these were certainly in existence as 
late as 1G79, for they are sliown upon the .ry valuable sketch 
of the Labadists, Danker and Sluyter, in tliat year.^ Within 



coded bank, altho 


ugh a very coiis)iicuoun fca 


ure in any view 


of the 


shore of New A 


isterdaiii, does uot a]i|ii.'ai 


in that groni. of 


views 



244 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

ten years fioiii Unit period, however, the trees had probably all 
disappeared, and about tiie year 1G90 the " Square " began to 
be built upon. A row of three or four houses of small si7e 
soon occupied the largei' part of tlie ground, and this was used 
for building puipoA;.s until the early part of the last century, 
when the then exis_ting buildings were destroyed, and the land 
thrown into the public thoroughfares al)out it. 

Govert Loockerinans died in the year 1G71. IJefore tliit 
time, his t\vo daughters had been married, — the eldest, 
Marritje, to Balthazar Bayard, a nephew of Director-Genenl 
Stuyvesant, in 10G4; and Jannetje to Hans, the son of 
Dr. Hans Kiersted, in 16G7. Govert's son, Jacob, who was 
about nineteen years of ago at his father's death, continued to 
.reside for some years with his mother at the homestead, but after 
lier death, in 1677, he took up his residence in the Province of 
Maryland, succeeding to the estates of his father there. He 
had pursued tlie study of medicine, and was a practising 
" chyrurgeon " in tiiat colony, residing, according to Valentine, 
at St. Mary's, in the southern part of the Stale. He appeals, 
however, afterwards as a magistrate of DorcJiester County, 
upon the eastern short! of C!hesapeake Bay. 

There are not wanting indications of a lack of hariuony m 
the Loockermans family at an early date. When Govert 
Loockermans died intestate, in 1G71, under the English law 
of descent his son 'Jacob became tlie heir to his father's con- 
siderable landed estiite ; .hieob's half-brother, f'ornelis Dirckseii, 



which, uuJer various Uiimes, such aa tlio " Alhierdt" ami iho " Seuttur" views, 
etc. (from tlio names of tlie jjublishers in whoso worlis tliey are tube fouuJ) 
represeut sulistautially one and tlic same sketcli, and tliat taken at a ]jcriud sumo 
years earlier than the one of the Lul)adist.s, — probably at some time butweou 
16G7 and 1GC9. Tlio reason for this is quite oljvioua, If the grove had been 
represented in true perspective, it would have oonccalod from siglit a number of 
houses which the artists desired to make appear in their views of tlie town. The 
Labadists resorted to the expedient of dwarfing the grove, while the otl er 
dr.iughtsinan omitted it altogether from his view, aftorward.s su])plying the houses 
from some sketch taken from anotlter point, witli the result of lamentaldy distcrt 
ing the perspective of the wliole view, and rendering it un(|Ui;.slionably and grossly 
inaccurate. It is composed indeed, in all jjrobability, of several distinct soctioua 
thus patched together. 



2-1(3 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

wards formed the foundation of the controversy which termi- 
nated in the American Ifevolution. On tlie one hand was tlie 
party of Legality, Vliose doctrine was that the colonies, being 
sunple dependencies of the Crown of England, witii their local 
administrations fixed by the Central Government at London, 
tliose arlministrations ought to continue until they were 
changed by that Central Government, and that consccpiciitly, .^ 
in the present case, the control of affairs, in the absence of 
instructions from England, ought to remain with the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, Francis Nicholson, and the former Council. 
Prominent among the men of this party were Colonel Nicholas 
Bayard, the brother-in-law of Marritje Loockermans, and 
Stephanus van Cortlandt, her cousin, the sou of Govert 
Loockermans' sister Anneken. 

The other party was the party of Expediency ; they con- 
sidered that the management of their own affairs ought to i^j 
belong to the people of the colony. They were not prepared i-p 
as yet to assert that they " are and of right ought to be " free ''f 
and independent, but they determined to take possession of 
what they considered the vacant government. They contrived : 
to oust their op])onenls, and by means of a self-appointed 
" Committee of Safety," usually resorted to in similar cases, 
they conferred the chief power upon their leading man, Jacob , 
Leisler. The legality of this action was of course denied ■; 
by the opposite party, and in asserting and maintaining his 
authority, Leisler acted with but little discretion. In spite of ■#: 
the frail nature of his power, he affected to consider his 'I 
opponents as rebels and traitors, drove the leaders among them 
from the colony, and confiscated the estates of several of them, 
and upon their subsequent return to New York he threw 
Bayard into prison, where he remained for over a year; while "y 
Stephanus van Cortlandt succeeded in making his escape • ;' 
from the officers armed with a warrant for his arrest for high ,^| 
treason. % 

When, finally, in March, 1691, the new governor. Colonel 
Henry Sloughter, arri' ' ""^om England, Leisler succeeded, by 
his punctilios about delivering over the government into the 



THE EXECUTIONS 247 

hands of Slougliter, in creating a hostile feeling in (lie mem- 
bers of tlie new acbiiinistration ; they immecliately inclined 
towards the party of Leisler's opponents, and his arrest, trial, 
condonniation, and execution fur treason followed, together 
with the similar process in the case of his son-in-law, Jacob 
Milborne. 

The malignant haste, however, with which these prose- 
cutions were urged, and the precipitation with which tire 
sentences were carried out, takes away all merit from the 
proceedings, and leaves them mere judicial murders. As 
Leisler's seizure of power — technically illegal, no doubt 
— was unquestionably made for and in behalf of the reigning 
sovereigns William and iMar}', every one concerned in the 
prosecution of the prisoners knew perfectly well that WiUiam 
and Mary would never have permitted them to be punished 
as traitors if the case had reached them in any proper way. 
However exasperating Leisler's acts hail been to his enemies, 
there were other remedies to redress such wrongs as they 
had suffered; their evident malice deprived them of any 
sympathy from the great body of the people, by whom they 
were looked upon in no other light than as murderers, while 
their victims were glorified as heroes and martyrs. 

As for Elsie Leisler and her children, the blow fell upon 
them with cruslung force. Four years afterwards the Eng- 
hsh Parliament reversed the attainder for treason of Leisler 
and Milborne, and restored their confiscated property to their 
heirs ; but most of the joy of life had departed for Elsie 
Leisler. Always she could see before her tluit dark May 
morning, with the rain pouring down upon tlie scaffold and 
the angry or pitying crowd around it, and could hear the 
words of her son-in-law : " We arc thoroughly wet with rain, 
but in a little time we shall be washed with the Holy Spirit," 
or those of her liusband, as the handkerchief was bound about 
his head : " I hope my eyes shall see our Lord Jesus Christ 
in heaven ; I am ready 1 I am ready ! " 

" Her family mi' "--^-unes," says Valentine, speaking of 
Mrs. Leisler, "surrounded her with sympathetic neighbors, 



248 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

but she maintained a reserved and humble deportment, mix- 
ing but little with the world, and confining lierself to lier 
own domestic sphere." That her troubles hiul endeared lier 
to her children is well attested, across two centuries of time, 
by so prosaic an evidence as the time-stained records in the 
New York Register's ollice, wherein, on the 19th of July, 
1699, Jacob Leisloj:, the younger, appoints as his attorney- 
in-fact, "his dear and affectionate mother, Elsie Leisler, 
widdow." 1 

The Loockermans' homestead upon the present Hanover 
Square had j)assed out of the hands of that family some 
years before the struggle between the Leislerian and the anti- 
Leislerian factions took place. Although somewhat outside 
of the plan of our survey, it may be of some interest to follow 
the subsequent history of this property for a short period. 
What remained of it, — for several parcels hiul been previ- 
ously sold off from time to time — came, within a short time 
after the death, in'lG77 or 1078, of Marritje, the widow of 
G overt Loockermans, into the hands of one John Robinson, 
who purchased the family residence. This man was a mer- 
chant of New Yorlc, who was interested in the export of 
flour, and who, at' the time he acquired the Loockermans' 
homestead, was engaged in the construction of a flour-mill 
upon the small stream known as the Sawkill, which emptied 
into the East River about at the foot of the present Seventy- 
fourth Street, along which stream he had afaiin of nearly 
forty acres carved out of the forest.^ There he became in 

I See Liber XXII. of Convoyauces, pasn .123. 

"' Mr I), T. Valentine, liavinR rcail in iho ".Idnrnal " of Rev. Cliarles Woolley, 
will) visited New York ahoiit 1G79, an account of a bear liavinp been " treed" in 
ornear an orchard belonging to Jolm IJubinson (with wlioin Woulley was cminected 
either by relationship or by business interests), — and apparently not having ob- 
served th.it John Robinson's farm lay in the midst of the then unbroken forest 
along the East River shore, where the prerience of a bear at that time was uo 
great marvel, — has calmly proceeded in some of his historical writings to transfer 
the bear ' it to the immediate vicinity of the house and small ]iarcel of land 
li<longini, tu iioninson near the present Hanover Sipiare. Mr. Valentine has not 
only conducted his bear through three or four miles of open farming cuimtry 
inl ) the heart of a good-siicd town, and led the animal over the town ditch and 



AVILLl7\M COX 21'J 

some way coniiecLecl in biisinos.s deiilinos with William Cox 
to whom on February 12, IGSl, he sold a hali-interesL in his 
mill and farm. 

William Cox was in some respects a singular character, 
about whose history not very much is known. lie seems to 
have been a young man with considerable means, who had ap- 
parently been in New York for some little time prior to 
1G83, for in that year he -was an alderman of the city. With 
him, in the city, resided his mother, whom he, as well as she 
herself, calls by the curi'pus appellation of " Alice Cox, alias 
Bono." ^ As to his business, he called himself sometimes a 
merchant, and at other times a "boiler," from his milling 
operations. 

In 1685, William Cox married a young woman who was 
destined to figure more prominently in the affairs of tlie day 
than she could have desired. She was Sarah, the daughter of 
Captiiin Thomas Bradley, who with her father and her young 
brothers Samuel and Henry had come over from England and 
taken up their residence in New York. She is said to liave 
been handsome and dashing, but was rather illiterate, for in 
various documents executed by her in her earlier years she 
makes her mark in the signature, — though no"t so in after 
years. 

On the 21st of January, 1688 (N. S.), William Cox bought 
from John Robinson his house and ground previously spoken 
of upon the present Hanover Square, being the former Loock- 
ermans' honrestead ; Cox himself may never have resided in 
this house, for in about a year from this time we find him 
purchasing another house upon the north side of Wall Street, 
which street was then beginning to be l)uilt up with a better 

pali.s;uk's into a iioncxislent orchard, but, what is worse, lie )i:i.s ;iffiir(JDd an 
opportunity to some of tlie writers who have followed him, for some vr-ry pain- 
fully elaborated attempts at witticisms respecting Mr. Valeuliuc's hear and the 
"be.irs" of the supposed neighboring W;ill Street. 

1 I)y the will of this lady, bearing date Juno 1.1, 1G'J4, she bequeaths to her 
" dearly bel-^ved brother, Mr. Uobert Blackburne, dry -fish monger in r.ondun," 
the sum o_ ~i. The rest of her estate she gives lo John 'riieobalds, one of 
her exiiutors, "to dispose of the same to his children, or to whomsoever he 
ple.asclli." (See Will, N. Y. Surrogate's office.) 



250 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

class of houses thuu had previously been found there, and ia 5-,^ 
this latter dwelling he unquestionably resided during the % 
sliort remainder gf his life. Ig' 

It was in the su^nmer of the year 1689 that the community m 
was in a ferment over the action of Jacob Leisler and his g 
party in seizing upon the government of the colony; Wil- 
liam CoK became a prominent supporter of Leisler, was 
one of the so-called " Committee of Safety " of the Leisler- 
ians, and lost his life about August, 1G89, while engaged upou -^ 
the business of his eliief. The account of this affair is given •:,' 
with considerable flippancy by John Tuder, Cox's political 
enemy (afterwards recorder of the city), in a letter, dated 
August — , 1C89, to Captain Nicholson, the ousted Lieutenant- 
Governor : — 

" Mr. Cox, to show his fine cloaths, undertooke to goc to Amboy 
to proclaime the King, who coming whoine againo, was fairely 
drowned, which accident startled our commanders here very much: 
there is a good rich widdow left. The manner of his being 
drowned was comeing on board in a cannow from Capt" Coniehs' 
Point at Staton Islands, gocing int<3 the boatc, slipt downe be- 
twixt tlie cannow and the boate, the water not being above his 
chinn, but very nuiddy, stuck fast in, and striving to get out, 
bobbing his head under, rcceaved to much water in. They 
brought him ashore with life in him, but all would not fetch him 
againe." 

The " good rich widdow " did not remain a widow long, 
for in a very sliort time she married John Oort, who is some- 
times spoken of as a merchant, and at others as a ship cap- 
tain, but his married life was of short duration. The fact is, 
that among this little coterie of English merchants and cap- 
tains and their families, events succeeded one another with 
bewildering rapidity. On the 15th of July, 1689, William 
Cox, then apparently in full health and vigor, executed his 

■"t will and testament, and on the 9th of August following, 
after the unfortunate occurrence whereby he had " receaved 
to much water in," his will was admitted to probate. By 



WILLIAM COX'S WILL 2f>l 

the 15th of May, 1G91, Sarah Oort had about finished her 
luourning for both her deceuHcd husbands, for upon that day- 
she took out letters of administration upon the estate of the 
late John Oort; while upon the next day, tlie IGth of May, a 
license was issued, under the forms of the colonial law, for 
her marriage to Captain William Kidd. 

The newly married couple resided for several years in the 
house which Mrs. Kidd's first husband, William Cox, had 
purchased, upon the present Pearl Street. This house had 
passed to Cox's widpw by virtue of a very curious provision 
in the will of her husband. In the first part of this document 
Cox appears to have designed the house in question for his 
wife's brother : " I give to Samuel Bradley, my brother-in- 
law, my other house, which I bought of I\Ir. John Robinson, 
or this house which I now live in,^ my wife taking her first 
choice, and God sending my brother-in-law an hcyre, that he 
call his name Cox Bradley " : later the testator remembers 
a moral obligation which he considers himself under, and con- 
tinues : " My desire is that this house where I now dwell in 
shall be for my brother Samuel and his heyi-es as above 
expressed, by reason of fullilling an oath formerly solemnly 
sworne to my mother, she forcing me to passion, in fulfilling 
whereof I desire that tiiere may be no contention after my 
decease, concerning ye said house." After niakhig several 
bequests to his mother, and to others. Cox left the remainder, 
being a considerable estate, to his wife Sarah, — the goods 
in his store were alone inventoried at 19001., — so that the 
stories about her later husband, Captain William Kidd, be- 
ing a needy adventurer, when he started out upon his fatal 
voyage in the " Adventure " galley, five years later, are quite 
false. 

The tendency of modern historical criticism — at any rate 
among American writers — is not to regard William Kidd as 
the llaw-IIead-and-Bloody-Bones which he was once popularly 
considered, but to look upon him as having been to a consider- 

i Upon tlie north side of W.iU Street. 



252 NEW AMSTE[{DAl\r AND ITS PEOPLE 

able extent a vicarious saerifiee to save ilie reputation of men 
occupying a great deal higiier station ilian iiiinself. 

11, at llie present day, tlie President (if the United States, 
together with the Secretary of State, and three or four mure 
members of the Cabinet and governors of States or Territories, 
should agree, in private conference, that inasmucli as tliefls, 
highway robberies, and train robberies, kidniipping, and oilier 
crimes of violence had increased to an intolerable degree 
within the territories of the United States, but that ou 
account of the oppressive .taxation necessary to support the 
military operations of the country in various quarters of the 
globe, no further demands ought to be made or could safely be 
made upon the heavily burdened people; and should there- 
upon form an association — each one contributing a certain 
amount of money to it — for the purpose of equip[iing a pri- 
vate armed force to arrest or to destroy the outlaws, and stipu- 
lating that each one of the association should receive a certain 
[iroportion of the money and efl'eets to be taken from such 
outlaws; if in addition to this, it should be agreed that the 
leader of this force, as well as the men under his connnand, 
were themselves to receive no compensation for their services 
except a further proportion of the effects of the alleged law- 
breakers, — if all this were to be done, it is very certain that a 
general chorus of animadversion would be raised, not only by 
the opposite political party in this country, but by all the 
civilized nations of the earth. 

This, however, is substantially what was done in luigland 
in the year 1695. In the course ol the wars between h' ranee 
and ICngland, piracy had greatly increased upon the seas, much 
to the disturbance of the English, who looked upon the crime 
in an altogetlier different light when it Avas carried on against 
their connnerce than when it \\as maintained (largely by 
themselves) against the Spanish. William III. was particu- 
larly anxious to have the pirates suppressed, and as they were 
supposed to have a good deal of support in the American, 
colonies, and especially in New York, the king had selected 
Richard Coote, Earl of Bellamont, as Governor of New York, 



I5El.LA.MONT'S SCHEME 253 

to supplant Colouul Benjamin FluteliL'!', and had given him 
special insti'uutions to operate against tlie pirates. It now 
became a question how these operations against the pirates 
should be carried on : the government, deeply involved in the 
war with France, could spare neither sliips, men, nor money ; 
but the Earl of ISellamont, in conjunction with Robert 
Livingston of New York (who is said to have been the origina- 
tor of tlie selieme), foi'med a plan for sending out a private 
expedition, under warrant from tlie Engiisli government. 
For the commLindei' of this i!Xiieilitiun, HellamonL and Eiving- 
ston fixed upon C'aptain WiUiain Kidd, wlio liad now been 
living for about four years in the house at the present 
Hanover Square in New York. Kidd, who is said to have been 
a native of Greenock, at the mouth of the Clyde River in 
Scotland (then a mere village of Ushers), was about thirty-five 
years of age at this time, a careful and experienced sca-captiun 
of good repute, who as early as IG'Jl had served w'llU dis- 
tinction against the Freneh. ivitld w 
haunts of the pirates, and had sangui 
with which lie could capture them. 

Having sulnnitLed their plan to thi 
sanction, articles of agreement N\ere i 
October, 1G95, between tlie Earl of Bellan 
whereby Bellamont undertakes to procure, from the king or 
from the commissioners of Admiralty, commissions to Kidd to 
fight the king's enemies or pirates, and also agrees to furnish 
four-fifths of the cost of buying and fitting up a proper ves- 
sel, the remaining fifth being furnished by Kidd and Living- 
ston togetlier. Kidd on his part agrees to take sucli prizes as 
he can, and forthwith to make the best of his way to Boston to 
condemn them, " without touching at any otlier place whatso- 
ever," and he further agrees to enlist his men, "no purchase, 
no pay," — tliat is, they must look to their prizes for compen- 
sation, lioth Kidd and Livingston entered into bonds for a 
cousideral)le amount to secure their part of the undertaking. 
Ai for tlie Ivirl of •BeUaiuoiit's sliare, it was in part made up, 
ill sums of about XIOOO eacli, by tlie following distinguished 



also faiiii 
views ab 


iar with the 
Hit the case 


dug, and 
wn up on 
]ellamont 


received liis 
the 10th of 
and Kidd, 



254 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS TEOrLE 

partners: Lord John Somers, Keeper of the Great Seal; 
the Earl of Romney, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland ; the Earl 
of Shrewsbury, Secretary of State ; and the Earl of Or- 
ford, First Lord of the Admiralty. One tenth part was 
to be resei-ved for the king, in token of lus approval of the 
scheme. Kidd was thereupon granted two commissions, one 
bearing date December 10, 1G95, an ordinary commission to 
act against the French; the uth(!r an extraordinary one 
dated 2Gth January, 1G95-9G, to aptiruhend and seize all 
pirates. 

The dangers of admitting a large body of sailors into this 
6ort of speculation, by making their pay contingent upon 
their success, were fully realized in England. Sir Edmund 
Harrison, who was one of the contributors to the enterprise, 
took care, — ■ as we arc informed in the pamphlet upon the 
Kidd Case, known as " Letters from a Person of Quality," etc. 
(avowedly written in the interest of the Earl of Ik'Uamont) 
— that everyone of Kidd's ollieers, and almost all the seamen, 
had settled families in England: " ti-ue it is, this last care 
was in a great degree rendered ineffectual, fur most of his crew 
were pressed into the King's service before he got out of the 
river." Of course it is incredible tiiat Kidd should not have 
complained of this interference with his commission ; the act 
was evidently notorious ; the intervention of the king or of the 
First Lord of the Admiralty, both of whom were partners 
with Kidd in tliis enterprise, w(juld undoubtedly have been 
sufficient to restore these picked men at once ; and Kidd 
lingered at Plymouth until April, 1G96, and yet he was per- 
mitted by those in power to depart on such an errand as his 
with hardly any men, and without the prospect of getting 
any except the unstable characters whom he might succeed in 
alluring into his service in the colonies. He sailed iinally for 
New York with his sliip, the now notorious " Adventure " 
galley, and at that port he filled out his complement of men. 
Of their character the English government was fully informed 
by a letter from Governor Penjamin I'letcher to the Lords 



I 



CAPTAIN KIDD AND HIS CREW 255 

of Trade in England:' "One Captain Kidd lately arrived 
here, and produced a coiinnission under the Great Seal of 
England, for suppressing of piracy. When he was here 
many flocked to him from all part's, men of desperate fortunes 
and necessitous, in expectation of getting vast treasure. . . . 
It is generally believed here they will have money per fas aut 
nefas ; that if he miss of the design intended, for which he 
has commission, 't will not be in Kidd's power to govern such 
a hord of men, under no pay." 

In July, 1G9G, Kidd sailed from New York for the Straits 
of Madagascar. From this time, for more than a year and a 
half, we have no accurate knowledge of what took place on 
the " Adventure " galley. Kidd's own full statement was never 
allowed to be made public, but even from the one-sided testi- 
mony produced upon the so-called " trials " of the indictments 
against him (taken in conjunction with a few known facts), 
there is the strongest evidence that what had been anticipated 
actually occurred. The partners in this enterprise had been 
too sanguine. Such pirates as were upon the seas kept care- 
fully out of Kidd's way, and French prizes were few and far 
between. Tiie lawless characters composing the greater part of 
the crew of the " Adventure " became enraged at their ill-luck, 
and at the failure of Kidd's promises to them ; they mutinied 
about the month of September, 1G97, and from that time for a 
period of about four months, Kidd appears to have been prac- 
tically a prisoner in the hands of his rebellious crew. Their 
ascendancy over him was greatly enhanced soon after tiie 
above-named date by an unfortunate occurrence, whereby 
Kidd, in a lit of passion, struck with a water bucket one of 
the mutineers named William ]\Ioore in such a manner that 
he died within a day or two from the effects of the 
blow.^ 



' The letter will be found in 4 Col. noc, p. 275. It ia not dated, but must 
hivu been written in tlie hitter pMl of KJ'JG. 

'' Kidd, as i.s well known, wcia tried ut the Old Bailey upon an indictment for 
tile lining of this man. The trial took phico at the same time witli the trials of 
tbi' indictments for piracy. The witnesses for the government were the same two 



25G NEW AMSTERDAM AND' ITS I'EOPLE 

Witliin the period of four months, above mentioned, five or 
six vessels are stated in tiie indictments and in tlie testimony 
taken thereupon to have been captured by the " Adventure " 
galley. Most of these were Arabian or " Moorish " coasters 
of the most insignificant size and value, one of tiiem, of fifty 
tons' burden, yielded a little coffee and sugar, and " some sugar 
candy ; " out of auoUier, some eolfee, pepper, and myrrh, worth 

pcrsoua made use of a3 State's evidence in the piracy trials, — the mutineer, 
Joseph Palmer, anil the drunUeu surgeon, Uobert IJradinliam, Kidd had no 
witnesses for his defence except those meml)ers of his crew who hud beeu 
brought with him under arrest, from America to Knghind. In the piracy 
trials their mouths were clo.sed in liis behalf, fcjr they were jointly indicted with 
liim; but in the nuirder trial, ho was allowed to call them as witnesses. Ud- 
fortunately, however, they had seen little or nothing of the occurrence. Kidd, 
it must be remembered, under the criminal procedure of that period, was not 
allowed to testify in his own behalf. The respective trials for murder and for 
piracy throw much light one upon another. It appears that about a fortnight 
before the killing of William Moore, Kiild had fallen in with a vessel called the 
" Loyal Captain," which he had allowed to proceed upon its way, to the great 
diasatisfaotion of his crew; the sailor, Moore, it seems, had been charged with 
e.\citing discontent among the others, by going about amojig them, saying thit 
if the captain would have listened to him, he could have taken the vessel, with- 
out incurring any liability. The story of the killing, as given by the witness 
Palmer, w.-\s this: "Captain Ividd came and walked on the deck, and walks by 
this Moore, and when ho came to him says, ' which way conld yon have put me 
in a way to take the shij) anil been clear ? ' ' Sir,' says William Moore, ' I never 
spoke such a word, nor ever thought such a thing,' upon which Captain Kidil 
called him a ' lonsy dog,' and says William Moore, ' If I am a lousy dog, you 
have made me so; you have brought me to ruin and many more ' — upon his 
saying this, says Captain Kidd, ' Have I mined you, ye dog ? ' and took a bucket 
hound with iron hoops, and struck him on the right side of the head, of which 
he died the next day." 

Macanlay, writing up the glories of his idolized William III. and of Lord John 
Somers, tells of the " agony of remorse " w ith which William Moore uttered the 
above remark. If one can shake off the charm of the great historian's pictur- 
esque stylo long enough to examine critically his remarkably inaccurate account 
of this affair, he will he apt to conclude, — inasmuch as the occurrence took place be- 
fore the alleged piratical depredations of the " Adventure " galley, — that William 
Moore's remark to his captain was made much more in a spirit of surly reproach 
for having been induced by him to enter an unremunerative service than in any 
"agony of remorse." As for William Moore himself, he appears to have been 
previously in trouble, and under arrest in New York upon several occasions, for 
dilliculties between himself anil his superior olllcers. (Vide Colonial M8S., 
N. Y. State Library.) 



I 



KIDD'S ALLEGED PIRACIES 257 

about flOO, were taken on board the " Adventure," and the 
vessel then was aIlo\\'ed to proceed upon its way ; this was 
the earliest act of piracy ciiarged, and as it is iiardly credible 
that these trifles formed the whole cargo of the "Moorish" 
vessel, they may have been nothing more than the private 
property of a Portuguese who was transferred at this time 
to the " Adventure," to act as an interpreter; no cross-exam- 
ination by counsel, upon the trials, was permitted to throw 
any light upon these matters. As to the otlier captures, one 
or two of them were made by boats' crews, and tlie whole 
series of them seems to be much more the work ol a lawless 
gang of rulTians, ready to kike anything that came in their 
way, than that of an experienced sea-captain, who was not 
Liboring under any suspicions of lunacy. 

On the 27th of November, 1G07, the " Adventure " captured 
off Surat a Moorish sliip, which, according to Kidd's claim, 
was sailing under French papers. Tliis of course he was 
justified in seizing under his commission, and it tiieu became 
his duty to have taken her at once to Boston, in pursuance 
of his agreement with Bellamont, to have her condemned in 
a prize court. The vessel and licr cargo, however, were of 
but little value, and tlie crew, as was further claimed by 
Kidd (and witli great probability of truth), refused to waste 
so many months on a voyage from the Persian Gulf to 
Boston ; tlie few articles of value of this vessel's cargo seem 
to liave been bdcen possession of by the " Adventure's " 
men, and some of them carried on shore and sold at dif- 
ferent points along the coast. 

Ou the 30th of January, 1G98 (N. S.), however, the "Ad- 
venture " captured a prize of a different character. This was 
the famous " Quedagh " or " Quiddah " merchiint. She was 
sailing with French papers, as w;is claimed by Kidd, and her 
cargo, of whicli a large part belonged to some Armenian mer- 
cliants, was a very valuable one. K'idd's crew were no more 
disposed to sail to Boston witli this pii/.e than with the 
others. They had already done enough in the way of mutiny 
and piracy to bring tliem into tiie most imminent danger of 



258 NKW AMSTKllDAiM AND ITS ]M':()1M.E 

their lives, but tlicy liad now in tlieir liands eiidugh to eom- 
peus'-vte them for the risks tliey luul run. A goodly portion 
of the valuable cargo of tlie " Quedagh " was sold, iu what 
luaniior wo have no deiinite information, at various puiiiU 
upon the coasts of India; the '•.Adventure's" crew di\iJL'd 
among themselves a large amount of money obtained in tliis 
way; and then tlie gi'eater portion of tiio men, being neiuly 
a hundred in number, abandoned the vessels, went on sliore 
with their gains, and dispersed themselves in such directions 
as they thought biist. 

Tliere remained now about llfty men with Kidd, and witli 
these he started to return to the American colonics. 'I'lio 
"Adventure" having become le.iky, it was abandoned, and 
Kidd and his O'ew sailed in tlie " t^uedagli " mei-chant, ami 
seem to have arrived in the West Indies in the latter part J 
of 1G98, or in the early part of 1009. ^ 

In the mean time, reports of the work of the "Adventure" 
galley reached I-higland, ami excited gi'cat consternation 
among Captain Kidd's distinguisJied j)artners. rolitical ani- 
mosities ran high at this time, and the pai'ty opposed to the 
government eagerly seized upon this piece of scandal for 
[Kjlitical capital. Vigonnis measures of some kind had to 
be taken by the administration, and accordingly, u^Jon the 
IGth of December, 1G98, before any dcliniLc or trustworthy 
account of Captain Kidd's doings could possibly have readied 
England, a proclamation was issued by the English govern- 
ment, offering a pardon to all persons guilty of piratical 
practices, who should surrender themselves before a certain 
date to commissioners named for that purpose. From the 
benefit of this proclamation, Ca[itain William Kidd was ex- 
pressly excluded. 

It is uncertain whether or not Kidd first heard of this 
proclamation in the West Indies, thougii it seems cjuite 
probable that he did. Under any circumstances, and whether 
guilty or innocent, he liad to anticipate much trouble ahead 
fur liimself ; and it was probably from this re;ison that he 
Stems to have adopted an expedient the practical effect of 



KIDD RETURNS TO NEW YORK 259 

which has been to obscure both his owu conduct and that 
of the high-phiced parties with whom he was associated, 
but which — though ill-judged- — -is not incompatible with 
Lis own innocence of the main charges against him. 

This expedient was to retain, or to give the impression that 
he retained, upon his surrender of himself to the government, 
a suflicient security uiuler his own control, to enable him to 
force the government to grant him the immunity fiom prose- 
cution or the pardon, to wliich he claimed to be entitled. 

Accordingly, leaving his vessel and what remained of her 
cargo (and this was of great value, according to his asser- 
tion) muler tiic care of a small guard at some inidisclosed 
place in the West Indies, Ridd with forty or Jifiy of his men 
made their appearanee in the early part of ItJ'J'J, in a small 
coasting vessel in the vicinity of New York, and after de- 
positing certain valuables ujion Gai'diner's Island, and at one 
or two other points, the captain opened coniminiications, 
throQgh Mr. James Emott, a New York attorney, with 
Lord iJellamont, who was then at Ijoston, he being Governor 
of Massachusetts as well as of New York. Kidd's proposi- 
tion was a simple one. He offered to turn over to Lord 
Bellamont and to the government the " Quedagh " merchant 
and such part of the cargo and of the [iroceeds thereof as 
remained in his hands, upon receiving a paiilon and indem- 
uity against loss on the bond which he had gi\i:n. With his 
counnuuication to Lord Bellamont, Kidd sent, by his agent 
Elliott, as announced by Bellamont to the Couneil in Boston, 
"two French papers, found in two ships taken by said Kidds 
Co., by violence against his will." 

There is little question that at this stage of the affair, Bel- 
lamont accepted Kidd's version of the transactions which had 
Udven place, and wished to accept liis proposition. " I make 
no doubt," he writes to Kidd, "but to oblain the king's par- 
don for you and those few men you have left, who, I under- 
stand, have been faithfnl to you and refused, as well as you, 
to dishonor the commission yon liad from Engl. aid." After- 
v.'ards, \\hen it became eviilent that Kidd was to be sacrificed 



2G0 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

to the interests of the Whig administration, it suited Bella- ^5^ 
mout to proclaim that his letter to Kidd had been merely I ^ 
lying one. In a letter from New York to Secretary Vernon, , 
dated December 6, 1700, he says : " When 1 writ that letter ',J 
to Kid by Bargesse, 1 had an account that he was certainlj 'I 
turned pyrate ; and then I could not be blamed to have i'% 
just indignation against him, and to try by all means to get 
him into my hands, and 'tis plain menacing him had not been j)| 
the way to invite him hither, but rather wheedling, and that 
way I took, and after that manner I got him at last into Bos- '^ 
ton, when I secured him." 

Whatever Bellamont's motives may have been, and under 1; 
whatever orders, if any, from the English government he may '"" 
have been acting, it is certain that Kidd, soon after his land- 
ing at Boston, was placed under arrest and sent to hhigland. 
There he remained in prison, without being brought to trial, 
from tlie summer of IG'JD till ilay, 1701, — nearly two years. 
What the reasons were for this delay, we do not know; they 
may have arisen from an attempt to extort from Kidd his 
secret as to the alleged wealth he had concealed; or there 
may have been compunction about carrying out the punish- 
ment of Kidd ; or perhaps the opposition party did not allow 
the government a free hand ; in the absence of authentic in- 
formation, we ca)i only surmise. 

Just at this point, the criminality of Lord Somers and of hia 
associates — not excepting the king — commences, it was 
of course evident that if Kidd was not to be punished, there 
was scarcely a piossibility that any of his mutinous crew, by 
that time scattered all over the globe, would ever be brought 
to punishment, and the scandal of the "Adventure's " doings 
would remain, as a perpetual reproach to the Whig adminis- 
tration, and a menace to tlie not too hrndy established Prot- 
estant succession to the English throne. 

Two courses were open to the administration: one was to 
examine carefully and impartially Ividd's story, and if it 
were found to be true to ac(iiut liiui, and they themselves 
to assume the opprobrium (jf their ill-advised and indecent 



TRIAL OF CAPTAIN KIDD 261 

though not criminal) speculative enterprise; tlie other 
ourse was to convict Kidd, and then to pose as the victims 
of a wicked deceiver, — they seem to have chosen the latter 
course. 

'. Few persons can read the accounts of the trials of Kidd 
ind of his associates at the Old Bailey, on the 8th and 9th of 
il;iy, 1701, without a feeling of pain and disgust. The trial 
of Kidd for the murder of William Moore ; and the trials of 
Kidd and of half a score of the seamen of his crew on six 
separate indictments for piracy, — all took place within those 
two days. In a matter of such supreme importance, no 
counsel was allowed to the prisoners, although Doctor (in the 
Civil Law) Oldish and Mr. Proctor Lemmon stood ready in the 
court room to appear for Kidd. It hatl heen only a short time 
before when the young Lord Ashley, rising in Parliament to 
speak in favor of the bill then pending, which allowed coun- 
sel to persons tried upon charges of treason, lost his control 
and was for a short time unable to proceed ; then recover- 
ing himself, he said : " How can I, Sir, produce a stronger 
argument in favour of this bill than my own failure? My 
fortune, ray character, my life, are not at stake. I am speak- 
ing to an audience whose kindness might well inspire me 
with courage. And yet, from mere nervousness, from mere 
want of practice in addressing large assemblies, I have lost 
my recollection. I am unable to go on with my argument. 
How helpless then must be a poor man, who, never having 
opened his lips in public, is called upon to reply without a 
moment's preparation to the ablest and most experienced ad- 
vocates in the kingdom, and whose faculties are paralysed by 
the thought tiiat, if he fails to convince his hearers, he will 
in a few hours die on the gallows, and leave beggary and in- 
famy to those who are dearest to liim ! " 

Lord Ashley's speech had created a great impression in 
England at the time, but it does not seem to have made 
much impression upon tiie judges of the court which tried 
William Kidd. They were less loud-mouthed, it is true, than 
their predecessor, the bawling monster, Jeffreys, whose memory 



262 NEW AMSTERDA?>I AND ITS PEOPLE 

was still fresh and liidcous among men, but otherwise Iiia 
mantle seems to have fallen upon worthy shoulders. They give 
the impression that they were men appointed to perform an 
unsavory piece of worlc, and who had made up their minds to 
go stoutly througli with it. Even the understrapper, clerk of 
the arraignments, was permitted to take a hand in the brow- 
beating. A specimen extract or two from tiie court proceed- 
ings may be not without interest.' The prisoners had been 
brouglit into court to plead to the indictments: 

" Cl. Arr. AVilliam Ki.M, hold ii|i thy liaiid. 

Kini). May it pk-ase your Lordships, 1 desire you to permit me 
to have coimsol. 

Rkcorhkr (Sir Scdathiel Lovell). What would you have counsel 
for ? 

KiDD. My Lord, I liave some matter of law relating to the 
indictment, and I desire 1 may have cuujisel to speak to it. 

Dr. O-xf.nden. Wliat matter of law can you liave? 

Cl. Ark. IIow iloos he know what it is he is cliargcd with? I 
have not told hira. 

Rkoordkk. Mr. Kidd, do you know what you mean liy matter 
of Law? 

KiuD. I know what I mean. 1 desire to put olT my trial as 
long as 1 can, till f can gut my evidence ready. 

ItEC. Mr. Ividd, you had best mention the matter of law you 
would insist on. 

Kidd. I desire your Lordship's favor. I desire Dr. Oldish and 
Mr. Lemmon jnay Ije licard as to my case. 

Cl. Akk. What can he have counsel for before he has 
pleaded? . . . 

Kidd. I beg your Lordships' patience till I can procure my 
papers. I had a couple of French passes, which I mu.st make use 
of in order to my justilieation. 

1 Kidii was uiuloubtcdly, aa lie iiiourufully exclaimed in the court-room, 
" without monoy and without friends." Tlie aim of the Tory opposition party 
wp i to have him convicted of piracy, and to fa.stcn guilty knowledge of his pir- 
atic. d designs upon tho government, — not at all to have bini acquitted. 



KIDD DEPRIVED OF COUNSEL 263 

Rec. 'J'liat is not matter of law. You have had long notice of 
your trial, and might liavo i)re[iai-ed for il. How long have you 
had notice of your trial? 

KiDD. A matter of a fortnight. 

Dr. Oxenden. Can you tell the names of any persons you 
would make use of in your defence? 

KiDD. I sent for thera, but I could not have them. 

Div. 0. Where were they then? 

KiDi). I brought them to my Lord Bellauiont in New England. 

Kec. What were their names? You cannot tell without book?' 
Mr. Kidd, the court sees no reason to put off your trial, therefore 
you must plead. . . . 

KiDi). I beg your Lordships I may have counsel admitted, and 
that my trial may be put off, 1 am not really prepareil for il. 

Rec. Kor never will be, if you can help it. 

Kidd. If your Lordships permit those papers to be rcacL they 
will justify me. I desire my counsel may be heard. . . . 

IMu. CoNiEKs." We admit of no counsel for him. . . . 

Mu. J>E.M.MON. He ought to have his pajjcrs delivered to him, 
because they are very material for his defence ; he has endeavcjred 
to have them, but could not get them. 

Mu. C(JNiEiis. You are not to appear for any one till he pleads, 
and that the court assigns you for his counsel." 

So the trials were hurried on then and there. The wit- 
nesses for the proseeutiun, two doubtful characters of the 
crew, one of whom, a.s accidentally appeared, had previously 
stated that Captain Kidd would be able to justify himself in 
everything he had done, went tlirough their parrot-like stones 
on each of the several indictments. Hearsay evidence, 
opinions, and assertions as to Kidd's motives and intentions 

' Meaning oviJently liis list.s of the crew. 

- For the government. It is well to remember that in the case of Captain 
CntUliford, who was accused of piracy and tried at about this time, the court 
allowed him counsel without hesitation. In Kidd's ca.se, however, it i.T i|uilo 
proli.ible that the officers of the government saw very clearly tliat counsel for 
Kidl would be likely to ask many questions that would prove embarrassing for 
the eminent partners of the latter. 



204 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

were all admitted in evidence without q\iestioii, — till Kidd 
asked one of the witnesses in despair : " Mr. Bradinliam, are 
you not promised your life to swear away mine?" The 
cross-examinations of these witnesses by the prisoners on 
trial for their lives, ignorant men, most of wiioin prob- 
ably had never been in a court-room before, would have 
been ludicrous, had it not been so jiitiable. The prisonci-s 
were not allowed to testify in tlieir own belialf, nor for each 
other, and had really nothing to oft'er which could be looked 
at in the light of a defence.' Tiiey were found guilty, almost 
as a matter of course, and then, when asked hy the court 
what they had to say, the following remarkable colloquy 
took place, between Kidd and Chief Baron Ward, who pro- 
nounced the sentence : 

" Kinn. I have rnany papers for my defeuce, if I could ha\e 
had them. 

L. C. 15. Wakd. What i)apers were they? 

Kidd. My French passes. 

L. C. B. Ward. Where are they ? 

Kidd. My Lord Bellamout had them. 

L. C. B. Ward. If you hatl had tlie French papers, you should 
have condemned the sliips. 

Kiro. I could not because of the mutiny in my ship. 

L. C. B. Ward. If you had anything of disability upon you to 
make your defence, you should have objected to it at the beginnivg 
of your trial. What you mean by it now I cannot tell." 

So the "trial" ended. Captain Kidd may possibly have 
been a pirate, but it was not proved by these proceedings ; 
they may perhaiis be- tlie subject of future revision by a 
higher tribunal, — in the words of Rudyard Kipling: — 

" Wlien the last grim joke is filtered 
In the big, black Rook of Jobs." 

1 Kidd had three or four naval officers present to testify to his char.icter. All 
spoke well of him, hut this of course had little or no bearing upon the cases on 
trial. As for the killing of the sailor Moore, it may have amounted to a grade 
ot manslaughter; but if the mutinou.s disposition of the men e.\isteJ, as there is 
e\ery re.ison to believe it did, the matter wouhl not have been taken notice of 
uiiii.>r similar oirrum.stauces on any other vessel in the service. 



EXECUTKJN OF CAI'TAIN KIDD '265 

Three days after the trial, upon the 12th of May, 1701, 
William Kidd was hanged at Execution Dock, Wapping.* 
His confiscated effects, supposed to liave been mainly such 
portions of the proceeds of the cargo of the " Quedagh" mer- 
chant as the I'^nglish government could get into its posses- 
sioi , and amounting to something over £(j-100, were added to 
the endowment of Greenwicii Hospital, the unfinished towers 
and quadrangle of which were probaLly some of the last 
objects which Captain Ividd beheld as he looked from the 
scaffold upon the muddy shores of \Vai)ping, over the low 
cottages of Rothcrhithe, and down the long Limehouse Reach 
of the Thames, crowded with vessels of all descriptions. 
There, within the walls of that world-renowned charity for 
seamen, tlie Hritish Admiralty might, with merit, place a 
memorial tablet to William Kidd, as to one of the benefactors 
of the hospital, with the simple inscription, taken from a 
tomb in the great al^bc}', at the other end of the metropolis: 

" Quati^ cral, Ute dies inilicabii" 

Kidd's imaginary exi)loits became the fruitful theme of sailors' 
yarns, and a lurid l)allad, sung to the then fjopuiar Whig air 
of " Ye Jacobites by name give an ear, give an ear I " was 
long a favorite among them, its strains, sung in rather lively 
measure, being often heard over the water of a summer night: 

" I murdered William tMooro 

As I sailed, as I sailod. 
I nmrdereJ William Moore 

As I sailed. 
I murdered William Moore, 
And I left him in his gore, 
Not many leagues from shore, 

As I sailed." 

1 None o£ the members of Kidd's crew, who were tried and condemned to 
death with him, were ever e.xecuted, as far as we are informed. It was prol)ably 
never designed that thej- should be. Statements have been made by certain 
writers, without giving their .luthority, that the members of Kidd's crew, who 
were tried with him were also executed, but the records of the trial, though men- 
tioning the carrying out of the sentence in Kidd's case are silent as to the crew. 



266 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 



Captain Kidd's widow married, in 1703, for her fourth hus- 
band, Cliribtophcr Kousby, a man of considerable polilical 
influence in tlie colony. Mrs. Ividd's property in New York 
was confirmed to her by the English government ; and she 
and her husband resided for a time in the old IJowery mansion 
of Director Stuyvesant, whose farm tliey had leased. Mrs. 
Sarah llousby attained a great age, much of the latter part of 
her life being spent in New Jersey, ller will, bearing date 
November 1, 1732, was proved some twelve years later, at 
which time she seems to have left four children surviving 
her. 



CHAPTER XIX 



SERGEANT DANIEL LITSCHO AND IIIS TAVERN. — ANDRIES 
JPCHEMSEN.-TIIE '■ OUTIIOEK." — WALL STREET AND 
THE PALISADES OF 1G53. — TVMEN JANSEN, THE SHIP 
CARPENTER, AND IIIS HOUSE 



I bade lier on lu;r liicusc look, 
" Oil Sir," ijuotli she, "ye are mistook, 
I have ;i lesson witliout book, 
Most perfect; 
If I my license slioulil observe, 
And not in any point to swerve, 
Both I and mine, alas ! sli'Hil.l starve, 
Not surfeit." 

Ballad of " Robin Conscience." 

NEXT in an easterly direction beyond the grounds of 
Govort Jvoockernians, stood, upon the Shore lioad, 
in the year 1G55, a building which appears to have been, as 
early as 1G45, in the possession of Dirck Volckerlsen, one of 
the oldest settlers ; was subsequently for a time tlie prop- 
erty and probably the residence of Govert Looukernians, and 
then became tiie lavern of iSergeaut Daniel Litscho. As the 
records of Litscho's transactions relating to his property at 
this place are very imperfect, we have to glean our informa- 
tion largely from detached references and other scrafis of in- 
formation, supplying something from conjecture. Daniel 
Litscho or Letscho is supposed to have been a native of the 
town of Cosslin in Pomerania, near the coast of the Baltic 
Sea.i He reached New Amsterdam at an early date, though 

ations, form 



1 The name " Leko," with some slight 
several villages near this town, and the sergi 
from one of them, — not an unusual case. 



I.ollation of 
leeu derived 



fV' 



268 NEW AMSTEin)A:\l AND ITS PEOPLE 

the year is not known. Pomerania suffered severely, about 
the year 1630, in the Tliirty Years' War, as has already been 
noticed (^antc, page 225), and it is not nnlikcly that Litscho 
may have quitted his country at that time. At any rate, 
this house upon the Shore Road was in his occupation before 
1648, in wliicli year he was one of the twelve licensed tavern- 
keepers of New Amsterdam. His tavern seems to have been 
a good-sized building, for it is occasionally sijoken of as " tlie 
great house," though this is perhaps only in coni[)arison with 
a smaller one afterwards built to the east of it. It had at 
least a quarter of an acre of ground attached to it, with a 
frontage upon the river road of some seventy-five feet, and 
back of its garden were a few apple-trees,' which were called 
its "orchard," and whicli about the time of our survey Iiad 
been the subject of great depredations by tlie vagrant goats 
of the town, which were permitted to feed on the vacant "out^ 
hoek " of the Jan Damen farm, extending from tliis point to 
the city " Wall," u^ion the north line of the present Wall 
Street. The tavern seems to have stood a little distance back 
from tlie line of tiie street, and its site is in good part occu- 
pied by the present building No. 125 Pearl Street.^ 

Sergeant Daniel Litscho no longer kept tavern here at the 
time of our survey in 1G55. In the spring of 1651, he leased 
the house to one Andries Jochemsen, who kept a tavern or 
ale-house here for many years, and afterwards acquired tlie 
property. Litscho, in a sliort time after the last-mentioned 
date, appears to have exchanged his house and laud at this 
place with Claes Hendricks,, a carpenter, for a somewhat 
larger parcel of land owned by the latter, just outside of the 

' lu a deed, supposcil to be of tliis projierty, from Dirck Volckertson to Oovcrt 
Aersen, in 1645, the vendor of the projierty reserves the right "to remove six 
apple-trees." 

'^ The property seems ia part to liavo belonged originally to the tract granted 
to Tymen Jaiiseu, and subsequently to have been coutrolled by Oovc-rt Loocker 
mans. In 1644, this portion of the Tymen .Jansen patent was apparently re- 
granted by the Director and Council to Jan Damen. Dirck Volckertsen was the 
hu.-l.iind of l^amen's step-daughter, and, probably enough, had acquired an en- 
larrcmert of his ground from his father-in-law. 



/.'■.V/ 



JOCIIEMSEN'S TAVERN 2G9 

gate of the palisudos at Wall Sti'cet. There the sergeant 
dwelt, and prohably kept a tavern, at the time of our survey, 
and for a short period thereafter, as will be notieed in proper 
order. 

As for Andries Joehenisen, he had the usual troubles of a 
tavern- :eei)er with the Dutch authorities. lie could not 
resist the temptation of occasionally tapping on Sundays dur- 
ing the hours of preaching, when some of the idle negroes or 
other good-for-nothing vagabonds of the town found their 
way into his tavern. Nor was he always particular to turn 
away his customers at nine o'clock iu the evening, as the 
ordinances required. The sellout often had to jjay disciplinary 
visits to Jochemsen's tavern, and these were greatly resented 
by the tavern-keeper's huysvrouw, insomuch that the officer 
reported to the burgomasters upon one occasion that after 
having noted down Andries " for the line," the wife of the 
latter " called out after him : ' Schout, I have something to say 
to thee; hast tliou any .soul or conscience? Dost tiiou expect 
to go to heaven'.'" — anil more such like words, so that if lie 
were as willing as she, there would have been a street uproar." 
These pointed in(iuiries, so disconcerting to a New York 
otticial, even at tliat early day, were however denied by An- 
dries. His recollection was that the reuiarlc made to the 
schout was merely : " 'i'hou hast a conscience, which is not 
worth niucli," or, "which is somewhat large." 

Clacs llendrickson, the carpenter, seems to have built a 
house upon the easterly side of the plot of ground he had ac- 
quired from Sergeant Litscho, and an earlier building doubt- 
less stood there also, for in sul)se([uent transfei'S of the 
premises they are said to couLaiu two houses, one of which was 
a small one and appears to have been afterwards removed. 
About the time of our survey these buildings passed through 
several hands in quick succession, jjossibly under the fore- 
closure of a moi'tgage upon thiim. They were held in 1G55 
by Arent van Curler, and do not seem Lo have been regularly 
tenanted. I'^inally tlu'y wei'e sold in IGfid to one Jan Lour- 
ensen, who resided here for many years. At the period of our 



270 NEW AMSTKRDA:\[ and I'J'S PEOI'LK 

survey, tliese were the lust houses aknig tlie shore within the 
town palisades at Wall Street, but within a year or two later, 
Sergeant Litscho, whose house outside the gate had Leen con- 
demned by the authorities as standing too near the fortifica- 
tions, returned to this spot, and built upon some land he had 
recently purchasL-d upon llie Dameu " oulhock." His house 
joined imniechately to that of Jan Lourcnsen upon the east, 
and here he, and after his death in 1062 his wife Anneken, 
kept a tavern for a long period, she being well known in the 
later English times as " Mother Daniels." ' This tavern was 
a prominent one, and derived not a little importance from the 
fact that it was a sort of fire station f(n- the eastern part of the 
town, — a dozen lire-buckets having been ordered in lliSO to 
be kept here for use in cases of emergency. 

This, however, was after the time of oiu' survey. In 1G55, 
all the space from Arent van Curler's houses (or from about 
the present building. No. 129 Pearl Street) to the earthwork 
and palisades, which ran along the northerly line of the 
present Wall Street, — being a distance of alKnit two hundred 
and .seventy-five feet, — was wast« giound, where goats 
browsed, and where dandelions starred the sod in s[iring, as 
they do now in many a siuiilar neglected spot in tiie outskirt3 
of the city. 

The land lying along the river road, or the modern Pearl 
Street, and extending from a short distance east of the present 
Hanover Street to lAIaidcn Lane, ha<l been granted by the 

' Under the Dutcli system of names, by wliieli her own apijcared .as Aiiiieke 
Dauielse. This l.ady, like mauy of lier neiglilmra, liaJ seeu a guuil deal uf the 
woi-ld. She was the daughter of one Claas Croesen.s, and had iji her earlier life 
married .Inn Janseu Swaartvegor, who ia supposed to h.avo heeii in the military 
service of the West India Company. Slie accompanied her hiisliaud to lirazil, 
and there, at the Castle of Uio Grande, her son, llarnnauns .Jaiisen, was born, about 
the year 1C43. Her lirst husband having died, wc lind her about the year 1647 
married to Sergeant latseho, by whom she had one daughter, Anna. Her son 
llarmanus i.s .said in IGG2 to bo living in New Amsterdam, engaged in the study 
of medicine and surgery, ller daughter Anna married William liartre or I'ear- 
troe, sometimes spoken of as " Colonel," .and Frances, the daughter ol lliu latter, 
who married William SmiBh, a merchant, was the mother of William I'eartree 
Sniilh, prominent iu the Colonial days of New York. 



THE OUTIIOEK 271 

Director and Council, at a very eai-ly date, to two or three in- 
■ dividuals, who had built upon and otherwise improved their 
holdings. Among these proprietors was 'i ymen Jansen, master 
ship carpenter for the West India Company, who in 1G43 re- 
ceived a grant for a parcel upon whicii he must have previ- 
ously resided for a number of years, and which seems to have 
stretched along the river road, about from the present No. 1:25 
Pearl Street to what is now tlie rear of tiie Seanum's Savings 
Bank building at tlie northwest corner of Pearl and Wall 
streets, — a distance of about four hundred and lifty feet. In 
deptli this plot of ground averaged almost two hundred and 
twenty-five feet, so that its area amounted to more than two 
acres. Tymen Jansen died in, or soon after, tlie year 1G44 : 
previously, however, he ajjpears to have sold, or to have 
agreed to sell to Jan Jansen Damen, whose farm adjoined him 
upon the west, the bulk of his holding, being almost two acres 
iu area, and lying nearest the town ; it was separated from the 
reserved jjortion of his plot by a lane lying just nortli of the 
present Wall Street ; ' tlie portion thus sold to Damen was 
situated somewhat southeast of Jan Damen's farm, which it 
touched at one corner, — scared}' more than enough to afl'ord 
passage from one parcel of ground to the other. 'Phis was 
granted to Jan Damen, and from its shape and situation be- 
came known as the "outhoek " of his farm. When, in 1653, 
the palhsades were constructed along wliat is now the northern 
lino of Wall Street, this "outhoek " became entirely separated 
from the body of the farm ; and in the spring of the next year, 
1654, the heirs of Jan Damen- sold this parcel of ground for 

' This laiio led into the ancient Schaape Woytio, or Sheep Pasture, and by 
vnrioua turnings appears to have coniinuuieated with the Slyck Steeph, or Mill 
Lane. There are indio.itions that it formed a very ancient road or jierhaps wood 
path, in uao hefurc the road was laid out along the river-hank, and whicli perliapa 
nu still farther aluug the low slopes of tlie upland into the old lane forming the 
|)resent Gold Street (with which it was iu line), and ao into Van Ticuhovcn'a lane 
and out to the Second Coininou Pasture, or present City Hall Park. That jior- 
tiou of the lane nioro i-.spccially referred to iu Ihu text seems to have heeu swal- 
lowed up by tlie ditch constructed in 1053 on the north aide of the town jialisailes. 

- S'-rictly speaking, the heirs of Jan IJamen's deceased wife, Arieiitje. Slie 
liad a-qnired tlie property from her hushand by survivorship, and upon her death, 
soon ai'ler his own, it passed to her children by a former husband. 



272 NEW AMSTEKD.Ul AND ITS I'KOl'LH 

"a thousand pieces of green plank," to Jacob Flodder, of Fort 
Orange, or Albany. Flodder appears to have bought the 
ground for speculative purposes ; and in the summer of 1656, 
after some delay in getting his deed for the premises, he sold 
a part of it, probably at auction, in six parcels, to as many dif- 
ferent individuals. These seem, in their Uun, to have bought 
"for a rise," for, with tlie exception of Daniel Litscho, who 
built upon bis plot at the westerly end of the " outhoek," as 
previously mentioned, the rest of the pureluisers appear to 
have allowed their lots to remain unimproved for a number 
of years. 

To the stroller, passing up Pearl Street, it is somewhat 
diflicult to realize, as Wall Street with its hurrying, jostling 
throng, opens before him, that here, about two centuries and 
a half ago, little was to be seen except a rather forlorn earth- 
work of sods, four or live feet in heiglit, above which showed 
a perhaps ec^ual height of roughly hewn and pointed "paU- 
sades," formed of tlie trunks of small trees six inches or 
thereabouts in diameter. At the foot of the earthwork was 
an open space along which the burgher militia companies 
occasionally drilled, and sentries paced now and then at periods 
of alarm, but which at other times lay solitary and waste. 

This line of defence, occupying the northerly side of Wall 
Street, stretched (as originally laid out) straight across the 
island, from the East liiver to the North Uiver, passing over 
the site of the present Trinity CJhurch. On the further side, 
lay its trench, " four or five feet in de^jtli, and ten or eleven 
broad, somewhat sloping," — using the not veiy precise lan- 
guage of the order of its construction. This order of the 
Council bears date the 20t]i of April, 1C53. The details 
of the construction of tins line of defence, given by Mr. D. T. 
Valentine,' evidently refer to mendy pi'eliininary and ten- 
tative plans inidcr discussion by the Dii'cctcn- and (Jouucil." 

' lu Manual N. Y. Com. Council, 1862, p. 5'M. 

- One of these plaus provlilecj for a curtain of planks font iuclics tliiik, instead 
c.r tlie palisailes, and these seem tu have been af.Lruarila added or bubstituted, 



THE PALISADES OF 1653 2Ti 

The work was intended, of coui-se, only as a defence against 
an attack by land from an enemy without artillery, ^ either 
from tlie Indians or from the New England colonists, with 
the latter of whom trouble was anticipated about this time. 

No mention is made in the original proceedings, of the con- 
struction of bastions .along the line of defence, but in " The 
Duke's Plan," so called, of the town as it was in the year 
IGGl, we find that five small " flat" bastions, of a scmi-ellip- 
tical form, had by that time been constructed along the 
works. These merely projected far enough from the curtain, 
or main line, to allow a C(juple of guns to be mounted upon 
each of them ; they were, in all probability, constructed with- 
in a year or two after the original works, and their positions 
are quite closely defined. Proceeding from the east toward 
the North River, the first of these bastions was situated just 
about opposite the head of the present Hanover Street ; the 
second was a few feet west of the present William Street, 
being located about at the spot where now stands the en- 
trance to the Bank of America ; the third occupied tlie south- 
west part of the Sub-Treasury Building, at the corner of Wall 
and Nassau streets; the fourth was a few feet east of Broad- 
way, being nearly upon the site of the buikling No. 4 Wall 
Street; and the fifth stood at the rear of the present Trinity 
Church. Through these defences, two narrow gates gave ac- 
cess to the town, — the so-called " Land Poort " at the present 
Broadway, and the " Water Poort" at the river road, or pres- 
ent Pearl Street. 

About the period of the STirrender to the English, in 1GG4, 
several changes were made in the " fortifications ; " and the 
bastions, which had been some. *^. too close together, were 
deraoli.shed, with the exception oi i second and the fifth 

and to have been proljubly furuishcJ upon contract by the heirs of the Danieu 
farm from the " thous.ind i)iece3 of green phuik " for whicli they sold the 
" outlioek " to Jacob Flodder, in 1G54, as previously stated in tlic text. That the 
jiulisades were originally used, is shown, liowover, by a report made to the Council 
in IC.^5 that " about 65 of the new palisades have been chopped down, and used 
for firo-wood," — some of the.suburban residents evidently having possessed the 
saii.o traits in the seveuteeuth century as at the present day. 
IS 



T.v ,vi,.r #' 



274 NEW AMSTEllDAxM AND ITS PEOPLE 

of those above noted, — if, indued, the fifth was not rather 
rebuilt at this time, at a point nearer Broadway than before. 

In 1673-74, at tlie time of the recaptui-e of the town by the 
Dutch, Governor Colve effected considerable further changes 
in these works. A general clearance of buildings and ob- 
structions in their vicinity took place, in the course of which 
several interesting landmarks were demolished. That portion 
of the fortification west of Broadway was entirely rebuilt 
upon new lines, being turned to the south, towards the pres- 
ent Rector Street, iu such a manner as to cover its exposed 
flank, in the direction of the North Piver; the site of the 
present Trinity Cliurch was now left entirely outside of the 
works. 

The second bastion, above spoken of, near the present 
William Street, was now considerably enlarged, and a new 
one was constructed just east of Broadway: these received 
names, according to the custom of the Dutch, and were 
known as " Ilollandia " and " Zeelandia." Tlie gate at 
Broadway was closed, and a new one was constructed at the 
head of Broad Street, where it was commanded by both the 
bastions; the road thence turned along the trench, and in 
front of the westerly bastion into Broadway. A gate, or at 
least an opening, at Broadway seems to have been restored 
within a few years, in compliance with a public demand, but 
the gate at Broad Street appears to have remained in use till 
the final destruction of the works about the end of the seven- 
teenth centur}'.' 

An observer, standing at the narrow " Water Poort," look- 
ing northwards, in the year 1G55, saw before him the ditch 
of the town " fortillcati^ " upon its south baidc the line of 
palisades nine feet high, ai. apon its north bank the fence 
of the Damen farm, formed a visUi extending straight up the 
hill, towards the North River. Over the ditch a rough bridge 
was probably thrown, at the gate, and through it ran a small 
rill collected from springs at the ftjot of the hillside pasture 

' In IC74 au order of coiiiicil w;ia iiruiu fur llie cunbtructiou of "a little 
giite " at Siiiits Vly, for a foot pa-ssage. 



TYMEN JANSEN 275 

known as the Claaver WeyUe of the Daiucn farm. Over tliis 
streamlet, and upon the east .side of the road or present Pearl 
Street, a score and more of years after tlie time of our survey, 
the butchers of the town ' erected slaughter-liouses, much as 
the poulterers of London, centuries ago, built their scalding- 
house over tlie somewhat similarly situated stream called the 
Wallbrook. These slaughter-houses, and the pens for cattle 
which were situated opposite them, were long conspicuous 
features in this part of the town: at the period of our survey, 
however, neither tlie slaughter-houses nor the cattle-pens 
existed. In place of the latter, there stood near tlie bank of 
the trench of the palisades, and in inconveniently close prox- 
imity to the gate of the town, the house built more tlian 
twenty years before, by Director-General Van Twiller, for 
Tymen Jansen, tlie raiister ship-carpenter at New Amsterdam 
for the West India Company. 

Of Tyraen Jansen's antecedents but little appears in the 
early records. He was born about the year 1G03, and came to 
New Amsterdam a young man, for he was in the employ of 
the Company before 1G33. He was a busy man in his occu- 
; pation, and during Director Van Twiller's term of office, from 
1633 to 1638, he is said, in a report soon after the latter date, 
to have " made many repairs, and built new vessels, with a 
wood-cutters' boat, and various farm boats and skiffs," so that 
the shore opposite his house, and near the foot of the present 
Wall Street, must have been the scene of considerable activity 
in these first ship-building operations of New York. To the 
house was atbiched almost half an acre of ground.'^ The 
building must have st'^ d very nearly upon the spot now (1901) 
occupied by a station 's shop under the Seaman's Savings 
Bank, but projecting i lewhat out into the present Pearl 
Street, the road at this piace appearing to have originally 
curved to the eastward a little more than do the lines of Pearl 
Street ; the straightening, doubtless, took place at tiie time of 
building the gate in the palisades, in 1658. Here Tymen 

' rroiniuBiit iiiiioiig whom were Thomas Kobinaoii ami J;inie3 ISuriie. 

■■i His original plot, as above stated, cuutuineJ somewhat more tliau two acres. 



;h ,v. 



276 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

Jansen lived for some ten or twelve years with his wife, 
Marritie, and Lis Utile daughter Elsie, of whose ti^ubled life 
in after years, as the wife of Jacob Leisler, mention lias already 
been made.^ Jansen seems to have prospered, and in 1642 
and 1643 he received grants of a considerable tract of land 
upon Long Island, covering the site of the present court-house 
of Queens County and its vicinity, in Long Island City, 
Whether he had grown independent whh years, and was 
desirous of attending to his own private affairs, or whetlier he 
was not in as high favor with Director Kieft as with his pre- 
decessor, does not appear; but we fnid that in 1644 the Direc- 
tor and Council complained of him for neglecting to repair 
the yachts " Amsterdam " and " Prins Willem," to which 
he responded, somewhat tartly, that " he 1ms done his best, 
and cannot know when a vessel is leaky unless those in charge 
inform him of the fact; furthermore, thatnotiiing can be done 
without means." Jansen, however, like many other pioneurs 
of tlie colonies of Amei-ica, was not fated to attain old age; 
he died before the year 1646, and in tliat year his widow mar- 
ried Dirck Cornelissen, of Wensveen, a carpenter by trade, 
who was probably the son of Cornells Leendertsen, the former 
business associate of Govert Loockermans.^ 

Dirck Cornelissen dying in the year 1G48, in the following 
year his widow married Govert Loockermans, as pieviously 
mentioned (^ante, page 241), and removed to tlie liouse of the 
latter at the present Hanover Square. Some time afterwards 
Loockermans and his wife sold the shipwright's former liouse 
to one Ckies Hendricksen, and he, in his turn, seems to have 
exchanged tl>» property, about the beginning of 1653, with 
Sergeant Dai 1 Litscho, for his liouse and ground situated 

1 See ante, pag. 42, 245. 

2 Dirck Curnelibo^tt seems to have Leon sometliiiig of a practical joker. In 
1G43, Tomas Hrocii, a corporal of the garrison, complaiued to the Council that 
wliile he w;is on duty, Dirck Cornelissoii, carpenter (evidently on the score of 
Bouie alleged claim against the West India Company), " took off lii.s (liroen's) 
hat, saying: "i'hou art the Company'.'^ servant; I '11 pledge the hat for drinlc,' 
taking it away with him, and he hath nailed it on a post in front of his house, 
putting a stone in the hat." 



L-r 



TYiMEN JANSEN'S HOUSE 277 

some disUiuco nearer the fort. (See ayite, page 2G8.) The 
sergeant probably Ijuilt upon a portion of the g)-ound imme- 
diately east of the old liovise, and about at the rear of the 
present Seaman's Savings Bank building, and he seems to have 
kept his tavern licre for several years. 

In the mean time, an agreement had apparently been made 
by Claes Ilendrieksen, for the sale of tlie original house to 
Tryntje Seheerenborg, the widow of Hendrick Janseii, the 
tailor (whose diflieulties with Director Kieft liave already 
come under our notice,^ and who was drowned in the wreck of 
the " Princess " ) ; she had paid a part of the purciiase price, 
but had died without having received any deed of the prop- 
erty. She left two daughters,, one of whom was married to 
Isaac Kip, a young man, the sou of Hendrick Kip, the tailor; 
the other daugliter was the wife of Gillis Pietersen, from Gouda, 
who was an old employd of the West India Company, having 
been " master house-carpenter " for that corporation as early 
as 1638. In the early part of the year 1653, these parties had 
been exceedingly anxious to liave their deed of the house pur- 
chased by their deceased motlier-in-law ; in fact, they brought 
a suit against Claes Ilendrieksen to compel him to furnish 
them with a deed, but the court held that they nmst look to 
Sergeant Litseho for that assurance. 

In the mean time, the " palisades " and the town gate had 
been built, in inconvenient proximity to tliis liouse ; and 
when, a short time afterwards. Sergeant Litseho offered a deed 
to Kip and Pietersen, and called upon them for the balance of 
the purchase-money remaining due upon the property, they 
refused to p'lv because of the recent encroachments by the 
authorities. Co appease them, the burgomasters visited the 
spot, and af ; viewing the obstructions, ordered a small guard- 
house, whi had been built outside tlie gate, to be removed. 
The house of Kip and Pietersen remained for tlnee or four 
years blocking up the way; in 1656 the burgomasters were 
obliged to serve upon them an ol'licial notice: "Whereas, the 
fhiice of your garden by the Town Cate is standing too near 

' tiee ante, jjago T2^. 



'•' k% 



278 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS IM.OPLE 

the Town Waul, you are therefore ordered to take in your 
fence, ao that wagons and horses ca - conveniently pass."' 
Finally, to get rid of the inconvenience arising from the prox- 
imity of this house to the gate, the hurgomasters decided to 
condemn and to demolish the building, which was done ui June, 
1657, the ownei-s being awarded five hundred and lifty guilders, 
or two hundred and twenty dollars for their pro[)erty. At 
about the same time, the adjacent tavern of Sergeant Eitscho 
seems also to have been removed, though the records do not 
show the amount of his award. 



' This order of tiie burgomasters bears date October 7, 1656. The "Waal" 
referred to is uot the line of palisades, but the protectiou to tlie shore, by sheet 
piliug or otherwise. Mr. Valentino lias made the mistake of constantly confoond- 
iug the two. 



/? 



CHAPTER XX 

THE SMITS VLY. — HENDRICK JANSEN'S GRANT.- AUGUS- 
TYN UEERilANS AND IlIS HOUSE. — MARYN ADRIAENSEN 
AND HIS ATTACK ON DIRECTOR KIEFT 

PROCEEDING outwards from the town, we have now 
reached the district long known as the Smits Vly. 
This was a tract of low-lying land between the river shore 
and the foot of the hills forming the body of the island ; it 
stretched along the river from near Wall Street about to the 
present Beekman Street, a distance of a quarter of a mile, 
and varied in width from about one hundred and fifty to two 
hundred and fifty feet. Though doubtless full of springs, it 
does not seem to have been sufficiently wet to deter improve- 
ment, for portions of it were built upon at a very early date. 
The term "vly," as used in this connection, does not exactly 
correspond either with the English "valley," or "meadow;" 
the Dutch appellation would be perhaps more accurately 
rendered as "the Smith's Flats." As to the origin of the 
name, nothing is accurately known. Mr. D. T. Valentine, 
and a host of others following him, have stated that the place 
received its name from Cornelis Clopper, a blacksmith who 
in 1660 acquirci i parcel of ground at the northwest corner 
of Maiden Lane nd Pearl Street; but a more careful exam- 
ination would 1 e shown them that the locality is spoken of 
by the same name nearly twenty years Ijefore that date, — as 
early as 1641. 

The land along the East River, from Tymen Jansen's 
garden, as far as INIaiden Lane, seems to liave been originally 
acquired by Hendrick Jansen, the tailor, Director-General 



-p 



M 



280 NEW amsterda:\i and its people 

Kieft's antagonist.^ He was certainly located there as early 
as 1639, and had apparently about two acr s of ground under 
cultivation. His house, according to the results of a carjiful 
collation of many deeds and other historical material, s( ms 
to have stood very near Maagde Paetje, or ]\Iaideu I ue, 
and to have occupied in part tlie site of tlie present bnildmg, 
No. 195 Pearl Street. In the Seutter View (so-called) of 
New Amsterdam, or New York, and in two or three others 
which are substantially the same view, though bearing dif- 
ferent names, we have a representation, as of about the year 
1667, of the buildings along the East River sliore, from the 
present Wall Street to Maiden Lane. These buildings were 
isolated, and plainly in the sight of the draughtsman, and 
are not open to the same imputations of inaccuracy as are 
several other portions of these views. From the views, the 
Hendrick Jansen house appears to have been a small building 
of the usual Dutch farmhouse type. Like most of such 
buildings, outside of the more thickly settled districts, it 
stood with its broadside to the street, towards which its 
thatched roof sloped.'-' 

In August, 1611, Jansen sold a part of his projierty here, 
being his "house, barn, barrack, and arable land," for 2500 
guilders, or about $1000., to a man who afterwards took a 
prominent tliough brief part in the history of the Colony, — 
Maryn Adriaensen. Upon the premises there seems to have 
been the quite common appurtenance of a small brew-house, 
and this, with its apparatus, Jansen retained, agreeing to 
remove the same, — which lie probably did to the western 
portion of his original plot, where he seems to have built a 
new house foi limself ; but this, too, in November, 1612, he 
sold to one \' lem Adriaensen, describing the property then 
as his "gaid( dwelling, and brew-house." 

1 See ante, page 2^9, etc. 

■■^ Just adjoining tlii.s lioiise, at tlie corner of Maiden I.ane, tliore stoud, as 
shown upon tlie view, another building witli its gable end tuward.s Pearl Street. 
This was a house which had been very recently built, upon a narrow lot running 
along the side of Maiden Lane ; the lot had been acquired in ICGG by PietLr 
Jansen, a ship carpenter. At the time of our survey, however, this space was 
not occupied by any buildinjj. 



AUGUSTYN IIEEllMANS 281 

Upon this latter sale, wliich was for an equal consideration 
with that of the former parcel, — namely, 2500 Carolus guil- 
ders, — it was stipulated with great care '• that 24 guihlt-rs for 
drink on the Ijargain shall be contributed by the seller .lone 
without charging any part to the purchasers." This ppro- 
priation of 2i guilders, or nearly $10, for "drink .n the 
bargain," — being about one i)or cent on the purchase price 
of the property, — shows tiiat tiie sale of a jiicce of New 
Amsterdam real estate was considered, in the midtUe of tlie 
seventeenth century, to be an occasion of great dignity and 
importance. 

Of Willem Adriaensen, the purchaser of this property, we 
have but little information; he is said to have been a cooper 
by trade, and to have had lands upon Long Island. When, 
or in what manner he parted with his jiroperty liere in the 
Smits Vly we do not know; but within six or seven years 
after Willem Adriaensen's purchase, we find the premises in 
the possession of one of the most interesting characters of 
New Amsterdam, — of Augustyn Heermans, soldier, scholar, 
artist, merchant, land-i^urveyor, speculator, and manorial 
proprietor. 1 Heermans was a native of Bohemia, and was 
born about the year 1608, in the city of Prague, where his 
father, Ephraim Augustyn Heermans, was one of the members 
of the city council. In the old Bohemian cajutal, surrounded 
by vine-clad hills, life passed uneventfully enougli, no doubt, 
for the young Augustyn, till he was about ten years of age, 
— then, the memorable year 1618 came on, and during the 
next fifteen j-ears he miist have witnessed miiny of the most 
stirring events of the great epoch known as the Thirty Yeare' 
War, of wl h Prague was the very cradle. As a bright, 
adventure-l ing boy, he must have gazed with a lively 
curiosity v n the historic window in the old palace of 
Prague, fro^-i which, in the year named, the German Em- 

1 Mauy intc-reatinf; fucts rospeL-ting Augustyu Ilceriuaiis Ijavc huan brouglit 
out receutly in a paper, written for the Maryland llisturical Society by General 
James G. Wilson, upon Heermans' " Manor of Bohemia," in Maryland. From it 
several of the particulars given in the text are drawn. 



t '■ 



282 NEW AMSTERDAI\I AND ITS PROFILE 

peror's coniinissioners and ihuir socretar}' were tlu'own into 
the castle-trench by tlie enraged Protestant deputies of tlie 
estates of Bohemia, and upon the heap of litter wiiich won- 
derfully enabled tlieni to escape death in their eighty feet 
fall. Soon afterwards he nuist have seen the streets of the 
capital filled with troops from all parts of Bohemia, now 
urged irrevocably into rebellion against their Austrian, 
Roman Catholic ruler Matthias, the head of the German 
Empire; a little later, perhaps, he may have watched them 
march through the Horse Market and Gate, and into the 
Vienna Road, under their bold leader, Count Thurn, to 
besiege the emperor in his capital itself. 

So, too, he nuist have seen Prague ablaze with enthusiasm 
and with gayety over the coronation of the king whom the 
Bohemian estates had chosen, Frederic, Count Palatine of 
the Rhine, and of his queen, the beautiful Princess Elizabeth 
of England. Then came a change ; on the afternoon of the 
8th of November, 1620, all Prague was shaken by the 
thunder of the cannon from the White Mountain, three 
miles west of the city, where eighty thousand men were 
engaged in combat. Among the spectators who crowded 
the house-tops and the walls, may well have been the young 
Heermans, who from thence could have seen the Bohemian 
army melt away, in the course of an hour or so, before the 
troops of the emperor, leaving the mountain-sides and plateau 
black with the bodies of more than ivur thousand slain. 

Dark days followed in Prague; the short-reigned king, 
Frederic, and his household fled by night; the city was sur- 
rendered to the emperor without opposition; a few months 
of inaction were allowed to supervene, in order to draw back 
to Prague the escaped Protestant leaders ; then the net was 
sprung, and the boy Heermans could hear the death-bell 
tolling daily for executions of the condemned rebels; while 
the famous Karlsbriicke over the Moldau, so captivating to 
a boy of twelve or thirteen, where the river lay with its lake- 
like waters and green, willowed islands, was now a place 
to be shunned, — for above it was fixed a long row of the 




AlUil'MlNr llKKliMANS. 

Ilie [iorlniit Ijy liinis.lf ..n liis '' M:i\, ,.l M.-inland," ltriti~li Mii 



COUNT WALLENSTEIiN 2S3 

mouldering liuads of the principal men of Prague and of 
Bolieniia. If Augustyn Ilecrmans' family did not itself 
suffer at this time, it must have been fortunate, for it 
belonged undoubtedly to the Protestant faction, which had 
been previously strong in Prague. However this may have 
been, the victorious Ilomanist j)arty carried matters with a 
hard hand, and times grew worse and worse for the van- 
quished Protestants, till in 1G27 they were given the last 
alternative of either abandoning their religion or their 
country. 

During these gloomy times, young Augustyn Heermans, 
now growing up to manhood, must have often seen in the 
streets of Prague a tall, thin man with stubby red hair and 
small sparkling eyes, and with a stem and somewhat ab- 
stracted air, for whom people already made way with a 
respectful awe. This person was Count Albert von Wal- 
lenstein,^ known then as a man of consummate military 
abilities, who was high in favor with the Emperor, and who 
had been enriched with scores of the confiscated estates of 
the Bohemian nobles. Ilis princely ostentation, leadership 
of huge armies, and his vast and obscure designs, which 
alarmed the German court, and which led alike to Wallen- 
stein's tragical end and to his ensbrinement in Romance and 
in Poetry, were yet in the future. 

It was about in tlie year 1025 that Wallenstein disclosed 
his design of forming a great army for the service of the 
harassed emperor, whose rebellious Protestant states were 
now assisted by various foreign countries; this army was 
to be raised and partly maintained at Wallenstein's own 
expense, but principally by exactions upon the Protestant 
territories. The plan was soon afterwards carried into effect; 
and among those who entered the service of the great leader 
was Augustyn Heermans. Whether necessity led to his thus 
entering a service which in some respects is not likely to 
have been congenial to him we cannot tell. He is said to 

1 More strictly Waldstcin ; tlio otlier apijellulioii has been apyirojiriatecl, how- 
ttier, by hi.story and by poetry. 



284 NEW AMSTERDAi\[ AND ITS PEOl'LE 

have served in Wallenateiu's iiriiiy tliiougli several cam- 
paigns, and was pi-es(uit at that general's dtd'eat by the 
Swedes, in November, hJo2, at the battle of Lutzi-n, in 
wliieh the head of the Protestant cause, the great Gustavus 
Adolphus, King of Sweden, lost his life. 

It was perhaps during the temporary breaking up of 
Wallenstein's army after the battle of Eut/.en, that Ileer- 
mans found an opportiniity of leaving the service and of 
coming to America, lie is saitl to have come over as the 
clerk, or agent of the fn-m of Gabry and Sons, merchants at 
Amsterdam,' and was certainly for many years their factor 
at New Amsterdam. Though he had grown up in a dis- 
tracted period, he seems to have been a man of considerable 
attainments, and is said, in addition to his ov/n Buhemiau, to 
have had some acquaintance with the Latin, German, Eng- 
lish, Dutch, French, and Spanish languages, — one or two 
of these, indeed, he may have picked up in AVallcnstein's 
polyglot army. 

Soon after Ileermans' arrival in New Netherland, and in 
the course of the year 1G33, he seems t(j have been despatched 
to the Dutch settlements on the South, or Delaware Iliver, 
and while there he was present and a witness, at the purchase 
by one Arent Coersen from tlie Indians of a tract of land near 
the mouth of the Schuylkill Iliver, which land is supposed to 
have extended very near to, if it did not actually include, the 
site of the present city of Philadelphia. Augustyn Ileermans 
now,_for a number of years, appears to have remained quietly 
at Now Amsterdam, attending to the mercantile concerns of 
his principals. Probably before the year IGol he had built 
a large brick storehouse upon Pearl Street between the old 
church and the fort. This, in its day, was one of the most 
substantial buildings in the town;"^ it occupied a site, upon 
which there is reason to believe had previousl}' stood, for a 
number of years, a smaller storehouse of tiie Gahrjs; and the 

1 See aJditiunal particulars respecting Ileermans, an 
■ Its value was Jippraised in 1C53 as SIiOO guilder 
pre I. lit currency. 



]IEERMANS A'J' NEW AMSTERDAM 2d5 

larger building appears to have been only held in trust for 
that lirni by Ileeriiians. A short time before this period, 
or about in the year 1G47, Ileernums had acquired a iilot of 
something over an acre of ground, lying just north of Burger 
Jorissen's land in Hanover Square; it was an interior parcel, 
to which access was had through the narrow lane called the 
"Slyck Steegh," previously described.' It was leased and 
used for garden purposes for many years by Allard Anthony, 
but after the opening of Smith (or the present William) 
Street, which intersected it, it was sold off in lots by lleer- 
mans about the year IGGO. 

In the mean time, prior to 1G49, Ileermans had become 
possessed iu some -uncertain way, as above stated, of the 
western portion of the land of Ilendrick Jaiisen, the tailor, 
in the Smits Vly, and of the house Ijuilt by the latter thereon, 
about the years lG-11-42, and which he had sold to Willem 
Adriaensen. This property contained about two hundred feet 
frontage along the river, and was something over that dis- 
tance in depth, so that it comprised about an acre of ground ; 
its rear portion was occupied by the orchard which Jlciidrick 
Jansen had planted, which extended back as fai' as the slopes 
of Jan Damen's hillside pasture, known as the Claaver 
Weytie, or the Clover Field. ^ 

Not being a man of family at this time, it is possiijle that 
Heermans did not as yet occupy the place in Smits Vly 
himself, though, like many others in the settlement, he may 
have had a slave establishment. ^ Ileermans was, in fact, a 
man of more than forty years of age when, in December, 
IGoO, he married Janneken Verlett, of Utrecht in the Nether- 
lands ; she is supposed to have been the daughter of Nicolaes 



1 See anle, page 152. 

2 The Claiiver Weytio extencied about to the jiresent William Street 
westerly. As for the 'land of IleennauH here, it waa bi.seoted by the present 
Vme (then called Tienhoven or King's Street) many years after onr survey. - 
about in tlio year 1GS9. 

« A well-known negro about the town known as Jan Augustinus, or " Augus- 
tyn's John," may quite possibly have been a freedman of Augustyu Iltoruians, 



286 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

Verlett, a widower, who afterwards married Madame Anna 
Bayard, Director Stuyvesant's widowed sister. 

After his marriage, Augustyn Heermans' residence was 
undoubtedly at the house in the Smits Vly; in the course 
of the next few years ho seems to have built a larger house 
upon the west side of the original one; and the two build- 
ings are shown, standing gable end to the road in the Seutter 
View; they would appear to have stood a short distance 
back from the highway. What Heermans calls his "great 
house " nmst have occupied a good portion of the site of the 
present warehouse, No. 175 Pearl Street, while the older 
structure stood partly upon the site of the building. No. 177, 
and partly upon that of No. 179. 

Here Augustyn Heermans spent the last ten or twelve 
years of his residence in New Amsterdam. Fronted by the 
shingly beach of the East River, and backed by its orchard 
and the hillside, the place was a quiet haven wliere its pro- 
prietor often, no doubt, found opportunities to contrast the 
prevailing calm with the turlnilent experiences of his early 
life. All traces of the locality as it was in Heermans' day 
have long passed away, however; and he nuist live largely in 
imagination who can iind in the dark street and melancholy 
warehouses, and clattering trains of tlie elevated railway 
overhead, anything to remind him that here Augustyn Heer- 
mans, awakened on a summer morning by the carolling of 
the robins in his orchard, could look from his windows upon 
the early mist covering the East River, and call to mind, 
perhaps, a foggy morning, a quarter of a century before, 
when he with twenty thousand of his comrades stood under 
arms, and through the mists which covered the village and 
plain of Lutzen, on the day of the great battle, heard the 
Saxon troops of Gustavus Adolphus singing: — 

" Ein feste Burg ist unser (iott, 
Eiii gate Wehr uud Walleii." 

Augustyn Heermans' political experiences in New Amster- 
diini were not, however, entirely tranquil. In IGIU he had 



IIEERMANS AND TIENIIOVEN 287 

joined in the opposition to tlie colonial policy of the West 
India Company; and as one of "the Nine Men," ao-called, 
his name headed the signers of the historic document known 
as tlie " Vertoogh," or "Remonstrance," to the States-Gen- 
eral, prepared by Adriaen van der Donck in that year. In this 
paper, Stuyvesant and his secretary. Van Tienhoven, were 
handled without gloves, and its signers had plenty of trouble 
to look for from their malicious adversaries in the colonial 
government; most of them got it, too, and lleernians was 
placed under arrest by the Director-General for refusing to 
produce documents which had circulated amongst him and 
his associates. Between Ileermans and Van Tienhoven, too, 
there was but little love lost: "That infernal swaggerer 
Tienhoven," Heennans writes, in September, 1G51, to 
Adriaen van der Donck, "has returned here, and put the 
country in a blaze." Van Tienhoven, as there is every 
reason to believe, had also lighted a small private fire of his 
own against Augustyn Ileermans, for he had scarcely 
returned from the Netherlands, when the merchants John 
and Charles Gabry at Amsterdam presented a petition to 
the States-General, praying that Augustyn Ileermans, their 
factor at New Amsterdam, might be ordered to render to 
them an account of his transactions there. Van Tienhoven's 
insinuations, however, if such there had been, do not seem 
to have produced any very permanent effect, for we tind that 
the connection between the Gabrys and their factor continued 
apparently for many years longer. 

About this same time, too, in the year 1G52, Ileermans 
appears to have been made the victim of a despicable trick 
in which the Secretary's hand is more aj)parent. Ileermans, 
and a companion, being upon the point of making a journey 
to New England, in the spring of that year, were, it seems, 
approached by George IJaxler, ensign of the garrison, who 
gave them a letter to be delivered to Governor William 
Coddington, of Rhode Island. This letter, apparently by 
some prearrangement, was taken from the travellers in 
Rhode Island, and was opened before the General Court, or 



288 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

Assembly, when it was found to contain an offer purporting 
to come from Director-General Stuyvesant, to send Governor 
Coddington some soldiers to be employed against tlie inhab- 
itants of Khode Island. The irritated Rhode Islanders 
immediately placed lleerrnans and his companion under 
arrest for a treasonable conspiracy against their government. 
They were held to bail in the sum of 100 pounds sterling till 
they should prove their innocence; and it was only with the 
greatest dilliculty that they succeeded in procuring a certifi- 
cate from the Council at New Amsterdam of their ignorance 
of the contents of the letter. 

The difficulties between Ileermans and the colonial ad- 
ministration seem to have been smoothed over, for a time 
at least, and in 1G59 we find Director-General Stuyvesant 
sending Heermans and one Resolved Waldron, as a deputa- 
tion to visit the Governor of Maryland, in order to establish, 
if possible, an agreement respecting the boundaries of that 
colony, and those of the Dutch settlements along the Dela- 
ware; the appointment may, indeed, have been somewhat 
ungraciously given by the Director-General, and may have 
been largely owing to the fact that Heermans' linguistic and 
general business talents, together with an acquaintance with 
the science of land-surveying which he possessed, rendered 
him perhaps the most lit person in the Colony for this 
business.' 

' As IIcei-man3 must have been quite young when he entered tUo military 
service of Wallensteiu, and as there seems to be no reason fur supposing that he 
was engaged in tlie pursuit of lund-surveying at any time in New Netherlaud, 
there is perhaps reason to conjecture that ho may have been attached to tha 
engineer corps of Wallenstein's army. Tlnit he possessed some artistic talents, 
and tliat lie was the drauglitsman of the valuable view of New Amsterdam, of 
about the year 1G51 or 1652, wliich has been already spoken of as the " Visscher 
View," and which in a less finished form is to be found in the second edition of 
his friend Adriaen van der Donck's " Beschrijving van Nieuw Ncderland," is 
reasonably well known. It is a curious fact in this connection tliat W^enceslM 
Hollar, the great artist and topogra])bical illustrator of London, whose sketches 
arc now of such value, and who was a contemporary of Augustyn Ileerniaus, 
was likewise a native of Prague in Rohemia, and, like Heermans, he seems to 
have always retained much pride in the place of his nativity. In his views of 
" London before and after the Great Fire"oflCG6, in the writer's possession, 



HEERMANS' SURVEY OF MARYLAND 289 

Heerinana' journal of this expediLiou is still extant,' and 
describes with considerable minuteness the progress of the 
commissioners with their party of soldiers and guides. They 
travelled on foot and by canoe through the forests for several 
days, and at Ratuxent, in the Maryland district, they had an 
interview of several days with Governor Fendall, of the 
Colony, and with Philip i:;alvert, son of Lord Baltimore, the 
proprietor, wlio was then Secretary of the province, and who 
afterwards succeeded his father in the title and in the pro- 
prietorship of the Colony. l'\oui tliis point lleermans sailed 
down the Chesapeake Ray, and had an interview with the 
Governor of Virginia, and upon his return from the latter 
province he again stopped for a season in Maryland. In his 
journey through the forests between the Delaware and the 
Susquehanna rivers, he liad received a favorable impression 
of the country; and now learning that the proprietor of 
Maryland was laboring under many disadvantages from the 
want of an accurate map of his territories, lleermans placed 
hiuiself in conunnnication with Lord Baltimore, offering to 
make a survey and map of the entire province, in considera- 
tion of a manoiial grant to himself. This proposition was 
accepted by Lord RaUimore, and lleermans soon entered 
upon the work of his survey, whic.h occupied him for about 
ten years. '•^ For this work he received a grant of about thirty 
thousand acres in the present Cecil County, ilaryland, and 
in its vicinity. To this tract, part of which he named the 
"Manor of Nova Rcjhemia, " he ajJpears to have removed his 
household from New Amsterdam about the year 1GG2, in 
which year, on the 19th of June, he received his ilrst patent 
from Lord Baltimore.^ Here, upon a stream which he called 

these sketches, wonderful in their mastery of topogniplucal details, and executed 
at a period when for twenty years of his life the artist had heeii eujjaged upon 
English suhjects, appear as of " \V. llullar, of I'rague, liohemia." 

1 See same in Vol. II., N. Y. Colonial Documents. 

* Ilia large map of Maryland was puhlished by Faitliorne at London, about 
1670; a copy is preserved in the British Museum. It is .spol;uu of in the liigliest 
r. -.T.ns by contemporaries. 

^ General Wilson, in his liistorical sketch, aava that lleermans removed from 



290 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS J'EOl'LE 

the Bohemia River, iieiir the head of Chesapealce Bay, Ileer- 
mans erected his manor house, and here for many years he 
continued to reside upon his estate with considerable dignity, 
" He was the most important personage in that part of the 
Colony," says General Wilson, in the paper to wliich refer- 
ence has been made, "driving in his coach and foui', with 
liveried servants; and with a large deer park, the walls of 
which are still (1881)) standing. His estate aljounded iu 
game, and both he and his sons were fond of siiooting and of 
fox-hunting." He and all his family were naturalized as 
English subjects abotit IGGG, and from time to time during 
the remainder of his life ho was engaged in considerable 
public business, and is said to liavo held correspondence with 
many of tlie most conspicuous men of that period of colonial 
history. 

Heermans died in 1686: "his monumental stone," says 
General Wilson, "is still to be seen on his manor. ... It 
contains the following inscrii^tion : — 

AUGU.STINE HERMAN, BOHEMIAN, 
THE FIRST FOUNDER &, 
SEATER OF liOlIKMIA MANOR . • 

ANNO 1661." 

The name became extinct in 1739, but it is understood that 
the female line still continues. "^I'lie old Bohemia Manor 
House was burned in 1815, and with it are said to have been 
destroyed many valuable paintings, documents, and historical 
mementos. 

Prior to bis removal to Maryland, Augustyn Heermans 
had acquired interests in several tracts of considerable size 
on Manhattan Island, btit these ho gradually disposed of to 
different purchasers. His former residence in the Sinits Vly 

New Amsterdam iu ICGl. It will be found, howeycr, that his youngest daughter, 
Francina, waa baptized in tlie Dutcli Cburcli at New Amsterdam, on tlie lith 
of March, 10G2. The dates of baptism of his other children wore as foUuwa; 
Ephraim Georgius, Soj)tember 1, 1652; Casparus, January 2, 1G06; Auua 
Margarcta, March 10, 1G58 ; and Judith, May 9, IGGO. 



MARYN ADRIAENSEN 201 

rem<ained in the occupation of various tenants till 1672, 
when he sold the eastern portion of his land, with the 
buildings, to Captain John Paine, of Boston, but the latter 
had hardly taken possession when New York was captured 
by the Dutch, and Paine's property was eonliscatud. The 
buildings, with a number of others, were now condeunied and 
demolished, un account of tlielr standing too near the line of 
fortifications; and though lieerMians recovered his land by 
reason of a mortgage which he held u[i(jn it, it was bereft of 
most of its value, and he closed out iiually liis interests liere 
by selling the western ijortion of tlie [liot in ItiTli to (ieorge 
Heathcote, and the eastern part in ](J78 to Jan Jansen Slot. 

We next reacli, in proceeding along the Smits Vly, the 
old Dutch house situated in a huge garden near the south- 
west corner of tlie present i\Iaidcn Lane and Pearl Street, 
occupied at tlie time of our survey b}- Lysbet T^ssens. Tliis 
building, of which mention has been previously made (ante, 
page 280), was originally the house of Hendi'ick Jansen, the 
tailor, and was purchased from him in August, liJll, by 
Maryn Adriaensen, the husband of Lysbet 'L}sseus. 

As Augustyn Heermans came from a locality identified 
with tlie origin of the Tliiity Years' War, so Maryn Adriaen- 
sen came from a place in like manner identified witli another 
great episode of history, — ■ the struggle for independence of 
the United Netherlands. lie was born (as is supposed) at 
Veere, — "the Ferry," — upon the north coast of the island 
of Walcheren, in the province of Zeeland; and two genera- 
tions before, his grandfather may well have been one of the 
"Gueux," or "Sea-beggars," who, from Veere and from 
the neighboring town of Vlissingen, or Flushing, roamed the 
Beas, preying upon the commerce of their Spanish masters 
and oppressors, till in 1572 — having had the ports of Eng- 
land closed against them — tliey toi)k by stt)rni from the 
Spaniards the neighboring seaport of Uriel, which they made 
the seat of their naval power, and thus laid the foundation- 
>tone of the Confederacy of tlie Provinces of the Nether- 



292 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

lands. Hough iuul coar.se, but brave, and passionately 
devoted to the house of Orange, they made for themselves 
and for their "land of sluices " a name in History and Ro- 
mance; and their stern and somewhat truculent bearing, 
their contempt of show and ostentation, their long swords, 
cropped hair, and scarred faces live in Freiligrath's verse: 

" Dauii riihreu die da scliliefeu laiigst, 
Im Grabe sicli did Guiiseii. 

" Sie steigeu auf, eiiie wilde Schaar, 
ImKIeid vondu;>tRn- Fuibe, 
Mit laiigeiii Schwert, uiid l;urzem Ilaar ( 

Uiid auf der Sliiu die Naibe." ' " .'j 

Maryn Adriaensen was one of the earliest colonists of New 
Netherland, having come to Fort Orange, or Albany, in 1631. 
Here he had a house which in 1042, siiortly after his removal 
to New Amsterdam, he sold to Dominie Johannes IMegapo- 
lensis, then recently installed as pastor at Fort Orange. 
Upon taking up his residence in the Smits Vly at New 
Amsterdam in the sunnnerof 1041, Adriaensen seems to liave 
become nitlier closely associated with his well-to-do neiglibor 
Jan Jansen Damen, whose farm adjoined the rear of his own 
plot upon the west. He was perhaps in some sort a depend- 
ant of Damen, the latter having loaned him 1000 guilders 
upon the purciiase of his house in the Smits Vly. He 
formed one of the party at Jan Damen's farmhouse near 
Broadway, at the famous "Shrovetide dinner," in 1043, at 
which, according to popular belief, the massacre of the 
Indians was planned by Director-CJeneral Kieft, with Danieu 
and the two sons-in-law of the latter, Cornells van Tien- 
hoven, the secretary, and Abraham Verplanck.i It is at any 
rate certain that Adriaensen with Jan Damen and Verplanck 
were either signers of the remarkable document prepared 
about this time, and entered on the Council Minutes, calling, 
in the name of the whole community, for the murder of tlia 
Indians, or else their names were affixed to it by Van Tieu- 



KIEFT'S MANIFESTO 293 

hoven himself.' Whether Maryri Adriiiensen had full knowl- 
edge of this ])UsineHS, or whether he was in a condition at the 
time not to know much of anything, he has the unenviable 
distinction of heading the petition, and of receiving the 
license to commit murder granted thereon by Director-Gen- 
eral Kieft.- When, in tlie course of a few days after the 
slaughter of the Indians, the smoke of burning farndiouses 
and tlie reports of massacres of the colonists by the natives 
had shown Kieft that his great scheme had miscarried, he 
prom[)tly set about carrying out a further part of his plan; 
namely, that of shifting the ])lame from his own shoulders to 
those of his previously selected scapegoats. He accord- 
ingly issued a sort of manifesto of which the following is a 
portion: — 

"Some persons, delegated by the people, petitioned us to be 
allowed to take revenge while those savages were witliin our reach, 
api)arontly delivered in our huntls by Diviue Providence. We 
entertained an aversion .to bring the country into a condition of 
uproar, and pointed out to those persons the consequences to re- 
sult from their design, particularly with regard to those whose 
dwellings were situated in exposed places, as our forces were too 
few to attempt to defend every house with a suflicieut number of 
soldiers, and we also presented to them other considerations. 
They, however, persisted in their desire, and told us that if we 
refused our consent, the blood would come upon our own heads, 
and we finally found ourselves obliged to accede to their wishes 
and give them tlie assistance of our soldiers. And these latter 
killed a considerable number, as did also the militia on their side," 



Maiyn Adriaensen was no lamb to be led quietly to the 
slaughter in this manner; on the contrary, he was a man of 
a bold and violent disposition, like his ancestors, the Flemish 
sea-rovers. He had, in fact, hardly taken up his residence 
in New Amsterdam when lie fell into trouble, from a practice 

1 See the petition, ante, page 103. 

2 This latter document, with its curioua mixture of violence, craft, and blaa- 
jihemy, ia set forth upon page 23, aiitt:. 



294 NEW AJVISTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

he had, in violatiofi of the ordinances, of sailing out in his 
cat-boat to meet incoming vessels before they were boarded 
by the oflicial sloop of the West India Company; and it was 
perhaps in connection with tliis same business that he was <?!% 
charged by the hscal with having drawn a knife upon somo |^ 
person with whom he had a quarrel. '■'.•■ 

When Adriaensen heard that the Director-General v/aa 
attempting to unload the responsibility for the Indian mas- 
sacre mainly upon his shoulders, his rage knew no hounds, 
and he immediately started out to have satisfaction froiu ; 
Kieft. On the 21st of March, 1G43, Robert Penoyer, a 
young man who was doubtless one of the English soldiera 
in the garrison and off duty, being "in the tavern," — prob- 
ably either " the Great Tavern " upon the shore, or Philip 
Geraerdy's tavern on the Marckveldt,— saw Lysbet Tyssens, 
Maryn Adriaensen's wife, enter the tavern in a state of great 
perturbation, crying that "her husband would kill the com- 
mander. Go and catch him ! " Penoyer thereupon made his 
way into the fort, and into the Director's house, where he 
found Adriaensen with a pistol cocked, advancing upon the 
Director-General, and crying, " What devilish lies are these 
you are telling of me?" Some person present, however, 
seized Maryn's pistol, while Penoyer took his sword from 
him, and he was immediately phiced under arrest. Within a 
short time, however, a serving-man of Adriaensen, one Jacob 
Slangh, appeared at the fort to avenge his master, and fired 
a pistol at the Director-General, but without effect. Slangli 
was thereupon fired on and killed by a sentry in tlie fort, 
and his head was afterwards affixed to a gibbet. 

As for Adriaensen, his cause was warmly espoused by many 
of the principal men of the Colony, among others by Dominie 
Bogardus,^ and in the excited state of public opinion, it was 

1 "Then you embraced tlie cause of that criminal, composed his writings, and 
took upoQ yourself to defend him. But nevertheless he was scut iu cliaiiis to 
Holland, ou which account you audaciously fulminated on the subject during a 
fortnight, and dishonored the pulpit by your passionate behaviour." 

(Kieft to JJoniiiiio Bogardus, 2 January, 1046.) 



LYSBET TYSSENS 295 

"deemed prudent by tlie Council to send him to tlio Nether- 
-knds for trial. We are not informed of the proceedings, if 
'■'tny, wliich took place in the Netherlands in relation to the 
'ease of Maryn Adriaensen. Mr. D. T. Valentine has found 
' evidence that he returned subsequently to Kew Amsterdam. 
If this were so, he took no prominent part in any mailers, 
and he must have died before K)o4, for in that year his 
widow Lysbet Tyssens married GerlotY Michiclseu of Col- 
lumer Zyll, in Friesland; but he having been killed by iho 
Indians within a short time, she A\ent to resikle wilh a 
married daughter at Fort Orange, or Albany. Lysbel, who 
was from Alcmaer in North Holland, seems to have been a 
woman of considerable business ability. After her husband's 
imprisonment she took charge of his property in the Smita 
Vly, and before the spring of lti4-l she had sold a consider- 
able portion of it to Jan Jansen l)anu;n, parti)', no doubt, in 
extinguisluuent of the mortgage he held upon the premises. 
The parcel sold to Damen was thrown by liim into Iiis well- 
known "Claaver Weytie," or "Clover Pasture." Lysbet 
retained the house, with about half an acre of land, at the 
corner of Maagde Paetje, or Maiden Lane, afterwards in- 
creasing her land by purchase. After the deportation of 
her husband, and later, after his death, she appears to have 
resided upon the premises at times, but at other periods it 
was in the occupation of various tenants. Lysbet Tyssens 
was still living and in possession of the property as late as 
1G82, about whicli time she sold off several lots from her 
garden at this place. She had a son, Tys Marynsen, who 
was a small boy at the time of ids father's attack upon Kicft, 
but we have no further information respecting him, and do 
not know whether he reached maturity. 



CHAPTER XXI 

THE MAAGDF. I'AETJE, OR MAIDEN LANE. — SKIPPER 
CORNELISSEN. — FRED ERIK LUBBKRTSEN AND HIS 
HOUSE. — JAN AND MARY PEECK. — SANDER LEENDERT- 
SEN'S HOUSE.— JAN VINJE, THE FIRST WHITE CHILD 
BORN IN NEW NETHERLAND— VINJE'S BREWERY 

THERE is, perhaps, as much about tho modern Maiden 
Lane to remind one of the early times of New Amstur- 
dam as will be found in any locality of New York at the 
present day. Standing at tlie corner of Pearl Street and 
Maiden Lane, and looking in the direction of Broadway past 
the dark opening in tho tall houses "which marks the entrance 
of Liberty Street, — the historic Crown Street of the eigliteenth 
century, the name of which was changed at the close of the 
Revolutionary War by the somewhat hysterical New Yorkers 
of the period, because they thought they saw a sort of profana- 
tion in the word " Crown," — tlie observer notices before him, 
curving away to the right between high and dingy stores and 
warehouses, the same Maagde Paetje, or Maidens' Path, only 
somewhat wider than of yore, which Lysbet Tyssens and 
Frederik Lubbertsen, from their respective dwellings at the 
opposite corners of these same two streets, saw, in the middle 
of the seventeentli century, winding through its hollow, 
between the trees and bushes whicli lined the fence rows of 
Jan Damen's and of Cornclis van Tienhoven's farms on 
either side of it. 

As he passes through Gold, or William, or Nassau streets 
too, the same observer will see before him the very ravine or 
depression, though not so deep as of old, through which 
the first wood-cutters of New Amsterdam traced their 



THE AIAACiDE PAETJE 207 

path down to the East Kiver shore. In the middle of the 
seventeenth century it was douhtloss hke hundreds of similar 
low-lying farm lanes of the present day, where the outcasts 
of the forests — dogwooils and elder bushes, sumachs and 
witch-hazels — collect along the liedges, and are overhung 
by catrbriers and hitter-sweet vines, woodbine and the wild 
grape. Towards the shore, near the present Gold Street, was 
a wet spot at the foot of Van Tienhoven's hill pasture called 
" Gouwenberg " (where, near the close of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, tiui-yards were established), and here, in the springy 
ground, the arads, first harbingers of the vernal season, made 
their appearance, pushing through the wet soil with their gor- 
geous purple, red, and black hoods, and their coarse leaves of 
pale green. Here the water collected into a small rill, and ran 
down along the lane into the East liiver through a channel 
likely enough covered, as such rills are apt to be, in the late 
summer by the green and yellow masses of the jewel-weed, 
and thickly bordered by mint and tansy. 

What gave this by-lane the name of the Maagde Paetje, 
or Maidens' Path, by which it was known in the town from 
the earliest days, we can only conjecture. Was it in honor 
of Maria, Christina, and llaehel, the three stepdaughters of 
Jan Damen, who must have resided on the adjoining farm 
with their own father, Guillauuie Vigne (or Willera Vinje, as 
his Dutch neighbors put it), at the time of the very first ad- 
vance of settlers from the traders' cabins at the Blockhouse into 
Manhattan Island ? We do not know ; but certain it is that 
the lane was and is Maiden Lane,^ — a historic name worth a 
hundred times the meaningless " Pine," " Cedar," and " Lib- 
erty" streets in its vicinity. 

Provision seems to have been first made for the care of 
this lane"(whieh appears at -the time to have been mainly used 

' Towards the dose of the seventeenth century, about the time tliat streets 
were being hiid out through the adjoining Damen farm, tlic old lane was occa- 
sionallv spoken of as "The Green Lane." Tliis name never became popular, 
liowever, and was eventually fixed upon the small street west of the present 
Nai^sau Street, and extending from Liberty Street to Maiden Lane ; this is 
i-ometimes called Liberty Phvco at the present day. 



298 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

by Secretary Van Tienhoven for access to parts of his farm 
upon the nortli side of it) in the ground-brief of September 7, 
1641, to Lourens Cornelissen, for the parcel of ground at the 
northwest corner of Pearl Street and Maiden Lane; "with 
the express condition that the said Lourens Cornelissen shall 
repair the road leading from the farm of Cornelis van Tien- 
hoven to the beach, fit for the use of wagons, and when once 
repaired, at the cost of the aforesaid Lourens Cornelissen, it 
shall henceforth and forever be maintained and kept up by 
said L. Cornelissen and Cornelis van Tienhoven, half and 
half." At the time of our survey, the Maagde Paetje had lost 
part of its rural character. This ^vas owing principally to 
the erection of a brewery upon it several years before by Jan 
Damen. This building appears to have stood on the south 
side of the lane, and at the foot of the hill pasture called the 
Claaver Weytie, where the water supply was abundant. The 
position of this building would seem to have been about sixty 
feet east of the present William Street. It had been managed 
for several years by Jan Vinje, the stepson of Jan Damen, but 
in 1658, some seven years after the death of the latter, the 
heirs of the estate sold the brewery with nearly half an acre 
of ground for 1375 guilders ($550) to one Anthony Moore, 
and it then, in the course of several years, passed through 
various hands, eventually coming again into the possession of 
Jan Vinje. This latter personage was for a long time en- 
gaged in the brewing business upon tlie modern Pearl Street 
near Piatt, and although the period was several years after 
the date of our survey, some reference will be made to him 
in speaking of the latter locality. 

At the northwestern angle of Maiden Lane and Pearl 
Street stood a house, erected probably in 1641 or 1642 by 
Captain Lourens Cornelissen Vanderwel, who, in documents 
executed by himself, bears the imposing designation of 
" Skipper under God of tlie ship the ' Angel Gabriel,' of about 
one hundred lasts burden." The skipper owned about an 
acre of ground here, stretching back some two hundred and 
fifty feet to the foot of the " Gouwenberg " of Secretary Van 



II ' 



SKIPPER CORNELISSEN 20!) 

Tienhoven's farm. The ground at this, the widest part of 
the Smits Vly, seems to have been pretty wet, and the skipper 
had to establish a broad trench through his garden, about on 
the hne between the present buiklings Nos. 205 and 207 
Pearl Street, and probably another one upon the east side of 
his plot, between the buildings Nos. 219 and 221. 

Of Captiiin Cornelissen we have not much information. 
In his blustering letter of JanuLuy 2, IG-IG, to Dominie Bo- 
gardus, already alluded to,i Director-General Kieft says: 
" when, however, in 1G44, one Lourens Cornelissen was here, 
a man of profligate character, who had violated his oath, had 
committed perjury and theft, he was tiken under your pat- 
ronage, and you were in daily correspondence with him, for 
the reason merely that he had slandered the Director." The 
gist of Cornelissen's offence, however, being evidently the 
fact that ho had spoken against Kieft, it is perhaps fair to 
look upon the rest of the accusation, coupled as it is with the 
somewhat inconsistent charge of much intimacy with a min- 
ister of the gospel, as rather in the nature of a testimonial 
of good character than otherwise, especially in view of the 
source from whence it came. 

However, Skipper Lourens did not long retain his house in 
the Smits Vly, for in the spring of 1G43, he sold it, with 
about half an acre of the ground, for tlie sum of IGOO guil- 
ders, or about $G40 of the present currency, to Frederik 
Lubbertsen, who was the owner and probably the occupant 
at the time of our survey. Lubbertsen, who was a man of 
about forty years of age at the time of his purchase of this 
property, had come from Amsterdam, with liis wife Styntjo 
and a daughter Rebecca. In 1G40, he had received a grant 
from the Dutch autiiorities of a large tract of land at Gou- 
wanus on Long Island ; and it seems probable that from his 
residence on Manhattan Island, he devoted his time to its 
clearing and cultivation, as one of the appurtenances of his 
house in the Smits Vly was an oven, which he stipulated 
should be built capable of baking at one time the equivalent 



■'v::M 



800 NEW amsterda:\i and its teoplf/ 

in flour of about a busliel and a half of grain, a fact indicative 
of the presence of a considerable force of work-hands, perhaps 
slaves, who doubtless manned his farm-boat daily for many 
years. His Long Island possessions were in ])laiii view from 
his house at the foot of the Maagde Paetjc. Looking to his 
left across the East River, he could see, in the direction of the 
VVallabout, his timber land, a tract of about tliirty acres of 
magnilieent forest trees, some of which were still landmarks 
far into the next century ; ^ it covered the high ground near 
the foot of the present Bridge and Jay streets in Brooklyn. 

About a mile to the right, down the East River, beyond the 
high sand bluffs forming what are now known as the Brook- 
lyn Heights, lay the large tract acquired by Lubbcrtsen in 
1640. This extended from about the foot of the present 
Atlantic Avenue, in Brooklyn, nearly a mile along the shore, 
and it ran back from the shore an almost equal distance. A 
large part of it was a region of salt meadows, interspersed 
with ponds and tidal creeks and with small wooded islands 
and sand banks, — the last deposits of the retreating glaciers.^ 
Beyond this low tract, however, the ground rose into swelling 
hills, long cleared and occupied by the Indians as " maizo 
land," of wliich Lubbertsen's grant contained a considerable 
share. 

Prior to the year 1657, Frederik Lubbcrtsen had become 
a widower; his dangliter Rebecca, too, had left him some 
eight or nine years before that time, marrying Jact>]) Leen- 
dertsen van der Grift and taking up her residence in a house 
upon the east side of l^roadway, conveyed to her l)y her 



father. About the date named, we find Lubbertsen 



arrymg 



for his second wife Tryntje Hendrickse, widow of Cornehs 
Pietersen, one of the earlier settlers. It was about this time 
that Lubbertsen, doubtless with tlie view of establishing him- 
self upon his Long Island farni,^ sold his house in the Smits 

1 A great tulip or whitewood tree, which stood upon the Muff uear the shore, 
was known far and wide and is sliown on several maps of the eit;hteenlli loiitury. 
- The tract is now in part occupied by the Atlantic Basin, so called. 
> Soon after the sale of the Smits Vly property, Lubbertsen seems to have 



BANISHMENT OF MARY PEECK 001 

Vly to Jan Pceek, an eceeiUric character, i)art Indian trader, 
part broker between tlic English and Dutch merchants, and part 
general speculator.' Ilis wife, Maria or Mary, managed his 
property, and sometimes disposed of it in his long absences. 
She seems also to have occasionally accompanied him on his 
trading expeditions, where apparently she acquired consider- 
able acquaintance witli tlie Indians, which she turned to ad- 
vantage by sellhig them liquor, to the great indignation of tiie 
authorities at New Amsterdam, who, in 1GG4, lined her 500 
guilders, and banisiied her from Manhattan Island for tiiis 
offence, " for which," as they say, "she lias long been famous." 
She is said, at this time, to have retired to the new settlement 
of Schenectady for a short period; but the Dutch r<igimc 
coming to an end not long after her banishment, she soon 
returned to New York, and was the owner of a house on 
Hoogh Stract (or Duke's Street, as the Englisii began to 
call it), near the Town Mall, having in the mean time sold 
the establisliment in the Smits Vly.'-^ 

The easternmost half of his laud in the Smits Vly had 
been sold by Frederik Lubbert.sen, in 10.02, to une Albert 
(^ornelis.sen ; it does not apjjear to have been built u[>oii at 
tiie time of our sui vey, and in ItJoG must of it came into the 

built a farnilioiise near tlio Kast iiiver sliore upon liis Long Island farm. Tliii 
stood not far from tlie toot of the jireseut Pacific Street in Brooklyn. Here Lub- 
bert.sen resided for many years, and here he died, an aged man, in the latter part 
of tlie seventeenth century. lli.s largo plantation here was divided between his 
two daughters, by bis second wife: Acltje, who married Cornells Sebring, and 
Klsje, wife of Jacob Hansen 13ergen ; their descendants are still to be found in 
Brooklyn. 

' It was this Jau I'eeck v/liu, by reason of his making use, as a trading post 
for traflie with the liulians, of the sheltered haven allbrded by the creek einjity- 
ing into the Hudson liiver just south of the mountains of the Highlands (even 
wintering there with his sloop), gave the stream the name of Jan I'eeck's Kill, 
which name is ])reservcd in that of the adjacent village of I'eekskiU in West- 
chester County. 

^ She is thought to have been the person occasionally spoken of in the records 
about this time as " Long Mary," though this is not accurately known. She was 
either the daughter or sister of Philip du Trieux (or De Truy, as the Dutch 
called him). After some vicissitudes in her life, she is supposed to have married 
Cornells Volckerseu, one of the oldest settlers, and alier bi.siUalh, in liiJO, she 
n.arried Jan I'eeck. 



302 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLl-: 

possession of Jan Peeck, still apparently unbuilt upon. After 
Peeck had sold to Comelis Cloppur, in the year 1660, the 
Lubbertsen house, at the comer of JMaiden Lane, which has 
just been referred to, he seems to have built a liouse upon the 
plot which he had acquired from Albert Cornelissen, and this 
remained in possession of liini and of his wife for many years. 
Tills house, which must have occupied the site, or a part of 
the site of the present building No. 207 Pearl Street, was just 
about suhiciently removed from the observation of the town 
authorities to afford a convenient drinking liouse for liuliau 
visitors to New Amsterdam, and it is supposed to have been 
the seat of the illicit liquor traffic for which Mary Peeck was 
uanished from Manhattan Island in 1G64. 

Next adjoining upon the north to the aj)parently vacant 
})lot of Albert Cornelissen in the Smits Vly, stooil in 1655 
a house with about half an acre of ground, belonging to 
an individual who was a rara avin in New Amsterdam, a 
thoroughly Teutonized Scotcliman, as much of a curiosity 
in his way as was the Teutonized Englishman, Carel van 
Brligge, already spoken of. This person's appellation among 
his neighbors was tlie good honest Dutch name of Sander 
Leendertsen. A little investigation, however, shows hira 
to have been Alexander (or Sandy) Lindesay, of the Glen, 
in Scotland,' who is said to have come from the neighbor- 

1 His appelhitiou ia evidently iloriveJ frum tlie ancient and well-known division 
of the Lindesay family of Scotland into tlie brancli of Glencak (called frci|ueutly 
" of the Glen ") and into tlial; of " tlie Mount." The latter, which is the elder 
branch, has had considerable lustro tlirown upon it by one of its menibors, Sir 
David Lindesay, the Scottish poet of the sixteenth century, Avho bore the office 
of heraldic King-at-arms under James IV. Jlany will remember the poet's de- 
scription, as given by Sir Walter Scott, in " Marniiou" : 

" Ho was a man of middle age; 
In aspect manly, grave, and sage, 

As on King's errand come ; 
But in the glances of his eye, 
A penetrating, keen, and sly 

Expression found its home ; 
Tlio flasli oil hat satiric ra.'e. 



SANDER LKENDERTSEN 303 

hood of Inverness. In Dutch times he used the name 
Sander Leendertsen freely, but after the EngUsh regime 
commenced, lie called himself usually Alexander Glenn, by 
which family name his descendants were known. 

Alexander Lindesay, or Leendertsen, is said to liave come 
to New Netherlaud at a very early period, employed in some 
capacity by the West India Company at its Fort Nassau on 
tlie Delaware River, where in 1G33 he, witii Augustyn Ileer- 
nians, were witnesses of the sale of lands on the Schuylkill 
River by the Indians to A rent Coersen. Sander soon became 
an Indian trader, apparently dividing his time between New 
Amsterdam and Fort Orange or Albany, at which latter 
setticment he is found as early as 16iG. His. place in the 
Snuts Vly, which had formerly been the easterly half of the 
garden and ground of Skipper Lourens Cornelissen, was 
granted to Sander Leendertsen by the Director and Council 
in 1646, it having been forfeited by Cornelissen by reason of 
his allowing it to remain vacant and unimproved for more 
than the prescribed period.^ Here Sander immediately built 
a stone house, upon tl»e site of the present glue warehouse. 
No. 211 Pearl Street, and here he resided when in New 
Amsterdam, certainly as late as 1658, and possibly later ;2 
but in 1G65 he was one of the pioneers of the new settlement 

" Whicli, bursting ou the early stage, 
Bruuded the vices of the age, 

And broke the keys o£ ]{ome. 
Still is thy name in hi{;h account, 

And still thy verso has charms, 
Sir David Lindesay of tlie Mount, 

Lord Lion Iving-at-arnis ! " 

1 Some years, afterwards, however, Sander accjuired a release from Skipper 
Cornelissen. 

^ At a period twenty years later than tliat of our survey, this plot of Sander 
Leendertsen contained anotlior building which must have occupied in part the 
ground covered by the present No. 217 Pearl Street. What this was, or when 
it was built, does not appear. Sander Leeudurtseu's well is clearly indicated iu 
the descriptions; it stood some fifty feet iu a northeasterly ilirection from his 
suiio house, and its remains are perhaps yet under the building No. 215 I'earl 



304 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

of Schenectiidy, after wliicli date there i.s no evidence that ho 
again resided in New YorkJ A few years before this latter 
date he is said to have parted witli his property in the Suiits 
Vly, but if this were tlie case,_he must have soon resumed it, 
possibly by virtue of a mortgage upon it. The place seems 
for many years to have been in the possession of various 
tenants. About the time of the surrender to the English in 
lGG-1, the house appears to have been occupied b}' one Jaiues 
Webb, a Londoner, as a tavern or lodging-house with tbu 
sign of Saint George and tlie Dragon.- 

At the frontier settlement of Sclieneetady, Alexander 
Lindesay, or Glenn, spent the last twenty years of his life. 
His iiouse, like those of the rest of the settlers, was within the 
stockaded village, but his land embraced a tract of nearly 
a thousand acres of fertile meadows on the north side of the 
Mohawk River, and to this he gave the name of Nova Scotia. 
Alexander did not live to witness the massacre of his neigh- 
bors in 1G90 by the Erench and Indians ; he had died about 
live years before that event. The members of his family, 
however, were treated with respect by the Freneli eonnnand- 
ant. Feelings of humanity, and jDossibly some Jacobite pro- 
pensities in the Scotch blood of the Glenns, hail induced them 
to show kindness to certain Ereuchnien who had been taken 
prisoners by the English in the war which Louis XIV. was 
waging to restore James 11. to the English throne; and as a 
mark of gratitude, the Glenn house in Schenectady is said to 
have been spared by the express command of the French 
governor of Canada on the destruction of the rest of the vil- 
lage in 1G90. 

1 lu IGS6 he acted aa an an;eut at New Amsterdam for J.acob Flodder of Fort 
Grantee, iu the sale and conveyance by tlic latter of the lots iu his speculative 
pnrcliaso of what w.as known as the Outlioek of the Daineii farm. See ante, 
lK.ge271. 

2 This will doubtless serve to e,\|jlain the mysterious entry of the burgomas- 
ters in their minutes, under date of March 31, IGG.^, at which tinje the citizeus 
were called upon to declare how many soldiers of the (garrison they were willing 
to lodge : " The Man of the Knight of St. George will take one." Tliis record 
lia> puzzled many an inquirer. See Valentine's Manual N. Y., Com. Couuc^ 
I'l'l, p. 010. 



THE GLENN MANSION, SCHENECTADY 305 

A more quiet state of affairs ia the next century induced 
the Glenns to build the stately, albeit somewhat neglected old 
mansion whicli still stands upon their estate, on the north 
side of the ]\Ioliawk Kiver at Schenectady. The stroller, 
crossing the long bridge over the IMohawk at Schenectady, 
and turning westward along the banks of the river, will see 
to his left, at tlie distance of half a mile or so from the 
bridge, — standing upon a low, grassy hillock overlooking 
the city and the broad meadows of tiie iMohawk witli their 
curious purplish tinge of early summer, and the willowed 
islands and shores of that lake-like stream, — a square, stuc- 
coed house, with a flat, railed roof, bearing upon the front of 
the building, in iron letters, the date "A. O. 1713." Ancient 
trees surround the house, some of which may have stood there 
when Sander Leendertaen's descendants erected the building, 
within less than tiiirty years from his death. It is one of the 
historic mansions of the State, and should not be allowed to 
perish. 

As for the proj^ert)' of Sander Leendertsen in the Smits 
Vly, it was finally disposed of by him in the fall of l(i75, — 
tlie easterly portion to Abraham Lambertsen jMoll, and the 
larger western portion, with the original house, to Ilendriek 
Vandewater. Certain adverse claims existed, as it would 
seem, against this property, for in 167-1, we find one John 
SaOin sending a communication to Secretary NicoU, complain- 
ing that " II(;nry Vandewater hath seruptitiously obtained a 
mortgage of old Sander Leendertsen of Albany on the stone 
house situated in the Smits Vly which was long before made 
over to, and hath been in the possession of Captain Tliomas 
Willet and now pertains to his heires." lie asks that Vande- 
water be prevented from exposing the premises for sale or 
otherwise prejudicing the said "heires" till they have an 
opportunity of protecting their interests. No action, iiow- 
ever, seems to have followed this communication, and Van- 
dewater and his family remained in the occupation of tlie 
property for many years. 



30G NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

At the portion of Smite Vly which wc have now reached, 
the river front had been originally embraced in the farm of 
Sccretarj' Van Tienhoveu. He, however, had sold off various 
plots of the low-lying ground along tlie road, and one of these 
plots, which covered the sites of the present buildings Nob. 
225 to 231 Pearl Street, together with a portion of the 
modern Piatt Street,^ was conveyed by him in the year 1G56 
to Willeni Beeckman ; it then contained a house, however, 
which in all probability stood there at the time of our survey. 
Tins plot of ground becomes of interest as having been for manj 
years the residence and the seat of the brewing operations 
of Jan Vinje, as he was called among his Dutch neighb(jrs (or 
Jean Vigne, as his parents would probably have called him), 
a leading citizen of New Amsterdam, and a man who, as 
tliere is every reason to believe, enjoys the distinction of hav- 
ing been the first child of European parentage born in New 
Amsterdam or in New Netherland. 

Our information upon this point is derived from the Jour- 
nal of the Labadist missionaries, Danker and Sluyter, who 
visited New York in 1G79.2 While in the town they lodged 
with one Jacob Ilellekcrs, the site of whose house is now 
occupied by the building No. 255 Pearl Street, near Eultou 
Street. They were therefore near neighbors to Jan Vinje, 
with whom they soon became acquainted. lie was then, they 
tell us, about sixty-five years of age, a prominent man, well 
known to all the citizens, many of whom had themselves 
resided in the town and had been intimately acquainted with 
him for from thirty to forty years. It was the connuon 
understanding that he was the first person born in the colony, 
and the date of his birth would therefore go back to the 
year 1614. Ilis parents, so the Labadists inform us, were 
Guillaume Vigne, and his wife, Adrienne Cuville, from 
Valenciennes in France. IIow they came to be at New 
Amsterdam in the early days of the trading-post we do not 

' I'latt Street was opeiieJ iu the period between 1S29 and 1830. 
2 See their .Journal (wliicli we owe to tlielahors of lluu. Henry C. Murphy), 
ill Vol. I. of the Memoirs of the Long Island Historical Society. 



JAN VINJE 807 

know, but there is certainly notliiiig improbable in the asser- 
tion that a trader or an oilicer of the post should have had his 
family with iiini at New Amsterdam. In tlie moutlis of their 
Dutcli neiglibors, tlie husband became known as Willem 
Vinje, and his wife as Adriana Cuvilje. Tliere is reason to 
believe that Willem Vinje was the lirst tenant of the farm 
laid out north of the present Wall Street by the West India 
Comjjany, and that he died there. In 1G32 his widow mar- 
ried Jan Jausen Damon, with whom the farm is more gener- 
ally associated. At the date last named, as ^ve are inf(jrmed 
by an instrument in tlie Albany records, of the four children 
of Wil)»m Vinje and his wife, two were married, Maria (to 
Abraham Verplanck), and Christina (to Dirck Volckertsen), 
while two, Rachel and Jan, were "minors": as bolh of the 
latter, however, were married within the next six years 
(Rachel to tlie Secretary Van Ticnlioven), they must have 
been in the latter years of their minority in 16o2, anil the age 
of Jan Vinje, according to the Labadists, which would have 
been seventeen or eighteen at that time, is thus confirmed. ^ 

The plot of ground we are considering, with its brew-house, 
came into the possession of Jan Vinje about the year 1664, 
that building having been erected a few years before, and at 
' some date between 1656 and 1660 : it had passed tiirough the 
hands of two or three individuals who do not appear to have 
met with success in its management, and Vinje probably 
acquired it through the foreclosure of a mortgage. A partial 
description of the premises has been preserved to us. At the 
southwestern corner of the plot, ui)on ground now parti}' 
embraced in Piatt Street and partly in the modern building 
No. 225 Pearl Street at the northwest corner of Piatt, stood 
its mill-house ; while the brewery itself appears to have occu- 
pied a rear position in the spacious enclosure which was about 

' The statement has often been made that Sarah, the daughter of Joris 
Eapaljo, was the lirst white cliild torn in New Nt-therlaud. Tliis statement is 
based upon an allegation made by her iu a petition to the Council asking for a 
grant it land in 1G5C. Without discussing tlio value of this document as evi- 
dence, :ii examination of it will show tliat sliC merely describes herself as "the 
lirst h.irn Christian daughter iu Now Nctheilaud." 



308 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

eighty feet front by one hundred and sixty in depth. Both of 
these buildings were erected a short time after the period of 
our survey ; but the dvvelling-iiouse itself, which in all prob- 
ability stood upon a part of tlie ground now covered by the 
buildings Nos. 227 and 229 Pearl Street, appears to have been 
constructed by Secretary Van Tienhoven in 1(J17. ilis build- 
ing contract with the carpenter Kynier Doininicus is still 
extant and affords some curious specifications. The house 
was to be thirty feet long by twenty feet wide on the inside; 
it was to have an " outlet," or entry, " eight feet wide, right 
through." The " story of the front room, nine and one half 
feet high: that of the back room, twelve and one half feet": 
with "five cross beams with girders and one without." The 
entry was to contain the usual " bedstead " built in. The 
exterior chimney was to be of timber ; and the beams of the 
small structure were to have the capacious cross dimensions of 
ten inches by seven. Vinje remained in possession of this 
property until the summer of 1684, when he sold it to Nicho- 
las de Meyer, in whose family it continued for many years. 
The old buildings seem to have been removed or destroyed 
before 1712, as a deed of the property, executed in that year,' 
mentions it as ground " upon which lately stood a messuage 
with a brew house and mill house." The premises remained, 
during the greater portion of the eighteenth century, only 
partly nuilt upon, and at the time of the British occupation of 
New York, during the War of the Revolution, they were 
occupied by the barracks of the Hessian troops. 

' Lib. xxviii. cous., page 9, N. V. Kt-gister'a OlDce. 



CHAPTER XXII 

SECRETARY VAN TIENllOVENS liOUWERY OF •• WALLEN- 
STEIN." — THE GOUWKNBERH. - VAN TIENUOVEN'S 
LANE. — TUE VANDKRCLYFF FAMILY 

", Earth, what changes hast thou seen ! 

There where tlie loug street roars, hath bcea 
The stillness of the central sea. 

The hills are shadows, and they How 
From Xorin to form, and uuthiiig stands ; 
They melt like mist, the solid hinds, 
Like clouds they shape themselves and go. 

Tknnvson: " In Memoriam." 

AS one passes along the modern John Street, between 
Cliff and Pearl streets, he sees, upon the north side of 
the first^nanied street, a row of small shops, gradually dimin- 
ishing in depth, till they terminate almost in a point at the 
corner of Pearl Street. Through tlie windows of these dimin- 
utive structures one can catch a glimpse of a sickly looking 
tree or two in an interior enclosure, and is apt to wonder at 
tins bit of rus in uric at such a spot. Beyond the diagonal 
hue which marks the north side of these shops, a gated alley- 
way and stairs of correspondingly diminutive size leads to some 
mysterious region within, which would seem to be perforce 
a closed district to all individuals of a corpulent habit. 
Many persons have doubtless wondered at this odd nook, so 
much of the character of those which Charles Dickens delighted 
in for the scenes of his novels ; but it is safe to say that very 
few indeed have recognized in the line of these buildings one 
of the oldest landmarks in New York, or have known tiuit it 
BKiiked the north side of the lane which, once led from the 



310 NEW AMSTK1M)AI\I AND ITS PEOPLE 

river eliore up the hill to Secretary Van Tienlioveu's ancient 
bouwery house. 

Standing, about the year 1G55, at tlie junction of tins Line 
with the river road, — or at the corner of the modern John and 
Pearl atreets, — and looking up the broad, grassy lane (of 
nearly the width of the present John Street), one saw before 
him at the top of a moderate a«cent, a low-roofed Dutch farm- 
house, with its stoep, its swinging half-doors, its small-paned 
and heavy-shuttered windows, and its capacious exterior 
chimneys ; a little way to the right (or east) of the building, 
the spectator saw its outer cellar, partly excavated in the hill, 
and partly sodded over. Within the lane, at the foot of the 
hill, was a spring or well, to which a well-worn path led down 
from the farmhouse. On the left of the lane, and occupying 
a warm southeastern exposure upon the slope of the hill, was a 
garden of large size, — probably of at least an acre in area, — 
the site of which is now traversed by the modern Piatt Street. 
This garden appears to have been hired by the West India 
Company after the disturbance of its prior garden upon the 
west side of Broadway, caused by the erection of Uio " forti- 
fications" in 1653.1 Back of tliis garden was a somewhat 
rough hillock used for pasturage purposes ; along its wet and 
springy sides the counnon celandine displayed its yellow 
flowers thickly ; this plant was called by the Dutch the gouwe, 
and the hill became known as the Gouwenberg, which name 
was in the course of time corrupted by the English into 
Golden Hill, from which the present irregular street called 
Gold Street took its origin. The lower portion of that street 
appears to have been originally a lane giving access from Maagde 
Paetje, or Maiden Lane, to the pasture field just spoken of. 

To the north and east of the bouwery house, which must 
liave stood just about at the northwestern angle of the present 
John and Cliff streets, lay its orchard, apparently of two or 
three acres in area; twenty-five years of growth in a new 
soil must have given its trees a fair size at the period of our 

1 In 1C5G, lots U|)OQ themoilern Pearl Street at tliat jiuint are boiuuleii on the 
nortli " by the clapboards of tbo Company's garden." 



'.;-m '^' 



r.M :j 





,. ,fii>.'>ifj«:. ■■' 




■>ii.i 


^ 





-'Hi. 'f 



IM 



VAN TIENHOVEN'S LANE 311 

survey; and to the Dutch traveller, passing by on his way to 
the Long Island ferry, these trees on tlie hill above him, white 
with their fragrant blossoms in May, or loaded witli their red 
and yellow fruit in autumn, perhaps called to mind the 
orchards of Beveland, or of Gooiland in tlio old country. 
Between tlie orcliard and tlic low ground of the Smits Vly 
ran the farm lane above described, which, turning at right 
angles at tlie farmhouse, skirted the brow of the hill ; as 
widened, it forms the modern Cliff Street, between John and 
Fulton streets. At a point which corresponds with tlie inter- 
section of the present Cliff and Fulton streets, the lane of 
Van Tienhoven's farm came to the declivity of a ravine or 
gully which formed the division between this farm and the 
land which belonged at the time of our survey to Thomas 
Ilall, but which is better known from its later owner, William 
Beeckman, as the Beeckman estate ; to avoid this it appears 
to have again turned westwards, running along what is now 
Fulton Street ius far as the turn in tiiat street, at tiio inter- 
section of the gloomy-looking cul-de-sac, known at present 
as Rider's Alley; thence it ran into the lower end of the 
present Ann Street, which it followed out to the Heerewegh, 
or the modern Broadway. The object of this lane was evi- 
dently to afford means of access, not only to the farther 
portions of Van Tienhoven's farm, but also to the common 
pasture occupying the present Park and vicinity ; although its 
western half was supposed to skirt Van Tienhoven's farm, 
it had been carelessly laid out as a track througli the woods, 
and this fact gave rise to the regulation of the lane (or modern 
Ann Street) in the year 1642, at wliich time the adjoining 
land was sold by the West India Company to Govert Loocker- 
mans and Cornelis Leendertsen.^ 

' The deed from the Pirector and Council to Loockermans and Lceudcrtsen, 
dated March 26, 1G42, contains tlie following provisions relating to tliid lane: 
" And since from old lime to now, Ijetwecu the land which wo sell to Loockcrmana 
aud Cornclin Lcendcrtsen, and the farm of Cornelis vanTienhoven, there haa been 
a wagon road running to the Great Highway ; it is expressly ordered that as 
lon^;: as the said Loockermajis and Leendertsen shall not have enclosed their 
pnr -hased land all around, sufficiently tight against cattle, then Cornelis van 



^vl 



312 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

This bouwery is spoken of as belonging to Comelis van 
Tienhoven as early as the year 1G40, though he did not receive 
his formal ground-brief or patent for it until 164-1. He was 
not, however, the first owner or tenant of the farm, which was 
in all probability laid out at a very early date, and its buildings, 
perhaps, erected by the West India Company. 

It was the fashion among the Dutch at this time to give to 
their bouwerys special names, and many such examples are 
found in New Netherland, sometimes taken from Induin 
names, as Werpoes or Gamoenepa ; at others from some topo- 
graphical or other peculiarity connected with the tract, aa 
Cc"laers Iloek, the Malle Smits Berg, Deutel Bay, the 
Bassen Bou\very, Krom Moeras, the Great Bouwery, the 
Otterspoor, etc.; while others were purely fanciful appellations, 
as Zegendal or Vredendal : in this manner the farm we are 
considering had received at a very early day the name of 
WaUenstein. 

It might at first sight seem strange that in a Protestant 
community a farm should have been thus designated in honor, 
as it undoubtedly was, of the great historical personage then 
recently at the head of the Romanist party of Europe and of 
the troops of the German Empire, assembled to put down the 
Protestant states of that country. It must not be forgotten, 
however, that during the last portion of his life and after his 
assassination, WaUenstein came to be popularly regarded as a 
secret friend to the Protestant cause, whose untimely death 
alone prevented him from carrying out vast and mysterious 

Tienhoven shall have the privilege of usiug the aforesaid roaJ heyond his pali- 
sades (as having hcen a road for a length of time) with wagon and horses. But 
when the said laud have been sulTiciently cleared by Loockermansand Leendortsen 
and shall have been enclosed with a sufficient fence, which must be kept up by 
them, then the wagon road shall run exactly as the palisades of Tienlioven's 
land stand, of wliich the said Loockermaus and Leendertseu shaU give one-half of 
the laud for the breadth of the road ; and iu like manner Cornells van Tienhoven 
shall give one-half thereof, which aforesaid road shall be used equally, serving 
only as an outlet to the Long Highway, aa their own private road." This lane 
w.u only laid out from " the Long Highway " towards the East Kiver as far as 
a jioiut at tlie iutersectiou of the present Gold and Ann streets, Loockermana' 
a;i'l Lccudertseu's laiul tenniuating at that place. 



THE "WALLENSTEIN" BOUWERY 313 

schemes which would have tiunsformed Germany into a great 
Protestant Empire. Whether this belief was sufficiently jus- 
tified by facts can in all probability never be determined. It 
existed, however, in the minds of many, and in the year 1638 
we find Barent Dircksen Swart, who then appears to have 
been in occupation of this farm, making a lease for six years 
to " Cornelis Jacobscn, the elder, from Mertensdyk and Cor- 
nells Jacobsen, the younger, iiis brother," ^ of " the Bouwery 
named Walensteyn," with all its " stock of cows, heifers, 
mare, stallions, wagons, etc." The yearly rental of this farm 
to be paid by the lessees was to be one hundred and fifty 
poun^ls of butter and fifty schepels of grain, whether wheat, 
rye, or barley. Although the- Indian troubles were still in the 
future, the lessees had not forgotten the unprotected state of 
the farm, for they continue thus, in the lease : " It being well 
understood, should the house come to be burned unfortunately 
either by hostile Indians or otliers, if it do not happen by the 
fault of the lessees, the lessor shall stand the risk of tlie in- 
cendiary." 

As for the lessor Barent Dircksen, he himself had not been 
the first occupant of the " Wallenstein " bouwery, but he had 
purchased it from Antony Jansen of Vees, from whom he 
received a deed for it in 1639, after ho had been some time in 
actual possession of the farm. The tenure of the bouwery 
both by Jansen and by Dircksen was, it is quite evident, not 

1 The writer is iuclined to tlie belief that this second Corueha Jacobsen is no 
other than t!ie Secretary Cornelis van Tienboven liimaelf, wliose patronymic, 
hitherto unknown, would thus appear. The village of Mertensdyk, or St. Martins- 
d}ke, is only about four miles from that of Tieuhoven, both places being little 
more than that distance from the ancient city of Utrecht in the Netlicriauds. 
The inconvenient similarity of names would be alone sufficient to account for the 
disuse of his family name by Vau Tieuhoven. Wo would .ilso under this hy- 
pothesis have a ready explanation of the fact tliat the farm is called Van Tieu- 
hoven's four years before he obtained his ground-brief for the same, and while it 
was yet apparently under the claim of ownership of Barent Dircksen. It may 
be also mentioned, for what it is wortli, that in tlie family of Cornelis J.icobsen 
van Merteusdyk, better known in the records of the colony as Cornelis Jacobsen 
Stille, occurs the not very common name of Aefje or Effie (Eva), the same as 
tliat of Coruclis van Tienhoveu's shster, the wife of Pieter Stonteuburgh. 



314 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITvS PEOPLE 

absolute, but merely a coiulitional and future right tv owner- 
ship, such as was frequently granted to the colonists by the 
West India Company. The farmers were allowed to tuke 
possession of a tract — soniclinies partly imi)roved, and some- 
times not — with the stipulation that upon their performing 
certain conditions, such as clearing of timber and bringing 
under cultivation a certain number of acres, or erecting build- 
ings and fences of a specified chamctcr within a given terra, 
often ten years, they should be entitled to receive an absolute 
deed or ground-brief for the property from the conrpany. 

Of Barent Dircksen, the lessor of this farm, not much is 
known, except that he was a middle-aged man, a baker by 
trade, and is said in some of the records to have come from 
" Noorden," which is likely enough a misspelling of the old 
town of Naerden on the Zuyder Zee, some sixteen or seven- 
teen miles north of Utreclit. The relations between him and 
the lessees of his farm do not iippear to Inive been entirely 
harmonious, for upon the 2(Jth of August, 1642, at an unusual 
period of the year for the execution of a farm lease, and con- 
siderably before the expiration of the Jacobsen brothers' lease, 
we find him making a new one to Bout Francen, of Naerden, 
for " the bouwery called Walestyn," at an annual rental of 
eighty pounds of butter, twenty schepels of wheat, and forty 
of rye. This transaction seems to have led to the purchase of 
Barent Dircksen's rights in the farm by Secretary Van Tieu- 
hoven, for upon the loth of May of the next year 1643,^ 
Cornells van Tienlioven executes a lease to C'ornelis Jacobsen 
Stille of "liis bouwery in the Siiiits Vly " for three or six 

' Dircksen appears upon the sale of tliia farm to have retired from active 
farming operations, for a time at least, or to have taken refuge in the town from 
the Indians. In tlie fall of the year 16-13, he purchased from Uarck Syhoutsen a 
email house nearer the fort for the sum of 175 guilders or $70 (probably above 
some incumbranco), "and a half-barrel of beer as a treat for the company." The 
parties do not seem in this transaction to have cun.sidered the carrying out of the 
sale as of vital ini|iortanee, but it is provided with great care iu tlie instrument 
" if either of the parties backs out or repents of the sale, he shall pay a half- 
b.irvel of beer." liarunt Dircksen died before 1G47, in which year we find his 
willow married to Harman Smeenian, who had a small farm on the East liiver 
elioro adjoining tlie Stuy vcsaiit pl.uitalion. 



VAN TlEN 110 YEN'S FARM ,.1.0 

years; Bout Fruncen, tlie t\>nuer lessee, having been provided 
with a lease of Juliannes la Alontagne's bouwery of Vreden- 
dal (at the north end of the present Central Park), from 
which, in the course of a few months, he was routed out by 
the Indians. Van Tienhoven's lease affords some curious 
particulars of the condition in 1643 of this tract of land situ- 
ated between the modern Maiden Lane, Ann Street, Broad- 
way, and Pearl Street, and now so densely built upon with 
stores, warehouses, and office buildings; its fields had then 
just been "fenced and railed in a proper manner," but por- 
tions of it were still open and covered with wood or brush, for 
the lessee agrees " every year to clear a piece of land and let it 
he fabow; any land added, to be fenced as at present." The 
Secretary further agrees to build a hay or grain barrack upon 
the farm for his tenant. 

Cornelis Jacobscn Stille appears to have remained as a 
tenant in the occupation of this farm till the year 1647, when 
lie removed to the farm known as " Bouwery Number Six," 
which he had purcliased of the West India Company, and 
which lay between the present Division Street and the East 
River. It was in the same year that Secretary Van Tien- 
lioven, who had obtained a formal ground-brief for his 
bouwery from Director-General Kieft three years before that 
date, built the house upon the shore road Mdiich has already 
been alluded to (^ante, page 308) as the later residence of the 
Secretary's brother-in-law, Jan Vinje. Either in this house, 
or in the farmhouse on the hill, the Secretary and his family 
may have dwelt during the next live or six years, and in the 
immediate vicinity he seems to have taken some interest in 
establishing several of his relatives by marriage, for in the 
year 1649 he sold, to two of his brothers-in-law, Abraham 
Verplanck and Dirck Volckertsen, small plots of ground upon 
the Shore Road in the northeastern corner of liis farm near 
the intersection of the present Pearl and Fulton streets, 
where, with one or two other persons, they built a small 
cluster of houses, of which some notice will be taken hereafter. 
Ill 1653, liowever, Van Tienhoven purchased the house on 



316 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

't Water, or the modem Pearl Street, next to the old Dutch 
church ' which thencefortli became his residence ; and there is 
no evidence that the bouwery of " Wallcnstein " was ever 
again the dweUing-placo of any of the Secretary's family, 
though it remained in their possession, and evidently occu- 
pied by farmer tenants for nearly a score of years after the 
death or disappearance of the Secretary in lG5f). 

Some of the subsequent changes coming to this property 
may be not without intei'est. In 1G71 the representatives of 
the estates of Van Tienhoven and of his wife sold the farm 
to one Jan Smedes, who held it a few years ; but in 1675, 
Smedes sold the rear fields of the farm, extending to Broad- 
way from a line parallel with the modern Gold Street, and 
about one hundred feet west of it, to Coenrad Ten Eyck, 
Carsten Luersen, John Ilarpendinck, and Jacob Abrahamsen, 
four shoemakers and t;inners of the town, who desired to 
establish their tan-pits in the low ground along Maiden Lane, 
at the southeastern angle of their purchase. The land used 
for this purpose was of but small extent, and the balance of 
the tract of seventeen acres, after deducting certain small gar- 
den plots along Broadway, was used for pasturage purposes 
for about twenty years, forming the well-known topographical 
feature of the early town, known as the " Shoemakers' Field." 
In 1696, the present streets were run througli this tract; it 
was divided into a number of lots which were distributed 
among the partners in the purchase, and were slowly sold off 
by them for small prices, averaging perhaps $100 each, of the 
present currency. 

The old bouwery house, with about five or six acres of 
land, was sold by Smedes to Ilendrick Rycken, a blacksmith, 
in 1677 ; and four years later Rycken parted with the property 
to a man, who, with his family, is perhaps more closely asso- 
ciated with the place than any of its former owners.^ This 

' See ante, page 55, etc. 

^ There was a tradition, some time ago, among the member.s of the liiker 
f.-iinily, that their ancestor sold this place out of disgust at the snaltea then in- 
festing the wet grounds about the Gouweuberg and Smits Vly. As, however, he 



I THE VANDEIICLYFF FAMILY 317 

was Dirck Jiinseii Vandcrclyff, who appears to have coma 
from tlie village of Alphcn, a few miles southeast of ihe 
swamp-environed fortress of Rreda, in Brabant. At New 
York, he married Geesje, the daughter of Hendrick Willemsen, 
I a baker who long resided at the northwest corner of the pres- 
ent Bridge and Broad streets. In the old farmhouse this 
family resided for many years, and its broad lane leading down 
the hill to the waterside must have been well trodden by the 
eight or ten small Vandcrulyffs, or " Van Cleefs," as they 
came to be called. Before 1G95, Dirck Vanderclyff had died, 
and his energetic widow set about selling off her propert}' 
he -e, in lots. The old farm lane lunning along the brow of 
the hill parallel with the river road formed one of her streets, 
and its turn at right angles formed another one v/hich she 
designed to lead into one of the new streets wliicli the Shoe- 
makers were laying out, at about this time, on their iidjoining 
property. Geesje was an American-boin woman, but she had 
a great admiration for her father's country, and for its great 
Stadtholder, who was then lilling so j^rominent a place in the 
eyes of the world, — William of Nassau, Prince of Orange. 
The Shoemakers, upon their adjoining property, had named 
one of their streets William Street, but the rest of the Stadt- 
holder's title was open to Geesje, and she called the lane at 
the top of the hill — scarcely four hundred feet in lenglli — 
Orange Street, while the other, of not much greater length, 
she designated Nassau Street. In course of time those names 
came to be applied to streets of greater length and of more 
importance, in other parts of the town. For want of a gen- 
erally accepted name, her " Orange Street " was generally 
known as Vanderclyff's, or Van Cleefs Street, whence its 
modem name of Cliff Street, while " Nassau Street " became 
luerged in luiir Street, of the " Shoemaker's Pasture," now 
Fulton Street. 

In the old farmhouse here Geesje Vanderclyff lived many 
years, — she resided here certainly as late as 1711, — and Mr. 

pun luaed the property ior 2'JOO guilders aud sold fur 5000 guilders, — a neat 
ad\ ,ii;ce for those days, — the suako story is not ueedud to explaiu the sale. 



318 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

D. T. Valentine has found some reason to believe that she kept 
a tavern here. Ilcr husband, Dirck, undoubtedly did, during 
his lifetime, establish a place of resort at " The Orchard ; " 
and it was here, in 1082, that James Graham, afterwards 
Recorder of tlie City, and Attorney-Oeneral of the province, 
was mysteriously stabbed, in the midst of a social lydviy and 
apparently without cause, by Captain Baxter, an English 
oflicer whom he was entertaining, — the wound, however, not 
proving very serious. Of Gecsje's large family, six daughters 
reached years of maturity, and among them was divid(;d wliat 
remained of the place at their motiier's death. Most of them 
had married persons of English descent, and the Dutch cliarac- 
teristics of the Vanderclyffs soon disappeared. ^ 

It may be noted that upon land immediately adjoining the 
Vauderclyff farndiouse, and in all probability upon a portion 
of what had been its barnyard, was erected at some time 
within the period from 1724 to 1728 the first church building 
of the Baptists in New York City. It had a very ephemeral 
existence as a church edifice, being claimed as private proi> 
erty and soon closed by one of its first trustees. It appears, 
however, as late as upon the map of 1755 as the " Baptist 
Meeting." 2 

1 Of the chiMreu of Dirck ami Geesjo Vauderclyff, Cornelia was married to 
Bonjamiu Norwood iulC'J^; Catharine to John Lowry or Luring, iu or about 
1094 ; I.ysbet to John Bruce iu ICaO ; llargaretha to I'eter BurtoU, or Briitell, in 
1704; Femmetje,'or Kuplieniia, to Andries Hardenbrook iu 170U ; Maria, a twin 
daughter, grew to maturity, but doc3 not appear to liavo niarri(;d. 

■^ Seo nianuscrij)t of Kev. Morf^an Edwarda aa cited by ]{ev. Wm. rarkinaou in 
hia sketch of tho " Urigiu of the i'irat Baptist Church in the City of New York." 



CHAPTER XXIII 

THE UAMLET AT THE FElUiY.— LAMBERT MOLL. — HAG E 
UliUYNSEN, THE SWEDE. — DIRCK VOLCKERTSEN AMJ 
HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW', ABRAHAM VKRRLANCK. — THOMAS 
HALLO'S PLACE 

By hedge-row elms, ou hillocks green, 
Kifjht agaiust the KasLerii gate, 
Where the great sun begius his State, 
liobcd iu ilames, aiiJ amber liglit 
The clouds iu tliousaud liveries dight. 

Mh.ton; '■ L'Allegro." 

FROM his farnilioutio on tliu liill, Secruiary Van Tienlioveu 
could look down upon a row of live bouses standing in 
close proximity to one another in the Smits Vly, and at the 
southeastei'ii angle of his estate. These buildings, together 
with the neighboring house of Thomas Ilall, the warehouse 
of Isaac AUerton, and the ferry-liouse of Eghbert van Borsum, 
formed a small handet ofleii spoken of simply as " The 
Ferry." 

Ill the summer of 1649, the Secretary had sold three plots 
of ground upon the river road, and near the intersection of 
the modern Pearl and Fulton streets, to two of his brothers- 
in-law, Abraham Verplauck and Dirck Volckertsen, and to 
one Lambert Huybertsen. These plots contained nearly half 
an acre each, and extended back from the river road to the 
higli ground in their rear. Volckertsen soon subdivided his 
parcel, and sold to persons who built upon their plots, so that 
the previously isolated state of the Seci-etary's farmhouse was 
somewhat relieved. 

Till' first of these buildings, going towards the ferry, at the 
time of our survey, was the house of Lambert Huybertsen 



.f. .;. . ivi.i. % 



320 NEW AMSTEUDAIM AND ITS PEOPLE 

Moll, to whom sometimes the designation of "klomp," or 
wooden shoe, was given, — probably either from his wearing 
or manufacturing those useful articles. His house seems to 
have stood about upon the site of the present building, No. 
253 Pearl Street, and was built, in all probability, about the 
time of his acquiring the land in 1G49. lie seems to have 
brought his family with him from the Netherlands, though from 
what particular place is uncertain, one of his sons, Ilendrick, 
appearing in the records as of Amsterdam, and another, 
Huybert, of Aernhcm, on the lower Khine. Of Lambert's 
life in New Amsterdam not much is known. He was weak 
enough, on one occasion, to appear with " just a drappie in 
the e'e " before the Court of Burgomasters, at the Stadt 
Iluys, during the progress of a suit by him against Isaac Kip; 
the indignant court promptly vindicated its outraged dignity 
by fining the offender the sum of six guilders, equivalent to 
two dollars and forty cents, and turning him out of its 
presence. Nevertheless, Lambert appears to have been a man 
of a humane and kindly (lisposition. There is some evidence 
that he followed the occupation of a boat-builder or boatman,' 
and upon the occurrence of the Indian panic of 1655 he loaned 
one of his scows to the frightened inhabitants of Gamoenepa, 
or Communipaw, across the Nortii River, for the purpose of 
ferrying over their cattle to Manhattan Island. The refugees 
gave themselves, upon this occasion, no concern about return- 
ing the vessel to its owner, but simply abandoned it, and 
Lambert experienced much trouble in recovering its posses- 
sion. Lambert Huybertsen seems to have resided in tliis 
house until his death, which took place some time before the 
year 167G, at which period the property was sold to Elias 
Puddington, or Purington, a prominent shipwright in the 
early days of the English r<^gime.^ 

' In 1G56 Lambert Mull was ordered by the Couucil to make an examiuatioa 
and report upon the conilitiou of a vessel from Virf^iuia then in the harbor, 

^ Lambert IIuybertBeu and his sou Keyer were the owners of a tract of land 
embracing about one hundre.l and fifty acres, which extended along the East River 
from the marshes of the Wallaliimt nearly to the present North First Street, iu 



DIRCK VOLCKERTSEN 321 

Closely adjoining the house of Lambert Iluybertsun, in 
m easterly direction, and apparently upon the site of No. 
255 Pearl Street, was the small house of Ilage (sometimes 
called Ilaeke, and sometimes Auke) Bruynsen, a Swede, whom 
We lind at New Amsterdam in the early part of 1653, when 
he married Anneken Jans, a Danish woman from llolstein. 
In the fall of the same year he purchased a small slip of 
gi'ound here from Dirck Volckertsen, and seems to have built 
upon it at once. Bruynsen was from the Province of Smii- 
land in the southern pait of Sweden; it was at the head of 
tlie famous Smiiland Cavalry that Gustavus Adolphus, King 
of Swede. 1, met his death at Liiticen, in lt)32 ; and for aught 
we know, Bruynsen, as a tiooper in the Swedish squadrons, 
ay have confronted his neighbor, Augustyn lieermans, 
in Wallenstein's army, on that memorable day. liruynseii 
died about the year 16G8, and two years later his house was 
sold to one Jacob llellekers, familiarly known as "black 
Jacob." The house is of some interest, as the lodging-place, 
in 1G79, of the Labadist missionaries, Danker and Sluytcr, 
whose interesting jounral of their experiences in the New 
World was brought to light by Hon. Henry C. Murphy some 
years ago.^ 

Next beyond the house of Ilage Bruynsen stood, in 1G55, 
the residence of Dirck Volckertsen, the brother-in-law of 
Secretary Van Tienhoveu, — not his oiiginal house at this 
place, built upon his acquiring the land in 1G49 from the 
Secretary, but a later one, which he appears to have built for 
himself about 1G51, at wliich time he had sold his first house 
to Roeloff Teunissen. Dirck Volckertsen, at the time of our 
survey, was in the later years of his life, and was iji all prob- 
al/dity at this time, the earliest European settler living in 
the colony. In considering him, we are going back to the 
days of the blockhouse and ti'ading-post, with which he must 

Hrooklyn, thus covering about one-lialf of the moileru Williamaburyh. Lambert's 
patent was acciuired as early as 1641. Within twenty or twenty-five years, 
however, both father and sun liail Jispoaed of tlieir holdings on Long Island. 

' Sec the translated Journal in Vol. I., Memoirs L(Jiig Island Historical 
Sotiety. 

21 



322 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

have been familiar. In tlie year 1621 we find Dirck Volckert- 
sen and Cornelis Volckertsen (who was in all piokiliility Lis 
brother), together with certain uliier pi;is(;iis, presuutiiig a 
petition to the States-General of the Netherlands, praying for 
permission to send a ship over to New Netherland, " witli 
all sorts of permitted niercliandise," and it was, in all proba- 
bility, in pursuance of this design that the two Volckcrtsena 
came over to the colony. These men, at the period uf tiiuir 
mercantile venture, were residents of lloorn, on the peninsula 
of North Holland, but they appear to have been Danes, or 
Scandinavians by birth, ^ and Dirck was closely associated 
in New Netherland with the Swedes and Norwegians in the 
colony. How the Volckertsens spent their earlier years in 
New Netherland we dt) not know. When they are lirst met 
with in tlie records of the colony, about lG-14, Cornelis was 
residing upon the east side of the Heerewegli, or Broadway, 
upon a grant which he had obtained thei'e a short time before, 
and through which tiie modern l^xchange Place runs. Here 
he seems to have kept a tavern for a short time, but he died 
before 1650, in which year his widow married Jan Pceck, of 
whom previous mention has been niade.^ 

Dirck at this time was living apparently in the house after- 
wards known as Sergeant Jjitschu's tavern, upon the road 
along tlie East River, with which he owned a small plot of 
land. He had married, before 1632, Christina, daughter of 
Guillaume Vigne, or Willem Vinje, and step-daughter of Jan 
Damen, but he does not appear to have been on the best of 
terms with his wife's family, and especially with his step- 
father, Jan Damen. In 1645 he disposed of Ins place along 
the river road ; but four years later, having obtained a grant 
of land from his bi'other-in-law, Secretary Van Tieidioven, at 
the place in the Smits VI3' at winch we have now arrived, 

1 The name " Volckertsen " seems to be a refmeinent by the Dutch upon 
" Holgcrsen," by whicli name Dirck is occasionally designated, llolger, or Ogier, 
the Dane, living iu the time of Charlemaj^iie, is a great legendary hero of Den- 
mark, and it was iiossibly to iho story of his ghost, which haunted the Castle of 
Elsinore, that we owe Shakespeare's " Hamlet." 

- See ante, page 301. 



THE NORMAN'S KILL 323 

he built a house which must have stood upon tlie whole or a 
part of the site of the modern building, No. 259 Pearl Street. 

This, with one-half of his garden of ninety-two feet front, 
extending back something over two hunLlred feet to the hill 
upon which the farmhouse of his brother-in-law stood, he 
disposed of within a couple of years to a Swedish sea captain 
named Itoeloff Tennissen, as above stated, and he then 
erected upon the site of tlie present buihling, No. 257 Tearl 
Street, the house which he occupied at the time of our survey. 

Li 1645 Dirck Volckertsen received a jiatent for the lands 
along the East River, which form the modern (jrecnpoiut; 
from the appellation of "Tlie Ncjrnian " frecjueutly given to 
liim, the kill on the south side of his grant, known in late 
times as the liushwick Creek, was in the seventeenth century 
usually spoken of as the Norman's Kill. Through this tract 
of land a long lane or wood road stretched up from the river 
through the forest to the spot where, in later years, the ham- 
let of Bushwick grew up. Volckert.sen seems to have culti- 
vated a portion of this tract, probably residing at his house in 
the Smits Vly, and like many of tiie other farmers along the 
shore, sailing to and from the scene of his agricultural labors, 
with his sons and work hands. Li 1G53 he conveyed to 
Jacob Oaie, or JIaes, who appears to have been the husband 
of his daughter, Christina, that portion of the tract lying 
north of the lane just mentioned, but Ilaes had hardly estab- 
lished himself here, when in the fall of 1655, his house was 
burned by the Indians, as has been already mentioned.' 
After the cessation of the Indian troubles, Dirck Volckertsen 
appears to have removed to his farm at the Norman's Kill, for 
in a deed of 1661 he describes himself as of "I'ushwyk. " 
The entire tiuct eventually came into the hands of the Mese- 
role family, descendants of Dirck's daughter Christina, who 
held it until recent years, and may still hold some portions of 
it. 

The occupant of Dirck Volckertsen's original house upon 

the parcel of ground in the Smits Vly, who was still his 

• See imte, page 109. 



324 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

neighbor at the time of our survey, was, as has been stated, 
one Koeloff Teunissen. This man came from where Gothen- 
burg looks out from among its bare hills of gray granite 
upon the blue waters of the broad Cattegat which separates 
Sweden from Denmark. The old city of the Goths was then, 
as now, one of the principal seaports of Sweden, and, like 
many of its natives, Iloeloif Teunissen was a seafaring man. 
In 1651 he had found employment in the Dutcli ber\ice, and 
was tlien "Master of the whip tlie Emperor Charles." He re- 
sided here at his house in the SmiLs Vly till 1G57, when he 
sold the premises to Jan Hendricks Steehnan. 

The remaining house in Secretary Van Tienlioven's hamlet 
near " The Ferry " was, iii 1055, that of his brother-in-law, 
Abraham Isaacsen Verplanck. This stood in a large garden, 
of about ninety feet front by two hundred feet in depth, and 
its site is believed to be covered by the modern Fulton 
Street.^ Verplanck was one of the earliest colonists, and before 
1632 had married Maria, the eldest daugliter of WiUem Vinje, 
and sister of Rachel, tiie Secretary's wife, and of Clu'istina, 
the wife of Dirck Volckertsen. As to the particular occupa- 
tion of Verplanck we have but little information : as early 
as 1638 ho liad acquired a patent for tlie tract across the 
North River, called Pouwells Hoek, upon which the modern 
Jersey City stands, but he himself does not appear to have 
been engaged in farming operations. There are evidences 
that he was not a popular man in the community, for in 1642 
he incurred the wrath of the Director and Council by defi- 
antly tearing down one of the placards of ordinances posted 
by them. For this offence, enhanced by remarks considered 
" slanderous " by the authorities, the rather severe fine of 300 
guilders, or about §120, was imposed on him. On the otlier 
liand, his conduct in the following year in signing, with Iiis 
wife's step-father, Jan Damen, and with Maryn Adriaensen, 
the petition for leave to attack the Wechquaskeek Indiana 
brought him into great odium among the colonists, who con- 

' This portion of Pnlton Street was only opened through from Cliff Street 
to the East liiver a few years befure 1817. 



THOMAS HALL 325 

sidered him as one of those who were directly responsible for 
the devastations committed by the natives in retaliation for 
the massacre by the Dutch. Verplanck lived for many years 
after he had built his house in the Smit's Vly in 1649, but 
whether he resided here constantly is not known, as there 
are indications that a portion of his time was spent at Fort 
Orange, or Albany. 

Looking eastward from Secretary Van Tienhoven's farm- 
house near the East Kiver across a ravine, which marked the 
boundary of his farm, and which traversed the space between 
tlie modern Fulton and Beekman streets, one could see a 
small isolated hillock, containing some eight or nine acres of 
land, ^\hich fell away, upon its farther side, into a hollow of 
swampy woodland, the site of which is still known by the 
name of " The Swamp," though tlie oaks and maples, the alders 
and swamp blackberries, of the Secretary's time have long 
since given way to dingy warehouses crammed with hides 
and leatiier, the odors of which fill the air where perhaps the 
Secretary may have sniffed the fragrance of the wild grape. 

This hillock (whicli is plainly discernible in the modern 
grade of Pearl Street, the ancient river road), pushing for- 
wards towards the East River, put an end to the low grounds 
of the Smits Vly, which extended from the palisades at Wall 
Street to tliis point. Upon the hill, at a spot which has not 
been accurately detemiined, but whicli must have been inter- 
mediate between the present Beekman and Ferry streets, 
stood, in 1655, the "house, brew-house, mill-house, with 
a horse-mill and other buildings " of the Secretary's neigh- 
bor, the Englishman Thomas Hall. Back of the buildings, 
upon ground extending from the modern Cliff Street to Gold 
Street, was a goodl}- orchard, above which towered up, at its 
southwest corner, and just at the intersection of the modern 
Ann and Gold streets, the landmark long known as " The 
Great Tree." On the south side of the buildings, upon 
ground sloping towards the Smits Vly and the modern Fulton 
Street, was a large garden. At the time of our survey, this 
property had been very recently acquired by Thomas Hall, 



326 NKW AMSTERDAM ANT) ITS I'EOIM.P. 

but it hiid a history extending sonic years buck into tlie earlier 
days of the colony. As early as 1G!38, this pai-eel of land was 
in the possession of I'liilip dti Trieiix (or De Trtiy, as the 
Dutch generally designated him), who was long the Court 
" Messenger," or marshal, at New Amsterdam. Philip was 
one of the older residents, and seems to have been one of the 
first, if not the very first to build upon the Bever Graft, or the 
modern Beaver Street, where for a number of years he had a 
house. In 1G40 he received his ground-brief or patent for 
the land adjoining Secretary Van Tienhovcn's farm, and 
seems to have then resided upon it, for about that time ho 
with several others of that vicinity make a formal contract 
with Claes Groen and Pieter Licvescn for the herding of 
their goats for a whole year, at tlie munilicent sum of one 
guilder, or about forty cents per year for each goat. Tliis 
important document is entered with much formality upon the 
Register of the Secretary of the Council. 

Piiilip de Truy had died some time before 1G53 : he 
seems to have leased or to have contracted to sell this place 
to Nicholas Stilwel, for in 1649 we find the latter promising 
to furnish one Henry Bresar with " palisiules " enough to 
fence the premises along the river road, and within two years 
to furnish enough more to fence the other sides of tlie land, 
in consideration of which, Bresar acknowledges that " he has 
taken off the hands of Nicolaes Stillwell the land and dwell- 
ing house " in question. Bresar seems to liave remained in 
possession of the place till about the year 1653, when he built 
a new house a short distance beyond the ferry, on some land 
which he had acquired there, and tlie former dwelling-house 
of Philip de Truy, after one or two intermediate changes, 
was bought, in August, 1654, by Thomas Hall. 

This man, who was for nearly thirty-five years a prominent 
character at New Amsterdam, possesses a peculiar inttirest to 
us as having been with his partner, George Holmes, beyond 
any reasonable doubt tiie first English settlers in the present 
Slate of New York ; that honor has been claimed for Lion 
Cardiiier, who acquired Gardiner's Island at the eastern end 
of Long Island, in 1639; but in 1638 Thomas Hall with 



M::. ':4 



^r-lr:,:^-^ 



HALlyS TOBACCO PLANTATION 327 

Holmes was in occupation of ex-Director Van Twiller's 
tobacco plantation at Sapokauican near the later Greenwich 
village, and in all probability they had been there for at least 
a year or two before that date. 

Hall, who was a native of Gloucestershire in the west of 
England, appears to have been one of a little band of colonists 
who, after a short sojourn in New England, concluded to 
establish themselves, without seeking any one's permission, 
in the lands claimed by the Dutch along the Delaware River. 
Made prisoners and brought to New Amsterdam in 1635, 
several of these colonists determined to become subjects of 
the Dutch and to establish themselves in New Amsterdam, 
and among these, as it is supposed, were both Hall and 
Holmes. In some way these men, though young, — Hall was 
born about in the year 1614, — had become familiar with the 
cultivation and curing of tobacco, and they accordingly 
commenced operations in partnership as tobacco-planters, by 
leasing Director Van Twiller's large bouwery, one of the 
best on the island. By 1639, they had been so successful 
tiiat they determined to set up a plantation of their own on 
some suitable ground near the East River shore, at what was 
called Deutel Bay near the present Forty-sixth Street. In 
the next year the partners separated. Hall selling out for six- 
teen hundred pounds of tobacco his interest in the Deutel 
Bay farm to Holmes, who thereupon established himself upon 
that farm, which remained long in the possession of him and 
of his descendants. 

Thomas Hall remained till the beginning of 1647 upon ex- 
Director Van Twiller's plantation. When he first came to 
New Netherland he was an unmarried man, but in 1641 he 
married a distressed English widow who had found lierself 
in the painful position of being left destitute and alone in a 
strange land and among a foreign people. This was Anna 
Mitford, from Bristol, not very far from the scenes of Hall's 
youth. She iiad been the wife of William Quick, who had 
recently tUed very poor. In a pathetic petition which she 
made to the Director and Council soon after her husband's 
death she shows that she "is an afllicted widow, in a strange 






iy 



328 NEW AiAlSTEKDAM v\Nl) ITS PEOPLE 

land, without any means or effects to satisfy the creditors ; 
yea, even knows not where to kiy her head, or to obUiin 
a morsel of bread," — she therefore abandons all the very 
humble effects of her husband to his creditors. Iler mar- 
riage with Thonuis Hall seems to liave been a fortiuiate one, 
and she survived him after thirty years of married life, most 
of which were sjjcnt at the house u])on tlie river rcjad to 
which we have just alluded. 

For many 3'ears Thomas Hall carried on his farming opera- 
tions upon Manhattan Island ; he seems, besides, to have been 
something of a speculator, and several large farms passed 
through his hands and were sold or exchanged by him. He 
appears to have been familiar with the language and customs 
of his Dutch neighbors, was generally respected and trusted 
by them, and was often associated with them in business or 
speculation. In 1651 he was aj)poiuted one of the curators 
of the estate of Jan Jansen Danien, and seems to have suc- 
ceeded in reconciling the conflicting interests of Daman's 
heirs in the Netherlands with tliose of his stepchildren in 
New Amsterdam. In 1G50 he was one of the delegates on 
behalf of the peoi^le in their application for a city government 
for New Amsterdam; and in 1668 he was one of the commis- 
sioners appointed to lay out and determine the most con- 
venient wagon-road to Harlem. 

After the death of Thomas Hall, in 1669, Ids widow sold 
in the following year the property on which she and her 
husband had long resided to Willem Beeckman, reserving a 
right during her life to one-half of its orchard. With the 
Beeckman family the place soo)i came to be popularly iden- 
tified, the land being known as " Beekman's orchard " long 
after the last apple or pear tree had vanished ; the modern 
Beekman Street, which traverses it, stdl aids in preserving 
the associations. As for Mrs. Anna Hall, after the sale of 
the property, she took up her residence in a house upon the 
south side of Wall Street, near Broad Street, where she is 
found residing in 1674, l)ut the time of her death is not 
ascertained. 



CHAPTER XXIV 

THE TOWN'S END AND UESTEVAERS KREUPELBOSCIl. — 
ISAAC ALLEIITON AND IllS WAllEllOUSE.-LOOCKKUMANS' 
FARM. — THE FERRY. — HARRY BRAZIER'S HOUSE.— 
DIRCK, THE POTTER 

'i'here were also pastures covered witli gray rocks, looking like sheep; the 
green woods in some places were intersected by fields of brown rye, or soft clover. 
On the whole it waa a verdantscene, — greenness, like a hollow ocean, spread itself 
out before her ; the hills were green, the depths were green, the trees, grass, and 
weeds were green ; . and in the forest, on the south margin of the pond, the dark- 
ness as the sun went down seemed to form itself into caverns and grottoes, and 
strange fantastic shapes in the solid greenness. Deejj in those woods the blackcap 
and thrush still hooted and clang unweariedly ; she heard also the cawing of 
crows and the scream of the loon ; the tinkle of Leils, the lowing of cows, and 
the bleating of sheep were distinctly audible. Iler own robin, on the butternut 
below, began his long, sweet, many toned carol; the tree-toad chimed in witli its 
loud, trilling chirrup; and frogs, from the pond and mill brook, croolod, 
chubbed, and croaked. — JiiDu's " filargaret." 

UPON some such summer evening as the author of 
" ]\Iargaret " has so graphically depicted, and amid 
very similar surroundings, it is not unlikely that there may 
have come to 'i'honias Hall — as lie strolled, at about the 
period of our survey, in an unoccupied hour, through his 
young orchard on the hill back of his newly-acquired home on 
the East River shore, and as he looked over the quiet rural 
landscape spread out before him at the upper end of the village 
of New Amsterdam — memories of his old home in far away 
Gloucestershire. 

It was a distinctly English landscape : beyond the rear fence 
of his orchard, about at tlie present Gold Street, he saw as 
he looked northwards — toward wliere the tall newspaper build- 
ing- of Printing House Square and the hurrying crowds at the 
entrance of the Brooklyn Bridge now present themselves — 



'1 'i'\ "i 



330 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

the fields of rye or of peas, of maize or of tobacco, of Govert 
LoGckeriiians' farm, long hired of him and eullivuted by a 
sturdy Dutch farmer, Ileiuhick Pieterscu van Ilasselt. Beyond 
the fence upon the farther side of tliese fields, which ran along 
the line of the present Chatham and Nassau streets, lay the 
broad stretch of the Common Pasture, where the cows from the 
town grazed among the scattered rocks and bushes, or from 
which, at the close of the day, they wended their way, under 
tlie guidance of their herdsman, in a leisurely procession down 
the Heerewegh and Maagde Paetje, toward the houses of their 
owners in the town. Beyond the commons again were the 
gently sloping fields of the Company's bouwery, west of the 
present Broadway : and the wooded hills of Hoboken, across 
the North Uiver, closed the view ia this direction. 

As the gazer at the above station turned farther to his 
right, he saw before him, beyond the same fields of Looeker- 
mans, — which curved, in a semicircular form, from the 
hedges of Van Tienhoven's lane down to the East River, — 
two rough, forest-covered elevations: one of these, at the 
distance of about half a mile from him, was the liill known as 
the Kalck (or Kolck) lloek; the other, somewhat nearer, was 
called (perhaps from a corruption by tlie Dutcii of the English 
word "Catamount") Catiemuts lloek, or hill.^ Between 
these two hills, and shaded by their trees, which droi)ped their 
butternuts, acorns, and hickory nuts into its watei'S, lay the 
beautiful little lakelet long known as the Kolck,* and occa- 
sionally spoken of merely as the " Versehe Water," or fresh 
water ; and around the base of the last-mentioned hill wound 
the narrow road or track leading to the bouwerys, situated 
farther up the island. Still farther to the right, the high 
grounds and Loockermans' fields fell away into a tract of a 
few acres of wet meadow-land, through which a small brook, 
forming an outlet in wet seasons to the Kolek, flowed sluggishly 
into the East River ; near the head of tliis meadow, and where 



1 The foimer of theso liills \va3 long aftcnvaniji cu 
Broadway tliroush it; the latter iu the grading of Chi 

2 Corrupted by the English iutb " Collect." 



THE "SWAMP" aai 

the roaxl crossed its stream and ascended the hill beyond, two 
or three small thatched cottages marked the site of the present 
Chatham Square ; and on the farther side of the meadow the 
ground rose again into the broad fields and orchards of the 
larger bouwerys, laid out a score of years Ijcfore by the West 
India Company, beyond which a curving line of wood-crested 
hills closed in the horizon. 

In this latter direction, however, the view of the observer 
from Thomas Hall's orchard was somewhat interfered with by 
the trees of a swampy liollow, or basin, which lay below him. 
This covered some four or five acres of ground, and was 
known as Bestevaers Kreupelbosch, or '■ the Old Man's 
Swamp." For some reason, possibly because it was considered 
worthless, it had never been granted to any person by the 
ol'iicers of the West India Company, although the land sur- 
rounding it had all been appropriated by various individmils ; 
and the Swamp lay, cut ul'f fiom general access, a sort of 
" no man's land," of not much use except to the adjoining 
owners for the purpose of watering their cattle at its pools, 
or to shoot woodcock, — or those birds' poor relations, the 
" high holders," — in its muddy thickets. 

Whether because of copious springs which existed in the 
wet hollow of the Kreupelbosch, or which had formerly existed 
there before the clearing of the sui-rounding land, or whether 
because of the action of the ancient glaciers which had moulded 
this basin, a considerable depression, as of the bed of a stream 
of some size, led from the Swamp into the East River; its 
traces may yet be seen in the grade of the modern Pearl Street 
at Peck Slip. This depression, extending out into the East 
River, formed a small cove or haven, upon one side of which, 
by a little docking and fdhng out, Isaac Allerton, the New 
England trader, obtained a site for his wareliouse -with sufficient 
depth of water to enable the coasting craft to come up to it; 
while upon the other side of the little cove lay the boats and 
scows of the ferry to Breucklyn. 

At the mention of tiie name of Isaac Allerton, every New 
Yoi'ker of aristocratic proclivities feels, or at any rate might 



332 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

be expected to feel, a tlirill of pi'ide. Isaac Allerton was not, 
it is true, a pennaneiiL resident of New Amsterdam, but he 
spent much of his time at liis establishment there ; and when 
the Dutch authorities wished to raise money from him by 
imposts or contiibutions, tliey invariably spoke of him as an 
old and highly respected citizen. New York is relieved from 
the painful necessity of having to contemplate from a position 
of hopeless inferiority the exaltation of New England. In 
Isaac Allerton is the one small trickling stream of blue blood 
which flows to New York frour the Pilgrims of the " May- 
flower," " tiiat blessed band of the First Ship," as one of their 
numerous historians handsomely calls them. Isaac Allerton 
is, as it were, the little leaven wliieh leavens the whole New 
York lump; and all New Yorkers have part and parcel in 
him : — 

" Audi ich war in ArcaJiin geboreii. " 

In considering the life of Isaac Allerton, or Alderton, — as 
he is occasionally called, — we go, as we are accustomed to 
regard it, very far back into the past. Porn in 1585, in 
the county of Suffolk in England, perhaps, — who knows? — 
where the little village of Alderton, from its low rise of 
ground between the marshes of the Aide and the Deben, 
looks out to the southeastward upon the German Ocean, he 
was old enough to have remembered seeing the ceaseless 
march of the squads of volunteers, as they streamed through 
Ipswich on tiieir way to the muster at Tilbury, to fight for 
England against the Spanish host on the great Armada, and 
in the Duke of Parma's transports. Perhaps, too, he had rec- 
ollections of that sunnner day wlien every hill-top along the 
shore of Suffolk was thronged with people watching the far- 
otT cloud of Spanish galleons as they hurried northwards to 
escape the ships of Howard and Drake, while the alarm bells 
from the village churches were answering each other in all 
directions, and beacon-fires were blazing all along the coast. 

His associations may well, indeed, have gone still farther 
back. People of the second preceding generation could have 



ISAAC ALLERTON 333 

told him — and doubtless often did tell him — of the d;u k 
days in Suffolk under Bishop Bomier's persecutions, in the 
time of Queen Mary, for the AUertons were of good Protes- 
tant stock, and interested in these things ; Ralph AUertou 
and tliree companions were burned together at the stake, 
at Islington, in 1557, for shocking Bishop Bonner's religious 
sense by reading the proscribed " Communion Book." 

All Suffolk in AUerton's younger days was full of stories 
and reminiscences of the persecutions. Historic Iladleigh 
was not very far away, whose good vicar. Doctor Rowland 
Taylor, having been tried for heresy in London, was scut 
down into Suffolk to be burned at the stake in liis own 
parish, as a wiiolesome example to his parisliioners ; and the 
Suffolk people still told with reverence that pathctio story 
wiiich through three centuries and more lias never yet lost its 
pathos: _ _ _ 

"Coming witliin two miles of Iladleigh, lie desired to 
light off his horse, which done he leaped and set a frisk 
or twain as men commonly do for dancing. ' Why, master 
doctor,' quotii the sheriff, 'how do you now?' lie an- 
swered, 'Well, God be praised. Master Siieriff, never better; 
for now I know I am almost at liome. I lack not inmt two 
stiles to go over, and I am even at my Father's house I ' " . . . 

At last, " ' What place is this,' he asked, ' and what 
meaneth it that so much people are gatliered togctiier?' It 
was answei-ed, ' It is Oldham Common, the place wiiere you 
must suffer, and the people are come to look up(jn you.' 
Then said he, ' Thanked be God, I am even at home ! ' " 

It was with early associations such as these that Isaac 
AUcrton came, together with his wife Mary, and Ins tliree 
children, Bartholomew, Remember, and Mary, to Plymouth 
with the first colonists, in 1620. Of his history prior to 
that time but little is known. lie was evidently a man of 
business experience, for soon after the landing he was chosen 
" assistant," or what migiit be called lieutenant-goveinor 
undcf Governor Bradford; he was, moieover, a man of some 
means, for he is mentioned its one of tlic wealthiest of the 



334 NEW AMSTEllDAM AND ITS PEOIMJC 

colonists. His tluitclicd dwelling-house on tlie soulli side of 
Leydeu Street in Plymouth, opposite tliat of Governor Brad- 
ford, is shown with wliat is probably a substantial degree of 
accuracy in tlie imaginary view of old Plymouth painted by 
Mr. W. L. Williams. Its site is now apparently occupied by 
the later Market Street, but the " delicate spring " at tlie 
rear of his house lot still flows into tlie old Town Brook aa 
it did when he first drardv of its waters, llis name is com- 
memorated in one of the principal streets of Plymoulli, and 
it is upon AUerton Street tliat the nol)le monument to the 
Pilgrims stands. 

Isaac Allerton was not exempted from tlie early trials of 
the Plymouth Colonists ; scarcely more than two montlis had 
elapsed from the landing, when liis wife succumbed to tlie 
hardships of her life in the colony. Five years afterwards, 
in 1G26, he married for his second wife the daughter of Elder 
William Brewster,^ by whom he had a son, Isaac, who, as 
well as his father, figures in the history of, New Amsterdam. 
Allerton soon became engaged in trading ventures, — at first 
along the northeastern coast, as it would seem, — but these 
were not always successful ; and in lt)33 a trading house 
which he had at Machias, on tlie Maine coast, was destroyed 
by the Erench. Soon after this period he seems to liave 
turned his attention to the .southwestern coast and to the in- 
creasing importance of the Dutch trade at New Amsterdam. 
His ties at Plymouth had become loosened by the death of 
his second wife in 1G33, and soon after the establishment of 
the New Haven colony, in 1638, we find him a resident of that 
place, where in 1646 he married his tliiid wife, Joanna.^ 

In the mean time Isaac AUerton's trading opeiations had 
led him at an early date to New Amsterdam, \Ndiere he was 

1 Fear Brewster, accunliiig to uome of the biographers, hut in tlie Plymouth 
list the s.ime person seems to be <lesignateii by the name of " Love." Besides this 
lady and Renionibcr Allerton, that list contains the curious names of Desire 
Winter, Wrestling Brewster, Humility Cooper, Resolved White, and Oceanus 
Hopkins. 

* It was this laily who, some time after the death of her husband, is said to 
liave given shelter to the fugitive regiciiles, Goffe and Wlialluy. 



,' -M 



ALLERTON'S WAREHOUSE 335 

soon brought into intimate business relations with the Dutch 
trader, Govert Looekermans. As early as 1642 we iind him 
negotiating a sale to Looekermans and to one Cornells Leen- 
dertsen, for the sum of 1100 carolus guilders (equivalent to 
about $450) of ills bark "The Hope," reserving the right of 
a return voyage in her to the Rotleberch, or Red Hill, as the 
Dutch called New Haven. In the next year, he and Looek- 
ermans jointly took a grant from the Director and Council of 
a parcel of ground on the east side of the present Broatlway, 
a short distance north of Beaver Street, which ground, as has 
already been observed,' may have been intended as a site for a 
warehouse, but which was never used for such a pui'pose, 
having been sold by the grantees williin a few years after its 
acquisition. 

As early as 164G or 1647, however, Allerton had made 
arrangements to establish a permanent trading house in New 
Amsterdam, which was under the immediate supervision of a 
clerk or agent, George Woolsey, from Yarmouth in England. 
He had purchased, for this purpose, from Philip de Truy, the 
owner,- a parcel of land, being a narrow strip lying between 
the road and the East River shore and containing more than 
live hundred feet of water frontage. At the southern end this 
parcel of ground contained but a few feet in width ; at its nortii- 
ern end, however, where it abutted upon the little haven al- 
ready spoken of, which, long ago filled up, forms the modern 
Peck Slij), it was of much greater width ; and here, after a little 
docking out and lilling, Isaac Allerton built his warehouse, a 
capacious two-story building, the appearance of which lias, 
without doubt, been preserved to us by the Labadist mis- 
sionaries. Danker and Sluyter, in their view of New 
York in 1679. The warehouse would appear to have very 
nearly occupied the sites of the present buildings, Nos. 8 
and 10 Peck Slip. 

Here, then, for a number of years the old Puritan mer- 
chant carried on his conunercial transactions, making fre- 

1 See autf, page 2.i7. 

^ The died tears date, April 10, 1047. 



.i^.,' . -l 



336 NEW AMSTERDAM AND I'J'S PEOPEE 

quent journeys backwards and forwards from his house at 
New llavea. Besides being at times quite hugely interested 
in trade with tlie Netlierlands and in deaUngs direetly with 
the West India Company, a great part of tlie eonimerce be- 
tween New Netlierland and tiie New England cohiuies passed 
Ihrougli his hands. His warehouse lierc upon the l%ast River 
became the resort of most of the English doing business in 
New Amsterdam ; and here, doubtless, many profound dis- 
cussions took place respecting the powers of the monarch and 
of the parliament; of " Divine Right," and of "The (iood Old 
Cause ;" of the trial of King (Charles and of the doings of 
Oliver Cromwell. " Allerton's Ruilding" in fact was a jjrora- 
inent feature of the town ; and in the autunm of 1050, we lind 
George Woolsey, who was still residing at the house, making 
a petition to tlie burgomasters for pei'inission to retail wine 
and beer there, "as many strangers apply to him for ludgings." 
A license was refused at first, but was linally granted "for 
one year, as he has been at trouble, but not permanently, as 
being at too great a distance, and therefore suspect." 

The warehouse, too, was occasionally used in part at least 
for other purposes than those of commerce. In November, 

1654, it was hired by the burgoniasteis for the temporary re- 
ception of fifty boys and girls sent over from the almshouse 
at Amsterdam, — an experiment by the magistrates of that 
city. These children were to be bound out for the term of 
five years, after which period each was to receive lifty-three 
acres of land. Nor was Allerton's warehouse devoid of his- 
torical associations. When the Indians landed, in large 
numbers, upon Manhattan Island, on the 16th of September, 

1655, in the absence of Director-General Stuyvesant and of 
his soldiers, who had started a few days before upon their ex- 
pedition against the Swedes on the Delaware River, one of the 
first points at which they commenced their work of violence was 
at tills warehouse. " They ran in large armed parties through 
the streets," says Van Tienhoven, in his report to the Coun- 
cil, " violently attacked the house of Mr. Allerton, knocking 
the lock from his door, beating his servants, and ransacking 



ATTACK ON THE WAHEIIOUSE 337 

his premises, on pietence of searcliing for two Indians." . 
Tliere is indeed no telling to what leiigtlis the Indians might 
have proceeded upon this occasion, for they -were in number 
five or six hundred, and all of this portion of the town was in 
their power. They observed, however, that the guns of a 
Dutch ship conunanded by Captiiin Seharborgh, which lay in 
tlie East liivur ojiposite Allerlon's Warehouse, were being 
brought to bear upon tiie spot. A panic seized them, and 
tliey scurried away into the '• Kreupclboscli " and behind the 
hill back of Tliomas Hall's house, to get out of range of the 
guns in the vessel. It is (juite probable that these depreda- 
tions by the natives led to the subsequent construction of 
palisades around AUerton's place, for in the " Duke's I'lan " 
of 1G61, the building appears to stand in an enclosure. 

As Isaac AUerton advanced in years, he seems to have 
withdrawn more and more from active business at New Am- 
sterdam, his son Isaac Allerton, Junior, taking his place. 
This young man, who at the time of the building of his 
father's warehouse at New Amsterdam must have been a 
student at the then newly established Harvard College, where 
he graduated in or about the year 1G50, we find in occasional 
charge of his father's commercial interests as early as 1653. 
The elder Allerton, however, never lost interest iu the foster- 
ing of trade and intercourse between New England and New 
Netherland, and upon more than one occasion he is found 
mediating, or even giving his own personal guarantee, for 
the sake of avoiding quarrels between his countrymen and the 
Dutch of New Amsterdam. He died at New Haven in the 
early part of the year 1659, and on the 16th of December of 
that year on the application of his son Isaac, we find the 
burgomasters of New Amsterdam appointing his old business 
associate Govert Loockermans, together with Captain Paulus 
Leendertsen van der Grift, George Woolsey, and John Law- 
rence, curators of his estate in New Amsterdam.^ Whether 

1 Isa:ic AUorton's yt>ungest daughter, Mary, who married EUIer Cushman. 
died at n great .age, iu 1099, and is believed by some of the historians of Ply- 
mouth 10 have been the last survivor of the " Mayflower " colonists. 



338 NEW AMSTERDAM AND ITS I'E01'1;E 

the New England trade was still curried on at the warehouse 
after Isaac Allertou's decease, and if so, in wIkjsc iuuids it 
remained, are matters about wliieh there is much obscurity. 
The building itself was standing many years after the death 
of its original owner, and towarils the close of the seventeenth 
century it had come into the possession of the Beeckmans, 
who owned the property upon tiie ojjposite side of the road, 
or the modern Pearl Street. 

With the exception' of the wooded swamp, of four or five 
acres in area, known as Bestevaers Kreupelljoscli, which, as 
has been previously stated, was never made the subject of a 
grant by the Dutch government, all the land lying between 
Isaac Allerton's warehouse and the meadow called Wolphert 
Gerritsen's Vly (which with the small sti'cam flowing througii 
it known as the Versche Water, or sometimes as the Old Kill, 
formed the northern boundary of that portion of Manhattan 
Island pertaining more especially to tJie town of New Am- 
sterdam) composed originally a hirm of about thirty-live acres, 
which, when it is first brouglit to our notice, about the year 
1640, had been partly cleared aiul cultivated by David Pro- 
voost. This tract extended back from the river to tlie Com- 
mon Pasture, now the City Hall Park, and its area, now densely 
crowded, in part with great office, factory, and newspaper 
buildings, in part with scjualid tenements of a river-side pop- 
ulation, may be said roughly to extend from the modern 
Ferry and Ann streets about to the present James Street. 
Near the river shore stood Provoost's humble hirndiouse, at 
a point which is believed to be in the interior of the block 
between the modern Pearl and Water streets, Dover Street, and 
Peck Slip. East of the house and extending from the river 
.shore up to the present Franklin Square, of which it covered 
the site as well as that of the modern Dover Street, was a 
small cherry and apple orchaid, long afterwards famous as 
" the Cherry Garden," the trees of which may very likely have 
bii 11 set out by Provoost himself. Two centuries and a half 
after their planting they are still commemorated by the 



THE LOOCKERMANS FAUAI 339 

Cherry Street of the present day, — little suggestive of the 
fragrant white blossoms of the old seventeenth-century 
orchard. At David I'rovoost's farmhouse the road or track 
along the East River terminated, in his day ; whether the 
ferry to Long Island was established here during his occu- 
pancy we cannot tell, but after he had left the farm (which 
he had probably held as a tenant of the West India Com- 
pany), it was granted (ju the -lilh of March, IGi'l, to two 
men, — to Govert Loockermans, the merchant, and to one 
Cornells Leendertsen, — who undoubtedly purchased the 
property with the direct intention of maintaining tlie fei'ry 
here. The description of the farm as given in the deed to 
these two purchasers presents such a curious fjicture of tlie 
condition at that early day of that portion of the modern city 
which has been designated above; that a translation of it, 
witli some parentlietical explanations, may be not uninter- 
esting: it is described as "a dwelling liouse on the East 
River, together with the land thereto belonging, as the 
same is fenced in by David Provoost, which fencing 
begins at a bi'ook of fresh water emptying itself into the 
East River " (the outlet of the Kolck Pond, the course of 
which ran irregularly along the present Roosevelt and James 
streets), "till to the land of Cornelis van Tienhoveu" 
(which lay south of the present Ann Street; and Provoost's 
fence towards it skirted generally the modern Chatham and 
Nassau streets), " whose palisades, extending from the long 
higliway" (present Broadway) "towards the East River" 
(along present Ann Street), " as maybe seen by the marks by 
him made " (tlie fence of Van Tienhoven being evidently not 
as yet completed), " bordering on the aforesaid lands from tlie 
fence till to the great tree" (at the intersection of Ann and 
Gold streets), " which is the right division line between tiie 
land of Philip de Truy and Tienhoven; the said Philip ex- 
tending his palisades from tlie said tree northeast by east and 
east northeast between both " (that is, midway between these 
two courses and along the present Gold Street), "till to I5cs- 
tevaciw Kreupelbosch" (the well-known modern "Swamp'' 



340 NEW AiMSTEliDAM AND ITS PEOPLE 

of Jacob Street and of the leather trade), "and from the 
East River northwest and north northwest " (along Ferry 
Street), "till to the same swamp." The fact that "the 
Swamp" itself did not pass under this description evidently 
shows that at this time Provoost had fenced around it, prob- 
ably for the purpose of kee[)ing liis cattle out of its muddy 
depths. The rear portions of tliis farm, towaids the present 
t^hatham Street, were, it is also evident, only [KUliy cleared of 
timber at the time of tliis grant. 

Of the actual establishment of the Long Island Ferry on 
Loockermans' and I^eendertsen's farm Ijut little is known, 
except that it was under the control ui Cornells Dircksen 
(usually spoken of as the first feirynian), as early as the fall 
of 1G12. That there should have been some earlier reguLu' 
means of communicati(jn with the Long Island plantations, 
which were established several years prior to the last-men- 
tioned date, would seem altogether probable, but nothing in 
relation to the matter has come to us. The location of the 
ferry was the outcome of natural conditions which prevailed; 
tlie most feasible road to the river, upon the Long Island side, 
being down the ravine or depression which marked tlie course 
of the modern Fulton Street, and the landing-[ilace upon 
Manhattan Island being directly op]JOsite the termination of 
the Breueklyn road, anil at nearly the narrowest part of the 
East River. As for Cornells Dircksen, the feriyman, he 
possessed a farm upon the north side of the present Fulton 
Street, near the ferry, upon the Long Island side of the 
river, and this he was, doubtless, actively engaged in clearing 
and cultivating at this time, for although the ferry^ and its 
appurtenances were under his control, as already stated, he 
does not appear to have been occupied, during much of the 
time, in its actual management, for as early as 1643 he had 
leased it to Captain Willem Tomassen. A house and landing- 
place being also requli-ed for ferry purposes on the New 
Amsterdam side of the river, it is (piite evident that Loocker- 
mans' house and tlie land in its vicinity was hired for those 
purposes, but whetiier the building uas used exclusively by 



! THE LONG ISLAND FERRY a4i 

the ferryman and liis em[)lfiyees, or whether it was partly 
used for purposes of the farm, is not aseertained. ^Vt some 
time prior to tlie year 1G4G, Looelvermans' associate, 
Cornelis Leendertsen, died, and Dirck Cornelissen, who seems 
to have been his son, iiad lalvon liis place; other "partners" 
in the Netherlamis arc spoken of in some papers executed by 
Ivoockerinans and Dirck Cornelissen about this time, but this 
may refer merely to others of Cornelis Leendcrtsen's lieirs. 
It was at this period that Govert Loockermans and Dirck 
Cornelissen, after reserving the farmhouse and a parcel of 
ground of irregular shape, lying t(j the east of it and embrac- 
ing three acres or more of laud, disposed of the rest of the 
farm in the following manner: The land lying between the 
farndiouse and Allerton's warehouse (then probably just in 
ccmrse of erection), was sold to one William Goulder. Tliis 
parcel, which covered nearly two acres of ground, ran "from 
the height next the Strand " back to liestevaers Kreupelboseh ; 
and its easterly line seems to have about crossed the site (jf 
the present Harper building, near Franklin S(iuare; along its 
foot on the "Strand" (no longer following the present Pearl 
Street), ran the road to Loockermans' farmhouse, and to the 
ferry. 

Another parcel of ground sold by Loockermans and 
Cornelissen at this time was at the farthest cxti'eiuity of 
tlieir Lvnd along tlie I'^ast liiver, where there was a long, nar- 
row strip of upland lying between the river shore and the 
meadow, called VVolpherts Vly ; arou)ul its terminal point, the 
brook known as the "Old Kill" emptied into the East River, 
not far from the line of the modern James Street. This point 
of land, not more than one hundred and seventy feet in width 
at its widest part, and gradually diminishing throughout its 
length of about three hundred and sixty feet, almost to a 
mere point at its northeasterly termination, was sold to an 
Ihiglishman named Geoige Cleer. At the same time also, 
tli(! balance of the Loockermans' farm was leased for ten years 
t(i Hendrick I'ietcrsen v.m Hassclt, a farmer who had been 
oiir. of the first tenants of the West India Company's bouwery 



342 NEW AM8TERDAi\I AND ITS PEOPLE 

lying west of the couuiion pitbture, or luoileni City I hill Park. 
This man occupied a small house of his own on the lleerewegh, 
or Broadway, just outside of the "Land Poort," or gate at 
Wall Street, and was a well-known character of the town, 
who bore the whimsical apijcllatinn of Kint in't Water, or 
"Child-hi-the-Water." 

If Loockerraans and Cornelissen had any expectations that 
the neighborhood of their East River farm was to be improved 
by the grants they made to William Goulder and to George 
deer, in 1G46, they were doomed to disappointment. Neither 
of these men seems to have made any attempt to build upon 
the lands purchased b}' them. 'I'here are traces of Goulder's 
occupation of his parcel as late as 1G49, after which no 
further reference to him is met with.i George Cleer was living 
as late as 1660, when he took part in forming tiie first settle- 
ment of the town of Rye, iu Westchester County ; whether 
his design in purchasing this remote corner of land on the 
Loockermans' farm was to establish potteries or a mill there, 
as was afterwards done by others, we can only conjecture. 
At all events, both his parcel of ground and that of (ioulder 
are soon found to have returned into Loockermans' possession, 
very probably by virtue ui mortgages which he huld upon 
them. 

Through Ids marriage with the widow of Dirck Cornelissen, 
in 1649, Govert Loockeiuians had come into complete pos- 
session of the East River farm. In 1653 he sold the farm- 
house, with its garden, orchard, etc., to the then newly appointed 
ferry-master, Eghbert van Dorsum, wlio was the owner of the 
premises at the time of our survey. This man, who was the 
son of Jan van Rorsum, of Embden, in East Friesland, an 
ancient town under German rule but with many Dutch char- 
acteristics, had come to New Netluuiand at a comparatively 
early date, where, in 1639, he married Annetje ilendrickse, 
of Amsterdam. He seems to have been engaged in the 
coasting triule, and in 1647 was master of the ''yacht" 

1 He may haie been the person called William Gouldiiig, whum we find iu 
1661 at Graveseud, L. I. 



VAN DORSUM, THE FERRYMAN 343 

Prills Willeiii. He was, inoreover, on good terms wiLli Diroc- 
tor-(.ieiieral Stuyvesant, ami in 1G49 reported to that ofiieial 
certain hard things which tlie hatter's enemy, Cornells Mclyn, 
had said about him at New Haven, with which Van Borsuni 
claimed to have Leen greatly shocked. ^ I'erhaps it was in 
return for these good offices that in the fall of lti52 Eghbert 
received the appointment of ferry-master to Long Island; and 
in the old farmhouse he kept a tavern, where many a thirsty 
passenger has refreshed liiiiiself before or after braving the 
perils of a journey across the East River in one of Eghbert's 
scows. Although the office of ferr}^nan was no sinecure, — 
since by the regulations of 1G54 he had to hold himself in 
readiness to transport across the river any passengers that 
miglit offer themselves between the liours of hve o'clock in 
the morning and eight in the evening in summer, and from 
seven till live in the winter," — yet Eghbert seems to have 
found it a lucrative one, and at about the time of our survey, 
or towards tlie close of tiie year 1G55, he was actively engaged 
in building a new house for himself on the Breucklyn side. 
The old house and the ferry seem to have remained in 
Van Borsuni's hands for several years longer, but by 
1G70 they had returned into the possession of Govcrt 
Loockermaus. 

At the period of our survey, the ferry-house w:us no longer 
the outpost in this direction, of New Amsterdam. In 1653, at 
about the time of the sale to Eghbert van ]?orsum, Loocker- 
mans had sold another parcel of land, lying to the eastward of 
Van Borsum's garden and orchard, to Henry Brazier, fre- 
quently spoken of by the Dutch as Ilerry Breser. Brazier 
was an Englishman from the shire of Essex, and is found in 
New vVmsterdam as early as 1G44, in which year he married 
Susanna, the widow of William Watkyns. He appears to 
have been a tiibacco-planter, and had a tract of about thirty- 
two acres of land upon Long Island, somewhat north of 

1 Sec aide, page 115. 

- The curious lescrvatiou was luado, "not during tempests, or wlieu the raiU 



hii.i ;fiveu way.' 



I- 



f. ■ ~ :. .:. I 



344 NEW iUlSTERDA.M AND ITS PEOPLE 

the feiiy,' and uuaiiy opposite the land which he acquired of 
Loockermaus. Tlus plot, purehased from Loockermans, seems 
to have extended along the river from the ferryman's garden 
a distance of about two hundred and ninety Engli.sh feet, to a 
point about seventy or eighty feet west of the present Roosevelt 
Street. From the shore it ran back from two hundred to two 
himdred and fifty feet to a line a siiort distance north of the 
present Cherry Street. The continuation of the ferryman's 
road still ran along the beach to give access to Prazier's place, 
and there is evidence that his house stood close to the shore 
at a spot a few feet east of the present Dover Street, and south 
of Cherry Sheet. Pru/.ier had hardly establisheil himself at 
this place when, in the summer of 1054, the Dutch in New 
Amsterdam were thrown into a great state of excitement by 
the intelligence that an English fleet sent by Cromwell had 
arrived in New luigland in the war then being carried on 
between England and the Netherlands, and that preparations 
were being made there for an attack on New Amsterdam. 
Henry Brazier, suspected by his Dutch neigl)bors, may have 
found his position an irksome one, or he may have considered 
the Dutch chances for successful resistance as hopeless, and 
may therefore have started off to aequire the merit of a timely 
submission to the anticipated new regime. At any rate he 
quitted New Amsterdam, — in all probability with his family, — 
although in doing so at such a time he violated one of Direc- 
tor-General Stuyvesant's ordinances. As peace, however, was 
soon afterwards declared between England and the Nether- 
lands, Brazier found himself somewhat amiss in his calcula- 
tions, lie returned to New Amsterdam in 1655, much crest- 
fallen, but Stuyvesant and the Council received him in high 
dudgeon, and made an order on the 5th of j\Iay of that year, 
that "Harry Bresar, \\-lio left in tlie time of tlie troubles, 
despite the notices, is to be allowed to return to settle his 
affairs, but not to become domiciliated." It took Bra/.ier so 

1 Oddly enough, Mr. D. T. Valeiitiuo, .ii.d n host uf tliosu whu l.uvu followed 
lim, hiive tr.iusfciTod tlii.s l.ind to the other side of the rivur, " in tliu vicinitj of 
the present i'raiikliu Square." 



DIRCK THE POT-BAKER 345 

long to settle Lis affairs, lio«ever, that ten yeais afterwards 
he is found quiutly residing here willi iii.s wife ami family of 
four young daughters, 'J'he wrath of tliu Duleh was, as a 
rule, not of long duration, anil lirazier jnohaljly had little 
difficulty in making his [leaee witii them. 

In 1653, Govert Looekcrnians disposed of the remaining 
parcel of the shore front of his farm along the East River 
(being the same parcel which in 1G41 he had conveyed to 
George Cleer) to another Englishman, a Londoner named 
Thomas Stevenson. Stevenson about this time had recently 
been engaged in farming some land across the East River, 
and may have desired, as did many of tiie other Long Island 
farmers, to acquire a place of residence in New Amsterdam 
within the protection of liie foit and gai-rison, and yet as near 
as possible to their farming lands. lie built at once upon 
tliis point of land, but in the next year he left to take part in 
the newly established settlement of I\Iiddelburgh, the later 
Newtown on Long Island, selling liis projierty upon the point, 
which then seems to have contained two buildings, probably 
of a rather humble description, to Willem Pietersen de Groot, 
a Dutchman from Ilaerlem, and to Jan Pceek, the latter of 
wliom does not appear further in connection with the ])rop- 
erty. Willem Pietersen, however, soon leased tlie premises 
to a man who spent many years of his life there, and who 
purchased the place in 1657, a short time after tlie period of 
our survey. Tiiis was Dirck Clacssen, from Leeuwerden, the 
capital city of the province of Friesland, in the Netherlands. 
He was more commonly known as Dirck de Pottebaker, or 
" the potter," and it seems quite probable that he carried on 
his potteries at this place, his house being near the shore, and 
very near the present Roosevelt Street. Life was not all 
eau-de-cologne and rose leaves at that spot, any more in tlie 
seventeenth century than it is at tlie present day. The neigh- 
bors were not at all harninnious. Mrs. Prazier's patience 
was sorely tried by the [)ot-baker's hogs which frequently 
ravaged her garden, insomuch that she represents to the 
burgo; casters that she "suffers great damage, and has to h.ave 



1. ■: , :. : \l 



346 NEW A:\ISTERDA.M AND ITS PEOPLE 

one of her clulcliun coiusLiuitly ill aik'iidance." Neverllieless, 
the Braziers bore no malice, and when, not long afterwards, 
Dirck had had a serious falling out with his wife, a widow 
whom he had espoused a short time before, we find the deacons 
of the Dutch Church informing the magistrates that " Dirck 
Chiessen, Pottebackcr, has driven away his wife, and that tlie 
aforesaid woman suffers giv.id want, and lies on straw without 
bed or bedding, at Mr. llerry Jiresar's house at the ferry, 
by the fresh water, and has the ague, and that her husband 
will not allow surticient for her support." 

The road or track along tlio East River shore, less and less 
travelled as it extended beyond the ferry, till finally trodden 
mainly by Dirck CHaessen and his liogs, terminated at that 
worthy's dwelling. Two or three years after the time of our 
survey, or in 1G58, Abraliain Pieterseii, the miller, had thrown 
a dam across the little brijok of the " Eresh ^^'ater," and near 
the present James and (Jlierry streets had built a tiile-mill, 
which he used for a few years, till the neighboring residents 
made complaint of his dam throwing back salt water into the 
Kolck pond. In 1655, however, Dirck Claessen's house upon 
the Point was the Ultima Thule of New Amsterdam. Behind 
it lay the lonely salt meadow of Wolfpherts Vly, and before 
it stretched the lonely expanse of the East River. The wild 
ducks swam along the shore without much fear of molestation ; 
gulls skimmed along tlie surface of the water ; the fish-hawk 
sailed in graceful circles high above it, or shot down into it 
after his prey, like an arrow from a bow; and crows stalked 
along in search of dainties over the shingly beach, which 
stretched away towards the northeast, at the foot of the low 
bluffs, till at the distiince of a mile or more it curved to the 
left and disappeared around the tumbled boulders of Corlaei'S 
Hock. 



APPENDIX I 

THE JUSTUS DANCKERS VIEW OF NEW AMSTERDAM 

AFTER the completion of the text of the present work, tliere 
came into the possession of the author a view of New Am- 
sterdam of more than ordinary interest. It is an old litlio- 
graph, eij^ht by eleven and one-iialf inclies in size, and purports to 
be copied from an ancient etching of the same size, piiblislied by 
Justus Danckers at Amsterdam. Like the '• Ilartgers View," 
alluded to in a previous uote, the authenticity of tliis view is 
vouched for by the fact that it is a reverse. The date given to tlie 
print is "about the year IGIO," but as a matter of fact it repre- 
sents a period about ten years later tiian that date. It was pub- 
lished liy Henry II. Robinson of New YorJc, at some date appar- 
ently between the years 183G and 1812. 

Upon reversing this view, it is found to correspond quite closely 
in its general appearance with the well-known " Vandcrdonck 
View," but upon a minute examination, the points of dissimilarity 
are found to be numerous. These lead to the conclusion that tlie 
view is either the original camera obscura sketch (supposed to liave 
been taken by Augustyn Ileermans) frcmi which the " Vandcr- 
donck View" was prepared, and that the dirfercnces are caused by 
carelessness iu the reversing and copying of that sketch ; or else 
liiat the Danckers view is a different and independent one taken 
from about the same point, — upon the northwesterly part of Gov- 
eruor's Island, — and at somewhere about the same period. 

Several of the topographical features of the town are brought 
out with much greater distinctness upon this Danckers view than 
on the "Vandcrdonck View." Some of these are as follows: 

1. The old storehouse of the West India Company, which occu- 
pied a part of t'-e present Whitehall Street, is shown with great 
distinctness, occupying, iu fact, almost the central point of the 



348 APPENDIX I 

picture. WlatdiuU Street itself is sliown to have (iccupied a 
shallow depression 6v ravine riumiiig down to the East River. 

2. The course of tlie modern Broad Street, with Clornehs 
]\[elyu'8 house aud outbuildings oecuiiying a po''''ou of it, is 
clearly shown. 

3. The ravine of " liurger's Path," leading down to the river 
side, can be distinguished without dillieulty. 

4. A curious structure with a conical or i)yrauudal roof, which, 
from the persi)ective. of tlie "Vunderdonck View," appears to be 
a hay barrack at a great distance, and has always been a puzzling 
feature in that view, is shown in the Dauckers etching as just 
peeping over a small rise of ground back of the '■ Great Tavern," 
aud is at once determined beyond any reasonable iloubt to be the 
low belfry tower attached to the old Bark Mill, in which the first 
church services were held, and of which previous mention has 
already been made in the text of this work. 

5. The extreme right and left of tlie Dauckers etching rcmaiu 
in au unfinished condition, just as the artist probably left it upou 
terminating liis camera sketch. Tlic shore of the East Kiver, in- 
stead of turning around the fort in the dircctiou of the Hudson, 
is continued indefinitely in a straight line. At the left-hand 
corner of the etching (being at the right of the true view), is what 
appears to be an almost mountainous elevation of land, which of 
course could never have occupied that spot. This was evidently 
a misconception of the artist's rough lines of the foliage of the 
thick clump of trees which is well known to have occupied the site of 
the present Hanover Square aud its vicinity, upon the river bank. 

Some difliculties in respect to the buildings in the Dauckers 
View are encountered. The old church building ujjon the water 
side is by no means shown as clearly as it is in the Vauderdonck 
View ; ou the contrary,' the houses seem at this point to be thrown 
forwards towards the river shore into a position which they could 
not have actually occupied. This leads to the conclufion that the 
Danckera View was a panoramic one, i. e., the point of view was 
changed, in order to make the houses in the vicinity of the " Great 
Tavern" show in better perspective. It appears to have been 
just at the site of the old church where the two views have been 
joined together, and the joining of tiio views has been so unskil- 
fully performed that the church has been distorted or entirely 
concealed. 



APPENDIX r 349 

A curious feature of the Dunckers etching is that it contains 
the silly addition of the sprawling humau figure suspended by the 
waist from the crane upon the river side, as also another figure 
dangling from the adjacent gallows. Instances of capital punish- 
ment actually carried into effect at New Amsterdam are verv rare, 
— so far, at any rate, as the records show, — and are lostly 
confined to cases arising in the garrison of the fort, or in the naval 
service, and the body of a criminal swinging from the gallows 
could never have been an ordinary sight. If Ileermans was 
indeed the artist of this view, it is very probable that tiie addi- 
tion of the figures was made by way of lampoon upon Director- 
General Stuyvesaut's administration, Ileermaus being at this time 
in high enmity with the Director and witli tlie Secretary Van Ticn- 
lioven. Upon tlie published view of Vanderdonck, the figures 
did not appear; but in the nuich later nondescript sketch, of little 
worlli, sometimes called the '' I\rontanu3 View," they do appear, the 
galhiws being garnished in tliat view with no less than three 
imaginary culprits. 



APPENDIX II 

THE descI':ndants of cohnklis melyn 

IT may be not willioul. interest to prosecute a few inquiries as 
to the descendants of Cornells Melyn, wliose career at New 
Amsterdam has been dwelt ujion at some lenii;th in the text 
of this work (i)a<^cs 91 to 1:^5), and whom the author is inclined 
more and more to regard as the central figure of his day in New 
Netherland. 

When Cornells Jfclyn brought his family to New Amsterdam 
about the year IGll, it eonsisled of his wife Janneljc and three 
children, so far as we can learn. Of these his daughter Cornelia 
was at this time about thirteen years of age, and she seems to 
have been the eldest of the children. A son whose name is not 
furnished to us is said to have been drowned in the wreck of the 
"Princess" in 1G17, when as a lad he was accompanying his 
father to the Netherlands, and the third of Mclyn'a childrea 
ap[)oar3 to have been his son Jacob, who reached years of 
nuUurity. 

After the Melyns reached New Amsterdam, three of tlieir chil- 
dren were baptized in the Dutch Church there; namely, Susanna, 
on the Mth of June, 1G13; Magdaleen, on the 3d of March, 1C15; 
and Isaac, on the 2'2d of July, ICIG. 0( the first two of these 
we have no further information, and they may have died young; 
but Isaac grew up, and was long a resident of New York. It 
has been shown in that portion of this work which is above 
alluded to, that, persecuted and harassed by Director Stuyve- 
Biint for the part he had taken in the affairs of New Netherland, 
Cornclis Melyn retired with his son Jacob, in 1G57, to the New 
Haven Colony, and that there, together with his son, he took the 
oath of allegiance to the English government. Although he oc- 
casionally visited New Amslerdaui during the next live or six 
years, he apjiears to have mainlained his residence at New 



APl'ENDIX II 3al 

Haven, but of the details of his life there we are ignorant; they 
would undoubtedly be iiitercsling, if known, and might indeed 
form an important chapter in the history of tlie English conquest 
of New York in 1G61, for Cornelis Melyn was a man who was 
most tenacious and untlinching in his purposes, and aere is not 
the least reason to suppose that he had forgotten tituyvesant's 
treatment of himself. Certain it is that from some reason he 
was jealously watched to t)ie last, both by Stuyvesant and by the 
otlicers of the West India Company in the Netherlands. If, how- 
ever, he had on foot any machinations against the rule of the 
West India Company, we have no reason to believe that he lived 
to see them carried out, for no allusions to him can be found 
later thau about the beginning of the year 1G03. 

In the mean time Melyn's oldest daughter Cornelia and her 
young brother Isaac remained in New Amsterdam, as did also 
(for a large portion of tlic time, at any rate) Melyn's wife 
Jannetje. Cornelia Melyn, as already stated, had married, in 
1G17, Captain Jacobus Loper, and he, after a short married 
life, having died, leaving her a widow with two children, Jacobus 
and Jannetje, she married, on the 7th of April, 1G53, Jacobus 
Schellinger of Amsterdam. 

The Schellingers of Amsterdam were at this time a well-to-do 
family, who seem to have been quite largely engaged in mercan- 
tile affairs. Some of them were noticeably men of thrift, and 
the author's attention has been called to the "Kohier," or Assess- 
ment list of Amsterdam for the year 1631, upon which such a 
man as Kiliaen van Rensselaer appears assessed for 50,000 florins 
only; while Ilillebrant Schellinger, "out schepen," is assessed at 
70,000; Cornelis Gerritsz Schellinger for 70,000, and Cornelis 
Schellinger the elder at 3G,000 florins. 

Jacobus Schellinger was likewise engaged in mercantile business 
at New Amsterdam, where he is said to have come in the interest 
of au uncle at Amsterdam, whose name, as would appear from 
allusions in some of the records, was Pietcr Toom. Schellinger 
seems to have resided in New Amsterdam for a period of some 
twelve or thirteen years after his marriage to Cornelia Melyn or 
Loper, in 1G53. During that period he had four children bap- 
tiztd in the Dutch Church; namely, Willem, on March 8, 1G54; 
Catulyntje or Catherine, on April 19, 1C56; Abraham, on Sept. 
20, 1CG"2; and Daniel, on July I'J, 10G5. The name of Jacobus 



'.' I;' 



352 APPENDIX II 

ScUellinger does not, it is true, appear in the assessment list of 
the town in April, 1GG5, but that of Cornelia Melyn dues, though 
there is much reason to believe that he was not living at this 
time; and there seems to be but little doubt that it is the IMelyn 
property which is- referred to in the list, and that this jjroperty 
was iu the occupation of the Melyn family, inehiding Jacobus 
Schellinger and his wife and children. 

Of the immediate descendants of Cornells Melyn we have seen 
(page 125 of this work) that his youngest son Isaac had died 
prior to 1722, leaving only one child by his wife Temperance, 
daughter of William Loveridge of Albany; namely, Joanna, wife 
of Jonathan Dickinson. Jacob Melyn, the oldest son, married 
and had several children baptized in the Dutch Church; namely, 
Susanna and Jacob, on Oct. 3, 1G71; and Daniel, Sanmel, and 
Abigail on Aug, 7, 1077. Tliis baptizing of his children iu 
groups, so to speak, would seem to indicate tliat Jacob and his 
family were sojourning at times away from New York. lie 
removed to Boston iu his latter years, as previously stated, 
and no information has been obtained as to whether his name 
or lineage still continues. 

Of Cornelia Melyii's daughter Cornelia, however, the descend- 
ants are still living in considerable number. She, with her hus- 
band. Jacobus Schellinger, and with her children, remained, as it 
would seem, iu New York until lOlJG or 1GG7, when they removed 
to the English settlement of Easthamptou upon the eastern ex- 
tremity of Long Island. 

The causes which led u distinctively Dutch family to quit their 
associations of many years and the society of their countrymen, 
for the purpose of taking up their residence iu a purely English 
community, and the reasons why these new-comers were unhesi- 
tatingly accepted among a people proud of their English birth or 
descent, not particularly desirous of additions to their organiza- 
tion, and abundantly disposed to scrutinize rigidly all new appli- 
cations for membership, on account of the questions of the 
rights in commonage which were involved, would undoubtedly 
be, if fully known, an interesting episode iu the history of the 
colonization of the New Y'oi'k towns. That the full details of 
this aCair would throw light upon the mutual relations, now little 
understood, of Cornells Melyn, Covert Looekermans, Isaac Aller- 
ton, and perhaps Jacob Stcendam, with each other and with the 



APPENDIX II 353 

New Haven and Connecticut colonies, there cannot be much 
question. Tbe Eaathanipton aettlement was a distinct depend- 
ency of the mainland colonies, Governors Eatou of New Haven 
and Hopkins of Connecticut Laving made the original Indiaa 
Ijurchase in 1G48, aa trustees for tlie settlers. The trading as 
well as the political relations were close between the new settle- 
ment and New Haven, and it was doubtless through New Haven 
that the attention of the Melyn funiily was direekil lo I'.aHt- 
liampton; the inuneiliate cause of Iheir breaking up llie 
domestic arrangements which had so long prevailed is quite 
likely to have been the fact that the two sons of Cornells Melyn 
had now grown up to manhood and were perhaps desirous of 
establishing themselves uijon their snudl patrimony in New 
York. 

Whatever the causes may have been, we find Jacobus Sehel- 
linger in October, 1GG7, purchasing from one Henjaniin Conkling 
the rights or a part of them which had previously pertained to an 
earlier colonist, Andivw ]\Iiller, whwse '•limine lot" (now acciuired 
by Schellinger) was a capacidus [ihil i,l' aluuit twenty acres situ- 
ated upon the uorth side of the nuiiu street of Easthamptou, about 
in the middle of the jjresent village. 

As the family of Jacobus Schellinger, on their journey down 
to Easthamptou, emerged from the two or three miles of wood- 
land road which lay between their new home and the sloop which 
had brought them to the " Three-Mile Harbor," — the port of East- 
hamptou in Gardiner's Bay, — they could see before them the 
fields of the new settlement, stretching iu long strips, as at the 
present day, towards the dark oak woods which surrounded them, 
and could doubtless hear, as one may hear now, the quail piping to 
one another iuthe solitary back lots. Sixteen or seventeen years 
of cultivation had checkered the plain with alternating patches 
of wheat and rye, of maize aud tobacco, and near the houses 
here and there a young orchard was growing up, or upon spots of 
greensward, the flax lay rotting iu long brownish rows. Along 
the capacioua village street, lined by a couple of score of low 
thatched cottages (some probably still of their original log con- 
struction), >o rows of great elma stretched as at present, but the 
gr;^33 grew thickly iu its broad apace where perhaps the cattle, 
just returned fronr the Common Pasture, gathered at their owners' 
b; iH aud gates, or at the farther end of the street crowded to 



354 APPENDIX II I 

driuk at the Town Pond. Upon the grassy bank (designed for a '. 
burial-ground) beyond the pond stood the little thatched church, \ 
and atill farther in the distance, beyond the green slopes of the i 
" Calf Pasture," the white sand dunes shut out the ocean. i 

Here Jacobus Schelliuger and his family soon merged into the > 

English community about them; in the course of the next genera- j 

tiou nothing but the name remained to show an origin different I 

from tliat of the Mulfords and Hedges, the Strattous and Hands i 

surrounding them, and we find one of the grandsons of Cornelia j 

Melyn, bearing the singular name of Lion Loper, in honor of : 

Lion Gardiner, the great man of the settlement and proprietor | 

of Gardiner's Island, into whose family some of the descendants ' 

of Cornelia Melyn appear to have married at an early date. 
Jacobus Schellingcr was one of the most well-to-do men of the 
community, and is early assessed at the second highest figure 
in the town. With him and his immediate family had come hia 
stepson, Jacobus or James Loper, then a young man just grown 
np, who soon acquired the grant of a new parcel of land a short I 

distance east of his stepfather's home, on the north side of the \ 

road to the Three-Mile ILirbor. Both Loper and his stepfather j 

turned their attention at an early date to the whalefishing iu- ' 

dustry, then profitable at the eastern end of Long Island, and ' 

they were engaged iu it for a number of years. They employed j 

largely for their whaling crews the neighboring Montauk Indians, : 

who were expert in this craft; and there is an agreement still 
extant by Schellinger and Loper with thirteen of the Indians, J 

bearing date July 1, 1075, in which the foriiier agree to furnish 
the necessary boats, and to cart tlie products of the fishery a 
distance not exceeding two miles for the purpose of trying or 
boiling; the Indians to receive one half of the profits. The i 

Schellingers indeed appear to have been somewhat prone to 
ilealings with the Indians, and a curious indenture of apprentice- 
ship still exists, ijnportant as showing at what an early date 
domestic relations were established between the Easlhamptou , 

settlers and the IMontauk Indians. In this document a certain 
"Muntauket Indian commonly named Papasequin" and his wife 
agree wi h Jacobus Schellinger and his son Jacob to bind out 
to the latter "our sonn named Quausuch, ould now above seaven 
y^'ires;" the time of apprenticeship Avas to run from "primo 
A[)iill at ye yeare eightie eight," and was to extend to April 1, 



APPENDIX II 355 

1698, at which time, besides certain payments to llie father, in 
case of good behavior, etc., of the lad, the latter was to receive 
the sum of ten pounds in money or goods. 

The Schellingers at Easthampton were not altogether cut off 
from their former life, for here Cornelia Schellinger's brother 
Isaac occasionally brought in his vessel to the Harbor with 
freight from New York. One of his receipts for freight for the 
return voyage is still extant. It is dated "one board the barke, 
:i5 May, 1G80," and shows that he took with hiin "tobacco pips," 
from the fields of Easthampton, linen and woollen from its 
domestic manufactures, whalebone and oil from the fisheries, and 
the unsold remainder apparently of a uiercantile shipment, from 
William Darvall, a well-known merchant of New York, embrac- • 
ing ironware, "Sarge aud Cersey," and gunpowder. 

Jacobus Schellinger resided at Easthampton for more than a 
quarter of a century, and there two of his children, Cornelis and 
Jacob, were born. He died on the 17tli of June, 169^3, aged 
sixty-seven years, but his wife Cornelia outlived him nearly 
another quarter of a century, dying on Feb. 25, 1717, aged 
eighty-eight years. Both are supposed to have been buried in 
the old churchyard of Easthampton. It was a few years before 
the death of his father that Jacoltus Schellinger's son Abraham, 
then a man of mature years, had his attention directed to the 
fertile lands lying two or three miles east of the village of East- 
hampton, at what was called l)y the Indians Amagansett. Here 
he procured a large grant in 1G90, and here he and his youngest 
brother Jacob are supposed to Lave been the pioneers of the 
village of Amagansett, the most easterly hamlet upon Long 
Island; his name is believed to be still commemorated ia 
"Abram's Landing," a small haven upon (Jardincr's IJay about 
a mile cast of Amagansett, and in "Abiain's I'alh," a narrow 
wood road in the same vicinity. 

After the death of Jacobus Schellinger, the homestead at East- 
hampton appears to have remained in the possession of bis oldest 
son Willem, but in the course of time to have passed to a branch 
of the Gardiner family. As for Abraham Schellinger, the pioneer 
of Amagansett, he seems to have died in the early part of the 
yeior 1713 (n-. s.). His will, which is to lie found in the Surro- 
gate's Olfice of New York, disposes of his laud at "Aniugonst" 
to his oldest eon William; while to his sun Abraham he devises 



356 APPENDIX II ' 

a half-interest which ho held iu Plumb Island, between Long 
Island and the Connecticut shore; and to another son, Isaac, he 
gives an interest in three tracts of land in the county of 'West- 
chester, New York. Besides these lliree sons, Abraliam Schel- 
linger also left a young sou, Zachariali, and three daughters. 

Like that of her mother, Jaunetje Melyn, Cornelia Schelliuger's 
life was long and eventful; her memories must have embraced 
Antwerp iu its decaying splendor, and New Amsterdam with no 
splendor at all, — merely a few thatched cottages around the fort. 
She remembered Staten Island as an unbroken wilderness, aud 
her father's plantation there, twice destroyed by Indians, aud the 
days of panic and distress iu the little house on the Graft iu New 
Amsterdam. Then came the long struggles of her father against 
colonial maladministration and his self-imposed exile from New 
Amsterdam, during many years of which the care of his family 
had devolved largely upon herself. She had seen the village of 
huts at New Amsterdam grow into a t<jwn of importance, aud 
had seen the English rule supplant that of the Dutch. Of her 
father's two great enemies so well known to her, she could re- 
member how the life of one had closed in horror in the wreck of 
the "rrincess" (when her own brother and her pastor also per- 
ished); aud how the other had emled his days iu seclusion aud 
in bitter humiliation at his farmhouse up the Bouwery Lane 
on Manhattan Island. In her latter years she found half a 
century of quiet life tilled with domestic duties, but besides her 
son Abraham she was also fated to sec her youngust son Jacob 
grow up to adult manhood, and die before her in tlie year 1714. 
He, as it appears, had married into the English family of Baker 
at Easthampton, aud left a family of eight children surviving 
him. Through the various branches which have been enumer- 
ated, the descendants of Cornelia Melyn are still to be foimd in 
large numbers in the vicinity of Easthampton, as previously 
stated, but it is not within the design of this note to pursue 
the later genealogy. 



INDEX 



Kiist 



Willi Jan IJaiiieil, 2'J-2; lieails petiliun 
of IGU to allatk the liulians, 2'J3 ; liii 
assault on Director Kieft, 294; sent to 
the Nctlierlaiuls, 205. 

Adriaciiseii, Willeiii, 28(3, 2S1, 2SD. 

" Adventure," llic, (ialley, 205 (■( snj. 

Aerlheu, CJovert, 2Jl), 240, 2(i8. 

Allaerdt view of New AnistcrJam, 244, 

Allerlon, Isaac, 42, inO; association will. 
Govert Looclieriiiaiis, 2 17 ; liis warehouse, 
mi; early life, ;i;i2; at the I'lynloulh 
Colony, Xi-i; at New Haven, 334; busi- 
ness relations at New Anihtenlam, ;ri5; 
establishes tradinf; house, 335; " Aller- 
ton'a linilJiuK," 331) ; atlatU on his ware- 
house by the Indians, 33C. See Ap- 
pendix ii. 

Allerton, Isaac, junior, 334, 337. 

Aniagansctt, Long Island, descendants of 
Curnelis Melyn at. See Appendix. II. 

Ainbroaiu.s, Mose-s, 8G, note. 

Andriessen, Tietcr, l(i4; establishment on 
Long Islanii, 1G5; captured by Indians, 
IGG et scq., no. 

Ann Street, 311. See Van TieKihoven's 
Lane, 33'.). 

Anthony, Allard, 47, 54, GO, 89, 285. 

Antwerp in the 17lh century, 95 et scq. 

Aridiem, projected village uf, 219. 

At water, Joshua, 231. 



li.iKUu, John, Capt., affray with William 

I'.aterson, 199 et seq. ; 203, note, 
liaptist Church, tirst in New York, 318. 

Hark Mill,' the, 155, Appendix I. 
Darn of West India Co., 182. 
liaiire, William, 270, note, 
laslions of the Palisades, 273, 274. 
D.ixtcr, (ieorgc, 32, lude; 179, 180, 237. 
llaxier, Thomas, property conliscated, 19. 
Sic 32, note; captures a Dutch vessel, 42. 
lin:ird, .Vnna, 28G. 
Ihiy.ird, Italthazar, 244. 



liavard, Nicholas, 174, 203, note, 246. 
Heaver I'ath, the, 33, Jlote. - 
Heaver Street. See I'rinsen Stract. 
liedlo, Isaac, 49, 197, 198. 
liec'cknnm, Willem, bouwery at ll.ir 

72; 30G, 328. See nhu licekman. 
Ilcekuiau, Jochem, 1.'>II. 
IJcckuums Urrhard, :iJS. iV-c lieecku 
licekmiui Siroet, 328. 



liellan 



Mil, Karl uf, Governor of New York, 
154, 259. 

Jacob Hansen, 301, note. 
, 'rhonias. See lictts. 
ers Kreupelbosch. See "Swamp, 



IkUs, Thoma?, 7G. 
liicklcv, William, 
"Black John," 11. 



of the privateer " Li 



oil W'inckel y tract, 14 e( .■;■•(/.,• marries 
Aunetje Janse, Ki; his bouwery, 10; 
attacks Director Kieft's Indian policy, 
24; suit for slander by Oloff van Cort- 
landt, 2G; drowned in wreck of the 
" I'riii.ess," 29, 59; comment on Kielt's 
|..UM|ililri „f viudicatiou, lOG. A'cc 15S, 
lii 1 |i.uty at the Cily Tavern, 180. See 

li^riuiiiu, manor of, 281, 289, 290. 

liooii, Kiamis, 19a, 

li.mt, ,Iaii ICvertacri, 233. - - 

liradlord, William, his house, 233, note. 

bradlev, Henry, 249. 

liradleV, Samuel, 249,231. 

lir.idlcV, Sarah, luairics William Cox, 219; 

Wm. Kidd, 251; marril's Clirisloidier 
Uousby, her will, etc, 2iiG. 

lir.ulley, Thomas, ('apt., 219. 

Dr.i/icr, Henry, 32G; house on the East 
Iliver, 343; orden-d lo iiuit New Amster- 
dam, 344; troubles with Duck Uacssen, 



358 



INDEX 



30G. 
Bridge, at IJroad Street, 5, 88, 34, Ibi. 
liridge l.ane. See lirugli Stcegii. 
Brid^je Street. See Hriif,'h Straet. 
Bridtjes, Uiarles, 18u, Jij4 et set]., 218. 
Broad Street. See lilommaurls Vly, ': 

Ditch, and lleure (J raft. 
Broad Street, gate at, 274. 
Broen, Tomas, 270, note, 
lironck, Jona.s 103, 1G4, l'J3. 
lirouwer, Adam, 24. 
Brouwer Straet, U, 7, note, GD. 
Brown, Williani, GU. 
llruce, Juliii and Lysbct, .jl8, nolo. 
■ Brugli Steegh, 3.J;'closid, J4. 
Brugli Strael, G. 

Brutell, I'eler and ir.irgarLlba, a 18, not 
Bruynsi 



210. 



Burger, Enfiellje. See Mans, Engrlljc 

burger, Herinaini.s, 2.14. 

Hurger, Johannes, '2.')4. 

Hurger's Mill, Sluice, and Kill, 2,!2. 

Burger's I'ath, 222, 224, 24a. See A^: 

dixl. 
liushwick Croek and Busliwieli, 32.J. 



Cabins, early, at New Amsterdam, 2. 

Calder, Jochem, 1G.1. 

Canapaukali Creel;, 108,228, 2.31. 

Capske, The. See Schruyers Hoek. 

Carpenel, Jan Jacobseu, 1G4. 

Carstensen, C'lae.s, IGl, 1G2; Indian inter- 
preter, 1G2, note. 

Catiemuls liock, 4, 330. 

Catlle Pens, the, 275. 

Cedar, the privateer, 214. 

Central Park, New York, 72. 

Chatham Square. 331. 

Cherry Garden, the, 338. 

(^hcrrv Street, .331). 

Church, Dutch, of 1G2G in Barkmill, 155 cl 
sei].; of 1G33, IG; description of, JiS; its 
parsonage and stable, 5U; becomes a pri- 
vate liou.se, 60; 147, Appendix I.; of 
1042 (in fort), 17, 68, note, 6U, lO'J, 148. 

Chureii Lane, 57, 58, 5U. 

City Tavern. See Stadts Ilerbergh. 

Claaver Weytje, 275, 285, note, 2UD, 2118. 

Claessen, Dirck, the potter, 345. 
. Claessen, Sibout, 425, 120. 

Cleer, George, 341, 342. 

CliU Street, 311, 317. 
- Clock, Abraham filiirtcnson, 222. 

Clopper, Cornelis, 279, 302. 

Cocnlies Alley. See Stadt Uuys l.ane. 

Coersen, Arent, 234. 

Coersen, liarent, 170. 

Cohn, or " Cawvn," Jacob, 80, note. 

Colve, Governor, 204 ; demolition of build- 
ings bv, 274. 

Common Pasture, the Second, 4; the First, 



('u{ur\„.^rn, l.,iui-,.ns,skii>pcr, 21)8, 2!)9, 303. ■ 

i;,iijra nl, I. II liiouwer Slraet, 35; his 

hiill u;. \\c.,.ll's(;reek,30. 
C'ornJl, llcUxca, I'JU. 
Cornell, Sarali, marries Thomas WiUet, 

1U3 ; marries Charles liridges, 1U4. Sec 



. ., ,i.-t, of New York, 63. 
I ,n,l|r, Adriana, 3U0; mar, 
en, 307; her children, 307. 



Daooht.\, Joseph, 80, note, 147. 

Danien, Jan Jansen, leases land of the 
West India Co., 0; woun.Is Philip Ge- 
raenly, II; trespasses „f his cattle, 02. 
Sec 8'1. Shrovetide dinner at liis house, 
102; visits the Netherlands and pur- 
clia-.'S tiic"t;rc;it lioiiwerv" for Sluv- 
vesilit, 110, note; I4,S. 152, 210; Ibo 
outli.uk of his fjnii, 208, lUite, 271,274, 
275,286; a.ssoeiatiun with Marvn Adri- 
aL■ll^.■ll, 202, 205, 207; his brewery, 2'J8; 
marriage to Adriana Cuville, 307. See 
3-2, 324, 328. 

Haurkers, Justus, view of New Amster- 
dam, 40, note. Ap|.endi.i; I., 120, 165. 



D'Aiidr 

liaiiielse, "Mi.ther," Ani.eken, 



iWf 



271, note, 311, 330,338. 



l)e Korecst, Isaac, buvs old church, 59; his 
house, 71 et St,/.; "a pioneer of Harlem, 
72; his brcwerv, 73, 148. 



I)e We^er, Ni. 
I)e MeVer, Wil 
lie .Silfr, Nle.l^ 



I 



)! 



Deulel Day, 83, note, 327. 

Da Vos, Matliew, marries 

Gcrueiay,12i his laud c 



lluui^li ; 



D.: Vries, David, Captain, 

Itic iiiassacru of the Iiuiia 

'Si ; his grant on Statoii 1: 
Diclienson, Joanna, li!D. 
Dillon, Daniel, altoniiita to burn Wni. I'ut- 

erson's house in I^ew Voi-k, 202. 
Dircksen, Barent. 31:',, 3H, note. 
Dirckson, Cornclis, fcnynian, 48, CO, 242, 

244. 245, 340. 
Dirty l.ane. Sec Slyck Slcegh, 154. 
" Distelvink, Den," — jiounis of Jacob 

.SleuM.lani, 1.32 ct s.q. 
Ditth, tlie, 82, 83, 105, 123. 
Ditch "t Hie Palisades, 274. 
Dork, thr |-.,l,h.-, 7.';. 



INDEX 


359 




Fort Amsterdam, 5, 7, 182. 




Philip 


"lortane of New Netherland,' 


i,hip con- 


titraet. 


liscated by Stuyvesant'soide 
Franeen, Bout, 314, 315. 


s,irj,178. 


nnt of 


Frera, Davi,l, 8U, note. 






Fulton Street, 317, 324. 
Fyn, Francis, Capt., lUT. 







-Doughty, Francis, Kev., 21'J. 


1 


~ Dri,~ius, Dominie Sau.uel, his bouse, 41) 


, 


lanil in the Sheep l'ar,ture, 151. 


,.' 


" Duke's Street. See lloo^'h Stlaet. 




Dutch Kills, the, 223. 


j 


Du I'ricux. SecDeTruy. 




- Duvckink, Invert, the .'lassniaker, 158, 221 




- D.atts, Laurens, 1U4. 




- Dvkun.n, Jan, 1C3. 


i 

I 


Dyre, William, 55. 


t- 


E.isiiiAMPTON, Lont' Island, descendant 


[ 


of Cornells Melyn at. .See Aj.pendi.x 




Kbel, 1-ieter, 181. 


J 


Kllei'3, or Kllhdt's Alley, 173. 


h 


Klliott, Richard, lun, note, 173. 




Ellsworth, Stoffel, U5. 


f 


F.mott, James, 253. 


[. 


Fncklmysen, city of, in the 17th century 




131. 
■■ I'UKlish Quarter," lire, 102. 


}• 


— Kvnt.sen, Wesscll, the Usher, 171 et scq. 



See Tuyn Straet. 



Faik Street. See Fulton Street. 

Felle, Simon, 150. 

Ferr\' to Lonj; Island, G, 49; leased by 
Captain T.unasson, Cli; hiimlct at, 31tl, 
339; establishment of, 340; Eglibert van 
Borsum, ferry-master, 342. 

Fiscal, House of the, 33. 

'■Five Houses," the. 5, 13, 31; confiscated 
by the Knglish and demolished, 32; at- 
tachment on, bvGeorgo Baxter, 32, note. 

Fletcher, Benjainin, Colonel, Governor of 
N, w York, '2.-)3. 255. 
'Floul-jr, Jacob. 272, 304, note. 

Foil, us, Jan, 1(12. 

Foil vter, Andrew, 93, note, 179. 



fialina. See Jansen, Sybrant. 

Garden Street. See 'I'uyn Straet. 

Garland, John, 197, 198. 

Geraerdv, Jan, 12. 

Geraerdy, l'liili|i, keeps the White Horse 

Tavern, 7; accidentally wounded, 11; 

bib later residence, 12, (J3. 
Gerritsen, Adriaen, 178. 



Glen, Alexander. Set l.eenderlsen, Sander. 

Golden Hill, 310. 

(ii.id Slrcel, 271, note, 310. 

i;..iilder, William, 341, 312. 

(iouweiibiiKh, the, 297,298, 310. 

Graham, James, liceorder, is mysteriously 

wounded, 318. 
"Great Buuwcry," the, purchased by Di- 



Sec Stadts licrbergh. 



acoli, 57. 102; burning of his farm- 
■, 1(19. See 323. 

hoinas, his house at "The Ferry," 
( f< ./. ; one of the first English sct- 
327; marries Anna Mitford, 327; 
inent in New Amsterdam, 328, 337. 
;r Square, its associations, 223. See 
note, 244, Appendix I. 
brook, Andries and Femnietjc, 318, 



artger 


Vic 


wof NewAmster 


dam, 2, 


note; 


earthen 


e'^'t 


leorge, 291. 






eci'O G 


■aft 


82, 123, 149. 






ecrma 


s 


,r Ilerrman, A 


ignstvn 


50, 


note ; 


wa 


ehousc of, 63 ; 1 


inmcfal diffi- 


cultics 


,54 


, residence on East Kiver 


281; 


his ei 


rly 


life in Prague, 


281 et 


^1 


enters 


Wallenstein's serv 


ce, 233 


dillicu 


tie 


with Director 


Sluvv 


sant. 


287; . 


epi 


tized to visit the goven 


or of 



of llarvhu.d. 239; manor of Bohemia, 
290; supposed artist of the " Vander- 
doiuk view of New Amsterdam," Ap- 
pendix 1. 



360 



Hellekers, Jacob, 306, 321. 

ileiiariL-kse, Tryiitje, aUO. 

Hendrickseii, Claes, SUB, '269, 270, 277. 

Heiidrkkacn, Hariiien, lliS. 

Herrinun, Augustine. Hce Ucoimans. 

Hewit, Uamlel, 220. 

Hollar, Wenceslas, 2S8, iioto. 

Holmes, George, 14, J26, 327. 

Hooghlaiidt, Christopher, 103. 

Hoogh Straet, or Hi^'h Street, its origin, C 

104; stiaightened, 123, 103, 17G. 
Hoom's llaek, 12C, note. 



Ikdians, massacre of Weekquaskcek 
tribe, 1043, 22; compeusatiou to Mo- 
hawks lor dcstruelidU of their house, 71; 
expedition against Karitaiis, 07 ; massa- 
cre' of Weekiiuaskeeka, 103; ilevastalc 
Staten Island in 1043, 104 ; their incur- 
sions of l<i&5, ICj; destrov Achter l.'ul, 
178; attack Allcrton's warehouse, 330. 

Isolated plantations, mder against, 400. 

Israel, David, 80, note. 



Jacobs, Magdalcntje, 148. 

Jaeobseu, Cornells, 313, 314, 316. 

Jacobsen, Jan, 180. 

Jacobsen, Uutger, 172 cl stq. 

Janse, Annetje, wife of UoolofF Jansen 

and of Dominie ISogardus, 14 tl sti/. 

spends her latter years at Albany, 20 



INDEX 

hemsen, Ao 



Ste -16. 



Jans 



entje. 



pre 



I.ooel 



Cornelissen, 242. fife 24D, ui 
Jansen, Antony van Sake, 146. 
Jansen, Antony van Vces, 313. 
Jansen, Barent, 101, 162. 
Jansen, Carsten, 158, note. 
Jansen, Cornells, 159, note. 
Jansen, llarmai 
Jansen. llendri< 
Jansen, IKuar 



S, JIO, 

, \jaker. 



Jill, 




,1,111 vai 


M, 


Uinn. 


Jan 


ell 


.Mlelliil 


2.12 




Jan 


en 


I'l.ler, 


-80. 




Jun 


en 


I'leler 


Mooi 


nan, 1 


Jan 


sen 


Uoeloff, 


15. 




Jan 


sen 


Sybran 


, tia 


Ima, 12 


Jan 


en 


Tyn.en, 


241, 


208, no 


ship 


carpenter of 


\Vest 


e 


sen 








Jansetf 


'Willem 


121 




Jes 


up, 


Edward 


103 




Jew 


s- 1 


ane,,thi 


155 


note, 



avern, 2G8, 26 
uf Annetje Ja 



Itogardus, 15. 

Jorissen, Burger, 

Straet, 104, 105 



other 

is lirst house on lloogh 
128, note, 128; his lane 
it;er's rath, 222, 224; 

r',,.''' ' ',!!,, l-?; his 

house. 



llh llie 
11, 231; 



and 



,232: 



out .-ll New V 
illg „f Williii 
alleged j.irati. 
breaks up an 
258; elToi 

Knghiiid,'! 



, in 111,. Knglish 
n luikLd crew 
251; crew tilled 
iiiiiiinv aiidkill- 

255, "25C, note; 



and he 
s to S( 
t, 2.59; 



A refill. 





t,„uan,l,-o„li..^li.m.,nn^,lkrts, 265. 




Kiefl, WiUein, Diuclm-Ccneral, his 


11, slaves. 


character, 22: his Indian policy, p. 22 


Loocker- 


et seq.; (piarrel with Dniniiiie liogar- 


to Dirck 


dus, 24 et seq. , drowned in wreck of 


c, 270. 


the •' I'rincess," 29; views of Ueiidrick 




Kip respecting, 37 ; at lians Kiersted's 




wedding, 59, 91; ex|.edilion against 




Karitan Indians, 97. tite 98; designs 




a"ainst the Indians, 09; his p.opositiona 
to the cummiinilv, 100; dl^s^lves the 






Committee of 'I'u.lvc, IU2; ai Ihe dinner 




at Damen's limi ,-, in:); l„. pmnphlet of 


on the 


vindication, 1(10; iiMP,^- i ,.rn,.|i. Melyn, 


„'libii,i't, 


107; ,oiilis>aii- ,'^ 1 l, ,11, •■ ii's prop- 
eilv, 1U7 : ,suiivn I, 1, i llM,- lo Stuy- 




!,,«' 2^7 ; 


vrsaiil, lu;i; ili,,.,uii-.,| l,v Mrlvn and 


,JS,"i'. 


Kiivlei-, IIU; iTiniinal vhai::rs against 


'!it. Obin. 


Meivn and KuM.i. Ill, ask, kugive- 




liess in wreck ot - I'rincess," 113,227; 




troubles with llendri.k Jansen, 229, 2;iOi 




his apology for llie Indian massacre. 




293; assaulted by Maryii Adriaeusen, 



Cierste.l, Hans, Jr., 244. 
iiersted, Jochcm, 46, 104. 
Kint-in-'t-Water." i'ee Pieteri 



n, Ileu- 

tailor. 



INDEX 



361 



Kip, Isaac, 40, 277, 320. 

Kip, Jacob, 3B; his Luusc, -10. 

Kip's Bay, 41. 

Klein, Uldricli, 03. 

Kuck, I'lctcr, tavern on MarckvclJt, 10. 

Koick and Kolck lluck, 330, 33'J, 3J6. 

Kolck, the little, 4. 

" Koupal." See Stilman, Jan Uendraksen. 

Kouni. See Cuorn. 

Kunst, Jan Uarentscn, 102. 

Kuyter, Jochcm I'ieter.sen, Capt., 107 et 
s;.y. ; his bouwery of ZegeTidaal, 108; 
bouwery destroyed by the Indians, lOJ; 
brings chart'es'ayaiiist Kiefl, 110; pro- 
secuted by Kieft, lined and banished, 
111; cscajies from the wreck of the 
"Princess," 113; nppeals to Stales- 
General, 114. ^•ee 115. Makes his peace 
with Stuyvesant, 120; murdered atHur- 



Lauauists. See Danl 

I.abatie, or l.abbale, J a 

La Chair, Solomon I'l.' 

bis tavern, H7 el se,y. 



' I.a Uarce," privateer, 41, 54, GO. 



274. 



Lawrence, John, 20&, 337. 
Leenderlsen, Cornelia, bu.siness ass( 

of Govert l.oockernians, 237, 230, 

311, note, 335,330, 341. 
Leendertsen, Sander, 302; his house i 

Sinita Vly, 303; lands at Schence 

304. 
Leialer, ¥Me. See Elsie Tymense. 

245, 247, 248. 
Leisler, Jacob, 242, 

his e 
Leisler 



,1,247. 



Asher, i 
, Tlioma 
»v, Ale 



!33. 



See Lf 



Litscho, Serjeant Daniel, his tavern, 1' 
225, 2G7, 270, note, 272. 270, 277, 278. 
LiviuRston, liobcrt, 2.>), 251. 



uist Kii 



330, 342, 343, 



345 



Loockennans, Jacob, 242; becomes a sur- 
e-eon, and resident of Marylai;d, 244; 
conveys his estate in New York to Jacob 
Leisler, 245. 

Loockernians, Jannetje, 241; marries Hans 
Kiersted, Jr., 244. 

Li.ockernians, Marritje, 241; marries Bal- 
thazar Uavard, 244, 24G. 

Loper, Jacob, Cap!., marries Cornelia 
llclyii, 113, IIG, 122, 124. 

Loper, Jacob (2.1) or James, 124, note. 



27U. 



Lovelace, Governor, liou: 
the Uuleh, 14; his lavei 
Lowry, John and Calharine, 31 

" Sniils Vly, 200; his Lon^' 1 

300, 301. 
Lncrsen, Carsten, 316. 
Lnystcr's Island, 228. 

Maagdk Paelje, 229, 280, nob 



plundered by 



188. 



e, Lynlje, wife of Adam Roelant- 

3. 

;n, Tvs, 295. 



, Corne 


ia, daug 
. Jacob L 


ter of L 


orneli.";. 


ries Cap 


,per, 113; 


marries 




d husbai 


d Jacob Seheilin- 


122; he 


son Abi 


iham Sell 


Ilinger, 


See A 


.pendix 1 






, Cornc 


is, of An 


werp, 94 


'i"U 


ves ura 


It of Sla 


en Island, 


IV, 08; 


at the he: 


1 of the ( 


'oniniit- 


A Twel 


e at New 


Aiuslerda 


m, lOU; 


ions fo 


popular 








affairs. 


101; col 


my on 


en Islai 


il (leva.,la 


e.l bv the 


Iml.ans 


043, 104 


; his (jra 


t of "land 


in New 


sterdani 


and hou 


e, 100 ; n 


emorial 


■Tire K 


Kht Men 


■> to West India 


1(15; f 


opposed 


to be ai 


thor of 




f lull denouiicint. 


Kiefl, 



3G2 



INDEX 



Iiuliaiis and plantation on Slaten 1 = 
again clestiuvca, 121; takts oatli ..f 
glance to the Kuglisli at Nlw Ha 
12^; sun cutlers patroonsliip of Si 
Island, 122; suit against tUaosiin, 
Hec 127, 128, tiansactions Willi Kiel 
Smith, 220, note; his house, ele., 
Aijpcndix I., H. 

Mclvii, Isaac, 124. See Appendix 11. 

MelVn, Jacob, son of Onnelis, 122, : 
ID'J. See Appendix II. 

Melyn, Jannctjc, ■wife of Cornells, IIG, 
124. See Appendix II. 

Mespat Kill, 1C8, 228. 

IMever. See De Meyer. 

MiL-liaolia, Jonas, Doniinio, loli cl m 

Micliielsen, Gerloff, 2'J&. 

Milboriie, Jacob, execution fur treason, 

Mill Lane. See Slyck Sleegli, lil, 
2.J3, note. 

Mitford, Anna, wife of Thomas Hall, 
;]28. 

Muleinaccker, Frani^ois, 155. 

Moll, Abraham Lamberlseii, 305. 

Moll, Lambert Illlvhorl^ell, 3111 et s 
his Long Island lands, 320, note. 

Montague, J..haiincs dc la, 40, 187, 31! 

Monlanus View of New Amslenlani, 
peudi.x I. 

Jloore, Aiitiluliv, 2'j8. 

I\luolC, 1^00^18,42. 

Moore, William, killing of, 205, 2J6, m 
Morgan, Henry, 210. 



Nauki, farmhouse and burml-j 

King's Bridge, 103. 
Nagel, Jan, 1G2. 

Nagel, Jeuriaen Janscn, 1G3, note. 
Is'assau Street. See Fulloii Street. 
Negro slaves at N. Amslcidam, 0, 4 
Ncvius, Johannes, 48, 177, note. 
Newton, Henry, 108. 
Newtown, Doughty 's patent of, 210. 
Newtown Creek. "See Me.-^iial Kill. 
Nicholson, Lieut. -Cjovernor, 24(i, 25 
"Nine Men," the, 70,243, 287. 
Noering, Jan Willemsen, 171. 
Normans Kill, IdO, 323. 
Norwood, licniamin and Cornclit 





uld.Tioeii, 107; sued bv the court mar- 




sh.il, 108; expediliuii to Albany, 100; 


2i. 


a(ii:iy with Cu|.i;un linker, 100 to 203; 




allemptiobuiu las .m.,>e 11. New York, 


122, 


2112; award u. l.i^ l..^>,^ au.iust llaker, 




collliseated by l..iv. 1 .il\e,2lii; executes 




relea-es, 2115; early lile ol W illuuii I'at- 




ersou founder ol the liauk ol England, 




205 it ieij.; alleged slatenient of" age in 


247. 


his will, 207; his linaneial theories, 208; 


173, 


his vibit to the Wcbl Indies, 2U0; suffers 




in the persecution of the Scottish I'res- 


327, 


bvlerians, 212; comparison of i-ignatures, 




215; visits New York, 218, note. 




raulus^eii, Mighicl, 147. 




Lavonia, Massacre of Indians at, 23. 


eq.\ 


I'earl Street. See 't Water. 




I'eartree, William. See Ijartre. 




I'eek Slip, 335. 


Ap- 


I'eeek, Jan, 301, 302, 345. 




Leeck, Mary, banished from New Amster- 




dam, 301, 3U2. 




Tenover, Itobert, 204. 


te. 


Petersen, l.ourens, 150. 




I'hillipse, I'rederic, 12, note, 78. 



Nutteu or Governor's Islan 



Oi.n Kill, tlie, 338, 341. 

Oort, John, 250, 251. 

Oort, Sarah. See Bradley, Sarah. 

Opdvke, Gvsbert, 180. 

Orange Street. See Cliff Street. 

" (Jrchard," the, 313. 

Oude Kerk, or Old Church, Amsterdam, 

"Oullioek," the, 203, 271. 



irs. See Storehouse of the West 



I'aine, John, Capt., 291. 
I'ali-ades of 1053, the, 272, et seq. 

l'."ir=onage'of"Uutcli I'buieh, IG, 50. 
I'alersoii, William, ap[.earance in New 
York, 100; his liou.ses in New York, 107, 



I'icciuet, Miehiel, 83, 00; 



I'i.lei-.ell, Adnlph, 127. 

I'ieler.^eii, Alb.rl, 150. 

I'ielersen, Cornelia, ;illO. 

l■ieler,^en, Gillis, 221, 230, 277. 

I'iet.isen, lleiidrick van Hasselt, 330, 

341. 
rielirseii, Jan van Amsterdam, 83. 
rieterseii, WiUeiii. See I)e Groot. 
I'lelers, Solomon, 80, note. 



I'ollet, 


M;.ii< 


, wife of I 


liilip (_ 


.era 


rdy, 8; 




e, M 


ihew lie V 








I'o,, A 


Ilhie, 


1,'apt., 12 








I'os, S 




lliekse'li. 


ost on 


the 


"Prin- 


i'ii' 


h.ii/', 


lis de, 48. 
leth de, 40 








I'latcu; 




of, and the 


Thirty 


Years War, 



"(JiiKiiAGii," merchant, capture of, 257, 
Ciuiek, William, 327. 



INDEX 



IJAPPALJE, Jorif, 117, 307, nolo. 
ItcJdiuiiaus, Kliiu, 101, 1U5, 1U7. 
Hevnliouls^ii, Kuyiiliout, 240. 
Kulcr's Alluv, 311. 
Kubinson, John, 248. 

Koelanlseii, Adam, schoolinastcr, Gl cL seq. ; 
visiu tlie NctlicHan.l.s, 03; baiiUlii.Rwit, 

Kutloffscl'sara, daUfjlilLr uf Anliotje Jauac, 
" Kiciatud, 4U, !i'J. 



187. 



grant of osci: 

liur, 2i'.0. 
.SVe IJradL'j-, 

l(i7, 108, luy. 



cd land 



277. 



Ij!) 



riio.i 



bi;iu'lliii{,'i:r,.liiiob, man-its C.iriuliaiML-lvii, 

122. iVc 12:1, Apiiendi.x: 11. 
Sclicnect.idy massacre, Gluim mansion, 

clc, 304, 305. 
SdwHUsl^^cnvcKer. AVcAndrieasen.I'iclur. 
Scliruj'cr.'; Hud., 11), 73, lOi); Kuionil Kalli- 

criiiK (if Indiiins and truatj' at, 102, note. 
Sciir.ck, i'aiilns, 71. 
Hrlmtt, CornHis, 47. 
.Sebrah, Cluna-nt, ir)8, note. 
.SubrinK, (Jorntlis, 301, note. 
Senlter view of New Amsterdam, 244, 

note, 230, 280. 
Shirt Case, the, 182. 
.Shoemakers' Pasture, the, 31G. 
" Shrovetide Dinner," the, 102. 
Simonse, Ilendriekjc, IM. 
Slanfjh, Jacob, killo.l in llie fort, 2y4. 
Slaughter Houses, the, 275. 
Sloat Lane. Sci' bloot. 
Sloot, and Sloot I,anr, 241, 243. 

s;, ,,' '■':. (, . ,';..,r, 246. 



;, [ ., 




llii' 


151; i 


a Amsterd 


m 


1 ..i, 


. ,,11, . 


I'nH 


l.ane, 


164, 155, 1 


bi, 


li,J, 


Uulu, 


l.J, 


233, no 


e, 271, n 


ito. 


28o. 












Smede 


.Jan 


233, n 


olo, 31G 






Smeeu in, 11 




314, 11(1 


c. 




Smith, 


• lame 


, 01). 








Sniilh, 


Kid, a 


.1, 218 


el 5f7. 






S.nltli. 


Ki.Ik 


d, ju 


ior, 220 







Iterberfch; mc 


ting ( 


f ( 


clef,' 


ies 


a(, 18.1 


municipal gov 




It 


usla led 


at, 184 




V, 18. 




shor 


fi 


ont im 


proved, 185; views 


if, 


180 


d 


nnci- to 


Stuvvcsant .at 


180 




sed 


fur 


storage 


pnriu.sM, 1S7; 


df.Ml 


d 


f,.r 


eho 


ol, 187 








bcc 




s dilap 


;:l;.",i:, ' ■;, 


■ . 1 


,4 


of Am- 


tcidaui 



181 


' cour 


U'-A:. 
9 hcK 


m' 


1^2 


.S'>. lb 




^', 


lii'l 


Island, gr 
IJaron Van 

11«; dc\a-l 
1, Ml: a^i. 


.nt 
dcr 

ited 


b\ 
U 


.'ornehs 
pcllcns 

the Ind 
55, 127; 


M 


rest 


al'- 


'<';w,! 


.'l'..f 


I'lir 


n':' 


ht.rlauds 


M 


lyn 


ai.d 
the 


Knvl 
West 


India 


"(■:u 


11 

ni|, 


charges 
11/ befo 


,^ 


inst 
ll'J, 



iJistclviuk," 132; 



• Nclhcrland, 137; leaves l„r 
,141; his life at lialavia, 142. 

Jan, Nchoohuaslcr, 03. 

.Ions de Caper, 1U7, 103. 



Slille 


Corn 


ulis Jacobs 


n. .See 


Jacobsen, 


Sliln 


u,Jm 


Hendricks 


u, called 


'Koopal," 


Sidw 


li.-Ni 


holas 32G. 






Si. 1 1 


liil, J; 


I Jans.ii V 


m, 41 ct 


''?■ 


SllUlL 

Uo 


Strct 
'gh M 


. ti.e lir 
art; small 


lousr <ln, 


raet, and 
Oil, note. 


Si lire 




it West Ii 


dia Ccuu 


lany, 18, 


45; 


Ih-W . 


lurchou-c. 


2; Ololf 


vanCortl 


Ian 


It is k 


eper, 70. 


ite Appc 


.dix I. 



aker, Uirek, and wife, killed by 
is, 11)3. 

ant, IVtnis, Pireclor-Geneial, house 
hrevers Hock, 20, 42, 47, .50; in 
f Captain Van dor (irift, 51; his 
ularitv, 74; grant of the "Great 
Lrv,"«3, note, 85, 91; his hvpoc- 
n'trial of I'uquct, 02; arrival at 
hatred of llelyn 
les and hanislies 

ii.Vlicncral, IIG; 

rici:liHV.!ii to the 

, La-t , the "Great 

.■■;!n-iale.^ the 



crda 



INDEX 



287; his (Icpulaliuii to the Governor of 

Maryland, MH. 
Styinetz, Caspar, 14. 
Sunswick Creek, 165. 
"Swamp, The," Jib, 331, 337, 338, 339, 

340. 
Swits, Claes Cornclissen, 6'J ; nuuilor of 

by Indians, U8. 
Syhoutsen, llari'k, 314, note. 
Synagogue oljews, 87, note, 100. 



Ian pits, tlie,31B. 
Taylor, William, 203, note. 
TiMi Eyck, Coonrad, 31«. 
Teunissen, Aert, liU, note. 
Teunisscn, Gv.sbeit, Ifil. 
Tcunisscn, Uocloll, Cai.tain, 323, 
Teunissen, Setter, 1U7. 
Theobalds, John, 24'J, nc.to. 
Thirty Yeari' W.nr, tlic, its p, 

Tienlioven Street, 28i>, note. 

Toinasscn, Willein, or " lelnicr,' 
00 et sen., 340. 

Trinity Church, 272,273, 274. 

Trinity Church Yard, 107. 

Tuder, John, 250. 

T;ivn Straet, 101. 

" Twelve Jfen," the, 100. 

Tymensc, Klsie, 242; ni.irrics I 
nelis.^en Vandcrveen, 242; mm 
I.cislec, 212. Sec Leisler, Klb 

Tvscn, Jacoh, 05. 

Tv.s^cii.i, l.vshet, wife of llaryn 



UNDEniiir.i,, .Tohn, Captain, 180. 

Van Bousum, Cornells, 14'.1. 

Van Dorsum, ICfjhbrrt, 115; bis bouse at 
the I'Vrrv, 342, 343. 

Van Brugge, Carol, 161. Ste als,i li.idges, 
Charles. 

Van Brugh, Johannes, 149. 

Van Cominel, Tennis Janscn, 1G8, 109. 

Van Corllandt, Catharine, her church at 
Sleepv Hollow, 78. 

Van Cortlandt, Oloff Stevensen, suit 
aijainst Dominie lioKardus for slander, 
20 ; 57, 04; comes to New Amsterduin 
75 et se,/. ; marries Anneken Loocker- 
mans, 70; his brewerv, 77; burj,'o- 
master o( the city, 78; his family, 79; 
89, 149, 237. 

Van tlortlandl, Stcphnnus, 240. 

Van Ci.uwi-iiliovcM, Germ Wolpherlsen, 



144, 
an Couwc 
buy.- old 
et seq.; h 
erv,147;r 
149, 151; 1 



1, Jacob VVolplicrts 



his houses on Stone Street, 79; family, 

144; 148. 
Van Couwenhovcu, Wolphert Gerritsen, 

144, 145, note. 
Van Curler, Aront, 209. 
Vander Hogaerdt, llarmanus Mevndertsen, 

surgeon of West ludia Co., 11, 68, et 



Meyt 



Van N 


rk, I. 


mil .J. • 


\. ii, 


rls, 200. note. 


Van i; 


\-\. 11 






L„ie, 137. 


Van .S 


'.;nvv\ 


k, Al. 


ihali 


.Ia.:nbsen, 46. 


Van K 


ccnw\ 


ck, ('.. 




Jacobsen, 4fi 


•"•'/• 1 


burg,; 


naster 


nd mayor, 48, 49, 1 


2U3. 










Van ' 


icnho 


•on, A 


efje. 


raanics I'ict 



ael,128; 
:s7, 293, 



314 


315; 


ale of th 


J bouwerv 


310. See. 


319 


339. 








Van' 


ienho 


■on, Jauii 


etje, dangl 


ter of the 


Sec 


clary 


57, 58. 






Van ■ 


icnho 


•en, Lucas, 57. .OS. 




Van ' 


■ienho 


•en's Lar 


0,310 tt seq.; rcgu- 


laic 


1 in 1042,311, I 


.,ti', 271, n 


itc 310 


Van 


I'wilk 


r, W,.uic 


r, Uircctu 


rc'cncral, 



INDEX 



365 



his landed interests, 1 

tobacco plantations, 3; 

VarrevanRer, Jacob, 57, : 

VerbrugKc, Gillis, -IJT. 



Verdo 



rdale 



Verlett, Janneken, marries Au^'ustyu 

Ileermans, liSS. 
Verlett, Nicholaes, 285. 
Verplanck, Abraham Isnacsen, at the 

" Shrove-tide Dinner," 103. ^Ve 319, 

3-24. 
Vcrsche Water. See Koick, 338, 316. 
Vicvvs of New Amsterdam. iVe under 

llnrtfiers, Dantkers, Hanker an.l Skn- 

t, I Vi-„h. r, Winder Dunck, Allaerdt, 



the Maufjde 



, 3UG; 



Nell 



308. 



of Europe 



parentage, 30U, 307, 
ies Secretary Van 
lis chil- 



Vinjc, Rachel, niarri 

Tienhoven, 57, 307, 
Vinje, Willem {ur Vigne), 300 

dren, 307, '^''i, 3i4. 
Visscher Vieiv of New Amsterdam, 4U, 

note, 59, 288, note. 
Vopelsang, Marcii.s Hendricksen, 232. 
Volekertsen, Cornidis, 322. See 301, note. 
Vulekcrt>eu, Dirck, iU2, 240, 207, 2r,S, 

notes; his house near the ferrv, 310, 321; 

one of the earliest settlers, 322; marries 

Chrislina Vinje, 322; his lands at the 



Waal, or sheet-piling along ri\ 

278. 
Waldron, Resolved, 43, 1C3 ; sent . 

tHtion tn Ifaryland, 288. 
" Walleustein," bouwerv of, 312 



310. 
Walleostein, Count, i 



304. 
;iny, 199. 



■hires Van T.enhuven', garden, 310. 

White llall, the, 20. 

Whitehall Street, Appendi.K I. 

White Horse Tavern, 7 etseq.; affray at, 
11,01. 

Wiilemseii, Hendrick, baker, 93, 317. 

Willenisen, Uvnier, 1211, note. 

William Sma. S,e Smith Street, 233. 

Will. I. T! ,,:, , M Dnmiiiie ll,.nardus'3 
]:iiii I, . , uii m^.xt the Great 
T..., , . Sarah Cornell, 193. 



Wmekel Slraet, 13 el setj.; closed in IC80, 

32, 72. 
Windmill on Nutten Island, 5; near the 

fort, 7. See 155, note. 
Wil hart, Johannes, 174. 
Wolphert Gcrritsen's Vlv, 338, 341, 340 
Woolsey, George, 195, 1%, 335, 330, 337.