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( 




i 



THE NEW 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 

OB. O^TNERAL REPOSITORY or 

HI STORY, 
P OLITICS, 



AND 



LITERATURE, 
For the YEAR 1799.* 



TO WHICH 18 PRBFIXBD 



tl«r HISTORY of KINJOWLEDGE, LEARNING, and TASTE, 
iA Great Britain^ during the Reign of King Charles II.— 
Rut Ul. 




LONDON: 

PriQted for John Stockdale, Piccadilly. 

1605. 






hid ; r ^:i ■ ' 
^ i'li;(j I.J ; ' 

7 ' >V > O '. '- 



THE NEW YORK \ 



i !:.r :>i'rr()0 



TILDEN FOI'NPATION^J • 









* 



.-^ -». 



1" 



=sa 



Great Uuccq Street, Lkioola's-liia-Fields. > i r 






PREFACE. 



XT is a trite remark, that the real causes and mo- 
tives of political events are never known till a 
conaderable period after they have happened ; but 
it b a remaik, of the truth of which, sbce the in- 
vention of printing, and since the sources of public 
information have been so wonderfully augmented, 
we might be permitted to entertain a doubt : nor 
is it easy to conceive, that, at a time when, every 
transaction of importance is committed to writing, 
and by some medium or other (it might be ima- 
gined) would find its way to tlie press, a political 
secret should be kept even for a month. 

Notwithstanding this, whoever has formed his 
opinions of political aflairs from the information 
contained in newspapers, and other periodical pub- 
lications, will find, when he.Gomes to porJS this 
volume, that he reads' a history 'whichis, in' all its 
most essential parts, entirely new. He has heard 
of the names of statesmen and generals, tlie 



a 2 names 



PREFACE. 

names of the places where they have been engaged, 
but he is altogether ignorant of the fntrigues, the 

■^ faclimis^ .lhrpMJ e cls; - ami Ac uiuiii f giwhith liAu er-r 
produced the events of the yeat 1799. 

We shall iwt^tipipate ,Ui€,* p^minent parts of 
the following narrative ; we shall not destroy tlie 
reader's entertainment^ Js;^ a premature develope- 
ment ; — he will meet witli matter which is not 
-only .-iiew> ^ but eXttaoj^ina«y,*-t^jiirdi (rmi^ ffifcv 
sources from which we havp derived our informa-^ 
tion, we dan ohtf say', that we cSrin&tf Entertain an 
doubt of its authenticity. ^ 

^^ V xTbbti^h fromwiw*^^^ ^»'^' 

^ cw^ ey«ry^ilfre*ej^'ce, wt; as' f» fe atclinicj^^eoik^ 

- " <jefftied: tV-e *fe desi«)«r^ qf ^ Obtaiftltt 



of military men. We cannot but flatter ourselves? 

that the detail of the late important campaign is 
^ i*ore complete tbanv^ny- thiftg^tfe«*'bjte «wr«af9^^^ 
^ i9eated upon t4ie ^ Bfiibje^, sm%4 4i«srt<^ itis'iiMleiirdt 
^ * swtrb that ' n^tx)fity' tlw pt*lrtt^i«# mfAy iesA ^ "fep 
* eiUeftainment, but tba** «h6 soWlkk' ttiar^-ist^ 
-■' for'in8tructi<>fe./- '•■• ^^ . ^'^^ > ;•- ^;c.cv\^r:v.'.i.;s.-x.^ui>.ov3j 

.III 'fA'no 



:i J A I .1 K '1 

ji^n '; rj;.:/' TM-.i.' : -"/ ij^r:. .■ % :! — ; Jh '• i 

* %Mg the Reign of King Charles the Second. Pan, III. — — page xvii 

-It '. . 't ".\"/ \}jr-i^ .« ' ■ '//.■!."'' ,1* ".[ '-' J' .[.-.i 

, . WUTISH .ANP KWEIQN HISTORY. ^ j 

. Rawamt. His Majesty s Speech. Address^^Dehate on the Address in the 

livm^i^^nkrnhfkc ^pm\of<?pnmflns.- ffpn$e.^.Cc^eif^ tp^ied 

. 6u a new Measure of Finance, Mr. Tierrteys Alotumfn Favour of Peace 
Imates on thai Abtcssure m the House of Commons'^In tie House of Lords. 

CHAP. II. . 

l^aoM tmA Ireland. Message from His Majesty^. Debate in the House of 
€mgmr^ffm4iM\Mi^tysh^^ ikeJ*f<f^aifime^iition. 

ResoJuAons proposed by the Minister as preparatory to a Uninn, Rrsohttions 
jknfphiir^ii ^tukhnh^ectAd. r.yf(94hen£>^batt4^fntHrMsiwfer's 
Frotosals. Com m it tee of the whole tionse on the Hesc In lions. Conference 

^vm 4^ %vih /Ifar ^w*^ itfwj^Miriwi/flJ Mf l^n^\ (Wri¥^ to 

the House of Loras. Conference with the Cdmjnons. Resolutions presented 

^tifJififflM^ /?4/>iTx, ^^elm^m^i^i'^ca. 

Debtkte in tiCe House of Lords on the Resolutions. Debate on the Pro^ 
posalfor an Address to his Majesty. Debate on the ^^kpf\ ( i^ffP^" L'ipifc' 
rence with the ComnKui. Joint Address of both Houses to Ins Majesty ^ 4Q 

CHAP. III. 

finances of the Year 1799- Committee of Supply. Navy Estimates--' Sir 
John Snciair's Objecttons^ Debate on the Subject. Army Estimates. The 

a 8 fast 



O^ O*' N'^ T:i E» N^^T<'>S.:> 

']Pa^trf ihel^dn, • fitrfksrJMat^s on the, 'Income Wax in ike M&str^qf 
^Co^nihht^Behhtes ht iftesitmBiii ih ifu if&uu>qf^ L9rd»*^Jmendmms 
'Wit^r Vrftlr-5/ifik'^ Siif iff' fkt ffmst of Cmmhks ajmtits R^uim fimmlki 
"* JJoiisepf Lbrisr VoU of VrntH far Tkne MWion^^tm Exvkefaw^tUs. 
^''SMify'ih Mt/isia. I^fbfrf\>te'^f^f^uiaf^r TbrteJiG/hont la4k(M0^]MS 
\ Hc^csty A) "makjr good Engifem^ts. 8swndtv^ga^U^€Bndytk&am 
"'Jft^'T%cis. Rnohttion^TfiMiftto tbt S9rvii^t$\iniand. - Mr^TjerMys 
^:^ MMW Miit^ei» Hhc Fin^mts vf the 'Couniry^-^^t^Umi^i Suh^L 
■'Indiiiflhid^,' '" " V Jui-.^^ •■ . •w**^^ ',.;•> :\.^.tOS 



V ^^..^ • 


^ -^^ 


►• . V. 


' .f V. 


^r^>V^ ',v\ 


^ .nnv' 


\ «l. »' 


• vV 


•. r* ' 


;. .'' 


»\".. 


■•<\ 




Retrospect of the State of Europe in 1/98. Revolution of Swhxerland. 




p^ud, ' Di positions of the Canton of Berne toivard&Tiance. FtofoXions 
\ iffjfy l^euiralliy QiKthe P^rtjsf S'wiizo land. JUhirtvh^^enPif-yihe 
> Fft^c^^ Rfpufilic by tbi- Swiss Vonfcderatim, . Rectcmations ^ ibeTayCde* 
. Fm^^di ^ . jniv^trence of /hePHnch, 06vernfnmt.\ Insuxreciipri oftU^ ^^o)''* 
■ . dt' /^ fll« •. l^eparaiions for a- Rrvi^lutlpu, in tbe Caniori ^ Bast/, tncorpo-* 
.^ raiiiiiii^Afftlhq^useuinto ibe fr^nih Rcfuilic. Meeting of ibeVitt of^tbe . 
* ; iufUis^antpnf- at uirau. ^n^M^feJtion Mt Aran, 'Entry of the 'trench 
\ AnHy 4fitpibc Pxiysrite-yaud^,a^d tb^ Countrtes of t lie former tinfiofrtc of 

• ■ ^a»tjxlM£VoLvtwn in^ the X anton of Basil. \ Convocation of t(ie pfptc- 

• '.^t^ ff th$Poinpiun«s of. tbe Canton of Berne.' fieiotutions and .FracioMa' 
:'. ' ihiH <*f{bat Jtssenbhrk Cir*ML^ Letter, pftke, French Commissaty tei^ect* 
*'. ittg t fie P]{oci^m niton*. . Disfwsinoi^s of divers Cunfpns uf^a Cbange (^.Ga- 
- M'em^4nl^ jyR(Ji(ftioni onihe Frerub ^ofnmissgrysFrodamal'wriS^ D'iifiosi- 
'^ ^iimxSifJ^ Fren/;h D^wfijory Mnt/t respect to Swiiz^rl^hd. Fatal Efft'ds of 
\r . J^iijisitt.nsyt {li^ Sfu^is Canffip^^ClH^litutie^for Su'ttzierlai^d/otmed by tbe 

. ' , .t Oj^ceil^r) of. Bd \U ] a nd animdtd ak fdris . Negotiations between the Can-- 
1 . r U^ik of yJHei^df^fid^be 'French Gentral^ Revoluiion at, Scbnjfhnvsen. \ ^Ar^ 
.\^ ^fisUee>gra^d to^ the l)dnton of Berne. Indecision )pf (he povemment of 
K\\ *fi^^k\ -il^^ivaiifyliiinfor^emtnfsiotbe^Wftndf^^^ r^^^' 

I fa^{ij^>^of tt^e^ilrenc^ General io ^^^^ Commence' 

'^ ^ii^ent\qfxJlhiAUiUie,^f< Fi^rther ^ro-ongation of the^Arviptfce. Triice firo%en. 
vv\ W^?f I?!'" btibqff^g tff\0i,hy tht Frt:n(h\ /)/<0y-J(r/ dWr^nj^ iJ'f^^i^/*! 
-•.«^^VoA^ \^i(flS^j^i^^y OQV^rHn:r,it.at Bcrni^ .^^^^J^f^^dioriiyfjiutid^ly t/u 
V 'v,T . fe*"'*^A ^.^^^'^j-^ ..Jk^^'^eb'tif fkp French Troops t \tft\rds brrr.c. Tr.Lur ff 
*'\ /^c'^H"^^ I^v^^ps^^ Tjit'-j. if tli '^Trthch lulo Bcr?ii*. ^, ^Iasian:eof (he/r 



C.P.OTNV'Tsr Br N/. 'I^^ So 

\^.Zmi€k ami Lticermex 'R^ai c/itf» h^r O^ms to^aaifitMf .CmtHfi' 

r irndfCtaUam of Ukmmi. \ invasim ^dc Canm ^ Zurich kf d^Jr^ ^ 
--ti^iais^ Camort^ -'Snferr CauitsH hetmntn ti^ FrmcL imd Smsi Arma. 

t:&uzts:erlajui, KUImtes committed by tic French Cemmisu^^jf( .Zurifih. 

Indt^endait ConJ/ut vf the Srviss Gffvefnmfnt, Pnoers giveh to Ha^inai 

h *h€ Fremk Directofy. Clumps imjhs.&wtss Gcvemment mad* h fh§ 

French Cmmhutry, DiiavrjMt rf Rajiinai^s Conduct ly the Ffench Z>»- 

r.VflS'v^ TQ¥l90fO^JSf^^'ll^'^vG9vm the ^r^Ur^^X^ p/- 

\:j\W^^' MkcJiiJi.af^Qfh to th^ Helvetic. Dirrc/ofy, Colimel tdhr/ie 

^K^jtam}^^ Direaer*j\Refimi with the French _ l)irectory.i)'ah y^^jt^ U 

Cc^f^ir Cotiduet in SwI^lasd*. O^ sat ion tf French jyranny in Switxirlatuf. 

xuaty cmchtded^ ' w.^,— ■ — ^^ — ^' * \ 175 



^ CH A P. VI, . 



^Hfiijecf cMi^uei, ^ 'R^flfcil.ns oa' fffC^ dktthvfions givcft hy'ljhe' Phnch )Go' 




mt/ttitiotr^ iyttte ^^0^ <•' €mevd, Ar^utntntf in Favonr of unA 'agmnst its 
,[^Jffvb^^fwn into' lU y)'ench ReJiuBUc]'/ fnror/icratv.n 1/ Oifne^. Jrhctes 
^^Jsf t$e Treaty. 'C.n^less cf KaJsta^ti ''Riflcciions on the Fro^rieP^ ^'ton-^ 
^; ivchii^,, a Coe^nss:' 'Claims of the Trehtk' to the tti^ht S^de of the Shine. 
^, Oo^dVttdet standing te)w;en Fi'nn'ce^ ^Pinii^a] hnd Austria. ' O/ip^sifutttof the 




,, frojiaii/ionj ^made ^ ile'.^ 

^'^ormaticn ^ a new CoCi a . - ->/ 

^^^fifiniifri-'foth'e tkurri^ of 'the French. /Ciii'csiioih^f t^ Pi 
-^^[^ iU^Oefiutniion V"/^. T.m/iire, ' ^tatc o/)ht1^\^fiatry 



\ffafron}at'^RaUit^, ^£>o^ 




nA 



yiAws. ^ AtiTitary Comm.'Sii.nr, CmsfUfifhnaT )rtnd jRCohin Chihs fh^'^i 
-^ '^Ekctjau^ to : {fy Xej^iJaiive ' Body, [PioCUTrlcit'-^^ of 'the' Dhbtt^ry Hi^n 
: ^,^ Jdciiin ■ Patfy.' Pmhosid of nrlvefitfif^ the }io^hihtM ' "(f^ fffcoiins, 
IM'^'^. Exclusion, '^^bdahs inthe\Sutlctt\ ' ExcMoh- hf ihe f^tifvl^ 




^' 'drin! . SituaUoi' of^dte Frmcit at-^texflk4f}n:'\D}stres^hrg^ S'fai^ch fhr^^^h 
y tits t)6ert, 'ArrivaV at^ Roictfa, 'Mafch aJotfg th S'rfe: Battle ^if the 

a ^ PyamiJ''^ 




,C?.OtNmT;tEtNmTo».3 

['iA^«W^ ^Aw^V^ s*^;*^^^ MkTiM %t<«^;4^/cri&jfl*- 

trench Army in E^'/it, Formation if a National Institute in Egyht, As'^ 
semhly cf Chiorks at Cairo. Celehrathon of the Anni'oersary if the French 
. Re/iuhUc in Egyfit, ImurviMl^ at'^Cair^i 'Rejkctions on the Invasion of 

£^V * ' ■ . ' ■ 204 

; v\. ,. -vs^-.i-.^. ^ OH {A? VII. '^ ^- '- v•^^^v.t^^ 

RsU^eck^ CWMMkA/, Ptlitieai Situation rf Ihtiam^. Rifttidiof the &^- 
J^'veytt^Btnattiiie Fotcerv to atfawkn t^xir Ftincft^nS^ ' 'ktiMttrmns 
•^inst,^.tifj yMedsure, « Etvoh agdinSt Hie Gctfernrkent in' flolhcnit, ^¥)r^ 
-Msioi^n)^,' G^overnment fained, *. I^ominatioiiof Ciiistitittiiuai^ hgt'ti^^ 
.^ Mreei»}v9 Pvtuet^Si Stale of fkt French Armi^ m ih Rhkt. doir- 
fetp^ce^t 4elf7L Afipearxmee\of llbftihtie} lf^h»ken'fke£m/tiH 'imd-^'mM. 
§fm if PuhHc Corruption,. i4 tha. French R'^bJic:^ t^ fis/i^ttn^'iike 
J^i/k^*(y^^' Wiigki^' and Measured. Extension y tie Fofi:der^<f Milif^ify 
.CimmiisifOis,* Ey^diticn of. the Ef^liih a/musf Oruk^ ^Phn of Vnivgrsaf 
SionsC'fi^^in for ieifiin^ m/i the Natronai Fo^oe inr Branch, «' Dtifixftie Pnflkhfkc 
^ ^(hf J}i^eeifi9yt over the yLegiMi^- Body,- ^Siikakk of the Chdi^Ue 
J^Ofb/ic^ < ^Nomittaihn tf thfi f^gidi»dve and ExeaOivt Powers j^'^BohiUs 
/tmtii'v J^reaf^ of A0iemc6 hmxxen ike Cisal/iiote^-^and. French S^Mhi. 
Divisions in ^ Councils, Acce/ftonqe of the freaty, AtbHrdfy Coitiuxfif 
^hf FreKi-at Milan, \Fcrntotim of a ntuy Conniiutkn for tM CijaWfie 
Jiejiulfhc.iya, Memkr f ^h^Fkntk' Dtrectcry, Conductof ihe FreAek^ih* 
jijfUHidot at Miiani . '/he .Ctdoi/iinos accefit the prtfrnd C^fitttfien, N^ 
iiaiioti ^^aith thg .jP^icnck Diifee/vry a^vt:f iu- A/r/tiicafifiit, ' RevoJntkkin ih 
G^n^^m <^ Milan'tgiectei i^ the French, Conseifuences of the Re^tr^i^ 
f^in^ce^^ Pfokngatioit'cf.the P'^mett of the Virecki^y. ' Decadafy Vcstiyah^ 
Ji^^ ^ Spa* Hundred 'Thou and Afe»; Ent^firise on Ireinnd, Antmcd^f • 
^f£k^i0H<^^*\'iniurr6ctJm^iA\t!.e>i/mttdD^^/^ Ghaiige tf QtfOetiK 

nfeiii-cip. ^ {^ift^ljtwe Rt^hiit, effected by Gsneral Brune. Cis'tilpineC^if^ 
i{iiUinon^^tod. ,ChnH$e^Gvthknmentia th^ Cuaipirt* ojfected U^ f^ 
1iai{d. ,^Sf^^^Jhe HehvHU Rfpublic, insurirccmnin the Canidn ^iMy^ 
^^zuAl4i(i^,.l^*ifftvn Emigrutitmi^ Troaty between ibo Hehetic and PMnih 
G^-^^*If^^''\ &«*« ^f^ IJigr/ician Rcpnhl'tc. Changes in ibe Liguthif^ 
CQUtt^Hi^.effi^tfd fy tJi^ French ^/ktiidUer^ Bahithmeni of the Dixtfjft^ iid anii 

- ^f^CiergH Jto/usaldftherlj^utiamfi/tiask n Frvn^O^nefalattbBHcnd 
i^jha^^MlfiMrj Forsei. JLJ^ian National Institute^ FaiJan: of J^ego^ 
^iatio^fAhsmfi^n 'ih CoUfi of^ Paritf^ai d*id the French' M^puUic ' ^Sfmik* 
f(<^^,^jbe,Saiav^un-iii^vbJie. ' State of ^, DontUfro, £)rchraiT(i» tif 
W^fJiy i(i4 (3</^f»A« Forte, ' Evit^?rce. into tie Orhono^ of the j'htsifidn 
^tv^s. .sjVf'A/WA flX ^Aa N^.-aWii^nH<Atmy, Brciar^Nofi^f^^^ iaQ^rttlr^hk^ 
■K<«i'^ '/uVV(M^if tiMii Sardinia'.. Mdic'ativifi nf tbi'^ifta^ 3^ S'trdivYa. Fitt^^ 
tSAW^<Sf «^. Xi*WA^/o;;(ir^ GQV^rMmjtuL Entmnae^f^f^we ' Mi apohiayt ' Atwf 
inJ^Romd, D^'iUiL of, the Ncapoti4^m A^::y, and Eyqwatltm af\Ihmjjf^ 
Rejection of the Armhtke offered hy the Neapolitan General. Hew tf (he 
effit(V^i Farilci ul ike Coni>rc5i of RadstaiU, Pft-^osUiom of the Fretuh 

Alifiist^rs^ 



'^^ff^ ^ tie 'DffltehahM, '"Forcible Rtjirese^'aftaa tf ihe Tren^Minhtty^. 
^Cmuumti «f At DefutauoHi' "" ' - ^ ^ V^ ' '\ - ' ' '^ ■■ ■ ■ ■ ' '" ''- [ aa 7 

V ;«..'.._-/. ;■ ... C H A P.-.. Vlih-: ' ^^i -■'••• ; 

^o; — — , " '^ - 

^egoczt^fiai at Roilsiadt. Note cf the French Mtmsters m the March of the 

Rtusians. Vote ^ the De/mnti'm of the Em/iire, Dissatisfnctijn (f the B e»ck 

Ministers. Declaration cf the fren<h .Mvr^:idrs to the Cotmnissaty of the 

Emfieror. Vote tf the Diet of Ratisbcn, Passay^e rf the Rh ne by the French 

J^Wi^j-\\Ri/rn9Jtta3fces if-lke Em/iirt,' Surrender ff F.hreiAnim*'tft^ ' \^n'^'' 

"JPif^^j'^k Caert -pf Ftevna resjteclin^ the March ff tJje Russitm Tro9/kt. -- Oi^ 

.tfdios ff'ike^ Dktt, ' Threats of llostihtfCt by the French Ministers, Cmtt- 

^Mj^. ^. Na/tkf^. . . . Mefu :a^ by Cham/^onrt ^ the \Afmistice fffered hy-the 

'-ii^^/tolH^m 7Uo%ienimen^ < ^^unenJer of- fhg i\» f of G^^ftit on the Mediter* 

^ Hawjs ^ l l.'* ^J^ro^rm %f'.tii&* Idfy IVin^ ^.the^^Fhcnck ylnny cu the Adriatic^ 

-jRrf^ett ^ tkf Righ ff^W ef ^fafioUtans^. Imurrectirn <f the NeA/iditans. 

^•Sm^.twder of'Ftsearmk ^Deftiett of the Centre of tke Ntapc'iuin 'Aryt^ at PdL 

^/ifiii^, .En^agfmgHts hetSKtcuhe Frertfh emd ^htfficlit/sni bcfcre Ca*}tia Di* 

•^^T*^* tkt, frt/ich '£veo/tt\ by the Imttr^enti. in^ tlie datiglian')* * ("better fil J n* 

Tjm^UiS^ ^gahut I^- Fi^ch,;' i^rjo Pro/i^^icns for the Sarrem^r\f Ca/izta 

jflfueed by Chamfii9net..\ -DitresseJ SiiuatiiM tf the •F>ettch Army. Alerh' 

,4<ite€: if thfifrefich.'. Freak Frcfosals for the Surrender 5^' Cafi^k accetWeiU 

'•C^ndUkUf ^ the Surrtmier^ Fiij^ht of the Kmg fom Ner/tirS' 10 ^icf^, 

''JS^fifmPltation hy Cjkam/ii^mc*. t$ the Duectvty \of the Ad-yMntnges of the 

^tjTHstkf* ' I waiting Letter ^f the French Dtrcctrpy • to ■ Champ tanet re'/ieeK 

Mtj^Wh ^Armistke. ,J^atrd Causes tf the ' Conduct of the Directory. • Jmrcm 

4rFkrsf the Lffk i^'tng ^] the • Fr£9ch Army at • Caieita. State cf Parties <d 

J^t9^es, , , Dejcrtton V" the Ntopditan^. Army t9 the French. jEj cape of Ge- 

jfef^ MacJk from ' Na/det, to /he Fremh Cam/r\ Arrest of Mack^ by Ord^ 

^'jheftoscb.Dtrectory^ at Mi/au^ JUik&araa in Ponessim of Najbleh At^ 

^i ofi the Laoautroni 9» the Frxxch Ctrrrtfi, 'Herrers comrniited hy tktt Lai* 

atprrtffi -et$' Naples ^ , Ru/itur>e <f ike - Armistice^ ^ JirortatieH fom fkehkatt^ 

iftUs to the Fremh to enter. Sa/des^ Advance of die R ench to Na/ikK " •. DeS* 

ptr^H Hesistawec if the* JjoxzarGni^. Smrtiider of the La^ti&^'^^ni , -^^Fry/^ 

jUm ^ tioM rf ChmtH^ivet. Prwnstotsary' Govenvaint of the ^ka/Hofi'Oft R^ 

^t^Uitn . JU Kiceffim by the. Directory vf ihk Einbastaikrs from the Neal 

^in^an Re^bUc Disohcdience tf Gheunjsmel to (he Decreet of the Dhte^ 

kny»' Arrett rf CitampioneL ., Reoolutioti rf Ldtca* Const it udon ef the nc^ 

Ri^u^lieof Imc^, SjateofTitraaeet'im'Frctjxh, Tax hn 8dlK- Mehag& 

rf the Directly i# the Comic cl of Fiue Hnttdred: r^ OpposUhm rf tht Co^iftcil of 

i^lders f the D'trectety^ Observations onihe Ccmluct of tlie Directory. - Instances 

rf the .Despotism awd'£vi*tffilion rf the Directory, , First Symptx)msof'the afi^* 

pt0ack9g FaU^' tJm Ddycctoty, Pamfihlet •. by' Bmhy de ia M^i&ihe, FJect 

of Ae Pamphlet m the^Pub/ic Mittd^ Appre/iensimr rf the Directoiy, '1prd^ 

t)mnmtiem rf the Dirtet^ryptevietis /b thj. Atmnal Ekttions, Coafdicn rf Parties 

0gaitm the Di^icwy, \ \ .w .v. -^^ » w .ov.-:^ ' --^ ^ ' ..^^ ..'-'''^3^5^ 

.... \ \.-' o ./...'-^v / /. /. i>: :-. . '• vA i'^>' •" '^' ^ 



4^- - C HTA P IX. -" ' V 

Cmthmance of Negotiatim at kaJstmi. 'Preparations cf the BeW^^erefte^ 

Powets far taking tie Fielii. Motives <f.Delaj^ voith. tlie. Just^an^^an^ 
'^4^*ifmckr'^aie-9f fhe f?enek Armies Frenti-Jiass Ae k%int^Ntae 
, iitd PkcIamiitiM of (he PrettcJt Directory cm fie Passage of tie Tro9^s^ 

i^9te\^>tie Cmgress ^tHe'Nofe arid Proclamation of the PretfcA Mim- 
-Jters. '' Dii^/lfiiailm' cf the Imfieiial ComthissOty', CommencemhU ef 
' HkiiUti99 betv)ttH iJie Errtjterw' and France, Order if "March tf^^^ 
.prekch^ Army, ' Plim'^of Attach. Order of Mar^h of the Ausbiati Jirmy, 
^ ^JPiiJiosrtnk ^ the Jnttrtan farces. Entrance ^ the French , fnio tte Gri- 
V joHs^ \ "^DtfeOt and Cajilnr^ «/" the Au^hidn Aiffiy in /Af Grisonsl ^ Success 
t^ tie- Pf^ch in the Mowt/ains ef the Tyr^t»\ Wfanantwes ef Sour dan* s 

Armyi: Defeat of the French, Ditfimm kffire Fef^(r(h. ' Bes/icirtlve Posi'^ 
- lims Tof thf French and Austrian Armier, En^a^ente/fis hsiween )hif Freneh 

'and \dMrii» Armies. Siftond Defeat tf tfii Fmch fefore' FeVhifcL 
^Defitm ^' ihe French Anr^ under Jtntfdan <fn \hi^Danuhk, tmstejfnation 

Mi 'Pofis^-' Juurdan's Defence cf his Conduct: ^Si/uaticn of the 'Atymt\cm 
^ Ms ^fating thi CommiMd. -mfasims Practice] of tie M mister ^[^^* 
'\ C4rmpmdence heooeen Joutdan, tht Direaoiy^ and Minister of IVar. ^'[Oja- 
\.raiims ef ffie Fftnch Amty "h 4he, Tyroi, . Extraordinary A^anashlei of 

IfhkFreneh'ArfHjt on the Alht. ^^Defeat of the Austrians, Occufia/r^nof ifn" 
'^fortanr-P^n in tie TyroP'^hy the French. Dismission 6f tht Mimsief tf 

* HTke^ Sehernr, ^cierei^^s AjMn^irient to Commdnder in thief of)k^Jfmy 
> ift' ftaiy»' 0*nera/ Jndrgnaficn of the Army at tie Apfiointmeni^^ \^{^^ 
^ nf\Ii^' Fiend m "the Auari'an fjnt at Ferond\ 'Success of Morea^spi* 
\ wiswrntCroH the Adi^) FhiHtre^ of Scherefs (n front of Verofia. 'JStf- 
\ ksTuU A^dck or At Austrian Lines. Defeat of Scherers Army. Retreat 
'\^ tke^ Ft^th fri>m da Adrgc. ^Bcittle (^ Magnan. Furtiier to^eatand 
M JUtvsK^i ^ 6ciierei^*s 'Army, ^itucttiori ^ ike French and Ausirian Arnj^es 
^ ^tt Italy en the Arrival of thi~'Kussians. Rtfreat xf the French t^iviswnf 

from the Tyrol. Further Entreat d' piyisigi^s tf Jourdans Army, Ofi^ 

rations cf Massena in Svjiti^^miJ *^M&6etrnnts of the Archduke. Schajf- 

hamen taken. Rffections en fFar in, mountaitfous Countries. ^FP't^^ M/h 

yinosr '^ Yhr^Frinck in\I/^fy.' Ar^ivhl ^ Sfca^arro^o in Itaty.- Cpfnmand 

':'vf:iii ^(mwft Afmy frans/rtittrd fhm '^thu'h' ^to'Moreau. ^Be)rfai efjhe 

i'Pt6tckMind*^')lheAddd: Uajimrr of '^arrauf- Plates by tlte Alt'iei/ Deci- 

\ sionof tk Dierbf Rdtii^'\^jfie'ctin^ ' tfie ff'ar. Recall of th M^nistf^ of 

* ^^tfuf^^firf^d f^om the C^^^ifat ^hzlittidt. brtah^fig uji of t^ie ; Congrhs. 
• ilrr A/^viArW V ^^ Ft^cn Mini):ters: PuSfudtidh ofi/te sujk/iosed Sfcret 
''I\'t}tif>(f€dmpo--Formio: DUtails of the "Afwder gf tie/Er!nff Plcn^- 

' i^tia>4esf 'Vlf • RadsyaJt. ' Ikjiectidns , m this * A.sasiindtionJ l^iccticn of ^ 
-.<thffit^P^^l if tie i^} stature of the French R^/mHit.' In/rTgueiof thelbi^ . 
'9^fef\/\r>WMon vf a hew bli^ectr/r:' * Secessim cf i^czifhcH. \ilfCtion if 




V^^>?V^f.- ^mrdfil^'^f'lhe AlJici hito\\)i^dn,^ 'RrfiichonV cn^ tie (^n- 

\<iiaf '•'^ S^^''^nci--^G^veh'^7tt ' ^tchh' iUifecrtV ihe^ Cisn?/mc^ tic/iu6iic. 

'V«<o'\ ' oituatton 



C, Or N/ T- E: HiTjS.. 
Jitao/ws tf the Cisalpine Gcvtrnrnent on the Jw^aak* of tit olfUd 

. C H AP. X--- •- -•■'. --o V.-.. •«•.■•: 

.' ' ' ' , . . ., ^ . « , ^ • y 1 

^f^fcis ffdt Jr^hhiie fir th Invasion tf the Qrisott^ . AJhfmf^^^ffbteJL^iy 

ike ircMd la tie Grhmj, Jnstarreaion aul Defeat ^ the Swks .P^himj^ 

^cess^ f^ Jmheriatijts injhe Crisms. . Capture^ tf the yFsrtrm rf LMziii' 

/jter^. E-oaauffion of the Grifvts hy th'^^tvJu-. State ^ Proffress tf Jhe 

cUki Am^ in Itafy. Fifnher. Retreat attd State rf McreauU jtrm^i "S&mj' 

Vftutivn ^' the J*rn4 Anmj. I>efeat rf th Rustiens metr Faietna, 

S^t^Ma^'atnyrH. ef'M^eqii^ Gesture 0/ tU City «f Turm iy^iht Afhtd 

ArvfUs.\ March tf JSlacdmald from Na/iles^ Ojierathms ef ike Freaek m 

the^Lrfes in tfie KorA ;tf Tti^J^v: Sti^ reader, ^th CitaJel ^ Milimir. jSm- 

cim^ SimhardeJ, "j/y'jy-^g^rf AJantua detacLi^ ^/ij^ainst M4i€<knald^ - F/v- 

^grti^ ^ the Archduke* s Army, irt Sivit^aerlam/, . J^ijferent Aettrmr ^BtKemtie 

FroKk-^ and ! A »^tngn: Armies > Trunsiatlae cf the Sf^t ^ Htkgt'it -^o- 

vonment^oai jMcerne, h^ P^"^^: Battle hj^x ^^uri^h. ZwicAevmcmehoJJJy 

'tkepTezcS. Ohicr^fiiifi^'^m, tne Plant of th^ retfectivf A^'tes^.^^ their 

Afoiw^ ^ OhcratUn, ^^Imiaslon^ .the PieJfW^e^ .Valleye jon 4ke:¥fack 

Tf^tttitrs. Aitrafice^ff f'TifcJowdy Army.,^f9 ifuscajty: Mjmmmirt£ ef 

^Jfitvrem to^ favor fhejtmcimef the Arit^Jr^Ne^les. . Plan !of the amimed 

Angles ^ M^re^u em^ M/tfddtiaU. Tremeu ^ M/9<d^tHdd:* Af9^* 

.^ * Mip'ch . ff Sra^prmh a^amst 'Macdsmald* Jheadf'ul . Ef^ageamtr.fm' ' she 

]7/e^>a'.' pefiu^ ^ihe Frenchi Retreat ^ Macdfnald's Af^L , Defeat 

^: ©/*>*<? Auitrians fy Mcrea^i. Surrender i^* iht Citadel rf 7«Fi«. ' CmeJksim <f 

jie^'it JPart ^ ih- Camkai^ \P*'a'Mafm ,^\the JUiUS effh^\^*^»ck 

[<^"allJid ^At-mfs iji Sjut/B^rlatfd and Jtalf\ Aji/tearanc^^ ef th^cwahiaed 

^ ^ Tleoj ' of France and ^in in the Mediter^^nean^ Stafe 'sf tie Engksh 

■ ani^'Byi^ch Marme p'<^''^\\ Ojieratim ^^f Ae. English tcin^^ifiK tht. cmn* 

'.lf»ncrf (ieasl Retmn '.^ jjif comhivcd fleets Jf(^ die, Mediterratteair^ ta 



sa 







. , 'mgScferer.Famqftbei . ._ , 

., iajion .of Scb^nr . by Jhe j[)if^cioty 'ipj>e. /n^peciof^jj^ener^l ef-. Halieoid. 
ii-jilonfgrtheUiieTljff'ihePmi- 'Rem^;tiftatikg Message of 4isCotincil 
, ii^^y Directory^] ddiirefS p0v\ the C^ouj^^i rf^ 

D'ui^ ilori lif the I4$etfy o/tKe Presi,] Cpns/iiroc^ a^ainU tMJ^fai6Ty. 

^ Menxfof cnnytiig tl into S^recuqon, Ptfrmofience of Ake C-^Tiol^L. -I^r- 

'wissm of the Urrecior TntlhariL . Mlect^oa .pf, GJiier^ Negn^htionfor 

^ (he ResigTiafjon' qf^'H'o ■filK'j D)rectQri?i .jSucc/^fS of ihi isei^twtion. 

Ctiirhhers'oftfupiriclon whp re^i^fi^d, ]R^tUions^07irtk^.pU4Uiffaimims 

Pai^rance ff the 1U^u}mIv^ ^(^y:\ChQfujeo/ ^^uj pirrO^f^XlDenun* 

^^'ia/^j<i^ri/i?i/7/K.W/«/jiitr of PoUU^andSchfTCT, Al^tyiiingMeM^^ 

* iif X:l}uho*y pnjbf o/q./<>^: the ^ffiuhHc. ;./'«V' f^^. «^«^«(>''A^* tke^f»h^Je 

' ■ffjti, (^nicjipiX^^i.^^anXriiiiiJi^^^it llundzedXliIiivins'^ $tnt$.^ tke aJM^d 

""■''* '•■" ,••'*"••■•. Forces. 



fi^rc^. JSUiti4^ikejirzktifi/^of'Vie.EipuiXc. ProJecH of 4he Rr9mu:Jk\ 

Government to iwell the Armies. RefUjiions, Macdonali^s Retnai inia | 

^ y'¥i^f¥^^. 'FmAnr.Bsifjmt tAGaioa. EtMcuaiiott o/^Ln^ki^^aHi^ Af^\ 

yje^i^i^n^ent^jh-fiOiKi^rGovd^^ (^tHre ^^W^^-*! 

X Mgt^^h^^n^^^'^k^^^ ^ ttfi^/^ Uu iatf EaotoUti^e Gooshim/njK^^^l^ro^ I 
^ ti4«<A ^of i^^ J^oiUti . 'Hastilkies ogAinU Si^s. i^^«s«f iom'^IMSP ni I 
i,^iiif Ai^gfi* . .Oenuneiathn of ilu Pl^'^SuMin Qr^gldaif^iw:^^' JSjt- I 
,'^f^MlVfiUpfJi^c^iwr/ramitbfManegs, Law u» HoiiOge^* J^Ot^vf'ifllLit 
yjL^^i iJampiaifUs s^ the Biudory ag^nst\ tht Idt^tiousnills^'^' ^Af \ 
^,f^fM' I .Qper4Uims.^< ihe aiiiedjifjn^ in \PudmarU^ - .jipacJi^y6l»'Mkfe»€z. 
XijQ^f^moft ^ Mamuoi Oburva^iMontJu.$atrMUtifi,J^ntma» \ 
^ l/\9«^^ ^ <A< A/9C& ^2^^ aiiiid Arthiis >i>> SanizerlmNk' ^Xi^WV^if x 

.iaA ",s'.'.^ '^ V, ..• • I . .V. -'.'»' ' '\ r^.\ -•/ -^ ^^»W'^o.. 3 I 

Afa^iffi. \ A»f^otft/£Q9. ^ <^ iBUhUants ioahrdt \ tU BfitH^ Rdnm ^ 
\^i^^&tfwMitm Par^\ia.ikJLEttis. Atia^ and Va/iHuiaMt if'tbt^^lU'' 
\.f¥t^n^ <.>Eng/uh\SpBtukp»i^oT0jihi^u ^ CapiMation ^h^oh^ €Uer 
.fftbeJii^g' Manaere^ iki\RspuBiuattSv Sk^f^me TrUhanat^^^^OgHial 
.Meimik ^ its Pfoae^f^. Treaty letwten tfuC>ixkris-9fFieM»^J 
, ^^^ , Change fiftbt^Qw Oath inFrttnu^ j^cmtatmSagaS^ui'ihs 

tS^^^f tbsi SofUty^CamiHiCt of the Government niat we ^»ukt^'» 
^bwstr*Damg Prcj^cU oftheJacohinS'^Jocotuns' S<kietif^n>)ParisJhudfy 
<>4Uftpfwnd. SUueuhn of the bosH/e Forces iai itaty emd (kjU^strMsd. 
: Hiiu \^- Ofsratiohi sf the Allude and French Anmes. ' Sutjf^ijfihi ^f 
,Jti9*S4na fy . Order t} ike Direffmy. Feigned Aitatk (f tki^ Frgwh W 
wfAa^R^hi^fhe Auttrian.Lint as Znricb. Attack ^ the EhmaA ^ 4be 
,AHitkFi»nCtntr€. D^tdi Q/tht^Austrians. Survey of the Ajps, ' Gitt^i 
^. \AUifi:k in the Mmnmins 9n theJtft of the Austrian Line. GenmihJ)ffiat 
cijtf the Aiumans, from th^Lnhe to t/fe Summit of St. Gfiihdrd. ^JihtitMss 
-tAttempts of ike Artbdule to stop the Progress of the French, Rrflections 
pn IVar in Mountains, Po'sUian of the French and AJied Armies in Italy, 
Respective PJans of Attack of the Allied and French Armies, Battle 
' 's^cKmtr-^ti^ibQf.J^uberl'v^Pffeat of 4be Fre^k^Ad^awtitt^Bf^^fe^' 
'K^iil^^g ff»m Jtheir riMory Jt(% the Allies, Rftgagtmerttsrin tkekjsgvtl^n 
>.J(^f^^CA Gfiei'alms. cf the Fhnndx and Alued d^ms'lntlc^Phklvt^lese 
{ Alfts* . . \Qfi^aihHS ef. il{e Fr^ih «« iA/- Lau)rr RJiint. • f nsgrrti' of (he 
y^FxAHpfkjdrmyi^ Sttnina^ Misingin a M^si iof ibe-hibaksi Arret sf^^)iat(\e. 
\Ji'M*p^f'S (fom.b^cied:*^ "-Marych of she ArchJuks fktm ^lUfSxerhnii^ hfto 
tvii«ft^»A tbanges in^iitt Arehdubes Plan ^ Opfs>cpiionsy * >«*. A i^^ 

,. v\^ ■-■.-. ' *- ■ ■': -♦ ■■' * •■ •-' ^ ••■^ * '•'-'' -;• -"^ 

CIIAP. 



A,AyA '^^\^ V- ■•• 




.V ,A .V 




fc^h'^'iV' 'A 









C O N t. B N T S, 



Jteoiju. Jtm^mAm ibm^mtt the RepiMit. ' 'Ma^Hit IkstthecHm^ U VM# 
4w<^ >Di^ 0/ tbeJU^nnr. TnuiHts n^ B^tiUdi^. 'MifmM' of 
S^fi^flf^f^dfy A'Cmwusuo^ nfgme^^^r toning fb$ CAn$^ 3c^ 

« mwwijMH tpi the Ofamttigiunsi the Mresior^ ^rotitmdttim^ tf'lfu 
X)irp^^4gaaut R^nlisv^ Maim ^ Otner^l JfUtdan- fit Nhl^*4h4 

.-^lWt^J^:^.Mtuimadapied^l^*tbtJae9^^ io' catty' ikrd^^ tkU 

* MUn-mMuKi DIscusHbh^ >Changfi in th^Minis^ attd ihi Adrnkt" 

B^mt^g^mi T»uifamt'LoUvertHr9. 'Jm^ky^ttf flit /ki^'DkfeNfty. 

* (ml\yftr^in^4h^<^^iarty% ^ ^€ace rejtru^A Athml Su^te ef ifit-fhkck 
-mi^MUA&^fHhrtcu^ Bativiow RfpuMh ^^A(t»atrthgtt and P^itbtik^ 

£tf€£ium — Siaie qfthefiuteb xtnd^FrmehTrtHifi^i* IMla/kt '• ^lUtal 
Skuatun of the Btitamtn Reffublic, Denunciation against the Batavlan 
Gowmmetet by the Jacobins of Paris. Address of the Batavian £»• 
huaadar^ and Supfressian^f'the^ahmsUalbrs, Summons ff Surrender 
*Q the Duich Fleet, Landing of the English Army under General Abtr» 
' cm^kiSk. Ikftaf" ^. /Ar ^Ihich: R&tM^ ^ ibl Soxl»j m " board^M 
,J>9M[^&i40. Smreildt/taf thr Fleet toHt^BigHik:.- t>omurtfi)Adr>bj 

* Gl^iMM£f€romkie t6i tbr Bathvicm^Qu w t n mtttv Mx^cb ef O^at 
BhfiU^eacds-Aonk'H^laml^ Resp^btvkeFoekioBS'^tbe yJmties^' ill 
Sitiemi yfyikf-Atidck if nr^be. English^ ify tkrFretstkkni^DUtcb^^Ati^s. 

- Frmks9<Dpoenieti^ the Prktee cfOtQefgeon'^tbeMaii&n Fhmiirs. 

-^Hfktfatio9^\f<Pr fbtJ[kfme^ ofAisesiordUm/' Lmtding of tli$^Dt^ke\of 

^'X^kwwdihoyJRmttm^Tntft^^ ^Gensrat>Aftwk -tf ike 'E^%shaytth HMs* 

9ms.9n,'*be' J^smk^nd J^iitcA hittes. ^'BattUf' ^^ -Bergen: JKemir^ Ufs 

•jdlHiom- -JhsamU y <Ar Eaglisb in fneilasid. 'Formidable Ptefp^rHtims 

« if: D^mtniit by Genefal Eretne. ' Geeihal Aiiaak hn ihefren^b ctmhi^iti^k 

.<X)voh'\%re^ and Retreat df tbe-F^mtdh eM^BjitckArmy. ^"Sierikhm 

^itM b)^4lk£itgiiih, ^Emhatrtttemeni (f tber Fro$itltG0ver»mifnHti^\tbe 

'^mSlanoe*gMfr IvHoliMd. Progress efMhe Arcbihike*9 Ari^iitSoMa. 

^ ^^ff Ptnlifnbiir^^ BefetU. xf the Frenek^^4ttMknbeifft,> ^Meikue 

^^ihtt^Ar^dstketof^ih-kMhe. ^.^-w *.*** inj 

"^Z. . ^■ . " ,CH-'A-P, XIV;^ .' - ^- 

. , . > ■ « '' 

••• -t •• . • •■ ' t' . ^ : .. . • '. 

^hwuiosi of Jfiviy Russia against Spedn, Conduct if tie Bmp§ro)r of 

&ti4d^lotttanls Befem^rk^ Submission ^f Dsmtiarlt, • /kvedeft'. Ansiotr 

■ ^ihe C^rt of Spain to the Rmsian Dularathn of JVar, Re^rkn^/'-if 

ii^Pepefro^ Flaring Htf* Fnaue^DeatB< of the Pope^P^Hlcu^iiiScf 

l^Ah^ ot'Faiettoev^RefltgsoiBS am the Faie of Pias Sisctl^, ' SilHarihn 

¥^JtregokAtmr atJim^ intfestment tf iBe Ciiy^hytbelfedpomans 

•^^nd Imwfgents, Bngagj^tnis.hiiiueen tke^^utrkon and'^k^ N^it^iian 

^^^' Surrender of Rome io the EngHsb, Honourable Condvct of the 

^.i» A Con modorek Conditions oft he Cafitu latirm, AboJitio n of the liomun 

^pull^c. General Insurrection in tbe JVestem Departmetits ff the French 

^epuhiic. Dreadful Effects of the Law ef Hostages and the forced Loan. 

**' ' Disferate 



eowTf:NT«. I 

f^rcBs, Staii €rf the Jnkl^^of .Vt€.'RipuOtc. Projecit fif ike I^r^ncl^ 

Government to iwell the Armies, Reflections, Macdonal^s Retreat intp 

y y'^Vtm^ . fmibsT BHri^t ta GaioH. EtutakUiott of' Lfg^hi^- Md- R^ 

"X m^MMttQ'ent^.ik^.f^ri^{rG<ahtrn)»^ i^fiire «^*WAr^* 

i.^^.M(^¥^* ^ Denuneiatifm of iAs Pl^'^Juiohin Ck^gM^owC"^ JSjt- 
,^'f^MlVfiU\pf jQC<ithmr/rajt^ tke Manegs. Law ttn^ffoti^eK ^^j^^^Hkat 
;\JL^^, i^emffiaijUs j^ lAe Biuctety ag^mt\ the la^atiousnsis^ >^ ihe 
^./f^^-x jO^rAttam^^'ihedHed^ArjrgiiiMlHidm^ 
^i^fdf^Jmm ^ Manlum^ OburvaOdks an tJu StiHrrindsr ij^ AtAnttta. 
^v/'i'f^^. ^ the ikewdi . aiiS alliid Armjisim SmizerlmAf'^yOf^mit^ns 

-E.-.A 'uu ^ ' ■. ... . ^ .V. ' ' '. . Vv ;/. .•* -\ vs:uv,^v. J 

.^iA.^ \i. >> ■ » '. v ^ V. V.' 'A .V . >'\ • :v .-i •J\^^ ■ ■» 

tlapyu.J\y>ufo6ilum.. rf ihlBi^iiants iotihrA'^ tU />Kp»^^ Beit^faf ^ 
(^i^^&^wMtm ifartjiL\ta.iMiLlmrts. Atiatk MtdV^ulaikn^ 'if''ibs> lU* 
y.fvJ^nf^ i£ngJiih''S^maiJtv»irforg J^a^x* . CapkHlattim ^"^^OiXew 
..ffth^M^g. Maumretlf ihe^Repttbiicans^ Su^ftme Trihanat^^^OgMal 
cjbtmiik^it9 Pfoae^f^. Treaty UtmM th€Ookrh>9f^;Vi^9mi^<ind 
,^ffUx^ Miaitgf/fftU^Ciw Oath snFrdncf^ Ac<mtatm\igci4tsi%b4 
.'^ftdierA negatipud iA tbff. CauHvits, DucohUnt-rftkB ^ipAW^ 
iSff^^f tSu^oguty-^Camhtci of Ibe Government rHatkfe ^fiukg^lfa" 
^hintn^Damg Ptcj^cts qftheJfUokins-^Jueobins' S^ckiyif^Paris^km/diy 
<^Wtpfwnd. Sttuaihn of the bosii/e Fotcee in Hafy tmtb (kjiiotrMltd* 
: Jiiun ll3^^ Of^atiotu tf thi Alliedy and French "^Anmes* So^fMHon' vf 
,.J4Q$S4na by,. Order (^'tke Dtrefififry. Feigned Aifack (f tki^Freiuh^^em 
^.fhe^^Righi^ ibi Au%trian Line eu Zurich. AUackiftbt EfenGh ^ ihe 
-JiMitftpitm Centre, DrfeiXi of the Austridiu. "Survey if the A^i, * Gtnt^al 
's Atiif^k in ibeMminmius en the hft of the Aikstrian Line. Genmibp^t 
\eif the Aiumans, from ihe^Lnke to the Stmnut^qfJSt.Goibard. ' ^fihHihfS 
.Attempts fffhe Archdule to stop the Progress of the French, Reflections 
Qn IVar in Mountains. Posiiicai of ibe Ffcucb" and A lied Armies in Italy. 
Respective PJans of Attack of the Allied and French Armies, Battle 
' ^.»^^<A>wiV-i}*<^^ t^ J^ubett^^pffeat of -ibe Fref^k-^^^d^anitH^ePre^ 
\^lti^g,frfim Akeir ri^tor,y ia tite Allien. E/figagcwifUs inike Legutikn 
> Jl^p^i^A O^raihns . cf j^ie Frtmcb and Aliied A^mein thtr Pi^dvknltie 
'< /{If** . . \Q,pf^taiUtns fff. tf(e Fr^ib. en iAr Lau)n Rhine. Progress tf (be 
's^iiTffifiM^jdTVty $» SuhIhoa Misingitt a Masseftbe4uhaiit(Mft ef S^athi, 
v,i*.M^^fg b(mb^rcied*^ "^Jlanvh of ike Archduke f on ^imtzerhnithto 
t.&i^b{0,A Ufottgea istibeArehduies Plrni tf Operqt^ns,' . »*» A \^^(^ 
^NNl V I. v./.. J—.- /..' .' V .^ '-v^«.r..'^ \-. '-^v . :•. ,v^V 
tt.vA^A ,;m ,Mv- . . •.••'. .."<A . * ..' ;. o •:.- ^ -.^ : '/. ."V 
^Mn^\-^.srV ^".^•••:-.^\ /- ^^ '^ r - •.iVM.-l V. '^.'^.-J ^:..^.\\ \ 



%\UXyV * \ 



CIIAP. 



C O N t. E N T g. 



,C »fAfcF. XUt V 



4b#«k . Al^/ ^/ U^JiBJfaHHr. TrmiUes pfi B^rdsdUx. MBV^i^ of 

•\ If iwafiMH. IP the Qfamtiigmnsi theBWesiw;^ ^TotianHitmitf fhg 
it>*r^fgy^,^9msi R^folistm* Afoium of General JtUtdan for Mwtrg'ih^ 
.-^m^. ,AUa«r ad^pied^bytbsJaediifhBari^ Uy cifhy ikfthigh tMs 
-' Wrifw^wrtwi Dhcustmm^ Changes in thiMinitary aid the AJfuim^ 
. Wratim^'^ P^nh - SiaV'^-Si: Jhurihtgo:^ Pfmiiamation ^ O^it^^at 

« Ch4lxJ^'^:iit4he C^knyx ^uue renorsih Acrml' SU%te rf 4 he Pkekck 

'mt^AiUmtRtfkhiicsi- SaHafiow RepMk. ^Adpdtrtagef and PkbliMt^ 

-ft fi* P^'id'^^i^^^fiiiiiom.:. iBiptrntrt fom'- «^ Dcmmt vf tif^ firsi 

• Gwm^Pt'timg\--.SMM t^i^ English- amTMMsshfn fhrees eift/ifffytdinSbg 

J^^eaiijmk SiaU rfthifiuifb ^Md^FmuthfTr^fksU H^tu/td • P^itkal 

JSku^eitncf the BntamoM Republic. Denunciation against the Bataviam 

Ga^temmemt by the Jacobins of Paris. Address of the Batavian Em^ 

has3adary amd SupfressionU^^the ^atknbUd^s. Summons of Surrender 

to the Duick Fleet, Landing of the English Army under General AbtT" 

'CmmUA Jkfhe^ ^ ilm^Butck: MMH^'efibk SsahffJ M^' boardsim^ 

^JOiMM^^. Smreddttaf thr Fleet totheEngiuh: t>t^ure9iiAdr'4>y 

* iSeifaMA^ererawMe ii>)tbeiBathvicm^owtnmHiii Match ^ Otm^at 

\ S^MeJMwcdt-^oiHk-HMafRii Respehtin^ Foskkme-^the yJmties^^ ill 

' -«Se4«iiM 0f^ikfAMck pnr^he English- iy tkr Ertnebkm^ Dittct)Armies. 

^'MrmfiesM^Dpomimt ^ the Frhtet cf O^a0git> an' Ihe Masi^n F^vmiitrs. 

^BwepmOlioUsfitrtbB'AftKe^ of AwsferdHm.' Landing tf tli$-Dnke\of 

.•IMynrd ik^Rmeime^TrMft^^ General Attack -tf Mp EkgUsh amst Rin* 

- simki.99^*^9^'Pench^itd Mvdch iMses. ^' Battle^ if^ Bergen. Jiesnlr^^ths 

. tJMhm- I^iso€ni (fite Englnb in Frieiland. Formidable Pteparati^s 

'•» ^' D^fmHt by Geneflal Bnmei Geniral AtiOiiL bn ih»' fhn^b ami ^l^fifch 

vikst^-iB^eat and Retreat ^ the* R-esroh etndBirtch Army. ^^tetitAm, 

' takm iy ^Et^i'uh. ^Bmbarntssnent tf IherFrenthG^vefftm^ni'irtibe 

, AfudM^anae^givtirlP-Haliaad. Progress of .the Arebduke's ArnfyiK Sttaha. 

fia^ xf Pinlipibdr^ Defeai. xf the Frtneh -Mi- Mhnbiim,^ Mtthtce 

,-ef^iht.ArMtA§iopaS9^thrM.b§he. i^^^ <w%^ Sei/ 

. • . ^ '•\ ^ '— ^ . ■ ' . ' , . -. '.. 

... N .. .CH-A P, XIV;^ • - 

• -..."♦ .« . • . . . * •'•'•,....'' 

Detliiwtitm of Wariy Russia against Spam. Conduct dffbt EmperoV of 

. Sassids tautards' Dewnfirk^^ Submission >ff Denmark, • Sweden * Amwtt 

' fif.ih€\€&kri:of Spain ia the Russian Dccldratwn of JVat. Remowiiof 

tbh Pepevjrehi Florextt iota France^DeaiB' of the Pope^PaMkui'ats cf 

^ki Abode atFeeUnaty^Reflasieits as the FaAe of Pias Sixtk ' SititarXn 

^ tlu Jrreaek Aemjr ai &m^ Iwoestmeni \nf Ibe City by the Nt'apofitjr.s 

i4iul Imus:gents. • Engage^MsJMipeen the. Gu trisan and tk^ Neapoli'liin 

Troops. Surrender cf Rome to the English. Honourable Conduct of the 

EngMh Com modore* Conditions eft he Caftt a lat'ion. Abolitio n of the Itomun 

Republic. General In iurrection in tbe IVestern Departments of the French 

Republic. Dreadful Effects of the Law of Hostages and the forced I^an. 

^•' '• * Disperate 



^ K)^4i -^ ^.E -4j ^^ \ 

V, jim^m^^Emtmaiibn^ihnafid. Treaty iif Hte'Er^uh^m^ BX!^siJ^^ 

: .v^nytt Suif9i(fy^/:thi MtAiAn Ttoops. No^^ficQtidn^f Paid /.*^ /Blteer-. ! 

» • tU^W!Uefn-Dsfi&fm€nit<)/'f ranee, i^ '•; '-r^ '"^ ^; 43p 

wfii/i#B/*rf'4^i flu€tuaiin^ Stale 0/ the Owemmtiii tf the PthcB ttefwhiic, 

Ohftvaiionfbntbt "hnaddquac^ tf the French Cmtdttitxon far 'tKe ^ufhoses 

' >Qf GipMtiiftttM, Ptefeet if^Steyeifor its' DejtfUctkTT, ^dheslp 0/ £dfta^ * 

''|M^/ii ' f9 Sieyes" Prtjeeii <^<mnntm'uaAon of the Ptak U Members of 

tkui^ewicil of Etders, Bxttaerttinary Convoc^lien i>f ibe Council^ Bl^ 

• 'Am;. ^D^frefdrttMtpvriihg'theSeatpfGd^trtimentt^Sl, tfoud^'4hd of 
. 'V€%nkg tJu ehkef Cnrnniwidih Bortap^ie^. Nof\fii;tit^*on j>fihe Ifectet io 

. the €6uncU of Five- Bu ndt^d: '; Mi/itary ' Dis^sltlnhs fifr kiffifi^ Pe^ce at 
' Parif. Nvtij^ca^n rfihe' Dicr^e of: the Cvtmcil bf Eldest to (hi tirec^ 
"-''■ t9ry, • MkesivH ofSie^s ahd Dttcos h the Cmmiiswfu vf'the Cdi^ci/s, 
^ : CiniUtti^f the ffthef^^J^irettors. Session of the C^iincUs dt St, Chu^- [ 'Mo- 
.. ^ilon^titiCefkniil ofAve^Iundredfor a CtmniHsion oflnguiiy ovir-fuled, 
•.. . Od.th offldeiiiy'ioif^^rtititution taken hy the CoundL ResignaUoU and 

* 'Cbarmeiter if S^ras. Bdnafetrte's S/ieech ai the Bar of the Cou¥tdil of 
- Elderr, •. 'B^ndparie^ Vi/ '^A^ Coum} vf Five Hnndfrd, Recefliondfdona • 

' . parte at thg CduHciL Jigitathn nnd Disorder^ of the Ctundt. Tke presi' 
. dfMt^rifeuii h the MtHlar% Speech of the Ptnident <ftheC6uniildfFiue 

' Hkftdr0di&th& SoftUers. - March of the SeidietJ into the Chamh&j^ the 
CouticU, Ejepuhion f the CmmciL Dcbatriff the Councit of'tti^s re^ 

. spe^ting the Constitutionm Inter ruftion of the Debate by Members of ibe 
Council of Five Hundred: * Afrasures taitenby the Council of the Elders, 
Re -union qf Members of the Five .Hundred in, their Qhamher. Vottyrf 
Thanks to Bonaparte etnd the Troo/is. Speech vf the Presidehl tfibeCoun- 
w7-: J^i^mlr ^f Baulny dela Mieurthe^ DecrUs tfthe LrgislatiOeCoun^ 

. tiDsv iinfdbif^iftgthe OonslitiitiohnndfihnhigaProvishnary GiHUmfneni, 
Effectef the Revtdulion on the Mind 'of tHe PubP^. Instatlalkn 0]^ the 

. ,^nsuli and Legisiaeive Chmmissiojtf. Repeals'ifLatt/s on Houages and of 

. the fatted' Loan, J^det 0/ fhe Repeal on-the hirurgcnf ' Oepartmerit. \'^Pro' 

\ . f^cUd Jacobin Rf^vohHion of the GoveYnfn^"in mifdndl RtVOiuttbn in 

the Ligufian Republic i -i— «• '; ' ^^ r^:*^ . T v,/''*^ 

• • •'/'.. ■ c fe[ A-.p, xyir. ^ '"---^ ^ / • '•'' '^*;:;; V; ; 

\^EffecPif the- Bexfolaiion of fhe i^ih Stumairt wt-fjc diJferM ](^sfes in 
: ^V AiHrw; > knpofitie and aVbiirary Decree of the -ttniti^v. Repeat ^^ the 
va ^VtcVeifi- '^yynnny Of the former Direttofy ogai^st the Pnestbodljt. . Pro- 
z'.>\f}^i(itions^4n'^JUf Cauntif vf fik/e Hundred /?r iri^ertif «^ thi P/^s}mion. 
\ .\.pes^pf^<ftheComiituiknaiBxihopsagainiithePrp^^ "p^^bdiaud 

y i tte/et:ii^9fihePropoiitidhs. Decree of the Oof^fs rihpeahi^Ke^^i^^^^^ 



j; -p ';n rr ije ;|f or s. 

.. S/wl^qjyf^^eaa^ px». /J^ B^cpudUiit^Je.JBgfpt, Ptifofoti^Msi tf the 

!!ia^ j^yrM^ A/ituo^ q^ni^ Miliary SUualM pf Egypim Di^fitat* tf.:Mm» 

Ouimanf_^U, Catt^jg^lfi^ i^^ InsurrfcUOfl nf{d Suhpt^on :ff. iPoM^aii 

?'ku, Amval if the Knglish Squadron before St. John dAcre. March 
iie firenck Army ttcross the Desart^ Capture ofGa%a. Jaffa taken fy 
SUrm. Defeat of the Turks near ancient Samaria Capture of the French 
, flpn ofArjillery nca^ tj^e Pram^rttoej of M^ni Carmel. Siege rfSi. Jahn, 
" tfj^e^Q^ertUVMof^th^ Siege — AmitUy of an vnmsmeiurkuh Army 
tmCana.'^ofaL JD^fo^ andKout across th^ ftiver Jordan nfthe Turkish 
Arrn^ in tbi Plains ^.Eadrelon. Renewed Attacks an Sl J^btt D'Aare-^ 
4frivjiH ^ T^u^ki^ Ri:iiifQrc(mefits.-r^Pasfagre <f the Fr^ch tkreugb: tbe 
Brtacb^ ijito.^t . John jy,^crf*-R^uUe (f ^he ^Megert^^ Imftaciteat^ity 
. tf (i>^^^, ^ FortTtJi^'^Last dt^pfrauAtt^ff^U-^Frefaratunsferxaising 
^ ft* ^k^e flf St. John IK Acre. Fr^lamatiou sf. <^ F^rte, la. the French 
, ^rm. Retreat ffjth Jf^ ^r«y ^k £gjfp0. AeslUt ofthi £jr- 
' . ]><iI^tQi iiwo BjTtd. CQOikined Expedition ff ike EvgUsb and Turks etgninst 
: ^SJfPi* \ 9j^<r^^^^ ^; ^^ Frenck General^ i,n ^gjipt during the Ckmfjn i»n 
' rfJB^Hapar.te'in Sjfri(^\ f^eat.^the Ma:ia^u^Sx^ Landmgcfihe Tuikt 
■ ^' at ABottkir, Military J^i^oiituns ofFrench^ and Turkish Armhs. J}^ad' 
\ "' fuT'Er^jilgeaunt hetwcentkc tarks aad Freufb. V^ki^J ^fAbt^ir. Pre* 
y jpdrations fy. Bonaparia}far Ht Return ta^Fr^ce. JPepurture of Bena* 
" fane from, Egypt^ and Arrival ^in France^^ JnlercKpltd Lenten front Bgypt, 
Z, x$i(Kt/ .rftM County Aod qf.ti^ Fr^jaob ^r^r . -D^ol ^ Ainurad Bey 
lsi^PfP'T^)if^^ P^lruftion qf (h Turkish, Armj^ on the C^mU jiear 
\; ^iXdmutta^ , ^ .. ^TT^ ^i . rt^ :. --r-^ • v409 

[^numefaiiqu o/^^djjffwU! ^pacba^ of t^.Qmpaigttm . New Formdim of 

. ^, ike coalesced Annies, y^Pasiium qfSuw^rrop^^in^Jtadyi THsposiiions of tbe 

\[ ''^ fxeiicty an4 ,AM^trim'Ji^m^ ' Attep^t^ of Ab3 BrtnekAnitif . ar Uafy to 

.' p^rtyfpt SuiBoaproursI^ Re unianofAloreaus Army 

I *^ i9 Chamfion^is^^Prpq^tins ^th^ French wi^k reaped to.Genea, « March 

' ef ^^^*u;fihou/ tovu^4^, Sv^if^rland^ Projs(^if of the Russian GeneraL 

^ ' . pi»pofi^enSofljie^st^^^^ ibBMouaUias, 3uwarr<iWk£ntrance 

'. ,tnio Sufitxei:ktnd' Position of the MOalesced and Frfm^hArteies in Sfj^itzer* 

^ land. Project of general Attack by Massena, Defensive Dispositions of 

General Hotze, Generaki(lftack <f{ tbe ,frfifcb on the whn/e Line* Dfaib 

of Hotze. Total Defeat of tbe allied Armies in Switzerland. Pt ogress 

., ^j^ ,Sufvaf:(ajt/.in ^il,i^}a»4t : Deftaf> a^ Retreat of $u^iiktrfow across 

* . • ^ -fhe^^^Jam} oftieprs^nSf -^Fff^ire EvacuxUion qf Switzerland fy thi gUied 

_ ]^\<:^n^ie$,. . . ^^ylimqted ., Loss ] o^boih. Sidxs,^ Mevements qf tbe Archduke on 

e ii^AfK^'^i, Cosuequ^cei vf tk^ .P(ftatof th^^ in SwitT^itrhnd-wib 

\.\^iS^^ ^'i^.^^'M^^^^^^'^'^^'^^'^*'^'' Op^c^^ions qfthe allied Iinglksb\and 

'^'^,JE;sfian]^cm^ta,H^ yAit^qi.pf {he Allies on the prestakapd Dutch 

*l^ j(rm;€s^ Retreat of the English and Russian Army, Retreat and di tressed 

Situation 



C O Kf T E N T S. 

-.? T If s r :^ o r> 

. tjMiijftht Directory and restoring the Chnrchet. Corrappndenct </.fig 
'- * V*> Mediferrman. Tpieratmr Spirit of the CtMifti^BiHl^^ lll pMk r flr 

« 9ettitive to Froncem the' opening if ttrCongr ess, -Change tf DisJtMUk in 

("'/Sfhublic arrttrhr Senate of Hamburgh. Decrtey^e Freneb^jBUerM^ 

y^Jhtreetosindontofthe Repnbtic the Emigra itts sh ^f w recked . ^i/u Hk i s. 
'''mt&iti W(Mo)iirsr^^dehfaW^hfci$e'Fdp^/rlh^fi^ 
"i^itnce of Frenct Prisoners in Engfand, Project ^\^^-Cwktimrimvi^^ — 
* '9*/»/#!l fir^ar^ hy BtMpd^tk^ '^ Sketch t^'Ae^^^oit^tAeiiw:^ AtMmifP 

^^Sikajbarfe rtnd Sreyes, FatahError xtf the-hmer. NoMtk^ait^ ^Me 
^ Wn^WtHh^ Senate) ^it^nu} -L^gWulhi iMjymt ^dmM^fSkmX 
i-IksialXliiin 6f4hV- itiduf^fif^&ivmnheflf. )v>Jtf,Ar|)i^/ ^ AiMtf^^^ 
^yjfffi^frms tflHe^^i^ Dcpm^tk^:^ Itt^pieMe J>^'»i» tf iA»\jtelMft 
J^' a^'d Frencfr^fyny on the Eantm Fronti^^'if^ S'lj^hveHttnM/ ' "^ 

' Arhy. AdmifUQgot^ cfthe^FrM^ ht ih^ )&#Jiwiw1 Siluaikn'ifMhit^'iSkU 
^ Citntons. ^^Miitary Ptdny-of the Juthim-(h<f»iimiki. Briwfk^HSS^nrif 
V '^id) Austrian Afihy in half, Pvrithn of the AiestrwtrrArmy, MAuMJieA 

of the reshfcuve Armies previous to the Investment of Com. Battle tif Go* 
' nola^ Uejr^t cf the Fremh, Retreat of the French, frwn Com and from 

No^^^'M Vgufidn^ephbWd.^ ifiefriA'^^ofUniond: th^^ftba 
^ Austrian Army near Geneva. Siege and Surrender of Coni. Positiomof 
.*th FreHchrnndAustriatrArmies in Ital^dntiffComUisiim^ ttfthClkW^Jfii^ 

imrKciPAirOCcuRRWfeES ». :. .«a.\tt\-..i a^^^ ^-^^.^If 

'' ■'• » A\r^ \ • i:.- C. v.V. ^4 ■:♦.'. .r- y: ':/•* \^»\v -i-l ) -.. v. 1 -\ > i-.n»^, 

PUBLIC PAPERS. 

f o/'i&tf Committee of Sccresy on the Papers presented to the House of 
xmoifrrfy ^r, Secretary Dund€tif^'9^1iift^Mme^ ^1ii# 

it agaiehr^iHf^W^on^mi^ kiii^JiiUjm^m^rSttamei4idetlkim^ 

i&^ecte^Hfrt^nspiring etrmtst his B^h^yghi" Oi99 /i H) mif iA . vya^ \ 
(>ftng*s f^rtrdamatiotvtif "^/^Mb-^^iyiiokiMtihg § t9 ¥ W mjr^tm fu 
Viitout Phsfports, fr^mt4r^and iket4bMiiwgi^i$/^ i^^'JC^^\ >^ UNmi 

pkgef^om ftfrMtrji^sfy, delivifmhmWaflimdell^ *Mi«^\ Ut^ ^T 

Jmt a^nidfTfUk third Ending qf9J^)MUmei^J»i^^^ ^\ -. 

Siff%L'^^lMiiftsty in proroi^utfig Parijament, fi^idnesday^ July 12^ (202) 



.f. T '^ '^ r y a J 

VlfcM* •/■4*ii*, Jmitk%.. . ; ^ • r-- — . '^ • -*r'— t^ W*> 

fw^^ m $h§£iU/9r #wt^Gn^, kU Majtsty fa *£^^ '^ S^rvicn t>f as ^dfii" 
r4M$l A\mkfw ^ k^huHitsn fr^m ibut Miiuim. %nJcr €m$mi^ JUstu^ 

^05) 



ShHmk4M9l$f4^Li4t9U94mi ffktLmd 'pmi^p^ung ^ parliamM^t^ Jan. 

iSpfmt. 9fih^ lard /if^V*ift* <f btlani on. ptvogtwtg the Parltoment qf'ibai 

.-454^<fcp,.. ..——.. . ? -.MM , . ...— (209) 

fr^UfM^imUHd. 'm^k» hiik Hmtm y Ififd^ agaiiiU (A# :4</(i(ir«f h Favour f 

'^nmimmi Trta0 httmnm hi% MQJesty tht Kmg of Great Sritom^ andiis 

^^ i^Uqf^ .. c.„^ . . • .. ^ - .f . • ^ --^^ . ., . (2X3) 
Tt$4iimnatimi€t»e0n'Art BruannU M'9Jfs4y€in4 his iUjestj ij^JJnpmtr 
*. : 9^^mU i^ SUuiafi &gn£d at Si Pti4fiimfg ihf \ \lk of June, l^gg, (2 16) 

V ktKB^ihe Gefrnwh Empiro^ . '. -rrw V . ^ v . - — T-^ . . (^-^O) 
S^H Ankks Mwi mMtumaL €$iiptftff9itm (ff ^ Tr$Mty qfCa^tpo Jhrmu> of 

*AiVlIOG»APHlCAic, .ANECDOTES A^'X> CHAXACTfilji \ 

Ck^tiMfmr^iUbmfo^.Piutyi \ «^^^e^. /«<*«-# [3] 

Ckaractv qmd Jng%doi€$ ff Primo Kaunu%^ Fini Mitdstn of Mana 

TA^4u^ [17] 

MtJpuirso/'iJksMii Bari o/.SaMJ<vich cl'-H^ ; ^ .' -.f-:*^/!; i25|; 
SUut y jA# Uletary Ckara^J^r and J/tainments of Sir jyilliam, Jones^ [30] 

^%fmt^ ^SUMiehard Mkunigbt^ and JiJm Imfrootounis in M^lnory f»t 
JtfCoii9m^JUmtfaatifS^ ^^ ...^ ^,^ .^-*. * [4l> 

.? z ; -: t •, 'J I a a -j •£ 
MANMEftS OF NATION! 

, i m m¥ •f^ I n tmiik ^ mU f/^Jmbo^ngi k,. ;.r-fr^-. .» a .K-«-^v^,?r. . W7 J " 
JlltfnM imkH>imff0iom ffito Eitrppttms ttS> Bikia^4^ . . ^--rt V v i7?}i' 

A^imfi^ th^Mdtert, 0t,JU99iUaM Soi^i, . .. .^-i^^ o ,..*frvrt u • L77 1 
H w iUf ^ifa InhatHmmt qfilorfh Amni^- ^. ., ■>-»^ - »>ir i^mmv ^.. V^il". 
J$mmrs^Uf^Mnik,idmit:tmisd>4JU^ ^ ..^*<^ «. . • . ^w^^ i., u !U)^i( 

^99* -^ k CLASSldir 



- ( 



,C?OtNmT:tEtN^^To9.:-) ' 

yr,.y;u J'f .^ff {mf}t^,di,J^Tf4l^^,.j^m^ / if«W;. £^/aij, '^5^^' 

^d?/^ Capiwre^^^tk' French EkcJL 1^ Admira^l Nff49(^^, Sifk^fM^vi^^Si^ 

French Amr^ in Eff^'^t, Forma/icn cf a Katimal Institute in E^ht, As'' 

semBly tf Ckiocks at Cairo. Ceiehation of the Jmtivasary if Vie Trench 

. ke/uihlic in Egy/iU Imur^Vi afCeirx Reflections on the Invasion rf 

; -^.'A vV;^ -. ' - V .V • - • . \ •/"• n-^\ 

* ..\ -.. .-'.v.'. « ■ CH A ? VII. '^ '- •r-v.r''. 

J?tf/^erAt OMlMite/. PJiritsai Situation ^ IlJianif. Htfuud' of th^ ^^^ 
Mtive ^t^' Btticutitys Potcerp lo eAarJm theif Fmcttm^ ' Rtiffttim^^wa^ 
jfigitimtvtkis: Measure.. Revoh agOinJt i/te GctfenMienf in' 'Ilolfypiih ^•I'V*- 
^pisi^ai^. Qfivernmeni fihned, • Ifcmination of Xokstitutihal' teghl^fi^ 
.^r»4, J^eemfve . Powers, Stale of fke I^etrek Armiffm jJkRkittk, &ir- 
/eipKe^t Se/tM* AfifeartmeeK^ Ildsfiiitie} boi^enihe EmftH iuiJi^mM, 
S/i^f fffPMic Corri^tion,. i^ //id Frend^ Rejittbh'c"^' Lam te/Jtting'^ 
fiyi^mipfi^. iFiij^' ami Measured ExtenBum of tke Pofijoerrof Miiittiy 
.CammiAiHrn.* RxJkeJificn of the English opaimt Osatmi, ^ Phn (fVniversk/ 
Slvtscfifition fcr keeping ot/i the National Force iv Branch, ♦ Demotic Hffittiikc 
^ xih \Bkeeimy over tke Le^skstifoe- Boay, .'Sifkatkin of tke Cko^Me 
J^^blic^ • ^Nominaiim if tfm l^gUiuive and Execun^e P^we^x if ^oha^ 
pattei's Treaty of AMjoncl hHweea the CisaJfiine^and. French B^ft^^^ 
Diviiio^ in iho CouncOs. Acceptan^ of the frtaty, Atbhrafy Ciitiiaflf 
4hf French^ Milan. \Forntation of a neio- Comtituiion far tie Cisal^ne 
Jie/iMtc, iye^Mcmkr \f ih^' French' Directory, Conditdof ^e RretkkEm^ 
Jifis,s^d<sf at Miiarik the . Ouol/iin&s acceft the }infmd Consfituricn. N^ 
iUation.%i^k the French Dimtript a^Stn.t its Aftftiicanen. RewJutica in the 
G^ni:»fiBt W Milan l^ietiym Bench, Consequences tf the llrf>ohtto(k^ 
^ft^cep^ ' Pi^j^tion-of.i/ie P^mett of the Direckiy. ' Decadafy Vesttyafi, 
J^i!y ^f Tf^ limdred Thoaand Men'* Enterprise an Ireinnd. Anftricim - 
i!L<£ili^^*\ - Iwmnciian in \ tie. {/mtiJ Ds/iartments: Change ff Qcoett^ 
9f^H^ifl ^ €is(%ljngie Eepuhlic, effected hy Cmered Bnine. 'Cis»I/nn^€»9f- 
Hiiu^iion-i^^tid. Change cf (yonk^ment ia ih^ Cisalpine effected Uf ^ 
Jion^d. . ^^SM^^cfjke HeffvHi^ Hepublic. Insnrrcctmn in the Canidn 4^iM^_ 
difiAtif^iidt^yMa'urtvnEmi^^raiitni} Tr^rty between ih Helvetic andFhmiA 
fi^'iWViNU.'-, &aJie of ibe la^nrian Rifnhiic. Changes in the Lignna\ 
CouU't^/i^.fJ^tfdlyiJi'! French A(tit^^ei\ Eahithment of the Disajffttiddni 
(Ji^^Cter^ J^uialofiharLi^uriamthphick a Frmdriiineral'ai ihn Hmd 
ig^jih4^MiffM>iy For&et, jL^gnfianrNathnal Inslitntix Ftninre of Jvig'^ 
^iiu^sA^^^'f 4iie. Cottn of^Pwttt^ai dtid the French' Republic. ^Sffttiki 
$iaU..(ifjbe.Mata(Viun.ilifuhiit.: sSaie vf St, tkmtif^o. Drcbaramn tif 
i(5^'"vf<y il^A. Qiiaman Porte. • En^^nce into tke Orhono of tke .'hstridn 
^\yrfps. .'. jV^/w W6 Hi Hie, N<:a}ioiit/i nLitviy. Declarufioff fcA/V J/c^^^'^'l 
£ii%'s 'f\4^*^ki &9d Sardinia:. s^iaii^iiiki of tU]KiHf^ 9f S'trdin}^. ivi»> 
WA^*^^ iJL JXufPi'^ioffary .G^iV^rMmjet U Entmne^i^M « Nt apoktan Amiy 
if^IioMj, DifciU n/*. the NvapoH44M A^Nrty, and Enqwatidk kf-Romg^ 
Btjection of the Armhuce offer cd by the Neapolitan General. Hitv of the 
^fPkVify^g Fartici ut ike Cott**rcss of Radstadt. Pnpositicns of the French 

MiuisUrs^ 



'i^ff^ (f the Drfititmi^n. ''Forcible Rfjtresetftaihns tf ihi Trtnch Mlnuttrs, 
\€mCMmi£ tf ike De/iytakoiii *" ■ ^ . *' ■» ' • * ■ > ■ •■ aa/ 

> :., -..../. . • C H A P.. VliL'.' ....•• 

^Ol — >^— -^ , * 

^egetrafim at RtiJftaeft, Note cf the French Ministers m the March rf" the 

Massians, Vote ^f the DeJtJftntim of the Em/iire, Diisatiifactim cf the f* enck 

Aiinisiers, Declaration cf the trenik Mirtfl^s to the Cotnmijsaty tf the 

" Emfierw. Voie f the Diet of Ratis^n, Passage f the Rhne by the French 

J^^B^,\t\Kfmisttaikes if-fhe Em/iit^. SurrentJer f FJirenhre'tnitirt^ v^«- * 

t^H^ ^rAe Cturt ef Vtevna resfifciing the March f tJje Russitm Tfot/U, Ot* 

.ci'sim ^'ikc Didt, • « l^eais ofliajtrhtJes by tie Ftmch Minis ters, Cam^ 

r^^^igjt of^Na^t.. .Mefusai by ChtwfJ-jonrt tf the Jrmrstice ijfeyed by the 

^tie§/ioiii4mXr<>VtnimenK ^-'^uritnikr vf the Ptat f Gcrtn <m tk* MetVuer- 

Wfimiiii^,\^Miop-is* 'of-Me-'l^ff f Finer ^ the^ Ftench Army <m fhe yiJriath^ 

-JStfeat^^ the Righ H'inf ef h^ea/iolitans^ . Insurrectjrn f the Neafictitans. 

. Sim.emier of Ptsew^ -iDeftttt y' the Centre sf the Neafidi^n y1r>ny ett P^ 

^Jioid*: .JSn^aj^ments ^eittvecw the Imteh and Ntvrficlitans bcflre Cattta Z)^« 

•^MTr^T '♦ft frevk Tveo/Jt'^ bt the ImurcmtJ rn.t/ie ^ojii^li^nf, ' Uenernl iti^ 

^jtffU^^QfH Against i^- Ft'nch, ^ew PtojLosmcnT for the Surremkr f Cat.ua 

^jitffd by Ckam/iionefA ^Dltressed .Situatkk tf ike French Army, ^Icrh- 

^^aeter ^ th^ French, ^ Fr^h Prcpcsab far the SurrenJer of Capaa acce.)teif^ 

'^eadiiieftf ^ the Surrender^, FU^ht if ike. King fom J^n/tlrT W Sicily. 

-jt^firtiftgafkn hy Chamfiumci /» the Dueetory of the AJrMntages ^f the 

^/nhtkt^ Fmidting Mter ^ the French Ihtrct^y t^ ihamftanet rt/ieeK 

Ji^Jihe .Ajtnini^ , Rioted Causei f the Conduct of the Directvry. JmrC^ 

■ -^^nriffie Left Wing^] the French Army at'Ca:etta. State cf Parties dt 

J^itfdei,.urkifrti€m of ike Ntajiriitan Arrwf t9 the F'cnck, 'Ecape of Gei 

fgtf^ Aiack front Kajdet.t^lhe Fremh €am/t\. A^est of Mark^ by Ordfr 

ff ihe FrCTicb. Directory^ st Milan* Ldikzartni. its Posses sim •^' Naflei, AK 

Mxk tf> fie Lavsiaroni or ike Fmtck Gtrrrt/i. ^Hcrnrs comrnzited iy the Laz!» 

3t0refii,'ei^\ Naples, : Ru^Aur^ if ike Armistice* ^ iit^tatien from ike'hhabT^ 

g^sAtke Frenck to enf^Sa/des^ Advanctf tise Fench to NafikK ' DeS* 

pte'^ie iiesiituwee tf ikes Ijoxzarcni*. Sttrxtiida' </" she Z^s-at^-^/. ''Pro^ 

iUm^tion of Chgnffncittt, Provisimary Gwemmtnt cf the Nca^ofh'f*fi R^ 

fiMc^.JU R^ct^tten ly the Direciory xf ikk E*n has ta/iors from the Neni 

"itfiliian Refitblk DisobeSence ^' Cham^sionet to die Dtcreci if the Dhie^ 

U^'^ An^eU ^ CkampnmrL .. Rewlmon ^ Ijitca: Constitution of the ni^ 

, jCe^lie of Imc^, Slate ofFinanees 'imFrctnck, Tax 6n Salt, Mftsag^ 

^ tkdr Direacir ^^ ihe Comicil of Five FJnndtedi<^ O/tposithm tf the Council of 

Fdders t9 the Directay, 4j6servati(pis ^ihe Ccndoct of the Direct^. Instamet 

^ ike Despotism awd C^tirpiim if the {Memory. •• Fhsf Symptoms of the afi* 

p^ackng Falihf' ike Directory^ Pamfiklei' iy Baulay de la MeuYlhe, Fjf'edt 

of the PampkUt m the 'Ptd^lic Miad, Apprelhensums of tke Dir^ctoi^, Proi 

detmaiiom if dtt Uirttiory pxewms /b ih^ Annual tkttions, CoafiHm f Parti fi 

0gaimi tke Dbeav^p \ \ .u .-. «**^«. ji*^^.^- u-^.- ' • • . v ■ . .^.^^ . • '-'^ztif 



C or N< T^ E-' n' I*'' si' 



"■'' — CH-A P IX. — ;^^^ 

■ Ti'-ffTf' «^ *** f «?*■ ^''•'^'»7 * /**■ p^/«f^ ./ iii fc^. 

^«>ef.M. fW«tf tnHie-S^e and ProdsMaii^ /% profci Ar?«- 
■ i^^ *««»** th Emptrw and Ftmtcc. OrJn .f March V 'ie 

^W "^^'V*! ^^-^^ ^ ^ Tyr^' Manama V J^jai's 
W^ St ^. '*' /^"^^ ^'*^ kfiirt rmink. Utshtctive 'Pcii. 

■nLfTT n"^"T": ^"^ ^'f"' f W French :$tfke- Femiii. 
; f***}*^' im»eenJmdan, ih Directory, afUiltviister >f (Va??-^ 

% IT. Axf^L. ^'*?^* 4^/y»>*«»/ r. Commander In Chef rf Ue l^my 

■ tf^lTf .m ±-4'i^"¥l^hfe at Ferond. 'Suciess if M^re^'s'lbi- 
s IS X"!i '^^Z-^-' ^%'. ei^ 5i--}^«^x <i, fimt of Verona. ' %f 

ZZ '^.^"T.'" ^'""^'^^'^ 'M^mlt/rf theArchdnke^ &li}. 

■'^tlt'VJlff*'- ^'^lof -^-^l^: maces: by thi AlH ' fe- 

ii^iM^^Z^:rT*'r^J"'''' «^ '^' ^"^ f'f'i ^^Cl PlZ>' 



— ..-■., — - -J- i.ii/rmj., • name on t 



C^i Of N^- T- E, H:ToS.. 

^matitn of the Cisalpine Goventmeni on the Imasion of tit al'itd 
jitKies, — — -r-n 'i " 5tb8 



,.^- . .. .^. . C H AP. ..jc..- ,-•. -••'. -^^ v>...T. ,-: 

precis ff_ tfy Ar<hJuhe for the Invasion of the OriscHs* ♦ jidvonfagft ^ned ^ 

the frcisck zn the Grhouj, Jnsvrrectian and Defeat ef the Swi^ . Puamnby^^ 

i^Aess^^ the ImfieriaPists mtiis Grismi. Ca/xture tf the Fffftre$s cf Utcliit' 

-. '^^it-. EvacMatioft of the Griyms hy (he FrencJi. . State «fui Proffress ef iht 

e:liie^ Army in Italy, fwiher Retreat and State $f Mcreau^s jlrmyi Sirtrg 

' Petition ^ the I*rench jirmy^ Defeat of tlte Rwiians near Vaiemui. 

Skl^fdMcPf(8vvrei of Moreau^ Capture of tJie City of Tut'm kyihe Alhed 

'Ar9iies,\ Match of MacdonaJd from Najiles, 0/ierafhfu tf the French om 

thjeX^aftei intP.e North ef Itajy.\ St/j render of the Citadei if jMilam^'. j^it^ 

ehna hcmharded. ^A-'f^^fj^ ^Jaittua (ktaeUd /tf^amst Macdonald^^ Fro- 

greu of the Archd'Ms Army in Sivitzerlaitd* J?ifftrent Actitni bmvem the 

•FreMch;^ and 'A^-'f'ian:^ Armies. Tramlatiofg uf the Seat ^ Hektetie •€?*- 

yanmentfromlMceine^'io perne^. Battle hfuix Zurich. Zfif icA evacMOteJ ly 

"^ theFrezc^^ Ohservfitions on, the Plans ef the retfieciive A^^niies^ MHd their 

hifi^^ tf Ohcrati<tn.^Itriiaiion,»f the Piedm^nttse Valieyt on ihe French 

Tr^'^s, Entrance of Mqcr^ald^i -^j;;/y. p^to iluscanv, MamMuvres of 

I ^f'^eau to favor thej/mcfjop ef the Armyfr-m Naples, Plan of the combined 

^ ^jfr^es cf Mo*eau and Macdonald. \Pto^eu of Maedottald's Amty, 

.^\^f arch ■ of Sywii^frii} against Macdooald* Ihcadful Fnga^ejoeutr^rOfi - fhe 

\Tj<Miay Defeat of the French. Retreat rf MacdonaJd' s Arif^i Mtfcai 

i-ef tfs^. Austrians hy Moreaif.^^ Swrrrnda' of die Cit£tdel if Furin^^ Cqnelksron ef 

^ . fte frst J^art rf the- Cn mpa':^ . A ^aluatitm of tJie Loots of' y/d F'rnch 

'^ 4^ allied A^TTiifs in S/ivUo^^rlntjd and ltnly\ Appear ancc. rf the combined 

Tlecls of Fta^ce, and Spain in the Mediterranean^ State -of tie -Engiuk 

.^etH.-i^ French Mar me ]f'.r<:r-sy^ Operati<ms rf tkc English to tnferce^l the com* 

'^ irrj(d FTeetSm Return 2f jJte co/?dfitjed Fleets JrQm the MeJiterraneaJr, to 

'•'' . ' '^■'''. '.:\ " .:c:h'x K::iLv ^ ■ '. .• "'.^ ^'^-^^.^ 

Si^ualion (f U.e^cmeUiC ^Affairs vj the Repiihlic.^ Projectt ^overthrowing 

ytke,pnrectO'y. Adilress .fom, the Citizens of Cbamhcvry to the C^iuiuil, 

denouhdrg Sclierer. [Fate tf ibe CouncU to send it to the Directory. A^ni- 

/ hai'wn of Scbitrcr by jhe Dfrecioyy to pejnipecior' general of-Hi^Ueoid, 

Mullonfor ibe Liberty ofihe Ptcsu RemonilraliUg Message ofihi Cottucil 

/t/ f he Directory. " d (hirers fom^ the Cvuucif of FivA Hundrad t^ the Pecple, 

Di^sc^ Hon of tie Ubetty of tJie Press. ^ Conspiracy agaimt f/i&.Direstory, 

Men'r.s of Cfirryihg it into Erecuf^ton^^ Perwa^ence of the Ct^unak' i>if- 

"in/sj/:*?/ of (he Director Trril hard. Election of GJtier^- Nr^fiihtiofkfor 

[''(he Resigfiexfjon ofjii^g s'tlun Director^ ..SurcefS of the Ne^otiaiinn. 

• Ch-iratlcrs of the l>iri(:io\i uhp re-n^ned^ jRefl/tUions-ou .tttfi pu^rlianimbus 

FS'learahce cf the Legislative lj(hi^:\ X^haiuea/ new DirrUon^XlDtnun* 

'■Fiftll'^s dc^ainU ilLeMihisiur of PoUce^nnd Sc.hfrcr. A^^^^^^'g Mes^gefrom 

" flic Dkehto'y bn Ibe otuh of thf Rep/tv^t;, ^L^^w for e?nbodYJ//^ the ^vhvfe 

' '. tof tb'e_ Conscripii^si^ -anX tuUIji ^.^Jit llu ndud X'diimst ^tSf^te of the aiUed 

-''^ '* *••' . " ' "' • ' ' ' Forces. 



C 6 W T i MT T «. 

f^^rM, Stati €rf the JnkW.of .Vie'RipuSic. PfojecH of 4he iR^nch 

GavernniMi to iweli the Armies, Reftedions. Macdonalis Retreat into 

^ ^4(V^aftlri . FmihiTJkiraat tn "Genoa. EaaauUion Gfr Lufk^^ Jhi^^ Ar- 

.^ndfi^,^.itbit 4Umi ^Military Poiitiwuf'Mwemi. J^HUfP^ Mfi f ^ of 
^^i^'^JfMiiM^S'Hi^ ^ ti» Manage, JEMh^'J^atoidaii^n^a ^s lm gi' -fke 
^.\^rJ^,€e4ors. ,Be^e^i^ jiccusatum. agmmt themiiftiu^^miim^*''^ >]&- 
x\^tg»fiw^^Qf ^MiniitMS undtr ihe iatf BxMOi^e Gooshim/nJ^^^^JPnh' 

ij<¥ii^ ^qf: ibs J^oiUfi . 'HosiiltHes ogAlnU Si^&s. P^^tmums'-'moX^ at 
k.Abf.M^gif> ^ Oenun^atim of iAs Pl^'^Sutohin Otgdni^MiVU^'^ - Sr^ 
,^fMlu^npfJt^cMnT/rojn.th»MamBg*. Law xtniioiiageh ' J^Sf^pfihkat 
;\^JL^^, )PamphujUs qf iAe Luidory ag^ttst\ the ^Ue^tiowmAs^'^'iks 

x,XUpHif^(Him j^ MofUui^i ObuTfua^Ms on tks SatrrfndUrijf.M^ntma. 

i-.v.^.^^^uv . . '.- ^V - \\. A.r. x.:\ .' \ :'uv.v w> 

.,v.-..n/ .... . ^. ,. . ,G H- A .?. XII. " - v.r, . ^. ytv..^ \ 

ilhpyti..u.I>Mf>06Uum, of AfnlB^^hUants ioiiitiirdt\ tU R^tf^ R^fum^ 
^^i^^&tfwMtm Paryi\ia.ik^£ftis. Atiatk a^dX^n/fHuiatmif'df&^''JU^ 
\vf¥t^i^ >^ >EniJish*.Sfwa>kp»i^w Naf^r* ^ CapiMauon if^^jyi^iXer 
^tbAKi^g. Manacreiff ihe^Repubiuan^ Supftms Tri^not^^k>fi^aI 
^^4M6ituik^its Ptacie£f^. Trtaty Uiwimih^Ct^rhrf^Vienim^'inJ 
.^pUit^ ,CbaJige/>f tbe^ Civic Outh inFrttncc^ Ac<mtatm'4igoi4isi'%b4 
.jbir.tMon nsgtatipedJA tbf>. Councils. Dncohient ^ ^ ' /k$ J&ipAm^^— 
> *Sff^<>f ibsi SofUt\f-^CamHiCt..of ibe Government rsiatw^ ^fiuke^lta" 
. ^chinstt^Dar'mg Ptof^cU of the Jaco^ns^^ Jacobins' S^^^in> Paris fmMiify 
<4Uftpfwnd. Suuenion of tbt hostile Forces in Italy emtt ^iisatrMtd* 
: iHtin *ilf^ Ofetaiions sf the MUed^ and French jinnes. StUjf>d)fiion' ^f 
JtAmi4na l^. Order i^tke Dhcftmy, Feigned At rack 6f tk^Frewh^^^om 
V '^eisftigki.^thi AuUrian Line at Zurich. Attack if the FInnah 0^ 4is 
jSMitftFifmGintrt. D^eal (f tb^Ausirians. "Survey tf the A^s.' OMt^i 
^. A<^^^ in Ibi AUunmins ontheh^x>f the Aisstrian Line. Ghtmthpi^t 
X«/ the AiUiMns, from tho-Lnhe to the Sasnmit^ of St. Gothdrd. '^^J^htithes 
Attempts f the Anhdule to' stop the Progress of the French, Reflections 
on IVar in Mountains, Po'siiian of the French^ and A. lied Armies in Italy. 
Reipcctive PJans of Attack of the Allied and French Armies. Battle 
' > ^(^c Ami^Of^th iqf J^uheri^^Pffeai of^tho ^o^k^Ad^antai^9f*r^ 
\ ^Ifi^g. ff^fff iMeir Vi^ior.y in the Allien, RttgagomMs in the' Ltgvtikn 
y.Ji^pfihiiOA Opffraims. rf .the fVtac^ oM Aliied Aims in ilie Pvktnt^lHe 
{,Alp*^ AQfituUhHS qf.tk^ Prentih on the- Louter RJnm* Progress \f the 
7 Frff^j^T-mj^ f'u Suaina*. > Misingiu a Mass of tio4uhabittl7ttt ef^ «VWi^iW. 
vA'Mif^rg IfO^nh^ded*' ulinntA of she ArcitJukef(OM^wft%erkinit^hl^o 
Vs^^kf^*/^. tif^ngos in^iht Archdukes Plan of Qptr^isons,- * ^ ***• A ub64 

CIIAP. 



r. v\.A ^JM \.' V ■► "... 




4/AV.\ -u',^ V ■^.- ^v-.^. 


\\ 


,J^l*'-i\ \vi >'0\^ ii*" ^./.v •'. 




hWiXyy \\ 





k 



C N t, fi N T ^, 



.C»?AF. XUf; 



Jbroiw A$ 9 m^i b thpm^nat the RepMit. ^ Ref^t Jkmtfmiim 491 '^g 

' S i l l fijtj i r ^ff^f^ fy a Ommism^ named fmr nmng fh Ooitn$fy: Bg- 
'y p rfWWtJ'un cp ike Coimi'^mnsi tBe Mreetvr^ froeiam^tmt tf'^hs 
S>irtf(9ty,€gaimt E^^isvbi Moiwn of Qener^h M^tdan fot MnHJrg'ibg 
. ^»xac*^.< sALuuts adopted^ by ^'iUJaeMw^Bsfiy lo c»ry tkftygh tii$ 
*v Wrifff tfwidbirl Dhcusmm,' Changn in tH'Minutry and the Mmkd- 
-.Sra^tm^^^^^r^ . Stair ^gfiSil Jhuirngf^: FfgditmaUffn gf k^n^at 

< ^mmi^^l^nit TBUifamilakVfriHre. Ivfpiriky 6f tht /hi^ DmeH^. 
« : Chfil^yif^: iviTiAc i^%hnyx * '^leace .reuorsih jicfUul ' ^i^te of 4 he fktkck 

.mmt^MU«ARtfkkrta^'^^Baiitt}ww^^R^ .Advairtagtf ayvd Pkbfiktf 

.^itfi^ih^.p&^fi^tmix^BSj^eMar^c ^Jkpgnuire fom^- *h^ Djwnt vf ih& •^si 

< Gmffi^^fv^kkg'r JSMM f^iit^'En^^^ f^eeiem/ih^ifi\bg 
rI^jf€i^tiM^..JSuU(fftkiJDtapbxt^Fr^^ * Primal 

Skuaiieff of the Bntavicui Repubiic, Denunciation against thf BatavloH 

Gti%iennmnt by the Jacobins of Paris. Address of the Batavian Em* 

hoMsadoTj and Suffresshn . ^Tr'the €aikmsiidi^s. Summons of Surrender 

to ike Dtiick Fleet. Landing of the English Army under General Aher^ 

* ' cmmUA Df^af" rf /4r Ituich: Jl&ooH^ of tb\ SaOyrs e^tk ■ boafd^sko. 

'.X>mfvk^0. SmratAtof the^PUet tat^EMgH^k:. tkimsirvo'midrJfy 

• Geiui^i At^rtromkie tb^ tbtrBatitvian Q t jw f n m t htv Match if Gtn^al 

' MpmJdfrm^eds-iioHk'UUlaffdi, Regpehtvoi FoMams-i^ the Atntiesi. ill 

-Saiema vf ike AH^ck onr4hA EugUsh « ty tkr Frenet hn^ Dktct Armies. 

^Jfmtks»^£>9iversim^ the PHnee cf^Oirairgit'Oti' ^Eastern FhttttHhrs. 

- Pr(tfm(diion^.\fbr fho-Afime^ of Amsiordhm.' Lending of th$-Dnke\of 

^Yjmk^0n4iheRmim^Tr9e^^^ ^wsrat^ Attack -ef ike EkgUth and' Ms^ 

, JMU.Mi'ii^# Fkasfk-mnd .Buttk hina. -Battle if^ Bergen. Restttref lbs 

j4Hi9m-IhsOoiU ofiBe English in Frieiland. Formidable FtepiifHtkms 

■^^ D^mfi^ by Genefal Brunei General Atfm^ on ihefhn^b amif>titck 

w:iJfseo^\B^esd and Retroal ^ the^Frenoh and Bjitch'Army. - Sufiftism 

takm by fiikE^iish, ^BMbatranment of llo- Frentk GovetrnWiniritt the 

. ', Asisi&ttn aei(Mn^ lo-Hailnnd. Progress of\the Archduke's ArnfyrnSaabia. 

x^MoO^ ofjFMipsbdt^v Defects, vf the Frfneh 'M-M^ibeim,^ -Mifkug 

^^^ikf.Ar^ddiia iopUSftifldnke. 'U^ -c****!. 38/ 

.. .\ .-. -..■ •••••• .vC H-'AP; XIV/ • - .'.'•• 

•..-...\ ,* .'• . ■ -. V. -■ . • ^ ■'•'•..-.•; 

Dtol^^qfiagk^, WitriyRussiu against Spain. Conduct of tie Emperor of 

•BMi^d^tenstc^ds Donanfirh^Suhmiision >ff Dsnmafk. - Stueden, Amtvtr 

.ofdk(e£^rt ofjSpaik ia the Bussian Declaration of JVar. Removal of 

ib'if Fope^frohi Flortntk tsM Freince^Deai^ rfihe Pope-^PaMicviaf s cf 

jbki^bode atryaUHeg^Rcflemfns on the FcOe of Pias Sinctt, ' StlHarXn 

of tkk \Fremek\Armt ai &m^ Jw&estment of the City by the Htfdpofiii^.s 

i,^nA Inswegents,' , Engagt^fnts^lia^een ike^Guvrkon and 4k^ Nuapo^iUn 

Troops. Surrender of Rome to the English, Honourable Conduct of the 

Bng.iihCommedorei Conditions of the dipt tulation. Abolition of the liomjn 

Republic. General Imurrection in the JVestem Departments of the French 

Republic. Dreadful Effects fftke Law of Hostages and the forced I^an. 

.^aTI* Desperate 



5c ft) '4i ^ "* '4t ^ % 

XKfir^ Buh^i^^ftbi MVsUak Ttoops. 'NiUyicait6h^fP(^^V^ iWCer- 
•r.'«n^ StxU^ At^tr^ff Eiei^ort vanom TrMrcfthk fklvf^U^Rtpuiiic. 
%.^^ iBarMm» 0f the Heii^Hd-Gi9venlntgrii. ^^^«; ig^ 7ie '|i»ttrHpir^ai in 

f: ^^^./ '\'" ;.^ '^'^ ^^'CHAP.- -XVl. ^ • ^' ; .'^j''', 

'ShfeM^ani ftuetttdiiiig SMs of the G^etnmnt if the ^hcb ^ipuhUc. 
OI»(tt%rati<m* btt tbt fnada^iuy vf rbe French CanftUation for Fke Purposes 
if Ga&wnmnt, ' Pivjeel tfSteyeifw its' Destruction, ^Mihn of JBona- 
\fmi)^ t» Heyet Pfvjtit. Commmuaiion tf the Ptiui U Meri:b^rs of 
. tkeC&mcil of Eiders, } Bxttaordihary Con'OoctilM hf ike Coit?iciT^ El- 
jtoi' - lUchefdr tfimsfotiih^ike Seat pfG&terrtment t^ S(. Clduct^^ahd of 
wstikgfhe tiief CamfithidiA Eatta^lt.' ^^otifisation:^' the pierce to 
the Council of Five Bu ndr^d: • MiHtary Dlspositltsks for keeping Peace at 
• Jhtfif. 'Nm^caftAn (f[tb^' Decree tf the Comcilhf B/de^ito tk^ tirec- 
*' tvy. ^ Adkmon ofSie^s ahd Ducos (b the Cimmmwfu if 'the Ctnificih, 
r _ CmMtofth ofhep^JMrffttorf.' Sessbn oftki Councils itt St. Chu^. " Mo- 
' >A>n itCthi CHtniil ofAve^iundredfor d Cbmn^ihion oflnguity ovir -ruled. 
. . Odth ifFideityttkiHk Corfiiifution taken hy the Cwncii, Resi^nil^oif and 
• » X^bu^etcht' ^ ^Ofvas. Bdnaparte's Speech at the Bar of the touhHlof 
£ldifs\ BMdpart^ "at "^th^ Council if Five Hu ndred. Receflioh of'^ona' 
' . fkrte at thvCduHciL Agiiaiion and Disorde^ of the CtuntiL Tlve'presi* 
r dfMt^ref<uid h^ the Mihitiry. Speech of the Presi'dfnteftbeCoUndidJrFive 
■ Hundred t&th^ Soldiers. -^ Mttrch of the Seldiets into the Chatnhe^ j^ ih€ 
Council. Expulsion f the CDTntcil. Dchate'tH the Councitdf'Ewts re- 
specting the Cotistitut'umm Interruption of the Debate by Members of the 
Council of Five Hundred: ' Measures tiketi by the Council of the Elders, 
Re-union qf Members of the Five Hundred in^tl^nrChamb^, Fct^of 
' Thanhs to Bonaparte and the Troop's. Speech xflhtr President tfihi C^un- 
V i^L\ Sp^^ Ofihuhi/ d&la M^eurthsi Decrees if the hrgislative Poun* 
* ^iils\ "unniini^ing ike ConsiitutuM nndfihrihig tf Pravisionary Oo-Vtm'^nent. 
' • Effifetpf the Revolution on the Mind -of thi Publifr. InstaUaliijfbf the 
. ^^nsuls and Legislative CorrtniUsioitf, Repeals ^Laws on HoUHg^s ahd of 
• ihefafted' Loan. Fffeei tf fhe Repeal on the hsur^mt ' Department. ^^Pro* 
\ j/eUd Jacohin RrvolMion ffibe Oo^ernmeWl^t mifand: ItfVdYU'tmn in 
^ the Ugufian Republic, »- ' ''^ r^ 'l^ ' , '-^^ 

r" / "." • ' c k AK xvir. '":'' ^ /*^';';,;f^ 

a ' ' I '.^ ' • • " -■'.♦• ■ , ■ " ' ~ , ' l 

^^fechtf -the-iUvolaiioit of ^he l*e/A Bturttatr^ wi'fle 'diJfer'M \(ihisj^s in 
: .V #VikJtrM » Jmpofitic and athitrar^ Decree tfih^ Consuls ^.Ketfeiil^f the 
\ '^ ^iDicVei^^ ^T^^mmy Of the/or mer Dirtttofyag^ihsi thS P'fiestbM^l \/^^' 
i. "vyJ^«iftW=itt-*/w Council \f five HundreA fir ej^eiidiw^ the Pi^smtion. 
1 ". P^tieiPt^cfthf. Comtituii^ftttl Bi^sbops against thi Pro fhsitiOfit: tftbMaad 
i" .^ 1ieje«iiAi9f^he Prvfoiiiiihs. i^e^Ye^ ^^e U;jWi tii jn7i>ii^ 



p -p ;N ir lE '^ cy '$. . 

, JntTOi^fqitj. Rtfiuawfii pa^tiu E;cft<Uiion,UjE0pt,' Preparaiktnr. tf the 

,y/!T^\^0ni Engloi a^joml^Egvpi. . Potluical and 4cuni\fU Optratims of 

. , fit iVeif c6 1% E^^fpt. Organiscuiott of the jFunrh Army for on Brpadition 

• into ^ma,^ Politual and Military SUualian qf Egyf^ D^4ai* of Ma» 

, . .jnalui^U- ti^d Capture of El-Arisch^ Slouf/uss af the Preparations of tk$ 

^ ^Ouoman^ofte. Causf:i_Qf the Insurrection and SubmisHan ff PcuAWan 

O^iou. Arrwalrf tbi EnglUh Squadron before St. John dAcre. March 

ffihc Fitnch Army across the Deserts Capture of Gaza. Jaffa taken by 

Storm, Defeat of the Turks near ancient Samaria Capture 0/ the French 

. ,fl4^ of Arti'tgry Tuar the Promontory of Mount Carmsi. Sie^e of Si. John 

jyAcT^'^O^cratiohtof the Siege-^AissHhly cf an imm$ns4 lurkiih Army 

9ea(Cana,'-^TotaL Drfsat and Rout across thi River Jordan of the Twkish 

Army in tht Plains ofEsdreloJU Uene^ied Attacks en St. John D'Acre-^ 

Arrival <f Turkish RfinforceTninU.^^Passage of tbe Frt^n^b tbrougt^ tte 

Breach ijit^St. JohiJX.Acrf*^RefuUi of the Be^iexers. Jm^ractitatUity 

' of taking, the Fortresi"»-Last despeTatMAttempts^Prefarati0nsftr.rtnsing 

' ibe. Siege of Si. John If Acre. Proclamation of the Porte $0 tbe FrenSh 

. Army. Retreat .of tbe French Army back to Egypt* Result of the £r- 

peJitioninjo Syria. Combined Expedition of the English and Turks against 

'- Egypt. ^ Qferations f^th* French Generals in E/ypi during tbe Campaign 

ef ^Benaparte in Syria» f>efeat ^ tbe Mavialukes* Landing cf tbe Turks 

/ ttt Abcukir, Military Dispositions of French and Furkis h Armies . Dread" 

ful 'Engagement between the Turks aud French. Victory tf Aboukvr. Pre* 

jparatiims byBonapaitOifoTbis Return France. Departure ff Bona* 

farte front Egypt^ and Arrival in France^ Intercepted Letters from Egypt, 

>^$t€(tfi j^ tho Country aa4 of the French Army^ /Defeat of tVInurad Bey 

~;^ 'inflpper^^ft, j)q;iructiqn of tb$ Tftrkisb.Army on the Qoasti near 

^ ^tkimuttOf. [ ' ^" . '^^^ ; ipp-^ ^.^ .— ^ « . vi09 

[^nuir^aiiQttofih^s^fffnent Epochal of the.Qzrnpaign* . Nnu Formatian of 

Jhe coalesced Armies.- Position of Sunv^rrpuf in llalyK Dispositions (f tbo 

[ "'^^rincF and jiusiritim/irjrji^'^ • Attem/tt^aftbe French Army in Italy to 

prevent SikJaap'ow s fddrcfk iKt^ Re union of AJoreaux Army 

. ' fp ChampionefL,Pr^cautiunsj^the French with reaped to .Genoa. 'March 

' rcf i^w^rrow tawar4s.Swi^rland. Projtcts of the Russian General. 

, JOisppsi^anS oftbeAjistrianArmyia tbe Mountains, Suwarraws Entrance 

into SwitxerCgLnsi. Position of the coalesced and FreUich Armies in Switzer* 

' '^ land. Project of general AUack by Massena. Defensive Dispositions of 

General H^tze. Uenerah Aflack af^ tbe French on the whnle Line. Death 

of Ho/ze. Total Defeat of the allied Armies in S^witxerland. Progress 

. ^^^SHwaTTQfpin.Snifiti^lau4t, Defeat and Retreat if Swwarrow across 

^ .• ^ fhe Mffi^tains of tie Gfisfns^ ,^Eatire Evacuation of S-ivUzdrland by the allied 

^^f-^ri^ieY., JSiiiirnif/ed ,L^^ Movements of tbe Archduke on 

^ i/^^K^'^'V Coesequences s^f ih$ D^'eat of tb^Aliies in SwUzvrhndwnb 

_.^ V.ej^^ tojhir^erucfilQpe^atwjis,,^ Operations of the allied English, and 

^". l^ussiaif^rmy^dHtAUnd. .^ Attack -of the AJies on the Frenobupd Dutch 

•V ifp^^^'' ^^^^^l of the English and Russian Army. Retreat and dl tressed 

Situation 



c a ^ T E N T s. 

-? T Tf s r ;': D o 

. fycriitjfibt Vireetory and restoring the Churcheu Correspondence y.rfr 

< ^ Vl> Mediffrrtman. merathtf^ Spirit of the OMif&^BMl^^ fkmAlif 

-'y^\»y^tttdSMesr^ ^Ml'^'/MK^Wr/ 

^ Mnfive to FrattCB urt the' opening tftbr Congress. -Ghcmgeef DiskAWUk he 

< '''^huhlic and th^ Senate of Hamburgh. Deerre^fftke Freneb ^fSiiki Mb u i 
^^^itti^ifif^imf^'urg^rr^^^ 

^'■iSrcrae to sendont of the RepttbHc the Emigra nt ihvpw recked, ^^i f ulll k i s. 
''^ IWii)^ 4f(fiio\irs'reftdemf^f^ 

^"i^^gnce of French Prisoners in England. Project ^f^€wktlm^r4t^ ^ 
«^?i^7<r!f t/iiPtiW by Bompirti<' '* Sktt^t^'Ae^^}ot^^keiUlsi^ jMMm»^ 
^^fWe^oiksnis: Refti^tomwAe ConsHtAtiim.- ^k^fggfle^jSr fitkja^i^Mkeae 
^'SSkofarfe mtd Snyei.^ Fatat'Error xtf the-htter. NoMTnlioMtt m^^e 




(O 



^ mnaharfe Vtrnt bieyes. tatat-Brror xf the- t a tte r. Norn 
^e^nsM^'dh^ Senate) f^tbMiiu}i.egm^^ ^ 

^1^^i?|r^h ffiHe^kM DcJfiiMf^iitSi^'iU^pieMe JV^Iu^ ^ tko^jimtfOk 

\4b^\3fkkeiwk 

€it nlons. '^'Milii^ PaHt^/ the jiushian-O&v^iiiniki. Bei9tfh9tiienrid[ 
\ ^iii)Atutrian Arftty in Italy. ' f * Viitio n of the AastrtairArmjf. MdHcmiieA 
of the reshecttve Armies previous to the Investment of Cons* Battle of Go* 
nola^ DefrMt of the French. Retreat of the French, from Coni and from 
Novf^lhf tfgupiin^ieiAbm'i 'ilietfenAf^ofUniska: yS^^ 
Austrian Army near Geneva. Siege and Surrender of Cotd, Positiont of 
l^iKe FrenchrnniiAustriaffTtrmies in Italy^^etffC<mcihim6f^lh^mfS^^ 

lil^rifCIPAtrOCCURRMfeES 

i^iths, — «^~ — - 

P^dnkiions, ^ — ^ ** 

PUBLIC PAPER S* 

I .•: "^ 1 r A "/i zj < R^ >: 

of the Cemmittee of Sccresy on the Papers presented to the HomHof 
xmoriTf^Sir. Secretary Dundaef^'9^3^'''9imaf>p)iij49^ '^t^^if' 
h agaU^Ht^KH^on^M^ khi^AUjmff>tihokTma^eekiikide'm $ n J l ilWip il 
Vected'tf^s^nspiring otf^etinst his Am^^Hii^ G»v<MMli vw^^ 
Xing^s Prtrtlamotuxk'^t ''i9nM'!Jl(&;^<prokMt%h§ iW» WW /rWw»/ 
^Vitbout Pnstports, fromrMand ijuMMiiitg^m^ i^4 &4:^)iA > 
MiHgeft'om tfrMtrjesfy, dertiJipeedwWafiimfie^ ^HmM^M'^ ^> 
imit tsgoidtrnte third Ending ^CyAfVyyii/JMiirlMlM^ l\ 

Sff€(^k<^^iMiijesty in proroi^'nt/g Parljameul, !^*tdnesday^ July 12, (202) 






*.',* 



.^ T '/: -^ T y ci y 

C19NTSlrT& 

V;lfcMf •/•Jtjrti*, Jii^U. ;>.' r^--^.- '^ • -TT—' '^W*> 
mi Jf(9a%'^ ^M«c^ M ^fM«t ^JU ParliafmnU fumd^y^ Sept. 94> ^ p04> 

(205) 



Sfi m\ ^ 4^rft l0if4 Lk9 $ n0 mi f^htlmd '^i^dng ti4 ParXamnti Jam. 
i^M^-^^g^ - r - .-.-^ _ . *,^ ., , , ,^— (207) 

Stm t tL ^MUImnt.iJtmkfmgJU rf'irtUud am pwagtnng the FarlwrniU tf ihai 
.i!«^<*ip,. - ..-, _ . r-r-^ . , .. . (209) 

--iii^<Mi>«MiAJkyi«j|4( ^ — . (2U}) 

^^mimmmi Trtaphdw^m Im Jda/est^ ih§ K^g of Grent Britom^ andiu 
^ .Mtffft^ iJkt impafafJtf.4aUik$ Mm>Uu JRo«# ai $l, PMersbwg^ i^ccem^ 

.^\M,X79^. .-i— • ' • ^-r-rr- •. .- ^ ...; • UA3) 

TM'CmvfMtim-hetmmk'hff B^mnnU M^jes4y a«4 fU$ Majesty ij^^^mprnw 
\ .w^^mUUmAumah &gn^ .at Ss PeHr*iMrg ^ 1 1^ (f/June, 1799. (^1^) 
Sy ^ latUJlmm m^MpM^ M^^^Jht XAii^Qi 42 H^^^ R^ias 4^ 160 M^m- 
V ktKf^ilu GtBfmaw Zmpir^ . -rrm \ ' '. •-*^« (2-^0) 

*^<kt9kr\f, *>S^* PmkiiJyJ^ lUsiaM^ ^^H iH, A7fl9..i. -(^A^^O 

^Pmtim ifeiit ..w-,.,.^. ., ..^-^.-r-.. ;. ,p,p.« ,.,,, (2^1) 

^'/^ vBIOOtAHUQAL AN£Cli)0TJE8 ^^^I) CHAXAClilKS. 

iijXTMpim'^ ifk[ faf Pr/T- Pftf - *X ...A^ ^^_.j £31 

j^^^^^»^<itf^ikkt^.maiAivat^ Lift sf SiaMmt, La King ofPddn^,, [ i J] 
daracter ^H Awudttii$ ^ Pt'incB Kauini%y Fmi Mimsttt of Maria 

TA^4sm, [17] 

JH^puirio/'daMU Eari rfSamdkulcb r. i-H4** ' . , • •♦-rrf.K i^^Jj 
£W6 y 4A# Literacy Chara^gr and Attainments of Sir If^illiam Jona^ IM)] 

M^Mmpi y iioRicharj Mhwrigbt^ mU -his IntfroottnenU to M^tfbintrif fo9 

: iilff C9mm Mom^aautd^ ..— ^„ - — , . [41) 

dm^llda ffJmimM Wyiamm, m q;4akmr- f-w^ ~ ,ir- . 1^1 

f .1 .3 '\ t i J I.l \\ •/ *i 
MANNERS OF NATIONS. 

Cmmimgmifikk Ctmi^K Ga^mnmiul^ and JUanHm^jDaiw/iM^ • 
4mm¥ ^^ h tmi iM n i^ ff,Jmhoyngi 'V ..p-wTTv .• .-..-•■tirt 



V r, • 



$S.' 



w* 









6 © I^ t yfc N t «. 






CLASSICAL AND POLITE CRlTICIdM. 

On the Literature qftbe Hindus^ - •— , — [ lOpJ 

Observations on Sgpuhkral Decorations, * r ... , D*7J 

5/a/tf rf TasUamongihe Gerptan Writers^ ^ -^ . . -h— [1 19J 

PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 

Pbiioscpkical Uses of a Common Watebf — — — — [123] 

Xibservat'uips on the Natural Hisfary rftbe Elepbaxt^ — p3Q] 

.c -t.. . . . ' * ' ■ '^ ' k r . 

A N t f « U I, T I,E S. 

jlceount cf ^Pagoda ai Perwuitum, ^ •^...— ..« [14^1 

MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 

jfceounf of the JgricuHural ihfrowjfents introduced intbbis ^ajestyt Farm 

in tbe Greai Park at ff^indsor, — — -— [151] 

Onthe Cause of Blight tm FruitTrees, — *- — [1*V] 

POETRY. 

Cdef%rt%eVe^YeaT.^ : \' ' ' '■ ' ■ > '' ' LWl 

,The Tmes of CbkaJry cofitrasiid ft/iib those (fi/kd&fn Jtefiiieniint^ [ U|l J 
Bfo^p^'^ FiythiaiihePdlhc^rfCuptd,:. ■" ^v^^" ■ , •^••'^111*1 



JEnergetie'MjffWtsrfHopevnyoitifiil'GemKS^ ' ''■ " : " > i t . , ,- .H^S^l 

JJf Qtt>^ £/; 5^^5fl'j Trial ofthe^ fVisdom 0/ Soloipon, , -r— . \ ^70} 
The Return qfXhristmoLS kveicomeif. with Reflections on tfs] Ancient' m- 



^t)diefbfAisMafisfy's'Bifih'Dayf -iui. '^ ..' •* i in ,. i ; ♦[174 

J)^to9f%rint,:p4^aphrasedJivm£kraee9 /' '; . > ;.^.. ■ '■• [175; 

. ^y^^r/ pn iie ,Decay </HfiiaaukitnI^ t-M- . . -i-*^ , U7^. 

'Elegv on a Young Lady f'lvko died' soon after lier Jlfarriage^ \l77 

' Tbt S^orwho had served in tW Slave- frcii^;' ' ' *-^- — ^" ' ' [178' 

Lines addressed to thd Burnk Bee^i - >■■' . ■■■ */ ' ' '. [ISIJ 

JJnes to Mr, Opie^bj Mrs.. O/ue, on his having pmniedfor her the Picture 

of^M(rs.Jms, , . .— : - — ^y . , , M . , . ,,[i82] 

DOMEffMC LntRAT0Rjr/;jiKtfrii9$, ^.^r:, v ^^jg^^ 






ms 



! H I S T . O R Y 

K k O W L E D G E, L E A R N I N G, 
AND TASTE, 

INOREAT BRITAIN, 
•During the Reign of King Charles II. 

PART III. 

FOR the general character, of the age of Charles, we 
must retcr to ll>e introduction to our first part. It 
\m$ an age in which geaius bur^ forth ! without encan- 
mgement, andphilosophy revived without {>atronage. It 
was the'age oi profligacy, atheism, and bad taste. The 
bistbrlan had little' to record but faction and Injustice ; 
and the poet, if he painted from nature, had- nothing to 
celebrate but scenes which were adapted only to the pen^ 
cH 'of*a Pfetronius,, The really eminent in this period 
were a few individuals, who rojse superior to the. corrupt 
, morals, and illiberal>^ntiments o^ the times. 

Of the nitistrious Clarendon mention has already been 
made, inireating of the political cbaia^ter of the times; 
buf he is now better known by his merits as an historian 
tbah as a—statesmatt, though his- mtegrity- and wkdom 
were equally eminent in both. He had attended the 
king in his exile,' who anointed him k)rd chancellor 
of England/ and ftrst minister of state, with th? universal 

b 2 ^PP'^o. 



f .' 



m T HvEGH IS T 1^ y . ,> 

4p^f*Wlbtt^ hii|»opk.< ^Vbllsf Ovaries tvap .^rcc;r!ted 

^ration^ He <fediiii^d ^being *bt? judge .qF bis owJl iW or tus 
fUlhet^'^iiOAgs; the army thathsfd $9 }ong gorvjerxi^ the 
jiation was disbanded^ -all. the c^Kdjpnic&..orthe cTiifrtJi 
of England vrcre restored ; and, whilst he unlfofiply pre- 
"fi^rved an air of oeutmJftty whicb rcnioved pMPejqdio^^ his 
'nHx>l0>(tehavioor was w«U. calculated, ta $appQ(t aiQic^. io^ 
•cpeasefiopulaarity,- •• <:•.:' . , ^, /..^ ...;-,'- 

* But' the virtue- of Clarendon wwi c/ ^ s|uhl)6m a- na- 
^ tiirefor tlie age ia.which. he lived : bud ;he been CQpt^nt 
ita-Jhapre ekaaUdred inillionj5 l*p «ni^lf;,h^v^ bpcn .jpi>re'a 

monardi thaa his king ^ . hat He oofc Qaly qpnsidere,(i it his 
. fiuty tb Kc the gaatdia«of the feivfi of bici coAjurtry, bwttbe 

cchfiot of the vice, and immorality of ti^eoourt. 

It is not extraordinary that such a man should Bave 

been ofanoxioua to the; courtiers: his maniiers alone im* 

pttftseA tlieni wttbrawtr i his life^ wad a reproach tq, t))eif^ ; 

«ndf:he preferred bein^, a victim hini^lf,. rather thj^patkt, 

" uhder whatJever sabcftK>f)> (h^ in&^mous pleasure; of pis 

,'^yid'tMsteri ... -. ti . '/.,'., 

^< • <Nb tinminstance is ^uppowd tq haye contributed^ roofe 
to his^ down&i.thgm ids bavinff prevented. Charley fipm 
repudiating his queen to marry Mrs* Stuart, for whoni the 
king had conceived a pa^tftn equally violent^ aR(j^ ,more 
constant than the generality of his attachments were. — ■ 
Clarendon 'rtsw the means rpf jst. priyste. map-ijige taking 
place between that lady sqd the duke of K!ichiiion4»„ 

This honourable conduct Charles pever could for^fV^ ; 

but he waited for some better pretence to remove him ; and 

oanioflpartoiiity WR$ 'i^t long vva^tin^. . Qha^le$.hafi de- 

i^dared wtr.agjantfit.'tbe Quitcb, vyitbia y^fwof rppjijuting the 

'j'ttipply fcr his AAus^^pfietits, as the luoaey appoint^^^ for 

, 'i<liairipttii|K)ae.M^,tQ*gp tbf/>ughrhi^h^ Xh.9 i^ar ter(ni- 



OF iJLSO^^IIEIDUfE; &c. ^Kk 



^'t^^ «o fef'uffiif^ilsfdlly, %at thrc end Waard^fetWif #n4 
;S^frdL?|^ dwicTbded 'lirl^fcda^^ thciv (Cop^ickre<l 

m *ft§foffoti§;'fiido^h the colomy tif.'NcVf-York was.<;eiled 
"^ ^^'TJ^tch''f6 ttie Etiglish, ^mi coiltiaued atnost-vaUJ^ 
•abJe^ScSuisittori'tnrthc'presem'tin^ : . . ^ .,/// 1> ./..•, 

' V BA fhisTras the Signal of Clarendon's overthro^v^r.^. be 
'ftkcrttavised'tht peaee; arid it- w^' called disgrateful to the 
liation. The king readily gave him up td the resentn^ent 
of the parliament i a charge was opened against him, con- 
" |istfng"* of' ' Vulg^V VtiitKyQr^j not ' zynt ^' of . which eouM be 
^ ptbVed ^ IHdeeA ^-'tHfe • 'jprosecutioti ended greatjy t^^his 
' h6n6jir/ biit hi4len^mi^« advanced* cobsiderably iu-^heit 
' ^csigti^^ hy fhroWto^pon him the cbnsequencos of-their 

• twif ^ mUifendbcii'J • 'The'Se ciilunmni^ .rendered! hiixi' Jfcs$ 
popular among*' the ireop'lc, ati4::ih.rthe end tchiw€d his 
ruin> 

* * H^^tvasrtmdved from his post of chaacellor rlB67^\aiJd 
impeached by the- hodse of commons 'of high- treflsgtp : 
'fifMmig'^he ^popolai^' toit^tit tiniterd' tb fvthe Yipfeniji^;of 
' f)oWef Vnnhing dg^lttst hint/he. wirtidoew: to Erancei'.f\'J'he 

legislature passed a bill, of incapacity and ' baoishmant; 

whilst he continued to reside there, employing his leisure 
' ftf'i<!^dti(5bg'1>Is'm^ for 

"S?fliithTiehaai>gfofe"*olle<:t6d the naateriiakiv/ .r. ?\^ .^ 



•r r/».M r, , -. •-•::rf< -.I/ 



t vr : ; :,y. •■r,;;iM».; 



'''''>/e^diea'4tRdt!eff^'ln'the'y<?ar lW4w>r. ) ^^rf -^.i 

' ''*SucH:t<rn,$ the nhS^O^ fate of thii »tI' of Clarendon. 
5a nctbTernari ofutSbfenished vlrtuc^^iaA ificorruptible judge, 
and ajn able minister : — but his reward is with the Must 

^w.rhl:.vr.-.v:o-o..-.^-^ .; -. -.d :;:n:... '; / ^ot;. // oil iuj ' 

^, JxJiafetiaon,^ as S'^fitei', ^^ossessed ^\\\hd imowledge of 
" ''jip'kdbject; all tHs^t'stVetfgth of headfbftd' integrity 6f£tart, 
^ ' Vhi<^ are \pssdA1:?iil 'to ^ godd'-hfetoriafl : He iiis tfceprac- 

'j^efhaps ah invincible cause-^the fervour of loyalty. 

" b 3 His 



jikSv: Z'J[ U B CH!IF.T(DVltY T 



^ 



bwtt*jfpilbunc?xi fcyjji great d»a3ter in iariticism'*5 «'4i4cfcie.' 
the^aqisidnxifja: mind;* erowded with idfiii^ 0nd.4<dc|aiti>aK 
oftanapartingc them s 9pd tb^efbre alwffys iicciiiiBQlatiiigi 
words^ and involvlngt^ne dause and «enteBoe in on^cttlbbsrj'^ r 

^^!EISfe*'is in hi&: degligeoce a rude ah4 ^iiiaitifidadi^l^a* 
jbitfyrWhidbi witjiduti thij nicety of . laboured neiegaote^ 
ssi^lis the mind by ita:jpFlenkude and difitfskKQvtoi^is^idai*^ 
jbUK^^ijis^Doti peii|apfs,dSvvfEciently ifajiid^il^ei^^ koprcd^ 
tbo^ fre<^<ehdy'*b3^ particularities ^ ^whidi^-: thoia^'jjlw^ 
aiiij^tiBtrik^ the iaQtlMar^rivho wasfpresont'at t)hejliuamsaa>^ 
riohj^'tv^iU ttot ec|uad^y'4etain the-attehtioi^ of m^t&Aty^ 

jlee /ann^^ <cop[)p^nfiQted- by'bi5 knoWkdgelpf imareiknr^ 
of pdkyvby the'^^isdaoilot hii raaxiiDV^^J^^^^'^^^ 
reasonings, and the variety, distinctness, and strength of 

. iQotktiKKie .Whh:}octe nwmctf^Jali^, descrveft ^i>(Ks- 

tmguished place anuottgsf the^vrTitei«rt)ft:Engliih histouyv HiJ 
had a great share in those transactions of which he has given 
usim^accDUCit^ miiy ns/a^ impartiai 'Aarratop, is perhkpslsu- 
'perfw4oijeiai;endoiiij''he^?^ a mswi (rfa^dtiar andiCGoi headf 
md Idiou^li ' zeplautiti ih^ ci^se lihyh .b& lespoiif^d,^ 'y^^9 
fait{lyiiiii^l^i>yhi6fa)fet!lib^ teana^ 

ipoitsdVb bigotry. ^I^e:edito^of his imeiaorials ottha Esgi 
]fsipaiaks tibs^tvea v^^itliat'iie sometime^ iKyri6ds%ip>t(r>tba 
dignity tȣBn<bisK)Tisn!)v>atKie}s6wher<^ is cpinrtent to^et\daom 
bcduT^ti^Si^Hatj-Aviso; nevd intehdkigrthis^&nrm bcnikuU^ 
^Ofr,-but^ta^rf iy fioT his ovm nietticirjp anci user.^ ybi: soch 
timtHk^reiktiod to'thei |Hib1ii|, ^'^ikinie$tihis:i^ati9iii^]i4 
^Qtmi^ch'vuss beoH i^be stage diuun^.al^'the^fine .eibbhe 
m:t*oii^ iiiSH: ^thie. particule^rsfof Jtis^iiSajy' -go ^«ery> iaiilw^ 
Yvards a complete history of his time&- -ifcrrnotdidnif 
served the state in seve;ral stations #nd places of trust of 
iheitigtji'nP&&j5orfaiice^ actpittiog'fhiA6etJfwiiM.|;rBiT^^ 
i|^tati<Niy ibm' • likewise :.^CDAVarsed< ' midijho(»ks^yayti/ as^ 
^vJff^^lfiTg^ treasures of knowledge and contemplations. 

t Pr. JohMoiu 



OF «JN©WIiBDGI5 &c. xiia. 

Iiitei^oct!u$-Caes3r, dcacribedbyNepos, he was,:*'?!lfci- 
pibtics pGntus^^el jin^isconsukus^ ct linignus intporator^' 
et. xxtpldisiiBus'^terarum : nor was the felicity vi his pcil 
l|s&fs6o&idenible than his knowleds^e of affairs^ of iess ser^^ 
viceafcte ioth€L<5aosc which he csf;oused-'' ' - . : - 

-1 Glahcodon has left this testimony' of his merit : ':•' Whiter 
Ipcks^aiiA manrofi eminent partGf and g;reat leaining out; 
ofr:h]&^ofeflsioo^ubnd :sii^ul2iri hspfutation ink r if \m 
inttfyeA ffpdxlii^ allegiaT^ce^i it was with less rancour and 
malbcettiiBiaiothc^^ he nevreiMled bdt Iblio.wedi and 

yn^wtii€ai/<mntsAyz,^ thttn svrvatttfith 

^leatflHOB.'^L Wbtteiock.^rote niennoctals of the English 
;iS»iisfroiD the sup{X>sejd expedition of Brute tQithisjsle^ 
tsrtdie^QiiDf: Japiesthe t. pubtishedwith an actouat of 
1^ fife^andjirrHihgSi by William Pen. He died in kGlSi 

TTie character of Edmund Ludlow is seenin tlicLfiiJlcst 
light by contrasting him with his antagonist, Cromwell j 
Bmccp tf we cfccept: their vatour; . i n whidj tbtfy were equal, 
tlidre'cotild dot:«xJst two more difFereat meo*' 

hl^odlow.was sisxcerely and steadily a republicaa; Crora^ 
i^U hot attached to any kind of gou'emment, abd leas^ of 
, ^Iperhaps to thai. IkAkIIow $poke' his oiind plairil/ii ami iifn» 
never taken for aoy other than, what he professed h'uaaself to 
hK i Cromwell v^^oed himself on actibg a pvt, KW'rather 
^eral parts zvelli and when he performed that of .it.conii^ 
monWealtb's man, he performed sq: admirably, that though 
Uudlotw knew hirato.be. a hypocrite, he thought he had 
slosv ithrowaojF tiie mask., Ludlo\t was entirely devote^ 
iofthe parliament, and would h^ve iirtplicitly obeyed their 
oi^deia, especidll]^: aftjer it wasri^uced to the rump a, Crom?- 
^Irocver undfjrtootany bu&ineesfor them but %ith a view 
^6nbis?ownriiltere$ti^ .w.' -^ '•^V'^^' \ ''[r.uj .;• <\,\i\u 

•'^iTber^teioiis ^oCl4i4|pW!>wei« published after his. death, 
frtP Vfcray, in Aefbamojb 'of.J&eriie> SwitJ^ \i9i^^)ii^ 



.^'fKI*®lfrj«rt' the' jchaijafltitf/'of i^iitufei^ff^y^B ' " 

^iluiH^iM^h^Dd the i3Qaaltfutq}f)ile^t>««d4;vl^ig^i)^'«rK^, 
^^j^Memi ka..V?thf4nj by i>etia|,^^, liq^^jwesflT^y 
i^aelorfs^ ptid ]|i8tioepKfti«dd Hiw/aBjwy|HJft,ij^if;J^ — ^-* 

low's estate, had the unparaljeled effrontery to rpoye 

?J o^--OW . i.':. ■'-.; rr.-. lea u :-,.;; ia ^it-^i- s y; -^^fOjia 

-?.i;^^ernJ5nSI^i,ey isc|ialhopto;hfct;pg»|]d^r«P'> KW^^Sffl''^ 
39h&^ a&MsRi¥i»it;>.ihttu^U jei»qti3vtft'>c«Klt9A> t^tii^^i^ 
'•T»Jati^=wf Govtmbiejii tsas «K«Sf naifeaft4:f$Jlt^e|^^{i^^j^'. 
--H«'<i^«'(hie -of: tho8crf«prfc;ufatweri?f)elit*?igins;W^a^}^ 

*^ ^tAte w?ttttev&radrait!ofcBew(gi<»4ut^tepi]SSf^FJ?- .^^7 
^' l^isgus^d %tth the«bwi9 of >ncgai povi^r/iiQ.^a§ i)f ^fiiq^^ 
•'licfjiublfcarioft prifidpfe asLJo.ACTtf werft;§?wa^iWi«9o^tyfi«i4 
-faatteflJi'AfrSidneyi'ha^laken a. dfistingnisljgdtp^flt ^ftj^^e 
•"f«*hlHc^ 8i«te, he dWjiatjacoeptjofl^gfaitjjiJ a.filgHP- 
^tHfeaiBijf after tHe^' teatorationii Out;,nw:eiy„e4,,9 >I^JSVfer 
-'ijaflJiaA'frcJtfi the 'pecfiiiiousiiChftrtesi > 4Jli6r.tfl>s..^mW? 
'- Jfeiplteat** in' tlie ■jft};e4iouaBi^ftt»:|tbSi'YJry.,^ig^4i;^f^f 
•'Whkh'seittis, Upon gobdiauBiontyj.lP fep |«}W,rfflW'^i!..J[n 

'» 'jB^MSft Wxi; but. Ms'|)adefiX)a ^v««a»eEd; Wflje'^^jpj^d 
-^ve^aff^it'U tmother-: aoitfaesifc ijeiliftdifigwrtefj^/ji^fipgf'' 

»'£Biatfi^»*ja|5t«sasehj.bi*tiU&Qhfern(jrcj»|a 
-•i^#|r«liti^3V6fl«M-/4iftthw#(B-ld. -. iBfriWSl^/ycjsf VltfiiJi^flihp 
ot dftgfead(©<ntheii*ttgjii,-«iiir4hoc?th»f^B>ep(rrofc8i J^Muoii 

•s To the memory of Sidney, as well as of his fellosar 

martjT, 



OF KNOWLEDGE, 

.maxtyf» Ijord RusseH, justice was rendered, lihodgh tod 

'Ht^feari^pf Wilfian^i^Md Miry, vfaerr the attaindfiT irftt 
||J|;v^^^4^lfe:^ftamdnt» with 80 a dissenti^tit.wictf • 

-nd^^ with hitf'U6Ma ^scoMzcy iM^impi&tiBlitrA ImiHh 

Iwh b tf yef feties ^(jon Hume as aa hktorkui'wUl fiinl bifll- 
*^^ii itHJcb listed ih his poiiticaas in* his rriig»M^:. He 

WrfteS'With thM Wgani to trutiiiwhkh may b« ^^pected 
^^1^' 4iii %tbeiM^{aln^^ that accoracf wtuch h to be 

looked fiir'miAfjt mifhorwfao^ on)]r Gad.was gai^^ , - . ^^ 

.liJ o/.-i <■;/;. v..,,r, :. , ...,. ..,. , . . , .^^ ^. ^^ , 

'.^Witli'Waiiitial' veracity, NfviHimse haa represented 

Sidney as a deist^ at least, if not an atheist, because be 

dtS^tioi attend- Che public wonhip of any sect: ©f Chris - 

- ti^s.' Wfiy-d*d not this correct historian afiix, the satne 

^tr^tshri upon'MilfcU ? The fact is^ the religious tenets of 

"Sidb^y h^ Some affinity with those of the <juietista» or 

^ J?Tct}baker^. He consid^ religion as a divine philoso« 

.J>h)f, i^hich' fexisted- 6DJy^ in the mind and spirit^ and had 

l^^no^cttnfiecfkirt^^with' external > observances**^ pure tmd 

■'simpTe cotntnemidalloff' between God and our.<)wn.^ouJs. 

TW* be was^ mott* of a visidnany^and enthusiast than .^n 

inRdiHi' ' Itt bisi ptlV^e character, ;ho was a man of extra* 

' orditarfy coamge ^ndof almost invincible obstinapy. The 

strange ealdttiny of itiddehir^.timesi, theiiefore, {wjbicb re- 

' ^t^rsentt hrm ai thfeipdniioner and tObl of Franw^K Oieets a 

fuii confutatioti iA <^e consademdoD of the greatest ble- 

ihisb irt his diamcteh^ ^ From fihia undeserved:. ifatCj his 

: writiiigs hav* li^d <mbm pppuiantythao they perhaps de- 

^^tm^, It -has-beeft'Saia, that they r niay bq esteemed an 

♦liipte ^Joinpiynsflftion ifot* Cicerois six' books .^*: De. Repub- 

iiea,'^ #hicti ^e/^losr/v <5f thevtouth of this estimate it is 

'Mbf^^^ to-fdpm^ Jan '4)^nionvNa^^ comp^ison is not 

^ ;t^ilbihF;dtir ^fcb;- >Fiwn tbc,-best treatise pH! geM^rPTO^t, 

^ 'iR^iMt^aii4>e^k«im^il area^iew(!iiitoi9cjaou»i» j^^ 

practice s bi|t a perfect theory oq this subject yrc expect 



ttii THE HISTORY 

Hfs little to see as a perfect government itself. So. tnudB 
IfUI titpdnd iip^n natiotial chamcter^ hjpon times atfd cir« 
cUtn^t^ncesj ^bat it tna^ be doubted -vcliether any forni 
fai^T^ prescrtbed to Gcnt^eveiy nation ofr every t:>cd^^ix>n j 
ind ^er ail^ the prese*vatk)n of liberty vfiW depend* more 
tipoo ^ho ^irit, the lAorals, the character of a^ jife^Ie, 
than on the form of its government. Rome was enslaved 
white, tho republican form was strictly Obsefved'; Wttile 
Brttaifi* under a roonarchyj has* enjoyid as tniicH iibcrtf 
a^biiNDaf) nature^ perhaps, is ^capable of enjicying. While 
^e say Ah, it is bnit justice to add, thtit* Sidney wds a maa 
of great reading and of strong sense ; and perhaps no man 
ever thought inare intensely upow the fedence of goverii- 
B|CBt> or possessed better opportunities ferc^Uectitig ihfbr* 
mation on the subject, i - 

Shaftesbury, though a politrcian, Is 'father to be re- 
garded a?. an orator and. a statefsmah than as an author, 
•as scarcely any thing of bis is e^itatit but his speeches in 
parliameAt^' : lie Hvas a motnber of thft long parliamWit, 
and had gf eat infliience with the presbyterians : he "haii 
been a -mvoorite <rf eromwell, and afterwards had a 
considerable hand in the restoration. His passions were 
viojleali Iws pcinciplefi flexible, his talents universal-; atid, 
wtiiJfit hccbaiRged his party as suited his interest or am- 
bition^ he« never was- riocused of betraying his fnerfds, 
Wheo wc comi:ler hint ^eitting in thi highest tribunal in 
the kingdom, explakiing tHb Jaivs, drtectmg frauds, ex- 
erting all the powers ot his eloquence on the side, of jus- 
tice, we admire the able lawyer, the irresistible. 6rator, 
the upright judge; but when "he enters into the iniqui- 
tous measures of the cabaly prostitutes his eloquence to 
"enslave his country, and becomes the factious leader, 
' the popular incendiary, we regard him with a mixture of 
• equal detestation and regret. After a life of extraordi- 
frary vicissitudes, he died in Holland, in a kind of vdlun- 
tare exile, in 1C82. It is remarkable, that he was (fts 
ifrell as^Mayiiard, we think, and chief justice Hales) « merp- 

b«r 



r i IH. 



M:iU'>U 



OF KNOWLEDGE, &c. xxvii 

t 

bci o£ that committee for revising the kws, under the 

protectorship of Qroxnwell, whom Mr. Hume, with his 

accustomed accwacy»^ brands as a collection of i^^rant 

\>\9cVhcadSy who were for setjting aside the whole body of 

Sq^nsb law, and substituting the Jewish law in its &tead. 

Hobbes we have considered as a metaphysician^ bat he 
V3§ also a political writer. He unquestionably possessed 
muc^ learning, more thinking> and not a little know^ 
ledge^ of the world. His style is incomparably better 
thap that of any other writer in the reign of Charles II. 
and, for its strength and purity, was scarcely equalled in 
the succeeding. He was for striking out new paths in 
science, in government, and in religion; but as his 
ethics have a strong tendency to corrupt the morals, 
so have his politics to destroy the liberty ot every human 
creature. He is represented as a sceptic in religion, and 
a, dogmatist in philosophy ; but, in fact, he was a dog- 
matist in both. The principles of his Leviathan are as 
little founded in moral or evangelical tmth as his plan 
for sqjuaring the circle in mathematical demonstration. 

In translation he has done as much justice to Thucy^ 
dides as injury to Homer -y but he considered himself 
bom for greater things than treading in the footsteps of 
his predecessors. His book on human Nature is esteemed 
tb? best pf his works. He died in 1675. 



-a' 



BRITISH 



BRITISH *jfD FOREIGN 



JrL 1 STORY 



For the Y«u: 1199, 



^79&i 



BRITISH AND FOREIGN 



HISTORY 



For the Year 1799. 



CHAPTER I. 

Ssaie ff PoViMcs at //at letter Etui af the Year 1798. Tic Mfr/.''t<r 0/ Prtr- 
liament, Hir Majesty* s Speech. Atidresi, — Debate on the yhiJye^s in t e 
H§use cf Lords — In the House ^ Cvmmms. House of Comnrm cca'frrj 
CM a ■«» Aleasttre cf Finance, Mr. Tierney*i Motion in Favjur of Peace 
negatived. Bill far continuing the Stts/tension tf the Habeas Co^His Act — 
Debates on that Measure in the House of Commons^-- In tfie House of L'^rds. 



AMIDST the various calami* 
ties in which the present des- 
perate and disastrous contest has 
mvolTed the European worlds it has 
been happy for this country that 
our losses and misfortunes have 
been chiefly of a pecuniary nature. 
While immense tracts of territory 
are laid waste; while provinces are 
desolated, and the path of the de- 
stroyer marked only by slaughter 
and by blood, our insular situation 
has fortunately protected us from 
witnessing; these distressful scenes : 
the part which wehave taken in the 
contest has been chiefly in that 
which has been emphatically term- 
ed our own element^— and there we 
have been, as might be expected, 
almost uniformly successful. From 
X\n% circum<;tance evcji the pecu- 
niary embarrassments^ which the 
war has created^ have been leSs felt 
than might have been apprehended. 
Our naval superiority has given us 



a monopoly of almost the whole 
commerce of the universe ; and 
while oar expenditure has been in- 
creasing in an enormous and alarm- 
ing degree, our means have had 
almost a proportionate augmenta- 
tion. 

Leaving for the present a di^qui* 
sition, the importance of which we 
do not mean to deny, that which 
would ascertain the probable per- 
manence of those means,— let it 
suffice at present to remark^ that t j 
this state of things we are in no 
small decree indebted for that in- 
ternal tranquillity, and that onion 
0/ sentiment, which have been lat- 
terly so conspicuous. To this may 
be added, that horror of revofution, 
which the conduct of the French, 
in the ^iflferent stages of theirs, has 
so justly inspired. Thus, even men 
who may not totally approve of the 
conduct of administration, are be- 
come still more firmly riveted to 
Az the 



BRITISH AND 



the Britbh ConsLitulion, which can 
alone secure to thein the blessings 
they at present enjoy j and we be- 
lieve ic is a sentiment nearly uni- 
versal, even among those who most 
warmly disappiov^ of the present 
administration, that if tb^y cannot 
be constitutionally removed, it is 
better (whatever may be their ta- 
lents or their conduct) tj)*al they 
should be continued in office. Ex- 
ample has taught them, that it is 
unsafe to depart on any occasion 
from the maxims which the wisdom 
of tlieir/ ancestors hay^ established ; 
and that it iii wiser, in the words pf 
the poet, " to bear those ills we 
have, than fly to others that we 
know not of." . 

The result, indeed, of every jp- 
sovaljon on an established govern- 
ment, is evidently ^from the exain- 
ple before us) uncertain, )yhile the 
evils attending the change are cer- 
tain and manifest* But it that esta- 
blished constitution has been found 
hy Experience to be a good one in a 
general view, to hazard its exist- 
ence in the hope of practically a- 
Jiiending it would be insanity in the 
extreme. This has ever been our 
sentiment ; and from the first open- 
ing of the French' revolution we 
have affirmed, that the situation of 
France and England admitted of no 
comparison whatever.* France v\ as 
led by si chain of circumstances, 
unlike every thing that has existed"* 
in this country, to a change of go- 
vernment: — In England there was 
Do cause or motive to induce such ah 
cv6nt.' |*'rance had no constitution, 
and her goyernixient was universal- 
ly acknowledged to be vicious m the 
extreme :— England has made the 
peaceful experiment of her con.<i(i« 
tution for mbre than a century, and 
founfithe prosperity, ffeed^m, and 
tiappin^ssoffjie people, the j^lorious 
result. When the people of France, 



* See the Preface to our Volume fer 179I. 



therefore, effected a chapge in their 
government, even w hile that cbiLnge 
proniised to achieve soinetbing for 
■ the amelioration of the slate or ro-, 
ciety, the example was contempla- 
ted in England ^'^^ curiosity in-- 
deed, but with little of the ardour 
of imitation. A Tew theorists, fond 
of novelty aiwl speculation, were de- 
sirous of recommending the conduce 
of the'FrencK as an object of enoula- 
lion ; but their harangues w^ere 
heard wiih a frigid scepticism by 
the ma'^'S of the people ; while some 
who thought more detply on the 
subject foresaw, tliat to form a 
pertect constitution was notan*ea.^ 
tas)c, — find that if it were, aaystem 
of morality wythout religion, and at 
poliijcs without a government, were 
rot the means of effecting it. Tbe 
Cilamitics which our neighbours 
have experienced decided tbe dis-' 
putc ; the abettors of French prin- 
ciples in this country were soon re- 
duced to a very small compass in- 
deed, and, within the circle of our 
knowkdge at this houf,' we can 
safely say we k'now'of none. 

One cause of disunion stilt exist- 
ed, and thai was tbe war — Of this 
sprae have disapproved, *ho equally 
censured the republican politics of 
Fiance, and much more thei^ irre- 
ligious sentiments. Ct'uld' U have 
been avoided, all men are agreed 
that it was highly desirable that 
firitam should ha'^e remained at 
peace. The friends of administra- 
tion have affirmed that War \vas an 
evil not to be Avoided, while others 
have believed that the repeated 
concessions of France ought to have 
been attended to, and that the pre- 
cipitate rashness of ministers brought 
on a calamity which all' unite to 
deplore. The abrupt wnd unjusti- 
fiable termination 01 the negotia- 
tion at Lisle, made a forcible argu- 
ment in extenuation at least of the 
conduct 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



tofidact of ministbrs, and those who 
believed tbem sincere in those of-> 
£tn of pacification could no longer 
hesitate in tbrowing the blame apon 
the opposite party, since he who 
ofiers (0 negotiate, disavows ((ill 
bis object and his terms are fully 
explained) every hostile intention. 
TTiDs every cause contributed to 
produce that unity of sentiment) 
that general spread of loyalty, which 
marked the period of which we are 
now to treat, the latter end of the 
year 1 798 and the beginning cf 1 799. 
On the opening of the parlia- 
mentary session on the 20th of No- 
vember, the benches formerly occu- 
pied by the minority appeared still 
deserted ; bat as tittle could be ef- 
fected either by their counsel or 
their opposition, the absence of 
these able statesmen was the le<;s to 
be regretted. The speech from the 
throne was for the most part a re- 
capitulation o£ the events which 
bad occurred during the recess. 
His majesty commenced with ob- 
terving *' That the success which 
had attended our arms during the 
Course of the pre>ent year had been 
productive of the happiest conse- 
quences^ and promoted the pro- 
fliperity of the country. Our naval 
trioropbs had received fresh splen- 
dor from the memorable action in 
which lord Nelson had attacked a 
superior enemy, and turned an ex- 
travagant enterprise to the confu- 
sion of its authors ; the blow thus 
given to the power and influence of 
France had afforded an opening 
which might lead to the general de- 
liverance of Europe. 

*' The magnanimity of the em- 
peror of Russia, and the vigour of 
the Ottoman Porte, had shown that 
these powers were impressed with 
a just sense of the present crisis^ 
and their example would be an en- 
couragement to other states to a- 
do^l (hat spirilfid liue of cond)U)(t 



which was dlone consistent with se« 
curity and honour. 

^' Our preparations at homef and 
the zeal of all ranks ot people, had 
deterred thb enemy from attempt* 
ing to invade our coasts* 

^* In Ireland the rebelliort had 
been repressed : the views of ill« 
minded people, who h^d planned the 
subversion of our constitution, had 
been fuily detected and exposed ; 
those whom this had misled must 
now be awakened to their duty $ 
and the miseries which those trai- 
torous de<;i;;ns had produced im- 
pressed the necessity of expelling 
every attack on the established go- 
vernment of their country. 

" Under the pressure of protract- 
ed war, it was a great satisfaction 
to observe, that the produce of the 
public revenue had been fully ade- 
quate to the increase of our per- 
manent expenditure : the national 
credit bad been improved, and 
commerce had flourished in a de- 
gree unknown. 

" Our situation unhappily ren- 
dered the continuance of heavy ex- 
pences indispensable to the public 
safety ; but the state of our re- 
sources, and the public spirit, would 
furnish the necessary supplies with- 
out essential inconvenience to ihe 
people, and with as little adciitioii 
as possible to the burthens of the 
state. The aid given to pubhc 
credit by the plnn for ilie redemp- 
tion of the land-tax had been at- 
tended with the most beneficial 
effects. We had surmounted great 
difficulties ; our perseverance (in 
a just cause)f had been rewarded 
with success! *, and our situation in 
a period of danger, compared with 
that of other countries, proved that 
the security of the British natioa 
depended (under Providence) on 
its own constancy and vigour." 

Eacl Darnley moved the address 

•in tlie accustomed manner, rejoic- 

A 3 ing 



A 



BH I T 1^ HAND 



ing in Ihe prosperity of the coun- 
try, expatiating on the victory 
Of the Nile, and echoing back en- 
comiums on the emperor of Russia 
and the Ottoman Porte. The ad- 
dress concluded with assuring his 
majesty of the- zeal and loyalty of 
his pariiaroent, and the cheerfulness 
with which that house would sup- 
port the crown and constitution. 

L^rd Craven secoqded the mo- 
tion : nothing, he said, could afford 
more pleasure than the description 
i>f the present state of the country. 
After being deserted by the allies, 
whose cause we had come forward 
to espouse, it was gratifying to see 
the noble stand we had made, and 
the succcss"^ we had obtained over 
the common enemy of mankind. 
By our single exertions the navy of 
the French republic was annihi- 
lated i her boasted army of Eng- 
land had lost its title ; not only our 
coasts at home, but our most valu- 
able possessions abroad, were se- 
cured. Through the vigilance of 
our marine, but one of all the 
.squadrons the French bad <^ent out 
tp assist the rebellion of Ireland 
had reached the place of it<; desti- 
nation ; and even that had been 
unable to withstand our well-direct- 
ed force. There was only one 
branch of commerce v^'hich we did 
not before almost exclusively pos- 
sess, namely, that of the Levant; 
and of that trade France would be 
now totally deprived, and we 
should reap aU those advantages 
which had heretofore maintained 
her navy. The situation ot Buo- 
naparte was. also in our favour ; 
cut off -from all means of retreat, 
and beset on every side with ob- 
stacles. These successes had given 
spirit and alacrity to several of the 
foreign powers, who had unecjui- 
vocally determined to join against 
.the common enemy. Russia and 
the. Ottoman Porte had declared 
themselves; and Austria} though 



unwtllin^,wou1d find it her interest 
lo unite in the exertions which our 
example had recommended to all 
Europe, ^ and without vibich it 
would be vain tp look either for 
security or peace. 

The marquis of Lansdown ex- 
pressed the greatest pleasure in pay- 
ing his tribute of gratitude and ap- 
plause to those commanders who 
had perform e.d their duty so glori- 
ously, and achieved as much as 
men could achieve for the honour 
of their country ; but he said there 
remained a duty also for us to per- 
form, at home, a duty which rest^ 
upon the king's ministers and thetr 
lordships — ic was, to draw from 
those victories the advantages they 
were calculated to secure, and to 
make a right application of those 
memorable events which had been 
extolled with so much rapture. The 
greatest conquest"? were but fleeting 
objects, unless well used ; and how- 
ever fascinating with their splendor, 
would ppsst away without solid 
cause of joy, unless made the 
means of attaining the most desir- 
able good, so often recommended 
byhimself in that house — a safe and 
honourable peace. The real patriot 
would think his service best repaid 
by knowing it had tended to pro- 
cure the cessation of arms, and the 
return of tranquillity. He had no 
doubt but that lord Nelson would 
highly prefer this satisfaciion to 
any peisonal compliment which 
could be paid him ; and the marquis 
acknowledged his regret in obsenr- 
ing ihat the victory of the Nile, 
which might have led to. peace, 
was employed as a reason for new 
exertions, and a continuance of 
the war : and in what, manner ? by 
again combining with the Euro- 
pean powers, by every one of whom 
we had already been abandoned. 
Not only that great man lord Nel- 
son, but every distinguished officer 
in theservice|WOuld feel disappoint- 
ment 



FOjLEiGN tttSTORT. 



tnitnt if their triamphs produced 
none of those advantages to Great- 
fe-itain^ whicb^ with wise manage- 
ment, Ihev were calculated to con- 
fer. He fished to Be" rightly un- 
derstood — He was satisfied it was 
of the utmost consequence to check 
the progress ol the French rcvolu- 
tion. It was not necoisary, nor 
w^as it sound policy, to load with 
opprobrium even the enemy : but 
to speak of the conduct of the 
French without using the language 
of the most nnequi vocal reproba- 
*tJony -was impossible ; their course 
ofhavock and devastation, their de- 
testable tyranny and baseness^ must 
excite a steady resolution to check 
their career^ and save the world 
firom the calamity to which they 
-wrould doom it in every bosom 
i^hich cherished liberty as the su- 
preme ^ood. Bui how its progress 
vras to DC checked, what were the 
means most likely to be efficaci- 
ous, was the object of most serious 
importance, and to which he par- 
ticularly called the attention of 
their lordships. Had we not the 
experience of five years to prove 
to U9, that we had undertaken the 
task in a manner not calculated to 
obtain the end ? What probability 
appeared that we should be more 
prosperous in future than we hi- 
therto had been. His majesty's 
speech afforded but little hopes of 
it: instead of a great and well or- 
ganised plan, ^oing directly to llie 
object in which the powers of 
Europe had concurred — instead of 
improving the victory of the Nile 
to this purpose, and restoring tran- 
quillity to Europe, the continuance 
of war was announced ! It never 
could be denied, but that if a sen-^e 
of general danger had brought 
our allies to a league upon honest 
principles^* in which, instead of 
disgracing themselves by looking 
to this country for subsidies^ they 



would resume the dipii^ whidi 
became them j — if their union hail 
not been distracted by mercenaiy 
yiews, by plant of rapine and a{^ 
grandisement, by th^ intervention 
of despicable intri^uei and dii« 
trustful jealousies, it never ooolfl 
be denied bat that, at every periott 
of th^ revolution, the powers 6l 
Europe would have been able th^ 
have ended their career and mia- 
chief. ' 

We now were told of the vifiur 
manifested by Ru8<;ia and theFortCf 
a monstrous alliance between Turks 
and Russians ! We all knew that 
their mutual distrusts exceeded 
those of other nations: It was h6- 
reditary ; it was implanted in their 
nature, and strengthened by th^r 
education. The family upon the 
throne of the Russians had uni- 
formly cherished the notion that 
Constantinople was to be apart of 
their inheritance. It was with this 
' view* they named the second son of 
thepresent emperor, Constantino II. 
And was it from a caalition of this 
sort that we were to derive hopes of 
vigorous operations against France ? 
If Russia were in earnest, why did 
we not hear ©f the other northern 
powers coming forward and join- 
ing in the league ? As to- tho 
Grand St'ignlor, what was the Ot- 
toman Porte ? Turkey wa«; the most 
hel;>le?s of all the countries upon 
earth ;' incapable not only of ex- 
ternal operations, but of domestic 
defence, and in a state of univer- 
sal insubordination. Defeated in 
more than thirty attacks upon one 
rebellious pacha — unable tc resist 
the rebellion of a subject — was it 
from ruch a country that we w^re 
to expect a vigorous co-operation ? 
upon such a league that we could 
place our confidence ? Experience 
ouglil to teach uscaiition j and im- 
press upon bur minds the convic- 
tion of the hollow principle upoiv 
A 4 .which 



URtTlSH AND 



:Whicii combioetions of this kind 
,were formed. Whe)i a court was so 
little actuate* by potives of hoiiOOr 
,And justice, a« io f(>rf|^tt its obliga- 
lions, could we aft i-f wards rely on 
•|U fidQlily ? If wc- sliould advance 
tij^,^ nian in nccessilya sum of mo- 
ijey to. enable him to carry on a just 
clajm to estates which were with- 
beid from him, and by such suc- 
cour he had succeeded in his law- 
.soit, should we not say that his first 
duty was to repay those persons 
^"who had saved him from ruin ? 
IWhat was true of an individua.1 
Twas true of a court. We had 
assisted the great, powers of the 
. continent : one of them had coti- 
.tracted large engagements with us, 
. and was enabled by our succour to 
make valuable acquisitions. It did 



feel the atrocity of the French sys- 
tem ? — It could not be said that 
"they were. The protection which 
we derived from our marine, from 
our insular situation, and from pub- 
lic opinion, made us more secure 
than any other kingdom on the 
^continent : and when it was evident 
that wc were employed only for 
their own ends ; that, however so- 
lemn their engagements, thay de- 
serted us without a struggle^ of con- 
science, and made their peace with 
our enemies whenever they had 
made an acquisition ; could we 
again entangle ourselves with ei«ch 
confederates ? The marqiii* said, 
that he anticipated the reply to all 
this. How could we make peace ? 
It was impossible to negotiate with 
the directory. Whether our mi- 



not appear, by his majesty's speech, nistcrs were sincere in their attempts 

that this great power had come he would not pretend to say j but 

forward to discharge its obligations: if they were, their measures were 

it had not given any assurance that ill imagined, and worse conducted. 

it would diacharge them. The If they were not, this country was 



loan was raised under the guarantee 
of the British government ; and, if 

. a new combination should be made 
with courts that had hitlierto looked 
to their own distinct and indivi- 

' dual interests only, and deserted 

, the common cause the instant they 
had obtained some miserable ac- 
quisition to themselves, wc could 
have no prospect of advantage from 
a league with such nations. 

.Nay, if the jealousies of these 
powers should be stifled for a mo- 
aaenfi something more was necessary 

, to the combined movement of Eu- 
rope against France : the powers of 
the Baltic should join the confcde-i 
i^acy. But no exertion from this 
quarter was to be seen, and we were 
told that the war must be prolong- 
ed upon the ground of disjointed 
combination, a combination nei* 
ther general nor disinterested. Were 
they less sensible of their danger 
than we ? Were they less liable to 



involved in disgrace, and laid open 
to the reproaches 6f all Europe. It 
was an open, an unequivocal mode 
of conduct which he had always 
recommended ; and it parlicularnr 
behoved their lordships to testify 
that they would support the govern- 
ment which would act upon this 
upright principle. It would be 
giving dignity to England to make 
this deciaratiop:.. at a momelit of 
conquest. HQ»did not mean that 
this country should humiliate itselff 
nor was he aO^uainted with the^ 
present dispositions of the Fretlch 
directory ; but. it could not be at- 
tended with bad consequences to 
make the'avowal of a liberal system, 
and the moment of victory would 
ascertain our sincerity. 

Af^er such declaration, our coitrse 
(should they refuse it) was safe and 
clear. But it would be wise to lay 
aside all idle plans of conqoest and 
acq^oisition wMch Y^'e eould noc 
laaintain y 



FOREIGN HISTdRY. 



maintain ; a«i Corsica and St D:>- 
min^o, which we had captured, 
aisd found It expedient to give up. 
It ^could be wise to refuse oor assent 
to all continental intrigues, in which 
it was likelj that the French would 
oUi-inaiuEUvre us, as they hilherlo 
had done, and ^ined as much by 
iotrigue as by arms. To all such 
fetri^aes this country should be a 
stranger J for all combinations which 
had dapliclty for their origin were 
as much against the interests of 
Great Britain as of humanity. A 
spirit of disinterestedness, a system 
of moderation, was the policy, as 
it ought to be the pride of our 
country. At home the crown had 
gained every thing 3 it could not, 
and It ought not, to look for any 
further accession of power. The 
present was a favourable moment 
for securing^ the unanimity which 
now prevailed. The attachment of 
the people was stronger and m ^re 
vaiuablethan ahundred treaties. By 
retrenching cxpences, by intro- 
ducing order and ceconomy into 
ci'ery department of the stale, party 
would soon* be no more, and we 
might reap the advantages of our 
present situation. A union with 
Ireland had be«n rumoured ; to 
which he shoafd certainly give his 
support, if founded on a principle 
which he could approve. Two 
l>odies brought together, and acting 
a< one, might certainly effect more 
than separately could be effecl-.-d. 
Every thing benefkial might ^e 
expected from such a Junction, if it 
were built upon public opinion ; 
but if ii were to be a government 
of influence, corruption, and all its 
consequences would ensue,— covi- 
' sequences which Irelai-d had af ready 
felt but too sevefely. 

We were now arxived at that 
point in oar histoTy, when we must 
tcbume tilt good s^tnsc of our an- 



cestors, and govern by patriotic 
principles, not by bribery or pa- 
tronage. Instead of looking to 
great families^ we must look to the 
people j and instead of the grasp 
and range of influence, trust to the 
ceconomy with which every branch 
of our administration wasconducted. 

So much for Our home affairs ; 
and as to oar external position, 
there remained but one good and 
practicable course; to pursue an ho- 
nourable system as iho only means 
of attaining a permanent peace. 

Lord Romney ro5?e to remarlr, 
" that it was es-^eiitinl tlie peor^ltr 
should think the ministers sincere 
in their late negotiation : whelljer 
it was ill imagined, however, he^ 
did not pretend to 5ay^bn the wou.M 
contend that it was well conduced, 
and, he hoped, had had the elKect 
of convincing the people both of 
its sincerity and tiie abilities of ad- 
ministration. 

Of Turkey, and ofrr ari:ince 
with it, he formed betler e\[)ecta- 
tions than the noble marc|i'.is had 
expressed. The Turks had seen 
their errors with ies;>ect to France ; 
and it would have been wt-ll it" they 
had opposed them Ion;; ago wiln 
vigour. They were now ik-ler- 
mined to do flii>, encouraged bv 
the fidelity of thiv country i()\Nards 
all with whom they entered inio 
engagements. The Emperor Paal 
was remarkable for hrs moderation 
and his virtues ; there was r«»as(>n 
then to believe he would he lionour- 
able in his conduct where he \uu[ 
pledged his'failh. It had bi;cn<a:d, 
fhat Denmark and Sweden v%erv? 
preparing arms, and, with tl:e ottier 
powers, combining in one commori 
canse. If Europe had underfaken 
this before, there was no douhl but 
the great nation would have giv.*:;i 
way. It was not yet too lat<*. and 
our prosjiccls brighicned. !n our 
tinar.cci 



10 



BRITISH A N I> 



finances there was nothing to alarm 
ns; the fnnd^ were higher than 
they had been for a considerable 
time. We po^^sessed great advan- 
tages at this moment, and thegreat- 
est was the unanimity of the peo- 
ple. But we ought to abandon the 
further pursuit of conquest, as we 
could not retain them Avhen ac- 
quired } of which the striking in-< 
stances were Corsica and St. Do- 
mingo. It was true we had resign- 
ed these; but St. Lucia^ Marti- 
nique, the Cape of Good Hope, 
And the Spice Islands, were jet in 
•oar possession, and there was no ap- 
pearance of any intention to give 
them up ; but he did not pretend 
to judge of the policy of surrender- 
ing some places, and retaining 
others. His majesty's ministers 
could best decide which were te- 
nable, aiithey had the best means of 
forming right estimates. 

Lord Holland differed from the 
marquis of Lansdown, uho^ he 
&aid, had so well described the im- 
pcacticabilitv of any junction be- 
ti¥ een Prussia and Austria; although 
he recommended another combina- 
tion upon more honest prinrijiles. 
So far was he himself from rccoRi- 
mending any further contintrntal 
connections, that he thought our 
iti.'lucnce hitherto operating upon 
the German courts had been the 
cause of all the mischief which had 
taken place, and of the mortifying 
situation in which the continental 
states in alliance with the French 
republic found themselves at this 
moment. Promises had been from 
time to time held forth, and oni- 
formly broken. He meant not to 
depreciate from the victories we 
had gained: they were additions to 
the national credit and honour; but 
if the only advantage we were to 
gain by them was to be a revival 
of the horrors of war, England 



had little cause to rejoice. The 
speech from the throne held, forth 
the probable success of a poiverfu! 
confederacy against France. \Vc 
had heard such language before, 
but wc had only seen, in conse- 
quence of these confederacies, de- 
vastation extended over tlie surface 
of the globe, with less and less 
prospect of procuring tranquillity. 
The former confederacy of princes 
was the chief cause of the calami- 
ties produced b^ the French revo- 
lution. Experience might teach us 
thai it was impossible to derive an/ 
advantage to this country from them« 
We might recollect that we never 
had an alliance with any of them, 
who had not deserted us. Austria, 
the most considerable,, was only a 
drain upon us, and a temptation 
for the conquest of the enemy. 

The late glorious victory ou^bt 
to induce us to show a dis}K>sitJou 
for peace. It would not be humi- 
liation, but magnanimity; nor would 
the people of this country fanc^ it 
was a degradation, if his majesty's 
ministers, in their name^ would 
evince a pacific spirit. The people 
of England had no wishes incon- 
sistent with the glory of their coun- 
try, and he heartily regretted that 
they had not their due weight and 
power in the government. Of the 
diminution ol cxpence, he saw but 
little probability ; having observed, 
that in the years when we had the 
strongest assurances of retrench- 
ment, our expenditure had increased 
the more. 

He felt, he said, the diflSculty of 
succeeding in the hoar of victory 
in any attempt to moderate desire. 
It was an unwelcome task even to 
address their lordships on the sab- 
j.ect of peace ; but he so far coin- 
cided with his noble friend ftht 
marquis of Lansdown) as to think 
that the greatest victories were 
' useless* 



FOREIGN HIST^ORY. 



11 



«, onleti eiDpky^ed to obtain 
diig only legithDatte end of war. 

Lord Malgrave was surprised, 
that aoj Eo^ifhinan sfaoaJd think 
that thifivas a monent ibr propo- 
sing peio^ opedally to such an 
eoGQj as nvh^ to conteod with : 
TctcfBOce to \hc fate of former at- 
tempts bad iittk to do with the pre- 
scnL Was the relative sitaatton of 
tkc two coon triet the same now as 
ax tlie begiDoiog of the war, either 
in poiot of glory, in point of fi- 
nance^ or in point of the popularity 
of the (wo govemmeots ? When the 
confeat fint began> the parties start- 
ed as great rivals upon equal terms; 
at present, however, every thing 
u^hidi cookl constitute advantage 
was in our favour : in such a posii- 
tioQ of tbingi, would it be wise to 
fru%t that moderation which the 
noble lord bad so highly extolled ? 
Ought we to rest our security upon 
Che pacific disposition of the present 
rulers of France? Was it sound 
policy, at a moment when a pro- 
spect ^ad arisen of securing the in- 
dependence of Europe, to throw 
away our advantages, and seek, by 
crouching at the feet ot France^ a 
precarious, hollow, and faliacious 
peace, without endeavouring to 
turn the glory we had earned into 
an universal benefit to the world. 

It was his opinion, that ministers, 
instead of omitting any favourable 
opporlunily of bringing the war to 
^u honourable conclusion, had car- 
ried tiieir desire tor peace too ftu- : 
the eoemy had, mistaken it for rna- 
biliiy to fuaiotain the conqaebt, and 
tiieir insolence and ambition had 
iivcfeased : their obstinacy indeed 
had deluded them, and led the way 
for thiscoontry to obtain the most 
•j^tetidid socccsscB. However indi- 
▼idoals might lament the losses they 
hadsQslaiiMxl, however the burtliens 
of the state wight be increased. 



every patriot most rejoice itt tlie 
triempbs we had celebrated. la 
that prood eminence which we tkom 
occupied, we ought not to Idrget 
our superiority, by renewing nego- 
tiations which presented oo pro* 
spect of . honourable' terminatioB : 
it was not by extenuating our sac- 
cesses, it was not by magnifying oar 
petty losses, that a stable peace eool4 
be promoted : Britain stood high 
amongst the nations of Europe ; sbo 
ought to invite them to combine 
under her auspices, to resort to her 
banner for protection, and confide 
in her efforts for security. It had 
been said, that jealousies mod rival - 
ships subsisted between several of 
the powers that were con^de rated 
against France. Austria and Prus- 
sia had entertained them, and sepa- 
rated ; but they had reason sorely 
to repent their conduct ; the events 
which succeeded plainly proved, 
that there was , no safety but in 
union^ No evil could compare 
with that of giving way to France ; 
and, in fact, had we not seen these 
little dissensions laid aside ? Russia 
and the Ottoman Porte (an t:sam- 
ple beyond all former specula tioos, 
because the occasion was beyond ail 
former precedents) were now cor- 
dially co-operating in the same 
cause. When we considered the 
different situations of this country 
and of France, there was every 
thing to animate us. On the one 
9ide was glory, the respect and love 
of subjects, and the sinews of war ; 
on the other, hatred, jmubordina- 
tion, and (he exhausted resources oi 
raptne and violence. The mode- 
ration so highly extolled, after they 
had pillaged a great part of Europe, 
liad carried ihcin as lar as Egypt in 
search of hew sources of pluiuier j 
in a moment like this, thercforer*it 
would be the highest of pusillasi- 
mity to abandvu >)Ui9rjpiOvit;er8,;to 

whom 



li 



i Kiiikn aUiS 



Whom experience hdd taught the 
Wisdom of fidelity ; and to pursue 
selfish measures, when so bright a 
prospect was before us of an ho- 
nourable terifninatioo of the contest. 

Lord Holland rose to explain; 
be said he never bad affirmed that 
the French had been always mode- 
rate in their conduct ; moderation 
had never been the character of 
any government in France^ repub- 
lican or monarchical. But there 
had been petiods in which concilia <* 
tion' on the part of this country 
would have led to peace. It was 
certainly an unwelcome task to re- 
mind their lordships that tbese op- 
portunities hgd been lost. The 
sums of money sent abroad from 
England had continued the war on 
the continent without advantage, 
and this war had consolidated the 
power of France. We had proved 
too Vitally how inadequate a for- 
mer coalition, had been to crush 
the revolution, and he saw no rea- 
son to imagine that the present 
V would be more successful. 

Lord Grenville expressed much 
satisfaction in avowing a difTerent 
opinion : the powers of the conti 
nent were now willing to embface 
a line ot conduct more suited to 
their interests ) and was this a mo- 
ment for England to shew that she 
Was guided by little selfish politics ? 
Instead of bringing £urope to its 
fate and abandoning the victims of 
French domination to their misery, 
it ought to t)e the business of Great- 
Britain to animate their efl^orts^ and 
contribute to their deliverance. It 
was the duty of ministers to pro- 
mulgate this glorious purpose^ to 
conciliate differences, to allay jea- 
lousies, and not, by reviving them, 
10 prevent that co-operation which 
was so necessary to the general safe- 
ty, and connected with the true in- 
terests rf Uic cottqtry* « 



The marquis of LsMiMm^ti 
strongly reprobated the idea of plae 
ing ourselves at the head of Europe 
it was (he said) a vain, foolish^ id)< 
boast, which could only terminate 
in confusion and disaster. The col- 
lections which had recently been 
published in the correspondence of 
' our statesmen since the revolution 
(Bolingbroke, Townsend, Sir B. 
Walpole, and others) demonstrated 
how much our wisest politiciani 
disapproved of continental coO'- 
nexipns, the system ot subsidies, suid 
the atempt to ta]ce the lead in Bo- 
rope. The duke of Marlboroogii, 
who possessed conciliatory talents rn 
as eminent a degree as any man ever 
did, said, " that it was some little 
merit to have made eight nations 
act as one man.'* Great as theal>t • 
lities of the duke of Marlt)oroogfa 
were, he would venture to say, that 
had his grace been now alive, it 
would be above his powers to form 
such a confederacy, or mske foor 
nations act as one man, or even in 
concert I Now that the experiments 
were to be made at the eipence of 
so many millions of lives, he would 
be apt to say, '* You have made 
one trial, and failed, and we do not 
wish for the sake of humanity that 
it should be made again ;" for him- 
self, he had for several years op- 
posed the attempt to take the lead 
in continental connexions, and he 
now opposed the renewal of them. 

Lord Sydney affirmed, that he 
could not discover in the writings 
of our best statesmen any of that 
marked disapprobation of foreiga 
alliances in situations of en^ergency. 
Arguments of lord Bolingbroke in* 
deed might be produced; bat he 
did not think his authority^ or the 
principles on which the infamous 
treaty of Utrecht was concluded, 
would have great weight. He com- 
plimented lord Grenville and Mal« 



FOREIGN HISTOHY. 



IS 



^vare upon tlietf spercbes, declar- 
ing titat he bad never heard nnre 
eioqoence in the course of a loog 
pariTafj^entaiy \ift. 

The marqiiif of Lfansdown per- - 
aisled that the statesmen whom he 
had mmrd (and thej wet e the be^t> 
'were of tfiecided opinion ^hat this 
coosirr aboD^d nevrr t^ke ihe lead 
in cootinen'al politics, (as be had 
$ald befbrr) nor sUetnpt to cut and 
c^ntfi ap Europe. 

Uord Gremrine rose to declare^ 
that the precise question was whe- 
ther the French should have this 
hoQour, and cut and carve it up 
nxstb^ of 0!» ? noiy ih^t (hi<i country 
afaoald exercise a power and prac-^ 
Cice so onwarraotiible. 

In the h'>ase of commons on the 
saSDedaf^ bisnnajr {y'g speech having 
^erti read, lord G l.cvison Gower 
rose to nv>ve the address He said, 
that the niinisiers liad made, two 
aftfcmnlsdta negotiation for peace ; 
thflC th<^ dawn ef mtional liberty 
having began to break upon the ho- 
nzbfi bf France, and a spirit ot cno* 
deration having ef^cted an extra- 
Ordinary change in the minds of 
fhe French people, our government 
had supposed that theirs was also 
incUned to pacifiiration, and would 
observe the condition.^ I but we had 
been much mistaken The direc- 
tory, Joshed with sdccess and daz- 
sled by their 'victories, imagined 
that the pressure oi oat difficulties 
and dangers bad *cothpelled bs to 
tbia measure; ^d there were some 
EagUfthmeo, (he wai Sorry to ob- 
serve) wlio cherished the same idea. 
That we had many and great diffi- 
enl|iea to' contend with, no impar- 
tial observer wo6ld ' deny -, but^ 
- tboogl|*OQt credit had Experienced 
some deciioe : although apprehen- 
noDs. had 'been entertalnrd of our 
/boding system, and a national bank- 
mptcy wasi^id tostar^ oi in t|ie 



face ; yet the vigonr of the British 
nation h^d been called forlh ; a spi- 
rit o,f resistance to the insolence of 
the enemy iiad been excited ; a 
consciousness of our own strength 
had be^n so forcibly impressed on 
oor mmds, that no services had 
been refused — nocontriburioa with- 
he]d<-oo sacrifice declined. The 
country bad striking instances be- 
fore ks eyes of what it had to ex- 
pect fi'om the presompiion of the 
enemy^ and was convinced that all 
its safety depended upon its exer- 
tion. It was to this couviction 
we owed our \oluPtary contribq-* 
tions and otir wari*ke defences : 
fiom being a people of peaceful 
purhuit^i. ai>d little familiarised with 
the u>c of arms, we had suddenly be- 
ci^m«^ a nation of well disciplined mi- 
litary men. Thr < nt my had observed 
our ardour ; ihcy had desisted from 
the vain ihreit and impotent design 
oi invading the British shores -, thry 
had shrunk from their madly- medi- 
tated schime of despoiling as of 
our wealth, and destroying the 
sources from whence it ••prung. 
Whatever might have been their 
plan of plunder and of massacre, 
(a plan which would be found as 
wicked in intention as it was terri« 
ble in aspect), that plan our vigi- 
lance had watched, and our pru- 
de ncf confounded. 

in their attempts on Ireland fhey 
had not proved more successful | 
in vain had they supplied the disaf- 
fected with arms, and effected a par- 
tial landing. The few who had 
disembarked had been compelled by 
oar noble commanders to surren- 
der. At the same period, soother 
force had been prepared from Hoi-^ 
land,.desiined to corroborate in the 
same design ; but their fate waa 
known, and their attempts frus- 
trated by the activity of oiir squa- 
dron. Our security^ derived from 

these 



y 



14 



B RI TLS H AND 



lliese efficient t&ori*, and%oin the 
inability of the French to accom- 
plish cheir object of iDvasion, per- 
mitted us to contemplate with just 
exultation the glorious scenes which 
opened on. Great-Britain: amongst 
which stood so conspicuous the 
brilliant victory lately recorded. 
The impression which it had made 
€»n ' the contiaent promised the 
most auspicious result; aod» how- 
ever we might regret that ouj; gal- 
lant admiral did not fall in with the 
enemy's fleets to complete its anni* 
Ulation^ on matorer reflection it 
was a fortunate circumstance. Had 
llie hostile fleet been destroyed, 
we could ivot have known its deati- 
■itioD> or been convinced of the 
per&diooa machinations of the 
frencb directory. The world 
WoukI have been ignorant of the 
craft with which it endeavoured to 
kiyeigle the powers with whom the 
Krencb nation was united in trea- 
ties^ and whom it professed to re- 
aped, whilst it purposed to violate. 
Tbe very moment it was repeating 
Ibese professions, had it not attack- 
ed the Ottoman Porte in its most 
^nkterable point, supposing that 
ibis power was either too dull to ap- 
prehend its designs, or too feeble to 
sesist Cbem ? Were we desirous to 
dto?pver other advantages of tiiia 
iHiparalleled triumph ? we had 
enly to observe its influence on the 
Begotiation at Raatadi, where might 
Ve traced the first symptoms of spi- 
rited resistance to the ambitious ea- 
eroacbments of the enemy. At 
Naples, its effects were not less con- 
apicuotts ; and wherever the joy- 
lol tidings had resounded, men and 
measures had assumed a new tone 
end complexion ; ^— such were the 
precious fruits whieh the wisdom of 
a people might reap from victories 
won by valour. And was this the 
ttoaieat to arrest them in their ca* 



reer— tp dispirit their hopes, to 
damp their zeal, and su«pessd 
their exertions? Some indeed ^had 
argued that these very circum- 
stances of prosperity should direct 
our attention to peace, and enable 
us to effect its attainment. ^To se- 
cure an honourable peace, he w^as 
as. sincerely disposed as ao/ who 
could hold^this language $ nor w^as 
be disinclined to seek it from an^ a-> 
version to any form of governmeot ; 
b]At the spirit which actuated the 
directory promised no stability^— no 
faith. He adverledi he said, in a 
peculiar manner, to their bebiviour 
towards Switzerland, and towards 
the^infant republics which they bad 
created and pretended to patronise* 
Whilst the conferences were hold- 
ing at Rastadt, and a. negotiatioa 
had actually began between them 
and the emperor, they seized upon 
an important post in Germany. In-> 
deed their conduct had been the 
same to almost every state ; and was 
it a moment to relax our endeavoars» 
when the emperor of Russia waa 
eager to second our opeiations? 
Would we cruelly damp the hopes 
of the Belgic insurgents, whose 
principal dependance was our assist- 
ance, and who so anxiously expect- 
ed deliverance from our compaa- 
sion ? What, in a word, would be 
the result, but to repress the indig- 
nation which burned in every na- 
tion against Gallic insolence and 
Gallic oppression ? England was 
now seated on a proud pre-eminence, 
and, by persevering in a firm resist** 
ance to our inveterate enemy, might 
bring to a safe conclusion the most 
arduous contest in which any natiod 
had ever been involved. 

Sir H. P. S. Mildmay seconded 
the motion: and, after expatiating 
on the sacrifices which we had al* 
ready made to the interests of hu<» 
nunity, he said we were entitled to 

such 



POREIGJT HISTORY. 



15 



foch (ermB in pacification as ac- 
corded 'With the brilliancy of oar 
TictOTies— -ihe dignity of oor situa- 
lioo— ^ttfid the infiuence which we 
lield over the other cabioets of Ea- 
xope. 

Sir Joho Sinclair dwelt much 
Topon Uk battle of the Nile. The 
pecaliar crisia, aod the difficulties 
-which he had to snrmouot, had 
raised k>rd Nelson to the first rank 
amoQgst the naval heroes of the 
time. Yet moch as he exalted in 
Ukas glorions exploit, he thought it 
uras impossible not to see tha^ by 
the miscondoct of the ministers, 
his lordship's laurels had been al- 
most blamed ; his companions had 
been in danger ci being left to re« 
pine the iaiisre of their eoterpris- 
iDf^ schemes, whilst the force of 
l^rance was permitted to return in 
trionarph to her posts -, for in conse- 
qoence ci the force under his com- 
mand being sent in detachments to 
the Mediterranean, the gallant ad- 
miral had baen for weeks occupied 
ia ineffectual searches, waiting his 
time after the fleet of the enemy. 
Had the ministers appointed a sutH* 
cient number of cruisers on the 
atatioui their track might have been- 
eaaily dtscofered, their ileet defeat- 
ed, and their troops brought into 
ear ports. So much inattention 
]Md been shown to this part of the 
service, that, not having smal^ 
croisers, admiral Nelson had been 
obliged to seed the Leatkler, a 50 
gun ship, with the dispatches to 
Europe after the action. Undoubt* 
td\f there had bees a splendid vic- 
tory obtained, but why was it not 
iooitt complete } {A cry of bear * 
iear /] I ask, (continued sir John 
Smdair) why wa^ not Buonapart6 
brought a prisoner to the metro- 
^ts? wl^ was not the force 
ef France sitccessfolly pursued in 
^ progrcsa Co Alexandria? why^ 



with such immense fleets, with the 
ablest, the best, the most noble offi* 
cers that ever waved a banner, was 
not the enemy repulsed in the be* 
ginning of ihcir expedition ?— be-- 
cause ministe'S had not performed 
their duty. He next touched upoft 
our disasters in the West Indies, at 
St. Domingo. He said we had suf- 
fered much," to which there was no 
allusion in the speech from the 
throne. Our expedition thither had 
been either rashly undertaken, ti« 
midly prosecuted, or trtacherously ' 
abandoned. . , It was necessar)' to 
inquire into the circumstances and 
nature of this project ; to a>cer- 
tain what number of troop* had 
been employed j what nombera 
perished ; the ^uros of money ex- 
pended, and how accounted fbr. 
That house would be wanting iis 
its duty, if it passed in silence over 
affairs thus important ; but which 
had been passed over in the speech 
without a comment. Perhaps the 
ministers would say, that 'he forces 
of this country had not been de- 
feated, and thaf St. Domingo had 
merely been evacuated : but why, 
if it was possible to obtiiin did 
they issue orders to abandon it } 
Surely this argued great delect of 
judgment, on the affirmation of in- 
tegrity. Ill the E'ast-Indies also we 
had experienced h<eavy losses ; and. 
Owing to that fatality u'hich had 
long attended our navy, those pos» 
sess'ons had of late been deserted. 
To the same cause might be attri- 
buted the capture of two very 
valuable East-India ships, by the 
cruisers of the enemy. Another 
topic of importance, which demand- 
ed the utmost attention, had pa«sed 
unnoticed in the speech from the 
throne — the finance. We had 
heard much in every other place of 
raising the expenditure within the 
year : probably the minister waited 

to 



10 



BRITISH AND 



19 eolkct the Sense of tfao nattbn 
fcpm the effect it might have op the 
projects qf the new committee of 
finance sitting at the maqsioa-hoase. 
It would be well to treat that house 
lyith a little more respect, and not 
revive in the persons of a fifw, mer- 
chants there the charactCirs of. the . 
Scotch lords of the, arlicltfs, who 
previously were accustAmed to di- • 
gest ever}' law which-, w^s prpposed 
to the parliamei](t of Uiat country. 
He sincerely hoped their privileges ; 
would be asserted, and all innova- 
tions resisted ; and he seized, he said, 
this opportunity of protesting against 
such projects, because, of all the 
measures, the piao of finance, re- 
ported to have been discussed there, . 
was the most impolitic and unequi* 
table i and if it extended to the new 
speculations of the enemy, it was 
not possible to know what mischiev- 
ous effects it might produce on the 
permanent revenue of the country. 
The hon. baronet (sir J. S. Mildmav) 
had alluded in bis speech to the 
progress of the assessed taxes, and 
expressing pleasure that the last had 
fallen short of the minister's ex- 
pectations ', as also, that the land- 
tax was liKely to, meet with few sup- 
C)rtera. amongst the proprietors of 
nd ] as every thing taken from the 
owners by that project would be 
taken from the improvement of 
their estates, and whatever blighted 
agricultural industry would impor 
verish the country. Sir John Sm- 
clair said, that he v^ished the a)i- 
nister to upfol4 his plans, that cho 
house might form some nqtion of 
the burthens they had yet to bear, 
and the retrenchments they roast 
yet adopt. It was likewise, he 
thought, the duty of the right hon. 
gentleman to apologise for certain 
expiressions With which he had end- 
ed his parliamentary career last ses- 
sions. [As this sentence had obvi- 



ously aomr reference to the m^ir 
between Mr Fitt and Mr. Tiemcy, 
thrre was a general cry,*' To orddrf*^ 
The speaker then pronounced it an 
infallible rule of- the hoosc^ tbnt na 
speech should be subject of ani- 
madversion exce];>ting on thd d«y of 
its delivery, or at tlie tiext silting, 
and conseqAiently this language w«a 
disordtrly. Sir Joho pleaded, his 
ignorance in having tranftgnesiied, 
and drxlared that he cheer fu My aubr 
mitted to such high authority } qoo- 
eluding with a hope that our vicfo-. 
ries might restore peace, aud not be 
wasted on the projects of a finance 
minister. 

Sir f r^ncis Burdett opened bih 
speech with regretting that all our 
coOquests were onJy signals of, new 
expeditious and acc.un()ulated bqr- 
thens, instead of the long-wUbed- 
for blessing— peace* He had ap- 
prehended that the victory of ad« 
miral NeUon would produce an 
nnion of states, which before were 
adverse to each, other, and enable as 
to preserve the balance of Europe. 
With joy he would consent to this 
union as a means of attaining tran« 
quillity; but, on the contrary, if 
it was us(;d as an instigation for. cod* 
tinoing the war, our most noble ex- 
ploits could only be regarded as fore- 
runners of calamity. In tht speech 
from the throne there appeared a 
studied ambiguity of expression; 
an4 it was impossible to. trace the 
future measures of administration, 
the line of policy which would he 
pursued, or the sacrifices which the 
country would be required to mak» 
towards plans of ambition or of 
secori.ty. Not a word was dropt of 
aur allies, of the sealouis emprior 
of Germany, or the faithful kiog 
of Prussia -, but we had panegyrics 
on the magnanimity of Russia, and 
the decision of the Ottoman Porte. 
Before yre could consent to the 

plans 



JrOKBIGN HISTOBY. 



-r a.* --!«*^*. 



IT 



,^_^ coontry. They coald m>t ' v^ »^ 
ridcd the kingdom g^m^ 



in 
but 



< JO 

of 
•Mii tiie ct»ctins ol adding 

»^rr p^n •^if'rr u.!% one 
Jed 

« of qU Eu* 

i wards wcTc 

>ble, Wrrc we again to 

r .*r..*. In restore BcU 

I . ar Italy to 

«:e in t[io 

'f, wEjrn, if) her 
;, in the infaacy 

.^'tic«j her 
-rl, and 



WT^ 



ihu 






'jiiDfi Ibr Ui 

im new alll- 

- fuin* of tho 

' Af animad- 

dcred to 

<.v,:» and It 

The men, 

,iM *iriji u.L- 'srtio^roti of 

Inn oti' iLl* piit'^ic safety, 

1 ui the vc*- 

rimtnally dc- 

< )/r>.i,i, ind had 

' tbe bjlbfst con. 



isCU 

but 

f, if 

..ged 

hi] abiigat^oni to \m 



ht^, ** il. 

hie, let UJt bt f r^Uxed «o tn>r tfc*dii 
CiM lawt fnr rrsle-s cif .iclton i Trt m 
fair re[ii i of the people in 

their p:i; be mada , lof Itf 

»<ie thr ()ti*or.* de*lToyrd» and oui' 
const! toiioi^ rc-citablbhrd : lor, 
wuhout tljtir, to call upoti iha 
country ("or onirooiiirional «opporr, 
wat adding iriDckety sDd iniult if> 
injutjf ind mjafticf!/' 

The qtiLitwn wiii carried wUh 
onty one di>*entifig voice. 

1'hc fint wrfk^ of the leulon 
wipre prindpatly occiip^" ' new 
«yaem t>f h nance, u : by 

ihe minister p aad whi^li in a luiure 
chaplrr it wtU be our cbjrct tn dc* 
tail* The next meaiiirc of tmpofN 
ancc iDtfoduccd by hi'j m^jeity* 
fnmister^, waf ihr coniintiaiTcr of 
the biil for the j»ii%p^nMoti <if ihc 
babeai cnrpus act; biitr prevloni 
to \h'\n business, a niofion wn9 
inrrodtictfd by Mr. Tieniey le- 
l.itivc to pMcc, which it is pe* 
cessarj lo noiic*^* It Wvis 05 the 
lithof Derrmher th^it Mr; Tier- 
ncy iiibmiitrd h\% motion to the 
hnm^ of commotH } and tt wai in 
anbsuncc, •* that the tninisten 
ahoold adviiie hh tii.nje'-tjr ag£tin!t en-' 
irring inM any engagcmrniit wltleh 
could impede a neijotiation fot 
peace, whenever a dlspoMtion »p* 
pcjired m the Frrndi rrptihlic to 
treat on termii cn»^i-iterit with the 
iofrre^Li of GtujI BrrUiin/' 

He was wtil aware, he «aid, that 
thi^ motion was an eacroachmeni 
on il^e pfcto^ative of the cfown^ 
uhicb unqufiitonabSy potietsed rh© 
power of making war or peace : 
but it belougcdto ihe houae to grant; 
B iuppbei J 



19 



BRITISH AND 



supplies ; and, as one of its mem- 
bersy he had as good a right to say 
that the supplies granted to the 
f crown should be granted exclusively 
to England, as to vote against them : 
a right which no one would attempt 
to deny. , 

But it might be objected^ that 
this motion tended to damp the ris- 
ing spirit of £urope. If that spirit 
was likely to animate all Europe 
against die common enemy, he 
shouldbe the last man in the coun- 
try to . wish it discouraged ; but 
there was no spirit arising from a 
good principle in any quarter ; an4 
on its principle alone must depend 
the value and the duration of any spi- 
rit. What had been the conduct of 
the powers of the continent ? Had 
a systematic course of opposition 
to the ambitious projects of France 
ever been pursued by any of them ? 
Frotsia had been at peace for three 
years. The minister of the repub* 
lie was treated there with all the 
respect which nations observe to- 
wards those with whom they wish 
to continue a good understanding. 
The emperor also had no dispute 
with the French at present. Russia 
made professions in our fatonr ; but 
this was all. The Ottoman Porte 
bad expressed some resentment 
against what Mr. Tierney said he 
considered a sudden act of injus- 
tice : not that he meant to say the 
French had not been guilty of the 
most scandalous injustice in many 
respects before { but the opposition 
of the Porte to the republic would 
di:«contiDue the in>tant they could 
obtain for themselves what they 
wanted : they would iiare uo share 
in the general deliverance of Eu 
rope. A general spirit to resist the 
French was not to be seen ; nor a 
general confederacy to be expected. 
The great oontederacy against 
France was when the unfonuoate 



monarch was under trial » and at the 
time of his death. The combined 
powers were then in the greatest 
force. France had no settled go* 
vernment; all that she possessed 
was employed to resist invasion. 
Her troops were undsciplined) and 
she had nothing to depend upon 
but the energy of the people* It 
was then that a confederacy was 
most formidable. But what bad 
been its effect } Total discomfitt)re 
of the confederates! Whether it 
was produced by the skill of the 
French, or their own jealousy and 
indecision, the consequence was the 
same. And was the skill of the one 
less, and the union of the other 
greater, than before? Were the 
generals weaker now, and the allies 
more attached to each other ? Wa^ 
h to be believed thnt Austria would 
place more confidence in Prussia 
(supposing a new combination wa« 
formed) than she did formerly I 
Could England have more con6- 
dence in either of them, after hav- 
ing been deserted by both ? Ought 
we to vote tor larger supplies than 
any that had yet been voted, for 
the purpose of adjusting this or th^t 
point which might belong to ihf! 
left or right side of the Rhine I 
Were these points essential to the 
welfare of Great Britain ? Could 
we derive any hope from the prompt 
action of the Ottoman Porte ? 
Would any man say, that any of 
these combinations could be of real 
service to England ? 

To all this it had been answered, 
that those nations now understood 
their own interest better than be- 
fore. What proof was there of it > 
The combined powers predicted all 
the evils which' had happened in 
consequence of the anarchy of 
France ; nor did they fail to asctibe 
them to French principles. Here 
Mr. Ticniey said it was necessary 

to 



FOREIGN HISTORY- 



19 



toesphin ^bat be himself meant* 
by Freocb pnncipies» as they were 
mbandcrstood, aad diftereotly un- 
derstood by di/frrent persons. Some 
caUed any wiih for parliamentary 
^^forro iberesolt of such principles. 
With these be could not agree $ bat 
as to tbose which produced and 
were supporting the present tyranny 
of France, no one would sooner 
reprobate and rejoice in tbcir ex- 
tiBciioo ihao bim^elf. Could any 
tiiing DOW be done lo infiame ibe 
nations more than bad been done 
by the republic before? What 
conld impire monarchy with greater 
barred against French principles 
than the conduct towards their mo- 
narch ? Coujd the nobility of any 
conn try resent any thing more than 
the aboliiion o£ their order, and 
the destroctimi of their riileft? 
What could inspire the church with 
more zeal than the overthrowing 
ail church 'establishments ? These 
were the men who once united 
against France $ and it was from 
these that the deliverance of Eu- 
rope was again expected. Was it 
reasonable to expect, after having 
obtained Manma^ Luxembourg, 
and otb^ places, that France would 
be more easily diiven within ber 
ancient limits ? dV coold this great 
object be accompli^bed without a 
greater evil happening to our own 
country ? in short, without such 
consequences to our finances as 
could not be calculdted without 
dismay ? But where was the line of 
demarcation to be drawn ? Were 
we only to attempt to redace 
France within her former bono da- . 
ries, the other powers would not 
a«siit us here, lliey would not aid 
us in restoring to each other what 
had been lost. If tbe confederacy 
were lo be formed, it would be dis- 
solved long be tore this objrct could . 
be accomplished : nut th^it there 



was any thing in this motion to 
prevent its accomplishment; but. 
instead of extending the confede* 
racy, itinrould be wiser to leave them 
to apply to us, and not bold oat a 
determination to bring about the 
deliverance of Europe, which was 
indeed impracticable. 

His majesty's declaration afVer the 
breaking up of the conference at 
Lisle, in a speech which did hoooor 
to his councils, expressly afiirmed, 
that whilst any such deter mioaCioa 
prevailed, bis earnest wish to restore 
peace to his subjfecu must be fruit* 
les9. He renewed before all £q« 
rope the noost solemn assurance* 
that in spite of repeated provoca- 
tions, and at the very roontent when 
Providence had blessed his arms 
with success, he was ready to con* 
clodo peace en the same terms 
which he had before proposed. 
The rejection of such an ofl'er de- 
monstrated the implacable animosity 
and insatiate ambition of the enemy, 
to whom alone most be attributed 
the consequences of this direful 
war. ^ 

Alr.Tierney observed, t|^ at this no- 
ble declaration M'as made after the 
brtlliaut victory of lord Duncan, and 
clearly manifested that even exulta- 
tion and triumph did not stand in 
the way of his majesty's pacific 
dispcsitions to Europe. But^ alas 1 
we now were told that the la»t 
splendid achievement of lord Nel- 
son had changed them \ 

The last object ion which he should 
anticipate was, that ibis motion 
might intimate to Fn^nce that we 
could not any further cc-op^rate 
\*ith our allien. But we did co-ope- 
rate by our naval exeitions; bad 
co-operated eil'ectually by our naval 
victories ; and it wan his ardent de- 
sire that we should continue to co- 
operate by tVie force of ( ur fiect ; 
but nut by sending ircops or sub- 
B Ji b\Mrn 



20 



BRITISH AND 



sidles to the continent. In the nannie 
of the comfort, the quiet, and the 
safety of iho country, he protested 
against it ! We were carrying on 
a war, the expense of which, by 
estimate, was 30 miUions a year, 
which was two millions and a half 
every month. We had added in 
six years 150 millions sterling to 
onr debt, by which we had created 
the necessity of adding 8 millions 
to our annual burdens : a siftn equal 
to the whole of our expenditure 
when his present majesty came to 
the throne. Were he to affirm that 
the real addition to our debt at the 
end of the year would be 180 mil- 
lions, he should not exceed the 
point. It was firmly his opinion, 
that the chancellor of the exchequer 
knew that our affairs could not be 
wound up for a peace establishment 
without the greatest difficulty, and 
therefore was willing to prolong 
the war. But, to what a state were 
we reduced when the tenth of every 
inan*s income was demanded under 
one head^ independent of all other 
imposts, to support the establish- 
ment, and that this subjected every 
man to the inconvenience of hav- 
ing his accounts examined ? We 
were also called with too much rea- 
aon an armed nation; for, though 
he felt the pride which an English- 
man ought to feel at thp attach- 
ment of his countrymen to their 
country, evinced by their qualify- 
ing tliemselves to defend it, this 
measure must increase the influence 
of the crown, which was a great 
evil in its nature, besides (he bring- 
ing onder military discipline so many 
men who were more useful in the 
civil offices of life. The law liad 
ailenced every man in the country, 
(excepting in that house) by the 
suspension of the habeas corpus 
act J and when all these circum- 
stancci were added together^ was 



it probable that the conatUotioo of 
England, or the purses of the peo- 
ple, could support this system of 
destruction much longer ? 

As to the other parts of the em- 
pire, Ireland for instance, he woold 
sdy but little > but he understood 
that, notwithstanding all the efforts 
to repress rebellion there, further 
exertions were yet wanted. He 
merely hinted at this; he woold not 
argue the point, for reasons which 
the house might guess. If we 
looked at our establishments in the 
East, we should see very large ex- 
penses ; and in the West-Indies the 
lirst thing which presented itself was 
the evacuation of St. Domingo. 
He meant not to reproach the gal- 
lant officer who conducted it — he 
was sensible of the great value of 
his military services ; but this eva- 
cuation was an alarming thing. 
Here was a power to be raised 
v^^ich cost ten millions of British 
money, and ten thousand Brili^ih 
subjects! From this frightful ex- 
penditure of blood and money, 
what had been the result } Fitly 
thousand blacks had started up in 
arms ! and thus, within a few hours 
sail of our West-Ioclia colonies, 
there was a force of no less than 
50iCXX) black men disciplined to 
arms, and inflamed with enthusi- 
astic notions of liberty. Then let 
us consider the situation of the 
enemy : they bad now, if not the 
first, certainly the most successful 
general in Europe : he was now at 
the head of a large army in Egypt, 
where he had remained many 
months without having received 
one check. Should he come back 
again to France, and turn his mind 
* against this country, Mr. Tierney 
said, he hoped we should be able to 
meet him ; but it would be a very 
serious thing : and surely, with all 
these prospectij vrc had enough to 

do. 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



21 



AOf witbont embarking in any ia- 
termediaie scheme for the deliver- 
ance of Europe! — He concluded 
with wishmg (faal ih^ c»ergj ol this 
counlry mi^t be directed to the 
interest of Great Britain, and not 
be wasted in visionaiy projects of 
ideal conquests. To himself it woulil 
alwa/s be a consolation to reflect 
that he bad lifted up his voice, 
unsupported and feeble as it wav, 
in the caase of patriotism and 
tratb. 

Mr.Canning arose, and in a speech 
oFc-onsiccrable length re-st'ated most 
of iho«e objections which Mr. Tier- 
nev had anricipated, but not in hi^ 
opinion removed. On the first, 
Mr. Canning said, he was not io- 
dined to laj the greatest stress 
(constitutional form) ; the nature 
of this modon, though extraordi* 
nary, was not anprecedented ; much 
]e^s did he mean to deny the right 
of :he bouse of oommons (o ofi'er 
its advice to his majesty on the 
subject of negotiation or of war. 
It had several limes interfered in 
both; though a fatality had always 
seemed to attend these interferen- 
ces, as almost in every instance frooa 
the revolution to our ov^n time, tbey 
had been either nugatory or mis- 
chievous. But, whatever might be 
the force of precedents, these alone 
^vouId not be sufiScient to justify the 
motion, unless it could be proved 
that some neces'iity existed which, 
called for suck an interference of 
the house of commons. And this 
could only arise from some open- 
ing for peace now presenting itself, 
of vvhich n^ini&ters did not show 
themselves disposed to take advan- 
tage, or from their having evinced 
^ dii^iositioQ hostile to it at former 
periods. 

That any such opening now ex-' 
i^tcd, the hon. gentleman had not 
ur^f'd; his motion tlicr^ifore mvist 



be attributed to a faUe impression 
on his mind of xhe conduct of 
ministers in former negotiations : 
beseemed to retain acuuru^ed re- 
collection of wh:it ha<l pu-^sed at 
Lisle j he remfmbcred ihai an em- 
barrassment had been ihr )wn ir. Ihe 
way by a question ah- u* a//:V», but 
utterly forgot that the ailic--*, wlio 
had created this embarnusujent, 
were the allies of Prance, and not of 
Great Britain; and under this mis* 
take he was applying to this coun- 
try a cure for Ihe niiscouduct of 
the enemy. Yet, Mr. Car.r.in^ said, 
he was prevented from avhniilin^ 
even this foundation iur the pro- 
ceeding, by the approbation ex- 
pressed of the manittjslo publi«hv.*di 
at Lisle, which Mr. Tierney had 
acknowledged exhibited undoubted 
proofs of the pacific disposiiioo of 
the mini'iters. Yet what had been 
that gentleman's conduct under (bis 
avowed belief? Convinced (as he 
himself expressed) that his majesty 
bad done all in liis power to obtain 
peace^that he had exceeded all 
that could have been expected of 
bim in forbearance and moderation 
— that he had displayed, even after 
the victory of lord Duncan, the 
roost decided dispositions for tran- 
quillity — convinced that the abrupt 
conclusion of jthe negotiation ^ad 
been the act of the enemy — Uiat 
his majesty had no choice, and must, 
of necessity carry on a war wbich 
the ambijlion of Frnnjce wo.uld not 
allow him to terminate-^iu this 
conviction Mr. Tierney had voted 
against the supply i He meant not 
to impeach this conduct; doubtless 
he had his reasons for it ; but he 
submitted it to the judgment of the 
house, whether (if no -uhd advan- 
tages were derivable from support- 
ing this extraordinary motion) it 
was wo'rth while to adopt an un- 
necessary and mischievous measure 
«3 .. t« 



2:i 



BKITISH AND 



tD evince our wish for peace merely 
to securer vote against the supply far 
tarrying on the war ! Tl\e iDteret»(s 
of Great Britain were to be coo si- , 
dered with relation to the different 
circumstances of the enemy, and 
of Europe. Wliat might be a «e- 
cure peace for England witli France 
when reduced in power, and Europe 
at liberty, would be highly unsafe 
against ['Vance in her present stale 
of aggraodisemeiu, with great part 
of Lurope at her feet, and the re- 
sources- of other nations at her di^(- 
posah It would also be more. dif- 
licult for us, single and unassisted, 
10 extort from France such (.cfms 
as would be coubistent with our in- 
terests, than to obtain the same, if 
backed by a powerful confederacy 
ill Europe. 

A declaration conveyed to PVance 
by this motion, that wc were de- 
termined at all event's to treat singly, 
would inflame b^r pride, and in- 
crease her demapds — to atfirm pub- 
licly that we >vould make no ci)m-r 
inon cause with other nations, would 
necessarily place those nations at 
her mercy, or on her side. The ef- 
fect must ihereforc be to deprive us 
of the probable advantages of the 
peace to be obtained, and our power 
of obtaining it : it prescribed a more 
arduous task with less cfhcaciuus 
iu^ns. 

At ihe same time this motion did 
not hasten the conclusion of any 
peace; for it left not ministers at 
l»beriy to conclude any which they 
did not think consistent with the 
security of the country j and it they 
tliought (as laudably they might) 
that no peace would be such which 
did not provide for the safety of Eu- 
rope, what assurance did this motion 
afford against a hopeless prolonga- 
tion of the war ? 

If the honourable gentleman had 
faidy staled the idea of his owu 



mind, instead of using so much cir- 
cimilocution about the ** consisteDcy 
with security and interests of Great 
Britain,*' he would have recomixieud- 
ed a separate peace. 

It is told lis, that we should not 
succeed in effecting a ** general de- 
liverance;*' nor did he pretend to 
affirm that we should : but that this 
wai the object which we ought to 
have in view he afways would con- 
tend, even if we had reference only 
to our own safety. This deliver- 
ance he willingly acknowledged 
could not be etTected by mtr exer- 
tions alone ; and unless other powers 
were disposed to co-operaic siii- 
ceraly, wc had no chance of attain- 
ing'our wishes. But he would ask, 
if there were no such dispositions 
evident, what was the necessity of 
the motion? Why should parlia- 
ment inierfere to prevent bis tna* 
3c^ty*8 ministers from taking advan- 
tage of intentions which did not 
exist, ^nd co-operation which never 
would be oHered ? | But if, on the 
other hand, these powers were ready 
to take a part in a common salva- 
tion, and only waited for our en- 
couragement to begin, was it ihe 
dictate of our duty and our iniercbt 
to save France from her merited 
dcs'ruction, and. by such a pro* 
cceding as was here recommended, 
extinguish the rps^niments which her 
aggressions had enkindled through- 
out Europe } If, however, this co- 
operation should be offered, we 
ought to receive it with suspicion 
and distrust, and, judging Irom the 
manner id whieh wc had betn 
duped before, conclude hencefonh 
that no fidelity was to be expected. 
Surely this was illiberal and un- 
just ! What, because Austria and 
Prussia had been unfaithful to our 
alliance, and incousisient'y witli 
their own interests bad made peace 
at diticreqt tiaies^ were Russia and 

the 



O/R E I GN 



H 1 STO JH Y. 



22 



titr Poite to be coosidcred as powers 
on whom bo leliance coo id be 
placed, aod from whose exertions 
no sdvantsge could be gained? 
Are the errors of ihe guilty to fur- 
nish ground of presunaption against 
ihe inooGcol? Hie words in his 
tDBjcsifs speech, xnentiooiog *' the 
Tigoor and decisioa of the Ottoman 
Poetc," seem to have conveyed 
tomeiUiig enviously absurd and ri- 
liicalous — he couid not imagine for 
u bat reason. Why should not the 
Grand Seignior take as correct a 
%«w of his interests, as any other 
power who^ customs might be 
more conformable to oor own ? 
The declaration of the motives 
which had actuated the Porte was 
as Me and masterly a composition, 
as sound in principles of policy 
andinuice, as any slate paper ever 
publithfd by any cabinet. 

Bni this Turk was a Mahometan, 
and therefore an ally unfit for a 
Christian. For his own part, he 
thought an alliance yrnh a Maho* 
metaa might be as good as a peace 
with an atheist ; the sanction of its 
eogageroeots be as sacred, and iis 
stipuiarions as likely to be fulfilled. 
\ei this was not ail : (he Turk was 
slow to anger, hard to be driven 
into action. If such were his cha- 
/acter^ what must have been the 
provocations that had roused him ! 

Hot the Turks and Kusbians were 
natoral enemies: — what did this 
prove, but that the aggrc^ions of 
l^raDce had been so multiplied, so 
varioos, and so extraordinary, as to 
utvite against her those powers the 
most opposite in nature ^nd interest 
—to make the necessity of resist- 
AQce, and the doty of seif-preserva-* 
t>on, supersede every narrower con- 
ttdfcration, every motive of contract* 
ed policy? 

r'or our old allies, however, it is 
iakcB Ibr granted^ that no apology 



can be made, no good reason be 
alleged why ihey should be more 
worthy our cor.iidence, or true to 
their own interests : yet, had we not 
known individuals in our own 
oounfry whose ideas respecting 
France had totally been changed } 
Had not ihc invasion of Swisser- 
land, the swindling transaction jwith 
America, and the negt tiation ml 
Lisle, wrought a surpu*>ing chaoge 
in the public mind in England } 
And why should we limit the bene- 
fits of experience to our own coun- 
tryaaen only ? Might not the states- 
men of Amtria or Prussia have 
caught some light from the pro- 
ceedings on the continent? Were 
they not to be believed, if ihey 
made this declaration; and what- 
ever engagernents had formei ly sub- 
sisted bcty^een them and the direc* 
tory, when thry delected the fraud 
which had been practised on their 
judgments, and the atrocity of their 
allies, t hey wiihdrcw their friendship 
and their allegiance ? 

Mr. Canning dwell long upon the 
credit which was due to this penitent 
retraction; it would be the interest 
of England, he said, to protit by any 
future offers of co-apcr:nioii from 
such (juarlcrs : they had suffered^ 
and in the school of aiiliciion had 
learnt wisdom. 

But, however willing they might 
be to^eize a favourable opportuniiy 
for shaking off their yoke to France, 
were we even able to rally them on 
our hide in the onset, their assist- 
ance was worth nothibg. Exhausted 
and dispirited as they weie, iliey had 
neither the heart uor strength to 
fight the battle of independence— 
and too true it was that thty had 
been cruelly reduced and broken 
down — yet 

Spollatis arma fcup<?rfut'.t. 

The arms which they had remain- 
B 4 iug 



34 



BRITISH AMD 



iog were artnt looit terrible to ty- 
rants — their wrong!, their despera- 
tion, and the desire of revenge! 
IaI France appeal to rhe bad pas- 
aions of our allies-^let her cajole 
their fears, or infiame their appe- 
tite for aggrandizeqoent— the foun- 
dations of our tacit alliance with 
the allies of France were already 
laid in their just resentment, ia 
their proud indignation, in every 
virtnous and every honourable feeU 
ing! 

When did such a contest terminate 
in giving permanent preponderance 
to evil? 'Another and a graver 
doubt was started: Whether, with 
half the world in amos at our side, 
the objects which we strove to ob- 
tain would be in aqy politic sense 
British objects } There was a time 
when any doubt, whether the situa- 
tion of the powers of the continent 
relatively to us or to each other, 
and the balance of Europe^^ were 
objects of British concern, would 
have bceii ridiculed and reviled. 
But all this was now changed, it 
seemed : therefore, wilhout stating 
any affirmative opir^ion of his own, 
he would only inquire of the gen*- 
({emen ontue opposite side of the 
house, ivbat were actually such ? 

Mr. Tierney bad alluded to the 
expedition to Egypt, as having 
threatened our possessions in the 
East. Was then the HeUversnce 
of Egypt from a trenrh army a 
British i»bject ? Was r\s\\ the co- 
operation of the Turk desirable to 
enable us to effect this purpose ? If, 
by the joint assistance of Russia and 
the Porte, we could sweep the Le- 
vant and the Mediterranean of the 
' remains of this piratical armament ; 
if the coasts of Italy were thus ^ep- 
cfered unassailable by the enemy, 
and the southern parts of France 
thus laid open to our attacki and 
the ports and commerce secured to 



us ; were these British oljaets \ ll^rr^ 
the Netherlands ? There was a time 
when the dependence of these opon 
France was considered as so preju* 
dicial to this country, that there was 
no case in which theywonld iK>t 
have been thought a stt|icient caoio 
for engaging in a war. Hr did no% 
. pretend to say it was so \ but sach 
had been the opinion of their too- 
portanoe by able politicians. lf« 
by the aid of Prussia, we coald 
rescue- Holland from her present 
state of servitude and degradation^ 
raise her once more among the in» 
dependent powers of Europe a 
rich, flourishing, and a happy coun* 
try, connected with us by old ha- 
bit.«, common interest, and the re- 
ciprocation of commercial advan- 
tages ; would any person deny that 
this was a British object, or be proud 
hereafter to have throwp an insu- 
perable impediment ^n the way of 
its accomplitihment? 
. If, then, any one of these might 
possibly be attained by our foreign 
alliances, much more if we could 
suppose it would open a passage to 
all, was it not surprising that % 
member of the British parliament 
should entertain so perverse an am* 
bit ion as to be able to say herea(ter, 
** All this might have been accom- 
plished, bpt by tDTf singly motion to. 
prevent it?" 

Yet he was far from undertaking 
that, if the motion did not pass, ouir 
ardent wihes would be accomplish- 
ed. The debate was not, whether 
such exertions would lead to such 
results, but, whether we should 
throw away the only chanoe we 
had for their being made?* The 
hon. gentleman had not afiirfflc4 
that Europe could not be saved; he 
only desired that we might give no 
encouragement, have no share iq| 
saving it! It was not necessary to* 
^rgue whet^r the success was pro^ 

bablc. 



FOREIGN HISTOIT. 



9S 



b^hlc^ bot ifheclirr it was to inipro- 
baale as 001 to desenre the eiperi- 
nsent 

Was this motion intended as a 
mouoa £>r peace ? If so, why had 
hr not the caodoor to say m> ? Was 
it delieacy or national honoor which 
stood in tile way of direct negotia- 
rioD ? For htoisrlf, be had no sucfi 
deUcacj. ao4 did - not approve it. 
^1r. Tieroej would not speak to 
Frame, tMit ai her j he had not pro- 
{hj^trd that we should boldly say to 
the dimnoiy, *♦ Will you make 
peace ?" bat say, loud enough to be 
c\^r heard by it, " I wifh these 
FreDch gendeiDen would make an 
overture to us/* 

W^as this a mode of preserving 
ih*^ dignity of our country ? or, was it 
not doing that siieakingly, which, if 
it was fit to be done at all, most, to 
have rffect, be done openly, uoequi- 
vo ally, and directly ? 

Bat the ministers had lost all their 
pacific dispositions, and were be- 
come inveterately and incurably 
warlike : the spirit of moderation 
in the last manifesto was evaporated ; 
aud however they bad borne the 
tidings of lord Duncan's victory, 
that of lord Nelson had intoxicated 
them to madpess. That the confi- 
dence of (he country was high, that 
the goyemmeDt partook of the spirit 
of the people, he Va» happy to ac- 
knowledge; but that this spirit bad 
started suddenly out of the late vic- 
tory he would not allow : conhfmed 
it was, indeed, by a triumph \vhich 
must have created enthusiasm if it 
}>ad not been there. Let the days 
and months of anxiety be recollected 
which we passed before the iotelij- 
gcQce of this memorable evei^t ar* 
rived. We asked not that Neisoii 
n^ight conquer Buonaparte, but that 
Buonaparte iuight not deceive and 
fscape him ; not that we might gain 



the battle, but find the enemy i .far 
the rest we had nothing to fear» 

** Concurrant parlter cam ratiboa 

*' ratcsj 
^ SpecCent numlna ponti, et 
** Palmam qui meruit tcrat !"* 

In oar present situation, then» 
fortified by confidence, prosperity, 
and the success with which it had 
pleaKd Heaven to bless our arms, 
what ^as the advantage we ought 
to niake of our strength ? ^ Hoard 
it op for your own life/' said the 
hon. gentleman. " Could an Eng- 
lishman forget that the nstions of 
the continent stood by whilst we 
were engaged in a struggle wherein 
our very existence was at stake ? 
They neitfier offered assistance, nor 
manifested any iiiterest in our pre- 
servation.** Undoubtedly this had 
been their conduct^ and undoubt* 
edly revenge was in our power* 
We might tell those who had aban* 
doned us, that It was now our 
turn to breathe, whilst they were 
contending; that, as they had left 
us contentedly to our fate, we 
would consign them unpityingly to 
theixR. We might thus act in sfrict 
retaliation > but a British hou^e 
of commons would feel that it had 
a nobler vengeance in its power— r 
even to say to the nations of £u* 
rope, •* You deserted us at our ut- 
most need ; but the first use we 
make oi our prosperity is to invite 
you to partake of it ! We disdained 
to call you to share our danger, but 
we are now by our own exertion^ 
secure ; come and take shelter un- 
der OUT security." 

This would be real triumph ; this 
would be powerful reorimination, 
and a conduct which would im- 
mortalise the country ! 

^r. Canning endpd with re- 
marking. 



ti 



BRITISH AND 



snr^ctng, that the motion was 
fouoded on no priociple of policy or 
of necessity; since, if it were intend- 
ed for a censure on minisiers, it was 
wijjusi: if for a control, nugatory. 
Its tendency '^^as to impair the 
power of prosecuting the war with 
vigour, and to diminish the chance 
of negotiating peace with dignity ; 
it contradicted the policy of our 
ancestors, and degraded us in the 
eyes of the world ; it must carry 
dismay throughout Europe, and, 
above all, administer hope, power, 
and consolation to France. 

Mr. Jekyll said^ that he expected 
.a motion proposed in so plain a 
raanner would at least have been 
attended with one advantage, would 
have procured us the satisfaction of 
hearing what was the precise object 
of the war. But the gentleman who 
epoke last had left us as much in the 
dark in this respect as ever. From 
$9me parts of his argument, we might 
imagine we were to avenge the 
atrocities of the French; from 
others, that we were to figlit for tJie 
deliverance of Europe. But, after 
all, the point was left totally under 
termined. Our attention was par- 
ticularly directed to the victt\y of 
tlie Nile, and the enthusiasm it in- 
spired, and the spirit it created. 
But what was the real source of this 
enthusiasm and this spirit ? He 
would tell them : tlie joy which it 
occasioned was combined with ike 
hep4 of peace between this country 
and France. Now we were in- 
formed, that not peace, but war, was 
the great result ; and called upon to 
rejoice, not in its pacific effects, 
but its tendency to increase warlike 
exertions. 

But if the moment of triumph 
was not the moment to negotiate, 
in what state of our affairs could' we 
tvkia our thoughts to this object 



with propriety? This coontry B^ln 
was to be embarked upon the ocean 
of continental politics ^ -we were 
again to enter the lists, without 
knowing the purposes for which w^e 
are engaged, or the extent to ^bich 
we might be involved. 

'* It belongs to British generosity to 
attempt the deliverance of Europe, 
to revenge the wrongs of other oa - 
tions, and punish the pcrtidjr 6f 
Prance r* And yet these alHcs of 
France are hollow, and ready to de- 
sert her. This, if it proved any 
thing, proved too much : 6paia 
was dissatisfied, and Holland weary 
of her oppressor^ Buft what had 
been our fortune with our allien ? 
Had we misused, plundered, or in- 
sulted them ? I'hey had left us, as 
France bad been left, lliose treated 
with generosity by us, were as little 
to be relied on as those who bad 
been the victims of the injustice of 
the directory. Experience bad dis- 
tinctly taught ns what wc were to 
expect in future : Prussia, after re- 
ceiving one million two hundred 
thousand pounds for several years, 
deserted us; the Emperor, after 
many loans and advances, had aban- 
doned the common cause -, so had 
the king of Sardinia, after having 
accepted two hundred thousand 
pounds. Would any wise statesman 
place dependence again on the fide- 
lity of such allies ? 

Of the Ottofnan Porte he did not 
wish to say any thing ofiensivc ; 
but surely the Turks were the mo^t 
inert, ignorant, and sluggish people 
now existing. Had they not been 
baffled and defeated by one of lh^ir 
own rebel pachas? Could they be 
expected to make an efficient attack 
upon the power of France ? They 
might, indeed, make an appearance 
with a fiouri^ing manifesto, drawa 
up in the spirit of more learne^ ca« 

binds. 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



V 



bin^tiy and be mighty liberal with 
ibeir presents of pelicet and aigrettes ; 
but what part coold ihey perform 
ID the delircrance of Europe ? 

That liie^e plans, so big with 
event, would probably be accom- 
panied with a subsidy, had met with 
norepiy. Could so importaot a con- 
ikleratioo have escaped the sagacity 
of Mr, Canning? During cbe for- 
mer coalition, when we were called 
10 sanction subsidies to Prussia and 
Austria, we were told that it was 
imposfdble for these powers to go on 
without pecuniary aid from this 
country. What, then, were we to 
expect should they be roused into 
action? Was it likely that they 
wonld be stimulated by any motive 
so strong as the wealth of England ? 
Helioped we should hear that night, 
whether we w^ere again to be called 
upon to produce it. Contincnral 
connection had been hitherto ilie 
forerunner of foreign subsidy j and 
tliere was too much reason to fear 
it would again be so. It was a se- 
rious concern, and we ought to rc- 
meoibcT the remonstrances and state- 
ments of the bank directors^ when 
the bank stopped payment. They, 
then demonstrated to the minister 
the ruinous consequences of such 
remittances. If loan? were lo be 
granted^ onr specie must be sent 
abroad again, and this was no 
irifiiog evil. We had already ex- 
perienced the danger it occasioned. 
The clamours which tlie stoppage 
of the bank produced bad subsided ; 
but, if a similar event should occur, 
it was not ca^y to «5ay what mischief 
would follow. Things which for- 
iatrly would have surprised us in- 
deed, in the present time were 
scarcely regarded but as a nine days 
vondfr. We had seen new schemes 
cf finance , we had seen the land- 
'«x sold, we now saw the tenth of 
every man s property about to be 



put in reqanition« Spies, ander 
the name of surveyors, were to b« 
employed io collecting the revenue. 
Men were obliged to discover their * 
circumstances, or be taxed by an 
arbitrary assessment. No one could 
feel more sensibly than himself the 
splendour of lord Nelson's victory ; 
but whilst this bluih uf triumph sat 
upon the face of the country, there 
was a disease upon its vitals, wliicU 
excited real alarm — the state of our 
finances ! . 

To avoid continental connec- 
tions, had been recommended by the 
most eminent of our writers; be- 
cause tbey always tended to impo- 
verish our own country : and when 
we were told in the present cane, 
that those powers on whom die ty- 
ranny of France had fallen were so 
exhausted that they had not resourceb 
\tfi to enable them to cast off her 
\oke^ what an unlimited demand 
for pecuniary aid most be made up 
by England! 

Sir James Murray Pulleney said, 
that after the able speech of Mr, 
Canning he should not detain the 
house with many remarks; but there 
was one point which seemed to have 
escaped him. He alluded to our 
successes the last year, during which 
period, we could not be said to be 
quite destitute of allies. The situa- 
tion of the continent obffged France 
to make great preparations both on 
the Rhine and in Italy, which might 
be considered in some measure as 
equal to a campaign. This circum- 
stance operated greatly in favour of 
this country. If France had seen 
all the continent at her feet, and 
expended ti)e sums she had spent in 
military preparations by land upon 
her marine, it would have been 
more difhcult and dangerous to 
have detached so large a division of 
our navy to the Mediterranean, by 
which lord Nelson's victory was 
obtained. 



BRITISH AND 



obtained. With reipect to the de- 
liverance of Eorope, be uaderstood 
it not as a philaothropist merely^ 
but as it was connected with our 
safety, and to be. considered as * 
British case. 

Mr. Dickinson^ Jan. differed from 
any who might think that the mo- 
tion was an encroachment on the 
king's prerogative ; and considered 
the house pf commons as a place 
where they could converse with bis 
majesty and his ministeis. 

The motion would be attended 
with many mischievous conse- 
quences 'y and none of the least was, 
that to those abroad who were not 
acquainted with the nature of our 
constitution, it might appear a proof 
of a di Cerent interest between the 
king and the parliament, and that 
his majesty was not free to regulate 
all matters of peace and war ; a sup- 
position perfectly unfounded. It 
would likewise damp the spirit of 
]|£urope, and remove the apprehen- 
aions of the enemy being assailed by 
a new coalition. The situation of 
France was widely different also : 
their trade and commerce were de- 
ftnoyed, their navy annihilated, their 
resources nearly Exhausted ; they 
had Qo longer the estates of the no* 
bles and the clergy, no longer the 
confiscated property of those they 
kad murdered ! , In every point of 
f ieiv, the chance of checking their 
power was now more favourable 
than ever; and on these grounds 
he disapproved the motion— which 
was negatived without a division. 

The discussion of tfie bill for the 
•uspension of the habeas corpus 
act shortly succeeded this debate. 
The bill for continuing the suspen- 
sion was introduced by the chan- 
cellor of the exchequer on the 20th 
of December ; and on the following 
day, on the second reading, Mr. 
Tierney otMerred, that if i^o reaion 



was assigned for this procedure, he 
should with-hold his assent. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer 
replied, that the grounds on which 
the suspension had been last voted 
were fresh in^ the recollection of 
the house } and as none of them 
had been removed or altered^ he 
judged it unnecessary to assign any 
new reason for the measure If, 
however, the house dep:iancLed it, 
the mipisters were amply prepared 
for that purpose. * 

Mr. Courtenay opened his speech 
with enumerating the benefits of 
the habeas corpus act. Every per- 
son was convinced of its utiiiiy» 
every writer had pronounced its 
panegyric : it was a statute oh which 
the personal liberty of every £9g* 
lishman depended^ an act which had 
made every individual in this coon- 
try paramount in security to that 
of any other subject in the world. 
It had been well described by Fer- 
guson in his Treatise pn Civil So- 
ciety, who observed, *' That it 
forced the executive power to re* 
lease each prisoner, unless it brought 
him forward to a trial within due 
session, and opened the doors of 
a prison to every man who was 
not lawfully confined for some spe- 
cified crime : but it required the 
strength of the political, of the 
turbulent and refractory spirit of 
the people to support it." 

That spirit was now no more, 
or the minister would never have 
brought forward a measure to de? 
prive them thus of their security 
for freedom. 

There were at this moment above 
70 persons confined in consequence 
of the suspension of this act. Had 
there not been time to bring mott 
of them to a trial ? Their trial and 
conviction would be the best reason 
for continuing to entrust such powcp 
fo the executive government. Two 

terici 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



term bad fiasKd since most of tbem 
bad been appFebended. Had there 
beeo 2aj inserrections in thU coon* 
tiy tiocc? So far otherwise, that 
we could DOC refer to any period in 
oar history fioce the revolution in 
"wbicfa ibere had been less disaffec- 
tiaa tfaan at the preaent. 

The people confined ander the 
aotbfNicy of this suspension had 
been treated with unprecedented 
rigour and inho en an ity. Desirous of 
obtaining some information upon 
the subject, he had procured an 
order to see one df tlie prisons in 
which persons were confined on the 
reports of spies and informers. 
Though he found some of the 
hardships said to have been endured 
were exaggerated ; the worst of eri- 
mitia\^ had never been so treated in 
this -coQutrj at in the present in- 
stance. The prisoners were locked 
op in cells, without fire, without 
candle; they had only a truckle 
bed; and' the only means aifordtd 
for tbe admission of light let in 
also the cold and rain : they had no 
society whatever : in this situation 
they remained the whole of their 
tione^ excepting for an hour each 
<lay. He mentioned these particu- 
lars as much with a view to inform 
the ministers as the house ; for be 
did not believe they were acquainted 
with them, or, if they had been, 
that they would have permitted 
these severities. ' 

Mr. Courtenay said, he had talked 
with many of the prisoners, and 
tmongst the rest with col. Despard, 
a gentleman who bad been for seve- 
ral years employed in the service of 
this country. He bad been long 
confined in a cell, without fire, 
candle, or companion ; and though 
^ was now removed to a better 
place in the prison, even hl^ wife 
was never permitted to see or speak 
to him but through an iron grate 
for a few mioutes. 



His next visit was to the cells 
where other persons were confined 
under the authority of this act : all 
the places were damp. and dismal, 
nor was it possible to exclude the 
wet without excluding the light and 
fresh air. He appealed to the house, 
whether such rigour ought ever to 
be practised. He had inquired of 
lawyers whether they had ever heard 
of ir, and they b^d said No, not 
even in tbe case of any felon : yet 
so these men were treated in this 
prison, which ({at what reason be 
knew not) had been called the 
Bastile. This appellation was so 
generally known, that, on taking a 
hackney coach, and inquiring if 
the coachman knew where it was, 
he said. Yes, very well, and took 
him to the prison in Cold-bath' 
Fields. This showed the feelings 
of the public as to the place. But he 
could not help observing, that when 
tiie Bastile stood under the regular 
government of France, prisoners 
were belter treated than in this. 

The direction of this prison was 
undes the chief management of a 
clergyman of the church of Eng- 
land, a minister, of the gospel of 
Christ I a loyal subject, and a good 
friend to government ; for he had 
pronoonced a high panegyric on 
the sedition bills! Psrhsips the ri- 
gour of this divine arose from bis 
principle.4 of piety, and of b*.'nevo- 
lence to the prisoners; perhaps he 
thought that the more they were 
pudished in ttiis world, the better 
Chance they had in the next 1 

Mr. Coivtcney solemnly affirmed, 
that the account he had given of 
this place, and the treatment of the 
prisoners, was true: nor had he 
stated all which he discovered in 
the course of his visit. He found 
there a man confined for selling a 
book, entitled, " The Duties of 
Citizenship ;** his name was Smith : 
he was used like a felon ; and whe« 

ther 



BRITISH AKD 



thcr this wan ri^ht, whether it wa« 
<^on8oaant to die ipirit of the law 
of England, he wished the house 
to determine. Was it the intention 
ot' the ministers that persons should 
be detained under the authority of 
bach an act, in a situation injurious 
to their health, and destructive to 
their lives — with crimes unproved, 
and accusers unknown ? 

There was another instance of 
the severity of this prison : a pro- 
stitute was confined in it» and she 
was afflicted with an illness incident 
to her mode of life : she was kept 
in one of the damp cells he had 
described. There was alsd a boy^ 
oi about nina years :of age, for of- 
fending his master, who was sub- 
jected to the same rigotfr. The 
bouse ought not to rest on tliese 
accounts from him, or from any 
individual) but appoint a commit- 
tee, and order ao inspection into 
tliem. 

Mr. Secretary Dundas observed, 
that the question was, whether this 
bill should now be read a second 
time or not ? The honourable gen- 
tleman who had just spoken had 
stated a number of facts; whether 
faithfully or not, they certainly had 
no earthly connexion with this bill. 
They related merely to the bad con- 
duct of a gaol, and might as well 
be said to aim at gaols in grnernl 
throughout the kingdom, but had 
nothing to do with the power 
which the legislature bad given to 
the executive government of this 
country, and the continuance of 
which was the object of the bill. 
The management of g^ols was un- 
der the care of sheritfs and magi- 
strates ; and if the honourable gen- 
tleman was induced by humanity 
fe pity ibe condition of ail pri* 
soners, or from sympathy to deplore 
the sufferings of the seditious, his 
ceurse was, to have gone ta some^ 
raagi^tnte with bit complaint. If 



he imagined, indeed, that the 
was so desperate that no remedy 
could b^ effectual but a general 
motion opon the subject io that 
home, there was nothing .to prevent 
him from bringing it forward. If 
he had any thing to urge against 
government on account of the se- 
parate confinement of any pri- 
soners, or on any other account, 
let the accusation be made public, 
and then some of the ministers 
might answer it ; but it surely was 
not reason enough to throw out 
the bill, because some of the people 
had been ill treated. As to the fii- 
cetious anecdote of the coachman, 
who might have learnt from the 
gentlemen whom he carried to call 
this prison a Bastile, he doubted not 
but a shilling would satisfy any 
coachman that any prison ought to 
be called so, if the gentleman who 
gave it him was pleased to give ic 
that name ; but none of these rea- 
sons seemed to him strong enough 
to weigh with the house to with- 
hold the power which the execu- 
tive government had received from 
the wise legislature. 

To prove that this measure ought 
not now to be continued, it should 
be proved that no treasonable spirit 
had ever existed. AVas this the fact 
at Maidstone ? It was not, however, 
oT> the guilt of one or two indivi- 
duals that the act was founded, but 
on a combination of persons at home 
acting in concert for i he destruction 
of the itate, whose views extended 
also to a league with our enemies 
abroad. This indeed was now be- 
come a forlorn hope, the eyes of 
the English being opened at last $ 
but some of evil intentions yet re-^ 
mained, and on the conviction of 
it he supported the motion. 

Mr Ticrney said, he w^s under 
the necessity of delivering his sen- 
timents, as he was about to with- 
stand & measure which he had as- 
sented 



FOR31GN HISTORY. 



31 



serste^ to Ihe l»t year —the further 
suspension of this act. But our sitaa- 
tion was different then : the bouK 
had received an intimaiion from his 
majesty that there was a preparation 
for ihe invasion i#f this country, and 
that many were ready to aid and abel 
the design ; in addition, ihere was a 
bill of indictmeat for high trea^ort 
found by a grand jury againtt cer- 
tain persons: whether either .of 
these things would have been sufTi- 
cieot for the jius(H:Dsion of the ha* 
beas corpus act he nerd not argue, 
it wns enough that both muted were 
sufhcient. Bot now there was no 
apprehension of invasion, no dan- 
ger from seditious spirits; and with- 
out the same grounds he could not 
vote in the same manner. With 
regard to the gaols, he considered 
their abuses as reasons also for his 
change of conduct. If men were 
treated as feJons when nothing was 
against thcra -but suspicion ; when a 
gentleman susptcttd of treason was 
to be punished in the same manner 
as a person convicted of crimes ; it 
was a part of justice to oppose the 
continuance of this measure, nor 
could he vote in conscience the fur 
thcr suspf^nsiQo of the liberties of 
tn^lishmen. 

The auorney-gencral, in an ela- 
borate speech ot considerable length, 
exonerated the court of king's 
bench from the charge of seventy 
respecting libels. He had exami- 
ned, be said, its records, and traced 
the history of its proceedings, to 
enable him the better to judge hnw 
far accusations of this kind wrre 
jiistj and the result of his inquiries 
authorised him to aftirm, that never 
since the law had taken cognize 
a nee of libels were the sentences of 
the courts less rigorous. If gentle* 
men would only take the trouble to' 
compare them ik)w with any pe- 
riod since the retolutioD, it would 



be clearly seen that the judges of 
our time, without neglecting their 
dnty, had much sottvued the cha- 
racter of punishments in geotT<tl, 
and that the punishment of lit>els in 
particular was not sufficiently severe. 
Formrily the practice had been lor 
the attorney-general of the crowo 
to direct the p^ni^hment when per- 
sons were brought up for judg- 
n>ent ; but he had acted upon a sen- 
timent of a distinguiithed and infi- 
nitely able lawyer, lord 'Ihurlow, 
who 6rst disused the immemorial 
practice of dkecting it: ami it the 
tempered and mild judgments of 
the court did not wholly arise out 
of this circumstawce, certainly muck 
kindness and lenity succeeded it. 
Let them look at the state trials of 
1794, and they would find, that 
public meetings were held for the 
purpose of piropagatmg sedition ; 
that not merely ihe ministers of the 
crown, but every institution, reli- 
gious, political, and moral, was li- 
belled, with every individual io 
whatever conspicuous situiiiion he 
might be placed. 'I'here were cor- 
responding societies and corie- 
sponding clubs, instituted and ath- 
liated, not for the purpose of mak* 
ing the members responsible for 
their conduct, or to procure a con- 
slitutional reform, of any abuses, 
but for the purpose of destroying 
that house, of erecting a cotiveuiion 
on its ruins, of overthrovi'ing the 
government, and, in its stead 10 in- 
troduce the wild and graceless sys- 
tem of a neighbouring country. 

Did not the leaders of disalTcc- 
tion justify every libel, and encou- 
rage every outrage, on the charac- 
ter and conduct of parliament ? But 
to s^eak more immediately to the 
subject in question. What was the 
case of Mr. Smith, of whom, in 
strains of lamentation^ so much 
had been Mtd ? It was this : JMr* 

SiQith 



n 



iRirtsu AUtn 



Smith Vas secfetury of the corre- 
•ponding society. Certainly it Wat 
not illegal to have been %o, but it 
was no high proof of loyalty. He 
had published iibr-l npotl libel ; and 
if he had been pro&erufed for each, 
no single life could have longevity 
eooagli to pass through the series 
of the years of imprisonment to 
which the law in its wisdom might 
have consigned him. Had the ho- 
nourable gent leman, who pleaded 
ao strenuously his cause, ever pe- 
rused the pamphlet entitled TheDu* 
ties ff Citizenships It inculcated 
anarchy and treason : every thing 
sacred, honourable, and good, in 
the nature and character of insti- 
lotions and men, was there blas- 
phemously and wickedly libelled 
-and traduced; religion and its 
ministers were held up to ridicule ; 
the law anjl itn officers were misre- 
presented and vilified; his Britannic 
majesty was mentioned with con- 
tempt ; and that constitution under 
which so many ble^ings were en* 
joyed was made the tlieme of un- 
founded and onprovoked invective. 
It was the duty of every person to 
read this book Defore he censured 
ID the British house of commons, 
and condemned, the proceedings of 
the coun of king's bench ! It was a 
delicate subject to^ discuss the ver* 
diets of juries and sentences of 
judges; but to comment without 
discriminating; to comment in 
perfect ignorance, betrayed not 
less of temerity than want of 
candour, and, in such a crisis of af- 
lairs, WAS not only unkind but in- 
flammatory. Towards Mr. Smith 
he assured the house that nothing 
harsh or severe in his confioemeftt 
had proceeded from governoient, 
nor he believed had ever been expe- 
rienced. When Mr. Smith bad 
made' some complaints, lord Ken- 
yon directed an inquiry into the 



truth of the case ; ahd the result \ 
that the governor of the prison Bti<i 
the physician testified that it wa* a 
proper place for confinement, and 
that every possible attention laraim 
pnid to the health of the priso-^ers. 
He could not dismiss the subject 
without some observations oo its 
being called a Bastile : it was re- 
served for the beneficent and nao-» 
derate age of philosophy and the 
rights of man to call those places 
Bastiles, which were instituted for 
offenders against the law. .Tbia 
kind of scandal claimed close kin- 
dred with the revolutionists o£ 
France; for our prisons were firs c 
called Bastiles by the orators of Co- 
penhagen-house and Pancras' fields, 
who used it not only in their public 
harangues, but in confidential let- 
ters, so that we could trace it most 
distinctly to the hot-bed of anarchy ; 
and now it was only nsed by persona 
willing to propagate French princi- 
ples, and destroy the English govern- 
ment. But to return to the treat- 
ment of prisoners : If it could be 
proved that since the suspension of 
the habeas-corpus set a few persons 
had met with some rigour; nay, if 
there existed many instances of the 
kind, much as he should lament ir^ 
it would not be sufficient to with- 
hold the act. He knew not who 
were the visitors of places where 
suspected persons were confined; 
but surely they might have inquir- 
ed of the sherifi^ concerning the 
truth or falsehood of the representee 
rions of prisoners. Had this conduct 
been pursued, imposition would 
have been detected, and the accusa- 
tion would not have been brought 
forw^ard in that house. He men- 
tioned the state trials at Maidstone, 
and reminded Mr. Tierney that his 
vote for the suspension of the ha- 
beas corpus in tlie last session was 
given because the grand jury had 

found 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



33 



foaod a biD of indicCmeot for htgh 
treaion. The parties were tried, 
one was foood goiitj, the rest were 
acquitted; bot, after the attempts in 
Ireland, it was evident that all of 
them wrre implicated in a design to 
invite France to invade England. 
Tlie evidence, it was said, was col- 
lected from spies; but it most be 
reineaibcrrd, that this descriptieo 
of persons was always more calnm* 
n.'aicd as ihry spoke more truth. 
Ministers conld not be justified to 
let the government take its chance 
against internal traitors, by not using 
means of safety on the evidence of 
snch men. He concluded with ob- 
serriog» ibat, whilst any hope were 
entertained by the United Imhmen 
of severing that country from this, 
their corre&po^ideocc with the diiMt- 
fectcd here could only be through 
the agency of individuals ; but it 
wonid be from society to society, 
if there were any United English- 
men viho had the same views as 
the United Irishmen. 

To thwart these views, to frus- 
trate (he designs of all who sought to 
ovenorn the civil, religious, and mo- 
ral government of the world, was 
the great object of the power which 
the wisdoni of the legislature had 
lately entrasted to the executive go- 
verument ; to continue that power 
for a limited time, under trie most 
urgent necessity, was the object of ' 
the bin now before the house, and 
tht^^efore had his most hea rty consent. 
Mr. Burden suid, that he himself 
had visited the Cold fiath Fields' 
prisons, and bad seen nothing to 
justify the complaints of the ill-' 
treatment of the prisoners ; it was 
necessary ihat a jailor 8hould be 
trusted wiih that authority wUch 
vkM essential to t-e safe custody of 
the prisoners, and the police of the 
prion. The residence of state 
prisoners there, was by no means an 
^790- 



agreeable ciicomstance, bring • 
thing for which the place was not 
designed. With respect to regola* 
ti<»is every thing seemed to be .con* 
ducted in the best manner, of which 
such an establii>hiiient was capable. 
The state prisoners had an allow -^ 
ance of 13i. and 4d. a week, and 
much neatness, regularity, and pro** 
priety, appeared throughout the 
place; 

Sir Francis Burdett was con* 
vinced, that great severity, in some 
instances, bad been used. What 
must be the ^itnatton of a cell seven 
feet square after a person had b<'ea 
confined in it siome hour^, or when 
persons were confined for many 
wefks without b' ing permitted to 
go out, but for a few minotes to 
wash themselves? In these cella 
there was no wood or paper to keep 
the persons confined from the con« 
tact of the wall ; and in wet weather^ 
or after a frost, it was evident, that 
a bridi wall most be so dainp as*to 
be ejitreroely insalotary where no 
fire was allowed. But these mat* 
ters, he agreed, were not strictly in 
point before the house, only it was 
the interest of government that 
men who were taken up under the 
suspension of the habeas-corpua 
should not be treated more rigorous- 
ly than the circumstances rec^uired. 
It was the duty of that liouse to take 
'care, that the extraordinary powera 
which it granted should not be 
abused, and it possessed the powet 
to grant such an inquest, as was ne- 
cessary to pot an end to oppre^ision, 
if there waft proof that it had been 
exercised. The proceedings of go- 
verument, and the judgment of courts 
of law, had been defended by the 
attorney-general in cases oj^« libel: 
certainly that matter was not con- 
nected with the present subject, nor 
had it any reference to persons 
taken i^p ux;dcr the suspension of 

C 



34 



BRITISH AND 



the habeas-corpds act. A case of 
great hardship he would mention, 
which was well aathenticated ; a 
number of persons were brought up 
to town from Manchester; they 
were loaded with irons; in this 
situation they travelled, and> when 
' they arrived, were lodged in the 
correctioQ house in Cold-Bath 
Fields. From the effects oi travel- 
ling in sXich a state, their legs were 
much swelled, and when lodged in 
the prison the Bow-street officers 
ordered the irons to be knocked off, 
which was then a very painful opera- 
tion : after this they were thrown into 
places quite unprepared for their 
reception^ and the next day taken 
before the privy-council. 
' Several of these men were manu- 
facturers i they had no opportunity 
of giving direction about their af- 
fairs^ nor of obtaining redress, a$ 
they were not permitted to be seen 
by any person. 

At this moment indeed he under* 
stood, that their situation was im- 
proved, and that they had all the ac- 
commodation of which it 'Should 
»dmit. As to the bill before the 
house, no grounds had been stated 
for it, much less was there any cause 
for the precipitation with which it 
Mas hurried on j it was more im- 
portant than any measure of finance 
could be, inasmuch as men's per- 
sons were of more consequence 
ihan their property ; and unless 
Htrong proofs could be produced of 
the conspiracies with which we 
were told our country was threaten- 
ed, we ought well to guard tliis bul- 
wark of our liberties. 

The solicitor-general observed, 
that one gopd effect had followed 
the discussion, namely, that it was 
now admitted there was no reason to 
complain of the manner in which the 
prisoners were treated. 

The purpose of suspending the 



habeds-Qorpus act waa to ettaUe 
the executive government to se- 
cure such persons as were suspect- 
ed of conspiracy where the proof 
was difficult to be obtained. Eng- 
land in former times had derived 
the greatei>t advantage from this 
suspension: it was used Jn the 
reign of king William when oiany 
were hostile to the existing esta- 
blishment, and it confirmed the au- 
thority and safety of the new go- 
vernment. It was also used in tlic 
rebellion of 1745; ^many persona 
then ill affected to the family on 
the throne were taken op, and 
when all danger was oyer were set 
at liberty, and to this salutary 
measure the country owed its secu- 
rity : the benefits resnhing from it 
were the more conspicuous when 
contrasted with the situation of af- 
fairs, at a period when it was not 
employed. The rebellion of 1/45 
threatened to be of more import- 
ance than the former, though the 
present family werp at that time 
more firmly established, because the 
plans of the leaders were not de- 
feated, nor could they be so without 
a measure of this kind, whlcli af- 
forded the most powerful arguments 
in its favour at so critical a juncture 
as the present. It was to the sus- 
pension of this act we owed the late 
discoveries in Ireland, and conse- 
quently the safety of the state ;. for 
he need not acquaint the bouse that 
endeavours had been used in that 
kingdom to institute societies of 
United Britons. Governments with- 
in governments had been organised 
.with all the appendages of execu- 
tive directories, councils, and com- 
mittees. Though such designs were 
known to have existed, it would 
have been difficult to charge them 
to any individual, because indivi- 
dual guilt was so wrapt up in the 
general mass. Catholic cmancipa* 

tion 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



U 



IkfO bdd been the pteteit for deep 
designs of lieasoo ; ii had been the 
vcul ecnplofcd to conceiil ibe plot 
for d\&ointiiig the two coonlries. 
BelbrtD hajd been the terra, aod de- 
Htructiof] I be meaning. And when 
these precaotioas^ in recent as well 
a^ early periods of car history, bad 
enabled oi to avert the danger which 
impeoded, it was the duty of the 
boose to accord such powers as alone 
cooid be e£&ciei«t for oar preserve- 
lion. 

Mr. Wilberforce said, that a 
great deal of misrepreseatation had 
arifeo opoo the subject of the pri- 
ioaen. The charge of ill-treat- 
tnenti which had been made, was 
certainlj of a very serious nature : 
it was DO light thing to say, that (he 
eseeotive garemm^nt could be so 
xnalignaot as to exercise an/ rigour 
towafrds them further than was ue- 
cessorj for safe custody, and to pre- 
▼eoi rbem fi^oixi tainting the minds 
of thoae with whom they bad com- 
municatioo. Many of the regula- 
tions which prevailed in (bis prison 
were recommended by the exceU 
IcQC Howard, and u-ere super! n- 
teaded by several persons who bad 
an active share with ihiit benevolent 
character in inquiries upon the 
subject. Different boards existed 
to receire information of the state 
of the prisoo; one of these boards 
met once a week, and the minutes 
of their proceedings would throw 
much light upon the question. 
Nothing coold be more satisfactory 
thao the account given of the health 
and ait nation of the prisoners. 
Their food consisted of as good legs 
of matlQD and pieces of beef as he 
had erer seen at his own table. 
The utmost cleanlioesa prevailed 
throaghoot the place. Of two 
hoodred aod forty ((he number 
which tfa^ prison contained) the sick 
werd only three, aod the deaths 



for the whole year only two ; though 
if the state of many of iUc persons 
when ihry came in were considered, 
the place ri*kerablfd an hospiul ra- 
ther than a prison. The minutrs 
to which he alluded would show 
what had been the conduct of some 
of (he prisoners, and the necessity 
of watching them with Care. It 
was Kt^ted by the chaplain, that two 
of the persons confined (Burkrt 
aod Smith) had behaved so ill at 
church, bad so openly expre^isf-d 
their contempt of the worship, that 
he proposed in future their at* 
tendance should be dispensed with. 
Mr, Smith's autboriiy had bf^en 
quoted for the hardships he sutFer- 
cd ; but, in a letter to his wif", hu 
stated that he was in a btrtter 
situatioii than he could have ima- 
gined, and particularly disapprov- 
ed of those who si vied the pri- 
son a Babtlie. This instance should 
not only teach gentlemfo to beware 
of taking up their opinions lightly, 
but it ought to reach the public to 
distrust rej)fescfntaiions given upon 
such partial testimony. To prove 
atlerwards that it wss false, did not 
correct the evil. He trusted that, 
for his own part, he was not the 
last to feel what was due to indivi- 
dual suffering j but there were also 
duties owed to the community, and 
l^e well remembered the words of 
lord Hale, who, when asked how he 
felt when he pronounced sentence of 
death on a criminal, replied, '* that 
be felt for the country as well as the 
prisoner." Mr. Wilberforce re- 
commended this example to the 
gentlemen on the other side the 
house, who seemed tremblingly 
alive to the situation of people 
taken up on suspicion of the great* 
est crime!), but disregarded the fate 
.of the nation. Those who believed 
it to be in danger ought not to re« 
lax their efforts^ or deprive the ex-> 
C 2 ecutive 



36 



BRITISH AND 



ecative government of meant to 
provide for its secnrify. Nor Bhould 
it be forgotten, that men who ex- 
posed themselves to suspicion mu^t 
often incur the disadvantages of 
goilt. It was a false compassion 
which commiserated the hardships 
of one man, and was callous to the 
miseries of many. 

Mr. M. A« Taylor confessed that 
inini<iters had exercised the power en- 
trusted to ihem with lenity j but as- 
aerted there was no sufficient ground 
atated for the bill. With respect to 
public prosecutions, he neither im- 
peached the severity of the attorney- 
general nor the courts of law. He 
had read the book written by Smith, 
and he thought it of the most dia- 
bolical tendenc}'. He was con- 
vinced the stal^- prisoners had not 
been treated in the severe manner 
represented ; and he did not doubt 
but that if the honourable baronet 
saw that he had been deceived, be 
would readily acknowledge it. 

Mr. Ellison wished they might be 
alwayM treated in a constitutional, 
not a capricious manners and that 
all magistrates throughout the king- 
dom would give in a report of their 
treatment, that it might appear they 
had experienced such as might be 
expect<fd from the humane hearts of 
Englishmen, and not be left to the 
mercy of an obdurate gaoler. 

.The chancellor of the exchequer 
remarked, with much exultation, 
the change of opinion which had 
taken place in the minds of some gen- 
tlemen on the other side th-: house, 
who now confessed those' precau- 
tions had been necessary which they 
formerly asserted would lead to dh* 
asters abroad and destruction at 
home; but who, at the sacne time 
,that they joined in congrotulatioos 
upon their success, opposed their 
continuaRco. 

The state of the country was 



universally acknowledged to be 
ameliorated. Was not this a proof. 
that those who reprobated ibc tncM^ 
sures which had produced this hap- 
py alteration were much miataken ? 
The calamities which had desolated 
other nations were unknowo ia 
ours : the powers whieh parltaaienC 
had entrusted to the executive go^ 
vemment were used with modera- 
tion, and were beneficial io therr 
effects. To avert still the dangers 
with which we had been threaieocd 
was the object of the further sus- 
pension of the habeas-corpaa act. 
Little could tliose be read io the 
volume of hum.an nature, who did 
not discover in jacobinism every 
thing which was corruptive anil 
degrading; every thing which tend- 
ed to disgust and annoy mankind* 
The progress of this wretched sys- 
tem had been checked by our wise 
and salutary precautions, but would 
not fail to return if we discontinued 
them. Evil had been propagated 
with obstinacy, and should our per- 
severance in a good cause cease .^ 
Was it a time toslumt>er when there 
existed men who were hourly plan- 
ning our destruction— poen who 
never waked, or slept, or walked 
abroad, without a dagger thirsting 
for our blood ? Ought we to cast 
aside that shield which enabled us to 
defy its point, and which had effec- 
tually preserved our lives ? 

Let us but reflect upon all that 
has passed in Ireland j upon the de- 
signs of the enemy at this moment ; 
upon the traitorous agents iu this 
country; upon the confession of 
some of themselves ; and the neces- 
sity of continuing a measure which 
had already rescued England from 
such imminent danger would be a^ 
obvious as it was desirable. 

The question being put* the house 
^fvided— Ayes, 96 ; Noes, 6, 

Dtc. 20\ The chancellor of the 
cxchequcs: 



FOREIGN HISTORY, 



37 



^^cbeqtier ag»o noved for tbe 
sospensioii of the act of habeas- 
corpas» 

Mr. Coortniij rose, he said^ to 
adduce reasons for ii no longer be- 
ing MBeccmary, and read a declara- 
tion made bj bis maiestj, in AjprW^ 
wherein were these words ; " The 
preptfmdoos of the embarkation of 
troops and warlike stores are now 
carried on with considerable acti- 
vity in the ports of France, Flan- 
drrs, and Holland, with the avow- 
ed design of inrading these domi- 
nions, and in this attempt the cne- 
isy is encooraged by the corre- 
spondence of traitoroos persons and 
societies of these kingdoms." 

Here was a plain reason assigned 
for the suspension ; but was the case 
the same ne/w ? Were oar enemies 
preparing to invade ns at this time ? 
in what place, and in what manner ? 
by whom were they now aided and 
abetted? and was onr situation 
predsely soch as it had been the 
year before ? On tbe contrary, had 
not oar enemies been discomfited 
ia different parts of the world ? 
liad not the glory of Great-Britain 
Tcsoanded over the globe, signalised 
io tlje Mediterranean and the Adri- 
atic? nor was it probable ^at 
(he French would attack thit coao- 
iry, when it was so unlikely that 
they would be able to retain their 
own conqoests. 

He adverted next to the prison 
of Clerkenwell. He re-asserted, 
what be had formerly stated \3pon 
that sut^ect-'thatmen iKxre confined 
ia narrow cells, without fire or can- 
dle, and, if they closed the wooden 
shutters of the window, they could 
have no light or fresh air. Experien- 
ced XsLvijen had acknowledged, that 
they remembered no instances^ of 
rigour like this towards any statc- 
prUoners in tbe course of the ad- 
ir. n:«irjtion of justice in England, 



and be defied any person to refute 
this fact. As a corroboration of it, 
he begged leave to read a letter from 
the wife of colonel De^pard^ which 
was as follows : 

'* Some mention having been 
made in newspaper reports of the 
house of commons relative to the* 
treatment of colonel Despardin tho 
fiew prison, I think it necessary to 
state, that he was confined near 
seven months in a damp ceil, not 
seven feet square, without fire or 
candle, chair, table, knife, fork, a 
glazed window, or, even a book. I 
made several applications in person 
to Mr. Wickham, and by letter to 
the duke of Portland, — all to no pur- 
pose. The 20th of last month he 
was removed into a room with a 
fire, but not till his feet were ul<* 
cerated by a frost. For the truth 
of this statement, I appeal to the 
hon. Mr. Lawless, and John Reeves^ 
esq. who visited him in prison, and 
at wfaos'e intercession he was remov* 
ed. The gaoler will bear witness 
that he never made any complaint 
of his treatment, however severe it 
was. This statement of facts it 
without the knowledge of the co- 
lonel, who has served his majesty 
thirty years, and all his family are 
now in the army. 

** Catharine Desfard. 
" Berkelty Square, 1/98." 

Mr. Courtenay said, that, when he 
saw the colonel in prison, he made 
no complaint to him. He asked 
him if he had been in the same 
situation as some other persons in- 
that prison on the suspension of the 
habcas-corpus act ? He answered, 
yes ; but had been removed out of 
it by the humanity of Mr. Reeves. 
If thsse things were not true ; if 
he wis not to believe the letter of 
Mrs. Despard, nor trust to the evi- 
dence of his own senses, it was cx- 
C 3 traordinary ! 



3d 



BRITISH AND 



fraordinary ! When this matter was 
first mentioned to him, he did not 
think it was known to ihe raini- 
»lcr« ; l^ut it now app*«ired that an 
applicAion had been made to them 
in vain ; theritfore they must have 
kpown it. Mr. Courtf nay cast some 
severe reflections on ^Ir. Wilbrr- 
force, who had doubted whethrr 
such atrocioos inhumanity had ever 
been exercised j displaying, he said, 
much religious facetionsntss, tem- 
pered with Christian rancour. A 
worthy magistrate had observed, 
that the piison was not originall)^ 
designed for persons of this de- 
scription, and that the state prison- 
ers being sent to it was a matter of 
necessity. But there could be no 
necessity to use them ill in confine- 
ment. Why could not a proper 
house be hired for this purpose .> 
Was it to be supposed that the peo- 
ple of this country, who afforded 
30 or 40 millions for the public ser« 
vice, would grudge 3 or 400 pounds 
for the maintenance of prisoners ? 
Could we be affected by the expense 
of a few hundreds of pounds devo- 
ted to humanity? In his own opi- 
nion, this abuse of the power given 
to government by this act might be 
logically urged against its renewal. 

The attorney- general affirmed, 
there w^as no greater instance of 
cruelty thai) for a member of par- 
liament to state, as an authentic ac- 
count, any paragraph in a newspa- 
per to the prejudice of a public of- 
ficer. Such was the case respect- 
ing the duke of Portland and Mr. 
Wickham. Some complaints had 
been made to the duke relative to 
colonel Despard. Mr. Wickham, 
in the month of May, 1798, wrote 
to the keeper of the prison, stating, 
that he was directed by bis grace 
to desire that Mrs. Despard should 
have access and converse. with him 
iu the presence of any proposed 



person. Mrs. Despard wrote A Fcf 
tcr to the duke iu June; in const'- 
quence of which he sent for the 
gaoler of the prison, and gave him 
directions, importing, that r,vrr\ 
indulgence should be shown lo"i]ie 
piisoner wh'ch the nature of thr 
warrant would admit. After I hi'*, 
Mrs. Despard wrote again, to vrhich 
no answrr was given, because pro- 
per directions upon the subject of 
it had been sent before. She then 
applied to Mr. Wtckbam, M'ho ad- 
vised her to send another letter, if 
she had further cau>e of complaint. 
The duke desired her to call at h'n 
hoase, which she did. He heard 
her complaints himself, and order- 
ed the colonel every thing consist- 
ent with safe custody ; allowed him 
the use of bookie -, commanded the 
gaoler to attend to the circumstance 
of his being a man of rank, and 
afford him all the accommodation 
which common feeling dictated on 
this occasion. After this an order 
was issued out for all the prisoners ^ 
to have every indulgence coropati* i 
ble with security; nor was a.'yj 
time, except one week, lost, in ] 
which Mr. Wickham went to Tun 
bridge. Some time after, the duke 
ordered cc loncl Despard to be tc 
moved to the place where be nov*^ 
was. Here the attorney- general 
read the description of the celhi 
maintaining that they were ncilbfi' 
damp or unwholesome. He thent 
read the deposition taken in prison:^ 
by which it appeared that the colo< 
nel was surprised at the statemenl 
of his hardships in the house o( 
commons, and was willing (if it 
was necessary) to contradict it h'lm* 
self. The letter of Mrs. Despari 
was not of her writing : it was in* 
deed admirably adapted for the pur- 
pose. There were artful men ' 
that prison, and some of them 
proved how ill they merited the 

nitjpl 



s in* 
pur-J 
•n iflj 
ibadH 



I^OREIGN HISTORY. 



39 



rify which had been shown to them. 
Many of these had a gre^t number 
of O'Connof's pamphlets ready for 
publicatioD. They debated on the 
vt'orst of all possible aobjccts since 
they had been permitted to be toge- 
iber. He mentioned these instaDce9« 
to ooorince the house of the great 
impropriccy of hastily adopting opi- 
nions upon the reports of ncwspa- 
p^s. The prisoners should not be 
treated wiih more rigour than the 
necessity of things tcquirtd, and 
to this they ought to subiiii: with- 
out a monnar. 

Mr. Wilberforce began by al- 
luding to his speech in a former de- 
bate, which had occasioned tnuch 
i -libera! remaik. " Religious facc- 
tiousncss and Christian rancour^" ' 
were mis-matched epithets applied 
to these snbstantives. But waving 
the^e, and to come to the point in 
question^ we certainly ought not to 
remote our guard till our &ccurity 
was established. AVhilst we had 
encnoies of formidable strength and 
of formidable malice, both within 
and witlunit — whilst Xhtitt were 
members of that house, who, if they 
did not aid, were very cord!.. I to 
persons of this description, it par- 
ticularly behoved the wisdom and 
^igilanctt of parliament to baffle 
thtrir machinations, and counteract 
their purposes. The prisoners, whose 
cause had been so pathetically 
pleaded, might heretofore have been 
objects of humane compassion ; but 
where was the humanity and com- 
passion of these gentlemen for them 
b<»foTe they were accused of high 
treason ? Where was the anxiety to 
regulate prisons, and alleviate mise- 
ries, before state- prisoners were con- 
fined therein ? Had the treatment 
of vagrants, the sufferings of insol- 
vent debtors, been an object of in- 
€]U!ry? Not that he urged these 
4ib»ervation5 to censure any sympa- 



thies of nature, but merely (o re« 
mpnstrate on the injustice of bring- 
ing accusations against respectable 
characters, without any examina- 
tion, and with no other motive than 
prfjudice. 

Mr. JefiTerys, of Co^'cntry, ob- 
served, that the reason the gentlemen 
who had supported this measure the 
last year opposed it now, was because 
they imagined the same inducement 
no longer existed j and hero ho 
agreed with them : for the last year 
it was an apprehension of i reason « 
now it was a discovery of it ; of 
which the trials at Maidstone fur- 
nished ample proof. He was the 
representative of a populous manu- 
facturing city, and at this moment 
speaking the sentiments of nincty- 
nme of them out of a hundred. 

Sir Francis Burdeit contended, 
that aU his assertions had been 
grounded on facts, and dwelt some 
time upon the indelicacy of insinua- 
tions respecting the motives of his 
conduct, and that of his frieods. 
Tlic papers sent by the prisoners of. 
Manchester descrit>ed those hard- 
ships, the existence of whi^h bad 
been denied. Thcs« prisoners 
cOnld not obtain any thing like a 
bed in thch' small solitary cells» 
without paying ft)r it : they certainly 
were left without fire or candle, the 
wet continually flowed down the 
walls, and here they were to linger 
seven months. Far other treatment 
had been promised them by the 
privy council ; but though thej^ 
h^id re|>ratcdly written to Mr. Flood 
(the magistrate), intreating him to 
see his promise realised^ they could 
obtain no other answer than, that if 
they wiiilied to speak with him on 
public alfairs, he would see them -, 
but respecting their private situation, 
it was not in his'power to make any 
alteration. No species of guilt 
»»• proved could jusufy this harsh 
C 4 usage; 



^ 



ttlltlSH AND 



usag^e ; aod it seemed unnecegsary to 
add, (hat ^11 accounts of the comforts 
enjoyed by the prisoners must have 
Ifeen exaggerated, if these facts of 
their actual suflTeriags could be so 
"^ell attested. 

Mr. Burdon affirmed, that he 
himself bad taken pains to see whe- 
ther they were well attested j for as 
aoon as be tead the letter of Mrs. 
Despard in the public papers^ he 
f^lt it was his duty to investigate 
the cause of her complaint. 'Me 
bad had a long conversation with 
the colonel, who at»sured him, in the 
presence of tbe governor of the 
prison, 4hat he was at well in 
etery circumstance at the nature of 
- the place would admit ; indeed, b^ 
Tt'as determined to make no rcmon* 
atraiice, as he had all the comforts 
which the secretary of state had ap- 
pointed, and he did not expect 
^ more. It was true be bad a chil- 
blain in his heel ; but so little did 
be think of it, that be would not 
employ the surgeon of the prison 
upon the occasion : he was (he 
aaid) an old soldier, and placed no 
confidence in medicine. As soon 
as this was made known, be was re- 
moved to a room where he had every 
accommodation which he could 
reasonably desire : he had frequent 
interviews with his wife, with whom 
be was permitted to converse for 
almost any length of time. Of her 
letter he was totally Ignorant, or 
should have disapproved it. 

Mr. Burdon affirmed, that the 
cells were not damp ; be had exa- 
iQued them himself; they were 
raised considerably above the 
ground^ the walls were thick, and 
well v^hite-washed ; the beds did not 
touch them 5 to say that they were 
exposed to the inclemencies of the 
weather, was a false assertion. What 
• could be tbe motive for agitating a 
IjuestiQn like tbe presei^f, and vy^hat 



could be the effect of traddcing tfx^ 
fair character of respectable magis^ 
trates, whose conduct should Q6i.t>e 
lightly arraigned ? 

Upon minds unbiassed by party, 
no doubt could remain of the pro- 
pdety of the further suspension of 
the liabeas-corpus act } the grouzi«l 
of the measure might be changed, 
but the very change confirmed the 
necessity. 

Mr. Canning thought so lit- 
tle could be added to this testi* 
roony, that bis observations upon 
the subject would be concise and 
few. 

An illiterate woman, who could 
not even spell, was supposed to 
have written a most able letter, de- 
scribing, in axt affecting manner, the 
cruelties endured by her husband ; 
but it was soon discovered that Uiis 
same letter was not written by Mrs. 
Despard; it was by one of her 
friends, and its contents were not 
truth : indeed, they were so forcibly 
contradicted, and those who bad 
brought tbe matter forward so cooa- 
plctcly defeated, that he believed 
they would not venture to re-state 
it again; at least, he hoped that Mr« 
Courtenay, whatever his creed 
might happen to be, would not ex- 
pose it to the examination of Mr. 
Wilbcrforce. These were subjects 
which had better remain undiscussed 
in that place ; and he advised him 
to keep his humanity for Smith and 
Binns, his religion for Newgate, 
and his jokes for the hackney- 
coachmen. 

Mr. Courtenay contended, that 
not one fact adduced by him had 
been disproved. The state* prii^ners 
had been actually confined in such 
cells as he had described, and were 
immured in a prison intended for 
convicted felons. 

The attorney-general expressed 
his astoaishmeot that tlus geutl maa 

should 



rOREIGN HISTOHY. 



41 



ihoM affiraiy ^ Althoogh every 
body denied vbat he had sklvancedj 
DO one cootndkted it.** 

Mr. Coarteoay iDaintained that 
it vas stiJI undisproved^ though Dot 
ua-eoDtradicted. 

The borne went ioto a commit* 
tee upoDthe bill ; and it was agreed 
that a siraald remain in full force 
tiU the 21st of Mav% IJQg. 

Ja the hoase of lords, on Friday, 
Jftn. 4, lord Grenville moved for the 
suspea^on of the babeas-corpus act. 
Afrer the bill bad been read, the 
fari of Suffolk rose to oppose it. 
He said It was highly necessary that 
ministers should assign soooe reason 
for ihe renewal of this bill before it 
^as propoKd to the house ; and the 
iofnogemeiit upon the constitution 
of ooi country demanded soinc 
weighty reason, which had not yet 
been made known. These indeed 
^cre limes of dif2k:ulty and danger ; 
hot was the danger such as to justify 
a measure as grievous as it was uiy- 
coQsiitQtional > Ought not the evi- 
dcacc to be produced of its necessity 
before it was adopted ? and, if mi- 
Distcrs were to be intrusted with a 
povrer so extraordinary as this bill 
^voald confer upon them, (bey 
should well reflect upon the lenity 
and moderation with which it should 
be used. 

His lord<ihip adverted to the treat- • 
DifDt of colonel Despard, whose 
Mtuatioo inspired universal regret 
"wbcrcter bis amiable character was 
known. Sincerely he hoped that 
some of' the accounts hjfti been ex- 
aggerated respecting it j but to be 
confined in a cell seven feet square, 
^utwiut fire, or any other light than 
*^2nie from the top, without chair, 
tabic, or any thing to rest upon but 
a truckle-bed, was a cruel mode of 
poaiihraeot for a gentleman who 
aad lived in the enjoyment of luxu- 
tics, Bat- here it could not be juj- 



tified : there had been no tpecified 
charge against him, notwithstanding 
his confioeiDent had lasted six. 
months; and he appealed to the 
humanity of ^the secretary of state* 
whether this species of confinement 
was proper for a gentleman of the 
rank and character of colonel Des- 
pard. If these measures were to be 
pursued when no crime had bcx;n 
ipecibcally alleged, no subject ia 
the kingdom could be safe. 

Lord Grenville thought the reasons 
formerly given for passing ihis bill 
am|)ly sufficient, and they remained 
in sutficient force to induce their 
lordships to continue it. As to the 
harshness with^ which it was said 
colonel Despard had been treated, 
he did not pretend to say he knew 
any thing about the matter.* he had 
been told lately that something of 
the kind had been complained of, 
and that it was immediately dis- 
countenanced by govcrument. The 
subject had already undergone in- 
vestigation, and more would soon 
be made, by which, he believed, it 
would appear that no unnecessary 
rigour had taken place. 

Lord Holland declared, that it had 
been his intention to have opposed 
this bill in a former stage of it ; and 
he should have done so bi>t for an 
accident, which detained him when 
it was read a second time. To pro-i 
pose such a bill as this, under very 
different circumstances from th^ 
present, would have alarmed him j 
but to propose it without any evi- 
dence on the table of the house, 
was a thing too extraordinary to 
pass unnoticed. It w s under the 
act of the habeas- corpus that all or 
any of us walked the j>trcctii in free- 
dom J and, but for that act, every 
individual might in an instant be put 
intocouiinement, to pine within the 
walls, and to be a prey to the hor- 
rors of a prison, without hope of 

any 



i^ 



BKttlSH AMd 



anj appeal to the laws of bis coun.- 
try. 

Only the most imperious neces- 
tlty oaght to induce the house to 
abkndon so strong' a bulwark to tlie 
liberty of ihe subject, and it was the 
{>art of their lordships to coosider 
what proof (hey had before them of 
the existence of that necessity. Were 
he to admit all that bad been urged 
by minister* to be true (which 
would indeed be a forge cot cession) > 
the whole taken collectively would 
not be sufficient for this suspension. 
That we were io a state of war, was 
no reason : the evils of war were 
enough of them8elves> without being 
aggravated by the loss of liberty } 
and although he would not join 
with those who were in the habit 
of pronouncing eulogiums on the 
comtituiion which they sought to 
subvert, ) et he thought too highiy 
of it to doubt its bieiog adequate 
to its own protection, even in the 
hour of turbulence and trouble, in 
which situation we were not at prec* 
ttnt involved. The custom of mi- 
nisters was to call every man a ja« 
cobin who opposed them io any 
thing ) but this was a bad argu- 
ment, a poor reason for taking away 
the privileges of the whole com- 
ittunity. The habeas-corpus act 
w;«8 BO excellent a law, that nothing 
Krss than the detection of a conspi- 
racy to overturn the government 
could justify this measure. Besides, 
before so much of the liberty of 
the subject was taken away, we 
should be very careful to whom it 
was entrusted. Certainly not Io 
those who already liad abused that 
trust, nor to any set of men whilst 
there was tranquillity in this coun- 
try. The suspension resled either 
&n the suggestion of the minister, 
or on the general disposition of the 
people of England. What had 
these di^pofitions been ? Why, the 



very moment they were inforniea 
that an* insult had been offered to 
their monarch, they testified artacii- 
ment to his person ; . they proved, 
that, however they might bewail the 
evils of war, they had an attachment 
to the government under which 
tlicy lived j and, therefore, his lord- 
ship affirmed the bill was totally un- 
necessary, and a gross calumny on 
Englishmen. 

But it was still asserted thatt there 
had existed conspiracies of a deep 
and iuiiiaious kind, formed by men 
of settled hostility to all order and 
the laws. Here it might be well 
to remember, that several persons 
had been brought to trial on 
charges of high treason i that the 
reports of the house had almost pre- 
disposed the whole British public to 
pronounce them guilty before trial ; 
that the crown, in short, had ex- 
erted ail its strength, and employ- 
ed all its means, on that memorable 
occasion : and i^hat had been the 
result ? why that the atx^osed werr 
honourably acquitted by a jury of 
their countrymen; and the trea- 
sons and scdittotis, of which mini- 
sters had spoken so much, and 
which the country regarded with 
such horror, disappeared in a mo* 
ment 5 the nation sobered, and ge- 
neral tranquillity took place of ge^ 
neral panic. If 'then no conspira- 
cy existed, if sedition had beezv 
suppressed, and treason routed, 
what necessity could there be for 
the further suspension of the ba- 
beas-corpus ? But if all the dan* 
gers stated in the preanlble had 
been real, he would not admit that 
they justified an act which secured 
the personal liberty of the subject, 
and epabled him to obtain, without 
delay, a trial by twelve fair m«in of 
his country. From this act waa 
derived all our privileges and all 
our security ; and llie monhent in 

^ hicli 



Foreign* history. 



43 



which It wn stnpeoded, the whole 
nation woaid be in the power of 
the minister, it was for their lord- 
tVips thcrefbre to consider the na- 
ture and magnitade of the vore 
thej vere cailed opon to give. If 
there were danger of inTaaioh ; if 
traitors really were in this coftntry ; 
wein^t oppose, to the one, oar 
vast military force | and, to the 
<nher, oar judicious laws. Whilst 
courts of justice sat in tranqnillity ; 
whilst the laws of treason were 
comprehensire and vigorous ; whilst 
the spirit of the people manifested 
Itself in ardent expressions of loy- 
alty to the sovereign, and attach- 
ment to the constitution ; where 
was the pretended necessity for ad^ 
opting this measure ? There was 
hot one case in which it could be 
necessary j which was, if there ac- 
toaily existed these conspiracies, 
and Hxne of the pet sons concerned 
in them were io custody, but could 
not be brought to trial without the 
risk of giving the alarm to the rest, 
then, and then only, the bill should 
have his support. 

He took a rapid view of the state 
of Ireland } denied that the rebel- 
lioo in that conntiy justified new 
rigoors in this ;— that had the p^o- 
vermnent of Ireland ameliorated 
their condition, by removing their 
grievances, rebellion never would 
have brcAen out amongst them. 

Whilst talking of the trials of 
Maidstone, he maintained, thst Mr. 
O'Connor had been honourably ac* 
quitted ; and connecting this asser- 
tion with the argoment, that, as no 
danger existed, as the people de- 
clared for their own government, 
the preamble stated a libel on their 
Voyalty. He would acknowledge, 
that to preserve confidence between 
tiie governors and the governed was 
essential | but it roost be recollect- 
ed, all firm cpnfidcnce «^as mutual. 



If governors required it, they i 
themselves set the example : but 
here the true policy was reversed $ 
the governors showed distrust, and 
expected confidence, What waa 
the state of our pnblic affairs? 
Thanks to the rashness of our ene* 
mies, IO the bravery of our seamen, 
and, above all, to admiral Nelson, 
of whom he could not speak in 
terms too high ;— thanks also to the 
admiralty for its arrangement of 
our naval force (for he had plea- 
sure in acknowledging the merit 
which had distinguished that de« 
partment of our executive govern* 
ment) j thanks to all these, there 
was an end of every apprehension 
from the enemy : but this only 
tended to show still tnrther, that 
there was no plea fotr the sospen* 
sion of the bill. 

Alas ! the system of ministers 
was a system of terror} and they 
endeavoured to keep the atientkMi 
of the public upon its own danger, 
instead of the incapacity or cormp- 
tion of ministers. It was firoai this 
motive that they accused every man 
of being inclined to French prin- 
ciples who dissented from theirs, 
and this bill was a part of that sys* 
tem of alarm with which they wish-* 
ed to surprise the good sense of the 
English; but all this deception 
could not last long; the public 
would judge freely of the conduct 
of administration, apd the bobble 
would burse, at last, with disigrace 
upon ibeir heads. His lordship 
concluded with saying, *^ that when 
he considered the failure of the ob- 
jects of ministers in public afiairs, 
the zeal and loyalty manifested by 
the people, the treatment they had 
experienced, and the conduct which 
they had observed, he was astonish- 
ed that their rulers should so ca- 
lumniate them as to affirm that the 
4)ill was necessary 1" 

Lord 



44 



BflltlSH Ai^D 



Lord 6retiv:11o nM, ihdt if the 
debate on this bill had depended oo 
the opinion the gemtlemen of the 
opposition entertained of admini*. 
stration^ he should have no hope, 
perhaps no ambition, to convince 
the noble lord of , the propriety of 
any of their nieasores. fiut al- 
though they had not been favoured 
with his approbation, they had re- 
peatedly received the support of 
the house. On some minds, in- 
deed> prejudice had so strong an 
effect, that even facts could not aU 
ter them 5 but there were also others 
on whom reasoning and evidence 
made conuderable impression. As 
to the trials of persons acquitted at 
the Old Bailey, were we now to 
learn that the acquittal was a proof 
of innocence ? So far was acquit- 
tal from negativing the reports of 
conspiracy, that it tended to con- 
firm it. Was it not proved that 
there had exi&ted, in this country, a 
certain description of people called 
the Corresponding Society ? the ob- 
ject of which was, to pull down 
aur government^ to destroy our 
property, to introduce a new sys- 
tem of power on the model of the 
French republic, under, the spe« 
cious mask of parliamentary re- 
Ibrm. With respect to another 
point brought forward against mi* 
sisters, namely^ their representing 
every man as a jacobin who did 
not agree with them ; for his own 
part« he denied the charge; bn^ 
had it been founded, had it been 
the desire of ministers to stigmatise 
them as being attached to French 
principles, he knew of no opposi- 
tion who had, at any time, afford- 
ed them better opportunity. But 
on what evidence was the necessity 
of the bill maintained ? (here lord 
Grenville quoted the proclamation 
in April last, which stated, that 
•ur enemiei were aided and abetted 



by persons in (his eoQntrf) tbfi 
evidence last year was deemed (be 
said) sp satis>£ictory, that a srmilar 
bill to the present pa<(4ed unani^ 
moosiy. Had qot the fact corro- 
borated exactly the minister's pro- 
gnostic ttion ? Wa« it not confirnoed 
by the person so konourah/y acquit- 
ted at Maidstone ? The house need*' 
ed not tv) be informed that he al- 
luded to O'Connor. Had not thai* 
traitor, since bis bcimurable acquit- 
tal, thrown himself on the mercy 
of that gracious sovereign whom, 
he basely had attempted to de^ 
throne ? Had he not detailed, upon 
his oath, a series of the deepest de- 
signs against Ireland, which were 
afterwards confirmed by a rebels 
lion ? Nor was this all j O'Coigly, 
one of his confederates, had also 
hern convicted of treason 5 and it 
appeared, beyond a doubt^ that a 
communication wa^ to be made fo 
the directory, not from any society 
in Ireland, but in England. All 
these things proved the assertion, 
that there had existed a conspiracy 
in this country — that it also existed 
in Irelan(i— and a design had long 
been conceived of separating the 
kingdoms from each other. ' As td 
the idea of the English conceiving 
themselves calumniated by this bili^ 
it was as absurd to suppose it, as 
that ihey would think they were all 
called murderers, because a law had 
been made against murder. If the 
discontent of the people had been 
general against their govern meat| 
he would not propose this measure ; 
because, in such circumstances, lit- 
tle could be done by the imprison-* 
ment of a few. But he was. per* 
suaded the public would view the 
bill as miuistets intended jto use it, 
not for the destruction of their li- 
berty, but its protection; a mea« 
sure which was nor to bring them 
into misery, but adopted, in ten- 
deroe^i 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



4$ 



dernesf, for tfadr fatore happiness 
9Qd present tccurity. 

Lord Uolhod affirmed that he 
bad not said dbsolutelj* the verdict 
of a yxxrj disproved a coospiracy ; 
but it had proved that, when miois* . 
tera came ro parlxamcDt, and asked 
for cxtraordioary powers^ they had 
taken op persons who were not 
guilty of that coospiracy, or that 
fhrn* was none at ali existing. 
T2us point the noble secretary had 
been veiy ready to debate^ but he 
had carefahy avoided saying one 
word ou the main snbject— the stale 
of the CU1. D I ry . The reason {pcitad 
in the preamble last year was^ that 
the enemy was about to invade us. 
I'his was not now pretended > nor, 
had it been troe, was it a reason for 
justifying the suspension of the 
hubios^corfus. As to the Maidstone 
trials, it was not yet evident that the 
conspirators, in England^ were either 
Anmerous or powerful : it qever had 
been sigoed, and the French go 
vemcnent would not have t>een so 
absurd as to act upon soch a docu • 
ineqt as the proof of meeting with 
fO-<^ration. Of Mr. O^Counor he 



saw no cause for being asbamed to 
repeat » that he bad ^een honourabty 
acquitted at Maidstone; this did not 
infer that be had been so of a pre- 
vious charge. His lordship had al« 
loded to tb^ disturbances of Ireland i 
were these any reasons for suspend- 
ing the habeas^corpus here ? The 
system pursued in Ireland had not 
produced effects to induct os to 
thiok that severe laws were the best 
remedy. Under all the attempts to 
repress evils by legislative severity, 
the rebellion bad increased there; 
and if it were now checked, it waa 
by the valour of our troops. 

He conceived the object of this 
bill was to enable government to put 
otf thr trials' of persons apprehend* 
ed, lest those trials should be attend- 
ed with disadvantage to the whole 
community. But government had 
much better consult (in his opinion) 
the tranquillity of the country, and 
the safety of the constitution^ by re- 
moving ^ievances, and taking away 
colourable prete3(ts tor rebellion. 

The house then divided. 
Contents -• - • - 26 
^i9a-cooteDt• • - 1 



BRITISH AND 



CHAP. IL 



Union with IreUmd, Menage frwn his Majesty. Debate in the Houte ^ 
Commons on his Majesty s Message, Debate on the Proposal for a Uwr<m» 
Resolutions proposed hy the Minister as preparatory to a Union. Resoluticns 
f^ro/iosed by Mr, Sheridan — rejected. Farther Debates en the Minister's 
Proposals, Committee of the 'wlude House on the Resolutions. Conferrnce 
with the Lords, His Majesty* s Message^ relative to ths Union, delivered to 
the House of lards, Confoence with the Commons, Resolutions presett/e^ 
by the Commons, Lord Auckland *s Motion for Papers, Debate on that sub- 
ject. Debate in the House of Lords on the Resolutions. Debate on the Pro- 
posat for an Address to his Majesty, Debate on the Address. Second Con- 
ference with the Commons. JAnt Address ^ hoth Houses to his Majesty. 



THE union with Ireland, on 
which we have ventured to 
deliver a cursory opinion, while it 
was yet a project, is certainly a 
fubject of the highest magnitude 
and importance to both countries -, 
jind we cannot help expressing our 
surprise, that it has not excited a 
greater interest and attention in the 
bulk of the nation. Whatever 
may be the consequences of this 
tneasure, in a commercial \'\ew, 
its political effects cannot be neu- 
tral ; they will either be productive 
of great good« or of great evil. 
With respect to commerce, we do 
not aoticipate any bpeedy conse- 
quences ot great moment. Capi- 
tal changes hands more readily 
than it changes local situation ; the 
current of commerce is not easily 
diverted into distant channels, and 
manufactures are slowly establish- 
ed, and with difficulty removed. 
But the political change which this 
measure must effect, will be more 
speedy in its operation, and of 
much greater importance. Those 
who have speculated deeply upon 
the subject of parliamentary re- 
form (a measure which we agree 
is full of hazard)| will do well to 



consider what was the nature and 
confttiti)tion of the Irinh parlia- 
ment, and to weigh well the ef- 
fects which are likely to result 
from the change which will now 
be made in the const ituticn of the 
Britiih house of commons. We 
believe we are not inaccurate wlreii 
we state, that two thirds of ihe 
Irish house of commons were mem-r 
bcrs for obscure boroughs elected 
by a few nominal burgesses ; but, 
in reality, nominated by some great 
man who was regarded a<i the owner 
or patron of the borough. Such a 
parliament was easily marshalled, 
was easily managed. By the present 
arrangement, the counties only, and 
the principal towns, are to return 
representatives ; the borough system, 
therefore, and the aristocratical in- 
fluence, are for ever at an end in the 
sister kingdom. On the other hand, 
may not the admission of one hun- 
dred members, elected in the man* 
ner which we have noticed, be re- 
garded as tantamount to the famous 
measure of reform, which, we be- 
lieve, was patronised by lord Chat- 
ham, of adding 100 county mem* 
bers to the British parliament ? It is 
not th^ number of the membeis» 



FOASIGN HISTORt. 



4T 



90 mngh 9» tbc CDO^ afid tlie mo* 
fives 00 which ihej have gained 
ibeirscatSj that will render them 
difficult to be ioflueaced by a mi- 
nister s and that two bodies of mea 
4re more eaailjr managed than one 
>Krl^cb is ottoieroas and indepen* 
ilest, ve ioaj easily prove Iruoi 
late exp^rimeau ia a Dcighbouriog 
i]«doa. Ooe etfect, therefore, ia 
obvious, from the mea^iore of the 
lu^ioo i that the const itot ton of the 
British Ugi^tar^ will certainly be 
rendered more popular ; there will 
be a greater scope for the exertion 
pf popular talents and democraiical 
iotrigoei and the influence of mi- 
niiiera will be prpporiionably nar- 
rowed. The limitation of the Irish 
peerage may also be considered as a 
step towards a measure which was 
proposed in 9 late reign, the limi- 
tation of the npmbers in the upper 
boase ; aad should the precedent 
ever be proceeded on, at any fa tare 
tinoe^ Gr^rat- Britain will behold a 
material change in its constiiutlon : 
whether for the better or the worse 
we will not vcptore 10 predict. 

from what we have stated, how- 
ever, the reader wilK perceive, that 
the clamour which has been ciLcited 
against the union, as hostile to li- 
berty, has but little foundation ; 
acd we roust add, that it is with 
little grace, or at least with little 
ccnsideraiioo, that it can be op- 
posed by the advocates of parlia- 
xneDtary retbrm, and the avowed 
enemies of aristocratical influence. 
Independent, however, of these ef« 
fects, we cai^ ourselves foresee many 
advantages arising from a unity 
of government ; and our readers 
will recoUeci, that, in giving our 
opinion 00 the measure, in a for* 
roer volume, we rather doubted of 
its seasonablcDCss thai) of its gene- 
rai policy. 

Jo oor oe&t volucpe we hope to 



present our readrra with a tidsfac- 
tory detail, from indubitable autho- 
rities, of tJie progress of this im- 
portant measure in Ireland, and tho 
re^i means by which it was ejected* 
in the mean-time the question was 
ably debated in the £ntiflfa parlia* 
meat j and from an attentive review 
of the arguments which were em^ 
ploy^ there on both sides, the 
reader will be enabled to form ai| 
opinion which will be tolerably ac- 
curate oa the merits of the question 
at large. 

The subject of a union with Ire- 
land was introduced with some ad- 
dress into the Brit ish house of coni« 
mons, on the 22d of January 1 yi^g^ 
under the form of a message frocn 
his majesty, to the following effect : 
" GEORGE R. 

** His majesty is persuaded that 
the unremitting industry with which 
pur enemies persevere in their avow- 
ed design of efi^ccting the separatiom 
of Ireland from this kingdom can* 
not fail to engage the particular at- 
tention of parliament | and his ma- 
jesty recommends it to this house 
to consider of the most effectual 
means of finally defeating this de- 
sign, by disposing the parliaments 
of both kingdoms to provide, iit 
the manner which they shall judge 
roost expedient, for settling such a 
complete and final adjustment as 
may best tend to improve and per- 
petuate a connexion essential for 
their common security, and conso- 
lidate the strength, power, and re- 
sources, of the British empire.'* 

Mr. Secretary Dimdas then moved, 
that this message be taken ioio con- 
sideration on the morrow. 

Mr. Sheridan said, as his majesty's 
message would be taken into con« 
sideratioQ on the following day, he 
look it for granted that the address^ 
which would then be proposed « 
WGuId contain ao uwirtacc, that 

the 



48 



BRITISH AND 



the honse should proceed to an 
early consideration of the subject. 
He, however, thought it necessaiy 
to give notice of his intended op- 
petition. For his part he viewed 
the bri|]|git)g forward of the questioir 
at this time as a measure replete 
with so mnch mischief, thafc he held 
it his duty to do every thing in his 
power to arrest its farther progress. 
What he pointed at particularly, 
was the time of bringing tor ward 
ihffi question ^ notwithstanding, he 
should join in returning his majesty 
thanks for hisxommunication. 

The Chancellor of the £xchequer 
said, he was at a loss to guess by 
what arguments the hon. gentleman 
would attempt to satisfy the house, 
that they ought not to proceed to 
the consideration of the measure : 
for his part, he wished to inform 
the house, that he only intended to 
propose" an address on the morrow, 
and after a sufficient interval to pro- 
ceed to the farther discussion of 
the subject. The day he wish^ to 
propose would be .Thursday se'n- 
night. He did not intend even then 
to press the house to come to a vote 
imtil the outline had been explained. 

Mr. Sheridan made a short reply. 
He deprecated the mischievous con • 
tequcnces of any discussion at all of 
the measure, therefore he was not 
to wait for the discussion when he 
deprecated the consequences. With 
respect to the arguments by which 
he should attempt, to persuade the 
•house, he hoped at least that the 
right honourable gentleman would 
m'ait till he heard them. 

The motion for taking his ma- 
jesty's message into consideration on 
the following day was thtn agreed 
to. 

On Wednesday, Jan. 23, there- 
fore, Mr..Sccretary Duodas brought 
several papers relative to the pro- 
ceedings of certsiin societies in Ire^ 



land, and the rebellion in that conn-^ 
try, which were ordered to be laid 
on the table. After this, the order 
of the day for the consideration o€ 
his majesty's message being read, 

Mr. Secretary Dundas rote, an<3 
said, he thought it almost unneces— 
sary to say one word more than simply 
to move an address to his majesty^ 
thanking him for his most gracious 
communication ; as his right hon. 
friend had yesterday stated to the 
house, that it was not intended to 
consider at pre'sent the immediate 
topics in the message, but only to 
move an address signifying the rea- 
diness of the house to take them 
into their serious consideration, and 
to appoint a farther day for resun?- 
ing the subject. He then moved 
the address, the substance of which 
was, that the house would proceed 
with all due dispatch to the con* 
sideraiion of the several interests 
recommended to their serious at> 
tention in the message. 

Mr. Sheridan rose, and said, be 
must frankly declare, that he was 
not of the same opinion with tho 
right hon. gentleman^ who thought 
that there was nothing more neces- 
sary, on the part of his majesty's 
ministers, than to move a mere ad- 
dress, returning the thanks of the 
house for his majesty's most gra- 
cious communication. The subject 
was too important to be passed Over 
lightly, in any stage of its progress. 
Not one man in the country would 
be free from reproach, if he could 
regard with apathy^ or with an ease 
of temper approaching to indiffe- 
rence, a question which at once 
would iovo\ve every thing dear to 
Irishmen, and which ought to b« 
dear to every subject of the British 
empi re . He t herefore thought t ha t 
more wa% necessary on -the part of 
his majesty's ministers, than merely 
to mvva an address^ as it was stafted 

ihAt 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



« 



that (lie pnnciptljobjeet of the mes- 
sskf^e from the crown wa^ to invite 
' the comiQons of Great-Britain to 
the coosideration of the most prac- 
ticable meafis of finally adjoatin^ 
the interests in common between 
Greac-Britaii. and Ireland. From 
this condderation be was led to in- 
quire, how the terms of the final 
aidjustment, made and agreed to by 
tlffi parliaments of the two coun- 
trie?., in 1762, came to Tail. No 
man acquainted with the history of 
that period could have forgotten in 
what kind of circumstances "that 
adjastm^-ni took place : on this he 
roadc some very pointed remarks, 
and said, before ministers recom- 
mended to the hou.{e of commons 
to take measures that lead inevita- 
bly to the dijcu^'sion of some plan of 
union, it wa> incumbent upon them 
to have shown that the last pledge 
of the English parliament to the 
people of Ireland, by which their 
independence was recognised, and 
their rights ackno^silged, had hot 
product that unanimity which the 
parliaments of the two countries 
^aght to cherish. He thoujjht it 
Impossible for any man clearly I0 
show, that there ever was want of 
tinanimity on any important occa- 
iion. He said he was the more 
strongly impressed with this belief, 
bttause a solemn declaration of the 
Irish parliament, sanctioned by all 
Ireland, was now on record, wherein 
it was stated, that the independence 
of Ireland woold be asserted by the 
P«op'e ot Ireland^ and that their 
parliament was an independent par— 
iiament, and thai, there was no 
power whatever competent to make 
laws for that country. From this 
^?ws«Jkration,he said, be must think 
thai the people in that country, 
who reallj ciierished and loved ra- 
tional liberty, would come forward 
^ a second adjostment with |t ten- 
1799- • 



per which he t^s afraid would ta* 
gur not tfanquiliity, but disquie- 
tude.' He owned that there was 
something informal in this way of 
treating the question immediately 
before the house, notwithr tandmg^ 
much as he respected the forms, he 
felt that to he silent on the present 
occasion would be to act unbecom- 
ing a man enamoured of free dis- 
cussion : his country had claims upoa 
him, he said, which he was not more 
proud to acknowledge than lead J 
to liquidate. 

Mr. Sheridan added, that h^ was 
perfectly ready to give credit to 
ministers for purity of intention, 
for he really thought they would 
not propose a measure which they s 
believed would ultimately terminate 
in a separation of .Great Britain from 
Ireland. It was a connection which 
he wished to preserve, as much as 
any man, ana was equally averse 
to sedition and revolt ; upon this 
he dwelt with great energy, and 
said, he had no doabt but France 
anxiously looked on, eager to come 
in for a share of the pl\^nder of the 
liberties of Ireland. This he used 
as an argument against the present 
measure, tis having a tendency ra- 
ther to encourage this enemy than 
to drive them from their settled 
purpose. He asserted also, that it 
was the conduct^ of ministers to- 
wards the-Irfsh nation from which 
alone we could have any reason to 
apprehend danger ; by aividing tho 
native and constitutional defender^ 
of Ireland, they would sow among 
them the seeds of treason, and en- 
courage the attempts of the enemy' 
on that unfortunate country. He 
next made some general remarks on 
the dismissal of certain respectable 
characters fromoflice, and especially - 
sir J. Pamcll^ as mentioned in a 
letter from lord Cornwallis, which 
showed that the object was a union, 
D though 



» 



«llITfS« AND 



though (heworduMon -vma not to 
be fbynd in the message. Oo this 
^roaod he contended that we had 
pot a single proof of the people of 
Ireland manifisijiiag a wish toanite^ 
on the contrai^r, they had cmequi'- 
Tocaliy declared tbem#elfes hoBlile 
io the proposition ; and if it was 
efTcctcd, it would be a union ac« 
complished by surprise, {raud, cor- 
rqption, and ioti nidation. Indeed, 
had we been told that the whole 
ixiople of Ireland b^d declared that 
they would shake ok all aUegiance« 
and that the parliameDt had vio- 
.lated the tights of the people ; that 
the countiy did not prosper under 
iM constitution -, then he said there 
were strong reissons for agreeiog to 
the propisitioQ of union ; but this 
bad not been the case : the Irish 
cononsons had been thanked tor 
their patriotic vigilance in defeating 
their internal ei emi^. He nex.t 
made some remarks on the conspi- 
f acy in England^ as asserted by mi- 
fiisters, whose reports, he obserred^ 
stood contradicted by jories, and 
whose accusations had been falsified 

' \ij verdicts of acquittal : and he 
also cpotended that the juries of 
Ireland had returned iperdicts of 
convictions naore contrary to jus- 
lice, and more dishonourable to 
them as men, than the juries of 
Ei^land could possibly do. Mr. 
Sheridan further observed, that 
the parliament of England was not 

** eompetent .to legislate for the par* 
liao;ieot of Irdand ,; as every advan- 
tage of situation favoured the one, 
of which the other was deprived -, 
and he i^emarked, that lord Clare 
bad said, thalt the English parlia- 
ment was less acquainted with the 
atate of Ireland than any body of 
men in the world. The only argu- 
ments he had seen for the present 
measure, which he could suppose 
caooa UoQfi x^wstespi were ihose 



contaiflod in a book written b^ 
two gentlemen in office in Ireland, 
and a more oBTeosive or more flimsy 
production he bad never seen. Af^ 
ter making some very shrewd re« 
marks upon this pamphlet, he cert- 
eluded with proposing the following 
amendment : 

'' At thesame time to express the 
aurprise and deep regret with whh:b 
the house, for the first time, learned 
from hia majesty, that the final ad- 
justment, which, upon his majea- 
ty*s gracious recommendation, -took 
place between the two kingdoms in 
1762, had not produced the efiecta 
eiqaected from that solemn settle- 
ment ; and, farther, humbly to ex« 
press to his majesty, that his faithful 
commons had stroog reasons to be- 
lieve that it was in the contempla- 
tion of his ra^esty's ministers to 
propose a union of the legislatures 
of the two kingdoms, notwithstand- 
ing that final and solemn adjust* 
ment ; humbly imploring his majesty 
not to listen to the counsels oi thosts 
who should advise such a measore 
at the present crisis.*' 

Mr. Canning rose, and combated 
the arguments of Mr. Sheridan; and 
observed, that though the words 
*' final adjustment *' were made use 
of in the journals of 1732, yet 
if the house would but attend lo 
what followed in the same jour- 
nals, they would see that another 
resolution followed, evidently of a 
perspective nature, which declored 
the itecQssity of establishing some 
more permanent system, by which 
the tranquillity and prosperity of 
Ireland could renaain uninterrupted) 
and continue to be improved. 

His honourable friend had con- 
tended, that this was not a proper 
time to discuss such a question, 
whtn Ireland was in such a ooo- 
vulsed state. The house could not- 
hot remember, he said, that for 

three 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



51 



thrpCTfairs past those who were in 
the babii i f opposing bis* majesty's 
taloi«l«ii »»d irpcacrdly bern ctH- 
inj; for i quirics ioio the si ate of 
affsifs ef Irdand, ihoiigh «och in- 
qukie« were not then brought with- 
in ibcriow of the boose; bat now it 
seemed ibcj bad no wish for auy 
in^cuigBi'ion, and all fbeir cufiosity 
h?d ^ohsided. Sorrty his honoarabie 
thcnd had not inquired into the 
fitJie of Infland jtince laic cventa 
hud taken place. Vias it nut noto- 
rioost that the object of 4ie traito- 
roQs macbinatloTM whtch had given 
ri-se to the rtbeMion was not any 
partial cbaogi* ^ men or tncasiircs, 
hut a total subversion of ihr exist- 
ing govcroiDcbt aod con titutlon of 
the cotintry, and the complrtr de- 
structioa oif all connect ton be wren 
the sister k-ngdofn and Grtai-Bri- 
tain ? After the detection of tht^se 
deep and destructive plot5, fcurHy it 
wight f o he deemed expedimi to 
enamtne into, and adopt the tnost 
eftectoal noeansofcoonteraciiagythe 
()eraicioo9 consequences that miglit 
*liU (lojffr from them. 

He next made some observe fions 
i^pon Eh". Doigenan s Answer to Mr. 
Grattaa^ on which he passed some 
very l&and^ooie conipHfnents, and 
reccarked tbat Dr. DuigenHn stated 
it as an unavoidable alternative, 
either tbat a plan of union mu9t be 
adopted, or that tome other must 
be deT29ed» fior the ft)rti'fication of 
^he pn>tc9tai)t qseeodancy. Thehon. 
geotietnafi had «trong>y insisted on 
the intimidatioii which the presence 
of ao armed foree wotsid be Vikc^y 
to iflapfess on the public mind of 
Irelaiwl i it was by promoting such 
an union of interests and affections, 
as tbifi fBta'^ore would injure, fbat 
-we migfalbc^ to remove the neces- 
sity of keeping a large armed force 
in Ireland j and removing \hat ne- 
cessitj, in iket, woold renooye oue 



of the objects of hts own censnre 
and complaint. But whc»e were the 
effects of that intimidation which 
the honourable infill lemaii seefned 
to apprehend r It surely did not af« 
feet either the liberty of speech, or 
the lil erty of the prci-s ; both he 
remarked h^d been preity freclj it>- 
dulged oh the present subject He 
also observe J, ihat some of ihc most 
strenuous friends of reform in Ire- 
land had frequently said, that they/ 
wanted only to be brought iKarer 
to the perfection of Englaoil. and 
desired tbat they might enjov the 
subritantial blessing*! of the British 
constitution. 

Here he made some venr judi- 
cious animadversions on the French 
constitution, as well as their con* 
duct towards the people of Pied- 
mont ; all which he reprobated ifi 
the most htnk ng language. 

Mr Cunoiiig thrn observed, that 
it had been trequen ly snid, that 
nothing l.ad bcm tlonc for Ireland 
but what she had extorted, and what 
she had a right lo demand ; but he 
would wish to ask, whether an ia« 
dependent country could demand 
to trade to the colonies of another 
independent country, as a matter of 
right ? Could an indeix'ndent coun- 
try, he said, insist upon sending her 
linens to England under the most 
advantageous circum'^tances as a 
right? He did not me-ni ion those 
things as repro^chmg Ireland with 
the gratitude wjiich she owed to 
England, but merely to show the 
good disposition of England to- 
wards Ireland 

After some observations upon the 
benefit which must result from tlic 
present measure, he concluded by 
conjuring the house not to refuse to 
consider a question which involved 
in itself the best, pe'h'psthe only 
means which could remove the 
dangers, and quiet the dissensions 
D 2 ef 



B2 



BRITISH AND 



of Ireland, while they cemented the 
conoection which U was essential 
for both couDtries to strengthen. 

Mr. Jones was against the mea* 
rare, and contended that it wou!d 
have a tendcn<y to pronpote the dis- 
tractions of the coumry. and extend 
that system of horrible rapine which 
had ut)happi]y too long prevailrd. 

Mr. Chancellor Pitt said, the hon. 
gentleman, in bringing forward his 
araendnoeut, had but one argumtrnt 
in support of ^he conclu^ioo which 
be laboured to. establish, viz. that 
there was no power which could 
make the resii It of the deliberation 
foi^ adjusting the reciprocal interests 
of both countries effectual. He hid 
taken upon himself tlte task of de- 
nying . to the parliament of either 
kingdom the right of incorporating 
one country with the other. If the 
parliament of Ireland had no' right 
to incorporate itself with the legis- 
lature of this country without the 
aense of the people of Ireland, as 
little had the parliament of Great- 
Britain a right to follow the same 
measure wiih that of Ireland, aa 
little had the parliament of Scot- 
land a right to agree to the terms 
* of the union which had been ef- 
fcctedf and as little had the parlia- 
ment of England a right to ratify/ 
that union. If there were any truth 
or consistency in what the honour- 
able gei^tleman had said in his deni- 
al of the right which he challenged, 
then all the solid and beoedcial 
establishments which had been car- 
ried into effect since the period of 
the union must give way and fall 
to the ground. With respect to the 
competence of parliament to carry 
the measure into effect, ther6 did not 
. appear the least dottbt. The honoiur- 
able gentleman had declined enter- 
ing upon any inquiry whatever re- 
lative tolrelandi now, said Mr. Pitt, 
be is bound to make out to xis, that 



the state of Ireland in complete]] 
satisfactory, and that there is m 
need- of the present measure : how 
ever, for his part, he had beard do< 
thing but complaints, and had necc 
the rebellion raging with inveierstf 
fury, and aiming a deadly blow ai 
Uie connection between that coun- 
try and Great'Britain. If the hoo. 
gentleman looked to Ireland for a 
legislature calculated to apply a ra- 
dical cure to these calamities, be 
would find himself disappointed ; 
surely he never could suppose that 
the parliament of Ireland coold be 
so well adapted to have that degree 
of connection with the great ma^;* of 
the people as the parliaoieiit of Great 
Britain. The honourable gentleman 
did not scruple to assert, that the 
final adjustment with Ireland in J/ ^i 
had been found competent to settle 
every difference, and that he wished 
to perpetuate the conneotioo be- 
tween Great-Britain and Irdaod: 
but, for his pirt, be did not wish it 
to be perpetuated, but that Irelsod 
should participate in all tha blessingi 
of iheBritish empire. 

He next made some observatlona 
on what Mr. Sheridan had advanced 
relative to the final adjustment^ and 
contended that it was dictated bj 
the spirit of momentary popubri'fi 
and was not founded in <he soW 
interests of theconntry. He said, 
when the act was passed which g^v^ 
independence to Ireland, It was ac- 
companied by a resolution,, wiib a 
saluury provision. This resolution 
stated that it was the opinion of*^ 
lK)U8e, that the connection between 
both kingdoms should be consoli- 
dated by future measures or regula- i 
tionB founded upon the bssia ol | 
mutual consent. He then ordered 
the extracts lo be read fr«" "1* 
journals : after whicli he proceeded, 
aod6aid,'^he had the BUlhoritf^^ 
that resoluiion to provej ^'^^^ 



FOREIGN H I Sr T O R Yr 



5$ 



£caJ ai^nrtnient vas then made; 
aod Dothiog had been t ioce attempt- 
ed to provide for that defective set- 
tiemeot, bot thcpartia] aod iuad- 
equaie measure of the Irish propo- 
sttions, which were defeated by the 
persons who liamcd the resola- 
lioo. ThenMSy be said, of showing 
that it was a final adjostment, laf 
with tiiQse who framed the resoJu- 
tiao, vis. tbe hoooarable gentleman 
snd iiisfriend*«. He contended that 
(iii-re R^ight be a probable case in 
which the k^islatnres of both king* 
dorns (^fier, and referred to the case 
of the regency some yea rs back , when , 
be said, the Irish parliament decided 
upon one princi|4c^ and the British 
parliament npon another, notwith- 
standing however they both led to 
tiie appoiotmeat of tbesame person. 
He hem remarked that the person 
most have been regent in one capa- 
city in onecoaotty, aod in a capa- 
city directly the reverse in the other; 
he ibertfyn contended, that the of- 
fice might opon grounds rqually 
justifiable, have been vested in two 
distinct persons. He said, he had 
now been arguing to provide for 
the prosperity and safety of Ire- 
land, and to remedy the miserable 
imperfectioos of the arrangement 
made in 1762 : the present state of 
that Goontry were indeed deplorable ; 
and, if any institution were inade- 
qna^.e to establish the intemal tran- 
quiliity of that country, he did not 
hesitate to say the Irish legislature 
was not from de^t of. intention 
or want of talent, but from its own 
Batiire, hicapable of Eeatoring Ihe 
intemal happiness of the country, 
and fixing the prosperity of the 
people on a finn and permanent 
basis. 

Mr. Sheridan oiade a short reply^ 
and 



The Chancellor of the Eicfaeqae 
said also a few words in explanation 

Mr. Martin- remarked, th^c if, 
upon a future discussion of the sub- 
ject before tbe hous", it should ap* 
pear that a union wrih Ireland would 
contribute to the advantage of bot 1^ 
countries, it ouiirht to be agreed to.< 

Mr Sheridan then withdrew hit 
amendment, and the original mo** 
tion was put and carried. 

On Thursday, Jan. 31, the order 
of the day being read for trfking 
his maiest)''s message into consi« 
•deraiion, 

Mr. Chancellor Pitt rose, and said, 
when he proposed to the house the 
subject tbe last time, in order tofi& 
that day for the farther confident* 
tion of his majesty's message, he 
indulged a hope that the result of 
a similar commonication to the par* 
lianoent of Ireland would have open* 
ed a more favourable prospect ihaa 
at present existed * of the speedy 
accomplishment of a measure which 
he then proposed : however, he said« 
he had been disappointed by the 
proceedings of the Irish house of 
commons. He was convinced that 
the parliament of Ireland possessed 
the power, the entire competence, 
to accept or reject a pro}X)sition of 
this nature ^a power wLich he by 
no means meant to dispute : but 
while he admitted the right9 of the 
parliament of Ireland, he Mi that, 
as a member of parliament of Great* 
Britain, Jie had a right to exercise, 
and a duty to perform,' vis. to ex* 
press the geoenU nature and out* 
line of tbe plan, which, in his esti- 
mation, would tend to insure the 
safety and the happiness of the two 
kingdoms. Should parliament be 
of opinion that it was calculated to 
produce mutual advantage to the 
, two kingdoms, he should propose it 
03 -to 



* The Triih parliament hii just then rejf cted the proposal for a union. Of the 
vliole-of these procceUiogs i^ Ireland wc shall give a fuU account iu our next voliuae. 



u 



B t It I IH iLIff ft 



to be r^erde<), that ihe patlitaient 
of Great brititin was rratfy to abide 
by it, leaving it to the legislature 
of Ireland to rejector adopt it here- 
after upon a full consideration of 
the subject Notwiihsianding the 
opinion e«prcs<>ed by thf Irish house 
of cotnnions, he was convinced that 
the cneasure was founded upon such 
dear and demonstrable grounds of 
utility, and attended with to many 
sdrantages to Ireland, that all tliat 
Coald be Raid for its ultimate adop- 
tion was, that it should be stated 
distinctty, temperately, and fully, 
and Jhen Mt to the unprejudiced 
judgment of the parliament of Ire 
land. He should therefore, before 
be sat down, open to the house a 
aerie<i of ret»olution'», comprisir>g the 
getieral head^ of the plan, and move 
that the houite resolve itself ii.ro a 
eommhtee to discoss those resolu- 

ttORS. 

The general principle, to which 
both bides of ihe 'hoase acceded, 
was, that a perpetual connection 
between Orea^-Britain and Ireland 
tven essentia) to the interests of both 
^antrie^. Ireland had been ar- 
iacked, he ftaid, by Itireign enemies, 
and by domestic traitors, whose 
great object it was to dissolve the 
connection. When he addressed the 
bouse Isii upon the subject he stated 
that the settlement, which wa<) made 
in 17B2, so far from deserving the 
oaine of a final adju!»tment, wa% one 
that left the connection between 
Great Britain ^nd Ireland exposed 
to all rhe attacks «f par'y> an^ all 
the eiiects of accident. Th a set* 
tiemeskt, he contended, consisted in 
fho demolition of the system which 
had beioro h^ld the twocoontries 
together. Such was the final adjust- 
ment, which he could prpye |k>C 
only firoip the plainest reasoning, 
bf$l by the opinion expressed by the 
British parliament at that very time. 
Oo a foritierpight, hewid, he show- 



ed, from the journals, wftat -was the 
opinion of those by whom tb« ^nal 
adjustment was proposed, vw^hen it 
appeared that the message was sent 
to the parlianoent of Irehmd^ r«-- 
com mending to them the. adept ion 
of some plnn lor a fi n.-)l adjo!itfT>erK 
betwe'tn the two count riea, an J 
wi^hilig to know the grounds of 
the grievances of which they cotn- 
plained. In answer to ihta nr>e<- 
sage, I he parliament of Ireland 
stated certain grievances, the prin- 
cipal of which waa, the x>€i\evr 
claimed hy iHe parliament of Gr<.'ai* 
Britain of making laws to bind ire- 
land : but with respect to thai part 
of the message rrlative to tl>e pro- 
priety of adopting some measures 
for a final adjustment between the 
two countries, ihey were wholly 
silent. Tlieir grievances were re- 
dressed by parliament, by the repeal 
of what was called the declaratory 
act. 

[Mr. Sheridan here desired that 
that part of the journals to whtcb 
Mr. Pitt alluded mig^t be read.] 

After this, Mr. Pitt p*ooe«ded, 
and said, that after the artotion lor 
the bill, of which so much had been 
said, an address was moved to his 
majrsiy, and carried, praying h:ni 
to take such farther mea.<ur0« as to 
him seemed proper to strengthen 
the connection between the two 
countries. He said, he had dwelt^ 
>onger upon this parc^f the subject 
than waa absolutely necessary, b«it 
it was merely to shoM- that the fin^l 
adjustment of 1782 was incomplete. 
He next nHide aome remaiks on the 
obviocw impedimenta to the pro^ 
sperity of Ireland : one of tlie mo«t 
prominent ilniurea was a want of 
iodusfry and a capital, which, he 
said, were only to be supplied by 
blending more closely with Ireland 
the industry and capital ot this 
country. .He also made some ob- 
aeryatigna on the zeiigious distinc- 

tioos; 



FOKBI G H BIS.TaRT. 



M 



Cf offw; i9Pbicb, he ssmI« be wn »»9ria9 
W2S a daogeiDai and delicate topic, 
ecpeciaUy when applied to Ireltad. 
However, do ooao could say, io the - 
prrcsent state of tilings, aad while 
IrelaDd lemiDed a separate king- 
dDtn, fbat full ooocrstioas coold be 
ra.'tde lo the catholics, without en- 
daiigefiag the state, atid shaking 
the oooBtituiioB oif Ireiaod to its 
ocotrv. He next madesome remarks 
oa tbe great advautages which lie- 
land woaid derive from a onioo 
withGreat^Britaini which, he said, 
b« coold prove from the documents 
which be beki in hisiiand, as far as 
i^latcd to the mere interchange of 
resnofactures. The maou€ictures. 
exported to Ireland from Great- Bri- 
tain- io 1797 very little exceeded a 
miUion sterling (the articles of pro- 
duce amooated to nearly the same 
snra), while Great- BritaiBi 00 the 
other hand, imporred from Ireland 
to the amoont of near three aail • 
h'ons in file manufiictured articles 
of lioeo add linen yarn, and be- 
twern two or three millions in pro- 
visions and cattle, besides com and 
other articles of produce. . After 
dweDing upo» this subject at some- 
length, he made some observations 
on what the honourable gentleman 
opposite him (Mr, Sheridan) bad 
said when hisou^esty's message was 
brought down, viz. that the parlia-- 
ment of Ireland was ioeompeteot 
to enicrtaio and disctisa the qoes« 
tion, or rather to act upoo the mea- 
sore proposed, withoot having pre- 
viously obtained the consent of the 
people of Ireland, their censtitacnts. 
However, from what the honourable 
gentleman said afterwaYdt, he con- 
cluded that be made this objection 
rather by way of deprecating the 
discQtsion, than as entertaining the' 
Binalkftt doubt opon it himself. If, 
however, the boiiourabler gsntleman> 
«r 117 «tber gendieaHUi^ en thMAif 



side of tbe boose, should senolitly 
entertain a doubt on the subject, be 
should be ready t«> dijcuss it with 
him even then, or at any future 
opponuoity. No man, ho said, who 
held tbe parliament of Ireland to be* 
co-equal with that of Great- Rritain, 
could deny itt compatency on this 
question. He then made some ob- 
servations relative to the nnioii with 
Scotland, and aemarked, that it was 
as much opposed, and by much tbo 
sacne argumenta, prejudiceS| and ' 
raiscQOceptionSy creaiiog the tame 
alarms, and provoking the same 
outrages, as had lately taken plac* 
at Dublin ; yet, hetaid, let any men- 
look at tbe advantages which Scot- 
land had derived' since the union }' 
the population of Edinburgh had 
been more than doubled, and a 
new city was added to the ol4- 
one. He also reasarked, that Glaf* 
gow bad increased in proportion. 
After a variety of arguments to 
prove the great advantage of a 
union with Ireland, he brought 
forward his resolutions, of which 
he wished, that tbt mora detailed 
discussion might be reserved till 4 
future day. 

R£so£imoirs. 

'' i.ThatinoEdertopromof^and 
secure theessential kiteresrs of Qreat 
Britain aod Ireland^ and to eonso* 
lidattt the strength, power, and re« 
sources of tbe ft-itish empire, it will 
be adviseable to concur in such mea* 
aurea as may best tend to unite iho' 
twoMngdoma of Great-Britain and' 
Ireland into one kingdom, in soch. 
manner, and on sudi terms and 
oonilitiona, as may be established 
by aetsr of the rcapective parliamenta^ 
of hie majesty's said kingdoms. 

" 2. That it appear! to thia com* 
mtttee, tbsc it would be fit to pro* 
pese^ aa the first article, to serve aa 
a basis of tbe said" union, that the 
fliad Uiigdoais of Gfeat-aricai» ao^ 
D 4 Ireland 



66 



BRITISH AND 



Ireland shall^ upon a day lobe agreed 
upon, be united into one kingdnn^, 
by the name of the United Kingdom 
of Griat'Briiam and Ireland. 

. *' 3. That for the same porpcteeit 
appears also tb this committee, that 
it would be fit to propose that the 
•uccession to ihe monarchy and the 
imperial crown of the said united 
kingdoms bballcontinne limited and 
acttled, in (he same manner as the 
imperial crown of the ^aid king- 
doms of Great-Britain and Ireland 
now stands limited and settled, ac- 
cording to the eiistiug laws, and 
to the terms of the union between 
England and Scotland. 

*' 4. Thai for the same purpose it 
appears alno'to this committee, that 
it would be fit to propose that the 
said united kingdom be presented 
in one and the same parliament, to be 
atyled the parliament of the United 
Kingdom of Great- Britain and Ire- 
land ; and that such a number of 
lords, spiritual and temporal, and 
auch a number of members of the 
house of commons, as shall be here- 
after agreed upon by acts of the 
rfspective parliaments as aforesaid, 
shall sit and vole in the said parlia^ 
xnent on the part of Ireland, and 
shall be aummened, chosen, and re- 
tnrned, in such manner as shall be 
fixed by an act of the parliament tff 
Ireland previous to the said union : 
and that every member hereafter to 
ait and vote in the said parliament 
of the United Kingdom shall, until 
the said parliament shall otherwise 
provide, take,^andsub«iciibe the same 
oaths, and make the sajne declara- 
tion, as are by law required to be 
ti»ken, subscribed, and made by the 
members of the parliaments of 
Great -Britain and Ireknd. 

" 5. That for ihe same purpose it- 
appears also to this committee, that 
It would be fit to propose that the 
diurches of £ngland and Irelapd^ 



and the doctrine^ worship, disci- 
pline, and government thereof^ Eb&il 
he preserved as no^ by by law csti- 

blishcd. 

>'' 6 That for the sanoeporpoacic 
appears also to thts committee, that 
it would be fit to propose that bis 
majesty's subjects in Ireland shall at 
alt times hereafter be entitled to the 
same prij^ileges, and be on the same 
footing in respect of trade and na- 
vigation, in all ports and places be- 
longing to Great- Britain, and in all 
cases with respect to which treaties 
shall be made by his majesty, bis 
heirs or successors, with any foreign 
power, as his majesty *s subjects ta 
Great* Britain \ that no duty shall be 
imposed on the import or export 
between Great Britain and Ireland 
of any articles now duty frtac $ and 
that on other articles there shall be 
established, for a time to be limited, 
such a moderate rate of equal duties^ 
as shall, previous to the union, be 
agreed upon and approved by the 
respective parliaments, subject, after 
the expiration of such limited time, 
to be diminished equally with respect 
to both kingdoms, but in no case 
to be increaiM:d \ that all articles 
which may at any time hereafter be 
imported into Great Britain Irom 
foreign parts, shall be importable 
through either kingdom into the 
other, subject to the like duties and 
regulations as if the same were im- 
ported directly from foreign parts j 
that where an\ articles, the growth, 
produce, or manufacture, of either 
kingdom, are subject to any inter- 
nal duty in one kingdom, such coun- 
tiervaiiing duties (over and above 
any duties on impoit to be fixed ^% 
aforesaid) shall be imposed as shall 
be necessary to prevent any inequa- 
lity in th^t respect ; and ihut all 
other matters of trade and com- 
merce, other than the foregoing, and 
than such others as may before thf 

unioq 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



uakm be tpecuinj agreed opoo for 
cheque ^acoQFBgement of the agri- 
cotture and maao&ctiires of the re- 
speciive kingdoiDS, sliad remain to 
be regelated from time to time by 
the ootted patliameot. 

** 7. That for the like purpose U 
woolfl he Bt to propose^ that the 
cbai|^ ariaiog from (he payment of 
the latertst or sinking 1 nod for the 
nednctjon of the principal of the 
debt toewred in either kingdom 
befoie the anion, shall continue to 
he separately defrayed by Great- 
BriiatD and Ireland respectiTeif. 
That, far a namber of years to be 
liroitedy the fo tore ordinary expenses 
of thenoited kiogdom, in peace or 
^ar, dionld be defrayed by Greai- 
Britaio and Ireland jointiy* accord- 
ing to sQch proportions $t» shall be 
established by the respective parlia- 
ments pre«ioQs to the noion ; and 
that, afler the expiration of the time 
to be so limited, the proportions 
ibalf oof be liable to-be varied, ex- 
cept according to such rates and 
principles as shall be in like manner 
agreed upon previoos to the union. 

'^ ^. That for the like purpose it 
vroahl be fit to propose, that all 
laws in force at the time of the 
anion, and that all the courts of 
civil or ecclesiastical jurisdiction 
within the respective kingdoms, 
shall lemain us now by law esta- 
biisbed within the same, subject only 
to such alterations or regulations, 
from time to time, as circumstances 
may appear to the parliament of 
the United Kingdom to require. 

" Thai the foregoing resolutions 
be laid before bis majesty, with an 
bumble address, assuring his majesty 
that we have proceeded with the 
utmost attention to the considera- 
tion of the important objects re- 
commended to US in his majesty's 
gracioos message. 
" That ve entertain a firm per* 



snasioD that ft cumpliit mad miin 
unhn between GreauBritain sod 
Ireland, founded on equ;il and li* 
beial pnnctples, on the similarity 
of laws, constitution^ nod goveva* 
ment, and on a aense of motnal 
interests and affections, by pro- 
moting the security, wealth, and 
commerce, of the respective king* 
dom^'^ and by allay ir^ the disirac* 
tions which have unhappily pte* 
vailed in Ireland^ must alTord fresh 
mrans of opposing at ail times mi 
eifectual resistance to the destrop* 
tive projects of our foreign and d«<- 
Inestic enemies, aod moat tepd !• 
confirm and augment the stability»^ 
power^ and resour^is of tjie em- 
pire. 

** Impressed with these coDsider«-^ 
ationSy we feel it our doty huniblf 
to lay before his majesty such pro* 
pisitionsas apprar to usbrvt calcn* 
lated to form the basis of such m 
settlement^ leaving it to his majesty a 
wisdom, at such time aod m suck 
manner as his majesty, in his pa- 
rental solicitude for the happiness 
of his people, shall judge ht, to 
communicate these propositions tn 
bis parliament of Ireland* with 
whom we shall be at all times readjf 
to concur in all such measure^ as 
may be found most conducive to 
the accomplishment of this great 
and saluLiry work. And we trust 
tbat^- after full aod nuiture consi- 
deration, such asettlemet.t majll^ 
framed and established, by the deli- 
beratrve consent of the parlidmentS 
of botli kingdoms, as may be con^ 
formable to the sentiments, wishes^ 
and real interests of bis majesty'a 
faithful subjects of Great Brit a in 
and Ireliind, and may unite theoi 
inseparably in the foil enjoyment 
of the blessings of our free and in- 
valuable constitution, in the support 
of the honour and dignity of his 
majesty's crowo, and in the preser^ 

v«uoa 



FKITISK AN»^ 



^fm\9m and sdvaircemant of the weU 
Ibro and prosperity of the whole 
British empire/*' 

Mr. Shrridan rose, and, in a vifry 
Md and animated speech^ replied 
fri' the chancellor of the exchequer. 
Though the right hon. gentleman 
ladintHoduced, he said, the ques- 
tion with a great display of elo- 
qaence; he muBt yet critlcalty por- 
aoe him in ail the naazes of his dex- 
trous declamation. He observed,' 
Ihat he had taken an opportunity 
laair week of opposing the measure 
of 4egi]i4atire union with Ireland, 
m t<ber fiiist stage of the discussion, 
which, as a matter of coarse, was to 
haid to Ikal question. He did it from 
a conviction, that measures of snch' 
magnitude and of such novelty, 
Aitmd always be opposed in the in- 
fancy of I heir progresa. However, 
after conaidaring the subject more 
iaWy, he waa convinced, under the 
ftt9tnt 'circumstances of the con- 
vvriwd and disordered system of po- 
licy and general government of Ire- 
land, that* it waa not only impolitic, 
but aren onaafe, to agitate the dis- 
iStMsnon of topics, (he issoes of which 
were to lay the most hardy and 
afoot hearted prostrate at the feet 
of a British minister. Considering 
flM manner in which the subject 
Waa brought forward in Ireland, 
and' the fate of the question ici %ht 
parKttment of that kiogdonv it 
ao^ht be doubted whether the right 
hon. gentlenaan would persevere 
in the measure. He had, however, 
aolemnly pledged himtself, that- it 
afaooid bo the favourite object of 
the remainder of hia potitical life 
to c#eet a legislative union of Che* 
fwo kingdoms. But, thank God ! 
iaid Mt. SheridaTi, the house had 
ivat givea a pledge to support him. 
The right hon. gentleman had sown^ 
already the most frightfbl disteiv* 
aiont in that uofbrtunata caootry* 
He had divided ita parliament 



afaimt itaelf. Her lad bA&it op f« 
scorn, by libelling its measures, at>d 
traducing its wisdom ; and, after all, 
he had to array the British parlia- 
ment against it, with d perttnacitj 
which distinguished ignorance, and 
with the fierceness of men who 
were to be told, that a coon try arrug- 
giing for its liberties only vraged 
the war of faction, and Wiafded the 
we.ipons of disaffection and trca&on. 
The right hon. geniieman had con- 
tended, that the Gommercial ad^ar- 
tage^ derived by Traland from her 
connoction with G^^x Britain were 
necessary to her existf nee ; and be 
add«ds in the same breath, that to 
l^ve those advantages coi^tioued to 
her, a union was indispensable* . The 
inference, Mr. Sheridan aatd, was, 
fbat Ireland moat abandon ail her 
commarctal advantages if she re- 
jected the proffered) aMiattcv. From 
this, ha contended, that the people 
of Ireland couid not come with 
unbiassed minds to this dfacaiasioo, 
and it would be impossible that a 
free choice could be left to the par- 
liament of 'that country. He also 
contended that Irt^hind ought to 
consent to a unions becaase »he 
was incapable of dirfeuding hcfwrlf 
against h^r inrrrna^ and extarBal 
enemies without her powerful neigh- 
bour. Mr. Sheridan insisted that 
t ha in fereuce was i r resistible. Waa 
it generoua^ he said, lo hoM oot 
such language to Ireland } Would it 
be proper to force the people of Ik- 
land to ask, why they have not had 
those advantages yietded' to thero, oa 
which, according to tha opinion of 
l4»e British minii^ter, theirproaperity 
depends ? With respeet to what ik^ 
right hon. gentleman had said rala- 
tive to Ireland, not being alMf to 
defend heraelf, it ^as well leno^rn 
that her votoxHeers had dtfended 
Ireland during the war; bat ha 
contended that it waa » awat croel 
taunt, uttered in the face of the 

whole 



FOftSXGll HrsroRY. 



«9 



v4idfo people uf Trelsiod , tc^' sa^, rhaf 
while ve have 40,60f> Bricisb troop* 
m tike hciart of their country, wef 
wi\t awe tJlti» by such a force, re- 
proacb them vtih weakness, not-* 
v^'iibsmufiRg wc h^e had 2€0 000 
of xhtH best mbabh<»iit« to <iup|>ort 
Bsifl tfaeptfem war ; w^Hst 100,000 
igknji Bk-D of ibrir oation haire 
^ieo m oar battle?, in the Weal 
hf^ and etaewbere. What waa 
k boi lo ^, JOB hav« aa^^i^d ua, 
butynn are now Dak^d, ignorantj 
and Qoctvili^ed j if yon do not ac- 
cept from us the b«orfit« wc offer, 
we wiH proceed to coiitcr tijem 
upon fou by force . He nrxt took 
notice of an argtjment which th« 
xjgbf bon. gentirnvijy hid matlc u^a 
of in&VDur of an union, via. tl^e 
prosperitjr which Scotland had en 
joyed stAce ir had been united with 
i^nglafid. Bat, said Mr. Shrr)di*n, 
nigiit not Scotland have attained 
the increase of vrealth and pro^pe-* 
rity tncFtly by the dim of her own 
.industry? ^ndrs, Scotland coold 
WH well be comfparcd with Ireland. 
in SootUad, the gentlemrB of pro- 
prrty wete fond ro reside and en- 
coorfljl^ trade, &c, but in Iretand 
quite t^ reverae. It was iil^o 
urged, chat tWo indf pendent leginla- 
tores woti)d aeldom agree) and from 
this want ot cooenrrence the nfM>st 
lerious caUmities miglM ari^e. It 
migka aa well be argoed. th^t two 
independent bouses of parliament 
may aot co-operaie^ because th^ 
lords, fas eiampley inay throw oiit 
a anooey bill aenc §rom the com; 
loaaa, or that the ccMrtfana loay 
ic6sae to ooneur in the aideodmeffia 
inade by the lords: The whole <^ 
lhe$e ob^ectiena, Iwsaid, weM re- 
fotfld hy asperi^nce. Mt. Shetidao 
^# be sbottld no9e two mokt- 
tiwtt, which, in case the projHHH 
•wtis sboQld be carried, h^ would 
^^b•pti0idWlo«••lh»la^ k$ 



rh€ parpoae of taking e#v >«* mmim 
degree, a. at jealoQ<iy which the Iriali 
parHamf-nt would be apt t.« enter ' 
tain of thi*ir pasaing the house, afii-r 
the meastive of the UDieo had beetf 
so decidedly rejected in ihr hon^ 
of coannion^ in Irelanc}. Mr. 8he-* 
ridan then read the following reao- 
lutx>n« : — - 

" That BO measures could have A 
tendency to ifnprove and prrpetuald 
the tie* of amity between Great Bri* 
taio aiKl Trerland, which have net 
for thrir bnsis the fair and free ip- 
probation cf the paiKaments of the 
two ooonfrie^. 

•' That whoever sbill endeavour 
to obtain noch approbation, in erthef 
coiinify, by cm ploy I n'» the hviiienee 
of govrrnoieiH for ihe piirpo«ea of 
cor r option or intimidation, waa n 
enemy to lits majesty and the ooo* 
sliluuon." 

Lord Hawkesbory rose, aad fe« 
minded the house of the motloil 
which the honottrable gentlemafl 
had brought forward kist session, 
relative to an inquiry into the too* 
duct of the Irish governoient. In 
thaa business, he said, the boose 
was deiiired to. interpose its authority 
•rc^prcting mcabOics which wrre re- 
solved Oft and carried hifo exera* 
lioiv. He argued, that the oppe* 
sition which the hon. geotlemail 
gaye lo the measure then b*-forc ihe 
hou«e^ wab foendfd on the inter* 
• frrence of the Brifish parliament in 
what had recently been rejected bf 
One of the brarirhes of the Irish le* 
giHlaiure. Ii had beeir iosinttaied'y 
that the people frf Ireland were 
against the measure of a union: 
this he begged leave fe deiry. The 
|yeople of i. orb, and those of Lime* 
rick^ had eapfessed th^msefven w ft- 
«otir of it i 9nd be had no doobf,, 
if it onee catfne to be duly coam^ 
dered, but the great tnajority a^ th6 
^biuW tmaM wottkl tieir it in 0Mi 



^ 



BRITISH AND 



tame favourable light. His lordship 
said much had been urged as to the 
commercial prosperity of Ireland, * 
in consequence of the independence 
of her parliament; but, whatever 
that prosperity might have been, 
the course of events, which had for ' 
some years past'taken place in Ire- 
land, had convinced him that there 
must be something radically wrong 
in the internal situation of that 
country. He said, if Ireland bad 
continued prosperous and tranquil 
iioce ^762> he should have enter- 
tained hopes that the interest of 
the empire might be secured with- 
out recurring to the measure then 
Vnder consideration ; but the re- 
~ verse had been the case, and one 
subject of discontent had alternately 
risen after another, till it had ter- 
minated in the foulest and most un- 
natural rebellion. His lordship add- 
ed» that it was his desire lo extend 
the blessings of the Britibh constitu- 
tion to all the subjects of the Bri- 
tish empire; and it was his particu- 
lar wish, that the people of Ireland 
ahould derive every benefit that re- 
sulted from it to the people of Eng- 
land. 

. Mr. Sheridan spoke in explaoa- • 
tion, and denied that he had voted 
DO the Irish propositions, as stated 
by his lordship. 

Dr. Lawrence contended, that 
the inference drawn by the noble 
lord, with respect to the inconsist-. 
ency of the hon. gentleman (Mr. 
Sheridan) having made a motion 
for an inquiry lastsessipn^ and then 
opposing the measure under con* 
pideratioQ, was not well founded. 
The situation of the two countries, 
in his opinion, was totally di Hereof 
Mt the present period firom what his 
lordship had conceived then) to be. 
Wkea the measure was first 'ntro- 
duced, he was not clearly decided 
that he ahot^d vote 9£ainst Ui cir- 



cumstances, however^ had taken 
place elsewhere which made him 
regret that the measure had ever 
bc^n brought forward at ail. Ire- 
land, he said, appeared at present 
to be in a state of considerable irri- 
tation, and it was certainly of the 
highest importance that such a dis- 
position should not be ag^avated 
by the stimulation of any jealo;asy 
which they might have conceived 
of an intended attempt on the inde- 
pendence of their parliament. Dr. 
Lawrence made some remarks on 
the measure being introduced under 
the name of a union ; and observ- 
ed, that, after one x>f the parties, 
which was to give its assent to the 
marriage, had absolutely rejected 
it, how could that be called a 
union ? A marriage was a matter 
of that delicate nature, tliat if the 
parties contracting it were not a- 
greeable to etch other, the closer 
they were drawn togetlier by the 
bond, the farther in fact they were 
put asunder. Therefore, to press 
forward a measure of so much mo- 
ment by the parliament of Great 
Britain, when the parliament of Ire- 
land had rejected it, was certainly, 
pregnant with the most disastrous 
consequences. 

The house then divided on the 
question of the speaker's leaving the 
chair — Ayes 140; Noes 15. 

Mr. Grey said a few words against 
the measure, as having a tendency 
to inflame Ireland^ and produce the 
niost alarming consequences* 

Mr. Tierney agreed with Mr. 
Grey, as to the dangerous conse- 
quence of pressing farther the mea^ 
suri^. 

Mr. Sheridan said, he would move 
his resolutions on Thursday, as he 
had heard nothing advanced against 
them. 

Mr. Chancellor Pitt replied, that 

nothing bad been objected agaiott 

' the 



FOREIGN HISTORY, 



61 



ike resdatioM^ bfcaase they had not 
been before the house, nor bad beeo 
moved. However, he said, when- . 
^er ihej vere brought forward, 
there vere tofficient on the face of ' 
them to ahow the improprieij of 
adapdng iheoi. 

The resdatioos having been read 
in the commit tee» the boose was re- 
somcd, and the committee asked 
leave to sit on Thorsdaj, till when 
the borne adjooroed. 

Thorsday^ Feb. 7. Mr. Chancel- 
lor Pitt moved the order of the day, 
for the boose to resolve ioto a com- 
mitteej inxnrder to take into farther 
coouderatioo his majesty's most gra- 
cioQS mrssage respecting the pro- 
posed omoo with Ireland. 

Mr. Shesidan said, according to 
the ruies of the hoose, the right hoa. 
gentleman had an undoubted privi- 
lege of moving the order of the day 
beibre he (Mr. Sheridan) coold at- 
teaipt io move his resolutions, the 
nature of wbidi he intimated on a 
former occasion. If that privilege 
was insisted upon, he most postpone 
his rootioQ for the present. 

Mr. Chancellor Pitt then waved 
his privilege, to give the precedence 
to thft boo. gentleman. 

Mr. Sheridan proceeded, and said, 
be felt it incumbent upon him to 
take up as little of their ttme as 
possible. He should, therefore, 
only nige a few of the reasons 
which might be advanced in «up- 
pon of the resoioiioos which he in- 
tended to move. As he knew the 
irritatioo prodoced io the public 
mind by the agitation of the ques- 
tion, and also the marked disappro- 
bation which the mere suggestion 
of the measore had received from 
the Irish parliament, he had hoped 
that these considerations would have 
taoghttbe right bon. gentleman not 
to have persisted in that pledge, 
Vfhich he had i^vcd in the first de- 



bate on the subject. He had de« 
clared, that to accomplish a imioo 
of the two kingdoms should be the 
object not only of his political 
life, but of bis natural life. Hap- 
pily, however, said Mr. Sberidao, 
the house were as yet' pledged to 
nothing. The c%ct of the pledge 
which the right hon. geotleraaa had 
given, must be considerable op tho 
people of Ireland, as it would io* 
£anie all those discontents which 
had already occasioned so much 
misery in thst country. It had 
been contended, that Ireland could 
not exist without the support of thia 
coontrjr ; and s noble friend of the 
right hon. gentleman hsd held 00c 
a threat of withdrawing from Ire- 
land that protection, without which 
she neither could defend herself 
against a foreign enemy, nor sur- 
vive intestine warfare. Thus, said 
Mr. Sheridan, the people of Ire* 
land were told what was to be the 
consequence of their refusing to 
surrender their independent legisla- 
ture.- Much had been said upon 
the corruption and mis-government 
of the Irish parliament. He did 
not mean to say that the Irish par- 
liament had never neglected its du- 
ty, nor over- stretched its ,power} 
but it was very extraordinary that 
this argument should con^e from 
the mouth of the right hon. gentle- 
man, who had so lately allowed 
that parliament to be the saviour of 
Ireland; when he had, through 
the medium of the viceroy, con- 
gratulated them 00 the suppression 
of an insurrection and the df^feat of 
an invading enemy. Mr. Sheridan 
said, if he were asked whether the 
parliament of Ireland might not 
have sometimes fallen into er- 
rors—whether niany^ of the evils 
which exist might not have been 
remedied by them— this, he saidj 
. he did not mean to deny ; but^ con* 

tended, 



fiftlTISH AND 



tofided, thfit an uoion was not the 
cow f&c the evils complained of; 
and that the Briti«h leginbtare could 
■ever correet political detects, or 
reOKWe the dif tresses of Ireland, so 
wHI as its own legislaiore. He de- 
med the assertion, that we bad no 
iltemative bat division and separa- 
tion, or jonioQ. The real alttrna 
tive, 'he Mfid, was that the Irish go- 
▼emmeot should no longer contiuue 
to be a corrupt £ngtifth job* It had 
%een asarrted, tliat there was some 
mtmit depravity ki the Irish cha- 
Mder, which rendered them unfit 
to faa^e a parliament of their own. 
This he utterly detiied, and con- 
tended that the corruption com- 
plained of was obvious'^the go- 
▼enmetit of Ireland had been made 
a jdb of 4br the advantage of the 
Biitish mioiater. The right hon. 
sentletnaa had ootitended» that Ire- 
land was helpless ai&d 4ependent. 
He had threatened the country with 
a neatore which it detested, and 
which roust drive rbe people to tske 
•very pi^ecautioii against the corrnp- 
lion end intimi^Qtioo wtih wh»«h he 
nenaeed them. He had said, tiiat 
Ireland would obtain gfeat commer- 
cial advantages in confte^ncnoe of a 
uaeon, and that the situation of the 
catholics and disseoters would be 
improved ; but he had not said why 
these aroelioratjont would not take 
place without a onion. After some 
more observations of the same kind^ 
Mr. Sheridan moved the following 
res^utions : 

** That no meaanres could have a 
tendency to improve and perpetuate 
the ties of amity and connectiooi now 
eiiiiting between Great ^Bri tain and 
Ireland, whieh have i>ot lor their 
basis the manifest, fair, and irec 
eonnentj of the two countries. 

'* That' whoever shall endeavour 
to obtain the appearance of such 
oonteatand approbation, In eitt^ 



country, by employing the influence' 
of govern afi««nt for the po^'poseaof 
corruption and intimidation^ is aa 
eofoiy to his majesty and the can- 
stitiitioB." 

Mr.Chancellor Pitt said, he should 
m'ike a few remarks on the motion 
of the hon. grntlrman, aa it aiaod. 
divided^ into two parts. Tht firac 
was. tliai no measure of onion 
should be porsurd without the un- 
biassed consent ot the partiaroenia 
of both countrieA. Tfa^%, he soid« 
was a truiyn which wa^ neVer at- 
tacked, buf must be assented to aa 
soon as stated. The second port of 
the motion stated, that wtioever 
should, by corruption or intimida- 
rion, attempt to carry the questtoo, 
was aci enemy to his country. 
This, he had no doubt, had a re- 
fereuce to what had passed on for- 
mer debates, when it had been in- 
sinaated that such conduct 'ba4 
b^n pursued. It alluded to the 
case of an high ofl5<%r in the st%tar 
kiiigdr>m, who had quitted bis situ- 
ation on account ot his disagree- 
ment with his colleagnea in an im-> 
porta nt nic^iMire o( gov«mmcBt. 
Mr. Pitt ot)»erved, that, if mtny 
gentlemen were connected together 
with the fair intention of acting 
for the service of their coantry, h 
would be fiecessary, in order to pra* 
serve a unity of action, that they 
should agree in their systeaa. It 
was impossible, therefore, lo assert 
that doctrine, unless he meant to ap« 
ply it to the particular iaataoces to 
which he had alluded. The chan- 
cellor then moved the order of the 

Mr. Grey said, he could see ik>- 
thing bat danger in the discassioa 
of the question, and particularly aa 
it would afFect the public mind in 
Ireland. The house, in his opi- 
nion, should have resi^H it in the- 
first stage $ but» above aU, thry 

si Ollld 



fokej<;n hist ok y. 



Uiofikf not, at Ibat tinie, leave it 
In I be power of sunisters to bring 
iWrward the nxasare whenever ihcy 
pleased, aod hold oat a prospect tu 
IxeUnJ which imst -keep that cood- 
liy in cooriaaal abrcD. 

Mr. Joan said, the qaestioo as 
it sfrock him wa«, whether or not 
Ibrre-Zburths of the people of Irc- 
hnd were to be cat out firom the 
fair aad ecjual benefila of the con- 
ttifutiofi } 

Mr. Spes^fier calird the hon. gen- 
tleiuao to order, and tofad him ho 
was not Apeaking to the question. 

^fr. Sheridan said a few' words in - 
ex pla nation. He said that the hotisc 
then kaev that the Iruih house of 
cuaiQQons was adrerse ro (he mea- 
sure ; thatf however^ was not his 
whole indnceniefir for opposing it ; 
for, 'had that not been the case, his 
fientiateots of it would have bcea 
the saniC. He had con(«;nded^ be 
said, that Ireland, with 40,000 men 
in the heart of her cntptre, relying 
upon this cootUfif for commercial 
advasittges, and these tlireatened to 
be vrithdcawo, was not in a situa- 
tion to gire her /rf^ ceosent to a 
measure of that )und. The right 
bon« .gentleman well knew, that 
there were ooe hundred and sixteen 
pU<reaieo in the irt^h house of 
cotoxnons; and that^ by making 
two great examples, the disanissing 
the chancellor of the excheqoer, and 
the priiac setjeant, the others would 
be aare to remain staunch and true 
oat of fear. , If the onion was de- 
sirable, as the right ban. gentleman 
had said, the people of Ireland 
aught to know upon what principle 
it was to be cairied, and not to be 
deceived by f«iUe appearances, and 
dazzled by the spleudour of the 
imperial parliament. He remark- 
ed, th.-t, if the QfieBsure was car- 
ried by threats, this ooontry would 
have ample capiio to icpest, aa it 



would give a perpetual prelence to 
rebellion. He Uierefore deprecated 
the idea of a union on such terms. 

Mr. Grey aod Mr. Jonrs saf4 
each a few words in cxplanatioo |. 
aftrr which the house divided <Ai 
Mr. Chancellor Pitt's inotioQ. ¥mt 
the previous question, i^i } ogaifist 
it, 25. Strangeu were then ex- 
cluded the gallery, and, oo fheir 
fe-ad mission, 

The hon. St. A. St. John wi# 
speaking against the qnestioit foiP 
th« speaker's leaving tlie chak. Hd 
observed, that it was believed ppettf 
georrally that the pro^p«ri»y ot ire- 
land had increased ftioce the decla- 
ration cff the indepet>drr.ce 0t ttie 
Irish parliament. He tht^isforer 
thought something nicve ooght t« 
be adduced in support of the tnt^ 
sure than merely the necessity of 
rt. Many comparisons had been 
mede between the probable eflfecf 
of the Irish onion, and tlie uertaiii 
cifrct of the tmioo with Scoilaivd. 
It had been conttnded that umta ' 
had produced mutual strengths 
lliis, however, did not appear to 
him a conclusive reason ; neither 
had any person attempted to show 
that Scotland might not have m^ 
pi^ved if the uiiiun had not takett 
place. He, however, was not e^U- 
edf upon to discuss that point ; but 
singly to state, whether, in the pre* 
sent situation of aflbirs, the bougie 
of ooninoons in Ireland having de-' 
clared its sense against considering 
the measure at all, any good coukl 
result from the agitation of it at 
that moment ? In his opinion, it 
would only bavc a tendt^ncy to irri- 
tate ihe house of comnnon| in Ire- 
land. He said, he was not mueh in 
the habit of bestt>wiRg praiMs upon 
the bouse of commons of Ireland, 
but, be would say, that, by the 
steps t^ey had taken upon Uie aiea-* 
forej they had ahowu thcmselvea 



BRITISH A JTD 



moch morT worthy of being called 
representativeA of the people of 
Ireland than be had thought thrj 
were. After a iew more remarks 
of tiv& aame nature, he concluded 
1>/ opposing the motion for tlie 
speaker's leaving the chair. 

Mr. Grey rose, and said, the honse 
was called upon» under circum* 
alssces the most extraordinary, to 
agitate a question, the nioar mo-. 
mentoua that ever cnme before 
any parliament, either m point of 
constitutional right or public po- 
licy. It was called upon to discuss 
a bargain, on the merits of Which 
one of the panies, whose consent 
was absolutely necesss^ry to give it 
effect, bad declared they would not 
fisten to the very preliminary of 
ike proposal. A union, he said, 
was what he heartily wished for , 
but he meant someibing more than 
a mere word. He meant not of 
parliamenU, bat of hearts, affec-- 
tsoos> and interests; an union of 
vigour, of ardour, of zeal, for the 
general welfare uf the British em- 
pire* It was that species of union, 
and that* only, that could tend to 
increase the strength of the empire, 
and give it security against any dan- 
ger. But, said he, if any measure 
with the name of union only be 
proposed, and the tendency of 
which would disunite, and create 
disaffection, distrust, and jealousy, 
it would tend to weaken the whole 
of the British emjnre. Of this- 
nature he took the present measure 
to be* Great evils he admitted ex- 
isted in Ireland ; bat did they owe 
their origin' to the legislature of Ire* 
land? That Ireland had an inde- 
pendent legislature was true ; and 
that with that legislature great cala- 
mities had happened in that coun-' 
try, was also true ; but be did not 
think that because these two things 
vere co-existent} thai therefore Iho 



one of them most be considered as 
the cause, and the other the eflTecr. 
Althoogh the conduct of the par- 
liament of Ireland was answcrabJ^ 
in many respects, we ought to look 
to other causes than that of the inde- 
peiKlence of their legislature; be- 
cause a great deal of it had bern 
owing to the conduct of govrm- 
mcnt, and for which, he said* the 
right hon. gentleman was responsi- 
ble. «' Look (said Mr. Grey) at 
th'^ history of Ireland, and you will 
find that if it had not been for the 
interference of British councils aod 
of British .intrigue, none, or bat 
Tew, of the evils which were fclu 
would ever have taken place— erils 
of which government was the pa- 
rent, and which were now made the 
reason for taking away all the aera- 
blance of liberty among the Irish 
people. All the feuds and religions 
animosities and dissensions, ^hicb 
had distracted Ireland, had been 
caused by government ; and yet go- 
vernmcnt was making use of these 
evils as a pretext for taking away 
the liberty of the people of Irehmd." 
Mr. Grey next made some observa- 
tions upon the adjustment in 17^2) 
and said, the right hoa. gentleman 
had contended that there coold be 
no final settlement or adjustment at 
that time, because it was even then 
expressed that something was left to 
be done } but the right hon. gen* 
tleman ought to have had the can- 
dour to acknowledge, that there 
might be a final adjustment, and 
yet something be left to* be done. 
That was to say, there might be a 
final adjustment of one thing, and 
another might be left to be settled, 
which indeed was the case The 
final adjustment referred to the po. 
litical independence of the Irish le- 
gislature ; but the point to be set- 
tled was one that related to trade, 
Tho repeal oi ike sijith .of ^George 

the 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



65 



the Pirst^ ms the first oCieasiire of 
Hberaiity from Englaad towards 
lrc\atkd. After this, a plan was 
adof>t?d^ and a bill brought in, by 
his kon. frieod Mr. Fox ; aod that 
was considered as all that was ne* 
cessarj upon the subject; and Mr. 
Grattao, after the declaration of the 
independence of the Irish parliament, 
ob^r?ed^ in the Irish hoase of com- 
mons, that it was all they wanted 
6rom Great Britain upon the consti- 
tutional point. The next circum- 
staoce which Mr. Grey took notice 
of^ was the objection which the right 
hon. gentleman stated to two inde- 
pendent parliaments; as an arga- 
meot against which^ he had quoted 
the case of the regency. But what, 
said he, was the case of the regen- 
cy? The parliament of Ireland 
vested in the heir apparent the full 
power of a regent, without any re- 
sTn'cd'on. Ths parliament of this 
cooDfry had ?otcd the same person, 
but with certain limitations and re- 
strictions, fiat the two countries 
Were by DO means alike. In Eng- 
land there was a vast deal of power 
and inflacDce which attached to the 
sovereignty, independent of that 
which is properly to be called go- 
vern men t : in Ireland there was 
none. Mr. Grey said, he had not 
heard the first speech of the right 
hoo. gentleman upon the measure, 
though he had heard that it was 
eloquent. But what had been the 
effect of it in Ireland ? It had 
tended to inflame the parliament 
there instead of reconciling ihem ; 
and they bad agreed to have a call 
of the house, for the purpose of 
watching the farther progress of the 
meastne. Mr. Grey concluded 
with some general observations 
upon the situatloa of affairs on the 
continent. 

Mr. secretary Dondas said, not- 
virnhsiaDdiog the argoiocntt so 
1799. 



strenuously advanced on the other 
side of the house, he rose with m 
considerable degree of satufac- 
tion to refute the objectionn urged 
against the union with Ireland. 
The last honourable gentlen^an had 
dwelt with much minuteness on the 
discussions of the year 17^'2, and 
on the commercial and political 
situation in which Ireland was thea 
placed. But he begged leave to ob« 
serve, that every deduction from 
those circumstances, and every 
grant made to Irelan 1 at that time, 
had nothing to do with the questioa 
then before the house ; which coo« 
tained in it no suggestion derogatory 
to the acknowledged independenco 
of the Irish parliament. He was 
ready to admit, that, by the trans- 
actions of 1782> the Irish parlia- 
ment was placed 00 the same foot- 
ing of independence, in relation .to 
Great Britain, as ScotUnd wa» 
with respect to £ngland before the 
union of the two kingdoms ; and 
certainly he had never heard that 
the proposal made in I707, for the 
union of P^ngland and Scotland, 
had, at any period, by the oppo- 
nents of the measure, been regard- 
ed as an attack on the indrpendrnce 
of the parliament of Scotland. 
With regard to the measure itself, 
he had entertained an opinion that 
the question would have been ar* 
gued in a ditfcrent stagf of the bu- 
siness, and that thtre would not 
have arisen any dr-bale on leaving 
the chair. However (he said) he 
was ready to meet the opponents 
of the measure iu any way they 
pleased, as he was armed with 
such authorities as would ovcr-i 
turn every. objection 'hat could be 
offered. He said hew-uld assume 
as a proposition, which he believed 
DO man would have the boldness to 
deny, that there existed in Ireland 
a spirit of clamour and dissension^ 
E. of 



«0 



BRITISH AND 



of treachery ind treason^ which 
menaced the overthrow of the pre- 
lent government. Now the ques* 
tion was, whether or not the politi- 
cal disease was not likely to he re- 
moved by incorporating the two 
parliaments? He did not mean 
any thing disrespectful to the par- 
liament or people of Ireland when 
he affirmed that the evil n»achina- 
tions of the enemy in both coun- 
tries had been too successful in most 
instances, and that the check or 
control of the English government 
was absolutely necessary for the sal- 
vation of Ireland. He said, it was 
impossible to imagine a remedy 
more appropriate to the radical 
c^ose of the disease, than the mea- 
aure of an incorporate union of the 
legislatures of the two kingdoms. 
The protestants would, of course, 
lay aside their jealousies and dis- 
tnist; being certain that against 
any attempt to endanger the pro- 
festant establishment in Ireland, the 
whole strength of the united par- 
liament would be exerted; and, on 
the other hand, every catholic, who 
was a friend to the connection with 
Great Britain, desirous of obtaining 
every indulgence, and of being ad- 
mitted into a participation of every 
privilege consistent with that con- 
nection, would be confident that 
their cause would be candidly and 
impartially considered by a united 
parliament. Gentlemen, he said, 
kad talked much of the parliament 
of Ireland, and had insisted that a 
consent to the present measure 
would totally destroy the liberty and 
independence of the Irish parlu^- 
ment. This, however, was a wrong 
conclusion. Would there not be 
by the incorporated parliament, the 
three estates of king, lords, and 
commons } and, if there was a suf- 
ficiency of the aristocracy and de- 
mocracy of the different coanuiesi 



bow could the independence of tlie 
parliament or the liberty of the 
people suffer } It ought also to be 
recollected that, with all the boast- 
ed independence of the parliament 
of Ireland, it could not give vigour 
or effect to its acts till approved of 
by the third estate, whose residence 
was in Eogland. If the parliament 
of Ireland were as independent as 
its advocates insisted, why was it 
obliged to adopt the measures of the 
parliament o( Great Britain oo all 
occasions of peace or war. Tlie 
incorporated parliament of Ireland 
would have all the privileges of the 
incorporated parliament of Scot- 
land: this he corroborated. H« 
himself was one of the forty-^re 
Scotch members -, and could, in the 
face of five hundred and ibiitecn 
English members, freely discuss and 
watch the interests of Scotland. 
Mr. Dnndas next observed, that an 
objection had bren made by some 
gentlemen that the business ought 
not to have been proceeded on in 
England till the proposition had 
been made by the parliament of 
Ireland. He confessed, however, 
he did not underliiand the objec- 
tion. It was intended to follow, 
step by step, the manner of recum- 
mending and adopting tlie union 
between Scotland and England, bat 
we had many records, by wh;ch we 
might diiect our proceedings, W*heo 
the queen of England sent m roes- 
sage to the parliament of England, 
>on the subject of the union, h^r 
majesty sent also a similar message 
to the parliament of Scotland. The 
measure of a union wkh Scotland 
had been so often in conteoiplatioa 
that the general plan required little 
amendment. It had been proposed 
in the days of James tlie FiTat ; in 
tliose of Charles the First 5 in those 
of the .usurper Cromwell; after- 
wards by William 3 ao4» lastly, by 

Aaoc. 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



9f 



Anne. He reitmrkod^ that it nerer 
^sras offered id the one parllaroeor, 
uithoai at the same time Vecooa- 
niendiog it to the other. Mr. Don- 
dat oezr entered iDto a comparative 
Tietr of rfae benefits which Soot- 
land iferired hy the onion with 
Great Brin'm. At the time of the 
untoo> the linen trade in Scotland 
3/Doooted to about one million of 
yards J bat, by the fostering care 
of the nnited parliament, and from 
a benign consolidation of the in- 
terests of both kingdoms, it had in- 
creased to the quantity of twenty- 
three millions, manufactured in the. 
year 1796. Heobicrvcd, that these 
improvements, and this increase of 
trade, were not ci^fined to any par- 
ticular part of Scotland, but were 
experienced in every corner of it. 
Many mdancholy pictures, he said, 
in the shape of prophecies, were 
presented to the public view on that 
memorable occasion. Among other 
faise prophecies, he mentioned the 
celebi^ted speech of lord Belhaveo. 
He then made some observations on 
a letter from queen Anne to the 
Scottish parliament, recommending 
to them to take the articles which 
bad been agreed upon at London 
under their consideration; and 
showed, frooi this letter, that her 
majesty was a trae prophetess, as 
not one aylfaable of her predictions 
had failed with respect to the ad- 
vantages 'wiiich Scotland derived 
tVom a voioa with England. Mr. 
Dondasttid, it had been asked, what 
right «%tod to impute all those ad- 
vantages to the union of the two 
kingdocDS, «i Scotland might be ex* 
pected, like other nations, to have 
advanced in prosperity from the 
varioQs canses which had contri- 
buted to the modem wealth of other 
states? Many answers might be 
given to thb question, founded on 
the local Mtnation of Scotland^ her 



internal policy, and her r»latioo to 
other nations, which roust have for 
ever debarred that kingdom, in a 
separate state, from participatiof^ 
that prosperity which had marked 
the progress of other states in £u« 
rope. He then quoted part of the 
speech of Mr. Seton, of Pitmed*. 
don, as a complete answer to the 
above question. This gentleman 
was one of the commiisioners foe 
treating with England for an onion, 
and, upon the first article being 
brought under consideration of the 
Scotch parliament, delivered his 
sentiments upon it. It had been 
asked, by an hon. gentleman, why 
not give those advantages to Ire- 
land without a union ? To which 
he answered, that if Great Britaia 
should communicate those indul- 
gences to Ireland, it would be im- 
possible, under the present consti- 
tution and government, to take ad« 
vantage of them ; for the strength 
of both countries must be comolt- 
dated in order to enable Ireland to 
reap the full advantage. It had 
been insisted upon by some gentle* 
men, that we ought to proceed no 
farther in the business, after the 
house of commons of Ireland had 
expressed its repugnance to the 
measure. No decision, however, 
of that house, should deter him 
from telling and explaining to tha 
people and parliament u'hat were 
the proposals which ministers were 
desirous to submit to their cool and 
dispassionate consideration. The 
Irish house of cdmmons had ex- 
pressed what they thought of a 
union i and it was our business to 
tell what we think of it aho. Af- 
ter some observations of a similar 
nature, h« concluded by voting for 
the speaker leaving the chair. 

Mr. Sheridan replied to some of 
the arguments urged by Mr. Dun- 
das, and said the right iioswurable 
E 2 gen- 



68 



BRITISH AND 



gentleman had contended that much 
of the discontents in Ireland, were 
founded on the excluded situation 
of the Catholics, and that if Ireland 
canse under the regulation of an 
incorporated and imperial parlia- 
ment, their situation would be al- 
tered for the bctier. But, unfortu- 
nately for the right honourable gen- 
tleman's argument, another part of 
his speech proved how little they 
bad to expect on that head, for he 
had shown that the British parlia- 
ment (without the same excuse of 
that body in Et) gland who formed 
three-fourths of the community, 
dnd therefore without the dread of 
their participation of equal privi- 
leges with the Protestants being at- 
tended with that danger to the su- 
premacy of the Protestant interest) 
had acted far more illiberally to- 
wards the Catholics, than the par- 
liament of Ireland^ under all the in- 
equalities attending their numbers, 
bad ever done. He then asked, to 
"what cause was it to be attributed ? 
To the influence, said he, of the 
English councils, and not to the 
Irish parliament? The right ho- 
nourable gentlemaiKhad said, he 
wished to treat with Ireland upon 
equal terms ; but Mr. Sheridan de- 
nied (he possibility, surrounded as 
they were with English troops, 
which were said to be necessary for 
their defence, and depending, as it 
had been said^ on the British par- 
liament for the continuance of their 
commercial advantages, they could 
not be in a situation to give a free 
consent. The next thing noticed, 
was the competency of the Irish 
parliament to discuss the matter. 
The right honourable gentleman 
had talked of " a sovereignty in 
abeyance in the people," and bad 
denied it on the ground, that if it 
was allowed, all the acts passed by 
the parliament^ such as the septennial 



act, the act of union, kc. w e r^ 
nullities, and that all were usurper* 
who held seats in the house. Mr. 
Sheridan contended, that there wax 
a sovereignty in at>eya:)cc in the 
people: the practice of the revolu- 
tion clearly showed it When king 
James the Second abdicated the 
crown, the parliament d'd not pro- 
ceed to do any act of iiself, for set- 
tling the crown, but expressly caUed 
a convention, which the lord aiayoc 
of London and tifty commoners 
were invited to attend. Every step 
was actualiytaken in the then pressing 
exigency of affairs, to show that the 
appointment of the crown ""was in 
the people, and in them only. He 
concluded by giving his hearty ne- 
gative to the speaker's leaving the 
chair. 

Mr, Tierney said, he never rose 
to speak upon a question with noore 
uneasiness than the present. How- 
ever, he said, he expected an answer 
to a question, which he thoagfat de- 
cisive upon the subject. He wish- 
ed to know what advantages could 
be gained by a union, which could 
not be obtained without it? He was 
clearly of opinion, that these .reso- 
lutions would produce the same 
effect, if they were sent over with- 
out parliament beintf pledged to 
them. An argument BM been used 
in favour of the pre w t measure. 
that it would defeat tkm hopes of the 
foreign and domestic eoemy ; for hti 
part he did not think It Wwald pre* 
vent the attempts of iteMemy, or 
put an end to the intesliMI tioubles, 
because its effects would be to cre- 
ate still greater divisions tluin exist- 
ed at this period. Much had been 
said of the benefits resulting to Soot- 
land from the union, and the right 
honourable gentleman had given 
several statements upon that sub- 
ject. But although he had proved 
tliat Scotland had increased in pro- 
sperity. 



FOEfeIGN HISTOftY. 



69 



spentj, he bad not attempted to 
prove, that that prosperity had been 
thr conarqucDce of the anion. Mr. 
1 icrney naid, be wished by no means 
to cof nd, Tiial the measure was 
ra.^ ' . V a b^.i one, or that *wc 
'- \;. ' to ::'':2ndon it for ever, but 
'i rely wished to convince the 
V nonocrable gentleman and 
-. noose, that after the opinion 
which had been «rx pressed in the 
Irifh parliament, and throaghoat 
chat coui-Trr against it, he ought 
at leas! for the present to ab- 
ft2vj i'om pre<i-ing it. The right 
hor ■ TzbUs gtrniletnan (Mr. Dun- 
das; who had drawn so many ar- 
f !:ment<5 from the prosperous state 
or Scotland, had confounded him- 
self with his coontry, and had en* 
deayoured to prove »he benefits 
vhichhad followed to Scotland, by 
a stateaieot of the prosperity which 
had flawed upon himself. In- 
deed, the whole of his argument 
seemed calculated to persuade the 
Iriih parliament to engage in the 
present measure, as likely to turn 
oat a gocxl speculation for them- 
wkes. 

Mr. Secretary Dundas said a few 
v^ords in explanation, and contend- 
ed, that he did not say that the im- 
perial parl^mrnt would be a good 
^M of tatoprise and adventure to 
the meiriMiB of the Irish parlia- 
ment. Thli'efore, he said, the ho* 
nourableisgfntleman must permit 
liim iii pn| jf it was impertinent in 
Irm litpill wordi into his mouth 
he hadmirer used. 

Mp. Tiemcy said, ** Does the 
i^S^t^dtonourable gentleman mean 
to btall my observation imperti- 
nent ?" 

A cry^'* The question— the 

' question \" 

iMr. Ticrney said, he considered 
•uch Uogiuge unparliamentary, 
^r. Grqr saidj he believed his 



honourable friend hid been ml-iled 
by his momentary warmth, and he 
thought Mr Dundas did not use 
the expression. 

Mr. Du idas explained. 

Mr. Tierney expres-^ed himself 
satisfied with the explanation. 

Mr. Speaker acknowledged, that 
the expression, as it had been u'^fd, 
did not appear to him to be parlia- 
mentary. 

Mr. W. Grant spoke in favour 
of the motion. 

Mr. W. Smith' said a few words 
on the subject. 

The house then divided — 

For the speaker's leaving the 
chair - - - - - I4g 

Against it - - - 24 

Mr. Chancellor Pitt said, it would 
be improper to proceed farther at 
that late hour, and hoped the 
speakers leaving the chair would 
not be opposed at any future day, 
the queRtion living btcn decided. 

Mr. Sheridan said, he would nof 
pledge himself to agree to the 
sprakers leaving the chnir at any 
time, as the intelligence from Ire- 
land was of so alarming a^nnture. 

Mr. Pitt made a short reply to 
Mr. Sheridan. 

The committee on the anion re-- 
ported progress, and askrd leave to 
sit again on Monday — after which 
the house adjourned. 

On Monday, February II, Mr. 
Chancellor Pitt moved the order of 
the day for the house going into a 
committee for the further consider- 
ation of his majesty's messnge ; 
which being read, and the speaker 
having moved that the same be taken 
into consideration^ 

Mr. Sheridan rose, and said it 
was not his intention at present to 
oppose the speaker's leaving the 
chair, for the purpose of preventing 
the house from resuming the consi* 
deration of his majesty's message. 
K 3 Hq 



90 



B Rt TI SH AN D 



He did andefttaod, he said, that an 
honourable friend of his^ who wat 
In the country, had an intention 
of coming to the house for that 
pnrpos^. Having already on se- 
veral occasions argaed at consi- 
derable -length against the principle 
of the measure^ it was not his in- 
tention to oppose the house going 
into a comcnitteei in the absence of 
|iis hononrahlc friend, as he knew 

, that it was in his power to suggest 
in the committee any other plan for 
consolidating the interest of the 
British empire. 

As (be right honoarable gentle- 
man, however, was, by the forms of 
the house, entitled to a pre-audience, 
he would not at that time go into 
any detail of argument to prove 
that the resolution he intended to 
move was such as the house ought 
to adopt, but he would merely state 
St as a proposition which was fairly 
entitled to the consideration of the 
committee. This proposition was 
CO less than that all the advantages 
which were professed to be expected 
from an union, would be more cer- 
tainly attained by the parliament of 
Great Britain setting the example 
of abolishing all civil incapacities 
on account of religious distinctions. 

, He did not mean that any steps 
•hould* be taken for that purpose 
which should have the least appear- 
ance of trenching upon the inde- 
pendence of the Irhh parliament; 
op fhe contrary, he had taken care 
to word his motion so as to avoid 
any such constructiou. Whether 
its fitness at the present crisis would 

•or would not be disputed, it had this 
recommendation at least, that it was 
considered by his majesty's ministers 
in 1 795, to be a measure of prudence, 
safety, and indispensable ntce&sity. 
Here Mr. Sheridan read an extract 
fx>m carl Fitzwilliam's letters to lord 
Carlisicj, stating the agreement of 



fhe duke of Portland and Mr. Ptlt 
in the opinion that the emancipation 
of the Catholics was necessary for 
the preservation of Ireland. Mr. 
Sheridan said he would be glad to 
know, whether the events which 
had since happened in that distracted 
country, all of which were predicted 
by earl Fitzwilliam, were not such 
as to induce the right honoarable 
gentleman to regret that he had not 
permitted the measure to be brought 
forward at that time ? It was neces- 
sary that the right honourable gen- 
tleman should explain the motives 
for the sudden change in his senti- 
ments. If there had been no change, 
the inference then was, that when 
he appeared to countenance fhe 
scheme of emancipation, he never 
entertained any idea of carrying it 
into execution. Had the right ho- 
nourable gentleman attempted to 
prove that all the efforts of the Irish 
parliament would be ineffectaal to 
the extinction of religious feuds and 
political discontents, then, said Mr. 
Sheridan, it wotild be thought do 
way surprising that he had changed 
his opinion. The primary object 
of lord Fitzwilliam's administration 
waa, from the first moment of his 
landing in Ireland, avowed to be 
the complete emancipation of theCa- 
tliolics j and it was well known that 
it constituted the avowed ground 
of his recall. Tlie right honourable 
gentleman had said, that he wished to 
wait for a moment of calm, when 
Che irritation occasioned by the first 
view of the measure should subside, 
and its many advantages could be 
considered. In this the right l>o« 
nourablc gentleman had contradict- 
ed himself as to tlie principle, for 
he loudly talked of the necessity of 
an immediate remedy. If he avowed 
that he designed to carry it by coer- 
cion, his anxiety to have his reso* 
lutioos carried would then excite 

no 



VOEl^IGN HISTORY. 



71 



Ur. Sheridan, aftor a 
fenr general icoMrks oa the Catho- 
lics, coneladcd bjr moWog, 

*' That it be an instruction to the 
oacamttlee to consider how far it 
'vcnoiild be ooa&iscem with jut cice or 
policj, and conducive to the general 
icvtereslir aod especially to the cQn- 
^oiidatioo of the strtngtb of the Bri- 
tish empire, were ctvil incapacities^ 
<yn account of reHgioua distinctions, 
to be done away tbrooghoot his nu- 
jea^'s dominions.** 

Mr. Chancellor Pitt said, that of 
all the speechts he had ever heard 
the hoDoorable geotleoian nuke in 
that hoase, that which he had just 
coodadedwaa the roost extraordi- 
nary ; for he b^an it by saying, 
that thoogh he rose to move an in* 
striic6oato the coamittee, yet he 
did not il»nk any was necessary, and 
that it was equally competcrnt to 
bitn to propose his oooiion in the 
comiBittee itself; and on this ac- 
count be would not oppose the 
apeakera leaving the chair. From 
this strange mode of proceeding, he 
said, he ooold hardly think xh^t the 
hoooorable genttenjae had any se* 
rious intention of persisting in hia 
motion. 

The neat nngolarity in the speech 
was, that his motion was inconsistent 
with the proposed resolutions ; and 
yet he i<n(ne<iiately after added, that 
It might be substituted in their 
siead, and ihat it would completely 
6uper»de the plan of a legislative 
union. What was still more sur- 
prising, at a more advanced |/.irc of 
his speech, he laboured to prove, 
that, ioitead of producing the efi'ect 
of oocsolidiitioo, it would h^ve in 
fdCJ a direct contrary tendency. 

Mr. Pitt next observed, ibat if 
the boQoor^ble gentleman's motion 
shoald be taken in the manner in 
wh.ch it had been opened, th.u the 
abuiicion of the relig'tooi disabilities 



were intended to operate by way of 
eaao^le upon Ireland, tl^ there 
were three points which ought to 
be weighed before the houie gave 
its assent to it. The first was, what 
probability there was that the adop- 
tion of such a measure by the par* 
liament of Great Britain would in- 
duce thai of Ireland to adopt it i the 
secotid, whether their acceding to it 
would have the desired effect of an* 
ni^ilatiog religious animosity j and 
the third was, supposing these two 
objecu accomplished, how far it 
would go towards strengthening the 
connection between the two conn* 
tries ? He said, admitting that reli- 
gious exclosions were aboli/»hed here, 
he could not perceive liow it was to 
operate upon Ireland, which was m 
separate kingdom. £ut, indeed, the 
arguments of the honourable gentle- 
man were throughout the most ex« 
traordioary be had ever beard. He 
would therefore no longer detain 
the house from proceeding to the 
order of the day. 

Mr. Speaker observed, that if the 
house were of opinion ihat the tenor 
of bis majesty's message did not 
warrant the introduction of the 
itnotion, to discuss it at present was 
c^rtaiuly irregular; but if it came 
within the committee, it was not re* 
gularly worded } ti ought to be bome 
such words as these : ** That it be 
an instruction to the committee in 
the first instance." 

Mr. Sheridan said, be had not the . 
least objection lo withdraw his mo* 
t'on for tlie present, or he would 
absent to ihe amendment to avj-d 
himself of a'loppori unity of makiiij^ 
so.ue common s on what had f^iicn 
from the rjg!it hoiiour.ih!^*. c^Titlc- 
riiAu opposiir. He thought it very 
strange laiigmge, to tell a member 
of the bouse he was not serious in 
the arguments >xhich he pres!«ed up. 
on lis aucnlion. Probably the right 
E 4 hoDoarable « 



7» 



BRITISH AND 



hoo<Hinib]e gentleman only ascribed 
to him what he felt to be too much 
the habit of his own mind. He had 
argued that it was unsafe to grant . 
Catholic eraancipation without uni- 
on. He would then ask, why he 
had authorised lord Fitzwilliara to 
promise it ? why he had raised that 
^expectation in the minds of the Ca- 
t holies, of the fallacy of which he 
had since endeavoured to convince 
them by a system oftormre of every 
denomination ? The house, in adopt- 
ing his motion^ would only repeat 
the sentiments of his majesty's mi- 
nisters in 1795 ; however, it was 
not bis intention to take the sense 
of the house upon the subject at 
present. 

Mr.' Chancellor Pitt made a short 
reply to Mr. Sheridan. With respect 
to the transactions of 1793, hede-. 
nied that the circumstances of re- 
fusing to grant the Irish Catholics 
at that time their requests was the 
cause of the insurrections which 
Lad since taken place; he also de- 
nied that there were any hopes 
which lord FitzwiUiam was directed 
to hold out to Ireland, and which 
were afterwards withdrawn ;. and be 
contended that the cabinet of this 
country never gave the lord lieu- 
tenant any such authority, therefore 
, there remained no su^h to bo with« 
drawn. 

Mr. Sheridan said, this was a 
subject upon, which the right hon. 
gentleman and himself were at issue, 
and was the material question which 
ought to be inquired into. 

Mr Pitt replied, that he could by 
no means agree that the house 
should t>e called upon to consider 
the situation of the Catholics of 
Ireland whilst both parliaments re- 
mained distinct, because he con* 
iidered such a motion to be an at- 
tack upon the independence of the 
legislature of Ireland. 



On Mr. Pitt*8 motion that ftl»e 
speaker leave the chair^ general 
Fitzpatrick said, he had not tt&e 
vanity to suppose that any arma- 
ments of his could divert the rigfat 
honourable gentleman from a pro- 
ject on which he seemed to have 
set his mind. However, what be 
had to say was principally on the 
settlement of 1762. In that year he 
was officially emplbyed in carrying 
into effect what, he would venture 
to say, was then universally consi- 
dered as a final adjustment between 
England and Ireland. He was in 
Ireland, and had a seat in the hooae 
of commons, there, when the reso- 
lutions passed in 17S2 : it was 
wished at that time to talk them 
over, which, he said, was done rcry 
fully ; and he remarked that the 
whole assembly was satisfied with 
them. He observed, that there 
was one member of that house 
(viz. Mr. Flood) who was not very 
well disposed to them : he called on 
him, as an official person in that 
house, to say, whether there was any 
other measure to be grounded on 
that resolution 3 to which he an- 
swered chat gentleman, from the 
authority of those with whom he 
acted, that there was no const itu> 
tiooal measure to be brought for- 
ward; there were some measures 
that were to be prop6sed, re- 
lative to comqaerce; but sorely, 
said general Fitzpatrick* the union 
is a constitutional point, and 
therefore so &r inconsistent witli 
the settlement of 1782. He would 
venture to say, that for the fifteen 
years following thr resolutions, there 
had been no doubt entertained upon 
the independence of the Irish legis- 
lature in a constitutional point of 
view. With respect to the terms 
of the onion he ^d not mean to say 
any thing, nor was it necessary, in 
tbe^view he hSEid of the matter, to 
consider 



FOREIGN HISTOHY. 



caOiHler wof ifaing aboat the terms, 
becaow be looked apcm the whole 
afr a fiagnot breach of faith. 

The rigbi boooarable Dudley 
Rider mi, that he felt pleasore in 
hcariog tin right honoarable ge- 
neral ^te it as a grouod oo which 
he came forward that oight to de- 
liver his sentiments , that he wa« 
ooce ^ servant of the crown ; or, 
25 the hooourable gentleoaan (Mr. 
^leridao) ez{>resied it» a merer nary 
fioppoTter of some minister. Such 
ao expression he cooceivcd to be 
indecorous and onpailiamcntary. 

Mr. Sheridan said a few words 
in expianatioOy and observed, that 
what he had asserted was, that the 
right honourable gentleman (Mr. 
Piti), by retracting the pledge, and 
fnisirating the hopes, which, at the 
open.Cig of lord Fitzwi liams ad- 
minivtrati. n, he had held oat to 
the Irish fiaman Catholics, was truly 
the can^e of ail the calamities which 
had since continued to afflict Ire- 
land. And to those, in general, 
who had supported that right ho- 
noarable gentleman when be gave 
that pledge, and equally supported 
him when he retracted it, he ap- 
plied the word mercenary, wherever 
those ptTsons were to be found. 

Mr. Rider then resumed and ad- 
TCTted to the arguments of general 
FitZf>atnck. He said there could 
be DO doubt but that the settlement 
in 1782 was not considered as 6nal 
bf the parliament of 1783^ who 
passed an act for completing what 
was left imperfect in the only point 
which was then not settled. And 
be. also contended^ that stiH less 
coold it have been the opinion of 
the parliament of i7S5, who adopt- 
ed the commercial propositions, in- 
volviog not only regu la lions of 
trade, bat the most important ques- 
tidu of navigation and revenue. 
^^ laki bc> the right boooorable 



geseral was correct !d his astertkMH 

that, by entertaining the present 
question, the house was acting 
against the independence then final* 
ly settled, that would preclude, m 
doubt, all dscu<is ion upon the sob* 
ject i for if it were a breach of faitk 
to open a negotiation between twv^ 
independent legislatures, for the 
purpose of an arrangement of 
points essential to their interesCi by 
mutual consent, such a breach oif 
faith had certainly been committed 
by the proposal of the present aie«« 
sure. 

General Fitzpatrick spoke in ex« 
plana tion. He denied; as the right 
honourable gentleman seemed to 
assert, that he was conscious of 
some other points reserved in 1782, 
as well imperial as commercial ; by 
innpcrial he meant of a constitu- 
tional nature, exclusive of regula« 
tions strictly commercial. With 
respect to the settlement being fi- 
nal, touching all matters of im- 
perial concern, that, he said, waa 
evident from the address voted to 
his majesty by the house of com- 
mons, in which all the friends of 
the duke of Portland concurred. 

Mr. Chancellor Pitt then entered 
upon some of the principal points 
which had occurred in the right 
honourable generates speech'. He 
wished (he said) to ask whether 
there was any thing inconsistent in 
the conduct of the two separate le- 
gislatures, rendered perfectly inde* 
pendent by the adjustment of 1782, 
In discussing and entering into 
agreements and regulations, which 
any two states, equally separate and 
independent of each other, might 
do} Could the right hoDonrable 
general maintain^ that any recog- 
nition of the independence of 
the Irish parliament, |in the year 
1782, cnade Ireland more incapa- 
ble of treating of* the question of 

onioDt 



r* 



BRITISH AND 



mwRp 0r tit any oAer grand po- 
litical conuderation, than any oUter 
country whatever ? Where then 
was there any ground for the 
cbarge. which had been brought 
against Ihero ? Mr. Pitt observed, 
Im btxnself never considered it a<{ a 
final adjustment, so as not to be al- 
tcsed, but marely a recognition of 
tbe independence of Ireland. Hav- 
ing said so much upon thisr point 
already, and as it contLiued the 
el^ect of discussion, he jud^red it 
necessary to sift it to the bottom. 
]n consequence of the statement 
necie by tbe parliament of Ireland, 
against tbe power claimed by the 
parliament of Great- Britain, of 
making laws for them, a i bill was 
jadged necessary to f'epeal the act 
of George the First, and a motion 
to that effect was assented toby the 
Bfitish parliament. This power 
assuflsed, was therefore laid aside 
by the repeal of the declaratory law. 
After this had passed, an address 
mias carried to his majesty, praying 
hm to take such farther measures 
as might appear toiiim proper to 
strengthen the connection between 
the two countries | Here Mr. Pitt 
read tbe proceedings from the Jour- 
nals]. His majesty's most gracious 
noswer (he said) was, that he would 
lake such measures as aitght be 
necessary for that purpose. With 
tbfs view the duke of Portland was 
•ent to Ireland, with the ri^t ho* 
nourable general as his secretary. 
Mr. Pitt wished to ask the right 
honourable general whether there 
were not instructions given to him 
ih)»n, for the acqpmplishment of 
fertber arrangements? And he 
maintained^ that the priniary object 
of the duke, when at the head of 
the government in Ireland, was 
directed (o the establishment of a 
now system, calculated to promote 
aad perpetuate the connection be- 



tween the two connirMa. Fsem 
this consideration he was perfectly 
of opinion, that the subject of the 
union grew out of what was im- 
properly called the final adjuatment. 

General Fitzpatrick said a few 
words in explanation, and observ- 
ed, that though he certainly bad 
access to the ofhcial dispatches 
transmitted to goyernnient by the 
lord Ireqtenant of Ireland, while he 
aoted as secretary to the duke oi 
Portland, it could not be aopposed, 
that, after a period of sixteen years, 
he could be able to speak with 
aecuracy to their contents; hot 
this he could assert, that the objects 
which the dukeof Portland, at that 
period, had in view, (as iar as he 
was acquainted with them) did not 
relate to any imperial cpnstitutioiial 
points. 

After a short reply fisom the 
chancelbr of the exchequer, Mr* 
Tierney rose to make a few d»ser* 
vatione relative to the traasactioii 
of 1782. He had met with an au- 
thentic document of the business in 
Ireland at that time. It was an ad- 
dress of the house of commons, on 
the resolutions in question. Tbe 
address, he said, was moved by Mr* 
G rattan ; and certain expressions 
in it, were so remarkable, as to 
leave no doubt on the subject. The 
passage stated, that in consequence 
of what had been done, aa comti^ 
iu^onal (fuestvm could now arise to 
interrupt the liarinony between the 
two countries. Tbe debate which 
arose on this subject, was suggested 
by tbe recorder of Dublin, who bad 
said, that actual recognition, instead 
of mere repeal, was necessary. In 
the same record he found the speech 
of his right honourable friend, ge- 
neral Fitzpalricl^ on that ocxa^^^' 
The speech stated his. right honour* 
able friend to have said, that if the 
final adjusUneut was not considered 



FOREIGN HISTO&T. 



ai hsnog idtled the whole qoes- 
lioD, he had no hopes lha( it ever 
would he seitkd. 

Mr. Secretary Dondas wished to 

8sk the right hoooorable general^ 

"whether, at a period subseqoait to 

the addran which had been alluded 

to^ whra a resolotioo was taken to 

pnmgoe (he Irisb parliament^ that 

meason bad not been delayed, in 

coDfeqaeoce of the duke of Port* 

laad laying that he entertained 

soma hope of bdog able to obtain 

a aettleineot of those points, which 

the independeDce of Ireland made 

it oecesiary to arrange. 

General Fitzpatrick said, he had 
so recoHectioo of the circumstance. 
Mr. Jones deprecated the farther 
agitadon of the qaestion at the pre- 
sent moment. The langtiage which 
bad been med, he said, by the right 
honoaTaUe secretary, had a ten- 
dcDcy to irritate the people of Ire- 
Jand. 

Mr. Dimdas said, he never used 
any words which could have that 
tendency. 

Mr. Sheridan contended, that the 
hoQse had recognised Ireland to 
be iodependeot by an act as solemn 
as the bill of rights. The Iri»b 
address, entered upon the Jour- 
nals of the Hoase, declared that 
their separele legislatures was essen- 
tial to their liberties. Therefore, 
be said, it was inconsistent then to 
enter upon the Journals a set of re- 
solutions directly contrary to the 
privileges which the Irish parlia- 
meot, in its former resolution, de 
dared its determination to main- 
tain. The right honourable gen- 
tletaao had found out, that those 
who opposed him laboured under 
a charge which had never before 
beca deemed serious ; those, indeed, 
who4iffcfed from him. were disre- 
putabJe kt the mere circumstance 



of being ont of oSce. The right 
honouiable gentleman was oflbnded 
with an allusion to the condoct of 
France with r^ard to Switaerland } 
bnt in the odium of that compari- 
son he begged kare to share witli 
his honourable friend, for in prin* 
ciple the conduct of the right ho* 
nourable gentleman was the same 
as the most Jacobinical proceeding 
of the directory. It had been said, 
indeed, that no force was to be osed 
towards Ireland, and that her free 
consent would be required. Thitf 
country, however, was to claim the 
privilege of judging, when Ireland 
was free to judge for herself. She 
was to be considered ai mad and 
intoxicated till she acceded to the 
propositions which that hou^ie waa 
to resolve were necessary for her 
interest ; in principle, this was the 
same as the conduct of France, 
which had been so much .repro« 
bated. Every pUceman who dared 
to vote according to his own judg« 
ment was deprived of his place. 

He next made some observationa 
in reply to what was said of the 
mischievous consequences of re- 
tracting (he pledge given to the Ca- 
tholics in Ireland. An allusion had 
been made to the confessions of the 
conspirators in that country, and 
of a person who was described as 
his (Mr. Sheridan's) friend ; and he 
had seen many attempts made out 
of^oors at least to implicate those 
who gave evidence at Maidstone in 
the guilt of Mr. O'Connor. With 
respect to the evidence which he had 
given on Mr. O'Connor's trial, he 
did not in the least retract } and he 
called upon a learned gentleman 
who had been preseiit at the trial 
to point out any inconsistency in 
his conduct. After a few remarks 
on the some subject, he concluded 
by urging the danger of continuing 

the 



BRITISH AND 



the agitation of the qnestioo at the 
pre^Dt moment. 

Mr. Solicitor General made a 
abort reply to Mr. Sheridan's re- 
marks concerning Mr. O'Connor. 

Mr. Percival also made some re* 
inarks on the evidence given on 
Idr, O'Connor's trial, and said, be 
tbooght the whole of the evidence 
which was given upon that occa* 
•ioD» in favour of the character of 
O'Connor, was capable of being 
interpreted in a double way. But 
though he considered this subject 
as very important, he should de- 
cline it for the present. An ho- 
Doorable gentleman (Mr. Tiemey) 
had brought forward an address, 
TOted by the Irish house of com- 
mons, which he conceived to be 
tinanswerable ; however, he could 
not agree to that. His majesty re^ 
quired, by a message, to know 
what were the grievances of which 
Ireland complained ; they stated, 
that they required an independent 
legislature. Upon this being grant- 
ed, they considered that their con- 
stitutional grievances were a tan end. 
But they did not mean that there 
might not be imperial grievances. 
If it be true that there was a great 
majority in the Irish house of com* 
roons on the address, it was rather 
extraordinary that in the following 
year there should be so great a ma- 
jority requiring a renunciation on 
the part of Great Britain of her 
power. The honourable gentleman 
had adverted to the time when the 
measure was brought forward, and 
aaidy " the period when they had 
chosen to propose the union, was 
when they could most insult the 
parliament of Ireland by it ; they 
had brought it forward at a time 
when they could not reject it :" yet, 
he said, one of the arguments of 
the honourable gentleman was^ that 



they would reject it. The honour- 
able gentleman said also. Chat such 
was the force in Ireland, that the 
parliament of that country could 
not enter upon the discussion of 
that subject with any degree of 
fireedom. He had deprecated the 
discussion of the subject, aa it would 
be a means of irritating the minds 
of the Irish people : he ^aras sorry 
he had not, throughout the whole 
of the debate, attended to that cir- 
corosiance ; if he had, he ^woold not 
have employed the similies which 
he had done, in his assertion that 
the conduct of England towards 
Ireland resembled that of France 
towards Switzerland. 

Mr. Sheridan said a few words la 
explanation. 

The right honourable Sylvester 
Douglas made a few general remarks 
upon the subject of the competency 
of the English parliament. 

Dr.'Lawrence contended, that the 
advantages to be derived from a 
union were reciprocal to England 
and Ireland, and that the control 
of England over the legislature of 
Ireland, by means of the royal pre- 
rogative of assent and dissent, was 
sufficient to prevent any ill conse- 
quences from the present form of 
its government. It had been urged, 
that the union was a measure calcu* 
lated to heal the disquiets of the 
country, and calm the discords 
among the various contending sects ; 
but \i hy was it to be done by means 
of an union ? There were other modes, 
and by the conduct pursued in lord 
Fitzwilliam'a short administration 
it plainly appeared that the people 
of Ireland were anxious to have the 
remedies proposed by that noble- 
man. 

The Scotch union had been urged 
as an argument in favour of ibe 
present measure, but this he wooUl 

not 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



ft 



fiot Admit as hy any means analo- 
goos* To prove this^ be weot into 
a very long historical detail. He 
cotidnded by withiog the hooae 
most snioosly to consider the mis- 
chiefs that were likely to ensae by 
porsoiog a tioe of conduct inimical 
to the wisfaes, and contradictory to 
the rewlattoasy of the Irish nation. 
He sboold, be said, object to the 
speaker's leaving the chair. The 
hoase then divided^— for the speak- 
er's leaving the chair, 131 i against 
it, 19;— majority, 112. 

The house then resolred itself 
into a committee pro formd^ and, 
being resomed, the committee asked 
leave to sit again the next day. 

On the I'itfa of February, the 
order of the day being read for the 
house to go into a committee upon 
hss majesty's message respecting the 
onion with Ireland, 

Sir Joho Sinclair said, he should 
intyt opposed the speaker's leaving 
the chair^ had not it been an under- 
stood compact that gentlemen on 
that side of the house would not 
farther press their opposition to that 
poinr. 

Mr. Sherdan said^ he did not wish 
to detain the boose, but he cooki 
not agree with the honourable ba- 
Tooet that there was an understand- 
ing on the paft of gentlemen on 
that side of the house, that they 
were not at full liberty to oppose 
the speaker's leaving the ch&ir. 
There was indeed an exhortation 
from the right honourable gentleman 
opposite (Mr. Fitt) not to give that 
opposition; but he should not, he 
»id, have expected the honourable 
Wonct would have been very de- 
sirous of obeyibg that exhortation. 
Mr. Sheridan added, that he wished 
to say a single word to two points 
which had been subjects of discussion 
in the course of the measure before 



them, previous to the house gdog 
into a committee : it had been as*- 
sorted, that, during the whole of the 
debate upon the subject, no one 
member had asserted, tiiat an qdioo, 
abstractedly considered, might not 
be good for Ireland, if it could at 
any future period be carried with 
mutual harmony and good intent. 
This assertion, he said, be must con- 
tradict : he wished to state it at his 
opinion, that though the attempt at 
this period would be attended with 
multiplied dangers, yet at no other 
time it would be a desirable mea- 
sure. The other point was, an ho- 
nourable gentleman bad assumed, 
that no one had vetitur^d directly 
to assert in the house, that parlia- 
ment was not competent to give 
sanction to a legislative union. In 
answer to this point, he maintained, 
that there was a broad and visible 
distinction in the cases of the two 
parliaments, the one incorporating, 
and the other surrendering its inde- 
pendence. However, he said, he 
had no hesitation in saying, that he 
thought parliament was not compe- 
tent to surrender an independent 
legislature — tliey could not do it 
consistently with their duty to their 
constituents. 

Mr. Martin said a few words in 
favour of the measure, and the 
speaker then left the chair 3 and 
tlac house went into a committee 
on. the rcsolotions, the right honour-* 
able Sylvester Douglas in the chair. 
The first resolution being read, , 
Mr. Hobhouse said, he had voted 
with those gentlemen who had op- 
posed the speaker's leaving the chair, 
because he conceived the times (o 
be very unfavourable to the mea- 
suj-e. The parliament of Iteland— 
nay, he said, th< whole nation of 
Ireland, were absolutely hostile fo 
, the measure. At present he should 



9B 



BklTlSH AND 



give no r^e, bat wait until the 
committee had brought the plan to 
the greatest improvement which the 
present stage of the bosin^ss woold 
allow: upon the report he thoold 
perhaps trouble the hoote with his 
aentiments. 

Mr. Banks stated, that be thooght 
the committee the proper stage of 
discttssion. He contended that Ire- 
land was not. in a state to coalesce 
and unite with this coontry, from 
the religions discords and political 
fends. The method to remove these 
disorders by an union was not the 
proper wa^, and he argued that the 
Irish parbameot was the only me- 
dium by which all those disorders 
should be remedied. The very 
aonrce of them, he contended, lay 
not in the government of Jreland, 
but in the prevalence of English 
Action and influence. He had heard 
it advanced as an argument in fa- 
vour of the union, that the con- 
IMxioa now existing between the 
two countries i»as frail and fragile, 
and might be eventually destroyed. 
He always understood that the par- 
liament of Ireland was more under 
the influence of the crown than 
that of England, and therefore he 
saw no danger of any separation. 
The union, if carried, would not 
tend to tranquillise Ireland ; not one 
catholic, he believed, would be the 
lass in arms, but all the dangers 
remain equal, without adding any 
strength to the empire. Upon these 
.fronnds he should oppose it. 

Mr. Speaker said, the occasions 
were few on which he was disposed 
to take any part in the debates and 
.proceeding of the house, however 
he thought It incumbent upon him 
to express his opinion by his vote. 
His view of the subject, he said, 
waa vety different from that of his 
hmourable friend (Mr. Banks), who 



had stated that theattoatioti of Ihc* 
land wfs sucb, as to render it not only 
inexpedient, but unsafe, to coalesce 
with her. For his part, he bad long; 
been satisfied of the urgent and 
pressing necessity of the measora in 
question from the situation of that 
unhappy country. His bonotirable 
friend viras also disposed to tluok 
that the l^slature of that coantry 
was fully adequate to the redreasing 
of those grievances which required 
parliamentary interposition. Its ade- 
quacy, in his opinion, could not in 
the least be doubted; but there 
were radical and inherent erib, 
closely interwoven with the at ate 
and condition of Ireland, which. I 
though they were not occasioned | 
by the separation of the two legis- j 
latures, yet he was convinced the 
incorporation of the two legisla- 
tures would effectually remove. In 
contemplating the state of Ireland, 
even at a period of apparent tran- 
quillity, it wds impossible not lo 
discover the seeds of animosity 
which had unhappily been matured 
by circumstances into in^nrectiofti 
and rebellion. To account in a 
measure for those animosities, it 
might be sufficient to state, that a 
large majority of the people were 
catholics, and that four-fifths of the 
property was in the bands of pro- 
testaots, who are alone legally com- 
petent to hold high offices of state, 
and to perform the functions of the 
legislature. Hereditary feelings and 
resentments had besides contributed 
to keep those elements of internal 
discord in almost constant agitation : 
he therefore contended, that no re- 
medy ct)u1d be effectual, but soch 
as would strike at the very root of 
the evil, by which the protestant 
and catholic inhabitants of the two 
countries wooid become one people, 
Qoder the superinteuding authority 

and 



FOREIGN HISTORV. 



and protedka of ao united and 
imperial parKament. Mr, Spealier 
ackaowkdged ihat he was an]Lioua 
for the retDOTal of the roost obnosi- 
oas groQods of cocnplaint, against 
Vibal was termed the protestant 
ascmdaocj, bai he sooght for ihat 
desirable object by no other means 
than those of a legislative union. 
HU hoaoorable friend, who spoke 
last, thought it would be expedient 
for the parliament of Ireland to 
tread back socne of the steps that 
had been taken, and to re-enact tht; 
whole code of popery laws (ihe re- 
peal of which had been the subject 
of such general enconitum and sa- 
tisfaction) against the Catholics who 
did not produce certificates of their 
peaceable and loyal conduct during 
the late rebellion, and to provicib 
thzi thofe by whom such certificates 
were pi oduced should be admitted* 
to all the rights and privileges f n- 
joyed by the Protestants ; but he 
had also intimated such an opinion 
of the Catholics as to leave Ifltle 
hope f bat liiany of them would be 
^citl^ to the benefit of snch a 
disdnction. Mr. Speaker next ad- 
verted to the measure of 1793, by 
whkh the competency to enjoy and 
exercise the elective franchise, and 
to boJd certain offices, was avoided 
to the Roooao-catholics of Ireland, 
.and to the opinion which had been 
stated coooerning it from the au- 
thority of Mr. Foster, who had said, 
** That he eovUd not thank the Irish 
miaister for this, though he did for 
maojr other measures ; for that from 
his tool he considered it as the pre 
ktde and certain forernnner of the 
overthrow of the Protestant esta- 
hlishment in Ireland-^ihat it ha- 
cwded the Hanover succestion, and 
tbe coooection with Great Britain.** 
if tbe predictions of Mr. Foster 
^ftxc inSL feonded, and he con- 



fessed th«t they accorded to a gnotf 
measure with his own stntimeoit 
and apprehensions, he mw no OAeatia 
by which their accompHshiBevt 
^uld possibly be averted, bat hf 
a legislative union, or by a renewal 
of the restrictions and dtsahiiiiitt 
which were done away by ihrr act 
of 1793. Some gentlemen had ea- 
ter taine J an opinion, which' he ao- 
knowledgcd* was entitled to seridua 
attention and consideration, tbaC aa 
the measure had been discounte- 
nanced by the hoube of commoDa 
in Ireland, to persist in the discus- 
sion of it here would be to add to 
the irritation which unhappily pro- 
vailed in that country. 6uch aa 
efi^ect (he said) be would sincerely 
lament, and should be very sorry in 
having any sfaure in producing. He 
trusted that we should adopj such 
resolutions as would rather tend to 
appease than to infiame-— atKh as 
would be a pledge of our liberality 
and our justice; that we shooid 
manifest the 5 ncerity of our wiahea 
to communicate to Ireland a foil 
participation of all the advanlagea 
of the Britis^h constitution. He ooa- 
cluded by giving the resolution ida 
most cordial support. 

The first, second,, third, foQrth, 
and fifth resolutions were then read 
by the chairman, and agreed to 
without any objection. The quea- 
tion being put upon the sixth rea^ 
lution, which goes to grant an equa« 
\i^ of privileges in trade and navi- 
gation, &c.- to Ireland, 

Mr. Wilberforce Bird said, it was 
well worth the aUeotion of the 
committee to consider maturely the 
effects which an agreement to thia 
resolution might produce upon par- 
ticular manufactures throughout the 
kingdom. W hen a comprehensif e 
wew was taken of the general ooca- 
Dercial and manuiaciuriog ioterftfat^ 

of 



so 



BaiTISB AND 



ofa gre^i nation. It might perhaps 
'not be improper to lose all. sight of 
local and particular interests, and 
to attend only to what might pro- 
mote the general welfare and pro- 
sperity of the whole community. 
Hoi^ever, this was not the exact 
light in which a measurt^ of that 
complicated tendency should be 
viewed by the representatives of a 
manufsLCftiring town, whose con- 
stituents ratght come forward with 
petitions against it when it was 
£nally determined. 

Mr. Dent said, if (he manufac- 
taring towns had considered their 
interest aflfectedy they would have 
petitioned. 

Mr. Chancellor FItt said, con- 
sidering the subject with a vfew lo 
the general prosperity of the em- 
pire, he bad no hesitation in say- 
ing, that he considered it as a mat- 
ter of indifference in what part of 
the empire the manufactures flou- 
rished, except that it should be in 
that part in which they could be 
cisrried on to the greatest advan- 
tage. However, he had not the 
least reason to think that these re- 
' solutions would create even local 
injury to the manufactures of this 
country — they stood upon a much 
stronger foundation. 

Mr. Wilberlbrce Bird said, that, 
as the resolution had not been pro- 
perly before the house till now, no 
petitions coald be presented against 

it- 
Mr. R. P. Carew objected to the 
seventh resolution, as not express- 
ing the exact taxation which should 
take place between the two coun- 
tries as soon as the tinion should be 
■ effected. 

Mr. Chancellor Pitt replied, that 
it was impossible at present to fix 
the exact proportion to be paid by 
the two countries. When he opened 



the subject (he said) he then stal^a 
that the proportion Ireland ought 
to pay would not be greater than 
that i^hich she now paid. 

Mr. R. P. Carew professed him- 
self satisfied with the explanation ; 
and after a feW words fr m Mr. 
Dent and Mr. W. Bird, the resolu- 
tion was agreed to. 

When the house was resamed, 
the report was ordered to be re- 
ceived on the Thursday following. 

On Thursday, Feb. 14, the right 
honourable Sylvester Douglas ap- 
peared at the bar, with the report 
rf the committee of Monday upon 
the resolutions respecting the union 
with Ireland. The question being 
put, that the report be brought up, 

Mr. Hobhtiuse said, when he first 
heard th^t his majest/s ministers 
were employed in forminga scheme 
of union between Great-Britain aod 
Ireland, it was no small degree of 
surprise to him that they should 
have resorted to so dangeroas an 
expedient. With respect to the 
catholics, who constituted three- 
fourths of the population' of the 
country, they of all others must 
suffer most in consequence of an 
union. Many of the penal laws 
against them had indeed been re- 
pealed, but there were still degra- 
ding incapacities to which no man 
ought to be subject, until his opi- 
nions, of whatever nature they were, 
had shewn themselves in overt-acts 
of mischief. The elective franchise 
had indeed been granted to them, 
but the "remaining right, viz. of 
sitting in the parliament of their 
own country, had not been ceded ; 
and thus the object tliey had long 
in view, and the attainment of which 
earl FitzwiIliam,thelord lieutenant, 
afforded them strong inducements 
to expect, would be entirely dc- 
featea by a legislative union. He 

had 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



81 



had looked into the Annoal Register 
for that year» in which it was stated, 
that, opoQ a soTHiise of a projected 
naloD, ^ a mob of many thoosanda 
•assembled. »i»d had been guilty of 
the greatest oatniges ;** aodcertaia- 
lyj if such distarbaoces were caused 
by the aoere report of a umon, what 
waa to be eipected when it was 
foroed opon them ? Woold it not 
iiare beeo adviseabie to have tried 
first how'far it was agreeable to the 
Iriah natioa ? Had the parliament 
and conotry spoken iii favour of 
the measurey then it should have 
been sobmittod to the British p4r- 
iiameot. But what would it signify 
to state teons to those who would 
Dot listen to them ? He had how- 
ever beard it said^ that whatever 
may be the ultimate opinion of the 
Irish legislature with respect to a 
uoioD^ yet it was necessary for the 
Eoglifih parliament to record its 
aeoae apon the subject, with a view 
to prevent the misrepresentations 
of malice as to its intention; but 
woold this be deemed a good rea- 
son for pressing a measure which 
increased the irritation of Ireland ? 
He wished to proooote the coonex- 
ioQ between the two countries, and 
to guard against the artifices of those 
wIm aimed at their separation. No 
maa more than himself deplored 
^ bte calamitous events in Ire- 
iaod ; bat certainly the parliament 
of that country had showA. itself 
adequate to the task of suppressing 
distoibaocea, and repelling attacks 
Opon its constitution. He. would 
«ik (he said) whether a resident le- 
giiAatuFe, acting upon the spot, were 
not more likely to prevent or ren- 
der ioefiiBCtiial the intrigues of an 
artfbl efiemy» than one utiiog at a 
distince? It had been contended, 
thst the government of Ireland was 
eitretnely vicious, and contained in 
itself the leeda of separation ; that 
17». 



the government being in the hands 
of the protestanl minority, and ihm 
honours and emoluments of the 
church being in the possession of 
tiie same minority, the mass of p^« 
pie must be always discontented: 
all this he was ready to allow, but 
he could not see how a onion wi(h 
this country cottld possibly remove 
the evil. If the catholics v^ere only 
to be allowed to elect prot^tant 
representatives in the imperial par« 
liament, they would have less power 
than before,, for they had a share 
now in sending three hundred mem- 
bers to parliament, but then they 
would be confined to a far inferior 
number: on this Mr. Hobhouse 
made some very judicious remarks. 
It had been contended, that great 
commercial advantages would ac- 
crue to Ireland from a union, but 
he begged leave to ask, whether, aa 
the number of absentees would be 
considerably increased, the value of 
their imports would not suffer, and 
coiiseqoentlytheir tradeon Lhewhole 
be diminished ? Mr. Hobhouse next 
made some remarks on the compact 
^of 1782, and contended that the 
subsequent resolution nvusL have re< 
ferred to commercial regulations or 
minor considerations. 

He also made some observations 
on the competency of the Irish par- 
liament, and quoted some aulhori- 
ties to prove that the parliament ' 
could not transfer the power of 
making laws to other hanos, it be- 
ing but a delegated power from the 
people. However, he was not anx- 
ious to form a decided opinion as 
to the exter.t of the powers of par- 
liament ; for, admitting that parlia- 
ment was adequate to create even 
a new constitution whenever it 
piessed, still the sovereignty was in 
the people. He concludedby say- 
ing he was heartily against the pro- 
posed i«|ion. 

F Lord 



n 



BRITISH AND 



Lord 6. L. Gower said a few 
words in favour of the proposed 
unioD; afid considrred it not only at 
necessary to consolidate all the powers 
of the empire, but to guard against 
CKternal attacks and internal con- 
spiracies. 

Mr. Peel ob«Jcrved, that during the 
discussion of the Irish arrangements, 
he was a petitioner at the bar of the 
British house of condmons against 
thdse arrangements with Ireland. 
The object of those propositions 
was to open a more fret intercourse 
betwixt two independent kingdoqis. 
The one possessing great foreign do- 
minions and universal commerce; 
th^ other possessing no foreign do- 
' minions and very little trade ; con- 
sequently they enjoyed separate in- 
terests, which must be the case while 
they had separate legislatures. From 
this consideration, it was evident 
that those arrangements, however 
well intended, would have been 
prejudicial to the manufactures of 
Great Britain. The plan of union 
embrace^ great advantages, both 
political and commercial, which, 
he said, by uniting two countries 
into one country, were calculated 
to add strength and security to the 
empire. Though he confessed him- 
self a friend to the principle of the 
measure, he thought it his duty to 
draw the attention of the house to 
the sixth resolution. Each country 
was to provide for its own public 
debt; and that of Great Britain 
being infinitely larger than the debt 
of Ireland, heavy taxes were ne- 
cessarily imposed on almost every 
article of consumption ; which had 
so strong a tendency to enhance the 
price of labour, that goods manu- 
factured under such a pressure 
could not be tendered on equally 
low terms, with ihe produce of la- 
bour in places where similar bur- 
ihens did not csist. Mr. Peel aaid^ 



unless this objection could be re* 
movedf the naeasore could not be 
expected to have the concurrence 
of Great Britain. He next made 
some remarks upon what Mr. Hob- 
house had said, relative to the in- 
crease of absentees. He was ready 
to admit the injury whrch had al- 
ready refsult^d to the sister kingdom 
from that circumstance. In a coun- 
try, however, governed by cqoal 
laws and a firee constitution, he could 
see no practical means of compelling 
a residence, or removing li^ evil, 
under the present order of things. 
The clamours raised against the 
union by interested men in Ireland 
might, he said, mislead the judg- 
ment of many people ; but the de- 
lusion could not be of a long conti- 
nuance, and, in the end, reason 
would take the place of paasioo, aod 
policy prevail over prejudice. 

Earl Temple said, it might, per- 
haps, better have become him to 
have listened to the arguments 
urged by others upon the aubjecr, 
than to have intruded bis own. He 
thought it, however, the doty of 
every man, who had the honour of 
parliament at heart, to rescue it 
from the charge which an hon. gen- 
tleman, who opposed the measure, 
had sent into the world—'* that tlis 
house was inclined to support a 
measure, which they wi>hed the 
country to believe bis "majesty's mi* 
nisters meant to carry into efl^ect by 
force, by corruption, and by bri- 
bery." He was well aware, that 
there were many who opposed this 
measure, both in England and Ire- 
land, on very different principles; 
and that there were some who op- 
posed it in Ireland of- knowa honour 
and integrity. Their abilities hs 
admired; the perversion of them he 
sincerely regretted. It had been 
contended, by the hon. gentleman 
who opposed the measure^ that it 
• would 



POttElGN HISTORY. 



•3 



".■aid have a tendency to irritate 
b- miods of the Irish people. He 
^marked, that their passion»were 
rriiated ai\readT« by the men whose 
jf-Uous endcaroors only looked to 
iiU or an? mea^ore as a stock oa 
^ hich to engraft confusion and re- 
>^^Iion. On the beads of those 
r.ien, he said, and on their heads 
^•^one, who had deseried their coun- 
trr in order to fetter its govern- 
r.tnt and cranap its councils, fall 
iie irritation of the passions and the 
n^inaraation of the public mind 
*! Ireland. It had been said by 
oror hoii. gentlemen, how mean it 
' i> to fake advantage of the weak- 
!^s3 of It ;^ land, and to force this 
pa^jsotc upon the count ry. But 
ow niQch more mean would it have 
•crn in England to have deserted 
reland in the moment of herweak- 
i''s<». and neglected her in the lime 
r her peril? The bon. gentlemen, 
;'boai he conceived did not fancy 
>\emselves strangers to the state of 
irobod, boldly asserted, that a union 
vookl infringe the compact of 1^8% : 
rhat compact which the bon. gen- 
H(;men tbougfat proper to call 
'\finair But he wished to ask the 
y-n. gentlemen, who had ever call- 
ed that compact " fnal^* Did 
I lie parliamenr of England or Ire- 
land ever call it ^^ final r* No: 
^'>nc, said he, till the hon. gcnilc- 
i(«eQ cho<;^ to call it so, because it 
^>^.3t soiled their pnrpose that it 
thotild be thought so. Ihe next 
^r^ament which bad been urged 
against the proposed measure was 
k-rry extraordinary. The hon. gen- 
Wmen contended, that the parlia- 
ment of Ireland had no right to pass 
80 act which in its principle was 
contrary to the constitstion of the 
country, end yet they aDowed the 
campetence (^ the Irish parliament 
ta give cdmplete emancipation to the 
(atitoKcf. Now he called upon them 



to itaentioo any one tteasare so coos* 

pletely militating against every pria- 
ciple of the Iri^h constitution, as 
it now stood, than the l^ery measare 
they recommended. It bad been 
contended, that a union with Ire* 
land would affect the trade of that 
country. This, he said, could not 
possibly be ; for the additional se« 
eurity, which would be given to the 
country, must giv« additional en* 
couragement to the employment of 
Britij>h capital. The value of land 
must increase io -proportion to the 
protection which would be given to 
the landholder. It had been ihe 
opinion of some gentlemen in both 
countries, that, io case of a onion^ 
all the advantage would be on the 
side of England ; but be asked, 
what were the advantages England 
woald gain distinct from Ireland? 
Here the noble lord drew a com* 
parison between Ireland and Scot« 
land, and showed the great ad van* 
rages which Scotland had derived 
by a union with England. Aftet 
which he conclude by giving 
his decided vote for the report 
of the committee being brought 
up. 

Mr. T. T. Jones said a few words, 
in answer to what had fallen from 
earl Temple. 

Mr. Wilbcrforce Bird said he was 
sorry to have seen a gentleman (Mr. 
Peel), who had so strenuously op- 
posed the Irish propositions; come 
forward and warmly espouse the de- 
fence of a measure tliat must prove 
still more injurious to the trading 
and manufacturing interciits of Eng* 
land. 

Viscount Morpeth supported and 
recommended (he measure of a 
union, as the only one that could 
correct the vices that were evidently 
inherent io the Irish govfrrnm^nt. 

The solicitor general reprobated 
the agitation of the question, of the 

F 2 competency 



B4 



BRITISH AND 



competeocjr or incompeteocy of 
parliament to lurrender the rights 
entrusted to it by the people, whose 
sovereignty was held up as the only 
•ouroe pf government. It was at- 
tempting to establish a doctrine that 
led to nothing but anarchy^ and the 
dissolution of all regular govern- 
ment! 

Colonel Mark Wood spoke in fa- 
vour of the measure. 

Mr. Banks said a few words in 
confirmation of his former senti- 
ments. With respect to' the inde- 
pendence of Ireland, he thought it 
was more tp be ascribed to the vo- 
lunteers than to the ezerlions of 
, SBy men in parliament. If it was 
thought necessary to grant further 
immunities to the catholics, the 
parliament of Ireland was compe- 
tent* for it; but, he thought, they 
had granted indulgences to the ca- 
tholics at a time when they were 
. not fitted to receive them. With 
respect to a union, he was con- 
vinced there were many difficulties 
in the way. He could not see how 
local matter, such as canals, elec- 
tion disputes, &c. could be so well 
adjusted here as in a local parlia- 
ment. 

Viscount Belgrave said a few 
words in support of the measure. 

General Fitzpatrick said a few 
words relative to the final adjust- 
ment of 1782. It appeared that in 
what had passed on the sobject be- 
tween him and the chancellor of 
the exchequer on a former night, 
relative to the adjustment of 178;2, 
tliere might be some misunder- 
standing as to the dates. He was 
disposed to think, that what the 
right honourable gentleman had 
stated to have been in the contem- 
plation of the Duke of Portland, 
when in Ireland, must refer to a 
period prior to the final adjustment 
of 1782, and to sometiung in agi- 



tation in the outset of tbe basines 
He asserted then^ that nothing fai 
ther had ever been in the contetr 
plation of the duke of Portland gut 
sequent to the bills by which th 
independence of Ireland had bee 
established. 

Mr. Chancellor Pitt express! 
stated, that the official dispatchi 
of the duke of Portland did prov 
that, after the modificatioas i 
Poyning's act— after the resolutioc 
on which the bill settling tbe poii 
of Irish independence had passec 
something more was necessary. Sut 
sequent to the proceedings of tli 
Irish parliament on the subject, an 
when tbe bill for the repeal of th 
act of George the First was cons 
derably advanced in its progresi 
tbe duke continued to thizik some 
thing farther necessary, to secar 
not only commercial points, k 
matters of political and imperii 
concern. General Fitzpatrick sti 
believed his rtcollection to be a( 
curate. 

The house then divided on tl; 
question for bringing up the report 
for it, 120; against it^ l6;— mJ 
jority, 104. The bouse then pn 
ceeded to the consideration of t^ 
report, and the first resolution Wj 
read and agreed to. j 

Mr. Tierney objected to the oth 
resolutions as unnecessary ; thegrfl 
object of showing to the people 
Ireland the disposition of the boj 
towards a union, being attaia 
He particularly objected to the si 
resolution, relative to the comn] 
cial regolatiohs, because he m\ 
be instructed by his constituents 
oppose it. 

The right honourable S. Dou{ 
supported tbe resolution, as n 
aary to show the intention of 
1 lament. 

Mr. Wilberforcc Bird, right 
nourable D. Ryder, Mr. Tieni 



ou| 



FOBEI6N HISTORY. 



95 



\t W. 6eary> aod Mr. J. H. 

kowne, said each of them a fevr 

fctds OQ diSerent sides of the 

n^aion. 
The resolutions vere then agreed 

>, with some amted men ts ; and 
Mr. ChanceUor Pitt moved, that 

message be sent to the lords, re- 
jeUiijg a conference respecting 
: e means of perpetuating and im- 
roviag the connexion between the 
.%o countries, which was ordered. 

Mr. Chancellor Pitt moved, that 
arl Tenaple carrjr the message. 

Earl Temple then went up to the 

»jie of peers, and communicated 
;e resolutions at a conference. 

Monday, April 22, Mr. Chan- 
ellur Pitt moved the order of the 
-ly, for taking into consideration 
til address from the lords Bpon the 
ibject of the union with Ireland ; 

inch being read, he moved that 
je same be now taken into con>i« 
oration. 

The address being read, Mr« 
"laocelior Pitt moved, *' that the 
uu^e do concur in the said ad- 

The right honourable Silvester 
^ 'Uglas said, the subject was of 
T most extent; ive nature, and com- 
Tehended a great variety of consi- 
derations* Since it had been first 
tated, several new objections had 
•sen urged against the measure, 
^:.d particolarijr in the sister king* 

There were t wo observations which 

occurred in the progress of discuss- 

1.'^ the subject. One of these was 

^'Apressed in such forcible language, 

h'j 'Me grand jury of the city of 

t"rk, that he begged leave to re- 

V^at it. They said, " while they 

<^ou!d not but iantient that there had 

^<en a considerable dirifercnce of 

^piiiion amongst the loyal subjects 

*' his majesty, they could not but 

^^Hiark, that the enemies of his 



majesty's govern mef\t in both coun- 
tries had been unanimous in their 
opposition to this measure." The 
other observation was, that the 
opponents to this measure had en- 
deavoured to provej that the union 
between England and Scotland was 
totally irrelevant to the oni^n with 
Ireland: but surely, he said, in 
this mode of proceeding, there was 
less candoar than dexterity, as ex* 
perience must teach every man to. 
the contrary. He next made some 
remarks with respect to the compe* 
tency of parliament ; and said, it 
appeared to him, that, if it was 
not competent to parliament to con- 
clude a treaty of this nature, he 
saw no constitutional authority in 
the country that was competent. 
The holding of the contrary sen- 
timent directly led 10 the mischiev- 
ous and dangerous doctrine of the 
sovereignty of tlie people, and to 
the fiction of an original coiBpact 
between the governors and the go- 
verned. He next made some ob- 
servations on the setilemeniof 1 782, 
which he said had been styled final; 
from which it was conteiided, that 
nothing henceforward was to be al- 
tered, even thoupjh for the benefit 
of Ireland. Mr. Douglas then en- 
tered into the nature of that settle* 
ment« and showed that ir was never 
intended an final, but that some- 
thing farther was necessary to be 
done; in consequence of which, 
an address was presented to his ma- 
jesty, desiring that he would be 
pleased to take measures farther to 
cement the connexion between the. 
two countries* 

Mr. Douglas then adverted to 
other objections. It had been con- 
tended by some^ that this country 
was proposing to Ireland that which 
was perfectly nugatory. That under 
the pretence ot admitting her a 
share in the legislature, it would be 
F 3 merely 



B6' 



BRITISH AND 



merely a British parliament, bind- 
ing Ireland by its acts as forroerly, 
as the number of Irish members 
vvould be fewer than tho«;e of the 
British. But^ on the contrary, Ire- 
land, in the event of an union, 
would not only have its own repre- 
sentatives, but every member of 
Great- Britain would become its re- 
presentative, and it would be as 
much their duty to watch over the 
interests of Ireland as of Great- 
Britain. 

With respect to the trade of Ire- 
land it had been asserted, that, s^ince 
the compact of 1782, the trade had 
iiourished, and especially in the sta- 
ple linen manufacture. This, he 
contended, was ilUfounded and fal- 
lacious. It appeared to him, that 
iht progressive improvement of the 
Irish linen trade had not been ac- 
celerated since 1 782, more than for 
fifty years previous to that period, 
In support of which, he quoted 
facts from Mr. Af Young, who 
made the tour t > Ireland ; and 
showed that the linen and other 
manufactures had increased more 
the last twenty preceding years 
, than they had done for a century 
before. 

With respect to the executive go- 
vernment he.re, the complaint had 
been frequently made, that mini- 
sters had no adequate information, 
and no regular means of attaining 
the necessary knpwledge of Ireland. 
The inference drawn Jrom this was 
wrong, that therefore the executive 
administration shoqld not interfere 
at all in the affairs of lrt:Iand. The 
evil complained of, he said, could 
only be remedied by a legislative 
union, when Irish members sent 
here would be perfectly acquainted 
with the local interests of Ireland. 
Another objection had been raised 
to bringing over Irish members and 
pe^fS| an4 increasing the number 



of absentees. This he considered 
as a bad compliment to any coun- 
try to pass a kind of ne ixeat regno j 
but, he made no doubt, but when 
Ireland became secure and tranquil, 
which the measure of union vnus 
likely to effectuate, the evil com- 
plained of would be in a great mea- 
sure removed. 

Lord Sheffield supported the re- 
solutions and address, notwithstand- 
ing he was of opinion that the mea- 
sure of a union was ill prepared for 
Ireland, and thkt country was ill 
prepared for a union, li the out- 
line of the liberal proposition which 
was then offered had been at ^rst 
properly communicated, in a man-i 
ner which suited the Irish charac- 
ter, it would, he was convinced, 
have been differently received. It 
wa^ not, however, the question 
then, he said, whether the measure 
had been brought forward and coitt 
dtjcted as it ought to have been, 
but whether the British parliament 
should do what depended on it, to 
obviate the mischief which must 
arise from independence and a se- 
parate legislature? It had lon^ 
teen his opinion, and every thing 
which had happened to Ireland, 
and pafticularfy during the la^t 
twenty )ear:5, had convinced him 
of the necessity of a union. Much 
had been said with respect to the 
*' final adjustment;'* but that v\hith 
was so called only rcjfcrred to the 
then asserted independence of par- 
liament, and which by no meansj 
precluded a union ; on the con^ 
trary, it was the opinion at that 
time that farther mea^^ures were ne^ 
cessary to establish a connexion on 
a solid and permanent basis. 

He next made^ some remaik'? on 
the disturbed state of Ireland ; ancj 
observed, that a great proporiioil 
of the people were as ill disposed 
to government, as bigoted, as 1^ 

iiorant 



FO££IGN HISTORY. 



rsrant, as anctviiised, as ihej were 
li the time of the massacre in 164,1 ^ 
His lordship then made some very 
judicious remarks on the situation 
of ibe protestants and catholics of 
Ireland, and showed that tlie mea- 
sure of a onion was particoJarly 
calculated (o remove those evils. 
Icdeed* be ^aid, it seemed highly 
incambent on the British pariia- 
meat to take (he mo«t eifectual steps 
to promote the proper remedy. 

He next made some observations 
n lib respect to the conduct of the 
people cf Cork and Galway, who, 
iie said, had expressed themselves 
in favour of I be oniony their address* 
es were signed by 373 of the prin- 
( ipal nobility, bishops, magistrates, 
clergy, and per^ns of property, 
both protestants and catholics ; and 
ibere was great reason to believe, 
til at the sentiments expressed in the 
addresses were much more general 
in IbeseveraJcoonties which had not 
addressed than had been supposed. 
No cofintry, i^e said, was better 
circumstanced for manufactures 
than Irffla'id, for she had plenty of 
water and fuel — the first requisites 
in manufactures. The encourage- 
HTient to her indu>try, he contend- 
ed, would be great, especially as it 
W'>uld be impossible to countervail 
liie difference of price, of labour, 
and of exercise in tne two countries; 
and commercial men would acknow* 
ledge the superior advantage of a 
near market, and a quicK return, 
so necessary to a country wanting 
capital. It had been contended, 
that the prosperity of Ireland aro^e 
from the independence of its par- 
liament, and not from the commer- 
cial advantages derived from Great 
Britain. This assertion was so en- 
tirely unsupported, that he scarcely 
knew how' to reason about it. His 
lordship here went into a long de* 
tail relative to -the imports of the 
product and manufactureg of Ire- 



land into Great Britain, on an ave* 
rage of tlie last three years ; and 
likewise of the imports of the pro- 
duce or manufactures o^ Great 
Britain into Ireland ; and, after 
making some general remarks upon 
the measure of the union, he con* 
eluded by saying, until a unipn 
tookjplqce between the two coun- 
tries Ireiand would never be settled, 
but be disturbed by the most mia- 
chievous speculations and intrigues, 
the sport of parties, and of the 
enemies of England. 

Sir Francis Burdet agreed with 
the bon. gentleman with regard to 
the word union being a com* 
prehcnstve term ; indeed, so com. 
prebensive as to be equally appli- 
cable to the most opposite things. 
An union, he said, accomplished 
by a conviction in the minds of the 
Irish people of their advantages, 
and an union brought about by a 
mere hollow vote of a corrupt par- 
liament, seconded by military force, 
were totally different. It was ma« 
terial (he said) then to know what 
was meant by the terra union ; be* 
cause an onion, which should con« 
ciliate the people^ restore peace, li* 
berty> and jastice to Ireiand, would. 
In his mind, be inconsistent with 
the whole system' w4iich had beea 
recently acted upon. 

Mr. Buxton said a few words in 
reply to what had fallen from the 
honourable baronet, and contended 
that, unless the measure of an union 
was adopted, Ireland, in the end, 
must become a province of France. 

Mr. J. H. Browne reprobated die 
conduct of the honourable baronet ; 
and contended, that the violent in- 
vectives which he had made use of 
were the very words which had 
frequently been re»echoed by France 
and the United Irishmen. With re- 
spect to the address, he would 
cheerfully vote tor it, as he wished to 
grant to Ireland a full participation 
F 4 of 



88 



BRITISH AND 



of all the British privileges and ad- 
vantages. 

General Loft us was of opfinion, 
that if the measure had been fairly 
before the Irish house of commons^ 
it would have met with better 
success. * 

General Fitzpatrick said the precise 
question now was, whether the house 
wa§ to agree to this stage of the pro- 
ceeding, ^bich was, to lay the result 
•of their deliberations at the foot of 
the throne ? as it was professed 
that no step was to be taken in the 
matter till' the Irish parliament 
showed a disposition to acquiesce in 
it. With respect to the chief bond 
between the two countries at pre- 
sent, he thought erroneous opinions 
were entertained. It was not the 
crown merely, but the power of 
stopping Irish acts of parliament in 
England, which constituted the great 
bond. This he and many others 
had thought sufficient in 1782, when 
it was established ; and that arrange- 
ment he still thought sufficient, not- 
withstanding what had been said to 
the contrary. He next made some 
observations oti thn point concern- 
ing which some difference had ex- 
isted between him and the right ho- 
nourable gentleman opposite, and 
said, that the papers'which the right 
honourable gentleman had com- 
municated to him upon the subject 
had confirmed him in his former 
statement. 

Mr. Canning made some remarks 
on the final adjustment of 1782, 
and contended that farther measures 
were in fact at that time in con- 
templation. However perfect that 
settlement might be with respect to 
the objects to which it was applied, 
it could not in an equal degree com- 
prehend and adjust things which 
were wholly out of its scope and 
' operation. If it,werc esteemcd^nd/, 
as concluding all differences and 
discussioDi which it was intended 



to conclude, it coold not be final 
to the extent of precluding all fotore 
discussions and settlement of points 
not then in contemplation, of points 
which did arise out of the nature of 
that very measure itself. He next 
adverted to what had been said re- 
lative to the disapprobation of the 
parliament and people of Ireland 
manifested to the measure of ao 
union. Admitting the disapproba- 
tion to be general, what injury or 
disadvantage could arise from the 
parliament of Ireland being made 
to understand precisely what it was 
that they rejected, from ihcir being 
called upon to decide, not upoo the 
name,xbut the thing. Indeed^ said 
Mr. Canning, it would be an act of 
injustice in us not to determine to 
record, in a distinct and onqnestion- 
able shape, not only the ofier which 
we had made, but the principles 
and terms on which we made it. 
Evident as it must be that soch ao 
explanation was necessary to the 
success of the measure, it was not 
less evident that, in case of a failure, 
our best justification in the eya of 
Ireland, and of the world, vrould 
be to be found in soch a record of 
the good intentions of the liberality, 
and generosity of Great -Brit tin. 

Strong as his conviction was of 
the advantages to be derived to 
Ireland from an union, he slioold 
be as averse as any man from press- 
ing it upon the Irish parliament in 
any manner that should be injurious 
to its honour and independence. 
The attack upon the indrpebdeoce 
of the Irish parliament was slated 
to be the more unpardonable, as 
there was no settlement or security 
to be attained by an union which 
could not be equally well provided by 
an arrangement between the two 
subsisting and separate parliamenU. 
This argumprif (he said) he was so 
far from agreeing to, that he could 
almost be satisfi^ to rest the whole 
question 



FOHEIGNHISTORY. 



qvstioD on this point alone, and 
gife op the plan of onion altogether, 
if it did not appear plain that there 
could be no mode of arrangeoieot 
devised for the possible ditl^t^fcncea 
and disagreemeois between the two 
kiogdoms short of onion, which 
ivould oot take away from the par- 
liament of Ireland even the shadow 
of iodepeodencir, and deprive it of 
jU fnedom and dignity in the points 
the most essential to its very being 
as a pariiament. 

It had been said, that no union 
hot that of atfectioD could possibly 
be lasting or advantageous. This 
he readily acknowledged 5 and to 
argue whether or not the onion now 
proposed would be such a union, 
it would be necessary to investigate 
the probable advantages that would 
resolt from it Let it not be ioia- 
gined, that, because the Irish are 
quick in feeling, ihat they are crea- 
loret of |»«ion only, an4 that they 
are not capable of appreciating real 
benefits, or of being convinced by a 
lair appeal to their understandings. 
Soch an appeal, he observed, it was 
the business of the address to secure j 
and if the union should l>e founds 
upon examination, to offer solid 
snd permanent advantages to that 
coontiy, let it not be apprehended 
that the proposal of it by Great- 
Britain can be long construed in- 
to insult or unkiodness. He con* 
eluded by giving his vote for the 
address. 

Lord William Russel thought the 
settlement of 1/82 was the solemn 
lecogoition of a right which. we 
could not call upon the Irish people 
to abandon. 

Mr. Pitt rose meraly to say a few 
words upon a subject on which he 
Mbeen so unfortunate as to differ 
from a light honourable general io 
hw speech in the early part of the 
i^^te RhiiTe to the final adjuft* 



ment of 1762, which he (Mr. Pitt) 
had contended was not considered 
by those by whom it was effected 
as a final adjustment. The right 
honourable genera ]» after having 
seen (he papers which alluded to 
that adjustment, seemed fully con- 
vinced that I he duke of Portland 
had entertained the opinion which 
he (Mr. Pitt) attributed to him, 
vjz. that of the propriety of adopt- 
ing some farther measures after the 
final adjustment. The right hoo. 
general seemed to think notwith* * 
standing, that it was only an opinion 
which the duke of Portland had 
slightly entertained, and soon gave 
up. In answer to which, Mr. Pitt 
read to the house several letters, in 
order to prove that it was not an 
opinion cursorily entertained, dtheC 
by the duke or by the king's mi* 
nistrrs« ^ 

General Fitzpatrick said a lew 
words in reply to Mr. Pitt, and 
tending to prove that the adjast- 
ment was considered as final. 

Mr. Chancellor Pitt then moved* 
that a message should be sent to the 
lords, informing their iorilships the 
house had agreed to the address 
and had filled up the blank with tho 
words, ^^ and commons." 

As the question was considered 
with the most minute attention by 
the commons, we have given the 
precedence to their debates, in 
the hous^ of lords the subject wai 
introduced on the same day (Jan. 
22), and in the same mode, viz. by 
a message from his majesty. 

The message was delivered by 
lord Grenville, who then moved 
that it be taken into consideration 
on the following day, and the lords 
Bommoned. His lordship added, 
that it was his intention to move an 
address to his> majesty, thanking 
hitn for his gracioas communica? 
tioQ* 

On 



90 



BRITISH AND 



On Wednesday, Jan. 23, there- 
fore, in pursuance of this ^notice, 
Lord Grenville moved the order of 
- the day for taking his majesty's 
message into consideration ; which 
being done, his lordship moved an 
address to his majesty, thanking hira 
for his most gracious communica- 
tion, and expressing tJieir lordships' 
readiness to concur in any measure 
ttrhicb rofght be found necessary or 
expedient toM/ards the consolidatioh 
of the general interests ot the British 
empire. 

The question being put. the ad- 
dress was voted nem, dis. and the 
house adjourned. 

From this period the business re • 
inained dori^iant in the house of 
lords till Monday, Feb. 18, when a 
message was delivared by earl Tem- 
ple, importing, that the commons 
desired a conference with their 
lordships, in consequence of his ma- 
jesty's most gracious message for 
settling a 'complete and final adjust- 
ment between this country and Ire- 
land. 

The Lord Chancellor having read 
the message, 

The Earl of Chatham moved that 
a conference be presently held in 
the Painted Chamber. 

The conference was presently 
held ; the earl of Chatham being 
president. Earl Speocer, lord Gren- 
ville, viscount Sydney, lord Auck- 
land, earl of fiockinghamshire, earl 
pf Fauconberg, and lord Bayning, 
the bishops of Rochester and Exeter, 
and other peers, were the managers 
appointed to hold the conference 
on the part of that house ; and being 
informed that the members deputed 
by the commons to manage for that 
house waited for them in the Painted 
Chamber, they went thither, and 
immediately returned wiih a copy 
of the resolutions voted by the 
hotise of commons on the subject 



of th^ proposed union with Ireland. 
After they Ayere irad by the clerk, 
and, on the motion of the earl cf 
Cliatham, were ordered to be 
printed. 

Lord Grenville rose merely to 
give notice, that as it would be 
irregular to name any day for the 
consideration of the rcsoiutiocs 
which were ordered to be printed, 
wheri they were printed, and on the 
table, he intended to move that the 
said resolutions be taken intp consi- 
deration on this day se'o night. 

Lord Auckland said, there were 
certain papers which it would be 
necessary for the house to be in pos- 
session of previous to any discassioa 
that might take place on the resolu- 
tions, in order that their lordsbips 
might be enabled to make up ibeir 
minds on every part of ibe merits of 
so important a subject. He moved, 
therefore, " That there be laid be- 
fore the house an . account of the 
imports and exports of Great-Bri- 
tain during the tour last years pre- 
ceding the year J 793, speciiyiiig 
tliose articles, together with the 
amount of the same, exported to, 
and imported from, Ireland, in that 
period." 

Lord Holland said, he did not 
rise to object to the production oi 
papers; but when he considered 
how decidedly the house of com- 
mons of Ireland had r^fuhcd even 
to entertain the discussion of the 
question respecting the union, to 
more now for papers calculated to 
make a boastful display of the 
mighty sacrifices, in point of com- 
mercial advantages, that Great-Bri- 
tain was willing to make, as the 
price of a compact which Ireland 
had, by the voice of one of her 
houses of parliament, refused to 
listen to, was, in his judgment* 
unworthy the generosity and great- 
ness of mind that ought to be 

the 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



91 



flic cbanicteristic of every part of 
the coodoct of tbis-coaniry towards 
the sister kiogdoni. 

LordGrcnviUe replied, that on- 
dodbtedly, after what had passed re- 
lative to ibe resolutions, it would 
not odIj be eitreraely irregular, 
bat lugb)7 disrespectful to the house, 
if any ooble lord were to rise to en - 
tcr into a premature discuiision of 
tbc subject at that monoeot. Surely 
it was extremely necessary to have 
tvery iofbrmation, to enable the 
house duly to coosidrr the important 
measure previous to its beiug dis- 
cussed. 

Tlie earl of Moira said^ after the 
decision of the house of commons 
of Ireland was known, and the 
temper of the kingdom respecting it 
was fuUy understood, the whole of 
the proceeding in the British parlia- 
ment appeared to him to be utterly 
iocomprehensible . 

Lord diiton also deprecated (he 
farther discussion of the measure. 

The question, however, upon 
lord Aacklaod*s motion^ was put, 
and agreed to. 

On the 19th of March, lord Gren- 
villc moved the order of the day to 
be read for summoning their lord- 
ships, for the purpose of taking into 
consideration the various papers be- 
fore the house relative to the state of 
Ireland, &e. ; which being accord- 
ingly read. 

Lord Grenrille next rose, in pur- 
suance of the notice he had given » 
and for the purpose of calling their 
lordships' attention to^ the very im- 
portant subject of (he resolutions 
commonicated to that house, some 
time since, by the commons, rela- 
tive to the state of Ireland, on which 
u was his intention to submit a 
"^ion to their lordships. He had 
(W said) the satisfaction to be con- 
vinced, that the two main points 
Pp^o which t]ie oaestioo could be 



properly argued had been already 
established, and was so folly ioi- 
pressed upon their lordships* mtnda* 
that no diversity of opinion could 
possibly arise ; viz. that whatever 
steps they should take on the pre- 
sent occasion, (he sole a'nd exclusive 
rights of the Irish lcgi>la(ore should 
be duly ropected, and considered 
upon the same fooling as that of 
Great-Brftain> and, 2tlfy. that it was 
essential to the interest of the empire 
at large (hat the connexion between 
the two kingdoms should be strength- 
ened and improved to as high a 
degree of perfection as the case ad- 
mitted. There was, he said, how- 
ever, another preliminary to the 
subject itself, which was started by 
some who appeared generally to 
approve of the measure, and that 
was, whether, under the present 
state of things, it was proper at all 
to discuss the subject ? In answer, 
lie asked, whether it would not b« 
'wise and politic to urge, with as 
little delay as the case wontd admit 
of, a fa'T and temperate discussion 
of (he general question, in order to 
do away the mistaken prejudices 
and unfounded impressions which 
had prevailed against the measure 
in Ireland ? 1 here his lord&hip 
took occasion to remark the man- 
ner in which the question s(ood in 
the parliament of Ireland. The 
resolution of (heir commons (for 
more it could not be called) cer- 
tainly was not conclusive J that 
which passed in their lower house 
of parliament, so far from amount-' 
ing to any thing like a law, was, in 
fact, a dead letter upon their jour- 
nals. In such a case the British 
parliament surely ouijht not to be 
precluded from doing what wisdom 
aud prudence dictated. 

With respect, therefore, io the 

question, whether, in the present 

state of ibingi, in the particular 

ciicum- 



»2 



BRITISH AND 



circomstances of both countries, 
there appeared a necessity for the 
adoption of a plan, whereby the 
•trengih and resources of boihr 
countries might be consolidated and 
improved ? or, whether or not there 
appeared a necessity for a change 
in the Irish system ? The neccssitv 
of a change, he believed, was al- 
lowed on all hands ; the grand dif- 
ference of opinion was -with respect 
lo the remedy for the grievances 
complained of in that country. His 
lordship then adverted to the settle- 
ment of 1782, and contended that, 
it was not conclusive, neither was it 
intended, he said, at that time to be 
conclusive , such were the declara- 
tions at that time, and such was the 
language expressed in the addresses 
to the crown. It was, then, a duty 
incumbent on parliament to come 
forward and supply the defects of 
the former settlement. With re- 
gard to the supposed existing bond 
of connexion between the two 
countries, be was not afraid to ^ay 
it was absolutely null : not that it 
was imperfect or inadequate, but 
absolutely null. If the two parlia- 
ments were suffered to remain in 
their present state ; if the countries - 
clung together by no other bond of 
connexion ttian the present; the 
connexion was, he repeated, abso- 
lutely null. If this was suffered, 
the evils would be necessarily en- 
tailed upon their descendant^, if 
they did not fall upon themselves. 
If by the British constitution the 
royal power could be exercised free 
from the controul of parliament, 
then, indeed, the regal identity 
might be a bond of connexion; 
but if the whole system of the regal 
power be not only under the con- 
troul, but cannot go on without the 
aid and assistance of parliament, and 
the parliaments of ^ each kingdom 
tre to remain distinct and separate^ 



then^ he said, the bond of connec* 
tion way obviously null. Here bis 
lordship argued at some leogth, and 
asserted, that the countries were re- 
duced to the alternative, of either 
giving up the exercise of the inde- 
pendence of the parliament of the 
one country, or of all bond of con- 
nexion whatever between both. 
There was, he remarked, an insraoce 
which would be introduced in this 
part of the argument^ viz. the case 
of the regency, which took place 
in the year 1789 ; and the condact 
of the Irish parliament on that oc- 
casion best spoke for itself. No 
regular mode was laid down before 
that period for meeting such an ex- 
igency.' The question was consi- 
dered by both parliaments; and the 
mode in which the Irish parliament 
thought proper to supply the exi- 
gency vas one very difFere^nt from 
that adopted by the British. Tbis> 
iie said, was one of the cases thai 
evinced the necessity of an incoi po- 
rated union. He next made some 
remarks on the competency of par- 
^ liament; and said, in the opinion of 
that excellent lawyer and statesman, 
Blackstone, parliament was compe- 
tent to effect a change in the con- 
stitution itself, as it had done in the 
measure of the union with Scotland. 
If it be argued thai the parliameaC 
of Ireland be incompetent to agree 
to an incorporate union with the 
legislature of this country, it roust 
follow U^at every act of the English 
parliament, not only since ibe union 
with Scotland, but even since its 
first existence as a parliament, must 
be an infringembni upon public 
rights. 

Another objection had beco 
urged, which, if well founded, he 
should feel as of very great weight, 
viz that which regarded the honour 
and independence of the Irish par- 
liament) but did the proposed unioa 

go 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



9» 



go. to attack that iodependence, 
be should oot give it the least coun- 
teoaocc. Bat to what did this ub- 
iectioQ aooant? Sorely, when 
examined, it would be found that 
never was there a more complete 
mistake, or a more groundless mis- 
apprebrosioD of terms. In the first 
place, he said, the very notion of 
conpjcf, on which this onion was 
proposed to be founded, implied 
the independence of each legisla- 
ture; for, unleu there were inde- 
pendence, there could not be a con* 
tract; and the very recognising of 
the powers of parliament to enter 
into this treaty, contained an ac- 
knowledgment of its distinct inde- 
pendent authority. His lordship 
next made some observations rela- 
tive to the onion with Scotland; 
and said, there had been many la- 
mfotabJe cries with respect to the 
effects of that onion, but time had 
sbowD how fallacious they were. 
No to teres t of Scotland had been 
sacrificed; so fer from it, it had 
remarkably flourished since that a^ra, 
in lis agricolture, wealth, and com- 
merce; its towna had largely in- 
creased in population, and many of 
its local advantages had been at- 
tended to. It was for the general 
interests of the empire to consult 
the interests of every component 
part of it; and as this had proved 
troe with regard to Scotland, and in 
consequence of a union with that 
country, so also, he was persuaded, 
a similar measure would operate 
with regard to Ireland. 

After apologising to the house for 
engrosang ao much of its time, he 
uid he should move that the reso- 
lutions of the hcjse of commons 
^ readpr^ Jormd; he should ihen 
^^^1 that the house do agree with 
^c reiolotions of the house of cora- 
'"wnsj after which he purposed to 
"^^1 that these resolutions be laid 



before his majesty in the form of a 

joint address from both bouses, with 
an humble request, that his majesty 
would lay them before the parlia- 
ment of Ireland, at what time hi« 
majesty should deem most proper. 
He then moved, that the resolutions 
of the house of commons, which 
had been laid before the house, be 
read. 

Larl Fitzwiltiam objected to the 
discussion of the subject, under the 
present situation of affairs. What- 
ever good, he said, might be effect* 
ed, at a future period, by the mea • 
sure, still no man could tell hioi 
that tliat good could be immediate. 
Did any one know the eviU exist- 
ing in Ireland ? A rebellion rjged 
against government ; but was it a 
matter of course, that whatever 
those evil&were which eiisted in 
Ireland, they were to be removed 
by an incorporated union ? if they 
were, it must be attribocable to the 
influence prevailing in that legisla- 
ture; if so, the same might prevail 
in an incorporated legislature : wiiere 
then would be the remedy? If it hi 
meant to conciliate the ca^iolics, 
and the lower orders of people, and 
this was to be done by an incorpo- 
rated union, it would be fir»t ne- 
cessary to show th^m how mucli 
I hey would be benefited by it. The 
■whole of tlie arguments of the noble 
lord tended to show, that both coun- 
tries, when incorporated, would be 
stronger and better. But the in- 
conveniences stated, as likely to 
arise from a separate legislature, 
had existed from tlic most ancient 
times. It was not from 1762, he 
said, only, but long before that pe- 
riod, thai all acts of imperial con- 
cern had been done by the Irish 
parliament. In . tlie declaration of 
war in 1757, and in 1778, their 
lordships would find, that his 
majesty bad coiomunicatcd such 
decL-ra- 



94 



BRITISH AND 



declaration to the Irish parlia- 
ment. 

His lordship »aid, he understood 
that it had been stated, in another 
place, that^ during bis administra- 
tion in Ireland, he was never re- 
quired to retract what he had been 
directed by government to propose. 
If it had been stated, that he never 
received orders to bring forward 
the question of catholic emancipa- 
tion, on the part of government, 
he admitted the statement to be 
true. He believed, however, in his 
conscience, that the events which 
occurred at that period had led to 
the evils which now exi<ited. At 
that period he entered his protest 
against resisting the qurslion, if it 
should .be brought forward from 
any other quarter; and he made 
the noost distinct decla rational, that, 
in case it should be brought for- 
ward, it should receive his full sup- 
port. His lordship then returned 
to the subject of the union, and 
said» he was convinced of the im- 
propriety of discussing the subject 
at present, in consequence of which 
he gave his negative to the resolu- 
tions. 

Lord Grenville made a !»hort re- 
ply to earl Fitzwilliam, and said, 
that the noble lord had asserted that 
he h'id entered his protest aj^niii^t' 
resisting the question, if it should 
be brought forward from any other 
quarter. Where that paper was, 
he knew not ; however, he could 
assure his lordship, he had no know- 
ledge of any such protest and decla- 
ration. 

Earl Fitzwilliam was sorry it was 
not in the recollection of the noble 
lord that he entered his protest. 

Lord Grenville said, he had no 
recollection or knowledge of any 
such declaration. 

The marquis of Lansdowne en- 
tered, at some length, upon the 



subject; he said, there waf one 

question which ought to be con- 
sidered, viz. whether the affairs of 
Ireland could go on, if tbey con- 
tinued to be governed as they now 
were; if not, is the projected union 
calculated to remove the evil ? This 
was a point which ought to be 
strictly considered. In bis opinion, 
it was morally impossible that things 
should go on as they were riow go- 
verned : in proof of this he alluded 
to public acts which had occurred 
a fi-w years baick. In ±79^* 'he 
Roman catholics first presented 
their petition to the Irish parlia- 
ment. If must, he said, be in the 
knowledge and recollection of every 
noble lord, how that petition was 
received, and what provocation it 
occasioned: in ]J92 they presented 
it again, but it met with the same 
contumely as before. In 1793 tbc 
Roman catholics and the protestaots 
became somewhat warmer against 
each other. The p rotes tants were 
thf.n established^ and had recourse 
to the interference of the grand ja- 
ries ior concur with tliem in dis- 
countenancing the Roman catholic 
body. Afterwards a petition was 
delivered by the Roman catholics 
hrre, in order to represent their 
grievances. This petition was gra- 
ciously attended to, and they were 
immediately relieved,, though not 
to the extent of total emancipa- 
tion. Much gratitude was eipect- 
ed' for the favours conferred on the 
catholics; the contrary, he said, 
however, happened ; and earl Fitz- 
william was sent to Ireland, whose 
system, he was sorry, had not been 
proceeded on. They afterwards 
h;^d recourse to measures of coer- 
cion, and the Irish instituted a 
correspondence with the Frcncft. 
Now, said he, a moment's reflec- 
tion must show how rapidly the 
people of Ireland passed^ from 

' oo« 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



» 



nre extreme to the other ; and can 
i\ he supposed that such a govt*rn- 
ii.^nt^ so abased, could continue ? 
Tae noble marquii next adrerted 
to what had passed in the year 178 2, 
and cooteoded, tbA there was no 
\i«;e m nzkinfr the compari<;on be- 
UK ee6 the proceedings of 1 782 and 
tljeprfx:t:cdinjrsoi£tbe present time. 
The proceedines of 1782 had, f)r 
tfceir objects, the separation of two 
parliaments, to make them indepen- 
dent of ORe another; the proceed- 
ings now, he ?aid, bvfore their lord- 
5'jips, was for the purpose of join- 
ing the two parliaments. The no- 
hlc marquis next observed, that 
there was one thing on which his 
mind was yet in doubt, and that 
was, as to the mode of carrying in- 
to effect the union of parliaments ; 
upon all other points his mind was 
cleari^ satisfied. He had no doubt, 
he sajd, but thai the landed and 
ri)iDiDercialiaterc<;t woijld be bene- 
fited by it, not only in some local 
respects, but upon a general scale. 
From these considerations he felt 
himself inclined (a** an independent 
man) to adopt all the resolutions al- 
luded to by the noble secretary of 
?late, except one, and that was, 
liiat which related to the addition 
rjf one hundred members to the 
house of commoni? ; however, if 
^hers were sati<;fied, he should 
have nothing farther to say. 

Earl Camden rose to say a few 

^ords in reply to what had fallen 

Irom the noble marqui'j, who had 

hinlcd, he said, that the present 

state of Ireland was owing to the 

fecall of the nohte earl Filzwilliam 

^od the measures which had been 

wb^quently pursued. He w isbed 

^ tttnind the house, thac before 

that noble carl left Ireland, there 

JJ^ere dmnrbances in the county of 

Cam. Soon after h6 (lord Cam- 

den^ toftk possession of the govern-. 



ment of that country, there was a 
disturbance in Roscommon, which 
wa^, however, soon suppressed, and 
the kingdom was afterwards quiet 
for nine or ten months, a proof, hw 
said, that the public mind wa<i not 
aff'ecied by the recall of the noble 
earl Fitzwilliam. He then made 
some general remarks on tiie dis- 
turbances in Ireland, and said, the 
situation was «uch as to render it 
absolutely nt*cessarv!hats«nie steps 
should be taken, and n') other had 
been suggeUedso liki-ly to i)r<iduce 
such beneficial cft'ects as ihe mea- 
sure of a union. 

Marquis Townshend said a feiv 
words ill I'avour of the measure. 

Lord Clifton rose and paid some 
very handsome compliments to earl 
Camden for hiscDmiuct vvhilc en- 
trusted with the administration of 
the government "f Ir<-kiiid. With 
respL'Cl, he said, to the present 
measure, he had expressly stated to 
the iKiuse, not only on a former 
occasion, but at other times since 
he reflected on the subject, ihat on 
an abstract proposition, whi'ther 
two countries, in the relative situa- 
tion in which Great Britain attd 
Ireland stood, could be so unileJ, 
no diiference oC opinion coiiLl pos- 
sibly ex.st, and he had always beer; 
induced to prefer the syUein of It* 
gislative union as the most likely 
to prom<Ae their mutual intcest; 
and advantage. Noiwilhslandiujr, 
however, he had, at the same Uni*\ 
doubted whether the measure might 
be found practicable, and princi- 
pally on account of the rooted an- 
tipathy to it, and strong national 
prejudice against it, which he k:^ew 
existed in Ireland. Much had b(<*u 
said on the subject of the union 
with Scotland ; and, in his (>])i- 
nion, it was very improperly ad- 
duced as a parallel instance; for. 
On consulting the history of that 

lran:>- 



96 



BRITISH AND 



traosactioD, be could diwover very 
little sioiiiarity betweea the two 
cases. 

There was one point on which 
he could not avoid giving his de- 
cided opinion, viz. the competence 
of parliament, which had, on this 
occasion, been called in question. 
It appeared clearly to him, that if 
they questioned the competence of 
parliament, to enact this or any 
other things they might question 
the right by which their lordships 
tat in that bouse. He concluded, 
by saying, he ooold have wfshed, 
and must still persist in thinking, 
that it would have been much bet* 
ter to have avoided any discussion 
of the propositions. However, as 
their lordMhips had thought other- 
wise, it was by no means his in- 
tention to offer any opposition to 
them. 

Lord Hobart said a few words on 
the subject. It was his opinion, 
that a union was essential to pre> 
serve the connection between 'the 
two countries, because, while three- 
fooi^ths of the people of Ireland 
were catholics, a protestant parlia- 
ment could never be a satisfactory 
government for the kingdom. A 
noble marquis had said, that the pe- 
tition had been derided by the par- 
liament of Ireland ; that fact, he 
could assure the noble marquis, wai 
not so, for the petition ha4 received 
the most respectful attention. 

The marquis of I^nsdowne said 
be was not present at the time, 
therefore could not charge his me* 
iDory with the circumstance, how- 
ever, it was reported as such. 

Lord Hobart assured the noble 
marquis that the parliament of Ire- 
land had paid the greatest respect to 
the petition, but they were con- 
vinced of the danger of granting its 

The earl of Moira rose to oppose 



the resolutions. He was in hof 
that the noble secretary of sti 
wouhi have seen the propriety 
postponing the consideration i 
them under the present circua 
stances. There was no person, I 
said, who would more heartily ibaj 
himself concur in the measure, we? 
he assured that' it was founded ii 
the wishes of the majority of th 
people of Ireland; bat was it dc 
manifest that the oppoaitton to J 
was not limited to the Irish parlia* 
ment only, but that it had beet 
treated by the nation at large vitii 
an abhorrence amounting almost to 
a degree of phrensy ? After ihii 
marked reprobation of the propo- 
sal, what cotild be more calcolatrJ 
to add fuel to the jQame than ocr 
persevering in iti It had becn| 
stated, in support of the resoiutioiu, 
that Ireland could not go on in ii« 
present state. He had predicteJ, 
that the .system of govemmtoi 
which liad been pursued in that 
country could not go on, and hf 
had unfortunately proved too true 
a prophet. That however was nor 
a consequence flowing from the 
constitution of Ireland, but the re- 
sult of a frantic exercise of sef cri- 
tics on the part of government. 
The noble secretary had touched 
on the state of Ireland, with regard 
to the state of ceconomy in the 
establishment of its' military fo^cC' 
He had said, that a case might oc- 
cur in which the parliament of Ire- 
land would refuse to pay the iroopi ; 
and seemed to think it strengthened 
very materially his position od thu 
ground of argument, by taking oc- 
casion to observe, that the test taken 
by the military of Ireland was dif- 
ferent fronx that taken by the troops 
of England, and that, from i^f 
much mischief might at ooe tiQBe 
or other ensue. If, said he, ih^ 
observation concerning the test re- 



FOfifelON RtSTORY. 



97 



tenti €o1y to At militia of Ireland, 
it was fog^eigD to any goocIq»qo 
that coald be dmro with retpect to 
the (^resent •tgoinenl ; because that 
difference applied to troops raised 
ezclustvelf £)r local lervice. and of 
coarse organfied according to local 
coD?edieDce. If it respected the 
regoiar army, the latitude must 
bare been prescrilxd io the en list - 
mg orders ismed from the British 
^v3r-office } and it would prove no- 
thing, iHit that gorcmment was 
wisely satisfied that a man might be 
a brare foidier and a troatj sup- 
porter of his country's cause, even 
thoQgh ha ihoold believe there were 
tea sacraiDCsits. The noble lord 
hid expatiated 00 the benefits which 
an anioQ wookl confer on Ireland. 
Possibly be tn^ht be right ; hot the 
qoestkn whence any opinion was 
io be drawn letpected the expedi* 
ency of Mji^og forward these re- 
soiatioos. Whether justly or obt^ 
it appears, said he, that they think 
the demand npon Ireland was no- 
thing less than the whole body of 
her laws, her rights, her liberties, 
^cr iodepeikkot parliament. Un- 
'ier st2ch drcnmatances, how does 
the mass of the Irish nation weigh 
^ucb a supposed demand? Die- 
gcsted as they have been by receot 
outrages, and smarting from the 
bsh of late severities, and irritated 
by present threau of continued in- 
t:icuoa~how could it be supposed 
'^•3t they would meet with temper 
^"e proponV!6D for drawing closer 
the ties to which they have been 
Tnivrhierou^y told were owing all 
iteir past sufleriogt. Such suffer- 
^H^» be sftd, thqr had ail under- 
goat or witnessed, and they had 
J^«ly»crtbed them, not Io tfce li- 
ceotiousi^eMof ^^ grfdiers, but to 
the priadpk and procedure of ga- 
▼wnmcnt Ih tbc nature of the 
ODion, (here, was not any thing that 



held forth to the inhabitants of Ire- 
land a security against"" the violence 
of the executive govern men c ; but, 
on the contrary, many chrcka 
upon that government would 
be withdrawn. The noble earl 
(Camden) had allodcd to ^ome acta 
of the legislature of Ireland hiving 
been treated with reprobation ia 
that house. He did not know to 
whom the noble lord alluded. What 
he bad complained of always in that 
house was, that the conduct of the 
executive government in Ireland' 
was no more reconcileabic to the acts 
passed by the Irish parlianaeot than 
it was to justice, or to policy on ge-, 
neral principles. He had referred, 
he said, to the modes of ioditcri- 
minate and savage torture, which 
had been adopted without com* 
ponction, and persevered in without 
remorse. The picket in gs, the 
burning of houses, the rapes, and 
numberless other outrages, that had 
been perpetrated with the view, as 
it was said, of cru«ihlng disaJec- 
tion. The measures which had 
been resoned to were evidently im- 
proper. 

His lordship said there was <:ome'^ 
thing very curious in the aoble se- 
cretary's imagining th^t those peo- 
ple, whom he called barbarians, de- 
scribed as utterly uncivilised, and 
treated as incapable of comprehend- 
ing the meaning of catholic eman-« 
cipation or parliamentary reform, 
were notwithstanding intimately ac- 
quainted with all the abstruse dis- 
cussions that had tajien place re- 
specting forms of government, and 
the priaciples on which they were 
established. The inapplicability of 
such a statement, he baid, to any 
thtngr under present considera* 
tion, afforded a presumption that 
tile floble lord had some other view 
in mtroductng the ob>ervation. Af- 
ter i few m^re general remarks 
G upon 



9$ 



BRITISH AND 



- npon the subject, he concluded by 

spying, 0iat he felt himself bound 
to give his vote agaitist iho farlLer 
agifa^iod of the question. 

Earl Canidfn ro>i^ to vindicate 
the government, in answei* to what 
had fallen from the noble earl, re- 
lative to the cruelties' which Had 
taken pla6c in Ireland. 

Lord Holland could not allow 
the rqsoUu ions to lie upon the ta- 
ble, without staling his sentiments 
upon I he subject. The noble se- 
cretary of slat(^ had said, that it 
was necessary to exhibit to the peo- 
ple of Ireland what the terms were 
Upon which this country proposed 
to. unite the legislature. Such^ he 
said^ migbt very naturally be the 
desire of , his majc'^ty's ministers ; 
bur if they had imprudently in- 
volved ihenfft elves by bringing for- 
ward this question, that was no rea- 
son why their lordsLips sl^uld be 
impTiciaied with them., If there 
were any necessity for showing the 
people what the intentions of his 
majesty's ministers were^ he thought 
that a report of the noble secretary's 
speech would be sufHcient for tlut 
purpose, This, he s^d, would be 
a better way of settling the business, 
tlxan the house agreeing to the re- 
solutions, which were not only in 
direct ppposltioii to the adjustment 
of 1782, but to the vote of the Iriih 
parliafpcnt. 

It had been argued, that Scotland 
had derived great advantages from 
a union with Great- Britain 3 but he 
remarked, that it was forty years 
affer the passing of the act of union 
beture the commercial prosperity 
c^f S9otlahd began to revive from 
the shock it had received. He also 
observed, that, five years after it 
was.^et^led, the very same persons 
who moved the union propoftd 
its abolition in that house ; and 
staled as their reasons for that pro^ 



ceeding, that€Yperience had show: 
that the Utiion'had Doi those bfrr 
ficial, effects which were exprcii 
to flow from it. There was ace 
tlicr subject upon which he cei . 
not avoid saying a few words. N: 
thin? astonished him more than :':.: 
apathy wiih which the propoiit: : 
for adding one hundrcdmembfrs :. 
the house of commons was receire. 
This invasion of the constitutic. 
he said, was looked to with tl 
ipost perfect indifference. Th 
pr6position was aUo irtcompatil 
with the opinion of all those wl . 
wished for parliamentary rcforiD. 

Lord Mulgrave said^ he enLTc'; 
concurr'ed with the noble lori 
(Moira), in admitting, that, vhr. 
his noMe fritnd first iotrodocedik 
subject, by bringlfig down hisn^^- 
jesty's message arid" moving an ad 
dress, he acted most judicioosly i::| 
moving an adjournintnt of a f^ii 
tijcf consideration ot* it to a distir.: I 
day, in order to aiford time for il- 
parliament of Ireland to have it 
subject opeped to them, and to re 
ccivc it. He was, however, h^ 
said, of a differcpt opinipn fic::. 
the noble lord with respect to the 
bad effects it would occasion in flie 
kingdom of Ireland j on the con- 
trary, he thought, that after the rr 
solutiona had undergone a calm aiit 
temperate discussion, thcIri$hlionst> 
of parlianient might possibly, fr^ai 
knowing what the ternis tvrre c^ 
which Sris country t\-as willing '^'^ 
unite with them, be ibdoccd to rr 
vise the opinion ot one house wbu * 
had hastily declared upon the ^i^" 
ject. With regard to, its ^^"'vj 
made a matter of grievance aiw 
complaint by Ireland| that ttJ 
country should chu«e to liavr tnc 
outline and ground work of ^^f 
proposed union put dn the recoj^^ 
of the British parli^meiit, vhicti 

SQme noble lords had Iflsi^t.^^ upon, 

lie 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



99 



he confessed that he saw not the 
smallest reason to suspect thai such 
wou\d be ibe eflFect. The nobis 
tbarqnis bad said, that the adjust- 
meot of 1712 had no cooceiiion 
with theqaesiioD of union. Froai 
that opinion he differed totally, be- 
cause out of that vtry adjustment 
arose the immcdiile necessity of ihe 
proposed onion. Tbe adjustment 
iurard upon four qacMions ; two 
of fhem, be said, m-ght be drcmed 
British questions, viz. (be declara- 
tory law, and ihe resolution of the 
hu'jsc of commons that soon fol- 
lowed it. The Irish questions wer<-, 
the recDOTal of the appellant juris- 
dxtioo, and the repeal of Poyn^ 
io^s law. And It was that repeal 
tlial so Considerably loosened, the 
connexion between the two coun- 
tries, wbich rendered it necessary 
to coffie forward now with soaie 
tneasurc /or eff<rctQal!y securing and 
drawing closer that connexion br- 
twccQ the two kingdoms that was 
on all hands admitted to be ex- 
tremely desirable to be kept up and 
secured. 

The Earl of Carlisle rose, and 
Sj.'d, b« should not have troubled 
theiV lordships at that bte hour, had 
not something fallen from a noble 
lord near Wm (lord Holland), which 
mitrbi have a mischievous trtndoncy 
in Ireland if no notice were taken 
of it. That noble lord had repro- 
bated the discussing of the topic in 
(Lit house, and had termed it an 
aii^cncTOus advantage taken of Ire- 
land, la discus J it in the British par- 
liament after tbe opinion that had 
bean parsed upoQ it in one of the 
houses of parliament in Irehnd. 
Nay, be had charged his majesty's 
inmistcrs with a Jesign to carry tiic 
measure by force. His lordship 
said, be had a considerable time 
back been eotrasted with the go- 
Tcrsmoit of Ireland, and it- was 



during his administration that the. 
system of adjustment, that took 
place in i;(82, was formed; but 
when he heard that talked of as a 
Jlnal adjuitment^i be confessed he was 
at a loss to comprehend what waa 
meant by the exprtSNion. It .was, 
as he had understood it, an adjust* 
meiit suited to tbe circumstances of 
those time":, and calculated to re- 
move the then grievances } for he 
was persuaded that the two coun- 
tries did not intend to bind poste* 
ri.ry, and legislate for future gene- 
rations,. Atter speaking at sop:c 
length wiih respect to tlie good ci- 
fccu which a union would produce^ 
he concluded by giving his volc-foc 
tbe measure, 

I'he Eaf. ef Westmoreland, in a 
speech of •■omc length, supported 
the resolutions. lie spoke of the 
adju«5tmcnt of 1/82, and appealed 
to lard Lansdowne if farther mea- 
sures were not thr^n in contempla- 
tion, and if it were not at tliat 
time sug^e-iied to send overcome 
missioncib to sopci intend the inter* 
ests of Ireland. 

The Marquis of Lansdowne was 
impressed with an idea, that the ca- 
binet ministers at ihe time alluded 
to were then of opinion, that the 
parliamentary independence ot" lie- 
land was completely established, 

Lord Auckland said, he would, 
not detain the house at the late hour 
which they had sat, any longer 
than to observe, that when ihe^ub-' 
ject should come bcf« re the house 
again he would deliver his Eenti- 
int-nts at length. 

The Duke of Portland said, the 
set:lenient of 1782 had not bcra 
considered by hun, or any of the 
-e.iljinct, as a tinal setilement. 

The original motion was then 
agreed to without a division. 

The resolutions were read and 
agreed to 3 and 

G 2 Lord 



icx» 



BAITI SH AND 



Lord GrenyiUethen mqvcis that 
tbeir lordships be summooed for 
Thuraday, April 4, when he would 
ibove the address. 

On Wednesday^ April 3, lord 
Greanlle reminded their lordships 
that he had before the holidays 
moved, that they should be sum- 
tponed £pr the next day, in order 
to take into consideration an ad- 
dress to his majesty relative to the 
connexioQ between tiiia country 
land Ireland. He was, he said, far 
from wishing any delay should be 
ibterposed, and yet he wa^ under 
th^ necessity of delaying it at pre- 
sent, on account of the indispo- 
sition of a noble lord (the lord- 
chancellor). He therefore moved^ 
that the order for the next day be 
discharged, and their lordships 
snpunoned for Thursday the 1 Ith 
of April. 

Lord Aucklknd expressed hia sa- 
tiafiiction thai the time was extend- 
ed, as he. should be better able to 
arrange the observations he meant 
to submit in r^rd to the papers 
on the table, by which he would be 
enabled to correct the opinion of a 
noUe peer opposite to hkn (earl 
Moirajii that tfaey were greatly, con < 
nected with the queMion of the 
union. 

Earl Moira said, he had already 
stated that the papers alluded to 
were by no means connected with 
the question of a union, and no- 
thing that had fallen from the no- 
Ue lor^ had tended to alter that 
opinion. His lordship was pro* 
ceeding to make some remarks upon 
the measure of the union, when 
lord Kenyon rcnaind^d the noble 
peer that his observations were not 
relevant to the question beibre the, 
boiue. 

The Earl of Moira did not con- 
sider himself strictly to be out 
of order* It W4» not^ J^ s^ii^ 



ss &r as he obienred^ the practice 

of that house to restrict its members 
to very confined limitatioos, but 
to give a laiitude be<x>ming such aa 
assembly. 

ViscQunt Sydney thanked the no- 
ble lord upon the woolsack for 
stepping forward to recall the hou^ 
to the observance of ica ancicDi 
'rules. 

Tlieir lordships were then order- 
ed to be summoned for Tharsdaj 
the 1 1th. 

On the nth of April, the c]cr\i 
having read at the table the sum- 
smons desiring the full attendance of 
their lordsliips. 

Lord Grenville rose, and njl 
after the very able manner in wbu n 
the subject bad already been (ii» 
cussed, he felt it would be oddc 
cessary for him. to take up any nao:: 
of their lordship*s time. He» there- | 
fore, should content himself ^^'^ I 
moving tlie address. ' 

Lord Auckland rose with pecu- 
liar satisfaction to give his sapport 
to an address to the revered 80T^ 
reign of the two kingdoms, for the 
purpose of communicapng their 
resolutions to the lords and com- 
mons of Ireland. 

There were few, indeed, vho 
could deny the necesuty of ion:e 
great cliange being made in the ^p' 
tern of Irish government ; ^^^ ^^ 
did not believe that any noble lord 
would maintain that the uoioo ot 
the two kingdoms, accomplisi*^** 
upon grounds satisfiiptory to cacin 
would not promote the traoquillil^'> 
civilisation, and prosperity» of l^^ 
land -, but, said he, the consent and 
co*operatloo of Ireland are suU 
wanting. Ireland must form her 
own decision { she must decide 
for herself, through the mcdiuxD ^ 
the deliberate wisdom of her par- 
liament. He did not mean toaj- 
tempt an examination of tbo^^^' 



FOUSIGN HtSTOKT* 



10k 



jecdoos wbidi had been stated 
agaoMttlieiDeafliire; tiwyhadbcei^ 
aoiptj ooafbted both in tbif eoan* 
try and in Iidaod. The ancoosti- 
tQtvMUil ioctrior, which denied tbe 
competency of parliament to elfecr 
a nam, and to operate wbbt (by 
nn iafercBoe fidaeiy coocetved^ and 
idlf espresKd) wat called •' its 
own diiection,- wai, he said, ex-* 
ploded area in tbe beginning of 
tbk oant&ry. It had l)een revived 
io the schooli of democracy, by the 
admlaen cf the sovereignty of tbe 
people. Hu iord«hip next examin- 
ed thenatove of that iDdependence^ 
which tame affected to «ay would 
be deitmyed by a Ic^slattTe nnion. 
Jn poiiit of 6cr, what was the in- 
dependence of a conntry which 
hid no meaoi of defence or security, 
or self preservation^ but through 
the Mid aod protection of its more 
powerfol oeigbboor? Ireland, he 
sjjci, had no powjer of negotiating, 
con eroding, or even rejecting trea- 
ties ; notwithstanding that thos6 
trraiics might involve the most es- 
^'^ntiol tottfrests of the British em- 
P'c, at which she ibrmed a part. 
i^at he waved theie considerations, 
(ho'jgh be thooght they ooght to b6 
nr Qg indncemcnts to Ireland; not 
mrrtly to accede to tbe proposed 
Gr.:on, bat to seek it. His lordship 
uv.d a variety of arguments to show 
(h2i Irrfamd was not so indepen- 
(i?r.t as was imagined. - He said, it 
tnigbt add a little weight to his rea- 
sons, if iie might tM permitCird to 
eipiaio, whatJbe had »at ^1 time* 
(ndcavtmred to protnote, the com- 
metcisl prospciity and constifn- 
t.onal Ibcedbm cf Ireland; aod^ 
what lie^^as^ going to stale, ^s the 
revolt, oot of new motives^ but 
[ of loDg mefitarion. It ^as neces- 
sary to oitkc a Aort reference to 
past rnnsaetiDns* So earlv as in 
l7</9 heitated and pnUisned tbe 



expediency of that enlarged lyst^cn 
of coAmerce, which was then de- 
manded by Ireland^ and which was 
granted to them a few months af^ 
terwards. In If SO his lordship said, 
he went to Ireland as chidT le* 
cretary in a vice* royalty, which, at 
iti close (in 1782) received, fihom 
the Irish parliament, strong aisurf 
ances of national gratitude and re^ 
spect. In the seisfon of 1*81 he 
was natned, with the recofder of 
Dublin, to be of the committee for 
the bill which extended to Ireland 
the writ of habeas-corptis by an 
Irish court. In the same session, he 
promoted the bill for making tbd 
Irish judges lodependeot Re alio 
framed the whole institution of tfaA 
bank of Ireland, and introduced 
the act which established It. Ill 
1782, he was the first who pro^ 
posed in the British parliament tbd 
repeal of the statute, § George I. 
which asserted the right to bmd Ire^ 
land by British laws^ which waa 
treated by some persons who beard 
him as violent and precipitate. It 
was in most cases objectioiiabte to 
refer to printed statements of par- 
liamentary debates, as such state- 
rocnts were generally erroneous $ 
however, he said, it might happen 
that the substance of particulaj: pas« 
sages might be verined, as far al 
human evidence could go. His 
lordship animadverted .upoh this 
part at some length, and laid, it 
became a general opinion that nnv 
formity of laws most aceotnpanjr- 
the communication of permanent 
advantages. His lordship said, it 
was impossible to contemplate those 
papers without exultation of mind 
at fi(o brilTiant an exhibition of the 
increasing prosperity of 'Great-Bri- 
tain. Those papers, hp said,^would 
give their lordships what had never 
before been attempted, the true va- 
ioltilQa of our ttrhola -commerce. 
C 8 according 



101 



BRITISH AND 



tccording to current prloet, and. to 
other (tocuments, the accuracy of 
wbicb> he observed, was incon- 

, tcstiblc. Here his lords»hip entered 
into a review of the total value of 
bur knports and exportj^ in the year 
of 1 798; after which he retained 
to the subject of the union. He 
asked, what were the multiplied and 
ioesticnable blessings which the ad- 
dress and propositions held out to 
•Ireland? why the preservation of 
her actual advantages, (he extension 
of capitals, the increased employ- 
ment of her people, with the cofi- 
sequent cultivation and softening 
of their minds and manners,— 
and, above all, an introduction of 
a middle class, one of the greatest 
wants in Irelaud, and the most im- 
portant link of security between 
theliighcst and lowest prders. Still, 
ho remarked, lci»vi r.g her the same 
constitution and liberties which she 
enjoyed at present. 

His lordship said, before he, sat 
down, he would say a few words 
upon one point, viz. catholic eman- 
cipation. It had lon^ bften his opi- 
nion, that, whatever might be the 
JndulgcDCt^s, whether more or less 
limited, to the catholics in Eng- 
land, the measure of those indul- 
gences ought to guide their discre- 
tioQ with respect to the catholics in 
Ireland. He sincerely lamented the 
abrupt and wide departure from the 
rule in 1793. However, he must 
not look with an unavailing regret 
to what must now be considered as 
irrevocablej andbc rejoiced, that 
their future adherence to that rule 
must be one of ihc many important 
consequences of a legislative union. 
The Bishop of LapdafFsaid, in 
rising to deliver his opinion on a 
subject which had already been il- 
lustrated by some of the ablest 
speakers in that and in the other 
hpuse of parliament;^ he could not 



but feel an -upprehenfiion Isst I 
should be considered by their lore 
ships in the uofavourabKt jight of 
man unnecessarily vexing the reluc 
tant e^r > but, as he had long bee 
accustomed to contemplate the sut 
ject as an object of the first polir 
cal importance, he most eatrcj 
their lordships' indulgence while 
explained his sentiments upon it. 
While the duke qf Rutland w 
Io»d lieutenant of Ireland, he he 
noured him wldi his confidence 
The Irish propositions, as they we 
then called, were under discussioD 
they were, he said, ultimately abar 
doned, on the ground of their n* 
being ;icc^piable to the Irish natiou 
In writing to him about that timr 
he perfectly well rcniembercd hr.- 
ing said, '* You, and your friend ihi 
minister of England, would ini 
mortalise your characters, if. i^ 
stead of a' mere commercial ?^ 
rangemcnt, you could accompli^^ 
by hononrable means, a legisUii** 
union between the two kingdom* 
His answer, he said, he should nt\cJ 
forget. He wholly approved oH^- 
measure; but add«d, the man w1j» 
should attempt to carry it^into nt 
culion would be tarred and feather- 
ed. He n^entioned this circum 
siance to fhcw to their lordsbipi 
that the opinion whidi he iDtcndcJ 
to deliver on the subject v'«« "^'^ 
rashly or recently taken up. Hav- 
ing formed such a judgmeni, ^^ 
would not be deterred from dccl.^f' 
ing it on account of its unpopi^'^ 
rity in any country. If be wcr<" «o 
express his sentiments of the ut'l'J>' 
of a union in few words, be \voi" * 
say, that a union would fflf! ii 
Ireland— that it would not in^P^" 
verish Great Britain— that ii v^'"'^ 
render the cmpirp, as to <i^^^"^^' 
the strongest in Europe, ^^^'i 
strength of every stale depends on| 

the number of ;ts people- ^p 

lands,! 



FOREIGN HISTO K^T. 



103 



kods^ Ee &aid, of Gfeai-Britdio and 
Irdasd, if caltirated co Ibeir foil 
cxteot* if tbe met tore toofc place, 
wooldvia Uf,a ceotttiy, fuppori 
a ftajpilaliGD of thirty miUkms at 
leasti and (birty miUioni pf people 
ATOutd afllbrj £re or $ix outlioosof 
men abfe (o bear arms i bat even 
^K^ Mf fflh'iiOQ 20 arms, with 
tiDft«i brar^ what would Great- 
BntBia jiait to feir from the coni- 
J>m«4 aggrmioB of ^W Europe? 
^*yi^ ex^tssed bia general ap- 
prob^^ax of die oiCBfture^ be oHide 
»aie /temarks oo the present parlia- 
meuf cf Irehod. ^herher it bad a 
righi to Totc away its own extinc- 
(ioa« If tbii waa a qoestion with 
respect to Irclaod^ a similar one ap- 
plied u> Crcat-Britain, Viz. wbeibcr 
the prewd parUacneot of Grcat-Bri* 
tain bod, or htd not, a right lo ac- 
cede to a Qoioo. However, he aaid, 
a vQ^ocBc mi^t be written oo the 
sab/at, andwtJI the question would 
be uod©cid«d. There was another 
que&tioQ which be considered of 
*>*»gh imppruoce, and that was, 
^hetber tbjp^ Roman catholica in 
IreWnd, being a great majority of 
^e people, have, or have not, a 
nght to aocne cccleuastical establish- 
tocnt ? This question becomes per- 
P'«xcd, he said, when it was con- 
sidered thai the property^ by which 
*Qch an establiahment must be mam- 
t3iDed, was principally in the hands 
of 8 soiai) ouoority of the people, 
who would not receive any direct 
and ioKDediafie benefit from such an 
eiUWi$hm0nt. With respect to 
protestaois and catholics, he recom- 
mended the advice of an andent 
fllher<^ the church, who, iu com- 
pound the aniinoaities of ^pontend- 
ii^(e&f;KH» parties, ooniistlled each 
tkit tft give up littie things, that 
both ttksio^ht obtain great things 
-'pesM;, tranquilUtyy and coocordl 
Tkrftwatanocheir qaestion of g^at 



importance, viz. whether the Bri- 
•tish , constitution would or would 
not undergo tovac change ?* and, if 
any, what change from the Intro- 
ductioQ of Irish members into the 
tvi o hoQSOS of parliameru here ? On 
thesQ questions, he said) he could, 
speak at doniiderable leogtb> but 
be parposely declined cottriug into 
tbe detaU of them. 

On the subject of the agion, as 
far as ;it respected Ireland, three 
ditfereot opiqiopb had been adopted 
in that country. The first was the 
opinion of those who though i ihat 
an union with Great-Briiain was 
the most probable and ci^'ectual 
means of securing, of enla^'ging, 
and rendering permanent the. pro- 
sperity of Ireland. Whatever might 
be the number of persons who en- 
tertained this opinion, he had uo 
scruple in paying hecoucurred with 
them. A second opinion was, that 
British connexion* was indeed es- 
sential to IriAh prosperity. This opi- 
nion, he said, had been supported 
by men of such appioved integrity 
and ability, that he buspecied hi% 
own faculties when he presumed to 
differ from them* 

In an ordinary oaode of reason- 
ing one would say, that if British 
Gonnciiion was essential toIrisL pro- 
sperity, then the closer that con- 
nei^ion was, the greater would be 
that pro<^perity. This, l>e observed^ 
would be an ordinary .inference, 
unless if could be shown that the 
connexion, when it had approached 
to a certain d^^gree of proximity, 
changed at once its nature, like. 
some physical powers whiph are at- 
tractive to a certain dista^cCt ^nd 
then become repulsive. 

The present bond of connexion 
betweet\ the ^wo kingdomti was. 
that of their having the same kiog ; 
the proposed! bond waf, that of 
thoir ]»W% the same legislature* 
G 4 Hew 



roi 



BRITISH AN D 



How sli^t tiie former bcmd was, 
had beeo full/ shown by a noble 
secretary in a former ddute opon 
the subject. 

The third opinion, he said, which 
prevailed in Ireland on this lobject, 
was, ^t British conorxion and 
Sritiib onion were equapy and ir- 
recomileably hostile to the ioteresti 
of Ireland. This, he said, was a 
preposterous opinion, and not sup- 
ported by experience derived from 
the history of nations. Ireland, as 
• gnft inserted into the stock of 
the British einpire, might throw out 
branches in every direction; but 
^ if," said his lordship. ** you se- 
parate it from this connexion, snd 
plant it in a soil by itself, it will 
n«;itber strike root downwards^ nor 
hear fruit opwards, for an hundred 
y^ani, though it should be left to 
itself, free froTi the annoyance of 
its neighbours." HU lordship said 
lie foresaw, and with great satis- 
faction, the time, should the union 
take place, when th^ whole state of 
Ireland would be changed -, it would 
in time convert the bogs of that 
country into corn fields, it would 
cover its barren mountains with 
forests, it would dig its mines, cut 
its canals, erect its fabrics; in a 
Word, it would rentier the people 
Industrious^ enlightened, contentedi 
and happy. 

But though he was a friend to the 
ttoibn, he was no friend to its being 
' HccoiDplished, except by the most 
honourable means. Ireland at pre- 
sent seemed not disposed to con- 
■ tract. What then, said his lord- 
ship, is to be done ? Precisely that 
which Great-Britain was doing, vis. 
giving time Jto Ireland to consider 
this subject in all its bearings. His 
lordship said, he sppke in the sin- 
cerity of his heart, that no human 
ttieans could be devised more suited 
to the situation of Ireland than 
i Ubcrdf cor4ial^ legislative xoA" 



on between Great-Briteia aod ( 

country. 

Lord Minto spolce at oansldera 
length in favour of the measi 
In deliberating on ttis question, 
said, the first propoaitioo wh 
seemed to impress itself oo ev 
mind was, the convenieoce iodc 
amounting to necessity, not racn 
for the advantage and beiv^fit, b 
for the preservation and security 
both countries, that there «hoo 
subsist between Grea t^Bri tain ac 
Ireland a close connexicMi of oc 
description. The most disadv^i: 
tageous situation in which citfac 
country could be placed was iba 
of a total discoQuexipq The qaa 
tion then arose. What would be ih^ 
best and most eligible oaode oi 
forming that connexicm ? In i^s 
opinion, the first propositicm ^t^ 
that when two countries were so 
circumstanced as mutaally to re- 
quire connexion, th€ only mode of 
connexion which could perfectly 
remove the evils of separation, aod 
fully confer the benefit of ualoot 
was a perfect identity and iQCOC* 
poration of their governments. 

The next thing his lordship a<J' 
verted to, was that of federal con- 
nexion. The question of unloOt 
he said, was supposed by 9omt to 
lean towards a connexion of that 
nature : howcycr, he confessed &c 
could find nothing in that mod^ <» 
relation to recommend it -AiH? 
every thing proved that, in the fi^t 
place, to be inadequate to the pu^^ 
poses of union ; and, in the oci( 
place, of a very precarious dura- 
tion. On this topic his lordsbip 
made some vtxy pertinent rctnarb. 
His lordship aficrwards aniroadmt- 
cd ppon the competency of p«r'^ 
ment, and said» if parliament ^ 
not competent, wbeip pould w 
found a more adequate authonty j 
for whatever tjie whole nation cocld 
do^ if there were oo parli«cJ^^» 



FOXSIGN HIiTORT* fK 



was widuB die rcgnltr and fiinda* 

meBtal powers of pa^ Uament ; but 

as 4ht« subject had beeif so My 

bandied b> otheri, be condodcd 

by es.;)retnB| a strong opiniun, 

tlnat tbe umm of the^f ( < vo oat ions, 

mbead) oniled ia their oat ore and 

in Ihciriotereits, mutt in tbe order 

of buauo eventi caoke to pass. 

Lord Boni^gdon said, that if he 
JbJ noi ncoHecCed the optnioos 
pm^ssitd OB a foroier night by aome 
iio6/e lords near him. 1;^ should be 
led to iaaagioe, from tbe speecfaca 
ju^ delrrcred, thai he wu about to 
address aa onanimous house; bat 
l»efore be fo<e» he waited to tee if 
anj noble tord on the opposite sida 
wiah«l to address tbeir lordships. 
However, he ttid^ hecouMacarce 
ftatter btmieif with the idea, that 
those who bad opposed tbe measure 
in fenaer debates had abandoned 
Ibeir aprntm, Tlie idea^ he said, 
that Ifre political liberties of Ireland 
vere toheiacrificed by the measure 
of an union, alto^her surprised 
ftisi' It was with difficaltf be 
could beheve thai anj such appre- 
beos^coohi haveever been enter* 
tained, aspeciaUj when one of tbe 
aieaseres which it was universally 
believed would result from a untonp 
Vastfaereasoving the political in- 
capacities of Ibor-fifths of tbe whole 
UbabitaDte of that couatry. He 
next made some general remarks on 
Hmmfi^fiMU A^fMPMirof 1782. 
He s«d, he ncvac could admit that 
as a cooclosive argument against 
tiieaiiioii, and contended that those 
ptnoBs who were conc e r n ed in the 
completioD of it did noi consider it 
fsjM lo anpport of tkk opinion 



*be referred to Mr. F«a*s 
the ceniinercial propo'ili<4M an 
178;, who declared that the raao* 
lotion of the house of romawwi* of 
the 17th of May 173 in no way re-^ 
ferred to ccnomerce, bot solely lo 
objects political acd imperiaL To 
prove that it did not t^fer to ce^ 
merce, bi^ lordship n^ed • VdricCy 
of arguments. He coriioded bj 
saying, thar if Ireland was de*er* 
mmed to reject tbe pbn crffered to 
her, the presentationof I be proposed 
•ddress was es^enltal for .uepur* 
poae of making known to her, and 
to the world, what were the condi- 
tions on w hich England was willing 
to unite with her. 

I>^rd Haj (Eari of Kinnool) 1 
a few words in fsvonr of the 1 



sure. 

The question was then pot 1 
the address, and carried aew. Jh. 

Lord Grenviile, lord Auckland^ 
the bishop of Landaff^ and lord 
Minto, were then named as a com- 
mittee to draw op an address con- 
formable to the motioo ; and when 
they returned with it, it was agreed 
to. 

Lord GrenviOe then moved, that 
a conference be desired with tbe 
coaunons on the following da), at 
half past four o'clocfc» on the snb* 
j^t of their conference on tbe 18th 
of March last i which being pot 
and carried, his lordship gave no* 
tice that be should then move^ flmt 
the aumagers of tbe conteieocc* o« 
the part of their lordships, be in* 
structed to request the coaunons to 
agree that tbe address be presented 
to his majesty as the joint address 
of both houses of pas^tameot, wbick 
was accordingly done* 



CHAf, 



IM 



B&ITIS 



H^ a:n 



CHAP. IIL 



ftnknces of the Year 1799. Committee <f Sufifly,. Navy Estimates^^Sir 
Jchn. Si'fclairs Objections — Debate on the Subject, Attn^ Estimates. The 
first hudget^^Sup^hly — Ways and Means* Income Tetx-^Debate onthe Reso* 
iutions relative to tt'^Rejoiutions^ Debate on the Refiort, Bargain for Part of 
tie Loan. Further Debates .on the Income Tax in the Home «/ Ce^nmonfi^^De" 
bates on the same Bill in the House of Lards — Amendments made m the same 
Bill in the Ho^e of Commons efter its Return from the Home if Lords, ' y<ttA^ 
Credit for Three Millions on Exchequer Bills. Subsidy to Rusu'a FnrtheiFote 
rf Credit for Three Millions to enable his Majesty to make good Engogemen/u 
Second Budget'^Ways and Means-^Nem Taxes,. . Resolutions relative to If he 
Service ef Ireland. Mr. Tierney^s Motion relative to the Finances of theCoun^ 
try — Debate on that Subject. India Budget. , 



THE ^nsnc^s of. the year, z 799 
were introduced by a notice 
given to the house of commons, 
on the 26th of November, by the 
chancellor of the exchequer, that 
o^i that day fortnight he should 
liave the honour of makipg a state- 
ment of the whole ways and means 
of the j'€ar. The plan of proceed- 
ing which he meant to recommend^ 
was that of raising within the year 
a considerable part of the supplies. 
The principle of that plan had 
already received the approbation of 
the hou^e ; but what he bad to pro- 
p^ose wouldi J^e trusted, be done in 
a mode less exceptionable than that 
of the former year. The principle, 
however, .was the same, ^nd the 
advantage of it had been already 
felt; and so far was he frona ap- 
prehending, it would ncit .be ..apr 
proved, that he expected a general 
concurrence. For tlie- present he 
$l)0u!d defer the detail of the plaii^ 
and propose.^ ih^t Uie resplutiQns 
^hbula be yot'ed, and a bill Intro- 
iduced in piirsuance of theni on Mon- 
' flay ; he should then propose .that 
the blaYiki sliould fee filled up, and 
^^that thi intbrval of nearly a week 
AWiji ^t i'ateii to peruse' it j and 



aRerwards be should propose the 
re-commUment^ which he^ hoped 
would take place on Friday. 

Preparatory to the introduction of 
the minister's new plan of finance, 
the house entered into a committee 
of supply on the 2 7 th of November. 
Mr. Hobart then brought up the 
report, in which it had been voted 
that 120,000 men be employed for 
the service of the navy for the year 
1799, including 20,000 marines. 
The several resolutions were read 
a first time ; and, on their second 
-reading/ granting 120,000 men for 
the service of the navy. 

Sir John Sinclair rose, and said, 
that, afler a cool and careful deii* 
beration on the subject of the pre- 
sent resolution, he found himself 

. countenanced and oonfirmed, by a 
variety of what he deemed to be 
cogent reasons, in an opinion he 
.had formerly expressed, namely»tbat 
the number of ^eacpen proposed to 
be employed was by no means called 

^ for by the necessary service ^nd ^xi* 
gences of thestate. When he con- 
sideicd the depressed and ruined 
condition of the enemy's fleet, the 
fallen conditio^ lo which it was re^ 
duced by the superior skill and gaU 

iantry 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



W 



kntr? of British seamen^ be coold 
jtQt bnt rest satisfied, that victories 
to brilliant. and decisive as those 
which our navv had achieved must 
render a far ms naval force than 
that hitherto employed fully ade- 
quate to every purpose of annoy- 
ance and defence. But whez| he 
moreover oonsidered, that onr ex- 
ertio&s were now to be seconded 
and invigorated by the co-opera- 
tion of Russia, of Turkey, of the 
Neapolitans, and the Portuguese, 
be was. further strengthened in the 
opinion that 9 Itss naval force would 
be necessary ; and he was more par- 
ticularlj impressed with the neces- 
sity of turning the roost serious at- 
tention of the house to the deranged 
s'uaation of our finances ; a silua- 
ti<ni which pointed out oeconomy 
as the great object that should now 
€n^n»M their esiertions and their 
tiifU;(ht5; not that oeconomy, as it 
bid been characlciised by the ri^ht 
hofiourable ge >tleman, but a vi go* 
roQs, an essential, and general osco* 
nomv, thai should regulate the ex- 
pend i tore of not only one branch 
of the admiiiislra»ive power, an 
CBConamy which should pervade and 
purity every department of the 
fetaie. 

He had carefully perused Steel's 
Li'it, and there he observed that 
we were now in possession of one 
I jndrcd and forty three sail of ships 
of war; of these, that eighty -five 
were employed in actual service j 
tliat twenty-»eight were fitting out, 
iefittiii|^, in thedilferent ports; that 
no le#!» than thirty sail of the line 
were actually employed as guard- 
ship< : and that thirt) sail of the line 
should be thus cooped np in a state of 
inertness that only accunaufated idle 
expense, was what he coold not 
think of without regrety and what 
loudly called for the most serious 
consideration of the well-wishprs t^ 



public oeconomy. He was charged 
with holding opinions of a singular 
nature ; but the nnore he consiaered 
thwn, the les^he could see thetfl 
chargeable with singularity. What 
he advanced was> that a greater num^ 
'ber than that called for last year, ynt. 
1 10,000 seamen, was not "toecesstry^ 
for the service of the cnming year. 
He alluded to the opinion of filr. 
Hussey, who was not now present. 
But the enemy did not now possesi 
seventy sail of effective ships: there 
was therefore nothing like the sattid 
number now necessary on our side $ 
and were the house to vote a supply 
of naval force in proportion to the 
now ^listing force of the cnefny, 
they coufd not well exceed fifty-five 
ships. Should a peace be speedily 
concluded, what wcyuld be the "re- 
sult ^ Immediately we should hav6 
to discharge at once the immense 
force of 90,000 seamen, and 350,000 
soldiers. Should a war with France 
continue for a length of time longest 
would not wisdom an'd experience 
suggest the propriety of our then 
carrying on the war upon as reduced 
a scale as possible > Ifhis caution 
was hinted and enforced by an old 
political maxim, a maxim wise as 
it was old, that exhnusto denaiip ei 
imminente calamitate cavendum irai 
ne res publica dtserettir. 

Mr. Thomas Wallace said, he 
coold by no means agree in opiniod 
with the honourable baronet, not- 
withstanding the declaration be had 
made, that his sentiments upon the 
'present question were the result of a 
cool -and careful examination. 

General Tarleton assured the honse 
also, and the honourable baronet 
who opposed the resolution, that 
neither he, nor those political friends 
with whom he had the honour to 
act, cither now or ever did enter- 
tain an idea of opposing any thing 
that went to strengthen our naval 

depart- 



IM 



BRITISH AND 



^cpsrtmentf t^hich was the pride 
of the nation and its best defence $ 
on the contraryf they had always 
approved of the meesares that had 
that tendency, and gave them all 
the countenance in their power. 
The resobtion was thea put and 
•greed to, with only one dissenting 
voice, namely, that of Sir John 
Sioclair. 

On the 28th of November .the 
chancelbr of the exchequer moved 
the houte to resolve itself into a 
committee of the whole house^ to 
consider of the ways an-l means for 
raising a supply granted to his ma- 



'*%, 



The house having accondingly 
iretolved itself into a commilcee, 
lie moved the following resolutions : 

*' That it is the opinion of this 
committee, that, towards raising the 
aupply granted to his majesty, the 
sevoral duties imposed upon sugar 
by the aytb, 34th, and 37th of his 
present aaajesty^ and also the duties 
of excise on tobacco and 8nu(F» 
directed in the last session ofparlia^ 
ment to be continued until the ^th 
of March, 1799, should be further 
continued Qotil the 5th day of 
March, 1800. 

*' Thai four shillings in the pound, 
mn4 no more, be< tmpos^ on all 
pensions, offices, &c. and continued. 

'« That the duty on tnalt, &c. be 
contiiiaed from the 23d of June^ 
tjq^ to the 24th of June, 1800." 

These resolutions were agreed 
to ; and the hou.^e being resumed, 
the ceport was ordered for Friday ; 
on which day the secretary at war 
proceeded to open the army esti* 
mates ; his ^resLl cbject in doing 
which^he said, was 10 shew thediN 
ferenoe between present and former 
estimates. The diiferenee between 
thisand thelast year would be some- 
thing more ihan one million. The 
objects which bad created Uiis dif- 



ference were the supplementary 
militiaf provisional cavalry, the vo- 
lunteer corps, and barracks. The 
estimates for the } ear 179; amount* 
ed to the sum of 6,900,000/. T oae 
of the following year were voted at 
two different times. The first sum 
{1^,900,000/.) was considerably less 
than that of thepriccedioeycarjandl 
would have answered forme charges 
of last year, were it not that other 
objects, not expected at the time the 
estimates were roade^ arose out of 
the situation ufaffairs that aflemirards 
took place : tl^e charges, therefore, 
attendant upon those new arrang^pr 
ments, added to those already estinm- 
ted for the year ij^j^ (2i3 16,090/.) 
amounted in the whole to the suru 
of 8,305,92^/1 Besides these in* 
creasrtl establish ments, which were 
to be kept up for the ensuing year, 
there were some volunteer corps 
that had not been called out till 
the present time, and others that 
had considerably increased snnce tbe 
last estimate : on this account the 
esimate for the ensuing year would 
amount to son^evs hat mord than the 
sum of nine million*. There was 
one circumstance which hadswelU 
ed the estimate of 1 798 above that 
of the preceding year, and tl\iit,wka 
the augmentation of pay to tlie 
army ; and he apprehended, that 
was an increasje which must con«. 
tinue. Besides, there wa^ a num- 
ber of regiments /serving in Ireland^ 
and now remaining theie. Should 
it be continued, Ireland might here^ 
after be called upon to contribute sk 
part towards bearing that burden* 

An augmentation had also takea 
place in the regiments of dragooAs. 
which brought on an additional 
expense of 65,000/. Another of 
39,000/. took place in consequence 
of the increase of the companier 
of foot ffuards from 100 to 120 
men, and other troops. Another 
increase 



F O B £ I 6 N HIST OR Y. 



i<» 



metem of expense was that of the 
csUblishmeot of a nomber' of regi* 
Qoxtai pafouisCen : this was a plan 
adopted after much coiMideratioq, 
nd he believed ic woald |>roduce 
mndiidviDtageto the public. The 
expeoseaitendiog thi^ establishcnent 
k staled at 27^000 /. per aoDUoi. 
Another charge was owing to a pro- 
nfiiao vmde for a sup^ecnentary 
nulitii, bepagsp that spbjfcct came 
flpljpartiaUy befb^e parliaipeni laat 
yeir. There was another additioDal 
durge ajfo of about 100»000iL on 
tiie accoiut of barracks. Another 
bead of cbargrs which he had to 
briog forward was entirely new* 
ud it was proposed that it should 
be periaanent : it was sn increase 
ofaboat 12,000/. appropriated to 
the enlarging of widows'* p6n»ions» 
adocriptioB of persons whom he 
coflcdred to be soch as the com- 
miuee woold be glad to protect as 
&t u (hey could, with due regard to 
pobiic oBconocny. Great care should 
he takeo to keep this within the 
bounds of moderation; in no iQ* 
stance was it higher than 30 L and 
in some it was so low as 10 /. a year* 
An additional som was also to be 
employed for tlie service of Jam^ca. 
And here he might have coQclpded 
what be had to, sayv bat aooaethiog 
^•bich had 'passed befoiie required 
exptanatioo,— he meant the large 
to that were uken in some de- 
partments of bis office. A cona'- 
Bsttee had reported against a. coo* 
ticQ^oo of them ; and |he whole 
hid been collected and thrown into 
i mass, whereby a fund was created, 
■Hi sat of ic a new division was 
osde, and the salaries of the dif- 
bent clerks regulated* He at that 
tiioe took the liberty of doubt- 
ing the wisdom of that measure ;. 
be doobted whether it would pro* 
^Gct in the se(]uel much spying to 
^ public He had' nothing now 



to add, and therefore he should pn>-- 
ceed to move die different reaola* 
tiotii'^4 unless some gentleman sboali 
express a desire £ic further expla* 
nation. 

Mr* Tiemey said, that whatevec 

he might think his duty directed 

him to say, he should not oppoia 

Yotiog upon the estimates now ; hot 

althongh he said thiai, yet he could 

not help adding, that he was not 

a little mortified by the speech of. 

the secreury at war. He could 

have conceived, that the advanlage* 

of our victories and oar triumpha 

would haye been immediately felt 

in the diroiuution of our eapenses» 

whereas it appeared that some oC 

them were increasing. The pubtio 

had a right to say that the secretaij 

at war had deluded them ; fori last 

year^ the danger of invasion ope« 

rated upon the public mind, and 

muchot the expense was incorred- 

to provide against that calami^* 

Now the skill and valour of omt 

gallant officers^ and the steadinesa 

of our men, had removjcd all fear 

with regard to iBvaaioo; and yet 

ministers held out no hope of any 

retrenchment, even ia useless offi< 

cea. He should not vote that night 

for the resolutions, but shoold wait 

till he was further informed, as it 

would probably, happen the resolu* 

tions would remain for two or 

three days. He was sure that there 

was not a m^i who heard him, who 

did not think there ought to be the 

severest (economy in every part of 

the state. The gentlemen who had 

reaped the advantages of these enor* 

mous fees were to have an addi« 

tional allowance, bccaase the fees 

of last year had not beeo* eqnal to 

the expense calculated by the com- 

initt<;e, and allowed upon a new 

arrangement. He did nut mean to 

insinuate that the secvetaiy at war 

was interested in any of the fees i 

on 



/ 



IJO BRITISHAND 

on the contraty, he believed his wiihout delay. The risdatiow 
motives to be pare and honourable were then put and agreed to. 
in all such particulars. £ut it ap- Oa Monday December 3d, the 
peared that a farther sum would be house having formed it»^.lf into 
wanted to make up deficiencies in a committee, Mr. Hobart in the 
office, ixo. and this after a full con- chair, the chancellor of the exche- 
sideration of the matter, and a re- quer said, before he proceeded to 
port made by a committee of finance, ^pen to the committer, the very 
Sir John Sinclair expresseda wish important subject to which tbcir 
to know if the report on the army attention would in the course of 
estimates was to be taken into con- the eveniftg be directed, it would be 
sideration on Monday next. proper for him previooslj lo lay 

The Chancellor of the Exche- before it ^ general outline of the 
quer said, that as the discussion in supplies, which would be necessary 
the report might ruo into some for the service of the current year. 
length, it was his wish that it be It must be obvious to the commirte^. 
taken into consideration on Tues- that it was impossible now to pro- 
day ; especially as . Monday was duce that statemenf with perfect 
already fixed upon for considering accuracy ; but from the manner in 
an important measure of finance, which the different estimates were 
The report of the other estimates nruide, a general outline might be 
he wished might be brought up on proved which would approac/i 
Monday, as they must be voted pretty near the truth. This stat?* 
before he could open tiie ways and ment naust be founded upon a cam- 
means of the year, which it was parison with the expense of thesame 
his intention to bring, forward branches in former years. 
" Independently of the transport service, said 
Mr. Pitt, which has not yet been voted, but J £. 

which I shall state at l,300fiOal. the sums 
voted for the navy, including 120,000 sea- y I3,641fi00 
men amount to 10,720^000 /. making in all, 
X under the naval department, ordinary and 

extraordinary 

For the^army there had been already voted»7 oo^A/virt 

upon estimate Y «,b40,uw 

The extraordinaries last session amounted to 
about 3j206,000/. besides a vote of credit 
for one million ; but these sums would be 
fully adequate to cover the extraordinaries in 
' the course of the year, and there would be^ 1,000,000 
no arrears on this head. As no specific pro-| 
vision, however, was made for the vote of 
credit, that article must come to be p]^>vided 

for in the supply of this year 

For the service of the year 1 799, he imagined ) 1> ooo 000 
* the extraordinaries of the army would not > ^i^*^> 

exeeed the sum of , } 

There had that night been voted, under the 7 - ^ntinm 

Jhead of ordnance, the sum of , | l,500,cw 

Carry forward, ;C. 26,982)000 



FnO St£ i 9 n h 1 s t a r t^ 



Brottgktibrward« £\ •6«98»|Oo6 , 



6oO«CX30 



MlsceSaoeoos. iniH»ey included, «i|>«iuled oo 

, .tHe pUxUalioBS •. * • .....••• .^ 

The^ fum ?ot«d li) addition to th« annual rati- \ 
, » lioD fbr the-reducliun of the nalional debt \ 

lateie^t doe tx> tbe bank on exchequer bills, 1 ^ 

/ 9juioa txeasory bilU J 505,000 

Qucoq;] ton. payment of the loan of laU year «, . a 10,000 

Ialere$t on excheiquer bllli ^o»ooo> 

.De^ciencie^ of land aod^malt.. .« 300,000 



..,;-..-. WAYS AND MEANS. 

iTovaxds the, supply there were the tame ge«' 

. necal resources as n^ual, exeept the Instance 

of the land- la& now made perpetual In 

^ lictt uf the land tax, however, there are 

^. Ualed tlie pactjcular duties which were to be 
.. xesecved ibr ihe^&aue purpose. ...•«•./. 

.Tfieloitcry ,^. ... ^ 

. O^toaoHdated fsind • 

Imports, export^ sugar and coffee * • .• • 



^•39,tS7,ood 



£. 



2,700,000 



8,000,000 

iy^oo,o;;o 
1,700,000 



Leaving a som of about two ipil- 
! }\\s to be>pruvided ip\^ the service 
3i' I he current year. ' 

Iir^jinaiB^d Oien tcjbe cankered 

:a what manner this s^ip should be, 

raised, and 16 what ^spportioos it 

riiig'it be divided be^een the two 

irmcipal inodc.> wh|ch jug^ested 

ibemsfefo^. Here two leading 

prtfxiples occurred forljbe guidance 

^i our judgement. Eiihet to, raise. 

tr.e whole Ly a loaif.u^n the old. 

Junding system, or tofai-^e-a. consi- 

ilerablt; ji^ji of this ^5u;>ply within 

the \ear, an3 to make a- provision 

ior the liquidation of what it might 

be deemed expediei^ to rai>e by 

i<^au upcn ih:- prinqiple adopted 

"Vl session of parliament, aud.qar-t 

ned ii^prictiee vvilji so.pl^ch a^-x. 

vanUge. ^ ^ ^ ' - 

La-t session the plaf.pf t/ebling^^ 
theaisifticdlftxcsnot ofify waUaiken ' 
to ium\\ a certain pt:ruon of the 



<i£'.6, 1 00,000 
supplies of the year, but part c 
produce was assigned for the 
tinction of such part of the lo; 
eight millions as was not cov 
' b^ the sinking fund. The v( 
lary and cheerful elfort» whic 
honourably to individuals, ai 
the country) came in aid 
deficit on the assessed taxes 
the superior produce of the e> 
and imports, hey:ond the esti; 
brought I he amount of the 1 
raised to that which they had 
calculated at. Theditit^rent a 
were cstimatedat seven mill ic 
a half, aud this sum was fu 
vered by the actual receipt 1 
tbe,»di6erent heads. The p 1 
of the assessed taxes, under 
modifications, and all the e\ 1 
was f)ur millions. If he < 
•calculate the evasion, the fra 
the meanness, which had st 
to defeat the operation of 



Ill 



BBrlTlSit AlfS) 



MReJ taxes (and be nentioned fHth 
iluime» that in a moment like the 
present, in a contest so awfbHjr in- 
teresting to ever^ individual and to 
the nation, there had been men base 
enough to avail themselves of the 
general modifications which were 
mtecded to relieve those who might 
have been Called upon to contri- 
bute beyond their means^ te avoid 
that^fair assessment which corre* 
sponded with their circumstances), 
instep of 1,^00,000/. the voliin* 
tary contributions already exceeded 
two millions ; and the sum of seven 
millions and a half, for which credit 
. was taken, had been effective to the 
public service. 

Mr. Pitt next proceeded to his 
new plan of finance, which was a 
tax on income* For this purpose, 
it was his intention to propose, that 
the presumption founded upon the 
assessed taxes should be laid aside, 
and that a genera! tax should be im- 
posed upon all the leading branches 
of income. No scale of income^ 
indeed^ which could be devised, 
would be perfectly free from the 
objection of inequality, or entirely 
cut off the possibility of evasion. 
All that could be attempted Was to 
approach as near as circumstances 
would permit to a fair and equal 
contribution. The details of a mea- 
sare which attempted an end so 
great and important, must neces* 
sariiy require serious and mature 
deliberation. The outlines of this 
plan, continued Mf . Pitt, I shall now 
proceed to develope to the com- 
ssittee as clearly and distinctly a» I 
an abte. 

The commissioners, who should 
lie invested with a power of fixing 
the rate of evecy one's income, 
should be persons of a respectable 
situation in life, removed from any 
suspicion of partiality; men of inte* 
grity and independence. Heshould 



think that no man aliould be acf 
mitted, to act at commissioner, foi 
the purposes to be siflerwards tpe 
cified, who did not possess 300/ 

per annum. To these, other per- 
sons, of similar qualifications^ should 
be addedf and the list so formed to 
be referred to the grand jury, or 
those who had served on the two 
lest ^rand juries, to form the com 
missioners. In case the parCv wis 
dissatisfied with the decision 01 these 
commissioners, another bodyof com- 
missioners should be' formed, io 
whom an appeal might be carried. 
In commercial towns, some special 
provisionswouldbenecessary,adap/- 
ed to the nature of circumstances. 
The next point for consideration, 
then, was the mode of contrihutioQ 
which shall be adopted. On tha 
bead it was his intention to pro- 
pose, that no income under 60/. 
a year shall be called upon to con- 
tribute, and that the scale of modi- 
fication, up to 200 L a year, as in 
the assessed taxes, should be intro- 
duced with restriction. The qoots 
which would then be caHed for 
ought to amount to a fuU tenth of 
the contributor's income. The 
mode proposed of obtaining this 
contribution differed from thtt 
pursued in the assessed( takes, as, in- 
stead of trebling their amount, the 
statement of income was to proceed 
from die party himself. In dolpg 
this, it was not proposed that in* 
come should be distinctly laid-opefit 
but it should only be declared that 
the assessment was beyond the pro- 
portion of a tenth of the income ot 
the person on whom it was hnpo** 
ed. In this way, he hoped ^^}^ 
disclosure, at which many m<ght 
revolt, would be avoided, and, at 
the same time, that every mao 
would be under the necessity ol 
contributing his fair andcqus' prj** 
portion. Knowing the daficu«t 



l^OtllGN tflStORY. 



Hi 



oTgcesftiBg wlial a nan*s real abi* 
Iky was be did not think Ihal the 
ciiaf ge of fiuRg IK hal was to be the 
rate oaght to l^ left to Ike commis- 
sioners. Il wouM, be was per- 
suaded, be iiio$( acceptable to the 
general feeling to make it the dutj 
of a partinii'ar oHicer^ as surveyor, 
to laj be^e tbo coaiBiis^ioners 
such ^r^nds of doubt as mijjhl 
occar to him on the fairneiis of the 
mreatwhidi a party might hare 
af>essed himself. These doubts^ and 
the resMHts on which they were 
founded, were then to be transmit- 
ted by the survejror to (he com- 
mtSBiooerf, in order that they might 
fail for farther explanation from 
the penoB concerned. When 
d>abts wereentertained that a false 
statement had been given, it should 
be competent/ur the commissioners 
to c^ail fcr a specification of ineome. 
It wouM be necessary lo simplify, 
and siaie with precision, the differ- 
ent proportion of income arising 
from land, from trade, annuity, or 
profession, which should entitle 
t'^-?m to deduction. The eom.roission- 
iici were then to say whether they 
were satisfied with the statement 
^^hich was given. The officer or 
sarve}or was to be allowed to exa- 
niiae and report whether there ap- 
peared reason to believe that the 
2 sti^^ment was adequate. When 
the day of esaminallon arrived, the 
C'lnmwsioners shoold bear what 
\^<f surveyor and the party had 15 
ul!cge ju tapport of the objection 
and ihe assessment, and examine 
t'^er iadividaals. The schedule, 
^i^Jch sboold he dra:\vn ap in such 
* manner as accarately to define 
j^ery case of exemption or de- 
ai'ction, slHjuWbe presented by the 
parly, nUh the claim clearly ape- 
nned. To the truth of the sehe- 
^ule he shoutd make oatlv. The 
P 'fiji hourevcr, should not be oom- 



pelled to answer; bis books diouM 
not be called for, nor his confi* 
dential clerks or agents examined ; 
if, however, he declined to submit 
to ihe investigation of his booki^ 
and the examination of his cierki, 
and other mean^ of ascertaining 
the truth, it should be competeiiC 
for the coauni^sioners to fix the as* 
sessment ; and their decision should 
be final, unless he appealed to thtt 
higher commissioners. No dtscio* 
sure was to be compulsory; but, if 
the party was unwilling to disclose, 
he must acquiesce in the decision of 
the commissioners, who should not 
be authorised to relieve without a 
Ml disclosure. Whatever facts 
might be disclosed to the commis- 
sioners, in the co^irse of their inves- 
tigations, they should be sworn not 
to reveal. After a statement had been 
given by the party on oath, it ought 
never to be brought for ward, unless 
in cases where perjury was flagrant^ 
in order to lay the foundation of a 
prosecution for that offence. There 
was but little danger that such men 
as would be commissioners woald 
act fronv idle, wanton curiosity, or 
from any malicious motives > nor 
could there be any well-founded 
jealousy, that, by disclosure, under 
an oath of secresy, any superiority 
would be given to a rival or to an 
enemy. 

Should the house approve of the 
outline of the plan, it might, like- 
wise, be desirable to know what 
was proposed in the way of exteiid'- 
ing the ratio in some cases, while 
it was modHied in others'. Some 
allowances probably ought fo be 
made, while caies might occur in 
which an increa<ied proportion 
might fairly be required. The prin- 
ciple adopted last se«sion, in this 
respect, might, perhaps, be proper 
to follow in the pre^^ent ca^. Per- 
haps those who had families might, 
H in 



114 



BRITISH AND 



ki certain cases, the ^ir objects of 
allowance and deduction, while 
those who had no families naight, 
with equal justice, be called upon 
to contribute in an increased pro- 
portion. 

In forming a roagh estimate^ he 
should begin with the first source of 
income, the rent of land ^ a subject 
which, since first political cecooomy 
became the subject of discussion 
and of inquiry, had given rise to 
variouis speculations and opposite 
theories. One of our oldeat writers 
on the subject. Sir W. Petty, states, 
in l664, the landed rental of Eng- 
land at eight millions. In the re- 
ports upon this subject, published 
by the Board of Agrictilture, add 
particularly in one drawn up by a 
person of the name of Middleton^ 



the number of acres of cohiraffi 
land is stated to be 40,000,000. Tn 
assign an average value of this hoi 
roust, doubtless, be done upon vag% 
grounds : it had been stated, hov 
ever, at the average rate of 15f. pcf 
acre. He supposed the average rent 
to be 12j. 6d. per acre, which wofl'<i 
give us 25,000,000/. a year, onl? 
five millions more than the genenl 
estimate of land in the ywr 177S 
In this, as well as every other dcoo- 
mination, he should propose tbii 
every thing under 60/. a-ycar should 
be exempted, and that modi^ 
•cations up to 200 /. should be id- 
mitled. 

For the sake of greater clcanwss. 
he meant to recapitulate whit bff 
had previously detailed. 



r} 



The land rental, after deducting one-fifth« he \ 

estimated at. / 

Tht tenant's rental of land, deducting two-] 

thirds of the rack-rent, he took at 

The amount of tythcs, deducting one-'fifih. 
The produce of mines, canal navigation, &c. ) 

deducting one-fifth j 

The rental of houses, deducting one-fifth 

The profits of professions 

The rental of Scotland, taking it at one eighth 1 

of that of England 3 

The income of persons resident in Great firi- 1 

tain, drawn fi^om possessions beyond the > 

seas, . , k 3 

The amount of annuities from the public funds,! 

after deducting one- fifth for exemptions and > 

modifications * j 

The profits on the capital employed in our fo< 7 

reign commerce 3 

The profits employed on the capital in do-1 

mestic trade, and the profits of skill and in- > 
dustry j 



£ 
20,000,000 

6,000,000 

4,OOO;00O 
3,000,000 

i,ooo,ooo 
2,000,000 

5,000,000 
5,000,000 

12,000;000 
12,000,000 
28,000,000 



In all ^.102,000,000^^^ 

. Upon this sum a tax of ten the sum likely to result w^ | 
per cent, was likely to produce measure. Gentlemen wou ^ -^| 
iO,00Q,O0O/. a year, and this was collect that the assessed t^*^* 'j| 



FOR£IGN HISTORY. 



115 



9*sigoed to the parmeot of that part 
ci \bc saio Tniacd for the service of 
last year, which was not ukade a 
permaoeDt debt, and of coorse this 
new tax npoo lacfsne would be sab- 
stitQted in the room of those as- 
sessed taxes, aod would be made 
applicable to the same purpose; 
aod GDC gieai adraorage of this plan 
would be, that the object for which 
the assessed taxes were designed 
troold be sooner accomplished, and 
tbepabJic therebj more speedily re- 
lieved, llie assessed taxes were 
mortgaged for two years, and, in 
the plan of the assessment^ persons 
v>i{h an income of above 200 /. a 
year were charged at the rale of one 
tenth of ihtir Incooie. 

He should propose the tax to 
take place on the 5ih of April, and 
he %hoo\d propose of course that the 
a5ses*ed taxes should be repealed at 
the same rime. In this way the 
aom to be drawn from this resource 
far rbc service of the year was 
^0,700JXOL but firem this sura 
there would be to be paid the in- 
terest of the 8,000,000/: charged 
opoa the assessed taxes, together 
with the sum charged on the con- 
solidaied fund for the deficiency of 
these faxes the last year, as well as 
for the interest thereon for the pre- 
sent year. From this sum, there- 
fore, of 10,700,000/. there was to 
^ dcdotted 1,500,000/. leaving a 
su{Q of 9,200,000/. applicable to 
the ways and means of the ^pre- 
teot year. Adding this sum to 
the land and malt, the lottery, 
aad the other sources which he 
stated on the outset, there would 
T«»amthe soai of 14;000,000/. to 
1» raised by the way of loan j but 
^ toi lam he coold^fairly trust to 
the Rowing produce of ihe conso- 
hdatcd find for the estimation of 
^500,000 /.so that but 9,500,qpO/. 
y^iiid be added to the pcrmaneflt 



debt of the country. lie tmatad 
that it would not be necessary for 
him to go into any detail of argu- 
ment to convince the crommittee of 
the advantages of the beneficial 
mode adopted last session of raising 
a considerable part of the auppliet 
within the year. If we had proved 
that, at the end of i he sixth year of 
the war, unsubdued by all the exp- 
ert ions and sacrifices we had mad^ 
our commerce was flourishing be- 
yond the example of any year even 
of peace J if our revenues were on- 
diminished ; if new means of vigour 
were daily presenting themselves ta 
our grasp ; if our eflforts had been 
crowned with the most perfect suc- 
cess ; if the public sentiment should 
be' firm and united in the justice^ 
and necessity of the cause in which 
we were embarked ; if every motive 
to exertion continued the same, and 
every effort we had^made in the 
cause was a source only of exulta- 
tion and pride to the heart ; if, by 
the efficacy of these efforts, we had 
now the expectation of accomplish- 
ing the great object of all onr sa- 
crifices and all our labours; if de- 
spondency was dissipated at home, 
and confidence created abroad, 
should we not persevere in a coorse 
so fairly calculated to bring us to a 
happy issue ? Let us do justice to 
ourselves. 

Mr. Tiemey agreed with the 
right honourable gentleman that 
the decision of the house that night 
was not only interesting to Eng'and, 
but abo to all £arope ; it W3s be- 
cause he agreed with [V\m npon thaf, 
he was so desirous of de'ivering a 
few sentiments. On the supply, 
there was one thing w!.ich ocean ed 
to him at the first ghncc of the 
bosinefs; which was, that supposing 
we ^ad only one budget in the year, 
and that we had heard already of 
the whole of the sopplv, it would 

H 2 then, 



Il6 



BRITISH AND 



ihea, as they stood, exceed by more 
than two millions the sum voted for 
the last year. He knew that oh 
this occasion the right honourable 
•genii em an might 9ay^ that this yea^ 
he had had better means of forming 
Ills calculations on the articles of 
expenditure, as well as various 
oiher evtnts. With regard to what 
the right honourable gentleman had 
said with respect to the linking 
ifund, he had nothing to say against 
it; neither had he any tiling to al- 
lege againstthe tax imposed in the 
last session of parliament upoR im- 
ports and exports, which was com- 
monly called the convoy tax. The 
minister assured the house they 
would produce 1,700,000/. and he 
allied that he had some regulations 
that would be of public utility in 
that particular; against none of 
these points bad he (Mr. Tierney) 
anything to urge. 

Leaving therefore all tTiese points 
he came to the great one then be- 
fore the house, the tax upon in- 
co.Tje, The house agreed last year 
to the principles laid down by the 
minister in his plan relative to the 
assessed taxes; but tlie house had 
not xhen the idea of going the 
jlcngth which he now proposed ; 
they thought the whole measure had 
better have been abandoned alto- 
gether, than that it should cause 
ihe disclosure of the condition of 
every persoii in the kingdom. But 
the minister sayi, " you need not 
make any disclosure of your con- 
dition in life." Mr. Tierney re- 
marked, if the disclosure was not 
satisfactory, the coinmissioner had 
'power to increase the duty accord- 
ing to his discretion ; and all these 
proceedingf were to depend upon 
the evidence of an. intanmus in- 
former. To such a proposition he 
could not assent. But this was ngt 
all ; "for, if this house bgrecd to ilidt 



proposition now, W^ it tooffluclito 
say upon experiehce, if this tax 
should not come op to the systea, 
a general disclosure of all proprriy 
ihust tfke place, and that too in the 
course of the very next year? He 
took the liberty last year of opposing 
the measure now before the cotn- 
noittec under another haroe, acd 
with a less disagreeable aspect thao 
it bore at present. 

That measure wa», in appearance, 
less disagreeable than this : by that, 
a man was in some measure alio * • 
cd to withdraw from luxury ; but 
here there ^as nothing of theklni 
allowed in any shape. He opposed 
tliat measure, becailse he thocgl t, 
and did still Chink, it very oppres- 
sive. This was called a tax ou in- 
come : the answer was, that it wai 
not a tax on income, but thit itwaf 
the best mode of coming at proper 
ty to support the state. This seem 
to be a bolder measure, foritpu* 
a tenth of the property of Englan^- 
in requisition 5 a measure wh:cb 
the trench 'had followed in tb« 
career of their rcvolution37 ^'' 
pine, and which the chanccHvr cl 
the exchequer had, with his elo- 
quence, justly branded witli i'^-^ 
hardest epithets— only iC is a HUic 
unfortunate that he ahoald imitate 
what he took so much pains to ren- 
der detestable. 

Did the minister mean to ssf, 
that a person possessing aa Jocoaie 
for life only of a certain sum, »^ 
another person of the sacncincoro* 
which he derived firom the interest 
of his own capital, were eqosiif 
rich, and could bear the same taxes^ 
a widow, for instance, who livw 
only upon a peuiiion, and s p«^*^ 
wliose capital brought him id "^ 
same money by way of '"^^'^^^ 
Certainly not, the thing ^'^ '^ 
palpable tb be argued j "ndyc^^/ 
this plan of making incooie^ 



lOlt^IGN HISTORY. 



117 



stja<2«4<tf'we|ltb, tbei^ two per- 
soai w<HiM be made to fay alike. 
He urged that he must have it in 
his power to aajr to bis coastitoeots 
thai, before thii meatsre was adopt* 
ed| ereiy other resource ha^ been 
applied to lod exhausted. Yet he 
could ]H>t saj that ; for there were 
many vj^oable thipgp onder the 
cborch establishmeot, (not in the 
soiailcftdcxTe^ beneficial to religion, 
bat to swefi oat the pomp and pride, 
aod lEQ^narj greatness, of some 
bhied ifldiridiials) i^hich ought to 
be broaghx ia aid of the public 
borthens. The individaals possess- 
ion these things oaght to be made 
to coDlributc their full share. The 
corporations also were liable in the 
^•i^t cMQuer, as. he should conceive. 
[Here a cry of lieqr ! hear /] Mr. 
Tierocy yoceeded* He did not 
perfectly uujexstaod what gentle- 
men m^nt by this sort of ▼ocifcra- 
tion. For bis pan, be won|d not 
take the projwty pf any body of 
naeo as a sacrifice to the state, al- 
together i bot when he was told that 
vloleot haodi must be laid on the 
properly of the public, tl^n be 
woald tdl them it ought to take 
anodicr direction, and be was 
poiotlng oat to them that direction. 
"Hiis tai was said to fall nearly 
«qua\ on all sorts of prdpcrty. That 
was not troej b^vouZd t^Jl t^em a 
properly 00 which it did not fall; 
on tiie property of a certain dc- 
scription of slock-hoWeifs, . or what 
he catted the leading London gipii- 
"«"^ a description of persons 
cxtrcoady well known, whose pa- 
tnotism was much cstocmed by the 
chinccllor olthc «tfeh^»cr. These 
&«\J«iea coQid pay off any tax, 
^"bfimboithcnbgthcros^vcJs; in- 
^.^ ^ pester Ae Uses wtre the 
''^"%^aie, and they never 
succeeded better than when the mi- 
Uiwer sucQwdcd in Uxes. The 



chancellor pf the exchequer had 
said that this plan would not cause 
the funds to faJl, but would occa- 
sion them to rise ; so, if any gentle- 
ipan possessed ao,ooo/. in the funds, 
his fortune might improve by this 
duty. If von raise the stock (as a 
worthy alderman by his smile 
seemed to think you woald) for 
instance^ two per cent, he would 
make a large sum of money by his 
capital ; so that, instead of taxing 
these gentlemen, (who by the way 
were the most able to bear it) \oa 
would increase their fortunes while 
you ru ined others beyond the power 
of redemption. The plan, on the 
contrary, to be worth any thing, 
should compel the monied men to 
take at least their share of the 
public burtheuiS. He knew that 
these observations did not apply to 
the mass of stockholders, but he 
persisted in saytpg they did apply 
to those whom the chancell'>r of 
the exchequer always chose to 
fatrour; he m^ant those who were 
called the monied men of the city. 
But there was another point to be 
considered^ for the great mass of the 
property of the country might 
change owners in the course of six, 
seven, eight, or nine years, which 
would make a great difference in 
the slate of the country it«;elf; for, 
if the rich men in the city bought 
the small estates of a number ( f 
gentlemen, although the estate 
would be the same, and the re* 
venues the same, yet the condition 
of whole districU of inhabitants 
would be materially altered. This 
was a point which, although it 
might be-beyond the comprehensiou 
of some monied men, was yet wc!l 
worthy the attention of the house. 
He could hardly have supposed, 
that what was said agair.st addir.^ 
perpetual taxes, and increa'^in^ tl.e 
capital of debt, instead of rai ing 
H 3 ia»'£C 



IIS 



BRITISH AND 



l^rge sqppUes withm the year *o 
prevent the accumulatiop of the 
debtj came from the same man, 
who had increased continuall), for 
the last five years, the permanent 
taxes ; who had, in that time also, 
. added 1 50 miliions to the capital of 
the national debt. He should also 
have thpught, when he heard him 
vaunliug upon the integrity aiid 
proud spirit of his country, and 
the desperation and pj?rfidiousne>s 
of the enemy, that he was speaking 
of a minister vsho never degraded 
bimself so far as to negotiate with 
the French republic. He said he 
was very far from calling his sin- 
cerity in question j but h^ must call 
ip question his recollection, when 
be heard and saw that the chancel- 
lor of the exchequer of 179^ cen- 
sured so unipercifully the chancellor 
of the exchequer of 1 796. 

The minister had been pleased to 
narrate, in very lofty language, 
lyhat Europe ywuld think of our 
prpceedings : he was a representa- 
tiv' or.ihe people of England, not 
^ member 6f Ijje congress of Rad- 
stadt. Upon his' conscience he be- 
lieved that it was by peace, and 
peace^ only, the British empire 
could be secured. But when the 
peoplp were told openly, as ihey 
•were now, that this is not a war for 
•ur Qwn honour, our own pi iviWes, 
our own interest, 01 our own safety, 
but that we embarked in it for the 
supposed honour, the suppose4 pri- 
vileges, the supposed interest, the 
supposed safety ot Europe, he should 
be vAry unworthy the situation he 
was in, he should betray his trusty 



throwing aside all political differ- 
ences, and supporting him. On that 
ground he gave him his support 
upon the vote of the navy estimates. 
It was without losing sight of that 
ground that he hesitated about the 
estimates of the army,^and he then 
stated his reasons. Perhaps when 
the clauses of the bill, by which 
the resolutions would of course be 
followed up, came to be laid before 
the house, and the blahks came to 
be filled up, he should enter more 
at large into the subject ; but he 
could not leave the house subject to 
the suspicion that he was over- 
powered in his judgment by the 
mere eloquence of the minister. 

The chancellor of the exchequer, 
in reply to Mf. Tierney, said, that 
^s far as his calculations and fore- 
sight could enable him to judge,he 
did not ejypect that he should be ob- 
liged to call on parliament for a 
greater supply than had now been 
laid befere them in the enumeration 
of the ways and means. He wished 
it however to be understood, that by 
this assertion he did not preclude 
himsplf from calling for a further 
sum^ should ufrforeseen circum- 
siances or emergencies make it ne- 
cessary ; neither was it to preclude 
him from calling for a vote of 
credit. 

The resolutions were then read 
and agreed to, and the report or- 
dered to be received the next day. 
December the 4th, on the motion 
for brijjging up the report of the 
committee of way^t and means of 
the preceding day. Sir John Sinclair 
recommended a call of the house ; 



if hp did not lift up^his vojce ^ and the motion was further opposes! 



against a measure when such w^rc 
avowed to b^ its objects. When- 
ever any mt'asurc whatever was pro- 
posed that tentled t(» keep up the 
dignity of the British empire, the 
mini&tcr would always find hi|n 



by Mr. Hobhouse. He said bis 
mind Was deeply struck, in the first 
instance, by reflecting how fre- 
quently ide principal schemes of the 
right honourable^ gentleman were 
Jin'ovVp t() prove abort jtc. In the 

shop 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



115 



shop fax, and in the watch (ax, he 
had obstinately persisted. Both, 
however, he was afterwards; cora< 
pellcd to relinqoish ; and although 
the watch tax had been repealed, it 
had given a mortal blow to the 
trade. To the scheme of the as* 
ses^ed taxes last year, the right hon. 
gentleman was as fondly and firitily 
'wedded. But he now finds, and 
Connies, that the resources he ex- 
pected from them had failed, and 
that they by no means had come up 
to his fall evpectatrons. Whether 
it were adv^antageousfor the country 
that the necessary supplies for the 
service of the) ear should be raised 
within the year, and whether the 
ftinding system should be in part 
or wholly abandoned, he was not 
now to determine. His objections 
to the funding system were very 
great, it involved great inconve- 
niences, and in his mind it would 
have been for the interest of the 
covLDiry that it had never been 
adopted. 1 1 had been, if not the 
parent, at least the fosterer of many 
unnecessar)' wars, which wars might 
have been prevented, if the sup- 
plies necessary for carrying them on 
had been called for and raised 
within the year ; for, if Ihe people 
were made to (eel, on the breaking 
out of a war^ the full pressure of 
the burthens which it was likely to 
create, they would not be so easily 
deluded as they ^ere now. 

Great also were the evils that re- 
sulted from the endeavour to raise 
the supplies within the year, and 
strong, consequently, were his ob- 
jections to such a system. It was a 
system that went directly to oppress 
aud ainuihilate the middling ranks 
<ii«)ciety; it would compel them 
to leUnqoish the situation which 
they were wont to fill in the coun- 
try, and to forego the moderate 
comforts to which they bad been 



used. In a li^ord, the^ must cease 
to form a distinct class in the com- 
munity, where two orders only 
could henceforward be discovered ; 
that of the eminently wealthy, and 
of the miserabl^r indigent. On the 
comparative evils of the two sys- 
tems, he could not well balance his 
mind; but, on the ground which 
he had ur^ed in rejecting them, he 
thought himself justified in oppos- 
ing the bringing up of the report. 
He should never consent either to 
see income made the sole criterion ^ 
of taxation, or the expenditure of 
property exclusively taxed, which 
only tended to screen the avaricious, 
or to favour the indolent. To tax 
income indiscriminately would be ' 
a flagrant injustice; for one pan 
may possess a fixed estate of one 
thousand pounds per annum, and 
another a sinular income, but from 
variable means. The moat unques- 
tionable mode of taxation would 
be that which would affect the full 
and joint result of all three^ of pio- 
perty, of income, and expendi- 
ture. The opinion he entertained 
upon this subject was ably expressed 
by an eminent writer on political 
(Economy (Sir James Stuart). As 
the passage that contained it wat 
very short, he might be permitted 
to read it. " As to the pure profits 
on trade, although they might ap- 
pear to be income, yet I consider 
them merely as stock, and there* 
fore they ought not to be taxed. 
They may be said to resemble the 
annual shuots of a tree, which in- 
crease the mass, but are very dif- 
ferent from the fruits and leeJ.** 
Thus the tax now proposed would 
not only weaken the tree, but, if ad-' 
opted and persisted in, would finally 
impel us to cut down the tree, that 
we might more easily get at the 
fruit. This he felt to be an in«5upe- 
rable objection to the principle of 
H 4 ' the 



IM 



BRITISH AND 



the tax; n6r did he gpround his ob- 
jection upon the idea fhat it was a 
violation of the public faith. While 
money remained in the funds, the 
dividend must be paid without any 
ctiminution; but when it was in 
the pocket of the stockholder, tlien 
it became liable to taxation— but 
not before, without a violation of 
the public faith. But the most f!a- 

Sant injustice of all, that marked 
e face of this proposition, was, 
that the man who possessed 200/. 
per annum should be equally com- 
pelled to pay his ten per cent, as 
the man who rioted in the enjoy- 
ment of 40,000/. yearly income ! 

These were but a few of the ob- 
jections that premised upon bis mind 
against the measure in question; 
but for the present he would rest 
here, only requesting, before he 
concluded, to be allowed to say a 
word on the uses for which this 
bold attempt had been embarked in. 
Was it not the continuance of tliis 
just and necessary war? On the^ 
propriety of these epithets his opi- 
nion was long since expressed to the 
bouse, and he would again repeat 
it, and say, Aat the origin of the 
war was on our part an act ofaggres* 
&ion; (hat many opportunities had 
since occurred for bringing it to a 
conclusion, but that they were ei- 
ther lost or converted to no wise 
qse. We were, therefore, still 
blindly to carry on the war, and 
to persevere in carrying on the war, 
and that on a more extensive and 
expensive scale th^n before. "We 
were not opiy to subsidise foreign 
powers^ but we were also to send 
over bodies of our troops to co-ope* 
rate in their mtlirary expeditions. 

Mr C. W.Taylor, Mr. Jones, 
and Sir F.Burdelt, expressed them- 
selves also against the bill ; which 
was defended by Mr. Buxton. 

The resolutions were then read^ 



agreed to, and a bilhordered to be 
brought in in pursuance of them. 

As the resolutions form the most 
material parts of the Income Tax, 
it appears proper to insert them, 
here. 

RESOLVED, 

That so much of an act, made 
in the last session of parliament* in- 
tituled, *' An act (or granting to his 
Majesty an aid and contribution>fbr 
the prosecution of the war,'*^ as 
charges any person with ?in addi* 
tional duty in proportion to the 
amount ot the rates or duties to 
which, prior to the 5th day of 
April 1 708, such person was assess- 
ed accorcfing to any assessment made 
in pursuance of any act of parli- 
ament in force at the time of passing 
the said act of the last session, be 
repealed. 

That, towards raising the sapply 
granted to his Majesty, there be 
charged annually, during a term to 
be limited, the several rates and 
duties following upon all incoroe 
arising from property in Great Bri- 
tain belonging to any of his Majes* 
tv's subjects, although not resi- 
dent in Great Britain, and upon all 
income of every person residing «n 
Great Britain, and of every body 
politic or corporate, or company, 
fralernity, or society of persons 
(whether corporate or not corpo- 
rate) in Great Britain, whether 
any such inc'oine shall arise from 
lands, tenements \ or heredita- 
ments, wheresoever the same shall 
be situate, in Great Britain or else- 
where, or from any kind of per- 
sonal property, or other property 
whatever, or from any profession, 
office, employment, trade, or vo- 
cation : that IS to say, . 

One one-hundred and twentieth 
part of such income, if the same 
•hali.aihount to 60/. per annumi 
and shall be ur.dcr 65/. per annum, 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



»i 



One nioetjr-^fth part of lucfa id- 
cojDC, if the same shal) amount to 
65/. bQt shall be ondcr 70/. , 

On^ seyentkili part of such In- 
come, if the same shall amount to 
70/. hot shall be Biider 75L 

One tizt/*fifth part of such in- 
come^ if the sasoe shall amount 10 
75/. bat ^aa be qnder 80/. 

One sixtieth part of snch iocome« 
if tiie taise shall amount to 80/. bat 
shall be oodier 85/. 

One fifty*fifth part of such in- 
come^ if the same shall amount to 
65/. hut shall be under goi. 

One fiftieth part, of such income, 
if ihe saixB shall amount to 90/. but 
shall be under $5/. 

One forty- fifth part of such in- 
come, if the same shall. amount to 
93I: bat shall be under 100/. 

One fortieth part of such income* 
if the same shall amount to J 00/. 
bot shall be nn^er 105/. 

One Ihifly-eighih part of such tn- 
come, if the same shall amount to 
105/. but shall be under J 10/. 

One thirty-sixth part of such in- 
come, if the same shall amount to 
1.10/. bQt shall be under 1 J 5/. 

One thirty-fourth part of such 
income, if the same &hall amount to 
115/. bat shall be undetr 120/. 

One thirty-fccood part of such 
iDCOCDe^^ if the sarne thall amount to 
120/. bot shall be under 125/. 

One rh'tftielh part of such income, 
if the saoae shall amount to 125/. 
but shall be under 130/. 

Ooe twenty-eighth part of such 
income, if the same shall amount to 
130/. but shall be under 135/. 

One twenty-sixth part of such in- 
come, if the same shall amount to 
135/. but shall be under 140/. 

One tveniy-fqurth part of suqb 
income, if the same shall amount to 
t40l. bot shall be under 145/. 

One twulictb pari of audi in- 



come, if the same sbalf anonnt to 
150/. but shall be under 155/. 

One nineteenth part of such in- 
come, if the same shall amount to 
1 55i but shall be under 160/. ^ 

One eighteenth part of such m- 
come^ if the same shall amount to 
160/. but shall be under 165/. 

One seventeenth part orsuch ifl- 
come, if the same shall amount to 
165/. but shall be under 170/. 

One sixternth part of such in<^ 
come, if the same shall amount to 
170/. but shall be under 175/. 

One fifteenth part of such in- 
come, if the same shall amount to 
175/. bot shall be under 180/. 

One fourteenth part of such in« 
^ come, if the same shall andouot to 
160/. but shall be under 185/. 

One thirteenth part of such in- 
come, if the same shall amount to 
185/. but shall be under igo/. 

One twelfth part of such income, 
if the san^e shall amount to I90/. 
but shall be under J 95/. 

One eleventh part of such in- 
come, if the same shall amount to 
195/. but shall be under 200/. ' 

And one tenth part of such in- 
come^ if the same shall amibont to 
200/. and upwards. - 

On the 10th of December, while 
the iiicdme bill remained yet in agi- 
tation, the house having resolved 
itself into a committee of ways and 
means, the chancellor of the ex*. 
chequer informed the com\nittee4 
that he had bargained for the li-* 
mi ted sum of three millions as a 
loan, and reserved the remainder 
till after Christmas. The following 
Were the teitns of the bargain r'>ho - 
3 per cents, consols were at 52-^ ; 
the reduced at 5 J}. For every lOO/, 
in moneyj then, was to be given 
53/. consols^ and a proportion t>f 
aeven-eights of a hundred pounds 
in the reduced^ amounting to 

87/. 



132 



BRITISH AND 



67^. 9*. 6d. iht valpc of wliich in 
money was 45/. 12j. 3 id. The 
payments were to be made before 
tKe month of Fcbruaryy in four 
instalment!; and, as ihe public ser- 
▼ice did not icqairc prompt pay- 
roentj there would bp no discount. 
In lieu of the discount, then, there 
would be a bonus to the contractor 
of 13j. 4d. making tlie whole of 
what he received Qgl. \5s, 3d. less 
by about Jth than the marktt price, 
fence that period stocks bad risen, 

# and (he premium on the loan was 
now 2| per cent. Thus it would 

. appear, that the reasons for post- 
poning the bargain for the whole 
loan, at the present period, were 
founded in prudence. He moved, 
that this sum of three millions be 
raised by way of annuities j which 
was agreed to. 

On the 14th of December, Mr. 
Pitt moved that the report of the 
income tax be now taken into fur- 
ther consideration. 
. Sir John Sinclair, after enume- 
rating the different ways resorted 10 
for raising the supplies said, he 
knew of none of such tried effiracy 
and* safety as that of the funding 
system. To this was owing the 
great splendour of this Country j 
for it was by it we had been en- 
abled to check the ambitious pro- 
jects of our enemies : but we were 
now told that the funding system 
was exhausted, and tliat it is become 
imftossible" to raise large sums of 
money upon that system, but upon 
very disadvantageous terms to the 
public. We were told also, that 
the plan now before the house was 
nothing but the charge of the sal- 
vage of the property of every hu- 
man being in the kingdom ; that 
nothing could answer this purpose, 
but that of raising a large sum of 
money within the year. In cxa- 
mimog the propriety of raising large 



supplies within the year, a question 
naturally arose, especially upon snch 
a measure as that which was now 
before the house, whether the le- 
gislature ought or ought not to re- 
peal ihe assessed taxes adopted last 
year, and form a new mode apon 
the old basis? That property, 
some how or other, ought to be the 
object of taxation, was manifest. 
The question would ^hen be, whe- 
ther the tax ought to be on capital 
or on income? or, rather, whether 
they sKould not be both blended 
together ? He thooghr, that, if 
these very extraordinary contribu- 
tions were to be levied, there ought 
to be half per cent, upon the capi- 
tal, and five per cent, only upon 
income. For his own part, he 
could not conceive any thing more 
improper than the plan of making 
income alone the subject of taxa- 
tion. 

The house would recollect the 
very able and elaborate speech of 
the right honourable gentleman in 
opening this business. He dwelt a 
great deal on the antiquated noiiooi 
ot Davenant, and the mere guesses 
of some modern authors, concern- 
ing the amount of the income of 
the people of this country. Sup- 
pose the calculation he made was 
right, that the income of the peo* 
pie of this country was 100 mil- 
lions, yet it was worth while to ex- 
amine whether they could afford to 
pay away one-tenth of thrft income; 
for, it should be remembered that 
this tenth was in addition to all the 
other taxes which they paid alreadf , 
and those which they would be 
called upon to pay. 

The next point of objcctioo 
which occurred to him was, that 
this measure would caase^ eroigrs- 
tion. If the people of this coun- 
try were under the ncccarity of ©ak* 

ing a disclosure of their prppc^V 

or 



FOSSIGM HISTORY. 



123 



or kerne, and paying severely for 
that property or income^ he -wm 
ffraid thai the censequence of snch 
a systeia would be caaclx etnigra- 
tioQ. 

Mr. Simeon begAn by declaring, 
be sbould lay aside ^gvbat had been 
said rather to raise the passions than 
to eQt\>le the hoase to form a dis- 
passionate judgment of the measure. 
The Slate of ihc question -was. Whe- 
ther It woold be wise to raise the 
necessary soppWes by loans ? whe- 
ther the assessed-tax. bill should be 
continaed ? or, whelhrr the supplies 
should be by the mode now pro- 
posed r With respect to ihciunding 
sys?cra, he should be sorry to see it 
earried to soch a length that geotle- 
nien should be able to say we could 
not bonow any more : the Irue po- 
licy -was, to stop before we reached 
-tiiat point ; to look forward with 
•ao^acity, and to say, we will have 
recourse to other means. He i bought 
the credit of the country far from 
being exhaosted, though it must be 
admitted that national credit, like 
that of an individual, had its limits ; 
aod, as the hopes of the enemy were 
principally placed upon the failure 
of this resource, he thoaght it were 
better not to stretch it to the last 
sbilling The qnestion, then, was, 
'^^l^ether the assessed-tax bill should 
be continued? Upon this subject 
be had not heard any one contend 
that It ought to be.* In the last ses- 
sion of parliament he had certainly 
' Opposed it, and be had done so from 
a conTictioH that it would be- de- 
structive of its own end ; yet he 
should rejoice that it had been laid 
on, if it had ripened "and matured 
the public mind to ^ny other mea< 
sure which it was necessary to bring 
forward; and, indeed, be was not 
satisfied in bis own mind that it- had 
not been produced from a depth of 
firisdom; ia order to lee what would 



be the effect of it : thongh, there* 
fore, he bad opposed it, yet, in a 
political point of view, he should 
think it was wise, if it was neces- 
sary to bring the public mind to the 
consideration of some* other mea- 
sure. The next question was. Whe- 
ther this was the proper plan to be 
adopted ? He knew of no other 
that had been suggested, except the 
idea which had been stated by the 
honourable baronet upon property ; 
and here he could not avoid \\ ishiug 
that the honourable member had 
pursued that idea further, because 
it would have shown the impossibi- 
lity of raising one shilling upott 
property. There were many pro- 
fessional gentlemen who had a splen- 
did income, who had no property, 
who wou'd cscnpe the payment of 
a just conlribullon to our exigen- 
cies. He wanted to know whether 
the honourable baronet would have 
chosen property in the funds to be 
taxed .> If so, what price, be should 
be glad to be informed, would he 
fix for the three per cent, consols ? 
The idea of taxing it was unjust in 
the highest degree, inasmuch as it 
might be the ruin of the bolder, 
by compelling; him to sell out to 
an immense disadvantage, llie case 
was quite different upon income. 
There was an idea that the church 
and corporation lands might be re- 
sorted to : such a proposition be 
hoped never to hear thrown out ; 
for, upon what principle could the 
corporation lands be taken ? Why 
were corporations established ? To 
distribute local justice ; and which 
they did administer as regularly, 
and as well, as it was administered in 
Westminster-ball ; and he believed 
there was no complaint apon tliat 
subject in any part of the kingdom. 
What had the church lands done > 
Was it meant to imitate tlie example 
of France; who had seized all church 
property ? 



w 



BRITISH AKA 



property? Were not the derff the 
depositaries of (he religioD m^ mo- 
Ifafity of the country ? If the means 
by which that body was supported 
were taken awayi the body itself 
must of course fall ; i^nd an^rcby^ 
^oofusionj, iofidelitVi and atheism, 
must ensue. The nonourabla gen* 
tleroan here eptered into a view of 
the scale proposed for laying a tax 
on income. It was not the tax that 
vras hard ; it was in the cause of 
the tax— that cause was the war ; 
and until we had peace the hard- 
ship must continue. To obtain 
peace we had done every thing that 
a ^reat and a dignified i^tioo could 
consent to do. Compare the hard- 
ship of the tax with the hardships 
endured upon the continent ; com- 
pare them with those resulting to 
the countries a prey to the miseries 
of warfare; compare them to the 
hardships endured by the inbabi-: 
tants of Switzerland or Holland; 
compare tliem with those recently 
delivered places which have expe- 
rienced the friendship of the French. 
The honourable baronet seemed to 
fear that the articles of life would 
be raised so high, that a spirit of 
emigration would be produced. It 
should be recollected, tbs^t persona 
of sixty pounds a y^ar would not 
be at all iDJured by the tax ; and as 
the honourable baronet had not 
shown that the price of labour 
wQuld be affected, he might allay 
his fears respecUug tho eboiigratioii 
of the laborious class. For his own 
part, he had no apprehension that 
persons of 2001. .a year would emi- 
grate. In debatiog this bill, he waa 
concerned to hear invidioua terma 
made U9e of, and an idea thrown 
out, as if the measure was in the 
pature of the i^qt^isition. This in- 
quisition was to. consist of commia- 
sioners who would be the most re- 
spectable per^ops^ and not be chosen 



by the crownj bnt by the jprgnd ju- 
ries. But the surveyor, it seemed, 
was tp be considered as a spy ; by 
the same rule might the attomej 
and solicitor general be considered 
as fpies, because they initituted in- 
formations against those who mis* 
conducted themselves. 

He next spoke as to the views of 
the French. The people of tbh 
country fcnew that they desigocd ta 
destroy our government, overturn 
the monarchy, and drive tbc king 
from his throne. Besides« the coun- 
try was now better able to pa; the 
tax than it was. Sa rapid and great 
had been the increase of our com- 
merce, that we had not shipping 
enough to do the business. He ap* 
proved of the bill. 

Mr. M. A. Taylor said; that if 
he thought this ooeasure w^M pro- 
duce all the advanti^es which his 
tearqed firicnd who bad jost spoken 
had said it would produce> he should 
be one of the first to approve of it 
As this was a measure which deeply 
affected the principjcs of the con- 
stitution of England, he wished it 
to be gravely and candidly argued, 
and that no topics of declaipation 
against the tycaxiny of Frounce, or 
on the danger of French priocip|«. 
should mingle in the diaqassioD. He 
gave notice last session of parlia- 
ment that he shquld early in ihjs 
move for a repeal of Uic asscsje^- 
tax hill, but was prevented by ^ 
information he received from the 
minister himself that he intended to 
do it. The minister had stated, there 
were jxtaoy instances of the 9s«cssca- 
tax bill being shamcfallv and scan- 
dalously eiraded. He knew f*"^ 
instances of it him»elf. Tf^f ^ 
lamented as much as he bell if ^ 
be criminal i for, however J^« "^^ 
oppose any meaawe while it w** "Jj 
that house, yet, afier it bad »*ivw 

the sanaion of the Ipgf^^f ^ 
^osiderea 



FOA£<I6K HI8T6RY. 



laj 



coofidered hitoidf, io conscience 
as well 88 daty, boand to obey it. 
Th« evasion to vhich he alluded 
was tbe ^bote ^lariDg, as it was 
practised by tboie who pretended 
to be m^ to give tbeir hist 
goixi^i for the support of the war. 
Tbe first objection he had to urge 
against a tax on inconne was^ that 
it woold cause a genera) disch)Sore 
of property. How was this money 
collected ? By the common tax coU 
lector* Secresy m such a cas^ was 
absolotelj impossible. After show 
ing at great length the impossibihty 
of concealing rocotne^ he entered 
in so aootber ob}<Ectlon. Tbe genios 
of the cotrstitanon of England was, 
that a itian*8 property was sacred. 
It was open the strength of that 
pnnciple^ tliat every man's house 
vraa czdltfd his casiie, in this conn* 
fry ; it w:as Ifirom that principle that 
tbe excise laws had always b^n held 
so odioos in England. He knew 
that a tax on income liad the ap- 
pearance, up^n a cursory view, of 
being an equdl t^x ', butj to try this 
for a tnoment, he wocdd ask, what 
sort ttf equality there was between 
ten per cent, npon income merely, 
and ten per cent.v upon that incocne 
whith is the prodoce of a capital ? 
For instaoce, let us suppose a gen- 
tleman of ^XX)/. a year with two 
daughters^ and that the estate goes 
away at his death to sotne other 
bradch in £in>ur of male issoe; 
what does snch a man do ? He saves 
as mndi monejr as he can to pro* 
vide for bis daaghters at his death. 
Ko^, suppose another t>fTsdn of the 
same fncome exactly, but whose 
estate devolves npon his childk^n ; 
what is the case with him ? Why, 
le may enjoy the l^fade of his 
testate doHng hts own life, and yet 
leate his children better profvided 
than Che t0ia iMo siives half his 
-^^noDttie Jtoli% Ids life) ftnd yet 



(hese ttiro pertons, beiivg of the sattvft 
income, must pay tbe same money 
nbder this bill. vie. Mof. a year 
each. Tbe first great ineqnaKty 
which the present gradation esta^ 
bHshed wss, tbift a man of 100^. a 
year paid 2/. lOf., and a man of 
200/. paid 20/. 5 a man who from 
190A increased his income to 200/. 
paid for the last ten pounds 4/. J Of. 
or above 40 per cent. If he had 
increased his income from 185/. to 
200/. he paid 5/. for the last 15/. 
If he increased it from 180/. to 
200/. for the hist 20/. he paid no 
more tikan 7/. He then proceeded 
to state more general objections to 
this okeasure. He considered a tait 
upon income as a tax upon industry, 
and sndi as would make men nn*- 
willhig to labour. There was an 
author who hsd msde a great noise 
in the world (Mr. Paine), who was 
prosecuted for his book, a part of 
which could not fail to be brought 
into his mind by the bill before the 
house. He was for ill these reasona 
against the motion. 

Tbe solicitor - general said, he 
co^id by no means concur in the, 
arguments the last speaker had urged 
against the bill. If, when the legis- 
lature were compelled to imp^ % 
tax, they were to wait until tbey 
found one which was perfectly po- 
pular, he. tsras afraid they nvoold 
tvaii long enough ; for ail the ob- 
aervationa which, frofm his situation, 
be had been led to make, indeced 
him to believe that most people 
trete inclined to evade the pigment 
cf tax^. if, however, we wefe to 
give this learned gentleman's speech 
at length, we should repeat the ar- 
guments made use of by Mr. Pitf,. 
Mr. Simeon, and others, on the mi- 
nisterial side of thai house. He eon- 
cltsded \iith giving his tote fbr tbe 
speaker's leaving the diair. 

ilAfer 4 Ibir Hfords fiPMBi Mr. EMI- 

son 



198 



BRITISH AND 



^ too on the odtoaBnesg of French 
principles, addressed to Mr. Taylor, 
he coocladed with calling the pre* 
■ent a hard oaeasure^ but the state 
of the country called for it ^ it 
ihoold therefore be rn acted as the 
law of the land, and not called the 
insolent act of aoy minister. 

Sir Francis Baring did not rise to 
oppose the object of the bill. He 
was not^ however, .without his ob* 
jections to several parts of the plan. 
He especially observed the -tenor of 
the bill with respect to comnoercial 
objects ; and there he ^as convinced 
it would be evaded, aod frauds com- 
.mitted beyond any thing it was 
possible to conceive. A man may 
have a large income in trade^ yet 
his property cannot be ascertained ; 
and even could it be come at, there 
are occasions where it should not be 
touched. The industrious and en- 
terprising should be protected; at 
least he should not be molested 
while engaged in producing a ca- 
pital : when it was produced, let it 
then be taxed. The manufacturing 
and trading part of the community 
would be able to evade the bill still 
more effectually ; for proof;* of their 
annual income, they must be obliged 
to take stock, and every thing must 
be valued; it was not to be sup- 
posed but they would undervalue 
it, if by that means they could avoid 
the operation of the bill ; and a very 
alight deviation from a true valua- 
tion was sufficient to destroy the 
effect of the tax altogether. These 
were the grounds which made him 
4x8like the measure, and augur ill 
ibr its success. 

Mr. William Smith began by pre- 
&ctng what he had to observe, with 
professing that it was not to the 
principle of the measure of merely 
.raising ten millions within the year 
that he had any objection ; he was, 
joa t^e contrary, decidedly of opi- 



nion, that it was only by raiMiig i 
large sum of money within the yesr 
the finances of the countiy were to 
be preserved. This bill, profcssedlf 
brought in to assess men eqaaliy,' 
was to make no distinction bet«e«i 
the man of certain and of floctuat- 
ing income, between the indostrioos 
and the idle ; it was a sweeping bill, 
that must bear down all ranks snd 
degrees of men before it. He thought 
the measure unjust, oppressive, snd 
almost fraudulent. Ah hooouiable 
gentleman had stated, that it was 
precisely the same as that of last 
year. So far at related to raising a 
sum of money within the year, it 
was the same 5 the principle last 
year was, tliat all men should pay 
according to their means and abi- 
lities, provided the sum they paid 
should in no instance go beyood 
ten per cent. The person to be 
taxed declared his means enabled 
him to pay so much money to the 
assessed taxes ; this was thecritehoo 
of what was to be paid. It had 
been said, we ought to be ready to 
join in putting our hands to the 
plough, and promoting Ac plwj 
but to this he could never assent j 
and his ground of objection was, 
that instead of bringing men equally 
to put their hands to the'ploogb, 
it established an inequality in the 
system of taxation oppressive to the 
last degree. He would veniarc to 
ask, where, on any principle of po- 
litical oBconomy, it had ever been 
asserted in word, or imagine m 
thought, or by what political scaw 
it could be considered just and bo- 
nest, to tax in an equal degree in- 
dustry and indolence? The pnn* 
ciRle of the plan went to this point- 
If it could be proved to be other- 
wise, then his objection would go 
for nothing. By this bill, a mjo 
in his bed-chamber, who recciveo 
500/. a year from his capital to "^ 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



«y 



fubds, atid a ^opkeeper, farmer, 
foerchant, or anjr man who lived 
by industry and by active exerliousy 
aad made an locomc of 500/. a year, 
were pqoally taied. Were not men 
of the latter description cruelly used 
by mich a system ? If the fact was 
true, bis position was clearly made 
oat» that industry and indolence 
were equally taxed. A man whoF^e 
income was in the funds was not 
asked, whether it was in the per- 
maoent fucids, or in the short an- 
nuities, or to the eachequer annui- 
ties which expire in the year 1804. 
Speaking with respect to the general 
objection to soch a measure as this, . 
the ob-servatlon of Mr. Adam Smith, 
author of the Wealth of Nations, 
was to the effect that taxes should 
be proportioned to the fortunes of 
the contributors, and that when 
imposed on annual income they 
were unjust, inasmuch as it ^as. 
tfaat'spectes of fortune which was 
liable to vary every year, and was 
la ita nature arbitrary and uncer- 
tain. 

It now remained to be seen what 
the people of England would sup- 
port ; they had supported a great 
deal^ aad he believed, under the 
preaeat circumstances, were willing 
to support a deal more ', but he did 
hope diey were neither willing nor 
able to support this bill. He con- 
tinued to observe, that as 4O,O00 
incorrigible jacobins were supposed 
to be in the kingdom^ the survey- 
ore, to the discharge of their duty, 
mi^t think it incumbent on them 
to punish these, and in their zeal 
might confound the innocent with 
the guilty. He concluded with say- 
Jog, if the provisions of the bill 
were altered, he would be ready to 
agree to i^ principle. 

The chanoellor of the exche.quer 
aaid, it was a satisfaction to him^ to 
fiadf.thMi the pix^iety of raising a 



certain part of the suppKes within 
the year had, in general, been con- 
ceded. He was thus relieved firom 
the necessity of detaining theiioose 
with any argument upofi thai sub- 
ject, or saying any tiling in reply 
to one solitary antagonist by wliotn 
the principle was denied. What- 
ever authority might belong to that 
individual member, and no man 
had more, the worthy baronet hlm« 
self seemed to rest entirely upon 
that authority, as he did not add a 
single argument in support of his 
position. There were some otiters, 
however, who, entering upon the 
comi deration of the subject, with 
liberal professions of approbation, 
and a tirm con vie ion of tlie neces- 
sity of great and extraordinary ex- 
ertion in the cause, in which we 
were engaged, admitting the bene- 
tits which might be derived, both 
in present vigour and permanent 
resource^, from the plan of raising 
a great part of the supplies within 
the year, yei thought themselves at 
liberty, not after full cousidt.Talf<m 
of the whole details, not after 
weighing maturely the regulations 
by which this great principle wa^i 
to be carried into execution and 
followed up with effect, not after 
long and sincere endeavours to re- 
medy what was defective, and to 
improve what was wrong, reluc- 
tantly to dismiss the measure aa 
impracticable to ^he end proposed, 
but, in the first instance, hastily, 
peremptorily, and impatiently, had 
expressed a determination to shut 
the door against all improvemenc, 
and to pppoae all further deli- 
beration. Although agreeing in 
the principle, and aware, as they 
must be, that a tneasure of such 
magnitude and importance ntu^t 
depeqd much upon the arrange- 
ment of details, and the regula- 
tions .of provisions, they seemed 
resolved 



I2S 



BRITISH AKD 



te9o]yed to check all attempts 
to bring these/ points again into 
consideration. Conlirasing the ne- 
cessity of great and vigorous ef^ 
forta, for the salvation of the coun- 
try^ in whach some of them now, 
for the liir&t time, had tardily disco- 
vered thst our safety was involvedj 
they did not wait to reject the mea- 
sure opOD any ground of final and 
invincible objection, but they came 
forward to resist it in the vtty out- 
•et, previoas to a mature examina- 
tion of its details, and a sincere en- 
deafoor to correct its provisions. 
The. honourable genclerean who 
•poke last (Mr. Smtdi) approved of 
the principle of raising a consider- 
cble part of the supplies within the 
y«ar, but he declared himself an 
enemy to any plan of rendering 
Aat principle effectual by a general 
fas. This house would, no doubt, 
think this a most valuable conces- 
aion of the honourable gentleman I 
If It were necessary for the effort 
which we Were . called upon to 
make ; if it were essential to the 
firm establishment of public credit, 
to the future prosperity of the em- 
pire, to obtain thaf supply which 
was requisite for the vigorous pro- 
secution of the contest ; it was evi- 
dent that it most be obtained by a 
sodden tax immediately productive. 
If it were impossible, by an in* 
•crease of the existing taxes on con* 
somption, by introducing evils ten 
ttmcs more severe than those which 
imputed to this measure, it 
eirident that nothing could re- 
i the principle but some extra- 
erdinary and general tax. If the 
llooourable gentleman, as he per- 
ceived he did, admitted that such 
•a increase of the taxes on con- 
sumption, 88 would produce ten 
aiiltions within the year, was im- 
practicable, it followed that there 
was BO ether aiode but a tax vpon 



property, so far as it eonid be dh« 
covered. We must lay the eontri* 
tmtion, then, either upon capital or 
on income. The quesriea tlca was, 
whether capital or iiicaswi be tite 
proper object of cewtribmion ? TV 
honourable gentlensan said, that es- 
pita I was the criterion which ought 
to be adopted in t!ie case of theco0< 
mercial man 3 sod iiKiome, wbiM it 
was derivec^ froes land. Takieg for 
granted, that the principles ef the 
honourable fteiitlemaD were well 
founded, no tess than three-tolitf 
t^the whole iooooie, liable to cos- 
tribution, was calculated to ftiie 
from this aonrce. Even tfpon fats 
own argument, then, he ought not 
to connder this measure as so io- 
curable as to refuse going into (be 
committee, if then he wis stacere 
in his profession of 9 desire to Act- 
litate the raisinc; of t consMersble 
part of the suppues whhin the year, 
why should he refuse to proceed 
further in a measure which was, st 
least, capable of embracing three- 
fourths of his object ; and, in ether 
parts, susceptible of slterafioo Bod 
improvement.' If, however, wbst 
had been so universally recogni^d 
as important to be done, was to be 
done effecteally, the great consider- 
attou 00 which of these leadiog ob- 
jects ft would be most advBntagfoos 
to the public, and least inconve- 
nient to the classes of contribatfoa 
to impose this general and corop^c* 
hensive tax j he was afraid, that to 
that yeTf plan which he hira«cl' 
thought preferable, those objectioos 
on which he rested the desporiding 
hope, diat the country neither 
could nor would submit to the 
incisure, would apply with agg^^* 
vatcd force. Every objection, 
which he so long and vehcmenUf 
urged 8gflir>st the danger of di*cro- 
sure, would aoply to those "^^J^ 
cries ef folicy oshlrtikh he woo« 



FOREIGN HISTOHY. 



120 



BC1. The x^ dispute, then^ was 
nothing, but a matter of detaiL 
.The greater part of the bonourable 
geutkcnwn's &peec]i was founded 
upoti^ 'ol^cuon% to the proTisions 
of the hull aiK^jaan/ of bis objec- 
tions were either olterlj anfounded 
iQ any tbihg U ct^ntaiDed, or the/ 
^re of soch a naiura as to admit 
oi teiag^ cori;^^ io the com- 
sotttce. 

Jfe knew very well that the bill 
weol through a cofiunittee to get 
the Ijl^oks ^led up,' f^ithout undtr- 
going aoj dUcu^^sioQ in that stage j 
and th^i it wa^ iatended to submit 
lU at a future period^'tp the detail- 
ed ^xacnin^ioD of a committee. 
The honourable gentleman said, 
that if two persons had each 500/. 
per aunuoi, 9ne of whom derived 
his iDcoooe fi^iii land^ the other 
from iodu'ktrjt, «thry ought Dot to 
be both tazsd equalJy at 50/. He 
assoiqed, that each having 450/. a 
yc3ir left, the in^post was unequal. 
To CQinplain of thi« inequality, was 
to >cocn]^1ain of the disiiibution of 
property ; i( was complaining of the 
constitution of society. To attempt 
to remedy it, would be to lollow 
the example of that daring rabble 
of legislator? in anptber country, 
trom whom the honourable gentle- 
iZ33n borrowed some of his political 
prmciples^ and which though he 
now reprobated he still seemed in- 
clined to follow up. An income 
of 500/. from land might be equal 
io about 1 5,000/. so that a man was 
contented to take 3 per cent, for 
his capital, la funds according 
to circutnstances, and in the difft^r- 
eat funds, a man might have five, 
or even six per cent. If he laid 
out his capital in trade, and added 
too his own industry, he got from 
iO to 15 per cent. Now. if the 
proportion was left undisturbed, 
wLat was it that formed the encou- 

1799- 



ragement (o lay out money in trade 
and manuf<ictures, but the improv- 
ed produce derived from industry? 
This was the incentive which en- 
flamed enterprise, and stimulated 
ingenuity. To proceed beyond 
this was to diNU)Ive all estatl. hed 
principles, and overthrow the fa- 
bric of society, uhich timr, and 
the progress of accumulation, had 
reared. With respect to the ine- 
quality between the same rate of 
contribufion, for an annuitant and 
a person having permanent pro- 
perty, he could not but remark, 
that this argument, came rather 
strangely from those gentlemen 
who, so often in that house, had 
pointed out annuities for life, even 
connected with laborious employ- 
ments, as, by preference, the pro- 
per objects of taxation : he did not 
mean that sinecures alone w^re the 
objects on which they fasi^neil, for 
sinecures they wished utterly to 
abulixh, and places to which ind<2s- 
try and labour were attached, tiiey 
marked out as deserving an ad- 
di'ional wt ight of taxati(/n. 

He concL.dcd with <-bserving, 
that the consequencr of thit tax 
would be, that whoever contrjbu'e-l 
a tenth of his in* onie u^d^r this bill 
would have a tenth Itss to spend, to 
save, or to accuntul ite The house 
then divided— for ihe further coD- 
gideration of t he it pert, 1 83 j Jgain^t 
if, 17: majority, lod. 

The following gemlemen voted 
against the re-commitment of the 
bill: — 

Sir F. I^ariag, 

Sir F Bnrdctt^ « 

J. Brog'Jen, 

Sir J. Siiclair, 

fi. Hobhou^e, 

J. Wigl^y, 

H. C. Combe, 

C. G. Western, 

D. North, 

I G. Tiernef , 



130 



BRITISH AND 



G. Tierncy,' 
W. J. Denison^ 
C. Grey, 

J.Jekyll, 

W. Plumer, 

J. Nicholl!*, 

W. Hussey, 

Hpn. St. A. St. Johtt. 

TELLkKS. 

W. Smitb, 
M. A. Taylor. 

The chancellor of the exchequer 
moved on the 17th of December, 
that the house in a committee should 
rrsumc the further consideration of 
the income bill. 

Mr. William Smith declared that 
it had been assumed, by njany gen- 
tlemen, that the measure was ap- 
proved of by the country: but the 
country as yet could not know the 
measure; they had not had an op* 
portunity of being acquainced with 
it: That day se*nnighi the bill was 
printed, and presented to that house* 
The country could not have time 
to express any opinion as to its de- 
fails, although they might approve 
of the principle of .raising a part of 
the supplies within the year. Tbe 
bill was l)ot to take place until the 
5lh of April, a period of nearly four 
months distance. He had endea« 
vourcd to calculate what time would 
be necessary to carry into effect the 
provisions of the bill, and the best 
judgment he could form was, that 
it would not require more than six 
weeks for that purpose. 

The speaker said, he was un- 
willing to in;errupt the honourable 
member, but what he had said did 
not apply to the question, whsch 
was, that the order of the day should 
be read. ' 

Mr. Pitt observed, that, as the 
Iv^nourable member had given the 
house reason to apprehend it was 
his intention to avail himself of its 
iorms lo impede the present mea- 



sure, he could only say he moat 
think it ht« duty to do the same ; 
and the side of the house on which 
he stood would, he believed, equal* 
1y feel that unnecessary delay would 
prove highly detrimental to the pub- 
lic benefit. 

Mr.'W. Smith complained that 
he had been misrepresented. The 
facultieji of the right honoorabte 
gentleman for apprehension were as 
quick as any man*s. He could 
coiisistently with the forms of ihc 
house, speak for half an hour upoo 
every clause, if he pleased, and 
move amendments if he were in- 
clined to delay the measure, if he 
were guilty of any dereliction of du- 
ty, it would be rather in iiot oppos- 
ing impediments. 

The speaker then put the ques- 
tion for the house to go imo 1 
committee ; when, upon a divi»ioni 
there appeared for the speakers 
leaving the chair, 1169 against it| 
3 : majority, 113. 

The house then resolved itself in- 
to a committee, Mr. Smith in the 
chair. On the motion for postpon- 
ing the preamble being put, 

Mr. Tierney desired to know 
what reason there was to soppose 
Chat the statement therein contained 
was well founded. {I'he preamble 
stated, that under the assessed taxes 
bill, people were not taxed in pro- 
portion to their income, and that 
frauds and eva^^ions had been prac- 
tised with success.] He tbougbt 
the preamble a libel on tlie people 
of £ngland, and could not agree 
to its making any part of an act of 
the legislature. 

Lord Hawkesbury spoke a few 
words in support of the onQtioo, 
on the ground of its beinj* a mo- 
tion of course. After a debate of 
considerable length, in whidi Mr. 
Buxton, Mr. W. Dundas, sir W. 
Pultcoey, the honourable D. Byder, 

Mr» 



FOKEIGN HISTORY, 



in 



Mr. lAojd, and Mr. Jones, took 
a part, there, was a general call for 
the question ; waich. on being put, 
was carried in the atiirmative, that 
the preamble ^oiild be read, and 
stana part of the bill. 

On the first diiose, that the as* 
teased (axes be repealed, and other 
dutif'S imposed io Iteo thereof, 

Mr. Tiemcf naid, h** should op- 
pose this clause, because he con- 
sidered it as a great brtrach of faith, 
inasmuch as it repealed the assesied 
taxes, which were pledgf^d to a cer- 
tain extent to pay off the loan of 
fiftef-n miUions raised for the ser- 
vice of lA«t year. Those who lent 
thetr fnoney in that loan did it upon 
the faith, that it would be paid off 
in a given time by tl\e operation of 
the a^ae^sed taxes. 

Mr. Pitt said, he was happy to 
bave it in hU power to relieve the 
honoorable gcnttf*man from any 
difficulties he might feel upon this 
subject, in the first place, if there 
Tiras in reality any foundation for 
this ob^tion, it coold not appl^ 
to this clause, because it merely re- 
pealed the assessed taxes, and im- 
posed other duties in their room, 
which other duties the house had 
undoabtedly the right of disposing 
of in any manner they pleased. 

Tbese observations led to some 
explanation from Mr. TSemey and 
Mr. Pitt, and to a few short re-> 
niarksfrom sir Wm. Yonng. 

The clause then received some 
verbal amenUmeots, and was agreed 
to. 

When the clao«e for taxing ia 
an equal maiuier aU persons po<sesa- 
fdoi lands, tenements, and heredi>- 
tamcnts of life an4 temporary 
estates, and every kind of income 
arising from personal ptoperty. and 
from trades, professions, orficea, 
emploTmcBia ai^d vocat^ons^ v^ta 
react 



Mr. Wigley rose, and urged that 
he was averse to the claoi^ because 
the principle on which it proceeded 
wa<i, that let income ariie frooi 
what source it would, whether it 
was permanent or not, the persona 
possessing it paid equally. If this 
was merely a tax for one year, he 
should not have felt himself t>ouod 
to object to it in so strong a man- 
ner, but would have considered it 
merely as an immediate contriba* 
tion. The evil, he admitted, would 
have been less, brcau^e ilsdnratioa 
would have been limited ; but, 
when he clearly saw it was intended 
to contmue some time, or rather 
become a permanent revenue, he 
could by no means assent to It. 

After a debate of considerable 
length, in which Mr. Dent, the 
solicitor and the attorney-general, 
Mr. Ticmey, lord liawkcsbory, 
sir John Anderson, Mr. Robert 
Thornton, Mr. W. Smith, sir O. 
P. Turner, and Mr. Wigley, bore 
a part, the chairman put the ques« 
tion on inserting the words ^' of* 
fice, stipend, pension, '*« which was 
carried. The question on the scale 
of charge, and other parts of the 
first clausse, were afterwards put 
and carried. 

On the 22d of December, the 
house went again into a committee 
upon the income tax. In that pirt 
of the trade clause which cave the 
trader an option of returning the 
income <»f the year, or an average 
of the three years, Mr. H. Thorn- 
ton said it wa» the object of the 
bill, if possiOle.that a man who had 
a fluctuating income should pay to 
the exigencies of the state in the 
same proportion as the person who 
enjoyed a stated income. To pre- 
vent evasion he proposed, that when 
a person had once made his election, 
whether he should pay according to 
Ihe full amount of profit within the 
1 2 pre- 



u^ 



BRITISH AND 



preceding year, or for an average 
of three years, he should not be at 
liberty afterwards to vary the elec- 
tion he had nEiade. 

^r. Alderman Combe said, that 
he certainly must object tp tliat al- 
teration, for it went to an enti^re 
departure from that principle of al- 
Irviiition which he always thought 
that clause contained. To his mind, 
the greatest objection to the bill 
vas, liiat uncertain and temporary 
income was taxed to the same 
•mount as permanent income, and 
the prcQariousnesi of the income of 
traders was greater than that of any 
other class of men. He thought, 
therefore, the option at first given to 
traders of selecting the income of 
the last preceding year, or on the 
average of three years, was meant 
by the framcrs of the bill to cor- 
rect, in some measure, the i9equa- 
lity of its operation with respect 
to those who must endure muth 
hardship by it. He hoptd, there 
fore/ that the committee vyould 
permit that to remain as it stood, 
viz. that the option should be an- 
nual. 

Mr. Thornton and the chancel- 
lor of the exchequer explained. 
Thia was not the idea, but only 
that an option was givan to a trader, 
kc, to decide whether the average 
of three years, or the last preceding 
year, was the best criterion of his 
income j but this option was not 
annually to be made, but to be 
£sed at the commeiiccroent. 

The chancellor of the exche- 
quer proposed to adopt the words 
fiom the bill of last year, that the 
retail shop-kecrpcrs should deduct 
two thirds of their rcntj the re- 
maining third it might be supposed 
that they would pay for their own 
accommodation 3 which, was ad- 
opted. 

The schedule being gone 'hroughj 



the obancellof of the exchtquor 
said, that, having already opcaed 
to the house the general nature of 
the new clauses which it was fail 
intention to offer, he should not 
now enter into any detailed eipia- 
nation- of thep, particularly as the 
clauses seemed to noeet the geaeral 
concurrence of the coihoiitiee. 
There was one material clause, how- 
ever, which had been deferred, sad 
which he had not yet explained ] 
he meant the clause for granting 
certain modifications in the ca(C£ 
of children. It was his intention 
to move^ that the modification to 
be granted in these instances should 
be carried beyond the modi^cation 
allowed last year under the bill tor 
the assessed taxes. In that act no 
allowance was made for children 
under the number of four. From 
four the scale rose to eight, and 
froni eight to ten. He tbooghr, 
that, in the present case, it woold 
be preferable to grant an allow.>nce 
for each child, descending so low 
as one. The presumption wi^ich 
this deduction proceeded on was 
that children did make a very con- 
siderable addition to the expeMe of 
a family, and by so much diminish- 
ed taxable income; It was cleari 
at the same time, that theeapa<Ke 
of chihlren was greater in the pry- 
portion to small incomes than in 
tlu; higher cUsscs of inconae. Up- 
on this principle the scale of oso* 
dification was regulated. He should 
. propose, therefore, that firora tlxc 
lowest rate of income conptfr 
bended in this bill, ^i. peranntJni, 
up to 400/. the allowance shouW be 
five per cent, for each child 5 from 
400/. up to 1000/. he should gran« 
four per cent; from lOOO/. to 5000/. 
three per cent, and, not to swell (b« 
modifications with any unooccssaiy 
distinctions, two per cent. foT all 
above 5000/. Tiie report was d)«n 
ordered 



FO&EIGN HISTORY. 



133 



ordered to be taken into farther 
€oa>ideralion on Thursday. 

On the 27lh of December the 
commkiee of the house was re- 
tamed, to take into consideratioa 
the report of the income bill. 

Sir Wiiiiam Pa 1 1 en ey said, he had 
always been ofopinion that the war 
^boujd becarried on with the great- 
est vigour and effect, and that the 
nimoA energy ought to be dispiay- 
cd to save, not onty this couniiy, 
bat Europe; but, hoiveverde>irouJ 
be ivas uf supporting the war, y(-t« 
with repaid to the pre<ientbill^ there 
rere many things in it uhich re. 
quired to he distinctly understood 
and maturely considered. It ap- 
peared to faiai that the liberty of 
any coautry con<istcd in three 
points; security of life, security of 
personal freedom, security of pro- 
perty. These were the three great 
points in which the liberty ^f a na- 
tion coo^isted. Under the first, 
namely, the security of life, when 
be considered the power of grand 
jurios, who, in all casec, had {h'n 
point before them, except those of a 
military nature ; and when he con« 
sidered the many eiLcellent regula- 
tions that subsisted with regard to 
treason, he was ready to say there 
was no complaint to be urzed upon 
the first point of national liberty. 
With regard to the second point, 
Daoaely, personal liberty, certain it 
wa.s, that while the habeas-corpus 
act reiaained suspended, that wa<i 
in some measure abridged, but for 
a temporary and particular purpose 
that might be submitted to. But, 
with reeard to the third branch of 
national liberty, namely, security of 
properly, he questioned whether 
any part would continue if the bill 
now before the house pa^tsed into a 
Jaw ; and it was upon this ground 
that he hoped for the attention of 
the house. After giving the history 



of taxation in England, he pro- 
ceeded; Bread, for instance, had 
no tax; milk wa^ not taxed; ve- \ 
ge tables were not taxed. This 
mode of taxation had been found 
til be a great protector to the pro- 
perly of the country; but, when 
parliament had sanctioned the 
scheme of a minister, and allowed 
him to have recourse to mcai.s of 
tax ai ion which gave no option to 
any body, it gave sanction to a new 
system of taxation, and which would 
give away much of the conlroulii^g 
power over taxe*. It might be 
said, that it wa^ extremely ditticult 
to find out articles of consumption 
upon which taxes could be imposed. 
He was ready to acknowlrd^e the 
truth of that assertion ; but he was 
very far from wi.shing to abandon 
the >y>tem on that account. It was 
a great check upon' executive go- 
vernment ; it niaiic them careful 
and provident of ihe public money, 
and made parliament active inrexa* 
mining what were the best modes 
of raising large sums of money. 
After enlarging on this objection 
against the tax on income, he con- 
cluded with staling this bill as dan- 
gerous in its very nature to the 
principles of the constitution of 
England, and that it attacked its 
?ilals. 

Mr. Ryder said, as far as it was 
regular to advert to what had oc* 
curred on a former debate, he con« 
ceived that the opposition of the 
honourable member was. Chat the 
measure tended to establish a 8pe« 
cies of inquisition in the country. 
Every objection against this bill, as 
ta its not being optional, was ap- 
plicable to the bill passed last year. 
He certainly did not pretend to be 
deeply read in the financial history 
of the country ; but it must occur 
to gentlemen that poll-taxes, tenths, 
fifteenths, and suosidies, were Ic- 

1 3 vied 



fd4 



BRITiStt A*ffi 



vied in former times, and that the 
same objection .would apply to all 
those taxes; but this might be said 
to refer to a period when the science 
of finance was not properly under- 
stood. There was one tax which 
was coeval with the existence of 
the Christian religion in this coun- 
try : he meant tithes, which raised 
from three to five millions a 
year, and which were not optional. 
And he would observe further also, 
thst they were more liabte to one of 
the objections of the honourable 
baropct, that of not making a suf- 
ficient distinction between high and 
low, for they made not any distinc- 
tion in that particular. What 
would the honourable baronet say 
to the whole system of the poor laws 
of this country, which were up- 
wards of three millions a year, not 
a shilling of \ivbich was optional on 
the party on whom it was imposed ? 
Look at the taxes imposed since the 
present century. The land-tax was 
not optional ; it made no distinction 
of classes; it made no difference be- 
tween the poorest and the richest 
landholder. There were many 
other taxes which were not op- 
tional. A tax which had been ad- 
opted after the example of Hol- 
land, which next to this country 
had been the best governed in its 
finances, the tax upon collateral 
succession, was not optional. Aman 
might, la be sure, live upon bread 
and waier-crcsse:;; but it would be 
mockery to say, that It was at his 
option whether to pay taxes or not, 
because it was impossible to sup- 
port existence in that manner. Up- 
•on the whole, the crnsideration of 
this question had impressed upon 
hh mind, that it was (he only nirde 
that could be adopted with pei feet 
equity, and with a probable hope 
of reaching that great end which 



all had in view. He defended Hit 
bill in all its regulations. 

In the course of a long debate, 
which it would be tedious to de- 
tail, the following gentlemen were 
for the bill, viz. Mr. H. Browne, 
lord Hawkcsbury, sir James Pultc* 
ney, and Mr. H. Thornton. The 
following were against the bill, viz. 
Mr. Jones, Mr. Dent, Mr. Wm. 
Smith, sir Francis Baring, and Mr. 
Martin. Several amendments were 
read and agreed to. 

M. Pitt said, that, from the late- 
ness of the hour, and from the 
nicely of several poinds which still 
remained to be discussed, it was hii 
opinion that the farther considera- 
tion of the report should be post- 
poned. 

The chancellor of the exche- 
quer moved, on the 3 1st of Decem- 
ber, that the income bill should be 
read a third time. 

Mr. Nicholls said, he could not 
allovv the bill to pass without giv- 
ing it his negative. . If it was fair 
that the scale should rise from lOo/. 
a year to 20c/. it was equally &ir 
that the scale should rise from aco/. 
upwards. ' -* 

Mr. Abbot said, there were some 
things in the bill in its original 
shape v^hich occasioned soffic hesi- 
tation in his mind, but, ih the 
course of the alterations it had un- 
dergone, his objections were re- 
moved. It seemed now to he the 
decided opinion of the people of 
this country, that a great pait of 
the supplies should be raised within 
fhe year. Last year considerable 
progress had been made in the ap- 
plication qf it by the assessed tax 
bill ; and, with regard to disclosnre 
of income, in Scotland all transac- 
tions respecting real properly, and 
many with regard to personal pro- 
perty,* were publicly registered. In 
IfcIaiiUi 



tOREION HISTORY. 



135 



hehnd, the tame practice prevailed 
10 case of real properly. Id the 
cooDties of York and Middlesex it 
existed to a considerable extent. 

I'he attoroej and the solicitor 
general both defended the bill 3 
and Mr. Elliot and Mr. Tyrwhitt 
SQpported the measure as highly 
creditable to the^pirit of the coun- 
try, and as the most e^ectual that 
cou/d be adopted to confound the 
bopes of the enemy. 

The qaesiion was called for, 
and the house divided— Ayes 93 ^ 
Noes 2. 

The chancellor of the exchequer 
Iheo proposed a variety of clauses, 
by waj of riders to the bill. 

On the second of January Mr. 
John Smith, accompanied by Mr. 
Pat, Mr. Ryder, and Mr. Long, 
and a great number of metnbers 
£rom the house of commons, brought 
np the income bill from the house 
01 commons. The bill was read a 
iirst time, aud ordered to be print* 
ed« 

The order of the day for the third 
reading of the income duty bill, 
(Jan. 6} being read> anil the ques- 
tion put, the earl of Suffolk urged, 
that in one point si view he rather 
approved of the principle on which 
the bill had been brought forward, 
inasmuch as it would have the ef- 
fect of preventing the nation from 
rashly embarking in expensive wars, 
by khowiog them the consequences; 
and, on this ground, it wuuld be 
well foi the country if the measure 
had been proposed at the com- 
mencement of the war. 

The bill in itself he thought a 
measure of intolerable opprc))<»ion. 
From landed property it professed 
to draw a tenth, but insiead of that 
it drew at least a £fth. Whrn the 
houie considered the effect of cer- 
tain taxes lately imposed upon land- 
ed pi operty^ .his fakulalipa of 20 



per cent« would be easily made out. 
He referred, in the first initauce* 
to the duty upon salt, which, in 
certain parts of the country, took 
at least four per cent, from the pro- 
ceeds of land; that made 14 p&c 
ce n t . The charge o£ bai li ffs , s te jtr - 
ards, and other peculiar expenssa 
which gentlemen of landed pro- 
perty necessarily incurred, was at 
least three per cent. more. By a 
particular provision of the bill, 
farms occupied by the ownv-rs vvtrj 
charged in an exiracrdinary pro- 
portion, the cfTcct of wliich, if 
calculated, would, in addition to 
what he had already stated, increase 
the deduction to at least 20 per cent. 
Besides all this, there were the ope- 
rations of the poor rates, which 
pressed with accumulated force in 
certain parts of the country, par- 
ticularly in places where there w ere 
commons, which generally abj i d- 
ed with paupers. 

The earl of Liverpool said, the 
noble earl laid much stress upon the 
c^fect-i of the additional salt duties. 
They certainly bore with considera- 
ble weight on those parts of the coun- 
try vybere cheese was maDufactured j 
but it was equally notorious, that 
the maker repaid him cif by the ad- 
vanced pi ice ot his cheese. Tilii.S 
had nothing to do with the present 
question, and the poor-rates were 
equally a distiuct consideration. A 
similar argument would apply in 
other cases wliere the produce of 
laud became pticuliarly liable to the 
effect of tax3'i»>n. He recommend- 
ed to ihc noble earl's recollection, 
the Urge sums that we're raised in 
the reigns of king William and 
quecj* Anne, tiirou>;h the medium 
of Idudei property, rcspccriug 
which the then proprietors made no 
particular compi.iiu', ihouj^h ihey 
fell severely upon the land-h*>lder. 

By the provisions of the bill, the 
I 4 UiO»t 



*'->..^ 



136 



BRITISH AND 



most satisfactory redress was fur- 
nished for the grievance complained 
of. All charges falling under the 
head of practical improvements ; 
all disbursements coming within the 
average •xpenses of the year; all 
reasonable allowances for extraor- 
dinary losses; and even a part of 
the regular charges incident to land- 
ed and other proper^, were express- 
ly entitled to deduction from the 
gross amount of income. 

Lord Holland opposed the bill 
in a very long speech. There were 
three points of view in which this 
bill was to be considered^ and in 
which it was defended by its ad- 
vocates. It was said that a mea- 
sure like this fairly exposed to the 
people their true situation, and did 
not delude them ; thai it was a bet* 
ter mode of raising the supplies 
than by a loan imposing perma- 
nent taxe<i upon the public ; and 
thirdly, which was a reason more 
political than financial, that it was 
calculated to undeceive the enemy 
respecting the state of our finances. 
With respect to the first of these he 
stated, that *the bill itself was as 
great a delusion on the people of 
this country as ministers had ever 
practised in the course of their ad- 
ministration. 

It was stated to be a repeal of the 
assessed tax bill ; but many people 
were not aware that a considerable 
sura of money would still be col- 
lected under that very act which 
was DOW to be repealed. With re- 
spect to the point, that this mode of 
raising the supplies was preferable 
to a loan with permanent taxes- 
he remarked that the sums paid last 
year bv the public amounted to 
about thirty-two millions. The 
whole income of the country was 
estimated at one hundred and two 
millions, and he tlK>ught that this 
statement was exaggerated. Was 



St to be expected^ then, ftat the sorm 
to be collected by this tax could be 
raised without encroaching more 
or less on the capital of individu- 
als, and .80 impairing the oattonal 
wealthy and enfeebling all the means 
of reproduction? Upon this sob- 
ject he could appeal to a book of 
great authority ; but he was afraid 
that the authority wonid be taken 
away, aa the person who wrote the 
book to which he referred had now 
changed his opinion. [He refen-ed 
to Mr. Eden s Letters to Lord Car- 
lisle, 1779.] In that work the dis- 
advantages arising from any large 
tax were stated with great force aud 
elegance. His lord.<>hip read a pai- 
sage from this work, which stated 
that large contributions, by en- 
croaching upon the capital of the 
country, threatened to afiect the 
produce of taxes upoti consump* 
tioQ ; to cause a defalcation of the 
existing revenue } and to compel , 
the stale to have reconrse to ocw 
taxes to make up the deficieocy. 
He urged nearly the same arga- 
roents that have been urged by ibe 
other members of opposidoo in 
both houses of parliament, and Qp(>n 
the whole concluded, that the bill 
was attended with so many disad- 
vantages in its operation that he gave 
it his decided negative. 

Lord Auckland rose, and replied 
to the quotation from his Letters 10 
Lord Carlisle in 1779. 

Lord Grenville said, that thoogh 
he was fully satisfied that every thing 
that had the shadow of an argument 
against the bill had been completely 
refuted by his noble friend (lord 
Auckland), yet he could not help ris- 
ing to remind the noble lord who bad 
been reading lessons of propriety to 
the house, that he should not be 
him&elf so frequently the first to in- 
fringe those very rules which be 
was now so anxious (o enforce. 
Whenever 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



157 



Wbeaevflr ikal noble l«rd (iord 
HolUad) apoke upcMi %dj tabject, 
be •carcrly ever &led dmming m 
n%^ to aDftwer^ and that not id H 
few words, bf wajr of e&pla nation, 
but in anof her long, regular and de- 
tailed speech. This was a mode of 
proceeding which urresisiibly called 
lur some aoicDadreruon, and the 
nunoc-r in which the noble lord had 
aliaded to hiia was surdy an un- 
joslilXHbie breach of order. It was 
not, however, osnai with him over- 
rigorously to urge the orders of the 
house, especially trooi any selfish 
motives; but he owed it to the 
bouse, and the house itself was 
bound to 'see its long established 
rights and rules duly respected— 
wcU remembering moribus amiquis 

Lord Holland rose on6e more to 
say a word or two in explanation. 
JHe retorted all the accusation of 
iSkMng^ng the orders of the hoose 
oo the secretary of state. 

Lord Fauconberg said, he had 
first viewed the bill with a jealous 
eye> and therefore gave it a very 
minute investigaiioa \ but when he 
also attended to the exigencies of 
the state, and to the general cala* 
milies that bung over Korope, he 
could not but admire and oommeiid 
the iifm, resolute, and undismayed 
conduct of those who bad framed 
the measure in question, and 
brought it to its present state cyf 
perfection; a mrasore of finance 
which was lo convince the enemy 
tiut our resources equalled our ne- 
cessitiesy and that the spirit of the na- 
tion, far from being repressed by it, 
would onder its infioence be stimo« 
lated to higher enterprises, and rais- 
ed to a higher pitch of force than 
ever It es^yed or attained in any 
kskown period of our history. He 
shoaid thereiofe most cordially sap- 
port the bill. 



The doiw of Bedford rose to* 
wards the cooclusioa of the dc* 
bate. Ue entered into a long and 
most able detail relative to the mea- 
sore then before the house, and ex* 
borted them to weigh and coci* 
sider, before they read the bHl « 
third time, whether it was a just 
and rational measin-e. At this pe* 
riod of the business it cannot be ex« 
pected thai many new ob«erv8ttona 
should be brought forward ; and as 
our limits compel us to avoid a re* 
petition of similar argoments, we 
shall only say, that the mo^t pointed 
objections to (he bill were plsctrd 
by his grace in a very strong, and 
many of them in a novel point of 
view. He thought that a tax might 
be found equal to the ex g'^ncy of 
the moment, and not li-^ble to any 
of the objections which wr re ju-tly 
advanced against thin bill ; he nre^i.t 
a tax upon succesnion^^ not n)errJy 
collateral bui. lineal. This w.s not 
his idea, but the 6ug^.siioit of a 
noble friend,, whose abilines thst 
house had often had ocrasion (o 
witness, particularly on points of 
finance (the earl of Lauderdale). 
The duke then said he had nuihing 
more to add thnn Lis iLanks to th^-ir 
lordships for the indulgence they 
had shown him ; and having done 
so, he immediaieiy quitted the 
house. 

The lord chancellor left the wool- 
sack, not, he said, tu follow tlie 
noble duke through all the detail of 
the bill that he had gone into, be- 
cause the discussion of the particular 
clauses of the bill, which he bad 
canvassed with great' ingenuity, 
could only have been of use or ad* 
vantage in that stage of the bill that 
the house had passed, viz. when the 
bill was in a committee; when aU 
terations might have been made, if 
^e suggest ir;:s of tiie noble duke 
had inopresscd the committee suf* 
ficitutly 



IM 



tVLftt&n Attn 



fieientijr (6 hare iodaced them to 
ihiok them at importaDt, and af 
necessary to be at tended to, as the 
duke appeared to have thought 
them. He rose merely to take some 
notice of the general assertions of 
the noble duke, in which he placed 
ao much confidence. His lordship 
then defended the bill upon ihe 
- aame grounds as the servants of the 
crown in the other house. 

The question was at length put, 
and the contents had it without a 
division. The bill was then read a 
ihird time, and passed. 

On the 1 1th of March, Mr. Pitt 
rose in the house of commons to 
aay he had several amendments to 
propose to the Income Bill. In 
the first place, there was to be pro- 
posed an amendment, providing 
that the returns of income should 
be delivered sealed up, to be only 
opened by the commissioners thena- 
aelves, who were to make the as- 
aessments, or by clerks duly ap- 
pointed by them. Al>o, as to the 
qualification of the commissioners 
in certain places. Also, with re- 
apect to the power of the commer- 
cial commissioners of the city of 
London, who« in case their assistants 
did not act, were to have power to 
appoint further assistants. Also, to 
bUow a moderate discouut for 
prompt payment. And also to re- 
move some verbal inaccuracies in 
the schedule, without making any 
alteration in the spirit or fair bense 
of it. And finally he should pro- 
pose that .day fortnight -for making 
the returns. He then moved that 
it be an in5troction to the committee 
that they have power to explain and 
anaend the said act. Ordered. 

The house being in a committee, 
the chancellor of the exchequer 
brought up his amendments. 

Mr. Wilberforce ^Bird pointed 
out some inaccuracies in the scale 



of assea<ment, such> tot kiitihtei 
as that with an income of 199/. 
per annum, better by about eighteen 
shillings than that of 200/. by reason 
of the latter being broaaht idto i 
higher scale of duty than tneiormer. 
He proposed to amend the whole 
scale on this account. 

Mr. Pitt opposed it,on the ground 
that this minute and fractional ac- 
curacy would perplex the compa- 
tat ions too much ; an evil which 
the house on former discussioai bad 
agreed to avoid. 

After a few words from sir Jacnes 
Pulteney, sir John Smdair, and the 
chancellor of the exchequer, die 
amendments were agreed to. 

The order of the day was read on 
the 18th of March, for the third 
reading of the Income Amendment 
Bill. Mr. Pitt moved to fill up (be 
blanks respecting the timeol mak- 
ing returns, with the words the 
i;th of April, instead of the 35th of 
March ; which was agreed to. 

The bill, havmg undergone all 
Its amendments, was pa&s^» and 
ordered to be carried to the lords ; 
where also after a short discussion 
it was passed/ and afterwards re- 
ceived the royal assent- 

In pursuance of the plan laid 
down of deferring the bargain fof 
the whole of the loan, Mr. Pitt on 
the 22d of February proposed a 
vote, that three millions be raised 
by way of loan on exchequer bills. 
His motive aroae from a persuasion 
that a considerable advantage to the 
public service might be derived, bjr 
delaying for a time the negouation 
of the loan. This, however, was 
liable to variation from circum- 
•stanccs, and a ^liort period might 
render it advisable to conclude s 
bargain. His object was, to have 
power to conclude or defer a bar- 
gain upon that subject, as circum- 
stances might render expedient; t^ 

which 



IfOiEIGNHlSTORY. 



>3i 



wdich purpose he was now aboot 
h> ^pply Tor tke aathority of the 
hom^e. He then moved, " That 
k H the opinion of this commttlee, 
that 9 towards raising the supply 
granted to his majesty, the sum of 
three millions be raised by way of 
loan on excbeqoer bills;" which 
irote was accordingly ordered. 

The next business of finance 
^K-as broQght forward on the 7lh of 
June by Mr. Pitt. The resolution 
'which he bad to propose was, that 
the sum of 8z$,ooo/. be granted lo 
his majesty, to enable him to make 
p^ocd his engagements with Russia. 
He should state that as the precise 
sum necessary for defraying the ex- 
pense of aa 5,000/. to be advanced 
an preparation money, and for de- 
fraying the monthly expense of 
7 ;,ooo/. for eight months, or to (he 
end of the year. The committee 
- MTZs, he pCe^titaed.^w^e that there 
-vr^s stn addition (o this^ after the 
conclasion of a peace by rouhial 
consent^ of 875,000/. per month, 
but the sum of 825,000/. was the 
only specific vote which in the pre- 
sent state of affair^; it was his 'in- 
tention to propose. He proposed 
a vote of credit of ihree mflli(jn'i, lo 
be employed in such a manner as 
might be best suited to the objects 
of his majesty, exclusive of the vote 
of 825,000/. to Russia. He c^ n- 
cloded with moving, that it is the 
opinion of this committee, that (he 
sum of 8259000/. be granted io his 
majesty to enable him to make good 
his engagements with Russia. 

Mr.Tierney said, no man would 
feel himself more happy than he 
should in complying with any mo- 
tion to repel the inordinate am bir ion 
of France; but before he vo(ed 
away the money of the country, 
he expected lo hear the object 
defined which ministers had in 



Mr. Windham sapported (he 
motion of Mr. Pitt. 

Mr.Fitt replied to Mr.Tierney; 
when the question being put, it was 
carried in the affirmative. 

Mr. chancellor Pitt (hen moved, 
that the sum of three millions he 
granted to his majesty, to enable 
htm to make good such farther en- 
gagements as his majes'y might 
deem it expedient to enter into. 

The bouse having resolved itself 
into a committee of ways aud 
means, Mr. Braggc in the chair, 

Mr. Pitt ro^ and said, some of 
the articles which he should brio;; 
before the committee were new« 
but the principal were fresh in the 
recollection of gentlemen, it was, 
however, his duty to recapitulate 
the supplies, and to lay before then 
the ways and means to which lie in* 
tend«?d to have recoarse to provide 
for the expenditure. In the first 
placr, yvjth re>pect to the navy, 
gentlemch would recollect, that ia 
stalihg the ariicle of service which 
fir«<t presented itself, and which he 
had to notice last December under 
" the head of the navy, the e<itimate 
ambuft^edto 10,920,000/. The ordi- 
naries in that branch of the service 
were then calculated at 693,000/. the 
extraordinaries at 729,000/. and the 
transport service at 1,300,000/. to 
(ha^ the estimate, with a small 
addition which afterwards took 
place, amounted to a sum total of 
n, 653,000/. for the year 1799* 
The estimate was formed before it 
could be judged, with preciiion, 
how far the calculation of 7/. per 
man per month would 'be sufficient 
to answer the object proposed. But 
it appeared, on making up the ac- 
counts to (he 3 1st of last December, 
that (here had been a diminutioa 
and saving of r.o less importance 
than 903,000/. in (hat article. The 
acooimtsweM made out; apdfxnm 

the 



M> 



BRITISH AND 



tiie experience which we had al- 

read}' had, he wss justified in stat* 
iBf, prospectively, that a further 
saving of 500,000/. might be ex- 
pected in the course of the year. 
He w:as t<herefore to deduct these 
two sums of 903,000/. being a di- 
minution of the jiavy debt, and of 
cooyooo/. wiiich was expected to 
be saved; and the total sum of the 
supply, to auswer every exigency 
of this important branch of nat ion- 
al exertion, would be 12,2^0,000/. 
being less by 1,463,000/. than the 
estimate for December. 

The next article of supply, he 
observed, was the army; and he 
bad to remark, that no alteration 
was to be proposed with respect to 
the sums voted in Pecember, in 
the committee of supply on the es- 
timates then furnished, making a 



total amount of 8,fl40,ooo/. Ha 
also stated, at that time, avotaof 
credit for one million would be ne- 
cessary ; and the exiraordinariesf<«r 
1 799 as not likely to exceed two 
mi i lions. But widi a view to em- 
ploy to advantage any offeosivc 
tbrce^ as opportunities might oc- 
cur, he proposed that the etlimate 
of the army extraordinaries might 
be increased to two milliens ar2 a 
half, which would give a total sum 
of 12,340,000/. 

The estimate under (he bead of 
ordnance stood in December at 
1,^70,000/. ; and there was no ne- 
cessity to make any alteration in it 
at present. 

The charge for miscellaneoos ler- 
vices, under the head of plantation 
estimates, remain^, as it was stated 
in December, at 600,000/* 



XECAPITULATION 07 THB SOPi'LICS, 

Navy «£,i3,653,ooo 

Deduct diminution of navy debt, and 

saving expected in z 799 1,403,000 

■ ■■ 12,2 fO,000 

Army 8,840,000 

Vote of credit 1 798 • 1,000,000 

Extraordinaries, 1 799 2,500,000 

Ordnance, exclu<^ive of sea service : 1,570,000 

Miscellaneous services * 3*264,351 

Deficiency of land and malt 498,000 

Subsidy to Russia 825,000 

National debt • • 200,000 

•^.30,947.351 
Vote of credit for 1 799 <i'.3,ooo,ooo 

The interest doe to the bank, on items, in order to enable gentlemea 

exchequer bills and treasury bills, to form a balance between the dlf* 

'amounted to 565,180/. ; but it was ferent statements. The discount, 

now 100,000/. less. on the prompt payment of ihe loani 

Af r. Pitt then proceeded to no* was stated at 211,00c/.) and thst 

lice' the deficiency of ways and on exchequer bilh, in 1798, at 

i^eans s and ta state the specific 300,00c/. HowevcTi the general 

deficicDC/ 



FOBSIGN HI&TORT. 



141 



Mciency of wmyt tod Boeaai 
migbt be taken at 500^000^. It 
would Wobserred also, that credit 
va» taken for ike assessed tases> the 
▼olootary cootnlrations, and the 
tax on imports and exports. The, 
nrhole aoin was est 1 mated at seven 
mflliolM aod a half 3 but the pro- 
dace was onljr seven miHions, snd 
there was cooaequentlj a deficiency 
a( SOO.OOOi. The produce of the 
assessed taxes was nearly fonr roil- 
Jioas ^ and the voluntary contribu- 
tioDS» wiihoat including India, pro- 
duced two millions. Ibe volun- 
tary contnbaiioDs from India a- 
mounted to the snm of 300,000/. 
It was not DOW necessary, be said, 
to notice the imports and exports ; 
bot there had been' an increase of 
520^000/. The next article to 
Tvhich be did not allude in Decem- 
ber, but in irbich there was no de- 
^deqpY in the general statement, 
was the unsatisfied services of 1 /QJ. 
They were formerly deducted out 
of the growing produce of (he con- 
solidated fund, and he could now 
stare them po^iiively at 699^000/. 
There was also another new sum to 
mike good for certain services un- 
sacUfied of 303,000/. and some 
snsall articles on the charge of the 
commi&s toner for managing the na- 
tional debt, amounting to 30.000/. 
In addition to the de^cieocics of 
land and malt, estimated at 350,OOOA 
there was a further increase of 
]48,000i. making a cotal deficiency 
p that article of 4gS,QO0i, The 
subsidy to Russia was precisely fix- 
ed at 625,000/. and the annual ad- 
dition to the sinking fund for the 
discharge of (be national debt was 
200,000/. The vote of credit 
was propoi?ed to the amount of 
three miilicns; but, on account of 
l^e issue of ^he exchequer bi'K he 
ahoald not add that sum to the sup« 
ply. The amoant of the supply 



broi^t forward at ChrislBiaa wag 
stated at 29,272,000/. 

He next proceeded to state tfag 

articles of the ways and means. 
Last Christmas, he had mentioned 
that tlie growing produce of the 
consolidated fund was likely to be 
affected by many burdens and 
charges in arrear ; and yet be was 
now bappy to mentioo, that a con« 
siderable surplus was applicable 
to the supply. In one instance 
099,000/. had been provided for 
by a vote j two quart^rs had been 
paid, and two quarters of the six, 
which it was supposed would re<* 
mam, had actually passed. In ioolt* 
ing at the actual produce, and 
making good all charge^ and com* 
put ing the surplus ot the coo^olt* 
dated fund up 10 the latest period, 
he wa^ enabied to form a very dif- 
ferent stuement from what he for« 
merly did. ' He took it last Decem- 
ber, allowing for all considerations, 
at 1,500,0001.; and there was, at 
present, an actual surplus of 
521,000/. in the quarters of Ja- 
nuary and April : so that there 
waK, in tact, an augmentation of 
1,700,000/. beyond what he stated, 
on conjei ture, last December. 

When lie wa« come to the in- 
come lax, he said he might at all 
events remark, that, whatever might 
ultimately happen, he should not be 
justified rVom (he present circum- 
stances in taking credit for more 
than seven millions and a half as 
\hc produce of that (ax. The a- 
mount of an instalment on aid and 
contributions in 179S was 7*00,000/. 
bpt now, as it should be at 0.^0.000/. 
ii would, when added to the seven 
millions and ti half, give the sum 
orb,J50,000.^; but as it was liable 
to pay the in te rest of the loan of 
1798 for one half year of the sun* 
of 6,000,000// a deduction for that 
purpose mUU'be made from it of 
240,000/. 



I« 



BRITISH AND 



«40,ooo/. and also a year's interest the supply at 7,500,060/. The firit 

of 5/. 7/. per cent, on eleven mil- loan was for three Tnillions, and the 

Rons, amounling to 588,000/. which second for twelve. He then pro* 

would leave the sym applicable to ceeded to a 



RECAPITUIATION OF THE W^YS AND MEANS, 

^Bgar, tobacco, and mal^ of.2, 750,000 

Lottery , , , 200,000 

Sorplus of consolidated fund in January and -Aprjn 

1799 •.•..! ^ / 

Growing produce of ditto. , ..», 3,229,000 

£xports and imports « z,5oo,oofit 

Ten per cent, on income , . . . 7,500,000 

Instalments on aid and contributions, 7 ^cojooo 

8, 1 50,00(5 
Deduct ha^f-year's interest on eight ) ' ^^ ^^^ 

millions, 1798 .......} ^^°^'^ 

pitio one year on eleven millions at 1 cSfTooa 

j/. 7J. per cent,. ...,., i ^ * 

"■* • 

828,000—^^7,300,0001 

Loan first 1 3,000,000. 

Second * ^ ^ . . . 12,000,000 

<f'. 3 1,000,000 

He next called the attention of accepted at the price of the day 
the committee to the circumstance, considerably less than the actual 
that there was no provision made value of 100/. Three of the tnost 
for the exchequer bills to the a- respectable houses agreed to pay for 
moont of 3,000,000/. as he left 125/. in the 3 per cent, consols, 
them ultimately to be fundjed, and 69/. 4/. 4!^/. and for the reducej 
expected that they would be so on 28/. 2/. bd'.* making 97/. 6s. lO^A 
jpore advantageous terms. The which, with the benc^t of the dis- 
arrangement appeared to him in countat2/. 6j. 6</.gave99/. i3i.4i''- 
every point of view more econo- Instead of bonuses^ which had been 
roical and prudent than in adding the customary practice, the present 
3>ooov9oo/. to the loan. He next bargain had been concluded in a 
flated the terms of the loan. The manner unexampled with respect to 
usual mode of receiving offers by real advantage, 
fair and open competition had been He had the satisfaction to slate, 
adhered to. The proposal was that the interest to be provided for 
made to the competitors of taking by new taxes was »o more than 
125/. in .the 3 per cent, consols, 315,000/. The principle which he 
and 50 in the reduced, and it was proposed to go upon, as the fouo- 

datioQ 

• 300,000/. besides was borrowed for Ireland. 



FOHEIGN HISTORY- 



J43 



Adon c( the \7fa0Ie system of fi- 
nance^ was ihe same which he of- 
fered to parliament last year, that 
there should be no loan convr acted 
for during any year greater than 
what the amonot of the sinking fund 



coald pay off. By the operation of 
this fund, the whole of the loan 
that was now to be raided of fifteen 
milKuns and 9 half would \>e finally 
paid. 



^l 
^^»> 



BECAPITUI^ATiON OF TBB VZW TA«B8. 

750,00Q* notes annually, at 2d. each, would 

62,0001. but, in a matter of so much uncertaiotyj 

suppose only 
British sugar left for botpc consumptioni one million ) 

•even hundred thousand cwt. at Qd. 3 

play sugar from the British plantations, in addition 1 

to all duties, 200,000 cwt. (estimatect) at 4j. per> 

cwt. 3 

British plantation sugar exported ; with-hold 25. 6d, 

per cwt. of the drawback, in addition to 4i. now 

retained on 358 cwt. £ast*India stigar e^poried^ 

76,000 cwt. at 6s. 6d. 
Foreign plantation sugar exported, 2s. 6d, per- cwt. 

00 111,000 cwt. 
Hefined sugar exported, 4x per cwt. of the bounty 

DOW payable to be with-held on 196,000 cwt. 
p>i7ee exported in 1798, exclusive of Ireland 327,000 

pivt. at 44, 



42,000 
56,000 
40,000 



62,000 




.£316,000 

latter, in the year 1797> amounted 
to twenty- eight millions ; the last 
accounts that bad been made op 
stated (heir amount at 33,800,000/. 
It was only necessary to bear a pres- 
sure for a short time, and he had 
no hesitation in saying that we had 
ample means to meet this pressure. 
Supposing the consolidated fund to 
go on as it had done for some years 
past, and there should be no extra- 
ordinary rise in the stocks, it would 
in the year 1808 arrive at its maxi- 
mum. The period from the pre- 
sent to that time would be an in- 
terval of great stress upon the coao- 
try; but it, would not be difficult 
to provide taxes for eight yean. 
Here Mr. Pitt entered at coobider- 
able length into a detail of calco- 

lationa, 

• IC h snppoted tbetc are notes under 40*. value circulating in the northern 
coooucs, to the amouAt of 400,000/. chiefly of 20i. each. 



Our trade, Mr. Pitt added, had 
never been in a more flour i»hing 
situation. The p^rrmanent taxes of 
the present year exceeded what they 
^vere l^jt year, when they amount- 
ed (o ihe sum of \4 574,O0Oi, a 
sum greater than was ever produced 
in tl^e (post fioorishing times of 
peace. So far from the raising of 
the supplies within the year being 
a detrinient to the wealth of the 
country, the imports of the last 
year were much greater than those 
of any former year, they ^mounted 
to twenty-five millions, whereas 
those of the year 1797 amounted 
only to twenty-one millions, A 
aimilar augmentation had taken 
pla{;e iii the exports^ both of home 
aod foreign luaou&cturcQ. Tt^e 



U4 BAITISHAND 

latioBi» vbich vent to show that ties for the thrae nckillioiis raised far 

the whole of the national debt might Ireland were to be provided by tbe 

.be eiLiinguished in the apace of Iri&h parliament, and that in fact it 

thirty-three years of peace; that', was no other charge on thi« country 

•upposing the war to continue ever than by its increaaiog the amouDi (if 

so long, it coald be carried on with- the capital created. 
oat the creation of a new debt. Mr. firagge, on tbe 13th of Jooe, 

, Mr. Ticrney asked, what provi- brought up the report of the com- 

tion waft made for paying tbe in- mittce of supply. The resoluiioai 

terrst on the three millions borrow- wrre then agreed to. 
€d for Ireland ? Mr. Pitt, on the 24th of Jane, 

Mr. Pitt replied, that tbe annoi« moved the followiiig resolotionj: 

For the service of Irelatid <£,3,O0OfiO0 

Extraordinary services of the army for Ijgg 2^00,000 

Transport service for ] 799, and for the maintenance 7 , ^^ *,/« 

of the prisoners of war at Hull C 1.307.^ 

^To make good the sum that might be awarded un- 1 fib nno 
der the seventh article of the American treaty j ^^ 

To enable his majesty to grant indemnification tON 

lord St. Vincent and sir Charles Grey, for the dr- I 35 ono 
crees of the court of admiralty relative to certain V ' 
captures* bic, in the West Indies ) 

To Mr. Ashton and others, executors of Robert^ 
Rcz8, broker, being the amount of the sums due I 
from said Rees on the first paymetrt of the loan > 4^35 
of seven millions and a half which he had for- I 
feited, not having made such payment ^ 

The report was ordered to be re» lution intimated, that the gross it- 

eeived on the following day. ceipt of the revenue amounted io 

The house then in a committee the year end!r>g the 5th of January 

of supply agreed to a resolution 1/99, to 26^039,046/. 

that 34.145/. 2s. gi. the surplus of The twentieth resolution stated, 

the sura voted for the extraordina- that, supposing th© war to end with 

lies of the army, 1/98, should be the year 1799, the 3 per centi. to 

applied to defray the expenses of remain on an average at 70, an^ 

1799. the tax on income to produce scvrn 

Mr. Tiemey, on the 20ih of millions and a half per annum, the 

June, in consequence of notice he sum of 35,2iO>OOOA together vith 

had given, brought forward several tbe interest payable thereon, wooW 

resolutions relative to the finances not be redeemed before the month 

ot the country. The first rcsolu- of November, 1808. 

tion related to the national debt, Upon the twenty-first resolotion 

■n^ it was extracted from the report Mr. Tierney observed, that, soP' 

of the committee of finance. The posing the war to end with the yc«r 

fifteenth resolution estimated that 1600. and the same sum to be bor- 

thc total sum to be raised in Great- rowed on the credit of the tax upot» 

Britain, in the year 1 799, was income for the service of that ye^^ 

%%M^55^L lihe fijxteen^ reso- , which h^s been raised for ibc sff' 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



Hi 



meof tibe presest yrar. V'z. eleven 
ffiillioas* ani to be funded in 3 per 
ceats. at ^, tbe total amount of 
stock to be rpdcemrd would be 
33.5»SjQ0O / togriher with the lu- 
terest payable thereon ; and csiima- 
tin.; the produce ot the t^x o > in- 
come to be 7.500 000 /. per anDUfD, 
and calculating tbe 3 per cents, to 
rensaio on an average at 70, such 
redenipdon would not be com- 
pleted before tbr month of No- 
vember IS05. The probable an- 
nual expenditure during the first 
five years and a half of peace would 
therefore be upwards of thirty-three 
millioiis-* exclusive of any charges 
to be iDCorrrd for sums 10 be paid 
on winding up the expen5es of tbe 
war, exclusive of any increase in 
tbe oaval or military establishments 
beyond ibose of the last peace, and 
exclusive of ihe interest payable on 
the imperial loans. 

Afitr reading his twentieth reso- 
latfon, he ob^ervrd^ that, if he was 
rightly inf«Tmed, the produce of 
the income tax. would not be six 
mlUioos. if one gentleman had 
filled more than another^ it was the 
minister in his e^timatfs. He first 
took the iorome tjx at ten milliunt, 
tbrn at seven^ till at last he got 
down to four millions and a half. 
But. when he heard the language 
held by ministers, he saw (he im- 
portance of the people looking at 
the real state of \he country. Those 
gentlemen forming the present ad- 
ministration expre<ised a wish to 
ovenhrow the present government 
of France ; he therefore thought it 
absolutely necessary to do something 
that should shf-w the people the ac- 
tual ^tate of the finances. The re- 
sult of all those resolutions was, 
that to seven years we had doubled 
ifu national debt ; that we had dou- 
•k led ilu permanent /ax/i ; that by un- 
precedented gixid ibrtttxif w« bid 

1799. 



feeo Ihe xevenue atnouot lo a Nan 
beyood even tbe minister's most lail- 
guine expectattops ; thtt, at tba 
rate we were going on^ we had^ in 
this one year, to meet an out goioj 
of sixty millions ; that, if p«M|$ 
should arrive at the end of tbe yeiir 
^799» tbe peace estabJisbment t» 
November 1603 moat amount |» 
33 millions i but, if war thouU 
continue to the end of 1800, thai 
there then must be an annual oul- 
go Dg duriog tbe first six years after 
the peace of 33 millions. Above 
all, was there any man ^Ao lorcd 
the constitution, that did not fed 
the danger in which It must ha 
involved from the total tr^ste 
of the property of the country? 
He saw the middle ranks giving 
up many of their comforts ; ha 
saw the upper ranks -likely to be 
born down by new men. If ever 
there was a measure which went to 
the transfer of property, it was tfab 
tax upon income. This expencK^ 
ture made men change all their fbr« 
raer habits, or drove them to seek 
for an equivalent where they never 
dreamt of seeking one. In the 
present parliament, it was well 
known, that no seats w-rc pur- 
chased, and no boroughs sold ; but 
in farmer parliaments we knew that 
it h<id been so, and that it might ba 
in fufute. There was nothing mora 
respectable than the Jvnglish mai^ 
chant I but he should, bt' sorry to 
sec all in the house of that descrip* 
tion. The operations of the right 
bonourable gf*ntlemao tended to 
raise men suddenly. Where ihera 
were popular representations, lome 
good might be done ; but in close 
boroughs, which were formerly 
(though not in this parliament, ai 
he had before said) sold^ the pur- 
chasers would all be from tbe ciif 
of London. 
In ctppflsitHm to Mr. Vlerotfy't 
K reao- 



ufi 



BRITISH AND 



resolution;, Mr. Pitt p^po|fd;« se- 
rfesVfliik owh» and moved fur lime 
' to Va ve tiiro pr'ntecL 

M. Ti -Vnt y said, te had no ob- 
jection to ihe -dt-lay proposed ; his 
principal Reason was, rhat, as be 
bad been favoured with, a copy of 
the resolutions to be moved by the 
sight, honourable gentleman, he 
foMtid there was very little differ- 
ence bf.tween them. . "jThe right 
bonour^ble geotleroan'* aUeiations 
might be considered rather as addi- 
tions than ain'-ndments. The-y had 
taken different points of view, but 
he did hot think their difference? 
of statement considerable. This 
being the ca^^e, he was desirous that 
the right honourable . gentleman 
>'ould agree to both sets of resolu- 
tions .beio^ entered upon the jour- 
nals.^ He (Mr. Ticrney)' admitted 
th^t the right honourable gentle- 
man's £|mes were accurate, and 
Be did not Mud thit biVwere con- 
sidered wrong Every amu must 
£)rm .his owp opinion, and nothing 
could better enable them to do sa 
than l^euig. able fairly to compare 
^h>i two bets oi resolutions. The 
rt.hoD gent1e?iian assnmeddifftrent 
da^a, and drew diffVrrnt conau- 
alo' s ; f artic«;l:ir'y in the mode of 
viewing thr an^bunt of the rtational 
debt, as in i7i^:^and 1799, ^nd t^e 
-amou'''t of the income tax : varia- 
tions (hat ne( essaril^ gave, a varia- 
tion in ihe rr>u!ts. Still, however^ 
he found ail his own figures anong 
those of ibe right hnnovrable gentle- 
man } surrounded, indeed, irn such 
a manner that he found it difficult 
to recognise his own children. 

On the third of July the subject 
waW revived, when Mr. ,Ti<rney 
contended, that it was the last thing 
he should be inclined to do to say 
liny thing to eiciie despondency in 
the people of this country ; but, 
when he heard such eitrayagaot no- 



tions as had been set forth by the 
minister respecting the prosperity < 
of the country, he thought it right 
to promote a little i^ober reflection. 
After adverting to the first resolu- 
tion rf sperting the national debt, 
he said, Mr. Pitt had contended, 
that the money which had been 
raided for Ireland could not be con- 
sidered as a burthen upon Eogland. 
He contended, that money, advan- 
ced for Ireland wa«i as much a& io- 
cumbrance upon this country as the 
roon»*y advanced to the emperor. 
With respect to the sinking fund, 
there was no man in the house who 
gave Mr. Put more credit than 
he did; he always thought it the 
brightest feature in his character. 
He then asserted, that much of ihe 
prosperity of this country proceed- 
ed from the crippled state of France 
and HcUand ; and it was equ&lly 
clear, that, jifttr the war, a con- 
siderable part of our trade must re- 
vert back to those countries In 
speaking of the probable expenses 
after a war, he had compared the 
fitbt five years after the conclusion 
of thiH war to the first five years 
after the conclo!>)on of last war; 
but Mr. Pitt had objt-Gted to ihjt 
comparison, and bad staled that 
there were charges at Llie conclu- 
sion of the last war which would 
not occur at the conclusion of the 
present, such as the allowance to 
the Arntriran loyalists :• but it ap- 
peared to him thoi expenses of a si- 
milar natuic would probably occur 
after the present war j for, if the 
nobility and clergy of France were 
not restored, he suppoaed the ge^ 
^erositj of. parliament would nol 
leave them ejntirely \vitJbotat sup 
port. Mr. I'iefn^y ihen ad%erted H 
the amended resolution which res 
pected the amount of the tax opoi 
income, which Mr. Pitt sta ed a 
7,50O,(XX>/. {nox lhatbeh;niael( b I 

lievc 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



147 



Ucved k would amount even to that 
iom), although the act applied ten 
miUious from this source for the 
service of the year. This was not 
the 00I7 ixutance in which Mr. Filt 
hsd been mistaken : the preceding 
year the assessed taxes, which had 
bees cstinaated at seven millions, 
only produced four and a half. 

M. TierDcy contended, that Mr. 
Htt had made gross mistakes in his 
calculations of November last year. 
He had stated the profits of trade 
at 15 per cent, but be had been 
well assured that it was upon an 
arerage much less. Again, the 
oomcnercial interest in London, who 
had espoused the principle of this 
fax, had led Mr. Pitt to expect the 
amount of income derived from 
coromcTce would be about four 
millions; whereas, by his subse- 
quent statement, ,the amount was 
onJj stored at two millions 5 while 
the cDootry interest, on wbom the 
weight of the tax principally fell, 
would pay nearly to the amount of 
the sum at which they had been 
estiooated. After adverting to the 
3 per cent, stock created in 176^9 
Mr. Tiemey observed, that the chan- 
cellor of die exchequer had argued 
on the aopposition diat he (Mr.Tier- 
ncr^ bad calculated that the 3 per 
cents, woold not rise above seventy 
io tiine of peace. 

On tbp motion of Mr. Dundas, 
oa ihe 12th of March, the house 
revived itself into a committee to 
consider of theaccount^ presented 
13 the hou^e respecting the reve- 
Due« artnng out of the East Indies. 
It might appear singular, Mr. Dun- 
das obseryed, tbatne should bring 
forward in i7Qg that statement of 



the East India revenue which nro* 
perly belonged to the year -1798.' 
That 8tateinent> however^ was ne^ 
cessary to be made before the house 
could properly come to the con- 
sideration of the estimates whlct^ 
had already been submitted, or see 
how far they had been realised.' 
The committee must be acquaioted 
with the result of former calcula« 
tions, in order to make out a ground 
for the observations which he should 
have to offer. He then tvent to 
show that the present arrangement 
brought the view of the cofcpaiTy*i 
affairs within a narrow compass^ 
and that they were divided irito two 
parts. First, what nriglit be pro- 
perly called India accounts^ ^s pe* 
cularly regarding the state of Indi^ 
itself} secondly, the home accounts 
as respecting particularly the com- 
pany's concerns here. Uhdftr the 
iirst of these heads were to Se found 
a financial statement of thetn>ndl« 
tion of the respective plaees : ac- 
counts of the expensed incurred ; 
the amount of the debts io India ; 
a deduction of the general surplus 
not applicable to the payment of 
these debts } the sums which re« 
mained to i>e expended ; with many 
other items in the estimate not ne« 
cessary for his immediate purpose 
to s pecify . The fi rst head tha t pre^ 
sented itself was that of Benga)^ 
under whlcb would be seen three 
descriptions of accounts. First,, the 
average revenue for the last three 
years j second, a comparison of the 
estimated with the actual produce ; 
third, the average estimate for th6 
co'Tuing year! , , . V^ 

These accourtts werliavc abridged 
io a general view, as foUoN^s ;— ^ ^* 



Ka 



Besult 



i« SRITISHAND 

Besolr cf th* year 1796— 7 collecttvelj, 
licveniies. Bengal . . • • . 5,703,906 

Madras 1^996,328 

Bombay . . . » . 31^^937 

8,016,171 

Charges/ Bengal ..... 3,862,942 

Madras ..... 2,408^2 
Bombay ^ . . , . 841,825 

7.113,259 

Net revoDoes of the thrre presidencies . . • 902,91^ 
Deduct supplies of Bencooleo, &c 10J,190 

Remainder 801,722 

Deduct faither interest paid oo debts. 

Bengal 352,325 

Madras 37,040 

Bombay 37,482 

— — 426,847 

Net surplus from the territorial revenues . . . 374,875 
Add the amount, sales, imports, certificates, &c« 381,938 

Amount applicable to purchase of investments,! ^y^goiQ 

payment of commercial charges, &c. . . . J 750,o 
Amount actually advanced for purchase of in- 
vestments, payment of commercial charges, 
and in aid of the China investment. 

At Bengal 1,202,394 

Madras « . . . . 642,048 

^ Bombay 286,913 

Bencoolen . . • , 18,183 

—— ^ 2^49,538 



JSxceeds 
"before 



amoQDt applicable from revenue ■*l»«on*oe 
Cargoes invoiced to Europe in 1796— 7 wHh \ - «^- ..^ 

uu^tgcs • . • • . • •••.» • .J 

^ III I m 

^ GENERAL VI«W. 

Result of estimates 1797-^8 collectively. 
Revenue, ' Bengal ..... 5,743.848 

Madras . . , . , 2^334,676 ' 
Bombay . . , , . 319,101 

: ^. ^ — ^— 8,387,625 

^Charges. Bengal 8,893,991 ' - 

Madras 2,482,858 ^ 

Bombay 844,050 

—- 7,220,879: 



Ncf 



F O RE I O N HISTORY. 14Q 

Net estimated rer^ves of the three presidencies» i»i 76,746 

DedactsopplieBof Bencoolen, &c. • . \ » . 85>840 

Remainder ^ . . 1^090,906 

DediKi fitfthcr interest on the debts • . . S7^f77i 

Add 514,13c 

Estimated amoant, sales, imports and cerfifi-7 . z: 

«.!«.&€. . . . . .^. } 5~'33* 

Amount estimated to be applicable in 1797 — 81 

to tb« purchase of investments, pajrment of > 1,014,467 

commercial charges, &c } 

DEBTS IN INDIA. 

Amount stated last year , . 7,146,084 

Amount thia^jrear 9'294>S39 

Increase . . • 1,148,4;^ 

Debts transferred in the jear . . * $44940» 

D£BTS BBAItINO INTERBST. 

Amount kst year 5»S90>t4a 

Amoast this year », 7/479>i6a 

Interest of debt bearing interest 1,889,020 



Amount of interest payable by accounts of last 
year . • . ■* 

Amount of interest payable by accoonts of this 
year 



4«9i34S 
576.775 



Increase of interest payable ammally 1 57,410 

ASStTS IN INOtA. 

Conastmg of cash, goods, &c. iast year .... 8,958,669 
D^o by the present statements '^>53V45 

Increase of assets •••••. i>572,47^ 

Deduct increase of assets from the above increase 1 
of debts, th^ state of the eompauy's affairs of > 575>979 
India is worse by ) 

nous ACCOONTS. 

Aggrej^te amount of sales • . . . , . . 6,053,40! 
Lett &n bst year . . • . ^ .2,108,908 
Difference in company's ^oods alone 1,434,488 
MvAte4rade more than last year . . 30,746 
R'jsaining difierenoe in sale of Dutoh goods 

K 3 S»l«t 



}5Q »RITI,SHASrD 

Sales of company's goods estimated at • . • • ' . 6,^%2,^Ss 
Actually amounted to . ^,yiSfi%^ 

Less than estim^ited • i^$$6/)6o 

Receipts on sale of company's goods estiiiiated at 6,s$$»ii6 
Actually amounted to . . , 5^946,468 

Receipt less than estimated ; 608,648 

■ ■ ■■!■ ■ fc 

Cbar|^es and profit on private traide estimated at « 196,000 
Actually amounted to • . . . 415,808 

Less than estimated . ...-..••• 80,198 

GENERAL atSULT. 

Balance at the close of the year 1797 — 8 expected *) g^ 
to be agaiost the company ^ '» 3 »3* 

Actual balance in consequence of issue of^ 

bonds^ of aid by loans, and of smaller pay-f ^ ^ 

' ments for freight, &c. than expected, wjs in ( S4®^^4 
favour .;...•« 



7 
\> 540/ 



Making the balance of cash better than estimated 2^376,966 

ESTtMATBS I 798— 9. 

Receipts for sales of company's goods . . . • 5,90 {,9x7 

RESULT. 

After calculating on a payment to the bank, \ 

- amounting to 800,000/. and a large sum for i 

freight, without reckoning an increase of ca- ^ q ^ 

pital, issue of bonds or loans, the balance i ^'^ '^^ 7 

. against the company on ist of March, 1799, ex- \ 

pected to be J 

DEBTS AT HOME^ 

In March 1797 . . 7*9^8,^59 

In March 1 798 <..... 7,288,693 

Decrease . 132,069- 

Assets at home and afloat on the ist of March ) ^ 

179^ • .} ia»476,7»9 

Ditto on the ist of March, 1798 i3,2r3,37o 

Increase . •.....••. TS^tS97 

Adding increase of as^iets to the above decrease! 

of debt, the state of atfairs at home appears > 2,366,32a 
better ) 



CHISM 



FOREIGNHISTOB^Y. »4t 

CHINA AWD ST. RELCVA« o- • a, 

Balance in China last year in &voar . . ^g 250 
Ditto this year against 718,945 

Dl^erence at China against 998,195 

Babnce at St. Helena last year • . . . 56.453 ^ .^ 

Bitta this year 54^248 -^ 

JDecmue at St. Helena 4.215 

Less at China and St. Helena 1,002,410 

. . ■ ■ ■ i * 

6BNBSAL COMPARISON OP DEBTS AND ASSETS. > 

Increase of debts in India 2, 1 48.455 

Decrease of debts at home 631,765 

Increase of debti 1,516,690 

Increase of assets ID India • . . • 1,572,476 
Increase of assets at home • • . . 734,55/ 

Dcdact 2,307,033 

Balance at China and St. Helena less . 1,002,410 

Net increase of assets l,30i^ 

The increase oi debt, or the general stale of the \ 

company's concerns, was, in this view, more than > %\%fi67 
at the close of the last year j 

Add charges of I'oar ships from Bombay, arrived in I --^- 
time for iaseriioa in the home accounts • . • } * 

The total then was 413«&20 

■■■ > 
In speaking o{ the Madras esti • and observed that from these reports 
roate^ he observed, that, though it appeared, that, of the average 
the net charge for the last >ear for three years, the last was the 
amounted to 412,163 /. this might worst, he proceeded to read the 
be acconnted for from a variety of estimate of the state of aSiairs at 
causes which increased the usual home. At a future time he should 
charges in that quarter; they were, have occasion, he said, to observe 
however, principally to be attribut- more at large upon this subject, and 
ed to the reinforcecnents which cir- should .now content lit ui self wi(]i 
curostances made it advisable should remarking, that the balaoee vtras in 
be sent from home, and the eipe- favour of the company, n i»r as 
d'uioos fitted out there for our con« respected the produce of their sales 
quests in the east. at home; but, upon the wiiole, taking 

HaTinz gone through the whole a general view of the staie of their af- 
ef the iikha accounts, as far a9 re- fairs at home and abroad conjointly, 
garded the state of afEurs abroad, it was wo:se by 413,220/. than it 

*4 ^W 



19% 



BRITISH AND 



was as the close of the last session 
of parliameot. He said there was 
M farther sum of 200.0001. which 
did not appear on the face of these 
tcconntsi but the reason of that 
troae from some circumstances tliat 
attended the qutckoess of the pas- 
sage which some of the ships had 
homeward There was a disputed 
trticle of a debt of a million due 
from the nat^ob of Arcot. For 
toose time the li:iibl-:Iod]a company 
were trustees for ihe payment of 
the debts of the nabob of Arcot to 
certain creditors. On the breaking 
out of the war, the . company ap- 
propriated the whole of his revenue 
to the expenses of it ; but all these 
creditors having since been anni- 
hilated by act of parliament, the 
nabob demanded the money so ap- 
propriated back again, as having 
been, while the matter was in dis- 
putOj a debt To this the com- 
pany said, '* No : the money ex- 
pended for the purpose of the war 
you have no claim upon, or at best 
it was but a loan.'* Before this 
claim was established, it was im- 
possible th^t it could £ome into the 
statement of the company's affairs $ 
and though it appears upon the ac- 
count DOW, it must be considered 
Ihat it was no fuw debt, and, in 
^t, could not be included as a de- 
Plication in the produce of the last 
year. *So fiiv- otherwise, iikdecd. 



that, instead of being worse, the 
company's affairs would be six hoo- 
dred thousand pounds better than 
last year, were not this millioa in- 
cluded. 

The next point to which he csll- 
ed the attention of the comoiittee 
was one, he said, of much io)p(^- 
ance. Tlie trade of the conapany 
he was fully persuaded was greater 
than it was able to bring hotne to 
this country. If what was denomi- 
nated a clandestine trade was suffer- 
ed to exist, and that the prodace of 
our settlements in the East Indicf 
was suffered to be transported ia 
neutral bottoms, it was a circum- 
stance that required the united al»* 
lities of every gentleman io psrlta* 
ment to investigate and prevent. 

He concluded by moving bis firs) 
resolution, founded upon the state- 
ment which he had submitted to the 
committee. 

Colonel Mark Wood observed, 
that Ceylon was not in the aceooot 
like the other parts. 

Mr. secretary Dundas said) tl^l 
it was in the account ; but he beg- 
ged the committee to rcmcmbo', 
that the aceount^ in general wcrs 
made of estimates arising opon an 
average of three years, butCeyloo 
had not been in our possession for 
three years. 

The resolutions were then po^ 
and carried in the usual fbrix>* 



CHAP' 



FOREIGN HISTOKY. 



iA 



C H A P. IV. 

'jimeaded Bill f§r fht ReJemfitka «f the Land-tax. Debata m tkh BiSi 
Eegulaiimts respecting Ecclesiastical Pnftriy and Cmfmaijms. jlmtmlnt 
Bill fir Sc^land. iteto Arrangements re>/teeting tlie Mihiid^ VoUigfter mad- 
FrwiJaHol Cavalry. Dtiate m the Slave Irade^ 



OF die minor debates which 
took place in the course of 
th» Mssioo but few are deserving • 
of Dotice \ aoioog these, however, 
the new act respecting the sale <^* 
the land tax is one of the most im- 
portant, as a matter of general re- 
gulation. On the sixth of Decem- 
ber (he chancellor of the exche- 
quer moved, that ihe act of the 
last session for the sale and redemp- 
tion of the land-tax should be read. 
The act being read accordioglf, 
Mr. Pitt then rose and said, that, 
3S larious difficolties had occurred 
io execuriog the act of last sfssion 
for the rederaptioo of the land-tax, 
it was huL intention now to move 
for leare to bring in a bill to render 
the said act more efiectual, and to 
give greater facility to the execution 
of its provisions. This cdditicnal 
fiiciiity was, in the first in-^tance, 
the object of the new bill. These 
difficulties were of various cm- 
plexion<s. Some complained that 
the time granted to the proprietor^ 
to pQCc&ase his tax, was too short ; 
but* among the intended regula- 
tions, one of the first would be to 
allow an extension of the time now 
Umtted for the redemption, lie 
likewise thought it advisable to 
■nke certain provisions for enabling 
persons to make contracts in sums 
of money f r the redemption of 
the tax. There were also persons 
srho potseascd estates in dti^'crent 
oonnites, and by the last bill such 
persons were enabled to charge 
their property in one county, in 



order to redeem their land-tax ia 
another. This point, in his roiod« 
involved- no difiicnity; hot it still 
gave rise to some objections among 
the commissioners, which he was 
now desirous to remore. It was 
another leading object of the new 
bill to make certain regulations re- 
specting ecclesiastical property, nnk 
persons possessing property devised 
for lives and on long terms, aoA 
who had DO claim to the same b»* 
nehts as persons enjoying entailed 
estates \ he doubted not but a mode 
might be devised of extending the 
advantage of the act to such per*- 
sons. 8ome objections also had 
arisen respecting the inequality df 
asse^bments of difierent p<iri hes; is 
was even supposed, and perhaps 
npon just grounds, that there exist- 
ed some inequality io the assestmeiltis 
of different (^ari^hes, some of whioli 
it wai a Hedged wrre now rated at 
more ihan^ iheir fair quota. ThK 
some persons had t)een over-rated^ 
might ^be true; it wa4 thtret<ire 4>is 
wish to aUow them a\ pro rata re* 
duct ion, in consideration c^ their 
being so over- rated. In such ctisea 
also where a re-assessment had ttkes 
place* he intended to propose that 
such persons as had redeemed their 
land-tax should not be itablc to any 
additional assessment. He then coii-^ 
cfuded, by moving tor leave to 
briiig in a bill to enhrge the tinoe 
limiied for the redemption of iht 
land-tax, and'to explain and amend 
the provisions of I he bill iotrodoced 
last session for thst purpose. 

Mr. 



fM 



S ft IT 1 S H A NO 



Mr. Jones faid* be vas not stir- 
prised that the iniDisier no.xr applied 
for alti' rations upon the bill of the 
last session, as he had fcbown so 
Dftttch disregard to the many soli- 
Stations that bad been inade to him 
to postpone it for some Uttle time ; 
but No was the answer which he al- 
wava returnfd lo those solicitations. 
It Riight be said» that a few altera- 
ttons would render the bill accept. 
Able; but. in his opioioa, no al 
teraiions could remove \i hat was 
objectionable in it. We had it frotti 
high authority, that the meaaure 
had already been productive of the 
happiest consequence^ ; yet the 
house wfs now told, thai the bill 
«oiild not go on as it stood. In- 
deed he felt so much, and so keenly, 
for the landed interest, that he could 
not but consider the present itiea^ 
anre'as a blow aicned at it in favour 
of the naonied interest j nor could 
he help adopting the opinion and 
the words of an honoorable mem- 
ber, that, between the landed and the 
monied interest, property was about 
to chtfige hands ; ^r the measure 
&OW proposed he had no hesitation 
in denominating tie child of inor* 
tlittaie pBWir, 

Mr. Pitt said, that he wat not 
more surprised at the asperity of 
language used by the honourable 
gentleman, than at the incoherency 
of his arguments. It appeared 
from what he advanced, that the 
liODOurable gentleman has as little 
attended to the provisions of the 
act, at to the beneficial efiecU It 
^d produced throughout the coun- 
try. After a short debate, wjierein 
Mr. Jooea argued against die bill, 
ah4Mr. fiurdon for it, the motion 
was then put, and leave given to 
luring in the bill. 

Mr. Pitt on the seventh of De* 
cember broagbt op the bill, and it 
was read a first tiiQe. 



On tfae'queaHMi for the resdinir^ 
Sir John Sinclair wished for deiajr. 
He thought a measure of so much 
iraporij^nte to the coontry, and 
which had tinet with so much op- 
potiition in Uh origin, demanded to 
be serionsiyand deliberately discuss- 
ed by that house. 

Mr. Ryder thought the proposi- 
tion of the honourable baroort a 
singular ode; for this matt^ was 
acDp'y discussed when it wa« before' 
the house last year, and this was 
duly to give a facility to carrying 
into effect what parjiament had al- 
ready approved, and so, he believed, 
had the great bulk of ilie countiy. 
He thought the wish of the hoase 
must be to inierpoae as little delay 
as possible, 

Mr. Pitt said, he should propose 
that the hill mij^ht be read a second 
time the following day. and priiiled 
i^^or the purpose of filling op the 
blanks. He cone d led iiith mov* 
ing that it might be printed; i^hifiii 
was accordingly ordered. 

Mr. Hobart brought op the re- 
port of the bill for explaining 8t)d 
amending the act for the redetnptioii 
of the land-tax, on the 8ih of De- 
cendber, and it was read a sectmd 
time. . 

Mr. Pitt moved the order of the 
day, on the X3th of December, for 
tfae house to resolve itself into s 
committee of the whole house on 
the said bilL '^he question being 
put, that the speaker do now leaf « 
the chair, 

Mr. Jofies said, it was of vety 
little ose for so belplesr an indivi- 
dual as himself to sav any thing 
upon this <btlU sfler -the marked, 
^manifest, and avowed itidiQsretK^ 
of Mr. Pitt towards every 4hiDg 
that was said against the tneastire. 
This bill was said to be a messore 
to give effect to the fbroier bill; 
and so» indeed, tha prea^nble iodi- 

Xttfii 



F O B-E 1 Gir HTl ^ T O, R Y. 



.!» 



caled. He calM the bi)] that passed 
lost year an. ancoostitfitiooal mea- 
sare. He believed he was boroe out 
in that assertion by the best aucbo- 
lity. He meant De Loloae on the 
Coo^itutio& of England ; who stat* 
ed, that the land-tax, if made per- 
petnaj^ might be applied to the pay- 
ment of a staoifing army. He 
shook! say no moreA but leave the 
IhU to the country to consider whe* 
ther it was good or bad. 

The speaker then left tbe chair $ 
aad after various clauses were of- 
fered by Mr. Pitt, and adopted by 
the conunittee, who went tii rough 
the bill, the house being resumed, 
the report was received immediate- 
fy, read> and ordered to be taken 
into farther consideratioo on Mon- 
day. 

The order of the day beipg read, 
•a the 17th of December, for the 
further consideration of tbe report 
of the Jaod-tax amendment bill, a 
great nomber of new clauses were 
added to the bill. 

Mr. Pitt said, that as it was of 
the ntOMist consequence that dis- 
patch should be used in passing the 
bill, he should propose the third 
-reading of it the next day, if it 
should be engrossed^ which was 
agreed to. 

On reading the order of the day, 
00 the 19ih of December, upon the 
said biil^ 

5ir John Sinclair asked whether 
there was an account of the ez- 
peoses of carrying this act into ex- 
ecution ; -or, if not, whether there 
waa any e&tioiate of the expenses 
.iikely ta be incurred. 
: . hix' Pitt saidi that a motion to 
tbavpffect was made some time ago; 
-the account n^as forthcomings but 
tjhe house must be ainrsre, that the 
ancconiits could ooly . be collected 
irom the different persons through- 
4fit Che couatsy e^Bplojcd io can/ 



the act iato exechtion, and that it' 
was impossible to obtain it yet. 

The question -being put, upon the 
third reading of the bilU 

Sir John Sinclair satd» that he felt 
tbe strongest rrpogoance to thisbiil 
whrn it was introduced ; those ob- 
jections had not been removed ; that, 
however, it was not his intention 
now to detain the bouse with ob- 
servations on the general policy of 
the bill; but there were some pfJinta 
of considerable importance, not only 
in this bill, but also in that whicik 
was connected with «it— he meant 
tbe tax upon iocooie ; he could not 
suiiPer the opportunity to pass of 
making some observstions ; be- 
cause, if the plan for the redemp- 
tion of the land*tsx had been esta- 
blished on proper principles, and 
had been carried properly into ef- 
fect, there would have been no oc- 
casion for the present projected tax 
upon income. Ever since the plan 
for the redemption of the land-tax 
had been thought of, he was of opi- 
nion, that the land-tax should be 
sold for ready money, and it would 
have produced the ten mi U ions 
which the minister proposed to raise 
by the tax upon income^ and would 
supersede the necessity of that tax. 
The consequence of this measure 
was to make every gentleman farmer 
a gentleman stock-jobber j end in- 
stead of being a proprietor of land, 
he WQBld become a proprietor of 
funds. The' landed, interest, he 
should have hoped, would liave 
known too much to have bteti 
taken in this way ^ they could only 
gain £ve per cent, for their capital 
under this nueasorej-^whtrcas, by' 
the due culture of. their land, they 
^'i^ .g^on from seven to ten pec 
cent. 

Air. .£iliBon «aid, that If a pro- 

. jper aelectioa- of commissioners had 

heen made^ the bill; mighi imve 

hcea 



150 



BRITISH AND 



hecfi execQted without any, or bat 
a very triflings expeose. 
V M. J'Ut ibeo prodQced a great 
Bncnber of cbasesy whicb were read 
aad* Agreed to; 

After a f,fa»rt debate, wherein Mr. 
Rydcr> Mr. Shaw Lefcvre, Sir W. 
0«afy,and theapeaker, took a part, 
tbeibill W4S paesed. 

This measure wat iooq after fol- 
j€«red by another, for regulating 
the -sale of ih^ laud* tax on ecclesias- 
tioa) property ; aod on. Ibe 1 1th of 
March Mr. Pitt moved the order of 
the day on the bill for facilitating 
the redeoiplion of the land-tax by 
bfsfaops, kc, and corporate bodies. 
The ox^r beiog read, be moved 
tbat it sfaoiild be an instruction to 
tfao committee, that they should 
bave power to amend both the acts 
npon the aubject; which, being 
agreed to> and the hoase beicfg in a 
committee, 

Mr. Pitt brought op several a- 
OieodmentSi which were agreed ro. 
Tho amendments were ordered to 
be printed. 

On the lS4h of March, a clause 
being read to prevent any appeal 
faking place after a contract had 
been entered into, sonrie conver* 
aation arose between sir William 
Ptilteoey and Mr. Pitt. 

3ir William Pult<*ney put a case 
to show the injustice that might 
arise from the operation of the 
clanie-^it was that of a roan who 
might be supposed to obtain, by 
improper means, the reduction of 
the land-tax. This person, imme- 
diately after snch reduction, might 
enter into a contract to purchase 
Ilia land-tax ; and by availing him- 
actf of this contract, and of these 
leduced terms, he might occasion 
an increase in the assessments Of 
other persons, who, in this case, 
woold be deprived of the benefit 
«f an appeal, merely becau9e the 



person above mentioned had ea^ 
tered into a cor. tract to buy up his 
land-tax. Thisj surely, would be 
a gross and flagrant injustice. • He 
said, that a gentlenoan of hit sc* 
quaiotance >^ould be a lo&er by the 
present clause to no less an amoaot 
than between 2 aod 3,000/. 

Mr. Pitt ackaowleuged there 
might be some- weight in the ho* 
nourable baroocta objection; hot, 
in his opinion, it might be easily 
removed by the inti^oduction of a 
provision to the following import, 
viz. that in cases where any reduc- 
tioo had takox> place ii^aoynQ^ns 
land*tax within three years before 
he had entered into any con(;act to 
redeem it, a power of appeal sbouH 
lie against any such reductioa for 
three years after any such contract 
had beea entered into. 

Mr. Simeon thought that, with- 
out such a modification, the chose 
would \ti several cases be extremely 
grievous. In corroboration of sir 
William Pulteney*8 observatioBj ha 
mentioned a circumstance which bad 
come to his knowledge, and whidi 
though he was not prepared to prqre 
at the bar ot (he houiie, yet it was 
one that he oould insist upon with 
full conBdeoce that it was founded 
in truth. The circumstance ha al- 
luded to was the caae of a magis- 
trate, who, he believed, befoie the 
tax passed into a law, butyetwhilf 
it was in contemplation, bad cob- 
trived to get into hia possessioa ihp 
books of the pariah, which enabled 
him to make out a new set of 
books, in which he took occa»ioo 
to make a considerable reductioa 
in his own assessment in the parish 
where he possessed a large pro^ty^ 
and thus had increased the asieilr 
roents of the other parishoner^ 
The old books were aoppoicd t^ 
have been desfvpyed^ . » ..L 

Mr. Ellison thought the tefiff^ 
linte 



P O R 8 ro N H 1 5 T O » Yi 



W7 



tnfe wlio bad Bisftd to scaBdaloos a 
part, instead of being cautiously tA- 
IttdeNd to in that house^ ought t9 be 
dragged before the court of king's 
bencm. The houw then divided on 
the clause: ^r il> 34; against it^ 
4 • majorftjr, 30. 

The pioviHon respecting appeals, 
inggested by the chancelk>r of the 
exchequer, was then introdoced, 
a«Kl the other clauses gone tbrough ; 
after which Mr. ?itt gave notice, 
that, from the urgency there was 
€>f pa!(sing the biU before the holi« 
days, and from the anxiety vx'^ith 
which iDaB;y of the parties interest- 
ed in it wa^ed to see it pass into a 
law, he shoaid be obliged to move 
that the bifl be read a third time on 
the morrow. 

Mr. Pitt, on the i ^Ih of March, 
sooved the order of the dav for the 
third readily of the said hill. The 
hill was then read a third time 3 oa 
which 

Sir William Pulteney «tate4, se- 
'Vteral cases of individuai hardship, 
which would be necessari!) effected 
by some of the clauses as -they now 
stood Public Dtility, be said, how- 
ever pressings could never warrant 
•n act of injustice, and was nothing 
more than the principle acted upon 
in Prance, and the ground on which 
all her enormities were soaght to be 
justified. As to the dbject of the 
l>in^ which was avowedly to aid 
tho funds, he waold never consent 
4hat the treasury of England should 
become a species-of t^tock^jobbing 
i^stem io raise the funds. 

Mr. Pift observed, that the bill 
iad branched ODt beyond the limits 
Io which he thought it might have 
been confined, and for that reason 
the preamble was defective ; to re- 
medy which, he proposed that the 
fn'eamble shoold state these words : 
** stud io e:(^lain and amend the said 



act/* This amendmettl he movedi 
and the h iuse agreed to it. 

Sir William Pulteney enteiadat 
ce&sidcrable length into ebjectioos 
against parts of this hi 11^ atui pt^ 
posed an amendment, the object of 
which was to allow three months 
for hearingcertain appeals Ufid«T the 
provision of the former act. This 
amendment was set aside, to make 
way for another proposed by Mr. 
Ellison, which was, to leave -out of 
the bill the whole of the clause for 
appointing by thecrown seven com* 
ffiissioners, to judge of the-value ef 
the land-tax belonging-to ecclesias- 
tical dignitaries, and to corpora^ 
tions, &c. This clause he contended 
Io be wholly um-onstitutiona), and, 
•like the Deljtkic m-acle^ to catch both 
ways — and, he was sorry to aay, 
catch where it ought not. 

Sir John Sinclair seconded the 
motion. 

Mr. Pitt defended the propriety 
of the clause, as a measure lor the 
benefit, instead of the injury, of 
church and corporation property. 
This clause, and the appointment 
of commissioners, had no reference 
at all to the ordinary bns«nessof the 
land-tax. The amendment wats 
then put, and negatived. 

Sir W. Pulteney's amendment 
was then discussed, and opposed by 
Mr. Pitt. 

Mr. Simeon took this opportu- 
nity to correct^ in part, the state- 
ment he had made with respect to a 
magistrate. It was well known to 
those who knew the individual to 
whom he alluded. In stating what 
he did, he had only said he was 
informed that the former books of 
rate had been kumt. We had stnoe 
found that they were not burnt ) that 
they were only cancelled. He wished 
to correct the errors of his former 
statement f for he wished to say, mst 

oAiy 



158 



BRITISH AND 



onlj what was essiniialh, but al^ 
what was HteraVy trae. It did ap- 
pear that these books were cancel- 
ied, and that certain persons joined 
with that individual in that act ; 
whether fraudulently or onlv erro- 
neously, he should not say ; for one 
of the individuals implicated in the 
imputation had suoroitted to a 
course which would make his cha* 
racter the subject of judicial exa- 
mination. 

The question was then put on sir 
Wm. Pulteney*s amendment, which 
Was negatived without a division. 
The brll wa« afterwards read a 
third time, and passed. 

Mr.*W. Dundas moved, on the 
third of April, for leave to bring 
in a bill io amend so much of the 
acts for the redemption of the land- 
tax as far as they related to t>cotIand, 
and likewise to extend the time, 
and to empower the proprietors of 
certain estates to sell a part of these 
estates for the purpose of redeeming 
the land- lax. In consequence, a 
bill was brought in and passed. 

Some regulations were also made 
respecting the military force of the 
country, which it is necessary 
briefly to notice. 

On the Iwenticfh of February 
Mr. secretary Dundas called the at- 
tention of the houi:e to the military 
force and internal defence of thfs 
country. He highly extolled the 
late act passed for increasing our 
* internal strength, and the zeal of 
all descriptions of people in it, who 
had thus baffled the designs of fo« 
reign enemies and domestic traitors. 
His object, he said, was to provide 
some additional 'regulations^ which 
would be highly beneficial. 

The late act of parliament for 
raising certain militia corps was li- 
mited lo the loth of February, ow- 
ing to many causes, amongst which 



was the late inclemency^ of the 
weather. There were many rsised 
that had not an opportunity of mrei- 
ing ; and, considering how far they 
might extend their services, he 
should wish lo enlarge the time to 
such future day as might be deemed 
necessary. Another point referred 
to the state of th* tnilitia force ; it 
had been tripled of late years, and 
calcolated at the nnmber of 106,000, 
but they had not actually amounted 
to this, though such bad been the es- 
timate : the whole amount was aboot 
250.000 men. Believing this force 
was fully adequate to the security 
of the country, he should not pro- 
pose its augmentation } confident 
that it was not in the power of the 
enemy to make any serious attempt 
on the 'island where we ^ere so 
happy as to live: but, as there 
were numbers of men wanted for 
the purpose of manufacture and 
agriculture, he should be sorry 
that more should be broaght out 
of the militia than were ahsolotcly 
needed. He wished to allow a dis- 
cretionary power to the command- 
ers of the regiments under the lords 
lieutenants of the counties, respect- 
ing the balloting for the- remainder 
which was deficient. 

The volunteer cavalry was now 
near 30»000. It was a force whicli 
did great honour to tho*e who 
were engaged in it: they afforded 
the best means of defence. They 
were a body of mcii, who, from 
their education, were best qualified 
to judge ; from their property, niosl 
likely to feel j and, from their ha- 
bits, to have an affection for th« 
constitution of their country. He 
trusted thit those gentlemen, wbo^e 
discipline becameas much the ob-^ 
ject of praise as their zeal was of 
admiration, would not find our ^^• 
vcrnmcnt had relaxed because ^iie 
^iogdotn 



POKfiiGN HISTOKY. 



159 



iingdom was become safe. W'th- 
out wishing lo take any far ber 
steps with r^ard to the piovi^tooal 
cavalry, he had oaty ta mow ihat 
the \asi act might be rrad, that he 
might afirrwards bring in a bill of 
amendmeiii. 

This being granted^ he moved 
for leave to bring iu a bill for re 
dncio^ the Dooiber of mihtia forces 
m England. 

Colonrl Wood was of opinion, 
that, instead of diminishing, it 
woold be betttrr to increase them to 
the full nunaber of 100.000} and, as 
it was desirable to alford as much 
relief to the country as p<:)55ib!e, a 
mode fuight be devi^d ta allow ihe 
old and well-di^cipUned men in the 
miluia regimeius leave of ab.«ence 
for a given x'lmt, who would not 
only be iit for duty, but furni«<h 
that soppJy for industry and agri- 
culture which the proiperoas state 
of the con 11 try required. 

Mr. buxton appioved of the re- 
duction^ A'> lo the mode. proposed 
by colonel W<>od, he doubted the 
practicability of it. 

Lord Sheffield doubted whether 
it was in the powcnof the crown to 
call forth the supplemental militia 
under the act; which being read, 
h^ proceeded to state, that they 
were to be cail^ out only in case 
or danger of invasion or iasurrec- 
tioo ; and, if Irrland Was threaten- 
ed, it would be an argument for 
lumping np the fall number to sup- 
ply the place of tho%e sent to the 
sister l;;tngdom« He wished the 
cooiitry to be relicvcsd from the bur- 
then of providing for the: families of 
persons serving in the niiiitia, which 
in many cases amoootcd to 1 2s. on 
• rack rents; nor did he think it ne- 
cessary that the yeomanry and vo- 
lunteer corps should assemble so of- 
ten as formerly, as ^heir ditoipline 
Alight esiat without it. 



Mr. secretary Dcndas said, lie 
could not conceive what was meant 
by " illegality in calling out the sup- 
p:emeniary miiitta. The set g^va 
the king the power. It was after 
his mijesty*s intention had been 
notified to the house by a message, 
tli^U they had been called oat, and 
it was under the anthnriy of tho 
house that they now <»erved. As lo 
the yeomanry, suirly the expense 
of 90,000/. for 30,000 cavalry, aS 
the rate of 3/. per man a year, fir 
keeping up their accoutrementi, 
&c c-ouM not be considered as an 
expen«>ivc bargain } and mofitof the 
voiunteer corps cost nothing. 

Lord bheflield explained. • He by 
no rneaa* meant to lop off the allow- 
ance of 3/. per man, nor that they 
should be put on any footing to 
exempt them from being caHed up« 
on when wanted. 

Mr. Burden thonght o6Fensi¥e 
measares would be more advani»*' 
gcous. ' Economy was good ; bnt it 
was important that wc should be 
prepared for offence as well as de- 
fence, and the reduction of part ef 
the tbrce proposed might be ap- 
plied to the augaientatiuns of the 
rt-guiars, by allowing the militia to 
enlist into the latter. 

Sir Jamcf Pulteney agreed that 
the importance was great ot an o^ 
fensive force. The bill allowed a 
limited number to enlif^t ; and, 
though that did not succeed so well 
as could have been wished, the 
principle ought si ill to be follow- 
ed op. He was well aware that the 
opposition to this measure arose 
from the commanders of miliiia re- 
giments, from a laudable wish to 
retain the men who made a good 
appearance und^r tbeir, command j 
but be did not doubt but their feel- 
iDgs would give way to a higher 
sensft of public benefit. 

The safety of Ireland^ and with 



i99 



BRITISH AND 



it tfrat of the en^nre, bad perhaps 
been owing to ihc volunteer offers 
of the miliiia : but it was oot fit 
that we should rely merely on a 
^c4in>tfer army ; we ought to h»ve 
• transportable force ; and though 
InMB m battalioo of 5 or 600 men 
Viany coold not be spared, yet, as 
fbe regifueQis amount to 1200, a 
lew might be taken from (his corps 
withoet inconvenience. 

Leave w«9 given to bring m the 
biil for reduciog the militia and re- 
gulating the provisional cavalry, 
which accordingly passed in the 
€Divie of the session. 

The old aubject of the s}ave 
4vade was again agitated, and with 
the usual success. On the Ist of 
March Mr. Wilberforce again in- 
trockttced the subject to the house 
of commons,: and began by obnerv- 
jng» that it was with great pain he 
fMBece4(sd to the osttution of the 
4uty ia which he was now engaged : 
#oi that he reluctantly bestowed 
anytime on this great subject, which 
iiad been sofitlly and so frequently 
ifliscoased in that house, the slave 
trade. So long as he was cbtered 
onder bis labours by the hope of ul- 
timate SDccess, he hdd never fjinied 
for a rooment ; but the recollection 
«f- the past a^orded him a discou- 
laging project for the future : it 
was now eleven years since he had 
firat pointed out the system of wick- 
edness and cruelty with which he 
was at war, to the indignant repro- 
bation of the house and the country. 
For some time, though he did not 
•attain his point, he bad seemed to 
make aome^progress towards it j and 
in 1792 the house appeared deter- 
mined that the trade should be per- 
mittcnl to exist only a few years 
]ooger> merely for the purpose of 
enabling planters to fill up vacan- 
cies in their existing gangs. But 
when the year 1796, that promised 



year of jubilee, arrived, the boose 
had forgotten its engi^getnent. Ap- 
parently uncoo!»cious of \ibat kii 
passed, it suspended the drcisive 
blow, and in the following year it 
even put out of its own hsnd> in 
some manner the office <»f fading 
this shameful traffic^ which bad i>ub- 
sisted by its sufferance. Tbe colo- 
nial legi<»latures, not (be parlianieat 
of Great-Biitain, were now to d^ 
tcrmine when the slave trade should 
cease 3 and with grief he niu&t de- 
clare he nuvv almost despaired to 
see the abolition effected by a iiri- 
tish parliament. I'he colojiial Icgi^ 
l>atures neither could nor woqM 
enforce the system of lefoiro, 10 
render the further importation of 
slaves unnecebsary, and thus by de- 
grees make way to its leimiwuio. 
First, let the raeaos be cx^miartl 
which were to t^ffcct this objfci: s 
law was to be enacted prescribing 
the quantity of fuod and cloibifg 
which the slaves should rf^ceive} 
the labour to be exacted, ibe na- 
ture of their habitaiions» (he due 
degree of medical care, of correc- 
tion, and of pu: i>hmcnt It wa* 
easy to draw up an act io wbicb sll 
these particulars should be accurate- 
ly stated; but to enforce it was a 
very different matter : and indfcd 
the reasonableness of it mi^bi well 
be questioned, as the paru»uUri 
must be varied according lo,tbe 
infinitely varying circorastaucef w 
different plantations. But, ni facJ, 
it was useless to argue against ibes« 
regulations, because they were im- 
practicable ^ for would It be endur- 
ed in any free coumry, and espe- 
cially in one where the evils ot ^la^c* 
ry gave -more than common sensibi- 
hly of the value of libt-rty, ibai a 
constant scrutiny into all the pari»- 
culars of domestic arrangement 
should be established by law ? Hovr 
would Englishmep peai ihcli^ ^^ 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



les 



aof penoo iiilvittg a right to esa- 
mine into tbe detail of their familj 
oeconooDiy ? It woold be vain, it 
would be contraiy to tiie feelings of 
faniaaQ natore, to ex|>ect that such a 
s^siecB shoaid be carried into effect. ' 
But vbai was tbe tenaptatioo held 
out to iodace tbe planters to adopt 
it ? what was tbe prcmiam ? In the 
hopes of a great reward^ perhapa, 
xbey oiigbt commit a violence upon 
their netaral feelings ; but tbe temp- 
tation, the premiocDy was tbe very 
thing which they deprecated as tbe 
greateat of all eviia. An abolition of 
tbts trade I Was it thefcfore to be 
icnagined that these planters would 
snbaait to the oaoat odious restratntSt 
the aiost invidious inquisitorial re- 
gulatioiia» for the purpose of accele- 
ratiog what they most of ail wished 
to retard and defeat ? Tbe assembly 
of Jamaica bad spoken out, and 
put the point at issue out of coo* 
troTcray. For his own part, he re* 
apected rhem for so doing i they had 
acted more honourably in declaring 
their deiertnioation never to assist 
in abolishing the slave trade, than if 
tbey bad disguised their sentimeots 
to appear to co-operate with the 
hoQSic of commons. In the con- 
dusioa of their address to his ma- 
jesty tbey declared, that, in the legis- 
iacive measures which they should 
iotroduce for tbe benefit of their 
slavea, ihey were actuated by pfo- 
fives (B^ bumamty tmiy^ and not uritb 
any mem to the terminaiiottof the slave 
trade. ** The right of qbtaiotog 
labourers from AfiriciT' (for such was 
the aofteoiag phrase by which they 
were willing to conceal ihe evils 
"sffbich tbey rssolved to perpetuate) 
"it secured to your majesty's sub- 
jects in this colony by several Bri- 
; tift)l^cts of parliamexK, and several 
' ^oclamatioos of yo«r majesty's 
royal aoccsion. They^ (W .their 
prodeoesstti^ Jtt^ tmiga^ mk 



settled to Jamaici imder (he moal 
miemo promiset of this asshtanee i 
and they can never give op, or di^ 
any act that may render thi» essential 
right doubtful." 1 hese words, Mu 
Wilberforce remarked, were follow*^ 
ed by a hint, not thr most decraV 
concerning the conditioo of their 
allegiance to the crowo« All thia 
might seem strong, hot it waa om 
more than what bad been contended 
for by their agent, Mr. ^ewell, in » 
preceding year. He had mainrained 
that the slave trade oaght to be con* 
tinaed, not to fill op the defieienclea 
of tbe existing gaog«, bat to bring 
into cnltivstion all the land which 
remained to be settled. In fact, ia 
was for the formatioo of new set* 
dements, not for the mHintenance 
of old ones, that this traffic bad* 
been carried on for many ye art' 
past I and when it was coafidefed 
that we bad now t>egon to settle on 
the continent of South Amartci^ 
there were no limits to iba deiftMd 
for slaves which would be required. 
Thehouse might »ee tfaeimmeosoea-' 
tent of it even in Jamaica itself. Tba 
yrhoSe island was said to contain 
3,500,000 acre^ ; of this 700,009 
tfcres were actually cultivated, and 
tbree-fifrhs, or 2^100,000 acres, stilt 
remained to be so. No\^, as /anMrica* 
had been in the habit of importing 
slaves for a centory past, and during 
that period bad imported abov# 
600,000, two or three centuries mor» 
mustelapse,andnear2,000,000sl«fa« 
be imported^ to satisfy tbe demandg 
of this single tsland. It was swngef 
that men oould contemplate such i^ 
prospect with 4:omplaoency. Ther 
assembly of Jamaica was not with<« 
out its expedieat^ add a coriooii oael 
it was : when some f efiectidns wert' 
oast on their humaaiiy for encoo« 
raging the African trade, they said^ 
that there appeared a great mittaka/ 
OD ihat anbje^t, m^ ip faat, '' it< 
h teemed 



162 



BRITISH AND 



seemed not to be nnderstood in 
Great Brtteint that the kihatktantt 
of ihe West-Indie islands- bad no 
cdtacem in the ships trading to 
JkMc^{ the African traded was 
poseiy a British trade, carried on 
b>t British subjects; in short, the 
planters only booghl what British 
acta o^ (lartianient bad declared to 
be iegaiobje^tsof purcha^.*' 

ThQ$ the ^ce of terminating 
the slave trade was transferred by 
thtt. bouse to nie;i who declared, 
that, although theirs was the profit, 
the • guilt and shame belonged to 
England ! And could such men be 
expected to abolish it? Whatever 
stress had been laid on arguments, 
used by himself and others, to prove 
thai tfaeislands could not be injured 
by the abolition, this harl never been 
the- primary motive; the grand ob* 
ject was, to end the complicated, 
numeroos, and eaten&ive evils which 
thiadetested traffic produced upon 

. the 4»>ntinent of Africa. He did 
not mean to expatiate upon, but he 
most remind them of, tbe cruel 

' ravages which desolated the shores 
of an immense tract of earth. Un- 
der tbe special protection of a Bri- 
tish parliament, wars were excited 
between nation and nation, between 
obieftain and chieftain: innume- 
rable were the sets of individual de- 
predation : the princes of the coun* 
try were rendered the oppressors 
and de^royers of tbe districts which 
natarally looked up to them for 
protection ; the administration of 
justice was corrupted ', crimes were 
fabricated, and convictions multi- 
plied, to increase the supply of 
slaves; the aged and the infant, 
male apd female, all ranks and con- 
ditions, were affected by this wide- 
wasting calamity. Security was ba- 
nished wherever the slave trade was 
knoWti I intestine broils and deadly 
feuds were carefully fomented and 



kept alive; every appetite was stima- 
lated^ every bad passion inflamed! 
What a spectacle was here exhibit- 
ed I Even granting (what he did not 
grsnt) that the West-Indian coltiva- 
tion might suffer some ibjory by a 
humane change of system » ought we, 
for the sake of a few little specks at 
it were in the midst of a distant 
ocean, ought we to diffuse^ misery 
and desolation throughout an im- 
mense continent, one- fourth per- 
haps of the habitable globe ? It hed 
been received as an indubitable truth, 
that civilisation first spread itM-if 
over the coast, and thence made it< 
way into the interior: but some 
gentlemen from Sierra Leone foond 
the very reverse to be the tmib ; 
and their accounts were confirmed 
by those of later travellers. Upon 
the cpast, whereon the slave trade 
prevailed, where the natives bad 
been in constant habits of inter- 
course for 200 years with the most 
polished nations of Europe, frrra one 
end of it to the other, all was brutal 
darkness, ignorance, and barbansni. 
But in the interior, where the fsce 
of a European had never been seen, 
they were two or three centuries 
further advanced in civilisation. 
Large cities were founds beasts of 
burden were used, the use of letters 
was known, books were held in 
estimation. Even there, however, 
xiic fatal influence was felt of a con- 
nection with our European world, 
the state of society being in some 
degree affected, and in proportion 
vitiated, by the demand of slaves 
upon the coast: There indeed we 
were only known as' corrupters and 
destroyersf In proportion to their 
intercourse with us, they were de- 
prai^ed, and exhibited a humiiiatirg 
combination of all tbe vices of po- 
lished society with the brutalities of 
savage life 1 There was one const- 
deratioa which arose oat of the 

critical 



POBEIGN HISTORY. 



a6» 



critical siluatioQ in which this 
coattUy was placed : we were co« 
gagoi m a war with a oadon which 
had cast off all r^ard to those 
sacred principles which almost all 
wen professed to Tcoerate; we had 
decbred that oar coodoct should be 
a contrast to theirs i yet, to the com- 
parative disgrace of Great Britain, 
It most be told« that, with whatever 
crimes FraDce was blackened* and 
with whatever motives she bad act- 
ed, she had obelisked the slceo* trade-^ 
whilst we, acknowledging that it 
v^^K ao nsjost and cruel traffic, con* 
trary to every principle of religion 
and dictate. of homanityf jet sup- 
port it, and cleave to it ; and, even 
when we have cast it ofi; return to 
u wi<h moce earnestness than ever. 
It' there was an over- ruling Provi- 
deoce, most we not expect lo feel the 
lata I effects of this hardened con- 
tiouanee in acknowledged guilt? 
He did not indeed expect that the 
intervention of Providence would 
be marked bjr hurricanes and earth*, 
qoakes} but there was an established 
order of things, a coarse of events, 
a sure connection between vice and 
misery ,which, through the operation 
of natural causes, worked the divine 
will, aod vindicated the- moral go- 
vernaieDl of the Supreme Disposer of 
ail booian events. Thejr who would 
iook to tiie present state of the West- 
InJian islands would see a plain com- 
ment GO this text: an immense island, 
H'liich contained .500,000 slaves, 
^as now in the power of those very 
Nacks who but lately had been in a 
ifite of slavery. What but tbe in- 
fatuation produced by vice and self- 
ishness coold render the island of 
J.in^aica inseonible to the danger 
v/hicfa threatened to overwhelm it I 
SiirrJy the inhabitants might well 
Vi<;h thai the abolition had passed 
E^'ieveo jean^ sigo; in ^hicb ^ase, 
IQOjQOOi fewer negroes would have 



been brought into the Weft4ndiea 
to uacrease the inequality of the 
white to the black pop^latioo. Yet 
they coattnacd to add to the dis^- 
portion, from every osaa'k regard* 
ing his momentary iotereat» and 
blinding himself to the fatal 6ooae- 
queixres. Would the Mgro leader, 
who but a few years ago was him* 
self a slave, endure to see whole car- 
goes of his countrymen brought to 
an island ander his eyes, and, merely 
on account of their colour, sold into 
a state of the cnost degrading and 
lasting subjection? Would 1m not 
conclude, that, by suffering thia 
fyitem to extend without oppesi«* 
tiou, it might in the end endanger 
his own authority, and reduce him* 
and his adherenU to their liorBier - 
wretched slavery ? Mr. Wilberfareo- 
said, that he would only suggM one 
more argument to elucidate the ao- 
reasonableness of the house being 
satisfied with leaving the abolitioa 
to the colonial assemblies by meana ^ 
of internal regulations: take the 
code enacted above a century ago; 
many of its provisions -were very 
humane, and the ^forcement of 
them was committed to the king's 
procurer, who was more likely to 
carry them into execotion than aa 
equal in a land of equals, where it . 
is invidious to assume a censoriat 
authority. The sfstem of the Spa- . 
niards was in several parttculafs still 
more mild and beneficent. If Gt«' 
nada had its Grrenadians, they also 
had their protector of the Indians ; 
and the Portugueie exhibited very 
ambble instances of their atientioQ 
to the comfort of their slaves in their 
directories. But had all these regu-* * 
lations produced any praetioal ef* 
fects ? had they rendered the slave . 
trade unnecessary ? In fact, positive 
laws of this kind oould not alter the 
.stste of society, and the moral order 
of things. For hiinselfy he had per- 
L 2 formed 



164 



B R IT I S 



f omed liis daty } he soleauily pro- 
tested N^inst th^ ' Gonscrqaences 
wiuch might follow from the eon^ 
tkraancis of the present sjnttm . He 
wasbBd^hi&hatnds of the blood which 
mi^t be «bed, both in* tbb extern 
tfid weitem* world. He coojared 
the fatmse to give the finishing blow 
t<^pract]cesc:CDO.iong continoed on- 
' der-itfaeir'-coDiiiivftoce: even ihofte 
wbo^fteeloEL themselves ib gainst the 
dfliilis of justice, and the feelings of 
bBinMittyj inoit perceive that do 
other ittCBiure but the immrdiate 
atoliti«m of this trade could inter- 
pose .'a 'barrier agaiost that ruin, 
whichv like a flood, was ready to 
desolate ourWest»Iiidia o possessions; 
n The sfieakcf ihen arose and mov* 
ed for a committee ; this being the 
Uiim^ practice on all qaestioos re- 
lating to trade : to which Mr. WiU 
bedbrce acqairsced. 
- 'Sir Wiiham Young said, that he 
gave credit to (he honourable (mem* 
bea for the purity oi hia lonotives } 
but the colonies had already been 
much agitated by soch dissension^, 
and he was fearful the wont conse* 
qnences would ensue from so often 
Bringing forward such a aubject. 
He read a letter which he had re- 
ceived from the West indies^ stat- 
ing, that the eflRects of the language 
used by certain -gentlemen in that 
bouse would - be to deluge the 
islsnds with blood ; that the minds 
of slaves were already inflamed with 
French principles^ at.d by Frei oh 
brigands. Sit WiUiam vindicated 
ithe. conduct of the colonial assem- 
blies in general, and instanced To- 
bago as being, an island once in the 
poMession of France^ and inhaluted 
hf Frenchmen, but which had re- 
turned to the dominion of £og- 
Isnd «t the commenrement of the 
• pKeseot wnr, in consequence of the 
. dHierence of treatment to the blacks, 
w>ho bad' been entrusted with arms, 



HAND 

r 

and joined tbrir masters todrtyeont 
the French. The general assemblj 
of St. Kitt's, composed of delegfltcs 
from all the Leeward Islaadt, M 
dtclaied their hope that><he trade 
Dftigbt finally be ended. One source 
of the distress pf the negroes wa 
the distresses of their masten ; bjt 
the act of this assembly was caica* 
la ted to tnake more ample provision 
for them. The negroes always re- 
ceived indulgences beyond the spirit 
of any Icgt^tive cplonial act} for 
they were allowed pQrti<xu of ro«, 
&c. which no act could prcsctib^. 
With respect to the sfnte ofedufa- 
tion ambngst the slaves, the rcT. Mr. 
Thornton had assured him, that in 
the island of Antigua the blacb 
were good Christians. But the rcodd 
of attack was now changed ; on« 
the colonial assemblies, then ^1^^ 
overseers, were in fault : but ihs 
good effect was to be attriboted » 
the exertions of the fomier. l" 
the inland of Grenada a revolt of the 
negroes had lately been sopprc«cd; 
and therefore it wa< considered (Ud- 
gerons at once to make violent re- 
forms. St, Vincent's equally wished 
to ameliorate the condition of ihs 
slaves, and only the absence of ui 
governor had occasioned any dcloy. 
He affirmed that the connection w-is 
such as subsisted between a ma^icf 
and a labourer, not between a 
planter and a slave. Dom»ncs acJ 
Barbadoes had shown the same zeji. 
and, though the import to the la^f' 
island was large, the fact was, ih»^ 
all vessels necessarily touched tkJ^^ 
as themost westerly of the Lecwarw 
Islands, and made ao entrance ot 
their cargors. The trade img;^ 
have ill cffecbi; but the best n^o.-.'? 
of renaoving them would be by a 
gradual abolition. The parliament 
of Great Brirain had been truly ^^f^ 
benefactor of the colnnies by sn^"^^ 
ing to the civilisaiion^afllif«**''i 



^OBEIGN HtSTORY. 



ies 



and a<!opting progresstye me^ares. 
Already wn had consols at Algiers, 
Tunis, Sec. and the hardships of the 
muldle passage niight be rmtigatt^d 
by appolDting tbero also oa tlie 
coast of Africa. If a limitation of 
only one stare to every three ton« 
wa-^ made, he troold agree to it — ia 
thon, iomy tliiog which could ten4 
to this gradaaj lerroioaiioa ; but not 
to any proposal to change aoddenly 
8?I fhe properly of ihe West Indies, 
to convert their revenues into mere 
lifc^nDxiities, by a measure which 
woo(d operate as a foreclosure of 
every mongage. With regard to 
Jamaiaij be wished the house to 
rrflect upon the particular sitoat ion 
of that iilaod when his nujesty's 
addreu reached them ; to consider 
the value of that colony, and the 
loss which must arise to the parent 
country shook! aH security for pro- 
perly be loosened) by the iminedi- 
ate dboHtiGa of the trade, and eman- 
cipation of the negroes. We ought 
to take into consideration the pre- 
Bflit circQCnstances : an army of 
blacks ander Toossaint in a ncigt^- 
bouring island, and the principles 
of France stmggUog to find a way 
10 to the very heart of our colonies.. 
It was this sttoatioa which occa- 
sioned the apparent inattention to 
the addresa of that house, which 
W'juld hdve met with cordijsil co- 
operation at any other season. It 
had been alleged that slavery extiii-» 
guished intellect; but an ancient 
author (Macrobtos) had left upon 
record^ that Zeno^ and some of the 
greatest philosophers of GreecCj^ 
were slaves. Sir William ended 
with opposing the motion. 

Mr. rctrie declared it was his opi« 
nioo, that the abolition ^ the A^* 
can slave trade would be the scourge 
of Africa. Consulting his own in* 
tercst as a planter, he wished it to 
take places bot as a cosmopolite he 



wUied the conttnnanee otxlk traded 
ont of humanity to the infaabftanta 
ofthecoaU. 

Mr. Dent conteiHied, that h wat 
impossSbie that the slave trade could 
be abolished without the co^opeia^ 
tion of the colonial iegiila tares, it 
could only, be effected by regula-' 
tions adopted on the spot. Thero 
was one very alarming species of 
slavery now ezi^^ting. the practice o£ 
Irishmen binding themselves ibra 
period of years to serve in aome of 
the States of America : and O'^OOO 
persons were thus aBOually aold ioltt 
bond jge. He deprecated the come? 
quences which might >arise £rom • 
considerable number of royalist oeo 
groes being sent to Jattaica on the 
evacuation of Si. Domingo, and he 
feared they would unhinge the minds 
of our negroes, who were peaceably 
inclined if not inflamed by speecbet 
made upon the subject This house 
had Do,thing to do, bot in the way 
of regulation lo promote the. aboli* 
tion of. the slave tradp. The plan* 
ters 10 the different islands had sett- 
tled under the acts of the house, and 
by these were entitled to be protect- 
ed. He alluded to the st^te of the 
blacks, the rules by whic^ the pro^ 
perty they, acquired was protected* 
and I he advantages which they en- 
joyed overthepoQrin maoyplaces — 
particularly in one respect, that ia 
the acquisition ' of property the ne- 
groes in the inlands were subject to 
no taxes at alL 

Sir Ralph Milbank said, he^oo** 
sidercd all modifica lions of a system 
fandamentally vicioiis and nnjosf, 
as inconiistrnt with humaniiy, aiyi 
SQch as ought not to be tolerated^ 
any free nation* . Ip its very natnte 
this traffic was cmd and oppressive $ 
not bat that those who possessed ifae 
property for whom, the trade hod 
been permitted might be meft of 
homaoityi: as he knew they'wefe; 
La and 



166 



BRITISH AND 



ind he wassdrprisdd tfc«tEogIiihmen 
ind freemeb coold hesitate in abo- 
lishing this slave trade iffjmediately. 
Mr. Sewell opposed the motion 
at great length : as agent for (he 
island of Jamaica, he was called 
upon to say something in reply to 
the statement of the assembly's re- 
aolatiQn. He confessed that they 
might have been irritated to find, 
that, after the house had agreed to 
the address of 1797* the honourable 
gentleman persevered in his endea- 
vours to persuade parliament to 
come to a precipitate resolution. 
The acts of the assembly however 
evinced, that they were disposed to 
give effect to the recommendation 
of that house. With respect tQ the 
assertion of right, he understood it 
to refer to a claim of right. Allow- 
ing the means of cultivating those 
lands already, and under the fiiith of 
being able to procure them, they had 
settled in the islands. Their reso- 
lutions proved that they were pur- 
auing that course which would tend 
to the abolition of the trade, by ren- 
dering it unnecessary. He alluded 
to (he evacuation of St. Domingo, 
and said, that to coalesce with Tous- 
saint would be to emancipate all 
the negroes in our islands. 
' Mr. Secretary Dundas regretted 
that he had never been able to agree 
with any of those persons to the full 
extent of their opinions, who sup- 
ported the roost opposi(e eitremes 
upon this subject. Our possessions 
in the West Indies would be held 
by a very . imperfect tenure, if it 
was to depend entirely upon (he 
iupply of a factitious population. 
He was sorry to differ from the 
friends he loved who were in favour 
of immediate abolition, which in- 
deed could not be effected without 
the consent and concurrence of the 
colonies themselvef. 



If great bodiet of men, whether 
actuated by prejudice, ioterett, or 
resentment, were pertinacious iu 
any sentiment, it was in vain to 
attempt to carry any measure iu 
opposition to that sendment. For 
instance, if the colonial inhabi- 
tants were decidedly against ao 
immediate abolition, how coald 
this object be achieved by (he sim- 
ple vote of the house ? We did oot 
possess the physical means of rto- 
dering the resolution efficieot : we 
could not prevent (he islands from 
receiving a supply of negroes. Of 
this fact we had experience : it bad 
been found, that with all (he vigi- 
lance of naval and military con- 
roanders, and with ^e co-operation 
of civil and military authorilief, 
and with the clear and active m- 
terest of the inhabitants, twenty- 
eight ships of war had beot insuffi- 
eient to prevent any communica- 
tion between (he islands df St. Lo- 
cie and Guadaloupe and our islaodi 
in their neighbourhood. How (ben 
could we expect that any vigils(}c<^ 
would enable us to cut off tha( com- 
munication, when the disposidoDS 
of the inhabitants of the islsndd 
would lead them to favour it, foT 
the purpose of supplying oegroet : 
But it might be alleged, we tbocitd 
wipe away the stain which thistnt^ 
fie fixed on the national character. 
This might be true ; but what ws$ 
the argument for the abolition* 
Would (he interest of humanity, 
would the advantage of the coast ct 
Africa, be consulted by such s mode 
of proceeding ? Certainly not : tbc 
trade would still be carried on, the 
supply would be attained— willi tbi» 
difference, that it was now coo* 
ducted under the controul and re- 
guJaiion of the house, whereas then 
it would be carried on by bihcr 
natioas, free from all the salofry 
• . • ana 



POREIGN HISgPORY. 



ter 



atti hamflne regolatioos enforced 
by ihe parliament of this coaocry. 
He wa« ready lo admit that the re- 
galatiog act respecting the middle 
passage did not go far eooogb in 
its provisions. He did not think 
sufficient tonnage was allowed tor 
the nomber of men. With ua If 
ton was allowed for each soldier 
on board the transports to Jersey, 
for the West Ipdies, and a greater 
tonnage ahonid be reqaired for the 
Daiober of slaves carried on board 
the fthips in ttie African trade. A 
precipiute measore, however, would 
take out of oar hands the means of 
aJleriatiog the miseries with which 
the trade was attended. The ad* 
dress adopted in April I7g7 was 
the last poiitive interference of the 
b)Qse npon the subject. The ques- 
tiua BOW was, whether it should de- 
part from the course it had resolved 
to pursue then, or whether there 
wa4 any justification of such a de- 
parture in the present instdnce, be- 
cause the colonial assemblies had 
ak'^wn themselves on wort by to be 
trusted with the executiao of the 
wish and the system of tht house. 
But had they shown any reluctance 
to carry the principle ot' the address 
into efl^ct ? Those who know the 
dtdiculty of detaching men from 
the opioiona to which they were at- 
tached by prejudice, feelings or 
vieva of interest, ought not to be 
surprised that their sentiments wrre 
not instantly changed : there might 
be some degree of irritation in the. 
minds of the colonial Irgislatures, 
for which allowance should be made. 
He much doubted whether the ho- 
nourable mover of this question, 
with ^1 h'la integrity, possessed the 
lame coolneis on this topic which 
be might have on every other. 

The assembly of Jamaica appear- 
ed from their language to be irri- 
tated; it WIS natosal at such a mo- 



ment for them to assert their right : 
notwithstanding which, howevrr, 
they were taking the best mod^ for 
abolishing the trade. What were 
the objections to the trade } Was it 
not, that it created devastatioa in 
Africa, and ioiroduced profligate 
and licentious persons into the 
islands ? The assembly iiad decreed 
that 'no slaves above twenty- five 
were to be introduced, because tliey 
were desirous to have such as would 
secure the internal population; and 
prevent the necessity of constant 
supplies by importation. They had ^ 
hke\^*ise adopted some humane re- 
gulations respecting the education^ 
the morals, and the religion of the 
negroes. It was also enacted, that 
the number of females brought in 
should exceed that of males, which 
proved they were not intended for 
temporaiy use. Tliese were regu- 
lations of humanity -, and seeing 
the progress already made in it, 
he thought it dangerous to push 
forward an immediate opposition, 
which, after all, would now be 
ineffectual -, but which would finally 
be obtained by introducing popn* 
lation, and improving the minds 
and the manners of the blacks. 
On these reasons he opposed the 
motion. 

Colonel^ Gascoigne opposed it 
also as a dangerous mea<>are ; ad* 
mitted the trade to be unjust, but 
asked whether it was the only prac- 
tice which was so amongst us, tole- 
rated on the score of policy. Im- 
pressing seamen was also an inhu- 
man practice, and yet policy requir- 
ed its continuance. 

Mr. Canning began by observ- 
ing, that the debate of that nt^ht 
had afforded more novelty than he 
ever remembered to have heard 
upon the subject ; not only a new 
set of assertions, a new train of rea- 
soning had been adopted, but no 
L 4 two 



ym 



tl^I 'Tl S a AN o 



twagcptkiqeobad habdiedibe same 
arms in t^e same manner^^no tvro 
sfwecheft, ao two arguments^ but 
vWt ha<i been incon^Utent with the 
Qtlier* Not that, if novelty and va- 
riety had been wanting, shouM be, 
hav^beco ashamed. in going again 
ever the path which had been so 
cf ten trod; the^ disgrace Was Hot in 
the>dvancement of old arguments, 
bpt in the maintenance of invete- 
rate abuses. It was not the pride 
qf victory that was to be sought, it 
Xas not the dexterity of contest that 
was to be applauded : it was an evil 
destructive to the happiness of hu- 
mai^ beings which was to be re* 
formed. Two years ago a motion 
had been brought forward by Mr. 
C. Ellis, the purpose of which was 
to arrive gradually at the end which 
some gentlemen were desirous of 
obtaining immediat<;ly— an entire 
termination of the trade in slaves. 
It was proposed to address his ma- 
jesty to recqmm^nd such measures 
to the colonial assemblies as should 
achieve the point, and this motion 
was adopted by the house. Nor 
was there any doubt of the sinceri- 
-^ with which it was supported by 
those who could exert their influ- 
encjB in the colonics ; and as all the 
great West- Indian proprietors, all 
vho had opposed the immediate 
ajbolition, concurred in this ad- 
dress, there was no longer any ap- 
prehension that the house would 
stand up for the necessity of the 
trade, which il was universally 
agreed should be terminated. Now, 
jf ,the colonial assemblies showed 
tliat they would not do any such 
ibing, we were bound by our own 
arguments, by every principle of 
fair reasoning and fair dealing, by 
the very acts and words which the 
JElritifh. parliament adopted from 
them,, to vote for the abolition by a 
JBiitli^ *parliamen t. 



The assemUf of Ja^iftioa.badlM' 
ed two acts ^ < the one fer increiisiDg 
the satories of the clergy^ the other 
for laying a duty on all negro slaves 
imported ipto the island above the 
age of twenty- fivr years. These 
acts they had transmitted to ibe 
king, ffs means which theyhsd 
adopted to carry into effect his ms- 
jesty's recommendation. It was not 
necessary for them to add that ibef 
were not intended to terminate the 
trade, because they might have dc" 
tied the ingenuity of man to disco- 
ver what there was in them which 
could possibly tend to itd tennini- 
tion. But the assembly was too inge- 
nuous to leave its meaning to be trs« 
ced by implication ; they had spoken 
boldly out ; they expressly had de- 
clared, *'ihat they were not actoated 
with any view to the termioatioD of 
the slave trade, only by hnxnsoitj.'* 

Here then the question was de- 
cided : there were bat two ways br 
which it could be terminated : hj 
the house, or the colonial legisla- 
ture. The colonial legislature bad 
openly avowed that they wooidoot 
do it : what then remained hot for 
the house to exercise its own power, 
as the only meditxn of putting an 
end to oppression and wrong ? 

But Mr. Dundas had said, wi 
quite mistook ]the matter, we hsd 
misconstrued the words of the as- 
sembly 5 tf ey were not to be lakeo in 
their direct and obvious sense. Bat 
surely those qualities which dits bo* 
noorable gentleman possessed him- 
self, ought to have disiocHoed bioi 
to become the champion of an as- 
sembly which (if his intcrprctaiion 
were true) had spoken one ihiog 
and meant another ; which had cvca 
misrepresented its own proceediogs, 
averring itself to be shaping ;|» 
course towards one quarter, while 
it was steering to anoihcr. 

This would be siogaUl* -wereU 
a matter 



rOtk^HGH HI 8-T O'ft T. 



1^ 



2 inatf^r o^txle?6 sf>ecQhtton ; bdt 
f^vel^ to feconifnend it to tbe 
heoie to^ci upon such an interpre- 
tiktiovt^ to dtrnrer tfaecn to beHere 
ttwi the a s icmbi y were porsCitng an 
object which they solemnly dis* 
claifoed, was a coodact quite re- 
mote ftom the priaciples of human 
condoct and the practices of human 
life. 

Bat perhaps it was only meant, 
thar, by raising the salaries of their 
ctergy, and timiting the age of their 
flew oegroes, the 'trade ronst come 
to ah end in spite of the intentions 
of the assembly ; and its abolition 
would be the result, not of their 
concurrence, but their bad policy. 
Now sorely this was not a fair 6r 
flattering mode of treating between 
the legi$latures of two countries. 
^Vhat effect woald it have upon the 
assembly to be told, " that we gave 
DO credil to their professions ; bad 
DO apprehensions of their ability to 
thwart our purposes 3 let them coun- 
teract as they would, they would 
find to their own confusion, in the 
end, that they had only outwitted 
tbenMelves, and completed the thing 
which tfcey determined not to do ?" 
Was this the respectful manner in 
which we were advised to speak of 
the inhabitants of Jamaica ? Did 
they not deserve, by the open up- 
right avowal which they had made, 
an acknowledgment iirom us of 
their manly proceedings? Ought 
not our answer to be equally 
frank and oncqoivocil ? This 
hoase should reply, " That they 
had dealt honestly by us -, that we 
thought the trade ought not to sub- 
sist ; and,had they thought the same, 
we wonld have left to them the 
means of ending it : — but, as tiiey 
did not agree with us, and had 
p\mAy avowed their opinion, we 
Tsast take oor own measores, at tlie 



same \itnt thanking them for theli^ 
sincerity. *• 

Would not this be a more ho* 
nonrable line of conduct than 
construing the words of the astern-* 
biy in the very reverse meaning 
of their expression ? Mr. Sewelt, 
their agent, did not ventore that 
to represent an obvious declara- 
tion, and he might be consideretl 
as a more skilful mterpreter. He 
knew too well the real bias and in- 
clinations of their minds to take such 
a liberty with their firank avow- 
al. Bnt if there could be any addi- 
tional light thrown upon the subject^ 
what followed in the address was in 
itself the best commentary. Thd 
two passages mutoally assisted each 
other: " The right of obtaining 
labourers from Africa V The right f 
Of late years indeed we had learned 
to associate the word righi with 
ideas very different from those it 
was accustomed to convey in bcttct 
times. We bad learned to regard 
the mention of right, u prefatory 
to bloody, destructive, and desola- 
ting doctrines, hostile to the happi- 
ness and to the freedom of man- 
kind. Such had been the lesson 
inculcated by The Rights of Man. 
But never, even in the practical 
application of that pernicious doc- 
trine, had the word been so shame-' 
fully affixed to murder, to devasta- 
tion^ to the invasion of public in- 
dependence, to the destruction of 
private happiness and unpalllated 
iojusiice, to the massacre of inno- 
cent individuals, and the extermina- 
tion of unoffending nations. Ne* 
ver before was the word rigbi so 
prostituted and misapplied, as wheel 
the right to trade in man's blood 
was asserted by the enlightened go- 
vernment of a civilised Country t 
It was not wonderful that the slave* 
ry of Africa should be described 

ill 



ifo 



BRITISH AND 



ID a term oontecrated to Freach 
freedom. 

But this wat a right not to trade 
in slavis,hQt import labourers. These 
were gentle words, implying the 
•a'me thing. " Never cnind their 
declarations/* said their agent, 
** look to their actsJ* And what 
was to be found in them > A bet- 
ter maintenance secured for their 
clergy, and an act, amounting to a 
doty, prohibiting the importation of 
•laves above twc-nty-five years old. 
But this only proved the tuiility of 
every argument upon which the 
trade had been defended, and the 
impossibility of its abolition sup- 
ported. Firstf this duty amounted 
to a prohibition ; therefore it was 
possible to prohibit. Bui it would be 
answered : That although the im* 
portation altogether would be im- 
possible, to limit it within. certain 
rules, taking the age of the negroes 
for a rule, would be easy and prac- 
ticable. How was it to be known ? 
Would the age be ascertained in 
Africa ? By what species of parish* 
register ? By what testimony verbal 
Off written ? Was not the whole re- 
gulation known and felt to be nu- 
gatory ? And had this been pro- 
posed by the friends of the aboli- 
tion, it would have met with the 
•corn it merited. 

To give a colour of justice, the 
house had often been told, that the 
onhappy victims who were torn 
from their country by our slave 
traders were in fact saved from a 
M^orse fate at home ; for that they 
were convicts or prisoners of war, 
who, if not sold, would be put to 
death: nor would any be taken 
but such as were rescued from it by 
slavery. That it was from motives 
of kindness they were purchased ; 
as nothing Cijuld be more barbarous 
than to cut off the only resource 
kft for those miserable people con- 



demned to torture and deitnietiatt* 
But the assembly of Jamaica had 
affirmed they would take none 
above twenty- iive. How could 
they prevent any African from be« 
ing made a prisoner of war after 
this age ? Or did they mean to 
consign ail who were above it to 
the dreadful fate described? The 
women too, they were not to be 
older y and as they could not be 
prisoners of war, their crime (the 
house had been often told) was wiich^ 
craft. How had the assembly of 
Jamaica discovered that the prac- 
tice of this art was to be confined 
within the limits of twenty-five ? 
^nd were the old ones to be lett 
to their miserable destiny at home ? 

M. Canning said, that when the 
most absurd pretences were set up 
in defence pf the most abominable 
practices, it was impossible not to 
feel indignation at such attempts to 
impose on one's understanding. 
And whei^he recollected how often 
these arguments on the jastice of 
the trade had been forced upon the 
house^ he could not repress some 
triumph in seeing them overthrown 
by those very proceedingi open 
which the cause of the trade had 
rested* 

Such then were the regulatioas 
Vbich were to supersede our inter- 
ference for an object the parliament 
thought indispensable, but which 
the assemby neither had nor pre* 
tended to have in view. If» how- 
ever, the interference of the par- 
liament was necessary, we were 
told it was ineffectual. The slave 
trade would go on, do what we 
could to put a stop to it. What ! 
was a trade carried on by British 
subjects, with British c^itals, from 
British ports, not to be subject to 
British restrictions ? not to be coo- 
troled or abolished by British acts ? 
But if the trade was not carried pn 



F O B 1 1 G N -H i S T O R Y. 



171 



If 8Hf]slitnMleri,it^oald £dl into 
the hands of foreign nations. Yet 
it was well known .that foreign na- 
tions bad almost entirely abandoned 
the trade, and Great Britain alone 
iDOttopolised the gain and the guilt 
■of it. Where was the law or power 
which Gould present us from wash- 
ing oat so foal a sta'^n on our com- 
mercial character ? But the islands, 
if Qot supplied by Great Britain, 
woold smoggle for themselves. Had 
tbey then fleets ? Had they a com- 
mercial and a military navy? He 
wuhed tbey had , for he was per- 
suaded that oq country could attain 
any height of prosperity without 
having ^cng disused and abjured the 
practice ot importing annual ear- 
goes of misery and discontent ; of 
oot-nambenng'the civilised popu- 
lation of the country by crowds of 
aavage and injured spirits, watch- 
ing ooijfbe opportunity of rebel- 
hoo asd revenge. Away then with 
all idea of the incompetency of a 
British parliament to rescue the 
British name fi-om this disgrace! 
Could the assembly of Jamaica pro- 
hibit the delivery of the cargo at 
the ports of Jamaica, and could 
not oor parliament forbid its freight 
in the ships of Great Britain? If in 
the papers on the table a law had 
been found pfobibiting the cultiva- 
' tioQ of any new land in the island 
beyond what was already culti- 
vated, and another law Jtimiting 
the importation of negroes to the 
amount of the annual decrease in 
their popnlation, the colonial legis- 
latures would have evinced their 
inteotion of ending the slave trade $ 
botiill these measures were adopt- 
ed tHere coald be no hope of it, 
Every additional acre brought into 
coltivatioo was not the coiitmuance 
c£ the existing slave trade^ but the 
Opeoto^ of a new one. £very oe- 
gio impi^ted beyond the |>opula* 



tioo necessary Ibr lumping 'vp tba 
present rate of cultivation, was tho 
victim of a trade htgui^now under 
an avowed conviction of its iojus* 
tice, and a pretended desire to pot 
an end to it. No man, who was 
not ready to subscribe to these two 
regulations, ought to be credited 
fbr any professions be might choosy 
to make of a sincere wish to ter- 
minate this iniquitous commerce. 
Such assertions were contradicted 
by* proofs. 

One plea liad been urged, which, 
fallacious as it was, seemed to ha%e 
had too much weight with reason- 
able people : '* That it was the in* 
terest of the proprietor to treat kis 
slaves well ; and that every person 
would see a sufficient security io 
this motive against cruelty and op- 
pression.*' But the interest ol tiie 
planter in the preserviition and pto« 
pagation of his slaves had at all 
times been the same ; which would 
tend to prove, tliat slaves had at all 
times been used as well as possible ; 
which manifestly had not been the 
case. The very laws on the table 
before us would evince what sort 
of evils they were intended to re- 
medy. '^ He was not here affirming 
that slaves upon our iMlanUswcie 
cruelly trejted, but he v^ished the 
house to take a view of the various 
circumstances whirh might pre- 
vent the proprietor Irom consulting 
hh ultimaic iuteret. Where he re-r 
sideiit iu the isbnJ, uniiicuiuberea 
with debt, looking to hi:i estate vi 
a permanent and improving prov:- 
sion, it might be su : but the 4t* 
sentec proprietor, who wished t-^ 
lay tlie foundaiion of a fortune Ql«e- 
whcre ; the embarrassed proprietor, 
who sought to discharge incum- 
brances j and, lastly, the over- 
seer, anxious to realise a sum of 
money to purchase an estate for 
himself; all these might, in the na- 
ture 



m 



4titistt h'^n 



4\fft!f^MkitiAftohitlktit steady and 
]Mrriaii4ii%nt th^^ttst? wW^ch, c&»t«?nt- 
ing itself^ tl^rlh' 'modcraitt return^; 
-^tl^H^iiffaPf^ mild treatm«f>t to (he 
Uhoortn Whdsc vi^brk Wfli (o prO- 
dace fhem.' AH tli«6e itif^.t be \c^ 
soKcrtdofi about tbd evetitllal e^- 
lii«a«(ion of tbt' 4oH, oY of' fhfc 
i^inrkeri (^ • f he ftO}1> tbaa the ex- 
tent bf'pit&stnt pf^i', and when 
-tfi^ piy^[Mrfk)iV of these class« to 
thtit of ifee* T««ideot and un^mbjT* 
«3is9ed'p^{>H^ror^ -v^as considered, 
whaet bccante' of die genet-a! state- 
nient; «* that' ibe inierest of the 
owner must ^ecnr«> the good treat- 
mvntefiiieUai^es?** 

Bot, after aH, th»s was not the 
qneitioii 'btf6)pe tb6 hooee : how- 
ever fclndlythfey itiight be trculed, 
few wouM conti'nd that the impor- 
tation ffbm Africa was to be cori- 
tinved nicrclj' to furnish objects for 
colonial benbvolence. 

There r^tiained only dne afg\j- 
went, dnaKvn from the circum- 
atanees of thb'ciroes; an argamerit 
Indeed of weight, but not bearing 
vdry happily upon thb 'question -in 
d^^te. W« were cautioned to be- 
Virir6 in these times of turbulen(5e 
and iiwovation— 'we were caation^d 
not ra«Wy* to lay our unhaHowed 
hands on the ancient institotion of 
the slave trade ! nor ipubteht a fabric 
reared by our ancestors, and con- 
aerated by the lapse of ages !' 

On what pifinciples we were ad- 
castomed to bestow respect on any 
xnstitutton which had subsisted frooi 
roroote timfc ?^ It Was, wtich we per- 
cdved sonke shadow of departed 
wot th'Tor tstsefuln^ss, some memorial 
of' what btfd been of service or cre- 
dif to tmnkinA. Was this the case 
in points Had the slave trade ori- 
ginally begxiri on any principle of 
ptJblic ^Q«ic^ or national h^no\A-, 
tvili^'tbe changes of the world 



atone had impaired ? Had if to j^Artl 
former merits, services, and gloriesi 
in behalf of its present dtsgr'ate? 
What wen; thf* grounds oiV whic^fif 
th** pira of prescription re^frd,'' afltl 
in what cjsea was it usually al161^- 
ed ? Where some existing order tf 
things h&d bi?en so rat- lioratedaAd 
reconciled to the fcdtng«J of maft^ 
kind) (though unjust in its oK^intal 
institution) had so accommodated 
itself to the manners and prejoditA 
an'i habits of a country,' that *^t fee 
remembrance of its usurpation' was 
lost in the experience of its ufility.' 
Conquest was often of thia na^ 
ture : unjustifiable in its "first intfCk 
duction, it frequently had happeneil 
that the conquerors and the cotF«: 
quered became blended into'o^nfe 
people, and that a system of commod 
interest arose out of the conciliated 
differences of parlies originalljr 
hostile. Was this analogous to the 
fclavc trade ? Was it only in its onf- 
82t that we could trace violence^ 
injustice, or opposition ? Were the 
oppressors and oppressed so recon- 
ciled to each other, ihf^i no enmity 
remained between them now? No! 
Was it then in reason to claim a 
prescriptive, right, not to the fVoita 
of an ancient and forgotten crime, 
but to a series of new violences, to 
a chain of fre^h enormities, to cru- 
elties, not continued, but repeated, 
and of which every instance inflict- 
ed a fresh calamity, and constituted 
a separate and substantive crime? 
Mr. Canning concluded by re- 
minding the house, that the qnoi* 
fion was not. Whether the sla^e 
trade ought to be terminated ? but, 
whether the papers upon the table 
contaii>ed any proofs of a disposi- 
tion to terminate it on the part of 
the colonies? and, whether the 
honse was justified in leaving the 
*niat(er/in the hands* of the' isvern- 
bly, instead of taking^tjic necessary 
measures 



FOB* J.GtJI:. Hi $ T » R T. 



m. 



yocflsores for extti^Ufig tbeir ^wn 

purpose. ': 

Tljc secretary of war, after com* 

^UflieotiDg Mr. CanniDg go biayrlt; 

obierved, that there were two sen- 

tiineots enurfained upoa Ijiis ques- 

|ioo> which he should siateas brief • 

]y as possible : the one, that of a 

sboft and compendious mode, re«, 

oooimending the ioi mediate aboli- 

lioa : that the trade was in itself in- 

hmnao and unjust, and this was 

safficicDt reason for a Briiuh parlia^ 

Acnt to attetnpt its terminaiion. 

But thi^ was deciding the matter op- 

OD the abstract right : as an abstract 

point, indeed, supposing it to be the 

poly one,thedetermination was right. 

Jle apprehended, however, there was 

jKMsething more to be taken into 

cooskleTation ; convenience and ex- 

jpediencj : and here a great variety 

l>f objects made. an appearance, and 

the real question would be at last, 

^ what possible mode would th^ 

icM evil be incurred ? 

People fond of abstract .rights 
were apt to make very important 
'jaJst^kes : sudden and violent re- 
medies often created greater n)is- 
diief than that which they were 
intended to remedy. It was not 
fi&cali to show the absurdity of 
.this system of reversing the cause 
l^an evil by way of cure : thus, for 
instance^ if a man wae thrown out 
<ff a high window, and had a ftac- 
'tared Bone, g dislocated joint, it 
•froold be but an indifierent mode 
Retire to throw him up again : in 
ikis light did the immediate aboli- 
lioa of the slave trade appear to 
him as a remedy. 

«. Those of the other description to 
which he alloded, defended ihe 
cootiauaoce of it as an advantsge. 
It was his own opinion, that the 
wiaer course was, to refer the ame- 
InratioQ of the condition of the 



iin|Mppysla]aes ,|p ^:>i»loliial «*« 
sembViesj ahct-sAer expa&atiug'^ $ 
copsideraUe time iip<K^ i|i hpf/etv^ 
his <3isaent to (he n?Qtion. . 

Tiie chancellor of the^exahequer 
made a most ^oqucpt speech in fa- 
vour .of its immediatLe abolition : tt 
was a trade {he said) declared by the 
house to be against justice* sigain«t 
humanity, against jneligion, and 
against every social ooippact : fpf 
its abolition, the honour of the Bri« 
tish name, bv the exprqisipqi o£the 
house of parliament) ^toai pledged. 

Was the legislature (the original 
of this iniquitous oenimerce, the 
caufe of its continuance and an- 
swerable for all its horrors), waa 
the legislature to nemedy ^le evils } 
It was a trade carried on under our 
law, by cor subjects, from our 
pons, by our capital : it could not 
then be difficult for us. to abolish 
it effectually without the consent 
of the colonial assomblie^- «Sp^^ 
persons had thought, that however 
unjust or inhuman the tra^e might 
be, as h was a matter of natiohal. 
conct^rn, it was not to be managed 
like a casel>etwcen two indiiLiduv^ 
als\ But lio\v could any reasonable 
man believe that the conduct of ij 
nation ought ip be glided without; 
reference to the laws of nature or 
the divine law, any more than thc^ 
affairs of an indiyidnal? Tlie end^ 
proposed was not an abstract the-' 
ory, but a practical measure : it wa|^ 
two-fo^ 'f the one^ to stop the mis- 
chief, the other to do away the 
guilt : at all events the latter w;is 
practicable^ and he believed the 
other also: but sure he was, thcr 
would never obtain any credit for 
inieniion to do away the mischief 
on tlie part of others^ unvil they 
did away the guilt on the part of 
themselves. It had been said, tha^t 
becaote a tiling was wrong, * we 

ahottld 



174 



BRITISH AND 



should not adopt the coatraxy mea- 
sure by way of remedy. Perfectly 
right : but this was not proposed -, 
it was the discontinuance of an ex- 
posed, deprecated* recorded practice 
of injustice, rapine, and murder : 
not whether it should ever have been 
allowed^ but whether it should now 
be deliberately repeated. Were we 
to ask^tbe advice of the assembliest 
we must continue these nefarious 
practices — continue to tear those 
helpless victims of misery from their 
native land, and from their families. 
But it was not intended to send the 
negroes back to Africa : it was not 
proposed " to throw any of those 
wretches who had their bones frac- 
tured and their limbs dislocated up 
again" — it was resolved that no 
more " should he thrown out of the 
window,^ The honourable gentle- 
man deemed it dangerous to put an 
end immediately to this practice : he 
would abolish it gradually j that was, 
by throwing 100 to-day, cjo to-mor- 
row, and so put^n end by degrees 
to the breaking of men's limbs— as 
the custom had so long continued, 
that it would be unwise to act pre- 
cipitately* On this point he differed 
essentially : positive evil could not 
be too sc^n remedied— a system of 
hortor too speedily abolished : it 
was a murderous traffic, and the 
^afetyof our dominions also depend- 
ed oh the improvement of the con- 
dition of the negroes. 

He hoped the house would agree 
at once to the measure proposed 3 



or, if they would not do so, declaim 
expressly and specifically for what 
purpose tlie trade was to be conti- 
nued. He said, that the boundary 
should be marked for the cultiva- 
tion of the land — that new land 
should not be cultivated by the Is* 
hour of n«*groes ; for, if ibis was to 
be allowed, there was no conjectur- 
ing where it would end 3 that the 
notion which some people entertain- 
ed of their right to cultivate all the 
lands held in grants from the crown 
was a great error. He wonld no 
more allow the cultivation of fresh 
lands by the labour of newly-im* 
ported negroes, thai>he should as-, 
sent to any new colony being esta- 
blished upon any newly -discovered 
territory. They were both equally 
repugnant to the spirit of the reso- 
lutions of the house, and to the 
terms on which even the planters 
pretended they bad a right to the 
importation of negroes. 

If the house (which be aincerely 
wished might not be the case) should 
negative this motion, he trusted th^it 
it would com6 to a clear and di- 
stinct regulation on the restraint of 
cultivation of fresh land in the plan- 
tations, and concluded with giving 
his hearty assent to the motion. 

Colonel Wood thought it impos- 
sible for the British house of com- 
mons to do any thing effectual with- 
out the assent of the colonies ; and 
upon that grouiVd, though he de- 
tested the slave trade, he opposed 
the motion.— Ayes, 54 ; Noes, t^4« 



:^i 



CHAP. 



FOKEIGN HISTO&T. tj^ 



CHAP. V- 



MjOrosfieei tftle State tf Ewopt in 1 798. RevolutiM cf Switzerland. Dh^ 
emtent if the Subject Classes against the old Governments. Proteetim gnm 
to the Ttasantry. Vices of the old Governments, Com/tlaints and Petitiom 
if the PajS'deFaud, Court of High Commission in the Pays-Je-Fmid* 
Dis/iositims of the Canton cf Berne towards France, Violations of the Nem* . 
traht^ on the Part tf Switxerland, Achntfudedgemem of the Freach R^whBe 
iy the Swiss Confederation, Reclamations of the Pays-dO'Vand, Interfit* 
rente of the French Government. Insurrection of the Pa^s^-Vand, Prejmm 
rations far a Revolution in the Canton of Basil. Incorfioratlon of Mulhantm 
into the French Re/iublic. Meeting of the Diet of the Swiss Cantons at Aram. 
Insurrection at Arau. Entry cf the French Army into the Pays-de-Veml 
and the Countries of the former Bishjiric of Basil. Revolution in the Cantm 
of Basil. Convocation of the Defntties tf the Communes of the Cemim ^ 
Berne. Resolutions and Proclamations of that Assembly . drcular Letter 
of the French Commissary respecting the Procjanuttion* Disfiositiotu of divert 
Cantons to a Change of Government, Rejections on ttte French Commissary s 
Proclamations, pis/iosium of the French Directory with Respect tt Sv^m 
xerland. Fated Effects of Divisions in the Swiss Cantons. Constitution for 
Swittcerland formed by the Chancellor of Basils and amended at Paris, Ne^ 
gotiatims between the Canton of Berne and the French General. Revohttiom 
at Schaffhausen. Armistice granted to the Canton of Berne, Indecision of 
Ae Government of Bcme. Arrival of Rffnforcements to the Swiss and 
firemh Armies, Propositions of the French General to the Cantm tf Berm 

rejectt^ 



{9# BI^ITISHAND 

rejected* Commencefnetu tf Hostilities. Further Prolongatlm rf the Ar^ 
mistice. Truce hrchen, Sokure ofui Fribourg taken by the French. Dis» 
orders among the Swiss Trocjts. Provisionaiy Government at Berne, Nep- 
tiatims rejected by the French General. March of the French Troops tmoarL 
^emje. Valour of the Swiss Troo/is, Entty of the French into Bemf, 
Massacre if tjtcir Officers by the Swiss Troofis. Depredations of the Frmi 
Soldiery in the Country^ and of the French Generals in Berne. Remlutisas 
§fthe Cantons if Zurich and Lucerne, Refusal f the lesser Cantons to acci^ 
the Constitution, Contributions levied on the Aristocracy f Bente. Hostagn 
sent to the Fortress rf Huninguen, Meeting of Dejmties from tie Swi^s 
Cantons at Aran. FormcUion cf the Legislative Body. Nomination f Di- 
rectors. Insurrection in the Canton ef Lucerne. Invasion of the CantoK tf 
Zurich by the Tfooju of the Usser Cantms. Severe Contests between the Benck 
and Swiss Armies. Accejttance cf the Constitution by the lesser Cantms, 
Jnsmrectiens in the Fallais, . Desjurtk Conduct of the French D'melby, 
Embassy of, Rajiinat iH S'suifzerlattd. Violences committed by the Frauh 
Commits^, at Zurich. Independent Conduct rf the Swiss GoivefumeBl, 
foiwers given to Rapinat by the French Directory. Changes in the Svnsj 
Government made by the French Commissary. Disavowal cf Bapinat'i 
Conduct by the French Directay. Compliance ff the Helvetic GoUMnmtnt 
mfith the Pr^ects (f the Directory. Election of Ochs to the Helvetic Directny, 
Colonel Lgkarpe named Directitr. Remonstrances with the French Directny 
'^nth Res/^t to their Conduct in Switzerland* QesuUion f^pach TyrvKej 
t% StdtxerlanJ. Treaty concluded^ 



WyiLST the papal see was de- 
livered over to the secular 
arm of reformation, and a govern- 
ment^ under the name of the fto- 
i|uui republic, arose on the ruins of 
^he temporal power of the church, 
the Httle republic of Switzerland, 
bitberto deemed the most prudent, 
if not the roost liberal dispensers 
qf liberty in Europe, were fated to 
undergo a similar change. Al- 
lliottgh the revototion of Switzer- 
liidd iDight lijLVQ beea eventually 



operand by sin^ilar instruments with 
that of Rome, the Frei^ch arniJ 
would have found* more vaforous 
and formidable resistance from (he 
hardy native of the motfiita>ns 
than the luxuriant inhabitant of the 
Italian plains, had noi the spirit of 
innovation introduced itsclfj not 
only among the governedi whote 
discontents were not dissembled, 
but also been abetted and enter- 
tained by portions of the rulers 
themseires. It was scircelyvto be 
expected 



POltSIGN HISTORY. 



J77 



expected that a coiintiy so long and 
inriniaicly connected with France, 
by^ itf position, by perpetaal alii* 
a nee, by coro^iirrce, and partly by 
langaage, &fioald escape the influ- 
ence of the principles of its revolu- 
lion, wbeo ttatcs far oiore remote 
and distrnct were strongly imbued 
Wi'h their spirif. Bnr previously to 
the epocha of ihe French revolu- 
tioa, Yarioo^ pans of the confede* 
fation bad been the seat of civil 
discord and popular murmurs. In 
KHiie cantons the indignant spiM 
of the sobi«-£t bdd led him to revolt 
^io&t what he deemed the op* 
pressive adaainistration of the ruler ; 
in olhers, the diattoctions which 
exlat in society, and which form 
the different classes of privil4*ged 
and QopriTtleged individuate, were 
strangely and inversely distributed. 
Tbe French revolution, declaring 
the princtpfe of equality, found a 
wide predisposition amongst the 
subjects of the Swiss confederacy 
to embrace the cause, and as strong 
a reMstance on the part of the go* 
▼eroors, who were deeply interested 
in opposing the progress of an opi- 
nion so immediately subversive of 
aothoritf. Cooscioos that with 
aoeh a system no brotherhood could 
be cherished, many of the leading 
cantons pat themielves in a state of 
watdifulness, bordering on hostility, 
against the principles established by 
the French national assembly, and^ 
also against those whose admiration. 
led them to the imprudent avowal 
or propagation of the doctrines 
which resulted from those princi- 
plea* But, wii^so powerful a sane- 
tioQ, the frowns of power were in- 
efiectoal to calm the murmurs of 
discontent; and Claims, which fear 
cr policy had hitherto shut up in 
ail«ice, were now produced^ with 
oonBdeoqc that they would bo ad- 



mitted from the sentiment of fear, 
if not of justice. 

Amongst those who were most 
active in demanding a review of 
their grievances where the inhabi- 
tants of the French part of the 
canton of Berne, known bf the 
name of the Paysde-Vaud. Tha 
nobles and the higher classes of thia 
province h^d long trantt mitted to 
their children an hereditary hat red of 
the government of Berne, arising not 
so much from any sense of indivi- 
dual oppression^ or from' general 
suffering under a despotic admini* 
straiion, as from that sentiment of 
humiliation which is feU by gene- 
rous minds when subjected to the 
dominiou of persons for whose ta- 
lents or rank in society ihey feel 
only contempt. This disaffection 
was not concealed : hisiorians and 
travellers have recorded the fact. 
Nor is it singular that the desire of 
change should operate on the titled 
and the rich, whilst they viewed 
their political existence depending 
on the will of a self-elected sove* 
reign, and their provinces subject- 
ed CO the administration of an 
emissary of those whom they con- 
sidered as usurpers of their rights. 

But, however sirongly the sen- 
sibility of the subject- in habitants 
of the Pays-de-Vaud was excited 
by this political degradation, they 
were compelled to subtnir, or brood 
over their gricvance9, real or ima- 
ginary, in silence. 1 hry were in* 
capable of procuring redress by 
force, and the sovereign burghers 
of Berne were too firmly seared on 
their curule thrones to beed the re- 
moot ranees of impotenr clai man's 
or to lis en to the mur:iiurs of dis< 
content. Partial insurrections against 
the governments of certain cantons 
had often taken place in Swi^ser* 
land. These disorders had s. me- 
M limes 



17* 



B R I T 1 S H A N 1) 



timeM been suppressed and punished 
with the interposition of the neigh-* 
lloaring cantons, wl^re the danger 
was not excessive ; brut when these 
insurrections wore the scri'ous cha< 
raeters of rebellion or revolt, the 
whole confederation marched against 
the conspiracy. France before the 
revolution had even lent its aid to 
the suppression of those domestic 
quarrels, and had became the exe- 
cutioner of the kisulted sovereign ; 
so that, whatever was the degree of 
oppression, or whatever the desire 
of resistance, redress was become 
li[0peles», and change impossible. 

finr, although the hand of thosd 
Swiss govern merrts weighed heavy 
oti the poltiical otfenders who ex- 
Anahied with too scrutinising an 
eye into the doctrine of popular 
rights^ or who veoturcd upon the 
commission of overt acts, such as 
murmuring against certain privi- 
leges of the sovereign, by wlych 
these complainants thought thfem- 
ftelves personally aggrieved, in the 
disposal and proliis arising from 
rheir industry ; yet, where passive 



M artisans and mtoofacturert^ 
whose knowledge or means of la- 
formation^ contraaled with the if* 
Dorance ot the peasant, gave om- 
brage to his ally the borgber. it 
was the^ltcy of the latter to mm* 
tain the spirit of rivalry between 
these subject-clasaes } and so sqc- 
cess&Uy was thi^ syalem foUo^-cd 
in the principal canton^, that tbe 
ignorant but favourite peasant «a« 
taught to refusie all aUianct: with 
the more cultivated inhabitant of 
towns } and the merchant^ who 
added to the wealth. of thehosband* 
man by the purchase aod eicbsngs 
of his produce, was regarded aiss 
us an object of inferiority aod C60« 
tempt. 

But, if this reciprocity of affec- 
tion existed in some cantons be* 
tween (be peasant aod borgber^ ia 
others, where interest was thcrul^ 
ing passion of the governors, thor 
power and avarice weighed aan 
heavy on the industry and pciwoil 
freedom of the peasant. The go- 
vernments of the cantons were, for 
the most part, \cry dissintilar ; hot 
all writers agree in theexisieoecof 



and unremitting obedience sat easy 

on the mind of the subject, nor vexatious and oppressive abases in 
masters were more kind and gentle, all. The despotism of their inS^' 
The pcrsovering and laborious ac- 
tivity of the peasant iiad tamed the 
aoil where it was stubborn, and 
brought to its Irighest perfection 
that which was susceptible of cul- 
ture ; and this industry, guided by 
eeconomy, had spread not only ease 
and comfort, but even wealth and 
abnndafnce, over the land. On this 
.peaceable class of subjects the eye 
of the Swiss magistrate had shone 
with peculiar comphceiicy, and 
in some can tops, particularly that 
of Berne, had given room for a 
sort of social compact against the 
inquisitive and encroaching spirit 



tutiens ; th« abusea of electioai to 
sovereign conncils ) tbd diiiij ^'^ 
cnGroacbing spirit of authority; ths 
overgrown influence of patriciw 
families; the striking iocqoslitjr 
wlHch prevailed^ ^eTcn oa this basil, 
of acistocratic»l power ; thcroooo- 
poly of places of proiit to the ex- 
clusion of worth and talent) the 
undefined limits of pro-coosolar 
admioistration ; tkn want of en* 
eouragement to the arts and sci- 
ences j. the neglect of edocstioo 
amongst thoae who were destiacd © 
rule, the void of which was ftW 
up by idleness, arrogance, ign^ 



•^ the inhabitants of t«whs, such raoeeyaDddisaipaiioa<*arBsom8i7 



l?OR£IGN HISTORY- 



^79 



SiAtaresi, pretcftted bf ytrnten of dif- 
ferent char^eirrf aod disoordaat 
^tetlmeoiK, to fill op the picture of 
(bU vaeifted rcgioo of bappicess 
aod liberty. 

Tbrse defects bad long been the 
ftubjecf of aoiniadvrrsioo previous 
to the eveoi of the French revolu* 
tion^ and remonstrances had beco 
nude byibe tnhabttaots of the Faj«^ 
de-Vaad against certain oppressive 
fiiea«ores of their aoverrigit^, the 
borg^ien of Berne, which they bad 
promised bat neglected to redress, 
the petitiooers having do other r^*- 
source than in the ju<»ti4:e of their 
canae. Bot no sooner bad the rtvo- 
iotkm given an apparent form and 
sabfitaace to the principles on which 
it w» foanded, than these suppli- 
sQts laid mde the tone of petition 
and cooiplatQC, and began to be- 
ftirare whether the redresa which 
thejr bad so ardently aonght, aod to 
whrda ikey had bounded their 
tvisbes, was aa object worthy of 
their acceptance. But if the Swiss 
goTernfnenfts meditated any change 
in their cdos^itat ton previous to (he 
Freoefa revolution, this event preg- 
•oant with mischief to established 
goverOfDciiU in genGral, made them 
more circumspect io the indulgence 
of theit liberality f^ and no change 
was ejected, except by the canton 
of Beroe, which granted, in ^ase of 
racancy, the admission of two fa- 
miliea of the Pays-de-Vaod to the 
dignify oi barghefy with certain re- 
atrietionA, of which o«>e was the re- 
mUsm of aoy soHd benefits for tl^e 
space of half a century. However 
great this concession might have 
been deemed by the soveretga* the 
benefit was too confined and re- 
mote to be an object of public gra 



would eveBtmlly be considered and 
redressed. 

However modest might have beeo 
their demands when their h<ipea of 
redrrs$ Were founded on the justice 
of their cause* the projects ol inde* 
pendcnce which they now enter- 
tained aod avowed awakened the 
vigibnceof the governors (o a pe* 
reroptory refusal of seditious aii4[ 
revolutionary preten&ioo<. But to 
have rejected such pretoosions with- 
out further animadversion migiit 
be an encouragexnent for futnre ap- 
plication ; "the snalce was sco:ch:- 
ed, not killed^" aod an occasio i was 
eagerly sought, when for some overt 
act, bioce petition for redress was no 
crime, the indignation of govern- 
m«*nt might be let loose en the of- 
fenders, and chastisement for pre- 
sent oiFcncea might Icga^se punish* 
ment for the past, 'ihe time was 
too big with events to suffer sach 
occasions to be long delayed ; and 
the celebration of the aiioivcr^ary 
of the 14th of July, l^t^l (wheo 
meetings of the friends to the 
French revolution in the Pays-de« 
Vaod took place at Ouchy and 
Rolle, small towns on the lake of 
Geneva), was the occaMon, or th^ 
pretext, for the establishment of a 
high commiasion, composed of iwp 
senators and two of tlie great coun- 
cil of Berne, at Lausanue, to try 
the ofienders who had been preseiit 
at these assemblies. It docs not ap- 
pear, from the most minute and de- 
tailed examination of the numerous 
papers and volumes to which these 
meetings, and :be labours cf the 
high commissaries, have given birth 
(»mce from these incid- nts we must 
date thedeclinS and fail of ths Swiss. 
governments), that any of ihe?e dis* 



titodc: buti arsodia aymptom of orders or acts of sedition to<>k place, 
relasEatioo had discovered itself, with which those who were arraign- 
hopes wen emeriatocd by the dis- ed before the hi ^h tribunal have been 
unueated, ihsit iheix recUoMitieAS accived ; «ad U;e.scpt rn cc ff opcna- 

M 2 ccd 



380 



i klTl S H AisTO 



teA against iVlbller de la Mothe, qua- 
lified by the tribunal as *' magistrate 
of the city of Lausanne, and our 
VasMl/* dnd which condemned him 
to twenty- five years solitary impri- 
ionttient in the dungeons of Arbourg, 
ftates as the primary charge, " that*^ 
he bad left the sovereign ignorant 
oif the dangerous projects entertain- 
ed against the constitution, with 
tvhich he had been for some lime 
acquainted/' The same s^ntenoe 
of twenty- five years* imprisonment, 
Vbich was pronounced against Ros- 
set; states his repeated denial of any 
knowledge of hostile iatention 
against the government of the 
country lo the meeting of the 14th 
of Ju1y> as an aggravation of the 
crime for which he was about to be 
punished. The sentence against 
these unfortunate vassals was li- 
terally put into execution on the 
3d of May, 1/92, and others of 
their fellow subjects felt in dif- 
ferent modes the efiects of the 
indigoatioD of their governors: 
some were condemned for ten years 
to drag the carts which the crimi- 
nals employ in cleansing the streets 
of Berne ; others, for the same term, 
to a pdnishment scarcely less infa- 
mous, that of being chained among 
the blues to bard labour; some were 
imprisoned for a shorter time, many 
dismissed from their employments 
civil and religious, some banished 
the coumry for a certain period, and 
others for life. 

In this proscription several of 
the nobles of the Pays-dc-Vaud 
were involved ; but none was more 
signalised by^ the vengeance of the 
tribunal than general Laharpe, the 
seignear of Yeas, who, escaping 
from its fury, was condemned to 
be beheaded, and his family redu- 
ced to misery by the confiscation of 
his estates. The severity of this 
^ bigh comouatioD, which was held 



forth by the government as a inea* 
sure purely cocDminatoiy, acquired 
it the title of the revolatioaary tri- 
bunal, which name was likewiie 
given to those which were eighteen 
months after erected in France. 
If the celebration of a- festival, 
which, whatever were the secret 
intentions of the guests, ' (and no 
doubt their dispositions were not 
less hostile at that period than at 
former times to ihe abuses of their 
government,) has been sigaaHsed by 
no external act of disobedience or 
sedition, since the charges on that 
bead were utterly disproved; if a 
meeting of this sort, publicly adver- 
tised, where admittance was refused 
to none, and where, if in the effu- 
sion of their joy they pledged the 
liberty of the French, and success 
to the labours of the coostitoent 
assembly, they poured out also li- 
bations to the prosperity of the 
Helvetic confederation, and that of 
the canton of Berne, was punished 
with so little moderation, the mal- 
contents had certainly little lo ex- 
pect from a repetition of their re- 
clamations, since the intention even 
of making them was imputed as a 
crime. This severity having re- 
established tranquillity within, since 
those who had not been attainted by 
the cosamission had sought their 
safety in flight — some across the 
Atbntic, and others in France-^the 
confederacy found fresh causes for 
inquietade in the condoct of their 
allies the French> whose new ^tem 
of government accorded but ill with 
the spirit or letter of their ancient 
treaties. Hence the revolt of the 
regiment of ChlkteaQ-vieux, the dis- 
arming of the regiment of £rn8t ai 
Marseilles, the projected dismem' 
bermeut of the regiment of Steine 
at Lyons, and the dismissal by th< 
legislative body of the Swiss guard 
at Paris, under pretences, whethe 

il 



FOR£IGN HXSTOHT. 



Iff 



ill or wen {bonded, tint the pre- 
sence of iQeToenaiy troops in the 
kiBgdom vns incompatible with 
the ^rlnctples of the new constitu^ 
tion, MKi that the ciiixens thettf- 
selvet were ocMDpetent to iu de- 

NotwithKaodio^ the^e events^ 
and others of which the Swiss oon- 
federatjoo coniplained as infractions 
of tfaetr aocieot treaties, the sem- 
hlsoceof aWance was still kept up 
bv means of ihe conciliatory spirit 
of the French mlntster, M. Barihe- 
lemf , who had the address to sow 
fiuch a nstaaiire of dissension among 
the members of the Helvetic bodjr^ 
particnlarty those' of Berne and Zu- 
rich, as prevented the open declara- 
tion of hostilities with France; nor 
were there wanting among the mem- 
bers of each government c^tain in- 
dividuals, who, more bold or in- 
tri^iog dian the rest, espoused the 
caose of (he Frendi revolution. 
Bot, al though the continuation of 
tbe neolraHty was decided on by 
the confederation, tbe appearance 
o( a leas conciliatory spirit presents 
cd itself ID the canton of Berne; 
wbich, in order to oppose the ag- 
gression of the French in Geneva^ or 
to join in the invasion of France in 
concnrrence with the allied powera 
of the North, who at diat period had 
penetnted into Champagne, ibarch- 
rd an army of 15,000'meQ to tbe 
Cotters of France. 

The reueat of tbe coalesced armies 
of Pmasia and Anstria is held forth 
.IS tbe caose which determined the 
recall of the Swiss troops from Ge<- 
neva^ atid from the froatiers, by 
ihow who assert, that, had the inva- 
sion in the- north of France been 
succcssfulf (of wliieh no doobt was 
then ent^iained, as well as of the 
conseqaent lestoretion of monar- 
ch/, since Swiss senators had even 
aoUcited «nd obtained important 



military employments on the re» 

storatlon,) the countries bordering 
on the Jura, and the Lake, belong* 
iog to France, long coveted by Berne^ ' 
were stipulated a» the reward of the 
services to be rendered by the can* 
Ion ; and that the menace of tbe 
French on Geneva was a commina* 
tory measore, to insure the neutra« 
lity ot its magistracy, and tbst of its 
ally the government of Ecrnc, wlic^e 
fidelity was more than suspeoted 
during the invasion of Savoy. Tbe 
advocates for the Swiss governments^ 
on tbe contrary, attributed tbe de« 
liverance of Geneva to tbe mo- 
deration of tbe French genera), 
who is stated to have acted in dii« 
obedience to the orders he had re- 
ceived. 

Whatever were the can«es of 
these preparations for hostilities at 
tbst period, the Swiss cantons ex- 
perienced no more alarms of inva- 
sion dnnng the dreadful reign of 
terror which soon after subjugated 
France. That br)rrible regime was 
little calculated to conciliate the af- 
fection ot any party who bad the 
slightest regard to order or justice; 
yet it found partisans in the Swiss 
senators, some of w'lM3m entered 
into direct correspondence with tho 
tyrants who then governed France ; 
whilst others gave more than pr0i> 
tection to the committees bf emi- 
grants, who were equally diligent 
in promoting the subversion of the 
French republic. Thus the faulU 
of individuals were visited on the 
whole commonwealth t and ihe 
French made it an additional charge 
against the Swiss, that those n:em- 
bers of the government of Berne 
vehose attachment to the fcrmer 
regime of France was on no occa- 
sion concealed, and whose prr-»onal 
interest was connrcied v%itb its re- 
tum, indulged themselves more 
than once in acts of friendship to* 

M 3 wards 



«w 



B RITISH AND 



'"W^rcls the ootleicad prmces: such 
Uras the assistance Icm to the t^ied- 
montese troops when they retreated 
across the lake of Creneva, on tho 
invasion of Savoys and stil! more 
the zealous ^'id granted them ^hen 
they traversed the territory of the 
Vailais, under the direction ui ah 
oflScer in the Swiss service, to fall 
on the French in the Hant-Faus- 
aigny, at tliac period when the treason 
df^Damouricr had rendered doubt- 
ful, for a season, the existence of 
the French republic;. The courage 
of the French troops defeated the 
enterprise; and the Piedmontese 
were conapelled to traverse a second 
tinne the neutral territory, without 
let or molestation* The notoriety 
of the violation led the government 
ef Berne ta punish the officer to 
whose cominand the safe conduct 
of the expedition had been en- 
trusted*, ho was sentenced to six 
months* imprisonment within the 
timirsofa bailiwick of 6fteen leagues 
aquane. But the* principal in the 
project is said by ihe French to have 
been rewarded with distinguished 
marks of gratitude by the power he 
had intended to serve;, and they 
tdd, that his elevation to the digni- 
ty of senator, which immediately 
ioilov^ed, indicated the measure of 
approbation bestowed on his con- 
duct. 

In extenuation of the blame 
v^/hich has been imputed by the 
French to most of the governments 
of Switzerlnvl, with rcspfct to the 
hospitality given to emigrants, and 
the [nersecuiioh rais^d against those 
bf ^hti s»me nation who professed 
opposite yentimrnts, it may be urged, 
that the principle of self-defence 
in many cases imperiously demand- 
ed sui h a conduct ; that no positive 
law or article of trtaty prevented 
them from granting protection to 
^gitives^ aiKl that the exclusion 



of French princfplet, sloce d)f ih> 
berty of the press did not eii»t iq 
Switzerland, would be be&t efitoed 
by shotting tbo frontier againit 
those who entertained tbeiB. it 
may likewise be alleged, that al* 
though, together with the Frcodi 
patriots inhabit in gr the cantons, the 
French embassador Was expelled 
from the place of his usual residence 
at Soleure, the existence of tbs 
French republic, admitted byvari* 
'ous powers of £urope, was ootytt 
acknowledged by the Swiss cid- 
tons; by whom, consequently, no 
other than the ancient treaties were 
judged binding- 

This persuasion lasted till the re« 
treat of the coalesced troops scross 
the Rhine. The peace with Prossii, 
and the conquest of Holland, give 
force to the hitherto vrjn ncgodi- 
tions, and humble reroonstiancc?, 
of M. Barihelemy. On thefl 
events he quitted his retreat at Pa- 
den^ and fitted his I'esidencc at Ba- 
sil, where his character was reo^- 
nised, as well a* the existence of 
the Freuch republic; which »c* 
knowledgrnent soon after took place 
throughout the confederation, 'ftc 
iniertxmrse between ih«Fret>chaiKi 
Swi« governments, from that period 
to the treaty of Campo Formic, waJ 
little dse than reclamations on tk 
part of the former against the pro* 
tection granted to the French en j• 
grants, who were compelled to quit 
a country where they had touml a 
hospitable asylum; and reloctar.c 
apologies, on the part of the latter, 
for the errors into which they bii 
b^en betrayed. In this inirrtsi 
great changes had also taken place 
in the di8p(»siiion of the govern- 
ments of various leadhig can'onJ 
towards France. Basil had bcfo 
the centre of commercial negotia- 
tion during the war, andf ihe dnh- 
fid by which the coin of France 

flowed 



FO R«I G WHIST OR Y. 



m 



t<rm9A . IbrpasliwC Switz^Uod. 
Tbe ifihabiUtfiU of the captoa of 
^uriphwere 9cn(H»g9( ih^ most for* 
war^ of tb« confederal iou ; tho ipa- 
nafaetociiig viUagcr& on the La]|e 
bad rcpeved dieirreftUtaope against 
what (hQrdaoaied the oppression of 
the bufghen; aod their cause had 
beeo wanni/j ihou^ .secretly,* e« 
#pooiQd by other classes of their 
jfdJoy soiijects. At Berne, the va- 
caociea which had taken place ia, 
the goverament dunng the last ten 
years were filled up; and the ad- 
aissioD q£b third part of new mem- 
liers neutralised in a great measure 
the hardness of the former govero- 
oieot, and ^ve a general cast of 
moderation to their proceedings, 
and even of friend:ihip lowards the 
Frendu 

But ibe spirit of innovation which 
the goverameot of Berne had en-" 
deavoored to crush was recovered 
froax the pressore and the reciama- 
f tons which had been made at tl^ 
begioning of the French revolution, 
wheti the principles by which it 
had been effected were considered 
only as the transient dreams of a 
new-fangled philosophy, were rei« 
teratcd with redoubled vigour when 
the conquest of the countries in 
Italy adjoining to France had given 
ihem a local stability. The petitions 
which the remonstrants had made 
in 1790 were again produced in a 
ipore detailed and systematic form -, 
sad aa the circumstanced had brought 
the parties to a nearer level, a greater 
attention jwas paid to the justice of 
the redamation Uian the govern- 
ment had hithertodeignedtabestow. 
The partisans of the French revolu- 
tion had fbooded their system on 
** the inalienable aod imprescriptible 
righU of mao.*' The Swiss founded 
their claims on titles less metaphy- 
ficai, and which \h<y jodgpd l«si 



Uabje <o contfst, such as writtfii 
treaties a^d charters, prescribing 
and confirming privileges of vvhicll 
Ihey h^d bean unjuiiiy deprived. 
Although the subject part of paosf 
of the cantons had reclamatioiif 
raore or Irss founded to make, thf 
former petitioners of the Pays-der 
Vaud were the first, as soon as jhaf 
judged the political temperatuie 
more favourable, to appear op tha 
scene. It was asserted by themthait 
tlie inhabitants of this country had 
enjoyed from lime immemorial tb# 
benefits of a free constitution, 
maintained untouched by their pro- 
vincial states, and respected by their 
.princes until the year 153d$ ihalt 
the sovereignty was vested by their 
prerogatives in those states, and 
that the princes of the hou^ of 
^avoy were little else than iu)min^ 
protectors; that when the cantons 
of Berne and Fribourg sucoeededt 
by the treaties of St. Julian and 
Payerne, in 1530, to fhe rights nf 
the duke of Savoy, and the bishop 
of Lausanne, they cani« in possea- 
sion only of such rights as wem 
held by their predecessors Thcf 
insisted that as the Pays-de Vaud* 
fn yielding to this cession, obrained 
a previous and formal Qoafirmatioii 
of its privileges, and never rcnonn- 
ced the constitution which tliey en- 
joyed at the epochs of those treaties; 
that as they had never been for-, 
mally deprived of t}li9 constitution 
by decrees either of the goveri>- 
jnents of those cantons, or by any 
judiciary sentence ; the inhabitants 
were authorised to claim the re- 
establishment of the constitQtion 
under which tbetr ancestors lived 
at those epochas ; to insist on tho 
previous assembly of the states, their 
only lawful representatives, and da- 
mand the fulfilment of the guaran* 
tea promised two centuries since by 



M 4 



Franca. 



m 



BHITISH AND 



•France, and ttowhfdi that cobnCfy 
•mn bound by forixml treaties yet 
aubsigttng. 

Iti support of these petitions, the 
claimants referred to nineteen char- 
ters confirming their ancient rights^ 
(the originals of many of which were 
produced, with the petition present- 
ed to.tiie councils of Berne by the 
eommuneof Morgcs in 1790,) and 
cited also eleven other documents, 
taken from the history of their 
country, to strengthen the evidence. 
Having adduced their j^roofs in fa- 
vour of their reclamations, they 

^ proceeded to exhibit a long list of 
charges against their present gover- 
oors the burghers of Berne and Fri- 
bourg, s rating that (he constitution* 
of the Pays-dcVaud had first been 
violated by .the illegal abolition of 
its rights* in which the .states had 
neither co- operated ^or assented, 
and since, by the injunction made 
to the communes to present no col- 
lective petitions ; by penalties de- 
creed ag?)inst those who should re- 
claim their ancient rights ; and by 

•"the arbitrary measures a4optcd by 
the government of Berne attacking, 
restraining, and even annihilating, 
the rights of property in the com.- 
iDunes, and (hose of simple indivi- 
duals. They maintained that the 
government of Berne rendered no 
account of the public monies, co- 
vering with the shade of mystery 
both the receipt and rxpcnditure 5 
that arbitrary contributions were 
ext' rted fi|pm them under (he most 
frivolous pretences-, and that the 
revenues of the state were concen- 
tred In Berne, where they weie for 

' the moHt part divided among the 
patrician families, whose luxuries 
were supported at the expense of 
the pe»>pic. * Thcv alleged, that 
the inhabitants of the canton were 
dividrd into two cartes essentially 
distinct; (hat of the barghers of 



Berne", who held exclacively aU 
places of administratioQ, poaseased 
all the prerogatives of sovereignty, 
and who are in the sole eojoyaieat 
of all the hoiiours and benefits re- 
sulting from it I whilst the aecood 
clan,whicb com prehendedl be whole 
nation, was deprived of every abare 
in the government, excloded with- 
out distinction from all places of 
trust, treated as aliens, aod forced 
to brood over their wrongs in re* 
spectful silence. 

The high court of commiasioii 
instituted 10 try the offenders who 
had celebrated the anniversary of 
the French revolution in l^pOwv 
a new source of complaint aod re* 
clamation. This procedure- of tbe 
burghers of Berne was represcoted 
by the petitioners, who had now 
erected 'themselves- into a }\\ry of 
accusation, as an invasion of the 
country -by a mercenary army, and 
an act of the blackest perfidy; the 
creation of a revotuiioniry tnbcroal/ 
the ancst and carrying oh' the citi- 
zens by an armed force, confioisg 
them in . state prisons, depriving 
tbem of their natural judges, mid 
proceeding arbitrarily against tbeni« 
was said to be a manitest vtoiattoa 
of their national right«« aad de- 
structive of every remaining ve«tige 
uf their national liberty. It was 
added, that the punishment which 
was executed in consequence ot 
this revolutionary judgment, ihe 
dishonour indicted on the coflnmunes 
in the persons of their deputi«^ 
(who were forced to submit to the 
humiliation of publicly demsind^ 
ing pardon), and the* contumely 
heaped on men distinguiihed for 
their talents, education,* and prin- 
ciples, had coosumroaced <tbe scr< 
vitude of the subject caste } and 
that, finally, the patricianB of Brrne, 
in accprd with thosCA-of Frit^oorg, 
Suleure, the Vallais, aod the demo- 

ciatical 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



im 



t^ntktlcanUms^ in order to preserve 
iktk ttsoTped pferogatiTes, bad cocn- 
nitled <he repose and esisieoce of 
their »ubjecu, ia vioJaliug in the 
mo^ perfidioos manner the neutral- 
icy of ihe coafedef ation^ by leaguing 
iheauelrea viib the enemies of 
France to re-ctiablish the former 
^veraiaeDt. and share in the dis- 
memberment of the country, by 
coosfaotiy refusing to acknowledge 
the repoblic, and assisting by every 
meaos in their power to tho^e who 
had armed to destroy it. 

A a the answer to the second part 
of these charges has been found in 
the imperious circamstances of the 
times, which demanded the use of 
extraordtoary means against aii sort 
of innovation, so the reply to the 
former part has been no less pe- 
remplovy. by the declaration that 
the treaties to which the petitioners 
all ode never eaisted, and that the 
f ighis of which ihey demanded the 
restorstioo were imaginary | that 
the charters were fabricated for the 
occasion ; and that the ancient so- 
vereignly of the states of the Pays- 
de-Vand was a fabulous and chi- 
fxiertcal supposition ; that, when 
*Berne made the conquest of this 
* couotry« no capitulation was offer- 
ed, or accepted ; that greater pri* 
vileges^were bestowed after the con- 
qocst than the country had eri joyed 
before ; that the aboiiiion of the 
states composed of the privileged 
orders^ and of the deputies only of 
fourteen town^, was a benefit to the 
coaotry, since they only met to 
impose taxes ; and that the guaran- 
tee daimed from France gf their 
privileges was illusory, since, in the 
renunciadoo byPhilibert in 1564, 
not a word of goaraniee is mention- 
ed in the treaty. 

That the liberties enjoyed by the 
people noder the ancient Ktates 
were €ircaiBicri|>ed, may readily be 



supposed, since the modern Iheorsea 
of government by representation 
were at that time almost unknown 1 
yet the government of the |tatest 
confined as was the represents lion, 
was a government essentially differ* 
ent from that of bailiffs, and tba 
sovereignty exercised by tlie^ukca 
of Savoy much less arbitrary than 
that eiLercised by the council of 
Berne. Of the treaties and charters 
which have been regirdcd as fables, 
the ociginsls were produced j and 
in the tresty of Lsusaune, made 
the 30th of October, IS64, by 
which Emanuel Phiiibert ceded bia 
rights to the cantons of Berne, with 
an expres> reserve of the privileges 
of the Puys-de-Vaud» France be- 
came also the guarantee of this 
treaty ; and this engageircnt, con* 
tracted the 26th of April, 1^(75, 
was cited in a subsequent treatv 
made by Francis the Vim, the 10th 
of November, J 582, by which tb« 
Pays-de-Vaud was admitted into the 
perpejual alliahce ; ail which txea* 
ties were confirmed by the treaty 
of Soleure, made the 26th of May^ 
1777- 

The French' government (which 
was probably in secret unison with 
the complainants) no sooner found 
Itself relieved from the weight of 
its contest with the house ol Aus« 
tria, than it turned its attention to 
the reclamations made by tlie Payi* 
de Vaod, as a good pretext Ice 
avenging former affronts, and gra- 
tifyiug its present lugt of dominion. 
The directory had begun their pa> 
litical hostilities, by ordering Meo- 
gaud, their agent extraordinary, to 
signify to the senate of Berne the 
act of the French executive govern- 
ment, enjoining the dismissal of the 
English embassador from Switzer** 
land. This injunction threw the 
senate into great embarrassment; 
but while two of the council were 

sent 



it« 



BRITISH AND 



•est to Paris to iKgoiUale with dia 
directory, tb^ efttbauaidor relieved 
their perplexkybiyvolDotarily with- 
drawing himteif ; and the deputa- 
ticAj alter the residence of a nsondi^ 
was ordered to quit Parts, I'his 
•tep was soon after followed by 
another act^ 17th of December, 
t797f ordering the n^inisterof fo* 
raign aftairs to make a report oo 
the petition of the inhabilanis of 
^he- Pays-de^Vaud. The report, 
which was of pour$e favourabJe to 
the reclamation, was the grpund- 
Vork of pother act> publisihed 
twelve days after the former, ma* 
king the governors of Berne and 
Friboilrg personally responsible for 
the individual safety and property 
«l tlie inhabitants of that country^ 
who bad made reclamations to the 
French republic ibr the execution 
«f their ancient treaties. This me- 
pacing declaration was made in 
consequence of a senatorial oocn- 
niission sent by the council of Berne 
into the Pays-de-Vaud, to inquire 
Into the causes of the discontents, 
•od aojoining the inhabitants to re- 
new their oath ot allegiance. I'hus 
protected by the French govern* 
naent, the communes of the Pays- 
de-Vaud presented their respective 
petttiom to tlie council of Berne, 
some for the restoration at' their 
ancient constitutions, others for re- 
lief from certain taxcft, others for the 
redemptii^ of the feudal rights — 
all indicating a de<«ire of a change 
of measures. 1 hough dift'eiitig in 
the means and extent of the rtfor- 
mation. Toalluy this spirit of dis- 
confaent> Ending th^it promises and 
exhortations to obedience were of 
00 avail, the sovereign council de- 
creed, that the oath of allegiance 
should be aami metered. By some 
the oath was tuken, and rejected 
by others. But whatever might 
have been the emotions of affeciion 



excited by the appearance of acmv 
mission from Berne, and prodaiat- 
lions of indulgence a^d protefitioo, 
the approach of a Freqch army to- 
wards the Swiss frontiers dissipated 
the confidence of the commi^ritv 
, who returned to ^erne ; but not till 
they had witnessed the iautility of 
their operations, in seeing the iosar- 
rection against their autboiity tai« 
place in a part of the country re- 
mote from foreign assistance; the 
inhabitants of Vevay haviog taiei 
possession of the castle of Chiilocu 
and released the state prisoner* wbo 
were there confined. 

Whilst the insurrection was pre- 
paring in the south, the aortben 
cantons were fast approachiDg to 
the disorganisation of their re- 
spective government^. At Baj^il^the 
minds of the inhabitants had already 
been tutored in the principles of 
revolution, from discussions which 
had taken place in the senate, ih«t 
the patrician and oligarchical goc 
vernmeots were usurpations 00 the 
rights of the people, and that tbe 
privilege of citizenship was tbe 
pri v i lege of the w hole. Thoe sea* 
timents avo^yed by sona^ of the pa- 
tricians themselves, a virtual sbidi- 
cation of their power, were well 
understood by their subjects of eve- 
ry canton, and a general bar mild 
fermentation among the subject* 
classes began to take place tbroogb- 
out almost the whole of the coDle- 
deration. The iuhabiunts of Mul- 
hausen, seated in Al^ce, and allied 
to the Swiss cantons, bad flready 
voted the re-unipn of their liule 
stale to the French rq>ubliei !>"' 
the example Of this trijritoriai incor- 
poration, which, from its geogra« 
phtcal position, was suited to Mid* 
hausen, found no advocates iQ 
Switzerland. The 8ul]\iecc-dssses 
of that people, though anxious for s 
greater ^xitat tf p^cal and civil 
liberty, 



FOREIGN HISTOBY. 



. Vbmtfs were STena to any other 
flHafice with Prance bat such at 
dkKil4 insure thetr i adc p e iwiegce, 
aod'gaarantee their righu* 

It wss aBudsc this spirit of do* 
ISbcIioo that the extraordmary diet 
«f the Sw» cantoin^ cxcrptiog 
those of Basil, Glaria, and Appen- 
%c}, amembkd at Aran. The cir- 
CoautMOceB hi -which it was con<* 
rened were ao far unfavourable to 
«o/ cocDbinaciot), as every succeed* 
iog day fumtsbed iocideots to an* 
not or change the deliberations of 
the Ibroaer. After the debates of 4 
month spent in oootriviog meana 
to atop ilie revoladonary tide, the 
diet de c r e ed the levy of the double 
ooatingeol, aoioontiog to twenty- 
six tfaoosaiid men, and the renewal 
of the alHance, and of the fr dera- 
il ve oath* Bot scarcely bad tbe 
^epotiea qottted the place of their 
sittings^ than Aran became the cen« 
tre of revof c and of civil disseosioa, 
^9%fdi was increased by the inde- 
eisioa of troops stationed in that 
quarter; who, when ordered to at- 
tack the inSoigeDts, refused for a 
loogtime to obey their officers, and, 
Ibrming tbemsetves into commit- 
tees, threaten^ to attack ihe fortress 
of Arboorgj nor was the insurrec- 
tion ^peased till the government 
had taken more violeoi and coer« 
cive measores. This spirit of re* 
volt against the regency of Berne 
was not confined to this prov^ncf, 
or to the Pays-de-Vand The levy of 
the miHtia met with obstacles in va« 
nous qoarters of the Gernviii part 
of the canton, not tnore from the 
indisposition of the inhabitants lo 
take arms tn a cause which they 
jtid^ indefeosihie, or to which 
they were otherwise aveite, than 
from the protection given lo their 
disobedience by the commissary of 
the Pri^ncfa directory, who demand- 
ed, in a peieniprory tone, the ie« 



lease of those vihcm the gevttiK 
naent had arrested for seditioii ; e«| 
who, oa the refbaai of the ermiicil 
to comply with his orders, intimat-i 
ed to the members, that they sheisIA 
be individually responsible ior tbo 
safety and property of ihoso wh« 
were, aceorcMng to the style of his 
mandate, the objects of iheir vejia«« 
lion, and of the benevolence of the 
directory. 

But during tbe sittings of this fe- 
derative assemblyi an army of 15,000 
men, under the command of ge» 
neral Menard, had Vpproached tiisr 
frontier of Switzerland, aear Go% 
neva. This army had been precede^ 
1^ a smaller force, sent into the 
former bishopric of Bale (incor^ 
porated, in 1792, into (he French 
republic, under the name of the 6m 
partment of Mcni Terribk) ta 
take possession of tbe adfoiaie^ 
countries of Ergoel and Muoster* 
thai ; tbe sovereignty of which bet 
longed to the former bishopric, aial 
conseqoently devolved totJie French. 
Both of these armies amoonied scarce* 
ly 10 half tbe number of men which 
the canton of Berne had at its dia** 
position, and was otherwise ill pre* 
vided with the means of otFencei 
but the insurgents, having become 
in a certain measure masters of ths 
country, sent a deputation to g^ 
neral Menard to enter with his 
tnmps, while they began to plant 
the trees of librity, to expel the 
haililf:i, and organise a provisionary 
government. On a second formal 
invitation, the French army passed 
the frontier and enter rd into Swifv- 
erland The command of tho 
Swiss troops assembled In that 
quarter, between Beroe and ihe 
I'ays-de-Vaod, had been committed 
to colonel Weisti. a member of the 
great council. .This officer, who 
had been tbe ally of every prevail* 
ing ptrty, tamely revoiulionary» 

aud 



168 



BRITISH AND 



and pbllofophicalljr aristocratical, 
diacoveied from the first momeBt 
if£b\9 iDisitoo a total inadequacy to 
the task he had oodertaken* His 
metaphysical argcuneoUitioos with 
the insurgents, to induce them to 
fetorn to their allegiance, served 
only to increase the revolt; and 
his retreat from the Pays-de-Vaud, 
on the approach of the French, ren- 
dered the insurrection general. 

The canton of Basil had also at 
this period completed its revolu* 
tion. The iohabitaots of the com- 
munes had assembled, and present* 
ed to the regency a declaration, de-> 
manding a represenlative const itu- 
tton, and a national convention* 
The peasantry also published a ma* 
Bi£esto, in which they demanded a 
redress of grievances. The heska- 
tioo or delay of the regency to an- 
•wcr their petitions led the inha^ 
bitaots of the communes to march 
in a body to Basil, and take posses- 
sion of the arsenal. A- few days 
after the peasantry broke out into 
open insoi rection, and destroyed 
the castle of thel»iliffof Wallen* 
hQwg,2Lg2ansi the severity of whose 
administration numberless com- 
plaints had been made. These ex- 
peditive measures led the regency 
to be more prompt in its decisions : 
the grand <;ouiicil declared, on the 
20th of January^ that it adhered to 
the petitions which had been pre- 
sented by their subjects I a formal 
act of abdication was passed, and 
sent to the different cantons; the 
tree of liberty waa planted, at which 
cfremony the whole of the regency 
attended; and a cooimittee ofde* 
puties was named to organise the 
sew Qonstitu(ion« 

An anjelioration of tlie lot of the 
peasantry took place also at Zurich, 
thegovecnmcnt of which published 
an amnesty- for past of£snces^ eet at 
liberty the prisoners whp had been 



sentenced to imprisonment in coa« 
sequence of the nvoH two years be- 
fbi^ retnroed the fees which bsd 
been levied, and gave a freer liberty 
to the communes of the oaoton. 
The council of Berne, seeing the 
storm of revolutWD gathering a- 
round them from almost everyqaar* 
ter, finding their aotfaori^ rejected 
by part of their sobjecta» apdraed at 
by others, and sunk in -the nindsaf 
the whole, came to the prudent de« 
termination of acceding to the ge- 
neral will, and feo ihisendcoufoked 
a general depotatienlirom the com* 
munea of the caatoo to take part in 
their deliberations. The resaltof 
these deliberations was a pmdama- 
tion issued in the joint nameaof the 
council and thedepntieafrom the can* 
ton, declaring their resolnUon, fine- 
ly expressed, and withont cooairaiot, 
to unite by the closest ties the ga* 
vernment with the whohs people, 
and make such changes in the con- 
stitution of the oantoo as the good 
i^ ilie country should require, and 
as should be conformable to the 
spirit and circnuMtances et tbd 
times. This preamble was fbUov- 
ed by various artides, amongst 
which it was resolved, that, in the 
space of a month, a commisnoo 
should be established, to propose tfas 
plan of a more perfect constitution, 
of which an equal repreaentatioo cf 
the people should be the basis $ that 
all places in the administration snd 
public emplQ>'menfs should be sc- 
cessibie to eveoy citiaen ^ that sa- 
laries should be paid according to 
the services and respective merits of 
each, and that the rest of tbepabiic 
revenues should be applied to the 
exigencies of the state; that a <ofi* 
stitution on this plan afaooid be pi«* 
posed, in the space of twelve montlHi 
to the approbation or refusal of Ab 
peoples and that a cocnniiwioa 
shQuld be institatdd. in the in«o 

-'fRDe) 



F 0£EIG N HISTORY. 



18$ 



Itffl^ for ttw preservation of order 
aod UanottiHity, and Im' Other ope- 
rations oi govemaent* 

Thu^rodanution, wfaHst it com- 
prebended the widett wialies of the 
mostaeakMisfriends to reioTro^ stated 
abotbe firm reiiolve^f the coancil 
and tJie deputation to defend their 
hbertiea aod their independence, 
and make socb changes for the 
ajseJioration of their constxtation as 
they shooid judge necessary, withoat 
any foreign intervention. Bat the 
dclny of a year gave vmbrage to 
many, who stiM doabted the sin- 
eerily of the members of the old 
gorermnent. This proclamation 
was sent to tbe Freach directory, 
while a depotalion was dispatched 
to the French commissary at £a<;il, 
to noUfy to hira the proceedings 
of tbe assembly. Bat however sa- 
tisfactory the proclamation and the 
articles might have been to those 
to vrhom they were addre^ed, they 
corresponded with neither the views 
nor wishes of the French directory. 
In a note remitted to the deputation 
of the cottncti of Berne, which had 
been sent to Basil, the commissary 
of the French directory, approving 
of the basis €)i tbe resolution, insist- 
ed that the existing government 
should abdicate*; that a provisionary 
organisation shcmld take place> into 
Mrhich none of the magistrates 
known for their attachment to the 
<Ad syston. shoold be admitted; 
that the liberty of the press should 
be establuhed; and that reparation 
sho«ld be made to those who had 
been peesecoted for ^eir political 
c»pinions. In a subsequent and cir- 
cular letter addressed to the Swis^ 
nai^n^the same commissary assored 
tben& tWt France had no project of 
invading their conntry^ Irat only of 
OFerthrowiDg their vicious and cor- 



#arpted governments, to substttnte 
others more conformable to its o^n 
syittem and that of other represen- 
tative repoblics. The remainder 
of this diplomatic j)rodamation was 
lilied Qp with expressions of con- 
fomely and cofitempt towards the 
members of the existing govern- 
ment, and with an invitation to the 
Swiss to give his memorial the most 
active circulation. 

Dnring this diplomatic corre- 
spondence of the government of 
Berne with the executive directory, 
the regencies of the cantons of Lu- 
cerne, Schaffhausen, Soleure, aod 
Fribourg, isxned proclamations, 
containing similar dispositions wHtt 
those of Berne. The desire or ac- 
quiescence in a general reform 
throughout the confederation was 
every where indicated, both on the 
part of the governors and the peo- 
pie; and as the example had al* 
ready been given by the canton of 
Basil) a revolution wonld, probably, 
have been generally eflTected with- 
out convulsion or di 'border. The 
government of Berne had humbled 
itself beftealh the expectation, and 
almost beneath the wish, of those, 
who, smarting under its severity, or 
envying its power, telt the honouc 
of their country committed by the 
insolent mandate of a foreign emis- 
sary. But if this rhandate excited 
Indignation in rhe breasts of those 
\vho had been most earnest in pro- 
moting the reform, it became into- 
lerablc to those who were the im- 
mediate objects of the insult. If U 
even be admitted that the Frendi 
government had the right of inter* 
vention in the guarantee of the 
tiberties of the Pays-de-Vaud, the 
extension of that intervention to 
the internal concerns of thfe canton 
of Berne, or to anj( other part o^ 



* NofKiof could he more ioiquitoDs nor, indeed, more impoliric, than this in- 
tcrfereace. If there irere any truth aad justice in the complaints of the French, thtt 
ocher oatioas interfered ia their domestic anaugemcDt^, ihey surely rendered tbem- 
sclvcs cqaally crimioal ia imiuting suchaa example. 

Swllzer- 



^ 



BRITISH AMO 



Switie/land, was an act of usarp- 
»tioD and tyranny. Bat (he French 
directory lud wnik<»il up their 
tnind^ lo other projects. Motives 
of vengeance against a power whog« 
boftttle dispositions lo tbt trench 
repoblTc had scarctly evtr b<en 
dbsentbied. were 8«reng«hei>ej by 
oihen oiore pergonal. Ihry bad 
waded too <ite[i in despotism (o be 
rhe( ked m their career of ambition 
byconstttalional obstacles } {ind the 
convenience of committing a deed 
by which they might add to their 
iDfluence or their rapncity, was 
now become the standard of moral 
«nd political recttiude. Enriched 
Ivith the spoils and inebriated with 
the power, wluch the conquest of 
.Italy had given them, the directory 
4ooked with ftrocious contempt on 
every fcsisJancc to their mandates, 
wherever »\}p rinrity of force hid 
given them the means of absolute 
controul ; and having takeh r dicta- 
loriitl advantage of the irruption 
made on the confiiitutional govern* 
ment of their own country by the 
events of ihe. infiimons eighiemth 
of Fructidor, th(.y felt themselves 
loo independrnt of every other au- 
thority to dmiand a cbncurrence in 
their mea*iirr«, or explain the mo- 
tives of thMr conduct. But. arbi- 
tral y and unprincipled as m.ght be 
the conduct of the dirrctory, they 
would have thrown out their me- 
naces with more reserve, lad not 
their will, snfficiinily prompt to 
mischief, been spurred on lo notion 
ly other motives The only intcr- 
"tention which had hitherto been 
required from the French go*ern- 
ment, by any class of the discon- 
tented in bwitz<-rbnd, had been the 
fnlfilment of that part of the trea- 
ties which guaranteed the privi^ 
leges of the Pays-de-Vaud. No 
community, provincial assembly, 
or popular society, had c<iri.ied their 
pret«»»ion8 higher; nor was the 



«cto«l invasion of their tcnmryhf 
the French a measure to which tbejf 
had deemed it necessary to have re« 
course: reoch less had they oon* 
jectnred that the French govern- 
in<:;nt, in extending its «m for lbe«r 
emancipation^ would n6t withtlriw 
it till, by means of arbitrary msn* 
dates and forced Gontribotions, it 
should h« Id the friittsof gmeral ra* 
pine and plunder in its grasp. But 
the enemies of the iodepcndmcf of 
Switzeiland were not iho*e only 
without the frontiers; hostile toi»i 
cause were- the mtempetste divi* 
sions which took place in the re- 
gencies on the breaking up of tbs 
old orgasisation ; but more tatsl 
siill were the insulated conunoDscs- 
tions which took place between 
the directory and the cantoos sti- 
pulating in their own name. Switz- 
erland, united, might faavespckefl 
with a firm and commandiog tone; 
but, di-jointed and centrifugal, ii 
had no refuge but in despair or 
submission. 

Of those cantons which brcaa:c 
the immediate aaxiliaries of tbe 
French directory, Basil holds tbd 
foremost rank. This csotoo, from 
its proximity to Franccj had ito- 
bibed a larger portion of revolo- 
tionary spirit ; but the mass of its 
goveruroent> though it compte- 
hcnded a few men of liberal raindi 
and enlightened understandings, ^'^^ 
made up of immoveable 8dbereDt5 
to the old exclusive S3rsteni9 «nd ff 
light-headed partisans to the French 
revolution, under all its difterept 
phases. Of this latter class, Oeht^ 
the chancellor of Basil, tfras the 
chief. The want of energy m this 
senator's character was filled up bf 
intrigue and presumption. Tb5 
narrowness of his forrniie, and the 
pomp which lit affected lo display » 
had sometimes led him to acts of 
despicable meanness. His vanitf 
was as unboundcAl as hb knowledge 

was 



FORfiIGN HISTORY. 



^i 



^ lidBlitod ; ftfli] &e todcpeodence 
ofhb«toiintry wa» but a slight sa* 
cri6ceto bis anabitioB, provickd he 
held the ftrU post on its ruins. This 
man Im^ been for fome time id di- 
ttct eormpopdenoe with, the direc- 
toiy^ us iooii as he discovered tliat 
the views of its members were 
turoed Isvards Switzerland. As he 
Iraa faMMelf a member of those oH- 
g^rehiea. he was. well acquainted 
with ibesr vices; and as he was 
>:nown to be a ^partisan of the 
French rev<(»tfit:oo» be had acquired 
B coosiderable influence with a cer- 
tain class of the disoontrnted. A re* 
voloiioa in his own canton was too 
Itmiced an object for his arobiiion. 
He flffpited to the character of an 
univei^al reformer ; and as bis ta- 
leiH for intrigue and his vanity 
"were well known to the directory, 
thejr accepted, wiibont hesitation^ 
the o#m of devotedness which he 
madew Previoas to the sittings of 
the diet, he had &>rmed the plan of 
a coDStitation, which he sul^miitcd 
at Parts to the directory, by whom, 
after ecrtma corrections^ it was ap- 
proved. 

The constitution, thus amended, 
was destined to serve as the basis of 
the future government of Switzer- 
land, and its unconditional ac- 
ceptance was to be regarded as the 
lest of repoblican civism. The 
prockmatioo, therefore^ and the 
articles of reform, which were pro- 
mnlgated by the re- union of the 
cenocil and senate of Berne with 
the depoties from the communes, 
the tenor of which proclamation, 
Vith alight exceptions easily to be 
araeaded, tnet with the concurrence 
of every moderate partisan of re- 
form and independence, was in 
direct hostility to the views both of 
Ochs And the directory* Hence the 
dJplofiiatfc inni^t of the French 
cofBiDJssarf insisting, as aprelimi- 
fiary mcasarej that H^ leading 



members of the regetcy of Berne 
should be rendered inoipable of 
future service, since nrither the 
independence of the country, nor a 
constitution of the choice of its rr« 
presentatives, had the concurrence 
or permission of Ochs and the 
French directory. 

Although a majority of the mem* 
bers of the government of Berne 
were led to adopt a system of re- 
form, and make tlie sacrifice r</ 
their interest to peace, the whole ot' 
the council, and the mass of ihm 
people, were hlled with indignation 
on receiving this directorial. man^ 
date. This emotion, promoted by 
the adherents to t ho old system, waa 
however suspended by the consider* 
atioif of the horrors of war amongst 
a divided people, and by the ioter* 
position of the canton of Basil, 
which, though under directorial 
influence, sent deputies to the 
French general to offer their me- 
diation, and that of two other can* 
tons, between the government of 
Berne and the French govermnenf. 
The head-quarters of the French 
army in possession of the Pays-de- 
Vaud were at Paycrne, and but at 
a short distance from that of Berne, 
stationed at Morat. General Bruoe, 
who had succeeded Menard, di-. 
spatcheda message to the council of 
Berne, inviting the government to 
considerations of arnity and peace. 
This message, the tenor of which 
was confirmed on the return of-a- 
deputation to Brone, renewed the- 
general desire of conciliatory mce** 
sures: but, as nothing precise had/ 
been determined in- this interview, 
two other members were diapatch- • 
ed as negotiators, to offer anew thet: 
terms contained In the proiislams-* : 
tion, on condition that the Pi^noh : 
should evacuate the Pays-de-Va«d,- 
and retire at a certain distance *fran»::. 
the frontiers. » . j v 

The French general plcadirtg^ 

that 



19» 



BfilTtSH AND 



that he was not able to accede to 
these conuiiioD* without the per* 
mission of his government^ granted 
a trace of fifteen cla)s, in order ro 
signify the propo>itions of ibe de- 
puties of heme, and receive the 
instructions of the directory ; bt*t 
the deputation which bad been sent 
to Basil to confef with the French 
commissary, having penetrated the 
designs uf his goveroment, made 
^.nown io their constituents their 
opinion, that the only means of 
avoiding hostilities were the ionane- 
diate execution of tiie articles of 
the proclamation, the abdication of 
the regency, and tlic creation of a 
provisionary gOTernment* 

Duriog the truce both armies re- 
ceived reinforcements. The re- 
jgencies of the cantons, save JBaril 
and Schaulfhaosen, which had com- 
pleted their revolutions, tent tbttr 
con tinge Dts, but. so slow and in- 
complete, and so encumbered with 
iostroctions) as to show that they 
bad little lu)pe of success, or that 
they took but slight interest in the 
cause. Thus abandoned, the go- 
vernment of Berne was left to sus- 
tain, almost alone, the whole force 
of tlie enemy, and defend like- 
wise the neighbouring cantons of 
Fribourg and Solenre, which were 
also open to attack. As the term 
of the armistice, which was to ex- 
pire on l>he J St of I^Iarch, drew 
nearer, the debates of the council 
became more indecisive. Four 
days previous to the term of the 
armistice the council gave unlimit- 
ed power to general D'Erlach to 
attack ; which order, two days af- 
ter, was rescinded, a message in the 
interval having been received from 
Brnne, that he had received his full 
instructions from the directory, and 
was ready to enter into negotia- 
tion. 
Two membert of the conncil 



were dispatched to Payerfte,to deif 
and to treat. The ultifnatam of the 
direcjtory enjoined the dismtssion of 
tbe militia of Berne, the immoiiate 
creation of a provisionaiy govtm* 
ment on a different basts torn t hit 
existing, the convocatfon of the 
primary asseaoblies at <he end of a 
month, the adoption of tlie fm6- 
pies of popular n^presentattoa simI 
equality of rights, as the basfi* of 
the constitution to be establiihed; 
the unity of the Helvetic itpoblic, 
after the forms and modes to be 
hereafter agreed on belWieea tho 
cantons and their allies $ tbe release 
of those confined for political opt* 
nions -, and die resignation of (be 
powers of the existing gOVerntiKDt 
into the hands of the proviiionarf 
government about to be fbrniei. 
On these conditions, and <m ibe 
immediate withdrawing- of tbe 
Swiss troops, he engaged to proceed 
no further, to keep only pwti ^ 
observation, and to evacuate Svitt- 
erlaud altogether as soon a« ^ 
constitution aould be put* in mo- 
tion. Theae propoaittons were fc- 
fused on the part of the deputatiwi. 
who gave notice to thoavantpo^t' 
of the army of Berne, on rcioniing 
from the French general, tiiat the 
attack was to take place tbe tbilow- 
ing day. The council of Berne, at 
the same tine that it resoinded tbe 
orders given to general D'Erlach 
on the day previous to Ibe ccaauon 
of the armistice, had ai&o voted the 
abdication of their aothoritf, the 
formation of a provhionary §«• 
vernment, and the mission of a acv 
deputation to tlie ftenA geafrtl. 
The di«ibanding of the Swiiairinf 
which Brune insisted on as the con- 
dition of peace, wa« not aiawitcil i^ 
and renewted orders for attick «t 
ten in the moraing ware tiw«n^- 
ted to the different divistoos af the 
Swiss army. In ihe course of tbe 



F O^K El GN HISTORY. 



193 



isy €ceib ordos tfrire^ from the 
counsil of war to.auspeiKi bo&tili- 
ties, M coQseqfoeoce of renewed 
uegouMi^O widi the Frcacb gene- 
ral, who graated a further truce of 
t)»4tf boors : bot, previous to the 
exiHradon of the firsts armisticey 
hcHiiIittes bad bfigoa at the castle 
of Djanack, near the limits of the 
eaoloiM oi SoleQne and BastU o^ 
the refusal pf the Swiss lo leave the 
Freacb io possession of part of a 
bridge, whicb, it- was pretended^ 
th^j kid a tight to guard. Th,e 
f xeocb oaade themselves masters 
not only of cbe bridge, but also of 
the caMie, bfit diicoDtiaoed their 
operat&ona on receiving advice of 
Chereaewal ofih^ araustice from 
the . French commissar/ at Basil, 
who h»d nq^otiated at the ssmc 
ttnie» bttt tn«atOy with thecantpD> 
for the passage cf six tliousand mm 
acroBS the neutral territory. £ui 
thissuspensioB was bat of short du- 
ratloa* The contei^dir.g parties 
were too moch animated agaiast 
c-ach -othrr not Co leixe the first 
{iretext of comif^ to a speedier de- 
iiision than that of prolonged nego- 
tlatlofia. The -oooncil of Berne 
Miras sicsuly equally divided ; but the 
iiraay was in p(%sessioa and utider 
the cMOoaand of those members of 
the gonrernnient who bad been (be 
uoahaken defenders of^tiieold By- 
"iteai* aad who had every ihiog to 
io5e by sobpsission. The French 
^enec^ alao, whose reinforce ments 
had given him a decided superiority, 
aud vcho ft^d the means of com- 
c^aadtn^ by force the terms which 
iii'i qppytrnts refhsed to grant to 
nogois^yeasy had no motive foi* fur- 
ther di3if« The truce of iLirty 
lioorsy wfa«ch would h^ve ended 
on the taofttiog of the third of 
^l^reh* aod whidi had been graj^t- 
ed, according to the official di-' 
-bpgtchesy thitt reparation might be 
i799' 



made for inj arte?, received, and to 
which it seems no attention hid 
been paid, was broken. Of this 
Infraction both parties, as is niual 
u) similar cases,, accuse each other ; 
but the question is of little mo* 
ment, since lecoorse to arms^ on 
both sides had become inevitable. 
The hostilities which had been sus- 
pended at the castle of Dornach on 
the morning of tiie first of March 
were renewed the following day, 
wlien the village of Lagnau, anim- 
portiint post that coverrd Soleure, 
was attacked and taken by Schaw- 
enbourg. The city of Soicure, on 
the menscing and brutal summons 
of the French general, opened its 
gates without resistance. The fol- 
lowing day the senate was dissolved, 
and a proyisionary government of 
eleven members was instituted^ 
(amongst whom were three members 
of the old regency,) of which live 
were sent by Sdiawcnb«>urg as hos- 
tages to the fortress yt Huninguen. 
Whilst the French arinv was march- 
ing to 1 he attack of holeure, a di- 
(Vision of uic army of Brune sum- 
moned Fribourg to surrender. Thi? 
niagiiiiracy acceded to <hc summonn 
00 condiuon that time was given for 
the evacuation of the place by the 
troops of the canton of Berne. Tke 
time having elapsed, the magis- 
trates intimated lo general Pigeau, 
the French cotnmandcr, tliat they 
were no longer masters of the 
place, being under the control of 
the Berne soldiery and the peasan- 
try, amounting to five or six thou- 
sand men. An attack was imme- 
diately ordert-d ; and the tcvn, aft- 
er a short resistance, was entered by 
tjie French op One side, while ihe 
soldiers and peasantry, taking with 
them the cannon and stores of the 
arsenal, escaped on the other, and 
joined the main army posted on the 
river Scn»en, The regency was 
N deposed, 



194 



tj 113 TH S.HjA iSJDij 



vemi»eiilii;»c cpn^scd :.of liortuehs 
dwBcn itjD tbcMctioDS^ iwasonnwd 

'.r^HhedBumoder. of &lleare. and 

EriAnoacgJjeO} o|>poalto poims of:tfae 

line of attack, made rthis Freoeh 

. maaton fa»fllhi<^tlK right aDdrMt of 

. Ihd Sit&M^Atmj, »iid coE<)pciiM the 

Swiss igoberaU to diaoge iJaerr foii- 

4|opt<iaad OMioentre thleii- fbroaau to 

.Q^dctiBcrbek . This, .rctp^t - wtas 

ispdratediwlthont }d8fti6D ihctAde of 

thQi8wisiif' J»ui the^tamedisidbsl artd 

d«rid0B8 (Wihitdi had .iofboted^ibe 

. eouhciU (began abo to pcfvade.lhe 

j^rniy.v/ Th«.:two fol lowing da^s, 

rpASlciijjb^riilM Ficoeli io a irtajtts.t)f 

. ioaofti^QO^joaiglKliavo rendered tbein 

.XDaai«i»0f:&rfie,' had^-tbcf^J^tovQ 

. .fl^ iRtttbo&diBalioD.aDidindbGipiitie 

^of.ihojdpposing.army.. Ibe kft 

Mrio^ .is^L covered feme. .00 the 

. toulb»:; ivtmiAa Fribdovg, .ve\^}t«d 

the day afler tbeiaurmnder of. this 

jiatM.piaoe» and toarcbedto.iBf'rne, . 

-.yito'^^iilhey massMrrcd thcdr room- ' 

:«Mi^diog.. officers^ and^ havitig 

1 ^ibolBav. Qtbo»i tfoiuriif d- 



ihray^ ofcftben attack. ertktfeiiM. 
r Afr the /danger i^tt^.iniDMi m- 
jsacibgc >tiie.> measoror <ol At fe- 
venrroent of ;Beraieibeoijiie.iMe 
fiuct daring: :aikL hKxkbErettt. liir 
ordeV give n: fiat che k^Tof drnpeo* 
|rfe in maasE, ft.nseaaara;jtfkiost.iiii- 
gerotta f endeniajr at' a -molnaK «Bffi 
acdition addceviolt vfley ^ton n0k 
to rank/atnidsi an' IniilRrt^ebnlicBt 
and orgaitisp.ft army*, inf^-foyovtd 
by the .entire tliaaohition of liiefe- 
gericy;; the .idtciiaB^ a^pmiiia^- 
ary ^iive|:|iiDnBt,:and the diibiDii- 
ingiof th&'tffteps.. .Thik matm, 
under .'thdtr in-eaeot: dncunniBMcf. 
:Wtf.iyi8crsMi hnmane, taaxxviffj 
faepe nf.itfi^dive r esis ii a ee iui 
GBasedpDCit;only "^om tbesaperiortfr 
ofibe «»itniy« bnt from therenlttKi 
dEaeriioa whidh had udcen plate in 
iheif ownshny. Aa ihtAnaftdp- 
yeroment iaod the disbaDdifigvf ^' 
Army, were hefcd «iA aa the if n» f< 
(Mttfieailinn^ the: first aatjoi liKp- 
vifi]fiBary..goTerntncm:v8t the w- 
tifiCfttten ofMhese nnsssoic^ls A' 
French' gcMral i^ bat ^<iRsa tenc^ 



.midattic; . Brmie 'ivar -^^aeii 
f^oiibiiedl MRfh lIstL.' diskardos cksi 
re>gtiediboibkr Jte afosy ind i^' 
aeatto^j'and^^iiow.biaiatcdv in v^^ 



tfj thrir 
pOs^ijCoosiderabie portioDi of' the -had )been •dfftl^cd s^faaiinilie ^1^* 
r.i{W Ming^mhick, reti'eafluig) torn .^ine» vioit yet nnbreften] stA^^'- 
, S9ie$kfej.^o ocKvened Beree .toiawrds vesbianeetwote aHaaiaeciroQRM)^ 
: tliMS{^Dteli»r.dyb^nded> andce^rkued 
-]tottheiri*;boaks. -The troops eoai- 
:..tK)^0g:die loesirei posted lat Nidau 
,<linftheyiftnf Bienne,. asacfslMing 

~HtnntiAltQPUily»T^ec4 likewtaejabout 1 tiontothe-disbatidiRgtoftiliati^ 
looQlikclheiili affioeis< !l:be; ndctinis , (ois'wiHch'ocandition^ ifcooidfng ' 
?9fi theie : lnQr,;LeDcusiog* thcoa !of in- im Sormer tp^opotitian^ <be; w» 
uapafiity for! of treason ^r:s(ad theao)- withidiivii.-:his i^bcreaW'ufbet' Bff^ 
v.4iQfSw^ahaking^ off thrh^ authority should irredive.^a Frdncfr i^aniten 
..OAJLJbe^rjrntreiiti; cxerctse.:thDir»wn Thoa aabStrary aeqiiaMs^"^^^ 
.^ Jil^genoent'^with sesprct to^4he\ no^a- was deen&ed : 11 detnahd^iaf) ^s» 
,v9fi$iA ti^.be.jadopted». and tbo: iiuli- ufwatifelittnnar. stiboiisssaop err 
2Klar)iiirr0B|genieotsjiajsidk. posidonrto more e^feitedi^entscali'JS&difMRM^ 
.ij^ tfktnAi iThft -^mingents' from: And :>fM!dar»wisreig^^^ 
..ihftXMSitonsxofiitinned taiffovpi the nsistavcb at z rnqSattttavlb^ n»ta 
.l5HM^9Mli<l9: <s>r. xatbes^ iviih inmreiBnce i^eoameal^tou^gni'itbtof ^ 
. ftudaftoelhanfeol Jnthdicoiniison •pqratioB. \- . .^iu. ^^''''*^ ^ ^tlj 



FOUSIGN HISTORY. 



195 



to tiMonrtkiodsoBib wett^at«ight . 

' iHm i&kiliiu8B»' iod FfBfMmlmo, : 

^ theTOBd of SblsonB and Beroe 

i^-GeauMni^ I:iiap«o« sod Nem- 

AQdi^/fdliga «B*fiie xmr Seoseo, 

''catf^^ /ram Bcmcr to F^riboorg. 

OoDsnteciUjr >»eslceo€d by dewr- 

t'oirttd'iodttdpiiiicL tfoe «fircuve 

toroftMoppoMd m tbe Fneoch did 

not amottnt to Inlf -ilio' nooiber ; * 

i>iit tbe7piMtiaiiftUkeo'b]^ ibe Sw^ss 

^^^m xafMble of 'stai^' d^ence* 

Tlis amaok do tbe,viwle iiim begaa 

carif on die mormof of Cbe fifth. 

1 be «f«if ondsr Brune^nMrchfldiD 

^breemhimro tovtrdctbcaie pottt > 

W «be-^oapel fbroe of both 

arnun-ina oBited at .Nounncb. 

The omifaBt bstcd sWerBl bwUrs, 

«i]Ji«vitidiacc«8S} tbeSwis, in- 

feriorj id .om&bcr aod ^disciplioe. 

^^e aaonaled by betoie^ and itee- 

penHr ooorage^ tfnd yielded tbe field 

vfbfttU^iotiiBtil tbey had made a 

<ireadM oanuge -of tbe aasatlants^ 

^d fttsmiod *k: also out tfaioly with 

^boo: eriFD dead. ' Al^be .tamelidie 

•hfr^ioitt to.^br wntthtsf-Bovn^ uo- 

^r tb cc tti M Ba nd of ^speooRal d'£r - 

hcb, «em attadsedHby Sdkaiirtfn- 

W^ ct/Sckihineivf Dbbdis^ 

^(OQa-4hoBoe, CbeSwhrrfeitetedto 

Prauaaiioia; vbere cfae^fliado fltrong 

^mntne^ ngr kit ttte gnoosd till 

^^biigrd^oyicid. to Inpld B tt Hibcu j 

^beir ibdy ibniicdiaKiinv'0od<«iB- 

UtiteditaixithieM^ artadK auUrttnan. 

ii'onDQ4;frtti):UAe»ei^ ^bayirbCreated 

t» 9Dc4i«Qicr>;- aod - todt poweasic^n 

of '« f«Rx6dabie; and advanhigcoDs 

)mt poH'iher'heighff- oflAUmer- 

<'^iiW%idK«e^dfiiefsdtd'b)r a«haia 

of 'i»cliii.iKttiheir «^ty ft Jforesc* of 

pioo Aftd^^-^baggygfoittid on ibeir 

kff^, lob^troc^iog . ibo^rneKi with 

Mled (roes, and placing. airdiig^ pa- 

iiiadofa Id the froot^ Uiey Mopped 



ftr awhile lhe.raf>id porfuit of the 
Fttnob at my. ' Hcve aooiher det- 
pcmcpcomtaat«nuedv nor were the 
Swiss dislodged, till, afftr cnskiog 
eonsidsrable luvock -of 4he assail- 
antt, tb<7:fboiid.tiKiDaeli«f nearly 
lorioondicd. ^*'^ 

l^tin overpowered hf Dtsmbers^ 
they 'fled at last in diaerdcr from 
this poaition, which cbey had so well 
defieaded> leaving tJKsr artillery be* 
liind'tlieni, and Jbrmed^a 6fib time 
00 . the height beforcrBerde. Here 
the battle- was renewed with the 
sacaeiofaBtinalie courage, and wiib 
mote dseadfot eieoofieni es the 
French had' to conieod with the 
fury at' the disofgantaad jnullitode^ 
ecootip wboin -^tn women and 
ebildrea, ^wko fieU tbe useless vie* 
tiflot of ioeffectite tesMiaiice. Tbe 
capitulation of the provisiooary go* 
veromcot put sn enidtofGDrther hos* 
tilities, and saved Beitre from the 
horrors of an assaoh. 

Tho ' entry of ' "dcbaweobonrg'a 
army info Herne pet an tmd to for* 
tbra^^rrsialailce on every oilier point. 
The (ffo^t of Gemmiogea* weakened 
by a drtacfamcnt sent.to-st^ngthm 
that oi< Ncaeoech; was.. taken pos- 
aeBsion^ of by a telnmn of the srmy 
of general Brotse, Ibe remainder of 
tiie Swi^s troops who defended it, 
together with the remainder of the 
Swiss ermy in thk qnarier, having 
retreated ia disorder, on hearing of 
the GBpHtdatioo tif Berne. Parioos 
at ihcir flc-feat, the Swiss »oIditry 
' turned ibeir rage oti their own of- 
fioers^^ some of whoai^ (ifid among 
* othefa thurr two adjntant-'gciieraK, 
tfaey •dsaasatrred >on the spot. The 
cmintry to •. the aooth of- Berne, 
whatevet might be the fate of war 
in defending'tiie capital, ijsd been 
judged inaocefHible to the invaders. 
Thither' the cbitit«, on the approach 
- of thePcench array, and Dome time 
previous to lae commencement of 
K 2 bosti.ities« 



196 



BRITISH AND 



iio<ttiUties, bad sefH aims aidlleiyi 
sod a coo>i^erabl« qoantity ^f ipo 
ncyi and diUher, afier the,, last 
struggle, tlicy turned fheir &tep9, in 
liopes oC ra Uy i(ng their scatlered 
troops, and forming pointt of fg- 
sistance. But, to whatever cause 
it may be attributrdi the fidelity 
and affectioD of i he soldier and 
the peasant were every where con- 
vened into acta of hatred aqd n)ur- 
der. M. de Steiguer> tbe; CK-avoy- 
rr io( fierne, who, io resigning, hia 
oiiice to the provisionary govern)- 
meot, had gone to share \j^c danger 
of the combat with genrral D Kr- 
lach; escaped (Iac fury of- hU coun- 
trytneiixatid, traversing the lake qf 
Thun and , the nnountain^ oi Vvk" 
derwaiden., - readied th<» en^peror's^ 
dominions in safety ', but the ge»e- 
.ral, whose bravery meriled a dif- 
feVent fate, having beeti recognised 
in his iiight» was sei^d oc^ by 
the peasant!!, and> after . suffering 
every e&cess of ignouoiny whilst 
they were dragging hiin back a pri- 
soner to Berne, was, together with 
his aide-du> camp, most inhnmanly 
butchered on the road. , 

Berne, now in possession of the 
Frencharmy, was protected by r^e 
presence (/ the officeri from any 
extraordinary excesses; but the 
omintry around was subjected to the 
devastation cf the a^UU^ry^,. and 
prinetpoliy those pnder thi; com- 
nian^fof Scluiwenbogrg^. who were 
♦guilty of variety of okjl^age. Some 
of these pluaderers were shoe by 
order of general Brunei but. a great- 
er Dumber were killed by the pea- 
•aotry in tiie. c^^mmissiop of . the 
theftv Many ia^taijces of atrocity 
are likewi^ie recorded, of brutal, v io- 
'lencct.ferpetrated on, woroejj, of 
...whommuinberji fell ia the field of 
battle. ., But . this iraojiii^nt ipillage 
was lost in the Iwstile appiO|>riation 
which afttrwaixls took place of the 



pubUc.treasor^y the puWic sfofw, 
the.arsenal^ the caneon^ and othei 
property .belonging to the stale. 
The proclamation issued \)j Bruce, 
from Payerne, lb the jcopte ot 
Berne, had piven them the assuraocf 
that the object of Ws mission wai 
the deliverance of their coantry 
from the tyjanny of their. oligar- 
chy; and that their persons, pro- 
perty,' and political ,indcpendeuce, 
placed under the guarantee of the 
French" republic, shntild rest is 
perfect security. The oligarchy 
was dispersed, their arfny waa div 
hand<-^d or destroyed j bdt the pub- 
lic wealth, whith belonged to ilie 
regenenated people.^sioce the French 
came in the character of deliverer?, 
was not on that account tnore sa- 
cred or secure. The submission el 
Berne to jthc French army io^- 
pKosed the governments Of the otbr 
cantons still more to tlie obscrr- 
ancc of, their oath taken at the dirt 
of Aran. Apologies were sent by 
some' to the iFrench commisaroi 
and general. Tor having fornisfcei 
their contingents. In othfers, sur."! 
SA Zurich, the codncils wbo ^*»'' 
prudently held the reins bodcr \\r. 
name of provisionary gevcmrr.fr'. 
waiting the result of the cont«tv-iu 
the magistracy of B^rne, it^igp;^ 
thorn into the. hands of the depa'i'^' 
of the people. The influence a< * *«' 
, of flic clergy Bs of the aristocracy 01 
. Lucerne^ who also kept po«scfcnjn 
p( tl^e goTemmeat und^r the p'tJ* 
visionary title which -had been g*^ 
nerally aidopted, bad hitherto n. : 
weaghcdthat of thePi'encb intrr- 
est. The fear of s^ifig^hfcir cm- 
ton occupied by Frenqb trw^^i 
which was ilie evil most depreratni 
by ail the cantons, ahd ajfcfr* xroru" 
of menace ax^d cxhoftiVron tfoc 
the French cdmniiisary, led the pr- 
visionary government to rntT :''t 
treaty j and, pn the promise rt li? 

Frcn*. 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



197 



Frcnpbgeiieral, that ^e acceptance 
of the'. new constitution should be. 
the condition of peace, the govern- 
ment mdaiide its provisibnal fpice j 
the tree oflib^t^ was planted, and 
the prtinat)' as^inblies named their 
represeijtaUves to the national meet* 
ijJg* vs bich w^s about to take place, 
of dejputies from the different can- 
tons and subject states. But this 
^yicit of Ir^ emit J, which pervaded 
l/iepTain^ had not made much pro- 
gress ampDgst the mountains of 
Sv% itzerlaoa. Whilst, from motives 
of di^ereni l.ind^ the citizens of 
the l^r^er cantons were sending 
their representatives to form a ge- 
neral assembly', the centre of the 
^jower an^ the unity of the Hel- 
vetic republic, deputies from the 
liule. cantou of Uri, Schwilz, Un- 
der walden, and GlarL;, assembled 
at ^cil^ii^l>> resolved to maintain 
their present gov ermucnt*, and in- 
vited Xhe neighbouring cantons of 
Appen^el and St. GaTi to join in 
the coijfederacy. ^ declaration of 
Lheli sentjmeDks w^s sent to general 
Brane» $tating^ that their constitu- 
tion bad )>een for man^ ages a de- 
m-x:racj fo^nded on Ih^ sovereignty 
of the people and thd rights of 
man J that Uiey possessed nothing 
"but t^eir religion, their liberty, and 
their flocks^ *whic|) they hoped the 
French napon woutdl permit tliem 
to enjoy i;i pe^ce 5 proiplsing, on 
their \idej inat they would never 
Uke ar^ns against it. The answer 
iHurned by 3run6, as^^ortng them 
of the continuance of the friend- 
ship ojf the French, and that their 
coa^^^y, should not be visited by the 
French troops, (icsiring only iheir 
4*3Wt to the new constitution in re- 
turn, occasioned the zt)eeting of 
another .cpnkress atBrunnen, where 
it v«'2|s decided that their prqgent 
goveiTio^ent should be defended 
agai .. what^vei attack' should be 



made. Meanwhile, Brnnc was re-% 
called ftoin Switzerland, and the 
comnnr.d of the army entpusted tu 
Schawenbour^k^. Iliihertol^engaud' 
and Brane had been (he sole agunts 
on tlie part of th^ French, for ihtf 
civil and coihtary atfairs of the fra-* 
tcrnising cantons ; but, as the sceua 
of conquest or aHvction enlarged, 
commissaries and agents Li' the ea- 
emtive directory Here scattcretl 
through the country with profu- 
sion. The treaty made by thtt 
other cantons, on the suirender of 
Berne^ had hitherto circumscribed 
tlie exactions of Uie Fiench emis- 
saries in (heir organigatinn of pkiti-^ 
der. Ti)e arsenal ot Berne Jiad 
been emptied into the ib; tress of 
Huningaen, and along |>roce>sion of 
wffggoni had conveyod the Aowmnt 
of the- public ireasBry into tlj^i 
French coders. Men^aud^ the tor- 
mer commi^ary, Iwd lilinJ up the 
part allotted to him by ii^sol^nt mc* 
nare, and l.e(Jarlier vvaji >ent wiiii 
more ^substantial orders. On his 
arrival, a contiibtition ot* tiileen 
millions of Tivres was levied on the 
members of the late ^ovfinmcntsJ. 
The loss of tlK»ir bailiwicks, their 
salariei, and their power, vas deem* 
ed a puni «hinent too gentief.ir i hpir 
polttical tran^ign s;ians; arvd^as the 
offence ^^•as not eonhned> to ihu*' 
cantons in pos«e<sion of the French 
arms, the purses of the ultgaichs of 
Zttrich and Lucerne* vvuro com- 
prehended in the proscrlf t Ian. A 
milder ermtriUition, wluwU had uL 
first been cxactp»i, was paid wiUi 
scrupulous exav.liio>5; bai this now 
demand having caused ruqion- 
strauces with respect to Uie poshibi- 
lity of raiding so immense;* sunv, . 
several of the sed it huis. senators ot 
Benie were arrested by prder (>f Le 
Carlicr, and transferred as ho*tagea 
to the citadel of flaninguon. 
Wbil^ the French (Miu-<sarie» we ^ 
N i • fii'tiUing 



}9S 



BRItlSH AND 



employers M Beme, the c^^l^on,^ 
vho lud; accepted the prqiT^^rred 
eon^tiiui^'QD, fent their depulipi to 
fbrm a Iqg ishiUye asscnibl^ at Arau. 
The dispositic^ to indepeiul^^Dce, 
which this a^iembly betrayed io it« 
openingy wasiill accordant v\itb the 
views ai>d poliitcs of the cabinet, of 
the Lusembourg, The impressions 
of gratitude towards the Frt^ophgo- 
vernmenty Jn aiding them to make 
their f;^volutioiK >yere considerably 
"weakeQed by Uie i9ode> in wbich 
the asfiistap^e wa^'administerqd; and 
the seatimenU of the .legi/^lature 
were. not disFembledy whenOchs, 
the arti^c<;r of the revoiutioi^ the 
leading counsel in Swq»s ppUtict at 
Paris, was;exchuied frpin.th^ list in 
the nocnination of dirfctors./ Nor 
was this indignity confined tx> bvs 
person alone ; the constit^lioh 
ivhich he )iad framed was )(r^ed 
with similar disrespect. Consideriog 
its insulated acceptance at the time 
it was proposed rather as ^ point of 
union »^ a pledge of peace, ,than 
as the undisputed basis of their fu- 
ture government, the assembly or- 
dered a commission to pass it in re- 
vision, and present such changes 
and modifications as should* be 
judged expedient* Of the,eleya- 
tion of Qchs to the dignity vf di- 
rector no doubt had been enter- 
tained ; and) had his election b^ttn 
deemed insecure^ the same man- 
date tbat enforced the acceptance 
of the c(H)stitution might have en- 
sured this, point aJfo. But ttie 
members of the Hclvettcjegi&lature 
were in no disposition to compli- 
ment the f French directory with 
any poftion of their iibertiei^.pn^a 
matter saip)poriam;. nor vv)ere they 
less indigf^ni. at thtt usurpaitio^s 
and exactions of IV hich theinvasMm 
of their oounlry liad been.niade 
the pretence. 



] The vengesnce- of the '/J&cctory 
against this s^ct of disaff^paVai 
delay e(3, (torn the coBsiofrauoa 
that an rmmediale interposition tu 
amend the cfiofce of the^ ^einbl; 
would be hazarding top simich in 
the present coryuncturel^ ^5 ^"; 
stitution had^ot as jej^ l^ii uni- 
versally , apqepted } . the iKtle can- 
tons nojt only rcftised it io^.tkero^ 
selves, bu,^ wer|? in<^ne$ ta dinpnic 
tbe^right of .choice in their neigh- 
bours^ 1 he cl^rgjT oT*tte!p?tV^^ 
cantons of Luceri^e ai;d^& 
due exaxtiia^ion^ oaddecWe^tbt 
it cqntaiue^d nothing hostile to the 
catholic and apostolic xeligiOQ; bat 
the iess enligfitcnei or more cod- 
scientiou3 pastors pf the ipountjins 
haci discovered variety of fa^relicsl 
and damning matter, suu) waracd 
their flocl^s against the qpntsmioa- 
fion. The invitation xpadetolhc 
regencies oi those cantons^ hjp- 
neral Brune^ when they signiDw 
to htm their opposition? to any 
change,justi(ied the measures v^'jii^'i 
they took against its, introducUGu; 
hnt the aljtack made on the canioa 
of Zurich, and the aid given toih« 
peasants of.tbe canton pf laccinfi 
vvho had risep i/i insurreption a- 
gainst the. inhabitants of the cit}, 
on accot\nt ,pjt theif accep}a"<*> 
fiirnished a pretence to the French 
for further lapacity and Jji^**^®^* 
I^uce^ne.^fT^s evacuated on the ap- 
proach of. the French ^.{^'^F** 
sants^ and tbe.»tr5)ops otlfo ntile 
cantons, why< pacricd.aw^y ^'^" 
them whstev.fr lhey,Jfou»i ?^^'^ 
visions, a^iK^ 4ff^rounJiiop* ,*^ 
^riiilcry; but .tlie'^iedi^ap^emais 
by the divisions o^ tljo,si(Iepf ^^^^ 
lake of Zafi9h* gwe/fh*f:.fe? 
more* serious, occupatio^.-t T^Jj^ 
army.of-t^e united Cl»i!»W?; °i 
ScKwita?. Uri," tjnderwawep. and 
rGlari>, was. made up rf thuselardy 
mountaineers, whose anccslois naJ 

here- 



F O f^ E^I G ^ 

heretafote presented so fbrmidabfe 
i^raSi^rt to ft^T^afi/'c^lhc 
liod«^ ot Adsnia i no^d^rf^ctroa-' 

the^ Wcbefct ^.iotti, tHs occasioq bcly 
tl\«If' (d^ibrendanti * Led on by ei- 
pedeM:^ oAoM, ahd niiifed b)r 
the sacbe seotimeDt ' of resistance 
agaWi^wiiat the^r ddetned ^e in^ 
Vaakyi of tbeiir ri^tsadd' liberties^ 
tfie' Sjf& iboght cvtry where with 
deisperste cbura^ ittd diarked ad- 
dress. ' Itk th$^ ▼artods battfe»wfaf ch 
took pla<^ bfl the fronti^ of tfaone 
cactbai, the Fireoeb' tost opwaKis of 
two taonsand txxcni vat agtiinst a 
sap^drhy of BfSinbers, whioi every 
day i^drtased, longer Te^tatltfe wad 
xneffectoa). Tbc chiefs o#ere4 
terms o€ capttulat^ort/ "to wUich 
Sdia:Weoboat§r* accede ; atid the 
conititiittoa was iccb^icd, op- cotr<- 
ditfoii tl^t DO contiib^tidns should 
be fetied, and that Ho Frebch troops 
sfoiifd eater the terrrtbry of the 
rantoiis. ; 7 -. . . . i. - . 

Xhxi ^resistance to (he French 
Vaabot cbnfitved tO'the iirtle cao- 
toas. *t\i6 ' inbabitafHS' of »hc Vp- 
pcr" ViTlais, wKo, ,hi "cohforttilfy to 
circdtiiscabces, ' h^d made choice df 
a prorxsTonary gbveraOicttt^ ' having 
re<:eiv6d saccours in drhis md am- 
cnanitroD from those can tons/poar- 
cd ' down from thisir ' mountaio^^ 
took pojsdssion of Stoh/and arrest- 
c<J file ttacmb^rs of' the' ^etbporaiy 
gbvernmciijt; Thti ;iiJsuVfc<it^, 
^iidb 'Oth<^ of 'less tbdibeot that 
took olaee fti drffe^r^tit qaarterd, 
bcihs^enfirely a^fJeksHi, and the 
FrmtH "directdry'^a^^^** Nothing 
fafihef'to dread frorir Ycsfstdnce, 
^K^^ta iiettci oh tlh p^^ns of 
^ve^hg ^the iolinlt oiibred to' thetr 
a^dhmtt.ln the r«^ectk>n bi OtJiM 
/byUhc fegWaHVe^assetniily. The 
rcoicbstt^dcesof the'ftelf^tic (ihi- 
'h2ris^6r;'' igitkkt thi ^ spdKatki^s 
si^&fcfa^ti^etfeSaiHr tikiftjiHace, had 



b^en ^ated with inattentiont and 
Ki^tsbff'vHthdtrr^sp^ai ^fbe>e« 
br(^emrfitbhs Whtch^Ue Made offi- 
eially'bf Ihe Insotebt %{^edat)oaa 
of i$tr French emiMri6f< had becQ 
atls\r<?r^ by denials of 'tbe'faci^, or 
,dj>probat!dni of 'the deed; -1 Via 
ceretnony ^as (>b^efved. till'thcHr 
pYari of' osurpBtfbn was ttatur^, 
aud'dn agent a^{^ntedii^6re'\fitted 
to carrf their designs ihft/>ieca- 
tion Chan' those who h^ hitherto 
beeiv 'enfnnted with' tbdfh Ohle^s. 
JVfengand kod Le Ca/|ieir wire rc- 
c^Ue'd/'attd Rapinat ip^ar^ ^dh 
the stxfrte. Hapi 6af v^sla the ' bro- 
Iherlo-kw of the d inset d^Rewbieif. 
'hitherto Beroe had' tkferf the >*fief 
theatre ' of fiscal ' ^^xaiioh: ^ The 
ihii^date' of extort?^ btir the iate 
patricians h td ^efcn^'^btrt'^ sldwly 
obeyed:' hi order to* ebforce the 
payment, new hoHageS. fmni Xo- 
cerne were transferred td the for- 
tre« of Huntngnen. The" seals of 
Haplnat were placed On all the 
public coffers of the ca^rttons. The' 
constituted* authoriilei; ; Aftcj^ the 
knost dfgeot represenratSbns made 
fe V«i?n*t6 the French directory and 
S^havtrehbonrg/affixed th^ national 
ieai^on the side of those of Rapi- 
'iiat>' to pitvent the consommation 
of the pillage. Eapifiat tears off 
f!fe '\tat, and addresses ii ' l^ter to 
the^elveiic directory, expn^ssed in 
l€rttii tbef' most outrageous ahd in- 
«tili^n^, 'id Which he itistructs them 
thab theif utmost power is bodnded 
to the Tight of petition and remon-* 
afraneCi bat that atiy opposition to 
the operations or orders of the 
French government M^dM meet 
y Ith its due ptmishment. The cor* 
^e^otidefifce' of Men^add With the 
abbot of £Sngelberg» whbti he in- 
(Itiiat^'td'the edmmisssry th^ suY- 
tttadHi of' adthority <ov«r itibjects 
who'had -been i^ised ikitt> opilikoOe 
b^ fiis^atdraal pttfedtiofa, w^' Who 
N 4 ' ^ ^ ' had 



105 



BRITISH A N I> 



fcad enjoyed the substantial blcssin^sjs 
Cf liberty cinder his benignant ad-- 
hiinistration, was also brutal and 
Insolent; bat (he abbot was left in 
Ihc enjoyment of dispensing his 
bounties. * Rapinat appears; the' 
levy of near A million sterling on 
the contents of Switzerland wa^ 
riggtouxly cxecoted 3 the monastic 
treasures vanish ; and tlie famous 
abbey of Biofidlen, from its active 
opposition agkinst the principles 
and progress of the French, was 
levelled with the ground. 

But thougliSwiizerlandhaddrui.k 
deep of the cup of ignominy, the 
vengeance of the directory was not 
to be satiated while the dregs re- 
mained untasted. Hitherto the 
punishmen} of aristocratical offences 
had been tlie pretext for the extor- 
tions of avarice. Resistance against 
the mandate^ of despoiism had been 
marked by £ncs, impri cnments, 
and carnage. The oligarchies had 
disappeared, and an equal and homo- 
geneous aduiitv'strction united ihe 
lasiofth(. rebellious cant r.j. The 
.sovcreigiity of the Helvetic repub- 
lic was seated in the univcisaliiy of 
the peoffle, and confided to rcprc- 
ficntaiives freely chosen, and ina- 
gisTa'Cs and officers culy elected; 
and the constitution of the French 
directory was admitted as the babis 
of their future government. But 
the sovereignty thus xiisoliJated, 
an J solemnly recognised, to which 
all wer«? taught to look with reve- 
rence, was no Object of respect to 
the original framcrs, when the free- 
dom and independence they boast- 
ed to have created were found in 
opposition to their more sovereign 
will. Rapinat's strides m confisca- 
tion, which even Mengavrd, in a 
ktlcr from Basil addressed to the 
'Helvetic directory, styled *' abuse 
of power, and depredation ;" his 
dictaiorial mandates and threats of 



military execution, instead of exci- 
ting fear, or prompting to rep«tic- 
atrce and tubmisuoo« had served 
only to awaken general abhorrence ; 
a^id, so rtvctcd was this feeling of 
indignation^ J that the condescending 
letter by which the tneoibera of tlie 
French directory iostrticted lb«r 
brethren, the directors of tb^Hel* 
vetic republic, that the report ffiat 
Ocbs had lost their confidence was 
calumnious, and that he was si ill in 
the full enjoyment of their fitvoor, 
as the person to whom Switxcrisod 
was peculiarly indebted for its rege- 
neration, was passed l^ witfaotu bo- 
pourable mention. 

The dull apprebensiooa of the 
regenerated Helvetians were oof yet 
awake to theser multiplied hinti; or, 
if they understood them, they were 
too stubborn to bend their new in- 
dependence to fhe will of a foreign 
power, and dishonour their conn 
try by the choice df a soprerae ma- 
gistrate whom they despised ts a 
sycophant, or regarded as a traitor. 
I'his opinion respecting the ot^ert 
of the favour of the cabinet of the 
Luxembourg was not dissembled. 
sifxc the Swiss directory ^published 
a drr la ration in answer to the in- 
veciivrs with whidi the disap- 
pointed candidate had filled the 
' public papers, representing him ai 
a viie cnlnmniaior, perhaps io se- 
cret intelligence with the old oli- 
j;archy, and the author ai the mis- 
fortunes of their country. Thtr<« 
distinctions were not understood by 
the French diieclory, whose idcjs 
of indfiK-ndence, so fsr as 1 hey 
conc^nied the libeinles of otbor 
countri'is differed ^om those of 
Helvetic legislators. Ra pi nac was 
ordered to rectify their ipistakes; 
but it was previously oecessarv to 
clothe his orders with a due share 
of power for the txecutiom Ac- 
cordingly, Schawenbourg, the bfr- 

raid 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



Ml 



tild of bts omnipotence, published 
a decree of the FreAch directory, 
by which Baphrat was invested 
with sdl powen, ctttl, political, and 
financisl; "with nndispoted suprc- 
Uiacy otcr tbe operations of the 
general ' and ihe army i with an- ■ 
thoritj fo depose and banish from 
the Swiss territory all disobedient 
Bdministtalors, comnussaries of war^ 
aodofllers, Whose conduct was un- 
iteserring tbe confidence of the 
French gOTemment; and he was 
likewise enjoined to make diligr:nt 
srareh, and bring to justice all plun- 
dercn and robbers, of whatever 
nnk or descripcion. The former 
part of this directorial mandate 
AlKed Swftierland with consterna- 
tioQ I H was difficnlt to penetrate 
Ibc ^whole of the mystery; but 
the fotrer danse wa^ more inteU 
hgibiei STsd, lest Rapinaf should 
be itiisJcd in the object of his re- 
seafches, the Swiss directory pub- 
iisbcd a decree in aid of that part 
of the mandate, ordering the mu- 
nicipal officers of every commune, 
and erery individual who had 
charges of plunder and oppression 
against tbe Fknench^ to address tbrm 
to the minister of justice, clothed 
with the necessary formalities, that 
they might be laid before the com- 
missftry,* and Iske^^Mse be sent to 
Pans. Whetbcr this fraternal prof- 
fer of atsistamce proceeded from 
contemptuous indignation, or re- 
publican simplicity, Rapinat on- 
dertook to repress their insolence, 
or correct their errors. The cor- 
rection was* mde, but it was inflicted 
with the hand of a master. At llie 
uod'of this cTcatOTc of the French 
dit^dsory, the dreams of sovereignty 
lod hStlonel independence, whi:h 
the 8ss«^ly had cherished as sab- 
staotial blessings, dissolved and dis< 
appeared. A stroke of Rapinat's 
pea at once anRihiiatcd both lb- 



gulaiive and exemlive powm in 
Switzerlaod. Of tbe Helvetic di- 
rectory, two member I were depo<ied -, 
ministers sr.d secretaries were swept 
away, and t hi repretentai ion of the 
people menaced wirh mutilatii^o 
and ostracism. To the stopefjc- 
finn which this act of pro -consular 
violence occasioned, succeeded a 
general cry of indigoatioir from 
every qnaiter; and so nreqvivo* 
cally was it expressed m Pan«, il:at 
tbe leading members of the French 
legislature, who had hitbeno be- 
held, in roast'aioed silence, the 
abuses of directorial power to the 
conquered countries, awoke these 
governors from their ddiriom of 
despotisn>, and menaced them with 
an inquiry into the conduct of their 
civil agents in Switzerland. 'Whc 
ther these remonstrances might hare 
made due impression on the minds 
of the directors, or whether their 
own apprehensions were awakened 
by the fear of a general revolt 
against their tyranny in the country 
where it was so atrociously exer- 
cised, and universally execrated, 
they took advice of rhrir better 
thoughts, and promised instant repa- 
ration. Asliamed, not of the tyran- 
ny, bnt of the ill success uhirh at- 
tended their endeavours, they shifvd 
the criminality of the ai tempt from 
themselves On the instrument of 
their orders; and, by a fnrrral ard 
public decree, commanded Sdriw- 
enbourg to write to the Helvetic 
assembly, disavowing the conduct 
of Rapinat, and rcci\\\r.^ him from 
his post. But, though fjiled in en- 
•deavooring to accomplish the oir'-ct 
they had in view by violent m<"3n«, 
the. directory did not relinquish thf; 
attempt. The French general, the 
consliioted organ cf the directory, 
was instructed to commnnic^.te to- 
the cooncil, that, although the no- 
miaation made by Rapinat of Ochs 

ard 



19» 



BRITISH AND 



that he was not able to accede to 
these conLliirooft without tht; per- 
mission of his government^ granted 
a trace of iiUtenda^s, in order to 
signify the propoMtions of the de* 
puties of heme, and receive the 
instruction* of ibe directory ; b;it 
the deputation which had been sent 
to Basil to confer with the French 
commissary, having penetrated the 
designs of his goveromcot, made 
#.nown to their constituents their 
opinion, that the only means of 
avoiding hostilities were the imme- 
diate e&ecutton of tiie articles of 
the proclamation, the abdication of 
the regency, and tlie creation of a 
provisionary government. 

Duriog the truce both armies re- 
ceived reinforcements. The re- 
jgenciet of the cantons, save Basil 
and Schautiliaasen, which had com- 
pleted tbeir revolutions, sent tbetr 
contingents, but^ so stow and in- 
complete, and so encumbered with 
instructions, as to show that they 
bad little iiope of success, or that 
they took but slight interest in the 
cause. Thus abandoned, the go- 
vernment of Berne was left to sus- 
tain, almost alone, the whole force 
of Uie enemy, and defend like- 
wise the neighbouring cantons of 
Fribourg and Soleure, which were 
also open to attack. As the term 
of the armistice^ which was to ex- 
pire on the J St of ^larch, drew 
nearer, the debates of the council 
b^ame more indecisive. Four 
days previous to the term of the 
armistice the council gave unlimit- 
ed power to general D Erlach to 
attack i which order, two days af- 
ter, was rescinded, a messiage in the 
interval having been received from 
Brone, that he had received his full 
instructions from the directory, and 
was ready to enter into negotia- 
tioD. 
Two memberi of the council 



were dispatched to P^yerttt to hot 
and to treat. The uitimatuflu of the 
direcrory enjoined the disrotssteoof 
the militia of Berne, the imniedisttf 
creation of a provisionaty govern* 
ment on a diffetent bash from thtt 
existing, the convocatfon of the 
primary asseotblies at the end oft 
month, the adoptioa of tbe princi< 
pies of popular vepreaentation sod 
equality of rights, as tbt ba^ of 
the constitution to be established; 
the unity of the Helvetic republic, 
after the forms and modes to be 
hereafter agreed on between lbs 
cantons and tlieir allies ; the release 
of those confined for political opi« 
' nions -, and tbe re&tgaation of the 
powers of the existing govemmeot 
into the hands of the provistonarj 
government about to be foroiei. 
On these conditions, and on ibe 
immediate withdrawing * of ibe 
Swiss troops, he engaged to proceed 
no further, to keep only pcati of 
observation, and to evacuate Switt- 
erland altogether as soon at the 
constitution sould be put in mo- 
tion. Theae propositions were re- 
fused on the part of the depotstion. 
who gave notice to the avant pwti 
of the army of Berne, on re(t)raing 
from the French general, that the 
attack was to take place the follow- 
ing day. The council of Beroe, « 
the same tine that it rescinded tbe 
orders given to general D'trlacii 
on the day previous to ihe ccssatiw 
of the armistice, had also voted \nt 
abdication of their aoiboHtf, tlw 
formation of a provUionary g*' 
vernment,and the missiol of a oer 
deputation to the Fiea«b general. 
The diiibanding of the Smi#ns]r. 
M'hich Brune insisted on as tbe con- 
dition of peace, wai not assented t^ 
and renewed orders tor atiei* «' 
tei\ in the moraing ware woWj^- 
ted to the different divisions oi ibc 
Swiss army. In the coiiric «^^^ l 



F O^R £ i G N HISTORY. 



193 



vsy -£peali orders acrived from the 
couiMftl of war to^tiupend bo&tili- 
tics, io co^seqiieoce of renewed 
uegouatiw) with the French geae*- 
ral, who granted a further truce of 
thirty hours : hoi) |Nrevious to the 
expiration of the first, anDitttce^ 
iKHtilkiet had bfsgon at the castle 
of Qowch, oear the Umiis of the 
eaoCoas o^ Soleqre and Basil, o^ 
the refosal of the Swias to irave the 
French ia posaeasioa of part of a 
bridge, whtcb« it was pretended, 
they h«Kl a right to guard. Th,e 
French oaade themselves masters 
Dpi only of the bridge, but also of 
the casUcy hot discontinued their 
operations on recehriog advice of 
the renewal of li^ armistice from 
the. French coauniasary at Basil, 
who bad negotiated at the same 
timet butinvato, with the canton, 
for the passage ofiix thousand mro 
acroBS the neolial territory. Bui. 
(his^ospeoaioB was but of short du- 
ratioo. The centeipdii.g psriies 
Were too much animated against 
rach oLhn not to seize the first 
pretextof Gooaic^g to a speedier de- 
cision than that of prolonged nego- 
tiations. The - oooncil of Berne 
waa oearly eqgally divided ; but the 
3rcDy waa in possession and utidcr 
the coiuaiand of those .xnecnbers of 
the gcycminent who had been the 
Doskalben defenders of^heotd gy- 
stem* and wbo had every ihiog to 
lose by snl^Dission. The freuch 
general ahK>^ whose reinforcements 
had ffvco him a decided superiority^ 
and who jbad the means of com- 
onandin^ by fofce the terins which 
his vppoficpts relhscd to grant to 
Degotal^MoBs* had no motive for fur- 
ther diSif. The truce of iLiity 
liouiv which would have ended 
on the owntiag of the third of 
March, and which had been graj^t- 
?d, accor^o^ to the of^cial di-' 
^Pitches, ihfit reparation niigbt be 
i799- 



roade for injurie^^^ received, and to 
which it seems no attention hid 
been paid, was broken. Of this 
infraction both parties, as is usual 
in similar cases,, accuse each other j 
but the quesdon is of little mo- 
ment, since tecoorse to arms^ on 
both sides had become inevitable. 
The hostilities which had beensus- 
pended at the cattle of Dornach on 
the morning of the first of March 
were renewed tlic following day, 
when the village of Lagnan, an im- 
portant post that covered Soleure, 
was attacked and rak«o by Sohaw- 
enbourg. The city of Solcure, on 
the menacing and brutal summons 
of the French general, opened its 
^ates without resistance. The fol- 
lowing day the senate was dissolved » 
and a proyisionary government of 
eleven inembeis was instituted, 
.(amtjngst whom were three members 
of the old reg<*ncy,) of which five 
were sent by iSdjawcnbourg as hos- 
tages 10 the fortress vt Iluningucn. 
Whil^jt the French anwv w.i,s march- 
ii^g to J he attack of Soleiire, a di- 
ivision of iJic army of Brune sum- 
moned Fribourg to surrender. Th.e 
magistracy acceded to the summons 
00 coiuliiion that time was given for 
the evacuation of the place by the 
troops of the canton of Berne. The 
time having elapsed, the magis- 
trates intimated to general Pigeaii, 
the French commander, that t bey- 
were no longer masters of the 
place, being under the control of 
the Berne soldiery and the peasan- 
try, amounting to five or six thou- 
sand men. An attack was imme- 
diately ordertfd ; and the town, aft- 
er a short resistance, was entered by 
the French op c)ne side, while the 
soldiers and peasantry, taking with 
(hem the cannon and stores of the 
arsenal, escaped on the other, and 
joined the main army posted on the 
river Sen<en, The regency was 
N deposed, 



194 



»« Ka TH SMjA K3)ij 



ch«8cti iofi tltt«cictioDf^ iwasonsmcd 

.vXhedBurcri^der. of S<&l«ate and 

Fi'^^tqlj^o. i^posito polms,of;tbe 

line of attack, made 'tJits Freoeh 

. maatm fa^koftlierifhtaBdrJ^rt of 

. lind Svtis»4itfn7« »Dd coKbpediod the 

Swbs tgottrflis lo dhaoge ilaetr posi- 

:4(2opii iafld GroiiaeBtre iheir fbrccbu to 

' .O0vdc!£cri)e« . {Lliia. .retreat wias 

i»p4ratQdiw}(l»M>t Jos«;i6o lhe-jE6de of 

;thQlSwisb^vbsii: theittinedisidbst and 

dnri^oos .v^cfa had ii^tetedMbe 

. tooQciUifocgaD' ftko to pctvadethe 

j^'Of^/.v/ Tisttitivo following da^s, 

?pft9lfd}Jh^lllM.Fi(es»€h in a ulait: t)f 

. ioaQftboo^ migii^lbave r^nder^d cbem 

je9a«i€bi0fJkrte»* hadcthex Jcbovn 

. .Ab iQft^hOEdiBatioo.aad.iDdnoipfiine 

jaf . Ihe joppo«tng. aro^^ : , -I. be Ivft 

Vfring;,! .n^k covered J^enw >oa the 

/$oulJb>;;toirai^s! Fiiboktrg, recited 

the day after tbe^umnder of. this 

JiatM.piaoe^.and marcfaed to Bfrne, 

:Wh^6i.4hef niauftcrcd Jhdr room- 

•■^Htydkig.. officera^ atad^ bavihg 

: -fzlMien/. 9thm> . t^iurnrd^ tp - thrir 

. p0s^:^€oouderablo portiont. of ^ die 

^ri^w As'mg^'nBvMck, cetfcnfluigifiruni 

< iS^iesMe^'o oonrenBd Bercw .tomrds 

. t]}^jAted»iidi4b4Ddcd> andro^rtued 

ItoLthietiri^hoiikft. : ThotPODpa eoai- 

^.t^od^gjtbe ccealre«:,|M)itcdait Ntdau 

, im fthe Iflka of fi'tt^nne, ' «saeiEft»lit)g 

~ t^ntuitQ0iM]y,7^}|^c4 ilikokrtaejabnut 

(ci 0$kc ihmi d6iottS< !liie,.iriciiai8 

lOf theic Ibty^ODcuitng^ thcoaiof m- 

.eapflfiityiorof ireatoD ^r^atadthQaot- 

V. idiof •» i iihaki0g joS - thrhr^ atahority 

.\«mtU>eirjr(tfre^ft: c2ercise.:thfiif:iown 

.' JV^gcio^8t-.with sedprct to^4faevnea- 

,vMl^ tt^heijadoptedyi and ^ mili- 

iblarji jiTOii^eilnefitB}i*|Hd poiitioiirto 

.. j»^ tttlltD^i' iTbtt '^doifttiagenta from 

.ci^ftvClQitotiajcofitixHiedttkifbviai tiie 

..St&aP::ffiiMi^:iS>x^ xalber^: ivilh idibre 

. ^frudcftocihao 4wal inth(icomttK)n 

.. r,-i.:;:M.;..',^, . . ^' -j ■ .. q ' 



causey/ llf pi eMftfii^f ont^df the 
. !VB7 of cikrft attacfe/drtkfetied* 
.- Aft the /danger ^iptHtnauM in- 
;jBacn)g;. tte * measorar ol die ^b- 
.vefrnnent • of ifierneibtatoe.iiMe 
flueitladrngijukL hjcdfarrent' IV 
^rdctgintn^liorche tc^ ci^4l»)»d' 
p)e so maasip » tMaaora itflnostdn* 
gcrotta teitderiB^atia moinqictite 
aedltioix addcevKn^vfley ^oro nflk 
toraiik/amidsl: sko iHtibertdsbcdielit 
and orgatiisrd army^ mi;ibUoKd 
by^tbe .entire thasoltition ofi then- 
gency;; the leteciicm of ^uprof iw^ 
ary gdpref|ifli6Bt,:and tfap didwid- 
ing.of ihe> titepa^- Xhkwamt, 
under tbeir ^preaeot: drcuimtancfi. 
wM-ioriaefsiid htimanoi MBoetfrn 
hope of .^eflbcitve nssiafeafice bid 
cnl sed, not only fr^Mst tbe mpenniiT 
1 ofibe ««i€niy« bbt f rona th^revtiltiDd 
dcaertioa which hcd takenplttft io 
their own miftiy« As ihttbns^t^f>- 
verocnebt iiod tbe disbaodiDgcf t^ 
army, wretc held ^vk m- the iifriw cf 
. (Mttficalmni. the firai adiof i^p- 
^ viiioDary..geinarntneBf :<irB> the ne* 
tificatioo of these mBasoitflA ^ 
r Frencb jgisiieral j.. tet ^cheici term* 
had heen 4iSftfed strhtfti nthe £wim 
.^ine»:wet:fe yet unbroifeni sui-^^ 
teakianeetwote an aapect hmR iv* 
juidahleL v Bhinie "war '^welt st- 
Lqsiiiiittti with tbe- dinrdos tte' 
reigttedi both in tiite aw^ftn^ *^ 
. aea«e;:waiidtiiow^hfli»atai^^in^''''^' 
: tioii to Jri^ tliibakWling of tibe tpoop 
. (or whacbivjcotidifioii; ifeoocding lo 
^ii £ovmsr ^TTopotitioit, vbe> «» to 
witMciwr hi^ 'fbrresW'ulbit- Bene 

ahimldinrocihus.'ft Brdndi'^ftan^ 
This afbctrory veqisafcitttir^*^^ 
was deented &• detnabd^iitf) Aof^ 
tttMinflditionat ivanbotilslto^ '^ 
more:extitftd<|;eniar*b:ihdigDPKiiB » 
\snd^^9n -iwn«-!g)i^«ir(f(i»^^r(hfr 
Tc^stanob at a inQwA^viMft RM*' 
:ance i^eeame'aliiioM^M'iibt of ^' 



FOUZIGN HISTORY. 



19s 



' llie?cliz>e'6r\fei«oce ncixrocca- 

artbe-aortli aod sootb wett^ ac^ight 

Of fdtt Ailoi dl9iaBce::£pom fiente, 

-f(NMD iScbAim, iod FraoeDbnio» 

od ibc' road of Stohnnei aod Berae 

neAfrfdktgm eth«kc srfer Sttncn, 
kstfiiig^itoin'. Berne <o ^ritoofg. 
CcDMembky iweaikrocd t()r dcsor- 
tioi^ift^'uidiacipliac^ the ^ftxtive 
foroc- <»p p e o e d to tte:FiiBoc)i did 
fM)( ^moimt to kalf rilte- nooiber ; 
boc tbe:pDtttians:imkeo-b)B tbe Swiss 
w«rtt ' ^caipAle * of * slrang defence* 
IlHi«itaok da tbe.vMe Jims bsgan 
earlytoa the oiofBing of -the fifth. 
Tftie -ttmy onder firobenMrehodin 
threevohnmn toiMrdfir these posts -, 
but the : ps in ctp al fbroe of both 
arcmn-wai naited at •Nouroech. 
Tlwi^ combiir hmed acvffral hours, 
w|iiL«anediaCB6ss; tbe^Swis, in- 
ierior^ hk ooiBbBr aod 'discipiioe, 
wero floitnaled byhcfoie^aod ttes* 
pcj ' a ii e oomgc^ and yielded tbs field 
of iMttlefiM)! aotil tbefhad loade a 
^eadM oamage txf' the aasaiUmti^ 
«oti alfeafied 'k. also netthiaiy with 
f bflir earn dcdd. ' Attbe saooe ttinbe 
«he:f|teia tortWiiotthtxf -Beraa, uh- 
dcrjikoxiiiiMBand' of }8peB•ftak4'£r- 
}acll^«ero aittackcdSby Sdkslivtfii- 
boocg at^ ' Sdiihincn/ fiisb^p^d 
ffoQBrtbeibQe^ tbe Swii* itdealv^to 
^ivimix^imi vbere thej^iBade atroog 
Trfaflfimnr;-!)^ icft the groond ttU 
oUig^d iDf icld' t6' Iftpld a i tubcu | 
wianr tintj .banned iaipiniv and aos- 
•ta^fedj^abothar- flttadi fat^'Urtenan. 
¥0iFctAfftntUiieaco^ ihtfirbireated 
iii gDCi[^«eder»r aad- toolt poweaiidQ 
of I Ilk ftaafidable; and advaai^egaoos 
■y»t DOKahet'hcigbtfl^ of lAltaoer- 
. oh iiyi l itwht gCj decoded -by aehaio 
: fyfiodcbi-fm^iheir eight/ aiJbresc- of 
^pig» ^mt/q^h a g gy ggouod on their 
ilsffio lOb^Bcuog , ibe^-TVeski with 
felled trees, and placing tifOug pos- 
lisadoiBS in the iroot^ Uiey sfopped 



ftr awhile the-Tapid porfuit of the 
Fosrioh at mf • ' ifcie aooiher des- 
pcraaepcgmbatcDniedi* nor were the 
Swiss dislodged, till, after cntking 
considetable faavock -of -the assail* 
ants, th<7: found; tlKiDaeliwf nearljr 
lOFiOQnd^.- s*'s 

'Iliba overpowered ' bf DOtnbert. 
thej'fled at last rn disarder from 
thn portion, which tbenp had so well 
defieoded^ ieavtng their artJllerjbe* 
hiod'theni, and formed «a fifth time 
OD . the height heforrBerde. Here 
the : battle W9s renewed with the 
ttoketQiliBtinalie courage, aod wiib 
mote dtcadlol eieceironi as the 
French had' to ccmteod with the 
fury at' the dlsetganhM jikul(iiQde« 
ac0r)t3p' whom i^fie woisen and 
ebUdrea, "Vfka fM tbc useless vie- 
tinoa of ineffectite ie»ts«aiiee. The 
capttttllition of llie proviiiooary go« 
ver nixKOt put an end to farther hos* 
tillties, and tared Berae from the 
horrors tifati assaak. 

The 'entry of ^hsweoboarg't 
army info Herne pot ait nad to fur* 
tlier>esi9tai>ce on every other point. 
Thecpont'cf Gemmiogea, weakened 
by'a detachment sent.to-st^ngthrn 
that? of Neaeoech; w«»^4aken pos- 
'aession* of by' a eeltimo of the trmy 
' of general Brotse, 4b< remainder of 
«he S<i|ri»8' troops who defended it, 
together with the remainder of the 
Sii^uaraiyio thitt quarter, having 
retreated kl disordi'r. on hearing of 
theGBpkulatioo trf Berae. Furious 
at iheir flefeat, the Swiss »olditry 
' turned iheir rage on their own of- 
ficeis ^ some of whomy dad among 
r others- therr two adjatatR-^generals; 
tbay ihaasacred >oa rhe spot. The 
country tcrthe eooth of Berne, 
whaoBvec might be the fate of war 
in defeodrng-iiie capital, i»d brta 
judgird inaocefHible to the invaders. 
Thither' the rhiet«, on the approach 
of the Pienqh array, and some time 
previous to ilic ' coinmencenient of 
K 2 hostiities, 



3M E H I T 5 S H A N D :. 

in live Synss ir$6mtls 8Ik)qM render the treaty .oodfi&l^ «f inkroal ar- 

t^ie execution of this part o^tha range^nents •^^5f>ecting ih^ oon« 

treaty illusory, tlie French engaged struction X)f roads and^iuval^ the 

to return yrhateyer cannon, mor- import of sal t^ and judicial proce- 

i^i'Pi, ^nS 'pieces of arirlkry h«(d dures } amk«nded "wilK the pR>J^ 

been taken away during the >^r^ of a. cocnnseccial treaty on4bo(ii^9t 

on condhidh thdt the Swis^woiiid advantageous. CQbdiiioQs joe tbi^tM 

be at the expense of the conX'ey- fepubiics. - . - - 

ance. The remaining articlbs of 



CHAP. VI, 



'R'etr'^s'jifcf ^miifd. Kffitximt m th €mstibtHmi y^v9ti\hy the hank 0^ 
wfm:cttt td the ntio RifiMc^ Stule if 4^ Hahxti^ Re/iuhlit;. ke^ 
Mm in' the Gwemwfnt 'if Holkutd* Ctustqu^nd^f .' the Rf^'m, 

' F^tmaiivd <f tx CcHsiistutieH. by tlte- new Govtmrltenfi Jccep^t^cg' f ik 
Cmstifktlm by. the Peofde,' Geneva* JlrguntetUs i» F^Jmr ofoM^-^*'^.^^ 
Iircw]i9r(tttfm info tJie Freneh He/tuMic. . Jfieorh>taika ^ Geneva* jfrtkks 
of tM Treaty, Cmgress <f Radsia^t, Rtfemims on tiie Tropriffy^^^m' 

' wkingr a Cmgrex\ Claims of the French Jo the Right Si/k-fike Rh'me, 
Cdod Urtihstanding hetxaeen France, Pruma^ and Jiutria* • Qjifrnsam f^ 
^ DeftutatvM/ Estimate f the Vahe if die CMtntrydemtmded.-'r^^ 

tanc^ffihejrenck in. thehr Demands. Cmtesmn tfthe J^ft ^tde^ihRlmi 
to f^e French, ProjecLof /ndevmities etccedeki to, Mode^Sectdaruatitm^ i^eto 
PiojiosUions wade by the French, R^xiais ontbe.CpidMCi rf^be Fimh, 
Formeiiion of cnev} Coaltikn against France,. 0/Umiiion f ik Im^^enai 
Minister to ^he Claims fdu Retich. Voncessimrffti French^ Iifi^hatr^>Htiit 
^^Dejiittatim tfthe Emjnrt, State of the Negoiiathm at lUdtfadt, Ih* 
ftte^eie Situation <f France. Seistufs^Eagiid Metidtattdiie,. Iq^jes^^- 
iffg neutral Vessels. Stafe^the Defartmesibs. 'Esftmsimt fiftlte Climiv^ 
Laws. Milstaty Commissions, Ceiulituiioned and Jacobin Ckbs shu,^* 
Elections to the Legislative Sody, Proclamation pf ihe\DfiWtery e^g^ 
tlie. Jacobin Party, Prp/sosal ^ ftrevasting- tht NonmtUien ^ Jacebins, 

'■ Bill tf.Exdusi^tt. Debates^ the Subject. . Exdudtnt ff tie Ja^nim '« 
Paris and the Deftartments* • Eleaivs <^ a meoi.iDirentott Refiexxees ee 
the Exfieditim of Egjfit, Prdparatitms at TwUn^ and J^'at^e fdk^dlmt'- 
'tr^ent. Conquest if Malta. Cendittens ^ the &rfender., EsC^ f^^ 
French from the Engli^Fteet. Am^snEpyfsL Entnt^im^Ale^P^ 

' dria] ; Sitttation of the French at Alexandria. Distressing Metrch tkr»^ 

ytheO^seft. jfrHvai at Rdtetta, .Afatih.aleiq tie^Nik, itattfe/'^' 
^' • Pyrtimds. Entrance im Cairo: Pta staff Mnvtdjkyioioi^^ 

- of Ibrahim ^S^toroards^fria, Adtnimstrationnf Laece^ .Ef^. oV^f 
aitd Ca/tiui^ of the Frenth Fleet hy Adawed\Kels9n. • .&/«*A»ar- ^/« 
ftench Army in Egy/tt. -Finmatim ^a KatmatlmtittifCi^)Es^*^ •^^" 

umhh 



FO*JClGN HfSTORY. 



20A 



RkfMk m J^gy^* Immrutkn mt C^tiro^ Rtjitjc'um on iU Uiajisjj ^ 



a^ the %e^ ^lepnUininrhkh bad 
5)9rtiiig up in^^Eiuope under 
the ^ fdmnoin^ h««id of the Frenrhi 
SwttseHand was not the. only one 
fated to feel the rude corrections of 
the parent. The supple spirit of 
the Jtaiiai]^ had yielded wiihout re- 
sistance Co the alternately severe and 
gemie admonilioTiS of their roasters. 
The regenerated people of LtAmbar- 
dy and Ronie had accepted with- 
out hesitation the forms of govern- 
ment which the conquerors had 
imposed, with muri^urs indeed^ 
and regFet«» at the price -which had 
h/i^ew paid ; 9nci fhe Genoese, whose 
gratitude vias i>ot le*is proportion- 
ally ta«ed, and who had taken^their 
-rank amor g the renovated states^ 
under the title of the Ligurian JR.e- 
public, had, at the clo^e of the pa^l 
year, received, ^or the basis of their 
#utifre govemroei^t, the constitution 
which had been duly .made and 
provided. B»t the Dutc^i, however 
Bear their o«her poli4Jcai connec- 
. lions with the French, had hitherto 
kept themselves free fronn this rage 
©f const ttu t ionai in s4r nc tion, Th ey 
Ilad happity paid theiririboteof de- 
Jfverance at a time when thof^e who 
held the Fr*»nch govecorinent under 
Ike title of Comihittees of Public 
Safety had not )et practiced the di« 
rectorial system of tyranny iind 
avarice.; and ti^(r Dutch had so wise* 
• ly rei^ufated their 'afikirs^ euen un-' 
iter, the sei^pc ^^rcssiixe of comnaer- 
cfal calartiity, that liieir credit- r«-} 
'*iitafned re^ec^obief and ihe public 
. trariqn Hilly. trndiUtitbeiii'.T , .. ... 

*' i^^iij^id having* |aken.1b€i,prei 

- 4'^^iirce <9f tke' variott^ -i^tates that 

t»t»vl -w»dcrgn»f^.\«' • revolutioDary 

C^ a nftey 'and bwvihg.lx'cofne a r^- 

puki\(c ijefore .thbif > sp^etjdid c^n-- 



<4iiest had iof pired thp Frcn( h with 
therage of republicai.isjng Flurope, 
the Dutch bad been sutTerec! to riiukr. 
^w constitutional campai^n^ wiib- , 
out foreign interference, and to ar- 
range the forms of their govern- 
ment in the mode most agreeable 
to the will of the people. This act 
of sovereignty had been eycrci>cd 
witliout controul, in the rejection of 
the plan which, after a series oflorg 
and iaborious discussions, had been 
otfcred to the nation, and a com- 
mission was ordered to prepare an- 
other more conformaJ;le to the prin- 
ciplet of republican indivisibility 

\and popular reprcsentalion. The 
French directory had hitherto been 
too much pccupiiid in forming re- 
publicA on .the otiier side of the 
Alps to enter with much detail in- 
to the operat^ionii of the Batavian 
councils; .but^ relieved from the 
%vei^iit and cares of continent <) I 
warfare^ and having ^rushed ail 
oppo'iing factions at home, they 
turned at knglh llicir eves (or a 
moment on the first ofl'sping of re- 
vobitionary conquest. - A suspicion 
had for some time prevailed, that the 
obstioaey with wliich certain mem- 
bers of th'e Dotcb coiivcxition con 
tended for ihc strict <»b>crvance of 
the legulatious which had been im- 
posed ton the iir-st national as^enibly 
bylhe slates'general, and the an- 
cient-modes cif federative or^anisa- 
tior>, arose from a jecrtt desire f.f 
i^niing the state on nparlv the same 
modql, and even, of locking wiili 

% »o gf^ataverjioiv to tlie return of a 
jai^rei. limited stadtholderian go- 

-••vori^merttv This fUivj^ieum had been 

' sirengliiened by ij^ deUai of the 

Dutch 4ieot in live .autumn, whieli 

•vias attjiluted to. irca^on in thn 

m^'iu'. ^ 



306 



B tl ITtS ii AND 



tno^e vib :irfi(dMi0 «ther . ho^^o^ oi* 

they )M4>ii^iirttd (roiti liicir ^4lenf o^ 
bol by,'M4iiig «>b«a) up to Ui^ pecv 
]>lc as uowQCiihy .Ui«ir c0nflid««c«?* 
ancliipiti/e;tQ:th.eii^ inferc;iiU» - 

National (fB'mfoctunes are to mott 
casi;s irfcrsistiibLe arguments .with^ «he 
vulgar,^ and- ih* people w^re not in- 
disposed' ferrachan^ wb^o \he 
Fr«:iiQk)dir<taJ5>ry iwocd ihevr • oEkjixh- 
dace for -^ reYi^utipo; The efceca- 
tion ofiishm twjndate yrf t ^trusted 
ioCliarl!rtHU;€rpli, whose tafl^its 
and di*^(»itiaRs .were, well? known 
to hi« jetiii>lo;xf*^ ^^^ ^1^ Cui6lna^flt 
ii>f any (toovriittikm which ,w^5»W be 
ackomvkdgod neither by 'iQKQgri<iy 
n^T wtodonpk. iOti.his arnvalV Ahe 
Hague, lie found, a (t^ottentgerin of 
dtssifcction tiO'th.eiei^i^itig autfe^i^ 
ties ia tike #««iCfnMyt, rihich aooa 
grew up to a foixtkidable opp<<rit«0A 
uoder kt% difetttoo. The f>\m #f 
r>pcratiotv<t concerted with the Du-tch 
general DnendeU* who was en oi^i- 
ginal mover, and the prioopal agent 
ID ihia revolution^ w^ pm iQi^k eit* 
eoution liw- »^d of Jaauary iijgigr. 
Dutddg iJw' preceding nighi the 
posts were doub)ed» (be Dutch > gar*- 
risoo pti under aprma» and the. pukb* 
llc'ptteea filltTd with lroop«v Gerf- 
taio depHciea bad recfiyed during 
the htght ii6tio<^ to a)«$&t 09r|y >i«i 
the mornings when they prcic««4f«l# 
to the numbor o^fifcy^ with^te^ ^cr 
aidentMidflefigh-ac iheir hendi and 
attcEodtdibytbe tf09|is» lothohaU tf 
the ataennb^iri inhere ihey^ound il^ 
goaeral iidicar»<^vChft Uoi<^^ itfod 
KrrcKth tf^oopiN h^,. waiting, l^ho 
depQtic$> (on :dieir enttanc^ into ik^ 
aotL«obiki)bcr-;5>iff^4to: baU^ ^im^d 
two offioera'^wb* iittflFered sooh^4<» 
paM : af jwerc'ioQtc.ctfi ibe Htt r^-oft «»?• 
clusionv :Th«!ie;1vlijQpe njtnles were 
inscribed, to. t|ie Dumber of ruientyr 
one/ Vere coutifaed to a separate 



f partoMuli vdMer the^arcr^ tjieial- 
•di^ry; Th^ ai II, naeBQbenii^ihB com- 
mission of foMiigo #i&ivi» Bikker, 
Habo» A«K)^>seii| Do 3cvor%. Jor- 
4tn^^9jad,Gr\vfirf, wlv» w^s^^^qiisidcr- 
Q^as^ho §ool4osf iheD^waTiiioa»«y, 
had alr^^ady bae0rp«)t MP49r Anast. 

Tbe .^ftfiefobiy thua fMirgjBd^.fS^nD- 
ed itaelf into fl mci^ «oqi\n)ittac{i lod, 
after acsbort debate, proaoniKVd \ht 
driioUivo ^9b«)ui>ioo cif 4ha (k^tjet 
who w^cfc pr0icr»b«4, .'Ihiajctof 
violence wa« followed, hy-ib<s .'abpji- 
tioo of (he pfimarir regMlaijicMi by 
which their i)p.eratiQQ|. had,, b^lbeirto 
bec^ restri^fked* A oooMZiisiioiMiiraf 
immed- tiQ firitMKit a report .(or tke 
e(^bH«hni^t>of a^. proywion?py ex- 
eoulive, djfeQHMpyf , anolbei^'» ^om- 
.p<:ised of seiwi} mrnabera to^cpaif»t)e 
a €(^nsiiiittio^i fri>4 others tP! €oa«- 
oerc with the jpr^-nch * g^'JUWl tJie 
^neans of preserving thoo pf^^^^ 
tTanquiniiy<: The eiMi^lud^d <opt3- 
iie«, a<ootig«(-^bon) y^^n ^am^^ 
the- first taUsD^t^. pnd wfaosfai -^M'dk- 
nyent lo .repuhlioa^ priocipks M 
been invana^bie^.tbroughoiit tlpif^ fe- 
.vcklution^ M^« at ^rst perinitred -to 
retire >to^^ ibnr .^wn b^Mccs.) -^t w 
tbia lr»i«nt oi^^Kire was ^Ptt^d s 
jetiociipci (Qfif^tbo conduct of 1 tb« 
iFrfjr^ch <tewfltory W«h respwc to 
tho . ptOarnibtdT. numbers Si6r **« 
French J^egl^laUifp PW.ibe eip|i*fi«rth 
of. Kufti^r .pire^edihg) ^fcp' 1^" 
>tiiissibn '- w*^' : at'tacwar4B fcswided. 
and tb^t«t>fr,«j5;i(? f>f ^»<*p#iw.w» 
«*>l«igedr.;ix> .that: ^f i«pp«fi6W»^' 
llhe aeiiof le^dtt^lof •^iwi^**^' f^^ 
having 0;gwipral «j|sc»jtofaho*ii«ei»* 
b^'i,:bo|^% i^.»>rat3vpft|i tobffff^^ 
agaia«ls«kWB»f^s,(dii^ctedifert HW^- 
liltiottOf)! idcspfP^i^m j^ndjfiWW^ 

;6ir«0» shorn ^ewhww w% »fi^v«4f*e 
fUshpd{{nrr: c^pa^rH) lb«»r ^^f^iP*^' 

tHH^. <3oniMS[ii(|e(t. .fig«i«»l^ ifS>Jl9«^ 
whose p#tQatisp(]|.j^ sickop^lePg- 
cd, and whpse integrity ibxy ^^ 



F O BTE'I 6 TfP WnStTToPR Y. 



^ 



-i ^» jm.tt * * ^ %^* #.^. A . f > a^^ijan ,#fi^M* ^^^^«^ 

fbfe >c^iV^rtbto,^d^1drk)g t(iat thef 

-l$6n'«l'Hm «et-6f tyranny «^tb xHt 
VSfp^tSMimty of 'drsp^hm^ them'- 
BeMJI lidni the^thtlfey brad uken 
fa"9^s^)iije' fli« pfimdrf regulation. 
' 'Tlft^'reaiainil^ of tbb ia>«eml>fy 
liad^l^ei^bf ihfsdigtttfieH, but XthA- 
-ViA^m^ oppo^Kidn, «tfd «tr<ing in 
%hd i«)r«e t>y v^Ibtk ih^v t^efo tur- 

ti tMfi prQCecHfftg9 hf tbt oiilit^ry, 
tfAtfVM abstfTtf^Fc^giveti bf La CrtAt, 
trhdl' ifialtm^tiv appearmi<ie b^fiirfe 
t&<B l«iohltH^sls,:^^rat«d that ihfe 
Ftfert^ ' dif ftcter/ tt^oiftd appHittd 
lAii^r cffbrfs^ and stippori ibem with 
«li^ m^ki ii il«" powar; proceeded 
t^£lYilhe'Tae«nGi<^ by th^ suppltf^ 
'uibntHl^aft^r making thent uodef- 
go^'iii oftlc^l to prtvfj the purity iff 
thld^ o^fnidna.* ^he ate^mbly «»• 
'tntftrfttg tfie nameof theContititueiit 
AaMnblf of ihe BM^an^ Ftopltf, 
^ijctetf a t>r6tifftofiafy'«aeG«itiredU 
PScidtf, ebftif^fx^d orfi^i»t>iTil>en^^ 
tfodbrok^ ^ir tftt^ pitmfictal diWsr- 
"ooa- tood' anln^iimitidda established 

'ilbo' founded on lirlndptes d^fettf- 
^d ctkMi^ pc^tar fhan*tiib^o^hkh 
-foiled Hi« bMi<iK>f ihar whieh waei 
*1ilfetit to 1>e pTf«ef«led tHSctt thiH ref- 
f^citfa todk (>liif<e,"^Mid agaidflt 
*wiril;h 'a ^^iorn^al^' (ytote^ttitioo had 
4Mto'^i«4<difft!y tnfld<s^lbFiym(*m- 
b^»6f1h«^onff\etltioh Whdiv.it \v^ 
Ofi^rdi^o the f^imliry asltfnibtida (6t 
-|lkrh'%50^9EdcMktldiii A^.-oaib* wab 
'*««kicll^d^frda& ^ eMi' vdter t)f Vnaltc«r- 
iiMe tetri^'t^ tharatttdtMdet^bHy, 
lartMi^in'ac^y fed^niRMfei i' ttndaMaf chyL 
^Ifhe^ ^pi^' wifliH«d %i)h'^6Dtiftudi 
«l^i)«tM(ys,iaAd 'bartfft^ nothing'' fo^ 
'Mj^t'^Kfht Ihl^^pindjettif^hidhAVli^ 
«lbHi6«i!'0h ^««tdodel>;»f it^'Frenoh 



H?f 



U tbt!' bfat remedf ag^ftfdiahor 
V:oDt<(4fltoQti } and HoHdnd anttk ibr 
t vhrile into the ttaf e of n defwadtnt 
proviAt#> tinder* the proteetion df 
La'Oota» tbo rerohitJteMx 4tfte^ 
g«fe of the French diaeoiarf . ' - 7 
It wa« ndt only over thie oewve* 
)»ublic« which the Fteoch gorem- 
meat had contriboted (6^ form that 
the members of the directory tl^nsw 
the ^ieM of it* ofnoipottfice {^^ 
hwitzerl^hd, "vrhich had amdergoni 
all the horror* of their protdctiMii 
atilt preMer?ed lu territortal* indei 
penance ; but the reiftibKv of Ga«' 
nefa» after variotiB ttnsggiea^ lapiik 
ftilo the mighty vorfnt. Tbit <)oeax 
tioo of iti iocorpotattim: bad frt- 
K^u^iiy b«ea thoaiibjN;t of dhotisu 
aiOQ ac^variouf periods o# the revo^ 
lutioft ; and France, at M epoeha 
'wh^ '\t% own tiberii>c8 were mo^ 
endangered, hag betm aecuaed of 
hostile intentions -against' ifg inde^ 
pcadence. Anttofanoea faAl bfeen 
gireb by the French agcms; aqd 
al4obir the convention, that no at) 
tempt should be rtkadeagatnvtitj an4 
the arbitrary di^poniibrM annoaticad 
by the txecntive govehicneot in tba 
autntn^r of 1796 had been cbedced 
by ilie more generous ahd eqaitable 
ap(rU of the legislative aothoritiet« 
But the project, though seefliiiigly 
^batuioned; waa deferred only 10 d 
taioveicmnvenient season, whidi thb 
im^iofiof Switxeriaad allaringly 
fpfeaetited. - Q*he Intercourse w^ich 
li^d takMi place between Fratioeanii 
Geneva, from tlia date of the- coOi^. 
^M 4^ ^aV6y/ \ȤA^ given* aeoBU 
aiderable asceodency^to the .iosmn 
pbJver; and though ihe^maas bf p«y» 
pM Ttrmained sttath^nto ttheJdeh 
l>f t«rritc«rm1 iDd^>ef»denc€f^clidiiam* 
b^rfiwat not fdnffH whe^beganito looto 
wttb^fndlfferifiice^oti'tfae' meaos-cb^f 
whieh^th0y'bekkfihe)«efiUre a^tal^lV 

Vtnvigncpeopleikif '0«flCV2Q'OMi por^ 

tion 



ios 



BRITISH AN1> 



tioo of the no less soVercIga peopde 
c£ the great republie. The agents 
of (he Foench governioent had fos- 
tered this fraOernistng spirit, and 
made considerable progress in pro* 
tclyitsns, by representing the bene- 
fits which would accrue from a 
luore iotimate alliance. It was 
stated that Geneva, relieved from a 
.cumbrous and stormy independence^ 
would become, as the capital of 9 
department; the most nourishing 
place of the frontiers 5 that its inha- 
bitants would dnd more easy ouilets 
for the produce of their industry ; 
^hat as a portion of a powerful state, 
their ciiy would have nothing to 
fear hereafter from the ambition of 
neighbouriog states, and be placed 
. under the disagreeable necessity of 
ai^king assii^nce from encroaching 
allies I that they would lose nothing 
of* their former liberty; but that, on 
the contrary, they would cbjoy a still 
greater portion, in peace and tran- 
quillity. From the moment of their 
union, it was represented, that the 
various parties which often distract- 
ed their little state, would cease ^ 
that those .civil divisions would no 
longer take place, which rendered 
existence so much the more pamful, 
as the confined limits of the place 
of contest brought the rivals conti- 
nually together J and that as Gene- 
va had of late been the theatre of 
cOmeoding passions, of discord, hat- 
red, and persecution, so it would 
still continue, till the acrid, but chi- 
merical independence for which it 
contended, was diluted in the wide 
.spreading ocean of French freedom. 
Whatever influence these t;epre- 
sentations might have had on the 
people, the partisans of its terri- 
torial independence were not less 
animated in rejecting the profierred 
fraturnity. They asserted that the 
interest of both republics, as well as 
the morality of nations, were in 
Uniform opposition to this mea^iure; 



that the spirit of indepeadenee. and 
that republican sternness which the 
Genevese had constantly manifested 
for several, ages, deserved to be re- 
spected by a nation which had ccd« 
secratcd the great priupple of the 
sovereignty of the people ; tbat 
Geneva independent, was an opea 
and never-failing source to France 
both of wealth and knowledge^ 
that its citizens, compelled for want 
of territory to habits of industry, 
had extended, it to a very emincQt 
degree^ and that every class, whether 
merchants, manufacturers, artists, 
or men of letters, had at all times ' 
made the French nation the depo* 
«itary of their information and theii^ 
commerce. In answer to the re- 
presentations held out of the pro- 
tection given from the hosiUc at- 
tempts of other powers, it was 
contended that Geneva becoming 
a frontier town, fortified and gar- 
risoned, subjected to requisitions* 
and besieged two or three times in a 
century, would lose its industry and 
commerce J that the wars in which 
France might be engaged would 
shut up exportation .probably on all 
sides ; whilst, as a neutral stale, the 
passage . was every where open j 
tbat its advantages as the capital of 
a French department were illusory^ 
that the means of instruction, though 
not so splendid as in France, werp 
sufficient to produce suc|) men as 
Rousseau, Bonnet, and , Saussijrc.; 
that the moral line of rectitude was 
a greater consideration than the 
g^'ographical line of territor)'; thst 
Geneva with its iodcpcncl<?ncc w«is 
a monument of glory to " ^^^ 
Great Nation," from the respect U 
showed for property, and the pro- 
tection it gave to weakness j and 
that if France pecsislc3 to press tiic 
acquisition, no resistance would be 
made, but walls and beggars would 
be the only fruit of the conquest. 
Howcvtr jpowerfully lhb*»c con- 
siderations 



FORtlGK HisrcjRY. 



2fi9 



»k?eralSont might have weighed wiA 
tbe adherenit to the territorial inde- 
pendence of G^eYa» tbe partisans 
for the ittcorporation formed the 
vast maiority. and the nnioo of this 
republic to Fram% was pronoanced 
by the sorerdgo council (l5th 
April) a^fr bf-arlng the report 
made by tbe cooamission to whom 
tbe proposition had beeik sent. 
Tbe (reaiy of ODtoo» after due dis* 
cuttloo, between the French em- 
b^ssadorat Geneva and a commit- 
tee appointed for th^ purpese^ was 
ratified by the French government, 
(17th May). The treaty cofiMstcd 
of foaneen articles, tbe first of 
which was the accepiatic* by the 
French Repablic of the otSer made 
by the citizens ©f Geneva, of ffn 
union with the French nation, in 
consequence of which thfe Gciicvesc 
who were in France, as well as 
those who were ii» oiher counlriety 
were declared Frenchmen born$ 
tho« who were nbscnt, might at 
aoy/btare petiod return 10 France^ 
and enjoy all tbe rigbts annexed to 
the quality of French citiseas, a- 
grceably to the constitution ; the 
French gvn^erDraent excepting spe« 
cially InaUet da Pan, D'lvcmoisy 
and DttTOVe«*a7f wiio, having writ- 
ten and commuted overt acts against 
tbe French. reptrtjiJic, were declared' 
inadmissible to the honour of be- 
coming French, citizens. By the 
subeeqnent articles, the permission 
ofresideoee wa» {^ranted for three 
years to such of tbe Crenevese m 
were oowilling to remain French 
cirizeos. The inhabitants of Gene- 
va wet eenefnpted* from all real and 
personaT requisition during the pre- 
sent war, and till the general peace, 
and dta|>eMed fr6m the lodging 
of troops in case of cantonment, 
or passage, except for a thousand 
nieo in the public barracks. No 
jcsearcJi or persecntifiQ for potitica} 
1799. 



opinions previons to tbd tnUm, es« 
ccpting against the persons stipn* 
lated in the first article^ were to be ^ 
permitted. The cognnoniaf estates 
were to remain the property of the 
Genevese, except the h6tcl dc rifle, 
the libraiy, the archive*, and the 
buildings for the lodging of f roepf^ 
which were declared inalienable. 
Tbe estates belonging to companiet 
or corporations were left at the 
disposition of their respective mem* 
.bers. AH ptiblic and private acts 
of every kind aareiior to the union 
were to remain in full force, ac- 
cording to the laws o{ Geneva: 
and the export of merchsndtze then 
a r Geneva, except such as was Eiv- 
gli«h, was to have its free crrcula- 
lion in France, without being sub- 
ject to new duties. Tribunals, cirLi. 
criminal, and commercial, were to 
be established. 

On the other hand, the repob'ic 
of Geneva gave up all alliances 
which boond it to foreign countries, 
and melted all its particular privi* 
leges and public rights, as a sove« 
reign, into the mass of the French 
nation. This city was soon after 
formed into tbe capital of a depart* 
ment under the name of the depart- ^ 
ment of the Lake of Leman; and snf« 
£cient territory taken from the ad- 
joining cantons was added, in order 
to give Qeneva its share of respecta- 
bility with respect 10 magnitude 
arnongst the other departments of 
the republic. 

These revolutionary operations 
were only interludes in the political 
drama aclir^g under the direction of 
the French government. The ne- 
gotiations at Radstadt opened a 
wide field for political speculation, 
and ihkbcr the views of the direc- 
tory were principally directed. 

Mroongst the articles of tbe treaty 
of peace concluded with the empe- 
ror, was pnc that enjoined the as- 
O sembly 



dio 



fc-tf'I-'ri 8 I^ A^N-I^ 



compcMed ADcffy Of pf^nipotetrtiarl^ 
of the Filehch Tepi|bKc ati^ oF "tite 
German Baipifc, to settle tft\ctcVnjt 
of a general peace tictt^eirtbese 
two powers. A (ftirt of tbfc iJtmost 
iaipOTtatrce,- ijtid the ititere'iti' of a 
great immbfer of stater, w^r^'io be 
decidcid id tills assemblji;, on which 
Mfas fikctflhef attcntinn of Burope. ' 

It h^btefi early objecfed, that a 
coQgjx^ cmnpiosed of itidividbals 
of ftOtnatiy discordant i-ntere^ts, and 
oppo^it^ viewi^ would 6n)>^ waste 
time id tiseless discussions, 'and In* 
iolvc tbea^ors to inextricable ta- 
byrintijis/ 'who wotild separate' at 
length ii?thout coming tb atj^' coh- 
clnsidri^'^ 'It "was recommendtid to 
propose tplhe en^pire a plan of ge- 
neral fsiijl&CBiian, to i^ttscrlbe a 
limited titiie, ' and to adopt or r^ct 
it witbodf cbanging a single anicle; 
and It appears from the rettilt that 
these Ictea^ were not altogether un- 
founded.. > It was well known tbdt 
Fraiid^; tehfch had extended its cod- 
quests into the interior of German/, 
«Qd hefjl,''as it were, thebalitrce 6f 
Europe tti i\i bands, adhered- tetia- 
cionAy to'; tb^ project of tnakf^ 
the Rhine the' barrier oft h^tdpiib- 
)ic«*-a barrier 'wlsich it was'iilsieiiied 
ii)dependent of poKtlcal Vie^J^ seem- 
ed to bt p1fl(eed by iractire bet^eccn 
the two great. powers ofCrermaiiy 
and France. The compl^tfidti''bf 
thia plati was represented as' liidft- 
pensable to secure the/pdto^ssion 
of the countries which' had,' jtiat 
been united to the Frendi terfitdfy, 
to establish the balance bett^n 
the new and the old syftemi^i'lo 
secure the independence of' the p6« 
pnlar gdvemmeots, and by -"the 
foundation of a solid and lAlif^g 
peace; ' '*'^ 

Thil comgress was openM "bj^a 
splendid re-unioh of the 'dfiFeren^ 
mloifteno^^e states iotereated in 



fire fiegoli Alldklj * %hiotf mifig ' 10 'wifc 
tiumber df 6ritf li«mdfed^bd'56>v«my^ 
three; • •'^^TMi^ Ftcncfi*'V<^trt«*' ^% 
VeprcSdfr«^9«f Thiflhard tfbdBoo^ 
titer; ' -Soaite oVxbt MMitrti'^Wcn 
were desiftybftxf'M^ adilSMffiBdIb 
take pirt %Hhe 'ncgoUliiWf«)'M 
aU wttre ectcTbd^'d'wtvb dfl5>feo»Jftrm 
a part UfAe Gttittaiiib bady; A^ 
some time' spent in dlsedisleifi^fe- 
sptctihg ther e«ten«^ of Hit ^pd¥rtn 
gCveti to a 'd'ipotatitjn of life ^m- 
pire, and^th^ tinlargetneot^'cf'tliaie 
powers,' the^lFHndS pleo*p«oMi»- 
ties began with demandii^^ thistibe 
liTfitt of • th^ ' my^ itiofM ^ *be 'the 
basis of the ti^tyi^peaM. No 
secret Hiiir'fnMe df theftct; tb!(t 
ihh prm^tlMir had be«i «b(Med 
t<y by the^ fefn{>erdf in the secret tie- 
ticle»*^tHe4feafy 46f Catltod For- 
tt)io. ' TUe dabinet df Vlema had 
l^ire^ the less 6pp08?d<)tt' ^ tliis 
m^tur^, shioe, aa^ it Was )^ttd<l' 
ed, tKe -^hdle of BavaHi^^ *iy«rf 
thelonwai'ld be the»rt>«^«rd'of 
this cesaxeh; atid thi^1aH«f itfte 
would re^ttf' ib rtrturii ti •jW'^f 
Sbabiai jte« ^tatb M#h«|Hcif1ti 
F^aocoflrti* '^ H^iy 4o^Mi « ^IW*'** 
trasente^tkh^ef thegatfdXMe^' 
atanaitig ^at'e^KHt^A^oii M^fk^ 
between France, PftiWiai twIAtil- 
-tria^ Wai^befing fh6 ^lttigw^<i»^ 
wenft tb Mit i^Sce ki »4lle Wtttm 
-I^ptrh, attd-thBt'lthesyM<AD<tf^- 
CoffafisatitMl^y Ifhieh ii^m'pf^ 
pbsed fd make tip tli* idip^^ 
^}osse9bkdbe^Ql>revre«is^^£M«n 
^betw^ietl'<htiJeth^e1eirflbgt»wen. 
But • wWitem irfg|t'*afe' ^^ 
m^ sahf^' ihtentienii eTift^pof ' 
ert/ tjw'tliptitation of'HW'eiilpiw 

"wttt toot j^ejyar^to ttftOft^* «««€ 
'^io grtetli^^eertficei Th^as!^.** . 

' thit tie^lrtf^gAlity tif tht W« 
tni^ht^tolte «ilidt4ltt^di ^iiaW '« 
acrv^ tfs^the UMb 6f the feiW^^V 

-narfea* at L^bbfen-j that thfe •tJqf^- 

aiticb of the -left aide of Uk BW«« 

was 



F Q RJS.I Q N H 1 STO K Y. 



211 



Fre|Hibi a^i j)^ I>rea2gpg,4bft iatisgniT 
lity o( tiMr&npire to; tUo^H^crai^ni^ 
bcKlj s>bat if the poncfsioa of tbij 
caqifktff -WM 4iot.j<xf. oonstderat>le 
i«]{p(i^aM9^, ibe emperor^ n^bo luid 
« gre«fer ioterest ia.roakiogpeace^ 
woqIA j^oC bctUaie in •grceiag lo 
th«jeesaifHif 4yulth»tu).4epreciatiiig 
tkcm^AtSiim they .were oot kss vaUii- / 
ibk-as part^ oif the; ex»pire, aod 
ihstt ibc^ los^ .^ooW .j^Krdgh loo 
Jieasff^ oa diffeieot' powf rt, • . not to 
^Mk ^^y' pieao^ of ipi44:£ntia§ tbo 

lQr'0Kl9ir.|0 appm:ia40; the value 
of tht»-c»eiiMOQ, ^aDdjudgt Q^ the Ir- 
tzrah at the qQ^U^^;atswa8 ^tatedt 
tlva^^bf.^ving.fp^ib^rXB,^ «ide;Pf 
vbo Rbioo»"tn4, tg^.^tbOriP^^oUiJef, 
th\rtj^rOfie.K?ulwrwl-i|vu«eA <«- 
clesippiUcj^V «taief. -qi^ 1^ empire 
wottik} bf jpt^t^d |o]k>sf«», wiitch 
«aiW0l<^ to^ qpwaf4fr o(, «leyen ' 

tioDAl^v^cli W4iff upfwi^^^ ^f three 
ro$i W^ , ci uihahi tai^lA. - ^ Jf r9Dce 
ha4<lfawc^.frq9l^iiiS'«QAUiiU7 »idc» 
thQ-.b^^^npattg-pfrth^ waF, io^requi* 
«ttipf|s «iip4.^«9ptiuhv9ion9, .^nore than 

sit^tiM ^ jnrfa.oo^.q&^e.^at.pro- 
viopts^ £$wpp«L .ii.,r.T'^: or- - 

TbenFf«nch^ inioistcs»;^rEi(ted, 
r^p^UdfiSB, ,m ^.iheir 4rai proposi- 
tion, ::|roa^ ^lirhichj tfa^lf .jdecUircd 
tbeyjWf^oki -nev^r dtp^Mft^aoid. in 
anso^ertlo 4tif r«Hso6|.Mkg^:b)E the 
depiitrtiofi .>r/9f . Jbe,. ^;^(li>:^>> ^ tbey 
de<4«Fr4 iji^t F»f)5«^dpipp4p4^ ii>e 
left si49^«iAei(ll^pp^.P{[(^sy'|iiach 
fur.f bi^ |Pfirp9iia. r/^/ 3ggrai»4Ueiiieot, 
as tJE^smifrfi^ta thc^ rfpiMbJiip a sure 
and ^impiP%^ ffojaf^^.^ry^fhe..^^ 
piU^^i^*^, stiil ipci>pp8£d^9,AV(kQ.$o 
l^fi<^ tMcri&c*^,.. Il^^t^ ,%r sooio 
tim^.l r^uc(^ Wl»g .ifc^e^qr o^i^yi pres9- 
<d b^Jhoi^rDodbk^i^MieMy .began, 
bfo^tsring^ in a note rcmiued the 
20tb of February 1799, ^^^ cession 



of half ♦ the territory , demanded* 
![^he following day the French mi- 
i^i^iterj^ Jbecamo stili more urgeor* 
andjinfiisced that the. deputai ion 
should qozne to a speedy decision on 
the ^vhole of ihc denia;^d. These 
rrittratcd attacks ^a^^e occasion to 
still, naorQ warm and.,«;!iiaafed de- 
bates, ..Pru»9i%. who did.4iot.hesi- 
tau, to declare openly for peace, ac- 
^Qidiced in the cession .of part of it§ 
states situated on the le£t side^ and 
Sjeemed. industrious to» sinoolh the 
di£^uiues and termjqaie.the differ- 
.eno(;8.,whlch mlglu* brin^ about the 
niplure of ' the negotiations. The 
cabinet of Vienna sbo,\ved the same 
coAcili4tQry disposition^:. and agreed 
Jikewise to the pession.^ though this 
goux^bad n^.ost to lo^e, Bavaris, 
^o the,q:>ntrary, declarci earnestly 
against those .pacific dispositions, 
and not only refused to agree to the 
cession,, out went $o faf as to pro* 
pose.to; i^e other states to invite the 
empire, Russia, Prassia, and En* 
gland, tQ oppose it by main force. 

,Aftct.long debates, multiplied 
sittings, jsnd th^ interchange of pre-* 
paratory . notes, {he deputation on 
Jthe^^^th of March finally consented 
to tb^ cession of the, whole of the 
IcfJLjidt* J^atadiled two notf^ which 
ga.v^ roocp.for new debates ; of which 
,vhe,^at >ms a demand that France 
siiould innncdiately withdraw all its 
, troops, /ron». th#, right side, and 
shQuldiflrm no .other preifn««iona 
.at.th^ expense of the Empire. 
Having, thus :.estabU»bed the basis 
ofibe Begoti,ations, the nrxt qoes- 
lion,. {and the most difficult to 
agitate^- ,was the ir dtmnities to bo 
gnuited la the different states who 
were-lhc most injured by the /ces- 
sion.^ ,These indemnities, accord** 
ing to tiie French ministers, were 
to beibund in a plan of seculari- 
sation of the ecclesiastical estates. 
The deputation agreed to this ge- 
O 2 neral 



ilt 



SmtlSM AU D 



nerd (>riilfcip1ft$ .bot \i^b«fi • iAef 

caoM to Jibe. dUcossioa of.tbe-<le^ 
tails,, ibefiiflfereat iotenestsfdaBbed* 
md it wan -evident tbat cacb M(«% 
M it wa6 .ea^j to bav« been fore* 
•^en^.tbotigbt oulf of.hsow^p^ 
gicandi^ment. and of (hrowipg U19 
•ttin of ^fnages and lo^fteacn thpM 
who wef». xhfi most, iDfiapablf of 
defending, tbeiQSclves. The Majtes 
of the first rank did ooi diaMrmbtf 
tbat thfise )oMea were to iiill 00 .the 
iefion^ary.fttates, wbiqb latter aluft* 
ed tbempff ou^iose of iniera>r oc« 
der* Tiia Austrian .miniUeri^ prcH 
posed the> great. ^eculafisatioM, ihm 
ecck^a^tical electors deinaaded..ta 
be ii\de(DAified . by tl^ose of the 
prioce/bisl^pf, ^nd tbese in thm€ 
tarn, i^uired the sopprcasioii of 
abbeys,. qfK>aasteries, and prelacies 
of tivslaat. raok« This disposiUaii 
pnl into onolioa all of the latter 
class who werev menaced with tbir 
plao of secular isation^ aodwhqhad 
none 00 whom they could . throvr 
their lossear Many, io order tp 
ioitcn th^ ^ke with which thejr 
were Ibreaienedf and which thejf 
bad 9ot- the. power, to avert, begaa 
•to fociQ a. fund for theb* fatare ei^T 
isteneey ,by patting t6 sale notonly 
their moveables and other porUbl9 
objects, bui also hy disposing of 
considerable parts of their laaded 
properly, so that;,in case of the aeciw 
tarnation taking^ place, theaewpos* 
sessoi^ sliovild have ,the less benefit 
unless a law sliould interfere to ipvai 
lidate these fraudulent alienatipos* 

On the second o£ April the 4a« 
putation decided on the adoptioa of 
the prim^ipie of jacularisacionii with 
certain limitatipns, and establisfajflg 
as the basis, tbat they sboold. begin 
by Ihe totsl aecidarisatioo of ;the 
abbeys, and private prelacies^; it waa 
^ff^^i ai|^ if thtrsa were lu^tsullH 
cientt^^oovpr the balaaOD' of the 
lossei^ 2^p^}f of the possmmna of 



tb6 pciaof-^absfMi^bQfid.belafan 
to the aoaoM ^ the siM ,. Ausicia 
and Prus&Ubavlog .declared 4kat> ia 
order (o jivoid>^td|fi> gi^ « |ll^Bbnc 
of secolarisaticmsy they, would ipod* 
teat theiBBelves with -inoderatc^ in- 
deoanitie^' • . « , . 

When these. two pofotst the oe»r 
sioo of the Ml side of Abe. Rhine, 
and fhe^riociple of secolasisation^ 
were agreed oq,- the dfcpulat^, of 
the eaapire) d^ironaof euterii^ mio 
, the disct^iooi^. fcqa e sted to be pre-* 
vipnsly.iQfoimpd .what v^ \b^ total 
and exectouH^tuH of the losses, Ag 
be iademoi&^d,. apd . what other 
pretepsiooa the French batl t« ttat^ 
These a/tid^ were specified io a 
note delivered, by th^ Fretipb ,.fl;KU* 
j^iat^,. jtbe4^tb ef May } tbcrprin- 
cipai of wbicb w«re» to peaiier tfa^ 
navigatioa of tl^ Rhine comnoan to 
both nations } to^oppress the.jrighst 
of tolls; to balance the costoqi* 
does estabUsbed od bo^b ^i<l^ ^ 
that they, should be ne^r^. ^^' 
to leavfs all tbe islands m the.Etvioo 
in tbe possMion of tbe republic } to 
make tbe navigation of the rivete 
wbioh empty .themadUiBa tnta tbo 
Ilbioe^ aiBkd tb^t of th^ gnatrlfi^ra 
of Germany, pactlcabrly. Ae Da- 
nube, free for both. nat>ens> to re« 
tain poqsessiro . of the fort of Keh), 
and tbe. territory adjoinii^ ; to de* 
molish the fortress of Ehrenbreit* 
stein, whi(^ the French k)?pt dote* 
ly besieged } and CassaTy as fomui^ 
*« part.^thcfor4ificatjoo8ofMent2» 
already given 'Cp to die republic^, to 
remain-Ukewise a pari; of ili^ pos- 
sessions. 

These nr^ propositionf excited 
a considerable' degree. o( ^arm 
amongst the .n^embersof ibe di^pu^ 
tatiooj #ho inEmgined that>the;sa« 
crific^ whiipb they bad already 
puideweveitQare than suffifiicot to 
have satisfied, thp most, inordinatd 
ambition. ..^pd bad ^^ Fr<Hic2i 
atoppoJ 



F O R is f G *J • HISTORY. 



213 



tistTon, to *irMcb thie ^^^' off tbe 
rnc^st imttiodeitte ))Brtisafn of th*- 
rep&b^tc were botedeitfj-^atid 6oa- 
duded ihf: "peAct^ f»yMrig fctakmid 
to die -leoaipletidt] of its ^ g^orjr i 
bat, poshed oo by that rage of do>* 
tmdatiitm wisSoh ' impels vulgar 
minds ponesstd of power, the ex«* 
test' oTwytsb is ro be 'ioMsafed 
onlj'by'ffs abuse, the dii^ectory in* 
dulgea Ihemsdres la cbe-ldea of 
imagihaiyointtipotfeiice, tihd An- 
cted ffeat ibt ttrrbT of tfcefr irienaces 
*rag 0f ed ' to " tlie for^e df -tieit 
drns^. FitMir this -pctidd may be 
dated ih&d^aMtz of the g'6i^ of the 
fcptibBel from tb\f pewit she began 
todcsoectdf bofth^^i^hbgorerned 
her destintas hiid ^tT6tibW 'cleai^dt^ss 
df-sigltttbdis(^rt]f''th^s9gyis'of the 
titries, noi' sdflBct^iiliidA^essfoi' ptu- 
deate to trard off ^h& iitott tfa^ 
wa^ preparing. 

'hi the ioterirrf of fhe eession of 
the-ltrnita of the Rhioe; atid thes^ 
licW ^topo^uoM, the* femrdarion 
of'S' mtsir eo^lHioii w&r ibrmed', 
which ' jarc aoother '\oBfe to the 
bitbeftostibfcDissW^ laiigitt^ of the 
drp'otatidfti which boii^ drsplayed a 
^$()os!tiofl for making' a vigoroas 
re$i^r^iH5i td pretetisions v^hich they 
regattied as eiaggerated^ and utterly 
iihet^cted. ' Afl ihtHit ttotes con- 
lamed * the i«hrotige»C pfi&tesiations, 
reptrsenfmg these lioW elainw as 
the hidications ot the trtdftt dissatis* 
fied ' an* - etecsslvc MmVi tton, de- 
srroyiiig the Hmfti- agpsed oo be- 
twcfeif the -twc sttftct; fltkt threaten- 
ing the well being and ittdepend- 
cnce^of <5ennaiiy. ' The Imperial 
mhiistef,' wiio had'' fekherro sup- 
per tod the pretehsiotl*^ of the French, 
^nd h^d' had edesiderable iniitience 
as chief on the. decisions 6f the de* 
putatiotr, i^ntied at-fifst 'fhe flamf^ 
of 6ppc^ttidil t^ these 'i^qtimtioni, 
gcci iii^t\mi» diic^ferod tte most 



d^tinmiRed reststaoce; ' So extra va« 
gaoi^ were these pretentions deena* 
ed, that, though the interests of 
Prossia were m oppo9iti6a to those 
bf ibe etopeirrr, tlioyagh the king 
hid publfdy declared that he would 
bbserVe the most exaet neotrality» 
Ma mifiisters thought themselves 
4^ uelly obliged to protest against 
the new pretensioat of the French 
pfettipotentiariea. •- . 

This decided oppoiit)on from 
every pirrt of the depetation roused 
the 'French directory from iia 
dreams of omnipotence: The French 
p'feoipotentiarics were instructed to 
irepreseet that these demands were 
Dot put forward, like the first, as 
eoiHilusive or Irrevocable \ that 
Ihcy were in a great measnre the . 
tiecesarsiy consequences of ihe ces#« 
bIoA of the limits of the Ilhine ^ 
that the French republic thought 
them necessary for the prescrvaiioa' 
of the country which 'had b^ca 
ceded ; that, when tbe deputation 
should be convinced of the justice 
of these ' motives, these claimt 
might be separately discussed, and 
th^ only such as might be found 
proper and equitable should be ad- 
toiitted. These reprcscttiations were 
followed by a note (}gth July,) 
in which the French ministers sig- 
nifted tliat they gave op ihcir de- 
mand of the whole of the islands of 
the Rhine, and that they would 
agree on an equal divtsioo, so far 
aa it waa possible to make !t ; that 
the r^ght side of ijie islands should 
beJoDg to the empire, and the left: 
to France / but that they insisted oa 
»!}'the o<her points, on which the 
aafety of their frontiers principally 
depended. v. . 

The deputation of the empire 
were placed at this tinae iti an em- 
barrasski^sitriation. Pressed on the 
^6t hand by the French to make e 
categornal answer to their demands, 
O % they 



214 



B Jt TT I SH AND 



they did pot 4»>^a>ble to thcimMves 
that th^.-ienperi^ miniftter^ ip. ihe 
total -clUpgf^r^fl the systepi whjcfe 
he ha4 6)l^w^ at the opccisni; of 
the c<M^;s/|«./Aeecncd d^slrpu^i'of 
protractipgf die iicgoti3irgp,\;arii^ 
witbotttjOp^X cxpUiniqg vhe views 
of hlk g?|)^ief». to. direct U^ose^o'f 
the diep^tfon ip conformity v/UIl 
hi» x>wi^ ifh'^^. ^^tWQf^a the cx- 
tTayagfiPl|»:oieQsibDS of the French 
on 4he OM' V^^» ^"^ ^^^ 4^ng6t 
of h«ip§,ijgtvoiv^d in the ney cona- 
binatjor^^ of tl;ie in? penal court on 
the olher^.lbe .greater p^rt of the 
smalJpr$tatQ9.Qr the ecnpire saw no 
snfeiyji^ u^'f-hc goni^IusiQn of the 
peace» ^pd began to form a party 
in oppositio^,.to.vhat .inwnedia'fcly 
under the if^AsKncc of the. Qiiief of 
the dcpn^tlpn* .. These exertions 
to carry (Op the discussiion were in 
part «iiccfe$sfuU .the .congress soft- 
ened tho.tlaQgo9ge of it6 messagcsi 
.discovered 4tspp&itions lesii hostile^ 
Mud oonseo,t,ed tp 'some of the ne^ 
deoKiDdf of jtb«i Preach. The c^n - 
elusura «of tbc ]Congre$s, however, 
was poi g4vqn in,^till it had agam 
)>eentwe|iric4 /with repeated resnon- 
«trancci,qnt iBe^art of the French 
minist^n; itj^ consisted of a pure 
and ,^ppipl/?^xi>n;^ent. tp. Ihp demo- 
Jitipn of^^l^/oiTtrQss of Ehcenhr^lt- 
stem-p ,^T^ fn)peri^LpainUte^ dp- 
layr^ \,hi^ /w^TCtidn.' HJH t]je lit 9^ 
6ept/cn>^r,ici this article, jtnil' at 
the $ajp6,lif^e ♦manifested a. deter- ^ 
niined opp/o^itjqn in bis verlSal con- ' 
fWrq^c^^ juv;lvli the-Freoch rpimsicrs 
toth^ gftv^ti^^ up. t>^ CassjiT. De aU 
^^A ..that. Uiis denaaq^i was . in- 
afimisMb[e,^not pnl)r a$ contrary" lo 
the tirst tiasi> .ojf.lhf V«^.«y 9^ peace, 
.whi(;h ,<^>^^, the Khine the limits of 
tjm yi\i^.^^.efsj . ht^t ^morepver^'as 
h'gbljf itjA^^-pus ,',to itbe jafeTy.rOr^ 
Gefj^nj^^^as trance would J^yr' in. ;^ 
the.ptws^tl. tiffX^^^al .a'^n^Itiry 
po&t,. both otTcpsive and detcnsi^'e/ 



against the '^lennan empire. The 
cdupt j6f iMetternicIc cooiplamed at 
the iiva^'fittte of the greM i«g- 
meo^tidntyf the Fxench ftitcei oo 
the right ri«:^et tp i^rbkh theotheri 
objected the necmity of takitigpve- 
cautions wben the report of h«H 
;tilitifi became ev^ daf motttic* 
ci-^dTted. '-' ' 

OLtl^ state' of thef ne^inHoai 
at thid pstidA, ait idea maybe form- 
ed ^ frotA the note of, the French 
ministers of the Mth of Sjcpterober, 
in which' Ihey decfgLte thetnsclvei 
saliafied .wtfh tUe« pacific tengwgt 
pf the depiitafipn'of tb^ empire} 
but that alter nine tnootW of ne- 
gotiation, words, and eyen g«4 
intentions, w^ not the Only w- 
quisites foccftixdudittg ptBtc', ifcey 
represented th4t the deputatioo had 
recently coiiaented to one of the 
cpo.st important 'dcmimda, which 
was the deitiolttlon of the ferrrev 
of r-hrenbre.it«tc1n; that a dfspwi- 
tJon was/titrewr^e showo of^pring 
up some other points^ and in short 
Of presenting a happy proapcct of 
being able to come to a dcfiititive 
cpnclnsiottj "that all the tsstniiaj 
difficulties wcire ted<K3cd ttf tltrec 
points : (he retention by the fVoichj 
or the ifeiiitntlon tp the cmptre, of 
the fortres^rVs of Keht and Ca^al; 
the transfer' of the debts incofrcd by 
^the cerded fc'bu^ltries on the fcffc«itl< 
pf th0 tlhlne to tbeconiitriesgivep 
in excbapgeoti the rf^tj awdthc 
appllcatlnn raf ejcemptioh of th? 
French' la^s concerning the emi- 
gicanll. • 1?o^liing these i^Otiitions 
to a nearer Wohi'tion, they ^rbpbscd 
tpf- the de'puTj(tl6n, that, on tb^lm- 
mediate cesiTon trf the iiland.of St. 
Petef, the JFfrerich- ttjptiblic Won! J 
give HP their claims to theforfrrtses 
of-KehV an'd jCjassiil ; WhlchH^ould 
be denroiished,-^ that sihhoflg'h the 
dtjhts df thecedtti tioanttles'^hoold 
i)d'"traiiJfcrrcd''' to' 'the t^vntriei 

givca 



FO RRIGN;HISTgiR Y. 



215 



^^ifydal and. cqminj^i^ls^qWg^'* 
/i\QT^, cxceplibgi 5^ t^ i?4 ^>^ 

x^sup U> be defray54 t>7 tbe cquq- 

applicable to tbt: countriea of wbicb 
>pc&sfonlMdbeep cpadc,, . 

'^iia donxestic affairs ot France 

op live opening of the jrear prc- 

fei^ted littjc that .Vaijcbpbrtaiit. 

/X>q.jiaw^ enacted qi\ tho Ijpth of 

JFfuciid^r. had given the dUrectoiy 

^&ow^de a^iiatitude mtbc adminisira- 

jiocp^.oi^l] the affairs 4^* lhe state, 

^hfi^ih jdivij, inilita^^ gpd judicial, 

thal-a4^cf ee of the executive poweir, 

<^Jl^thet U wa» in pirlcct ,corre- 

jippodeQce with I'te Taws, which 

.g^TQ.jt birth 9r liQtt was qbeyed as 

^Kppl^citij a; if it had hecn formaJTjr 

rdoUi^d.with the sispei sji the legi?- 

JalUm, r, The lihertj of the press 

; wai ^ei^drel/ qpder '.tlw direction of 

<4h^ g^vernoienU anc^.th^t of 'its 

.agentoi and^ as jix^prisonoient Sind 

• ^xUci . w^thoQt jodicf ^ interference, 

. wc^re weapoaa entrnstcd tc^ their 

iiapds,* no joqrnaliit had' the terae- 

ritjF t» brav^ their vengi^oce* This ; 

, poijtrerrh^d, iodeedrbeenliipited by 

theJ^w which g^yeii birtbi^bht 

wheo^ ^hece liifa^ qo aVcurity f^alnst 

. oppfessioo, /e\Y had the rashness to-. 

hazard ojfepce. The.tfansh^Uoo of 

ailScles frona ^fJarcii^A^ papers was 

cpufperoj^d jiiQongst 'the Itst ' of 

.UbeU^. a^d an order of'ibe'ixiinijier 

. of 'police, /y/hich pl^e^'in ope day 

. tbe^i^eal%Qf. the n9tioQ onDiQeteen 

prif^fingroffic^, gaye, warning to 

the recQ^inder pf,tke^ cbpi9e they 

PQght to ih^q in Ukf ic correspond- . 

, $,i^4iUhoi3gb France, and n great 
^a^ qf the rest of Eofope^ had he- 
cofoe. obedient to the mandates^ of 
the 4ircctor]f/ oxke.pcn^'ec ha4. bU 



!herto_b^ffled^ all their tttcmpts ; 
and It was against **fing|fahd thst 
Ml Acifctforts' wer6''n to be 
foncentfed.. As* thd menacing pro- 
ctarhatiot), pnbli«hed at the close 
of the year, had pfodtf^cd n^ other 
elfect' than raising a loan' on the 
commune of Paris, and ihe poerile 
pfFcfiOg of patriotic gtfts fo help 
forward the descent ; STid US the 
army of England rrsred peaceably 
on the registers of theLuiemboargj 
the direccors, oi* at least such as 
poade a speculation of power for the 
purpose of wealth, prefaced a mes- 
sage to the councils rpspeciing the 
neutrality, of merchant-ships, by 
a general seizure of the produce of 
English manufactures throughout 
!Paris. Ibe Parisfans, whatever 
sentiments they niight entertain 
with respect to English' politics, had 
foanifcsfed a great Attachment to 
English merchaudise; tmd the shops 
and warehouses wire ' filled ' with 
^ those prohibited articles. - Tlie ioi- 
portation for «ome HriOfehad been 
very considerable ; and rtroufeh op- 
posed by a formal law, the agents 
of the ^executive power,' and snme 
^'of its members thethselre8,'it Is as- 
serted, made a trafHc of per^tssiona 
on ilicir dwn accpodh • BQt'as the 
quatitity .of these conft^abatid arti- 
'cles,' thus clandestrnc^intx»oduccd, 
had swollen be)^nd flie consump- 
tion, atid the^ cotnmlssions for its 
Int^fbduction were but slowly dn- 
ixianded^ it was judged hoonproflt- 
abte specufatibn to seite on the 
dajiitar itself; Th6 capture of thli 
rocfchai^dise (in which, fat a while, 
'were comprehended the senatorial 
robes of the two eooncils, then 
making up at Lyons), ^mounting to 
/ap' immense kum^ independent of 
the ^nes for the violation of the 
'law,' shared the same fat^ ttrith the 
'patribtlc offerings. All was- in- 
gulfed ia the treasuty of the di- 
4 ' rectory 



210 



fiR IT IS HAND 



rectory, and ihe descent was de- 
ferred to a more convenieot season. 
.The message of the directory 
respecting the neutrality of trading 
ves^ls Jed the councib to create a 
law^ statiog» thit frotn that period 
. the netttraiky of the vessel sboufd 
be detercbtned by .the tiajtore of 
the cargo, and that those which 
should have on board Bngluh mer- 
chandise ^ould be dec\ared lawful 
prizes. Thia law, which was held 
forth as the death-blow to English 
xnanufactares, was considered by 
some as impolitic, and hostile to 
Che neutral powers; apd ,as so h6* 
De6cial to the EngHsh navigation, 
that doubts were eoierta(ined of the 
.secret ipflbeace that urged the mea- 
sure: others applauded it as thp 
4»eans of raising up the f rench 
inanuf^tores^ whicfa^ withoot sucli 
prohibiii&ns, would soqn cease to 
esiist, dEs (hey couM enter into no 
cpmpartsoA* either for cheapness or 
lyorth, wiijx those of England. 

^any of the departments of 
'f ranee at .this period presented 
^ scenes ot horrible depredation and 
cruehy. ^h^ pacification t)f tbe 
'Vend^, md tbp strict watchfulness 
kept over the dtsafiected part ^f 
Briltaay^ known ux^der the name 
of Chouaivs, had forced those who 
bad no other means of subsistence 
to barban^Uif acts of plunder and 
violence, by matching \n bands, 
attacking the inhabitants of ip^^u- 
iaied villages, and extorting cnoney 
by inflicting torture. J^.' message 
from , the directory- provoked a law, 
which, contrary to.tbe humane djs'- 
ipositions of t^e criminal code ih 
J^rance, extended the punishment 
of death to'Vpbberies on the iiigh- 
.road, and in i^ouses, Yfhtn mBdc 
with Violence and infraction. The 
^requeue/ of ih^ crime' certaio.y 
jusii^ed this deviation y but the 
Jadgtnent of this criminals hy 
iniliiar^ cozmnispioD, which ma^ 



part of the law, did not pass with* 

out aeimadvei^sioi], as giving a Uti* 
tude to power inconsistent w'lih the 
spirit of lib&rty. Since ap: much la - 
titude^ lio.w.ever^ had alfieady been 
given,, and had not been spacingly 
u^sed aga^n^t fences purely of opi- 
nion, .it seemK no great stretcb of 
euthoptj^ t6%xei;cise the same power 
against' crimes subversive of the 
very eiistqics of society. • But 
though thi^^ reflection might havo 
occurred to^ the councils, thejf.felt 
the dil[F(;i:epc^. betvveen yielding to 
circumstances and establishing a 
principle. ' Military commissions 
were na/lnra^y,lhe most coDveaient 
instruments of arbitrary power; 
and it had beep annoqnced in the 
councii, that innocent persons jic- 
cuscd of emigratlop .had beeo shot 
by ordQr of jnilLtary commissions lA 
the 'departments. I'he seo^^tioa 
caused by this information threw 
so general 4 cloud over this^mode 
of judiciary proceeding, that mxA- 
sures ^r.e taken by the directory 
to correct mistakes oif so fatal a pa* 
ture. The law ex tending, their juris- 
diction to robbers on the hvghwigi, 
and bouse-^|)reakera^ was restsaiotti 
to the space of ^ year. 

The revolutioa of the 1.8lh of 
Friictidon amongst other innova- 
tions, l)ad given rise tp a^mnnbei: 
of societicfi jiuder jhe ^ame cif con- 
stitutional cii;cles, which at that 
period had met with the coante* 
nance of gaveunmcni i since , the 
members who composed them wcw 
for the most, port the strppg adhe- 
rents of ihat rcyolutionary prpCQcd* 
ing. The rc!gu,pf terror io Jprancie 
' 4iad been qrgAnised hy .popular so- 
cieties ; but their exisitencej, ihoiigb 
allowed by the constitution uadttr 
.(:ertain regulations^ was regaitded 
by the gyvewment with an pyo of* 
.^spi^ipp. * . 

The jacobin pj^rty^ .V^hich &a4 
tDpl"^ with* checks of po gendc ap* 
- • ' DliqitipO| 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



S17 



plicsutbn,' had reiuained hitherto 
spectators of those re-unions j but 
sceiog A bat no intemiptipn was 
gWeuto Ihese itocia) metcings, ihty 
begaa themsfilves to assemble^ and 
hoped to escape iiolice from giving 
their fDeeiings the same constiiu- 
tional denomipation. The direc- 
tory, who felt some apprehension 
at seeing rival brothers so near the 
(hronc, tsstied their decree^ ar^d the 
members of jacobm/ clubs, and 
coDstitotional <irclef9 as their ser- 
vices were no longer wanted^ were 
dissolved into the coippabn mass of 
citizens. 

The period was now approach- 
ing when the legislature was 10 un- 
dergo a partial cbange> conformably 
to the constitution, of a third part 
of its ipcrobers. The ^Itctious 
cf the preceding year, which had 
le-in forced ^hat was deenficd by 
the directory the royalist party in 
the Iiegfslature, ^ad brought 00 the 
unconsiitulioRal and violent mea- 
sures of the 16th off ructidor, and 
no great danger was apprehended 
that such as shared their opinions 
woald be anxious to o^er them- 
selves as candidates for the ensuing 
elections. But ihe jacobin party, 
though frequently discomtited, ge- 
nerally abhoired, and sometimes 
sinarting severrly under the rod of 
govern nFient, had an energy in their 
perseverance v^ich the royalists 
wanted. It was against this caste 
that the government had for some 
time directed the indignation of the 
people. -The directory declared, in 
a ptoclamation, that a vast conspi- 
racy, artfully com))ined, had hi led 
the elections of the fifth year with 
«iiuiis8ecnbled royalists; but that the 
energy of legislators, faithful to their 
trust, bad overthrown the conspira- 
lors, and coufoupded their projects. 
Xhii year, ever watchful for oc€;ar 
.ftioiss to diesttoy the republic,. foreign 



but not their designs, with a* much 
aadacjty, .and no li^ss pc:rhdy^ h^ 
conceu'ed a pipn/of aiiotW kind, 
which wa^f to iat,rod4JGe Mito-thts 
legislative body^ ^nd tiocaise to 
every . cffige o( Uie-r^tatc^- -fnca 
universally ^lecrated, . 'ai)4 ^hose 
name ,aloi;e £trucl^ diisiay in^ the 
hearts of all— -of the pe«ic^bie citi- 
zeo and the steraest rrpuUican j 
that. already on the lists of eldctors 
figured persoBages^ horribly fiimoM 
in revolutiondfy ,afinaU,~ ^ho hf 
their menaces and their (tfpjeclf,. 
which they did not dJAseQiblc^ in- 
spiccd such terror .a4 led jpuoibert 
to lovk around .to sea? where they 
should fiy to be witiiout t lie. reach 
of their crime«^. , . . - 

The end of this proclamatioa 
was not only to warn the people 
against the choice of 4* lectors or de- 
puties of this descrlptigoi but to 
praposp to the council m^ns for 
the cxpulbioo of such as should 
be elected. Jf the legislature, con- 
tinued the directory, found the 
nieaos, on the Ibih ot Fructidor, of . 
expelling from its body those trai- 
tors who had been placed therie 
four monih^, they will- also 6i>d liie 
means of hindering those from cb- 
tainiu^ a. seat who are .unworthy to 
enter. Xt is in (heir hand>i thai (lie 
power pf judging of the opetAtiont 
of electoral aisetnblics re^^ts. Ibis 
power they pught to exercise in the 
month of Floreal nc;xt;..end 00 
doubt tlieir justice, their attach- 
.meiit to the constitution, their, do- 
voted^ess tp the republic, will mark 
with the seal of reprobation «uch 
elections as violence, intrigue, ca» 
bal, and tlie inilu^nq^of conspiiQ* 
tors, shall dictate. 

^ Encourage^ by the opiniopa of 
.the directory, thus publicjy fnani- 
fested^ (ho repubhcan pari^. entered 
the lis^ts witn the jfcobms.'. Al- 
though the^asscpiblies of -nKwt of the 
,d^'pari(n$;nt« had to struggle against 

their 



2\B 



BRitTI S a A,N,9 



.consider Abie QQ<tf^st9, and;, ftpt^f^Js 
•io the^-lcgi$[ja«We bp4yt ^bjicl^ re- 
iuwed tor ?iuer into iliC; stylsject; of 
Ibeir rieiooQisiraoces, Mnce t^o<vf)li- 
dHy of ikcir opef&tioQs w^s lhe.<ml)r 
'matter wbkh <b<ey bad' tp deqide oo 
^h«n it c^ipe regb|ai;ly. before tbem. 
The elwAor^l body, Ibus b^fcroge- 
neously com posed,. a$if[a)bled in.l|he 
Hsbttrdh-ofvihe OFelory^ to proceed 
to^ibenooiiQauon of dep^vjes... /V 
achiBmi f(| migbi ^ exp^te4. ,$Qon 
-(ook:frU9eiai>d ibeiiimori^tyx^iUi- 
clfewip a.4>ody to the. ball pf tbe 
Naiiooalioijiti^ite. Both pariie» pro- 
ceeded t^ tbb Qominatioo pf.dc^q- 
iieK ; aad tbougb tbe chqico of both 
-fM on ;a «yniaU nuipber of th<i ^me. 
indivkluaist ib<» nofpjfiatioD was 
.aufHciemly discriiaiaate 4o iodicate 
•the di^pofitiona of those by wbom 
they were elected. The directory 
did not di^somble its optnioD^ .with 
respecc to these elect ioi;s ; ap^* in 
It fliessagd to the councils denoun- 
ced the progress of jacobipisfn both 
in the :de|>arj^ineqtB and in. Pari«, 
tbe evidoDceft' of which were to be 
ibaod u^ the reiurna wl^iqb (he 
electora)L«a$eniblies had oiade. Tiie 
message was- i>ent to a comniissioij, 
which propo^e4 the annolling of 
every cliotioii the objects of which 
eame witjiin the daacriptioo of the 
message, and to adipit into<hele- 
giialative t^ody only such oien as 
were coDncnendable fot their pa- 
triotisn), • their knowledge^ and 
• ciquaHy free from the vkca of both 
cj^trefDes. A Ust of departmnts 
wafr at theMAie time produced, the 
electiona of which it wat proposed 
toapptove,. marking tbe e]icept4ons 
Whif;h. iUfe coaunisaioa thought ex- 
pedient to recoiDoiend for the dcH- 
berarions of the coonciJs* . 
'fbis proposition gave rise to « 



tog ao^^olfa^wi ^^,¥^.'^9J"^'^ 
It was ^oatQodi^d v^,.thet8IV(si(ic, 
Abat the ilaiif proposed uobtpi|(SV£7 
•pnocipte . ot, Jl^)cfyr, and jygJ ^. dj- 
fect. ati,ack fifk' ihe -sovcrrigofy of 
.the peQple» and the,piiKlt^utioDj 
it ' was . i ofln iiated th^t thcu ^<^^i; 
tion was. a.sqgges^jjpm .ot j6j^ dwec- 
lory ; and a«p apprcEcnsionVti 3e. 
dared, that if this dictatorlallnBa* 
enqe wsff 4ia€ered to take place, tbe 
legi^aMv^ bo4y would soon be re- 
- duce4 to :> tiie. /unctions of tbe par- 
Jiatnentof t^\&^ aijid be.oQlyfm^ 
ployed to /tnrc^ter' tb^ c^iccatiie 
edlctSj, TTq ihi^rfluoj^i jpfjvoQr 
of principle j^, was, obj^teJ, lijt 
the pi;opo&itipQ was ooly^l^e neces- 
sary conseqvieoce . o/, i law >vhich 
9onf«^red ^p, the .icgialstiye body, 
not. yet renewed,, the vcrlficaiion 
of the tifjp^-of those wijti were 
newly elected. , TosabjectihecM- 
mination of, those elections to no 
authority would be leading poirocn 
rc^actioji to r^-3ctioiit. fvoi^^k'i»oo» 
to division^ and inakirvgt^e.lcfgii- 
lative hody kn arena for, the .chiefi 
of factions. Was it not better tq 
prevent their entrance tiian give 
rise to another .^(nih o|'Ttar^i4of^ 
A single exclusion decided bo bjF 
the legislative body would te^h tbe 
electoral asaeinb;lies to be more pru- 
dent in their choice^ to seiyl aeiih^ 
, royalists npt, aparcbists.. out su<^ 
oaly as were frienda to thertjpubiic 
and the constitution. 

This opinion was sopperted hj 
others who urged tbeiirgMrwent di- 
rectly against tbe objects of jaco* 
bin choice. •' Among lie elected 
of ^ the present year do we pot see," 
they exclaimed, '* those ien of 
the year nioety-three, wb(Me ssvago 
genius has dtsboooured tbe nevo^^' 
lion, and covered Praiice with nw- 
sery and ruins ? Do we not see, io 
tbe number of deputies, thojinccn- 
diary of Bedouin, the reporter of 
the atrocious law which dragged 

to 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



219 



to the scafibid, » ftsMthtH,- the 
firiendi^bf Uberty knd^tb^ ite{^<ib1ie? 
Wilf yoQ tbavaifl'idleii^tators of 
(hese iibombabic prbjefctsf - Wffl 
yoQ not tepai^tc from tb* gf^^t 
bod]^ of ^ respecUfbl^ chtteiik/le* 
gat^ diiD^d, tbe smdl 'cmttiber of 
those \i>lRM0e)ectf on ii^s' been obr- 
tatn^ by ttsemns only of Tibf «oeeand 
intr^e-? ' . • • •! 

TBe ikdTocates for ptfecrple, how- 
fverwell ibunded tfaeiV ir^oments 
in tBe ibstract, were; constrdined 
to g?*e \iridy to a ttiajdrityr with 
who^' Voices ^rcte uhJfed • tbos© df 
tbe e|c'(6ctitfre power arod tff tbc 
pebpter.^ . Vqty tWirfteVcf* l^ti ■ of dcf- 
potism' WW ciefcii^d tfgiinst in- 
(JWld^aU, or-'witttetcr geheral 
abnipe the dtrkrto^ cn^d^ bf m an. 
thority-, tlie .dr^d df jaebbinUm 
Dverciinc ctttfy other xrbnsideraiion. 
The act of cxc^osion Wa^ ^ssed in 
forxn. The depattes namt^ by <he 
cfectdt* who withdrew to the. hall 
of th6 Institote^were returned; and 
iibout forty other persona named 
by ilie departments, were compel- 
led fo direst themselves '6ft beir }c- 
gislathre.hononrs, and retbrn into 
the nifls^ (tf common citizens. 

Acbongst the important ^cflona 
«if rbia period wils that of a director. 
The asoendancv tff tbe^ execative- 
p6wer ^as aura, thaft tbe member 
^iiose (lAace wa^ to be vacated, and 
the person destined to fiH bis seat, 
were known long before' the vacan- 
cy or th^ electron took place; Fran- 
cois d6 fiHenfCh^tean, iivho'had been 
raided from the 'cffic6 oFmfnister to 
thai bfdirector oii the events of the 
18tb of Fructidbr, wis supposed to 
have i^ceived this bon6trr on condi* 
fiotr of ceding it at fhrf epocha of 
tht^ next election. Tiieptrtson 00 
whom ""the remaining tnembers of 
the directory filed thcirviews, was- 
Trcffhard, ' one of the plentpdlen- 
tiaries at th^ congrtrss of Kadstadt. 



This minister, a man endowed with 
noeiftrabrdiBary tatenls, had been 
deputy ttf the eonv«ntton,' and for 
aorne-tlm^a ineibb^r df the com> 
-mftHfti^oftinbllc safety. As he bad 
btfet d<ralingtri»bedneUb^'for good 
it&r'tv\\\ llttd hsid sbowlf nd dispo- 
liribn nf hcMiag o)»tniom>tti oppo- 
sivfeH'^ to- ihtHe by whtiseseni^imeots 
be <}a^k t<y be guided^ (he directory 
regarded liibi as an as^oetate worthy 
erf their bh^ice, and the t^dHncits ra- 
tified their decision. •' 

Whilst' the- Frecich government 
^as (has consolidaHng ifs power 
within, and formiag around its 
temtory a barrier df representative 
republics, reposing with eompia- 
cenr security on the advantages it 
bad gained, and on the perpetoity 
of the p<P//tr by which it had beeil 
elTeeted, its ambition was tamed 
towat4d« distant conqnafts, perceiv- 
ing that the boundaries of iu tri* 
uti>phs were for the presaot fixed in 
Europe. Various have t>een the 
reasons aleged for that strange, ro< 
maotic, and troly-*abaurd expedi- 
tion, which led from France the 
tower of its amiies, whh him whose 
vakmr and wisdom bod hitherto en- 
sured victory, and given a conti- 
neotal peace to bis country. Some 
have bestowed 00 his alMente the 
appellation of an honourable oiita- 
cism, from the opinion! thiit the go- 
vernment, jealoas of the inflac nee he 
had acVjoired, andof the aeeendenq" 
which -he might obtaitl. had given 
this new cnrrent to his fancied am* 
biti6n;'wh*ri«t others, and probably 
with nrvore reason, attribute to'Bona- 
pafrte himself whatever there was of 
good- or evil in the ei^erprrse, since 
he ertibraced it with Tirdour ; and 
ptobably felt sbffident contrmpc 
' ffir tWe-Ofinions or power of those 
\6 ^hatti his presence at Paris might 
hkvtf'^iiW nmbr^ge'. ' 

Rut whatever were the secret 
causes 



920 



BR IT J SH AND 



k d[^pe^^ to opeo a wnie field for 
$f&9eaiiiYe. The preparatloat de- 
iKrt«d«yo79geoFno ordv^irry dis- 
cov^iyj 'D6t only thA ipommba 
itoeans of-c6.ttque8t were prtit 19 re- 
4«MsiU<^>' btit it seemed, from4h(S 
equipment, '98 if the j>Qlm bf destU 
liatien was in(efrded ra undergo a 
mora} as wdl a$ phyirfca^ change. 
Jk number of t^atned filid scientific 
Meh Wttff siHected to aecdnip^ny 
. the 6xp«d!tioli^ and, vi& tbe VKoal' 
•toif« ofr- carnage and desohtioo^ 
^i^ere HtAWed ihitraoients of know- 
ledge atidireteiice; airopomps^elec- 
tuifc doacl^lhes, and prmttog presses, 
irere he^cid tpgetber wjth balls, 
c<lnn6i^ and" gunpowder r and ti^etn- 
iets' hotn the French Insfutuie^/ 
destined -to form Egypiian apade- 
.ittres ' of Ikerattire, embarlced Wilh 
Ihe fbttn-c cortqaerors-'of bcyi and 
•jnatfielnlres. Bonaparte sailed from 
Totilon pK^h M^y) with fifteen 
aaif^f the line and higates, accom* 
panted by oootre than two hundred 
4r»isp6rtA. Curioatty wasted itself 
in cottjrctnres at the event; and 
fjbou^h tbe' oAustial lading of aci« 
enceandiitenturebetoipeueda de^- 
iWiatvbivsfOiilar to that which took 
phk!e, yi^.tbe pobUcity with which 
it was ebodocfed, while the 'secret 
was alFcctctl to be myitefiouttty 
kept; Jed many to supposed tliat 
tfte spteiifi^ ^rt of the feipNirdi- 
tkm was a arratagem of Wc^r» and 
illiat some enterprise more effect tvp 
W<M ihteoded than a descent Into 

The conquest of Malta, wfcich' 
happened three weeks after Ifcaving 
Tooinn; indicated the rout ^Inch 
Bon^rte had taken. Tbk F^^trch 
0eet^ on pretentiug itself tfefbre 
ihisiinportant fortress (Qthof Jlioc), 
demahded "permission to enttfr the 
port ', ^i^hich w<ts granted by the 
^rand-master^ oq condition ibat 



t^o ves^fa .only ahotild enter at a 
titne. Thla pleasamry wa&answcr^ 
ed by a; general landiugj^ which 
took place in difierentparttoftbc 
hlaod^ add which was sood over« 
ran, by tbe invadera. 1^ town 
was invested at the cloie of the dsf, 
but flis (he Pjrench had 00 artill£7, 
no loopreasion was made, except 1 
repulse of the besieged, who pre- 
vented ^e approach of the eoemj 
by a constant fire. The following 
day the French landed tjidr ar- 
tillery, and prepared for a legolar 
aifge^ but' the grand-master bavios 
demanded a suspension of^hoiti- 
lidics, whi^h was granted him for 
twenty-fdut hours,' the ttnvn v» 
sntrendered oil condition that be 
abotild fe<^e(ve an annual' pdulon of 
three but^dred thousand firrcs, aoj 
.that the ytenah repubfic .should 
employ its infloence at the copgresc 
of Rad^adt to procure .him 1 
principality equal to that which 
lie lost ; that the knights of ihe 
order vf'ho were born FrebcWn, 
and Surho die n resided at Malt8> 
might ret\irn to tl^eir cotint7, «p4 
that their 'residence at Malts 
should b^ ix>Dsidered as .9 resi* 
derice in Prince i ihat'a j^nsioa 
of seven .hundred livrcs shopWbe 
granted theni during IHh ; aba that 
they shoutd be continue! b tbe 
po session' of tbcir private property, 
as Well as the inhabhants, togetbei 
with their priviUges, and the ex- 
ercise of tljejr religion. So speedy 
a surrender, oh rctms thus a^lvsn- 
♦ageons for the grand-master, left 
well-founded suspicions that there 
eicisted a preyious good understand- 
ing bctweeW tht contractingjjar- 
tles^ Wh^n^itii remembered. whnt 
a glorious ^efince was n?ade*^y the 
gallant' or fededcssors of thcs^ mo- 
dem knights against the ^omnH)» 
foe of chriacnaom 5 and t^at the 
governnieiit of Malta had* bttn 
QuqPllered, 



F O B ,t f q N H I ft T p |L t. 



711 



among^the abcitor^ o£ tbc;^<)antum^ 
f gainst Frai^cc, . by a &6ti\ nf refuge 
to taiiff^nis, per^ci^tfhg (falo re-, 
pobiicaps, ftboldog, tbe poi^t against 
Frcn9h,Te#sels, jModolber acts injji-. 
cativc -^f hoftilc in:ei>t'ioq. * But 
wbaiever Were ib^ c^u^ps or secret 
condiilom of ibc surrcQ.d9r. the poa- 
sessioo o^thf DQri^nd island waft, 
deerned ao'objcct of slnguiar.im-. 
portance to tL(i Pr^nc}f/DoiQn]y a^s- 
the harbour i% Km% of the £ne«t aad 
rooit ic^re of the ^lediieiran^an^ 
bu(c6rpqi(>djoiif ,ii)t ry^ry poipt of, 
tIcw/ for tfae trade of ihc jLcvan^,, 
arid esB^n^al towarda the ^'ccom-' 
pHihment . of, whateyer^ j^lao t&e» 
French govcrsunent roigbt Iforip for 
cKtendipg. t^eir copqucs^ 90 the 
neighbouring .<;oastf of As{a. or. 
Afnc£ .'ilie port^^qd |<Nrlr.^ con« 
tained two ships of the TiQe^.a fri*. 
ipte, foar galleys, tvi^el^^hoodred. 
piecca 6f caonoii, .fift^eix thoqaana« 
""^g^i oi^ powder^, ioityi tboosand. 
muskets, with otber.waVlik<<$^toreflu, 
AflerJ^yiDg a garnapo of three. 
thousand ipeda . tke jf repcb army . 
locreaicd by ai^ty aail of irao^porls,. 
by w^lch it l^d been preceded to, 
Malta from . Civha Vcc^la. (ipih 
Jiuie)AK^~pt their, cpurs^ toy^ard^. 
the north caalj sailina by the islaod. 
of Candi^.. T^h.e EngUsh fleet, 
which h^d sought (oi the French at. 
TouIoQji , arrived at Malta two days 
after fbeiv depart orei.and!^ fiodiog 
thelslafid to possession o^ the re-, 
publican forces^, adaiiral hJelson di-. 
reeled Jiis coprsQ tow^r^s-^Alevan-, 
dria^ .on the sputh side of the, Me: 
diterraneari, aonposiog. th^( the. 
French hac) procebded| thither. Hav<, 
***S waited two ^ays. before thc^ 
port, ^tie epjrance ipif jirhich Jiad, 
been forbidden by the. Turks,, ti^e. 
Eoglidb, conjfeclruring that, th^, 
French fleet had t^e^ sDoae pthei:: 
rout, i«^«( in #«af cl| of iWiwg, a^d. 



the Fi;^cb. fleet at^oared^.w view 
abqbt, ^0 .leagues .distaoiC- ffiaa 
Alpan^rla (isc July), r 3oi«ppf(e9 
inioriset) by the .Frcncl) Consul a4 
Aiexandria of il^e.app<:aranypf /^fth* 
Eaglisbi- ffi>g^ Iwa fleet iq liofi 
of battle .in case of their ^turai 
ttui pK>ceeded, AotwUhsUndiog, a- 
htaty ifn, to <disea)baj(k .^^'^r ^ 
^ire thousand of hia troops, near 
Marabou*, which he led forwards to. 
the piUar of Pmnpey, Wtllioot ca»< 
npo ,or.^ artillery. .Having raag/Q4 
his little afniy in three (;aWa9Aa» 
the /cench general .proce^UM ta 
Ali^at^flriai whioh he took by a«» 
sanity after putting to. flight tbo 
Arab^and roamalukes who defend* 
cd it, and of whom he killed aboot 
tWee huo4ied (4( b July ) . ^k*) laiid* 
iog of the remainder p{ the Frcnck 
troops took place .ua the. ea^iranoc^ 
of the transports into the old port^ 
bi^t. thq. necessary spuodingt (kK 
baviog been made, tbe flert an*, 
chored JD the rojd of Abpukir.— ^ 
Oo his entrance into the dty « fio*« 
naparte a»>embled the lurkisb 
chiefs^ and explained to, thena the. 
moiiv^e of hia visit, which ^ atatedi 
to be the deliverance of the. country 
from tb^ tyranny of the tieya, equal* 
lytiKieDepQiciS.of ihe Vorti^aod, tbet 
rrenchi |ind having required frona^ 
thetn an oatK not to ^icir^y i^fu*: 
h^ Uft the gres^ter. nuoiber in the? 
places whidi they occsipiefji.^ ^av^ 
ipgirevoaioed three daya io com-i 
plete th^ oiganisafLon ^tho place* 
wntch was left under the comaoan^ 
qf , l^^eral Kleber, t}>^ FrcqcU 
^iny began, tiieir, march a/crojia tbei 
Dese^r^ The tro^jfis Icii.atAlex* 
^n4ria,4 which oa their. 'CfitraiK^e^ 
h^4' .takea iheir lodgliitgs .,in ihth 
sgreet^ ihaviag been pr.evjQUJ»iy fur«» 
bidden, iinder penally of dcftiji, by- 
^rj9cIanjatiQ^ cnade pu b^^ar/i qvor, 
'V <^'£^^&^> ^t/^ring. the houseai 

or 



aftt 



fiftittdH an6 



dr mosqaes of the Turks, or com- 
mitiing any violehjce on tbelr per- 
sons, or tboie of th<ir . fsfmiites; 
bailt bat» of paUn braodirsj wiih« 
out (he idkty,. to sbtltcf tbecnsclves 
from th&eun^: Whatercr ekvmipri 
had been glVoH to ih^ f^eliogs of 
the invftdori^ from the claMit* ooDsi- 
deraiion 'that they ^ere going td 
iharch throogh a oouotrj prover* 
bial oot Qi>l)r for the fertilily of it« 
soil, but. teoQwaed as ih^ birth* 
place of Htcratore snd tho«i>cid)t 
source ofsclencet froao wheo«e it 
had Howed in streams throqgh the 
worlds tilts/ clfsiio eotbttttssm' was 
instantly ;. sbeUed as soqi) 89^ the 
French Ctod Aa EgyptiQft shore* 
While difr soldiers repOsedr in the 
strreu, the tpea of arts 9fftd koew- 
led^e wtfe lodgtad io the hoosca of 
the few Ettfopeaot resideai at Alex* 
andria) aed, as tl>e quaotity of 
room was incooiafiensorate with the 
number^ a doteo were obliged to 
herd together in one chaoiber, wnder 
the heat of a torrid clioaatcr The 
wretched fbod^ aad still more 
wretched waier» they wer^ conipeN 
led to tBste»<- the stiogs of kiaects, 
the filth and. misery with which 
they were^ sufroaodedt ' proiented 
Egypt to .their imaginations and 
feeliog^ fnore as the country laboor- 
iDgtioderthe ten plag«es of Pha- 
raoh thstt the paradise of terres* 
trial deligbtf. Of the city of Aki* 
andri% bailt by the architect Din^- 
chares, cootaioiDg the libmiy of 
Fcolen>y» end reiiawiied for indor- 
try» cooiiDeroe^ and activity^ nothtiig 
was left to the gsza of the vifsifsiits 
bat ruins, barbarisfitii and poTcrty | 
stopid-lcokiag cittsenst with long 
pipes, iodoleolly sitting ia tbe 
public places, half starved and sia* 
.ked childreot aod the forms of 
bare footed women, io blue scrgo 
gowns and black stuff veils, flyitig 
the approach, or turning away wiih 



prccipltatidh iRrheiibvet th^ met i 
Frencbowt. The French bdield 
every »^here monufiientiof Mti^ui* 
ty, hist i^very-^bfie nris^kflodj 
pillars ^ graoiti^, ioacribAd* wftii 
figyptish hierc^lyphics, steeled: the 
strectsi. or divided hf 4hie^ isaw, 
servond foK thresbotds tfn4 benches; 
loafbb aqid porphyry bases and cat 
pitals« bathsi iad cstgcomba, were 
feuod iof rvimh vjib noUiit»g entixt^ 
but a .b8th*of Iflactk gratMte destined 
for thb tnosepta of P^rii the piUaf 
of Pompley^ fiodtlie obeilisk <if Cle« 
ot>Btra, whiiSb Mr^a ^ei kk good 
preservatioh. . 

If the entrftlicb ieih the tooiH^y 
opened to invitiog prospeots^ tb6 
march ^fth(^.atQiy oerMi the De- 
sert to Bosettm complstely^fiUed tiff 
the meastiro of diaappQiotmeat; 
The soMiers) >otmceQSton)edto thd 
burning heat ef the climMlei te- 
nsed to travarae sandy desert^ ^nd 
unobservant of tbe ordejM wbiah 
had been given; them, eshatssted 
their piovinoesr or suffered, tiiecn 
to spoil long be6«e they got to tha 
endofthefr journey. Of tfaehisr* 
rors ^od.hardabips^of this eapedi^ 
tion. numerotia atid autbeiiti^E. ac« 
counts from the sofferers4hei|psf|«ei 
have reaijied £aropej and greiV'al* 
lowance inust he n^ade for their 
wealcnesf ov eiaggeratiooi atmro it 
must be remembered that militaiy 
courage, is not alwi^s equal lo of eiy 
kind of triaU Tha arrival of She 
army st Bcnetta put an end. t^ n^ott 
of »U diAcalties. Thia citn *^^' 
ed on the baaks of tbe >lite, six 
miles from tbe seaj well btiili^ 
and stsireanded with fsrdena ia 
high cuhivation* and a . gneeq 
counity interspersed with^ d4ln jand 
sycamore .treei. aca€i«^ ciilinge* 
trees, potnegranates, jsfminea« aod 
a thoosand other productions of 
the warmer climes^ opened a pa* 
liidisiacal scene to those who 

had 



F OvJKHi-GN' H rS to ft Y. 



223 



er HMTld^ 'd^^gatvhoov -iciitckr rtfo 
c^taaui^itr. oMgdoerfti) Meh«M, at 

fi[iitifo>im(«^nei! oCtbe 'Frtnt^h, sod 
tfn6A«^lit 'tibaMMhip a^wnitfa* 
ai^'^lbrlhCr >uj>^^ih<r^»iVen on ibe 
emrane^'of the i»ii»4 bf ^AkinMH 
dti^/' tA^'<(4»tei^pijKi a?«dtainid ^ 
thef 37x9;^ bid tnaittkedav-^ke aam^ 
time -with' fbtft: ta^RbiitCBr Bootfi 
pi^ie t6Dtiittftd^<iiir:tiMf«b' ttlotig 
th&'fiKU» to^aftti^ dah-o^v 4:>t1owttd 
bf^ MMaR'^ett^^^wlitoh '^codv«3red 
his acnmuDition, and lMd\ed' ibjf 

M «bbr^«(bk^ ttffi^ <^^^'1iftnds of 
Arate i«A)d('4yangV>onr> ihft^tliBDkti 
Ifitb^tc^nd <)bitd«)e^'of hdportflace 
bad pMMrecMtsel^) Tbd, oo tho 
anival'«fBi&ii«pdil:Ce«06>f' Gitail fat 
fdiiiit Miirad B^yr whir bad* aa^ 

fliMr a Timga ttili«fd £fY»biit)eh cb 

iMMaakkkdir who f«mi|tid'i^ army 
o#>aD6tiit ton 'tboiiftsmd^ dieHy tichly 
tddoMbd tffl^AraMa[ft'4iK)«iif^ fought 
^»Mf*^li»i^iente''<?0tim)2tf/' The ae^ 
tidnf^tt bloodyv '^^ mtfkber long 
tMVdoflWo):^ 'A^rt' 6^ th«?army 
»f ttoma<iMioke$ wa^ «kber exict'- 
tttkittted t^ this iwhrd' w- 4l»o«nied 
io the tlV^ }' ih^ rest 'sdv«d' them-i 
adVe^' bf'i'flSght WowBfdA Upper 
Migjfpfii ymgr&mnrM Btf reireat- 
ed'. ' Tbit bflide bafl tieeii naikiad 
ite AtdemiP the P^amidS)' ag the 
aotk)b tbok pilaee isdar-'^hise^ bco^ 
peoddoa'ittoiiunieais/ ThePrendl 
8oiattrf,f^ho> foiHttlfhitt they had 
nO'<itdh6Brj tAttBf tb cXittihai, from 
tbe'dbltinate resiataB^ thad^ trfati 
inferknr tttttiyi3iifikH)ed1tr^Etsropeati 
tttcltdii ^ndalsd 4be 9p6ii«f of no 
ordinafy^ -iraltie. . - B2K>h ' itiTtm^l uktf 
slain was a prize of- comiaerable 



worch,^^a# each cttrrled ^tf hin> 
ia '^bis^ march the amount of hia 
fortune of hh plunder ) and i bo 
force of the army wa^increaiusd wirh 
tbeweaUh of the «oidicr, as a con^ 
aideysbM namber of horses and ca« 
lack fftllimo their hand's* •' 

At this battle wa« ' fbnght nea^ 
QaitOy ihe principal inhabitaiMa^ 
eon^mandert, and magittr^ites, te^- 
gethcr with the mtnisterf of wor* 
sbip^'Senl depatatitMsco Bonaparie, 
tvhiie the ^ulace piWagtd the 
booses (>fthe beys and maoiakikea, 
their oppr^Mors. ' 

The army crorsaed th« river in 
bd^ra,-and ent«ted the city In tri- 
umpb» the 23d of Jely/ ' Bsonaparre, 
withourxie!ay, dtvkied his ilrmy into 
three p^ri»* one of which [m di*^ 
apateived^ under the'eoAmand of 
general I>e«aix> to porme the re* 
lna}flderof tbemamaluket, who had 
lied ima U^per Egypt ^ the second 
division he left at Cairo, and march* 
edy with 'the third, in panoit of 
Ibrahim^ Bey, who, with a ^ich ca* 
ravaa, had taicen hia flight iowarda 
Syria, K)o precipitatdy to be over* 
talcenby the Fr^inch : hot this last 
expeditiony though it lai led in it^ 
pr)n<^pal object, occasioned the 
daliveranee < of the caravan of 
Mecca; and the resfittitieii- of ita 
contents^ which had fallcaimo the 
hands' of the Arabs. ' On his. re- 
tarn/td Cairo, 'Bouaparte presided 
at the ceremony Whit h takc^i place 
annuatiy on the overflowi»»g of ^ the 
Nilej which having celebrated with 
great -poitip; he employed himself 
in ai^rangtril; the details of ibe ad« 
mititstratidn of Lower £gvpt. He 
sen^ garrisons to Damtena . and 
M^ns^ra,' established lazarettos at 
Akitatfdria and Damietta,^ to force 
every ahtp coming from Bo^prcted 
C]Ckflrtef>a to pcTtorm qnarjiijiiiie } 
anid' ds the plague had di^ro^erei 
itself at the arrival of tlic French, 

he 



%u 



kibZTis H A tro 



he brcler^d At hcmseif to bo vuii- 
ed) the streets to be cart- fully swept, 
iii|d the [Bcrcbandifte. and even gar^ 
nieDts of (he iobabitiiDts, lo be ex- 
posed ts ibe air, pubhshiDg. and en- 
forcing instructioDs boiw to avert 
this dreadful scou/ge of bttmaoity. 
He ordered likewise the construe- 
tioo of workshops at Giaa for tbef 
different services of the army, and 
formed a n adcni n iat ration for coi n* 
log money, pttblifthing tables of the 
rehtive vsdue of French and Egyp- 
tian curreQcj^ in oFder to facilitate 
commerce. 

fiat, whibf these operations were 
pursued by Bonaparte io the inter^- 
nal part of Egypt, of which he had 
nearly assured the conquest, the 
fleet which bad conducted . him 
thither was destined to ^add one 
more to the numerous trophies 
Svt'th which the British navy had 
been so frequently crowned during 
the continuance of the war. It is 
not known with certainty what 
wera the modves wbicb led the 
Prench admiral Broyea to continue 
ao long in the road of Abouktr, 
exposed to the attack of an enemy 
eqnal in force, and at all times su- 
perior in nautical address and cou- 
rage. But the most probable cause 
was the ignorance of the intentiona 
of Bonaparte^ or the £ialt of that 
general in not sending peremptory 
instructions. The news of bis en- 
try into Cairo had reached Alexan- 
dria nine days pcevous to the ap- 
pearance of the English fleet, and 
the French had been warned ' €xi 
their danger, by the appearance of 
an English frigate, a sufficient time 
to have taken refage either at Cor- 
fu or Malta. The French admi- 
ral had drawn up his ships in order 
of battle as little distant from the 
shore as he judged it practicable 
and safe for his line to aproacb, 
wfaen^ on the 1st of August, admiral 



Nelson appoarsd tA sight Byoitf 
of those daa ii^ and sdestMe antr- 
ceuvres which diatingniab Bntiab 
naval oomoHnders^ admfral N«taoa 
got ( between the Preoeik fleet cod 
the share with the half of bis aqua* 
droA, and, having- pboad t ba 'a a tn iy 
between two flra> bagao the de» 
sperate attack. 

The victory aoeo dnelared* itself 
ia hvcfor of the BngKfb. The 
combat begin betweai aix aod ae» 
yen in the mornhig ; at niae the 
Freach-admiral waa cot io two 
fa^ a ball, sad in aa hour aAtr his 
ship, L*Orient, of % hundred aod 
ten guns, whkh bad taken fire 
frmn the wadding of the EogKah 
shipsy blew np. Although this 
event decided the victory, the 
French ceatinoad to fight during 
the night till ahnost every captain 
had perished) and the approach of 
(he morning discovered their sbtpa 
lying like l^s on the water, and ra 
possession or the oonqoeror* Two 
fhips of the line and two irig&tc* 
only, whkh had soffered little fron 
the action, escaped the geneijal de- 
struction, and returned te Malta 
with an Bnglish ship, theLaaader^ 
which they took in their passage. 

This important victory, which 
destroyed the whole of iht French 
naval force in Ih^ Mediterranean^ 
irisalated at' once the army otf 
Egypt, aod precluded all hopes of 
communication and all means of 
supplies from France. Tha port 
of Alexandria, crowded with trans- 
ports* was not without danger fiooa 
the English, had the aUaek htaa 
made at the moment ; bat, too 
mnch occupied with the glory and 
the lustre of their recent vtotoryi 
tiiey left the Prench tune to eon*. 
struct batteries, and put themschres 
in such a posture of defence aa 
would have rendered the attempt 
too difficult for achierement 

Admiral 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



225 



Ado^ira) Nelson having disposed 
of kis prices, by baroiiig sacb o$ be 
could net 4ake away^' 1^ a aqaa- 
dcoo, under comoiodme Hood, to 
block up tho port of Alexandria, 
wliilfit be cet sail for Earope. As 
tbia blockade cut off tbe cofncnnni- 
cation byjBca witi) Rosetta, and the 
supply of Alexandria was thereby 
impeded, and as ,tbe carat an esta- 
blished in consequence of ibis in- 
terropiio^ was ibund inadequate to 
the serYice, Bonaparte caused the 
canal which led from Rbaraania to 
Alexatldria, across a desert of forty 
miles, to be cleaosed ; by which 
means not only (his city received 
a larger supply of water and pro- 
visions/ but tjie artilleryr which it 
would have beeo diffic^ult to trans* 
port by land, was oonveycd more ex- . 
pediupQsly and conveniently by wa- 
fer to the general deposit at Gisa. 

Left entirely to his own re* 
sources,. Bonaparte contmaed with 
grea.fer activity^ his ciril and miti* 
tdry. operations. At Belbeis and 
Saihaic he constructed forts and re- 
doubts to deft;Dd himself from the 
auBcks of the Turks on the side of 
Syria, and drew plans: for the bet- 
ter.defence of ^the port of Alexan- 
dria . and the city of Cairo. He 
formed also a great establishment 
for. the- different niecbanical arts^ in 
which he. was aided by the artists 
^gd scientific men who had accom-. 
jteoiQi tbe e^tpeditioo,. and with 
Tyhom jhe fornv^ a national acade- 
rojA.,'Vhieh assecnbled every five 
d^S4' Ao^c'Dg 1^0 objects which 
cj^ged more, particularly the at- 
tention pf this iDstitttte^ were the 
P9n|<^^ioB of saltpetre, the con-. 
stiipction of wind and water -axil Is, 
not;OnJy for \bt grindir.g corn, 
a^- th<»M» used by the natives were 
either turtied by the hand or by 
ox^en, which rendered the opera- 
tion both coarse and expensive; but 



ibr the purpose of raising into cis- 
terns the watt^r, which, lying on the 
groond, acquired a brackish taste. 
The making bread, and preparing 
fermented liquors, as a substitute 
tor wine, engaged also their atten- 
tion, without neglecting points of 
les^ importance, such as natural 
history, arts, antiquities, and other 
researches of science or literature. 

It was not ohty to the assembly 
of the Institute that Bonaparte con* 
fided the amelioration of the state 
of Egypt, ^t his invitation, the 
sheicks from ditlerent provinces as- 
sembled at Cairo, where Monge 
and Berthollet submitted to their 
deliberations certain objects of po- 
litical (economy } such as qoestioot 
relative to the laws of inheritance, 
(which had hitlierto been arbitrary,) 
reformaiions with respect to the 
penal code, new modes of organ- 
ising the divans, in di0erent pro- 
vinces, and regulations respecting 
the finances ; which topics the as- 
semb!y discussed with calmness and 
dignity. 

As the festival of the anniversary 
of the institution of the French re- 
public . happeued at this period, 
these Egyptian sa^cs joined in the 
celebration, which took place at 
Cairo, with great pomp and solem- 
nity: Triumphal arches and obe- 
lisks were erected with mftgnificeiit 
decorations ; military evolutions 
were executed 5 horse and foot 
racfs, firew5rks, and every amuse- 
ment to which the Parisians had 
been accustomed at the Champ de 
Mars, except the ascent of balloons, 
of which the machinery was in pos- 
session of admiral Nelson, were 
presented to the gaze of the stupi- 
ficd Egyptian*. By these courteous 
and politic manners Bonaparte had 
endeavoured to gain the esteem and 
cpnfidence of his new allies, which 
a conlinuancc of his victories over 
p ihcir 



226 



BRITISH AND 



their oppressors, the beys and tua- 
tnalukes, seemed to confirm; since 
at this epocha the detachmtut of 
the .army on the coa^t had defeated 
the forces sent against it by Ibra- 
him, who had flt!d towards Syria, 
and Desaix had fought and put to 
flight the troops of Murad near tlie 
pyramids of Saccara in Upncr K- 
gypt. This cordial friendship was, 
however, bat outward seeming. 
Notwithstanding the professions of 
regard lyhlch the French had pub- 
'lished for tiidir ally the emperor at 
Constantinople, and tlie assurances 
they had held ont that the inva- 
sion ofE.rypt and the expolsion 
of the beys were measures which 
merited or had obtained his as- 
cent, the news arrived at Cairo, 
that this alliance had received so 
little of hU approbation, that he 
had thought tic to declare war 
against the invaders and the French 
nation. It was probably from some 
vague information which they re- 
ceived, for the firman, or decla- 
ration of war. was not yet known, 
that the faithful thought themselves 
bound 10 regard the French as com- 
mon enemies, and to execute, as 
far as Jay in their power, the man- 
dates of their sovereijjn. 'J he 
insurrection was not of long du- 
ration. The insurgents assem- 
bled in groups in the monring 
(2lst October), and betrayed signs 
of an approaching sedition, llie 
French commander of Cairo, ge- 
neral Dupuis, who had gone a- 
mongst them to inquire into the 
causes of these assemblies, was 
massacred, together with several 
soldiers. The French immediately 
flew to armi», and the insurgents 
poured in frbm all quarters. Every 
insulated Frenchman fell ilie vic- 
tim of their fbry. The house of 
general CafFareilt was besieged and 
* taken. Those who had defended 



it were pat to diathi aud ibe pbi^- 
Bophical instruiijcuis and yorkiiij; 
shops which bad been there depo- 
sited were dc^troved. The Freoch 
recovering from their surprise, 
made a strong and Fpeedy resist- 
ance to the torrent ; the cam on 
was pointed in every direction. 
The Turks and Arabs,, who com- 
posed the mass of the revolt, were 
soon put to flight, and took refuge 
in their mosques, which they con- 
sidered as inviolable asylums, since 
no Frenchmnn had hitherto pr<*- 
sumed to enter those sacred places, 
from that regard for the religious 
usages of the people, which Bona- 
parte had never ceased (o f'ncnicats. 
But as these leinples were now per- 
verted from their solemn usages by 
the worshippers themselves being 
turned into fortresses of war and 
offence, the French thought thtm- 
selves no longer bound to treat thera 
with their wonted respect. Bona- 
parte, unwilling to come to viofcnl 
extremities; with the multitude, 
summoned tlie insurgents 'to sur- 
render their' chiefs ; the Turks re- 
fused the compromise, the mosques 
were forced bv the soldiery, and 
all who were within perished. 

This revolt, fatal fo the Turks 
and ^rabs, served only to confirm 
the power and influence of Bona- 
parte. The Egyptians had taken 
no part 5 and the Greeks, who had 
hitherto remained neuter, joined 
with the French on the day of the 
insurrection, and considered the 
event, as their release from Turk- 
ish bondage. This accassion of 
opinion and force was deemed fa- 
vourable to the further designs of 
the French general, who published 
the decbration of war made against 
him by the Ottoman portc, which 
he had then received 5 and haying 
taken means to secure the continu- 
ance of trdnqulllityj ht began to 



F O R E I G N H I S T O R Y. 222 

make preparatlont for the exten- fader, '* for the furlhcr dettvcrance 
«ion of his conqaests, or to use thfc and regenerxuoti ef the Easteru 
rcFelotionary language' of the ia-* woiW/ 



CHAP. VII. 

U^r^^/ttct conthiurd, Polii'u^il Situaiiw of IJtJ]<^J^ Refusal of the i'.r'/- 
^laiive and Kxccutizi P(nvey's to abandw their FuKCtiom, RtJHCftstrances 
agat^st this Measure. Revolt agiiiji t the C^'crmnctit in Hniland. Pra^ 
wsicmay G&vernwent formrJ. S minatioH of ConstituiicnaJ J^^iJatJvi 
' athri Executi've PcFwers, State cf tlu^ Fit iich Armiti en tJie Rhu:e, Qm- 
' ference at Sr/tnk Afijiearance of Ho:tilities h. twcen the Em/iire and France » 
State cf Fulfil c Con-ufitian in the French Rtjitiblic, Laxm rej/ieciinj^ the 
Unfformity 'f Weights and Measures^ Extension of the Ps^verj of MiUtajy 
CommissitMS, Ej^etlition of the En^iiih against Ostend' FUnofUniverscd 
Ccmcription fir keejiing u/t the National Puree in France, Def/wtie Inftttence 
gA ^he Directory over the Legislative Bodjf. Sf'^^tion of the Cisa^fitHe 
Republic, Nomination of the Legislatrje and Executive Pvuxrs hy liana" 
parte. Treaty xtf Alliance betiveen the Chaf/iine an^ French Refinblics. 
Diviticnj in flic Councils. Acceptance of the Trfafy. Ari;itrary Conduct of 
tJte French at Milan. Format ten of a nnv Constitution foir the Cisc^^pint 
Republic .t by a Member of the French Directory, Conduct of the French 
Embassadjr at Milan. The Chaljt:\es cccefit the /iro/tosed Constitution, AV- 
gotiation 'Ufith tlte French Directory etgainst its A^ililtcalim, Re^^'olutian in 
the Government at Milan effected by the French. Conse:^ucnces of the Revolution, 
Ftnofices. Prolongation cf the Prxers of tli£ Directory. Dec/idctiy Festivals. 
■ Levy ffTvoo Hutidred Tliousand Men, Enters/rise on L\land. Ameticatf 
Negotiations, Insurrection in the United Df/iartnief}t^. Change of Go* 
vet'nment m the Ciscdpine Rejiuhlic efftcted by Gene^'al Brune. Cisaljiine 
. Constitution accepted. Change of Government injhe Ctsalpine effected by Ri^ 
vaud. State of the llelvetfc RA'/iublic. insurrection in the Canton ^Un' 
derissaldcn* Lcnvs on Emigration. Tteaty bcfjoeen the Helvetic and 
Frjcnck GTVCmments. State of the Liourian Republic. Changes in the 
Li^wian Councils effected by the French Mint Her. Banishment of the Dis^ 
affected attdthe Clergy, RtfusaJoftlie Ligurians to /dace a French General at 
tht Headoftlieir Miluaiy Fjyccs. L'lgur'tan Naiinal Institute. Failuie 
9f Negotiations hetv:€cn the Ccurt f Portugal and tlte French Republic. Spain, 
State of the Batavian Republic, State of ^'t, Dorningo, Declaration of 
War by the Ottoman Pcr.'e. Entrance into the Grisfins of the Austrian 
Troops, March of the }%erpcliian Arjny. Declaration of IVar against the 
Kings of Naples and Sardinia. A Indication of the Ktng (f Sardinia » FjT" 
matim tfa Provisionary Govnnn.ent. Entrance of the Neapolitan At my 
hio Rome, Defeat cf ilie Neapolitan Ai^iy^ and Evacuation cf Rome, 
Refection if the Armistice offered by tie KeapwUlan General, P^iew cf the 
contending Patties at tlie Cuigressof RaJstaut, Propositicru of the French 

P 2 Ministirs 



22S 



BRITISH AND 



Ministers. Answn- of the Deputation. Menacing Note of the French Mi^ 
nisieis, , Kejily a/ the Deputation. Foteihie RejiresenkitUns rf the Frindk 
Ministers, Concessions of the Delation, 



THE indisposition of the go- 
verntnem towards jacobinism 
was not confined to France. The , 
revolution wbicli the executive di- 
rectory had operated in Holland in 
the beginning of the yearl^pS, al* 
though it removed from the helm 
of atfairs those pilots whddidnot 
govern it agreeably to their wishes, 
had placed others whose sentiments 
and conduct were still less accord- 
ant. The jacobin party had now 
the complete ascendency in Hol- 
bpd ; and although the legtslat'ive 
administration, and the directory 
which had been formed under the 
auspices of La Croix, the French 
oainisterj were destined to remain 
Qo longer than till the constitution 
which they had presented had been 
duly accepted, they felt no dispo- 
sition to give up their power i but, 
after having deliberated in secret 
committees several days on the 
best mode of retaining it, the as- 
sembly on the 5th of May made 
the object of tieir discussions pub- 
lic, by declaring, that although they 
were virtually dissolved by tlie ac- 
ceptance of the constitution, yet 
the dangers which still* continued 
to threaten the country had deter- 
mined the membtni to agree that no ' 
renewal should take place that year ; 
but that the present deputies should 
form tbem^ielves into a lc*giilative 
body, and continue their functions 
together with the present directory. 
This further step towards despo- 
tism met with loud reclamations 
from various quarters j it was urged 
in no measured language, that the 
assembly usurped a power war- 
ranted neither by the constitulion, 
nor accordant with theit repeated 



declarations ; that the continuancse 
of the present directory, and tiM 
self election of their own body, 
were a manifest violatroa of tiie 
principles which they had just sworn 
to observe : that when the natiooal 
convention of France proposed the 
partial renovation of the first legis- 
lative assembly, it was a proposi- 
tion accepted by the people with 
the constitotion ; but that, io the 
present case, no appeal whatever 
had been made to the primary as- 
semblies, and that the present mea- 
snre was an act of the grossest vi» 
olation of their rights. 

The person who made the most 
strenuous opposition to this decistoii 
of the constitueot assembly^ was 
general Daeodels, who had been 
most iDstru mental in promoting the 
late revolution. La Croix, before 
whom he made these remon- 
strances, did not partake his indigo 
nation, and the Dutch directory 
gave orders for his arrest He es- 
caped to Paris with a passport givfB 
him ^by general Joubert, whotJien 
commanded in Hollahd, and found 
no difficulty in miakiog the French 
directory assent to his piX3posftioos 
of making another revolotkm. Da- 
eodels thus armed returned to the 
Hague to justify his conduct. 
The Dutch direct ofv, v^hd had 
some intimatbn of the subject of 
his interview's at Parts, satisfied 
themselves with treating him as 
a disaffected person, and a rebel, 
and refused him the military ho- 
nours due to his rank. Bis retorn 
was, however, hailed by the -of- 
ficers of the army, and the most 
respectable part of the citizens, who 
assembled to {Kirtake of a xiepu^t at 

his 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



229 



&is bocife; vbicb meeting waft de- 
nounced by the directory as a re- 
union of conspirators. The Icgis- 
larive bodyj meanwhile^ seeing their 
exMtence threatened, together with 
that of the directory, declared in 
secret comonttees that the coootry 
vat in danger; and began to make 
serioua pnrparatioos for their per- 
sonal defence, after giving orders to 
arreac socb persons as had promoted 
the flDeeliog at the house of general 
Daeadels. Amongst this number 
were the mintstera of slate, whoy 
ferling that ihe moment of (heir 
accusation was that either of their 
death or dettverancCy erected them«* 
selves ffito a provistooary executive 
power, summoned all the principal 
officers ef the Dutch troops before 
tkem, and took their oatii of alle- 
giance. Having secured this point, 
it required no great effoit to gain 
orer the scddtery. and the national 
gaarda, who had been called out by 
the directory. The command of 
the military fofce was entrusted lo 
DorodetB, who lost no time in aur- 
roendhig both the direotjory, the 
legislative body, and the French 
ambassador La Croi];^ Two of 
the Mvc dtreetora who had disap* 
pmvod the conduct of ihear col* 
leagoct had giren in their dismission 
in'fiie aaoming; two others, Vreede 
and Fingeo, effected their escape. 
Vaolaagen was the only one ar* 
rested, with two noemibers of the 
legislative body. La Croia was set 
at liberty, and ordered to return to 
Paris* His secretary, Docange^ 
who-,having more energy and talents, 
v(ilh an equal ahare of intrigue and 
dfoiMig, had directed tbQ opera- 
tions of bis master, was ordered to 
qnit both the French and the Dutch 
terottory. The government was 
left in. the btods of the provisiooary 
power, the members of which an- 
ooonced in a^^odamatioa that 



they were reedy to lay it down iho 
instant that the primary assemblies, 
then about to be convoked, Rhoold 
have named a Irgislaiive body ac- 
cording to the forms of the con- 
stitution. 

In die month of June these as* 
seonblies took place. The new le« 
gislative body, compo<ied of a great 
number of members of the first na- 
tional assembly, opened its sittings 
the thiri^nth of July; and, on the 
tenth of August, the council of 
ancients nominated the five mem* 
bers who were to compose the exe- 
cutive directory. 

Although peace had been made 
with the emperor, the French re* 
public did not think it prudent to 
withdraw ics trooj;>s till a general 
pacification hhd been concluded 
with the empire. During the sit- 
ting of the congress, France had 
kept a considerable number of 
forces both in the conquered 
countries of Germany, and in the 
new republics of Italy. By the 
difierent movements of these troops, 
the French government thought it* 
self enabled^ in case of necessity, to 
menace Germany, hasten the de- 
cision of the congressi put in exe- 
cution the plans agreed 00 with the 
greater powers, or seize "on favour- 
able positions in case of a ruptnre. 
It appears, that, according to the 
secret articles of the treaty at Udine, 
the French troops were to be put 
in possession of the fortress ofFhren- 
breitsteln, and keep it as a guarantee 
till the conclusion of the peace, of 
which its demolition was to be one 
of the principal articles. An army 
had advanced to take possession $ 
but the commander having refused 
lo surrender, and, on the contrary, 
defending it vigorously, they were 
constrained to turn their attack iiito 
a blockade, ,the rigour of which 
daily increased, notwithstanding 
F 3 th9 



230 



BRITISH AND 



the continued snd pten^ag solict- 
^alimii of the congress. At the 
same time another division hating 
takfn peaceable pofi«essfon of the 
bridge and fort of the Rhine; 0[>- 
poHitts to Manheirh, had begun its 
demolition J and general Hatry, in 
the name of the French republio, 
had entered Mentz and Gassarl.wbkh 
the imperial troops had qaietly 
evacuated. 

These measures were exfcoted 
before the change had taken place 
in the dispositions of the court of 
Vienna towards Francx?, the synrp- 
toms of which were not only- dis- 
covered daring' the former part of 
the sittings of the congress, but 
^ere stated to havje been little dis- 
sembled in the insult which Ber-. 
nadotie, the French ftmbassador at 
that court, received some lime af^er 
his arrival at Vienna, and which' 
led him to q^it that biluiation. 'J'his 
incident is said to have given rise 
to a conference which took place 
at Seltt, between Francois dc Neof- 
ch^tcrau and connt CobentEcl. 
Both parties had annonnecd that 
this political interview h.id no re- 
lation with the -afidirs of ihe con- 
gress at Radstadt, and nothing was 
positively known cither with re- 
gard to the object or the resist of 
these conferences, since nothing 
was officially publiishad at the time, 
9nd the two ministers separated 6th 
Julv, wrtbout any vifcible change 
raking place in the political situ- 
ation of their respective powers. 
But litne reveals most secrets j and 
it has since been well nr.derstooJ, 
that a vast plan, which was to change 
the form of the whole of Italy, bad 
bv^en proposed by the agent of the 
impel ial coavtf. In this scheme of 
partir.on, France was to have had 
the greater part of Piedmont, the 
Cisalpine and Ligurian republics 
were to have undergone new di« 



Tisioos, and conslderablo loMei 4>f 
Writory^ of which Mantqa* and a 
certain extent of covnttry xw^re to 
full to tbaloL of tbeemperdr. Tlie 
directory. would not -accede to thcM 
propositions, not only becaii^ such 
arrangements, by aggrandising"- the 
house of Austria, woutd have berti 
displeasing 'to Prussia /but that such 
>a disuieniberment woddhave been 
too manifestly a iviolation of ica 
loyalty towtirds the' new republic; 

The mrsonderstandinfi between 
the emperor and the Frfinrh re- 
public was at this lime visibiy in- 
creased, so that a tuptnre seemed 
unavoidable. Both powers began 
to wear the appearance <^ making 
formidable prcparaitone^ and • of 
adopting such measures aa iupdicated 
that the war, if it took ' place, 
wouki not be less^disas irons than 
tha t wh !€b had just .ended . Doring 
the Slimmer, troops hffd begun: to 
march towards Iraly.^ A camp) had 
been laid out* near 'Vienna; Odo- 
siderable forces > were edvantiog' to- 
wards fivecia and Manloa, and 
the posts in the Tyrol were pat 
in the beat posttitle of defence. The 
frontier towns of the Venetian ciatts 
were strongly fort i tied, and « ooa- 
siderable arftiy was -asseu bled tie- 
tween the lake of' Constance and 
along the Rhine to the Tyrol, • like 
French governmenrt gas^ < orders 
also to recruit their forccvMa dif- 
ferent points^ to pat the fortresses 
in Italy in a proper state of defence} 
and td send ^einibrcenients across 
the Rhine, and towards the fnai* 
tier*. 

The war department of Franoe 
had beeO) sint:e the 18th of<?iroc- 
tidor, in the hands of Scheref, a 
near relation of the director Rew* 
bell. It was not the vids pi am* 
bition alone which pervaded at this 
period the governing powers 04' the 
republic. The history of ihe in. 

vaUed 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



231 



Valed GX>ontriiea'b9s sbowo that tbe 
rapacity »ud avarice of the French 
«geiU» kept equal pace with (be 
vaiour of the French armies ; and 
tb^t a, conquered and plundered 
cpOBljty v^ere neariy 6>Dopyinous 
tcfois. The same spirit of dilapi- 
dauoQ and prodigality, \phtch bad 
fto cnuch di^hooQured ibe cause of 
liberty, was not coafined to ihe 
froatiers of France ; but alrno«t 
every departfntrnt« Cirom the direc- 
tory to the lowest cleik- of office, 
made iheii^ caleaiaiions of plunder 
on the parses of individuaUi, or tbe 
wealih of ihe state. In some of the 
offices of government* the raritf of 
corruption was regularly fixed, from 
the price of an eqaivocal passport, 
or a^ceni6cate of residence, lo the 
expunging a name from the emir 
^ant list. The saleof naiional do- 
joDaiDS had ioog been an flllow<rd ob- 
fecc of depredation ; the value alone 
of the lead or iron that served for 
tho construction of an abbey or 
m cba'eao, overpjid the money tliat 
reverted to the publk) t^tsury for 
ihe »ale of tbe extensive territory 
that formed its produce ^ and tbe 

- /avoiKed speculator often discharged 
. the whola of his engagement by the 

- fikmoliiion of -part (3* the magni- 
iicem bnikiing; 6r the sale of the 
lofty Irees of the avenues ibat made 

' ooe of its principal ornaments. In 

so wide a system. of national depre- 

dattoo . il is unjust i(ot, to notice 

that there vere rogtiy honourable 

exceptions ; but th<; public voice 

distii)guished above tlie rest the 

departments pf the minister of 

fioatice and of war as the great 

abysses that swallowed up the pub- 

, YiQ fortune. While the republic 

.':wH$ thus given up- to individual 

. pi u Oder and corruption in some 

. de pa ttoEients of office, equal nrgli- 

-^ nee and apathy io the collection 

of the necessary supplies pec vaded 



others. A grant of mx hundred 
and sixteen millions bad been made 
by the councils for the expenses of 
the current year. In the month of 
June^ which formed the ninth of 
the F^^och calendar, not a third 
part cf ihe taxes had beeivcollccied^ 
and a dchcic of sixty miilious, which 
the ways and means already voted 
could not supply, was to be filled 
up by new imposts. 

The sublet of the uniformity of 
•weights and measures ei\g;tg(-d at 
this time the attention of the iegis- 
laiure. For a long scrfes of years 
previous to the revolution, even 
during the silting^ of the ancient 
states<genecal in France, this sub- 
ject had always made part of their 
deliberations ; but the dithcuUy of 
finding an universal standard had 
prevented any changes from taking 
place. Since the epocha oi iUc rer 
volution, many scientific men had 
employed ihcmseUes on this object, 
aod the bishop of Autun made a re« 
port on this subject to the con- 
stituent assembly, and the i^ecessary 
researches were continued till ob- 
jects of more immediate ituporunce 
too much engaged the French gor 
vernment to leave it any leinure for 
due attention to this interesting ob- 
ject. But during the winter of this 
yearjd congress of scientihc men, 
from various parts of Europe, as- 
sembled at Paria to co-operate iu 
this undertaking ; and the fiie:>d of 
..humanity in every ountty, what- 
ev«^.r might be his opinio^) on the 
subje(it ot forms or systems of go- 
vernment, could not behold with- 
out an emotion of pleasure the 
meeting of such an a<isembly, in 
.whose instructions lurked no am- 
bitious project of war and desola- 
tion; from whose debates po mother 
or wife beheld in sad perspective 
the J[egahsed murder of a son or a 
husband i but from u hich the stores 
P4 ' of 



232 



JBRITISH AND 



of kno^'lfdge And industry might 
be enlarged, and the merchant and 
the phiiosophftr derive tc[xia\ dd« 
Vantage of pleasurf^. The standard 
proposed for the uDiformrty of 
weights 9nd measures was built on 
a beautiful system, an unvaryk^ 
/anity, in perfect harmony with every 
time aad place, and fitted for the 
use of every natioii of the globe, 
aioce itr.was the globe itself wh^eh 
furnished the measure. This mea- 
sure, called the metre, is tbo fbrty 
millionth part .of the circttmference 
of the earth, the measure of a hie* 
ridian having been taken by a long 
series of laborious obser^tions, 
the result of Avhich was as sore as 
the operation itself was curious 
and admirable. On this astatilished 
unity the umformity is established ; 
the decimal division is adopted as 
being the easiest in calculation, 
and numerical terms, borrowed froffi 
the Greek language, are incorpo- 
rated into that of the French. 

Notwithstanding the well -found- 
ed aversion which the legislative 
body entertained against the powers 
of military commissions, the coun- 
cil, on a message from the directory, 
enlarged them to another chss^ and 
applied them to such, wlx>, on the 
appearance of the enemy, should 
attempt to favour by seditious cries, 
or any other acts whatever, the 
progress of tliedr arms. This cir- 
cumstance had taken place at Os- 
tend, wherey according to a pre- 
ceding message, the English had 
made a descent with four i ho u sand 
men to demolish the sluices, and 
had been repulsed by a very infe- 
rior number, leaving behind them 
iifteen hundred prisoners, among 
^hom were one hundred and five 
officers. It was stated to the coun- 
cil that cries of invitation had been 
heard, and that many of the ioha* 
bitants were not uneqnirocal in 



their marks of encouragement. A 
law was passed to send «uch as were 
guilty of these overt acts in futnrc 
before a council of war, to be pa- 
ni&hed according to the dispositions 
of the military code against spies 
and recruiters for hostile powers. 
This success, whfch was swelled by 
the reports into mi important vic- 
tory, was counterbalanced at ncady 
the same time by thelossof two ships 
of the line; one of which was taken 
by the English off Brest, and the 
other burnt in the port of L'Orient. 
The probability of the rroewal 
* of the war had called the attention 
of the legislature to some uniform 
mode of raising recruits for the ar- 
mies. General Jourdan made a re- 
port on thfs subject, which was not 
only a plan for the present exigen- 
cies, but presented the basis of a 
regular military institution. Ac- 
cording to this project every youth 
in the republic was to be inscribed 
from the age of twenty years to 
that of twenty-five, disnngui&hin|; 
tl)em into four respective cla^s j 
the first front twenty to twenty- 
one, from twenty-one to twenty- 
two, and upwards. If there should 
be wanted for actual service, the 
first class in order was to take the 
^\d ; the second was to follow the 
first, and the third, fourth,' and 
fifth in sticcession ; but that no one 
should be obliged to serve beyond 
the age of twenty-five years. This 
institution was proposed as being 
in perfect union with the genius of 
a warlike people, as well as con- 
formable to the principle c/t equal- 
ity, since all of every rank or con- 
dition were placed on the same 
level. The age of military scrviccv 
ft was represented, was well fised at 
that period of life in whicK their 
moral and physical education was 
finished, and before marriages or 
settlements in life were generally 
formed. 



FOREIGN HISTORY- 



d3$ 



formed. It ^as added^ that the 
length of the setviqc was not ex- 
cessive ; that b)' the successive call 
on the several classes no qnc would 
be overbarthened with the fatigue 
of the service } and that cac^h young 
citizen, in returning home, would 
bring back with him a. steadfast love 
of his country, the honour of hav- 
ing served it well, and strength of 
miod and capacity to discharge in 
an hoooorable manner those civil 
emp]o)'ments to which his inclina* 
tions might lead. 

Such projects as either gave the 
directory the means of assuring their 
power, or, by reflecting honour on 
the nation, scattered a few rays oo 
themselves as the encouia^crs of 
science, were welcomed by the di- 
rectory with singular complacency j. 
but terror and alarm fled through 
their ranks, and sedition and re- 
bellion seemed to their imaginations 
to rear their hideous heads, when- 
ever any independent or indignant 
member of the councils animad* 
verted on their tyranny or .opposed 
their measures. The marks of dis- 
pleasure which some had shown 
against the system of dilapidatioa 
and corruption which was under- 
inioii^g the state, had been construed 
into signs of disaffection i and regrets 
that more csconomical measures 
were not pursued, were held forth 
as secret wishes breathed towards 
England and Austria. A few, never- 
theless. In the councils, wbo were 
not to be daunted by power or af- 
fected by calumny^ stood 6 rm against 
those attacks, though their motiona 
for general reform,, or animadver- 
sions on particular acts of flagrant 
injustice, were always buried uruier 
the weight of a majority, whose 
claaiorous apprehensions of trouble 
and division amoNQgst the patriots 
stopped in the very threshold every 
tendency towards ezaaadDation.— 



Such WM the fate of a motioo of 
Lucien Bosaparte^ the Inrocher of 
the geoeiBlt to take into considera* 
tioo c^trcsAis operations of the dU 
rectory with respect to the Ctsal^ioe 
republic 

The crimes which they had al* 
ready cominilted by the abase of 
power, in subvening the govern- 
meots of Switzerland and Holla nd» 
did not prevent the directory at thii 
pef iod • from making aaother, al* 
tempt of the same nature, ani 
changing both the constitution and 
governmeni of the Cisalpine re* 
public* In the history of foreign 
occurreoces of ihe last year it hat 
been mentioned, that, before Bo* 
naparte left Italy, he had moulded 
the Tran^padane and Cispadane go* 
vernments into a Cisalpine repub-» 
lie, to which he had joined the pro- 
vinces of Bergamo and Brescia ; had 
given tl)em the French constitution 
as a provisLofMry goide^ and named 
tlie temporary members both ol[ 
the legislative and executive pcFwenu 
He bad obs#^rved that the nomina* 
tions which he had made might pos- 
sibly have been made better, and 
it appears that the great majority 
of the Cisalpines were a)s6 of this 
opinio D. The choice of Bona* 
parte for the executive power of ths 
new republic liad fallen on Mos* 
cati, Paradisi, and SerbelloiH, mem- 
ber^ of the former Cispadane di- 
rectory. It was the repneseniations 
of those chiefs, and probably frooi 
the conviction of Bonaparte him- 
self, that the excess of po polar ef- 
fervescence, which had taken place 
9t MiUo» would be more destruc- 
Vive than aseful towards the conso* 
lidaiion of their new go\*ernmcnr, 
that led him to shut up the clubs» 
tare-strain the liberty of the press, 
and expunge from the listof repre- 
senlativcs, whom he had named, 
forty members, whose patriotistp 
appeared 



234 



B RITI S H AND 



uppesred.to bave more of fiaefgj 
than prudeoce. Ferro, (be mini- 
$tfir o( the Ciftalpine po]i<>e^ wl»o 
bad given in the primitUc; lijsri^ w«s 
likewise jcraoved fron» his office. 
The vac3u,cy in the ooanciU >vaft 
fiUed up by Booapaite ; Contaiai, 
a veaithf inhabitant of Ferrara, 
was chosen a fourth director ; . a.td, 
on I he lesigoatlon of (he^uke of 
SerbeSloni, who went en^bassador 
to Paris, Abssandri of Pf rgamo was 
chosen iti his stead ', and Savoldi of 
Brescia completed the list.. 

Bonapiirte, in quitting Jtaly^ leit 
tl^ command of .the army.to.Kil^ 
niaine,^ylx> ecpployed hicnself only 
in his military concerns. Th« le- 
gislative body, thus formed, began 
it* sittings by decreeing th« liberty 
of the press, opening the coastitu- 
tional circles, and giving soAvide a 
tan^e, to popular opinions, tliat the 
;m3Joriiy of the directory were com- 
pelled to league themselves y^ith 
the council of elders to check this 
firdour,. by rejecting the intempe- 
rate and exaggerated propositions 
of the other house, li was during 
the struggle^ and divisions, of tliose 
.parties that Berthier arrived at Mi- 
* Ian from accomplishing the resolu- 
tion of Kofpc. Hopes were, enter- 
tained th^t^ hia presence would heal 
all divisions, as well Hf copciliate 
the differences which bad taken 
place between the flirecrory and the 
councils I but these divisions, on the 
, contrary', became still greater from 
.lijc pressing necessities of the army, 
T^hich. U^e Cisalpine republic was 
.Iwiind to furnish in three tnonihs, 
fin or(icr to quell the iosorrectiooary 
inspirit which manifested itself in the 
^diflfcrtjnt. corps for want both of pay 
. and provisions. 
. ,A.t.thip period; the treaty-of alli- 
^a nee and commerce- betwicen the 
! French and Cisalpine .republics, 
which h<id been xatiUed at J^arii the 



S 7th of March, and stgned bjibe 
Cisalpine minister, arrli'edat Milau. 
By thtf Ueary the Ciaalpitie republic 
ccjgaged'io take part iotall the wars 
of rfie Frendi republic, on thetc- 
quisition of the French director)-; 
end, among other clauses,- to keep 
in the Cisalpine territory aa anny 
of tweoty-fivo tfaoo«and French 
troops, towards the taaintepaoce of 
which ten nDilliooti were to be paid 
annually J to organise a military 
torce Composed of ItaFiatis and aui- 
iliariea, the amount of which was 
to be regulated every year by par- 
ticular oonvcotionsi which forces 
were always to be under the com* 
matKl of' Frtnch general* ; to for- 
tify ditierent ]K>itHs, and kerp tlie 
froutier-towna garrisoned by French 
and Cisalpine soldiers io th^ ^''^ 
state of ilefencc, '^^ilh provisicus 
for a year in each. 

The Cisalpine directory transmit- 
ted this treaty to the great council 
with a raes-agc, in which they ob- 
served to fho legislative body, thai, 
though the treaty was a direct atiack 
on tb^ sovjereignty of the Cisalpine 
people, and was otherwise very 
burthensome^ their acceptance ot it 
was indispensable, in order to ure 
tiie republic, and shield it from 
greater dangers. This alarming 
message divided the council into 
three pa^is. The zealous patriots 
decided at once for its rejection j 
the timid were for iis Acceptance} 
and a third party proposed co send 
a remonstrance and a solemn de- 
claration, stating to the French na- 
tion ihe situation of theCiwlpmc 
republic, representing the immeD'^ 
sacrifices it had already made, and 
the utter impossibility of giving «ny 
further extent to its gratitude. The 
effervescence to which the-discos- 
sion of this treaty bsd given rise 
wa^ at its height, when the party 
for the reicctioo saw ibcir number 
suddenly 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



233 



loddenl^r swelled by those who had 
he^a CDOSt earr>^t for its accept- 
ance, and beheld with fio Trifke snr* 
phie the aristocratical part of the 
coaneil become at once the most 
earnest defenders of 'the rights of 
the people. Tiiey discoreiied that 
crea those of the directors who 
had recona mended moii strenttoosly 
its accepts nee thetnaelveir^ had ad- 
vised some members of the coancil 
to vote against tt ; and, fearing that 
plaof stiU more hostile to thetr in- 
dependence were forming hi case 
of refasal, they accepted the prof- 
fered «oion, aad dec^lated ibr the 
trcatyi Some of the zealotts party, 
who were deteimined to ♦brave all 
haz3rd»» and some imiemb^srs a!so, 
who, though lew popillur, Mi alike 
the dithonoor dofie to their coon- 
try, stiH obstinat^fTy rdfused. The 
councii of ciders at first rejected 
the voteef the other howse -, but 
afterwards/ though* with great diffi- 
culty and reltictaoce, gave the ac<< 
ceptance their sanction. 

This -Racrffioe of natioilal inde- 
pendence was insnihciebt to appease 
the anger of the Frenth directory 
for the" individual opposition made 
to their mandate. Those of the 
members (both of the patriotic and 
aristocratic partie^ who bad given 
their voices fot the rejection were 
alike exciaded from the legislative 
bodies. Tlie moment was too fa- 
voarable to suffer the opportutiity 
to escape of securing those persons 
who bad thOB ventttr<ftd to emit opi- 
nions of their own, and those who 
hnd been mo<t active in resistance 
were pnt uoder arrest. The mili- 
tary aathoritiefr atiribotedthismea- 
stire to the Cisalpitie ditecrory, and 
the directory retorted the charge on 
the cmlitBry aothorities; Au the 
u-arrams wero issned from the office 
of <bc commander' of the place 
wiihoiu at)y iaierftfrencc of the 



Cisalpine police^ and exectlled by 
French soldiers, it was no enigma 
tfho were thef original authors of this 
act of despotism and infamy. 
• But this was not the only hiimi- 
llstion which the .Cisalpine repub- 
lic was fated to ondergo. A? Bo- 
naparte had formed both the legis- 
lative and executive powers, so 
the directory thought fhat witt 
equal right they might favour Vhem 
with a coristituition. The conuito- 
tion-maker of the directory was 
Rbvcill^re L'-paux. This direc- 
tor, whom the credulous republi- 
catis of the convention hnd named 
to the directory as a rock of refuge 
against the suspected Jacobinical 
dispositions of his colleagues had 
worn for some time past bis autho- 
rity with as much despotism, and 
wiih as insolent pretensions, as any 
of his associa^s. Dazzled with an 
elev^tioa'Tb which he could never 
have hoped to soar, he regarded 
Etirope a? a map beneath his feet, 
and, throwing a look of fancied be- 
nignity across the Alps, lamented 
the distracted state of the conquer- 
ed provinces who had no constitq- 
tion to guard, and no competent 
authorities to govern them.' In his 
garden, near the vale of Montmo- 
rency, ruminating on the hnpptncss 
of well governed nations, this mo** 
dero Lycurgus sketched tht model 
of a Cisalpine constitutiori, and a 
phn ofrctbrm; which afttr hav- 
ing received the last touched of his 
brethren of the Luxembourg,' wns 
dispatched by an extraordinary mes- 
sengei'to Milan. But as the scheme 
had sonriething in it original and 
daring, the merit of which ^tronld 
evaporate if exposed to anyheieroge- 
neous contact, the instructions were 
berrheticialJy sealed in (lie pi^rvate 
cabinet of the directory ; so ihat' evtn ) 
the minister of foreign aflFhlrs\v'i8 left 
absolutely ignoratrt of their contents. 

Trouve 



236 



BRITISH AND 



TFDnv{> tbe agmit to whom, this de- 
posit was entrusted, was theti em- 
bsssador at Milan; and, agreeably 
to his imtructioDSy began hts diplo- 
matic career by professing 8<oti- 
meats of the most exaked (^airiot- 
ism, and looght acquaintance witji 
the most zealous and weli-lnstrooted 
republicaoa. This intimacy had 
scarcely been cemented before the 
Milanese suspected^ from the tor- 
tuosity of TroQve s conduct, that 
his embassy prognosticated no good 
to the republic, and (hat be was 
sent rather as a meisenger of dis- 
oord than of peace. Tt)eir suspi- 
cions were not ill founded. Ioor-> 
der to effect Ihe plan of reform, it 
was necessary to form a party ; and 
this was not difficult for an embas- 
sador of the French directory to ef- 
fect When this point was 6ettled» 
he entered on the object of. his 
mission^ by lamenting, both in pub- 
lic and private, the uniiappy state 
of the Cisalpine republic, and in* 
yeighed bitterly against the cooti- 
aned depredations wiiich took place, 
and the deplorable sUoatioo of the 
finances. This was a string which 
harmonised -vuith every mind, and 
every one echoed back what jevcry 
one felt, the cotn(^iainc of unceas- 
ing depredations. The discussion 
of tbe cause was careiuUy avoided, 
bot that the evil existed all were 
agreed f and be therefore hoped 
that no one would object to, an in- 
£diible cure. To exhibit at once 
his remedy, would, however, have 
been hazarding too much, it was 
necessary to have assistant operators, 
and discuss the means in secret. 
But as it was no longer necessary 
to dissemble all his plan, Trouv6 
began to assume a tone of author 
aity, and talk loudly of the necessity 
of reform. A committee was cho- 
sen^ called a committee of cecono* 
my, whereJie presided as the organ 



of the FMneh eijKiitUe govern- 
ment.- Aithough this pretext of 
Qsoonomy b«l somewhat of a p(v 
pularsoaodi Ihe poblic suspected, 
from the ooiDpontion ofthecom- 
mittee, ihat something more than 
saving the monay of tbe public trsa- 
sory occupied its nie^beri* It was 
to this QDCooomical coasaiinae that 
Troov^ entrusted the greater part of 
his secret instructions. 

Meanwhtle two refractory direc- 
tors, Parades! and Moscaii, were 
dismissed by order of 'the French 
directoTf, the eKecuiion of which 
wa# entrusted to genaial fiTDoe. 
Testis, and Lamberti the miaifter 
of foreign and home affairs, were 
named by the sanie aiH&oriiy io 
their stead. The mpnih- ef Juoe 
arrived, when the council ihein- 
selves were to exercise this ooosti- 
tutiooal right, and they ^frtft Bat- 
ious to learo what share the French 
directory W(*ild allow them io thii 
exercise of their foncdons^ Md 
whether they were to remain in 
any mode the repneseniativcl of the 
people. They passed a deciat that 
the drawiog of (oU by tbe dfirect97 
should take place in one of the 
hallsof the council : this deciee the 
directory refused t^ sign. Ttout^, 
who was eotisulted, gave ambtgn- 
Otts and evasive answers. The <li« 
rectory, who knew hte opinions, 
proposed bim^ .as the arbitrator. 
The council lefiised their aswat. 
and threatened tbe diroct<«y «»«^ 
impeachment according to tke te- 
nor of the cnnstitotion. Thi4 xoe»- 
sore, as it redected spme thadei of 
discredit on Troove, roawd «« 
oracle, into speech. As apnnw 
individoal, he observed, bothougbt 
the legislative body had a dgbt to 
order tbe drawing of lots to take 
place in the halls of the cooocil ; 
but, as embassador of the Frencft 
directory, he would never penP't 



FOR^ElGN rtlSTdRY. 



23f 



sny'otber mode to be adopted than 
that of hi» own gof erBroeaC; This 
dictatoriftl deciaion covered the At- 
nbter with public ridicule, th« 
couneiU with contempt, acd Ihe 
directory wh detesMioo. Id tbe 
preseaoe of Trouv^ the lott were 
drawn at tho - directorial palace^ 
The lot fdl on Coptaini i and Ade* 
lasio, ^ ntaiaterof fioa«ce, iifko 
bad biltoto acted • the patrioi, waM 
chosen in his stead. 

As toQo as-ib^ new director was 
installed, be became a pnbik; pro« 
fesam^^ c€ ibt referoi iK4iicb bad been 
projected for aome tkne undergo 
insp^diDO of Tfcmv6 and Faypoult. 
The neport of tbid -fdbrm. baving 
spread mto i^l tbe departcneiits ci 
the Oaalpine^ tbe nmnkipaiittes, 
the national gnarda^ and eonstilo* 
tional cirdea, eovewd tbe tables of 
the cooacila witk addresses, ptro« 
testing ibat» baviog sworn to defend 
the constitalioQ of tbe third year> 
tbac i^, tbe frencb constitution, 
tbey shookl legard «U such as trai* 
tors wbo shonTd dare to reform it 
witbont tbe consent of the people. 
Tbe legislative^ bodies Welcomed 
tbese a<klresse^; and tbe public be«> 
came ao indignant against tbe re- 
forming partf. that the directory 
waa cotmpelled to fcnd a minister 
extraordinary to Paris to represent 
to tbe French governtfKsnt the situ- 
ation of tbe Cisalpine^ and tbe 
danger nnder which it lalxuired. 
General Lafaoz^ formerly aifle-4ti« 
camp of general Ldkarpt, was 
named to thia commission . Formed 
more fot tbe camp than the en* 
binet, be tsegotiated as a^ soldier, 
rather than as a mefhber of dt|^9* 
macy. He forgot tbe instructions 
of Ua^ employers in bis regard for 
truth; bttt, aaa maik of great le- 
nity; was ordered to quit Paris 
withool molcstatioti, and was only 
dismissed from* the seiyiceafter the 



reform took place, for his insolence 
in thinking otberwise than his em- 
plojrera. He was immediately sue* 
ceeded by another messenger, ge- 
neral Brune, who, belie wng the 
safety of his army endangered by 
tbese divisioas, went to Paris to 
represent to the government tiie 
situation of the Cisalpine repubKc, 
attd to save it, if possible, from the 
reform with which it was about to be 
overwhelmed. The represeotatiooa 
of Brune were not mot^ sucoeitsful 
than tbos< of his predecessor. The 
more opposition the French direc- 
tora found to their mode of saving 
tlie country, the tntxe firmly feey 
were 'resolved on the enterprise. 
The secretary of the legation soon 
followed the steps of the generai 
from Paris with peremptory orders 
to begin the refbrmatioo, and Brune 
was commanded to watch over ^!he 
execution of the orders of govern** 
ment. 

Tbe 13th of Aurgust was the d$f 
fixed for this revolution. Letters 
of invitation to meet at Tiroov6*« ^ 
house in tbe evening were sent to 
such of the members of tlie coon- 
ct) as y/jRVt thought friendly to the 
^operation. One hundred and sixty 
were exchxied ; many members left 
Milan, and about seventy ooFy at* 
tended. Tbe assembly Was opened 
by tbe Teadtngof the new consti- 
tution; the preamble of which 
stated that the Ciaalpine republic, a 
prey to anarchy, disorder, and fa^- 
mtne^ required reformation, and 
that for thai reason the FjiencH go* 
vernment thought itself entitled' to 
make the attempt. 

As the assembly was msde up of 
tbe pariisans of Trouve and Fay- 
poulti Wlio sat as president and se- 
cretary of the meeting, the consu- 
tution was acccp:ed by the majorify 
present, which did not compose a 
fourth part ot the two council*. 
. Twenty* 



£38 



BRITISH AND 



Twenty* two refused, and prptflsted 
WUh energy agatnst the violation. 
ThdM were immediately Mruck out 
of the lilt of refiresentatives. The 
nelt^Ay alt the deputies who were 
excludckl presented theimelves to 
the council with their card* of en- 
trance, bat they, were repulsed by 
the French soldtery pmted to guard 
the doors; They withdrew in pre- 
aeoce <)f the indignant nn«iUitade, 
to whom they declared that they 
yielded oitly to force. 

A revision was macle amongst 
such aa were expelled, in order 
to find the most UDexcepttonable. 
No <>ne would dishonour himself 
so much as- to become a member 
tmder TKMiv^'a constitution. Thus 
embarrassed for i-epresentatives, 
Trou?e made up the number with 
auch as he could find i and the as- 
sembly recnaioed composed of the 
fifty deputies who had accepted, 
and of obscure men, or such as 
were known for counter-rerolu* 
tionary principles, immorality, and 
Intrigue. 

The day following, Tcsti and Sa- 
yoldi were dismissed from tho'place 
of directors ; and Sopransi and 
Luosi, the former a person noted 
for intrigue, and the latter the mi- 
nister of justice, were named la 
iheir stead. An immediate and ge- 
neral dismissal took place, both at 
Milan and in tl\e departments, of 
m\\ officers ;)nd agents who had 
been attached to the preceding go- 
vernment. Alcssaodri, one of the 
directors, had beheld with dissstis- 
faction the proceedings of hie col- 
leagues, and in concert with gene- 
ral Bruae h^d endeavoured to soft- 
en the fate of the victitiM of 
Trouve'si rrformation. He placed 
many of thfiii in the army, and 
asfved by different means a number 
of others who would have found it 
difficult to bare escaped persecuiioo. 



Thtn ended the fefbrmatloo, pro* 
jeeted by Reveillidra Lepaux at Pkris, 
and cpntommated by TroQv6 st 
Milan. An' universal cry of in- 
dignation, on hearing of this act of 
infamy and tnaaaon, broke forth 
from every comer of the republic, 
and the people protested they wouiJ 
not obey a constitution which thfjr 
neither knew nor sancitimcd. To 
eonstrain the will -ci a whole na- 
tion waft difficult ; bat as fic as ty- 
ranny could spread its arms, the 
people for a ,time suffered from its 
pressure. The liberty of tbe press 
yvM again destroyed ; tbe coostiiu- 
tional circles were closed i tht com- 
mittee of eeconomy had aDsde an 
increase of a third to the expenses 
of the slate, already weighed down, 
and taxes without ntmiber were 
decreed to support the caose of 
equality and tbe revolution. 

If the FreAch dirf^iory trested 
with this sererity their children, 
since the Cisalpine had been aifec- 
tionatttly styled tlie eldest daughter 
of tbe French republic^ it is scarcely 
to be supposed that more respect 
was shown to such states ss ^ey 
had under their protection wbicb 
were alien. No topographical sits- 
at ion could be more unfortonatd at 
this period for an absolute mon- 
arch than that of the king of Sar- 
dinia. His territory, bounded on 
every side by republics in a staw 
of political inflammation, could 
not escape being scorched If the'/ 
heat J and an insurrectionaty spint 
against his government bad raged, 
with more or less vehemence, trmn 
ihe time of the forroation of the 
Cisalpine ard Ligurian republics. 
Toward the beginning of the saoi- 
mer, this insorrection bad taken a 
more serious form 5 but the insur- 
gents, not being sufficiently in for^ 
to accomplish their designs, bid 
called thcwenw-a/rJLigttriang^; 



FO R E iGfll'V r ST R Y. 



stf 



vernrDfDtlo iheir aid. .TbU ^r, 
bctwe^ thfi Fie4aiont^s^ wad Li^ 
goriao stares* had l^M^'.^Ui ^W^, 
ous advantages (« hpth parti^ 
tor ihcire monbs,. yfbtu Sh^. Ci»* 
aJpide -vas invoke^ to. jpi a to tbe 
quarrel. A^ ihor ini^nfention of 
this latter naterwould bave eotireljir 
dcsi roved ihe cquilibriuna^ and tlio 
king of S^fdioia ovi&t have b^en 
conipeJled to iiec«$v^ the law frooa 
his iosQrteQt «»bjeQt9 and ti^r r&> 
publicftQ BlUca, he thought it more 
acivlAcaUe'to iruAt to ilie gen^osicy 
of the Frcftch govierom^tit, and, fft: 
cordiogiy dc-n>»f)dt}d tbt^ir iaterlo- 
reoc^ M^^aiK: his Mates. ^^Tbe voice 
of'tbe. ^rec^ry hu^h^id tj»ese tur-» 
btiieot fepobilicjin^ ialo irar.quiUity 3 
tho. Ugurian withdrew bis. troops, 
uad the, Cb«ipinc lajd aside all bo* 
stitcL 4Jt^os^liioDs« The ningularitj 
of giving uocoodidonai pcace^ and 
saying' 2t^ struggling monarch frpm 
ruin* iDtgbi hufe ^tiered the vanity 
of the.d^ifcQory* and .giyeil then) 
an .^ppflarauee of gooerosity which 
would have lilnmined in some mca* 
stire-4he darkness oftbeir political 
crimen; hot these men were too 
vulgar to pfjcelve the beauty of a 
uplendid action, and roo yitiated by 
power to*. snatch a nniral embrace 
frooiglory.. .Aking^ theiic>ally* had 
tiown to them for ast^istaQQe»: by trea- 
ties thiy wtrrc bound. |e dfffud him» 
and -the denionstf aiion ^f tiieir will 
m ighi b ive ^rmed a ra mpa rt aga i nst 
«ediitofiia tir foreign innrasion. But 
protectioa ^nd iodepeodrnce were 
no wh^Cfi .io, be fbuod in the voca^ 
bu!ary.of the directorial dictionaiy. 
1 h^e bird had flown for reliige to a 
cagei aod the gates of ilie citadel of 
Tuiia ^^re opened to the French 
direcld«y lb* 28th of: June, who en- 
gaged by ah article of the treaty 
pa^aed Qn.ffhe occa^ion^.to contribute 
to the miumpnaQoe- of the internal 
trauquilltty of Piedmont, to hinder . 
any assistance being given, either 



Aii'eptly on iodivectly, tntbeie wJtt> 
sboold. harbour defigns of MtHibliof 
ihegpv/^rniQeat^.to pat an end t0 
^) J)ostiUties pn the pari ef .the li-^ 
giiriaa 4epQbNci to hitidfir 4|ggf«i* 
tipns on 4hat of the Qis^lpiiMr, and 
fiknalljic 10 reatore thftHncieni order ttf 
things with harnaeny and pt$i<;e> 

The lining was suffered 10 xeigo^ 
bnt the French directory were mai*- 
ters of 4fae oountry; and if .this waf 
thoi peinl^ they aimed at, ; Ligi»riaa 
hostilities and insurreci'fonary liii» 
multa , were easy meai^s^ afrits, ac- 
complisbmeot- The Sardinian goh 
vernmeni; did not at iirsC wear t(a 
chaina either light or gr»cefuliy; ad 
article of the treaty enjoined a. ger 
neral amnesty, whicb supposed the 
release of prisoners confined ftMr po-» 
iiiical opinions, and even overt acti. 
This clause was not ^readily com* 
plied with, and in some places inr 
surgents who had laid down their 
arnu were »hot, and straggling 
French soldiers sometimes . shared 
the same fate, mistaken, as the com* 
niander of Alexandria answeie^dto 
the reclamations made agaif^st this 
assassination, for Piedmontese^ Tfata 
infraction of the treaty led to a cor- 
respondence betwccti general Hrnne 
and the Sardinian embassador at 
Milan, in which tlie former insislo 
ed on the strict execution of the 
treaty, the immediate release of th« 
prisoners, the provisioning, jthe fQr- 
tress of Turin, the placing ibe Sart 
dinian troops 00 the peace e&tahlifh* 
ment, and the recaU of the com- 
maoder of Alexandiia. . A* these 
demands were prefaced wiih calling 
to the recollection of his Sardiniaa 
majesty, that it was on h>s solemn 
invitaiion that the French took' 
charge of securing the tranquilliry 
of his states, a regPil pro(-}amatioa 
was is3ued, informing the lied n>on» 
tcse, -who it seems did not under- 
staud the conditions of this protec- 
tion, that the French were in Pied- 
mont 



240^ 



BRITISH AND 



toont on the faith of solemn treaties 
#f peace and 41iance« and lint ail 
hostile desigQs against them woa^ 
be contrary to the principles of ho- 
nour and the engagements contraot'f 
^d by the king. 

While the revolution or conquest 
of Piedoaoot was prepariog by ihh 
iriendlj interposition of tki Fteoch« 
to which a kind of sanctio^i bad 
been given by the coiifereuce at 
Seltz, if the histoiy ot' that nego- 
tiation be justly stated^ the Roman 
government underwent a second 
change^ conformably to the system 
adopted by the French directory of 
tbaking tlie round of regeneration 
amongst their new republic*. As 
tlie qon&titution had been originally 
given them by tlie French> the 
French commissaries^ Duport and 
Berthollet, durst not touch this sa- 
cred ark : but as the consuls Ange- 
Iocci> Reppi, Matheis, Visconti^ and 
Pangezy, had been found unworthy 
imitators of Brutus, Tarquinius, 
and CoUatinuSy and the tribunes 
degenerated (descendants 'of the 
Gracchi ; as these commissaries were- 
assured that tlie republic^ instead of 
giving laws to the world, was it- 
self iu a complete state of anarchy ; 
that the executive power was de- 
spised, the Jaws unexecuted, the 
constitution violated, and the fi- 
nances destroyed 3 they declared, by a 
proclaniation, that they were resolv- 
ed to pursue and puniith, as guilty of 
hagb crimes and oHsdomeanors, all 
the consuls, questors, ediles, and o- 
4hers^ the author^ of those disorders. 
A letter from these commissaries was 
likei^'ise sent to the consul, accusing 
tbem of circulating reports respect- 
ing the expedition to .£gypt, in 
which they spread opinions favour* 
a,ble to the English, and in disfavour 
cjf the French. And a third piece 
was a pr.oclamation of the French 
general Macdonald, who declared 
&e change of tlie cousulate to^ 



a measure, highly necessary for the 
public good, invltffig the people td 
obedience and respect fer the coii* 
stituted auifaorities aboilt to be ap- 
pointed, as the only means of rais- 
ing the Roman repoblio.to the rank 
it was destined to take amongst the 
nations. This proclamation of the 
17th September gave, in itvperora- 
tfon, the measure of lil)crty and in- 
dcpe.idence of the Roman* {^'pte. 
*' The gnat nation wills ifj its will 
shall be executed." 

That Rome had been gltcfl\3ver 
to robbery and dilapidation ' was 
a poln( of history which no bne iH>a- 
tcsted, but the principals^ fn^'^tbe 
plunder were not the consuls'^ iind 
questors, on M'hose heads the French 
commissaries called the public in- 
dignation : although these oAgbt 
have shared occasionally hi the 
spoils, the chiefs were, - iit might 
readily be suspected from nill^'^ss- 
ed in orh«r countrte^, the Fhench 
themselves. It is well known Yhat 
the cednles had been, during t^bnt^-" 
five years, the only cihffcaiioii 
known- at' Rome» and in' all the 
countries under the domiifioYi of 
the pope ; and notwiihstandhifl; the 
cheek given to the poMic credit by 
the treaty of Sulentino, and tlie 
former extravagancies of P^ the 
Sixth, they had inrariaWy preset v- 
ed three-founhs of ihcir v«lue. Two 
leading causes brooghf fHc^n to cbm- 
plcte annihilatibn. Tfle * 'French 
administration took posse^^slbu of the 
instruiiieffts, paptfrs, aM registc'raj 
of the fabrii&atibn of the cedultj.. 
and, without 'knf decree o^otlifr 
authority,' mStde as many. as they 
thought proper. This mcasSre wJi 
not kept so secret, but th^t UK CiCv\ s 
of the fabricatrdti ^^prHrd aitiba^ 
the public; The ftct al]ihe?^?f*^!ir 
instruments being hi tSe^HJ^ <if 
the French comnjissarfA" v«%y%flfB- 
tient t\* gif^tKrm di^t?rcdfPf but f 
theimtaetfi^if^^tiff caffM^ti die 
batftLers. 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



Ut 



baoken, to convert ihetn into mo- 
ney, aod tbe appevance of a great 
fiomber newly struck Gff, the eva- 
sive aoswen given to the consoh 
and the minister of finance, who 
com{ilaiiie4 to the French commis- 
sion, all proved that the Fiench bad 
become cainert of the national 
money. 

A jaw epacted the 20th of March 
strack oat of circoiacion all cedules 
under thirty- five crowns, and it was 
the general persuasion that the ce- 
dules fabricated clandestioely by the 
French administration were of that 
amount or under* This operation 
proved destructive to the fortune of 
individuals, and did not augment 
the credit of the cedules which still 
remained, as there were thirty- 
two miWioos of crowns in circula- 
tion, of which the cedules of thir- 
ty-five cfDWBS,and under^ amounted 
to man than seven millions. The 
same commission, by another law 
which rendered the purchase of na- 
tioral domains impossible^ destroy- 
ed the mortgage for this paper, 
and thereby pievented its extinction, 
alnce, before any convent wa§ sup- 
pressed, andi before riie church lands 
were made national, the com mis- 
sion reserved for France a million 
of crowns on national domains, 
without reckonitig more than two 
millions of confiscated estates, be- 
longing to lh«' families of Albant, 
Braschi, and others. Theae estates 
were sold iot little, and Without 
any othet legal form tb^D a private 
and secret contract btriween the 
French adminisf ration and the por-. 
cha»cf8. The mode of payment also 
dioainishied (he value, as. they paid 
a third in OMmey, and two thir Js 
io FrmA ordinsflces, which lost 
at that time JS per cent. As the 
goverttiaeiit could not sell without 
pabHc aeandal, at so loW a price, 
aDd the ettit^ns cOuld not parchase 
1799- 



ina manner thus advantageouf, and ' 
whkh rendered the means of corrup- 
tion so easy to its agents, no public 
alienation or sale (ton\d take place, 
and the cedules contrtiued to sink 
rapidly evtry day. A tliird law 
proclaimed the sudden restoration 
of the tedules which had been 
thmv/a oot of circulation; and tf 
fourth sonk them into utter annihi- 
lation, and completed the ruin of 
the state. Cedules without distinc- 
tion were now declared to be no 
longer national money, and the es- 
timation which they were to hold 
in exchange for national domains 
was left t6 the will of the govern- 
ment, who fised the relative value 
every decade. 

All the?e laws were made and 
proclaimed in the name of the French 
republic, without any interference 
of the Roman government, or of 
the legiUatlve body. Instead of 
taking example from the errors of 
French fi nan cie with respect to the 
assignats,— errors which in some 
measure perhsps arwe from neces- 
sity, — they appeaVed to copy them 
servilely, as the best models of imi- 
tation. The royftl asstgnats fn France 
had been struck out of circulation ; 
but terror at that epochs gave a va- 
lue to the rest. National lands, for 
the purchase of WhTch af5 early con- 
tract had been made, were paid for 
during the latter reign of a'ssignats 
with little rclativq value, t^e nationat 
faith having bctn pre1^iotl^ly pledg- 
ed 5 but at RoAte, the French ad- 
ministration, after receiving a mil- 
lion for itself, decreed that national 
estates payable in cedules, should 
foeestimatecloflly St their vjilue be- 
fore the war ; ^0 that a' property 
Worth twenty tbousiind Crowns be- 
fore in money, estimated at the 
same sum in cedules, now reduced to 
a fifth, was pun hdiied only for four 
thousand. Careful, however, of its 
QL own 



341 



BRITISH AND 



•wn fortune, the administration dt- 
crecd, ihai the million in reserve 
should be paid the' fall value ; and 
thus fiv* n^Uion? were g^veii for 
one. This demand wars enforced 
bf ti perempt ry order, ^hich shut 
iip the further sale of national do- 
mains, -no more religious establish- 
ments were suppressed, nor any 
thing further executed respecting 
the estates of the church'. 

Of • these ' financial operations, 
Faypoult was the director in chiefs 
as Uawnon had been of the le^ 
gislative. These disastrous mea- 
sures, and the plunder and corrup- 
tion of the French and Roman 
flgentfl, completed (he public mi- 
sery, which, together with persecu- 
tions exercised against ftll who show- 
ed dispositions to protest against 
these proceedings, excited frequent 
insurrections, destroyed' every hope 
of establishing liberty or a republic, 
and made Rome a centre of coun- 
ter-revolution. To tliese horrors 
may be attributed the various re- 
volts which took place ; revolts not 
of fanatics against liberty, but of in- 
dignant patriotism against oppres- 
sion. The department of the Cir- 
ceo, which furnished the oil of 
Rome, the commerce and fortune 
of whose inhabitants were ruined 
by the operations of Faypoult, took 
arms in despair against these public 
depredations. Victories over re- 
bels and brigands were pompously 
proclain^ed in Paris, while it was 
the rebels and robbers alone who re- 
mained triumphant. 

As a change of governors was 
pretended to be a remedy of all kinds 
of evils, the French general, ac- 
cording to orders, named five new 
consuls; Zaccaloni and Brizzi, 
who were members of lh« senate ; 
Rei) minister of justice ; and Callisti 
and Piezelli. Other changes took 
place in consequence of tKc move* 



roeot given to the main-spring. 
The senate, tribunate, and consu- 
late, with all these changes, enjoyed 
less liberty than their ancestors un- 
der the most despotic of tt^e Roman 
emperors. The constitution had 
given the French general the power 
of enacting laws for a certain peri- 
od, and the consequence wtfs natu- 
ral — the Roman senate became the 
instrument only of French commis- 
saries and soldicc|* to desolate the 
country, and effectuate the ruin of 
the people. 

The state of the French fi- 
nances, for the restoration of u hicli 
a commission had been long in- 
dustriously and uselessly employed* 
came under the consideration of the 
Frenth councils. The budget for 
the ensuing year, the seventh of the 
republic, contained ways and means 
for raising sia hundred millions. 
Whatever respect the councils might 
otherwise entertain for the admini- 
stration of the directory, the extra- 
vagance and dilapidations of its 
agents v^ere increasiiig topics of de- 
clamation. The war departmeot» 
notwithstanding former animadver- 
sions of the councils, continaed, 
with imblushing effrontery, the offi- 
cial depredations. A bribe to a 
minister for a contract wss an af- 
fair of almost public stipulation ; 
and this rage for plunder was car- 
ried to such eiLcess, that the direc- 
toiy, part of whose body were no- 
torious sharers in the corruption, 
were compelled by the pabKc voice 
to ptiblhh a decree, which waa ex* 
ecuted, that henceforth all contracts 
for the war and marine defiart-* 
ments should be publicly anooaa* 
ced, and given toihe lowest bidder. 
Amongst the ways and means for 
raising the six hundred mitiions^ 
was a tax on salt^ which >^as stated 
to famish thirty millions. Thl^ 
tax would have been amongst the; 



FORKIGSr HISTO'RY; 



242 



Kghtest of the budget 5 but as it was 
a ran of UDpopular aoaad^ recall-* 
ing the gabtlk, aod ell its odioui- 
Jaqoisi^'ion, the council, notwith* 
siandiug the inflaeoce of the direc-* 
tory, wbo had other speculatioot 
on this subject in view, rejected if. 
With all doe complaisance, how- 
ever, they at this period prplonged 
the povier of the directory, by the 
law of the i^th Froctidor, over the- 
pa blic papers^ another year. £ut as 
the cry of indignation against ty- 
ranny and corruption was scarcely 
tolera'ted iu the councils, it might * 
u-ell be aopposed how dangerous it 
would have been considered to dis- 
torb the peace beyond the whispers 
of Paris, by troubling the tranquil 
confidrnce of the departments, or 
iiiforfning the seat of government 
rjiat despotism reigned across the 
frontiers as well n at home. . 

If the council rejected the salt- 
tax on account of its unpopular 
sound, another impost of o^onar- 
chical institution. Was pet into exe- 
ca{ion. This was the duties 00 the 
entry of. provisions and merchan- 
dise into Paris,- The populace^ in 
the first d»3rs of the revolution, had 
exercised their sovereignty in burn- 
ing soooe of the barriers where these 
duii^'were paid, and from that 
unic the tax bad ^een discontinued. 
It waanosv re-eitablLshed, with con- > 
hA^rahXe .changes aod diminutions, 
and was destined to make up the 
clrticicDcy of tlie taXTejected.. The 
hug contest between Sunday ^nd 
Decadt was also brought to a termi- 
natioa. The celebration of Deca- 
day festivals received the sanction 
of ihcf councils. In the capital of. 
^very q^Xgtk tjhe.jcading of a deca- 
iiry bu^lf^tiB* ilhe cclebrat(ioa,.,ef 
7i3rr2age4ipjj^uies> and public'cx- 
rci^es, wye^ordercd to Jpke placis ; . 
[ic attefid;i)S the chorghcs ^af iUU ^ 



pernoLiited on Sunday, but dancing' 
was prohibited ; and as- it was well 
knpwn that with the greater part of ' 
the natfon devotion and amuiement 
were synonymous terms, if was^ 
hoped that the repubUcan calendar 
would soon gain what was termed* 
a philosophic ascendency, and that' 
all ancient prejudices would be 
speedily forgotten. 

Notwithstanding the promises of 
peace which sometimes gleamed at 
Radstadt, the dire(;tory felt that 
their pacl6c- intentions were not be* 
lieved, or were not regarded, and 
that the storm of war was gathering 
thick around their heads. The be- 
gimiitig of the republican year 
ushered in this unpleaiant news to 
the councils, by a message in which ' 
the directory demanded two bun-' 
dred thousand men, and one hun-^' 
dred and twenty-five millions of li- 
vrefi in addition to the six hundred 
millions already granted for the ex*> 
penses of the ensuing year. Why 
peace had not been effected made ' 
no prt of the deliberation of the 
councils; the millions and the men ' 
were unanimously voted. - ' 

An entrepfise on Ireland had at 
this time ended according to the ex- 
pectations, of those who kne\v« the ' 
means which were employed to ef- 
fect it. To have attempted a de- 
scent with the number of men scarce- 
ly sufficient to carry a redoubt ap- 
pears an instance of equal rashness 
and folly. It is true, that orders 
had been given for the sending a 
much larger division : but the squa« 
dronfrom Brest, which was to have 
joined that of Rochefort, was de- 
tailed till a hundred thousand livrcs 
were- sent from P^is for the pay- 
ment . of the troop$« ,• Contrary 
'winds, and other oauscn, afterwards 
detained them, and they arrived at 
their de^^tiaati^a titueenoiighte l)«a<r 
Q 2 01 



*44 



BRITISH AND 



of ti^e caplurjB of tfaoie vho had 
preceded tbeJD, apd to ibaro the 
taixie £ate. 

it was not the poHtics of Europe 
t»\y which tioubled the repose^ or 
wounded ihe pride of Frapce. The 
djrectoiy was destined to undergo 
further mortiiigalioQ (rom the stem 
conduct of their republican brethren 
ou the other side of the Atlantici 
vihoie graliiude for past £ivourB8unk 
undc^r the feeling of recent injuries. 
At the opening of the congress, the 
president declared himself in no 
measuced terins against ihe genera] 
dispositions of the French j^PTem- 
inenr, apd conaplained in particular 
of the nuoierous captures of Anoeri- 
can vcissels, which had occasipned 
enormous expenses to support the 
claiwB of the injured parties before 
the tribunals. An embassy was ne- 
vertheless sent to represent their 
grtevaiu:es, and, if possible* to bring 
the irritated government of France 
to sentiments of peace aiMi nodera* 
tion. 

Here, as in other afff&rSy personal 
considerations outweighed the in- 
terest of the public, and the nego* 
tiatieo ended in a a»ys(erious kind of 
intrigue, which reflected no honour 
on the French government; and 
firom which it appeared, thai the 
American commissary, who had out- 
staid his colleagues, was not sufii-' 
ciently skilled in European political 
treaties to understand the hints 
which were plainly given him. As 
the French contintied, notwithstand- 
ing repeated remonstrances^ to in- 
tercept and capture American ships, 
the congress enacted a law to break 
off e?ery commercial relation with 
France or its dependencies, and to 
forbid the entrance of French vessels 
iqto the American ports, until the 
end of the settings of next congress. 
To this act of hostility was joined 



ftnother,which pasted previous lo fhd 
breaking up of the legislature, by a 
small majority, and tbiiTwas a pre- 
mi urn for the capture of French arm- 
ed phips byAaaerican vessels. A secret 
agent had arrived at Paris to soften 
and explain these hostile oaeasores. 
His representations were favourably 
heard* and might have led to a fa- 
vourable issue, had his power been 
more enlarged. His interviews witk 
goverimient were nevertheless at- 
tended with beneiit to his country. 

Bui it was not with foreign 
powers only that the French go- 
vernment had at this time to con- 
tend* A violent insurrection broke 
out, in the beginning of the month 
pf October, in the newly-united de- 
partments of the Belgic provinces. 
For a bng time i^ class ot this peo- 
ple, equally turbulent and super- 
stitious, had seen with marks ot hor- 
ror and indignation the prioress of 
French innovation $ which not only 
treated their religion, to which they 
were much attached, with contempt, 
but had laid violent hands oo thr 
priests and altars. They had hi- 
therto been restrained by fepr from 
too open a roanifestaHoo of their 
resentment} but the law^ncern- 
iog the levy of 200,000 men, which; 
affected them only in common with 
the rest of France, was made the 
occasion of raising the standard ql 
revolt The insurrection brou 
out in the country round Mechlic 
and along the canal leading froi 
Antwerp to Brussels ; land was <1 
rected altogether against the Frenc 
and those wiio had been employ ( 
in the service of the repnblic. 
their attack on Mechjin, the insii 
gents wera repulsed with a^reat loi 
and those who were taken \i e 
shot in the public square. £ve 
Frenchman or firabanler aitacb 
to the republic, who fell into tb 
_po\r 



VOHEI6N HISTORY. 



245 



power|Sliared is their torn the sMoe 
hue. The hoates of such as bad 
porchiied natiora! domains were 
plonderedj md the records of ma« 
Dicipitiiies, and the places of their 
fittlagi; were burnt. The nationri 
guards of Brasaels, and detachments 
torn the garrisons of Breda, Ber* 
gcD-op-£i^u], and other toWns, 
marched against the insurgents, and 
vanoA obstinate and Uoody eon* 
teiti ensued. Hie revolt neverthe* 
ifis took a wider range. The coun- 
tries arooad Aalle and £nghiea 
joined in ^^ idsorreclion^' and re* 
poked 'the republican party with 
cooadayMiS loss. Louvaiu was 
saaumMed to aurreiider by (he pea- 
sants <kf the Campine, where the in- 
Mirgeots had established themselves, 
Slid from whence the inhabitants 
bad &d to Brussels ifdr. refuge. 
Afasten^ |br a short time of Sie 
eoontiy, Ch^ erected a species of 
govcnMBcat, levied ebntributions, 
opened tht churches, and dofltinoed 
to plunder atad destroy the property 
of chose whoa^ they suspected of 
jitschjueDt to republican opinions. 
At the revolt incr«isedy the insurer 
geats formed themselves into' com- 
^niesy whose regular 0Dfnnnnder8 
^diVered passports, franled mitita- 
Tj cocBmisaions, and organised the 
Cfxintry wherever they paaed. The 
tiHirrectaoa which had raged hi- 
•berto to theciast and sontfa of Brus- 
'«:k gwed aisd' to the north and 
west. * jQndenarde, the country be- 
?*-cta ''Tdarnay and Ath- Duffel, 
Herenthal, and Tiirnhout, '^edjl- 
rd for Cbem openly. The coun- 
rnes as ^r a§ Luxembourg, around 
•ifgrj apd in thc.Ardeiines^ wtre 
Icwis^'iA Tnsurirtetion ; and the 
:^uU^ ^Iroops in the departments 
^-raroc'* insufficient for so serious 
: cociteat. ' The gpvernment, alaf m- 
.i at the danget, redoubled its 
ijdfiif,' ordered detitchmeots to 



march from the Rhine, and began 
tp assetiible si regular army. Brus- 
sels and the neighbouring towns 
we're pot under military lavlr. ' Nu- 
merous hostages were taken from 
Various peaces, and fent up to P^* 
ris, and the generals Colldnd ah| 
Moulins were dispatched to take 
the cofnnaand of the armres. A- 
gainst regular forces, thus numeroui 
and fororidable, the instirgetits could 
cbake no effective resbtance. Tlie^ 
fbogbt, nevertheless, with courage 
atid obstinacy,' and wheti defeated^ 
after vanouB combats and great 
carnage, collected themselves to the 
amount of six or seven thousand at 
Dfest, ofwhich they took possession. 
Hcrfe they were surrounded bf thd 
republican troops, but, by an Increi 
dible effort, made their escape acrosi 
morasses which were thought im- 
pracdcal)le, and where numbers of 
them were drowned. Another ge- 
neral action took place in the com* 
mones of Mirfaout and Gtieel,*?ii 
which they Were BpSfa defbat^l 
with considerable loss. Scattered 
through the country, they were suc- 
cessively destroyed, or dispersed by 
the regfilar troops. The insurhec- 
tion^ which hadlasted neartAxweeks, 
and which, from the extent tind Cha- 
racter it had ^aken, had ^iven seri- 
ous inquietude to the government, 
might beaaid lo Have etided, thodgh 
some iime elapsed before perfect 
tranquillity was restored fd the de- 
partments. The revolt in the Ar- 
dennes, and around Luxembourg, 
was likewise appeased. 

While the troubles in the Uni- 
ted departments were fomenting, 
whic)i originated not there from 
the fanaticism and disaffection 
of the inhabitants than frotki the 
impolitic precipitancy of the 
French government, * the 'dlfcc- 
tory, having effected a revolution 
ID thtf' governing powert at Rome, 

Q 3 turned 



246 



BRITISH AI>D 



turoed • again Hieir palerni^' looks 
towards the Cisalpine rq)ublic. 
Troav^'la governraeot bad at that 
time lasted a month ; and, accord- 
ing to his report, had been highly 
approved, not only at Milan, but 
throughoot the departments, and 
attended with the most happy effects. 
Bat notwithstanding this general 
approbation of the people, and the 
inj unction of the French directory, 
who, by a letter written tbe l Ith of 
September, enjoined the embassa* 
dor to convoke tbe primary assem- 
blies, in order to confirm I be sain* 
tary operation which had been 
commenced, and which convoca- 
tion was to be entrusted to the 
J'rench general $ and though spur- 
red on by theflattecing prott stations 
contained in the same note, that 
the multiplied proofs of zeal which 
he had manifested in every circum- 
stance was a warrant that he would 
finish the work be had begun by 
their orders. Troov6 did not dare 
to hazi^rd his new constitution so 
precipitately to vulgar examination, 
aiid the French general showed no 
alacrity in obeying the directory. 
It was evident, that whatever might 
be thought of the constitution, tbe 
change of men and measures which 
had been lately effected had not 
answered the purposes intended. 
Happiness and tranquillKyj far from 
being restored to these abused and 
desolated countries, seemed as re- 
mote as ever, and another regene- 
ration was thought essential. This 
xneasnre at least had taken posses- 
sion of the mind of general Brune, 
who having gone, after the revolu- 
tion of Trouve, which he had never 
relished, to make a military tour on 
the line of the Adige and the Po, 
no sooner heard of the recall of the 
French embassador, and the arrival 
of Foucb6 from Paris, than he hast- 
ened to Milan, and, with soldier- 



like precipittiicy, wililOQC coosnll* 
itig either eoriMssador (19th Sep* 
tember), dismissed TrQUv6's direc* 
tors, Sopraozi, Adelasio^ and La* 
osi, whom he replaced by Bntnetti 
the roiniscsr of jualieey and by ^' 
nancini and Sabatti; and recalled 
to their legislative Amotions a ^rt 
of those wh^o had been cxpdled 
from the councils. 

Ihese changes, though iocoro- 
pletei, were represented by Trouve 
as striking terror and dismay, iato 
the hearts- of the people, delivered 
over to the fnry oIp the oaastiestra- 
vagaot dendagi^es, and -plonged 
into the deepest consHwa^ioiB; 
whilst others spoke of freedooa re- 
stored, a brighter perspective ttf 
national independence opened, and 
confidence in the operations of go- 
vernment springing up tbroo§b«ut 
the departments. One aolid ad- 
vantage the Cisalpines gained im- 
mediately by this revolution., was 
that of twelve millions of livres, 
which the French govern men t had 
obtained frova the complaisance of 
the new directory, for extraordinarj 
succours, and which this new event 
had put aside. It is not to be sup- 
posed, however, that firuoe ha- 
zarded this measure without suffi- 
cient power. It appears that he 
had represented to the directory 
the evil consequences which were 
likely to arise from Tronv^'s revc^ 
lution before it had taken place; 
and that in consequence of these 
representations, and the motioo 
made in the council by Lucien Bo- 
naparte, the directory bad furnished 
him with orders in opposition to 
those of Trouv6 ,* but ii tiding frocn 
Troov6 the success that had attend- 
ed his opfi^rations, they Goniirm«d 
these same operations by the leiur 
above recited, of the J Ith of Sep- 
tecnber. I'hat such incoheicnciea 
should take place in the connciU 

of 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



afilf 



cf the director J was not sovprisinr, 
since they acted on no* principfe 
but their own will, and were ne- 
cessariVy ignorant of ihe true situa- 
tion oBthe country whose concerns 
they attempted to regalate, viewing 
it only through the organs of their 
agents, who were in general men 
of as much ambition and of as little 
knowledge as themselves: but 
Brune, anned with the orders of 
the directory, had too much con* 
tempt lor civil commwsaries or em- 
basmdors, an<f therefore, without 
consulting the aew envoy Fouch^, 
proceeded to an immediate epura- 
tion, and the business was accom- 
pli<(bed before Fouch^ had time to 
exhibit the posterior instroctibns of 
the directory, wbicfa en^iaed him 
to confirm the revolution made by 
Tronv^; But the general's instruc- 
tions, thoogh they permitted him 
to dismiss directors and legislators, 
did not ^oflfer him to touch Le Re- 
veiiliere's constitution. On the con-^ 
trary, he urged the government to 
propose it to the primary assemblies 
for their ratification. The govern- 
ment yielded to his persuasion, the 
constitution was sent to the depart- 
ment!, and dispatches were for- 
warded to Paris, signifying its ac- 
ceptajvce. Why a constitution re- 
jected^ when the offer was made 
by Trouv^, should be accepted 
when made by Brnne, would appear 
strange, where it not resolved into 
the spirit of party, which, overlook- 
ing principles, takes advantage, 
particularly in times of revolution, 
of every circumstance that can fa- 
vour its designs, or promote/its ag- 
grandisement. The chief points m 
this constitution (intended as a 
model for the fi|tiire improvement 
of the French revolution} were the 
diminution of the members of the 
legislative body, the lessening the 



Btmber of departments, an interval 
in thf» sittings of the councils of 
«V)ery oihdr day, a prorogation of 
thoee months every year, the per- 
petual rights of the ex-directors to 
seats in the council of ancient.^, the 
renovatioo'of a third of the counciU 
every two years, the nomination 
to every rank in the army by the 
directory, who were also to have 
the guard of the councils at their 
disposition, the liberty of the press 
under their controul» as well as the 
finances, and the initiative in the 
enacting of laws; the salaries both 
of counsels and directors were also 
to beaugmented. Brune was called 
back to Paris to give an account of 
his proceedings ; and to explain by 
what aothority, since Fouch6 had 
exhibited poUerior orders, he had 
constituted himself a reformer of. 
states. 

Joubert, meanwhile, took pos- 
session of the command of the army 
in Italy. The two councils, the 
major part of which was composed^ 
as well as the directory, of republi- 
cans, be^an to sound the obys^ of 
the evils into which they had. been 
plunged, to change the ministers^ 
to place, as they imagined, more 
worthy and intelligent men in the 
administrations and tribunals, to 
regulate the finances, and prosecute 
the dilapidations of the public for- 
tune. The legislative body and the 
directory, by these measures, bad 
regained the confidence of the 
pedple; the police was organised 
on a new plan; and the national 
guards began to think themselves 
the defenders of a free republic, 
when Fouch6 was recalled, and the ^ 
French commissary'Rivaud appear- 
ed on the scene. 

Rivaud was peculiarly the crea- 
ture of the executive directory of 
France, Trouv^*s mission, though 
Q 4 iiis 



UB 



BRITISH AND 



his instnictiomhadbcMfficbne^led, 
had teen made kn^wn to the mi* 
fiki^'tiiior^gn affaki* The revo- 
Itktonary meaaures of the directory 
without the frontiers had been 
wrapt up in cautious mastery till 
they reached the place, of their des- 
tination. The minister was not 
)>ermitted to penetrate into these 
works of darkness, and,,^ in general, 

was only acquainted vvith them b^ iormers again took p:>tse«sionof the 
the complaints which wei'e ofiici- councils, from whence (he patriotic 
ally addrataed to him by the suffer- 
Hitherto the diplomas, at least 



made prisoners of wat; and the 
be»t friends of their country either 
fugitive or arrested. 

Sopranxi, Adelasio, end Laoii, 
who had been placed byTroov6i 
and expelled by Brune, once more 
seated themselTet on the roins of 
the republic i and persecution, dis- 
order, '4ind misery, were again or- 
ganised at'- Milan. Troov^'s re- 



ars, 

for the embasiijes, had passed regu- 
larly through his office ; but as he 
had scmelioies made undu« and 
Imughty renion st ranees against these 
'extraordinary and violent measures, 
the knowledge of Rivaud's mission 
was carefully kept secret. It was 
necessary, however, to have the 
ministerial signature to the diplo- 
mas ; bat In order to conceal the 
objept for which they were intend- 
ed, and to avoid further ministerial 
impertinences, the directory took 
their signatures, and filled the va- 



party were again driven. Mara- 
schalchi, a senator of Bologna, and 
Francbi, an iutri^iog and hypo- 
critical member of the councils 
filled up the other two places in 
the ekecutive directory. 

In Switaerland, the firmness of 
the director LsAarpe, together with 
the general olamour of indignstiott 
against (he atrocities committed b^ 
the agents of the French goven- 
meat, had tamed the fury of its 
despotisin^vofar a«regafdedtbeHci- 
vetic repoblic. The legislative snd 
executiiw authoritiei i» that coun- 
try, fr«ed from this degrading 



cancies, that is the nomination of yoke, had begua to apply whatever 



their agents^ themselves. 

•One of these blank diplomas was 
filled up with the nameof Rivaud ; 
who, armed with the wrath and 
thunders of the directory,- arrived 
at Milan, and Joubert escaped to 
Turin. All waa arranged. It was 
in vain for the directory to make 
any defence ; in vain for the coun^ 

cils todeclare all such traitors to * , -^ ^™^.w — — ^ 

their country who should abandon tons which had not been fliUag^ 
their places ; in vain for the patri** o^ered aome temporary wc^|5' 
ots to devote themselves la support 
of the councils : the whole was de- 
cided. The directory and minister 
of police were put under the safe- 
guard of French bayonets; the 
guard of the legislative body dis- 
armed, and left to the dispositiori 

«f the soldiers of Rivaud; the re- «.«..w.^... ,.^^w. 

DTCsentatives of i\» people were tatioBi which the Heiretic kgi^'^' 



palliatives were in their pow^f ^^ 
the wound whicb w« yet too deep 
entirely to curti. The finances had 
been Mt by the Frencii in almostan 
hef|)les* situation ; nevertheless the 
meaaures which the legislature had 
adopted were fitted to keepthcstaic 
in motion y^ though its proigfes«wa5 
ueceasarily slow and incuaaheied. 
The public ci^lTera of those can- 



but Ohs anpply was «very in»«fi" 
cient to defray even the expen- 
ditupe which was indispensable. 
Among the articles of eap«*e 
^Mdi weighed v^ti heavy on the 
state, WHS that of the intwual sd- 
msniatfittkNi. This vws eoe of the 
onmeroua vice* of the Faris consn- 



POfiSIGH HIST-ORT. 



040 



lore liad mA tuffictenilf revised. 
Of the ooiEpbkiai*- against 4he late 
government^ the appiicatioa of the 
public revenue lo their personal 
eoLpenaes had been the most proii^L* 
itenU The -present gOiwrDmefit, 
instead jq£ correcting this abuse, 
'which had not been very sensibly 
£dt Oioder the late regimen, had, 
froin the viciousnets of its organi- 
sattooy increased the evil. The 
offices of state were not onty paid 
bi§^k^r than those of Fvaiice, bat 
the number oi offices was increased. 
Netwithstanding this and other de- 
fec*s» which neceslttrily eccar in 
newrformed governments, thecoun« 
cila and the majority of the directory 
preserved the general confidence of 
the people. The legislature having 
been hastily composed, was made 
up for the most part of such as had 
naore zeal and good- will, than in- 
fbnnation i hot there were amongst 
ihem many enlightened and welU 
inalructed men, who would do ho- 
nour to any political assembly. Nei« 
ther the cessation of French despo- 
tism., nor the legal administration 
of popular representatives, could, 
however, impress the democracy of 
the moantains with the idea that 
good government coald proceed 
from any institution which lesfiened 
the iaaportance, and narrowed the 
limits, of individual sovereignty, 
amongst them&elves, and which had 
moreover de.<;troyedthe sovereignty 
which, in violation of their prin- 
ciples, they held, in common with 
iir»<tocratic canton !i, over divers 
subject states in Switzerland. The 
cannon of the French army had 
Ibrced them to accept the Helvetic 
eenstitiUion; but this adherence 
lasted no longer than while the in- 
atrament of persuasion thundered 
in their ears. The resolution they 
had formed of preserving their re- 
fpeciJvegoyeriun«Dti^^w«v«rd«» 



fective or vicious, was refpectable^ 
and even aacred, if it were the wish 
of the people^ but the f^pathy 
which their spirit excited was let* 
senedby the intolerance* which they 
manifested against those of thetr 
countrymen w hf) appealed of a dif- 
ferent organisation, in the treaty 
madewithSchawcnbourg, the lesser 
cantons agreed to aooept the Hel- 
vetic constitution, provided that 
no contributionf were levied, and 
that no French troops entered their 
territory » The treaty was adhered 
to on the part of the French, but 
the inhabitants of the canton of 
Underwalden refused the ratifica- 
tion^ Multiplied modes of persua- 
sion had been used in vain | th« 
moant/inecrs spurned A^ U.e {)rof- 
fered fratepiiity j and, as it they 
felt themselves contaminated by 
the corre<;pondence, returned af 
length the letters of negoiiation 
without deigning lo break the seal. 
The French general a^^embled 
his troops to enforce the execution* 
The attack, which was rm the in^ 
surgents on the 9ih f)f September, 
was repelled with the accustomed 
bravery of the Swiss. Reinforced 
by parties of volunteersj who as* 
sembled from the adjoining can tona^ 
and who had yielded to the repre* 
senlations of father Paul, a capo- 
chin, and a aeaious soldier of the 
church militant, who, having been 
industriously employed in preach- 
ing a crusade against the constitu- 
tion, now came to animate the 
courage, as he had hitherto direct- 
ed the consciences, of his fol- 
lowers. The inhabitants of Under» 
walden met the assailants with an 
additional impetuosity and confi- 
dence from the success of the pre- 
ccdingday ; assured by their leaders, 
who were chiefly priests, that the 
Holy Virgin had given them the vic- 
tory. Upon BMO thus inspired by 
fanaticism. 



250 



: FK I T rs H AND 



fanaticism, and contendtng, as they 
w^re persaaded, «for liieir liber ties 
atid their religion, ibe ar<io4ir and 
enthusiasm of French troops made 
at first but little impresaion. At 
Gtanzsteady on the chores of the 
lake of Lucerne, was fought, or 
lather raged, the battle'; for no. 
annals have preserved the remem- 
brance of a conflict ao terrible as 
that which now took place. Tho 
bayonets of ihe French soldiers were 
but feeble weapons against the 
massy clubs ot the mountaineers; 
the artillery even was silenced for 
a time from the showers of stones 
and splinters of rocks that fell on 
the cannons. Women and child* 
jren, catching fury from their fathers 
and husbands, rushed undaunted 
on the invaders; and, when dis- 
armed, clung to impede their pro- 
gress. No advance was made but 
over the bodies of the slain; no 
post gained without the destruction 
of its defenders; and the evening 
had come on before the intrepid 
courage of the mountaineers yield- 
ed to the perseverance of animated 
and orgaDis.ed troops. The valley 
of StaotZy a .beantiful and fertile 
garden, seated at the base of tlio^ 
)oftj mountains where Vinter holds 
Its eternal reign, became at once 
a scene of carnage and desolation. 
The town of Stantz, io the midst 
pf which the statue of the illustri- 
ous Winkelreid still frowned ,on 
the tyrants of his country,* was 
taken as it were by storm. The 
streets were strewed with dead, 
more than a third of which were 
priests and women ; and the loss 
of the French was still greater, from 
'* the incredible obstinacy,** to use 
the language of their general, with 
which these men, maddened to 
fury, fought. Thousands of spec- 
tators from the neighbouring can- 
tons covered the hiUai whose sad* 



ened looks, a« the Frchcii adracced,* 
betokened the .measure of- gne5 
they tonkin the fate of their cono- 
try men ; bat none were attacked 
that were not iirmed, and all that 
were armed were exterminated* 
The capttcl)in,i who was the prin^ 
cipal instigator of the saaorrectioti, 
savied himtfklf by iNght. The whole, 
of the canton of Underwaldeo waa 
subdued: the greater part of the 
houses of the inhabitants* with 
their barns, churches, and cbapels, 
were btirnt and rased to the ground. 
The Helvetic government adapted 
the numerous orphans which were 
made on that fatal day i and pub- 
lished a brief for the relief of tbe 
ruined iahabitants. . The cootriba- 
tions levied in tbe neighboartog 
cantons, which had taken, or were 
about to take part, in the tosorrec<^ 
tion, were destined by the Helvetic 
body as a recompense to the French 
soldiers. The general refusing to 
accept the nx>ney, sent it as a peace- 
offering of the army to the relief of 
the unhappy victims oftbedesola- 
tion» which they had occasioned. 
The. French army continued its 
march through the other parts of 
this disaffected department, which 
comprehends the lesser ^antoosi bot 
no further resistanee waa made. 

One of the first operations of Jkhe 
Helvetic council^, after their remo- 
val from Aurau to Lucerne, which 
now became the seat of govern- 
ment, was a law respecting emigra- 
tion ; which differed from that eo« 
acted in France, inasmuch as the 
estates of those who would not obey 
the invitation of return were put 
under guardians for their heirup 
and the revenues granted to tbe 
existing proprietors as long bs they 
conducted themselves peaceably, 
and without joining in consptraciea 
against their coimtry^ during tbeit 
residence out of the Helvetic re? 
public. 



FOB SIGN HISTORY- 



^1 



public. A convention between 
the embassador and the Helvetic 
minister for foreign affairs was ra- 
tified by the couacils on the 2d of 
December, by which the Helvetic 
republic agreed to fnmish France 
with an auxiliary army of eigtueen 
thousand men, which were to be 
recruited in Switzerland at die ex* 
peose of (he French republic. The 
engageiaeotof«acb aoldifir was to 
be for two or three years; The des- 
tination of these troops was to Se 
indicated bjr the French govern- 
ment, and their p^y to bi^in as 
soon as a third or the army was 
formed. All acts of indicipline 
and offences were to be tried by 
Swiss, court-martials. The troops 
in Switzerland- wece to be provi- 
siooed for a year. J^o incorpora- 
tion of French soldiers . was to be 
naade in the Swiss batCalions ^ and 
the French government engaged to 
placie tbcfli in the service of som^ 
allied power whenever tbeir services 
•hoald be no longer wanted for 
France. 

The Ligotiatt Republic was at 
this period cooapreheoded in. the li&t 
of the eiiemies of Great- Britain, 
according to a message sent by the 
eaecntive directoiy of this state to 
the legislative councils, anoooncing 
k as a general measure adopted by 
the Eoglislf governitient again§t e- 
▼erjr nation oo the coaaCs.oi the Me- 
diterranean connected with France. 
The French government had been 
too much busied in the work of re« 
formation in- larger states, to give 
moch atflBOtion to the concerns of 
this little republic} but the arrival 
of the comnus'sary Faypoult, from 
Milan, threw the Ligurians into 
great consternation. This repute* 
lie had undergone a French revi^ion 
soon after the election x>f the con- 
atiiuted" authorities. . Some mis- 
oodentaodiog .. which . had taken 



place between the counciit and thm 
directory, resp^tiag the formatioa 
of a miliiacy commissioB which the 
latter opposed, as contrary to the 
constitution, bad led the Prench 
resident to invite a certain number 
of the former to give in their dis- 
mission. It is probable that in 
this case the French resident had 
taken part with those who judged 
most wisely; but the interposHiaa 
of foreign agents, in whatever man- 
ner I heir influence may be directed 
is always a violation of the princi- 
ple of independence. Hie systieoa 
of government, like most of those 
newly-created, wai too much in« 
combered with the detail of autho^ 
rity ; the vanity of individuals who^ 
although advocates for the ^rs- 
tem of equality, were not dis- 
pleased to see themselves somewhat 
elevated above their fellow-citizena, 
had increased the mass of public 
expense, by municipal, cantonial, 
and otl]j;r places of minor authority, 
which, without adding to the force 
or energy of government, rendered 
its operations more complicated 
and difficult. The suppression of > 
certain convents, as a national re- 
source, had been decreed by the 
great council ; but the elders hesi- 
tated to give their sanction ; and 
the clergy, who also had more than 
once caused partial insurrectiont in 
the country, condemned the pro- 
position as an act bordering on sa- 
crilege. The revolution of Pied« 
mond having ad.ied to the influence 
of the civil government, that of the 
clergy was immediately crushed. 
A number of the disaffectsd through- 
out the republic were put under 
arrest, some were condemned to 
banishment, others were sent to 
the fortress of Savona, amongst 
whom were a number of ecclesiaa- 
tics. The archbishop of Geneva, 
who had hoped to avert the storm 

by 



«5» 



BRITISH AND 



by paternal and patriotic proclama- 
tiooSj was iuvited to vUit tbe for- 
tress ofNovii whither he was ac- 
(conapanied by si guard of honour^ 
aod tbe invitatioos extended to the 
leaving the wbQle of the chai^cell^ry 
9t Genoa^ and consigning the cgre 
of his dioce3eto'his vicar-general. 

The warhke turn of affairs ia 
Italy, and ti^e proclamation of admi> 
ral lord Nelson, who had block e4 
vp tbe port of Genpai and had de- 
dared all ships^ entering or going 
out, lawful prizes, had occasioned 
a general armament throughout tbe 
republic. The Ligurians, although 
they had suflfered the interference of 
lj>e French commissary in their 
civil atfairs, bad refused to accede 
to the demands of the FretKh ge* 
|)eru] Lapoype, who was charged to 
take t])e command of the Ligurian 
truopi, altegiog that the constitu- 
tion did not permit such an offictr 
during the peace; but that* in case^ 
of host ill lies, the directory would 
willingly confer on a French gene- 
ral the command both of the troops 
of the line, and volunteers. The 
introduction of whatever had the 
semblance of a military govern- 
ment was an object of general ab- 
borrence amongst a commercial 
people^ and due respect was paid to 
this repogucince by the French go- 
vernment. The cuHivation of let- 
ters became however a matter of 
national concern, and an Institute, 
similar to thiu of France, was in- 
stalled. Jmm^rbed in commerce* 
or delivered ov<-r to ilie prejudices 
of an ignorant clergy^ instruction 
liad been confined to thecountiug- 
'house or the ,cloister. The ficat 
labours of this re -union of literaiy 
or scientific men were destined to 
provide for ^he people a more libe- 
ral and enlightened education. 

An attempt at negotiation made 
6y ^I'ofCugal H> the ^m^^ih of Octp^ 



ber had failed, from the liaitM 
powers of the Portuguese minivcer 
Norooha, or i;ather from hia disio*' 
clinatioo to comply with the de- 
' maods of the French directory. The 
interference of Spain had checked 
whatever hostile dispotitioa Prance 
bad formed against Portugai* siocft 
the friendship of^this forooer pow- 
er, in the circumstances of the 
French republic, was more favoar« 
able to her interests than any ad- 
vantages that could be obtained 
from an attack, the success of whicli 
was at all times uncertain. Tbt 
political atmosphere of Spain during 
J he present year had remaiaed 
stagnant, ^s usual. No domesrie 
occurrence had disturbed tbe ioter- 
nui tranquillity, and no other im^ 
portant loss had befalleo it than th^ 
sudden surrender of AdUiorca. Tha 
state of finances bad obliged the 
court,, in tbe courie of the summer, 
io open a loan for four hundred 
millions of reals, iphe eag^eraess 
with which the first forty thousand 
shares had been taken, and which 
bad given a premium to the ni^tes 
which Had been issued, had so a<r 
bated at the en4 of a few moothSj 
that the' notes were at 25 per oenf, 
discount, some financial blunder qf 
the court having occasioned the dis- 
credit. In the mean time the Iti- 
Icrcourse of the French repdbISc 
with Spain bad been little else than 
an interchange of trifling civilities. 
The Spanish government was re- 
presented at Paris by the chevalier 
D'Azara, a man of wide experi- 
ence, skilled in diplomatic aftaks, 
having exercised the office of em- 
bassador for thirty yean in Itaty, 
a tfrieod to rational liberty, but in 
constant watchfulness to preserve 
his country from the influence ~ of 
French directorial principles; afnd 
the hostility of directorial protec- 
Uon. The Fce«ch egibassador at 
Madrid 



FOREfGN HISTOJlY. 



25i 



Riailri^ liad been Tragtiet^ (he late 
miDtster of marine, a personage little . 
fitted^ froon the frivolity of his man- 
ners^ (he narrowness of his under- - 
standing, and the dupliclry or ra- 
tlier inanitf of his political senti- 
ments, for (his or anf other poll- 
tical cmpJoyoient. Driven from 
his office of minister of the marine 
hj repeated denunciations of the 
iegislative assembly, as a public de- 
ianltcTy and more than suspected as 
the cause of the numerous losses that 
took place in his department dur- 
ing his administration, he had still 
•nlicient iofoence to procure his 
Domination to the Spanish embasiiy. 
The directory, who were not in 
general delicate in the choice of 
their agents to foreign courts, 
thinking themselves dishonoured 
by such a representative, ordered 
him to return ; to which order ha v • 
iirg p^co an answer which amount- 
ed to an insolent refusal, he was 
placed OD the list of emigrants, an 
act of tyranny which the directory 
aoihetimet applied to those who of- 
fended them, or who' were not 
otherwise within thehr feach. Tru- 
gbet, whose submission had pro- 
cured his pardon^ afier having un- 
dergone other mortifications, was 
replaced by Guillemardet, a man 
of no political complexion^ ^nd of 
manners less assuming and offensive 
than his predecessors. The minister 
of foreign affairs was Siaavedra ; but, 
from (he ill state of his health, the 
affairs of his oi!^ce were dispatched 
by Ufqui*;©, Whose inflaence in 
firoor of the PVcnch bad coimier- 
balanced that of the Prince of 
Peace. The Spanish government 
having ^hut its ports against the in- 
trodoctioQ of English merchandise, 
on the reqaifiition of the French, 
the miriistcr for home afll^ins, in 
order to render this privation less 
U£convenient^ advised the Spanish 



minister of the naeans which he bad 
adopted to give a wider extent to 
the relations between Prance and 
Spain, and to assure him that the 
Pyren6es existed no longer. 

The successive revolutions which 
bad taken place in the beginning of 
the year in Holland^ although they 
might have ended in a constitutional 
government and domestic tranquil- 
lity^ had given a shock to their 
system of finances which required 
strong and speedy measures to re- 
medy. The destruction of its 
fleet, (he continual presence of the 
English on its coasts, and the un* 
controuled dominion which this 
latter power held in the Indian 
seas, had shut up its connexion 
with the only foreign possession 
which remained uninvaded ; and 
Batavia^ defended more by the insa- 
lubrity of climate than by its mili- 
tary strength, found no means of 
transporting to Europe the im- 
mense mass of commercial wealth 
which the productions of several 
years had accumulated. The state 
of the finances had been long the 
deliberation of numerous secret 
committees; and, en the 21st Sep* 
tember, the directory published the 
result in the form of a law, which 
had been enacted by the two coun- 
cils, decreeing, that provisionally, 
and by way of anticipation, a loan 
should be made of five per cent oi¥ 
the 1-cvcnues of evtry citizen who 
possessed upwards of six hundred 
florins a year. In the beginning of 
October, Lombard was sent embas- 
sador from Paris to the Hague, and 
Schimmclpenninck returned from 
thence to Paris. The former, in 
his address to the Batavian directory; 
spoke of himself as the special mfs- 
senger of peace, and the answe r of 
the directory hailed the return of 
good understanding and fraternity 
The prohibition of English mer- 
chandise. 



354 



BRITISH AND 



chandise, onder penalties more le- 
trere than hitherto had been enacted, 
passed (he councils. The territo- 
rial division of the republic into 
departments was definitively de- 
creed. The nine provinces were 
changed into eight departments, 
the extent of which was measured 
by the population and the limits 
formed by the great rivers; these 
departments were again divided, 
each into ten circles; and each 
department was presumed to con- 
tain two hundred and thtrty-five 
thousand inhabitants, and the ge- 
neral population of the republic 
was esitimated at a mtiiion eight 
hundred and ninety-two thousand 
iodividuals. 

The revoTation which had takett 
place 10 the government had de* 
* ranged bot not dcstroyeil the Jaco- 
binical faction which bad usurped, 
wider the direction of La Croix, 
the reins of government. Hard- 
^ ened by impunity, the leaders of 
the faction had formed themselves 
into a sort of external government, 
and scarcely attempted to dissemble 
their designs. The directory hav- 
ing received due advice of their 
operations, caused the principal 
members of the conspiracy to be ar- 
rested, among whom was a member 
of the legishtive body. The mea- 
sures of the directory were approved 
by the legislature, and the prisoners . 
• were sent before the tribunal of the 
former provinces of Holland and 
Zealand, for trial. The considera* 
tiotY of the dangers attending fhe 
re- act ion of parties, which had prov- 
ed fatal in France, led the govern- 
ment soon afier to publish an am- 
nesty for all revolutionary excesses. 
The laws which had hitherto been 
enacted on this subject were to af- 
fect none in future but such whose 
emigration, legally proved, had been 
folfowed by no act of subniissioa* 



The first day of the following year 
was fixed as the fatal term b^ond 
which nolle would be allowed to 
enter, and numbers took advaxitage 
of this act of moderation. 

Although the government held a 
firmer footing from the alternate 
expulsion of what had been deemed 
the stadtliolderian and jacobin par- 
ties, the influence of their respective 
opinions continued to agitate the 
public mind -, the middle classes 
arranged themselves on the side of 
the reigning powers, but the fower 
orders persevered in their attach- 
ment to the old system. This pre- 
dilection was strongly marked ia 
the fleets and 'array, particularly 
I the former, so that for d long time 
this part of tht service had become 
an object of -suspicion to £he go* 
V crn men t itself, llie French armj 
still continued to occupy Holland, 
nor was their presence altogether 
useless in preserving a due balance . 
between the contending parties, and 
securing domestic tranquillity. 

The commercial relations of. 
France with other countries, and 
with its own colonies, were ten- . 
dered extremely difficult from the 
decided superiority of the British 
fleets, which cither blocked op ita 
ports, or intercepted almost every 
communication. A report had for 
some lime prevailed that the island 
of St. Domingo had withdrawn itt 
allegiance from the French govern* 
ment, and declared itself indepen* 
dent. General Hedonville had been . 
sent by the directory as governor to 
this island ; but having met with 
considerable opposition in the ex- 
ecution of his orders from the ge- 
neral Toussaint Louvertore, he re- 
turned to France. It appeared that 
the independence of 5t. Domingo 
had neither taken place, nor had 
any project even of defection been 
entertained. The cause of the dis- 
pute 



F O K £1 G N H r^ T OR Y. 



ft^S 



pate wa» evplaioed by HedonTille, 
io a proclanaatloa \Vhicb he pub- 
lished at the Cape, 22d of October, 
previous to his departure^ in which 
Le 'details the motives. which led 
hina lo quit the colony.' He com- 
plained of the favour openly granted 
to the eniigraots who had served 
under the English, and of the re- 
sistance made to liie execution o£ 
the Jaws which hajd been framed 
againsi them, and denounced a 
plan of indepeuJence, concerted 
with the BriTifih muiister and the 
government. He! likewise answered 
the accusatio{^ whrch had been 
madeof hia having harboured de< 
signs against the genera) libertj of 
the inhabitants^ whom he invited 
to rally ^acQond the constitutional 
act^ before vfhxch all prejudices 
add factions ought to bend or 
disappear. 

A few dafs after the departure 
of HedonvUle> Toussaint Louvcr- 
ture sent his alde-du-camp with dis- 
patches for the <Brectory.. Among 
the.papers jastiikatorj of his con- 
duct were the address of the ma« 
nicipal admintstration of the Cape 
to the QQunicipa! administrations of 
the communes of the colonies, and 
a letter written by Toussaint Lou- 
vert u re himself to tde deputies of 
St. Domingo at Paris. In the ad- 
dress, the municipal officers entered 
into a long detail of the disputes 
and military operations which had 
distiirbed the peace o( the south 
and west divisions of the colony, 
and concluded it with wishing the 
communes the enjoyment of the 
same irauqoillity which prevailed 
among themselves, assuring them 
that it was lo the vigilance ot Tous- 
saint, to his love for France, for 
his country, and mankind^ that 
Cape- (own was indebted for its 
peace and safety^ In his letter to 
the represcntatlvea, the general re« 



criminateB on Hedonville, as bar* 
ing, by rash and ill-advi8e4 mea« 
suresp exposed the island to very am* 
minem danger^^ that whatever might 
have beep the personal disputes 
between Hedonville and himself^ 
his long services, and his dcvoted* 
ness to the interests of his country, 
were sufficient warrants of the pu- 
rity of his conduct. He denied the 
charges published at the Cape, pre- 
vious to what he calls Hedonville'a 
cowardly desertion from his post, 
and declared that he threw himself 
with con6dence on the impartiality 
of the two councils, and oo tha 
equity of the directory, asserting 
that he was invariable in his princi- 
ples, as sincerely attached to Franoc 
and to liberty as he had ever been* 
and that he would continue to aa* 
crifice every moment of h s life to 
secure the prosperity of the colony. 
He concluded by informing them 
that he had dispatched a messenger 
to the commissary Roucul, to be- 
seech him, in the name of the pub- 
lic safety, to assume the reins of 
government till further orders from 
the directory, trusting that St. Do- 
mingo, delivered from the daogera 
to which it had beenexp(»ed, would 
continue its progress under the pnH 
tection of constitutional lawi, and 
the auspices of that liberty which it 
had obtained. 

The coalition against France had 
now been strengthened by the ac- 
cession of the Ottoman Porte, whQ» 
in a manifes o published the 15th 
of Fruciidor, September 1st, der 
clared war against the French. Pre- 
vious to the sailing of the French 
fleet, it had been urged, as an irre-r 
slstible argument, that its destination 
could not be for ^ Egypt,. that this 
would be a violation of a friend!/ 
territory ; and, afterwarda, the mur- 
murs which aro«e on the impoUcjr 
and perfidy of the iDvasion were 

bushed 



25d 



fiiiiT'rs!* A>f6 



busl^e j by tniiniiitioQS that Itae ex» 
peditipa liad b^en* coocerre4 ^mth 
5^ (he.Porte^ an4 that the pa«9ag».mtcl 
India wa» to be purchased .by Iho 
xeducii^ of hia rebellions ininMSr 
lukea. The dt^ciaratioD oCtbe Porte 
was an bau^hty and formal denial 
of sach pretended treaty, it dcel 
not even appear that any negotia- 
tion vJhMeret bad uken plate be<> 
tureen the two powers^ since th^ 
ftiotive» alleged for the disgrace of 
the grand vizier, Yzaed Mahumed, 
were his want of circumspection* 
dod his ignorance of the designs of 
the French ; nor did the directory 
eondescend to anj«wer this d(;clara- 
fion otherwi&e than by kneDtitlg 
the inconceivable blindnesa of theti* 
late ally, ^ho, rejecting the pro- 
tection which they omrcd, and 
misled by the perfidious counaela 
of the coalesced cabinets h. d placed 
bimbelf at the mercy of h\^ con» 
stant and inveterate foe. ThQ 
French revoiulioh has recoiniled 
many a jarring interest, and, in con- 
sequence of the new fraternisation, 
a Knssiaii fleet, composed i>f twelve 
ships of the line, appeared in the 
canal of Constantinople, and sailed 
through the Dardanelles into the 
Mediterranean. This hostile mea- 
sure was followed by other acts of 
accuatomed political barbarism, the 
arrest of every individual belonging 
tQ the French, and the sequestra- 
tion of their property, the confining 
the civil agents of the republic ia 
prison, and chaining the prisoners 
of war to the gallej's. The first ope- 
ration of the combined fleets. was 
fln attack on the newly-created 
French departments in the ^gean 
and Adriatic seas^ Cerigo. the an- 
cient Cytherea, an island belonging^ 
t6 the Venetians, and ceded to the' 
French by the treaty of Campo- 
Ponnio, was taken the 21 st of Sep- 
tember, after a slight resistance! 



together wkh 2nite •ad-C!«plia< 
Ionia* mUck wiere afaemdene^ bf 
the Fremjk i and from thence fba 
enemy proceeded to block the taiut 
of the isiaod of Gorfo. 

The entrance 6f Ike ^An^riafl 
troopi into Ike Grtions indicsied 
the near apptoach of hmtititias on 
the coiitliieflt. Id a pra^lamfliion^ 
dated from Feldkirbh, I8ifa October, 
it was stated that the sob object 
his imperial mifstiy had iqiView, 
was, the preservation of the i^pob. 
lie and codstitmioiK acoordiag to 
the tenor of eiLifitiog treaties.' The 
French had asaembleA fbfcttiatbe 
Rheinihal, with prqeots inf i dif* 
ferent kiod $ bat having been pre- 
Ceded by the Ansirians, ther ad- 
vanced nolurthet than le tak« mi- 
litary positiona oH the' frddders. 
The Helvetic diiectocy, irf aaeoim* 
cing to the legislative body iheetHrj 
of the Austrian troops into the 
Grisons, observed (bat they had 
been invited by the party wbicb 
had matiifissted its opimoQ tg^^tta 
a re-union with Switacriand, sod 
that thope who had shown contrirf 
dispositions arare regard^ as sxa* 
pected, and oUiged to iwaitloa 
their country. The Helvetic I'gw- 
laiive .body decreed that sn ssjFittta' 
should beotferedto the fbgi<»e»f 
and as they suspected that thessme 
species of protectioo was Aesot Co 
be extended by the Atwtriaui to- 
wards Switzerlat»d> the director 
represented, by a message, the aeott- 
sity of re-organising the arrt/i ^w» 
the honoot at}d safely of the re- 
public required extraordinary ef- 
f<wrts, which ought to >e f^PP*** 
tionate to the imminent criiti «f 
political events. They foviig^JP^ 
council, in consequence, ^^^^ 
that an exttaowlitia^ wi«'^J^!| 
should be ioHnediately levied, wen 

should be deducted in the p^eie^ 
of the ordinary taxes. 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



909 



The Neapolitan troops^ which 
bad been caUaetiag Iblr Vofiie time 
OD the froadcrs of ihe Kotnan re- 
publlur, MOQ ''after be^tin their 
marchfi.. Tbit act of hostility bad 
been preceded, by varidoa - acts 
which{ (tianiisst^d no aimest 'dis- 
positica^ to keep long ori terms of 
peace Willi the French: ' ropttbllc, 
suchwaVthe friendly reception given 
to the fleet ci adrairal Nelson, I he 
t^omaI ofreodfiog Maogouvit, fhe^ 
aecrctary 6f -^tlae^^^Ktoch Icgatloti;* 
and the contemptMRrilh which the 
embaa$»dor Lacomb St. Mithel 
httnscif had boen treated. The 
somnapfit which general Mack had 
aeot iD%liei>garriso[ia in the Roman 
froitfiera to vacafie tlieic posts, led 
Champiteet, who coakmanded in 
the Romaa tepublic, to demand 
from him the caase xif the hostili- 
Uet'^^iUch he ihreateneil-; repre<» 
tenting, to him that he was Charged 
by hia governmeot wiili • the pro- 
tection th« Roman repablic, that 
peacbi coirtftnaed to exist between 
thfi court of fifaples iod Frauce, 
that the embinaadors still resided 
with the resi^bctive government^, 
and that nothing had ukeo p]ace 
-which coold br^pk the ties which 
the last treaty of peace had esta- 
Uishack- between the two countries. 
He Mkoiilse observed, that, in this 
atate of things, thesammoos to tlie 
French aroops to evacuate the Ro« 
man latatory, tte defenee of which 
waa confided to them) was a viola- 
tioB of tteatiea and of the rights of 
nations^ -which did not permit any 
aolenm aggression biSt sifter a de- 
chnratioa of hostilities, and that he, 
bemg the aggressor, must take on* 
iMnself the events of a war wliich 
coold 011)7 ium to the detfiofent of 

&IMElMli^. 

1\» this letter, genef«l Mack re- 
tomed ao answer, daBMl 24(h No* 
vff»ber,^thflt theC Neapolitan army 

1799' 



had passed the frootler the prooed* 
ing day, c^mmaifded* b|y' the king 
in ferfon, to take pouessioo of the 
Roman tersitory revolutionised ao9 
osurped sioce the peace of Campo- 
Punnio, and never acknowledged 
ora^ow^ bj^ his Sicilian majesty, 
or by his august ally the emperor. 
The remainder of the letter was an 
injunedon to evacuate the Roman 
republic, whboot fiolatiifg that of 
Tuscany, that a negative ansVer 
should be considered as a declara- 
tion of war, and that his Sicilian 
majesty knew how to enforce the 
just demands which he addressed to 
him in bis name. 

Whatever might be the jultfce 
of the deAiands^ the means of en- 
forcing them did not appear doubt- 
ful, since at the time that seventy- 
six ihousand'men entered the fron< 
tiers, there were not more, so great 
was the providence and protection 
of the French directory, either at 
Rome or in the territory, than 
two hundred Poles, and four demi- 
brigades, the lltb, 12th, 15th, and 
20th> wanting half their comple- 
ineut and making in all not ten 
thousand men. The magazines 
•were likewise empty, there were 
no arms, ammunition, artillery, or 
place provisioned, and Civita Vec- 
chia had been so emptied that there 
was not sufficient powder to fire at 
a Barbary xorsair, which at that 
time had insulted the port. The 
military situation of the Roman 
republic was rendered such, that the 
march tif the Neapolitan troopa 
was rumoured at Paris t6 have been 
concerted with the French direc- 
tory, and thB;^ amongst the rest, the 
relation of the minister of war, who 
bad long l»^<''n the ^xrc ration of the 
people, fro.n his acknowledged ava- 
rfce and corroptidn, had received 
the price from the court of Naples. 
of betraying* the Roman republic. 

R Oa' 



2p0, RR ITIS H A N I> 

tbojagh he knew its ambition, and , itnqiiediate compliance wVk wKidi 
was not ignorant of tlie projects iyis.flBade,the price of the conces* 
which the cabinet of Vienjoa had sipJi^ "11^51^ were the 

formed on a considerable portioia of . delicaiutioii of the course of the 
his estates. Rhim::;9b4iu islands, and the liber- 

Th us reorganised and cnarshalled, ty oi ^ibe navigatioo of the river ; 
the deputation of the empire deter- ^ the ^imiDftdiaie soppre^ipp p£ the 
mined on the continuance of di- ^toU o£^filiff|fj,\6n the Wcser, 

plomatic hostilities. The answer ------' **- ^*^'- " •- *— ^- 

of the deputation to the .note of the 
French ministers was not adopted 
till after long and stormy delibe- 
rations. The majority agreed to 
many of the articles, but reverted 
to several which had preceded 
tbem^ and made no furtlier pro* 
gress towards a pacification* except 
in what concerned the absolute 
cession of the island of St. Peter 
and the demolition of Ehrenbrett- 
steiii^ without any reserve or condi- 
tion. The territories of Kehl and 
Cassel were refused j and it was in- 
sisted that the law relative to emi- 
grants should be .applicable neither 
to the countries which were re-* 
united nor to (hose which were 
eeded. This conclusion was rati- 
fied by the count of Metternicb, 
and presented to the French minis- 
ters. The dinority of the depu** 
tation would have coiosented to the 
cession of the territory of Kehl and 
Cassel ; but the influence of the 
imperial minister was now sufficient 
to control the deliberations and de- 
cide tlie opinion of the congress. — 
The French ministers, finding this 
determined opposition to thtir de- 
mands^ an<l seeing the ncccsuity of 
further compliance, qgrced, in a 
note presente4 3d Oct'bcr,^ to re- 
store the territoircs of Kcbl and 
.Cassel, which had been so much 
and so justly the object of conten- 
tion on the part of the emperor, 
since /it was giving the French.posts 
tf importance on the German side 
of the Rhine; but this cession was 



aa in* 

jurious^JtP the Frencb trade with 
Breme*p,/aa(l the preservation of 
their pc^ittcal and constitutional 
iadepeodence to the cities of Bre« 
men, Hamhoofg, and Frankfort; 
the faculty of establishing bridges 
purely commorcial on both aides of 
the Rhine, and a renunciation to 
all demands contrary to the French 
constitution in favour of the no- 
bles. Th^ agreed that the laws 
respecting emigrants should not be 
applicaMe either 4o the coontries 
now ceded to France or to Men^, 
but insisted they should, remain in 
full force with respect to the coun* 
tri^s which had been already nnit« 
cd, and which now formed French 
depart noents, and refused to with« 
draw the troops to the left side till 
a pacification had taken place. 
They insisted likewise on the ces- 
sion of the Freikthal by the em- 
peror, and of alV its rights over this 
country, and those beloisgiBg to the 
Italian republics, agreeing that the 
French republic and those of Italy 
should renounce, on their sidCj all 
pretensions over tike, countries re- 
maining in Germany, and that, as 
Kehl and Cassol were to be demo* 
lished, the empire should be t>oond 
not to build any fort, or form any 
intrenchment, wiihin a league of 
the right side of the Khin^. To 
this list of demands was added m 
notice, that, if they were not ac- 
cepted without delay, the cond^ 
ditional promise of restoring the ter* 
rilbry of Kthl and Cas^l was to 
have no effect, and that a delay itk 



not gtanted without conditions, an^ accepting them >vould be consi- 
dered 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



261 



lieced as a desire of leftewiag the 

war,' 

Th« re!ilitutioxrof tlie territory of 
Kehl and Cassel was received by the 
4eputatioD with marlcs of great sa- 
tisfaiclioi}^ and ^opeit were enter- 
taiTHxi 00 both sides that the remain- 
iag objecli of discussion would not 
long xetard the general pacifica(ion. 
It w», indeed, pretend ed« that 
though the difficulties existing be- 
tween France and Anstria were far 
if Ota aoy JikeHhood of removal, 
yet the court of Vienna o'^ouid 
not beavecse to peace between the 
empire and France, from tbe per- 
aoasioifr tibat- the lieatralitv of the 
enipice would be IkvowaDie to its 
viewst tbac Ifae French armies 
woald not be able to pen^rate in- 
io G«r0iany and find Wibststence } 
inrhilst, on the other hand, whatever 
assistance, either ni subsistence or 
iDOBiey, might be wanted by the 
emperory would be easily obtained 
from the princes and states ander-it^ 
con^oi. Bat a$ these conside- 
rations were equally applicable to * 
the French, it was not more likely 
that France should be desirous of 
snaking peace wilh • the empire 
withiut the pacification was gene- 
rat, especially if a partial p^ce 
was likely t0 oe hostile to its gene- 
ral interests. 

The note of the French mioisfers 
)iad andergone a longer btat more 
pacific discussion than the laitt. The 
answer of the deputation was deli- 
vered to the French ministers by^ 
eount Metternich the i7thef Oc- 
tober, And contained In substance, 
that the navigable course of the 
Rhine should henceforth* be the li- 
mit between France and the em- 
pire ; bat it was insisted, that the 
jsle oi Buderich, opposite Wesel, 
situated ou the Jefl ude of the river, 
shoald belong to the Prussians. On 
tiiis point, a diplomatic correspon- 



dence took place between the 
French ministers and the king of 
Prussia durihg this part of the ne- 
gotiations. The deputation admit- 
ted the principles of the free navi- 
gation df the Rhine, but insisted 
that tbt; suppressioi^ of the tolls 
i^hould not take place till a year 
after the ratification of the peace^ 
requesting also that the liberty of 
the navigation of the Rhine should 
extend to its opening into the sea, 
and that the French governrhent 
shonid employ, in this respect, its 
good offices with the Dutch govern- 
ment. As to the suppression of the 
toll of Elsfeldt, the French were left ^ 
to negotiate that bu$ine<(S with the 
proprietor, thedukeofOldenbourg, 
The maintenance of the present 
constitution of Frankfort, Bremen, 
and Hamburg, suggested no dif- » 
Acuity, since there was no idea of 
changing their constitution more 
than those of other imperial cities. 
The deputation refused to consent 
to the establisihmentof new bridees 
for the purpose of commerce, but 
agreed to the demand <« of the French 
respecting the dependences of the 
ecclesiastical establishments ; mak- 
ing new and strong remonstrances 
in favour of the feudal nobility and 
of the emigrants of ihe country be- 
longing formerly to the states of the 
empire, and now under the sov^ 
reignty of France, granting the 
transfer of the provincial debts 
contracted during the war from the 
leA to the right side of the Rhin^, 
they refused to burden themselves 
with the debts of the communes. 
The deputation insisted anew on 
withdrawing the French troops to 
the left side, as well as the relieving 
the fort of Ehrenbreitstein, which 
the French troops closely blockad- 
ed ; renouncing all kinds of pre- 
tensions on the ceded countries, 
and consenting to the cession of the 
• R 3 Frein 



2pO. ER ITIS H A NI> 

I 

tbojDgh he knew its ambition, and , itpq[iediate compUaoce Vith wMcn 
was not ignorant of the projects wfts iibade the price of the cooces* 
which the cabinet of Vienna had sioa. /T^^, conditions were the 
formed on a considerable portioo of. deliaalutioa of the course of the 
his estates. Rhine :;|D4iita islands^ and the liber- 

' Thus reorganised and marshalled, ty oi ,l^ navigatioD of the river ; 
the deputation of the eoopire deter- ^ihe ^imcnedi^e suppression pf the 
mined on the continuance of di- ^toU ofj'fi^flfi: .on the Wcser, aa in- 
plomatic hostilities. The answer juriouiTj^ the French Uadis with 
of ihe depucation to the potc of the 
French ministers was not adopted 
till after long and stormy delibe- 
rations. The majority agreed to 
many of the articles, but reverted 
to several which had preceded 
them> and made no fartlier pro- 
gress towards a pacification* except 
in what concerned the absolute 
cession of the island of. St. Peter 
and the demolition of Ehrenbreit- 
atein^ without any reserve or condi- 
tion. The territories of Kehl and 
Cassel were refused > and it was in- 
sisted that the law relative to emi- 
grants should be .applicable neither 
to the countries which were re-^ 
United nor to chose wnich were 
eeded. This conclusion was rati- 
fied by the count of Metternicb, 
and presented to the French minis- 
ters. The minority of the depu- 
tation would have consented to the 
cession of the territory of Kehl and 
Cassel ; but the influence of the 
imperial minister was now sufficient 
to control the deliberations and de- 
cide tlje opinion of the congress. — 
The French ministers, finding this 
determined opposition to ihtir de- 
mands, and seeing the necessity of 
further compliance, ggrced, in a 
note presente4 3d Oct^.bcr^ to re- 
store the tcrritoires of Kehl and 
^Cassel, which had been so much 
and so justly the object of conten- 
tion on the part of the emperor, 
since it was giving the French. posts 
tf importance on the German side 
of the Rhine -, but this cession was 
sot granted wiihoui conditions, an 



firemep^ and the prestrvation of 
their pc^ttfcal and constitutional 
iadepeudence to the cities of Bre- 
men, Hamboufg, and Frankfort ; 
the faculty of establishing bridges 
purely commorcial on both sides of 
the Rhine, and a renuociation to 
all demactdt oxUrary to the French 
constitution in favour of the no- 
bles. Th^ agreed that the laws 
lespecting emigrants should not be 
applicaMe either 4o the coantriea 
now ceded to France or to Men&» 
but insisted they should remain in 
full force wi(h respect to the coun- 
tries which had been already unit- 
cd, and which now formed French 
departments, and refused to with- 
draw the troops to the left side till 
a pacification had taken place. 
They insisted likewise on the ces- 
sion of the Fveikthal by the em- 
peror, -and of alV its rights over this 
country, and those beloogiDg to the 
Italian republics, agreeing that the 
French republic and those of Italy 
should renounce, on their side, all 
pretensions over the. countries re- 
maining in Germany, and that^ as 
Kehl and Cassel were to be denoo- 
li&hed» the empire should be bound 
not to build any fort, or form any 
intrenchraenr, within a league o£ 
the right side of the Khini^. To 
this list of deraaeds was added ft 
notice, Ll>at, if they were not ac- 
cepted without delay, the cond^ 
ditional promise of restucing the ter- 
ritory of Xehl and Cassfpl was to 
have no effect, and that a delay in 
accepting them \\oiiLd be consi- 
dered 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



7/Sl 



itered as a dnire of renewing the 
mar. 

The restitutioirof tfce territory of 
Kehl atid Ca»el was received by the 
4eputaUoo witb mafks of great sa- 
tisfaction, and hopes; were enter- 
tatiMd on both sides that the remain- 
iag objects of discussion would not 
lon|r retard the general paciftcation. 
It vi-mt, indeed, pretended, that 
itiough the difficulties existing be- 
tween France and Anstria were far 
irom any likelihood of removal, 
jet ibe coart of Vienna o'^ould 
not b^aveue to peace between the 
emfjire and France, from ihe per- 
aaa%k»» Chat the neatralitv of the 
empice woold be IkvowraSle to itis 
■views,. Chat the French armies 
«roald not be able to penetrate in- 
.to GeriAanj and find Wibststence ; 
nvbiist, on the other haiid, whatever 
assistance, either in subsistence or 
moBejr, might' be wanted by the 
eoipocsor, woald be easily obtained 
from the princes andstatea ander<it!( 
con^oi. Bat a$ theee conside- 
rations were equally applicable to * 
the French, it was not more likely 
that France should be desirous of 
snaking peace with the empire 
withiu^ the pacification was gene;^ 
ral, • especialhr if a partial peace 
was likely t0 be hostile to its gene- 
fal interests. 

The note of tlie French minisfers 
)uid undergone a longer bnt more 
paeiEcdSscusstion than the last. The 
answer of the- deputation was deli- 
vered to the French ministers by^ 
eoant Metternich the 17th of Oc- 
tober, And contained In substance, 
that 4he navigable course of the 
Rhine should henceforth* be the li- 
mit between France and the em- 
pire ; but it was insisted, that the 
isle of Buderich, opposite Wesel, 
situated on the lefl side of the river, 
should belong to the Prussians. On 
tJiis point, a diplomatic correspon- 



dence took place between the 
French ministers and the king of 
Prussia durihg this part of the ne- 
gotiations. The deputation admit- 
ted the principles of the free navi- 
gation of the Rhine, but insisted 
that the suppressior) of the tolls 
should not t:;ike place till a year 
aRer the ratification of the peace^ 
requesting also that the liberty of 
the navigation of the Rhine should 
extend to its opening into the sea, 
and that the French governifient 
should employ, in this respect, its 
good oftices with the Dutch govern- 
ment. As to the suppression of the 
toll of Elsfeldt, the French were left ^ 
to negotiate that busine<(S with the 
proprietor^ thedukeofOldenbourg. 
The maintenance of the present 
constitution of Frankfort, Bremen, 
and Hamburg, suggested no dif- • 
ficully, since there was no idea of 
changing their constitution more 
than those of other imperial cities. 
The deputation refused to consent 
to the establishment of new bridges 
for the purpose of commerce, but 
agreed to the demand it of the French 
respecting the dependences of the 
ecclesiastical establishments ; mak- 
ing new and strong remonstrances 
in favour of the feudal nobility and 
of the emigrs^nts of the country be- 
longing formerly to the states of the 
empire, and now under the sovd* 
reignty of France, granting the 
transfer of the provincial debts 
contracted during the war from the 
left to the right side of the Rhine, 
they refused to burden themselves 
with the debts of the communes. 
Tho deputation insisted anew on 
withdrawing the French troops to 
the left side^as well as the relieving 
the fort of Ehrenbreitstein, which 
the French troops closely blockad- 
ed 5 renouncing all kinds of pre- 
tensions on the ceded countries, 
and consenting to the cession of the 
• ' R 3 Freikn 



3tf2 



BRI T I S H- A ]>I* 



Fu-illW,* i(%e em{)eror,wou?d" 
withd'aw liis craims^ aoreelng, in 
fiii^, ihat as^ Kelil and Uass'el were 
IQ. be demolished, no »iew forts 
should be^ erecied wi^hip a league 
o^lbese points only. • -' • 

.Ti^e French ministers haying had 
knowledge of (his conclusuin be- 
fore it was delivered, manifested 
their discontent at Its contents, atid 
had an.inlerview wilh cnunt Met- " 
l€^'nich on the subjett, in uhich* 
a warm clicusslon took J^Iace, the 
result of which, was a inen^ice on 
thbir side, lha< they would inime- 
diaieljr presept an ultimatum, and 
would allow only eight days lo re- 
ceive. a dtrfinitive answer. . / 
'.As liie affair of the renewal of 
the waV was an olject decided/ the 
in'enac^ of the French minister?; did 
jiot derange the operations' of the 
imperial minister. The court of 
Vienna had other afra:rs than tHdse 
of the congress to discuss with the 
French directory. The situation 
of lialy was^an object of political 
controversy sufficient to light up 
hostilities; and if the deputation 
had acceded to all the demands 
made by (fae French negotiitors, 
the erection of a. Roman republic, 
which, it was pretended, wa^ coo-, 
trary lo the spirit oPlhe treaty of 
peace of Campi^-Formio, m hich the 
directo/y persisted in maintaining, 
would sooner or later have occa- 
^oned a rupture if no pretence for 
rupture on ^'ther side could have 
been f»unff iii German politics. 
The resistance of the French mini- 
sters to the cession of the island of 
Buderich had also, at this time, les- 
sened the cordiality that subsisted 
between the court of BerHn and the 
French governmeit: The Prussian 
minister, corrsidcring this island as 
infinitely more essential to the placa 
of We el ihah the fortified island 
S4 St, Peter to that of Ment'z, had 



remonstrated on the little dcferefire 
wliich the French government, fcy 
this refusal* paid to the friend!/ 
dispositions of their cbtirt. 

Tlie displeasure which the French 
minislets hadtrfAnifesled to tike ha- 
peVial tninisfcr was not diweiribled 
in their ans\^et to the deputatidn. 
A letter %K'Ht addressed to this hody^ 
on the aSth of October>' By ffie 
French plenipotentiaries,' in which' 
they declared that it Ytaa difiicoft 
f(»r them to moderate theevpression 
of the paijiful se liferents which they 
felt on receiving theii' conclasum^ 
that, from th^e dffficuHres of eVfery ' 
kind w hich wfere startetf, and which 
were altogether unfounded,' theaf- 
' fectation ofpresentingHn«w<Aject6 
which had been decidedly ligrced 
on, it was evident that the depv* 
tation had iti view only to gain 
time, and n6 doubt was* left w^tth 
respect to their real tntehtioni 
The French rcpftblic, they ob^enr- 
ed,. was averse lo wiir,' but did Hot 
fear its Frattce wa* desiiona of 
pcMce, and the deputation btitr 
talked about if, and concludt^d tfaia 
angry note xi/ith statif>g that the ge- 
nerosity of the French government 
had exceeded every ex[^ectftlionv 
that it was resolved to make- no 
more concession, and pei^rsted in 
tht contents of the la^t iiotfe which 
they had delivered. 

The' conclusum of the depnta* 
tion of the 6th November wa» not 
less firm or dignified. After a «©• 
ries of observations on the tenia 
of the 'French minister's lettefi und 
repelling the various accus«ti<in« 
which it conliiined witfh re^rpcctto 
the indis^position of the empire t6 
hasten the mode and conclude the 
defiuitive terms of the pacificatfom^ 
they recapitulated therariows sacr^ 
fices they had made, and obseH-vecl 
that no nation Which war free and 
independentji and was williiig4oir«A 



FOREIGN HISTORY. 



263 



mam so, couM offer more, and 
concluded with hoping that' the 
French plenspotenttaiics, fully con- 
vinced thai every effort had been 
made iq came to an eotire recan- 
ciliatioH) w%Li!d no longer hesatafe. 
to enphbx themselves in a favour- 
able a^d conciliating manner, on 
al! the ohservatjons and demands 
made ill the CQmmuoicaiion of the 
r;(h of October. To this -note 
was joined another, -in which the 
deputation insisted morejtrongljr on 
the raismg the sk^e ot Ehrenbreit- 
stein. Thii demand the P/ossian 
miniUer supported^ u^/^ separate 
communication. In. terms mach 
,less qilaliiied, treating the conduct 
oTlhe French as illegal and subver- 
sive of the conventions already ex- 
isting. 

To these pbservatioos of the de- 
putation, the French minisiers re- 
pliedy in a note dated i jth Novem- 
ber, which contained, besides ex- 
planations of their former note, 
modifications of their former de- 
mands and concessions, which they 
concluded in advising the deputa- 
tion agaimt being led astray by the 
secret, or avowed enemies of the 
deputation, leaving to their serious 
considerations 'how unequal the 
chanco of war would be in their 
favour, into which the pernicious 
counsels which were given them 
would, it followed, necessarily 
pjunge ihem ; a war^ added they, 
in which France, besides possessing 
much more than she haa asked in 
offering peace^ would, probably, 
gain furihec advantages^ whilst the 
empire could not have a prospect 
of repairing its losses^ and would 
expioae iiself, whatever be the 
ev^ta, to very different results, in 
aU respects from those which peace 
and friendship with the French re-* 
public now o6e|:ed it. On this let* 
t^ Ibp d^matioQ debated on the 



aSthr November. They accepted 
the declaration which the French 
ministers had made, that the laws 
on emigrants >vere inapplicable to 
GerniiKS^ as wdl fcT the countries 
afrcady united to France as for 
tliose now ceded ; they agreed that 
certain islands, situated on the \c(i 
side of the navigable part of the 
Rhine, should belong to' France, 
bat insisted on the preservation of 
the island of Buderich to the em- 
pire, and refused the suppression 
of the toll of Elsfeldt. > They con- 
sented to the demand'' made by the 
French ministers respecting the 
three imporial rowns^ but refused 
to charge themselves with certain 
debts belonging to the left side of 
the Rhine, which the French re- 
fused to liquidate, and insisted 
again on Che rcHef of Ehrenbreit- 
. stein. 

The reply to these propositions 
was comprised in three articles, 
which formed part of a letter sent 
to the deputation by the French 
ministers on the a3d of Novemb':fr, 
referring continually to their f)r- 
mer note of demands on the 3d of 
October : they agreed that (he pro- 
perty of the islands in the posses- 
sion of private individuals on the 
led side of the cour^ of the navi* 
gation should be preserved to them 
on conforming to the laws j but 
that with respect to such of these 
islands as belonged to princes and 
states of the empire^ and nubles 
having votes in the diet, the sove- 
reignty and propcrtyof these islands, 
without distinction, should belong 
irrevocably to the French republic. 
That with respect to the toll of 
Elsfeldt, it was not presumable that 
the deputation were not enabled to 
decide its abolition, since they had 
alresijy decided on that of several 
tolls on the Rhine belonging tQ 
States in the empire, and that thejr 
R 4 formally 



2fii 



BRITISH AND 



ferBi»lIjjobjectod to the extei|<»ion 
vKicb tl|e dej^atation had given Ui 
ilMur proposition re^pecLuig (he 
Hon^^ppUcalJO^ of the Frepch laws 
W. emigrants from the anited and 
ceded coUntnes* The coiu:iuMjtm 
of the lercfiiref ia answer to these 
proposition]:, <w#s a*con»en^ lo th6 
cession of the rights of the em« 
pire.on.th6 k}ax^.H to the left side 
of the sBvigatio2)| but a steady f e« 
fusal ofi^tdi^ng the island of Bude- 
rjcb, of abolishing the toil of Els* 
feldt, ^nd an obstinate pei^eve* 
vance in demandirg ibenoo-appli- 
cation of the French laws on emi- 

f ration to the former countries of 
irabant and Flanders, and the. pro* 
vinces of Alsace and Lorrain, and 
also the leiief of Fhrenbreitslein, 

iFor some few weeks past this di- 
plomatic warfare had again been 
carried on with decenc)' and good- 
humour ; but the French ministers, 
ivho had discovered or imagined 
that sternness and menace had been 
occasionally good weapons to de^^ 
cide wav^ri^g minds and soften 
obdurate spirits, had once more re- 
course to theae rude expedients.— 
Every discassion, replied (he angry 
ministers, in acknowledging the 
jeceipt of the last note of (he de« 
puUtioo* is superfluous and almost 
Ijdicoloas, when the matter of dis* 
cossioD had been exhausted on both 
sides ^ when, on the side of the 
French lagaiion, condescension 
would now be a crime, snd^ on that 
of the empire, resistance is become 
8 system* JNothinf more remains 
than to state, in a few words, the 
truly republican conduct of their 
g.overnmentj and to make known 
its last intentions. 

This statement presented the 
^ French republic with all tlie advan- 
tages of victory, Aluowing aside 
every obstacle, giving full pOwera 
to conclude^ jjid aAuoas fov a 



speedy and isoltd peace, while the 
depatath)o, at opening of the coo- 
gresKS, had'jcdrcely po1^e^B*' to be- 
gin a negotiation < In taking tbe 
negotiation from its birth, they ob- 
served that tbe order of delibera- 
tion which the Frcnth roiniglws 
hadjadqjted, from iu sbnplicity 
and the clear arraugement fi( the 
subjects 'to be debated, would have 
accelerated its progress and hasten- 
ed the general rcRult, whil4 the de- 
putation, by mingling questions tbe 
most heterogeneous and complica- 
ted, had been guilty of all the delays- 
and mi^nderslandings which had 
taken place. In enumerating tlie 
concessions which the French bad 
made, they observed, that (hough 
the posse fision of the forts of Kehl 
and Cas!!el was- important asmilj^* 
ry points, yet these places had been 
abandoned ; Uiat thougli, from th« 
superiority of its arms, the French 
might have pretended to (he whole 
course of the Rhine, they bad satis- 
fied themselves witli the half, tak- 
ing the navigation for the limits | 
that the most ample conccssioas 
had been made with respect to 
transporting to tbe right aide of the 
Rhine the property of the feudal 
nobles sitaatcd on the left; that, 
in demanding the abolition of the 
tolls on the Rhioe» on the part of 
the empire, France had equally re- 
nounced all those of whidi the re* 
public was the proprietor} and 
though the republic might have 
reasonably objected to discharge 
debts contracted in a war. against 
its independence, yet consent bad 
been given that those commercial 
debts should remain to its cbaii^i 
an immense benefit, and of sucb 
imponaoce, that the French repub- 
lic would be fully justified for the 
consequences of a war to which 
she might be forced a s«oDd 

time. ,. 

After 



FOREIGN HISTORY- 



After trftotng a sketch of their 
owD Gondoct doriog ibe nc^otia- 
tionsyitbcjT began to draw the por*. 
trait of that of the deputation. la 
proportion^ they obserrcd, -as the 
French goverDmeot road<: conce»* 
sions^ the deputation of the empiro 
iocrcsoed its exertions : by appear-* 
ing (o affix the concluaioo of peboa 
with each demand, they had ob* 
laiofKl evecj- thiog firom ibe gene« 
ro»iity of the Frendi, oiore really 
aniioos to terminate hostiliciea; 
but which objects whpn obtained^ 
were only the means of making far-* 
ther redamatLofiB. Whfen Kehl and 
CasSiel were given np by the repub- 
lie, the question relating to debts 
was started ; when that article was 
settled, others weie proposed, to 
whtck it «aa impossible without a 
violaition of the French eonstitutipD^ 
to accede— ^soch was- the non^appli- 
C3lion of the iiiwa concerning emi-. 
gratloo to the united countries. To 
iosist any longer on> this part, they 
added, is an irrefragable proof that 
peace is not in the wi»hof thp depu- 
. tation» since it is made to depend 
on a thing impossible to be granted. 
That if this indisposition to peace 
was not in the hearts of the pleni* 
potentiaries of the empire, it was 
at least evident that the violent sug- 
gestions to which the deputation 
had yielded, had the same eflfect, by 
multiplying insignificant notes and 
propo^fions, and making the siit 
tings of congress endless. 

After these reooonstrancesf the 
French ministers concluded^ with 
obeerving* that these discussions 
ooght to be' ended; that since a 
whole year had been foond insuffi- 
cient to give peace to Germany, it 
was undoubtedly because other 
views had been entertained than 
those of peace ; that at that moment 
it was necessary by a formal act on 
one side, to prove the pacific perse* 



vera nee -of the Prencb goveresmt^ 
and, on theother^ to bring the pleN 
ni potentiaries of thedn^hreto ap«« 
si live explanation v that relyiDg -ott 
the prudence and homanity of ^tho 
depuration, they declared that theic 
note of the third October esptaiar* 
ed by subsequent notesdowi^totllll 
preient, was the ultimatum of tbi^ 
fVench government ; and that if i« 
thedeiay of six days»reckonif>gfW>rft 
the morrow, which was the yih oif 
December, the deputation of the 
empire hsd not given and tysnAmt- 
ted 9 categorical and satisfactorf 
answer on all the points of the saii 
note which were in contestation^ 
their powers were to cease. 

The debates of the deputation ba 
the style a«d contents of this hotter 

. were eitremely keen and violent. 
The majority of the depotatioa 
agreed unconditionally to the pro« 
positions of the French ministers^ 
The ministers of Austria, Saxony^ 
and Hanover, contended against ail 
fiirtlier cession, particularly that 
theassentbly should insist on the 
four points of the emigration, the 
toll on the Weser, the isle of Bu« 
derich, and the Fricktball: The 
two last seeing that the majority 
gave way, protested .against their 
vote, and left the chamber, that they 
might not take any part in the reso* 
luiioh. The count of Lilisbach^ 
the Austrian minister, remained, 
but entered the same protest, and 

. declared that the contingent of Aus* «, 
tria was ready to march, in order to 
protect the empire from further ag-i - 
gression* 

Theanswer remitted to thePreoch 
ministers (lOth of December) con- 
tained in substance, that having de- 
manded a categorical and definitive 
answer to their ultimatum, tbede« 
putation had been compelled to sub- 
mit their opinions, and to declare 
that they acceded to all the articles ; 

but 



208 



BRITISH AND 



Hit'dia^ iltatfifclbg this declaration* 
ibefexfttmt^ lhe?r hopes that such 
»Hi^ifA^ jtjt waoted more mature 
«kiinnt)a(Hf8/llpd further investiga- 
tion^ IvoiiiA be left Ibr definitive re- 
flation^ till the formation ot the 
sriicles of peace These conces- 
fionf mrere prefaced by expressions 
of eoneem-ftt the troputatioiM thrown 
on the deputation by the last note 
of the French ministers, charging 
them with the diificolties and de- 
lays wh'rh had hitherto attended the 
negotiatton; proteslii^g, on the con- 
trary, that they had made the niost 
ttrenoeos eiert5on« to accelerate the 
pacification, which was evidently 
proved by the sacrifices which they 
DOW confirmed. The Prussiail mi- 
nisters ^t the same time addressed a 
note to the deputation, stating that 
the king, their master, nnwilhbg to 
throw any further obstacles in the 
way of peace, by new opposition inf 
the criiical state In which the em- 
pire then stood, and expose it to 
new dangers^ acceded to the vote of 
the deputation, satisfying themselves 
with proper reserves to recommend 
likewise the interests of Priissia at 
tbeconclnsion of the peace. Thecon- 
cfu^am which wan remitted to the im- 
perial commissary was sanctioned im- 
mediately, nnwilling, as he declared 
on his part, to make any opposkibn 
tb the progress of the negotiations. 
Pe^cc with the empire was now 
a rtteasore to all appearance arranged 
and determined. The French mi- 
nisters, on receiving the adherence 
' of the deputation to their ultima- 
torn, expressed the pleasing senti* 
meats which they felt in seeing 
their confidence in the prudence and 
humanity of the deputation had 
not been deceived. As the essential 
baMs of the negotiation was their 
formal and ^titire adhesion to the 
ultimattim, ndthitig more remained 



than the appUcation of the ackoov- 
ledged principle of indemnities hj 
way of secularisation : but as this 
object deserved mature ix)Dsidcn- 
tioD before it came oodei diicns- 
sioo, they declared that they wcmtd 
in a short time presenc their pro- 
positi >ns on this head to the depu- 
tation, trusting that thr same dispo- 
sition ft>r union and dispatch voald 
attend the settlement of this pact of 
the negotiation as they had lately 
shown with regard to the basis. 

The plan of indemnity by way of 
secularisation, as it awakened eve7 
private interest, required long and 
minute eaamination. The deputa- 
tion meanwhile continued its deli- 
berations on other pointi» and de- 
creed, on the 3 1st December, that a 
note should be presented to the 
French ministers, rcquiriDg them to 
reali^ the promise which tbejrhad 
given of th^lessening the weight of 
military contribution!* on the left 
side of the Rhine, and of rising the 
siege of fihrenbreitstein, according 
to t ho agreement existing. A speedy 
and satisfactory answer Wasdenaand- 
ed to these propositions, in default of 
which a note should be givtn to the 
imperial commissary, praying bis 
imperial majesty to intervene, in or- 
der to arrive at the desired end. 
At the end ot this note thfy thank- 
ed the French ministers fof the re- 
lief which they (had given the cotm- 
try on the right side of the Rkinc, 
by the retreat of a part of the troops j 
but this article of the resolotion was 
opposed by the Austrian nritiister, 
who contended that no thanks were 
due for an act of justice whicli was 
Only then begun, and which wa» 
only the redress of an injuiy, a»> » 
conformity' to conventions passed 
•inec the armistice, every thing 
which the French government bad 
done or oxacted io the couotrlti of 

ihc 



FOB BIG N HISTORY, HSj 

the" •Loj^i^erKhlttcf^ occiipt^dbf ffae to bo pot 'ood^f dtftctitBlBii; when 

treop44^Wfif»'fl tiolalloiyofib«Qe'edii- atttfther ft^riet of propoiitknt tad 

v«DtloQs. '^ ^- rettionitftiiMi) ^especMng'tlietmrdk 

lliis opinidn wai not i<?oeded to* of Rosstatt troops, from the Fnncfa 

and the Freiidi pn>posHion» gw ilie mYfil«t«r»i divided tho MUOtioap €# 

second* bov'i of th« i^eaoe, aiki like tb4'dfcputatf6a. 
lift of ]adetiit[dtf«»i wore ' titptettd ' 



CHAP. VUJ.. 

Nfgoiisiim di Radfiadi,. ,NH£ qf Mr Frffi^ MlnUief^ an ibe Mopch ff tht 
£ttmfn9.. FoieilfihDepitMwnoftlie BmpV9fi,f Dissatisfaction of ibe French 
Mimsi09f^¥ I>eclarati^».,Qf tbs J\unch. MinifUrt to the Commifs^rj of the 
£m^frog', V^^ofibeQie^ef Matisbon. i*a$$ag€ ^f thi Rhine by the French 
Trtepi* B/epiOTtsira^Cfi^ ef, the Empire. Surremier of. Ekrenbreil stein. An- 
.itMcr if M^Qnuft of Vienna respecting the Mar^b of the Ruesian Trceps, Ds^ 
cis'td^^f the Diei. T^breats ^ JJostilitiei by the French Ministers. Cam^ 
fwgn (f NapUf' RJefuul by Cbampi^net of the Armistice offered by the 
Nea$^iuan Government, Surre/ider of the Fort of Gaeta i>» tlu MedUcr^ 
nmeetti^ Pfegeess 0f. the Left If^ing of the French Army on the Adriatic^ 
Jitfeel\of tbf Right ^Fif^ of Neapolitans, Insurrections of tie Neepolilcuu, 
Sk$fetider ^ Pesc^a*^ &efeut of the Centre of the Neapolitan Army at Pe* 
peii* £ngagement between the French and Neapolitans before Capua, Di^ 
feaijef'the Frea/ch Troopfi by the Insurgents in the Garigliano, General In-- 
SMShreUioet egemst the Ftenci, New Propositions fvr the Surrender ^f Capucs 
reused by Championet., Dis/lussed Situation of the French Army* Ma$^ 
$a€M of. the French. - Fresh Proposals for the Surrender of Capua, accepted, 
Caw/itieins of the Surrender,. Flight of the King from Naples to Siciiy* 
JHefHtiemtc^ieM h^ Ch^mpiQ^t^jo, 'the Directory of the Advantages ef- the- 
Anmuife* Inmting^ Letter of the French Directory to Championet respect-- 
img.ihe Armistice*' Stated Causes of the Conduct of the Directory, Junct* 
ti^u of the Left fF^ing iftifC French Army at Caserta. State of Parties at 
JSitfdest Desertioif^ the Neapolitan Army io the French, Escape of Ger 
neral Maekfrom Najdes- to the Fench Camp^ Arrest of Mack, by. Order 
efihe F^ncb Directoryxfit MiJarf^ La%%aroni in Possession of fisples, At^ 
iesek if the La%%Qromentbe Freneh Campy Horrors committed 1^ lis Lck%* 
vsare