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^T^HIS work is produced witli the design of providing accurate and autliori- 
I tative information concerning the natural history of the various canine 
breeds, and my aim has been to present the information in popular 
form and in orderly sequence, adequately illustrated with portraits of 
typical examples of all the known varieties of the domesticated dog, British 
and foreign. 

The popularitv of the dog as an assistant in the pursuit of game, as the 
object of a pleasurable hobby, and as a faithful companion, has never been 
so great as it is at the present period. More dogs are kept in this country 
than ever there formerly were, and they are more skilfully bred, more kindly 
treated, and cared for with a more solicitous pride than was the case in earlier 
generations. It would be difficult in the absence of statistics to estimate with 
precision the number of dogs kept in the British Isles ; but the Inland Revenue 
return for licences in 1906-7 for England and \\'ales was £603,400, and as 
each licence costs 7s. 6d., this would mean that there were at the least 
1,809,000 dogs for which the ta.x was paid. In the same proportion to the 
l)Oj)ulation one may add another 800,000 for Ireland and Scotland. But 
there are exemptions for certain working dogs and for all puppies, while 
for manv the payment of the tax is surreptitioush' evaded or never col- 
lected. It would be well within the margin of probability, therefore, to state 
that there are over four millions of dogs in Great Britain and Ireland, or that 
thev are in the proportion of one to every ten of the human inhabitants. 
Another indication of our national love for the dog is given in the increasing 
number of competitive shows held under Kennel Club Rules at the \-arious 
centres of population. During 1906 as many as 424 separate dog shows were 
held throughout the country-, the owners of the canine exhibits representing 
all classes of the community, from their ^lajesties the King and Queen down 
to the humblest of their subjects. One can nowadays seldom enter a dwelling 
in which the dog is not recognised as a member of the family, and it is notice- 
able that the family dog is becoming less of a mongrel and more of a distin- 
guishable and accredited breed. 

I think I may claim that in the following pages no breed of importance has 
been omitted from consideration. Each of the more prominent varieties has 
been carefully and sufficienth' dealt with by a writer of acknowledged authority, 
witliout whose assistance the work could not ha\e been satisfactorily performed. 
1 desire cordially to express my indebtedness to those who have rendered me 


tlicir ])ractical helji : to Mr. E. \\'. Jaquet, the energetic Secretary of the Kennel 
Club, for \-aluable advice most courteously given, and not less to Mr. V. Gresliam, 
Mr. \V. J. Stubbs, ]\Ir. G. S. Lowe, ^Ir. Francis Redmond, the Re\-. Hans 
Hamilton, Mr. George Raper, Mr. Handley Spicer, and Count Heni-i de B\ianclt, 
for suggestions which I have adopted. ]\Iy particular tlianks are due to the 
experts on the different breeds for the conscientious thoroughness with which 
they have dealt with the subjects assigned to them. Their names are appended 
to the chapters the}' have written. In many instances I am afraid that I 
ha\'e taken what they may consider undue editorial liberties with their material ; 
but where I lia\'e altered, excised, or amjilified, it has mainlv been with the 
])ur])Ose of bringing the various chapters into literary harmony and proportion, 
and I have been careful not to distort facts or misrepresent opinions. 

I prefer to let the reader discover for liimself the chajiters which are of 
especial imjiortance, but I am perhaps justihed in referring to 'Sir. Walter 
Glynn's section on canine laws as the most exhausti\-e treatise on tlie legal 
status of the dog that has yet been compiled, and I think I do not mistake 
in regarding the section dealing with the dogs of foreign lands as unique in its 
comjileteness. In this connection I desire to acknowledge mv obligations to 
the generous helji of .Mr. H. C. Brooke, whose intimate familiarity with rare 
exotic breeds is j)erliaps unequalled. 

For the selection of the illustrations I am myself wholly responsible. In 
a large proportion of cases the specimens depicted are well-known examj^les 
of their resuective breeds or varieties ; but because a dog's jiortrait appears 
in illustration he is not necessarily to be accepted as a superlative and faultless 
individual. I consider it enough if he is t^'pical of his kind. Obviously, the 
labour of collecting so many hundreds of canine portraits has been no light one ; 
but my requests ha\'e usually been met with a ready response from the many 
dog owners at home and abroad who have kindly favoured me with photo- 
graphs, or with the loan of pictures, or who have as kindly allowed the artists 
to jiaint portraits of their dogs for reproduction in the series of colour plates. 


Loudon, Oct obey, 1907. 



ABC GUIDE TO CAXIXE AILMENTS. By \V. Gordon Stables, M.D., CM., R.N. 594 

AIREDALE TERRIER. THE. By Walter S. Glynn 355 


AUSTRAL.\SIA. DOGS OF. By The Editor 470 

BASSET-HOUND, THE. By Mrs. C. C. Ellis 300 

BEAGLE, THE. By G. S. Lowe 228 

BEDLINGTON TERRIER. THE. By Harold Warnes 363 


BLACK-AND-TAN terrier, the MINIATURE. By F. C. Hignett . . .463 

BLOODHOUND. THE. By Howard Handley Spicer 140 

BORZOI. THE. By Major S. P. Borman 180 

BOSTON TERRIER. THE. By The Editor 334 

BOULEDOGUE FRAN'CAIS. By F. W. Cousens. M.R.C.V.S., F.Z.S 57 


BRUSSELS GRIFFON. THE. By Mrs. H. Handley Spicer 456 

BULLDOG, THE. By W. J. Stubbs 33 

BULLDOG. THE MINI.\Tl'RE. By The Lady K.\thleen Pilkington ... 52 

BULL-TERRIER. THE. By The Editor 329 

BULL-TERRIER, THE TOY. By The Lady Evelyn Ew.\rt 465 


CANINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY. By W. Gordon Stables, M.D., CM., R.N. 585 


CHOW-CHOW. THE. By Mrs. B. F. Moore 124 

CLYDESDALE TERRIER, THE. By Capt. W. Wilmer 414 

COLLIE, THE. By James C Dalgleish 98 




DACHSHUND, THE. By John E. S.wer . 

DALMATIAN, THE. By E. C. Hignett . 

DANDIE DINMONT, THE. By E. \V. H. Bl.\gg . 

DEERHOUND, THE. By Robert Leighton . 

DOG AND THE LAW. THE. B>y W.vlter S. Glynn 








FO.X-TERRIER, THE SMOOTH. By Desmond O'Connell 
FRENCH BULLDOG, THE. }\y F. W. Cousens. M.R.C.\.S., F.Z.S. 



GREAT DANE, THE. By E. B. Jo.\(H1M .... 

GREYHOUND, THE. By Fked'- Gresh.\m .... 
GREYHOUNDS. ORIENTAL. By The Hon. Florence Amherst 

HAIRLESS DOGS. P>y The Editor 

HARRIER. THE. 1!y The L.\dy Giin-oRD, M.H. 


IRISH TERRIER, THE. By Robert Leighton 


IRISH WOLFHOUND. THE. By Fked'^- Gkesh.\m 


JAPANESE SPANIEL, THE. By Miss M.arie Serena .... 


KENNEL CLUB, THE. By E. W. J.\quet 

KING CHARLES SPANIEL, THE. By Mrs. Lydi.\ E. Jenkins . 

LABRADOR RETRIEVER. THE. By F. E. Schofield .... 
L.WV. THE DOG AND THE. By \V.\lter S. Glynn .... 

MALTESE DOG, THE. By The Editor 

^L\STIFF. THE ENGLISH. By W. K. T.mnton .... 

MEDICINE AND SURGERY, CANINE. By \V. Gordon St.\bles, M.D., CM. 
MIXLVHT^E bulldog, the. By the L.\dy K.\thleen Pilkington . 



NEWFOUNDLAND, THE. By Captain J. H. Bailey .... 

ORIENTAL GREYHOUNDS. By The Hon. Florence Amherst 
OTTERHOUND, THE. By George S. Lowe 


PAISLEY TERRIER. THE. By Captain W. Wilmer 
PEKINESE. THE. By The L.xdy Algernon Gordon-Lennon 

POINTER. THE. By G. S. Lowe 

POMERANIAN. THE. By G. M. Hicks .... 
POODLE. THE. By Leonard W. Croich, LL.B. 
PUG, THE. By Fred*'' Gresham ..... 

1 60 









1 28 




RHTRIE\ER. THE. By L. P. C. Astlev 


SCHIPPERKE. THE. By E. B. Joachim . ... 


SETTER, THE. By F. C. Higxett 

SKYE TERRIER. THE. By Captaix W. Wilmer . 
SMOOTH FOX-TERRIER, THE. By Desmoxd O'Coxxell 
SPANIEL, THE KING CHARLES. By Mrs. Lydia E. Jexkixs 



ST. BERNARD. THE. By Fred'- Gresham 




TOY BULL-TERRIER. THE. By The L.vdy Evely 


X E\V 

^\■ELSH HOUND. THE. By G. S. Lowe 
WELSH TERRI]-:R. THE. By Walter S. Glyxx 
WHIPPET, THE. By F. C. Higxett 
WOLFHOUND. THE IRISH. By Fred'< Gresham 

D. Malcolm, C. 

P. Bormax 



THE BLOODHOUND, Ch. HEXGIST. From the Painting by Lilian Cheviot Froii/ispiece 

>L\STIFF BITCH, Ch. ELGIVA. From the Painting by J. D. Redworth . To face p. 22 

THE BULL BITCH. Ch. SILEXT DUCHESS. From the Painting by Fr.^nces 

C. F.\IRM.\N ............ ,, 48 


by LiLi.\x Che\iot ........... ,, 65 

COLLIE. The Rev. Haxs F. Hamilton's WOOD.AIAXSTERXE DEREK. From 

the Painting by Lilian Cheviot . . . . . . . . ,. 106 

FOUR CHAMPION CHOW-CHOWS, owned by Mrs. Scaramanga. From the 

Painting by M.\ud E.\rl . . . . . . . . . 124 

BORZOI, Ch. IVAX TURGEXEFF. From the Painting by Maud Earl . • , . i5'4 

THE GREVHOUXD BITCH, AGE OF GOLD. From the Painting by Lilian 

Cheviot ............. ,, 196 


Painting by G. Paice . . . . . . . . . . ,, 210 

EXGLISH SETTER. MALLWVD XED. From the Painting by Lilian Cheviot . „ 242 


Painting by Maud Earl .......... ,, 253 


the Painting by Lili.^n Cheviot ........ ,, 2S4 


BOWTDLER, and SUSAX BOWDLER. From the Painting by Lilian Cheviot ,, 29S 

DACHSHUXD, EARL SATIX. From the Painting by Lilian Cheviot . . ,. jo8 


From the Painting by .Arthur Wardle ....... ,, 342 


From the Painting by Lilian Cheviot ....... ,, 378 


FAXXY. From the Painting by Arthur Wardle ..... ,. 404 

Thrf.e of Mrs. Hall Walker's PO.MERAXIAXS : Ch. DAIXTY BOY, Ch. 
From the Painting by Maud Earl ........ ., 426 

Painting by Frances C. F.-mrman ........ ,, 438 


by Lilian Cheviot .......... -,1 44*5 


Painting by G. Vernon-Stokes . . . . . . „ 460 


I.v writing and speaking of dogs the expert is accustomed to use terms and phrases 
not commonlv understood by the inexperienced. The following glossary includes most 
of these, alphabetically arranged for reference : — 

Amateur Exhibitors are persons who attach 
themselves 1o certain breeds, ami have bred or 
sxhibiteJ them, or intend to do so, as disthict 
from Professional Exhibitors, who get together 
a team of show dogs of any breed which seems 
advantageous, and take them round from show 
to show lor no other purpose th.m winning prize- 

Apple-headed. — This term implies that the 
skull is round instead of tlal on the top, as in the 
Toy Spaniel and the Toy Black-and-Tan. 

Apron. — The frill or long coat below the neck 
of the Collie, Skye Terrier, I^omcranian, and other 
long-haired dogs. 

Awards. — The following is the order of Awards 
at all Dog Shows : — 

First, Second, and Third. IMoney prizes. 

Reserve. Equal to Fourth, and taking the 
place of third, should any objection be proved 
against any of the higher winners. 

V.H.C. X'ery highly commended. 

H.C. Highly commended. 

C. Commended. 

Bat-eared. — Ears held erect like those of the 
but Prominent in the Bouledogue francais. 

Beefy. — .\pplied to a Bulldog when its hind- 
(juarlcrs are too large and beefv. 

Belton (Blue and Lemon). — .V word applie<l to 
flecked Laverock Setters. 

Blaze. — .\ white mark up the face and between 
the eyes. Scottice : bawsent. 

Breeching. — The tan-coloured hairs at the 
back of the thighs of a Black-and-Tan Terrier, 
Setter, or Collie. 

Breeder. — The Breeder is the owner of a bitch 
at the time of whelping, or a person to whom she 
is lent, or leased, for breeding purposes. 

Breeds. — The following is the Kennel Club's 
Classification of Breeds in the Sporting and 
Non-sporting Divisions : — — Bloodhounds, Otterhounds, Fox- 
hounds, Harriers, Beagles, Basset Hounds, 
Dachshunds, Greyhounds, Deerhounds, Bor- 
zois, Irish Wolfhounds, Whippets, Pointers, 
Setters, Retrie\ers, Labradors, Spaniels, Fox- 
terriers, Irish Terriers, Scottish Terriers, 
Welsh Terriers, Dandic Dinmont Terriers, 

Skve Terriers, .\iredale Terriers, Bedling- 
ton Terriers. 
Kox-Sporting. — Bulldogs. Bulldogs (^Miniature), 
Mastiffs. Great Danes, Newfoundlands, St. 
Bernards, Collies, Old English Sheep Dogs, 
Dalmatians, Poodles, Bull - terriers. White 
English Terriers, Black-and-Tan Terriers, Tov 
Spaniels, Japanese, Pekinese, Yorkshire Ter- 
riers, Clydesdale Terriers, Maltese, Italian 
Greyhounds, Black-and-Tan Terriers (ilinia- 
ture), Lhasa Terriers, Chow Chows, Pome- 
ranians, Pugs, Schipperkes, Griffons Bruxellois, 
Foreign Dogs not included in the above list 
(whether Sporting or Xon-sporting). 
Brisket. — The lower part of the bodv in front of 
the chest and between the arms. 

Broken-up Face.^Applied generally to the 
face of the Bulldog, Pug, and Toy Spaniel, and 
includes the wrinkle, the receding nose, and deep 

Brush. — A term applied to a tail that is heavv 
with hair, as that of the Collie and of the St. 

Butterfly Nose. — -V nose that is mottled, or 
showing spots of skin colour. 

Button Ear. — .\n ear that drops over in front, 
co\ering the inner cavity, as in the Fox-terrier, 
Irish Terrier, and Pointer. 

Cat Foot. —A short, round foot, with the knuckles 
high and well developed, as in the Grevhound. 

Challenge Certificate. — \n aw-ard given to a 
dog. or bitch, winning the First Prize in the 
Open Class at a Championship Show. The dog 
is presumed to have challenged all comers, and 
its ])roveil merit is acknowledged by the certifi- 

Championship. — The title "Champion" is given 
to a dog winning three challenge certificates, 
under three different judges, at three different 

Character. — Showing the points of the breed 
which the specimen is meant to represent. 
Cheeky. — Thick in the cheeks. 
Chest. — The chest of a dog is not what manv 
persons speak of as breast, or chest. It extends 
beneath him. from the brisket to the belly 
Chop. — The fore-face of the Bulldog. 


Classes at Kennel Club Shows : — 

Oi'EX Classes. — Open to all, no prize-winners 

being debarred from competing. 
Limit Cl.\sses. — For dogs which have not won 
more than six First Prizes at Shows held under 
K.C. Rules in such classes as are eligible 
for free entry in the K.C. Stud Book. 
XoviCE Cl..\sses. — For dogs which have not 
won a First Prize at a Show held under 
K.C. Rules in any class w-here the First Prize 
is £2 or more. Wins in Puppy, Local, Mem- 
bers', or Selling classes excepted. 
Speci.vl Novice Classes. — For dogs w-hich 
have not won a First Prize at a Show held 
under K.C. Rules in such classes as are 
eligible for free entry in the K.C. Stud Book. 
Maiden" Classes. — For dogs which have not 
won a First, Second, or Third Prize at a Show 
held under K.C. Rules. Wins in Puppy, 
Local, Members', and Selling excepted. 
Junior Classes. — For dogs under iS months. 
Breeders' Classes. — -For dogs or bitches which 

are bred by exhibitor. 
Puppv Classes. — For dogs over three and 

under twelve months old. 
Litter Classes. — For Litters (not less than 

two) under three months old. 
Selling Classes. — For dogs entered to be 
sold at a price not exceeding the limit named. 
Br.\ce. — For two dogs (either sex or mixed) 
of one brceil, each to be entered iu some 
other class than Brace or Team. 
Team. — For three or more dogs (either sex 
or mixed) of one breed, each to be entered 
in some other class than Brace or Team. 
Stud Dog .\nd Brood Bitch Classes. — To be 
judged on merits of progen}'^ only. The 
Stud Dog or Brood Bitch must be present at 
the Show. 
Cobby. — Well ribbed up ; short and compact 
in iiroportion. like a cob horse. 

Comb Fringe. — The hair that droops or hangs 
down from the tail of a Setter. 

Corky. — Compact and alert looking. 
Couplings. — The body of a dog between the 
limbs. The term denotes the proportionate 
length of a dog, which is spoken of as being 
short or long -in the couplings." 

Cow-hocked. — The hocks turning inward, giving 
an ungainly appearance to the hind legs. This 
is a serious fault in a dog, and especially so in 
the larger breeds. 

Crest. — The upper arch of a dog's neck, usually 
applied to sporting dogs. 

Cropping. — A cruel practice, obsolete in this 
country since 1895, by which a dog's ears were 
cut in order to make them stand erect and 

Calotte. — The feathery hair on the thighs of a 
Pomeranian or a Schipperkc. 

Cushion. — The swelling in the upper lips of a 
Bulldog, or Afastiff, which gives them an appear- 
ance of fulness. 

Dewclaw. — An extra claw and rudimentary 
toe fountl occasionally on the inside of the 
lower portion of the hind leg of many dogs, 
especially the St. Bernard and other mountain 
breeds. They are usually removed with a strong 
pair of scissors. This operation is best performed 
in puppyhood, when the dam's tongue will soon 
heal the wound. 

Dewlap. — The loose, pendulous skin under 
a dog's chin ; prominent in the Bloodhound. 

Dish-faced. — .\ depression in the nasal bone 
which makes the nose higher at the tip than at 
the stop. 

Docking. — The cutting or shortening of a 
dog's tail. The Spaniel's tail is docked to pre- 
\'ent injury to it when hunting in co^•crts and 
thick undergrowths. The operation should be 
performed in very early puppyhood, the hair 
being pulled well back towards the rump and about 
one-half of the tail being taken olf with a pair 
of strong scissors. It was formerly the practice 
to bite the tail off with the teeth to prevent 

Down-faced. — When the nasal bone inclines 
downward towards the point of the nose. 

Draft. — To remove hounds from a kennel, or 

Drop Ear. — The same as button ear, but hang- 
ing close to the cheeks. 

Dudley Nose. — A flesh-coloured nose. 

Elbow. — The joint at the top of the fore-arm. 

Elbows Out. — Referred to a dog whose elbows 
are not close to the bod}', as in the Bulldog. 

Enter. — To train a sporting dog for his future 
work. Young hounds when first put into a pack 
are said to be entered. 

Faking or Trimming. — A common but dis- 
honest practice performed on a dog to make 
him appear better than ho actually is. There are 
special rules of the Kennel Club which deal 
with this matter of the preparation of dogs for 
exhibition, viz : — 

A dog shall be disqualified frour winning a 
a prize, or from receiving one, if awarded, 
at any Show held under Kennel Club Rules 
save and except in such cases as are specified 
hereunder, under the head " Exceptions," if 
it be proved to the Committee of the Show: 

1. That any dye, colouring, whitening, or 
darkening matter has been used and remains 
on any part of the dog. 

2. That any preparation, chemical or othcrwiso 
has been used, which remains on the coat 



during the time of the exhibition, for tlic 
purpose of altering its texture. 
^. That any oil, grcasv or sticky substance has 
been used and reniains in the coat during 
time of exhibition. 

4. That any part of a dog's coat or hair has 
been cut, clipped, singed, or rasped down 
by any substance. 

5. That the new or fast coat has been removed 
by pulling or plucking in any manner. 

Note. — The coat may be brushed and 
combed, so that old or shedding coat 
and loose hairs may be removed. 

6. That if any cutting, piercing, breaking by 
force, or any kind of operation or act which 
destroys tissues of the ears or alters their 
natural formation or carriage, or shortens 
the tail, or alters the natural formation of the 
dog, or any part thereof has been practised, 
or any other thing has been done calculated 
in the opinion of the Committee of the Kennel 
Club to deceive, except in cases of necessary 
operation certified to the satisfaction of the 
Kennel Club Committee. 

7. That the lining membrane of the mouth 
has been cut or mutilated in any way. 
Exceptions : — 

1. Shortening the tails of dogs of the following 
breeds will not render them liable to dis- 
qualific?.tion : — Spaniels (except Irish \\'atcr), 
Fox-terriers, Irish Terriers, Welsli Terriers, 
Airedale Terriers, Old English Sheepdogs, 
Poodles, Toy Spaniels, Yorkshire Terriers, 
Schipperkes, Griffons Bruxellois, and such 
varieties of foreign dogs as the Committee 
may from time to time determine. 

2. Dogs of the following breeds may ha\e 
their coats clipped : — Poodles. 

3. Dcwclaws may be removed in any breed. 

4. Dogs with cars cropped prior to yth .\pril, 

Fall. — The loose long overhanging hair over the 
face of a Yorkshire, Skye, or Clydesdale Terrier. 

Feather. — The fringe of hair at the back of 
the legs, as in the Setter and Spaniel. It is also 
applied to the body all over in long-luiircd breeds 
like Collies and Newfoundlands. 

Felted. — Matted, as applied to coat. 

Fiddle-headed. — A long, gaunt, wolfish head, 
as seen in some Mastiffs. 

Field Trials. — Competitions instituted for the 
improvement of sporting dogs — Pointers, Setters, 
and Spaniels in particular. Retriever trials were run 
at \'aynol Park in 1871-2, but were discontinued 
until 1906, when they were resumed under the 
auspices of the Kennel Club. 

Flag. — A term for the tail applied to Setters 
Ketricvers, etc. 

Flews. — The chaps, or pendulous lips of the- 
uppcr jaw. The lips at the inner comers. 

Frill. — The feather or beautiful mass of hair 
projecting from the throat of a long-coated dog, 
notably the Collie and the Setter. 

Frog Face. — Applied to a Bulldog whose nose 
is too prominently forward. 

Grizzle. — .Vn iron grey colour. 

Hare-foot. — A long, narrow foot carried well, 

Harlequin, — Mottled, pied, or patchy in colour, 
as in some of the Great Danes. 

Haw. — An inner eyelid or nienthraiui uidilaiia- 
more developed in some dogs than in others. It 
is usually the colour of the iris, but red in many 
hounds. It should never be cut unless diseased. 

Height of a Dog. — The perpendicular measure- 
ment from the top of the shoulder blade to the 

Hocks. — The joints between the pasterns ar.d; 
the upper part of the hind legs. 

Hound Shows are those consisting exclusively 
of all, or any, of the following breeds : — Fox- 
hounds, Staghounds, Otterhounds, Bloodhounds, 
Ilarricra. and Beagles. 

Huckle Bones. — The tops of the hip joints. 

In the Money. — A jihrasc used to indicate 
that a show dog has taken an award higher than 

Kink Tail. — .\ tail with a single kink, or break 
in il. 

Kissing Spots. — The spots on the chcok.s of some 
Toys and others ; as the mole on the cheek of 
the Pug. 

Knee. — The joints attaching the fore pasterns 
and the forearms. 

Layback. — The receding nose of a Pug, Bulldog, 
or Tiiv Spaniel. 

Leather. — The skin of the ear, most frequently 
used 111 reference to the ear of the Bloodhound 
^md Dachshund. 

Level-jawed. — Term applied to a dog whose 
teeth meet e\-enly, and whose jaws are neither 
overshot nor undershot . 

Lippy. — A term applied to the hanging lips of 
dogs where such should not exist. 

Lumber. — A superfluity of flesh, heavy and 

Mask. — This phrase is frequently used when 
speaking or writing of the dark muzzle of the 
Mastiff, and some other breeds. 

Merle. — .\ bluish-grey colour with black inter- 

Occiput. — The prominent bone at the back 
or top of the skull, which gives the dome shape to 
the head of the Bloodhound. It is from the back 
of this prominence that the length of the head is 


Overshot. — Ha\ing the front upper teeth pro- 
jecting o\er the lower. This fault in excess is 
said to make the dog pig-jawed. 

Pad. — The thickened protuberance on the sole 
of a dog's foot. 

Pastern. — The lowest section of the leg below 
the knee, or hock, respectively. 

Pencilling. — The dark lines divided by streaks 
of tan on the toes of a Black-and-tan terrier. 

Pig- jawed. — An exaggeration of an overshot 

Pily. — .\ peculiar quality of coat consisting of 
two kinds of hair, the one soft and woolly, the 
other long and win,-. 

Plume. — The tail of the Pomeranian. 

remain in quarantine for a period of six months. 
This regulation was instituted with the purpose 
of excluding animals infected with rabies. 

Racy. — Slight in build, long in the legs, as the 
Greyhound and Whippet. 

Recognised Shows. — Recognised shows are those 
held under Kennel Club Rules, or otherwise by 
permission of the Kennel Club Committee. Un- 
recognised shows are all other shows, and exhibits 
at these become disqualified for entry at any 
shows held under pennission of the Kennel Club. 

Registration. — Before being exhibited at a 
Recognised Show a dog must be registered at 
the Kennel Club on forms supplied for the pur- 
pose, upon which particulars as to the dog's name, 

1. Nose. 

2. Xasal Bone. 

3. Stop. 
4- Skull. 

5. Occiput. 

6. Muzzle. 


7. Neck. ] 

8. Shoulder. 

9. Top of the Shoulder. 
ID. Elbow. 

11. Forearm. 

12. Knee. 

13. Pastern. 

14. Chest. 
i^. Top of Hip Joint. 

16. Hock. 

17. Stern. 

18. Stifle Joint. 

Puppy. — A puppy is a dog under twelve months 
old, dating from and including the date of its 

Quarantine. — All dogs brought into Great 
Britain from abroad are compelled by law to 

pedigree, date of birth and ownership, are entered. 
The fee for such registration is 2s. 6d. The 
last transfer of ownership of a registered dog since 
it was last exhibited must be registered anew prior 
to exhibition by a new owner. 


Roach Back. — A back that is arched along tlic 
si)iiic, ami csiJeeially towards the hindquarters. 

Rose Ear. — An car which folds backward, re- 
vealing the inner bnrr of the ear, desirable in the 
Bulldog, the Greyhound, and the Borzoi. 

Rounding. -The trimming of a hound's ears in 
order to jjrotect them from being torn by gorse. 
The long tills of the ears are cut off with a half- 
moon iron. In many kennels the operation of 
roui\ding has been abolished. 

Septum.- The division between the nostrils. 

Shelly. ".\ thin, narrow body, such as that of the 

Shoulder.- -The top of the shoulder blade, the 
point from which the height of a dog is measured. 

Sickle Hocks. — When the hind legs of a dog sho\\ 
a bend at the stifle and are well let do\\-n, they arc 
said to have sickledrocks. The sickle-hock is a 
in<-rit in the Greyhound, and the Collie, and, 
indeed, in all dogs in which speed is a desideratum. 

Sickle Tail. — A tail willi .m upward curve above 
the level of the back. 

Snipy-jawed. — .\ dog's muzzle when long, narrow 
a!id [leaked . 

Spread. -The width between the armi of the 

Spring. — Round or well sprung ribs. 

Stern. — The tail of a sporting dog, particularly 
of the Foxhound. 

Stifle. "The joint in a dog's hind leg next the 
buttock ; correspor.dnig with the knee joint in the 
human leg. 

Sting. -.-\. tail which tapers to a fine point, as in 
the Irish Water Spaniel, and the Bedlington Terrier. 

Stop. — The depression just in front of the eyes 
between the skull proper and the nasal bone. It 
is most obvious in Bulldogs, Pugs, and short-faced 

Throatiness.— .\pplied to the loose skin about 
the throat wlrere none should exist, as in the 

Thumb Marks. — The circular black spots on 
the forelegs of a Black and Tan Terrier. 

Timber. — Bone. 

Trace.- The ilark mark down ihe back of a 

Tricolour — Black, tan, and white. 

Topknot. — The long fluffy hair on the top of the 
head of an Irish Water Spaniel. Dandic Dinmont, 
and Bedlington. 

True Arm. --The upper part of the foreleg, 
contrasted with the lower, which is also known 
as the forearm. 

True Thigh. — The upper part of the hind leg. 

Tucked-up.- -Tucked up loin as in the Borzois 
,ind Grevhounds. 

Tulip Ear. — \n elevated or prick ear, as in some 
of the Toy Terriers. This ear is not desirable in 
any variety of sporting dog. 

Turn-up. — The projecting, turncd-up chin of a 

Undershot. — The lower incisor teeth projecting 
beyond the upper, as in Bulldogs. This defonnitv 
in a terrier is a disqualification in the prize- 

■Vent. — The tan-coloured hair under the tail. 

Walking. — The owners of packs of hounds are 
in the habit of sending out puppies and young 
dogs to be nurtured and trained by neighbouring 
farmers and cottagers, who give them the indi- 
vidual attention which they might not receive 
in the home kennels. This is called " walking." 

Wall Eye. — -V blue mottled eye, frequently 
occurring in the Sheepdog. 

Well sprung. — Nicely rounded. 

Wheiten. — A pale, yellowish colour. 

Wire-haired. — The harsh, crisp coat in rough- 
haired terriers. Commonly used to distinguish 
the long-haired varieties of dogs that are smooth 
coated, even when the hair is not roagh. 

Wrinkle. -The loosely-folded skin over the skull 
of a Bloodhound, St. Bernard, or BuUdo". 


fi'toto^raph by C. Rc\d, Wiihaw. 





" Then said he to Tobias, Prepare thyself for the journey, and God send you a good 
journey. And when his son had prepared all things for the journey, his father said. Go 
thou with this man, and God, which dwelleth in Heaven, prosper your journey, and 
the angel of God keep you company. So they went forth both, and the young man's dog 
with them." — Tobit v. i6. 

I. — The Dog in Prehistoric Times. — In the 
Academy at Brussels there is a dehghtful 
picture by Breughel representing the Gar- 
den of Eden, in which the artist has intro- 
duced a rough Skye-terrier lying con- 
tentedly curled at the feet of Adam and 
Eve. This is a stretch of the probabilities ; 
no dog of a recognisable breed lived at a 
time so remote. There is. however, n o 
incongruity in the idea that in t he ver y 
earliest period of man's habitation of this 
world he made a friend and com pamori^f 
some sort^of aboriginal reprc scntat h'e of 
our modern dog, and that in r e turn for its 
aid iiL protecting him from wilder_animals, 
and perhaps in guarding his sheep a nd 

goa ts, he gave it^^jhare-QjLhis,food^ comer 
in his dwelling, and gr ew to trust it an3 
care, f or it . 

There is ample evidence to prove the 
existence of a semi-domestic dog in pre- 
historic times. Probably the animal was 
originally little else than an unusually 
gentle jackal, or an ailing wolf driven by 
its companions from the wild marauding 
pack to seek shelter in alien surroundings. 
One can well conceive the possibiHty of 
the partnership beginning in the circum- 
stance of some helpless whelps being brought 
home by the early hunters and being after- 
ward tended and reared by the women and 
children. The present-day savage of New 


was used as a watch-dog ; and several 
varieties are referred to in the cuneiform 
inscriptions preserved in the British Museum. 
The Egyptian monuments of about 3000 
B.C. present many forms of the domestic 
dog, and there can be no doubt that among 
the ancient Egyptians it was as completely 
a companion of man, as much a favourite 
in tlie house, and a help in the chase, as 
it is among ourselves at present. In the 


city of Cynopolis it was reverenced next to 
the sacred Jackal,* and on the death of a dog 
the members of the household to which 
he had belonged carefully shaved their 
whole bodies, and religiously abstained from 
using the food, of whatever kind, which 
happened to be in the house at the time. 
Among tlie distinct breeds kei)t in Egypt 
there was a massive wolf-dog, a large, 
heavily-built hound with drooping ears and 
a pointed head, at least two varieties of 
Greyhound used for hunting the gazelle, 
and a small breed of terrier or Turnspit, 
with short, crooked legs. This last appears 
to have been regarded as an especial house- 
hold pet, for it was admitted into the 
living rooms and taken as a companion 
for walks out of doors. It was furnished 
with a collar of leaves, or of leather, or 
precious metal wrought into the form of 
leaves, and when it died it was embalmed. 
Every town throughout Egypt had its 
place of interment for canine mummies. 

*Petrie's "Religions of Ancient Egypt," and 
Weidermann's " Religions of the Egyptians." 

It is in connection with the sojourn of 
the Israelites in Egypt that the first men- 
tion of the dog in the Bible occurs, and 
one is led to the inference that the detesta- 
tion with which the Hebrews regarded the 
dog may have been due to its being an 
object of adoration to the Egyptians. This 
reason alone can hardly have had much 
weight, however, in view of the fact that 
the Hebrews themselves kept oxen — animals 
which were regularly worshipped by the 
Egyptians ; but possibly there were other 
more cogent reasons why the dog was not 
appreciated in Palestine. It may be that 
the Israelites had the misfor- 
tune only to know this friend 
of man in tlie character 
of a pariah and a scavenger 
that fed on offal and the 
bodies of people who died in 
the streets (i Kings xiv. ii). 
Certain it is that in both the 
Old and New Testaments the 
dog is commonly spoken of 
with scorn and contempt as 
an " unclean beast." " Is thy 
servant a dog, that he should do this thing ? " 
was a phrase in which the ancient Jew ex- 
pressed his abhorrence of dirty work. Dogs 
seem to have been bought and sold, but the 
price paid for a dog was not acceptable as an 
offering to God (Deut. xxiii. i8). Even the 
familiar reference to the Sheepdog in the Book 
of Job — " But now they that are younger 
than I have me in derision, whose fathers 
I would have disdained to set with the 
dogs of my flock " — is not without a 
suggestion of contempt, and it is significant 
that the onlv' biblical allusion to the dog 
as a recognised companion of man occurs 
in the apocryphal Book of Tobit (v. i6). 

The pagan Greeks and Romans had a 
kindlier feeling for dumb animals than had 
the Jews. Their hounds, like their horses, 
were selected with discrimination, bred 
with care, and held in high esteem, re- 
ceiving pet names ; and the literatures of 
Greece and Rome contain many tributes 
to the courage, obedience, sagacity, and 
affectionate fidelity of the dog. The 
Phoenicians, too, were unquestionably lovers 


of the dog, quick to recognise the points 
of special breeds. In tlieir colony in Car- 
thage, during the reign of Sardanapalus, 

1 34.40 3_' 






In the litithh Museum. 

they had alread\' possessed themselves of 
the Assx'rian Mastiff, which thej' probably 
exported to far-off Britain, as they arc 
said to have exported the Water Spaniel 
to Ireland and to Spain. 

II. — The Ferine Strain. — It is a significant 
circumstance when we come to consider 
the probable origin of the dog that there 
are indications of his domestication at 
such early periods by so many savage 
peoples in different parts of the world. 
As we have seen, dogs were more or less 
subjugated and tamed by primitive man 
in the Neolithic or Newer Stone age, b}' 
the Assyrians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, 
Greeks, and Romans, as also by the ancient 
barbaric tribes of the western hemisphere. 
The important question now arises : Had 
all these dogs a common origin in a definite 
parent stock, or did they spring from 
separate and unrelated parents ? Did the 
great Neolithic dog of Northern Europe, 
the Sheepdog of Job's time, the Grey- 
hounds, the Wolfliounds, and Lapdogs of 
Egypt and Nineveh, the Mastiffs of Car- 
thage, the divinely honoured animals of 
Peru, and the pariah dogs of the Far East, 

descend from a single pair, or have various 
wild and indigenous species of Canidce been 
methodically tamed, and by degrees con- 
verted into true domestic dogs bj^ tliese differ- 
ent peoples in different parts of the world ? 

Half a century ago it was believed that 
all the evidence wliich could be brought 
to bear upon the problem pointed to an 
independent origin of the dog. It was 
assumed that, as distinct breeds existed in 
remote periods of the world's history, there 
was actually no time prior to tliose periods 
for him to have been evolved from a savage 
ancestor such as a wolf or a jackal, and 
that it was higlily unlikely that a number 
of isolated primitive races of -men should 
have separately tamed different wild CanidcB. 
Youatt, one of the best authorities on the 
dog, writing in 1845, argued that " this 
power of tracing back the dog to the very 
earliest periods of history, and the fact 
that he then seemed to be as sagacious, 
as faithful, and as valuable as at the present 
day, strongly favours the opinion that he 
was descended from no inferior and com- 
parati\Tly worthless animal ; and that he 


was not the progeny of the wolf, the jackal, 
or the fox, but was originally created, 
somewhat as we now find him, the asso- 
ciate and friend of man." 

When Youatt wrote, most people believed 


that the world was only six thousand 
years old, and that species were originally 
created and absolutely unchangeable. Lyell's 
discoveries in geology, however, overthrew 
the argument of the earth's chronology and 
of the antiquity of man, and Darwin's 
theory of evolution entirely transformed 
the accepted beliefs concerning the origin 
of species and the supposed invariability of 
animal types. But prior to Youatt's time 
the structural similarity between the dog 
and the other Canidce had been discussed 
by naturalists, and since it was obvious 
that the tame domestic animal did not 
precede its wild relative in the order of 
descent, it was argued that the wolf, the 
fox, and the jackal were the probable 
ancestors of the dog. Buffon, the great 
French naturalist, discussed this question 
in detail, but came to the conclusion that 
the dog had never been really a wild animal, 
and that the Sheepdog was the original 
progenitor of all modern varieties. Bell 
believed that the wolf was the parent, and 
there are still many who cling to the opinion 
that all dogs are lineally descended from 
the fox, while there are some naturalists 
who discover an affinity between the dog 
and the bear. None of these views, however, 
takes a sufficiently wide survey of the whole 
subject to be worthy of much consideration. 

The fanciful theory that >the wolf and 
the dog are alike the lineal descendants 
of the bear may at once be briefl\' 
dismissed. It is true that there is some 
correspondence in the dentition of the 
genus Caiiis and the genus Ursns, that 
the pupil of the bear's eye is round like 
that of the dog, and that the persistent 
black and tan colouring wliicli Darwin was 
perplexed to account for in the dog is 
present in a marked degree in most of the 
bears ; but no argument can account for 
the disparity that the anatomy of the bear 
is different from tliat of the dog family, 
that the period of gestation in the bear 
is live months instead of nine weeks, and 
that bear cubs are born naked and remain 
so for a month. 

The general superficial resemblance be- 
tween the fo.x and many of our dogs, such 

as the Chow-Chow, the Pomeranian, some 
of the terriers, and even the Collie, might 
well excuse the belief in a relationsliip. 
Gamekeepers are often very positive that 
a cross can be obtained between a dog fox 
and a terrier bitch ; but cases in which 
this connection is alleged must be accepted 
with extreme caution. The late Mr. A. D. 
Bartlett, who was for years the super- 
intendent of the Zoological Gardens in 
London, studied this question with minute 
care, and as a result of experiments and 
observations * he positively affirmed that 
he had never met with one well-authenti- 
cated instance of a hybrid dog and fox. 
Mr. Bartlett's conclusions are incontest- 
able. However much in appearance the 
supposed dog-fox may resemble the fox, 
there are certain opposing characteristics 
and structural differences which entirely 
dismiss the theory of relationship. These 
may be tabulated as follows : 

Eye pupils. 
Ndsc and 





Fox. — Vertical. 

Fox — .Sharp, and 
the lips thin, but 
whiskers well de- 

Fox. — Canine teeth 
long, slender, 
sharp, and much 
curved. The gape 
of the fox is 
larger than that 
of a dog of simi- 
lar size. 

Fox. — Colour, out- 
side, black ; in- 
side, thickly- 
coated with long, 
stiff hair. 

Fox. — Hair long, 
points harsh, 
lower half soft 
and the base 
dark coloured, 
thick woolly un- 

Fox.— Slender, long, 
and with thin and 
usually sharp 
claws standing 

Fox. — .A. r o u n d, 
woolly brush, 
reaching and 
touching the 
ground and ter- 
minating with a 
pendulous tuft. 

Dog. — Circular. 

Dog. — R o un d e d, 
with thick lips 
and few whiskers. 

Dog. — Canine teeih 
stout, strong, 
rather short, not 
much curved. 

Dog. — Colour, out- 
side, the same as 
the neck and 
back; inside, 
thinly edged with 
short hair. 

Dog. — Hair usually 
of uniform colour 
to the base of the 
hair, although, in 
the Elkhound, for 
e-xample, it is 
light at the base 
and dark at the 

Dog. — Short, stout, 
and thick, blunt 
claws directed 
downward in the 
front feet. 

Dog. — Somewhat 
flattened, never 
reaching the 
ground and ter- 
minating in a 

Wild Animals in Captivity" (1S98). 


other hand, domestic dogs allowed to run 
wild forget how to bark, while there are 
some which have not yet learned so to 
express themselves. Sir Harry Johnston 
gi\"es evidence of this in his description 
of the tame dogs in the neighbourhood of 
the Zambesi. The passage is not too 
long to quote : 

" The dog of Central Africa is the usual 
small fox -coloured pariah with erect ears 
and jackal-like head. The tail, which is 
generaUy long and smooth, is sometimes 
carried over the back. Sometimes the colour 
is mottled — bro^\•n and white, or black and 
white. Stin, where these piebald tints are 
found there is reason to suspect inter- 
mixture \\-ith foreign breeds, the usual 
African t3'pe of the pariah dog being a 
uniform fox colour. I have sometimes 
fancied I saw native hunters using a smaller 
breed of dogs with short legs for terrier 
work, but I have never actually ascertained 
that there is such a breed. Dogs are used a 
good deal for hunting small game. I have 
never heard of their being employed, as in 
South Africa, to tackle big animals and 
bring them to ba}\ This African dog has 
a certain attachment to its native master, 
but it is always suspicious, furtive, and 
cringing. Europeans they dread strangely, 
but, though they growl angrily, they are 
much too cowardly to bite. They have one 
good negative quality : they cannot bark."* 

It is a reasonable inference that the 
faculty of barking is acquired and improved 
by association \\ith civilised man, who has 
certainly encouraged and cultivated it. 
The Romans appreciated the sonorous bark- 
ing of their hounds, as witness Virgil's 
reference : 

" Vocal ingenti clamore Ciihceron 
Taygetique canes." 

In mediaeval times in England it was 
customary to attune the voices of a pack 

* " British Central Africa," by Sir H. H. 
Johnston (1897). 

so that the hounds might be " matched 
in mouths like bells, each rmder each." 
Henry II., in his breeding of hounds, is 
said to have been careful not only that 
they should be fleet, but also " well-tongued 
and consonous " ; and even so late as the 
reign of Queen Anne it was usual to match 
the voices of a pack. Thus we read in the 
Spectator that " Sir Roger, being at present 
too old for fox hunting, to keep himself 
in action, has disposed of his Beagles and 
got a pack of Stop-hounds. Wliat these 
want in speed, he endeavours to make 
amends for by the deepness of their mouths 
and the variety of their notes, which are 
suited in such manner to each other, that 
the whole cry makes up a complete con- 

Almost extinct now is this old care to 
harmonise the song of the pack. But we 
should not like our hounds to be without 
music, and we have a healthy contempt 
for the watch-dog who will not bark. Were 
we to breed a strain of wolves and jackals 
in our kennels, we should try to teach 
them to bark also, and would probably 

The presence or absence of the habit 
of barking cannot, then, be regarded as an 
argument in deciding the question con- 
cerning the origin of the dog. This stum- 
bling block in the discussion consequently 
disappears, leaving us in the position of 
agreeing with Darwin, whose final hypoth- 
esis was formulated in the generalisation 
that " it is highly probable that the domestic 
dogs of the world have descended from 
two good species of wolf (C hipus and 
C. latrans), and from two or three other 
doubtful species of wolves — namely, the 
European, Indian, and North African forms ; 
from at least one or two South American 
canine species ; from severaT races or species 
of jackafr and perhaps from one or more 
extinct species " ; and that the blood of 
these, in some cases mingled together, 
flows in the veins of our domestic breeds. 



*' Oj the dog in ancient story 
Manv a pleasant talc is told.'" 

Wary Howitt 

Whatever its direct origin, there is in- 
dubitable proof that the domestic dog in 
various recognisable breeds was co-existent 

(B'n/is'i Museum.) 

with the earliest civilised societies, and 
that it was the trusted companion of man 
many hundreds of years prior to the time 
when it became the painted Briton's pride. 
Homer, the first of Greek poets, frequently 
used the word " dog " as an epithet of 
contempt and reproach to women lacking 
m modesty and virtue, applying it to Helen 
(Lib. VI. 344), whose incontinence was the 

cause of the Trojan war ; and " Thou dog 
in forehead " is his taunt flung at a despic- 
able man. But generally his allusions are 
not uncomplimentary to canine sagacity, 
and they show a certain sympathy and 
esteem for an animal which was evidently 
held in high \-alue. When the " God of 
the silver bow " stril-;es beasts and men 
witli pestilence, it is said : 

Mules first and dogs he struck, but at them- 
Dispatching soon his bitter arrows keen, 
Smote them." 

Vet, mixed with these friendly dogs 
there were apparently those of the pariah 
kind. Cowards in battle are threatened 
tluis : 

"... The vukure's maw 
Shall have his carcase, and the dogs his 

Shepherd dogs and hounds are more than 
once indicated : 

" As dogs that careful watch the fokl by night, 
Hearing some wild beast in the woods, 

which hounds 
And hunters with tumultuous ckamour drive 
Down from the mountain-top, all sleep 


In the Iliad there is also mention of the 
hunting of Rons and boars by dogs. " They 
all trembled as dogs around a lion " (Lib. V. 
476), and again a brave warrior faces his 
foes " as when a boar or Hon looking fiercely 
round, conscious of his strength, turns upon 
the dogs and huntsmen " (Lib. XIL 41). 
The Boarhound must have been a favourite 
in Homer's time, for it enters frequently 
into his similes of warfare ; 


" As when dogs and swains 
In prime of manhood, from all quarters rush 
Around a boar, he from his thicket bolts, 
The bright tusk whetting in his crooked 

jaw^s ; 
They press him on all sides, and from be- 
Loud gnashing hear, jet firm, his threats 

Homer's most celebrated reference to the 
dog, however, is, of course, the incident 
in the Odyssey, in which Odysseus, after 
long years of war and wandering, returned 
in disguise to Ithaca to be welcomed b\^ 
his aged dog, Argus, who went up to him 
with wagging tail and close-clapped ears 
and straightway died of sheer joy at his 
master's unexpected return. 

Ruskin, in wxiting of the dog in Art,* 
says : " The Greeks seem hardly to have 
done justice to the dog. lly pleasure in 
the entire Odyssey is diminished because 
Ulysses gives not a word of kindness nor 
of regret to Argus." This is true ; the 
disguised king spoke no word, for he did 
not wish to be recognised by Eumeneus. 
But he did more than merely speak when 
he saw his weU - remembered hound peld 
up its last fluttering breath at his feet. 

" Odj'sseus saw, and truned aside 
To wipe away the tear ; 
From Eumeneus he chose his grief to 
hide. . . ." 

Certainly the Greeks did not do full 
justice to the dog. Outside of Homer it 
is rarely noticed in their literature, and 
seldom favourably. In their sculpture also 
it was not often introduced. In a work 
attributed to iljTon, one of the most 
skilfid artists of ancient times, there is a 
dog closely resembhng our Newfoundland, 
said to have been the favourite dog of 
Alcibiades. The two dogs in the familiar 
"Actjeon" group, as also the beautifully 
modelled pair in the Graeco-Roman group 
found at Monte Cagnolo, are small 
hounds somewhat resembling our Lurcher. 
Xenophon records two species of Spartan 
dogs. Reference is made to their use 
* " Modem Painters." 

in battle, for which purpose they were 
sometimes provided with spiked collars, 
so that the " dogs of war " was no mere 
figure of speech. At Marathon one of 
these dogs gave such assistance to its master 
that its effig\' was engra\-ed upon his tablet. 
Plutarch, in his life of Themistocles, has a 
prett}- reference to a dog which perished 
in swimming after its master who had aban- 
doned it, and who, in remorse, afterwards 
gave it a decent burial. The Greeks made 
sacrifice of dogs to the gods of Olympus. 
The mj'thical three-headed dog Cerberus was 
supposed to guard the entrance to Hades 
and to watch at the feet of Pluto, to which 
deity a dog and a youth were periodicaUv 
sacrificed. A great momber of dogs were 
destroj'ed in Samothrace in honour of the 
goddess Hecate. 

Among the Romans, also, dogs were at 
certain periods sacrificed to the gods. At 
the festival of Robigaha, April 25th, a dog 

(Brilish Museum.) 

was offered at the fifth milestone on the 
Via Claudia.* The Romans were fairly ad- 
vanced in their knowledge of the dog and 
liis uses. So much so that a classification 

* W. Warde Fowler : 
Republican Period." 

■ Roman Festivals of the 



was drawn up. Three main divisions were 
recognised: (i) Canes villatica, or watch- 
dogs ; (2) Canes pastorales, or sheep- 
dogs ; (3) Canes vcnatici, hunting dogs ; 
which were further subdivided into pitg- 
naces, to attack the quarry ; nare sagaces, 
to track it out ; and pedibus celeres, to over- 
take it. In their commerce with distant 
countries the Romans acquired new breeds 
for particular uses or to improve their own 
kennels. Symmachus mentions the pres- 
ence of British pugnaces (which were no 
doubt ^Mastiffs) at the Coliseum in Rome, 
and Claudian refers to^ 

boasted much. He said, ' Long will it be 
before you hunt like this ! ' They assem- 
bled and answered that they thought no 
king had such luck m hunting. Then they 
all rode home, and the King was very 
glad " (Heimskringla, St. Olaf, c. 90). 

Besides hunting dogs, the Northmen 
possessed other kinds, among which were 
shepherd and watch-dogs. 

" When Olaf was in Ireland he went on 
a coast-raid. As they needed provisions 
they went ashore and drove down many 
cattle. A bondi came there and asked 
Olaf to give him back his cows. Olaf 


om the Baycux T.,rest,y. 

" The British hound 
That brings the bull's big forehead to the 

Long before the introduction of Chris- 
tianity into Northern Europe the dog 
was understood and appreciated by the 
Scandinavians, who probably obtained 
many varieties during their commercial 
expeditions to Italy and the East, and 
their raiding expeditions " West-over-sea." 
As one may gather from tlie Sagas, they 
were accustomed to use dogs witli the 

" One day the King (Olaf, of Sweden) 
rode out early with his hawks and dogs 
and men with him. When they let loose 
the hawks, the King's hawk in one flight 
killed two hcathcocks, and at once he again 
flew forward and killed three more. The 
dogs ran underneath and took e^■ery bird 
that fell to the ground. The King galloped 
after, and picked up the game himself, and 

rejjlied that he might take tiiem if he could 
recognise them and not delay their journey. 
The bondi had with him a large sheepdog. 
He pointed out to it the herd of cattle, 
which numbered many hundreds. The dog 
ran through all the herds, and took away 
as many cows as the bondi had said be- 
longed to him. and they were all marked 
with the same mark. Then they acknow- 
ledged that the dog had found out the right 
cattle. They thought it a wonderfully wise 
dog. Olaf asked if the bondi would give 
him the dog. ' Willingly,' answered the 
bondi. Olaf at once gave him a gold ring, 
and promised to be his friend. The dog's 
name was Mgi, and it was the best of all 
dogs. Olaf owned it long after this " 
(Olaf Triggvason's Saga, c. 35). 

From Ireland, also, the Vikings appear to 
have introduced the great Wolf-hound. In 
the Saga of Nial's Burning, Paa (the pea- 
cock) says to Gunnar : 


" ' I will give thee three things : a golden 
bracelet ; a kirtle which belonged to l\Iyr- 
kiarton, King of Ireland ; and a dog which 
I got in the same country. He is huge of 
limb, and for a follower equal to an able 
man. Moreover, he hath man's wit, and 
will bark at thine enemies, but never at 
thy friends. And he will see by each 
man's face whether he be ill or well dis- 
posed towards thee. And he will lay down 
his life for thee. Samr is his name.' Then 
he said to the hound, ' From this day follow 
thou Gunnar, and help him what thou 
canst.' So the hound went to Gunnar, 
and lay down at his feet, and fawned upon 

It is interesting to add that Samr, al- 
though he could not avert the murder of 
Gunnar, forestalled the performance of the 
famous dog of Montargis by avenging his 
master's death upon his murderer. Sad to 
relate, however, he was himself killed in 
revenge, for it is stated that " Onund of 
Trollaskog smote Samr on the head with 
his axe, so that it pierced the brain ; and 
the dog, with a great and wonderful cry, 
fell dead on the ground." 

Like the Greeks and Romans, tlie Scan- 
dinavians were in the habit of making 
sacrifice of dogs as propitiation to their 
deities. This circumstance does not, how- 
ever, imply that they did not value their 
dogs. Indeed, the contrary is the case ; 
they sacrificed what they valued most, 
and at a very early time the Northmen 
imposed penalties for the killing of dogs. 

" If a man kills a lapdog of another he 
must pay twelve aurar if the dog is a lap- 
dog whose neck one can embrace with one 
hand, the fingers touching each other ; six 
aurar are to be paid for a greyhound 
(mjohund), and for a hunting dog half a 
mark, and also for a sheepdog, if it is tied 
by the innermost ox, or untied by the outer- 
most ox, also at the gate. One aurar is 
to be paid for a dog guarding the house if 
it is killed " (Frostath XI. 24). 

It is more than probable that the Scan- 
dinavians when founding their colony in 
that part of France to wiiich they gave 
the name of Xormandv took with them 

man}' of their favourite breeds to become 
the progenitors of the good chiens de 
Normandie, the wiiite St. Huberts, the 
Bassets, Griffons, and those chiens courants 
a foil ras, of which M. le Comte Lahens owns 
the few surviving specimens. The Normans, 
who were always lovers of good canine 
society, brought dogs with them when they 
came over to conquer England, but we 
already possessed many good strains, and 
our Mastiffs in particular were celebrated, 
as were our Wolfdogs and Gazehounds. 
There is a small group of British dogs 
accompanying a hawking party figured in 
the Bayeux Tapestry ; but the drawing is 
crude, and it is hazardous to determine 
the breeds. 

One animal appears to be a black ilastiff, 
although such a dog would hardly be used 
in the hunting field, even in the eleventh 
century, and it is to be presumed that all 
three running in advance of King Harold's 
palfrey are hounds. The tw'o smaller dogs 
cannot be identified, but they are probably 
terriers rather than spaniels. 

Between the Roman period and the 
Middle Ages materials for the history of 
the dog are scanty and indefinite, but there 
is evidence that close attention was given 
to those breeds which were used in various 
forms of sport, and in their illuminated 
manuscripts the monks were fond of intro- 
ducing drawings of hounds, many of them 
very beautiful, more particularly the stately 
Deerhounds, which rank with the noblest 
and most intelligent of dogs, and wiiich 
were classed among the three signs of a 
gentleman — the two others being his horse 
and his hawk. It was one of these that was 
the favourite hound of King Arthur, who 
hunted with him over the heaths of Tin- 
tagel or among the w^oods of Caerleon in 
pursuit of wolf, boar, or red deer. Very 
famous was this " hound of deepest voice," 
for, wiiose baying Queen Guinevere listened 
as she halted with Geraint on the knoll 
above the waters of Usk, Cavall his name 
— a name only less famous in Arthurian 
legend than that of Hodain, the hound 
linked so strangely with the fates of Tristram 
and Iseult. Such, too, was the yet more 



celebrated Bran, the companion of Fingal. 
" White-breasted Bran " was the best of 
the " nine great dogs," and the " nine smaller 
game-starting dogs " which always accom- 
panied Fingal on his hunting expeditions 
in Ireland and Scotland. The " surly strength 
of Luath " — another of Fingal's dogs— is 
duly celebrated in Gaelic tradition, but he 
was not so perfect or graceful as Bran, 

" With his hind legs like a hook or bent bow, 
His breast like that of a garron (hunting pony). 
His ear like a leaf." 

In the early ages in England the hounds 
entered greatly into the supe'-stitions of 
the people. They were beheved to be 
quick to detect the presence of invisible 
spirits, and in connection with this aptitude 
for seeing into the spirit-world they were 
often the outward objects through which 
devils and demons made their appearance. 
There are persons — Mr. Rider Haggard 
among the number — who still aver that 
dogs can reappear as ghosts, and in many 
remote places it is said that the Hounds 
of Gabriel can be heard at night racing 
in full cry above the gables, foreboding 
trouble to those within. Tliis belief in 
the Wild Huntsman and his train of clam- 
orous hounds is one of the most widespread 
superstitions in Europe. It probably origin- 
ated in the gabble of migrating geese. 

Mention of the melancholy story of the 
" peerless hound," Gelert, ought not to be 
omitted. Tradition has it that King John 
gave Gelert in 1205 to Llewellyn, who was 
his son-in-law, and there is a village called 
Bedd Gelert, near Snowdon, where the 
faithful hound's grave is pointed out. But 
the incident of a dog being killed in mis- 
take for the wolf which was supposed to 
have slain his master's heir dates from 
much earlier times. It appears through 
all the folk-tales, and was probably 
derived from ancient Hindostan.* And 

* "This famous tale is told at Haidarabad, 
Lucknow, and Kashmir. In its more usual form, 
as in the Panchatantra and the collection of 
Somadcva, the mongoose takes the place of the 
dog and kills the cobra on the baby's cradle." — ■ 
W. Crookc, B.A., " Popular Religion and Folk- 
lore of Northern India." 

this reference reminds one of the extent 
to which dog-worship prevailed in India 
from prehistoric times, and which is 
still continued, especially in connection 
with the god Bhairon. The temple of 
Bhairon, in Benares, is the only sacred 
building into which the dog is privileged 
to enter. Throughout India the dog is 
held in respect, as it is in all Moham- 
medan lands. In no country where this 
was not the case could there have originated 
so beautiful a legend as that of Yudishthira, 
who, on appealing to Indra for entrance 
into heaven, asked that his dog might 
accompany him. Indra replied that his 
heaven had no place for dogs. Whereupon 
Yudishthira responded : " Then I go not 
into heaven, for to abandon the faithful 
and devoted is an endless crime, like the 
murder of a Brahmin. Never, therefore, 
come weal or woe, will I abandon that 
faithful dog that hatii trusted in my power 
to save it." Or that other equally beau- 
tiful story, re-told by Sir Edwin Arnold, 
of the woman who, while being led to her 
death, caught sight of a helpless dog lying 
at the wayside exhausted by the fierce heat, 
glaring upon the water that was out of his 
reach. The woman in compassion paused 
and drew off her embroidered shoe, and, 
making a cup of the heel's hollow, dipped it 
in the neighbouring well and gave a draught 
to the parched hound, which fawned upon 
her in gratitude. The King who had con- 
demned her marked the merciful act, and 
in sudden clemency bade the woman go 
free, saying, " Thou hast shown pity to 
this brute beast in its misery. I dare not 
show less pity unto thee." 

In Western countries, as in Oriental, the 
dog has had its special protecting deities 
and its patron saints. St. Eustace is the 
patron of dogs in the South of Europe. In 
the North it is St. Hubert, who presides 
over the chase and the destinies of dogs. 
He is said to have been so inordinately fond 
of the chase that he neglected his religious 
duties for his favourite amusement ; till 
one Good Friday, when hunting in the forest 
with his famous hounds of the breed which 
has since borne his name, he was confronted 


by a stag bearing a crucifix between its 
antlers, threatening him with eternal per- 
dition unless he reformed. Upon this he 
entered the cloister and became in time 
Bishop of Liege and the apostle of Ardennes 
and Brabant. He died at an advanced 
age, A.D. 727. 

thread from his miraculous stole is more 
efficacious in cases of hydrophobia than 
all the prophylactics of Pasteur. The St. 
Hubert hounds were mighty of body, with 
legs somewhat low and short — Bloodhounds 
rather than Greyhotmds. It is to be doubted 
whether one of this famous race of 

From the Painting bv Maud Earl 

The festival pf St. Hubert is still held on 
November 2nd, and on that day crowds of 
pilgrims assemble at his shrine to invoke a 
blessing on themselves and on their dogs. 
\t the church of Lime, where some relics of 
the saint are preserved, the following rhyme 
—half charm, half prayer— is recited : 

" Saint Hubert glorieux, 
Dieu me soil amoiireux 
Trois choses me defend ; 
De la nuit du serpent, 
Maiivais lottp, mauvais chien, 
Mauvais betes enragces 
Ne puissent m'approcher, 
Me voir, ne me toucher. 
Nan plus qu'c'toile au del." 

and it is believed that his blessing or a 

"St. Hubert's breed, 
Unmatched for courage, strength, and 
could now be anywhere discovered. 

Much might be written of the famous dogs 
of history— of the Mastiffs of the Knights 
of Rhodes, who could distinguish a Turk 
from a Christian by the smell of liim ; of 
the Spanish Bloodhounds, who helped in 
the conquest of Mexico and Peru ; of Mathe, 
the favourite of Richard II., who, as 
Froissart asserts, deserted his master to 
fawn upon and remain in the service of 
the usurper ; and of the Spaniel which 
saved the Dutch Republic by waking 
William the Silent during the night 
attack on the camp before Mons. But 


it is too large a subject to be dealt with 

As for the dog in art, it would occupy 
the leisure of a lifetime adeqtiately to treat 
so immense a theme. Yet it is a study 
which would yield great results. Tlie 
student who should visit the galleries of 
Europe and take careful note of not onh' 
the magnificent canvases of Titian and 
Velasquez and Veronese, in which tlie 
Bloodhound so frequently looks out. grand 
as surly kings and admirals, but also the 
paintings of all other masters from the 
earliest times to our own Landseer and 
Riviere, would cunfer an invaluable boon 
u])on all lo\'ers of canine nature. Hitherto 
this metiiod of tracing the dog's history 
and variations has only been done in con- 
nection with one breed, by ]\Ir. W. Arkwright, 
whose monograph on the Pointer is a verit- 
able monument of erudition and discernment. 

From the old flea-bitten Argus that first 
recognised his disguised master in tlic 
Odyssey down to Pope's Bounce, Byron's 
Boatswain, Sir Walter Scott's Maida, to 
Matthew Arnold's Geist and Kaiser, and 
to Mrs. Browning's Flush, particular dogs 
have been celebrated in tlie history of 
letters. There is not much trace of a 
real appreciation of the more generous 
kinds, at least as friends and companions, 
in the whole range of French literature. 
On the other hand, there is scarcely one 
great British poet, from Chaucer to Burns 
and Moore and Tennyson, who does not, 
more or less directly, impress us with the 
conviction that he was a true lover of dogs. 

In prose literature it is the same. The 
dog appears now and then in the novels of 
Fielding and Smollett. Dr. Johnson was 
a lover of dogs, and knew the points of a 
Bulldog.* Scott was nested as a good 

* Johnson, after examining the animal atten- 
tively : " No. sir, he is not well shaped, for there 
is not the quick transition from the thickness of 
the fore part to the tenuity — the thin part — behind, 
which a Bulldog ought to have." Taylor said a 
small Bulldog was as good as a large one. Johnson : 
"No, sir; for in proportion to his size he has 
strength, and your argument would prove that a 
good Bulldog may be as small as a mouse." 
(BoswKLL, 1777.) 

juilge of all breeds. Perhaps the first 
autlior to make a dog the hero and chief 
character in a story was Captain Marryat, 
in " Snarleyow," which was earlier than 
Dr. John Brown's delightful " Rab and 
His Friends.'' Ouida, who has done so 
much towjirds promoting a greater kind- 
ness to animals, infused with pathos her 
admirable story of '" A Dog of Flanders." 
Nor should we forget Mr. Anstey's " Black 
PoodI''," or Mr. Robert Hichens' " Black 
Sijaniel." or Maurice Maeterlinck's beau- 
tiful tribute to his dead Pelleas in " ^ly 
Dog." Mr. Ollivant's " Owd Bob," with 
its thrilling descriptions of Sheepdog trials 
in the dales of Kenmuir, is one of the best 
of fictional dog books, comparable only 
with Jack London's two deeply impressive 
stories of the huskies of North-West Canada, 
" The Call of the Wild," and " White Fang," 
in whicli is embodied from two points of 
view the argument of the close relation- 
ship between the dog and the wolf ; Buck 
being a respectable civilised dog who 
answers to the " Call of the Wild," and joins 
a pack of wolves, and White Fang being a 
starved, wolfine hanger-on to a dog-sled 
who gradually adopts the wavs of trained 
and intelligent dogs. 

Women have always played an important 
part in our British love of the dog, and it 
is interesting to note that the earliest 
printed work in the English language 
in which the various breeds then in 
existence were scientifictijly classified was 
the " Book of Field Sports," written by 
Dame Juliana Berners, who was Prioress 
of St. Alban's, about the middle of the 
fifteenth century.* The catalogue of breeds 
in her volume was not an extensive 
one. " Thvse ben the names of hotmdes," 
she wrote, " fyrste there is a Grehoun, a 
Bastard, a Mengrell, a Mastif, a Lemor, 
a Spanyel, Rachcs, Kenettys, Teroures, 
Butchers' Houndes, Dunghyll dogges, Tryn- 
deltaylles, and Pryckeryd currys, and smalle 
ladyes poppees that bere awaye the flees." 

* Edward Plantagenet's "Master of Game " in 
which sporting dogs are interestingly dealt with, 
was written earlier, it is true, but it remained 
for centuries in inaccessible manuscript. 



The list is instructive, since it show's that 
over four centuries ago at least five of the 
varieties already owned the names by 
which we know them to-daj*. 

Dame Juliana Bemers was neariy a 
hundred years in advance of Dr. John 
Keys, or Caius, who in 1570, or there- 
abouts, wrote a treatise on the EngUsh 
dog. During his student days, in 1541, 
Caius made a long sojourn in Italy. In 
Padua, where he took his ^I.D. degree, 
he became intimately acquainted with 
Andreas \'esalius, the celebrated anatom- 
ist, with whom he resided for eight months, 
and who introduced him to Conrad Gesner, 
the famous naturalist. Gesner was then 
engaged upon his verj- ponderous " His- 
tory- of Animals," published eight years 
afterwards in four folio volumes, and he 
requested his friend to furnish him with 
information on the dog. Caius, on return- 
ing to Cambridge, gathered the required 
facts and embodied them in a long letter, 
written, of course, in Latin, which was 
after\vards translated and pubhshed under 
the title : " Of Enghshe Dogges : A Short 
Treatise in Latine by Johannes Caius. 
drawTie into Englishe by Abraham Fleming, 

Apart from its historical interest tlie 
treatise is now of no great value, but it 
shows that even in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth such types as those of the Mastiff, 
the Bulldog, the Bloodhound, Greyhound, 
Beagle, Setter, Pointer, and Spaniel were 
already clearly differentiated, and it recog- 
nised the importance of special training for 
the sporting breeds and the value of the 
contributor}- work of the terrier in un- 
earthing the fox and driving the otter from 
his holt. 

According to Dr. Caius — 

f A gentle kind, serving the game. 
All Englishe I A homely kind, apt for sundrj' neces- 

dogges -I sary uses. 

be eyther of A currish kind, meet for many 

He divides the first of tliese classes into 
two sections — Venatici, which were used 
for the purpose of hunting beasts ; and 

Auciipatorii, which ser\-ed in the pursuit 
of fowl. The Venatici are described by 
liim as : 

Dogges serving 

y pastime of 
hunting beastes 
are divided into 

Leverarius, or Harriers. 
Terrarius, or Terrors. 
Saiiguitiariiis, or Bloodhounds. 
Agaseiis. or Gazehounds, 
Leporariiis, or Grehounds. 
Lorarius, or Lyemraer. 
Vcrtigus, or Tumbler. 
Caiiis ftirax, or Stealer. 

The next section is devoted to Aucnpa- 
torii, which comprised — 

Dogs used for 

f index, or Setter. 

Aquaticiis, or Spaniell. 

" The first," Dr. Caius notes, " findeth 
game on the land. The other findeth 
game on the water." .\nd he proceeds 
to give an ample account of the work of 
the Spaniel and the Setter. 

His fourth section consists of the follow- 
ing varieties of the dog : 

Cants Pastoralis, or 

which hath 

■ Keeper's or Watch. 

The Shepherds 





Butcher's Dogge. 

The Mastive, or 


Messinger'sor Car- 







Caiiis nilaticiis, 


Water Drawer. 



Tinker's Curr. 




In the conch 

iding sectio 

n are the 


itor, or Wap 


Virnerpator, or Turnespet. 
Saltator, or Dauncer. 

Thus we see that Dr. Caius was able to add 
vePk' considerabty to the number of breeds 
noted by Dame Juhana Bemers. His state- 
ments concerning some of the dogs he 
describes are sometimes extreme^ vague 
and indirect, but one has to remember that 
most of his information was gathered, not 
from personal knowledge of dogs or from 
books pre\'iousl\^ pubhshed, but from in- 
quin,- among the sporting friends whom, 
as physician to the Queen, he met at the 
court of Elizabeth, and of whom one was 
certainly Robert Dudlej-, Earl of Leicester, 
an authority of some significance, since he 
was the first sportsman to train setting 
dogs in the manner generally adopted by 
his successors and continued to the present 



. , . CHAPTER L 



" The deep mouth' d Mastiff bays the troubled nigh/." — Kirke White. 

and the frowning Chow-Chow, which are 
of snch recent introduction that they must 
still be regarded as half-acclimatised for- 
eigners. But of the antiquity of the Mastiff 
there can be no doubt. He is the oldest 
of our British dogs, culti\'ated in these 
islands for so many centuries that the only 
difficulty concerning his history is that 
of tracing his descent, and discovering the 
period when he was not familiarly known. 

It is possible that the Mastiff owes 
his origin to some remote ancestor of alien 
strain. The Assyrian kings possessed a 
large dog of decided Mastiff type, and used 
it in the hunting of lions ; and credible 
authorities have perceived a similarity in 
size and form between the British Mastiff 
and the fierce Molossian dog of the ancient 
(ireeks. It is supposed by many students 
that the breed was introduced into early 
Britain by the ad\-enturous Phrenician 
traders who, in the si.xtli century B.C., 
voyaged to the Scilly Islands and Corn- 
wall to barter their own commodities in 
exchange for the useful metals. Knowing the 
requirements of their barbarian customers, 
these early merchants from Tyre and Sidon 
are believed to have brought some of the 
larger pugnaces, which would be readily 
accepted by the Britons to supplant, or 
improve, their courageous but undersized 
fighting dogs. 

Before the invasion by Julius Casar, 
55 B.C., the name of Britain was little 


Ftom "Iconn Animaliiim" {17S0), by G. F. RicIlI. 

OF tlie many different kinds of dogs 
now established as British, not 
a few have had their origin in 
other lands, whence specimens have been 
imported into this country, in course 
of time to be so improved by selection 
that they have come to be commonly 
accepted as native breeds. Some are 
protected from the claim that they are 
indigenous by the fact that their origin is 
indicated in their names. No one would 
pretend that the St. Bernard or the New- 
foundland, the Spaniel or the Dalmatian, 
are of native breed. They are alien immi- 
grants whom we have naturalised, as we 
are naturalising the majestic Great Dane, 
the decorative Borzoi, the alert Schipperke, 


known to the Romans, and it is not to be 
wondered at that Virgil makes no refer- 
ence to British dogs ; but Gratius Fahscus, 
writing in the eighth \-ear of the Christian 
era, recorded that the pugnaccs of Epirus 
— the true Molossian dogs — were pitted 

best specimens the Roman emperors ap- 
pointed a special officer, Procurator C3Tiegii, 
who was stationed at Winchester and en- 
trusted with the dut\- of selecting and ex- 
porting ilastiffs from England to Rome. 
This statement is frequently repeated by 


From "The Sportsman's Cabinet" (IS03). By P. ReingaU, R.A. 

against the pugnaccs of Britain, which over- 
powered them. Gratius further indicates 
that there were two kinds of the British 
pugnaccs, a larger and a smaller, suggesting 
the existence of both the Bulldog and 
the Mastiff, the latter being employed to 
protect flocks and herds. Strabo, writing 
some thirty years later, refers to British 
dogs used in hunting and in warfare, and, 
mentioning the pugnaccs, he especially re- 
marks that they had flabby hps and droop- 
ing ears. 

The courage of the '" broad mouthed dogs 
oi Britain " was recognised and highly prized 
by the Romans, who emploj-ed them for 
combat in the amphitheatre. Many writers 
have alleged that in order to secure the 

persons who ha\'e mistaken the word 
cynacii for cynegii, and confounded the 
title of a weaver's agent with that of an 
e.xporter of dogs. An officer appointed to 
ship fighting ilastiffs to Rome would have 
been Procurator Pugnacium vel Molos- 

In Anglo-Saxon times every two viUeins 
were required to maintain one of these 
dogs for the purpose of reducing the number 
of wolves and other wiXA animals. This 
would indicate that the ^lastiff was recog- 
nised as a capable hunting dog ; but at 
a later period his hunting instincts were 
not highly esteemed, and he was not re- 
garded as a peril to preser\ed game ; for 
in the reign of Henry III. the Forest Laws, 



which prohibited the keeping of all otlier 
breeds by unprivileged persons, permitted 
the Mastiff to come within the precincts of 
a forest, imposing, however, the condition 
that every such dog should have the claws 
of the fore feet removed close to the skin. 
A scrutiny was held every third year to 
ascertain that this law was strictly obeyed. 
The name Mastiff was probably applied 
to any massively built dog. It is not easy 
to trace the true breed amid the various 
names which it owned. IMolossus, Alan, 
Alaunt, Tie-dog. I-5andog (or Band-dog), 
were among the number. In the " Knight's 
Tale " Chaucer refers to it as the .\launt : 

" Aboute his char ther wenten whyte Alaunts, 
Twenty and mo, as grete as any steer, 
To hunten at the leoun or the deer. 
And folwed him. with mosel faste ybounde, 
Colcrs of gold, and torets fyled rounde." 

The names Tie-dog and Bandog intimate 
that the ^Mastiff was commonly kept for 
guard, but many were specially trained 
for baiting bears, imported lions, and bulls. 
The sport of bear-baiting reached its glory 
in the sixteenth century. Queen Elizabeth 
was fond of witnessing these displays of 
animal conflict, and during her progresses 
through her realm a bear-baiting was a 
customary entertainment at the places 
such as Kenilworth and Hatfield at which 
she rested. Three trained Mastiffs were 
accounted a fair match against a bear, 
four against a lion ; but Lord Buckhurst, 
Elizabeth's ambassador to France in 1572, 
owned a great Mastiff which, unassisted, 
successfully baited a bear, a leopard, and 
a lion, and pulled them all down. 

In the representations of the Mastiff in 
the paintings of the si.xteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, the dog was usually shown 
with a white blaze up the face and an 
undershot jaw, the ears were cropped and 
the tail was shortened. Barnaby Googe in 
1631 gave a description of the Bandog for the 
house which enables us to apprehend what 
it was like in the time of Charles I. — a 
monarch who admired and kept the breed. 

" First, the Mastie that keepeth the 
house. For this purpose you must pro\ade 

you such a one as hath a large and mightie 
body, a great and shrill voyce, that both 
with his barking he may discover, and with 
his sight disma3'e the theefe, yea, being 
not seene, wath the horror of his voice put 
him to flight. His stature must be neither 
long nor short, but well set ; his head, great ; 
his eyes, sharp and fiery, either browne or 
grey ; his lippes, blackish, neither turning 
up nor hanging too much down ; his 
mouth black and wide ; his neather jaw, 
fat, and coming out of it on either side a 
fang appearing more outward than his 
other teeth ; his upper teeth even with his 
neather. nut hanging too much over, sharpe, 
and hidden with his lippes ; his counten- 
ance, like a lion ; his brest, great and shag 
hayid ; his shoulders, broad ; his legges. 
bigge ; his tayle, short ; his feet, very 
great. His disposition must neither be 
too gentle nor too curst, that he neither 
faune upon a theefe nor flee upon his 
friends ; very waking ; no gadder abroad, 
nor lavish of his mouth, barking without 
cause ; neither maketh it any matter 
though he be not swifte. for he is but to 
figlit at home, and to give warning of the 

Coming to more recent times, there is 
constant record of the Mastiff having been 
kept and carefully bred for many generations 
in certain old families. One of the oldest 
strains of Mastiffs was that of Lyme Hall, 
in Cheshire. They were large, powerful 
dogs, and longer in muzzle than those 
wliich we are now accustomed to see. 
Mr. Kingdon, wIkj was an ardent Mastiff 
breeder fifty years ago, maintained that 
this strain had been preserved without anv 
outcross whatever. On the other hand, 
it has been argued that this is a statement 
impossible to pro\-e, as no record of pedi- 
grees was kept. One well-known breeder 
of former years goes further than this, 
and states that Mr. Legh had admitted to 
him that an outcross had been resorted to. 

Another old and valuable strain was 
that of the Mastiffs kept by the Duke of 
Devonshire at Chatsworth. It is to these 
two strains that the dogs of the present 
day trace back. 



During the earlier part of the past cen- 
tun,' the most noted Mastiff breeders were 
Mr. Lukey and Captain Gamier, and a 
httle later ilr. Edgar Hanbury. ]\Ir. Luke\' 
laid the foundation of his kennel, which 
afterwards became so famous, by the 
purchase of a brindle bitch from the Chats- 
worth kennels. Among the many celebrated 
dogs owned and bred by :Mr. Lukey must 

Bloodhounds, a breed with which his 
name wiU ever be associated. Mr. 
Green's Monarch (2,316) was another fawn 
standing over ^;i inches high. As a sire 
he was principally noted as ha\4ng sired 
Scawfell (5,311), Xero (6,373), and Gwen- 
dolen (6,390). The last, when mated with 
Cardinal, produced many good ^lastiffs. 
Rajah (2,333) ^^^s a well-known winner 

Draun Jrom tijc by R. H. iloorc. 

be mentioned Go\-emor, whose name ap- 
pears in the pedigrees of most ilastiffs of 
note. He was the grandsire of those two 
celebrated Mastiffs Mr. Hanbury's Rajah 
and Mr. Field's King, the sire of Turk, 
bred bj^ Miss Anglionby. Mr. E. Nichols, 
Miss Hales, Mrs. Rawlinson, and the Rev. 
M. B. \\'\Tine, were well-known breeders 
and successful exhibitors in the early da\-s 
of dog shows. 

The following are a few of the most 
celebrated ^lastiffs of the past forty years : 
Turk (2,349) mentioned above, was a fawTi, 
and was considered the best Mastiff of 
his day ; he won numerous prizes for his 
different owners, and eventually ended his 
days in the kennels of Mr. Edwin Brough, 
who relinquished Mastiffs in favour of 

in the early 'seventies, but it is not as a 
show dog alone that this dog has a claim 
to be mentioned, for he sired many good 
Mastiffs, who in their turn left their mark 
on the breed. Among them maj^ be men- 
tioned Mr. Xichol's Prince, a small dog 
that was more useful at the stud than on 
the show bench, and The Shah (4,457), 
bred by Mr. Balleston, and after^vards 
owned by Mr. C. T. Harris, by whom he 
was claimed upon his first appearance as 
a puppy at the Crystal Palace, 1874. He 
was not quite so fiat in skuU as he should 
have been, but otherwise he was a fine 
Mastiff ; the best of his stock was The 
Emperor (9,340). 

CrowTi Prince (10,544) ^^'^s a fawn dog 
with a Dudley nose and light eye, and was 





Pliotogmf'h h- Schnibcr. 

pale in muzzle, and whilst full credit must 
be given to him for ha\-ing sired many good 
Mastiffs, he must be held responsible for 
the faults in many specimens of more recent 
years. Unfortunately, he was indiscrim- 
inately bred from, with the result that in 
a very short time breeders found it impossible 
to find a Mastiff unrelated to him. The 
registered pedigree of Crown Prince is by 
Young Prince by Prince, mentioned above, 
but the correctness of this pedigree was 
disputed at the time. The matter was 
thoroughly in\-cstigated, and there was not 
sufficient evidence to show that an\- other 
dog was the sire. He was bred b\- .Mr. 
Woolmore, and (laimed by the Rev. W. J. 
Mellor upon his first appearance on the 
show bench after he had awarded him first 
prize. He afterwards passed into the hands 
of Dr. Forbes Winslow, and upon the 
dispersal of that exhibitor's ^Mastiffs was 
sold for i8o guineas. 

Mr. Beaufoy's Beau (6,356) proved his 

claim to be considered a pillar of the stud 
book by siring Beaufort (18.504), unques- 
tionably one of the best Mastiffs of the 
jiast twenty years. He was a frequent 
winner both in this country and in America, 
where he was placed at stud for a time. 

Cardinal (8,410) was a rich, dark brindle, 
and one of the most successful sires of his 
day. He inherited his colour from his 
dam, a daughter of Wolsey. If for no other 
reason. Cardinal deserves special mention, 
as it is mainly due to him that the brindle 
colour in Mastiffs has been preserved, for 
I belie\-e that I shall not be wrong in saying 
that e\"ery prize winning brindle of recent 
years is a direct descendant of this dog. 

The result of crossing his progeny with 
Crown Prince and Beaufort blood was 
eminently satisfactory. Among others of his 
descendants may be mentioned Marc An- 
tony, Marksman, Invicta, Colonel Cromwell, 
and Marcus Superba, who died quite young, 
but not without leaving stock behind 



him that have been a credit to him as a 

It is to be deplored that ever since the 
era of Crown Prince there has been a per- 
ceptible diminution in the number of good 
examples of this fine old English breed, 
and that from being an admired and 
fashionable dog the ilastiff has so declined 
in popularity- that few are to be seen either 
at exhibitions or in breeders' kermels. At 
the Crv'stal Palace in 1871 there were as 
many as sixty-three ^lastiifs. on show, 
forming a line of benches two hundred yards 
long, and not a bad one among them ; 
whereas at a dog show held twenty-fi\e 
\-ears later, where more than twelve hundred 
dogs were entered, not a single Mastiff 
was benched. 

The difficult}' of obtaining dogs of un- 
blemished pedigree and superlative type 
may partly account for this decline, and 
another reason of unpopularitj' may be 

that the Mastiff requires so much attention 
to keep him in condition that without it 
he is apt to become indolent and hea\y. 
Nevertheless, the mischief of breeding too 
continuoush' from one strain such as that 
of Crown Prince has to some extent been 
eradicated, and we have had many splendid 
Mastiffs since his time. CrouTi Prince was 
by no means the onh' great Mastiff bred 
in Mr. Woolmore's kennels. Special men- 
tion should be made of that grand bitch 
Cambrian Princess (12,833). by Beau. She 
was purchased by ilrs. WiUins, who, mating 
her with ^Maximilian (a dog of her own 
breeding by The Emperor), obtained Mint- 
ing, who shared with Beaufort the reputation 
of being unapproached for all round merit 
in any period. It was a misfortune to the 
breed that Glinting was allowed to leave 
this country for the United States, where 
he was easily able to hold his own on the 
show bench, Beaufort, his only equal, not 



Photograph by Schreibcr. 



arriving in America until after Minting's 

Of Mastiff breeders of recent years 
Mr. J. Sidney Turner will always be remem- 


bered as the breeder of Beaufort, Hotspur, 
Orlando, and other Mastiffs, which have 
left their mark on the breed. Unfortunately, 
Mr. Turner did not continue his breeding 
operations beyond the second generation ; 
otherwise, judging from his success during 
the time he kept Mastiffs, we should 
probably have seen more of these dogs 
of high quality than has been the 
case of late. Mr. Mark Beaufoy's name 
will be principally associated with Beau, 
although he owned several others of acknow- 
ledged merit. At one time the kennels of 
Captain and Mrs. J. L. Piddocke contained 
many excellent Mastiffs, Toozie, Jubilee 
Beauty, and Ogilvie being remarkably good 
headed dogs. Lieut. -Colonel Walker, al- 
though not a very frequent exhibitor, has 
been a persistent breeder for many years, 
and has bred several Mastiffs of which 
anyone might be proud. 

Mr. Robert Leadbetter has also been 

prominent among the owners of this mag- 
nificent breed. His kennel at Haslemere 
Park is one of tlie largest at present in 
England. He started 
by purchasing Elgiva, 
a well-known and un- 
beaten champion who 
won many specials 
oj^en to other breeds 
as well as her own. 
It is to be regretted 
that Elgiva failed to 
contribute progeny to- 
wards the continuance 
of her kind. Among 
other Mastiffs owned 
by ^Ir. Leadbetter may 
be mentioned Marcella, 
a bitch descended from 
Captain Piddocke's 
strain, and Prince Son- 
derberg, one of Mr. 
Laguhee's breeding by 
Mellnotte out of Xell. 
Prince Sonderberg's re- 
cent death has unfor- 
tunately deprived us 
of a dog w'hich might 
have won distinction. 
Mr. C. Aubrey Smith is an enthusiastic 
admirer of the breed, and has owned several 
prize Mastiffs, among which is Colonel 
Cromwell. He is a fawn of large size, and 
a dog that should do well at stud, although 
I do not call to mind any of his progeny 
that ha^'e yet made a great name on the 
show bench. This dog was bred by Mr. 
A. W. Lucas, a breeder of many 3'ears' 
standing, who can claim to have produced 
more prize Mastiffs within recent years than 
any other breeder. Among a few of his 
breeding that occur to me there are Black 
Prince (1,377 g) and Paula (1,418 h), both 
now the property of Mr. J. H. Martin of 
Bangor, Maine, U.S.A., their sire Invicta 
(1,375 c), Marcus Superba, and many others, 
including Lady Claypole and Marchioness. 
The last two are the property of Mr. Spalding, 
who recently turned his attention to the 
Mastiff with very satisfactory results, his 



Helmsley Defender and others of his breed- 
ing having secured prizes at most of the 
principal shows. 

The following description of a perfect 
llastiff, taken from the Old English :Mastiff 
Club's " Points of a Mastiff,"' is so ad- 
mirable that I need hardl}^ add an\'- 
thing as to what future breeders should 
aim to attain. If they wiU stud\' 
this description carefully and use all 
their efforts to produce a Mastiff as 
near it in all points as can be, I feel 
confident that they will be more satis- 
fied with the result than is likely to 
be the case if they give their atten- 
tion to certain qualities and leave the 
others to take care of themselves. 


1. General Character and Symmetry. — 
Large, massive, powerful, symmetrical and 
well-knit frame. A combination of grandeur 
and good nature, courage and docilitj'. 

2. General Description of Head. — In gen- 
eral outline, giving a square appearance when 
viewed from any point. Breadth greatly to 
be desired, and should be in ratio to length 
of the whole head and face as j to 3. 

3. General Description of Body. — Massive, 
broad, deep, long, powerfully built, on legs 
wide apart, and squarely set. Muscles 
sharply defined. Size a great desideratum, 
if combined with quality. Height and substance 
important if both points are proportionately 

4. Skull. — Broad bet%veen the ears, forehead 
flat, but wrinkled when attention is excited. 
Brows (superciliary ridges) slightly raised. Mus- 
cles of the temples and cheeks (temporal and 
masseter) well developed. Arch across the skull 
of a rounded, flattened cur\-e, with a depression 
up the centre of the forehead from the medium line 
between the eyes, to half way up the sagittal suture. 

5. Face or Muzzle. — Short, broad under the 
eyes, and keeping nearly parallel in width to the 
end of the nose ; truncated, i.e. blunt and cut ofE 
square, thus forming a right angle with the upper 
line of the face, of great depth from the point of 
the nose to under jaw. Under jaw broad to the 
end ; canine teeth healthy, powerful, and wide 
apart ; incisors level, or the lower projecting 
beyond the upper, but never sufficiently so as to 
become visible when the mouth is closed. Nose 
broad, with widely spreading nostrils when viewed 
from the front ; flat (not pointed or turned up) in 
profile. Lips diverging at obtuse angles with 

the septum, and slightly pendulous so as to show 
a square profile. Length of muzzle to whole head 
and face as i to 3. Circumference of muzzle 
(measured midway between the eyes and nose) 
to that of the head (measured before the ears) 
as 3 to ,. 



Photograph by Russt!!. 

6. Ears. — Small, thin to the touch, wide apart, 
set on at the highest points of the sides of the 
skull, so as to continue the outline across the 
summit, and lying flat and close to the cheeks 
when in repose. 

7. Eyes. — Small, wide apart, divided by at 
least the space of l:\vo eyes. The stop between 
the eyes well marked, but not too abrupt. Colour 
hazel-brown, the darker the better, showing no 

8. Neck, Chest and Ribs.— Neck— Shghtly arched, 
moderately long, very muscular, and measuring 
in circumference about one or two inches less 
than the skuU before the ears. Chest — Wide, deep, 
and well let down betw-een the forelegs. Ribs 
arched and well-rounded. False ribs deep and 
well set back to the hips. Girth should be one- 
third more than the height at the shoulder. 
Shoulder and Arm — Slightly sloping, heavy and 

9. Forelegs and Feet. — Legs straight, strong, 
and set wide apart ; bones verj' large. Elbows 
square. Pasterns upright. Feet large and round. 
Toes well arched up. Nails black. 


10. Back, Loins and Flanks. — Back and loins 
wide and muscular ; Hat and very wide in a 
bitch, slightly arched in a dog. Great depth of 

11. Hind Legs and Feet. — Mind quarters broad, 
wide, and muscular, with well dc\eloped second 
thighs, hocks bent, wide apart, and quite squarely 
set when standing or walking. Feet round. 



Vholoiiiafh \.y C KcU. ITis/i i:,'. 

12. Tail. — Put on high up, and reaching to 
the hocks, or a little below them, wide at its 
root and tapering to the end, hanging straight in 
repose, but forming a curve, with the end point- 
ing upwards, but not over the back, when the 
dog is e.xcited. 

13. Coat — Colour. — Coat short and close lying, 
but not too fine over the shoulders, neck, and 
back. Colour, apricot or silver fawn, or dark 
fawn-brindle. In any case, muzzle, ears, and nose 
should be black, with black round the orbits, and 
extending upwards between them. 

Scale of Points. 

General character and symmetrv . 10 

Body (height and substance) . . lo 

Skull 12 

Face and muzzle i S 

Ears 4 

Eyes O 

Chest and ribs 8 

Fore-legs and feet 6 

Back, loins, and flanks .... ,S 

Hind legs and feet m 

Tail . 3 

Coat and Colour 5 

Grand total . . 100 

There arc one or tv\-o points to wliich I 
should wisli to chrect particuhtr attention. 
(Jne of the most important of these is 
width of muzzle combined with depth. 
This is, I admit, very difficult to obtain in 
anything like perfection, and I cannot btit 
think that it is one that has been too much 
o\-erlooked by breeders in their efforts to 
produce I\Iastiffs with the shortest muzzle 
possible. That the muzzle of a Mastiff 
should be short is an admitted fact, but it 
should be in ]irn{X)rtion to the size 
nl the hciid. wliich is given in the Club's 
points as '■length of muzzle to whole head 
and face as i to 3." I am doubtful whether 
the muzzles of many Afastiffs of the present 
day N\ill be found to correspond with this 
measurement. ;\Ir. J. Sidney Turner's Or- 
lando was a grand-headed dog, but very 
di'ferti\e in hind quarters. He got many 
good-headed ]\histiffs and the length of 
muzzle in ])roportion to the whole head 
and face was as nearly in accordance with 
the Club's requirements as possible. It is 
to the inordinate desire to obtain the short- 
est muzzle possible which existed some 
few years ago, and which I am afraid is 
not altogether absent at the present day, 
that the falling off in many desirable quali- 
ties of the breed, unfortunately so notice- 
able in recent years, may be attributed. 
It is practically impossible for breeders to 
breed dogs with abnormally short muzzle, 
and \-et at the same time obtain size, 
length of body, and other attributes of 
this breed. 

Opinions seem to differ as to whether 
the Mastiff should have a level mouth or 
be somewhat imdcrshot. Personallv I pre- 
fer a level mouth, and should always try 
to get it if possible, and I am inclined to 
think that many who uphold the undershot 
jaw are in agreement with me, and would 
prefer the level mouth were the difficulty 
of combining it with squareness of muzzle 
not so great. There can be little doubt 
that more Mastiffs are bred with undershot 
jaws than without, and there is no gain- 
saying the fact that manv, if not most, 
of the best specimens of the breed have 
possessed undershot jaws. 



Size is a quality very desirable in this 
breed. The height of many dogs of olden 
da\'s was from thirty-two to thirty-three 
inches. The height should be obtained 
rather from great depth of body than 
length of leg. A leggj^ Mastiff is very un- 
desirable. Thirty inches may be taken as 
a fair average height for dogs, and bitches 
somewhat less. Many of Mr. Lukey's 
Mastiffs stood 32 inches and over ; Mr. 
Green's Monarch was over 33 inches, The 
Shah 32 inches, and Cardinal 32 inches. 

The method of rearing a Mastiff has 
much to do with its ultimate size, but it 
is perhaps needless to sa}' that the selection 
of the breeding stock has still more to do 
with this. It is therefore essential to 
select a dog and bitch of a large strain 
to obtain large Mastiffs. It is not so 
necessary that the dogs themselves should 
be so large as that they come from a large 
strain. The weight of a full-grown dog 
should be anj-thing o\'er 160 lb. Many 
Mastiffs have turned the scale at 180 lb. 
The Shah, for instance, was 182 lb. in weight, 
ScawfeU over 200 lb. 

I am not an advocate for forcing young 
stock, and I have frequently noticed that 
in the case of puppies of extraordinary 
weight we have seldom heard of any of 
them attaining any unusual size when 
full grown. The fact is that these puppies 
make their growth early in life and stop 
growing just at the time other puppies are 
beginning to fill out and develop. There 
are, of course, exceptions to this. For 
instance, Orlando weighed 140 lb. when 
only eight months old. A Mastiff puppy 
of ten months old should have the appear- 
ance of a puppy, and not of a fuU-grown 
dog. A dog should go on growing until 
he is three years of age, and many continue 
to improve after that. 

Colour is, to a great extent, a matter of 
taste. The two colours recognised at the 
present time are brindle and fawn. The 
former is considered by those who have 
given the question most attention to have 
been the original colour of the breed. 
Black Mastiffs are spoken of as having been 
known in years gone by, and occasionally 

we hear of a dog of this colour having been 
seen even now. I have never come across 
one myself, although I have often seen 
brindle puppies so dark they might ha\-e 
been mistaken for black ; nor can I call to 
mind having heard in recent years of a 
dog of this colour whose pedigree was 
known. A correspondent in the Live Stock 
Journal spoke of having seen a black dog 
of Mastiff type, which was not of pure 
blood, and went on to say that " when I 
was paj-ing a visit to the Willhayne kennels, 
in the summer of 1S79, I remember ?.Ir. 
Kingdon showing me a coal-black bitch 
of the L\Tne Hall breed. She had not a 
white hair on her, and I was surprised at 
her colour. She was not at all large." 
It is stated that Charles I,, advertised for 
a lost " Bob-tailed Black Mastiff," and 
from the correspondence that took place 
some years ago upon the subject of the 
colour of Mastiffs, it is evident that black 
was b}^ no means an unknown colour at 
one time. Red was another colour that 


was in evidence thirty or forty years ago, 
but it has been allowed to die out, and I 
have not seen a Mastiff of that colour, whose 
pedigree could be depended upon, for many 
years. By crossing blacks and reds it would 
no doubt have been possible to produce 



brindles ; this is the case in cattle, and 
there seems no reason why it should not 
be so in Mastiffs — in fact, it is asserted 
that this system of breeding was resorted 
to many years ago. 

Although, as I have said, brindle was 



Photograph by Russell. 

the original colour, and was an ordinary 
one in Mastiffs in tlie early part of the last 
century, its ])lace was gradually usurped 
by the fawn, and twenty-five years or so 
ago there was great risk of the colour be- 
coming extinct. Mr. J. Hutchings kept a 
kennel of Mastiffs of tliis colour, but tlie 
type of his dogs did not meet the \-iews of 
the breeders of the day. Wolsey (5,315), 
by Rajah out of Mr. Hanbury's Queen 
(2,396), a magnificent brindled bitch, was 
about the only dog of note in those davs, 
but liis stud services could not be ob- 
tained by breeders generally, and so it 
devolved upon Wolsey's grandson Cardinal 
to perpetuate the colour. \Mthin the last 
five years tliere ]ia\-e been more brindles 
exhibited than fawns, judging by the fact 
that more of the former have won prizes 
than the latter. 

White is not a desirable colour, but it 
will frequently appear on the chest and 
feet, and in some cases puppies are born 
with white running some distance up the 
leg. This, however, disappears almost en- 

tirely — or, at any rate, to a great extent — 
as the puppy grows up. Light eyes, which 
detract so much from the appearance of a 
Mastiff, were very prevalent a few years 
ago, and, judging from some of the young 
stock exhibited recently, there seems a 
great risk of them becoming so again. 
When this eye appears in a brindle it is 
e\en more apparent than in a fa\ui ; the 
remedy is to breed these dogs to brindles 
with a good dark eye, and of a strain 
possessing this quality. 

One of the great difficulties that breeders 
of the present day have to contend against 
is in rearing tlie puppies ; so many bitches 
being clumsy and apt to kill the whelps 
bv lying on them. It is, tlierefore, always 
better to be pi-o\-ided with one or more 
foster bitches. At about six weeks old 
a fairly good opinion may be formed as 
to what the puppies will ultimately turn 
out in certain respects, for, although they 
may indeed change materially during 
growth, the good or bad qualities which are 
manifest at that early age will, in all proba- 
bility, be apparent when the puppy has 
reached maturity. It is, therefore, fre- 
quently easier to select the best puppy 
in tlie nest tlian to do so when tliey are 
from six to nine or ten months old. 

The colour is sometimes deceptive, and 
what appears to a no\-ice as a brindle 
puppy turns out to be a \-ery dark fawn, 
which gradually gets lighter as the puppy 
grows. It has occurred that Mastiffs bred 
from rich dark brindles have been whelped 
of a blue or slate colour. In course of 
time the stripes of the brindle appear, but 
puppies of this colour, which are very 
rare, generally retain a blue mask, and have 
light eyes. Many such puppies have been 
destroyed ; but this practice is a mistake, 
for although it is not a colour to be de- 
sired, some of our best Mastiffs have been 
bred through dogs or bitches of this shade. 
As an instance I may mention my own 
dog. Constable (22,705). His grand-dam 
Columbine was a blue brindle. I parted 
with her as a puppy to a well-known breeder, 
who afterwards offered her back to me on 
account of her colour. Knowing how she 



was bred I readily accepted the offer. 
She was by Cardinal out of Cleopatra by 
Cardinal out of Gwendolen by Monarch. 
Putting her to her sire I obtained Empress 
of Tring, a capital brindle of good size. 
Just at the time I wanted a cross out, 
Mr. Sidney Turner offered to let me have, 
at quite a nominal price. Hotspur, a son 
of CrowTi Prince, and a dog for which he 
had refused £100 when a puppy. Mating 
Empress of Tring with him, I got many 
good Mastiffs, one of the best being Con- 
stable, who made his debut at the show 
held by the Kennel Club in 1887, where 
he created a sensation among Mastiff 

I have gone rather more into this than 
I intended, but I want to demonstrate, in 
the first place, that it is not always wise to 
destroy a puppy, which, although it may 
not be a show specimen, may prove from 
its breeding invaluable as a stud dog or 
brood bitch. I also wish to show that in- 
breeding, if judiciously carried out, may 
in certain instances prove of inestimable 
advantage. My own experience of in- 
breeding does not lead me to endorse the 
opinion that it must necessarily cause a 
diminution of size. In Toys it may be 
resorted to with that particular object, 
and, in that case, naturally the smallest 
specimens would be bred from ; but I see 
no reason why, if dogs of large size are 
selected, it should not have a contrary 
result. I am speaking of in-breeding car- 
ried on within certain limits and not 
indiscriminately. Nevertheless, close in- 
breeding, if attempted by anyone not 
understanding the principles of selection, 
may prove disastrous. It is far easier 
to perpetuate a fault than to eradicate 
one, and, therefore, great care should be 
exercised in the animals selected for tb.e 
experiment of in-breeding. 

Puppies should be allowed all the liberty 
possible, and never be tied up : they 
should be taken out for steady, gentle 
exercise, and not permitted to get too fat 
or they become too heavy, with detrimental 
results to their legs. Many puppies are 
very shy and nervous, but they will grow 

out of this if kindly handled, and eventu- 
ally become the best guard and protector 
it is possible to have. 

Some Mastiffs are possessed of strange 
idiosj-Ticrasies. Turk and many of his 
descendants had a great antipathy to 
butchers and butchers' shops. Neither of 
my own two Mastiffs, Cardinal and Gwen- 
dolen, would go near a butcher's shop if 
it could be avoided, and I have frequently 
been puzzled in walking through London 
at four or five o'clock in the morning, on 
my way to catch an early train to some 
show, to know why these two dogs would 
cross the road for no apparent reason, and 
refuse to recross it until some way further 
on. Eventually I discovered this invariably 
happened when passing a butcher's shop. 
At Norwich show Cardinal suddenly jumped 
up and flew out at three visitors who 
were standing admiring him. My man 
remarked that there must be a butcher 
close by, or the dog would never do such 
a thing. The idea was laughed at, but 
upon his saying he was sure it was so, 
one of the three admitted that he was a 

The temper of a Mastiff should be taken 
into consideration by the breeder. They 
are, as a rule, possessed of the best of 
tempers, but there may be, of course, an 
exception now and again. A savage dog 
with such power as the JIastiff possesses 
is indeed a dangerous creature, and, there- 
fore, some inquiries as to the temper of 
a stud dog should be made before deciding 
to use him. Although I have owned Mas- 
tiffs for between thirty and forty years, 
and at one time I kept a somewhat large 
kennel of them, I have never had the 
misfortune to have a bad-tempered one. 
In these dogs, as in all others, it is a question 
of how they are treated by the person 
having charge of them. 

The feeding of puppies is an important 
matter, and should be carefully seen to 
by anyone wishing to rear them success- 
fully. If goat's milk is procurable it is 
preferable to cow's milk. The price asked 
for it is sometimes prohibitory, but this 
difficulty may be surmounted in many 



cases by keeping a goat or two on the 
premises. Many breeders have obtained a 
goat with the sole object of rearing a htter 
of puppies on hw milk, and ha\'e eventu- 
ally discarded cow's milk altogether, using 
goat's milk for household purposes instead. 
As soon as the puppies will lap they should 
be induced to take arrowroot prepared 
with milk. Oatmeal and maizemeal, about 
one quarter of the latter to three quarters 
of the former, make a good food for puppies. 
Dog biscuits and the various hound meals, 
soaked in good broth, may be used with 
advantage, but I do not believe any dogs, 
especially Mastiffs, can be kept in con- 
dition for any length of time without a 
fair proportion of meat of some kind. 
Sheeps' paunches, cleaned and well boiled, 
mixed with sweet stale bread, previously 
soaked in cold water, makes an excellent 
food and can hardly be excelled as a staple 
diet. In feeding on horseflesli care should 
be taken to ascertain that the horse was 
not diseased, especially if any is giwn 

Worms are a constant source of trouble 
from the earliest days of puppy-hood, and 

no puppy suffering from them will thrive ; 
every effort, therefore, should be made to 
get rid of them. It has been asserted that 
the use of goat's milk is a preventative 
against worms, but I am afraid that very 
little reliance can be placed on this state- 

Constantly physicking puppies or grown 
dogs is a mistake made by many Mastiff 
owners, and still more so by their kennel- 
men. With proper feeding; grooming, ex- 
ercise, and cleanliness. Mastiffs can be kept 
in good condition without resort to medicine, 
the use of which should be strictly pro- 
hibited unless there is real need for it. 
Mastiffs kept imder such conditions are 
far more likely to prove successful stud 
dogs and brood bitches than those to which 
deleterious drugs are constantly being given. 
Although, as I have said, puppies should 
not be tied up, they should be accustomed 
to a collar and to be led when young. A 
dog is far less likely to be nervous in the 
show ring if he has been led about when 
young than one who has a collar and chain 
on for the first time only a few hours before 
he is sent off to some exhibition. 

CH. ARCHIE OF HASLEMERE and CH. CZAAR PETER by ch. marksman — lyndhurst rose. 

l-hotvi;uil,h ij FmUvii S- Co., High Wyiumlie. 


Pliolcgraph by T. Rudcy, Wantage. 


^- . - .,,^., o ^, ,. .-,.NG 


scendant of the 

BY \V. J. STfBBS. 

" Well, of all dogs it stands confessed 
Your English bull-dogs are the best, 
I say it, and will set my hand lo't, 
Camden records it, and I'll stand to't." 

Christopher Sm.\rt, 1722-1770. 

/^T^HE BuUdog is 
I loiown to have 
been domi- 
ciled in this country 
for several centuries, 
but many theories 
are advanced as to 
the origin of the 

It is generally ad- 
mitted to be a de- 
Alaunt," Mastive, or 
Bandog, described by Dr. Caius, who states 
that "the mastyve or Bandogge is vaste, 
huge, stubbome, ougly and eager, of a 
hevy and burthenous body, and therefore 
but of little swiftnesse, terrible and fright- 
ful to beholde, and more fearce and 
fell than any Arcadian curre. They are 
called (in Latin) Villatici, because they 

are appoynted to watche and keepe farms 
places and country cotages sequestered from 
common recourse and not abutting upon 
other houses by reason of distaunce. They 
are serviceable against the Foxe and Badger 
to drive wilde and tame swyne out of 
medowes, pastures, glebelandes, and places 
planted with fruite, to bayte and take the 
bull by the eare when occasion so requireth. 
One dogge, or two at the uttermost, sufficeth 
for that purpose, be the bull never so mon- 
sterous, never so fearce, never so furious, 
never so steame, never so untameable. For 
it is a kinde of dogge capable of courage, 
violent and vahaunt, striking could feare 
into the harts of men but standing in 
feare of no man, in so much that no weapons 
will make him shrincke nor abridge his 
boldnes. Our English men (to th' intent 
that theyr dogges might be the more fell 



and fearce) assist nature with arte, use and 
custome, for they teach theyr dogges to 
baite the Beare, to baite the Bull, and other 
such like cruell and bloudy beastes (appoint- 
ing an overseer of the game), without any 
collar to defend theyr throtes, and often- 
times they traine them up in fighting and 
wrestling witli a man lia\-ing for the safe- 
garde of his lyfe eythcr a Pikestaffe, a 

THE BULLDOG (1803). 
From ■• The SfoilsmaiiS C,,h 

By r. Rciimgle. R.A . 

clubbe, or a sworde, and by using them 
to suiii exercises as these theyr dogges 
become more sturdy and strong. The force 
which is in them surmounteth all beleefe, 
the faste holde which they take with their 
teeth e.xceedeth all credit ; three of them 
against a Beare, foure against a lyon, are 
sufficient both to try masteryes with them 
and utterly to overmatch them. Which 
Henry the seventh of that name, King of Eng- 
land (a prince both politique and warlike), 
perceaving on a certaine time, commaunded 
all such dogges (how many soever they were 
in number) should be hanged, beyng deeply 
displeased, and conceaving great disdaine 
that an yll faured rascall curre should with 
such violent villany assault the valiaunt 
L3'on King of all beastes." 

The Bulldog was, however, well known 
and appreciated for his unparalleled courage 
by the ancient Romans, for, as already men- 
tioned {p. 14), he is given the distinction of 

pulhng down a bull by Claudian, tjae last of 
the Latin classic poets, in the words : 

" The British hound 
That brings the bull's big forehead to the 

Symmachus also mentions the presence of 
British Bulldogs at the Coliseum in Rome. 
FitzStejjhen, who lived in the reign of 
Henry If. (1154-1189), says it was 
customary on the forenoon of every 
holiday for young Londoners to 
amuse themselves with bulls and 
full-grown bears baited by dogs. 
Spenser wrote (1553-1598) : 

" Like as a mastiff, having at a bay 
A salvage bull, whose cruell homes 

do threat 
Desperate daunger if he them assaye." 

Hentzner in his itinerary, printed 
in Latm (1598), describes the per- 
formance of a bull baiting at 
which he was present. He says: 
■' There is a place built in the form 
of a theatre which serves for baiting 
of bulls and bears ; they are fastened 
behind and then worried by great 
English bulldogs ; but not without 
risk to the dogs ; and it sometimes happens 
they are killed on the spot ; fresh ones 
are immediately supplied in the places 
of those that are wounded or tired." 

The first mention of the word Bulldog 
occurs in a letter, now in the Record Office, 
written by Prestwich Eaton from St. Sebas- 
tian to George Wellingham in St. Swithin's 
Lane, London, in 1631 or 1632, " for a 
good Masti\-e dogge, a case of bottles re- 
plenished with the best lickour, and pray 
proceur mee two good bulldoggs, and let 
them be sent by ye first shipp." 

The two following advertisements, pub- 
lished in the reign of Queen Anne, are con- 
tained in the Harleian MSS. : 

" At the Bear Garden in Hockley in the 
Hole, near Clerkenwell Green, this present 
Monday, there is a great match to be fought 
by two dogs of Hampstead, at the Reading 
Bull, for one guinea to be spent ; five lets 
goes out of hand ; which goes fairest and 



farthest in %\'ins all. The famous Bull of 
fireworks, which pleased the gentry to 
admiration. Likewise there are two Bear 
Dogs to jump three jumps apiece at the 
Beare, which jumps highest for ten shillings 
to be spent. .\lso variety of bull-baiting 
and bear-baiting ; it being a day of general 
sport by all the old gamesters and a bull- 
dog to be drawn up 
with fireworks. Begin- 
ning at three o'clock." 

"At \Yimam WeU's 
bear garden in Tuttle 
fields, Westminster, this 
present Monday, there 
will be a green Bull 
baited ; and twent\- 
Dogs to fight for a 
collar ; and the dog 
that runs farthest and 
fairest wins the collar ; 
with other diversions 
of bull- and bear-bait- 

" Beginning at two 
of the clock." 

The object aimed at 
in the pursuit of bull- 
baiting was that the 
dog should pin and 
hold the bull by the fso" t«e emravino bv john scott. 
muzzle, and not leave 
it. The bull was naturally helpless 
when seized in his most tender part. As 
the bull lowered his head in order to use 
his horns it was necessary for the dog to 
keep close to the ground, or, in the words 
of the old fanciers of the sport, to " play 
low." Larger dogs were at a disadvantage 
in this respect, and, therefore, those of 
smaller proportions, which were quite as 
suitable for the sport, were selected. 

The average height of the dogs was 
about i6 inches, and the weight was gener- 
ally about 45 lbs., whilst the body was 
broad, muscular, and compact, as is shown 
in the pictures of " Crib and Rosa " and 
'■ Bull Broke Loose," which are reproduced 
in these pages. 

In bull-baiting a rope about fifteen feet 
in length was fastened to the root of the 

horns, and the other end was secured to 
an iron ring fixed to a stone or stake driven 
into the ground. The dog kept his head 
close to the ground, or if of large size, he 
crawled on his belly to avoid being above 
the animal's horns. The bull, on the other 
hand, kept his nose close to the ground, 
and many of the veterans had sufficient 


cunnmg, or instinct, to scrape a hole in 
the ground for themselves when one was 
not already provided, and would then 
endeavour to toss the dog with his horns. 

The actual ring for bull-baiting still 
remains in several places in England, such 
as Hedon, Preston, Colchester, and Brading, 
in the Isle of Wight. Several towns, such 
as Birmingham and Dorchester, retain 
traces of the sport in the nomenclature of 
the streets. 

In the minute and carefully kept house- 
hold accounts of Sir Miles Stapleton, pub- 
hshed in The Antiquary, reference is made 
to the replacement of the ring for bull- 
baiting, and the stone to which it was 
fi.xed, in the market-place of Bedale, Yorks, 
in 1661. 

Pep3's mentions in his diary that he was 



Fyoitt an Chi Punt. 

present at a Imll-baiting in Snuthwark, 
on August 4th. i6()6. when the bull tossed 
one of the dogs " into the very boxes." 
deseribing the perfornianee as " a very 
rude and nasty pleasure." 

Bull-baiting lingered with us mueh longer 
than bear-baiting, and was a far more 
universal sport throughout England. The 
baited bull was supposed to be more tender 
for eating than when killed in the orthodo.x 
manner, and in various boroughs the butchers 
who sold unbaited bull beef were subjected 
to considerable penalties. During the 
Commonwealth the sport was condemned 
bv the Puritans, but subsequent to the 
Restoration the pastime was generally re- 
sumed with even greater zest. 

In 1802 a Bill was introduced into Par- 
liament for the suppression of bull-baiting, 
but it was resisted, especially by ]\Ir. Wind- 
ham, as part of a conspiracy by the Jacobins 
and Methodists to render the people grave 
and serious, and to uproot constitutional 
government ! 

Notwithstanding the efforts of Wilber- 
force and Sheridan, the bill was defeated by 
a majority of 13. 

\ worse fate befell a similar measure which 
was introduced in 1829 ; it was defeated 
by y^ votes to 28. 

After the Reform Bill became law the 
protests could no longer be set at naught, 
and bull-baiting was made illegal in 1835. 

The last recorded bull-baitings held in 
England were at Wirksworth in 1840, at 
Eccles in 1842, and at West Derby in 1853, 
all of which, of course, were held in an 
illicit manner. 

When bull-baiting was prohibited by 
law the sportsmen of the period turned their 
attention to dog-fighting, and for this 
pastime the Bulldogs were specially trained. 
The chief centres in London where these 
exhibitions took place were the Westminster 
Pit, the Bear Garden at Bankside, and the 
Old Conduit Fields in Bayswater. 

In order to obtain greater quickness of 
mo\-ement many of the Bulldogs were 
crossed with a terrier, although some 
fanciers relied on the pure breed. It is- 
recorded that Lord Camclford's Bulldog 
Belcher fought one hundred and four 
battles without once suffering defeat. 

I quote from The Sporting Magazine of 



1825 the following account of what, after 
all, must have been an exhibition disgusting 
to those who witnessed it and degrading to 
the dogs themselves : — 

" The Westminster Pit was crowded on 
Tuesday evening, Januarj' i8th, with all 
the dog fanciers in the metropolis to witness 
a battle between the celebrated dog Boney 
and a black novice called Gas, lately intro- 
duced to the fancy by Charley, to whom 
the dog belongs. The stakes were forty 
sovereigns, and everything was arranged 
to the satisfaction of the amateurs. The 
{it was lighted with an elegant chandelier 
and a profusion of wax lights. The dogs 
were brought to the scratch at eight o'clock 
in excellent condition, and were seconded 
by their respective masters. Boney was 
the favourite at 3 to i, and so continued 
till within ten minutes of the termination 
of the contest — a confidence arising solely 
from his known bottom, for to the impartial 
spectator Gas took the lead throughout. 
The battle lasted an hour and fifty minutes, 
when Boney was carried out insensible. He 
was immediately bled and put into a warm 

bath. There were nearly three hundred 
persons present." 

The method of conducting the fight was 
for each dog in turn to cross a chalked 
line and bring his opponent out of his 
corner. The dogs were handled by their 
keepers in the ring, and once they were 
released they flew at each other's throats, 
and having established a hold they pro- 
ceeded to grind and tear each other to the 

The tactics adopted by the dogs varied 
according to the training the}' had received. 
Some would fight at the head, others at the 
legs, which were frequently broken, \\hilst 
others attempted to tear open the throat. 
When a dog loosened his hold to breathe 
the " round " was terminated, and each 
dog was taken to his respective corner and 
sponged down by his keeper. A minute's 
grace was allowed between each round, and 
the fight sometimes lasted for two or three 

It will be observed in the picture of the 
\\'estminster Pit that three of the dogs 
outside the arena are being forcibly held 

From an Old Print. 



back from joining in the fray, into which they 
appear to be eager to enter. As a matter 
of fact, it was not necessary to incite the 
dogs to fight, as they were only too anxious 
to be at work, and while being restrained 
they would scream with rage and lick their 
lips in anticipation of what was to follow. 
In order that the ears might not form an 
easy object to hold they were usually 
cropped close to the head, and this practice 
was generally followed well into the 'seven- 
ties. Dog-fighting gradually declined dur- 
ing the middle of the last century, and 
practically ceased thirty years ago. 

Practices of this nature doubtless led 
to the lack of interest taken in the breed, 
and to the expression of opinion in British 
Field Sports that " the Bulldog devoted 
solely to the most barbarous and infamous 
purposes, the real blackguard of his species, 
has no claim uj^on utility, humanity, or 
common sense, and the total extinction 
of the breed is a desirable consummation " ; 
whilst in Parliament he was described as 
the incarnation of ferocity, l(.>ving l)lood- 
shed and combat, and tlie cause of the 
perpetuation of the cruelties which it was 
desired to suppress. 

There is no doubt tliat the Bulldog knew 
no fear. His tenacity of purpose was 
present even in his death struggles. Colonel 
Smith, writing in 1840, states that lie saw 
a Bulldog pinning an American bison and 
holding his nose down till tlie animal 
gradually brought forward its liind feet, 
and, crushing the dog to death, tore his 
muzzle, most dreadfully mangled, out of 
the dog's fangs. 

The decline of bull-baiting and dog- 
fighting after the passing of the Bill pro- 
hibiting these sports was responsible for 
a lack of interest in perpetuating the breed 
of Bulldogs. Even in 1824 it was said to 
be degenerating, and gentlemen who had 
previously been the chief breeders gradually 
deserted the fancy. 

At one time it was stated tluit Wasp, 
Child, and Billy, who were of the Duke of 
Hamilton's strain, were the only remaining 
Bulldogs in existence, and that upon their 
decease the Bulldog would become extinct — 

a prophecy whicli all Bulldog lovers happily 
find incorrect. 

The specimens alive in 1817, as seen in 
]5rints of that period, were not so cloddy 
as those met with on the sliow bench at 
the present day. Still, the outline of Rosa 
in the well-known print of Crib and Rosa, 
whi<li is reproduced on ji. 35, is considered 
to represent perfection in the shape, make, 
and size of the ideal type of Bulldog. The 
only objections which have been taken are 
that the bitch is deficient in wrinkles about 
the head and neck, and in substance of 
bone in the limbs. 

The following description of the Bull- 
dog contained in Goldsmith's " Animated 
Nature," 1840 edition, affords interest to 
present-day readers, inasmuch as modern 
breeding and environment have eliminated 
the worst, and improved the best charac- 
teristics of the dog : " The round, tliick head, 
turned-up nose, and thick, pendulous lips 
of this formidable dog are familiar to all. 
The nostrils of this variety are frequently 
cleft. Tlie want of tliat degree of discern- 
ment whicli is found in so many of the 
canine varieties, added to the ferocity of 
the bulldog, make it extremely dangerous 
when its courage and strength are employed 
to protect the person or property of its 
owner, or for any domestic purpose ; since, 
unlike many of the more sagacious, though 
less powerful dogs, which seem rather more 
anxious to gwc the alarm when danger 
threatens, by their barking, than to proceed 
immediately to action, the bulldog, in 
general, makes a silent but furious attack, 
and the persisting powers of its teeth and 
jaws enable it to keep its hold against any 
but the greatest efforts, so that the utmost 
mischief is likely to ensue, as well to the 
innocent visitor of its domicile as to the 
felonious intruder. The savage barbarity 
which, in various shapes, is so apt to sliow 
itself in the human mind, particularly when 
unchecked by education and refinement, 
has encouraged the breed of this variety 
of the dog, in order that gratification may 
be derived from the madness and torture 
of the bull and other animals, when exposed 
to the attacks of these furious beasts : and 



it is obser\-ed that since the decline of such 
sports, Bulldogs have diminished in num- 
ber — an instance whence we may learn 
how much the efforts of mankind operate 
on the domesticated genera of the animal 

" The internal changes which determine 
the external characteristics of this dog 
consist in a great development of the 
frontal sinuses, a development which elevates 
the bones of the forehead above the nose, 
and which leads in the same direction the 
cerebral ca^^t3^ But the most important 
change, and that, perhaps, which causes 
all the others, although we cannot perceive 
the connexion, is the diminution of the 
brain. The cerebral capacitj'^ of the Bull- 
dog is sensibly smaller than in any other 
race, and it is doubtless to the decrease 
of the encephalon that we must attribute 
its inferiority to all others in everything 
relating to inteUigence. The Bulldog is 
scarcely capable of any education, and is 
fitted for nothing but combat and ferocity. 
A fifth toe is occasionally' found more or 
less developed on the hind feet of this race. 
This, hke all other races far removed from 
the primitive type, is difficult of repro- 
duction. Their hfe, also, is short, though 
their de\elopment is slow, they scarcely 
acquire maturity imder eighteen months, 
and at five or six years show signs of de- 

The commencement of the dog-show era 
in 1859 enabled classes to be pro\-ided for 
Bulldogs, and a fresh incentive to breed 
them was offered to the dog fancier. In 
certain districts of the countrj-, notably 
in London, Birmingham, Sheffield, Man- 
chester, and Dudle3% a number of fanciers 
resided, and it is to their efforts that we 
are indebted for the varied specimens of the 
breed that are to be seen on the modem 
show bench. 

Amongst others in this connection may 
be mentioned Messrs. J. W. Berrie, of 
Tooting ; T. Verinder, J. Ashbume, B. White, 
\V. George, C. Aistrop, P. Rust, and 
H. Layton, of London ; G. W. Richards, 
F. Lamphier, and T. Turton, of Sheffield ; 
J. Lamphier, J. Hinks, and F. Reeves, of 

Birmingham ; J. Henshall and Peter Eden, 
of Manchester ; and A. Clay, of Wolver- 
hampton ; several of whom are still li\'ing. 

One of the first specimens, if not actually 
the first, exhibited which was worthy of 
the name of Bulldog, belonged to Mr. James 
Hinks, of Birmingham. He was a white 
dog, and gained the first prize at Birming- 
ham in i860. He was priced for sale at 
ten guineas. 

In 1864, at the Agricultural Hall in 
London, forty Bulldogs were on exhibition, 
and Mr. Jacob Lamphier, of Soho Street, 
Birmingham, won the first prize with his 
celebrated dog Champion King Dick, who 
was by Tommy ex Slut. This dog was 
48 lbs. in weight, and a red smut in colour, 
and is admitted to have been one of the 
best Bulldogs that ever hved. He was 
bom in 1858, and died when eight years 
of age, a few days after the demise of his 

As a proof — if any were needed — of the 
devotion, fideUty, and affection of the 
Bulldog, the following account of the death 
of this grand dog will be read with interest. 

Mr. Lamphier was afflicted with con- 
sumption, and at intervals, during the 
last tweh^e months of his life, was confined 
to his room. King Dick, being a great 
fa\^urite, was his constant companion. 
In April, 1866, Mr. Lamphier died. Dick 
was at the time confined to the yard, and 
continued to be so until after the funeral. 
The first day he was let loose he instantly 
rushed upstairs into his master's room and 
made straight for the easy chair in which 
his master used to sit, but it was vacant ; 
he put his paws on the bed, looked under 
it, rushed backwards and forwards crying 
piteously, ran to a back room which he 
searched thoroughly ; coming back, he 
went to the chair and bed again. Miss 
Lamphier, who was in the room, tried to 
comfort him, but without success ; he 
lay down on the rug before the fire, and 
never seemed to hft his head up again. 
No caress, no endearments, could rouse 
him. He refused all food that was offered 
to him, and it was with great difficulty 
that he was drenched with some beef tea. 



Stimulants were also given to him. but all 
was of no avail ; he gradually fell away 
from the fat, heavy dog that he had been 
to a complete skeleton, and on the fourth 


day after he had missed his old master 
King Dick himself was dead. 

Among the chief prize winners nf the 
'sixties and 'seventies fmm whi<ii tlie 
present-dav dogs are descended may be 
mentioned (3kl King C^le, King Cole, 
Champions Venom, Mun.irrh. and Game- 
ster, who were bn-d by Mr. J. W. Berrie ; 
Champion Duke, by the Duke of Hamilton ; 
Champion Smasher, by Mr. Harry Layton ; 
Champions Ruling Passion, His Lordship, 
and Cigarette, and Lord Nelson, by Tom 
Ball, of Peckham ; Champion Queen ]\Iab, 
by Fred Reeves ; Champion Crib, Thunder, 
and Sir Anthony, by Fred Lamphier, and 
Champions Sanclio Panza and Diogenes, by 
.Mr. P. Rust. 

(Jf these probably the dog which is 
owned as a sire by most of the modern 
dogs is Champion Crib, who was a heavy- 
weight brindle dog, with an immense skull, 
short in back and limbs, without being in 
anv way a cripple or monstrosity- He was 
purchased from Mr. Lamphier by Mr. 
Turton — ^hence his common sobriquet of 
Turton's Crib — and was never beaten in 
the show ring. 

His mating with Mr. Berne's Rcjse, ]\Ir. 
Lamphier's Meg, Mr. Rust's Miss Smiff, 
and Mr. W. Beckett's Kit, established the 
four great prize-winning strains of our own 
time, although there are several other 
strains which do not descend from Crib. 

()f the contemj)orary strains we find a 
large proportion of dogs trace their descent 
from Mr. Fred Reeves' Stockwell, who was 
sired by Don Pedro, who himself was by 
the Dudley nosed Sahib, belonging to the 
Crib-Kit strain. The general characteristics 
of tlie Stockwell strain are good heads and 
bodies, and tlie best representati\-es of 
the strain are Champions Dimboola, Boaz, 
Baron Sedgemere, Housewife, and Battle- 
dora, Barney Barnato, True Type, Bala- 
cla\a. Amber Duchess, Jack of Spades, 
U.\bridge Matadore, and Spa Victoria. 

Don Salano, who was a litter brother to 
Stockwell, is also very fully represented 
by present-day dogs, the chief characteristics 
of the strain being found in their lowness 
to ground, well - delmed but sometimes 
small skulls, and good body properties. 
The best dogs of this strain are Champions 
Bicester Beautv, Felton Prince, Totora, and 


Pressgang, Cyclops, First Attempt, High- 
wayman, Klialifa — the sire of Champion 
Mahomet — Lord Francis. Ivy Leaf, Lucy 
Venn, Don Perseus, and Don Alexis the 



last of whom in turn sired Champion 
Primula, Birkdale Beauty, Don Cervantes, 
Woodcote Galtee More, and Merlin. 
The Bruce strain is noted for its long 


skulls possessing the desired properties of 
distance between the eyes and from the 
eyes to the ears. The ears are small, and 
usually set neatly on the head. Champion 
Bedgebury Lion, a brindle pied dog, was 
b}- The Alderman, who in turn was by 
Bruce II. He was bom August i6th, 1888, 
and was bred b}' Mr. Beresford Hope. 
He had a wide, flat skuU, large nostrils, 
good ears, and turn-up of under] aw, but 
might have been wider out at the shoulders. 
He created quite a sensation when brought 
out as a nine-months' old puppy at the Bull- 
dog Club Show in 1889. Some writers 
indicate a definite strain from Bedgebury 
Lion, but the real properties arc derived 
from Bruce II., who was by Gamester, 
and therefore of the Crib — Rose strain. The 
best-known dogs of the Bruce strain are 
The Alderman, Satan II., The Antiquary 
(later known as Master Bruce), Mersham 
Jock, Banana, Enfield Tartlet, Boom-de-ay, 
Captain Jack, p3-ecrust, Shylock, and Baby 

The King Orry strain stands out promin- 
ently as being noted for producing big, 

long-skulled dogs, with good lay-back, weU 
turned-up under] aws, and neat ears. The 
bodies are usually well shaped. Many 
present-day winners belong to this strain, 
and are good in the foregoing properties. 

King Orry, born on January 25th, 1889, 
was bred by Mr. Tasker, and was a w^hite 
dog with black and brindle markings. He 
was by Pagan, e% Koorie, and therefore 
also of the Crib — Rose strain. 

The best known dogs of the King Orry 
strain are Champions Boomerang, Broad- 
lea Squire, Katerfelto, Felton Duchess, 
Facey Romford, and Prince Albert, Kata- 
pult, Duke of Albemarle, Diavolo, Bombard, 
Demon Monarch, Forlorn, First Success, 
President Carnot, and General French. 

The Prisoner strain is of recent date, but 
it has certain well-defined properties, not- 
ably the width and turn-up of under] aw. 
Other characteristics are large skulls, well 
broken-up faces, and good sound bodies, 
but the ears are inclined to be heavy. 

Prisoner was by First Result, who be- 
longed to the Don Salano strain, and his 
other ancestors were Champion Pathfinder 
(who had an exceptionally well turned- 


up under] aw, and was the grandson of 
Champion Monarch, who in turn was of 
the Crib — Rose strain) and Champion His 
Lordship, who was by Don Pedro, who 




rhol,>^iaf>li by The Alt Portrait Co., Caiiibciwd!. 

belonged to the Crib — Kit strain. It will 
be seen that dogs of the Prisoner strain 
are well outcrossed, seeing that they com- 
bine two of the four original strains. The 
best representatives are Champion Port- 
land, Klondike, Fugitive, Persephone, Cham- 
pion Lady Bute, Lord Milner, Stealaway, 
and Kilburn King. 

The most sensational strain of dogs at 
the present day is that founded bv Mr. 
Jefferies, as a result of mating his Lucv 
Loo with Mr. R. G. S. Mann's John of the 

Funnels, who was by Wadsley Jack, and„ 
therefore, of the Crib — Miss Smiff strain. 
One of the puppies of the resulting litter 
was later known to the fancy as Champion 
Rodney Stone, and had the distinction 
of being the first Bulldog to be sold for 
^ He was purchased by Mr. R. 
Croker, of New York. Rodney Stone 
had, together with his son Buckstone, the 
remarkable property of stamping his ex- 
pression and body properties on resulting 
progeny to several generations. The writer 



has frequently recognised the wide front, 
the distinctive appearance of the eyes, and 
the tumed-up underjaw in dogs of the third 
generation who have only claimed Rodney 
Stone once as a sire in their pedigree. 

The following prize-winning dogs are all 
descended from Champion Rodney Stone, 
and the list comprises some of the best 

dogs of the present day : Champion Regal 
Stone, Buckstone, True Type, Lodestone, 
Stolid Joe, Comely Maid, Champion Park- 
holme Crib, Stonecrop, Champion Thackeray 
Primstone, Rosewame Grabber, Rhoda 
Stone, Roj^al Stone, Lucy Stone, Buxom 
Stone, John Campbell, Champion Rufus 
Stone, Lady Albertstone, and Champion 



Photograph by T. ReveUy, Wanhige. 



Beowulf. Other equally famous dogs of 
this strain are Rex Stone, British Stone, 
and Dick Stone, but they have never been 
exhibited on the show bench. .\11 these 
dogs ha\'e good wide fronts, small ears, 
long square skulls with plenty of cushion, 
and good turn-up of underjaw. The bodies 
as a rule are good, but in some specimens 
there is a tendency to sink the first rib 
behind the shoulder. 

Among other good dogs well known in 
the prize ring, but which, owing to out- 
crosses or being descended from some of 
tlij contemporaries of Champinn Crib, are 
not properly belonging to the foregoing 
strains, are Champion Ivel Doctor, who 
sired the present-day winners, Champions 
Nuthurst Doctor and Hampshire Lily ; 
Bapton Monarch, by Avenger, who sired 
Champion Woodcote Chinosol ; Champion 
Bromley Crib, who sired Swashbuckler — a 
present-day pillar of the stud book — who 
in turn sired Champions Moston Michael 
and W'dodcote SalH' Lunn, Octa\'ia and 
Felton Peer ; Carthusian Cerberus, who 
sired Champion Heywood Duchess, who is 
the dam of the sensational half-sisters, 
Champions Silent Duchess and Kitty Royal, 
two of the three best living bitches at 
present exhibited. 

In forming a judgment of a Bulldog the 
general appearance is of most importance, 
as the various points of the dog should be 
symmetrical and well balanced, no one 
point being in excess of the others so as 
to destroy the impression of determination, 
strength, and activity which is conveyed 
by the typical specimen. His body should 
be thickset, rather low in stature, but 
broad, powerful, and compact. The head 
should be strikingly massive and large in 
proportion to the dog's size. It cannot be 
too large so long as it is squari' ; that is, 
it must not be wider than it is dee]i. The 
larger the head in circumference, caused 
by the jirominent cheeks, the greater the 
quantity of muscle to hold the jaws to- 
gether. The head should be of great depth 
from tlie occiput to the base of the lower 
jaw, and should not in any way be wedge- 
shaped, dome-shaped, or peaked. In cir- 

cumference the skull should measure in 
front of the ears at least the height of the 
dog at the shoulders. The cheeks should 
be well rounded, extend sideways beyond 
the eyes, and be well furnished with muscle. 
Length of skull — that is, the distance be- 
tween the eye and the ear — is very desirable. 
The forehead should be flat, and the skin 
uj)on it and about the head very loose, 
hanging in large wrinkles. The temples, or 
frontal bones, should be very prominent, 
broad, square arid high, causing a wide 
and deep groove knowTi as the " stop " 
between the eyes, and sliould extend up 
the middle of the forehead, dividing the 
head \-ertically, being traceable at the top 
of the skull. The expression " well broken 
up " is used where this stop and furrow 
are well marked, and if there is the at- 
tendant looseness of skin the animal's 
expression is well linished. 

The face, when measured from the front 
of the cheek-bone to the nose, should be 
short, and its skin should be deeply and 
closely wrinkled. Excessive shortness of 
face is not natural, and can only be obtained 
by the sacrifice of the " chop." Such 
shortness of face makes the dog appear 
smaller in head and less formidable than 
lie otherwise would be. Formerly this 
shortness of face was artificially obtained 
by the use of the " jack," an atrocious form 
of torture, by which an iron instrument 
was used to force back the face by means 
of thumbscrews. The nose should be 
rough, large, broad, and black, and this 
colour should extend to the lower lip ; its 
top should be deeply set back, almost be- 
tween the eyes. The distance from the 
inner corner of the eye to the extreme tip 
of the nose should not be greater than the 
length from the tip of the nose to the edge 
of the under li[i. The nostrils should be 
large and wide, with a well-defined straight 
line \-isible between them. The largeness 
of nostril, which is a \'ery desirable property, 
is possessed by few of the recent prize- 

When viewed in profile the tip of the nose 
should toucli an imaginary line drawn from 
the extremity of the lower jaw to the top 



of the centre of the skull. This angle of the 
nose and face is known as the layback, 
and can onl}' properh- be ascertained by 
vie\\-ing the dog from the side. 

Dogs ha\-ing flesh-coloured noses are 
called '■ Dudleys " on account of a strain of 
such animals ha^-ing been kept at Dudley 
in Worcestershire. Dogs possessing this 
blemish have invariably light-coloured ej-es 
and a \"ello\v appearance in the face gener- 
ally. Although the Bulldog Club decreed 
in 1884 that dogs having Dudley noses 
should be disquahfied from winning prizes 
at any show, it is of interest to point out 
that the special prize for the best dog in 
the show was awarded at the Bulldog 
Club's first show in 1876 to Bacchus, who 
had tliis defect, .\nother good dog with 
a Dudley nose was Saliib, the sire of Don 
Pedro, who in turn was the sire of such 
good dogs as Champions Dn,-ad, Don Salano, 
Ivitt}- Cole, His Lordship, and Cigarette. 
Efforts are being made to breed out tliis 
defect, although otherwise good specimens 
still occasionally appear from certain well- 
known strains. Other dogs have a parti- 
coloured or " butterfly " nose, which detracts 
from their general appearance, but, unlike 
Dudleys, thej' are not disqualified for the 

The incUnation backward of the nose 
allows a free passage of the air into the 
nostrils whilst the dog is holding his quarry. 
It is apparent that if the mouth did not 
project beyond the nose, the nostrils w^ould 
be flat against the part to which the dog 
was fixed, and breatliing would then be 

The upper lip, called the " chop," or 
flews, should be thick, broad, pendant and 
verj' deep, hanging completely over the 
lower jaw at the sides, but only just join- 
ing the under lip in front, yet covering 
the teeth completely. The amount of 
" cushion " which a dog may have is 
dependent upon the thickness of the flews. 
The Ups should not be pendulous. 

The upper jaw should be broad, massive, 
and square, the tusks being wide apart, 
whilst the lower jaw, being turned up- 
wards, should project in front of the upper. 

The teeth should be large and strong, 
and the six small teeth between the tusks 
should be in an even row. The upper 
jaw carmot be too broad between the tusks. 
If the upper and lower jaws are level, 
and the muzzle is not tmned upwards 
the dog is said to be " down-faced," whilst 
if the underjaw- is not imdershot he is said 
to be " froggy." A " wxy-faced " dog is 
one ha\ing the lower jaw twisted, and this 
deformity so detracts from the general 
appearance of the dog as seriously to 
handicap him in the show-ring. 

The underjaw projects be3'ond the upper 
in order to allow the dog, when running 
directly to the front, to grasp the .bull, and, 
when fixed, to give him a firmer hold. The 
eyes, seen from the front, should be situated 
low dowTi in the skull, as far from the ears, 
the nose, and each other as possible, but 
quite in front of the forehead, so long as 
their comers are in a straight hue at right 
angles with the stop, and in front of the 
forehead. They should be a httle above 
the level of the base of the nasal bone, 
and should be quite round in shape, of 
moderate size, neither sunken nor promi- 
nent, and be as black in colour as possible — 
almost, if not quite, black, showing no white 
when looldng directly to the front. 

A good deal of a Bulldog's appearance 
depends on the qualit}^ shape, and carriage 
of his ears. They should be small and thin, 
and set high on the head ; that is, the 
front inner edge of each ear should, as 
\iewed from the front, join the outhne 
of the skull at the top comer of such out- 
hne, . so as to place them as wide apart, 
as high, and as far from the eyes as possible. 
The shape should be that which is knowoi 
as " rose," in wiiich the ear folds inward at 
the back, the upper or front edge cur\ing 
over outwards and backwards, showing 
part of the inside of the burr. If the ears 
are placed low on the skuU they give an 
apple-headed appearance to the dog. If 
the ear falls in front, hiding the interior, 
as is the case with a Fox-terrier, it is said 
to " button," and this type is highl}' objec- 
tionable. Unfortunately, within the last 
few years the " button " and " semi-tuhp " 



ear have been rather prevalent amongst the 
specimens on the show bench. 

If the ear is carried erect it is known as 
a " tuhp " car, and this form also is objec- 




tionable. Nevertheless, at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century two out of ever\- 
three dogs possessed ears of this description. 
The neck should be moderate in length, 
very thick, deep, muscular, and short, but 
of sufficient length to allow it to be well 
arched at the back, commencing at the 
junction with the skull. There should 
be plentv of loose, thick, and wrinkled 
skin about tiie thmat, forming a dewlap 
on each side from the lower jaw to the 

The chest should be very wide laterally, 
round, prominent, and deep, making the 
dog appear very broad and short-legged 
in front. The shoulders should be broad, 
the blades sloping considerably from the 
body ; they should be deep, very powerful, 
and muscular, and should be flat at the top 
and play loosely from the chest. 

The brisket should be capacious, round, 
and very deep from the top of the shoulder 
to the lowest part, where it joins the chest, 

and be well let down between the forelegs. 
It should be large in diameter, and round 
behind the forelegs, neither flat-sided nor 
sinking, which it will not do provided 
that the first and succeeding ribs are well 
rounded. The belly should be well tucked 
up and not pendulous, a small narrow 
waist being greatly admired. The desired 
object in bodv formation is to obtain great 
girth at the brisket, and the smallest 
jiossible around the waist, that is, the 
loins should be arched very high, when the 
dog is said to have a good " cut-up." 

The back should be short and strong, 
\-ery broad at the shoulder and com- 
paratively narrow at the loins. The back 
should rise behind the shoulders in a grace- 
ful curve to the loins, the top of which 
should be higher than the top of the 
shoulders, thence cur\-ing again more sud- 
denly to the tail, forming an arch known 
as the "roach" back, which is essentially 
a characteristic of the breed, though, un- 
fortunately, many leading prize-winners of 
the present day are entirely deficient in 



rholLieinph by llcdncs, Lytham. 

this respect. Some dogs dip very con- 
siderably some distance behind the shoulders 
before the upward curve of the spine begins, 
and these are known as " swamp-backed " ; 



others rise in an almost straight hne to 
the root of the tail, and are known as 
" stem-high." 

The tail should be set on low, jut out 
rather straight, then turn downwards, the 
end pointing horizontall^^ It should be 
quite round in its whole length, smooth 
and devoid of fringe or coarse hair. It 
should be moderate in length, rather short 
than long, thick at the root, and taper 
quickly to a fine point. It should have 
a downward carriage, and the dog should 
not be able to raise it above the level of the 
backbone. The tail should not curve at 
the end, otherwise it is Icnown as " ring- 
tailed." The ideal length of tail is about 
six inches. 

Many fanciers demand a " screw " or 
" kinked " tail, that is, one having con- 
genital dislocations at the joints, but such 
appendages are not desirable in the best 
interests of the breed. 

The forelegs should be very stout and 
strong, set wide apart, thick, muscular, and 
short, with well-developed muscles in the 
calves, presenting a rather bowed outline. 

the back appear long or detract from the 
dog's activity and so cripple him. 

The elbows should be low and stand well 
away from the ribs so as to permit tlie body 



Photograph by Belt, Heyxvood. 

.-- > 



Photograph by T. Fall. 

but tiie bones of the legs must be straight, 
large, and not bandy or curved. They 
should be rather short in proportion to 
the hindlegs, but not so short as to make 

to swing between them. If tliis property 
be absent the dog is said to be " on the 
leg." The ankles or pasterns should be 
short, straight, and strong. The forefeet 
should be straight and turn very slightly 
outwards ; they should be of medium size 
and moderately round, not too long or 
narrow, whilst the toes should be thick, 
compact, and well split up, making the 
knuckles prominent and higli. 

The hindlegs, though of slighter build than 
the forelegs, should be strong and muscular. 
They should be longer, in proportion, than 
the forelegs in order to elevate the loins. 
The stifles should be round and turned 
slightly outwards, away from the body, 
thus bending the hocks inward and the 
hindfeet outward. The hocks should be 
well let down, so that the leg is long and 
muscular from the loins to the point of 
the hock, which makes the pasterns short, 
but these should not be so short as those 
of tl^e forelegs. The hindfeet, whilst being 
smaller than the forefeet, should be round 



and compact, with the toes well split up, 
and the knuckles prominent. 

The most desirable weight for a Bulldog 
is about 50 lbs. 

The coat should be fine in te.xture, short, 
close, and smooth, silky when stroked from 
the head towards the tail owing to its 
closeness, but not wiry when stroked in 
the reverse direction. 

The colour should be whole or smut, 
tlie latter being a whole colour with a 
black mask or muzzle. It should be 
brilliant and pure of its sort. The colours 
in order of merit are, first, whole colours 
and smuts, viz. binndles, reds, white, with 



Fhologntfh In W. V D,i:i.t.\ F /.S. 

their \arieties. as wliole fawns, fallnws. 
etc.. and. secondly, I'ied and mi.xed c nlnurs. 
Opinions differ considerably on the cnldur 
question ; one judge will set back a fawn 
and put forward a pied dog, whilst others 
will do the reverse. Occasionally one comes 
across specimens having a black-and-tan 
colour, which, although not mentioned in 
the recognised standard as being debarred, 
do not as a rule figure in the prize list. 
Some of the best specimens which the writer 
has seen have been black-and-tans, and a 
few j-ears ago on liis awarding a first prize 
to a bitch of this colour, a Idug but non- 
conclusive argument was held in the canine 
press. Granted that the colour is objection- 
able, a dog which scores in all other properties 

should not be put down for this point alone, 
seeing that in the dog-fighting days there 
were many specimens of this colour. 

In action the Bulldog should have a 
peculiarly heavy and constrained gait, a 
rolling, or " slouching " movement, appear- 
ing to walk with short, quick steps on the 
tip of his toes, his hindfeet not being lifted 
high but appearing to skim the ground, 
and running with the right shoulder rather 
advanced, similar to the manner of a horse 
when cantering. 

The foregoing minute description of the 
various show points of a Bulldog indicates 
that he should have the appearance of a 
thick-set Ayrshire or Highland bull. In 
stature he should be low to the ground, 
broad and compact, the body being carried 
between and not on the forelegs. He 
should stand over a great deal of ground, 
and have the appearance of immense power. 
The height of the foreleg should not exceed 
the distance from the elbow to the centre of 
the back, between the shoulder blades. 

Considerable importance is attached to 
the freedom and activity displayed by the 
animal in its movements. Deformed joints, 
or weakness, are very objectionable. The 
licad should be strikingly massive and 
carried low, the face short, the muzzle very 
br(jad, blunt, and inclined upwards. The 
body should be short and well-knit, the 
limbs, stout and muscular. The hind- 
quarters should be very high and strong, 
but rather lightly made in comparison 
with the heavily-made fore-parts. 

A.s an indication of the relative value 
of the |;oints mcntioiied in the foregoing 
description the following standard of points 
is inserted : — 



Width and squareness 
of jaw 

Projection and up- 
ward turn of lower 
jaw . 

Size and condition of 
of teeth 

Breadth . 
Depth . 

Complete covering of 
front teeth 




Face . . . Shortness 
Breadth . 
Depth . 

Shape and upward 
turn of muzzle . 
V.'rinkles . 

General appearance 


Stop . 


Eyes ■ 

Ears . 

Chest & Neck 



Back Roach . 


Hind Le^s 




Breadth and square- 




Position . 

Position . 

Length . 

Dewlap . 

Width, depth, and 
roundness of chest 


Breadth . 
Muscle . 

Depth and thickness 
of brisket . 

Capacity and round- 
ness of ribs 


Width of shoulders . 
Shape, strength, and 
arch of loin 

Development . 

Length . 
Shape and develoo- 

ment . 






Whilst I do not wish to encroach upon 
the chapters in this work devoted to the 
care and veterinary treatment of dogs in 
general, I yet feel that it is desirable to 
touch upon certain matters affecting the 
Bulldog in particular. 

It must be acknowledged, in the first 
place, that there are many strains of this 
breed which are constitutionally unsound. 
For this reason it is important that the 
novice should give very careful considera- 
tion to his first purchase of a Bulldog. He 
should ascertain beyond all doubt, not only 
that his proposed purchase is itself sound 
in wind and limb, but that its sire and dam 
are, and have been, in similarl}' healthy 
condition. The dog to be chosen should 
be physically strong and show pronounced 
muscular development. If these require- 
ments are present and the dog is in no sense 
a contradiction of the good quaUties of its 
progenitors, but a justification of its pedigree, 
care and good treatment will do the rest. 
It is to be remembered, however, that a 
Bulldog may be improved by judicious 
exercise. When at exercise, or taking a 
walk with his owner, the young dog should 
always be held by a leash. He will in- 
variably pull vigorousljf against this re- 
straint, but such action is beneficial, as it 
tends to develop the muscles of the shoulders 
and front of the body. 

When taking up the Bulldog faticy, 
nine out of every ten novices choose to 
purchase a male. I always advise the 
contrary course and recommend a bitch. 
The female is an equally good com- 
panion in the house or on the road ; she 
is not less affectionate and faithful ; and 
when the inevitable desire to attempt 
to reproduce the species is reached the 
beginner has the means at once available. 
It is always difficult for the uninitiated 
to select what is likely to be a good dog 
from the nest. In choosing a puppy care 



should be taken to ensure that it has plenty 
of bone in its limbs, and these should be 
fairly short and wide ; the nostrils should be 
large and the face as short as possible. T1k> 
chop should be thick and heavily wrinkled 
and the mouth square. There should be a 
distinct indent in the upper jaw, where the 
bone will eventually curve, whilst the lower 
jaw should show sings of curvature and 
protrude slightly in front of the upper jaw. 


The teeth from canine to canine, including 
the si.x front teeth, should be in a straight 

See that the ears are very small and thin, 
and the eyes set well apart. The puppy 
having these properties, together with a 
domed, peaked, or " cocoanut "' shaped 
skull, is the one which, in nine cases out of 
ten, will eventually make the best headed 
dog of the litter. 

The breeding of Bulldogs recpures un- 
limited patience, as success is \-ery diffi- 
cult to attain. The breeder who can rear 
five out of every ten puppies born may be 
considered fortunate. It is frequently found 
in what appears to be a healthy lot of 
puppies that some of them begin to whine 
and whimper towards the end of the first 
day, and in such cases the writer's e.xi:)eri- 
ence is that there will be a speedv burial. 

It may be that the cause is due to some 
acidity of the milk, but in such a case one 
would expect that similar difficultv would 
be experienced witii the remainder of the 

litter, but this is not the usual result. 
Provided that the puppies can be kept alive 
until the fourth dav, it mav be taken that 
the chances are well in fa\'(iur nf ultimate 

Many breeders object to feeding the mother 
with meat at this time, but the writer 
recently had two litter sisters who whelped- 
on the same day, and he decided to try 
the effect of a meat vcysiis farinaceous 
diet upon them. .As a result the bitch 
wild was freelv fed with raw beef reared a 
stronger l(.)t of puppies. sh(jwing better 
developed bune, than did the one who 
was fed on milk and cereals. 

Similarly, in order that the puppy, after 
weaning, may de\'el(.)ii jilenty of bone and 
niusrle. it is ad\'isable to feed once a day 
upon tmely minced raw meat. I am ac- 
quainted with two successful breeders who 
invariably give to each puppy a teaspoonful 
of ci)d h\-er oil in the morning and a similar 
dose of extract of malt in the evening, 
with the result that there are never any 
rickety or weak dogs in the kennels, whilst 
the de\-elopnient of the bones in the skull 
and limbs is most pronounced. 

Owing to their lethargic disposition, young 
Bulldogs are somewhat liable to indigestion, 
and during the period of puppyhood it is 
of advantage to give them a tablespoonful 
of lime water once a day in their milk food. 

Many novices are in doubt as to the best 
time to breed from a Bull bitch, seeing 
that cestrum is present before she is fully 
developed. It may be taken as practically 
certain that it is better for her to be allowed 
to breed at her first heat. Nature has so 
arranged matters that a Bull bitch is not 
firmly set m her bones until she reaches 
an age of from twelve to eighteen months, 
and therefore she will have less difficulty 
in gix'ing birth to her offspring if she be 
allowed to breed at this time. Great mor- 
talit}' occurs in attempting to breed from 
maiden bitclies exceeding three years of 
age, as the writer knows to his cost. 

It is desirable, in the case of a young bitch 
ha\ing her first litter, for her master or mis- 
tress to be near her at the time, in order 
to render any necessary assistance ; but 


such attentions should not be given unless 
actual necessity arises. 

Sonae bitches wth excessive lay-back 
and shortness of face have at times a diffi- 
cult\' in releasing the puppy from the 
membrane in which it is bom, and in such 
a case it is necessar}' for the owner to open 
this covering and release the puppy, gently 
shaking it about in the box until it coughs 
and begins to breathe. 

The umbilical cord should be severed from 
the afterbirth about four inches from the 
pupp3% and this will dry up and fall away 
in the course of a couple of days. 

In general, it is true economy for the 
Bulldog breeder to provide a foster-mother 
in readiness for the birth of the expected 
htter ; especially is this so in the case of a 
first litter, where the qualifications for 
nursing by the mother are unknown. 
\Miere there are more than five puppies it is 
also desirable to obtain a foster-mother in 
order that full nourishment may be given 
to the litter by both mothers. 

The best time of the year for puppies 
to be bom is in the spring, when, owing to 
the approaching warm weather, they can 
lead an outdoor life. By the time they are 
six months old they should have sufficient 
stamina to enable them to withstand the 
cold of the succeeding winter. It has been 
ascertained that Bulldogs which have been 
reared out of doors are the least liable to 
suffer from indigestion, torpidity of the 
hver, asthma or other chest ailments, 
whilst they invariably have the hardiest 

Bulldogs generally require liberal feeding, 
and should have a meal of dry biscuit the 
first thing in the morning, whilst the even- 
ing meal should consist of a good stew of 
butcher's offal poured over broken bis- 
cuit, bread, or other cereal food. In the 
winter time it is advantageous to soak a 

tablespoonful of linseed in water over- 
night, and after the pods have opened 
turn the resulting jelly into the stew pot. 
This ensures a fine glossy coat, and is of 
value in toning up the intestines. Care 
must, however, be taken not to follow this 
practice to excess in warm weather, as the 



heating nature of the linseed will eventually 
cause skin trouble. 

With these special points attended to, in 
addition to the directions for the care, 
feeding, and breeding of dogs in general, 
the novice should find no difficulty in suc- 
cessfully becoming a Bulldog fancier, owner, 
and breeder. 

In conclusion, it cannot be too widely 
known that the Bulldog is the only breed 
of dog w'hich can, with perfect safety, be 
trusted alone to the mercy of children, who, 
naturally, in the course of play, try the 
patience and good temper of tlie firmest 
friend of man. 



I'lwtoginflis hr Lams. Eastbi 






" PcUc'as luiil a i^i-L-al, biilgiiig. fou'crfid jorclh-ad. like that of Socrates or ]'L'rlamc ; mid, under a 
little black nose, blunt as a churlish asseiil. a fair of lur<^c. lianging and syiiunetncal chops, which 
made his head a sort of massive, obsliiiate. pensive, and three-cornered mciace. He icas beautiful 
after the manner of a beaiiiiful natural numster that has complied strictlv icith the Lncs of his 
species. And 'a'hal a smile nf attentive obligingness, of tncorruptible iwioceuce. of affectionate 
submission, of boundless rralitude, and total self-abandonment, lit up. at the least caress, that 
adorable mask of ugliness!" — M.^eterlixck. 


*^(JY Bulldogs are an acquired taste," 
said a friend to me : and winle I was 
meditating an adequate reply, lie 
raslil}' added : " Like coi^ee or caviare." 
This gave me my opening, and I hastened to 
assure him that there is nobody — who is any- 
body, that is to say — who does not nowadays 
both know and highly appreciate coffee, cavi- 
are, and Toy Bulldogs ! Not to so do would 
be, indeed, to argue oneself unknown ! It is 
also another of the many proofs that history 
repeats herself. For fifty or sixty years 
ago. Toy — (jr, rather, as a recent edict 
of the Kennel Club requires them to be 
dubbed, ]\Iiniature — Bulldogs were common 
objects of the canine country-side. In 
fact, you can hardly ever talk for ten 

minutes to anv Bulldog breeder of old 
standing without his telling you tall stories 
of tlie wonderful little Bulldogs, weighing 
about Jifteen or si.xteen pounds, he either 
knew or owned, in those long-past days ! 

Prominent among those who made a 
cult of these " Bantams " were the lace- 
workers of Nottingham, and many prints 
are extant which bear witness to the excellent 
little specimens they bred. But a wave of 
unpopularity overwhelmed them, and they 
faded across the Channel to France, where, 
if, as is asserted, our (iallic neighbours 
appreciated them highly, they cannot be 
said to have taken much care to preserve 
their best points. When, in 1898, a small 
but devoted band of admirers re\-ived 



them in England, they returned most at- 
tractive, 'tis true, but hampered b}- many 
undesirable features, such as bat ears, 
frogg}- faces, waving tails, and a general 
lack of Bulldog character. However, the 


Toy Bulldog Club then started num- 
bered on its committee the late Mr. G. R. 
Krehl (who previously to that date had 
alread}' imported some good specimens to 
England), the Hon. Mrs. Baillie, of 
Dochfour, iliss Augusta Bruce, Ladj' Lewis, 
and the present writer. The club took 
the dogs vigorously in hand, and, having 
obtained them their charter as a recognised 
breed from the Kennel Club, proceeded to 
make slow but sure progress, and this not- 
withstanding the fact that in 1902 a \-iolent 
split occurred in its ranks. Owing to various 
differences of opinion a certain number 
of members then left and proceeded to form 
themseh-es into what is now known as the 
French Bulldog Club of England. Thanks 
to the original club's unceasing efforts, To}^ 
BuUdogs have always since been catered for 
at an ever increasing number of shows. 
The original solitary " mixed open " class, 
for all sexes and sorts, is now split up into 
various separate classes, suited to sex, 
seniority, and other distinctions. Their 
weight, after much heated discussion and 
sundry downs and ups, was finally fixed 

at twenty-two pounds and under, this 
decision, by the way, costing them their 
original prefix. For the Kennel Club rightly 
decided that a sturdily built Bulldog of 
twent\--two pounds weight can in no sense 
be deemed a '"Toy"! So the breed then 
blossomed forth as " Bulldogs — Miniature," 
and have thri\-en well on the change both 
of weight and name. In order to encourage 
small specimens a class for those under 
twenty pounds is guaranteed by the club 
at most big shows, and is generalh^ well 

Another recent change has been that 
of ears. Bat ears, after being sadh' suffered 
for a long time in the scale of points, ha\-e 
at last been firmty marked as a disqualifica- 
tion, and this by order of the Kennel Club. 
From the ist of January, 1907, all in- 
breeding with French Bulldogs has been 
absolutely forbidden, and the two breeds, 
so long confusedly intertwined, have at 
length been finally dissociated. Equally 
disqualifN'ing are the shades of colour known 
as black and blue — the latter a kind of 
slaty grey, detested in the eyes of big 
BuUdog breeders. 


The original aim of ^liniature Bulldogs — 
i.e. to look like the larger variety seen 
through the WTong end of a telescope — if 
not actually achieved, is being rapidly 
approached, and can no longer be looked 



upon as merely the hopeless dream of a and small, dating from sixty to eighty 

few enthusiasts ! 
weighing undi 

That to get, in a dog 
twenty-two pounds, the 

years ago, the bat or prick ears are fre- 
quently to be noted ; a fact which weak- 
ens the contention held by 
many that they are the 
sign of a pure French 
breed, originating across 
the Channel. 

To enumerate in detail 
the Miniature Bulldog scale 
of points is quite unnecessary, as it is simply 
that of the big ones writ small. In other 
words, " the general appearance of the 
]\Iiniature Bulldog must as nearly as possible 
resemble that of the Big Bulldog " — a terse 
sentence which comprises in itself all that 
can be said on the subject. 

The club has a large and ever-increasing 
membership, and possesses 
the Duchess of Sutherland as 
President. From its original 
start the Duchess has been 
a warm supporter of the 
breed, and has owned some 
good specimens in the past. 
The Hon. Mrs. Bailhe, of 
Dochfour, is still on the 
committee, and 

enormous size of skull, "clod- 
diness " of body, and thick- 
ness of bone obtainable in a 
forty-fi\'e or si.xty pounds spe- 
cimen, is a hard task there is 
no denying, but such prodi- 
gious strides have been made 
of late that one feels, given 
a few more years of patience 
and perseverance, it will come 
very near fulfilment. 

Before passing to other 
matters, it is perhaps only 
right to mention, 
with all deference 
to our Gallic 
friends, that in 
many old prints 
of Bulldogs, 

another mem- 
ber of the club 
IS "Sir. George 
Weinberg, of 
arger Bulldog 
fame. He owns 
two splendid 



miniatures in Tablet and Baby Bullet, 
and was the former owner of the incom- 
parable Champion Xo Trumps, one of the 
best ever seen. 

Of this goodl}' company comes last, 
but far from least, Mrs. C. F. C. Clarke, 

of the big breed b\- no means scorn their 
smaller brethren. 

A few years ago Lady de Gre}- owned a 
splendid Uttle dog in Champion Bite, and 
Mr. \V. R. Temple's Tulip and Mrs. BaiUie's 
Crib and Lena IL were aU hard to beat. 
Of present-day dogs ilrs. Burrell, the sport- 
ing lady-master of the North Northumber- 
land Foxhoimds, can bench a real good 
one in Champion Little Truefit, as can 
Mrs. G. Raper in Little Model and ^liss 
Farquharson in Peter Pan, the latter a 
beautiful httle ia.\vn dog, possessing rare 
bone and Bulldog character. 

So much for the breed as show dogs, 
though a great deal more might be \\Titten 
of other successful \\inners on the bench. 
As companions and friends the}? are second 
to none, being faithful, fond, and even 
foolish in their devotion, as all true friends 
should be. They are absolutely and in- 
variably good-tempered, and, as a rule, 
sufficiently fond of the luxuries of this life 
— not to saj' greedy — to be easily cajoled 


also a well known owner of big " bulls." 
She has of late turned her attention 
to breeding and showing the smaller 
\ariety, and \vith great success, as her 
Mersham Snowdrop and Tiger — the latter 
bred by her — abundantly testify. In 
fact, had not Tiger unluckily just topped 
the weight limit he would undoubtedly 
have been about the best dog ever benched, 
and, as far as points (and particularly head 
properties) go, is as tj^pical a ]\Iiniature 
BuUdog as could be found. The present 
writer has also the honour of being a com- 
mittee-woman, and her Champion Ninon de 
I'Enclos, Lady Cloda, Susan Arme, and 
Champion Bumps, the latter a very tj'pical 
little dog and winner of twelve champion- 
ships, have all upheld the prestige of the 
breed on the show bench. ^Ir. B. Marie}-, 
whose wife owtis the celebrated Felton 
Bulldog kennels, is another member of the 
committee, so it wiU be seen that patrons 



Photograph by Macgregor, Kelso. 

into obedience. Remarkablv intelligent, 
and caring enough for sport to be s\Tn- 
patheticaUy excited at the sight of a 



rabbit without degenerating into cranks on 
the subject Hke terriers. Taking a keen 
interest in ail surrounding people and 
objects, without, however, giving way to 
ceaseless barking ; enjoying outdoor e.xer- 
cise, without requiring an exhausting 
amount, they are in every way ideal pets, 
and adapt themselves to town and country 

As puppies they are delicate, and re- 
quire constant care and super\"isi()n ; but 
that only adds a keener zest to the at- 
tractive task of breeding them, the more 
so owing to the fact that as mothers they 
do not shine, being very difficult to manage, 
and generally manifesting a strong dislike 
to rearing tiieir own offspring. In other 
respects they arc quite hardy little dogs, 
and — one great advantage — they seld(.)m 
lia\-e distemper. Cold and damji thev par- 
ticularly dislike, especially- wlien puppies, 
and the greatest care should be taken to 
keep them thoroughly dry and warm. 
When very young indeed the}- can stand. 

and are the better for, an extraordinary 
amount of heat. 

From a pecuniary point of view, given 
a\x-rage good luck and management, Toy 
Bulldog breeding is a remunerative pur- 
suit. Good specimens, fit for the show 
bench, command extremely high prices, and 
a ready sale is always to be had for less 
good ones for moderate sums as pets, 
the more so as, owing to their extraordin- 
arily good tempers, they are much in re- 
quest for children, with whom they can be 
absolutely trusted. No amount of teasing 
appears to rouse them to more than a 
somewhat bored grunt. 

In fart, to sum up, they possess many 
ad\-antages and few disadvantages. Any- 
one will) has owned and loved a Toy Bull 
can seldom get really to care for any other 
kind of dog. and sooner or later takes 
unto himself or herself again another snort- 
ing little specimen, whose ugly wrinkled 
face and lo\-ing heart cannot fail to make 
life the jileasanter. 

i'nnlogtafih by T. Rcvdcy, Waiiliv^c. 




" Sir. lie's a good dog. and a fair dog. Can more be said? "—Shakespeare. 

AUTHORITIES across the Channel are 
/-A of opinion that the French Bulldog is 
strictly a breed of French origin, yet 
they are willing to admit that of compara- 
tively recent years there ha\-e been from time 
to time importations from England which 
ha\-e been used as a cross -ttith the native 
dog, and that this cross has, perhaps, led 
to a nearer approximation to the British 
type than was the case prior to the admixture 
of British blood. M. J. Bontroue, the 
Secretary of the French Bulldog Club of 
Paris, and Secretary of the French Kennel 
Club, holds this opinion very strongly, as 
do Mr. Gordon Bennet, President of the 
Paris Club, and Prince de \\'agram, its 
President d'Honneur. Mr. Max Hartenstein, 
of Berlin, who was fust interested in the 
French Bulldog in 1870, and has owoied and 
bred great numbers of them, declares that 
" there can be no two opinions as to the fact 
of the French Bulldog being a distinct 
French breed, with a longer history and 
more remote origin than is general!}^ under- 
stood." He is aware of the introduction 
of small British specimens into France ; 
not, however, necessarily for the purpose 
of interbreeding, but principally because 
French fanciers desired to have a bright, 
\-ivacious, bantam specimen. He is of 
opinion that in Paris, in 1870, the breed, 
as a whole, was smaller than it is to-day. 

The late Mr. George R. Krehl, of London, 
one of the greatest authorities, \\dth whom 
the subject of the French BuUdog was very 
thoroughly discussed by the present vmter, 
went still further back into the past (nearly 
three hundred years), and from his re- 
searches built up a plausible and very pro- 
bable theory as to the origin of this breed 
in France. In a letter \\Titten by him to 
the Slockkeeper Christmas Supplement, 1900, 

he showed grounds for belie\-ing that the 
variet}' came originally from Spain. There 
was pubhshed with ^Ir. Krehl's letter a 
copy of an antique bronze placque dated 
1625, bearing in bas-relief the head of a 
Bulldog with either cropped, or bat, ears. 



and the inscription, " Dcgue de Burgos, 
Espana, anno MDCXXV.," the artist's 
name being CazaUa. This placque has been 
examined by a connoisseur and pronounced 
authentic. The historic value of this bronze 
will be at once appreciated, when it is re- 
membered that Burgos is the principal tov\Ti 
of old Castile in Spain, noted for the breeding 
of dogs used in the arena for bull-baiting. 

" We ha^•e no generic name for this 
famil}'," Mr. Krehl wrote, " but in France 
the\^ are called dogiies, whence we get our 
own word dog, but we have corrupted the 
meaning of it. The heads of the group are 
the Spanish Bulldog, the dogue de Bordeaux. 



and the little toy oddities of Paris, bred and 
reared by Lutetian bootmakers, and, lastly, 
the English Bulldog. It is clear to me, as an 
unprejudiced c\aiologist, entirely unaffected 
by what previous authorities have said on 
the subject, that the original home of the 
breed was Spain, where the dog was ' made ' 
for its special mission. The fair name of 
Spain always was, and still is, associated 
with sport in which the bull plays the lead- 
ing role. The Spaniard fashioned a dog to 
suit this sport, with a firm, strong body, 
stout legs, and a short neck of powerful 
muscle, a big head with wide mouth and 
prominent upturned under jaw, so that 
the dog could still breathe while retaining 
his grip, and his weight would tire out the 
bull, which was unable to fling him off. 
From Spain dogs of this kind migrated to 
France ; it is only a short excursion to 
Bordeaux, where the services of the animals 
were in demand for fighting and for dog and 
donkey contests. Then they travelled up 
to Paris, which has always had an eye for 
the artistic, and where they bantamised the 
breed into a semblance of the modern tov 

Mr. W. J. Stubbs wrote a little booklet 
in 1903 which was printed for private circula- 
tion, entitled " The History of the French 
Bulldog." He says as to origin, " There 
appears to be no doubt that the French Bull- 
dog originated in England, and is an offshoot 
of the English Bulldog, not the Bulldog one 
sees on the bench to-day, but of the tulip- 
eared and short underjawed specimens which 
were common in London, Nottingham, Bir- 
mingham, and Sheffield in the early 'fifties." 
As evidence of this, he goes on to relate how 
this type of dog was exported to France in 
the earh' 'fifties, giving the names of three 
breeders or dealers who were known to 
have been exporters. He also says, " There 
v\-as a constant emigration of laceworkers 
from Nottingliam to the coast towTis of 
Normand}', where lace factories were spring- 
ing into existence, and these immigrants fre- 
quently took a Bulldog with tliem to the 
land of their adoption." 

This is as may be, and is extremely useful 
and interesting information ; but it requires 

careful consideration before it can be 
accepted as proving that tlie French Bulldog 
originated in England. As a matter of fact, 
it only proves what all the French authori- 
ties are perfectly willing to admit, namely, 
that at different times within the last forty 
years British Bulldogs have been imported 
into France. The inference Mr. Stubbs 
draws is that these imported dogs originated 
the breed of French Bulldogs ; whereas the 
contention of ■ the French and German 
authorities is that these imported specimens 
were used only as a cross, to introduce fresh 
blood into the breed already in existence. 

The converse method was also adopted. 
Prior to 1902 French Bulldogs were imported 
into this country witii tlic object of resusci- 
tating the strain of bantam Bulldogs, 
which in course of years had been allowed 
to dwindle in numbers, and were in danger 
of becoming extinct. The small English 
variety was then called, somewhat errone- 
ously, '■ Toy Bulldogs," their weight limit 
being 20 lbs. Dogs of this weight could 
scarcely be called " toys." Eventually the 
Kennel Club sensibly decided to rename 
them the IMiniature Bulldog. 

It was this very question of weight which 
brought about the parting of the ways of the 
French Bulldog from the Toy English varie- 
ties. Previous to 1902 some of the members of 
the Toy Bulldog Club were of opinion that 
the weight limit should be raised from 20 lb. 
to 22 lbs., and Lady Lewis proposed this 
alteration, but her motion was lost. 

On July loth, 1902, a meeting was called 
at the house of the writer to consider the 
whole position, when it was decided to form 
a new Club with the sole object of promoting 
the breeding and importation of pure 
French Bulldogs, adopting practically iden- 
tical weiglits and points with the French 
Bulldog Clubs of France, Germany, Austria, 
and America. The name chosen was " The 
French Bulldog Club of England." The 
founders were : Lady Lewis, President ; 
Mrs. Romilly. Hon. Treasurer ; ]\Irs. F. W. 
Cousens, Hon. Secretary ; Mrs. Charles 
W'atcrlow, Mrs. F. Bromwich. Mr. and Mrs. 
Walter Jefferies, Mrs. Townsend Green, and 
Mr. F. W. Cousens. 



£3 G23 CD ^ 

W'lien the foundation of this Club became 
an accomphshed fact, there was considerable 
opposition, not only from the Toy Bulldog 
Club, but from numerous British Bulldog 
owners and breeders, whose princ pal opposition 
arose upon the two points : Was tliere such 
a breed as French Bulldogs ? Could any otlier dog 
than the British specimen claim the name of Bulldog ? 
Much ink was spilt in a wordy warfare in the Kennel 
Press. No good object can be attained, however, 
in re%'iewing the details of past differences. 

The French Bulldog Club let no grass ,-S\^^ 

grow under their feet ; with onl}- twenty 
members, they pluckily de- 
cided to hold a show of 
their owti, to demonstrate 
the soundness of their posi- 
tion. Their first show was 
accordinglj- held at Tatter- 
saU's, fifty-one French Bull- 
dogs being placed on ex- 
hibition. AU of these dogs 
were pure bred French spe- 
cimens, either imported or 
bred from imported an- 
cestors. The success of 

this exhibition proved to a demonstration 
that the claims of the French Bulldog Club 
were based on facts, and the Kennel Club's 

official recognition 
and registration of 
the breed under 
the name of Boule- 
dogiics Frangais 
finally settled the 
disputed points. 

The following is 
the Club's descrip- 
tion of the French 
Bulldog (published 
1903) :— 

I. General Appearance. 

— The French Bulldog 
ought to have the ap- 
pearance of an active, 
in'.clligent. and verj- muscular dog, of cobby 
build, and be hea\'3' in bone for its size. 

2. Head. — The head is of great importance. It 
should be large and square, with the forehead 
nearly flat ; the muscles of the cheek should be 
well developed, but not prominent. The stop 
should be as deep as possible. The skin of the 
head should not be tight, and the forehead should 
be well wrinkled. The muzzle should be short, 
broad, turn upwards, and be very deep. The 
lower jaw should project considerably in front of 
the upper, and should turn up, but should not 
show the teeth. 

3. Eyes. — The eyes should be of moderate size 
and of dark colour. No white should be visible 
when the dog is looking straight in front of 
jiim. They should be placed low do\\Ti and 
wide apart. 

4. Nose. — The nose must be black ar.d large. 

5. Ears. — Bat ears ought to be of a medium 
size, large at the base and rounded at the tips. 



They should be placed high on the head and 
carried straight. The orifice of the ear looks 
forward, and the skin .should be fine and soft to 
the touch. 

6. Neck. — The neck should be thick, short, 
and well arched. 

7. Body. — The chest sh.ould be wide and 
well down between the legs, and the ribs well 
sprung;. The body short and muscular, and well 
cut up. The back should be broad at the 
shoulder, tapering towards the loins, preferabh' 
well roached. 

not apply generally to other breeds. But 
there are special points to be tried for 
which at present are most noticeably lacking. 
If there is one fault more than another 
to be found in any considerable number of 
the breed in this country it is with their 
tails. \'erv many of these are too long, 
still mcire are c-arried too gaily, and set on too 
high. Again, the shape of the tail is not 
always correct ; in many, instead of being 



8. Tail. — The tail ought to be set on low 
and be short ; thick at the root, tapering to 
a point, and not carried above the level of the 

9. Legs. — The forelegs should be short, straight, 
and muscular. The hind-quarters, though strong, 
should be lighter in proportion to the fore-quarters. 
The hocks ought to be well let down, and the 
feet compact and strong. 

10. Coat. — -The coat should be of medium 
density ; black in colour is verv undesirable. 

There is nothing of special importance 
to be said in respect to breeding which does 

broad at tlie base and tapering to a fine 
point, they are too small at the base, too 
much the same size throughout, and have 
no fine point. Another fault of a less glaring 
character is the too great length of body, 
instead of the smart cobby body which is 
desirable. A little more attention should 
also be paid to breadth of chest and " cut 
up " in loin, so many dogs showing the same 
diameter of body at any part of the barrel. 
Personally, I am \-cry partial to a nice 
" roach " back, but one must acknowledge 



that the French do not cultivate this 
feature to any marked extent. 

We should endeavour to breed out the 
large, awkward ears which incline to hang 
outwards instead of being erect. These 
heaw ears, with incorrect carriage, spoil and 
change the entire appearance, which should 
be bright, crisp, and vivacious, rather than 
heavy and sluggish. There is a tendenc\- 
also to pay too little attention to ej'es, which 
should not be full like those of a toy Spaniel 
nor bulging like those of many Pugs. The 
full eye is a fault ; the bulging eye is an 

As will be seen in the illustration of the 
French and English skulls, there is a great 
fundamental difference in formation. They 
arc both skulls of bitches ; the French one 
is from a bitch bred by Mrs. F. W. Cousens 
by her imported dog Napoleon Buonaparte 
ex Coralie by Champion Polo de Bagatelle ; 
the English from a prize-winning bitch of 
championship pedigree on both sides. 

The question of underjaw is the one point 
on which fanciers of the breed in France 
differ seriously with some few of the English 
breeders. The French Bulldog Club of 
England stated in their 1903 description of 
the breed that " the lower jaw should project 
considerably in front of the upper," and 
ten points in a hundred were given for under- 
jaw in their standard of points. On this 
side of the Channel we have been so accus- 
tomed to regard a prominent underjaw in a 
Bulldog as absolutely necessary to salvation, 
that directly we begin to import and breed 
French Bulldogs we do not stop to ask 
what is correct, but finding a Bulldog with 
a comparati\'ely small underjaw we pro- 
ceed to put on a bigger one as fast as possible. 
I must own to a little weakness in this direc- 
tion myself ; but, after all, one's personal 
fancies should not be made the standard 
for altering a foreign breed, and I think it 
would be a great pity, even a calamity, to 
allow our very natural love of underjaw to 
alter the appearance which the French 
Bulldog should possess. It cannot be 
said too often or too forcibly that a French 
Bulldog is not by any manner of means a 
small English dog with bat ears ; and if we 

wish to preserve the quaint characteristics 
of the breed we must not presume to make 
fundamental structural alterations. 

Perhaps a word against the hea\-y pendu- 
lous lips and the equally pendulous skin on 
the throat of a few specimens will be enough 
to warn breeders that they must not emulate 
the flews, or dewlap, of a Bloodhound. If 
the lips well cover the teeth and the sides of 
the upper lips slightly overlap the under, 
that is correct ; the skin on the throat 
should be loose, but not pendulous. 

The question of rickets looms large in all 
Bulldog breeding, the English variety being, 
perhaps, the more generally affected. If 
breeders would carefully avoid using rickety 
subjects, and pay more careful attention 
to diet from weaning-time until maturity, 
the race would materially benefit in health 
and appearance, and would be much easier 
to breed and rear. 

The quarantine regulations in force at the 
present time rather handicap the breeders 
of French Bulldogs, limiting their supply 
very considerably, partly on account of the 
six months' detention, and partly because 
of the inevitable expense attached to the 
arrangements. There is, however, a suffi- 
cient number of the breed now in Great 
Britain to obviate the necessity of in- 
breeding to any disastrous extent. It be- 
hoves those who have the interest of this 
little dog at heart to continue the importa- 
tion of fresh blood not only from France, 
but, where possible, from Germany, Austria, 
and America. By introducing entirely fresh 
blood, or even blood of the same strain that 
has been in a totally different climate for 
se\'eral generations, the stamina and phy- 
sique is improved, and type is not sacrificed ; 
also by doing this greater facilities are 
afforded for legitimate in-breeding, which, 
in some cases, is undeniably necessary to 
procure or retain certain special charac- 

All breeders of the French Bulldog know 
to their cost the difiiculties to be encountered 
in rearing puppies. Unless a bitch has 
proved herself a good mother, it is always 
advisable to have a foster-mother in readiness 
— by preference one who has had her puppies 



a day or two in advance. For one or two 
small puppies a cat makes an excellent 
mother. If the pujis have to be fed b\- hand 
Plasmon and milk, with a teaspoonfnl of 


Photograth by T Fall. 

cream to every half pint, is the best sub- 
stitute for bitches' milk, being, indeed, the 
chemical equivalent. Warmth is very essen- 
tial for the first fortnight ; the use of blankets 
and hot water bottles must be employed un- 
less the pups are well motliered bv their own 
dam or a foster-mother, or if the weather be 
cold. Directly the puppies are weaned a 
certain proportion of lean, raw, scraped meat 
should be gi\-en, as well as Benger's Food 
made with milk, Plasmon wholemeal bis- 
cuits soaked in milk, Force and milk, and 
bread and milk. Feed every two or three 
hours at first, kee])ing the puppies warm 
and dry. At four months old three meals 
a day should suffice, then give Spratt's 
puppy biscuits dry and broken up, good 

gravv or soup poured o\-er stale bread 
crumbs, and one meal of lean raw meat. 

Watch for worms ; keep a look-out when 
teething, and allow a large bone for the 
jiuppies to gnaw, but not eat. 

The pups which one does not wish to keep 
should be sold at the age of si.x weeks. 

Although to my knowledge many French 
Bulldogs are good ratters, and some few can 
account for a rabbit, they are by no means 
a sporting breed ; they are essentially dogs 
to be used as companions and household 
pets, being very quaint, jolly, engaging 
little personages, who are full of life and 



Fhotografh by r. Fall. 

\ivacity. Their size and temperament render 
them ]iarticularly suitable for living in a 
house or fiat ; they are quiet and yet 
bright, full of life vet not too boisterous. 




■' Behold this creature's form and state, 
Which Nature therefore did create. 
That to the world might he expressed 
What mien there can be in a beast ; 
And that we in this shape may find 
A lion of another kind. 
For this heroic beast does seem 
In majesty to rival him, 







HE his- 
torj' of 
the St. 
Bernard dog in 
this country 
would not be 
complete with- 
out reference 
being made to 
the noble work 
that he has done 
in Switzerland, 
his native land : 
how the Hos- 
pice St. Bernard kept a considerable num- 
ber of dogs which were trained to go 
over the mountains with small barrels 
round their necks, containing restoratives, 
in the event of their coming across any 
poor tra\-ellers who had either lost their 
way, or had been o\'ercome by the cold. 
\\'e have been told that these intelligent 
creatures saved many lives in this way, 
the subjects of their deliverance often 
being found entirely buried in the snow. 
In such cases they were, however, gene- 
rally too late to rescue the unfortunate 
victims, whose bodies were placed in the 
morgue at the Hospice, where they may be 
seen undecayed, although they may have 
rested there several years. 

The stuffed skin of the dog Barry, who 
rescued no fewer than forty wanderers who 
had lost their way crossing the Alps, is to 
be seen at the Museum at Berne. The 

And yet vouchsafes to man to show 
Both service and submission too. 
From whence we this distinction have 
That beast is fierce, but that is brave. 
This dog hath so himself subdued 
That hunger cannot make him rude, 
And his behavio-ur does confess 
True courage dwells with gentleness." 

K.ATHERiNE Philips. 

poor dog died in harness when fifteen years 
old. It is stated that he was shot when in 
the act of going to the aid of a benighted 
wayfarer, who mistook him for a wolf. 

Handsome as the St. Bernard is, with his 
attracti\-e colour and markings, he is a 
cross-bred dog. From the records of old 
writers it is to be gathered that to refill 
the kennels at the Hospice which had been 
rendered A-acant from the combined catas- 
trophes of distemper and the fall of an 
avalanche which had swept away nearly ah 
their hounds, the Monks were compelled 
to have recourse to a cross with the New- 
foundland and the Pyrenean sheepdog, the 
latter not unlike the St. Bernard in appear- 
ance. Then, again, there is no doubt what- 
ever, that at some time the Bloodhound has 
been introduced, and it is known for a cer- 
tainty that almost all the most celebrated St. 
Bernards in England at the present time are 
closely allied to the Mastiff. 

The result of all this intermixture of 
different breeds has been the production of an 
exceedingly fine race of dogs, which form 
one of the most attractive features at our 
dog shows, and are individually excellent 
guards and companions. As a companion, 
the St. Bernard cannot be surpassed, when 
a large dog is required for the purpose. 
Most docile in temperament and disposition, 
he is admirably suited as the associate of a 
lady or a child. Well does the writer re- 
member a once well-known champion, who, 
when quite a pupp}', used to cany his little 



girl's basket to a coppice hard by and bring 
it home again when it was filled with violets. 
The St. Bernard is sensitive to a degree, 
and seldom forgets an insult, whicii he 
resents with dignity- Specimens of the breed 
have occasionally been seen that are savage, 
but when this is the case ill-treatment of 

Fioin the PauiltUK by S 

E.Uw Lamhea. R.A. 

Some sort lias assuredly been the pro\-oking 

The dogs at the Hospice of St. Bernard 
are small in comparison with those that 
are seen in England belonging to the same 
race. The Holy Fathers were more par- 
ticular about their markings than great size. 
The bodv colour should be brindle or orange 
tawny, witii white markings ; the muzzle 
white, with a line running np between the 
eyes, and over the skull, joining at the 
back the white collar that encircles tlie neck 
down to the front of the shoulders. The 
colour round the eyes and on the ears sliould 
be of a darker shade in the red ; in the 
centre of the white line at the occiput there 
should be a spot of colour. These markings 
are said to represent the stole, chasuble and 
scapular which form part of the vestments 
worn by the Monks ; but it is seldom 

that the markings are so clearly defined ; 
they are more often white, with brindle or 
orange patches on the body, with evenly- 
marked heads. 

In England St. Bernards are either dis- 
tinctly rough in coat or smooth, but the 
generalitv of the Hospice dogs are broken 
in coat, neither rough 
nor smooth, having a 
te.xture between the 
two extremes. The 
properties, however, of 
tlie rough and smooth 
are the same, so that 
the two varieties are 
often bred together, 
and, as a rule, both 
textures of coat will 
be the result of the 
alliance. The late M. 
Schumacher, a great 
authority on the breed 
in Switzerland, averred 
that dogs with very 
rough coats were found 
to be of no use for 
work on the Alps, as 
tiieir thick covering 
became so loaded with 
snow and their feet so 
clogged that they suc- 
cumbed under the weight and perished. 
On tliat account they were discarded by 
the Monks. 

In connection with the origin of the St. 
Bernard, M. Schumacher wrote in a letter 
to Mr. J. C. Macdona, who was the first to 
introduce the breed into Great Britain 
in an\- numbers : " .According to the tradi- 
tion of the Holy Fathers of the Great Saint 
Bernard, their race descends from the 
crossing of a bitch (a Bulldog species) of 
Denmark aad a Mastiff (Shepherd's dog) of 
the Pyrenees. The descendants of the 
crossing, wlio have inherited from the 
Danish dog its extraordinary size and 
bodilv strength, and from the Pyrenean 
Mastilf the intelligence, the exquisite 
sense of smell, and, at the same time, 
the faithfulness and sagacity which cha- 
racterise them, have acquired in the space 



of five centuries so glorious a notoriety 
throughout Europe that they well merit the 
name of a distinct race for themselve?." 

From the same authority we learn that it 
is something like six hundred years since the 

Continent and made them take a part in his 
attractive entertainment ; but the associa- 
tions of the St. Bernard with the noble 
deeds recorded in history were not then so 
widely known, and these two dogs passed 

MRS. A. H. FARKcKo Ruuun-uwn I cu ciii-r 




St. Bernard came into existence. It was 
not, however, till competitive exhibitions 
for dogs had been for some \-ears established 
that the St. Bernard gained a footing in 
Great Britain. A few specimens had been 
imported from the Hospice before Mr. 
Gumming Macdona (then the Rev. Gumming 
.Macdona) introduced us to the celebrated 
Tell, who, with others of the breed brought 
from Switzerland, formed the foundation of 
his magnificent kennel at West Kirby, in 
Cheshire. Albert Smith, whom some few 
that are now alive will remember as an 
amusing lecturer, brought a pair from the 
Hospice when returning from a visit to the 

away without ha\ing created any par- 
ticular enthusiasm. 

Later on, at a dog show at Cremome 
held in 1863, two St. Bernards were ex- 
hibited, each of whom rejoiced in the name 
of Monk, and were, respectivelv, the pro- 
perty of the Rev. A. N. Bate and Mr. W. H. 
Stone. These dogs were exhibited without 
pedigrees, but were said to have been 
bred at the Hospice of St. Bernard. Three 
years later, at the National Show at Bir- 
mingham, a separate class was pro\ided for 
the saintly breed, and Mr. Gumming Macdona 
was first and second with Tell and Bernard. 
This led to an immediate popularity of the 



St. Bernard. Tell was the hero of the shows 
at which he appeared, and his owner was 
recognised as being the introducer into this 
country of the magnilicent variety of the 
canine race that now holds such a prominent 
position as a show dog. 

The names of Tell and Bernard have been 
handed down to fame, the former as the 
progenitor of a long line of rough-coated 
offspring ; the latter as one of the founders 
of the Shefford Kennel, of which more anon. 
Mr. ]\Iacdona continued his successful career 
both as an exhibitor and breeder. Her 
Royal Highness the Princess of Wales 
(now Queen Alexandra) graciously accepted 
a beautifully-marked dog puppy, which was 
named Ho]ie, and which e\-entually won 
first prize at the Crystal Palace. Moltke 
was another rough-coated dog of fine 
quality, which annexed a long list of ]irizes 
for Mr. Macdona, and pro^•ed an excellent 
stud dog; whilst Alp, Hedwig, and their 
daughter, Hospice, are names to conjure with. 

Following Mr. Macdona, the ne.xt fancier 
to de\-ote his attention to St. Bernards 
was Mr. J- H. .Murehison — well-known as 
a prominent exhibitor of Fox-terriers — who, 
from the kennels of M. Schumacher, 
obtained the noted rough-coated sire 
Thor, and the smooth-coated Jura. Thor 
was defective in head, and. therefore, 
not a high-class show dog, but he was 
destined to produce the finest litter that 
so far had ever been bred. ]\Ir. ^lurchison 
also owned the smooth-coated Monarque, 
one of the grandest dogs of his variety. 
Monarque was first shown b\- Mr. IMacdona 
at Laycock's Dairy Yard, Islington, in iS6q, 
when he won the chief prize, \'ictor and 
Jungfrau being second and third. Jungfrau 
was a sister by an earlier litter to Bernie, 
of whom more will presently be heard. At 
the same show Mr. Macdona was first and 
third in the rough-coated division viith Tell 
and Hedwig, this pair being divided b\- Sir 
Charles Isham's Leo, who was an immense 
white dog with brindle markings imported 
from Switzerland, and who afterwards 
became celebrated as a sire. He was parent 
of several winners and an ancestor, too, of 
the great Plinlimmon. 

It was at about this time that my own 
famous kennel of St. Bernards at Shefford 
in Bedfordshire was started. I had been 
presented with a smooth-coated bitch 
puppy by the late Mr. T. J. Hooper, 
of Biggleswade, who, from Bernardine, a 
bitch that he brought from Switzerland, 
had bred Jungfi^au, already referred to, and 
the ]3uppy in question from an alliance with 
Mr. Macdona's Bernard. This puppy, after- 
wards named Bernie, was allowed to run 
about at its own sweet will, until she was 
three years old, when it occurred to me that 
as St. Bernards were then becoming popular, 
I might turn her to good account. But 
how to make a start was the question, and 
where to find a sire not too far from home. 

The Birmingham Show was just over. 
The Field said that Leo had run Tell very 
close f(,>r first in the champion class. Leo 
was the jiroperty of Sir Charles Isham, of 
Lamjiort Hall, Northamptonshire, which 
county adjoins Bedfordshire. Here was 
the opportunity, but some difficulty was 
experienced, as Leo had not commenced 
his public career at stud. Matters were how- 
ever, arranged by the intervention of friends, 
and the remuneration of a guinea was to be 
presented to an Orphan Asylum. In due 
course a family of fourteen arrived, Bernie 
having selected a standing in a stable for her 
nursery. She herself was nearly self-coloured 
— a red brindle with only a \-ery narrow 
line of white on her face ; the whelps seemed 
to be all colours, one a white, another a 
black. Ignorant of the correct colour of 
St. Bernards, I consulted my groom, who 
had taken the journey to Lamport Hall, 
and was relie\-ed of my anxiety when I 
heard that the white puppy was somewhat 
like Leo. The order was, pick out the six 
biggest and jnit the other eight into a 
buck(>t — they cannot all be kept ! Fortu- 
nately, the black and also the white puppy 
were amongst the six biggest. The former 
li\-ed to be the rough-coated champion Monk, 
who was rich mahogany brindle with white 
markings, and the latter. Champion Abbess, 
who was smooth-coated. Monk won ten 
cham]5ionships at the Kennel Club's shows, 
besides many others at less importani: 



exhibitions. From him I bred Grosvenor, 
who was a champion before he was eighteen 
months old, and he also sired many other 
winners, but it was from Abbess that the 
bulk of the Shefford winners were bred. 
From an alliance with Thor came the rough- 

Amoug the puppies exhibited was the late 
Mr. Du ^laurier's Chang, who was so often 
afterwards seen in his owner's charming 
drawings in Punch. The defeat of Chang 
led to a caricature of the owner of Augusta 
being inserted in Punch, and an amusing 

Photograph by F. C. Higiietl and Son. Losloci. 


coated Champion Hector and the smooth- 
coated Champion The Shah, the best dogs 
of their daj' ; Dagmar, a very handsome, 
rough-coated bitch, and Abbess II., both big 
winners, and four others. Then she threw 
Champion Othman to Moltke, Champion 
Mab (sold as a puppy to Mr. J. C. Tinker), 
and Augusta, who, amongst her wins, was 
first in a class of thirty-three dogs and 
bitches at the Kennel Club show at the 
Alexandra Palace, two of her litter sisters 
being second and third. On this occasion all 
the first and second prizes, except one second, 
in the five classes given, were won by 
Bemie's children and grandchildren. 

article in The Pall Mall Gazelle from the pen 
of Mr. Du ]\laurier. 

Two incidents in connection with Abbess 
and Augusta are wortli recording as showing 
that the instinct to sa\'e life is inherent in 
the breed. On seeing a little Fo.x-terrier 
puppy that had fallen into a tanpit in- 
effectually struggling to get out, Abbess 
pushed her way through a group of dogs, 
and, carefully taking the puppy in her 
mouth, placed it in safety and then re- 
turned to the other dogs ! On another 
occasion the stable in which was Augusta 
with two puppies became flooded from 
an overflow of the river in the night. On 



the following morning the pnppics, about 
a month old, were found safe in the man- 
ger, with Augusta standing up to her 
middle in water. 

Liela, a magnifirent brindle and white 
bitch, bred by Mr. R. Thornton, of 
Sydenham, and another, were, with the 
exception of Rector, the first St. Bernards 



Fliologtath by C. Ra,l, ]V:ilun,: 

Another guinea's worth from Bernie pro- 
duced a litter of seventeen, making thirty- 
one puppies in less than twelve montlis. The 
bucket was not brought into requisition this 
time. Nature was allowed to take its 
course, and tlie surxiwil of the fittest 
resulted in nine being reared, in which there 
were again several w'inners, amongst them 
being Queen Bertha, who was the founda- 
tion of Mr. W. .\. Joyce's kennel at Tulse 

The late Mr. S. W. Smith, of Leeds, took 
up the breed in the late 'se\'enties. He 
owned a big winner in Barry. This dog 
won something like one hundred and fifty 
first prizes at the small shows in the North 
of England. But Mr. Smith had a much 
better dog in Duke of Leeds, v,h >, witli 

that were e.xported to America, £800 being 
the price given for the three. Previously, 
huwe\-er. Rector, a son of Champion 
Monk, had been sold to ^tr. J. K. Emmett, 
the American actor, who exhibited him on 
the boards of his theatre. 

Tlie popularity of the St. Bernard had now 
been well established, and the Rev. Arthur 
Carter, who had always shown a partiality 
for the breed, set about with a few others 
to establish the St. Bernard Club, to look after 
the interests of the race. This was in. 1882, 
and in the following year the first show, 
conimed to St. Bernards only, was held in 
the Duke of Wellington's I'iiding School at 
Kensington, when an excellent entry was 
obtained. Mr. Cumming Macdona, who had 
been appointed the President of the Club, 



was the judge, and the special prize for the 
best dog in the show was won by Mr. J. F. 
Smith's Leonard, a white and brindle 
rough-coated dog wath a magnificent head 
and good action. Mr. J. F. Smith also owned 
a very fine rough-coated dog in Ch. Save, 
a son of Ch. Othman, and man}- others of the 
best St. Bernards in England were at one 
time or another in his hands ; amongst them 
the celebrated smooth-coated Champions 
Guide and San Peur, who had been im- 
ported from the Swiss kennel belonging to 
.Mr. H. H. Dur, by Mr. H. I. Betterton. 
When these two dogs came over San Peur 
was in whelp, and Watch, the pup that she 
threw, proved a better dog than Guide ; in 
fact, Watch was probably the best smooth- 
coated St . Bernard ever seen in England. He, 
like man}' of the dogs of the breed that we 
owned about that time, went to America, 
the price paid for him being said to be be- 
tween eleven and twehe hundred pounds. 

Mr. Betterton also imported Keeper, 
another grand young smooth of great 
quality, but rather small. 

The first giant St. Bernard that appeared 
upon the scene was PHnhmmon, whom the 
Rev. Arthur Carter purchased in the North 
of England when quite a puppy. Plin- 
hmmon, who was descended from Hector, 
created quite a sensation when he made 
his debut in public, as he was much the 
largest St. Bernard that had ever been seen. 
He had not, however, the quality of many 
that had appeared before him, and he had not 
the fine head and expression that are such 
desirable features in a St. Bernard. He, 
nevertheless, changed hands several times. 
Tlie Rev. A. Carter sold him for /500 ; Mr. 
Hedley Chapman gave nearly double that 
sum for him ; afterwards jMr. J. F. Smith 
had him, and he was finally sold b}- ilr. S. 
W. Smith to the American actor, Mr. Emmett, 
and was, like Rector, put upon the stage. 



Photograph by C. Rtid, Wishau\ 



Plinlimmon \\-as onl\- one of many dogs that 
Mr. S. W. Smith sent to the United States 
during the time that the boom for St. 
Bernards in the Far West was at its height. 
Princess Florence, a splendid rough-coated 
bitch by Marvel, with Le Prince, also crossed 
the water, but the demand soon after ceased 
when it was found that the climate of 



I'holog,ot>h by W. U. itiuk. 

America was not suited to the breed. The 
extremely hot weather in tlie summer 
was fatal to them, vcrv few of the lii,L;h- 
priced dogs and bitches were sent out 
living more than a couple of \'ears. Prin- 
cess Florence, who was owned in turn bv 
Dr. Inman and ;\Ir. Hedlev Chapman, was 
the largest bitch that had so far been 
bred, Iier reputed weight being upwards of 
200 lbs. She was one of the few that 
managed to live, and come back to England. 
After passing through some troublous times 
the St. Bernard Club was reconstituted, 
and has gone on swinmiingly e\-er since. 
Tlie Club owns the most valuable chal- 
lenge cups of all the specialist Clubs. In 
addition to several minor cups, it has two 
silver cups of the value of loo guineas 

each, and tlie trophy presented by Mr. 
Halsey of even more value. These special 
prizes are competed for at the Club's an.iual 
shows, one for the best dog in the show 
(rough or smooth), and the other for the 
best bitch, these two winners then com- 
peting together for tlie Halsey Trophy. 
Later on Mr. Xorris Elye became President 
of the Club ; he was 
a prominent breeder 
of St. Bernards, and 
owned, amongst 
others, Alta Bella 
and Bellegarde, two 
excellent specimens 
of the breed, the 
former one of the 
finest bitches of her 

It was at this peri- 
od that the great 
celebrity. Sir Bedi- 
\'ere, was whelped. 
He was bred by IMr. 
T. I). Green, who 
selected him from the 
litter when a ])up 
because he was the 
most prettily marked, 
and before he exhi- 
bited him for th'' 
first time, when ten 
months old, had not 
the slightest idea that he owned the most 
typical St. Bernard that had e\'er been 
bred in Enghind, where he was never de- 
feated. .Mr. Green refused /i,5oo for him 
at home, but, after taking some five hun- 
dred ])oiuuls in stud fees, sold him to 
America for £1.300 ; he weighed upwards 
of 200 lbs., and stood ^^ inches at the 
shoulder. Sir Bedi\-ere was orange and 
wliitt' in colour, and was beautifully pro- 
]iortion''d, witli perfect action all round. 

In the vears that followed many fine dogs 
were bn-d. both of tlie rougli and smooth- 
coated \"ariety, and tlie type was greatly 
improved. Mr. Thomas Shilcock, of Bir- 
mingham, got together a strong kennel ; 
;\Ir. T. Duerdin Dutton had some high-class 
specimens at Cobham — Peggotty, a most 



tN'pical rough bitch, bred from the Guide 
strain, winning for him a number of prizes — 
and amongst other successful breeders and 
exhibitors were Mr. R. T. Thornton, ^Ir. 
A. J. Goshng, Mr. J. W. Rutherglen, :\Ir. 
G. W. ;\Iarsden, who is now the President 
of the St. Bernard Chib ; Mr. H. G. Sweet— 
whose magnificent dog, Hesper, was the 
sire of !\Iiss Gres- 

ham's Minstrel Boy 

— Mr. T. Thorburn, 
Mrs. Jones, Captain 
Hargreaves, and Mr. 
J. Ro\'le, of ilan- 
chester, who gave 
£470 for Lord Hath- 
erton, a dog that was 
catalogued at the 
Birmingham Show at 
£200, and after being 
claimed by two or 
three anxious pur- 
chasers, was sold b\- 
auction at the sum 

Then came a lull 
in the popularity of 
the breed until Dr. 
Inman, in partner- 
ship with :Mr. B. 
W a 1 m s 1 e y, estab- 
lished a kennel first 
at Barford,near Bath, 
and then at The 

Priory, at Bowden, in Cheshire, where they 
succeeded in breeding the finest kennel of 
St. Bernards that has ever been seen in the 
world. Dr. Inman had for several years 
owned good dogs, and set about the work 
on scientific principles. He, in conjunc- 
tion with Mr. Walmsley, purchased the 
smooth-coated Kenilworth from Mr. Loft, 
bred that dog's produce with a brindle 
JIastiff of high repute, and then crossed back 
to his .St. Bernards with the most successful 
results. Dr. Inman was instrumental in 
forming the National St. Bernard Club, 
which, like the older society, was soon well 
supported with members, and now has at 
its disposal a good collection of valuable 
challenge cups. The dogs bred at Bowden 

carried all before them in the show ring, 
and were continually in request for stud 
purposes, improving the breed to a remark- 
able extent. 

At the disposal of Messrs. Inman and 
^^'almsley's kennel, there were such admir- 
able dogs as the rough-coated Wolfram — 
from whom were bred Tannliauser, Narcissus, 

Photograph by Russell. 


Leontes and Klingsor — the smooth-coated 
dogs, the King's Son and The Viking ; the 
rough-coated bitch, Judith Inman, and the 
smooth Viola, the last-named the finest 
specimen of her sex that has probably ever 
been seen. These dogs and bitches, with 
several others, were dispersed all over 
England, with the exception of Khngsor 
who went to South Africa. 

Mr. J. W. Proctor, of Mobberley, pur- 
chased Tannhauser and Viola, but they 
are, unfortunately, both dead, as also are 
Narcissus and Wolfram. Messrs. Scott and 
Kostin, who bought Leontes and The Viking, 
with Judith Inman, have been more fortu- 
nate, as the two first-named are both ahve 
at this time of writing, the former one of 



the best rough-coated dogs before the 
pubHc. The King's Son, who was a great 
favourite with the late Dr. Inman, re- 
mained at home, and his bones are pro- 
bably to be found beneath the sod in some 
quiet corner in the grounds of Bowden 

Almost all the best St. Bernards in (ireat 
Britain at tlie present time have been 
bred or arc descended from the Bowden 


dogs. Mrs. Lawson, of Swansea, has been 
very successful in breeding with the strain, 
This lad\' owned Cinq ^lars, who is now 
the property of Mrs. Parker, for wiiom he 
has been doing a large amount of winning. 
Mrs. Parker also has in her jjossession 
Chr3'santiieme and Queen Isabel, two of the 
best of their variety ; whilst other success- 
ful breeders and exhibitors are Mr. H. 
Stockin, Mr. I). W. Davies, Mr. G. Sinclair — 
the owner of Lord Montgomery, the Cham- 
])ion at the Crystal Palace and Edinburgh 
in 1906 — Mr. James Redwood, Miss L. J. 
Vere, Mr. E. H. \^'albrook, Mr. V.'. H. 
Bennett, Mrs. Duncan King, Mrs. Ja.gger 
— whose famous dog, Florentius, died at 
ten years of age wliile these lines were 
being written — Mr. J. S. W. Harding, 
Colonel Williamson, and ;\Ir. J. Muir. 

The following is the description of the 
St. Bernard as drawTi up by the members of 
the St. Bernard Club : 

Head. — The head should be large and massive, 
the circumference of the skull being more than 
double the length of the head from nose to occiput. 
From stop to tip of nose should be moderately 
short ; full below the eye and square at the 

muzzle ; there should be great depth from the 
eye to the lower jaw, and the lips should be deep 
throughout, but not too pendulous. From the 
nose to the stop should be straight, and the stop 
abrupt and well defined. The skull should be 
broad and rounded at the top, but not domed, 
with somewhat prominent brow. 

Ears. — The ears should be of medium size, 
h ing close to the cheek, but strong at the base 
and not heavily feathered. 

Eyes. — The eyes should be rather small and 
deep set, dark in colour and not too close together , 
the lower eyelid should droop, so as to show a 
fair amount of haw. 

Nose. — The nose should be large and black, 
witli well developed nostrils. The teeth should be 

Expression. — The expression should betoken 
benevolence, dignity, and intelligence. 

Neck. — The neck should be lengthy, muscular, 
and slightly arched, with dewlap developed, and 
the slioulders broad and sloping, well up at the 

General Description of Body. — The chest 
should be wide and deep, and the back level 
as far as the haunches, slightly arched o\cr the 
loins ; the ribs should bo well rounded and 
earned well back ; the loin wide and xevy 

Tail. — The tail should be set on rather high, 
long, and in the long-coated variety bushy ; 
carried low when in repose, and when excited 
or in motion slightly above the line of the back. 

Legs. — The forelegs should be perfectly straight, 
strong in bone, and of good length ; and the hind- 
legs very muscular. The feet large, compact, 
with well-arched toes. 

Size. — A dog should be at least 30 inches in 
height at the shoulder, and a bitch 27 inches 
(the taller the better, provided the symmetry is 
maintained); thoroughly well proportioned, and 
of great substance. The general outline should 
suggest great power and capability of endurance. 

Coat. — In the long-coated variety the coat 
should be dense and flat ; rather fuller round 
the neck ; the thighs feathered but not too 
heavily. In the short-coated variety, the coat 
should be dense, hard, flat, and short, slightly 
feathered on thighs and tail. 

Colour and Markings. — The colour should bo 
red, orange, various shades of brindle (the richer 
colour the better\ or white with patches on 
body of one of the abo\'e named colours. The 
markings should be as follows ; white muzzle, 
white blaze up face, white collar round neck ; 
white chest, forelegs, feet, and end of tail ; black 
shadings on face and ears. If the blaze be wide 
and runs through to the collar, a spot of the 
body colour on the top of the head is desirable. 



Objectionable Points. 

Ill temper. 
Split nose. 
Unlevel mouth and 

cankered teeth. 
Snipv muzzle. 
Light and staring eyes. 
Cheek bumps. 
Wedge head. 
Flat skull. 
Wall eyes. 
Domed skull. 
Badly set or heavily- 
feathered ears. 
Too much peak. 

Short neck. 

Curly coat. 

Curled tail. 

Flat sides. 

Hollow back. 

Roach back. 

Ring tail. 

Open feet or hare feet. 

Cow hocks. 

Straight hocks. 

Self-coloured (a self- 
coloured dog is one 
that has no black 
shadings or white 

Disqualifying Points. 

Dudley, liver, flesh-col- 
oured nose. 

Fawn, if whole col- 
oured or with black 
shadings only. 

Black, black and tan, 
black and white, 
black , tan , and white . 
and all white. 

The weight of a dog should be from 1 70 lbs. to 
210 lbs. ; of a bitch 160 lbs. to 190 lbs. 

During the past twentv-five years St. 
Bernards have been bred in this country 

very much taller and heavier than they were 
in the da\-s of Tell, Hope, Moltke, Monk, 
Hector, and Othman. Not one of these 
measured over 32 inches in height, or scaled 
over 180 lbs., but the increased height 
and greater weight of the more modem 
production have been obtained by forcing 
them as puppies and by fattening them to 
such an extent that they ha^•e been injured 
in constitution, and in many cases converted 
into cripples behind. The prize-winning 
rough-coated St. Bernard as he is seen 
to-day is a purety manufactured animal, 
handsome in appearance certainly, but so 
cumbersome that he is scarcely' able to 
raise a trot, let alone do any tracking in the 
snovv. Usefulness, however, is not a con- 
sideration with breeders, who have reared 
the dog to meet the exigencies of the shovv' 
ring. There is still much left to be desired, 
and there is room for considerable improve- 
ment, as only a few of the more modem dogs 
of the breed approach the standard drawTi 
up by the Clubs that are interested in their 





Near this spot 

Are deposited the remains oj one 

Who possessed Beauty without Vanity, 

Strength without insolence, 

Courage without Ferocity, 

And all the Virtues of Man without his Vices. 

This Praise, which would be unmeaning Flattery 

If inscribed over human ashes. 

Is but a just tribute to the memory of 

Boatswain, a Dog, 

Who was born at Newfoundland. May 1803, 

And died at Newstead Abbey. Nov. 18, 1808. 

Byron's Epitaph on his Nfavfoundland Dog. 


H E d(jgs \vhi<:li take 
their name from the 
island of Newfound- 
land at the mouth of the 
great St. Lawrence river ap- 
peal to all lovers of animals, 
romance, and beauty. A Newfoundland 
formed tire subject of perhaps the most 
popular picture painted by Sir Edwin 
Landseer ; a monument was erected by 
Byron o\'er tlie grave of his Newfound- 
land in pro.ximity to the place where the 
poet himself hoped to be buried, at New- 
stead Abbey, and the inscription on this 
monument contains the lines so frequently 
quoted : 

" But the poor dog in life the firmest friend, 
The first to welcome, foremost to defend, 
Whose honest heart is still his master's own, 
Who kiliours, fights, lives, breathes for him 


To mark a friend's remains these stones 

arise : 
I never knew but one — and here he lies." 

Robert Burns, also, in his poem, " The 
Twa Dogs," written in 1786, refers to a 
Newfoundland as being an aristocrat 
among dogs in the following verse ; 

" The first I'll name, they ca'd him Caesar, 
Was keepit for his honour's pleasure : 
His hair, his size, his mouth, his lugs, 
Show'd he was nane o' Scotland's dogs ; 
But whalpit some place far abroad, 
Where sailors gang to fish for cod. 
His locked, letter'd, braw brass collar 
Show'd him the gentleman and scholar : 
But though he was o' high degree, 
The fient a pride — na pride had he." 

Doubtless, other breeds of dogs have been 
the subjects of popular pictures and have 
had their praises sung by poets, but the 
Newfoundlands have yet a further honour, 
unique amongst dogs, in being the subject 
for a postage stamp of their native land. 
All these distinctions and honours have 
not been conferred without reason, for no 
breed of dogs has greater claim to the title 
of friend of man, and it has become famous 
f(_)r its known readiness and ability to save 
persons in danger, especially from drown- 
ing. It is strong and courageous in the 
water, and on land a properly-trained New- 
foundland is an ideal companion and guard. 
Innumerable are the accounts of Newfound- 
lands having proved their de\'otion to their 
owners, and of the many liN'es saved by 
them in river and sea ; and when Sir Edwin 
Landseer selected one of tlie breed as the 



subject of his picture entitled, " A Distin- 
guished Member of the Humane Society," 
he was justified not only by the sentiment 
attaching to this remarkable race of dogs, 
but also by the deeds by which Newfound- 
lands have made good their claim to such 
great distinction, and the popular recog- 
nition of this, no doubt, in some degree 
added to the great esteem in which this 
painting has always been held. 

Newfoundland character are passing away — 
it is to be hoped for good. The breed is 
rapidly returning to the type which Land- 
seer's picture represents — a dog of great 
beauty, dignity, and benevolence of 
character, showing in its eyes an almost 
human pathos. 

Going back six j-ears before the picture, 
Mr. J. McGregor, in 1832, in his history of 
British North America, wrote as follows : 

From the Pajnting by SIR EDWIN LANDSEER, R.A., IN THE National G* 

The picture was painted in 1838, and, as al- 
most e\"er\-one knows, represents a white and 
black Newfoundland. The dog portrayed 
was typical of the breed, and now, after a 
lapse of nearly seventy years, the painting 
has the added value of enabling us to make 
a comparison \\"ith specimens of the breed 
as it exists to-day. Such a comparison 
will show that among the best dogs now 
living are some which might have been the 
model for this picture. It is true, I think, 
that in the interval the white and black 
Newfoundlands have been coarser, hea%"ier, 
higher on the legs, with an expression 
denoting e.xcitability quite foreign to the 
true breed, but these departures from 

" The Newfoundland dog is a celebrated 
and useful animal well known. These 
dogs are remarkably docile and obedient 
to their masters ; they are very ser\iceable 
in all the fishing plantations, and are 3-oked 
in pairs and used to haul the winter fuel 
home. They are gentle, faithful, good- 
natured, and ever a friend to man, and 
will at command leap into the water from 
the highest precipice and in the coldest 
weather. They are remarkably voracious, 
but can endure hunger for a great length of 
time, and they are usually fed upon the 
worst of salted fish. 

" The true breed has become scarce and 
difficult to be met with. They grow to a 


greater size tlian an English Mastiff, liave a 
fine close fur. and the colour is of various 
kinds ; but black, which is the most appro\-ed 
of, prevails. The smooth, short-haired dog 
so much admired in England as a New- 
foundland dog, though a useful and saga- 
cious animal and nearly as hardy and 
fond of the water, is a cross-breed. It 

It is somewhat difficult to reconcile these 
remarks concerning Newfoundlands in Eng- 
land with what is known from other sources 
about the same time, and it is contradicted 
as regards the smooth-coated dogs by 
Landseer's picture. The smooth-coated dogs 
referred to were probably of the Labrador 
breed, and this view is confirmed bv Vouatt 



Plwlogyafh l:y Kusicll. 

seems, however, to inherit all tlie \-irtues 
of the true kind. A Newfoundland dog 
will, if projierlv domesticated and trained, 
defend his master, growl when imother 
person speaks roughly to him, and in no 
instance of danger leave him. This animal 
in a wild state hunts in packs, and is then 
ferocious, and in its habits similar to the 
Wolf. They are fond of children and mucli 
attached to members of the house to which 
they belong, but frequently cherish a cross 
antipathv to a stranger. \Mrile they will 
neither attack nor fight dogs of inferior 
size, they are ready to fight courageously 
with dogs of their own size and strength. 

" So sagacious are these animals that they 
seem to want only the faculty of speech to 
make them fully understood, and they are 
capable of being trained to all the purposes 
for which almost every other variety of the 
canine species is used." 

in his Book of The Dog, published in 1845, 
in which he states : " Some of the true New- 
foundlands have been brought to Europe, 
and have been used as Retrievers. They 
are comparatively small and generally black. 
.V larger variety has been bred, and is 
now perfectlv established. He is seldom 
used as a sporting dog, but is admired on 
account of his stature and beauty, and the 
different colours with whicli he is often 

Some twenty-fi\-e to thirty years ago 
there was considerable discussion among 
owners of Newfoundlands in this country 
as to the proper colour of the true breed, 
and there were many persons who claimed, 
as some still ckum, that the black variety 
is the only true variety, and that the white 
and black colouring indicates a cross-breed. 
Again Landseer's picture is of value, 
because, in the first place, we may be almost 



certain that he would have selected for such 
a picture a typical dog of the breed, and, 
secondl}', because the picture shows, nearly 
half a century prior to the discussion, a white 
and black dog, typical in nearly e\-er\' 
respect, except colour, of the black New- 
foundland. There is no appearance of cross- 

two established varieties, the black and the 
white and black. There are also bronze- 
coloured dogs, but they are rare and are not 
favoured. It is stated, however, that pup- 
pies of that colour are generally the most 
promising in all other respects. 

Newfoundlands figure very prominentl}- 




Photograph by Abenulhy, Belfast. 

breeding in Landseer's dog ; on tlie con- 
trary, he re\eals all the characteristics of 
a thoroughbred. Nearly seventy years ago, 
therefore, the white and black variety ma}' 
be fairly considered to have been established, 
and it is worthy of mention here that 
" Idstone " quoted an article written in 1819 
stating that back in the eighteenth century 
Newfoundlands were large, rough-coated, 
liver and white dogs. It is clear, also, that 
in 1832 Newfoundlands in British North 
America were of various colours. Addi- 
tional evidence, too, is provided, in the fact 
that when selecting the type of head for 
their postage stamp the Government of 
.Newfoundland chose the Landseer dog. 
Therefore, there are \-ery strong argu- 
ments against the claim that the true 
variety is essentially black. 

However that may be, there are now 

in the numerous accounts of canine instinct, 
devotion and sagacitj', and whether or not 
those accounts are always quite authentic, 
they indicate how widespread is the belief 
that dogs of this breed possess those qualities 
in full. The Rev. J. S. Watson, in his book 
on " The Reasoning Power in Animals," 
said he was not inclined to assent to an 
opinion that one species of dog has not 
greater sagacity than another. He was 
disposed to think that a greater portion of 
strong natural sense was manifested in tlu 
larger kinds of dogs such as the Newfound- 

The Rev. F. O. ;\Iorris man\' years ago 
wrote an account of a Newfoundland and a 
Mastiff which frequently fought together, 
and on one occasion, when fighting on a 
pier, they both fell into the sea. The 
Newfoundland was quickly out again, but. 



seeing the Mastiff in difficulties, he went back 
and assisted him. Mr. Morris stated that 
henceforth the dogs were quite good friends. 
That is easy enough of behef by anyone who 
has kept and studied dogs as companions 


ylwl.:gyjfh h' La/ayctlc. lull,,-,!. 

and tiiereby learned how large an amount 
of wliat are regarded as purely liuman 
faculties tliere is in dogs. 

\'ery recently I was told of an adult 
Newfoundland, which, curiously enough, 
was not fond of swimming, and was taken 
out with another Newfoundland tliat was 
quite at home in the water. The former 
showed no desire to follow the latter, but 
he did in time realise that tlie swimmer 
recei\-ed jiraise which he also wanted, and, 
reasoning clearly from cause to effect, he 
developed into a remarkably good water- 

I am not sure whether the following story 
told by Charles Dickens denotes instinct, 
devotion, or sagacity, but it is amusing. 
Dickens said that a Newfoundland, which 
was usually allowed to go out alone, ap- 

peared on his return to smell of beer, and, 
being watched on one occasion, w-as seen to 
go into a public-house. On inquiry being 
made it was found that the dog was in the 
habit of calling daily at the public-house and 
was usually given a pint of beer. 
A striking instance of the reason- 
ing power of this breed of dog is 
gi\-en by G. Romanes in the Quar- 
Icrly Joiii'iial of Science for April, 
1876. It is there stated that a 
Newfoundland dog was sent across 
a stream to fetch a couple of hats, 
while his master and friend had 
gone on some distance. The dog 
went after them, and the gentle- 
men saw him attempt to carry 
botli hats, and fail, for together 
they were too much for him. Pre- 
sently he paused in his endeavour, 
took a careful survey of the hats, 
discovered that one was larger than 
the other, put the small one inside 
the larger, and took the latter in 
his teeth by the brim and carried 
both across ! 

The black variety of the New- 
foundland is essentially black in 
colour ; but this does not mean 
that there may be no other colour, 
for most black Newfoundlands ha\-e 
some white marks, and these are not 
considered objectionable, so long as they are 
limited to white hairs on the chest, toes, 
or tiie tip of the tail. In fact, a white 
marking on the chest is said to be typical 
of tile true breed. Any white on the head 
or body would place the dog in the other 
than black \ariety. The black colour should 
preferably be of a dull jet appearance, which 
approximates to brown. In the other than 
black class, there may be black and tan, 
bronze, and white and black. The latter 
predominates, and in this colour, beauty of 
marking is very important. The head should 
be black with a white muzzle and blaze, and 
the body and legs should be white with large 
patches of black on the saddle and quarters, 
with possibly other small black spots on 
the body and legs. 

Apart from colour, the varieties should 




-j m^fpn'j wm^Tf 



conform to the same standard. The head 
should be broad and massive, but in no 
sense hea\'y in appearance. The muzzle 
should be short, square, and clean cut, eyes 
rather wide apart, deep set, dark and small, 
not showing any haw ; ears small, with 
close side carriage, covered \\'ith fine short 
hair (there should be no fringe to the ears), 
expression full of inteUigence, dignity, and 

The bod\^ should be long, square, and 
massive, loins strong and well filled ; chest 
deep and broad ; legs quite straight, some- 
what short in proportion to the length of the 
body, and powerful, with round bone well 
covered with muscle ; feet large, round, and 
close. The tail should be only long enough 
to reach just below the hocks, free from 
kink, and never curled over the back. 
The qualit\' of the coat is very important ; 
the coat should be very dense, with plenty 
of undercoat ; the outer coat somewhat 
harsh and quite straight. A curly coat is 
verv objectionable. A dog with a good coat 
ma\- be in the water for a considerable time 
without getting wet on the skin. 

The appearance generally should indicate 
a dog of great strength, and very active 
for his build and size, moving freely with 
the bodv sw^mg loosely between the legs, 
which gives a slight roll in gait. This has 
been compared to a sailor's roll, and is 
typical of the breed. 

As regards size, the Newfoundland Club 
standard gives 140 lbs. to 120 lbs. weight 
for a dog, and no lbs. to 120 lbs. for a bitch, 
with an a\-erage height at the shoulder of 
27 inches and 25 inches respectively ; but 
it is doubtful whether dogs in proper con- 
dition do conform to both requirements. 
At any rate, the writer is unable to trace 
any prominent Newfoundlands which do, 
and it would be safe to assume that for dogs 
of the weights specified, the height should 
be quite 29 inches for dogs, and 27 inches 
for bitches. A dog weighing 150 lbs. and 
measuring 29 inches in height at the shoulder 
would necessarily be long in body to be 
in proportion, and would probably much 
nearer approach the ideal form for a New- 
foundland than a taller dog. 

In that respect Newfoundlands have 
\'ery much improved during the past 
quarter of a century. Twenty-five years ago, 
the most noted dogs were stated as a rule to be 
well over 30 inches in height, but their weight 
for height would indicate legginess, which 
is an abomination in a Newfoundland. One 
dog of \'ears ago, named Mayor of Bingley, a 
well-known prize-winner, was stated to be 
32:^ inches at the shoulder and 142 lbs. in 
weight, vvhUe his length was 50 inches (ex- 
cluding tail). It is interesting to compare 
that dog with Champion Shelton Viking, 
who is illustrated in this chapter. His 
height is 29^ inches, weight 154 lbs., and 
length of body 48 inches. To be approxi- 
mateh^ of the same comparative proportions 
for his height Mayor of Bingley should have 
weighed at least 180 lbs. That', I think, 
would be too heavy for a Newfoundland, and, 
in fact, he was too tall. A 29-inch New- 
foundland is quite tall enough, and even that 
height should not be gained at the expense of 
tj^pe and symmetry. 

The following table gives figures as a 
guide to what the writer considers should 
be about the measurements of a full-sized 
dog and bitch : 




29 in. 

27 in. 


1 50 lb. 

120 lb. 

Length from nose to root 

of tail 

52 in. 

48i in. 

Girth of head 

26 ,, 

23 .. 


13 .. 

12 ,, 


39 .. 

35 .. 


33 .. 

30 ,, 

forearm . 

10 ,, 

9 .. 

Length of head 

12^ „ 

II ,. 

It does not follow, of course, that a 
dog with these measurements will neces- 
sarily be a good show dog ; but it will 
be 10 aud that +he measurements compare 
fairly well with those of the most typical 
black dogs and bitches . The white and black 
variety are, as a rule, slightly taller, smaller in 
loin and longer in head, but these differences 
in the two varieties are being rapidly re- 
moved, and at no distant date the white and 
black variety will probably be as correct 
in type and s^onmetry as the black variety 
now is. 





For very many years th'j black \-ariet\' 
lias been the better in type : and in breed- 
ing, if blacks are desired, it will be safer 
as a general rule to insist up. on the absence 
of white and black blood in anv of the 
immediate ancestors of the sire and dam. 
But if, on the contrary, white and black 
dogs are required, the proper course is to 
make judicious crosses between the black 
and white, and black wirieties, and destroy 
any black puppies, unless they are re- 
quired for further crosses with white and 
black blood. In any case the first cross is 
likely to produce both black and mis-marked 
white and black puppies ; but the latter, 
if bred back to the white and black blood, 
would generally produce well-marked white 
and black Newrfoundlands. 

In mating, never be guided solely by the 
good points of the dog and bitch. It is very 
desirable that they should both have good 

points, the more good ones 
the better, but it is more 
important to ensure that 
they are dissimilar in their 
defects, and, if possible, that 
m neither case is there a 
very objectionable defect, 
especially if such defect was 
also apparent in the animal's 
sire or dam. 

It is, therefore, important 
to study what were the good, 
and still more so the bad, 
points in the parents and 
grandparents. If you do 
not know these, other New- 
fciundland breeders will will- 
ingly gi\'e information, and 
any trouble in\-oh-cd in 
tracing the knowledge re- 
quired will be amply repaid 
in the results, and probably 
sa\-e great disappoint- 

When rearing puppies give 
them soft food, such as well- 
boiled rice and milk, as soon 
as they will lap, and, shortly 
afterwards, scraped lean 
meat. Newfoundland puppies 
require plentv of meat to induce proper 
growth. The puppies should increase in 
weight at the rate of 3 lbs. a week, and this 
necessitates plenty of flesh, bone and muscle- 
forming food, plenty of meat, both raw and 
cooked. Milk is also good, but it requires 
to be strengthened with Plasmon, or casein. 
The secret of growing full-sized dogs with 
plenty of bone and substance is to get 
a good start from birth, good feeding, warm, 
dry quarters, and freedom for the puppies 
to mo\-e about and e.xercise themselves 
as they wish. Forced e.xercise may make 
them go wrong on their legs. Medicine 
should not be required except for worms, 
and the puppies should be physicked for 
these soon after they are weaned, and 
again when three or four months old, 
or before that if they are not thriving. If 
free from worms. Newfoundland puppies 
will be found quite hard\-, and, under 


proper conditions of food and quarters, they 
are easy to rear. 

The Newfoundland Chib scale of points 
for judging is as follows : 

Head 34 points : — 

Shape of skuU ... 8 
Ears . . . .10 


Body 66 points : — 

Shoulders . 
Loin and back . 
Hind quarters and tail 
Legs and feet . 

Size, height, and general ap- 

Total points 


S— 66 

Her patience and skill have been repaid, 
and this lady now holds a very strong 
hand in Newfoundlands. Viking attained 
high honour on the first occasion of his 
being showir. At the Crystal Palace, Oc- 
tober, 1904, he won first prizes in Open 
and Limit classes, the sih^er cup for the 
best black dog, and also the Championship. 
He is stiU an unbeaten dog, and is likely 
to be as famous in the Stud Book as his 
grandsire King Stuart. 

The other black Newfoundland illustrated 
is Champion Gipsy Princess (p. 76), who was 
owned by Miss E. Goodall. This bitch 
was first shown, I think, at Earl's Court in 
1899, at the age of about ten months, 
and created quite a sensation among New- 
foundland breeders. The successful career 
then commenced was continued throughout 
her life. It is an unfortunate fact that 

Five of the illustrations in this 
chapter are of typical cham- 
pions of the breed. Takmg the 
head of Champion King Stuart 
(K.C.S.B. 36,708) first, this is 
portrayed as the type of head 
required. There is a slight 
defect in the photograph, due 
to refraction, the smooth, shiny 
black hair at the stop having 
glistened in the light, thus 
preventing the depth of the 
stop and the formation of the 
dome from being justly seen. 
This dog had an almost un- 
paralleled record on the show 
bench. He was the sire of 
Mr. Horsfield's very typical 
dog. Champion Bowdon Per- 
fection, of Mr. Critchley's 
charming bitch, Champion Lady 
Buller, and the grandsire, on both 
sire and dam's side, of Cham- 
pion Shelton Viking (p. 82). 

Viking was bred by Mrs. 
Vale Nicolas, of Worksop, who 
at one time owned King Stuart, 
and was firm in her resolve to 
breed to that type of head. 



Photograph by Russell. 



she never bred. She was an exceptionally 
large bitch. Her breeder was Mr. Haldenby, 
of Hull, and she was but one of many famous 
Newfoundlands emanating from his kennels. 
The sire of Gipsy Princess was the famous 
Champion Wolf of Badenoch, and her dam 
was by King Stuart. 

Coming now to the illustrations of the 
white and black dogs, to take them in the 
order of their birth, first is Champion Prince 
of Norfolk. The illustration (see p. 83) shows 
what a grandly proportioned dog he was, 
and how beautifully marked. He was ^■ery 
little used at stud, and he died in 1904. The 

Other famous Newfoundland kennels are 
owned by the Rev. W. T. Willacott, of Brad- 
worthy, North Devon ; Mr. J.J. Horsfield, 
of Sale ; ]Mr. J.J. Cooper (President of the 
Newfoundland Club), oi Feniscowles Old 
Hall, near Blackburn ; Mr. R. R. Coats, of 
Newcastle-on-Tyne ; but to mention all 
the owners and the many celebrated New- 
foundlands who have made history in the 
breed would exceed the space available 
in this chapter. There are many who 
ha\"e passed ; owners who are remembered 
with respect and esteem, and dogs who find 
a soft place in one's heart for the many 

CH. SHELTON VIKING, by lord rosebery — shelton madge 

Photogiaph by T. l\iU. 

otlier dog illustrated is Champion Milk Boy, 
owned by Mrs. W. A. Lindsay, of Belfast 
(see pp. 77, 78). This dog has won numerous 
championships, prizes, and cups, and w;is 
bred by Mr. H. J. Mansfield, of Rushbrooke. 
near Bury St. Edmunds, who has for many 
years been a consistent and successful 
breeder of Newfoundlands. 

victories they won, and for the great names 
that li\-e after them. And in the present 
there are still friends who are carrying 
on the history, and great dogs wlio are 
an impro\'ed race, ready to uphold the 
fame of their breed on tlie show bench, and 
to gladden the hearts of their masters and 
mistresses as friends and companions. 


In conclusion, a few words maj- be said open to competition among the members ; 
for the Newfoundland Club, which was estab- it presents special prizes at the various 
lished in 1S84 to promote the breeding shows ; and offers facihties to anyone who is 



Photograph by Salmon. 

of pure Newfoundlands by endeavourmg desirous of stud}-ing the breed. The annual 

to make the qualities and type of the subscription is £1 is., and the Hon. Secre- 

breed more definitely known. The Club tar}' is ^Ir. W. E. Gillingham, of 335, King 

owns several Challenge Cups, which are Street \\"est, Hammersmith. 







" He who alone there was dctm:d best of all, 
The war dog of the Danefolk. well worthy of men." 

— Hel-ride of Bryxhild. 




^HE origin of 
the Great 
Dane, like 
that of a great 
many other Yarie- 
ties of dogs, is so 
obscure that all 
researches ha\'e 
only resulted in 
speculatiYe theo- 
ries, but the un- 

BY CH. LOR.S THYLIA. dOUbtcd att" 

tiquity of this 
dog is proYed by the fact that repre- 
sentatiYes of a breed sufficiently similar to 
be considered his ancestors are found on 
some of the oldest Egyptian monuments. 
How the Great Dane came by his present 
name is also uncertain. If Denmark was 
the country from which these dogs spread 
OYer the Continent, and were on that 
account called Great Danes, they must 
have greatly deteriorated in their father- 
land, because what is now knowTi as the 
Dansk Hound (Danish Dog) is at the 

best only a sorry caricature of the Great 

A few years ago a controversy arose on the 
breed's proper designation, when the Ger- 
mans claimed for it the title " Deutsche 
Dogge." German V had several varieties 
of big dogs, such as the Hatzriide, Sau- 
fanger. Ulmer Dogge, and Rottweiler 
Metzerghund ; but contemporaneously with 
these there existed, as in other countries in 
Europe, another very big breed, but much 
nobler and more thoroughbred, known as 
the Great Dane. When after the war of 
1870 national feeling was pulsating very 
strongly in the veins of re-united Germany, 
the German cynologists were on the look- 
out for a national dog, and for that purpose 
the Great Dane was re-christened " Deutsche 
Dogge," and elected as the champion of 
German Dogdom. For a long time all 
these breeds had, no doubt, been indis- 
criminately crossed, and a proof of this may 
be found in the fact that the powerful 
influence in dog breeding of " black and 
tan," which is the colour of the Rottweiler 



Hund, shows itself even now by the occa- 
sional appearance of a puppy with tan 
marking, and particularly the peculiar tan 
spots above the eyes. 

The Great Dane was introduced into this 
country spasmodically some thirty-five 

shortened by the removal of some of the 
end joints should be disqualified from 
winning a prize. At the end of 1895 the 
old Club was dissolved, and in 1896 Mr. 
Robert Leadbetter, M.F.H., took the initia- 
tive in the formation of a new Great Dane 


/-■■ r 




years ago, when he was commonly referred 
to as the Boarhound, or the German JMastiff, 
and for a time the breed had to undergo 
a probationary period in the " Foreign 
Class " at dog shows, but it soon gained in 
public favour, and in the early 'eighties a 
Great Dane Club was formed. In 1895 
the breed suffered a great set-back through 
the abolition of " cropping " in this country, 
which was also one of the causes of dissen- 
sion amongst the members of the Great 
Dane Club ; another cause being the question 
as to whether a dog whose tail had been 

Club, which has flourished ever since. In 
1903 another Club was started under the 
title, " The Northern Great Dane Club," 
which has also done important work. The 
intrinsic good qualities of the Great Dane 
and the assistance of these institutions have 
raised him to such a height in general esteem 
that he is now one of the most popular of 
all the larger breeds of dogs. 

The Kennel Club has classed the Great 
Dane amongst the Non-Sporting dogs, prob- 
ably because with us he cannot find a 
quarry worthy of his mettle ; but, for all 



that, he has the instincts and quahfications 
of a sporting dog, and he has pro\'ed him- 
self particularly valuable for hunting big 
game in hot climates, which he stands \'ery 

Respecting the temperament of the Great 
Dane and his suitability as a companion 



Photcgral'h by Judge, Hastingi. 

writers have gone to extremes in praise 
and condemnation. In his favour it must 
be said that in natural intelligence he is 
surpassed by very few other dogs. He has 
a most imposing figure, and does not, like 
some other big breeds, slobber from his 
mouth, which is a particularly unpleasant 
peculiarity when a dog is kept in the house. 
On the other hand, it must be admitted that 
with almost the strength of a tiger he com- 
bines the excitability of a terrier, and no 
doubt a badly trained Great Dane is a very 
dangerous animal. It is not sufficient to 
teach him in the haphazard way which 
might be successful in getting a small dog 
under control, but even as a companion 
he ought to be trained systematically, 
and, considering his marked intelligence, 
this is not difficult of accomplishment. 

In Germany the Great Dane is some- 
times specially trained to " go for a man " 

at command, and to pull him do\vn and 
stand over him without biting him unless 
he shows fight. 

The Great Dane attains his full develop- 
ment in about a year and a half to two years, 
and, considering that puppies have to build 
up in that time a very big skeleton and 
straight limbs, special 
attention must be given 
to the rearing of them. 
The dam whelps fre- 
quently eight puppies, 
and sometimes even a 
few more, but that is 
t<io great a number for 
a bitch to suclde in a 
breed where great size 
is a desideratum. Not 
more than four, or at 
the outside five, should 
be left with the bitcli, 
and the others put to 
a foster mother, or if 
they are weaklings or 
foul-marked puppies it 
is best to destroy them. 
After the puppies are 
weaned, their food 
should be of bone- 
making quality, and 
they require ample space for exercise and 
play at their own sweet vvill. Nothing is 
worse than to take the youngsters for forced 
marclres before their bones have become 
firm . 

Before giving the description and stan- 
dard which have been adopted by the Great 
Dane Clubs, a few remarks on some of the 
leading points will be useful. The general 
characteristic of the Great Dane is a com- 
bination of grace and power, and therefore 
the lightness of the Gre^-hound, as well as 
the heaviness of the Mastiff, must be avoided. 
The head should be powerful, but at 
the same time show quality by its nice 

The eyes should be intelligent and viva- 
cious, but not have the hard expression of 
the terrier. The distance between the eyes 
is of great importance ; if too wide apart 
they give the dog a stupid appearance, 


and if too close together he has a treacher- 
ous look. 

Another very important point is the grace- 
ful carriage of the tail. When it is curled 
over the back it makes an otherwise hand- 
some dog look mean, and a tail that curls 
at the end like a corkscrew is also very 
ugly. In former times " faking " was not 
unfrequently resorted to to correct a faulty 
tail carriage, but it is easily detected, be- 
cause when the dog is excited he raises the 
tail up to the point where it has been 
operated upon, and from there it is carried 
in an unnaturally different direction in a 
more or less lifeless 
way. " Faked " tails 
are now hardly ever 
seen. Great Danes 
sometimes injure the 
end of the tail by 
hitting it against a 
hard substance, and 
those with a good car- 
riage of tail are most 
hable to this because 
in excitement the}' 
slash it about, whereas 
the faulty position of 
the tail, curled o\-er 
the back, insures im- 
munity from harm. It 
a dog's tail has been 
damaged, it should be 
attended to at once 
to allay inflammation, 
otherwise mortification 
may set in and some 
of the joints of the tail 
will have to be taken 

Cases have probably 
occurred where the end 
of the tail was taken 
off to get rid of the ugly corkscrew twist, 
and this may have been tlie reason for 
the proposal to disqualify all curtailed 

Until recently British Great Dane breeders 
and exhibitors have paid very little atten- 
tion to colour, on the principle that, like a 
good horse, a good Great Dane cannot be 

a bad colour. The English clubs, however, 
have now in this particular also adopted the 
German standard. 

The orthodox colours are brindle, fawn, 
blue, black, and harlequin. In the brindle 
dogs the ground colour should be any shade 
from hght yellow to dark red-yellow on 
which the brindle appears in darker 
stripes. The harlequins have on a pure 
white ground fairly large black patches, 
which must be of irregular shape, broken 
up as if they had been torn, and not liave 
rounded outlines. WTien brindle Great 
Danes are continuously bred together, it 

LIBETT VAN DE PRINS by ch. hatto of Holland — ady. 



has been found that they get darker, and 
that the peculiar " striping " disappears, 
and in that case the introduction of a good 
fawn into the strain is advisable. The 
constant mating of harlequins has the ten- 
dency to make the black patches dis- 
appear, and the union with a good black 
Great Dane will prevent the loss of colour. 



The following is the oflficial descripition 
issued by the Great Dane Club. The 
sketches are by Mis. Ernest E. Fox. 

I. General Appearance. — The Great Dane is not 
so heavy or massive as the Mastiff, nor should 
he too nearly approach the Greyhound ty-pe. 
Remarkable in size and very muscular, strongly 
though elegantly built ; the head and neck 
should be carried high, and the tail in line with 
the back, or slightly upwards, but not curled 

when well trained, but he may grow savage if 
confined too much, kept on chain, or ill treated. 

3. Height. — The minimum height of an adult 
dog should be 30 ins,; that of a bitch, 28 ins. 

4. Weight. — The minimum weight of an adult 
dog should be 120 lbs. ; that of a bitch, 100 lbs. 
The greater height and weight to be preferred, 
provided that qualitv and proportion are also 

5. Head. — Taken f.ltogether, the head should 
give the idea of great length and strength of jaw. 
The muzzle, or foreface, is 

broad, and the skill propor- 
tionately narrow, so that the 
whole head, when ',■ie^\^d from 
above and in front, has tlie 
appearance of equal breadth 

6. Length of Head. — The 
entire length of head varies 
with the height of the dog, 13 

ms. f;om the tip of the nose to the back of the 
occiput is a good measurement for a dog of 32 ins. 
at the shoulder. The length from the end of the 
nose to the poin between the eyes should be 
about equal, or preferably of greater length than 
from this point to the back of the occiput. 

7. Skull. — The skull should be flat rather than 
domed, and have a slight indentation running 
up the centre, the occipital peak not prominent. 
There should be a decided rise or brow over 
the eyes, no abrupt stop between them. 

The Dotted 




over the hind quarters. Elegance of outline 
and grace of form are most essential to a Dane ; 
size is absolutely necessary ; but there must be 
that alertness of expression and briskness of 
movement without which the Dane character 
is lost. He should have a look of dash and 
daring, of being ready to go anywhere and do 

2. Temperament. — The Great Dane is good- 
tempered, affectionate, and faithful to his master, 
not demonstrative with strangers ; intelligent, 
courageous, and always alert. His value as a 
guard is unrivalled. He is easily controlled 


8. Face. — The face should be chiselled well 
and foreface long, of equal depth throughout, 
and well filled in below the eyes with no appear- 
ance of being jiinched. 

9. Muscles of the Cheek. — The muscles of the 
cheeks should be quite flat, with no lumpiness 
or cheek bumps, the angle of the jaw-bone well 

ID. Lips. — The lips should hang quite square 
in front, forming a right angle with the upper 
line of foreface. 


II. — Underline. — The underline of the head, 
viewed in profile, runs almost in a straight line 
from the comer of the lip to the comer of the 
jawbone, allowing for the fold of the lip. but 
with no loose skin to hang down. 

12. Jaw. — The lower jaw should be about 
level, or at any rate not project more than the 
sixteenth of an inch. 

13. Nose and Nostrils. — The bridge of the nose 

the elbows well under the body, so that, when 
viewed in front, the dog does not stand too wide. 

17. Forelegs and Feet. — The fore-legs should 
be perfectly straight, with big flat bone. The 
feet large and round, the toes well arched and 
close, the nails strong and curved. 

18. Body. — The body is very deep, with ribs 
well sprung and belly well drawn up. 

19. Back and Loins. — The back and loins are 



Photograph by Coe, Norwich. 

should be very wide, with a slight ridge where 
the cartilage joins the bone. (This is quite a 
characteristic of the breed.. The nostrils should 
be large, wide, and open, giving a blunt look to 
the nose. A butterfly or flesh-coloured nose is 
not objected to in harlequins. 

14. Ears. — The ears should be small, set high 
on the skull, and carried slightly erect, with the 
tips falling forward. 

15. Neck. — Next to the head, the neck is one 
of the chief characteristics. It should be long, 
well arched, and quite clean and free from loose 
skin, held well up, snakelike in carriage, well 
set in the shoulders, and the junction of head 
and neck well defined. 

16. Shoulders. — The shoulders should be muscu- 
lar but not loaded, and well sloped back, with 

strong, the latter slightly arched, as in the Grey- 

20. Hind-Quarters. — The hind-quarters and 
thighs are extremely muscular, giving the idea 
of great strength and galloping power. The 
second thigh is long and well developed as in 
a Greyhound, and the hocks set low, turning 
neither out nor in. 

21. Tail. — The tail is strong at the root and 
ends in a fine point, reaching to or just below 
the hocks. It should be carried, when the dog 
is in action, in a straight line level with the back, 
slightly curved towards the end, but should not 
curl over the back. 

22. Coat. — The hair is short and dense, and 
sleek-looking, and in no case should it incline 
to coarseness. 



23. Gait or Action. — The gait should be lithe, 
springy, and free, the action high. The hocks 
should move very freely, and the head should 
be held well up. 

24. Colour. — The colours are brindlc. fawn, 
blue, black, and harlequin. The harlequin should 
have jet black patches and spots on a pure white 
ground ; grey patches are admissible but not 
desired : but fawn or brindle shades are objection- 

Fassbender, Mr. Wuster, Lord Charles Kerr, 
Prince Albert Solms, JMr. James Davis, 
and -Mr. Charles Goas. ^Ir. Fassbender 
was the o\\iier of Nero, who was mated 
to ;\Ir. Wuster's Flora — both importations. 
Nero was a large and elegantly shaped 
brindle, while Flora was a notably strong 
and beautiful bitch. She was bred from 
before she came to England, and perhaps 


I'lwtografh hy Coc, A',)i,.'ii A. 

In supplement to ;\Ir. Joachim's \-aluable 
remarks on this breed it may be noted 
that among the earh' importations of the 
Great Dane into England were Lady 
Bismarck and Libertas, the latter a grand 
bitch who liad se\-eral good litters by her 
kennel mate, Imperium, who distinguished 
himself at Dublin and at the Crystal Palace. 
Herr Gustav Lang, of Stuttgart, Herr 
R. von Schmeideberg, editor of Dcr Hmui. 
and Herr Bamberger, were the principal 
authorities on the breed in Germany ; and 
the chief owners in England were Mr. 

the finest specimen of the Great Dane ev^er 
seen in this country was her daughter 
Champion Vendetta, whose sire was Harras. 
Bred b\- Herr Bamberger. Vendetta was 
born August 21st, 1884, and imported 
while still young, becoming the property 
of Mrs. Reginald Herbert, who afterwards 
sold her to Mr. Craven. Although in all 
large breeds the female is, as a rule, notice- 
ably smaller than the male. Vendetta was 
in no sense inferior to such mighty dogs 
as Hannibal and Champion Colonia Bosco. 
She was tall, with great substance and 



power, and had the bold, frowning ex- 
pression and noble, commanding look which 
seems to have been softened out from the 
more recent Danes. Her height was 32^ 
inches at the shoulder, and her weight 
144 lbs. Thus she was considerably taller 
and hea\ier than most specimens of her 

Mr. Robert Leadbetter, who has already- 
been mentioned in connection with the 
breeding of ^lastiffs, is equall}- well known 
as an owTier and successful breeder of Great 
Danes ; and another 
enthusiast is Miss 
Evel}Ti MackayScott, 
of Erith, the owner 
of Prince Florizel, and 
breeder of Hannibal 
of Rosedale and the 
late Chance of Rose- 
dale. Hannibal is 
probably the largest 
Great Dane li\nng at 
the present time in 
Europe, and cer- 
tainly in England. 
His height is 34 
inches. But Chance, 
who was a splendid 
light brindle, was 
even taller than his 
half-brother, for he 
stood fully 35 inches 
at the shoulder, and 
was perhaps the tall- 
est dog of any breed 
and at any time 
whose measurements 
have been recorded. 
His proportions were 
entirely in harmony 
with his remarkable 
height, for he was a 
dog of enormous bone 

and substance, with wonderful depth of 
brisket. He had an admirably typical head, 
with a good square muzzle and level jaw. 
His expression was of the true Dane char- 
acter, and his action was majestic. 

Of recent years w'omen have been promi- 
nent among the owners and breeders who 

have striven to keep perfect and to popularise 
the Great Dane, and none has done more in 
this direction than Mrs. H. HorsfaU, whose 
kennels at Mornington Manor, in Norfolk, 
have sent forth many redoubtable champions. 
There are, indeed, very few superlative Great 
Danes nowadays who do not owe some re- 
lationship to the renowned Redgrave strain. 
The following Great Danes have gained 
championship honours during the past five 
years. Dogs : Roger of Eccleshall, Viceroy 
of Redgrave. \"iking of Redgrave. Lord 



Pholograph by T. Fall. 


Dcedless, Lord Ronald of Redgrave, Thor 
of Redgrave, Loris of Redgrave, Vanguard 
of Redgrave, Vrelst of Redgrave. Bitches : 
Lady Topper, Lot of Redgrave, Victory of 
Redgrave, Valentine of Redgrave, Superba 
of Stapleton, Viola of Redgrave, Rosamund 
of Stapleton. 



■ Spotted like the leopard. I 

Live my days at Dobbin's heels. 
Lef the hastening pack go by, 
With tootling horn and bellowing cry; 
I am content beticeen the wheels." 

" The Spotted Dog.' 


OF the antecedents of the. Dalmatian 
it is extremely hard to speak with 
certaint\', but it appears that the 
brei'tl has altered very little since it was 
first illustrated in Bewick's book on nat- 
ural liistorw in which tliere appears an 
engravinfj of a dog who. but for his dis- 
graceful tail carriage, would be able to 
hold his own in high - class competition 
in the present day, and whose markings 
are sufficiently well distributed to satisfy 
the most e.xacting of judges. Indeed, 
the almost geometrical exactness with 
which the spots are represented by Bewick 
suggests the inference that imagination 
greatly assisted Nature in producing what 
he thought ought to be. The famous en- 
graver's ideal, however exaggerated, is at 
the same time a standard worth breeding 
up to in that most important feature of this 
dog, the brilliance and regularity of his 

In former times it was the custom to 
transform the ears of the Dalmatian by 
cropping, and in many cases the whole flap 

of the ear was entireh' removed, exposing 
the cavity ; but this barbarous and utterly 
useless practice rightly fell into disrepute, 
and the dog now appears as Nature in- 
tended him to be — a smart, well-built, 
aristocratic-looking animal, in shape and 
size resembling a Pointer ; in colour pure 
white, sprinkled v\ith black or brown 

Before the Kennel Club found it necessary 
to insist upon a precise definition of each 
brct'd, the dog was known as the Coach Dog, 
a name appropriately derived from his 
fondness for following a carriage, for living 
in and about the stable, and for accom- 
panying his master's horses at exercise. 
As an adjunct to the carriage he is pecu- 
liarly suitable, for in fine weather he wiU 
follow between the wheels for long dis- 
tances without showing fatigue, keeping 
easy pace with the best horses. Then, 
again, being perfectly smooth and short 
in coat, and at the same time possessed of 
sufficient size and pluck to command re- 
spect on the part of intruders, he can in wet 
weather adorn the inside of the vehicle 
without inconvenience to other occupants. 
He appears almost to prefer equine to 
human companionship, and he is as fond of 
being among horses as the Collie is of being 
in the midst of sheep. Yet he is of friendly 
disposition, and it must be insisted that 
he is by no means so destitute of intelligence 
as he is often represented to be. On the 
contrary, he is capable of being trained 
into remarkable cleverness, as circus pro- 
prietors have discovered. 



The Dalmatian has another trait in his have been taken to train them systematic- 
character which is in his favour, for, although ally for gim-work. 

not classed among sporting breeds, he is 
decidedl}' useful as a sporting dog, and 
from his similarity in shape and build to 


a small-sized Pointer, he is well qualified 
to undergo the fatigue of a hard day's 
shooting. Although he is not quite so 
keen-scented nor so staunch as the Pointer, 
he yet has manj- of the same attributes, and 
when trained — which is, un- 
fortunately, all too rare an 
occurrence — he is of valu- 
able service in the field. 
Experience has proved, how- 
ever, that he prefers fea- 
thered to ground game, or, 
at least , that he seems to 
find and take more notice 
of partridges and pheasants 
than of hares. 

The earliest authorities 
agree that this breed was 
first introduced from Dal- 
matia, and it has been 
confidently asserted that he 
was brought into this coun- 
try purely on account of 
his sporting procU\'ities. Of 
late years, however, these 

So far as can be ascertained, the first ot 
the variety which appeared in the show 
ring Mr. James Fawdry's Captain, in 
1873. At that period they were looked 
upon as a no%'elty, and, though the gene- 
rosity and influence of a few admirers 
ensured separate classes being pro\-ided 
for the breed at the leading shows, it did 
not necessitate the production of sucli per- 
fect specimens as those which a few years 
afterwards won prizes. At the first they 
were more popular in the North of England 
than in any other part of Great Britain. 
It was at Kirkby Lonsdale that Dr. James's 
Spotted Dick was bred, and an early ex- 
ploiter of the breed wlio made his dogs 
famous was Mr. Newbj' Wilson, -of Lake- 
side, Windermere. He was indebted to Mr. 
Hugo Droesse, of London, for the founda- 
tion of his stud, inasmuch as it was from 
Mr. Droesse that he purchased Ch. Acrobat 
and Ch. Beroliua. At a later date the famed 
Coming Still and Prince IV. were secured 
from the same kennel, the latter dog being- 
the progenitor of most of the best liver- 



fiJ: by Higmtt ami Son. Lostock. 


dogs have so far degenerated as to be spotted specimens that have attained noto- 

looked upon simply as companions, or as riet\' as prize-\\'inners down to the present 

exhibition dogs, for only very occasion- day. 
ally can it be found that any pains Probably there was never a more sensa 



tional disposal of a noted kennel than that 
which was witnessed when Mr. Newby 
Wilson relinquished his interest in this breed, 
for both Acrobat and Berolina were bought 
bj- Mr. E. T. Parker, of Bristol, for less than 
ten pounds each. To-day such specimens 
would realise at least eight or ten times 
the amount. Mr. Parker's opinion of the 
merits of these dogs turned out to be very 




correct, for Ch. Acrobat has done more 
than any otlier indi^'idual dog to bring 
the Dalmatian to its present state of 
perfection, such celebrated champions as 
Moujik, Primrose, Defender. Challenger, 
and Ribblesdale Beauty owning him as 
tlieir sire. 

Among the principal exhibitors no one 
has had a longer or more successful career 
than Mrs. J. C. Preston, of Ellel, near 
Lancaster, who has not only won more 
prizes than any other exhibitor of Dal- 
matians, but has also obtained the highest 
prices which have been paid for good speci- 
mens, which is not surprising when it is 
known that Mrs. Preston relied on such 
famous stock as that of Champions Moujik, 
Primrose, Defender, Pearlette, and Lord 
Quex, and the remarkably good-coloured 
liver-spotted dog, Ch. President, who. with 

Pearlette, was sold to Mr. Macklay, of New 
York, quite recently at a figure which 
constituted a record for the variety. 

In his day no Dalmatian of his colour 
could approach Mr. Herman's Ch. Fontleroy, 
and it is questionable whether any of the 
variety has been quite so distinguished 
for the imiformity of the size and 
very even distribution of his markings, 
which are such essential attributes of the 
perfect Dalmatian. Mrs. Bedwell has also 
tlone much towards making the breed 
ix.ipular, and has consistently proffered 
unstinted support to such show societies 
as are willing to give anything hke a reason- 
able classification. Mrs. Bedwell owns many 
notable examples, including Champions 
Rugby Bridget and Rugby Brunette, all of 
tliem being known by the " Rugby " prefix. 
^Ir. and Mrs. Braithwaite, of Warton, Cam- 
forth, Dr. XMieeler-O'Bryen, and Mr. J. 
Dawson, of Preston — who possesses Superba 
and Partington, two famous winners — are 
also among the eminent owners and breeders 
who have succeeded in maintaining and 
improving the quality of the Dalmatian. 
Probably no owner has contributed more to 
the revival of public interest in the breed 
than the President of the North of England 
Club, Mr. William Proctor, of Sale, Cheshire. 
He has, during tlie last five or six years, 
exhibited fearlessly, is one of the most 
popular dog judges, and is at present the 
owner of what may be considered the 
best bitch that ever was benched— Ch. 
Balette. who within eighteen months has 
won a hundred First prizes without ha\nng 
once suffered defeat. 

This breed ne\"er attained such a hold 
on the favour of the public as it did when 
Mr. William Whittaker, of Bolton, was the 
Honorary Secretary of the parent club, 
for neither before nor since have so many 
entries been recorded at the shows. Unfor- 
tunately the state of his health demanded 
his retirement from active participation 
in what was to him a congenial pastime 
as well as a source of great benefit to others ; 
but this misfortune could not entirely 
deter him from taking an interest in the 
spotted dog, for he still has one or two 





Photograph by Higneit and Son, Lostock. 

about him from which he breeds to supply 
those \\'ho are younger and more acti\c, 
and can therefore stand the hustle of 
making long railway journe\'s to attend 

In appearance the Dalmatian should be 
very similar to a Pointer save and except 
in head and marking. Still, though not so 
long in muzzle nor so pen- 
dulous in lip as a Pointer, 
there should be no coarse- 
ness or common look about 
the skull, a fault which is 
much too prevalent. Then, 
again, some judges do not 
attach sufficient importance 
to the ej^elids, or rather 
sears, which should invari- 
ably be edged round \\\ih 
black or brown. Those 
which are flesh-coloured m 
this particular should be 
discarded, however good 
they may be in other re- 
spects. The density and 
pureness of colour, in both 
blacks and browns, is of 
great importance, but should 
not be permitted to out- 
weigh the evenness of the photograph ty ru 

distribution of spots on the 
body ; no black patches, or 
even mingling of the spots, 
should meet with favour, 
any more than a ring-tail 
or a clumsy-looldng, heavy- 
shouldered dog should com- 
mand attention. 

The darker - spotted va- 
riety usually prevails in 
a cross between the two 
colours, the offspring very 
seldom ha\-ing the liver- 
coloured markings. The un- 
initiated may be informed 
that Dalmatian puppies are 
alwaj's born pure white. 
The clearer and whiter they are the better 
they are likely to be. There shpuld not 
be the shadow of a mark or spot on them. 
When about a fortnight old, however, 
they generally develop a dark ridge on the 
bell}', and the spots will then begin to 
show themselves ; first about the neck and 
ears, and afterwards along the back, until 
at about the sixteenth day the markings 
are distinct over the body, excepting only 
the tail, which frequently remains white 
for a few weeks longer. 




The standard of points as laid down by the 
leading club is sufficiently explicit to be 
easily understood, and is as follows ; 

I. General Appearance. — The Dalmatian should 
represent a strong, muscular, and active dog, 
symmetrical in outline, and free from coarseness 
and lumber, capable of great endurance combined 
with a fair amount of speed. 

variety should be black, in the liver-spotted 
\-ariety browm — never flesh-colour in either. 

6. Ears. — The ears should be set on rather high 
of moderate size, rather wide at the base, and 
gradually tapering to a round point. They should 
be carried close to the head, be thin and fine in 
texture, and always spotted — the more profusely 
the better. 

7. Nose. — The nose in the black-spotted variety 

CH. RUGBY BRIDGET by ch. fontleroy — morecambe rose. 

Photograph by Hcmmim, Sii'iiuloii. 

2. Head. — The head should be of a fair length ; 
the skull flat, rather broad between the ears, and 
moderately well defined at the temples — i.e. 
e.xhibiting a moderate amount of stop and not in 
one straight line from the nose to the occiput 
bone as required in a Bull terrier. It should be 
entirely free from wrinkle. 

3. Muzzle. — The muzzle should be long and 
powerful J the lips clean, fitting the jaws 
moderately close. 

4. Eyes. — The eyes should be set moderately 
well apart, and of medium size, round, bright, and 
sparkling, with an intelligent expression, their 
colour greatly depending on the markings of the 
dog. In the black spotted variety the eyes should 
be dark (black or dark brown^, in the liver -spotted 
variety they should be light (yellow or light browm). 

5. The Rim round the Eyes in the black-spotted 

should alwavs be black, in the liver-spotted 
varietv always brown. 

8. Neck and Shoulders. — The neck should be 
fairlv long, nicelv arched, light and tapering, and 
entirelv free from throatiness. The shoulders 
should be moderatelv oblique, clean, and muscu- 
lar, denoting speed. 

9. Body, Back, Chest, and Loins. — The chest 
should not be too wide, but very deep and 
capacious, ribs moderately well sprung, never 
rounded like barrel hoops (which would indicatr 
want of speed), the back powerful, loin strong, 
muscular, and slightly arched. 

10. Legs and Feet. — The legs and feet are of 
great importance. The fore-legs should be perfectly 
straight, strong, and heavy in bone ; elbows close 
to the body; fore-feet round, compact with well- 
arched toes (cat-footed), and round, tough, elastic 



pads. In the hind legs the muscles should be 
clean, though well-defined ; the hocks well let 

n. Nails. — The naUs in the black - spotted 
variety- should be black and white, in the liver- 
spotted variety' brown and white. 

12. Tail. — The taU should not be too long, strong 
at the insertion, and gradually tapering towards 
the end, free from coarseness. It should not be 
inserted too low down, but carried with a slight 
cur\e upwards, and never curled. It should be 
spotted, the more profusely the better. 

13. Coat. — The coat should be short, hard, dense 
and fine, sleek and glossy in appearance, but neither 
woolly nor silky. 

14. Colour and Markings. — These are most im- 
portant points. The ground colour in both varieties 
should be pure white, very decided, and not inter- 
mixed. The colour of the spots of the black- 
spotted variety should be black, the deeper and 
richer the black the better ; in the liver-spotted 

variety they should be brown. The spots should 
not intermingle, but be as round and well-defined 
as possible, the more distinct the better ; in size 
they should be from that of a si.xpence to a florin. 
The spots on head, face, ears, legs. tail, and ex- 
tremities to be smaller than those on the body. 
15. Weight.— Dogs, 55 lbs. ; bitches, 50 lbs. 

Standard of Excellence. 

Head and eyes 10 

Ears 5 

Neck and shoulders 10 

Body. back, chest, and loins . . 10 

Legs and feet 15 

Coat 5 

Colour and markings .... 30 

Tail 5 

Size and symmetry, etc. ... 10 

Total 100 





i'holografh by Eiticitrds, Selkirk. 




" But should you. while u\indcrin» in the leild sheepland. happen on moor or in market upon 
(1 very perfect gentle knight clothed in dark grey habit, splashed here and there with rays of moon : 
free by right divine of the guild of gentlemen, strenuous as a prince, lithe as a rowan, graceful 
as a girl, with high king carriage, motions and manners of a fairy queen ; should he have a noble 
breadth of brow, an air of still strength born of right confidence, all unassuming ; last and most 
unfailing test of all, should you look into two snoxvcloud eyes, calm, wistful, inscrutable, their 
soft depths clothed on with eternal sadness — yearning, as is said, for the sold that is not 
theirs — know then that vou look upon one of the line of the most illustrious sheepdogs of the 
North." — " OwD Bob." 

I. The Working Collie. — The foregoing 
quotation from Alfred Olliphant's de- 
lightful fictional biography of Bob, son 
of Battle, refers more particularly to the 
grey Sheepdog of Kenmuir, but it is a 
description which may be applied in general 
to all the dogs of the Collie strain that 
follow their active lives among the fells 
and dales and on the wind-swept hillsides 
of the North. The townsman who knows 
the shepherd's dog only as he is to be 
seen, out of his true element, threading 

his confined way through crowded street^ 
where sheep are not, can have small appre- 
ciation of his wisdom and his sterhn^ 
worth. To know him properly, one needs 
to see him at work in a country where 
sheep abound, to watch him adroitly round- 
ing up his scattered charges on a wide- 
stretching moorland, gathering the wander- 
ing wethers into close order and driving 
them before him in unbroken company 
to the fold ; handling the stubborn pack 
in a narrow lane, running lightly over the 



woolly floor to whisper a stem command 
in the ear of some patriarch of the flock ; 
or holding them in the comer of a field, 
immobile mider the spell of his \-igilant 
eye. He is at his best as a worker, con- 
scious of the responsibihty reposed in him ; 
a marvel of generalship, gentle, judicious, 
slow to anger, quick to action ; the price- 
less helpmeet of his master, of whom he 
is the business half, sharing ambitions, 
perils, sorrows, joys, sun and snow — the 
most useful member of all the tribe of 

Few dogs possess the fertile, resourceful 
brain of the Collie. He can be trained to 
perform the duties of other breeds. He 
makes an excellent sporting dog, and can 
be taught to do the work of the Pointer 
and the Setter, as well as that of the Water 
Spaniel and the Retriever. He is cle\'er 
at hunting, having an excellent nose, is a 
good vermin-killer, and a most faithful 
watch, guard, and companion. I have seen 
many companies of performing dogs, and 
one of the very best of them was a Collie. 
Major Richardson, who during the past ten 
years has been successful in training dogs 
to ambulance work on the field of battle, 
has carefully tested the abilities of various 
breeds in discovering wounded soldiers, 
and he gives to the Collie the decided 

It is, however, as an assistant to the 
flock-master, the farmer, the butcher, and 
the drover that the Collie takes his most 
appropriate place in e very-day life. The 
shepherd on his daily rounds, travelling 
over miles of moorland, could not well 
accomplish his task without his Collie's 
skilful aid. One such dog, knowing what 
is expected of him, can do work which 
would otherwise require the combined efforts 
of a score of men. James Hogg, tlie 
Ettrick Shepherd, declared that without 
the shepherd's dog the whole of the moun- 
tainous land of Scotland would not be 
worth a sixpence, and that it would require 
more hands to manage a flock of sheep, 
gather them from the hills, force them into 
houses and folds, and drive them to markets 
than the profits of the whole stock would 

be capable of maintaining; and the state- 
ment is not wide of the truth. 

I have gone the rounds with the shep- 
herds on the high hills of Yarrow, and 
can personally testify to the amount of 
work entrusted to the dogs. Begin the 
day's labours on a large hirsel ; picture 
the shepherd winding his way along the 
narrow bridle track up the hillside, his 
dog busy all the time gathering the sheep 
from the distant ravines and crags, bringing 
them into sight from beyond intervening 
knolls and shoulders ; consider the vast 
mileage that the dog covers in liis bounding 
pace, the difficult road that he travels over 
rough heather, sharp rocks, and marshy 
hollows ! The shepherd tramps miles, per- 
haps, but on a beaten track, while his Collie, 
taking a wider range, is compelled to gallop 
at high speed in order finally to r^ach the 
hilltop at the same time as his master 
and continue the industrious search on 
the farther side. It is a hard day's work 
for an\' dog : the hardest that the canine 
race is expected to perform. Even in the 
lowland sheep farms, where the flocks are 
easily handled, and where there are no 
awkward jumps across dangerous chasms, 
there are still big days for the dogs — the 
dipping, clipping, and weaning days, when 
the parks near the steadings are wliite 
with their bleating crowds needing to be 
carefully marshalled ; for the Collie well 
knows the trouble that will follow if one 
of the fleet-footed sheep should break away, 
and, whether standing or resting, he never 
takes his watchful eyes off his charge. 

The pastoral life of the shepherd and his 
dog is a healthy one, not devoid of pleasures. 
But take a wintry day on the rain-swept 
hills, or a snowstorm on the Grampians, the 
Che\iots or the Lammermoors ; think of 
the memorable storm in the South of Scot- 
land on January 24th, 1794, when nineteen 
shepherds and five-and-forty dogs perished 
in the execution of their duty! It is at 
such times that the Colhe meets hardship 
and peril with the heroism of a true soldier. 
To the lover of dogs there can be no 
pleasure more keen than that of spending 
a holiday on a sheep farm. Recently I 


enjo3'ed such an experience on the farm of 
Jlr. Mitchell, of Henderland, purely a slieep 
farm, carrying a hundred score of black- 
faced sheep. Here three sheplierds were 
employed, each having two dogs, usually 
a good one and a bad one, or say a moderate 
one. The pliotograph on page 98 was 
taken on a clipping day. The best of the 
four dogs is the one standing; — Tweed, a 




I'lwh'gui;-!: hr Mnnk, rmluts. 

descendant of tlie famous breed kept b\- 
the Ettrick Shepherd. Tweed is a dark, 
fox-coloured sable with a sensible head, and, 
like many of his kind, witii one white or 
merle eye and the other hazel. Bess, the 
black and white lying in the centre, is of 
good stamp and a determined worker, 
but o' strange temperament. All four are 
smooth Collies and in the pink of condition. 
It is a pleasure to see how quickly these 
dogs can climb their way up the heathery 
hillside, and to note, when they are beyond 
the sound of call or whistle, how they will 
watch with eagerness for the semaphore 
signal gi\'en by the shepherd's directing 
hand. A Collie standing on an eminence 
watching the sheep is one of the most 
picturesque of figures. 

Burns, like his fellow-poet James Hogg, 
knew the qualities of a good Collie. Xo 
better description is given in a few words 
than that which he wrote in " The Twa 
Dogs ' : 

" He was a gash an' faithfu' tyke 
As e\-er lap a sheugh or dyke. 
His honest, sonsie, baws'nt face. 
Ay gat him friends in ilka place ; 
His breast was white, his touzie back 
\^'eel clad wi' coat o' glossy black ; 
His gawcie tail, wi' upward curl. 
Hung o'er his hurdies wi' a swirl." 

Little is known with certainty of the 
origin of the Colhe, but his cunning and 
his outward appearance would seem to 
indicate a relationship with the wild dog. 
Buffon was of opinion that he was the 
true dug of nature, the stock and model 
of the whole canine species. He considered 
the Sheepdog superior in instinct and 
intelligence to all other breeds, and that, 
with a character in wliich education has 
comparatively little share, he is the only 
animal born perfectly trained for the ser- 
\-ice of man. Certainh' no dog shows in 
the expression of his face more kindness, 
more sagacity, or more alert eagerness. 
Peculiarly shy in disposition, the Co'.lie 
is slow to make friends with strangers ; 
but once he gains confidence under proper 
treatment, his attachment surpasses that 
of any other animal. He is thoroughly 
devoted to his master, and happiest when 
engaged in helping him among the sheep ; 
work in which he is most painstaking and 

It has often been stated that the Collie 
is a treacherous dog. He is nothing of 
the kind, or I have never found him so. 
On the contrary, he is, in my opinion, of 
all dogs the most faithful. It may be 
said of him, however, that he is disposed 
to concentrate his affections upon one 
person rather than to lavish it upon many. 

One of the most handsome and sagacious 
Collies I cwT saw was a black, tan and 
white one belonging to a Cumberland pig 
dealer. This dog was bred out of an old 
black and white working bitch by a well- 
bred black, tan and white sire of the 
old Ch. Ringleader stamp. He stood 
26 inches at the shoulder, had always a 
beautiful jet black coat with a heavy 
mane, and, though weighing over a hundred- 
weight, was most active on his legs. He 


knew well how to tackle the most obstinate 
pig in the unfamiliar drove on the waj' 
from auction market to railway train, and 
was an adept at trucking them. He did 
not handle them too roughly : one or two 
barks at the ear of a pig was enough, and 
although he had the habit of mouthing them 
on the iiocks and about the hind quarters, 
he seldom drew blood. He was altogether 
a strikingly commanding dog in appearance, 
whether driving the pigs or boldl\' walk- 
ing up the street at his master's heels. He 
never fell into an unbeautiful attitude ; there 
was something pleasing in his expression 
that drew the eye to him repeatedl}'. 

Another dog I often watched at liis work 
belonged to a shepherd named Bums, who 
hved near Selkirk. He was a small, black, 
smooth-coated Collie, like a cat in move- 
ments, a regular clever little fellow, weigh- 
ing no more than 40 lbs. On one occasion, 
when returning from a lamb sale and 
changing trains at Galashiels, Bums thought 
he would sample the whisky, and missed 
his connection. The Galawater blend had 
such an effect upon liim that he subsided 
on a doorstep and feU fast asleep. The 
police were in the act of removing him 
when the httle black dog beside him flew 
at them so furiously that they dared not 
lay a hand on him. On another occasion 
Bums was at a sale in Edinburgh, and again 
tried the whisky. He was overcome with 
sleep in Princes Street near the Scott monu- 
ment, and, dropping suddenly, was caught 
by the neck of his coat on one of the iron 
raihngs, where he remained hanging. The 
passers-by attempted to release him, but 
the dog would allow no one to touch him. 
So furious did he become that hot irons 
had to be held at him before the shepherd 
could be rescued from his awkward position. 

Yet another shepherd I knew lived near 
Langholm. He had a sable and white 
CoUie named Moss, one of the most suUen- 
dispositioned dogs I ever encountered, but 
one of the most faithful. The shepherd 
never had need to call him, but directed 
him by a simple movement of the hand. 
Returning from Carlisle market on one 
occasion, this shepherd, who was the worse 

for liquor, quarrelled with his fellow passen- 
gers in the railway carriage, about ten 
miles from Langholm. Moss, to the sur- 
prise of the travellers, came out from 
beneath the seat just in time to see his 
master get a severe blow in the face. The 
dog turned upon the assailant in so deter- 
mined a manner that he had to be pulled 
off by the tail while the carriage door was 
opened, and he was flung out. Faithful 
Moss was none the worse for the adventure, 
however, and was home at the farm before 
his master. He was a well-made, good- 
coated dog, showing much of the prize 
Collie in appearance, and one of the clever- 
est sheepdogs on the Border. I always 
admired his class of coat. It was the best 
in texture I ever handled, and when full 
was hke the thatch of a cottage, perfectly 
rain-proof, as a CoUie's coat should be. 

One of the most perfect working CoUies 
in Scotland to-day is Kep, the property of 
James Scott, of Troneyhill, Hawick. He is 
only a small dog, but most trusty when 
given the charge of sheep, and has won 
man}' competitions on the trial field. As 
a companion he is gentle and quiet, and 
he is a perfect house-dog. Strange to say, 
he wdU not look at a rabbit or hare which 
may rise in front of him when he is duti- 
fully herding the sheep, but a more alert 
gun dog and retriever it would be hard to 
find. When Iiis master lifts the gun Kep 
is in his element, and not many wounded 
rabbits are allowed to reach their burrows 
after the shot is fired. Kep is of the black 
and white tj^pe, wliich is the most popular 
among the shepherds of Scotland. .A.t the 
shows this type of dog is invariably at the 
top of the class. He is considered the 
most tractable, and is certainlj' the most 

Second to this type in favour is the 
smooth-coated variety, a very hardy, use- 
ful dog, well adapted for hill work and 
usually very fleet of foot. He is not so 
sweet in temper as the black and white, 
and is slow to make friends. In the Ettrick 
and Yarrow district I find the smooth 
a popular sheepdog. The shepherds main- 
tain that he climbs the hills more swiftly 


than the rough, and in the hea\'y snow- 
storms his clean, unfeathered legs do not 
collect and carry the sno\\-. He has a 


fuller coat than the show specimens usually 
carry, but he has the same type of head, 
eye, and ears, only not so well developed. 

Then there is the Scottish bearded, or 
Highland, Collie, less popular still with 
the flock-master, a hardy-looking dog in 
outward style, but soft in temperament, 
and many of them make better cattle than 
sheep dogs. This dog and the Old English 
Sheepdog arc much alike 
ir appearance, but that 
the bearded is a more racy 
animal, with a head resem- 
bling that of the Dandie 
Dinmont ratlier tliau tlie 
square head of the Bob- 
tail. The strong -limbed 
bearded Collie is capable 
of getting through a good 
day's work, but is not so 
steady nor so wise as the 
old - fashioned black and 
white, or even the smooth- 
coated variety. He is a 
favourite with the butcher 
and drover who have some- 
times a herd of trouble- 
some cattle to handle, and 
he is well suited to rough 

and rocky ground, active in movement, 
and as sure-footed as the wild goat. 
He can endure cold and wet without ais- 
comfort, and can live on the Highland 
hills when others less sturdy would suc- 
cumb. As an outdoor dog he is less sub- 
ject to rheumatism than many. His heavy 
build, powerful limbs, thick, short neck, 
lieavy shoulders, and thick skin are cliaracter- 
istics of all animals inhabiting mountainous 
countries, and there is a rugged grandeur 
about him comparable with that of the 
Scottish Deerhound and the Otterhound, 
from which he may be a cross. 

In " The Sportsman's Cabinet," 1803, there 
is an illustration of an English Sheepdog 
which would pass for the Highland Collie, 
and one is tempted to believe that there 
is some relationship between the two. 
Peeblesshire is regarded as the true home 
of the Beardie, and Sir Walter Thorburn 
and other patrons of the breed have for 
long contributed prizes at the annual 
pastoral show in that county for the best 
bearded dogs owned by shepherds. As 
one who has had the honour of judging 
at this fixture, I can say that better filled 
classes cannot be found anywhere. In the 
standard adopted for judging the breed, 
many points are given for good legs and 
feet, bone, body, and coat, while head and 


Photograph by C. Reul, Wiihas. 



ears are not of great importance. Move- 
ment, size, and general appearance have 
much weight. The colour is varied in this 
breed. Cream-coloured specimens are not 
imcommon, and snow white with orange or 
black markings may often be seen, but the 
popular colour is grizzly grey. Unfortu- 
nately the coats of many are far too soft 
and the undercoat is frequently absent. 

become frequent fixtures among shepherds 
and farmers within recent years. The mode 
of arranging these competitions is this : — 
Three sheep are let out of a large bught 
or pen in the south of the field, the dog 
and his master are standing about the 
north of the field ; the dog has to bring 
the sheep up the east side, round a small 
pen at the north end, drive them down 


Photograph by Hurray, Haiiki. 

It has been said that the Beardie is not 
easily induced to become a poacher, and 
that he will pay no attention to game 
when on duty. But this I find is not the 
case. He soon learns to lift a hare or a 
rabbit, and when he starts hunting on his 
own responsibility he becomes so keen 
that in many cases he will do little else. 

EUwyn Garrie, whose portrait is here 
given, is a winner of first prizes at import- 
ant shows. He was out of coat when the 
photograph was taken, and therefore does 
not receive the justice he deserves. He 
was bred in the classic ^■ale of Yarrow, 
by Adam Scott, the village blacksmith. 
His sire was Genty and his dam Moss Rose, 
both alike good Sheepdogs bred by Mr. 
Horsburgh, a famous Peeblesshire breeder. 

II. — Sheepdog Trials. — Working trials 
to test the skill of the Sheepdog have 

the west side, where a post is placed about 
twenty yards from the dyke or hedge on 
the south side, and he must drive the sheep 
round this post, then bring them up the 
course and force them into the pen at the 
north side. A:ter they are let out of the 
pen they have to be shedded or separated, 
and one of the three sheep has to be kept 
for a time from joining the others, who 
usually make quickly back to the south 
gate, through which they entered the field. 
The test work is really driving, penning, 
and shedding. Now almost any dog can 
make a shape at moving or driving the 
sheep, but many of them do this work 
in a very rough manner, and instead of 
drivnng them at a steady pace, they come 
on them so violently and keep at them 
so keenly that the sheep are for a while 
kept at full gallop, then standing still, 



scattered about, then again away at the 
pen. This style of driving is not to be 
commended ; the sheep should be driven 
steadilv aU the time, never at full gallop, 
but at an even, trotting pace and without 

Very often the good driving dog becomes 
excited when nearing the pen ; he moves 
about more smartly ; his patience, which 
has stood him in good stead all round the 
course, is finished, and he makes a desperate 
effort to pen the lot. with the result that 
two will break away and one only is forced 
into the pen. B3' this time the sheep are 
excited ; he has lost command, puts on 
a number of bad turns, but ultimately pens 



rlwtograph hy Winge, Oimskirk. 

them. The excitement is still on at the 
shedding test ; the sheep refuse to separate, 
and in wearing the single sheep the dog 
is so keen and excited that again he gets 
too near and tries to rush his opponent, 

who, almost exhausted, ultimately succeeds 
in rejoining her companions. 

The difficulty is to get a dog so well 
trained that not only in driving will he 
use his good sense, but also at the penning 
and shedding, where the most skilful turns 
are required, will he continue to use his 
judgment, and thus act from start to 
finish in a steady and determined manner. 
The judges also take into consideration 
the style with which the dog goes through 
the work, whether smartly, cheerfully, and 
gently, or roughly and indifferently; and 
how long he takes to do it 

Many will say there is a good amount 
of luck at trials. I have seen this the case 
but seldom. For exam- 
ple, some dogs get sheep 
of wilder temperament 
than others to work 
with, but while a slight 
mistake will throw out 
a first-class dog, I al- 
wa}-s contend that a 
good dog makes his own 
luck at a working trial. 
You can almost tell the 
\\inner by the style in 
\\-hich he leaves his 
master, comes round on 
the sheep, takes posses- 
sion of them without 
the least excitement, and 
has the good sense not 
to \-ex them on the 
course, nor yet at the 

In general the excel- 
ling competitors at work- 
ing trials are the rough- 
coated black and white 
Collies. The smooth- 
coated \-ariety and the Beardie are less fr^ 
quent winners. I am sorry to say that llr 
handsome and distinguished gentlemen oi 
the Ch. Wishaw Leader type are seldom 
seen on the trial field, although former! 
such a dog as Ch. Ormskirk Charlie migli 
be successfully entered with others equally 
well bred from the kennels of that good 
trainer and fancier, Mr. Piggin, of Long 



Eaton. A good working Collie, however, is 
not alwa\-s robed in elegance, and I have 
seen them run well in all shapes. \Maat is 
desirable is that the shepherd and farmer 
should fix a standard of points, and breed 
as near as possible to that 
standard, as the keepers of 
the show CoUie breed to an 
acknowledged t\-pe of per- 
fection. It is to be regretted 
that pedigrees are commonly 
ignored among owners of 
the Sheepdog. Of course. 
a good pedigree is of no 
immediate value to a bad 
working dog. I once heard 
an Irish e.xliibitor sa^' to a 
judge, " You have not looked 
at my dog's pedigree." The 
judge examined the formid- 
able document and nodded. 
" Yes," he remarked, " and 
the next time j^ou come to 
a show, take m^' ad\-ice and 
bring the pedigree, but leave 
the dog at home." Never- 
theless, from a bad worker 
of good descent many an 
efficient worker might te 
produced b}' proper mating, 
and those of us skilled in the -breeding of 
CoUies know the importance of a well-con- 
sidered process of selection from unsullied 

I should Hke to see the shepherd's dog 
so certified by pedigree that after a reason- 
able number of wins on the trial field he 
might be entitled to a free entn,^ in the 
Stud Book. This would give him an advan- 
tage in the event of his being exported. 
At present, were I to pay five pounds for 
a working Collie and take him to the 
United States, I should be forced to pay 
duty at the rate of 20 per cent, to the 
American Government before I could land 
the dog ; whereas, if he were registered 
in the Stud Book of the Kennel Club with 
a pedigree of three generations, he would 
be entitled to a consular certificate per- 
mitting him to land free of cost. 

It is a pity that the hard-working dog 

of the shepherd does not receive the atten- 
tion in the way of feeding and grooming 
that is bestowed on the ornamental show 
dog. He is too often neglected in these 
particulars. Notwithstanding this neglect. 




however, the a\erage life of the working 
dog is longer by a year or two than that 
of his more beautiful cousin. Pampering 
and artificial hving are not to be encour- 
aged ; but, on the other hand, neglect has 
the same effect of shortening the span of 
life, and bad feeding and inattention to 
cleanliness provoke the skin diseases which 
are far too prevalent. If the rough-coated 
working Collie were as regularly groomed 
and as carefullj'^ kept as the show dog, 
he would become more useful, and lead 
a happier hfe. It is unfair to him that 
he should be allowed continual!}- to scratch 
himself and be seen with his coat matted, 
dirty, and imkempt. The shepherd should 
give the same interest and care to his 
Colhe as the plouglmian bestows upon his 

III. The Show Collie. — There is not 
a more graceful and physically beautiful 



dog to be seen than the show Collie of the 
present period. Produced from the old 
working type, he is now practically a dis- 
tinct breed. His qualities in the field 
arc not often tested, but he is a much 
more handsome and attractive animal. 

largeh' induced by the many Collie clubs 
now in existence not only in the United 
Kingdom and America, but also in Soutli 
Africa and Germany, by whom the stand- 
ards of points have been perfected. Type 
has been enhanced, the head with the small 



Pliolograpll hy C. Rlld, t['isha-^: 

and his comeliness will always win for 
him many admiring friends. The improve- 
ments in his style and appearance have 
been alleged to be due to an admixture 
with Gordon Setter blood. In the early 
years of exhibitions he showed the shorter 
head, heavy ears, and much of the black and 
tan colouring which might seem to justify 
such a supposition ; but there is no evidence 
that the cross was ever purposely sought. 
Gradually the colour was lightened to sable 
and a mingling of black, white, and tan 
came into favour. The shape of the head 
was also improved. These improvements 
in beauty of form and colour have been 

ornamental ears that now prevail is more 
classical ; and scientific cultivation and 
careful selection of typical breeding stock 
have achieved what may be considered the 
superlative degree of quality, without ap- 
preciable loss of stamina, size or substance. 
Great difference as to the scale of points 
still exists even among English breeders. 
Some would allow fifty points for head and 
ears, others would give only thirty. If 
the ornamental Collie is to remain a Sheep- 
dog, fifty points out of tlie hundred ari 
too many to allow for head properties. 
Consideration should be given to legs, feet, 
bone, body, coat, and general svTnmetry. 



A good head is all very well, but the frame- 
work on which the head is supported must 
be sound ; otherwise little work can be 
accomplished. Of course, the dog bred for 
show purposes is seldom asked to perform 
work in the pastures, ^^'hat is aimed at 
is something beautiful ; a head that will 
cause the observer to linger in admiration. 

Twent}' years ago, when ColUes were 
becoming fashionable, the rich sable coat 
with long flowing white mane was in 
highest request. In 1888 Ch. Metchley 
^^'onder captivated his admirers by these 
rich qualities. He was the first Collie for 
which a ver}- high purchase price was paid, 
Mr. Sam Boddington having sold him to 
Jlr. A. H. ]\Iegson, of Manchester, for 
£530. High prices then became frequent. 
Mr. Megson paid as much as £1,300, with 
another dog valued at £300, to Mr. Tom 
Stretch for Ormskirk Emerald. Sixteen 
himdred pounds is a very respectable sum 
to pay for a CoUie dog. Considering that 
one might buy the freehold of a \-illa 
for the money, it seems extravagant ; 
but I believe the investment was a proiit- 
able one to Mr. Megson. No Collie has 
had a longer or more brilliant career than 
Emerald, and although he was not esteemed 
as a successful sire, yet he was certainly 
the greatest favourite among our show 
dogs of recent years. I have never met 
with one to equal him ; he added up on 
points better than anj- I have kno\\-n. 
He had a well balanced head, with the 
sweet Collie look on his face, and while 
he was at times of sour disposition he 
compelled e\-eryone who saw him to acknow- 
ledge his perfect grace and beaut}-. 

Mr. Megson has owoaed many other good 
specimens of the breed, both rough and 
smooth. In the same year that he bought 
Metchley \\'onder, he gave £350 for a ten- 
months' puppy, Caractacus. Sable and white 
is his favourite combination of colour, a 
fancy which was shared some years ago 
b}^ the American buyers, who would have 
nothing else. Black, tan, and white be- 
came more popular in England, and while 
there is now a good market for these in 
the United States the sable and white 

remains the favourite of the American 
buyers and breeders. 

Good coated dogs are less plentiful to- 
day than they were twenty years ago. 
Square shaped bodies and sound limbs are 
also less frequently seen. A Collie should 
resemble a Clydesdale or Hackney horse 
in appearance rather than a thoroughbred. 
Compact, well coupled bodies are greatly 
wanted. Among our present-day champions 
I see narrow fronts, straight hocks, and 
legs wrongly placed. Narrow-fronted horses 
are usually swift, but one that is to do 
a big day's work and finish his journey 
without breaking his knees must have a 
leg placed on every corner of his body. 
I have always applied the same principles 
in judging dogs as in judging horses. For 
the CoUie or Sheepdog, like the horse, is 
wanted for work, and it is of the greatest 
importance that he sliould stand well on 
his legs. 

When a judge enters a ring with twenty 
or more CoUies round him, he cannot 
avoid first looking at the head. I quite 
agree that head is of great importance ; 
but when he moves the exhibits round 
the ring he will soon find many a sweet 
head, good body, and coat placed upon 
unsound limbs. The legs should be straight 
and strong in front, moderately fleshy in 
the fore-arm, and the quality of bone not 
the round Foxhound style, but fairly flat. 
The hind legs ought also to be strong, with 
the hocks well bent and placed stra ght 
below the body. A great objection in 
many of our show dogs is the turned-out 
stifle, which mars the movement and gives 
an appearance of unsoundness. Sound feet, 
as in the horse, are of great importance. 
Nothing looks worse than a flat, open 
footed dog, of whatever breed. The Colhe's 
foot should be like that of the Greyhound, 
well padded, oval in shape, the toes close 
together, and nicely arched up. I do not 
consider twenty points out of the hundred 
too much for legs and feet. 

I have likened the perfectly coated Collie 
to a well-thatched cottage. But it is a 
fact that a rain-proof coated Collie is as 
uncommon as a rain-proof thatch. The 


quality of coat has changed since tlie 
days of Ch. Rightaway, Balgreggie Hope 
and Cliarlemagnc. The texture is now 
too soft and tlie undercoat not sufti- 
ciently dense, if present at all. Tlie coat 
should be wirv or harsh to the touch, and 



Phologuif'h by Hi(;iu!l .ulI Son, Loilo.k. 

the undercoat furry and so close that the 
skin cannot easily be discovered. Many 
present-day dogs are fairly well covered 
over the neck and chest, but light in coat 
over the loin and behind, gi\"ing a badly 
balanced appearance. 

As I have indicated, there has been a 
decided improvement n head. The skull 
is longer and finer, the eyes are less light 
and prominent, the ears better placed, 
and altogether the expression is more 
generally pleasing than it was in some of 
our bygone celebrities with their sour looks, 
apple-shaped skulls, and heavy, thick ears 
that hung over their faces. 

The best Collie of modern times was un- 
doubtedly Ch. Squire of Tytton, recently 
sold to America for /i,25o. A golden sable 

with quality, nice size, and profuse coat, he 
had an unbeaten record in this country : a 
record which seems likely to be repeated by 
his beautiful daughter. Princess of Tytton, 
who so much resembles him. 

Another of our best and most typical 
rough Collies is Ch. Wishaw Leader. This 
beautiful dog was bred by Mr. James 
Shields, of West Calder, and after making a 
sensational debut in the hands of his breeder 
passed into the possession of Mr. Robert 
Tait, of Wishaw, who has recently sold 
him to America. Wishaw Leader, who 
has had a most distinguished show career, 
is a well-made black, tan, and white, 
with an enormous coat and beautiful flow- 
ing white mane, and is one of the most 
active movers, displaying quality all through, 
and yet ha\-ing plenty of substance. He 
has that desirable distinction of type which 
is so often lacking in our long-headed 
Collies. Ormskirk Emerald's head was of 
good length and well balanced, the skull 
sufficiently fiat ; his eye was almond-shaped 
and dark-brown in colour, his expression 
keen and wise, entirely free from the soft 
look \\-hich \\'e see on many of the faces 
tij-day. Historical examples of the show 
Collie have also been seen in Champions 
Christopher, Anfield Model, Sappho of 
Tytton, Parbold Piccolo, and Woodraans- 
teme Tartan. 

In the days of the heavy coated Collies 
there was less trimming than is now re- 
sorted to. I see many heads made to look 
longer than they really are by the plucking 
of hair from the cheeks and around the 
ears, which gives the dog a smarter out- 
look and an apparently longer head, but 
not more of the Collie character. 

Some years ago the question was dis- 
cussed in the canine press, " Are Collies on 
the wane ? " Many experts differed in 
opinion, but the question need no longer 
be asked, for most of us are certain that 
the breed has been pros]3ering for many 
years past. Recent exhibitions have given 
ample proof that this is the case both in 
numbers and in quality, and the working 
Collie is stronger in number to-day than 
ever, notwithstanding that many of our best 



specimens have left these shores for other and especially in the northern counties, 
lands. Some of the finest stock of the times Mr. Jolm Bell, of Stanhope, Durham, has 
have been exported to the kennels of such produced many admirable examples, among 

the best being \'illage Boy and ^'iUage Girl. 
Many breeders, in order to perpetuate the 
Collie tj^je and eliminate the Grej^hovmd 
character, have used rough-coated dogs in 
their breeding operations, and often with 
marked success, although the result often 
brings fonvard the fault of a too hea\-\' coat. 

connoisseurs as Mr. Pierpont Morgan and 
Mr. Samuel Untermyer, in the United 
States, while South Africa has claimed 
some excellent examples of the breed. 

Five \-ears ago no one held a better 
stock of brood bitches than Mr. James 
Agnew, of Old Hall, Newton Stewart, and 
few produced a finer array of 
prize-winners. Unfortunately 
for the fancy, however, Mr. 
Agnew, who is a busy husband- 
man, has, hke man}' others, 
given up breeding, and it is 
to be regretted that, while our 
old breeders are retiring, their 
vacant places are not being 
filled. It is a satisfaction, 
though, to note that we have 
still such eminent Collie en- 
thusiasts as the Rev. Hans 
Hamilton, Mr. T. Stretch, Mr. 
Hugo Ainscough, Mr. H. K. 
Packwood, Mr. W. T. Horry, 
and Mr. R. Tait, all of whom 
ire prominent breeders, judges, 
and exhibitors. 

Neither can the charge o- 
neg'ect be made against the 
admirers of the smooth Collie 

which has gained in popularitv quite a.s The smooth Collie is a very clever dog 
certainly as his more amply attired rela- in most ways, but of little practical use 
five. Originally, the smooth Collie was a as a worker among sheep. An odd one 
dog produced by mating the old-fashioned may indeed be able to go round and 
back and white with the Greyhound, bring in a flock, but, taking them gener- 
But the Greyhound tyf)e, which was form- ally, they are not workers. They can 
erly very marked, can scarcely be discerned graduate as professional hunting dogs, having 
amongst the prize-winners of to-day. Still, speed, and few dogs of any breed can 
it is not nfrequent that a throw-back is capture a rabbit or a hare more scientifically, 
discovered in a Utter producing perhaps a In colour, the merle predominates. Many 
slate-coloured, a pure white, or a jet black of the blue merle have a merle or wall e\'e, 
indi\-idual. or that an othenvise perfect and in judging the smooths on exhibition, 
smooth Collie shou'd have the hea\y ears I give preference to a wall-eyed one, pro- 
or the eye of a Grevhound. \-ided other points are equal. 

-\t one time this breed of dog was much The best dog of the breed at the present 








. .It. -m 


f 1 



^' ^'i: 

■-- >=^' ..l 





cultivated in Scotland by Mr. George 
Paterson, of Dundee, but nowadays the 
breeding of smooths is almost whollv con- 
fined to the English side of the Border, 

day is without a doubt Eastwood Eminent. 
He made his first appearance when very 
young at the CoUie Club show held at 
Southport in the spring of igo6, and has 


since taken championship honours. A \'ery 
styhsh dog is he, carrying himself witli 
perfect grace and freedom. His legs and 

be good for years to come. Another brace 
of excellent smooth Collies are Champions 
Babette of Moreton and Irthlingborough 
Village Lass, both 
owned by Sir Claud 
Alexander, who, with 
Lady Alexander, di- 
\-ides an energetic 
interest between the 
smooth Collie and 
the Skye Terrier. 

The following is 
the accepted de- 
scription of the Per- 
fect Collie. 

I. The Skull should 
be flat, moderately 
wide between the ears, 
and gradually tapering 
towards the eyes. There 
should only be a slight 
depression at stop. The 
width of skull neces- 
sarily depends upon 





feet are all that the 
most exacting j udgc 
could desire. He owns 
a hard, close, short 
coat, and a good under- 
coat ; his neck and 
shoulders are well 
placed, and like his 
illustrious sire, Ch. 
Canute Perfection, he 
has a typical Collie 
head. His dam, Ch. 
Quality of Dunkirk, is 
also a bitch of rare 
distinction, blue merle 
in colour and \'ery 
typical in head quali- 
ties. So Eastwood Eminent is aristocrat- 
ically bred, and he looks like one who will 



Plwloginphs l<y Bctkci. Btimiugluun. 

combined length of skull and muzzle, and the 
the whole must be considered in connection with 



the sLze of the dog. The cheek should not be 
lull or prominent. 

2. The Muzzle should be o£ fair length, tapering 
to the nose, and must not show weakness or 
be snipv or lippy. NMiatever the colour of 
tlie dog may be. the nose must be black. 

3. The Teeth should be of good size, sound 
and level : \er\- slight unevenness is permissible. 

4. The Jaws. — Clean cut and powerful. 

5. The Eyes are a verj- important feature, 
and give e.\pression to the dog ; they should 
be of medium size, set somewhat obliquely, 
of almond shape, and of a brown colour ex- 
cept in the case of merles, when the eyes are 
frequently (one or both" blue and white or china ; 
expression full of intelligence, 

with a quick alert look when 

6. The Ears should be small 
and moderately wide at the base, 
and placed not too close together 
but on the top of the skull and 
not on the side of the head. When 
in repose they should be usually 
carried thrown back, but when 
on the alert brought forward and 
carried semi -erect, with tips 
slightly drooping in attitude of 

7. The Neck should be mus- 
cular, powerful and of fair length, 
and somewhat arched. 

8. The Body should be strong, 
with well sprung ribs, chest deep, 
fairly broad behind the shoulders, 
which should be sloped, loins very 
powerful. The dog should be 
straight in front. 

9. The Fore - Legs should be 
straight and muscular, neither 
in nor out at elbows, with a 
fair amount of bone ; the fore- 
arm somewhat fleshy, the pas- 
terns showing flexibilitj' without 

ID. The Hind-Legs should be 
muscular at the thighs, clean and sinewy below 
the hocks, with well bent stifles. 

11. The Feet should be oval in shape, soles 
well padded, and the toes arched and close to- 
gether. The hind feet less arched, the hocks well 
let down and powerful. 

12. The Brush should be moderately long, 
carried low when the dog is quiet, with a slight 
upward " swirl " at the end. and may be gaily 
carried when the dog is excited, but not over the 

13. The Coat should be verv- dense, the outer 
coat harsh to the touch, the inner or under 
coat soft, iMTTy, and very close, so close as almost 
to hide the skin. The mane and frill should 
be ver\- abundant, the mask or face smooth, as 
also the ears at the tips, but they should carr>- 
more hair towards the base ; the fore-legs well 
feathered, the hind-legs above the hocks profusely 
so ; but below the hocks fairly smooth, although 
all heavily coated Collies are liable to grow a slight 
feathering. Hair on the brush very profuse. 

14. Colour in the Collie is immaterial. 

15. In General Character he is a hthe active dog. 
his deep chest showing lung power, his neck 
strength, his sloping shoulders and well bent 
hocks indicating speed, and his expression high 
intelligence. He should be a fair length on 
the leg, giving him more of a racy than a 
cloddy appearance In a few words, a Collie 
should show endurance, activitj-, and intelli- 
gence, with free and true action. In height 
dogs should be 22 ins. to 24 ins. at the shoul- 
ders, bitches 20 ins. to 22 ins. The weight 
for dogs is 45 to 65 lbs. bitches 40 to 
55 lbs. 

16. The Smooth Collie onlv differs from the 



Photograph by Russdl. 

rough in its coat, which should be hard, dense and 
quite smooth. 

17. The Main Faults to be avoided are a 
domed skull, liigh peaked occipital bone, hea\y, 
pendulous or pricked cars, weak jaws, snipy 
muzzle, full staring or light eyes, crooked legs, 
large, flat or hare feet, curly or soft coat, cow 
hocks, and brush tiristed or carried right over the 
back, under or overshot mouth. 

Scale of Points. 

Head and expression .... 15 

Ears 10 

Xeck and shoulders 10 

Legs and feet IS 

Hind quarters 10 

Back and loins 10 

Brush S 

Coat with frill 20 

Size 5 

Total . .100 





" My ' friend,' replies Gawaine, the ever bland, 
' I took thy lesson, in return take mine ; 
All human, ties, alas ! are ropes of sand. 
My lot to-day, to-morrow may be thine ; 
But never yet the dog our bounty fed 
Betrayed the kindness, or forgot the bread.' " 


INTELLIGENT and picturesque, work- 
manlike and affectionate, the (Jld 
English Sheepdog combines, in his 
shaggy person, the attributes at once of a 
dro\-er's drudge and of an ideal companion. 
Although the modern dog is seen less often 
than of old performing his legitimate duties 
as a shepherd dog, there is no ground 
whatever for supposing that he is a whit 
less sagacious than the mongrels which 
have largely supplanted him. The instincts 
of the race remain unclianged ; but the 
mongrel certainlv comes cheaiier. 

Carefully handled in his youth, the 
bob-tail is unequalled as a stock dog, and I 
have seen him equally at home and efficient 
in charge of sheep, of cattle, and of New 
Forest ponies. \\'ithin my recent experi- 
ence, a yoimgster of the most aristocratic 
parentage, scion of a race of modern prize- 
winners, passed into the hands of a drover, 
owing to a malformed jaw which marred 
his winning chances. His new master 
promptly placed him in charge of a small 
herd of dairy cows, and the youngster took 
to his job with the keenest relish. Long 
before he \\as out of his puppyhood, he 
could be trusted to go out and collect his 
charges, to bring them back to the cow- 
house, and to place each separate animal in 
her allotted stall. On no account what- 
ever would he suffer any change in their 
positions, and, his task patiently accom- 
phshed. he was accustomed to lie down 

behind their stalls and keep them in their 
places until relieved of duty. 

So deep-rooted is the natural herding 
instinct of the breed that it is a thousand 
pities that the modem shepherd so fre- 
quently puts up with an inferior animal in 
place of the genuine article. 

Nor is it as a shepherd dog alone that the 
bob-tail shines in the field. His qualifica- 
tions as a sporting dog are excellent, and he 
makes a capital retriever, being usually 
under e.xcellent control, generally hght- 
mouthed, and taking very readily to water. 
His natural inclination to remain at his 
master's heel and Iiis exceptional sagacity 
and quickness of perception will speedily 
develop him, in a sportsman's hands, into 
a first-rate dog to shoot over. 

These points in his favour should never 
be lost sight of, because his increasing popu- 
larity on the show bench is apt to mislead 
many of his admirers into the belief that he 
is an ornamental rather than a utility dog. 
Nothing could be further from the fact. 
Nevertheless, he has few equals as a house 
dog, being naturally cleanly in his habits, 
affectionate in his disposition, an admirable 
watch, and an extraordinarily adaptable 

As to his origin, there is considerable 
conflict of opinion, owing to the natural 
difficulty of tracing him back to that period 
when the dog-fancier, as he flourishes to-day, 
was all imknown, and the \oluminous 



records of a watchful Kennel Club were still 
undreamed of. From time immemorial 
a Sheepdog, of one kind or another, has 
presided over the welfare of flocks and 
herds in ever}' land. Probabl3% in an age 
less peaceable than ours, this canine guardian 
was called upon, in addition to his other 
duties, to protect his charges from wolves 
and bears and other marauders. In that 
case it is very possible that the early pro- 
genitors of the breed were built upon a 
larger and more massive scale than is the 
Sheepdog of to-day. 

The herd dogs of foreign countries, such 
as the Calabrian of the P\Tenees, the Hima- 
layan drover's dog, and the Russian Owt- 
cliah, are all of them massive and powerful 
animals, far larger and fiercer than our own, 
though each of them has man\- points in 
common \\ith the English bob-tail ; and it 
is quite possible that all of them may trace 
their origin, at some remote jjcriod, to the 
same ancestral strain. Indeed, it is quite 
open to argument that the founders of our 
breed, as it exists to-day, were imported 
into England at some far-off date when the 
duties of a Sheepdog demanded of him 
fighting qualities no longer necessan,^ 

Notably in the case of the Owtchah, or 
Russian Sheepdog, is there e\-idence of 
this common origin, and an interesting com- 
munication in this connection has reached 
me recently from the President of the New- 
foundland Club. 

'■ I remember," he writes, " that about the 
year 1857 ^ police-sergeant at Kirkham re- 
ceived a present of a so-called Russian terrier. 
Tliis dog, which was a constant playmate 
of mine, was, of course, no terrier at all. 
To all intents and purposes, he was a very 
fine Sheepdog indeed, with all his tail on, 
big and blocky, with m;issive bone and full, 
correct coat, white with merle markings, 
strong, active, and good-natured, in general 
conduct staid and dignified." 

Evidently, in his leading characteristics, 
this animal had very much in common 
with our own. 

Turning now from matters of possibility 
to those of fact, we come to the first authen- 
ticated picture of a Sheepdog with which 

I am acquainted, painted by Gainsborough, 
and engraved by John Dixon as long ago 
as 1771. The original, which is in the 
possession of the Buccleuch famih-, is a 
portrait of the third Duke, with his arms 
clasped about the neck of an extremely 
typical specimen of the breed. Exhibited 



FnOM THt Mezzotint bv J. DIXON, afteh t. GAINSBOROUGH, R A. 

some years ago at the South Kensington 
Museum, the picture was officially described 
as a portrait of " Henr3^ Duke of Buccleuch, 
with Sheepdog." 

An American writer on canine matters, 
who recently treated of the breed v\ath 
somewhat scant courtesy, claims to have 
proved, by means of photographs and 
measurements, that the dog in question 
was not a Sheepdog at all, but simply a 
rough terrier. To test the matter fairly, 
I had myself photographed in a similar 
pose with a well-knowTi prize-winner from 
my kennel. The result was satisfactory 
beyond dispute, for the relative proportions 
of man and dog came out exactly. I don't 
look in the least like the Duke, but the 



likeness between the two animals depicted 
is really startling. 

And though I am not sanguine enough 
to suppose that my American critic is open 
to conviction, I submit that his attempt 
to make a terrier of a Sheepdog, by means 
of measurements, is scarcely less futile 
than to argue, on the same grounds, that 
the animal's owner was not really a Duke ! 

Gainsborougli, one imagines, knew his 

century, one finds conclusive evidence that 
the breed was very fairly represented 
in many parts of England, notably in 
Suffolk, Hampshire, and Dorsetshire, and 
also in Wales. Youatt writes of it in 1845, 
Richardson in 1847, and " Stonehenge " 
in 1859. Their descriptions vary a little, 
though the leading characteristics are much 
the same, but each writer specially notes the 
exceptional sagacitv of the breed. 


F:vm ■■ The Spoilimim'i CnHmt" (ifo3). By P. Rcinaglc, R.A. 

business, and painted what he saw, and I pin 
my faith to his picture of 1771 as the earliest 
likeness extant of an Old Enghsh Sheepdog. 

A hundred and thirty-five years ago, 
then, our bob-tail flourished, to all outward 
appearance, exactly as he does to-day. 
And surely, in that pregnant interval, few 
breeds have changed so little. 

Some thirty years later there was pub- 
lished, in "The Sportsman's Cabinet," the 
reproduction of a painting by Philip 
Reinagle of a Shepherd's Dog. This was a 
far less typical animal than Gainsborough's, 
long-backed and bushy-tailed, apparently 
wall-eyed, and closely resembling the Hima- 
layan dog. 

Thereafter, throughout the nincteentli 

Tlie dog was well known in Scotland, too, 
under the title of the Bearded Collie, for 
there is little doubt that this last is merely 
a variant of the breed. He differs, in point 
of fact, chiefly by reason of possessing a tail, 
the amputation of which is a recognised 
custom in England. 

With regard to this custom, it is said 
that the drovers originated it. Their dogs, 
kejit for working purposes, were immune 
from taxation, and they adopted this method 
of distinguishing the animals thus exempted. 
It has been argued, by disciples of the 
Darwinian theory of inherited effects from 
continued mutilations, that a long process 
of breeding from tailless animals has resulted 
in producing puppies naturally bob-tailed, 



and it is difficult, on any other h\Tpothesis, 
to account for the fact that many puppies are 
so bom. It is certainly a fact that one or 
two natural bob-tails are frequently found 
in a litter of which the remainder are dul}- 
furnished with well-developed tails. And 
it is interesting to note that the proportion is 

in the bob-tail's welfare, and attempts were 
made to bring him into prominence. In 
1873 his admirers succeeded in obtaining 
for him a separate classification at a recog- 
nised show, and at the Curzon Hall, at 
Birmingham, in that year three temerarious 
competitors appeared to imdergo the ordeal 



Photogarph by Jonts arj Son, StirtHon. 

much higher in some strains than in others, 
and that a few stud dogs consistently sire 
bob-tailed puppies in almost even,' litter. 

From careful corusideration of the weight 
of e%-idence, it seems unlikely that the breed 
was originally a tailless one, but the modem 
custom undoubtedly accentuates its pic- 
turesqueness by bringing into special prom- 
inence the rounded shaggy quarters and 
the characteristic bear-like gait which dis- 
tinguish the Old English Sheepdog. 

Somewhere about the 'si.xties there would 
appear to have been a re\-i\-al of interest 

of expert judgment. It was an impromising 
beginning, for Mr. M. B. W\tui, who officiated 
found their quahty so inferior that he con- 
tented liimself with awarding a second prize. 

But from this small beginning important 
results were to spring, and the Old Enghsh 
Sheepdog has made great strides in popu- 
larity since then. At Clerkenwell, in 1905, 
the entries in his classes reached a total of 
over one hundred, and there was no gain- 
sa3'ing the quality. 

This satisfactorj' result is due in no small 
measure to the initiative of the Old English 



Sheepdog Club, a society founded in 1888, 
with tlie avowed intention of promoting the 
breeding of the old-fashioned English Sheep- 
dog, and of gi\'ing prizes at various shows 
held under Kennel Club Rules. 

The pioneers of this movement, so far as 
history records their names, were Dr. 
Edwardes-Ker, an enthusiast both in theory 
and in practice, from whose caustic pen dis- 
sentients were wont to suffer periodical 
castigation ; Mr. W. G. W'eager, ^\•ho lias 
held office in the club for some twenty 
years ; Mrs. Mayhew, who capably lield 
her own amongst her fellow-members of the 
sterner sex ; Mr. Freeman Lloyd, who wrote 
an interesting pamphlet on the breed in 1889; 
and Messrs. J. Thomas and Parry Thomas. 

Theirs can have been no easy task at the 
outset, for it de\'oh-ed upon them to lay 
down, in a succinct and practical form, 
leading principles for the guidance of future 
enthusiasts. Each of them owned one or two 
good animals, which each, no doubt, con- 
sidered — if one may generalise from a wide 
experience of exhibitors — to be a little 
better than those of anybody else. 

To reconcile conflicting opinions, and to 
evolve a practical working standard, can have 
been no easy matter, and the recorded 
minutes of their meetings, could one but 
unearth them, should furnish entertaining 
reading. Their original definitions, no doubt, 
have been amended and edited from time to 
time, as occasion has required, but the result, 
as published by the club to-day, does them 
infinite credit. It runs thus : 

1. Skull. — Capacious, and rather squarely 
formed, giving plenty of room for brain power. 
The parts over the eyes should be well arched 
and the whole well covered with hair. 

2. Jaw. — Fairly long, strong, square and 
truncated ; the stop should be defined to avoid 
a Deerhound face. 

The alteiilion of judges is particularly called 
to the above properties, as a long, narrow 
head is a deformity. 

3. Eyes. — Vary according to the colour of 
the dog. but dark or wall eyes are to be preferred. 

4. Nose. — Always black, large, and capacious. 

5. Teeth. — Strong and large, evenly placed, 
and level in opposition. 

6. Ears. — Small, and carried flat to side of head, 
coated moderately. 

7. Legs. — The forelegs should be dead straight, 
with plenty of bone, removing the body a medium 
height from the ground, without approachino- 
legginess ; well coated all round. 

8. Feet. — Small ; round, toes well arched and 
pads thick and hard. 

9. Tail. — Puppies requiring docking must have 
an appendage left of one and a half to two inches 
and the operation performed when not older than 
four days. 

10. Neck and Shoulders. — The neck should be 
fairly long, arched gracefully, and well coated 
with hair ; the shoulders sloping and narrow at 
the points, the dog standing lower at the shoulder 
than at the loin. 

11. Body. — Rather short and very compact, 
ribs well sprung, and brisket deep and capacious. 
The loin should be very stout and gently arched, 
while the hindquarters should be round and mus- 
cular, and with well let down hocks, and the hams 
densely coated with a thick long jacket in excess 
of any other part. 

12. Coat. — Profuse, and of good hard texture, 
not straight but shagg>' and free from curl. The 
undercoat should be a waterproof pile, when not 
removed by grooming or season. 

13. Colour. — Any shade of grey, grizzle, blue or 
blue-merled, with or without white markings, or 
in reverse ; any shade of brown or sable to be 
considered distinctly objectionable and not to be 

14. Height. — Twenty-two inches and upwards 
for dogs, slightly less for bitches. Type, character, 
and symmetry are of the greatest importance, 
and on no account to be sacrificed to size 

15. General Appearance. — A strong, compact- 
looking dog of great symmetry, absolutely free 
from legginess, profusely coated all over, very 
clastic in its gallop, but in walking or trotting 
he has a characteristic ambling or pacing move- 
ment, and his bark should be loud, with a peculiar 
pot casse ring in it. Taking him all round, he is a 
thick-set, muscular, able-bodied dog, with a most 
intelligent expression, free from all Poodle or 
Deerhound character. 

Scale of Points. 

Head 5 

Eye 5 

Colour 10 

Ears 5 

Body, loins, and liindquarters . . 20 

Jaw 10 

Nose 5 

Teeth S 

Legs 10 

Neck and shoulder? 10 

Coat 15 

Total . .100 



This description is so comprehensive 
and so lucid withal, that the novice may 
well be left to build up from it an excellent 
mental picture of the perfect dog. Better 
still, he maj' compare his own dogs with it, 
point b)r point, and learn exactly where, 
and how, they fall short of perfection. 
For his further guidance it maj' be well 
to run over the items seriatim, in view of 
those periodical discussions which in- 
e\"itably crop up from time to time in the 
histor}- of e\-erj' popular breed. 

Taking tlie head as our starting-point, 
we may include in it the items of skull, 
jaw, eyes, ears, nose and teeth, and note 
that this portion of the dog's anatomy is 
worth no less than thirty-fi\e per cent, of 
the possible points, and that it is conse- 
quentl\- a most important factor in deter- 
mining his value. 

Capacious and rather squarely formed, is 
an excellent definition of the shaggy skull, 
for any tendency towards a dome-shaped 
formation is strongly to be deprecated. 
The square jaw and well-defined stop are 
speciall}- to be insisted upon, seeing that 
undue length before the eyes and a ten- 
denc}' to snipiness of muzzle are growing 
evils, incident on the attempt to breed 
dogs of exceptional size. 

The colour of the eyes, in dark-coated 
dogs, should be the deepest shade of brown 
obtainable ; a light yellow eye detracts 
enormously from the animal's t5T)ical ex- 
pression. But in grey or merle dogs, wall 
or china eyes are very attractive, whether 
they appear singly, with a brown one, or 
in pairs. The setting of the eyes, too, is 
important ; if placed too close together 
they present a somewhat sinister or sly 
appearance, by which the bob-tail's open, 
honest countenance is seriously marred. 

The large, black, capacious nose is most 
desirable, many a light-coloured dog being 
handicapped by a white-flecked or so-called 
butterfly nose. 

The teeth, too, snould be exactly as 
described. If the lower set project, the 
dog is liable to be stigmatised undershot ; 
if the upper set protrude, he will be dubbed 

The ears, again, have much to say \\'ith 
regard to determining the value of any 
head. Small, and set on close, they im- 
prove its appearance im.mensely ; but if 
placed too high, inchned to cock, or thick 
and coarse in fibre, they spoil it propor- 

A perfect head, it will thus be readily 
seen, is especially difficult of attainment. 

Legs and feet count for ten points, and 
the desideratum here is plent}- of strong 
fiat bone in the former, coupled with smaU- 
ness and compactness of pads in the latter. 
The dog must stand straight and true upon 
them, but lightl}- poised withal, free from 
suspicion of weakness at the pastern joints. 
In full coat, the line from shoulder to toe, 
as you face him, should be dead straight ; 
and the legs, at their junction with the 
shoulders, not more than a hand's breadth 

The allowance of one and a half inches for 
the puppy's docked tail appears to me too 
liberal, and, generally speaking, it will be 
found that the shorter the stump, the better. 

Neck and shoulders are items of verj- great 
importance, in which the majority of modem 
large-sized dogs conspicuousty fail. A clean 
neck, with plenty of length, well placed upon 
a pair of shoulders nicely sloped and in- 
clining to narro\\Tiess at the points, has a 
wonderful effect in securing perfect body 
balance, and this is almost invariably 
found in conjunction with good legs and feet. 
A coarse, heavy-shouldered dog is down on 
his pasterns nine times out of ten, and the 
tenth stands too wide apart in front. On 
the other hand, a clean-shouldered animal 
is generally found standing soundly and 
lightly on his feet. 

We come now to the body, which counts, 
including loins and hindquarters, for twenty 
points. It must be short and compact, 
with a deep brisket and well-sprung ribs, 
stout in loin, muscular in hindquarters, 
and lower at the shoulder than the rump. 
The hocks, which must be well-defined, 
should be set on low. The height from the 
shoulder to the ground should be as nearly 
as possible the length from the shoulder 
to the docked stump. 



The proper texture of the coat ahnost 
defies verbal description ; it must be seen 
and felt to be properly appreciated. In 
point of fact, the dog has two distinct coats ; 
a thick sottish undercoat next his body ; 



Photograph by Heridt, Uicntuwul. 

a crisp, harsh, shaggy one outside. It 
must not lie down flat, and yet it must not 
curl. In appearance it must convey an 
impression of growing profusely in several 
different directions ; to the touch it must be 
harsh of texture, crackling crisply when 
rubbed between the thumb and finger. A 
frequent fault of tlie modern show dog is 
his softness in this respect, in no small 
measure due to a tendency towards o\-er- 

Colour, largely a matter of taste, may 
best be negatively dealt with. A bob-tail 
must not be sable, nor bro\vn, nor black. 
Any of these colours is distinctly objec- 
tionable, whereas any shade of blue, grey, 
grizzle or blue-merle is correct. Much 
depends here upon a judge's individual 
taste. One man may prefer the light grey or 
the merle, another the dark blue ; but no 

dog may be fairly dubbed too light or too 
dark in colour if his coat contains no shade 
of black or brown or sable. The ten points 
here allotted are largely left to the judge's 
fancy, and an attractive blending of rich 
blue with white mark- 
ings sometimes carries 
e\-en more weight than 
it legitimately de- 

Heiglit is a crucial 
question which has led 
to much controversy. 
Some years ago the at- 
tempt to gain additional 
bone and substance led 
to the breeding of many 
large-sized animals, who 
gained these desirable 
adjuncts at the expense 
of general symmetry. 

Breeders, in securing 
size, frequently lost com- 
pactness, and the prize- 
lists for a season included 
animals too long in the 
back, too slack in the 
loin, and too high off 
the ground. 

It is a difficult ques- 
tion to settle by actual 
measurement, as I kiiow to my cost. For 
once, in my no\-itiate, misled by a menda- 
cious tape, I held that " somewhere about 
twenty-six or twenty-seven inches we should 
touch the limit." A good judge pointed out 
my mistake, and added that if I ever saw a 
dog of twenty-se\'en inches I should admit 
it. I ha\-e seen one since, and I retract ! 
Generally speaking, a shoulder height 
of twenty-four inches is big enough for any- 
thing, and if these twenty-four inches be 
combined with lightness and activity, a 
compact, well-rounded body and a short 
back, plenty of bone and substance, a 
clean neck and shoulders, and good legs 
and feet, their owner will take a lot of 

Under the heading General Appearance 
comes the important item of the Sheepdog's 
action, and it is unfortunate that no specific 



allowance has been made for it in the scale 
of points. Granting the great difficulty of 
properly appraising action in the small and 
overcrowded rings which the exigencies of 
space impose upon our judges, it is doubt- 
fxil whether sufficient importance is generally 
attached to what should be a ^■ery leading 
feature in the judging of a working dog. 

In his slow action a bob-tail should move 
like a bear, working the fore and hind leg 
on either side simultaneously, \sith a curious, 
indescribable shuffle of the hind quarters, 
which work from loin to toe with every 
lengthy stride. Free to mo\-e at speed, he 
should be an active, tireless galloper, co\-er- 
ing the ground at a pace quite unsuspected 
in an animal of his build, and travelling with 
wonderfuUv little apparent effort. 

So much for the outward appearance of 
the ideal bob-tail. Con- 
sidering the multitude of 
details which must be 
combined to produce 
such perfection, it will 
be admitted that the 
breeder who attains to 
the front rank has ac- 
complished a task by no 
means easy. 

Turning now to the 
questions of care and 
kennel management, we 
may omit such general 
rules as apply to e\-ery 
breed, and concern our- 
selves rather with such 
simple hints as shall 
serve the no\-ice in deal- 
ing with the Old English 

To start with the 
puppy, it is ob\ious that 
where bone and sub- 
stance are matters of 
special desirability, it is 
essential to build up in the infant what is 
to be expected of the adult. For this 
reason it is a great mistake to allow the 
dam to bring up too many by lierself. To 
about six or seven she can do justice, but 
a healthy bitch not infrequently gives birtli 

to a dozen or more. Under such circum- 
stances the ser\ices of a foster-mother are 
a cheap investment. By di\iding the Utter 
the weaklings may be given a fair chance 
in the struggle for existence, otheridse they 
receive scant consideration from their 
stronger brethren. 

At three or four daj-s old the tails should 
be removed, as near the rump as possible. 
The operation is easy to perform, and if 
done with a sharp, clean instrument there 
is no danger of after iU effects. 

If the mother be kept on a very hberal 
diet, it will usually be found that she wiU 
do all that is necessary for her family's 
welfare for the first tliree weeks, by which 
time the pups ha\-e increased prodigiously 
in size. 

They are then old enough to learn to lap 

Pholografk by T. Fall. 



for tliemsclves, an accomplishment which 
tliey very speedily acquire. Beginning mth 
fresh cow's milk for a week, their diet 
mav be gradually increased to Mellin's or 
Benger's food, and later to gruel and Quaker 
Oats, their steadily increasing appetites 


being catered for by the simple exercise 
of commonseiise. Feed them httle and 
often, about fi\-e times a day, and en-courage 
them to mo\-e about as much as possible ; 
and see that they never go hungry, without 
allowing them to gorge. Let them play 
until they tire, and sleep until they hunger 
again, and they will be found to thri\-e and 
grew \\-ith surprising rapidity. 

At six weeks old they can fend for them- 
selves, and shortly afterwards additions 
may be made to their diet in the shape of 
paunches, carefully cleaned and cooked, 
and Spratt's Puppy Rodnim. A plentiful 
supply of fresh milk is still essential. 

Graduallv the number of their meals 
may be decreased, first t<.) f<iur a day, and 
later on to three, until at six months old 
they verge on adolescence, and ma\" be 
placed upon the rations of the adult dog, 
two meals a day. 

Meanwhile, the more fresh air and sim- 
shine, exercise, and freedom they recei\'e, 
the better will they prosper, but care must 
be taken that they are ne\-er allowed to 
get wet . Their sleeping - place esjx'cially 
must be thoroughly dry, well ventilated, 
and scrupulously clean. 

As to the adult dog, his needs are three : 
he must be well fed, well housed, and well 
exercised. Two meals a day suffice him, 
but he likes variety, and the more liis fare 
can be diversified the better will he do 
justice to it. Biscuits, Rodnim, Flako, 
meat, vegetables, paunches, and sheep's 
heads, with an occasional big bone to gnaw, 
provide unlimited change, and the particular 
tastes of indi\-iduals should be learned and 
catered for. As one dog's meat is another 
dog's poison, it is absurd to suppose that 
one special brand of biscuit is the sole 
requirement of any one breed, or of e\-ery 
individual of that breed. Diversify the 
food as much as possible ; the dogs will do 
the rest. 

As to the bob-tail's kennel, tliere is no 
need whatever for a high-priced fancy 
structure. Any weatherproof building will 
do, provided it be well ventilated and free 
from draughts. In very cold weather a 
bed of clean wheat straw is desirable, in 

summer the bare boards are best. In all 
weathers cleanliness is an absolute essential, 
and a liberal supply of fresh water should 
be always available. 

With regard to exercise, the desideratum 
is freedom, absolute freedom. So long as 
he can wander loose, a bob-tail will put up 
with a very small yard or garden quite con- 
tentedly, but he should ne\'er be chained 
if this can possibly be avoided. He resents 
it as an undeserved indignity, and not infre- 
quently it spoils his temper. In the matter 
of exercise, as in all else, individuals differ 
widely. Some require, and enjoy, much 
more active exertion than others, and are 
ne\-er happier than when following a trap 
or bicycle ; some prefer a long slow walk 
at their master's heel. Their tastes must 
neiessarily be adapted to their circumstances, 
but the main essential is absolute freedom. 

Grooming is an important detail in a 
breed whose picturesqueness depends so 
largely on the profuseness of their shaggy 
coats, but there is a general tendency to. 
overdo it. A good stiff pair of dandy 
brushes give the best results, but the coats 
must not be allowed to mat or tangle, 
which they have a tendency to do if not 
jirojierly attended to. Mats and tangles, 
if taken in time, can generally be teased 
out with the fingers, and it is the greatest 
mistake to try and drag them out with 
combs. These last should be used as 
little as possible, and only with the great- 
est care when necessary at all. An over- 
groomed bob-tail loses half his natural 
charm. Far preferable is a muddy, matted, 
rough-and-tumble-looking customer, with 
his coat as Nature left it. 

Between the two, however, lies the golden 
mean, which nothing but long practice can 
secure — a sound, harsh coat, devoid of 
mats, and free from all suspicion of the 
barber's shop 

Seeing that the Mecca of most good dogs 
— in this or any other breed — is often- 
times the show-ring, it may be well to 
de\-ote a few remarks to the preparation of 
the bob-tail for exhibition. It is not my 
purpose here to consider the ethics of 
exhibiting, or to discuss the much-debated 


question as to whether the practice of dog- 
sho\\-ing tends to the improvement or de- 
terioration of the breed. Much has been 
said on both sides in the past ; much more, 
no doubt, u-i!l be duly set forth in the 

But it is ob\-ious that, if an owner elect 
to sliow his dogs at all, he will do so witli 
the intention of wnrming if he can ; and, 
in order to win under modem conditions, he 
must put his dog into the ring 
in the best form possible. 

At the outset, he will sa\-e 
himself a lot of disappoint- 
ment and expense if he de- 
termine never to exhibit an 
animal unless it be at its best. 
If out of coat, or poor in flesli 
and condition, he may easily 
find himself beaten by an in- 
ferior animal at the top of its 
form. This is disheartening to 
the beginner, and might easil\- 
be avoided by the exercise of 
a little patience. 

Let the owner see to it, then, 
that the dog is at his best be- 
fore entering him. Probably 
he needs a bath ; if so, it 
should be given three or four 
days before the show. 

A plentiful application of 
soap and lukewarm water cer- 
tainly enhances the animal's 
appearance enormously, but it 
has an unfortunate tendency 
temporarily to soften the tex- 
ture of the coat, which will 
take a day or two to resume its natural 
condition. After being thorouglily rough 
dried, the dog must be brushed up with 
stiff brushes, and the operation must always 
be performed against the grain — that is to 
sa\', upwards, and from tail to head. 

White hairs on head or legs and chest are 
apt to become discoloured with mud, or 
sand, or stains of tra\-el, and it is per- 
missible in such cases to clean them with 
whitening, which must subsequently be 
thoroughly brushed out again. 

This use of whitening, solely for cleansing 

purposes, is specificall}- allowed bv Kennel 
Club regulations, always provided that no 
trace of it is permitted to remain on any 
portion of the dog at the time of exhibition. 
In recent times a foolish practice arose 
amongst a few exhibitors of covering their 
dogs with powder or whitening, and lead- 
ing them into the ring in this condition. 
Apart from the fact that the animals should 
have been disqualified, the spectacle of a 



Photograph by T. ReveUy. Wantage. 

powdered bob-tail was ludicrous and dis- 
tressing. Fortunately the good sense of the 
majority speedily recognised this, and the 
practice soon died out ; one hopes for ever. 
Once thoroughh' cleaned and brushed, 
the dog should be shown in his natural con- 
dition, and on no consideration whatever 
should any attempt at trimming, plucking, 
or removing live coat be countenanced. 
Any such practice, if detected, should bring 
its just reward in a sentence of disqualifica- 
tion, and it should be the pride of every 
exhibitor to keep the breed free from any 


possible accusation of undue preparation 
for show. 

To sum up the position of tlie Old 
English Sheepdog in the canine world 
to-day, I think there can be little doubt 
that within the last decade the tendency 




of the breed has been towards impn)\-enient. 
Generally speaking, the all-round quality 
is higher, the classification is much more 
liberal, and the entries are far more numerous 
than they were ten years ago. In fact, there 
is a larger proportion of good dogs before the 
public than at any previous time in the his- 
tory of the breed. This is a healthy sign. 
I^ut with increasing popularity, and en- 
hanced competition, there are symptoms 
of inevitable dangers wliich often follow 
in their train. 

The attempt to attain great size, already 
alluded to, has had its ill-effects. Big 
dogs, in many instances, ha\'e gained tlieir 
additional substance at the expense of true 
type, and of the real Old English charac- 
teristics. Heavy shoulders, undue length of 

fore face, and snipiness of muzzle, are on 
the increase. 

In the matter of coat, too. the average 
of e.xcellence is none too high, and the 
desirable harshness of texture is compara- 
tively rare. To some e.xtent, no doubt, 
this is attributable to 
over-grooming ; but a 
harsh coat, like every 
other attribute, can un- 
questionably be bred, if 
the breeder knows the 
way to go about it. 

That is the point to 
whit h exhibitors should 
de^•ote themselves. In- 
stead of running after 
a popular prize-winner, 
and securing his ser- 
vices regardless of the 
ascertained laws of he- 
redity, they should 
stri\'e, by a study of 
the science of breeding 
for results, to eradicate 
faults by judicious se- 
lectiiiu instead of aggra- 
vating them. 

(iood as our modem 
bob-tails are, the points 
in wliich they may well 
be imjinned appear to 
me to be these : Com- 
pactness of body and shortness of back, 
clean shoulders, harshness of coat, strength 
of jaw and fore face. 

With our judges, of course, lies the 
ultimate remedy, for the improvement or 
deterioration of a breed rests to a very 
great extent in the hands of those who 
judge it. So many of us are equal to 
criticising another man's verdicts ; so few 
of us, alas ! are competent to improve on 

There is scope in this direction for the 
energies of the Old English Sheepdog Club, 
who have done so much already for the 
improvement of the breed. 

Of those whose names are household words 
in the bob-tail fancy, the space at my dis- 
])osal only admits of the inclusion of a few. 



A leading place must certainly be ascribed 
to Dr. Edwardes-Ker, whose terse and 
\'igorous contributions to the literature of 
the breed remain full of force and common- 
sense at the present day, and whose memory 
is still kept green by the descendants of the 
Champions Sir Ethehvolf and Sir Caven- 
dish, of Dame Ruth, Dame Ehzabeth, and 
many more. He and his contemporary, Dr. 
Locke, another enthusiastic breeder, ha\e 
gone to join the great majority. 

Mr. Fred Wilmot, though he belongs to a 
younger generation, is another old-timer, 
and remains as good a judge as any man 
need be. A stickler for the good old- 
fashioned type, he has his fixed ideal, and 
he knows how to breed it. 

Mr. H. Dickson, too, has ser\ed a long 
apprenticesiiip, and is still well to the fore 
as exhibitor and judge. Few modem 
owners ha\e a lengthier experience of the 

The Brothers Tilley, in more recent times, 
have come to the front with the largest 
kennel of bob-tails in England, and ha\e 
extended the cult across the Atlantic by 
exporting to .America such well-kno\\Ti 

Champions as Dolly Grey and Boimcing 

In :Mrs. Mayhew's footsteps have followed 
many ladies, and their success as breeders 
and exhibitors of late j'ears is very striking. 

ilrs. Fare Fosse, with tliree home-bred 
Champions to her credit, heads the list ; 
and of more recent enthusiasts Mrs. Rivers, 
Mrs. Charter, and Mrs. Runciman have 
upheld the record for the gentler sex. 

Other names of note are those of Dr. 
MacGill, Messrs. Butter^vorth, Stephens, 
Travis, and \\'oodi\\iss. 

The Old EngUsh Sheepdog Club, whose 
honorary' officials include such weIl-kno\\-n 
owners as Messrs. \\'eager, Shout and 
Lllman, is approaching its twentieth year 
of acti\-ity, and offers valuable prizes for 
competition at its annual show. These in- 
clude a sih'er cup for the best dog, another 
for the best bitcli, and a twenty-five 
guinea challenge cup for the best novice. 
The liberal classification embraces a Breeders' 
Produce Stakes, open to all comers, and the 
Club, in addition, supports all the leading 
shows, by the presentation of special prizes 
and silver medals. 



Phologiaph by Jams aiul Si,n, Surbiton. 




PlwloKUtfh by Koss, Whtlln: 



" I boast not of his kin. nor of my reed 

(Though of my reed and him I well may boast). 
Yet if you will adventure that some meed 
Shall be to him that is in action most. 
As for a eollur of shrill sounding bells, 
Mv dog shall strive with yours, or eivy's else." 

— Browne's Eclogues. 

^r^HE Chow Chow is a dog of great 
I versatihty. He is a born sportsman 
and lo\-es an open-air hfe — a war- 
rior, always ready to accept battle, but 
seldom provoking it. He has a way of 
his own with tramps, and seldom fails 
to induce tliem to continue their travels. 
Yet withal he is tender-hearted, a friend 
of children, an ideal companion, and often 
has a clever gift for parlour tricks. In 
China, his fatherland, he is esteemed for 
another quality — his excellence as a sub- 
stitute for roast mutton. 

Though in his own country he is re- 
garded as plebeian, just a common cur, he 

is by no means a mongrel. That he is of 
ancient lineage is proved by the fact that 
he always breeds true to type. He yields 
to the Pekingese Spaniel the claim to be 
the Royal dog of China, yet his blood 
nuist be of the bluest. If you doubt it, 
look at his tongue. 

.M\' own special Chow is one of my best 
friends. In the household he has an estab- 
lished position, which he maintains with 
great dignity. He comes and goes when 
he likes and where he likes ; he is respected 
throughout the neighbourhood, and is known 
as " Gentleman Chow," a title which he fully 
deserves. During the eight years of our 


Premier CH. CHOW VIII 

Photograph by RuJdock. .\i-.cas1U. 

friendship he has never given me cause nonsense " look \\hich deters strangers 

to suspect that there is truth m the hbel from undue famiharity, though to friends 

his expression is kindness itself. 

Though the Chow has man}- perfec- 
tions, the perfect Chow has not yet 
arri\-ed. He nearly came with Ch. 
Chow MIL — long since dead, alas ! — 
and with Ch. Fu Chow, the best Chow 
now li\-ing, his hght coloured eyes being 
his only defect. With many judges, 
howe\-er, this dog's black coat handi- 
caps him sadly in competition with his 
red bretliren. 

I consider Chow VIII. the best and 
most t\'pical dog ever benched, not- 
withstanding his somewhat round eyes. 
Almond eyes are of course correct in 

Ch. Red Craze owiis the head 
which is perfect. The illustration (on 
p. 126) from an oil painting b}' Miss 
Monica Gray shows the correct ear- 
carriage and broad muzzle, but does 
not quite reproduce the scowl and 

which accuses his kind of a penchant for characteristic expression of a good Chow. 

shcep-sla\ing. Another point of view is given in the 

In my kennels I luive several other dogs photograph reproduced on the same page. 

of the same fine race, all of 

whom, I feel sure, ha\-e the 

same good instincts and in- 
nate gentility, but tlie routine 

and discipline of kennel life 

allow them little opportunity 

for the cultivation of their 

natural gifts. 
Outwardly, the Chow 

worthily embodies the kind, 

faithful heart and the brave 

spirit within. His compact 

body (weighing 40 lbs. or 

more), with the beautiful 

fur coat and ruff, tlie plume 

tail turned over on his back 

and almost meeting his neck- 
ruff, the strong, straight legs 

and neat, catlike feet, gives 

an impression of symmetry, 

power, and alertness. His 

handsome face wears a 

"scowl." This is the tech- 
nical term for the "no 



Photograph by T- Fall. 



It will be noticed that the dogs in the 
photographed grouji at the head of this 
chapter appear to carry their ears too close 


but if yon want a dog for show you must 
be sure to get a good whole-coloured dark 
red. If, on the other hand, you have a 
Chow as a companion and friend, do not 
be at all troubled if his ruff, yoke, culottes 
and tail are white or cream-coloured. 
These are natural, correct and typical marks, 
though present-day fanciers are trying 
to " improve " them away. 

The other bitch in the group is o\\m sister 
to Ch. Red Craze, and, like him, is a credit 
to Sliylock, their sire. She refused to pose, 
so she does not impro\-e the group as she 
ought. I have added a list of points as 
drawn up by the Chow Chow Club some 
\-ears ago. .The points are fairly right, but 
tliL- tnngue of a li\-e Chow is never black. 
It sliiiuld be blue, such a colour as might 
result from a diet of bilberries. 

Points of the Chow Chow. 

1. Head.— Skull flat and broad, with 
stop, well filled out under the eyes. 

2. Muzzle. — Moderate in length, and broad 


together. This is due to the concentration 
of their thoughts upon a rabbit held be- 
hind the camera. They also ha^•e a look 
of le^■ity, different from the aspect of 
sober chgnity which they affect in calmer 
moments. But they are all 
good. The three larger 
animals are young d<:)gs 
which ha\-e already distin- 
guished themselves in the 

The t'vo ladies are 
seated. The blonde, with 
her short. cobby bddy. 
good bone and massive 
head, would Ix' faultless 
but for her colmir. which 
she must have inherited 
from some remote ancestor. 
Her parents are Ch. Shy- 
lock and Fenalik. Ijoth 
exceptionally good coloured 

Modern judges will not 
look twice at a light or 
parti-coloured dog, and I 
fear that if even Ch. 
Chow VIII. could revisit 
the scenes of liis by- 
gone triumphs, his beautiful light mark- from the eyes to the point (not pointed at the end 
ings would prove a fatal bar to his sue- like a fo.x). 
cess. The judges would be quite wrong, 3- Nose.— Black, large and w-ide. (In cream 



rl,i't.,g>nfli I'v T. Fall. 





or light-coloured specimens, a pink nose is allow- 

4. Tongue. — Black. 

5. Eyes. — Dark and small. (In a blue dog 
light colour is permissible.) 

6. Ears. — Small, pointed, and carried stiffly 
erect. Thev should be placed well forward over 
the eyes, which gives the dog the peculisir chcirac- 
teristic expression of the breed — viz. a sort of 

7. Teeth. — Strong and level. 

8. Neck. — Strong, full, set well on the shoulders, 
and slight! V arched. 

9. Shoulders. — Muscular and sloping. 

10. Chest. — Broad and deep. 

11. Back. — Short, straight, and strong. 

12. Loins. — Powerful. 

13. Tail.— Curled tightly over the back. 

14. Forelegs. — Perfectly straight,- of moderate 
length, and with great bone. 

15. Hindlegs. — Same as forelegs, muscular and 
with hocks well let down. 

16. Feet.— Small, round and catlike, stand- 
ing well on the toes. 

17. Coat. — Abundant, dense, straight, and 

rather coarse in texture, with a soft woolly under- 

18. Colour. — \\'hole-coloured black, red, yel- 
low, blue, white, etc., not in patches (the under 
part of tail and back of thighs frequently of a 
lighter colour). 

19. General Appearance. — A lively, compact, 
short coupled dog, well-knit in frame, with tail 
curled well over the back. 

20. Disqualifying Points. — Drop ears, red 
tongue, tail not curled over back, white spots on 
coat, and red nose, except in yellow or white 

^<'-B. — Smooth Chows are governed by the 
same scale of points, except that the coat is 

So far as I am aware, there is no numerical 
scale of points for Chow Chows. 

As to the weight, bitches scale about 
30 lbs., but dogs are heavier. Ch. Shylock 
weighed 47J lbs., and Red Craze 38 lbs., 
when in my hands. 

Photograph by Clarke, Think. 


PluHotiiafli by .V. S. Kny, Mniuhalcr. 




' ,4 Poodle once toiecd me along. 
But always lec came to one harbour ; 
To keep his curls smart, 
And shave his hind part. 
He constantly called on a barber.''' 

— Tom Hood. 

THE Poodle is commonly iuknovv- 
ledged to be the most wisely in- 
telligent of all members of the 
canine race. He is a scholar and a gentle- 
man ; but, in spite of his claims of long 
descent and his extraordinary natural clever- 
ness, he has never been widely popular 
in this country as the Collie and the Fo.\- 
terrier are popular. There is a general 
belief that he is a fop, whose time is largely 
occupied in personal embellishment, and 
that he requires a great deal of individual 
attention in the matter of his toilet. It may 
be true that to keep him in exhibition order 
and oerfect cleanliness his owner has need 

to de\'ote more consideration to him than 
is necessary in the case of many breeds ; 
but in other respects he gives very little 
trouble, and all wlio are attached to him 
are consistent in their opinion that there 
is no dog so intensely interesting and respon- 
si\"e as a companion. His qualities of mind 
and his acute powers of reasoning are indeed 
so great that there is something almost 
human in his attractiveness and his devotion. 
His aptitude in learning is never denied, 
and many are the stories told of his mar- 
vellous talent and \-ersatility. 

Not merely as a showman's dog has 
he distinguished himself. He is something 



more than a mountebank of the booths, 
trained to walk the tight rope and stand 
on his head. He is an adept at performing 
tricks, but it is his alertness of brain that 
places him apart from other animals. There 
is the example of the famous Munito, who 
in 1818 perple.xed the Parisians by his clever- 
ness with pla\nng cards and his intricate 

to the Customs officers. On the Continent 
Poodles of the larger kind are often used 
for draught work. 

There can be httle doubt that the breed 
originated in Germany, where it is known 
as the Pudel, and classed as the Cauis 
fainiliaris Aquaticus. In form and coat he 
wotild seem to be closelv related to the old 


Photograph by T. Fall. 

arithmetical calculations. Paris was for- 
merly the home of most of the learned 
Poodles, and one remembers the instance of 
the Poodle of the Pont Xeuf, who had the 
habit of dirtying the boots of the passers-by 
in order that his master — a shoeblack 
stationed half-way across the bridge — might 
enjo\' the profit of cleaning them. In Bel- 
gium Poodles were systematicallj' trained 
to smuggle \-aluable lace, which was wound 
round their shaven bodies and covered 
Nvith a false skin. These dogs were schooled 
to a dislike of all men in uniform, and conse- 
quently on their journey between Mechlin 
and the coast they always gave a wide berth 

\\'ater-dog, and the resemblance between a 
brown Poodle and an Irish Water Spaniel 
is remarkable. The Poodle is no longer 
regarded as a sporting dog, but at one period 
he was trained to retrieve waterfowl, and he 
still on occasion displa3?s an eager fondness 
for the water ; but this habit is not en- 
couraged by owners, who know the labour 
involved in keeping in order the Poodle's 
profuse coat. 

Throughout Europe and in the United 
States — wherever these dogs are kept — it is 
usual to clip the coat on the face, the legs, 
and the hinder part of the body, leaving 
tufts of hair on the thighs and a ring of 



hair on the pasterns. The origin and pur- 
pose of the custom are not apparent, but 
now that Poodles arc almost alwa3'-s kept 
as house dogs, this mode of ornamentation 
at least commends itself by reducing the 


Pholograph l;r T. Fall. 

labour of daily grooming if the coat is to be 
maintained in good condition and the dog 
to be a pleasant associate. 

As far back in history as the breed can be 
definitely traced clipping seems to have been 
customary. Poodles are so presented in 
various illuminated manuscripts of the six- 
teenth centurw and notably in one illus- 
trating an episode in the life t)f Margaret of 
York, the third wife of Charles the Bold 
of Burgundy. In another painting depict- 
ing a family group of Maximilian of Austria 
and his wife and child (" The Abridged 
Chronicles of Burgundy ") there is the 
portrait of a shaven dog which, allowing 
for the artistic shortcomings of the period, 
closely resembles the Poodle of to-day. 
Again, in ]\Iartin de Vos's picture of ■■ Tobit 
and his Dog," wiiich also dates from the 
sixteenth century, the faithful animal is an 
unmistakable Poodle ; while in two of the 
series of paintings of the story of Patient 
Griselda, by Pinturicchio (1454-1513), in 
the National Gallery, a small shaven Poodle 
is conspicuous among the spectators of the 

liapless lady's misfortunes. The well-known 
painting by J. Stein (1636-78) of " The Danc- 
ing Dog " depicts a white Poodle on its hind 
legs, clipped at the quarters, with tufts of 
hair on the thighs and a ring about the 

Widely distributed throughout Europe, 
the Poodle differs in form and colour in the 
various countries. In Russia and Eastern 
Germany he is usually black, and the Russian 
\-ariety is particularly lithe and agile. In 
Central Germany, where there is also a 
•■ sheep "' Poodle, he is somewhat uncouth 
and thick-set, with sturdy limbs and a short 
muzzle. The dejected and overworked 
Poodles one sees drawing milk-carts in the 
streets of Brussels and Antwerp are com- 
monlv a dirty white or yellowish brown, 
and exceedingly muscular ; very different 
from the more slender kind so frequently 
met with on the boulevards of Paris or 
perched impertinently and grotesquely 
trimmed in the carriages on the Champs 
Elysees. The small French variety, known 
as the Barbet, seldom weighs more than 
twenty pounds, and a good example is seen 



)'hotosiat<h by A'r.ssJ;. 

in ;Miss .\rmitage's imported bitch, Chaseley 
Jose. The toy Poodle was very popular in 
France in the reign of Louis XVL, and is 
often represented in fashion plates of the 
period, always shaven and shorn, Mr. 



T. Heath Joyce, who has investigated tlie 
history of the breed, states that the Poodle 
was first introduced into Great Britain 
during the Continental wars at the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century. For a long 
period he was held in contempt as a mere 
trick dog and the companion of mounte- 
banks, who were believed to train him with 
cruelty ; but in recent years his great 
natural intelligence and apt- 
ness in learning have won 
for him a due appreciation, 
while the remarkable charac- 
teristics of his coat have 
placed him as an interesting 
indi\"idual in a class apart 
from all other dogs. 

The profuse and long coat 
of this dog has the pecuh- 
arity that if not kept con- 
stantly brushed out it twists 
up into little cords which 
incre;ise in length as the 
new liair gro\\-s and clings 
about it. The unshed old 
hair and the new growth 
entwined together thus be- 
come distinct rope-like cords. 
Eventually, if these cords 
are not cut short, or acci- 
dentally torn off, they drag 
along the ground, and so 
prevent the poor animal 
from moving with any degree of comfort or 
freedom. Some few owniers, who admire 
and cultivate these long cords, keep them 
tied up in bundles on the dog's back, but 
so unnatural and unsightly a method of 
burdening the animal is not to be com- 

Corded Poodles are very showy, and 
from the remarkable appearance of the 
coat, attract a great deal of public atten- 
tion when exhibited at shows ; but they have 
lost popularitv among most fanciers, and 
have become few in number ouing to the 
obvious fact that it is impossible to make 
pets of them or keep them in the house. 
The reason of this is that the coat must, from 
time to time, be oiled in order to keep the 
cords supple and prevent them from snap- 

ping, and, of course, as their coats cannot 
be brushed, the only way of keeping the 
dog clean is to wash him, which with a corded 
Poodle is a lengthy and laborious process. 
Further, the coat takes hours to dry, and 
unless the newly washed dog be kept in 
a warm room he is very liable to catch 
cold. The result is, that the coats of 
corded Poodles are almost in\"ariabh- dirty, 




and somewhat smelly. The exhibition 
of this ^•ariety has also been much dis- 
couraged by the action of the Kennel Club in 
disqualifying, on the objection of an ex- 
hibitor, all the corded Poodles at one show 
(except those of the objector) on the ground 
that their coats were oiled. 

This rule of the Kemiel Club invol\-es 
the necessity of every trace of oil being care- 
fully removed every time a corded Poodle 
is exhibited at a show, and consequently the 
variety is becoming less and less popular. 
At one time it was suggested that cordeds 
and non-cordeds were two distinct breeds, 
but it is now generally accepted that the 
coat of every well-bred Poodle will, if allowed, 
develop cords. 

Curly Poodles, on the other hand, have 



advanced considerably in favour. Their 
coats should be kept regularly brushed and 
combed and, if washed occasionally, they 
will always be smart and clean, and pleasant 
companions in tlie house. 

The four colours usuallv considered cor- 
rect are black, white, brown, and blue. 
Curiouslv enough, my experience is that 



thuloguiph by T. Fall. 

wiiite Poodles are tlie most intelligent, and 
it is certain that professional trainers of 
performing dogs prefer the white variety. 
The black come next in tlie order of intelli- 
gence, and easily surpass the brown and blue, 
which, in my opinion, are somewhat lacking 
in true Poodle character. 

No strict lines are drawn as regards brown, 
and all shades ranging from cream to dark 
brown arc classed as brown. Mrs. Robert 
Long a few years ago startled her fellow- 
enthusiasts by exhibiting some parti-coloured 
specimens ; but they were regarded as freaks, 
and did not become popular. 

The points to be looked for in choosing 
a Poodle are, that he should be a lively, 
active dog, with a long, fine head, a dark 
oval eve, with a bright alert expression, 
short in tlie back, not leggy, but by no 

means low on the ground, with a good loin, 
carrying his tail well up ; the coat should 
be profuse, all one colour, very curl}-, and 
rather wiry to the touch. 

If you buy a Poodle puppy you will 
find it like other intelligent and active young- 
sters, full of mischief. The first Poodle 
witli which I was intimately acquainted 
was a bitch puppy nearly a year old. Her 
education had been sadly neglected, and as 
soon as she felt herself at home in the house 
she devoted her leisure time to pulling out 
the fibre of cocoanut mats, tearing off the 
frills of curtains, eating the tops of boots, 
stripping covers from umbrellas, and engag- 
ing in other similar expedients for dispelling 
cnmii. I am sure that a naughtier puppy 
never breathed (she howled all the tirst 
night because she was placed in the stable)"; 
but within a few months her manners 
became perfect, and she afterwards at- 
tained fame as Ch. Tlie Black Coquette, the 
foundress of the Orchard Kennel. 

The great secret in training a Poodle is 
first to gain his affection. With firmness, 
kindness, and perseverance, you can tlien 
teach him almost anything. 

The most li\-ely and excitable dogs are 
usually tlie easiest to train, and it is my 
experience that the white Poodle excels 
in quickness of apprehension and obedience. 
It is ad\'antageous to teach your dog when 
you gi\e him his meal of biscuit, letting him 
have the food piece by piece as a reward 
when each trick is duly performed. Never 
attempt to teach him two new tricks at a time, 
and when instructing him in a new trick 
let him always go through his old ones first. 
]\Iake it an in\-ariable rule never to be beaten 
by him. If — as frequently is tlie case with 
young dogs — he declines to perform a trick, 
do not pass it over or allow him to substitute 
another he likes better ; but, when you see 
he obstinately refuses, punish him by putting 
away the coveted food for an hour or two. 
If he once sees he can tire }'ou out you will 
have no further authoritj' over him, while if 
\-ou are firm he will not hold out against j'ou 
long. It is a bad plan to make a dog repeat 
too frequently a trick which he obviously 
dislikes, and insistence on your part may do 



great harm. The Poodle is exceptionally 
sensitive, and is far more efficientlj- taught 
when treated as a sensible being rather 
than as a mere quadrupedal automaton. 
He will learn twice as quickly if his master 
can make him understand the reason for per- 
forming a task. The whip is of little use 
when a lesson is to be taught, as the dog will 
probably associate his tasks with a thrashing 
and go through them in that unwilling, 
cowed, tail-between-legs fashion which too 
often betra\-s the unthinking hastiness of 
the master, and is the chief reason why 
the Poodle has sometimes been regarded as 
a spiritless coward. 

The Poodle bitch makes a good mother, 
rarely giving trouble in whelping, and tlie 
puppies are not difficult to rear. Their 
chief dangers are gastritis and congestion 
of the lungs, which can be avoided with 
careful treatment. It should be remembered 
that the dense coat of the Poodle takes a 
long time to dry after being wetted, and 
that if the dog has been out in the rain, 
and got his coat soaked, or if he has been 

enclosed kennels well protected from draught 
and moisture, and there is no difficulty in so 
keeping them, as they are naturall}^ obedient 
and easily taught to be clean in the house 
and to be regular in their habits. 




Photograph by Rmscll. 


washed or allowed to jump in a pond, you 
must take care not to leave him in a 
cold place or to lie inactive before he is 
perfectly dry. 

Most Poodles are kept in the liouse or m 

The coat of a curly Poodle should be kept 
fleecy and free from tangle by being periodi- 
cally combed and brushed. The grooming 
keeps the skin clean and healthy, and fre- 
quent washing, even for a white dog, is 
not necessar3^ The dog will, of course, 
require clipping from time to time. In 
Paris at present it is the fashion to clip the 
greater part of the body and hind-quarters, 
but the English Poodle Club recommends 
that the coat be left on as far down the 
body as the last rib, and it is also customary 
with us to leave a good deal of coat on the 
hind-quarters. An idea of the general style 
of clipping in England may be gained from 
the illustration of Orchard White Boy. 

Probably the best-known Poodle of his 
day in this country was Ch. The Model, 
a black corded dog belonging to Mr. H. A. 
Dagois, who imported him from the Con- 
tinent. Model was a medium-sized dog, very 
well proportioned, and with a beautifully 
moulded head and dark, expressive eyes, 
and I believe was only once beaten in the 
show ring. He died some few years ago 



at a ripe old age, but a great many of the 
best-kno-wn Poodles of the present day 
claim relationship to him. One of his 
most famous descendants was Ch. The 
Joker, also black corded, wlio was ^•ery 
successful at exhibitions, and died only 
recently. Another very handsome dog was 
Ch. Vladimir, again a black corded, belong- 
ing to Miss Houlgrave. 

Since 1905 the curly Poodles ha\-e very 
much improved, and the best specimens 
of the breed are now to be found in their 
ranks. Ch. Orchard Admiral, the property 
of J\Irs. Crouch, a son of Ch. The Joker and 
Lady Godiva, is probably the best specimen 
living ; one of his litter brothers. Orchard 
Minstrel, emigrated to the United States, 
and has earned his title as Champion in 
that country. \\'hite Poodles, of which 
Mrs. Crouch's Orchard \Miite Boy is a 
notable specimen, ought to be more widely 
kept than they are, but it must be admitted 
that the task of keeping a full-sized white 
Poodle's coat clean in a town is no light one. 

Tov white Poodles, consequently, are 
very popular. The toy variety should not 
exceed fifteen inches in height at the shoulder, 
and in all respects should be a miniature 
of the full-sized dog, with the same points. 

Points of the Perfect Poodle. 

1. General Appearance. — That of a ver>- 
active, intelligent, and elegant-looking dog, well 
built, and canying himself very proudly. 

2. Head. — Long, straight, and fine, the skull 
not broad, witli a slight peak at the back. 

3. Muzzle. — Long (but not snipy) and strong 
— not full in cheek; teeth white, strong, and level ; 
gums black, lips black and not showing lippiness. 

4. Eyes. — Almond shaped, very dark, full of 
fire and intelligence. 

5. Nose. — Black and sharp. 

6. Ears. — The leather long and wide, low 
set on, hanging close to the face. 

7. Neck. — Well proportioned and strong, to 
admit of the head being carried high and with 

8. Shoulders. — Strong and muscular, sloping 
well to the back. 

9. Chest. — Deep and moderately wide. 

ID. Back. — Short, strong, and slightly hol- 
lowed, the loins broad and muscular, the ribs 
well sprung and braced up. 

11. Feet. — Rather small, and of good shape, 
the toes well arched, pads thick and hard. 

12. Legs. — Fore legs set straight from shoulder, 
with plenty of bone and muscle. Hind legs 
very muscular and well bent, with the hocks 
well let down. 

13. Tail. — Set on rather high, well carried, 
never curled or carried over back. 

14. Coat. — Very profuse, and of good hard 
texture ; if corded, hanging in tight, even cords ; 
if non-corded, very thick and strong, of even length, 
the curls close and thick, without knots or cords. 

15. Colours. — All black, all white, all red, 
all blue. 

The White Poodle should ha\-e dark eyes, 
black or \'ery dark liver nose, lips, and toe-nails. 

The Red Poodle should have dark amber eyes, 
dark liver nose, lips, and toe-nails. 

The Blue Poodle should be of even colour, and 
have dark eyes, lips, and toe-nails. 

.\11 the other points of White, Red, and Blue 
Poodles should be the same as the perfect Black 

N.B. — It is strongly recommended that only 
one-third of the body be clipped or shaved, and 
that the hair on the forehead be left on. 

Value of Points. 

General appearance and movement . 1 5 

Head and ears 15 

Eyes and expression 10 

Neck and shoulders 10 

Shape of body, loin, back, and car- 
riage of stern 15 

Legs and feet 10 

Coat, colour and te.xture of coat . 15 

Bone, muscle, and condition . . 10 







/ watch the door, I watch the gate : 
I am watching early, watching late. 
Your doggie still — / watch and wait." 

— Gerald Massey. 

THE Schipperke may fitly be described 
as the Paul Pry of canine society. His 
insatiate inquisitiveness induces him to 
poke his nose into everything ; e\-ery strange 
object excites his curiosity, and he will, if 
possible, look behind it ; the slightest noise 
arouses his attention, and he wants to 
investigate its cause. There is no end 
to his liveliness, but he moves about witli 
almost catlike agility without upsetting any 
objects in a room, and when he hops he has 
a curious way of catching up his hind legs. 
The Schipperkc's disposition is most affec- 
tionate, tinged with a good deal of jealousy, 
and even when made one of the household he 
generally attaches himself more particularly 
to one person, whom he "owns," and whose 
protection he deems his special duty. 

These qualities endear the Schipperke as a 
canine companion, with a quaint and lovable 
character ; and he is also a capital vermin 
dog. When properly entered he cannot 
be surpassed as a " ratter." 

Schipperkes have always been kept as 
watch-dogs on the Flemish canal barges, 
and that, no doubt, is the origin of the 
name, which is the Flemish for " Little 
Skipper," the syllable " ke " forming the 
diminutive of " schipper " ; the " sch " 
is pronounced as in "school." 

The respectable antiquity of this dog is 
proved by the result of the researches Mr. 
Van der Snickt and Mr. Van Buggenhoudt 
made in the archives of Flemish towns, 
which contain records of the breed going 
back in pure type over a hundred years. 

The first Schipperke which appeared at 
a show in this country was Mr. Berrie's 
Flo. This was, however, such a mediocre 

specimen that it did not appeal to the taste 
of the English dog-loving pubhc. In 1888 
Dr. Seelig brought over Skip, Drieske, and 
jMia. The first-named was purchased by 



Photograph by Russell. 

Mr. E. B. Joachim, and the two others by 
Mr. G. R. Krehl. Later on Mr. Joachim 
became the owner of Mr. Green's Shtoots, 
and bought Fritz of Spa in Belgium, and 
these dogs formed the nucleus of the two 
kennels which laid the foundation of the 
breed in England. 

It was probably the introduction of the 
Schipperke to England that induced Belgian 
owners to pay greater attention to careful 
breeding, and a club was started in 1888 
in Brussels, whose members, after "" long 
and earnest consideration," settled a descrip- 
tion and standard of points for the breed. 



Not long afterwards the Schipperke Club 
(England) was inaugurated, and drew up 
the following standard of points, which was 
adopted in December, 1890, and differed 
only very slightly from the one acknowledged 
by the Belgian societ}'. 

Standard of Points of the Schipperke Club, 

I. Head. — Foxv in type : skull should not be 
round, but broad, and with little stop. The 
muzzle should be moderate in length, fine but not 
weak, should be well filled out under the eves. 

12. Hind-legs. — Strong, muscular, hocks well let 

13. Feet. — Small, catlike, and standing well on 
the toes. 

14. Nails. — Black. 

15. Hind-quarters. — Fine compared to the fore- 
parts, muscular and well-developed thighs, tailless, 
rump well rounded. 

16. Coat. — Black, abundant, dense, and harsh, 
smooth on the head, cars and legs, lying close on 
the back and sides, but erect and thick round the 
neck, forming a mane and frill, and well feathered 
on back of thighs. 

17. Weight. — About twelve pounds. 



2. Nose. — Black and small. 

3. Eyes. — Dark brown, small, more oval than 
round, and not full ; bright, and full of expression. 

4. Ears. — Shape : Of moderate length, not too 
broad at the base, tapering to a point. Car- 
riage : Stiffly erect, and when in that position the 
inside edge to form as near as possible a right 
angle with the skull and strong enough not 
to be bent otherwise than lengthways. 

5. Teeth. — Strong and level. 

6. Neck. — Strong and full, rather short, set 
broad on the shoulders and slightly arched. 

7. Shoulders. — Muscular and sloping. 

8. Chest. — Broad and deep in brisket. 
9- Back. — Short, straight, and strong. 

ID. Loins. ^Powerful, well drawn up from the 

II. Fore-legs. — Perfectly straight, well under 
the body, with bone in proportion to the body. 

18. General Appearance. — .\ small cobby animal 
witii sharp expression, intensely li\'ely, present- 
ing the appearance of being always on the alert. 

19. Disqualifying Points. — Drop, or semi-erect 

20. Faults. — White hairs are objected to, but 
arc not disquahf\ing. 

Relative Value of Points. 

Head, nose, eves, teeth .... 20 

Ears 10 

Neck, shoulders, chest .... 10 

Back, loins 5 

Fore-legs 5 

Hind-legs 5 

Feet 5 

Hind-quarters 10 

Coat and colour 20 

General appearance 10 

Total 100 


In August, 1894, the president, Mr. G. R. on Wgh. Of sufiScient substance that they cannot 

Krehl. as well as other leading members of ^^ folded othen,\-ise than lengthways, and very 

the Schipperke Club (England), resigned ^' , 

J r , 1 u J ^u ^■J^ ( 7- Teeth.— \ er>' white, strong and quite level. 

and formed a new club under the title of g. Neck.-Strong. fuU, and carried upright, 

the St. Hubert Schipperke Club, which was 9. Shoulders.— Sloping, and with easy action, 

named after St. Hubert, a dog Mr. Krehl 10. Chest. — Broad in front and well let down, 

imported, and which was aftenvards pur- "• Back.— Straight, but supple. 

chased bv the club as a desirable sire to '^- Loins.-Broad and powerful. 

" , , J ■ T- 1 J u .^ iu ^3- Forelegs. — Quite straight, fine, and well 

unprove the breed in England, but the ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^. 

great expectations in that direction were 14. Feet.— Small, round, and weU-knuckled up. 

hardly realised. The rupture happened so nails straight, strong, and short. 

long ago that one can now relate its in- ^S- Thighs.— Powerful, verv- muscular, and 

ward history without giving offence or bocks weU let do^™. 

' , , . , .... 16. Body. — Short and thick set, the ribs well 

incumng an>- danger of rene^vlng hostilities. ^p^^„ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^p ^ ,^^ 

There is no doubt that it originated in a 17. Tail.— Absent. 

personal difference between Mr. G. R. Krelll 18. Coat. — Dense and harsh, smooth on the ears, 

and Mr. J. X. Woodiwiss, who was vice- short on the head, the front of the fore-legs, and 

president of the Schipperke Club (England), ^^ ^°^^- ^""^ ^^° '"^^«'' ^^"'^ °° ^^^ b<^>'' ^"t 

; , . . , ., , , profuse round the neck, commencing from behind 

but the formation of the new club was lu t ■ j f n .n, u .^ 

the ears, fonnmg a mane and a frill on the chest. 

facihtated b\- the opinion some fanciers held xhis longer coat looses itself betiveen the fore-legs, 

at the time that there was a danger of losing The backs of the thighs are feathered, forming the 

in England the Belgian t\^e of the breed, " cuiotle," the fringe of which is turned inwards, 

and the St. Hubert Schipperke Club adopted ^9- Weight.-Maximum for the small size 

1 T-. 1 • ,-11. . 111- ■ . twelve pounds, and for the large size twentv 

the Bel£^an Clubs standard of points as , 

o ^ pounds. 

closely as a translation consistent wath ^o. Faults.— A hght-coloured eye. Ears semi- 
terms understood by English fanciers would erect, too long or rounded. Head narrow and 
allow elongated, or too short. Coat sparse. wa-\-y. or 
That there was no danger of altering the ^"^J'- ^-ib^^"^^ of the mane and " culoUe." Coat 
,. _ , . , . J too long, and white spots. Lndershot. 
true type by breeding Schipperkes in accord- 
ance with the description of the Schipperke Relative Value of Points. 
Club (England), will be seen by comparing Head. nose, eyes, and teeth ... 20 

it with that of the St. Hubert Schipperke f.=^ / ,\ ' ' / ^' ' ' ' '° 

. • , • , 1 11 Neck, shoulders, and chest . . . lo 

Club, as in all essential points both are alike. ' and loins 5 

Fore-legs 5 

Standard of Points of the St. Hubert Schipperke Hind-le^s 5 

Club. Peet ° 5 

1. Character and General Appearance. — The Hindquarters lo 

Schipperke is an e.xcellent and faithful Uttle Coat and colour 30 

watchdog, who does not readily make friends with 

strangers. He is very active, always on the alert, Total 100 

and \ery courageous in defending objects left in his 

charge, but also gentle with children. A character- To this were added the following supple- 

istic pecuUarity of the breed is their exceeding in- mentarj' notes from the pen of Mr. G. R. 

quisitiveness and Uvely interest in everj-thing going Krehl, which contain some very good advice, 

on about them, their excitement being expressed by "a' lethargic air is detrimental, as the 

sharp barks and the bristling mane. They are ^ ^ r ^t_ o u- 1 ., 

game and good vermin dogs. restless temperament of the Schipperke con- 

2. Colour.— Self-coloured ; black. tributes greatly to the breed's ' character. 

3. Head.— Foxy. \Mien in full coat, the dog should be black 

4. Nose.— SmaU. entirely, but when it is changing the coat 

5. Eye.— Dark brou-n. small, oval rather than ^^^ sometimes present a rusty appearance, 
round, neither deep set nor prominent, Uvely and _, . , ^. u- u j ii „;.-^,,™ 

, F f / jj.jjg brown tinge, which, under the circum- 

6. Ears.— Quite erect, small, triangular, and set stances, is natural, must not be confounded 



with the brindled colour sometimes to be 
found on badly-bred specimens. When the 
self-coloured black Schipperke is ' off 
colour,' there is a woolly look about the 
coat. The mane (cviiiicrc) and thigh-brecch- 



rhnlogiaph l-y T. Fall. 

ing (calotte) arc of the greatest importance ; 
the tirst-mentioned imparting a leonine 
aspect to the little Schipperkes. This mane 
is composed of long harsh hairs growing 
through an undercoat so abundant and 
dense as to support them from the thick 
neck— this gi\X'S the mane a full appearance. 
As the Belgian standard states, the mane 
should ' commence behind the ears,' and 
it should finish a little below the shoulder 
points. On dogs that ha^•e a good mane, 
such as Champions Hubert and Frans, and 
Exter ilenne, it is easy to see where the 
mane stops and the ordinary body-coat 
continues ; the mane appearing to fall 
o\-er the bodv-coat. The coat on the back 
and sides is often not so coarse in texture 
as the mane, but it generally becomes a 
httle harsher just over the hips and on the 
' breeches.' The literal description of 
the texture of the coat in the Belgian 
standard is resistant an toucher, which may 
be freely translated, ' harsh,' but it does 

not mean wiry. The French expression 
precludes the hairs being woolly or fluffy, 
and if the Belgian breeders had desired to 
say that they required more than harshness 
they had the phrase handy, ' pail dur' 
which is ■ hard coat.' Therefore, the pin- 
wire hair, or cocoa-nut matting texture of 
coat which is sought after in some terrier 
varieties would not be correct for a Schip- 
perke, whose coat should be, not soft, but 
' resistant an toucher.'' The culottc or thigh- 
breeching is as characteristic and essential 
as the mane, and the Belgian standard 
includes among ' faults ' the absence of 
both or either. This question of coat is 
dcser\'ing of considerable attention, as it is 
necessary to a\'oid the long coat all over 
the body of the Pomeranian and the wiry 
cii;;t of the Welsh Terrier. These are the 
Siylla and Charybdis through which the 
barge dogs ha^•e to steer their way. as it 
would be equally fatal to be cast on the 
hard rock of the wire-hair as to get lost in 
the Pomeranian whirlpool. If, with the 
delusive hope of obtaining the mane, a 
Pomeranian cross were resorted to, the ex- 
periment would be exposed by the resulting 
long coat all o^•er the body, instead of the 
full mane falling over a short coat on the 
back. In the points it will be observed 
thirty liave been allotted to 'coat and 
colour,' these being deemed of equal im- 
portance with ' head and ears,' and just 
as distinctive of the breed. Judging by 
points should n<.'\'er be adopted, as their 
only object is to exjilain to the novice the 
relative values. A white spot is included 
among the faults, but a few straggling white 
hairs are tolerable. Tlie one word ' foxey ' 
ser\-es to describe the head, and the skull 
must be wide and flat like other varieties 
of prick-eared canidcr. such as the Collie, 
Pomeranian, Arctic dogs, etc. An under- 
shot jaw is an intolerable blemish. The 
word ' full ' apjilied to the neck requires 
it to be thick and suggesti\-e of virility. 
The neck of tlie female is seldom so full 
as the male's, nor do the bitches carry as 
much mane as tlie dogs. The back of the 
Schipperke is described as straight, but it 
sliould round off at the rump, which should 



be rotund and full, guinea-pig-like. The 
continued straight line of a terrier's back 
is not desirable, but it w-ill frequently be 
found in specimens that have been docked. 
The ' tailless breed ' theor\' is a myth : 
none of the canida were originally tailless, 
but the regular removal of the stem for 
generations will cause any breed that is 
so operated upon to give birth to tailless 
pups. This has been the case with Schip- 
perkes. It is said that a docked dog can 
be told from one that has been bom tailless 
in this way ; when the docked animal is 
pleased, a slight movement at the end of the 
spine where the tail was cut off is discernible, 
but the naturally tailless dog swa\-s the 
whole of its hindquarters. The Belgian 
standard requires the legs to be ' fine,' and 
not have much bone. The bone of a terrier 
is only met \\-ith in coarse Schipperkes. 
As to size, it need only be noted that the 
maximum of the small size, viz., 12 lbs., is 
that generally preferred in England, as 
well as in Belgium. Further, it is only 
necessary to remark that the Schipperke is a 
dog of quality, of distinct characteristics, 
cobb\- in appearance, not long in the back, 
nor high on the leg ; the muzzle must not 
be weak and thin, nor short and blunt ; and, 
finally, he is not a prick-eared, black Nure- 
haired terrier." 

The popularity of the Schipperke in- 
creased so much in this country that not 
only did the two original clubs prosper, but 
it was considered expedient to form the 
Northern Schipperke Club, which was 
founded in 1905, and is also doing excellent 

The Schipperke's tail, or rather its absence, 
has been the cause of much discussion, and 
at one time gave rise to considerable acri- 
monious feeling amongst fanciers. On the 
introduction of this dog into Great Britain it 
arrived from abroad with the reputation of 
being a tailless breed, but whether Belgian 
owTiers accidentally conveyed that impres- 
sion or did it purposely to give the breed an 
additional distinction is difficult to say. 
Anyhow the Schipperke is no more " tail- 
less " than the old English Sheepdog. 

That is to say a larger number of individuals 
are bom without any caudal appendage or 
only a stump of a tail than in any other 
variety of dogs. 

The present writer was the first to draw 
attention to the — to say the least of it — - 
undesirable operation which has to be per- 
formed in order to give a Schipperke with 
a tail the appearance of having been bom 
tailless, and the deception thereby practised 
on the public. This resulted in a meeting 
of representatives of the Schipperke Club 
with a specially appointed sub-committee of 
the Kennel Club at which it was agreed upon 
to substitute and add to the description 
dealing with the tail the foUowing words : — 

" Tail if not naturally absent may be 
docked, and a stump of 2 inches is not 
objected to, but ' carving or gouging out ' 
is not permissible and shall disqualify." 

At various times it has been attempted 
to introduce Schipperkes other than black. 



In 1892 Mr. W. R. Temple proposed in 
the Schipperke Club (England) the admis- 
sion of chocolate colour to the standard of 
points, but it was rejected. However, at 
some recent shows classes for " other 
coloured " Schipperkes have been given, 
and some very t3'pical specimens of attrac- 
tive shades of red and fawn have been ex- 








" And hark ! and Iiark ! the dccp-inoiithcd bark 
Comes nigher still, and nigher ! 
Bursts on the path a dark Bloodhound, 
His tawnv muzzle tracked the ground, 
And his red eye shot fire." 

— "The Lay of the Last Mixstrel." 

THE Bloodhound was much used in 
olden times in hunting and in tiie 
pursuit of fugitives ; two services for 
which his remarkable acuteness of smell, his 
abihty to keep to the particular scent on 
which he is first laid, and the intelligence 
and pertinacity with which he follows up 
the trail, admirably fit hmi. The use and 
employment of these dogs date back into 
remote antiquity. We have it on the 
authority of Strabo that they were used 
against the Gauls, and we have certain 
knowledge that they were employed not 
only in the frequent feuds of the Scottish 
clans, and in the continuous border forays 
of those days, but also during the evei- 
recurring hostilities between England and 

Wallace and Bruce were frequently in 
danger from the Sleuth-hound, as it was 
then called, and many thrilling tales are 
told of their repeated escapes, and the 
" wily turns " by which the hound was 
thrown off the scent. Barbour tells how 
on one occasion the King waded a bow- 
shot down a brook and climbed a tree which 
overhung the water. The poet well de- 
scribes " the wavering of the Sleuth-hound 
to and fra," when it was thrown off the 

scent by the King's stratagem. Blind Harry 
the Minstrel describes how Wallace, after 
being worsted in a short skirmish, sought 
safetv in flight, closely pursued by the 
English with a Border Bloodhound : 

" In Gelderland, there was that bratchet bred 
Siker of scent to follow them that fled : 
So was she used in Eske and Liddlesdail, 
While she gat blood no fleeing might avail." 

To spill blood was the sure way to end the 
pursuit. The poet states that on this occa- 
sion \\'allace was accompanied by an Irish- 
man named Fawden or Fadzean, who after 
a while refused to proceed farther on the 
plea of fatigue. It was in ^•ain that \A'allace 
endeavoured to urge him on. Promises 
and threats were alike useless ; carry 
lum he could not ; to lea\-e him to betray 
his whereabouts was equally impossible ; 
so, yielding to the necessity of his hazardous 
condition, he struck off the fellow's head. 
Later, when the pursuers reached the scene 
of the tragedy, they found their dog by the 
dead body. 

" The sleuth stopped at Fawden, still she 
Nor farther would fra time she fund the 



Indeed, the very name of the dog calls up 
\-isions of feudal castles, with their trains 
of knights and warriors and all the stirring 
panorama of these brave days of old, when 
the onl}^ tenure of life, property, or goods 
was by the strong hand. In the stories 
of Border foravs. the Bloodhound constantlv 

St. Huberts, are supposed to have been 
brought by pilgrims from the Holy Land. 
Another larger breed, also known by the 
same name, were pure wlaite, and another 
kind were gre3'ish-red. The dogs of the 
present day are probably a blend of all these 


From a French Tapestry 0/ the Fifteenth Cenlury. Showing Bloodhmmis 0/ the period, and, alio, 

tn the background, a Hunting Dog in Annotir. 

appears in pursuit of enemies and " fol- 
lowing gear," and great was the renowTi of 
liim who 

" By wily turns and desperate bounds, 
Had baflaed Percy's best bloodhounds." 

This feudal dog is frequently pictured by 
the poet in his ballads and romances, ana 
in "The Lad}^ of the Lake" we find the 
breed again mentioned : 

" Two dogs of black St. Hubert's breed, 
Unmatched for courage, breath, and speed, 
Fast on his flNnng traces came. 
And aU but won the desperate game : 
For scarce a spear's length from his haunch 
Vindictive toiled the bloodhounds staunch." 

These famous black Bloodhounds, called 

During the French \\'ars of Henry VIII. 
Bloodliounds were regularly employed, as 
they were also by the Spaniards in ^le.xico 
and Peru. In the daj's of Queen Elizabeth, 
it is said, eight hundred Bloodhounds 
accompanied the forces of the Earl of Essex 
in suppressing • the Irish Rebellion. In 
later times the}^ became the terror of the 
deer stealer and the cattle lifter, and for 
this purpose were maintained b}^ the Earls of 
Buccleuch on their Border estates till late in 
the eighteenth century. So skilful were they 
that when one of them got fairly on the 
track of a fugitive his escape was aU but 

The Bloodhound, from the nobler pur- 
suit of heroes and knights, came in later 
years to perform the work of the more 



modem detecti^•e ; but in this also his 
services were in time superseded by the 
justice's warrant and the pohce oiiftcer. \\'e 
find it recorded about 1805, however, that 
" the Thrapston Association for the Pre- 
vention of Felons in Northamptonshire 
ha\-e provided and trained a Bloodhound 
for the detection of sheep-stealers." 

To demonstrate the capabilities of the 
dog, a day was appointed for the public 
trial. The man he was intended to hunt 
started in the presence of a great crowd of 
people about ten o'clock in the morning. 
An hour later the dog was slipped, and 
after a chase of an hour and a lialf with a 
very indifferent scent, the hound ran up 
to the tree in which he had taken refuge, 
at a distance of fifteen miles from the 
place of starting. " to the admiration and 
perfect satisfaction," to quote the words 
of a contemporary account, " of tlie ^"ery 
great number assembled upon the occa- 

The Cuban Bloodhound, formerly em- 
ployed in tracking runaway sla\-es in 
Jamaica and the slave-holding states of 
America, is of Spanish descent, and differs 
largely from the true Bloodhound. It is 
believed to be a descendant of the Mastiff, 
crossed perhaps with the Bulldog, and is 
inferior to the true Bloodhound in e\-ery 
respect save that of ferocity. It has been 
described as equal to the Mastiff in bulk, 
to the Bulldog in courage, to the Blood- 
hound in scent, and to the Grej-hound in 

The reputation it obtained for sagacity 
and fierceness in the capture of runaway 
slaves, and the cruelties attributed to it 
in connection with the suppression of the 
various negro risings, especially that of 
the Maroons, have given the animal an 
evil repute, which more probably should 
attach to those who made the animal's 
courage and sagacity a means for the gratifi- 
cation of their own revolting cruelty of 
disposition. It lias been justly remarked 
that if entire credence be given to the de- 
scription that was transmitted through 
the country of this extraordinary animal, 
it might be supposed that the Spaniards 

had obtained the ancient and genuine breed 
of Cerberus himself. 

From all accounts their appearance was 
so terrifying that on their arrival at Mon- 
tego Bay, the people, we are told, shut 
themselves in their houses lest the animals 
should break away from their keepers as 
they passed through the streets. " The 
doors were shut, not a negro ventured to 
stir out, as the muzzled dogs, ferociously 
making at every object and dragging for- 
ward their keepers, who with difficulty 
held them in with hea\v. rattling chains, 
proceeded onward." Shortly afterward? 
General \\'alpole, the Commander-in-Chief, 
ordered the dogs to parade before him- 
The scene which followed is thus de- 
scribed : — 

" The Spaniards appeared at the end 
of a gentle acclivity, drawn out in line 
containing upwards of forty men with their 
dogs in front, unmuzzled and held by 
cotton ropes. On receiving the command 
to fire, the men discharged their weapons 
and ad\'anccd as upon a real attack. This 
was intended to ascertain what effect would 
be produced on the dogs if engaged under 
a fire of the Maroons. The \"olley was no 
sooner discharged than tlic dogs rushed 
forward with the greatest fury, amid the 
shouts of the Spaniards, who were dragged 
along by them with irresistible force. 
Some of the dogs, maddened by the shout 
of attack while held back by the ropes, 
seized the stocks of the guns in the hands 
of their keepers, and tore pieces out of 
them. Their impetuosity was so great 
that tlu'\- were with difficulty stopped 
before they reached the General, who found 
it necessary to get quickly into his car- 
riage, and, if the most strenuous exertions 
had not been made to stop them, they 
would most certainly ha\-e seized upon his 

The impression created by tliis display 
had immediate consequences and far-reach- 
ing effects. On January 14th General Wal- 
pole advanced, with his Spanish dogs in 
the rear. Tiieir fame, liowever, had reached 
the Maroons, and the force had penetrated 
but a short distance into the woods, when 



a deputation arrived from the insurgents 
begging for merc\-, and soon after between 
two and three hundred of them surren- 
dered, on no other condition than a promise 
of their lives. 

" It is pleasing to obser\"e," remarks 
the historian, " that after the dogs arrived 
in the island not a drop of blood was spilt." 

Coming again to this country, we find 
the Bloodliound used from time to time 
in pursuit of poachers and criminals, and 

prisons has been offered a working hound 
for nothing, the authorities, have refused 
to consider the question or give the hound 
a trial. 

The following account of the Bloodhoimd 
trials held in the district of West Wj-combe, 
\vritten by the late Mr. G. R. Krehl, editor 
of The Illustrated Kennel News, gives one 
a good idea of such a meeting : — 

" It was a foggy morning, but about 10.30 
o'clock the fog lifted, and the runner went to 


in many instances the game reco\ered 
and the man arrested. 

Unfortunately, in country districts one 
often finds a great deal of prejudice exist- 
ing against the Bloodliound. To the writer's 
personal knowledge, in one Sussex \-iIIage 
the yokek firmly belie\-e that Bloodliounds 
would attack, probably devour, any chil- 
dren that came in their way, and that once 
ha\-ing smelt blood they were no more 
to be trusted than an escaped tiger. One 
owner, during his first si.x months' resi- 
dence, had continuallj' to be on the look- 
out for poisoned meat. Perhaps it is only 
fair to say that this myth was not con- 
tradicted but encouraged by a large circle 
of poachers living in the neighbourhood. 

There is no doubt that the police in 
country districts, and at our convict prisons, 
could use Bloodhounds to advantage ; but 
public sentiment is decidedly against the 
idea, and although one of his Majesty's 

lay the first trail, .\lmost the entire line could 
be followed without the use of glasses. It was 
an ideal course on the far side of Radnage 
Valley, and from a 140-acre field most of the 
run could be seen without lea\-ing the farm 
wagon, which formed a good grand stand. 
According to the conditions of the trials, a line 
of three miles on scent at least an hour cold 
had to be run, and the hounds were hunted 
singhr, Mrs. Litkie, winning the toss, electing 
to run Rufus first. By this time the sun was 
high, and it was blazing hot ; and, as there was 
no shade on the side of the valley selected for 
the run, scent was not expected to be \ery 
good. Collett worked the hound, Mr. Edgar 
Farman (mounted) following as judge. For a 
start Rufus cast very prettily, and, ha\ing 
gained the line, gave tongue and W'ent up the 
hill at a fair pace. Gibbs, it ought to be ex- 
plained, had mapped out the course with flags, 
so that we could see how the line was kept to. 
Halfway up the line the hound was at fault, 
but only momentarily, and, casting rather 
wide, he was speedily on terms again, and went 



off to the left, hunting in the most approved 
fashion and at a good pace. The ground here 
is all arable land ; but on reaching roots on 
the crest of the hill, scent was better, and the 
hound very quickly came into the open again, 
but was at fault on a strip of plough. Not far 


RepwJucal hum a Dm-.Ans on ]\\.vd by Ge rge Eail. 

away a group of villagers were watching the 
sport, and close to the line a woman was stand- 
ing ; but Rufus paid no heed to either, and 
went on hunting every inch of the line until 
reaching the outside boundary, clearly defined 
bv one of Gibbs' white flags. Here he came 
to his first serious check, being out of view 
for some minutes, in a wood. On coming mto 
sight he ran heel for a distance ; but, en- 
couraged by Collett, he at length regained the 
line, and rattling down into the valley, where 
scent was warmer than on the higher ground, 
he ran into his quarry in exactly one hour 
and ten minutes — really an excellent per- 

" On the second day scenting conditions 
seemed perfect ; but, judging by the way 
Blazer shaped on being unleashed, the ground 
was holding scent no better than was the case 
yesterday. Casting round in pretty style, he 
was quickly on the line, and by slow hunting 
he reached the point at which Rufus was first 
at fault on the previous day in twenty minutes 
— capital time, everything taken into con- 
sideration. The light plough proved no ob- 
stacle to Blazer, and, keeping up a nice pace. 

but hunting perfectly mute, he reached the 
place where the Radnage villagers were as- 
sembled. He passed these without the least 
hesitancv, but met a much greater check in the 
shape of a flock of sheep, which had fouled 
the ground after the runner had passed. This 
was awkward, and for 
a time the obstacle 
seemed a fatal one ; 
but, allowed plenty of 
liberty. Blazer took up 
a Ime and carried it 
to the end, making a 
beautiful point by round- 
ing a flag very closely, 
and running down his 
quarry in fifty minutes 
— really a capital per- 
formance. It was rather 
curious, by the way, that, 
like Rufus, who ran prac- 
tically the same time on 
the previous day. Blazer 
^ZzT^ went on a voyage of dis- 

covery into the coppice 
to the right of the turn- 
ing flag. We would have 
given a trifle to have had 
time to make personal 
investigations into that cojipice. There was 
apparently somethmg attractive to the Blood- 

Half a century ago the BloocDiound \\'as 
so little esteemed in this country that the 
breed was confined to the kennels of a very 
few owners ; but the institution of dog 
shows induced these owners to bring their 
hounds into public exhibition, when it 
was seen that, like the Mastiff, the Blood- 
hound claimed the advantage of having 
many \'enerable ancestral trees to branch 
from. At the first Birmingham show, in 
i860. Lord Bagot brought out a team from 
a strain which had been in his lordship's 
family for two centuries, and at the same 
e.xhibition there was entered probably one 
of the best Bloodhounds ever seen, in Mr. 
T. A. Jenning's Druid. Known now as 
" Old " Druid, this dog was got by Lord 
Favensham's Raglan out of Baron Roths- 
child's historic bitch Fur}^ and his blood 
goes dowTi in collateral \-eins through Mr. 
L. G. Morrel's Margrave, Prince Albert 




Solm's Druid, and ]\Ir. Edwin Brougli's 
N'apier into tlie pedigrees of many of the 
celebrated hounds of the present day. 

" Druid '" was a name giwn with per- 
plexing frequency to Bloodhounds during 
the succeeding decade, and 'Sir. Jenning's 
dog, who was exported int(j France when 


From a by l. Burlon lUiibiy. 

just in his prime, is not to be confounded 
with Colonel Cowen's Druid, a champion of 
champions, bred in i8b2, who was e\en 
more remarkable as a sire than his earlier 
namesake. \\'ith the exception of Leo 
and Major, Old Druid had no son of suffi- 
cient character to continue his reputation. 
Colonel Cowen's hound, on the other hand, 
had among his immediate progeny such 
famous represent ati\-es of the breed as 
Draco, Dingle, Dauntless, Hilda, Daphne, 
Mr. Wright's Druid, and Mr. C. E. Holford's 
Regent. Of thest- the last-named was the 
most notable, as, like his sire. Regent took 
first jM'izes year after year at both Bir- 
mingham and the Crystal Palace. The Rey. 
Thomas Pearce, a yery good judge of the 
breed, considered him absolutely faultless. 

Another famous Druid — grandsire of 
Colonel Cowen's hound of the name — was 
owned by the Hon. Grantley Berlceley. 
This typical dog was unsurpassed in his time, 
and his talent in following a line of scent 
was astonishing. His only blemish was one 
of character ; for, although usually as good- 
tempered as most of the breed are, he was 
easily aroused to uncontrollable fits of 
sayage anger. 

Her late ]\Iajesty Queen Victoria at 
\arious times possessed one or more fine 
specimens of the Bloodhound, procured for 
her by Sir Edwin Landseer, and a capital 
hound from the Home Park Kennels at 
Windsor was exhibited at the London Show 
in 1869, the judge on the occasion being 
the Rev. Thomas Pearce, afterwards known 
as " Idstone." Landseer was especially 
fond of painting the majestic Bloodhound, 
.ind he usually selected good models for 
his studies. The model for the hound in 
his well-known picture, " Dignity and Im- 
j>udence," was Grafton, who was a collateral 
relati\'e of Captain J. W. Clayton's cele- 
brated Luath XL 

This last-named dog, bred by the Rev. 
G. Straton in 1874, by Luath X. out of 
Bran VIIL, is more particularly remem- 
bered for his magnificent and noble head. 
In colour he was a pale tan. His legs were 
not of the best and straightest, and he was 
unfortunate in ha\-ing a Dudley nose. 
These faults handicapped him severely ia 
competition with such a well-shaped speci- 
men as his contemporary Don (owned by 
]\rrs. Hmnphries) ; but he was most suc- 
cessful at stud, and his grandly developed 
head characteristics were transmitted with 
un\-arying certainty to his offspring. His 
mating with Mr. E. Bird's Juno H. pro- 
duced Tarquin, thought by many to have 
been the most perfect Bloodhound puppy 
e\'er seen. Unfortunately, Tarquin died 
before his promise could be realised. A 
more memorable litter was bred from 
Luath to Mr. Nichols' Restless, a grand- 
daughter of Mr. Ray's Roswell. It com- 
prised Napier, Nimrod, Diana, and Lawyer, 
besides Belladonna and Mr. Brough's Bravo ; 
all winners at first class shows. 



Mr. Re\Tiold Ray's Roswell, a dog of Brough is still a keen spectator at the ring 

faultless qualit\% was of unrecorded pedi- side, and promises one day again to get 

gree ; but he became the progenitor of many together a kennel. The entries at shows 

champions who have continued the merit and field trials indicate that the breed is 

of his strain in a more marked degree than not making the progress that one could 

is the case with almost any other Blood- wish, and it is hoped that before long he 

may fulfil his promise. 

Mrs. G. A. Oliphant, of Shrewton, 
Wilts, whose kennels include Ch. Chatley 

hound sire in the stud book. 

Four superlative Bloodhounds of the past 
stand out in unmistakable eminence as 
the founders of recog- 
nised strains. The}' are 
Mr. Jenning's d Druid, 
Colonel Cowen's Druid, 
Mr. Revnold Ray's Ros- 
well, and Captain Clay- 
ton's Luath XI. ; and the 
owTier of a Bloodhound 
which can be traced back 
in direct line of descent 
to any one of these four 
patriarchs mav pride 
himself upon possessing 
a dog of unimpeachable 

Among breeders witliin 
recent years Mr. Edwin 
Brough, of Scarborough, 
is to be regarded as the 
most experienced and suc- 
cessful. No record of the 
breed would be complete 
without some acknowledg- 
ment of the great ser\-ices he has rendered to Blazer and Chatley Beaufort, has of late 
it. Bloodhounds of the correct type would years been a keen supporter of the breed, 
to-day have been very few and far between Mrs. Oliphant, who is the president of the 
if it had not been for his enthusiasm and ladies' branch of the Kennel Club, is a 
patient breeding. Reference has already great belie\-er in hounds being workers 
been made to the kennel of Mr. Nichols, first and show hounds second, and her 
and it was just as Mr. Nichols was giving large kennels have produced many hounds 
up the breed that ]Mr. Brough came into it. of a robust type and of good size and 
During several years Mr. Brough bred and 
produced many hounds, which all bore 
the stamp of his ideal, and there is no 
doubt that for all-round quality his kennel 
stands first in the history of the Blood- 
hound. His most successful cross was, per- 
haps, Beckford and Bianca, and one has 
only to mention such hounds as Burgundy, 
Babbo, Benedicta, and Bardolph to recall Wright, Mr. A. Croxton Smith, Dr. C. C. 
the finest team of Bloodhounds that has Garfit, Dr. Semmence, and Mrs. C. Ashton 
ever been benched. Fortunately, Mr. Cross, to mention only a few owners and 



quality. There is no doubt that as far 
as hunting is concerned at the present 
moment this kennel stands easily first. 
But admirable Bloodhounds have also 
given distinction to the kennels of ilr. 
S. H. Mangin, Dr. Sidney Turner, ^Ir. 
Mark Beaufoy, Mr. F. W. Cousens, Mr. 
A. O. Mudie, Lord Decies, Mr. Hood 



breeders who lia^-e given attention to tliis 
noble race of dog. ;\Ir. ^ilangin was the 
breeder of Ch. Hordle Hercules, a dog 
of distinguished quality, and his pretix 
is familiar to all admirers of the Blood- 
Iiound. Hercules was the sire of tlie Cham- 
pion bitch, Mirables Mischief, and many 
anotlier worthy representative of tlie breed. 
The Duclicss of Dunsborough, another 

as with philosophic thought, his flews deep 
and square, his dewlap loosely hanging, 
his wliok' expression that of an ancient 
sphinx. He is surprisingly active and of 
enduring strength. At tracking the clean 
boot he justifies the reputation of his keen- 
scented breed, and his Jiardy constitution 
makes liim imper\-ious to all pliysical ills. 
Probably he gets his hardiness from Wei- 





.^J^hHT .^ j^ 







j /». , 








^ ^ 









bitcli who won championship honours, was 
also (if ;\Ir. .Alangin's breeding. Mr. Croxton 
Smith has the distinction of ha\'ing bred, 
amongst many other excellent hounds, 
Cli. Hengist, now tlie treasured property 
of Dr. C. C. Ciarfit, of Kirby :\Iuxloe. 

Hengist is a magnificent upstanding 
black-and-tan li(.)und, twenty-seven inches 
in heiglit at tlie shoulder, with legs like 
oak saplings for strength and firmness of 
bone and muscle and sinew. His head is 
significant of all that is aimed at in Blood- 
hovmd type, high peaked and ponderous, 
with low-set ears pendulous as a chancel- 
lor's wig. liis sombre, inscrutable eves look- 
ing out from their cavernous deptlis in 
sage contem])lation, his forehead furrowed 

fare, his dam. wliose own dam, Ch. 
Whafs Wanted, was a result of :\Ir. Mark 
Beaufo\-"s outcross through Babylone, a 
Frencli hound deri\ed from crossing a 
Bloodhound with a W'udee and again cross- 
ing with a St. Hubert. On his sire Pan- 
ther's side Hengist is descended directly 
from Mr. Ray's Roswell, and he hits back 
to tiie famous Luath XI. — Restless litter. 
Restless herself was great-granddaughter 
of Mr. Cowen's Druid ; wliile Juno, who 
also is in Hengist's pedigree, was four 
generations removed from Mr. Jenning's 
Old Druid. Dr. Garfit's dog can therefore 
be traced back in descent from all four of 
the great Bloodhounds of the past, who are 
recognised as the founders of the best strains. 



In dealing with the rearing and breeding but all young animals do far better wlien 
of Bloodhounds, we will imagine that the they are kept reasonably warm. If they 
beginner selects a couple of puppies from are always shivering and cold, they will not 
different strains with which to start his grow and do not enjoy those dead sleeps 

which overtake an active puppy after he 
has been running about for some hours. 

A dry, light soil is the best on which to 
rear puppies. When no paddock is avail- 
able, or is only to be had on clay soil, 
during the winter a good big stable 3'ard or 
the run of the garden is the best thing 
for pups. Many gardeners object, but in 
the winter there are parts of the garden 
which (if one has not a big enough yard) 
will not be very much damaged by the 




kennels. Before getting his puppies home 
he will naturally provide accommodation 
for them, and nothing is better than a 
good airy loose box or stall, with a bench 
raised some inches above the floor and 
with a good board in front of it to keep 
off the floor draught. Of course, if this is 
not possible, Spratt or some other well- 
known maker will supply a good house 
with windows and ventilation for about 
£io, in which case, instead of the bench, 
I would recommend a sort of low box on 
four feet, which can be easily moved and 
in which the puppy can jump easily and 
lie snugly out of all draughts ; but this 

should not be too high, so that there is gambols of a two months' old puppy. The 
no strain or jar on his front legs as he jumps exercise a pup gets at play with another 
in and out. dog is the very best he can have. 

One does not want to coddle puppies. Regular exercise is not necessary until 






the dog is at least six months old. Per- 
haps the stableman or gardener will let 
the pupp3' run about with him during the 
da}', or trot behind him when he goes to 
his meals if he does not live far away. 
This form of exercise will bring on a puppy 
as well as anything. 

^^'hen a puppy is from six to eight weeks 
old he should have four good meals a day. 
Brown bread and milk in the morning, some 
chopped meat about noon, rodnim about 
four o'clock, and chopped raw or cooked 
meat again at night. Little and often is 
a good rule with Bloodhounds. Where 
size is required, raw meat should certainly 
form half the puppy's diet. Added to 
this, if you wish to do everything to bring 
your puj^py on well, chemical food and 
cod-liver oil — a tablespoonful every day — 
will do a lot to help him on, especially as 
regards bone. 

When the puppv is si.x months old this 
diet can be reduced to three meals a day, 
omitting the bread and milk, and directly 
his teeth are strong enough let him have 
broken dogs' biscuits and sometmies a 
good bone with a little meat on it in place 
of one of the meat meals. At ten months 
old. three Spratt's biscuits at twelve o'clock, 
and ij lb. of raw or cooked meat with a 
little rodnim mixed in (if bulk is wanted) 
about seven o'clock should be sufficient. 

The dog should be groomed every day — 
first with a dandy brush to get any mud 
off, then with a hand-glove, and finally 
run over with a wash-leather. The eyes 
should be sponged and the ears constantly 
looked at, and if any sign of canker or ear 
trouble appears inside the ear, powdered 
boracic acid should be dredged into the 

Seven out of ten Bloodhounds fall victims 
to distemper, and great care should be 
taken to deal with it from the very first. 
A piece of blanket should be taken, two 
holes made in it, the front feet placed in 
the holes, and then the blanket should be 
drawn round the chest and over the back 
and ribs and sewn up tightly, and the 
patient jiut in a room temjierature of 60° 
with plenty of fresh air. 

As a rule, there is not much danger of 
infection, except after shows, and those 
who go in for showing should certainly 
wash their dogs' flews and nostrils out well 
with disinfectant and water, and as a pre- 
cautionary measure give them about three 
Pearson's antiseptic capsules twice a day 
during the show and for some time after- 
wards. When the dogs return from the 
show they should be given a dose of salts 
with their food. 

If a puppy is intended for the show ring, 
as soon as he begins to go on a lead he should 
be taught to stand properly. If he is 
allowed to grow up without having learned 
this, it will be difficult to make him show- 
well unless he is what is termed " a natural 
shower." but so many Bloodhounds arc 
shy that this is exceptional. 

\\'hen puppies are six months old they 
should begin to have short lessons in track- 
ing. Someone they know should run on, 
say ai-ross a field. perha]5s hiding behind 
a fence some two or three hundred yards 
away, and then the j>up]iies should be al- 
lowed to follow him. Then when they come 
up to him a fuss should be made of them, 
and they should be given a small piece of 
meat. The distance can be increased in a 
day or two, ;ind the runner can leave little 
sticks with pieces of paper in the top along 
his line, so that the puppies can be made to 
work the proper track. If a puppy is tired, 
or does not seem keen, take him home and 
bring him out another day ; it is no good 
trying to make him work when he feels 

In the writer's opinion, every show hound 
should also be a working hound ; but for 
the show ring road exercise is necessary to 
bring the hound well up on his feet, and a 
judicious combination of road exercise and 
field work is advisable. 

The description of a perfect type of dog, 
as defined by the Association of Bloodhound 
Breeders, is as follows : — 

I. General Character.— The Bloodhound pos- 
sesses, in a most marked degree, every point and 
characteristic of those dogs which hunt together 
by scent (Sagaces). He is very powerful and 
stands over more ground than is usual with 



hounds of other breeds. The skin is thin to the 
touch and extremely loose, this being more espe- 
cially noticeable about the head and neck, where 
it hangs in deep folds. 

2. Height. — The mean average height of adult 
dogs is 26 inches and of adult bitches 24 inches. 
Dogs usually vary from 25 inches to 27 inches 
and bitches from 23 inches to 25 inches ; but in 
either case the greater height is to be preferred, 
provided that character and qualit}" are also 

3. Weight. — The mean average weight of adult 
dogs in fair condition is 90 pounds and of adult 
bitches 80 pounds. Dogs attain the w-eight of 
no pounds, bitches 100 pounds. The greater 
weights are to be preferred, provided (as in the 
case of height) that quality and proportion are 
also combined. 

4. Expression. — The expression is noble and 
dignified and characterised bj- solemnity, wisdom 
and power. 

5. Temperament. — In temperament he is ex- 
tremely atfectionate. quarrelsome neither with 
companions nor with other dogs. His nature is 
somewhat shy, and equally sensitive to kindness 
or correction by his master. 

6. Head. — ^The head is narrow in proportion to 
its eng';h and long Ln proportion to the body, 
tapering but slightly from the temples to the end 
of the muzzle thus (when viewed from abo\e and 
in front) having the appearance of being flattened 
at the sides and of being nearly equal in width 
throughout its entire length. In profile the 
upper outline of the skull is nearly in the same 
plane as that of the foreface. The length from 
end of nose to stop (midway between the eyes) 
should be not less than that from stop to back 
of occipital protuberance (peak). The entire 
length of head rom the posterior part of the 
occipital protuberance to the end of the muzzle 
should be 12 inches, or more, in dogs, and 11 
inches, or more, in bitches. 

7. Skull. — The skull is long and narrow-, with 
the occipital peak ven,- pronounced. The brows 
are not prominent, although, owing to the deep-set 
eyes, they may have that appearance. 

8. Foreface. — -The foreface is long, deep, and of 
even width throughout, with square outline when 
seen in profile. 

9. Eyes. — The eyes are deeply sunk in the orbits, 
the lids assuming a lozenge or diamond shape, in 
consequence of the lower hds being dragged down 
and everted by the heavy flews. The eyes cor- 
respond with the general tone of colour of the 
animal, varying from deep hazel to yellow. The 
hazel colour is, however, to be preferred, although 
verj' seldom seen in red-and-tan hounds. 

10. Ears. — The ears are thui and soft to the 
touch, extremely long, set very low, and fall in 
graceful folds, the lower parts curUng inwards 
and backwards. 

11. Wrinkle. — The head is furnished with an 
amount of loose skin which in nearly every 
position appears superabundant, but more par- 
ticularly so when the head is carried low ; the 
skin then falls into loose, pendulous ridges and 
folds, especially over the forehead and sides of 
the face. 

12. Nostrils. — The nostrils are large and open. 

13. Lips, Flews, and Dewlap. — In front 
the lips fall squarely, making a right-angle with 
the upper Une of the foreface, whilst behind they 
form deep, hanging flews, and, being continued 
into the pendent folds of loose skin about the 
neck, constitute the dewlap, which is very pro- 
nounced. These characters are found, though 
in a less degree, in the bitch. 


From the Painting by Sir E. LaniUeer, R.A., 
rri the Sational Gallery. 

14. Neck, Shoulders, Jind Chest. — The neck 
is long, the shoulders muscular and well sloped 
backwards ; the ribs are well sprung, and the 
chest w-ell let down between the forelegs, forming 
a deep keel. 

15. Legs and Feet. — The forelegs are straight 
and large in bone, with elbows squarely set ; 
the feet strong and well knuckled up ; the thighs 
and second thighs (gaskins) are very muscular ;' 
the hocks well bent and let down and squarely 

16. Back and Loins. — The back and loins are 
strong, the latter deep and slightly arched. 

17. Stern. — The stem is long and tapering and 
set on rather high, with a moderate amount of 
hair underneath. 

18. Gait. — The gait is elastic, swinging, and 
free — the stern being carried high, but not too 
much curled over the back. 

19. Colour. — The colours are black-and-tan, 
red-and-tan. and tawny — the darker colours 
being sometimes interspersed with lighter or 
badger-coloured hair and sometimes flecked with 
white. A small amount of white is permissible on 
chest, feet, and tip of stem. 

Photograph hy C. KchI, \Vishn;i'. 



" Mv hiniihh arc Jircd out nf the Spartan /;iiiiL 
So fliw'ii. so saiitird ; and /heir heads are 

Willi cars that sK'cef> a'a'av the inornin^ deic ; 
Crook-knee' d. and den'-lapp'd iit;c 'I liessalian 

bulls ; 

THE OttLTliiiund is a descend uit (if the 
old Southern Hound, and there is 
reason t(j behew that all hounds 
hunting their quarr\' b\' n<.ise had a similar 
source. Why the breed was tirst called 
tiie Southern Hmurd, or when his use 
became practical in (ireat Britain, must 
hv subjects of conjecture ; but tliat tliere 
was a hound good enougli to liold a line 
for many hours is accredited in history 
that goes \-ery far back into past cen- 
turies. Tile hound retjuired three centu- 
ries ago e\en was all the better esteemed 
for being slow .md unswerving on a line 
of scent, and in many parts of the King- 
dom, up to witliin half that period, the 
so-called Southern Hound had been especi- 
ally employed. In Devonshire and Wales 
the last sign of him in hispurit\'was perhaps 

S/tJ'ci' ill pursuit, but iiialch'J in mouth like 

Each under each. A cry more tuneable 
Mas never halloo'd to, nor eheer'd with horn, 
In Crete, in Sparta, nor in Thessaly : 
Judge, when vou hear." 

— ■' A .MiDsi 'MNHiK Night's Dream." 

wlien Captain Hopwood hunted a small pack 
of hounds \'er\' similar in character on the 
fitch or pole-cat ; the modus operandi being 
to lind the foraging grounds of the animal, 
and tlien on a line that might be two day> 
old hunt him to his lair, often enough ten 
or twehe miles off. 

When tliis sort of hunting disappeared, 
and impro\'ed ideas of fox-hunting came 
into \'ogue, there was nothing left for the 
Southern Hound to do but to hunt the 
otter. He may ha\-e done this before at 
\arious periods, but history rather tends 
to show that otter-hunting was originally 
associated with a mixed pack, and some 
of Sir \\'.dter Scott's pages seem to 
indicate tliat the Dandie Dinmont and 
kindred Scottish terriers had a good 
deal to do with the sport. It is more 



than, probable that the rough-coated terrier 
is identical with the now recognised Otter- 
hound as an offshoot of the Southern Hound ; 
but be that as it may, there has been a 
special breed of Otterhound for the last 

the ri\-er, and fish down and back. He is 
then more accessible, and it is under such 
conditions that the best sport is obtained. 
But still these animals are wrapt in won- 
drous mystery. The Rev. C. Da\ies, who 

eighty years, verj' carefully bred and gradu- wrote in The New Sporting Magazi'.ie under 
aUv much improved in point of appear- the nomme de guerre of " Gelert," in giving 
ance. They are beautiful hounds to-day, his experience of South Devon otter-hunt- 
with heads as tvpical as those of Blood- ing early in the 'forties, relates that he 
hounds, legs and feet 
that would do for Fox- 
hounds, a unique coat 
of their own, and they 
are exactly suitable for 
hunting the otter, as 
everx^one knows who 
has had the enjo\'ment 
of a day's sport on 
river cw brook. 

The ver}^ existence of 
the otter is a mystery. 
He seldom allows him- 
self to be seen. There 
is a cunning about the 
animal that induces 
him to li\-e far away 
from the haunts of 
man, and to occupy 
two totally different 
points of vantage, as 
it were, in as many 
hours. He ma\^ live in 
a burrow on a cliff 
b}- the sea, and his fishing exploits may 
extend seven or eight miles up a river, 
generally in the hours nearest midnight. 
A stream in South Devon defied whole 
generations of otter hunters, or perhaps, 
more properly speaking, the otters did. No 
matter how early in the morning the hunt 
was started, there would be a hot trail up 
stream, hounds throwing their tongues 
and dashing from bank to bank, through 
pools, over clitters of rocks, and often 
landing on meadow-side ; but there would 
be no otter, and then the hunt would turn 


From " The Sportsman's CMnsi:' By P. Reinagte, R.A. 

quite astonished old resident farmers when 
he first commenced hunting near their 
homesteads. They asked him what he 
was doing. He replied that he was " otter- 
hunting," and they laughed, and told 
him they had never heard of such an 
animal ; and yet he must have killed over 
fifty in the ne.xt five years within a mile of 
them, and of course otters had always 
been there. It was the reverend gentle- 
man's surmise, therefore, that the otter in- 
habits nearly every river in Great Britain, 
but that there is no knowing his where- 

and hounds would revel on a burning scent abouts until he is regularly hunted . 

down stream, the quarry meanwhile sleep- There are different opinions on the sub- 

ing in his sea-girt holt perfectly safe from ject as to how the otter should be hunted, 

any interference. Then, again, the otter and the kind of hound best suited for 

may live on the moorside at the head of the sport. Mr. Davies leant towards the 



modern Foxhound, and he had many dis- 
ciples holding the same views. They be- 
lieved in the dash of tlie Foxhound to 
keep the otter moving as soon as li'* was 
dislodged from his liolt, and it is certainly 
very grand to see a pack of Foxhounds 
swimming at really a great pace up stream 
and to hear their voices fan-ly echo amid 
the petty roar of waterfall or the bubbling 
of rapid stream. It is sport that can never 
be forgotten. Such was shown hv Mr. 



Fwm II I'ainting by George Earl. 

Davies, and later by ]\Ir. Trelawny's hounds, 
the latter bemg the Master of the Dartmoor 
countrv at the time ; and in tlie summer 
he hunted otter with fourteen or fifteen 
couples of his Foxhounds, and about one 
couple of rough Otterhounds (Cardigan 
being a notable one), and of course two or 
tliree terriers. The old squire would never 
admit, however, that the regular Otter- 
hound was as good as the Foxhound, which 
he would argue was better in every part 
of a hunt than Cardigan. Others differ 
partially from this view, and consider that 
Foxhounds will miss a good many otters 
in their over-anxiety to get forward. 

The Otterhound proper is very steady 
and methodical ; he feels for a trail on 
boulder or rock, and if he touches it he 

will throw his tongue just once or twice. 
The scent may be one or two days old ; but 
if fresher he repeats his own challenge, 
becomes full of intent, mo\-es a little up 
stream, crosses the ri\'er, back again per- 
haps, tells by his manner that the quarry 
is about ; and if the hound is a good one, 
and he is not hurried, he is sure to find, 
although it may be three or four miles from 
the starting point. Foxhounds might miss 
all this. The Otterhound, again, is the far 
better marker. The otter may be in some 
drain a couple of hundred yards away from 
the river, and his outlet may be at the 
rout of some old trees washed by the con- 
stant flow intii a deep refuge under water 
to the dejith of possibly four or five feet. 
Foxhounds may flash over such a holt, 
but the experienced Otterhound is always 
on the look-out for such places. He steadies 
himself as he swims that way, turns his 
held to the bank, is not quite sure, so lifts 
liimscif to the trunk of the tree bendint,' 
down to the water. The otter has landed 
there in the night, and a voice like thunder 
s.Lvs so. It is a find. The pack will be 
all there now, and the notes of delight, 
becoming savage, concern the otter so far 
that he will generally shift his quarters 
at this stage without the aid of the terrier. 
The tell-tale chain of bubbles is then seen, 
or the animal coming up to vent, and then 
the hunt is in all its fuUest excitement. He 
mav beat them, by slipping down stream, 
or into very deep water ; but, with good 
hounds and the right sort of men as the 
hunters, the odds are against the otter. 

There was one point upon which Squire 
Trelawny was very particular, and that was 
that the otter was not to be touched in any 
way, but left entirely to the hounds. li 
it came to his ears that one had been hit 
by a pole, nothing could well exceed his 
anger ; and this was in contrast to the old- 
fashioned ways of Scotland, of which there 
are pictures of the otter being held up on i 
barbed spear. 

The Dartmoor was always a very fair 
hunt, and it is so now, although for many 
years since detached from the fox-hunting 
establishment. It was in the hands at 



first of the late Mr. Gage Hodge, of Glaze- 
brook House, and afterwards of Major 
Green and :Mr. A. Pitman. 

There were three other otter hunts in 
De\onshire. notably ^Ir. Cheriton's, Mr. 
Xewtons, and Mr. CoUier's. Mr. Cheriton 
Inmted the pure-bred rough Otterhounds, 
and had some very good-looking ones. He 
started hunting the North Devon rivers 
about the year 1850, and continued to do 
so until early in the 
'seventies ; but the pack 
still retains lus name, 
and has now for its 
Master Mr. Arthur 
Blake Heineman. A 
late return gi\-es from 
ten to fifteen couples 
of hounds ; about half 
pure Otterhounds and 
half Foxhounds. Mr. 
Newton's hunt became 
the Tetcot after that 
gentleman retired ; 
while on Major Green's 
retirement in 1902 the 
Dartmoor went into 
committee, and is so 
managed at present 
imder the Mastership of 

must be allowed for the exposure and hard 
work that falls to the lot of an Otterhound 
in respect to coat. The Hon. Geoft'rey 
Hill's hounds were in perfect command : 
a wave of his hand was enough to bring 
them all to any point he wanted, and he 
was remarkably quiet. This may be essen- 
tial, as the otter is particularly wary and 
verv easily disturbed. 

It was a narrow, but deep brook, and 


Mr. A.J. Pitman, of the 
^lanor House, Huish. 

The greatest otter 
hunter of the last 
century maj' have been the Hon. Geoffrey 
Hill, a 3'ounger brother of the late Lord 
Hill. A powerful athlete of over six feet. 
Major Hill was an ideal sportsman in ap- 
pearance, and he was noted for the long 
distances he would travel on foot with his 
hounds. They were mostly of the pure 
rough sort, not very big ; the dogs he 
reckoned at about 23J inches, bitches 22 : 
beautiful Bloodhound type of heads, coats 
of thick, hard hair, big in ribs and bones, 
and good legs and feet. In seeing them at 
a meet it was noticeable that some were 
much shorter in their coats than others — 
not shorter, however, than the coat of an 
Irish Terrier. Possibly these ma}' have 
been cross-bred. Something, however. 


hounds flew from side to side. They did 
not appear to miss an inch of ground ; 
e\'erything was examined, and that an 
otter could be missed seemed impossible. 
Presently, as two streams met, there was 
a waving of stems, a voice gi^"ing forth, and 
then another to swell into a big chorus in 
a few minutes, and the trail was found. 
They still hunted steadily. The otter might 
move now at any second ; but there was 
no certaint}' that he would, and the hounds 
were hanging on his trail, probably t\\el\-e 
hours old, as if glued to him. ilajor Hill 
said very little to them, but his experienced 
eye saw where the real scene of action lay : 
a bit of a swamp, where several streams 
united, and do\\Ti in a gorge under some 



trees where some deep back-water had col- 
lected, looked the ideal place for an otter's 
holt. A hollow below pro\-ed tJiat the 
wily one had slipped through ; but the 
hounds forced him back to the holt, and 
each stream was tried in turn, but his re- 
lentless followers sliowed him no mercy, 
and in three parts of an hour from the time 
he left tlie holt thev jnilled him down, 
a big dog otter. 

Major Hill seldom exhibited his hounds. 
They were seen now and then at Birming- 
ham ; but, hunting as hard as they did 
through Shropshire, Staffordshire, Cheshire, 
and into Wales, where they got their best 
water, there was not much time for show- 
ing. Their famous Master has been dead 
now many years, but his pack is still going, 
and shows great sport as the Hawkstone 
under the Mastership of Mr. H. P. Wardell, 
the kennels being at Ludlow Racecourse, 

The leading pack in the Kingdom for 
the last sixty years, at any rate, has been 
the Carlisle when in the hands of Mr. J. C. 
Carrick, who was famous both for the sport 
he showed and for his breed of Otter- 
hound, so well represented at all tln' im- 
portant shows. Such hounds as Lottery, 
hrst at Birmingham some years back, and 
Lucifer were very typical specimens ; but 
of late years the entries of Otterhounds 
have not been wry niunerous at the great 
exhibitions, and this can well l)e explained 
by the fact that they are wanted in greater 
numbers for active ser\'ice, there being 
many more packs than formerly — in all, 
twenty-one for the United Kingdom. Be- 
sides those already mentioned, there are, 
for instance, the Bucks, which hunt tlu'ec 
days a week from Newport Pagnell on the 
rivers Ouse, Xene, Welland, Lo\'all, and 
(ileb ; ]\Ir. T. Wilkinson's, at Darlington ; 
and the West Cumberland at Cockermouth. 
In Ireland there is the Brookfield, with its 
headquarters in County Cork ; while in 
Wales there are the Pembroke and Carmar- 
then, the Rug, the Ynysfor, and Mr. Buck- 

The Crowhurst Otter Hunt hunts most 
of the ri\"ers in Sussex with sixteen couples 

of hounds, including seven couples of pure 
Otterhounds. The " Master " last season 
was Mrs. \\'alter Cheesman. The Esse.v 
have, appropriately enough, their kennels 
at \\'ater House Farm, Chelmsford. They 
hunt three days a week on the rivers of 
Essex and \\'est Suffolk, with a pack of 
abcnit eight couples of pure Otterhounds and 
a like number of Foxhounds. L. Rose, Esq., 
is the Master, and he hunts them him- 
self. The Culmstock, with kennels now 
at Ilminster, is a very old hunt, established 
and maintained for over fifty years by Mr. 
William P. Collier, who hunted his own 
hounds, and showed great sport on tile 
ri\-ers in Somersetshire and North and 
East l)e\on. The Master at the present 
time is J. H. Wyley, Esq., and he carries 
the horn himself. Mr. Hastings Clay hunts 
a pack from Chepstow, and shows a good 
deal of sport on many of the Welsh rivers, 
as also in tiloucestershire and Hereford- 
shire. Otter-hunting, really introduced into 
the New Forest by the Hon. Grantley 
Berkeley, is now continued in that district 
very successfully by Mr. Courtney Tracey, 
with about fifteen couples of pure and 
crossed hounds. The Northern Counties 
Hunt was established as recently as 1903, 
and up to the present the hounds have been 
drafts from the Culmstock, Hawkstone, 
Dumfriesshire, Mr. Thomas Robson's, and 
the Morpeth. They hunt the rivers over a 
^•ery wide country, as they find their sport 
on the Tweed and the Tyne in Northumber- 
land and go down to the Swale at Middle- 
iiam, Yorksiiire. Other packs have hunted 
these riwrs in the past, such as those be- 
longing to the well-known Mr. John Gallon, 
Major Browne — the great buyer of the Pol- 
timore Foxhounds — and Mr. T. L. Wilkin- 
son ; but they were not called the Northern 
Counties. They are now under the Master- 
ship of F. P. Barnett, Esq., of Whalton, 

Another pack to hunt other Yorkshire 
waters, mostly in the West Riding districts, 
is the \A'harfdale, with kennels at Adding- 
ton. The present hunt was only estab- 
lished in 1905, but there had been a Wharf- 
dale Otter Hunt Club, who invited certain 




hunts to their rivers. Now the wliole 
country is taken up, and that also which 
was formerly hunted by the famous Kendal 
Otterhounds. The pack at present com- 
prises twenty couples. Mr. W. Thompson 
is the Master, and they hunt three days a 

The two packs that appear to be most 
staunchly attached to the pure Otterhound 
are the Dumfriesshire and the East of 
Scotland. The former of these admits 
of nothing but sixteen couples of pure- 
bred Otterhduuds. The hunt was estali- 
lished in 1889, but not with such iiDuuds 
as are kennelled now by J. B. Bell Ir\-iue, 
Esq.. of Bankside, Lockerbie. They hunt 
all the rivers in the South of Scotland as 
far as those of Ayrshire, and by all accounts 
show excellent sport. It is e\-ident that 
the Dumfriessliire, as hunted now by the 
\'er\' well-known sportsman, Mr. \\'ils()n 
Da\-ids()u, are the typical (Jtterhounds 
shown between 1870 and 1880. by Mr. 
J. C. Carrick, the Hon. Geoffrey Hill, Mr. 
W. Tattersall, Mr. C. S. Coulson. and Mr. 
Forster. Mr. J. C. Carrick had three very 
good hounds in the "se\'enties, called 
Booser, Stanley, and the bitch Charmer. 
The two last were immensely admired when 
they took first prizes in their respecti\-e 
classes at Birmingham in 1876. In the 
following year there were good classes at 
the Alexandra Palace, when one of Mr. 
Carrick's called Royal won. The mantle 
of .Mr. J. C. Carrick has probably fallen on 
the Dumfriesshire, as in October, 1906, at 
the Crystal Palace show, the entries were 
confined to the kennel in question with one 
exception — ^Ir. J. H. Stocker's Dauntless 
Lady. The Dumfriesshire had two couples 
entered in the dog class — namely, Thun- 
derer, Stormer, Bruiser, and Bachelor, all 
home-bred examples, and likewise the t\\-(.) 
bitches Thrifty and Darling, the first by 
Stanley out of Truthful, the other by the 
same sire out of Doubtful. The portrait 
on p. 154 is that of Swimmer, shown some 
years back by Mr. J. C. Carrick at Birming- 
ham : the exact type of what the true- 
bred Otterhound should be. It is from an 
oil painting by George Earl. 

The East of Scotland is a pack boasting 
of eleven couples of rough Otterhounds 
which was established in 1904. They hunt 
some of the rivers formerly belonging to 
the Dumfriesshire, or at least they were 
in\-ited by the East Lothian Otter Hunt 
Club, which, with the half of the Berwick- 
shire, started the East of Scotland pack. 
They hunt mi no fixed days. The Master 
is \V. M. S.iunderson, Esq., of Crammorid 
Bridge, Midlothian. 

Enough has been said to show that the 
sport of otter-hunting is decidedly increas- 
ing, as there have been several hunts started 
within the last four j-ears. There can well 
be many mure, as, according to the opinion 
already quoted of that excellent authority, 
the late Rew " Otter " Davies, as he was 
always called, there are otters on every 
ri\-er ; but, owing to the nocturnal and 
mysterious habits of the animals, their 
whereabouts or existence is seldom known, 
or even suspected. Hunting them is a very 
beautiful sport, and the question arises 
as to whether the pure Otterhounds should 
not be more generally used than they are 
at present. It is often asserted that their 
continued exposure to water has caused a 
good deal of rheumatism in the breed, 
that they show age sooner than others, 
and that the puppies are difticult to rear. 
There are, however, many advantages in 
having a pure breed, and there is much to 
say for the perfect work of the Otterhound 
The scent of the otter is possibly the sweet- 
est of all trails left by animals. One can- 
not understand how it is that an animal 
swimming two or three feet from the bottom 
of a river bed and the same from the sur- 
face should leave a clean line of burning 
scent that may remain for twelve or eighteen 
hours. The supposition must be that the 
scent from the animal at first descends and 
is then alwavs rising. At any rate, the 
oldest Foxhound or Harrier that has never 
touched otter is at once in ravishing excite- 
ment on it, and all dogs will hunt it. The 
terrier is newr keener than when he hits 
on such a line. 

The Foxhound, so wonderful in Ins for- 
ward dash, mav ha\-e too nuicli of it for 



otter-nunting. The otter is so wary. His 
holt can \'ery well be passed, his delicious 
scent may be over-run ; but the pure- 
bred Otterhound is equal to aU occasions. 
He is terribly certain on the trail when he 
finds it. Nothing can throw Irim off it, 
and when his deep note swells into a sort 
of savage howl, as he lifts his head towards 
the roots of some old pollard, there is a 
meaning in it — no mistake has been made. 
In every part of a run it is 
the same ; the otter dodges 
up stream and do\\-n, lands 
for a moment, returns to his 
holt ; but his adversaries are 
always with him, and as one 
sees their steady work the 
impression becomes stronger 
and stronger that for the real 
sport of otter-hunting there is 
nothing as good as the pure- 
bred Otterhound. There is 
something so dignified and 
noble about the hound of 
unsulhed strain that if you 
once see a good one you will 
not soon forget him. He is 
a large hound, as he well 
needs to be, for the " var- 
mint " who is his customary 
quarry is the wildest, most 
vicious, and, for its size, the most power- 
ful of all British wild animals, the in- 
veterate poacher of our salmon streams, 
and consequently to be mercilessly slaugh- 
tered, although alw'ays in sporting fashion. 
To be equal to such pre\% the hound must 
have a Bulldog's courage, a Newfoundland's 
strength in water, a Pointer's nose, a 
Retriever's sagacity, the stamina of the 
Foxhound, the patience of a Beagle, the 
intelhgence of a Collie. 


1. Head. — The head, which hais been described 
as something between that of a Bloodhound and 
that of a Foxhound, is more hard and rugged 

than either. With a narrow forehead, ascending 
to a moderate peak. 

2. Ears. — The ears are long and sweeping, but 
not feathered dowTi to the tips, set low and lying 
flat to the cheeks. 

3. Eyes. — The eyes are large, dark and deeply 
set. having a peculiarly thoughtful expression. 
They show a considerable amount of the haw. 

4. Nose. — The nose is large and well developed, 
the nostrils expanding. 

5. Muzzle. — The muzzle well protected with 
wir\- hair. The jaw ^-ery powerful with deep flews. 




6. Neck. — The neck is strong and muscular, 
but rather long. The dewlap is loose and folded. 

7. Chest. — The chest, deep and capacious, but 
not too ^v'ide. 

8. Back. — The back is strong, \\-ide and arched. 

9. Shoulders. — The shoulders ought to be slop- 
ing, the arms and thighs substantial and muscular. 

10. Feet. — The feet, fairly large and spreading, 
with firm pads and strong nails to resist sharp 

11. Stern. — The stem when the hound is at 
work is carried gaily, like that of a rough Welsh 
Harrier. It is thick and well covered, to serve 
as a rudder. 

12. Coat. — The coat is wirv, hard, long and 
close at the roots, impervious to water. 

13. Colour. — Grey, or buff, or yellowish, or 
black, or rufus red, mixed with black or grey. 

14. Height. — 22 to 24 inches. 




" An eye of sloe, with ear not low, 
With horse's breast, with depth of chest, 
With breadth of loin, and curve in groin. 
And nape set far behind the head — 
Such xt'cre the dogs that Fin gal bred." 

— Translated from the Irish. 

IT is now some eight and twenty years 
sinee an important contro\-ersy was 
carried on in the coUmms of The Live 
Stock Journal on the natnre and Iiistory of 
the great Irish \\'()lfli(innd. Tlie chief dis- 


From " The Spoitsm.ini Calnnct:- Uy P. Rcviagle, K.A. 

putants in the discussion were Captain (i. A. 
Graham, of Dursley, Mr. G. \V. Hickman, Mr. 
F. Adcock, and the Rev. M. B. M'ynn. and 
the main point at issue was whether the dog 
then imperfectly known as tlie Irish Wolf- 

dog was a true descendant of the ancient 
Caiiis graiits Hibcrnicus. or whether it was 
a mere manufactured mongrel, owing its 
origin to an admixture of the (ireat Dane 
and the dog of the Pyrenees, modified and 
brought to type by a 
cross with the Highland 
Deerhound. It was not 
doubted — indeed, his- 
tory and tradition 
clearly attested — that 
there had existed in 
early times in Ireland 
a \-ery large and rugged 
hound of Greyhound 
form, whose vocation it 
was to hunt the wolf, 
the red deer, and the 
lo.\. It was assuredly 
known to the Romans, 
and there can be little 
doubt that the huge 
dog Samr, which Jarl 
Gunnar got from the 
Irish king ]\Iyrkiarton 
in the tenth century 
and took back with 
him to Norway, wa> 
one of this breed. But 
it was supposed by 
many to have become 
extinct soon after tht- 
disappearance of the last wolf in Ireland, 
and it was the endeavour of Captain Graham 
to demonstrate that specimens, although 
admittedly degenerate, were still to be 
found, and that they were capable of being 

semblance of the original 


restored to 

At the time when he entered into the 
controversJ^ Captain Graham had been 
activel}' interesting himself for something 
like a score of years in the resuscitation 
of the breed, and his patience had been 

rough material the majestic breed that 
holds so prominent a position to-day. 

There is little to be gathered from ancient 
writings concerning the size and appear- 
ance of the Irish Wolfliounds in early times. 
Exaggerated figures are given as to height 
and weight ; but all authorities agree that 








1 * 



ML'r^^^ ^^^H 







Photograph by Hollon'ay, Cheltenham. 

well rewarded. By the year i88i the Irish 
Wolfhound had been practical^ restored, 
although it has taken close upon a quarter 
of a century to produce the magnificent 
champions Cotswold and Cotswold Patricia, 
which are such brilliant examples of the 
modern breed — a brace of Wolfhounds who 
bear living testimony to the vast amount 
of energ}' and perseverance which Captain 
Graham and his enthusiastic colleague Major 
Gamier hav^e displayed in evolving from 

the}' were impressi\-el\' large and imposing 
dogs, and that they were regarded as the 
giants of the canine race. Oliver Goldsmith, 
himself an Irishman and also a student 
of natural history, wrote of dogs in 1770 
or thereabout : — 

" The last variety, and the most wonder- 
ful of all that I shall mention, is the Great 
Irish Wolfdog. that may be considered as 
the first of the canine species. He is ex- 
tremely beautiful and majestic in appear- 



ance, being the greatest of tlie dog kind 
to be seen in the world. The largest of 
those I have seen — and I have seen about 
a dozen — was about four feet high, or as 
tall as a calf of a year old. He was made 
extremely like a Greyhound, but more 
robust, and inclining to the figure of the 
French Matin or the Great Dane." 

Goldsmith, however, was more elegant 
as a writer than accurate as an obser\'er, 
and it is not probable that the tallest of 
the ^\'olfdogs that he or any of his country- 
men ever saw stood o\-er thirty-five inches 
at the shoulder. A better judge of dogs 
than the gentle and credulous author of 
" The Vic-dT of Wakefield " was the com- 
piler of the " Sportsman's Cabinet," pub- 
lished in 1803, who wrote : — 

" The dogs of Greece, Denmark, Tartary, 
ind Ireland are the largest and strongest 
of their species. The Irish Greyhound is 
of very ancient race, and is still to be found 
in some remote parts of that kingdom, 
though they are said to be reduced e\"en 
in their original climate. They are much 
larger than the Mastiff ; exceedingly fero- 
cious when engaged." 

In the same work a very spirited repre- 
sentation is given of this hound, engraved 
after a drawing by Philip Reinagle, R.A. (see 
p. 160). Although in some slight respects 
faulty, the illustration conveys an admirable 
impression of what the dog was like a hun- 
dred years ago — an immense rough-coated 
animal of great power, closely resembling 
the Highland Deerhound, but evidently 
then, as now, considerably larger in build. 

It seems extraordinary that so little should 
have been accurately known and recorded 
of a dog which at one time must ha\-e been 
a familiar figure in the halls of the Irish 
kings. It was no mere mythical animal 
like the heraldic griffin, but an actual 
sporting dog which was accepted as a 
national emblem of the Emerald Isle, asso- 
ciated with the harp and the shamrock. 
Proof of its recognised nobility is shown 
in the circumstance that Irish Wolfhounds 
were formerly depicted as supporters of 
the armorial bearings of the Hibernian 
kings. They were usually collared Or, with 

the appropriate motto, " Gentle when 
stroked, fierce when provoked." 

In the Dublin Museum there is pre- 
served the skull (jf one of the old Irish 
Wolfhounds, but this is of little help to 
those who would inquire into the nature 
and character of the original hound. It 
is short and round, and could not possibly 
have been taken from any but a medium- 
sized dog. Contributory evidence as to 
the size of the Wolfdog is perhaps better 
sought by considering the size of its quarry. 
The Irish wolf was probably no larger than 
the wolf of any other country ; but it is 
certain that tlie hound was a contemporary 
of the extinct Irish Elk (Mcgaceros hiber- 
niciis), and that this immense animal was 
commonly hunted by these dogs. Skeletons 
of the Irish Elk are to be seen in most 
museums. It stood about six feet high 
at the shoulder, and the antlers often 
measure from ten to eleven feet from tip 
to tip. with a weight of eighty pounds.* 
Such an animal would require a very power- 
ful hound indeed to pull it down, and we 
may therefore assume that the original Irish 
Wolfdog was no pigmy. 

It is interesting to note that the Irish 
Wolfhound was legislated for in the days 
of Cromwell. A declaration against the 
transporting of " Wolfedogges " dated Kil- 
kenny, April 27th, 1652, reads as foUows : — 

" Forasmuch as we are credibly informed 
that wolves do much increase and destroy 
many cattle in several parts of this dominion, 
and that some of the enemy's party who 
have laid down their arms and have liberty 
to go beyond the seas, and others do at- 
tempt to carry away several such great 
dogges as are commonly called Wolfe 
Dogges, whereby the breed of them which 
are useful for destroying wolves would, if 
not prevented, speedily suffer decay, these 
are therefore to prohibit all persons what- 
soever from exporting any of the said dogges 
out of this dominion." 

As regards the origin of the Irish Wolf- 

* My friend Mrs. Clement K. Shorter possesses 
a well-preserved skull of an elk, dug up from a 
bog in Ireland. The stretch of the antlers is 
S foct 2 inches from tip to tip. — Ed. 



hound, more than one theory is advanced. 
Bv some authorities it is suggested that it 
was the dog which we now know as the 
Great Dane. Others hold that as there 
were rough-coated Gre\-hounds in Ireland, 
it is this dog, under another name, which 
is now accepted. But probably Captain 
Graham is nearer the truth when he gives 
the opinion that the Irish hound that was 
kept to hunt wolves has never become 
extinct at all, but is now represented in 

and they appeared to have very much 
deteriorated in bone and substance. Sir 
J. Power, of Kilfane, was responsible for 
one line. :\Ir. Baker, of Ballytobin, for 
another, and Mr. Mahoney, of Dromore, for 
the remaining strain. From bitches ob- 
tained from two of these kennels, Captain 
Graham, by crossing them with the Great 
Dane and Scottish Deerhound, achieved 
the first step towards producing the animal 
that he desired. Later on the Russian 


the Scottish Deerhound, only altered a 
httle in size and strength to suit the easier 
work required of it — that of hunting the 
deer. This is the more probable, as the 
fact remains that the chief factor in the 
resuscitation of the Irish Wolfliound has 
been the Scottish Deerhound. 

The result of Captain Graham's investiga- 
tions when seeking for animals bearing some 
relationship to the original Irish Wolfe 
Dogge was that three strains were to be 
found in Ireland, but none of the repre- 
sentatives at that time were anything like 
so large as those mentioned in early writings, 

^^'olfllound Koratai, better known as the 
Borzoi, who was an exceedingly large hound, 
was introduced, as also were one or two 
other large breeds of dogs. 

The intermixture of these canine giants, 
however, was not at first very satisfactory, 
as although plenty of bone was obtained, 
many were most ungainly in appearance 
and ill-shaped animals that had very little 
about them to attract attention. Captain 
Graham, however, stuck to his work, and 
very soon the specimens that he brought 
forward began to show a fixity of type 
both in head and in general outline. Brian 



was one of his best dogs, but he was not to keep his name green ; the best probably 

very large, as he only stood just over thirty being ;\Ir. Hall's Ch. Gareth. 

inches at the shoulder. Banshee and Fin- 'Sir. F. ^M. Birtill in the following year 

tragh were others, but probably the best produced Wargru\-c and Ballyhooley in 

of Captain Graham's kennel was the bitch one litter ; these two, who were sired by 

Sheelah. It was not, however, imtil to- Brian II.. also becoming the parents of 

wards the end of the past century that excellent offspring. \\'argrave was sent 


the most perfect dogs were bred. These 
included O'Leary, the property of Sir. 
Crisp, of Playford Hall. O'Leary is re- 
sponsible for many of the best dogs of 
the present day. and was the sire of Mrs. 
Percy Shewell's Ch. Cotswold and the same 
lady's Kilcullen, besides several other high- 
class prize-winners. Then Captain Graham 
bred Dermot Astore in 1896, and sold him 
to Mrs. Williams, of Llanllowell Rectory, 
near Usk. This dog carried all before him 
for some time, but was never quite such a 
typical dog as O'Leary. He has, however, 
left manv good dogs and bitches behind him 

by his breeder to a show at Gloucester 
when about a vear old, and was entered in 
the catalogue to be sold for £25 ; he was 
nearly defeating Dermot Astore, was claimed 
by more than one would-be buyer, and was 
consequently put up to auction, when he 
was bought by Mr. Hood \A'right for forty- 
five guineas. Later on he became the 
property of Mrs. Williams, who held a 
strong hand at that time. Wargrave soon 
became a champion, and when eighteen 
months old bred Ch. Artara, who was prob- 
ably the best Irish Wolfhound bitch that 
has ever been bred. When shown in con- 



dition, Artara could beat all the dogs. Ch. 
Wargrave was also the sire of Wolf Tone, 
who has done an immense amount of good 
to his breed. He was bred by the late 


-Mr. Herbert Compton, who always had a 
very high opinion of him. Like his sire 
Wargrave, Wolf Tone has excellent legs 
and feet, and now that the dog belongs to 
Mrs. Shewell, the stock that he produces 
are all remarkable for their good limbs, 
and he has had a great deal to do with 
abolishing the straight hocks which were 
such an eyesore with many of the older 
hounds. Amongst the best of his off- 
spring is Ch. Cotswold Patricia, the hand- 
some animal who forms one of the illus- 
trations in this chapter (p. i66). Bally- 
hooley, the litter brother of Wargrave, 
went into the hands of Mr. W. ^^'■illiams, 
who did very well with him. 

In 1900 Mr. Crisp bred KilcuUen from 
O'Leary, this dog winning the champion- 
ship at the Kennel Club Show at the Crystal 
Palace in 1902 under Captain Graham. 
This was the year the Irish Wolfhound 
Club presented the hound Rajah of Kidnal 
as a regimental pet to the newly formed 
Irish Guards, and the present Lord Powers- 
court went to the Crystal Palace with a 
non-commissioned officer to receive the dog. 

Rajah of Kidnal, who was bred and ex- 
hibited by Mrs. A. Gerard, of Malpas, was 

the selection of Captain Graham and two 
other judges. This dog, which has been re- 
named Brian Boru, is still hearty and well, 
and was at his post on St. Patrick's Day, 
1907, when the shamrock that had been 
sent by Her Majesty Queen Alexandra was 
handed to the men. 

Mrs. Gerard owned one of the largest 
kennels of Irish Wolfhounds in England, 
and amongst her many good dogs and 
bitches was Cheevra, who was a wonderful 
brood bitch, and included amongst her 
stock were several that worked their way 
up to championship honours ; she was the 
dam of Rajah of Kidnal. 

Besides Ballyhooley, ^Mr. W. \\'illiams 
owned a good dog in Finn by Brian II. 
Finn produced Miss Packe's Wickham La- 
vengro, a black and tan dog that has won 
several prizes. Some judges are "opposed 


to giving prizes to Irish Wolfhounds of 
this colour, but Captain Graham does not 
object to it. Finn was a very heavy dog, 
and weighed 148 lbs. 

A hound that has been of great benefit 



to the breed in Ireland is Ch. Marquis of 
Donegal. He is the property of Mr. Martin, 
and I believe I am correct in saying that 
he is an own brother to Dermot Astore. 
Mr. Martin has had several other high- 
class specimens, of which Connaught was 
one of the best. 

Amongst the bitches that have been in- 

most promising young dog in Felixstowe 
Yirra, a son of KilcuUen and Kitty Astore, 
with which he was second to Mrs. Shewell's 
Ch. Cotswold, who is undoubtedly the 
grandest Irish \\'olfhound ever bred, and 
has so far had an unbeaten record. In 
height Ch. Cotswold stands 34^ inches. 
At the same show Miss Clifford, of Ryde, 



strumental in building up tne breed to its 
present high state of excellence is Princess 
Patricia of Connaught, who is by Dermot 
Astore out of Cheevra, and is the dam 
of Ch. Cotswold Patricia. She is one of- 
the tallest of her race, her height being 
33 inches ; another bitch that measures 
the same number of inches at the shoulder 
being Dr. Pitts-Tucker's Juno of the Fen, 
a daughter of Ch. Wargrave, who has had 
several prizes placed to her credit. 

Mr. Everett, of Felixstowe, is now one 
of the most successful breeders. He ex- 
hibited at the last Kennel Club show a 

exhibited a good hound in Wildcroft, 
another of Dermot Astore's sons, and other 
supporters of the breed are Lady Kathleen 
Pilkington, Mr. T. Hamilton Adams, Mr. 
G. H. Thurston, Mr. Bailey, Mrs. F. Mar- 
shall, Mr. J. L. T. Dobbm, and Miss Ethel 

The following is the description of the 
variety as drawn up by the Club : — 

1. General Appearance. — The Irish Wolfhound 
should not be quite so heavy or massive as the 
Great Dane, but more so than the Deerhound, 
which in general type he should otherwise resemble. 
Of great size and commanding appearance, very 



muscular, strongly though gracefully built: move- 
ments easy and active ; head and neck carried 
high ; the tail carried w-ith an upward sweep, 
with a shght curve towards the extremity. The 
minimum height and weight of dogs should be 
31 inches and 120 pounds, of bitches 28 inches 
and 90 pounds. Anything below this should 
be debarred from competition. Great size, includ- 
ing height at shoulder and proportionate length 
of body, is the desideratum to be aimed at, and 
it is desired firmly to establish a race that shall 
average from 32 inches to 34 inches in dogs, 
showing the requisite power, acti\-ity, courage, 
and symmetn,-. 

2. Head. — Long, the frontal bones of the fore- 
head ver\- sUghtly raised and ver^' little indenta- 
tion betiveen the eyes. Skull not too broad ; 
muzzle long and moderately pointed ; ears small 
and Greyhound-like in carriage. 

3. Neck. — Rather !ong, very strong and mus- 
cular, well arched, without dewlap and loose skin 
about the throat. 

4. Chest. — Ver^' deep, breast vrde. 

5. Back.^Rather Ion J than short. Loins arched. 

6. Tail. — Long and shghtly curved, of moderate 
thickness, and well covered with hair. 

7. Belly. — Well dra-wn up. 

8. Forequarters. — Shoulders muscular, giving 
breadth of chest, set sloping, elbows well under, 
neither turned inwards nor outwards. Leg — Fore- 
arm muscular and the whole leg strong and quite 

9. Hindquarters. — iluscular thighs, and second 
thigh long and strong as in the Greyhound, and 
hocks well let down and turning neither in nor 

10. Feet. — Moderately large and round, neither 
turned inwards nor outwards ; toes well arched 
and closed, nails very strong and curved. 

11. Hair. — Rough and hard on body, legs, and 
head ; especially ^\-iry and long over eyes and 
under jaw. 

12. Colour and Markings. — The recognised 
colours are grey, brindle, red, black, pure white, 
fawn, or any colour that appears in the Deer- 

Faults. — Too light or heavv in head, too highly 
arched frontal bone, large ears and hanging 
flat to the face ; short neck ; full de%ylap ; too 
narrow or too broad a chest ; sunken and hollow 
or quite level back ; bent forelegs ; overbent 
fetlocks ; twisted feet ; spreading toes ; too curly 
a t£dl ; weak hindquarters, cow hocks, and a 
general want of muscle ; too short in body. 

BRIAN BORU: the irish guards' wolfhound 

Photograph by Pictorial Agency. 




'A chiejtain's, in good truth, this dog was once. 
And if in form and action he remained 
What he then i0as when first Odysseus left. 
His swiftness and his strength would well have roused 
Thy wonder at his hunting : never game 
Escaped him in the thickest woodland glade : 
Whatever he might follow, by their trail 
He knew them all most thoroughly." 

— Cordrey's '■ Odyssey." 

THE Deerhound is one of the most 
decuriitive of dogs, impressively 
stately and picturesque wherever he 
is seen, whether it be amid the surround- 
ings of the baronial hall, reclining at luxu- 
rious length before the open hearth in the 
fitful light of the log fire that flickers on 
polished armour and tarnished tapestry ; 
out in the open, straining at the leash as he 
scents the dewy air, or gracefully bounding 
over the piu'jile of liis nati\"e hills. Grace 
and majesty are in liis e\'ery movement and 
attitude, and even to the most prosaic mind 
there is about him the inseparable glamour 
of feudal romance and poetry. He is at his 
best alert in the excitement of the chase ; 
but all too rare now is the inspiring sight 
that once was common among the mountains 
of Morven and tlie glens of Argyll of the 
deep-voiced hound speeding in jnirsuit of his 
antlered prey, racing him at full stretch 
along the mountain's ridge, or baying him 
at last in the fastness of darksome corrie or 
deep ravine. Gone are the good romantic 
days of stalking, beloved by Scrope. The 
Highlands have lost their loneliness, and 
the inventions of the modern gunsmith have 
robbed one of the grandest of Imnting dogs 
of his glory, relegating him to the life of a 
pedestrian pet, whose highest dignity is 
the winning of a pecuniary prize under 
Kennel Club rules. 

Historians of the Deerhound associate 
him with the original Irish Wolfdog, of 

whom he is obviously a close relative, and 
it is sure tliat when the wolf still lingered 
in the land it was the frequent quarry of 
the Highland as of the Hibernian hound. 
Legend has it tliat Prince Ossian, son of 
Fingal, King of Morven, hunted the wolf 
with the grey, long-bounding dogs. " Swift- 
footed Luath " and "White-breasted Bran" 
are among the names of Ossian's hounds. 
I am disposed to affirm that the old Irish 
Wolfhound and the Highland Deerhound 
are not only intimately allied in form and 
nature, but that they are two strains of an 
identical breed, altered only in size by 
circumstance and environment. There are 
reasons for the supposition that they were 
originally of one family. During the period 
of the Danish dominion over the Hebrides, 
the sport-loving Scandinavians held such 
constant communication between Scotland 
and Ireland that it is to be presumed they 
commonly interbred the hounds of both 

Nor was the process confined to one 
channel of intercourse. In the southern 
parts of the main island, and particularly in 
Wessex, there existed in ancient times a 
rough-coated Gazeliound of analogous type, 
which possibly drifted over the border to 
become more rugged and sturdy under the 
influence of a rigorous climate. The dogs 
of Great Britain have never for long remained 
strictly local in type and character. Civil 
wars, the courtesies of friendly kings, and 



extensive hunting expeditions ha\'e all had 
their effect in the work of distribution. 
King Arthur and his noble knights of the 
Round Table — all of them imbued with 
enthusiasm for the chase — were experts in 
the knowledge of hunting dogs, and they 

took their hounds with them wherever they quaintly records that 

distinct from its now larger Irish relative, 
it was recognised as a native dog in Scotland 
in very early times, and it was distinguished 
as being superior in strength and beauty to 
the hounds of the Picts. Stewart in his 
■•Bulk of the Cronicles of Scotland"* 




went. It is difficult, even with the help of 
illuminated manuscripts and the records of 
contemporary scribes, to determine the 
particular breeds most in vogue ; but King 
Arthur's Cavall and the yet more famous 
Hodain were almost certainly of a rough 
Greyhound type. Hodain himself — the 
hound who shared the love potion with Sir 
Tristram and Iseult — was brought by the 
knight of Lyonesse over from Ireland, a 
gift from King Anguish of that land, and 
was presumably of the breed we are now 
considering. There is nothing more prob- 
able than that in the days of chivalry hounds 
were numbered among the presents given 
by king to king. 

Whatever the source of the Highland 
Deerhound, and at whatever period it became 

" The Pictis houndis were nocht of sic speed 
As Scottis houndis, nor yet sae gude at need, 
Nor in sic game they were nocht half sae 

Xor of sic pleasure, nor sic pulchritude." 

The reference is included in the description 
of a battle fought on account of a Deer- 
hound. The hound's name is not given, 
but he is said to have excelled all others 
" sae far as into licht the moon does near 
a star." He was the property of a Scots 
king who had been enjoying a great hunting 

* This was a metrical version of Hector Boece's 
History, which was written in Latin and pub- 
lished in Paris in 1526-7. The translation was 
made in 1 531 by command of Margaret, Queen 
of James the Fourth. 



CH. TALISMAN by ch ST. ronans ranger- 
Plwlogiafh liy Russell. 

in the Grampians among the Picts, who 
coveted the dog. To console them the king 
made them a gift of a pair of his hounds, 
but, not wholly content, they stole his 
favourite. The thieves were pursued, and 
a bloody battle followed, in which sixty 
good Scots and a hundred Picts were slain, 
before the dog was restored to his rightful 

From that time onward, Scottish nobles 
cherished their strains of Deerhound, seeking 
glorious sport in the Highland forests. In 
Pitscottie's " History of Scotland " (1528) 
it is said that " the King desired all gentle- 
men that had dogges that war guid to bring 
theme to hunt in the saides boundis quhilk 
the most pairt of the noblemen of the High- 
lands did, such as the Earles of Huntlie, 
Argyle, and Athole, who brought their 
Deerhoundes with theme and hunted with 
his majestic." The red deer belonged by 
inexorable law to the kings of Scotland, 
and great drives, which often lasted for 
several days, were made to round up the 
herds into given neighbourhoods for the 
pleasure of the court, as in the reign of 


Queen Mary. But the 
organised coursing of 
deer by courtiers ceased 
during the Stuart 
troubles, and was left 
to servants, the pursuit 
of men being regarded 
as more suitable for the 
occupation of a gentle- 

At the time when Dr. 
Johnson made his tour 
in the Hebrides, deer 
hunting was still mainly 
in the hands of retain- 
ers, who thus replen- 
ished their chief's larder. 
"The stags of the 
mountains are less than 
those of our parks and 
forests," wrote Johnson, 
with reference to sport 
in the Isle of Skye. 
"The deer are not 
driven with horns and 
hounds. A sportsman, with his gun in his 
hand, watches the animal, and when he 
has wounded him, traces him by the blood. 
They have a race of brindled Greyhounds, 
larger and stronger than those with which 
we course hares, and these are the only dogs 
used by them for the chase." Boswell 
mentions that Mr. Grant, of Glenmoriston, 
permitted any stranger to range his forest 
after deer, in the belief that nobody could 
do them any injury. The stag was valued 
only for the amount of venison it might 
yield. The abandonment of the sport and 
the gradual disappearance of the boar and 
the wolf naturally caused the Deerhound to 
decline both in number and in size and 
strength, and by the end of the eighteenth 
century the breed had become scarce. 

The revival of deerstalking dates back 
hardly further than a hundred years. It 
reached its greatest popularity in the High- 
lands at the time when the late Queen and 
Prince Albert were in residence at Balmoral. 
Solomon, Hector, and Bran were among the 
Balmoral hounds. Bran was an especially 
fine animal — one of the best of his time, 



standing over thirty inches in height. It 
was at this period that Sir Edwin Landseer 
was industriously transferring to canvas his 
admiration of the typical Deerhound. Sir 
Walter Scott had already done much to 
preserve public interest in the breed, both 
by his writings and by the fact that he kept 
many of these dogs at Abbotsford ; but it 
is saddening to note that although his 
Torrum was the son of a true Glengarry sire, 
yet his famous Maida was a mongrel by a 
Pyrenean W'olfdog. Xot\\-ithstanding the 
sinister bend, however, Maida was a mag- 
nificent animal, partaking of the appearance 
of his Deerhound dam, but having height 
and power from his sire. The cross was of 
benefit to the breed, and from Maida many 
of our best modem Deerhounds are de- 
scended. Washington Irving described him 
as a giant in iron grey. Landseer's portrait 
of him (p. 169) shows him to have been a 
white dog with a grey saddle mingled with 
black, extending into patches on the thighs. 
He had a white blaze up the face, and a 
white muzzle and collar, and his dark ears 
seem to have been cropped. The com- 
panion hound sitting behind him in the 
picture is of better type. 

Scrope's neglected 
but delightful book 
on deerstalking was 
written when the 
sport was at its 
zenith, and it con- 
tains fascinating de- 
scriptions of the 
glories of pursuing 
the red deer in the 
wilds of the forest of 
AthoU, and of the 
performances of such 
hounds as Tarff and 
Derig and Schuloch. 

The Deerhounds 
were used in two 
ways. In the one 
case the}' coursed the 
deer from first to last 
without the aid of 
man. In the other, 
they held the 

wounded stag at ba3\ In the former 
case a hound of superior strength, speed, 
and courage was required. So soon as 
the herd were in sight, the hunters, getting 
as near as they could, slipped the hounds 
and the race began. On the roughest 
ground the strong-legged, hard-footed dogs 
could hold their owti, while on the flat they 
overhauled their quarry. They stuck 
staunchly to the chase, and when within 
seizing distance would sometimes spring 
at the leg in order to confuse and encumber 
the stag until there came a better oppor- 
tunity of springing at the neck. If the stag 
stood at bay, woe betide the hound whose 
courage led him to make a frontal attack ; for 
he would surely pay for his ^•alour with his 
Ufe or sustain terrible injuries. If, however, 
the attack was made from behind, -the hunter 
would generally come up to find the deer 
dead, while the hounds were unharmed. 
Their duty was not to kill their victim but 
to keep him at bay until the hunters arrived. 
Two historic feats of strength and en- 
durance illustrate the tenacity of the Deer- 
hound at work. A brace of half-bred dogs, 
named Percy and Douglas, the property of 
Mr. Scrope, kept a stag at bay from Saturda}- 

CH. BLAIR ATHOL BY CH. selwood dhouran- 




night to Monday morning ; and the pure 
bred Bran by himself puUed down two nn- 
wounded stags, one carrying ten and the 
other eleven tines. These, of course, are 
record performances, but they demonstrate 
the possibilities of the Deerhound when 
trained to his natural sport. 

In Scrope's time driving was commonly 
resorted to in the extensive forests, but 
nowadays when forests are sub-divided 
into limited shootings the deer are seldom 
moved from their home preserves, whilst 
with the use of improved telescopes and the 
small-bore rifle, stalking has gone out of 
fashion. With guns having a muzzle velocity 
of 2,500 feet per second, it is no longer 
necessary for sportsmen stealthily to stalk 
their game to come within easy range, and 
as for dogs, they have become so doubtful 
an appendage to the chase that we have 
an experienced deerstalker like Cameron 
of Lochiel soberly putting the question : 
" Ought dogs to be used in a forest at 
all ? " * 

Obviously they ought still to be of use 
in enabling the sportsman to secure his 
wounded deer, which may not be crippled 
beyond the possibility of successful flight. 
Admitting that dogs are thus helpful in 
tracking, Cameron of Lochiel discusses the 
question as to the breed best adapted for 
this sport, and, with all a Highlander's love 
for the Deerhound, he yet reluctantly 
decides that these magnificent dogs are not 
by any means the most suitable. " For 
use on the hill," he adds, " nothing beats the 
Collie. He is possessed of instinct — one 
may almost call it sense — in a higher degree 
than any other breed, and he is more 
tractable — he will run by sight or by scent, 
loose or on a cord ; he will keep close to his 
master, requiring no gillie to lead him ; he 
can be taught to lie down, and will even 
learn to crawl when necessary ; and at any 
rate his motions are those of an animal 
who knows that he is trying to approach a 
prey unobserved. But the chief merit in 
a Collie over all other dogs for following a 

* " The Red Deer." Fur and Feather Series 
(Lonf;man and Co., 1816). 

wounded deer consists in his wonderful 
faculty for distinguishing between the track 
of a wounded and that of a cold stag." 

Primarily and essentially the Deerhound 
belongs to the order Agascus, hunting by 
sight and not by scent, and although he 
may indeed occasionally put his nose to 
the ground, yet his powers of scent are not 
remarkable. His vocation, therefore, has 
undergone a change, and it was recently 
ascertained that of sixty deer forests there 
were only six upon which Deerhounds were 
kept for sporting purposes. 

Happily the Deerhound has suffered no 
decline in the favour bestowed upon him 
for his own sake. The contrary is rather 
the case, and he is still an aristocrat among 
dogs, valued for his good looks, the symmetry 
of his form, his grace and elegance, and 
e\-en more so for his faithful and affectionate 
nature. Sir Walter Scott declared that he 
was " a most perfect creature of heaven," 
and when one sees him represented in so 
beautiful a specimen of his noble race as 
St. Ronan's Rhyme, for example, or Talis- 
man, or Ayrshire, one is tempted to echo 
this high praise. 

In recent years the Deerhound has been 
fashionable at exhibitions of dogs, and 
although the number brought into com- 
petition is never very great, yet it is always 
apparent that the true type is being steadily 
preserved and that in many respects decided 
improvements are achieved. The oldest 
strain is probably that of Chesthill, on 
Loch Tay, established by the Menzies over 
a hundred years ago. It is no longer kept 
in its integrity by the Menzies family, but 
Mr. R. Hood Wright, whose name must 
always be intimately associated with this 
breed, came into possession of some of the 
strain, and bred from them to a considerable 
extent. Mr. G. W. Hickman, of Selly Hill, 
made similar efforts, his Momi and Garry 
being of true Chesthill descent. Cameron 
of Lochiel had also a venerable strain, of 
which his Torrum, exhibited at Birmingham 
in 1869, was a notable example. Other 
strains which have entered largely into 
our present day Deerhounds are those of 
Morrison of Glenelg, McNeil of Colonsay, 




and Bateson of Cambusmere ; the last 
mentioned providing the originals of some 
of the paintings by Landseer, who con- 
sidered them the finest Deerhounds he had 
ever seen. The Marquis of Breadalbane 
also owned a famous strain on the Black 
Mount Forest, as did Lord Campbell of 
Glendarule. The hounds kept at \\'indsor 
were usually of splendid type. Three of 
these, including the magnificent dog Keildar 

grand specimen of his race, strong framed, 
with plenty of hair of a blue brindle colour. 
Captain Graham's own dog Keildar, who 
had been trained for deerstalking in Windsor 
Park, was perhaps one of the most elegant 
and aristocratic-looking Deerhounds ever 
seen. His full height was 30 inches, girth 
33^ mches, and weight, 95 lbs., his colour 
bluish fawn, slightly brindled, the muzzle 
and ears being blue. His nearest competitor 


and his sister Hag. came nto the hands of 
Captain G. A. Graham, of Dursley, who is 
still one of our greatest authorities on the 

Five - and - twenty years ago Captain 
Graliam drew up a list of tlie most notable 
dogs of the last century. Among these 
were Sir St. George Gore's Gruim (1843-44), 
Black Bran (1850-51) ; the Marquis of 
Breadalbane's King of the Forest, said to 
stand 33 inches high ; Mr. Beasley's Alder 
(1863-67), bred by Sir John McNeil of 
Colonsay ; Mr. Donald Cameron's Torrum 
(1869), and his two sons Monzie and Young 
Torrum ; and Mr. Dadley's Hector, who 
was probably the best-bred dog living in 
the early 'eighties. Torrum, however, ap- 
pears to have been the most successful of 
these dogs at stud. He was an exceedingly 

for perfection was, after Hector, probably 
Mr. Hood Wright's Bevis, a darkish red 
brown brindle of about 29 inches. Mr. 
Wright was the breeder of Champion Sel- 
wood ^Ior\-cn, who was the celebrity of his 
race about 1897, and who became the 
property of Mr. Harry Rawson, of Joppa 
House, Midlothian. This stately dog was a 
dark heather brindle, standing 32I inches 
at the shoulder, with a chest girth of 34^ 

A few years ago breeders were inclined 
to mar the beauty of the Deerhound by a 
too anxious endeavour to obtain great sizi 
rather than to preserve the genuine type ; 
but this error has been sufficiently corrected, 
with the result that symmetry and eleganci- 
conjoined with the desired attributes oi 
speed are not sacrificed. The qualities 



aimed at now are a height of something 
less than 30 inches, and a weight not 
greater than 105 lbs., with straight fore-legs 
and short, cat-like feet, a deep chest, with 
broad, powerful loins, slightly arched, and 
strength of hind-quarters, with well-bent 
stifles, and the hocks well let down. Straight 
stifles are objectionable, giving a stilty 
appearance. Thick shoulders are equally a 
blemish to be avoided, as also a too great 
heaviness of bone. The following is the 
accepted standard of merit. 


1. Head. — The head should be broadest at the 
ears, tapering sHghtly to the eyes, with the muzzle 
tapering more decidedly to the nose. The muzzle 
should be pointed, but the teeth and lips level. 
The head should be long, the skull flat rather 
than round, with a very slight rise over the eyes, 
but with nothing approaching a stop. The skull 
should be coated with moderately long hair, 
which is softer than the rest of the coat. The 
nose should be black (though in some blue- fawns 
the colour is blue), and slightly aquiline. In the 
lighter-coloured dogs a black muzzle is preferred. 
There should be a good moustache of rather 
silky hair, and a fair beard. 

2. Ears. — The ears should be set on high. 
and, in repose, folded back like the Greyhound's, 
though raised above the head in excitement 
without losing the fold, and even, in some cases, 
semi-erect. A prick ear is bad. A big, thick 
ear, hanging flat to the head, or heavily coated 
with long hair, is the worst of faults. The ear 
should be soft, glossy, and like a mouse's coat 
to the touch, and the smaller it is the better. 
It should have no long coat or long fringe, 
but there is often a silky, silvery coat on the 
body of the ear and the tip. Whatever the 
general colour, the ears should be black or dark- 

3. Neck and Shoulders. — The neck should be 
long — that is, of the length that befits the Grey- 
hound character of the dog. An over-long neck 
is not necessary, nor desirable, for the dog is 
not required to stoop to his work like a Grey- 
hound, and it must be remembered that the 
mane, which every good specimen should have, 
detracts from the apparent length of neck. 
Moreover, a Deerhound requires a very strong 
neck to hold a stag. The nape of the neck 
should be very prominent where the head is set 
on, and the throat should be clean-cut at the 
angle and prominent. The shoulders should be 
well sloped, the blades well back, with not too 
much width between them. Loaded and straight 
shoulders are very bad faults. 

4. Stern. — Stem should be tolerably long, 
tapering, and reaching to within li inches of 
the ground, and about ih inches below Ihe hocks. 
^^'hen the dog is still, dropped perfectly straight 
do\\Ti, or curved. When in motion it should, 
be curved when excited, in no case to be lifted 
out of the line of the back. It should be well" 
covered \\-ith hair, on the inside thick and wiry, 
underside longer, and towards the end a slight 
fringe is not objectionable. A curl or ring tail 
is very undesirable. 

5. Eyes. — The eyes should be dark : generally 
they are dark brown or hazel. A very light 
eye is not liked. The eye is moderately full, 
with a soft look in repose, but a keen, far-away 
gaze when the dog is roused. The rims of the 
cj-elids should be black. 

6. Body. — The body and general formation 
is that of a Greyhound of larger size and bone. 
Chest deep rather than broad, but not too narrow 
and flat-sided. The loin well arched and droop- 
ing to the tail. A straight back is not desirable, 
this formation being unsuitable for going up- 
hill, and ver\^ unsightly. 

7. Legs and Feet. — The legs should be broad 
and flat, a good broad forearm and elbow being 
desirable. Fore-legs, of course, as straight as 
possible. Feet close and compact, with well- 
arched toes. The hind-quarters drooping, and 
as broad and powerful as possible, the hips 
being set wide apart. The hind-legs should be 
well bent at the stifle, with great length from 
the hip to the hock, which should be broad and 
flat. Cow hocks, weak pasterns, straight stifles, 
and splay feet are very bad faults. 

8. Coat. — The hair on the body, neck, and 
quarters should be harsh and wiry, and about 
3 inches or 4 inches long ; that on the head, 
breast, and belly is much softer. There should 
be a slight hairy fringe on the inside of the fore- 
and hind-legs, but nothing approaching to the 
feathering of a Collie. The Deerhound should 
be a shaggy dog, but not over coated. A woolly 
coat is bad. Some good strains have a slight 
mixture of silky coat with the hard, which is 
preferable to a woolly coat, but the proper 
covering is a thick, close-lying, ragged coat, 
harsh or crisp to the touch. 

9. Colour. — Colour is much a matter of fancy. 
But there is no manner of doubt that the dark 
blue-grey is the most preferred. Next come 
the darker and lighter greys or brindles, the 
darkest being generally preferred. Yellow and 
sandy-red or red-fa^\-n, especially with black 
points — i.e., ears and muzzle — are also in equal 
estimation, this being the colour of the oldest 
known strains, the McNeil and the Chesthill 
Menzies. White is condemned by all the old 
authorities, but a white chest and white toes, 
occurring as they do in a great many of the 
darkest-coloured dogs, are not so greatly objected 



to, but the less the better, as the Deerhound 
is a self-coloured dog. A white blaze on the 
head or a white collar should entirely disqualify. 
In other cases, though passable, yet an attempt 
should be made to get rid of white markings. 
The less white the better, but a slight white tip 
to the stem occurs in the best strains. 

10. Height of Dogs. — From :!8 inches to 30 
inches, or even more if there be symmetry 
without coarseness, which, however, is rare. 

11. Height of Bitches. — From 26 inches up- 
wards. There can be no objection to a bitch 
being large, unless she is too coarse, as e\'en at her 
greatest height she does not approach that of 
the dog, and, therefore, could not well be 
too big for work, as over-big dogs are. Besides. 
a big bitch is good for breeding and keeping up 
the size. 

12. Weight. — From 85 pounds to 105 pounds 
in dogs : from 65 pounds to 80 pounds in bitches. 

Among the more prominent owners of 
Deerhounds at the present time are Mrs. 
H. Armstrong, of Jesmond, near Newcastle ; 
Mrs. W. C. Grew, of Knowle. Warwicksliire ; 
Mrs. Janvrin Dickson, of Bushey Heath ; 
Mr. Harry Rawson, of Joppa ; and Mr. H. 
McLauchhn, of DubHn. ]\Irs. Armstrong 
is tlie breeder of a beautiful dog hound in 
Ch. Talisman, and of two typically good 
bitches in Fair Maid of Perth and Bride of 
Lammermoor. Mrs. Grew counts as her 
" friends " many admirable specimens, among 
them being Ch. Blair Athol, Ayrshire. 
Kenilworth, and Ferraline. Ayrshire is con- 
sidered by some judges to be the most 
perfect Deerhound of his se.x exhibited for 
some time past. He is somewliat large. 
perhaps, but he is throughout a hound of 
excellent quality and character, having a 
most typical head, with lovely eves and 
expression, perfect front feet and hind- 
quarters. Other judges would give the 
palm to Mr. Harry Rawson 's Ch. St. Ronan's 
Ranger, who is certainly difficult to excel 
in all the characteristics most desirable in 
the breed. 

Mr. Harry Rawson inherits an active 
interest in the Deerhound. From his boy- 
hood lie has been associated with one of 
the most successful kennels of the breed in 
the kingdom ; and the St. Ronan's j)refix 
is to be found in the pedigrees of many of 
the best Deerhounds in the Stud Book. 
To him belongs the honour of having bred 

what is acknowledged to be not only the- 
least assailable of her distinguished breed now 
living, but possibly the most flawless Deer- 
hound of any time in Ch. St. Ronan's Rhyme. 
In the attempt to accord to this remarkable 
bitch the position which is her due, one can 
only refer to her achievements. One assumes 
that, if anywhere, the best dogs in the king- 
dom are to be seen at the show held annually 
by the Kennel Club at the Crystal Palace, 
and that the chosen judges on these occa- 
sions are unbiassed and unimpeachable. 
A customary event at this show is that of 
the general competition among dogs having 
full championship honours in their respective 
breeds, and the winning dog thus becomes 
veritably a champion of champions. It is 
the severest test of merit and breeding to 
which a dog is ever submitted. St. Ronan's 
Rhyme went through the ordeal in Octo- 
ber, 1906, and she met with conspicuous 

This triumph of St. Ronan's Rhyme 
was repeated a few days afterwards at the 
Edinburgh show of the Scottish Kennel 
Club, under different judges, when again 
she was awarded the laurel bestowed upon 
the best dog in the show. 

Some forty or fifty years ago the Deer- 
hound seems to have been in danger of 
degeneration, and to have declined in size 
and stamina, and there is no doubt that the 
\-arious out-crosses which were tried at that 
time have been of permanent profit to the 
breed. Sir Walter Scott's Maida was, as 
we have seen, the offspring of a Glengarry 
dam and a Pyrenean sire, who was probably 
responsible for tlie admixture of white in 
Maida's coat, and for the white markings 
which e\-en to this day are occasionally 
revealed. But the sturdy dog of the 
Pyrenees contributed materially to the 
strength of the Deerhound, and all other 
traces of his different type and character- 
istics disappeared in three generations. So, 
too, the cross from the Russian Borzoi, 
which was judiciously used half a century 
ago, imparted to the Deerhound a degree of 
quality, and a certain bloodlike look, with 
regained symmetry of shape and grace of 
action, which the breed was fast losing. 



For the following additional notes on the 
Deerhound I am indebted to Mrs. H. 

•' Though fast disappearing from the annals 
of hunting, the Deerhound is a great favourite 
to-day as a household pet and personal 

after the style of the Royal beast, the 
lion, who appears to look over the heads, 
or actually through the bodies, of his ad- 
miring visitors at the Zoo, into the back 
of beyond. 

" Unfortunately, the Deerhound is to-day 




Photograph by Russell. 

companion, and well worthy is he of his 
place ; for not only is he wondrous gentle 
for his great size, but he is faithful, sensible, 
and quiet. The latter quality, indeed, may 
almost be described as a fault, for except 
for his formidable size and appearance, 
which strikes terror into the hearts of 
evildoers, he cannot be said to be a good 
watch, inasmuch as he will either welcome 
all comers as personal friends, or he will 
of his dignity and stateliness overlook 
the approach of strangers, something 

a most delicate and difficult dog to rear. 
Perhaps this is due to the extraordinary 
amount of inbreeding which has been so 
largely resorted to in this race. In order, 
probably, to keep the type and character, 
as also the pure lineage, we have the same 
names occurring over and over again in 
the same pedigree, and of those of the present 
day none appears more often or more surely 
than that of Ch. Swift — a hound bred by 
Mr. Singer, of Frome, Somerset, and who 
in turn is by Ch. Athole, the property of 





Phologiaph by Rusficll. 

Mr. Goultcr, from a very famous bitch, 
Hedwig. Swift is described as a red brindle, 
30J inches at the shoulder, and possessing 
in a marked degree, those most desirable 
points, size and quality. Before him 
again we have Ch. Fingall II., another 
ancestral dignitary. He is described as 
being the most noted Deerhound of his day. 
He was not only an excellent dog at the 
deer, but a winner of more first prizes than 
any Deerhound then living. He was a very 
dark blue in colour. 

" Another celebrated hound was Ch. Sel- 
wood Dhouran, by Ch. Swift. This was an im- 
mense dog, said by his owner, :\Ir. R. Hood 
Wright, to weigh over 100 lbs., and to stand 
31 inches at the shoulder. Ch. Sclwood 
Morven, also bred by :\Ir. Hood Wright, 
was another enormous hound, standing 
32f inches at the shoulder, while m girth 
he measured 34V inches. Many of the old 
breeders assert that this is too large, and 
that the present day craze for size is not in 
accordance with what used to be considered 
correct in the old days of exhibiting and 
hunting. For instance in 1859 the repre- 
sentative dog chosen by " Stonehenge," 

viz. : Buscar, was 28 inches, and in 1872 
the following hounds measured :— 






. 27-i 


... 27 


. . 2C,i 


. zb 

Colin . 

. . 28 


. 26 


. • 30 


. 26 


. • 30 


. 26 

Bruce . 

. . 28 


. 26 

Oscar . 

. . 28 


■ 29 

Young To 

rrum . 30 J 


. 28 


. . 28 

Oscar . 

. . 28 


. . . 28 

Young Wc 

irrior . 28 


. . . 28 


. . . 28 

" So that four out of fourteen dogs were 
over 28 inches high, and three out of 
eight bitches over 26 inches. 

" Personally, I think a dog of 30 inches a 
very fair size, and it is unnecessary to strive 
after anything taller, for about this height 
we generally get the better type, character 
and quality, while dogs taller than this have 
a tendency to appear coarse and heavy a; 



the shoulders, and lean too much to the Irish 
Wolfhound ; but there is little doubt that 
size will always be a subject of discussion 
amongst Deerhound breeders, although, in 
the standard of points, as laid down by the 
Club, dogs are given as from 28 inches to 
30 inches, and bitches from 26 inches 

" In conclusion, let me add that I think 
' once a Deerhound lover, always a Deer- 
hotmd lover,' for there is something about 
the breed which is particularly attractive ; 
they are no fools, if brought up sensibly, 
and thev are obedient, while, for all they 
are so large, it is astonishing what little 

room the}" occupy : they have a happy 
knack of curling themselves up into wonder- 
fully small compass, and lying out of the 
wa}\ They do not require a very great 
amount of food, and are readily and easily 
exercised, as, if let loose in some field or 
other convenient place, they soon gallop 
themselves tired. They are as a rule 
excellent followers, either in town or country, 
keeping close to heel and walking in a digni- 
fied manner ; while, on the approach of a 
strange dog, a slight raising of the head and 
tail is generally all the notice they deign to 
give that they have even seen the passing 






' The lady's hound, restore the hound. Sir Knight.' 

'The hound,' said Gawaine, much relieved; 'what hound?' 

And then perceived he that the dog he fed, 
With grateful steps the kindly guest had found. 

And there stood faithful. ' Friend,' Sir Gawaine said, 
' What's just is just J the dog must have his due. 
The dame had hers, to choose between the two.' " 

— BuLWER Lytton. 

OF the many foreign varieties of the 
dog that have been introduced into 
this country within recent years, 
there is not one among the larger breeds 
that has made greater headway in the 
public favour than the Borzoi, or Russian 
Wolfhound.* Nor is this to be wondered 
at. The most graceful and elegant of all 
breeds, combining symmetry with strength, 
the wearer of a lovely silky coat that a 
toy dog might envy, the length of head, 
possessed by no other breed — all go to 
make the Borzoi the favourite he has 

He is essentially what our American 
cousins would call a " spectacular " dog. 
Given, for example, the best team of 
terriers and a fifth-rate team of Borzois, 
which attracts the more attention and 
admiration from the man in the street ? 
Which does he turn again to look at ? 
Not the terriers ! Add to this that the 
Borzoi makes a capital house dog, is, as a 
rule, affectionate and a good companion, 
it is not, I repeat, to be wondered at that 
he has attained the dignified position in 
the canine world which he now holds. 

In his native country the Borzoi is em- 
ployed, as his English name implies, in 
hunting the wolf and also smaller game, 
including foxes and hares. 

* Although commonly known as the Russian 
Wolfhound, this dog belongs of course to the Grey- 
hound family, Levner, running dog. 

Se\-eral methods of hunting the larger 
game are adopted, one form being as follows. 
Wolves being reported to be present in the 
neighbourhood, the hunters set out on 
horseback, each holding in his left hand a 
leash of three Borzois, as nearly matched 
as possible in size, speed, and colour. 
Arrived at the scene of action, the chief 
huntsman stations the hunters at separate 
points every hundred yards or so round 
the wood. A pack of hounds is sent in 
to draw the quarry, and on the wolves 
breaking cover the nearest hunter slips 
his dogs. These endeavour to seize their 
prey by the neck, where they liold him until 
the hunter arrives, throws himself from 
his horse, and with his knife puts an end 
to the fray. 

Another method is to advance across 
the open country at intervals of about 
two hundred yards, shpping the dogs at 
any game they may put up. 

Trials are also held in Russia. These 
take place in a large railed enclosure, the 
wolves being brought in carts similar to 
our deer carts. In this case a brace of 
dogs is loosed on the wolf. The whole 
merit of the course is when the hounds 
can overtake the wolf and pin him to the 
ground, so that the keepers can secure 
him alive. It follows, therefore, that in 
this case also the hounds must be of equal 
speed, so that they reach the wolf simulta- 
neously ; one dog would, of course, be 
unable to hold him. 




Naturally, the dogs have to be trained 
to the work, for which purpose the best 
wolves are taken alive and sent to the 
kennels, where the j-oung dogs are taught 
to pin him m such a manner that he cannot 
turn and use his teeth. I know of no 

PImlogiaph (i.v T. F.ii!. 

reason why the Borzoi should not be used 
for coursing in this country. I have owned 
several that have been excellent at hares 
and rabbits. 

One of the first examples of the breed 
exhibited in England was owned by Messrs. 
Hill and Ashton, of Sheffield, about 1880, 
at which time good specimens were imported 
by the Rev. J. C. Macdona and Lady 
Emily Peel, whose Sandringham and Czar 
excited general admiration. It was then 
known as the Siberian Wolfhound. Some 
years later the Duchess of Newcastle ob- 
tained several fine dogs, and from this stock 
Her Grace founded the kennel which has 
since become so famous. Later still. Queen 
Alexandra received from the Czar a gift 
of a leash of these stately hounds, one of 
them being Alex, who quickly achieved 
honours as a champion. 

The breed has become as fashionable 

in the United States as in Great Britain, 
and some excellent specimens are to be 
seen at the annual shows at Madison 
Square Gardens. 

To take the points of the breed in de- 
tail, the description of the perfect Borzoi 
is as follows : — 

I. Head. — This 
should be long and 
lean. It is, how- 
ever, not only es- 
sential for the head 
to be long, but it 
must also be what 
is termed "well 
balanced," and the 
length, from the tip 
of the nose to the 
eyes, must be the 
same as from the 
eyes to the occiput. 
A dog may have a 
long head, but the 
length may be all 
in front of the eyes. 
The heads of this 
breed have greatly 
improved the last 
few years ; fewer 
" apple-headed " 
specimens, and 
more of the d e- 
sired triangular 
heads being seen. 
The skull should be flat and narrow, the stop 
not perceptible, the muzzle long and tapering. 
Too much stress cannot be laid on the im- 
portance of the head being well filled up 
before the eyes. The head, from forehead to 
nose, should be so fine that the direction of the 
bones and principal veins can be seen clearly, 
and in profile should appear rather Roman nosed. 
Bitches should be even narrower in head than 
dogs. A perfect head is shown on p. 185. 

2. Eyes. — These should be dark, expressive, 
almond shaped, and not too far apart. 

3. Ears. — Like those of a Greyhound, small, 
thin, and placed well back on the head, with the 
tips, when thrown back, almost touching behind 
the occiput. It is not a fault if the dog can 
raise his ears erect when excited or looking 
after game, although some English judges dislike 
this frequent characteristic. 

4. Neck. — The head should be carried some- 
what low, with the neck continuing the line of the 

5. Shoulders. — Clean and sloping well back, 
i.e. the shoulder blades should almost touch 
one another. 



6. Chest. — Deep and somewhat narrow. It 
must be capacious, but the capacity must be 
got from depth, and not from ■ barrel " ribs — a bad 
fault in a running hound. 

7. Back. — Rather bony, and free from any 
ca\dt>' in the spinal column, the arch in the back 
being more marked in the dog than in the bitch. 

8. Loins. — Broad and very powerful, showing 
plenty of muscular development. 

9. Thighs. — Long and well developed, with 
good second thigh. The muscle in the Borzoi is 
longer than in the Greyhound. 

10. Ribs. — Slightly sprung, very deep, reaching 
to the elbow. 

11. Fore-legs. — Lean and straight. Seen from 
the front thev should be narrow and from the 
side broad at the shoulder and narrow-ing gradu- 
ally down to the foot, the bone appearing flat 
and not round as in the Foxhound. 

14. Coat. — Long, silky, not woolly ; either flat, 
wavy, or curly. On the head, ears, and front 
legs it should be short and smooth ; on the neck 
the frill should be profuse and rather curly ; 
on the chest and the rest of the body, the tail and 
hind quarters, it should be long ; the fore-legs being 
well feathered. 

15. Tail. — Long, well feathered, and not gaily 
carried. It should be carried well down, almost 
touching the ground. 

16. Height. — Dogs from 29 inches upwards at 
shoulder, bitches from 27 inches upwards. 
(Originally 27 inches and 26 inches. Altered at 
a general meeting of the Borzoi Club, held 
February, 1906.) 

17. Faults. — Head short and thick ; too much 
stop ; parti-coloured nose ; eyes too wide apart ; 
heavy ears ; heavy shoulders ; wide chest ; 
" barrel " ribbed : dew-claws ; elbows turned out ; 



12. Hind Legs. — The least thing under the 
body when standing still, not straight, and the 
stifle slightly bent. They should, of course, 
be straight as regards each other, and not " cow- 
hocked," but straight hind legs imply a want of 

13. Feet. — Like those of the Deerhound, rather 
long. The toes close together and well arched. 

wide behind. .\lso light eyes and over or under- 
shot jaws. 

18. Colour. — The Club standard makes no men- 
tion of colour. \\'hite, of course, should pre- 
dominate ; fawn, lemon, orange, brindle, blue, 
slate and black markings are met with. Too 
much of the latter, or black and tan markings, are 
disliked. Whole coloured dogs are also seen. 

1 84 


The foregoing description embodies the 

' standard of points as laid down and adopted 

by the Borzoi Club, but I have interpolated 

some remarks for the further guidance of 

the novice. 

The Borzoi Club was founded in 1892, 
and now consists of about fifty members, 
with the Duke and Duchess of Newcastle 
as joint-presidents. It does much good 
work for the breed, guaranteeing classes 
at shows, where otherwise few or none 
would be given, encouraging the breeding 
of high-class Borzois by offering its valu- 
able challenge cups and other special prizes, 
and generally looking after the interests 
of the breed.* 

Although the Club standard of height 
has been raised from 27 and 26 inches 
to 29 and 27 inches for dogs and bitches 
respectively, it must be borne in mind 
that the best dogs of to-day far exceed 
these measurements, and, unless exception- 
ally good in other points, a dog of 29 inches 
at shoulder would stand little or no chance 
in the showing under the majority of English 
judges ; indeed, bitches of 29 to 30 inches 
are by no means uncommon, as will be 
seen by glancing at the following measure- 
ments of some of the leading champions 
of recent years. 

Ch. Velsk (dog) : 

Height at shoulder 
Length of head 
Girth of chest 

Ch. Tatiana (bitch) : 

Height at shoulder 
Length of head 
Girth of chest 

Ch. Statesman (dog) : 

Height at shoulder 
Length of head 
Girth of chest 

Ch. Kieff (dog): 

Height at shoulder 
Head .... 
Girth .... 
Miss Piostri (bitch) : 
Height at shoulder 
Head .... 
Girth .... 
































• The Hon. Sec. is Major Borraan, Billericay. Esse 
who will at all times be pleased to furnish any lady ' 
gentleman desiring to join with full particulars. 

The above, of course, all combine quality 
with size ; mere size in itself is nothing to 
go by. A list of Borzois entitled to the 
coveted prelix of " Champion " at the 
present day (1907) may be of interest. 

Clumber Kennels (Her Grace the Duchess 
of Newcastle's) — Dogs : Ivan Turgeneff, 
Velsk, Votrio, Vassal. Bitches: Sunbeam, 
Theodora, Tatiana. 

Ramsden Kennels (Mrs. Borman's)— 
Dogs: Kieff, Ramsden, Ranger, States- 
man. Bitch : Miss Piostri. 

Padiham Kennels (Mr. Murphy's) — Dog 
Padiham Nordia. 

Mrs. Aitcheson's Kennels — Dog : Straw- 
berry King. Bitch : Votrio Vikhra. 

Mrs. May's Kennel — Dog : Berris. 

There are, however, a few others that have 
won one or two challenge prizes, and who, 
ere this appears in print, may rank with 
the dite of their breed. 

The above measurements, together with 
the accompanying photographs, should be 
suiftcient guide to an intending purchaser 
of Borzois, who must, however, remember 
that they are given only as a guide, and 
that he must not expect quite such ex- 
cellence, unless prepared to dip very deeply 
into his pocket. 

Not many of us can afford to start at 
the top of the tree, and, except for the 
favoured few to whom money is no object, 
and who can buy ready-made champions, 
there is no better way of starting a kennel 
than to purchase a really good bitch, one, 
say, capable of winning at all but the 
more important shows. She must be of 
good pedigree, strong, and healthy ; such 
an one ought to be obtained for £15 up- 
wards. Mate her to the best dog whose 
blood " nicks " suitably with hers, but 
do not waste time and money breeding 
from fourth-rate stud dogs, for if you do 
it is certain you will only meet with dis- 
appointment. You may save a guinea 
or two on the stud fee, but you will find 
you will have no sale for the progeny of 
unknown dogs ; whereas strong, healthy 
puppies by a well-known sire will always 
command a ready market. On the other 
hand, if you have had little or no experi- 



ence of dogs, you may possibly prefer to pal items to be considered if you intend 

start with a puppy. If so, my advice is 
to place yourself in the hands of a breeder 
with a reputation at stake (unless you 
have a friend who imderstands the breed). 
It is a fact that even a " cast off " from a 
good strain that has been bred for certain 
points for years is more likely to turn out 
a better dog than a pup whose dam has 
been mated " haphazard " to 
some dog who may or may not 
have been a good one. Big 
kennels also generally possess the 
best bitches and breed from them, 
and the bitch is quite as import- 
ant a factor as the sire. If, how- 
ever, you prefer to rely on your 
own judgment, and wish to choose 
a puppy yourself from a litter, 
select the one with the longest 
head, biggest bone, smallest ears, 
and longest tail, or as many of 
these qualities as you can find 
combined in one individual. Coat 
is a secondary matter in quite a 
young pup ; here one should be 
guided by the coat of the sire 
and dam. Still, choose a pup 
with a heavy coat, if possible, 
although when this puppy coat 
is cast, the dog may not grow so 
good a one as some of the litter 
who in early life were smoother. 
As regards size, a Borzoi pup 
of three months should measure 
about 19 inches at the shoulder, at six 
months about 25 inches, and at nine 
months from 27 to 29 inches. After ten 
or twelve months, growth is verj- slow, 
although some continue adding to their 
height until they are a year and a half 
old. They will, of course, increase in 
girth of chest and develop muscle until 
two years old ; a Borzoi may be con- 
sidered in its prime at from three to four 
years of age. As regards price, from £5 
to £10 is not too much to pay for a reaUy 

to rear him well ; firstly, his diet must be 
varied ; secondly, the pup must have un- 
limited exercise, and never be kept on 
the chain ; thirdly, internal parasites must 
be kept in check. For young puppies the 
wTiter — who has tried nearly every ad- 
vertised remedy — has found nothing to 
equal " Ruby " ^^'orm Cure ; it is most 



Photograph by \V. H. Sliick. 

efficacious, and does not distress the 

Food should be given at regular mtervals 
— not less frequenth' than five times a day 
to newly weaned puppies — and may con- 
sist of porridge, bread and milk, raw meat 
minced fine, and any table scraps, with 
plenty of new milk. Well-boiled paunch 
is also greatly appreciated, and, being 
easily digested, may be given freely. 

One important part of the puppy's 
education that must by no means be 
pup of about eight to ten weeks neglected is to accustom him to go on 
old ; if you pay less you will probably the collar and lead. Borzoi pups are, 
get only a second-rate one. Having pur- as a rule, extremely nervous, and it requires 
chased your puppy, there are three princi- great patience in some cases to train them 


to the lead. Short lessons should be given 
when about four months old. If you can 
induce the puppy to think it is a new- 
game, well and good — he will take to it 
naturally ; but once he looks upon it as 
something to be dreaded, it means hours 
of patient work to break him in. 

If you decide on commencing with a 

but to rear them well they should not be 
allowed to suckle more than five — or, if 
a strong, big bitch, si.x — pups. If the 
litter is larger, it is better to destroy the 
remainder, or use a foster mother. 

One great advantage the breed has over 
many others is the absolutely natural state 
in which the dogs may be shown. No 


brood bitch, see that she is dosed for worms 
before visiting the dog ; that she is in good 
hard condition — not fat, however ; and, 
if possible, accompany her yourself and 
see her mated. For the first week rather 
less than her usual quantity of food should 
be given ; afterwards feed as her appetite 
dictates, but do not let her get too fat, 
or she may have a bad time when whelping. 
For two days before the puppies are due 
give sloppy but nourishing diet, and this 
should be continued, given slightly warm, 
for four or five days after the pups are born. 
Borzois as a rule make excellent mothers, 

" trimming " is required. A good bath a 
day or two before the show is all that is 
necessary, for which purpose nothing is 
better than rain water ; a little liquid 
ammonia in it helps to remove the dirt. 

Whatever they may be in their nati\i 
land— and the first imported specimen^ 
were perhaps rather uncertain in temper- 
the Borzoi, as we know him in this countr\. 
is affectionate, devoted to his owner, friendl\ 
with his kennel companions — I have had 
as many as twenty all running loose to- 
gether, and kennel fights are practicall} 
unknown — and he makes a capital housi 



dog. As a lady's companion he is hard to 
beat ; indeed, a glance at any show cata- 
logue will prove that the majority of 
Borzois are owned by the gentle sex. 
No one need be deterred from keeping a 
Borzoi by a remark the wxiter has heard 
hundreds of times at shows : " Those 
dogs are so delicate." This is not the 
case. Once over distemper troubles — and 
the breed certainly does suffer badl}' if 
it contracts the disease — the Borzoi is as 
hardy as most breeds, if not hardier. Given 
a good dry kennel and plenty of straw, 
no weather is too cold for them ; in fact, 
all my own dogs live in cold kennels with 
open doors the entire winter. Damp, of 
course, must be avoided, but this applies 
equally to other breeds. 

The adult hound, like the puppy, should 
never be kept on chain ; a kennel with a 
railed-in run should be provided, or a 
loose box makes a capital place for those 

kept out of doors, otherwise no different 
treatment is required from that of other 
large breeds. A dry biscuit in the morning, 
a good feed at night— most Borzois are, 
for their size, comparatively small eaters — 
a good grooming daily with an ordinary 
dandy brush, and plenty of exercise, should 
suffice to keep any Borzoi in e.xcellent con- 
dition. A few minutes e.xpended on the 
dog's coat daily saves much trouble m the 
long run ; a Borzoi " pays " for a little 
attention. His beautiful coat shines ; the 
feathering keeps free from mats, the skin 
is clean and healthy, and a bath is un- 
necessary except before shows. One word 
more : feed, groom, and exercise your 
purchase yourself, at all events until he 
thoroughly knows you are his master. A 
dog arriving at a new home, petted and 
ordered about by all the inmates of the 
house, often ends by rendering obedience 
to none. 




From Gnck taia-cotta vans m The Biilish .I/uj.ii/h. 



" Let US sK'cnr 
Thai you arc worth your breeding ; lohich I doubt not ; 
For there is none of you so mean and base. 
That hath not noble lustre in your eyes. 
■ / see you stand like Greyhounds in the slips, 
Straining upon the start. The game's afoot." 

— King Henry V. 

THE Greyhound is tlie oldest and most 
conservative of all dogs, and his 
type has altered singularly little 
during the seven thousand years in which 
he is known to ha\'e been cherished for his 
speed, and kept by men for running down 
the gazelle or coursing the hare. The 
earliest references to him are far back in 
the primitive ages, long before he was 
beautifully depicted by Assyrian artists, 
straining at the leash or racing after his 
prey across the desert sands. The Egyptians 
loved him and appreciated him centuries 
before the pyramids were built.* In those 

* A recent American writer on the dog makes 
a point of his discover^' of ■■ a beautifully modelled 
dog of Greyhound type from an Egyptian tomb" 
preserved in the Metropolitan Museum. New York. 
We have scores of such beautiful models in the 
British Museum ; they are not the models of 
Greyhounds, however, but of the sacred Jackal 
of Anubis. This Jackal figure is of frequent 
occurrence in Egyptian monuments, and is almost 
invariably represented in the couchant position. 

days he wore a feathered tail, and his ears 
were heavy with a silken fringe of hair. 
His type was that of the modern Arabian 
Slughi, who is the direct and unaltered 
descendant of the ancient hound. The 
glorious King Solomon referred to him 
(Proverbs xxx. 31) as being one of the 
four things which " go well and are comely 
in going — a lion, which is strongest among 
beasts, and turneth not away from any ; a 
Greyhound ; an he goat also ; and a king 
against whom there is no rising up." 

That tile Cireyhound is " comely in 
going," as well as in repose, was recognised 
very early by the Greeks, whose artists 
were fond of introducing this graceful 
animal as an ornament in their decorative 
workmanship. In their metal work, their 
carvings in ivory and stone, and more 
particularly as parts in the designs on their 
terra-cotta oil bottles, wine coolers, and 
other vases, the Greyhound is frequently to 
be seen, sometimes following the hare, and 


usuall}' in remarkably characteristic atti- 
tudes, as in the third dog in the panel at the 
head of this chapter, which is copied from 
a wine jug of 500 B.C. This is the dog of 
Cheiron the Centaur. fa\\Tiing in front of 
Peleus and the infant Achilles. Usually 

the fifteenth century, and Albert Diirer, in 
the same period, introduced a beautifully 
typical Greyhound in his pictorial interpre- 
tation of the somewhat similar subject, 
" The Vision of St. Hubert." The hound 
in "\'an Dyck's portrait of Philippe Le Roy, 

From the Painting by VtTTORE PiSANO in TMf 

these Greek Greyhounds are represented 
with prick ears, but occasionall}- the true 
rose ear is shown, and in the British Museum 
there is a bronze lamp of the fourth century 
B.C., made in the form of a Greyhound's 
head, which might ha\'e been modelled b}' 
Elkington from Fullerton or Long Span. 
The lip of the lamp is fashioned in the form 
of a hare, held in the hound's mouth, thus 
proving that the hare was the recognised 

The Greyhound enters largely into more 
modem European art. There is an admir- 
able leash of these dogs in Vittore Pisano's 
"Vision of St. Eustace," painted early in 

now in the Wallace collection, is black 
with white markings, yerj' much resembling 
Master McGrath. All these examples gi\"e 
eloquent proof of the conservation of the 
Greyhound type. 

From the earliest history of the breed 
the Greyhound has been considered the 
highest type of the canine race ; he has 
been the favourite of Emperors and Kings. 
Xenophon and Herodotus extolled his high 
qualities in prose, and Ovid in verse, though 
there appears to be some doubt as to whether 
or not Xenophon in his treatise on hunting, 
when speaking of coursing, alluded to dogs 
hunting the hare by scent or by sight, but 




Painted by Albert Durer Earlv in the Fifteenth Centurv. 

(The Greyhound tn front of lite Iwnc shonhl h- fMtkularly stmiicd.) 

a good idea of a course is given in the lines 
of Ovid, translated by Dryden. 

" As when the impatient Greyhound, sh]ipcd 

from far, 
Bounds o'er the glade to course the fearful 

She in her speed does all her safety lie. 
And he with double speed pursues his prey, 
O'erruns her at the sitting turn ; but licks 
His chaps in vain ; yet blows upon the flix. 
She seeks the shelter which the neighbouring 

covert gives, 
And, gaining it, she doubts if yet she lives." 

All writings in connection with Greyhounds 
point to the high estimation in which the 
dog has always been held. Dr. Caius, 
when referring to the name, says " The Grey- 
hound hath his name of this word gre ; 
which word soundeth gradus in Latin, in 
Englishe degree, because among all dogges 

these are the most principall, 
occupying the chiefest place, and 
being simply and absolutely the 
best of the gentle kinde of 

It was not, however, until the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth that 
coursing in England was con- 
ducted under established rules. 
These were drawn up by the 
then Duke of Norfolk. The sport 
quickly grew in favour, and con- 
tinued to increase in popularity 
until the first coursing club was 
established at Swaffham in 1776. 
Then in 1780 the Ashdown Park 
Meeting came into existence, and 
for several years was quite at 
the top of the tree. The New- 
market Meeting in 1805 was the 
next fixture that was inaugu- 
rated, and this now remains 
with the champion stakes as its 
most important event. After- 
wards came the Amesbury Meet- 
ing in 1822, but Amesbury, like 
Ashdown, although for many 
years one of the most celebrated 
institutions of the description, has 
fallen from its high estate. Three 
years later came the Altcar Club. But it 
was not until eleven years after this period 
that the Waterloo Cup was instituted (in 
1836), to win which is the highest ambition 
of followers of the leash. 

At the present time the run for the Water- 
loo Cup, which at the commencement was an 
eight dog stake, is composed of sixty-four 
nominations, the entry fee for which is £2$. 
The winner takes £500, and the cup, value 
£100, presented by the Earl of Sefton, the 
runner up £200, the third and fourth £50 
each, four dogs £^6 each, eight dogs £20 each, 
and sixteen dogs £10 each. The thirty-two 
dogs beaten in the first round of the Cup 
compete for the Waterloo Purse, value £215, 
and the sixteen dogs run out in the second 
round for the Waterloo Plate, value £145. 
The winner in each case taking £75, and 
the runner up £30, the remainder being 
divided amongst the most forward runners 



in the respective stakes. The Waterloo 
Cup holds the same position in coursing 
circles as the Derby does in horse racing. 

The National Coursing Club was estab- 
lished in 1858, when a stud book was com- 
menced, and a code of laws drawn up for 
the regulation of coursing meetings. This 
is recognised in Australia and other parts of 
the world where coursing meetings are held. 
The Stud Book, of which Mr. W. F. Lamonbj^ 
is the keeper, contains particulars of all 
the best-known Greyhounds in the United 
Kingdom, and a dog is not allowed to 
compete at any of the large meetings held 
under Coursing Club Rules unless it has 
been duly entered %vith its pedigree com- 
plete. In fact, the National Coursing Club 
is more particular in connection with the 
pedigrees of Greyhounds being correctly 
given, than the Kennel Club is about dogs 
that are exhibited ; and that is sajdng a 
great deal, for whereas the latter allows a 
dog to be registered whose pedigree is un- 
known, a Gre3^hound without a pedigree is 
not allowed to compete at all. The National 
Coursing Club is conducted on somewhat the 
same lines as the American Kennel Club, 
the council being partly composed of repre- 
sentatives from the less important clubs, 
provided the latter are of more than one 
year's standing, and ha\-e more than twentj' 
members. It holds the same position in 
coursing matters as the Jockey Club does 
in racing. It is, in fact, the supreme au- 
thority on all matters connected with 
coursing. .\11 disputes are arbitrated upon 
by the Council, which has power to disqualify 
any person who has disregarded the rules 
or dog about which there is any suspicion. 

For the benefit of the uninitiated in cours- 
ing lore I give the value of the points when 
a brace of Greyhounds lea^•es the slips : 

Speed is necessarity the important point, 
for although stakes are sometimes won b\' 
Greyhounds that are not remarkable for 
great pace, but are clever workers, and have 
plenty of stamina, the fastest dogs are those 
that get more often to the end of the stake. 
The points that are allowed for the " run 
up " may be one, two, or three, according 
to the length of the lead, and the conditions 

upon which it is obtained. The " run up " 
which is followed by a " turn " or " wrench " 
may give a Greyhound five points to start 
with. The "go-bye " is valued at two points, 
or tlaree if it is on the outer side. The 
" turn " at one point is when the hare, 
being pressed by the leading dogs, turns at 
a right angle from the line that she is 
rimning. The " wTcnch," valued at half a 
point, is when the hare only bends from the 
line that is being taken. If, howe\-er, the 
hare alters its course without being pressed 
nothing is allowed. The " trip," for which 
one point is allowed, is an unsuccessful 
effort to kill, the hare being thrown off its 
legs or flecked by the Grejdiound in the 
attempt. Then there is the " kill." value 


Photograph by Mamcll, Oxford Street. 

Wallace Collectic 



two points, if the Greyhound accomplishes 
his object without any assistance from Iris 
opponent. If, however, the other dog causes 
the hare to turn to the one that kills, or 
in any other way is instrumental in 
effecting the kill, only one point may be 

The advantage of great speed is further 
demonstrated by the fact that if a dog after 
gaining the first six points is still in pos- 
session of the hare he is allowed double 

goes off the line in pursuit of the hare, no 
points afterwards made by him are scored, 
and if the points that he has made up to 
this time are the same as those of his 
opponent, he shall lose the course ; but should 
one or both dogs stop with the hare in view 
through being unable to get after her, the 
course shall be decided on the points gained 
by each dog during the whole course. 
Should a dog refuse to fence when his 
opponent has got over, any points subse- 



points for all he afterwards does before his 
opponent begins to score, or what is more 
often spoken of as "gets in." Accidents 
sometimes occur from a fall, or in some otlier 
way, during a course, but no points are 
allowed unless it is proved that the fall 
or accident has occurred from tiie owner (or 
his servant) of the competing dog ha\-ing 
ridden over the injured animal. Then, though 
the course may have been given against 
the latter, he will be declared the winner, or 
his owner shall have the option of allowing 
the opposing dog to remain in the stake, 
when he will be entitled to take half its 

In addition to the foregoing there are 
certain negative points. If a Greyhound 
refuses to follow the hare at which it is 
slipped it wiU lose the course. When a dog 

quently made by him are not to be scored, 
but if he tries to get over or becomes hung 
up or foiled by being held in a meuse, the 
course will then end, and if the points are 
equal the dog that has fenced the better 
will be given the course. 

It is only the open meetings that have 
so far been alluded to, but some twenty 
years ago enclosed coursing meetings were 
introduced at Gosforth Park, Newcastle-on 
Tyne, Kempton Park, near London, and 
Haydock Park, near Liverpool. These were 
popular for a short time, but they had not 
the ring of the true metal, and nearly all 
of them have disappeared. The chief stake 
at the Kempton Park Meeting was worth a 
thousand pounds, and big prize money was 
offered at all the principal meetings. 

The mode adopted at these enclosed 



meetings was to have a small covert at 
either end of a large grass enclosure about 
half a mile distant from each other, and 
wired round with only one outlet ; the hares, 
which had been pre\"iously turned down in 
these coverts, were driven into one of them 
the day before the coursing event was to 
take place, and when the stake was run 

Like horses, Greyhounds nm in all forms, 
and there is no doubt that a reall\' good big 
one will alwaj'-s have an advantage over the 
little ones ; but it is so difficult to find the 
former, and most of the chief winners of the 
Waterloo Cup have been comparatively 
small. Coomassie w^as the smallest Grey- 
hound that ever won the blue ribbon of 



By pimission 0/ the Trustees 0/ the late F. C. McQueen, oancrs 0/ the Copyright. 

they were driven one at a time tlirough 
the aperture, the dogs being in the shps 
outside. A fairly fast hare would generally 
manage to reach the opposite goals ; some- 
times, without being turned or wxenched. 
The only time that I was ever present at 
one of these meetings was at Kempton Park, 
and then the company sat in the Grand 
Stand to watch the proceedings. This w-as 
a tame style of sport compared with some 
of the big open meetings where wild hares 
that know the country are coursed. 

Various opinions have been advanced as 
to the best size and weight for a Greyhound. 

the leash ; she drew* the scale at 42 lbs., 
and was credited with the win of the Cup 
on tW'O occasions. Bab at the Bowster, 
who is considered by many good judges to 
have been the best bitch that ever ran, was 
2 lbs. more ; she won the Cup once, and 
many other stakes, as she was run all over 
the country and w-as not kept for the big 
event, blaster ^IcGrath was a small dog, 
and only weighed 53 lbs., but he won the 
Waterloo Cup three times. Fuller ton, who 
was a much bigger dog, and was four times 
declared the winner of the Cup, was 56 
lbs. in weight. 



There are very few Greyhounds that have 
won the Waterloo Cup more than once, but 
Cerito. whose portrait appears in the group 



on the opposite page, was credited witli it 
three times, namely, in 1850, 1852, and 1853, 
when it was a thirty-two dog stake. Cana- 
radzo, Bit of Fashion, Miss Glendine, 
Herschel, Thoughtless Beauty, and Fabulous 
Fortune, are probably some of the best Grey- 
hounds that ever ran besides those already 
alluded to. Bit of Fashion was the dam of 
Fullerton, who shares with Master McGrath 
the reputation of being the two best Grey- 
hounds that ever ran. But Master 
McGrath came first ; he was tlie 
property of Lord Lurgan, and was 
wonderfully quick to his hare, and 
when there made good use >>i 
his teeth. It was these qualili- 
cations which helped him so 
greatly in his courses, as he had 
short spins which took but little 
out of him. No Greyhound prol> 
ably has had so manv honours 
heaped upon him as Master 
IMcGrath, as at the command of 
the late Queen \'ictoria he was 
taken to Windsor Castle, there 
to be introduced to Her Majesty. 
During his remarkable career in 
public he won thirty-six courses 
out of thirty-seven, the only time 
that he was defeated being in 

1870 at his third attempt to win the 
Waterloo Cup, and the flag went up in 
favour of [Mr. Tre\-or"s Lady Lyons. He, 
howe\-er, retrie\-ed his good fortune the 
following year, when he again ran through 
the stake. 

Fullerton, who, when he won all liis 
honours, was the property of Colonel North, 
was bred by Mr. James Dent in Northumber- 
land. Colonel North gave 850 guineas for 
him, which was then stated to be the highest 
j)rice ever paid for a Greyhound. He ran 
live times altogether for the Waterloo Cup, 
and was declared the winner on four occa- 
sions. The first time was in 1889, when he 
divided with his kennel companion Trough- 
end. Then he won the Cup outright the three 
following years. In 1893, however, after 
having been put to the stud, at which he 
proved a failure, he was again trained for the 
Cup, but age had begun to tell its tale, and 
after winning one course he was beaten by 
Mr. Keating's Full Cajjtain, in the second. 
This was one of the two occasions upon 
wliich out of tliirty-three courses he failed 
to raise the flag. On the other he was 
beaten by Mr. Gladstone's Greengage, when 
running the deciding course at Haydock 

It was a great disappointment to Colonel 
Nortli tliat Fullerton pro\-ed useless for 





rhotoi;nif'li by IV. H. Pugh, Lr.afavl. 




stud purposes, as at a fee of forty guineas 
his list was quickly filled. After his last 
defeat in the Waterloo Cup, he retired into 
private life at Eltham, where he remained 
till the death of Colonel North, when he 
was sent back to his old home in Northum- 
berland, as a gift to Mr. Dent. On liis 
death. FuUerton was presented to tlie 

Member's Cup, when he easily led and 
defeated Flag of the Free ; he was then 
again drawn. Amongst the six dogs that 
he defeated in the Waterloo Cup was Hop- 
rend, the winner of the Cup in the previous 
year. He is a good-looking dog with great 
muscular development behind. He is by 
Patelev Bridge out of Forest Fairy, the 



Phologiafh bv C Kcid. iris/i.i;.'. 

Natural History Museum, where he may 
be seen, beautifully mounted by Mr. Ward. 
The hero of the present time, however, is 
Su- R. W. Buchanan-Jardine's celebrated 
puppy Long Span, who ran so brilliantly 
through the Waterloo Cup in February, 1907. 
Previously to this he had run only one course 
in public, and his trainer had experienced 
great difficulty in getting him fit, owing to 
the weather in Scotland having been so 
severe. It is stated that Long Span not 
having been sold at the Barbican when the 
litter came under the hammer was after- 
wards purchased by his present owner for 
ninety guineas. Long Span was entered at 
the first Altcar Club meeting, and. being 
slightly amiss, he was drawn, but at the 
second meeting he ran one course in the 

former out of Thoughtless Beauty, the 
latter by Under the Globe, both of whom 
have been high class performers on the leash. 
It appears like descending from the 
sublime to the ridiculous to mention the 
Greyhound as a show dog, after the many 
brilliant performances that have been re- 
corded of him in the leash, but there are 
many dogs elegant in outline with fine 
muscular development that are to be seen 
in the judging ring. Mr. George Raper's 
Roasting Hot is one of the most prom- 
inent winners of the day ; he is a fawn and 
white, as handsome as a peacock and, 
moreover, is a good dog in the field. On 
one occasion after competing successfully 
at the Kennel Club Show at the Crystal 
Palace, he was taken to a coursing meetmg 

u. ^ 



where he won the stake in which he was 
entered. A brace of very beautiful bitches 
are Mr. F. E\^er's Dorset Girl and Miss W. 
Eaton's Okeford Queen. 

Although, as a rule, the most consistent 
winners in the leash have not been noted 
for their good looks, there have been ex- 
ceptions in which the opposite has been 
the case. FuUerton was a good-looking 
dog, if not quite up to the form required in 
the show ring. ilr. Harding Cox has had 
several specimens that could run well and 
win prizes as show dogs, and the same may 
be said of ]Miss Maud ilay's fine kennel of 
Greyhounds in the North of England. In 
the South of England Mrs. A. Dewe keeps 
a number of longtails that when not winning 
prizes at the Crystal Palace and elsewhere 
are running at Plumpton and other meetings 
in Sussex. 

The following is the standard by which 
Greyhounds should be judged. 

1. Head. — Long and narrow, slightly wider 
in skull, allowing for plenty of brain room ; bps 
tight, without any flew, and eyes bright and in- 
telligent and dark in colour. 

2. Ears. — Small and fine in texture, and semi- 

3. Teeth. — -Very strong and level, and not 
decayed or cankered. 

4. Neck. — Lengthy, without any throatiness. 
but muscular. 

5. Shoulders. — Placed well back in the body, 
and fairly muscular, ^\•^thout being loaded. 

6. Forelegs. — Perfectly straight, set well into 
the shoulders, with strong pasterns and toes set 
well up and close together. 

7. Body. — Chest very deep, with fairly well- 
sprung ribs ; muscular back and loins, and well cu t 
up in the flanks. 

8. Hindquarters. — Wide and well let down, 
with hocks well bent and close to the ground, with 
very muscular haunches, showing great propelling 
power, and tail long and fine and tapering with a 
slight upward curve. 

9. Coat. — Fairly fine in texture. 

10. Weight. — The ideal weight of a dog is from 
60 pounds to 65 pounds, of a bitch from 55 pounds 
to 60 pounds. 



1 98 





' We slipped our dogs, and last my Lelaps too, 
When none of all the mortal race would do : 
He long before was struggling from my hands, 
And, ere we could unloose him, broke his bands, 
That minute where he was, we could not find. 
And only saw the dust he left behind." 

Tate's " Ovid. 


*'0R elegance of 
style, cleanli- 
ness of habit, 
and .graceful move- 
ment, few dogs can 
equal the Whippet, 
for which reason his 
popularity as a com- 
panion has increased 
very greatly within the past decade. Xo 
more affectionate creature is to be found, 

yet he possesses considerable determination 
and pluck, and on occasion will defend 
himself in his own way. 

Too fragile in his anatomy for fighting, 
in the ordinary sense of the word, when 
molested, he will " snap " at his opponent 
with such celerity as to take even the most 
watchful by surprise ; while his strength of 
jaw, combined with its comparatively great 
length, enables him to inflict severe punish- 
ment at the first grab. It was probably 



owing to this habit, which is common to 
all \\'hippets, that they were originally 
kno%\-n as Snap-Dogs. 

The \\'hippet existed as a separate breed 
long before dog shows were thought of, 
and at a time when records of pedigrees 
were not officially preserved ; but it is very 
certain that the Greyhound had a share in 
his genealogical history, for not only should 
his appearance be precisely that of a Grey- 
hound in miniature, but the purpose for 
which he was bred is very similar to that 
for which his larger prototype is still used, 
the only difference being that rabbits were 
coursed by Whippets, and hares by Grey- 

This sport has been mainty confined to 
the working classes, the colliers of Lanca- 
shire, Yorkshire, Durham, and Northumber- 
land being particular^ devoted to it. The 
manner in which it was formerl}^ carried 
out was not in keeping with modem ideas, as 
the quarry was not hunted up anywhere 
near its accustomed haunts, but was first 
caught by the aid of nets, and when required 
was turned down in an enclosed space in 
front of a couple of dogs, who were in charge 
of an official slipper. The march of civi- 
lisation, however, put a stop to what was 
nothing more nor less than cruelty, for the 
rabbit had no possible means of escape, 
to say nothing of its terrified state when 
let loose, consequent on its previous im- 
prisonment. The intervention of the au- 
thorities brought about a change, which, 
though a great improvement from a moral 
point of view, has its drawbacks, for the 
present manner of Whippet racing cannot 
be called coursing, since it does not test the 
turning capabilities of the dogs engaged ; 
neither do the competitions take place over 
grass land, but on cinder tracks, very similar 
to those favoured by professional pedestrians, 
but always perfectly straight. The official 
slipper is dispensed with, instead of whom 
the owner of each competitor engages the 
services of an experienced person to start 
the dog on its journey at a signal given by 
the firing of a pistol. As a rule the contests 
are handicaps, the starting point of each 
competitor being regulated by its weight ; 

but the winners of previous important 
events are penalised in addition, according 
to their presumed merit, b}^ having a certain 
number of yards deducted from the start 
to which w-eight alone would otherwise 
have entitled them. Amongst Whippet 
racers the indi\'idual who can release a 
Whippet in a satisfactory manner is con- 
sidered to be quite a professor. 

In all events of importance the number 
of competitors necessitates the decisions 
being arrived at piecemeal, so to speak, 
some four or five dogs running together in 
heats. Each dog is taken to its stipulated 
mark according to the handicap, and there 
laid hold of by the nape of the neck and 
hind quarters ; the real starter stands 
behind the lot, and after warning all to be 
ready, discharges a pistol, upon which each 
attendant swings his dog as far fprward as 
he can possibly throw him, but always 
making sure that he alights on his feet. 
The distance covered in the race is generally 
200 yards, minus the starts allotted, and 
some idea of the speed at which these very 
active little animals can travel may be 
gleaned from the fact that the full distance 
has been covered in rather under 12 seconds. 

In order to induce each dog to do its 
best, the owner, or more probably the trainer 
— for the same pains are taken to prepare 
these dogs for their engagements as are 
bestowed upon Greyhounds — stands beyond 
the winning post, which, by the way, is no 
post at all, but a white mark across the track, 
and frantically waves a towel or very stout 
rag. Accompanied by a babel of noise, the 
race is started, and in less time than it takes 
to write it the competitors reach the goal, 
one and all as they finish taking a flying 
leap at their trainer's towel, to which they 
hold on with such tenacity that they are 
swung round in the air. The speed at which 
they are travelling makes this movement 
necessary in many cases to enable the dog to 
avoid accident, particularly w^here the space 
be3^ond the winning mark is limited. The 
judge's position is, of course, at the end of 
the line. For racing purposes there is a 
wide margin of size allowed to the dogs, 
anything from 8 lbs. to 23 lbs., or even more. 


being eligible ; but in view of the handicap 
terms those dogs which possess speed, and 
scale 9 to 12 lbs. amongst the hght-weights, 
and over 17 lbs. in the heavy ones, are con- 
sidered to have the best chance. 

About a dozen years ago an effort was made 
to give the sport a little more tone. Several 
ladies and gentlemen of influence were 
induced to give their patronage and prac- 
tical support to races which were run in 
the south of 
England, a 
occurring in 
with the show 
of the Ladies' 
Kennel Asso- 
ciation, which 
was held in 
tJie Ranelagli 
Club grounds 
at Barn Elms. 
The difficulty 
of disassoci- 
ating such 


When rabbit- 
coursing was more 
in vogue it was the 
custom to arrange 
the handicaps ac- 
cord i n g to the 
height of the com- 
petitors at the 
shoulder, and not 
by weiglit. 

Whippet racing 
in some form or 
other has existed 
much longer than 
the generality i>f 

the present day f<incicrs imagine, for this 
writer can rely on his memory for at least 
half a century, and even so long ago the 
patriarchs of the period were prone to 
recount the wonderful deeds performed by 
famous Whippets of yet earlier years. 




competitions from the squabbling and com- 
monplace surroundings which were prevalent 
proved too much for the endurance of those 
who had undertaken the responsibility, 
and no headway was made, although 
Royalty gave its patronage to the event, 


King Edward and Queen Alexandra (then 
the Prince and Princess of Wales) being 
jiresent. There is no diminution in the 
popularity of the sport, however, in the 
northern shires ; rather is it on the increase. 
The principal handicaps attract not only a 
large number of entries, but also a big con- 
couise of spectators, who, for the most part, 
take more than a passing interest in the 
success or defeat of the dog or dogs which 
may commend themselves to their ideas at 
the moment, for nearly all are financially 
interested one way or another. 

Probably there is no locality where the 
pastime has maintained such a firm hold 
as in and around Oldham, one of the most 
famous tracks in the world being at Higgin- 
shaw, where not infrequently three hundred 
dogs are entered in one handicap. The 
Borough grounds at Oldham and the Welling- 
ton grounds at Bury are also noted centres 
for races. It is a remarkable but well recog- 
nised fact that bitches are faster than dogs, 
and in consequence the terms upon which 
they are handicapped are varied. The 
general custom is to allow a dog 2i to 3 
yards advantage for every pound difference 
in weight between it and the gentle sex. 

One of the fastest dogs that e\-er ran was 
CoUier Lad, but he was almost a Greyhound 
as regards size. Wliitefoot, whose o\\'ner 
challenged the world, and was considered 
to be quite unbeatable, was a Whippet in 
every sense of the word, and was a nice 
medium weight, though probably Capple- 
bank's time of iiii seconds stands alone ; 
it must be noted, however, that his record 
was made on the Wellington grounds at 
Bury, where the course is slightly downhill. 
The best of the present-day racing dogs 
are Polly fro' Astley (15 lbs.) and Dinah 
(11^ lbs.), and of those which promise well 
for the future, Eva, whose weight is only 
9 J lbs., is most prominent, as may be 
gauged from the fact that she is at the 
time of writing entered in a handicap 
commanding three hundred entries, in which 
heavier dogs are given a longer start. 

The training of Whippets is by no means 
easy work, and is more expensive than most 
people imagine. To begin with, the very 

choicest food is deemed absolutely necessary, 
in fact a \Miippet undergoing preparation 
for an important race is provided with the 
most \vholesome fare. Choice mutton -chops, 
beef-steaks and similar dainties comprise 
their daily portion. Of course exercise is 
a necessity, but it is not considered good 
pohcy to allow a dog in training to gambol 
about either on the roads or in the fields. 
Indeed, all dogs which are undergoing pre- 
paration for a race are practically deprived 
of their freedom, in lieu of which they are 
walked along hard roads, secured by a lead ; 
and for fear of their picking up the least bit 
of refuse each is securely muzzled by a box- 
like leather arrangement which completely 
envelops the jaws, but which is freely per- 
forated to permit proper breathing. Any 
distance between six and a dozen miles 
a day, according to the stamina and con- 
dition of the dog, is supposed to be the proper 
amount of exercise, and scales are brought 
into use every few days to gauge the effect 
which is being produced. In addition to 
tliis private trials are necessary in the 
presence of someone who is accustomed to 
timing races by the aid of a stop-watch — a 
by no means easy task, considering that a 
slight particle of a second means so many 
yards, and the average speed working out at 
about 16 yards per second — nearly twice as 
fast as the fastest pedestrian sprinter, and 
altogether beyond the power of the fleetest 

Formerly there were two varieties of 
Whippet, long and short coated, but the 
former is rarely met with nowadays, either 
at the exhibitions or on the running track ; 
in fact, a long-coated dog, however good it 
might be as regards anatomy, would have 
a poor chance of winning a prize at a show, 
for its shaggy appearance would most likely 
hide the graceful outline which is a much 
admired and characteristic feature. 

Of course the hanchcapper is a most im- 
portant personage, and it is very creditable 
that amongst surroundings where temptation 
is so profuse, and could be embraced almost 
with impunity, men are still at work who 
have retained the confidence of the public 
for over thirty years. Such a one is Mr. 


Ralph Harper, of Kcarslcy, a mining hamlet 
situated half-way between Manchester and 
Bolton. Probably no man living is so 
thoroughly acquainted with Whippet racing 
as he, in fact, it is pretty generally conceded 
that he has forgotten more about the sport 
than most others know. Another trust- 
wortli}' handicapper is Mr. Large, of Wolver- 
liampton, whose bitch Nance is at the present 


time playing an important part in big events ; 
while J\ir. Joe Chadwick, of Higginshaw, 
frequently takes charge of the very largest 
meetings with credit to himself and to the 
satisfaction of all interested. 

Reference Has been made to the attendant 
who releases the dog for a race. He is 
officially termed a "shpper" ; and so much 
depends upon his efforts, that his ability 
has to be taken into account by the handi- 
capper, as will be seen by the following 
rules, which, though somewhat quaintly 
worded, can be easily understood, and are 
still in force : — 

I. — Any slipper not having slipped three 
winners in 1905 will be allowed one yard ; or 
four winners half a yard, and one yard in the 
final, or second day all through, providing he 
claims and names his dog, before the first heat is 
run, to the referee ; but must slip the dog all 
through till beaten. 

-■ — If a slipper claims allowance and 
the dog is beaten first time through, he can claim 
the same for second and final rounds (of course, 
for such dogs as he may then be engaged to slip). 

3- — If with the one yard allowance a 
slipper's dog wins, he is entitled to half a yard 
and one yard in the final after till he has slipped 
three more winners. 

4. — No owner will be allowed to change 
slipper after claiming, for one slipper must slip 
the same dog all through till he is beaten, or 
the dog will be disqualified. 

5. — If two dogs are handicapped off a 
mark, and one claims the allowance, that dog 
shall start on the left hand side. 

It does not follow that the best-looking 
Whippet is the best racer, otherwise many 
of the champion show dogs would never 
have seen a judging ring in a show, for the 
majority of them have been disposed of by 
their breeders because they were not quite 
fleet enough to win races. The value of 
such Whippets as, in the opinion of experts, 
are quite qualified to win prizes has very 
nnich improved of late years, partly be- 
cause classes are liberally provided for them 
at all the shows of importance, but primarily 
because a few remarkably fine specimens 
had tlie good fortune to go into the possession 
of exhibitors who had the opportunity to 
attend a large number of shows, in which 
they figured successfully in variety classes. 
Of these some of the most noted have been 
shown by Mr. F. H. Bottomley, whose 
prefix " Manorley " is well known. Another 
good one is Ch. Southboro Seniority, now 
the property of Mr. L, Crabtree, though she 
lias probably seen her best days ; Mr. H. H. 
Taylor's Fleetfoot, too, though not a cham- 
jiion, has deservedly won scores of prizes ; 
while a comparatively new aspirant to fame 
in this direction is Mr. W. Proctor, who has 
recently bought several good specimens of 
the breed, amongst which Lottie Hampton 
has made a decisive mark already by winning 
at some dozen or more shows. These 
owners, with Mr. W. Proudlove, are the 
more prominent northern exhibitors, but 
Mr. J.J. Holgate must not be overlooked, 
for lie invariably brings out something 
better than ordinary at the championship 
shows. The late Mr. A. Lamotte, one of 




the unfortunate victims of the wreck of the ss. Berlin at the 
Hook of Holland, is also to be remembered in connection with 
an excellent kennel of Whippets. 

The \\'hippet Club, which was inaugiirated a few years ago, 
has also been a great factor in aiding to popularise the breed, 
for by its influence and support it has been demonstrated that, 
given a fair number of classes, owners are not afraid to make 
long journej-s with their dogs in order to participate in the 
lionours of the show ring. 

Colour in the NMiippet is absolutely of no importance to a 
_;ood judge, though possibly what is known as the peach fawn 

Phj:cgT.iph by lUfr.i:! .ir..i 5 n, I.oitock. 

}'hot'?i;i\iph by H:^ncU arui Son, Losloch. 



is the favourite among amateur fanciers. 
Red fawns, blue or slate coloured, black, 
brindled of various shades, and these colours 
intermuigled with white, are most to be met 
with, however. In some quarters the idea 
is prevalent that Whippets are delicate in 
their constitution, but this is a popular error. 
Probably their disinclination to go out of 
doors on their own initiative when the 
weather is cold and wet may account for the 
opinion, but given the opportunity to roam 
about a house the Whippet will find a com- 
fortable place, and will rarely ail anything. 
In scores of houses Whippets go to bed 
with the children, and are so clean that even 
scrupulous housewives take no objection to 
their finding their way under the clothes to 
the foot of the bed, thereby securing their 
own protection and serving as an excellent 
footwarmcr in the winter months. 

Probal:il\- in no other breed, except the 
Greyhound, do judges attach so little im- 
portance to the shape of the head ; so 
long as the jaws are fairly long and the 
colour of the eyes somewhat m keejiing 
with that of the body, very little else is 
looked for in front of the ears. As in the 
case of racing competitors, really good dogs 
for show purposes are much more difftcult 
to find than bitches. The best of the males 
are not so classical in outline as the 
females, though some of them are as good 
in legs and feet — points which are of the 
greatest importance. Though it is not 
quite in accordance with the standard laid 
down by the club, it will be found that most 
judges favour dogs which are about 17 lbs. 
weight, and bitches which are between 15 lbs. 
and 16 lbs., the 20 lbs. mentioned in the 

standard of points, without variation for 
sex, being considered altogether too heavy. 
Appearances are sometimes deceptive, but 
these dogs are rarely weighed for exhibition 
purposes, the trained eye of the judge being 
sufficient guide to the size of the competitors 
according to his partiality for middle-size, 
big, or little animals. 

The South Durham and Yorkshire Show 
at Darlington has the credit for first intro- 
ducing classes for Whippets into the prize 
list. Previous to this it had not long been 
generally recognised as a distinct breed, and 
it is within the last twenty years that the 
Kennel Club has placed the breed on its 
recognised list. 

The following is the standard of points 
adopted by the Whippet Club : — 

1. Head. — Long and lean, rather wide between 
the eyes and flat on the top ; the jaw powerful 
yet cleanly cut ; the teeth level and white. 

2. Eyes. — Bright and fiery. 

3. Ears. — Small, fine in texture and rose 

4. Neck. — Long and muscular, elegantly arched 
and free from throatiness. 

5. Shoulders. — Oblique and muscular. 

6. Chest. — Deep and capacious. 

7. Back. — Broad and square, rather long and 
slightly arched over the loin, which should be 
strong and powerful. 

8. Fore-legs. — Rather long, well set under the 
dog, possessing a fair amount of bone. 

9. Hind Quarters. — Strong and broad across 
stifles, well bent thighs, broad and muscular ; 
hocks well let down. 

10. Feet. — Round, well split up, with strong 

11. Coat. — Fine and close. 

12. Colour. — Black, red, white, brindle, fawn, 
blue, and the various mixtures of each. 

13. Weight. — Twenty pounds. 





Yes. I ken John Peel, and Ruby too. 
Ranter and Royal and Bellman as true : 
From the drag to the chase, from the chase to 

a view. 
From a view to the death in the morning. 


I the autumn is substantial proof of 

what fox-hunting is to the country. 
Some years have elapsed since it was 
estimated that nine million pounds are 
spent every year on hunting. This sum 
appears to be prodigious, and so. indeed, 
it is, if only applied to 
kennel establishments. 
There are 204 packs of 
hounds in the United 
Kingdom, of which 
some could show an 
annual expenditure of 
;f 10,000, and many over 
/4.000. This is. how- 
ever, but the small side 
of total costs, as many 
thousands of studs of 
hunters are maintained, 
representing an enorm- 
ous amount of money, 
with veritable armies of 
employees, mansions of 
palatial proportions in 
nearly every quarter of 
England, Ireland, and 
Scotland, and a trade 
thereby in provincial 
towns that must be of 
considerable magnitude. 
A morning view of ^lel- 
ton is quite suggestive 
of this computation of 
nine millions. 

Twas the sound of his horn called me from my 

And the cry of his hounds has oft-times led. 
For Peel's view-hollo would awaken the dead 
Or a fox from his lair in the morning." 

John Woodcock Gr.wes {circ. 1825). 

It may be regarded as somewhat extra- 
ordinar}^ that persons of high social position 
should devote such a large proportion of 
their lives and interests to hunting and to 
the culture of hounds, but it must be said 
that much of England's greatness is due 
to the power of the Foxhound. The daring 


J. WOOTTON (1770) 



deeds under the greatest difficulties in 
the Peninsular War ; the important con- 
quests all over the globe with mere handfuls 
of men, and the hardihood of our Colonists 
came about after the hard riding era had 
commenced. The Iron Duke always in- 


^. C. CANOT, 

sisted that his best officers were the first 
flight men of Leicestershire and Lincolnshire, 
and he gave it as his opinion that Assheton 
Smith would have been tlie greatest cavalry 
general in the world. Then, again, the 
horses were improved by Hugo Meynell's 
discovery of the forward dash of the Fox- 
hound and the development of the system 
of following hounds at high pressure. The 
horses were as much elated by the voice 
of the hound in full cry as the men, and 
the courageous jumping of high fences that 
could not have been taken in cool blood 
stamped the character of the English hunter 
and made him the utility horse for all 

nations. Our respect for the Foxhound, 
and the inspiriting cry of '• Tally-ho ! " 
have had a tremendous influence upon the 
virility of our national life. 

There is plenty of proof that Foxhounds 
were the very first of the canine races in 
Great Britain to come 
under the domination 
of scientific breeding. 
There had been hounds 
of more ancient origin, 
such as the Southern 
Hound and the Blood- 
hound ; but something 
different was wanted to- 
wards the end of the 
seventeenth century to 
hunt the wild deer that 
had become somewhat 
scattered after Crom- 
well's civil war. The 
demand was conse- 
quently for a quicker 
hound than those 
hitherto known, and 
people devoted to the 
chase began to breed 
it. \\'hether there were 
crosses at first re- 
mains in dispute, but 
there is more proba- 
bility tliat the policy 
adopted was one of se- 
lection ; those exception- 
ally fast were bred with 
the same, until the slow, 
steady line hunter was improved out of 
his very character and shape. At any 
rate, there are proofs that in 1710 hounds 
were to be found in packs, carefully bred, 
and that at that time some of the hunts in 
question devoted attention to the fox. In 
his description of the De Coverley Hunt, 
in 1711, Addison writes that Sir Roger's 
stable doors were patched with noses that 
belonged to foxes of the knight's own 
hunting down. After this period the in- 
terest in liound breeding must have become 
very keen, as Somerville, who was born in 
1699, and died in 1742, wrote much in the 
years between 1725-30 on the shape and 



FOR 10.000 GUINEAS. 

Dramn by SAWREY GILPIN. Engraved bv J. SCOTT. 

breeding of hounds, and of their deeds in fifty such breeders, including the fifth 
the field with the fox as their quarry. Duke of Beaufort, Lord Lincoln, Lord 

The first known kennel 
of all was at Wardour 
Castle, and was said to 
have been established in 
1696 ; but more reliable 
is the date of the 
Brocklesbj', commenced 
in 1713. The first record 
of a pack of hounds being 
sold was in 1730, when a 
Mr. Fownes sold his pack 
to a Mr. Bowles. The 
latter gentleman showed 
great sport with them in 
Yorkshire. At that time 
Lord Hertford began to 
hunt the Cotswold coun- 
try', in Gloucestershire, 
and was the first to draw 
coverts for fox in the 

modem style. Very soon after this it be- Stamford, Lord Percival, Lord Granby, 
came the fashion of the day to breed Lord Ludlow, Lord Vernon, Lord Carlisle, 
hounds. Many of the nobility and large Lord Mexbro, Sir Walter Vavasour, Sir 
landowners devoted much of their time Roland Winns, Mr. Noel, Mr. Stanhope, 
and money to it, and would take long Mr. Meynell, Mr. Barry, and Mr. Charles 
journeys to get fresh blood. It was the Pelham. The last-named gentleman, after- 
rule to breed hounds on the most scien- ward the first Lord Yarborough, was per- 
tific principles, and by 1750 there were haps the most indefatigable of all, as he 

was the first to start 
the system of walking 
puppies amongst his 
tenantry, on the 
Brocklesby estates, and 
of keeping lists of 
hound pedigrees and 
ages. By 1760 all the 
above-named noblemen 
and gentlemen had 
been breeding from 
each other's kennels. 
The hounds were regis- 
tered, as can be seen 
now in Lord Middle- 
ton's private kennel 
stud book, through 
which his lordship can 
trace the pedigrees of 

From " The sporiimaiii Cabinet " (1803). By P. Rciiiagu, RA. hundred and sixty years 


to hounds that were entered in 1760, got by 
Raytor, son of Merryman and grandson of 
Lord Granby's Ranter. Another pedigree 
was that of Ruby, who is credited with a 
numerous progeny, as she was by Raytor out 
of Mr. Stapleton's Cruel by Sailor, a son of 
Lord Granby's Sailor by Mr. Noel's Victor. 
This shows well how seriously Foxhound 
breeding was gone into before the middle 
of the eighteenth century. Portraits prove 

From a drawing on wood by GEORGE EARL. 

also that a hound approaching very 
closeh' to those of modern times had been 
produced at this early period. By sucli 
evidence the Foxhound had outstripped the 
Harrier in size by nearly five inches, as 
the latter does not appear to have been 
more than eighteen inches, and the early 
Foxhound would have been twenty-three 
inches. Then the heavy shoulder, the dew- 
lap, and jowl of the Southern Hound had 
been got rid of, and the coat had been 
somewhat altered. The old school of 
breeders had evidently determined upon 
great speed and the ability to stay, through 
the medium of deep ribs, heart room, wide 
loins, length of quarter, quality of bone, 
straightness of foreleg, and round strong 
feet ; the slack loined, loosely built, and 
splayfooted hound of former generations 
had been left behind. To such perfection, 

indeed, had the Foxhound attained, that 
long before the close of the eighteenth 
century sportsmen were clamouring as to 
what a Foxhound could do. It had been 
proved over and over again that he could 
run a fox for four hours at such a pace as 
to bring horses to a complete standstill ; 
and so far as people could judge, nothing 
could tire him. The deeds of the Fox- 
hound became the talk of the sporting 
world ; and so followed the 
matches, the great one in par- 
ticular being between Mr. Barry, 
the first Master of the Cheshire, 
and Mr. Hugo Meynell, the real 
founder of the Quorn. The 
former gentleman wagered five 
hundred guineas on his couple 
Blue Cap and Wanton against 
Mr. Meynell's Richmond and a 
bitch, whose name has never 
transpired, to run a drag over 
the four-mile Beacon course at 
Newmarket. Sixty horsemen 
rode in the trial, but only 
twrl\-e completed the course, 
and the Cheshire hounds won 
bv a hundred yards in the won- 
derful time of eight minutes 
and twenty seconds. There was 
after this loud talk of match- 
ing hounds. Colonel Thornton offered to 
match his bitch Merkin to beat any other 
o\-er h\-e miles, and to give two hundred 
yards start, for ten thousand guineas a side, 
but fortunately for the good of fox-hunting 
and the Foxhound, such matches ended in 
talk, or there might have been Foxhound 
race meetings. 

With so much prominence given to the 
Foxhound in the comparatively short period 
of forty or fifty years, it is no wonder that 
individual hounds became very celebrated 
in almost every part of the country. Mr. 
Pelham's Rockwood Tickler and Bumper 
were names well known in Yorkshire, and 
Lord Ludlow's Powerful and Growler were 
talked of both in Lincolnshire and Warwick- 
shire. From the first, indeed, it appeared 
that certain hounds were very much better 
than others, and old huntsmen have gener- 



ally declared for one which was in the whole 
length of their careers (sometimes extending 
to &ity years) immeasurably superior to 
all others thej' had hunted. Hany A\Tis, 
who was for just half a century \\-ith Lord 
FitzHardinge, declared to the day of his 
death that nothing had equalled Crom- 
well ; Osbaldeston said the same of Furrier, 
and Frank Gillard, who is still alive, never 
falters from the opinion that \\'eathergage 
was quite bj' himself as the best hound he 
ever hunted. The Foxhound Kennel Stud 
Book abounds in the strongest proofs that 
hereditan,' merit in their work has been 
transmitted from these wonderful hounds, 
and they really make the history of the 

The first celebrity to have had a traditional 
repute brought down in print to present 
times was Mr. Corbet's Trojan. This gentle- 
man had kept Harriers for some years before 
he thought of becoming a Master of Fox- 
hounds, and he commissioned his brother. 
Colonel .-Vndrew Corbet, to buy for him 
a pack of Harriers that were advertised 
to be sold at Tattersall's. Amongst these 
was a bitch called Tidings, e\-idently a 
dwarf Foxhound, and she proved so good 
in her work that when Mr. Corbet re-sold 
the pack he retained her, and she was sent 
to Lord Spencer's (the Pytchley) Tomboy. 
In due course she had a litter that contained 
Trojan, who was almost drafted, as he 
would not look at a hare. Mr. Corbet, 
however, began to hunt fox from Sundome 
shortly after\vards, and Trojan at his own 
noble game entered naturally. He was 
supposed to have been the best Foxhoimd 
ever seen, that he could not do wrong, 
could put the pack right on the coldest 
scent, could jump walls that no other 
hound would attempt, and then by him- 
self would run a fox for miles to earth, 
before the rest of the pack had joined him. 
He lived from 1780 to 1789, and in eight 
seasons he was never lame or missed a 
day, and was always the leading hound. So 
much was he talked of that a great many 
kennels bred from him, and Mr. Corbet's 
famous pack that he sold to Lord Middle- 
Ion for 1,500 sovereigns was nearly all by 

Trojan. A famous toast in Shropshire and 
\\'arwickshire for years afterwards was : 
'■ Here's to the Trojans." 

Another noble example of the Foxhound 
was Lord Middleton's ^'anguard, got by 
a hoimd called \'aulter, that Lord Middleton 
(the sixth baron) got from Lord Vernon 
out of Traffic, a great grand-daughter of 
the famous Trojan. Lord Middleton, who 
hunted his o\\"n hounds and was very 
liberal in gi\'ing them away, would never 
part with \'anguard, declaring that no 
man could possess two such hounds in a 
lifetime, and that he was nmch too good 
to give away. Vanguard's time was from 
1815 until 1823, and his portrait was taken 
by Feamley, who also painted a picture, 
now at Birdsal, of \^anguard running a 
fox to ground. There is a line of ancestry 
from \'anguard to the Oakley Driver, whose 
blood is in almost every kennel list in 

Next to Vanguard would come the 
Osbaldeston Furrier, quite the greatest 
in Foxhound heraldry for the last eighty- 
seven years, as he was whelped in 1820. 
Bred at Belvoir by Saladin out of Fallacy 
by Lord Lonsdale's Wonder out of Frantic, 
he was purchased by Osbaldeston, of Goosey, 
the Belvoir huntsman, as an unentered 
puppy, the probable reason for his being 
drafted was on account of his colotu" — 
black and white with a little tan on his 
head ; and it is said that he was none too 
straight. He was, however, a wonder in 
the field when Osbaldeston himted the 
Quom. He was exactly the hound his 
master wanted, as he would get to the 
head of the pack at once, and lead at such 
a pace that few horses could five with them. 
It was then that Osbaldeston would turn 
round and say, " Now, gentlemen, catch 
them if you can." Socrates is said to have 
sworn by his dog, and to the day of his 
death Osbaldeston certainly swore by 
Furrier, and the very name would make 
the little old man, close on eight\', start 
when talking seriously or playing a game 
of billiards. When he took the Pytchley 
country more than half his pack were by 
Furrier or that dog's sons, and he once 



took out a whole pack of twenty-one 
couples of Furriers. The old hound and 
his sons Ranter, Castor, Random, Falstaff, 
Ferryman, and Sir Tatton Sykes' Furrier 
were bred from immensely by other kennels, 
and to-dav it would be no uncommon thing 
to find a hound with forty crosses of Furrier 
in him. 

The fourth in greatness ne.\t to Furrier 
might be Lord Henry Bentinck's Contest 
by Comus, son of Mr. Foljambe's Herald 
by the Osbaldeston Ranter, son of Furrier. 
Mr. Foljambe had two brothers. Herald 
and Harbinger, by Ranter out of Harpy 
by Herald, a son of the Belvoir Saladin (the 
sire of Furrier), and they almost made 
the Grove pack. Lord Henry Bentinck's 
Contest, however, had much to do in 
spreading the sort, and he must have been 
a very exceptional hound, as Lord Henry 
was never emotional. He would have the 
best, discarding anything the least faulty. 
In his diary he speaks of Contest more than 
once as a very remarkable hound, and he 
also refers to him as a wonderful jumper. 
He lent him to some of his old friends, 
such as the Duke of Beaufort and Sir 
Richard Sutton, and it was during his stay 
at Badminton that he was used very success- 
fully by Harry Ayris with a bitch called 
Crazy by the Warwickshire Tarquin out of 
Charity. One of the litter so obtained was 
Cromwell, who came after his grand-sire 
Tarquin in being a grey pied. For seven 
seasons he was far and away the best hound 
in Lord FitzHardinge's kennel. He, too, 
could not possibly do wrong, so Harry 
Ayris used to say, and the old man would 
go almost into tears as, when quite past 
duties in the hunting field, and resting a 
gouty foot on the skin of Cromwell, he 
would never tire in recounting the great 
days he had seen with him. Contest gained 
much honour, too, m the kennels of Sir 
Richard Sutton, as there he was the sire 
of Dryden, thought by some huntsmen to 
have been the best hound ever seen in 
Leicestershire, and never to be forgotten 
in pedigrees, as he was the sire of Destitute 
the dam of the Belvoir Senator. 

The Grove — or, rather, Lord Galway's— 

Barrister was a very remarkable hound. 
Jack Morgan, his huntsman, thought him 
one of the best he had ever hunted, and 
inheriting as he did all Mr. Foljambe's old 
sorts, and hitting three times to Ranter 
the son of the Osbaldeston Furrier, it was 
no wonder that Lord Galway maintained 
the great prestige of the Grove in a measure 
through Barrister. The Drake Duster was 
another hound held in the highest esteem 
by breeders, and this was probably due to 
the fact that both Mr. Drake and his son 
Mr. Tom Drake, junior, tho-ught him un- 
deniablv good in every part of a run, and 
their judgment was greatly respected. Duster 
went bock to Mr. J. M. Warde's sorts, as 
he was by Bachelor son of Regent, son of 
Mr. ^^■arde's Rascal, and in three or four 
other lines he hit to Mr. Warde's. It 
is si.xty-three years since Duster was 
entered and vet the mention of the Drake 
family is the mention of Duster. Such is 
the power of the Foxhound. 

Senator must always be regarded as 
one of Belvoir's chief landmarks, and he 
inherited the blood of nearly all the hounds 
mentioned above. He had plenty of Furrier 
in him ; his dam Destitute was by Sir 
Richard Sutton's Dryden son of Lord 
Henry Bentinck's Contest, and Ms grand- 
dam's sire was by the Drake Duster. He 
was therefore a combination of the great 
ones, and no hound ever put more character 
into his progeny. He was a good honest 
hound, a rare finder, and would run witti 
his hackles up right to the front and drive 
hard to the death. Then he was a demon, 
would fight another hound in his terrible 
passion for blood, and no run could tire 

Huntsmen will say that the Senators 
were all like this. There was Lord Polti- 
more's Woldsman of that strain, and his 
son the Bicester Whipster, after him — 
devils incarnate as they were called, and 
at a kill the whips, if they could get at 
them, would always couple them up to 
avoid mischief. But Senator left his mark 
at Belvoir and elsewhere in regard to a 
commanding carriage and colour. The 
exquisite Belvoir tan, and just half the 


stem white as a wonderful setting off, 
came down from Senator. His head was 
set up, and now adorns a wall in Belvoir 
Castle, and, by-the-bye, the head of Cromwell 
occupies a similar panel at Berkeley Castle. 
The celebrity, famous in every quarter 
where hounds are talked about, was the 
Belvoir Weathergage, entered in 1876. He 
strained from Senator on his dam's side as 

ments, and mated him with Susan by 
Stormer, a grandson of the Drake Duster. 
The produce, numbering two and a 
half couples, included two very hand- 
some dog-hounds Warrior and Woodman, 
and the former in due course was the 
sire of Weathergage, always regarded by 
Gillard as the best hound ever known. He 
would find nine fo.xes out of ten, was never 


she was by Rambler, son of Senator, but 
his breeding was much brought about 
for other qualities. When Frank Gillard 
went on as huntsman in 1867, he became 
aware that the Singers, Senators, and 
RaUv^voods had plenty of drive, but when 
revelling on the most exquisite line almost 
tied to their fox, they said very little about 
it. There was one with a beautiful voice 
like a bell, and he used him. This was 
Wonder by Chanticleer out of Willing, 
by the Brocklesby Rally wood, who in- 
herited the blood of the Osbaldeston 
Furrier. There was one objection, as he 
was swine chapped, but Gillard forgave 
him this on account of his vocal attain- 

known to make a mistake in any part of 
a run, driving in front, ready to put the 
pack right in a minute, and as desperate 
as a Senator at a kill. He was quite a 
huntsman's friend, as to see what Weather- 
gage was doing revealed the whole story. 
He was not notable for extraordinary good 
looks, and might have been included in 
the second draft if he had not done some 
exceedingly good work as a puppy. 
His stock were better-looking than him- 
self. Frank Gillard has always said that 
the best hound he ever saw in a field was 
Weathergage, but the best - looking Fox- 
hound in the world he always reckoned to 
be Gambler, son of Weathergage. 


In showing how certain individual 
hounds excel their comrades, in as great a 
degree as is seen in the noble race of man 
where generals, statesmen, and poets flutter 
as it were, over the common herd, there 
are many instances to be cited. The opinion 

hound to disentangle a difficulty, that it 
was delightful to see him in the field. He 
came down in pedigree from tlie very per- 
fect order as he was got by Lord Fitz- 
Hardinge's Collier out of Ransom by 
Lord Henry Bentinck's Regulus. and 



of i\Ir. E. p. Rawnsley, noted as perhaps 
the greatest of amateur huntsmen, is that 
after hunting hounds for twenty-five years, 
he could only recall three that were abso- 
lutely perfect : these were Baronet by 
the South Notts Decorate, Bachelor by the 
Quorn Warrior, and Freeman by the Bel- 
voir Weathergage. He leaned most to the 
last-named of the trio, perhaps because 
his work was the e.xact counterpart of his 
sire. " He could not do wrong," Mr. 
Rawnsley said affectionately of him. " and 
he could always put us right." The Earl 
of Coventry had the same belief in Rambler, 
who was so perfect, so true, and such a 

Collier was by Prompter out of Costly by 
Chieftain out of Cyntliia by Cromwell. 
Like the Belvoir Weathergage, there is 
scarcely a kennel in England now that 
cannot claim as an ancestor Lord Coventry's 

There have been many more great hounds ; 
the late Tom Firr would have had some- 
thing to say about iiis Alfred ; Mr. Batt 
Miller of the V.W.H. would dispute high 
prestige for Harlequin, Lord Bathurst for 
Crusty, wlio hunted for twelve seasons ; 
tlie whole of the Grafton Hunt for Wood- 
man, who was also a twelve-season hunter ; 
and the late John Walker for the Wynnstay 



Ro3^al. But there must be the greatest of 
the great. I think I shall be correct in 
naming the following hounds as the twelve 
best England has ever seen : — 

Mr. Corbet's Trojan (1780), by the 
Pytcliley Tomboj' out of Tidings. 

Lord Middleton's Vanguard (1815), by 
Lord \'emon's Vaulter out of Traffic. 

Mr. Osbaldeston's Furrier (1820), by 
Belvoir Saladin out of Fallacy. 

Lord Henry Bentinck's Contest {1848), 
by Comus out of Sanguine. 

Lord FitzHardinge's Cromwell {1855), by 
Contest out of Crazy. 

Mr. Drake's Duster (1844), by Bachelor 
out of Destitute. 

Sir Richard Sutton's Drj'den (1849), by 
Contest out of Daphne. 

The Duke of Rutland's Senator (1862), by 
Singer out of Destitute. 

The Duke of Rutland's Weathergage 
(1874), by Warrior out of Royalty. 

The Earl of Coventry's Rambler (1874), 
by Lord FitzHardinge's Collier out of 

Mr. E. P. Rawnsley's Freeman (1884), by 
Belvoir Weatiiergage out of Freedom. 

The Grafton Woodman (1892), by Wonder 
out of Durable. 

Breeding Fo.xhounds is one of the most 
fascinating of all the pleasures of animal 
culture, as the above list, so full of extreme 
merit, can be traced for nearl}' a hundred 
and thirty years from Trojan to Vanguard, 
and the Oakley Driver, the great-great- 
grandsire of Durable, the dam of the 
Grafton Woodman. Then the many 
branches to the Osbaldeston Furrier, the 
share of Lord Henry Bentinck's Contest 
through Dryden, and also the Drake Duster 
in the Belvoir Senator, and so on to Weather- 
gage, the sire of Why-not the sire of Work- 
man the sire of Wonder the sire of the above- 
named Grafton Woodman. The truth is that 
Frank Gillard and Frank Beers, the Grafton 
huntsmen, were great friends and allies, 
and when the former had found quite a 
precious gem in the shape of a Fo.xhound, 
he imparted the fact to Beers, who conse- 
quently used Weathergage in his second 
season to the ultimate benefit of a great 

many packs as traced through \Miy-not, 
Workman, W^onder, and ^^'oodman, and con- 
tinued to some extraordinary families for 
work, notably the V.W.H. (Mr. Batt Miller's) 
Worcester, and the Puckeridge (Mr. E. 
Barclay's) Councillor. It was in this way 
that the old school of sportsmen bred 
Foxhounds. Men such as Mr. G. S. Fol- 
jambe. Captain Percy Williams, Mr. Oakley, 
Mr. Nicholas Parry, Lord Portsmouth, Mr. 
Robert Arkwright, and Mr. George Lane 
Fo.x. What a debt is due to them from 
the hunting world ! There is, however, a 
present generation to continue the good 
work. None are keener, or can love Fox- 
hounds more, than the Duke of Beaufort, 
Lord Harrington, Lord Middleton, Lord 
Bathurst, Mr. Batt Miller, Mr. Edward 
Barclay, Mr. J. C. Monro, Mr. Gerald 
Hardy, or Mr. Femie. They breed on the 
lines that have been made famous, and they 
have brought the Foxhound to a greater 
pitch of perfection than ever. 


It cannot be said that the prices paid 
for Fo.xhounds in very recent times have 
greatly exceeded those of the past. In 
1790 Colonel Thornton sold Merkin for 
four hogsheads of claret, and the seller 
to have two couples of the whelps. Then 
in 1808 Mr. John Warde sold a pack of 
hounds to Lord Althorpe for 1,000 guineas, 
and the same gentleman sold another pack 
for the same sum a few years later. In 
1838 Lord Suffield offered 3,000 guineas for 
Mr. Lambton's pack, and afterwards sold 
it to Sir Matthew White Ridley for 2,500. 
In 1834 Osbaldeston sold ten couples of 
bitches, all descendants of Furrier, for 
2,000 sovereigns or £100 a hound — a record 
that was almost eclipsed at the sale of 
Lord Poltimore's hounds in 1870, when 
twenty-two couples of dog-hounds sold for 
3,365 guineas. 

Of late years there has been the sale of 
the Quom for, it was said, £3,000, and the 
late Lord Willoughby de Broke valued the 
North Warwickshire for the county to 
purchase at £2,500. In 1903 the Ather- 
stone was valued by Mr. Rawlence, the 



well-known representative of Tattersall's, 
at £3,500, or something like £'50 a hound, 
and that has been considered very cheap. 
If, therefore, modem prices have not greatly 
exceeded those of the far past, there has 
not been any particular diminution, and 
there is no doubt about it that if certain 
packs could be purchased the prices would 
far exceed anything ever reached before. 
It has been stated on pretty good authority 
that certain American gentlemen would 
give £10,000 for either the Belvoir or the 
Warwickshire, and a suggestion of this 
was given less than two years ago, when, 
after Ben Capel had been taking two 
sportsmen from America through the 
Belvoir kennels, a couple of bitches in 
whelp, that had been running about in 
the park, came up to them, and were so 
greatly admired that one of the visitors 
said to Capel, " You can tell your master 
I will give him 500 sovereigns for those 
two bitches." 

With prices on such a high scale, it is 
really wonderful that the drafts are sold 
at such low figures. For j^ears it was the 
custom to sell young drafts, the rough 
with the smooth, for three guineas a couple, 
and for old drafts the same, with five or 
si.x guineas for second drafts. It is equally 
wonderful, too, that those possessing judg- 
ment and an eye to a hound may form a 
very good pack in that way. The late 
Mr. Henry Ashton, Master of the Xortli 
Warwickshire, took the view of buying 
old draft bitches from good packs like the 
Belvoir, Lord Galway's, the Brocklesby, 
Lord Harrington's, and the Rufford, as it 
seemed reasonable that they w^ould not 
have been kept four or five seasons in such 
kennels unless they had been uncommonly 
good. These he mated carefully to the 
crack sires of the day, such as Gambler, 
Gordon, and Galliard, and in six years 
he made the pack that the late Lord 
Willoughby de Broke valued at £2,500. 
This requires great judgment, however, 
for, as shown in these pages, there are 
Foxhounds and Foxhounds, and in breed- 
ing it does not do to accept conclusions 
too quickly. The old breeders were verv 

particular in regard to the sources from 
which they drew fresh blood. Mr. Lane 
Fox, for instance, would only touch four 
or five kennels, no hearsay, or extra- 
ordinary beauty of form had the slightest 
effect on him. He would never use a sire 
unless he had seen him in his work, and a 
good thick gorse covert was one of his 
favourite scenes for a trial of ability. 
Those who can be led away by what other 
people say will never make a pack of 
Foxhounds. They would spoil one, for 
that is not a difficult operation. As the 
late Lord Portsmouth used to say, " It 
takes a good man hfteen years to make 
a pack of Foxhounds, and it takes a bad 
one three years to spoil one." 

]\Iuch has been done of late years for 
breeders of hounds and buyers by the 
Messrs. Tattersall's Rugby sales, always 
so ably conducted by Mr. J. R. Rawlence. 
A pack can be easily made from amongst 
those coming under that gentleman's ros- 


The hound shows were commenced very 
nearly as early as the dog shows. It 
was in i860 that one was held at Yarm, 
which was followed by a more important 
one the next year at Middlesbrough. 
From that time they became closely asso- 
ciated with the Great Yorkshire Agricul- 
tural Society imder Mr. Tom Parrington, 
and famous gatherings of the hunting world 
were seen at York, Malton, Redcar, Harro- 
gate, Beverley, Hull, Doncaster, Leeds, and 
Driffield. Everyone talked of the York- 
shire hound shows and of Tom Parrington, 
who is still alive to tell the stories. Con- 
templating retirement from the manager- 
ship of the Great Yorkshire, he trans- 
ferred the hoimd show to Peterborough in 
1877, and in the interim it has become a 
very great national institution. Masters of 
hounds send representatives there from 
every part of the kingdom, and the annual 
show in July brings more hunting people 
together than any other fi.xture of the 
summer season. That the shows have 
helped hound-breeding there can be no 



question whatever. The fact that from 
the ver\' first they were both countenanced 
and supported b\' such great sportsmen 
as the Duke of Beaufort, Lord ^^■illoughb^r 
de Broke, and Mr. Robert Arkwright, was 
a certain guarantee that the poUcy of the 
show ring was correct and sound. Lord 
\\'iUoughby de Broke gave the greatest 
evidence of all this, as 
in twenty-five years he 
made the Warwickshire 
to be as nearly as pos- 
sible equal to the Bel- 
voir, and he never missed 
showing. He used such 
champions as the Quom 
.\lfrcd, the Fitzwilliam 
Richmond, the P\-tchley 
Prompter, and others 
seen on the Peter- 
borough flags. Tlien 
his lordship's own prize- 
takers. Hermit, Wild- 
boy, Furrier, Tramplcr, 
Sampson, and man\' 
more had the patronage 
of the kingdom through 
their good looks at 
Peterborough. Lord 
Willoughby's quiet re- 
buke to a would - be 
fault-finder that he was 
not at all likely to 
breed from or even to keep a faulty 
hound was quite enough to show that only 
the best were good enough for his lord- 
ship. Splendidly managed by a strong 
committee and most able secretary, Mr. 
John Smart, who has held the post for 
twenty-seven years, the Peterborough shows 
afford excellent opportunities for seeing 
the best hounds and for breeders to com- 
pare notes as to what they are breeding 
themselves, and how other people are 
breeding. At any rate. Foxhounds have 
very much improved in looks during the 
past five-and-twenty years, and unques- 
tionably they are quite as good in the field 
or better. Whenever hounds have good 
foxes in front of them, and good hunts- 
men to assist or watch over them, they are 

as able as ever, but the drawbacks to good 
sport are more numerous now than thej^ 
used to be. The noble hound will always 
be good enough, and ever and anon this is 
shown by a run of the Great Wood order, to 
hunt over five-and-twenty to thirty miles 
at a pace to settle all the horses, and yet 
everj^ hound will be up. There has been 

Photograph by Russell and Sotis. 

a slight tendency to increase size of late 
years. The Belvoir dog-hound is within 
very little of 24 inches instead of 23^, 
the standard of twenty years ago, and this 
increase has become very general. In 
elegance of form nothing has been lost, and 
there can be no other to possess beauty 
combined with power and the essential 
points for pace and endurance in the same 
degree as a Foxhound. 

William Somerville's poetical description, 
written in 1735, still applies to the perfect 
Foxhound of to-day. 

"See there with countenance blithe. 
And with a courtly grin, the fawning hound 
Salutes thee cowering, his wide opening nose 
Upwards he curls, and his large sloe-black eyes 
Melt in soft blandishments, and humble joy ! 



His glossy skin, or yellow-pied, or blue. 
In lights or shades by Nature's pencil drawn. 
Reflects the various tints : his ears and legs 
Flecked here and there, in gay enamelled pride. 
Rival the speckled pard ; his rush-grown tail 
O'er his broad back bends in an ample arch ; 
On shoulders clean, upright, and firm he stands, 
His round cat foot, strait hams, and wide-spread 

And his low dropping chest, confess his speed, 
His strength, his wind, or on the steepy hill, 
Or far-extended plain ; in every part 
So well proportioned that the nicer skill 
Of Phidias himself can't blame thy choice. 
Of such compose thy pack." 

But a more detailed description is neces- 
sary for the modern sportsman, and is here 
given : — 

1. Head. — Somewhat broad, not peaked like 
the Bloodhound, but long from the apex to the 
frontal bones, eyebrows very prominent, cheeks 
cut clean from the eye to the nostril, ears set low 
and in their natural condition thin and shapely, 
but not large, nose large, jaw strong and level, and 
small dewlaps, expression tierce, and with the 
best often repellent. 

2. Eyes. — Very bright and deeply set, full of 
determination, and with a very steady expres- 
sion. The look of the Foxhound is very remark- 

3. Neck. — Should be perfectly clean, no skin 
ruffle whate\er, or neck cloth, as huntsmen call 
it. The length of neck is of importance both for 
stooping and giving an air of majesty. 

4. Shoulders. — The blades should be well into 
the back, and should slant, otherwise be wide 
and strong, to meet the arms, that should be long 
and powerful. 

5. Legs and Feet. — The bone should be per- 
fectly straight from the arm downward, and 
descend in the same degree of size to the ankles, 
or, as the saying is, " down to his toes." The 
knee should be almost flat and level ; there should 
be no curve until coming to the toes, which 
should be very strong, round cat-shaped, and 
every toe clean set as it were. 

6. Fore-ribs and Brisket. — Deep, fine ribs are 
very essential, and the brisket should be well 
below the elbows. 

7. Back and Loins. — Back should be straight. 
A hollow back offends the eye much, and a roach 
back is worse. The loin wide, back ribs deep 
and long, a slight prominence over the croup. 

8. Quarters and Hocks. — The quarters cannot 
be too long, full showing a second thigh, and 
meeting a straight hock low down, the shank 
bone short, and meeting shapely feet. 

9. Coat. — The coat is hard hair, but short 

and smooth, the texture is as stiff as bristles, but 
beautifully laid. 

10. Colour. — Belvoir tan, which is brown and 
black, perfectly intermixed, with white markings 
of various shapes and sizes. The white should be 
very opaque and clear. Black and white, with 
tan markings on head and stifles. Badger pied 
— a kind of grey and white. Lemon pied, light 
yellow and white. Hare pied, a darker yellow 
and white. 

11. Stern. — Long and carried gaily, but not 
curled ; often half white. 

I?. Height. — Dogs from 23V to 24 inches; 
bitches from 22 to 22j- inches. 


The Foxhound is bred at the kennels, 
but in many cases belongs to the hunting 
country in which his lot is cast ; then he 
is walked by a member of the hunt, or 
more frequently by a friend of the same, 
one who has no objection to his lands being 
ridden over. At one time many agreements 
of estates included a clause requiring 
tenants to keep a Foxhound during certain 
months of the year. The obligation is 
now merely a social one, but it is almost 
equally binding, and it is recognised that 
the ladies of the hunt shall assist the 
M.F.H. in this manner. Puppies cared for 
and reared under individual attention in 
comfortable homes, necessarily prosper and 
become more healthy and intelligent than 
when crowded together in the thronged 
kennels. Lovers of dogs who live in the 
neighbourhood of a hunt may usually be 
allowed to take a puppy into their charge, 
and in the early days of May one of the 
whips from the kennel may be expected to 
drive round to the hall or to the cottage — 

" With an innocent bundle of white and tan, 
A fat little Foxhound bred to the game, 
With a rollicking eye and a league long name. 
And he'll play with a cork on the end of a 

And walking a puppv will be ' just the thing.' " 

Doubtless, the rearing of a Foxhound 
puppy is a great responsibility, but it is 
also a delight to many w-ho feel that they 
are helping in the advancement of a great 
national sport, and there is always the 
possibility that the particular puppy may 
turn out to be a future Cromwell or Furrier 




or Rambler. There is but one sad side to 
the pleasure, and that is that the affections 
lavished upon the maturing visitor are bound 
very soon to receive the shock of necessary 
severance. Young Fo.xhounds are not less 
mischievous than the puppies of other 
breeds, but neither are they less winning, 
and when the time comes for the sturdv 

stones, sharing his bread and cheese at 
noon, and certain of a good supper at night. 
She proved the best of the bitch entry, 
and the cup went to the stone-breaker. 
Lord Middleton kindly thought that a 
five-pound note would be more acceptable 
than the cup, and so sent that proposal. 
'■ Na, na," said the road-maker, " I might 


Phologial-h by C. ReU, Wnha-^'. 

youngster to be removed to tire kennels 
and entered, one forgets his juvenile in- 
discretions as 

'■ . . . the days went b>- and the bundle grew, 
And broke the commandments and stole and 

And covered the lawn with a %-aried loot, 
Of fowl and feather and bone and boot ; 
And scratched in the garden a hundred holes, 
And wearied our bodies and damned our souls." 

And his departure is not seldom accom- 
panied by a surreptitious tear. 

In the times of Assheton Smith, and even 
in those of Lord Henry Bentinck, the puppy 
walking was all done for honour and glory, 
but of late years three or four silver cups 
are presented to those rearing the best. 
This new development has added to the 
spirit of the cause. A couple or three years 
back a puppy was taken by an old stone- 
breaker in Lord IMiddleton's hunt. The 
little thing in her small days would lie 
upon his coat all day on a near heap of 

spend the money, but the coup I'll keep in 
memor\' of her." 

This is the English view in all classes 
towards the Foxhound, and he is no ordinary 
animal to be the national favourite. He 
has been brought to wonderful perfection 
in beauty and frame, he is quite untire- 
able ; foxes may run for miles through 
parishes and almost counties, to bring 
horses to every kind of grief and distress, 
but the hounds will not be beaten. They 
will be always showing the same dash over 
plough or pasture, ridge or furrow, and 
leave every kind of fence behind them, amid 
a music of their own which is charming. 


There is very little purpose in saying much 
about the old Staghound. He practically 
ceased to exist some sixty or seventy years 
ago. A writer under the nom de guerre of 
" Shamrock " in the New Sporting Maga- 
zine of April, 1S40, asserted that the Massy- 



buck hounds was a crack pack in the Baron Rothschild's hunt, estabhshed in 
'thirties, and he describes their breeding as the Vale of Aylesbury late in the 'thirties, 
a cross of the Irish Wolfhound and the was made up entirely of Foxhounds from 
Irish Bloodhound, whatever that was, a the very beginning. They were bred by 
Spanish dark red Bloodhound, and last of the Baron, and walked by his tenantry and 
all with the large English Bull-dog. friends in the Vale. Old Fred Cox, who 
Dreadful mongrels, therefore, and as a was nearly fifty j^ears in the service of 
matter of course they 
did not last long. 

There was an old 
Staghound breed in the 
Royal kennels at Wind- 
sor as late as 1820, 
and one called Windsor 
has been described as 
a white hound with a 
small spot of yellow 
on each ear, and a large 
mark of the same 
colour on his right 
flank. He stood thirty 
inches high, and showed 
all the points of a lordly 
breed, having the full 
and kindly eye, hea\-y 
dewlap, immense fore- 
quarter, and somewhat 
cat hammed. As he 
was bred in 1815, he 
must have been very 
nearly the last of the 
old race in the British 
Islands. It was shortly 
after this date that the 
eccentric Colonel 
Thornton bought the 
whole of the old Royal pack, consisting of 
forty couples of recognised Staghounds, 
and took them to France, and at the same 
time the Duke of Richmond gave his 
Majesty the King his Goodwood pack, 
composed mostly of Foxhounds. Since that 
date the Royal Buckhounds were to all 
intents and purposes Foxhounds. Charles 
Davis, the huntsman for over forty years, 
bred a few, but he mostly got them from 
the Leicestershire or the Duke of Beaufort's 
kennels. Any breed of Staghounds was 
unknown in Da\-is's time, and he commenced 
as whip to the Royal hunt in 1816, and was 


Photograph by Russell and Soiis. 

promoted to the post of huntsman in 1824. 

the family, had carte-blanche to go where 
he pleased for blood, and in " Will " 
Goodall's time at Belvoir, he was con- 
stantly there selecting sires, and dipped 
pretty deeply into the Singer and Senator 
blood. He also visited Harry Ayris at 
Berkeley Castle, and gave patronage to 
Cromwell in 1857-58. He did not forget 
to go to Belvoir again in the days of Weather- 
gage, and one of his last hits was getting a 
famous litter by Gambler, a son of Weather- 
gage. Whenever Fred Cox heard of a 
good hound he was always after him, pro- 
vided he belonged to a crack kennel, as 
the old man was very particular about 


strains of blood. On his retirement the 
post of Lord de Rothschild's huntsman 
was filled by John Boore, who had been 
kennel huntsman to Lord Willoughby de 
Broke during nearly the whole of the time 
his lordship was building up the Warwick- 
shire to be worth £10,000. It will be 
seen, therefore, that the Rothschild hunt 
has been gifted with the greatest advan- 
tages in the breeding of a pack of hounds 
in Fred Cox's time, and they are said 
to have improved since then. In those 
days, however, it was a beautiful pack 
of hounds. All alike, dogs 23^^ inches, 
bitches 22 inches, and as sorty in re- 
gard to colour as those of Belvoir. The 
good the Rothschild hunt has done to 
Buckinghamshire cannot be estimated. It 
has enriched the county so that it is one 
of the most prosperous in the kingdom, 
and Lord de Rothschild and Mr. Leopold 
de Rothschild are ever the farmers' best 
friends. If ever the faddists succeed in the 
suppression of hunting the carted deer, 
Lord de Rothschild has only to turn his 
pack from deer to fox, to equal in quality 
the beauties of the Belvoir and the War- 

The old Staghounds were at Badminton 
before 1750, as seen by pictures in the 
possession of the Duke of Beaufort, but 
the storv of the Silkwood run in the fifth 
Duke's time, when hounds by accident 
settled on a fox and had a brilliant run 
of an hour and a half, decided the question 
of Fox versus Deer, and from that time 
Foxhounds only have been located in the 
famous Gloucestershire kennels. The big 
25-inch hound of Badminton, however, has 
always been in great request amongst the 
patrons of stag-hunting, and for many years 
the Devon and Somerset, hunting the wild 
red deer, were ever anxious to get the 
draft from Badminton. In other countries — 
France and Germany especially — the Stag- 
hound of the day is really the English 


The wild mountains of Wales have al- 
waj-s wanted a low scenting hound with 

a great deal of tongue and in other re- 
spects bearing a similarity to the Fox- 
hound. They must be stout, as the 
hill foxes give tremendously long runs, 
often of three or four hours, and the steep 
declines into the valleys are a test indeed 
for shoulders. Without plenty of music, 
too, they would become lost to the field in 
the majority of cases, and those who have 
enjoyed runs with them speak rapturously 
of the steadiness of Welsh Hounds, their 
never-failing cry, and general staunchness. 
Some great sportsmen, Colonel Anstruther 
Thomson for one, have been so enamoured 
with Welsh hunting as to have thought the 
hounds superior to English Foxhounds ; 
but in this they have been mistaken, as 
whenever the experiment has been tried 
of bringing hounds from Wales into English 
counties they have been found much too 
slow, and wanting in drive. Colonel Thom- 
son had many hounds of the Gogerddan 
blood at one time in the Atherstone, but 
they did not do at all for Warwickshire and 

It is well authenticated that the Llangibby 
pack existed as far back as 1750, and for 
nearly a hundred years the hounds were 
inbred to a sort of their own, but much 
resembled the rough Otter-hound, standing 
about 2^^ inches (the dogs), long and low, 
with heads of almost a Bloodhound type, 
very strong and bony for their size, coats 
very wiry and somewhat rough, and stern 
a little shorter than in Foxhounds, but 
carried gaily. 

That good authority, " Borderer," says 
that when Mr. John Lawrence took the 
country in 1856, he got a different stamp 
of hound with much Harrier blood in them ; 
and it is notable that Mr. Lawrence was 
Master for fifty years, and lived until he 
was ninety-two. He appeared to have 
every faith in Welsh Hounds, as when his 
friend, ^Ir. Reginald Herbert, commenced 
hunting the Monmouthshire and did not 
kill many foxes, he wrote and said : 
" 'Sly dear fellow you must have Welsh 
blood in your pack, I will help you." The 
Llangibby had a great name, but what 
proportion of the pack was pure Welsh it 



is hard to say if Mr. LawTence had Harrier 
blood in it in 1856. 

Some of the packs in \^'ales are pure 
Enghsh Foxhounds, but those that are 
known to have at any rate some Welsh 
blood in them are the Llangibby, the 
Xeuadd-FawT, kept by Mrs. T. H. R. 
Hughes — that lady having twenty couples 
described as Welsh and first cross of Welsh- 
English — but every effort is made to keep 
them as Welsh as possible. Then there is 
the Ynysfor, the Master of which is Mr. 
Evan Bowen Jones of Ynysfor, Penrhyn- 
Deudreath. The pack has been in that 
gentleman's family for a hundred years, 
having been hunted by his great-grandfather 
from 1765 to the date of his death at 
eighty-five years in 1829. His son then 
held the reins of government until 1851, and 
a son of the latter again from 1851, when an 
uncle carried it on for another twenty-one 
years, to be succeeded by the father of the 
present Master, whose death took place in 
1 90 1. The hounds are of the old Welsh 
breed, some rough, some smooth, and 
many are of the old black and tan colour. 

The Teme Valley pack is cross-bred, 
English and Welsh, and the Gelligaer, of 

which Mr. David Jones was the recent 
Master, was as pure Welsh as that gentle- 
man could get them, as he had a strong 
belief in the stamina and excellence of 
those so bred. 

There is no doubt that the breed is still 
to be had, but so many Masters of the 
Welsh hunts have endeavoured to improve 
by the admixture of English blood that it 
has made it extremely difficult to breed the 
pure ones excepting through continual in- 
breeding, which is always fatal. It is said 
that the English cross is not to be depended 
upon, as sometimes the results of such 
alliances have been good working hounds, 
with the qualities perceptible from both 
sides, and in other cases there has been a 
loss of nose and tongue, and no great advant- 
age shown in either pace or stamina. Again 
also, when a good hound has been obtained, 
his progeny has been of no use. Very few 
English Masters would venture on such 
experiments, and, in fact, they are not 
wanted, as there are English Foxhounds 
in goodly numbers with nose and tongue 
equal to any Welsh Hound, and they are 
naturally better to breed true to their own 






"And since we have the vaward of the day. 
My love shall hear the music of my hounds : 
Uncouple in the western valley ; lei them go : — 
Despatch, I say, and find the forester." 

— "Midsummer Night's Dream." 

THE Harrier is a distinct breed of if it were not for the Stud Book we should 
hound used for hunting the hare — soon lose the breed of hound that can boast 
or rather it should be said the Asso- of possibly greater antiquity than any other. 
ciation of ^Masters of Harriers are doing their For did not the cavalry soldier Xenophon 

at the age of fifty-four keep 
a pack of Harriers, over two 
thousand years ago — which he 
hunted on foot near Olympia 
in Elis ? He has left behind 
him a disquisition on hounds 
and liunting which any Master 
of Harriers would do well to 
study ; for it evinces a mar- 
W'Udus mastery of this par- 
ticular form of hunting. Be- 
ginning with a description of a 
good hound, the points of which 
are practically the same as we 
seek in a good hound of to-day, 
Xenophon also enumerates the 
faults of a bad hound, point- 
ing out most clearly what to 
guard against in make and 
shape, and afterwards, in the 
hunting field, what to look for, 
to note, and check. He also 
PAR.s. describes minutely the ways of 

jHMAN. ESQ. a hare, and how she should be 

hunted, showing most perfect 
knowledge of his subject in every particular. 
In forming a pack of Harriers, opinions 
differ as to what standard of height it is 
advisable to aim at. \i you want to hunt 
your Harriers on foot, i6 inches is quite 
big enough — almost too big to run with ; 
but if you are riding to them, 20 inches is a 
useful height, or even 19 inches. Either 


Reproduced f 

utmost to perpetuate this breea ; the Harrier 
Stud Book bearing witness thereto : and it 
is to be deplored that so many Masters of 
Harriers ignore this fact, and are content 
to go solely to Foxhound kennels to start 
their packs of Harriers, choosing, maybe, 
20 inch to 22 inch Fo.xhounds, and thence- 
forth calling them Harriers. And indeed, 



is a good workable size, and such hounds 
should be able to slip along fast enough for 
most people. Choose your hounds with 
plenty of bone, but not too clumsy or 
hea\y ; a round, firm neck, not too short, 
with a swan-like cm^ve ; a lean head with 
a long muzzle and fairly short ears ; 
a broad chest with plenty of lung room, 
fore legs like gun barrels, straight and 
strong ; hind legs with good thighs and 
well let down docks ; feet, round hke 
cats' feet, and a well-set-on, tapering 
stem. Such a make and shape should 
see many seasons through, and allow 
\'ou to be certain of pace and endur- 
ance in your pack. 

It is useless to lay down any hard 
and fast rule as to colour. It is so 
much a matter of individual taste, but 
light-coloured hounds are useful in a 
kennel in point of enabling j-ou to see 
them well in the distance. 

Some Masters have a great fancy for 
the dark colouring of the old Southern 
Hound, but nothing could look much 
smarter than a good combination of 
Behoir tan with black and white. 
Puppies, as a rule, a week or two 
after they are whelped, show a greater 
proportion of dark marking than any 
other, but this as they grow older soon 
alters, and their white marking be- 
comes much more conspicuous. Some 
particular marking shows itself for 
generations. It may be a little forked 
white mark on the forehead of a 
hound, and if watched for, it will be 
seen quite distinctly occurring o\er and 
over again in different members of that 
one family. Again, particular traits of 
character are seen recurring in a most 
curious way, such as the fear of thunder, 
or of guns. There is much to be taken 
into consideration before starting to breed 
your own hounds. The most satisfactory 
way of keeping a really good pack together 
is to breed your owti hounds when you 
have got a thoroughly good strain, taking 
care to replenish them by occasional drafts 
from well-known reliable kennels. And then, 
too, every young entry coming into work 

provides a fund of interest, and I think 
here may be urged the necessity of naming 
your hound puppies say at two months old. 
They learn their names astonishingly quickly 
at this period of their lives, and I am con- 
vinced that it saves them in after life much 

Ilu\ nxr. ■ lL'ir.F 


of the whip and rating from Hunt servants, 
who are seldom suihcienth^ quiet with 
hounds. By learning their own names thus 
early in life, they become obedient and 
acquire good ways before the fact of being 
obedient is any trouble to them ; and there 
are not many prettier sights than to watch 
a lot of very young puppies answering their 
names in turn. It also prevents their being 
shy. WTiat is more tiresome than to call a 
young hound up to you, and find that he 
promptly goes in the opposite direction ? 

Let your puppies from their earliest youth 
be out of doors all day long, if possible on 
grass with a movable wire-netting enclosure. 



so that the ground can be changed every 
few days. Never keep puppies on stale 
ground ; and place inside the enclosure or- 
dinary big dog kennels to provide shelter 
for them. They may begin this out of door 
life directly they are weaned, and even 
before, if there is sufficient space for the 
mothers to be out too ; they should not be 
put out until the dew gets off the grass, 
but may remain out until sunset in summer. 
It is a good plan to have their night 
kennel so situated that every time the 

LORD hopetoun's WINIFRED and ARTFUL 

Photograph by C. Rcid, iris/ium. 

puppies are taken to bed and brought out 
in the morning they ha\-e to pass through 
a yard where the grown hounds are ; it 
gives the puppies confidence, and takes all 
fear away. The earlier they learn kennel 
ways the better it will be for them in after 
life ; habits of discipline thus early instilled 
will never be forgotten. them lie on low 
hound benches (not boxes) and gradually 
heighten these as the puppies grow larger. 
They are much more airy and healthy for 
them than an enclosed thing like a box. 
Be very careful in your choice of walks, 
and when you have puppies going out to 
walk, make it thoroughly understood that 
the first symptom of distemper be reported 
to you at once. The life of man}- a valuable 
3'oung hound has been lost through not 
taking the proper steps in tmic. And 
so the months pass by, and the lime 
arrives for them to come back to kennel. 

The restraint of this new life must be most 
irksome at first, but the young hounds soon 
get accustomed to it. Of course lighting 
in kennel must be watched for during the 
tirst few weeks. Never check a " song." 
It is easy enough to discern between 
■'chiming" and fighting, and the former 
seems to give them vent for their feel- 
ings, and to keep them happy and con- 
tented. The listener will get joy out of 
such singing if he will only listen atten- 

Let us pass on now to the time when 
the corn is cut and the har\-est is gathered, 
for young hounds must now be entered, 
and the veterans got to work. Only a 
huntsman quite knows the intense pleasure 
of seeing hounds busy again as the season 
comes round, and it is a splendid sight to see 
the puppies copy the old hounds when the 
latter are feathering on a line. They will 
join in lustily for a few minutes, and then 
up go their heads, and they will be "' on- 
lookers " for awhile. But there are ex- 
ceptions to these ordinary tactics of a 
beginner, and I can call to mind some few 
hounds that began to be workers from the 
first day they were out, taking the r own 
initiative, and even once or twice putting 
the pack right when at fault. You may be 
\-ery certain a huntsman never forgets such 
incidents, and that he keeps a tender spot 
in his heart for that puppy, and will tell 
you with much pride " He was born to it. 
He took a line as true as steel on his first 

It is wonderful how steady a pack can be 
on the opening early morning. What must 
it feel like to them to be allowed to go, after 
four or fi\-e months' inacti\-ity ? But inac- 
tivitv ijuh- in respect to hunting, for they 
will have been at exercise with horses along 
by-roads soon after sunrise for many weeks 
past, getting their feet hard and themselves 
generally fit for the dawning of that glorious 
autumn morning, with tlie air laden with 
sweet scents. 

It is better to get a hare walked up if 
possible, because they sit too close at this 
time of the year, and are so liable to be 
chopped. Let her get well ahead before you 





begin to draw, then take your hounds into 
the field, and let them draw up to her form. 
They will soon get on her line, and work up 
to the form, and then take up the scent again 
beyond it and settle dowTi to it well over 
the fallow or seed field, or whatever it may 
be where you " found," and unless you 
happen to be 
hunting an 
old hare that 
knows the 
business well, 
she will not 
stand up ver\' 
long before a 
\' i g o r o u s , 
t'ager lot of 
keen workers 
so early in 
the season ; 
but you will 
have blooded 
the puppies, 
and by the 
time your season opens, say by the middle 
or end of October, both hounds and hares 
will be fit to " go." 

At this time of year the usual difficulty 
arises with covert o%v'ners. Messages come 
from anxious keepers to say " such and such 
a covert has not been shot," or, another 
" is to be shot next week," and if your 
country lies in the middle of some big 
shoots the life of a Master of Harriers is a 
burden to him until after Christmas. Most 
arable land, too, has to be avoided until the 
partridges are shot. There is certain to be 
a partridge drive coming off the day after 
you meet anywhere ! So you feel you must 
go off, to draw a piece of rough grass you 
know of that may be good for a hare, rather 
than the stubble field that was a sure find. 
The rough field yields a hare all right, but 
she makes straight for the nearest wood, and 
just as hounds arc setthng down well to the 
line, they must be whipped off. And thus 
many a good run is spoilt. But later on in 
the season, liares will go through woods 
without dwelling, if they are making a 
point, and give hounds a rare gallop. 

The North of England is an ideal Harrier 

countrj^ Northumberland for choice, with 
glorious stretches of moorland carrying a 
grand scent. The Southern counties are 
too much enclosed, everything feels cramped, 
and there are too many people coming out 
hunting in large numbers and caring little 
or nothing about actual hunting. It is a 
pity no rule exists to compel those who 
wish to hunt to learn a few simple laws of 
how to ride to hounds, before they come out. 
Each season finds more people following 
hounds who ride so close on the top of 
them, over-riding them at every turn, that 
all chance of good sport is spoilt. 

Of course this applies to all hunting, but 
perhaps especially to hare-hunting, as a 
hare doubles so quickly, often running back 
a few yards over exactly the same ground 
that she covered in the first instance ; she 
will then strike off a yard or two "to right or 
left, and go on again. It is easy to see, in 
cases of this kind, how puzzling it is for 
hounds to pick up the line if they are over- 
ridden. Then again, a hare will give a 


spring into the air, leaving a good space of 
ground untouched. This seems to be in- 
tense cunning on her part, and has perforce 
the result she evidently means it to have, 
viz. scent failing, and hounds completely 
baffled for the time. And here is another 
mysterious thing about scent : you come 
to a gateway, or possibly a place where two 
ways meet ; you make up your mind, when 
you see hounds stop suddenly and tlirow 
up their heads, that the hare has gone on. 



You try them on. Not a hound will own 
to the hue. The onl\' thing to be done, 
after you have tried north, south, east, 
and west of it, is to wait a few moments, 
filling up your time by making a big cast, 
making the Field stand in one place as 
quietly as they can (thej^ will generally talk, 
and take off the hounds' attention if possible). 
You try the place again where they originally 
checked, and nine times out of ten the 



hounds will run "on "' with a burst of 
music. Why ? You know that in all prob- 
ability this will happen, but has anyone 
ever been able satisfactorily to explain 
to you the reason ? 

There are days in a huntsman's life when 
everything seems to go right, when hounds 
look to him for help, he gives it, never making 
a mistake — he casts them just right, and if 
he lifts hounds they hit it off exactty, and he 
begins to think he understands scent ; he 
has been years at his work and certain 
knowledge is coming to him at last ! It is 
all going to be plain sailing henceforth. 
Is it ? Alas, next hunting-day things do 
not go so easily, and he has to own that 
scent is still a mystery, and always will be. 
Would the fascination of hunting be of the 
absorbing interest it always has been — 

and still is — if the mystery of scent were 
made clear ? I venture to think not. 

Harriers have a more difficult task, take 
it all round, than Foxhounds ; the reason 
being that a hare evidently has less scent 
than a fox. For example, see Harriers on 
a day when they have been toiling after a 
hare with little or no scent, suddenly get on 
to the line of a fox. A perfect chorus will 
burst forth, and they can run him strongly 
and well. Or try 
them in covert, on 
a very hot day in 
spring, when the 
old dead leaves lie 
thick upon the 
ground, dried up 
and withered ; even 
then they will hunt 
a fox quite easil}' — 
where a Foxhound 
will find it difficult 
to own to the line. 
This seems to point 
to the fact that the 
nose of a Harrier, 
from being accus- 
tomed to hunt an 
animal with a lesser 
scent, is more sensi- 
tive, so that he can 
more easily make 
good a line under difficult circumstances. 
It is interesting to note, in watching a 
pack of hounds working, which individual 
hounds to rely on in a tight place. Those 
of the Field who come out to ride and 
not to hunt, miss so much of interest 
by being unobservant. The hounds that 
are to be relied on at all times have the 
entire confidence of the remainder of the 
pack ; they quickly acknowledge the right 
of a few to be leaders. Take, for instance, 
some period of any ordinary run when they 
are at fault for a moment. A single hound 
goes a little apart from the others : you 
will see his stern wavhig, his whole body 
vibrating, but, at present, not a sound. By 
this time the remainder of the pack have all 
been trying hard to pick up the line over 
various portions of the ground ; the hound 



by himself has been trying the most unhkely 
hedgerows and sides of ditches. Surely he 
is wrong ! And you are just going to touch 
your horn and blow him in, when he whim- 
pers. The whole pack as if by magic lift 
their heads ; they listen ! He has spoken. 
It is enough. They go to him with a rush — 
they never question his right to be trusted. 
Hounds are so wise, so loyal. You hear that 
glad pouring forth of sound as they settle 
down on the line once more, and you sit 
down in your saddle and feel you are in for 
a good ride. 

The sad side of hunting is when your best 
hounds grow old, and others fill their places. 
Take the case of a hound who has been a 
leader for some long time. The days come 
when he just cannot be first, and he 
knows it. When he realises this, he speaks, 
hoping the others will still listen, but an- 
other has spoken ahead of him, and they 
know that Marksman is no longer their 
leader. Pathetic thought ! It came hard 
to him at first to give place to others ; ho 
was always first in everything, in beauty of 
form, in perfect breeding, in absolute know- 
ledge of the way to hunt a hare under any 
circumstances, whether on land or in water ; 
for he could hunt a hare in a river like an 
Otterhound. In the evening of his life if 
the meet was near the kennels, he would 
walk out and take up a central position on 
ground where he knew they would hunt 

— it seemed as if he knew the run of every 
hare — and there he would wait and watch 
until he heard the voices of his beloved com- 
rades coming nearer, and until they swept 
past him in full cry. Occasionally the spirit 
of the chase entered into him too strongly, 
and he would try hard to follow a few yards ; 
but he was too feeble to go far. And so he 
would sit down again and wait once more for 
their coming, and his patience was often 
rewarded. He is at rest now, having spent 
nearly fifteen years in this world, and no 
better hound ever lived. 

If they are well looked after, Harriers will 
often last eight seasons, and even longer. 

See that you have one or two good road 
hounds in your pack. They are at all 
times invaluable, because a hare is very fond 
of running a road if beat, and without a 
hound capable of taking a line on 'a road, you 
would fare badly. 

I will only mention one thing more, and 
that is, that from personal observation I am 
inclined to think a hare must rather enjoy 
the voice of hounds, because last year a 
hare put her two leverets in the kitchen 
garden (which is only a few yards away from 
my kennels and kennel yard), coming, as is 
the custom of hares, back to feed them in the 
evening, and remaining in the daytime in 
a field behind the kennel. So she heard the 
hounds' voices continually, and apparently 
preferred being near them. 




Photograph by Russell ami Sons. 



" Pour down, like a flood from the hills, brave boys, 
On the wings of the wind 
The merry beagles fly ; 
Dull sorrow lags behind : 
Yc shrill echoes reply. 
Catch each flying sound, and double our joys.'' 

\Vm. So.merville. 

THERE is nothing to surpass the beauty 
of the Beagle either to see him on the 
flags of his kennel or in unravelling 
a difficult}' on the line of a dodging hare. 
In neatness he is really the little model of 
a Foxhound. He is, of course, finer, but 
with the length of neck so perfect in the 
bigger hound, the little shoulders of tlie 
same pattern, legs and feet the same, and 
the typical quarters and second thighs. 
Then how quick he is in his casts ! and when 
he is fairly on a line, of course he sticks to 
it, as the saying is, " like a beagle." 

Beagles have been carefully preserved for 
a great many years, and in some cases they 
have been in families for almost centuries. 
In the hereditary hunting establishments 
the}^ have been frequently found, as the 
medium of amusement and instruction in 
hunting for the juvenile members of the 

house ; and there can be nothing more likely 
to instil the right principles of venery into 
the youthful mind than to follow aU the 
ways of these little hounds, The}^ must not 
be hurried at all — -just taken into a field and 
a wave of the liand is enougli to make them 
verj' busy. A liare. rabbit, or whatever it 
may be, will not take them off their noses 
if breaking away in view, but they hold to 
the line in a sort of revelry of enjoyment. 
To lift them is impossible, they know their 
part so well, and, throwing their tongues 
like peals of little bells, they will hunt a 
hare to death by sheer pertinacity. It is 
all perfect hunting : not at all like that 
of the Dachshund, who dwells round the 
form of a hare, and seemingly does not dare 
to trust himself. But the little Beagle, with- 
out dashing away at all like a Fo.xhound 
— who gets impatient in the enchantment 



of his pleasure — hangs on to a line as if 
tied to it. The young sportsman may 
take all this to account, and learn that it 
does not do to excite the hounds. They 
must not throw their heads up or they 
may overlap the running of their quarry 
by a furlong. To do as the Beagle does 
is an object lesson. 

Dorsetshire used to be the great county 
for Beagles. The downs there were exactly 
fitted for them, and years ago, when roe- 
deer were preserved on the large estates. 
Beagles were used to hunt this small breed 
of deer. Mr. Cranes' Beagles were noted 
at the time, and also those of a Colonel 
Harding. It is on record that King George 
IV. had a strong partiality for Beagles, and 
was wont to see them work on the downs 
round about Brighton. 

The uses of the Beagle in the early daj^s 
of the last century, however, were a good 
deal diversified. They were hunted in big 
woodlands to drive game to the gun, and 
perhaps the ordinary Beagle of from 12 
inches to 14 inches was not big enough for 
the requirements of the times. It is quite 
possible, therefore, that the Beagle was 
crossed with the Welsh, Southern or Otter- 
hound, to get more size and power, as 
there certainly was a Welsh rough-coated 
Beagle of good 18 inches, and an almost 
identical contemporary that was called 
the Essex Beagle. Sixty years ago such 
hounds were common enough, but possibly 
tlirough the adoption of the more prevalent 
plan of beating coverts, and Spaniels being 
in more general use, the vocation of the 
Beagle in this particular direction died out, 
and a big rough-coated Beagle is now very 
rarely seen. A very pretty lot of little 
rough Beagles were recently shown at 
Reigate. They were called the Telscombe, 
and exhibited by Mr. A. Gorhara. 

That a great many of the true order were 
bred became very manifest as soon as the 
Harrier and Beagle Association was formed, 
and more particularly when a section of 
tlie Peterborough Hound Show was reserved 
for them. Then they seemed to spring from 
every part of the country. In 1896 one 
became well acquainted with many packs 

that had apparently held aloof from the 
dog shows. There was the Cheshire, the 
Christ Church (Oxford), Mr. T. Johnson's, 
the Royal Rock, the Thorpe Satchville, the 
Worcestershire, etc., and of late there have 
been many more that are as well known as 
packs of Foxhounds. One hears now of the 
Chauston, the Halstead Place — very noted 
indeed — the Hulton, the Leigh Park, the 
Stoke Place, the Edinburgh, the Surbiton, 
the Trinity Foot, the Wooddale, Mrs. G. W. 
Hilliard's, Mrs. Price's, and Mrs. Turner's 
— exhibited at Peterborough in 1906 — and 
they were surpassed again at the Crystal 
Palace June Show, 1906, which was confined 
to Foxhounds, Harriers, and Beagles. 

Mr. James Russel, the master of the 
Halstead Place pack, showed some beauties 
that for type cannot be well excelled. 
His dog hound Searcher, under 14 inches 
high, is thought the most marvellous 
little hound in the world. He has aU the 
elegance of a Belvoir Foxhound about him, 
is quite a picture in colour and markings, 
has model legs and feet, and such a carriage 
for a little one ! Mr. Russel bred him 
himself by his Solomon, out of Gracious, by 
Lord Ducie's Trumpeter. 

In the unentered class the same kennel 
provided the winners in a beautiful couple 
of little bitches called Preference and Rosa- 
mond, and Mrs. Price, who must also have 
a charming pack, gained the reserve with 
Careful and Farmer. The Leigh Park pack, 
owned by Sir Frederick Fit z^^'y gram, was 
wonderfully good too, a couple of half- 
sisters by the Thorpe Satchville Bellman, 
called Dorothy and Haughty, being as hand- 
some as pictures, especially Dorothy. They 
took first in a class for exhibits that had 
not won at Peterborough for three years. 
It was a long way to come from Edinburgh 
to Peterborough, but still Mr. A. M. Hender- 
son was not dismayed by distance or trouble, 
and he took second to the above-named 
couple with Ringwood and Heedless, both 
beauties by sires from weU-known kennels. 
Ringwood is by the Halstead Place Forager, 
and the other by Petting's Bellman. 

Mrs. Price's kennel must be one of very 
high quality, as that lady showed some 



that could scarcely be surpassed in hound 
points and beauty, but merit at the Peter- 
borough Show of 1906 was so great as to 
make it very difficult to get first prizes. 
So one saw the Trinity Foot beating Mrs. 
Price's in an unentered class, and there 
was no beating the Halstead Place for the 
best couple of bitches — Chorus and Rachel 
getting a first, perhaps pretty easily. Rachel, 

Palace Cup as the best Beagle in the show, 
and with his kennel companions helped to 
take the cup for the best three couples. 
Mrs. Price showed successfully an old 
favourite, Fulmen, in the single dog class, 
but he is a well-known champion. Sir F. 
FitzWygram won with Dorothy against 
nineteen competitors, and one that caught 
the attention of everyone was a beautiful 

Phologyal'h by C. Rcul. Uis/i.l!.'. 

who was bred by the Chauston, also got the 
champion cup as the best bitch in the show- 

The Surbiton, of which Mr. A. G. Allen 
Turner is the master, must be \"ery good 
to have got second in the open class here 
with Passion and Nimble. It was a great 
show for the President's Cup, for the best 
three couples, and here again the Halstead 
Place came out first with Searcher and 
Statesman (brothers). Ranter and Rachel 
(brother and sister), and Chorus and Cobnut. 
The three couples might have been taken 
as the exact type of what Beagles ought to 

The show at the Crystal Palace was 
thought even better than at Peterborough, 
as there were no fewer than nineteen packs 
entered. The Halstead Searcher was, as 
usual, to the fore, as he took the Crystal 

little lemon pied bilch called Primrose, 
exhibited by Mr. \l. F. Goff, the master of 
the Wooddale, this little lady coming out first 
in her class. To make the competition all 
the stronger at the Crystal Palace the Marquis 
of Linlithgow sent down a beautiful lot 
from Scotland, and although his lordship 
was not o\'erdone with success right through 
the show, a little gem of his called Dutchie 
fairly " brought down the house." 

What must have struck anyone who saw 
these Beagle shows of igo6 at Peterborough 
and the Crystal Palace, was the obvious 
unanimity of breeders in the matter of 
type. There were no outsiders, if one may 
use the term ; all were as much like Searcher, 
Fulmen, Primrose, Dorothy, and Dutchie 
as possible, without being quite their equals, 
and this speaks volumes for tlie breed, as 



excepting in long existence, in the hands of 
pri\"ate indi\'iduals for their own use and 
pleasure, they have not been the mediuna 
of pubUc competitions for many years. 
The owners, like the masters of Foxhound 
kennels, have never been very partial to 
the ordinary dog shows, and so the develop- 
ment of the up-to-date Beagle, as seen at 
these shows, is somewhat new. It is just 
as it should be, though, and if more people 
take up " beagling " — to coin a term — it 
may not be in the least surprising. They 
are very beautiful httle hounds, can give a 
vast amount of amusement, and, for the 
matter of that, healthy exercise. If a stout 
runner can keep within fairlj' easy distance 
of a pack of these well-bred little Beagles on 
the line of a lively Jack hare, he is in the 
sort of condition to be generally envied. 

Description of the Beagle. 

X. Head. — Fair length, powerful without being 
coarse ; skull domed, moderately wide, with an 
indication of peak, stop well defined, muzzle not 
snipy. and lips well flewed. 

2. Nose. — Black, broad, and nostrils well ex- 

3. Eyes. — Brown, dark hazel or hazel, not deep 
set nor bulg^^ and with a mUd expression. 

4. Ears. — Long, set on low, fine in texture, and 
hanging in a graceful fold close to the cheek. 

5. Neck. — Moderately long, slightly arched, 
the throat showing some dewlap. 

6. Shoulders. — Clean and slightly sloping. 

7. Body. — Short between the couplings, well 
let down in chest, ribs fairly well sprung and well 
ribbed up, with powerful and not tucked-up 

8. Hindquarters. — Very muscular about the 
thighs, stifles and hocks well bent, and hocks 
well let down. 

9. Forelegs. — Quite straight, well under the dog, 
of good substance and round in the bone. 

10. Feet. — Round, well knuckled up, and 
strongly padded. 

11. Stem. — Moderate length, set on high, thick 
and carried gailj', but not curled over the back. 

12. Colour. — Any recognised hound colour. 

13. Coat. — Smooth variety : Smooth, very dense 
and not too fine or short. Rough variety : Ver\- 
dense and wiry. 

14. Height. — Xot exceeding 16 inches. Pocket 
Beagles must not exceed 10 inches. 

15. General Appearance. — A compactly-built 
hound, without coarseness, conve^'ing the impres- 
sion of great stamina and vivacity. 

There was until some few years ago in 
Ireland a hound known as the Kerry Beagle, 
but it seems now to be practically extinct, 
although so recently as 1870 the Scarteen 
pack in Tipperary was composed entirely 
of this breed. It was described by Richard- 
son in 1851 as a fine, tall, dashing hound, 
averaging 26 inches in height, with deep 
chops, broad pendulous ears, and, when 
highly bred, hardly to be distinguished 
from an indifferent Bloodhound. The coat 
was hard, close and smooth, in colour black 
and tan, or blue mottled and tan. Some 
were tan and white, or black, tan and 
white. They were at one time used for 
deer hunting. 

Etonians wiU expect here some reference 
to the E.C.H. When we first hear of the 
Beagles at Eton thej' apparently himted a 
drag or an occasional bagged fox.; but the 
more legitimate sport of hare hunting has 
for man)' years reigned supreme. There is 
alwaj's a good pack of about twenty couples 
kept in an enclosure knowTi as the Kennels 
up in Agar's Plough. A kennelman is paid 
to look after them. The puppies are usually 
walked by the young sportsmen at their 
homes, and a prize is given every winter 
half for the best walked Beagle. The 
appointment of the Master used to rest 
with the Captain of the Boats, but this 
custom has fallen into abeyance. He acts 
as huntsman and is assisted by three whips. 
All four wear browTi velveteen coats, and 
some seventy boys are allowed to run with 
them. There were at one period two packs, 
a Colleger and an Oppidan, but they were 
amalgamated in 1866, and now any boy 
may put his name do\\Ti to join, his admis- 
sion being determined by the Master. The 
subscription is thirty shillings, reduced to 
fifteen shillings at half-term. The Beagles 
run every half-holiday during the Easter 
half, and there is usually a good field. 
" Beagles " are not always looked upon with 
favour by the authorities at Eton, and 
attempts have occasionally been made to 
stop the sport; but it is well disciplined, 
and there is no doubt that it provides an 
excellent training for our future Fox- 


Photograph by C. Rciil, Wishaw. 




" Sporlsman, sir ? " asked Mr. Jingle, abruptly titrmng to Mr. Winkle. 
" A little, sir," replied that gentleman. 
" Fine pursuit, sir, fine pursuit. Dogs, sir ? " 
" Not just now," said Mr. Winkle. 

" Ah ! you should keep dogs — fine animals—sagacious creatures— dog of my own once— 
Pointer— surprising instinct." Pickwick Papers. 

IT has never been made quite clear in 
history why the Spaniards had a dog 
that was very remarkable for pointing 
all kinds of game. They have always been 
a pleasure-loving people, certainly, but 
more inclined to bull-fighting than field- 
craft, and yet as early as 1600 they must 
have had a better dog for game-finding 
than could have been found in any other 
part of the world. Singularly enough, too, 
the most esteemed breeds in many countries 
can be traced from the same source, such 
as the Russian Pointer, the German Pointer, 
the French double-nosed Griffon, and, far 
more important still, the English Pointer. 
A view has been taken that the Spanish 

double-nosed Pointer was introduced into 
England about two hundred years ago, 
when fire-arms were beginning to be popular 
for fowling purposes. Setters and Spaniels 
had been used to find and drive birds into 
nets, but as the Spanish Pointer became 
known it was apparently considered that 
he alone had the capacity to find game for 
the gun. This must have been towards the 
end of the seventeenth century, and for the 
next fifty years at least something very 
slow was wanted to meet the necessities of 
the old-fashioned flintlock gun, which 
occupied many minutes in loading and 
getting into position. Improvements came 
by degrees, until they set in very rapidly, 



but probably by 1750, when hunting had 
progressed a good deal, and pace was 
increased in all pastimes, the old-fashioned 
Pointer was voted a nuisance through his 
extreme caution and tortoise-like move- 

That e.xcitable sportsman. Colonel Thorn- 
ton, had evidentty become so impressed, 
as in earl}' life he had crossed the Spanish 
Pointer with Foxhounds, and he had bred 
up to a tolerably ad- 
vanced breed for many 
years before his estab- 
lishment at Thornville 
Royal was broken up. 

There is evidence, 
through portraits, that 
Pointers had been alto- 
gether changed b}' the 
year 1800, but it is 
possible that the breed 
then had been con- 
tinued by selection 
rather than by crossing 
for a couple of decades, 
perhaps, as it is quite 
certain that by 1815 
sportsmen were still 
dissatisfied with the 
want of pace in the 
Pointer, and Mr. Edge 
of Strelly, the Rev. 
Mr. Houlden, a well- 
knowTi follower of the Quom and Atherstone, 
Mr. Moore of Appleby, in the Atherstone 
country. Sir Tatton S3-kes, in his Yorkshire 
country, the Earls of Derby and Sefton, 
and Sir Richard Sutton were knowTi to have 
crossed their Pointers with Foxhounds at 
about that time. 

It must be remembered that all the above 
were staunch Foxhound men, and believed 
in little else for stamina, dash, and hunting 
aptitude. By 1835 the breeds of all these 
noblemen and gentlemen were firmly estab- 
lished, and they bred from each other's 
kennels. The Strelly, the Appleby, the 
Knowsley (Lord Derby's), Lord Sefton's and 
Lord Lichfield's were the sources for blood 
all through the 'forties and 'fifties, and 
nothing could have been more celebrated 

than their Pointers. The old Spanish Pointer 
had been left behind, and the English dog 
of the middle of the last century was a 
perfect model for pace, stamina, resolution, 
and nerve, if one may call it so. The breed 
was exactly adapted to the requirements of 
that day, which was not quite as fast as the 
present. Men shot with good Joe JIantons, 
did their own loading, and walked to their 
dogs, working them right and left by hand 


From "The SportsJttan's Cabimt" (1S03). By P. Rcinagk, R.A. 

and whistle. The dogs beat their ground 
methodically, their heads at the right level 
for body scent, and when they came on game, 
down they were ; the dog that had got it 
pointing, and the other backing or awaiting 
developments. There was nothing more 
beautiful than the work of a well-bred and 
well-broken brace of Pointers, or more 
perfect than the way a man got his shots 
from them. There was nothing in the 
least slow about them, but on the contrary 
they went a great pace, seemed to shoot 
into the very currents of air for scent, and 
yet there was no impatience about them 
such as might have been expected from the 
Foxhound cross. The truth of it was that 
the capacity to concentrate the whole atten- 
tion on the object found was so intense as to 



have lessened every other propensity. The 
rush of the Foxhound had been absorbed 
by the additional force of the Pointer 
character. There has been nothing at all 
like it in canine culture, and it came out so 
wonderfully after men had been shooting in 
the above manner for about forty years. 

It was nearing the end of this period that 
field trials began to occupy the attention of 
breeders and sportsmen, and although Setters 



From a Painting by GEORGE EARL. 

had been getting into equal repute for the 
beauty of their work, there was sometliing 
more brilliant about the Pointers at first. 
Brockton's Bounce was a magnificent dog, 
a winner on the show bench, and of the 
first Field Trial in England. He strained 
from the Edge of Strelly's sort, and Lord 
Henry Bentinck's, and was probably just 
seven-eighths Pointer to one of Fo.xhound, 
within a period of forty-five years. That was 
the opinion of the late Mr. Sam Price, and 
of Mr. Brockton, who is alive now. Newton's 
Ranger was another of the early performers, 
and he was very staunch and brilliant, but 
it was in the next five years that the most 
extraordinary Pointer merit was seen, as 
quite incomparable was Sir Richard Garth's 
Drake, who was just five generations from 

the Spanish Pointer, his line reading as a 
son of Don, son of Rap, son of Mars, son 
of Pallas — Spanish Pointer. In the female 
branches, though, in Don, Rap, and Mars, 
there was an inbred preponderance of Lord 
Sefton's sorts, and they were thought to 
have had a somewhat longer probation from 
the Foxhound cross than others. The 
Seftons were exceedingly inbred to their 
own kennel lines. Drake was rather a tall, 
gaunt dog, but with immense 
depth of girth, long shoulders, 
long haunches, and a benevo- 
lent, quiet countenance. There 
was nothing very attractive 
about him when walking about 
at Stafford prior to his trial, 
but the moment he was down 
lie seemed to paralyse his op- 
ponent, as he went half as 
fast again. It was calculated 
tliat he went fifty miles an 
hour, and at this tremendous 
jiace he would stop as if pe- 
trilicd, and the momentum 
would cover him with earth 
and dust. Quite a sight it 
was to watcli hint on point. 
It was perhaps more of a drop 
than a point. He could not 
transfix himself at the pace he 
went, but he was wonderfully 
staimch and true. He did not 
seem capable of making a mistake, and his 
birds were always at about the same distance 
from him, to show thereby his extraordinary 
nose and confidence. Nothing in his day 
could beat him in a field. He got some 
good stock, but they were not generally 
show form, the bitches by him being mostly 
light and small, and his sons a bit high on 
tlie leg. None of them had his pace, but 
some were capital performers, such as Sir 
Thomas Lennard's Mallard, Mr. George 
Pilkington's Tory, Mr. Lloyd Price's Luck 
of Edenhall, winner of the Field Trial Derby, 
1878 ; Lord Downe's Mars and Bounce, and 
Mr. Barclay Field's Riot. When Sir Richard 
Garth went to India and sold his kennel 
of Pointers at Tattersall's, Mr. Lloyd Price 
gave 150 guineas for Drake. 



It is necessary to go a little further back 
than Drake to get at the first super-excellence 
of the English Pointer as found in the early 
part of the last centur}^ and to the honour 
of Field Trials it must be mentioned that 
all the Pointers of after-note in the field 
strained from the dogs that ran in the 
inaugural trials of all. This was at Southill 
in 1865, when the Pointers were divided into 
large and small sizes, the former including 
Mr. W. R. Brockton's Bounce and Mr. 
W. G. Xewton's Ranger, and the latter Mr. 
J. H. WTiitehouse's Hamlet. In a maximum 
of 40 for nose. Bounce and Hamlet were 
accredited full marks. Bounce taking the 
highest compliment too in pace and range, 
and also for temperament. He was, there- 
fore, estimated b}' the judges, the Rev. T. 
Pearce and Mr. Walker, of Halifax, to ha\-e 
been absolutely perfect. Hamlet was the 
same, both taking 90 in a hundred, but 
Ranger only got 30 for nose, and half marks 
for pace. This tallied much with his 
character at home, as although a good, 
steady, workmanlike dog, he yet was never 
quite brilliant, such as Bounce had the 
credit of being, and the late Mr. Wliitehouse, 
a capital sportsman, would always contend 
that he never shot over a better than 
Hamlet. Bounce was by the Duke of 
Newcastle's Bounce, out of Juno ; Hamlet by 
Bird's Bob, out of Juno ; Bob by Battock's 
Joker, out of the late Joseph Lang's (the 
gunmaker of Cockspur Street) Fan, by 
Lang's Frank, out of Taylor's Bell, by Lord 
Ducie's Duncan, out of Sir Massey Stanley's 

It is notable that the pedigrees of the 
crack Pointers, so far as they went, always 
ended with the distinguished Fo.xhound 
breeders. Lord Ducie being a Master of 
Hounds for a good quarter of a century ; 
and it was the opinion of Mr. Whitehouse 
that the origin of the lemon and white 
Pointers — such as Hamlet, who mostly got 
his own colour in that hue — was the lemon 
pied Foxhoimd. Mr. \Miitehouse held strong 
opinions on that point, and often declared 
to the writer that if he had been twenty 
years old instead of fifty, he should have 
tried the cross again,to maintain constitution, 

stamina, and bone ; but according to his 
calculations it would take thirty years to 
get at the results aimed at, and so it was 
only practicable as an experiment for a 
j'oung life. However, the mid-century 
owners and breeders had probably all the 
advantages of what a past generation had 
done, as there were certainly many wonderful 
Pointers in the 'fifties, 'sLxties, and 'seventies, 
as old men U\dng to-day will freely allow. 
They were produced very regularly, too, 
in a marvellous type of perfection. Drake 
had Newton's Ranger blood in him, as 
his dam Doll was by Ranger, and the latter 
was by Sir Thomas \\Tiichcote's Ranger. 

Another great performer in the early 
'se\-enties was the late Mr. Sam Price's Bang, 
got by Coham's Bang, son of Hamlet, out 
of Vesta by Brockton's Bounce. Here is an 
e.xact pedigree from the first • field trial 
performers at Southill, and there was no 
Pointer more celebrated both on the bench 
and in the field than Price's Ch. Bang as 
he was caUed. He won at the Crystal 
Palace more than once, and gained his 
championship there. He was first also at 
Plymouth, Exeter, and numerous other 
shows, and in field trials he won at the 
Devon and Cornwall ; and in the same 
season at Shrewsbury was second in the 
All-Aged Stake to Mr. Beckett's Rector, 
and the next day won the Braces with his 
son Mike, then a puppy, beating thirteen 
other braces of about the best Setters and 
Pointers in the kingdom, such as Viscount 
Downe's Mark and Drake II., Mr. Purcell 
Llewellin's Leda and Laura, the Duke of 
Westminster's Noble and Ruth, and Mr. 
Barclay Field's Bruce and Rose. This 
performance was repeated the next year 
over even a better lot, as the great Drake 
was in it ; but as his companion was only a 
young puppy it was hardly a fair display of 
the powers of the old dog, who was then 
eight years of age. At any rate, Bang 
and Mike would have been accepted as 
the best brace of Pointers in the world 
at that time. Wonderful, too, they won 
the same stake for the third year in succes- 
sion. My own remarks on their third 
victory were : " Bang and Mike have now 



won the Braces three years in succession, 
and they are unquestionably the best brace 
of Pointers in the world. Nothing can 
exceed the perfection of their work, and 
together they are faultless." 

Shortly after this Mr. Price sold :\Iike to 
Doctor Salter for a good figure, and refused 
400 sovereigns for Bang. 

In Devonshire it was considered a treat 
to see Mr. Sam Price and his dog Bang 
in a morning on partridges : the ground 
worked with mathematical precision ; Bang's 
decisi\-e point, his staunchness to wait for 

progeny, as, of course, he was patronised 
from every part of the world. His son Mike 
was, if anything, faster than he was, though 
not always as sure, and his daughter Bow 
Bells was a little charm. To see her cut in 
and out of the wind was delightful, and then 
her point was as effective as that of her sire. 
Bang Bang, who was unlucky not to have 
won the Field Trial Derby for Mr. Fred 
Lowe in 1881, was a capital dog, and a 
winner of Field Trials in England, Belgium, 
and America. He was sold into the latter 
country for 140 sovereigns. Young Bang 



l'l:o:o!;yaf'h by C. K.i.(, Wishaa. 

his master as long as the latter pleased, and 
his perfect manners as the outside bird fell 
and then the other. Mr. Price was an old- 
fashioned shot, and to miss a right and left 
was rare. With plenty of game about, and the 
wind in Bang's favour, the bag was alwa\'s 
a very big one. Bang had some extraordin- 
arily good Pointers amongst his numerous 

was a very good single-handed dog, but 
jealous with another. As a sire he became 
famous, as the Field Trial Derby winners, 
Priam and Scamp, were by him out of Teal, 
by Lord Downe's Mars, son of Drake, her 
dam, Lort's Lill by General Prim, son of 
Holford, Bang's dam being by Hamlet, s" 
doubly bred into the first winners at Southill. 



Priam, an extraordinarily good Pointer, was 
the sire of Mr. Salter's Paris and Osborn Ale, 
Field Trial Derby winner of 1884 and 1885. 
yir. Salter had an exceptionally good little 
bitch also in Romp's Baby by Mike, and 
altogether the sons and grandsons of Young 

bold dogs, but not bold enough for their 
sporting owner. His Macgregor, a liver and 
white by Sancho, out of Blanche, by Bob, 
son of Hamlet, was a very grand dog, and he 
won at the Sleaford trials. Rap, a lemon 
and white by Hamlet, out of Lort's Sal, 



Pl-.otogmph by Russell ami Sons. 

Bang were wonderful in keeping up the 
traditions of possibly the greatest Pointer 
family ever known. 

The late Mr. Tom Statter, of Stand Hill, 
brought out some capital Pointers of the 
Lord Derby and Sefton strains. He ran 
Major in the early field trials, and a ^•ery 
grand liver and white dog he was, by Old 
Major out of Garth's Mite, the grand dam of 
Drake ; and so when Mr. Statter bred JIajor 
to Sappho by Drake he was inbreeding to 
a sort, and the result was Dick, a beautiful 
dog that he ran in trials, and afterwards 
sold to Mr. Barclay Field for /60. The last- 
named gentleman also ran him in trials, 
and probably few more brilliant Pointers ever 
ranged on a moor than Dick. Mr. F. H. 
Whitehouse got some capital descendants 
of Hamlet, and they were always very 

was another good Pointer, and so was 
Priam, b}^ Bob, son of Hamlet. Then there 
was Mr. Lloyd Price's Belle, the fastest and 
most beautiful bitch on game perhaps ever 
seen. She was by Lord Henry Bentinck's 
Ranger out of his Grouse, and this perhaps 
sounds very like a far-off descent from the 
Fo.xhound, as Lord Henry swore by nothing 
else, and his great contemporary, Mr. G. S . 
Foljambe, freely admitted that he crossed 
the so-called Spanish bred Pointers with the 
Foxhound to get what he wanted ; and so 
did Sir Richard Sutton. They were possibly 
seven or eight generations away before ]\Ir. 
Foljambe had to give up shooting through 
his affliction of blindness, but that is just 
what the hunting men left to blossom out 
in magnificence by about the earliest field 
trials, 1865. There never were better dogs 



on game than about that time or perhaps 
for some twenty-five years before, and they 
lasted well into the 'eighties. They were 
as hard as nails for work, no day was long 
enough for them, and although with beautiful 
tempers in regard to breaking, they were like 
Bulldogs if stirred up at all. Sir Thomas 
Lennard once gave a couple of tenants a 
day's shooting over Mallard by Drake and 

row or avenue of Pointers there is a lack of 
boldness of expression in countenance, a 
falling off in bone and substance, and 
amongst the bitches somewhat the look of 
the toy. " What have they been doing with 
them ? " was my expression, after looking 
at a Kennel Club Show lot for ten minutes. 
Of course it is well known that many of the 
old breeders have died, and others have 

Plwlograph by C. Rci.l, Wisha 

Young Bang. They worked splendidly, and, 
finding lots of birds, the farmers were 
delighted with the sport. Bang, though, 
had been getting jealous at the other wiping 
his eye, as it is called, once or twice, and in a 
patch of potatoes went for his opponent, and 
the two fought like tigers, Tom Knowlton, 
their excellent breaker, having as much as he 
could do to separate them. The question is, 
though, has the excellence of the mid- 
century been maintained down to date ? are 
the modern Pointers for the moor or field 
equal to Drake, Champion Bang, Macgregor, 
Mr. Barclay Field's Dick, Sir Thomas Len- 
nard's Priam, or Mr. Lloyd Price's Belle ? 
The show benches give a refutation to that 
idea. In a Crystal Palace or Birmingham 

given up. Mr. Sam Price has been dead 
now for some years, and so have Mr. Thomas 
Staffer, Mr. Barclay Field, Mr. J. H. White- 
house, Mr. Hey\vood Lonsdale, the Duke of 
Westminster, H. Brailsford, and Mr. W. 
Lort ; but still there are INIr. Norrish and 
Doctor Salter to support the breed, and 
the former gentleman had beautiful Pointers. 
His Saddle Back charmed me when I had the 
honour of awarding him his first prize at 
Cruft's Dog Show at the Agricultural Hall 
in one of the strongest classes of Pointers 
I ever judged. It is a pity, though, that 
Mr. Lloyd Price and :\Ir. George Pilkington 
gave up Pointer breeding, for they bred 
for their own moors, and no sportsman 
had better dogs. Mr. Lloyd Price became 



famous with Belle, Gre- 
cian Bend, Romp, Mend, 
Dandy Drake, Luck of 
Edenhall, Bow-Bells, 
Ruler, and Elias ; and Mr. 
George Pilkington equally 
so with Tory, Garnet, 
Faust, by Lord Sefton's 
Sam Fauvel, and Fancy. 
Then there was Mr. 
Beckett, celebrated for 
his good dog Rector, three 
times the winner of the 
All- Aged stakes at Shrews- 
bury ; and Mr. Salter with 
quite a world-wide repu- 
tation for his Mike Romps, the quickest many more ; but still there should have been 
and best of their day. The Americans, no a sufficient supply left to maintain the 
doubt, got a good man\- of the best dogs traditions of the breed. 




during the 'eighties. They bought Bang :\Ir. Wilham Arkwright, of Sutton Scars- 
Bang, Croxteth, Sensation, and a great dale, Derbyshire, has probably the best 

kennel in England at the present 
time,* and that gentleman has 
written some very useful volumes 
on Pointer breeding. He ignores 
the Foxhound cross, which I 
uphold in the strong conviction 
that it was resorted to by the 
celebrated sportsmen in the early 
periods of the last century, 
greatly to the benefit of a future 
generation. Mr. Arkwright, how- 
ever, discovered and revived an 
old breed of the North of Eng- 
land that was black, and bred 

The photographs on this page are hv Mr. W. Arkwright 0/ his own Pointers at work. 




for a great many years by Mr. Pape, 
of Carlisle, and his father before him. 
With these Mr. Arkwright has bred to the 
best working strains that I have aUuded to 
in previous pages, with the result that he has 
had many good field trial winners. For a 

anything, and Mr. S. Atkinson's Fullerton, 
and ]\Ir. Davie's Ferndale Wagg, were the 
sort of dogs to catch the eye of the sports- 
man. It was the majority one had to 
complain about, and with no entries for 
a field trial class, there was certainly a 
suggestion that the owners of up-to-date 
Pointers do not care much about the ranging 
and game-finding properties of their now 
favourite breed. 

There is a notable departure from this 
apparent apathy in regard to field merit, 
as the Marquis of Waterford, whose age in 
the Peerage is stated to be thirty- two, took 
the late Mr. Whitehouse's view nearly ten 
\ears ago, and has bred first-class Pointers 
to first-class Foxhounds, and then continued 
with the Pointer. His lordship has there- 
fore broken the ice in respect to the earlier 
generations, and now possesses useful Pointers 
of the restored order. In another ten years 
he may have the best kennel of Pointers in 



good manv years now Elias Bishop, of 
Newton Abbot, has kept up the old breeds 
of Devon Pointers, the Ch. Bangs, the :\Iikes- 
and the Brackenburg Romps, and his have 
been amongst the best at the shows and 
the field trials during the past few years. 
In 1905 he showed a good workmanlike- 
looking dog called Denbury Ranger at the 
Crystal Palace, and he was rightly awarded 
first in more than one class, and at the same 
time Bishop had the winner of the Field 
Trial class in Fiscal Policy, by Don Pedro. 
There are, of course, exceptions to the rule 
that many of the modern Pointers do not 
carry about them the airof theirtrue business, 
as at the last Kennel Club Show there were 
three good-looking ones in the Maiden class 
in Mr. Charles Drury's Haisthorpe Shot, 
Mr. A. J. Mildon's Ruby, and Mr. D. C. 
Davie's Ferndale Halburton, and Radium, 
that might have been good enough for 



rholi';^iiifli by F. C. //ij,'"'" ■'""I Son, LostMk. 

the world. There may be many more bred 
with care from existing strains, as so many 
people had Pointers five and twenty years 
ago to have made it easy to breed from fresh 
blood as required ; but it would appear that 



fewer people keep them now than was the 
case a quarter of a centun,' ago, owing to the 
advance of quick-shooting, othenvise driving, 
and the consequent falUng awa\^ of the old- 
fashioned methods, both for the stubble and 
the moor. However, there are many still 
who enjoy the work of dogs, and it would 
be a sin indeed in the calendar of British 
sports if the fine old breed of Pointer were 
allowed even to deteriorate. The apparent 
danger is that the personal or individual ele- 
ment is dying out. In 
the 'seventies the names 
of Drake, Ch. Bang, or 
Garnet were like household 
words. People talked of 
the great Pointers. They 
were spoken of in club 
chat or gossip ; written 
about ; and the prospects 
of the moors were much 
associated with the up-to- 
date characters of the 
Pointers and Setters. 
There is very little of 
this sort of talk now-a- 
days. Guns are more 
critically spoken of, and 
the closest patterns and 
newest inventions are at 
anj' rate more familiar topics. There is, how- 
ever, a wide enough world to supply with 
first-class Pointers. In England's numerous 
colonies it maj' be much more fitting to shoot 
over dogs. It has been tried in South Africa 
with marvellous results. Descendants of 
Ch. Bang have delighted the lone colonist 
on Cape partridge and quails, and Pointers 
suit the climate, whereas Setters do not. 
The Americans have sho^v-n on the other side 
of the Atlantic that dogs are indispensable 
as the associates of sport. They saw, or 
probably read about, the doings of the Setters 
and Pointers of the 'sixties and 'seventies, 
and they promptly provided themselves with 
the best of the stocks. They boast at 
present that they have far better examples 
of both breeds than can be found in England 
— and perhaps that is a correct view. 
In the British dominions, however, there 
should be plenty of room for the Pointer 

and Setter for instance, and settlers can 
hardh^ do better than to take out to 
Canada some of the best bred Pointers 
from England, not forgetting the strains 
mentioned in these pages — the Drakes, 
the Hamlets, Price's Ch. Bang, the Mike 
Romps, that gave Mr. Salter's kennel 
almost world-wide repute, the Seftons, the 
Derbys, and Sir Thomas Lennards. The 
blood of all can be found-^of course diluted, 
and perhaps in some instances too much 



inbred — but there again comes in the science 
of breeding and the means of improve- 
ment. The Pointer is a noble breed to take 
up, as those still in middle life have seen 
their extraordinary merit whenever bred 
in the right way. There are two breeds that 
should, as the saving goes, stay for ever, the 
Foxhound and the Pointer. No day's sport 
should be too long for either. When a couple 
of hours or half a day's work is enough 
to steady a Pointer to a trot there is some- 
thing decidedly wTong in the pedigree. It 
may be the Foxhound that originally gave 
the endurance, but surely enough it ought to 
be there. Then the pace, the style, the in- 
telligence, the intense fondness for sport, 
and the working as if by very nature to the 
gun, must aU be thought of. The late Charles 
Littleworth, huntsman to Lord Ports- 
mouth's hounds, used to watch Ch. Bang for 
half an hour when he saw him at an Exeter 



or Barnstaple show, and say " if any Fox- 
hound is made exactty like him in shoulders, 
bent ribs, legs, and feet, and quarters, he is 
as near perfection as possible." That has 
been one reason why I ha\-e always judged 
Pointers on Foxhound hues. I know there 
are certain differences, but the essential 
points are very much ahke, and taking them 
carefully I should gi\"e them as follows : — 

1. Head. — Should be wide from ear to car, 
long and slanting from the top of the skull to the 
setting on of the nose ; cheek bones prominent ; 
ears set low and thin in texture, soft and velvety ; 
nose broad at the base ; mouth large and jaws 

2. Neck. — The neck should be verj' strong, 
but long and slightly arched, meeting shoulders 
well knit into the back, which should be straight 
and joining a wide loin. There should be great 
depth of heart room, very deep brisket, narrow 
chest rather than otherwise, shoulders long and 

3. Legs and Feet. — Should be as nearly like the 
Foxhound's as possible. There should be really 
no difference, as they must be straight, the knees 
big, and the bone should be of goodly size dowii 
to the toes, and the feet should be very round and 

4. Hind Quarters. — X great feature in the 
Pointer is his hind quarters. He cannot well be 
too long in the haunch or strong in the stifle, which 
should be well bent, and the muscles in the second 
thigh of a good Pointer are always remarkable. 
The hocks may be straighter than even in a Fox- 
hound, as, in pulling up sharp on his point, he 

in a great measure throws his weight on them ; 
the shank bones below the hock should be short. 

5. Colour. — There have been good ones of all 
colours. The Derby colours were always liver 
and whites for their Pointers and black breasted 
reds for their game-cocks. The Seftons were liver 
and whites also, and so were the Edges of Strelly, 
but mostly heavily ticked. Brockton's Bounce 
was so, and so were Ch. Bang, Mike, and Young 
Bang. Drake was more of the Derby colour ; 
dark liver and white. Mr. ^^hitehouse's were 
mostly lemon and whites, after Hamlet of that 
colour, and notable ones of the same hue were 
Squire, Bang Bang, and Mr. Whitehouse's Pax and 
Priam, all winners of field trials. There have 
been several very good black and whites. Mr. 
Francis's, afterwards Mr. Salter's, Chang was a 
field trial winner of this colour. A still better 
one was Mr. S. Becket's Rector, a somewhat 
mean little dog to look at, but quite extraordinary 
in his work, as he won the Pointer Puppy Stake 
at Shrewsbury and the All-.\ged Stake three 
years in succession. Mr. Salter's Romp family 
were quite remarkable in colour — a white ground, 
hea\-ily shot with black in patches and in ticks. 
There have never been any better Pointers than 
these. There have been, and are, good blark 
Pointers also. 

6. Height and Size. — .\ big Pointer dog stands 
from 24-}, inches to 25 inches at the shoulder. 
Old Ch. Bang and Young Bang were of the 
former height, and the great bitch, Mr. Lloyd 
Price's Belle, was 24 inches. For big Pointers 
60 pounds is about the weight for dogs and 56 
pounds bitches ; smaller size, 54 pounds dogs 
and 48 pounds bitches. There have been some 
very good ones still smaller. 



Photograph by C. Rad, M'isAna. 


As in successive Toil the Seasons roll. 
So various Pleasures recreate the Soul 
The setting Dog, instructed to betray, 
Rewards the Fowler with the Feather'd Prey. 
Soon as the lab'ring Horse with swelling 

I 'eins. 
Hath safely hous'd the Farmer's doubtful Gains, 
To sweet Repast th' unwary Partridge flies. 
At Ease amidst the scatter' d Harvest lies. 
Wand' ring in Plenty, Danger he forgets, 
Nor dreads the Slav'ry of entangling Nets. 

I. The English Setter- — In some form or 
other Setters are to be found wherever 
guns are in frequent use and irrespective 
of the precise class of work they have to 
l^erform ; but it is generally conceded that 
their proper sphere is either on the moors, 
when the red grouse are in quest, or on 
the stubbles and amongst the root crops, 
when September comes in, and the part- 
ridge season commences. 

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, is sup- 
posed to have been the first person to train 
setting dogs in the manner which has been 
commonly adopted by his successors. His 

H I G N E T T. 

The subtle Dog now with sagacious Nose 
Scowres through the Field, and snuffs each 

Breeze that blows, 
Against the Wind he takes his prudent way, 
While the strong Gale directs him to the Prey 
Now the warm Scent assures the Covey near, 
He treads with Caution, and he points with Fear 
Then least some Sentry Fowl his Fraud descry. 
And bid his Fellows from the Danger fly, 
Close to the Ground in Expectation lies, 
Till in the snare the fluttering Covey rise. 
" Rural Sports," by John Gay, 1713. 

lordship lived in the middle of the sixteenth 
century, and was therefore a contemporary 
of Dr. Caius, who may possibly have been 
indebted to the Earl for information when, 
in his work on " EngHsh Dogges," he wrote 
of the Setter under the name of the Index : 
" Another sort of Dogges be there, ser- 
viceable for fowling, making no noise either 
with foote or with tounge, whiles they 
follow the game. These attend diligently 
upon their Master and frame their conditions 
to such beckes, motions, and gestures, as it 
sliall please him to exhibite and make, either 
going forward, drawing backe ward, inclining 



to the right hand, or yealding toward the 
left (in making mencion of fowles my mean- 
ing is of the Partridge and the Quaile), 
wlien he hath founde the byrde, he keepeth 
sure and fast silence, he stayeth his steppes 
and wil proceede no further, and with a close 
couert watching eye, layeth his belly to 
the grounde and so creepeth forward like 
a worme. When he approacheth neere 




to the j)lace where the birde is, he lays him 
downe, and with a marcke of his pawes, 
betray eth the place of the byrdes last abode, 
whereby it is supposed that this kinde of 
dogge is called Index, Setter, being in deede 
a name most consonant and agreeable to his 

This extract, although not throwing much 
light upon the appearance of the Setter in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, nevertheless 
is a proof of the existence of this separate 
bri'cd and f)f the uses to which it was 
trained, and the fact that Dr. Caius, in his 
classification, placed it with the Spaniel 
is evidence of its relationship with the latter 
breed at the period in which tlie learned 
Doctor wrote. 

Though Setters are divided into three 
distinct varieties, there can be no doubt 
that all have a common origin, though 
it is scarcely jirobable. in view of their dis- 

similarity, that the same individual ancestors 
can be supposed to be their original pro- 
genitors. Nearly all authorities agree that 
the Spaniel family is accountable on one 
side, and this contention is borne out to a 
considerable extent by old illustrations and 
paintings of Setters at work, in which they 
are invariably depicted as being very much 
like the old liver and white Spaniel, though 
of different colours. 
Doubt exists as to 
the other side of their 
heredity, but it does not 
necessarily follow that all 
those who first bred them 
used the same means. 
Of the theories put for- 
ward, that which carries 
the most presumptive 
evidence must go to the 
credit of the old Spanish 
Pointer. Where else could 
they inherit that wonder- 
ful scenting power, that 
style in which they draw- 
up to their game, their 
statuesque attitude when 
on point, and, above all, 
the staunchness and pa- 
tience by which they hold 
their game spellbound until the shooter has 
time to walk leisurely up, even from a 
considerable distance ? 

But, apart from the question of their 
origin, the different varieties have many 
other attributes in common ; all perform 
the same kind of work, and in the same 
manner ; consequently the system of break- 
ing or training them varies only accord- 
ing to the temper or ideas of those who 
undertake their schooling. 

Few dogs which grace the show benches 
are more admired than English Setters, and 
those who are looked upon as professional 
exhibitors ha\'e not been slow to recognise 
the fact that when a really good young dog 
makes its appearance it is a formidable rival 
amongst all other breeds when the special 
prizes come to be allotted. For this reason 
a recognised winner will always command 
a remunerative price for the breeder, and 



since it is, unhappily, immaterial from an 
exhibition point of \'ie\v whether they have 
been trained or not, it is surprising that 
many more have not been produced. 

If there be an\- truth in the old sajing 
that variety is charming, the attribute must 
pertain to this particular breed, for they are 
of almost ever\' conceivable colour, from pure 
white, which is exceptional, to all black. 
Probabh' what are known as the blue-ticked 
variety are the favoinrite colour, though 
the}' have very httle advantage over the 
lemon and orange coloured. Some hold 
that there is a consanguinity between the 
English Setter and the English Pointer, and 
it has been proved beyond doubt that 
several really good prize-winning Pointers 
have been produced from the alliance of a 
Pointer dog and a 
Setter bitch. 

It will be within 
the memory of many 
admirers of this breed 
that ap to about 
twenty years ago it 
was the custom to 
designate what are 
now known as Enghsh 
Setters by several 
distinct appellations, 
among the more im- 
portant being the 
Blue Beltons and 
Laveracks, and this 
regardless of any con- 
sideration as to 
whether or not the 
dogs were in any way 
cormected by rela- 
tionship to the stock 
which had earned 
fame for either of 
these time-honoured 

names. It was the great increase in the 
number of shows and some confusion 
on the part of exhibitors that made it 
necessary for the Kennel Club to classify' 
under one heading these and others which 
had attained some amount of notability by 
indi\-idual or local influence, from which time 
the old terms have gradually been dropped. 

There are certainly two schools who 
officiate as judges at important shows, and 
their decisions are arrived at from stand- 
points which make them at least perplexing 
to those who are not intimately cormected 
with both shooting and exhibition hfe. 
Those who care nothing about a dog's 
capabiUties as a workman, so long as he 
answers their own ideal as regards anatom\- 
and coat and, particularly, possesses what 
is known as a " classical " head, are prone 
to smile at the awards made by some of the 
old shooting sportsmen who wiU insist on 
gi\'ing preference to exhibits which possess 
the very best body and hmbs, making the 
head something of a secondary considera- 
tion. Of course, both sides advance strong 
arguments in support of their creed, but it 




Photograph by F. C. Hignitt ami Son, Loitock. 

does not follow that either makes out a con- 
clusi\-e case. Better would it be if, as before 
stated, a common vantage-ground were de- 
cided on, and it became general^ acknow- 
ledged that there is nothing to stop the highest 
class show dogs from being gradually brought 
to the same state of perfection in the field 
as its more plebeian relation has attained. 



It can scarceh' be claimed that any single 
individual specimen of the present day is 
better than the best of former days ; in fact, 
it is very questionable if we have anything 
quite so good as Mr. Rawdon B. Lee's 
Ch. Richmond, who was in his prime about 
a dozen years ago and was practically un- 
beatable. Like many others, he was one of 
those celebrities which were bred by Mr. 
Hartley, of Kendal, who, with :\Ir. J. 
Poole, Mr. Cockerton, and Mr. Armstrong, 
very ably made and maintained the reputa- 
tion of the northern 
shires as the principal 
breeding-ground, par- 
ticularly for exhibi- 
tion type. Somewhat 
younger, Mr. T. 
Steadman has been 
even more successful. 
He has become world 
famous for the beau- 
tiful heads which 
characterise liis 
strain, a result which 
has been brought 
about by many years' 
experience, and no 
sparing of time, trou- 
ble, or expense to 
select and breed only 
from such stock as 
possessed this great 

desideratum ; the result being that of late 
years no one has bred so many notable 
winners, and in 1906 his Ch. ^lallwyd 
Sarah was acknowledged to be the most 
perfect specimen before the public. Mr. 
Geo. Raper, though not a professed breeder, 
has owned many excellent Setters, of which 
Ch. Barton Tory was probably the best. 
This dog had a chequered career in his 
early days, being bought cheaply at the 
dispersal of Sir H. F. de Trafford's famous 
collection of sporting dogs by Mr. Shirley. 
then chairman of the Kennel Club. Like 
other cracks, Tory was not at his best 
till he was about three years old, but he 
improved so much during the time he 
was in Mr. Shirley's possession that Mr. 
Raper claimed him at his catalogue price 




of £100 when he made his appearance at 
a big show in the south. Mr. H. Gunn has 
also bred a few makers of history, among 
which the most noteworthy was Mr. T. 
E. Hopkin's Ch. Rumney Rock, who was 
purchased at a very high price by another 
well-known judge, ^Ir. C. Houlker, for whom 
he won many specials at northern shows as 
being the best of all breeds. Of late years 
Mr. R. R. P. Wearing has instituted a large 
breeding establishment at Kirkby Lonsdale, 
and has turned out some fine specimens. 
Other prominent pre- 
sent - day exhibitors 
are Mr. E. Cockill, 
of Gomersal, near 
Leeds; Mr. H. E. 
Gray, of .Merthyr 
Vale ; and Mr. R. T. 
Baines, of Barton 
Kennels, near Man- 

The English Setter 
Club, of which Mr. 
George Potter, of 
Quarry Lodge, Heads 
Nook, Carlisle, is the 
honorary secretary, 

has done much since 
MALLWYD FAN ., ■ ,., ,. . ^q 

its mstitution \n 1090 

to encourage this 
breed of dog, and 
has proved the use- 
fulness of the club by providing two very 
\-aluable trophies, the Exhibitors' Challenge 
Cup, and the Field Trial Challenge Cup, for 
competition amongst its members, besides 
having liberally supported all the leading 
shows ; hence it has rightly come to be 
regarded as the only authority from which 
an acceptable and official dictum for the 
guidance of others can emanate. 

The following is the standard of points 
issued bv the English Setter Club : 

Head. — Tlic head should be long and lean, 
with well-defined stop. The skull oval from ear 
to car, showing plenty of brain room, and with a 
well-defined occipital protuberance. The muzzle 
moderately deep and fairly square ; from the stop 
to the point of the nose should be long, the nostrils 
wide, and the jaws of nearly equal length ; flews 


not too pendulous. The colour of 
the nose should be black, or dark, 
or hght liver, according to the 
colour of the coat. The eyes 
should be bright, mild, and intelli- 
gent, and of a dark hazel colour, 
the darker the better. The ears 

of moderate length, set on low and hanging in neat 
folds close to the cheek ; the tip should be velvet}-, 
the upper part clothed with fine sUky hair. 

Neck. — The neck should be rather long, muscular, 
and lean, slightly arched at the crest, and clean cut 
where it joins the head ; towards the shoulder it 
should be larger, and very muscular, not throaty with 
any pendulosity below the throat, but elegant and 
bloodhke in appearance. 

Body. — The body should be 
of moderate length, with shoul- 
ders well set back or oblique ; 
back short and level ; loins wide, 
shghtly arched, strong and mus- 
cular. Chest deep in the bris- 
ket, with good round widely- 
sprung ribs, deep in the back 
nbs — that is, well ribbed up. 

Legs and Feet. — The stifles 
should be well bent and ragged, 
thighs long from hip to hock. 
The forearm big and ver>- mus- 
cular, the elbow well let down. 
Pasterns short, muscu- 
lar, and straight. The 
feet very close and 
compact, and well pro- 
tected by hair between 
the toes. 

Tail. — The tail should 
be set on almost in a 


line with the back ; medium 
length, not curly or ropy, to 
be slightly curved or scimitar- 
shaped, but \\-ith no tendency 
to turn upwards ; the flag or 
feather hanging in long, pen- 
dant flakes ; the feather 
should not commence at the 
root, but slightly below, and 
increase in length to the mid- 
dle, then gradually taper off 
towards the end ; and the 
hair long, bright, soft and 
sUky, wa\y but not curly. 

Coat and Feathering. — The 

coat from the back of the 

head in a line \vith the 

ears ought to be shghtly 

wa\y, long, and silky. 

which should be the case 

with the coat generally ; 

the breeches and fore-legs, 

nearly down to the feet, 

should be well 


Colour and 
Markings. — 



The colour may be either black and white, lemon 
and white, liver and white, or tricolour — that is, 
black, white, and tan ; those without heavy 
patches of colour on the body, but flecked all 
over preferred. 

II. The Irish Setter. — Though this variety 
has not attained such popularity as its 
Enghsh cousin, it is not because it is re- 
garded as being less pleasing to the eye, 
for in general appearance of style and 
outline there is ^•erv little difference ; in 



Photograph iiy F. C. Higiicit ami Son. Loitock. 

fact, none, if the chiselling of the head 
and colour of the coat be excepted. 
The beautiful rich golden, chestnut colour 
which predominates in all well-bred speci- 
mens is in itself sufficient to account 
for the great favour in which they are 
regarded by exhibitors generally, while 
their disposition is sufficiently engaging 
to attract the attention of those who desire 
to have a moderate-sized dog as a com- 
panion, rather than either a very large 
or very small one. Probably this accounts 
for so many lady exhibitors in England 
preferring them to the other varieties of 
Setters. We have to go over to its nati\-e 
country, however, to find the breed most 
highly esteemed as a sporting dog for actual 
work, and there it is naturally first favourite ; 
in fact, very few of either of the other 

varieties are to be met with from one end 
of the Green Isle to the other. It has 
been suggested that all Irish Setters are 
too headstrong to make really high-class 
field trial dogs. Some of them, on the 
contrary, are quite as great in speed and 
not only as clever at their business, but 
quite as keen-nosed as other Setters. Take, 
for instance, some which have competed 
within the past few years at the Irish Red 
Setter Club's trials, which have had as rivals 
some of the best Pointers 
from England and Scotland, 
and have successfully held 
their own, the last occasion 
being when these trials took 
place at the commencement 
of August in 1906 on the 
mountains near Stranorlar. 
County Donegal, when Mr. 
Mclvor's Strabane Pam ran 
second in the all-aged stake 
for both Pointers and Set- 
ters of all varieties. The 
work of ]\Ir. E. Ussher 
Robert's Dame Fan, Mr. 
J. S. Weir's brace Grays- 
town Lark and his sire. 
Roam, Mr. W. Wilson's 
Strabane Young Pam, and 
Eary NeUie, and Colonel 
]\Iilner's Antrim Molly, was 
also of great merit, considering the few 
opportunities afforded them in the length 
of the season of gaining the experience of 
trial work. But, as an instance of tiir 
imcertainty which prevails in all such un- 
dertakings, it must be mentioned that Mr. 
S. Humphrey's Wilful Irish Lassie, who 
was unplaced in the puppy stake, defeated 
all those named, when the all-aged stake 
confined to this variety was reached. 

Some of the most notable owners and 
judges of show Setters of long standing in 
Ireland are : Colonel Milner, Messrs. T. A. 
Bond, A. McEnnery, J. Mclvor, J H. H. 
Swincy, and P. Flahi\'e ; but very few 
better specimens have been exhibited of 
recent years than the late ]\Irs. R. Hamil- 
ton's Ch. Florizel, Mr. Flahive's Ch. Kerry 
Palmerston, Mr. R. Perrin's Peaceful Times, 



and the late Mrs. F. C. Hignett's Ch. Brian 
0"L\-nn ; but amongst English owTiers none 
have achieved such distinction as the late 
Rev. Mr. O'Callaghan, who had a large stud, 
and practically swept the decks at all the 
leading shows for many years. Sir H. F. de 



Trafford also went in strongly for them, and 
owned many good specimens, Punchestown 
being of the greatest repute, as he was both 
a field trial and show winner. Mrs. Ingle 
Bepler and iliss N. Whittome have also been 
consistent supporters of the variety, the 
latter being one of the very few who essay 
to compete with this breed at the English 
Trials. Probably the most notable of the 
English judges is Mr. H. il. Wilson, M.F.H., 
who was a prominent exhibitor in the 
'eighties, and Mr. A. E. Daintree has also 
achieved a fair amount of success. 

The Secretary of the Irish Setter Club is 
Mr. S. Brown, 27, Eustace Street, Dublin, 
and the standard of points as laid down by 
that authority is as follows : 

Head. — The head should be long and lean. The 
skull oval (from ear to ear), having plenty of brain 
room, and with well-defined occipital protuberance. 
Brows raised, showing stop. The muzzle mode- 
rately deep and fairly square at the end. From 
the stop to the point of the nose should be fairly 
long, the nostrils wide, and the jaws of nearly 
equal length ; flews not to be pendulous. The 
colour of the nose dark mahogany or dark walnut, 
and that of the eyes (which ought not to be too 
large) rich hazel or brown. The ears to be of 

moderate size, fine in texture, set on low. well 
back, and hanging in a neat fold close to the head. 

Neck. — The neck should be moderately long, 
very muscular, but not too thick ; slightly arched, 
free from all tendency to throatiness. 

Body. — The body should be long. Shoulders 
fine at the points, deep and sloping well back. 
The chest as deep as possible, rather narrow in 
front. The ribs well sprung, leaving plenty 
of lung room. Loins muscular and slightly 
arched. The hind quarters wide and powerful. 

Legs and Feet. — The hind legs from hip to hock 
should be long and muscular ; from hock to heel 
short and strong. The stifle and hock joints well 
bent, and not inclined either in or out. The fore- 
legs should be straight and sinewy, having plenty 
of bone, w-ith elbows free, well let down, and, like 
the hocks, not inclined either in or out. The 
feet small, very firm ; toes strong, close together, 
and arched. 

Tail. — The tail should be of moderate length, set 
on rather low, strong at root, and tapering to a 
fine point, to be carried as nearly as possible on 
a le\'cl or below the back. 

Coat. — On the head, front of legs, and tips of 
cars the coat should be short and fine ; but on 
all other parts of the body and legs it ought to be 
of moderate length, flat, and as free as possible 
from curl or wave. 


Feathering. — The feather on the upper portion of 
the ears should be long and silky ; on the back 
of fore and hind legs long and fine ; a fair amount 
of hair on the belly, forming a nice fringe, which 
may extend on chest and throat. Feet to be well 
feathered between the toes. Tail to have a nice 
fringe of moderately long hair, decreasing in 
length as it approaches the point. All feathering 
to be as straight and as flat as possible. 



Colour and Markings. — The colour should be a 
rich golden chestnut, with no trace whatever of 
black ; white on chest, throat, or toes, or a small 
star on the lorehead. or a narrow streak or blaze 
on the nose or face not to disqualify. 

III. The Black and Tan Setter.— Origin- 
allv this \-arietv was known as the Gordon 



Photograph I'v /•". r. Ui-^ncl! anJ Son, Loslock. 

Setter, but this cognomen was only partly 
correct, inasmuch as the particular dogs 
first favoured by the Duke of Gordon, 
from whom they took the name, were black, 
tan, and white, heavily built, and somewhat 
clumsy in appearance. But the introduction 
of the Irish blood had the effect of making 
a racier-looking dog more fashionable. In 
order to be on the safe side, some of the 
leading shows made their classification to 
read " Gordon or Black and Tan Setters." 
so as to meet the assertion of a few of the 
older judges that if only the old designation 
of " Gordon " were used they should feel 
constrained to take notice of such com- 
petitors as were black, tan and white in 
colour. But, as a matter of fact, the time 
had arrived when the presence of white 
on the chest was looked upon with great 
disfavour by the generality of exhibitors as 
well as judges. Now, however, the Kennel 
Club has settled the matter by abolishing 
the term " Gordon " altogether. 

Very few of this variety have appeared 
at field trials for several years past, but that 
cannot be considered a valid reason for 
stigmatising them as " old men's dogs," as 
some narrow-minded faddists delight in 
calhng them. On the few occasions when 
the opportunity has been presented they 
have acquitted them- 
selves at least as well 
as, and on some occa- 
sions better than, their 
riv-als of other varie- 
ties, proving to be as 
fast, as staunch, and 
as obedient as any of 
them. A notable ex- 
ample of this occurred 
during the season of 
igo2 and 1903, when 
Mr. Isaac Sharpe's 
Stylish Ranger was so 
remarkably successful 
at the trials. 

It is very difficult 
^,, to account for the lack 

of interest which is 
taken in the variety 
outside Scotland, but 
the fact remains that only about four 
owners are troubling the officials of shows 
regularly at the present time. This state 
of affairs was noticeable a dozen years 
ago, but not to the same extent as it is 
to-day, for at that period Mr. R. Chap- 
man, of Glenboig, was almost monopolising 
the whole of the prize-money at every show 
and in all the classes. Few exhibitors 
cared to enter the lists against him, and 
the ordeal of winning prizes became all 
the easier to him. The opening, however, 
was too good to escape attention alto- 
gether, so it was not surprising to find that 
one or two breeders in different parts of 
the country set quietly to work to produce 
something good enough to win with. 
Among others the present writer was at- 
tracted to the breed, and, out of the first 
litter which he bred, was rewarded by the 
production of the famous Ch. Duke of Edg- 
worth, who, before his exportation to the 
United States, had an exceedingly long 



and brilliant career at the shows, which 
extended over eight years, and resulted 
in the gathering together of about 400 first 
prizes and specials, many of which were 
won in competitions with the champions 
of other breeds which went the rounds of 
the shows. It was generally conceded 
that he was one of the best specimens of 
a Setter of any variet}^ which Jjad ever 
been placed in a ring. ilr. Chapman had 
a faithful henchman in Mr. Da\-id Baillie, 
who in his early da\'s was in attendance 
at the big shows, with such noted compe- 
titors as Ch. Heather Grouse, Ch. Heather 
Nap, and manj' more of the Heather family. 
To-day he is the leading exliibitor of the 
variety, and by making good use of his 
earlier training has within the last five years 
so successfully emulated the deeds of his 
former chief that his dogs verj' easily stand 
pre-eminent whenever they are exhibited. 

For about five years, ending unfortu- 
nately in 1904, Sir 
George Bullough created 
a Uvelier aspect of affairs 
by bringing out a team 
which he exhibited fear- 
lessly and with good 
effect under the manage- 
ment of a faithful old 
ser\-ant, Mr. John Ash- 
worth. Of this owner's 
dogs Ch. Redruth Colonel 
was far and away the 
best, and to him much 
of the improvement 
which was noticeable in 
the Isle of Rum team 
was directly to be traced. 
Sir George still holds to 
his faith in the variety 
for their working capa- 
bihties and endurance of 
hard weather, but the loss 
of such a stalwart supporter has had a \ery 
regrettable effect on the prospects of resusci- 
tating the popularity of the breed so far as 
the shows are concerned. It seems almost 
incredible that with the long rows of benches 
occupied by excellent specimens which 
appeared at the Manchester Show in 1900 

the number at the present time should 
have again dwindled down to three or four 
in a class, even when challenge prizes are 
offered. Surely some enterprising indi- 
\idual will be forthcoming when this excep- 
tionally good opportimity to take up a 
variety, with ever}' prospect of immediate 
and very satisfactory results — financial and 
otherwise — has been drawn attention to, 
for there can be no doubt that, with very 
little effort, the popularity of the Gordon 
Setter could be resuscitated. 

The want of an active organisation which 
would foster and encourage the interests of 
the Black and Tan Setter is much to be 
deplored, and is, without doubt, the chief 
cause of its being so much neglected by 
show committees, for in these strenuous 
days, when almost every breed or variety of 
breed is backed up by its own votaries, it 
cannot be expected that such as are not 
constantly kept in prominence will re- 




cei\-e an3'thing more than scant considera- 

The Black and Tan Setter is heavier than 
the Enghsh or Irish varieties, but shows 
more of the hound and less of the Spaniel. 
The head is stronger than that of the English 
Setter, with a deeper and broader muzzle 



and heavier lips. The ears are also some- 
what longer, and the eyes frequently show 
the haw. The black should be as jet, and 
entirely free from white. The tan on the 
cheeks and over the eyes, on the feet and 
pasterns, should be bright and clearly 
defined, and the feathering on the forelegs 
and thighs should also be a rich dark 
mahoganv tan. 

IV. Other Types.— The old Welsh, or 
Llanidloes. Setter is now practically extinct. 
It was as curly in the coat as a Cotswold 
sheep. The colour was usually white, with 
occasionally a lemon-tinted patch or two 
about the head and ears. The head was 
longer in proportion to its size and less 
refined than that of the Enghsh variety. 
The stern was curly and clubbed, without 
feather. Formerly there existed a jet black 
Welsli Setter, an excellent worker, now as 
extinct as the dodo. 

Formerly, also, there was a liver and 
white type much favoured in the North of 
England, and particularly in the Carlisle 
district— the "pure old Edward Castle 

At Boaudesert , the residence of the 
Marquis of Anglesey, there was treasured a 
strain known as the Anglesey Setter, a light, 
active, very narrow breed of dog, with 
sparse chest capacity, though deep in ribs. 
These dogs were somewhat leggy, and had 
the habit of standing with their forelegs 
and feet close together. They were constitu- 
tionally delicate, but as long as they were 
cultivated they showed great pace in the field. 
In colour they were mostly black, white, and 
tan, and, though not so smooth and flat in 
c:oat as the modem Setter, they were yet not 
so curly as the Welsh breed above referred to. 
In the years between 1870 and 1880 the 
Laverack and Llewellin strains were highly 
po])ular in England. The first were bred by 
Mr. Edward Laverack, of Whitchurch, in 
Shropshire. They were ticked with black, 
blue, or lemon. It was in 1874 that Mr. 
Laverack began to export his dogs to the 
United States. " I have a demand from 
America for more than I can sell," he 
wrote in a letter to his friend Rothwell, 
" but they are the best, and I guaraii/cc all I 

send bred by me." So many did he send, 
indeed, that it seems that at one juncture 
he was reduced to the possession of " only 
one old brood bitch," which he feared was 
" too old to breed." He therefore intro- 
duced stock from other kennels. Formerly 
he had despised the Cumberland liver and 
whites, but now he called them " the pure 
old Edward Castle breed," and professed 
that they were as good as the blues, which 
he infused with their alien blood. Mr. 
Llewellin's Setters, of a slightly different 
type, were also largely drawn upon by 
American owners and breeders. 

At the present time in Great Britain we 
seldom hear the names referred to in con- 
nection with our Setters, but in the United 
States what are now known as the American 
Laveracks and Llewellins occupy a promi- 
nent place at shows and field trials, and it 
niav be added that for these purposes, as 
well as for work with the gun, the American 
varieties are by competent judges regarded 
as being capable of holding their own with 
the best of our British Setters. 

Amongst the oldest and most successful 
owners of Setters who have consistently 
competed at field trials may be mentioned 
Colonel Cotes, whose Prince Frederick was 
probably the most wonderful backer ever 
known. ^Messrs. Purcell-Llewellvn, W. Ark- 
wriglit, Elias and James Bishop, F. C. Lowe, 
J. Shorthose, G. Potter and S. Smale, who 
may be considered the oldest Setter judges, 
and who have owned dogs whose prowess in 
the field has brought them high reputation. 
Mr. B. J. Warwick has within recent years 
owned probably more winners at field trials 
than any other owner, one of his best being 
Compton Bounce. Captain Heywood Lons- 
dale has on several occasions proved the 
Ightfield strain to be staunch and true, as 
witness the doughty deeds of Duke of that 
ilk, and the splendid success he achieved 
at the grouse trials in Scotland, July, 1906, 
with his Ightfield Rob Roy, Mack, and Dot, 
the first-named winning the all-aged stake, 
and the others being first and third in the 
puppy stake. Mr. Herbert Mitchell has 
been another good patron of the trials, and 
has won manv important stakes, his latest 



achievements being with the fine EngHsh 
Setter, Lingtield Ber}'!, who won botli the 
cili-aged stake at the Kennel Club and that 
at the English Setter Club's meetings in the 
spring of 1906. Mr. A. T. Williams has also 
owned a few noted trial winners, and from 
Scotland comes Mr. Isaac Sharpe, whose 
Gordon Setter, Stylish Ranger, effectually 
put a stop to the silly argument that all this 
breed are old men's dogs, b}' winning a big 
stake or two three years ago. 

Many of the older field-trial men hold 
tenacioush' to the opinion that the modem 
exhibition Setter is useless for high-class 
work, and contend that if field-trial winners 
are to be produced they must be bred from 
noted working strains. As a fundamental 
principle this argument will not hold water, 
for the contrary has been proved many times. 
Doubtless this prejudice against show dogs 
has been engendered by the circumstance 
that many owners of celebrated bench win- 
ners care nothing about their dogs being 
trained, in some cases generation after 
generation ha\ing been bred simply for 
show purposes. Under such conditions it 
is not to be wondered at that the capacity 
for fine scenting properties and the natural 
aptitude for quickh' picking up a knowledge 

of their proper duties in the field — which in 
the case of the progeny of such dogs as have 
been constantly worked for generations pre- 
viously becomes an hereditary attribute 
— is impaired to such an extent as almost to 
warrant the assumption. But why should 
this state of things exist at all ? The 
writer has always contended that there is no 
earthly reason why a good show dog should 
not also be a good worker. 

The probabihties are that sooner or later 
means will be foimd to do away with the 
anomaly, and that the system which now 
provides classes at championship shows, 
in which only dogs that ha\-e obtained 
a certificate of merit at the trials are 
eligible to compete, will be very much 
enlarged upon, possibly to the exclusion of 
all Setters which have not been broken. 
This would not be a very difficult matter 
to arrange, as certificates, on in author- 
ised form, might as easily be made by 
breakers and required from exhibitors 
as are those which specialist clubs require 
from the owners of brood bitches and stud 
dogs to make puppies eligible for produce 
stakes and other such competitions. At all 
events, this idea should commend itself 
to the Kennel Club. 






" Man is of kin to the beasts. For take an example of a dog, and mark what a generosity 
and courage he will put on when he finds himself maintained by a man, who to him is in stead 
of a god, or Melior Natura ; which courage is manifestly such as that creature, without that 
confidence of a belter nature than his own, could never attain." — Lord Bacon. 



IT is ob\-iousl_y useless to shoot game 
unless you can find it after it has been 
wounded or killed, and from the earliest 
times it has been the habit of sportsmen to 
train their dogs to do the work which they 
could not always successfully do for them- 
selves. The Pointers, Setters, and Spaniels 
of our forefathers were carefully broken not 
only to find and stand their game, but also 
to fetch the fallen birds. This use of the 
setting and pointing dog is still common on 
the Continent and in the United States, 
and there is no inaccuracy in a French artist 
depicting a Pointer with a partridge in its 
mouth, or showing a Setter retrieving 
waterfowl. In the time of Morland and 
Cooper it was equally correct in English art, 
and the Setter or Spaniel was considered 
quite normal if after the shot had been 
fired he found the wounded bird, and laid it 
crushed and mangled at his master's feet. 

The Springer and the old curly-coated 
water-dog were regarded as particularly 
adroit in the double work of finding and 

retrieving. Pointers and Setters who had 
been thus broken were found to deteriorate 
in steadiness in the field, and it gradually 
came to be realised that even the Spaniel's 
capacity for retrieving was limited. A 
larger and quicker dog was wanted to 
di\-ide the labour, and to be used solely 
as a retriever in conjunction with the other 
gun clogs. The Poodle was tried for re- 
trieving with some success, and he showed 
considerable aptitude in finding and fetch- 
ing wounded wild duck ; but he, too, was 
inclined to maul his birds and deliver them 

Even the Old English Sheepdog was 
occasionally engaged in the work, and various 
crosses with Spaniel or Setter and Collie 
were attempted in the endeavour to produce 
a grade breed having the desired qualities 
of a good nose, a soft mouth, and an under- 
standing brain, together with a coat that 
would protect its wearer from the ill effects 
of frequent immersion in water. 

It was when these efforts were most 


active — namely about the year 1850 — that 
new material was discovered in a black- 
coated dog recently introduced into England 
from Labrador. He was a natural water- 
dog, with a constitution impervious to 
chills, and entirely free from the liability 
to ear canker, which had always been a 
drawback to the use of the Spaniel as a 
retrie\'er of waterfowl. Moreover, he was 
himself reputed to be a born retriever of 
game, and remarkably sagacious. His im- 
porters called him a Spaniel — a breed name 
which at one time was also applied to his 
relative the Newfoundland. Probably there 
were not many specimens of the race in 
England, and, although there is no record 
explicitly saying so, it is conjectured that 
these were crossed with the English Setter, 
producing what is now familiarly known as 
the black, flat-coated Retriever. 

One very remarkable attribute of the 
Retriever is that notwithstanding the known 
fact that the parent stock was mongrel, 
and that in the early dogs the Setter type 
largely predominated, the ultimate result 
has favoured the Labrador cross distinctly 
and prominently, proving how potent, even 
when grafted upon a stock admittedly 
various, is the blood of a pure race, and how 
powerful its influence for faxing type and 
character over the other less \ital elements 
with which it is blended. 

From the first, sportsmen recognised the 
extreme value of the new retrieving dog. 
Strengthened and improved by the Labrador 
blood, he had lost little if any of the Setter 
beauty of form. He was a dignified, sub- 
stantial, intelligent, good-tempered, affec- 
tionate companion, faithful, talented, highly 
cultivated, and esteemed, in the season and 
out of it, for his mind as well as his beauty. 

" Idstone " described one of the early 
Retrievers, and the description is worth 
quoting : — 

" He was black as a raven — a blue black — 
not a very large dog, but wide over the back 
and loins, with limbs like a lion, and a thick, 
glossy, long, silky coat, which parted down the 
back, a long, sagacious head, full of character 
and clean as a Setter's in the matter of coat. 
His ears were small, and so close to his head 

that they were hidden in his feathered neck. 
His eye was neither more nor less than a human 
eye, and I never saw a bad expression in it. 
He was not over twenty-five inches in height, 
but he carried a hare with ease ; and if he could 
not top a gate with one — which about one dog 
in two hundred does twice a year — he could get 
through the second or third span, or push it 
through a gap before him in his mouth, and 
never lose his hold. And then for water. He 
would trot into the launching punt, and coil 
himself up by the luncheon basket to wait for 
his master as soon as he saw the usual prepara- 
tions for a cruise. For this work he had too 
much coat, and brought a quantity of water 
into the boat ; but for retrieving wildfowl he 
was excellent ; and in the narrow water-courses 
and amongst the reeds and osiers his chase of a 
winged mallard was a thing to see. They seemed 
both to belong to one element, and he would dive 
like an otter for yards, sometimes coming up 
for breath, only to go down again for pleasure." 

It is only comparatively recently that 
we have realised how excellent an all-round 
sporting dog the Retriever has become. 
In many cases, indeed, where grouse and 
partridge are driven or walked-up a well- 
broken, soft-mouthed Retriever is unques- 
tionably superior to Pointer, Setter, or 
Spaniel, and for general work in the field 
he is the best companion that a shooting 
man can possess. 

Doubtless in earlier days, when the art of 
training was less thoroughly understood, 
the breaking of a dog was a matter of infinite 
trouble to breeders. Most of the gun dogs 
could be taught by patience and practice to 
retrieve fur or feather, but game carefully 
and skilfully shot is easily rendered valueless 
by being mumbled and mauled by powerful 
jaws not schooled to gentleness. And this 
question of a tender mouth was certainly 
one of the problems that perturbed the 
minds of the originators of the breed. The 
difficulty was overcome by a process of 
selection, and by the exclusion from breeding 
operations of all hard-mouthed specimens, 
with the happy effect that in the present 
time it is exceptional to find a working 
Retriever who does not know how to bring 
his bird to hand without injuring it. A 
better knowledge of what is expected of 



him distinguishes our modern Retriever. 
He knows his duty, and is intensely eager 
to perform it, but he no longer rushes off 
unbidden at the firing of the gun. He 
has learned to remain at heel until he is 
ordered by word or gesture from his master, 
upon whom he relies as his friend and 
director, and " who to him is instead of a 

It would be idle to expect that the off- 
spring of unbroken sire and dam can be as 


easily educated as a Retriever whose parents 
before him have been properly trained. In- 
herited qualities count for a great deal in 
the adaptability of all sporting dogs, and 
the reason why one meets with so many 
Retrievers that are incapable or disobedient 
or gun-shy is simply that their preliminary 
education has been neglected — the edu- 
cation which should begin when the dog is 
\'ery young. 

In his earliest youth he should be trained 
to prompt obedience to a given word or a 
wave of the hand. It is well to teach 

him very early to enter water, or he may 
be found wanting when you require him 
to fetch a bird from river or lake. Lessons 
in retrieving ought to be a part of his daily 
routine. Equally necessary is it to break 
him in to the knowledge that sheep and 
lambs are not game to be chased, and that 
rabbits and hares are to be discriminated 
from feathered game. Mr. Blagg trains his 
Retrievers to steadiness with " fur " by 
schooling them to harmless companionship 
with tame rab- 

Gun - shyness 
is often sup- 
posed to be 
hereditary ; but 
it is not so. Any 
puppy can be 
cured of gun- 
shyness in half 
a dozen short 
lessons. Sir 
Henry Smith's 
ad\'ice is to get 
your puppy ac- 
customed to the 
sound and sight 
of a gun being 
firi'd, lirst at a 
distance and 
gradually nearer 
and nearer, until 
he knows that 
no harm will 
come to him. 
Associate the 
gun-firing in his 
mind with something pleasant — as a sign that 
it is feeding time, or time for a free romp in 
the paddock. There is no more reason that 
a dog should fear a gun than that he should 
fear the cracking of a whip. Companionship 
and sympathy between dog and master is 
the beginning and end of the whole business, 
and there is a moral obligation between 
thena which ought never to be strained. 

Xo breed of sporting dog has gained more 
than the Retriever from the institution of 
that admirable organisation the Game- 
keepers' Association, and from the well- 



conducted shows for keepers' dogs managed 
by Mr. Millard. At the Gamekeepers' Show 
held at Carlisle in 1907 visitors were par- 
ticularly attracted by the high quahty of the 
exhibits in the Retriever classes, all owned 
and most of them bred by keepers. 

As a show dog the flat-coated Retriever 
has reached something very near to the 
ideal standard of perfection which has 
been consistently bred up to. Careful selec- 
tion and systematic breeding, backed up by 
have resulted in 
the production 
of a dog com- 
bining useful 
working quali- 
ties with the 
highest degree 
of beauty. 

In the early 
days of dog 
shows the one 
name most in- 
timately asso- 
ciated with the 
Retriever was 
that of Dr. Bond 
Moore, who>(.- 
kennels were al- 
most invariably 
successful in 
Dr. Moore was 
somewhat arbi- 
trary as a judge 
of the breed, 

and has been known to fault an otherwise 
perfect dog because of the presence of a 
few white hairs in its jet black coat ; but 
it is interesting to note that in the litters 
of his own breeding at Wolverhampton 
there occasionally occurred puppies of a 
pale golden, almost liver colour. His famous 
Midnight, remarkable for the pure blackness 
of her coat, more than once threw sandy- 
coloured whelps to a black sire. This 
occurs in many good strains. 

Contemporaneously with the success of 
Dr. Moore's kennels in 1870 some admirably 
typical Retrievers were shown by other 

breeders, notably Mr. Atkinson's Cato, Mr. 
Shorthose's Rupert, Mr. Strawbridge's Rose, 
Mr. Hazlehurst's Midnight, Mr. G. D. Gorse's 
Wyndham, Sailor, and Jet, Mr. R. J. Lloyd 
Price's Moliere, and Mr. G. Manson's Morley. 
Another very prominent admirer and breeder 
was the late Mr. S. E. Shirley, the President 
of the Kennel Club, who owned many 
Retrievers superlative both as workers and 
as show dogs, and who probabh' did more 
for the breed than any other man of his 




generation. A sportsman in every sense, 
Mr. Shirley trained his dogs for work with 
extreme care, and only bred from those of 
the highest character. If only for his im- 
provements in this one breed, the shooting 
world owes his memory undying gratitude. 
Among the best Retrievers of his breeding 
were Paris, Moonstone, Ze'.stone, Dusk, 
Lady Evelj^n, Trace, and Thorn. 

Mr. Shirley's work was carried on by Mr. 
Harding Cox, who devoted much time and 
energy to the production of good Retrievers, 
many of which were of Mr. Shirley's strain. 
Mr. Cox's dogs deservedly achieved con- 




siderable fame for tlieir levelness of type, sources, Mr. Cooke has gathered together a 
and the improvement in heads so noticeable stock which has never been equalled. His 
at the present time is to be ascribed to his ideas of type and conformation are the 
breeding for this point. ^Ir. L. Allen Shuter, outcome of close and attentive study and 
the owner of Ch. Darenth and other excellent consistent practice, and one needs to go to 

Ri^•erside if one desires to see the highest 
examples of what a modern flat-coated 
Retriever can be. Within recent years Mr. 
Cooke has owned Ch. Black Quilt (perhaps 
the most successful sire of the race), Paul 
of Riverside, Worsley Bess, Gipsy of River- 
side, Ch. High Legh Blarney, and Ch. Wim- 
pole Peter, and at the present moment the 
Riverside kennels contain ten champions in 
addition to many potential champions. 

Since Dr. Bond ^loore imparted to the 
Retriever a fixity of character, the coats 
ha-\^e become longer and less wavy, and 
in conformation of skull, colour of eye, 
straightness of legs, and quality of bone, 
there has been a perceptible improve- 

As there is no club devoted to the breed, 
and consequently no official standard of 
Retrievers of his o\™ breeding, claims also points, the following description of the 
a large share of credit for the part he has perfect Retriever is offered, 
played in the general impro\'e- 
ment of the breed. Mr. C. A. 
Phillips, too, owned admirable 
specimens in Ch, Taut and other 
good workers, and the name of 
the late Lieut. -Colonel Cornwall 
Legh must be included. Many 
of Colonel Legh's bitches were of 
Shirley blood, but it is believed 
that a breed of Retrievers had 
existed at High Legh for se\-eral 
generations, with which a judicious 
cross was made, the result being 
not only the formation of a re- 
markable kennel, but also a de- 
cided influence for good upon the 
breed in general. 

But since the Shirley days, \\hen 
competition was more limited tlian 
it is at present, no kennel of Re- 
trievers has ever attained any- 
thing like the distinction of that owmed 
by Mr. H. Reginald Cooke, at Riverside, 
Nantwich. By acquiring the best speci- 
mens of the breed from a!l available 

MR E W, H bLAubb BUbY MiTE 


Pholosi'.itli by Loatuks.,. 

1. General Appearance. — That of a well-pro- 
portioned briijht and active sporting dog, show- 
ing power without lumber and raciness without 

2. Head. — Long, fine, without being weak, the 



muzzle square, the underjaw strong with an 
absence of hppiness or throatiness. 

3. Eyes. — Dark as possible, with a very intelli- 
gent, mild expression. 

4. Neck. — Long and clean. 

5. Ears. — Small, well set on, and carried close 
to the head. 

6. Shoulders. — Oblique, running well into the 
back, with plenty of depth of chest, 

7. Body. — Short and square, and well ribbed up. 

8. Stern. — Short and straight, and carried gaily, 
but not curled over the back. 

9. Forelegs. — Straight, pasterns strong, feet 
small and round. 

10. Quarters. — Strong ; stifles well bent. 

11. Coat. — Dense black or liver, of fine quality 
and texture. Flat, not wavy. 

12. Weight. — From 65 lb. to 80 lb. for dogs ; 
bitches rather less. 

As a rule the Retriever should be chosen 
for the intelligent look of his face, and 
particular attention should be paid to the 
shapie of his head and to his eyes. His 
frame is important, of course, but in the 
Retriever the mental qualities are of more 
significance than bodily points. 

There has been a tendency in recent years 
among Retriever breeders to fall into the 
common error of exaggerating a particular 
point, and of breeding dogs with a head far 
too fine and narrow — it is what has been 

aptly called the alligator head— lacking in 
brain capacity and power of jaw. A perfect 
head should be long and clean, but ne ther 
weak nor snipy. The ej^e should be placed 
just halfway between the occiput and the 
tip of the nose. 

It is pleasing to add that to this beautiful 
breed the phrase " handsome is as handsome 
does " applies in full measure. Not only is 
the average Retriever of a companionable 
disposition, with delightful intelligence that 
is always responsive, but he is a good and 
faithful guard and a courageous protector 
of person and property. It has already 
been said that the majority of the best- 
looking Retrievers are also good working 
dogs, and it may here be added that many 
of the most successful working dogs are 
sired by prizewinners in the show ring. At 
the late Retriever trials at St. Neots 
the open stake was won by Mr. Reginald 
Cooke's Ch. Grouse of Riverside, a son of 
Mr. Allen Shuter's Ch. Horton Rector. Ch. 
Royal River and Ch. Shotover were also 
successful runners at the Kennel Club 
trials at Horsted who helped to prove that 
the show dog need not necessarily be de- 
ficient in the capacity to excel as a worker. 


BY L. P. C. .'\STLEy. 

TiiF. curly-coated Retriever is commonly 
believed to be of earlier origin than his 
flat-coated relative, and he is of less pure 
descent. He probably owes ancestral tribute 
to the Poodle, and the writer has had 
ocular proof that a mongrel bred for e.xperi- 
ment for retrieving purposes from a black 
Poodle dog and a weedy Labrador bitch 
resembled a poor show specimen of the 
curly Retriever. Such a cross may con- 
ceivably have been resorted to by the early 
Retriever breeders, and there was little to 
lose from a merely sporting point of view 
from this alien introduction, for the Poodle 
is well known to be by nature, if not by 

systematic training, an excellent water dog, 
capable of being taught anything that the 
canine mind can comprehend. During the 
early years of the nineteenth century the 
Poodle was fairly plentiful in Eng and, and 
we had no other curly-coated dog of similar 
size and type apart from the Irish water 
Spaniel, who may himself lay claim to 
Poodle relationship ; while as to the Re- 
triever, either curly- or flat-coated, he can 
in no sense be assigned to any country out- 
side of Great Britain. The presumption is 
strong that the " gentleman from France " 
was largely instrumental in the manufacture 
of the variety, but whatever the origin of 



the curly-coated Retriever he is a beautiful 
dog, and one is gratified to note that the 
old prejudice against him, and the old 
indictment as to his hard mouth, are fast 
giving place to praise of his intelligence 
and admiration of his working abilities. 

Speaking generally, it seems to be accepted 
that he is slightly inferior in nose to his flat- 
coated cousin, and not quite so easy to break, 
but there are many keepers and handlers 

Lad have taken their places in the history 
of the breed. Later there have been such 
famous specimens as Gomersal Surprise and 
Gomersal Tip Top, Good Lad, Naughty Boy, 
Tiverton Beauty II. and III., Millington 
Princess, Belle Vue Xina, in the writer's 
opinion one of the very best, and her im- 
mortal conqueror Preston Sultan, a dog 
whose quality of coat, bone, substance, head, 
eye and perfect make and shape have never 
been surpassed. Gomersal May 
Fiy, Preston Wonder, Belle Vue 
Surprise, Miss Wonder, another 
beautifully shaped bitch, and Miss 
Quality, are later additions to the 
scroll of fame. The prefix " Gom- 
ersal " belongs to Messrs. Mason 
and Wood, " Tiverton " to Mr. 
Sam Darby, " Belle Vue " to Mr. 
Flowett, and " Berkeley " to Mr. 
A. Clarkson. Henry Skipworth, 
Lord Jlelville, Ducrdin Button, 




who have discovered in individual 
specimens extraordinary merit in 
the field combined with great en- 
durance. It is not certain that 
any great improvement has been 
effected in the variety during re- 
cent years, but there are particular 
dogs to-day who are decidedly 
better than any that existed a ""^- '^ 
dozen years or more ago, when ^^ '^"' 
such celebrities as True, Old Sam, 
King Koffee, Ben Wonder, Doden Ben, 
Lad, and Una, were prominent, and there 
is no doubt that the curly coats attained 
show form in advance of the flat-coated 
variety. Among the early specimens in 
addition to those just mentioned Tiverton 
Lady was a notably beautiful bitch, as were 
Barkwith Lady, Black Gipsy, and Gomer- 
sal Lady ; and the names of Gomersal 
Tipster, Gomersal Beauty, Berkeley Black 
Boy, Berkeley Gipsy, and Tiverton Best 



A. R. Fish, R. Chapman, and J. Donald 
are names of breeders and owners which 
have frequently appeared in the prize lists 
of recent years. 

The coat of the curly Retriever plays a 
very important part in his value and per- 
sonality. There are many kinds of coat, 
but the only true and proper one is the 
close fitting " nigger curl," of which each 
knot is solid and inseparable. A coat 
of this quality is not capable of improve- 



ment by any method of grooming, for the 
s mple reason that its natural condition is 
in itself perfect. The little locks should be 
50 close together as to be impervious to 
water, and all parts of the body should be 
e\enly covered wth them, including the 
tail and legs. A bad class of coat, and one 
which readily yields to the faker's art is 
the thin open curl which by careful manipu- 
lation can be greatly improved. Another 
bad quality of coat is one in which, upon 
the withers and over the loins in particular, 
the curls do not tighten up naturally, but 
are large, loose, and soft to the feel. Re- 
garding the dog as a whole, the following 
may be taken as an all-roimd description : — 

1. General Appearance. — That of a smart, 
active, clean<ut and alert dog. full of go and 
fire — a sportsman from stem to stem. 

2. Head. — Long and not weedy in the muzzle. 
nor thick and coarse in the skull, but tapering 
down and finishing with a stout broad muzzle. 

3. Skull. — Should be flat and moderately broad 
between the ears, which are rathsr small, and 
well covered with hair. 

4. Ears. — Should lie close to the side of the head, 
but not dead in their carriage. 

5. Face. — The face should be smooth, and any 
indication of a forelock sliould be penalised. 

6. Eye. — ^The eye should in all cases be dark 
and not too deeply set. 

7. Neck. — Well placed in the shoulders and 
nicely arched, of moderate length and yet power- 
ful and free from throatiness. 

8. Shoulders. — Well laid back and as free from 
massiveness as possible, though there is a decided 
tendency in this variety to such a fault. 

9. Legs. — Straight and well covered with coat. 
The bone should show quality and yet be fairly 

10. Feet. — Compact and hound-like. 

11. Body. — Should show great power, \\-ithdeep, 
well-rounded ribs. As little cut-up in the flank 
as possible. 

12. Tail. — Strong at the base, set on in a line vath 
the back and tapering to a point, the size of the 
curls upon it diminishing gradually to the end. 

13. Hind Quarters. — Should show great develop- 
ment of muscle, with bent hocks, the lower leg 
being strong and the hind feet compact. Any 
suspicion of cow hocks should be heavily penalised. 

14. Colour. — Mostly a dull black. Some liver- 
coloured dogs are seen vfith very good coats and 
bodies, but their heads are generally tliick and 
coarse and the colour of their eyes does not always 
match, as it should do, with the colour of the 
coat. A few dogs of this colour have achieved 
distinction on the show bench. 



Among sporting dogs the Labradors are 
unique. In the evolution of flat-coated 
Retrievers they played a most important 
part, yet they themselves remain to-day 
very much as they were when the former 
were neither defined nor definable. It 
was not till the year 1903 that the breed 
was recognised by the Kennel Club, and 
special attention drawn to them. 

Of their common origin with the New- 
foundland there is no doubt. It must be 
remembered that previous to the foundation 
of the Kennel Club in 1873 the classification 
of many varieties of dogs was very indefinite. 
When the Newfoundland was first intro- 
duced into this country I do not know, 
ft is quite certain, however, that in the 

early years of the nineteenth century even 
the large dogs were frequently used in 
field sports, and equally certain that manv 
of the references in The Sporting Magazine 
and other publications to Newfoundlands 
in the field were really meant for Labradors. 
In Scott's beautifully illustrated " British 
Field Sports," published in 1818, mention 
is made of the Newfoundland dog, " so well 
known of late years in this country," being 
used for the " purpose of fetching and 
carrying game." He adds : " This noble 
animal . . . appears to be specifically the 
same, or a variety of the Great Dog of the 
north of Europe, perhaps imported thence 
into the island of Newfoundland on its first 


In his article on the Newfoundland (p. 74) 
Captain Bailey quotes McGregor (1832) : 
" The smooth short-haired dog so much 
admired in England as a Newfoundland 


From '■ The Snorting Magnzine " (MjJj. 

dog ... is a cross breed," and, I tliink, 
rightly assumes that the reference was to 
Labradors. JIcGregor was not a reliable 
authority on such a subject, and sufficient 
of him is quoted to show it. 
Much more to the point is 
the extract from Youatt (1S45) 
which immediately follows it. 

In The Sporting Magazine of 
July, T832, appeared a picture 
of " Rufus, a celebrated Re- 
triever," reproduced in this 
column. Of him it is said. 
" Rufus is a mi.xed breed be- 
tween the Pointer and New- 
foundland dog. His portrait 
has the character of the latter 
very visible, small cj'c, \-isage 
rather long, small ear, and stern 
well flocked ; but his legs have 
that of the first, clean and well 
formed. His name is a mis- 
nomer, being decidedly a black 
dog." It requires small effort 
of the imagination to picture 
the type of Newfoundland 
dog which played such a prominent part 
in the production of " Rufus." 

The philosophic Blaine, in his " Encyclo- 
paedia of Rural Sports " (1852), drew a dis- 
tinction — the opposite, be it observed, from 
what is commonly accepted to-day : " The 
Newfoundland dog is a Spaniel 
much employed on the southern 
coasts of our kingdom, and there 
appear to be two distinct breeds 
of them — one from Labrador, and 
another from St. John's. The Lab- 
rador dog is very large, rough- 
haired, and carries his tail high. 
. . . The St. John's breed is that to 
be preferred by the sportsman on 
every account, being smaller, more 
easily managed, and sagacious in 
the extreme. His scenting powers 
are also great." Then he goes on 
to say : " Some years ago these 
dogs could be readily procured 
at Poole." It is interesting to 
find that the principal branch of 
business at Poole at that time 
was in connection with the Newfoundland 

I have an old sporting paper with a 
report of the Crystal Palace Show of 1872. 



I'lwiogiafh b 

.y C. K,i,l, Wiilur^i. 

This is an extract from it : " The Retrievers 
. . . were most extensively represented ; 



and there were good specimens of almost 
e\'er\- description, game and Xcwfotindland, 
curl}- coated and wavy coated ! " In the 
champion class the late Mr. S. E. Shirlej-'s 
well-kno\\Ti Paris (k.c.s.b., 1839) got a 
special prize. Paris was by Lion {alias 
Hercules) out of Bess — both imported 

Even in " Cassell's Illustrated Book of 
the Dog " (1881), Mr. ^'ero Shaw, in dealing 

had rare facilities for importing Labradors, 
and through him many others were supplied. 
I am not aware of any dog of consequence 
to the breed having been imported in recent 
years. Without the assistance of shows 
or imported blood, however, they have sur- 
vived marvellously, thanks especially to 
the kennels of such breeders as the Dukes of 
Buccleuch and Hamilton, the Earl of Veru- 
1am, Lords Wimborne, Home, and Malmes- 



Photograph by C. ReU, Wiihaa. 


with Retrievers on p. 419, speaks of Lab- 
rador and Newfoundland in con\ertible 
terms ! 

As Poole — the south — so Shields on the 
" coaly Tyne " supplied the north, and 
Labradors were certainly well known as 
sporting dogs in Northumberland in the 
' fifties — probably earlier. Mr. Joseph Job- 
ling, of Morpeth, a well-known authority in 
his day, who not only owned the winning 
Setter at the first dog show in 1859, but 
who was one of the judges for Pointers, was 
much interested in shipping at Shields. He 

bury, the Hon. A. Holland Hibbert, Sir 
Savile Crossley, Mr. F. P. Barnett, Mr. C. 
Liddell, Mr. O. L. Mansel, and others 
equally enthusiastic. 

To the Duke of Buccleuch's kennel, under 
the able management of Mr. John Bell, 
we are probably more indebted in the 
last twenty years than to any other. Its 
foundation was laid in two bitches by a 
dog of the Duke of Hamilton's from a bitch 
of Lord Malmesbury's. At Drumlanrig, as 
well as on the Duke's other estates, they 
have been most particular in preserving the 



purity and working qualities of tlieir strain. 
And the same may be said of the Hon. A. 
Holland Hibbert, whose principal dogs are 
not only typical in appearance, but broken 
to perfection. 

It is perhaps not within my province 
to show the part played by Labradors 
in making the flat - coated Retrievers. 
A sentence or two will suffice. Blaine, 
already quoted, saj's in 1S52 : " The Re- 
triever is rather an indefinite dog, i.e. he 
owns no fixed parentage, but may be 
generated by any congenial varieties as 
the Spaniel and Newfoundlander." Later 
on he says, for certain shootings : " The 
Retriever employed should be a cross breed 
between a Setter and Newfoundlander." 
Idstone, twenty years later, says : " The 
Black Retriever was a Setter originally. • . . 
He was thickened, strengthened, and mi- 
proved by the Labrador blood." It would 
be easy enough to trace through Wyndham, 
Paris, and several other of the early 
Retrievers the permanent influence of the 
Labradors upon the breed. While, chiefly 
owing to the influence of show's, these 
" indefinite dogs of no fixed parentage " 
have been evolved into the magnificent 
fixed breed as we now know it, we have 
the Labradors now just as we had them fifty 
years ago — just as we had, in fact, nearly all 
sporting dogs fifty years ago. That is to 
say, we have a distinct breed, maintained 
by a comparatively few enthusiastic indi- 
viduals, primarily for its sporting qualities, 
according to a recognised, unwritten type, 
and modified in a few non-essential points 
to individual taste. 

That the Labrador will ever be appreciated 
by the rank and file, and become a popular 
show dog, I very much doubt. He somehow 
does not lend himself to it, and if aristocrat 
he be, he represents much more appropriately 
the garb and " get-up " of the sportsman 
than the dandy in the drawing-room. 

Hexham, some seven or eight years ago, 
was the first show to give classes for them. 
Now half a dozen — including the Crystal 
Palace, Cruft's, and Southampton — cater 
for them, and the classes are generally well 

Colour of eye is the most important 
point yet raised by their appearance in 
the show ring. On this feature let me 
quote from my review of the breed for 
1906, in The Kennel Gazette of February. 
" Brayton Swift, the winning dog at the 
Crystal Palace, has a dark eye, which in my 
opinion improves him greatly. This is pre- 
cisely one of the points where opinions differ. 
Several devoted breeders look upon a dark 
eye as almost a disqualification. No doubt 
from the time of their earliest introduction 
the majority of them have been light in eye. 
Their intimate relations, the Newfoundlands, 
despite all endeavours to eradicate it, and 
with no difference of opinion upon the sub- 
ject, in many of the best bred specimens show 
the light eye to this day. If breeders were 
unanimous to-morrow, therefore, as to the 
desirability of the dark eye, it would take 
years of careful selection before anything 
like uniformity could be obtained in this 
respect. On the other hand, one has seen 
occasionally dark-eyed specimens all along 
the line, and will continue to see them. On 
one point let there be no mistake : we want 
no Retriever crossing to darken eyes ! In 
judging I would not for a moment consider 
colour of eyes if I felt the Retriever coat in a 
Labrador. Therein lies the real danger of 
attaching too much importance to a dark eye. 
It is largely a matter of individual taste, of 
education, if you like to put it so, and I am 
willmg to admit that mine has been sadly 
neglected. But according to my light, I have 
a right to say while I like a dark eye in a 
dark dog. you must give me a pure, dis- 
tinctive Labrador first, and afterwards pre- 
ferably that one with a dark eye." 

It is through their merit as field dogs that 
the Labradors have been so carefully and 
persistently maintained. While, as far as 
possible, using only dogs typical in appear- 
ance, breeders have unanimously considered 
work the sine qua non in the selection of a 
sire. In this count}' of Northumberland 
one has been accustomed from boyhood to 
hear occasionally wonderful tales of their 
sagacity in the field. Midge, a famous 
bitch of Mr. Jobling's over forty years ago, 
has long been a saint in my memory. 



recalling as she does many a rollicking, youth- 
ful day over her master's farms with the 
younger Joseph, when she invariably con- 
tributed largety to the bag. 

In recent years Mr. F. P. Barnett's 
Stag has often surprised a shooting party 
by his wonderful finds where all the other 
dogs had failed. The Hon. A. Holland 
Hibbert was, I think, the first to run pure 
Labradors at the field trials, 
and with success ; Munden Sen- 
trj', M. Single, M. Sandfly, and 
M. Something all ha\-ing done 
well. But the most conspicu- 
ous performer hitherto is Mr. 
J. M. Portal's Flapper, a 
worthy son of Stag, who in a 
stake of twenty competitors at 
theKennelClub trialsof igojgot 
second, and shortl}^ afterwards 
second in a stake of seventeen 
at the International. The suc- 
cess of these dogs will, no 
doubt, induce other owners to 
patronise the trials. 

In his " Book of the Dog " 
Mr. Vero Shaw mentions that 
in 1876 or '77, Dr. Bond Moore 
showed him a pair of Retriever 
puppies of pale golden colour. 
In " British Dogs " Hugh Dal- 
ziel confirms the statement, adding that 
they were out of Midnight, a black bitch of 
Labrador breed. It is abundantly e\'ident 
that the early Retrievers were by no means 
fixed in colour, and this is attributed by many 
writers more or less to the Labrador blood. 
Black has always been the prevailing colour 
of Labradors. It is interesting, therefore, 
to find in this connection that there is a 
breed of yellow Labradors at the present 
day in the possession of Captain Radcliffe, 
at Wareham. They are not to be confused 
with the yellow Retrievers we have had for 

long enough on the borders, but are pure 
Labradors, bred and selected with great care. 
I am told that their working qualities are 
also of the best. 

How can I better finish this short article 
than bj'' quoting Scott's beautiful " Eloge " 
on the sporting Newfoundland, in " British 
Field Sports " ? " One of the most blameless 
and good-natured of animals, neither the 

MR. J 


natural nor intentional enemy of any other. 
On the contrary, instinctively and volun- 
tarily the friend of all, seeking every occa- 
sion to assist and oblige, and in his attach- 
ment to human nature equal even to the 
Spaniel and inferior to him only in the 
qualifications of a courtier. To finish the 
strictly well-merited eloge of this wonderful 
brute, where are we, whether among bipeds 
or quadrupeds, to find his superior for kind- 
ness of heart, susceptibility of attachment, 
voluntary industry, and proffers of service, 
courage, fortitude and perseverance ? " 


M.w be conveniently noticed at this 
point, since it is essentially a Retriever 
bred and developed for work with the 
gun, and mainly used on the Atlantic 

coast, where wild duck abound. It is one 
of the few breeds '" invented " by our 
American cousins. There is a tradition 
that it originated from a dog or dogs rescued 



from a \-essel bound from Newfoundland to 
England and wrecked on the shores of 
Chesapeake Bay, and that a cross with a 
common yellow and tan coloured hound 
or coon dog produced the liver or " sedge " 
colour of the true Chesapeake Bay Retriever. 
It is not a particularly handsome dog, but 
for its purpose it is an excellent worker. The 
chief characteristic which distinguishes it 
from a very ordinary wavy-coated English 
Retriever is that of colour. There is a 
Chesapeake Bay Dog Club with head- 
quarters in Baltimore, whose official stan- 
dard of points is as follows : — 

1. General Appearance. — A symmetrical and 
well-built dog, tit for duck-shooting. 

2. Head. — Broad, running to nose only a trifle 
pointed, but not at all sharp ; face covered with 
very short hair. 

3. Eyes. — Of a yellow colour ; lively and intelli- 
gent in expression. 

4. Ears. — Small, placed well on the head. 

5. Neck. — Should be only moderately long, 
and with a tirm, strong appearance. 

6. Shoulders. — Should have full liberty, with 
plenty of show for power and no tendency to 
restriction of movement. 

7. Chest. — Strong and deep. 

8. Hind Quarters. — Should show fully as much, 
if not more power than the fore quarters. .\ny 
tendency to weakness must be avoided. 

9. Legs. — Rather short, showing both bone 
and muscle ; fore-legs rather straight and sym- 
metrical ; elbows well let down and set straight. 

10. Feet. — Of good size and well webbed. 

11. Tail. — Stout, somewhat long, the straighter 
the better, and showing only moderate feather. 

12. Coat. — Short and thick, somewhat coarse. 

with tendency to wave over shoulders, back and 
loins, w'here it is longest, nowhere o\er i^ inches 
to I K inches long ; that on flanks, legs and bellr 
shorter, tapering to quite short near the feet. 
Under all this is a short woolly fur, which should 
well cover the skin, and can be readily observed 
by pressing aside the outer coat. This coat pre- 
serves the dog from the effects of the wet and 
cold, and enables him to stand severe exposure 
and is conducive to speed in swimming. 

13. Colour. — Nearly resembling wet sedge grass 
or discoloured coat of a buffalo, though toward 
spring it becomes lighter by exposure to weather. 
A smal' white spot or frill on the breast is admis- 

14. Height at Shoulder. — .About .24 inches. 

15. Weight. — Dogs from 00 lb. to 70 lb. ; 
bitches from 45 lb. to 55 lb. 

The Norfolk Retriever. — There is a 
coarse. li\-er - coloured dog, sometimes to 
be seen in the marshy districts of East 
Anglia. which some people claim as a dis- 
tinct breed, meriting the name of the 
Norfolk Retriever. The coat is curl}-, 
the neck long, the legs are muscular, and 
the feet webbed. Tlie ears are large, 
with a considerable amount of feather. 
Some specimens almost resemble the Irish 
Water Spaniel, or a cross between that 
breed and the curly-coated Retriever. They 
are often used for fowling on the Broads, 
and are good water dogs. It is perhaps 
necessary to mention hin;, but he may 
nevertheless be dismissed as a decided 

Photns^raph by C. ReU, Wishau. 




"Or were I sprung from Spaniel line. 
Was his sagacious nostril mine. 
By me. their never-erring guide, 
From wood and plain their feasts supplied, 
Knights, squires, attendant on my pace. 
Had shared the pleasures of the chase." 

—JOHN- G.\Y (1727). 

I. The Spaniel Family. — The Spaniel 
family is without any doubt one of the 
most important of the many groups which 
are included in the canine race, not only 
on account of its undoubted antiquity, 
and, compared with other families, its 
well authenticated lineage, but also because 
of its many branches and subdivisions, 
ranging in size from the majestic and 
massive Clumbers to the diminutive toys 
which we are accustomed to associate with 
fair ladies' laps and gaily decked pens at 
our big dog shows. 

^loreover, the different varieties of Setters 
undoubtedly derive their origin from the 
same parent stock, since we find them 
described by the earlier sporting writers 
as " setting " or " crouching " Spaniels, 
in contradistinction to the " finding " or 
" springing " Spaniel, who flushed the 
game he found without setting or pointing 
it. As time went on, the setting variety 
was, no doubt, bred larger and longer in 
the leg, with a view to increased pace ; 
but the Spaniel-like head and coat still 
remain to prove the near connection be- 
tween the two breeds. 

Baron Cuvier, the eminent naturalist, 
speaks also of a breed known as the Alpine 
Spaniel, which does not, in spite of its 
name, to my mind, seem to bear any relation 
to what we know as Spaniels, but rather 
to have been the ancestor of the modern 
St. Bernard, probably by means of a cross 
with some breed of Molossian origin. 

^Ir. C. A. Phillips, however, is inclined 
to believe that this Alpine Spaniel is re- 
sponsible for a part, at least, of the blood 
flowing in the veins of our modern Clumbers, 
whose origin has always been more or less 
like that of " Jeames," " wropt in mys- 
ter}'." He bases this theory on certain 
similarities in the head and colouring of 
the St. Bernard and the Clumber, and as 
no one has gone more deeply into the 
matter than Mr. Phillips, who was my col- 
laborator in writing " The Sporting 
Spaniel," it is worth}' of a considerable 
amount of respect, though doubtless it 
would at the present time be very difficult 
either to prove or disprove. 

All the different varieties of Spaniels, 
both sporting and toy, have, with the ex- 
ception of the Clumber and the Irish Water 
Spaniel (who is not, despite his name, a 
true Spaniel at all), a common origin, 
though at a very early date we find them 
divided into two groups — viz. Land and 
Water Spaniels, and these two were kept 
distinct, and bred to develop those points 
which were most essential for their dif- 
ferent spheres of work. The earliest men- 
tion of Spaniels to be found in English 
literature is contained in the celebrated 
" Master of Game," the work of Edward 
Plantagenet, second Duke of York, and 
Master of Game to his uncle, Henry IV., to 
whom the work is dedicated. It was 
written between the years 1406 and 1413, 
and although none of the MSS., of which 



some sixteen are in existence, is dated, 
this date can be fairly accurately fixed, as 
tlie author was appointed Master of Game 
in tlu' former and killed at Agincourt in 
the latter year. His chajiter on Spaniels, 
however, is mainly a translation from the 
equally celebrated " Lix're de Chasse " of 


FROM THE Picture bv GABRIEL METZU (l630-67i. 

rhoto^iafh by J. CnhtcU-Smitli, Oxfonl SImt. I 

Gaston Comte de Foix, generally known as 
Gaston Phrebus, which was written in 
1387, so that we may safely assume that 
Spaniels were well kn(jwn, and habitually 
used as aids to the chase both in France 
and England, as early as the middle of the 
fourteenth century. Chaucer, too, who was 
born in or about 1328, mentions Spaniels 
in " The Wif of Bathes Prologue," " F(jr as 
a Spaniel, she wol on him lepe," and of 

the many other old writers who refer to 
them the most important are Dame Juliana 
Berners, in the " Book of St. Albans," 
George Turberville in the " Book of Faul- 
conrie," Nicholas Cox in the " Gentleman's 
Recreation," Gervase Markham in " Hun- 
ger's Pre\-ention," and Arcussia, all before 
the end of the seven- 
teenth century. 

In the eighteenth and 
earl\- jjart of the nine- 
tei-nth centurv the 
Spaniel was described 
by many writers on 
sporting subjects ; but 
there is a great simi- 
larity in most of these 
accounts, each author 
apparently having been 
content to repeat in 
almost identical lan- 
guage what had been 
said ujion the subject 
by his {predecessors, 
with(jut imj)orting any 
originality or opinions 
of his own. Many of 
these works, notwith 
standing this defect, 
are \'ery interesting to 
the student of Spaniel 
lore, and I can recom- 
mend the perusal of 
Blaine's "Rural 
Sports," Taplin's 
" Sporting Dictionary 
and Rural Repository," 
Scott's " Sportsman's 
Cabinet" and "Sports- 
man's Repository," 
and Needham's " Com- 
plete Sportsman," to all who wish to study 
the history of the development of the 
^•arious modern breeds. The works of the 
French writers, De Cominck, De Cherville, 
Blaze, and I\Iegnin, are well worth reading, 
while of late years the subject has been 
treated wry fully by such British writers 
as the late J. H. Walsh (" Stonehenge "), 
Mr. \'ero Shaw, Mr. Rawdon Lee, and 



Some of the \\Titers of about a hundred 
years ago speak of the '" small or carpet 
Spaniels," and of Blenheim Spaniels being 
used in their day for sporting purposes, and 
as being " excellent and indefatigable in 
their work," while Xeedham remarks that 
■■ the kind which has attained the great- 
est distinction is that denominated King 
Charles's Spaniel." Xo one going round 
the tov dog benches at the Crystal Palace 
Show nowadays could picture the goggle- 
eyed, pug-nosed, pampered little peculiarities 
he would see there lolling on satin cushions 
and decked out with manj'-coloured ribbons, 
taking such violent exercise as would be 
entailed by even half an hour's hunting in 
the easiest of coverts ; but there is no doubt 
that these effete little monsters have the 
same ultimate origin as most of our modem 
sporting varieties, and not longer ago than 
thirty years the WTiter has had many a 
good day's sport shooting rabbits in gorse 
over a team of King Charles's Spaniels be- 
longing to a cousin in the South of Ireland, 
which were, however, rather bigger and 
stronger than those which seem nowadays 
to catch the judge's eye. 

Nearly all of the early writers, both 
French and English, are agreed that the 
breed came originally from Spain, as its 
name seems to imph, the only dissentients 
I can remember being Xeedham, who says 
it is " indisputable " that it is indigenous, 
and De Cherville, who puts forward the 
ingenious theory that it must have come 
from Russia, since it is a long-haired breed, 
and that all long-haired animals come from 
the frigid zone. On the whole, I think we 
may dismiss such fanciful theories as these, 
and assume that such early authorities as 
Gaston Phcebus, Edward Plantagenet, and 
Dr. Caius had good enough reasons for tell- 
ing us that these dogs were called Spaniels 
because they came from Spain. 

Having touched lightly upon the con- 
nection between the toy breeds of Spaniels 
and their sporting cousins. I will leave the 
former to be dealt with by those who are 
no doubt better qualified to speak of their 
good qualities and fitness for their present 
role, and confine m.vself to those varieties 

which are used in aid of the gun, either in 
teams or braces or singh-, treating each 
breed both from the showgoer's and the 
sportsman's point of ^^ew, the latter of 
wliich, I am sony^ to say, is too often lost 
sight of nowadays by those who breed and 
exhibit this most eminenth' sporting of all 

The following distinct breeds or varieties 
are recognised b\' the Kennel Club : (i) Irish 
Water Spaniels ; (2) Water Spaniels other 
than Irish ; (3) Clumber Spaniels ; (4) Sussex 
Spaniels ; (5) Field Spaniels ; (6) English 
Springers ; (7) Welsh Springers ; (8) Cocker 
Spaniels. Each of these varieties differs 
considerably from the others, and each has 
its own special advocates and admirers, as 
well as its own particular sphere of work 
for which it is best fitted, though almost an\' 
Spaniel can be made into a general utility 
dog, which is, perhaps, one of the main 
reasons for the universal popularity of the 
breed. How popular it is is demonstrated 
by the enormous entry obtained at our 
leading shows, the entry at the Kennel 
Club's Jubilee Show of 1905 amounting to 
no fewer than 349, while that of 1906 was 
only twenty less — totals not even ap- 
proached by any other breed except Fox- 
terriers, who were, however, a long way 

II. The Irish Water Spaniel— There 

is only one breed of dog known in these 
days by the name of Irish Water Spaniel, 
but if we are to trust the writers of no 
longer ago than half a century there were 
at one time two, if not three, breeds of 
Water Spaniels pecuhar to the Emerald 
Isle. These were the Tweed Water Spaniel, 
the Xorthem Water Spaniel, and the 
Southern Water Spaniel, the last of these 
being the progenitors of our modem strains. 
Of the two first-named varieties, the Tweed 
Spaniel is almost certainly extinct, if it 
ever existed at aU as a distinct and separate 
breed. Mr. Skidmore, who, forty or fifty 
years ago, was one of the most enthu- 
siastic supporters of Irish Water Spaniels 
and one of the greatest authorities on them, 
describes them as looking as if they had 



" a dash of Bloodhound in their veins," 
which is certainly borne out by the details 
he gives of their various points, and, al- 
though he gives no particulars as to size 
or general appearance, he says quite enough 
to make it tolerably certain that they did 
not resemble the modern dog in any way. 

The Northern Irish Water Spaniel cer- 
tainly did exist, and many old sportsmen in 
Ireland still speak of them, sometimes call- 
ing them "the old brown Irish Retriever"; 
but for many years past they have fallen 
into disfavour, and it is extremeh' doubtful 
whether a single individual specimen with 
an authentic pedigree could be found nowa- 
days anj'where within the whole length 
and breadth of the island. Mr. Skidmore 
describes them also, and says they were 
about 20 inches high and " like bad speci- 
mens of liver-coloured Retrievers." 

The history of the third, and to us most 
important breed is in many ways a very 
extraordinary one. According to the claim 
of Mr. Justin ^McCarthy, it originated 
entirely in his kennels, and, as far as I 
know, this claim has ne\'er been seriously 
disputed by the subsequent owners and 
breeders of these dogs. It seems to me 
most improbable that Mr. Justin McCarthy 
can actually have originated or manufac- 
tured a breed possessing so many extremely 
marked differences and divergences of type 
as the Irish Water Spaniel ; what he most 
probably did was to rescue an old and mori- 
bund breed from impending extinction, and 
so improve it by judicious breeding and 
cross-breeding as to give it a new lease of 
life, and permanently fix its salient points 
and characteristics. However that may be, 
little seems to have been known of the 
breed before he took it in hand, and it is 
very certain that nearly every Irish Water 
Spaniel seen on the bench for the last half- 
century, owes its descent to his old dog 
Boatswain, who was born in 1834 and lived 
for eighteen years. He must have been a 
grand old dog, since ^Ir. ilcCarthy gaxo 
him to Mr. Joliffe Tuffnell in 1849, when lie 
was fifteen years old; and his new Dwncr 
subsequently bred by him Jack, a dog 
whose name appears in many pedigrees. 

It was not until 1862 that the breed seems 
to have attracted much notice in England, 
but in that year the Birmingham Com- 
mittee gave two classes for them, at whicii, 
however, several of the prizes were with- 
held for want of merit, a proceeding on the 
jxirt of the judge which provoked much 
indignant comment in the Press from 
breeders and exhibitors, who asserted that 
it was he who was in fault, and not the dogs. 
The next few years saw these dogs making 
great strides in popularity, and, classes 
being provided at most of the important 
shows, many good specimens were exhibited, 
the most prominent owners being Captain 
Lindoe, Captain Montresor, Mr. N. i\Iorton, 
of Ballymena, Captain O'Grady, Mr. J. S. 
Skidmore, Mr. R. W. Boyle, and Mr. J. T. 
Robson, who may be described as the 
fathers of the breed in its present form. 

Of the many good dogs exhibited during 
the first decade of dog showing, none had 
so successful a career as Doctor (k.c.s.b. 
2,061), who won no fewer than five first 
prizes at Birmingham, two at the Crystal 
Palace, and one each at Islington, Dublin, 
Edinburgh, and Glasgow, besides several 
seconds. This record would not be a very 
wonderful one in these days when dog 
shows are held somewhere on nearly every 
week-day in the year, and many success- 
ful prize wimiers spend nearly their whole 
lives either in their travelling boxes or on 
the bench ; but it must be remembered 
that in the 'sixties and 'seventies shows 
were few and far between, and that Doctor 
was being continually exhibited for o\-er 
seven years, during which time he was 
practically unbeaten. He was bv Rob- 
son's Jock out of Robson and Willett's 
Duck, and was a great-grandson of old 
Boatswain. He was owned at one time 
or other during his lengthy career by Mr. 
Robson, Mr. N. ]\Iorton, Mr. Sims, the 
Rev. Mr. Mellor, and Mr. J. S. Skidmore. 
His son Shamrock (k.c.s.b. 4,386), out of 
Beaver, has transmitted his blood to many 
latter-dav winners, of whom the most 
notable are Barney, ^lickey Free, The 
O'Donoghuc, Kate Kearney, and Free 
O'Donoghue. Mr. Skidmore, who is, I 



believe, still alive, continued breeding and 
exhibiting till nearly the end of the 'eighties, 
his best dog after Doctor being probably 
Mickey Free (k.c.s.b. 10,393). 

.\nother old-time breeder and exhibitor, 
Mr. X. Morton, onlj' died as recently as 
1906, though he had long ago given up 
showing dogs, and devoted himself almost 
entirelv to horses, with which he was very 
successful at the great Ball's Bridge Show 
in Dublin and elsewhere. He had, how- 

characteristic energy, and for several years 
carried all before him, showing such good 
specimens as Harp (k.c.s.b. 22,518), Spal- 
peen, Belshrah, Shann, Erin, Shamus, and 
Eileen II., nearly all of whom attained 
championship honours. It was a great 
loss to the breed and to everyone con- 
nected with it when tlie Colonel gave up 
showing about the middle of the ne.xt decade, 
and someone of his energy and personality 
is badly wanted at the present day to re- 



Photograph by T. Fall. 

ever, at the beginning rendered the great- 
est service to the breed, and his kennels 
produced some very notable specimens, 
including Larry Doolin (k.c.s.b. 4,384), 
the ancestor of many dogs destined to win 
fame for themselves in later days. 

Between 1880 and 1890 many good Irish 
^^'ater Spaniels were exhibited, and the 
breed increased greatly in popularity. In 
this period the names of the brothers R. B. 
and T. S. Carey, and of Colonel the Hon. 
W. le Poer Trench first appear as breeders 
and exhibitors, names whicli are still house- 
liold v.ords to all Irish Water Spaniel men. 
Colonel Trench took up tlie breed with 

vive the waning interest in this quamt- 
looking and useful dog. 

Other successful owners of this period 
were Captain J. H. Dwyer with Blair, 
Mr. T. K. Penson with The Shaughraun, 
Mr. J. S. Nisbet with Kate Kearney and 
Free O'Donoghue (the latter a very hand- 
some and tj^pical dog), Mr. G. W. Thomp- 
son with Barry Sullivan, and Mr. G. J. 
Doherty with Madame Blair, a bitcla not 
only good herself, but phenomenally success- 
ful as a breeder of the highest class of Water 
Spaniels. The Messrs. Carey's greatest suc- 
cesses were scored a little later, after 1890, 
and probably the best animal owned by 



them was D_vmphna (k.C.s.B. 33.901), who 
had a most successful career, winning tlie 
title of Champion, in my opinion one 
of the soundest and most typical bitches 
ever shown, though to please some critics 



riwlogrnf'k hy Chancellor. Dublin. 

she might ha\-e been just a size bigger. 
Otherwise it was hard to pick a fault in her. 
She was bred by Mr. Doherty, and was by 
The Shaughraun out of Madame Blair. 
Mr. J. C. Cockburn's Dunraven, born 1888, 
and Mr. A. E. Daintree's Rock Diver, by 
Barry Sullivan out of Madame Blair, both 
did a lot of winning, but undoubtedly the 
two most successful Irish Water Spaniels of 
this period were Dermot Asthore (k.c.s.b. 
38,557), and Duck O'Donoghue (k.c.s.b. 
40,594), both owned during the greater part 
of their show career by Mr. T. Camac 
Tisdall. The dog was bred by Mr. T. S. 
Carey, and was beaten the first time he 
was shown by Killaneal, a dog belonging 
also to Mr. Camac Tisdall, and a son of 
Madame Blair, who did a lot of winning at 
the best shows of that year, 1894. Dermot 
Asthore, w^ho was a very good and typical 
dog, despite a defective jaw, was practic- 

alh' unbeaten b\' his own sex for the ne.xt 
four years. 

Duck C^'Donoghue, by Free O'Donoghue 
out of Madame Blair, was a very beautiful 
bitch who was not shown until she was five 
years i>Id. when she came out 
at Dublin under ;\Ir. S. E. 
Shirley, and created a great 
sensation, winning all before 
her. She quickly attained the 
rank of Champion, winning 
championship after champion- 
ship at all the leading shows, 
and nnh', as far as 1 can re- 
member, being beaten twice 
in classes confined to her own 
breed — once at Armagh, by 
her kennel mate Dermot 
.\sthore, and once at Bir- 
mingham, by Kempston Tessa. 
Her show career lasted but a 
short time, and she made her 
last appearance in 1897 at the 
same show, Dublin, where she 
had made her sensational debut 
two years before. She ex- 
celled in make and shape, and, 
above all, in type ; but she 
must ha\-e been a difficult 
bitch to keep in condition, and 
I never saw her in perfect coat. Unfor- 
tunately, she was not a success as a brood 

During the last few years, I am sorry to 
say that the breed seems to have been 
progressing the wrong way, and classes at 
shows have not been nearly so strong, either 
in numbers or in quality, as they used to 
be. Vet there ha\e been, and are still, 
quite a large number of good dogs and 
bitches to be seen, and it only needs en- 
thusiasm and co-operation among breeders 
to bring back the palmiest days of the Irish 
Water Spaniel. 

.\ few years ago there was, to the great 
regret of everyone who had the interests 
of the breed at heart, a certain amount of 
friction between the Spaniel Club and the 
Irish Water Spaniel Club, which may have 
done, and probably did, a great deal of 
harm ; but the e.xercise of common-sense 



on both sides, and a more liberal spirit, 
has removed these differences, or at least 
smoothed them dow-n, so that one may 
entertain hopes of a happier future, and 
the advent of a new Club, the Sporting 
Irish Water Spaniel Club, if it will only 
work in harmom' with, and not antagonistic- 
allv to, the existing organisations, maj- be 
hailed as a good omen. 

\\'ithin recent years the most success- 
ful owners have been Mr. Trench O'Rorke, 
Mrs. F. Carter MicheU, Mr. J. Conley, Sir 
Hugo FitzHerbert, Mr. Jelly Dudley, and 
Mr. J.J. Holgate. The last named gentle- 
man possesses probablj' the best brace being 
shown at present, Ch. Young Patse\- Boj'le 
and Ch. Southboro' Jewel ; while Mr. 
Trench O'Rorke has shown successfullj- 
Clonbum Aileen, Clonbum Molly, Clonbum 
Biddv, Clonbum Chieftain, Clonbum Pegg}-, 
and Our Chance, all good typical Irish Water 
Spaniels, and most of them of his own breed- 
ing. Mrs. Mitchell's list includes the fol- 
lowing names, eill \"ery well 
known as prize-winners : Kate 
O'Shane, Kempston Tessa, 
Kempston Connaught, Kemps- 
ton Shannon, Kempston Kath- 
leen Mavoumeen, and Kemps- 
ton Eileen II. ; while Mr. 
Conley has made history with 
his Poor Pat ; and Sir Hugo 
FitzHerbert's Tissington, and 
Mr. Jelly Dudley's Meshacke, 
Donna, and Shamus 0'Fl\-nn 
have done quite their share 
in keeping up the reputation 
of the breed. 

There is no member of the 
whole canine family* which has 
a more distinctive personal ap- 
pearance than the Irish Water 
Spaniel. With him it is a case 
of once seen never forgotten, 
and no one who has ever seen 
one could possibly mistake him 
for anything else than what he 
is. His best friends probably would not 
claim beauty, in the asthetic sense, for 
him ; but I know no dog more attractive 
in a quaint way peculiarly his own, or 

more intelligent-looking. In this particular 
his looks do not bewray him ; he is, in 
fact, one of the most intelligent of all 
the dogs used in aid of the gun, and in 
his own sphere one of the most useful. 
That sphere, there is no doubt, is that 
indicated by his name, and it is in a 
country of bogs and marshes, like the south 
and west of Ireland, of which he was origin- 
ally a nati^•e, where snipe and wildfowl 
pro\-ide the staple sport of the gunner, that 
he is in his element and seen at his best, 
though, no doubt, he can do excellent work 
as an ordinary retriever, and is often used 
as such. 

But Nature (or Mr. McCarthy's art) has 
specially formed and endowed him for the 
amphibious sport indicated above, and has 
pro\ided him with an excellent nose, an 
almost waterproof coat, the. sporting in- 
stincts of a true son of Erin, and, above all, 
a disposition full of good sense ; he is high- 
couraged, and at the same time adapt- 



Photograph by Chancellor, Dublin. 

able to the highest degree of perfection in 
training. His detractors often accuse him 
of being hard-mouthed, but, so far as my 
opinion goes, I do not consider this charge 



well founded. i\Iany a dog which is used 
to hunt or find game as well as to retrie\-e 
it, will often kill a wounded bird or rabbit 
rather than allow it to escape. This maj- 
not be the perfection or nc plus ultra of re- 
trieving pure and simple, and would cer- 
tainly be out of place in a high-class covert 
shoot : but, although many of my readers 
ma\- think me a rank heretic. I have often 


From '■ The Spoilimatis CMnd " (,1803), By P. RditngU, K.A. 

on a rough shoot where game is scarce and 
takes a lot of work to find, considered such 
conduct a proof of common-sense and 
sagacity in my dog, and felt thankful that 
I had a companion who could use his brains 
as well as his mouth. I believe that this 
charge of hard-mouthedness is not a just 
one, and I have seen many Irish Water 
Spaniels who, luider normal circumstances, 
were just as tender-mouthed as the most 
fashionable of black Retrievers, and I have 
seen not a few of the latter dogs with as 
hard mouths as could be found anywhere. 
Besides his virtues in the field, the Irish 
Water Spaniel has the reputation— I be- 
lieve a very well-founded one — of being the 
best of pals. 

Most of my readers are, I presume, well 
acquainted with the personal appearance of 
this quaint-looking dog ; but, as all may 

not be so familiar with the points regarded 
as essential in a show dog, I will briefly 
go through those which are of most im- 
portance : 

I. Colour. — The colour should ahvays be a rich 
dark li\'cr or puce without any white at all. Any 
white except the slightest of "shirt fronts " should 
disqualify. The nose of course should conform 
to the coat in colour, and be dark brown. 

2. Head . — T he head 
should have a capacious 
skull, fairly but not e.K- 
ccssively domed, with plenty 
of brain room. It should 
be surmounted with a regu- 
lar topknot of curly hair, 
a most imf^ortant and dis- 
tinctive point. This topknot 
should never be square cut 
or like a poodle's uig, but 
should grow down to a well 
defined point between the 

3. Eyes. — The eyes should 
be small, dark, and set ob- 
liquely, like a Chinaman's. 

4. Ears. — The ears should 
be long, strong in leather, 
low set, heavily ringleted, 
and from 18 to 24 inches 
long, according to size. 

5. Muzzle and Jaw. — The 
muzzle and jaw should be 
long and strong. There 
should be a decided "stop," 

but not so pronounced as to .make the brows or 
forehead prominent. 

6. Neck. — The neck should be fairly long and 
very muscular. 

.' 7. Shoulders. — The shoulders should be sloping. 
JMost Irish Water Spaniels have bad, straight 
shoulders, but I think it is a defect and should be 
bred out. 

8. Chest. — The chest is deep, and usually 
rather narrow, but should not be so narrow as 
to constrict the heart and lungs. 

9. Back and Loins. — The back and loins strong 
and arched. 

10. Forelegs. — The forele,gs straight and well 
boned. Heavily feathered or ringleted all over. 

11. Hind Legs. — The hind legs with hocks set 
very low, stifles rather straight, feathered all over, 
except inside from the hocks down, which part 
should be covered with short hair (a most dis- 
tinctive point). 

12. Feet.— The feet large and rather spreading 
as is proper for a water dog, well clothed with 

13. Stern. — The stern covered with the shortest 



of hair, except for the first couple of inches next 
the buttocks, whipUke or stinglike (a most im- 
portant point), and carried low, not like a hound's. 

14. Coat. — The coat composed entirely of short 
crisp curls, not woolly like a Poodle's, and verj^ 
dense. If left to itself, this coat mats or cords, 
but this is not permissible in show dogs. The 
hair on the muzzle, and forehead below the top- 
knot is quite short and smooth, as well as that on 
the stem. 

15. General Appearance. — Is not remarkable for 
symmetry, but is quaint and intelligent looking. 

16. Height. — The height 
should be between 21 and 
23 inches. 

good picture ot this dog, after P. Reinagle, 
appears both in " The Sportsman's Cabinet " 
and '' The Sportsman's Repository." 

ilr. Ravvdon Lee, in his valuable " ilodern 
Dogs," assumes the identity of the old 
" Water-Dogge " and the English Water 
Speuiiel, but in so doing his opinion con- 
flicts with that expressed by most other 
writers. In the two works mentioned above 
another illustration, also after Reinagle, 

III. The English 
Water Spaniel. — In the 

Kennel Club's Register of 
Breeds no place is allot- 
ted to this variet}', all 
Water Spaniels other 
than Irish being classed 
together. Despite this 
absence of official recog- 
nition, which I think 
is a mistake, there is 
abundant evidence that 
a breed of Spaniels legit- 
imatelj- entitled to the 
designation of Englisli 
\\'ater Spaniels has been 
m e.xistence for manj' 
years. Its precise origin 
is not definitely known, and even "Stone- 
henge " has admitted his inabihty to trace 
it back to the fountain head ; but the 
writings of the earliest authorities leave 
no room for doubt that there have ex- 
isted for centuries one or more breeds of 
dogs used for working in water and wild- 
fowling in those parts of England which 
abound in fens and marshes. In all prob- 
ability the earliest breed used for this pur- 
pose was not a Spaniel at all, but what 
Markham describes as the " Water-Dogge," 
an animal closely resembling the French 
" Barbet," the ancestor of the modern 
Poodle. They were e\-en trimmed at times 
much in the same way as a Poodle is nowa- 
days, as Markham gives precise directions 
for " the cutting or shearing him from the 
nauill downeward or backeward." A very 


From " The Sportsman's Caiiiut " (ISOJ). By P. Reinagle, R A. 

of the Water Spaniel is given, and the differ- 
ence between the two animals portrayed 
is very striking, the Water Spaniel in the 
engraving differing but little from the 
Springer of the day except in his curly 
coat. The opinion expressed by the writer 
of " The Sportsman's Cabinet " is that the 
breed originated from a cross between the 
large water dog and the Springing Spaniel, 
and this is probably correct, though Youatt, 
a notable authoritj', thinks that the cross 
was with an English Setter. Possibly some 
strains may have been established in this 
way, and not differ very much in make and 
shape from those obtained from the cross 
with the Spaniel, as it is well known that 
Setters and Spaniels have a common origin. 
Considering the good character given to 
these dogs by the writers of a century ago, 



it is rather hard to understand how they 
came to fall into such disfavour as to be 

but little, if any, inferior. She was bred by 
Mr. Bullock, but passed into the posses- 
sion of Captain Arbuthnot, and won 
first prize at the Crystal Palace in 
1870 ; at Birmingham in 1869, 1870, 
1871, 1872 ; and at Nottingham in 
1873 — a record almost as good as that 
of her sire. 

After the first few years, however, 
exhibitors seemed to lose all interest 
in the breed, and entries became fewer 
and fewer, until at last they reached 
\'anishing point, and shows ceased to 
provide special classes for English 
Water Spaniels. The entries in the 
Stud Book fell off in the same man- 

ner until in li 








allowed to become 
almost extinct until 
a small and select 
band of enthusiasts 
set to work a few 
years ago to try to 
resuscitate the 
breed. At the com- 
mencement of the 

dog-showing epoch it is true that a few 
specimens were shown annually, the best 
of these being probably Mr. Phineas BuU 
lock's Rover (k.c.s.b. 2,264), born in 1863. 
This dog had a wonderful show career, win- 
ning first prize at Birmingham in 1866, 
1868, 1870, 1873 ; at the Crystal Palace 
in 1871 and 1872 ; at Manchester in 1865 ; 
and the Gold Medal at Paris the same year. 
Mr. James Farrow, probably the ablest 
authority on show Spaniels of the present 
day, declares that Rover was the best 
Spaniel of this variety he ever saw, but his 
daughter, Flo (k.c.s.b. 2,256) can have been 

they disappeared 
altogether ; and 
although in the 
following year 
two were en- 
tered, the sec- 
tion devoted to 
"Water Spaniels 
other than 
Irish" remained 
blank till 1903. 
For a year or 
two previously a 
few gentlemen. 






notably Mr. J. H. Stansfeld, :Mr. Harry 
Jones, and Mr. Winton Smith, had been 
making heroic efforts to revive the in- 
terest in the breed, I am afraid without 
much success, since up to the present 
date most of the entries at shows have 
been provided by these three gentlemen 

picture by Reinagle on page 275 seems 
to me to be as good a standard as any to 
go by, and the dog should in general ap- 
pearance resemble somewhat closely the 
Springer, except that he may be somewhat 
higher on the leg, and that his coat should 
consist of crisp, tight curls, almost like 

From the Painting bv FRANCIS WHEATLEY, R.A.. EXECUTED IN 1788. 

themselves. The best seen so far have 
been ^Ir. Winton Smith's Beechgrove Mal- 
lard, Mr. H. Jones' Chorister and Diving 
Bell, and Mr. Stansfeld's Lucky Shot. The 
latter dog, despite his name, was unlucky 
in not being eligible for entry in the Stud 
Book on account of an unknown pedigree, 
though he won at the Kennel Club Shows of 
1901 and 1902, and also at the Field Trials. 
The type of this breed is not very well fixed 
at present, being more or less in a transition 
r^tage, and, although both the Spaniel Club 
and the Sporting Spaniel Society publish 
descriptions, it is rather hard to find a 
specimen which quite " fills the bill." The 

Astrakhan fur, everywhere except on his 
face, where it should be short. There should 
be no topknot like that of the Irish Water 

Those who own this breed speak very 
highly of its intelligence, fidelity, and adapt- 
ability to sporting purposes ; but person- 
ally I have had very little opportunity of 
seeing those dogs at work, and must take 
their many alleged good qualities more or 
less for granted. 

I\ . The Clumber Spaniel. — At the 

time of writing, Clumbers are in high favour 



in the Spaniel world, both with shooting 
men and exhibitors, and the breed, in my 
opinion, well deserves from both points 
of view the position which it occupies in 
the public esteem. No other variety with 
which I am acquainted is better equipped 
mentally and physically for the work it is 
called upon to do in aid of the gun ; and 
few, certainly none of the Spaniels, surpass 
or even equal it in appearance. 

As a sporting dog, the Clumber is pos- 
sessed of the very best of noses, a natural 
inclination both to hunt his game and re- 
trieve it when killed, great keenness and 
perseverance, wonderful endurance and ac- 
tivity considering his massive build, and as 
a rule is very easy to train, being highly in- 
telligent and most docile and " biddable." 
Of course, some Clumbers among the 
many that exist are fools, just as there are 
imbeciles and weaklings among all races, 
human as well as canine ; but they are the 
exceptions, and, as a rule, the man wiio 
owns a good dog of this breed, whether he 
uses it as a retriever for driven birds, 
works it in a team, or uses it as his 
sole companion when he goes gunning, 
possesses a treasure. The great success 
of these Spaniels in the Field Trials 
promoted by both the societies which foster 
those most useful institutions is enough to 
prove this, and more convincing still is tlie 
tenacity with which the fortunate pos- 
sessors of old strains, mostly residents in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the original 
home of the breed, have held on to them 
and continued to breed and use them year 
after year for many generations. 

As a show dog, his massive frame, power- 
ful limbs, pure white coat, with its pale 
lemon markings and frecklings, and, above 
all, his solemn and majestic aspect, mark 
him out as a true aristocrat, with all the 
beauty of refinement which comes from a 
long line of cultured ancestors. 

I have already alluded to the theory that 
these dogs owe their origin to Baron Cuvier's 
Alpine Spaniel, and have therefore some 
affinity with the modern St. Bernard, an 
idea that is to a great extent borne out 
by a certain amount of resemblance (though 

with several points of difference) between 
these breeds in the shape of the head and 
ears, and the general colouring. This, how- 
ever, is pure speculation, and quite impos- 
sible of being proved, since all research so 
far has failed to carry their history back 
any farther than the last quarter of the 
eighteenth century. About that time the 
Due de Noailles presented some Spaniels, 
probably his whole kennel, which he brought 
from France, to the second Duke of New- 
castle, from whose place. Clumber Park, 
the breed has taken its name. Beyond 
this it seems impossible to go, and although 
Mr. Phillips and I, when we were writing 
" The Sporting Spaniel," were able to avail 
ourselves of the help of several French 
Spaniel experts, no trace of their origin 
could be discovered in that country, where, 
indeed, the Clumber seems to be generally 
looked upon as a purely English breed. 

There is a most interesting picture by 
Francis Wheatley, R.A., in the hall at 
Clumber Park representing the second Duke 
seated on a shooting pony. Colonel Litch- 
field, and Mansell, the head keeper, with 
three Spaniels, believed to be three of the 
original draft. This picture was painted 
in 1788, and is thus nearly half a century 
older than the picture by C. Hancock, 
painted in 1834, of Lord Middleton and his 
Clumbers, which is now in the possession of 
Lord Wenlock at Escrick Park ; but it is 
interesting to note how little tlie type of 
the present-day Clumber has varied from 
that depicted by both these famous artists. 
The same can hardly be said of any other 
breed of dog which has passed through 
the crucible heated by the fiery furnace of 
the " fancier's " imagination, and probably 
few have been less altered and spoilt by 
show bench fads and exaggerations. 

From Clumber Park specimens found 
their way to most of the other great houses 
in the neighbourhood, notably to Althorp 
Park, VVelbeck Abbey, Birdsall House, 
Thoresby Hall, and Osberton Hall. It is 
from the kennels at the last-named place, 
owned by Mr. Foljambe, that most of the 
progenitors of the Clumbers which have 
earned notoriety on the show bench de- 



rived their origin, and apparently we are 
destined to owe them another debt of grati- 
tude, on their recent dispersal, for setting 
free a lot of valuable old blood of a care- 
full}- bred strain which has not been for 
many years past available to outside breed- 
ers. Nearly all the most famous show 
winners of early days were descended from 
^Ir. Foljambe's dogs, and his Beau may 
perhaps be considered one of the most im- 
portant " pillars of the stud," as he was 
the sire of Nabob, a great prize-winner, and 
considered one of the best of his 
day, who belonged at \-arious times 
during his career to such famous 
showmen as Messrs. Phineas Bullock, 
^Ir. Fletcher, Mr. Rawdon Lee, and 
Mr. G. Oliver. Other notable dogs 
of this period were Duke, Trimbush, 
Belle, Lapis, Psycho, Looby, and 
Baron, besides Bruce, who won no 
end of prizes, and was selected by 
"Stonehenge" to illustrate the breed 
in his " Dogs of the British Islands." 
To the modern generation of Clum- 
ber fanciers the name of Mr. H. H. 
Holmes is well known, and probably 
no owner has ever possessed so man}* "^^ 
first-rate specimens. The dog which ^'^ 
first brought his name into promi- 
nence was not bred by him, but by Mr. 
Foljambe. I allude to his John o' Gaunt 
(K.c.s.B. 11,610), a dog who must have 
been an almost absolute model of perfection 
if we are to believe all that has been recently 
written about him. A reference, however, 
to the contemporary stud books and other 
records shows that the judges of the day 
were not unanimous in this opinion, as he 
suffered defeat on more than one occasion, 
though there can be no question that he 
was possessed of exceptional merit. Other 
giants of the show ring owned by Mr. 
Holmes were Tower, Hotpot, and Holmes's 
Hermit, the latter of whom was shown in 
Mr. McKenna's name as late as 1895. 
This gentleman was also the possessor of 
many fine specimens, with whom he won 
many prizes, the best being Moston Beau, 
Moston Duke, Pomfret Mac, and the beau- 
tiful bitch, Wvcombe Rattle. He also 

owmed for some time Holmes's Hermit, 
Friar Bob, and Nora Friar. The distin- 
guishing affix or prefix of " Friar," so well 
known in the late 'eighties and early 'nine- 
ties, belonged to Mr. Thorpe Hincks, a 
great devotee of the breed, who was the 
breeder and owner of many celebrated 
animals, including, besides those mentioned 
above. Friar John, Friar Boss, and Di 

There has been a great deal of lamenta- 
tion lately among old breeders and ex- 


liibitors about the decadence of the breed 
and the loss of the true old type possessed 
by these dogs which I have mentioned above. 
But, despite all they can say to the con- 
trary, the breed is now in a more flourish- 
ing state than it ever has been ; and al- 
though perhaps we have not now, nor have 
had for the last decade, a John o' Gaunt or 
a Tower, there have been a large number 
of dogs shown during that time who pos- 
sessed considerable merit and would prob- 
ably have held their own even in the da\'s of 
these bygone heroes. Some of the most 
notable have been Baillie Friar, Beechgrove 
Donally, Goring of Auchentorlie, Hempsted 
Toby, and Preston Shot, who all earned the 
coveted title of Champion. The best of 
this quintette, to my mind, was Goring of 
Auchentorlie, who was picked up for a 
small sum at a provincial show in Scotland 
by Mr. C. A. Phillips and subsequently sold 


by him to ]\Ir. W'inton Smith. He was a 
very massive and typical dog, with a grand 
head, and during a short career hardly ever 
suffered defeat. 

Tlie bitclies of late years certainly have 
not been very remarkable, and I cannot 



Fhotogwph by RussdI. 

think of a single one with whom I could 
honestly say I was satisfied since the retire- 
ment of Mr. ]\IcKenna's Wycombe Rattle. 
Tlie best, I think, was W'insford Briar, of 
whom I thought so highly that, after award- 
ing her several first prizes and a champion- 
ship or two, I purchased her from her then 
owner, Mr. Oswald Burgess, in the hope that 
I might breed something good. She was 
very typical, but not nearly big enough, and 
disappointed me by pro\"ing an obstinate 

Mr. Phillips brought out at the Crystal 
Palace Show of 1906 a young dog who, if all 
goes well, is probably destined to earn great 
fame — Rivington Rolfe. He is a very big 
dog, full of Clumber type, with a massive 
head, already at si.xteen months old as 
well broken up as most dogs are at four 
years, with sound and straight limbs, being 
particularly straight and true behind, where 
so many Clumbers fail. He won in every 

class he competed in, and was awarded the 
Championship, a verdict endorsed by, I 
believe, e\'ery one of the spectators round 
the ring. His sire is Welbeck Reaper, a 
dog bred by ^Ir. Foljambe, and now in the 
posses.^ion of tlie Duke of Portland, wlio 
bought the former gen- 
tleman's kennel en bloc 
in 1905. 

.\ \-ear previously 
this dog was shown 
under me at the same 
show, just after he had 
passed into the Duke's 
possession, and, al- 
though I was unable to 
gi\e him any better 
tlian a V.H.C. card, I 
told the keeper that I 
expected him to prove 
a most valuable sire, an 
opinion I expressed also 
in my report of the 
sliow which appeared 
in 'J'lic Kennel Gazette, 
so that I naturally felt 
rather pleased when 
Ri\ington Rolfe by 
his successes proved 
within such a short time that I was a 
true prophet. 

The Field Trials have, no doubt, had a 
great deal to do with the largely augmented 
popularity of the breed and the great in- 
crease in the number of those who own Clum- 
bers. For the first two or three years after 
these were truly established no other breed 
seemed to have a chance with them ; and 
e\-en now, though both English and Welsh 
Springers have done remarkably well, they 
more than hold their own. The most dis- 
tinguished performer by far was Mr. Winton 
Smith's Beechgrove Bee, a bitch whose 
work was practically faultless, and the first 
Field Trial Champion among Spaniels. Other 
good Clumbers who earned distinction in 
the field were Beechgrove Minette, Beech- 
grove Maud (who subsequently passed into 
my possession), the Duke of Portland's 
Welbeck Sambo, and Mr. Phillips' Rivington 
Honey, Rivington Pearl, and Rivington Reel. 



A good many have, I am pleased to say, 
won prizes both at Field Trials and in the 
show ring — notably Ch. Hempsted Toby, 
Rivington Reel and Pearl, and Beechgrove 
Bertha and Maud. This is as it should be, 
and proves that there is no reason for the 
assertion so commonly made about all 
sporting breeds, that show strains are no 
use for work. 

In the year 1905 there was an animated 
controversy carried on, principally in the 
columns of The Field, about the desirability 
or otherwise of a Clumber Spaniel's e3'e 
" showing haw." These two words had 
been included in the Spaniel Club's de- 
scription ever since it was first drawn up 
some twenty years previously, but a good 
many members of the newly formed Clumber 
Spaniel Club thought that thej^ should be 
deleted, as thev considered the point an 
undesirable one, on the grounds that an ex- 
posed haw in a working dog rendered the 
eye liable to injury or inflammation from 
cold or from the pre- 
sence of dust or other 
foreign bodies. A joint 
committee of the two 
clubs was held at the 
Field Trial meeting of 
1904, and this amend- 
ment was passed, but 
upon its coming before 
the Spaniel Club in the 
spring of the following 
year it was strongly 
opposed by several 
members, including Mr. 
James Farrow, Mr. 
Ha\dock, and others of 
long experience in the 
breed, who declared 
that the exposed haw 
had always been one 
of the most typical 
features of a Clum- 
ber's head, and that 
without it the true expression would be 
entirely lost. Notwithstanding this oppo- 
sition, the reformers won the day, and 
these words no longer exist in the de- 
scription published by cither Club. But 

the dispute did not rest here, and was re- 
opened in The Field by Messrs. Holmes, 
Rawdon Lee, and Bryden, who adduced 
many arguments in favour of the " haw," 
and no doubt made out a very good case for 
its antiquity, at least as far back as the 
da^'S of Tower and John o' Gaunt. They, 
however, failed to convince their oppo- 
nents, and as they were outnumbered in 
both Clubs, and numbers are what count 
when it comes to voting, they failed to get 
the words " showing haw " reinstated. 

My own opinion is that they failed ut- 
terly to establish their case that this pecu- 
liarity was an original characteristic. No 
doubt it was present in Mr. Holmes' dogs, 
but was it in the original strain ? I doubt 
it, as it is not shown in Wheatley's picture, 
nor is it mentioned in any of the descrip- 
tions published by old writers, even in 
that given by " Stonehenge,''' who was 
such a close observer that one ma}' safely 
assume he would have had something to 



say about such a point if he had considered 
it an essential one. Anyhow, the matter 
being in doubt, and the point being a use- 
less, if not an absolutely harmful one in a 
sporting dog, I see no use in retaining the 



words, particularly as by their omission 
judges are free to exercise their own dis- 
cretion in the matter, and treat an exposed 
haw as a point in a dog's favour or not, just 
as they think fit. 

The points and general description of 
the breed as published by both the Spaniel 
Club and the Clumber Spaniel Club are 
identical. They are as follows : 

1. Head. — Large, square and massive, of medium 
length, broad on top, with a decided occiput ; 
heavy brows with a deep stop ; heavy freckled 
muzzle, with well developed flew. 

2. Eyes. — Dark amber ; slightly sunk. A light 
or prominent eye objectionable. 

3. Ears. — Large, vine leaf shaped, and well 
covered with straight hair and hanging slightly 
forward, the feather not to extend below the 

4. Neck. — Very thick and powerful, and well 
feathered underneath. 

5. Body (including size and symmetry). — Long 
and heavy, and near the ground. Weight of dogs 
about 55 lb. to 65 lb. ; bitches about 45 lb. to 
55 lb. "" 

6. Nose. — Square and flesh coloured. 

7. Shoulders and Chest. — Wide and deep ; 
shoulders strong and muscular. 

8. Back and Loin. — Back straight, broad and 
long ; loin powerful, well let down in flank. 

9. Hind Quarters. — Very powerful and well 

ID. Stern. — Set low, well feathered, and carried 
about level with the back. 

11. Feet and Legs. — Feet large and round, well 
covered with hair ; legs short, thick and strong ; 
hocks low. 

12. Coat. — Long, abundant, soft and straight. 

13. Colour. — Plain white with lemon markings ; 
orange permissible but not desirable ; slight head 
markings with white body preferred. 

14. General Appearance. — Should be that of a 
long, low, hea\'y, very massive dog, with a thought- 
ful expression. 

To these remarks I would add that 
in my opinion it is a great mistake to 
think, as many do, that a Clumber's head 
should be short. It can hardly be too 
long, since the dog is expected to retrieve, 
but should be so square and massive and 
deeply flewed as to appear to be only of 
medium length. 

The coat should be very thick and dense, 
and of a silky texture. This is the most 
weatherproof coat of all. 

The pads should be very thick and 

The hocks should be set straight. Many 
Clumbers are cow-hocked, which is a great 

The forelegs should be straight, not 
crooked like a Basset-hound's or Dachs- 
hund's. Many otherwise good dogs fail in 
this particular, owing to their great weight 
when they are growing puppies forcing the 
joints out of position. 

The facial appearance should denote a 
very high order of intelligence. 

V. The Sussex Spaniel. — This is one 
of the oldest of the distinct breeds of Land 
Spaniels now existing in the British Islands, 
and probably also the purest in point of 
descent, since it has for many years past 
been confined to a comparatively small 
number of kennels, the owners of which 
ha\-e alwa^'s been at considerable pains to 
keep their strains free from any admix- 
ture of foreign blood. 

More than a century ago Youatt, and 
the authors of " The Sportsman's Cabinet " 
and "Sportsman's Repository," wrote in 
commendatory terms of the Spaniels found 
in the county of Sussex, and even in France 
the antiquity of the breed has found recog- 
nition, as M. H. de la Blanchere, in his 
work entitled " Les Chiens de Chasse," 
says : " Cette race du Sussex etait une des 
plus anciennes, et probablement la premiere 
qui ait etd asservi a la chasse au filet on au 
fusil dans les ties.'' 

The modem race of Sussex Spaniels, as we 
know it, and as it has existed since the be- 
ginning of the dog show era, owes its origin 
in the main to the kennel kept by Mr. 
Fuller at Rosehill Park, Brightling, near 
Hastings. This gentleman, who died in 
1847, is said to have kept his strain for fifty 
years or more, and to have shot over them 
almost daily during the season, but at his 
death they were dispersed by auction, ajid 
none of them can be traced with any accu- 
racy except a dog and a bitch which were 
given at the time to Relf, the head keeper. 
Relf survived his master for forty j-ears, 



and kept up his interest in the breed to the 
last. He used to say that the golden tinge 
peculiar to the Rosehill breed came from a 
bitch which had been mated with a dog be- 
longing to Dr. Watts, of Battle, and that 
every now and then what he termed a 
'■ sandy " pup wouJd turn up in her litters. 
Owing to an outbreak of dumb madness in 
the Rosehill kennels, a very large number 
of its occupants either died or had to be 
destro\'ed, and this no doubt accounted 
for the extreme scarcity of the breed when 
several enthusiasts began to revive it 
about the year 1870. Mr. Saxby and Mr. 
Marchant are said to have had the same 
strain as that at Rosehill, and certainly one 
of the most famous sires who is to be found 
in most Sussex pedigrees was Buckingham, 
by Marchant's Rover out of Saxby's Fan. 

In the early days of dog showing the most 
successful owners and breeders of these 
Spaniels, besides those already mentioned, 
were : Mr. Famer, Mr. A. W. Langdale, 
Mr. T. Burgess, Mr. J. Fletcher, Mr. T. B. 
Bowers, Dr. J. H. Salter, and Dr. J. H. 
Spurgin, who all owned and exhibited several 
very meritorious specimens. 

Mr. Phineas Bullock, too, who owned at 
the time the strongest show kennel of Field 
Spaniels, was very successful, particularly 
with his dog George, who was not, howe\-er, 
by any means a pure Sussex, as both his 
sire. Bob, and his dam, Nellie, were blacks, 
and in consequence of a protest from Mr. 
Bowers he was withdrawn from the show 
ring, and his name appears in hardly any 
Sussex pedigrees. Another dog, Bebb, 
whose name occurs in many pedigrees, both 
of Sussex and Black Field Spaniels, was also 
of doubtful origin. He is certainly entered 
in the Stud Book as a Sussex, but he was 
got by Old Bob, who was either altogether 
or half a \\'ater Spaniel, and came from Lord 
Derby's kennel. However that may be, 
it was from the union of Buckingham, men- 
tioned above, and claimed to be pure Rose- 
hill, with Bebb's daughter Peggie that the 
great Bachelor resulted — a dog whose name 
is to be found in almost every latter-day 
pedigree, though Mr. Campbell Newington's 
strain, to which has descended the historic 

prefix " Rosehill," contains less of this 
blood than any other. 

About 1879 -^Ir. T. Jacobs, of Newton 
Abbot, up to then, with perhaps the excep- 
tion of Mr. Phineas Bullock, the most suc- 
cessful breeder and exhibitor of Field 
Spaniels, took up this breed ; and, as was 
his custom with any breed he touched, 
took it up with great success, owning, 
amongst other good specimens, Russett, 
Dolly, Brimette, and Bachelor HI., the 
latter a dog \vhose services at the stud can- 
not be estimated too highly. When this 
kennel was broken up in 1891, the best of 
the Sussex Spaniels, as well as of the Blacks, 
were acquired by ilr. Woolland, who had 
been an e.xhibitor of the breed for some five 
or six years previously, and from that date 
this gentleman's kennel carried all before 
it until it in turn was broken up and dis- 
persed in 1905. 

So successful was Mr. \\'oolland that one 
may almost say that he beat all other com- 
petitors oft the field, though one of them, 
Mr. Campbell Newington, of whose kennel I 
shall speak presently, stuck most gallantly 
to him all through. The name of Mr. 
WooUand's famous dogs is legion, but the 
best of those owning his celebrated prefix, 
" Bridford," were : Dallion, Maubert, 
Battle, Victor, Maud, Naomi, Brida II., 
Minnie, Giddie, DoU}', Leopold, Queenie, 
Pierrette, Bredaboy, Mocky, and Daisy. 
Of these I consider the dog Bridford 
Giddie (k.c.S.B. 26,957) and the bitch 
Bridford Dolly to have been the two best 
Sussex Spaniels I have ever seen, with 
scarcely a fault which the most h^^percritical 
judge could find, either on the score of 
type or make and shape. 

Mr. Campbell Newington, who has been 
breeding Sussex Spaniels for over a quarter 
of a century with an enthusiasm and 
tenacity worthy of the warmest admiration, 
began by buying Laurie and a bitch named 
D'Arcy from Dr. Williams, of Hayward's 
Heath. Laurie was considered by Dr. 
Williams, one of the best authorities of 
his day, to be the best Sussex he had ever 
had, and very typical. His next purchase 
was Lady Rosehill, a very blue-blooded 



bitch indeed, being directly descended from 
the dogs carried off from Rosehill by old 
Relf ; and he subsequently became pos- 
sessed of two other pure Rosehill bitches, 
named Cyprus and Bustle, so that his 
strain is probably the purest, and more full 
of the original blood than any other. Al- 
though Mr. Newington's kennel has been 
somewhat overshadowed by the phenomenal 
success of the " Bridford " Spaniels, it has 




always maintained a \'ery high standard 
of excellence, and many famous show 
specimens have come from it, notably 
Rosehill Ruler II. (a splendid Sussex, 
scarcely inferior to Bridford Giddie), Romu- 
lus, Reine, Rita, Rush, Rock, Rag, and 
Ranji, and many others of almost equal 

Although the lion's share of the prizes has 
been divided between these two kennels, 
a good many useful Spaniels of this breed 
have been shown from time to time by other 
exhibitors. ]\Ir. Robert Chapman's Heather 
Glen, Heather Ann, and Heather May were 
all of more than average merit, and Mr. 
F. C. Wade and Mr. E. Boniface have both 
achieved a certain measure of success. 

My own kennel of Sussex, started from 
a " Woolland-bred " foundation, has been 
going for some fifteen years, the best I have 
shown being Jonathan Swift, Celbridge 
Eldorado, and Celbridge Chrysolite. I have 
not found them very easy to breed, the 

bitches being very uncertain, and the pup- 
pies delicate and hard to rear when one does 
get a good litter ; but in spite of this I still 
retain enough enthusiasm to stick to it, 
especially as at the present time, owing to 
Mr. Woolland's retirement, the breed seems 
to be left almost entirely to Mr. Newington 
and myself, we having furnished between 
us eighteen out of the twenty entries at 
the last Kennel Club Show. This delicacy 
I attribute mainly to excessive inbreeding, 
which is, I fear, almost unavoidable, as there 
are so few pure-bred specimens left. 

The breed has always had a good charac- 
ter for work, and most of the older writers 
who mention them speak of Sussex Spaniels 
in very eulogistic terms. They are rather 
slow workers, but thoroughly conscientious 
and painstaking, and are not afraid of any 
amount of thick covert, through which they 
will force their way, and seldom leave any- 
thing behind them. 

All Sussex Spaniels give tongue when on 
a scent ; at least, there are very few ex- 
ceptions to this rule, and it used to be 
said that one could tell by the difference of 
the note whether one of these dogs was 
hunting fur or feather. 

In these days mute Spaniels are fashion- 
able, and it has been the custom among 
Field Trial judges to penalise a Spaniel who 
gives tongue. This is, I think, a mistake, 
as it is natural for some breeds to do so ; 
and I must say that to my ears the deep 
melodious note of a Sussex Spaniel is a 
most pleasant sound, and not without its 
uses, as one often brings off a shot, particu- 
larly at rabbits in thick covert, which one 
would not have a chance of without that 
warning from one's four-footed companion. 
Several of Mr. Newington's Sussex have 
competed, with considerable credit to them- 
selves, at the Field Trials, though the more 
attractive work of the Clumbers and Spring- 
ers has prevented them attaining the high- 
est honours. 

A well-bred Sussex Spaniel is a very 
handsome dog. Indeed, his beautiful colour 
alone is enough to make his appearance an 
attractive one, even if he were unsym- 
metrical and ungainly in his proportions. 




1^ -„; 














^^^^^^^^^^L -% 





This colour, known as golden liver, is 
peculiar to the breed, and is the great touch- 
stone and hall-mark of purity of blood. No 
other dog has exactly the same shade of 
coat, which I do not think the word " liver " 
describes very exacth', as it is totally dif- 
ferent from the ordinary liver coloru of an 
Irishman, a Pointer, or even a liver Field 
Spaniel. It is rather a golden chestnut 
with a regular metallic sheen as of bur- 
nished metal, showing more especially on the 
head and face and everywhere where the 
hair is short. This is very apparent when 
a dog gets his new coat. In time, of course, 
it is liable to get somewhat bleached by 
sun and weather, when it turns almost yel- 
low. Every expert knows this colour well, 
and looks for it at once when judging a class 
of Sussex. 

The description of the breed given by 
the Spaniel Club is as follows : 

1. Head. — The skull should be moderately long, 
and also wide, with an indentation in the middle, 
and a fuU stop, brows fairly hea\'y ; occiput full, 
but not pointed, the whole giving an appearance 
of hea\-iness without dulness. 

2. Eyes. — Hazel colour, fairly large, soft and 
languishing, not showing the haw overmuch. 

3. Nose. — The muzzle should be about three 
inches long, square, and the Ups somewhat 
pendulous. The nostrils well developed and liver 

4. Ears. — Thick, fairly large, and lobe shaped ; 
set moderately low, but relatively not so low as 
in the Black Field Spaniel ; carried close to the 
head, and furnished with soft wa\-y hair. 

5. Neck. — Is rather short, strong, and slightly 
arched, but not carrj-ing the head much above 
the level of the back. There should not be much 
throatiness in the skin, but well marked frill in 
the coat. 

6. Chest and Shoulders. — The chest is round, 
especially behind the shoulders, deep and wide, 
giving a good girth. The shoulders should be 

7. Back and Back Ribs. — The back and loin are 
long, and should be very muscular, both in width 
and depth ; for this development the back ribs 
must be deep. The whole body is characterised 
as low, long, level, and strong. 

8. Legs and Feet. — The arms and thighs must 
be bony, as well as muscular, knees and hocks 
large and strong, pasterns very short and bony, 
feet large and round, and with short hair between 
the toes. The legs should be very short and 
strong, with great bone, and may show a slight 

bend in the forearm, and be moderately well 
feathered. The hind legs should not be apparently 
shorter than the fore legs, or be too much bent at 
the hocks, so as to give a Setter>' appearance which 
is so objectionable. The hind legs should be well 
feathered above the hocks, but should not have 
much hair below that point. The hocks should 
be short and wide apart. 

9. Tail. — Should be docked from fi\e to seven 
inches, set low, and not carried above the level 
of the back, thickly clothed wdth moderately long 

10. Coat. — Body coat abundant, flat or slightly 
waved, with no tendency to curl, moderately well 
feathered on legs and stem, but clean below the 

11. Colour. — Rich golden Uver ; this is a certain 
sign of the purity of the breed, dark liver or puce 
denoting unmistakably a recent cross with the 
black or other variety of Field Spaniel. 

12. General Appearance. — Rather massive and 
muscular, but with free movements and nice tail 
action denoting a tractable and cheerful disposition. 
Weight from 35 lb. to 45 lb. 

I can add nothing to this excellent de- 
scription, but should like to eliminate the 
words allowing a " slight bend in the fore- 
arm." This appears to me to open the 
door to crooked fore-legs, which I consider 
a great defect in any Spaniel, and one that 
is unhappil}' only too prevalent. 

\'l. The Field Spaniel. — The modern 
Field Spaniel may be divided into two 
classes. Indeed, we may almost say at 
this stage of canine history, two breeds, 
as for several years past there has not 
been very much intermingling of blood 
between the Blacks and those known by 
the awkward designation of " Any Other 
Variety," though, of course, all came origin- 
ally from the same parent stock. 

The black members of the family have 
alwa}-s been given the pride of place, and 
accounted of most importance, though 
latterly their parti-coloured brethren seem 
to have rather overtaken them, so, as it is 
difficult to treat both together, I will deal 
with them first. 

Among the reaUy old writers there is one 
mention, and one only, of Spaniels of a 
black colour. Arcussia speaks of them, 
and of their being used in connection with 



the sport of hawking, but from his time up 
to the middle of tlie nineteenth century, 
though many colours are spoken of as being 
appropriate to the various breeds of Spaniels, 
no author mentions black. 

There appears to be no doubt that 
" Stonehenge " — than whom no one is more 
accurate — was right when he asserted that 
the modern dog was " bred from a cross of 
the Sussex with the old-fashioned Cocker 

of whom was most extraordinarily success- 
ful, and owned a kennel of Field Spaniels 
which was practically unbeatable between 
the dates of the first Birmingham Show in 
1861 and the publication of the first volume 
of the Kennel Club's Stud Book in 1874, 
many, if not most, of the dogs which won 
for other owners having been bred by him. 
His Nellie and Bob, who won the chief 
prizes year after year at all the leading 
shows, were probably the two best 
specimens of their day, and Mr. 
Rawdon Lee has selected Nellie as 
his ideal Black Spaniel. 

Another most successful breeder 
was Mr. W. W. Boulton, of Bever- 
ley, who also bred a Nellie, who 
with her son. Brush, was selected 
by " Stonehenge " for especial 
commendation and illustration in 
his Dugs of the British Islands." 


of Devon or Wales, selecting the 
blacks, so as to become almost in- 
variably of that colour." Anyone 
who will take the trouble to trace 
back Sussex, Cocker, and Field Spaniel 
pedigrees, even as far as the first 
volume of the Kennel Club's Stud 


Book, will lind abundant confirma- 


tion of this statement, and will be 
forced to the conviction that this 
variety owes its size and the greater por- 
tion of its conformation to the Sussex, and 
its colour to the old-fashioned Cocker. 

The first strain of blacks of which we 
know much belonged to Mr. F. Burdett, and 
was obtained from a Mr. Footman, of Lut- 
terworth, Leicestershire, who was supposed 
to have owned them for some time. Mr. Bur- 
dctt's Bob and Frank may be found at the 
head of very many of the best pedigrees. 
At his death most of his Spaniels became 
the property of Mr. Jones, of Oscott, and 
Mr. Phineas Bullock, of Bilston, the latter 



Mr. Boulton 's kennel produced many cele- 
brated dogs, including Beverlac, said to be 
the largest Field Spaniel ever exhibited, and 
Rolf, whose union with Belle produced four 
bitches who were destined, when mated 
with Nigger, a dog of Mr. Bullock's breed- 
ing, to form the foundation of the equally 
if not more famous kennel belonging to Mr. 
T. Jacobs, of Newton .\bbot. 

It was Mr. Jacobs who, by judiciously 
matmg his Sussex sires Bachelor, Bachelor 
III., and others with these black-bred 
bitches, established the strain which in his 



hands and in those of his successors, Captain 
S. M. Thomas and ^Ir. Moses Woolland, 
carried all before it for many years, and is 
still easily at the top of the tree, being the 
most sought for and highly prized of all on 
account of its '' quality." The hst of dogs 
which, while in this gentleman's possession, 
made histor}-, is a very formidable one, and 
far too long to quote in extenso, but the 
following names are among the best kno\\Ti, 
and their bearers have, through their 
descendants, exercised a great influence 
on the breed : — Nigger, Kaffir, Squaw, 
Newton Abbot Blossom, Newton Ab- 
bot "\'ictor, Newton Abbot Lassie, 
and Newton Abbot Shah, subsequently 
acquired by Mr. Woolland and re- 
christened Bridford Shah. Probably 
the best Black Spaniel ever bred by 
Mr. Jacobs was also bought by ^Ir. 
Woolland, the bitch Bridford Per- 
fection, by Newton Abbot King out 
of Newton Abbot Duchess. This 
beautiful bitch, who was fully worthy 
of her name, cost her plucky pur- 
chaser nearly /400 — \dz. /380 in cash 
and a further consideration ; and after 
an all too short career, during which 
she never had to put up with defeat, 
died childless. Such are the disappointments 
which breeders have to endure. In 1891 
Mr. Jacobs decided to disperse his kennel, 
and the pick of the Spaniels were di\nded 
between Captain S. Moreton Thomas and 
Mr. Woolland. The former gentleman ac- 
quired some beautiful specimens, including 
such well-known animals as Newton Abbot 
King, Barnum, Ripper, Lassie, and Glory, 
but he does not seem to have met with 
much success in carrying on the strain, 
and we meet with very few dogs nowadays 
descended from the Spaniels he showed 
so successfully for several years. 

On the other hand, Mr. Jacobs' mantle 
as a breeder seems to have fallen upon 
Mr. Woolland's shoulders, and up to the 
time in 1906 when he in turn gave up 
breeding and disposed of his kennel, he 
had easily outdistanced all his competitors. 

Although ^Ir. Jacobs was undoubtedly 
the most prominent figure among the ex- 

hibitors of blacks of his da}', many of his 
contemporaries were breeding and showing 
specimens of very great merit, notably 
Mr. W. W. Boulton, Mr. J. Smith, of Coles- 
hiU, Mr. Theo. ]Marples, Dr. J. H. Spurgin, 
Mr. C. C. Lawrence, Colonel Cornwall Legh, 
Mr. James Farrow, Mr. H. Bird, Jlessrs. 
Mortlock and Prance, Mr. J. H. Hussey, 
and Mr. P. E. Le Gros. 

A very great number of winning black 
Spaniels came during the 'nineties from 
these kennels, the following names being 



those of perhaps the greatest distinction : — 
Mr. Farrow's Gipping Sam (afterwards 
Buckle), Mr. J. Smith's Beverley Comet, 
Mr. ilarples' Moonstone and Maxim, Mr. 
Lawrence's Cloisonne, Colonel Cornwall 
Legh's Mimic, Music, and Maize, the latter 
subsequently owned by me, and Mr. J. 
Smith's ColeshiU Chloe, whom I also bought 
and renamed Celbridge Chloe. Another 
very beautiful bitch was Colonel Gostwyck 
Card's Rona, whose head and ears were 
admitted by everj'one to be little short 
of ideal. 

All this time, however, Mr. ^^'oolland 
seemed able to defy competition, and to 
win with the greatest ease whenever he 
chose to exhibit, which, to his credit be 
it said, was very seldom, and only at the 
principal shows. No one could e\'er accuse 
him of going round the small shows with 
his champion dogs and mopping up all 
the small prizes, as I am sorry to saj' is 



not infrequently done by the owners of 
strong kennels. I will only quote the 
names of those dogs of his which have 
attained the rank of full champion, though 
there have been a good many others of 
almost equal merit: Bridford Perfection, 
Shah, Brilliant, Tommy, Gipsy, Jappy, 
Duke, and Boy. Of these I consider 
BriUiant to have been the best dog of the 
breed I have ever seen, and Gipsy the best 
bitch. Both were full of quality and free 
from all exaggerations, being each beau- 




tifully proportioned and very symmetrical. 
Jappy was very little inferior to Gipsy all 
round, and, indeed, beat her in legs and 
feet. Mr. Woolland's blood was also re- 
sponsible for the success of many other 
kennels, among them my own, and m a 
large measure Mr. H. E. Gray's, which 
now seems to hold the premier position. 
His best dogs have been Lord Dunnohoo 
(who was decidedly unlucky not to have 
been numbered among the champions), 
Magellan, Magician, Druid, and Juanita. 
The blacks from this kennel have also 
competed with a fair amount of credit 
to themselves at the Field Trials. 

If Black Spaniels are not quite so popular 
at present as they were some years ago, 
the fault lies with those breeders, exhibitors, 
and judges (the latter being most to blame) 
who encouraged the absurd craze for ex- 
cessive length of body and shortness of 
leg which not very long ago threatened 
to transform the whole breed into a race 
of cripples, and to bring it into contempt 
and derision among all practical men. No 
breed or variety of dog has suffered more 
from the injudicious fads and crazes of 
those showmen who are not sportsmen 
also. At one time among a certain class 
of judges at, I am glad to say, principally 
minor shows, length and lowness was every- 
thing, and soundness, activity and sym- 
metry simply did not count. As happens 
to all absurd crazes of this kind when 
carried to exaggeration, public opinion has 
proved too much for it, but not before a 
great deal of harm has been done to a 
breed which is certainly ornamental, and 
can be, in my experience, most useful as 
well. I\Iost of the prize-winners of the pre- 
sent day are sound, useful dogs capable of 
work, and it is to be hoped that judges 
will combine to keep them so. 

The coloured Field Spaniel has now 
almost invariably at the principal shows 
special classes allotted to him, and does 
not have to compete against his black 
brother, as used to be the case in former 

The systematic attempt to breed Spaniels 
of various colours, with a groundwork of 
white, does not date back much more 
than a quarter of a century, and the greater 
part of the credit for producing this variety 
may be given to three gentlemen, Mr. F. E. 
Schofield, Dr. J. H. Spurgin, and Mr. J. W. 
Robinson, although the following breeders 
may be said to have contributed not a 
little towards establishing it : :\Iajor Willett, 
Messrs. Hopcroft, H. P. Green, T. Harring- 
ton, C. C. Lawrence, P. E. Le Gros, and 
J. Smith. In the early days of breeding 
blacks, when the bitches were mated either 
with Sussex or liver and white Springers 
or Norfolk Spaniels, many parti-coloured 
puppies necessarily occurred, which most 



breeders destroyed ; but it occurred to 
some of these gentlemen that a handsome 
and distinct variety might be obtained By 
careful selection, and they have certainly 
succeeded to a very great extent. The 
most famous names among the early sires 
are Dr. Spurgin's Alonzo and his son Fop, 
and Mr. Robinson's Alva Dash, from one 





or Other of whom nearly all the 
modem celebrities derive their 
descent. A granddaughter of 
Alva Dash named Coleshill Mag- 
pie, the property of Mr. J. Smith, 
has probably been the most suc- 
cessful brood bitch ever known 
in this variety, as the following 
winners at important shows 
during the last decade are all descended 
from her: Coleshill Red Girl, Coleshill 
Span, Coleshill Constance, Coleshill Climax, 
Kempston Clytemnestra, Kempston Cameo 

there is, as I have often been told, a very 
great fascination in breeding for colour, 
and in doing so there is no royal road to 
success, which can only be attained by 
the exercise of the greatest skill and the 
nicest discrimination in the selection of 
breeding stock. At the same time colour 
is not everything, and type and working 
qualities should never be 
sacrificed to it. 

I am bound to state as 
my deliberate opinion, that 
this has been done in the 
case of coloured Field 
Spaniels. There are plenty 
of beautiful blue roans, red 
roans, and tricolours, 
whether blue roan and tan 
or liver roan and tan, but 
nearh' all of them, are either 


cocktailed, weak in hindquarters, crooked- 
fronted, or houndy-headed, and showing 
far too much haw. In fact, in head and 

- . , front the greater number of the tricolours 

\Velsh Joseph. Briton Still, Trumpington remind one of the Basset-hound almost as 
L)ax, Trumpington Dora, Chesterton Gay much as they do in colour. I hope that 
He^s and Shilhngton Rona. colour-breeders will endeavour to get back 

Those who have been, and are, interested the true Spaniel type before it is too 
in promotiftg and breeding these variety late. I am not alone in this dislike of 
Spaniels no doubt deserve a large amount the present type of coloured Field Spaniel 
of credit for their perseverance, which has Only a very short time ago one of the 
been attended with the greatest success oldest breeders and judges of Spaniels 
so far as producing colour goes. Xo doubt and one of the pioneers of this particular 



variety, said to me : " Tliey have had 
the colour for ten years. Don't you think 
it is time they paid some attention to type 
and to sound hmbs ? " The truest Spaniels, 
and therefore, in my opinion, the best 
of this variet}' I have judged, have been 
Coleshill Constance, Shillington Rona, and 
Trumpington Dora. The last-named bitch 
I consider the best variety Spaniel I have 
ever seen in the show ring, and 1 think it 
a great pity that she sliould have been 
sold to go to America. Trumpington Donna 
was in many respects a beautiful bitch, 
but her forelegs were as crooked as a Dachs- 

The points of both black and coloured 
Field Spaniels are identical, bar colour, 
and here let me say that black and tan, 
liver and tan, and liver are not considered 
true variety colours, though of course they 
have to compete in those classes, but 
rather sports from black. The colours 
aimed at by variety breeders have all a 
ground colour of white, and are black 
and white, blue roan, liver and white, 
red roan, liver white and tan, and tri- 
colours or quadri-colours — i.e. blue or red- 
roan and tan, or both combined, with 
tan. The Spaniel Club furnishes the fol- 
lowing description of the Black Field 
Spaniel : — 

1. Head. — Should be quite characteristic of this 
grand sporting dog, as that of the Bloodhound 
or the Bulldog ; its very stamp and countenance 
should at once convey the conviction of high breed- 
ing, character and nobility ; skull well developed, 
with a distinctly elevated occipital tuberosity, 
which, above all, gives the character alluded to ; 
not too wide across muzzle, long and lean, never 
snipy nor squarely cut, and in profile curving 
gradually from nose to throat ; lean beneath eyes, 
a thickness here gives coarseness to the whole head. 
The great length of muzzle gives surface for the 
free deve'opment of the olfactory nerve, and thus 
secures the highest possible scenting powers. 

2. Eyes. — Not too full, but not small, receding or 
overhung ; colour dark hazel or dark brown, or 
nearly black ; grave in expression, and bespeaking 
unusual docility and instinct. 

3. Ears. — Set low down as possible, which 
greatly adds to the refinement and beauty of the 
head, moderately long and wide, and sufficiently 
clad with nice Setter-like feather. 

4. Neck. — Very strong and muscular, so as to 

enable the dog to retrieve his game without 
undue fatigue ; not too short, however. 

5. Body (including Size and Symmetry;. — Long 
and very low, well ribbed up to a good strong loin, 
straight or slightly arched, never slack ; weight 
from about 35 pounds to 45 pounds. 

6. Nose. — Well developed, with good open 
nostrils, and always black. 

7. Shoulders and Chest. — Former sloping and 
free, latter deep and well developed, but not too 
round and wide. 

8. Back and Loin. — Very strong and mus- 
cular ; level and long m proportion to the height 
of the dog. 

9. Hindquarters. — Very powerful and mus- 
cular, wide, and fully developed. 

10. Stern. — Well set on, and carried low, if 
possible below the level of the back, in a perfectly 
straight line, or with a slight downward inchna- 
tion, never elevated above the back, and in action 
always kept low, nicely fringed, with wavy feather 
of silky texture. 

11. Feet and Legs. — Feet not too small, 
and well protected between the toes with soft 
feather ; good strong pads. Legs straight and 
immensely boned, strong and short, and nicely 
feathered with straight or waved Setter-like 
feather, overmuch feathering below the hocks 

12. Coat.- Flat or slightly waved, and never 
curled. Sufficiently dense to resist the weather, 
and not too short. Silky in texture, glossy, and 
refined in nature, with neither dufielness on the 
one hand nor curl or wiriness on the other. On 
chest under belly, and behind the legs, there 
should be abundant feather, but never too much, 
and that of the right sort, viz. Setter-like. The 
tail and hindquarters should be similarly adorned. 

13. Colour.- Jet black throughout, glossy and 
true. A little white on chest, though a drawback, 
not a disqualification. 

14. General Appearance. — That of a sporting 
dog, capable of learning and doing anything pos- 
sible for his inches and conformation. A grand 
combination of beauty and utility. 

An excellent description of an excellent 
dog. I should like to substitute the words 
" moderately long and low," or simply 
" long and low," for " long and very low " 
in paragraph five, otherwise I have no 
amendments to make. This description- 
with, of course, the exception of the last 
paragraph but one — applies equally to the 
coloured variety. 

VII. The English Springer.— It is only 
quite recently that the Kennel Club has 


29 1 

officially recognised the variety known by 
the name at the head of this section. 
For a long time the old-fashioned liver and 
white or black and white Spaniels, longer 
in the leg than either Sussex or Field 
Spaniels, had been known as Norfolk 
Spaniels, and under this title the Spaniel 
Club had published a description of them. 
There had, howe\'er, been a considerable 
amount of discussion about the propriet}^ 
of this name of " Norfolk," and the weight 
of the evidence adduced went to show 
that as far as any territorial connection 
with the county of that name went, it was 
a misnomer, and that it probably arose 
from the breed having been kept by one 
of the Dukes of Norfolk, most likely that 
one quoted by Blaine in his " Rural Sports," 
who was so jealous of his strain that it 
was only on the expressly stipulated con- 
dition that they were not to be allowed 
to breed in the direct line that he would 
allow one to leave his kennels. 

Accordingly, when this old breed was 
taken up by the Sporting Spaniel Society, 
they decided to drop the name of " Nor- 
folk," and to revert to the old title of 
" Springer," not, in my opinion, a very 
happy choice, as all Spaniels are, properly 
speaking, Springers in contradistinction to 
Setters. The complete official designation 
on the Kennel Club's register is " English 
Springers other than Clumbers, Sussex, 
and Field," a very clumsy name for a 
breed. There is no doubt that this variety 
of Spaniel retains more resemblance to the 
old strains which belonged to our fore- 
fathers, before the long and low idea found 
favour in the eyes of exhibitors, and it 
was certainly well worth preserving. The 
only way nowadays by which uniformity 
of type can be obtained is by somebody 
having authority drawing up a standard 
and scale of points for breeders to go by, 
and the Sporting Spaniel Society are to 
be commended for having done this for 
the breed under notice, the fruit of their 
action being already apparent in the larger 
and more uniform classes to be seen at 
shows. At first no doubt it was a spirit 
of protest against the exaggerated 

" fanciers' " specimens of Field Spaniels, 
which were only too common, which led 
them to establish what they styled " Work- 
ing Type Classes " ; but these classes 
proved anything but a success, as, besides 
Norfolk Spaniels or Springers, they were 
filled with all sorts of nondescripts, the 
only apparent qualification being the posses- 
sion of sufficiently long legs. Many, if not 
most, of them were misfit Field Spaniels, 
who would have had a short shrift but for 
the new field of industry opened to them 
by these novel classes. Indeed, five or 
si.x years ago I have several times seen 
litter brothers at a show, one in the orthodox 
Field Spaniel classes and the other in the 
" Working Type." 

For the last three years, however, matters 
have been improving, and, although one 
can hardly say that the type has ever yet 
been properly fixed, things are tending 
that way, and before long we may hope 
to see as uniform classes of Springers as 
of any other breed of Spaniels. 

As the officially recognised life of the 
breed has been such a short one, there 
are naturally not very many names of 
note among the prize-winners. The princi- 
pal breeders and owners have so far been 
Mr. W. .^rkwright, Mr. Harry Jones, Sir 
Hugo FitzHerbert, Mr. C. C. Bethune 
Eversfield, and Mr. Winton Smith ; the 
dogs which have most distinguished them- 
selves in the show ring being Ark, Fan- 
some, Tissington Fan, Tissington Bounce, 
and Beechgrove Will. These dogs have 
done very well indeed at the field trials, 
notably those owned by Mr. C. C. Bethune 
Eversfield, Nimrod, Velox Powder, Cas- 
monite Powder, Amberite Powder, Nitro 
Powder, and Schwab Powder, and Mr. 
Gardner's Tring, who was the first Spaniel 
to lower the colours of the redoubtable 
Clumber bitch Beechgrove Bee. 

They are undoubtedly the right dogs 
for those who want Spaniels to travel 
faster and cover more ground than the 
more ponderous and short-legged Clumbers, 
Sussex, or Field Spaniels do, but I do not 
think their work is equal in finish and 
precision to that of either of the two former 



breeds, though certainh- the best working 
Spaniel I have ever owned myself was one 
of this tj'pe about seventeen or eighteen 
years ago, before it became fashionable, 
and before Spaniel trials were thought of. 
The description of the breed is as follows : — 

1. Head. — Skull long and rather narrow : a 
stop ; the muzzle broad and long to the end. 

2. Eyes. — Rather small, bright, intelligent. 


3. Ears. — Long, low-set. lobular. 

4. Neck. — Lean, long, and slightly arched. 

5. Body (including Size and Symmetry). — 
Fairly heavy body ; legs rather longer than the 
other Field Spaniels, but not so long as in Irish ; 
medium size. 

6. Nose. — Large and soft. 

7. Shoulder and Chest. — Shoulders long and 
sloping ; chest deep and fairly broad. 

8. Back and Loin. — Back flat and strong ; 
loin rather long, flat and strong. 

9. Hindquarters. — I-ong ; hocks well let down ; 
stifles moderately bent, not twisted inward or 

10. Stern. — Low carried, i.f. not above the 
level of the back. 

11. Feet and Legs. — Strong boned, inclining to 
shortness ; feet large and rather flat, 

12. Coat. — Not woolly, not curly, but may be 

13. Colour. — Liver and white, black and white, 

14. Genera' Appearance. — .\n active, useful, 
and medium-sized dog. 

I think it would have been as well to 
have fixed some approximate standard of 
size or weight. " Medium sized " is rather 
vague, and to have used the word " waved " 
in place of " broken," in referring to the 

coat ; and I cannot see the object of flat 

Since the above was written, the following 
revised description of the English Springer 
has been issued bv the Sporting Spaniel 
Society : — 

1. Skull. — Long and slightly arched on top, 
fairly broad, with a stop, and well-developed 

2. Jaws. — Long and broad, not snipy, with 
plenty of thin lip. 

3. Eyes. — Medium size, not too full, but bright 
and intelligent, of a rich brown. 

4. Ears. — Of fair length, low set, and lobular 
m shape. 

5. Neck. — Long, strong, and slightly arched. 

6. Shoulders. — Long and sloping. 

7. Forelegs. — Of a moderate length, straight, 
with flat strong bone. 

8. Body. — Strong, with well-sprung ribs, good 
giith. and chest deep and fairly broad, 

9. Loin. — Rather long, strong, and slightly 

10. Hindquarters and Hindlegs. — Very mus- 
cukir, hocks well let down, stifles moderately 
bent, and not twisted inwards or outwards. 

11. Feet. — Strong and compact. 

12. Stern. — Low carried, not above the level 
of the back, and with a vibratory motion. 

13. Coat. — Thick and smooth or very slightly 
wavy, it must not be too long. The feathering 
must be only moderate on the ears, and scanty 
on the legs, but continued down to the heels. 

14. Colour. — Liver and white and black and 
white (with or without tan), fawn and white, 
yellow and white, also roans and self colours of 
all these tints. The pied colours are preferable, 
however, as more easily seen in cover. 

15. General Appearance. — An active compact 
dog, upstanding, but by no means stilty. His 
height at shoulder should about equal his length 
from the top of the withers to the root of tlie 

Vni. The Welsh Springer.— Like the 

Enghsli Springer, the Welsh Springer has 
only very recently 
come into exist- 
ence — officially, 
that is to say ; 
but his admirers 
claim for him 
that he has ex- 
isted as a sepa- 
rate breed for 
along t i m c . 




bej'ond the bounds of the Principalit}-, 
where he is referred to as the Starter. 

\Mien his claims were first put forward 
they were ^•igorousl3• contested by many 
who could claim to speak and write with 
authority upon the various breeds of Spaniels 
existing in these islands, and it was freely 
asserted that they were nothing but cross- 
breds between the ordinarj' Springer and 
probably a Clumber in order to account 
for the red or orange markings and the 
vine-leaf-shaped ears. I must confess that 
at first I was inclined to take this view, 
but the many excellent classes I have seen 
during the last few years, filled wath Spaniels 
all of the same type, have quite converted 
me, and I think that a case has been fairly 
made out for them. Even if they are a 
new breed, which I do not suggest for a 
moment in face of all the evidence pro- 
duced in their favour, they are a most 
meritorious one, both in their ap- 
pearance, which is eminently sport- 
ing and workmanlike, and for the 
excellence of their work in the field, 
which has been amply demonstrated 
by the record earned at the field 
trials by Mr. A. T. Williams and 
others. I have never seen this breed 
at work myself, so cannot speak 
from personal experience, but those 
who have, have nothing but good 
to say of them, and for working 
large rough tracts of countr}^ in 
teams their admirers say they are 

In appearance they are decidedly 
attractive, rather more lightly built 
than most Spaniels, small in size, in- 
deed very little larger than Cockers, 
in\-ariably white in colour, with red 
or orange markings, and possessing 
rather fine heads with small Clumber- 
shaped ears. Their general appear- 
ance is that of extremely smart and 
active little dogs. Mr. A. T. Williams, 
Mr. Harry Jones, Mr. H. D. Greene, Mr. 
B. C. Ransome, and several others have 
shown good specimens, the most famous 
prize-winners of the breed so far having 
been Kimla Dash, Corrin, Tramp of Ger\\Ti, 

Rover of Ger\\Ti, Gyps}^ of Ger\%Ti, Cardinal, 
Rock, and Longmynd Myfanw-j'. 

The Welsh Springer is described b\' the 
Sporting Spaniel Society as follows : 

1. Skull. — Fairly long and fairly broad, slightly 
rounded with a stop at the eyes. 

2. Jaws. — Medium length, straight, fairly square, 
the nostrils well developed, and flesh coloured or 
dark. A short, chubby head is objectionable. 

3. Eyes. — Hazel or dark, medium size, not 
prominent, not sunken, nor showing haw. 

4. Ears. — Comparatively small and gradually 
narrowing towards the tip, covered with feather 
not longer than the ear, set moderately low and 
hanging close to the cheeks. 

5. Neck. — Strong, muscular, clean in throat. 

6. Shoulders. — Long and sloping. 

7. Forelegs. — iledium length, straight, good 
bone, moderately feathered. 

8. Body. — Strong, fairly deep, not long, well- 
sprung ribs. Length of body should be pro- 
portionate to length of leg. 

9. Loin. — Muscular and strong, slightly arched, 
well coupled up and knit together. 



Photograph by T. Fall. 

10. Hindquarters and Hindlegs. — Strong ; hocks 
well let down ; stifles moderately bent (not twisted 
in or out), not feathered below the hock on the 

11. Feet. — Round, with thick pads. 

12. Stern. — Low, never carried above the level 
of the back, feathered, and with a lively motion. 



13. Coat. — Straight or flat, and thick. 

14. Colour. — Red or orange and white. 

15. General Appearance. — Symmetrical, com- 
pact, strong, merry, active, not stilty. built for 
endurance and activity, and about ;8 lb. and 
upwards in weight, but not exceeding 45 lb. 



I'hulogiarh by T. Fall. 

IX. The Cocker Spaniel.- For the last 
few years the popuktrity of this smaUer 
sized branch of the Spaniel tribe has been 
steadily increasing, and at the time of 
writing the Cocker classes at most of the 
best shows are remarkable both for the 
number of entries and the ^•ery high 
standard of excellence to which they at- 
tain. I have latterly often judged large 
classes containing a dozen or more dogs, 
every one of which fully deser\-ed a card 
of commendation — a mark of apprecia- 
tion which I never bestow out of empty 
compliment, or to any animal I do not 
consider possesses a considerable amount 
of merit. 

A short time ago black Cockers were 
decidedly more fashionable than their parti- 
coloured relatives, but now the reverse is 
the case, and the various roans and tricolours 
have overtaken and passed the others, 
both in general quality and in the public 
esteem. The reason for this popularity 
of the breed as a whole is not far to seek. 
The affectionate and merry disposition of 

the Cocker and his small size compared 
with that of the other breeds pre-eminently 
fit him for a companion in the house as 
well as in the field, and he ranks among 
his admirers quite as many of the fairer 
se.x as he does men — a fact which 
is not without a certain element 
of danger, since it should never be 
lost sight of that the breed is a 
sporting one, which should on no 
account be allowed to degenerate into 
a race of mere house companions 
or toys. 

Small-sized Spaniels, usuall}' called 
Cockers, from their being more espe- 
cially used in woodcock shooting, have 
been indigenous to Wales and Devon- 
shire for many years, and it is most 
likely from one or both of these 
sources that the modern type has 
been evolved. It is probable too 
that the type in favour to-day, of a 
short coupled, rather " cobby dog," 
fairly high on the leg, is more like 
that of these old - fashioned Cockers 
than that which obtained a decade or 
two ago, when they were scarcely re- 
cognised as a separate breed, and the 
Spaniel classes were usually divided into 
■' Field Spaniels over 25 lb." and " Field 
Spaniels under 25 lb." In those da3''s a large 
proportion of the prizes fell to miniature 
Field Spaniels. The breed was not given 
official recognition on the Kennel Club's 
register till 1893, nor a section to itself 
in the Stud Book ; and up to that date 
the only real qualification a dog required 
to be enabled to compete as a Cocker was 
that he should be under the weight of 25 lb., 
a limit arbitrarily and somewhat irration- 
ally fi.xed, since in the case of an animal 
just on the border-line he might very well 
have been a Cocker before and a Field 
Spaniel after breakfast. I was instru- 
mental in 1901 in getting the Spaniel Club 
to abolish this hard and fast weight limit 
in their description, and the Kennel Club 
accepted the amendment, so that, as is the 
case wit!: almost all other breeds, the matter 
is now entirely a question for the judge, 
who, if lie knows his business, will probably 



penalise any animal professing to be a 
Cocker Spaniel who looks as if he would 
turn the scale at much more than 25 lb. 

It is not easy to find authentic pedigrees 
going back further than a quarter of a 
century, but ilr. C. A. Phillips can trace 
his own strain back to i860, and ^Ir. James 
Farrow was exhibiting successfully nearly 
thirty-five 3-ears ago. The former gentle- 
man published the pedigree of his bitch 
Rivington Dora for eighteen generations 
in extenso in " The Sporting Spaniel " ; 
while the famous Obo strain of the latter 
may be said to have exercised more influ- 
ence than any other on the black varietj' 
both in this country and in the United 

Going back to the earliest show days, 
we come across two names which will be 

Spaniels with the old-fashioned Cockers — 
a fact I have dwelt upon in the section 
devoted to that variety. Consequently, 
many of the smaller dogs and bitches of 
the litters were showTi in the light-weight 
classes, as, for instance, Captain Arbuth- 
not's Chloe and Alice, who were bv ^Ir. 
Phineas Bullock's Bob out of his Nellie, 
who won at Manchester and Nottingham 
in 1873, and much of this blood is to be 
found in the Cocker pedigrees of to-day. 

Another example of how the Field Spaniel 
and Cocker blood comes from this source 
is shown by the bitch Runic, who was 
bred and exhibited as under 25 lb. bv 
Mr. W. W. Boulton, of Beverley. This 
bitch was the dam of Rolf, one of the prin- 
cipal progenitors, as I have alread}' shown, 
of the modem race of Field Spaniels. In 


found in many, if not in most, of the pedi- 
grees of those Cockers which have been 
included in the later stud books, those of 
Mr. Burdett's black and tan dog Frank, 
and Mr. Mousley's black and white bitch 
Venus. It must be borne in mind that 
about this time the modern Field Spaniel 
was being evolved by Mr. Burdett, Mr. 
Bullock, and others by crossing Sussex 

1904 IMr. Phillips took the trouble to trace 
back the pedigrees of some of the principal 
winning Spaniels at Cruft's show, and 
found that the champion Cocker, the 
champion Black Spaniel dog, and the 
champion coloured Field Spaniel bitch, 
were all lineal descendants of Frank and 
Venus. This portion of the history of the 
breed is most interesting, but unfortunately 



in an article of this kind space is wanting 
to deal with it as fully as it deserves, and 
any reader who desires to enter more deeply 
into it must either delve for himself auK^ng 
old stud books and pedigrees, or consult 
a monograph. 

It was in 1880 that the most famous 
of all the ■■ pillars " of the Cocker stud, 
Mr. James Farrow's Obo, made his first 
bow to the public, he and his litter sister 
Sallv having been born the year before. 
He won the highest honours that the show 
bench can give, and the importance of 
his service to the breed both in his owner's 




kennel and outside it, can scarcely be over- 
estimated. Nearly all of the best blacks, 
and many of the best coloured Cockers, 
are descended from him. At this period 
the type mostl}' favoured was that of a 
dog rather longer in the body and lower 
on the leg than it is at present, but the 
Obo family marked a progressive step, 
and very rightly kept on winning under 
all the best judges for many years, their 
owner being far too good a judge himself 
ever to exhibit anything but first-class 
specimens. The best of this notable family 
were Obo himself, Sally Obo, Miss Obo, 

Lily Obo, Tim Obo, Mollie Obo, Betty 
Obo, Frank Obo, and Ted Obo. Sandy 
Obo, a \-ery beautiful coloured bitch, can 
hardly be considered as belonging to the 
family, though bearing the same surname, 
as she was by Oddfellow, out of Sandy, 
both unregistered. The Obo blood has 
found its way to .\merica, where it is very 
highly prized. 

^Meanwhile, although the blacks were 
far the most fashionable — and it was said 
that It was hopeless to try to get the same 
quality in coloured specimens — several en- 
thusiastic breeders for colour were quietly 
at work, qvnte undismayed by the pre- 
dilection shown by most exhibitors and 
judges for the former colour. Among them 
was Mr. C. A. Phillips, who, having bought 
two bitches from Mr. James Freme, of 
Wepre Hall, Flintshire, succeeded in breed- 
ing from one of them, whom he named 
Rivington Sloe, the celebrated dog Rivington 
Signal, who, mated with Rivington Blossom, 
produced Rivington Bloom, who was in 
turn the dam of Rivington Redcoat. These 
dogs proved almost, if not quite, as valuable 
to the coloured variety as Obo did to the 
blacks, and formed the foundation of the 
celebrated Braeside strain which afterwards 
became so famous, Braeside Beauty, the 
first registered by Mr. Porter under that 
prefix, being by Rivington Signal out of 
Grove Rose. The latter bitch, a liver and 
white, whose pedigree is given in the stud 
book as unknown, had a very successful 
career, winning first and cup at Manchester 
on her first appearance, and eventually 
attaining championship honours. Riving- 
ton Redcoat, after doing good service at 
home, was sold to go to France, where he 
gained a great reputation as a sire, and 
was subsequently brought back to England 
by Mr. Lloyd, of Ware, and only died com- 
paratively recently. Mr. Phillips considered 
that his son Rivington Bluegown was the 
best-coloured Cocker he ever bred, and has 
never ceased to regret that he sold him to 
go to Canada. However, he exacted a 
certain measure of compensation from the 
Dominion, when he imported Toronto, a 
black dog, whose services at the stud have 



been extremely useful, principally in im- 
proving and strengthening the heads of the 
breed, which at one time were getting rather 
weak and inclined to snipiness. Mr. J. ^I. 
Porter's dog Braeside Bustle, whose name 
is to be found in the Stud Book for 1896, 
was a very notable dog, as, besides winning 

beautiful bitch whose union with Braeside 
Bustle produced Blue Peter, a most success- 
ful sire of late years, and Braeside Judy, 
the dam of some of the best of our modern 
Cockers. During the last few years Mr. 
R. de Courcy Peek's kennel has easily 
held the pride of place in this variety. 

THREE GENERATIONb uF ivl K. H. ui- u, Hcti-to buufc KuAN COCKERS. 

CH. BEN BOWDLER -fatherI CH BOB BOWDLER (son), and 
CH. DIXON BOWDLER (grandson). 

From THt painting by LILIAN CHEVIOT. 

a number of prizes himself, he is responsible 
in one way or another for most of the 
best coloured Cockers of the present day. 
His blood was of the very best, since his 
sire Toots went back in a direct line to 
Champion Obo, and his dam Braeside Bizz 
was a great-granddaughter of Champion 

Some of the best dogs owned or bred 
by Mr. Porter were Braeside Bob, a lemon 
roan sold to America, whom I saw at the 
Westminster Kennel Club's show in New 
York as lately as 1904, Braeside Betty, a 

Most of my readers are no doubt familiar 
with the many beautiful Cockers which 
have appeared in the show ring and carried 
off so many prizes under the distinguishing 
affix Bowdler. His kennel was built up 
on a Braeside foundation, so that Mr. 
Porter can fairly lay claim to a certain 
amount of credit for its success, and has 
contained at one time or other such flyers 
as Ben Bowdler, Bob Bow'dler, Rufus 
Bowdler, Dixon Bowdler, Eva Bowdler, 
Mary Bowdler, Bluecoat Bowdler, Susan 
Bowdler, and others, and Ben and Bob 



have also been, as sires, responsible for 
the success of a good many dogs hailing 
from other kennels. He has also been 
fairly successful with blacks, which, how- 
ever, have usually been purchased and 
not bred by him, the two best being Master 
Reuben, bred by Miss Joan Godfrey, and 
Jetsam Bowdler, a bitch who has dis- 
tinguished herself both in the ring and in 
the field. At the present moment I am 
inclined to think that one of the best, if 
not the very best, coloured sire is John 
Bull, bred by Mr. J. Coleman, by Blue 
Peter out of Coaley. He only met with 
moderate success as a show dog owing to 
an undershot mouth, but he has not trans- 
mitted this defect to any of his progeny 
whom I have seen ; on the contrary, they 
are remarkable for the excellence of their 
heads and their true Spaniel type and ex- 
pression. He is responsible, among others. 
for Mr. Phillips's Rivington Ruth — who, 
if she only had a little more bone, I should 
consider about the best coloured bitch I 
have seen — Susan Bowdler, and Clara 
Bowdler, a trio whose heads, for bitches, 
I consider almost perfect. 

Coloured Cockers are certainly " boom- 
ing " just now, and as a consequence I 
fear that the blacks, who are equally worthy 
of support, are being rather neglected. 
Certainly it is the case that whereas one 
sees at most shows big classes of the former 
filled with a good level lot with hardly a 
bad specimen amongst them, the classes 
devoted to the latter, besides not being 
so well filled, are much more uneven, and 
always contain a large proportion of weeds 
and toys. A few years ago the black classes 
were immeasurably superior to the coloured, 
and it is to be hoped that in the near future 
they will regain at least a position of equality 
with them. 

I have not been able, owing to want of 
space, to mention nearly all the successful 
Cocker owners and breeders, nor all the 
dogs which have made names for them- 
selves in the show ring, but no article on 
the breed would be complete without 
quoting the following names, in addition 
to those already mentioned : Mr. W. 

Caless, O. Burgess, E. C. Spencer, O. H. 
EUis, R. Lloyd, J. H. Hickin, F. C. Hignett, 
J. Smith, J. H. Campbell, J. Chiles, 
Mrs. Crosfield, Miss Joan Godfrey and 
Mr. Harding Cox, Miss Vera Canute, Mrs. 
Greening, and Miss Bessie McCartie ; while 
the following dogs are also deserving of 
mention : Blacks — Bruton Floss, Bruton 
Peter, Bruton Cora, Master Gilbert, Master 
Clarence, Master Mathew, Westbury Madge, 
Regalia, Mistress Rita, Kim of Machen, 
Rivington Reine, and Little Jill. Coloured 
— Dooney Belle, Doony Swell, Braeside 
Ri^•al, Nurscombe Joan, Nurscombe De- 
borah, Truth, Byford Bluebell, Wilton 
Sweetheart, Trafalgar Ben, Trafalgar 
Beauty, Coleshill Claudian, St. Foy of 
Monte Carlo, and man}' others. 

At the last few Field Trial meetings the 
Spaniel Club has provided classes confined 
to Cockers, which have filled fairly well, 
and enabled the small breed to demon- 
strate tliat it can in its way be quite as 
useful as its larger cousins. Indeed, it 
is a question whether at the trials of 
1904 Mr. F. M. Brown's Beechgrove 
Midget was not the best performer of the 
whole number competing, as she showed 
more dash and go than any of them, and, 
despite her size, her retrieving was abso- 
lutely perfect. A Cocker can very often 
go and work as well where a larger Spaniel 
cannot even creep, and for working really 
thick hedgerows or gorse has no superior. 
There seems to be every prospect of a 
brilliant future, and increased popularity 
for this charming breed, which, in my 
opinion at least, it thoroughly deserves. 

Its interests are looked after both by 
the Spaniel Club and the comparatively 
newly formed Cocker Spaniel Club, and it 
is also quite as much in favour on the 
other side of the Atlantic as it is in the 
United Kingdom. Indeed, the classes in 
America and Canada compare very favour- 
ably with our own, and I was particularly 
struck with the great number of excellent 
specimens to be seen benched in Madison 
Square on the occasion of my visit to the 
New York show. Red is a much more 
common colour over there than it is with 

o „ 

CQ g 

5 8^ 

5 3 

o 2 

CD t 

< o 

CO < 



us, and most of the Cockers other than 
black were of that colour. 

The descriptive particulars of the breed 
are : — 

1. Head. — Xot so hea\-\' in proportion and 
not so high in occiput as in the modem Field 
Spaniel, with a nicely developed muzzle or jaw ; 
lean, but not snipj-. and yet not so square as in 
the Clumber or Sussex varieties, but always 
exhibiting a sufficiently wide and well-developed 
nose. Forehead perfectly smooth, rising without 
a too decided stop from muzzle into a compara- 
tively wide and rounded, well-developed skull, 
with plenty of room for brain power. 

2. Eyes. — Full, but not prominent, hazel or 
brown coloured, with a general expression of 
intelligence and gentleness, though decidedly 
wideawake, bright and meny, ne\er goggled nor 
weak as in the King Charles and Blenheim 

3. Ears. — Lobular, set on low. leather fine and 
not exceeding beyond the nose, well clothed with 
long silky hair, which must be straight or wa\^ — 
no positive curls or ringlets. 

4. Neck. — Strong and muscular, and neatly- 
set on to fine sloping shoulders. 

5. Body (including size and symmetry). — • 
Xot quite so long a^ d low as in the other breeds 
of Spaniels, more compact and firmly knit together, 
giving the impression of a concentration of power 
and untiring act \-ity. 

6. Weight. — The weight of a Cocker Spaniel 
of either sex should not exceed 25 lb., or be less 
than 20 lb. Any variat;on either way should be 

7. Nose. — Sufficiently wide and well developed 
to ensure the exquisite scenting powers of this 

8. Shoulders and Chest. — The former sloping 
and fine, chest deep and well developed, but not 
too wide and round to interfere with the free 
action of the forelegs. 

9. Back and Loin. — Immensely strong and 
compact in proportion to the size and weight 
of the dog ; slightly sloping towards the tail. 

10. Hindquarters. — Wide, well rounded, and 
very muscular, so as to ensure untiring action 
and propelling power under the most trying 
circumstances of a long day, bad weather, rough 
ground, and dense covert. 

11. Stern. — That most characteristic of blue 
blood in all the Spaniel family, may, in the lighter 
and more active Cocker, although set low down, 
be allowed a slightly higher carriage than in the 
other breeds, but never cocked up over, but 
rather in a line with the back, though the lower its 
carriage ajid action the better, and when at work 
its action should be incessant in this, the brightest 
and merriest of the whole Spaniel family. 

12. Feet and Legs. — The legs should be well 
boned, feathered and straight, for the tremendous 
exertions expected from this grand little sporting 
dog, and should be sufficiently short for concen- 
trated power, but not too short as to interfere with 
its full activity. Feet firm, round, and cat-like, 
not too large, spreading, and loose jointed. This 
distinct breed of Spaniel does not follow exactly 
on the lines of the larger Field Spaniel, either in 
lengthiness, lowness, or otherwise, but is shorter 
in the back, and rather higher on the legs. 

13. Coat. — Flat or waved, and silkv in texture, 
never wiry, woolly, nor curly, with sufficient 
feather of the right sort, viz. waved or Setter- 
like, but not too profuse and ne\'er curly. 

14. General Appearance. — Confirmatory of all 
indicated above, viz. a concentration of pure 
blood and type, sagacity, docility, good temper, 
affection, and activity. 




C H A P T E R X X \' I I . 



" Dost thou in hounds aspire to dcafhL'ss fame ? 
Learn well their lineage and their ancient stem. 
Each tribe with joy old rustic heralds trace. 
And sing the chosen worthies of their race." 


THE Basset was not familiarly known 
to British sportsmen before 1863, in 
which year specimens of the breed 
were seen at the first exhibition of dogs 
held in Paris, and caused general curiosity 
and admiration among English visitors. 
In France, however, this hound has been 
used for generations, much as we use 
our Spaniel, as a finder of game in 
covert, and it has long been a popular 
sporting dog in Russia and Germany. In 
early times it was chiefly to be found 
in Artois and Flanders, where it is sup- 
posed to have had its origin ; but the 
home of the better type of Basset is now 
chiefly in La Vendee, in which department 
some remarkably fine strains have been 
produced. Sir John Everett Millais, an 
admiring student of the breed, pointed out 
the interesting fact that the finest type 
of Basset exists in the western districts of 
France — that is. in the districts where the 
larger French hounds are to be found — and 
that as you go east the breed diminishes to 
a smaller variety, gradually merging into 
the Dachshund. It is from the Basset of 
La Vendee that most of our English speci- 
mens are derived. 

There are three main strains of the French 
Basset — the Lane, the Couteulx, and the 
Griffon. The Griffon Basset is a hound 
with a hard bristly coat, and short, crooked 
legs. It has never found great favour here. 
The Lane hounds are derived from the 
kennels of M. Lane, of Franqueville, Baos, 
Seine-Inferieur, and are also very little 
appreciated in this country. They are a 
lemon and white variety, with torse or bent 

legs. The CouteuLx hounds were a type 
bred up into a strain by Comte le Couteulx 
de Canteleu — one of the most noted cynolo- 
gists and sportsmen France has ever pro- 
duced. They were tricolour, with straight, 
short legs, of sounder constitution than 
other strains, with the make generally of a 
more agile hound, and in the pedigree of 
the best Bassets owned in this country 
fifteen years ago, when the breed was in 
considerable demand, Comte de Couteulx's 
strain was prominent and always sought 

The Lane hound is decidedly of a plainer 
type, weak in colour, lighter in bone, and 
noticeably longer on the leg, the head broader 
and somewhat flat, with shorter ears. The 
Couteulx strain is generally a fine rich tri- 
colour, sometimes flecked with black or 
brown, with good legs and splendid feet, 
soft and supple in coat and skin, the head 
long and lean, with magnificent pendulous 
ears finely folded and velvety ; the muzzle 
square, with heavy flews, and the dark eye 
not prominent but showing a good deal of 

The true type is carefully preserved in 
La \'endee, but much variety of colour and 
character is met with in other departments 
of France. Some, closely resembling the 
Dachshund, are black and tan — natives of 
the Vosges — while many are grey, and some 
white, with grey and yellow markings. 
These are rejected by English admirers of 
the Basset-hound, who are consistent in 
their preference for the white with black 
and tan. 

With careful selection and judicious breed- 



ing we ha\-e now produced a beautiful hound 
of fine smooth coat, and a rich admixture 
of markings, with a head of noble character 
and the best of legs and feet. Their short, 
t\\'inkling legs make our Bassets more suit- 
able for covert hunting than for hunting 


From a Drawing by C. BURTON BARBER. 

hares in the open, to which latter purpose 
they have frequently been adapted with 
some success. Their note is resonant, with 
wonderful power for so small a dog, and in 
tone it resembles the voice of the Blood- 

The Basset-hound is usually very good 
tempered and not inclined to be quarrel- 
some with his kennel mates; but he is wilful, 
and loves to roam apart in search of game, 
and is not very amenable to discipline 
when alone. On the other hand, he works 
admirablj^ with his companions in the pack, 
when he is most painstaking and indefatig- 
able. Endowed with remarkable powers 
of scent, he will hunt a drag with keen in- 

During the years of his naturalisation 
\vith us his calling has undergone \'arious 
changes, and it is to be feared that if he is 
bred only for pace the old distinguishing 
characteristics will be lost, and his quaint 
and patrician appearance will suffer deteri- 
oration. His peculiar formation prevents 
him from being a very speedy or an especially 
active hound, and, indeed, when it is a 
question of negotiating a stiff fence or a steep 
bank he has often to be helped. It is ex- 
tremely doubtful whether an alteration in 

this direction would tend to any improve- 
ment in the breed. 

There are now several packs of Bassets 
kept in England, and they show very fair 
sport after the hares ; but it is not their 
natural vocation, and their massive build is 
against the possibility of their becoming 
popular as harriers. The general custom is 
to follow them on foot, although occasionally 
some sportsmen use ponies. Their pace, how- 
ever, hardly warrants the latter expedient. 
On the Continent, where big game is more 
common than with us, the employment of 
the Basset is varied. He is a valuable help 
in the tracking of boar, wolf, and deer, 
and he is also frequently engaged in the 
lighter pastimes of pheasant and partridge 

The Earl of Onslow and the late Sir John 
Everett Millais were among the earliest im- 
porters of the breed into England. They 
both had recourse to the kennels of Count 
Couteulx. Sir John Millais' Model was the 
first Basset-hound exhibited at an English 
dog show, his debui taking place at Wol- 
^•erhampton in 1875. Later owners and 
breeders of prominence were Mr. G. Krehl, 
Mrs. Stokes and ^Irs. Mabel Tottie. At one 





time .Mrs. Tottie o\\Tied the finest kennel 
of both rough and smooth Bassets in the 
British Isles. She considered the rough 
variety more delicate than the smooth — an 
opinion which is not commonly shared. 
As with most imported breeds, the Basset- 



hound when first exhibited was required to 
undergo a probationary period as a foreign 
dog in the variety class at the principal 
shows. It was not until 1880 that a class 
was provided for it by the Kennel Club. 



rlinloKUlfh l,y A. Horner. SMU. -. ' 

The hounds originally imported were some- 
what smaller than those of to-day. Sir John 
Millais' historic couple, :Model and Garenne, 
were considered the best of their time. 
Their measurements and weights were as 
follows : — 

the girth of chest, 24 inches to 25 inches, 
height at the shoulder, 12 inches, the ears 
from tip to tip 22 inches, and the length 
from the point of the nose to the tip of 
the tail from 44 inches to 50 inches. 

In referring to some of the early 
e.xamples of the Basset - hound in 
France, Sir John Millais wrote that 
"it might be interesting to note from 
a breeder's point of view the gradual 
development of this hound to modern 
times from the mating of Fino de 
Paris and Trouvette, over a quarter 
of a century ago." Sir John's care- 
fully compiled pedigrees of his dogs 
are too long for quotation, but Fino 
de Paris was taken as the principal 
factor in the line of descent, and by 
inbreeding to this type the Champions 
Forester, Psyche, Paris, Xena, Xitta, 
Isola, Bowman, and many other spe- 
cimens of high quality were produced. 
It is to be regretted that owners of this 
beautiful hound are not more numerous. 
Admirable specimens are still to be seen at 
the leading exhibitions, but the breed is 
greatly in need of encouragement. When 
the pioneers who had done so much to 




Weight .... 



2 1 


Height at shoulder . 





Length of nose to set 


of tail . . . 





Length of tail 

I ij 




Girth of chest 





Girth of loin . 





Girth of head 





Girth of forearm 





Length from occiput 


tip of nose . 





Girth of muzzle midway 

between eyes and 


of nose . 





Length of ears from 


to tip ... 





Height from ground, 


feet .... 







These measurements are all smaller than 
would apply to a typical hound at the present 
time, but it may be stated that the forelegs 
of the smooth Basset should not be longer 
than five to six inches from elbow to foot, 

establish the Basset retired the present 
writer endeavoured to continue their work. 
I bred my hounds from the purest strain only, 
and was successful in those which I brought 
out, striving always towards improvement. 



I was most careful in selecting those of the 
best tvpe, with sound straight legs and good 
feet, eliminating aU that did not possess 
distinct qualifications for sport and exhi- 
bition, and with most satisfactory results, 
the Champions Paris and Xena never ha\-ing 
been beaten in competition. Xena, indeed, 
was the winner outright of the twenty-five 
guinea challenge bowl three times in suc- 
cession, winning one each for the three 
successi\'e owners, myself, Mrs. Walsh, and 
Mr. Stark, representing eighteen consecutive 
wins without a set back — a feat rarely sur- 

To these followed many good dogs, in- 
cluding Queen of the Geisha (bred by Mr. 
Stark), who rose to premier honours on the 
death of Ch. Xena. Queen was almost as 
good as Xena, but failed somewhat in hind 
quarters, which were too stilty, but her 
head and ears were the most perfect yet 
produced. At the present time the smooth 
dog hound taking the foremost place in the 
estimation of our most capable judges i~ 
Mr. W. W. M. White's Ch. Loo-Loo-Loo. 
bred by Mrs. Tottie, by Ch. Louis le Beau 
-out of Sibella. Mr. Cro.xton Smith's Waverer 
is also a dog of remarkably fine type. 
Among bitch hounds Sandringham Dido, 
the favourite of Her Majesty the Queen, 
ranks as the most perfect of her kind. 

The rough or Griffon-Basset, introduced 
into England at a later date than the smooth, 
has failed for some reason to receive great 
attention. In type it resembles the shagg\- 
Otterhound, and as at present favoured 
it is larger and higher on the leg than the 
smooth variety. I have myself imported 
several from France, but have found them 
less hardy than their velvety relatives, and 
not so staunch or painstaking in their work, 
and for packs they do not appear to be 
generally liked. Their colouring is less dis- 
tinct, and they seem generally to be lemon 
and white, grey and sandy red. Their 
note is not so rich as that of the smooth 
variety. In France the rough and the 
smooth Bassets are not regarded as of the 
same race, but here some breeders have 
crossed the two varieties, with indifferent 

Some beautiful specimens of the rough 
Basset have from time to time been sent 
to exhibition from the Sandringham kennels. 
His Majesty the King has always given 
affectionate attention to this breed, and has 
taken several first prizes at the leading 
show-s, latterly wdth Sandringham Bobs, 
bred in the home kennels by Sandringham 
Babil ex Saracenesca. 

Perhaps the most explicit description of 
the perfect Basset-hound is stiU that com- 
piled twenty-five years ago by Sir John 



Photograph by A., Settle. 

Millais. It is at least sufficiently compre- 
hensive and exact to serve as a guide : — 

" The Basset, for its size, has more bone, 
perhaps, than nearly any other dog. 

" The skull should be peaked like that of 
the Bloodhound, with the same dignity and 
expression, the nose black (although some 
of my own have white about theirs), and 
well fiewed. For the size of the hound, I 
think the teeth are extremely small. How- 
ever, as they are not intended to destroy 
life, this is probably the reason. 

" The ears should hang like the Blood- 
hound's, and are like the softest velvet 

" The eyes are a deep brown, and are 
brimful of affection and intelligence. The}^ 
are prett\^ deeply set, and should show a 
considerable haw. A Basset is one of 
those hounds incapable of having a wicked 


thp: new book of the dog. 

•• The neck is long, but of great power ; 
and in the Basset a jambes torses the flews 
extend very nearly down to the chest. 
The chest is more expansi\'e than even in 
the Bulldog, and should in the Bassets li 
jambes torses be not more than two inches 
from the ground. In the case of the Bassets 
a jambes demi-torses and jambes droites, being 
generally lighter, their chests do not, of 
course, come so low. 

" The shoulders are of great power, and 
terminate in the crooked feet of the Basset, 
which appear to be a mass of joints. The 
back and ribs are strong, and the former 
of great length. 

" The stern is carried gaily, like that of 
hounds in general, and when the hound 

is on the scent of game this portion of 
his body gets extremely animated, and 
tells me, in my own hounds, when they 
ha\-e struck a fresh or a cold scent, and I 
even know when the foremost hound will 
give tongue. 

" The hindquarters are very strong and 
muscular, the muscles standing rigidly out 
down to the liorks. 

'■ The skin is soft in the smooth haired 
dogs, and like that of any other hound, 
but in the rough variety it is like that of 
the Otterhound's. 

" Colour, of course, is a matter of fancy, 
although I infinitely prefer the tricolour, 
which has a tan head and a black and 
white body." 







Photografh by T. Fall. 



'"Six years ago I brought him down, 
A baby dog from London Town ; 
Round his small throat of black and brown 

A ribbon blue. 
And vouched by glorious renown 
A Dachshund true." 

— Matthew Arnold. 

PERSONS unfamiliar with the sporting 
properties of this long-bodied breed 
are apt to refer smilingly to the 
Dachshund as " the dog that is sold by the 
yard," and few even of those who know 
him give credit to the debonair little fellow 
for the grim work which he is intended 
to perform in doing battle \\ath the xncious 
badger in its lair. Dachshund means 
" badger dog," and it is a title fairly and 
squarely earned in his native Germany. 

Good things are said to be done up in 
small parcels, and the saying is eminently 
true of the httle dog under notice. WTicther 
he be kept for sport or merely as a com- 
panion, he is to my mind the best dog of 
his size. Given proper training, he will per- 
form the duties of several sporting breeds 

rolled into one. Possessing a wonderful 
nose, combined with remarkable steadiness, 
his kind will work out the coldest scent, and 
once fairly on the line they will give plenty 
of music and get over the ground at a pace 
almost incredible. Dachshunds hunt well in 
a pack, and, though it is not their recognised 
vocation, they can be successfully used on 
hare, on fox, and any form of vermin that 
wears a furry coat. But his legitimate 
work is directed against the badger, in 
locating the brock under ground, worrying 
and driving him into his innermost earth, 
and there holding him until dug out. 
It is no part of his calling to come to 
close grips, though that often happens in 
the confined space in which he has to work. 
In this position a badger with his powerful 



claws digs with such energy and skill as 
rapidly to bury himself, and the Dachshund 
needs to be jjrovided with such apparatus 
as will permit him to clear his way and keep 
in touch with his formidable quarry. The 
badger is also hunted by Dachshunds above 
ground, usually in the mountainous parts 
of Germany, and in the growing crops of 
maize, on the lower slopes, where the vermin 
work terrible havoc in the evening. In this 
case the badger is rounded up and dri\'en 
b}' the dogs up to the guns which are posted 
between the game and tlieir earths. For 


this sport the dog used is heavier, coarser, 
and of larger build, higher on the leg, and 
more generally houndy in appearance. 
Dachshunds are frequently used for deer 
driving, in which operation they are especi- 
ally valuable, as they work slowly, and do 
not frighten or overrun their quarry, and 
can penetrate the densest undergrowth. 
Packs of Dachshunds may sometimes be 
engaged on wild boar, and, as they are web- 
footed and excellent swimmers, there is no 
doubt that their terrier qualities would make 
them useful assistants to the Otterhound. 
Apropos of their capabilities in the water it 
is the case that a year or two ago at Offenbach- 
on-Main, at some trials arranged for life- 
saving by dogs, a Dachshund carried off the 
first prize against all comers. 

As a companion in the house the Dachs- 
hund has perhaps no compeer. He is a 
perfect gentleman ; cleanly in his habits, 
obedient, unobtrusive, incapable of small- 
ness, affectionate, very sensitive to rebuke 

or to unkindness, and amusingly jealous. 
As a watch he is excellent, quick to detect 
a strange footstep, valiant to defend the 
threshold, and to challenge with deep voice 
any intruder, yet sensiblj' discerning his 
master's friends, and not annoying them 
with prolonged growling and grumbling as 
many terriers do when a stranger is ad- 
mitted. Properly brought up, he is a 
perfectly safe and amusing companion for 
children, full of animal spirits, and ever 
ready to share in a romp. e\'en though it be 
accompanied by rough and tumble play. 
In Germany, where he is the most popular 
of all dogs, large or small, he is to be found 
in e\-ery home, from the Emperor's palace 
downwards, and his quaint appearance, 
coupled with his entertaining personality, 
IS daily seized upon by the comic papers to 
illustrate countless jokes at his expense. 
He is, in truth, a humorist, as George Mere- 
dith pointed out when he wrote that 

"Our Islet out of Helgoland, dismissed 

From his quaint tenement, quits hates and 
There lived with us a wagging humorist 
In that hound's arch dwarf-legged on 

The origin of the Dachshund is not very 
clear. Some writers have professed to trace 
the breed or representations of it on the 
monuments of the Egyptians. Some aver 
that it is a direct descendant of the French 
Basset-hound, and others that he is related 
to the old Turnspits — the dogs so excellent 
in kitchen service, of whom Dr. Cains wrote 
that '• when any meat is to be roasted they 
go into a wheel, where they, turning about 
with the weight of their bodies, so dili- 
gently look to their business that no drudge 
nor scullion can do the feat more cunningly, 
whom the popular sort hereupon term Turn- 
spits." Certainly the dog commonly used 
in this occupation was long of body and 
short of leg, very much resembling the 
Dachshund. It was distinct enough in 
type to claim the breed-name of Turnspit, 
and many years ago this name was applied 
to the Dachshund. 

In all probability the Dachshund is 
a manufactured breed— a breed evolved 



from a large type of hound intermixed with 
a terrier to suit the special conditions in- 
volved in the pursuit and extermination of 
a quarry that, unchecked, was capable of 
seriously interfering with the cultivation of 
the land. He comprises in his small person 
the characteristics of both hound and terrier 
— his wonderful powers of scent, his long, 
pendulous ears, and, for his size, enormous 
bone, speak of his descent from the hound 
that hunts by scent. In many respects he 
favours the Bloodhound, and I have from 
time to time seen Dachshunds which, ha\'ing 
been bred from parents carefully selected 
to accentuate some fancy point, have 
exhibited the very pronounced " peak " 
(occipital bone), the protruding haw of the 
eye, the loose dewlap and the colour 
markings characteristic of the Bloodhound- 
His small stature, iron heart, and willing- 
ness to enter the earth bespeak the terrier 

The Dachshund was first introduced to 
this country in sufficient numbers to merit 
notice in the early 'sixties, and, speedily 
attracting notice by his quaint formation 
and undoubted sporting instincts, soon be- 


came a favourite. At first appearing at 
shows in the " Foreign Dog " class, he 
quickly received a recognition of his claims 
to more favoured treatment, and was pro- 
moted by the Kennel Club to a special classi- 
fication as a sporting dog. Since then his 
rise has been rapid, and he now is reckoned 
as one of the numerically largest breeds 

exhibited. Unfortunately, however, he has 
been little, if ever, used for sport in the sense 
that applies in Germany, and this fact, 
coupled with years of breeding from too 
small a stock (or stock too nearly related) 


and the insane striving after the fanciful 
and e.xaggerated points demanded by judges 
at dog shows, many of whom never saw a 
Dachshund at his legitimate work, has 
seriously affected his usefulness. He has 
deteriorated in type, lost grit and sense, too, 
and is often a parody of the true type of 
Dachshund that is to be found in his native 

To the reader who contemplates possessing 
one or more Dachshunds I should like to 
offer a word of advice. Whether you want 
a dog for sport, for show, or as a companion, 
endeavour to get a good one — a well-bred 
one. To arrive at this do not buy from 
an advertisement on your own knowledge 
of the breed, but seek out an expert amateur 
breeder and exhibitor, and get his advice 
and assistance. If you intend to start a 
kennel for show purposes, do not buy a high- 
priced dog at a show, but start with a well- 
bred bitch, and breed your own puppies, 
under the guidance of the aforementioned 
expert. In this way, and by rearing and 
keeping your puppies till they are of an age 
to be exhibited, and at the same time care- 
fully noting the awards at the best shows, 
you will speedily learn which to retain and 
the right type of dog to keep and breed for, 



and in future operations you will be able to 
discard inferior puppies at any earlier age. 
But it is a great mistake, if you intend to 
form a kennel for show purposes, to sell 
or part with your puppies too early. It is 
notorious with all breeds that puppies 
change very much as they grow. The best 
looking in the nest often go wTong later, and 
the ugly duckling turns out the best of the 
litter. This is especially true of Dachshunds, 
and it requires an expert to pick the best 
puppy of a litter at a month or two old, and 
even he may be at fault unless the puppy is 
exceptionally well reared. 

It is not within the province of this 
chapter to give minute directions for rearing 
puppies, but I may just mention a few points 
for the benefit of novices. 

The main point I would lay stress upon 
is that to rear Dachshund puppies success- 
fully you must not overload them with 
fat— give them strengthening food that does 
not lay on flesh. Lean, raw beef, finely 
chopped, is an excellent food once or twice 
a day for the first few months, and, though 
this comes expensive, it pays in the end. 
Raw meat is supposed to cause worm troubles, 
but these pests are also found where meat 
is not given, and in any case a puppy is 
fortified with more strength to withstand 
them if fed on raw meat than otherwise, 
and a good dosing from time to time will 
be all that is necessary to keep him well 
and happy. 

Young growing pupfiies must huve their 
freedom to gambol about, and get their 
legs strong, and this is another point I wish 
to emphasise. Never keep the puppies cooped 
u\) in a small kennel run or house. If you 
have a fair-sized yard, give them the run of 
that, or even the garden, in spite of what 
your gardener may say — they may do a 
little damage to the flowers, but will assuredly 
do good to themselves. They love to dig 
in the soft borders : digging is second 
nature to them, and is of great importance 
in their development. 

If you have not a garden, or if the 
flowers are too sacred, it is better to place 
your puppies as early as possible with 
respectable cottagers, or small farmers. 

especially the latter, with whom they will 
have entire freedom to run about, and will 
not be overfed. My own plan is to keep 
my puppies at home till they are two or 
three months old, and then put them out 
to "walk" on a farm, and leave them 
till they are six months old, when I pass 
judgment on them. 

^ly puppy kennel has a very spacious 
covered-in run attached, facing south. A 
low brick wall tweh-e inches high runs all 
round three sides, and on this is built a 
double matchboardcd shed. The front is 
entirely filled with greenhouse " lights," 
hinged at the top and made to open to admit 
air without allowing rain to enter. There are 
also ventilators above these and just under 
the roof. Inside, the floor is slightl}' higher 
than the ground outside, which slopes away. 
This floor was arranged in the following 
way : — The ground was dug out to a depth 
of two feet and filled in with ashes well 
pressed down. On top there are six inches 
of dry garden mould, also well pressed down, 
but capable of being forked over and re- 
newed from time to time. This makes a very 
sanitary, warm floor for the puppies to run 
about on ; it ne\-er smells offensively, and 
it is alwavs dry, the droppings can be easily 
removed, and even if left a day or two are 
deodorised by the earth. I also had an 
artificial " earth " or tunnel made in the 
run extending the whole length, and end- 
ing in a " den." This was constructed of 
boarding on the sides and top, and buried in 
the run to a depth of several inches. This 
artificial " earth " was copied from that 
used in Germany, where, at the dog shows, 
trials for Dachshunds and terriers are some- 
times held on fox and badger, and my 
puppies find it a ne\-er-ending source of 
amusement. Here they play for hours, 
running in and out, and here every tit-bit 
in the shape of bones is taken, to be con- 
sumed at leisure. Great is the excitement 
when the fortunate possessor of a bone 
comes to bay in the den of this run, the 
other puppies charging him in rushes, 
fighting and scrambling and keeping up 
an incessant barking till either the bone is 
consumed or they lie down exhausted to 

r 5 



dream they are engaged in mortal combat 
\\-ith the "badger. I am sure there is nothing 
Uke keeping puppies; amused in some such 
wa}' — keep them on their feet as much as 
you can, but at the same time let them have 
a warm bed to retire to directly they feel 

Also, if you intend to show your puppies, 
you should begin some time in advance to 
school them to walk on the lead and to 
stand quiet when ordered to. Much de- 
pends on this in the judging ring, where a 
dog who is unused to being on a lead often 
spoils his chances of appearing at his best 
under the (to him) strange experiences of 
restraint which the lead entails. 

During the past five-and-twenty years 
the names of two particular Dachshunds 
stand out head and shoulders above those 
of their competitors. I refer to Champions 
Jackdaw and Pterodactyl. Jackdaw had 
a wonderful record, ha\'ing, during a long 
show career, never been beaten in his 
class from start to finish, and having 
won many \-aluable prizes. He was credited 
\rith being the most perfect Dachshund 
that had ever been seen in England, and 
probably as good as anything in Germany. 

Ch. Jackdaw was a black and tan dog, bred 
and owTied by Mr. Harry Jones, of Ipswich. 
He was sired by Ch. Charkow, out of Wagtail, 
and bom 20th July, 1886. Through his 
dam he was descended from a famous 
bitch, Thusnelda, who was imported by Mr. 
Mudie in the early 'eighties. She was a 
winner of high honours in Hanover. The 
name of Jackdaw figures in all the best 
pedigrees of to-day. 

Ch. Pterodactvl was bom in 1888, and 
bred by IMr. \\'illink. He was in a measure 
an outcross from the standard type of the 
day, and his dam, whose pedigree is in 
dispute, was thought to have been im- 
ported. After passing through one or two 
hands he was purchased by Mr. Harry 
Jones, and in his kennel speedily made a 
great name in the show ring and at the 
stud, and was eventually sold for a high 
price to Mr. Sidney Woodiwiss, who at that 
period had the largest kennel of Dachshunds 
in England. 

" Ptero," as he was called, was a big, 
light red dog, with wonderful forequarters 
and great muscular development. He also 
possessed what is called a " punishing jaw " 
and rather short ears, and looked a thorough 
" business " dog. He had an almost un- 
broken series of successes at shows in Eng- 
land, and, being taken to Germany (in the 
days before the quarantine regulations), he 
took the highest honours in the hea\'>'- 
weight class, and, I think, a special prize for 
the best Dachshund of all classes. This dog 
became the favourite sire of his day and the 
fashionable colour. 

The black and tan thereupon went quite 
out of favour, and this fact, coupled with 
the reckless amoimt of inbreeding of red to 
red that has been going on since Ptero's 
day, accounts largely for the prevalence of 
light eyes, pink noses, and bad-coloured 
coats of the Dachshunds, as a 'class, to- 

Efforts have been made by a few en- 
thusiasts, from time to time, to stem the 
tide of degeneracy by importing stud dogs 
from Germany, and during the last few 
years considerable good has been done. 
Notable among these outcrosses was Captain 
Barry's Boch Bier, a middle-weight black 
and tan. The difference in type between 
this dog and our English-bred ones was 
most pronounced, but the reign of a more 
enlightened understanding was setting in, 
and Boch Bier's good qualities took him 
right to the front, and gained him the proud 
title of champion. He was not nearly as 
much used by breeders as he should have 
been, on account of his colour — black and 
tan — whereas it is to this colour that fanciers 
must turn to improve their washed-out 
" patchy " yellows, light eyes, flesh noses, 
and Basset-hound white markings. 

Other notable importations during recent 
years have been Mrs. Nugent's Florian, a 
small red dog ; Mrs. Blackwell's Rothei 
Beelzebub, a hea\y-weight dark red, with a 
long record of successes both in Germany 
and England, and probably the best dog 
ever imported ; and my owm dog Racker 
von der Ecke, a black and tan. 

The dapple Dachshunds imported by the 



late Mr. George Krehl and the late Mr. 
Tooth, Unser Fritz, Wenzel Erdmannsheim, 
and Khaki Erdmannsheim, sired many iisehil 
Dachshunds, but their colour was not in 
vogue, and breeders hesitated to introduce 




dapple blood into their kennels. Of these 
dapples Unser Fritz, a small dark silver 
dapple, was the most successful, and mated 
to the English -bred dapple bitch Tiger 
Tessie, sired some wonderful youngsters 
which competed and more than held their 
own with the other colours in the ring. 

It is impossible to enumerate the hundred 
and one champions and famous winners that 
have flitted across the stage of life during 
twenty-five years, or are still living : but 
the large majority of them trace tlu'ir 
pedigrees back to Champions Jackdaw and 
Pterodactyl, and an examination of the 
family trees of the most noted Dachshunds 
of to-day will show how closely they are 
related one to another. 

A very serious aspect of the mbreeding 
craze is the mental deterioration involved ; 
not only in Dachshunds, but in many other 
• breeds of dogs kept and bred for " fancy " 
points, and not working qualities. In the 
case of Dachshunds we have lost grit and 
gameness to an alarming extent, and even 
ordinary intelligence, and in these respects 
the English dog is immeasurably the in- 
ferior of the German dog. It goes without 
saying that we have lost stamina too, and 
I was even told a short time ago by a 
prominent exhibitor that Dachshunds should 

not be taken out to exercise on the loads 
because it made them go unsound ! Shade of 
Jackdaw, what do you thmk of that ! 

.\ Dachshund that cannot do a day's 
work on the roads when required is a 
travesty of what a Dachshund should be. 
If exercise brings out unsoundness, you 
must look elsewhere for the fault — to his 
anatomy. Inbreeding to a specified extent 
is resorted to, to stamp certain characteristics 
on a type ; but it must be borne in mind that 
both good and bad points exist, and both 
may be transmitted, and whilst you may 
get almost perfection physically, you may 
at the same time reach insanity, mentally, 
by inbreeding. 

In 1881 the prominent English breeders 
formed the Dachshund Club, and set about 
drawing up a " standard of points " as a 
guide for the breeding and judging of the 
Dachshund. At this time no similar club 
or standard of points existed in Germany, 
and our English club was therefore obliged 
to rely on such evidence as it could collect 
from individuals in Germany, no two of 
whom probably were in exact agreement, 
and on their own powers of observation 
coupled with that innate faculty of our 




race m all matters appertaining to the 
breeding by selection of pure stock of any 
animal, which has made us famous the 
world o\-er, for the drawing up of what was 
a most important document. 



A greai '-ontrovers}^ has raged for some 
years o\-er this standard of points which 
treats the Dachshund as a " hound " pure 
and simple, and entirely taboos the " terrier," 
but at the time of its inception it was un- 
doubtedly a useful guide for all interested 
in the breed. 

Where I think the Dachshund Club made 
a great mistake was in not approaching the 
German Teckel Club, when it was formed 
some years later, and when it drew up its 
standard description of the points of the true 
type of Dachshund, 
and then revising the 
Enghsh standard to 
accord with the Ger- 
man version. The 
Dachshund is a Ger- 
man dog — practically 
the national dog — 
and the Germans 
should know better 
than we do the type 
best fitted for the 
severe work wliich 
the dog is expected 
to perform, and 
which even the Ger- 
man show dogs per- 
form to-day. 

Unfortunately the 
English club appar- 
entl}' made no effort 

to this desirable end, and it was only in 
the year of grace, 1907, that a select 
committee, appointed by the two clubs 
that now look after the interests of 
the breed, agreed to re\nse the English 
standard to bring it into line with the 
German. This is a step, though a late one, 
in the right direction, but it will take years 
perhaps to eradicate the evil done to the 
breed by the misconception of the true 

I cannot do better than give the standard 
of points formulated by the Germans, 
which will very soon, I trust, be the standard 
adopted by the authorities in this country 
for the guidance of breeders and judges of 
the Dachshund. 

Some illustrations of typical specimens of 



the breed accompany this article, and these 
should be studied in conjunction with the 
description of the points which follows. 
Especial!}' I would direct attention to Ch. 
Snakes Prince (p. 307) as being regarded on 
both sides of the Channel as eminenth' 
tj'pical. A German authority, Herr E. von 
Otto Kreckwitz, having seen the illustration 
of this dog, wrote that he " never saw a 
Teckel nearer to my ideal than Snakes 
Prince, if his weight were only 18 lb. instead 
of 22 lb. His perfect back, the enormous 
bone, deep breast, 
length of head, and 
depth ; everything is 

There are, strictly 
speaking, three varie- 
ties of Dachshund — 
(rt) the short-haired, 
(b) the long-haired, 
and (c) the rough - 

Of these we most 
usually find the first- 
named in this coun- 
try, and they are no 
doubt the original 
stock. Of the others, 
though fairly numer- 
ous in Germany, very 
few are to be seen in 
this country, and al- 
though one or two have been imported 
the type has never seemed to appeal to 

Both the long-haired and rough-haired 
varieties have no doubt been produced by 
crosses with other breeds, such as the Spaniel 
and probably the Irish Terrier, respecti\-ely. 
In the long-haired variety the hair should 
be soft and wavy, forming lengthy plumes . 
under the throat, lower parts of the body, 
and the backs of the legs, and it is longest 
on the under side of the tail, where it forms 
a regular flag like that of a Setter or Spaniel. 
The rough-haired variety shows strongly a 
terrier cross by his " varmint " expression 
and short ears. 

The Germans also subdivide by colour, 
and again for show purposes by weight. 



These subdivisions are dealt with in their 
proper order in the standard of points, 
and it is only necessary to say here that 
all the varieties, colours, and weights are 
judged by the same standard except in so 
far as they differ in texture of coat. At 
the same time the Germans themselves do 
not regard the dapple Dachshunds as yet 
so fixed in type as the original coloured 
dogs, and this exception must also apply to 
the long- and the rough-haired varieties. 

The following German standard of points 
is interspersed with my own comments and 
explanations : 

I. General Appear£ince and Disposition. — In 

general appearance the Dachshund is a very 
long and low dog. with compact and well-muscled 

and of a dark colour, except in the case of the 
li\"er and tan, when the eye.'= may be yellow ; 
and in the dapple, when the eyes may be light 
or " wall-eyed." 

4. Nose. — l^referably deep black. The flesh- 
coloured and spotted noses are allowable only 
in the liver and tan and dapple varieties. 

The appearance of flesh-coloured noses in the 
red dogs is probably produced by long-continued 
inbreeding, or breeding red to red from genera- 
tion to generation, causing a weakness of the 
colouring matter in the system, and indicating 
partial albinoism. 

5. Ears. — Set on moderately high, or, seen 
in profile, above the level of the eyes, well back, 
Hat, not folded, pointed, or nar.ow, hanging 
close to the cheeks, very mobile, and when 
at attention carried with the back of the car 
upward and outward. 

6. Neck. — Moderately long, with slightly arched 



body, resting on short, slightly crooked forelegs. 
A long head and ears, with bold and defiant 
carriage and intelligent expression. In disposi- 
tion the Dachshund is full of spirit, defiant when 
attacked, aggressive even to foolhardiness when 
attacking ; in play amusing and untiring ; by 
nature wilful and unheeding ; but with proper 
training quite as faithful, affectionate, and obedient 
as any other variety of dog, and with, on the 
whole, a well-developed intelligence. 

2. Head. — Long, and appearing conical from 
above, and from a side \-iew, tapering to the 
point of the muzzle, wedge-shaped. The skull 
should be broad rather than narrow, to allow 
plenty of brain room, slightly arched, and fairly 
straight, without a stop, but not deep or snipy. 
The jaws are capable of being widely opened, and, 
extending behind the eyes, set with teeth which 
interlock, exactly, or the inner surface of the 
upper incisors in contact with the outer surface 
of the lower set. 

3. Eyes. — Medium in size, oval, and set 
obliquely, with very clear, sharp expression 

nape, muscular and clean, showing no dewlap, 
and carried well up and forward. 

The existence of dewlap, besides being wrong, 
has the effect of making the head appear short. 

7. Forequarters. — His work underground de- 
mands strength and compactness, and, there- 
fore, the chest and shoulder regions should be 
deep, long, and wide. If of proper formation, 
the forequarters govern the possession of the 
correct legs and feet. The shoulder blade should 
be long, and set on very sloping, the upper arm 
of equal length with, and at right angles to. 
the shoulder blade, strong-boned and well-muscled, 
and lying close to ribs, but moving freely. 

The lower arm, short in comparison with 
other animals, is slightlv bent inwards, and the 
feet should be turned slightly outwards, giving an 
appearance of " crooked " legs approximating to 
the cabriole legs of a Chippendale chair. Straight, 
narrow, short shoulders are always accompanied 
by straight, short, upper arms, forming an obtuse 
angle, badly developed brisket and " keel " or 
chicken breast, and the upper arm being thro%vn 



fonvaxd by the weight of the body behind causes 
the legs to knuckle over at the " knees." Broad, 
sloping shoulders, on the other hand, insure 
soundness of the forelegs and feet. 

Unsoundness, or knuckling over of the front 
legs, is usually put dowTi to constitutional weak- 
ness (and it is, of course, hereditan.-). or the want 
of. or too much, exercise, and. in fact, to every 
imaginable excuse, even to " carelessness " ; but 
the fault is really due to the above-mentioned 
incorrect formation of the shoulder, and it is in 
this respect that breeders should be particularly 
careful in selecting for breeding purposes the 
most perfect bitches. Given the right shoulders, 
the legs and feet will be right, and unsound- 
ness will decrease to vanishing point. Unfor- 
tunately this formation ha.s been so Uttle under- 
stood by our English breeders that our strains 
have been bred for generations from good and 
bad sj>ecimens indiscriminately, and ^vith a 
deplorable result. 

strong in bone, slightly bent inwards ; seen in 
profile, moderately straight and never bending 
fon.vard or knuckling over. Feet large, round, 
and strong, with thick pads, compact and well- 
arched toes, nails strong and black. The dog 
must stand equally on all parts of the foot. 

WTiere the feet are unduly turned out owing 
to incorrect formation of shoulders, the dog 
does not stand equally on all parts of the foot, 
and the feet are usually in this case weak and 
fiat, and sometimes spreading. You can gene- 
rally tell a sound dog by his compact feet. 

9. Body. — Should be long and muscular, the 
chest very oval, rather than very narrow and 
deep, to allow ample room for heart and lungs, 
hanging low between front legs, the brisket point 
should be high and very prominent, the ribs 
well sprung out towards the loins (not flat-sided). 
Loins short and strong. The line of back only 
slightly depressed behind shoulders and only 
slightly arched over loins. The hindquarters 



It is well known to exhibitors of Dachshunds 
that puppies which develop quickly and get well- 
crooked legs at an early age invariably go un- 
sound when they begin to " furnish up " in body 
— that is, when the weight of the body increases. 
If the shoulders are not of the correct formation 
an undue strain is thrown fonvard on to the 
front legs, causing them to knuckle over or turn 
out at the elbows. 

-\n idea exists only too widely that, however un- 
sound a bitch may be, she will " do for breeding 
from," and her puppies will come sound if the 
sire is sound. This is a delusion. Some may be 
sound, but will have inherited a defect which 
will soon crop up again in their descendants. 
.\lways breed from your soundest bitches, which 
may or may not be up to show form in other points, 
but which must have good understandings if you 
wish to establish a good sound strain. Of equal 
importance, at least, is it that the sire you use 
should also be sound, and what is quite as impor- 
tant, he should come from sound stock. All these 
things entail considerable trouble sometimes 
to ascertain, but haphazard breeding is fatal to 
ultimate success. 

8. Legs and Feet. — Fore-legs very short and 

should not be higher than the shoulders, thus 
gi\-ing a general appearance of levelness. 

A very marked arch over loins is a fault, and 
so is a hollow back, and the latter denotes weak- 

10. Hindquarters. — The rump round, broad, 
and powerfully muscled ; hip bone not too short, 
but broad and sloping ; the upper arm, or thigh, 
thick, of good length, and jointed at right angles 
to the hip bone. The lower leg (or second thigh) 
is, compared with other animals, short, and is 
set on at right angles to the upper thigh, and 
is vexy firmly muscled. The hind legs are Ughter 
in bone than the front ones, but very strongly 
muscled, with well-rounded-out buttocks, and 
the knee joint well developed. Seen from behind, 
the legs should be wide apart and straight, and 
not cowhocked. 

As with the forequarters, a bad development, 
and straight, instead of sloping, position of the 
hip bone, affect the carriage of the hindquarters 
and make for weakness. 

The hind feet are smaller in bone than the 
forefeet, and narrower. 

The dog should not be higher at the quarters 
than at shoulder. 



11. Stem. — Set on fairly high, strong at root, 
and tapering, but not too long. Neither too 
much cur%-ed nor carried too high ; well, but not 
too much, feathered ; a bushy tail is better than 
too little hair. 

12. Coat and Skin. — Hair short and close as 
possible, glossy and smooth, but resistant to the 
touch if stroked the wrong way. The skin tough 
and elastic, but fitting close to the body. 

13. Colour. — One Coloured : — There are several 
self colours recognised, including deep red, yellow- 
ish red, smutty red. Of these the dark, or cherry, 
red is preferable, and in this colour light shadings 
on any part of the body or head are undesirable. 
" Black " is rare, and is only a sport from black 
and tan. 

Two Coloured : — Deep black, brown (liver) or 
grey, with golden or tan markings (spots) over the 
eyes at the side of the jaw and lips, inner rim 
of ears, the breast, inside and back of legs, the 
feet, and under the tail for about one-third of 
its length. In the above-mentioned colours 
wliite markings are objectionable. The utmost 
that is allowed being a small spot, or a few hairs, 
on the chest. 

Dappled : — A silver grey to almost white 
foundation colour, with dark, irregular spots 
(small for preference) of dark grey, brown, tan, 
or black. The general appearance should be 
a bright, indefinite coloration, which is con- 
sidered especially useful in a hunting dog. 

Very little attention has been paid to breed- 
ing for colour in this country, and the subject is 
not understood ; but in Germany, where the 
Dachshund is classified at shows by colour as well 
as by weight, the breeding for colour has been 
brought to a fine art, and certainly, though a 
good dog, like a good horse, is never of a bad 
colour, it is good to look upon perfection of colour 
as well as other points. Very elaborate advice is 
laid down in Germany for the guidance of breeders 
in keeping the colours pure, and some of the colours 
have special clubs to promote the breeding. 

Speaking generally, on this very large subject, 
it may be noted as an axiom that light eyes, red 
noses, and pale colours are produced by the 
too close breeding of red to red. Brown, or liver, 
dogs bred to red produce flesh-coloured noses 
and false colours — as, for instance, the pale 
" chocolate " and tan — and more use should be 
made of the black and tan to obtain the desirable 
black nose, eye, and rich colour, whether red or 

The original colour of the Dachshund was 
black and tan, and it is the most prominent still 
on the Continent, but iii this country it has been 
neglected for many years, and \\ith a deplorable 
result as tar as colour goes. 

14. Weight. — Dachshunds in Germany are 
classilicii by weight as follows : — Light-weight — 
Dogs up to I OS lb., bitches up to 15I- lb. Middle- 
weight — Dogs up to 22 lb., bitches up to 22 lb. 
Heavv-weight — Over 22 lb. Toys- Up to 12 lb. 
The German pound is one-tenth more than the 
English. The light-weight dog is most used for 
going to ground. 

For the purpose of showing the comparative 
values of the " points," as set forth in the fore- 
going standard, I add the following table of 
values. The German club does not give this. 

General appearance 


Head and skull 






J aw 






Legs and feet 


Body . 




Stern . 


Coat and skin 


Colour . 


Total . 


At tlie time of writing there are three 
speciahst chibs to foster the breeding of 
true type Dachshunds in the United King- 
dom. Of these one is Scottish and two are 
Enghsh. The Enghsh clubs are " The 
Dachshund Club " (Hon. Sec, Capt. Barry, 
12, Queen's Gate Terrace, London, S.\\ .) 
and " The Northern Dachshund Asso- 
ciation " (Hon. Sec, T. A. Lever, Esq., 
Greville Lodge, Dickenson Road, Rusholme, 
near Manchester). The honorary secre- 
taries of either club will furnish all in- 
formation relative to membership. " The 
Scottish Dachshund Club" has for its 
honorarv secretary Mr. A. Tod, 5, St. 
Andrew Street, Edinburgh. 




" Ay, see the hounds with frantic zeal 

The roots and earth tiptear ; 
Bui the earth is strong, and the roots are long. 

They cannot enter there. 
Outspeaks the Squire, ' Give room, I pray. 

And hie the terriers in ; 
The warriors of the fight are they, 

And every fight they win.' " 

— RlXG-OlZEL. 

THERE can hardly have been a time 
since the period of the Norman Con- 
quest when the small earth dogs 
which we now call terriers were not known 
in these islands and used by sporting men 
as assistants in the chase, and by husband- 
men for the killing of obnoxious vermin. 
The two little dogs shown in the Bayeux 
tapestry running with the hounds in ad- 
vance of King Harold's hawking party were 
probably meant for terriers. Dame Juliana 
Bemers in the fifteenth century did not 
neglect to include the " Teroures " in her 
catalogue of sporting dogs, and a hundred 
years later Dr. Caius gave pointed recognition 
to their value in unearthing the fo.x and 
drawing the badger. 

" Another sorte there is," wrote the 
doctor's translator in 1576, " which hunteth 
the Fox and the Badger or Greye onely, 
whom we call Terrars, because they (after 
the manner and custome of ferrets in search- 
ing for Connyes) creep into the grounde, 
and by that meanes make afrayde, nyppe 
and bite the Foxe and the Badger in such 
sorte that eyther they teare them in pieces 
with theyr teeth, beying in the bosome of 
the earth, or else hayle and pull them per- 
force out of theyr lurking angles, darke 

dongeons, and close caues ; or at the least 
through cocened feare drive them out of 
theire hollow harbours, in so much that they 
are compelled to prepare speedie flyte, and, 
being desirous of the next (albeit not the 
safest) refuge, are otherwise taken and in- 
trapped with snayres and nettes layde over 
holes to the same purpose. But these be 
the .least in that k3mde called Sagax." 

The colour, size, and shape of the original 
terriers are not indicated by the early writers, 
and art supplies but vague and uncertain 
evidence. Nicholas Cox, who wrote of sport- 
ing dogs in " The Gentleman's Recreation "' 
(1667), seems to suggest that the type of 
working terrier was already fixed sufficiently 
to be divided into two kinds, the one 
having shaggy coats and straight limbs, the 
other smooth coats and short bent legs. 
Yet some years later another authority — 
Blome — in the same publication was more 
guarded in his statements as to the terrier 
type when he wrote : " Everybody that is 
a fox hunter is of opinion that he hath a 
good breed, and some will say that the 
terrier is a peculiar species of itself. I 
wiU not say anything to the affirmative or 
negative of the point." 

Searching for evidence on the subject. 



one finds that perhaps the earliest references 
to the colours of terriers were made by 
Daniel in his " Field Sports " at the end of 
the eighteenth century, when he described 
two sorts, the one rough, short-legged, and 
long - backed, very strong, and " most 
commonly of a black or yellowish colour, 
mLxed with white" — evidently a hound- 
marked dog ; and another smooth-coated 
and beautifully formed, with a shorter 
body and more sprightly appearance, 
" generally of a reddish brown colour, or 
black with tanned legs." 

Gilpin's portrait of Colonel Thornton's 
celebrated Pitch, painted in 1790, presents a 
terrier having a smooth white coat with a 
black patch at the set-on of the undocked 
tail, and black markings on the face and 
ears. The dog's head is badly drawn and 
small in proportion ; but the body and 
legs and colouring would hardly disgrace 
the Totteridge kennels of to-day. Fox- 
terriers of a noted strain were depicted 
from life by Reinagle in the picture here re- 
produced from " The Sportsman's Cabinet," 
published over a hundred years ago. But 
for his cropped ears, the white dog in the 
centre might not be overlooked in the 
modern show ring, so clearly is he of the 
accepted wire-hair Fox-terrier type. 

In the text accompanying the engraving 
a minute account is given of the peculiarities 
and working capacities of the terrier. We 
are told that there were two breeds : the 
one wire-haired, larger, more powerful, 
and harder bitten ; the other smooth-haired 
and smaller, with more style. The wire- 
hairs were white with spots, the smooths 
were black and tan, the tan apparently 
predominating over the black. The same 
writer states that it was customary to 
take out a brace of terriers with a pack of 
hounds, a larger and a smaller one, the 
smaller dog being used in emergency when 
the earth proved to be too narrow to admit 
his bigger companion. It is well known 
that many of the old fox hunters have 
kept their special breeds of terrier, and 
the Belvoir, the Grove, and Lord Middle- 
ton's are among the packs to which par- 
ticular terrier strains have been attached. 

That even a hundred years ago terriers 
were bred with care, and that certain 
strains were held in especial value, is shown 
by the recorded fact that a litter of seven 
puppies was sold for twenty-one guineas — 
a good price even in these daj^s — and that 
on one occasion so high a sum as twenty 
guineas was paid for a full-grown dog. At 
that time there was no definite and well- 
established breed recognised throughout the 
islands by a specific name ; the embracing 
title of " Terrier " included all the varieties 
which have sincebeen carefully differentiated. 
But very many of the breeds existed in their 
respective localities awaiting national re- 
cognition. Here and there some squire or 
huntsman nurtured a particular strain and 
developed a type which he kept pure, and 
at many a manor-house and farmstead in 
Devonshire and Cumberland, on many a 
Highland estate and Irish riverside where 
there were foxes to be hunted or otters to be 
killed, terriers of definite strain were re- 
ligiously cherished. Several of these still 
survive, and are as respectable in descent 
and quite as important historically as some 
of the favoured and fashionable champions 
of our time. They do not perhaps possess 
the outward beauty and distinction of type 
which would justify their being brought 
into general notice, but as workers they 
retain all the fire and verve that are required 
in dogs that are expected to encounter such 
vicious vermin as the badger and the fox. 

Some of the breeds of terriers seen nowa- 
days in e\-ery dog show were equally obscure 
and unknown a few years back. Thirty-five 
years ago the now popular Irish Terrier 
was practically unknown in England, and 
the Scottish Terrier was only beginning to 
be recognised as a distinct breed. The Welsh 
Terrier is quite a new introduction that a 
dozen years ago was seldom seen outside 
the Principality ; and so recently as 1881 
the Airedale was merely a local dog known 
in Yorkshire as the Waterside or the Bingley 
Terrier. Yet the breeds just mentioned are 
all of unimpeachable ancestry, and the 
circumstance that they were formerly bred 
within limited neighbourhoods is in itself 
an argument in favour of their purity. 



We have seen the process of a sudden leap 
into recognition enacted during the past 
few years in connection with the white 
terrier of the Western Highlands — a dog 
which was familiarly known in Argyllshire 
centuries ago, yet which has only lately 
emerged from the heathery hillsides around 
PoltaUoch to become an attraction on the 
benches at the Crystal Palace and on the 
lawns of the Botanical Gardens ; and the 
example suggests the possibilit}' that in 

won for the English terriers their name 
and fame. 

Of the old-fashioned sort was Boxer, 
concerning whom Mr. George Lowe writes : — 

" I possessed many years ago some very 
good working rough terriers, and had pretty 
weU the run of a forest and marshes to kill 
what I liked, bar the game. On one occasion 
I was hunting a stream for water-rats or what- 
not, when my companion, a very old friend, 
exclaimed : ' Look out ! Boxer's got a rat ! ' 


From "The S^ortinMii's Cabintf {ISOS). ISy I'- Rdnagic, RA. 

another decade or so the neglected Sealy 
Ham Terrier, the ignored terrier of the 
Borders, and the almost forgotten Jack 
Russell strain, may have claimed a due 
recompense for their long neglect. 

There are lovers of the hard-bitten work- 
ing " earth dogs " who stiU keep these 
strains inviolate, and who greatly prefer 
them to the better-known terriers whose 
natural activities have been too often atro- 
phied by a system of artificial breeding to 
show points. Few of these old unregistered 
breeds would attract the eye of the fancier 
accustomed to judge a dog parading before 
him in the show ring. To know their value 
and to appreciate their sterling good qualities, 
one needs to watch them at work on badger 
or when they hit upon the line of an otter. 
It is then that they display the alertness 
and the dare-devil courage which have 

But I saw in a moment that it was something 
more important. The little dog was frantic, 
threw his tongue — which was not his general 
custom — and raced under the hollow banks 
as if something was on foot. I said that it 
was a pole-cat, as we had killed those animals 
in the vicinity before, but then Boxer took to 
crossing and re-crossing and swimming both 
up and down stream. I was puzzled — 
never dreamt of an otter being in the country. 
But early days in South Devon made me 
observe that if otters were about, I should 
swear that one was here. Well, a trail seemed 
to lie up-stream, the terrier flashing too much, 
over-running it, and coming back again, and 
so on for the best part of two miles. At that 
point Boxer struck across a meadow and got 
to some gutters, then another meadow. We 
let him do as he liked until coming to a clump 
or small plantation surrounded by water. 
Into this we threw him, and in a moment his 
small tongue was going, with all the sticks 


cracking like fire, and in less than a minute 
out came one of the finest otters I had ever 
seen in my hfe. He crossed to another plantmg 
before the terrier could get at him, and there, 
of course, we lost him. As it was four in the 
afternoon before we first found the trail and 
five o'clock when we found the otter, we calcu- 
lated that the trail was at least fourteen hours 
old. and yet Boxer could hunt him single- 

Boxer was a creamy white, rough-haired 
terrier, of the strain kept by the Rev. 
John Russell in Devonshire and distributed 
among privileged sportsmen about Somer- 
setshire and Gloucestershire. The working 
attributes of these energetic terriers have 
long been understood, and the smart, plucky 
little dogs have been constantly coveted by 
breeders all over the country, but they have 
never won the popularity they deserve. 

•• 1 have kept the Jack Russell type of 
terrier for nearly twenty years," says Mr. 
Reginald Bates, " and have used tliem for 
fox and badger digging. One of my uncles 
brought the strain with him from Gloucester- 
shire many years ago, and I have always kept 
a few of the same sort for work. I have found 
them very hardy game, and much more in- 
telligent, tractable, and easily broken than 
the modern show terrier, although I have 
used the latter as an out-cross at different 

•• Some breeders have shown a desire to breed 
them very small, bitches as low as 9 lb. or 
10 lb. in" weight. This, in my opinion, is a 
mistake, as they are too delicate and weedy 
for the rough work they meet with in badger 
digging. The best weight for a working terrier 
is, dogs 16 lb., bitches 14 lb. ; and they .should 
not stand more than 14 in. at the shoulder. 
At this weight I have had dogs that could go 
to ground well, and, moreover, stay there 
also for three or four hours without leaving 
the badger or fox. The working terrier should 
stand on short straight legs, have a thick skin, 
good, rough, weather-resisting coat, with a 
strong wide head, strong jaws, and— last but 
not least— a big heart in a Httle body. Such a 
terrier will provide many a good day's sport 
for his owner, and prove his worth in many 
ways. As regards colour, there is no doubt 
that a white dog is much the best, especially 
if for work with fox or otter hounds." 

The late Mr. H. P. Eart, of Kent, kept 
some very good Russell Terriers. A bitch 
that Mr. Bates had from him had a pedigree 
going back to the celebrated Fuss, belonging 
to Jack Russell. There also is — or was re- 
cently — a very good strain of these work- 
ing terriers kept in Yorkshire by the Messrs. 
Pease, who used them largely for fox and 
badger. They are also kept in nearly all 
sporting towns and villages in West Somer- 
set and Devonshire. 

In entering them for work, they should' 
be broken to ferrets and rats at about six 
months old. It is not advisable to use them 
for badger much under eighteen months, 
as they get such a mauling that they may 
be of no use afterwards, and then they 
should be worked wdth an old experienced 
dog. As a rule, they turn out game, keen 
and staunch, while for endurance they will 
run all through a long day's otter hunting 
and then walk home with their stems up. 

Those who ha\e kept both varieties 
prefer the Russell to the Sealy Ham Terrier, 
which is nevertheless an excellent worker. 
It is on record that one of these, a bitch 
of only 9 lb. weight, fought and killed, 
single-iianded, a full-grown dog-fox. The 
Sealy Ham derives its breed name from the 
seat of the Edw^rdes family, near Haver- 
fordwest, in Pembrokeshire, where the strain 
has been carefully preserved for well over 
a century. It is a long-bodied, short- 
legged terrier, with a hard, wiry coat, 
frequently whole white, but also white 
with black or brown markings or brown 
with black. The\- may be as heavy as 
17 lb., but 12 lb. is the average weight. 
Some years ago the breed seemed to be on 
the down grade, requiring fresh blood from 
a well-chosen out-cross. One hears very 
little concerning them nowadays, but it 
is certain that when in their prime they 
possessed all the grit, determination, and 
endurance that are looked for in a good 
working terrier. 

\ wire-haired black and tan terrier was 
once common m Suffolk and Norfolk, 
where it was much used for rabbiting, 
but it may now be extinct, or, if not extinct, 
probably identified with the Welsh Terrier, 



which it closely resembled in size and 
colouring. There was also in Shropshire 
a well-known breed of wire-hair terriers, 
black and tan, on very short legs, and 
weighing about 10 lb. or 12 lb., with long 
punishing heads and extraordinary working 
powers. So, too, in Lancashire and Cheshire 
one used to meet with sandy-coloured 
terriers of no very well authenticated strain, 
but closely resembling the present breed of 
Irish Terrier ; and Squire Thornton, at 
his place near Pickering, in Yorkshire, had 
a breed of wire-hairs tan in colour with a 
black stripe down the back. Then there is 
the Cowley strain, kept by the Cowleys of 
Callipers, near King's Langley. These are 
white wire-haired dogs marked like the 
Fox-terrier, and exceedingly game. Pos- 
sibly the Elter^vater Terrier, admired of Mr. 
Rawdon Lee, is no longer to be found, but 
some few of them still existed a dozen years 
ago in the Lake District, where they were 
used in conjunction with the West Cumber- 
land Otterhounds. They were not easily 
distinguishable from the better-known Border 
Terriers of which there are still many strains, 
ranging from Northumberland, where Mr. 
T. Robson, of Bellingham, has kept them 
for many years, to Galloway and Ayrshire 
and the Lothians, where their coats become 
longer and less crisp. 

There are many more local varieties of 
the working terrier, as, for example, the 
Rosen eath, which is often confused with 
the Poltalloch, or WTiite West Highlander, 
to whom it is possibly related. And the 
Pittenweem, with which the Poltalloch 
terriers are now b^ing crossed. And con- 

sidering the great number of strains that 
have been preserved by sporting families 
and maintained in more or less purity to 
type, it is easy to miderstand how a " new " 
breed may become fashionable, and still 
claim the honour of long descent. They may 
not in all cases have the beauty of shape 
which is desired on the show bench ; but 
it is well to remember that while our show 
terriers have been bred to the highest per- 
fection we still possess in Great Britain a 
separate order of " earth dogs " that for 
pluckily following the fox and the badger 
into their lairs or bolting an otter from his 
holt cannot be excelled all the world over. 

The terriers may be differentiated into 
three groups — smooth-coated, broken-haired, 
and long-haired, and this grouping is adopted 
in the sequence of the following chapters thus: 

1. Smooth-co.\ted Terriers — 

The ^^■hite English. 
Black and tan. 
Bull Terrier. 
Boston Terrier. 
Smooth Fox-terrier. 

2. Brokex-h.\ired Terriers :- 

Wire-haired Fox-terrier. 






West Highland \Miite. 

Dandie Dinmont. 

3. Loxg-h.-^ired Terriers : — 




MR. G S. LOWES BOXER (1872). 




' From many a day-drccun has thy short quick hark 
Recalled my wandering soul. I have beguiled 
Often the melancholy hours at school. 
Soured by some little tyrant, with the thought 
Of distant home, and I remembered then 
Thy faithful fondness : for not mean the joy, 
Returning at the pleasant holidays, 
I felt from thv dumb welcome." 


THIS dog, one would think, ought, by 
the dignified title which he bears, to be 
considered a representative national 
terrier, forming a fourth in the distinctively 
British quartette whose other members are 
the Scottish, the Irish, and the Welsh 
Terriers. Possibly in the early days when 
Pearson and Roocroft bred him to perfection 
it was hoped and intended that he should 
become a breed typical of England. He is 
still the only terrier who owns the national 
name, but he has long ago yielded pride of 
place to the Fox-terrier, and it is the case 
that the best specimens of his race are bred 
north of the border, while, instead of being 
the most popular dog in the land, he is 
actually one of the most neglected and the 
most seldom seen. At the last Kennel Club 
show (1906) there was not a single specimen 
of the breed on view, nor was one to be 
found at the more recent shows at Edinburgh, 
Birmingham, Manchester, or Islington, nor 
at the National Terrier Show at Westminster. 
It is a pity that so smart and beautiful a 
dog should be suffered to fall into such 
absolute neglect. One wonders what the 
reason of it can be. Possibly it is that the 
belief still prevails that he is of delicate 
constitution, and is not gifted with a great 
amount of intelligence or sagacity ; more 
probably the reason is to be sought in the 
circumstance that there is now no club 
sufficiently enterprising to devote itself 
energetically to the welfare of the breed. 
There is no doubt, however, that a more 

potent factor than any of these in hastening 
the decline is to be found in the edict 
against cropping. Neither the White Terrier 
nor the Manchester Terrier has since been 
anything like so popular as they both were 
before April, 1898, when the Kennel Club 
passed the law that dogs' ears must not 
be cropped. 

Writers on canine history, and Mr. 
Rawdon Lee among the number, tell us 
that the English White Terrier is a com- 
paratively new breed, and that there is no 
evidence to show where he originally sprang 
from, who produced him, or for what reason 
he was introduced. His existence as a 
distinct breed is dated back no longer than 
forty years. This is about the accepted age 
of most of our named English terriers. 
Half a century ago, before the institution 
of properly organised dog shows drew 
particular attention to the differentiation 
of breeds, the generic term " terrier " 
without distinction was applied to all earth 
dogs, and the consideration of colour and size 
was the only common rule observed in 
breeding. But it would not be difficult to 
prove that a white terrier resembling the 
one now under notice existed in England 
as a separate variety many generations 
anterior to the period usually assigned to 
its recognition. 

In the National Portrait Gallery there is 
a portrait of Mary of Modena, Queen 
Consort of James II., painted in 1670 by 
William Wissing, who has introduced at 



the Queen's side a terrier that is undoubtedly 
of this t\'pe. The dog has slight brown or 
brindle markings on the back, as many 
English White Terriers have, and it is to 
be presumed that it is of the breed from 
which this variety is descended. 

Apart from colour there is not a great 
difference between the \Miite English Terrier 
and the Manchester Black-and-tan. But 
although they are of similar shape and 
partake much of the same general character, 
yet there is the distinction that in the black- 
and-tan the conservation of type is stronger 
and more noticeable than in the white, in 
which the correct shape and action arc- 
difficult to obtain. It ought naturalty to 
be easier to breed a pure white dog from 
white parents than to breed correctly 
marked and well tanned puppies from perfect 
black-and-tans ; but the efforts of many 
breeders do not seem to support such a 
theory in connection with the English 
Terrier, whose litters frequently show tlie 
blemish of a spot of brindle or russet. These 
spots usually appear behind the ears or on 
the neck, and are of course a disfigurement 
on a dog whose coat to be perfect should 
be of an intense and brilliant white. It 
appears to be equally difficult to breed om- 
which, while having the desired purity of 
colour, is also perfect in shape and terrier 
character. It is to be noted, too, that manj' 
otherwise good specimens are deaf — a fault 
which seriously militates against the dog's 
possibilities as a companion or as a watch. 
It is commonly believed that almost all 
animals artificially bred to whiteness are 
liable to this infirmity, and the alleged 
deafness of the English White Terrier 
would seem to indicate albinoism, con- 
genital weakness, and a natural lack of 

It is to be questioned, therefore, whether 
the fanciers of this breed were wholly wise 
in their objection to coloured markings. 
Forty years ago the coloured, parti-coloured, 
or even brindled English Terrier stood a 
good chance of taking a prize at the public 
shows at which they were exhibited in 
competition, and these are said to have been 
much hardier dogs than their descendants 

of the present day. Here we have an 
instance of the mistake so often made by 
breeders in striving to breed up to an artificial 
ideal. Idstone was of opinion that the 
coloured specimens rejected in favour of the 
pure white were decidedly the better dogs, 
and that it was these who formed the founda- 
tion of the breed now commonl}- received 
as the Fox-terrier. 


From the Painting bv W. WISSING, 1670. 
IN THE National Portrait Gallery. 
I'holonrliph by Emery Wa!kcr. 

Birmingham and Manchester were the 
localities in which the English Terrier was 
most popular forty years ago, but it was 
Mr. Frederick White, of Clapham, who 
bred all the best of the white variety and 
who made it popular in the neighbourhood 
of London. His terriers were of a strain 
founded by a dog named King Dick, and 
in 1863 he exhibited a notable team in 
Laddie, Fly, Teddie, and Nettle. Mr. S. E. 
Shirley, M.P., was attracted to the breed, 
and possessed many good examples, as also 
did the Rev. J. W. Mellor and Mr. J. H. 
Murchison. Mr. Alfred Benjamin's Silvio 
was a prominent dog in 1877. 

Silvio w'as bred by Mr. James Roocroft, 


of Bolton, who owned a large kennel of 
this variety of terrier, and who joined 
with his townsman, Joe Walker, and with 
Bill Pearson in raising the breed to popu- 
larity in Lancashire. Bill Pearson was 
the breeder of Tim, who was considered 
the best terrier of his time, a dog of 14 lb., 
with a briUiant white coat, the darkest of 
eyes, and a perfect black nose. Tim was 
the founder of Mr. Roocroft's kennel, and 
was the winner of some sixty first prizes 
and championships. Concerning his early 
recollections of the breed Mr. Roocroft wrote 
hi 1880 :— 

" The first good one I remember appeared. 
I believe, at the first Belle Vue show, 
ilanchester. She was a deaf bitch, but her 
origin I know nothing about. This was 
about sixteen years since (1863). The follow- 
ing year brought out the champion Tim, 
then shown by old Bill Pearson, which 
some time afterwards came into my posses- 
sion, and from this dog I produced the 
strain that 1 have been so very successful 

up in Manchester, and whicli showed in a 
marked manner a cross of the Snap-dog 
breed, and vou remember all his strain 

photograph by Iligndl ami Son, Loitock. 

with since 1 first brought them out. I 
consider Tim was not only the first champion 
specimen, but the best terrier we ever had, 
and was really the foundation of good 
terriers. Among others Tim was sire to 
Swindell's Gem, out of a bitch he picked 

Photograph hy C. Kcid. Wishaa. 

showed the same, more or less. Tim 
was the best terrier I ever saw." 

It IS apparent that the Whippet was 
largely used as a cross with the Eng- 
lish Terrier, which may account to a 
great extent for the decline of terrier 
character in the breed. Wiser breeders 
had recourse to the more closely allied 
Bull-terrier ; Mr. Shirley's prize win- 
ning Purity was by Tim out of a 
Buil- terrier bitch, and there is no 
doubt that whatever stamina remains 
in the breed has been supported by 
this cross. 

Many of the best of our White Ter- 
riers are kennelled in Scotland, and 
Mr. W. Ballantyne, of Edinburgh, has 
been particularly successful as a breeder 
and exhibitor. His Ch. Queen was 
famous as a prize winner some little 
time ago, and his Ch. Morning Star 
has never been excelled for the qualities 
most approved and most earnestly sought 
for in the breed. Silver Blaze and Rising 
Star are others of his terriers especially 
noteworthy. Mr. John E. Walsh, of Halifax, 
the founder of the White English Terrier 



Club, has also done much for the success 
of the breed, and his Lady of the Lake, 
Lady Superior, Hereward, and the Premier, 
were famous in their generation. Among 
more recent dogs ilr. R. Harrison's Ranjit- 
sinhji takes a prominent place in the 
esteem of those who still look to the crop 
eared dog for style. 

The following is the description laid down 
by the \Miite English Terrier Club : 

1. Head. — Xarrow, long and level, almost flat 
skull, without cheek muscles, wedge-shaped, well 
filled up under the eyes, tapering to the nose, and 
not lippy. 

2. Eyes. — Small and black, set fairly close 
together, and oblong in shape. 

3. Nose. — Perfectly black. 

4. Ears. — Cropped and standing perfectly erect. 

5. Neck and Shoulders. — The neck should be 
fairly long and tapering from the shoulders to the 

head, \%-ith sloping shoulders, the neck being free 
from throatiness, and slightly arched at the occiput. 

6. Chest. — Xarrow and deep. 

7. Body. — Short and cur\'ing upwards at the 
loins, sprung out behind the shoulders, back slightly 
arched at loins, and falling again at the joining of 
the tail to the same height as the shoulders. 

8. Legs. — Perfectly straight and well under the 
body, moderate in bone, and of proportionate 

9. Feat. — Feet nicely arched, with toes set well 
together, and more inclined to be round than 

ID. Tail. — Moderate length, and set on where 
the arch of the back ends, thick where it joins the 
body, tapering to a point, and not carried higher 
than the back. 

11. Coat. — Close, hard, short, and glossy. 

12. Colour. — Pure white, coloured marking to 

13. Condition. — Flesh and muscles to be hard 
and firm. 

14. Weight. — From 12 lb. to 20 lb. 

R. L. 







' Calm though not mean, courageous without rage, 
Serious not dull, and without thinking sage ; 
Pleased at the lot that Nature hath assigned. 
Snarl as I list, and freely bark my mind ; 
As churchman wrangle not with jarring spite, 
Nor statesmanlike caressing whom I bite ; 
View all the canine kind with equal eyes. 

'''I'^HE Black - and - tan. or Manchester, 
I Terrier as we know him to-day is a 
comparatively new \'ariety, and he 
is not to be confounded with the original 
terrier with tan and black colouring which 
was referred to by Dr. Caius in the si.x- 
teenth century, and which was at that time 
used for going to ground and driving out 
badgers and foxes : 

" Another sort there is that hunteth the 
fox and the badger only, whom W(> call 
Terrars," wrote the Doctor's transhitor. 
"They (after the manner and custom of 
ferrets in searching for coneys) creep into 
the ground, and by that means make afraid, 
nip and bite the fox and the badger in such 
sort that either they tear them in pieces 
with their teeth being in the earth, or else 
hail and pull them perforce out of their 
lurking angles, dark dungeons, and close 
caves, or, at least, through conceived fear, 
drive them out of their hollow harbours, 
inasmuch as they are compelled to prepare 
speedy flight, and being desirous of the 
next (albeit not the safest) refuge are other- 
wise taken and entrapped with snares and 
nets laid on holes to the same purpose. But 
these be the least in that kind called Sagax." 

Formerly there was but little regard 
paid to colour and markings, and there 
was a considerably greater proportion of 
tan in the coat than there is at the present 
day, while the fancy markings, such as 
pencilled toes, thumb-marks, and kissing 
spots were not cultivated. The general 

/ di'Ciid no mastiff, and no cur despise. 
True from the first, and faithful to the end, 
I balk no mistress, and forsake no friend. 
My days and nights one equal tenour keep. 
Fast but to eat, and only wake to sleep. 
Thus stealing along life I live incog., 
A very plain and downright honest dog." 

William Hamilton (of Bangour). 

outline of the dog, too, was less graceful 
and altogether coarser. A fair idea of 
what the ancient Black-and-tan Terrier was 
like may be gathered from the accompany- 
ing woodcut, where the dogs appear not 
only of a \-ery different colour, but also far 
heavier in build, as well as thicker in tlu- 
head, than would now be tolerated. 

During the first half of the nineteenth 
century the chief accomplishment of this 
terrier was rat-killing. There are some ex- 
traordinary accounts of his adroitness, as 
well as courage, in destroying these vermin. 
The feats of a dog called Billy are recorded. 
He was matched to destroy one hundred 
large rats in eight minutes and a half. 
The rats were brought into the ring in bags, 
and as soon as the number was complete 
Billy was j)ut o\-er the railing into their 
midst. In six minutes and thirty-five 
seconds they were all destroyed. In another 
match he killed the same number in six 
minutes and thirteen seconds. At length, 
when he was getting old and had but two 
teeth and one eye left, a wager was laid of 
thirty sovereigns by the owner of a Berk- 
shire bitch that she would kill fifty rats in 
less time than Billy. The old dog killed his 
fifty in five minutes and six seconds. The 
pit was then cleared and the bitch let in. 
When she had killed thirty rats she was 
completely exhausted, fell into a fit, and lay 
barking and yelping, utterty incapable of 
completing her task. 

It was a popular terrier in Lancashire, 



aucl it was in this county that the refining 
process in his shape and colouring was prac- 
tised, and where he came by the name of 
the Manchester terrier. The method by 
which he was transformed into the hand- 
some Black-and-tan is not difficult to trace, 
as several of the men who took part in the 
process are stiU living. 

Rat-killing was a favourite pursuit in the 

idea was also taken up by W. Pearson, of the 
same place, and, as the result was very 
satisfactory from a utilitarian point of 
view, many others in the neighbourhood of 
Manchester followed suit, a few of the more 
notable being Jos. Kaj^ Henry Lacy, 
M. Openshaw, C. Harhng, J. Barrow, W. 
Fielding, Josh Fielding, W. Fletcher, J. 
Fletcher, Joe Walker, S. Handley, Robt. 


Manchester district, the old-fashioned terrier 
being used to hunt the rivers and water- 
courses where the rodents were to be found 
in plenty. Rat-pits were also very much in 
vogue, one of the principal rendezvous being 
a room in " The Three Tuns" public-house, 
in Chapel Street, Bolton, then kept by old 
Joe Orrell, quite a character in his way and 
an enthusiastic lover of the sport. 

One of the most famous dogs, by reason 
of his winning so many matches, was a 
cross-bred terrier, dark brown in colour ; 
and, as rabbit-coursing was also freely 
indulged in by the same school, the idea 
occurred to one John Hulme, who lived at 
Crumpsall, to produce a dog which would 
suit both purposes ; hence it was that he 
bred from this terrier and a Whippet. The 

Lee (Bolton), T. Swinbum, Joe Holt, and a 
few others who earned the sobriquet of 
" The Manchester School." It was from 
their joint efforts that the variety became 
known as the Manchester terrier, and was 
gradually brought to a state of perfection 
in colour, markings, and type. ^lost of these 
worthies have joined the great majority, but 
Mr. Swinbum, Mr. Holt, and Mr. Lee — the 
last-named, by the way, is now the oldest dog 
fancier in the country — still survive. 

In those days very few dog shows were 
promoted, the majority of them being held 
in public-houses, and, of course, the indi- 
viduals before mentioned took an active 
interest in them ; wherefore it follows that 
classes for these terriers were introduced, 
and very shortly many other adherents 



who afterwards gained fame, joined the 
ranks of exhibitors. Of these several 
became prominent judges, notably J. Bar- 
row and J. Taylor, while the successful 
prize-winners were J. Allen's Cnpid, 'Sir. 
Justice's Vixen, Viper, and Victor, Mr. J. 
Key's Topsy and Virago. Then Mr. John 
Tatham introduced his two Jerrys, and a 
little later Mr. J. H. Mather got together a 
very formidable team, the nucleus of which 
was obtained from Mr. Justice. 

It is not generally known that the eminent 
Fox-terrier expert, Mr. Robert Vicary, is 
also a very old admirer of the breed under 
notice. He judged them at important shows 
long years ago, and has still an affection for 

Coming to a later epoch, we find Mr. T. 
Ellis, of Cheetham Hill, introduced to the 
fancy, and he very soon made his presence 
felt by his success, eventually attaining 
a very high position, for his Ch. Pearl 
was practically invincible. At all events, 
she won during her career something like 150 
first jirizes and a large number of cups and 
other trophies. Mr. Ellis has also the dis- 
tinction of having been represented by the 
largest number of entries ever made at a 
show bv one owner or firm, for on two (Occa- 
sions when the Aquarium Terrier Shows 
were jjromoted he sent m twenty entries, 
completely ousting all his ri\als by securing 
all the principal prizes as well as the one 
for the best team of any variety. Turk 
was another celebrity owned by him. 

Colonel C. S. Dean afterwards came into 
possession of Ch. Pearl, he having established 
at Bebbington the largest and most complete 
kennels ever devoted to the breed, from 
wliich emanated many champions, notable 
amongst which were Starkie Ben — picked up 
cheaply after he had made a successful 
appearance at a small show which took 
place at Earn worth, near Bolton — Benham 
Daisy, Benham Beauty, and others who 
did credit to that prefix. Mr. J. Howarth, 
of Manchester, also made his mark ; one of 
his dogs, Strangeways General, being not 
only a big winner but a noted sire. ^Ir. T. 
W'halley, ex-chairman of the Kennel Club 
Council of Representatives, Mr. Tweed, 

and Mr. H. Monk have been amongst the 
most successful exhibitors in the south, 
but ioT some occult reason the breed has 
ne\-er become so popular there as it is in 
tlie north ; the neighbourhood of Bolton, 
in particular, is noted as a breeding centre. 
No one, however, has been quite so suc- 
cessful in recent years as regards the number 
of prizes won as Mr. W. Barlow, of Red- 
cliffe, and Ins brother James, of Farnworth, 
for between them they have bred more noted 
winners than anyone else, such names as 
Prince Imperial, Beaconsfield, Marvel, and 
Brilliant Star, being familiar through the 
frequency of their appearance in the prize- 
lists. The first mentioned is also the 
progenitor of nearly all our biggest winners 
at the present time, for his alhance with old 
Queen and Beauty, two of his kennel mates, 
has resulted in a greater certainty of the 
production of long, clean heads, with correct 
colour and markings, where formerly wide 
skulls and smutty colouring were the all too 
common whims of fortune, which had, per- 
force, to be endured by the majority of 
breeders. We must not omit to mention 
the late :\Ir. Brereton Lathom, of Eccles, 
whose efforts to revive public interest in the 
breed at a time when it had reached the 
lowest ebb will always be acknowledged. 
He also owned several good specimens, 
tlie best being probably Sir Alfred, amongst 
whose many victories may be cited that 
at one of the earlier Manchester Dog Shows, 
where he carried off the cup. Nor would 
this chajiter be anything hke complete 
if mention were not made of Mr. J. J. 
Johnson, of Manchester, an old and faithful 
friend of the breed, and one of the most 
respected judges of to-day. 

There are many \\'ho hold the opinion 
that one of the chief reasons for the deca- 
dence m the popularity of the Black-and-tan 
terrier, notwithstanding its many claims 
to favour, is to be found in the loss of that 
VL'vy alert appearance which was a general 
characteristic before the Kennel Club made 
it illegal to crop the ears of such as were 
intended for exhibition. It must be admitted 
tliat until very recently there was a con- 
siderable amount of truth in the prevalent 



opinion, inasmuch as a rather hea^•y ear, if 
carried pretty erect, was the best material 
to work upon, and from which to produce 
the long, line, and upright, or " pricked " 
effect which was looked upon as being the 
correct thing in a cropped dog ; hence it 
followed that no care was taken to select 
breeding stock likely to produce the small, 
semi-erect, well-carried, and thin ears re- 
quired to-day, consequent!}- when the edict 
forbidding the use of scissors came 
into force there were very few small- 
eared dogs to be found. It has taken 
at least ten or a dozen years to eradi- 
cate the mischief, and even j'et the 
cure is not complete, although the 
difficulty has, to a great extent, been 
overcome, for the majority of the ex- 
hibits at the principal shows are as 
nearly correct as may reasonably be 
expected. Still, prejudice will pre- 
vail, and it would be futile to indulge 
the hope of any immediate prospect 
of greater partialit}' being shown to 
the breed by those who are unde- 
cided as to what variety is most 
suitable to start with in the exhi- 
bition world. 

Another factor which has had a 
bad effect is the belief, which has be- 
come much too prevalent, that a great deal 
of " faking " has been practised in the past, 
and that it has been so cleverly performed as 
to deceive the most observant judge, whereby 
a ver}' artificial standard of qualitv has 
been obtained. Worse still, it is thought to 
be almost impossible to win the best prizes 
even now without adopting unfair means 
in the preparation of these dogs for show ; 
and this notwithstanding the stringency 
of the Kennel Club regulations now in force. 
As a matter of fact, this prejudice is quite 
unreasonable ; no dogs are more easily 
kept in proper condition ; besides, their 
dark colour does not show dirt, hence 
washing becomes almost unnecessary, a 
very great consideration where dogs are 
kept as companions or guards, but more 
so in the case of those who travel long 
distances for exhibition at shows. 
The breed is gaining ground in Scotland 

owing to the enterprise of the club which 
exists and fosters it north of the Tweed, but 
the original Black-and-tan Terrier Club, 
which has its headquarters and holds all 
its annual meetings in London, does not 
appear to exert itself much in the direction 
which would place it in a position of greater 
influence, and bring sufficient funds into 
its exchequer, from which more shows 
could be supported, and the prosperity of 

Photograph hy Hignett ami Son, Lostock. 

tlie breed ensured. This is in some measure 
probabl}' to be accounted for by the fact 
that most of the members who can attend 
the meetings are principally interested in the 
Toy variety (which are separately dealt 
with in another chapter) ; at all events, 
it has only been on very rare occasions 
during the last two years that the club 
has granted special prizes, much less 
guaranteed classes, at any shows, for 
Black-and-tan terriers proper. 

The standard of points by which the 
breed should be judged as laid down by the 
club is as follows : 

1. General Appearance. — A terrier calculated to 
take his own part in the rat pit, and not of the 
Whippet type. 

2. Head. — The head should be long, flat, and 
narrow, level and wedge-shaped, without showing 
cheek muscles ; well filled up under the eyes, with 
tapering, tightly-lipped jaws and level teeth. 



3. Eyes. — The eyes should be very small, spark- 
ling, and bright, set fairly close together and ob- 
long in shape. 

4. Nose. — Black. 

5. Ears. — The correct carriage of ears is a de- 
batable point since cropping has been abolished. 
Probably in the large breed the drop ear is correct, 
but for Toys either erect or semi-erect carriage 
of the ear is most desirable. 

6. Neck and Shoulders. — The neck should be 
fairly long and tapering from the shoulders to 
the head, with sloping shoulders, the neck being 
free from throatincss and slightly arched at the 

7. Chest. — The chest should be narrow but 

8. Body. — The body should be moderately short 
and curving upwards at the loin ; ribs well sprung, 
back slightly arched at the loin and falling again 
at the joining of the tail to the same height as the 

9. Feet. — The feet should be more inclined to be 
cat- than hare-footed. 

10. Tail. — The tail should be of moderate length 
and set on where the arch of the back ends . 

thick where it joins the body, tapering to a point, 
and not carried higher than the back. 

11. Coat. — The coat should be close, smooth, 
short and glossy. 

12. Colour. — The coat should be jet black and 
rich mahogany tan, distributed over the body as 
follows : On the head the muzzle is tanned to 
the nose, which with the nasal bone is jet black. 
There is also a bright spot on each cheek and above 
each eye ; the under jaw and throat are tanned, 
and the hair inside the ears is the same colour ; 
the forelegs tanned up to the knee, with black 
lines (pencil marks) up each toe, and a black mark 
(thumb-mark) above the foot ; inside the hind- 
legs tanned, but divided with black at the hock 
joints ; and under the tail also tanned ; and so 
is the vent, but only sufficiently to be easily covered 
by the tail ; also slightly tanned on each side of 
the chest. Tan outside the hind legs — commonly 
called breaching — is a serious defect. In all 
cases the black should not run into the tan, nor 
vice -versa . but the division between the two colours 
sliould be well defined. 

13. Weight. — For toys not exceeding 7 lb. ; for 
the large breed from 10 to 20 lb. is most desirable. 






'Nor was he of the thievish sort. 
Or one ■whom blood allures, 

But innocent was all his sport 
Whom you have torn for yours. 

THE BuU-terrier is now a gentlemanly 
and respectably owned dog, wearing 
an immaculate white coat and a bur- 
nished silver collar ; he has dealings with 
aristocracy, and is no longer contemned for 
keeping bad company. But a generation 
or two ago he was commonh' the associate 
of rogues and vagabonds, skulking at the 
heels of such members of society as Mr. 
\\'illiam Sikes, whom he accompanied at 
night on darksome business to keep watch 
outside while BiU was within, cracking the 
crib. The burglar and the bruiser usually- 
kept one or more of such dogs, and the com.- 
panionship was appropriate. Landseer took 
the BuU-terrier as the typical representa- 
tive of low life, as the antithesis of the 
patrician Deerhound, and painted him with 
bleared eye and swollen lips and a black- 
guardly scowl that repelled famiharity. 
In those days the dog's ears were closely 
cropped, not for the sake of embeUishment, 
but as a measure of protection against 
the fangs of his opponent in the pit when 
money was laid upon the result of a well- 
fought fight to the death. For fighting was 
the acknowledged vocation of his order, 
and he was bred and trained to the work. 
He knew something of rats, too, and many 
of his kind were famed in the land for their 
prowess in this direction. Jimmy Shaw's 
Jacko could finish off sixty rats in three 
minutes, and on one occasion made a record 
by killing a thousand in a trifle over an 
hour and a half. 

At one period in England, Bull-terriers 
were used in gladiatorial contests, being 
pitted against so formidable an antagonist 
as the lion, as they were at Warsvick in 

My dog/ what remedy remains. 

Since, teach you all I can, 
I see you, after all my pains. 

So much resemble iiian?" 


1825. They were then heavier and more 
powerful dogs than are their artistically 
bred descendants. Fifty-five pounds was 
not an uncommon weight. One might 


almost suppose that they had an infusion of 
Mastiff blood in their veins. Their colour, 
too, was not necessarily white. Brindle and 
fawn frequently occurred, and many were 
black and tan ; but the larger number, 
next to pure brindle, were white with 
fallow m.arkings, similar in distribution to 
the colours seen at the present day in the 
Boston Terrier, who is a near relati^■e. 

The breed is sufficiently modern to leave 
no doubt as to its derivation. In the first 
quarter of the nineteenth century atten- 
tion was being directed to the improvement 
of terriers generally, and new t\^pes were 
sought for. They were alert, agile httle 
dogs, excellent for work in the country ; 
but the extravagant Corinthians of the 



time — the young gamesters who patronised 
the prize-ring and the cock-pit — desired to 
have a dog who should do something more 
than kiU rats, or unearth the fox, or boh 
the otter : which accomphshments afforded 
no amusement to the Town. They wanted 
a dog combining all the dash and gameness 
of the terrier with the heart and courage 
and fighting instinct of the Bulldog. Where- 
fore the terrier and the Bulldog were crossed. 




A large type of terrier was chosen, and this 
would be the smooth-coated black-and- 
tan, or the early English white terrier ; 
but probably both were used indifferently, 
and for a considerable period. The result 
gave the young bucks what they required : 
a dog that was at once a determined vermin 
killer and an intrepid fighter, upon whose 
skiU in the ]iit wagers might with confidence 
be laid. 

The animal, llowe^•er, was neither a true 
terrier nor a true Bulldog, but an un- 
compromising mongrel ; albeit he served 
his immediate purpose, and was highly 
valued for his pertinacity, if not for his ap- 
pearance. In 1806 Lord Camelford pos- 
sessed on*' for which he had paid the ^•cry 
high price of eighty-four guineas, and which 
he presented to Belcher, the pugilist. This 

dog was figured in The Sporting Magazine of 
the time. He was a short-legged, thick- 
set fawn-coloured specimen, with closely 
amj)utated cars, a broad blunt muzzle, and 
a considerable lay-back ; and this was the 
kind of dog which continued for many years 
to be known as the BuU-and-terrier. He 
was essentially a man's dog, and was vastly 
in favour among the undergraduates of 
Oxford and Cambridge. 

Gradually the Bulldog element, at first 
so pronounced, was reduced to something 
like a fourth degree, and, with the terrier 
character predominating, the head was 
sharpened, the limbs were lengthened and 
straightened until little remained of the 
Bulldog strain but the dauntless heart 
and the fearless fighting spirit, together 
with the frequent re\-ersion to brindle 
colouring, which was the last outward and 
visible characteristic to disappear. 

Within the remembrance of men not yet 
old the Bull-terrier was as much marked 
with fawn, brindle, or even black, as are the 
Fox-terriers of our own period. Bill Sikes' 
companion, who came to so imdignified an 
end, was a bandy-legged, coarse, and heavy 
creature with a black patch on his eye and 
one or two patches on his body. But fifty 
years or so ago white was becoming fre- 
quent, and was much admired. A strain 
of pure white was bred by James Hinks, a 
well-known dog-dealer of Birmingham, and 
it is no doubt to Hi:iks that we are indebted 
for the elegant Bull-terrier of the type that 
we know to-day. These Birmingham dogs 
showed a refinement and grace and an 
absence of the crook-legs and coloured 
patches which betrayed that Hinks had 
been using an out-cross with the Egnlish 
white terrier, thus getting away further 
still from the Bulldog. Many persons ob- 
jected that with the introduction of new 
blood he had eliminated the pugnacity 
which had been one of the most valued at- 
tributes of the breed. But the charge was 
not justified, and to prove that his strain 
had lost none of the cherished quality of 
belligerence Hinks backed his bitch Puss 
against one of the old bull-faced type for a 
five-pound note and a case of champagne. 



The fight took place at Tupper's in Long 
Acre, and in half an hour Puss had killed her 
opponent, her own injuries being so shght 
that she was able to appear the next morn- 
ing at a dog show and take a prize for her 
good looks and condition. 

Madman was another of Hinks's terriers, 
and the names of this pair were so persist- 
ently adopted by other owners for other 
dogs that it is impossible now to trace a 
pedigree back to the genuine originals. 
In the Kennel Club Stud Book for 1874 
there are a dozen Bull-terriers all named 

\\'ith the advent of the Hinks strain in 
1862 the short-faced dog fell into disrepute, 
and pure white became the accepted colour. 
There was a wide latitude in the matter 
of weight. If all other points were good, 
a dog might weigh anything between 10 
and 38 lb., but classes were usually divided 
for those above and those below 16 lb. 
The t}-pe became fixed, and it was ruled 
that the perfect Bull-terrier " must have 
a long head, wide between the ears, level 
jaws, a small black eye, a large black nose, 
a long neck, straight forelegs, a small hare 
foot, a narrow chest, deep brisket, powerful 
loin, long body, a tail set and carried low, 
a fine coat, and small ears well hung and 
dropping forward." 

Idstone, who WTote this description in 
1872, earnestly insisted that the ears of aU 
dogs should be left uncut and as Nature 
made them ; but for twenty years there- 
after the ears of the Bull-terrier continued 
to be cropped to a thin, erect point. The 
practice of cropping, it is true, was even 
then illegal and punishable by law, but, 
although there were occasional convictions 
under the Cruelty to Animals Act, the dog 
owners who admired the alertness and 
perkiness of the cut ear ignored the risk 
they ran, and it was not until the Kennel 
Club took resolute action against the prac- 
tice that cropping was entirely abandoned. 

The prompting cause of this decision was 
a prosecution at Worship Street police 
court early in 1895 against three offenders 
" for causing to be tortured and for actually 
torturing and ill-treating, by cutting its 

ears, a certain dog." The dog in question 
is beUeved to ha\-e been an Irish terrier, 
but whatever its breed the three defendants 
were each fined £5 and £2 2s. costs. The 
case was discussed at a meeting of the Kennel 
Club, and, although the members were not 
at first in fuU agreement, yet it was ulti- 
mateh' decided and a rule was formulated 
that " no dog bom after the 31st of ^larch, 
1895, should, if cropped, win a prize at any 
^how held under Kennel Club rules." 

The president of the Kennel Club, Mr. S. E. 
Shirley, M.P., had himself been a prominent 
owner and breeder of the BuU-terrier. His 
Xelson, bred b}' Joe WiUock, was celebrated 
as an excellent example of the small-sized 
terrier, at a time, however, when there were 
not a great many competitors of the high- 
est quaUty. His Dick, also, was a remark- 
abl}' good dog. Earlier specimens which 
have left their names in the history of the 
breed were Hinks's Old Dutch, who was, per- 
haps, even a more perfect terrier than the 
same breeder's Madman and Puss ; Alfred 
George's Spring, G. Smith's Young Puss, 
Tredennick's Bertie, and R. J. Hartley's 
Magnet and Violet, who are said to have 
been a magnificent pair. Godfree's Young 
Victor, although disfigured by a patch over 
his eye, was famous for his perfection of 
shape and his success as a sire, and many 
of our recent champions have his name in 
their pedigrees. Sir \V. E. H. Vemey's 
Ch. Tarquin, a son of Young Victor, was 
the most distinguished BuU-terrier during 
the four years prior to 1878. He was 
a pure white dog, weighing 45 lb. His 
recorded measurements may be useful for 
the purpose of comparison with those 
of the terriers of the present day. They 
are : Nose to stop, 3! inches ; stop to occi- 
put, 5i inches ; length from occiput to 
root of tail, 3of inches ; girth of skuU, 18 
inches ; girth of muzzle, 12:^- inches ; girth 
of chest, 26^ inches ; girth of loins, 22 
inches ; girth of forearm, 6f inches ; girth 
of pastern, 4 inches ; hock to ground, 5 
inches ; height at shoulder, 18^ inches. 

Lancashire and Yorkshire have alwa\-s been 
noted for good BuU-terriers, and the best 
of the breed have usually been produced 



in tlie neighbourhoods of Leeds, Bradford, 
Manchester, Bolton, Liverpool, and Bir- 
mingham. At one time Londoners gave 
careful attention to the breed, stimulated 
thereto by the encouragement of Mr. Shir- 
ley and the success of Alfred George. 

Of recent years the Bull-terrier has not 
been a great favourite, and it has sadly 
deteriorated in type: but there are signs 
that the variety is again coming into repute. 




and within the past twelve months many 
admirable specimens — as nearly perfect, per- 
haps, as many that won honour in former 
generations — have been brought into prom- 
inence. Among dogs, for example, there 
are Mr. E. T. Pimm's Sweet Lavender, 
Dr. M. Amsler's MacGregor, Mr. Chris 
Houlker's His Highness, Mr. A. Haustein's 
Emporium King, and 'Sir. J. Haynes' 
Bloomsbury Young King. Among bitches 
there are Mrs. Kipping's Delphinium Wild 
and Desdemona, Mr. Hornby's Lady Sweet- 
heart, Mr. W. Mayor's Mill (drl, Mr. T. 
Gannaway's Charlwood Belle, Dr. J. \V. 
Low's Bess of Hardwirke, and Mrs. E. G. 
Money's Eastbourne Tarqueenia. While 
these and such as these beautiful and 
ty])ical terriers are being bred and ex- 
hibited there is no cause to fear a further 
decline in popularity for a variety so 
eminently engaging. 

It is satisfactorv to note that more atten- 

tion is now being paid to the type of ears 
of the Bull-terrier. The ear best suited 
for cropping was not the ear which in its 
natural condition was most to be admired. 
Consequently, it has taken a long time to 
breed out tire wrong form ; but even yet 
there is no definite standard fixed for the 
ear of the Bull-terrier, and one may see 
them of any shape, from tlie " tuhp " to 
the '■ button," from the " drop " to the 
•■ rose." The ear carriage is so important a 
jioint in the appearance of a terrier that it 
is high time that a definite form should be 
agreed upon as the standard of perfection. 
The club description is not altogether satis- 
fying, and it might well be improved by 
careful revision. As it is at present it is 
as foll<5ws : 

1. General Appearance. — The general appcar- 
,uicc oi the Bull-terrier is that of a symmetrical 
.mimal. the embodiment of agility, grace, elegance, 
.mil determination. 

2. Head. — The head should be long, flat, and 
wide between the ears, tapering to the nose, 
without cheek muscles. There should be a slight 
indentation down the face, without a stop between 
the eyes. The jaws should be long and very power- 
ful, with a large black nose and open nostrils. 
Eyes small and very black, almond shape preferred. 
The lips should meet as tightly as possible, without 
a fold. The teeth should be regular in shape, and 
should meet exactly ; any deviation, such as pig- 
jaw, or being under-hung, is a great fault. 

3. Ears. — The ears, when cropped, should be 
done scientifically and according to fashion. 
Cropped dogs cannot win a prize at shows held 
under Kennel Club rules, if born after March 31st, 
1805. 'When not cropped, it should be a semi-erect 
ear, but others do not disqualify. 

4. Neck.— The neck should be long and slightly 
arched, nicely set into the shoulders, tapering to 
the head without any loose skin, as found in the 

5. Shoulders.— The shoulders should be strong, 
muscular, and slanting ; the chest wide and deep, 
with ribs well rounded. 

6. Back.— The back short and muscular, but 
not out of proportion to the general contour of the 

7. Legs.— The forelegs should be perfectly 
straight, with well-developed muscles ; not out 
at shoulder, but set on the racing lines, and very 
strong at the pastern joints. The hind legs are 
long and, in proportion to the forelegs, muscular, 
with good strong, straight hocks, well let down 
near the ground. 



8. Feet. — The feet more resemble those of a cat 
than a hare. 

9. Colour. — Should be white. 

10. Coat. — Short, close, and stifi to the touch, 
with a fine gloss. 

11. Tail. — Short in proportion to the size of the 
dog. set on very low down, thick where it joins the 
bodv, and tapering to a fine point. It should be 
carried at an angle of about 45 degrees, without 
curl, and never over the back. 

12. Height at Shoulders. — From \2 to 18 inches. 

13. Weight. — From 15 lbs. to 50 lbs. 

Scale of Points. 
Head . 
Eyes . 
Ears . 

Neck and body 
Legs and feet 
Coat and tail 

Two influences contributed to what one 
may hope was only a temporary lull in the 
favour which this terrier formerly enjoyed : 
— the rule against cropping, which was 
deemed to have robbed the dog of one of 
its chief charms ; and the circumstance that 
when that rule was passed a large number 
of our best Bull-terriers were forthwith 
exported to purchasers in other countries 
where cropping remains fashionable. Many 

went to Holland, many to German}-, some to 
France, but most of aU to the United States. 
The Bull-terrier is one of the breeds in 
whicli America holds a strong hand, and it 
is a fact that more good specimens can be 
exliibited at a New York show than are 
benched throughout the whole of England 
in the entire year. From their British- 
bred terriers, such as Grand Duke, GuUy the 
Great, Carney, and Cordona, and many 
more recent importations, the Americans 
are steadUy multiplying their stock. With 
them it is a principle to breed abundantly, 
so that they may have more from which to 
select their potential champions. Perhaps 
they are disposed to favour longer bodies 
and sliorter legs than we care for ; but, as 
a rule, their Bull-terriers are kept similar 
in type to ours, and many an English breeder 
might envy them the possession of such 
terriers as Starlight and Diamond King, 
Dusty ]Miller, Young Marquis, and Edge- 
wood Fanc}- ; while their great champions, 
Princeton ilonarch, Edgewood Crystal, Ajax 
of the Point, and Faultless of the Point, are 
superlative specimens of the race such as 
are no longer to be equalled on this side 
of the Atlantic. R. L. 





Jr/ v-jAj 4 

^K; \Vi^^ 



Pliclograph by Dr. Mauncc Amsltr, Eton. 




"Poor Wolf, lliv mistress leads thee a dog's life of it; but never mind, my lad, 
whilst I live thou shall never ivant a friend to stand by thee." — Rip v.\n Winkle. 

TH E Boston Terrier was made in 
America and is recognised in the 
United States as distinctively an 
American dog. But it is acknowledged 
by the Americans themselves that the raw 
material was drawn from Great Britain. 
Terriers of a very similar type were com- 
monly bred in England twenty and thirty 
years ago, and were familiarly known as 
the Bull-and-terrier. It was a cross be- 
tween the Bulldog and the English Ter- 
rier, and it had the attributes of both 
breeds. It was an excellent fighting dog 
and ratter, and was popular in the mining 
districts. Our Bull-terrier is its direct 
descendant, somewhat refined, and with 
the brindle colouring eliminated. A genera- 
tion ago a considerable number of these 
Bull-and-terrier dogs were taken to America 
by seamen and engineers on the liners from 
Liverpool ; and among these was one 
purchased by Mr. Robert C. Hooper, of 
Boston. He was a dark brindle, with a 
white blaze up his face and a white throat, 
with cropped rose ears, and a screw tail. 
Probably he was well up on the legs, and 
his weight may have been something about 
thirty pounds. He became known as 
Hooper's Judge. Another of the breed was 
a bitch named Gyp, who is recorded to 
have had more of the Bulldog than the 
terrier in her type. These two were 
mated, and they got Wells's Eph, whose 
name is still historic in Massachusetts. 
Eph w<is bred to Tobin's Kate, a small 
light brindle bitch, who threw Barnard's 
Tom, the first genuine representative of 
the B(Jston Terrier, although not yet de- 
scribed by that breed name. 

Several of these Bull-terriers— all of 
them of (he same general appearance, with 
light or dark brindle coats and a white 

muzzle and blaze — were exhibited at the 
first Boston show in 1878. They became 
popular as men's dogs in New England, and 
their popularity extended. A club was 
formed, and in iSgi, or thereabouts, the 
American Bull Terrier Club of Boston 
applied to the American Kennel Club for 
the registration of the breed, in which they 
were especially interested. The application 
was refused on the ground that the dog had 
been bred away from its original type, that 
it was not a typical American Bull-terrier ; 
and it was suggested that the club should 
omit the name " Bull-terrier " from their 
designation, and call themselves simply the 
Boston Terrier Club. This was done, but 
it was not until 1893 that full recognition 
was given. 

By this time, probably other strains had 
been imported by the Bostonians, with the 
effect that the descendants of Hooper's 
Judge departed yet further from the original 
Bull-and-terrier type. So much was this so 
that the American Kennel Club declined to 
recognise the dogs under that name. The 
breed came to be spoken of and written 
of as merely a local strain. It was not 
a Bull-terrier. It was only what the 
Boston people called a Bull-terrier. If 
it was a terrier at all, it was merely a 
Boston terrier. 

The Bostonians persevered, however. They 
improved their strain, and gradually it 
became recognised at shows, while outside 
of Massachusetts classes were provided for 
it, until it grew to be one of the most 
popular of American dogs, still keeping 
the local name that had been derisively 
flung at it. 

From time to time there have been dis- 
putes as to the points of the Boston Terrier. 
It has been disputed whether the skull 



should be " broad and flat " as described 
by the club, or " round " or " square " ; 
whether the eye should be large and pro- 
minent, or small and deep-set ; whether the 
tail should be screwed or straight, long or 
short ; whether dogs with fawn colouring 
or with much white about the body or 
without the blaze up the face, should be 
admitted. Size has been a prolific source 
of contention. Even the standard of points 
drawn up by the club have been criticised 
as misleading. Possibly the official descrip- 
tion ma3' presently be altered to meet the 
demands of those who find fault with its 
detaUs ; but in the meantime it must be 
regarded as authoritative and may here be 
quoted : — 

1. General Appearance. — .\ smooth, short-coated, 
compactly built dog of medium stature. The 
head should indicate a high degree of intelligence, 
and should be in proportion to the dog's size, the 
body rather short, and well knit, the limbs strong 
and finely turned, no feature being so prominent 
that the dog appears badly proportioned. The 
dog conveys an idea of determination, strength 
and activity — style of a high order, carriage 




Photograph by Schrcibcr, Philadelphia. 

easy and graceful. He is plucky, not quarrel- 
some or aggressive— is very loyal to his master, 
obedient, affectionate, and of a sweet nature, 
quick in motion and very intelligent ; he makes 
a most desirable house dog. and wins a warm 
comer in the hearts of those who become his 
fortunate possessors. 

2. Head.— Rather short ; skull broad and flat 
without prominent cheeks, and forehead free 
from wTinkles ; stop well defined, but indenture 
not too deep ; muzzle short, square, wide, and 
deep, without wrinkles. 

3. Eyes. — Wide apart, large and round, neither 
sunken nor too prominent, dark in colour and 




soft — the outside comer in a line with the cheeks 
as \-iewed from the front. 

4. Nose. — Black and wide, with a well-defined 
straight line between the nostrils. 

5. Chops. — Wide and deep, not pendulous, 
completely covering the teeth when the mouth is 

6. Jaws. — Broad and square. 

7. Tee