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Full text of "A new classical dictionary of Greek and Roman biography, mythology and geography : partly based upon the Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology by William Smith"

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 

FROM THE LIBRARY 
OF 

ELI SOBEL 



A NEW 



CLASSICAL DICTIONARY 



OF GREEK AND ROMAN 



BIOGRAPHY, MYTHOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY, 



PARTLY BASED UPON THE 



DICTIONARY OF GREEK AND ROMAN BIOGRAPHY AND MYTHOLOGY. 



BY WILLIAM SMITH, LL.D., 

BDITOR OF THE DICTIONARIES OF GREEK AND ROHAN ANTIQUITIES, AND OF GREEK 
ROMAN BIOGRAPHY AND M7THOLOGT. 



XUbisett, totti) numerous Corrections anto dilution*, 



BY CHARLES ANTHON, LL.D., 

PROFESSOR OF THE GREEK AND LATIN LANGUAGES IN COLUMBIA COLLEGE. 



NEW YORK: 

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 

PEARL STREET, FRANKLIN SQUARE. 
1860. 



,Y 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand 

eight hundred and fifty, by 

HARPER & BROTHERS, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District 
of New York. 



SRLE 



DE 
5 



TO 



CHARLES KING, LL. D., 



THE STAUNCH FRIEND OF CLASSICAL LEARNING, 

AND 

VHO HAS RETAINED AMID THE BUSY SCENES OF PUBLIC LIFE 

SO ACCURATE A PERCEPTION OF, AND SO KEEN A 

RELISH FOR, THE CHARMS OF 



HE it Unman ihrattin. 



PREFACE OF THE AMERICAN EDITOR. 



THE volume here presented to the American public is one of a series of Diction 
tries prepared under the editorial supervision of Dr. William Smith, aided by a 
number of learned men, and designed to present in an English dress the valuable 
historical and archaeological researches of the scholars of Germany. For it is a 
fact not to be denied, that classical learning has found its proper abode in the 
latter country, and that whatever of value on these subjects has appeared in 
England for many years past, has been, with a few honorable exceptions rari 
nantes in gurgite vasto derived immediately or remotely from German sources. 
For instance, an English " Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge " desires 
a " History of Greek Literature; " none but a German can be found competent to 
prepare it, and when death removes him in the midst of his noble efforts, a 
continuator can not be found on English soil, and the ablest history of Greek 
literature (as far as it goes) remains a fragment. Turn over the pages of the most 
elaborate and valuable English histories of Greece, and how few names are there 
quoted as authorities out of the limits of the land of antiquarian research. Thirl- 
wall's and Grote's splendid superstructures rest on Teutonic foundations. The 
text-books used even in the Universities, which claim a Bentley and a Person 
among their illustrious dead, and where Gaisford still labors in a green old age. 
the Nestor of English scholarship, are mere reprints from, or based on, German 
recensions. The University press sends forth an Aristotle, an ^Eschylus, u 
Sophocles, and what English alumnus of Oxford or Cambridge performs the critical 
revision we read on the title-page the Teutonic names of Bekker, Dindorf, &c. 
As in every other department of classical learning English scholarship is indebted 
to German labors, so, until the appearance of the present series of dictionaries 
(mostly the result of German, erudition), she had nothing to put in comparison 
with the valuable classical encyclopedias of Germany but the miserable compeu- 
diums of Lempriere and Dymock compilations in which the errors were so glaring 
and so absurd, that when the American editor of the present work prepared a 
revised edition of Lempriere, pruning away many of its faults, correcting many of 
its misstatements, supplying many of its deficiencies, and introducing to his coun- 
trymen the latest results of German scholarship, his work was immediately 
reprinted, and found extensive circulation in England. Though he had to work 
single-handed, and amid many discouragements and disadvantages, yet his labors 
seemed to meet with favor abroad, and this approbation was distinctly manifested 
in the fact that his last revision of Lempriere was republished in its native land in 
several different forms and in abridgments. What he sought to do unaided, and 
in the intervals of laborious professional duties, has now been undertaken on a 
more extended scale by an association of scholars, both English and foreign. The 
increased attention paid to this department in Germany, the recent discoveries 
made by travellers in more thorough explorations, the vast amount of literary 



n PREFACE OF THE AMERICAN EDITOR. 

material collected in separate works, or scattered through the published proceed 
ings of learned societies, at length suggested to these scholars the propriety of 
exhibiting in one body the latest results of German learning. An able and useful 
guide was found at hand in the learned and copious " Real-Encyclopadie der Alter- 
thumswissenschaft von Aug. Pauly." Following in the footsteps of Pauly and his 
fellow-laborers, and using freely the materials and the references of these writers, 
as well as other works of standard excellence not otherwise accessible to English 
students, Dr. William Smith, aided by some twenty-eight collaborateurx, English 
and German, prepared, 

1st. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London, 1842, in one vol. 
8vo., of 1121 pages; reprinted in a new edition, London, 1850. 

2dly. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, in 3 vols. 
8vo., of about 3600 pages ; to be followed by, 

Sdly. A Dictionary of Ancient Geography, now in preparation. 

After the completion of the second of these works, Dr. W. Smith and his 
brother, the Rev. Philip Smith, from that work, from Pauly's Encyclopadie, and 
other works, drew up a "Classical Dictionary for Schools" (of Greek and Roman 
Biography, Mythology, and Geography), which should by its size and price be. 
accessible to all students, and present in a brief and convenient form the latest and 
most reliable results in these departments. The plan and detail of the work are 
stated at length in the preface of the English editor, subjoined to this, on p. xiii.- 
xv,, to which the reader is referred. When the printing of this work commenced, 
the publishers of the American edition immediately made an arrangement with the 
English publishers, and purchased at a considerable cost the sheets in advance, to 
be revised and edited for circulation in this country ; and the two books were to 
appear nearly simultaneously. The present work is the revised edition of the 
English one, and will be found, the editor believes, greatly improved, as well as 
much more complete. It is not, however designed to, and, in the editor's opinion, 
will not supersede his own " Classical Dictionary" published in 1841, since the 
articles are purposely brief, and results only are stated, without that fullness of 
detail which is desirable to the more advanced scholar and the educated man 
of leisure ; but it is intended for the use of those whose means will not allow a 
more expensive, or their scanty time the use of a more copious work ; in other 
words, it is meant to take the place, by reason of its convenient size and low price, 
of Lempriere's old dictionary, which, with all its absurd errors and defects, still 
has a lingering existence in certain parts of our country on account of its cheapness. 
On this head the English editor speaks strongly ; in point of literary or scientific 
value, Lempriere's dictionary is dead " requiescat in pace" and to put it into a 
boy's hands now as a guide in classical matters would be as wise and as useful as 
giving him some mystic treatise of the Middle Ages on alchemy to serve as a texV 
book in chemistry. The present work contains all the names of any value to a 
schoolboy occurring in Lempriere, and a great many not in that work, while the 
information is derived from the fountain-head, and not from the diluted stream of 
French encyclopedias. 

As regards the plan pursued in revising the work, the editor has been guided by 
the wants of the class for whom it is specially designed ; he has therefore inserted 



PREFACE OF THE AMERICAN EDITOR. TO 

more fully than in the original the names occurring in the authors most frequently 
read by younger students, as Caesar, Sallust, Virgil, Cicero, Ovid, Xenophon, Hero- 
dotus, Homer, &c., and has endeavored to give briefly such information as a boy 
meeting with any of these names in his author would seek in a classical dictionary. 
For this purpose he has used freely the most recent and most reliable authorities ; 
he has added brief notices from Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Biography and Mytho- 
logy, and from his own Classical Dictionary, of course, abridging to suit the 
character of the work ; he has also, among other works less frequently consulted, 
and single books on special topics unnecessary to be enumerated, derived materials 
from Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyclopedic (A-F, H-Italien, O-Phokyl 
ides), 97 vols. 4to, from Kitto's and Winer's Bible Cyclopaedia, from the indexes 
and notes to the best editions of the classic authors, especially the valuable index 
to Groskurd's translation of Strabo, and the Onomasticon Ciceronianum and Pla- 
tonicum of Orelli, from Gruber's Mythologisches Lexicon, 3 vols. 8vo, from Man- 
nert's, Ukert's, and especially Forbiger's Alte Geographic, from Cramer's Ancient 
Greece, Italy, and Asia Minor, from numerous recent books of travel in classic and 
sacred lands, from Grote's and Thirlwall's Greece, and Niebuhr's Rome and Lec- 
tures ; but particularly would he acknowledge, in the most explicit terms, his obli- 
gations to Pauly 's Real-Encyclopadie der Alterthumswissenschaft (A-Thymna), and 
to Kraft and Miiller's improved edition of Funke's Real-Schullexicon (of which, 
unfortunately, only the first volume, A-K, has appeared) : from these two works 
he has derived many of his own articles, and has been enabled to correct many of 
those in the English work taken from the same sources. In this connection, the 
editor regrets to find that Dr. W. Smith and some of his coadjutors have studi- 
ously avoided, in all their dictionaries hitherto published, making any direct 
acknowledgment of their indebtedness to the former of these two works. Although 
the plan and much of the detail of the works in question are taken from Pauly's, 
there is no indication of the existence of such a book in the preface to the Diction- 
ary of Antiquities, or to the Dictionary of Biography and Mythology, and this 
omission has led a distinguished German scholar, in a notice of the latter work in 
the Leipziger Repertorium for February, 1846, to complain of this conduct as 
unscholarlike and reprehensible : he says, " Under this head the editor (Dr. W. 
Smith) ought not to have omitted stating of how great service to him and several 
of his coadjutors the ' Encyclopedia of Classical Antiquity,' begun by Aug. Pauly 
and continued after his (Pauly's) death by Chr. Walz and W. TeufTel, has been, 
and especially since we can show that the above-named production of German 
scholars has been actually adopted as the basis of the English Dictionary, although 
the plan of the latter is considerably altered." . ..." In regard to its (Smith's 
Dictionary of Biography and Mythology) relation to the Stuttgard (Pauly's) Ency- 
clopaedia, we have still further to remark, that the articles which have been bor- 
rowed from it, namely, by Dr. Schmitz and the editor, have been revised, and in 
some respects considerably enlarged." * 

* " Hier hatte der Herausgcber nicht verschweigen sollen, von wie grossem Nutzen ihm 
und mehreren seiner mitarbeiter die von Aug. Pauly begonnenc und nach dcssen Tode von 
Ch. Walz and W. Teuffel forgesetzte ' Real-Encyclopadie der Classischen Alterthumswis- 



Tin PREFACE OF THE AMERICAN EDITOR. 

The present edition is called an enlarged and corrected one, and the editor thinks 
he may justly claim to have improved as well as enlarged the work: his own addi- 
tions are inclosed in brackets, and amount to more than 1400 independent articles, 
while the additions to articles already in the work, but either too briefly or incor- 
rectly stated, or omitting some important matter, are not a few. The editor has 
bestowed considerable care on the department of bibliography, and under this head 
many additions will be found. Dr. Smith has been content in most cases to copy 
the statements in the Dictionary of Biography and Mythology, without noticing 
many valuable books which have appeared since the publication of that work. 
Many corrections of names, or erroneous statements too short to be marked in the 
text, will also be found on a comparison of the two editions ; we have kept a list 
of these, and subjoin some of the more important of them here, that the public may 
see that the revision of the work has been pretty thorough. Many mere verbal 
alterations and corrections of oversight or carelessness in reading the proofs might 
also be adduced. 

ABJE is said to be in Phocis, on the boundaries of Eubcea ! 

JEsAcus ! Thetis is used for Tethys, and the error is very frequently repeated, in most 
cases copied from the Dictionary of Biography and Mythology, in the present instance 
adopted by Dr. Schmitz from Pauly, 5. v. 

ALEXANDRIA : oftener la, rarely ea. a statement just the reverse of the fact, and for cor- 
rection, vide the article in the Dictionary. 

ANCJEUS : the Greek quotation is wrong : the line as given by us from the scholiast is a 
. hexameter verse, as it is also given by Thirlwall in the Philological Museum, vol. i., page 
107, quoted by Dr. Schmitz for his authority, though he copies the altered Greek from 
Pauly. 

ANICS : Dryope is copied erroneously from the Dictionary of Biography and Mythology, 
and the account of the daughters of Anius is taken incorrectly from Kraft and Miillei, 
though right in the Dictionary of Biography and Mythology. 

ANTONIA 1 is called husband of L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, and ANTONIA 2, the husband 
of Drusus ; where the editor, copying from the German of Kraft and Miiller, has taken Ge- 
mahlin (wife) for Gemahl (husband) ; and so again under 

CRETHEUS, by way probably of compensation. Kraft and Miiller's Gemahl (husband) is 
translated wife, and Cretheus is made " wife of Tyro." 

APHRODITOPOLIS, No. 3, 1, from Kraft and Miiller, AphroditopoZwr Nomos for -lites. 

APIS (the city) is said to be 10 stadia west of Parsetonium for 100, which erroneous 
statement, probably a typographical slip in the German work, is copied from Kraft and . 
Miiller. 

Assus : ruins near Berani, a typographical error from Kraft and Miiller for Beram or 
Beiram. 

ARCADIA (p. 70), the greatest river of Peloponnesus is said to be the Achelous ! ! 

ARGONAUTS: (p. 76) : " And when Pollux was slain by Amyous," copied from an article 

senschaft,' gewesen ist, und zwar um so weniger, da wir diese Arbeit deutscher Gelehrten 
geradezu als die Grundlage des englischen Dictionary bezeichnen diirfen, obschon der Plan 
derselben vielfach anders angelegt ist." * * # " Ueber das Verhaltniss zu der Stuttgarter 
Encyklopadie ist noch zu bemerken, das die Artikel, welche daher entlehnt sind, namentlich 
von Schmitz und dem Herausgeber, aufs Neue durchgesehen und zum Theil schatzbar erwei- 
tert sind." 



PREFACE OF THE AMERICAN EDITOR. fc 

in the Dictionary of Biography and Mythology by Dr. L. Schmitz, who has compiled 
the account from Grotefend's in Pauly, and falls into Grotefend's unaccountable blun- 
der of making Amycus slay Pollux, though Apollodorus, whose narrative both profess to 
follow, says plainly enough the reverse (Uo^.vdevKrjf 6e, vxoaxo/ievof irvKrevaecv npdf avrov, 
iritis icarH rbv avxiva anenTeive, i., 9, 20, $ 2), and yet Dr. Schmitz, at the end of his article, 
quotes Schanemann, de Geogr. Argonaut. ; Vkert, Geographic der Griech. und Rbmer ; Mill- 
ler, Orchomenos, &c., but says not a word about Pauly's Encyclopadie- or Grotefend. 

Other instances of similarity to Pauly's work are frequent in the articles of this contri- 
butor, but this is not the place to point them out. 

AULIS : a strange fatality seems to hang over this unfortunate place : the editors, 
infected with the American spirit of annexation, transfer it, port and all, from the main 
land to the island of Eubaa ! ! 

BEBRYCES, after Craft and Miiller. for Bebryces, or, at least, Bebryces ; and in the 
account of their king, the editor, copying hastily from Pauly, has mistaken the German 
Ihren for Ihrer. Pauly has " Ihren Kbnig Amycus erschlug Pollux," the termination of 
the accusative indicating sufficiently the object ; but Dr. Smith, in following the same 
order in English, has made quite a difference in the result : " whose king, Amycus, slew 
Pollux !" 

C ;ESAR, No. 5 : L. Caesar is called the uncle, and afterward nephew, of M. Antony ii) 
the same article. 

CHARES (at the end), the colossus, overthrown B.C. 224, and removed A.D. 672 ; ol 
course it could not have remained on the ground 923 years, as stated. 

CHION : thirteen letters for seventeen. 

COCALUS: it is said that he received Daedalus, and afterward killed him, when Minos 
came in pursuit of him. It was Minos that was killed ; the error is taken from Dr. 
Schmitz, in the Dictionary of Biography and Mythology. 

CRATOS : " Uranus and Ge" for " Pallas and Styx;" taken from Dr. Schmitz, in the Dic- 
tionary of Biography and Mythology. 

CYME, in ^Eolis : it is said to have been Hesiod's birth-place ! though, under HESIOD, it 
is correctly stated that " we learn from his own poem that he was born in the village of 
Ascra, in Boeotia." 

ERINNYES : reference is made to Eumenida / for a feminine plural ; and so again, 
under Phaethon, his sisters are called Heliad<e / the same error occurs under Tisiphone 
(EumenidfE /) and under Valens (the islands Sto;chad / for des) y in part from the Diction 
ary of Biography and Mythology. 

HALESUS : he is said to have been slain by " Evander" for " Pallas," copied from Dr 
Schmitz in the larger dictionary. 

HALMYRIS : we have 'Afytvptf, sc. ^.ifajv for Tupvrj. 

HALOSYDNE : Thetys (or Thetis), as usual, for Tethys ; from Dr. Schmitz, in the Diction- 
ary of Biography and Mythology. 

HELIOS : Phaelusa, and, under Heliades, Phaeton, for " th." 

HERCULES (p. 310) : he is said to have taken Pylos and slain Periclymenus, a son of 
Neleus ; elsewhere, all the sons of Neleus, except Nestor. 

ITHOME : " last " Messenian war for " first." 

LEANDER : " Herois " is made the genitive of " Hero." 

LEONTIADES : Spartan " exiles for " Theban." 

LEUCIPPUS : his birth-place is inferred to be Elis ! ! because he was of the " Eleatic " 
school, instead of " Elea," in Italy ! copied from the Dictionary of Biography and 
Mythology. 

MAXIMUS No. 2 : Dionysius is styled Halicarnasstw / 



T PREFACE OF THE AMERICAN EDITOR. 

MYCEN.E : the treasury of Atreus, in MycenaB, is called the treasury of Athens ! and tne 
tine error is repeated under Pelasgi (near the end). 

MYRONIDES : Megaro is used for Megan's. 

NKREUS : just as Proteus, in the story of Ulysses, for Menelaus. 

NITRIC : vofioc has the feminine adjective Nirpiuric ! agreeing with it. 

OASIS : al 'Oaalrat is used for ol 'Oaa. 

OGTRIS : 2000 stadia 20 geographical miles for 200. 

PADUS : Mount Vesu/a for -lus ! 

PANDA : the Siraces for Siract, as used by Tacitus. 

PASITIGRIS : it is said to be now Karoon, which name is given to the Eulseus, s. v. 

PAULINUS (p. 531) : " Nero's" for " Otho's." 

PELOPONNESUS : in the enumeration of its provinces, Argolis is strangely omitted. 

PHOCIS : Daphnus is placed on the Euboean Sea, between the Locri Ozolct ! ! and 
Opuntii. 

PHOCIS : The Crisstean plain is placed in the southeast, on the borders of Locri Ozolae ! 
and anti-historical for ante-historical. 

PICENUM : along the northern ! coast of the Adriatic for western. 

PIRITHOUS : Theseus is said to have placed Helen at " JElhra ! " under the care of 
" Ph&dra /" 

POSEIDON (p. 610) : Pasiphae is made "daughter !" of Minos. 

SASSULA : Tiber for Tibwr / 

SCOPAS, No. 1 : he is put to death B.C. 296, though alive in B.C. 204 ; copied from thff 
larger dictionary. 

SILANUS, No. 6: the dates refer to B.C. for A.D. 

TAVIUM : now Boghaz-Kieni for Kieui is a typographical error copied from Pauly. 

THEOPHRASTUS (p. 763) is said to have presided in the Academy! (for Lyceum), 35 years 

TERENTIA, the wife of Cicero, is called Tullia, and this error is copied from the Diction- 
ary of Biography and Mythology. 

In some instances references are made to articles which are omitted ; these the 
editor has been careful to supply, while in other cases important names have been 
passed over altogether : a few of these are given in the English work in the 
addenda, and many others not there supplied might be quoted, but any one running 
over the additions marked with brackets can judge of the extent of this improve- 
ment in the American edition for himself. The editor ought to add on this point, 
that, before receiving the page of addenda, he had already inserted in their proper 
places the only important articles there given. The biographical and mythological 
notices in the present work, which have been chiefly taken from the Dictionary of 
Biography and Mythology, have been compared with the corresponding ones in 
that work, and several errors are found to have been made in the process of 
abridgment, e. g., 

FERONIA (p. 263) is said to have had her chief sanctuary at Terracina, near Mount 
Soracte 1 ! Now Terracina is in Latium, southeast of Rome, while Mount Soracte was in 
Etruria, some distance north of Rome : the larger dictionary says, " Besides the sanctua- 
ries at Terracina and near Mount Soracte, she had others at," &c. 

Other errors from the same cause will be found (in the English work, corrected in this) 
under Octavius No. 8, Masinissa, Orestes, Tissaphernes, tie. 

Another grea^ blemish in the English work is the utter carelessness exhibited in 



PREFACE OF THE AMERICAN EDITOR. n 

the accentuation of the Greek names. If it be desirable to have the Greek 
accented at all, it should be done correctly. The editor has carefully revised this 
portion of the work also, and hopes no gross error will be found uncorrected. In 
the historical and mythological names the errors are copied from the Dictionary 
of Biography and Mythology, which exhibits the same carelessness in this respect, 
and these errors are not of that nature that they might result merely from haste, 
or a disinclination to turn to the pages of a lexicon or an author to find the place 
of the accent, but such as the slightest acquaintance with the principles of Greek 
accentuation would indicate to the eye at once ; e. <?., dissyllables with long penult 
and short final syllable having the acute on the penult ; the circumflex placed on 
the antepenult ; the acute placed on the penult of feminine adjectives in is and <x.c; 
or final syllable long by nature, with circumflex on the penult, &c. ; as instances 
almost at random, Bou&xoVic;, KXs'avflrjj, Kr^o'iaj, 'Ap^r/as, rsvsraioj, rXa-jxos, KaX- 
Xif/.e<Jwv, 'ItffA'-jvoff, 'TXo, M'tSag, Kpijvai, MoipoxXifc, aXarra, HfXia&g, &c. &c. In 
the English edition the Greek names of the Greek divinities are commonly given, 
but with considerable inconsistency ; e. g., Ge is usually employed, though it does 
not occur in the work as a separate article at all, Gsea being the form in the alpha- 
betical order, and this is frequently used instead of Ge ; Pluto or Aidoneus some- 
times instead of Hades, Bacchus interchangeably with Dionysius ; while, on the 
other hand, ./Esculapius and Hercules, Ulysses and Pollux, Ajax, and other heroes, 
are uniformly written after the Latin form of the name ; these the editor has 
allowed to stand, and so, too, he has retained the Greek names of the divinities, 
but has placed by the side of this form the more usual one inclosed in parentheses, 
or has placed the parentheses around the former. The change, familiar enough to 
the Germans and those well acquainted with German literature, seems yet, among 
us, too great and radical a one to be made at once. Time may effect this, but at 
present, as a matter of expediency, "subjudice Its est." 

To impart additional value to the work, and render it still more complete as a 

classical guide and book of reference, the editor has appended from the Dictionary 

of Biography and Mythology the " Chronological Tables of Greek and Roman 

History" subjoined to that work, and which have been drawn up with great care 

from the Fasti Hellenici and Romani of Clinton, the Griechische and Romische 

Zeittafeln of Fischer and Soetbeer, and the Annales Veterum Regnorum et Popu- 

lorum of Zumpt, and in addition to these, the " Tables of Weights, Measures, 

and Money," from the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. With these 

various improvements and additions, the editor now presents the book to the American 

public, and ventures to recommend it as a reliable guide to those, for whom it is 

designed, in the various departments which on its title-page it professes to comprise. 

In conclusion, the editor would be guilty of great injustice were he not to 

acknowledge in the warmest terms the obligations which he is under to his learned 

and accurate friend Professor Drisler, whose very efficient co-operation has been 

secured in the revisal and correction of the entire work. Every article has been 

read over and examined in common, and a frank interchange of opinions has been 

made wherever any point occurred of sufficient importance to warrant this. And 

it is on this account that he ventures to recommend the present volume with more 

confidence to the young student, than if it bad been the result merely of his own 

individual exertions. 

COLUMBIA COLLKCJE, December, 1850. 



PREFACE. 



THK great progress which classical studies have made in Europe, and more espe- 
cially in Germany, during the present century, has superseded most of the works 
usually employed in the elucidation of the Greek and Roman writers. It had long 
been felt by our best scholars and teachers that something better was required thau 
we yet possessed in the English language for illustrating the Antiquities, Litera- 
ture, Mythology, and Geography of the ancient writers, and for enabling a diligent 
student to read them in the most profitable manner. It was with a view of sup- 
plying this acknowledged want that the series of classical dictionaries was under- 
taken ; and the very favorable manner in which these works have been received 
by the scholars and teachers of this country demands from the editor his most 
grateful acknowledgments. The approbation with which he has been favored has 
encouraged him to proceed in the design which he had formed from the beginning, 
of preparing a series of works which might be useful not only to the scholar and 
the more advanced student, but also to those who were entering on their classical 
studies. The dictionaries of " Grpek and Roman Antiquities " and of " Greek and 
Roman Biography and Mythology," which are already completed, and the " Dic- 
tionary of Greek and Roman Geography," on which the editor is now engaged, 
are intended to meet the wants of the more advanced scholar ; but these works 
are on too extended a scale, and enter too much into details, to be suitable for the 
use of junior students. For the latter class of persons a work is required of the 
same kind as Lempriere's well-known dictionary, containing in a single volume 
the most important names, biographical, mythological, and geographical, occurring 
in the Greek and Roman writers usually read in our public schools. It is invidious 
for an author to speak of the defects of his predecessors ; but it may safely be 
said that Lempriere's work, which originally contained the most serious mistakes, 
has long since become obsolete, and that since the time it was compiled we 
have attained to more correct knowledge on a vast number of subjects comprised 
in that work. 

The present dictionary is designed, as already remarked, chiefly to elucidate the 
Greek and Roman writers usually read in schools ; but, at the same time, it has 
not been considered expedient to omit any proper names connected with classical 
antiquity, of which it is expected that some knowledge ought to be possessed by 
every person who aspires to a liberal education. Accordingly, while more space 
has been given to the prominent Greek and Roman writers, and to the more dis- 
tinguished characters of Greek and Roman history, other names have not befin 
omitted altogether, but only treated with greater brevity. The chief difficulty 
which every author has to contend with in a work like the present is the vastness 
of his subject and the copiousness of his materials. It has therefore been neces- 
sary in all cases to study the greatest possible brevity, to avoid all discussions, 
and to be satisfied with giving simply the results at which the best modern scholars 



T PREFACE. 

have arrived. The writer is fully aware that in adopting this plan he has fre 
quently stated dogmatically conclusions which may be open to much dispute ; but 
he has thought it better to run this risk, rather than to encumber and bewilder the 
junior student with conflicting opinions. With the view likewise of economizing 
space, few references have oeen given to ancient and modern writers. In fact, such 
references are rarely of service to the persons for whom such a work as the pre- 
sent is intended, and serve more for parade than for any useful purpose ; and it 
has been the less necessary to give them in this work, as it is supposed that the 
persons who really require them will be in possession of the larger dictionaries. 

The present work may be divided into the three distinct parts, Biography, Myth- 
ology, and Geography, on each of which a few words may be necessary. 

The biographical portion may again be divided into the three departments of 
History, Literature, and Art. The historical articles include all the names of any 
importance which occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest times 
down to the extinction of the Western Empire, in the year 476 of our era. Very 
few names are inserted which are not included in this period, but still there are 
some persons who lived after the fall of the Western Empire who could not with 
propriety be omitted in a classical dictionary. Such is the case with Justinian, 
whose legislation has exerted such an important influence upon the nations of 
Western Europe ; with Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, at whose court lived 
Cassiodorus and Boethius ; and with a few others. The lives of the later Western 
emperors and their contemporaries are given with greater brevity than the lives 
of such persons as lived in the more important epochs of Greek and Reman his- 
tory, since the students for whom the present work is intended will rarely require 
information respecting the later period of the empire. The Romans, as a general 
rule, have been given under the cognomens, and not under the gentile names ; but 
in cases where a person is more usually mentioned under the name of his gens 
than under that of his cognomen, he will be found under the former. Thus, for 
example, the two celebrated conspirators against Caesar, Brutus and Cassius, are 
given under these names respectively, though uniformity would require either that 
Cassius should be inserted under his cognomen of Longinus, or Brutus under his 
gentile name of Junius. But in this as in all other cases, it has been considered 
more advisable to consult utility than to adhere to any prescribed rule, which 
would be attended with practical inconveniences. 

To the literary articles considerable space has been devoted. Not only are all 
Greek and Roman writers inserted whose works are extant, but also all such as 
exercised any important influence upon Greek and Roman literature, although their 
writings have not come down to us. It has been thought quite unnecessary, how- 
ever, to give the vast number of writers mentioned only by Athenseus, Stobaeus, 
the Lexicographers, and the Scholiasts ; for, though such names ought to be found 
in a complete history of Greek and Roman literature, they would be clearly out 
of place in a work like the present. In the case of all writers whose works are 
extant, a brief account of their works, as well as of their lives, is given ; and at 
the end of each article one or two of the best modern editions are specified. As 
the present work is designed for the elucidation of the classical writers, the Chris- 
tian writers are omitted, with the exception of the more distinguished fathers, who 
form a constituent part of the history of Greek and Roman literature. The 



PREFACE. XT 

Byzantine historians are, for the same reason, inserted ; though in their case, as 
well as in the case of the Christian Fathers, it has been impossible to give a com- 
plete account either of their lives or of their writings. 

The lives of all the more important artists have been inserted, and an account 
has also been given of their extant works. The history of ancient art has received 
so little attention from the scholars of this country, that it has been deemed advi- 
sable to devote as much space to this important subject as the limits of the work 
would allow. Accordingly, some artists are noticed on account of their celebrity 
in the history -of art, although their names are not even mentioned in the ancient 
writers. This remark applies to Agasias, the sculptor of the Borghese gladiator, 
which is still preserved in the Louvre at Paris ; to Agesander, one of the sculptors 
of the group of Laocoon ; to Glycon, the sculptor of the Farnese Hercules, and 
to others. On the contrary, many of the names of the artists in Pliny's long list 
are omitted, because they possess no importance in the history of art. 

In writing the mythological articles, care has been taken to avoid, as far as pos- 
sible, all indelicate allusions, as the work will probably be much in the hands of 
young persons. It is of so much importance to discriminate between the Greek 
and Roman mythology, that an account of the Greek divinities is given under their 
Greek names, and of the Roman divinities under their Latin names, a practice 
which is universally adopted by the Continental writers, which has received the 
sanction of some of our own scholars, and which is, moreover, of such great 
utility in guarding against endless confusions and mistakes as to require no apology 
for its introduction into this work. 

For the geographical articles the editor is alone responsible. The biographical 
and mythological articles are founded upon those in the " Dictionary of Greek and 
Roman Biography and Mythology," but the geographical articles are written 
entirely anew for the present work. In addition to the original sources, the editor 
has availed himself of the best modern treatises on the subject, and of the valua- 
ble works of travels in Greece, Italy, and the East, which have appeared within 
the last few years, both in England and in Germany. It would have been impos- 
sible to give references to these treatises without interfering with the general plan 
of the present work, but this omission will be supplied in the forthcoming " Dic- 
tionary of Greek and Roman Geography." It is hoped that in the geographical 
portion of the work very few omissions will be discovered of names occurring in 
the chief classical writers ; but the great number of names found only in Strabo, 
Pliny, Ptolemy, and the Itineraries, have been purposely omitted, except in cases 
where such names have become of historical celebrity, or have given rise to 
important towns in modern times. At the commencement of every geographical 
article the Ethnic name and the modern name have been given, whenever they 
could be ascertained. In conclusion, the editor has to express his obligations to 
his brother, the Rev. Philip Smith, who has rendered him valuable assistance by 
writing the geographical articles relating to Asia and Africa. 

WILLIAM SMITH. 

LONDON, August 12th, 1850. 



CLASSICAL DICTIONARY, 



BIOGRAPHICAL, MYTHOLOGICAL, AND GEOGRAPHICAL 



AARASSTJS. 

[AARASSUS ('Aapaaaof), a city of Pisidia ; more 
correctly, perhaps, Arassus, as givea in some 
MSS. ; the old Latin version of Strabo having 
also Arasum.] 

[ABA (*A6a), daughter of Zenophanes, made 
herself queen of Olbe in Cilicia; her authority 
was confirmed by Antony and Cleopatra: she 
was subsequently deposed and driven out.] 

[ABA (*A6a), more usually Abce, y. v.] 

ABAC^ENUM ('AdaKalvov or rtl 'A.6aicaiva : 'A,fa- 
Kaivivoe : ruins near Tripi), an ancient town of 
the Siculi in Sicily, west of Messana, aud south 
of Tyndaris. 

AB^E (*\6ai : 'Afiatof : ruins near Exarcho), 
an ancient town of Phocis, on the boundaries 
of Bceotia, said to have been founded by the Ar- 
give Abas, but see ABANTES. It possessed an 
ancient temple and oracle of Apollo, who hence 
derived the surname of Abacus. The temple 
was destroyed by the Persians in the invasion 
of Xerxes, and a second time by the Boaotians 
in the sacred war : it was rebuilt by Hadrian. 

[ABAIUS, an island in the North or German 
Ocean, where amber was said to have been 
washed up by the waves, and used by the in- 
habitants for fuel The more usual name was 
Basilia.] 

or ABANNI, a people of Mauretania, 



brought into subjection to the Roman power by 
Theoaosius, father of the Emperor Theodosius.J 

[ABAVTES (*A6avref), the ancient inhabitants 
of Eubcea. (Horn., 11^ ii., 536). They are said 
to have been of Thracian origin, to have first 
settled in Phocis, where they built Abo3, and 
afterward to have crossed over to Euboaa. The 
Abantes of Euboea assisted in colonizing several 
of the Ionic cities of Asia Minor. 

ABANTIADES ('ACavriudrj^), any descendant of 
Abas, but especially Perseus, great-grandson of 
Abas, and Acrisius, son of Abas. A female de- 
scendant of *Abas, as Danae and Atalante, was 
called Abantias. 

ABANTIAS. Vid. ABANTIADES. 

AbA.vriDAS ('A.6avTida(), son of Paseas, be- 
came t f rant of Sieyon, after murdering Cliniaa, 
1 



ABAS. 

the father of Aratus, B.C. 264, but was soon 
after assassinated. 

[ABANTIS ('Afavrtf), an early name of Eubcea, 
from the Abantes.] 

[ABARBAREA ('A6ap6apei}), name of a Naiad, 
mother of ^Esepus and Pedasus.] 

[ABARIS ('Aoapif ), son of Seuthes, was a Hy- 
perborean priest of Apollo, and came from the 
country about the Caucasus to Greece, while 
his own country was visited by a plague. In 
his travels through Greece he carried with him 
an arrow as the symbol of Apollo, and gav> 
oracles. His history is entirely mythical, and 
is related in various ways : he is said to have 
taken no earthly food, and to have ridden on 
his arrow, the gift of Apollo, through the air. 
He cured diseases by incantations, and delivered 
the world from a plague. Later writers as- 
cribe to him several works ; but if such works 
were really current in ancient times, they were 
not genuine. The time of his appearance in 
Greece is stated differently: he may, perhaps, 
be placed about B.C. 570. [Abaris occurs in 
Nonnus, Dionys, 11, 132, but the short quantity 
seems preferable. 2. A Latin hero, who fought 
on the side of Turnus against ^Eneas : he was 
slain by Euryalus. 3. Called Caucasiiis by Ovid, 
a friend of Phineas, slain by Perseus.] 

[ABARIS ("Afiaptf or \vapif), a city of Egypt, 
called, also, Avaris. Manetho places it to the 
east of the Bubastic mouth of the Nile, in the 
Sn'itii' nome, while Mannert identifies it with 
what was afterward called Peluaium.] 

ABARNIS ('A&zpvtf or 'A.6apvof. 'AGapvevf), a 
town and promontory close to Lampsacus on 
the Asiatic side of the Hellespont [Abarnis 
was also the name of the country lying around 
and adjacent to the city.] 

[ ABARTDS ("Afioprof), one of the Codridae, chosen 
king of the Phocaeans.] 

ABAS ('A6af). 1. Son of Metanira, was chang 
ed by Ceres (Demeter) into a lizard, because 
he mocked the goddess when she had come on 
her wanderings into the house of his mother, 
and drank eagerly to quench her thirst 2. 



ABASITU6. 



ABORRHAb. 



Twelth king of Argos, son of Lyuceus and Hy- 
permnestra, grandson of Danaiis, and father of 
Acrisius and Proetus. When he informed his 
father of the death of Danaiis, he was rewarded 
with the shield of his grandfather, which was 
sacred to Juuo (Hera). This shield performed 
various marvels, and the mere sight of it could 
reduce a revolted people to submission. He is 
described as a successful conqueror and as the 
founder of the town of Abae in Phocis, and of 
the Pelasgic Argos in Thessaly. [3. A centaur, 
son of Ixion and Nephele, a celebrated hunter, 
one of those who escaped the fury of the Lap- 
thae in the fight that arose at the nuptials of 
Pirithous and Deidamia. 4. A follower of Per- 
seus, who slew Pelates in the contest with Phin- 
eus. 5. A warrior in the Trojan army, son of 
Eurydamas, slain by Diomede. Others of this 
name occur in Virgil and Ovid, who probably 
derived their accounts of them from the Cyclic 
poets.] 

[ABASITIS ('AfiaaiTic), a district of Phrygia 
Major, on the borders of Lydia.] 

[ABATOS ("ACarof ; now iggeh), a small rocky 
island near Philse in the Nile, to which priests 
alone were allowed access, whence the name.] 

[ABDAGESES, a Parthian nobleman who revolt- 
ed from his king Artabanus, and aided Tiri- 
dates.] 

ABDERA (rd *A66ijpa, Abdera, 33, and Abdera, 
crum : 'Addrjpirrif, Abdgrites and Abderita). 1. 
(Now Polystilo), a town of Thrace, near the 
mouth of the Nestus, which flowed through the 
town. According to mythology, it was founded 
by Hercules in honor of his favorite ABDERTJS ; 
but according to history, it was colonized by 
Timesius of Clazomense about B.C. 656. Time- 
sins was expelled by the Thracians, and the 
town was colonized a second time by the in- 
habitants of Teos in Ionia, who settled there 
after their own town had been taken by the 
Persians, B.C. 544. Abdera was a flourishing 
town when Xerxes invaded Greece, and con- 
tinued a place of importance under the Romans, 
who made it a free city. It was the birthplace 
of Democritus, Protagoras, Anaxarchus, and 
Dther distinguished men ; but its inhabitants, 
notwithstanding, were accounted stupid, and an 
" Abderite" was a term of reproach. 2. (Now 
Adra), a town of Hispania Baetica on the coast, 
founded by the Phoenicians. 

ABDERUS ("ASdr/pof), & favorite of Hercules, 
was torn to pieces by the mares of Diomedes, 
which Hercules had given him to [guard while 
he himself] pursued the Bistones. Hercules is 
=<aid to have built the town of Abdera in honor 
of him. 

ABDSLONYMUS or ABDALONIMXJS, also called 
Ballonymus, a gardener, but of royal descent, 
was made king of Sidon by Alexander the Great. 

ABELLA or AVELLA ('ASeAAa : Abellanus ; now 
Avella Vecchia), a town of Campania, not far from 
Nola, founded by a colony from Chalcis in Eu- 
bcea. It was celebrated for its apples, whence 
Virgil (jEn^ vii., 140) calls it maliftra, and for 
its great hazel-nuts, nuces Avellance. 

ABELLINUM (Abellinas : now Avellino), a town 
of the Hirpini in Samuium, near the sources of 
the Sabatus. [2. (Now Marsico Vetere), a town 
of Lucania, near the sources of the Aciris, called, 
for distinction' sake, Abellinum Marsicum.] 



ABGARCS, ACBARUB, or AUGARUS 
"An6apof, Atiyapof), a name common to many 
rulers of Edessa, the capital of the district of 
Osrhoene in Mesopotamia. Of these rulers, one 
is supposed by Eusebius to have been the author 
of a letter written to Christ, which he found in 
a church at Edessa and translated from the 
Syriac. The letter is believed to be spurious. 

ABIA (fj A6ia : near Zarnata), a town of Me>- 
senia pn the Messenian Gulf. It is said to 
have been the same town as the Ire of the Iliad 
(ix., '292), and to have acquired the name of 
Abia in honor of Abia. the nurse of Hyllus, a 
son of Hercules. At a later time Abia belonged 
to the Achaean League. 

ABII ("A6iot), a tribe mentioned by Homer 
(72., xiii., 6), and apparently a Thracian people. 
This matter is discussed by Strabo (p. 296). 

ABILA (rd *A6t%a : 'ASihrjvoe, probably Nebi 
Abel), a town of Ccele-Syria, afterward called 
Claudiopolis, and the capital of the tetrarchy of 
Abilene (Luke iii., 1). The position seema 
doubtful. A town of the same name is men- 
tioned by Josephus as being sixty stadia east of 
the Jordan. [2. A mountain of Mauretania: 
Vid. ABYLA.] 

[ABILENE ('A6i2,Tivrj), vid. ABILA, No. 1.1 

ABISARES ('Abiaupris), also called Embisarus, 
an Indian king beyond the River Hydaspes, sent 
embassies to Alexander the Great, who not only 
allowed him to retain his kingdom, but increased 
it, and on his death appointed his son his suc- 
cessor. 

[ABLERUS ('Afi/lT/pof), a Trojan, slain by An- 
tilochus.] 

ABNOBA MONS, the range of hills covered by 
the Black Forest in Germany, not a single 
mountain. 

[ ABOBRICA (now Bayonne), a city of Gallsecia in 
Hispania Tarraconensis, near the mouth of the 
Mini us.] 

[ABOCCIS (now Aboo Simbcl), a city of ^Ethi- 
opia, on the western bank of the Nile, with very 
remarkable ruins.] 

ABONITICHOS ('ASuvov ret^of), a town of Paph- 
lagonia, on the Black Sea, with a harbor, after- 
ward called lonopolis ('IwvoTro/Uf), whence its 
modern name Ineboli, the birth-place of the pre- 
tended prophet ALEXANDER, of whom Lucian has 
left us an account. 

ABORIGINES, the original inhabitants of a 
country, equivalent to the Greek avroxBovef. 
But the Aborigines in Italy are not in the Latin 
writers the original inhabitants of all Italy, but 
the name of the ancient people who drove the 
Siculi out of Latium, and there became the pro- 
genitors of the Latini. 

ABORRHAS ('A66pfiaf : now JKTtabur), a branch 
of the Euphrates, which joins that river on the 
east side near Arcesium. It is called the Arax- 
es by Xenophon (Anab., i., 4, 19), and was 
crossed by 'the army of Cyrus the Younger in 
the march from Sardis to the neighborhood of 
Babylon, B.C. 401. A branch of this river 
which rises near Nisibis, and is now called Jakh 
jakhah, is probably the ancient Mygioni us. The 
Khabur rises near Orfah, and is joined near the 
Lake of Khatuniyah by the Jakbjakhah, after 
which the united stream flows into the Eu- 
phrates. The course of the Khabur is very in- 
correctly represented in the maps. 



ABRADATAS. 



ACACETES. 



ABRADATAS ('AfyxztJaraf), a king of Susa, and 
an ally of the Assyrians against Cyrus, accord- 
ing to Xenophon's Cyropaedia. His wife, Pan- 
thea, was taken on the conquest of the Assyrian 
camp. In consequence of the honorable treat- 
ment which she received from Cyrus, Abrada- 
tas joined the latter with his forces. He fell in 
the first battle in which he fought for him, while 
fighting against the Egyptians in the army of 
Croesus at Thymbrana, on the Pactolus. In- 
consolable at her loss, Panthea put an end to 
her own life. Cyrus had a high mound raised 
in honor of them. 

[ABEETTENE ('A.6pTTrjvij), a region of Mysia, 
on the borders of Bithynia, said to have been 
so called from the nymph Abretia.] 

ABRIXCATUI, a people of Gallia Lugdunensis, 
iu the neighborhood of the modern Avranches. 

ABROCOMAS ('A6po/i6/iaf), one of the satraps 
f Artaxerxes Mnemon, was sent with an army 
to oppose Cyrus on his march into Upper Asia, 
B.C. 401. He retreated on the approach of Cy- 
rus, but did not join the king in time for the 
battle of Cunaxa. 

[ABB.OCOMES ('A6po/t6/i^c. Ton.), son of Darius 
and Phratagune, accompanied the army of Xerx- 
es to Greece, and was slain at Thermopylae.] 

[ABEON ("Afyiuv), son of the Attic orator Ly- 
curgus. 2. Son of Callias, of the deme of Bate 
in Attica, who wrote on the festivals of the 
Greeks.] 

ABRONYCHCS ('A.6puwxof), an Athenian, who 
served in the Persian war, B.C. 480, and was 
subsequently sent as ambassador to Sparta, with 
Themistocles and Aristides, respecting the for- 
tifications of Athens. 

ABROTONUM, mother of THEMISTOCLES. 

ABROTONUM ('A.6porovov : now Sabart or Old 
Tripoli), a city on the coast of Africa, between 
the Syrtes, founded by the Phoenicians ; a colony 
under the Romans. It was also called Sabrata 
and Neapolis, and it formed, with CEa and Lep- 
tis Magna, the African Tripolis. 

[ABEOMUS SILO, a Latin poet of the Augustan 
age, pupil of Porcius Latro. According to Vos- 
sius, there were two of this name, father and 
son.] 

[ABEOZELMES ('A.6po&tyijf), a Thracian, inter- 
preter of the Thracian king Seuthes, mentioned 
in the Anabasis of Xenophon.] 

ABSTETIDES or APSYETIDES, sc. insulae ('A^p- 
ridef : now Ckerso, Osero, Ferosina, and Chao\ 
the name of four islands off the coast of Illyn- 
cum, [the principal one of which was ABSOEUS, 
with a town of the same name.] According to 
one tradition, Absyrtus was slain in these isl- 
ands by his sister MeilCa and by Jason. 

ABSVETUS or APSYRTUS ("A^n/prof), son of 
JSe'tes, king of Colchia, and brother of Medea. 
When Medea fled with Jason, she took her 
brother Absyrtus with her ; and when sbe was 
nearly overtaken by her father, she murdered 
Absyrtus, cut his body in pieces and strewed 
them on the road, that her father might thus be 
detained by gathering the limbs of his child. 
Tpmi, the place where this horror was com- 
mitted, was believed to have derived its name 
from repvu, " to cut" According to another tra- 
dition, Absyrtus did- not accompany Medea, but 
was sent out by bis father in pursuit of her. He 
overtook her in Corcyra, where she had been 



kindly received by king Alcinous, who refused 
to surrender her to Absyrtus. When he over- 
took her a second time in certain islands off the 
Illyrian coast, he was slain by Jason. The son 
of ^Eetes, who was murdered by Medea, is called 
by some writers .<Egialeus. 

ABULITES ('Afov/Urjyj), the satrap of Susiana, 
surrendered Susa to Alexander. The satrapv 
was restored to him by Alexander, but he and 
his son Oxyathres were afterward executed by 
Alexander for the crimes they had committed. " 

ABCENUS VALENS. Vid. VALENS. 

ABCS (now Humber), a river in Britain. 

[Asus (*A&>f : now Aghri-Dagh), a mountain 
chain of Armenia Major, and believed by the 
natives at the present day to be the Ararat of 
Scripture.] 

ABYDENUS ('AfooV>6f), a Greek historian, who 
wrote a history of Assyria. His date is uncer 
tain : he made use of the works of Megasthe- 
nes and Berosus, and he wrote in the Ionic di- 
alect. His work was particularly valuable for 
chronology. The fragments of his history have 
been published by Scaliger, De Emendations 
Temporutn ; and Richter, Bero&i Chaldceorum 
Histories, <fcc., Lips., 1825. 

ABYDOS ( "A&xJof : 'AG/vdr/vof). 1. A town ot 
the Troad on the Hellespont, and a Milesian 
colony. It was nearly opposite to Sestos, but a 
little lower down the stream. The bridge of 
boats which Xerxes constructed over the Hel- 
lespont, B.C. 480, commenced a little higher up 
than Abydos, and touched the European shore 
between Sestos and Madytus. The site of Aby- 
dos is a little north of Sultania or the old castle 
of Asia, which is opposite to the old castle of 
Europe. 2. (Ruins near Arabat el Matfoon and 
El Birbeh), a city of Upper Egypt, near the west 
bank of the Nile ; once second only to Thebes, 
but in Strabo's time (A.D. 14) a small village. 
It had a temple of Osiris and a Memitonium, both 
still standing, and an oracle. Here was found 
the inscription known as the Table of Abydos, 
which contains a list of the Egyptian kings. 

ABYLA or ABILA MONS or COLUMNA ('A.6vXij or 
'Adi/l?? aT7]%j) or opof : now Jebel Zatout, L e., 
Apes' Hill, above Ceuta), a mountain in Maure- 
tania Tingitaua, forming the eastern extremity 
of the south or African coast of the Fretum 
Gaditanum. This and Mount Calpe (Gibraltar), 
opposite to it on the Spanish coast, were called 
the Columns of Hercules, from the fah'.e that they 
were originally one mountain, whick. was torn 
asunder by Hercules. 

ACACALLIS ("A/ca/caAA/f), daughter of Minos, 
by whom Apollo begot a son, Miletus, aa well as 
other childrea Acacallis was in Crete a com- 
mon name for a narcissus. 

ACACKSIUM ('AKdMjaiov : 'A.KOKIJOIOC), a town 
of Arcadia, at the foot of a hill of the same name, 

ACACESIUS ('Ajcaxqatof), a surname of Mer 
cury (Hermes), for which Homer uses the form 
Acaceles. Some writers derive it from the Ar- 
cadian town of Acacesium, in which he was be- 
lieved to have been brought up ; others from a 
priv. and /coxof, and suppose it to mean " the 
god who does not hurt." The same surname 
U given to Prometheus, whence it may be in- 
ferred that its meaning is that of benefactor or 
deliverer from eviL 

ACAOKTKS. Vid ACACESIUB. 






ACACUS. 



ACOA LAURENTIA. 



[AoXcus ('A./taxof), son of Lycaon, a king in ni, son of Alcmaeon and Callirrhoe, and brother 

Arcadia, who brought up Mercury (Hermes), of Amphoterus. Their father -was murdered by 
and founded Acacesium : vid. ACAOESIUS.] ! Phegeus when they were very young, and Callir- 

ACADEMIA ('AKa67//uia or 'AKandiJuia : also rhoe prayed to Jupiter (Zeus) to make her sons 
Academia in the older Latin writers), a piece of grow quickly, that they might be able to avenge 
land on the Cephissus, six stadia from Athens, the death of their father. The prayer was grant- 
originally belonging to the hero ACADEMCS, and ed, and Acarnan with his brother slew Phegeus, 
subsequently a gymnasium, which was adorned his wife, and his two sons. The inhabitants of 
by Cimon with plane and olive plantations, Psophis, where the sons had been slain, pursued 
statues, and other works of art Here taught the murderers as far as Tegea, where, however. 
Plato, who possessed a piece of land in the they were received and rescued. They after- 
neighborhood, and after him his followers, who ', ward went to Epirus, where Acarnan founded 
were hence called the Academici, or Academic the state called after him Acarnania. 



philosophers. When Sulla besieged Athens in 
B.C. 87, he cut down the plane trees in order to 
construct his military machines ; but the place 
was restored soon afterward. Cicero gave the 
name of Academia to his villa near Puteoli, 
where he wrote his " Quaestiones Academicae." 

ACADEMICI. Vid. ACADEMIA. 

ACADEIIUS ('AKudrjfio^), an Attic hero, who be- 
trayed to Castor and Pollux, when they invaded 
Attica to liberate their sister Helen, that she 
was kept concealed at Aphidnae. For this the 
Tyndarids always showed him gratitude, and 
whenever the Lacedaemonians invaded Attica, 
they spared the land belonging to Academus. 
Vid. ACADEMIA. 

ACALANDRUS (now Salandrella), a river in Lu- 
cania, flowing into the Gulf of Tarentum. 



[ACALANTHIS 



, daughter of Pierus, 



changed by the muses into a thistle-finch. Vid. 
PIERUS.] 

[ACAMANTIS (' A.Kafiavrif), one of the Attic 
tribes, so named from the hero Acamas L] 

ACAMAS ('A/cc/iaf). 1. Son of Theseus and 
Phaedra, accompanied Diomedes to Troy to de- 
mand the surrender of Helen. During his stay 
at Troy he won the affection of Laodice, daughter 
of Priam, and begot by her a son, Munitus. He 
was one of the Greeks concealed in the wooden 
horse at the taking of Troy. The Attic tribe 
Acamantis derived its name from him. 2. Son 
of Antenor and Theano, one of the bravest Tro- 
jans, slain by Meriones. 3. Son of Eussorus, one 
of the leaders of the Thracians in the Trojan 
war, slain by the Telamonian Ajax. [4. Son of 
Asius, fought on the side of the Trojans, slain by 
Meriones.] 

[ACAMAS ('\Kufiaf : now Cape Salizano or St. 
Pifano), a promontory at the northwest end of 
Cyprus.] 



ACARXANIA ('AKapvavia : 'Atcapvuv, -dvof), the 
most westerly province of Greece, was bound- 
ed on the north by the Ambracian Gulf, on the 
west and southwest by the Ionian Sea, on the 
northeast by Amphilochia, which is sometimes 
included in Acarnania, and on the east by JEto- 
lia, from which at a later time it was separated 
by the Achelous. The name of Acarnania does 
not occur in Homer. In the most ancient times 
the land was inhabited by the Taphii, Teleboae, 
and Leleges, and subsequently by the Curetes, 
who emigrated from ^Etoh'a and settled there. 
At a later time a colony from Argos, said to 
have been led by ACARNAN, the son of Alcmaeon, 
settled in the country. In the seventh century 
B.C. the Corinthians founded several towns on 
the coast. The Acarnanians first emerge from 
obscurity at the beginning of the Peloponnesian 
war, B.C. 431. They were then a rude people, 
living by piracy and robbery, and they always 
remained behind the rest of the Greeks in civili- 
zation and refinement. They were good sling- 
ers, and are praised for their fidelity and courage. 
The different towns formed a league with a 
strategus at their head in time of war: the mem- 
bers of the league met at Stratos, and subse- 
quently at Thyrium or Leucas. Under the 
Romans Acaruania formed part of the province 



of Macedonia. 

[ACASTE 
Tethys.] 



a daughter of Oceanus and 



ACASTUS ("A/ca<Trof), son of Pelias, king of 
lolcus, and of Anaxibia or Philomache. He 
was one of the Argonauts, and also took part in 
the Calydonian hunt His sisters were induced 
by Medea to cut up their father and boil him, 
in order to make him young again. Acast-us, 
in consequence, drove Jason and Medea from 
lolcus, and instituted funeral games in honor 



i 

[ ACAMPSIS ('AKa/^>tf : now Tschffrak or Bilu- j of his father. During these games Astydamia, 
mi), a river of Asia forming the boundary be- the wife of Acastus, also called Hippolyte, first 
tween Pontus and Colchis, and so named from saw Peleus, whom Acastus had purified from 
its impetuous course, a priv. and Kd/nrru. It was I the murder of Eurytion. When Peleus, faithful 
called by the natives themselves _oa.] to his benefactor, refused to listen to her ad- 

ACANTHUS ('Anavdof : 'A.Kdv6iof). 1. (Ruins dresses, she accused him to her husband of iin- 
near Erso), a town on the Isthmus, which con- 3 proper conduct Shortly afterward, when Acastae 
nects the peninsula of Athos with Chalcidice, on 1 and Peleus were hunting on Mount Pelion, and 
the canal cut by Xerxes (vid. ATHOS). It was ] the latter had fallen asleep, Acastus took his 
founded by the inhabitants of .Andros, and con- sword from him, and left him alone. He was, in 



tinued to be a place of considerable importance 
from the time of Xerxes to that of the Romans. 
2. (Now DashurJ, a town on the west bank of 
the Nile, 120 stadia south of Memphis, with a 
temple of Osiris. 

[ACANTHUS ("Axavflof), a Lacedaemonian, victor 
at Olympia in the diavTiof, was said to have been 
the first who ran naked at these games.] 

AOAE.NAN ('Anapvav, -dvof), one of the Epigo- 



consequence, nearly destroyed by the Centaurs ; 
but he was saved by Chiron or Mercury (Hermes), 
returned to Acastus, and killed him, together 
with his wife. [2. A king of Dulichium, men- 
tioned in the Odyssey.] 

ACBAHUS. Vid. ABGARUS. 

[AccA, a companion of the Volscian heroine 
Camilla.] 

ACCA LAURENTIA or LARENTIA, a mythical 



ACCIUS. 

woman in early Roman story. According to 
one account, she was the wife of the shepherd 
Faustulus, and the nurse of Romulus and Remus 
after they had been taken from the she-wolf. 
Another account connects her with the legend 
of Hercules, by whose advice she succeeded in 
making Carutius or Tarrutius, an Etruscan, 
love and marry her. After his death she in- 
herited his large property, which she left to the 
Roman people. Ancus Marcius, in gratitude 
for this, allowed her to be buried in the Vela- 
brum, and instituted an annual festival, the 
Lareutalia, at which sacrifices were offered to 
the Lares. According to other accounts, again, 
she was not the wife of Faustulus, but a pros- 
titute, wh"o, from her mode of life, was called 
lupa by the shepherds, and who left the property 
she gained in that way to the Roman people. 
Thus much seems certain, whatever we may 
think of the stories, that she was of Etruscan 
origin, and connected with the worship of the 
Lares, from which her name Larentia seems to 
be derived. 

L. ACCIUS or ATTIUS, an early Roman tragic 
poet and the son of a freedman, was born B.C. 
170, and lived to a great age. Cicero, when a 
young man, frequently conversed with him. 
His tragedies were chiefly imitated from the 
Greek, but he also wrote some on Roman sub- 
jects (Prcetextata) ; one of which, entitled Brutus, 
was probably in honor of his patron, D. Brutus. 
We possess only fragments of his tragedies, 
but they are spoken of in terms of admiration 
by the ancient writers. Accius also wrote An- 
"nales in verse, containing the history of Rome, 
like those of Ennius ; and a prose work, Libri 
Didaxcalion, which seems to have been a his- 
tory of poetry. The fragments of his tragedies 
are given by Bothe, Poet. Scenici Latin^ vol. v., 
Lip.-.. 1834; and those of the Didascalia by 
Madvig, De L. Attii, Didascaliis Comment., Haf- 
uiae, 1831. 

Acco, a chief of the Senones in Gaul, who in- 
duced his countrymen to revolt against Caesar, 
B.C. 53, by whom he was put to death. 

ACE. Vid. PTOLEMAIS. 

[ACERATHS (' \Kijparof), a priest and prophet 
sit Delphi, who with sixty men alone did not 
abandon the place on the approach of Xerxes and 
his army. 2. A poet of the Greek anthology.] 

ACERBAS, a Tyrian priest of Hercules, who 
married Elissa, the sister of King Pygmalion. 
He had concealed his treasures in the earth, 
knowing the avarice of Pygmalion, but he was 
murdered by Pygmalion, who hoped to obtain 
his treasures through his sister. The prudence 
of Elissa saved the treasures, and she emigrated 
from Phoenicia. In this account, taken from 
Justin, Acerbas is the same person as Sichaeus, 
and Elissa the same as Dido in Virgil ( ,/.'., I., 
343, *"/.). The names in Justin are undoubtedly 
more correct than in Virgil : for Virgil here, as in 
other cases, has changed a foreign name into one 
more convenient to him. 

ACERR.S (Acerranus). 1. (Now Acerra), a 
town in Campania on the Clanius, received 
the Roman franchise in B.C. 32. It was de- 
troyed by Hannibal, but was rebuilt 2. (Now 
Qerra), a town of the Insubres in Gallia Trans- 
padana. 

a surname of 



ACH.EL 

Apollo, expressive of his beautiful hair, which 
was never cut or shorn. 

[ACES ("A/c^ ), a river in the interior of Asia, 
from which the country of the HyrcaD ; *ns, Par- 
thians, Chorasmians. <fcc., was watered DV means 
of canals. On the conquest of this region by 
the Persian king, the stoppage of this irrigation 
converted many fertile lands into barren wastes. 
This river has been supposed to be the same 
with the Ochus or Oxus, and Wilson (Ariana, p. 
129), following Gatterer, inclines to the latter.] 

[ACESAMENUS (' AKaa/j.v6f), a king of Thrace, 
father of Peribcea, and said to have founded the 
city Acesamenas in Macedonia.] 

[ACESANDER ('\Ksaav6pof), a Greek historian, 
who wrote an account of Gyrene.] 

ACESAS ('A/cwrdf), a native of Salamis in Cy- 
prus, famed for his skill in weaving cloth with 
variegated patterns (polymitarius). He and his 
sou Helicon were the first who made a peplus 
for Minerva (Athena) Polias. They must have 
lived before the time of Euripides and Plato, 
who mention this peplus. 

[AcESiMBROTUS ('AKeai/tfyoTOf), an admiral of 
the Rhodians, and a delegate to the conference 
between T. Flamininus and Philippus.] 

ACESINES ('A.Keaivrj; : 'AKsalvof). 1. (Now 
Chenaub), a river in India, into which the Hydas- 
pes flows, and which itself flows into the Indus. 
2. (Now Alcantara), a river in Sicily, near 
Tauromenium, called also Onobalas. 

[ACESIUS ('A/c<7<of), an appellation of Apollo, 
" the healer," from uKsof^aiA 

[ACESTA. Vid. SEGESTA.J 

ACESTES ('A.KeaTTj), son of a Trojan woman 
of the name of Egesta or Segesta, who was sent 
by her father to Sicily, that she might not be 
devoured by the monsters which infested the 
territory of Troy. When Egesta arrived in Sic- 
ily, the river-god Crimisus begot by her a son, 
Acestes, who was afterward regarded as the 
hero who had founded the town of Segesta. 
JSneas, on his arrival in Sicily, was hospitably 
received by Acestes. 

[ACESTODORDS ('A/cetTTodojOOf), a Greek histo- 
rian from whom Plutarch quotes some incidents 
relating to the battle of Salamis, in his Life of 
Themistocles.] 

ACESTOR ('AxsoTup). 1. Surnamed Sacas, on 
account of his foreign origin, was a tragic poet 
at Athens, and a contemporary of Aristophanes. 
2. A sculptor of Cnosus, who flourished about 
B.C. 452.] 

[ACESTOKIDES ('AKearoptdjie), a Corinthian 
chosen general by the Syracusans, but banished 
from Syracuse by Agathocles.] 

ACH.EA ('A%aia, from a^of, " grief"), " the 
distressed one," a surname of Ceres (Demeter) 
at Athens, so called on account of her sorrow for 
the loss of her daughter. 

ACII.KI (Axaioi), one of the chief Hellenic 
races, were, according to tradition, descended 
from Achffius, who was the son of Xuthus and 
Creusa, and grandson of Hellen. The A elm 
originally dwelt in Tbessaly, and from thence 
migrated to Peloponnesus, the whole of which 
became subject to them, with the exception 
of Arcadia, and the country afterward called 
Achaia. As they were the ruling nation in 
Peloponnesus in the heroic times, Homer fre- 
quently given the name of Achaei to the collect- 

5 



ACH/EMENES. 



ACHATES. 



ivo Greeks. On the conquest of the greater 
part of Peloponnesus by the Heraclldae and the 
Dorians eighty years after the Trojan war, 
many of the Achaei under Tisamenus, the son 
of Orestes, left their country and took posses- 
sion of the northern coast of Peloponnesus, then 
called ./EgialSa, and inhabited by the lonians, 
whom they expelled from the country, which 
was henceforth called Achaia. The expelled 
lonians migrated to Attica and Asia Minor. The 
Achaei settled in twelve cities : Pellene, ^Egira, 
JEgse, Bura, Helice, JSgium, Rhypae, Patrae, 
Pharae, Olenus, Dyme, and Tritaea. These 
cities are said to have been governed by Tisa- 
menus and his descendants till Ogyges, upon 
whose death a democratical form of govern- 
ment was established in each state; but the 
twelve states formed a league for mutual de- 
fence and protection. In the Persian war the 
Achaei took no part ; and they had little influ- 
ence in the affairs of Greece till the tune of 
the successors of Alexander. In B.C. 281 the 
Achaei, who were then subject to the Macedo- 
nians, resolved to renew their ancient league for 
the purpose of shaking off the Macedonian yoke. 
This was the origin of the celebrated Achaean 
League. It at first consisted of only four towns, 
Dyme, Patrae, Tritaea, and Pharae, but was sub- 
sequently joined by the other towns of Achaia, 
with the exception of Olenus and Helice. It 
did not, however, obtain much importance till 
B.C. 251, when Aratus united to it his native 
town, Sicyon. The example of Sicyon was 
followed by Corinth and many other towns in 
Greece, and the league soon became the chief 
political power in Greece. At length the Achaei 
declared war against the Romans, who destroyed 
the league, and thus put an end to the independ- 
ence of Greece. Corinth, then the chief town 
of the league, was taken by the Roman general 
Mummius, in B.C. 146, and the whole of south- 
ern Greece made a Roman province under the 
name of ACHAIA. The different states composing 
the Achaean League had equal rights. The 
assemblies of the league were held twice a year, 
in the spring and autumn, in a grove of Jupiter 
(Zeus) Homagyrius near ^Egium. At these 
assemblies all the business of the league was 
conducted, and at the spring meeting the public 
functionaries were chosen. These were : 1. A 
strategus (ffrparj/yof) or general, and a hippar- 
chus (iTrwapxof) or commander of the cavalry ; 
2. A secretary (ypa/z/zarevf ) ; and, 3. Ten demi- 
urgi (drifiiovp-yoi, also called ap^ovref),-who appear 
to have had the right of convening the assembly. 
For further particulars, vid. Diet, of Ant~, art 
Achaicum Fcedus. 

ACH.SMENES ('Axai/uvrif). 1. The ancestor of 
the Persian kings, who founded the family of the 
Achcemenidce ('A.xaijivi6ai), which was the no- 
blest family of the Pasargadae, the noblest of the 
Persian tribes. The Roman poets use the adjec- 
tive Achcemenius in the sense of Persian. [Some 
writers identify him with the Djemschid of the 
Oriental historians.] 2. Sou of Darius L, gover- 
nor of Egypt, commanded the Egyptian fleet in 
the expedition of Xerxes against Greece, B.C. 
480. He was defeated and killed in battle by 
Inarus the Libyan, RC. 460. 

A CH^EMENIDES OF ACHEMENIDES, SOU of Ada- 

mastus of Ithaca, and a companion of Ulysses, ! 
6 



who left him behind in Sicily, when he fled from 
the Cyclopes. Here he was found by JSueas, 
who took him with him. 

ACH^EUS ('Axatuf). 1. Son of Xuthus, tho 
mythical ancestor of the ACH^KL 2. Governor 
under Antiochus III. of all Asia west of Mount 
Taurus. He revolted against Antiochus, but was 
defeated by the latter, taken prisoner at Sardis, 
and put to death B.C. 214. 3. Of Eretria in 
Eubcea, a tragic poet, born B.C. 484. In 447, he 
contended with Sophocles and Euripides, and 
though he subsequently brought out many dra- 
mas, according to some as many as thirty-four 
or forty, he nevertheless only gained the prize 
once. In the satyrical drama be possessed 
considerable merit The fragments of his pieces 
have been published by Urlichs, Bonn, 1 834 ; 
[and by Wagner in his Fragmenta Tragicorum 
Grcecorum (in Didot's Biblioth. Graec.), p. 36-52. 
The satjric pieces have been published sepa- 
rately in Friebel's Grcecorum Satyrographorum 
Fragmenta, Berlin, 1837. 4. A Greek tragic 
poet of Syracuse, who flourished at a later period 
than the foregoing, belonging to the Alexandrine 
period : he was said to have written ten or four- 
teen tragedies.] 

ACHAIA ('Axaiof : 'Axatu). 1. The northern 
coast of the Peloponnesus, originally called ^Egi- 
alea (MyidXeia) or ^Egialus (AtytaAof), i. e. the 
coast land, was bounded on the north by the 
Corinthian Gulf and the Ionian Sea, on the south 
by Elis and Arcadia, on the west by the Ionian 
sea, and on the east by Sicyonia. It was a nar- 
row slip of country sloping down from the moun- 
tains to the sea. The coast is generally low, and 
has few good ports. Respecting its inhabitants, 
vid. ACHAEI. 2. A district in Thessaly, which 
appears to have been the original seat of the 
Achaei. It retained the name of Achaia in the 
time of Herodotus. 3. The Roman province in- 
cluded Peloponnesus and northern Greece south 
of Thessaly. It was formed on the dissolution 
of the Achaean League in B. C. 146, and Lence 
derived its name. 

[ACHAIA, ('A^afa), a city and harbor on the 
northeastern coast of the Euxine, mentioned by 
Arrian in his Periplus.] 

[ACHAKACA ('\x"P aKa )> a village near Nysa in 
Lydia, having a celebrated Plutonium, and au 
oracular cave of Charon, where intimations were 
given to the sick respecting the cure of their 
maladies.] 

[ACHARDEUS ('A^apdeof : now Egorlik),& river 
of Asiatic Sarmatia, flowing from the Caucasus 
into the Palus Maeotis.] 

ACHARIWE ('Axapvai : 'A^apvevf, pi, 'A^a/31%), 
the principal demus of Attica, belonging to the 
tribe (Eneis, sixty stadia north of Athens, pos- 
sessed a rough and warlike population, who were 
able to furnish three thousand hoplitae at the 
commencement of the Peloponnesian war. Their 
land was fertile, and they carried on considerable 
traffic in charcoal. One of the plays of Aristo- 
phanes bears the name of the inhabitants of this 
demus. 

ACHARE^, a town in Thessaliotis in Thessaly, 
on the River Pamisus. 

[ACHATES, a friend and companion of jEneaa, 
so remarkable for the fidelity of his attachment, 
that " fidus Achates " became subsequently a 
proverb.] 



ACHATES. 



ACHILLES. 



ACHATES (now Dirillo), a river in southern 
Sicily, between Camarina and Gela, in which the 
first agate is said to have been found. 

ACHKLOIDES, a surname of the Sirens, the 
daughters of Achelous and a Muse ; also a sur- 
name of water nymphs. 

ACHELOUS ('A^eA^of : 'A^eAwZof in Horn. : now 
Aspro Potamo), more anciently called Thoas, 
Axenus, and Thestius, the largest river in 
Greece. It rises in Mount Pindus, and flows 
Bcuthward, forming the boundary between Acar- 
nania and ^Etoliti, and falls into the Ionian Sea 
opposite the islands called Echinades, [which 
were supposed to have been formed in part by 
the depositions of this very rapid river.J It is 
about one hundred and thirty miles in length. 
The god of this river is described as the offspring 
of Oceanus and Tethys, and as the eldest of their 
three thousand sons. He fought with Hercules 
for Deianira, but was conquered in the contest. 
He then took the form of a bull, but was again 
overcome by Hercules, who deprived him of 
one of his horns, which* however, he recovered 
by giving up the horn of Amalthea. According 
to Ovid.(J/e<., ix., 87), the Naiads changed the 
horn which Hercules took from Achelous into 
the horn of plenty. Achelous was, from the 
earliest times, considered to be a great divinity 
throughout Greece, and was invoked in prayers, 
sacrifices, (fee. On several coins of Acarnania, 
the god is represented as a bull with the head 
of an old man. Achelous was also the name of 
a river in Arcadia, and of another in Phthiotis 
in Thessaly. 

ACHEMENIDES. Vid. AcH^EMENIDES. 

ACHEKON ('A^e/wji'), the name of several riv- 
ers, all of which were, at least at one time, be- 
lieved to be connected with the lower world. 1. 
[Now Gurla, or River of Suli.~\ A river in Thes- 
protia in Epirus, which flows through the Lake 
Acherusia into the Ionian Sea 2. A river in 
Elis, which flows into the Alpheus. 3. [Proba- 
bly Lese or Arconli.] A river in southern Italy, 
lit the country of the Bruttii, on which Alexan- 
der of Epirus perished. 4. The river of the 
lower world, round which the shades hover, and 
jito which the Pyriphlegethon and Cocytus flow. 
In late writers the name of Acheron is used, in 
a general sense, to designate the whole of the 
lower world. The Etruscans were acquainted 
with the worship of Acheron (Acheruns) from 
very early times, as we must infer from their 
Aeneruntici libri, which treated of the deification 
of souls, and of the sacrifices (Acheruntia sacra) 
by which this was to be effected. 

ACHKHONTIA. 1. (Now Acerenza), a town in 
Apulia, on a summit of Mount Vultur, whence 
Horace (Carm n ill, 4, 14) speaks of celsee nidnm 
Acherontice. 2. A town on the River Acheron, 
in the country of the Bruttii. Vid. ACHERON, 
No. 3. 

AcHEBt'siA ('Axcpovaia TiifivT) or 'Axepovaif), 
the name of several lakes and swamps, which, 
like the various rivers of the name of Acheron, 
were at the same time believed to be connected 
with the lower world, until at hist the Ache- 
rusia came to be considered to be in the lower 
world itself. The lake to which this belief 
teems to have been first attached was the Ache- 
rusia in Thesprotia, through which the Acheron 
flowed. Other lakes or swamps of the same 



name were near Hermione in Argolis, between 
Cumae and Cape Misenum in Campania, and 
lastly in Egypt, near Memphis. Acherusia was 
also the name of a peninsula, near Heraclea in 
Bithynia, with a deep chasm, into which Her- 
cules is said to have descended to bring up the 
dog Cerberus. 

ACHETUM, a small town in Sicily, the site of 
which is uncertain. 

ACHILLA or ACHOLLA ("A^oA/la : 'A^oAAaZof 
AchillitamiB : now El Allah, ruins), a town on 
the sea-coast of Africa, in the Carthaginian ter- 
ritory (Byzacena), a little above the northern 
point of the Syrtis Minor. 

ACHILLAS ('A_i/,A<2f), one of the guardians 
of the Egyptian king Ptolemy Dionysius, and 
commander of the troops when Pompey fled to 
Egypt, B.C. 48. It was he and L. Septimius 
who killed Pompey. He subsequently joined 
the eunuch Pothinus in resisting Caesar, and 
obtained possession of the greatest part of Alex 
andrea. He was shortly afterwards put t*. 
death by Arsinoe, the youngest sister of Ptolemy, 
B.C. 47. 

[ACHILLEIS, a poem of Statius, turning on the 
story of Achilles. Vid. STATIUS.] / 

ACHILLES ('A^i/Ueiif), the great hero of the 
Iliad. Homeric story. Achilles was the son of 
Peleus, king of the Myrmidones in Phthiotis, in 
Thessaly, and of the Nereid Thetis. From his 
father's name, he is often called Pelldes, Pele'ia- 
des, or Pellon, and from his grandfather's, jEaci- 
des. He was educated by Phoenix, who taught 
him eloquence and the arts of war, and accom- 
panied him to the Trojan war. In the healing 
art he was instructed by Chiron, the centaur. 
His mother, Thetis, foretold him that his fate 
was either to gain glory and die early, or to live 
a long but inglorious life. The hero chose the 
former, and took part in the Trojan war, from 
which he knew that he was not to return. In 
fifty ships, he led his hosts of Myrmidones, Hel- 
lenes, and Achseans, against Troy. Here the 
swift-footed Achilles was the great bulwark of 
the Greeks, and the worthy favorite of Minerva 
(Athena) and Juno (Hera). Previous to the dis- 
pute with Agamemnon, he ravaged the country 
around Troy, and destroyed twelve towns on 
the coast and eleven in the interior of the coun- 
try. When Agamemnon was obliged to give 
up Chryse'is to her father, he threatened to take 
away Briseis from Achilles, who surrendered 
her on the persuasion of Minerva (Athena), but 
at the same time refused to take any further 
part in the war, and shut himself up in his tent. 
Jupiter (Zeus), on the entreaty of Thetis, prom- 
ised that victory should be on the side of the 
Trojans, until the Achaeans should have hon- 
ored her son. The affairs of the Greeks de- 
clined in consequence, and they were at hist 
pressed so hard, that an embassy was sent to 
Achilles, offering him rich presents and the res- 
toration of Briseis ; but in vain. Finally, how- 
ever, he was persuaded by Patroclus, his dear 
est friend, to allow him to make use of his men, 
his horses, and his armor. Patroclus was skin, 
and when this news reached Achilles, he waa 
seized with unspeakable grief. Thetis consoled 
him, and promised new arms, to be made by 
Vulcan (Hephaestus), and Iris appeared to rouss 
him from his lamentations, and exhorted him 
7 



ACHILLES. 



ACHlLLEUa DROMOS. 



to rescue the body of Patroclus. Achilles now 
rose, and his thundering voice alone put the 
Trojans to flight When hig new armor was 
brought to him, he hurried to the field of battle, 
disdaining to take any drink or food until the 
death of his friend should be avenged. He 
wounded and slew numbers of Trojans, and at 
length met Hector, whom he chased thrice 
around the walls of the city. He then slew 
him, tied his body to his chariot, and dragged 
him to the ships of the Greeks. After this, he 
burned the body of Patroclus, together with 
twelve young captive Trojans, who were sac- 
rificed to appease the spirit of his friend ; and 
subsequently gave up the body of Hector to 
Priam, who came in person to beg for it Achil- 
les himself fell in the battle at the Scaean gate, 
before Troy was taken. His death itself does 
not occur in the Iliad, but it is alluded to in a 
few passages (xxii., 858 ; xxi., 278). It is ex- 
pressly mentioned in the Odyssey (xxiv., 36), 
where it is said that his fall his conqueror is 
not mentioned was lamented by gods and men, 
that his remains, together with those of Patro- 
clus, were buried in a golden urn, which Bac- 
chus (Dionysus) had given as a present to The- 
tis, and were deposited in a place on the coast 
of the Hellespont, where a mound WHS raised 
over them. Achilles is the principal hero of 
the Iliad : he is the handsomest and bravest of 
all the Greeks ; he is affectionate toward his 
mother and his friends : formidable in battles, 
which are his delight ; open-hearted and without 
fear, and, at the same time, susceptible of the 
gentle and quiet joys of home. His greatest 
passion is ambition, and when his sense of hon- 
or is hurt, he is unrelenting in his revenge and 
anger, but withal submits obediently to the will 
of the grds. Later traditions. These chiefly 
consist in accounts which fill up the history of 
his youth iaiu death. His mother, wishing to 
make her son immortal, is said to have con- 
cealed him by night in the fire, in order to de- 
stroy the mortal parts he had inherited from his 
father, and by day to have anointed him with 
ambrosia. But Peleus one njght discovered his 
child in the fire, and cried out in terror. Thetis 
left her son and fled, and Peleus intrusted him 
to Chiron, who educated and instructed him in 
the arts of riding, hunting, and playing the phor- 
minx, and also changed his original name, Li- 
gyron, i. e^ the " whining," into Achilles. Chi- 
ron fed his pupil with the hearts of lions and the 
marrow of bears. According to other accounts, 
Thetis endeavored to make Achilles immortal 
by dipping him in the River Styx, and succeed- 
ed with the exception of the ankles, by which 
she held him. When he was nine years old, 
Calchas declared that Troy could not be taken 
without his aid, and Thetis, knowing that this 
war would be fatal to him, disguised him as a 
maiden, and introduced him among the daugh- 
ters of Lycomedes of Scyros, where he was 
sailed by the name of Pyrrha on account of his 
golden locks. But his real character did not 
remain concealed long, for one of his compan- 
ions, Deidamia, became mother of a son, Pyr- 
rhus or Neoptolemus, by him. Ulysses at last 
discovered his place of concealment, and Achil- 
les immediately promised his assistance. Dur- 
ing the war against Troy, Achilles slew Pen- 
8 



thesilea, an Amazon. He also fought with 
Memnon and Troilus. The accounts of his 
death differ very much, though all agree in 
stating that he did not fall by human hands, or, 
at least, not without the interference of the god 
Apollo. According to some traditions, he was 
killed by Apollo himself; according to others, 
Apollo assumed the appearance of Paris in kill- 
ing him, while others say that Apollo merely 
directed the weapon of Paris against Achilles, 
and thus caused his death, as had been sug- 
gested by the dying Hector. Others, again, re- 
late that Achilles loved Polyxena, a daughter of 
Priam, and, tempted by the promise that he 
should receive her as lus wife, if he would join 
the Trojans, he went without arms into the 
temple of Apollo at Thymbra, and was assas- 
sinated there by Paris. His body was rescued 
by Ulysses and Ajax the Telamonian ; his ar- 
mor was promised by Thetis to the bravest 
among the Greeks, which gave rise to a con- 
test between the two heroes who had rescued 
his body. Vid. AJAX. After his death, Achil- 
les became one of the judges in the lower world, 
and dwelled in the islands of the blessed, where 
he was united with Medea or Iphigenia [2. A 
son of the Earth (ynjevrj^), to whom Juno (Hera) 
fled for refuge from the pursuit of Jupiter (Zeus), 
and who persuaded her to return and marry that 
deity. Jupiter (Zeus), grateful for this service, 
promised him that all who bore this name for 
the time to come should be illustrious person- 
ages. 3. The preceptor of Chiron, after whom 
Chiron named the son of Peleus. 4. The in 
ventor of the ostracism in Athens, according 
to one account. 5. Son of Jupiter (Zeus) and 
Lamia, so beautiful that Pan awarded to him 
the prize of beauty over every competitor. Ve- 
nus was so offended at this, that she inspired 
Pan with a fruitless passion for the nymph 
Echo, and also wrought a hideous change in his 
person.] 

ACHILLES TATIUS, or, as others call him, Achil- 
les Statius, an Alexandrine rhetorician, lived in 
the latter half of the fifth or the beginning of 
the sixth century of our era. He is the author 
of a Greek romance in eight books, containing 
the adventures of two lovers, Clitophon and 
Leucippe, which has come down to us. The 
best edition is by Fr. Jacobs, Lips., 1821. Sui- 
das ascribes to this Achilles a work on the 
sphere (irepl atyaipat;), a fragment of which, pro- 
fessing to be an introduction to the Phaenomena 
of Aratus, is still extant. But this work was 
written at an earlier period. It is printed in 
Petavius, Uranologia, Paris, 1630, and Amster- 
dam, 1703. 

ACHILLEUM ('AxtMeiov), a fortified place near 
the promontory Sigeum in the Troad, [founded 
by the Mytileneans, and in the neighborhood of 
which Achilles was supposed to have been 
buried.] There was a place of the same name 
on the Cimmerian Bosporus, Straits of Kaffa, on 
the Asiatic side. 

ACHILLEUS assumed the title of emperor un- 
der Diocletian, and reigned over Egypt for some 
time. He was taken by Diocletian after a siege 
of eight months in Alexandrea, and put to death 
A.D. 296. 

ACHILLKLUS DROMOS ('A^iJWetof dpofioq: now 
; Tendera or Tendra), a narrow tongue of land ID 



ACHILLEUS. 



ACR^EA. 



the Euxine Sea, not far from the mouth of the 
Borysthenes, where Achilles is said to have 
made a race-course. Before it lay the cele- 
brated Island of Achilles (In&ula Achillis) or 
Leuce (AEVKTJ), -where there waa a temple of 
Achilles. 

ACHILLEUS POKTCS ('Axfafaiof /U/w?v), a har- 
bor in Laconia, near the promontory Taenarum. 

ACHILLIDES, a patronymic of Pyrrhus, son of 
Achilles. 

ACHILLIS INSULA. Vid. ACHILLEUS DEOMOS. 

ACHIBOE ('Axipoij'), daughter of Nilus and wife 
of Belus, by whom she became the mother of 
JSgyptus and Danaus. 

ACHIVI, the name of the Achaei in the Latin 
writers, and frequently used, like Achaei, to sig- 
nify the whole Greek nation. Vid. ACHAEI. 

ACHOLLA. Vid. ACHILLA. 

ACHOLOE. Vid. HAEPYLA 

ACHRADINA or ACEADINA. Vid. SYRACUSE,] 

ACICHORIUS ('A/ujwptof), one of the leaders of 
the Gauls, who invaded Thrace and Macedonia 
in B. C. 280. In the following year he accom- 
panied Brennus in his invasion of Greece. Some 
writers suppose that Brennus and Acichorius are 
the same person, the former being only a title, 
and the latter the real name. 

ACIDALLA (mater), a surname of Venus, from 
the well Acidalius, near Orchomenos, where she 
used to bathe with the Graces. 

[ACIDAS ('Axtdaf), a small river of Triphylian 
Elis, which ran into the Anigrus.] 

ACIDINUS, L. MANLIUS. 1. One of the Roman 
generals in the second Punic war, pnetor ur- 
banus, B. C. 210, served against Hasdrubal in 
207, and was sent into Spain in 206, where he 
remained till 199. 2. Surnamed' FULVIANUS, be- 
cause he originally belonged to the Fulvia gens, 
praetor B. C. 188 in Nearer Spain, and consul in 
179 with his own brother Q. Fulvius Flaccus, 
which is the only instance of two brothers hold- 
ing the consulship at the same time. 

[ACIDON ('A.KIOUV), same as the ACIDAS, q. vJ] 

ACILIA GENS, plebeian. Its members are 
mentioned under the family names of AVIOLA, 
BALBUS, and GLABEIO. 

[ACILISENE ('AKihtojjvT)), & district of Armenia 
Major, between Antitaurus and the Euphrates.] 

(AMINCUM or ACUMINCUM (now Peterwara- 
ein), a town in Lower Pannonia, on the Danube.] 

[ACINCUM or AQUINCUM (now Buda or Old 
Ofen,) a strongly fortified town of Pannonia, on 
the Danube.] 

[AciniPO (ruins near Rondo), a town of His- 
pania Baetica, of which some remarkable remains 
still exist] 

[AciEis ('Axiptf : now Agri), a river of Lu- 
cania, flowing into the Sinus Tarentinus.] 

Acis ('Axtf) son of Faunus and SymaeUiis, was 
beloved by the nymph Galatea : Polyphemus 
the Cyclops, jealous of him, crushed him under 
a huge rock. His blood, gushing forth from un- 
der the rock, was changed by the nymph into 
the River Acis or Acinius (now Fiume di Jaci\ 
at the foot of Mount JStna. This story, which 
is related only by Ovid (Met., xiii., 750, seq.), is 
perhaps no more than a happy fiction suggested 
oy the manner in which the little river springs 
forth from under a rock 

Acis ('Axis), a river of Sicily. Vid. the fore- 
going.] 



[ACMON ("A/CjMwv). 1. A companion of Di<v 
medes, who was changed into a bird for disre- 
spect to Venus. 2. Son of Elytius of Lyrnea- 
sus, a companion of ^Eneas.] 

ACMONIA ('AKftovia : ' AK/HOV irrjq : Acmonensis), 
a city of the Greater Phrygia. 

ACMONIDES, one of the three Cyclopes in Ovid, 
is the same as Pyracmon in Virgil, and as Arges 
in most other accounts of the Cyclopes. 

ACCETES ('AKotTTjf), son of a poor fisherman 
of Maeonia, who served as a pilot in a ship. 
After landing at the Island of Naxos, the sailors 
brought with them on board a beautiful boy 
asleep, whom they wished to take with them ; 
but Accetes, who recognized in the boy the god 
Bacchus, dissuaded them from it, but in vain. 
When the ship had reached the open sea, the 
boy awoke, and desired to be earned back to 
Naxos. The sailors promised to do so, but did 
not keep their word. Hereupon the god dis- 
closed himself to them in his majesty; vines 
began to twine round the vessel, tigers appear- 
ed, and the sailors< seized with madness, jump- 
ed into the sea and perished. Acoates alone 
was saved and conveyed back to Naxos, where 
he was initiated into the Bacchic mysteries, 
This is the account of Ovid (Met., iii., 582, <fcc.). 
Other writers call the crew of the ship Tyrrhe- 
nian pirates, and derive the name of the Tyr- 
rhenian Sea from them. 

ACONTIUS ('AKov-iof), & beautiful youth of the 
Island of Ceos. On one occasion he came to 
Delos to celebrate the annual festival of Diana, 
and fell in love with Cydippe, the daughter of a 
noble Athenian. In order to gain her, he had 
recourse to a stratagem. While she was sitting 
in the temple of Diana, he threw before her 
an apple, upon which he had written the words, 
" I swear by the sanctuary of Diana to marry 
Acontius." The nurse took up the apple and 
handed it to' Cydippe, who read aloud what was 
written upon it, and then threw the apple away. 
But the goddess had heard her vow, and the 
repeated illness of the maiden, when she was 
about to marry another man, at length compel- 
led her father to give her in marriage to Acon- 
tius. This story is related by Ovid (Heroid, 
20, 21), who borrowed it from a lost poem of 
Callimachus, entitled " Cydippe." 

AcSEis ("AKOpcf), king of Egypt, assisted Evag- 
oras, king of Cyprus, against Artaxerxes, king 
of Persia, about B. C. 385. He died about 374, 
before the Persians entered Egypt> vhich was 
in the following year. 

[ACEA ("A/cpa), a name of many places situ 
ated on heights and promontories. 1. A vil 
lage on the Cimmerian Bosporus. 2. A town 
in Eubosa. 3. A town in Arcadia. 4. ACRA 
LEUCE (TievKjfl, a town in Hispania Tarraconen- 
sis, founded by Hamilcar Barcas.] 

ACR.E ('AKpat). 1. (Ruins near Palazzalo), a 
town in Sicily, west of Syracuse, and ten stadia 
from the River Anapus, was founded by the Syr 
acusans seventy years after the foundation 01 
their own city. 2. A town in ^Etolia. 

[ACE.EA ('A/cpa/a), a daughter of the river-god 
Asterion (near Mycenae), one of the nurses of 
Juno. A mountain in Argolis, opposite to the 
Heraeum, was named after her Acraa.] 

ACE.SA ('A/cpata) and ACE^EUS are surnames 
given to various goddesses and gods whose 

9 



ACR^EPHEUS. 

temple* were situated upon bills, such as Jupi- 
ter (Zeus), Juno (Hera), Venus (Aphrodite), 
Minerva (Pallas), Diana (Artemis), and others. 

ACR.SPHEUS. Vid. ACE.BPHIA. 

A< n.KniiA, AcB.EPHi., or ACE^BPIIION ('Axpai- 
6ia, '\npaiipiai, 'Axpaiiftiov : 'Axpatyiof, 'Axpai- 
f toiof : now Kardhitza), a town in Bcetia, on 
the Lake Copais, said to have been founded by 
Aeraepheus, the son of Apollo. 

[ACBJSUS. Vid. ACE-BA.] 

[ ACRAGAS ('Acipuyof : now Oirgenti or Fiume 
di S. Biagio), a small river of Sicily, on which 
was the celebrated city of Acragas or Agrigen- 
tum.] 

AORAGAS. Vid. AGRIGENTUM. 

[AcaiTHoa ('A.icpdOuf uxpov, i. e., *A/cpo? 
'A0<jf : now Cape Monte Santo), the northeast- 
ern promontory in the peninsula Acte in Mace- 
donia.] 

ACBATUS, a freedman of Nero, sent into Asia 
ami Achaia (A.D. 64) to plunder the temples 
and take away the statues of the gods. 

ACRL& ('A.Kpiai or 'AKpalai), a town in La- 
tonia, not far from the mouth of the Eurotas. 

AcRiLua, a town in Sicily between Agrigen- 
tum and Acrsa. 

AOKISIONK ('AKpioiuvij), & patronymic of Da- 
naii, daughter of Acrisius. Perseus, grandson 
of Acrisius, was called, in the same way, Acris- 
!5nide'8. 

ACBISIUS (' A.Kptaiof), son of Abas, king of Ar- 
gos, and of Ocalia, grandson of Lynceus, and 
great grandson of Danaus. His twin-brother 
was Pratus, with whom he is said to have quar- 
relled even in the womb of his mother. Acris- 
fus expelled Prcetus from his inheritance ; but, 
supported by his father-in-law lobates, the Ly- 
cian, PrcBtus returned, and Acrisius was com- 
pelled to share his kingdom with his brother by 
giving up to him Tiryns, while he retained Ar- 
gos for himself. An oracle had declared that 
Diinae, the daughter of Acrisius, would give 
birth to a son who would kill his grandfather. 
For this reason he kept Danae shut up in a sub- 
terraneous apartment, or in a brazen tower, 
but here she became mother of Perseus, not- 
withstanding the precautions of her father, ac- 
cording to some accounts by her uncle Prcetus, 
and according to others by Jupiter (Zeus), who 
visited her in the form of a shower of gold. 
Acrisius ordered mother and child to be ex- 
posed on the wide sea in a chest ; but the chest 
floated toward the Island of Seriphus, where 
both were rescued by Dictys. As to the man- 
ner in which the oracle was subsequently ful- 
filled, rid. PERSEUS. 

AcaiTAS ('A/cpet Taf : now Cape Gallo), the 
most southerly promontory in Messenia. 

ACBOCERAU.NIA (rd 'Axponepavvia, sc. opr} : 
DOW Cape Linguetta), a promontory in Epirus, 
jutting out into the Ionian sea, was the most 
westerly part of the CERAUMI MONIES. The 
coast of the Acroceraunia was dangerous to 
ships, whence Horace (Cam. 1., 3, 20) speaks 
of infames scopulos Acroceraunia. 

Aca6c5auTHCS. Vid. COEINTHUS. 

ACROLISSUS. Vid. Lissrs. 

ACBON. 1. King of the Caeninenses, whom 

Romulus slew in battle, and whose arms he 

dedicated to Jupiter Feretrius as Spolia Opima. 

2. An eminent physician of Agrigentum in 

10 



ACT^EUS. 

Sicily, is said to have been in Athens during 
the great plague (B.C. 430) in the Pelopoune- 
sian war, and to have ordered large fires to be 
kindled in the streets for the purpose of purify- 
ing the air, which proved of great service to 
several of the sick. This fact, however, is not 
mentioned by Thucydides. The medical sect 
of the Empiric!, in order to boast of a greater 
antiquity than the Dogmatici (founded about B. 
C. 400), claimed Acron as their founder, though 
they did not really exist before the third cen- 
tury B.C. [3. An Etrurian of Corythus, an ally 
of ^Eneas, slain by Mezentius.] 

AORON, HELENIUS, a Roman grammarian, 
probably of the fifth century A.D., wrote notes 
on Horace, part of which are extant, and also, 
according to some critics, the scholia which we 
have on Persius. 

[ACRONIUS LACUS. Vid. BEIGANTINUS LACUSL] 

AcBOpSus. Vid. ATHENA 

ACBOPOLITA GEOEGIUS (Fewpytof 'A/cpOTroXt 
Tyf), a Byzantine writer, was born at Constan- 
tinople in A.D. 1220, and died in 1282. He 
wrote several works which have come down 
to us. The most important of them is a his- 
tory of the Byzantine empire, from the taking 
of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204, down 
to the year 1261, when Michael Palaeologus de- 
livered the city from the foreign yoke. Edited 
by Leo Allatius, Paris, 1651 ; reprinted at Ven- 
ice, 1729. 

ACROBEA (fj 'A.Kpupeia), a mountainous tract 
of country in the north of Elis. 

ACROTATUS ('A/cp6rarof). 1. Son of Cleome- 
nes II., king of Sparta, sailed to Sicily in B.C. 
314 to assist the Agrigentines against Agatho- 
cles of Syracuse. On his arrival at Agrigen- 
tum, he acted with such tyranny that the in- 
habitants compelled him to leave the city. He 
returned to Sparta, and died before his father, 
leaving a son, Areus. 2. Grandson of the pre- 
ceding, and the son of Areus I., king of Sparta ; 
bravely defended Sparta against Pyrrhus, in B.C. 
272; succeeded his father as king in 266, but 
was killed in the same year in battle against 
Aristodemus, the tyrant of Megalopolis. 

ACROTHOUM or ACEOTHOI ('AKpoOuov, 'A/cpo- 
Buoi : ' A.KpoduiTi}f : now Lavra), afterward call- 
ed Uranopolis, a town near the extremity, of the 
peninsula of Athos. 

ACT^EA ('A/cra/a), daughter of Nereus and 
Doris. 

ACTION ('A/cratuv). 1. A celebrated hunt?- 
man, sou of Aristeus and Autonoe, a daughter 
of Cadmus, was trained in the art of hunting by 
the centaur Chiron. One day as he was hunt- 
ing, he saw Diana (Artemis) with her nymphs 
bathing in the vale of Gargaphia, whereupon 
the goddess changed him into a stag, in which 
form he was torn to pieces by his fifty dogs on 
Mount Cithaeron. Others relate that he pro- 
voked the anger of the goddess by boasting 
that he excelled her in bunting. 2. Son of Me- 
lissus, and grandson of Abron, who had fled 
from Argos to Corinth for fear of the tyrant 
Pbidon. Archias, a Corinthian, enamored with 
the beauty of Actaeon, endeavored to carry him 
off; but in the struggle which ensued between 
Melissus and Archias, Actseon was killed. Vid. 
ARCHIAS. 

ACTJSUS ('AxTatof), son of Erisichthon, and 



ACTE. 



ADHERBAL. 



the earliest king of Attica. He had three daugh- 
ters, Agraulos, Herse, and Pandrosus, and was 
succeeded by Cecrops, who married Agraulos. 

ACTE, the concubine of Nero, -was originally 
a slave from Asia Minor. Nero at one time 
thought of marrying her ; whence he pretend- 
ed that she was descended from King Attalus. 
She survived Nero. 

ACTE ('AKTT?), properly a piece of land run- 
ning into the sea, and attached to another larger 
piece of land, but not necessarily by a narrow 
neck. 1. An ancient name of Attica, used espe- 
cially by the poets. 2. The eastern coast of 
Peloponnesus, near Troezen and Epidaurus. 
3. The peninsula between the Strymonic and 
Singitic gulfs, on which Mount Athos is. 

ACTIACUS. Vid. ACITUM. 

[Acns, one of the Heliadae, who, according 
to Diodorus, migrated from Rhodes to Egypt, 
founded Heliopolis, which he named after his 
father, and taught the Egyptians astrology. The 
same writer states that the Greeks, having lost 
by a delude nearly all the memorials of previ- 
ous events, became ignorant of their claim to 
the inventio.i of this science, and allowed the 
Egyptians to arrogate it to themselves. "Wesse- 
ling considers this a mere fable, based on the na- 
tional vanity of the Greeks.] 

ACTISANES ('A.KTiffdvtif), a. king of ^Ethiopia, 
who conquered Egypt and governed it with jus- 
tice, in the reign of Amasis. This Amasis is 
either a more ancient king than the contempo- 
rary of Cyrus, [or eke we must read Ammosis 
for Ainasis.] 

ACTIUM ("A-KTtov : 'A.KTiaic6f, "Ajcriof : now 
La, Punta, not Azio), a promontory, and likewise 
a place in Acarnania, at the entrance of the 
Ambracian Gulf, off which Augustus gained the 
celebrated victory over Antony and Cleopatra, 
on September 2, B.C. 31. At Actium there was 
originally no town, but only a temple of Apollo, 
who was hence called Actiacus and Actius. This 
temple was beautified by Augustus, who estab- 
lished, or rather revived a festival to Apollo, 
called Actia (vid. Diet, of Ant^ s. v.), and erect- 
ed NICOPOLIS on the opposite coast, in commem- 
oration of his victory. A few buildings sprung 
up around the temple at Actium, but the place 
was only a kind of suburb of Nicopolis. 

[ACTIUS ("A/criOf), an appellation of Apollo 
from his temple at Actium!] 

AOTIUS. Vid. ATTICS. 

ACTOR ("A/crwp). 1. Son of Deion and Dio- 
mede, father of Menoetius, and grandfather of 
Patroclus. 2. Son of Phorbas and Hyrmine, 
and husband of Molione, 3. A companion of 
JSneas, of whose conquered lance Turnus made 
a boast This story seems to have given rise 
to the proverb Actorit tpolium (Juv, iL, 100) 
for any poor spoil. 

ACTORIDES or AcrSRiON ('\KTopidiit or 'Aro- 
oiuv), patronymics of descendants of an Actor, 
such as Patroclus, Erithus, Eurytus, and Ctea- 
tus. 

ACTUARIUS, JOANNES, a Greek physician of 
Constantinople, probably lived in the reign of 
Andronicus II. Palteologus, A.D. 1281-1828. 
He was the author of several medical works, 
which are extant, [and most of which have been 
published by Ideler in his " Physici et Medici 
Graeci Minores," Berlin, 1841, teg.] 



ACCLEO, CT an eminent Roman lawyer, who 
.married the sister of Helvia, the mother of Cic- 
ero : his son was C. Visellius Varro ; whence it 
would appear that Aculeo was only a surname 
given to the father from his acuteness, and that 
his full name was C. Visellius Varro Aculeo. 

[ACUMENUS ('A/cov/zevof), a celebrated physi- 
cian of Athens, who lived in the fifth century'be- 
fore Christ, a friend and companion of Socrates.] 

ACUSILAUS ('A/cov<TiAaof), of Argos, one of the 
earlier Greek logographers, flourished about B. 
C. 525. Three books of his Genealogies are 
quoted, which were, for the most part, only a 
translation of Hesiod into prose. He wrote in 
the Ionic dialect His fragments are published 
by Sturz, Lips., 1824, and in Didot's Fragment. 
Histor. Grcec^ p. 100, seq. [2. An Athenian, 
who taught rhetoric at Rome in the time of 
Galba, and having amassed there great wealth, 
left it at his death to his countrymen.] 

[An. This preposition was often prefixed by 
the Romans to some natural object on the line 
of their marches, to indicate their stopping-place, 
especially when encamping in any quarter where 
they did not find any habitation or settlement by 
which the spot might be designated. Sometimes 
the preposition was prefixed to the ordinal num- 
ber, designating the distance in miles. Thus, 
Ad Aquas indicated a spot near which there was 
water, or an encampment near water ; Ad Quar- 
turn, " at the fourth mile-stone :" supply lapidem, 
<fec.] 

ADA ("Ada), daughter of Hecatomnus, king of 
Caria, and sister of Mausolus, Artemisia, Hi- 
drieus, and Pixodarus. She was married to her 
brother Hidrieus, on whose death (B.C. 344) she 
succeeded to the throne of Caria, but was ex- 
pelled by her brother Pixodarus in 340. When 
Alexander entered Caria in 334, Ada, who was 
in possession of the fortress of Alinda, surren- 
dered this place to him. After taking Halicar- 
nassus, Alexander committed the government 
of Caria to her. 

ADAMANTEA. Vid. AMALTHEA. 

ADAMANTKTS ('Adapuvrtof), a Greek physician, 
flourished about A.D. 415, the author of a Greek 
treatise on Physiognomy, which is borrowed in 
a great measure from Polemo's work on the 
same subject Edited by Franzius, in Scrip 
tores Phy&iognomice Veteres, 1780, 8vo. 

[ADAMAS ('Ada/zaf), a Trojan hero, slain by 
Meriones.] 

[ADAMAS ('Ada/taf), a river of India, where 
diamonds were found. It is now the Soank, 
but near its mouth is called Brammi. 

[AoiNA (rd "Adava : 'Adavetif : now Adana), 
a city in the interior of Cilicia, on the west side 
of the River Sarus, in a fruitful district of coun- 
try.] 

ADD&A (now Adda), a river of Gallia Cisal- 
pina, which rises in the Raetian Alps, and flows 
through the Lacus Larius (now Lago di Como) 
into the Po, about eight miles above Cremona. 

ADHERBAL (' ArupGar), son of Micipsa, and 
grandson of Masinissa, had the kingdom of Nu- 
midia left to him by his father in conjunction 
with his brother Hiempsal and Jugurtha, B.O. 
118. After the murder of his brother by Ju- 
gurtha, Adherbal fled to Rome, and was restored 
to his share of the kingdom by the Romans in 
117. But he was again stripped of his domiu- 
11 



ADIABENE. 

ions by Jugurtha, and besieged in Cirta, where 
he was treacherously killed by Jugurtha in 112. 
[According to Geseuius, the more Oriental form 
of the name is Atherbal, signifying " the wor- 
shipper of Baal :" from this the softer form Ad- 
herbal arose.] 

ADIABENE ('A.6ia6r}vij), a district of Assyria, 
east of the Tigris, and between the River Lycus, 
called Zabatus in the Anabasis of Xenophon, 
and the Caprus, both of which are branches of 
the Tigris. 

ADIMANTCS ('Aoe^avrof). 1. The commander 
of the Corinthian fleet when Xerxes invaded 
Greece (B.C. 480), vehemently opposed the ad- 
vice of Themistocles to give battle to the Per- 
sians. 2. An Athenian, one of the command- 
ers at the battle of ^Egospotami, B.C. 406, where 
he was taken prisoner. He was accused of 
treachery in this battle, and is ridiculed by Aris- 
tophanes in the " Frogs." 3. The brother of 
Plato, frequently mentioned by the latter. 

ADIS ('Adtf : now Rhades ?), a considerable 
town on the coast of Africa, in the territory of 
Carthage (Zeugitana), a short distance east of 
Tunis. Under the Romans it appears to have 
been supplanted by a new city, named Maxula. 

ADMETE ('Ad/wyn?). 1. Daughter of Oceanus 
and Tethys. 2. Daughter of Eurystheus and 
Antimache or Admete. Hercules was obliged 
by her father to fetch for her the girdle of Mars 
(Ares), which was worn by Hippolyte, queen of 
the Amazons. 

ADMETUS ("A.dprjTOf). 1. Son of Pheres and 
Periclymene or Clymene, was king of Pherae in 
Thessaly. He took part in the Calydonian hunt 
and in the expedition of the Argonauts. He sued 
for the hand of Alcestis, the daughter of Pelias, 
who promised her to him on condition that he 
should come to her in a chariot drawn by lions 
and boars. This task Admetus performed by 
the assistance of Apollo, who served him, ac- 
cording to some accounts, out of attachment to 
him, or, according to others, because he was 
obliged to serve a mortal for one year for hav- 
ing slain the Cyclopes. On the day of his mar- 
riage with Alcestis, Admetus neglected to offer 
a sacrifice to Diana (Artemis), but Apollo recon- 
ciled the goddess to him, and at the same time 
induced the Moiroe to grant to Admetus deliver- 
ance from death, if at the hour of his death his 
father, mother, or wife would die for him. Al- 
cestis died in his stead, but was brought back 
by Hercules from the lower world. 2. King of 
the Molossians, to whom THEMISTOCLES fled for 
protection, when pursued as a party to the trea- 
son of Pausanias. 

ADONIS ('A.duvif), a beautiful youth, beloved 
by Venus (Aphrodite). He was, according to 
Apollodorus, a son of Cinyras and Medarme, or, 
according to the cyclic poet Panyasis, a son of 
Theias, king of Assyria, and Smyrna (Myrrha). 
The ancient story ran thus : Smyrna had neg- 
lected the worship of Venus (Aphrodite), and 
was punished by the goddess with an unnatural 
love for her father. With the assistance of her 
nurse she contrived to share her father's bed. 
When he discovered the crime he wished to 
kill her ; but she fled, and on being nearly over- 
taken, prayed to the gods to make her invisible. 
They were moved to pity and changed her into 
a tree called cpvpva. After the lapse of nine 
12 



ADRASTIA. 

months the tree burst, and Adonis was born 
Venus (Aphrodite) was so much charmed with 
the beauty of the infant, that she concealed it in 
a chest which she intrusted to Proserpina (Per- 
sephone) ; but the hitter refused to give it up. 
Zeus decided the dispute by declaring that dur 
ing four months of every year Adonis should be 
left to himself, during four months he should 
belong to Proserpina (Persephone), and during 
the remaining four to Venus (Aphrodite). Ado- 
nis, howeiier, preferring to live with Venus 
(Aphrodite), also spent with her the four months 
over which he had control. Adonis afterward 
died of a wound which he received from a boar 
during the chase. The grief of the goddess at 
the loss of her favorite was so great, that the 
gods of the lower world allowed him to spend 
six months of every year with Venus (Aphro- 
dite) upon the earth. The worship of Adonis, 
which in later times was spread over nearly all 
the countries round the Mediterranean, was, as 
the story itself sufficiently indicates, of Asiatic, 
or more especially of Phoanician origin. Thence 
it was transferred to Assyria, Egypt, Greece, 
and even to Italy, though, of course, with vari- 
ous modifications. In the Homeric poems no 
trace of it occurs, and the later Greek poets 
changed the original symbolic account of Ado- 
nis into a poetical story. In the Asiatic religions 
Venus (Aphrodite) was the passive or vegeta- 
tive principle of nature. [Adonis represented 
the "sun as the fructifying principle, while the 
boar, said to have killed him, was the emblem 
of winter, during which the productive powers 
of nature being suspended, Venus (Aphrodite) 
was said to lament the loss of Adonis until he 
was again restored to life.] Hence he spends 
six months in the lower and six in the upper 
world. His death and his return to life were 
celebrated in annual festivals (Adonia) at By- 
blos, Alexandrea in Egypt, Athens, and other 
places. 

ADONIS ('Aduvif : now Nahr Ibrahim), a small 
river of Phoenicia, which rises in the range of 
Libanus. [At the anniversary of the death of 
Adonis, which was in the rainy season, its wa- 
ters were tinged red with the ochrous particles 
from the mountains of Libanus, and were hence 
fabled to flow with his blood.] 

ADRAMYTTIUM (A.6pap.vTTiov or 'A.tipa/ivTTiov : 
'AdpauvTTijvof : now Adramyti), a town of Mys- 
ia, near the head of the Gulf of Adramyttium, 
and opposite to the Island of Lesbos. 

ADEANA (now JEder), a river in Germany, 
which flows into the Fulda, near Cassel. 

ADEANUM or HADEANUM ('Adpavov, 'Adpavov, 
'AdpaviTTjf. now Aderno), a town in Sicily, on 
the river Adranus, at the foot of Mount JEtna, 
was built by Dionysius, and was the seat of tho 
worship of the god Adranus. 

ADEANUS ( 'A.6pav6f). Vid. ADEANUM. 

ADEASTIA ('Adpaerreia). 1. A Cretan nymph, 
daughter of Melisseus, to whom Rhea intrusted 
the infant Jupiter (Zeus), to be reared in the 
Dicteean grotto. 2. A surname of Nemesis, de- 
rived by some writers from Adrastus, who is 
said to have built the first sanctuary of Nemesis 
on the River Asopus,and by others from a,priv^ 
and dtdpacneiv, i. e., the goddess whom none 
can escape. 

[ADEASTIA ('Aopacrraa), a district of Mysia, 



ADRASTUS. 



^EACIDES. 



along the Propontis, through which the Granicus 
flowed, containing a city of the same name, said 
to have been founded by a King Adrastus, in 
which were a temple and oracle of Apollo and 
Diana.] 

ADRASTUS ('A<5paorof). 1. Son of Talaus, 
king of Argos, and Lysimache, or Lysianassa, or 
Eurynqme. Adrasttfs iras expelled from Argos 
by Amphiaraus, and fled to Polybus, king of 
Sicyon, whom he succeeded on the throne of 
Sicyon, and instituted the Nemean games. Af- 
terward he became reconciled to Amphiaraus, 
and returned to his kingdom of Argos. He 
married his two daughters, Deipyle and Argia, 
the former to Tydeus of Calydou. and the latter 
to Polynices of Thebes, both fugitives from their 
native countries. He now prepared to restore 
Polynices to Thebes, who had been expelled by 
his brother Eteocles, although Amphiaraus fore- 
told that all who should engage in the war should 
perish, with the exception of Adrastus. Thus 
arose the celebrated war of the " Seven against 
Thebes," in which Adrastus was joined by six 
other heroes, viz., Polynices, Tydeus, Amphia- 
raus, Capaneus, Hippomedon, and Partheno- 
paeus. Instead of Tydeus and Polynices other 
legends mention Eteocles and Mecisteus. This 
war ended as unfortunately as Amphiaraus had 
predicted, and Adrastus alone was saved by the 
swiftness of his horse Aiion, the gift of Hercu- 
les. Creon of Thebes refusing to allow the 
bodies of the six heroes to be buried, Adrastus 
went to Athens and implored the assistance of 
the Athenians. Theseus was persuaded to un- 
dertake an expedition against Thebes ; he took 
the city, and delivered up the bodies of the fallen 
heroes to their friends for burial. Ten years 
after this, Adrastus persuaded the seven sons of 
the heroes who had fallen in the war to make a 
new attack upon Thebes, and the oracle now 
promised success. This war is known as the 
war of the " Epigoni" ('ETriyovoi), or descend- 
ants. Thebes was taken and razed to the 
ground. The only Argive hero that fell in this 
war was JSgialeus, the son of Adrastus: the 
latter died of grief at Megara, on his way back 
to Argos, and was buried in the former city. 
He was worshiped in several parts of Greece, 
as at Megara, at Sicyon, where his memory was 
celebrated in tragic choruses, and in Attica. 
The legends about Adrastus, and the two wars 
against Thebes, furnished ample materials for 
the epic as well as tragic poets of Greece. 2. 
Son of the Phrygian king Gordius, having un- 
intentionally killed his brother, fled to Croesus, 
who received him kindly. While hunting, he 
accidentally killed Atys, the BOD of Croesus, and 
in despair put an end to his own life. [3. Son 
of Merops, an ally of the Trojans, probable 
founder of the city Adrastia, g. v.\ 

ADRIA or HADRIA. 1. (Now Adria), also call- 
ed Atria, a town in Gallia Cisalpina, between 
the mouths of the Po and the Athesia (now 
Adiye), from which the Adriatic Sea takes its 
name. It was originally a powerful town of 
the Etruscans. 2. (Now Atn), a town of Pice- 
tiiim in Italy, probably an Etruscan town origin- 
ally, afterward a Roman colony, at which place 
the family of the Emperor Hadrian lived. 

ADRIA ('\6piaf, Ion. 'AdpiTjf. 'Adpiavof) or 
MAKE ADRIATIOJM, also MARE SUPERUM, so call- 



ed from the town Adria [No. 1], was, in ita 
widest signification, the sea between Italy on 
the west, and Illvricum, Epirus, and Greece on 
the east. By the Greeks the name Adrias was 
only applied to the northern part of this sea, the 
southern part being called the Ionian Sea. 

[ADRIANOPOLIS. Vid. HADRIANOPOLIS.] 

ADRIANUS. Vid. HADRIANCS. 

ADRIANUS ('Adpiavof), a Greek rhetorician, 
born at Tyre in Phoenicia, was the pupil of He- 
rodes Atticus, and obtained the chair of philos- 
ophy at Athens during the lifetime of his mas- 
ter. He was invited by M. Antoninus to Rome, 
where he died about A.D. 192. Three of his de- 
clamations are extant, edited by Walz in Rhe 
tores Greed, vol. i., p. 526-33, Stuttg., 1832. 

[ADRIATTCUM MARE. Vid. ADRIA.] 

ADRUMETUM. Vid. HADRUMETUM. 

ADUATUOA, a castle of the Eburones in Gaul 
probably the same as the later Aduaca Tongro 
rum (now Tongern). 

ADUATUCI or ADUATICI, a powerful people of 
Gallia Belgica in the time of Caesar, were the 
descendants of the Cimbri and Teutoni, and 
lived between the Scaldis (now Scheldt) and 
Mosa (now Maas). 

ADULA MONS. Vid. ALPES. 

ADULE or ADULIS ('Adovhrj, "Adov7*,i<;, and also 
other forms : 'AdovMrij^, Adulitanus : ruins at 
Zula), a maritime city of ^Ethiopia, on a bay 
of the Red Sea, called Adulitauus Sinus ('Adov- 
/UrtKOf /co/lTrof, Annesley Bay*). It was believed 
to have been founded by slaves who fled from 
Egypt, and afterward to have fallen into the 
power of the Auxumitae, for whose trade it 
became the great Emporium. Cosmas Indico- 
pleustes (A.D. 535) found here the Monumentum 
Adulitanum, a Greek inscription recounting the 
conquests of Ptolemy II. Euergetes in Asia and 
Thrace. 

AoYRMAOHiD.fi (' Advp/uax'idai), a Lybian peo- 
ple, who appear to have once possessed the 
whole coast of Africa from the Canopic mouth 
of the Nile to the Catabathmus Major, but were 
afterward pressed further inland. In their man- 
ners and customs they resembled the Egyptians, 
to whom they were the nearest neighbors. 

^EA (Ala), sometimes with the addition of 
the word Colchis, may be considered either a 
part of Colchis or another name for the country. 
(Herod., L, 2.) [According to the scholium on 
Apoll. Rhod., the royal city of ^Eetes, on the 
Phasis, in Cholcis.] 

^EACES (AluKTje), son of Syloson, and grand- 
son of ^Eaces, was tyrant of Samos, but was de- 
prived of his tyranny by Aristagoras, when the 
lonians revolted from the Persians, B.C. 500. 
He then fled to the Persians, who restored him 
to the tyranny of Samos, B.C. 494. 

JElCEUM (AluKElOv). Vid. JEOINA. 

^EACIDES (Aianidr/f), a patronymic of the de- 
scendants of JSacus, ns Peleus, Telamon, and 
Phocus, sons of ^Eacus ; Achilles, son of Peleue, 
and grandson of uEacus ; Pyrrhus, son of Achil- 
les, and great-grandson of jEacus ; and Pyrrhus, 
king of Epirus, who claimed to be a descendant 
of Achilles. 

^EACIDES, son of Arymbas, king of Epirus, 

succeeded to the throne on the death of his 

oc ins:' u Alexander, who was slain in Italy, B.C. 

326. JSacides married Phthia, by whom he bad 

13 



J3ACUS. 



the celeornted PYRRHCS. He took an active 
part in favor of Olyrnpias against Cassander; 
but his subjects disliked the war, rose against 
their king, and drove him from the kingdom. 
He was recalled to his kingdom by his subjects 
in B.C. 313 : Cassander sent an army against 
him under Philip, who conquered him the same 
year in two battles, in the last of which he was 
killed. 

J5ACU3 (Aiflwof), son of Jupiter (Zeus) and 
JSgina, a daughter of the river-god Asopus. 
He was born in the Island of (Enone or GEno- 
pia, whither ^Egina had been carried by Ju- 
piter (Zeus), and from whom this island was 
afterward called JSgina. Some traditions re- 
lated that at the birth of JSacus, JSgina was not 
yet inhabited, and that Jupiter (Zeus) changed 
the ante (fivpftijKef) of the island into men (Myr- 
midones), over whom ^Eacus ruled. Ovid (Met. 
vii, 620) relates the story a little differently. 
jEacus was renowned in ail Greece for his jus- 
tice and piety, and was frequently called upon 
to settle disputes not only among men, but even 
among the gods themselves. He was such a 
favorite with the gods, that, when Greece was 
visited by a drought, rain was at length sent 
upon the earth in consequence of his prayers. 
Respecting the temple wnich ^Eacus erected to 
Jupiter (Zeus) Panhelleuius, and the JEaceum, 
where he was worshiped by the ^Eginetans, see 
^EGINA. After his death, JEacus became one of 
the three judges iu Hades. The ^Eginetans re- 
garded him as the tutelary deity of their island. 

MJE.A. (Atai'a). 1. A surname of Circe, the 
sister of JSetes. Her son, Telegonus, likewise 
bore the surname ^Eceus. 2. A surname of Ca- 
lypso, who was believed to have inhabited a 
small island of the name of jEsea in the straits 
between Italy and Sicily. 

[JElNES (A.uivT)f), a Locrian, slain by Patro- 
clus, to whom a grove (ALUVELOV Te/tevof) near 
Opus, in Locris, was consecrated.] 

[JSXxis (Aiavff),. a celebrated fountain near 
Opus, in Locris.] 

[^EANTKUM (AIUVTEIOV), a tomb and temple of 
the Telamonian Ajax, on the Rhcetean promon- 
tory in Troas.] 

.<ANT!DES (Alavridrjf), tyrant of Lampsacus, 
to whom Hippias gave his daughter Archedice 
in marriage. 2. A tragic poet of Alexandrea, 
one of the tragic Pleiades. He lived in the time 
of the second Ptolemy.] 

[^EAS (Ataf), more commonly Aous, q. vJ] 

^EBURA (now Cuervo), a town of the Carpe- 
tani, in Hispania Tarracouensis. 

jEficriA GENS, patrician, was distinguished 
in the early ages of the Roman republic, when 
many of its members were consuls, viz., in B.C. 
499, 463, and 442. 

J2cA or &cje. (JScanus), a town of Apulia, on 
the toad from Aquilonia in Samnium to Venusia. 

^ECULAN-UM or ^ECLANUM a town of the Hir- 
pmi in Samnium, a few miles south of Bene- 
ventum. 



: no \v Dipso), 
a town on the western coast of Eubcea, north 
of Chalcis, with warm baths (still famous), sa- 
cred to Hercules, which the dictator Sulla used. 
AKDON ('Aiydwv), daughter of Pandareus of 
Ephesus, wife of Zethus, king of Thebes, and 
mother of Itylus. Envious of Niobe, the wife | 
14 



j of her brother Amphion, who had six sons and 

I six daughters, she resolved to kill the eldest of 

| Niobe's sons, but by mistake slew her own son 

I Itylus. Jupiter (Zeus) relieved her grief by 

changing her into a nightingale, whose melan- 

i choly notes are represented by the poets ns 

| Aedon's lamentations about her child. Aedon's 

story is related differently in a later tradition. 

Moiii or HfioCi, one of the most powerful 
people in Gaul, lived between the Liger (now 
Loire) and the Arar (now Saone). They were 
the first Gallic people who made an alliance 
with the Romans, by whom they were called 
"brothers and relations." On Caesar's arrival 
in Gaul, B.C. 68, they were subject tc Ariovis- 
tus, but were restored by Caesar to their former 
power. In B.C. 52 they joined in the insurrec- 
tion of Vercingetorix against the Romans, but 
were at the close of it treated leniently by Cae- 
sar. Their principal town was BIBRACTE. Their 
chief magistrate, elected annually by the priests, 
was called Vergobretus. 

^EETES or J^ETA (A/j/r^f), son of Helios (the 
Sun) and Perseis, and brother of Circe, Pasi- 
phae, and Perses. His wife was Idyia, a daugh- 
ter of Oceanus, by whom he had two daughters, 
Medea and Chalciope, and one son, Absyrtus. 
He was king of Colchis at the time when Phrix- 
us came thither on the ram with the golden 
fleece. For the remainder of his history, see 
ABSYRTUS, ARGONAUTS, JASON, MEDEA, and 
PHRIXUS. [2. This name was also borne by 
later kings of Colchis, as mentioned by Xeno- 
phon in the Anabasis, and Strabo, who says it 
was a common appellation of the kings of Col- 
chis.] 

-<EETIS, JEETIAS, and JEKTINE, patronymics of 
Medea, daughter of ^Eetes. 

./EGA (fdyrj), daughter of Olenus, who, with 
her sister Helice, nursed the infant Jupiter 
(Zeus) in Crete, and was changed by the god 
into the constellation Capella. 

MGJE (A'r/ai : Alyalog). 1. A town in Acha 
ia on the Crathis, with a celebrated temple of 
Neptune (Poseidon), was originally one of the 
twelve Achaean towns, but its inhabitants sul- 
sequently removed to ^Egira. 2. A town in 
Emathia, in Macedonia, the burial-place of the 
Macedonian kings, was probably a different 
place from EDESSA. 3. A town in Euboea with 
a celebrated temple of Neptune (Poseidon), who 
was hence called ^Egaeus. 4. Also J>Qjej& (A.I- 
yalai : Alyear^f), one of the twelve cities of 
^Eolis in Asia Minor, north of Smyrna, on the 
River Hyllus : it suffered greatly from an earth- 
quake in the time of Tiberius. 5. (Now Ayas), 
a sea-port town of Cilicia Campestris, at the 
mouth of the Pyramus. 

[^Eo^EA (A.lyaia), an appellation of Venus 
(Aphrodite), from her being worshiped in the 
isles of the ./Egean.] 

EGJJON (Alyatuv), son of Uranus by G&ea. 
^Egaeon and his brothers Gyges and Cottus are 
known under the name of the Uranids, and are 
described as huge monsters with a hundred 
arms (^/caroy^etpef) and fifty heads. Most Avrit- 
ers mention the third Uranid under the name 
of Briareus instead of ^Egaeon, which is explain- 
ed by Homer (11., i., 403), who says that men 
called him JEgaeon, but the gods Briareus. Ac- 
cording to the most ancient tradition, JEgaeon 



M MARE. 



^EGIMIUS. 



aud his brothers conquered the Titans when 
they made war upon the gods, and secured the 
victory to Jupiter (Zeus), who thrust the Titans 
into Tartarus, and placed ^Egaeon and his broth- 
ers to guard them. Other legends represent 
^Egaeon as one of the giants who attacked Olym- 
pus ; and many writers represent him as a ma- 
rine god living in the ^Egean Sea. ^Egaaon and 
his brothers must be regarded as personifica- 
tions of the extraordinary powers of nature, 
such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and the 
like. 

JEojEcnt MARE (rd Myaiov nehayof, 6 fdyalof 
TTwrof), the part of the Mediterranean now 
called the Archipelago. It was bounded on the 
north by Thrace and Macedonia, on the west 
by Greece, and on the east by Asia Minor. It 
contains in its southern part two groups of 
islands, the Cyclades, which were separated 
from the coasts of Attica and Peloponnesus by 
the Myrtoan Sea, and the Sporades, lying off 
the coasts of Caria and Ionia. The part of the 
JSgaean which washed the Sporades was called 
the Icarian Sea, from the Island Icaria, one of 
the Sporades. The origin of the name of ^Egae- 
an is uncertain ; some derive it from -<Egaeus, 
the kiug of Athens who threw himself into it ; 
others from JEgaea, a queen of the Amazons, 
who perished there: others from ^Egae in Eu- 
boea ; and others from aiyis, a squall, on account 
of its storms. 

MGJEX& (Myaiof). Vid. MGM, No. 8. 

^EGALEOS (Alydfauf, rd Aiyakeuv opoj: now 
Skarmanga), a mountain in Attica, opposite Sal- 
amis, from which Xerxes saw the defeat of his 
fleet, B.C. 480. [2. (rd AlyaMov, now Mali), 
a mountain of Messenia, extending to Cory- 
phasium.] 

^EGATES, the goat islands, were three islands 
off the west coast of Sicily, between Drepanurn 
and Lilybaeum, near which the Romans gained 
a naval victory over the Carthaginians, and 
thus brought the first Punic war to an end, 
B.C. 241. The islands were ^Egusa (Alyovaaa) 
or Capraria (now Favignana), Phorbantia (now 
Levanzo), and Hiera (now Maretimo). 

./EGERIA or EGERIA, one of the Camense in 
Roman mythology, from whom Numa received 
his instructions respecting the forms of worship 
which he introduced. The grove in which the 
king had his interviews with the goddess, and 
in which a well gushed forth from a dark re- 
cess, was dedicated by him to the Camenae. 
The Roman legends point out two distinct 
places sacred to ^Egena, one near Aricia, and 
the other near Rome, at the Porta Capena, in 
the valley now called Caparella. JSgeria was 
regarded as a prophetic divinitv, and also as the 
giver of life, whence she was invoked by preg- 
nant women. [Niebuhr places the grove of 
Egeria below 8. Balbina, near the baths of Car- 
acalla. Wagner, in a dissertation on this sub- 
ject, is in favor of the valley of Ca/arella, some 
few miles from the present gate of 8. Sebastian.'] 

JSoESTA. Vid. SEGESTA. 

./EGESTUS. Vid. ACESTES. 

JSoEus (AtyefSf). 1. Son of Pandion and king 
of Athens. He had no children by his first two 
wives, but he afterward begot THESEUS by 
JSthra at Trcezen. When Theseus had grown 
up to manhood, he went to Athens and defeated 



the fifty sons of his uncle Pallas, who had made 
war upon JEgeus, and had deposed him. uEg- 
eus was now restored. When Theseus went to 
Crete to deliver Athens from the tribute it had 
to pay to Minos, he promised his father that on 
his return he would hoist white sails as a signal 
of his safety. On approaching the coast of At- 
tica he forgot his promise, and his father, per 
ceiving the black sail, thought that his son had 
perished, aud threw himself into the sea, which, 
according to some traditions, received from this 
event the name of the ^Egean. ^Egeus was one 
of the eponymous heroes of Attica ; and one of 
the Attic tribes (^Egeis) derived its name from 
him. 2. The eponymous hero 8f the phyle 
called the ^Egida8 at Sparta, son of CEolycus, 
and grandson of Theras, the founder of the col- 
ony in Thera. All the ^Egeids were believed 
to be Cadmeans, who formed a settlement at 
Sparta previous to the Dorian conquest 

J&GIJE, (Aiyeiai, Alyaiai), a small town in La- 
conia, not far from Gythium, the Auglse of Ho- 
mer (11, ii., 583). 

^EGIALE or JEGIALEA (Pdyiuhr], A/ytaAeta), 
daughter of Adrastus and Amphithea, or of 
^Egialeus, the son of Adrastus, whence she is 
called Adrastine. She was married to Diome- 
des, who, on his return from Troy, found her 
living in adultery with Cometes. The hero at- 
tributed this misfortune to the anger of Veaus 
(Aphrodite), whom he had wounded in the war 
against Troy : when ^Egiale threatened his life, 
he fled into Italy. 

^EGIALEA, ^EGIALOS. Vid. AOHAIA : SICTON. 

^EGIALECS (At/m/ler?). 1. Son of Adrastus, 
the only one among the Epigoni that fell in the 
war against Thebes. Via. ADRASTUS. 2. Son 
of Inachus and the Oceanid Melia, from whom 
the part of Peloponnesus afterward called Acha- 
ia [was fabled to have] derived its name JEgia- 
lea : he is said to have been the first king of 
Sicyon. 3. Son of ^Eetes, and brother of Medea, 
commonly called Ab'syrtus. 

^EGIDES (Aiyeicfyf), a patronymic from ./Eg- 
eus, especially his son Theseus. 

jEoiLA (TU Alyiha), a town of Laconia, with 
a temple of Ceres (Demeter). 

JEoiLiA (A.lyiMa : A.lyi?*,tv<;). 1. A demus 
of Attica belonging to the tribe Antiochis, cele- 
brated for its figs. 2. (Now Cerigotto), an island 
between Crete and Cythera. 3 [^Egilia (Alyi- 
faia, Hdt.).] An island west of Eubcea and op- 
posite Attica. 

./EGIMIUS (Afyfy/tof), the mythical ancestor of 
the Dorians, whose king he was when they were 
yet inhabiting the northern parts of Thessaly. 
Involved in a war with the Lapithoe, he called 
Hercules to his assistance, and promised him 
the third part of his territory if he delivered 
him from his enemies. The Lapithse were con- 
quered. Hercules did not take the territory for 
himself, but left it to the king, who was to pre- 
serve it for the sons of Hercules. ^Egimiua 
had two sons, Dymas and Pamphylus, who mi- 
grated to Peloponnesus, and were regarded as 
the ancestors of two branches of the Doric race 
(Dy manes and Pamphy linns), while the third 
branch derived its name from Hyllus (Hylle- 
ans,) the son of Hercules, who had been adopt- 
ed by ./Egimius. There existed in antiquity an 
epic poein called ^Eyimius, which described the 



^EGIMURUS. 



^EGOSTHENA. 



war of JSgimius and Hercules against the La- 
oithte. 

JSoiMtEus (A/yt/iovpof, ^EgimSri Arse, Plin n 
and probably the Arse of Virg., ./En., i., 108 ; 
now Zownnour or Zembra), a lofty island, sur- 
rounded by cliffs, off the African coast, at the 
mouth of the Gulf of Carthage. 

JSolNA (Alyiva : Atyivj?r7f : now Eghina), a 
rocky island in the middle of the Saronic Gulf, 
about two hundred stadia in circumference. It 
was originally called QSnone or GEnopia, and is 
said to have obtained the name of uEgiua from 
^Egina, the daughter of the river-god Asopus, 
who was carried to the island by Jupiter (Zeus), 
and there bor4 him a sou, ^Eacus. As the island 
had then no inhabitants, Jupiter (Zeus) changed 
the ants into men (Myrmidones), over whom 
.<Eacus ruled. Vid. ^Excus. It was first colo- 
nized by Achaeans, and afterward by Dorians 
from Epidaurus, whence the Doric dialect and 
customs prevailed in the island. It was at first 
closely connected with Epidaurus, and was sub- 
ject to the Argive Phidon, who is said to have 
established a silver mint in the island. It early 
became a place of great commercial importance, 
jnd its silver coinage was the standard in most 
of the Dorian states. In the sixth century B.C. 
lEgina became independent, and for a century 
before the Persian war was a prosperous and 
powerful state. The ^Eginetans fought with 
thirty ships against the fleet of Xerxes at the 
battle of Salamis, B.C. 480, and are allowed to 
have distinguished themselves above all the 
other Greeks by their bravery. After this time 
its power declined. In B.C. 429 the Athenians 
took possession of the island and expelled its 
inhabitants, and though a portion of them were 
restored by Lysander in B.C. 404, the island 
never recovered its former prosperity. In the 
northwest of the island there was a city of the 
same name, which contained the JEaceum or 
temple of JSacus, and on a hill in the northeast 
of the island was the celebrated temple of Jupi- 
ter (Zeus) Panhellenius, said to have been built 
by JEacus, the ruins of which are still extant 
The sculptures which occupied the tympana of 
the pediment of this temple were discovered in 
1811, and are now preserved at Munich. In 
the half century preceding the Persian war, and 
for a few years afterward, JEgina was the chief 
seat of Greek art : the most eminent artists of 
the JEginetan school were GALLON, ANAXAGOEAS, 
GLAUCIAS, SIMON, and ONATAS. 

[JSaiNA (tuyiva), daughter of Asopus, and 
mother of JEacus, q. v. and foregoing article.] 

^EGISETA PAOLBS. Vid. PAULUS ^EGINETA. 

JSoiNicH (Aiyiviov : Myivieve ; now Stagus), 
a town of the Tymphaei in Thessaly, on the con- 
fines of Athamania. 

./EGIOCITUS (Atyto^of), a surname of Jupiter 
(Zeus), because he bore the asgis. 

JSoiPAN (Alfiirav), that is, Goat-Pan, was, 
according to some, a being distinct from Pan, 
while others regard him as identical with Pan. 
His story appears to be of late origin. Vid. PAN. 

JSaiPLANcrus MONS (rb biyiTtl.ayK.Tov opof), 
a mountain in Megaris. 

.<EG!BA (AIypa: AtyeipuTj/f), formerly Hy- 
peresia ('TTrepj/ffto), a town in Achaia on a steep 
bill, with a sea-port about twelve stadia from 
the town, Vid. &QX, No. 1. 
16 



[./EGIRUS (Aiyetpof), a village in the island of 
Lesbos, supposed by some scholars to be the 
town of uEolis alluded to by Herodotus under 
the name JEgirussa, but Herodotus says expli- 
citly that the towns there mentioned were on the 
mam land.] 

^EGIRUSSA (Alyipoeaaa, Aiyipovaoa), one of 
the cities of ^Eolis in Asia Minor. 

JSoisTHUS (Alyiadof), son of Thyestes, who 
unwittingly begot him by his own daughter Pe- 
lopia. Immediately after his birth he was ex- 
posed, but was saved by shepherds, and suckled 
by a goat (<u), whence his name. His uncle 
Atreus brought him up as his son. When Pe- 
lopia lay with .her father, she took from him hia 
sword, which she afterward gave to ^Egisthus. 
This sword was the means of revealing the 
crime of Thyestes, and Pelopia thereupon put 
an end to ner own life. JEgisthus murdered 
Atreus, because he had ordered him to slay his 
father Thyestes, and he placed Thyestes upon 
the throne, of which he had been deprived by 
Atreus. Homer appears to know notliiug of 
these tragic events ; and we learn from him' 
only that JEgisthus succeeded bis father Thy- 
estes in a part of his dominions. According to 
Homer, JUgisthus took no part in the Trojan 
war, and during the absence of Agamemnon, 
the son of Atreus, JEgisthus seduced his wife 
Clytemuestra. ^lEgisthus murdered Agamem- 
non on his return home, and reigned seven 
years over Mycenae. In the eighth, Orestes, 
the son of Agamemnon, avenged the death of 
his father by putting the adulterer to death. 
Vid. AGAMEMNON, CLYTEMNESTRA, ORESTES. 

^EGITHALLUS (AtytflaAAof : now C. di S. Teo- 
doro), a promontory in Sicily, between Lily- 
baeum and Drepanum, near which was the town 
jEgithallum. 

JEGITIUM (AiyiTiov : near Varndkova, Leake) 
a town in ^Etolia, on the borders of Locris. 

^EGIUM ( Puyiov : Aijievf : now Vostitza), a 
town of Achaia, and the capital after the de- 
struction of Helice. The meetings of tha 
Achaean League were held at ^Egium in a grovfc 
of Jupiter (Zeus), called Homarium. 

JSGLE (AZyA??), that is, " Brightness" or " Splen 
dor," is the name of several mythological fe 
males, such as, 1. The daughter of Jupiter (Zeus) 
and Nesera, the most beautiful of the Naiads. 
2. A sister of Phaethon. 3. One of the Hesper 
ides. 4. A nymph beloved by Theseus, foi 
whom he forsook Ariadne. 5. One of the daugh 
ters of ^Esculapius. 

^EGLETES (A/y/wJr?^), that is, the radiant god 
a surname of Apollo, 

JEoocEKUS (Atyoxepuf), a surname of Pa& 
descriptive of his figure with the horns of t 
goat, but more commonly the name of one of 
the signs of the Zodiac, Capricornus. 

jEoos-PoTAMoa (Atydf 7roro//6f [more usuall) 
in good authors, Aiyof iroTapoi ; in Latin writers 
^Effos F 'lumen : Atyof Trora/ur^f]), the " goat'i 
river," a small river, with a <wn of the samt 
name on it, [now probably ffalata], in the Thra 
cian Chersonesus, flows into the Hellespont 
Here the Athenians were defeated by Lysandei 
B.C. 405. 

^EGOSTHENA (AiyoaOeva : AlyocrQevevf : A'tyo 
aBeviTTjc), a town in Megaris, on the borders oi 
Bceotia, with a sanctuary of Melampi** 



JiGUS. 



vEGYPTUS. 



and ROSCILLUS, two chiefs of the Allo- 
broges, who had served Caesar with fidelity in 
the Gallic war, deserted to Pompev in Greece 
(B.C. 48). 

^EGUSA. Vid. AGATES. 

^EGTPSUS or ^Eavsus, a town of Moesia on 
the Danube. 

[^EGYPTIUS (Alyvxrcof), an Ithacan hero, of 
noble descent and much experience, who open- 
ed the first assembly of the people called after 
the departure of Ulysses for Troy.] 

JSuypros (Ayti;rrof), a son of Belus and An- 
chinoe or Acbiroe, and twin-brother of Danaus. 
Belus assigned Libya tb Danaus, and Arabia to 
.dSgyptus, but the latter subdued the country of 
the Melampodes, which he called Egypt, after 
his own name. ^Egyptus by his several wives 
had fifty sons, and his brother Dauaus fifty 
daughters. Danaus had reason to fear the sons 
of his brother, and fled with his daughters to 
Argos in Peloponnesus. Thither he was fol- 
lowed by the sons of jEgyptus, who demanded 
his daughters for their wives, and promised 
faithful alliance. Danaus complied with their 
request, and distributed his daughters among 
them, but to each of them he gave a dagger, 
with which they were to kill their husbands in 
the bridal night All the sons of ^Egyptus were 
thus murdered, with the exception of Lynceus, 
who was saved by Hypermnestra. The Danaids 
buried the heads of their murdered husbands in 
Lerna, and their bodies outside the town, and 
were afterwards purified of their crime by Mi- 
nerva (Athena) aud Mercury (Hermes) at the 
command of Jupiter (Zeus). 

^EGYPTUS (^ AlyvTirof : AfyvTmof, ^Egyptius : 
DOW Egypt}, -a country in the northeastern cor- 
ner of Africa, bounded on the north by the Med- 
iterranean, on the east by Palestine, Arabia Pe- 
traeo, and the Red Sea, on the south by Ethiopia, 
the division between the two countries being at 
the First or Little Cataract of the Nile, close to 
Syene (now Assouan: lat. 24 8'), and on the 
west by the Great Lybian Desert. This is the 
extent usually assigned to the country ; but it 
would be more strictly correct to define it as 
that part of the basin of the Nile which lies be- 
low the First Cataract 

1. Physical Description of Egypt. The River 
Nile, flowing from south to north through a nar- 
row valley, encounters, in lat 24 8', a natural 
barrier, composed of two islands (Philae and Ele- 
phantine), and between them a bed of sunken 
rocks, by which it is made to fall in a series 
of cataracts, or rather rapids, (ru KaTadovira, 6 
(iiicpdf Kara/fyia/cTjff, Catarrhactes Minor, com- 
pare CATAaanACTEs), which have always been 
regarded as the southern limit assigned by na- 
ture to Egypt. The river flows due north be- 
tween two ranges of hills, so near each other 
ns to leave scarcely any cultivable land, as far 
as Silsilis (now Jebel Selxcleh), about forty miles 
below Syene, where the valley is enlarged by 
the western range of hills retiring from the 
river. Thus the Nile flows for about five hun- 
dred miles, through a valley whose average 
breadth is about seven miles, between hills 
which in one place (west of Thebes) attain the 
height of ten or twelve hundred feet above the 
tea, to a point some few miles below Memphis, 
where the western range of hills ruos to the 



northwest, and the eastern range strikes off U 
the east, aud the river divides into branches 
(seven in ancient tinie, but now only two), which 
flow through a low alluvial land, called, from its 
shape, the Delta, into the Mediterranean. To 
this valley and Delta must be added the coun- 
try round the great natural lake Mceris (no\v 
Birket-el-Keroun), called Nomos Arsinoites (now 
Faiowri), lying northwest of Heracleopolis, and 
connected with the Valley of the Nile by a break 
in the western range of hills. The whole dis- 
trict thus described is periodically laid under 
water by the overflowing of the Nile from April 
to October. The river, in subsiding, leaves be- 
hind a rich deposit of fine mud, which forms 
the soil of Egypt. All beyond the reach of the 
inundation is rock or sand. Hence Egypt was 
called the " Gift of the Nile." The extent of the 
cultivable land of Egypt is in the Delta about 
4500 square miles, in the valley about 2255, in 
Faioum about 340, and in all about 7095 square 
miles. The outlying portions of ancient Egypt 
consisted of three cultivable valleys (called Oa- 
ses), in the midst of the "Western or Libyan 
Desert, a valley in the western range of hills on 
the west of the Delta, called Nomos Nitriotes 
from the Natron Lakes which it contains, some 
settlements on the coast of the Red Sea, and in 
the mountain passes between it and the Nile, 
and a strip of coast on the Mediterranean, ex- 
tending east as far as Rhinocolura (now El- 
Arish), and west as far (according to some of 
the ancients) as the Catabathtnus Magnus (long, 
about 25 10' E.). The only river of Egypt is 
the Nile. Vid. NILUS. A great artificial canal 
(the Bahr-Yussouf, i. e, Joseph's Canal) runs 
parallel to the river, at the distance of about six 
miles from Diospolis Parva, in the Thebais, to 
a point on the west mouth of the river about 
half way between Memphis and the sea. Many 
smaller canals were cut to regulate the irriga 
tion of the countiy. A canal from the eastern 
mouth of the Nile to the head of the Red Sea 
was commenced under the native kings, and 
finished by Darius, son of Hystaspes. Thero 
were several lakes in the country, respecting 
which vid. MCERIS, MARKOTIS, BUTOS, TANK. 
SIRBONIS, and LACUS AMARL 

2. Ancient History. At the earliest period tc 
which civil history reaches back, Egypt was. 
inhabited by a highly civilized agricultural peo 
pie, under a settled monarchical government, 
divided into castes, the highest of which was 
composed of the priest", who were the minis 
ters of a religion based on a pantheistic worship 
of nature, and having for its sacred symbols not 
only images, but also living animals and even 
plants. The priests were also in possession of 
all the literature aud science of the country, and 
all the employments based upon such knowl- 
edge. The other castes were, second, the sol 
did s ; third, the husbandmen ; fourth, the art 
ificers and tradesmen ; and last held in great 
contempt, the shepherds or herdsmen, poulter 
ers, fishermen, and servants. The Egyptians 
possessed a written language, which appears tc 
have had affinities with both the great families 
i>f Language, the Semitic and the Indo-Euro 
pean ; and the priestly caste had, moreover 
the exclusive knowlege of a sacred system oi 
writing, the characters of which are known by 
17 



jEGYPTUS 

the name of Hieroglyphic*, iu contradistinction j 
to which the common characters are called En- \ 
cltorial (i.e., of the country). They were ac- 
quainted with all the processes of manufacture 
which are essential to a highly civilized com- 
munity : they had made great advances in the 
fine arts, especially architecture and sculpture 
(for in painting their progress was impeded by a 
want of knowledge of perspective); they were 
deterred from commercial enterprise by the poli- 
cy of the priests, but they obtaiued foreign pro- 
ductions to a great extent, chiefly through the 
Plwenicians, and at a later period they engaged 
iu maritime expeditions ; in science they do not 
seem to have advanced so far as some have 
thought, but their religion led them to cultivate 
astronomy and its application to chronology, and 
the nature of their country made a knowledge 
of geometry (in its literal sense) indispensable, 
and their application of its principles to architect- 
ure is attested by their extant edifices. There 
can be little doubt that the origin of this remark- 
able people and of their early civilization is to 
be traced to the same Asiatic source as the 
early civilization of Assyria and India. The 
ancient history of Egypt may be divided into 
four great periods : (1.) From the earliest times 
to its conquest by Cambyses ; during which it 
was ruled by a succession of native princes, into 
the difficulties of whose history this is not the 
place to inquire. The last of them, Psammen- 
itus, was conquered and dethroned by Cambyses 
in B.C. 525, when Egypt became a province of 
the Persian empire. During this period Egypt 
was but little known to the Greeks. The Ho- 
meric poems show some slight acquaintance 
with the country and its river (which is also 
called AiiyuTTTOf, Od., xiv., 25), and refer to the 
wealth and splendor of " Thebes with the Hund- 
red Gates." In the latter part of the period 
learned men among the Greeks began to travel 
to Egypt for the sake of studying its institu- 
tions ; among others, it was visited by Pythag- 
oras, Thales, and Solon. (2.) From the Persian 
conquest in B.C. 525, to the transference of their 
dominion to the Macedonians in B.C. 332. This 
period was one of almost constant struggles be- 
tween the Egyptians and their conquerors, until 
B.C. 340, when Nectanebo II., the last native 
ruler of Egypt, was defeated by Darius Ochus. 
It was during this period that the Greeks acquir- 
ed a considerable knowledge of Egypt. In the 
wars between Egypt and Persia, the two leading 
states of Greece, Athens and Sparta, at different 
times assisted the Egyptians, according to the 
state of their relations to each other and to Per- 
sia; and, during the intervals of those wars, 
Egypt was visited by Greek historians and phi- 
losophers, such as Hellanicus, Herodotus, An- 
axagoras, Plato, and others, who brought back 
to Greece the knowledge of the country which 
they acquired from the priests and through per- 
sonal observation. (3.) The dynasty of Mace- 
donian kings, from the accession of Ptolemy, 
the son of Lagus, in B.C. 323, down to B.C. 3o| 
when Egypt became a province of the Roman 
empire. When Alexander invaded Egypt in B. 
C. 332, the country submitted to him without a 
struggle ; and while he left it behind him to re- 
turn to the conquest of Persia, he conferred upon 
it the greatest benefit that was in bis power bv 
18 ' * 



^EGYPTUS. 

giving orders for the building of Alexandrea In 
the partition of the empire of Alexander after 
his death in B.C. 323, Egypt fell to the share 
of Ptolemy, the sou of Lagus, who assumed the 
title of King iu B.C. 306, and founded the dynas- 
ty of the Ptolemies, under whom the country 
greatly flourished, and became the chief seat of 
Greek learning. But soon came the period of 
decline. Wars with the adjacent kingdom of 
Syria, and the vices, weaknesses, ami dissen- 
sions of the royal family, wore out the state, 
till in B.C. 81 the Romans were called upon to 
interfere in the disputes for the crown, and in 
B.C. 55 the dynasty of fhe Ptolemies came to 
be entirely dependent on Roman protection, and 
at last, after the battle of Actium and the death 
of Cleopatra, who was the last of the Ptolemies, 
Egypt was made a Roman province, B.C. 30. 
(4.) Egypt under the Romans, down to its con- 
quest by the Arabs in A.D. 638. As a Roman 
province, Egypt was one of the most flourish- 
ing portions of the empire. The fertility of its 
soil, and its position between Europe and Ara- 
bia and India, together with the possession of 
such a port as Alexandrea, gave it the full bene- 
fit of the two great sources of wealth, agricul- 
ture and commerce. Learning continued to 
flourish at Alexandrea, and the patriarchs of the 
Christian Church in that city became so power- 
ful as to contend for supremacy with those of 
Antioch, Constantinople, and Rome, while a 
succession of teachers, such as Origen and 
Clement of Alexandrea, conferred real lustre 
on the ecclesiastical annals of the country. 
When the Arabs made their great inroad upon 
the Eastern empire, the geographical position 
of Egypt naturally caused it to fall an imme- 
diate victim to that attack, which its wealth 
and the peaceful character of its inhabitants in- 
vited. It was conquered by Amrou, the lieu- 
tenant of the Calif Omar, in A.D. 638. 

3. Political Geography. From the earliest 
times the country was divided into (1.) The 
Delta, or Lower Egypt (TO AeXra, rj KO.TU x^P a 
now El-Bahari, El-Kebit) ; (2.) The Heptauomis, 
or Middle Egypt ('E.Trravo/itic.,fific:Tav upa, now 
Mesr Mostani) ; (3.) The Thebais, or Upper Egypt, 

jjfiaif, TI dvu X^P a i now Said) : and it was fur- 
ther subdivided into thirty-six nomes or govern- 
ments. [Under the Ptolemies the number of 
nomes became enlarged, partly by reason of the 
new and improved state of things in that quar- 
ter of Egypt where Alexandrea was situated, 
partly by" the addition of the Greater or Lesser 
Oasis to Egypt, and partly, also, by the altera- 
tions which an active commerce had produced 
along the borders of the Sinus Arabicus. A 
change also took place about this same period 
in the three main divisions of the country. 
Lower Egypt, now no longer confined itself to 
the limits of the Delta, but had its extent en- 
larged by the addition of some of the neighbor 
ing nomes. In like manner, Upper Egypt, or 
the Thebais, received a portion of what had 
formerly been included within the limits of Mid- 
dle Egypt, so that eventually but seven nomes 
remained to this last-mentioned section of the 
country, which, therefore, received the name 
of Heptanomis. The number of nomes became 
still further increased, at a subsequent period, 
by various subdivisions of the older ones. At 



^EGYS. 

\ still later period we Lear little more of the 
acmes. A new division of the country took 
place uuder the Eastern empire. An imperial 
prefect exercised sway not. only over Egypt, 
but also over Libya as far as Gyrene, while a 
Comes Militaris had charge of the forces. From 
this time the whole of Middle Egypt, previous- 
ly named Neptanomis, bore the name of Arcadia, 
in houor of Arcadius, eldest son of Theodosius. 
A new province had also arisen, a considerable 
time before this, called Augustamnica, from its 
lying chiefly along the Nile. It comprised the 
eastern half of the Delta, together with a por- 
tion of Arabia, as far as the Arabian Gulf, and 
also the cities on the Mediterranean as far as 
the frontiers of Syria. Its capital was Pelu- 
sium.J Respecting the Oases, vid. OASIS. 

uEGYS (Atyvf, Ar/iir^f, Aiyvevf: near Ghior- 
gitza), a town of Laconia on the borders of Ar- 
cadia, 

^ELANA (Ai/laf a : At/lav/Tj/f : now Akaba), & 
town on the northern arm of the Red Sea, near 
the Bahr-el-Akaba, which was called by the 
Greeks jElanltes, from the name of the town. It 
is the Elath of the Hebrews, and one of the sea- 
ports of which Solomon possessed himself, to 
carry on trade with Ophir and the remote East 

.<ELIA GENS, plebeian, the members of which 
are given under their surnames, GALLUS, LAMIA, 
P^KTUS, SEJANUS, STLLO, TUBERO. 

JSuA, a name given to Jerusalem after its 
restoration by the Roman emperor _<Elius Ha- 
drianus. 

[^ELIA, a name of females of the JSlia gens. 
1. Wife of Sulla. 2. Pjetlna, of the family of 
the Tuberos, and wife of the Emperor Claudius. 
She was repudiated by him in order to make' 
way for Messalina.] 

^ELIANUS, CLAUDIUS, was born at Praneste 
in Italy, and lived at Rome about the middle of 
the third century of the Christian era. Though 
an Italian, he spoke and wrote Greek as well as 
& native Athenian. He never married, and lived 
to the age of sixty. Two of his works have 
come down to us : one a collection of miscel- 
laneous history (lioiKi'Xij 'laropia), in fourteen 
books, commonly called Varia Historia; and 
the other a work on the peculiarities of animals 
(Ilept Z<joi> i6ioT7iTO(f), in seventeen books, com- 
monly called De Animalium Natura. The for- 
mer work contains short narrations and anec- 
dotes, historical, biographical, antiquarian, <tc., 
selected from various authors, generally with- 
out their names being given, and on a great 
variety of subjects. The latter work is of the 
same kind! scrappy and gossipping. It is part- 
ly collected from older writers, and partly the 
result of his own observations both in Italy and 
abroad. There are also attributed to him twen- 
ty letters on husbandry ('A.ypoiKtKal 'ETrtoroAat), 
written in a rhetorical style and of no value. 
Editions : Of the Varia Hixtoria, by Pcmonius, 
Leyden, 1701 ; by Gronorius, Leyden, 1731 ; 
and by Kiihn, Leipsic, 1780. Of the De Ani- 
malium Natura, by Gronovius, London, 1744; 
by J. Schneider, Leipsic, 1784; and by Fr. Ja- 
cobs, Jena, 1832. Of the Letters, by Aldus 
Mauutius, in the Collectio JSpistolarum Grceca- 
rmii. Venice, 1499, 4to. 

[JSLIANUS, Lucius, one of the thirty tyrants 
under the Roman empire, about 267 A.D., who 



^ENEADES. 

assumed the imperial purple in Gaul, but was 
killed by his own soldiers.] 

^EUANUS MECCIUS, an ancient physician, who 
must have lived in the secoud century after 
Christ, as he is mentioned by Galen as the 
oldest of his tutors. 

JELIANUS TACTICUS, a Greek writer, who lived 
in Rome and wrote a work on the Military Tac- 
tics of the Greeks (Ilepi SrpaTijyiKtiv TU|C<JV 
'E^riviKuv), dedicated to the Emperor Hadrian. 
He also gives a brief account of the constitu 
tion of a Roman army at that time. Editions . 
By Franciscus Robortellus, Venice, 1552 ; and 
by Elzevir, Leyden, 1613. 

AELLO, one of the Harpies. Vid. HARPYLE. 

AELLOPUS ('Ae/lAoTro^f), a surname of Iris, the 
messenger of the gods, by which she is described 
as swift-footed as a storm-wind. 

EMILIA. 1. The third daughter of L. _<Emil 
ius Paulus, who fell in the battle of Cannae, was 
the wife of Scipio Africanus I. and the mother 
of the celebrated Cornelia, the mother of the 
Gracchi. 2. ^Emilia Lepida. Vid. LEPIDA. 
3. A Vestal virgin, put to death B.C. 114 for 
having violated her vows upon several occa- 
sions. 

^EMILIA GENS, one of the most ancient patri- 
cian gentes at Rome, said to have been descend- 
ed from Mamercus, who received the name of 
^Emilius on accouut of the persuasiveness of 
his language (oV al/ivhiav Aoyov). This Mamer- 
cus is represented by some as the son of Py- 
thagoras, and by others as the son of Numa. 
The most distinguished members of the gens 
are given under their surnames, BARBULA, LEP- 
IDUS, MAMERCUS or MAMERCINUS, PAPUS, PAU- 
LUS, REGILLUS, SCAURUS. 

^EMILIA VIA, made by M. ^Emilius Lepidus. 
cos. B.C. 187, continued the Via Flaminia from 
Ariminum, and traversed the heart of Cisalpine 
Gaul through Bononia, Mutina, Parma, Placeti- 
tia (where it crossed the Po) to Mediolanum. It 
was subsequently continued as far as Aquileia. 

^EMILIANUS. 1. The son of L. ^Emihus Pau 
lus Macedonicus, was adopted by P. Cornelius 
Scipio, the son of P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus, 
and was thus called P. Cornelius Scipio ^Emil- 
ianus Africanus. Vid. SCIPIO. 2. The govern- 
or of Pannonia and Moesia in the reign of Gal- 
lus, was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers in 
A.D. 253, but was slain by them after reigning 
a few months. 3. One of the thirty tyrants 
(A.D. 259-268), assumed the purple in Egypt, 
but was taken prisoner and strangled by order 
of Gallienus. 

^EMILIUS PROBUS. Vid. NEPOS, CORNELIUS. 

[ .KM<'>IM: INSULT. Vid. J I.KMOD.E.] 

^EMONA or EMONA (now Laibach), a fortified 
town in Panuouia, and an important Roman 
colony, said to have been built by the Argonauts. 

JS.NARIA, also called PITHECUSA and INARIMK 
(now Ischia), a volcanic island off the coast of 
Campania, at the entrance of the Bay of Na- 
ples, under which the Roman poets represent- 
ed Typhoeus as lying. 

yE.NKA (\lveia : A.lveivc, A.lveiuTtif), a town 
in Chalcidice, on the Thermaic Gulf. [2. ^ENEA 
VETUS, a city near the Achelous, in Acarnania, 
in Strabo'a time destroyed : further south was 
jEnla Nova, now in ruins, near Palceo Catvuna.~\ 
(A.lviu6rif), a patronymic from 
19 



AENEAS 



^ENUS. 



J3neas, given to his son Ascanius or lulus, and 
to those who were believed to be descended 
from him, such ns Augustus, and the Romans 
in general. 

JSxiiAs (\lveictf). 1. Homeric Story. ./Eneas 
was the son of Anchises and Venus (Aphrodite), 
and born on Mount Ida. On his father's side 
lie was a great-grandson of Tros, and thus near- 
ly related to the royal house of Troy, as Priam 
himsslf was a grandson of Tros. He was edu- 
cated from his infancy at Dardanus, in the house 
of Alcathous, the husband of his sister. At first 
he took no part in the Trojan war ; and it was 
not till Acnilles attacked him on Mount Ida, 
and drove away his flocks, that he led his Dar- 
danians against the Greeks. Henceforth he 
and Hector are the great bulwarks of the Tro- 
jans against the Greeks, and ./Eneas appears 
beloved by gods and men. On more than one 
occasion he is saved in battle by the gods : 
Venus (Aphrodite) carried him off when he was 
wounded by Diomedes, and Neptune (Poseidon), 
when he was on the point of perishing by the 
hands of Achilles. Homer makes no allusion 
to the emigration of ./Eneas after the capture 
of Troy, but, on the contrary, he evidently con- 
ceives ./Eneas and his descendants as reigning 
at Troy after the extinction of the house of 
Priam. Later Stories. The later stories pre- 
sent the greatest variations respecting the eon- 
duct of ./Eneas at the capture of Troy and in 
the events immediately following. Most ac- 
counts, however, agree that after the city had 
fallen, he withdrew to Mount Ida with his friends 
and the images of the gods, especially that of 
Pallas (the Palladium) ; and that from thence 
he crossed over to Europe, and finally settled in 
Latium in Italy, where he became the ancestral 
hero of the Romans. A description of the wan- 
derings of ./Eneas before he reached Latium, 
and of the various towns and temples he was 
believed to have founded during his wander- 
ings, is given by Dionysius of Halicarnassus 
(L, 50, Ac.), whose account is, on the whole, the 
same as the one followed by Virgil in his ./Eueid, 
although the latter makes various embellish- 
ments and additions, some of which, such as 
his landing at Carthage and meeting with Dido, 
are irreconcilable with mythical chronology. 
From Pallene, where ./Eneas stayed the winter 
after the taking of Troy, he sailed with his com- 
panions to Delos, Cythera, Boiae in Laconia, 
Zacynthus, Leucas, Actium, Ambracia, and to 
Dodono, where he met the Trojan Helenus. 
From Epirus he sailed across the Ionian Sea to 
Italy, where he landed at the lapygian promon- 
tory. Thence he crossed over to Sicily, where 
he met the Trojans, Elymus and JEgestus (Aces- 
tes), and built the towns of Elyme and ^Egesta. 
From Sicily he sailed back to Italy, landed in 
the port of Palinurus, came to the Island of 
Leucasia, and at last to the coast of Latium. 
Various signs pointed out this place as the end 
of his wanderings, and he and his Trojans ac- 
cordingly settled in Latium. The place where 
they had landed was called Troy. Latiuus, 
king of the Aborigines, prepared for war, but 
afterward concluded an alliance with the stran- 
gers, gave up to them part of his dominions, and 
with their assistance conquered the Rutulians. 
iEneas founded the town of Lavinium, called 
20 



! after Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, whom h 
married. A new war then followed between 
Latinus and Turnus, in which both chiefs fell, 
whereupon ^Eneas became sole ruler of the 
! Aborigines and Trojans, and both nations were 
united into one. Soon after this ./Eneas fell in a 
battle with the Rutulians, who were assisted 
by Mezentius, king of the Etruscans. As hie 
body was not found after the battle, it was be- 
lieved that it had been carried up to heaven, 
or that he had perished in the River Numicius. 
The Latins erected a monument to him, with 
the inscription To the father and native god. 
Virgil represents ./Eneas landing in Italy seven 
years after the fall of Troy, and comprises all 
the events in Italy from the landing to the death 
of Turnus, within the space of twenty days. 
The story of the descent of the Romans from 
the Trojans through ./Eneas was believed at an 
early period, but probably rests on no historical 
foundation. 2. ./ENEAS SILVIUS, son of Silvius, 
and grandson of Ascanius, is the third in the list 
of the mythical kings of Alba in Latium : the Sil- 
vii regarded him as the founder of their house. 

./ENEAS GAZ^EUS, so called from Gaza, his 
birth-place, flourished A.D. 487. He was at 
first a Platonist and a Sophist, but afterward 
became a Christian, when he composed a dia- 
logue, on the Immortality of the Soul, called 
Theophrastus. Editions : By Barthius, Lips., 
1655 ; By Boissonade, Par., 1836. 

./ENEAS TACTICUS, a Greek writer, may be the 
same as the ./Eneas of Stymphalus, the genera] 
of the Arcadians, B.C. 362 (Xen., Hell., vii., 3 
1) ; and he probably lived about that period. 
He wrote a work on the art of war, of which a 
portion only is preserved, commonly called Com 
mentarius Poliorceticus, showing how a siege 
should be resisted. An epitorqe of the whole 
book was made by Cineas. (Cic., ad Fam., ix.. 
25.) Editions : By Ernesti, Lips., 1763; by 
Orelli, Lips, 1818. 

./ENESIDEMUS (Alvijcidri/tof), a celebrated skep- 
tic, born at Cnosus in Crete, probably lived a 
little later than Cicero. He differed on many 
points from the ordinary skeptics. The grand 
peculiarity of his system was the attempt to 
unite skepticism with the earlier philosophy, to 
raise a positive foundation for it by accounting 
from the nature of things for the never-ceasing 
changes both in the material and spiritual world. 
None of the works of ./Enesidemus have come 
down to us. To them Sextus Empiricus wa 
indebted for a considerable part of his work. 
[2. (Dor. Alvnaidafioe), father of Theron, tyrant 
of Agrigentum. Vid. THERON.] 

[ JfeiA. Vid. .<ENEA.] 

./ENIANES (Alviuvef, Ion. 'Eviijv ef), an ancient 
Greek race, originally near Ossa, afterward in 
southern Thessaly, between (Eta and Othrys, 
on the banks of the Spercheus. 

[^ENI PONS (now Innsbruck), a town of Raetia, 
on the ,/Enus.] 

^ENCS (AZvof : Atmof, A-lvidrrj : now Eno), 
an ancient town in Thrace, near the mouth of 
the Hebrus, mentioned in the Iliad. It was col- 
onized by the ./Eolians of Asia Minor. Virgil 
(jn., iii., 18) supposes JEnos to have been built 
by ./Eneas, but he confounds it with ^ENEA in 
Chalcidice. Under the Romans Enos was a 
free town, and a place of importance. 



^ENUS. 



J3QUI. 



(now Inn), a river in Rsetia, the bound- 
ary between Rsetia and Norieura. 

^EOLKS or Mui.ii (A/oP-eZf), one of the chief 
branches of the Hellenic race, supposed to be 
descended from JSolus, the son of Hellen. Vid. 
JSoLus, No. 1. They originally dwelt in Thes- 
saly, from whence they spread over various 
parts of Greece, and also settled in -<Eolis in 
Asia Minor, and in the Island of LESBOS. 

^Ei'>Li-E INSULT (al At'oAov vr/aoi : now Lipari 
Inlands), % group of islands northeast of Sicily, 
where uEolus, the god of the winds, reigned. 
Homer (Od., x., 1) mentions only one JSolian 
island, and Virgil (un^ i., 52) accordingly 
speaks of only one jEolia (sc. insula), where 
jEolus reigned, supposed to be Strongyle or 
Lipara. These islands were also called Hephces- 
fiades or Vulcariice, because Hephaestus or Vul- 
can was supposed to have had his workshop in 
one of them, called Hiera. (Virg, jEn^ viii., 
415, seq.) They were also named Liparenses, 
from Lipara, the largest of them. The names 
of these islands were Lipara (now Lipari), Hiera 
(now Volcano), Strougyle (now Slromboli), Phce- 
nieusa (now Felicudi), Ericusa (now Alicudi), 
Euonymus (now Panaria), Didyme (now Sa- 
lina), Hicesia (now Lisca Bianco), Basilidia (now 
Basiliszo), Osteodes (now Ustica). 

^EOLIDKS (A.ioM6tif), a patronymic given to 
the sons of JSolus, as Athamas, Cretheus, Sis- 
yphus, Salmoneus, <fec., and to his grandsons, 
ns Cephalus, Ulysses, and Phrixus. [The name 
bolides, applied by Virgil (^En., 6, 164) to Mi- 
senus, is supposed by some to have arisen from 
the legendary connection between the ^Eolian 
and Campanian Cumae ; others suppose that, as 
Miacuue played upon a wind-instrument, the 
poet, by 11 figurative genealogy, makes him the 
son of the wind-god jiEolus. It is much more 
probable, however, that Virgil calls him ^Eolides 
as indicating merely his descent from a mortal 
father named ^Eolus, the same, probably, with 
the one slain in battle with the Latins (JEn., 12, 
542, seq.).] ^E-ilis is the patronymic of the fe- 
male descendants of JEolus, given to his daugh- 
ters Canace and Alcyone. 

JSoLis (AtoAtf), or ^EOLIA, a district of Mysia 
in Asia Minor, was peopled by JSolian Greeks, 
whose cities extended from the Troad along the 
shores of the JSgean to the River Hermus. 
In early times their twelve most important 
cities were independent, and formed a league, 
the members of which celebrated an annual fes- 
tival (the Panatolivm) at Cyme. The twelve 
cities comprising this league were Cyme, La- 
rissffi, Neontlchos, Temnus, Cilia, Notium, 
JSgirQsa, Pitane, JSgaeae, Myrina, Grynga, and 
Smyrna; but SMYRNA subsequently became a 
member of the Ionian confederacy. (Herod, 
i, 149, seq.) These cities were subdued by 
Croesus, and were incorporated in the Per- 
sian empire on the conquest of Croesus by 
Cyrus. 

^EOLUS (AZoAof). Son of Hellen and the 
nymph Orseis, and brother of Dorus and Xu- 
thus. He was the ruler of Thessaly, and the 
founder of the -fiolic branch of the Greek na- 
tion. His children are said to have been very 
numerous ; but the most ancient story men- 
tions only four sons, vi/., Sisyphus, Athnmas, 
Cretheus, and Salmoneus. The great extent 



of country which this race occupied probably 
gave rise to the varying accounts about the 
number of his children. 2. Son of Hippotes, or, 
according to others, of Neptune (Poseidon) and 
Arne, a descendant of the previous ^Eolus. His 
story probably refers to the emigration of a 
branch of the ^Eoh'ans to the west. His mother 
was carried to Metapontum in Italy, where she 
gave birth to JEolus and his brother Boeotus. 
The two brothers afterward fled from Metapon- 
tum, and -^Eolus went to some islands in the 
Tyrrhenian-Sea, which received from him the 
name of the yEolian Islands. Here he reigned 
as a just and pious king, taught the natives the 
use of sails for ships, and foretold them the na- 
ture of the winds that were to rise. In these 
accounts JSolus, the father of the ^Eolian race, 
is placed in relationship with ^Eolus, the ruler 
and god of the winds. In Homer, however, 
JSolus, the son of Hippotes, is neither the god 
nor the father of the winds, but merely the 
happy ruler of the Molina Island, to whom Ju- 
piter (Zeus) had given dominion over the winds, 
which he might soothe or excite according to his 
pleasure. (Od,, x, 1, seq.) This statement of 
Homer, and the etymology of the name of Mo- 
lus from aeAAw, led to J-iolus being regarded in 
later times as the god and king of the winds, 
which he kept inclosed in a mountain. It is, 
therefore, to him that Juno applies when she 
wishes to destroy the fleet of the Trojans. 
(Virg., JSn., i., 78.) The ^Eoh'an Island of Ho- 
mer was in later times believed to be Lipara or 
Strongyle, and was accordingly regarded as the 
place in which the god of the winds dwelt. Vid. 



(Anreta : A(7rearj?f). 1. A town in 
Messenia on the sea-coast, afterward THUEIA, 
[as Strabo says, but, according to Pausanias, 
the later COHOXE.] 2. A town in Cyprus, after- 
ward SOLI. 

MPY (Alirv), a town in Elis, situated on a 
height, as its name indicates. 

.^EPYTUS (A.IITVTOC). A mythical king of Ar- 
cadia, from whom a part of the country was 
called JSpytis. 2. Youngest son of the Hera- 
clid Cresphontes, king of Messenia, and of Mer- 
ope, daughter of the Arcadian king Cypselus. 
When his father and brothers were murdered 
during an insurrection, ^Epytus alone, who was 
with his grandfather Cypselus, escaped the dan- 
ger. The throne of Cresphontes was, in the 
mean time, occupied by the Heraclid Polyphon- 
ies, who also forced Merope to become his wife. 
When JSpytus had grown to manhood, he re- 
turned to his kingdom, and put Polyphonies to 
death. From him the kings of Messenia were 
called JSpytids instead of the more general 
name Heraclids. 8. Son of Hippothous, king 
of Arcadia, and great-grandson of the ^Epytus 
mentioned first [4. Son of Neleus, grandson 
of Codrus, founder of Priene.] 

^EQUI, ^EQUICSLI, ^EQUICOLAE, JSQuIctfLAia, 
an ancient warlike people of Italy, dwelling in 
the upper valley of the Anio, in the mountains 
forming the eastern boundary of Latium, and 
between the Latini, Sabini, Hernici, and Marsi. 
In conjunction with the Volsci, who were of the 
same race, they carried on constant hostilities 
with Rome, but were finally subdued in B.C. 
3(12. One of their chief seats was Mount 
21 



FALISCL 



^ESCHINES. 



Algidus, from which they were accustomed to 
make their marauding expeditions. 

. Ki;i i FALISCI. Vid. FALEHII. 

^EQUIM^ELIUM. Vid. M-fiLius. 

[^EQOUM TUTICUM. Vid. EQUCS TUTICUS.] 

[AERIA (now Mont Vcnteux), a city of Gallia 
Narbonensis, having an elevated and airy situa- 
tion.] 

[AERIAS, an ancient king of Cyprus, who is 
said to have founded the temple of Venus (Aph- 
rodite) at Paphos.] 

AEROPE ('AepoJny), daughter of Catreus, king 
of Crete, and grand-daughter of Minos. Her 
lather, who had received an oracle that he 
should lose his life by pne of his children, gave 
her and her sister Clymene to Nauplius, who 
was to sell them in a foreign land. Aerope mar- 
ried Plisthenes, the son of Atreus, and became 
bv him the mother of Agamemnon and Menelaus. 
After the death of Plisthenes, Aerope married 
Atreus ; and her two sons, who were educated 
by Atreus, were generally believed to be his 
sons. Aerope was faithless to Atreus, being 
seduced by Thyestes. 

[AEROPUS ('AtpoTrof), brother of Perdiccas, 
n~ho was the first Macedonian king of the race 
of Temeuus, B.C. 670. 2. Aeropus I., king of 
Macedonia, great-grandson of Perdiccas, father 
of Alcetas. 3. Aeropus II., king of Macedonia, 
guardian of Orestes, the son of Archelaus, whom 
he murdered, after reigning jointly with him for 
four years ; after this he ruled for two years 
, alone, and was then succeeded by his son Pausa- 
nias.] 

[^EEROPUS MONS (now Trcbusin), a mountain 
range of Illyricum, at the base of which flows 
the Aous.] 

^ESACUS (Ataa/cof), son of Priam and Alex- 
irrhoe. He lived far from his father's court, 
in the solitude of mountain forests. Hespe- 
ria, however, t^>e daughter of Cebren, kindled 
love in his heart, and on one occasion, while he 
was pursuing her, she was stung by a viper and 
died. jEsacus in his grief threw himself into 
the sea, and was changed by Tethys into an 
aquatic bird. This is the story related by Ovid 
(met., xi., 761, seq.}, but it is told differently by 
Apolloderus. 

^ESAR, the name of the deity among the 
Etruscans. 

^ESAR or ^ESARUS (now Esaro), a river near 
Croton, in the country of the Brutti, in Southern 
Italy. 

^ESCHINKS (Alax'i-vjjf). 1. The Athenian ora- 
tor, born B.C. 389, was the son of Atrometus 
and Glaucothea. According to Demosthenes, 
his political antagonist, his parents were of dis- 
reputable character, and not even citizens of 
Athens; but ^Eschines himself says that his 
father was descended from an honorable family, 
and lost his property during the Peloponnesian 
war. In his youth, ^Eschines appears to have 
assisted his father in his school ; he next acted 
as secretary to Aristophon, and afterward to 
Eubulus ; he subsequently tried his fortune as 
on actor, but was uusuccesaful ; and at length, 
after serving with distinction in the army, came 
forward as a public speaker, and soon acquired 
great reputation. In 847 he was sent, along 
with Demosthenes, as one of the ten ambassa- 
dors to negotiate a peace with Philip: from this 



time he appears as the friend of the Macedonian 
party and as the opponent of Demosthenes. 
Shortly afterward ./Eschines formed one of the 
second embassy sent to Philip to receive the 
oath of Philip to the treaty which had been con- 
cluded with the Athenians ; but, as the delay 
of the .ambassadors in obtaining the ratification 
had been favorable to the interests of Philip. 
^Eschines, on his return to Athens, was ac- 
cused by Timarchus. He evaded the danger by 
bringing forward a counter-accusation against 
Timarchus (345), and by showing that the moral 
conduct of his accuser was such that he had no 
right to speak before the people. The speech 
in which ^Eschines attacked Timarcbus is still 
extant: Timarchus was condemned, and ^Es- 
chines gained a brilliant triumph. In 343, De- 
mosthenes renewed the charge against JSschi- 
nes of treachery during his second embassy to 
Philip. This charge of Demosthenes (Kepi na- 
paTrpeofieiaf) was not spoken, but published as a 
memorial, and ^Eschines answered it in a sim- 
ilar memorial on the embassy (nepl TrapcmpEO- 
dEiaf), which was likewise published. Short- 
ly after the battle of Chasronea, in 338, which 
gave Philip the supremacy in Greece, Ctesiphon 
proposed that Demosthenes should be rewarded 
for his services with a golden crown in the the- 
atre at the great Dionysia. Eschines availed 
himself of the illegal form in which this reward 
was proposed to be given to bring a charge 
against Ctesiphon on that ground, but he did 
not prosecute the charge till eight years later 
330. The speech which he delivered on the 
occasion is extant, and was answered by De- 
mosthenes in his celebrated oration on the 
crown (nepl GTE&UVOV). ^Eschines was defeat- 
ed, and withdrew from Athens. He went to 
Asia Minor, and at length established a school 
of eloquence at Rhodes. On one occasion he 
read to his audience in Rhodes his speech 
against Ctesiphon, [and, after receiving much 
applause, he was desired to. read the speech of 
his antagonist. When he had done this, his 
auditors expressed great admiration ; " but," 
exclaimed ^Eschines, " how much greater would 
have been your admiration if you bad heard (De- 
mosthenes) himself!"] From Rhodes he went 
to Samos, where he died in 314. Besides the 
three orations extant, we also possess twelve 
letters which are ascribed to ^Eschines, but 
which are the work of late sophists. Editions. 
In the editions of the Attic orators (vid. DEMOS- 
THENES), and by Bremi, Zurich, 1823. 2. Au 
Athenian philosopher and rhetorician, and a 
disciple of Socrates. After the death of his 
master, he went to Syracuse ; but returned to 
Athens after the expulsion of Dionysius, and 
supported himself, receiving money for his in- 
structions. He wrote several dialogues, but 
the three which have come down to us under 
his name are not genuine. Editions: By Fis- 
cher, Lips, 1786; by Bockh, Heidel., 1810; and 
in many editions of Plato. 3. Of Neapolis, a 
Peripatetic philosopher, who was at the head 
of the Academy at Athens, together with Char- 
madas and Clitomachus, about B.C. 109. 4. Of 
Miletus, a contemporary of Cicero, and a dis- 
tinguished orator in the Asiatic style of elo- 
quence. [5. A distinguished individual among 
the Eretrians, who disclosed to the Athenians 



jESCHRION. 



J2SCULAP11TS. 



the treacherous designs of some of his country- 
men, when the former had come to their aid 
against the Persians. 6. An Acarnanian, com- 
mander of a company of light-armed troops in 
the retreat of the ten thousand under Aeno- 
phon.] 

JDscHniox (At(Tpw). 1. Of Syracuse, whose 
wife Pippa was one of the mistresses of Verres, 
and who was himself one of the scandalous in- 
struments of Verres. 2. An iambic poet, a na- 
tive of Samos. There was an epic poet of the 
same name, who was a native of Mytilene and 
a pupil of Aristotle, and who accompanied Alex- 
ander on some of his expeditions. He may 
perhaps be the same person as the Samian. 
8. A native of Pergamus, and a physician in 
the second century after Christ, was one of 
Galen's tutors. 

^ESCHYLUS (A.iffxv%os). 1. The celebrated 
tragic poet, was born at Eleusis in Attica, B.C. 
525, so that he was thirty-five years of age at 
the time of the battle of Marathon, and contem- 
porary with Simonides and Pindar. His father 
Euphorion was probably connected with the 
worship of Ceres (Demeter), and ^Eschylus 
himself was, according to some authorities, ini- 
tiated in the mysteries of this goddess. At the 
age of twenty-five (B.C. 499), he made his first 
appearance as a competitor for the prize of 
tragedy, without being successful. He, with 
bis brothers Cynaegirus and Aminius, fought at 
the battle of Marathon (490), and also at those 
of Salamis (480) and Plataea (479). In 484 he 
gained the prize of tragedy ; and in 472 he gain- 
ed the prize with the trilogy, of which the Per- 
6<E, the earliest of his extant dramas, was one 
piece. In 468 he was defeated in a tragic con- 
test by his younger rival, Sophocles ; and he is 
said in consequence to have quitted Athens in 
disgust, and to have gone to the court of Hiero, 
king of Syracuse, where he found Simonides, 
the lyric poet In 467 his friend and patron 
King Hiero died ; and in 458 it appears that 
/Eschylus was again at Athens, from the fact 
that the trilogy of the Oresteia was produced 
in that year. In the same or the following 
year he again visited Sicily, and he died at 
Qela in 456, in the sixty-ninth year of his age. 
It is said that an eagle, mistaking the poet's 
bald head for a stone, let a tortoise fall upon it 
to break the shell, and so fulfilled an oracle, ac- 
*ordiug to which JSschylus was fated to die by 
a blow from heaven. The alterations made by 
xEschylus in the composition and dramatic rep- 
resentation of Tragedy were so great, that he 
was considered by the Athenians as the father 
of it, just as Homer was of Epic poetry and 
Herodotus of History. Even the improve- 
ments and alterations introduced by his suc- 
cessors were the natural results and sugges- 
tions of those of xEschylus. The first and prin- 
cipal alteration which he made was the intro- 
duction of a second actor (devTepayuviorijf), and 
the consequent formation of the dialogue prop- 
erly so called, and the limitation of the choral 
parts. The innovation was of course adopted 
by his contemporaries, just as xEschylus him- 
oelf followed the example of Sophocles, in sub- 
sequently introducing a third actor. But the 
improvements of JEschylus were not limited to 
the composition of tragedy : he added the re- 



sources of art in its exhibition. Thus he is 
said to have availed himself of the skill of Ag- 
atharchus, who painted for him the first scenes 
which had ever been drawn according to the 
principles of linear perspective. He also fur- 
nished his actors with more suitable and mag- 
nificent dresses, with significant and various 
masks, and with the thick-soled cothurnus, to 
raise their stature to the height of heroes. He 
moreover bestowed so much attention on the 
choral dances, that he is said to have invented 
various figures himself, and to have instructed 
the choristers in them without the aid of the 
regular ballet-masters. With him, also arose 
the usage of representing at the same time a 
trilogy of plays connected in subject, so that 
each formed one act, as it were, of a great whole, 
which might be compared with some of Shaks- 
peare's historical plays. Even before the time 
of ^Eschylus, it had been customary to contend 
for the prize of tragedy with three plays exhibit- 
ed at the same time, but it was reserved for him 
to show how each of three tragedies might be- 
complete in itself, and independent of the rest, 
and nevertheless form a part of an harmonious 
and connected whole. The only example still 
extant of such a trilogy is the Oresteia, as it 
was called. A satyrical play commonly follow- 
ed each tragic trilogy. xEschylus is said to 
have written seventy tragedies. Of these only 
seven are extant, namely, the Persians, the 
Seven against Thebes, the Suppliants, the Pro- 
metheus, the Agamemnon, the Choephori, and Eu- 
menides; the last three forming, as already re- 
marked, the trilogv of the Oresteia. The Per- 
sians was acted in 472, and the Seven against 
Thebes a year afterward. The Oresteia was rep- 
resented in 458 ; the Suppliants and the Pro- 
metheus were brought out some time between 
the Seven against Thebes and the Oresteia. It 
has been supposed from some allusions in the 
Suppliants, that this play was acted in 461, 
when Athens was allied with Argos. Editions : 
By Schutz, third edition, Hal. Sax, 1808-21 ; by 
Wellauer, Lips, 1823: by W. Dinclorf, Lips"., 
1827, and Oxon., 1832; and by Scholefield, 
Camb, 1830. [The best edition, so far as it 
goes, is that by Blomfield, which unfortunately 
was never completed, containing only five of 
the seven remaining tragedies. 2. of Cuidus, 
a contemporary of Cicero, and one of the most 
celebrated rhetoricians of Asia Minor. 3. Of 
Rhodes, was appointed by Alexander the Great 
one of the inspectors of the governors of that 
country after its conquest, in B.C. 332.] 

AESCULAPIUS (' Aff/cA^Twof), the god of the med- 
ical art. In the Homeric poems ^Esculapius is 
not a divinity, but simply the " blameless physi- 
cian" (IIJTT/P ufivfujv), whose sons, Machaon and 
Podallrius, were the physicians in the Greek 
army, and ruled over Tricca, Ithome, and CEcha- 
lia. Homer says nothing of the descent of ^Es- 
culapius. The cominon fltory relates that he 
was a sou of Apollo and Coronis, and that when 
Coronis was with child by Apollo, she became 
enamored with Ischys, an Arcadian. Apollo, 
informed of this by a raven, which he had set 
to watcli her, or, according to others, by his own 
prophetic powers, sent his sister Artemis to kill 
Coronis. Artemis accordingly destroyed Co- 
ronis in her own house at Laceiia iu Thessaly, 
23 



^ESEPUS. 



.ESOPU&. 



ou the shore of Lake Bbia. According to Ovid j 
(Met n ii., 605), it was Apollo himself who killed 
Coronis and Ischys. When the body of Corouis 
was to be burned, either Apollo or Mercury 
(Hermes) saved the child ^Esculupius from the 
flames, and carried it to Chiron, who instructed 
the boy in the art of healing and in hunting. 
There are various other narratives respecting 
his birth, according to some of which he was 
a native of Epidaurus, and this was a common 
opinion in later times. After he had grown 
up, reports spread over all countries, that he 
not only cured all the sick, but called the dead 
to life again. But while he was restoring 
Glaucus to life, Jupiter (Zeus) killed him with 
a flash of lightning, as he feared lest men might 
contrive to escape death altogether, or because 
Pluto had complained of ^Esculapius diminish- 
ing the number of the dead. But on the 
request of. Apollo, Jupiter (Zeus) placed MBCU- 
lapius among the stars. .^Esculapius is also 
said to have taken part in the expedition of the 
Argonauts and in the Calydoman hunt. He 
was married to Epione, and besides the two 
sons spoken of by Homer, we also find mention 
of the following children of his : laniscus, Alex- 
enor, Aratus, Hygieia, -*Egle, laso, and Pana- 
ceia, most of whom are only personifications of 
the powers ascribed to their father. ^Escula- 
pius was worshipped all over Greece. His 
temples were usually built in healthy places, on 
hills outside the town, and near wells which 
were believed to have healing powers. These 
temples were not only places of worship, but 
were frequented by great numbers of sick per- 
sons, and may therefore be compared to modern 
hospitals. The principal seat of his worship in 
Greece was Epidaurus, where he had a temple 
surrounded with an extensive grove. Serpents 
were everywhere connected with his worship, 
probably because they were a symbol of pru- 
dence and renovation, and were believed to 
have the power of discovering herbs of won- 
drous powers. For these reasons, a peculiar 
kind of tame serpents, in which Epidaurus 
abounded, was not only kept in his temple, but 
the god himself frequently appeared in the form 
of a serpent At Rome the worship of JSscu- 
lapius was introduced from Epidaurus at the 
command of the Delphic oracle or of the Sybil- 
line books, in B.C. 293, for the purpose of avert- 
ing a pestilence. The supposed descendants of 
uEsculapius were called by the patronymic name 
Asclepiadce ('A<7/cAj?7rtd<5at), and their principal 
seats were Cos and Cnidus. They were an order 
or caste of priests, and for a long period the 
practice of medicine was intimately connected 
with religion. The knowledge of medicine was 
regarded as a sacred secret, which was trans- 
mitted from father to son in the families of the 
Asclepiadze. Respecting the festivals of ^Escu- 
apius, vid. Diet, of Antiq. 

[JSsErcs (AIa>?7rof), son of Bucolion and the 
nymph Abarbarea, slain 'by Euryalus before 
Iroy.] 

^Esfipus (AZff^TOf :) [now Soklu according to 
Leake, but usually considered the modern Satal- 
dere\, a river which rises in the mountains of 
Ida, and flows by a northerly course into the 
Propontis, which it enters west of Cyzicus and 
iasl of the Granicus. 
24 



(^Esermnus: now Isernia), a town 
in Samnium, made a Roman colony in the first 
Punic war. 

J !~ i,- (now Esino or fiumesino), a river which 
formed the boundary between Picenum and 
Umbria, was anciently the southern boundary 
of the Senones, and the northeastern boundary 
of Italy proper. 

JSsis or ^Esiusi (^Eslnas : now Jesi), a town 
and a Roman colony in Umbria, on the River 
^Esis, celebrated for its cheese, ^Eslnas caseus. 

^ESON (\lauv), son of Cretheus, the founder 
of lolcus, and of Tyro, the daughter of Salmo- 
neus, and father of Jason and Promachus. He 
was excluded from the throne by his half-brother 
Pelias, who endeavored to keep the kingdom to 
himself by sending Jason away with the Argo- 
nauts. Pelias subsequently attempted to get 
rid of uEson by force, but the latter put an end 
to his own life. According to Ovid (Mct^ vii., 
162, seq.), JEson survived the return of the Argo- 
nauts, and was made young again by Medea. 

[^ESONIDES (Aiaovttirif), a patronymic given 
to the sons of ^Eson, especially Jason.] 

^Esopus (AtffWTrof). 1. A writer of fables, 
lived about B.C. 570, and was a contemporary 
of Solon. He was originally a slave, and re- 
ceived his freedom from his master ladmon the 
Samian. Upon this he visited Croesus, who 
sent him to Delphi, to distribute among the citi- 
zens four minae apiece ; but in consequence of 
some dispute on the subject, he refused to give 
any money at all, upon which the enraged Del- 
phians threw him from a precipice. Plagues 
were sent upon them from the gods for the of- 
fence, and they proclaimed their willingness to 
give a compensation for his death to any one who 
could claim it. At length ladmou, the grandson 
of ^Esop's old master, received the compensa- 
tion, since no nearer connection could be found. 
A life of ^Esop prefixed to a book of fables pur- 
porting to be his, and collected by Maximus 
Planudes, a monk of the fourteenth century, 
represents ^Esop as a perfect monster of ugli- 
ness and deformity ; a notion for which there is 
no authority whatever in the classical authors. 
Whether ^Esop left any written works at all, 
is a question which affords considerable room 
for doubt ; though it is certain that fables, bear- 
ing ^Esop's name, were popular at Athens in its 
most intellectual age. We find them frequently 
noticed by Aristophanes. They were in prose, 
and were turned into poetry by several writers. 
Socrates turned some of them into verse during 
his imprisonment, and Demetrius Phalereus 
(B.C. 320) imitated his example. The only 
Greek versifier of .<Esop, of whose writings any 
whole fables are preserved, is Babrius. VwL 
BABRITS. Of the Latin writers of jEsopean 
fables, Phsodrus is the most celebrated. Vid. 
PH^EDRUS. The Fables now extant in prose, 
bearing the name of ^Esop, are unquestionably 
spurious, as is proved by Bentley in his disser- 
tation on the fables of Jfesop appended to his 
celebrated letters on Phalaris. Editions: By 
Ernesti, Lips., 1781 ; by De Furia, Lips., 1810 
reprinted by Coray at Paris, 1810; and by 
Schaefer, Lips., 1820. 2. A Greek historian, 
who wrote a life of Alexander the Great. The 
original is lost, but there is a Latin translation 
of it by Julius VALERIUS. 



^ESOPUS. 



^ETHIOPIA. 



./Esopus, CLAUDIUS, or CLODIUS, was the great- 1 Caesar, B.C. 44, and from other official documents 
est tragic actor at Rome, and a contemporary < Edited by Gronovius, in his edition of Pompo 



of Roscius, the greatest comic actor; and both 
of them lived on intimate terms with Cicero. 
./Esopus appeared for the last time on the stage, 
at an advanced age, at the dedication of the 
theatre of Pompey (B.C. 55), when his voice 
failed him, and he could not go through with the 
speech. ,/Esopus realized an immense fortune 
by his profession, which was squandered by his 
eon, a foolish spendthrift. It is said, for instance, 
that this son dissolved in vinegar and drank a 
pearl worth about 8000, which he took from 
the ear-ring of Csecilia Metella. 

JEsryi, or ^Esxui, a people dwelling 



on the sea-coast, in the northeast of Germany, 
probably in the modern Kurland, who collected 
amber, which they called glessum. Their cus- 
toms, says Tacitus, resembled the Suevic, and 
their language the British. They were proba- 
bly a Sarmatian or Slavonic race, and not a 
Germanic. 

./ESULA (./Esulanus), a town of the ./Equi, on a 
mountain between Prseneste and Tibur. 
declive arvum, Hor., Carm^ iii., 29.) 

[JSsYETES (AlffVTJTfis), & Trojan hero, whose 
son Alcathous married a daughter of Anchises. 
His tomb is alluded to by Homer, according to 
whom it served as a post of observation, and is 
said by Strabo to have been five stadia distant 
from Troy, 011 the road leading to Alexandrea 
Troas. A conical mound is still pointed out in 
that vicinity as the tomb of ./Esyetes, and bears 
the appellation ITdjek-TepeJ] 



(Atatytt>7/n/f), BH appellation of 
Bacchus (Dionysus), which means "Lord," 
" King," and under which he was honored espe- 
cially at Aroe in Achaia.] 

[JfiieJEA (AlBaia), a city of Laconia,] 
-/ETHALIA (A.Wa%ia, A/au/lj?), called ILVA (now 
Elba) by the Romans, a small island in the Tus- 
can Sea, opposite the town of Populonia, cele- 
brated for its iron mines. It had on the north- 
east a good harbor, " Argous Portus" (now Porto 
Ferraio), in which the Argonaut Jason is said to 
have landed. 



son of Mercury (Her- 
mes) and Eupolemia, the herald of the Argonauts. 
He had received from his father the faculty of 
remembering every thing, even in Hades, and 
was allowed to reside alternately in the upper 
and in the lower world. His soul, after many 
migrations, at length took possession of the body 
of Pythagoras, in which it still recollected its 
former migrations. 

./ETHER (A.l(hjp), a. personified idea of the 
mythical cosmogonies, in which ^Ether was con- 
sidered as one of the elementary substances out 
of which the Universe was formed. ./Ether was 
regarded by the poets as the pure upper air, 
the residence of the gods, and Jupiter (Zeus) 
as the Lord of the ./Ether, or ./Ether itself, per- 



sonified. 

./ETHICES 
people, near Mount Pindus. 



a Thessalian or Epirot 



nius Mela, Leyden, 1*722. 
' 



(Aidd.'Xa. or AI0t>AAa), daughter of 
Laomedon and sister of Priam, became after the 
fall of Troy the captive of Protesilaus, [according 
to a late legend, for the Homeric account makes 
Protesilaus to have been the first Greek slain 
before Troy. Vid. PROTESILAUS.] 

[^ETHION, a seer and friend of Phineus, slain 
at the nuptials of Perseus and Andromeda. - 
2. Son of a Heliconian nymph, fell in the expe- 
dition of the Seven against Thebes.] 

./ETHIOPES (A-Wionef, said to be from aWu and 
&<!>, but perhaps really a foreign name corrupt- 
ed), was a name applied, (1.) most generally to 
all black or dark races of men ; (2.) to the inhab- 
itants of all the regions south of those with 
which the early Greeks were well acquainted, 
extending even as far north as Cyprus and Phoe- 
nicia; (3.) to all the inhabitants of Inner Africa, 
south of Mauretania, the Great Desert, and 
Egypt, from the Atlantic to the Red Sea and 
Indian Ocean, and to some of the dark races of 
Asia ; and (4.) most specifically to the inhabi- 
tants of the land south of Egypt, which was 
called ./ETHIOPIA. 

./ETHIOPIA (Aidioma, A.W. imip Alyvirrov : At 
Bi <n}>, Aidioirevf, Horn., fern. A.idioirif : ^Ethiops : 
now 2iubia, Kordofan, Sennaar, Abyssinia), a 
country of Africa, south of Egypt, the boundary 
of the countries being at Syene (now Assouan) 
and the Smaller Cataract of the Nile, and exttnd- 
ing on the east to the Red Sea, and to the south 
and southwest indefinitely, as far apparently as 
the knowledge of the ancients extended. In 
its most exact political sense the word ^Ethio- 
pia seems to have denoted the kingdom of 
MERGE ; but in its wider sense it included alsc 
the kingdom of the AXOMIT^E, besides several 
other peoples, such as the Troglodytes and the 
Ichthyophagi on the Red Sea, the Blemmyes 
and Megabari and Nubae in the interior. The 
country was watered by the Nile and its tribu- 
taries, the Astapus (Bahr-el-Azrek or Blue Nile) 
and the Astaboras (Atbara or Tacazze). The 
people of ./Ethiopia seem to have been of the 
Caucasian race, and to have spoken a language 
allied to the Arabic. Monuments are found in 
the country closely resembling those of Egypt, 
but of an inferior style. The religion of the 
^Ethiopians appears to have been similar to that 
of the Egyptians, but free from the grosser su- 
perstitions of the latter, such as the worship of 
animals. Some traditions made Meroe the 
parent of Egyptian civilization, while others 
ascribed the civilization of ./Ethiopia to Egyptian 
colonization. So great was the power of the 
./Ethiopians, that more than once in its history 
Egypt was governed by ./Ethiopian kings ; and 
even the most powerful kings of Egypt, though 
they made successful incursions into ./Ethiopia, 
do not appear to have had any extensive or 
permanent hold upon the country. Under the 
Ptolemies Grajco-Egyptian colonies established 



,/ETHICUS, HISTER or ISTKR, a Roman writer | themselves in ./Ethiopia, and Greek manners 
of the fourth century after Christ, a native of j and philosophy had a considerable influence on 
Istria, the author of a geographical work called j the upper classes ; but the country was never 

subdued. The Romans failed to extend their 
empire over Ethiopia, though they made expo 



C'osmographia. which appears to have 
been chiefly drawn up from the measurement 



of the whole Roman world ordered by Julius ditious into the country, in one of wh/ch C. Pe 

25 



AETHL1US. 

tronius, prefect of Egypt under Augustus, ad- 
vanced as far as Napata, and defeated the war- 
rior queen Candace (B.C. 22). Christianity very 
early extended to ^Ethiopia, probably in conse- 
quence ot the conversion of the treasurer of 
Queen Candace (Acts, viii., 27). The history of 
the downfall of the great Ethiopian kingdom 
of Meroe is very obscure. 

AETHLIUS ('Ae0/Uo.f), first king of Elis, father 
of Endymion, was son of Jupiter (Zeus) and 
Protogenla, daughter of Deucalion ; according to 
others, a son of -*Eolus. 

[^ETHON (A.Wuv from aldu), father of Tantalus. 
2. Appellation assumed by Ulysses to escape 
detection on his return to Ithaca. 3. Name of a 
horse of the Sun ; also of one of Pluto's ; and 
of Aurora (Eos), of Hector, and of several other 
heroes.] 

JTHRA (A.Wpa). 1. Daughter of Pittheus of 
Trcezen, -was mother of Theseus by ^Egeus. 
She afterward lived in Attica, from whence she 
was carried off to Lacedaemon by Castor and 
Pollux, and became a slave of Helen, with whom 
she was taken to Troy. At the capture of Troy 
she was restored to liberty by her grandson 
Acamas or Demophon. 2. Daughter of Oceanus, 
by whom Atlas begot the twelve Hyades and a 
son, Hyas. 

[JJ/rausA (AlOovaa), daughter of Neptune and 
Alcyone, and mother by Apollo of Eleuther.] 

[^ETHYIA (Al&via), an appellation of Minerva 
(Athena), as the inventress of ship-building or 
navigation.] 

AEXION CA.ETMV). 1. A sculptor of Amphipo- 
lis, flourished about the middle of the third cen- 
tury B.C. 2. A celebrated painter, whose best 
picture represented the marriage of Alexander 
and lloxana. It is commonly supposed that he 
lived in the time of Alexander the Great ; but 
the words of Lucian (Herod^ 4) show that be 
must have lived about the time of Hadrian and 
the Antonines. 

AETIUS. 1. [Son of Anthas, king of Troazen, 
whose descendants founded Halicarnassus and 
Myndus.] 2. A celebrated Roman general, de- 
fended the Western empire against the barba- 
rians during the reign of Valeutinian III. In 
A.D. 45 1 he gained a great .victory over Attila, 
near Chalons, in Gaul ; but he was treacherously 
murdered by Valentinian in 454. 3. A Greek 
medical writer, born at Amida in Mesopotamia, 
lived at the end of the fifth or the beginning of 
the sixth century after Christ His work Bi6hia 
'iarpiKa 'E/c/catde/ca, " Sixteen Books on Medicine," 
is one of the most valuable medical remains of 
antiquity, as being a judicious compilation from 
many authors whose works are lost The whole 
of it has never appeared in the original Greek, 
but a corrupt translation of it into Latin was 
published by Cornarius, Basil, 1642, often re- 
printed, and in H. Stephens's J/ecftcce Artis Prin- 
cipes, Paris, 1567. 

^ETNA (AZrw/). 1. (Now Monte Gibello), a 
volcanic mountain in the northeast of Sicily, 
between Tauromenium and Catana. It is said 
to have derived its name from ./Etna, a Sicilian 
nymph, a daughter of Uranus and Gaea, or of 
Briareus. Jupiter (Zeus) buried under it Ty- 

Shon or Enceladus ; and in its interior Vulcan 
Elephaestus) and the Cyclopes forged the thun- 
derbolts for Jupiter (Zeus). There were seve- 
26 



ral eruptions ?f Mount ./Etna in antiquity. On* 
occurred in B.C. 475, to which yEsehylus and 
Pindar probably allude, and another in B.C. 425, 
which Thucydides says (iii, 116) was the third 
on record since the Greeks had settled in Sicily. 
The form of the mountain seems to have been 
much the same in antiquity as it is at present. 
Its base covers an area of nearly ninety miles 
in circumference, and its highest point is 10,874 
feet above the level of the sea. The circum- 
ference of the crater is variously estimated 
from two and a half to four miles, and the depth 
from six hundred to eight hundred feet. 2. 
(./Etnenses : now S. Maria di Licodia or S. Nic- 
olas di Arenis), a town at the foot of Mount 
./Etna, on the road to Cataua, formerly called 
Inessa or Innesa. It was founded in B.C. 461, 
by the inhabitants of Catana, who had been ex- 
pelled from their own town by the Siculi. They 
gave the name of ./Etna to Inessa, because their 
own town Catana had been called ^Etna by 
Hiero I. 

JEsryjEus (Pdrvaloc), an epithet of several godfe 
and mythical beings connected with Mount ./Etna : 
of Jupiter (Zeus), of whom there was a statue 
on Mount ^Itna, and to whom a festival was 
celebrated there, called ./Etnea ; of Vulcan (He- 
phaestus) ; and of the Cyclopes. 

^ETOLIA (AtrwA/a : AlrwXof), a division of 
Greece, was bounded on the west by Acarna- 
nia, from which it was separated by the River 
Achelous, on the north by PJpirus and Thessaly. 
on the east by the Ozolian Locrians, and on the 
south by the entrance to the Corinthian Gull 
It was divided into two parts, Old ./Etolia, from 
the Achelous to the Evenus and Calydon, and 
New ./Etolia, or the Acquired (imKTTirof), from 
the Evenus and Calydon to the Ozolian Locri- 
ans. On the coast the country is level and 
fruitful, but in the interior mountainous and 
unproductive. The mountains contained many 
wild beasts, and were celebrated in mythology 
for the hunt of the Calydonian boar. The couu- 
try was originally inhabited by Curetes and 
Leleges, but was at an early period colonized 
by Greeks from Elis, led by the mythical Mio 
LUS. The uEtolians took part in the Trojan 
war, under their king, Thoas. They continued 
for a long time a rude and uncivilized people, 
living to a great extent by robbery ; and even 
in the time of Thucydides (B.C. 410) many of 
their tribes spoke a language which was not 
Greek, and were in the habit of eating raw flesh. 
Like the other Greeks, they abolished, at an 
early time, the monarchical form of govern- 
ment, and lived under a democracy. They ap- 
pear to have been early united by a kind of 
league, but this league first acquired political 
importance about the middle of the third cen- 
tury B.C., and became a formidable rival to the 
Macedonian monarchs and the Achaean League. 
The ./Etolian League at one time included not 
only JEtolia Proper, but Acarnania, part of Thes- 
saly, Locris, and the Island of Cephallenia ; and 
it also had close alliances with Elis and several 
towns in the Peloponnesus, and likewise with 
Cius on the Propontis. Its annual meetings, 
called Panatolica, were held in the autumn at 
Thermus, and at them were chosen a general 
(ffrparvyof), who was at the head of the league, 
an hipparchus or master of the horse, a secre- 



^ETOLTJS. 



AFRICA. 



tary, and a select committee called apocleti 
(aTronXrjToi). For further particulars respecting 
the constitution of the league, vid. Diet, of Ant ^ 
art. jETOLicuM FCEDUS. The JEtolians took the 
side of Antiochus III. against the Romans, and 
on the defeat of that monarch B.C. 189, they 
became virtually the subjects of Rome. On 
the conquest of the Achseans, B.C. 146, JEtolia 
was included in the Roman province of Achaia. 
After the battle of Actium, B.C*. 31, a consider- 
able part of the population of ^Etolia was trans- 
planted to the city of NICOPOLIS, which Augus- 
tus built in commemoration of his victory. 

JSxoLUS (AtrwAof), eon of Endymion and 
Ne'is, or Iphianassa, married Pronoe, by whom 
he had two sons, Pleuron and Calydon. He 
was king of Elis, but was obliged to leave Pel- 
oponnesus, because he had slain Apis, the son 
of Jason or Salmoneus. He went to the coun- 
try near the Achelous, which was called ^Etolia 
after him. 

J2xoNE (A.li;uvii and Ai^uvrjif : Atfwvevf : now 
Atani ?), an Attic demus of the tribe Cecropis 
or Pandionis. Its inhabitants had the reputa- 
tion of being mockers and slanderers. 

AFEE, DOMITICS, of Nemausus (Ninnies) in 
Gaul, was the teacher of Quiutilian, and one of 
the most distinguished orators in the reigns of 
Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, but he 
sacrificed his character by conducting accusa- 
tions for the government He was consul suf- 
fectus in A.D. 39, and died in 60. Quintilian 
mentions several works of his on oratory, which 
are all lost 

[AFRANIA GAIA or CAIA, the wife of the sen- 
ator Licinius Buccio, a very litigious woman, 
who always pleaded her own causes before the 
praetor. Hence her name became proverbial 
for a litigious woman. She died 48 B.C.] 

AFRANIUS. 1. L, A Roman comic poet, flour- 
isl.ed about B.C. 100. His comedies described 
Roman scenes and manners (Comcedice togatce), 
and the subjects were mostly taken from the 
life of the lower classes (Comcedice tdbernaria). 
They were frequently polluted with disgraceful 
amours ; but he depicted Roman life with such 
accuracy that he is classed with Menander 
(Hor., Ep^ ii., 1, 67). His comedies continued 
to be acted under the empire. The names and 
fragments of between twenty and thirty are still 
preserved : [these fragments have been pub- 
lished by Bothe, in the 5th vol. of his Poelce Sce- 
nici Lat^ and by Neukirch, De Fabula togata 
Romano.] 2. L., a person of obscure origin, 
and a faithful adherent of Pompey. He served 
under Pompey against Sertorius and Mithra- 
dates, and was, through Pompey's influence, 
made consul, B.C. 60. When Pompey obtained 
the provinces of the two S pains in his second 
consulship (B.C. 55), he sent Afranius and Pe- 
treius to govern them, while he himself remain- 
ed in Rome. In B.C. 49, Afranius and Petreius 
were defeated by Caesar in Spain. Afranius 
thereupon passed over to Pompey in Greece; 
was present at the battle of Pharsalia, B.C. 48 ; 
and subsequently at the battle of Thapsus in 
Africa, B.C. 46. He then attempted to fly into 
Mauritania, but was taken prisoner by P. Sit- 
tius, and killed 

AFRICA ('A.<j>piKij : Africanus), was used by 
the ancients in two senses, (1.) for the whole 



continent of Africa, and (2.) for the portion of 
Northern Africa which constituted the territory 
of Carthage, and which the Romans erected 
into a province, under the name of Africa Pro- 
pria.--!. In the more general sense the name 
was not used by the Greek writers ; and ita 
use by the Romans arose from the extension 
to the whole continent of the name of a part of 
it The proper Greek name for the continent 
is Libya (Ai^vrf). Considerably before the his- , 
torical period of Greece begins, the Phoeni- 
cians extended their commerce over the Medi- 
terranean, and founded several colonies on the 
northern coast of Africa, of which Carthage was 
the chief. Vid. CARTHAGO. The Greeks knew 
very little of the country until the foundation 
of the Dorian colony of GYRENE (B.C. 620), and 
the intercourse of Greek travellers with Egypt 
in the sixth and fifth centuries ; and even then 
their knowledge of all but the part near Gyrene 
was derived from the Egyptians and Phoeni- 
cians, who sent out some remarkable expedi- 
tions to explore the country. A Phoenician 
fleet, sent by the Egyptian king Pharaoh Necho 
(about B.C. 600), was said to have sailed from 
the Red Sea, round Africa, and so into the 
Mediterranean : the authenticity of this story 
is still a matter of dispute. We still possess 
an authentic account of another expedition, 
which the Carthaginians dispatched under Han- 
no (about B.C. 510), and which reached a point 
on the western coast nearly, if not quite, as far 
as latitude ten degrees north. On the opposite 
side of the continent, the coast appears to have 
been very little known beyond the southern 
boundary of Egypt, till the time of the Ptole- 
mies. In the interior, the Great Desert (Sahara) 
interposed a formidable obstacle to discovery ; 
but even before the time of Herodotus, the 
people on the northern coast told of individuals 
who had crossed the Desert and had reached a 
great river flowing toward the east, with croc- 
odiles in it, and black men living on its banks, 
which, if the story be true, was probably the 
differ in its upper course, near Timbuctoo. That 
the Carthaginians had considerable intercourse 
with the regions south of the Sahara, has been 
inferred from the abundance of elephants they 
kept Later expeditions and inquiries extend- 
ed the knowledge which the ancients possessed 
of the eastern coast to about ten degrees south 
latitude, and gave them, as it seems, some 
further acquaintance with the interior, about 
Lake Tchad, but the southern part of the conti 
nent was so totally unknown, that Ptolemy, 
who finally fixed the limits of ancient geograph- 
ical science, recurred to the old notion, which 
seems to have prevailed before the time of He- 
rodotus, that the southern parts of Africa mot 
the southeastern part of Asia, and that the In- 
dian Ocean was a vast lake. The greatest ge- 
ographers who lived before Ptolemy, namely, 
Eratosthenes and Strabo, had accepted the tra- 
dition that Africa was circtimnavigable. The 
shape of the continent they conceived to be that 
of a right-angled triangle, having for its hypot- 
enuse a line drawn from the Pillars of Hercules 
to the south of the Red Sea : and, as to its ex- 
tent, they did not suppose it to reach nearly so 
far as the equator. Ptolemy supposed the west- 
ern coast to stretch north and south from the 
27 



AFRICA. 



AGALLIS 



Pillars of Hercules, and he gave the continent 
an indefinite extent toward the south. There 
were also great differences of opinion as to the 
boundaries of the continent Some divided the 
whole world into only two parts, Europe and 
Asia, and they were not agreed to which of 
these two Lybia (i. e., Africa) belonged; and 
those who recognized three divisions differed 
again in placing the boundary between Libya 
and Asia either on the west of Egypt, or along 
the Nile, or at the Isthmus of Suez and the Red 
Sea : the last opinion gradually prevailed. As 
to the subdivision of the country itself, Herodo- 
tus- distributes it into ^Egyptus, ^Ethiopia (i. e., 
all the regions south of Egypt and the Sahara), 
and Libya, properly so called; and he subdi- 
vides Libya into three parts, according to their 
physical distinctions, namely, (1.) the Inhabit- 
ed Country along the Mediterranean, in which 
dwelt the Nomad Libyans (ol irapaOahdaaioi TUV 
vopuduv A.i(n>uv : t/te Barbary States); (2.) the 
Country of Wild Beasts (?) dypiudije), south of 
the former, that is, the region between the Little 
and Great Atlas, which still abounds in wild 
beasts, but takes its name from its prevailing 
vegetation (Beled-el-Jerid, i. e., the Country of 
Palms), and, (3.) the Sandy Desert (rj ^;u/i/zof ; 
the Sahara), that is, the table-land bounded by 
the Atlas on the north and the margin of the 
Nile valley on the east, which is a vast tract of 
sand broken only by a few habitable islands, 
called Oases. As to the people. Herodotus dis- 
tinguishes four races, two native, namely, the 
Libyans and Ethiopians, and two foreign, name- 
ly, the Phoanicians and the Greeks. The Lib- 
yans, however, were a Caucasian race : the 
^Ethiopians of Herodotus correspond to our Ne- 
gro races. The Phoenician colonies were plant- 
ed chiefly along, and to the west of, the great 
recess in the middle of the north coast, which 
formed the two SYETES, by far the most im- 
portant of them being Carthage ; and the Greek 
colonies were fixed on the coast along and be- 
yond the east side of the Syrtes ; the chief of 
them was CYRENE, and the region was called 
Cyrenaica. Between this and Egypt were Lib- 
yan tribes, and the whole region between the 
Carthaginian dominions and Egypt, including 
Cyrenaica, was called by the same name as the 
whole continent, Lybia. The chief native tribes 
of this region were the ADYRMACHID^B, MAK- 
MARIDJB, PSYLLI, and NASAMONEs. The last ex- 
tended into the Carthaginian territory. To the 
west of the Carthaginian possessions, the coun- 
try was called by the general names of NCMIDIA 
and MAUEETANIA, and was possessed partly by 
Carthaginian colonies on the coast, and partly 
by Libyan tribes under various names, the chief 
of which were the NUMID.E, MASSYLII, MAS- 
AfiSYLii, and MAUEI, and to the south of them 
the GJETULL The whole of this northern re- 
gion fell successively under the power of Rome, 
and was finally divided into provinces as fol- 
lows : (1.) Egypt'; (2.) Libya, including, (a) 
LibyzB Nomos or Libya Exterior; (6) Marma- 
rica ; (e) Cyrenaica ; (3.) Africa Propria, the 
former empire of Carthage (see below, No. 2) ; 
(4.) Numidia; (6.) Mauretania, divided into' 
(a) Sitifensis; (b) Caesariensis ; (c) Tingitana: 
these, with (6.) ^Ethiopia, make up the whole 
of Africa, according to the divisions recognized 
28 



by the latest of the ancient geographers. The 
northern district was better known to the Ro- 
mans than it is to us, and was extremely pop- 
ulous and flourishing ; and, if we may judge by 
the list of tribes in Ptolemy, the interior of the 
country, especially between the Little and Great 
Altars, must have supported many more inhab- 
itants than it does at present. Further infor- 
mation respecting the several portions of the 
country will be found in the separate articles. 
2. AFRICA PROPRIA or PROVINCIA, or simply Af- 
rica, was the name under which the Romans, 
after the Third Punic War (B.C. 146), erected 
into a province the whole of the former territory 
of Carthage. It extended from the River Tus- 
ca, on the west, which divided it from Numidia, 
to the bottom of the Syrtis Minor, on the south- 
east. It was divided into two districts (regio- 
nes), namely, (1.) Zeugis or Zeugitana, the dis- 
trict round Carthage, (2.) Byzacium or Byza- 
cena, south of Zeugitana, as far as the bottom 
of the Syrtis Minor. It corresponds to the mod- 
ern regency of Tunis. The province was full 
of flourishing towns, and was extremely fertile, 
especially Byzacena : it furnished Rome with 
its chief supplies of corn. The above limits are 
assigned to the province by Pliny : Ptolemy 
makes it extend from the River Ampsaga, on 
the west, to the borders of Cyrenaica, at the 
bottom of the Great Syrtis, on the east, so as 
to include Numidia and Tripolitana. 

AFRICANUS. a surname given to the Scipios 
on account of their victories in Africa. Vid. 
SCIPIO. 

AFRICANUS. 1. SEX. C^ECILIUS, a Roman ju- 
risconsult, lived under Antoninus Pius (A.D. 
138-161), and wrote Libri IX. Qucestionum,from 
which many extracts are made in the Digest 
2. JULIUS, a celebrated orator in the reign of 
Nero, is much praised by Quintilian, who speaks 
of him and Domitius Afer as the best orators 
of their time. 3. SEX. JULIUS, a learned Chris- 
tian writer at the beginning of the third cen- 
tury, passed the greater part of his life at Em- 
maus in Palestine, and afterward lived at Alex- 
andrea. His principal work was a Chronicon 
in five books, from the creation of the world, 
which he placed in 5499 B.C., to A.D. 221. This 
work is lost, but part of it is extracted by Euse- 
bius in his Chronicon, and many fragments of 
it are preserved by Georgius Syncellus, Cedre- 
nus, and in the Paschale Chronicon. There 
was another work written by Africanus, enti- 
tled Cesti (KeaToi), that is, embroidered girdles, 
so called from the celebrated Cestus of Venus 
(Aphrodite). It treated of a vast variety of sub- 
jects medicine, agriculture, natural history, 
the military art, <fcc. The work itself is lost, 
but some extracts from it are published by The- 
venot in the Mathematici Veteres, Paris, 1698, 
and also in the Geoponica. 

AFRICUS (Kfy by the Greeks), the southwest 
wind, so called because -it blew from Africa, 
frequently brought storms with it (creberque pro- 
cellis Africus, Virg., jEn., i., 85.) 

[AGACLES ( 'AyaK/% ) a Myrmidon hero, father 
of Epigeus.] 

[AGALLIS ('Aya/l/U'?), of Corcyra, a female 
grammarian, who wrote upon Homer : but from 
two passages in Suidas some have supposed 
that tne true name is Anagallis. \ 



AGAMEDE. 



AGAPENOR. 



), daughter of Augias and 
wife of Mulius, who, according to Homer (11^ xi., 
789), was acquainted with the healing powers 
of all the plants that grow upon the earth. 

AGAMEDES ('Aya/?<Jj7f), commonly called son 
of Erginus, king of Orchomenus, and brother of 
Trophonius. though his family connections are 
related differently by different writers. Agame- 
des and Trophonius distinguished themselves 
as architects : they built a temple of Apollo at 
Delphi, and a treasury of Hyrieus, king of Hyria 
in Boaotia. The story about this treasury re- 
sembles the one which Herodotus (ii., 121) 
relates of the treasury of the Egyptian king 
Rhampsinitus. In the construction of the treas- 
ury of Hyrieus, Agamedes and TrophoniuB con- 
trived to place one stone in such a manner 
that it could be taken away outside, and thus 
formed an entrance to the treasury, without 
any body perceiving it. Agamedes and Tro- 
phonius now constantly robbed the treasury; 
and the king, seeing that locks and seals were 
uninjured, while his treasures were constantly 
decreasing, set traps to catch the thief. Aga- 
medes was thus ensnared, and Trophonius cut 
off his head to avert the discovery. After this 
Trophonius was immediately swallowed up by 
the earth. On this spot there was afterward, 
in the grove of Lebadfia, the cave of Agamedes. 
with a column by the side of it. Here was also 
the oracle of Trophonius, and those who con- 
sulted it first offered a ram to Agamedes and 
invoked him. A tradition mentioned by Cicero 
(Tusc. Qiuest^ i., 47) states that Agamedes 
and Trophonius, after building the temple of 
Apollo at Delphi, prayed to the god to grant 
them in reward for their labor what was best 
for men. The god promised to do so on a cer- 
tain day, and when the day came the two broth- 
ers died. 

AGAMEMNON ('A.yafiepvuv), son of Plisthenes 
and Ae'rope or Eriphyle, and grandson of Atreus, 
king of Mycenae ; but Homer and others call him 
a son of Atreus and grandson of Pelops. Aga- 
memnon and his brother Menelaus were brought 
up together with ^Egisthus, the son of Thyes- 
tes, in the house of Atreus. After the murder 
of Atreus by ^Egisthus and Thyestes, who suc- 
ceeded Atreus in the kingdom of Mycenae (aid. 
./EOISTHUS), Agamemnon and Menelaus went to 
Sparta, where Agamemnon married Clytemnes- 
tra, the daughter of Tyndareus, by whom he be- 
came the father of Iphianassa (Iphigenia), Chry- 
sothemis, Laodice (Electra), and Orestes. The 
manner in which Agamemnon obtained the 
kingdom of Mycenae is differently related. 
From Homer, it appears as if he had peaceably 
succeeded Thyestes, while, according to others, 
he expelled Tbyespes, and usurped bis throne. 
He now became the most powerful prince in 
Greece. A catalogue of his dominions is given 
in the Iliad (ii., 669, <tc.) When Homer attri- 
butes to Agamemnon the sovereignty over all 
Argos, the name Argos signifies Peloponnesus, 
or the greater part of it, for the city of Argos 
was governed by Diomedea. When Helen, the 
wife of Menelaus, was carried off by Paris, and 
the Greek chiefs resolved to recover her by 
force of arms, Agamemnon was chosen their 
commander-in-chief. After two years of prepa- 
ration, the Greek army and fleet assembled in 



the port of Aulis in Boaotia. At this place Aga 
memnon killed a stag which was sacred to Diana 
(Artemis), who in return visited the Greek army 
with a pestilence, and produced a calm which 
prevented the Greeks from leaving the port In 
order to appease her wrath, Agamemnon con- 
sented to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia; but 
at the moment she was to be sacrificed, she was 
carried off by Diana (Artemis) herself to Tauris, 
and another victim was substituted in her place. 
The cairn now ceased, and the army sailed to 
the coast of Troy. Agamemnon alone had one 
hundred ships, independent of sixty which he 
had lent to the Arcadians. In the tenth year 
of the siege of Troy we find Agamemnon in- 
volved in a quarrel with Achilles respecting 
the possession of Briseis, whom Achilles was 
obliged to give up to Agamemnon. Achilles 
withdrew from the field of battle, and the 
Greeks were visited by successive disasters. 
The danger of the Greeks at last induced Pa- 
troclus, the friend of Achilles, to take part in 
the battle, and .his fall led to the reconciliation 
of Achilles and Agamemnon. Vid. ACHILLES. 
Agamemnon, although the chief commander of 
the Greeks, is not the hero of the Iliad, and in 
chivalrous spirit, bravery, and character alto- 
gether inferior to Achilles. But he neverthe- 
less rises above all the Greeks by his dignity, 
power, and majesty: his eyes and head are 
likened to those of Jupiter (Zeus), his girdle to 
that of Mars (Ares), and his breast to that of 
Neptune (Poseidon). The emblem of his power 
is a sceptre, the work of Vulcan (Hephaestus), 
which Jupiter (Zeus) had once given to Mer- 
cury (Hermes), and Mercury (Hermes) to Pe- 
lops, from whom it descended to Agamemnon. 
At the capture of Troy he received Cassandra, 
the daughter of Priam, as his prize. On his 
return home he was murdered by ^Egisthus, who 
had seduced Clytemnestra during the absence 
of her husband. The tragic poets make Cly- 
temnestra alone murder Agamemnon : her motive 
is in ^Eschylus her jealousy of Cassandra, in 
Sophocles and Euripides her wrath at the death 
of Iphigenia. 

AGAMEMNONIDES ('A.yapefi.vovi8r)f), the son of 
Agamemnon, i. ., Orestes. 

[AGANICE ('Ayavwej?) or AGLAONICE ('Ay/lao- 
vtKj}), daughter of the Thessalian Hegetor : she 
was acquainted with the eclipses of the moon, 
and gave out that she could draw down the 
moon itself from the sky.] 

AGANIPPE ('AyavtTTTTT?), a nymph of the well 
of the same name at the foot of Mount Helicon, 
in Boeotia, which was considered sacred to the 
Muses (who were hence called Aganippides), and 
which was believed to have the power of inspir- 
ing those who drank of it. [The nymph is called 
a daughter of the river-god Permessus.] The 
fountain of Hippocrene has the epithet Aganippis 
(Ov, Fast., v., 7), from its being sacred to the 
Muses, like that of Aganippe. 

AGAPENOB ('AyaTnyvwp), a son of Ancaeus, 
king of the Arcadians, received sixty ships from 
Agamemnon, in which he led his Arcadians to 
Troy. On his return from Troy he was cast by 
a storm on the coast of Cyprus, where, accord- 
ing to some accounts, he founded the town of 
Paphua, and in it the famous temple of Venus 
(Aphrodite). 

29 



AGAPTOLEMUS. 

[AOAPTOLKMUS (' Aya;rroAt/iOf), a son of 
JSgyptus, slain by the Danaid Pirene.] 

[AGAR, n city of Byzacium in Africa Propria. 
Shaw regards it as the modem Boohadjar, where 
ruius of a destroyed city are fouud.] 

[AOABA (now ~ Agra), a city of India intra 
Oaugein, ou the southern bank of the lomanes 
(now Dschitmna).] 

[AGARICUS SINUS (now Gulf of Artingeri), a 
gulf of India intra Gangem.] 

AGARISTA (' ' A.yapitm)'). 1. Daughter of Clis- 
theues, tyrant of Sicyon, wife of Megacles, and 
mother of Cllsthenes, who divided the Athenians 
into ten tribes, and of Hippocrates. 2. Daugh- 
ter of the above-mentioned Hippocrates, and 
grand-daughter of No. 1, wife of Xanthippus, 
and mother of Pericles. 

AGASIAS ('Ayaatof), a son of Dositheus, a 
sculptor of Ephesus, probably a contemporary 
of Alexander the Great (B.C. 330), sculptured 
the statue known by the name of the Borghese 
gladiator, which is still preserved in the gallery 
of the Louvre. This statue, as well as the 
Apollo Belvidere, was discovered among the 
ruins of a palace of the Roman emperors on the 
site of the ancient Antium (now Capo <fAnzo). 
From the attitude of the figure, it is clear that 
the statue represents not a gladiator, but a war- 
rior contending with a mounted combatant Per- 
haps it was intended to represent Achilles fight- 
ing with Penthesilga. [2. Another Ephesian 
sculptor, son of Menophilus, who exercised his 
art iu Delos, while it was under the Roman 
sway. 3. Of Stymphalus in Arcadia, an officer 
in the army of the ten thousand, often mentioned 
by Xenophon in his Anabasis.] 

AGASICLES, AGESICLES, or HEGESICLES ('Ayaa- 
tic%tjf, 'AyriaiK^ijf, 'RyriffiKXr/f), king of Sparta, 
succeeded his father Archidamas I., about B.C. 
600 or 590. 

[AGASTHEXES ('AyaoBevrif), son of Augias, and 
king in Elis: his son Polyxeuus is mentioned 
among the suitors of Helen".] 

[AGASTROPHUS ('Aydarpoijtoc,), son of Preon, was 
slain by Diomedes before Troy.] 

[AGASUS PORTUS (now Porto Greco), a harbor 
of Apulia on the Adriatic.] 

AGATHARCHIDES ('Ayadapxifyc) or AGATHAR- 
CHUS ('Ayddapxoc), a Greek grammarian, bora 
at Cnidos, lived at Alexandrea, probably about 
B.C. 130. He wrote a considerable number of 
geographical and historical works ; but we have 
only an epitome of a portion of his work on the 
Erythraean Sea, which was made by Photius : 
it is printed in Hudson's Geogr. Script. Gr. Mi- 
noret . [of his works on Europe and Asia some 
fragments are preserved in Athenaeus and other 
writers, which have been published by Miiller in 
Didot's Firof/menta Historicorum Grcecorum, vol. 
Hi., p. 190-197.] 

AGATHARCHCS ('AydOapxoc), an Athenian art- 
ist, said to have invented scene-painting, and 
to have painted a scene for a tragedy which 
Aschylus exhibited. It was probably not till 
toward the end of ^Eschylus's career that scene- 
painting was introduced, and not till the time of 
Sophocles that it was generally made use of; 
which may account for Aristotle's assertion 
(Poet^ iv, 16) that scene-painting was intro- 
duced by Sophocles. 2. A Greek painter, a na- 
tive of Samoa, and son of Eudemus He was 
30 



AGATHOCLES. 

a contemporary of Alcibiades and Zeuxis, and 
must not oo confounded with the contemporary 
of ^Eschylus. [3. A Syracusau, who was placed 
by the Syracusans over a fleet of twelve ships iu 
B.C. 413, to visit their allies and harass the 
Athenians. He was one of the commanders, in 
the same year, in the decisive battle fought in 
the harbor of Syracuse.] 

[AGATHA ('Ayddrj : 'AyaflaZof : now Agde), a, 
city of Gallia Narbonensis on the Arauris.] 

AGATHEMKRUS ('Ayadrjfiepoe), the author of 
" A Sketch of Geography in Epitome" (1% yew 



), probably lived 
ird centur af 



about the beginning of the third century after 
Christ. The work consists chiefly of extracts 
from Ptolemy and other early writers. It is 
printed in Hudson's Geogr. Script. Gr. Minores, 
[and by Hoffman with Arrian's Periplus, <fcc.. 
Lips, 1842.] 

AGATUIAS ('Aya6iac.), a Byzantine writer, born 
about A.D. 536 at Myrina in ^Eolis, practiced 
as an advocate at Constantinople, whence he ob- 
tained the name Scholasticus (which word signi- 
fied an advocate in his time), and died about 
A.D. 582. He wrote many poems, of which 
several have come down to us ; but his prin- 
cipal work was his History in five books, which 
is also extant, and is of considerable value. It 
contains the history from A.D. 553 to 558, a 
period remarkable for important events, such 
as the conquest of Italy by Narses and the ex- 
ploits of Belisarius over the Huns and other 
barbarians. The best edition is by Niebuhr, 
Bonn, 1828. 

[AGATHINUS ('AyaOlvoc.'), an eminent Greek 
physician, born at Sparta, and flourished in the 
first century after Christ : he was a pupil of 
Athenseus of Attalia in Cilicia, the founder of 
the Pneumatic sect: he did not follow strictly 
the tenets of his master, but united with them 
those of others, and thus became himself found- 
er of a new medical sect called Hectici or Epi- 
synthetici. 2. Of Elis, son of Thrasybulus, ac- 
cording to Bceckh, an lamid, whose father was a 
seer among the Mantineans iu the time of Ara- 
tus : he was a celebrated athlete, and gained the 
prize at the Olympic games. 3. A Corinthian 
naval commander, who had charge of a fleet iu 
the Corinthian Gulf.] 

AGATHOOLEA ('AyaOoK^eia), mistress of Ptole- 
my IV. Philopator, king of Egypt, and sister of 
his minister Agathocles. She and her brother 
were put to death on the death of Ptolemy (B. 
C. 205). 

AGATHOCLES ('AyadoK^f/f). 1. A Sicilian raised 
himself from the station of a potter to that of 
tyrant of Syracuse and king of Sicily. Born at 
Thermae, a town of Sicily subject to Carthage, 
he is said to have been exposed when an infant, 
by his father, Carcinus of Rhegium, in conse- 
quence of a succession of troublesome dreams, 
portending that he would be a source of much 
evil to Sicily. His mother, however, secretly 
preserved his life, and at seven years old he 
was restored to his father, who had long re- 
pented of his conduct to the child. By him he 
was taken to Syracuse, and brought up as a pot- 
ter. His strength and personal beauty recom- 
mended him to Damas, a noble Syracusan, who 
drew him from obscurity, and on whose death he 
married his rich widow, and so became one 



AGATHOD^EMON. 



AGENOR. 



of the wealthiest citizens in Syracuse. His 
ambitious schemes then developed themselves, 
and he was driven into exile. After several 
changes of fortune, he collected an army which 
overawed both the Syracusans and Carthaginians, ! 
nd was restored under an oath that he would 
not interfere with the democracy, which oath he 
Kept by murdering four thousand and banishing 
six thousand citizens. He was immediately 
declared sovereign of Syracuse, under the title 
of Autocrator, B.C. 317- In the course of a few 
vears the whole of Sicily which was under the 
dominion of Carthage, submitted to him. In 
B.C. 310 he was defeated at Hirnera by the 
Carthaginians, under Hamilcar, who straightway 
laid siege to Syracuse; whereupon he formed 
the bold design of averting the ruin which threat- 
ened him, by carrying the war into Africa. His 
successes were most brilliant and rapid. He 
constantly defeated the troops of Carthage, but 
was at length summoned from Africa by the 
affairs of Sicily, where many cities had revolted 
from him, B.C. 307. These he reduced, after 
making a treaty with the Carthaginians. He 
had previously assumed the title of King of 
Sicily. He afterward plundered the Lipari 
Isles, and also carried his arms into Italy, in 
order to attack the Bruttii. But his last days 
were embittered by family misfortunes. His 
grandson Archagathus murdered his son Aga- 
thocles, for the sake of succeeding to the crown, 
and the old king feared that the rest of his family 
would share his fate. He accordingly sent his 
wife Texena and her two children to Egypt, her 
native country; and his own death followed 
Almost immediately, B.C. 289, after a reign of 
twenty -eight years, and in the seventy -second 
fear of his age. Other authors relate an incre- 
dible story of his being poisoned by Maeno, an 
tssociate of Archagathus. The poison, we are 
iold, was concealed in the quill with which he 
cleaned his teeth, and reduced him to so fright- 
ful a condition, that he was placed on the funeral 
pile and burned while yet living, being unable 
to give any signs that he was not dead. 2. Of 
Pella, father of Lysimachus. 3. Son of Lysima- 
chus, was defeated and taken prisoner by Dro- 
michsetis, king of the Getae, about B.C. 292, but 
was sent back to his father with presents. In 
287 be defeated Demetrius Poliorcetes. At the 
instigation of his step-mother, Arsinoe, Lysima- 
hus cast him into prison, where he was mur- 
dered (284) by Ptolernaeus Ceraunus. 1. Brother 
of AGATHOCLEA. 5. A Greek historian, of uncer- 
tain date, wrote the history of Cyzicus, which ' 
was extensively read in antiquity, and is referred j 
to by Cicero (De Div. i., 24). 

AGATHOD^BMON ('Aya6o6ai[iuv or 'Aya0df tieof ). 
1. The " Good Deity," in honor of whom the ' 
Greeks drank a cup of unmixed wine at the end 
of every repast [2. A name applied by the 
Greeks to the Egyptian Kneph, and also to a 
pecies of snake as his symbol. 3. A name given 
by the Greek residents to the Canopic arm of 
the Nile.] 4. Of Alexandrea, the designer of 
some maps to accompany Ptolemy's Geography. ( 
Copies of these maps are found appended to 
several MSS. of Ptolemy. 

AQATUON ('AydOuv), an Athenian tragic poet, 
born about B.C. 447, of a rich and respectable 
Cimily, was a friend of Euripides and Plato. 



He gained his first victory in 416 : in honor of 
which Plato represents the Symposium to have 
been given, which he has made the occasion of 
his dialogue so called. In 407 he visited the 
court of Archelaus, king of Macedonia, where 
his friend Euripides was also a guest at the 
same time. He died about 400, at the age of 
forty-seven. The poetic merits of Agathon 
were considerable, but his compositions were 
more remarkable for elegance and flowery orna- 
ments than force, vigor, or sublimity. In the 
Thesmophoriaziisce of Aristophanes he is ridi- 
culed for his effeminacy, being brought on the 
stage in female dress. [The fragments of Aga- 
thon have been published by Wagner in Didot's 
Fragmenta Tragicorum Grcec., p. 52-61. 2. A 
son of Priam. 3. Son of Tyrimmas, commander 
of the Odrysian cavalry under Alexander the 
Great.] 

AGATHYRNA, AGATHYRNUM ('Aydfopva, -ov : 
'Ayadvpvalof. now Agatha), a town on the 
northern coast of Sicily, between Tyndaris and 
Calacta. 

[AGATHYRNUS ('Aywfopvof), son of JEolus, and 
founder of the city Agathyrna, q. D.] 

AGATHYRSI ('AydBvpaoi), a people in European 
Sarmatia, on the River Maris (now Marosch) in 
Transylvania. From their practice of painting 
or tattooing their skin, they are called by Virgil 
(^W., iv., 146) picti Agathyrsi. 

AGAVE ('Ayavrj), daughter of Cadmus, wife of 
Echion, and mother of Pentheus. When Pentheus 
attempted to prevent the women from celebrat- 
ing the Dionysiac festivals on Mount Cithaeron, 
he was torn to pieces there by his own mother 
Agave, who in her phrensy believed him to be 
a wild beast Vid. PENTHEUS. One of the Ne- 
reids, one of the Danaids, and one of the Ama- 
zons were also called Agavas. 

AGBATANA. Vid. ECBATANA. 

AGDISTIS ('Ay&ortf), an androgynous deity, 
the offspring of Jupiter (Zeus) and Earth, con 
nected with the Phrygian worship of Attes or 
Atys. 

AGELADAS ('AyeAadaf), an eminent statuary 
of Argos, the instructor of the three great mas- 
ters, Phidias, Myron, and Polycletus. Many 
modern writers suppose that there were two 
artists of this name: one an Argive, the in- 
structor of Phidias, born about B.C. 540, the 
other a native of Sicyon, who flourished about 
B.C. 432. 

AGELAUS ('AyeAaof). 1. Son of Hercules and 
Omphale, and founder of the house of Croesus. 
2. Son of Damnstor and one of the suitors of 
Penelope, slain by Ulysses. 3. A slave of Priam, 
who exposed the infant Paris on Mount Ida, in 
consequence of a dream of his mother. [4. Son 
of the Heraclid Temenus. 5. A Trojan, son of 
Phradmon, slain by Diomedes.] 

AGENDICUM or AGEDICUM (now Sens), the chief 
town of the Senones in Gallia Lugdunensia. 

AGENOR ('AyT/vup). 1. Son of Neptune (Po- 
seidon) and Libya, king of Phoenicia, twin-bro- 
ther of Brlus, and father of Cadmus, Phcenix, 
Cilix, Thasus, Phineus, and, according to some, of 
Europa also. Virgil (.J5k, i., 838) calls Carthage 
the city of Agenor, since Dido was descended 
from Agenor. 2. Sou of lasus, and father of 
Argus Panoptes, king of Argos. 3. Sou and 
successor of Triopas, in the kingdom of Argoa 
31 



AGENORIDES. 

4. Sou of Pleuron and Xanthippe, and grand- 
son of JStolus. 6. Son of Pbegeus, king of 
Psophis, in Arcadia. He and his brother Pron- 
ous slew Alcmzeon, when he wanted to give the 
celebrated necklace and peplus of Harmonia to 
Lia second wife Callirrhoe. Vid. PHEGEUS. The 
two brothers were aftenvard killed by Ampho- 
terus and Acarnan, the eons of Alcmaeon and 
Callirrhoe. 6. Son of the Trojan Antenor and 
Theano, one of the bravest among the Trojans, 
engaged in single combat with Achilles, but was 
rescued by Apollo. 

AGKNORIDES ('A.yijvopi6T]f), a patronymic de- 
aoting a descendant of an Agenor, such as Cad- 
xiii*, Phineus, and Perseus. 

AGESAXDER, a sculptor of Rhodes, who, in 
ion junction with Polydorus and Athenodorus, 
sculptured the group of Laocoon, one of the most 
perfect specimens of art This celebrated group 
was discovered in the year 1506, near the baths 
of Titus on the Esquiline Hill : it is now preserv- 
ed in the museum of the Vatican. The artists 
probably lived in the reign of Titus, and sculp- 
tured the group expressly for that emperor. 

AGESILAUS ('A.yijai'/,aof), kings of Sparta. 1. 
Son of Doryssus. reigned forty-four years, and 
died about B.C. 886. He was contemporary 
with the legislation of Lycurgus. 2. Son of 
Archidamua IL, succeeded his half-brother Agis 
IL, B.C. 398, excluding, on the ground of spu- 
rious birth, and by the interest of Lysander, nis 
nephew LEOTTCHIDES. From 396 to 394 he 
carried on the war in A^ja Minor with great 
success, and was preparing to advance into the 
heart of the Persian empire, -when he was 
summoned home to defend his country against 
Thebes, Corinth, and Argos, which had been 
induced by Artaxerxes to take up arms against 
Sparta. Though full of disappointment, he 
promptly obeyed ; and in the course of the 
same year (394), he met and defeated at Coro- 
nea, in Bceotia, the allied forces. During the 
next four years he regained for his country 
much of its formes supremacy, till at length the 
fatal battle of Leuctra, 371, overthrew forever 
the power of Sparta, and gave the supremacy 
for a time to Thebes. For the next few years 
Sparta had almost to struggle for its existence 
amid dangers without and within, and it was 
chiefly owing to the skill, courage, and presence 
of mind of Agesilaus that she weathered the 
storm. In 361 he crossed with a body of Lace- 
daemonian mercenaries into Egypt. Here, after 
displaying much of his ancient skill, he died, 
while preparing for his voyage home, in the win- 
ter of 361-360, after a life of above eighty years 
and a reign of thirty-eight. His body was em- 
b;ilmed in wax, and splendidly buried at Sparta. 
In person Agesilaus was small, mean-looking, 
nud lame, on which last ground objection bad 
been made to his accession, an oracle, curiously 
fulfilled, having warned Sparta of evils awaiting 
her under a " lame sovereignty." In his reign, 
indeed, her fall took place, but not through him' 
for he was one of the best citizens and generals 
that Sparta ever had. 

[^AGESIMBROTUS, admiral of the Rhodian fleet, 
which aided the consul P. Sulpicius in the war 
against Phih'p, king of Macedonia, B.C. 200.1 

AGESIPOLIS ('Ay^fftVoXtf), kings of Sparta. 1. 
Succeeded his father Pausaniaa, while yet a 
32 



AGLAOPHON. 

minor, in B.C. 894, and reigned fourteen years. 
As soon as his minority ceased, he took an active 
part in the wars in which Sparta was then en- 
gaged with the other states of Greece. In 390 
he invaded Argolis with success ; in 385 he took 
the city of MantinCa; in 381 he went to the 
assistance of Acanthus and Apollonia against the 
Olynthians, and died in 380 during this war in 
the peninsula of Pallene. 2. Son of Cleombrotus, 
reigned one year B.C. 371. 3. Succeeded Cleo 
menes in B.C. 220, but was soon deposed by his 
colleague Lycurgus : he afterward took refuge 
with the l! oi nans. 

AGETOE ('Ayjjrup), " tie leader," a suraami* 
of Jupiter (Zeus) at Lacedsemon, of Apollo, and 
of Mercury (Hermes), who conducts the souls of 
men to the lower world. 

AGGEJOJS URBICUS, a writer on the science of 
the Agrimensores, may perhaps have lived at 
the latter part of the fourth century of our era. 
His works are printed in Goesius, Rei Agrarice 
Auctores. 

AGGRAMMES or XANDRAMES (Savdpa/ajf), the 
ruler of the Gangaridae and Prasii in India, when 
Alexander invaded India, B.C. 327. 

AGIAS ('Ayt'af), a Greek epic poet, erroneously 
called Augias, a native of Trcezen, flourished 
about B.C. 740, and was the author of a poem 
called JVosli (Noaroi), i. e^ the history of the re- 
turn of the Achaean heroes from Troy. 

AGINNUM (now Agen), the chief town of the 
Nitiobriges in Gallia Aquitanica. 

AGIS ( T Aytf), kings of Sparta. 1. Son of 
Eurysthenes, the founder of the family of the 
Agidae. 2. Son of Archidamus II., reigned B.C. 
427-398. He took an active part in the Pel- 
oponnesian war, and invaded Attica several 
times. While Aleibiades was at Sparta he was 
the guest of Agis, and is said to have seduced 
his wife Timaea ; in consequence of which Leo- 
tychides, the son of Agis, was excluded from the 
throne as illegitimate. 3. Son of Archidamus 
III., reigned B.C. 338-330, attempted to over- 
throw the Macedonian power in Europe, while 
Alexander the Great was in Asia, but was de- 
feated and killed in battle by Antipater in 330 
4. Sou of Eudamidas IL, reigned B.C. 244- 
240. He attempted to re-establish the institu 
tions of Lycurgus, and to effect a thorough re- 
form in the Spartan state ; but he was resisted 
by his colleague Leonidas II. and the wealthy, 
was thrown into prison, and was there put to 
death by command of the ephors, along with 
his mother Agesistrata, and his grandmother 
Archidamia. 

AGIS, a Greek poet of Argos, a notorious flat- 
terer of Alexander the Great. 

[AGIZYMBA, the name applied by Ptolemy to 
the part of Africa lying under the equator, the 
southernmost portion of that country with which 
the Greeks were acquainted.] 

AGLAIA ('Ay /lam), "the bright one." 1. One 
of the CHARITES or Graces. 2. Wife of Charopua 
and mother of Nireus, who came from the Island 
of Syrne against Troy. 

[AGLAONICE. Vid. AGANICE.] 

AGLAOPHEME. Vid. SIRENES. 

AGLAOPHON ('AyAao^wv). 1. Painter of Tha- 
sos, father and instructor of Polygnotus and 
Aristophon, lived about B.C. 500. 2. Painter, 
lived about B.C. 420, probably grandson of No. 1. 



AGLAUROS. 



AGRIGENTUM. 



[AGLAUROS. Vid. AGRAULOS.] 

AGLAUS ('A.y7.a6f ), a poor citizen of Psophis in 
Arcadia, whom the Delpkic oracle declared hap- 
pier than Gyges, king of Lydia, on account of 
his contented disposition. Pausanias places him 
in the time of Croesus. 

[AGNIUS ('Ayvto?), father of the Argonaut Ty- 
phys, the pilot of the Argo.] 

AGNODICE ('Ayt-'o&'/c)?), an Athenian maiden, 
was the first of her sex to learn midwifery, 
which a law at Athens forbade any woman to 
learu. Dressed as a man, she obtained instruc- 
tion from a physician named Hierophilus, and 
afterward practiced her art with success. Sum- 
moned before the Ai eopagus by the envy of the 
other practitioners, she was obliged to disclose 
her sex, and was riot only acquitted, but obtain- 
ed the repeal of the obnoxious law. This tale, 
though often repeated, does not deserve much 
credit, as it rests on the authority of Hyginus 
alone. 

AGNOJTIDES ('Ayvwi-W^f), an Athenian dema- 
gogue, induced the Athenians to sentence Pho- 
cion to death (B.C. 318), but was shortly after- 
ward put to death himself by the Athenians. 

AGORACRITUS (' Ayopa/c/wrof), a statuary of Pa- 
ros, flourished B.C. 440-128, and was the favorite 
pupil of Phidias. H,is greatest work was a 
statue of Venus (Aphrodite), which he changed 
into a statue of Nemesis, and sold it to the 
people of Khamnus, because he was indignant 
that the Athenians had given the preference to a 
statue by Alcamenes, who was another distin- 
guished pupil of Phidias. 

AGOR^BA and AGOR^EUS ('Ayopata and 'Ayo- 
palof). epithets of several divinities who were 
considered as the protectors of the assemblies of 
the people in the agora, such as Jupiter (Zeus),' 
Minerva (Athena), Diana (Artemis), and Mer- 
cury (Hermes). 

[AGRA ('Aypa) or Agrae ("Aypat), an Attic de- 
mus south of Athens on the Ilissus : it contained 
a temple of Diana (Artemis) Agrotera, and a 
temple of Ceres (Demeter).] 

AGR^I ('A.ypaloi), a people of ^Etolia, on the 
Achelous. 

AGRAULE (' A.ypav'hij and "Ay/nJAj? : 'AypvAeiif), 
an Attic demus of the tribe Erechtheis, named 
after AGRAULOS, No. 2. 

AGRAULOS ("Aypav/lof, also 'AyA.owpof). 1. 
Daughter of Acteus, first king of Athens, and 
wife of Cecrops. 2. Daughter of Ceorops and 
Agraulos, is an important personage in the le- 
gends of Attica, and there were three different 
Htories about her. 1. According to some writ- 
ei-s, Minerva (Athena) gave Erichthonius in a 
chest to Agraulos and her sister Herae, with the 
command not to open it ; but, unable to control 
their curiosity, they opened it, and thereupon 
were seized with madness at the sight of Ench- 
thonius, and threw themselves down from the 
Acropolis. 2. According to Ovid (Met., ii., 710), 
Agraulos and her sister survived opening the 
chest, but Agraulos was subsequently punished 
by being changed into a stone by Mercury (Her- 
mes), because she attempted to prevent the god 
from entering the house of Herse, when he had 
fallen in love with the latter. 3. The third le- 
gend relates that Athens was once involved in 
a long-protracted war, and that Agraulos threw 
"herself down from the Acropolis because an 



oracle had declared that the Athenians would 
conquer if some one would sacrifice himself for 
his country." The Athenians, in gratitude, br.ilt 
her a temple on the Acropolis, in which it De- 
came customary for the youug Athenians, on re- 
ceiving their first suit of armor, to take an oath 
that they would always defend their country to 
the last One of the Attic demi (Agraule) de- 
rived its name from this heroine, and a festival 
and mysteries (Agraulia) were celebrated at 
Athens in honor of her. 

AGUEUS ('A-ypevf), a hunter, a surname of Pan 
and Aristaeus. 

AGRI DECUMATES, tithe lands, the name given 
by the Romans to a part of Germany, east of the 
Rhine and north of the Danube, which they took 
possession of when the Germans retired east- 
ward, and which they gave to Gauls and subse- 
quently to their own veterans on the payment of 
a tenth of the produce (decuma). Toward the 
end of the first or beginning of the second cen- 
tury after Christ, these lands were incorporated 
in the Roman empire. 

[AGRIANES ('A.ypidv7), now Ergene), a river of 
Thrace, joining the Hebrus.] 

[AGRIANES ('Ay/wavef), a Thracian race dwell- 
ing around Mount Hasmus, in the vicinity of the 
River Agrianes, a rude and warlike people, and 
excellent archers.] 

AGRJCOLA, Cx. JULIUS, born June 13th, A.D. 
37, at Forum Julii (Frejus in Provence), was the 
son of Julius Graecinus, who was executed by 
Caligula, and of Julia Procilla. He received a 
careful education ; he first served in Britain, 
A.D. 60, under Suetonius Paulinus ; was quaestor 
in Asia in 63 ; was governor of Aquitama from 
74 to 76 ; and was consul in 77, when he be- 
trothed his daughter to the historian Tacitus, and 
in the following year gave her to him in mar- 
riage. In 78 he received the government of 
Britain, which he held for seven years, during 
which time he subdued the whole of the country 
with the exception of the highlands of Caledo- 
nia, and by his wise administration introduced 
among the inhabitants the language and civiliza- 
tion of Rome. He was recalled in 85 through 
the jealousy of Domitian, and on his return lived 
in retirement till his death in 93, which, accord- 
ing to some, was occasioned by poison, adminis- 
tered bv order of Domitian. His character is 
drawn in the brightest colors by his son-iu-la\r 
Tacitus, whose Life of Agricola has come dow 
to us. 

AGRIGENTUM ('Axpccvof : 'A/cpayavrivoj-, Agri- 
gentlnus : now Girgenti), a town on the southern 
coast of Sicily, about two and a half miles from 
the sea, between the rivers Acragas (now flume 
di S. Biagio) and Hypsas (now Finnic Drago). 
It was celebrated for its wealth and populous- 
ness, and, till its destruction by the Carthagini- 
ans (B.C. 405), was one of the most splendid cit- 
ies of the ancient world. It was the birth-place 
of Empedoeles. It waa founded by a Doric col- 
ony from Gela about B.C. 579, was under the 
government of the cruel tyrant Phalaiis (about 
660), and subsequently under that of Theron 
(488-472), whose praises are celebrated by Pin- 
dar. After its destruction by the Carthaginians, 
it was rebuilt by Timolcon, but it never regained 
its former greatness. After undergoing manj 
vicissitudes, it at length came into the power 

33 



AGR1NIUM. 

of the Romans (210), in whose hands it remain- 
ed. There are still gigantic remains of the an- 
cient city, especially of the Olympifium, or tem- 
ple of the Olympian Jupiter (Zeus). 

Acalxiusi ('A.}pivtov), a town in ^Etoh'a, per- 
liaps near the sources of the Thcrmissus. 

AGRIPPA, first a proenomcn, and afterward a 
cognomen among the Romans, signifies a child 
presented at its birth with its feet foremost 

AGRIPPA, HERODES. L Called "Agrippa the 
Great," son of Aristobulus and Berenice, and 
grandson of Herod the Great. He was edu- 
cated at Rome with the future Emperor Clau- 
dius, and Drusus, the son of Tiberius. Having 
given offence to Tiberius, he was thrown into 
prison ; but Caligula, on his accession (A.D .37), 
set him at liberty, and gave him the tetrar- 
clues of Abilene, Bataiuea, Trachonitis, and 
Aurauitis. On the death of Caligula (41), Agrip- 
pa, who was at the time in Rome, assisted Clau- 
dius in gaining possession of the empire. As a 
reward for his services, Judaea and Samaria 
jFere annexed to his dominions. His govern- 
ment was mild and gentle, and he was exceed- 
cgly popular among the Jews. It was probably 
to increase his popularity with the Jews that 
lie caused the Apostle James to be beheaded, 
and Peter to be cast into prison (44). The 
manner of his death, which took place at Csesa- 
rea in the same year, is related in Acts, xii. By 
his wife Cypros he had a son, Agrippa, and three 
daughters, Berenice, Mariamne, and Drusilla. 
2. Son of Agrippa L, was educated at the court 
of Cladius, and at the time of his father's death 
was seventeen years old. Claudius kept him 
at Rome, and sent Cuspius Fadus as procurator 
of the kingdom, which thus again became a Ro- 
man province. On the death of Herodes, king 
of Chalchis (48), his little principality was given 
to Agrippa, who subsequently received an ac- 
cession of territory. Before the outbreak of 
the war with the Romans, Agrippa attempted 
in vain to dissuade the Jews from rebelling. 
He sided with the Romans in the war ; and af- 
ter the capture of Jerusalem, he went with his 
sister Berenice to Rome, and died in the sev- 
enty-third year of his age, A.D. 100. It was 
before this Agrippa that the Apostle Paul made 
his defence, A.D. 60 (Acts, xxv., xxvi.). 

AGRIPPA, M. VIPSAXIUS, born in B.C. 63, of 
an obscure family, studied with young Octavius 
(afterward the Emperor Augustus) at Apollonia 
in Ulyria; and upon the murder of Caesar in 
44, was one of the friends of Octavius, who ad- 
vised him to proceed immediately to Rome. In 
the civil wars which followed, and which ter- 
minated in giving Augustus the sovereignity of 
the Roman world, Agrippa took an active part ; 
and his military abilities, combined with his 
promptitude and energy, contributed greatly to 
that result In 41, Agrippa, who was then prae- 
tor, commanded part of the forces of Augustus 

_ T f ' T -. n 



in the Perusinian war. In 38 he obtained (Treat dom, and gave it to their father ; but Agrius an 



successes in Gaul and Germany ; in 37 he was 
consul ; and in 36 he defeated Sex. Pompey by 
sea. In 33 he was sedile, and in this office ex- 
pended immense sums of money upon great 
public works. He restored old aqueducts, con- 
structed a new one, to which he gave the name 



AGRCECIUS. 

mandcd the fleet of Augustus, at the battle ol 
Actium; was consul a second time in 28, and 
a third time in 27, when he built the Pantheon. 
In 21 he married Julia, daughter of Augustus. 
He had been married twice before, first to Pom- 
ponia, daughter of T. Pomponius Atticus, and 
next to Marcella, niece of Augustus. He con- 
tinued to be employed in various military com- 
mands in Gaul, Spain, Syria, and Pannouia, till 
his death in B.C. 12. By his first wife Pompo- 
nia, Agrippa had Vipsania, married to Tiberius . 
the successor of Augustus ; and by his third 
wife, Julia, he had two daughters, Julia, married 
to L. ^Emilius Paulus, and Agrippiun, married 
to Germanieus, and three sons, Caius Ca;sar, 
Lucius Caesar (vid CAESAR), and Agrippa Pos- 
tumus, who was banished by Augustus to the 
Island of Planasia, and was put to death by Ti- 
berius at his accession, A.D. 14. 

AGRIPPINA. 1. Daughter of M. Vipsanius 
Agrippa and of Julia, the daughter of Augustus, 
man-led Germanieus, by whom she had nine 
children, among whom was the Emperor Calig- 
ula, and Agrippiua, the mother of Nero. She 
was distinguished for her virtues and heroism, 
and shared all the dangers of her husband's 
campaigns. On his death in A.D. 17, she rt- 
turned to Italy ; but the favor with which she 
was received by the people, increased the hatred 
and jealousy which Tiberius and his mother 
Livia had long entertained toward her. For 
some years Tiberius disguised bis hatred, but at 
length, under the pretext that she was forming 
ambitious plans, he banished her to the Island 
of Pandataria (A.D. 30), where she died three 
years afterward, (A.D. 33), probably by volun- 
tary starvation. 2. Daughter of Germanieus and 
Agrippina [No. 1.], and mother of the Emperor 
Nero, was born at Oppidum Ubiorum, afterward 
called in honor of her Colonia Agrippina, now 
Cologne. She was beautiful and intelligent, but 
licentious, cruel, and ambitious. She was first 
married to Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus (A.D. 28), 
by whom she had a son, afterward the Emperor 
Nero; next to Crispus Passienus; and thirdly 
to the Emperor Cladius (49), although she was 
his niece. In 50, she prevailed upon Claudius 
to adopt her .son, to the prejudice of his own 
son Britannicus; and in order to secure the 
succession for her son, she poisoned the em- 
peror in 54. Upon the accession of her son 
Nero, who was then only seventeen years of 
age, she governed the Roman empire for a few 
years in his name. The young emperor soon 
became tired of the ascendency of his mother, 
and after making several attempts to shake off 
her authority, he caused her to be assassinated 
in 59. 

AGRIPPINENBES. Vid. COLONIA AGRIPFINA. 

AGRICS ("Ayptof ), son of Porthaon and Euryte, 
and brother of O2neus, king of Calydon in ^Eto 
lia : his six sons deprived (Eneus of his king 



his sons were afterward slain by Diomedes, tha 
grandson of GDneus. 

AGRffiCius or AGROTTIUS, a Roman gramma- 
rian, probably lived in the fifth century after 
Christ, and wrote an extant work, De Ortho- 
graphia et Proprietate et Differentia Sermonis, 



of the Julian, in honor of Augustus, and also j which is printed in Putschius, Grammatical La, 
erected several public buildings. In 31 he com- tinee Auctores Antiqui, p. 2266-2275. 



34 



AGROLAS. 



AJAX. 



[ AGROLAS ('AypoAaf), of Sicily, an architect, 
who, with Hyperbius, surrounded the citadel of 
Athens with walls, except that part which was 
afterward built by Cimon.] 

AGRON ("A.-/puv). I. Son of Ninus, the first 
of the Lydiau dynasty of the Heraclidre. 2. 
Son of Pfeuratus, king of Illyria, died B.C. 231, 
and was succeeded by his wife Teuta, though 
be left a son, Pinnes or Pinneus, by his first 
wife, Triteuta, whom he had divorced. 

AGBOTERA ('Ayporepa), the huntress, a sur- 
name of Diana (Artemis). Vid, AGRA. There 
was a festival celebrated to her honor at Athens 
under this name. Vid. Diet, of Antiq. 

AGRYLE. Vid. AGRAULE. 

[Aousius T., a faithful friend of Cicero, who 
adhered to him in his banishment, and was the 
sharer of all his labors and sufferings during 
that period.] 

AGYIEUS ('A}i>tei>f), a surname of Apollo, as 
the protector of the streets and public places. 

AGYLLA ("Ayt'/l/la), the ancient Greek name 
of the Etruscan town of C^ERE. 

AGYRIUM ('\yvpiov : 'A.yvpivalog, Agyrinen- 
sis : now S. Filipo d'Argiro), a town in Sicily on 
the Cyamosorus, northwest of Centuripae and 
northeast of Enna, the birth-place of the histo- 
rian Diodorus. 

AGYRRHIUS ('Ayr/5/itof), an Athenian, after be- 
ing in prison maW years for embezzlement of 
public money, obtained, about B.C. 395, the res- 
toration of the Theoricon, and also tripled the pay 
for attending the assembly; hence he became 
so popular, that he was appointed general in 389. 

AHALA, SERVILIUS, the name of several dis- 
tinguished Romans, who held various high of- 
fices in the state from B.C. 478 to 342. Of 
these the best known is C. Servilius Ahala, 
magister equitum in 439 to the dictator L. Cin- 
cinnatus, when he slew SP. M^ELIUS in the 
forum, becausa he refused to appear before the 
dictator. Ahala was afterward brought to trial, 
and only escaped condemnation by a voluntary 
exile. Vid. SAVIJJL 

AHAUNA [now Bargiano /], a town in Etruria, 
northeast of Volsinii, 

AHENOBARBUS, DOMITIDS, the name of a dis- 
tinguished Roman family. They are said to 
have obtained the surname of Ahenobarbus, i. 
e^ " Brazen- Beard" or " Red-Beard," because 
the Dioscuri announced to one of their ances- 
tors the victory of the Romans over the Latins 
at Lake Rcgillus (B.C. 496), and, to confirm the 
Iruth of what they said, stroked his black hair 
and beard, which immediately became red. 
1. CN., plebeian aedile B.C. 196, praetor 194, and 
consul 192, when he fought against the Boii. 
2. CN., son of No. 1, consul suffectus in 162. 
3. CN, son of No. 2, consul 122, conquered 
the Allobrogea in Gaul, in 121, at the confluence 
of the Sulga and Rhodanus. He was censor in 
115 with Cojcilius Metellus. The Via Domitia 
in Gaul was made by him. 4. CN., son of No. 
3. tribune of the plebs 104, brought forward the 
law (Lex Domitia), by which the election of the 
priests was transferred from the collegia to the 
people. The peoph afterward elected him Pon- 
tificus Maximus out of gratitude. He was con- 
sul in 'j*',. aud censor in 92, with Licinius Cras- 
ua the orator. In his censorship he and his 
colleague shut up the schools of the Latin rhet- 



' oricians ; but otherwise their censorship was 
i marked by their violent disputes. 5. L., broth- 
| er of No. 4, praetor in Sicily, probably in 96, and 
j consnl in 94, belonged to the party of Sulla, and 
| was murdered at Rome in 82, by order of the 
i younger Marius. 6, ON., son of No. 4, married 
Cornelia, daughter of L. Ciuua, consul in 87, 
and joined the Marian party. He was pro- 
scribed by Sulla in 82, and fled to Africa, where 
he was defeated and killed by Cn. Pompey in 
81. 7. L., son of No. 4, married Porcia, the 
sister of M. Cato, and was a stanch and a cour- 
ageous supporter of the aristocratical party. 
He was aedile in 61, praetor in 58, and consul in 
64. On the breaking out of the civil war in 49 
he threw himself into Corfinium, but was com- 
pelled by his own troops to surrender to Cajsar. 
He next went to Massilia, and, after the sur- 
render of, that town, repaired to Pompey in 
Greece : he. fell in the battle of Pharsaha (48), 
where he commanded the left wing, and, accord- 
ing to Cicero's assertion in the second Philippic, 
by the hand of Antony. 8. CN., son of No. 7, 
was taken with his father at Corfinium (49), 
was present at the battle of Pharsalia (48), and 
returned to Italy in 46, when he was pardoned 
by Caesar. After Caesar's death in 44, he com 
manded the republican fleet in the Ionian Sea 
He afterward became reconciled to Antony, 
whom he accompanied in his campaign against 
the Parthians in 36. He was consul in 32, and. 
deserted to Augustus shortly before the battle 
of Actium. 9. L., son of No. 8, married An- 
tonia, the daughter of Antony by Octavia ; was 
aedile in 22, and consul in 16 ; aud after his 
consulship, commanded the Roman army in 
Germany and crossed the Elbe. He died A. D. 
25. 10. CN., son of No. 9, consul A.D. 32, mar- 
ried Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus, and 
was father of the Emperor Nero. Vid. AGRIP- 
PINA. 

AJAX (Ataf). 1. Son of Telamon, king of Sal- 
amis, by Peribcea or Eribcea, and grandson of 
^Eacus. Homer calls him Ajax the Telamo- 
nian, Ajax the Great, or simply Ajax, whereas 
the other Ajax, son of Oileus, is always distin- 
guished from the former by some epithet. He 
sailed against Troy in twelve ships, and is rep- 
resented in the Iliad as second only to Achilles 
in bravery, and as the hero most worthy, in the 
absence of Achilles, to contend with Hector. 
In the contest for the armor of Achilles, he was 
conquered by Ulysses, aud this, says Homer, 
was the cause of his death. (Od. XL, 541, seq.) 
Homer gives no further particulars respecting 
his death ; but later poets relate that his defeat 
by Ulysses threw him into an awful state of 
madness; that he rushed from his tent and 
slaughtered the sheep of the Greek army, fan- 
cying they were his enemies ; and that at length 
he put an end to his own life. From his blood 
there sprang up a purple flower bearing the let- 
ters al on its leaves, which were at once the 
j initials of his name and expressive of a sigL. 
Homer does not mention his mistress TECMESSA. 
Ajax was worshipped at Salamis, and was hon- 
ored with a festival (A.luv-eia). He was also 
worshipped at Athens, and one of the Attic 
tribes (jEantiis) was called after him. 2. Son 
of O'ileus, king of the Locrians, also called the 
lesser Ajax, sailed against Troy in forty ships. 
35 



AIDES. 



ALBANIA. 



He is described as small of stature, and wears 
a linen cuirass (%tvo6upr)), but is bravo and in- 
trepid, skilled in throwing the spear, and, next 
to Achilles, the most swift-footed among the 
Greeks. On his return from Troy bis vessel 
was wrecked on the Whirling Rocks (Tvpal irt- 
Tpai) ; he himself got safe upon a rock through 
the assistance of Neptune (Poseidon) ; but as 
be boasted that he wbuld escape in defiance of 
the immortals, Neptune (Poseidon) split the 
rock with his trident, and Ajax was swallowed 
up by the sea. This is the account of Homer, 
but his death is related somewhat differently by 
Virgil and other writers, who also tell us that 
the anger of Minerva (Athena) was excited 
against him, because on the night of the cap- 
ture of Troy, he violated Cassandra in the tem- 
ple of the goddess, where she had taken refuge. 
'Die Opuntian Locrians worshipped Ajax as their 
national hero. 

AIDES ('Aidrif). Vid. HADES. 

AIDONEUS ('Aiduvevf). 1. A lengthened form 
of Aides. Vid. HADES. 2. A mythical king of 
the Molossians in Epirus, husband of Proserpina 
(Persephone), and father of Core. When The- 
seus and Pirithous attempted to carry off Core, 
Aidoneus had Pirithous killed by Cerberus, and 
kept Theseus in captivity till he was released by 
Hercules. 

Aius Locurfus or LOQUENS, a Roman divinity. 
A short time before the Gauls took Rome (B.C. 
390), a voice was heard at Rome in the Via 
Nova, during the silence of night, announcing that 
the Gauls were approaching. No attention was 
%t the tune paid to the warning, but the Romans 
afterwards erected on the spot where the voice 
liad been heard, an altar with a sacred inclos- 
ure arouud it, to Aius Locutius, or the " Announc- 
>ug Speaker." 

ALABANDA (?/ 'A%u6av8a or rd. 'Ahufiavda : 
A.Ao6av(5evf or 'AAdtfavcJof : now Arabissar), an 
inland town of Caria, near the Marsyas, to the 
*outh of the Maeander, was situated between two 
hills : it was a prosperous place, but one of the 
most corrupt and luxurious towns in Asia Minor. 
Under the Romans it was the seat of a conven- 
tua juridicus. 

[ALABASTROX ('AAa6acrrpwv noXif), & city in 
Upper or Middle Egypt, in the Arabian mountain 
chain, and famed for its artists, who, from the ala- 
baster dug in Mons Alabantrinus, carved all 
kinds of vases and ornaments.] 

ALABON ('A2.a6uv), a river and town in Sicily, 
north of Syracuse. 

ALAGONIA ('A/layw/a), a town of the Eleuthe- 
ro-Laconians on the frontiers of Messenia. 

ALALCOMEN.fi ('Aha2,KO[tevai : 'A/,aX/co//fvaZof, 
AAa/U-o/ifvtevf). l. (Now Sulinari), an ancient 
town of BcDotia, east of Coronea, with a temple 
cf Minerva (Athena), who is said to have been 
oorn in the town, and who was hence called 
Alalcomenlis ('AXaAKo/zevjjif, MOJ-). The name 
of the town was derived either from Alalcome- 
nia, a daughter of Ogyges, or from the Boeotian 
hero Alalcomenes. 2. A town in Ithaca, or in 
the Island Asteria, between Ithaca and Cephal- 
lenia. 

ALALIA. Vid. ALEEIA. 

AI.ANI ('AAavot, 'AXavvoi,i.e^ mountaineers, 
from the Sarmatian word a/a), a great Asiatic 
people, included under the general name of 
36 



Scythians, but probably a branch of the Mas 
sagetae. They were a nation of warlike horse 
mea They are first found about the eastern 
part of the Caucasus, in the country called A I- 
bania, which appears to be only another form 
of the same name. In the reign of Vespasian 
they made incursions into Media and Armenia ; 
and at a later time they pressed into Europe, as 
far as the banks of the Lower Danube, where 
toward the end of the fifth century, they were 
routed by the Huns, who then compelled them 
to become their allies. In A.D. 406, some of the 
Alani took part with the Vandals in their irrup 
tion into Gaul and Spain, where they gradually 
disappear from history. 

ALARICUS, in German Al-ric, i.e., "All-rich," 
elected king of the Visigoths in AJ). 398, had 
previously commanded the Gothic auxiliaries of 
Theodosius. He twice invaded Italy, first in A.D. 
402-403, when he was defeated by Stilicho at 
the battle of Pollentia, and a second time in 408- 
410 ; in his second invasion he took and plundered 
Rome, 24th of August, 410. He died shortly 
afterward, at Consentia in Bruttium, while pre- 
paring to invade Sicily. 

ALASTOR ('ATidoTup). 1. A surname of Jupi- 
ter (Zeus) as the avenger of evil, and also, in 
general, any deity who avenges wicked deeds. 
[2. Son of Neleus and Chloris, was slain, toge- 
ther with his brothers, except Nfestor, by Hereu- 
les, when that hero took Pylos.] 3. A Lycian, 
and companion of Sarpedon, slain by Ulysses. 
[4. A Greek who rescued Teucer, the brother of 
Ajax, when wounded, and also Hypsenor when 
struck down by Deiphobus.] 

ALBA SILVJUS, one of the mythical kings of 
Alba, son of Latinus, reigned thirty-nine years. 

ALBA. 1. (Now Abla), a town of the Bastitani 
in Spain. 2. (Now Alvannd), a town of the Bar- 
duli in Spain. 3. AUGUSTA (now Aulps, near Du- 
rance), a town of the Elicoci in Gallia Narbon- 
ensis. -4. FUCENTIA or FUCENTIS (Albenses : now 
Alba or Albi), a town of the Marsi, and subse- 
quently a Roman colony, was situated on a lofty 
rock near the Lake Fucinus. It was a strong 
fortress, and was used by the Romans as a state 
prison. 5. LONGA (Albani), the most ancient 
town in Latium, is said to have been built by 
Ascanius, and to have founded Rome. It was 
called Longa, from its stretching in a long line 
down the Alban Mount towards the Alban 
Lake, perhaps near the modern convent of Pal- 
azzolo. It was destroyed by Tullus Hostilius, 
and was never rebuilt : its inhabitants were 
removed to Rome. At a later time the surround 
ing country, which was highly cultivated and 
covered with vineyards, was studded with the 
splendid villas of the Roman aristocracy and 
emperors (Pompey's, Domitian's, <fec.), each of 
which was called Albanum, and out of which a 
new town at length grew, also called Albauum 
(now Albano), on the Appian Road, ruins of 
which are extant. 6. POMPEIA (Albenses Pom- 

Kiani : now Alba), a town in Liguria, founded 
Scipio Africanus I, and colonized by Pom- 
peius Magnus, the birth-place of the Emperor 
Pertinax. 

ALBANIA ('Ahfiavia: 'AMavoi, Albani : now 
Scfiirwan and part of Daghestan, in the south- 
eastern part of Georgia), a country of Asia on 
the western side of the Caspian, extending from 



ALBANUM. 



ALBIUM INGAUNUM. 



the Rivers Cyrus and Araxes on the south to 
Mount Ceraunius (the eastern part of the Cau- 
casus) oh the north, and bounded on the west 
by Iberia. It was a fertile plain, abounding in 
pasture and vineyards ; but the inhabitants were 
nerce and warlike. They were a Scythian tribe, 
probably a branch of the Massagetae, and identi- 
cal with the ALANL The Romans first became 
acquainted with them at the time of the Mithra- 
datic war, when they encountered Pompey with 
a large army. 

ALBANUM. Vid. ALBA, No. 6. 
ALBANUS LACUS (now Lago di Albano), a small 
lake about five miles in circumference, west of 
the Mons Albanus, between Bovillae and Alba 
Longa. is the crater of an extinct volcano, and is 
many hundred feet deep. The emissarium which 
the Romans bored through the solid rock during 
the siege of Veii, in order to carry off the super- 
fluous water of the lake, is extant at the present 
day. 

ALBANGS MONS (now Monte Cavo or Albano}, 
was, in its narrower signification, the mountain 
in Latium on whose declivity the town of Alba 
Longa was situated. It was the sacred mountain 
of the Latins, on which the religious festivals of 
the Latin League were celebrated (Ferice Latino:}, 
and on its highest summit was the temple of 
Jupiter Latiaris, to which the. Roman generals 
ascended in triumph, when this honor was denied 
them in Rome. The Mons Albanus in its wider 
signification included the Mons ALGIDUS and the 
mountains about Tusculum. 

ALBI MONTHS, a lofty range of mountains in 
the west of Crete, three hundred stadia in length, 
covered with snow the greater part of the year. 
ALBICI ('AMioiKoi, 'A/i&cZf), a warlike Gallic 
people, inhabiting the mountains north of Mas- 
silia. 

ALBINGAUNUM. Vid. ALBIUM INGAUNUM. 
ALBINOVANUS, C. PEDO, a friend of Ovid, who 
addresses to him one of his epistles from Pontus 
(iv., 10). Three Latin elegies are attributed to 
Albinovanus, printed by Wernsdorf, in his Poetce 
Latini Jttinores, voL iii., iv., and by Meinecke, 
Quedlinburg, 1819. [2. ALB. CELSCS, a Latin 
poet, friend of Horace.] 

ALBINOVANUS, P. TULLIUS, belonged to the 
Marian party, was proscribed in B.C. 87, but 
was pardoned by Sulla in 81, in consequence of 
his putting to death many of the officers of Nor- 
banus, whom he had invited to a banquet at 
Ariminum. 

ALBISUS or ALBUS, POSTUMIUS, the name of a 
patrician family at Rome, many of the members 
of which held the highest offices of the state 
from the commencement of the republic to its 
downfall. 1. A., surnamed Regillensit, dictator 
RC. 498, when he conquered the Latins in the 
great battle near Lake Regillus, and consul 496, 
in which year some of the annals placed the 
battle. 2. SP., consul 466, and a member of the 
first decemvirate 451. 8. SP., consul 344, and 
again 321. In the latter year he marched 
against the Samnites, but was defeated near 
Caudium, and obliged to surrender with hia 
whole army, who were sent under the yoke. 
The Senate, on the advice of Albinus, refused 
to ratify the peace which he had made with the 
Samnites, and resolved that all persons who 
had sworn to the peace should be given up to 



the Samnites, but they refused to accept them. 
4. IA, consul 234, and again 229. In 216 he 
was praetor, and was killed in battle by the Boii. 
5. SP., consul in 186, when the senatus consul- 
turn was passed, which is extant, for suppress- 
ing the worship of Bacchus iu Rome. He died 
in 1*79. 6. A., consul 180, when he fought against 
the Ligurians, and censor 174. He was subse- 
quently engaged in many public missions. Livy 
calls him Luscus, from which it would seem 
that he was blind of one eye. 7. L.. praetor 
180, in Further Spain, where he remained two 
years, and conquered the Vaccaei and Lusitani. 
He was Consul in 173, and afterward served 
under ^Emilius Paulus in Macedonia in 168. 
8. A., consul 151, accompanied L. Mummius 
into Greece in 146. He was well acquainted 
with Greek literature, and wrote in that lan- 
guage a poem and a Roman history, which is 
censured by Polybius. 9. SP., consul 110, car- 
ried on war against Jugurtha in Numidia, but 
effected nothing. When Albinus departed from 
Africa, he left his brother Aulus in command, 
who was defeated by Jugurtha. Spurius was 
condemned by the Mamilia Lex, as guilty of 
treasonable practices with Jugurtha. 10. A., 
consul B.C. 99, with M. Antonius, is said by 
Cicero to have been a good speaker. 

ALBINUS ('A/Wwof), a Platonic philosopher, 
lived at Smyrna in the second century after 
Christ, and wrote an Introduction to the Dia- 
logues of Plato, which contains hardlv any thing 
of importance. Editions. In the nrst edition 
of Fabricius's Bibl. Greec., voL ii., and prefixed 
to Etwall's edition of three dialogues of Plato, 
Oxon., 1771 : and to Fischer's four dialogues of 
Plato, Lips.,' 1783. 

ALBINUS, CLODIUS, whose full name was De- 
cimus Clodius Ceionius Septimius Albinus, was 
born at Adrumetum in Africa. The Emperor 
Commodus made him governor of Gaul and 
afterward of Britain, where he was at the death 
of Commodus in A.D. 192. In order to secure 
the neutrality of Albinus, Septimius Severus 
made him Caesar; but after Severus had de- 
feated his rivals, he turned his arms against 
Albinus. A great battle was fought between 
them at Lugdunum (Lyons), in Gaul, the 19th 
of February, 197, in which Albinus was defeated 
and killed. 

ALBION or ALEBION ('AMtuv, 'AfaGtov), son 
of Neptune (Poseidon) and brother of Dercynua 
or Bergion, with whom he attacked Hercules, 
when he passed through their country (Liguria) 
with the oxen of Geryon. They were slain by 
Hercules. 

ALBION, another name of BRITANNIA, the white 
land, from its white cliffs opposite the coast of 
Gaul: [more correctly, perhaps, the high land, 
from the Celtic root Alb or Alp, high, in refer- 
ence to its lofty coasts, as it lies facing GauL] 

ALBIS (now Elbt}, one of the great rivers in 
Germany, the most easterly which the Romans 
became acquainted with, rises, according to 
Tacitus, in the country of the Hermunduri. The 
Romans reached the Elbe for the first time in 
B.C. 9, under Dnreus, and crossed it for the first 
time in B.O. 3, under Domitius Ahenobarbus, 
The last Roman general who saw the Elbe was 
Tiberius, in A.D. 5. 

A i.r.irM INGAUNUM or ALBINGACNUH (now Al- 
37 



ALBIUM INTEMELIUM. 



ALCEST1S. 



benyo), a town of the Ingauni on the coast of 
Ligiiria, and a municipium. 

ALBIUM INTKMELIUM or ALBINTEMELIUM (now 
Vlntimiglia), a town of the Intemelii on the 
coast of Ligiiria, and a municipium. 

[ALBUCKLLA or AEBOCALA ('Ap6ovKuhi), Polyb. : 
now Villa Fasila), a city of Ilispania Tarraco- 
nensis, southwest of Pallantia : according to Poly- 
bius, it was the largest city of the Vaccaei, and 
was taken by Hannibal after a brave and long 
resistance.] 

ALBUCIUS or ALBUTIUS, T., studied at Athens, 
and belonged to the Epicurean sect ; he was well 
acquainted with Greek literature, but was satir- 
ized by Lucilius on account of his affecting on 
every occasion the Greek language and philoso- 
phy. He was praetor in Sardinia in B.C. 105; 
aud in 103 was accused of repetundae by C. 
Julius Caesar, and condemned. He retired to 
Athens, and pursued the study of philosophy. 
[2. C. Albucius Silus. Vid. SILUS.] 

ALBULA, an ancient name of the River TIBER. 

Ai.BL'L.E AQUA Vid. ALBUNEA. 

ALBUNKA or ALBUXA, a prophetic nymph or 
Sibyl, to whom a grove was consecrated in the 
neighborhood of Tibur (now Tivoli}, with a foun- 
tain and a temple. This fountain was the 
largest of the Albulae aquas, still called Acque 
Albule, sulphureous springs at Tibur, which 
flow into the Anio. Near it was the oracle of 
v aunus Fatidicus. The temple is still extant at 
Tivoli. 

ALBURNUS Moxs, [now Monte di Postiglione], 
a mountain in Lucania, covered with wood, be- 
hind Paestum. [2. POETUS, a harbor near Paes- 
tum, at the mouth of the Silarus (now Sele)]. 

[ALBUS PORTUS (" the White Haven," now 
Algesiras), a town on the coast of Baetica in 
Spain.] 

[Ai*us Vicus (ii \evKi) Kufiq : now lambo ?), a 
harbor in Arabia, from which Gallus set out on 
his expedition into the interior.] 

[ALBUTIUS. Vid. ALBUCIUS.] 

ALOSUS ('AAxatof), son of Perseus and An- 
dromeda, and father of Amphitryon and Anaxo. 
[2. Son of Hercules and a female slave of 
Jardanus, from whom the Heraclid dynasty in 
Lydia, e. g^ Candaules (Myrsilus), Ac., were de- 
scended. Diodorus gives to this son of Hercules 
the name of Cleolaus. 3. Son of Androgeus, 
grandson of Minos.] 

ALC.US. 1. Of Mytilene in Lesbos, the earli- 
est of the JSolian lyric poets, began to flourish 
about B.C. 611. In the war between the Athen- 
ians and Mytilenaeans for the possession of Sigeum 
(B.C. 606), he incurred the disgrace of leaving 
his arms on the field of battle : these arms were 
hung up as a trophy by the Athenians in the 
temple of Pallas at Sigeum. Alcaeus took an 
active part in the struggles between the nobles 
and people of Mytilene : he belonged by birth to 
the nobles, and was driven into exile with his 
brother Antimenidas, when the popular party 
got the upper hand. He attempted, by force of 
arms, to regain his country ; but all his attempts 
were frustrated by PITTACUS, who had been 
chosen by the people uEsymnetes, or dictator, 
for the purpose of resisting him and the other 
exiles. Alcaeus and his brother afterward tra- 
velled into various countries : the tune of his 
death is uncertain. Some fragments of his poems 
38 



which remain, and the excellent imitations of 
Horace, enable us to understand something of 
their character. Those which have received the 
highest praise are his warlike odes, in which he 
tried to rouse the spirits of the nobles, the Alccei 
minaces Camence of Horace (Curm., iv. 9, 7), 
In others he described the hardships of exile, 
and his perils by sea (dura navis, dura fugce, 
mala dura belli, Hor., Carm., ii. 13, 27). Alcama 
is said to have invented the well-known Alcaic 
metre. Editions : By Matthiae, Alccei Mytileitcei 
reliquice, Lips., 1827 ; and by Bergk, in foetce 
Lyrici Greed, Lips., 1843. 2. A comic poet at 
Athens, flourished about B.C. 388, and exhibited 
plays of that mixed comedy, which formed the 
transition between the old and the middle. 
[Some fragments remain, which have been pub- 
lished by Meineke, Fragmenta Comicorum Qrw- 
corum, voL i., p. 457-461, edit, minor.] 3. Of 
Messene, the author of twenty-two epigrams in 
the Greek Anthology, written between B.C. 219 
and 196. ^ 

ALCAMENES ('AX/ca/fevj?f). 1. Son of Teleclus, 
king of Sparta, from B.C. 779 to 742. 2. A 
statuary of Athens, flourished from B.C. 444 to 
400, and was the most famous of the pupils of 
Phidias. His greatest work was a statue of 
Venus (Aphrodite). 

ALCANDER ("AA/cavtJpof), a young Spartan, who 
thrust out one of the eyes of Lycurgus, when his 
fellow-citizens were discontented with the laws 
he proposed. Lycurgus pardoned the outrage, 
and thus converted Alcander into one of his 
warmest friends. [2. A Lycian, slain by Ulysses 
before Troy. 3. A companion of ^Eneas, slain by 
Turnus in Italy.] 

[ALCANDRA ('A^Kuvdpa), wife of Polybus, a 
wealthy Egyptian of Egyptian Thebes, by whom 
Helen was kindly received and entertained on 
her arrival in Egypt] 

[ALCANOR, a Trojan, whose sons Pandarus and 
Bitias accompanied ^Eneas to Italy. 2. A war- 
rior in the army of the Rutulians, wounded by 
JSneasJ 

ALCATHOE or ALCITHOE ( 'AA/ca0o7? or A/Uiflo?/), 
daughter of Minyas, refused, with her sisters 
Leucippe and Arsippe, to join in the worship of 
Bacchus (Dionysus) when it was introduced into 
Boeotia, and were accordingly changed by the 
god into bats, and their work into vines. Vid. 
Diet, of Ant., art. AGRIOXIA. 

ALOATHOUS ('AA/ca0oof). 1. Son of Pelops 
and Hippodamia, brother of Atreus and Thyes- 
tes, obtained as his wife Euaechme, the daugh- 
ter of Megareus, by slaying the Cithajronian lion, 
and succeeded his father-in-law as king of Me- 
gara. He restored the walls of Megara, in 
which work he was assisted by Apollo. The 
stone upon which the god used to place his lyre 
while he was at work, was believed, even in 
late times, to give forth a sound, when struck, 
similar to that of a lyre (Ov., Met., viii., 15). 
2. Son of -*Esyets and husband of Hippodamia, 
the daughter of Anchises and sister of ^Eneas, 
was one of the bravest of the Trojan leaders 
in the war of Troy, and was slain by Idome- 
neus. [3. Son of Porthaon and Euryte, killed by 
Tydeus. 4. A companion of ^Eneas, slain by 
Caedicus.] 

ALCESTIS or ALCESTE ("A^/c^crrtf or 'AhKecmj), 
daughter of Pelias and Anaxibia, wife of Ad- 



ALCETAS. 

inetus, died in place of her husband. Vld. AD 
METUS. 

ALCETAS ('A^Kfraf), two kings of Epirus. 1. 
Son of Tlmrypus, was expelled from his king- 
dom, and was restored by the elder Dionysius 
of Syracuse. He was the ally of the Atheni- 
ans in B.C. 373. 2. Son of Arymbas, and grand- 
son of Alcetas I., reigned B.C. 313-303, and 
was put to death by his subjects. 

ALCETAS. 1. K-ing of Macedonia, reigned 
twenty-nine years, and was father of Amyntas 
I. 2. Brother of Perdiccas and son of Orontes, 
was one of Alexander's generals. On the death 
of Alexander, he espoused his brother's party ; 
and upon the murder of the latter in Egypt in 
321, he joined Eumenes. He killed himself at 
Termessus in Pisidia in 320, to avoid falling 
into the hands of Antigonus. 

ALCIBIADES ('A.^Ki6iu6i]f\ [1. Of Athens, 
father of Clinias, and grandfather of the cele- 
brated Alcibiades, deduced his descent from 
Eurysaces, the sou of Telamonian Ajax. He 
joined Clistheues in an attempt to procure the 
banishment of the Pisistratidae ; but was ban- 
ished with him B.C. 512.] 2. Son of Clinias 
and Diuomache, was born at Athens about B.C. 
450, and on the death of his father in 447, was 
brought up by his relation Pericles. He pos- 
sessed a beautiful person, transcendent abilities, 
and great wealth, which received a large ac- 
cession through his marriage with Hipparete, 
the daughter of Hipponicus. His youth was 
disgraced by his amours and debaucheries, and 
Socrates, who saw his vast capabilities, at- 
tempted to win him to the paths of virtue, but 
in vain. Their intimacy was strengthened by 
mutual services. At the battle of Potidaea 
(B.C. 432) his life was saved by Socrates, and 
at that of Delium (424) he saved the life of Soc- 
rates. He did not take much part in public af- 
fairs till after the death of Cleon (422), but he 
then became one of the leading politicians, and 
the head of the war party in opposition to Nic- 
ias. Enraged at the affront put upon him by 
the Lacedaemonians, who had not chosen to 
employ his intervention in the negotiations 
which ended in the peace of 421, and had pre- 
ferred Nicias to him, he induced the Athenians 
to form an alliance with Argos, Mantinea, and 
Elis, and to attack the allies of Sparta. In 415 
he was foremost amongst the advocates of the 
Sicilian expedition, which he believed would be 
a step toward the conquest of Italy, Carthage, 
and Peloponnesus. While the preparations for 
the expedition were going on, there occurred 
the mysterious mutilation of the Hermes-busts, 
which the popular fears connected in some un- 
accountable manner with an attempt to over- 
throw the Athenian constitution. Alcibiades 
was charged with being the ringleader in this 
attempt He had been already appointed along 
with Nicias and Lamacbus as commander of the 
expedition to Sicily, and he now demanded an 
investigation before he set sail. This, however, 
his enemies would not grant, as they hoped to 
increase the popular odium against him in his 
absence. He was, therefore, obliged to depart 
for Sicily ; but he had not been there long, be- 
fore he was recalled to stand his trial. On his 
return homeward, he managed to escape at 
Thurii, and thence proceeded to Sparta, \k-h a re 



ALCIMEDON. 

he acted as the avowed enemy of his country. 
At Athens sentence of death was passed upon 
him, and his property was confiscated. At 
Sparta he rendered himself popular by the fa- 
cility with which he adopted the Spartan man- 
ners ; but the machinations of his enemy, AGIS 
II, induced him to abandon the Spartans and 
take refuge with Tissaphernes (412), whose fa- 
vor he soon gained. Through his influence Tis- 
saphernes deserted the Spartans and professed 
his willingness to assist the Athenians, who ac 
cordingly recalled Alcibiades from banishment 
in 411. He did not immediately return to Ath- 
ens, but remained abroad for the next four years, 
during which the Athenians under his com- 
mand gained the victories of Cynossema, Aby- 
dos, and Cyzicus, and get possession of Chal- 
cedon and Byzantium. In 407 he returned to 
Athens, where he was received with great en- 
thusiasm, and was appointed Commander-in- 
chief of all the land and sea forces. But the 
defeat at Notium, occasioned during his absence 
by the imprudence of his lieutenant, Antiochus, 
furnished his enemies with a handle against 
him, and he was superseded in his command 
(B.C. 406). He now went into voluntary ex- 
ile to his fortified domain at Bisanthe in the 
Thracian Chersonesus, where he made war on 
the neighboring Thracians. Before the fatal 
battle of ^Egos-Pot.imi (405), he gave an inef- 
fectual warning to the Athenian generals. After 
the fall of Athens (404), he was condemned to 
banishment, and took refuge with Pharnaba- 
zus ; he was about to proceed to the court of 
Artaxerxes, when one night his house was sur- 
rounded by a band of armed men, and set on 
fire. He rushed out sword in hand, but fell, 
pierced with arrows (404). The assassins were 
probably either employed by the Spartans, or 
by the brothers of a lady whom Alcibiades had 
seduced. He left a son by his wife Hipparete, 
named Alcibiades, who never distinguished him- 
self. It was for him that Isocrates wrote the 
speech Tlepl rov Zevyovg. 

ALCIDAMAS ( 'A/Ut(5<///af), a Greek rhetorician 
of Ekea in ^Eolis, in Asia Minor, was a pupil of 
Gorgias, and resided at Athens between B.C. 
432 and 411. His works were characterized by 
pompous diction, and the extravagant use of 
poetical epithets and phrases. There are two 
declamations extant which bear his name, en- 
titled Llysses, and On the Sophists, but they 
were probably not written by him. Editions : 
In Reiske's Oratores Greed, vol. viii., and in 
Bekker's Oratores At lid, vol. vii. 

ALCIDAS ('AAicMaf Dor 'AA/teotyf). a Spar- 
tan commander of the fleet in the Peloponnesian 
war, B.C. 428-427. In the former year he was 
sent to Mytilene, and in the latter to Corcyra. 

ALCIDES ('A/l/cftttyc), a name of Amphitryon, 
the son of Alcasus, and more especially of Her- 
cules, the grandson of Alcseus. 

ALCIMEDE (' Afactfiefa}), daughter of Phylacus 
and Clymene, wife of JEaoo, and mother of 
Jason. 

[ALCIMEDON ('AA/c///e<5wv), an Arcadian hero, 
Father of Phillo. From him the Arcadian plain 
Aldmedon derived its name. 2. Son of Laerces, 
one of the commanders of the Myrmidons un- 
der Achilles. 3. One of the Tyrrhenian sailors, 
who wished to carry off from Naxos the god 
39 



ALCIMEDON. 

Bacchus, who had taken the form of an infant, 
and for this was metamorphosed into a dolpliiu.] 

[ALCIMEDON, an embosser or chaser, spoken of 
by Virgil (Eclog., iii., 37, 44), who mentions some 
goblets of his workmanship.] 

ALCIJIUS (Avixus) ALETHIUS, the writer of 
seven short poems, a rhetorician in Aquitnuia, in 
Gaul, is spoken of in terms of praise by Sidonius 
ApoUinaris and Ausonius. Editions : In Meier's 
Anthologia Latino, p. 254-260, and in Wernsdo- 
ri's foiitce Latini Minores, voL vi. 

ALCINOUS ('A/Utvoof). 1. Son of Nausithous, 
and grandson of Neptune (Poseidon), is celebra- 
ted in the story of the Argonauts, and still more 
in the Odyssey. Homer represents him as the 
happy ruler of the Phamcians in the Island of 
Scheria, who has by Arete five sons and one daugh- 
ter, Nausicaa. The way in which he received 
Ulysses, and the stories which the latter related 
to the king about his wanderings, occupy a con- 
siderable portion of the Odyssey (books vi to 
xiii.). 2. A Platonic philosopher, who probably 
lived under the Caesars, wrote a work entitled 
Epitome of the Doctrines of Plato.' Editions : 
By Fell, Oxon, 1667, and by J. F. Fischer, Lips., 
1788, 8vo. 

ALCIPHRON ('AA/c%>uv), the most distinguished 
of the Greek epistolary writers, was perhaps a 
contemporary of Lucian about A.D. 170. The 
letters (one hundred and thirteen in number, in 
three books) are written by fictitious person- 
ages, and the language is distinguished by its 
purity and elegance. The new Attic comedy 
was the principal source from which the author 
derived his information respecting the characters 
and manners which he describes, and for this 
reason they contain much valuable information 
about the private life of the Athenians of that 
time. Editions: By Bergler, Lips., 1715, and by 
Wagner, Lips., 1798. 

[ALCIPFE ('A^KtTnrri), a daughter of Mars and 
Agraulos. Vid. HALIEEHOTHIUS.] 

ALCITHOE. Vid. ALCATHOE. 

ALCMJEON ('A.AKfj.aiuv). 1. Son of Amphiaraus 
and Eriphyle, and brother of Amphilochus. His 
mother was induced by the necklace of Harmo- 
nia, which she received from Polynices, to per- 
suade her husband Amphiaraus to take part in 
the expedition against Thebes ; and as he knew 
he should perish there, he enjoined his sons to kill 
their mother as soon as they should be grown up. 
Alcmseon took part in the expedition of the Epi- 
goni against Thebes, and on his return home 
after the capture of the city, he slew his mother, 
according to the injunction of his father. For 
this deed he became mad, and was haunted by 
the Erinnyes. He went to Phegeus in Psophis, 
and being purified by the latter, he married 
his daughter Arsinoe or Alphesibcea, to whom 
he gave the necklace and peplus of Harmonia. 
But as the land of this country ceased to 
bear, on account of its harboring a matricide, 
he left Psophis and repaired to the country 
at the mouth of the River Aehelous. The 
god Achelous gave him his daughter Callirrhoe 
in marriage ; and as the latter wished to possess 
the necklace and peplus of Harmonia, Alcmseon 
went to Psophis and obtained them from Phe- 
geus, under the pretext of dedicating them at 
Delphi ; but when Phegeus heard that the trea- 
pnres were fetched for Callirrhoe, he caused his 
40 



ALCMENE. 

sons to murder Alcmaeoa Alcmaeon was wor- 
shipped as a hero at Thebes, and at Psophis his 
tomb was shown, surrounded with cypresses. 
[2. Son of Sillus, and great grandson of Nestor, 
founder of the celebrated family of the ALCM^ON- 
ID^ (q. v.) in Athens.] 3. Son of Megacles, was 
greatly enriched by Crasus. 4. Of Crotona in 
Italy, said; to have been a pupil of Pythagoras, 
though this is very doubtful. He is said to 
have been the first person who dissected ani- 
mals, and he made some important discoveries 
in anatomy and natural philosophy. He wrote 
several medical and philosophical works, which 
arc lost. 

ALCM^EONID^E ('AXic/Liaiuvitiai), a noble family 
at Athens, members of which fill a space in 
Grecian history from B.C. 750 to 400. They 
were a branch of the family of the Nelidae, who 
were driven out of Pylus in Messenia by the Do- 
rians, and settled at Athens. In consequence of 
the way in which Megacles, one of the family, 
treated the insurgents under CYLON (B.C. 612J, 
they brought upon themselves the guilt of sacn 
lege, and were in consequence banished from 
Athens, about 595. About 560 they returned 
from exile, but were again expelled by Pisistra- 
tus. In 548 they contracted with the Amphic 
tyonic council to rebuild the temple of Delphi, 
and obtained great popularity throughout Greece 
by executing the work in a style of magnificence 
which much exceeded their engagement. On the 
expulsion of Hippias in 510, they were again re- 
stored to Athens. They now joined the popular 
party, and Clisthenes, who was at that time the 
head of the family, gave a new constitution tc 
Athens. Vid. CLISTHENES. 

ALCMAN ('Afafidv, [Doric form of the name, 
which was properly] 'A.2,K[iaiuv), the chief lyric 
poet of Sparta, by birth a Lydiau of Sardis, was 
brought to Laconia as a slave, when very young, 
and was emancipated by his master, who dis- 
covered his genius. He probably flourished 
about B.C. 631, and most of his poems were com- 
posed after the conclusion of the second Messenian 
war. He is said to have died, like Sulla, of the 
morbus pedicularis. Alcman's poems were com- 
prised in six books : many of them were erotic, 
and he is said by some ancient writers to have 
been the inventor of erotic poetry. His metres 
were very various. The Cretic hexameter was 
named Alcmanic from his being its inventor. His 
dialect was the Spartan Doric, with an inter- 
mixture of the ^Eolic. The Alexandrean gram- 
marians placed Alcman at the head of their 
canon of the nine lyric poets. The fragments 
of his poems are edited by "Welcker, Gies- 
sen, 1815 ; and by Bergk, in Poetce Lyrici Greed, 
1843. 

ALCMENE ('AA/c//^i>>?), daughter of Electryon. 
king of Mycenae, by Anaxo or Lysidice. The 
brothers of Alcmene were slain by the sons of 
Pterelaus ; and their father set out to avenge 
their death, leaving to Amphitryon his kingdom 
and his daughter Alcmene, whom Amphitryon 
was to marry. But Amphitryon having unin- 
tentionally killed Electryon before the marriage, 
Sthenelus expelled both Amphitryon and Alc- 
meue, who went to Thebes. But here, instead 
of marrying Amphitryon, Alcmene declared that 
she would only marry the man who should 
avenge the death of her brothers. Amphitryon 



ALCON. 



ALETES. 



nndertook the task, and invited Creon of Thebes 
to assist him. During his absence, Jupiter (Zeus), 
<n the disguise of Amphitryon, visited Alcmene, 
and, having related in what way he had avenged 
the death of her brothers, [finally persuaded her 
to a union]. Amphitryon himself returned the 
next day ; Alcmene became the mother of Her- 
cules by Jupiter (Zeus), and of Iphicles by Am- 
phitryon. Vid. HERCULES. After the death of 
Amphitryon, Alcmene married Rhadamanthys, 
at Ocalla in Boeotia. When Hercules was 
raised to the rank of a god, Alcmene, fearing 
Eurystheus, fled with the sons of Hercules to 
Athens. 

[ALCON ("AA/cuv), son of Hippocoon, a Calydo- 
oiau hunter, slain by Hercules. 2. Son of the 
Athenian King Erechtheus, so skillful an archer, 
that he shot a serpent which had entwined itself 
around his son, without wounding his child. 
In Virgil (Eel., 5, 11) an Alcon is mentioned, 
whom Servius calls a Cretan, and a companion 
of Hercules, and relates of him nearly the 
story just given. 3. A statuary, who made a 
statue of Hercules at Thebes, of iron, to 
symbolize thereby the hero's powers of endur- 
ance.] 

ALCYONE or HALCYONS ('AA/cvov??). 1. A 
Pleiad, daughter of Atlas and Pleione, and be- 
loved by Neptune (Poseidon). 2. Daughter of 
/Bolus and Enarete or JEgiale, and wife of Ceyx. 
They lived so happily that they were presump- 
tuous enough to call each other Jupiter (Zeus) 
and Juno (Hera), for which Jupiter (Zeus) me- 
tamorphosed them into birds, alcyon and ceyx, 
Others relate that Ceyx perished in a shipwreck, 
that Alcyone for grief threw herself into the 
*ea, and that the gods, out of compassion, 
changed the two into birds. It was fabled that j 
during the seven days before, and as many after, 
the shortest day of the year, while the bird 
alcyon was breeding, there always prevailed 
calms at sea. [2. Daughter of Idas and Marpessa, 
wife of Meleager, called by her parents Alcyone, 
from the plaintive cries uttered by her mother 
Marpessa when carried off by Apollo.] 

ALCYONEUS ('\facvovevc.), a giant, killed by 
Hercules at the Isthmus of Corinth. 

[ALCYOKIA PALUS ('AA/cuwvta A///VJ?), a lake 
in Argolis, of small size, but unfathomable depth, 
by which Bacchus descended to the lower world, 
when be sought to bring back Semele. It is re- 
garded by Leake as a part of Lerna.1 

ALCYONIUM MARE (ij 'AX/ctJoi>fc duhanad), the 
eastern part of the Corinthian Gulf. 

ALEA ('A^cc), a surname of Minerva (Athena), 
under which she was worshipped at Alea, Man- 
tinea, and Tegea. Her temple at the hitter place 
was one of the most celebrated in Greece. It is 
aid to have been built by Aleus, son of Apbldas, 
king of Tegea, from whom the goddess is sup- 
posed to have derived this surname. 

ALEA ('AAca : 'AAetif ), a town in Arcadia, east 
of the Stymphalian Lake, with a celebrated tem- 
ple of Minerva (Athena), the ruins of which are 
near Piali. 

ALKBION. Vid. ALBION. 

ALECTO. Vid. FURLS. 

[ALECTOR ('A/i/Krwp), son of Pelops, anl fa- 
ther of Iphiloche, who married Mcgapenthea , son j 
of Menelaus. 2. Son of Anaxagoras, father of 
Iphis, King of Argos.] 



[ALECTRYON ('A?.eKTpvuv), a youth stationed 
by Mars, during his interview with Venus, at the 
door to guard against surprise. Having fallen 
asleep, he was changed by Mars into a cock 
(dheKTpvuv) for his neglect of duty. 2. The 
father of the Argonaut Lei'tus, called by Apollo 
dorus Alectarl\ 

ALEICS CAMPUS or ALEII CAMPI (rb '\7.i}iov 
irediov), an extensive and fruitful plain of Cilicia, 
not far from Mallus, between the Rivers Pyra- 
mus and Sarus (in Homer's Lycia, //., 6, 201). 
It derives its name from the circumstance that 
Bellerophou in his old age fell into melancholy 
and madness, and wandered about here (from 
aXrj, wandering). Another legend makes Bel- 
lerophon to have been thrown from Pegas'is when 
attempting to mount to heaven, and to have wan- 
dered about here lame and blind.] 

ALEMANNI, or ALAMANNI, or ALAITANI (from the 
German alle Manner, all men), a confederacy of 
German tribes, chiefly of Suevic extraction, be- 
tween the Danube, the Rhine, and the Main, 
though we subsequently find them extending 
their territories as far as the Alps and the Jura. 
The different tribes of the confederacy were gov- 
erned by their own kings, but in time of war 
they obeyed a common leader. They were brsve 
and warlike, and proved formidable enemies to 
the Romans. They first came into contact with the 
Romans in the reign of Caracalla, who assumed 
the surname of Alemannicus on account of a pre- 
tended victory over them (A.D. 214). They 
were attacked by Alexander Severus (284), and 
by Maximin (237). They invaded Italy in 270, 
but were driven back by Aurelian, and were 
again defeated by Probus in 282. After this 
time they continually invaded the Roman d^mi- 
nions in Germany, and, though defeated by 
Constantius I., Julian (357), Valentinian, and 
Gratian, they gradually became more and 
more powerful, and in the fifth century were 
in possession of Alsace and of German 
Switzerland. 

ALERIA ('Afapia : 'AAa/Ua in Herod.)l one of 
the chief cities of Corsica, on the east of the 
island, on the southern bank of the Riv^r Rhota- 
nus (now Tavignano), near its mouth. It was 
founded by the Phocseans B.C. 664, was plun- 
dered by L. Scipio in the first Puni" war, and 
was made a Roman colony by Sulla. 

ALESA. Vid. HALESA. 

ALESIA ('A.%.eaia), an ancient town of the Man 
dubii in Gallia Lugdunensis, said to have been 
founded by Hercules, and situated on a high hill 
(now Auxois, [at the foot of which is a village 
called Alise}}, which was washed by the two 
rivers Lutosa (now Oze) and Osera (now Ozer- 
ain). It was taken and destroyed by Caesar, in 
B.C. 52, after a memorable siege, but was after- 
ward rebuilt 

ALESI-B ('Afaaiai), a town in Laconia, west of 
Sparta, on the road to Pherse. 

A u>ii M ('\?.eimov), a town in Elis, not far 
from Olympia, afterward called Alesiccum. 

ALKSIUS MONS (rd 'ATiyaiov opof), & mountain 
in Arcadia with a temple of Neptune (Poseidon) 
Hippius and a grove of Ceres (Demeter). 

AI.ETES ( f Afo/r77f), son of Hippotes, and a de- 
scendant of Hercules, is said to nave taken pos- 
session of Corinth, and to have expelled the 
Sisyphids, thirty years after the first invasion 
41 



ALETIUM. 



ALEXANDER. 



of Peloponnesus by the Heraclids. His family, 
culled the Aletidae, maintained themselves at 
Corinth down to the time of Bacchis. [2. A 
companion of ^Eneas, who was held in venera- 
tion on account of his age and wisdom.] 

ALKTICM (Aletmus), a town of Calabria. 

ALETRIUM or ALATRIUM (Aletrlnas, atis : now 
Alatri), an ancient town of the Hernici, subse- 
quently a municipium and a Roman colony, 
west of Sora and east of Anagnia, 

ALEUAD.*. Vid. ALEUAS. 

ALEUAS, ('Afovaf) a descendant of Hercules, 
was the ruler of Larissa in Thessaly, and the 
reputed founder of the celebrated family of the 
Aleuadae. Before the time of Pisistratus (B.C. 
560), the family of the Aleuadae appears to have 
become divided into two branches, the Aleuadae 
and the Scopadae. The Scopadae inhabited Cran- 
non and perhaps Pharsalus also, while the main 
branch, the Aleuadae, remained at Larissa. The 
influence of the families, however, was not con- 
fined to these towns, but extended more or less 
over the greater part of Thessaly. They form- 
ed, in reality, a powerful aristocratic party in op- 
position to the great body of the Thessalians. 
In the invasion of Greece by Xerxes (480), the 
Aleuadae espoused the cause of the Persians, 
and the family continued to be the predominant 
one in Thessaly for a long time afterward. But 
after the end of the Poloponnesian war (404), 
another Thessalian family, the dynasts of Pherae, 
gradually rose to power and influence, and gave 
a gi 3at shock to the power of the Aleuadae. 
The most formidable of these princes was Jason 
of Pherae, who succeeded, after various strug- 
gles, in raising himself to the dignity of Tagus, 
or supreme ruler of Thessaly. Vid. JASON. 

ALEUS. Vid. A I.I.A. 

ALEX or HALEX (now Alece), a small river in 
Southern Italy, was the boundary between the 
territory of Rhegium and of the Locri Epi- 
zephyriL 

[ALEXAMENUS ('AAea//>6f), an ^Etohan lead- 
er, sent by his countrymen with one thousand 
men to 'Sparta, who slew Nabis the Spartan 
tyrant 

ALEXANDER ('A.2.e%avdpof), the usual name of 
Paris in the Iliad. 

ALEXANDER SEVERUS. Vid. SEVERUS. 

ALEXANDER. 1. Minor Historical Persons. 

1. Son of JSROPUS, a native of the Macedoni- 
an district called Lyncestis, whence he is usually 
called Alexander Lyncestis. He was an accom- 
plice in the murder of Philip, B.C. 336, but 
was pardoned by Alexander the Great He ac- 
companied Alexander to Asia; but in 334 he 
was detected in carrying on a treasonable cor- 
respondence with Darius, was kept in confine- 
ment, and put to death in 330. 2. Son of AN- 
TONIUS the triumvir, and Cleopatra, bom, with 
his twin-sister^ Cleopatra, B.C. 40. After the 
battle of Actium they were taken to Rome by 
Augustus, and were generously educated by 
Octavia, the wife of Antonius, with her own 
childrea 3. Eldest son of ARISTOBULUS II, 
king of Judea, rose in arms in B.C. 57, against 
Hyrcanus, who was supported by the Romans. 
Alexander was defeated by the Romans in 56 
and 55, and was put to death by Pompey at An- 
tioch in 49. 4. Third son of CASSANDER, king 
of Macedonia, by Thessalonica, sister of Alex- 
42 



I ander the Great In his quarrel with his elder 
' brother Autipater for the government (rid. AN- 
TIPATER), he called in the aid of Pyrrhus of 
Epirus and Demetrius Poliorcetes, by the hitter 
of whom he was murdered B.C. 294. 3. JAN- 
N-srs, the eon of Joannes Hyrcanus, and broth- 
er of Aristobulus I., king of the Jews B.C. 104- 
77. At the commencement of his reign he was 
engaged in war with Ptolemy Lathyrus, king of 
Cyprus ; and subsequently he had to carry on for 
six years a dangerous struggle with his own 
subjects, to whom he had rendered himself ob 
noxious by his cruelties and by opposing the 
Pharisees. He signalized his victory by the 
1 most frightful butchery of his subjects. 6. Sur- 
I named Isius, the chief commander of tha JEto- 
! lians, took an active part in opposing Philip of 
Macedonia (B.C. 198, 197), and hi the various 
negotiations with the Romans. 7. Tyrant of 
PHERAE, was a relation of Jason, and succeeded 
either Polydorus or Polyphron, as Tagus of 
Thessaly, about B.C. 369. In consequence of 
his tyrannical government, the Thessalians ap- 
plied for aid first to Alexander II., king of Mace- 
donia, and next to Thebes. The Thebans sent 
Pelopidas into Thessaly to succor the malcon- 
tents; but having ventured incautiously within 
the power of the tyrant, he was seized by Alex- 
ander, and thrown into prison B.C. 368. The 
Thebans sent a large army into Thessaly to 
rescue Pelopidas, but they were defeated in the 
first campaign, and did not obtain their object 
till the next year, 367. In 364 Pelopidas again 
entered Thessaly with a small force, but was 
slain in battle by Alexander. The Thebans 
now sent a large army against the tyrant, and 
compelled him to become a dependent ally of 
Thebes. We afterwards hear of Alexander 
making piratical descents on many of the Athe- 
nian dependencies, and even on Attica itself. 
He was murdered in 367, by his wife Thebe, 
with the assistance of her three brothers. 8. 
Son of POLYSPERCHON, the Macedonian, was 
chiefly employed by his father in the command 
of the armies which he sent against Cassander. 
Thus he was sent against Athens in B.C. 318, 
and was engaged in military operations during 
the next year in various parts of Greece. But 
in 315 he became reconciled to Cassander, and 
we find him in 314 commanding on behalf of 
the latter. He was murdered at Sicyon in 314. 
9. PTOLEMJEUS. Vid. PTOLEM^EUS. 10. TI- 
BERIUS, born at Alexandrea, of Jewish parents, 
and nephew of the writer Philo. He deserted 
the faith of his ancestors, and was rewarded 
for his apostacy by various public appointments. 
In the reign of Claudius he succeeded Fadus aa 
procurator of Judiea (A.D. 46), and was ap- 
pointed by Nero procurator of Egypt. He was 
the first Roman governor who declared in favor 
of Vespasian ; and he accompanied Titus in the 
war against Judaea, and was present at tb f tak- 
ing of Jerusalem. 

IL Kings of Epirus. 

1. Son of Neoptolemus, and brother of Olym- 
pias, the mother of Alexander the Great Phil- 
ip made him long of Epirus in place of his cousin 
uEacides, and gave him his daughter Cleopatra 
in marriage (B.C. 336). In 332, Alexander, at 
the request of the Tarentines, crossed over into 



ALEXANDER. 



ALEXANDER. 



Italy, to aid them against the Lucanians and 
Bruttii. After meeting with considerable suc- 
cess, he was defeated and slain in battle in 326, 
near Pandosia, on the banks of the Acheron in 
Southern Italy. 2. Son of Phyrrus and Lanas- 
*a, daughter of the Sicilian tyrant Agathocles, 
succeeded his father in B.C. 272, and drove An- 
higonus Gonatus out of Macedonia. He was 
shortly afterward deprived of both . Macedonia 
ind Epirus by Demetrius, the son of Antigonus ; 
but he recovered Epirus by the aid of the Acar- 
lanians. 

IIL Kings of Macedonia. 

1. Son of Amyntas I., distinguished himself 
>n the lifetime of his father by killing the Per- 
sian ambassadors who had come to demand the 
submission of Amyntas, because they attempted 
to offer indignities to the ladies of the court, about 
B.C. 507. He succeeded his father shortly 
afterward, was obliged to submit to the Per- 
sians, and accompanied Xerxes in his invasion 
of Greece (B.C. 480). He gained the confidence 
of Mardonius, who sent him to Athens to propose 
peace to the Athenians, which was rejected. 
He was secretly inclined to the cause of the 
Greeks, and informed them the night before the 
battle of PlaUeae of the intention of Mardonius to 
fight on the following day. He died about B.C. 
455, and was succeeded by Perdiccas IL 2. 
Son of Amyntas II., whom he succeeded, 
reigned B.C. 269-367. A usurper of the name 
of Ptolomey Alorites having risen against him, 
Pelopidas, who was called in to mediate between 
them, left Alexander in possession of the king- 
dom, but took with him to Thebes several hos- 
tages ; among whom was Philip, the youngest 
brother of Alexander, afterward King of Mace- 
donia. Alexander was shortly afterward mur- 
dered by Ptolomey Alorites. 3. Suruamed the 
GREAT, son of Philip II. and Olympias, was born 
at Pella, B.C. 356. His early education was 
committed to Leonidas and Lysiniachus ; and 
he was also placed under the care of Aris- 
totle, who acquired an influence over his mind 
and character which was manifest to the latest 
period of his^life. At the age of sixteen, Alex- 
ander was intrusted with the government of 
Macedonia by his father, while he was obliged 
to leave his kingdom to march against Byzan- 
tium. He first distinguished himself, however, 
at the battle of Chaeronea (338), where the vic- 
tory was mainly owing to his impetuosity and 
courage. On the murder of Philip (336), Alex- 
ander ascended the throne, at the age of twenty, 
and found himself surrounded by enemies on 
every side. He first put down rebellion in his 
own kingdom, and then rapidly marched into 
Greece. His unexpected activity overawed all 
opposition ; Thebes, which had been most active 
against him, submitted when he appeared at its 
gates; and the assembled Greeks at the Isth- 
mus of Corinth, with the sole exception of the 
Lacedaemonians, elected him to the command 
against Persia, which had previously been 
bestowed upon his father. He now directed his 
arms against the barbarians of the north, marched 
(early in 335) across Mount Haemus, defeated the 
Triballi, and advanced as far as the Danube, 
which he crossed ; and, on his return, subdued 
ie Illyrians and Taulautii. A report of his 



death having reached Greece, the Thebans once 
more took up arms. But a terrible punish 
ment awaited them. He advanced into Bceotia 
by rapid marches, took Thebes by assault, des- 
troyed all the buildings, with the exception of 
the house of Pindar, killed most of the inhabi- 
tants, and sold the rest as slaves. Alexander 
now prepared for his great expedition against 
Persia. In the spring of 334, he crossed the 
Hellespont with about thirty-five thousand men. 
Of these thirty thousand were foot and five 
thousand horse, and of the former only twelve 
thousand were Macedonians. Alexander's first 
engagement with the Persians was on the River 
Granicus in Mysia (May 334), where they were 
entirely defeated by him. This battle was fol- 
lowed by the capture or submission of the chief 
towns on the west coast of Asia Minor. Hali 
carnassus was not taken till late in the autumn, 
after a vigorous defence by.Memnon, the_ ablest 

! general of Darius, and whose death in we fol- 

i lowing year (333) relieved Alexander from a 
formidable opponent. He now marched along 
the coast of Lycia and Pamphylia, and then 
north into Phrygia and to Gordium, where he cut 
or untied the celebrated Gordian knot, which, it 
was said, was to be loosened only by the con- 
queror of Asia. In 333, he marched from Gor- 

| dium through the centre of Asia Minor into 
Cilicia, where he nearly lost his life at Tarsus by 
a fever, brought on by his great exertions or 
through throwing himself, when heated, into the 
cold waters of the Cydnus. Darius, meantime, 
had collected an army of five hundred thousand 
or six hundred thousand men, with thirty thou- 
sand Greek mercenaries, whom Alexander 
defeated in the narrow plain of Issus. Darius 
escaped across the Euphrates by the ford of 
Thapsacus ; but his mother, wife, and children 
fell into the hands of Alexander, who treated 
them with the utmost delicacy and respect. Alex- 
ander now directed his arms against the cities 
of Plwenicia, most of which submitted ; but Tyre 
was not taken till the middle of 332, after an 
obstinate defence of seven months. Next fol- 
lowed the siege of Gaza, which again delayed 
Alexander two months. Afterward, according 
to Josephus,he marched to Jerusalem, intending t 
punish the people for refusing to assist him. 
but he was diverted from his purpose by 
the appearance of the high-priest, and par 
doned the people. This story is not mentioned 
by Arrian, and rests on questionable evi- 
dence. Alexander next marched into Egypt 
which willingly submitted to him, for the Egyp- 
tians had ever hated the Persians. At the begin- 
ning of 331, Alexander founded at the moutL 
of the western branch of the Nile the city 
of ALEXANDREA, and about the same time 
visited the temple of Jupiter Ammon, in the 
desert of Libya, and was saluted by the priests 
as the son of Jupiter Ammon. In the spring 
of the same year (331), Alexander set out 
to meet Darius, who had collected anothei 
army. He marched through Phoenicia and 
Syria to the Euphrates, which he crossed 
at the ford of Thapsacus ; thence he pro- 
ceeded through Mesopotamia, crossed the Tigis, 
and at length met with the immense hosts 
of Darius, said to have amounted to more than 

i a million of men, in the plains of Gauga 

43 



ALEXANDER. 



ALEXANDER. 



The battle was fought in the month of 
Octobei, 331, and ended in the complete defeat 
of the Persians. Alexander pursued the fugi- 
tives to Arbela (now JUrbil), which place has 
given its name to the battle, though distant about 
fifty miles from the spot where it was fought 
Darius, who had left the field of battle early in 
the day, fled to Ecbatana (now Hamadan), in 
Media. Alexander was now the conqueror of 
Asia, and began to adopt Persian habits and cus- 
toms, by which he conciliated the affections of 
his new subjects. From Arbela he marched to 
Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis, all of which sur- 
rendered to him. He is said to have set fire to 
the palace of Persepolis, and, according to some 
accounts, in the revelry of a banquet, at the in- 
stigation of Thais, an Athenian courtesan. At 
the beginning of 330 Alexander marched froni 
Persepoli* into Media, in pursuit of Darius, 
wh< >mJie followed through Rhagae and the passes 
of th^Elburz Mountains, called by the ancients 
the Caspian Gates, into the deserts of Parthia, 
where the unfortunate king was murdered by 
Bessus, satrap of Bactria, and his associates. 
Alexander sent his body to Persepolis, to be 
buried in the tombs of the Persian kings. Bes- 
sus escaped to Bactria, and assumed the title of 
King of Persia. Alexander was engaged during 
the remainder of the year in subduing the 
northern provinces of Asia between the Caspian 
and the Indus, namely, Hyrcania, Parthia, Aria, 
the Drangae, and Sarangae. It was during 
this campaign that PHILOTAS, his father PARME- 
uiojf, and other Macedonians were executed on 
a charge of treasoa In 329 Alexander crossed 
the mountains of the Paropamisus (now the 
Hindoo Koosh), and marched into Bactria 
against Bessus, whom he pursued across the 
Oxus into Sogdiana. In this country Bessus 
was betrayed to him, and was put to death. 
From the Oxus he advanced as far as the Jax- 
artes (now the Sir), which he crossed, and de- 
feated several Scythian tribes north of that 
river. After founding a city, Alexandrea, on the 
Jaxartes, he retraced his steps, and returned to 
Zariaspa or Bactra, where he spent the winter- 
of 329. It was here that he killed his friend 
Clitus in a drunken revel In 328, Alexander 
again crossed the Oxus to complete the subjuga- 
tion of Sogdiana, but was not able to effect it in 
the year, and accordingly went into winter- 
quarters at Nautaca, a place in the middle of 
the province. At the beginning of 327, he took 
a mountain fortress, in which Oxyartes, a Bac- 
trian prince, had deposited his wife and daugh- 
ters. The beauty of Roxana, one of the latter, 
captivated the conqueror, and he accordingly 
made her his wife. This marriage with one of 
his Eastern subjects was in accordance with 
the whole of his policy. Having completed the 
conquest of Sogdiana, he marched south into 
Bactria, and made preparations for the invasion 
of India. While in Bactria another conspiracy 
was discovered for the murder of the king. 
The plot was formed by Hermolaus with a 
number of the royal pages, and Calhsthenes, 
a pupil of Aristotle, was involved in it All 
the conspirators were put to death. Alex- 
ander did not leave Bactria till late in 
the spring of 327, and crossed the Indus, pro- 
bably near the modem Attock. He met with 
44 



no resistance till he reached the Hydt^pen, 
where he was opposed by Porus, an Indian king, 
whom he defeated after a gallant resistance, 
and took prisoner. Alexander restored to him 
his kingdom, and treated him with distinguished 
honor. He founded two towns, one on each 
bank of the Hydaspes : one called Bucephala, in 
honor of his horse Bucephalus, who died here, 
after carrying him through so many victories ; 
and the other Nicaea, to commemorate his vic- 
tory. From thence he marched across the 
Acesines (now the Chinab) and the Hydraotes 
(now the Ravee), and penetrated as far as the 
Hyphasis (now Oarra). This was the furthest 
point which he reached, for the Macedonians, 
worn out by long service, and tired of the war, 
refused to advance further ; and Alexander, not- 
withstanding his entreaties and prayers, was 
obliged to lead them back He returned to the 
Hydaspes, where he had previously given orders 
for the building of a fleet, and then sailed down 
the river with about eight thousand men, while 
the remainder marched along the banks in two 
divisions. This was late in the autumn of 327. 
The people on each side of the river submitted 
without resistance, except the Malli, in the con- 
quest of one of whose places Alexander was 
severely wounded. At the confluence of the 
Acesines and the Indus, Alexander founded a 
city, and left Philip as satrap, with a considera- 
ble body of Greeks. Here he built some fresh 
ships, and continued his voyage down the Indus, 
founded a city at Pattala, the apex of the delta 
of the Indus, and sailed into the Indian Ocean, 
which he reached about the middle of 326. 
Nearchus was sent with the fleet to sail along 
the coast to the Persian Gulf (vid. NEARCHUS) ; 
and Alexander marched with the rest of his 
forces through Gedrosia, in which country his ar- 
my suffered greatly from want of water and provi- 
sions. He reached Susa at the beginning of 325. 
Here he allowed himself and his troops some 
rest from their labors ; and anxious to form his 
European and Asiatic subjects into one people, 
he assigned to about eighty of his generals Asia- 
tic wives, and gave with them rich dowries. 
He himself took a second wife, Barsine, the 
eldest daughter of Darius, and, according to 
some accounts, a third, Parysatis, the daughter 
of Ochus. About ten thousand Macedonians 
followed the example of their king and generals, 
and married Asiatic women. Alexander also 
enrolled large numbers of Asiatics among his 
troops, and taught them the Macedonian tactics. 
He, moreover, directed his attention to the in- 
crease of commerce, and for this purpose had 
the Euphrates and Tigris made navigable, by 
removing the artificial obstructions which had 
been made in the river for the purpose of irriga- 
tioa The Macedonians, who were discontented 
with several of the new arrangements of 
the king, rose in mutiny against him, which 
he quelled with some difficulty. Toward the 
close of the same year (325), he went to 
Ecbatana, where he lost his great favorite, 
HEPH^ESTION. From Ecbatana he marched to 
Babylon, subduing in his way the Cossaei, 
a mountain tribe ; and before he reached 
Babylon he was met by ambassadors from al- 
most every part of the known world. Al- 
exander entered Babylon in the spring of 



ALEXANDER. 



ALEXANDER 



324, about a year before his death, notwithstand- 
ing the warnings of the Chaldaeans, who pre- 
dicted evil to him if he entered the city at that 
time. He intended to make Babylon the capital 
of his empire, as the best point of communication 
between his eastern and western dominions. His 
schemes were numerous and gigantic. His first 
object was the conquest of Arabia, which was to 
be followed, it was said, by the subjugation of 
Italy, Carthage, and the West. But his views 
were not confined merely to conquest. He or- 
dered a fleet to be built on the Caspian, in order 
to explore that sea. He also intended to im- 
prove the distribution of waters in the Babylon- 
ian plain, and for that purpose sailed down the 
Euphrates to inspect the canal called Palla- 
copas. On his return to Babylon he was at- 
tacked by a fever, probably brought on by his 
recent exertions in the marshy districts around 
Babylon, and aggravated by the quantity of 
wine he had drunk at a banquet given to his 
principal officers. He died after an illness of 
eleven days, in the month of May or June, B.C. 
323, at the age of thirty-two, after a reign of 
twelve years and eight mouths. He appointed 
QO one as his successor, but just before his death 
he gave his ring to Perdiccas. Roxana was 
with child at the time of his death, and after- 
Vard bore a son who is known by the name 
of Alexander JEgus. The history of Alexander 
forms an important epoch in the history of man- 
kind Unlike other Asiatic conquerors, his pro- 
gress was marked by something more than 
devastation and ruin ; at every step of his course 
the Greek language and civilization took root 
and flourished ; and after his death Greek king- 
doms were formed in all parts of Asia, which 
continued to exist for centuries. By his con- 
quests the knowledge of mankind was increased ; 
the sciences of geography, natural history, and 
others, received vast additions ; and it was 
through him that a road was opened to India, 
and that Europeans became acquainted with the 
products of the remote East. 4. JScus, sou of 
Alexander the Great and Roxana, was born 
shortly after the death of his father, in B.C. 323, 
and was acknowledged as the partner of Philip 
Arrhidaeus in the empire, under the guardian- 
ship of Perdiccas, Autipater, and Polysperchon 
in succession. Alexander and his mother Roxana 
were imprisoned by Cassander, when he ob- 
tained possession of Macedonia in 316, and re- 
mained in prison till 311, when they were put to 
death by Cassander. 

IV. Kings of Syria. 

1. Surnamed BALAS, a person of low origin, 
pretended to be the son of Antiochus IV. Epiph- 
ancs, and reigned in Syria B.C. 150-146. He 
defeated and slew in battle Demetrius L Soter, 
out was afterward defeated and dethroned by 
Demetrius IL Nicator. 2. Surnamed ZEBINA or 
ZABIXAS, son of a merchant, was set up by 
Ptolemy Physcon as a pretender to the throne of 
Syria, shortly after the return of Demetrius IL 
fticator from his captivity among the Partitions, 
B.C. 128. He defeated Demetrius in 125, but 
was afterward defeated by Antiochus Grypus, 
by whom he was put to death, 122. 
V. Literary. 

1. Of &QJZ, a peripatetic philosopher at Rome 



| in the first century after Christ, was tutoi to th* 
Emperor Nero. 2. The ^ETOI.IAN, of Pleuroo 
in JEtolia, a Greek poet, lived in the reign of 
Ptolemseus Philadelphus (B.C. 285-247), at 
Alexandrea,' where he was reckoned one of the 
seven tragic poets who constituted the tragic 
pleiad. He also wrote other poema, besides 
tragedies. His fragments are collected by Ca- 
pellmann, Alexaitdri ^Etoli Fragmoata, Jknn, 
1829. 3. Of APHEODISIAS, in Caria, the most 
celebrated of the commentators op Aristotle, 
lived about A.D. 200. About half hU volumin- 
ous works were edited and translated into Latin 
at the revival of literature ; there re a few 
more extant in the original Greek, -which have 
never been printed, and an Arabic version is 
preserved of several others. His most impor- 
tant treatise is entitled De f'ato, an inquiry into 
the opinions of Aristotle on the subject of Fate 
and Free-will : edited by Orelli, Zurich, 1824. 
4. CORNELIUS, surnamed POLYHISTOR, a Greek 
writer, was made prisoner during the war of 
Sulla in Greece (B.C. 87-84), and sold as a slave 
to Cornelius Lentulus, who took him to Rome, 
made him the teacher of his children, and sub- 
sequently restored him to freedom. The sur- 
name of Polyhistor was given to him on account 
of his prodigious learning. He is said to have 
written a vast number of works, all of which 
have perished, [with the exception of a few 
fragments] : the most important of them was 
one in forty-two books, containing historical and 
geographical accounts of nearly all countries of 
the ancient world. [A list of his works is given 
by Miiller, who has collected and published the 
fragments of his writings in the third volume of 
Fragmenta Hixtoricorum Grcecorum, p. 206-244.1 
5. Surnamed LYCHNUS, of Ephesus, a Greek 
rhetorician and poet, lived about B.C. 30. A 
few fragments of his geographical and astro 
nomical poems are extant. 6. Of MYNDUS, in 
Caria, a Greek writer on zoology of uncertain 
date. 7. NUMENIUS, a Greek rhetorician, who 
lived in the second century of the Christian era. 
Two works are ascribed to him, one De Figurit 
Sentenliarum et Elocutionist, from which Aquila 
Romanus took hjs materials for his work on the 
same subject; and the other On Show-speeches, 
which was written by a later grammarian of the 
name of Alexander. Edited in Walz's Jihetores 
Grteci, vol. viii. 8. The PAPHXAGONIAN, a cele- 
brated impostor, who flourished about the be- 
ginning of the second century after Christ, of 
whom Lucian has given an amusing account, 
chiefly of the various contrivances by which he 
established and maintained the credit of an ora- 
cle. The influence he attained over the popu- 
lace seems incredible; indeed, the narrative of 
Lucian would appear to be a mere romance, 
were it not confirmed by some medals of An 
toninus and M. Aurelius. 9. Surnamed PELO 
PLATON, a Greek rhetorician of Selcucia in 
Cilicia, was appointed Greek secretaiy to M. 
Antoninus, about A.D. 174. At Athens, he 
conquered the celebrated rhetorician Herodes 
Atticus, in a rhetorical contest. All persons, how- 
ever, did not admit his abilities ; for a Corinthian 
of the name of Sccptos said that he had found 
in Alexander " the clay (mfi.of), but not Plato," 
alluding to his surname of " Peloplaton." 10. 
PUILALKTHES, an ancient Greek physician, lived 
45 



ALEXANDREA. 



ALGIDUM. 



probably toward the end of the first ceahny 
B.C., and succeeded Zeuxis as head of a cele- 
brated Herophilean school of medicine, estab- 
lished in Phrygin between Laodicea and Carura. 
11. Of TRALLES in Lydia, an emineut physi- 
cian, lived in the sixth century after Christ, and 
is the author of two extant Greek works : 1. 
Libri JDuodecim de Re Medica ; 2. De Lnml>rici.i. 
ALEXANDREA, [sometimes -dria, though, as 
Madvig says (Cic., De Fin^ v., 19, 54), the Latin 
writers always preferred the e, and this was al- 
ways the form on coins and inscriptions; cf. 
Fea, ad Hor, Od., iv., 14, 36] ('A.Xe^dvdpeta : 
'\XeZav6pevf, AlexandrinusJ, the name of sev- 
eral cities founded by, or in memory of Alex- 
ander the Great 1. (Alcxandrea, Arab. Iskan- 
deria), the capital of Egypt under the Ptolemies, 
ordered by Alexander to be founded in B.C. 332. 
It was built on the narrow neck of land between 
the Lake Mareotis and the Mediterranean, op- 
posite to the Island of Pharos, which was joined 
to the city by an artificial dike, called Hepta- 
stadium, which formed, with the island, the two 
harbors of the city, that on the northeast of the 
dike being named the Great Harbor (now the 
New Port), that on the southwest Euuostos 
(cwoerrof, the Old Port). These harbors com- 
municated with each other by two channels cut 
through the Heptastadium, one at each end of 
it ; and there was a canal from the Eunostos to 
the Lake Mareotis. The city was built on a 
regular plan, and was intersected by two prin- 
cipal streets, above one hundred feet wide, the 
one extending thirty stadia from east to west, 
the other across this, from the sea toward the 
lake, to the length of ten stadia. At the east- 
ern extremity of the city was the royal quarter, 
called Bruchium, and at the other end of the 
chief street, outside of the city, the Necropolis 
or cemetery. A great light-house was built on 
the Island of Pharos in the reign of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus (B.C. 283). Under the care of the 
Ptolemies, as the capital of a great kingdom 
and of the most fertile country on the earth, 
and commanding by its position all the com- 
merce of Europe with the East, Alexandrea 
soon became the most wealthy and splendid 
city of the known world. Greeks, Jews, and 
other foreigners flocked to it, and its population 
probably amounted to three quarters of a mil- 
lioa But a still greater distinction was con- 
ferred upon it through the foundation, by the 
first two Ptolemies, of the Museum, an establish- 
ment in which men devoted to literature were 
maistained at the public cost, and of the Library, 
which contained ninety thousand distinct works, 
and four hundred thousand volumes, and the in- 
crease of which made it necessary to establish 
another library in the Serapeum (Temple of 
Serapis), which reached to forty-two thousand 
eight hundred volumes, but which was destroyed 
by the Bishop Theophilus, at the time of the 
general overthrow of the heathen temples under 
fheodosius (A.D. 389). The Great Library suf- 
fered severely by fire, when Julius Caesar was 
besieged in Alexandrea, and was finally destroy- 
ed by Amrou, the lieutenant of the Calif Omar 
in A.D. 651. These institutions made Alex- 
andrea the chief centre of literary activity. 
When Egypt became a Roman province (vid. 
./EGYPTUS), Alexandrea was made the residence 
46 



of the Prsefectus Egypti. It retained its com- 
mercial and literary importance, and became 
also a chief seat of Christianity and theological 
learning. Its site is now covered by a mass of 
ruins, among which are the remains of the cis- 
terns by which the whole city was supplied with 
water, house by house ; the two obelisks (vulg. 
Cleopatra's Netdlex), whicli adorned the gate- 
way of the royal palace, and, outside the walls., 
to the south, the column of Diocletian (vulg. 
Pompf.y's Pillar). The modern city stands on 
the dike uniting the Island of Pharos to the 
main land. 2. A. TROAS, also TROAS simply, 
('A. 17 Tpuuf : now Exki&tamboul, i. <?., the Old 
City), on the sea-coast, southwest of Troy, was 
enlarged by Antigonus, hence called Antigonla, 
but afterward it resumed its first name. It 
flourished greatly, both under the Greeks and 
the Romans ; it was made a colonia ; and both 
Julius Ca?sar and Constantino thought of estab 
lisbing the seat of empire in it. 3. A. AD ISSUM 
('A. nartl 'laoov : now hkenderoon, Scanderoun, 
Alexandrette), a sea-port at the entrance of Syr- 
ia, a little south of Issus. 4. In Susiana, after- 
ward Antiochia, afterward Charax Spasini (Xa- 
pa% Tlaaivov or 27ra<r.), at the mouth of the Ti- 
gris, built by Alexander ; destroyed by a flood ; 
restored by Antiochus Epiphanes : birth-place 
of Dionysius Periegetes and Isidorus Chara- 
cenus. 5. A. ARI^E ('A. rj iv 'Apiotf : now He- 
rat), founded by Alexander on the River Arius, 
in the Persian province of Aria, a very flourish- 
ing city, on the great caravan road to India. 
6. A. ARACHOSI.E or ALEXANDROPOLIS (now Kan- 
dahar ?), on the River Arachotus, was probably 
not founded till after the time of Alexander. 
7. A. BACTRIANA ('A. KOTU Euicrpa : probably 
Khooloom, ruins), east of Bactra (Balkh). 8. A. 
AD CAUCASUM, or apud Paropamisidas ('A. iv 
napoiraftiauSaif), at the foot of Mount Paropam- 
isus (now Hindoo JCoosh), probably near Co.- 
bool. 9. A. ULTIMA or ALEXANDRESCHATA ('A. 
rj tax<iTi] : now Kokand?), in Sogdiana, on the 
Jaxartes, a little cast of Cyropolis or Cyrescha- 
ta, marked the furthest point reached by Alex- 
ander in his Scythian expedition. These are not 
all the cities of the name. 

ALEXICACUS ('AAe^/caKOf), the averter of evi], 
a surname of several deities, but particularly of 
Jupiter (Zeus), Apollo, and Hercules. 

ALEX!NUS ('A/te|ivof), of Elis, a philosopher 
of the Dialectic or Megarian school, and a dis- 
ciple of Eubulides, li ved about the beginning of tho 
third century B.C. 

ALEXIS (*A2.ff). 1. A comic poet, born at 
Thurii in Italy, and an Athenian citizen. He 
was the uncle and instructor of Menander, was 
born about B.C. 394, and lived to the age of 
one hundred and six. Some of his plays, of 
which he is said to have written two hundred 
and forty-five, belonged to the Middle, and others 
to the New Comedy. [The fragments of hi* 
plays have been published by Meineke, Frag- 
menta Comicorum Grcccorum, vol. ii, p. 688-768, 
edit, minor.] 2. A sculptor and statuary, one of 
the pupils of Polycletus. 

ALFENUS VARUS. Vid. VARUS. 

ALGIDUM or ALGIDUS (ruins near Cava ?), a 
small but strongly fortified town of the ^Equi on 
one of the hills of Mount Algidus, of which all 
trace has now disappeared. 



ALGIDUS MONS. 



ALPES. 



ALGIDUS Moxs, a range of mountains in La- i 
dum, extending south from Praeneste to Mount 
Albanus, cold, but covered with wood, and con- 
taining good pasturage (gelido Algido ; Hor., 
Cann., i., 21, 6 : niyrce feraci frondis in Algido ; 
id., iv., 4, 58). It was an ancient seat of the 
worship of Diana. From it the JEqui usually 
made their incursions into the Roman territory. 

ALIENUS C^ECINA. Vid. C^ECINA. 

ALIMENTUS, L. Crxcius, a celebrated Roman 
annalist, antiquary, and jurist, was praetor in 
Sicily, B.C. 209, and wrote several works, of 
which the best known was his Annales, which 
contained an account of the second Punic war 
[His fragments have been published in the 
Scriptores Historici Romani of Popma, 1620, and 
more recently by Krause, in his Vitce ct Frag- 
menta veterum Hist. Lot., Berlin, 1833.] 

ALIXDA (ra 'A/uvda : 'A/Uvdeiif), a fortress 
and small town, southeast of Stratonlce, where 
Ada, queen of Caria, fixed her residence, when 
she was driven out of Halicarnassus (B.C. 340). 

ALIPHERA ('A-Xfyeipa, 'AAt'^pa : 'A.?u<pipalof, 
'A.hi<j>ripEi!(; : ruins near Nerovitza), a fortified 
town in Arcadia, situated on a mountain on the 
borders of Elis, south of the Alpheus, said to 
have been founded by the hero Alipherus, son 
of Lycaon. 

ALIPHERUS, Vid. ALIPHERA, 

[ALISIUM ('A/lctVtov), a town of Elis, the same, 
probably, with that called ALESLEUM by Strabo, 
and placed by him between Elis and Olympia,] 

ALISO (now Elsen), & strong fortress built by 
Drusus B.C. 11, at the confluence of the Luppia 
(now Lippe) and the Eliso (now Alme). 

ALJSOXTIA (now Alsitz), a river flowing into 
the Mosella (now Mosel). 

ALLECTUS, the chief officer of Carausius in 
Britain, whom he murdered in A.D. 293. He 
then assumed the imperial title himself, but was 
defeated and slain in 296 by the general of Con- 
stautius. 

ALLIA, or, more correctly, ALIA, a small river, 
which rises about eleven miles from Rome, in 
the neighborhood of Crustumerium, and flows 
into the Tiber about six miles from Rome. It 
is memorable by the defeat of the Romans by 
the Gauls on its banks, July 16th, B.C. 390 ; 
which day, dies Alliensis, was hence marked as 
an uulucky day in the Roman calendar. 

ALLIENUS, A. 1. A friend of Cicero, was the 
legate of Q. Cicero in Asia, B.C. 60, praetor in 
49, and governor of Sicily on behalf of Caesar in 
48 and 47. 2. A legate of Dolabella, by whom 
he was sent into Egypt in 43. 

ALLIF.* or ALIF^ (Allifanus : now Allife), a 
town of Samnium, on the Vulturnus, in a fertile 
country. It was celebrated for the manufacture 
of its large drinking-cups (Allifana sc. pocula, 
Hor., Sat., iL, 8, 39). 

ALLOBROGES (nom. sing., Allobrox : 'AA2.6- 
Opoyef , 'AAAofywyef, 'AXMoptyec. : perhaps from 
the Celtic aill, "rock" or "mountain," and brog, 
"dwelling," consequently "dwellers in the 
mountains"), a powerful people of Gaul dwell- 
ing between the Rbodauus (now Rtione) and 
the Isara (now hire), as far as the Lake Leman- 
nus (now fake of Geneva), consequently in thf 1 
modern Dauphine and Savoy. Their chief town 
was VIENNA (now Vienne) on the Rhone. They 
are first mentioned in Hannibal's invasion, B.C. 



218. They were conquered, in B.C. 121, by Q 
Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus, and made sub- 
jects of Rome, but they bore the yoke unwill- 
ingly, and were always disposed to rebellion. 
In the time of Ammianus the eastern part of 
their country was called Sapaudia, i. e., Savoy. 

ALMO (now Almone), a small river, rises near 
Bovillse, and flows into the Tiber south of Rome, 
in which the statue and sacred things of Cybele 
were washed annually. 

ALMOPES ('AfyiWTref), a people in Macedonia, 
inhabiting the district Almopia between Eordsea 
and Pelagonia. 

ALOEUS ('Ahuevf), son of Neptune (Poseidon) 
and Canace, married Iphimedla, the daughter 
of Triops. His wife was beloved by Neptune 
(Poseidon), by whom she had two sons, Otus 
and Ephialtes, who are usually called the Alol- 
dce, from their reputed father Aloeus. They 
were renowned for their extraordinary strength 
and daring spirit. When they were nine years 
old, the body of each measured nine cubits in 
breadth and twenty -seven in height. At this 
early age, they threatened the Olympian gods 
with war, and attempted to pile Ossa upon 
Olympus, and Pelion upon Ossa. They would 
have accomplished their object, says Homer, 
had they been allowed to grow up to the age of 
manhood ; but Apollo destroyed them before 
their beards began to appear (Od., xi., 305, scq.). 
They also put the god Mars (Ares) in chains, 
and kept him imprisoned for thirteen months 
Other stories are related of them by later 
writers. 

AL6lD.fi. Vid. ALOEUS. 

[ALONE ('ALuvai : now Benidormc or Torre di 
Salinas), a town of Hispania Tarraconensis, 8' 
colony of the Massilians. 2. A town of Britain, 
somewhat south of Keswick ; by some supposed 
to correspond to A?nbleside.] 

ALONTA ('A/lovra : now Terek), a river of Al- 
bania, in Sarmatia Asiatica, flowing into the 
Caspian. 

ALOPE ('A/Ion-;?), daughter of Cercyon, be- 
came by Neptune (Poseidon) the mother of 
HIPPOTHOUS. She was put to death by her fa- 
ther, but her body was changed by Neptune 
(Poseidon) into a well, which bore the same 
name. 

ALOPE ('A/lorn/ : 'Ahoxevf, 'AAoirirqc,). 1. A 
town in the Opuntian Locris, opposite Euboca, 
2. A town in Phthiotis in Thessaly (//., ii., 
682). 

ALOPECE ('AAwTrc/c?/ and 'Ahuireicai : 'AAosre 
KWf), a demus of Attica, of the tribe Antiochis, 
eleven stadia east of Athens, on the Hill An 
chesmus. [Here the parents of Socrates dwelt, 
who therefore belonged to this demus, as did 
also Aristides.] 

ALOPECIA ('A^unEKia) or ALOPECE (Plin.), an 
island in the Palus Maeotis, near the mouth of 
the Tanais.] 

ALOPECONNESUS ('A^uireKovv^aog : 'Ahunenov- 
vr'/atoi : now Alexi /), a town in the Thracian 
Chersouesus, founded by the JSolians. 

ALPENUS ('A^nifvof, 'A^.Tr>jvoi), a town of the 
Epicncmidii Locri at the entrance of the pass of 
ThermopylaB. 

ALPES (al 'Afaftf, r/ 'AXirif, rH 'AhireivH opij, 
TU 'Ahireta opy ; probably from the Celtic Alb or 
Alp, "a height"), the mountains forming the 
47 



ALPES. 



ALTHAEA. 



boundary of Northern Italy, are a part of the 
great mountain chain which extends from the 
Gulf of Genoa across Europe to the Black Sea, 
of which the Apennines and the mountains of 
the Grecian peninsula may be regarded as off- 
shoots. Of the Alps proper, the Greeks had 
very little knowledge, and included them under 
the general name of the Rhipcean Mountains. 
The Romans first obtained some knowledge of 
them by Hannibal's passage across them: this 
knowledge was gradually extended by their va- 
rious wars with the inhabitants of the mount- 
ains, who were not finally subdued till the reign 
of Augustus. In the time of the emperors the 
different parts of the Alps were distinguished 
by the following names, most of which are still 
retained. We enumerate them in order from 
west to east 1. ALPES MAKITISL*, the Mari- 
time or Liyurian Alps, from Genua (now Genoa), 
where the Apennines begin, run west as far 
as the River Varus (now Var) and Mount Cema 
(now La Caillole), and then north to Mount Ve- 
sulus (now Monte Viso), one of the highest 
points of the Alps. 2. ALPES Com.* or COT- 
TIAN/E, the Cottian Alps (so called from a King 
Cottius in the time of Augustus), from Monte 
Viso to Mont Cenis, contained Mount Matrona, 
afterward called Mount Janus or Janua (now 
Mont Genivre), across which Cottius construct- 
ed a road, which became the chief means of 
communication between Italy and Gaul : this 
road leads from the Valley of the Durance in 
France to Segusio (now Susa) and .the Valley 
of the Dora in Piedmont. The pass over Mont 
Cenis, now one of the most frequented of the 
Alpine passes, appears to have been unknown 
'in antiquity. 3. ALPES GKALS, also Saltits 
Graius (the name is probably Celtic, and has 
nothing to do with Greece), the Graian Alps, 
from Mont Cenis to the Little St. Bernard in- 
clusive, contained the Jugum Cremonis (now Le 
Cramont) and the Centronics Alpes, apparent- 
ly the Little St Bernard and the surrounding 
mountains. The Little St Bernard, which is 
sometimes called Alpis Graia, is probably the 
pass by which Hannibal crossed the Alps ; the 
road over it, which was improved by Augustus, 
led to Augusta (now Aosta) in the territory of 
the SalassL 4. ALPES PEXNIN^E, the Pennine 
Alps, from the Great St Bernard to the Simplon 
inclusive, the highest portion of the chain, in- 
cluding Mont Blanc, Monte Rosa, and Mont 
Cervia The Great St Bernard was called 
Mount Penninus, and on its summit the inhab- 
itants worshipped a deity, whom the Romans 
called Jupiter Penninus. The name is proba- 
bly derived from the Celtic pen, " a height." 
5. ALPES LEPONTIOHUM or LEPONTI.S, the Lepon- 
tian or Helvetian Alps, from the Simplon to the 
St Gothard. 6. ALPES R^TIC^:, the Haitian 
Alpt, from the St Gothard to the Orteler by the 
pass of the Stelvio. Mount Adula is usually 
supposed to be the St. Gothard, but it must be 
another name for the whole range, if Strabo is 
right in stating that both the Rhine and the 
Adda rise in Mount Adula. The Romans were 
acquainted with two passes across the Rsetian 
Alps, connecting Curia (now Coire) and Milan, 
one across the Spliigen aud the other across 
Mont Septimer, and both meeting at Clavenna 
(now Chiavenna). 7 ALPES TBLDENTIK^, the 
48 



mountains of Southern Tyrol, in which the 
A tlir-is (now Adigc) rises, with the pass of the 
Brenner. 8. ALPES NORICUE, the Jboric Alps, 
northeast of the Tridentiue Alps, comprising the 
mountains in the neighborhood of Salzburg. 
9. ALPES CAIINIC^E, the Carnic Alp&, cast of the 
Tridentiue, and south of the Noric, to Mount 
Tcrglu. 10. ALPES JULI^E, the Julian Alps, 
from Mount Terglu to the commencement of 
the Illyrian or Dalmatian Mountains, which arc 
known by the name of the Alpes Dalmaticae, 
further north by the name of th Alpcs Pan- 
nonicae. The Alpes Juli;e were so called be- 
cause Julius Caesar or Augustus constructed 
roads across them : they are also called Alpes 
Venetse. 

[ALPHE^EA ('A/l^eata). Vid. ALPHEUS, near 
the end.] 

[ALPHENOR ('A^^vwp), a son of Amphion and 



Niobe, slain by Apolo 

ALPHENUS VARUS. Vid. VABUS. 

ALFHESIBCEA ('Ah<j>eai6oia). 1. Mother of Ado- 
nis. Vid. ADONIS. 2. Daughter of Phegeus, 
married Alcmaeon. Vid. ALCM^EON. 

ALPHEUS MYTILENJEUS ('A/l^e/df ~M.vTi?.r/valof), 
the author of about twelve epigrams in the 
Greek Anthology, was probably a contemporary 
of the Emperor Augustus. 

ALPHEUS ('AA^etof : Doric, 'AP^eof : now Al- 
feo, Rofco, Ryfo, Rufea), the chief river of Pel- 
oponnesus, rises at Phylace in Arcadia, short- 
ly afterward sinks under ground, appears again 
near Asea, and then mingles its waters with 
those of the Eurotas. After flowing twenty 
stadia, the two rivers disappear under ground : 
the Alpheus again rises at Pegae in Arcadia, 
and, increased by many affluents, flows north- 
west through Arcadia and Elis, not far from 
Olympia, and falls into the Ionian Sea. The 
subterranean descent of the river, which is con- 
firmed by modern travellers, gave rise to the 
story about the river-god Alpheus and the 
nymph Arethusa. The latter, pursued by Al- 
pheus, was changed by Diana (Artemis) into 
the fountain of Arethusa, in the Island of Orty- 
gia at Syracuse, but the god continued to pur- 
sue her under the sea, and attempted to mingle 
his stream with the fountain in Ortygia. Hence 
it was said that a cup thrown into the Alpheus 
would appear again in the fountain of Arethusa 
in Ortygia. Other accounts related that Diana 
(Artemis) herself was beloved by Alpheus : the 
goddess was worshipped, under the name of 
Alphecea, both in Elis and Ortygia. 

ALPHIUS AVITUS. Vid. Avrrus. 

ALPINUS, a name which Horace gives, in ridi- 
cule, to a bombastic poet He probably means 
BIBACULCS. 

[ALSA (now Ausa), a river of Italy, in the 
territory of the Veneti, just west of Aquileia 
Here the younger Constantino lost his life in a 
battle against his brother Constantius.] 

ALSIUM (Alsiensis: now Palo), one of the 
most ancient Etruscan towns on the coast near 
Czere, and a Roman colony after the first Punic 
war. In its neighborhood Pompey had a coun- 
try seat ( Villa Alsiensis). 

[ALTES ("AArj/f), a king of the Leleges, at 
Pedasus, father of Laothoe.] 

ALTH^A ('AWaia), daughter of the ^EtoUan 
King Thestius and Eurythemis, married (Eneus, 



ALTHAEA. 



AMARDUS. 



kiug of Calydon, by whom she became the 
mother of several children, and among others 
of MELEAGEK, upon whose death she killed her- 
self. 

ALTHAEA (now Orgaz /)," the chief town of the 
Olcades in the country of the Oretani, in His- 
pania Tnrraconensis. 

ALTUEMEXES ('A?^//evi?f or 'AWatfievtjf), son 
of Catreus, kiug of Crete. In consequence of 
an oracle, that Catreus would lose liis life by 
one of his children, Althemenes quitted Crete 
and went to Rhodes. There he unwittingly 
killed his father, who had come in search of his 
son. 

ALTIXUM (Altlnas : now Altlno), a wealthy 
municipium in the land of the Veneti in the 
north of Italy, at the mouth of the River Silis 
and on the road from Patavium to Aquileia, 
was a wealthy manufacturing town, and the 
chief emporium of all the goods which were 
sent from- Southern Italy to the countries of the 
north. Goods could be brought from Ravenna 
to Altinum through the Lagoons and the nu- 
merous canals of the Po, safe from storms and 
pirates. There were many beautiful villas 
around the town. (Mart, iv., 25.) 

ALTIS ("AArtf), the sacred grove of Jupiter 
(Zeus) at OLYMPIA. 

AHJXTIUM or HALUXTICV ('AAowriov), a town 
on the north coast of Sicily, not far from Calac- 
ta, on a steep bill, celebrated for its wine. 

ALUS or HALUS ("AXof, "AAof : 'A/lcvf: rums 
near JCcfalosi), a town in Phthiotis in Thsaly, 
at the extremity of Mount Othrys, built by the 
hero Athamas. 

ALYATTES ('AAvurnyf), king of Lydia, B.C. 
617-560, succeeded his father Sadyattes, and 
was himself succeeded by his son Croesus. He 
carried on war with Miletus from 617 to 612, 
and with Cyaxares, king of Media, from 590 to 
585 ; an eclipse of the sun, which happened in 
585, during a battle between Alyattes and Cy- 
axares, led to a peace between them. Alyattes 
drove the Cimmerians out of Asia and took 
Smyrna. The tomb of Alyattes, north of Sar- 
dis, near the Lake Gygaea, which consisted of 
a large mound of earth, raised upon a founda- 
tion of great stones, still exists. Mr. Hamilton 
says that it took him about ten minutes to ride 
round its base, which would give it a circum- 
ference of nearly a mile. 

ALYBA ('AP.vfi?), a town on the south coast of 
(lie Euxinc. (Horn, J7., iL, 857.) 

ALYPIUS ('AMirtoc), of Alexandrea, probably 
lived in the fourth century of the Christian era, 
nnd is the author of a Greek musical treatise, 
called " Introduction to Music" (tlaayujr) pov- 
CIKTJ), printed by Meibomius in Antiques Musicce 
Auctores Septem, AmsteL, 1652. 

ALYZIA or ALYZKA, ('AAi>Za, 'A%v&ia: 'A7.v- 
Catof : ruins in the Valley of Kandili), a town in 
Acarnauia, near the sea, opposite Leucas, with 
a harbor and a temple both sacred to Hercules. 
The temple contained one of the works of Ly- 
sippus, representing the labors of Hercules, 
which the Romans carried off. 

AMADOCUS ('ApadoKOf) or MEDOCUS (M^rfo/cof). 
1. King of the Odrysos in Thrace, when Xeno- 
phon visited the country in B.C. 400. He and 
Seuthes, who were the most powerful Thracian 
kings, were frequently at variance, but were 



reconciled to one another by Thrasybulus, the 
Athenian commander, in 390, and induced by 
him to become the allies of Athens. 2. A ruler 
in Thrace, who, in conjunction with Berisades 
and Cersobleptes, succeeded Cotys in 358. 

AMAGETOBRIA. Vid. MAGETOBEIA. 

[AMALCHIUS OCEANUS, a part of the Northern 
Ocean, extending, according to Hecataeus, along 
the coast of Scythia.] 

[AMALLOBRIGA (now probably Medina del Rio 
Seco), a city of the Vaccaei, in Hispauia Tarra- 
conensis.] 

AMALTHEA ('ApuWeia). 1. The nurse of the 
infant Jupiter (Zeus) in Crete. According to 
some traditions, Amalthea is the goat which 
suckled Jupiter (Zeus), and which was reward- 
ed by being placed among the stars. Vid. -<EgA. 
According to others, Amalthea was a nymph, 
daughter of Oceanus, Helios, Haemonius, or of 
the Cretan king, Melisseus, who fed Jupiter 
(Zeus) with the milk of a goat. When this goat 
broke off one of her horns, Amalthea filled it 
with fresh herbs and gave it to Jupiter (Zeus), 
who placed it among the stars. According to 
other accounts, Jupiter (Zeus) himself broke off 
one of the horns of the goat Amalthea, and gave 
it to the daughters of Melisseus, and endowed 
it with the wonderful power of becoming filled 
with whatever the possessor might wish. This 
is the story about the origin of the celebrated 
horn of Amalthea, commonly called the Horn of 
Plenty or Cornucopia, which was used in later 
times as the symbol of plenty in general. 2. 
One of the Sibyls, identified with the Cumaean 
Sibyl, who sold to King Tarquinius the cek- 
brated Sibylline books. 

AMALTHEUM or AMALTHEA, a villa"of Atticua 
on the Ri*er Thyamis in Epirus, was perhaps 
originally a shrine of the nymph Amalthea, 
which Atticus adorned with statues and bass- 
reliefs, and converted into a beautiful summer 
retreat Cicero, in imitation, constructed a 
similar retreat on his estate at Arpiuum. 

AMANTIA ('A^avria : Amantlnus, Amantianus, 
or Amantes, pi.: now Nivitza), a Greek town 
and district in Ulyricum : the town, said to have 
been founded by the Abantes of Euboea, lay at 
some distance from the coast, east of Oricum. 

AMANUS (6 'Apavof, r^'Afi.avov: 'A/tavirric, 
Amaniensis : now Almadaj^ a branch of Mount 
Taurus, which runs from*^re head of the Gulf 
of Issus northeast to the principal chain divid- 
ing Syria from Cilicia and Cappadocia. There 
were two passes in it ; the one, called the Syr- 
ian Gates (ai Svpiai nvhai, Syriae Portae : now 
Bylan), near the sea; the other, called the 
Amanian Gates (A/iavi6f^ or 'AfiaviKal irv'h.ai : 
Amanica; Pylae, Portae Amani Montis : now 
Danir Kapu, \. e., the Iron Gate), further to the 
north. The former pass was on the road fr?m 
Cilicia to Antioch, the latter on that to the dis- 
trict Commagcue ; but, on account of its great 
difficulty, the Litter pass was rarely used, until 
the Romans made a road through it. The in- 
habitants of Amanus were wild banditti 

AM AUDI or MARDI (*A/uap6oi, Mu/x5ot),apower 
ful, warlike, and predatory tribe, who dwelt on 
the south shore of the Caspian Sea. 

AMARDUS or MARDUS ("A/iapdo<;, TJlupfof : now 
Kizil Ozien or SffidRud), a river flowing through 
the country of the Mardi into the Caspian Sea. 

49 



AMBIANI. 



[AMARI LACUS (al TTixpal Xifivai : now Scheib), 
in Lower Egypt, derived their name from their 
bitter, brackish taste, which was subsequently 
changed and rendered' sweet by the Canal of 
Ptolemy, letting into them the water of the 
Nile.] 

AMARYNCEUS ('Afiapvyicevc.), a chief of the 
Eleans, is said by some writers to have fought 
against Troy : but Homer only mentions his sou 
Diores (Amarunrtdes) as taking part in the Tro- 
jan war. 

AMARYKTHCS ('AfiupwBof. 'Apapvvdioc.), n 
town in Eubcea, seven stadia from Eretria, to 
which it belonged, with a celebrated temple of 
Diana (Artemis), who was hence called Ama- 
rynthia or Amarygia, and in whose honor there 
was a festival of the name both in Eutxea and 
Attica. Vid. Diet, of Antiy., art. AMARYNTHIA. 

AM ASKXi's (now Amaseno), a river in Latium, 
rises in the Volscian Mountains, flows by Pri- 
veraum, and after being joined by the Ufens (now 
Ufente), which flows from Setia, falls into the 
sea between Circeii and Terracina, though the 
greater part of its waters are lost in the Pontine 
marshes. 

AMASIA or -EA ('Ajidaeia : 'Afiaaevf : now 
Amasiah), the capital of the kings of Pontus, 
was a strongly fortified city on both banks of the 
River Iris. It was the birth-place of Mithra- 
dates the Great and of the geographer Strabo. 

AMASIS ("Apaoif). 1. King of Egypt, B.C. 
570-526, succeeded Apries, whom he dethroned. 
During bis long reign Egypt was in a very pros- 
perous condition, and the Greeks were brought 
into much closer intercourse with the Egyptians 
than had existed previously. Amasis married 
Ludice, a Cyrenaic lady, contracted an alliance 
with Cyrene and Polycrates of Samos, and also 
sent presents to several of the Greek cities. 
2. A Persian, sent in the reign of Cambyses 
(B.C. 525) against Cyrene, took Barca, but did 
not succeed in taking Cyrene. 

AMASTKIS ("Afiaffrpie, Ion. ' ' A^rjcrpig). 1. 
Wife of Xerxes, and mother of Artaxerxes L, 
was of a cruel and vindictive character. 2. 
Also called Amastrine, niece of Darius, the last 
kbg of Persia. She married, 1. Craterus; 2. 
Dionysius, tyrant of Heraclea in Bithynia, B.C. 
822; and, 3. Lysiinachus, B.C. 302. Having 
been abandoned b^Biysimachus upon his mar- 
riage with Arsinofl^she retired to Heraclea, 
where she reigned, and was drowned by her 
two sons about 288. 

AMASTRIS ('A/iatrrptr : 'A/wzorptavof : now 
Amatera), a large and beautiful city, with two 
harbors, on the coast of Paphlagonia, built by 
Amastris after her separation from Lysimachus 
(about B.C. 300), on the site of the old town of 
Ses&iius, which name the citadel retained. The 
uew city was built and peopled by the inhabit- 
ants of Cytorus and Cromna. 

AMATA, wife of king Latinus and mother of 
Lavinia, opposed Lavinia being given in mar- 
riage to ^Eneas, because she had already prom- 
ised her to Turnus, When she heard that Tur- 
mis had fallen in battle, she hung herself. 

[AMATH!A (' AfwJSeia), one of the Nereids 
(Horn.)]. 

AMATHVS, -UNTIS, ("A/iadoU;, -owrof : 'ApaOov- 
aiof: now Limasol), an ancient town on the 
south coast of Cyprus, with a celebrated tern 
50 



pie of Venus (Aphrodite), who was hence called 
AmathMla. There were copper mines in the 
neighborhood of the town (fecundam Amatliunta 
metalli, Ov., Met., x., 220). [2. (Now Amatah), 
a fortified town of Peraea or Palestine, beyond 
the Jordan.] 

AMATIUS, surnamed Pscudomariu*, pretended 
to be either the son or grandson of the great 
MariuB, and was put to death by Antony in B.C. 
44. Some call him Herophilus. 

AMAZONES ('Afj.a6vef ), a my thical race of war- 
like females, are said to have come from the 
Caucasus, and to have settled in the country 
about the River Thermodon, where they found- 
ed the city Themiscyra, west of the modern 
Trebizond. Their country was inhabited only 
by the Amazons, who were governed by a queen ; 
but, in order to propagate their race, they met 
once a year the Gargareans in Mount Caucasus. 
The children of the female sex were brought up 
by the Amazons, and each had her right breast 
cut off; the male children were sent to the 
Gargareaus or put to death. The foundation 
of several towns in Asia Minor and in the isl- 
ands of the uEgean is ascribed to them, e. g., of 
Ephesus, Smyrna, Cyme, Myrina, and Paphos. 
The Greeks believed in their existence as a real 
j historical race down to a late period ; and hence 
it is said that Thalestris, the queen of the Ama- 
zons, hastened to Alexander, in order to be- 
come a mother by the conqueror of Asia. This 
belief of the Greeks may have arisen from the 
peculiar way in which the women of some of 
the Caucasian districts lived, and performed 
the duties which in other countries devolve 
upon men, as well as from their bravery and 
courage-, which are noticed as remarkable even 
by modern travellers. Vague and obscure re- 
ports about them probably reached the inhabit- 
ants of Western Asia and the Greeks, and these 
reports were subsequently worked out and em- 
bellished by popular tradition and poetry. The 
following are the chief mythical adventures with 
which the Amazons are connected : they are said 
to have invaded Lycia in the reign of lobatcs, but 
were destroyed by Bellerophontes, who happen- 
ed to be staying at the king's court. Vid. BEL- 
LEROPHONTES, LAOMEDON. They also invaded 
Phrygia, and fought with the Phrygians and 
Trojans when Priam was a young man. The 
ninth among the labors imposed upon Hercules 
by Eurystheus \vas to take from Hippolyte, the 
queen of the Amazons, her girdle, the ensign 
of her kingly power, which she had received as 
a present from Mars (Ares). Vid. HERCULES. 
In the reign of Theseus they invaded Attica. 
Vid. THESEUS. Toward the end of the Trojan 
war, the Amazons, under their Queen Penthe- 
silea, came to the assistance of Priam ; but she 
was killed by Achilles. The Amazons and their 
battles are frequently represeuted in the re- 
mains of ancient Greek art. 

AMAZONICI or -lus MONS, a mountain range 
parallel and near to the coast of Pontus, con 
taining the sources of the Thermodon and othei 
streams which water the supposed country of 
the Amazons. 

AMBARRI, a people of Gaul, on the Arar (now 
Saone) east of the ^Edui, and of the same stock 
as the latter. 

Belgic people, between the Bello- 



AMBIATINUS. 



AMBUSTTJS. 



vaci and Atrebates, conquered by Caesar in B. 
C. 57. Their chief town was Samarobriva, aft- 
erward called Ambiani : now Amiens. 

AMBIATIXUS Vicus, a place in the country of 
the Treviri near Coblentz, where the Emperor 
Caligula was born. 

AMBIBARI, an Armoric people in Gaul, near 
the modem Ambieres in Normandy. 

[AMBfGATUs, a king of the Celts in Gaul in the 
reign of Tarquinius Priscus.] 

AJIBILIATI, a Gallic people, perhaps in Brit- 
tany. 

AMBIORIX, a chief of the Eburones in Gaul, 
cut to pieces, in conjunction with Cativolcus, 
the Roman troops under Sabinus and Cotta, who 
were stationed for the winter in the territories 
of the Eburones, B.C. 54. He failed in taking 
the camp of Q. Cicero, and was defeated on the 
arrival of Caesar, who was unable to obtain pos- 
session of the pei-son of Ambiorix, notwithstand- 
ing his active pursuit of the latter. 

AMBIVABETI, the clientes or vassals of the 
JSdui, probably dwelt north of the latter. 

AMBIVAHITI, a Gallic people west of the J/izas, 
in the neighborhood of Namur. 

AMBIVICS TURPIO. Vid. TURPIO. 

AMBLADA (TU. *A/*6Aa<5a : 'A / u6?.adcvf), a town 
in Pisidia, on the borders of Caria ; famous for 
its wine. 

AMBRACIA ('A.fiirpaKia, afterward 'A/z6pa/a : 
'AfiSpaKtuTijc, 'Ap6paKivf, Ambraciensis : now 



Arta), a town on the left bank of the Arachthus, 
eighty stadia from the coast, north of the Ain- 
bracian Gulf, was originally included in Acar- 
nania, but afterward in Epirus. It was colo- 
nized by the Corinthians about B.C. 660, and at 
an early period acquired wealth and importance. 
It became subject to the kings of Epirus about 
the time of Alexander the Great. Pyrrhus 
made it the capital of his kingdom, and adorned 
it with public buildings and statues. At a later 
time it joined the ^Etolian League, was taken 
by the Romans in B.C. 189, and stripped of its 
works of art. Its inhabitants were transplanted 
to the new city of NICOPOLIS, founded by Au- 
gustus after the battle of Actium, B.C. 31. 
South of Ambracia, on the east of the Arach- 
thus, and close to the sea, was the fort Atnbracux. 

AMBRAOIUS SINUS ('A/nrpaKivdf or 'A/zfipa/ct/cdf 
KtUjro?: now Gulf of Arta), a gulf of the Ionian 
Sa between Epirus and Acarnania, said by 
Polybius to be three hundred stadia long and 
one hundred wide, and with an entrance only 
five stadia in width. Its real length is twenty- 
five miles and its width ten : the narrowest part 
of the entrance is only seven hundred yards, but 
it general width is about half a mile. 

AJIBRONES ('Apfyuvef), a Celtic people, who 
joined the Cimbri and Teutoni in their invasion 
of the Roman dominions, and were defeated by 
Man us near Aqua; Sextiae (now Aix) in B.C. 102. 

AMBUOSIUS, usually culled ST. AMBROSE, one 
of the most celebrated Christian fathers, was 
born in A.D. 340, probably at Augusta Treviro- 
rum (now Trcves.) After a careful education 
at Jtuine, he practiced with great success as an | 
advocate at Milan ; and about A.D. 370 was 
appointed prefect of the provinces of Liguriaj 
and ^Emilia, whose seat of government was \ 
Milan. On the death of Auxentius, biahop of j 
Milan, in 374, the appointment of his successor, 



led to an open conflict between the Ariaus and 
Catholics. Ambrose exerted his influence to 
restore peace, and addressed the people in a 
conciliatory speech, at the conclusion of which 
a child in the further part of the crowd cried 
out "Ambrosius episcopus." The words were 
received as an oracle from heaven, and Ambrose 
was elected bishop by the acclamation of the 
whole multitude, the bishops of both parties 
uniting in his election. It was in vain that h 
adopted the strangest devices to alter the de- 
termination of the people ; nothing could make 
them change their mind; and at length he 
yielded to the express command of the emper 
or (Valeutinian I.), and was consecrated on the 
eighth day after his baptism, for at the time of 
his election he was only a catechumen. Am 
brose was a man of eloquence, firmness, nud 
ability, and distinguished himself by maintain- 
ing and enlarging the authority of the church 
He was a zealous opponent of the Arians, and 
thus came into open conflict with Justiua, the 
mother of Valentinian II., who demanded the 
use of one of the churches of Milan for the Ari 
ans. Ambrose refused to give it; he was sup 
ported by the people ; and the contest was at 
length decided by the miracles which are re 
ported to have attended the discovery of the 
reliques of two martyrs, Gervasius and Prota- 
sius. Although these miracles were denied by 
the Ariaus, the impression made by them upon 
the people in general was so strong, that Justiua 
thought it prudent to give way. The state of 
the parties was quite altered by J;he death of 
Justina in 387, when Valeutiuiau became a Cath- 
olic, and still more completely by the victory of 
Theodosius over Maximus (388). This event 
put the whole power of the empire into the 
hands of a prince who was a firm Catholic, and 
over whom Ambrose acquired such influence, 
that, after the massacre at Thessalonica in 390, 
he refused Theodosius admission to the Church 
of Milan for a period of eight months, and only 
restored him after he had performed a public 
penance. The best edition of the works of 
Ambrose is that of the Benedictines, Paris, 1686 
and 1690. 

AMBRYSUS or AMPHRYSUS ('ApSpvaof : 'Aft- 
Gpvaevf. near Dhlslomo), a town in Phocis, 
strongly fortified, south of Mount Parnassus: 
in the neighborhood were numerous vineyards. 

AMBI'STITS, FABIUS. 1. M., poutifex maxi- 
mus in the year that Rome was taken by the 
Gauls, B.C. 390. His three sons, Kaeso. Nu- 
merius, and Quintus, were sent as ambassadors 
to the Gauls, when the latter were besieging 
Clusium, and took part in a sally of the besieircd 
against the Gauls (B.C 391). The Gauls "de- 
manded that the Fabii should be surrendered 
to them for violating the law of nations ; and 
upon the Senate refusing to give up the guilty 
parties, they marched against Rome. The 
three sons were in the same year elected con- 
sular tribunes. 2. it, consular tribune in B.C. 
381 and 369, and censor in 363, had two daugh- 
ters, of whom the elder was married to Ser 
Sulpicius, and the younger to C. Licinius Stolo, 
the author of the Liciuian Rogations. Accord- 
ing to the story recorded by Livy, the younger 
Fabia induced her father to assist her husband 
in obtaining the consulship for the plebeian cr 
51 



AMEN ANUS. 



AMMONIUS. 



der, Into which she had roamed 8. M, thrice 
consul, in B.C. 860, when he conquered the 
Heruica; a second time in 356, when he con- 
quered the Fulisci and Tarquiuieuses ; and a 
third time in 854, when he conquered the Ti- 
burtes. He was dictator in 351. He was the 
father of the celebrated Q. Fabius Maximus 
Rullianus. Vid. MAXIMUS. 

AMKXANUS ('Apevavof, Dor. 'A/itvaf : [now Ju- 
dieello]), a river in Sicily near Catana, only 
flowed occasionally (nunc fluit, intcrdum sup- 
ureasis fontibus aret, Ov., Met, xv., 280.) 

A ME'KIA (Amgrlnus : now Amelia), an ancient 
town in Umbria, and a municipium, the birth- 
place of Sex. Roscius defended by Cicero, was 
situate in a district rich in vines (Virg., Georg^ 
,., 265). 

AMERIOLA, a town in the land of the Sabines, 
destroyed by the Romans at a very early period. 

AMESTRATUS ('Ap/arparof : Amestratlnus : 
K>W Mixtretta), a town in the north of Sicily, 
not far from the coast, the same as the Myttis- 
'ratnm of Polybius, and the Amastra of Silius 
Italicus, taken by the Roman? from the Cartha- 
ginians in the first Punic war. 

AMESTRIS. Vid. AMASTRIS. 

AMIDA (f/ "AfJLioa : now Diarbekr), a town in 
Sophene (Armenia Major), on the Upper Tigris. 

AMIJ.CAR. Vid. HAMILCAR. 

AMINIAS ('A/zemaj-), brother of ^Eschylus, dis- 
tinguished himself at the battle of Salainis (B.C. 
480) : he and Eumenes were judged to have 
been the bravest on this occasion among all the 
Athenians. 

AMIPSIAS ('AfiEi^laf), a comic poet of Athens, 
contemporary with Aristophanes, whom he 
twice conquered in the dramatic contests, gain- 
lug the second prize with his Connus when 
Aristophanes was third with the Clouds (B.C. 
423), and the first with his Comastce when Aris- 
tophanes gained the second with the Birds (B.C. 
414). [Some fragments of his plays remain, 
which are collected in Meinekes Fragmenta 
Comicorum Gracorum, vol. i., p. 402 407, edit, 
minor.] 

AMISIA or AMISIUS ('A/zacrtof, Strab.: now 
Ems), a river in northern Germany well known 
to the Romans, on which Drusus had a naval 
engagement with the Bructeri, B.C. 12. 

AMISIA ('Afiiaia and 'Apuoeia : now Emden /), 
a fortress on the left bank of the river of the 
same name. 

AMISODARUS ('\fiiau6apof), a king of Lycia, 
said to have brought up the monster Chimsera : 
uis sons Atymnius and Maris were slain at 
Troy by the sons of Nestor. 

AMISUS ('A/t/tffof : A'/iiarjvo^, Amisenus : now 
Samsuii}, a large city on the coast of Ponlus, 
on a bay of the Euxine Sea, called after it 
(Amisenus Sinus). Mithradatea enlarged it, 
and made it one of his residences. 

AMITERNUM (Amiternmus : now Amatrica or 
Torre d'Amiternv), one of the most ancient towns 
of the Sabines, on the Aternus, the birth-place 
of the historian Sallust. 

AMMIANUB ('Afi/iiavof), a Greek epigramma- 
tist, but probably a Roman by birth, the author 
of nearly thirty epigrams in the Greek Anthol- 
ogy, lived under Trajan and Hadrian. 

AMMIANUS MARCELUNUS, by birth a Greek, 
and a native of Syrian Antioch, was admitted 
52 



' at an early age among the imperial body guards 
He served many years under Ursiciuus, one of 
the generals of Coustautius, both in the West 
and East, and he subsequently attended the Em- 
peror Julian in his campaign against the Per- 
sians (A.D. 363). Eventually he established 
himself at Rome, where he composed his his- 
tory, and was alive at least as late its 390. Hie 
history, written in Latin, extended from the 
accession of Nerva, A.D. 96, the point at which 
the histories of Tacitus termiuatecl, to the death 
of Valeus, A.D. 378, comprising a period of two 
hundred and eighty-two years. It was divided 
into thirty-one books of which the first thirteen 
are lost. The remaining eighteen embrace the 
acts of Constantius from A.D. 353, the seven- 
teenth year of his reign, together with the Avhole 
career of Gallus, Juliauus, Jovianus, Valentin- 
iunus, and Valeus. The portion preserved was 
the more important part of the work, as he was 
a contemporary of the events described in these 
books. The style of Ammianus is harsh and 
inflated, but his accuracy, fidelity, and imparti- 
ality deserve praise. Editions: By Grouovius, 
Lugd. Bat, 1693; by Ernesti, Lips, 1773; by 
Wagner and Erfurdt, Lips., 1808, 3 vols. 8vo. 

[AMMOCHOSTUS ('A/^o^wcrrof : now C. Grego), 
a sandy promontory near Salamis in Cyprus, 
which gives name by corruption to the modern 
Farnagusta] ^ 

AMMON ("A/z//wv), originally an -<tbiopiau or 
Libyan, afterward an Egyptian divkity. The 
real Egyptian name was Amun or Amnuin; the 
Greeks called him Zeus Ammori, the Romans 
Jupiter Ammon, and the Hebrews Amon. The 
most ancient seat of his worship was Meroe> 
where he had an oracle : thence it was intro- 
duced into Egypt, where the worship took the 
firmest root at Thebes in Upper Egypt, which 
was therefore frequently called by the Greeks 
Diospolis, or the city of Zeus. Another famous 
seat of the god, with a celebrated oracle, was 
in the oasis of Ammonium (now Siwali) in the 
Libyan desert ; the worship was also established 
in Cyrenaica. The god was represented either 
in the form of n ram, or as a human being with 
the head of a ram ; but there are Borne repre- 
sentations in which he appears altogether as a 
human being, with only the horns of a ram. It 
seems clear that the original idea of Ammon 
was that of a protector and leader of the flocks. 
The ^Ethiopians were a nomad people, flocks 
of sheep constituted their principal wealth, and 
it is perfectly in accordance with the notions 
of the ^Ethiopians as well as Egyptians to wor- 
ship the animal which is the leader and pro- 
tector of the flock. This view is supported by 
the various stories related about Ammon. 

AMMONIUM. Vid. OASIS. 

AMMONIUS ('Afipuviof). 1. GRAMMATICUS, of 
Alexaudrea, left this city on the overthrow of 
the heathen temples in A.D. 389, and settled 
at Constantinople. He wrote, in Greek, a valu- 
able wcrk Ou the Differences of Words of like Sig- 
uificction (jtepl 6/toiuv nal diatyopuv /leeuv). Edi- 
tions: By Valckeuaer, Lugd. Bat., 1739; by 
Schafer. Lips. 1822. 2. SON OF HERMEAS, stud- 
ied at Athens under Proclus (who died A.D. 
484), and was the master of Simplicius, Damas- 
cius, and others. He wrote numerous com- 
mentaries in Greek on the works of the earlier 



AMNISUS 



AMPHIDAMAS. 



philosophers. His extant works are Comment- 
aries on the Isagoge of Porphyry, or the Five 
Predicables, first published at Venice in 1500; 
and On the Categories of Aristotle and De Inter- 
pretatione, published by Brandis in his edition of 
the Scholia on Aristotle. 3. Of LAMPRJE, in At- 
tica, a Peripatetic philosopher, lived in the first 
century of the Christian era, and was the in- 
jtructor of Plutarch. 4. Surnamed SACCAS, or 
sack-carrier, because his employment was car- 
rying the corn, landed at Alexandrea, as a pub- 
lic porter, was born of Christian parents. Some 
.vritcrs assert, and others deny, that he aposta- 
ized from the faith. At any rate, he combined 
Ihe study of philosophy with Christianity, and 
is regarded by those who maintain his apostasy 
is the founder of the later Platonic School. 
Among his disciples were Lonjrinus, Herennius, 
Plotiuus, and Ongen. He died A.D. 243, at the 
age of more than eighty years. [5. Of ALEX- 
ASDREA, a pupil of Aristarchus, a celebrated 
grammarian, who composed commentaries on 
Homer, Pindar, and others, none of which are 
extant 6. Styled LITHOTOMUS, an eminent sur- 
geon of Alexaudrea, celebrated for his skill in 
cutting for the stone.] 

AMXISUS ('A/miTof), a town in the north of 
Crete and the harbor of Cnosus, situated on a 
river of the same name, the nymphs of which, 
called Amnlsiudes, were in the service of Diana 
(Artemis). 

AMOR, the god of love, had no place in the re- 
ligion of the Romans, who only translate the 
Greek name Eros into Amor. Vid. EROS. 

AMOROUS ('A/topyof : 'Afiopylvo^ : now Amor- 
qo), an island in the Grecian Archipelago, one of 
the Sporades, the birth-place of Simonides, and, 
under the Roman emperors, a place of banish- 
ment. 

AMORIUM ('Afiopiov), a city of Phrygia Major 
or Galatia, on the River Sangarius ; the reputed 
birth-place of JSsop. 

AiiPE ("Ayu;rj/, Herod.) or AMPELONE (Plin.), 
a town at the mouth of the Tigris, where Darius 
I. planted the Milesians whom he removed from 
their own city after the Ionian revolt (B.C. 494). 
AMPELIUS, L., the author of a small work, en- 
titled Liber Memorialis, probably lived in the 
second or third century of the Christian era. 
His work is a sort of common-place book, con- 
taining a meagre summary of the most striking 
natural objects and of the most remarkable 
events, divided into fifty chapters. It is 'gener- 
ally printed with Florus, and has been published 
separately by Beck, Lips., 1826. 

AMPELCS ('Aftirfi-Of), a promontory at the ex- 
tremity of the peninsula Sithonia in Chalcidicc, 
in Macedonia, near Toronc. 2. [A promontory 
of Crete, on the eastern coast south of Sam- 
monium, with a city of same name, now prob- 
ably Cape Sacro. 3. A mountain ending in a 
promontory in the Island of Samos, opposite 
Icaria, now Cape Dominico.] 

AMPHIBIA ('A/tireXovoia : now C. Espartet), 
the promontory at the west end of the south or 
African coast of the Fretum Gaditauum (now i 
Straits of Gibraltar). The natives of the coun- ' 
try called it Cotes (al Kwmf). 

AMPHAXITIS ('A^afmf), a district of Myg- : 
Jonia in Macedonia, at the mouths of the Axius 
and Echedorus. 



AMPHEA ("ApQeia : 'Afi^svg), & small town ol 
Messenia on the borders of Laconia and Mes- 
senia, conquered by the" Spartans in the first 
Messeuian war. 

[AMPHIALUS ('ApQiaZoc), a Phaeacian, who 
gained the prize in the games, in which Ulysses 
took part (Od., viii., 114).] 

[AMPHIANAX ('A[t<j>&va), king of Lycia, who 
received Proetus when driven out of Argolis, 
gave him his daughter Antea in marriage, and 
restored him to Argos.] 

AMPHIARAUS ('A/tQiupaof), son of Oicles and 
Hyperrunestra, daughter of Thestius, was de- 
scended on his father's side from the famous 
seer Melampus, and was himself a great prophet 
and a great hero at Argos. By his wife Eri- 
phyle, the sister of Adrastus, he was the father 
of Alcmaeon, Amphiaraus, Eurydice, and De- 
monassa. He took part in the hunt of the Caly- 
donian boar and in the Argonautic voyage. He 
also joined Adrastus in the expedition against 
Thebes, although he foresaw its fatal termina- 
tion, through the persuasions of his wife Eri- 
phyle, who had been induced to persuade her 
husband by the necklace of Harmonia which 
Polynices had given her. On leaving Argos, 
however, he enjoined on his sons to punish 
their mother for his death. During the war 
against Thebes, Amphiaraus fought bravely, 
but could not escape his fate. Pursued by Peri- 
clymenus, he fled toward the River Ismenius, 
and the earth swallowed him up, together with 
his chariot, before he was overtaken by his ene- 
my. Jupiter (Zeus) made him immortal, and 
henceforth he was worshipped as a hero, first 
at Oropus and afterward in all Greece. His 
oracle between Potniae and Thebes, where he 
was said to have been swallowed up, enjoyed 
great celebrity. Vid. Diet, of Ant., art. ORACU- 
LUM. Hia son, Alcmaeon, is called Amphiara- 
ides. 

AMPHIC.IEA or AMPHICLEA (Afujiiicaia,' 'A/iQi- 

tia: 'A/LKf>iKaive : now Dhad/ii or Oglunitza?), 
a town in the north of Phocis, with an adytum 
of Bacchus (Dionysus), was called for a long 
time Ophitea ('O^ireia), by command of the Am- 
phictyons. 

[AMPHICLUS ("A/^tK/lof), a Trojan, slain by 
Meges.] 

[AMPHICRATES ('AptyiKpuTTjf), an early king of 
Samos, in whose reign the Samians made war 
on the ^Eginetans. 2. A sophist and rhetorician 
of Athens, who flourished about 70 B.C.] 

AMPHICTYON ('AfiQiKrvuv), a son of Deucalion 
and Pyrrha. Others represent him as a king of 
Attica, who expelled from the kingdom his fa- 
ther-in-law Cranaus, ruled for twelve years, 
and was then in turn expelled by Erichthonius. 
Many writers represent him as the founder of 
the amphictyony of Thermopylae ; in conse- 
quence of this belief a sanctuary of Amphictyon 
was built in the village of Anthela on the Aso- 
pus, which was the most ancient place of meet- 
ing of this amphictyony. 

AMPHIDXMAS (' ' Aptyitidfias), son, or, according 
to others, brother of Lycurgus, one of the Ar- 
gouauta. [2. Son of Busiris, king of Egypt, 
slain by Hercules along with his father. \ id, 
BUSIRIS. 3. A hero of Scandia in Cythera, to 
whom Autolycus sent a helmet set round with 
boar's tuska, afterward burne by Merioues be 
53 



AMPHIDOLI. 



AMPHISSA. 



fore Troy. t. A king of Chalcis in Eubccn: 
he fell in battle against the Erythrzeans, and 
his sous celebrated in his honor funereal games, 
ut which llesiod gained the first prize of poetry, 
viz., a golden tripod, which he dedicated to the 
Muses.] 

[AMPIIIDOLI ('A//^tdoAot), a city of Triphylian 
Elis.] 

AMPHILOCHIA ('A[t<j>i%.oxia), the country of the 
Amphilochi ('AftQihoxoi), an Epirot race, at the 
eastern end of the Ambracian Gulf, usually in- 
cluded in Acarnania. Their chief town was 
ARGOS AMPHILOCHICUM. 

AiiPHiLScaus ('Ay0t/lo,0f), son of Ampliiaraus 
and Eriphyle, and brother of Alcmaeon. He 
took an active part in the expedition of the Epi- 
<;oui against Thebes, assisted his brother in the 
murder of their mother (vid. ALCM.SON), and 
afterward fought against Troy. On his return 
fixnn Troy, together with Mopsus, who was, like 
himself, a seer, he founded the town of Mallos 
in Cilicia. Hence he proceeded to his native 
place, Argos, but returned to Mallos, where he 
was killed in single combat by Mopsus. Others 
relate (Tliuc., ii., 68) that, after leaving Argos, 
Amphilochus founded Argos Amphilochicum on 
the Ambracian Gulf. He was worshipped at 
Mallos in Cilicia, at Oropus, and at Athens. 

AMPHILYTUS ('A//^iAvrof), a celebrated seer 
iu the time of Pisistratus (B.C. 559), is called 
both an Acarnanian and an Athenian : he may 
have been an Acarnanian who received the 
franchise at Athens. 

AMFHIMACHUS ('A/i^o^of). 1. Son of Ctea- 
tus, grandson of Neptune (Poseidon), one of the 
four leaders of the Epeans against Troy, was 
slain by Hector. 2. Son of Nomion, with his 
brother Nastes, led the Carians to the assist- 
ance of the Trojans, and was slain by Achilles. 

AMPHIMALLA (rd. 'AfiQipaMa), a town on the 
northern coast of Crete, on a bay called after 
it (now Gulf of Armiro). 

[AMPHIMARUS ('Ap<j>i[tapoc), son of Neptune, 
father of the minstrel Linus by Urania.] 

AMPHIMEDON ({hp.tyifj.iSuv), of Ithaca, a guest- 
friend of Agamemnon, and a suitor of Penelope, 
was skin by Telemachus. [2. A Libyan slain 
at the nuptials of Perseus.] 

[AMPHINOME ('A[uf>iv6fi.7)), one of the Nereids. 
2. Wife of JEsou and mother of Jason, slew 
herself when Pelias had slain her husband. 3. 
Daughter of Pelias, married by Jason to An- 
drsemoa] 

[AMPHINOMUS ('A/^tVoyUOf), son of Nisus of 
Dulichium, one of the suitors of Penelope, slain 
by Telemachus.] 

AMPHION ('A/iQiuv). 1. Son of Jupiter (Zeus) 
and Antiope, the daughter of Nycteus of Thebes, 
and twin-brother of Zethus. (Ov., Met., vL, 
110, seg.) Amphion and Zethus were born 
either at Eleuthene in Boeotia or on Mount Ci- 
thseron, whither their mother had fled, and grew 
up among the shepherds, not knowing their de- 
scent Mercury (Hermes) (according to others, 
Apollo, or the Muses) gave Amphion a lyre, 
who henceforth practiced song and music, while 
his brother spent his time in hunting and tend- 
ing the flocks. (Hor., Ep~, L, 18, 41.) Hav- 
ing become acquainted with their origin, they 
marched against Thebes, where Lycus reigned, 
the husband of then- mother Antiope, whom he 
54 



had repudiated, and had then married Dirce in 
her stead. They took the city, anil as Lycus 
and Dirce had treated their mother with great 
cruelty, the two brothers killed them both. 
They put Dirce to death by tying her to a bull, 
who dragged her about till she perished ; and 
they then threw her body into a well, which 
was from this time called the Well of Dirce. 
After they had obtained possession of Thebes, 
they fortified it by a wall It is said that when 
Amphion played his lyre, the stones moved of 
their own accord and formed the wall (movit 
\Amphionlapidescanendo, Hor., Carm., iii., 11). 
Amphiou afterward married Niobe, who bore 
him many sous and daughters, all of whom were 
killed by Apollo. His death is differently re- 
I lated : some say, that he killed himself from 
j grief at the loss of his children (Ov., Met., vi., 
270), and others tell us that he was killed by 
Apollo because he made an assault on the Pyth- 
ian temple of the god. Amphion and liis broth- 
er were buried at Thebes. The punishment in- 
flicted upon Dirce is represented in the cele- 
brated Farucse bull, the work of Apollouius and 
Tauriscus, which was discovered in 1546, and 
placed in the palace Farnese at Rome. 2. Son 
of Jasus and father of Chloris. In Homer, this 
Amphion, king of Orchomenos, is distinct from 
Amphion, the husband of Niobe ; but in earlier 
traditions they seem to have been regarded as 
the same person. [3. A leader of the Epeans 
before Troy. 4. Sou of Hyperesius of Pallene, 
an Argonaut. 5. A king of Corinth, father of 
Labda.] 

AMPHIPOLIS ('A/z0(7ro/Uf : 'AfitynroTuTrjf : now 
Neokhorio, in Turkish Jeni-Keui), a town in 
Macedonia on the left or eastern bank of tne 
Strymon, just below its egress from the Lake 
Cercinitis, and about three miles from the sea. 
The Strymon flowed almost round the town, 
nearly forming a circle, whence its name Am- 
phi-polis. It was originally called "Evrea odoi, 
"the Nine Ways," and belonged to the Edoni- 
ans, a Thraciau people. Aristagoras of Miletus 
first attempted to colonize it, but was cut off 
with his followers by the Edoniaus in B.C. 497. 
The Athenians made a next attempt with ten 
thousand colonists, but they were all destroyed 
by the Edonians in 465. In 437 the Athenians 
were more successful, and drove the Edouians 
out of the " Nine Ways," which was henceforth 
called Arnpbipolis. It was one of the most im- 
portant of the Athenian possessions, being ad- 
vantageously situated for trade on a navigable 
river in the midst of a fertile country, and near 
the gold mines of Mount Pangagus. Hence the 
indignation of the Athenians when it fell into 
the hands of Brasidas (B.C. 424) and of Philip 
(358). Under the Romans it was a free city, 
and the capital of Macedonia prima : the Via 
Egnatia ran through it. The port of Amphip- 
oh's was EION. 

AMPHIS ("Au(f>i(f), an Athenian comic poet, of 
the middle comedy, contemporary with the phi- 
losopher Plato. We have the titles of twenty- 
six of his plays, and a few fragments of them. 
[These fragments have been published by Mei- 
neke, Fragmenta Camicontm Gracorum, vol. i, 
p. 645-656, edit, minor.] 

AMPHISSA ('Afityiaaa : 'A/j.(j>iaffVf, ' AfiQioaalof : 
now Salona), one of the chief towns of the Lo 



AMFHISTRATUS. 



AMYCL^E. 



cri Ozolae on the borders of Phocis, seven miles 
from Delphi, said to have been named after 
Arnphissa, daughter of Macareus, and beloved 
by Apollo. In consequence of the Sacred War 
declared against Amphissa by the Amphictyons, 
the town -was destroyed by Philip, B.C. 338, 
but it was soon afterward rebuilt, and under the 
Romans was a free state. 

AMPHISTRATUS ('A/^icrrparof) and his brother 
Rhecas, the charioteers of the Dioscuri, were 
said to have taken part in the expedition of Ja- 
son to Colchis, and to have occupied a part of 
that country which was called after them Heni- 
ochia, as Jieniochus (rjvioxof) signifies a chari- 
oteer. 

[AMPHITHEA (' AfitjuGea), wife of Autolycus, 
grandmother of Ulysses. 2. Wife of Adrastus.J 

[AMPHITHEMIS ('A/LujtiOefiif), son of Apollo and 
Acacallis, and father of Nasamon and Caphau- 
rus by Tritonis. 2. A Theban general, who re- 
ceived money sent by the Persians into Greece 
to excite disturbances there, for the purpose of 
causing the recall of Agesilaus from Asia.] 

[AMPHITHOE (' ' KfifyiQorf), one of the Nereids.] 
AMPHITRITE ('A/^trpn-T?), a Nereid or an 
Oceauid, wife of Neptune (Poseidon) and god- 
dess of the sea, especially of the Mediterranean. 
In Homer Amphitrite is merely the name of the 
sea, and she first occurs as a goddess in Hesiod. 
Later poets again use the word as equivalent to 
the sea in general She became by Neptune 
(Poseidon) the mother of Triton, Rhode or Rhodes, 
and Benthesicyme. 

AMPIUTROPE ('A/^trpoTn; 'A[t<j>i-poTraiev(f), an 
Attic demus belonging to the tribe Antiochis, in 
the neighborhood of the silver-mines of Laurium. 

AMPHITRYON or AMPHITRUO ('Aftfarpvuv), son 
of Alcaeus, king of Tiryns, and Hipponome. Al- 
Cceus had a brother Electryon, who reigned at 
Mycenae. Between Electryon and Ptcrelaus, 
king of the Taphians, a furious war raged, in 
which Electryou lost all his sons except Licym- 
nius, and was robbed of his oxen. Amphitryon 
recovered the oxen, but on his return to Myce- 
nae accidentally killed his uncle Electryon. He 
was now expelled from Mycenae, together with 
Alcmcne the daughter of Electryon, by Sthen- 
elus the brother of Electryon, and went to 
Thebes, where he was purified by Creon. In 
order to win the hand of Alcmene, Amphitryon 
prepared to avenge the death of Alcmene's 
brothers on the Taphians, and conquered them, 
after Comaetho, the daughter of Pterelaus, 
through her love for Amphitryon, cut off the 
one golden hair on her father's head, which 
rendered him immortal. During the absence 
of Amphitryon from Thebes, Jupiter visited 
ALCMENE, who became by the god the mother 
of Hercules ; the latter is called Amphitryoniadcs 
in allusion to his reputed father. Amphitryon 
fell in a war against Erginus, king of the Mmy- 
ans. The comedy of Plautus, called Amphitruo, 
is a ludicrous representation of the visit of Ju- 
piter (Zeus) to Alcmene in the disguise of her 
lover Amphitryon. 

[AMPHIUS ("A/i^tof), son of Lelagus, an ally 
of the Trojans, slain by the Telamonian Ajax. 
2. Son of Merops, the celebrated seer, against 
whose wish his two sons Amphius and Adrastus 
went to the Trojan war : they were both slain by 
Diomedes.] 



I AMPHOTERUS ('A/^orfpof). Vld. ACARNAN. - 
; [2. A Trojan slain by Patroclus.] 

AMPHRYSUS ('A^pvcfos). 1. A small river in 

Thessaly which flowed into the Pagasaean Gull', 

j on the banks of which Apollo fed the herds of 

| Admetus (pastor ab Amphryso, Virg, Georg., iii., 

2). 2. Vid. AMBRYSUS. 

[Anpius BALBUS, T. Vid. BALBUS.] 

AMPSAGA (now Wad-d-Kabir, or tiufjimar), a 
river of Northern Africa, which divided Numidia 
from Mauretania Sitifensis. It flows past the 
town of Cirta (now Constantino). 

AMPSANCTUS or AMSANCTUS LACUS (now Logo 
d' Ansanti or Mufiti), a small lake in Samnium 
near yEculauum, from which mephitic vapors 
arose. Near it was a chapel sacred to Mephi- 
tis, with a cavern from which mephitic vapors 
also came, and which was therefore regarded as 
an entrance to the lower world. (Virg., ^En., 
vii., 563, seq.) 

AMPSIVARII. Vld. ANSIBAHII. 

AMPYCUS ('AfixvKOf). 1. Son of Pelias, hus- 
band of Chloris, and father of the famous seer 
Mopsus, who is hence called Ampycides. Pau- 
sanias calls him Ampyx. 2. Son of lapetus, a 
bard and priest of Ceres, killed by Pettalus at 
the marriage of Perseus. 

AMPYX. Vid. AMPYCUS. [2. A friend of 
Phineus, changed to stone by Perseus by the 
head of Medusa. 3. One of the Lapithae, who 
slew the Centaur (Eclus at the nuptials of Pir- 
ithous.] 

AMULIUS. Vid. ROMULUS. 

AMYCL^E. 1. ('A/ivKAai : 'A/uvKhatEvg, 'Afiv- 
K/latof : now Sklavokhori or Aia Kyriaki /), an 
ancient town of Laconia on the Eurotas, in a 
beautiful country, twenty miles southeast of 
Sparta. It is mentioned in the Iliad (iL, 584), 
and is said to have been founded by the ancient 
Lacedasmonian King Amyclas, father of Hyacin- 
thus, and to have been the abode of Tyndarus, 
and of Castor and Pollux, who are hence called 
Amyclcei fratres. After the conquest of Pelo- 
ponnesus by the Dorians, the Achaaans main- 
tained themselves in Amyclae for a long time ; 
and it was only shortly before the first Messc- 
nian war that the town was taken and destroy- 
ed by the Lacedaemonians under Teleclus. The 
tale ran that the inhabitants had been so often 
alarmed by false reports of the approach of the 
enemy, that they passed a law that no one 
should speak of the enemy ; and accordingly, 
when the Lacedaemonians at hist came, and no 
one dared to announce their approach, " Amy- 
clae perished through silence :" hence arose the 
proverb Ainyclis ipsis taciturnior. After its de- 
struction by the Lacedaemonians Amyclaj be- 
came a village, and was only memorable by the 
festival of the Hyaciuthia (vid. Diet, of Antiq.. 
s. v.) celebrated at the place annually, and by the 
temple and colossal statue of Apollo, who was 
hence called Amyclceus. 2. (Amyclanus), an 
ancient town of Latium, east of Terracina, on 
the Sinus Amyclanus, was, according to tradi- 
tion, an Achaean colony from Laconia. In the 
time of Augustus the town had disappeared ; 
the inhabitants were said to have deserted it 
on account of its being infested by serpents : 
whence Virgil (^En., x., 664) speaks of tacita 
Amyclct, though some commentators suppose 
that he transfers to this town the epithet be- 
55 



AMYCLAS. 



ANACREON. 



longing to the Amy else in Laconia (No. 1). Near 
Amyclze was the Spelunca (Sperlonga\or nat- 
ural grotto, a favorite retreat of the Emperor 
Tiberius. 

AMVCLAS. Vid. AMYCL*. 

AMYCLIDES, a name of Hyacinthus, as the son 
of Amyclas. 

AMYOUS (AfivKOf), son of Neptune (Poseidon) 
and Bithynis, king of the Bebryces, "was cele- 
brated for his skill in boxing, and used to chal- 
lenge strangers to box with him. When the 
Argonauts came to his dominions, Pollux accepted 
the challenge and killed him. 

[AMYDON (Apvtiuv), an ancient city of Pseonia 
in Macedonia, ou the Axius, spoken of by Homer 
(II., ii, 849).] 

AMYMONE ('Afjvfiuvi)), one of the daughters of 
Danaus and Elephantis. When Danaus ar- 
rived in Argos, the country was suffering from 
a drought, and Dauaus sent out Amymone to 
fetch water. She was attacked by a satyr, but 
was rescued from his violence by Neptune (Po- 
seidon), who appropriated her to himself, and 
then showed her the wells at Lerna. According 
to another account, he bade her draw his trident 
from the rock, from which a three-fold spring 
gushed forth, which was called after her the 
Well and River of Amymone. Her son by Nep- 
tune (Poseidon) was called Nauplius. 

AMYNANDER (Apvvavdpos), king of the Atha- 
manes in Epirus, an ally of the Romans in their 
war with Philip of Macedonia, about B.C. 198, 
but an ally of Antiochus, B.C. 189. 

AMYNTAS ('A/iwraf). 1. L King of Macedo- 
nia, reigned from about B.C. 540 to 500, and 
was succeeded by his son Alexander I. 2. II. 
King of Macedonia, son of Philip, the brother 
of Perdiccas II., reigned B.C. 393-369, and ob- 
tained the crown by the murder of the usurper 
Pausanias. Soon after his accession he was 
driven from Macedonia by the Illyrians, but was 
restored to his kingdom by the Thessalians. 
On his return he was engaged in war with the 
Olynthians, in which he was assisted by the 
Spartans, and by their aid Olynthus was reduced 
in 379. Amyntas united himself also with Ja- 
son of Pherae, and carefully cultivated the friend- 
ship of Athens. Amyntas left by his wife Eu- 
ridice three sons, Alexander, Perdiccas, and 
the famous Philip. 3. Grandson of Amyntas 
IL, was excluded by Philip from the succession 
on the death of his father, Perdiccas IIL, in B.C. 
360. He was put to death in the first year of 
the reign of Alexander the Great, 336, for a plot 
against the king's life. 4. A Macedonian officer 
in Alexander's army, son of Andromenes. He 
and his brothers were accused of being privy to 
the conspiracy of Philotas in 330, but were ac- 
quitted. Some little time after he was killed 
at the siege of a village. 5. A Macedonian 
traitor, son of Antiochus, took refuge at the 
court of Darius, and became one of the com- 
manders of the Greek mercenaries. He was 
present at the battle of Issus (B.C. 333), and 
afterward fled to Egypt, where he was put to 
death by Mazaces, the Persian governor. 6. A 
king of Galatia, supported Antony, and fought 
ou his side against Augustus at the battle of 
Actiuzn (B.C. 31). He fell in an expedition 
against the town of Homonada or Homona. 
7. A Greek writer of a w-k entitled Stathmi 
56 



I (SraOftoi) probably on account of the different 
halting-places of Alexander the Great iu his 
Asiatic expedition. 

AMYNTOK (Apvvrup), son of Ormeuus of Eic- 
on in Thessaly, where Autolycus broke into his 
house, and father of PHOENIX, whom he cursed on 
account of unlawful intercourse with Jus mis- 
tress. According to Apollodorus he was a king 
of Ormenium, and was slain by Hercules, to 
whom he refused a passage through his douu'n- 
ions, and the hand of his daughter ASTYDAMIA. 
According to Ovid (Met., xii., 364), he was king 
of the Dolopes. 

AMYRT^EUS (Afivpralof), an Egyptian, as- 
sumed the title of king, and joined Inurus the 
Libyan in the revolt against the Persians in 
B.C. 460. They at first defeated the Persians 
(vid. ACILEMENES), but were subsequently totally 
defeated, 455. Amyrtaeus escaped, and main- 
tained himself as king in the marshy districts 
of Lower Egypt till about 414, when the Egyp- 
tians expelled the Persians, and Amyrtieus reign- 
ed six years. 

AMYRUS (*A/zt>pof), a river in Thessaly, with 
a town of the same name upon it, flowing into 
the Lake Bcebeis : the country around was called 
the 'ApvpiKov nediov. 

AMYTHAON (Apvdduv), son of Cretheus and 
Tyro, father of Bias and of the seer Melampus, 
who is hence called Ami/tfidonfus (Virg., Gcorg., 
iu., 550). He dwelt at Pylus iu Messenia, and 
is mentioned among those to whom the restora- 
tion of the Olympian games was ascribed. 

ANABON (Avuduv), a district of the Persiau 
province of Aria, south of Aria Proper, contain- 
ing four towns, which still exist, Phra (now 
Ferrah), Bis (now Beest or ost), Gari (now 
Ghore), Nil (now Neh). 

[ANABURA (TU 'Avu6ovpa), a city of Pisidia.] 

ANACES ('Ava/cef). Vid. ANAX, No. 2. 

ANACHARSIS (Avuxapa^), a Scythian of 
princely rank, left his native country to travel 
iu pursuit of knowledge, and came to Athens 
about B.C. 594. He became acquainted with So- 
lon, and by his taleuts and acute observations, ha 
excited general admiration. The fame of hi 
wisdom was such, that he was even reckoned 
by some among the seven sages. He was killed 
by his brother Saulius on his return to his native 
country. Cicero (Tusc. Disp., v, 82) quotes 
from one of his letters, of which several, but 
spurious, are still extant. 

ANACREOX (' Avattpeuv), a celebrated lyric 
poet, born at Teos, an Ionian city in Asia Mi- 
nor. He removed from his native city, with 
the great body of its inhabitants, to Abdera, in 
Thrace, when Teos was taken by the Persians 
(about B.C. 540), but lived chiefly at Samos, 
under the patronage of Polycrates, in whose 
praise he wrote many songs. After the death 
of Polycrates (522), he went to Athens at the 
invitation of the tyrant Hipparchus, where he 
became acquainted with Simonides and other 
poets. He died at the age of eighty-five, proba- 
bly about 478, but the place of his death is un 
certain. The universal tradition of antiquity rep- 
resents Anacreon as a consummate voluptuaiy, 
and his poems prove the truth of the tradition. 
He sings of love and wine with hearty good will ; 
| and we see iu him the luxury of the Ionian in- 
flamed by the fervor of the poet. The tale that 



ANACTORIUM. 



ANAXAGORS. 



be loved Sappho is very improbable. Of hhs 
poems only a few genuine fragments have come 
down to us : for the " Odes" attributed to him 
are now admitted to be spurious. Editions : By 
Fischer, Lips., 1793 ; Bergk, Lips., 1834. 

ANACTOBJUM ('AvOKTOplOV : 'A-VaKTOptOf), & 

town in Acarnania, built by the Corinthians, 
upon a promontory of the same name (near La 
Madonna) at the entrance of the Ambracian 
Gulf. Its inhabitants were removed by Augus- 
tus after the battle of Actium (B.C. 31) to Ni- 
copolis. 

ANADTOMENE('Ava<5vo/zevJ7), the goddess rising 
out of the sea, a surname given to Venus (Aph- 
rodite), in allusion to the story of her being 
born from the foam of the sea This surname 
had not much celebrity before the time of Apel- 
les, but his famous painting of Aphrodite Ana- 
dyomene excited the emulation of other art- 
ists, painters as well as sculptors. Vid. APEL- 
LES. 

[ANJJA or ANN^EA ('A.vaia or 'Avvaia), a Ca- 
rian city on the Ionian coast of Asia Minor, op- 
posite the Island of Samos, deriving its name 
from an Amazon, Ancea : it was the place of 
refuge in the Peloponnesian war for the Samian 
exiles.] 

ANAGNIA (Anagninus : now Anagni), an an- 
cient town of Latium, the chief town of the 
Hernici, and subsequently both a municipium 
and a Roman colony. It lay in a very beauti- 
ful and fertile country on a hill, at the foot of 
which the Via Lavicana and Via Prctnestina 
united (now Compitum Anagninum). In the 
neighborhood Cicero had a beautiful estate, 
Ancegninum (sc. prccdium). 

ANAGYBUS ('Avayvpovf, -ovvrof : 'A.vayupuaiof, 
'\vayvpovvr66ev : ruins near Vari), a demus of 
Attica, belonging to the tribe Erechtheis, not, 
as some say, JEantis, south of Athens, near the 
Promontory Zoster. 

ANAITIOA ('A.vaiTtK7J), a district of Armenia, in 
which the goddess Anaitis was worshipped ; 
also called Acilisene. 

ANAITIS ('AvaZ-nf) an Asiatic divinity, whose 
name is also written Ancea, Aneitis, Tanais, or 
Nancea. Her worship prevailed in Armenia, 
Cappadocia, Assyria, Persis, <fcc., and seems to 
have been a part of the worship so common 
among the Asiatics, of the creative powers of na- 
ture, both male and female. The Greek writers 
sometimes identify Anaitis with Diana (Ar- 
temis), and sometimes with Venus (Aphro- 
dite). 

ANAMARI or -RES, a Galh'c people in the plain 
of the Po, in whose laud the Romans founded 
Placentia. 

ANANES, a Gallic people west of the Trebia, 
between the Po and the Apennines. 

ANANICS ('Avuviof), a Greek iambic poet, 
contemporary with Hipponax, about B.C. 640. 
[His remains have been collected by Welcker, 
and published at the end of his edition of Hip- 
ponax, q. v.] 

ANAPHE ('A.vu<j>ij : 'AvaQalof. now Anaphi, 
Nanfir>), a small island in the south of the ^Ege- 
an Sea, east of Thera, with a temple of Apollo 
JSgletes, who was hence called Anaphius. 

ANAPHLYSTCS ( 'Ava'^Avffrof : 'Ava^Uariof : 
now Anavyso), an Attic dcmus of the tribe An- 
tiochis on the southwest coast of Attica, oppo- 



site flie Island Eleussa, called after Anaphly* 
tus, sou of Neptune (Poseidon). 

ANAPUS (*Ava;rof). 1. A river in Acarnania 
flowing into the Achelous. 2. (Now Anapo), a 
river in Sicily, flowing into the sea south of Syr- 
acuse through the marshes of Lysimelia. 

ANARTES or -TI, a people of Dacia, north of the 
Theiss. 

ANAS ('Avac : now Guadiana), one of the chief 
rivers of Spain, rising in Celtiberia in the mount- 
ains near Laminium, formed the boundary be- 
tween Lusitania and Bastica, and flowed into 
the ocean by two mouths (now only one). 

[ANASSUS (now Stella), a small river in the 
territory of the Veneti.] 

ANATOLIUS. 1. Bishop of Laodicea, A.D. 270, 
an Alexaudrean by birth, was the author of sev- 
eral mathematical and arithmetical works, of 
which some fragments have been preserved. 
2. An eminent jurist, was a native of Berytus, 
and afterward P. P. ( prtefectus pr&torio) of Illyr- 
icum. He died in A.D. 361. A work on agri- 
culture, often cited in the Geoponica, and a 
treatise concerning Sympathies and Antipathies, 
are assigned by many to this Anatolius. The 
latter work, however, was probably written by 
Auatoh'us the philosopher, who was the master 
of lamblichus, and to whom Porphyry addressed 
Homeric Questions. 3. Professor of law at Be- 
rytus, is mentioned by Justinian among those 
who were employed in compiling the Digest 
He wrote notes on the Digest, and a very concise 
commentary on Justinian's Code. Both of 
these works are cited in the Basilica. He per- 
ished A.D. 557, in au earthquake at Byzantium, 
whither he had removed from Berytus. 

ANAURUS ('Avavpoe), a river of Thessaly flow- 
ing into the Pagasaean Gulf. [It was in this 
stream that Jason lost his sandal, and thus ful- 
filled the words of the oracle. Vid. JASON.] 

ANAVA ("A.vava), an ancient, but early decayed 
city of Great Phrygia, on the salt lake of the 
same name, between Celaenae and Colossae (now 
Hagee Ghio-ul). 

ANAX ('Ava|). 1. A giant, son of Uranus and 
Gaea, and father of Asterius. 2. An epithet of 
the gods in general, characterizing them as the 
rulers of the world; but the plural forms, 
*A.va.Kf, or "Ava/cref, or "Avaxff TraZdff, were 
used to designate the Dioscuri 

ANAXAGORAS ( 'Avaf ayopof ), a celebrated 
Greek philosopher of the Ionian school, was 
born at Clazomenae in Ionia, B.C. 500. He gave 
up his property to his relations, as he in- 
tended to devote his life to higher ends, and 
went to Athens at the age of twenty ; here ho 
remained thirty years, and became the intimate 
friend and teacher of the most eminent men of 
the tune, such as Euripides and Pericles. His 
doctrines gave offence to the religious feelings 
of the Athenians ; and the enemies of Pericles 
availed themselves of this circumstance to ac- 
cuse him of impiety, B.C. 450. It was only 
through tho eloquence of Pericles tliat he was 
not put to death ; but he was sentenced to pay 
a fine of five talents, and to quit Athens. He 
retired to Lampsacus, whjjre he died in 428, at 
the age of seventy-two. Anaxagoras was dis- 
satisfied with the systems of his predecessors, 
the Ionic philosophers, and struck into a new 
path. The Ionic philosophers had endeavored 
57 



ANAXANDER 

to explain nature and its various phenomena 
by regarding matter iu its different forms and 
modifications as the cause of all tilings. An uc- 
agoras, on the other hand, conceived the neces- 
sity of seeking a higher cause, independent of 
matter, and this cause he considered to be nous 
(vovc), that is, mind, thought, or intelligence. 
[Editions of the fragments by Schaubach, Lips., 
1827, and by Sckorii, Bonn, 1829. 2. Son of 
Argeus, grandson of Megapenthes, monarch of 
Argos. He shared the sovereign power with 
B.'as and Melampus, who had cured the Argive 
women of madness. 3. An Athenian orator, 
pupil of Isocrates.] 

ANAXANDER ('AvuS-avdpof), king of Sparta, son 
of Eurycrates, fought iu the second Messeniau 
war, about B.C. 668. 

ANAXANDRIDES ( 'Avat-avdpidtjf). 1. Son of 
Theopompus, king of Sparta. 2. King of Spar- 
ta, son of Leon, reigned from about B.C. 560 to 
620. Having a barren wife whom he would not 
divorce, the ephors made him take with her a 
second. By her. he had Cleomenes ; and after 
this by his first wife, Dorieus, Leonidas, and 
Cleombrotus. 3. An Athenian comic poet of 
the middle comedy, a native of Camirus in 
Rhodes, began to exhibit comedies in B.C. 376. 
Aristotle held him in high esteem. [The frag- 
ments of his plays are collected in Meineke's 
Fragnirnta Comicoi~um Grcec., vol. i., p. 574-594, 
edit minor.] 

ANAXARCBTS ('Avu%apxof), a philosopher of 
Abdera, of the school of Democritus, accom- 
panied Alexander into Asia (B.C. 384), and 
gained his favor by flattery and wit. After the 
death of Alexander (323), Anaxarchus was 
thrown by shipwreck into the power of Nico- 
creon, king of Cyprus, to whom he had given 
mortal offence, and who had him pounded- to 
death in a stone mortar. 

ANAXARETE (' ' Ava^apirrf), a maiden of Cyprus, 
remained unmoved by the love of Iphis, who 
at last, in despair, hung himself at her door. She 
looked with indifference at the funeral of the 
youth, but Venus changed her into a stone 
statue. 

_ ANAXIBIA ('Ava!-i6ia), daughter of Plisthenes, 
sister of Agamemnon, wife of Strophius, and 
mother of Pylades. [2. Daughter of Bias, wife 
of Pelias of lolcos, and mother of Acastus, Pi- 
sidice, Hippothoe, and Alcestis.] 

ANAXIBIUS CAvaS-ifaof), the Spartan admiral 
stationed at Byzantium on the return of the 
Cyrean Greeks from Asia, B.C. 400. In 389 he 
succeeded Dercyllidas in the command in the 
^Egean, but fefl in battle against Iphicrates, 
near Antandrus, in 388. 

ANAXIDAMUS ('Avaftdaftof), king of Sparta, 
son of Zeuxidamus, h'ved to the conclusion of the 
second Messeuian war, B.C 668. 

ANAXILAUS ('Ava$D.aoc), or ANAXILAS ('Ava&- 
Xaf. 1. Tyrant of Rhegium, of Messenian ori- 
gin, took possession of Zancle in Sicily about 
B.C. 494, peopled it with fresh inhabitants, and 
changed its name into Messene. He died in 
476. 2. Of Byzantium, surrendered Byzantium 
to the Athenians in JB.C. 408. 3. An Athenian 
comic poet of the middle comedy, contemporary 
with Plato and Demosthenes. We have a few 
fragments, and the titles of nineteen of his com- 
edies. [His fragments are collected by Meineke 
58 



ANC^EUS. 

in his Fragmcnta Comicorum Grcec., voL ii., p. 
667-675, edit, minor.] i. A physician aud 
Pythagorean philosopher, born at Larissa, was 
banished by Augustus from Italy, B.C. 28, on the 
charge of magic. 

ANAXIMANDEB ('Ava^ifiavSpos), of Miletus, was 
born B.C. 610 and died 547, in his sixty -fourth 
year. He was one of the earliest philosophers 
of the Ionian school, aud the immediate success- 
or of Thales, its first founder. He first used the 
word upxh to denote the origin of things, or 
rather the material out of which they were 
formed : he held that this apxn was the infinite 
(rd uKEipov), everlasting, and divine, though not 
attributing to it a spiritual or intelligent na- 
ture ; and that it was the substance into which 
all things were resolved on their dissolution. 
He was a careful observer of nature, and was 
distinguished by his astronomical, mathemat- 
ical, and geographical knowledge: he is said 
to have introduced the use of the gnomon into 
Greece. 

ANAXDIENES ( ' Ava^i/ievrt^ ). 1. Of Miletus, 
the third in the series of Ionian pliilosophers, 
flourished about B.C. 544 ; but as he was the 
teacher of Anaxagoras B.C. 480, he must have 
h'ved to a great age. He considered air to bo 
the first cause of all things, the primary form, 
as it were, of matter, into which the other ele- 
ments of the universe were resolvable. 2. Of 
Lampsacus, accompanied Alexander the Great 
to Asia (B.C. 334), and wrote a history of Philip 
of Macedonia ; a history of Alexander the 
Great ; and a history of Greece, in twelve books, 
from the earliest mythical age down to the 
death of Epaminondas. He also enjoyed great 
reputation as a rhetorician, and is the author of a 
scientific treatise on rhetoric, the 'fi)TopiKr) Trpbf 
gavdpov, usually printed among the works of 
Aristotle. He was an enemy of Theophrastus, 
and published under the name of the latter a 
work calumniating Sparta, Athens, and Thebes, 
which produced great exasperation against 
Theophrastus. [The Ars Rhetorica, edited by 
L. Spengel, Turici, 1844 ; the fragments of 
the history of Alexander, by Geier, in his " Scrip- 
tores Historiarum Alexandri M. estate suppares," 
Lips., 1844.] 

[ANAXIPPUS ('Avu|i7r7rof). 1. A general of 
Alexander the Great. 2. A comic poet of the 
new comedy, who flourished about B.C. 303. The 
titles of four of his plays have come down to 
us : his fragments are collected by Meineke, 
Fragm. Comic Grcec^ voL ii., p. 1112-1116, edit. 
minor., who adds a fragment from Athenseus, 
attributed to Anthippus in the ordinary text, 
but supposed to be an error for Anaxippus.] 

ANAZARBUS or -A ('Avaap66f or -u : 'Ava^ap- 
6evf, Anazarbenus : ruins at Anasarba or Na- 
versa), a considerable city of Cilicia Campestris, 
on the left bank of the River Pyramus, at the 
foot of a mountain of the same name. Augus- 
tus conferred upon it the name of Caesarea (ad 
Auazarbum) ; and, on the division of Cilicia 
into the two provinces of Prima and Secuuda, it 
was made the capital of the latter. It was al- 
most destroyed by earthquakes in the reigns of 
Justinian and Justin. [It was the birth-place of 
Dioscorides and Oppian.] 

ANC^EUS ('Ay/caZof). 1. Son of the Arcadian 
Lycurgus and Cleophile or Eurynome, and fa- 



ANCALITES. 



ANCYRA.. 



tLer of Agapenor. He was one of the Argo- ' 
nauts, and took part in the Calydoniau hunt, in 
which he was killed by the boar. 2. Son of 
Neptune (Poseidon) and Astypaloea or Alta, king 
of the Leleges in Samos, husband of Samia, 
and father of Perilaus, Enodos, Samos, Alither- 
BCS, and Parthenope. He seeins to have been 
confounded by some mythographers with An- 
cseus, the son of Lycurgus. The son of Nep- 
tune (Poseidon) is also represented as one of the 
Argonauts, and is said to have become the 
helmsman of the ship Argo after the death of 
Tiphys. A well-known proverb is said to have 
originated with this Ancaeus. He had been told 
by a seer that he would not live to taste the wine 
of his vineyard ; and when he was afterward on 
the point of drinking a cup of wine, the growth 
of his own vineyard, he laughed at the seer, 
who, however, answered, iro'AAa fisra^v n&ei 
Kvl.inof K.al xeiAsoe unpov, "There is many a 
slip between the cup and the Up." At the same 
instant Ancaeus was informed that a wild boar 
was near. He put down his cup, went out 
against the animal, and was killed by it 

ANCALITES, a people of Britain, probably a 
part of the ATREBATES. 

AXCHARIUS, Q., tribune of the plebs, B.C. 59, 
took an active part in opposing the agrarian law 
of Caesar. He was praetor in 56, and succeeded 
L. Piso in the province of Macedonia. 

[AXCHEMALUS, son of Rhcetus, king of the 
Marrubii in Italy, was expelled by his father for 
criminal conduct toward his step-mother, fled 
to Turnus, and was slain by Pallas, son of 
Evuuder, in the war with ^Eneas.] 

ANCHESMUS ('Ay^ecr/zof), a hill not far from 
Athens, with a temple of Jupiter (Zeus), who was 
hence called Anchesmius. 

ANCHIALE and -LUS ('Ay^u/l;?). 1. (Now 
Akiali), a town in Thrace on the Black Sea, on 
the borders of Moesia. 2. Also AXCUIALOS, an 
ancient city of Cilicia, west of the Cydnus near 
the coast, said to have been built by Sardana- 
palus. 

[ANCHIALUS ('Ay^aJlof). 1. King of the Taphi- 
ans, father of Mentes, united in guest-friendship 
with Ulysses. 2. A Greek, slain by Hector be- 
fore Troy. 3. A Phaeaciaa All these are men- 
tioned in Homer.] 

ANCHISES ('Ayx7J7f), son of Capys and The- 
mis, the daughter of Ilus, king of Dardauus on 
Mount Ida. In beauty he equalled the immor- 
tal gods, and was beloved by Venus (Aphrodite), 
by whom he became the father of ^Eneas, who 
is hence called Anchisiades. The goddess warn- 
ed him never to betray the real mother of the 
child ; but as on one occasion he boasted of his 
intercourse with the goddess, he was struck by 
a flash of lightning, which, according to some 
traditions, killed, but according to others, only 
blinded or lamed him. VirgiX in his ^Eneid, 
makes Auchises survive the capture of Troy, 
and ^Eneas carries his father on his shoulders 
from the burning city. He further relates that 
Anchises died soon after the first arrival of 
^Eneas in Sicily, and was buried on Mount Eryx. 
This tradition seems to have been believed in 
Sicily, for Anchiscs had a sanctuary at Egesta, 
and the funeral games celebrated in Sicily in liis 
honor continued down to a late period. 

ANCIIISIA ('Ayx ffia), a mountain in Arcadia, ! 



northwest of Mantinea, where Auchises is said to 
have been buried, according to one tradition. 

[ANCHURUS ('A.yxovpo(), son of Midas, king of 
Phrygia. A large chasm having opened near 
Celaenae, Anchurus threw himself into it, as 
an oracle had said that it would not close un- 
til he had thrcwn what he regarded as most 
precious into it. On this the chasm closed im- 
mediately.] 

AXCON (AevKOffvpuv 'Ay/cuv), a harbor and 
town at the mouth of the River Iris (now Yeshil 
ermak) in Pontus. 

ANCONA or ANCOX ('Ay/ctiv : Anconitanus : 
now jfncona), a town in Picenum on the Adri- 
atic Sea, lying in a bend of the coast between 
two promontories, and hence called Ancon or an 
" elbow." It was built by the Syracusans, who 
settled there about B.C. 392, discontented with 
the rule of the elder Dionysius ; and under the 
Romans, who made it a colony, it became one 
of the most important sea-ports of the Adri- 
atic. It possessed an excellent harbor, com- 
pleted by Trajan, and it carried on an active 
trade with the opposite coast of Illyricum. The 
town was celebrated for its temple of Venus and 
its purple dye : the surrounding country pro 
duced good wine and wheat 

AXCORARIUS Moxs, a mountain in Mauretania 
Caesariensis, south of Caesarea, abounding in cit- 
ron trees, the wood of which was used by the 
Romans for furniture. 

AXCORE. Vid. NiCjEA. 

ANCUS MARCIUS, fourth king of Rome, reign- 
ed twenty-four years, B.C. 64U-616, and is said 
to have been the son of Nunia's daughter. He 
conquered the Latins, took many Latin towns, 
transported the inhabitants to Rome, and gave 
them the Aventine to dwell on : these conquer- 
ed Latins formed the original Plebs. He also 
founded a colony at Ostia, at the mouth of the 
Tiber ; built a fortress on the Jauiculum as a 
protection against Etruria, and united it with 
the city by a bridge across the Tiber ; dug the 
ditch of the Quirites, which was a defence for 
the open ground between the Caelian and the 
Palatine ; and built a prison. He was succeeded 
by Tarquinius Priscus. 

ANCYRA ('\yKvpa : 'A.yKvpavoe, Ancyranus). 
1. (Now Angora), a city of Galatia in Asia Minor, 
in 39 6C' north latitude. In the tune of Au- 
gustus, when Galatia became a Roman province, 
Ancyra was the capital : it was originally the 
chief city of a Gallic tribe named the Tectosa- 
ges, who came from the south of France. Uu- 
der the Roman empire it had the name of Se- 
baste, which in Greek is equivalent to Augusta 
in Latin. When Augustus recorded the chief 
events of his life on bronze tablets a"t Rome, 
the citizens of Aucyra had a copy made, which 
was cut on marble blocks and placed at Ancyra 
in a temple dedicated to Augustus and Rome, 
This inscription is called the Monumentum An- 
cyranum. The Latin inscription was first copied 
by Tournefort in 1701, and it has been copied 
several tunes since. One of the latest copies 
has been made by Mr. Hamilton, who also copied 
as much of the Greek inscription as is legible. 
[Near this place Bajazet was defeated and made 
prisoner by Timur, or, as he is commonly called, 
Tamerlane.] 2. A town in Phrygin Epictetus. 
on the borders of Mysia. 

59 



ANDANIA. 



('Avdavia : 'Avdaviri't;, ' 
[now Andorossa, and the ruins near Crano]), a 
town in Messenia, between Megalopolis and 
Messene, the capital of the kings of the race of 
the Leleges, abandoned by its inhabitants in the 
second Messenian war, and from that time only a 
village. 

AND&O! vi, ANDEoivr, or ANDES, a Gallic peo- 
ple north of the Loire, with a town of the same 
name, also called Juliomagus, now Angers. 

ANDKMATUiracM. Vid, LINGONES. 

ANDERA (ra 'Avdetpa : 'Avdeipjjvof), a city of 
Mysia, celebrated for its temple of Cybele, sur- 
named '\v3eip7jvr}. 

ANDERITDM (now Anterieux), a town of the 
Gabali in Aquitania. 

ANDES. 1. Vid. ANDECAVI. 2. Now Pic- 
tola), a village near Mantua, the birth-place of 
VirgiL 

ANoSciDEs ('A.vfoKidrjf'), one of the ten Attic 
orators, son of Leogoras, was born at Athens 
in B.C. 467. He belonged to a noble family, 
and was a supporter of the oligarchical party at 
Athens. In 436 he was one of the commanders 
of the fleet sent by the Athenians to the assist- 
ance of the Corcyreans against the Corinthians. 
In 415 he became involved in the charge brought 
against Alcibiades for having profaned the mys- 
teries and mutilated the Hermae, and was thrown 
into prison; but he recovered his liberty by 
promising to reveal the names of the real per- 
petrators of the crime. He is said to have de- 
nounced his own father among others, but to 
have rescued him again in the hour of danger. 
But as Andocides was unable to clear himself 
entirely, he was deprived of his rights as a citi- 
zen, and left Athens. He returned to Athens 
on the establishment of the government of the 
Four Hundred in 411, but was soon obliged to 
fly again. In the following year he ventured 
once more to return to Athens, and it was at 
this time that he delivered the speech, still ex- 
tant, On his Return, in which he petitioned for 
permission to reside at Athens, but in vain. He 
was thus driven into exile a third time, and 
went to reside at Elis. In 403 he again return- 
ed to Athens upon the overthrow of the tyran- 
ny of the Thirty by Thrasybulus, and the proc- 
lamation of the general amnesty. He was now 
allowed to remain quietly at 'Athens for the 
next three years, but in 400 his enemies ac- 
cused him of having profaned the mysteries : 
he defended himself in the oration still extant, 
On the Mysteries, and was acquitted. In 394 
he was sent as ambassador to Sparta to con- 
clude a peace, and on his return in 393 he was 
accused of illegal conduct during his embassy 
(7rapa;rpe<T6etaf) ; he defended himself in the ex- 
tant speech On the Peace with Lacedamon, but 
was found guilty, and sent into exile for the 
fourth time. He seems to have died soon aft- 
erwa.-d in exile. Besides the three orations al- 
ready mentioned, there is a fourth against Alci- 
biades, said to have been delivered in 415, but 
which is in all probability spurious Editions : 
In the collections of the Greek orators ; also, 
separately by Baiter and Sauppe, Zurich, 1838. ' 

ANDR^EMON ('\v6palfiuv). 1. Husband of 

Gorge, daughter of CEneus, king of Calydon, in 

^Etolia, whom he succeeded, and father of Thoas, 

yho is hence called Andrcemonides. 2. Son of 

60 



AtfDROGEOS. 

Oxylus, and husband of Dry ope, who was moth- 
er of Amphissus by Apollo 

[ANDHIACA (' A.vdpiaKij : now Andraki), port of 
Myra in Lycia.] 

ANDRISCUS ('A.v6piaKoe), a man of low origin, 
who pretended to be a natural son of Perseus, 
king of Macedonia, was seized by Demetrius, 
king of Syria, and sent to Rome. He escaped 
from Rome, assumed the name of Philip, and 
obtained possession of Macedonia, B.C. 149. He 
defeated the praetor Juventius, but was conquer- 
ed by Csecilius Metellus, and taken to Rome to 
adorn the triumph of the latter, 148. 

ANDROCLES ('Avopo/cXjfc), an Athenian dema- 
gogue and orator. He was an enemy of Alci- 
biades ; and it was chiefly owing to his exertions 
that Alcibiades was banished. After this event, 
Androcles was for a time at the head of the 
democratical party ; but in B.C. 41 1 he was put 
to death by the oligarchical government of the 
Four Hundred. 

[ANDROCLIDES (' A.vdpoK%.et6r]f), a Theban offi- 
cer, one of those who received money from the 
Persians to induce the Thebans to make war on 
Sparta, so as to bring about the recall of Agesi- 
laus from Asia.] 

ANDROCLUS [("AvSpoichof). 1. Son of Codrus. 
leader of a colony of lonians to Asia Minor, and 
founder of Ephesus.] 2. The slave of a Roman 
consular, was sentenced to be exposed to the 
wild beasts in the circus ; but a lion which was 
let loose upon him, instead of springing upon 
his victim, exhibited signs of recognition, and 
began licking him. Upon inquiry, it appeared 
that Androclus had been compelled by the se- 
verity of his master, while in Africa, to run 
away from him. Having one day taken refuge 
in a cave from the heat of the sun, a lion enter- 
ed, apparently in great pain, and, seeing him, 
went up to him and held out his paw. Andro- 
clus found that a large thorn had pierced it, 
which he drew out, and the lion was soon able 
to use his paw again. They lived together for 
some tune in the cave, the lion catering for his 
benefactor. But at last, tired of this savage 
life, Androclus left the cave, was apprehended 
by some soldiers, brought to Rome, and con- 
demned to the wild beasts. He was pardoned, 
and presented with the lion, which he used to 
lead about the city. 

[ANDROCRATES ('\vdpoKpuTr)f), an ancient hero 
of the Platseans, who had a temple consecrated 
to him at Plataeoe.] 

ANDROGEOS ('Av<5p6yewf), son of Minos and 
Pasiphae, or Crete, conquered all his opponents 
in the games of the Panathensea at Athens. 
This extraordinary good luck, however, became 
the cause of his destruction^ though the mode 
of his death is related differently. According 
to some accounts, JEgeus sent the man he dread- 
ed to fight against the Marathonian bull, who 
killed him ; according to others, he was assas- 
sinated by his defeated rivals on his road to 
Thebes, whither he was going to take part in a 
solemn contest. A third account related that 
he was assassinated by JSgeus himself. Minos 
made war on the Athenians in consequence of 
the death of his son, and imposed upon them 
the shameful tribute, from which they were de- 
livered by THESEUS. He was worshipped in 
Attica as a hero, and games were celebrated in 



ANDROMACHE. 



ANDROSTHENES. 



liis honor every year in the Ceramicus. Vid. \ 
Diet, of Ant.,~&Ti. ANDROGEONIA. 

ANDROMACHE ('Ai> dpo/uixri), daughter of Ee'tion, 
king of the Cilician Thebe, and one of the no- 
blest and most amiable female characters in the 
Iliad. Her father and her seven brothers were 
slain by Achilles at the taking of Thebe, and 
her mother, who had purchased her freedom by 
a large ransom, was killed by Diana (Artemis). 
She was married to Hector, by whom she had 
a son, Scamandrius (Astyanax), and for whom 
he entertained the most tender love. On the 
taking of Troy her son was hurled from the 
wall of the city, and she herself fell to the share 
of Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus), the son of Achilles, 
who took her to Epirus, and to whom she bore 
three sons, Molossus, Pielus, and Pergamus. 
She afterward married Helenas, a brother of 
Hector, who ruled over Chaonia, a part of Epi- 
rus, and to whom she bore Cestriuus. After the 
leath of Helenus, she followed her son Perga- 
mus to Asia, where a heroum was erected to her. 

ANDROMACHUS ('Avdpo/ia^of). 1. Ruler of 
Tauromenium in Sicily about B.C. 344, and fa- 
ther of the historian Timaius. 2. Of Crete, 
physician to the Emperor Nero, A.D. 54-68 ; 
was the first person on whom the title of Archi- 
ater was conferred, and was celebrated as the 
inventor of a famous compound medicine and 
antidote called Tlieriaca AndromacJd, which re- 
tains its place in some foreign Pharmacopoeias 
to the present day. Andromachus lias left the 
directions for making this mixture in a Greek 
elegiac poem, consisting of one hundred and 
seventy-four lines, edited by Tidiczeus, Tiguri, 
1607, and Leinker, Norimb., 1754. [3. Son of 
the former, commonly called the Younger, held 
the same office, that of physician to Nero, after 
his father's death. He is generally supposed to 
have been the author of a work on pharmacy in 
three books, of which only a few fragments re- 
main.] 

ANDROMEDA ('Avdpofiedrj), daughter of the 
./Ethiopian king Cepheus and Cassiopea Her 
mother boasted that the beauty of her daughter 
surpassed that of the Nereids, who prevailed 
on Neptune (Poseidon) to visit the country by 
an inundation and a sea-monster. The oracle 
of Ammon promised deliverance if Andromeda 
was given up to the monster; and Cepheus, 
obliged to yield to the wishes of his people, 
chained Andromeda to a rock. Here she was 
found and saved by Perseus, who. slew the mon- 
ster and obtained her as his wife. Andromeda 
had previously been promised to Phiueus, and 
this gave rise to the famous fight of Phiueus 
and Perseus at the wedding, in which the for- 
mer and all his associates were slain. (Ov. t 
Met., v., 1, teg.) After her death, she was 
placed among the stars. 

[ANDRON ('Av6puv), of Halicarnassus, a Greek 
historian, who wrote a work entitled "Lvyyevaicu, 
of which he himself made an epitome. Miiller 
assigns to this Androu a work, vepl dvaiuv, 
which some ascribe to the following. His frag- 
ments are collected by Miiller, Fragm. Jfist. 
G-rac^ voL it, p. 349-352. 2. Of Teos, author 
of a Periplus, perhaps the same with the Teian 
Andron, son of Cebaleus, whom Arrian men- 
tions as a companion of Alexander the Great, 
Mid one of the leaders of the Indian exploration. 



His fragments are given by Miiller, 1. c^ p. 
3489. Two other historians of this name are 
mentioned, one of Alexandrea, author of a 
Chronica, a fragment of which is given by 
Muller, p. 352 ; the other of Ephesus, author 
of a work entitled Tripus : fragments of it are 
given in Muller, p. 347-8. 3. An Athenian, sou 
of Androtion, and father of the orator Androtion.] 

ANDRONICUS ('Avdpovmoe). 1. CYRRIIESTES, 
so called from his native place, Cyrrha, proba- 
bly lived about B.C. 100, and built the octagonal 
tower at Athens, -.vulgarly called "the Tower 
of the Winds." Vid. Diet, of Ant, p. 616, 2d 
ed., where a drawing of the building is given. 
2. Lmus ANDROXICUS, the earliest Roman 
poet, was a Greek, probably a native of Taren- 
turn, and the slave of M. Livius Salinator, by 
whom he was manumitted, and from whom he 
received the Roman name Livius. He obtain- 
ed at Rome a perfect knowledge of the Latin 
language. He wrote both tragedies and come- 
dies in Latin, and we still possess the titles and 
fragments of at least fourteen of his dramas, all 
of which were borrowed from the Greek : his 
first drama was acted in B.C. 240. He also 
wrote an Odyssey in the Saturniau verse and 
Hymns. ( Vid. Diintzer, Livii Andronici Frag- 
menta Collecta, &c., BerL, 1835). 3. Of RHODES. 
a Peripatetic philosopher at Rome, about B.C. 
58. He published a new edition of the works 
of Aristotle and Theophrastus, which formerly 
belonged to the library of Apellicon, and which 
were brought to Rome by Sulla with the rest 
of Apellicon's library in B.C. 84. Tyrannic 
commenced this task, but apparently did not do 
much toward it. The arrangement which An- 
dronicus made of Aristotle's writings seems to 
be the one which forms the basis of our present 
editions. He wrote many commentaries upon 
the works of Aristotle ; but none of these is ex- 
tant, for the paraphrase of the Nicomachean 
Ethics, which is ascribed to Andronicus of 
Rhodes, was written by some one else, and 
may have been the work of Andronicus Callistus 
of Thessalonica, who was professor in Italy in 
the latter half of the fifteenth century. 

ANDROPOLIS ('A.vdpuv iroXif : now Chabur), a 
city of Lower Egypt, on the western bank of 
the Canopic branch of the Nile, was the capital 
of the Nomos Andropolites, and, under the Ro- 
mans, the station of a legion. 

ANDROS ('Avopoj- : "AvApioc : now Andro), the 
most northerly and one of the largest islands of 
the Cyclades, southeast of Euboea, twenty-one 
miles long and eight broad, early attained import- 
ance, and colonized Acanthus and Stagira about 
B.C. 654. It was taken by the Persians in their 
invasion of Greece, was afterward subject to the 
Athenians, at a later time to the Macedonians, 
and at length to Attalus IIL, king of Pergamus, 
on whose death (B.C. 133) it passed, with the 
rest of his dominions, to the Romans. It was 
celebrated for its wine, whence the whole isl 
and was regarded as sacred to Bacchus (Diony- 
sus). Its chief town, also called Andros, con- 
tained a celebrated temple of Bacchus (Diony- 
sus), and a harbor of the name of Gaurcleon, 
and a Fort Gaurion. 

[ANDROSTHENES ('Avopoffftevqf). of Thasus, 
one of Alexander's admirals, sailed with Near- 
chus, and was also sent by Alexander to ex 
61 



ANDROTION. 



ANNALIS. 



plore the coast of the Persian Gul He -wrote 
au account of bis voyage, and also a T^f 'Ivdi- 



ANDROTION ('Avdporiuv). 1. An Athenian 
orator, and a contemporary of Demosthenes, 
against -whom the latter deliveped an oration, 
which is still extant 2. The author of au At- 
this, or a work on the history of Attica. [Frag- 
ments published by Siebehs with Philochorus, 
Lips., 1811, and by Miiller in his Fragm. Hist. 
Grac., voL i., p. 371-377.] 

ANEMORKA, afterward ANEMCLKA ('Avepupeta, 
'\vepuheia; ' Kvefiupievs), a town on a hill on 
the borders of Phocis and Delphi. 

ANEMUEIUM ('A.vtpovpiov : cow Anamur, with 
ruius), a town and promontory at the southern 
point of Cilicia, opposite to Cyprus. 

[ANGELION (' A.fje'h'iuv), au artist always men- 
tit >ued in connection with Teetzeus: they were 
pupils of Dipcenus and Scyllis, and flourished 
about 548 B.C.] 

ANGEEOXA or ANGEEOXIA, a Roman goddess, 
respecting whom we have different statements, 
some representing her as the goddess of silence, 
others as the goddess of anguish and fear ; that 
is, the goddess who not only produces this state 
of miud, but also relieves men from it. Her 
statue stood in the temple of Yolupia, with her 
mouth bound and sealed up. Her festival, An- 
geronalia, was celebrated yearly on the twelfth 
of December. 

ANGITES ('Ayytr^f : now Anghista), a river 
in Macedonia, flowing into the Strymon. 

ANGITIA or ANGUITIA, a goddess worshipped 
by the Mursians and Marrubians, who lived 
about the shores of the Lake Fucinus. 

AXGLI or ANGLII, a German people of the 
race of the Suevi, on the left bank of the Elbe, 
afterward passed over with the Saxons iuto 
Britain, which was called after them England. 
Vid. SAXONES. A portion of them appear to 
have settled in Angcln in Schleswig. 

AXGRIVARII, a German people dwelling on 
both sides of the Visurgis (now Weser), separa- 
ted from the Cherusci by an agger or mound of 
earth. The name is usually derived from An- 
qern, that is, meadows. They were generally 
on friendly terms with the Romans, but rebelled 
in A.D. 16, and were subdued. Toward the end 
of the first century they extended their terri- 
tories southward, and, in conjunction with the 
Chamavi, took possession of part of the terri- 
tory of the Bructeri, south and east of the Lippe, 
the Angaria or Engern of the Middle Ages. 

AxicExus [PAnScjTOf). 1. Son of Hercules, 
by Hebe, after his admission to the abode of the 
gods.] 2. A freedman of Nero, and formerly 
his tutor, was employed by the emperor in the 
execution of many of his crimes : he was after- 
ward banished to Sardinia, where he died. 

AXICIUS GALLUS. Vid. GALLUS. 

[Axicius, C., a senator and friend of Cicero, 
whose villa was near the latter's ; mentioned 
in the letters of Cicero.] 

ANIGRUS ('Aviypof : now Mavro-Potamo), a 
small river in the Triphylian Elis, the Minye'ius 
(Mivwyfof) of Homer (77., xi., 721), rises in Mount 
Lapithas, and flows into the Ionian Sea near 
Samicum : its waters have a disagreeable smell, 
and its fish are not eatable. Near Samicum 
was a cave sacred to the NympM Anigrides 
62 



de?), where persons with 
cutaneous diseases were cured by the waters 
of the river. 

ANIO, anciently AMEN (hence, gen., AniOnis : 
now Tevcrone or L'Aniene), a river, the most 
celebrated of the tributaries of the Tiber, rises 
in the mountains of the Hernici, near Treba 
(now Trevi), flows first northwest and then 
southwest through narrow mountain-valleys, re- 
ceives the brook Digentia (now Liccnza), above 
Tibur, forms at Tibur beautiful waterfalls (hence 
prceceps Anio, Hor., Carm, i., 7, 13), and flows, 
forming the boundary between Latium and the 
hind of the Sabines, into the Tiber, three miles 
above Rome, where the town of Antemufe stood. 
The water of the Anio was conveyed to Rome 
by two aqueducts, the Anio vetus and Anio no- 
vus. Vid. Diet, of Ant., p. 110, 111, 2d ed. 

[ANITORGIS or ANISTORGIS, a city of Hispania 
Baetica, near which a battle was fought between 
Hasdrubal and the Scipios.] 

Axius ('A.vtof), son of Apollo by Creiisa, or 
Rhceo, and priest of Apollo at Delos. By Do- 
rippe he had three daughters, (Euo, Spernio, 
and Elais, to whom Bacchus (Dionysus) gave 
the power of producing at will any quantity of 
wine, corn, and oil, whence they were called 
(Enotropce. When the Greeks, on their expedi- 
tion to Troy, landed in Delos, Auius endeavored 
to persuade them to stay with him for nine 
years, as it was decreed by fate that they should 
not take Troy until the tenth year ; and he 
promised, with the help of his three daughters, 
to supply them with all they wanted during that 
period. After the fall of Troy, JDueas was 
kindly received by Anius. 

ANNA, daugter of Belus and sister of Dido. 
After the death of the latter, she fled from 
Carthage to Italy, where she was kindly re- 
ceived by ><Eneas. Here she excited the jeal- 
ousy of Lavinia, and being warned in a dream 
by Dido, she fled and threw herself iuto the 
River Numicius. Henceforth she was wor- 
shipped as the nymph of that river, under the 
name of ANNA PERENNA. There are various 
other stories respecting the origin of her wor- 
ship. Ovid relates that she was considered by 
some as Luna, by others as Themis, by others 
as lo, daughter of Inachus, by others as the 
Anna of Bovillte, who supplied the plebs with 
food, when they seceded to the Mons Sacer. 
(Ov., Fast., iii., 523.) Her festival was cele- 
brated on the 1 oth of March. She was, in reali- 
ty, an old Italian divinity, who was regarded as 
the giver of life, health, and plenty, as the god- 
dess whose powers were most manifest at the 
return of spring, when her festival was cele- 
brated. The identification of this goddess with 
Anna, the sister of Dido, is undoubtedly of late 
origin. 

ANNA COMNENA, daughter of Alexis I. Corn- 
nenus (reigned A.D. 1081-1118), wrote the life 
of her father Alexis in fifteen books, which is 
one of the most interesting and valuable his- 
tories of the Byzantine literature. Editions : 
By Possinus, Paris, 1651 ; by Schopcn, Bonn, 
1839, Svo. 

ANNALIS, a cognomen of the Yillia Gens, first 
acquired by L. Villius, tribune of the plebs, in 
B.C. 179, because he introduced a law fixing 
the year (annus) at wliich it was lawful for a 



ANNEIUS. 



ANTEVORTA. 



person to be a candidate for each of the public 
offices. 

ANNEIUS, M., legate of M. Cicero during his 
government of Cilicia, B.C. 51. 

[ANNIA, wife of L. Cinna, and, after his 
death, of M. Piso Calpurnianus.] 

AXNIANUS, T., a Roman poet, lived in the time 
of Trajan and Hadrian, and wrote Fescennine 
verses. 

AXXICERIS ('AvviKepie), a. Cyrenaic philoso- 
pher, of whom the ancients have left us contra- 
dictory accounts. Many modern writers have 
supposed that there were two philosophers of 
this name, the one contemporary with Plato, 
whom he is said to have ransomed for twenty 
minae from Dionysius of Syracuse, and the other 
with Alexander the Great. 

Axxius CIMBEE. Vid. CIMBEK. 

ANXIUS MILO. Vid. MILO. 

AXSEE, a poet of the Augustan age, a friend 
of the triumvir Marcus Antonius, and one of the 
detractors of Virgil. Hence Virgil plays upon 
his name (Eel, ix., 36). Ovid (Trist^ ii., 435) 
calls him procox. 

ANSIBAEII or AMPSIVAEII, a German people, 
originally dwelt south of the Bructeri, between 
the sources of the Ems and the Weser : driven 
out of their country by the Chauci in the reign 
of Nero (A.D. 59), they asked the Romans for 
permission to settle hi the Roman territory be- 
tween the Rhine and the Yssel, but when their 
request was refused they wandered into the in- 
terior of the country to the Cherusci, and were 
at length extirpated, according to Tacitus. We 
find their name, however, among the Franks in 
the time of Julian. 

ANT^EOPOLIS ('AvratoTroXif : near Gau-el-Ke- 
bir), an ancient city of Upper Egypt (the The- 
bais), on the east side of the Nile, but at some 
distance from the river, was the capital of the 
Nomos Antaeopolites, and one of the chief seats 
of the worship of Osiris. 

ANTICS ('Avratof). 1. Son of Neptune (Po- 
seidon) and Ge, a mighty giant and wrestler in 
Libya, whose strength was invincible so long 
as he remained in contact with his mother 
earth. The strangers who came to his country 
were compelled to wrestle with him ; the con- 
quered were slain, and out of their skulls he 
built a house to Neptune (Poseidon). Hercules 
discovered the source of his strength, lifted him 
from the earth, and crushed him in the air. 
The tomb of Anteus (Anted collis), which form- 
ed a moderate hill in the shape of a man stretch- 
ed out at full length, was shown near the town 
of Tingis in Mauretania down to a late period. 
2. [A companion of Turnus, slain by ^Eneas.l 

ANTAGORAS ('Avrayopaf), of Rhodes, flourish- 
ed about B.C. 270, a friend of Antigonus Gona- 
tas and a contemporary of Aratus. He wrote 
an epic poem entitled lltebals, and also epi- 
grams, of which specimens are still extant [in 
the Greek Anthology.] 

AXTALCIDAS ('AvraA/aeJaf), a Spartan, son of 
Leon, is chiefly known by the celebrated treaty 
concluded with Persia in B.C. 387, usually called 
the peace of Antalcidas, since it was the fruit 
of his diplomacy. According to this treaty, all 
the Greek cities in Asia Minor, together with 
Clazomense and Cyprus, were to belong to the 
Persian king- the Athenians were allowed to 



retain only Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros ; and 
all the other Greek cities were to be hide- 
pendent. 

ANTAXDER ("Avravdpof). 1. Brother of Agath- 
ocles, king of Syracuse, wrote the life of hk 
brother. [A fragment, preserved by Diodorus, is 
given by Miiller, Frag. Hist. Graze., voL ii., p. 
383. 2. General of the Messenians, and com- 
mander of cavalry in the first Messenian war 
against the Lacedaemonians.] 

AXTAXDRUS ("Avravdpof : 'Avravdpio? : now 
Antandro), a city of Great Mysia, on the Adra- 
myttian Gulf, at the foot of Mount Ida ; an 
^Eolian colony. Virgil represents ^Eneas as 
touching here after leaving Troy (jn., iii., 106). 

ANTAEADUS ('Avrupadog : now Tortosa), a 
town on the northern border of Phoenicia, op- 
posite the island of Aradus. 

ANTEA or AXTIA ("Avreia), daughter of the 
Lycian king lobates, wife of Prcetus of Argos. 
She is also called Stheuoboea. Respecting her 
love for Bellerophontes, see BELLEEOPHOXTES. 

[AXTEIUS, P., appointed governor of Syria 55 
A.D. On account of the favor in which he stood 
with Agrippiua, he was an object of hatred to 
Nero: being accused of a conspiracy, he took 
poison, but, finding this too slow, he opened his 
veins.] 

ANTEMXJE (Autemnas, -atis), an ancient Sa- 
bine town at the junction of the Anio and the 
Tiber, destroyed by the Romans in the earliest 
times. 

ANTEXOE ('AvTqvup). 1. A Trojan, son of 
^Esyetes and Cleomestra, and husband of The- 
ano. According to Homer, he was one of the 
wisest among the elders at Troy : he received 
Menelaus and Ulysses into his house when they 
came to Troy as ambassadors, and advised his 
fellow-citizens to restore Helen to Menelaus. 
Thus he is represented as a traitor to his coun- 
try, and when sent to Agamemnon, just before 
the taking of Troy, to negotiate peace, he con- 
certed a plan of delivering the city, and even 
the palladium, into the hands of the Greeks. 
On the capture of Troy, Antenor was spared by 
the Greeks. His history after this event is re- 
lated differently. Some writers relate that he 
founded a new kingdom at Troy ; according to 
others, he embarked with Mcuelaus and Helen, 
was carried to Libya, and settled at Cyrene ; 
while a third account states that he went with 
the Heneti to Thrace, and thence to the west- 
ern coast of the Adriatic, where the foundation 
of Patavium and several other towns is ascribed 
to him. The sons and descendants of Anteuor 
were called AtitenSrldce. 2. Son of Euphranor, 
an Athenian sculptor, made the first bronze 
statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton, which 
the Athenians set up in the Ceramlcus, B.C. 
509. These statues were carried off to Susa by 
Xerxes, and their place was supplied by others 
made either by Callias or by Praxiteles. After 
the conquest of Persia, Alexander the Great 
sent the statues back to Athens, where they 
were again set up in the Ccramicus. 

ANTEROS. Vid. EROS. 

AXTEVOETA, also called POERIMA or PEORSA, 
together with Postvorta, are described either 
aa the two sisters or companions of the Roman 
goddess Carmenta; but originally they were 
only two attributes of the one goddess Car- 
63 



ANTHEA, 



ANTIGONUS. 



menta, the former describing her knowledge of 
the future, and the latter that of the past, anal- 
ogous to the two-hended Janus. 

[ANTUEA ('AvOeia), a city of Messenia, men- 
'doued by Homer (II., 9, 151); the later TJiuria, 
>r, according to others, identical with Asine.] 

AXTUKDOX ('Avdjjduv : 'Avdqdoviof : now Lu- 
kisi /). 1. A town of Boeotia with a harbor, on the 
coast of the Eubcean Sea, at the foot of Mount 
Messapius, said to have derived its name from 
a nymph Anthedon, or from Anthedon, son of 
Glaucus, who was here changed into a god 
(Ov., Jfet n vii., 232; xiii., 905.) The inhabit- 
ants lived chiefly by fishing. [2. A sea-port of 
Argolis on the Saronic Gulf, near the borders 
of Corinthia, called by Ptolemy 'AQijvaiuv fajujv. 
3. A harbor in the southern part of Palestine, 
afterward called 'Aypimridf.] 

[ANTHELA ('Avdt}hri), a village of Thessaly, be- 
tween the entrance of the Asopus into the Ma- 
liac Gulf and Thermopylae, containing a temple 
of Ceres : it was one of the places of meeting 
of the Aniphictyonic council] 

ANTIIEMIUS, emperor of the West, A.D. 467- 
472, was killed ou the capture of Rome by Ri- 
cimer, who made Olybrius emperor. 

ANTHEMUS ('Avdepovf -ovvrjf : 'Avdepovoioff), 
a Macedonian town in Chalcidice. 

AXTHEMUSIA or ANTHEMUS ('AvOefiovaia), a 
city of Mesopotamia, southwest of Edessa, and 
a little east of the Euphrates. The surround- 
ing district was called by the same name, mit 
was generally included under the name of Os- 
RHOENE. 

AXTHENE ('Avdjjv?)'), a place in Cynuria, in the 
Peloponnesus. 

[ANTHERMUS, a statuary of Chios, father of 
Bupalus and Athenis: as the name is differently 
given in different MSS., Sillig has proposed Ar- 
chennus instead of Anthermus. 

[ANTHEUS ('Avdeve), a Trojan, a companion 



ANTHYLLA ("AvdvTiha), & considerable city of 
Lower Egypt, near the mouth of the Canopic 
branch of the Nile, below Naucratis, the reve- 
nues of which, under the Persians, were as- 
signed to the wife of the satrap of Egypt, to 
provide her with shoes. 

ANTIAS, Q. VALERIUS, a Roman historian, 
flourished about B.C. 80, and wrote the history 
of Rome from the earliest times down to those 
of Sulla. He is frequently referred to by Livy, 
who speaks of him as the most lying of all the 
annalists, and seldom mentions his name with- 
out terms of reproach : there can be little doubt 
that Livy's judgment is correct. [The frag- 
ments of his work are collected by Krause in 
his Vita et Fragm. veterum Hist. Rvm., Berlin, 
1833, p. 271-88.] 

A.VTICLEA ('Av-iK^.eia), daughter of Autolycus, 
wife of Laertes, and mother of Ulysses, died of 
grief at the long absence of her eon. It is said 
that, before marrying Laertes, she lived on ul- 
timate terms with Sisyphus ; whence Euripides 
calls Ulysses a son of Sisyphus. 

ANTICLIDES ('AvTiK^sidric), of Athens, lived 
after the time of Alexander the Great, and was 
the author of several works, the most import- 
ant of which was entitled Nosti (Noffrot), con- 
taining an account of the return of the Greeks 
from their mythical expeditions. 
64 



[ANTICRAGCS ('AvTiKpayof : now Soumbourtu), 
a lofty and steep mountain range in Lycia, run- 
ning in a northeast direction along the coast 
of the Sinus Glaucus.] 

[ANTICRATES ('AvTiKpun/f), a Spartan, who 
claimed the merit of having dealt the blow that 
proved fatal to Epaminondas at Mantinea.] 

ANTICYRA, more anciently ANTICIRRHA, ('Av- 
r'lKippa or 'Avrinvpa : 'AvriKvpev^, 'AvriKvpaiof) 
1. (Now Aspra Spitia), a town in Phocis, with 
a harbor on a peninsula on the western side of 
the Sinus Anticyranus, a bay of the Crissaean 
Gulf, called in ancient times Cyparissus, and 
celebrated for its hellebore. It continued to be 
a place of importance under the Romans. 2. 
A town in Thessaly, on the Spercheus, not far 
from its mouth. Both towns were celebrated 
for their hellebore, the chief remedy in antiquity 
for madness ; hence the proverb, AvriKippas ae 
6el, when a person acted senselessly, and Jfa- 
viget Anticyram. (Hor., Sat., ii, 3, 166.) 

ANTIGENES ('AvTiyi-vw), a general of Alexao 
der the Great, on whose death he obtained tha 
satrapy of Susiana, and espoused the side of 
Eumenes. On the defeat of the latter in B.C. 
316, Antigenes fell into the hands of his enemy 
Antigonus, and was burned alive by hnn. 

ANTIGENIDAS ('Avrr/EVidaf), a Theban, a cele- 
brated flute-player, and a poet, lived in the time 
of Alexander the Great. 

ANTIGONE ('Avriyovrt). 1. Daughter of CEdipus 
by his mother Jocaste, and sister of Ismene, and 
of Eteocles and Polynices. In the tragic story 
of QSdipns, Antigone appears as a noble maiden, 
with a truly heroic attachment to her father 
and brothers. When CEdipus had blinded him- 
self, and was obliged to quit Thebes, he was 
accompanied by Antigone, who remained with 
him till he died in Colouus, and then returned 
to Thebes. After her two brothers had killed 
each other in battle, and Creon, the king of 
Thebes, would not allow Polynices to be buried, 
Antigone alone defied the tyrant, and buried the 
body of her brother. Creon thereupon ordered 
her to be shut up in a subterranean cave, where 
she killed herself. Haemon, the son of Creon, 
who was in love with her, killed himself by her 
side. [2. Daughter of the Trojan king Laome- 
don, changed by Juno (Hera) into a stork, be- 
cause she presumed to vie with her in the beau- 
ty of her hair. 3. (Historical.) Daughter of 
Cassander, second wife of Ptolemy Lagus, and 
mother of Berenice.] 

ANTIGONEA or -IA and -IA ('Aimywem, 'Avn- 
-yovid). 1. (Now Tepeleni), a town in Epirus 
(Ulyricum), at the junction of a tributary with 
the Aous, and near a narrow pass of the Acro- 
ceraunian Mountains. 2. A Macedonian town 
in Chalcidice. 3. Vid. MANTINEA. 4. A town 
on the Orontes in Syria, founded by Antigonus as 
the capital of his empire (B.C. 306), but most 
of its inhabitants were transferred by Seleucus 
to ANTIOCHIA, which was built in its neighbor- 
flood. 5. A town in Bithynia, afterward Niccea. 
6. A town in the Troas. Vid. ALEXANDREA, 
No. 2. 

[ANTIGONIS ('AvTtyovif), an Athenian tribe, so 
called in honor of Antigonus, father of Deme 
trius.] 

ANTIGONITS ('Avrtyovof). 1. King of ASIA, 
surnamed the One-eyed son of Philip of Elv 



ANTiLIBANUS. 

rniotis, aiid father of Demetrius Poliorcetes by 
Stratonlce. He was one of the generals of 
Alexander the Great, and iii the division of the 
empire after the death of the latter (B.C. 323), 
he received the provinces of the Greater Phryg- 
ia, Lycia, and Pamphylia. On the death of 
the regent Antipater in 319, he aspired to the 
sovereignty of Asia. In 316 he defeated and 
put Eumenes to death, after a struggle of near- 
ly three years. From 315 to 311 he carried on 
war, with varying success, against Seleucus, 
Ptolemy, Cassander, and Lysimachus. By the 
peace made in 311, Antigouus was allowed to 
have the government of all Asia ; but peace did 
not last more than a year. After the defeat of 
Ptolemy's fleet in 306, Antigonus assumed the 
title of king, and his example was followed by 
Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Seleucus. In the 
same year, Antigonus invaded Egypt, but was 
compelled to retreat His son Demetrius car- 
ried on the war with success agaiiist Cassander 
in Greece ; but he was compelled to return to 
Asia to the assistance of his father, against 
whom Cassander, Seleucus, Ptolemy, and Ly- 
simachus had formed a fresh confederacy. An- 
tigonus and Demetrius were defeated by Lysim- 
achus at the decisive battle of Ipsus in Phryg- 
ia, in 301. Antigouus fell in the battle in the 
eighty-first year of his age. 2. GONATAS, son 
of Demetrius Poliorcetes, and grandson of the 
preceding. He assumed the title of King of 
Macedonia, after his father's death in Asia in 
B.C. 283, but he did not obtain possession of 
the throne till 277. He was driven out of his 
k'ngdom by Pyrrhus of Epirus in _273, but re- 
covered it in the following year : he was again 
expelled by Alexander, the son of Pyrrhus, and 
again recovered his dominions. He attempted 
to prevent the formation of the Achjean League, 
and died in 239. He was succeeded by Deme- 
trius IL His surname Gonatas is usually de- 
rived from Gonnos or Gonni in Thessaly ; but 
some think that Gonatas is a Macedonian word, 
signifying an iron plate protecting the knee. 
3. Dosox (so called because he was always 
about to give, but never did,) son of Demetrius 
of Cyrene, and grandson of Demetrius Polior- 
cetcs. On the death of Demetrius II. in B.C. 
229, he was left guardian of his son Philip, but 
he married the widow of Demetrius, and became 
King of Macedonia himself. He supported Ara- 
tiis and the Achaean League against Cleomenes, 
king of Sparta, whom he defeated at Sellasia in 
2'21, and took Sparta. On his return to Mace- 
donia, he defeated the Illyrians, and died a few 
days afterward, 220. 4. King of JUDAEA, son 
t Aristobulus IL, was placed on the throne by 
the Parthians in B.C. 40, but was taken prison- 
er by Sosius, the lieutenant of Antony, and was 
put to death by the hitter in 37. 5. Of CARYS- 
TUS, lived at Alexandrea about B.C. 250, and 
wrote a work, still extant, entitled Historic Mi- 
rabiles, wliicli is only of value from its preserv- 
ing extracts from other and better works. 
Editions: By J. Beckmann, Lips., 1791, and by 
Westermanu in his Paradoxographi, Bruns., 
1839. 

ANTIUBANUS ('\vTt%.t6avof : now Jcbcl-es- 

S7 ikh or Anti-Lebanon), a mountain on the 

confines of Palestine, Phoenicia, and Syria, 

parallel to Libauus (now Lebanon), which it ex- 

5 



ANTIOCHIA. 

; ceeds in height. Its highest summit is Mount 
I Hermon (also Jebel-es-Sheikh). 

ANTILOCHUS ('AvrtAo^of), son of Nestor and 
Anaxibia or Eurydice, accompanied his father 
to Troy, ar.d distinguished himself by fcis brav- 
ery. He was slain before Troy by Kernnon the 
./Ethiopian, and was buried by tho side of his 
friends Achilles and Patroclus. 

ANTIMACHUS ('AvTifiaxoc). J. A Trojan, per- 
suaded his countrymen not to surrender Helen 
to the Greeks. He had three sons, two of whom 
were put to death by Menelaus. 2. Of Claroa 
or Colophon, a Greek epic and elegiac poet, was 
probably a native of Claros, but was called a Col- 
ophonian, because Claros belonged to Colophon. 
(Clarius poeta, Ov., Trist., i., 6, 1.) He flourish- 
ed toward the end of the Peloponnesian war : 
his chief work was an epic poem of great length 
called Thebais Qr]6ai Antimachus was one 
of the forerunners of the poets of the Alexan- 
drine school, who wrote more for the learned 
than for the public at large. The Alexandrine 
grammarians assigned to him the second place 
among the epic poets, and the Emperor Hadrian 
preferred his works even to those of Homer. 
He also wrote a celebrated elegiac poem called 
Lyde, which was the name of his wife or mis- 
tress, as well as other works. There was like- 
wise a tradition that he made a recension of the 
text of the Homeric poems. [His fragments 
have been collected and published by Schellen- 
berg, Halle, 1786 ; some additional fragments 
in Stoll's Animadversiones in Antimachi Fragm^ 
Getting., 1840 ; the epic fragments in Diintzer's 
Fragm. der JEpisch. Poes. der Griech. bit avf Alex- 
ander, p. 99.] 

[ANTIMCERUS ('AvTifjoipotf), a sopliist of Mende 
in Thrace, a pupil of Protagoras, mentioned by' 
Plato (Protag., 315, A.)] 

ANTINOOPOLIS ('Avrtvoov Kohif or 'AvTtvoeia : 
ruins at Enseneh), a splendid city, built by Ha- 
drian, in memory of his favorite AXTINOUS, on 
the eastern bank of the Nile, upon the site of the 
ancient Besa, in Middle Egypt (Heptanomis). 
It was the capital of the Nomos Autinoites, and 
had an oracle of the goddess Besa. 

ANTINOUS ('Avrivoof). 1. Son of Euplthes 
of Ithaca, and one of the suitors of Penelope, 
was slain by Ulysses. 2, A youth of extraor- 
dinary beauty, born at Claudiopolis in Bithyuia, 
was the favorite of the Emperor Hadrian, and 
his companion in all his journeys. He was 
drowned in the Nile, A.D. 122, whether acci- 
dentally or on purpose, is uncertain. The grief 
of the emperor knew no bounds. He enrolled 
Antinous among the gods, caused a temple to 
be erected to him at Mantinea, and founded the 
city of AXTIXOOPOLIS in honor of him. A large 
number of works of art of all kinds were exe- 
cuted in his honor, and many of them are still 
extant 

ANTIOCHIA and -KA ('Avrto^eia : 'Avrto;fet!j 
and -6x ci vf> fcm. 'Avrto^/f and -oxiova, Antio- 
chenus), the name of several cities of Asia, six- 
teen of which are said to Jnave been built b^ 
Seleucus L Nicator, and named in honor of hit 
father Antiochus. 1. A. EPIDAPHXES, or AD 
DAFHNEM, or AD ORONTEXI ('A. eni Au0v? : BO 
called from a neighboring grove: 'A. errl Q(*n> 
rg : ruins at Antakia), the capital of the Greek 
kingdom of Syria, and long the chief city of 
65 



ANTIOCHIA, 



ANTIOCHUS. 



Asia, and perhaps of the world, stood on the left 
bank of the Orontcs, about twenty miles (gcog.) 
from the sea, in a beautiful valley, about ten miles 
long and five or six broad, inclosed by the ranges 
of Amanys on the northwest, and Casius on the 
southeast It was built by Seleucus Nicator, I 
about B.C 300, and peopled chiefly from the 
neighboring city of ANTIOOMA. It flourished so 
rapidly as soon to need enlargement ; and other j 
tdoitiona were again made to it by Seleucus II. ; 
Callinicus (about B.C. 240), and Antiochus IV. ! 
Epiphanes (about B.C. 170). Hence it obtained ' 
the name of Tetrapolis (rerpuTro/Uf, i. e. four 
cities). Besides being the capital of the greatest 
kingdom of the world, it had a considerable com- 
merce, the Orontes being navigable up to the 
city, and the high road between Asia and Europe j 
passing through it. Under the Romans it was 
. (he residence of the proconsuls of Syria ; it was 
favored and visited by emperors ; and was made 
a colonia with the Jus Italicum by Antoninus 
Pius. It was one of the earliest strongholds of \ 
the Christian faith ; the first place where the 
Christian name was used (Acts, xi., 26) ; the 
centre of missionary efforts in the Apostolic 
age ; and the see of one of the four chief bishops, 
who were called Patriarchs. Though far inferior 
to Alexandrea as a seat of learning, yet it 
derived some distinction in this respect from the 
teaching of Libanius and other Sophists ; and 
its eminence in art is attested by the beautiful 
gems and medals still found among its ruins. 
It was destroyed by the Persian King Chosroes 
(A.D. 640), but rebuilt by Justinian, who gave it 
the new name The'upolis (Qeovxofac). The 
ancient walls which still surround the insignifi- 
cant modern town, are probably those built 
by Justinian. The name of Antiochia was 
also given to the surrounding district, i. ft, tjhe 
northwestern part of Syria, which bordered . 
upon Cilicia. 2. A. AD M^EANDRUM ('A. irpdf \ 
Maiuvdpu : ruins near Yenishehr), a city of 
Caria, on the Mseander, built by Antiochus I. 
Soter, on the site of the old city of Pythopolis. 
3. A, PISIDI^E or AD PISIDIAM ('A. Tlioidiaf or 
;r/>df Tlioidia), a considerable city on the borders 
of Phrygia Paroreios and Pisidia; built by 
colonists from Magnesia ; declared a free city by 
the Romans after their victory over Antiochus 
the Great (B.C. 189); made a colony under 
Augustus, and called Caesarea. It was celebra- 
ted for the worsliip and the great temple of 
Men Araeus (Mr/v 'Ap/eatof, the Phrygian Moon- 
god), which the Romans suppressed. 4. A. MAR- 
C.IANA ('A. Mapytav?? : now Meru S/tah-Jehan ?\ a 
city in the Persian province of Margiana, on the 
River Margus, founded by Alexander, and at 
first called Alexandrea ; destroyed by the bar- 
barians, rebuilt by Antiochus I. Soter, and 
called Antiochia. It was beautifully situated, 
and was surrounded by a wall seventy stadia 
(about eight miles) in circuit. Among the less 
important cities of the name were : (6.) A. AD 
TAURUM in Comma{,-ene ; (6.) A. AD CRAGUM ; and 
(7.) A. AD PYRAMUM, in Cilicia. The following 
Antiochs are better known by other names : A. 
AD SARUM(VU ADANA) ; A/CHARACENES (aid. 
CHARAX) ; A. CALLIERHOE (vid. EDESSA) ; A. AD 
IIippUM (vid. GADARA) ; A. MIGDOXLA (aid. NISI- 
BIS) ; in Cilicia (vid. TARSUS) ; in Caria or Lydia 
(vid. TRALLES). 
66 



Avrloxof). 1. Kings of Syria. 
1. SOTER (reigned B.C. 280-261), was 'the son 
of Seleucus I, the founder of the Syrian king- 
dom of the Selcucidas. He married his step- 
mother Stratouice, with whom he fell violently 
in love, and whom his father surrendered to 
him. He fell in battle against the Gauls in 261. 
2. THEOS (B.C. 261-246), son and successor 
of No. 1. The Milesians gave him his surname 
of Theos, because he delivered them from their 
tyrant, Timarchus. He carried on war with 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, King of Egypt, which 
was brought to a close by his putting away 
his wife Laodice, and marrying Berenice, the 
daughter of Ptolemy. After the death of Ptole- 
my, he recalled Laodice ; but, in revenge for the 
insult she had received, she caused Antioohus 
and Berenice tr be murdered. During the reign 
of Autiochus, Arsaces founded the Parthian 
empire (25f). and Theodotus established an 
independent kingdom in Bactria. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Seleucus Callinicus. His 
younger son Antiochus Hierax also assumed 
the crown, and carried on war some years with 
his brother. Vid. SELEUCUS IL 3. The GREAT 
(B.C. 223-187), second son of Seleucus Callini- 
cus, succeeded to the throne on the death of 
his brother Seleucus Ceraunus, when he was 
only in his fifteenth year. After defeating (220) 
Molon, satrap of Media, and his brother Alex- 
ander, satrap of Persis, who had attempted to 
make themselves independent, he carried on 
war against Ptolemy Philopator, king of Egypt, 
in order to obtain Coele-Syria, Phoenicia, and 
Palestine, but was obliged to cede these prov- 
inces to Ptolemy, in consequence of his defeat 
at the battle of Raphia near Gaza, in 217. He 
next marched against Achseus, who had revolted 
in Asia Minor, and whom he put to death, 
when he fell into his hands in 214. Vid. ACHJEVS 
Shortly after this he was engaged for seven 
years (212-205) in an attempt to regain the 
eastern provinces of Asia, which had revolted 
during the reign of Antiochus III. ; but though 
he met with great success, he found it hopeless 
to effect the subjugation of the Parthian and 
Bactrian kingdoms, and accordingly concluded 
a peace with them. In 205 he renewed his wai 
against Egypt with more success, and in 198 
conquered Palestine and Coale-Syria, which he 
afterward gave as a dowry with his daughter 
Cleopatra upon her marriage with Ptolemy 
Epiphanes. In J96 he crossed over into Europe, 
and took possession of the Thracian Chersonese. 
This brought him into contact with the 
Romans, who commanded him to restore the 
Chersonese to the Macedonian king; but he 
refused to comply with their demand, in 
which resolution he was strengthened by Han- 
nibal, who arrived at his court in 195. Hanni- 
bal urged him to invade Italy without loss of 
time ; but Antiochus did not follow his advice, 
and it was not till 192 that he crossed over into 
Greece. In 191 he was defeated by the Romans 
at Thermopylae, and compelled to return to 
Asia; his fleet was also vanquished in two 
engagements. In 1 90 he was again defeated by 
the Romans under L. Scipio at Mount Sipylus, 
near Magnesia, and compelled to sue for peace, 
which was granted in 188, on condition of hia 
ceding all his dominions east of Mount Taurus 



ANTIOCHUS. 

paying -fifteen thousand Euboic talents -within 
twelve years, giving up his elephants and ships 
of war, and surrendering the Roman enemies ; 
but he allowed Hannibal to escape. In order 
to raise the money to pay the Romans, he at- 
tacked a wealthy temple in Elymais, but was 
killed by the people of the place (187). He was 
succeeded by his son Seleucus Philopator. 4. 
EPIPHANES (B.C. 175-164), son of Autiochus 
IIL, was given in hostage to the Romans in 
188, and was released from captivity in 175 
through his brother Seleucus Philopator, whom 
he succeeded in the same year. He earned on j 
war against Egypt from 171-168 with great suc- 
cess in order to obtain Ccele-Syria and Pales- 
tine, which had been given as a dowry with his 
eister, and he was preparing to lay siege to 
Alexandrea in 168, when the Romans compelled 
him to retire. He endeavored to root out the 
Jewish religion and to introduce the worship 
of the Greek divinities ; but this attempt led to 
a rising of the Jewish people, under Mattathias 
and his heroic sons the Maccabees, w r hich An- 
tiochus was unable to put down. He attempt- 
ed to plunder a temple in Elymais in 164, but 
he was repulsed, and died shortly afterward in 
a state of raving madness, which the Jews and 
Greeks equally attributed to his sacrilegious 
crimes. His subjects gave him the name of 
Epimanfs ('' the madman") in parody of Epiph- 
anes. 5. EUPATOR (B.C. 164-162), son and suc- 
cessor of Epiphanes. was nine years old at his 
father's death, and reigned under the guardian- 
ship of Lysias. He was dethroned and put to 
leath by Demetrius Soter, the son of Seleucus 
Philopator, who had hitherto lived at Rome as 
i hostage. 6. THEOS, son of Alexander Balas. 
He was brought forward as a claimant to the 
irown in 144, against Demetrius Nicator by 
Tryphou, but he was murdered by the latter, 
who ascended the throne himself in 142. 7. 
SIDKTES (B.C. 137-128), so called from Side in 
Pamphyh'a, where he was brought up, younger 
son of Demetrius Soter, succeeded Tryphon. 
He married Cleopatra, wife of his elder brother 
Demetrius Nicator, who was a prisoner with 
the Parthians. He carried on war against the 
Parthians, at first with success, but was after- 
ward defeated and slain in battle in 128. 8. 
GRYPUS, or Hook-nosed (B.C. 125-96), second 
son of Demetrius Nicator and Cleopatra. He 
was placed upon the throne in 125 by his moth- 
er Cleopatra, who put to death his elder broth- 
er Seleucus, because ehe wished to have the 
power in her own hands. He poisoned his 
mother in 120, and subsequently carried on war 
for some tune with his half-brother A. IX. 
Cyzicenus. At length, in 112, the two broth- 
ers agreed to share the kingdom between them, 
A. Cyzicenus having Coile-Syria and Phoenicia, 
and A. Grypus the remainder of the provinces. 
Grypus was assassinated in 96. 9. CTZICENUS, 
from Cyzicus, where he was brought up, son of 
A. VII. Sidetes and Cleopatra, reigned over 
Ccele-Syria and Phoenicia from 112 to 96, but 
fell in battle in 95 against Seleucus Epipbaucs, 
son of A. VIII. Grypus. 10. EUSEBES, son of 
A. IX. Cyzicenus, defeated Seleucus Epiph- 
aneu, who had slain his father in battle, and 
maintained the throne against the brothers of 
Seleucus. He succeeded his father Autiochus 



ANTIOPE. 

IX. in 95. 11. EPIPHANES, son of A. VIII. Gry 
pus and brother of Seleucus Epiphanes, carried 
on war against A. X. Eusebes, but was defeat- 
ed by the latter, and drowned in the River 
Orontes. 12. DIONYSUS, brother of No. 11, held 
the crown for a short tune, but fell in battle 
against Aretas, king of the Arabians. The Syr- 
ians, worn out with the civil broils of the Se- 
leucidte, offered the kingdom to Tigranes, king 
of Armenia, who united Syria to his own domin- 
ions in 83, and held it till his defeat by the Ro- 
mans in 69. 13. ASIATICUS, son of A. X. Eu- 
sebes, became King of Syria on the defeat of 
Tigraues by Lucullus in 69 ; but he was de- 
prived of it in 65 by Pompey, w r ho reduced Syria 
to a Roman province. In this year the Seleu- 
cidffi ceased to reign. 

IL Kings of Commagene. 

1. Made an alliance with the Romans about 
B.C. 64. He assisted Pompey with troops in 
49, and was attacked by Antony in 38. He was 
succeeded by Mithradates I., about 31. 2. Suc- 
ceeded Mithradates I., and was put to death at 
Rome by Augustus in 29. 3. Succeeded Mith- 
radates II., and died in A.D. 17. Upon his 
death, Commagene became a Roman province, 
and remained so till A.D. 38. 4. Surnamed 
EPIPHAXES, apparently a son of Antiochus IIL, 
received his paternal dominion from Caligula in 
A.D. 38. He was subsequently deposed by 
Caligula, but regained his kingdom on the ac- 
cession of Claudius in 41. He was a faithful 
ally of the Romans, and assisted them in their 
wars against the Parthians under Nero, and 
against the Jews under Vespasian. At length, 
in 72, he was accused of conspiring with the 
Parthians against the Romans, was deprived of 
his kingdom, and retired to Rome, where he 
passed the remainder of his life. 

IIL Literary. 

1. Of MGJE in Cilicia, a Sophist, or, as he 
liimself pretended to be, a Cynic philosopher. 
He flourished about A.D. 200, during the reign 
of Severus and Caracalla. During the war of 
Caracalla against the Parthians, he deserted to 
the Partisans together with Tiridates. He was 
one of the most distinguished rhetoricians of 
his time, and also acquired some reputation as 
a writer. 2. Of ASCALON, the founder of the 
fifth Academy, was a friend of Lucullus and the 
teacher of Cicero during his studies at Athens 
(B.C. 79); but he had a school at Alexandria 
also, as well as in Syria, where he seems to 
have ended his life. His principal teacher was 
Philo, who succeeded Plato, Arcesilas, and Car- 
neades, as the founder of the fourth Academy. 
He is, however, better known as the adversary 
than the disciple of Philo; and Cicero mentions 
a treatise called Sosus, written by him against 
his master, in which he refutes the skepticism 
of the Academics. 3. Of SYRACUSE, a Greek 
historian, lived about B.C. 423, and wrote his- 
tories of Sicily and Italy. [The fragments of 
his writings are collected in Muller's J'raymntta 
Hist. Grax^ voL i., p. 181-184. i. Of ALEX 
AXDHKA, author of a history of the comic poets 
of Greece.] 

Ajm5pE (' \vri6irij). 1. Daughter of Nycteus 
and Polyio, or of the river-god Asopus in Bceo- 
67 



ANTIPATER. 

tia, became by Jupiter (Zeus) the mother of 
Amphion and Zethus. VicL AMPHION. Bac- 
chus (Dionysus) threw her into a state of mad- 1 
ness on account of the vengeance which her 
sous had taken on Dirce. In this condition she ] 
wandered through Greece, until Phocus, the 
grandson of Sisyphus, cured and married her. j 
2. An Amazon, sister of Hippolyte, wife of 
Theseus, and mother of Hippolytus. 

ANTiPATEa ('Avr/Trarpof). 1. The Macedoni- 
an, an officer greatly trusted by Philip and Alex- 
ander the Great, was left by the latter regent in 
Macedonia, when he crossed over into Asia in 
B.C. 334. In consequence of dissensions be- 
tween Olympias and Antipater, the bitter was 
summoned to Asia in .324, and Craterus appoint- 
ed to the regency of Macedonia, but the death 
of Alexander in the following year prevented 
these arrangements from taking effect An- 
tipatcr now obtained Macedonia again, and in 
conjunction with Craterus, who was associated 
with him in the government, earned on war 
against the Greeks, who endeavored to establish 
their independence. This war, usually called 
the Lamian war, from Lamia, where Antipater 
was besieged in 323, was terminated by Antip- 
ater's victory over the confederates at Cran- 
non in 322. This was followed by the submis- 
sion of Athens and the death of DEMOSTHENES. 
In 321 Antipater passed over into Asia in or- 
der to oppose Perdiccas; but the murder of 
I'EEDICCAS in Egypt put an end to this war, and 
left Autipater supreme regent. Antipater died 
in 319, after appointing Polygperchon regent, 
and his own son CASSANDER to a subordinate 
position. 2. Grandson of the preceding, and 
second son of Cassander and Thessalonlca. 
After the death of his elder brother Philip IV. 
(B.C. 295), great dissensions ensued between 
Antipater and his younger brother Alexander 
for the kingdom of Macedonia. Antipater, be- 
lieving that Alexander was favored by his moth- 
er, put her to death. The younger brother upon 
this applied for aid at once to Pyrrhus of Epirus 
and Demetrius Poliorcetes. The remaining 
history is related differently ; but so much is 
certain, that both Antipater and Alexander were 
subsequently put to death, either by Demetri- 
us or at his instigation, and that Demetrius be- 
came King of Macedonia. 3. Father of Herod 
the Great, son of a noble Idumsean of the same 
name, espoused the cause of Hyrcanus against 
his brother Aristobulus. He ingratiated himself 
with the Romans, and in B.C. 47 was appointed by 
Czesar procurator of Judaea, which appointment 
ho held till his death in 43, when he was carried 
off by poison, which Malichus, whose life he had 
twice saved, bribed the cup-bearer of Hyrcanus 
to administer to him. 1. Eldest son of Herod 
the Great by his first wife, Doris, brought about 
the death of his two half-brothers, Alexander 
and Aristobulus, in B. C. 6, but was himself con- 
demned as guilty of a conspiracy against his fa- 
ther's life, and was executed five days before 
Herod's death. 5. Of Tarsus, a Stoic philoso- 
pher, the successor of Diogenes and the teach- 
er of Pansetius, about B.C. 144. 6. Of Tyre, a 
Stoic philosopher, died shortly before B.C. 45, 
and wrote a work on Duties (De Ojficiis.) 7. 
Of Sidon, the author of several epigrams in the 
Greek Anthology, flourished about B.C. 108- 
68 



ANTIPHON. 

100, and lived to a great age. 8. Of.Thessu 
lonica, the author of several epigrams in the 
Greek Anthology, lived in the latter part of the 
reign of Augustus. 

A.NTU'ATKK, L. COLICS, & Roman jurist and 
historian, and a contemporary of C. Gracchus 
(B.C. 123) and L. Crassus, the orator, wrote A*i- 
nales, which were epitomized by Brutus, ai.d 
which contained a valuable account of the sec- 
ond Punic war. [The fragments of this work 
have been published by Krause in his Vitce et 
Fragmenta vetenun Hist. Roman. Berlin, 1833. 
p. 182-201.] 

ANTIPATEIA ('A vTiirdrpia : now Berat ?), n 
town in Iliyricum on the borders of Macedonia, 
on the left bank of i.he Apsus. 

[ArrriPATRis ('Aj-r'7raTjO<f), a city of Judaea be 
tween Jerusalem oiid Cassarea, in a beautiful 
and fruitful plain : it was built on the site of an 
older town called Capharsaba, enlarged by Her- 
od the Great, and nan >ed Antipatris in honor of 
his father Antipatei I 

ANTIPHANES ('A.v Quvrjf). 1. A comic poet 
of the middle Attic comedy, born about B.C. 404, 
and died 330. He wrote 365, or at the least 
260 plays, which were distinguished by ele- 
gance of language. [The fragments of his 
plays are collected W Meineke in his Frag- 
menta Comic. Grcec., vol. L, p. 491-574, edit, 
minor.] 2. Of Berga in Thrace, a Greek writ- 
er on marvelous and incredible things. 3 An 
epigrammatic poet, several of whose epigrams 
are still extant in the Greek Anthology, lived 
about the reign of Augustus. [4. Of Argos, a 
sculptor, disciple of Polycletus, and teaoher of 
Cleon. 5. A physician of Delos, who lived 
about the beginning of the second century A.D.] 

ANTIPHATES ('AvTi<j>uTt)(f). 1. King of the 
mythical Lasstrygones in Sicily, who are repre- 
sented as giants and cannibals. They destroy 
ed eleven of the ships of Ulysses, who escaped 
with only one vessel [2. Son of the divine 1 ! 1 
Melampus, and father of CEcles, mentioned ru 
the Odyssey. 3. A companion of ^Eneas, son 
of Sarpedon, slain by Turnus.] 

ANTIPHELLUS ('AvTi<j>e?J.o<; : now Antiphilo), 
a town on the coast of Lycia, between Patara 
and Aperlae, originally the port of PHELLUS. 

ANTIPHEMUS ("Avn'^^of), the Rhodian, found- 
er of Gela in Sicily, B.C. 690. 

ANTIPHILUS ('Avrtyt/lof). 1. Of Byzantium, 
an epigrammatic poet, author of several excel- 
lent epigrams in the Greek Anthology, was n 
contemporary of the Emperor Nero. 2. Of 
Egypt, a distinguished painter, the rival of 
Apelles, painted for Philip and Alexander the 
Great [3. An Athenian general in the Lami- 
an war, appointed in the place of Leostheues.] 

ANTIPHON ('A.vTt<j>uv). 1. The most ancient 
of the ten orators in the Alexandrine canou, 
was a son of Sophilus the Sophist, and born at 
Rhamnus in Attica, in B.C. 430. He belonged 
to the oligarchical party at Athens, and took an 
active part in the establishment of the govern- 
ment of the Four Hundred (B.C. 411), after the 
overthrow of which he was brought to trial, 
condemned, and put to death. The oratorical 
powers of Antiphon are highly praised by the 
ancients. He introduced great improvements 
in public speaking, and was the first who laid 
: down theoretical laws for practical eloquence; 



AOTIPHONUS. 



ANTIUM. 



he opened a school in which he taught rhetoric, 
and the historian Thucydides is said to have 
been one of his pupils. The orations which he 
composed were written for others; and the 
only time that he spoke in public himself was 
when he was accused and condemned to death. 
This speech, which was considered in antiqui- 
ty a master-piece of eloquence, is now lost. 
(Thuc., viil, 68 ; Cic., Brut., 12.) We still pos- 
sess fifteen orations of Antiphon, three of which 
were written by him for others, and the remain- 
ing twelve as specimens for his school, or ex- 
ercises on fictitious cases. They are printed 
"u the collections of the Attic orators, and sep- 
arately, edited by Baiter and Sauppe, Zurich, 
1838, and Matzner, Berlin, 1838. 2. A tragic 
poet, whom many writers confound with the 
Attic orator, lived at Syracuse, at the court of 
the elder Dionysius, by whom he was put to 
death. 3. Of Athens, a Sophist and an epic 
poet, wrote a work on the interpretation of 
dreams, which is referred to by Cicero and 
others. He is the same person as the Auti- 
phon who was an opponent of Socrates. (Xen., 
Afem., L, 6.) [4. The youugest brother of Pla- 
to, mentioned in the Parmenides. 5. An Athe- 
nian, who was arrested for favoring the cause 
of Macedonia, at the instigation of Demosthe- 
aes, and put to death. 

[ANTIPUOXUS ('Avrt^ovof), one of the sons of 
Priam, accompanied his father when he went 
to solicit the body of Hector from Achilles/] 

[ANTIPHE^E ('A.vn<l>pa and 'Avrfypai), a city of 
Africa, in the Libyan nome, at some distance 
from the sea : it was here that the common 
Libyan wine was made, which formed the drink 
of the lower orders at Alexandrea.] 

ANTIPHUS ("Avmpof). 1. Son of Priam and 
Hecuba, slain by Agamemnon. 2. Son of Thes- 
salus, and one of the Greek heroes at Troy. 
[3. Son of Pylaemenes and the nymph Gygaea, 
ally of the Trojans, joint leader with his brother 
Mesthles of the Maeonians from Mount Tmolus. 
4. Son of ^Egyptius of Ithaca, a companion of 
Ulysses in his wanderings; devoured by Poly- 
phemus. 5. Another Ithacan, a friend of Te- 
iemacbus.] 

ANTIPOLIS ('AvrfVo/Uf : now Antibes, pro- 
nounced by the inhabitants Antiboul), a town in 
Gallia Naroonensis on the coast, in the territory 
of the Deciates, a few miles west of Nicaea, was 
founded by Massilia : the muria, or salt pickle 
made of fish, prepared at this town, was very 
celebrated. 

A.VTIRRHHJM ('AvTcpfiiov : now Castello di Ro- 
melia), a promontory on the borders of ^Etolia 
and Locris, opposite Rhium (now Castello di Mo- 
rea) in Achaia, with which it formed the nar- 
row entrance of the Corinthian Gulf: the straits 
are sometimes called the Little Dardanelles. 

ANTISSA ("A.vriaaa : 'Avriaaalof : now Kolas 
Litnnconas), a town in Lesbos with a harbor, 
on the western coast between Methymna and 
the promontory Sigrium, was originally on a 
small island opposite Lesbos, which was after- 
ward united with Lesbos, fit was the birth- 
place of the poet Terpander.j It was destroy- 
ed by the Romans, B.C. 168, and its inhabitants 
removed to Methymna, because they had as- 
fisted Antiochus. 

ANTISTHENES ('\vria6ivijc). 1. An Athenian, 



founder of the sect of the Cynic philosophers 
His mother was a Thracian. In his youth he 
fought at Tanagra (B.C. 426), and was a disci 
pie first of Gorgias, and then of Socrates, whom 
he never quitted, and at whose death he was 
present. He died at Athens, at the age of sev- 
enty. He taught in the Cyuosarges, a gymna- 
sium for the use of Athenians born of foreign 
mothers ; whence probably his followers were 
called Cynics (KVVIKOI), though others derive 
their name from the dog-like neglect of all 
forms and usages of society. His writings 
were very numerous, and chiefly dialogues ; his 
style was pure and elegant; and he possessed 
considerable powers of wit and sarcasm. Two 
declamations of his are preserved, named Ajax 
and Ulysses, which are purely rhetorical. He 
was an enemy to all speculation, and thus was 
opposed to Plato, whom he attacked furiously 
in one of his dialogues. His philosopical sys- 
tem was confined almost entirely to ethics, and 
he taught that virtue is the sole thing necessa- 
ry. He showed his contempt of all the luxuries 
and outward comforts of life by his mean cloth- 
ing and hard fare. From his school the Stoics 
subsequently sprung. In one of his works en- 
titled Physicus, he contended for the unity of 
the Deity. (Cic., Be Nat. Deor^ i., 13.) [The 
fragments of his writings have been collect- 
ed and published by "Wiuckelmann, Antisthcnis 
Fragmenta, Turici, 1842. 2. Of Rhodes, a 
Greek historian, who flourished about 200 B.C. 
He wrote a history of his own times, which 
has perished.] 

ANTISTIUS, P., tribune of the plebs, B.C. 88, 
a distinguished orator, supported the party of 
Sulla, and was put to death by order of young 
Marius in 82. His daughter Antistia was mar 
ried to Pompeius Magnus. 

ANTISTIUS LABEO. Vid. LABEO. 

ANTISTIUS VETUS. Vid. VETUS. 

ANTITAURUS ('AvriTavpo? : now Ali-Dagli), a 
chain of mountains, which strikes off northeast 
from the main chain of the Taurus on the south- 
em border of Cappadocia, in the centre of which 
district it turns to the east and runs parallel to 
the Taurus as far as the Euphrates, Its aver- 
age height exceeds that of the Taurus ; and 
one of its summits, Mount Argaeus, near Ma- 
zaca, is the loftiest mountain of Asia Minor. 

ANTIUM (Antias : now Torre or Porto dAnzo), 
a very ancient town of Latium, on a rocky proin- 
ontoiy running out some distance into the Tyr- 
rhenian Sea. It was founded by Tyrrhenians 
and Pelasgians, and in earlier and even later 
tunes was noted for its piracy. Although uuit- 
ed by Tarquinius Superbus to the Latin League, 
it generally sided with the Volscians against 
Rome. It was taken by the Romans in B.C. 
468, and a colony was sent thither, but it revolt- 
ed, was taken a second time by the Romans in 
B.C. 338, was deprived of all its ships, the beaks 
of which (Rostra) served to ornament the plat- 
form of the speakers in the Roman forum, was 
] forbidden to have any ships in future, and re- 
ceived another Roman colony. But it gradu- 
ally recovered its former importance, was allow- 
1 ed in course of time again to be used as a sea- 
port, and in the latter times of the republic and 
I under the empire, became a favorite residence 
i of many of the Roman nobles and emperors. 

69 



ANTIUS RESTIO. 



ANTONIUS. 



The Emperor Nero was born here, and in the 
remains of his palace the celebrated Apollo Bel- 
vedere was found. Antium possessed a cele- 
brated temple of Fortune ( J)iva, gratum quce 
regis Antium, Hor., Carm^ \., 85), of ^Escula- 
pius, and at the port of Ceno, a little to the east 
of Antium, a temple of Neptune, on which ac- 
count the place is now called Nettuno. 

ANTIUS RESTIO. Vid. RESTIO. 

ANTONIA. 1. Major, elder daughter of M. 
Autonius and Octavia, wife of L. Domitius 
Ahenobarbus, and mother of Cn. Domitius, the 
father of the Emperor Nero. Tacitus calls 
this Antonia the younger daughter. 2. Minor, 
younger sister of the preceding, wife of Drusus, 
the brother of the Emperor Tiberius, and mother 
of Germanicus, the father of the Emperor Calig- 
ula, of Livia or Livilla, and of the Emperor Clau- 
dius. She died A.D. 38, soon after the acces- 
sion of her grandson Caligula. She was cele- 
brated for her beauty, virtue, and chastity. 
8. Daughter of the Emperor Claudius, married 
first to Pompeius Magnus, and afterward to 
Faustus Sulla. Nero wished to marry her after 
the death of his wife Poppaea, A.D. 66 ; and on 
her refusal he caused her to be put to death on 
a charge of treason. 

ANTONIA TUKRIS, a castle on a rock at the 
northwest corner of the temple at Jerusalem, 
wliich commanded both the temple and the city. 
It was at first called Baris : Herod the Great 
changed its name in honor of Marous Antonius. 
It contained the residence of the "Procurator 
Judaeie. 

AXTOWINI ITINERARIUM, the title of an extant 
work, which is a very valuable itinerary of the 
whole Roman empire, in which both the prin- 
cipal and the cross-roads are described by a list 
of all the places and stations upon them, the 
distances from place to place being given in 
Roman miles. It is usually attributed to the 
Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antonius, but it ap- 
pears to have been commenced by order of 
Julius Caesar, and to have been completed in the 
reign of Augustus, though it is probable that 
it received important additions and revision 
under one or both of the Antonines. Editions : 
By "Wesseling, Amst., 1735 ; by Parthey and 
Finder, Berlin, 1848. 

ANTONINOPOLIS ('AvruvivoTrohtc : -irjjf, -anus), 
a city of Mesopotamia, between Edessa and 
Dara, afterward Maximianapoh's, and afterward 
Constantia. 

ANTONINUS, M. AURELIUS. Vid. AURELIUS, M. 

ANTONINUS Pius, Roman emperor, A.D. 138- 
161. His name in the early part of his life, at 
full length, was Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius 
Arrius Antoninus. His paternal ancestors came 
from Nemausus(now Nismes) in Gaul; but An- 
toninus himself was born near Lanuvium, Sep- 
tember 19th, A.D. 86. From an early age he 
gave promise of his future worth. In 120 he 
was consul, and subsequently proconsul of the 
province of Asia: on his return to Rome, he 
lived on terms of the greatest intimacy with 
Hadrian, who adopted him on February 25th, 
138. Henceforward he bore the name of T. 
^Elius Hadrianus Antoninus Caesar, and on the 
death of Hadrian, July 2d, ] 38, he ascended the 
throne. The Senate conferred upon him ihe 
title of Pius, or the dutifully affectionate, because ! 
70 



' lie persuaded them to grant to his father H&- 
, driau the apotheosis and the other honors usual- 
| ly paid to deceased emperors, which they had 
at first refused to bestow upon Hadrian. The 
reign of Antoninus is almost a blank in history 
a blank caused by the suspension for a time 
of war, violence, and crime. He was one of 
the best princes that ever mounted a throne, 
and all his thoughts and energies ''vere dedi 
cated to the happiness of his people. No at 
tempt was made to achieve new conquests, and 
various insurrections among the Germans, Da- 
cians, Jews, Moors, ./Egyptians, and Britons, 
were easily quelled by his legates. In all the 
relations of private life the character of Anto- 
ninus was without reproach. He was faithful 
to his wife Faustina, notwithstanding her profli- 
gate life, and after her death loaded her memory 
with honors. He died at Lorium, March 7th, 
161, in his seventy -fifth year. He was suc- 
ceeded by Marcus Aurelius, whom he had adopt- 
ed, when he himself was adopted by Hadrian, 
and to whom he gave his daughter FAUSTINA 
in marriage. 

ANTONINUS LIBERALIS, a Greek grammarian, 
probably lived in the reign of the Antonines, 
about A.D. 147, and wrote a work on Meta- 
morphoses (Mera/LiopQuoEuv avvayuyri) in forty- 
one chapters, which is extant. Editions : By 
Verheyk, Lugd. Bat., 1774 ; by Koch, Lips., 
1832 ; by Westermaun, in his Mythographi, 
Brunsv., 1843. 

ANTONIUS. 1. M., the orator ; born B.C. 143 ; 
quaestor in 113 ; praetor in 104, Tvhen he fought 
against the pirates in Cilicia ; consul in 99 ; and 
censor in 97. He belonged to Sulla's party, and 
was put to death by Marius and Cinna when 
they entered Rome in 87 : his head was cut off 
and placed on the Rostra. Cicero mentions 
him and L. Crassus as the most distinguished 
orators of their age; and he is introduced as 
one of the speakers in Cicero's De Oratore, 2. 
M., suraamed CRETICUS, elder son of the orator, 
and father of the triumvir, was praetor in 75, 
and received the command of the fleet and all 
the coasts of the Mediterranean, in order to clear 
the sea of pirates ; but he did not succeed in 
his object, and used his power to plunder the 
provinces. He died shortly afterward in Crete, 
and was called Creticus in derision. 3. C n 
younger son of the orator, and uncle of the tri- 
umvir, was expelled the Senate in 70, and was 
the colleague of Cicero in the praetorship (65) 
and consulship (63). He was one of Catiline's 
conspirators, but deserted the latter by Cicero's 
promising him the province of Macedonia. He 
had to lead an army against Catiline, but, un- 
willing to fight against lu's former friend, he 
gave the command on the day of battle to his 
legate, M. Petreius. At the conclusion of the 
war, Antony went into his province, which he 
plundered shamefully; and on his return to 
Rome in 59, was accused both of taking part fo 
Catiline's conspiracy and of extortion in his 
province. He was defended by Cicero, but was 
condemned, and retired to the island of Cephal- 
lenia. He wns subsequently recalled, probably 
by Caesar, and was in Rome at the beginning of 
44. 4. M., the TRIUMVIR, was son of No. 2, and 
Julia, the sister of L. Julius Caesar, consul in 
64, and was born about 83 B.C. His father 



ANTONIUS. 

died while he was still young, and he was 
brought up by Cornelius Lentulus, who married 
his mother Julia, and who was put to death by 
Cicero in 63 as one of Catiline's conspirators ; 
whence he became a personal enemy of Cicero. 
Antony indulged in his earliest youth in every 
kind of dissipation, and his affairs soon became 
deeply involved. In 58 he went to Syria, where 
he served with distinction under A. Gabinius. 
He took part in the campaigns against Aristo- 
bulus in Palestine (57, 56), and in the restora- 
tion of Ptolemy Auletes to Egypt in 55. In 54 
he went to Caesar in Gaul, and by the influence 
of the latter was elected quaestor. As quaestor 
(52) he returned to Gaul, and served under 
Caesar for the next two years (52, 51). He re- 
turned to Rome in 50, and became one of the 
most active partisans of Caesar. He was trib- 
une of the plebs in 49, and in January fled to 
Caesar's camp in Cisalpine Gaul, after putting 
his veto upon the decree of the Senate which 
deprived Caesar of his command. He accom- 
panied Caesar in his victorious march into Italy, 
and was left by Caesar in the command of Italy, 
while the latter carried on the war in Spain. 
In 48 Antony was present at the battle of Phar- 
salia. where he commanded the left wing ; and 
in 47 he was again left in the command of Italy 
during Caesar's absence in Africa. In 44 he was 
consul with Caesar, when he offered him the 
Itingly diadem at the festival of the Lupercalia. 
After Caesar's murder on the 15th of March, 
Antony endeavored to succeed to his power. 
He therefore used every means to appear as 
his representative; he pronounced the speech 
over Caesar's body, and read his will to the peo- 
ple ; and he also obtained the papers and private 
property of Caesar. But he found a new and un- 
expected rival in young Octavianus, the adopted 
son and great-nephew of the dictator, who came 
from Apollonia to Rome, assumed the name 
of Caesar, and at first joined the Senate in 
order to crush Antony. Toward the end of the 
year Antony proceeded to Cisalpine Gaul, which 
had been previously granted him by the Senate ; 
but Dec. Brutus refused to surrender the pro- 
vince to Antony and threw himself into Mutina, 
where he was besieged by Antony. The Senate 
approved of the conduct of Brutus, declared 
Antony a publi* enemy, and intrusted the con- 
duct of the war against him to Octavianus. 
Antony was defeated at the battle of Mutina, in 
April, 43, and was obliged to cross the Alps. 
Both the consuls, however, had fallen, and the 
Senate now began to show their jealousy of 
Octavianus. Meantime Antony was joined by 
Lepidus with a powerful army : Octavianus be- 
came reconciled to Antony ; and it was agreed 
that the government of the state should be 
vested in Antony, Octavianus, and Lepidus, under 
the title of Triumviri Reipublicie Conatituendw, 
for the next five years. The mutual friends 
of each were proscribed, and in the numerous 
executions that followed, Cicero, who had at- 
tacked Antony in the most unmeasured manner 
'in his Philippic Orations, fell a victim to An- 
tony. In 42, Antony and Octavianus crushed 
the republican party by the battle of Philippi, 
in which Brutus and Cassius fclL Antony then 
went to Asia, which he had received aa his 
hare of the Roman world. In Cilicia he met 



ANTONIUS PRIMUS. 

' with Cleopatra, and followed her to Egypt, 
; captive to her charms. In 41 P^ulvia, the wife 
; of Antony, and his brother L. Antonius, made 
i war upon Octavianus in Italy. .Antony pre. 
| pared to support his relatives, but the war 
i was brought to a close at the beginning of 40, 
i before Antony could reach Italy. The oppor- 
' tune death of Fulvia facilitated the reconciliation 
of Antony and Octavianus, which was cemented 
by Antony marrying Octavia, the sister of Octa- 
vianus. Antony remained in Italy till 39, when 
the triumvirs concluded a peace with Sext. Pom 
pey, and he afterward went to his provinces 
in the East. In this year and the following, 
Ventidius, the lieutenant of Antony, defeated the 
Parthians. In 37 Antony crossed over to Italy, 
when the triumvirate was renewed for five years. 
He then returned to the East, and shortly after- 
ward sent Octavia back to her brother, and 
surrendered himself entirely to the charms of 
Cleopatra. In 36 he invaded Parthia, but he 
lost a great number of his troops, and was 
obliged to retreat. He was more successful 
in his invasion of Armenia in 34, for he obtained 
possession of the person of Artavasdes, the 
Armenian king, ana carried him to Alexandrea 
Antony now laid aside entirely the character 
of a Roman citizen, and assumed the pomp 
and ceremony of an eastern despot. His con- 
duct, and the unbounded influence which Cleo- 
patra had acquired over him, alienated many of 
his friends and supporters ; and Octavianus 
thought that the time had now come for crush 
ing his rival The contest was decided by the 
memorable sea-fight off Actium, September 2d. 
31, in which Antony's fleet was completely 
defeated. Antony, accompanied by Cleopatra, 
fled to Alexandrea, where he put an end to his 
own life in the following year (30), when Octavi- 
anus appeared before the city. 5. C., brother of 
the triumvir, was praetor in Macedonia, B.C. 44, 
fell into the hands of Marcus Brutus in 43, and 
was put to death by Brutus ha 42, to revenge 
the murder of Cicero. 6. L., youngest brother 
of the triumvir, was consul in 41, when he 
engaged in war against Octavianus at the insti- 
gation of Fulvia, his brother's wife. He was 
unable to resist Octavianus, and threw himself 
into the town of Perusia, which he was obliged 
to surrender in the following year; hence the 
war is usually called that of Perusia. His life 
was spared, and he was afterwards appointed by 
Octavianus to the command of Iberia. Cicero 
draws a frightful picture of Lucius's character. 
He calls him a gladiator and a robber, and heaps 
upon him every term of reproach and contempt. 
Much of this is of course exaggeration. 7. M., 
called by the Greek writers Antyllus, which is 
probably only a corrupt form of Antonillus 
(young Antonius), elder son of the triumvir by 
Fulvia, was executed by order of Octavianus, 
after the death of his father in B.C. 30. -8. lu- 
LUS, younger son of the triumvir by Fulvia, was 
brought up by his step-mother Octavia at Romp, 
and received great marks of favor from Augus- 
tus. He was consul in B.C. 10, but was put to 
death in 2, in consequence of his adulterous inter- 
course with Julia, the daughter of Augustus. 
ANTONIUS FELIX. Vid. FELIX. 
ANTONIUS MUSA. Vid. MUSA. 
ANTONIUS PRIMUS. Vid. PRIMUS. 
71 



ANTROK 



APELLA 



AXTRON ('Avrpuv and ol 'Avrpuvef : 'Avrpu- 
vtof : now Fano), a town in Phthiotis in Thes- 
saly. at the entrance of the Sinus Haliacus. 

ANTUNNACUM ^now Andernach), a town of the 
Ubii on the Rhine. 

ANUBIS ('AvovGif), an Egyptian divinity, wor- 
shipped in the form of a human being with a 
dog's head. He was originally worshipped sim- 
ply as the representative of the dog, which ani- 
mal, like the cat, was sacred in Egypt ; but his 
worship was subsequently mixed up with other 
religious systems, and Anubis thus .assumed a 
symbolical or astronomical character, at least 
with the learned. His worship prevailed through- 
out Egypt, but lie was most honored at Cynopo- 
Ms in Middle Egypt Later myths relate that 
Anubis was the son of Osiris and Nephthys, 
born after the death of his father ; and that Isis 
brought him up, and made him her guard and 
companion, who thus performed to her the same 
service that dogs perform to men. In the tem- 
ples of Egypt Anubis seems to have been rep- 
resented as the guard of other gods, and the 
place in the front of a temple was particularly 
sacred to him. The Greeks identified him with 
their own Hermes, and thus speak of Hermanu- 
bis in the same manner as of Zeus Ammon. 
His worship was introduced at Rome toward 
the end of the republic, and, under the empire, 
spread very widely both in Greece and at Rome. 

ANXUR. Vid. TARRACINA. 

[ANXUR, an ally of Turnus iu Italy, wounded 
by ^Eneas.] 

ANXURUS, an Italian divinity, who was wor- 
shipped in a grove near Auxur (Tarracina), to- 
gether with Feronia. He was regarded as a 
youthful Jupiter, and Feronia as Juno. On 
coins his name appears as Axur or Anxur. 

ANTSIS ("Avvfftf), an ancient king of Egypt, 
iu whose reign Egypt was invaded by the Ethi- 
opians uader their king, Sabaco. 

ANYTE CA.VVTIJ), of Tegea, the authoress of 
several epigrams in the Greek Anthology, flour- 
ished about B.C. 300, [a date which some writ- 
ers, on mere conjecture, have changed to 700 
B.C.] The epigrams are for the most part iu 
the (style of the ancient Doric choral songs. 

ANYTUS ("Avvrof), a wealthy Athenian, son 
of Anthemion, the most influential and formida- 
ble of the accusers of Socrates, B.C. 399 (hence 
Socrates is called Anyti reus, Hor., Sat. ii., 4, 
3). He was a leading man of the democratic- 
al party, and took au active part along with 
Thrasybulus, in the overthrow of the Thirty 
Tyrants. The Athenians, having repented of 
their condemnation of Socrates, sent Anytus into 
banishment. 

[ACEDE ('Aoidrj), one of the three oldest Muses, 
whose worship was introduced into Boeotia by 
the Alo'idae.] 

AON ("Auv), son of Neptune, and an ancient 
BfEotian hero, from whom the Aones, au ancient 
race iu Boaotia, were believed to have derived 
their name. Aonla was the name of the part 
of Bceotia near Phocis, in which were Mount 
Helicon and the fountain Aganippe (Aonice aquae, 
Ov., Fast., iiL, 456). The Muses are also called 
Aonides, since they frequented Helicon and the 
fountain of Aganippe. (Ov., Met n v., 333.) 

AONIDES. Vid. AON. 

[AORNOS ("Aopvof), a city of Bactria, next to 
7Ji 



Bactra in importance, having a strong and lofty 
citadel, but taken by Alexander the Great. 
Wilson regards the name as of Sanscrit origin 
(from Awarana), and meaning " an inclosure" 
or " stockade" 2. A mountain fastness of India 
on this side of the Indus, between the Cuphcn 
and Indus, to which the inhabitants of Bazira 
fled from before Alexander.] 

AORSI ("Aopoot) or ADORSI, a powerful people 
of Asiatic Sarmatia, who appear to have had 
their original settlements on the northeast of 
the Caspian, but are chiefly found between the 
Palus Maeotis (now Sea of Azof) and the Cas- 
pian, to the southeast of the River Tanais (now 
Don), whence they spread far into European Sar- 
matia. They carried on a considerable traffic 
in Babylonian merchandise, which they fetched 
on camels out of Media and Armenia, 

AGus or JSAS ('Aipof or Alaf. now Viosa, 
Viussa or Vovussd), the principal river of the 
Greek part of Illyricum, rises in Mount Lacmon, 
the northern part of Piudus, and flows into the 
Ionian Sea near Apollonia. 

[APAMA ('Airo/za or 'Anufir)), wife of Seleucus 
Nicator, and mother of Antiochus Sotor.] 

APAMEA or-Lv ('AKu/j.eta : 'Arra/uevf, Apuneus, 
-enus, -eusis), the name of several Asiatic cities, 
three of which were founded by Seleucus I. Ni- 
cator, and named in honor of his wife Apama. 1. 
A. AD ORONTEM (now Famiah), the capital of the 
Syrian province Apamene, and, under the Ro- 
mans, of Syria Secunda, was built by Seleucus 
Nicator on the site of the older city of PELLA 
in a very strong position on the River Orontes 
or Axius, the citadel being on the left (west) 
bank of the river, and the city on the right It 
was surrounded by rich pastures, in which Se- 
leucus kept a splendid stud of horses and five 
hundred elephants. 2. In OSROENE in Mesopo- 
tamia (now Balasir"), a town built by Seleucua 
Nicator on the east bank of the Euphrates, op- 
posite to ZEUGMA, with which it was connected 
by a bridge, commanded by a castle, called Se 
leucia. In Pliny's time (AD. 77) it was only 
a ruin. 3. A. CIBOTUS or AD M^EANDRUM ('A. tj 
Ki6ur6f, or TTpdf MatavJpov), a great city of 
Phrygia, on the Maeander, close above its con- 
fluence with the Marsyas. It was built by An- 
tiochus I. Soter, who nsqiaed it in honor of his 
mother Apama, and peopled it with the inhabit- 
ants of the neighboring Celjeuae. It became 
one of the greatest cities of Asia within the 
Euphrates ; and, under the Romans, it was the 
seat of a Conventus Juridicus. The surround- 
ing country, watered by the Maeander and its 
tributaries, was called Apamena Regio. 4. A, 
MYRLEON, in Bithyuia. Vid. MYRLEA. 5. A 
town built by Autiochus Soter, in the district 
cf Assyria called Sittacene, at the junction of 
the Tigris with the Royal Canal which connect- 
ed the Tigris with the Euphrates, and at the 
northern extremity of the island called Mcsene, 
which was formed by this canal and the two 
rivers. 6. A. MESENES (now Kama), in Baby- 
lonia, at the south poiut of the same Island of 
Mesene, and at the juuctiou of the Tigris and 
Euphrates. 7. A. RHAGIANA ('A. ij Trpdf 'Pa- 
-yalf), a Greek city in the district of Choarene 
in Parthia (formerly in Media), south of the 
Caspian Gates. 

[APELLA, a very common name of liomau 



APELLES. 



APHRODISIAS. 



freedmen : the Jews in Rome, mostly freedmen, 
dwelt on the further side of the Tiber, and were 
regarded as superstitious ; hence Apella came to 
be used proverbially for a superstitious person. 
(Credat Sudanis Apella, Hor., Sat^ i., 5, 100.)] 

APELLES ('ATreA/%), the most celebrated of 
Grecian painters, was born, most probably, at 
Colophon in Ionia, though some ancient writers 
call him a Coan, and others an Ephesian. He 
was the contemporary and friend of Alexander 
the Great (B.C. 336-323), whom he probably 
accompanied to Asia, and who entertained so 
high an opinion of him, that he was the only 
person whom Alexander would permit to take 
his portrait. After Alexander's death he ap- 
pears to have travelled through the western 
parts of Asia. Being driven by a storm to 
Alexandrea, after the assumption of the regal 
title by Ptolemy (B.C. 306), whose favor he had 
uot gained while he was with Alexander, his 
rivals laid a plot to rum him, which he defeated 
by an ingenious use of his skill in drawing. "We 
are not told when or where he died. Through- 
out his life Apelles labored to improve himself, 
especially in drawing, which he never spent a 
day without practicing. Hence the proverb 
Nvlla dies sine linea. A list of his works is 
given by Pliny (xxxv., 36). They are for the 
most part single figures, or groups of a very few 
figures. Of his portraits the most celebrated 
was that of Alexander wielding a thunderbolt ; 
but the most admired of all his pictures was the 
" Venus Anadyomene" (r/ uvadvofj.ev7j 'A<ppo6t.TT)), 
or Venus rising out of the sea The goddess 
was wringing her hair, and the falling drops of 
'water formed a transparent silver veil around 
her form. He commenced another picture of 
Venus, which he intended should surpass the 
Venus Anadyomene, but which he left unfinished 
at his death. 

APELLICOX ('ATre/Ut/cwv), of Teos, a Peripa- 
tetic philosopher and great collector of books. 
His valuable library at Athens, containing the 
autographs of Aristotle's works, was carried to 
Rome by Sulla (B.C. 83) : Apellicon had died 
just before. 

APEXNINUS Moxs (6 'A-xi-vvivog and rb 'Airev- 
vivov opof, probably from the Celtic Pen, " a 
height"), the Apennines, a chain of mountains 
which runs throughout Italy from north to south, 
and forms the backbone of the peninsula. It is a 
continuation of the Maritime Alps (vid. ALPES), 
begins near Genua, and ends at the Sicilian Sea, 
and throughout its whole course sends off nu- 
merous branches in all directions. It rises to 
its greatest height in the country of the Sabines, 
where one of its points (now Monte Corno) is 
9521 feet above the sc-a; and further south, at 
the boundaries of Samnium, Apulia, and Lu- 
cania, it divides into two main branches, one 
of which runs east through Apulia and Calabria, 
and terminates at the Salentine promontory, 
and the other west, through Bruttium, termina- 
ting apparently at Rhegium and the Straits of 
Messina, but in reality continued throughout 
Sicily. The greater part of the Apennines is 
composed of limestone, abounding in numerous 
caverns and recesses, which, in ancient as well 
as modern times, were the resort of numerous 
robbers : the highest points of the mountains 
ar covered wifh snow, even during most of the 



summer (nivali vertice se attollens Apenniniu 
Virg., jEn., xii, 703). 

APEE, M., a Roman orator and a native of 
Gaul, rose by his eloquence to the rank of quaes- 
tor, tribuue, and praetor, successively. He is one 
of the speakers in the Dialogue De Oratoribus, 
attributed to Tacitus. 

APER, ARRIUS, praetorian prefect, and son-in- 
law of the Emperor Numerian, whom he was 
said to have murdered : he was himself put to 
death by Diocletian on his accession in A.D. 284. 

APERAXTIA, a town and district of ^Etolia uear 
the Achelous, inhabited by the Aperantii. 

[APEROPIA ('A^epoma : now J)hoko or Bella 
Poulo), a small island in the Argolic Gulf, near 
Hydrea.] 

APESAS ('ATrecraf : ' now Fuka /), a mountain 
on the borders of Phliasia and Argolis, with a 
temple of Jupiter (Zeus), who was hence called 
Apesantius, and to whom Perseus here first sac- 
rificed. 

APHACA (r<i *A0a/ca : now Afka /), a town of 
Cffile-Syria, between Heliopolis and Byblus 
celebrated for the worship and oracle of Venus 
(Aphrodite) Aphacltis ('A^a/cmf). 

APHAREUS ('A<jtapei>f), son of the. Messenian 
king Perieres and Gorgophone, and founder of 
the town of Arene in Messeuia, which he called 
after his wife. His two sons, Idas and Lynceus, 
the ApharetidcB (Apharela proles, Ov., Met., viii., 
304), are celebrated for their fight with the Dios- 
curi, which is described by Pindar. (Nem., x., 
111.) [2. Son of Caletor, slain by J3neas before 
Troy. 3. A centaur, whose arm was crushed 
by Theseus with the trunk of an oak at the nup- 
tials of Pirithoiis.] 4. An Athenian orator and 
tragic poet, flourished B.C. 369-342. After the 
death of his father, his mother married the ora- 
tor Isocrates, who adopted Aphareus as his son. 
He wrote thirty-five or thirty-seven tragedies, 
and gained four prizes. 

APHET^E ('A^tTat and 'A^erat : 'A^eraZof : 
[now Fetio ?]), a sea-port and promontory of 
Thessaly, at the entrance of the Sinus Malia- 
cus, from which the ship Argo is said to have 
sailed. 

APHIDAS ('A^eMaf), son of Areas, obtained 
from his father Tegea and the surrounding ter- 
ritory. He had a son, Aleus. [2. Son of Poly- 
pemon, for whom Ulysses, on his return to Itha- 
ca, passed himself off to Eumaeus. 3. A cen 
taur, slain by Theseus at the nuptials of Piri 
thous.] 

APHIDNA ('AQidva and "Atfiidvai : 'A$i6vatoc), 
an Attic demus not far from Decelea, originully 
belonged to the tribe ^Eantis, afterward to Leon 
tis, and last to Hadrianis. It was in ancient 
times one of the twelve towns and districts into 
which Cecrops is said to have divided Attica, 
in it Theseus concealed Helen, but her brothers, 
Castor and Pollux, took the place and rescued 
their sister. 

^ArniDNiTS, one of the companions of ^Eueas, 
slain by Turnus.l 

ApimSDisiAS ('AQpofiiotuc : 'A<j>po6iain> : Aph- 
rodisicnsis), the name of several places famous 
for the worship of Aphrodite (Venus). 1. A. 
CARI^E (now Glicira, ruins), on the site of an 
old town of the Leleges, named Ninoe : tinder 
the Romans a free city and asylum, and a flour- 
ishing school of art. 2. VEXEBIS OTPIDCM (now 
73 



APHRODISIUM. 



APIDANUS. 



Porto Cavaliers), a town, harbor, and island on 
the coast of Cilicia, opposite to Cyprus. 8. A 
town, harbor, and island on the coast of Cyrena- 
icft, in North Africa. 1. Vid. GADES. [5. (Now 
Kalsch), an island in the Persian Gulf, on the 
coast of Carmania, earlier called Catea.] 

[ApuRODlsiL'M ('A<j>po6iaiov), a town on the 
northern coast of Cyprus. 2. A village of Arca- 
dia, east of Megalopolis. 3. One of the three 
minor harbors into which the Piraeus was sub- 
divided. 1. A. PROMONTORIUM, a promontory at 
the eastern base of the Pyrenees, with a temple 
of Aphrodite (Venus).] 

APHRODITE ('A^/xxJmy), one of the great di- 
vinities of the Greeks, the goddess of love and 
beauty. In the Iliad she is represented as the 
daughter of Jupiter (Zeus) and Dione, and, in 
later traditions, as a daughter of Saturn (Cronos) 
and Euonyme, or of Uranus and Hemera ; but 
the poets most frequently relate that she was 
sprung from the foam (u^pof) of the sea, whence 
they derive her name. She is commonly rep- 
resented as the wife of Vulcan (Hephaestus) ; 
but she proved faithless to her husband, and 
was in love with Mars (Ares), the god of war, 
to whom she bore Phobos, Deimos, Harmonia, 
and, according to later traditions, Eros and An- 
teros also. She also loved the gods Bacchus 
(Dionysus), Mercury (Hermes), and Neptune 
(Poseidon), and the mortals ANCHISES, ADONIS, 
and BUTES. She surpassed all the other god- 
desses in beauty, and hence received the prize 
of beauty from Paris. She likewise had the 
power of granting beauty and invincible charms 
to others, and whoever wore her magic girdle 
immediately became an object of love and de- 
sire. In the vegetable kingdom the myrtle, 
rose, apple, poppy, <fcc., were sacred to her. 
The animals sacred to her, which are often 
mentioned as drawing her chariot or serving 
as her messengers, are the sparrow, the dove, 
the swan, the swallow, and a bird called iynx. 
The planet Venus and the spring-month of April 
were likewise sacred to her. The principal 
places of her worship in Greece were the isl- 
ands of Cyprus and Cythera. The sacrifices 
offered to her consisted mostly of incense and 
garlands of flowers, but in some places animals 
were sacrificed to her. Respecting her festi- 
vals, vid. Diet, of Antig^ art. ADONIA, ANAGOGIA, 
APHUODISIA, CATAGOGIA. Her worship was of 
Eastern origin, and probably introduced by the 
Phrenicians into the islands of Cyprus, Cyth- 
era, and others, whence it spread all over 
Greece. She appears to have been originally 
identical with Astarte, called by the Hebrews 
Ashtoreth, and her connection with Adonis clear- 
ly points to Syria. Respecting the Roman god- 
dess Venus, vid. VENUS. 

APURODITOPOLIS ( A.$po6iri)f 7ro/Uf), the name 
of several cities in Egypt. 1. In Lower Egypt : 
(1.) In the Nomos Leontopolites, in the Delta, 
between Arthribis and Leontopolis ; (2.) (Now 
Chybin-el-Koum), in the Nomos Prosopites, in 
the Delta, on a navigable branch of the Nile, 
between Naucratis and Sais ; probably the same 
as Atarbechis, which is an Egyptian name of the 
same meaning as the Greek Aphroditopolis. 
2. In Middle Egypt or Heptanomis (now Atfyh), 
a considerable city on the east bank of the Nile ; 
the chief city of the Nomos Aphroditopolites. 
74 



I 3. In Upper Egypt, or the Thcbais : (1.) Vene- 
I ris Oppidum (now Tachta\ a little way from tlie 
west bank of the Nile ; the chief city of the No- 
mos Aphroditopolites ; (2.) In the Nomoa Her- 
monthites (now Deir, northwest of Esnch), on the 
west bank of the Nile. 

APHTHONICS ('A<j>66viof), of Antioch, a Greek 
rhetorician, lived about A.D. 315, and wrote the 
introduction to the study of rhetoric, entitled 
Progymnasmata {Trpoyvfi.vdap.aTa). It was con- 
structed on the basis of the Progymnagmata of 
Hermogenes, and became so popular that it was 
used as the common school-book in this branch 
of education for several centuries. On the re- 
vival of letters it recovered its ancient popu- 
larity, and during the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries was used every where, but more es- 
pecially in Germany, as the text book for rhet- 
oric. The number of editions and translations 
which were published during that period is 
greater than that of any other ancient writer. 
The best edition is in WrJz's Hhetores Grceci, 
voL i Aphthonius also wrote some jEsopic 
fables, which are extant. 

APHYTIS ('AQvrif : now Athyto), a town in 
the peninsula Pallene in Macedonia, with a cele- 
brated temple and oracle of Jupiter Ammon. 

APIA ('Ania, sc. yy), the Apian land, an an- 
cient name of Peloponnesus, especially Argolis, 
said to have been so called from Apis, a mythical 
king of Argos. 

APICATA, wife of Sejanus, was divorced by 
him, A.D. 23, after she had borne him throe 
children, and put an end to her own life on the 
execution of Sejanus, 31. 

APICIUS, the name of three notorious gluttons: 
1. The first lived in the time of Sulla, and is 
said to have procured the condemnation of Ru- 
tilius Rufus, B.C. 92. 2. The second and most 
renowned, M. Gabius Apicius, flourished under 
Tiberius. [It is stated by Seneca that, after 
having spent upon his culinary dainties one 
hundred millions of sesterces (segtertium millies). 
upward of three millions of dollars, he became 
overwhelmed with debts, and was thus forced, 
for the first time, to look into his accounts. Ho 
found that he would have only ten millions of 
sesterces (sestertium centies), a sum somewhat 
over three hundred thousand dollars, left after 
paying his debts ;] upon which, despairing of 
being able to satisfy the cravings of hunger from 
such a pittance, he forthwith put an end to his 
life by poison. But he was not forgotten. Sun- 
dry cakes (Apicia) and sauces long kept alive 
his memory ; Apion, the grammarian, composed 
a work upon his luxurious labors, and his name 
passed into a proverb in all matters connected 
with the pleasures of the table. 3. A contem- 
porary of Trajan, sent to this emperor, when 
he was in Parthia, fresh oysters, preserved by 
a skillful process of his own. The treatise we 
now possess, bearing the title CMUI APICII de 
Opsoniis et Condimentis, sive de Re Culinaria 
Libri decem, is a sort of Cook and Confection 
er*8 Manual, containing a multitude of receipts 
for cookery. It was probably compiled at a late 
period by some one who prefixed the name of 
Apicius, in order to insure the circulation of his 
book. Editions : By Almeloveen, Amstelod., 
1709 ; and by Bernhold, Ansbacb,, 1800. 

APIDANUS ('Airidavof, Ion. 'Hmdavof), a river 



APIOL^E. 



APOLLO. 



in Thessaly, which receives the Enlpeus near ; 
Pharsalus, and empties into the Peneus. 

APIOL^E, a town of Latium, destroyed by Tar- 1 
quinius Priscus. 

APION ('ATTLUV), a Greek grammarian, and a . 
native of Oasis Magna in Egypt, studied at Alex- ' 
andrea, and taught rhetoric at Rome in the j 
reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. In the reign 
of Caligula he left Rome, and in A.D. 38 he was 
sent by the inhabitants of Alexandrea at the 
head of an embassy to Caligula to bring forward 
complaints against the Jews residing in their 
city. Apion was the author of many works, ah 1 
of which are now lost [with the exception of a 
few fragments]. Of these the most celebrated 
were upon the Homeric poems. He is said not 
only to have made the best recension of the text 
of the poems, but to have written explanations ! 
of phrases and words in the form of a diction- 
ary (Aeeff 'OfiTjpiKai). He also wrote a work j 
on Egypt in five books, and a work against the 
Jews, to which Josephus replied in his treatise 
Against Apion. 

APION, PTOLEM^US. Vid. PTOLEILEUS, API- 
OX. 

APIS ( T AOTf). 1. Son of Phoroneus and La- 
odice, king of Argos, from whom Peloponnesus 
was called APIA : he ruled tyrannically, and was 
killed by Thelxion and Telchis. 2. The Bull of 
Memphis, worshipped with the greatest rever- 
ence as a god among the Egyptians. The Egyp- 
tians believed that he was the offspring of a 
young cow, fructified by a ray from heaven. 
Ttere were certain signs by which he was rec- 
ognized to be the god. It was requisite that 
he should be quite black, have a white square 
mark on the forehead, on his back a figure simi- 
lar to that of an eagle, have two kinds of hair in 
his tail, and on his tongue a knot resembling an 
insect called cantharus. When all these signs 
were discovered, the animal was consecrated 
with great pomp, and was conveyed to Mem- 
phis, where he had a splendid residence, con- 
taining extensive walks and courts for his 
amusement. His birth-day, wlu'ch was celebrat- 
ed every year, was his most solemn festival : it 
was a day of rejoicing for all Egypt The god 
was allowed to live only a certain number of 
years, probably twenty-five. If he had not died 
before the expiration of that period, he was killed 
and buried in a sacred well, the place of which 
was unknown except to the initiated. But if 
he died a natural death, he was buried publicly 
and solemnly ; and as his birth filled ah 1 Egypt 
with joy and festivities, so his death threw the 
whole country into grief and mourning. The 
worship of Apis was originally nothing but the 
simple worship of the bull ; but in the course of 
tune, the bull, like other animals, was regarded 
as a symbol, and Apis is hence identified with 
Osiris or the Sun. 

APIS ('Ajf : now Kasser Schama ?) a city 
of Egypt on the coast of the Mediterranean, on 
the border of the country toward Libya, about 
one hundred stadia west of Panetonium ; cele- 
brated for the worship of the god Apis. 

[AIMSAON ('Airtffuuv), son of Phausius, slain 
by Eurypylus before Troy. 2. Son of Hippasus, 
a leader of the Pseouiaus, skin by Lycomedes 
before Troy.] 

('A7r66a0//o/), a place in Argolis, 



on the sea, >ot far from Thyrea, where Danaus 
is said to have landed. 

[APOBATHRA ('ATroSaOpa . now Boja), a place 
near Sestos, where Xerxes's bridge of boats 
ended.] 

APODOTI and APODEOT^E ('A7r6(5wrof and ! ATTO 
Soroi); a pecjple in the southeast of ^Etolia, be- 
tween the Evenus and HyUethus. 

APOLLINAEIS, SIDONIUS. Vid. SIDONIUS. 

[APOLLINARIS, SULPICIUS. Vid. SPLPICIUS.J 

APOLLIMS PBOMONTORIUM ('A-n6%Auvo<; UKOOV 
now Cape Zibeeb or Cape farina), a promontory 
of Zeugitana in Northern Africa, forming the 
western point of the Gulf of Carthage. 

[APOLLINOPOLIS ('A?r6/l/l6>vof ;r6/Uf). 1. MAGNA 
Tro/ltf /jLEyukri 'A:ro/./U>vof : now Edfou\ the cap- 
ital of the nome named after it, Apolloniatps, in 
Upper Egypt, on the west bank of the Nile. The 
people of this city were haters and destroyers of 
the crocodile. 2. PARVA ('ATroAAwVoj- TJ fiLKpd : 
now jSTwss), a city of Upper Egypt on the east 
bank of the Nile, in the Nomos Coptites, between 
Coptos and Thebes.] 

APOLLO ('A-noM-ov), one of the great divini- 
ties of the Greeks, son of Jupiter (Zeus) and 
Latona (Leto), and twin-brother of Diaua (Ar 
temis), was born in the Island of Delos, whither 
Latona (Leto) had fled from the jealous Juno 
(Hera). Vid. LETO. After nine days' labor, 
the god was born under a palm or olive tree at 
the foot of Mount Cynthus, and was fed by 
Themis with ambrosia and nectar. The pow- 
ers ascribed to Apollo are apparently of different 
kinds, but all are connected with one another, 
and may be said to be only ramifications of one 
and the same, as will be seen from the follow- 
_ ' classification. He is: 1. The god who pun- 
ishes, whence some of the ancients derived his 
name from dnohXvfii, destroy. ( JSsch., Again., 
1081.) As the god who punishes, he is repre- 
sented with bow and arrows, the gift of Vulcan 
(Hephaestus) ; whence his epithets, frcarof, /ca- 
epyof, Kar7?66Aof, K/.t>Toroof and upyvporo^of, 
arcitenent, &c. All sudden deaths were be- 
lieved to be the effect of the arrows of Apollo ; 
and with them he sent the plague into the camp 
of the Greeks. 2. The god who affords help and__ 
wards off evil. As he had the power of punish- 
ing men, so he was also able to deliver men, if 
duly propitiated ; hence his epithets, uKeaiof, 
uKearup, ti/le^'/ca/cof, aun/p, uTrorpoTraioe, kiri- 
Kovptoe, larpopavrte, opifer, salutifer, etc. From 
his being the god who afforded help, he is the 
father of ^Esculapius, the god of the healing art, 
and was also identified in later times with 
Poee'on, the god of the healing art in Homer. 
Vid. P^KON. 3. Tlie god of prophecy. Apollo 
exercised this power in his numerous oracles, and 
especially in that of Delphi. Vid. Diet, of Ant., 
art. ORACULCM. He had also the power of 
communicating the gift of prophecy both to 
gods and men, and all the ancient seera and pro 
pheta are placed in some relationship to him. 
L Ttif god of song and music. We find him 
in the Iliad (L, 603) delighting the immortal 
gods with his phorminx ; and the Homeric 
bards derived their art of song either from 
Apollo or the Muses. Later traditions ascribed 
to Apollo even the invention of the flute and 
lyre, while it is more commonly related that be 
received the lyre from Mercury (Hermes). Re- 

75 



APOLLOCRATES. 



APOLLONIA. 



specting bis musical contests, vid. MARSTAS, 
MIDAS. 5. Tfte god who protects the flocks and 
cattle (vofiioc, tfeoc, from vofioc. or Ao/u//, a meadow 
ar pasture laud). There are in Homer only a 
ew allusions to tliis feature in the character of 
Apollo, but in later writers it assumes a very 
prominent form, and in the story ofcApollo tend- 
ing the flocks of Admetus at Pherae in Thessaly, 
the idea reaches its height. 6. The god who de- 
lights in the foundation of towns and the estab- 
lishment of civil constitutions. Hence a town or 
a colony was never founded by the Greeks with- 
out consulting an oracle of Apollo, so that in 
every case he became, as it were, their spiritual 
leader. 7. The god of the Sun. In Homer, 
Apollo and Helios, or the Sun, are perfectly 
distinct, and his identification with the Sun, 
though almost universal among later writers, 
was the result of later speculations and of for- 
eign, chiefly Egyptian, influence. Apollo had 
more influence upon the Greeks than any other 
god. It may safely be asserted that the Greeks 
would never have become what they were with- 
out the worship of Apollo : in him the brightest 
side of the Grecian mind is reflected. Respect- 
ing his festivals, vid. Diet, of Ant., art. APOL- 
LONIA, THARGELIA, and others. In the religion 
of the early Romans there is no trace of the 
worship of Apollo. The Romans became ac- 
quainted with this divinity through the Greeks, 
and adopted all their notions and ideas about 
him from the latter people. There is no doubt 
that the Romans knew of his worship among the 
Greeks at a very early time, and tradition says 
that they consulted his oracle at Delphi, even 
before the expulsion of the kings. But the 
first time that we hear of his worship at Rome 
is in B.C. 430, when, for the purpose of avert- 
ing a plague, a temple was raised to him, and 
soon after dedicated by the consul, C. Julius. 
A second temple was built to him in 350. Dur- 
ing the second Punic war, in 212, the ludi Apol- 
linares were instituted in his honor. Vid. Did. 
of Ant., art. LTJDI APOLLINARES. His worship, 
however, did not form a very prominent part in 
the religion of the Romans till the time of Au- 
gustus, who, after the battle of Actium, dedicat- 
ed to him a portion of the spoils, built or embel- 
lished his temple at Actium, and founded a new 
one at Rome on the Palatine, and instituted 
quinquennial games at Actium. The most beau- 
tiful and celebrated among the extant repre- 
sentations of Apollo are the Apollo Belvedere 
at Rome, which was discovered in 1503 at Ret- 
tuno, and the Apollino at Florence. In the 
Apollo Belvedere, the god is represented with 
commanding but serene majesty ; sublime intel- 
lect and physical beauty are combined in the 
most wonderful manner. 

APOLLOCRATES (' ATroM.oKpar^c), elder son of 
Dionysius the Younger, was left by his father in 
command of the island and citadel of Syracuse, 
but was compelled by famine to surrender them 
to Dion, about B.C. 354. 

AFOLLODORCS ('A7ro/,A6<5wpoc). l. Of AMPHIP- 
OLIB one of the generals of Alexander the 
Great, was intrusted in B.C. 331, together with 
Menes, with the administration of Babylon and 
of all the satrapies as far as Cilieia. 2. Tyrant 
of CASSANDREA (formerly Potidzea), in the pen- 
insula of Pallene, obtained the supreme power 
76 



in B.C. 379, and exercised it with the utmost 
cruelty. He was conquered and put to death 
by Antigonus Gonatas. 8. Of CARYSTUS, a 
comic poet, probably lived B.C. 300-260, and 
was one of the most distinguished of the poets 
of the new Attic comedy. It was from him that 
Terence took his Hecyra and Phormio. 4. Of 
GELA in Sicily, a comic poet and a coutempo 
rary of Menander, lived B.C. 340-290. He is 
frequently confounded with Apollcdorus of Ca- 
rystus. 5. A GRAMMARIAN of Athens, son of 
Asclepiades, and pupil of Aristarehus and Pana> 
tius, flourished about B.C. 140. He wrote a 
great number of worka, all of which have per- 
ished with the exception of his Bibliotheca. 
This work consists of three books, and is by far 
the best among the extant works of the kind. 
It contains a well-arranged account of the my- 
thology and the heroic age of Greece : it begins 
with the origin of the gods, and goes down to 
the time of Theseus, when the work suddenly 
breaks off. Editions : By K<>yne, Gottingeu, 
1803, 2d ed; by Clavier, Paris, 1805, with a 
French translation ; and by Westermann in the 
Mythographi, Brunswick, 1843. Of the many 
other works of Apollodorus, one of the most im- 
portant was a chronicle in iambic verses, com- 
prising the history of one thousand and forty 
years, from the destruction of Troy (1184) down 
to his own time, B.C. 143. 6. Of PERGAMUS, a 
Greek rhetorician, taught rhetoric at Apollonia in 
his advanced age, and had as a pupil the young 
Octavius, afterward the Emperor Augustus. 7. 
A painter of Athens, flourished about B.C. 408, 
with whom commenced a new period in the his- 
tory of the art He made a great advance in 
coloring, and invented chiaroscuro. 8. An ar- 
chitect of Damascus, lived under Trajan ant' 
Hadrian, by the latter of whom he was put to 
death. [9. Of PHALERUM, one of the intimate 
friends of Socrates, and who was present at his 
death. 10. Of LEMNOS, a writer on agriculture 
previous to the time of Aristotle.] 

APOLLONIA ('ATroAAwvta : 'Airo'h\uviu77}<?). 1. 
(NovrPollina or Pollona), an important town in 
Illyria or New Epirus, not far from the mouth 
of the Aous, and sixty stadia from the sea. It 
was founded by the Corinthians and Corcyrse- 
ans, snd was equally celebrated as a place of 
commerce and learning: many distinguished 
Romans, among others the young Octavius, af- 
terward the Emperor Augustus, pursued their 
studies here. Persons travelling from Italy to 
Greece and the East, usually landed either at 
Apollouia or Dyrrhachium ; and the Via Egnatia, 
the great high road to the East, commenced at 
Apollonia, or, according to others, at Dyrrha- 
chium. Vid. EGNATIA VIA. 2. (Now Polina), 
a town in Macedonia, on the Via Egnatia, be- 
tween Thessalonica and Amphipolis, and south 
of the Lake of Bolbe. 3. (Now Sizeboli), a 
town in Thrace on the Black Sea, with two 
harbors, a colony of Miletus, afterward called 
Sozopolis, whence its modern name : it had a 
celebrated temple of Apollo, from which Lucul- 
lus carried away a colossus of this god, and 
erected it on the Capitol at Rome. 4. A castle 
or fortified town of the Locri Ozolse, near Nau- 
pactus. 5. A town in Sicily, on the northern 
coast, of uncertain site. 6. (Now Abullionle), a 
town in Bithynia, on the Lake Apolloniatis, 



APOLLONIATIS. 



APOLLONIUS. 



throngh which the River Rhyndacus flows. 7. 
A town on the borders of Mysia and Lydia, be- 
tween Pergamus and Sardis. 8. A town in 
Palestina, between Caesarea and Joppa. 9. A 
town in Assyria, in the district of Apolloniatis, 
through which the Delas or Durus (now Diala) 
flows. (10. Now Marza Susa), a town in Cy- 
renaica, and the harbor of Gyrene, one of the five 
towns of tbe Peutapolis in Libya: it was the 
birth-place of Eratosthenes. 

[APOLLONIATIS. Vid. ASSYRIA, 1.] 

[APOLLONIDAS ('ATroA/lwviJaf), a Greek poet, 
under "whose name there are thirty-one pieces 
extant in the Greek Anthology. He flourished 
under Augustus and Tiberius.] 

[APOLLONIDES ('ATro/lAwwo^f, Dor. 'A7ro/l/lwv- 
tdaf). 1. Commander of the cavalry in Olyn- 
thus, who opposed Philip of Macedon, and pre- 
vented the surrender of the town to him. Philip, 
however, by his agents in Olyuthus, procured 
his banishment. 2. A Boeotian officer in the 
army of Cyrus the Younger, who was, after the 
death of Cyrus, deprived of his office, and de- 
graded to a menial condition. 3. Of CHIOS, 
who betrayed Chios to the Persian general 
Memnon during Alexander's eastern expedi- 
tion : he was afterward taken and put in con- 
finement. 4. A Stoic philosopher, friend of the 
younger Cato, with whom he conversed on the 
allowableness of suicide before committing that 
act at Utica. 5. A Greek physician and sur- 
geon, born at Cos, obtained reputation and hon- 
or at the Persian court under Artaxerxes Lou- 
gimanus. He became engaged in a disreputa- 
ble attempt, and was put to death by torture.] 

APOLLONIS ('ATro/Dlwvif), a city in Lydia, be- 
tween Pergamus and Sardis, named after Apol- 
lonis, the mother of King Eumenes. It was 
one of the twelve cities of Asia which were 
destroyed by an earthquake in the reign of Ti- 
berius (A.D. 17). 

APOLLONIUS ('ATroZhuviof). 1. Of ALABANDA 
in Caria, a rhetorician, taught rhetoric at Rhodes 
about B.C. 100. He was a very distinguished 
teacher of rhetoric, and used to ridicule and de- 
spise philosophy. He was surnamed 6 MaXa/cof. 
and must be distinguished from the following. 
2. Of ALABANDA, surnamed MOLO, likewise a 
rhetorician, taught rhetoric at Rhodes, and also 
distinguished himself as a pleader in the courts 
of justice. In B.C. 81, when Sulla was dicta- 
tor, Apollonius came to Rome as ambassador 
of the Rhodians, on -which occasion Cicero 
heard him ; Cicero also received instruction 
from Apollonius at Rhodes a few years later. 
3. Son of ARCHEBULUS, a grammarian of Alex- 
andrea, in the first century of the Christian era, 
and a pupil of Didymus. He wrote an Homeric 
Lexicon, which is still extant, and, though much 
interpolated, is a work of great value. Edi- 
tion*: By Villoison, Paris, 1773 ; by H. Tollius, 
Lugd. Bat, 1788 : and by Bekker, Berlin, 1833. 
3. Surnamed DYSCOLUS, " the ill-tempered," 
a grammarian at Alexandrea, in the reigns of 
Hadrian and Antoninus Pius (A.D. 117-161), 
taught at Rome as well as Alexandrea. He 
uii'l his son HERODIANUS are called by Priscian 
the greatest of all grammarians. Apollonius | 
was the first who reduced grammar to any ! 
thing like a system. Of his numerous works ] 
only four ar% extant 1. Heal owrufrut rov i 



"koyov fiepuv, "De Constructione Orationis," or 
" De Ordinatione sive Coustructione Dictio- 
num," in four books ; edited by Fr. Sylburg, 
Frankf., 1590, and by I. Bekker, Berlin, 1817. 
j 2. Hepl uvruvv/Liias, " De Pronomine ;" edited 
I by I. Bekker, Berlin, 1814. 3. Ilepl avvdia^uv, 
" De Conjunctionibus," and, 4. Tlepl kT7ippiip.d-uv, 
"De Adverbiis," printed in Bekker's Anccdot., 
ii., p. 477, Ac. Among the works ascribed to 
Apollonius by Suidas there is one, irepl Kare^teva- 
ftevjjs iG-opiaf, on fictitious or forged histories . 
this has been erroneously supposed to be tho 
same as the extant work 'laropiat davfjLaa'iai, 
which purports to be written by an Apollouius 
(published by "Westermann, Paradoxographi, 
Brunswick, 1839); but it is now admitted that 
the latter work was written by an Apollouius 
who is otherwise unknown. 5. PERG^EUS, from 
Perga in Pamphylia, one of the greatest mathe- 
maticians of antiquity, commonly called the 
" Great Geometer," was educated at Alexan- 
drea under the successors of Euclid, and flour- 
ished about B.C. 250-220. His most important 
work was a treatise on Conic Sections in eight 
books, of which the first four, with the com- 
mentary of Eutocius, are extant in Greek ; and 
all but the eighth in Arabic. We have also in- 
troductory lemmata to all the eight by Pappus 
Edited by Halley, " Apoll. Perg. Conic, lib. viii.," 
<fec., Oxoa, 1710, fol. The eighth book is a 
conjectural restoration founded on the introdue 
tory lemmata of Pappus. 6. RHODIUS, a pool 
and grammarian, son of Silleus or Illeus and 
Rhode, was born at Alexandrea, or, according 
to one statement, at Naucratis, and flourished 
in the reigns of Ptolemy Philopator and Ptolemy 
Epiphanes (B.C. 222-181). In his youth he was 
instructed by Calltomchus ; but they afterward 
became bitter enemies. Their tastes were en- 
tirely different ; for Apollonius admired and imi- 
tated the simplicity of the ancient epic poets, 
and disliked and despised the artificial and learn- 
ed poetry of Callimachus. When Apollouius 
read at Alexandrea his poem on the Argonautic 
expedition (Argonautica), it did not meet with 
the approbation of the audience ; he attributed 
its failure to the intrigues of Callimachus, and 
revenged himself by writing a bitter epigram 
on Callimachus which is still extant. (Anth. 
Grcec., xi., 275.) Callimachus, in return, attack- 
ed Apollonius in his Ibis, which was imitated by 
Ovid in a poem of the same name. Apollonius 
now left Alexandrea and went to Rhodes, where 
he taught rhetoric with so much success, that 
the Romans honored him with their franchise 
hence he was called the " Rhodian." He after- 
ward returned to Alexandrea, where he read a 
revised edition of his Arqonautica with great 
applause. He succeeded Eratosthenes as chiel 
librarian at Alexandrea, in the reign of Ptolemy 
Epiphanes, about B.C. 194, and appears to have 
held this office till his death. The Argonaut- 
ica, which consists of four books, and is still ex- 
tant gives a straightforward and simple descrip- 
tion of the adventures of the Argonauts : it is a 
close imitation of the Homeric language and 
style, but exhibits marks of art and labor, and 
thus forms, notwithstanding its many resem- 
blances, a contrast with the natural and easy 
flow of the Homeric poems. Among the Ro- 
mans the "<vork was much read, and P. Teren- 

77 



APOLLONIUS. 

uua Varro Atacinus acquired great reputation 
by his translation of it The Argonautica of 
Valerius Fluecus is only a free imitation of 
it Editions : By Brunck, Argentorat, 1780 ; 
by G. Schajfcr, Lips., 1810-13 ; by Wcllauer, 
Lips., 1828. Apollonius wrote several other 



APPIANUS. 



the life of Apollonius was not written with a 
controversial aim, as the resemblances, although 
real, only indicate that a few things were bor- 
rowed, and exhibit no trace of a systematic 
parallel Vid. PIIILOSTBATUS. 8. Of TYEE, u 
Stoic philosopher, who lived in the reign of 



works which are now lost. 7. TTANEXSIS or Ptolemy Auletes, wrote a history of the Stoic 
TTAX-JHJS, i. e~, of Tyana in Cappadocia, a Py- philosophy from the time of Zeno. 9. APOLLO- 
thiigoreau philosopher, was born about four NIUS and TAUKISCCS of Tralles, were two broth 
years before the Christian era. At a period . ers, and the sculptors of the group which is corn- 
when there was a general belief in magical I monly known as the Farnese bull, representing 
powers, it would appear that Apollonius obtain- the punishment of Dirce by Zethus and Amphi- 
ed great influence by pretending to them ; and , on. Vid. DIRCE. It was taken from Rhodes to 
wo may believe that his Life by Philostratus Rome by Asinius Polh'o, and afterward placed in 
gives a just idea of -his character and reputation, the baths of Caracalla, where it was dug up in 
In '\\vver inconsistent in its facts and absurd in j the sixteenth century, and deposited in the Far- 
its marvels. Apollonius, according to Philos- j nese palace. It is now at Naples. Apollonius 
tratus, wns of noble ancestry, and studied first : and Tauriscus probably flourished in the first cen- 
under Euthydemus of Tarsus ; but, being dis- tury of the Christian era. 
gustcd at the luxury of the inhabitants?- he re- APOLLOPHANES ' 



f), a poet of the 

tired to the neighboring town of JSgae, where old Attic comedy, of whose comedies a few frag- 

he studied the whole circle of the Platonic, i ments are extant, lived about B.C. 400. [The 

- Skeptic, Epicurean, and Peripatetic philosophy, ; fragments are collected in Meineke's Fragm. Com. 



and ended by giving his preference to the Pyth- ! Grcec., vol. i., p. 482-484, edit, minor.] 
agovean. He devoted himself to the strictest ! APOXUS or APOXI Foxs (now Abano), warm 
asceticism, and subsequently travelled through- medicinal springs near Patavium, hence called 
out the East, visiting Nineveh, Babylon, and Aquae Patavinae, were much frequented by the 
India. On his return to Asia Minor, we first sick. 

hear of his pretensions to miraculous power, ; APPIA or APIA ('J&nrfa, 'AJTZ), a city of Phry- 
founded, as it would seem, on the possession of gia Pacatiana. 

some divine knowledge derived from the East APPIA VIA, the most celebrated of the Roman 
From Ionia he crossed over into Greece, and i roads (regina viarum, Stat, Silv., ii., 2, 12,), was 
came thence to Rome, where he arrived just ; commenced by Appius Claudius Caecus when 
after an edict against magicians had been issued : censor, B.C. 319, and was the great line of corn- 
by Nero. He accordingly remained only a short munication between Rome and Southern Italy, 
time at Rome, and next went to Spain and Af- It issued from the Porta Capena, and, passing 
rica ? at Alexandrea he was of assistance to < through Aricia, Tres Tabernce, Appii Forum, 
Vespasian, who was preparing to seize the em- ; Tarracina, Fundi, Formice, Minturnce, Sinucssa, 
pire. The last journey of Apollonius was to and Casilinum, terminated at Capua, but was 
^Ethiopia, whence he returned to settle in the eventually extended through Calatia and Cau- 
Ionian cities. On the accession of Domitian, dium to Beneventum, and finally thence through 
Apollonius was accused of exciting an insur- Venusia, Tarentum, and Uria, to Brundisium. 
rection against the tyrant : he voluntarily sur- ! APPIANUS ('Anxiavof), the Roman historian, 
rendered himself, and appeared at Rome before was born at Alexandrea, and lived at Rome 
the emperor ; but, as his destruction seemed during the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian, and An- 
impending, he escaped by the exertion of his toninus Pius. He wrote a Roman history 
supernatural powers. The last years of his life ('PujtaiKu or Pw//ai'/c?} laTopia) in twenty-four 
were spent at Ephesus, where he is said to have : books, arranged, not synchronistically, but eth- 
proclaimed the death of the tyrant Domitian at nographically, that is, he did not relate the his- 
the instant it took place. Many of the won- tory of the Roman empire as a whole in chro- 
clers which Philostratus relates in connection I nological order, but he gave a separate account 
with Apollonius are a clumsy imitation of the j of the affairs of each country, till it was finally 
Christian miracles. The proclamation of the j incorporated in the Roman empire. The sub- 
birth of Apollouius to his mother by Proteus, ! jects of the different books were : 1. The king- 
and the incarnation of Proteus himself, the cho- ! ly period. 2. Italy. 3. The Samnites. 4. The 
rus of swans which sang for joy on the occa- j Gauls or Celts. 5. Sicily and the other islands, 
feion, the casting out of devils, raising the dead, i 6. Spain. 7. Hannibal's wars. 8. Libya, Car- 
and healing the sick, the sudden disappearances ' thage, and Numidia. 9. Macedonia. 10. Greece 
and reappearances of Apollonius, his adventures ! and the Greek states in Asia Minor. 11. Syria 
iiwthc cave of Trophonius, and the sacred voice j and Parthia. 12. The war with Mithradates, 
which called him at his death, to which may be 1 13-21. The civil wars, in nine books, froir. 
added his claim as a teacher having: authority to | those of Marius and Sulla to the battle of Ac 

. . . / j. v _ i i * . _ 



reform the world, can not fail to suggest the 
parallel passages in the Gospel history, [from 
which they have evidently been borrowed.] 
We know, too, that Apollonius was one among 
many rivals set up by the Eclectics to our Sa- 
viour, an attempt renewed by the English free- 
thinkers Blount and Lord Herbert Still it must 
be allowed that the resemblances are very gen- 
wal and, on the whole, it seems probable that 
78 



tium. 22. 'E/carovrafno, comprised the history 
of a hundred years, from the battle of Actium 
to the beginning of Vespasian's reign. 23. The 
wars with Illyria. 24. Those with Arabia 
We possess only eleven of these complete, 
namely, the sixth, seventh, eighth, eleventh, 
twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, six- 
teenth, seventeenth, and twenty-third : there 
are fragments of several of the* others. Th 



APPIAS. 



APULIA 



Parthian history, which has come down to us 
:is part of the eleventh book, is not a work of 
Appian, but merely a compilation from Plu- 
tarch's Lives of Antony and Crassus. Appian's 
work is a compilation. His style is clear and 
simple ; but he possesses few merits as an his- 
torian, and he frequently makes the most ab- 
surd blunders. Thus, for instance, he places 
Saguntum on the north of the Iberus, and states 
that it takes only half a day to sail from Spain 
to Britaia The best edition is that of Schweig- 
hauser, Lips., 1785. 

APPIAS, a nymph of the Appian well, which 
was situated near the temple of Venus Genetrix 
in the forum of Julius Caesar. It was surrounded 
by statues of nymphs, called Appiades. 
APPII FORUM. Vid. FORUM APPIL 
[APPIOL.E, an old city of Latium, said to have 
been taken and burned by Tarquinius Priscus, 
and to have furnished from its spoils the sums 
necessary for the construction of the Circus 
Maximus.] 

[APPIUS CLAUDIUS. Vid. CLAUDIUS.] 
APPULEIUS or APULEIUS, of Medaura in Africa, 
was born about A.D. 130, of respectable parents. 
He received the first rudiments of education at 
Carthage, and afterward studied the Platonic 
philosophy at Athens. He next travelled ex- 
tensively, visitiag Italy, Greece, and Asia, and 
becoming initiated in most mysteries. At length 
he returned home, but soon afterward undertook 
a new journey to Alexandrea. On his way 
thither he was taken ill at the town of (Ea, and 
was hospitably received into the house of a 
young man, Sicinius Pontianus, whose mother, 
a very rich widow of the name of Pudentilla, 
he married. Her relatives, being indignant that 
so much wealth should pass out of the family, 
impeached Appuleius of gaining the affections 
of Pudentilla by charms and magic spells. The 
cause was heard at Sabrata before Claudius 
Maximus, proconsul of Africa, AD. 173, and 
the defence spoken by Appuleius is still extant. 
Of his subsequent career we know little : he 
occasionally declaimed in public with great ap- 
plause. The most important of the extant works 
of Appuleius are, 1. Metamorphoseon sen de Asino 
Aureo Libri XL This celebrated romance, to- 
gether with the Asinus of Lucian, is said to have 
been founded upon a work bearing the same 
title by a certain Lucius of Patrae. It seems to 
have been intended simply as a satire upon the 
hypocrisy and debauchery of certain orders of 
priests, the frauds of juggling pretenders to su- 
pernatural powers, and the general profligacy 
of public morals. There are some, however, 
who discover a more recondite meaning, and 
especially Bishop Warburton, in his Divine Le- 
gation of Moses, who has at great length en- 
deavored to prove that the Golden Ass was 
written with the view of recommending the Pa- 
gan religion in opposition to Christianity, and 
especially of inculcating the importance of initia- 
tion into the purer mysteries. The well-known 
and beautiful episode of Cupid and Psyche is in- 
troduced in the fourth, fifth, and sixth books. 
This, whatever opinion we may form of the prin- 
cipal narrative, is evidently an allegory, and is 
generally understood to shadow forth the pro- 
gress of the soul to perfection. II. Floridorum 
Libri IV. An Anthology, containing select ex- 



| tracts from various orations and dissertations, 

i collected, probably, by some admirer. IIL De 

I Deo Socratis Liber. IV. De Dogmate Platonis 

\ Libri ires. The first book contains some ac- 

j count of the speculative doctrines of Plato, the 

second of his morals, the third of his logic. V 

De Mundo Liber. A translation of the work 

Kepi Koapov, at one time ascribed to Aristotle. 

VL Apologia sive De Magia Liber. The oration 

described above, delivered before Claudius Max- 

imus. The best edition of the whole works of 

Appuleius is by Hildebrand, Lips., 1842. 

APPULEIUS SATURNINUS. Vid, SATURXINTJS. 

APRIES ('ATrplrif, 'ATrpiaf), a king of Egypt, 
the Pharaoh-Hophra of Scripture, succeeded his 
father Psammis, and reigned B.C. 595-570. Af- 
ter an unsuccessful attack upon Cyrene he was 
dethroned and put to death by AMASIS. 

APRONIUS. 1. Q., one of the worst instru- 
ments of Verres in oppressing the Sicilians. 
2. L., served under Drusus (A.D. 14) and Ger- 
manicus (15) in Germany. In 20 he was pro- 
consul of Africa, and prater of Lower Germany, 
where he lost his life in a war against the Frisii. 
Apronius had two daughters, one of whom was 
married to Plautius Silvanus, the other to Len- 
tulus Gcetulicus, consul in 26. 

[APRVSA (now Ausa), a river of Umbria in 
Italy, flowing near Ariminum.] 

[APSEUDES ('A.ipev6jjf), a Nereid, mentioned in 
the Iliad of Homer.] 

APSIL^E ('A^tAoi), a Scythian people in Col- 
chis, north of the River Phasis. 

APSINES ('ktjjivijf), of Gadara in Phoenicia, a 
Greek Sophist and rhetorician, taught rhetoric 
at Athens about A.D. 235. Two of his works 
are extant : Hepl TUV fieptiv TOV KO^ITIKOV 7\,6yov 
~X vr )> which is much interpolated ; and Hepl 
TUV laxfifiariopevuv Trpo6/i7]fj.uruv, both of which 
are printed in Walz., RJietor. Greed, vol. ix., p. 
465, sqq., and p. 534, sqq. 

[APSINTHII ('Aipiv6ioi), a people of Thrace. 
said by Herodotus to border on the Thraciau 
Chersonesus.] 

APSUS (now Crevasta), a river in Ulyria (Nova 
Epirus), which flows into the Ionian Sea 

APSYRTUS. Vid. ABSYRTUS. 

APTA JULIA (now Apt), chief town of the Vul- 
gientes in Gallia Narboneusis, and a Roman 
colony. 

APTERA ('Asrepa : 'AnrepaZof : now Palceo- 
kastron on the Gulf of Suda), a town on the west 
coast of Crete, eighty stadia from Cydouin. 

APUANI, a Ligurian people on the Macra, were 
subdued bv the Romans after a long resistance 
and transplanted to Samnium, B.C. 180. 

APULEIUS. Vid. APPULEIUS. 

APULIA (Apultis), included, in its widest sig- 

nification, the whole of the southeast of Italv 

from the River Frento to the promontory lapy- 

giuni, and was bounded on the north by the 

Frentani, on the east by the Adriatic, on the 

j south by the Tarentine Gulf, and on the west 

1 by Samnium and Lucania, thus including the 

i modern provinces of Bari, Otranto, and Capi- 

tanata, in the kingdom of Naples. Apulia, in it? 

narrower sense, was the country east of Sam- 

| nium on both sides of the Aufidus, the Daunin 

and Peucetia of the Greeks : the whole of the 

southeastpart was called Calabria by the Ilo- 

! mans. The Greeks gave the name of Dni.nia 

79 



AQU^E. 

to the north part of the country from the Frcnto 
to the Aufidus, of Peucetia to the country from 
the Aufidus to Tarentum and Brundisiurn, and 
of lapygia or Mcssapia to the whole of the re- 
maining south part, though they sometimes in- 
cluded under lapygia all Apulia in its widest 
meaning. The northwest of Apulia is a plain, 
but the south part is traversed by the east branch 
of the Apennines, and has only a small tract of 
land on the coast on each side of the mountains. 
The country was very fertile, especially in the 
neighborhood of Tarentum, and the mountains 
afforded excellent pasturage. The population 
was of a mixed nature : they were, for uie most 
part, of Illyrian origin, and are said to have set- 
tled in the country under the guidance of lapyx, 
Daunus, and Peucetius, three sons of an lllyr- 
iau king, Lycaon. Subsequently many towns 
were founded by Greek colonists. The Apu- 
lians joined the Sarnnites against the Romans, 
and became subject to the latter on the conquest 
of the Samnites. 

AQU^E, the name given t>y the Romans to 
many medical springs and bathing-places. 1. 
AUUELI.C or COLONIA AURELIA AQUEXSIS (now 
Badcn-Badcn). 2. CALID.E or Sous (now Bath) 
in Britain. 3. CUTILLE, mineral springs in Sam- 
nitim near the ancient town of Cutilia, which 
perished in early times, and east of Reate. 
There was a celebrated lake in its neighborhood 
with a floating island, which was regarded as 
the umbilicus or centre of Italy. Vespasian 
died at this place. 4. MATTIAC.* or FOXTES 
MATTIACI (now Wiesbaden), in the land of the 
Mattiaci in Germany. 5. PATAVIN^E (vid. APOXI 
Foxs). 6. SEXTLS (aovr-Aix), a Roman colony 
in Gallia Narbonensis, founded by Sextius Cal- 
vinus, B.C. 122 ; its mineral waters were long 
celebrated, but were thought to have lost much 
of their efficacy in the time of Augustus. Near 
this place Marius defeated the Teuton!, B.C. 
102. 7. STATIELLJE (now Acqui), a town of the 
Statielli in Liguria, celebrated for its warm 
baths. 



, in Africa. 1. (Now Meriga, ruins), in 
the interior of Mauretania Caesariensis. 2. CA- 
LID.S (now Gurbos or Hammam I' Enf), on the 
Gulf of Carthage. 3. REGIME (now Hammam 
Tmzza), in the north part of Byzacena. 4. 
TACAPITAX.E (now Hammat-el-Khabs), at the 
southern extremity of Byzacena, close to the 
large city of Tacape (now Jfhabs). 

AQUILA. 1. Of Pontus, translated the Old 
Testament into Greek in the reign of Hadrian, 
probably about A.D. 130. Only a few fragments 
remain, which have been published in the edi- 
tions of the Hexapla of Origen. 2. JULIUS 
AQUILA, i Roman jurist quoted in the Digest, 
probably lived under or before the reign of Sep- 
timius Severus, A.D. 193-198. 3. L. PONTIUS 
AQUILA, a friend of Cicero, and one of Caesar's 
murderers, was killed at the battle of Mutina, 
B.C. 43. 4. AQUILA ROMAXUS, a rhetorician who 
probably lived in the third century after Christ, 
wrote a small work entitled De Figuris Senten- 
tiarum et Elocutionis, which is usually printed 
with Rutilius Lupus. Editions: By Ruhnken, 
Lugd. Bat, 1768, reprinted with additional notes 
by Frotscher, Lips., 1831. 

AQUILARIA (now Alhowareafi), a town on the 
coast of Zeugitana in Africa, on the west side 
80 



ARA UBIORUM. 

of Hermaeum Promontorium (now Cape Bvn\ 
the eastern extremity of the Gulf of Carthage 
It was a good landing-place in summer. 

AQUILEIA (Acjuileiensis : now Aquileia or 
Aglar), a town in Gullia Transpadaua, at the 
very top of the Adriatic, between the rivers 
Sontius and Natiso, about sixty stadia from the 
sea. It was founded by the Romans in B.C. 
182 as a bulwark against the northern barbari- 
ans, and is said to have derived its name from 
the favorable omen of an eagle (aquila) appear- 
ing to the colonists. As it was the key of Italy 
on the northeast, it was made one of the strong- 
est fortresses of the Romans. From its posi- 
tion it became also a most flourishing place of 
commerce : the Via ^Emih'a was continued to 
this town, and from it all the roads to Rae- 
tia, Noricum, Pannonia, Istria, and Dalmatia 
branched off. It was taken and completely de- 
stroyed by Attila in A.D. 452 : its inhabitants 
escaped to the Lagoons, where Venice was after- 
ward built. 

AQUILLIA VIA, began at Capua, and ran south 
through Nola and Nuceria to Salcrnum; from 
thence it ran through the very heart of Luca- 
uia and the country of the Bruttii, passing Neru- 
lum, Interamnia, Cosentia, Vibo, and Medina, and 
terminated at Rhegium. 

AQUILLIUS or AQUILIUS. 1. M', consul B.C. 
129, finished the war against Aristonicus, son 
of Eumenes of Pergamus. On his return to 
Rome he was accused of maladministration in 
his province, but was acquitted by bribing the 
judges. 2. M'., consul in B.C. 101, conquered 
the slaves in Sicily, who had revolted under 
Atheuion. In 98 he was accused of maladmin- 
istration in Sicily, but was acquitted. In 88 he 
went into Asia as one of the consular legates 
in the Mithradatic war : he was defeated, and 
handed over by the inhabitants of Mytilene to 
Mithradatcs, who put him to death by pouring 
molten gold down his throat. 

AQUILLIUS GALLUS. Vid. GALLUS. 

AQUILOXIA (Aquilonus), a town of Samnium, 
east of Bovianum, destroyed by the Romans in 
the Samnite ware. 

AQUIXUM (Aquinas : now Aquino), a town of 
the Volscians, east of the River Melpis, in a fer- 
tile country ; a Roman municipium, and after- 
ward a colony ; the birth-place of Juvenal ; cel- 
ebrated for its purple dye. (Hor., Ep., i., 10, 
27.) 

AQUITANIA. 1. The country of the Aquitani, 
extended from the Garumna (now Garonne) tc 
the Pyrenees, and from the ocean to Gallia Nar- 
boneusis : it was first conquered by Caesar's le- 
gates, and again upon a revolt of the inhabitants 
in the time of Augustus. 2. The Roman prov- 
ince of Aquitania, formed io the reign of Au- 
justus, was of much wider extent, and was 
bounded on the north by the Ligeris (now Loire), 
on the west by the ocean, on the south by the 
Pyrenees, and on the east by the Mous Ceven- 
na, which separated it from Gallia Narbonensis. 
The Aquitani were one of the three races which 
inhabited Gaul ; they were of Iberian or Span- 
ish origin, and differed from the Gauls and Bel- 
gians in language, customs, and physical pecu- 
liarity. 

ARA UBIORUM, a place in the neighborhood of 
Bonn in Germany, perhaps Qodesbcrg : others 



ARABIA. 



ARABIA. 



'suppose it to be another name of Colonia Agrip- 
pina (now Cologne). 

ARABIA (rj 'Apafiia : 'Apaij>, pi. *Apa5e, "Apafioi, 
Arabs, Ai-abus, pi. Arabes, Arabi: now Arabia), 
a country at the southwest extremity of Asia, 
forming a large peninsula, of a sort of hatchet- 
shape, bounded on the west by the AEABICUS 
SINUS (now Red Sea), on the south and south- 
east by the ERYTHR^EUM MAKE (now Gulf of 
Bab-el-Afaiideb and Indian Ocean), and on the 
northeast by the Persicus Sinus (now Persian 
Gulf). On the north or land side its bounda- 
ries were somewhat indefinite, but it seems to 
have included the whole of the desert country 
between Egypt and Syria on the one side, and 
the banks of the Euphrates on the other ; and it 
was often considered to extend even further on 
both sides, so as to include, on the east, the 
southern part of Mesopotamia along the left 
bank of the Euphrates, and on the west, the 
part of Palestine east of the Jordan, and the 
part of Egypt between the Red Sea and the 
eastern margin of the Nile valley, which, even 
as a part of Egypt, was called Arabiae Nomos. 
In the stricter sense of the name, which confines 
it to the peninsula itself, Arabia may be consid- 
ered as Ixjunded on the north by a line from the 
head of the Red Sea (at Suez) to the mouth of 
the Tigris (now Skat-el-Arab), which just about 
coincides with the parallel of thirty degrees north 
latitude. It was divided into three parts : (1.) 
ARABIA PETR^EA (if Trerpaia 'Apadia: northwest 
part of El-Hejaz), including the triangular piece 
of land between the two heads of the Red Sea 
(the peninsula of Mount Sinai) and the country 
immediately to the north and northeast, and 
called, from its capital, Petra, while the literal 
signification of the name, " Rocky Arabia," agrees 
also with the nature of the country : (2.) ARA- 
BIA DESERTA (now El-Jebel), including the great 
Syrian Desert, and a portion of the interior of 
the Arabian peninsula : (3.) ARABIA FELIX (now 
El-Nejed, El-Hejaz, El- Yemen, El-Hadramaut, 
Oman, and El-Hejer) consisted of the whole 
country not inclnded in the other two divisions ; 
the ignorance of the ancients respecting the 
interior of the peninsula leading them to class 
it with Arabia Felix, although it properly be- 
longs to Arabia Deserta, for it consists, so far as 
it is known, of a sandy desert of steppes and 
table laud, interspersed with Oases ( Wadis), and 
fringed with mountains, between which and the 
sea, especially on the western coast, lies a belt 
of low land (called Teh amah), intersected by 
numerous mountain torrents, which irrigate the 
strips of land on their banks, and produce that 
fertility which caused the ancients to apply 
the epithet of Felix to the whole peninsula. 
The width of the Tehamah is, in some places 
on the western coast, as much as from one to 
two days' journey, but on the other sides it 
is very narrow, except at the eastern end of 
the peninsula (about Muskal in Oman), where 
for a small space its width is again a day's 
journey. The inhabitants of Arabia were of 
the race called Semitic or Aramajan, and closely 
related to the Israelites. The northwestern dis- 
trict (Arabia Petrsea) was inhabited by the 
various tribes which constantly appear in Jew- 
Uh history : the Amalekites, Midiauites, Edoru- 
ites, Moabites, Ammonites, tc. The Greeks 
6 



and Romans called the inhabitants by the name 
of NABATH^EI, whose capital was Petra. The 
people of Arabia Deserta were called Arabes 
SceuitaB C^Kijvlrai), from their dwelling in tents, 
and Arabes Nomades (No//ddef), from their 
mode of life, which was that of wandering 
herdsmen, who supported themselves partly by 
their cattle, and to a great extent, also, by the 
plunder of caravans, as their unchanged de 
scendants, the Bedouins or Bedawce, still do 
The people of the Tehamah were (and are) of 
the same race ; but their position led them at 
an early period to cultivate both agriculture 
and commerce, and to build considerable cities. 
Their chief tribes were known by the follow- 
ing names, beginning south of the Nabathaei 
on the western coast : the Thamydeni and Minaei 
(in the southern part of Hejaz), in the neigh- 
borhood of Macoraba (now Mecca) ; the Saba?i 
and Homeritae, in the southwestern part of the 
peninsula (now Yemen); on the southeastern 
coast, the Chatramolltse and Adramltae (in El- 
Hadramaut, a country very little known, even 
to the present day) ; on the eastern and north- 
eastern coast, the Omamtae and Daracheni (in 
Oman, and El-Ahsa or El-Hejer). From the 
earliest known period a considerable traffic 
was carried on by the people in the north (espe 
cially the Nabathaei) by means of caravans, 
and by those on the southern and eastern coast 
by sea, in the productions of their own country 
(chiefly gums, spices, and precious stones), and 
in those of India and Arabia. Besides this 
peaceful intercourse with the neighboring coun. 
tries, they seem to have made military expe 
ditions at an early period, for there can be no 
doubt that the Hyksos or " Shepherd-kings,' 
who for some time ruled over Lower Egypt. 
were Arabians. On the other hand, they have 
successfully resisted all attempts to subjugate 
them. The alleged conquests of some of the 
Assyrian kings could only have affected small 
portions of the country on the north. Of the 
Persian empire we are expressly told that they 
were independent Alexander the Great died 
too soon even to attempt his contemplated 
scheme of circumnavigating the peninsula and 
subduing the inhabitants. The Greek kings of 
Syria made unsuccessful attacks upon the Naba- 
thaei. Under Augustus, ^Elius Gallus, assisted 
by the Nabathaei, made an expedition into Ara- 
bia Felix, but was compelled to retreat intfl 
Egypt to save his army from famine and the 
climate. Under Trajan, Arabia Petroea was 
conquered by A. Cornelius Palma (A.D. 107), 
and the country of the Nabathaei became a Ro- 
man province. Some partial and temporary 
footing was gained at a much later period, on th 
southwestern coast, by the ^Ethiopians; and 
both in this direction and from the north Chris 
tiauity was early introduced into the country, 
where it spread to a great extent, and continued 
to exist side by side with the old religion (which 
was Sabaism, or the worship of heavenly bo- 
dies), and with some admixture of Judaism, 
until the total revolution produced by the rise 
of Mohammedanism in 622. While maintain 
ing their independence, the Arabs of the Desert 
have also preserved to this day their ancient 
form of government, which is strictly patri- 
archal, under the heads of tribes and families 
81 



ARABICUS SINUS. 

(Emirt and Sheiks). In the more settled dis- 
tricts, the patriarchal authority passed into the 
hands of kings, and the people were divided 
into the several castes of scholars, warriors, 
n^rieulturists, merchants, and mechanics. The 
Mohammedan revolution lies beyond our limits. 

ARABICUS SINUS (6 'Apafanof *6/l-of: now 
Red Sea), a long narrow gulf between Africa 
and Arabia, connected on the south with the 
Indian Ocean by the Angustiaa Divze (uow Straits 
of Bab-el-Mandcb), and on the north divided into 
two heads by the peninsula of Arabia Petrsea 
(now Peninsula of Sinai), the east of which was 
called Sinus ^Elanites or ^Elaniticus (now Gulf 
of Akaba), and the west Sinus Heroopolites or 
Heroopoliticus (now Gulf of Suez). The upper 
part of the sea was known at a very early pe- 
riod, but it was not explored in its whole ex- 
tent till the maritime expeditions of the Ptole- 
mies. Respecting its other name, see ERYTU- 
n.Kv.M MARE. 

ABABIS ('Apa6if, also 'Apu6tof, *Ap6if, 'Apra- 
tif, and 'ApTilBcof. now Poorally or Agbor), a 
river of Gedrosia, falling into the Indian Ocean 
1000 stadia (100 geographical miles) west of the 
mouth of the Indus, and dividing the Orltae on 
its west from the Arabltae or Arbies on its 
cast, who had a city named Arbis on its eastern 
bank. 

AEABIT^E. Vid. ARABIS. 

[ARABIUS (Scholasticus), a Grecian poet, prob- 
ubly in the time of Justinian, who has left seven 
epigrams, which are found in the Anthologia 
(trpca.] 

ARACHNJEUM ('Apaxvalov), a mountain form- 
ing the boundary between Argolis and Corin- 
:hia. 

ARACH.NE, a Lydian maiden, daughter of Id- 
uion of Colophon, a famous dyer in purple. 
Arachne excelled in the art of weaving, and, 
proud of her talent, ventured to challenge Hl- 
uerva (Athepa) to compete with her. Arachue 
produced a piece of cloth in which the amours of 
the gods were woven, and as Minerva (Athena) 
could find no fault with it, she tore the work to 
pieces. Arachne, in despair, hung herself: the 
goddess loosened the rope and saved her life, but 
the rope was changed into a cobweb and Arachne 
herself into a spider (upuxvn), the animal most 
xlious to Miuerva (Athena). (Ov., Met. vl, 1, 
>eq.) This fable seems to suggest the idea that 
nan learned the art of weaving from the spider, 
and that it was invented in Lydia. 

ARACHOSIA ('Apaxuala : 'Apaxuroi or -urai : 
southeastern part of Afghanistan and northeast- 
ern part of Beloochistan), one of the extreme east- 
ern provinces of the Persian (and afterward of the 
Parthian) empire, bounded on the east by the 
Indus, on the north by the Paroparnisadse, on the 
west by Drangiana, and on the south by Gedro- 
sia, It was a fertile country, watered by the 
River Arachotus, with a town of the same name, 
built by Semiramis, and which was the capital 
of the province until the foundation of ALEXAN- 
DREA. The shortest road from Persia to India 
passed through Araohosia. 

ARACBOTUS. Vid. ARACHOSIA. 

ARACBTBrs or ARETHO ('Apa^Qof or 'Ape6uv : 

now Arta), g. river of Epirus, rises in Mount 

Lacmon or the Tymphean Mountains, and flows 

into the Arnbracian Gulf, south of Ambracia 

82 



ARATUS. 

it is deep and difficult to cross, and navigable up 
to Ambracia. 

[ARACIA ('ApaKia), or Alexandri Insula (now 
Charedsch or Jfarek), an island in the Persian 
Gulf, opposite the coast of Persis, containing :i 
mountain sacred to Neptune.] 

ARACYNTHUS (*Apdian>6ot : now Zigos), a mount- 
ain on the southwest coast of ^Etolia, near Pleu- 
ron, sometimes placed in Acaniauia. Later 
writers erroneously make it a mountain betwei-n 
Boaotia and, Attica, and hence mention it in con- 
nection witb Amphion, the Bcrrotiau hero. (Pro- 
pert, iii., 13, 41 ; Actcco (i. e, Attico) Araci/n/ho, 
Virg., Ed., ii., 24.) 

ARADUS ( "ApaJof : "ApaJtof, Aradius : in Old 
Testament, Arvad : now Ruad), an island oft' 
the coast of Phoenicia, at the distance of twenty 
stadia (two geographical miles), with a city which 
occupied the whole surface of the island, seven 
stadia in circumference, which was said to have 
been founded by exiles from Sidon, and which 
was a very flourishing place under its own kiugs, 
under the Seleucidse, and under the Romans. 
It possessed a harbor on the main land, called 
ANTARADUS. 

PHIL^ENORUM. Vid. PHII^EXORUM AR^E. 

('ApaiOvpca), daughter of Aras, 
an autochthon who was believed to have builC 
Arantea, the most ancient town in Phliasia 
After her death, her brother Aoris called th 
country of Phliasia Araethyrea, in honor of hii 
sister. 

AEAPHEN ('Apafyjv : 'Apcujryvtof, ' Apa^voQev : 
now Rafina), an Attic demus belonging to the 
tribe jEgeis, on the east of Attica, north of the 
River Erasinus, not far from its mouth. 

ARAR or AUARIS (now Saorte), a river of GauL 
rises in the Vosges, receives the Dubis (now 
Doubs) from the east, after which it becomes 
navigable, and flows with a quiet stream into the 
Rhone at Lugdunum (now Lyon). In the time 
of Ammianus (A.D. 370) it was also called Sau- 
conna, and in the Middle Ages Sanyona, whence 
its modern name Saone. 

[ARARENE ('Apapijvtj), a barren district of 
Arabia Felix, inhabited by nomad tribes, through 
which JElius Gallus had to make his way in his 
unsuccessful attempt to subjugate Arabia.] 

ARAROS ('Apapuf), an Athenian poet of the 
Middle Comedy, son of Aristophanes, flourished 
B.C. 375. [The fragments of his comedies are 
collected in Meineke's Fragm. Comic. Grcec., voL 
i., p. 630-632, edit, minor.] 

ARAS. Vid. AR^ETHYREA. 

ARASPES ('Apacrn-^f), a Mede, and a friend of 
the elder Cyrus, is one of the characters in Xen- 
ophon's Cyropedia. He contends with Cyrus 
that love has no power over him, but shortly af- 
terward refutes himself by falling in love with 
Panthea, whom Cyrus had committed to his 
charge. Vid. ABRADATAS. 

ARATUS ("Aparof). 1. The celebrated general 
of the Achaeans, son of Clinias, was born at 
Sicyon, B.C. 271. On the murder of his father 
by ABANTIDAS, Aratus, who was then a child, was 
conveyed to Argos, where he was brought up. 
When he had reached the age of twenty, he 

aiued possession of his native city, B.C. 251, 
eprived the usurper Nicocles of his power, and 
! united Sicyon to the Achaean league,, which 
; gained, in consequence, a great accession of 



ARAURA. 



ARCADIA. 



power Vid. ACHJO. In 245 he was elected 
general of the league, which office he frequently 
held in subsequent years. Through his influ- 
ence a great number of the Greek cities joined 
the league ; but he excelled more in negotiation 
than in war, and in his war with the yEtoliaus 
and Spartans he was often defeated. In order 
to resist these enemies, he cultivated the friend- 
ship of Antigonus Doson, king of Macedonia, 
and of his successor PHjip ; but as Philip was 
evidently anxious to make himself master of all 
Greece, dissensions arose between him and Ara- 
tus, and the latter was eventually poisoned in 
213, by the king's order. Divine honors were 
paid to him by his countrymen, and an annual 
festival ('Apureia, vid. Diet, of Antiq.) establish- 
ed. Aratus wrote Commentaries, being a his- 
tory of his own times down to B.C. 220, at 
which point POLYBIUS commenced his history. 
2. Of Soli, afterward Pompeiopolis, in Cilieia, 
or (according to one authority) of Tarsus, flour- 
ished B.C. 270, and spent all the latter part of 
his life at the court of Antigonus Gonatas, king 
of Macedonia. He wrote two astronomical po- 
ems, entitled Phenomena (<^aiv6[ieva), consisting 
of 732 verses, and Dioxemeia (Aioffrjftsla), of 422. 
The design of the Phcenomena is to give an in- 
troduction to the knowledge of the constella- 
tions, with the rules for their risings and set- 
tings. The Diosemeia consists of prognostics 
of the weather from astronomical phenomena, 
with an account of its effects upon animals. It 
appears to be an imitation of Hesiod, and to 
have been imitated by Virgil in some parts of 
the Georgics. The style of these two poems is 
distinguished by elegance and accuracy, but it 
wants originality and poetic elevation. Tliat 
thjy became very popular both in the Grecian 
aLa Roman world (cum sole et luna semper Ara- 
tu<s erit, Ov., Am^ i., 15, 16), is proved by the 
number of commentaries and Latin translations. 
Parts of three poetical Latin translations are 
preserved. One written by Cicero when very 
young, one by Caesar Germauicus, the grand- 
son of Augustus, and one by Festus Avienus. 
Editions. [Most copious and complete, by 
Buhle, Lips., 1793-1801, 2 vols. ; later, with re- 
vised text}, by Voss, Heidelb., 1824, with a Ger- 
man poetical version ; by Butt matin, Berol., 
1826; and by Bekker, Berol., 1828. 

[ARAURA (now St. Tiberi), earlier Cessero, a 
town of the Voloe Arecomici, on the Arauris, 
in Gallia Narbonensia] 

ARAURIS (now Jferault), erroneously Rauraris 
in Strabo, a river in Gallia Narbonensis, rises 
in Mount Cevenna, and flows into the Mediter- 
ranean. 

ARAUSIO (now Orange,) a town of the Cavari 
or Cavares, and a Roman colony, in Gallia Nar- 
bonensis, on the road from Arelate to Vienna : 
it still contains remains of an amphitheatre, 
circus, acqueduct, triumphal arch, tc. 

ARAXES ('ApuS-yc), the name of several rivers. 
1. In Armenia Major (now Eraskh or Arat), 
rises in Mount Aba or A bus (near Erzerawn), 
from the opposite side of which the Euphrates , 
flows ; and, after a great bend southeast, and 
then northeast, joins the Cyrus (now Kour\ I 
which flows down from the Caucasus, and falls j 
with it into the Caspian by two mouths, in about 
89 20' north latitude. The lower part, past AR- j 



TAXATA, flows through a plain, which was call 
ed TO 'Apa^rjvbv xediov. The A raxes was pro- 
verbial for the force of its current ; and hence 
Virgil (JH^ viii., 728) says pontem indignatu* 
Araxes, with special reference to the failure of 
both Xerxes and Alexander in throwing a bridge 
over it It seems to be the Phasis of Xeno- 
phon. 2. In Mesopotamia. Vid. ABORRHAS. 
3. In Persis (now Bend-Emir), the river on 
which Persepolis stood, rises in the mountains 
east of the head of the Persian Gulf, and flows 
southeast into a salt lake (now Bakhtegan) not 
far below Persepolis. 4. It is doubtful whether 
the Araxes of Herodotus is the same as the 
Oxus, JAXARTES, or Volga. 5. The PENEUS, in 
Thessaly, was called Araxes from the violence 
of its torrent (from apuaau). 

AKAXUS (*Apaof : now Cape Papa), & prom- 
ontory of Achaia, near the confines of Elis. 

ARBACES ('ApBuKTjf), the founder of the Medi- 
an empire, according to Ctesias, is said to have 
taken Nineveh in conjunction with Belesis, the 
Babylonian, and to have destroyed the old As- 
syrian empire under the reign of Sardanapalus, 
B.C. 876. Ctesias assigns twenty-eight years 
to the reign of Arbaces, B.C. 876-848, and 
makes his dynasty consist of eight kings. This 
account differs from that of Herodotus, who 
makes DEIOCES the first king of Media, and as- 
signs only four kings to his dynasty. 

ARBELA (TU. 'Apfoj/.a : now Erbille), a city of 
Adiabeue in Assyria, between the rivers Lycus 
and Caprus ; celebrated as the head-quarters of 
Darius Codomaonus before the last battle in 
which lie was overthrown by Alexander (B.C. 
331), which is hence frequently called the battle 
of Arbela, though it was really fought near GAD 
GASIELA, about fifty miles west of Arbela. The 
district about Arbela was called Arbelltis ('Ap- 
6rj?itTi^). 

ARBIS. Vid. ARABIS. 

[ARBITER. Vid. PETROXIUS.] 

ARBUCALA or ARBOCALA (now Villa Fasila ?), 
the chief town of the Vaccaei in Hispania Tar- 
racoueusis, taken by Hannibal after a long re- 
sistance. 

ARBCSCULA, a celebrated female actor in pan- 
tomimes in the time of Cicero. 

ARCA or -M ('Apicy or -at : now Tell-Arka), a 
very ancient city in the north of Phoenicia, nol 
far from the sea-coast, at the foot of Mount 
Lebanon : a colony under the Romans, named 
Area Caesarea or Casarea Libani : the birth- 
place of the Emperor Alexander Severus. 

ARCADIA ('Apuadia : 'ApKaf, pL 'Ap/cu(Jef), a 
country in the middle of Peloponnesus, was 
bounded on the east by Argolis, on the north b_v 
Achaia, on the west by Elis, and on the south 
by Messenia and Lacouica. Next to Laconica 
it was the largest country in the Peloponnesus 
its greatest length was about fifty miles, its 
breadth from thirty-five to forty-one miles. It 
was surrounded on all sides by mountain, 
which likewise traversed it in every direction 
and it may be regarded as the Switzerland of 
Greece. Its principal mountains were Cyllene 
and Erymanthus in the north, Artemisius itr the 
east, and Parthenius ; Maenalus, and Lycajtis in 
the south and southwest The Alpha us, the 
greatest river of Peloponnesus, rises in Arcadia, 
and flows through a considerable part of th* 
83 



ARCADIUS 



ARCHEDEMUS. 



country, i ,-cciving numerous affluents. The 
northern and eastern parts of the country -were 
barren and unproductive ; the western and j 
southern were more fertile, with numerous val- 
leys where corn was grown. The Arcadians, 
said to be descended from the eponymous hero 
ARCAS, regarded thenselves as the most ancient 
people in Greece : the Greek writers call them 
indigenous (avToxOovef) and Pelasgians. In con- 
sequence of the physical peculiarity of the coun- 
try, they were chiefly employed in hunting and 
the tending of cattle, whence their worship of 
Pan, who was especially the god of Arcadia, and 
of Diana (Artemis). They were a people sim- 
ple in their habits and moderate in their desires : 
they were passionately fond of music, and cul- 
tivated it with great success (soli cantare pcriti 
Arcades, Virg., Eel., x., 32), which circumstance 
\vas supposed to soften the natural roughness 
of their character. The Arcadians experienced 
fewer chapges than any other people in Greece, 
and retained possession of their country upon 
the conquest of the rest of Peloponnesus by the 
Dorians. Like the other Greek communities, 
they were originally governed by kings, but are 
said to have abolished monarchy toward the 
close of the second Messenian war, and to have 
stoned to death their last king Aristocrates, be- 
cause he betrayed his allies the Messenians. 
The different towns then became independent 
republics, of which the most important were 
MAXTINEA, TEGEA, ORCHOMENUS, PSOPHIS, and 
PHE.NEOS. Like the Swiss, the Arcadians fre- 
quently served as mercenaries, and in the Pelo- 
pounesian war, they were found in the armies 
of both the Lacedaemonians and Athenians. 
The Lacedaemonians made many attempts to 
obtain possession of parts of Arcadia, but these 
attempts were finally frustrated by the battle 
of Leuctra (B.C. 371); and in order to resist 
all future aggressions on the part of Sparta, 
the Arcadianst upon the advice of Epami- 
uondas, built the city of MEGALOPOLIS, and in- 
stituted a general assembly of the whole na- 
tion, called the Myrii (Mvpioi, vid. Diet, of Antiq., 
s. v.). They subsequently joined the Achaean 
League, and finally became subject to the Ro- 
mans. 

ARCADIUS, emperor of the East (A.D. 395- 
408), elder son of Theodosius I., was born in 
Spain, A.D. 383. On the death of Theodosius 
he became emperor of the East, while the West 
was given to his younger brother Honorius. 
Arcadius possessed neither physical nor intel- 
lectual vigor, and was entirely governed by un- 
worthy favorites. At first he was ruled by Ru- 
finus, the praefect of the East ; and on the mur- 
der of the latter soon after the accession of 
Arcadius, the government fell into the hands of 
the eunuch Eutropius. Eutropius was put to 
death in 399, and his power now devolved upon 
Gainas, the Goth ; but upon his revolt and death 
in 401, Arcadius became entirely dependent upon 
his wife Eudoxia, and it was through her influ- 
ence that Saint Chrysostom was exiled in 404. 
Arcadius died on the first of May, 408, leaving 
the empire to his son, Theodosius II, who was 
a minor. 

[ARCADIUS ('Ap/cadVof), a Greek grammarian 
jf Antioch, of uncertain date, but certainly not 
earlier than 200 A.D. He wrote a useful work 
84 



on accents (nepl TOVUV), which is extant Edt 
tiont : By Barker, Leipzig, 1820, and by Dindorl^ 
in his Grammat. Greed, Leipzig, 1823.J 

AKCANUM. Vid. AHPINUM. 

ARCAS ("Ap/caf), king and eponymous hero of 
the Arcadians, son of Jupiter (Zeus) and Cal- 
listo, grandson of Lycaou, and father of Aphidaa 
and Elatus. Areas was the boy whose flesh 
his grandfather Lycnon placed before Jupitei 
(Zeus), to try his di\iue character. Jupiter 
(Zeus) upset the table (rpuTrefa) which bore the 
dish, and destroyed the house of Lycaou by light- 
ning, but restored Areas to life. When Arcao 
had grown up, he built on the site of his father's 
house the town of Trapezus. Areas and his 
mother were placed by Jupiter (Zeus) among 
the stars. 

ARCESILAUS or ARCESILAS ('ApxetTiAaof, 'Ap/ce- 
oihaf), a Greek philosopher, son of Seuthes or 
Scythes, was bom at Pitaue in ^Eolis, and flour 
ished about B.C. 250. He studied at first in 
his native town under Autolycus, a mathema- 
tician and afterward went to Athens, where he 
became the disciple first of Theophrastus, and 
next of Polemo and of Grantor. He succeeded 
Crates about B.C. 241 in the chair of the Acad- 
emy, and became the founder of the second or 
middle (fieaif) Academy. He is said to have 
died in his seventy-sixth year from a fit of 
drunkenness. His philosophy was of a skep- 
tical character, though it did not go so far as 
that of the followers of Pyrrbon. He did not 
doubt the existence of truth in itself, only our 
capacities for obtaining it, and he combated 
most strongly the dogmatism of the Stoics. 

ARCESILAUS ('ApKecrt/laof). 1. Son of Lycua 
and Theobule, leader of the Boeotians in the 
Trojan war, slain by Hector. 2. The name of 
four kings of Gyrene. Vid. BATTUS and BAT- 
TIAD^E. [3. A Sicilian, who accompanied 
Agathocles to Africa, but, on the departure of 
the latter from that country, murdered his son 
Archagathus. 4. A sculptor in the first cen- 
tury B.C., who was held in high esteem at 
Rome : he was intimate with L. Lentulus, and 
was greatly commended by Varro.] 

ARCESIUS ('ApKeiaiof), son of Jupiter (Zeus) 
and Euryodia, father of Laertes, and grandfather 
of Ulysses. Hence both Laertes and Ulysses 
are called Arcesiades ('ApKetaiddrif). . 

ARCH^EOPOLIS ('Ap^ato-o/ltf), the later capital 
of Colchis, near the River Phasis. 

[ARCHAGATHUS. Vid. ARCESILAUS, 3.] 

ARCHAKDROPOLIS ('Apxuvdpov vro/ltf), a city of 
Lower Egypt, on the Nile, between Canopus 
and Cercasorus. 

[ARCHEBATES ('Apje&m/f), son of Lycaon, 
destroyed by Jupiter (Zeus) by lightning.] 

ARCHEDEMUS ('Ap^ccty/zof ; Dor. 'Apxeta/tof). 
1. A popular leader at Athens, took the first 
step against the generals who had gained the 
battle of Arginusae, B.C. 406. The comic poets 
called him " blear-eyed" (j^afiuv), and said that 
he was a foreigner, and had obtained the fran- 
chise by fraud. 2. An JEtolian (called Archi- 
damus by Livy), commanded the ^Etolian troops 
which assisted the Romans in their war with 
Philip (B.C. 199-197). He afterward took an 
active part against the Romans, and eventual- 
ly joined Perseus, whom he accompanied in his 
flight after his defeat in 168. 3. Of Tarsus, a 



ARCHEDICUS. 



ARCHIAS. 



Stoic philosopher, mentioned by Cicero, Seneca, 
and other ancient writers. 



ARCHEDICUS ('Ap^t&KOf), an Athenian comic 
poet of the new comedy, supported Antipater 
and the Macedonian party. 

ARCHEGETES ('Ap^yer^f), a surname of 
Apollo, probably in reference to his being a 
leader of colonies. It was also a surname of 
other gods. 

ARCHELAIS ('ApxeAaif). 1. In Cappadocia 
(now Akserai), on the Cappadox, a tributary of 
the Halys, a city founded by Archelaus, the last 
king of Cappadocia, and made a Roman colony 
by the Emperor Claudius. 2. A town of Pales- 
tine, near Jericho, founded by Archelaus, the 
son of Herod the Great. 

ARCHELAUS ('Apj^eAaof). 1. Son of HEROD 
the Great, was appointed by his father as his 
successor, and received from Augustus Judaea, 
Samaria, and Idumaea, with the title of ethnarch. 
In consequence of his tyrannical government, 
the Jews accused him before Augustus in the 
tenth year of his reign (A.D. 7): Augustus 
banished him to Vienna in Gaul, where he died. 
2. King of MACEDONIA (B.C. 413-399), an il- 
legitimate son of Perdiccas II., obtained the 
throne by the murder of his half-brother. He 
improved the internal condition of his kingdom, 
and was a warm patron of art and literature. 
His palace was adorned with magnificent paint- 
ings by Zeuxis; and Euripides, Agathou, and 
other men of eminence, were among his guests. 
According to some accounts, Archelaus was ac- 
cidently slain in a hunting party by his favorite, 
Cniterus or Crateuas ; but, according to other 
accounts, he was murdered by Craterus. 3. A 
distinguished general of MITHRADATES. In B. 
C. 87 he was sent into Greece by Mithradates 
with a large fleet and army; at first he met 
with considerable success, but was twice de- 
feated by Sulla in 86, near Chferonea and Or- 
chomeuos in Boeotia, with immense loss. There- 
upon he was commissioned by Mithradates to 
sue for peace, which he obtained ; but subse- 
quently being suspected of treachery by the 
kii>g, he deserted to the Romans just before 
the commencement of the second Mithradatic 
war, B.C. 81, 4. Son of the preceding, was 
raised by Pompey, in B.C. 63, to the dignity of 
priest of the goddess (Enyo or Bellona) at Co- 
mana in Pontus or Cappadocia. In 56 or 65 
Archelaua became king of Egypt by marrying 
Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, who, 
after the expulsion of her father, had obtained 
the sovereignty of Egypt. Archelaus, however, 
was king of Egypt only for six months, for Ga- 
binius marched with an army into Egypt in or- 
der to restore Ptolemy Auletes, and in the bat- 
tle which ensued, Archelaus perished. 5. Son 
of No. 4, and his successor in the office of high- 
priest of Comana, was deprived of his dignity 
by Julius Casar in 47. 6. Son of No. 5, re- 
ceived from Antony, in B.C. 36, the kingdom 
of Cappadocia, a favor which he owed to the 
charms of his mother Glaphyra, After the bat- 
tle of Actiutn, Octavianus not only left Arehe- 
laus in the possession of his kingdom, but sub- 
sequently added to it a part of Cilicia and Lesser 
Armenia. But, having incurred the enmity of 
Tiberius by the attention which he had paid to 
f Caesar he was summoned to Rome soon after 



the accession of Tiberius and accused of trea 
i son. His life was spared, but he was obliged 
1 to remain at Rome, where he died soon after, 
! A.D. 17. Cappadocia was then made a Roman 
j province. 7. A philosopher, probably born at 
i Athens, though others make him a native of 
I Miletus, flourished about B.C. 450. The philo- 
sophical system of Archelaus is remarkable, as 
forming a point of transition from the older to 
the newer form of philosophy in Greece. Aa a 
pupil of Anaxagoras, he belonged to the Ionian 
school, but he added to the physical system of 
his teacher some attempts at moral speculation. 
8. A Greek poet, in Egypt, lived under the 
Ptolemies, and wrote epigrams, some of which 
are still extant in the Greek Anthology. 9. A 
sculptor of Priene, son of Apollonius, made the 
marble bas-relief representing the Apotheosis of 
Homer, which formerly belonged to the Coloa- 
na family at Rome, and is now in the Townley 
Gallery of the British Museum. He probably 
lived in the reign of Claudius. 

[ARCHELOCHUS ('Ap^t^-o^of), son of the Tro- 
jan Antenor ; slain by Ajax.] 

[ARCHEMACHUS ('Ap^e/io^of), a greek his- 
torian of Euboea, who wrote a work on his na- 
tive country (~u Ei6oi'/co), consisting of at least 
three books.] 

ARCHEMORUS ('Ap^e/zopof), or OPHELTES, son 
of the Nemean king Lycurgus and Eurydice. 
When the Seven heroes, on their expedition 
against Thebes, stopped at Nemea to obtain 
water, Hypsipyle, the nurse of the child Ophel- 
tes, while showing the way to the Seven, left 
the child alone. In the meantime, the child 
was killed by a dragon, and buried by the Seven. 
But as Amphiaraus saw in this accident an 
omen boding destruction to him and his com- 
panions, they called the child Archemorus, that 
is, " Forerunner of Death,'' and instituted the 
Nemean games in honor of him. 

[ARCHEPTOLEMCS ('Ap^eTr-oAc/wf), son of Iph- 
itus, charioteer of Hector, was slain by Teucer.] 

[ARCHESTRATUS ('Ap^firrparof), one of the ten 
generals appointed to supersede Alcibiades in 
the command of the Athenian fleet, after the 
battle of Notium, B.C. 407. 2. A member of 
the /Jov/l?/ at Athens, who, during the siege of 
the city, after the battle of JSgospotami, BC. 
405, was thrown into prison for advising capitu- 
lation on the terms proposed by Sparta.] 

ARCHESTPATUS ('Ap^ttrrparof), of Gela or Syr- 
acuse, about B.C. 350, wrote a poem on the Art 
of Cookery, which was imitated or translated 
by Ennius in his Carmina Hedypathetica or Hedij- 
pathica (from ifdvmiOeia). 

[ARCHETIUS, a companion of Turnus, slain by 
Muestheus.] 

ARCHIAS ('Ap^/af). 1. An Heraclid of Corinth, 
left his country iu consequence of the death of 
ACTION, and founded Syracuse, B.C. 734, by 
command of the Delphic oracle. [2. A Theban, 
who betrayed the citadel (Cadmea) to the Spar- 
tan commander Phoebidas, B.C. 382. He was 
at the head of the party in the interest of Spar- 
ta, but was slain by the Thebau exiles under 
Pelopidas. 3. Of THURII, originally an actor, 
was sent, B.C. 822. after the battle of Cranon, 
t<> apprehend the orators whom Antipater had 
demanded of the Athenians, and who had fled 
from Athens. Vid. HTPERIDES and DEMOSTII& 
85 



ARCHIDAMIA. 



ARCHILOCHUS. 



JCES. He was nicknamed bv/aiodqpas, " exile- 
hunter ;" and ended his life, as be deserved, iu 
poverty and disgrace.] 4. A. LICINIUS AECHIAS, 
u Greek poet, bora at Antiocb iu Syria, about 
B.C. 120, very early obtained celebrity by bis 
verses. In 102 he caine to Rome, and \vas re- 
ceived in the most friendly way by many of the 
Roman nobles, especially by the Luculli, from 
whom be afterward obtained the gentile name 
of Licinius. After a short stay at Rome he ac- 
companied L. Lucullus, the elder, to Sicily, and 
followed him, in the banishment to which he 
was sentenced for his management of the slave 
war in that island, to Heraclea in Lucauia, in 
which town Archias was enrolled as a citizen ; 
and as this town was a state united with Rome 
by &f<edus, he subsequently obtained the Ro- 
man franchise in accordance with the lex Plau- 
tia Papiria passed in B.C. 89. At a later time 
lie accompanied L. Lucullus the younger to 
the Mithradatic war. Soon after his return, a 
chaise was brought against him in 61 of as- 
suming the citizenship illegally, and the trial 
came on before Q. Cicero, who was praetor this 
-year. He was defended by his friend M. Cicero 
in the extent speech Pro Archia, in which the 
orator, after briefly discussing the legal points 
of the case, rests the defence of his client upon 
his surpassing merits as a poet, which entitled 
him to the Roman citizenship. We may pre- 
sume that Archias was acquitted, though we 
have no formal statement of the fact. Archias 
wrote a poem on the Cimbric war in honor of 
Marius ; another on the Mithradatic war in hon- 
or of Lucullus ; and at the time of his trial was 
engaged on a poem in honor of Cicero's con- 
sulship. No fragments of these works are ex- 
tant ; and it is doubtful whether the epigrams 
preserved under the name of Archias in the 
Greek Anthology were really written by him. 

[ARCHIDAMIA ('Apxi^ufieia), the priestess of 
Ceres (Demeter) at Sparta, who, through love 
of Aristomenes, set him at liberty when he had 
beeu taken prisoner. 2. A Spartan woman, who 
distinguished herself 'by her heroic spirit when 
Sparta was nearly taken by Pyrrhus in B.C. 
272, and opposed the plan which had been en- 
tertained of sending the women to Crete.] 

ARCHIDAMUS ("Apjtda/iof), the name of five 
kings of Sparta. 1. Son of Anaxidamus, con- 
temporary with the Tegeatan war, which fol- 
lowed soon after the second Messenian, B.C. 
668. 2. Son of Zeuxidamus, succeeded his 
grandfather Leotychides, and reigned B.C. 469- 
427. During his reign, B.C. 464, Sparta was 
made a heap of ruins by a tremendous earth- 
quake ; and for the next ten years he was en- 
gaged in war against the revolted Helots and 
Messenians. Toward the end of his reign the 
Pelopouuesian war broke out : he recommend- 
ed his countrymen not rashly to embark in the 
war. and he appears to have taken a more cor- 
rect view of the real strength of Athens than 
any other Spartan. After the war had been de- 
clared (B.C. 431) he invaded Attica, and held 
the supreme command of the Peloponnesian 
forces till his death in 429. 3. Grandson of No. 
2, and son of Agesilaus IL, reigned B.C. 361- 
838. During the lifetime of his father he took 
an active part in resisting the Thebans and the 
various other enemies of Sparta, and in 367 he 
86 



defeated the Arcadians and Argives iu the 
' Tearless Battle," so called because he had 
won It without losing a man. In 362 he de- 
feuded Sparta against Epaminoudas. In the 
third Sacred war (B.C. 856-346) he assisted 
the Phocians. In 338 he went to Italy to aid 
the Tarentines against the Lucanians, and there 
( fell in battle. 4. Grandson of No. 3, and SOD 
of Eudomidas L, was king in B.C. 296, when 
he was defeated by Demetrius Polr rcetes. 6. 
Sou of Eudamidas II., and the brother of Agit, 
; IV. On the murder of Agis, in B.C. 240, Ar 
chidamus fled from Sparta, but afterward ob 
tained the throne by means of Aratus. He was. 
however, slain almost immediately after his re 
turn to Sparta. He was the last king of the 
Eurypontid race. 

AECHIGEXES ('A.pxiyVi]f), an eminent Greek 
physician born at Apamea in Syria, practiced 
at Rome in the time of Trajan, A.D. 98-117. 
He published a treatise on the pulse, on which 
Galen wrote a Commentary. He was the most 
eminent physician of the sect of the Eclectici, 
and is mentioned by Juvenal as well as by other 
writers. Only a few fragments of his works re- 
main. 

ARCHILOCHUS ('Apx&oxof), of Paros, was one 
of the earliest Ionian lyric poets, and the first 
Greek poet who composed Iambic verses accord- 
ing to fixed rules. He flourished about B.C. 714- 
676. He was descended from a noble family, 
who held the priesthood in Paros. His graud- 
father was Tellis, his father Telesiclts, and his 
mother a slave, named Enipo. In the flower 
of his age (between B.C. 710 and 700), Archilo- 
chus went from Paros to Thasos with a colony, 
of which one account makes him the leader. 
The motive for this emigration can only be con- 
jectured. It was most probably the result of 
a political change, to which cause was added, 
in the case of Archilochus, a sense of personal 
wrongs. He had been a suitor to Neobule, one 
of the daughters of Lycambes, who first prom- 
ised and afterward refused to give his daughter 
to the poet. Enraged at this treatment, Archil- 
ochus attacked the whole family in an Iambic 
poem, accusing Lycambes of perjury, and his 
daughters of the most abandoned lives. The 
verses were recited at the festival of Ceres 
(Demeter), and produced such an effect, that 
the daughters of Lycambes are said to have 
hung themselves through shame. The bitter- 
ness which he expresses in his poems toward 
his native island seems to have arisen in part 
also from the low estimation in which he was 
held, as being the son of a slave. Neither was 
he more happy at Thasos. He draws the most 
melancholy picture of his adopted country, which 
he at length quitted in disgust. While at Tha 
sos, he incurred the disgrace of losing his shield 
in an engagement with the Thracians of the op- 
posite continent ; but instead of being ashamed 
of the disaster, he recorded it in his verse. At 
length he returned to Paros, and in a war be- 
tween the Parians and the people of Naxos, 
he fell by the hand of a Naxian named Calondas 
or Corax. Archilochus shared with his con- 
temporaries, Thaletas and Terpander, iu the 
honor of establishing lyric poetry throughout 
Greece. The invention of the elegy is ascribed 
to him, as well as to Callinus ; but it was on 



ARCHIMEDES. 



ARCTOS. 



his> satiric Iambic poetry that bis fame was : 
founded. His Iambics expressed the strongest 
feelings in the most unmeasured language. The 
licence of Ionian democracy and the bitterness 
of a disappointed man were united with the 
highest degree of poetical power to give them 
force and point The emotion accounted most 
conspicuous in his verses was " rage," '' Archi- 
lochum proprio rabies armavit iambo." (Hor., 
Ars. Poet., 79.) The fragments of Archilochus 
are collected in Bergk's Poet. Lyrici Grate., and 
by Liebel, Archilochi Heliguice,lAps^ 1812, 8vo; 
['2d edit, somewhat enlarged, Vienna, 1818, 8vo.] 
ARCHIMEDES ('Aftxtfiq&tf), of Syracuse, the 
most famous of ancient mathematicians, was 
born B.C. 287. He was a frieud, if not a kins- 
man, of Hiei'O, though his actual condition in 
life does not seem to have been elevated. In 
the early part of his life he travelled into Egypt, 
where he studied under Couou the Samiau, a 
mathematician and astronomer. After visiting 
other countries, he returned to Syracuse. Here 
he constructed for Hiero various engines of war, 
which, many years afterward, were so far ef- 
fectual in the defence of Syracuse against Mar- 
cellus as to convert the siege into a blockade, 
and delay the taking of the city for a consider- 
able time. The accounts of the performances 
of these engines are evidently exaggerated ; and 
the story of the burning of the Roman ships by 
the reflected rays of the sun, though very cur- 
rent in later times, is probably a fiction. He 
superintended the building of a ship of extraor- 
dinary size for Hiero, of which a description is 
given in Athenceus (v., p. 206, d.), where he is 
also said to have moved it to the sea by the help 
of a screw. He invented a machine called, from 
its form, Cochlea, and now known as the water- 
screw of Archimedes, for pumping the water 
out of the hold of this vessel His most cele- 
brated performance was the construction of a 
sphere ; a kind of orrery, representing the move- 
ments of the heavenly bodies. When Syracuse 
was taken (B.C. 212), Archimedes was killed 
by the Roman soldiers, being at the time intent 
upon a mathematical problem. Upon his tomb 
was placed the figure of a sphere inscribed in 
a cy Under. When Cicero was quaestor in Sicily 
(76), he found this tomb near one of the gates 
of the city, almost hid among briers, and for- 
gotten by the Syracusans. The intellect of Ar- 
chimedes was of the very highest order. He 
possessed, in a degree never exceeded, unless 
by Newton, the inventive genius which discov- 
ers new provinces of inquiry, and finds new 
points of view for old and familiar objects ; the 
clearness of conception which is essential to 
the resolution of complex phenomena into their 
constituent elements ; and the power and habit 
of intense and persevering thought, without 
which other intellectual gifts are comparatively 
fruitless. The following works of Archimedes 
have come down to us : 1. On Equiponderants 
Mid Centres of Gravity. 2. The Quadrature of 
the Parabola. 8. On the Sphere and Cylinder. 
4. OH Dimension of the Circle. 6. On Spirals. 
8. On Conoids and Spheroids. 7. The Arenarius. 
8. On Floating Bodies. 9. lemmata. The best 
edition of his works is by Torelli, Oxon., 1792. 
There is a French translaiion of his works, with 
notes, by F. Peyrard, Paris, 1808, and an En- 



glish translation of the Arenarius by G. Ander- 
son, London, 1784. 

ARCHINUS ('ApjZvof), one of the leading Athe 
nians, who, with Thrasybulus and Auytus, over- 
threw the government of the Thirty, B.C. 403. 

ARCHIPPUS ("Ap^iTTOf). an Athenian poet of 
the old comedy, about B.C. 415. [The frag- 
ments of Archippus are collected in Meineke's 
Fragm. Comic. Grcecor^ vol. i., p. 408-415, edit 
minor.] 

[ARCHIPPUS, an ancient king of the Marrubil 
in Italy, one of the allies of Turnus in his war 
with ./Eneas.] 

ARCHYTAS ('Ap^firaf). 1. Of Amphissa, a 
Greek epic poet, flourished about B.C. 300. 2 
Of Tarentum, a distinguished philosopher, math- 
ematician, general, and statesman, probably liv 
ed about B.C. 400, and onward, so that he was 
contemporary with Plato, whose life he is said 
to have saved by his influence with the tyrant 
Dionysius. He was seven tunes the general of 
his city, and he commanded in several cam- 
paigns, in all of which be was victorious. After 
a life which secured to him a place among the 
very greatest men of antiquity, he was drowned 
while upon a voyage ou the Adriatic. (Hor., 
Carm., i., 28.) As a philosopher, he belonged 
to the Pythagorean school, and he appears to 
have been himself the founder of a new sect 
Like the Pythagoreans in general, he paid much 
attention to mathematics. Horace calls him 
maris et terra nwneroqne carentis arena Menso- 
rem. To bis theoretical science he added the 
skill of a pratical mechanician, and constructed 
various macliines and automatons, among which 
his wooden flying dove in particular was the 
wonder of antiquity. He also applied mathe- 
matics with success to musical science, and 
even to metaphysical philosophy. His influence 
as a philosopher was so great, that Plato was 
undoubtedly indebted to him for some of his 
views ; and Aristotle is thought by some writers 
to have borrowed the idea of his categories', as 
well as some of his ethical principles, from Ar- 
chytas. [The fragments of Archytas are pub- 
lished in part by Gale, Opusc. Mythol., Cantab , 
1671, Arast, 1688; and more fully by OreUi, 
Opusc. Sentent. et Moral^ voL ii., p. 234, *eqql\ 

ARCONNESUS (' ' hpadwijcog : ' Apuovvijaioc). 1. 
An island off the coast of Ionia, near Lebedus, 
also called Aspis and Maoris. 2. (Now Orak 
Ada), an island oif the coast of Caria, opposite 
Halicaruassu?, of which it formed the harbor. 

ARCTINUS ('ApKTivoc), of Miletus, the most 
distinguished among the cyclic poets, probably 
lived about B.C. 776. Two epic poems were 
attributed to him. 1. The JEthiopis, which was 
a kind of continuation of Homer's Iliad : its 
chief heroes were Memnon, king of the ^Ethio- 
pians, and Achilles, who slew him. 2. The De- 
struction of llion, which contained a description 
of the destruction of Troy, and the subsequent 
events until the departure of the Greeks. TTlie 
fragments of Arctinus have been collected by 
Diibner, Homeri Carm. et Cycli Epici Reliq., 
Paris, 1837, and by Diiutzer, Die Fragm. dex ep. 
Pocsie bis auf Alex., Koln, 1840 ; and Nachtrag, 
p. 16, Kolu, 1841.] 

ARCTOPHYLAX. \ r id, ARCTOS. 

ARCTOS ("ApKTOf), " the Bear," two constella- 
tions near the North Pole. 1. THE GREAT BEAR 

87 



ARCTURUS. 



ARES. 



: Ursa Major}, also called the 
Wagon (up,aa : plaustrum). The ancient Ital- 
ian name of this constellation was Septem Tri- 
ones, that is, the Seven Ploughing Oxen, also Hep- 
tentrio, and with the epithet Major to distinguish 
it from the Septentrio Minor, or Lesser Bear: 
hence Virgil (-/, iii., 356) speaks of yeminos- 
que Triones. The Great Bear was also called He- 
lice (&iKT)) from its sweeping round in a curve. 
2. THE LESSEE or LITTLE BEAR ("Ap/croj- juicpa: 
Ursa Minor), likewise called the Wagon, was 
first added to the Greek catalogues by Thales, 
by whom it was probably imported from the 
East It was also called Phaenice (QoiviKtj), from 
the circumstance that it was selected by the 
Phoenicians as the guide by which they shaped 
their course at sea, the Greek mariners with 
less judgment employing the Great Bear for the 

Eurpose ; and Cynosura (Kwofovpa), dog's tail, 
om the resemblance of the constellation to the 
upturned curl of a dog's tail. The constella- 
tion before the Great Bear was called Bootes 
(BouTijf) Arctophylax ('ApKTo0v?,.a), or Arcturua 
('Ap/cToiipof, from ovpof, guard) ; the two latter 
names suppose the constellation to represent a 
man upon the watch, and denote simply the po- 
sition of the figure in reference to the Great 
Bear, while Bootes, which is found in Homer, 
refers to the Wagon, the imaginary figure of 
Bootes being fancied to occupy the place of the 
driver of the team. At a later time Arctophylax 
became the general name of the constellation, 
and the word Arcturus was confined to the chief 
star in it. All these constellations are connect- 
ed in mythology with the Arcadian nymph CAL- 
LISTO, the daughter of Lycaon. Metamorphosed 
by Jupiter (Zeus) upon the earth into a she- 
bear, Callisto was pursued by her son Areas in 
the chase, and when he was on the point of kill- 
ing her, Jupiter (Zeus) placed them both among 
the stars, Callisto becoming the Great Bear, and 
Areas the Little Bear, or Bootes. In the poets 
the ephithets of these stars have constant refer- 
ence to the family and country of Callisto : thus 
we find them called Lycaonis Arctos ; Manalia 
Arctos and Mcenalis Ursa (from Mount Mzeualus 
in Arcadia) : Erymanthis Ursa (from Mount Ery- 
manthus in Arcadia) : Parrhasides stellce (from 
the Arcadian town Parrhasia). Though most 
traditions identified Bootes with Areas, others 
pronounced him to be Icarus or his daughter 
Erigone. Hence the Septentriones are called 
Boves Icarii. Vid. Diet, of Antiq^ p. 147, 148, 
159, 2d ed. 

ARCTURCS. Vid. ARCTOS. 
ARDEA (Ardeas, -atis: now Ardea). 1. The 
chief town of the Rutuli in Latium, a little to 
the left of the River Numicus, three miles from 
the sea, was situated on a rock surrounded by 
marshes, in an unhealthy district It was one 
of the most ancient places in Italy, and was said 
to have been the capital of Turnus. It was 
conquered and colonized by the Romans, B.C. 
442, from which time its importance declined. 
In its neighborhood was the Latin Aphrodisium 
or temple of Venus, which was under the super- 
intendence of the Ardeates. 2. (Now Arde- 
kdn /), an important town in Persia, southwest 
of Persepolis. 

[ARDERICCA ('ApdepiKKa, now Akkerkuf? Hee- 
ren). 1. A town above Babylon, where the Eu- 
88 



phrates was so diverted from its course that it 
passed three times through this place 2. A 
town of Susiana, not far from Susa ; perhaps the 
same as the Aracca of later writers, where Da- 
rius Hystaspis settled the captured Eretrians.J 

[ARDESCUS ("Apttycr/cof), a river of European 
Sarmalia, flowing into the Ister ; the god of tbis 
stream was, according to Hcsiodf a son of Oce- 
anus and Tethys.] 

ARDUENNA SILVA (now the Ardennes), a vast 
forest in the northwest of Gaul, extended from 
the Rhine and the Treviri to the Nervii and 
Remi, and north as far as the Scheldt : there 
are still considerable remains of this forest, 
though the greater part of it has disappeared. 

ARDYS ("Apdvc,), sou of Gyges, king of Lydia, 
reigned B.C. 678-629: he took Priene, and made 
war against Miletus. 

AREA or ARETIAS ('Apeta or 'AprjTiai; vf/aoe, 
i. e., the island of Ares : now Keraxunt Ada), 
also called Chalceritis, an island off the coast 
of Pontus, close to PharnacGa, celebrated in the 
legend of the Argonauts. 

[AREGONIS ('Ap^yov/f), wife of Ampycus, and 
mother of Mopsus.] 

[AREILYCUS ( J Apr}i7\.vKOc.), a Trojan warrior, 
slain by Patroclus.j 

AREITHOUS ('Apnidooe). 1. King of Arne in 
Bceotia, and husband of Philomedusa, is called 
in the Iliad (vii., 8) KopwiyTqc., because he fought 
with a club : he fell by the hand of the Arcadian 
Lycurgus. [2. Charioteer of Rhigmus, slain 
by Achilles.] 

A.RELATE, ARELAS, or ARELATUM (Arelatensis 
now Aries), a town in Gallia Narbouensis, at 
the head of the delta of the Rhone on the left 
bank, and a Roman colony founded by the sol- 
diers of the sixth legion, Colonia Arelate Sexta- 
norum. It is first mentioned by Caesar, and un- 
der the emperors it became one of the most 
flourishing towns on this side of the Alps. Con- 
stantine the Great built an extensive suburb on 
the right bank, which he connected with the 
original city by a bridge. The Roman remains 
at Aries attest the greatness of the ancient city : 
there are still to be seen an obelisk of granite, 
and the ruins of an aqueduct, theatre, amphi- 
theatre, palace of Constantine, and a large Ro- 
man cemetery. 

[ARELLIUS Fuscus. Vid. Fuscus.] 

AREMORICA. Vid. ARMORICA. 

ARENACUM (now Arnheim or jfirt ?), a town 
of the Batavi in Gallia Belgica. 

[AREN^E MONTHS (now Arenas Gordas), high 
sand hills in Hispania Bsetica, between the Bae- 
tis and Uriura.] 

[ARENE ('ApijvT/). 1. Daughter of the Spartan 
king CEbalus, wife of Aphareus. 2. A city of 
Elis, on the River Minye'ius, said to have been 
named after the foregoing : it was the residence 
of Aphareus.] 

AREOPAGUS. Vid. ATHENE 

ARES ("Ap?7f), (the Latin Mars), the Greek 
god of war and one of the great Olympian gods, 
is represented as the son of Zeus (Jupiter) and 
Hera (Juno). The character of Ares (Mars) in 
Greek mythology will be best understood by 
comparing it with that of other divinities who 
are likewise in some way connected with war. 
Athena (Minerva) represents thoughtfuluess and 
wisdom in the affairs of war, and protects men 



ARES1AS. 



AREVA. 



and their habitations during its ravages. Ares 
(Mars), on the other hand, is nothing but the 
personification of bold force and strength, and 
not so much the god of war as of its tumult, con- 
fusion, and horrors. His sister Eris calls forth 
war, Zeus (Jupiter) directs its course, but Ares 
(Mars) loves war for its own sake, and delights 
in the din and roar of battles, in the slaughter 
of men, and the destruction of towns. He is 
not even influenced by party spirit, but some- 
times assists the one, and sometimes the other 
side, just as his inclination may dictate ; whence 
Zeus (Jupiter) calls him d/l/lo7rp6<7a>l/lof. (II., v., 
389.) This savage and sanguinary character of 
Ares (Mars) makes him hated by the other 
gods and by his own parents. It was contrary 
to the spirit of the Greeks to represent a being 
like Ares (Mare), with all his overwhelming 
physical strength, as always victorious ; and 
when he comes in contact with higher powers, 
he is usually conquered. He was wounded by 
Diomedes, who was assisted by Athena (Miner- 
va), and in his fall he roared like ten thousand 
warriors. The gigantic Aloldae had likewise 
conquered him, and kept him a prisoner for thir- 
teen months, until he was delivered by Hermes 
(Mercury). He was also conquered by Hercules, 
with whom he fought on account of his son Cyc- 
nus, and was obliged to return to Olympus. 
This fierce and gigantic, but, withal, handsome 
god, loved and was beloved by Aphrodite (Ve- 
nus). Vid. APHRODITE. When Aphrodite (Ve- 
nus) loved Adonis, Ares (Mars), in his jealousy, 
metamorphosed himself into a boar, and killed 
bis rival. Vid. ADOXIS. According to a late 
tradition, Ares (Mars) slew Halirrhothius, the 
son of Poseidon (Neptune), when he was on the 
point of violating Alcippe, the daughter of Ares 
(Mars). Hereupon Poseidon (Neptune) accused 
Ares (Mars) in the Areopagus, where the Olym- 
pian gods were assembled in court. Ares (Mars) 
was acquitted, and this event was believed to 
have given rise to the name Areopagus. The 
warlike character of the tribes of Thrace led to 
the belief that the god's residence was in that 
country, and here and in Scytliia were the prin- 
cipal seats of his worship. In Scythia he was 
worshipped under the form of a sword, to which 
not only horses and other cattle, but men also, 
were sacrificed. In Greece itself the worship of 
Ares (Mars) was not very general All the 
stories about Ares (Mars), and his worship in the 
countries north of Greece, seem to indicate that 
his worship was introduced into the latter coun- 
try from Thrace. The Romans identified their 
god Mars with the Greek Ares. Vid. MARS. 

[A RES i AS ('Apeataf), one of the thirty tyrants 
in Athens under the Spartan ascendency.] 

ARKSTOR ('Aptarup), father of Argus, the 
guardian of lo, who is therefore called Arestor- 
idea. 

ARET.KUS ('AperaZof), the Cappadocian, one 
of the most celebrated of the ancient Greek 
physicians, probably lived in the reign of Ves- 
pasian. He wrote in Ionic Greek a general 
treatise on diseases in eight books, which is still 
extant The best edition is by C. G. Kiihn, 
Lips., 1828. 

[ARETAON ('Aperawv), a Trojan, slain by Teu- 
ccr.] 

ARKTAS ('Aofrac\ the name of several kings 



of Arabia Petraea. 1. A contemporary of Pom- 
pey, invaded Judaea in B.C. 65, in order to place 
Hyrcanus on the throne, but was driven back by 
the Romans, who espoused the cause of Aristobu- 
lus. His dominions were subsequently invaded 
by Scaurus, the lieutenant of Pompey. 2. The 
father-in-law of Herod Antipas, invaded Judeea 
because Herod had dismissed the daughter of 
Aretas in consequence of his connection with 
Herodias. This Aretas seems to have been 
the same who had possession of Damascus 
at the time of the conversion of the Apostle 
Paul, A.D. 31. 

ARETE ('Apjyn?). 1. Wife of Alcinous, king 
of the Phseacians, received Ulysses with hospi- 
tality. 2. [ARETE, in Greek 'Aperj?'], daughter 
of the elder Dionysios and Aristomache, wife of 
Thearides, and after his death of her uncle 
Dion. After Dion had fled from Syracuse, 
Arete was compelled by her brother to marry 
Timocrates, one of his friends ; but she was 
again received by Dion as his wife when he had 
obtained possession of Syracuse, and expelled 
the younger Dionysius. After the assassiuation 
of Dion in 353, she was drowned by his enemies. 
3. Daughter of Aristippus, the founder of the 
Cyrenaic school of philosophy, was instructed 
by him in the principles of his system, which 
she transmitted to her son, the younger Aris- 
tippus. 

ARETHUSA ('Apidovaa), one of the Nereids, and 
the nymph of the famous fountain of Arethusa, 
in the island of Ortygia, near Syracuse. For 
details, see ALPHEUS. Virgil (Eclog., iv., 1 ; x., 1) 
reckons her among the Sicilian nymphs, and as 
the divinity who inspired pastoral poetry. There 
were several other fountains in Greece which 
bore the name of f Arethusa, of which the most 
important was one in Ithaca, now Lebado, and 
another in Eubcea, near Chalcis. 

ARETHUSA ('ApeBovaa : now Er-Re&turi). 1. A 
town and fortress on the Orontes, in Syria : in 
Strabo's time, the seat of a petty Arabian prin- 
cipality. [2. a city of Macedonia, between Am 
phipolis and the Lake Bolbe. 3. A bituminous 
lake in Greater Armenia, through which the 
Tigris was said to flow without mingling its 
waters, at no great distance from its source. 
Strabo gives as the Oriental names of this lake, 
Arsene and Thospilis.] 

ARETIAS. Via. AREA. 

ARETIUM. Vid. ARRETIUJI. 

[ARETUS ('Ap^rof). 1. Son of Priam, skin by 
Automedoa 2. Son of Nestor.] 

AREUS ('Apevf), two kings of Sparta. 1. Suc- 
ceeded his grandfather, Cleomenes II., since his 
father Acrotatus had died before him, and 
reigned B.C. 309-265. He made several un- 
successful attempts to deliver Greece from the 
dominion of Antigonus Gonatas, and at length 
fell in battle against the Macedonians in 265, 
and was succeeded by bis son Aorotatus. 
2. Grandson of No. 1, reigned for eight years 
(the duration of his life) under the guardianship 
of his uncle Leonidas IL, who succeeded him 
about B.C. 256. 

[ARKUS ('ApeZof), of Alexandria, a Stoic or 
Pythagorean philosopher, who enjoyed in a high 
degree the confidence of Augustus, and was said 
to have been bis instructor in philosophy.] 

[AfifivA (now Alaiuon, or, according to Floro.?, 
89 



AREVAC^E. 



ARGONAUTS. 



Ucfro), a tributary of tho Durius, in Hispania 
Tarniconensis.] 

AREVACJB or AEEVACI, the most powerful 
tribe of the Celtiberians in Spain, near the 
sources of the Tagus, derived their uame from 
the River Areva (q. v.). 

AEG.EUS ('ApyaZof). 1. King of Macedonia, 
Ben and successor of Perdiccas I., the founder of 
the dynasty. 2. A pretender to the Macedonian 
crown, dethroned Perdiccas II, and reigned two 
years. 

AEG^US MONS ('ApyaZof : now Erdjish-Dagh), 
a lofty snow-capped mountain nearly in the cen- 
tre of Cappadocia ; an offset of the Anti-Taurus. 
At its foot stood the celebrated city of Mazaca 
or Caesarea. 

ARGANTHONIUS ('Apyav6uviof), king of Tartes- 
sus in Spain, in the sixth century B.C., is said to 
have reigned eighty years, and to have lived one 
hundred and twenty. 

ARGANTHONIUS or ARGANTHUS MONS (TO 'Ap- 
yavduviov opof : now Katirli), a mountain in 
Bithynia, running out into the Propontis, forming 
the Promontorium Posidium (Cape Bouz), and 
separating the bays of Cios and Astacus. 

. [AEGE ('Apyr)), a Hyperborean maiden, who 
came with Opis to Delos.J 

ARGEXNUM or ARGINUM ("Apyevvov, 'Apytvov : 
now Cape Blanco). 1. A promontory on the 
Ionian coast, opposite to Chios. [2. A promon- 
tory of the eastern coast of Sicily, now Capo 
San Alessio.] 

[ARGENNUSA, an island with a city of same 
name between the promontory of Argennum, 
and the Ionian coast, and the promontorium Po- 
sidium in the island of Chios.] 

[ARGENTANUM (now San Marco), a city of 
Bruttium.] 

[ARGENTAEIA or ARGENTUA!RIA, also ARGENTO- 
VARIA (now Arzenheim), the capital city of Gal- 
lia Belgica, where Gratian defeated the Ale- 
manui A.D. 378.] 

AEGENTEUS (now Argens), a small river in 
Gallia Narbonensis, which flows into the Medi- 
terranean near Forum Julii. 

ARGENTORATUM or -TUB (now Stra&sburg), an 
important town on the Rhine, in Gallia Belgica, 
the head-quarters of the eighth legion, and a 
Roman inunicipium. In its neighborhood Ju- 
lian gained a brilliant victory over the Aleman- 
ni, A.D. 357. It was subsequently called Strate- 
burgum and Stratisburgum, whence its modern 
name. 

ARGES. Vid. CYCLOPES. 

ARGIA ('Apyetd). 1. Daughter of Adrastus and 
Amphithea, and wife of Polynices. [2. Daugh- 
ter of Autesion, wife of the Spartan king Ans- 
todemus, by whom she became the mother of 
Eurysthenes and Procles.] 

AEGIA ('Ap-yeia). Vid. AEGOS. 

[AEGILEONIS ('Apyifauv'cc,), a Spartan female, 
mother of the celebrated general Brasidas.] 

ARGILETUM, a district in Rome, which extend- 
ed from the south of the Quirinal to the Capito- 
line and the Forum. It was chiefly inhabited 
by mechanics and booksellers. The origin of 
the name is uncertain : the most obvious deri- 
vation is from argilla, "potter's clay ;" but the 
more common explanation in antiquity was Argi- 
letum, " death of Argus," from a hero Argus who 
was buried there. 
90 



ARGILUS ("Apyihoc. : 'ApyiXiof), & town iu Bi- 
saltia, the eastern part of Mygdouia, in Mace- 
donia, between Amphipolis and Bromiscus, a col 
ony of Audros. 

ARGINCS^E ('Apyivovaai or 'Apyivovaaai), three 
small islands off the coast of ^Eolis, opposite 
Mytilene iu Lesbos, celebrated for the naval vic- 
tory of the Athenians over the Lacedremoniaus 
under Callicratidas, B.C. 406. 

[AHGiSpE ('ApyioTTt)), a nymph, mother of the 
Thracian bard Thamyris by Plulammon.] 

ARGIPIIONTES ('ApyetQovTijf), " the slayer of 
Argus," a surname of HERMES. 

AEGIPP^EI ('Apynrnaloi), a Scythian tribe in 
Sarmatia Asiatica, who appear, from the descrip- 
tion of them by Herodotus (iv., 23), to have been 
of the Calmuc race. 

ARGISSA. Vid. ARGURA. 

AEGITHEA, the chief town of Athamauia, in 
Epirus. 

ARGIVA, a surname of Hera or Juno, from Ar- 
gos, where, as well as in the whole of Pelopon- 
nesus, she was especially honored. Vid. ARGOS. 

AEGIVI. Vid. ARGOS. 

AEGO. Vid. AEGONAUT^E. 

[AEGOLICUS SINUS. Vid. ARGOS.] 

ARGOLIS. Vid. ARGOS. 

ARGONAUTS ('Apyovavrat), the Argonauts, 
" the sailors of the Argo," were the heroes who 
sailed to ^Ea (afterward called Colchis) for the 
purpose of fetching the golden fleece. The 
story of the Argonauts is variously related by 
the ancient writers, but the common tale ran as 
follows : In lolcus in Thessaly reigned Pelias, 
who had deprived his half-brother j*Eson of the 
sovereignty. In order to get rid of JASON, the 
son of jEson, PELIAS persuaded Jason to fetch 
the golden fleece, which was suspended on an 
oak-tree in the grove of Ares (Mars) in Colchis, 
and was guarded day and night by a dragon. 
Jason willingly undertook the enterprise, and 
commanded Argus, the son of Phrixus, to build 
a ship with fifty oars, which was called Argo 
('Apyw) after the name of the builder. Jason 
was accompanied by all the great heroes of the 
age, and their number is usually said to have 
been fifty. Among these were Hercules, Cas- 
tor and Pollux, Zetes and Calais, the sons of 
Boreas, the singer Orpheus, the seer Mopsus, 
Philammou, Tydeus, Theseus, Amphiaraus, Pe- 
leus, Nestor, Admetus, <fec. After leaving lol- 
cus they first landed at Lemncs, where they 
united themselves with the women of the island, 
who had just before murdered their fathers and 
husbands. From Lemnos they sailed to the 
Doliones at Cyzicus, where King Cyzicus re- 
ceived them hospitably. They left the coun- 
try during the night, and being thrown back 
on the coast by a contrary wind, they were 
taken for Pelasgians, the enemies of the Do- 
liones, and a struggle ensued, in which Cyzi- 
cus was slain ; but, being recognized by the 
Argonauts, they buried him, and mourned over 
his fate. They next landed in Mysia, where 
they left behind Hercules and Polyphemus, who 
had gone into Jhe country in search of Hylas, 
whom a nymph had carried off while he was 
fetching water for his companions. In the 
country of the Bebryces, King Amycus chal- 
lenged the Argonauts to fight with him; and 
when he was killed by Pollux, [the Bebryces, 



ARGONAUTS. 



A RGOS. 



to avenge the death of their 'king, made an 
attack on Pollux, but the Argonauts, having 
seized their arms, repulsed them, and slew many 
in their flight ; they then] sailed to Salmydes- 
BUS in Thrace, where the -seer Phineus was tor- 
mented by the Harpies. When the Argonauts 
consulted him about their voyage, he promised 
them his advice on condition of their delivering 
him from the Harpies. This was done by Zetes 
and Calais, two sons of Boreas ; and Phineus 
now advised them, before sailing through the 
Symplegades, to mark the flight of a dove, and 
to judge from its fate what they themselves 
would have to do. When they approached the 
Symplegades, they sent out a dove, which, in its 
rapid flight between the rocks, lost only the end 
of its tail The Argonauts now, with the assist- 
ance of Juno (Hera), followed the example of 
the dove, sailed quickly between the rocks, aud 
succeeded in passing without injury to their ship, 
with the exception of some ornaments at the 
stern. Henceforth the Symplegades stood im- 
movable in the sea. On their arrival at the 
country of the Mariandyni, the Argonauts were 
kindly received by their king, Lycus. The seer 
Idinoii and the helmsman Tiphys died here, and 
the place of the latter was supplied by Ancasus. 
They now sailed along the coast until they arriv- 
ed at the mouth of the I^iver Phasis. The Col- 
chian king ^Eetes promised to give up the golden 
fleece if Jason alone would yoke to a plough 
two fire breathing oxen with brazen feet, and 
sow the teeth of the dragon which had not been 
used by Cadmus at Thebes, and which he had 
received from Minerva (Athena). The love of 
Medea furnished Jason with means to resist 
fire and steel, on condition of his taking her as 
his wife ; and she taught him how he was to 
kill the warriors that were to spring up from 
the teeth of the dragon. While Jason was 
engaged upon his task, ^Eetes formed plans for 
burning the ship Argo and for killing all the 
Greek heroes. But Medea's magic powers lulled 
to sleep the dragon who guarded the golden 
fleece ; and after Jason had taken possession of 
the treasure, he and his Argonauts, together 
with Medea and her young brother Absvrtus, 
embarked by night and sailed away. ^Ee'tes 
pursued them ; but, before he overtook them, 
Medea murdered her brother, cut him into pieces, 
and threw his limbs overboard, that her father 
might be detained in his pursuit by collecting 
the limbs of his child JEe'tes at last returned 
home, but sent out a great number of Colchiaus, 
threatening them with the punishment intended 
for Medea if they returned without her. While 
the Colchiaus were dispersed in all directions, 
the Argonauts had already reached the mouth 
of the River Eridanus. But Jupiter (Zeus), 
angry at the murder of Absyrtus, raised a storm 
which cast the ship from ite course. When 
driven on the Absyrtian Islands, the ship began 
to speak, and declared that the anger of Jupiter 
(Zeus) would not cease unless they sailed toward 
Ausonia, and got purified by .Circe. They now 
sailed along the coasts of the Ligyans and Celts, 



being allured by them. Butes, however, swam 
to them, but Venus (Aphrodite) carried him tc 
Lilybaeum. Thetis and the Nereids conducted 
them through Scylla aud Charybdis and between 
the whirling rocks (ireTpai xlMjKTai) ; aud, sail- 
ing by the Thracian island with its oxen of 
Helios, they came to the Phseacian island 'if 
Corcyra, where they were received by Alciuous. 
In the mean time, some of the Colchiaus, not 
being able to discover the Argonauts, had settled 
at the foot of the Ceraunian Mountains ; others 
occupied the Absyrtian islands near the coast of 
Illyricum ; and a third band overtook the Argo- 
nauts in the island of the Phfeacians. But as 
their hopes of recovering Medea were deceived 
by Arete, the queen of Alcinous, they settled in 
the island, and the Argonauts continued their 
voyage. During the night they were overtaken 
by a storm ; but Apollo sent brilliant flashes of 
lightning, which enabled them to discover a 
neighboring island, which they called Anapha 
Here they erected an altar to Apollo, and solemn 
rites were instituted, which continued to be ob- 
served down to very late times. Their attempt 
to land in Crete was prevented by Talus, who 
guarded the island, but was killed by the arti- 
fices of Medea. From Crete they sailed to 
^Egina, and from thence between Euboja and 
Locris to lolcus. Respecting the events sub- 
sequent to their arrival in lolcus, vid, ^EsoN, 
MEDEA, JASOX, PELIAS. The story of the Argo- 
nauts probably arose out of accounts of com- 
mercial enterprises winch the wealthy Miuyans, 
who lived in the neighborhood of lolcus, made 
to the coasts of the Euxine. The expedition of 
the Argonauts is related by Pindar in the fourth 
Pythian ode, by Apollouius Rhodius in his 
Argonautica, and by his Roman imitator, Vale- 



rius Flaccus. 

ARGOS (rd "Apyof, -e 



), is said by Strabo (p. 



372) to have signified a plain in the language of 
the Macedonians and Thessalians, and it may 
therefore contain the same root as the Latin 
word offer. In Homer we find mention of the 
Pelasgic Argos, that is, a town or district of 
Thessaly, and of the Achaean Argos, by which 
he means sometimes the whole Peloponnesus 
sometimes Agamemnon's kingdom of Argos, of 
which Mycenje was the capital, and sometimes 
the town of Argos. As Argos frequently sig- 
nifies the whole Peloponnesus, the most import 
ant part of Greece, so the 'Apyeloi often occur 
in Homer as a name of the whole body of the 
Greeks, in which sense the Roman poets also 
use Argivi. 1. AEGOS, a district of Peloponne- 
sus, called Argolis (t/ 'ApyoMf) by Herodotus, but 
more frequently by other Greek writers either 
Argos, Argla (ij 'Apyeia), or Argolice (# 'Apyo- 
Ai/c>7). Under the Romans Argolis became the 
usual name of the country, while the word Argos 
or Argi was confined to the town. Argolis, un- 
der the Romans, signified the country bounded 
on the north by the Corinthian territory, on the 
west by Arcadia, on the south by Laconia, and 
included toward the east the whole Acte or pen 
insula between the Saronic and Argolic gulfs ; 



and through the sea of Sardinia, and, continuing 1 but, during the time of Grecian independence, 
their course along the coast of Tyrrhenia, they Argolis or Argos was only the country lying 
arrived in the Island of ^Eaca, where Circe pun- round the Argolicus Sinus (now Chilf of Nauplia), 
fled them. When they were passing by the bounded on the west by the Arcadian Mountains, 
Sirens, Orpheus sang to prevent the Argouauts I aud separated on 'Lo north by a range of niount- 

ai 



ARGOS. 



ARIA. 



ains from Corinth, Cleonae, and Phlius. Argolis, 
as understood by the Romans, was, for the most 
part, a mountainous and unproductive country : 
the only extensive plain adapted for agriculture 
was in the neighborhood of the city of Argos. 
Its rivers were insignificant, and mostly dry in 
summer : the most important was the Inachus. 
The country was divided into the districts of Ar- 

g"a or Argos proper, EPIDAURIA, TRCEZENIA, and 
ERMIONIS. The original inhabitants of the 
country were, according to mythology, the Cy- 
nurii ; but the main part of the population con- 
listed of Pelasgi and Acluei, to whom Dorians 
were added after the conquest of Peloponnesus 
by the Dorians. See below, No. 2. 2. ARGOS, or 
AKGI, -ORUM, in the Latin writers, now Argo, the 
capital of Argolis, and, next to Sparta, the most 
important town of Peloponnesus, situated in a 
level plain a little to the west of the Inachus. It 
had an ancient Pelasgic citadel, called Larissa, 
and another built subsequently on another height 
(duas arces habent Aryi, Liv, xxxiv., 25). It 
possessed numerous temples, and was particu- 
larly celebrated for the worship of Juno (Hera), 
whose great temple, Herceum, lay between Argos 
and Mycenae. The remains of the Cyclopian 
walls of Argos are still to be seen. The city is 
said to have been built by INACHUS or his son 
PHORONEUS, or grandson ARGUS. The descend- 
ants of InacLus, who may be regarded as the 
Pelasgian kings, reigned over the country for 
nine generations, but were at length deprived 
of the sovereignty by DANAUS, who is said to 
have coma from Egypt The descendants of 
Danaus were in their time obliged to submit to 
the Achaean race of the Pelopidze. Under the 
rule of the Pelopidse Mycenae became the capi- 
tal of the kingdom, and Argos was a dependent 
state. Thus Mycenae was the royal residence 
of Atreus and of his son Agamemnon ; but under 
Orestes Argos again recovered its supremacy. 
Upon the conquest of Peloponnesus by the Do- 
rians Argos fell to the share of Temenus, whose 
descendants ruled over the country ; but the 
great bulk of the population continued to be 
Achaean. All these events belong to Mythol- 
ogy ; and Argos first appears in history about 
B.C. 750, as the chief state of Peloponnesus, 
under its ruler PHIDON. After the time of Phi- 
don its power declined, and it was not even able 
to maintain its supremacy over the other towns 
of Argolis. Its power was greatly weakened 
by its wars with Sparta. The two states long 
contended for the district of Cynuria, which lay 
between Argolis and Laconia, and which the 
Spartans at length obtained by the victory of 
their three hundred champions, about B.C. 550. 
In B.C. 524, Cleomenes, the Spartan king, de- 
feated the Argives with such loss near Tiryns 
that Sparta was left without a rival in Pelopon- 
nesus. In consequence of its weakness and of 
its jealousy of Sparta, Argos took no part in the 
Persian war. In order to strengthen itself, Ar- 
gos attacked the neighboring towns of Tiryns, 
Mycenae, <fec., destroyed them, and transplanted 
their inhabitants to Argos. The introduction 
of so many new citizens was followed by the 
abolition of royalty and of Doric institutions, 
and by the establishment if a democracy, which 
continued to be the form of government till later 
times, when the city fell under the power of 
92 



tyrants. In the Peloponnesian war Argos sided 
with Athens against Sparta. In B.C. 243 it 
joined the Achaaan League, and on the conquest 
of the latter by the Romans, 146, it became a 
part of the Roman province of Achaia. At un 
early time Argos was distinguished by its culti- 
vation of music and poetry (vid. SACADAS, TEL- 
ESILLA) ; but at the time of the intellectual 
greatness of Athens, literature and science seem 
to have been entirely neglected at Argos. It 
produced some great sculptors, of whom AGKLA- 
DAS and POLYCLETUS are the most celebrated. 

ARGOS AMPHILSCHICUM ("Apyof rd 'A/i^tAogl 
KOV), the chief town of Amphilochia in Acarna- 
nia, situated on the Ambracian Gulf, and found- 
ed by the Argive AMPHILOCHUS, 

ARGOS HIPPIUM. Vid. ARPI. 

[ARGOS PELASGICUM ("Apyof rd Tlehacryiicov), 
an ancient city and district of Thessaly, men- 
tioned by Homer ; but in Strabo's time the city 
no longer existed.] 

ARGOUS PORTDS (now Porto Ferraio\ a town 
and harbor in the Island of Ilva (now Elba). 

ARGURA ("Ap-yovpa), a town in Pelasgiotis in 
Thessaly, called Argissa by Homer (11., ii., 738). 

ARGUS ("Apyof). 1. Son of Jupiter (Zeus) and 
Niobe, third king of Argos, from whom Argos 
derived its name. 2. Suruamed Panoples, " the 
all-seeing," because he had a hundred eyes, sou 
of Agenor, Arestor, Inachus, or Argus. Juno 
(Hera) appointed him guardian of the cow into 
which lo had been metamorphosed ; but Mercury 
(Hermes), at the command of Jupiter "(Zeus), 
put Argus to death, either by stoning him, or by 
cutting off his head after sendinj him to sleep 
by the sweet notes of his flute. Juno (Hera) 
transplanted his eyes to the tail of the peacock, 
her favorite bird. 3. The builder of the Argo, 
son of Phrixus, Arestor, or Poly bus, was sent by 
^Ee'tes, his grandfather, after the death of Phrix- 
us, to take possession of his inheritance in Greece. 
On his voyage thither he suffered shipwreck, was 
found by Jason in the Island of Aretias, and car- 
ried back to Colchis. 

ARGYRA ('Apyvpa), a town in Achaia near Pa- 
trae, with a fountain of the same name. 
ARGYRIPA. Vid. ARPL 

ARIA ('Apeia, 'Apia : 'Apetoc, "Aptnf : the east- 
ern part of Khorassan, and the western and north- 
western part of Afghanistan), the most import- 
ant of the eastern provinces of the ancient Per- 
sian Empire, was bounded on the east by the 
Paropamisadae, on the north by Margiana and 
Hyrcania, on the west by Parthia, and on the 
south by the great desert of Carmania. It was 
a vast plain, bordered on the north and east by 
mountains, and on the west and south by sandy 
deserts ; and, though forming a part of the great 
sandy table-land, now called the Desert of Iran, 
it contained several very fertile oases, especially 
in its northern part, along the base of the Sari- 
phi (now Kohistan and HazaraK) Mountains, 
which was watered by the river ARIUS or -AS 
(now Herirood), on which stood the later capital 
Alexandrea (now Herat). The river is lost in 
the sand. The lower course of the great river 
ETYMANDRUS (now Helmund) also belonged to 
Aria, and the lake into which it falls was called 
ARIA LACUS (now Zurrah). From Aria was de 
rived the name under which all the eastern pro 
vinces were included. Vid. ARIANA. 



ARIA LACUS. 



ARIB^EUS. 



ARIA LACUS. Vid. ARIA. 
ARIABIGNES (' ' Apiaftiyvrjc), son of Darius Hya 
taspis, one of the commanders of the fleet 
of Xerxes, fell in the battle of Salamis, B.C. 
480. 

ARIADNE (Apiddvrj), daughter of Minos and 
Pasiphae or Greta, fell in love with Theseus 
when he was sent by his father to convey the 
tribute of the Athenians to Minotaurus, and 
gave him the clew of thread by means of which 
he found his way out of the Labyrinth, and 
which she herself had received from Vulcan 
(Hephaestus). Theseus, in return, promised to 
marry her, and she accordingly left Crete with 
him ; but on their arrival in the Island of Dia 
(Naxos), she was killed by Diana (Artemis). 
This is the Homeric account (Od., xi., 322); 
but the more common tradition related that 
Theseus left Ariadne in Naxos alive, either be- 
cause he was forced by Bacchus (Dionysus) to 
leave her, or because he was ashamed to bring 
a foreign wife to Athens. Bacchus (Dionysus) 
found her at Naxos, made her his wife, and 
placed .among the stars the crown which he 
gave her at their marriage. There are several 
circumstances in the story of Ariadne which 
offered the happiest subjects for works of art, 
and some of the finest ancient works, on gems 
as well as paintings, are still extant, of which 
Ariadne is the subject. 

ARLSUS ('Apialof) or ARID^EUS ('Apidalof), 
the friend of Cyrus, commanded the left wing 
of the army at the battle of Cunaxa, B.C. 401. 
After the death of Cyrus he purchased his par- 
don from Artaxerxes by deserting the Greeks. 

ARIAMNES (' ApiujLtvTjf), the name of two kings 
of Cappadocia, one the father of Ariarathes I., 
and the other the sou and successor of Ariara- 
thes II. 

ARIANA ('Apiav?j : now Iran), derived from 
ARIA, from the specific sense of which it must 
be carefully distinguished, was the general name 
of the eastern provinces of the ancient Persian 
Empire, and included the portion of Asia bound- 
ed on the west by an imaginary line drawn 
from the Caspian to the mouth of the Persian 
Gulf, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the 
east by the Indus, and on the uotlh by the great 
chain of mountains called by the general name 
of the Indian Caucasus, embracing the provin- 
ces of Parthia, Aria, the Paropamisadae, Ara- 
chosia, Drangiana, Gedrosia, and Carmania 
(now Jihorassan, Afghanistan, Beloochistan, and 
Kinnan). But the name was oftei extended to 
the country as far west as the margin of the 
Tigris valley, so as to include Media and Persis, 
and also to the provinces north of the Indian 
Caucasus, namely, Bactria and Sogdiana (now 
Bokhara). The knowledge of the ancients re- 
specting the greater part of this region was con- 
fined to what was picked up in the expeditions 
of Alexander and the wars of the Greek kings 
of Syria, and what was learned from merchant 
caravans. 

[ARIAXTAS, a king of the Scythians, who, in 
order to take a census of his subjects, ordered 
each to bring him an arrow-head. So great a 
number was collected, that he caused a bronze 
vessel to be made from them, and this he pre- 
served as a memorial.] 

[ARIAPITHES, a king of the Scythians, who , 



was treacherously murdered by Spargapithea 
king of the Agathyrsi.] 

[ARIARATHKA (' Apiapudeta), a city of Cappa- 
docia, founded by the Cappadociau king Ariara- 
thes IV. : it lay between Sebastia and Comana 
Aurea.] 

ARIARATHES ('Apiapadrjc:), the name of several 
kings of Cappadocia. 1. Son of Ariamnes I., 
assisted Ochus in the recovery of Egypt, B.C. 
350. Ariarathes was defeated by "Perdiccas, 
and crucified 322. Eumenes then obtained 
possession of Cappadocia. 2. Son of Holopher- 
nes, and nephew of Ariarathes I., recovered 
Cappadocia after the death of Eumenes, B.C. 
315. He was succeeded by Ariamnes II. 3. 
Son of Ariamnes II., and grandson of No. 2, 
married Stratonice, daughter of Antiochus II., 
king of Syria. 4. Son of No. 3, reigned B.C 
220-162. He manned Antiochis, the daughter 
of Antiochus III., king of Syria, and assisted 
Antiochus in his war against the Romans. 
After the defeat of Antiochus, Ariarathes sued 
for peace in 188, which he obtained on favorable 
terms. In 183-179, he assisted Eumenes in his 
war against Pbarnaces. 5. Son of No. 4, pre- 
viously called Mithradates, reigned B.C. IBS- 
ISO. He was sumamed Philopator, and was 
distinguished by the excellence of his character 
and his cultivation of philosophy and the liberal 
arts. He assisted the Romans in their war 
against Aristonicus of Pergarnus, and fell ia 
this war, 130. 6. Son of No. 5, reigned B.C. 
130-96. He married Laodice, sister of Mithra- 
dates VI, king of Poutus, and was put to death 
by Mithradates by means of Gordius. On his 
death the kingdom was seized by Nicomedes, 
king of Bithynia. who married Laodice, the 
widow of the late king. But Nicomedes was 
soon expelled by Mithradates, who placed upon 
the throne, 7. Son of No. 6. He was, how- 
ever, also murdered by Mithradates in a short 
time, who now took possession of his kingdom. 
The Cappadocians rebelled against Mithradates, 
and placed upon the throne, 8. Second son of 
No. 6 ; but he was speedily driven out of the 
kingdom by Mithradates, and shortly afterward 
died. Both Mithradates and Nicomedes at- 
tempted to give a king to the Cappadocians ; but 
the Romans allowed the people to choose whom 
they pleased, and their choice fell upon Ario- 
barzanes. 9. Son of Ariobarzanes II., reigned 
B.C. 42-36. He was deposed and put to death 
by Antony, who appointed Archelaus as his sue 
cessor. 

RIASP^: or AGRIASF^E ('ApidaTrat, . 'Aypida- 

t), a people in the southern part of the Per- 
sian province of Draugiana, on the very borders 
of Gedrosia, with a capital city^, Ariaspe ('Apt 
dairy). In return for the services which they 
rendered to the army of Cyrus the Great when 
he marched through the desert of Carmauia, 
they were honored with the name of Eiiepyi- 
rat, and were allowed by the Persians to re- 
tain their independence, which was confirmed 
to them by Alexander as the reward of similar 
services to himself. 

[ARIASPES ('AptuoTr^f), called by Justin (10, 
1) Ariarates, son of the Persian king Artaxerxes 
Mnemon.j 

[ARIB^BUS ('ApiGaiof), king of the Cappndo- 
cians, was slain by the Hvrcanians in the time 

93 



ARICIA. 



ARIOVISTUS. 



of the elder Cyrus, according to Xenophon in I times expelled from his kingdom by Mithr.ula- 
his Cyroptcdia.] i tes, but was finally restored by Pompey iu 63, 

AUICIA (Ariclnus: now Ariccla or Jficcia), an ! shortly before his death. 2. Surnamed Pkilo- 
uncieut towu of Latiuin, at the foot of the Alban pator, succeeded his father in 63. The time of 
Mount, on the Appian Way, sixteen miles from his death is not known, but it must have been 
Rome. It was a member of the Latin confed- before 51, in which year his son was reigning, 
erncy, was subdued by the Romans, with the i 3. Surnamed Euscbes and Philoromceus, son 
other Latin towns, in B.C. 388, and received of No. 2, whom he succeeded about 61. He as- 
the Roman franchise. In its neighborhood was sisted Pompey against Caesar in 48, but was 
the celebrated grove and temple of Diana Ari- j nevertheless pardoned by Czesar, who even en- 
cina, on the borders of the Lacus Nemorensis j larged his territories. He was slain in 42 by 
(now Nemi). Diana was worshipped here with i Cassius, because he was plotting against him 
barbarous customs : her priest, called rex nemo- j in Asia. 

relists, was always a runaway slave, who obtain- i ARION ('Apiuv). 1. Of Methymna iu Lesbos, 
ed his office by killing his predecessor in single :. an ancient Greek bard and celebrated player 
combat The priest was obliged to fight with on the cithara, is called the inventor of the 
any slave who succeeded in breaking off a : dithyrambic poetry and of the name dithyramb. 



branch of a certain tree in the sacred grove. 
ARID^EUS, Vid. ARI^EUS, ARRHID.EUS. 
[ABIDOLIS ('Apidu/.ic), tyrant of Alabanda in 



He lived about B.C. 625, and spent a great part 
of his life at the court of Periauder. tyrant 01 
Corinth. Of his life scarcely any thing is known 



Caria, accompanied Xerxes in his expedition beyond the beautiful story of his escape from 
against Greece, and was taken captive by the the sailors with whom he sailed [from Taren 



Greeks off Artemisium, B.C. 480.] 

ARII, is the name applied to the inhabitants 
of the province of ARIA, but it is probably, also, 



turn in Italy] to Corinth. On one occasion, 
thus runs the story, Arion went to Sicily to take 
part in some musical contest He won the 



a form of the generic name of the whole Per- , prize, and, laden with presents, he embarked iu 
sian race, derived from the root ar, which means \ a Corinthian ship to return to his friend Peri- 
noble, and which forms the first syllable of a ander. The rude sailors coveted his treasures, 
>reat number of Persian names. Compare i and meditated his murder. After trying in vain 
AIOVEI. to save his life, he at length obtained permission 

ARIMASPI ('Apiftaa-oi), a people in the north once more to play on the cithara. In festal at- 
of Scythia, of whom a fabulous account is given tire, he placed himself in the prow of the ship, 
by Herodotus (iv., 27). The germ of the fable | and invoked the gods in inspired strains, and 
is perhaps to be recognized in the fact that the then threw himself into the sea. But many 
Ural Mountains abouud in gold. song-loving dolphins had assembled round the 



ARIMAZES ('Api/i,ui}f) or ARIOMAZES ('Apio/td- 
fof), a chief in Sogdiana, whose fortress was 
taken by Alexander in B.C. 328. In it Alex- 
ander found Roxana, the daughter of the Bac- 
triau chief Oxyartes, whom he made his wife. 



vessel, and one of them now took the bard on 
its back and carried him to TaeniSrus, from 
whence he returned to Corinth in safety, and 
related his adventure to Periauder. Upou the 
arrival of the Corinthian vessel, Periander in- 



ARIMI ('ApiLtoi.) and ARIMA (TU 'Api/m, sc. oprj), i quired of the sailors after Ariou, who replied 
the names of a mytliical people, district, and that he had remained behind at Tarentum ; but 
range of mountains in Asia Minor, which the when Arion, at the bidding of Periander, came 
old Greek poets made the scene of the punish- forward, the sailors owned their guilt, and were 
nieut of the monster Typhoeus. Vigil (jn., punished according to their desert In the times 
ix., 716) has misunderstood the dv 'Apipoif of i of Herodotus and Pausanias there existed at 



Homer (//., ii., 783), and made Typhoeus lie be 
neath luarime, an island off the const of Italy, 
namely, Pithecusa or yEuaria (now Ixchia). 
ARIJIIXUM (Arimineusis : now Rimini), a town 



Tsenarus a bras* monument, representing Arion 
riding on a dolphin. Arion and his cithara (lyre) 
were placed among the stars. A fragment of a 
hymn to Neptune (Poseidon), ascribed to Ariou, 



in Umbria, on the coast, at the mouth of the little j is contained in Bergk's Poeta. Lyrici Greed, p. 
River Ariminus (now Marocchid). It was origin- 566, <tc. 2. A fabulous horse, which Neptune 
ally inhabited by TJmbrians and Pelasgians, was (Poseidon) b*got by Ceres (Demeter) ; for, in 
afterward in the possession of the Senones, and , order to escape from the pursuit of Neptune 
was colonized by the Romans in B.C. 268, from (Poseidon), the goddess had metamorphosed 
which time it appears as a flourishing place, herself into a mare, and Neptune (Poseidon) 
After leaving Cisalpine Gaul, it was the first deceived her by assuming the figure of a horse, 
towu which a person arrived at in the northeast There were many other traditions respecting 
of Italia proper. . the origin of this horse, but all make Neptune 

ARIOBARZANES ('Aptodap&vqf;). I. Kings or ' (Poseidon) its father, though its mother is dif- 
Satrapn of Pontus. 1. Betrayed by his son ferent in the various legends. 
Mithradates to the Persian king about B.C. i ARIOVISTUS, a German chief, who crossed the 
Son of Mithradates I., reigned B.C. Rhine at the request of the Sequani, when they 
363-337. He revolted from Artaxerxes iu 362, were hard pressed by the JSdui. He subdued 
and may be regarded as the founder of the king- the ^Edui, but appropriated to himself part of 
dom of Pontus. 3. Son of Mithradates III., the territory of the Seqnani, and threatened to 
reigned 266-240, and was succeeded by Mith- take still more. The Sequani now united with 
radates IV. II. Kings of Cappadocia. 1. Sur- the JSdui in imploring the help of Caesar, who 
named Philoromceus, reigned B.C. 93-63, and defeated Ariovistus about fifty miles from the 
was elected king by the Cappadocians, under Rhine, B.C. 68. Ariovistus escaped across the 
the direction of the Romans. He was several river iu a small boat. 
94 



ARIPHON. 



ARISTARCHUS. 



[ARIPHO.V ('ApiQuv). 1. The father of Xan- 
thippus, and grandfather of Pericles. 2. Of Sic- 
yon, a Greek poet, author of a beautiful paean to 
Health, preserved by Athenaeus : it is given in 
Bergk's Poetce Lyr'ici Greed, p. 841.] 

[ARISBE ('ApictBji). 1. Daughter of Merops, 
first wife of Priam, to whom she bore ^Esacus. 
2. Daughter of Teucer, wife of Dardauus, 
from whom the town Arisbe, in Troas, was said 
to be named.] 

[ARISBE ('Apia/ty, now Mussa Koi). 1. A town 
of Troas, on the Selleis, not far from Abydus, 
founded by the Lesbians, or, according to Anax- 
imenes of Lampsacus, by the Milesians, the ear- 
lier town having been destroyed by Achilles in 
the Trojan war. It was occupied by the army of 
Alexander after the passage of the Hellespont : 
at a later pei-iod it was captured by the Gauls, 
and in Strabo's time it no longer existed. It 
appears to have been subsequently rebuilt, and 
to have become a considerable place under the 
later emperors. 2. A city of Lesbos, made trib- 
utary at an early period by the Methyniuaeans : 
it was destroyed by an earthquake.] 

[ARISBUS ("AptaGof), a river of Thrace, flow- 
ing into the Hebrus.] 

ARIST^XETUS ('ApiaTaiveroc), the reputed au- 
thor of two books of Love Letters, taken almost 
entirely from Plato, Lucian, Philostratus, and 
Plutarch. Of the author nothing is known. 
The best edition is by Boissonade, Paris, 1822. 

AaisTwfiNus (' Apiffraivoc), of Megalopolis, 
sometimes called Aristcenetus, was frequently 
strategus or general of the Achasan League from 
B.C. 198 to 185. He was the political opponent 
of Philopoemen. and a friend of the Romans. 

ARISTJETJS ('Apiaraiof), a divinity worshipped 
in various parts of Greece, was once a mortal, 
who became a god through the benefits he had 
conferred upon mankind. The different ac- 
counts about him seem to have arisen in differ- 
ent places and independently of one another, so 
that they referred to several distinct beings, 
who were subsequently identified and united 
into one. He is described either as a son of 
Uranus and Ge, or, according to a more general 
tradition, as the son of Apollo and Gyrene. His 
mother Cyreue had been carried off by Apollo 
from Mount Pelion to Libya, where she gave 
birth to Aristaaus. Aristseus subsequently went 
to Thebes in Boeotia ; but after the unfortunate 
death of his son ACTION, he left Thebes, and 
visited almost all the Greek colonies on the 
coasts of the Mediterranean. Finally he went 
to Thrace, and after dwelling for pome time 
near Mount Haemus, where he founded the town 
of Aristeeon, he disappeared. Ariataeus is one 
of the most beneficent divinities in ancient my- 
thology : he was worshipped as the protector 
of flocks and shepherds, ot vine and olive plant- 
ations ; he taught men to keep bees, and avert- 
ed from the fields the burning heat of the sun 
and other causes of destruction. 

ARISTAGORAS ('Apiara-yapae). 1. Of Miletus, 
brother-in-law of Histiaeus, was left by the latter, 
during his stay at the Persian court, in charge 
j>f the government of Miletua, Having failed 
in an attempt upon Naxos (B.C. 501), which he 
had promised to subdue for the Persians, anil 
fearing the consequences of his failure, lie in 
the Ionian cities to revolt from Persia. 



He applied for assistance to the Spartans and 
Athenians : the former refused, but the latter 
sent him twenty ships and some troops. In 
499 his army captured and burned Sardis, but 
was finally chased back to the coast The 
Athenians now departed ; the Persians con- 
quered most of the Ionian cities ; and Aristag 
oras, in despair, fled to Thrace, where he waf 
slain by the Edonians in 497. [2. Son of Her- 
aclides, tyrant of Cyme in JSolis, one of the Io- 
nian chiefs left by Darius to guard the bridge 
over the Danube. 3. Tyrant of Cyzicus, also 
in the service of the Persian king, and left by 
him as one of the guards of the bridge over the 
Danube. 4. A Greek author, who composed a 
work on Egypt, flourished uear the time of Pla- 
to. 5. A comic poet of the old comedy, of whom 
a few slight fragments remain, given by Mei- 
neke, Fragm. Comic. Grcec^ voL i., p. 427128, 
edit minor.] 

ARISTAXDER (' ^oiaravdpof), the most celebra- 
ted soothsayer ot \ lexander the Great, wrote a 
work on prodigies. 

ARISTARCHUS ('Apiarap^of). 1. An Atheniau, 
one of the leaders in the revolution of the " Four 
Hundred," B.C. 411. He was afterward put to 
death by the Athenians, not later than 406. 2. A 
Lacedaemonian, succeeded Oleander as harmost 
of Byzantium in 400, and in various ways ill 
treated the Greeks of Cyrus's army, who had 
recently returned from Asia. 3. Of TEGEA, a 
tragic poet at Athens, contemporary with Eu- 
ripides, flourished about B.C. 454, and wrote 
seventy tragedies. 4. Of SAMOS, an eminent 
mathematician and astronomer at Alexandrea, 
flourished between B.C. 280 and 264. He em- 
ployed himself in the determination of some of 
the most important elements of astronomy ; but 
none of his works remain, except a treatise on 
the magnitudes and distances of the sun and 
moon (Kepi [teyeOtiv Kal uTroaTrjfJ.u~uv qXtov Kat 
ffeljyiic). Edited by Wallis, Oxon, 1688, and 
reprinted in vol. iii. of his works. There is a 
French translation, and an edition of the text, 
Paris, 1810. 5. Of SAMOTHRACE, the celebrated 
grammarian, flourished B.C. 156. He was edu- 
cated in the school of Aristophanes of Byzan- 
tium, at Alexandrea, where he himself founded 
a grammatical and critical school. At an ad- 
vanced age he left Alexandrea and went to 
Cyprus, where he is said to have died at the 
age of 72, of voluntary starvation, because he 
was suffering from incurable dropsv. Aiistar- 
chus was the greatest critic of antiquity. His 
labors were chiefly devoted to the Greek poets, 
but more especially to the Homeric poems, of 
which he published a recension, which has been 
the basis of the text from his time to the pres- 
ent day. The great object of his critical labors 
was to restore the genuine text of the Homeric 
poems, and to clear it of all later interpolations 
and corruptions. He marked those verses which 
he thought spurious with an obelos, and those 
which he considered as particularly beautiful 
with an asterisk. He divided the Iliad and 
Odyssey into twenty-four books each. He did 
not confine himself to a recension of the text, 
but also explained and interpreted the poems : 
he opposed the allegorical interpretation which 
was then beginning to find favor, and which at 
a later time became very general. His gram- 
95 



ARISTEAS. 



ARISTIPPUS. 



matical principles were attacked by many of bis 
contemporaries : tbe most eminent of bis oppo- 
nents was CRATES of Mallus. 

ARISTEAS (AptoTtaf). 1. Of Proconnesus, an 
epic poet of wbose life we bave only fabulous 
accounts. His date is quite uncertain : some 
place him in the time of Croesus and Cyrus ; 
but other traditions make him earlier than Ho- 
mer, or a contemporary and teacher of Homer. 
The ancient writers represent him as a magi- 
cian, who rose after his death, and whose soul 
could leave and re-enter ita body according to 
its pleasure. He was connected with the wor- 
ship of Apollo, which he was said to have in- 
troduced at Metapontum. He is said to have 
travelled through the countries north and east 
of the Euxine, and to have visited the Issedones, 
Arimaspae, Cimmcrii, Hyperborei, and other 
mythical nations, and after his return to have 
written an epic poem in three books, called Tlte 
Arimaspla (rei 'Api/tuaTreia). This work is fre- 
quently mentioned by the ancients, but it is 
impossible to say who was the real author of 
it. [2. Of Chios, a distinguished officer in the 
army of the Ten Thousand. 3. An Argive, 
who invited Pyrrhus to Argos, B.C. 272, as his 
rival Aristippus was supported by Antigonus 
Gonatas.] 

ARISTEAS or ARIST^EUS, an officer of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus (B.C. 285-247), the reputed author 
of a Greek work, giving an account of the man- 
ner in which the translation of the Septuagint 
was executed, but which is generally admitted 
by the best critics to be spurious. Printed at 
Oxford, 1692, 8vo. 

ARISTIDES ('ApiaTeid^f). 1. An Athenian, son 
of Lysimachus, surnamed the " Just," was of an 
ancient and noble family. He was the political 
disciple of Clisthenes, and partly on that ac- 
count, partly from personal character, opposed 
from the first to Themistocles. Aristides fought 
as the commander of his tribe at the battle of 
Marathon, B.C 490 ; and next year, 489, he was 
arcbon. In 483 or 482 he suffered ostracism, 
probably in consequence of the triumph of the 
maritime and democratic policy of his rival. He 
was still in exile in 480 at the battle cf Salamis, 
where he did good service by dislodging the 
enemy, with a band raised and armed by him- 
self, from the islet of PsytUileia. He was re- 
called from banishment after the battle, was ap- 
pointed general in the following year (479), and 
commanded the Athenians at the battle of Pla- 
tffiae. In 477, when the allies had become dis- 
gusted with the conduct of Pausanias and the 
Spartans, he and his colleague Cimon had the 
glory of obtaining for Athens the command of the 
maritime confederacy ; and to Aristides was by 
general consent intrusted the task of drawing 
up its laws and fixing its assessments. This 
first tribute (06pof) of 460 talents, paid into a 
common treasury at Delos, bore his name, and 
was regarded by the allies in after times as 
marking their Saturnian age. This is his last 
recorded act He died after 471, the year of 
tbe ostracism of Themistocles, and very likely 
in 468. He died so poor that he did not leave 
enough to pay for his funeral : his daughters 
were portioned by the state, and his son, Ly- 
simachus, received a grant of land and of money. 
2. The author of a work entitled Milesiaca. 
96 



which was probably a romance, having Milettn 
for its scene. It was written in prose, and was 
of a licentious character. It was translated into 
Latin by L. Cornelius Sisenna, a contemporary 
of Sulla, and it seems to have become popular 
with the Romans. Aristides is reckoned as 
the inventor of the Greek romance, and the 
title of his work gave rise to the term Milesian, 
as applied to works of fiction. His age and 
country are unknown, but the title of his work 
is thought to favor the conjecture that he was a 
native of Miletus. 3. Of THEBES, a celebrated 
Greek painter, flourished about B.C. 360-330. 
The point in which he most excelled was in 
depicting the feelings, expressions, and pas- 
sions which may be observed in common life. 
His pictures were so much valued, that, long 
after his death, Attalus, king of Pergamus, offer- 
ed six hundred thousand sesterces for one of 
them. 4. JEuus ARISTIDES, surnamed THEO- 
DORUS, a celebrated Greek rhetorician, was born 
at Adrian!, in Mysia, in A.D. 117. He studied 
under Herodes Atticus at Athens, and subse- 
quently travelled through Egypt, Greece, and 
Italy. The fame of his talents and acquire- 
ments was so great, that monuments were 
erected to his honor in several towns which he 
had honored with his presence. Shortly before 
his return he was attacked by an illness which 
lasted for thirteen years, but this did not prevent 
him from prosecuting his studies. He subse- 
quently settled at Smyrna, and when this city 
was nearly destroyed by an earthquake in 178, 
he used his influence with the emperor, M. Au- 
relius, to induce him to assist in rebuilding the 
town. The Smyrnaeans showed their gratitude 
to Aristides by offering him various honors and 
distinctions, most of which he refused : he ac- 
cepted only the office of priest of jEsculapius 
(Asclepius), which he held until his death, about 
A.D. 180. The works of Aristides which have 
come down to us are fifty-five orations and dec- 
lamations, and two treatises on rhetorical sub- 
jects of little value. His orations are much su- 
perior to those of the rhetoricians of his time 
His admirers compared him to Demosthenes, 
and even Aristides did not think himself much 
inferior. This vanity and self-sufficiency made 
him enemies and opponents ; but the number 
of his admirers was far greater, and several 
learned grammarians wrote commentaries on 
his orations, some of which are extant. The 
best edition of Aristides is by W. Dindorf, Lips., 
1829. 5. QUINTILIANUS ARISTIDES, the author 
of a treatise in three books on music, probably 
lived in the first century after Christ. His work 
is perhaps the most valuable of all the ancient 
musical treatises : it is printed in the collection 
of Meibomius entitled Antiques Musicce Auctoret 
Septem, Amst, 1652. 

ARISTION ('Apianuv), a philosopher either of 
the Epicurean or Peripatetic school, made him- 
self tyrant of Athens through the influence of 
Mithradates. He held out against Sulla in B. 
C. 87 ; and when the city was taken by storm, 
he was put to death by Sulla's orders. 

AKISTIPPCS ('Ap'.OTimrof). 1. Son of Aritades. 
born at Cyrene, dnd founder of the Cyrenaic 
school of philosophy, flourished about B.C. 370. 
The fame of Socrates brought him to Athens, 
and he remained with that philosopher almost 



ARISTIUS FUSCCIS. 



ARISTOCRATES. 



ap to the time of his execution, B.C. 399 
Though a disciple of Socrates, he wanderec 
both in principle and practice very far from the 
teaching and example of his great master. He 
was luxurious in his mode of living ; he in- 
dulged in sensual gratifications and the society 
of the notorious Lais ; and he took money for 
his teaching (being the first of the disciples of 
Socrates who did so). He passed part of his 
life at the court of Dionysius, tyrant of Syra- 
cuse ; bul. he appears at last to have returned to 
Gyrene, and there to have spent his old age, 
The anecdotes which are told of him, however, 
do not give us the notion of a person who was 
the mere slave of his passions, but rather of one 
who took a pride in extracting enjoyment from 
all circumstances of every kind, and in con- 
trolling adversity and prosperity alike. They 
illustrate and confirm the two statements of 
Horace (Ep^ L, 1, 18), that to observe the pre- 
cepts of Aristippus is mihi res, non me rebus sub- 
jungere, and (L, 17, 23) that omnis Aristippum 
decuit color et status et res. Thus, when re- 
proached for his love of bodily indulgences, he 
answered that there was no shame in enjoy- 
ing them, but that it would be disgraceful if he 
could not at any time give them up. To Xeno- 
phon and Plato he was very obnoxious, as we 
see from the Memorabilia (iL, 1), where he main- 
tains an odious discussion against Socrates in 
defence of voluptuous enjoyment, and from the 
Pluedo, where his absence at the death of Soc- 
rates, though he was only at JSgina, two hund- 
red stadia from Athens, is doubtless mentioned 
as a reproach. He imparted his doctrine to his 
daughter Arete, by whom it was communicated 
to her son, the younger Aristippus. [2. ARIS- 
TIPPCS, an Aleuad, of Larissa in Thessaly, re- 
ceived money and troops from Cyrus, to resist a 
faction opposed to him, and for the ulterior 
purposes of Cyrus, to whom he sent the troops 
under command of Menon. 3. An Argive, who 
obtained the supreme power in Argos through 
the aid of Antigen* Gonatas, about B.C. 272. 
4. An Argive, tyrant of Argos after the the mur- 
der of Aristomachus L Aratus made many at- 
tempte to deprive bun of his tyranny, but at first 
without success: he fell at length in a battle 
against Aratus, and was succeeded in the tyran- 
ny by Aristomachus IL Vid. AKISTOMACHUS, 
Nos. 3 and 4.] 

[Afiisxius FuscCs. Vid. Fuscus. No. 2.] 

AEISTO, T., a distinguished Roman jurist, lived 
under the Emperor Trajan, and was a friend of 
the younger Pliny. His works are occasionally 
mentioned in the Digest, but there is no di- 
rect extract from any of them in that compi- 
latioa He wrote notes on the Libri Potle- 
riorum of Labeo, on Cassius, whose pupil he had 
been, and on Sabinus. 

AEISTO. Vid. ARISTOX. 

AaisTost'LUs ('Apiffro&wAof), princes of Ju- 
daa. 1. Eldest son of Joannes Hyrcanus, as- 
sumed the title of King of Judaea on the death 
of his father in B.C. 107. He put to death his 
brother Antigonus in order to secure his power, 
but died in the following year, 106. 2. Younger 
BOD of Alexander Jannaaus and Alexandra. 
After the death of hia mother in B.C. 70, there 
wa a civil war for some years between Aristo- 
oulns and his brother Hyrcanus for the posses- 
7 



sion of the crown. At length, in B.C. 63, Ariato- 
bulus was deprived of the the sovereignty by 
Pompey, and carried away as a prisoner to 
Rome. In 57 he escaped from his confinement 
at Rome with his son Antigonus, and, return- 
ing to Judaea, renewed the war ; but he was 
taken prisoner, and sent back to Rome by Ga 
binius. In 49 he was released by Julius Caesar, 
who sent him into Judaea, but he was poisoned 
on the way by some of Pompey's party. 3. 
Grandson of No. 2, son of Alexander, and broth- 
er of Herod's wife Mariamne. He was made 
high-priest by Herod when he was only seven- 
teen years old, but was afterward drowned at 
Jericho, by order of Herod, B.C. 35. 4. Son of 
Herod the Great by Mariamne, was put to death 
in B.C. 6, with his brother Alexander, by order 
of their father, whose suspicions had been excit- 
ed against them by their brother ANTIPATER. 
5. Surnamed " the Younger," son of Aristobulus 
and Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great. 
He was educated at Rome with his two brothers, 
Agrippa L and Herod the future king of 
Chalcis. He died, as he had lived, in a private 
station. 6. Son of Herod, long of Chalcis, 
grandson of No. 4, and great-grandson of Herod 
the Great. In A.D. 55, Nero made him king 
of Armenia Minor, and in 61 added to his do- 
minions some portion of the Greater Armenia 
which had been given to Tigranes. He joined 
the Romans in the war against Antiochus, king 
of Commagene, in 73. 

ABISTOBULUS. 1. Of Cassandrea, served un- 
der Alexander the Great in Asia, and wrote a 
history of Alexander, which was one of the 
chief sources used by Arrian in the composition 
of his work. 2. An Alexandrine Jew, and a 
Peripatetic philosopher, lived B.C. 170, under 
Ptolemy VL Philometor. He is said to have 
been the author of commentaries upon the books 
of Moses, the object of which was to prove that 
the Greek philosophy was taken from the books 
of Moses ; but it is now admitted that this work 
was written by a later writer, whose object was 
to induce the Greeks to pay respect to the Jew- 
ish literature. 

ABISTOCLES ('ApiaTOK^f/f). 1. Of Rhodes, a 
Greek grammarian and rhetorician, a contem- 
porary of Strabo. 2. Of Pergamus, a Sophist 
and rhetorician, and a pupil of Herodes Atticus, 
lived under Trajan and Hadrian. 3. Of Mes- 
sene, a Peripatetic philosopher, probably lived 
about the beginning of the third century after 
Christ He wrote a work on philosophy, some 
fragments of which are preserved by Eusebius. 
1. Sculptors. There were two sculptors of 
this name: Aristoclcs the elder, who is called 
both a Cydonian and a Sicyonian, probably be- 
cause he was born at Cydonia and practiced his 
art in Sicyon ; and Aristocles the younger, of 
Sicyon, grandson of the former, son of Cleretas, 
and brother of Canachus. These artists founded 
a school of sculpture at Sicyon, which se- 
cured an hereditary reputation, and of which 
we have the heads for several generations, name- 
ly, Aristocles, Cleoataa, Aristocles and Cana- 
chus, Synnoon, Ptolichus, Sostratus, and Pantias. 
The elder Aristocles probably lived about B.C. 
600-568 ; the younger about 540-508. [5. Ear- 
ier name of Plato. Vid. PLATO.] 
AKISTOCBATES ('\piaTOKpdrrif). 1. Last King 
97 



ARISTODEMUS. 



ARISTOMENES. 



of Arcadia, was the leader of the Arcadians in 
the second Messenian war, when they assisted 
the Messenians against the Spartans. Having 
been bribed by the Spartans, he betrayed the 
Messenians, and was, m consequence, stoned to 
death by the Arcadians about B.C. 668, who 
uow abolished the kingly office. 2. An Atheni- 
an of wealth and influence, son of Scelh'as, was 
one of the Athenian generals at the battle of 
Arginusae, B.C. 406, and on his return to Athens 
was brought to trial and executed. 

AKISTODKMUS ('Apiffrodf/fiof). 1. A descend- 
ant of Hercules, son of Aristomachus, and fa- 
ther of Eurysthenes and Procles. According 
to some traditions, Aristodemus was killed at 
Naupactus ty a flash of lightning, just as he 
was setting out on his expedition into Pelopon- 
nesus ; but a Lacedaemonian tradition related 
that Aristodemus himself came to Sparta, was 
the first king -of his race, and died a natural 
death. 2. A Messenian, one of the chief heroes 
in the first Messenian war. As the Delphic 
oracle had declared that the preservation of the 
Messenian state demanded that a maiden of the 
house of the JSpytids should be sacrificed, Aris- 
todemus offered lus own daughter. In order to 
save her life, her lover declared that she was 
with child by him ; but Aristodemus, enraged at 
this assertion, murdered his daughter, and open- 
ed her body to refute the calumny. Aristode- 
mus was afterward elected king in place of 
Euphaes, who had fallen in battle against the 
Spartans. He continued the war against the 
Spartans, till at length, finding further resist- 
ance hopeless, he put an end to his life, on the 
tomb of his daughter, about B.C. 723. 3. Ty- 
rant of Cumae in Campania, at whose court Tar- 
quinius Superbus died, B.C. 496. 4. One of the 
three hundred Spartans at Thermopylae (B.C. 
480), was . not present at the battle in which his 
comrades fell, either in consequence of sick- 
ness, or because he had been sent on an errand 
from the camp. The Spartans punished him 
with Atlmia, or civil degradation. Stung with 
this treatment, he met his death at Plataeae in 
the following year (479), after performing the 
wildest feats of valor. 5. A tragic actor of 
Athens in the time of Demosthenes, took a 
prominent part in the political affairs of his 
time, and advocated peace with Macedonia. 
He was employed by the Athenians in the ne- 
gotiations with Philip, with whom he was a 
great favorite. 6. Of Miletus, a friend and flat- 
terer of Antigonus, king of Asia, who sent him 
into Greece in B.C. 315, in order to promote 
his interests there. 7. There were many lit- 
erary persons of this name referred to by the 
ancient grammarians, whom it is difficult to dis,- 
tiuguish from one another. Two were natives 
of Nysa in Caria, both grammarians, one a teach- 
er of Pompey, and the other of Strabo. There 
was also an Aristodemus of Etis, and another 
of Thebes, who are quoted as writers. [The 
fragments of these writers are collected and 
published together by Miiller, Fragm. Histor. 
Grax., vol. iii, p. 307-311.] 

ARISTOGITON ('ApiaToyei.Tuv). 1. The con- 
spirator against the sous of Pisistratus. Vid. 
HAEMODICS. 2. An Athenian orator and ad- 
versary of Demosthenes, Hypendes, and Dinar- 
shus. He was often accused by Demosthenes 
98 



and others, and defended himself in .\ numoer 
of orations which are lost. Among the extant 
speeches of Demosthenes there are two against 
Aristogiton, and among those of Dinarchus there 
is one. 

ARISTOMACHE ('AptoTo/nuxn). [1. One of the 
daughters of Priam, and wife of Critolaus.] 
2. Daughter of Hipparinus of Syracuse, sister 
of Dion, and wife of the elder Dionysius, who 
married her and Doris of Locri on the same day. 
She afterward perished with her daughter 
ABETE. 

AEISTOMACHUS ( Aptcrro/fo^of). 1. Son of Ta- 
laus and brother of Adrastus. 2. Son of Cleo- 
demus or Cleodaeus, grandson of Hyllus, great- 
grandson of Hercules, and father of Tem<jnus, 
Cresphontes, and Aristodemus. He fell in bat- 
tle when he invaded Peloponnesus ; but his 
three sons were more successful, and conquer- 
ed Peloponnesus. 3. Tyrant of Argos, under 
the patronage of Antigonus Gonatas, was as- 
sassinated, and succeeded by Aristippus II. 4. 
Tyrant of Argos, succeeded Aristippus IL : he 
resigned his power upon the death of Demetri- 
us in B.C. 229, and induced Argos to join the 
Achaean League. He afterward deserted the 
Achaeans, and again assumed the tyranny of Ar- 
gos ; but the city having been taken by Antigo- 
nus Doson, Aristomachus fell into the hands of 
the Achseans, and was by them put to death. 

AEISTOMENES ('A.ptGTOfievrj<;). 1. The Messe- 
nian, the hero of the second war with Sparta, 
belongs more to legend than to history. Ho 
was a native of Andania, and was sprung from 
the royal line of JSpytus. Tired of the yoke of 
Sparta, he began the war in B.C. 685, thirty- 
nine years after the end of the first war. Soon 
after its commencement, he so distinguished 
himself by his valor that he was offered the 
throne, but refused it, and received the office 
of supreme commander. After the defeat of 
the Messeniaus in the third year of the war, 
through the treachery of Aristocrates, the Ar- 
cadian leader, Aristomenes retreated to the 
mountain fortress of Ira, and there maintained 
the war eleven years, constantly ravaging the 
land of Laconia. In one of his incursions, how- 
ever, the Spartans overpowered him with su- 
perior numbers, and carrying him, with fifty oi 
his comrades, to Sparta, cast them into the 
pit (/cea<5af) where condemned criminals were 
thrown. The rest perished ; "not so Aristome- 
nes, the favorite of the gods; for legends told 
how an eagle bore him up on its wings as he 
fell, and a fox guided him on the third day from 
the cavern. But having recurred the anger of 
the Twin Brothers, his country was destined to 
ruin. The city of Ira, which he had so long 
successfully defended, fell into the hands of the 
Spartans; Aristomenes, after performing prodi- 
gies of valor, was obliged to leave his country, 
which was again compelled to submit to the 
Spartans, B.C. 668. He afterward settled at 
lalysus in Rhodes, where he died. Damagetus, 
king of lalysus, had been enjoined by the Del- 
phic oracle " to marry the daughter of the best 
of the Greeks," and he therefore took to wife 
the daughter of Aristomenes, who accompanied 
him to Rhodes. The Rhodians honored Aris- 
tomenes as a hero, and from him were descend- 
ed the illustrious family of the Diagoridae. 2. 



ARISTOK 



ARISTOPHANES. 



An Acarnanian, who governed Egypt with jus- 
tice and wisdom during the minority of Ptole- 
my V. Epiphanes, but was put to death by Ptole- 
my in 192. 3. A comic poet of Athens, flour- 
ished during the Peloponnesian war : [of his 
comedies only a few fragments remain, which are 
collected in Meineke's Fragm. Comic. Grcec^ voL 
i., p. 415-7, edit minor.] 

ARISTON ('\pia-uv). 1. Of Chios, a Stoic 
philosopher, and a disciple of Zeno, flourished 
about B.C. 260. Though he professed himself 
a Stoic, yet he differed from Zeno in several 
points, and became the founder of a small 
school He is said to have died of a coup de 
soleil. 2. A Peripatetic philosopher of lufis in 
the Island of Ceos, succeeded Lycon as head 
of the Peripatetic, school about B.C. 230. He 
wrote several philosophical works which are 
lost. 3. Of Alexandrea, a Peripatetic philoso- 
pher and a contemporary of Strabo, wrote a 
work on the Nile ; [and another, nepl 'Adjjvaiuv 
u~oiK.iaf, as Vossius has shown, with whom also 
Miiller agrees, who has given the fragments of 
these works, in his J*ragm. Hist. Grcec^ voL iii., 
p. 324-5.] 

A.s.isTOHA.UTM('A.piaTovavTai),&towu in Achaia, 
the harbor of Pallene. 

ARISTONICCS ('ApioroviKOc.). 1. [A tyrant of 
Methymna, in Lesbos, who oppressed the Les- 
bians. He was subsequently taken prisoner by 
the naval commanders of Alexander at Chios, 
given up to the M^ethymneans, and by them 
cruelly put to death.] 2. A natural son of Eu- 
menes IL of Pergamus. Upon the death of his 
brother, Attalus III., B.C. 133, who left his 
kingdom to the Romans, Aristonicus laid claim 
to the crown. At first he met with considerable 
success. He defeated in 131 the consul P. Li- 
cinius Crassus ; but -in 130 he was defeated and 
taken prisoner by M. Perperna, was carried to 
Rome by M'. Aquillius in 129, and was there put 
to death. 3. An Alexandrine grammarian, a 
contemporary of Strabo, and the author of sev- 
eral works, most of which related to the Homeric 
poems. 

ARISTONYMUS ('ApiffTuwpoe), a comic poet 'and 
contemporary of Aristophanes and Amipsias, [of 
whose plays scarcely any thing survives : two or 
three fragments are given in Meineke's Fragm. 
Comic. Grcec., voL L, p. 401-2, edit, minor.] 

ARISTSPHANES ('A/>t(Tro0av>7f). 1. The cele- 
brated comic poet, was born about B.C. 444, and 
probably at Athens. His father Philippus had 
possessions in ^Egina, and may originally have 
come from that island, whence a question* arose 
whether Aristophanes was a genuine Athenian 
citizen : his enemy Cleon brought against him 
more than one accusation to deprive him of his 
civic rights (eviaf ypa<j>ai), but without success. 
He had three sons, Philippus, Araros, and Ni- 
costratus, but of his private history we know- 
nothing. He probably died about B.C. 380. The 
comedies of Aristophanes are of the highest his- 
torical interest, containing as they do an admi- 
rable series of caricatures on the leading men 
of the day, and a contemporary commentary on 
the evils existing at Athens. Indeed, the cari- 
cature is the only feature in modern social life 
which at nil resembles them. Aristophanes was 
a bold and often a wise patriot. He had the 
strongest affection for Athens and longed to see 



her restored to the state in which sLe was flour 
ishing in the previous generation, and almost in 
his own childhood, before Pericles became the 
head of the government, and when the age of 
Miltiades and Aristides had but just passed 
away. The first great evil of his own time 
against which he inveighs is the Pelopounesian 
war, which he regards as the work of Pericles. 
To this fatal war, among a host of evils, he as- 
cribes the influence of demagogues like Cleon 
at Athens. Another great object of his indig 
nation was the recently adopted system of edu 
cation, which had been introduced by the Soph- 
ists, acting on the speculative and inquiring 
turn given to the Athenian mind by the Ionian 
and Eleatic philosophers, and the extraordinary 
intellectual development of the age following 
the Persian war. The new theories introduced 
by the Sophists threatened to overthrow the 
foundations of morality, by making persuasion, 
and not truth, the object of man in his intercourse 
with his fellows, and to substitute a universal 
skepticism for the religious creed of the people. 
The worst effects of such a system were seen in 
Alcibiades, who combined all the elements which 
Aristophanes most disliked, heading the war 
party in politics, and protecting the sophistical 
school in philosophy and also in literature. Of 
this latter school the literary and poetical Soph- 
ists Euripides was the chief, whose works 
are full of that [isTeupoaotyia which contrasts so 
offensively with the moral dignity of JEschylus 
and Sophocles, and for which Aristophanes in- 
troduces him as soaring in the air $p write his 
tragedies. Another feature of the times was 
the excessive love for litigation at Athens, the 
consequent importance of the dicasts, and dis- 
graceful abuse of their power, all of which enor- 
mities are made by Aristophanes objects of con- 
tinual attack. But though he saw what were 
the evils of his tune, he had not wisdom to find 
a remedy for them, except the hopeless and un- 
desirable one of a movement backward ; and 
therefore, though we allow him to have been 
honest and bold, we must deny^ him the epithet 
of great. The following is a list of his extant 
comedies, with the year in which they were 
performed : 425. Acharnians. Produced in the 
name of Callistratus. First prize. 424. 'Imrels, 
Knights or Horsemen. The first play produced 
in the name of Aristophanes himself. First 
prize ; second Cratiuus. 423. Clouds. First 
prize, Cratinus ; second, Amipsias. 422. Wasps. 
Second prize. Clouds (second edition), failed in 
obtaining a prize. Some writers place this B.C. 
411, and the whole subject is very uncertain. 
419. Peace. Second prize; Eupolis, first 
Birds. Second prize ; Amipsias, farst ; Phryu- 
ichus, third. til. Lysistrata. Tliesmophoria- 
susce. During the Oligarchy. 408. First Plu- 
tus. 405. Frogs. First prize ; Phryuichus, sec 
ond ; Plato, third. Death of Sophocles. 892. 
Ecclesiazusa. 388. Second edition of the Plu- 
tus. The last two comedies of Aristophanes 
were the ^Eolosicon and Cocalus, produced about 
B.C. 387 (date of the peace of Antalcidas) by Ar- 
nros, one of his sons. Suidas tells us that Aris- 
tophanes was the author, in all, of fifty-four plays. 
As a poet Aristophanes possessed merits of the 
lighest order. His works contain snatches of 
lyric poetry which are quite noble, and some oi 
99 



ARISTOPHOK 



ARtSTOTELES. 



uia choruses, particularly one in the Kuighte, in 
which the horses are represented as rowing tri- 
remes in an expedition against Corinth, are writ- 
ten with a spirit and humor unrivalled in Greek, 
and are not very dissimilar to English ballads. 
He was a complete master of the Attic dialect, 
and in his hands the perfection of that glorious 
language is wonderfully shown. No flights are 
too bold for the range of his fancy : animals of 
every kind are pressed into his service ; frogs 
chaunt choruses, a dog is tried for stealing a 
cheese, and an iambic verse is composed of the 
grunta of a pig. Editions : The best of the col- 
lective plays are by Invernizzi, completed by 
Beck and Dindorf, 13 vols., Lips., 1794-1826; 
by Bekker, 5 vols. 8vo, Lond, 1829 ; [and by Din- 
dorf, 4 vols., in 7 parts, 8vo, Oxford, 1835-38]. 
2. Of Byzantium, son of Apelles, and one of the 
most eminent Greek grammarians at Alexan- 
drea. He was a pupil of Zenodotus and Era- 
tosthenes, and teacher of the celebrated Aristar- 
chus. He lived about B.C. 264, in. the reign of 
Ptolemy II and Ptolemy IIL, and had the su- 
preme management of the library at Alexandrea. 
Aristophanes was the first who introduced the 
use of accents in the Greek language. He de- 
voted liimself chiefly to the criticism and inter- 
pretation of the Greek poets, and more espe- 
cially of Homer, of whose works he made a new 
and critical edition (diopduaif). The philoso- 
phers Plato and Aristotle likewise engaged his 
attention, and of the former, as of several of the 
poets, he made new and critical editions. All 
we possess ^bf his numerous works consists of 
fragments scattered through the Scholia on the 
poets, some arguments to the plays of the tragic 
poets and of Aristophanes, and a part of his 
Ae^etf, which is printed in Boissonade's edition 
of Herodian's Partitiones, London, 1819, p. 283- 
289. [A collection of all the extant fragments 
of Aristophanes has been made by Nauck, Halle, 
J848,8vo.] 

AEISTOPHON ('ApioroQuv). 1. Of the demus 
of Azenia in Attica, one of the most distinguish- 
ed Athenian orators about the close of the Pelo- 
ponnesian war. The number of laws which he 
proposed may be inferred from his own state- 
ment, as preserved by ^Eschines, that he was 
accused seventy-five times of having made ille- 
gal proposals, but that he had always come off 
victorious. In B.C. 354 he accused Iphicrates 
and Timotheus, and in the same year he came 
forward in the assembly to defend the law of 
Leptines against Demosthenes. The latter 
treats him with great respect, and reckons him 
among the most eloquent orators. 2. Of the 
demus of Colyttus, a contemporary of Demos- 
thenes, and an orator of great distinction and 
influence. It was this Aristophon whom ffis- 
cbines served as a clerk, and in whose service 
he was trained for his public career. Vid. JE&- 
CHINES. 3. A comic poet of the middle comedy ; 

(the fragments of his plays remaining are col- 
ected by Meineke, in his Fragm Comic. Grcec., 
vol. ii, p. 675-^679, ed. minor.] 4. A painter of 
some distinction, son and pupil of Aglaophon, 
and brother of Polygnotus. 

AKISTOTELES ('AptcroreA^f), the philosopher, 

wzis born at Stagira, a town in Chalcidice in 

Macedonia, B.C. 384. His father, Nicomachus, 

was physician in ordinary to Amyntas II king 

00 



of Macedonia, and the author of several treatises 
on subjects connected with natural science : his 
mother, Phasstis (or Phiestias), was descended 
from a Chalcidian family. The studies and oc- 
cupation of his father account for the early in- 
clination manifested by Aristotle for the inves- 
tigation of nature, an inclination which is per- 
ceived throughout his whole life. He lost his 
father before he had attained his seventeenth 
year, and he was intrusted to the guardianship 
of one Proxenus of Atarneus in Mysia, who was 
settled in Stagira. In 367 he went to Athens 
to pursue his studies, and there became a pupil 
of' Plato upon the return of the latter from Sici- 
ly about 365. Plato soon distinguished him 
above all his other disciples. He named him 
the " intellect of his school," and his house the 
house of the " reader." Aristotle lived at 
Athens for twenty years, till 847. During the 
whole of this period the good understanding 
which subsisted between teacher and scholar 
continued, with some trifling exceptions, undis- 
turbed, for the stories of he disrespect and in 
gratitude of the latter toward the former are 
nothing but calumnies invented by his enemies. 
During the last ten years of his first residence 
at Athens, Aristotle gave instruction in rhetoric, 
and distinguished himself by his opposition to 
Isocrates. It was at this time that he publish- 
ed his first rhetorical writings. Upon the death 
of Plato (347) Aristotle left Athens ; perhaps he 
was offended by Plato having appointed Speu- 
sippus as his successor in the Academy. He 
first repaired to his friend Hermlas at Atarneus, 
where he married Pythias, the adoptive daugh 
ter of the prince. On the death of HERMIAS. 
who was killed by the Persians (344), Aristotle 
fled from Atarneus to Mytilene. Two years 
afterward (342) he accepted an invitation from 
Philip of Macedonia to undertake the instruc 
tion of his son Alexander, then thirteen year 
of age. Here Aristotle was treated with the 
most marked respect. His native city, Stagira, 
which had been destroyed by Philip, was re- 
built at his request, and Philip caused a gym- 
nasium (called Nymphseum) to be built there in 
a pleasant grove expressly for Aristotle and his 
pupils. Several of the youths of the Macedo- 
nian nobles were educated by Aristotle along 
with Alexander. Aristotle spent seven years 
in Macedonia, but Alexander enjoyed his in- 
struction without interruption for only four. 
Still, with such a pupil, even this short period 
was sufficient for a teacher like Aristotle to 
fulfill the highest purposes of education, and to 
create in his pupil that sense of the noble and 
great which distinguishes Alexander from all 
those conquerors who have only swept like a 
hurricane through the world. On Alexander's 
accession to the throne in 335, Aristotle return- 
ed to Athens. Here he found his friend Xenoc- 
rates president of the Academy. He himself 
had the Lyceum, a gymnasium sacred to Apollo 
Lyceus, assigned to him by the state. He soon 
assembled round him a large number of distin- 
guished scholars, to whom he delivered lectures 
on philosophy in the shady walks (nepiiraToi] 
which surrounded the Lyceum, while walking 
up and down (irfpnraruv), and not sitting, whicl 
was the general practice of the philosophers 
From one or other of these circumstances th 



ARISTOTELES. 



AR1STOTELES. 



name Peripatetic is derived, -which was after- 
ward given to his school. He gave two dif- 
ferent courses of lectures every day. Those 
which he delivered in the morning (iudivoe ire- 
oiirarof ) to a narrower circle of chosen (esote- 
ric) hearers, and which were called acroamatic 
or acroatic, embraced subjects connected with 
the more abstruse philosophy (theology), phys- 
ics, and dialectics. Those which he delivered 
in the afternoon (ietfavdf TreptTrarof), and intend- 
ed for a more promiscuous circle (which, accord- 
ingly, he called exoteric), extended to rhetoric, 
sophistics, and politics. He appears to have 
taught not so much in the way of conversation 
as in regular lectures. His school soon became 
the most celebrated at Athens, and he continued 
to preside over it for thirteen years (335^-323). 
During this time he also composed the greater 
part of his works. In these labors he was as- 
sisted by the truly kingly liberality of his former 
pupil, who not only presented him with 800 
talents, but also caused large collections of nat- 
ural curiosities to be made for him, to which 
posterity is indebted for one of his most excel- 
lent works, the History of Animals. Meanwhile 
various causes contributed to throw a cloud 
over the latter years of the philosopher's life. 
In the first place he felt deeply the death of his 
wife Pythias, who left behind her a daughter of 
the same name : he lived subsequently with a 
friend of his wife's, the slave Herpylh's, who 
bore him a son, Nicomachus. But a source of 
still greater grief was an interruption of the 
friendly relation in which he had hitherto stood 
to his royal pupiL This was occasioned by the 
conduct of CALLISTBENES, the nephew and pupil 
of Aristotle, who had vehemently and injudi- 
ciously opposed the changes in the conduct and 
policy of Alexander. Still Alexander refrain- 
ed from any expression of hostility towards his 
former instructor, although their former cordial 
connection no longer subsisted undisturbed. 
The story that Aristotle had a share in poison- 
ing the king is a fabrication of a later age ; 
and, moreover, it is certain that Alexander died 
a natural death. After the death of Alexan- 
der (323), Aristotle was looked upon with suspi- 
cion at Athens as a friend of Macedonia ; but 
as it was not easy to bring any political accusa- 
tion against him, he was accused of impiety 
(uffefietaf) by the hierophant Eurymedon. He 
withdrew from Athens before his trial, and es- 
caped in the beginning of 322 to Chalcis in Eu- 
bcea, where he died in the course of the same 
year, in the sixty-third year of his age, of a 
chronic disease of the stomach. J 1 in body was 
transported to his native city Stagira, and his 
memory was honored there, like that of a hero, 
by yearly festivals. He bequeathed to Theo- 
jjhrastus his well-stored library and the origi- 
nals of his writings. In person Aristotle was 
short and of slender make, with small eyes, 
and a lisp in his pronunciation, using L for A', 
and with a sort of sarcastic expression in his 
countenance. He exhibited remarkable atten- 
tion to external appearance, and bestowed much 
care on his dress and person. He is described 
as having been of weak health, which, consid- 
ering the astonishing extent of his studies, 
shows all the more the energy of his mind. The 
numerous works of Aristotle may be divided 



into the following classes, according to the sub- 
jects of which they treat : we only mention the 
most important in each class. I. DIALECTICS 
AND LOGIC. The extant logical writings are 
comprehended as a whole under the title Or- 
ganon ("Opyavov, i. e., instrument of science). 
They are occupied with the investigation of the 
method by which man arrives at knowledge. 
An insight into the nature and formation of con- 
clusions, and of proof by me;ms of conclusions, 
is the common aim and centre of all the sep- 
arate six works composing the Organon : these 
separate works are, 1. Karqyopiat, Prcedicamen- 
ta, in which Aristotle treats of the (ten) com- 
prehensive generic ideas, under which all the 
attributes of things may be subordinated as 
species. 2. Hepl eppriveiac., J)e Interpretatione, 
concerning the expression of thought by means 
of speech. 3, 4. 'Ava^vriKu fcporepa and varepa, 
Analytica, each in two books, on the theory of 
conclusions, so called from the resolution of 
the conclusion into its fundamental component 
parts. 5. TOTTIKU, De Locis, in eight books, of 
the general points of view (TOTTOI), from which 
conclusions may be drawn. 6. Ilepl ao<piaTiKuv 
kheyxuv, concerning the fallacies which only 
apparently prove something. The best edition 
of the Organon is by Waitz, Lips., 1844. IL 
THEORETICAL PHILOSOPHY, consisting of Meta- 
physics, Mathematics, and Physics, on all of 
which Aristotle wrote works. 1. The Meta- 
physics, in fourteen books (ruv uera ra <j>vaiKu), 
originally consisted of distinct treatises, inde- 
pendent of one another, and were put together 
as one work after Aristotle's death. The title, 
also, is of late origin, and was given to the work 
from its being placed after (fiera) the Physics 
(ra (jivaiKu). The best edition is by Braudis, 
Berol., 1823. 2. In Mathematics we have two 
treatises by Aristotle: (1.) He pi ardfiuv ypau- 
uuv, i. e., concerning indivisible lines; (2.) M?;- 
XaviKa irpo6%ijfj.aTa, Mechanical Problems. o. 
In Physics we have, (1.) Physics (Qvattcf/ dicpou- 
fftf, called also, by others, irepl apxtiv), in eight 
books. In these Aristotle develops the general 
principles of natural science (Cosmology). (2.) 
Concerning t/ie Heaven (irepl ovpavov), in four 
books. (3.) On Production and Destruction (jrepl 
yeveaeuf nal tydopHc,, de Generatione et Corrup- 
tione), in two books, develop the general laws 
of production and destruction. (4.) On Meteor- 
ology (uereupohoytKii, de Meteoris), in four books. 
(5.) On the Universe (irepl noauov, de Mundo), a 
letter to Alexander, treats the subject of the 
last two works in a popular tone and a rhetor- 
ical style altogether foreign to Aristotle. The 
whole is probably a translation of a work with 
the same title by Appuleius. (6.) The History 
of Animals (irepl fauv laropid), in nine books, 
treats of all the peculiarities of this division of 
the natural kingdom, according to genem, class- 
es, and species, especially giving all the char- 
acteristics of each animal according to its ex- 
ternal and internal vital functions, according 
to the manner of ita copulation, its mode of 
life, and ita character. The best edition is by 
Schneider, Lips., 1811. The observations in 
this work are the triumph of ancient sagacity, 
anil have been confirmed by the results of the 
most recent investigations (Cuvier). (7.) On 
the parts of Animals (^epl &uv popiuv), in four 
101 



ARISTOTELES. 



ARISTOTELES. 



books, in which Aristotle, after describing the 
phenomena in each species, develops the causes 
of these phenomena by means of the idea to be 
formed of the purpose which is manifested in 
the formation of the animal (8.) On the Gen- 
eration of Animals (trepl uuv -yeveoeuc.) in five 
books, treats of the generation of animals and 
the organs of generation. (9.) De Incessu Ani- 
malium (irepi uuv iropeiac.). (10.) Tlirce books 
on the Soul (irepl V^AW)- Aristotle defines the 
soul to be the " internal formative principle of a 
body which may be perceived by the senses, and 
is capable of life." Best edition by Trendelen- 
burg, Jenoe, 1833. Several anatomical works 
of Aristotle have been lost He was the first 
person who, in any special manner, advocated 
anatomical investigations, and showed the ne- 
cessity of them for the study of the natural 
sciences. He frequently refers to investiga- 
tions of his own on the subject. III. PRACTI- 
CAL PHILOSOPHY or POLITICS. All that falls 
within the sphere of practical philosophy is com- 
prehended in three principal works : the Ethics, 
the Politics, and the (Economics. 1. The Ni- 
comachean Ethics ('HdiKa NiKOfiu^eia), in ten 
books. Aristotle here begins with the highest 
and most universal end of life, for the individ- 
ual as well as for the community in the state. 
This is happiness (evdaifiovia) ; and its condi- 
tions are, on the one hand, perfect virtue ex- 
hibiting itself in the actor, and, on the other 
hand, corresponding bodily advantages and fa- 
vorable external circumstances. Virtue is the 
readiness to act constantly and consciously ac- 
cording to the laws of the rational nature of 
man (6p06f Aoyof). The nature of virtue shows 
itself in its appearing as the medium between 
two extremes. In accordance with this, the 
several virtues are enumerated and character- 
ized. Best editions by ZelL, Heidelb., 1820; 
Coray, Paris, 1822; Cardwell, Oxon., 1828; 
Michelet, BeroL, 1848, 2d edition. 2. The Eu- 
demean Ethics ('HBiKu Eidjy/zeta), in several books, 
of which only books i., ii., iii., and vii. are in- 
dependent, while the remaining books iv., v., 
and vi. agree word for word with books v., vi., 
and vii. of the Nicomacheon Ethics. This eth- 
ical work is perhaps a recension of Aristotle's 
lectures, edited by Eudemus. 3. 'HBinu Me- 
ya7.a, in two books. 4. Politics (TlofariKo), in 
eight books. The Ethics conduct us to the Pol- 
itics. The connection between the two works 
is so close, that in the Ethics by the word tare- 
oov reference is made by Aristotle to the Poli- 
tics, and in the latter by irporepov to the Ethics. 
The Politics show how happiness is to be attain- 
ed for the human community in the state ; for the 
object of the state is not merely the external 
preservation of h'fe, "but happy life," as it is at- 
tained by " means of virtue" (apery, perfect de- 
velopment of the whole man). Hence, also, eth- 
ics form the first and most general foundation 
of political h'fe, because the state cannot attain 
its highest object if morality does not prevail 
among its citizens. The house, the family, is 
the element of the state. Accordingly, Aristo- 
tle begins with the doctrine of domestic econo- 
my, then proceeds to a description of the differ- 
ent forms of government, after which he gives 
a delineation of the most important Hellenic 
constitutions, and then investigates which 'of 
102 



the constitutions is the best (the ideal of a state) 
The doctrine concerning education, as the most 
important condition of this best state, forms the 
conclusion. Best editions, by Schneider, Fran 
cof. ad. Viadr., 1809 ; Coray, Paris, 1821 ; Gott 
ling, Jense, 1824; Stahr, with a German trans 
lation, Lips., 1837 ; Barthelemy St. Hilaire, with 
a French translation, Pacis, 1837, 5. (Economics 
(o'tKovofitKu), in two books, of which only the first 
is genuine. IV. WORKS ON ART, which have 
for their subject the exercise of the creative 
faculty, or Art. To these belong the Poetics and 
Rhetoric. 1. The Poetics (Hepl TroiTjTtKr/f). Aris- 
totle penetrated more deeply than any of the 
ancients into the essence of Hellenic art. He 
is the father of the (esthetics of poetry, as he is 
the cpmpleter of Greek rhetoric as a science. 
The greatest part of the treatise contains a 
theory of Tragedy ; nothing else is treated of, 
with the exception of the epos ; comedy is 
merely alluded to. Best editions, by Tyrwbitt, 
Oxon., 1794; Hermann, Lips., 1802; Grafenhan, 
Lips., 1821 ; Bekker, BeroL, 1832 ; Hitter, Co- 
lon., 1839. 2. The Rhetoric (rex vt l pyTopini}), in 
three books. Rhetoric, as a science, according 
to Aristotle, stands side by side with Dialectics. 
The only thing which makes a scientific treat- 
ment of rhetoric possible is the argumentation 
which awakens conviction : he therefore directs 
his chief attention to the theory of oratorical 
argumentation. The second main division of 
the work treats of the production of that favor- 
able disposition in the hearer, in consequence 
of which the orator appears to him to be worthy 
of credit The third part treats of oratorical 
expression and arrangement. According to a 
story current in antiquity, Aristotle bequeathed 
his library and MSS. to Theophrastus, his suc- 
cessor in the Academy. Cn the death of Theo- 
phrastus, the libraries and MSS., both of Aris 
totle and Theophrastus, are said to have come 
into the hands of his relation and disciple, Ne- 
leus of Scepsis. This Neleus sold both libraries 
to Ptolemy II, king of Egypt, for the Alexan- 
drine library ; but he retained for himself, as 
an heir-loom, the original MSS. of the works of 
these two philosophers. The descendants of 
Neleus, who were subjects of the King of Per- 
gamus, knew of no other way of securing them 
from the search of the Attali, who wished to 
rival the Ptolemies in forming a large library, 
than concealing them in a cellar, where for a 
couple of centuries they were exposed to the 
ravages of damp and worms. It was not till 
the beginning of the century before the birth of 
Christ that a wealthy book-collector, the Athe- 
nian Apellicon of Teos, traced out these valua- 
ble relics, bought them from the ignorant heirs, 
and prepared from them a new edition of Aris- 
totle's works. After the capture of Athens, 
Sulla conveyed Apellicon's library to Rome, B. 
0. 84. Vid. APELLICON. From this story an 
error arose, which has been handed down from 
the time of Strabo to the present day. It was 
concluded from this account that neither Aris- 
totle nor Theophrastus had published their writ- 
ings, with the exception of some exoteric works, 
which had no important bearing on their sys- 
tem, and that it was not till 200 years later 
that they were brought to light by the above- 
mentioned Apellicon, and published to the phi? 



ARISTOXENUS. 

oeophical world. That, however, was by no 
means the cause. Aristotle, indeed, did not pre- 
pare a complete edition, as we call it, of his 
writings. Nay, it is certain that death overtook 
him before he could finish some of his works 
and put the finishing hand to others. Never- 
theless, :t can not be denied that Aristotle des- 
tined all his works for publication, and published 
several in his life-time. This is indisputably 
certain with regard to the exoteric writings. 
Those which had not been published by Aristo- 
tle himself, were given to the world by Theo- 
phrastus and his disciples in a complete form. 
Editions : The best edition of the complete 
works of Aristotle is by Bekker, Berlin, 1831- 
1840, 4lo, text in 2 vols., and a Latin translation 
in one volume. This edition has been reprint- 
ed at Oxford in 11 vols. 8vo. There is a ste- 
reotyped edition published by Tauchnitz, Leip- 
zig, 1832, 16mo, in 16 vols., and another edition 
of the text by Weise, in one volume, Leipzig, 
1843. [2. One of the thirty tyrants established 
in Athens B.C. 404 : he would also appear to 
have been one of the 400, and to have taken an 
active part in the scheme of fortifying Eetionea, 
and admitting the Spartans into the Piraeeus, 
B.C. 411. In B.C. 405 he was living in banish- 
ment, and is mentioned by Xenophon as being 
with Lysander during the siege of Athens. 3. 
Of Sicily, a rhetorician, who wrote against the 
Panegyricus of Isocrates. 4. Of Athens, an 
orator and statesman, under whose name some 
forensic orations were known in the time of Di- 
ogenes Laertius, which were 'distinguished for 
their elegance. 5. Of Argos, a Megaric or dia- 
lectic philosopher, belonged to the party at Ar- 
gos which was hostile to Cleomenes of Sparta.] 

ARISTOXENUS ('Api<rr6evof). 1. Of Tarentum, 
a Peripatetic philosopher and a musician, flour- 
ished about B.C. 318. He was a disciple of 
Aristotle, whom he appears to have rivalled in 
the variety of his studies. According to Suidas, 
he produced works to the number of 453 upon 
music, philosophy, history in short, every de- 
partment of literature. We know nothing of 
his philosophical opinions except that he held 
the soul to be a harmony of the body (Cic., Tusc., 
i, 10), a doctrine which had been already dis- 
cussed by Plato in the Phcedo. Of his numer- 
ous works, the only one extant is his Elements 
of Harmony (dpnoviK.il aroi^ela), in three books, 
edited by Meibomius, in the Antiques Musicce 
Aitctoret Septem, Amst, 1652. [2. Of Selinus 
in Sicily, a Greek poet, who is said to have been 
the first who wrote in anapaestic metres. 3. 
A celebrated Greek physician, who flourished 
about the beginning of the Christian era, and 
was the author of a work He pi rf/f 'Hpo<j>tt.ov 
Alpeoeuf, De Herophili Secta.~\ 

ARISTUS (*Api<rrof). 1. Of Salamis in Cyprus, 
wrote a history of Alexander the Great 2. An 
Academic philosopher, a contemporary and friend 
of Cicero, and teacher of M. Brutus. 

ARIUS, river. Vid. ARIA. 

[ARIUS ("Apaof). 1. A Pythagorean or Stoic 
philosopher of Alexandrea, an instructor of Au- 
gustus in philosophy ; highly esteemed by Augus- 
tus, who declared, after the capture of Alexan- 
drea, that he spared the city chiefly for* the sake 
of Arius. Besides philosophy, he also taught 
rhetoric, and wrote on that art 2. The cele- 



ARMENIA. 

brated heretic, born shortly after the middle of 
the third century A.D. In the religious dispute! 
at Alexandrea, A.D. 306, Arius at first took th 
part of Meletius, but afterward became reconcil 
ed to the. Bishop of Alexandrea, the opponent of 
Meletius, who made Arius deacon. Soon after 
this he was excommunicated by Peter of Alex- 
audrea, but was restored by his successor Achil- 
las, and ordained priest A.D. 313. In 318 the 
celebrated controversy with Bishop Alexander 
broke out, a controversy which has had a great- 
er and more lasting influence upon the develop- 
ment of the Christian religion than any other. 
So fierce did the dispute become, that the Em- 
peror Constantino was forced to convoke a gen- 
eral council at Nicsea (N^e), A.D. 326, at which 
upward of three hundred bishops were present 
The errors of Arius were condemned ; and he 
was compelled to go into exile into Illyricum, 
where he remained until recalled by the em- 
peror in 330, and allowed to return to Alexan- 
drea, through the influence of Eusebius of Nico- 
media. His ever-wakeful opponent, however, 
Athanasius, was not so Easily deceived as the 
emperor, and, notwithstanding the order of Con- 
stantine, refused to receive him into the com- 
munion of the Church. This led to a renewed 
application to the emperor ; and when Arius 
finally seemed on the point of triumphing over 
his sturdy orthodox opponents, he was removed 
suddenly by the hand of death, A.D. 336.] 

ARIUSIA (TJ 'A.piovaia x&pa), a district on the 
north coast of Chios, where the best wine in 
the island was grown (Ariusiwn Vinwn, Virg., 
Eel, v., 71.) 

AaiiENE ('Ap/UEvri or -qvrj : now Akliman), & 
town on the coast of Paphlagonia, where the 
10,000 Greeks, during their retreat, rested five 
days, entertained by the people of Sinope, a lit- 
tle to the west of which Armene stood. 

ARMENIA ('A.pfievia : 'Ap/teviof, Armenius : now 
Armenia), a country of Asia, lying between Asia 
Minor and the Caspian, is a lofty table-land, 
backed by the chain of the Caucasus, watered 
by the rivers Cyrus and Araxes, containing the 
sources also of the Tigris and of the Euphrates, 
the latter of which divides the country into twc 
unequal parts, which were called Major and Mi- 
nor. 1. ARMENIA MAJOU or PROPRIA ('A. j) fie 
ydTii} or ij I6iu<; Kahovfievt) : now Erzeroum, Kars, 
Van, aud Erivan), was bounded on the north- 
east and north by the Cyrus (now Kur), which 
divided it from Albania and Iberia ; on the north- 
west and west by the Moschici Mountains (the 
prolongation of the chain of the Anti-Tau- 
rus), and the Euphrates (now frat), which di- 
vided it from Colchis and Armenia Minor ; and 
on the south and southeast by the mountains 
called Masius, NipHatcs, and Gordiaei (the pro- 
longation of the Taurus), and the lower course 
of the ARAXES, which divided it from Mesopo 
tamia, Assyria, and Media: on the east the 
country comes to a point at the confluence of 
the Cyrus and Araxes. It is intersected by 
chains of mountains, between which i-un the 
two great rivers ARAXES, flowing east into 
the Caspian, and the Arsauias (now Murad), or 
south branch of the Euphrates, flowing west into 
the main stream (now Frat) just above Mount 
Masius. The eastern extremity of the chain ol 
mountains wliich separates the basins of these 
103 



ARMENIUS MONS. 



ARNISSA. 



twc rivers, ami which is an offshoot of the Anti- 
Taurus, forms the Ararat of Scripture. In the 
south of the country is the great lake of Van, 
Arsissa Palus, inclosed by mountain chains 
which connect Ararat with the southern range 
of mountains. 2. ARMENIA MINOR ('A. pixpu or 
Ppaxvrepa), was bounded on the east by the 
Euphrates, which divided it from Armenia Ma- 
jor, on the north and northwest by the mount- 
ains Scodlses, Paryadres, and Anti-Taurus, di- 
viding it from Pontus and Cappadocia, and on the 
south by the Taurus, dividing it from Comma- 
gene in Northern Syria, so that it contained the 
country east and south of the city of Siwas (the 
ancient Cabira or Seb^te) as far as the Euphra- 
tes and the Taurus. ^The boundaries between 
Armenia Minor and Cappadocia varied at dif- 
ferent times ; and, indeed, the whole country up 
to the Euphrates is sometimes called Cappado- 
cia, and, on the other hand; the whole of Asia 
Minor east of the Halys seems at one time to 
have been included under the name of Armenia. 
The people of Armenia claimed to be aboriginal ; 
and there can be little' doubt that they were one 
of the most ancient families of that branch of 
the human race which is called Caucasian. 
Their language, though possessing some re- 
warkable peculiarities of its own, was nearly 
allied to the Indo-Germanic family ; and their 
manners and religious ideas were similar to 
those of the Medes and Persians, but with a 
greater tendency to the personification of the 
powers of nature, as in the goddess Analtis, 
whose worship was peculiar to Armenia. They 
had commercial dealings with Assyria and Phoe- 
nicia. In the time of Xenophon they had pre- 
served a great degree of primitive simplicity, 
but four hundred years later Tacitus gives an 
unfavorable view of their character. The ear- 
liest Armenian traditions represent the country 
as governed by native kings, who had perpetu- 
ally to maintain their independence against at- 
tacks from Assyria. They were said to have 
been conquered by Semiramis, but again threw 
off the yoke at the time of the Median and Baby- 
lonian revolt. Their relations to the Medes and 
Persians seem to have varied between success- 
ful resistance, unwilling subjection, and friendly 
alliance. A body of Armenians formed a part 
of the army which Xexes led against Greece ; 
and they assisted Darius Codomannus against 
Alexander, and in this war they lost their king, 
and became subject to the Macedonian empire 
(B.C. 328). After another interval of success- 
ful revolt (B.C. 317-274), they submitted to the 
Greek kings of Syria ; but when Antiochus the 
Great was defeated by the Romans (B.C. 190), 
the country again regained its independence, and 
it was at this period that it was divided into the 
two kingdoms of Armenia Major and Minor, 
under two different dynasties, founded respect- 
ively by the nobles who headed the revolt, 
Artaxias and Zariadras. Ultimately, Armenia 
Minor was made a Roman province by Trajan ; 
?jid Armenia Major, after being a perpetual ob-' 
ject of contention between the Romans and the 
Parthians, was subjected to the revived Persian 
empire by its first king, Artaxerxes (Ardeshir), 
in A.D. 226. 

ARMENIUS MONS (TO 'Apfitvtov opof), a branch 
of the Anti-Taurus chain in Armenia Micor. 
104 



ARMINIUS (the Latinized form of Hermann, 
"the chieftain"), son of Sigimon, "the con- 
queror," and chief of the tribe of the Cheruaci, 
who inhabited the country to the north of the 
Hartz Mountains, now forming the south of 
Hanover and Brunswick. He was born in B.C. 
18; and in his youth he led the warriors of 
his tribe as auxiliaries of the Roman legions in 
Germauy, where he learned the language and 
military discipline of Rome, and was admitted 
to the freedom of the city, and enrolled among 
the equites. In A.D. 9, Armiuius, who was now 
twenty-seven years old, and had succeeded his 
father as chief of his tribe, persuaded his coun- 
trymen to rise against the Romans, who were 
now masters of this part of Germany, and which 
seemed destined to become, like Gaul, a Roman 
province. His attempt was crowned with suc- 
cess. Quintilius Varus, who was stationed in 
the country with three legions, was destroyed 
with almost all his troops (vid. VARUS) ; and the 
Romans had to relinquish all their possessions 
beyond the Rhine. In 14, Armiuius had to de- 
fend his couutiy against Germanicus. At first 
he was successful ; the Romans were defeated, 
and Germanicus withdrew toward the Rhine 
followed by Arminius. But having been com- 
pelled by his uncle, Inguiomer, against his own 
wishes, to attack the Romans in their intrench- 
ed camp, his army was routed, and the Romans 
made good their retreat to the Rhine. It was 
in the course of this campaign that Thusnelda, 
the wife of Arminius, fell into the hands of the 
Romans, and waff reserved, with the infant boy 
to whom she soon after gave birth in her captiv- 
ity, to adorn the triumph of Germanicus at Rome. 
In 16, Arminius was again called upon to resist 
Germanicus, but he was defeated, and his coun- 
try was probably only saved from subjection by 
the jealousy of Tiberius, who recalled Germani 
cus in the following year. At length Arminius 
aimed at absolute power, and was, in conse- 
quence, cut off by his own relations in the thirty- 
seventh year of his age, A.D. 19. 

ARMORICA or AREMORICA, the name of the 
northwest coast of Gaul from the Ligeris (now 
Loire) to the Sequana (now Seine), derived from 
the Celtic ar, air, " upon," and muir, mor, " the 
sea." The Armoncce civitates are enumerated 
by Caesar (B. G., vii., 75). 

ARNA (Arnas, -atis : now Civitclla cHArno), & 
town in Umbria, near Perusia. 

ARN^E ("Apvai), a town in Chalcidice in Mace- 
donia, south of Aulon and Bromiscus. 

[ARNJEUS ('Apvalof), the proper name of the 
beggar Irus, mentioned in the Odyssey. Vid. 
IRUS.] 

ARNE ("Apvy). 1. A town in Bceotia, mention- 
ed by Homer (fl,., ii., 507), supposed by Pausa 
nias to be the same as Chseronea, but placed by 
others near Acraephium, on the east of the Lake 
Copais. [2. A town of Magnesia in Thessaly, on 
lihe Maliac Gulf, said to have derived its name 
from Arne, a daughter of JEolus. 3. A foun- 
tain in the territory of Mantinea in Arcadia.] 

[ARNE ('Apvi)). 1. A daughter of JSolus. Vid. 
the foregoing, No. 2. 2. The betrayer of her 
native country to King Minos, and, on this LO 
count, changed into a jackdaw.] 

ARNISSA ('Apvicea : now Ostrova ?) a ton n in 
Eordtea in Macedonia. 



ARNOB1US. 



ARRIAffUS. 



AUNOBIUS. 1. The elder, a native of Africa, 
lived about A.D. 300, in the reigu of Diocletian. 
He -was first a teacher of rhetpric at Sicca in 
Africa, but afterward embraced Christianity; 
and, to remove all doubts as to the reality of his 
conversion, he wrote, while yet a catechumen, 
his celebrated work against the Pagans, in seven 
books (Libri septem adversus Gentes), which we 
still possess. The best editions are by Orelli, 
Lips, 1816, [and by Hildebrand, Halle, 1844]. 
2. The Younger, lived about A.D. 460, and was 
probably a bishop or presbyter in Gaul. He 
wrote a commentary on the Psalms, still extant, 
which shows that he was a Semi-Pelagian. 

AENON ("Apvuv : now Wad-el Mojib), a con- 
siderable river of East Palestine, rising in the 
Arabian Desert, and flowing west through a 
rocky valley into the Lacus Asphaltites (now 
Dead Sea). The surrounding district was call- 
ed Arnonas ; and in it the Romans had a mili- 
tary station, called Castra Arnonensia. 

AEMJS (now Arno), the chief river of Etruria, 
rises in the Apennines, flows by Pisae, and falls 
into the Tyrrhenian Sea It gave the name to 
the Tribus Arniensis, formed B.C. 387. 

AEOA ('A-poa or 'Apbi)\ the ancient name of 
PATE.E. 

[AEOANIUS ('Apouvtof), a river of Arcadia,' 
rises in Mount Cyllene, loses itself in some 
natural cavities near Pheneus, then reappears 
at the foot of Penteleion, and joins the Ladon. 
The same name was given to two other streams, 
one a tributary likewise of the Ladon, the other 
a tributary of the Erymanthus.] 

AEOMATA (r& 'Apw/zara, 'Apufiu.Tuvu.Kpov : now 
Cape Gitardafui'j, the easternmost promontory 
of Africa, at the southern extremity of the Ara- 
bian Gulf: the surrounding district was also 
called Aromata or Aromatophora Regio, with a 
town 'Apupuruv kpnopiov : so named from the 
"abundance of spices which the district produced. 

AEPI (Arpanus : now Arpi), an inland town 
in the Dauuian Apulia, founded, according to 
tradition, by Diomedes, who called it "Apyog ITT- 
mov, from which its later names of Arayrippa 
or Arqyrlpa and Arpi are eaid to have arisen 
(Ille (Diomedes) urbem Arayripam, patria cog- 
nomine aentis, Virg., ^En., xi., 246). During the 
time of its independence it was a flourishing 
commercial town, using Salapia as its harbor. 
It was friendly to the Romans in the Samnite 
wars, but revolted to Hannibal after the battle 
of Cannae, B.C. 216 : it was taken by the Ro- 
mans in 213, deprived of its independence, and 
never recovered its former prosperity. 

[AEPINA ('Apmva), an ancient place in Elis, 
near the Alphgus, so called from a daughter of 
the Asopus : near it flowed the River Arpina- 
tes.] 

AEPINUM ( Arplnas, -atis : now Arpino), a town 
of Latium, on the small river Fibrenus (now Fl- 
breno), originally belonging to the Volscians and 
afterward to the Samnites, from whom the Ro- 
mans wrested it, was a Roman municipium, 
and received the^'w* suffragii, or right of voting 
in the Roman comitia, B.C. 188. It was the 
birth-place of Marius and Cicero ; the latter of 
whom was born in his father's villa, situated 
on a small island formed by the River Fibrenus. 
Cicero's brother Quintus had an estate south of 
Arpiuum, culled Arcannm, 



\ [AEEABO (in Ptolemy Napa66v, now JRaab), a 

; river in Pannonia, a tributary of the Danube. 
At its mouth lay the city and fortress Arrabo, 

now Raab.] 

AEEETIUSI or AEETIDM (Arretinus : now Arez- 
zo), one of the most important of the twelve 
cities of Etruria, was situated in the northeast 
of the country at the foot of the Apennines, and 
possessed a fertile territory near the sources of 
the Arnus and the Tiber, producing good wine 
and corn. It was thrice colonized by the Ro- 
mans, whence we read of Arretini Veteres, M- 
denates, Julienses. It was particularly cele- 
brated for its pottery, which was of red ware. 
The Cilnii, from whom Maecenas was descend- 
ed, were a noble family of Arretium. The 

j ruins of a city two or three miles to the south- 
east of Arezzo, on a height called Poggio di San 
Cornelia, or Castel Secco, are probably the re- 
mains of the ancient Arretium. 

ABEHAPACHITIS (AppaTraxlrig), a district of 
Assyria, between the rivers Lycus and Choatras. 
AEEHTB^EUS (' ' Appidalo^), chieftain of the Mace 
donians of Lyncus, revolted against King Per- 
diccas in the Peloponnesian war. It was to 
reduce him that Perdiccas sent for Brasidaa 
(B.C. 424), and against him took place the un- 
successful joint expedition, in which Perdiccas 
deserted Brasidas, and Brasidas effected hia 
bold and skillful retreat 

ABHHUXSCS (' ' Appidalof) or AEID.EOS ('Apt 
6alof ). 1 . A half-brother of Alexander the Great, 
son of Philip and a female dancer, Philinna of 
Larissa, was of imbecile understanding. He 
was at Babylon at the time of Alexander's death, 
B.C. 323, and was elected king under the name 
of Philip. The young Alexander, the infant 
son of Roxana, was associated with him in the 
government. In 322 Arrhidseus married Euryd- 
ice. On their return to Macedonia, Eurydice 
attempted to obtain the supreme power in op- 
position to Polysperchon ; but Arrhidaeus and 
Eurydice were made prisoners, and put to death 
by order of Olympias, 317. 2. One of Alexan- 
der's generals, obtained the province of the Hel 
lespontine Phrygia at the division of the prov- 
inces in 321 at Triparadisus, but was deprived 
of it by Antigonus in 319. 

AEEIA. 1. Wife of Caecina Paetus. When her 
husband was ordered by the Emperor Claudius 
to put an end to his life, A.D. 42, and hesitated 
to do so, Arria stabbed herself, handed the dag- 
ger to her husband, and said, " Paetus, it does 
not paia me." 2. Daughter of the preceding, 
and wife of Thrasea, 

AEEIANUS ('Apf>iav6f). 1. Of Nicomedia in 
Bithynia, born about A.D. 90, was a pupil and 
friend of Epictetus, and first attracted attention 
as a philosopher by publishing at Athens the 
lectures of his master. In 124 he gained the 
friendship of Hadrian during his stay in Greece, 
and received from the emperor the Roman citi- 
zenship ; from this time he assumed the name 
of Flavius. In 186 he was appointed proefect of 
Cappadocia, which was invaded the year after 
by the Alani or Massagetaa, whom he defeated 
Under Antoninus Pius, in 1 46, Arrian was con 
sul ; and about 150 he withdrew from public life, 
and from this time lived in his native town of Ni- 
comedia, as priest of Ceres (Demeter) and Pros- 
erpina (Persephonej. He died at an advanced 
105 



ARRIBAS. 



ARSACES. 



age in the reign of M. Aurelius. Arrian was 
oue of the most active and best writers of his 
time. He was a close imitator of Xenophon, 
both in the subjects of his works and in the 
stylo in which they were written. He regard- 
ed his relation to Epictetus as similar to that of 
Xeuophon to Socrates ; and it was his endeavor 
to carry out that resemblance. With this view 
he published, 1. The philosophical lectures of 
his master (&ia.Tpi6al 'EmKTrjrov), in eight books, 
the first half of which is still extant Edited in 
Schweighauser's Epictetece Philosophies Monu- 
ttienta, vol. iii., ana in Corae's Uupepya 'EA/>j?i>. 
Bitihiod., voL viii. 2. An abstract of the prac- 
tical philosophy of Epictetus ^EyxsipiSiov 'Ext- 
KTJJTOV), which is still extant. This celebrated 
work maintained its authority for many cen- 
turies, both with Christians and Pagans. The 
best editions are those of Schweighauser and 
Corae, in the collections above referred to. He 
also published other works relating to Epictetus, 
which are now lost His original works are : 
8. A treatise on the chase (KvvriyriTiKof), which 
forms a kind of supplement to Xenophon's work 
ou the same subject, and is printed in most edi-, 
tions of Xenophon's works. 4. The History of 
the Asiatic expedition of Alexander the Great 
('A.vd6aGi<; 'Afal-uvdpov), in seven books, the 
most important of Arrian's works. This great 
work reminds the reader of Xenophon's Anab- 
asis, not only by its title, but also by the ease 
and clearness of its style. It is also of great 
value for its historical accuracy, being based 
upon the most trustworthy histories written by 
the contemporaries of Alexander, especially 
those of Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, and of Aris- 
tobulus, the son of Aristobulus. 5. On India 
('\v6iK7j or T& 'IvdiKu), which may be regarded 
as a continuation of the Anabasis, at the end of 
which it is usually printed. This work is writ- 
ten in the Ionic dialect, probably in imitation 
of Ctesias of Cnidus, whose work on the same 
subject Arrian wished to supplant by a more 
trustworthy and correct account. The best 
editions of the Anabasis are by Ellendt, Regi- 
montii, 1832, and by C. W. Kriiger, Berlin 
1835-49, 2 vols. ; of the Indica by Schmieder, 
Halle, 1798. 6. A description of a voyage round 
the coasts of the Euxine (TrepiK^ovf KOVTOV Ei>- 
ELVOV), which had undoubtedly been made by Ar- 
rian himself during his government of Cappa- 
docia. This Periplus has come down to us, to- 
gether with a Periplus of the Erythraean, and a 
Periplus of the Euxine and the Palus Maeotis, 
both of which also bear the name of Arrian, but 
they belong undoubtedly to a later period. The 
best editions are in Hudson's Geographi Minores, 
vol. i., and in Gail's and Hoffmann's collections 
of the minor Geographers. 7. A work on Tac- 
tics (Aoyof rafcrtKof or TE^VTJ TO.KTIKT}), of which 
we possess at present only a fragment : printed 
in Blancard's collection of the minor works of 
Arrian. Arrian also wrote numerous other 
works, all of which are now lost. 2. A Roman 
jurisconsult, probably lived under Trajan, and 
is perhaps the same person with the orator Ar- 
rianus, who corresponded with the younger 
Pliny. He wrote a treatise De Interdictis, of 
which the second book is quoted in the Digest. 

ARRIBAS, ARRYBAS, ARYMBAS, or THARRYTAS 
('A/5/5i'6crf, 'Afipvdaf, 'A.pvu6ac, or 0a<Wv7o?), a de- 
106 



scendant of Achilles, and one of tho cnrly kings 
of the Molossiaus in Epirus. Ho is said to have 
been educated at Athens, and on his return to 
his native country to have framed for the Mo- 
lossians a code of laws, and established a regu- 
lar constitution. 

ARRICS., Q. 1. Praetor B.C. 72, defeated 
Crixus, the leader of the runaway slaves, but 
was afterward conquered by Spartncus. In 71, 
Arrius was to have succeeded Veres as pro- 
praetor in Sicily, but died on his way to Sicily 
2. A son of the preceding, was an unsuccess- 
ful candidate for the consulship B.C. 59. He 
was an intimate friend of Cicero. 

ARRIUS APER. Vid. APER. 

ARRUNTICS, L. 1. Proscribed by the trium- 
virs in B.C. 43, but escaped to Sextus Pompey 
in Sicily, and was restored to the state with 
Pompey. He subsequently commanded the left 
wing of the fleet of Octavianus at the battle of 
Actium, 31, and was consul in 22. 2. Son of 
the preceding, consul A.D. 6. Augustus de- 
clared in his last illness that Arruntius was not 
unworthy of the empire, and would have bold- 
ness enough to seize it, if an opportunity pre- 
sented. This rendered him an object of sus- 
picion to Tiberius. He was charged in A.D. 
37 as an accomplice in the crimes of Albucilla, 
and put an end to his own life. 

ARSA (now Azunga), a town in Hispania Bae- 
tica. 

ARSACES ('A.pauKr}f), the name of the founder 
of the Parthian empire, which was also borne 
by all his successors, who were hence called 
the ArsacidoB, 1. He was of obscure origin, 
and seems to have come from the neighborhood 
of the Ochus. He induced the Parthiaus to re- 
volt from the Syrian empire of th-a Seleucidae, 
and he became the first monarch of the Parthi- 
ans. This event probably took place about 
B.C. 250, in the reign of Antiochus II. ; but the 
history of the revolt, as well as of the events 
which immediately followed, is stated very dif- 
ferently by different historians. AVsaces reign- 
ed only two years, and was succeeded by his 
brother Tiridates. 2. TIRIDATES, reigned thir- 
ty-seven years, B.C. 248-211, and defeated Se- 
leucus Callinicus, the successor of Autiochus II. 
3. ARTABANUS I., son of the preceding, was 
attacked by Antiochus IIL (the Great), who, 
however, was unable to subdue his country, and 
at length, recognized him asking about 210. 
4. PRIAPATIUS, son of the preceding, reigned fif- 
teen years, and left three sons, Phraates, Mith- 
radates, and Artabanus. 5. PHRAATES L, sub- 
dued the Mardi, and, though he had many sons, 
left the kingdom to bis brother Mithradates. 
6. MITHRADATES I., son of Arsaces IV., greatly 
enlarged the Parthian empire by his conquests. 
He defeated Demetrius Nicator, king of Syria, 
and took him prisoner in 138. Mithradates 
treated Demetrius with respect, and gave him 
his daughter Rhodogune in marriage. Mithra 
dates died during the captivity of Demetrius, 
between 138 and 130. 7. PHRAATES II, son of 
the preceding, carried on war against Antiochus 
VII. Sidetes, whom Phraates defeated aud slew 
in battle, B.C. 128. Phraates himself was 
shortly after killed in battle by the Scythians, 
who had been invited by Antiochus to assist 
him against Phraates, but who did not arrive 



ARSACES 



ARSACES. 



toll after the fall of the former. 8. AETABANCS 
IL, youngest brother of Arsaces VI, and young- 
est son of Arsaces IV., fell in battle against the 
Thogarii or Tochari, apparently after a short 
reign. 9. MITHEADATES IL, son of the preced- 
ing, prosecuted many wars with success, and 
added many nations to the Parthian empire, 
whence he obtained the surname of Great. It 
was in his reign that the Romans first had any 
official communication with Parthia. Mithra- 
dates sent an ambassador to Sulla, who had 
come into Asia B.C. 92, and requested alliance 
with the Romans. 10. ( MNASCIEES ? ) Noth- 
ing is known of the successor of Arsaces IX. 
Even his name is uncertain 11. SANATEOCES, 
reigned seven years, and died about B.C. 70. 
12. PHEAATES IIL son of the preceding. He 
lived at the tune of the war between the Ro- 
mans and Mithradates of. Pontus, by both of 
whom he was courted. He contracted an alli- 
ance with the Romans, but he took no part in 
the war. At a later period misunderstandings 
arose between Pompey and Phraates, but Pom- 
pey thought it more prudent to avoid a war with 
the Parthians, although Phraates had invad- 
ed Armenia, and Tigranes, the Armenian king, 
implored Pompey's assistance. Phraates was 
murdered soon afterward by his two sons, Mith- 
radates and Orodes. MITHEADATES III., son of 
the preceding, succeeded his father during the 
Armenian war. On his return from Armenia, 
Mithradates was expelled from the throne on 
account of his cruelty, and was succeeded by 
his brother Orodes. Mithradates afterward 
made war upon his brother, but was taken pris- 
oner and put to death. 14. Orodes I., brother 
of the preceding, was the Parthian king whose 
general Surenas defeated Crassus and the Ro- 
mans, B.C. 53. Vid. CEASSUS. After the death 
of Crassus, Orodes gave the command of the 
army to his son Pacorus, who entered Syria in 
51 with a small force, but was driven back by 
Crassius. In 50 Pacorus again crossed the Eu- 
phrates with a much larger army, and advanced 
as far as Antioch, but was defeated near Anti- 
gonea by Cassius. The Parthians now remained 
quiet for some years. In 40 they crossed the 
Euphrates again, under the command of Paco- 
rus and Labienus, the son of T. Labieuus. They 
overran Syria and part of Asia Minor, but were 
defeated in 39 by Ventidius Bassus, one of An- 
tony's legates: Labienus was [taken and put 
to death by Ventidius after the battle], and the 
Parthians retired to their own dominions. In 
38, Pacorus again invaded Syria, but was com- 
pletely defeated and fell in the battle. This 
defeat was a severe blow to the aged king 
Orodes, who shortly afterward surrendered the 
crown to his son Phraates during his life-time. 
15. PHKAATES IV., commenced his reign by 
murdering his father, his thirty brothers, and 
his own son, who was grown up, that there 
might be none of the royal family whom the 
Parthians could place upon the throne in his 
stead. In consequence of his cruelty, many of 
the Parthian nobles fled to Antony (37), who 
invaded Parthia in 36, but was obliged to retreat 
after losing a great part of his army. A few 
years afterward the cruelties of Phraates pro- 
duced a rebellion against him ; he was driven 
out of the country, and Tiridates proclaimed 



king u his stead. Phraates,- however, was soon 
restored by the Scythians, and Tiridates fled to 
Augustus, carrying with him the youngest son 
of Phraates. Augustus restored his son to 
Phraates on condition of his surrendering the 
Roman standards and prisoners taken hi the 
war with Crassus and Antony. They were 
given up in 20 ; their restoration caused univer- 
sal joy at Rome, and was celebrated not only 
by the poets, but by festivals and commemmora- 
tive monuments. Phraates also sent to Augus- 
tus as hostages his four sons, with their wives 
and children, who were carried to Rome. In 
A.D. 2, Phraates was poisoned by his wife Ther 
musa and her son Phraataces. 16. PHEAATA- 
CES, reigned only a short time, as he was ex- 

?elled by his subjects on account of his crimes, 
he Parthian nobles then elected as king )ro- 
des, who was of the family of the Arsacidae. 
17. OEODES IL, also reigned only a short time, 
as he was killed by the Parthjns on account 
of his cruelty. Upon his death the Parthians 
applied to the Romans for Vonones, one of 
the sons of Phraates IV., who was according- 
ly granted to them. 18. VONONES I., son of 
Phraates IV., was also disliked by his subjects, 
who therefore invited Artabanus, King of Media, 
to take possession of the kingdom. Artabanus 
drove Vonones out of Parthia, who resided first 
in Armenia, next in Syria, and subsequently in 
Cilicia. He was put to death in A.D. 19, ac 
cording to some accounts by order of Tiberius 
on account of his great wealth. 19. AETABA- 
NUS III., obtained the Parthian kingdom soon 
after the expulsion of Vonones, about A.D. ] 6. 
Artabapus placed Arsaces, one of his sons, over 
Armenia, and assumed a hostile attitude toward 
the Romans. His subjects, whom he oppressed, 
dispatched an embassy to Tiberius to beg him 
to send Parthia Phraates, one of the sons of 
Phraates IV. Tiberius willingly complied with 
the request ; but Phraates, upon arriving in Sy- 
ria, was carried off by a disease, A.D. 35. As 
soon as Tiberius heard of his death, he set up Ti- 
ridates, another of the Arsacidae, as a claimant 
of the Parthian throne : Artabanus was obliged 
to leave his kingdom, and fly for refuge to 
the Hyrcanians and Carmauians. Hereupon 
Vitellius, the governor of Syria, crossed the 
Euphrates, and placed Tiridates on the throne. 
Artabanus was, however, recalled next year 
(36) by bis fickle subjects. He was once more 
expelled by bis subjects, and once more restored. 
He died soon after his last restoration, leaving 
two sons, Bardanes and Gotarzes, whose civil 
wars are related differently by Josephus and 
Tacitus. 20. GOTAEZES, succeeded his father, 
Artabanus III., but was defeated by bis brother 
Bardanes and retired into Hyrcania. 21. BAE 
I DANES, brother of the preceding, was put to 
I death by his subjects in 47, whereupon Gotarzes 
1 again obtained the crown. But, as he ruled 
| with cruelty, the Parthians secretly begged the 
; Emperor Claudius to send them from Rome Mc- 
| heraates, grandson of Phraates IV. Claudius 
I complied with their request, and commanded 
' the governor of Syria to assist Meherdates, but 
! the latter was defeated in battle, and taken pris- 
' oner by Gotarzes. 22. VONONES IL, succeeded 
1 Gotarzes about 60. His reign was short. 23. 
VOLOGKSES L, son of Vonones II. or Artabanua 
107 



ARSACES. 



ARSINOE. 



IIL Soon after his accession he conquered 
Armenia, -which he gave to his brother Tindates. 
In 65 he gave up Armenia to the Romans, but 
in 58 he again placed his brother over Armenia, 
and declared war against the Romans. This 
war terminated in favor of the Romans : the 
Parthians were repeatedly defeated by Domitiua 
Corbulo, and Tindates was driven out of Ar- 
menia. At length, in 62, peace was concluded 
between Vologeses and the Romans on condi- 
tion that Nero would surrender Armenia to Ti- 
ridates, provided the latter would come to Rome 
and receive it as a gift from the Roman em- 
peror. Tiridates came to Rome in 63, where 
he was received with extraordinary splendor, 
and obtained from Nero the Armenian crown. 
Vologeses afterward maintained friendly rela- 
tions with Vespasian, and seems to have lived 
till the reign of Domitian. 24. PACSRCS, suc- 
ceeded his father, Vologeses I, and was a con- 
temporary of Pomitian and Trajan. 25. CHOS- 
ROES or OsR<5Es, succeeded his brother Pacorus 
during the reign of Trajan. His conquest of 
Armenia occasioned the invasion of Parthia by 
Trajan, who stripped it of many of its provinces, 
nd made the Parthians for a time subject to 
Rome. Vid. TRAJANUS. Upon the death of 
Trajan in A.D. 117, the Parthians expelled Par- 
thamaspates, whom Trajan had placed upon the 
throne, and recalled their former king, Chosroes. 
Hadrian relinquished the conquests of Trajan, 
and made the Euphrates, as before, the eastern 
boundary of the Roman empire. Chosroes died 
during the reign of Hadrian. 26. VOLOGESES 
II., succeeded his father Chosroes, and reigned 
from about 122 to 149. 27. VOLOGESES IIL, be- 
gan to reign in 149. He invaded Syria in 162, 
but the generals of the Emperor Verus drove 
him back into his own dominions, invaded Mes- 
opotamia and Assyria, and took Seleucia and 
Ctesiphon ; and Vologeses was obliged to pur- 
chase a peace by ceding Mesopotamia to the 
Romans. From this time to the downfall of the 
Parthian empire, there is great confusion in the 
list of kings. 28. VOLOGESES IV., probably as- 
cended the throne in the reign of Commodus. 
His dominions were invaded by Septimus Seve- 
rus, who took Ctesiphon in 199. On the death 
of Vologeses IV., at the beginning of the reign of 
Caracalla, Parthia was torn asunder, by contests 
for the crown between the sons of Vologeses. 
29. VOLOGESES V., son of Vologeses IV., was 
attacked by Caracalla in 215, and about the 
same time was dethroned by his brother Arta- 
banus. 30. ARTABANUS IV., the last, king of Par- 
thia. The war commenced by Caracalla against 
Vologeses, was continued against Artabanus; 
but Macrinus, the successor of Caracalla, con- 
cluded peace with the Parthians.. In this war 
Artabanus had lost the best of his troops, and 
the Persians seized the opportunity of recover- 
ing their long-lost independence. They were 
led by Artaxerxes (Ardeshir), the son of Sassan, 
and defeated the Parthians in three great bat- 
tles, in the last of which Artabanus was taken 
prisoner and killed, A.D. 226. Thus ended the 
Parthian empire of the Arsacidae, after it had 
existed four hundred and seventy-six years. 
The Parthians were now obliged to submit to 
Artaxerxes, the founder of the dynasty of the Sas- 
sanidae, which continued to reign till A.D. 651. 
\Q8 



ARSACIA ('ApcaKi a : ruins southeast of Tehe- 
ran), a great city of Media, south of the Cas- 
pice Portae, originally named Rhagae ('Payai) ; 
I rebuilt by Seleucus Nicator, and called Euro- 
| pus (EvpuTTo?) ; again destroyed in the Parthian 
wars, and rebuilt by Arsaces, who named it after 
himself. 

ARSACIDJS, the name of a dynasty of Parthian 
kings. Vid. ARSACES. It was also the name of 
a dynasty of Armenian kings, who reigned in Ar 
menia from B.C. 149 to A.D. 428. This dynasty 
was founded by AKTAXIAS I, who was related to 
the Parthian Arsacidae. 

[ARSAMENES ('A-paajtevrif), son of Darius Hys 
taspis, a commander in the army of Xerxes.] 

[ARSAMES ('Apadfujs). 1. Father of Hystaspes, 
and grandfather of Darius. 2. Son of Darius, 
and Artystone, daughter of Cyrus, commanded 
the Arabians and ^Ethiopians, who lived above 
Egypt, in the army of Xerxes. 3. An illegiti- 
mate son of Artaxerxes Mnemon, murdered by 
his brother Artaxerxes Ochus. -4. A Persian 
Satrap of Lydia under Darius Codomannus : by 
not securing the Cilician passes, he afforded 
Alexander an opportunity of a ready passage 
into Upper Asia from Asia Minor.] 

ARSAMOSATA ('Apua/iuaara, also wrongly ab- 
breviated 'A.pfiuaara : now Shemshat), a town 
and strong fortress in Armenia Major, between 
the Euphrates and the sources of the Tigris, near 
the most frequented pass of the Taurus. 

ARSANIAS, -ros, or -us ('A.paavia<;, <fec.), the 
name of two rivers of Great Armenia. 1. (Now 
Murad), the southern arm of the Euphrates 
Vid. ARMENIA. 2. (Now Arslanf), a small 
stream rising near the sources of the Tigris 
and flowing west into the Euphrates near Mel- 
itene. 

AR&ENARIA or -ENN- ('ApaT/vapia : now Ar- 
zaw, ruins), a town in Mauretania Ceesariensis, 
three miles (Remap) from the sea : a Roman 
colony. 

ARSENE. Vid. ARZANENE. 

ARSES, NARSES, or OARSES ("Apaqc, Nupaijf, 
or 'Ouparjf), youngest son of King Artaxerxes III . 
Ochus, was raised to the Persian throne by the 
eunuch Bagoas after he had poisoned Artaxerxes 
B.C. 339, but he was murdered by Bagoas in the 
third year of his reign, when he attempted to free 
himself from the bondage in which he was kept 
After the death of Arses, Bagoas made Darius 
IIL king. 

ARSIA (now Arsa), & river in Istria, forming 
the boundary between Upper Italy and LUyri- 
cum, with a town of the same name upon it. 

ARSIA SILVA, a wood in Etruria, celebrated 
for the battle between the Tarquins and the 
Romans. 

ARSINOE ('Apaivoi)). I. Mythological. 1. The 
daughter of Phegeus, and wife of Alcmaeon. 
As she disapproved of the murder of Alcmaeon, 
the sons of Phegeus put her into a chest and 
carried her to Agapenor at Tegea, where they 
accused her of having killed Alcmseon. Vid. 
ALCMAEON, AGENOR. 2. Nurse of Orestes, saved 
the latter from the hands of Clytemnestra, and 
carried him to Strophius, father of Pylades. 
Some accounts call her Laodamia. 3. Daughter 
of Leucippus and Philodice, became by Apollo 
mother of Eriopis and ./Esculapius. IL Histori- 
cal. 1. Mother of Ptolemy I., was a concubine 



ARSINOE. 



ARTANES. 



of Philip, father of Alexander the Great, and J 
married Lagus while she was pregnant with 
Ptolemy. 2- Daughter of Ptolemy I. and Ber- 
enice, married Lysimachus, king of Thrace, in 
B.C. 300 ; after the death of Lysimachus in 281, 
she married her half-brother, Ptolemy Cerau- 
nus, who murdered her children by Lysima- 
chus ; and, lastly, in 279, she married her own 
brother Ptolemy II. Philadelphus. Though Ar- 
sinoe bore Ptolemy no children, she was ex- 
ceedingly beloved by him : he gave her name 
to several cities, called a district (yop.6^) of 
Egypt Arsinoites after her, and honored her 
memory in various ways. 3. Daughter of Ly- 
simachus, married Ptolemy II. Philadelphus 
soon after his accession, B.C. 285. In conse- 

?uence of her plotting against her namesake 
No. 2.], when Ptolemy fell in love with her, 
she was banished to Coptos, in Upper Egypt. 
She had by Ptolemy three children, Ptolemy III. 
Evergetes, Lysimachus, and Berenice. 4. Also 
called Eurydice and Cleopatra, daughter of Ptol- 
emy III. Evergetes, wife of her brother Ptol- 
emy IV. Philopator, and mother of Ptolemy V. 
Epiphanes. She was killed by Philammon by 
order of her husband. 5. Daughter of Ptolemy 
XI. Auletes, escaped from Caesar when he was 
besieging Alexandrea in B.C. 47, and was rec- 
ognized as queen by the Alexandreans. After 
the capture of Alexandrea she was carried to 
Rome by Caesar, and led in triumph by him in 
46. She was afterward dismissed by Caesar, 
and returned to Alexandrea; but her sister 
Cleopatra persuaded Antony to have her put to 
death in 41. 

ARSINOE ('Apaivorj : 'Apoivoevf or -oJJTjjf), the 
name of several cities of the times of the suc- 
cessors of Alexander, each called after one or 
other of the persons of the same name (see 
above). 1. In JStotia, formerly Kuvuira. 2. 
On the northern coast of Cyprus, on the site of 
the older city of Marium (M.dpiov), which Ptol- 
emy I. had destroyed. 3. A port on the west- 
ern coast of Cyprus. 4. (Now Famagosta), on 
the southeastern coast of Cyprus, between Sal- 
umis and Leucolla. 5. In Cflicia, east of Ane- 
murium. 6. (Now Ajeroud or Suez), in the No- 
mos Heroopolites in Lower Egypt, near or upon 
the head of the Sinus Heroopolites or western 
branch of the Red Sea (now Gulf of Suez). It 
was afterward called Cleopatris. 7. (Now Me- 
dirttt-el-Faioum, ruins), the chief city of the No- 
mos Arsinoites in the Heptanomis or Middle 
Egypt (vid. ^EGYPTOS, p. 18, b); formerly called 
Cr6c6dllopolis (Kponodeftuv -iroXtf), and the dis- 
trict Nomos Crocodilopolites, from its being the 
chief seat of the Egyptian worship of the croc- 
odile. This noinos also contained the Lake Moa- 
ns and the Labyrinth. 8. In Cyrenaica, also 
called Taucheira. 9. On the coast of the Trog- 
lodyte on the Red Sea, east of Egypt. Its 
prooable position is a little below the parallel of 
Thebes. Some other cities called Arsiuoe are 
better known by other names, such as EPHESUB 
in Ionia and PATARA in Lycia. 

[AR8iN6os ('Apaivoof), father of Heoamede ; 
ruler of Tenedos.] 

[ARS!TES ('Apairrif), satrap of the Helles- 
pontine Phrygia when Alexander the Great in- 
vaded Asia : after the defeat of the Persians at 
the Granicus he put himself to death.] 



ARSISSA or MANTIANA ('Apaiaaa, 57 
now Van), a great lake abounding in fish, in 
the south of Armenia Major. Vid. ARMENIA. 

ARTABAMJS ('ApruSavof). 1. Son of Hystas- 
pes and brother of Darius, is frequently men- 
tioned in the reign of his nephew Xerxes as a 
wise and frank counsellor. 2. An Hyrcanian, 
commander of the body-guard of Xerxes, as- 
sassinating this king in B.C. 465, with the view 
of setting himself upon the throne of Persia, but 
was shortly afterward killed by Artaxerxes 
3. L, II., Ill, IV., kings of Parthia. Vid. ARSA- 
CES IIL, VIII., XIX., XXX. 

[ARTABAZANES CApra6a^dvr]f), oldest son of 
Darius Hystaspis, half-brother of Xerxes, and 
called, also, Anabignes. Vid. ARIABIGNES] 

ARTABAZUS ('Aprofafof). 1. A Mede, acts a 
prominent part in Xenophon's account of Cyrus 
the Elder. 2. A distinguished Persian, a son 
of Pharnaces, commanded the Parthians and 
Choasmians in the expedition of Xerxes into 
Greece, B.C. 480. He served under Mardonius 
in 479, and after the defeat of the Persians at 
Plataeas, he fled with forty thousand men, and 
reached Asia in safety. 3. A general of Ar- 
taxerxes I., fought against Inarus in Egypt, 
B.C. 462. 4. A Persian general, fought uudei 
Artaxerxes II. against Datames, satrap of Cap 
padocia, B.C. 362. Under Artaxerxes III., Ar- 
tabazus, who was then satrap of Western Asia 
revolted in B.C. 356, but was defeated and 
obliged to take refuge with Philip of Macedonia. 
He was afterward pardoned by Artaxerxes, and 
returned to Persia ; and he was one of the most 
faithful adherents of Darius III. Codomannus, 
who raised him to high honors. On the death 
of Darius (330) Artabazus received from Alex- 
ander the satrapy of Bactria. One of his 
daughters, Barsine, became by Alexander the 
mother of Hercules ; a second, Ai-tocama, mar- 
ried Ptolemy, son of Lagus ; and a third, Ar- 
tonis, married Eumenes. 

ARTABRI, afterward AROTREB^K, a Celtic peo- 
ple in the northwest of Spain, near the Promon- 
tory Nerium or Celticum, also called Artabrum 
after them (now Cape Finisterre). 

ARTACE ('ApTaKT) : now Artakt), a sea-port 
town of the peninsula of Cyzicus, in the Pro 
pontis : also a mountain in the same peninsula. 

ARTACHJKES ('Apra^at^f), a distinguished Per- 
sian in the army of Xerxes, died while Xerxea 
was at Athos. The mound which the king 
raised over him is still in existence. 

[ARTACIE ('ApraKiij), a fountain in the coun- 
try of the mythic Laestrygones.] 

ARTACOANA ('Apranoava or -Ktlvva : now Sekh- 
vanf), the ancient capital of ARIA, not far from 
the site of the later capital, ALEXANDREA. 

ART^EI ('ApTalot), was, according to Herodo- 
tus (vi., 61), the old native name of the Per- 
sians. It signifies noble, and appears in the 
form Apra, as the first part of a large number 
of Persian proper names. Compare ARIL 

[ARTAGERA or ARTAGER,* ('Aprayjypai), a 
mountain fortress in southern Armenia, on the 
Euphrates.] 

[ARTAOERSES ('Apra-yepa^f), & commander in 
j the army of Artaxerxes.] 

! [ARTANES ('Apruvw), son of Hystaspes and 
brother of Darius, fought and fell at the battle 
I of Thermopylae.] 

109 



ARTANES. 

AaxANES ('AprufT/f). 1. A river in Thrace, 
falling into the Ister. 2. A river in Bithyuia. 

[ABTAOZUS ('Apruobf), a friend and supporte 
of the younger Cyrus.] 

ARTAPHERNES ('ApTa<j>epvi}f). 1. Son of Hys 
taspes and brother of Darius. He was satrap 
of Sardis at the time of the Ionian revolt, B.C 
600. Vid. ARISTAGORAS. 2. Son of the former 
commanded, along with Datis, the Persian army 
of Darius, which was defeated at the battle of 
Marathon, B.C. 490. Artaphernes commandec 
the Lydians and Mysians in the invasion of 
Greece by Xerxes in 480. [3. A Persian, sent 
by Artaxerxes I. to Sparta with a letter, ar 
rested on hia way by Aristides and taken to 
Athens, where his letter was translated : the 
Athenians endeavored to turn this to their ad- 
vantage, and sent Artaphernes in a galley, with 
their ambassadors, 'to Ephesus.] 

ARTAUNUM (now Scdburg, near Homburg?), a 
Roman fortress in Germany on Mount Taunus, 
built by Drusus and restored by Germanicus. 

ARTAVASDES ('ApTaovuad^g or 'ApTaGuodr/e) or 
ARTABAZES ('Aprafia^f)- !' King of the Great- 
er Armenia, succeeded his father Tigranes. In 
the expedition of Crassus against the Parthians, 
B.C. 54, Artavasdes was an ally of the Romans ; 
but after the defeat of the latter, he concluded 
a peace with the Parthian king. In 36 he joined 
Antony in his campaign against the Parthians, 
and persuaded him to invade Media, because he 
W'is at enmity with his namesake Artavasdes, 
king of Media ; but he treacherously deserted 
Antony in the middle of the campaign. Antony 
accordingly invaded Armenia in 34, contrived 
to entice Artavasdes into his camp, where he 
was immediately seized, carried him to Alex- 
andrea and led him in triumph. He remained 
in captivity till 30, when Cleopatra had him 
killed after the battle of Actium, and sent his 
head to his old enemy, Artavasdes of Media, in 
hopes of obtaining assistance from the latter. 
This Artavasdes was well acquainted with 
Greek literature, and wrote tragedies, speeches, 
and historical works. 2. King of Armenia, 
probably a grandson of No. 1, was placed upon 
the throne by Augustus, but was deposed by 
the Armenians. 3. King of Media Atropatene, 
and an enemy of Artavasdes I., king of Arme- 
nia. Antony invaded his country in 36, at the 
instigation of the Armenian king, but he was 
obliged to retire with great loss. Artavasdes 
afterward concluded a peace with Antony, and 
gave his daughter lotape in marriage to Alex- 
ander, the son of Antony. Artavasdes was 
subsequently engaged in wars with the Par- 
ihians and Armenians. He died shortly before 
20 B.C. 

ARTAXATA or -x (r 'Apru^ara or -Ziara: 
ruins at Ardachat, above Nakshivari), the later 
capital of Great Armenia, built by ARTAXIAS, 
under the advice of Hannibal, on a peninsula, 
suiTounded by the River Araxes. After being 
burned by the Romans under Corbulo (A.D. 58), 
it was restored by Tiridates, and called Nero- 
ma (Nepwveia). It was still standing in the 
fourth century. 

ARTAXERXES or ARTOXERXES ('Apra^ep^ or 

'A0To$p$T]c), the name of four Persian kings, is 

compounded of Arta, which means "honored," 

and Xerxes, which is the same as the Zend 

110 



ARTAXERXER 

ksathra, "a king :" consequently Artaxerxei 
means "the honored king." 1. Surnamed 
LONGIMANUS, from the circumstance of his right 
hand being longer than his left, reigned B.C. 
465-426. He ascended the throne after his fa- 
ther, Xerxes I, had been murdered by Arta- 
banus, and after he himself had put to death his 
brother Darius at the instigation of Artabanus. 
His reigs was disturbed by several dangerous in- 
surrections of the satraps. The Egyptians also 
revolted in 460, under Inarus, who was support- 
ed by the Athenians. The first army which 
Artaxerxes sent under bis brother Acluemenes 
was defeated and Achsemencs slain. The sec- 
ond army which he sent, under Artabazus and 
Megabyzus, was more successful. Inarus was 
defeated in 456 or 455, but Amyrtseus, another 
chief of the insurgents, maintained himself in 
the marshes of Lower Egypt At a later period 
(449) the Athenians under Cimon sent assist- 
ance to Amyrtseus; and even after the death 
of Cimon, the Athenians gained two victories 
over the Persians, one by land and the other by 
sea, in the neighborhood of Salamis in Cyprus. 
After this defeat Artaxerxes is said to have con- 
cluded peace with the Greeks on terms very ad- 
vantageous to the latter. Artaxerxes was suc- 
ceeded by his son Xerxes II. 2. Surnamed 
MNEMON, from his good memory, succeeded his 
father, Darius II, and reigned B.C. 405-359. 
Cyrus, the younger brother of Artaxerxes, who 
was satrap of Western Asia, revolted against 
iis brother, and, supported by Greek mercena- 
ries, invaded Upper Asia. In the neighborhood 
of Cunaxa, near Babylon, a battle was fought 
setween the armies of the two brothers, in 
which Cyrus fell, B.C 401. Vid. CYRUS. Tis- 
saphernes was appointed satrap of Western 
Asia in the place of Cyrus, and was actively 
engaged in wars with the Greeks. Vid. THIM- 
BRON, DERCYLLIDAS, AGESILAUS. Notwithstaud- 
ng these perpetual conflicts with the Greeks, 
the Persian empire maintained itself by the dis- 
union among the Greeks themselves, which was 
"omented and kept up by Persian money. The 
jeace of Antalcidas, in B.C. 388, gave the Per- 
iians even greater power and influence than 
hey had possessed before. Vid. ANTALCIDAS. 
3ut the empire was suffering from internal dis- 
urbances, and Artaxerxes had to carry on fre- 
[uent wars with tributary princes and satraps, 
who endeavored to make themselves independ- 
ent Thus he maintained a long struggle against 
Ivagoras of Cyprus, from 385 to 376 ; he also 
iad to carry on war against the Cardusians, on 
he shores of the Caspian Sea ; and his attempts 
o recover Egypt were unsuccessful. Toward 
the end of his reign he put to death his eldest 
on Darius, who had formed a plot to assassi- 
nate him. His last days were still further em- 
jittered by the unnatural conduct of his son 
3chus, who caused the destruction of two of 
is brothers, in order to secure the succession 
or himself. Artaxerxes was succeeded by 
3chus, who ascended the throne under the 
lame of Artaxerxes III. 3. Also called OCHUS, 
eigned B.C. 359-338. In order to secure his 
hrone, he began his reign with a merciless ex- 
irpation of the members of his family. He 
limself was a cowardly and reckless despot ; 
and the great advantages which the Persiau 



ARTAXIAS. 



ARTEMIS. 



arms gained during bis reign were owing only to 
his Greek generals and mercenaries. These ad- 
vantages consisted in the conquest of the revolted 
satrap Artabazus (vid. AETABAZUS, No. 4), and in 
the reduction of Phoenicia, of several revolted 
towns in Cyprus, and of Egypt, 350. The reins 
of government were entirely in the hands of the 
eunuch Eagoas and of Mentor the Rhodiau. At 
last he was poisoned by Bagoas, and was suc- 
ceeded by his youngest son, ARSES. 4. The 
founder of the dynasty of the SASSANID.S. 

ARTAXIAS ('A/> ra ' a ?) or ARTAXES ('Ap-a^f), 
the name of three kings of Armenia. 1. The 
founder of the Armenian kingdom, was one of 
the generals of Antiochus the Great, but revolt- 
ed from him about B.C. 188, and became an in- 
dependent sovereign. Hannibal took refuge at 
the court of Artaxias, and he superintended the 
building of ARTAXATA, the capital of Armenia. 
A rtaxias was conquered and taken prisoner by 
Antiochus IV. Epiphanes about 165. 2. Son 
of Artavasdes, was made king by the Armeni- 
ans when his father was taken prisoner by An- 
tony in 34. lu 20, Augustus, at the request of 
the Armenians, sent Tiberius into Acgaenia in 
order to depose Artaxias and place Tigranes on 
the throne, but Artaxias was put to death before 
Tiberius reached the country. Tiberius, however, 
took the credit to himself of a successful expedi- 
tion, whence Horace (Epist, i. 12, 26) says, 
Claudi virtute Nerohis Armenius cecidit. 3. Son 
of Polemon, king of Pontus, was proclaimed king 
of Armenia by Germanicus in A.D. 18. He died 
about 35. 

ARTAYCTES ('ApTavKTj]f), Persian governor of 
Sestus on the Hellespont, when the town was ta- 
ken by the Greeks in B.C. 478, met with an igno- 
minious death on account of the sacrilegious acts 
which he had committed against the tomb of the 
hero Protesilaus. 

[ARTAYNTE('Aprawr7/), a daughter of Masistes, 
the brother of Xerxes I., who gave her in mar- 
riage to his son Darius, while he himself was se- 
cretly in love with her : this, becoming known to 
Amastris, brought down her vengeance on the 
mother of Artaynte, whom she suspected of hav- 
ing been the cause of the king's passion.] 

[ARTAYNTES ('ApravvTtjf), one of the generals 
in the army .of Xerxes ; after the battle of Sala- 
mis, he, with several other generals, sailed to 
Samos to watch the louinns; but, after the de- 
feat of the Persians at Platzeae and Mycale, he 
abandoned his post and returned to Persia.] 

ARTEMiDOttua ('AprcfMupot;). 1. Surnamed 
ARISTOPHANIUS, from his being a disciple of the 
celebrated grammarian Aristophanes, was him- 
self a grammarian, and the author of several 
works now lost. 2. Of CNIDUS, a friend of Ju- 
lius Ca?sar, was a rhetorician, and taught the 
Greek language at Rome. 3. DALDIANUS, a na- 
tive of Ephesus, but called Daldianus, from 
Daldis in Lydia, his mother's birth-place, to dis- 
tinguish him from the geographer Artemidorus. 
He lived at Rome in the reigns of Antoninus 
Pius aud M. Aurelius (A.D. 138-180), and wrote 
a work on the interpretation of dreams ('Ovetpo- 
KptTiKu), in five books, which is still extant The 
object of the work is to prove that the future 
is revealed to man in dreams, and to clear the 
science of interpreting them 'from the abuses 
with which the fashion of the time had sur- 



rounded it. The style is simple, correct, and 
elegant The best edition is by Reiff, Lips., 
1805. 4. Of EPHESUS, a Greek geographer, 
lived about B.C. 100. He made voyages round 
the coasts of the Mediterranean, in the Red Sea, 
and apparently even in the Southern Ocean. He 
also visited Iberia and Gaul. The work, in 
which he gave the results of his investigations, 
consisted of eleven books, of which Marcianus 
afterward made an abridgment. The original 
work is lost; but we possess fragments of Mar- 
cianus's abridgment, which contain the peri- 
plus of the Pontus Euxinus, and accounts of 
Bithynia and Paphlagonia. These fragments 
are printed in Hudson's Geographi Minores, 
voL i. 

ARTEMIS ('\pTepif), the Latin Diana, one of 
the great divinities of the Greeks. According 
to the most ancient account, she was the daugh- 
ter of Jupiter (Zeus) and Leto (Latona), and the 
twin-sister of Apollo, born with him in the isl- 
and of Delos. She was regarded in various 
points of view by the Greeks, which must be 
carefully distinguished. 1. Artemis (Diana), as 
the sister of Apollo, is a kind of female Apollo, 
that is, ehe as a female, divinity represented 
the same idea that Apollo did as a male divini- 
ty. As sister of Apollo, Artemis (Diana) is, 
like her brother, armed with a bow, quiver, and 
arrows, and sends plagues and death among 
men and animals. Sudden deaths, but more 
especially those of women, are described as the 
effect of her arrows. As Apollo was not only 
a destructive god, but also averted evils, so Ar- 
temis (Diana) likewise cured and alleviated the 
sufferings of mortals. In the Trojan war she 
sided, like Apollo, with the Trojans. She was 
more especially the protectress of the young; 
and from her watching over the young of fe- 
males, she came to be regarded as the goddess 
of the flocks and the chase. In this manner 
she also became the huntress among the im- 
mortals. Artemis (Diana), like Apollo, is un- 
married ; she is a maiden divinity never con- 
quered by love. She slew ORION with her ar- 
rows, according to one account, because he 
made an attempt upon her chastity ; and she 
changed ACTION into a stag simply because 
he had seen her bathing. With her brother 
Apollo, she slew the children of NIOBE, who 
had deemed herself superior to Leto (Latona). 
When Apollo was regarded as identical with 
the sun or Helios, nothing was more natural 
than that his sister should be regarded as Se- 
lene or the moon, aud accordingly the Greek 
Artemis is, at least in later times, the goddess 
of the moon. Hence Artemis (Diana) is repre- 
sented in love with the fair youth ENDYMIOX, 
whom she kissed in his sleep, but this legend 
properly relates to Selene or the Moon, and is 
foreign to the character of Artemis (Diana), 
who, as we have observed, was a goddess un- 
moved by love. 2. The Arcadian Artemis is a 
goddess of the nymphs, and was worshipped as 
; such in Ai'cadia in very early times. She hunt- 
j ed with her nymphs on the Arcadian Mount- 
ains, and her chariot was drawu by four staga 
with golden antlers. There was no connection 
between the Arcadian Artemis and Apollo 
8. T/ie Taurian Artemi. The worship of this 
, goddess was connected, at least in early times, 
111 



TKMISIA. 



ARYAXDES. 



with. human sacrifices. According to the Greek 
legend there was in Taurus a goddess, whom 
the Greeks for some reason identified with their 
own Artemis (Diana), and to whom all strangers 
thrown on the coast of Tauris were sacrificed. 
Iphigenia and Orestes brought her image from 
thence, and landed at Brauron in Attica, whence 
the goddess derived the name of Brauronia. 
The Brauronian Artemis was worshipped at 
Athens and Sparta, and in the latter place the 
boys were scourged at her altar till it was be 
sprinkled with their blood. This cruel cere- 
mony was believed to have been introduced by 
Lycurgus, instead of the human sacrifices which 
had antil then been offered to her. Iphigenia, 
who was at first to have been sacrificed to Ar- 
temis (Diana), and who then became her priest- 
ess, was afterward identified with the goddess, 
who was worshipped in some parts of Greece, 
as at Hermione, under the name of Iphigenia. 
Some traditions stated that Artemis made Iphi- 
genia immortal, in the character of Hecate, the 
goddess of the moon. 4. The Epkesian Artemis 
(Diana) was a divinity totally distinct from the 
Greek goddess of the same name. She seems 
to have been the personification of the fructify- 
ing and all-nourishing powers of nature. She 
was an ancient Asiatic divinity, whose worship 
the Greeks found established in Ionia when 
they settled there, and to whom they gave the 
name of Artemis. Her original character is 
sufficiently clear from the fact that her priests 
were eunuchs, and that her image in the mag- 
nificent temple of Ephesus represented her with 
many breasts (irohv/taarof). The representations 
of the Greek Artemis in works of art are differ- 
ent, according as she is represented either as a 
huntress or as the goddess of the moon. As 
the huntress, she is tall, nimble, and has small 
hips; her forehead is high, her eyes glancing 
freely about, and her hair tied up, with a few 
locks floating down her neck; her breast is 
covered, and the legs up to the knees are naked, 
the rest being covered by the chlamys. Her at- 
tributes are the bow, quiver, and arrows, or a 
spear, stags, and dogs. As the goddess of the 
moon, she wears a long robe which reaches 
down to her feet, a veil covers her head, and 
above her forehead rises the crescent of the 
moon. In her hand she often appears holding a 
torch. The Romans identified their goddess DI- 
ANA with the Greek Artemis. 

ARTEMISIA ('Apre/ua/a). 1. Daughter of Lyg- 
damis, and queen of Halicarnassus in Caria, ac- 
companied Xerxes, in his invasion of Greece, 
with five ships, and in the battle of Salamis 
(B.C. 480) greatly distinguished herself by her 
prudence and courage, for which she was after- 
ward highly honored by the. Persian king. 2. 
Daughter of Hecatomnus, and sister, wife, and 
successor of the Carian prince Mausolus, reigned 
B.C. 352-350. She is renowned in history for 
jier extraordinary grief at the death of her hus- 
band Mausolus. She is said to have mixed his 
ashes in her daily drink ; and to perpetuate his 
memory, she built at Halicarnassus the celebra- 
ted monument, Mausoleum, which was regarded 
as one of the seven wonder* of the world, and 
the name of which subsequently became the 
generic term for any splendid sepulchral monu- 
ment 

112 



ARTEMISIUM ('ApTepioiov), properly a temple 
of Artemis. 1. A tract of country on the north- 
ern coast of Eubcea, opposite Magnesia, so called 
from the temple of Artemis (Diana) belonging to 
the town of Hestisea: off this coast the Greeks 
defeated the fleet of Xerxes, B.C. 480. 2. A 
promontory of Caria, near the Gulf Glaucus, so 
called from the temple of Artemis it its neigh- 
borhood. 

ARTEMITA ('ApTtfura}. 1. (Now Shereban?), 
a city on the Sillas. in the district of Apollonia- 
tis in Assyria. 2. A city of Great Armenia, 
south of the Lake Arsissa. 

ARTEMON ('Aprejuuv), a Lacedaemonian, built 
the military engines for Pericles in his war 
against Samos in B.C. 441. There were also 
several writers of this name, whose works are 
lost. 

[ARTIM AS ('Apriftaf), a Persian satrap, men- 
tioned in the Anabasis.] 

[Aaxiscus ("Aprianof : now Bujuk-Dere), a 
river of Thrace, a tributary of the Hebrus.] 

[AETONTES ('ApTovrqe), son of Mardonius.] 

ARTORIUS, M., a physician at Rome, was the 
friend au^J physician of Augustus, whom he at- 
tended in his campaign against Brutus and Cas- 
sius, B.C. 42. He was drowned at sea shortly 
after the battle of Actium, 31. 

ARVERNI, a Gallic people in Aquitania, in the 
country of the Mons Cebenna, in the modem 
Auvergne. In early times they were the most 
powerful people in the south of Gaul: they 
were defeated by Domitius Ahenobarbus and 
Fabius Maximus in B.C. 121, but still possessed 
considerable power in the time of Ctesar (58). 
Their capital was Jfemossus, also named Augus- 
tonemetum or Arverni on the Elaver (now Allier), 
with a citadel, called at least in the Middle Ages 
Clarus Mons, whence the name of the modern 
town, Clermont. 

ARVIXA, a cognomen of the Cornelia gens, 
borne by several of the Cornelii, of whom the 
most important was A. Cornelius Cossus Arvina, 
consul B.C. 343 and 322, and dictator 320. He 
commanded the Roman armies against the Sam- 
mites, wbcfm he defeated in several battles. 

ARUNS, an Etruscan word, was regarded by 
the Romans as a proper name, but perhaps sig- 
nified a younger son in general 1. Younger 
brother of Lucumo, i. e., L. Tarquiuius Priscus. 
2. Younger brother of L. Tarquinius Superbus, 
was murdered by his wife. 3. Younger son of 
Tarquinius Superbus, fell in combat with Brutus. 

4. Son of Porsena, fell in battle before Aricio. 

5. Of Clusium, invited the Gauls across the 
Alps. 

ARUNTIUS. Vid. ARRUNTIUS. 

ARUSIANXIS, MESSUS or MESSIUS, a Roman gram- 
marian, lived about A.D. 450, arid wrote a Latin 
phrase book, entitled Quadriga, vel Exempla El- 
ocutionum ex Virgilio, Sallustio, Terentio, et Ci- 
cerone per literas digesta.. It is called Quadriga 
from its being composed from four authors. The 
best edition is by Lindemann, in his Corpus 
Orammaticorum Latin^ voL L, p. 199. 

ARXATA ('Ap^ara : now Nakshivan), the capi- 
tal of Great Armenia, before the building of Ar- 
taxata, lay lower down upon the Araxes, on the 
confines of Media. 

ARYANDES ('Apvuvdijc), a Persian, who iraa 
appointed by Cambyses governor of Egypt, but 



ARTTHAS. 

was put to death by Darius, because he coined 
silver money of the purest metal, in imitation 
of the gold money of that monarch 

[ARYBAS or ARYMBA&. Vid. ARRIBAS.] 

ARYCANDA ('Apwavda), a email town of Ly- 
cia, east of Xanthus, on the River Arycandus, 
a tributary of the Limyrus. 

ARZANEXE ('ApZavTjvq), a district of Armenia 
Major, bounded on the south by the Tigris, on 
the west by the Nymphius, and containing in it 
the Lake Arssne ('Apaqvij : now JZrzen). It 
formed part of GORDYENE. 

[ARZEN or -ES, or ATRAXUTZIN ('Ap^r/v, "A/oef, 
'ArpdvovT&v : now Erzerouni), a strong fortress 
in Great Armenia, near the sources of the Eu- 
phrates and the Araxes, founded in the fifth 
century. 

AS^EI ('Aoaloi), a people of Sarmatia Asialica, 
near the mouth of the Tanais (now Don). 

ASANDER ("Aaavdpof). 1. Son of Philotas, 
brother of Parmenion, and one of the generals 
of Alexander the Great After the death of 
Alexander in 323, he obtained Caria for his sat- 
rapy, and took an active part in the wars which 
followed. He joined Ptolemy and Cassa^der in 
their league against Antigonus, but was de- 
feated by Antigonus in 313. 2. A general of 
Pharnaces II, king of Bosporus. He put Phar- 
naces to death in 47, after the defeat of the 
latter by Julins Caesar, in hopes of obtaining the 
kingdom. But Caesar conferred the kingdom 
upon Mithradates of Pergamus, with whom 
Asander carried on war. Augustus afterward 
confirmed Asander in the sovereignty. [He 
died of voluntary starvation in his ninety-third 
year.] 

[ASBOLUS (*A<ifoAof), a centaur, famed for his 
skill in prophesying from the flight of birds; 
fought against the Lapithse at the nuptials of 
Pirithous. He was crucified by Hercules.1 

ASBYST^E (' AafjvffToi), a Libyan people, in the 
north of Cyrenaica. Their country was called 
'\a6varif. 

ASCA ("Aetna), a city of Arabia Felix. 

ASCALABUS, son of Misme, respecting whom 
the eame story is told which we also find relat- 
ed of ABAS, son of Metanira. Vid. ABAS, No. 1. 

ASCALAPHUS ('Aff/taAa^of). 1. Son of Mars 
(Ares) and Astyoche, led, with his brother lal- 
menus, the Minyans of Orchomenos against 
Troy, and was slain by De'iphobus. 2. Son of 
Acheron and Gorgyra or Orphne. When Pro- 
serpina (Persephone) was in the lower world, 
and Pluto gave her permission to return to the 
upper, providing she had not eaton any thing, 
Ascalaphut declared that she had eaten part of 
a pomegrarate. Ceres (Demeter) punished him 
by burying him under a huge stone, and when 
this stone was subsequently removed by Her- 
cules, Pronrpina (Persephone) changed him 
into an owl (dff/cuAa^of), by sprinkling him with 
water from the River Phlegethon. 

ASCALON ('AanaTiuv : 'AoKa?MveiTijf ; now 
Askaldn), cne of the chief cities of the Philis- 
tines, on tb coast of Palestine, between Azotus 
and Gaza. 

ASCANIA (ri 'Aaxavia M/ivy). 1. (Now Lake 
of Jznik), i Bithynia, a great fresh-water lake, 
at the eaet' TU end of which stood the city of Ni- 
caea (now fmik). The surrounding district was 
also callerl Ascania. 2. (Now Lake of Burdur), 
8 



ASCONItJS PEDIANUS. 

j a salt-water lake on the borders of Phrygia ana 
! Pisidia, which supplied the neighboring country 
with salt 

ASCAXIUS ('AaKuviof). [I. An ally of the Tro- 
jans from the Phrygian Ascania. 2. Son of 
Hippotion, also an ally of the Trojans.] 3. Son 
of JSneas by Creusa. According to some tra- 
ditions, Ascanius remained in Asia after the fall 
of Troy, and reigned either at Troy itself or at 
! some other town in the neighborhood. Accord- 
ing to other accounts, he accompanied his father 
to Italy. Other traditions, again, gave the name 
of Ascanius to the son of ^Eneas and Lavinia. 
Livy states that on the death of his father Asca- 
nius was too young to undertake the govern- 
ment, and that, after he had attained the age of 
manhood, he left Lavinium in the hands of his 
mother, and migrated to Alba Longa. Here he 
was succeeded by his son Silvius. Some writ- 
ers relate that Ascanius was also called Ilus or 
lulus. The gens Julia at Rome traced its origin 
from lulus or Ascanius. 

ASCIBURGIUM (now Asburg, near Mors), an an- 
cient place on the left bank of the Rhine, found- 
ed, according to fable, by Ulysses. 

ASCII (dcKioi, i. e., shadowless), a term applied 
to the people living about the equator, between 
the tropics, who have, at certain times of the 
year, the sun in their zenith at noon, when, con* 
sequently, erect objects can cast no shadow. 

ASCLEPIADJJ, the reputed descendants of A a- 
clepius (JSsculapius). Vid. ^ESCULAPIUS. 

ASCLEPIADES ('AaK^TTLudrif). 1. A lyric poet, 
who is said to have invented the metre called 
after him (Metrum Asclepiadeum), but of whose 
life no particulars are recorded. 2. Of Tragilua 
in Thrace, a contemporary and disciple of Isoc- 
rates, about B.C. 360, wrote a work called 
Tpayudov/tEva in six books, being an explana- 
tion of the subjects of the Greek tragedies 
[The fragments of this work are published in 
Muller's Fragm. Hist. Grcec^ voL iii, p. 301-6. 
3. Of Samos, a bucolic poet, who nourished 
just before the time of Theocritus, as he is 
mentioned as his teacher: several epigrams in 
the Anthology are ascribed to him.] 4. Of 
Myrlga in Bithynia, in the middle of the first 
century B.C., wrote several grammatical works ; 
[and a history of Bithynia, in ten books : a few 
fragments of this lust work are collected in 
Muller's Fragm. Hist. Orcec^ voL iii., p. 300-1.] 
5. There were a great many physicians of this 
name, the most celebrated of whom was a na- 
tive of Bithynia, who came to Rome in the 
middle of the first century B.C., where he ac 
quired a great reputation by his successful cures 
Nothing remains of his writings but a few frag 
merits published by Gum pert, AsclcpiadisBithyn-i 
Fragmenta, Vinar., 1794. 

ASCLEPIODORUS ('AovtAjfTTtodwpof). 1. A gen 
eral of Alexander the Great, afterward madt 
satrap of Persia by Antigonus, B.C. 317. 2. A 
celebrated Athenian painter, a contemporary of 
Apelles. 

ASCLKPIUS. Vid. JSSCCLAPIUS. 

ASCONIUS PEDIANUS, Q, a Roman gramma 
rian, bora at Patavium (now Padua), about B.C 
2, lost his sight in his seventy-third year, in tin 
reign of Vespasian, and died in his eighty-fiftl 
year, in the reign of Domitian. His most import 
ant work was a Commentary on the speeches 
113 



ASCORDUS. 



ASIA. 



of Cicero, and we still possess fragments of 
his Commentaries on the Divinatio, the first 
two speeches against Verres, and a portion of 
the third, the speeches for Cornelius (i, ii.), 
the speech In toga Candida, for Scaurus, against 
Piso, and for Milo. They are written in very 

Eure language, and refer chiefly to points of 
istory and antiquities, great pains being be- 
stowed on the illustration of those constitutional 
forms of the senate, the popular assemblies, and 
the courts of justice, which were fast falling 
into oblivion under the empire. This character, 
however, does not apply to the notes on the 
Verrine orations, which were probably written 
by a later grammarian. Edited in the fifth vol- 
ume of Cicero's works by Orelli and Baiter. 
There is a valuable essay on Asconius by Mad- 
vig, Hafnise, 1828. 

ASCOEDDS, a river in Macedonia, which rises 
in Mount Olympus, and flows between Agassa 
and Dium into the Thermaic Gulf. 

ASCEA ('AaKpa : 'Aff/cpatof), a town in Boeo- 
tia, on Mount Helicon, where Hesiod resided, 
who had removed thither with his father from 
Cyme in JSolis, and who is therefore called 
AscrcEut. 

AsciJLUM. 1. PICKNUM ( Asculanus : now As- 
coli), the chief town of Picenum and a Roman 
municipium, was destroyed by the Romans in 
the Social War (B.C. 89), but was afterward 
rebuilt. 2. AptJLuir (Asculinus : now Ascoli di 
Satriano), a town of Apulia, in Daunia, on the 
confines of Samnium, near which the Romans 
were defeated by Pyrrhus, B.C. 279. 

ASCUEIS (now JEzero), a lake in Mount Olym- 
pus in Perrhaebia in Thessaly, near Lapathus. 

ASDEUBAL. Vid. HASDEUBAL. 

ASEA (fi 'Acrea), a town in Arcadia, not far 
from Megalopolis. 

ASELLIO, P. SEMPBONIUS, tribune of the sol- 
diers under P. Scipio Africanus at Numantia, 
B.C. 133. wrote a Roman history from the Pu- 
nic wars inclusive to the times of the Gracchi. 

ASELLUS, TIB. CLAUDIUS, a Roman eques, was 
deprived of his horse by Scipio Africanus Minor, 
when censor, B.C. 142, and in his tribuneship 
of the plebs in 139 accused Scipio Africanus be- 
fore the people. 

ASIA ('A7ta), daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, 
wife of Japetus, and mother of Atlas, Prome- 
theus, and Epimetheus. According to some 
traditions, the continent of Asia derived its 
name from her. 

ASIA ('Aaia : 'Aaievf, -lavoe, -turrjf, -<m/c6{ : 
now Asia), also in the poets Asia ('flcr/f), one of 
the three great divisions which the anciente 
made of the known world. It is doubtful wheth- 
er the name is of Greek or Eastern origin ; but, 
in either case, it seems to have been first used 
by the Greeks for the western part of Asia Mi- 
nor, especially the plains watered by the river 
Cavster, where the Ionian colonists first settled ; 
and thence, as their geographical knowledge 
advanced, they extended it to the whole coun- 
try east, northeast, and southeast. The first 
knowledge which the Greeks possessed of the 
opposite shores of the ^Egean Sea dates before 
the earliest historical records. The legends 
respecting the Argonautic and the Trojan ex- 
peditions, and other mythical stories, on the one 
hand, and the allusions to commercial and other 
114 



intercourse with the people of Asia Minor, 
Syria, and Egypt, on the other hand, indicate a 
certain degree of knowledge of the coast from 
the mouth of the Phasis, at the eastern extrem- 
ity of the Black Sea, to the mouth of the Nile. 
This knowledge was improved and increased 
by the colonization of the western, northern, 
and southern coasts of Asia Minor, and by the 
relations into which these Greek colonies were 
brought, first with the Lydian, and then with 
the Persian empires, so that, in the middle of 
the fifth century B.C., Herodotus was able to 
give a pretty complete description of the Per- 
sian empire, and some imperfect accounts of tho 
parts beyond it ; while some knowledge of 
southern Asia was obtained by way of Egypt ; 
and its northern regions, with their wandering 
tribes, formed the subject of marvellous stories 
which the traveller heard from the Greek colo- 
nists on the northern shores of the Black Sea. 
The conquests of Alexander, besides the per- 
sonal acquaintance which they enabled the 
Greeks to form with those provinces of the Per- 
sian empire hitherto only known to them by 
report^extended their knowledge over the re- 
gions watered by the Indus and its four great 
tributaries (the Punjab and Scinde) ; the lower 
course of the Indus and the shores between its 
mouth and the head of the Persian Gulf were 
explored by Nearchus; and some further knowl- 
edge was gained of the nomad tribes which 
roamed (as they still do) over the vast steppes 
of Central Asia by the attempt of Alexander to 
penetrate, on the northeast, beyond the Jaxartes 
(now Sihoun) ; while, on all points, the Greeks 
were placed in advanced positions from which to 
acquire further information, especially at Alex- 
andrea, whither voyagers constantly brought ac- 
counts of the shores of Arabia and India, as far 
as the island of Taprobane, and even beyond 
this, to the Malay peninsula and the coasts of 
Cochin China. On the east and north the wars 
and commerce of the Greek kingdom of Syria 
carried Greek knowledge of Asia no further, 
except in the direction of India to a small ex- 
tent, but of course more acquaintance was gain- 
ed with the countries already subdued, until the 
conquests of the Parthians shut out the Greeks 
from the country east of the Tigris valley ; a 
limit which the Romans, in their turn, were 
never able to pass. They pushed their arms, 
however, further north than the Greeks had 
done, into the mountains of Armenia, and they 
gained information of a great caravan route be- 
tween India and the shores of the Caspian, 
through Bactria, and of another commercial 
track leading over Central Asia to the distant 
regions of the Seres. This brief sketch will 
show that all the accurate knowledge of the 
Greeks and Romans respecting Asia was con- 
fined to the countries which slope down south- 
ward from the great mountain chain formed by 
the Caucasus and its prolongation beyond the 
Caspian to the Himalayas : of the vast elevated 
steppes between these mountains and the cen- 
tral range of the Altai (from which the northern 
regions of Siberia again slope down to the Arc- 
tic Ocean) they only knew that they were in- 
habited by nomad tribes, except the country 
directly north of Ariana, where the Persian em- 
pire had extended beyond the mountain chain, 



ASIA. 



ASOPIS. 



and wl.ere the Greek kingdom of Baetria had 'ly, Mysia, Lydia, and Caria on the west; Lycra, 
been subsequently established. The notions of ' Pamphylia, and Cilicia on the south ; Bithynia, 
the ancients respecting the size and form of i Paphlagonia, and Pontus on the north ; and 
Asia were such as might be inferred from what Phrygia, Pisidia, Galatia, and Cappadocia in the 
has been stated. Distances computed from the centre : see, also, the articles TEOAS, J&OLIA, 
accounts of travellers are always exaggerated ; IONIA, DOEIA, LYCAONIA, ISAURIA, PERGAMUS, 
and hence the southern part of the continent HALTS, SANGARIUS, TAURUS, <tc. 3. ASIA PKO- 
was supposed to extend much further to the PHIA ('A. TJ I6iu$ /caAov/zevT/), or simply ASIA, the 
east than it really does (about 60 of longitude Roman province, formed out of the kingdom of 
too much, according to Ptolemy), while to the Pergamus, which was bequeathed to the Ro- 
north and northeastern parts, whicli were quite mans by ATTALUS III. (B.C. 130), and the Greek 
unknown, much too small an extent was assign- cities on the west coast, and the adjacent isl- 
ed. However, all the ancient geographers, ex- ands, with Rhodes. It included the districts of 
cept Pliny, agreed in considering it the largest Mysia, Lydia, Caria, and Phrygia, and was gov- 
of the three divisions of the world, and all be- erned at first by propraetors, afterward by pro- 
lieved it to be surrounded by the ocean, with consuls. Under Constantino the Great a new 
the curious exception of Ptolemy,- who recurred division was made, and Asia only extended 
to the early notion, which we find in the poets, ' along the coast from the Promontorium Lectura 
that the eastern parts of Asia and the south- to the mouth of the Maeander. 



eastern parts of Africa were united by land 
which inclosed the Indian Ocean on the east 
and south. The different opinions about the 
boundaries of Asia on the side of Africa are 



[ASIATICUS, a surname of the Scipios and Ya- 
lerii.] 

[ASIDATES ('A<rt(5dT7?f), a Persian nobleman, 
whose castle was unsuccessfully attacked by Xen- 



mentioned under AFKICA : on the side of Europe ophon, but who was afterward captured with all 
the boundary was formed by the River*Tanais ! his property.] 

(now Don), the Palus Maeotis (now Sea of Azof), I [ ASINA, a surname of the Scipios.] 
Pontus Euxinus (now Slack Sea), Propontis ! ]ASIN^EUS SINUS, another name of the Messeul- 
(now Sea of Marmara), and the ^Egean (now acus Sinus. Vid. ASINE, No. 3.] 
Archipelago). The most general division of ' ASINARUS ('Aaivapoc. : now f'iume di Noto or 
Asia was into two parts, which were different \ t'reddo ?), a river on the east side of Sicily, on 
at different times, and known by different names, j which the Athenians were defeated by the Syra- 
To the earliest Greek colonists the River Halys, i cusans, B.C. 413: the Syracusans celebrated here 
the eastern boundary of the Lydian kingdom, \ an annual festival called Asinaria. 
formed a natural division between Upper and i ASINE ('Aaivrj : 'Aoivaloc). 1. (Now Passawa\ 
Lower Asia (% uvu 'A., or ru avu 'A<r7f, and f/ ! a town in Laconica, on the coast between Taena- 
KUTU 'A., or TU KO.TU T>/f 'AoiTjf, or 'A. f/ vrdf rum and Gythium. 2. (Now Phurnos), a town 
A./.VOC. norauov) ; and afterward the Euphrates , in Argolis, west of Hermione, was built by the 
was adopted as a more natural boundary. An- i Dryopes, who were driven out of the town by 
other division was made by the Taurus into A. \ the Argives after the first Messeaian war, and 
intra Taurum, i. e., the part of Asia north and | built No. 3. 3. (Now Saratza?), an important 
northwest of the Taurus, and A. extra Taurum, \ town in Messenia, near the Promontory Acritas, 
all the rest of the continent ('A. h>rd( TOV Tail- on the Messenian Gulf, which was hence also 
pov, and 'A. i/crdf TOV Tavpov). The division 
ultimately adopted, but apparently not till the 



fourth century of our era, was that of Asia Ma- 
jor and Asia Minor. 1. ASIA MAJOR ('A. 17 
f/ey7.7/) was the part of the continent east of 
the Tanais, the Euxiue, an imaginary line drawn 
from the Euxine at Trapezus (now Trebizond) to 
the Gulf of Issus, and the Mediterranean : thus 
it included the countries of Sarmatica Asiatica, 
with all the Scythian tribes to the east, Colchis, 
Iberia, Albania, Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Babylo- 
nia, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Media, Susiana, Per- 
sis, Ariana, Hyrcania, Margiana, Bactriana, Sog- 
diana, India, the land of the Sinse and Serica ; 
respecting which, see the several articles. 
2. ASIA MINOR ('Aala r, fiiKpd : now Anatolia), 
was tin- peninsula on the extreme west of Asia, 
bounded by the Euxine, JSgean, and Mediter- 
ranean on the north, west, and south ; and on the 
east by the mountains on the west of the upper 
course of the Euphrates. It was, for the most 
part, a fertile country, intersected with mount- 
ains and rivers, abounding in minerals, possess- 
ing excellent harbors, and peopled, from the 
earliest known period, by a variety of tribes 
fnun Asia and from Europe. For particulars 
respecting the country, the reader is referred 
to the separate articles upon the parts into 



called the Asinaean Gurf. 

ASINIA GENS, plebeian, came from Teate, the 
chief town of the Marrucini ; and the first per- 
son of the name mentioned is Herius Asinius, the 
leader of the Marrucini in the Marsic war, B.C. 
90. The Asinii are given under their surnames, 
GALLUS and Pomo. 

Aslus ('Afftof). 1. Son of Hyrtacus of Arisbe, 
and father of Acamas and Phaenops, an ally of 
the Trojans, slain by Idomeueus. 2. Son of Dy- 
mas and brother of Hecuba, whose form Apollo 
assumed when he roused Hector to fight against 
Patroclus. [3. Son of Imbrasus, accompanied 
JSneas to Italy.] 4. Of Samos, one of the earli- 
est Greek poets, lived probably about B.C. 700. 
He wrote epic and elegiac poems, which have 
perished with the exception of a few fragments ; 
[and these have been published with the frag- 
ments of Callinus and Tyrtaeus, by Bach ; in the 
Minor Epic Poets, in Didot's Bill. Graze, ; and 
by Bergk, in his Poet. Lyrici Grate.] 

A-M n: .r.\, a district and city of Serica, in the 
north of Asia, near mountains called ASMIR^I 
MONTES, which are supposed to be the Altai 
range, and the city to be Khamil, in the centre 
of Chinese Tartary. 

[Asopis ('A 



which it was divided by the later Greeks, name- 1 of Mentor.] 



1. Daughter of the river- 
god Asopus. 2. Daughter of Thespius, mother 



115 



ASOPUS. 



ASPHALTITES LACUS. 



ABOFUS ('AffWTrof). 1. (Now BasUikos), a riv- 
er in Peloponnesus, rises near Phlius, and flows 
through the Sicyoniau territory into the Corinth- 
ian Gulf. Asopus, the god of this river, was 
on of Oceanus and Tethys, husband of Metope, 
and father of Evadne, Eubcea, aud JBginn, each 
of whom was therefore colled Anopis ('AawTrtf). 
When Jupiter (Zeus) carried off ^Egina, Aso- 
pus attempted to fight with him, but he was 
smitten by the thunderbolt of Jupiter (Zeus), and 
from that time the bed of the river contained 
pieces of charcoal By JSgina Asopus became 
the grandfather of JEacus, who is therefore 
called Asopiades. 2. (Now Asopo), a river in 
Bceotia, forms the northern boundary of the ter- 
ritory of Plataeae, flows through the south of 



Boeotia, and falls into 
Delphinium in Attica. 



the Eubcean Sea near 
[On the banks of this 



surrender Aspasia to him. The request could 
not be refused as coming from the king elect ; 
Artaxerxes, therefore, gave her up ; but he soon 
after took her away again, and made her a priest- 
ess of a temple at Ecbatana, where strict celibacj 
was requisite. 

AspAsn. Vid. Asm. 

ASPASIUS ('AffTrutrtof). 1. A peripatetic phi- 
losopher, lived about A.D. 80, aud wrote com- 
mentaries on most of the works of Aristotle 
A portion of his commentaries on the Nico 
macheau Ethics is still preserved. 2. Of Byb- 
lus, a Greek sophist, lived about A.D. 180, and 
wrote commentaries on Demosthenes aud JE&- 
chines, of which a few extracts are preserved ; 
[the extracts relating to him are collected by 
Miiller, in the- third volume of Didot's Fragmenta 
Historicorum Gracoruw, p. 576. 3. Of Tyre, a 
rhetorician aud historian, who, according to Sui- 
das, wrote a history of Epirus and of things in 
it in twenty books ; but Miiller (Fragmenta His- 
toricorum Grcecorum, p. 676), with much proba- 
bility, suggests Tvpov for 'Hiretpov, and so the 
account would be of Tyre. 4. Of Ravenna, a 
distinguished sophist and rhetorician, who lived 
about 225 A.D., in the reign of Alexander Seve- 



river was fought the famous battle of Plataeae.] 
3. A river in Phthiotis in Thessaly. rises in 
Mount (Eta, and flows into the Maliac Gulf near 
Thermopylae. 4. A river in Phrygia, flows past 
Laodicea into the Lycus. 5. (Now Esapo), a 
town in Laconica, on the east side of the Laco- 
uian Gulf. 

ASPADANA ('AaTtaduva : now Ispahan?), a town 
of the district Paraetacene in Persis. 

[ASPALIS ('A(T7raAf), daughter of Argasus, 
concerning whom an interesting legend is pre- 
served in Antoninus Liberalis.] 

[ASPAR, a Numidian, sent by Jugurtha to Boc- 
chus in order to learn his designs, when the lat- 
ter had sent for Sulla. He was, however, de- 
ceived by Bocchus.] 

ASPARAGIUM (now Isvarpar), a town in the ter- 
ritory of Dyrrhachium, in Illyria. 

ASPASIA ('\airaaia). 1. The elder, of Miletus, 
daughter of Axiochus, the most celebrated of 
the Greek Hetserae (aid. Diet, of Antiq^ s. v.), 
came to reside at Athens, and there gained and 
fixed the affections of Pericles, not more by her 
beauty than by her high mental accomplish- 
ments. Having parted with his wife, Pericles 
attached himself to Aspasia during the rest of 
his life as closely as was allowed by the law, 
which forbade marriage with a foreign woman 
under severe penalties. The enemies of Peri- 
cles accused Aspasia of impiety (doMeta), and 
it required all the personal influence of Pericles, 
who defended her, and his most earnest en- 
treaties and tears, to procure her acquittal The 
house of Aspasia was the centre of the best 
literary and philosophical society of Athens, and 
was frequented even by Socrates. On the death 
of Pericles (B.C. 429), Aspasia is said to have 
attached herself to one Lysicles, a dealer in cat- 
tle, and to have made him, by her instructions, 
a first-rate orator. The son of Pericles by As- 
pasia was legitimated by a special decree of the 
people, and took his father's name. 2. The 
Younger, a Phocaean, daughter of Hermotimus, 
was the favorite concubine of Cyrus the Young- 
er, -who called her Aspasia after the mistress 
of Pericles, her previous name having been Mil- 
to [from [ufaof,, vermilion, being so called on 

account of the brilliancy of her complexion.] j of two submerged plains, an elevated and a de 
After the death of Cyrus at the battle of Cunaxa i pressed one, the former averaging thirteen, the 
(B.C. 401), she fell into the hands of Artaxerxes, j latter thirteen hundred feet Jbelow the surface, 
who likewise became deeply enamored of her. I The shallow portion is to the south ; the deeper, 
When Darius, son of Artaxerxes, was appointed i which is also the larger, to the north. This 
successor to the throne, he asked his father to I southern 
116 



rus. His works are now lost.] 

ASPKNDUS ("AoTTEvdof : 'AffTrevdtof, Aspendius: 
now Dashashkehr or Manaugaf), a strong and 
flourishing city of Pamphylia, on the small navi- 
gable river Eurymedon, sixty stadia (six geo- 
graphical miles) from its mouth : said to have 
been a colony of the Argives. 

ASPEE, ^EMILJUS, a Roman grammarian, who 
wrote commentaries on Terence and Virgil, 
must be distinguished from another gramma- 
rian, usually called Asper Junior, the author of 
a small work entitled Ars Grammatica, printed 
in the Grammat. Lat. Auctvres, by Putschius, 
Hanov., 1605. 

ASPHALTITES LACUS or MARE MOETUUM ('A.a- 
^aArmf or "ZoSofurig "kip>r\, or jj daAuaaa q v en- 
pa), the great salt and bituminous lake in the 
southeast of Palestine, which receives the 
water of the Jordan, [is of an irregular oblong 
figure, about forty miles long and eight miles 
broad/| It has no visible outlet, and its surface 
is [a little more than thirteen hundred feet] b- 
low the level of the Mediterranean. [It is called 
the Dead Sea from the desolation prevailing 
along its shores, as well as from the belief that 
no living creature can exist in its waters.] Al- 
though the tales about birds dropping down dead 
as they fly over it are now proved to be fabu- 
lous, (Vet the waters and the surrounding soil 
are so intensely impregnated with salt and sul- 
phur that no tree or plants grow on its. banks : 
and it is doubted, with great probability, whether 
any fish live in its waters, for these, when ex- 
amined by a powerful microscope, have beet 
found to contain no animalcule or animal matter 
whatever. This sea has been very recently ex- 
plored for the first time with accuracy by Lieu 
tenant Lynch of the United States navy, who 
has proved that the bottom of the eea consist* 



and shallow portion would apoear to 



ASPIL 



ASTAPA. 



have been originally the fertile plain of Siddim, 
in which the guilty cities stood. 

ASPII or ASPASII ('Aa-toi, 'Aairdatoi), an In- 
dian tribe, in the district of the Paropamisadae, 
between the rivers Choes (now Kama) and Indus, 
in the northeast of Afghanistan and the north- 
west of the Punjab. 

ASPIS ('A<7<rtf). 1. CLTPEA (now KlibiaK). a 
city on a promontory of the same name, near the 
northeastern point of the Carthaginian territory, 
founded by Agathocles, and taken in the first 
Panic war by the Romans, who called it Clypea, 
the translation of 'AffTTif. 2. (Now Marsa-Zaff- 
ran ? ruins), in the African Tripolitana, the best 
harbor on the coast of the Great Syrtis. 3. Vid. 
AKCONXESCS. 

ASPLEDOX (JAoTrhrjSuv : 'AoirTiTjtioviof), or SPLE- 
DO>*, a town of the Minyae, in Bceotia, on the 
River Melas, near Orchomenus; built by the 
mythical Aspledon, son of Neptune (Poseidon) 
and Midea. 

ASSA ("Aaaa : 'Aaaalof), a town in Chalcidice, 
in Macedonia, on the Singitic Gulf. 

ASSACEM ('AcraaKTivoi). an Indian tribe, in the 
district of the Paropamisadae, between tb& rivers 
Cophen (now Cabool) and Indus, in the northwest 
of the Punjab. 

ASSAEACUS ('AaaupaKOf), king of Troy, son of 
Tros, father of Capys, grandfather of Anchises, 
and great-grandfather of JEneas. Hence the Ro- 
mans, as descendants of JEneas, are called doinus 
Assaraci (Virg., JFn., L, 284). 

ASSESCS ('Aaaijootf), a town of Ionia, near Mi- 
letus, with a temple of Minerva (Athena), sur- 
iiamed 'Aaaqaia. 

AssoErs ('AuCTWpof or 'Aaauptov : 'Aacuplvot; : 
now Asaro), a small town in Sicily, between 
Euna and Agyrium. 

ASSDS ("AffffOf: "A<7<7tof, 'Affcrevf : now Asso, 
ruins near Beiram). 1. A flourishing city in the 
Troad, on the Adramyttian Gulf, opposite to 
Lesbos : afterward called Apollonia : the birth- 
place of Cleanthes the Stoic. [2. A tributary of 
the Cephisus, in Phocis and Bceotia.] 

ASSYBIA ('Aaavpia : 'Aacyfiof, Assyrius : now 
Kurdistan). 1. The country properly so called, 
in the narrowest sense, was a district of West- 
ern Asia, extending along the eastern side of 
the Tigris, which divided it on the west and 
northwest from Mesopotamia and Babylonia, 
and bounded on the north and east by Mount 
Niphates and Mount Zagrus, which separated 
it from Armenia and Media, and on the south- 
east by Susiana. It was watered by several 
streams, flowing into the Tigris from the east ; 
two of which, the Lycus or Zabatus (now Great 
Zab), and the Caprus, or Zabas, or Anzabas (now 
Little Zab), divided the country into three parts : 
that between the Upper Tigris and the Lycus 
was called Aturia (a mere dialectic variety of 
Assyria), was probably the most ancient seat 
of the monarchy, ana contained the capital, 
Nineveh or NINUS; that between the Lycus 
and the Caprus was called Adiabene; and the 
part southeast of the Caprus contained the dis- 
tricts of Apolloniatis and Sittncene. Another 
division into districts, given by Ptolemy, is the 
following: Arrhapachitis, Calacine, Adiabene, 
ArbelitU, Apolloniatis, and Sittacene. 2. In a 
wider eeuae the name was applied to the whole 
country watered by the Euphrates and the Ti- 



gris, between the mountains of Armenia on the 
north, those of Kurdistan on the east, and the 
Arabian Desert on the west, so as to include, 
besides Assyria proper, Mesopotamia and Bab- 
ylonia; nay, there is sometimes an apparent 
confusion between Assyria and Syria, which 
gives ground for the supposition that the terms 
were originally identical. 3. By a further ex- 
tension the word is used to designate the As- 
syrian Empire in its widest sense. The early 
history of this great monarchy is too obscure to 
be given here in any detail; and, indeed, it is 
only just now that new means of investigating 
it are being acquired. The germ of this empire 
was one of the first great states of which we 
have any record, and was probably a powerful 
and civilized kingdom as early as Egypt. Its 
reputed founder was Ninus, the builder of the 
capital city ; and in its widest extent it included 
the countries just mentioned, with Media, Per- 
sia, and portions of the countries to the east 
and .northeast, Armenia, Syria, Phoenicia, and 
Palestine, except the kingdom of Judah; and, 
'beyond these limits, some of the Assyrian kings 
made incursions into Arabia and Egypt. The 
fruitless expedition of Sennacherib against the 
latter country and the miraculous destruction 
of his army before Jerusalem (B.C. 7i4), so 
weakened the empire, that the Medcs revolted 
and formed a separate kingdom, and at last, in 
B.C. 606, the governor of Babylonia united with 
Cyaxares, the king of Media, to conquer Assj r- 
ia, which was divided between them, Assyria 
Proper falling to the share of Media, and the 
rest of the empire to Babylon. The Assyrian 
king and all his family perished, and the city of 
Ninus was razed to the ground. Compare 
BABYLON and MEDIA. It must be noticed as a 
caution, that some writers confound the Assyr- 
ian and Babylonian empires under the former 
name. 

ASTA (Astensis). 1. (Now Asti in Piedmont), 
an inland town of Liguria on the Tanarus, a Ro- 
man colony. 2. (Now Mesa de Asia), a town in 
Hispania Bsetica, near Gades, a Roman colony 
with the surname Regia. 

ASTABOEAS ('Aara66pac : now Atbarah or Ta- 
cazza) and ASTAPUS ('Aordirovf , now Bahr-el-Az- 
rek or Blue River), two rivers of ^Ethiopia, hav- 
ing their sources in the highlands of Abyssinia, 
and uniting in about 17 north latitude to form 
the Nile. The land inclosed by them was the 
so-called island of MEEOE. 

ASTACUS ('AcrraKOf). 1. A Theban, father of 
Ismarus, Leades, Asphodicus, and Melanippus. 
[2. Son of Neptune (Poseidon) and the nymph 
Olbia, reputed founder of the city ASTACCS, q. v, 

2-] 

ASTACUS (*A(7ra/cof : 'AaTOKtjvof). 1. (Now 
Dragomestre), a city of Acarnania, on the Ache- 
loiis. 2. A celebrated city of Bithynia, at the 
southeast corner of the Sinus Astacenut ('Aara 
KTjvdf /coATi-of), a bay of the Propontis, was a col 
ony from Megara, but afterward received fresh 
colonists from Athens, who called the place Olbia 
("O?.6ia). It was destroyed by Lysimachus, but 
rebuilt on a neighboring site, at the northeast 
corner of the gulf, by Nicomedes L, who named 
his new city NICOMEDIA. 

AsrXpA (now Extepa), a town in Hispauia 
Baetica. 

117 



ASTAPUS. 



ASTYDAMIA. 



ASTAPUS. VuL ASTABORAS. 
AOTARTE, Vid. APHRODITE and STRIA DBA. 
ASTELEPHUS ('A<77e/le0of), a river of Colchis, 
one hundred and twenty stadia (twelve geograph- 
ical miles) south of Sebastopolis. 

[ASTER ('Aarijp), a skillful archer, one of the 
garrison of Methone in Macedonia, who, when 
Philip was besieging that city, aimed an arrow at 
him, with this inscription on it, 'Aarfp 4>tAt7r7iy 
ftavdaiftov jre^nei /3c/lof, and deprived him of an 
eye. Philip sent back an arrow into the town 
with the inscription on it, 'Acfrspa Qihimrof, fjv 
hdGy, upEfirjaETai. When the place was taken, 
Philip crucified Aster.] 

AsTBRiA('A(7rpta), daughter of the Titan Cceus 
and Phoebe, sister of Leto (Latona), wife of Perses, 
and mother of Hecate. In order to escape the 
embraces of Jupiter (Zeus), she is said to have 
taken the form of a quail (ortyx, oprv,) and to 
have thrown herself down from heaven into the 
sea, where she was metamorphosed into the 
island Asteria (the island which had fallen from 
heaven like a star), or Ortygia, afterward called 
Delos. 

[ASTERIA. Vid. ASTERIS.] 

ASTERION or ASTERIUS ('AcTEpiuv or 'Affre/HOf). 
1. Son of Teutamus, and king of the Cretans, 
married Europa after she had been carried to 
Crete by Jupiter (Zeus), and brought up the 
three sous, Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhadamanthys, 
whom she had by the father of the gods. 2. Son 
of Cometes, Pyremus, or Priscus, by Antigone, 
daughter of Pheres, was one of the Argonauts. 
[3. Son of Minos, slain by Theseus. 4. A small 
river of Argolis, the god of which was father of 
Astraea.] 

ASTERIS or ASTERIA ('Aorepif, 'Aarepia), a 
small island between Ithaca and Cephallenia. 

ASTERIUM ('Aaripiov), a town in Magnesia, in 
Thessaly. 

[ASTERIUS ('Aareotof). 1. Son of Hyperasius, 
an Argonaut. 2. Son of Neleus, brother of Nes- 
tor. Vid. also ASTERION.] 

ASTEROP^EUS ('ACTTfpojratof), son of Pelegon, 
leader of the Pseonians, and an ally of the Tro- 
jans, was slain by Achilles. 

[ASTEROPE ('AoTEpoTTTi), daughter of the river- 
god Cebren, wife of ^Esacus.1 

[ASTEROPEA ('AcfTEpoTTEia). 1. Daughter of 
Pelias. 2. Daughter of Deius in Phocis, sister 
of Cephalus.] 

ASTIGI (now Eciga), a town in Hispania Baetica, 
on the River Singulis, a Roman colony with the 
surname Augv&ta tlrma. 

[ASTRABACUS (' AarpudaKOf) & son of Irbus, 
brother of Alopecus, of the family of the Eurys- 
thenidse, an ancient Laconian hero, who had a he- 
roum in Sparta, and was worshipped as a god.] 

ASTR^A ('Aarpala) daughter of Jupiter (Zeus) 
and Themis, or, according to others, of Astra?us 
and Eos. During the Golden Age, this star- 
bright maiden lived on earth and among men, 
whom she blessed ; but when that age had passed 
away, Astraea, who tarried longest among men, 
withdrew, and was placed among the stars, where 
she was called Tiap6t-vof or Virgo. Her sister 
Atot>f, or Pudititia, left the earth along with her 
(ad superos Astrcea recessit, hoc (Pudicitia) coniite, 
Juv.. vi, 19.) 

ASTR.*US ('Aarpalof), a Titan, son of Crius 
and Eurybia, husband of Eos (Aurora), and I 
U8 



father of the winds Zephyrus, Boreas, and No- 
tus, Eosphorus (the morning star), and all the 
stars of heaven. Ovid (Met., xiv., 545) calls 
the winds Astrcci (adj.) fratrcs, the "Astraean 
brothers." 

ASTURA. 1. (Now La Stura), a river in La- 
tium, rises in the Alban Mountains, and flows 
between Antium and Circeii into the Tyrrhenian 
Sea. At its mouth it formed a small island with 
a town upon it, also called Astura (now Torre 
d'Astura) : here Cicero had an estate. 2. (Now 
Ezla\ a river in Hispania Tarraconensis, flowing 
into the Durius. 

ASTURES, a people in the northwest of Spain, 
bounded on the east by the Cantabri and Vac- 
caei, on the weet by the Gallaeci, on the north by 
the Ocean, and on the south by the Vettones, thus 
inhabiting the modern Asturias and the northern 
part of Leon and Valladolid. They contained 
twenty-two tribes and two hundred and forty 
thousand freemen, and were divided into the 
Augustani and Transmontani, the former of whom 
dwelt south of the mountains as far as the Durius, 
and the latter north of the mountains down to 
the sea-coast The country of the Astures was 
mountainous, rich in minerals, and celebrated for 
its horses : the people themselves were rude and 
warlike. Their chief town was Asturica Augusta 
(now Astorga). 

ASTYAGES ('Aarvdyrif), son of Cyaxares, last 
king of Media, reigned B.C. 594-559. Alarmed 
by a dream, he gave his daughter Mandane in 
marriage to Cambyses, a Persian of good family. 
Another dream induced him to send Harpagua 
to destroy the offspring of this marriage. The 
child, the future conqueror of the Medes, was 
given to a herdsman to expose, but he brought it 
up as his own. Years afterward, circumstances 
occurred which brought the young Cyrus under 
the notice of Astyages, who, on inquiry, discov- 
ered his parentage. He inflicted a cruel punish- 
ment on Harpagus, who waited his time for re- 
venge. When Cyrus had grown up to man's 
estate, Harpagus induced him to instigate the 
Persians to revolt, and, having been appointed 
general of the Median forces, he deserted with 
the greater part of them to Cyrus. Astyagea 
was taken prisoner, and Cyrus mounted the throne. 
He treated the captive monarch with mildness, 
but kept him in confinement till his death. This 
is the account of Herodotus, and is to be prefer- 
red to that of Xenophon, who makes Cyrus the 
grandson of Astyages, but says that Astyages 
was succeeded by his son Cyaxares II., on whose 
death Cyrus succeeded peaceably to the vacant 
throne. 

ASTYANAX ('AarvdvaS;), son of Hector and An- 
dromache : his proper name was Scamandrius, 
but he was called Astyanax or " lord of the city" 
by the Trojans, on account of the services of his 
father. After the taking of Troy the Greeks 
burled him down from the walls, that he might 
not restore the kingdom of Troy. 

ASTYDAMAS (' AaTvSdfiaf), a tragic poet, son of 
Morsimus and of a sister of the poet jilschylus, 
and a pupil of Isocrates, wrote two hundred and 
forty tragedies, and gained the prize fifteen times. 
His first tragedy was acted B.C. 399. 

ASTYDAMIA ('AcrvdufiEia). 1. Daughter of 
Amyntor, and mother of Tlepolemus by Hercu 
les. 2. Wife of AcAsius. 



1 



ASTYLUS. 



[ ASTYLUS ("Aom/lof), of Crotona, a distin- 
guished athlete, gained several prizes at the 
Olympic games.] 

ASTYNOME ('ACTTWO/.??), daughter of Chryses, 
better known under her patronym'e CHEYSEIS. 

[ASTYNOUS (' Aarvvoof). 1. Son of Phaethon, 
father of Sandacus. 2. Son of Protiaou, a Tro- 
jan, slain by Neoptolemus. 3. A Trojan, slain 
by Diomedes.] 

ASTYOCHE or ASTYOCHIA ('Aoruoxi] or 'Aarvo- 
Xfio). 1. Daughter of Actor, by whom Mars 
(Ares) begot Ascalaphus and lalmenus. 2. 
Daughter of Phylas, king of Ephyra in Thes- 
protia, became by Hercules the mother of Tle- 
polemus. 

ASTYOCHUS ('Aarvoxos), the Lacedaemonian 
admiral in B.C. 412, commanded on the coast 
of Asia Minor, where he was bribed by the 
Persians to remain inactive. 

ASTYPAL^EA ('Aarvndhaia : 'Aarvira^atevf, 
'AoruirahaiaTTif : now Stampalia). 1. One of the 
Sporades, in the southern part of the Grecian 
archipelago, with a town of the same name, 
founded by the Megarians, which was under the 
Romans a libera civitas. Astypalela regna, i. e, 
Astypalcea, Ov., Met., vii., 461.) The inhabit- 
ants worshipped Achilles. [2. A point of land 
in Attica, near Sunium. 3. A point of land in 
Caria, near Myndus. 4. An ancient city in the 
island Cos, which the inhabitants abandoned, 
and built the city Cos instead.] 

ASTYRA (rti "Aarvpa), & town of Mysia, north- 
west of Adramyttium, on a marsh connected 
with the sea, with a grove sacred to Diana (Ar- 
temis), surnamed 'AarvpivTj or -rjvrj. 

ASYCHIS ("Acrvxif), an ancient king of Egypt, 
succeeded Mycerinus. 

ATABULUS, the name in Apulia of the parching 
southeast wind, the Sirocco, which is at present 
called Allino in Apulia. 

ATABYRIS or ATABYRIUM ('Arafivpiov), the 
highest mountain in Rhodes on the southwest 
of that island, on which was a celebrated temple 
of Jupiter (Zeus) Atabyrius, said to have been 
founded by Althaemenes, the grandson of Minos. 

[ATACINUS. Vid. ATAX.] 

AT A GIS. Vid. ATHESIS. 

ATALANTA ('Ara/lavr??). 1. The Arcadian Ata- 
lanta, was a daughter of lasus (lasion or lasius) 
and Clymene. Her father, who had wished for 
a son, was disappointed at her birth, and ex- 
posed her on the Parthenian (virgin) hill, where 
she was suckled by a she-bear, the symbol of 
Diana (Artemis). After she had grown up she 
lived in pure maidenhood, slew the centaurs 
who pursued her, and took part in the Caly- 
donian hunt. Her father subsequently recog- 
nized her as his daughter ; and when be desired 
her to marry, she required every suitor who 
wanted to win her to contend with her first in- 
the foot-race. If he conquered her, he was to 
be rewarded with her hand ; if not, he was to 
be put to death. This she did because she was 
the most swift-footed of mortals, and because 
the Delphic oracle had cautioned her against 
marriage. She conquered many suitors, but 
was at length overcome by Milanion with the 
assistance of Venus (Aphrodite). The goddess 
had given him three golden apples, and during 
the race he dropped them one after the other : 
their beauty charmed Atalanta BO much that 



ATEIUS 

she could not abstain from gathering them, and 
Milanipn thus gained the goal before her. She 
accordingly became his wife. They were sub- 
sequently both metamorphosed into lions, be- 
cause they had profaned by their embraces the 
sacred grove of Jupiter (Zeus). 2. The Boeotian 
Atalanta. The same stories are related of her 
as of the Arcadian Atalanta, except that her 
parentage and the localities are described dif- 
ferently. Thus she is said to have been & daugh- 
ter of Schoanus, and to have been married to 
Hippomenes. Her foot-race is transferred to 
the Boeotian Onchestus, and the sanctuary which 
the newly-married couple profaned by their love 
was a temple of Cybele, who metamorphosed 
them into lions, and yoked them to her chariot. 

ATALANTE ('Ara^uvTrj : 'Ara/lavraiOf). 1. A 
small island in the Euripus, on the coast of the 
Opuntian Locri, with a small town of the same 
name. [2. A small island on the coast of At- 
tica, near the Piraeus.] 3. A town of Macedo- 
nia, on the Axius, in the neighborhood of Gor- 
tynia and Idomene. 

ATARANTES ('Arapavrj?f), a people in the east 
of Libya, described by Herodotus (iv., 184). 

ATARBECHIS. Vid. APHRODITOPOLIS. 

ATARNEUS ('Arapvevf : now Dikeli), a city on 
Mount Cane, on the coast of Mysia, opposite to 
Lesbos : a colony of the Chians : the residence 
of the tyrant Hermias, with whom Aristotle re- 
sided some time : destroyed before the time of 
Phny. 

ATAULPHUS, ATHACLPHUS, ADAULPHUS (t. ., 
Athaulf, " sworn helper," the same name as that 
which appears in later history under the form 
of Adolf or Adolphus), brother of Alaric's wife. 
He assisted Alaric in his invasion of Italy, and 
on the death of that monarch in A.D. 410, he 
was elected king of the Visigoths. He then 
made a peace with the Romans, married Pla- 
cidia, sister of Honorius, retired with his nation 
into the south of Gaul, and finally withdrew into 
Spain, where he was murdered at Barcelona. 

ATAX (now Aude), originally called Narbo, a 
river in Gallia Narbonensis, rises in the Pyre- 
nees, and flows by Narbo Martius into the Lacus 
Rubresus or Rubrensis, which is connected with 
the sea. From this river the poet P. Teren- 
tius Varro obtained the surname Atacinus. Vid. 
VARRO. 

ATE ("Arj/), daughter of Eris or Jupiter (Zeus), 
was an ancient 'Greek divinity, who led both 
gods and men into rash and inconsiderate ac- 
tions. She once even induced Jupiter (Zeus), 
at the birth of Hercules, to take an oath by 
which Juno (Hera) was afterward enabled to 
give to Eurystheus the power which had been 
destined for Hercules. When Jupiter (Zeus) 
discovered his rashness, lie hurled Ate from 
Olympus, and banished her forever from the 
abodes of the gods. In the tragic writers Ate 
appears in a different light : she avenges evil 
deeds and inflicts just punishments upon the 
offenders and their posterity, so that her char- 
acter is almost the same as that of Nemesis and 
Erinnys. She appears most prominent in the 
dramas of JSschylus, and least in those of Eu- 
ripides, with whom the idea of Dike (justice) is 
more fully developed. 

ATSIUS, surnamed Pratextatus and Philolo- 
gut, a celebrated grammarian at Rome, about 
119 



ATEIUS CAPITO. 



ATHENA. 



B.C. 40, and a friend of Sallust, for whom he 
drew up an Epitome (Breviarium) of Romau 
History. After the death of Sallust Ateius lived 
on intimate terma with Asinius Pollio, whom 
he assisted in his literary pursuits. 

ATEIUS CAPITO. Via. CAPITO. 

ATELLA (Atelltaus ; now Aversa), a town in 
Campania, between Capua and Neapolis, orig- 
inally inhabited by the Oscans, afterward a Ro- 
man municipium and a colony. It revolted to 
Hannibal (B.C. 216) after the battle of Cannae, 
and the Romans, in consequence, transplanted 
its inhabitants to Calatia, and peopled the town 
by new citizens from Nuceria. Atella owes 
its celebrity to the Atellance Fabulce or Oscan 
farces, which took their name from this town. 
( Vid. Diet, of Antiq^ p. 347, second edition.) 

ATEKNUU (now Pescara), a town in Central 
Italy, on the Adriatic, at the mouth of the River 
Aternus (now Pescara), was the common harbor 
of the Vestini, Marrucini, and Peligni. 

ATERNUS. Vid. ATEENUM. 

ATESTE (Atestinus : now Este), a Roman col- 
ony in the country of the Veneti, in Upper Italy. 

ATHACUS, a town in Lyncestis, hi Macedonia. 

ATHAMANIA ('AOafiavia : 'A.6apuv, -dvof), a 
mountainous country in the south of Epirus, on 
the west side of Pindus, of which Argithea was 
the chief town. The Athamanes were a Thes- 
salian people, who had been driven out of Thes- 
saly by the Lapithae. They were governed by 
independent princes, the last of whom was AMY- 

NANDEB. 

ATHAMAS ('Aflujuaf), son of JEolus and Ena- 
rete, and king of Orchomenus in Bceotia. At 
the command of Juno (Hera), Athamas married 
Nephele, by whom he became the father of 
PHKIXUS and Helle. But he was secretly in 
love with the mortal Ino, the daughter of Cad- 
mus, by whom he begot Learchus and Meli- 
certes; and Nephele, on discovering that Ino 
had a greater hold on his affections than her- 
self, disappeared in anger. Having thus incur- 
red the anger both of Juno (Hera) and of Neph- 
ele, Athamas was seized with madness, and in 
this state killed his own son, Learchus : Ino 
threw herself with Melicertes into the sea, and 
both were changed into marine deities, Ino be- 
coming Leucothea, and Melicertes Palzemon. 
Athamas, as the murderer of his son, was oblig- 
ed to flee from Bceotia, and settled in Thessaly. 
Hence we have Athamanttades, son of Athamas, 
i. e., Pakemon ; and Athamantis, daughter of 
Athamas, i. e, Helle. 

ATHANAGIA (now Agramunt ?), the chief town 
of the Ilergete^in Hispania Tarraconensis. 

ATHANAEICOS, king of the Visigoths during 
their stay in Dacia. In A.D. 367-369 he carried 
on war with the Emperor Valens, with whom 
he finally concluded a peace. In 874 Athanaric 
was defeated by the Huns, and, after defending 
himself for some time in a stronghold in the 
mountains of Dacia, was compelled to fly in 
380, and take refuge in the Roman territory. 
He died in 381. 

ATHANASIUS ('Adavuciof), ST., one of the most 
celebrated of the Christian fathers, was born at 
Alexandrea alxmt A.D. 296, and was elected 
archbishop of the city on the death of Alexan- 
der in 326. The history of his episcopate is 
full of stirring iuci dents and strange transitions 
120 



of fortune. He was the great champion of the 
orthodox faith, as it has been expounded at the 
Council at Nice in 352, and was therefore ex- 
posed to persecution whenever the Arians got 
the upper hand in the state. He was thrice 
driven from ' his see into exile through their 
machinations, and thrice recalled. He died in 
373. The Athanasian creed was not composed 
by Athauasius: its real author is unknown. 
The best edition of his works is by Moutfaucon, 
Paris, 1698, reprinted at Padua, 1777. 

ATHENA ('Aft^T? or 'Adrjvu). (Roman Minerva), 
one of the great divinities of the Greeks. Ho- 
mer calls her a daughter of Zeus (Jupiter), with- 
out any allusion to the manner of her birth ; but 
later traditions related that she was born from 
the head of Zeus (Jupiter), and some added that 
she sprang forth with a mighty war-shout and 
in complete armor. The most ancient tradi- 
tion, as preserved by Hesiod, stated that Metis, 
the first wife of Zeus (Jupiter), was the mother 
of Athena (Minerva), but that Metis, when preg- 
nant with her, was, on the advice of Gsea and 
Uranus, swallowed up by Zeus (Jupiter), and 
that Zeus (Jupiter) afterward gave birth him- 
self to Athena (Minerva), who sprang from his 
head. Another set of traditions regarded her 
as the daughter of Pallas, the winged giant, 
whom she afterward killed on account of his at- 
tempting to violate her chastity ; and a third set 
carried her to Libya, and called her a daughter 
of Poseidon (Neptune) and Tritonis. These va- 
rious traditions about Athena (Minerva) arose, 
as in most other cases, from local legends and 
identifications of the Greek Athena with other 
divinities. But, according to the general belief 
of the Greeks, she was the daughter of Zeus 
(Jupiter); and if we take Metis to ha\e been 
her mother, we have at once the clew to the 
character which she bears in the religion of 
Greece ; for, as her father was the most power- 
ful and her mother the wisest among the gods, 
so Athena was a combination of the two, a god- 
dess in whom power -and wisdom were harmo- 
niously blended. From this fundamental idea 
may be derived the various aspects under which 
she apppears in the ancient writers. She seems 
to have oeen a divinity of a purely ethical char- 
acter ; her power and wisdom appear in her 
being the preserver of the state and of every 
thing which gives to the state strength and 
prosperity. As the protectress of agriculture, 
Athena (Minerva) is represented as inventing 
the plough and rake ; she created the oh' ve-tree 
(vid. below), taught the people to yoke oxen to 
the plough, took care of the breeding of horses, 
and instructed men how to tame them by the 
bridle, her own invention. Allusions to this 
feature of her character are contained in the 
epithets [iovdeia, poa.pp.ia, aypfya, tmria, or ^aA- 
ivlng. She is also represented as the patron 
of various kinds of science, industry, and art, 
and as inventing numbers, the trumpet, the 
chariot, and navigation. She was further be- 
lieved to have invented nearly every kind of 
work in which women were employed, and she 
herself was skilled in such work. Hence we 
have the tale of the Lydian maiden Arachne, 
who ventured to compete with Athena (Mi- 
nerva) in the art of weaving. Vid. AKACHNS. 
Athena (Minerva), is, in fact, the patroness of 



ATHENA. 



ATHENE. 



both the useful and elegant arts. Hence she 
is called epydvij, and later writers make her the 
goddess of all wisdom, knowledge, and art, and 
represent her as sitting on the right hand of her 
father Zeus (Jupiter), and supporting him with 
her counsel She is therefore characterized by 
various epithets and surnames, expressing the 
keenness of her sight or the vigor of her intel- 
lect, such as dxTitertf, ofdaZfiiTif, 6%vdepKr;f, 
yhavKumf, TroAv&JuAof, iro^vfujri^, and pixovlrtf. 
As the patron divinity of the state, she was at 
Athens the protectress of the phratries and 
houses which formed the basis of the state. The 
festival of the Apaturia had a direct reference 
to this particular point in the character of the 

fc^ddess. (Vid. Diet, of Ant^ art. APATURIA.) 
he also maintained the authority of the law, 
justice, and order in the courts and the assem- 
bly of the people. This notion was as ancient 
as the Homeric poems, in which she is described 
as assisting Ulysses against the lawless conduct 
of the suitors. (#<, xiii., 394.) She was be- 
lieved to have instituted the ancient court of 
the Areopagus, and in cases where the votes of 



the judges were equally divided, she gave the ! 
casting one in favor of the accused. The epi- 
thets which have reference to this part of the 



goddess's character are a^ifaowoq, the avenger, 
fiovhala, and dyvpala. As Athena (Minerva) 
promoted the internal prosperity of the state, 
so she also protected the state from outward en- 
emies, and thus assumes the character of a war- 
like divinity, though in a very different sense 
from Ares (Mars), Eris, or Enyo. According to 
Homer, she does not even keep arms, but bor- 
rows them from Zeus (Jupiter) ; she preserves 
men from slaughter when prudence demands it, 
and repels Ares's (Mars) savage love of war, 
and conquers him. The epithets which she de- 
rives from her warlike character are ayeheia, 
%a<f>pia, u7i.Kijj.dxi], %aoac6o<;, and others. In 
times of war, towns, fortresses, and harbors are 
under her especial care, whence she is desig- 
nated as kpvai'KTo'h.is, uTiahnoftevrjif, Tro/Uuf, TTO- 
faovxof, ufcpala, uKpia, K^dov^of, irvhairic, irpo- 
uaxopfta, and the like. In the war of Zeus (Ju- 
piter) against the giants, she assisted her father 
and Hercules with her counsel, and also took an 
active part in it, for she buried Enceladus under 
the island of Sicily, and slew Pallas. In the 
Trojan war she sided with the Greeks, though 
on their return home she visited them with 
storms, on account of the manner in which the 
Locrian Ajax had treated Cassandra in her tem- 
ple. As a goddess of war and the protectress 
of heroes, Athena (Minerva) usually appears in 
armor, with the aegis and a golden staff. The 
character of Athena (Minerva), as we have 
traced it, holds a middle place between the 
male and female, whence she is a virgin divin- 
ity, whose heart is inaccessible to the passion of : 
love. Tiresias was deprived of sight for having 
seen her in the bath; and Hephaestus (Vulcan), 
who made an attempt upon her chastity, was 
obliged to take to flight For this reason, the 
ancient traditions always describe the goddess ' 
as dressed ; and when Ovid makes her appear i 
naked before Paris, he abandons the genuine 
tory. Athena (Minerva) was worshipped hi all 
parts of Greece. Her worship was introduced ! 
from the aoruent towns on the Lake Copais at a 



very early period into Attica, where she became 
the great national divinity of the city and the 
country. Here she was regarded as the $eu <T<J- 
retpa, iiyieta, and -xaiuvia.. The tale ran that in 
the reign of Cecrops both Poseidon (Neptune) 
and Athena (Minerva) contended for the posses- 
sion of Athens. The gods resolved that which- 
ever of them produced a gift most useful to 
mortals should have possession of the land. 
Poseidon (Neptune) struck the ground with 
his trident, and straightway a horse appeared. 
Athena (Minerva) then planted the olive. The 
gods thereupon decreed that the olive was more 
useful to man than the horse, and gave the city 
to the goddess, from whom it was called Athense. 
At Athens the magnificent festival of the Pana- 
thencea was celebrated in honor of the goddess. 
At this festival took place the grand procession, 
which was represented on the frieze of the Par- 
thenon. ( Via. Diet, of Ant., art. PANATHEJJ.EA.) 
At Lindus, in Rhodes, her worship was likewise 
very ancient. Respecting its introduction into 
Italy, and the modifications which her character 
underwent there, vid. MINERVA. Among the 
things sacred to her we may mention the owl, 
serpent, cock, and olive-tree, which she was 
said to have created in her contest with Posei- 
don (Neptune) about the possession of Attica. 
The sacrifices offered to her consisted of bulls, 
rams, and cows.* Athena (Minerva) was fre- 
quently represented in works of art, in which 
we generally find some of the following charac- 
teristics : 1. The helmet, which she usually 
wears on her head, but in a few instances car- 
ries in her hand. It is generally ornamented 
in the most beautiful manner with griffins, 
heads of rams, horses, and sphinxes. 2. The 
aegis, which is represented on works of art, not 
as a shield, but as a goat-skin, covered with 
scales, set with the appalling Gorgon's head, and 
surrounded with tassels. ( Vid. Diet, of Ant. 
art ^Eois.) 2. The round Argolic shield, in the 
centre of which the head of Medusa likewise 
appears. 4. Objects sacred to her, such as an 
olive-branch, a serpent, an owl, a cock, and a 
lance. Her garment is usually the Spartan 
tunic without sleeves, and over it she wears 
a cloak, the peplus, or, though rarely, the 
chlamys. 

ATHENE ('Aftyvai, also 'Afhjvrj in Homer : 'A.dj}- 
valof, jj 'A.6r}vaia, Atheniensis: now Athens), the 
capital of Attica, about thirty stadia from the 
sea, on the southwest slope of Mount Lycabet- 
tus, between the small rivers Cephisus on the 
west and Ilissus on the east, the latter of which 
flowed close by the walls of the town. The 
most ancient part of it the Acropolis, is said to 
have been built by the mythical Cecrops, but 
the city itself is said to have owed its origin to 
Theseus, who united the twelve independent 
states or townships of Attica into one state, ana 
made Athens their capital The city was burn- 
ed by Xerxes in B.C. 480, but was soon rebuilt 
under the administration of Themistocles, and 
was adorued with public buildings by Cimon 
and especially by Pericles, in whose time (B.C. 
460-429) it reacted its greatest splendor. Its 
beauty was chiefly owing to its public buildings 
for the private houses were mostly insignificant, 
and its streets badly laid out Toward the end 
of the Peloponnesian war, it contained ten thou- 
121 



ATHENE. 



ATHENE. 



and houses (Xen., Mem., iii., 6, 14), which, at 
the rate of twelve inhabitants to a house, would 
give a population of one hundred and twenty 
thousand, though some writers make the in- 
habitants as many as one hundred and eighty 
thousand. Under the Romans Athens continued 
to be a great and flourishing city, and retained 
many privileges and immunities when Southern 
Greece was formed into the Roman province 
'of Achaia. It suffered greatly on its capture 
by Sulla, B.C. 86, and was deprived of many 
of its privileges. It was at that time, and also 
during the early centuries of the Christian era, 
one of the chief seats of learning, and tlie 
Romans were accustomed to send their sons to 
Athens, as to a University, for the completion 
of their education. Hadrian, who was very 
partial to Athens, and frequently resided in the 
city (A.D. 122, 128), adorned it with many new 
buildings, and his example was followed by 
Herodes Atticus, who spent large sums of mon- 
ey upon beautifying the city in the reign of M. 
Aurelius. Athens consisted of two distinct 
parts : I. The City (rd uarv), properly so called, 
divided into, 1. The Upper City or Acropolis (% 
avu Tro/ltf, ci/cpoTToAif,), and, 2. The Lower City 
(TJ KUTU Tro/ltf), surrounded with walls by The- 
mistocles. II. The three harbor-towns of Pi- 
raeus, Munychia, and Phalerum, also surrounded 
with walls by Themistocles, aud connected with 
the city by means of the long walls (TO, /taupa 
re f?)> built under the administration of Per- 
icles. The long walls consisted of the wall to 
Phalerum on the east, thirty-five stadia long 
(about four miles), and of the wall to Piraeus on 
the west, forty stadia long (about four and a 
half miles) ; between these two, at a short dis- 
tance from the latter and parallel to it, another 
wall was erected, thus making two walls leading 
to the Piraeus (sometimes called rd ani^rf), with 
a narrow passage between them. There were, 
therefore, three long walls in all ; but the name 
of Long Walls seems to have been confined to 
the two leading to the Piraeus, while the one 
leading to Pbalerum was distinguished by the 
name of the Phalerian Wall (rd $ahrjpiKov Tel- 
XOf). The entire circuit of the walls was one 
hundred and seventy-four and a half stadia 
(nearly twenty-two miles), of which forty-three 
stadia (nearly five and a half miles) belonged to 
the city, seventy-five stadia (nine and a half 
miles) to the long walls, and fifty-six and a half 
stadia (seven miles) to Piraeus, Munychia, and 
Phalerum. 1. TOPOGRAPHY OF THE ACROPOLIS 
OB UPPER CITY. The Acropolis, also called Ce- 
cropia, from its reputed founder, was a steep 
rock in the middle of the city, about one hundred 
and fifty feet high, eleven hundred and fifty feet 
long, and five hundred broad : its sides were 
naturally scarped on all sides except the west- 
ern end. It was originally surrounded by an 
ancient Cyclopian wall, said to have been built 
by the Pelasgians ; at the time of the Pelopon- 
nesian war only the northern part of this wall 
remained, and this portion was still called the 
Pelasgic Wall ; while the southern part, which 
had been rebuilt by Cimon, was called the Ci- 
monian Wall. On the western end of the Acro- 
polis, where access is alone practicable, were 
the magnificent PROPYLJEA, ' the Entrances," i 
built by Pericles, before the right wing of which 
122 



was the small temple of Nu? "A^repof. Th* 
summit of the Acropolis was covered with tern 
pies, statues of bronze and marble, and variou* 
other works of art. Of the temples, the grand- 
est was the PARTHENON, sacred to the " Virgin' 1 
goddess Athena (Minerva); aud north of the 
Parthenon was the magnificent ERECHTHEUM, con- 
taining three separate temples, one of Athena 
Polias (Ilo/Uuf), or the " Protectress of the State," 
the Erechtheum proper, or sanctuary of Erecb- 
theus, and the Pandrosium, or sanctuary^ of 
Pandrosos, the daughter of Cecrops. Between 
the Parthenon and Erechthfiuin was the colossal 
statue of Athena Promachos (IIpo/<a^'Of), or the 
" Fighter in the Front," whose helmet and spea. 
was the first object on the Acropolis visible 
from the sea. 2. TOPOGRAPHY OF THE LOWEB 
CITY. The lower city was built in the plain 
round the Acropolis, but the plain also con- 
tained several hills, especially in the southwest- 
ern part. WALLS. The ancient walls embraced 
a much greater circuit than the modern ones. 
On the west they included the hill of the 
Nymphs and the Pnyx, on the south they ex- 
tended a little beyond the Ilissus, aud on the 
east they crossed the Ilissus, near the Lyceum, 
which was outside the walls. GATES. Their 
number is unknown, and the position of many of 
them is uncertain ; but the following list con- 
tains the most important On the west side 
were, 1. Dipylum (kiirvhov, more anciently Qpia- 
aiai or Kepaftutai), the most frequented gate of 
the city, leading from the inner Ceramicus to 
the outer Ceramicus, and to the Academy. 2. 
The Sacred Gate (at 'lepal Ilvhai), where the sa- 
cred road to Eleusis began. 3. The Knight'i, 
Gate (al 'Imrddeg TT.), probably between the hill 
of the Nymphs and the Pnyx. 4. The Pircean 
Gate (i) IleipalK?) TT.), between the Puyx and the 
Museum, leading to the carriage road (d^a^rof) 
between the Long "Walls to the Piraeus. 5. Tht 
Melitian Gate (al MeAmJef TT.), so called because 
it led to the demus Melite, within the city. On 
the south side, going from west to east, 6. The 
Gate of the Dead (at 'Hpiat TT.), in the neighbor- 
hood of the Museum, placed by many authori- 
ties on the north side. 7. The Jtonian Gate (ai 
'\Tuvlai TT.), near the Ilissus, where the road to 
Phalerum began. On the east side, going from 
south to north, 8. The Gate of Diochares (ai 
Afo^apouf TT.), leading to the Lyceum. 9. Tht 
Diomean Gate (rj biofieia TT.), leading to Cyno- 
sarges and the demus Diomea. On the north 
side, 10. TheAcharnian Gate(al 'A%apviKal TT.) 
leading to the demus Acharnae. CHIEF DIS- 
TRICTS. The inner Ceramicus (Kepa/teiKotf), or 
" Potter's Quarter," in the west of the city, ex- 
tending north as far as the gate Dipylum, by 
which it was separated from the outer Cerami- 
cus ; the southern part of the inner Ceramicus 
contained the Agora (uyopd), or " market-place," 
the only one in the city (for there were not two 
market places, as some suppose), lying south- 
west of the Acropolis, and between the Acrop- 
olis, the Areopagus, the Pnyx, and the Muse- 
um. The demus Melite, south of the inner 
Ceramicus, and perhaps embracing the hill of 
the Museum. The demus Scambonidce, west 
of the inner Ceramicus, between the Pnyx and 
the Hill of the Nymphs The Collytus, south 
of Melile. Cede, a district south of Collytus 



ATHENE. 



ATHEIS^EUS. 



and the Museum, along the Ilissus, in which 
were the graves of Cimon and Thucydides. 
Limnce, a district east of Melite and Collytus, 
between the Acropolis and the Ilissus. Diomea, 
a district in the east of the city, near the gate 
of the same name and the Cynosarges. Agree, 
a district south of Diomea. HILLS. The Areop- 
agus (Apeiov nuyoc. or "Apeto? Ttuyof), the " Hill 
of Ares" (Mars), west of the Acropolis, which 
gave its name to the celebrated council that 
held its sittings there (vid. Diet, of Ant. . v.), 
was accessible on the south side by a flight of 
steps cut out of the rock The Hill of the 
Nymphs, northwest of the Areopagus. The 
Pnyx (Ilvv!;), a semicircular hill, southwest of 
the Areopagus, where the assemblies of the 
people were held in earlier times, for afterward 
the people usually met in the Theatre of Diony- 
sus (Bacchus.) ( Vid. Diet, of Ant. p. 440, b, 2d 
ed.) The Museum, south of the Pnyx and the 
Areopagus, on which was the monument of 
Philopappus, and where the Macedonians built a 
fortress. STREETS. Of these we have little in- 
formation. "VVe read of the Pircean Street, which 
led from the Piraean gate to the Agora ; of the 
Street of the Hermce, which ran along the Agora 
between the Stoa Basileos and Stoa Pcecil6 ; of 
the Street of the Tripods, on the east of the 
Acropolis, &c. PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 1. Temples. 
Of these the most important was the Olym- 
pieum (Ohvpnieiov), or Temple of the Olym- 
pian Zeus (Jupiter), southeast of the Acropolis, 
near the Ilissus and the fountain Callirrhoe, 
which was long unfinished, and was first com- 
pleted by Hadrian. Theseum (Qrjaelov), or Tem- 
ple of Theseus, on a hill north of the Areopagus, 
now converted into the Museum of Athens. 
The Temple of Ares (Mars), south of the Areop- 
agus and west of the Acropolis. Metroum (Mrj- 
Tptjjov), or temple of the mother of the gods, 
east of the Agora, and south of the Acropolis, 
near the Senate House, and the Odeum of He- 
rodes Atticus. Besides these, there was a vast 
number of other temples in all parts of the city. 
2. The Senate House (j3ov%,vr>jpiov), at the 
south end of the Agora. 3. The Tholus (tfoAof ), 
a round building close to the Senate House, 
which served as- the new PrytanSum, in which 
the Prytanes took their meals and offered their 
sacrifices. ( Vid. Did. of Ant. s. v.) 4. The 
Prytaneum (HpvTavEtov), at the northeastern 
foot of the Acropolis, where the Prytanes used 
more anciently to take their meals, and where 
the laws of Solon were preserved. 5. Stoce 
(aroai), or Halls, supported by pillars, and used 
as places of resort in the heat of the day, of 
which there were several in Athens. ( Vid. Diet, 
of Ant., p. 944, 2d ed.) In the Agora there 
were three : the Stoa Basilgos (OTOU Paaifaioe), 
the court of the King-Archon, on the west side 
of the Agora ; the Stoa Pcecile (OTOU noiKi^rj), so 
called because it was adorned with fresco paint- 
ings of the battle of Marathon and other achieve- 
ments by Polyguotus, Lycon, and others ; and the 
Stoa Eleutherius (prod kAev0t'piof), or Hall of Zeus 
Eleutherius, both on the south side of the Agora. 
6. Tliealres. The Theatre of Dion, ysus (Bacchus), 
on the southeastern slope of the Acropolis, was 
the great theatre of the state (vid. Diet, of Ant. 
p. 1120, 2d ed.) ; besides this there were three 
Odia (udela), for contests in vocal and instru- 



mental music (vid. Diet, of Ant., s. v.), an an 
cient one near the fountain Callirrhoe, a second 
built by Pericles, close to the theatre of Diony- 
sus (Bacchus), on the southeastern slope of the 
Acropolis, and a third built by Herodes Atticus, 
in honor of his wife Regilla, on the southwestern 
slope of the Acropolis, of which there are still 
considerable remains. 7. Stadium (TO Sradiov), 
south of the Ilissus, in the district Agrae. 8 
Monuments. The Monument of Andronicus, 
Ci/rrhestes, formerly called the Tower of the 
', Winds, an octagonal building north of the Acro- 
polis, still extant, was an horologium. ( Vid. 
Diet, of Ant^ p. 616, 2d ed.) The Choragic Mon- 
j ument of Lysicrates, frequently but erroneously 
I called the Lantern of Demosthenes, still extant, 
in the Street of the Tripods. The Monument of 
| Harmodius and Aristoglton in the Agora, just 
before the ascent to the Acropolis. SUBURBS. 
I The Outer Ceramlcus (6 !<> icahovuevotf), north- 
; west of the city, was the finest suburb of Athens : 
here wene buried the Athenians who had fallen 
; in war, and at the further end of it was the 
! ACADEMIA, six stadia from the city. Cynosarges 
I (TO Kwoaapyef), east of the city, before the gate 
; Diomea, a gymnasium sacred to Hercules, 
i where Antisthenes, the founder of the Cynic 
I school, taught. Lyceum (TO AVKEIOV), southeast 
of the Cynosarges, a gymnasium sacred to 
j Apollo Lyceus, where Aristotle and the Peripa- 
tetics taught. 

ATHENE ('AdTJvai : now Atenah), a sea-port 
town of Pontus, named from its temple of 
Athena (Minerva). 

ATHEN^UM (Adrjvaiov), in general a temple of 
Athena, or any place consecrated to the goddess 
! The name was especially given to a school 
I founded by the Emperor Hadrian at Rome about 
A.D. 133, for the promotion of literary and sci- 
entific studies. It was in the neighborhood 
of the Forum, and at the foot of the Aveutiue 
I Hill : it had a staff of professors paid by the 
government, and continued in repute till the fifth 
century of our era. ( Vid. Diet, of Ant., . v.) 
ATHENAEUM was also the name of a town in Ar- 
cadia, not far from Megalopolis, and of a place 
in Athamania in Epirus. 

ATHENJJUS (*A0??v<uof). 1. A contemporary 
of Archimedes, the author of an extant work 
TLepl tJinxo.vr](ulTuv (on warlike engines), ad- 
dressed to Marcellus (probably the conqueror of 
Syracuse) ; printed in Thevenot's Mathematici 
Veteres, Paris, 1693. 2. A learned Greek gram- 
marian, of Naucratis in Egypt, lived about A.D. 
230, first at Alexandrea and afterward at Rome. 
His extant work is entitled the Deipnosophistce 
(Aeim>oao<j>ioTai), i. e., the Banquet of the Learned, 
in fifteen books, of which the first two books, 
and parts of the third, eleventh, and fifteenth, 
exist only in an Epitome. The work may be 
considered one of the earliest collections of 
what are called Ana, being an immense mass of 
anecdotes, extracts from the writings of poets 
historians, dramatists, philosophers, orators, and 
physicians, of facts in natural history, criticisms 
and discussions on almost every conceivable sub 
ject, especially on gastronomy. Athenaeus re 
presents himself as describing to his friend Ti- 
mocrates a full account of the conversation at a 
banquet at Rome, at which Galen, the physician, 
and Ulpian, the jurist, were among the guest* 
123 



ATHENAGORAS. 



ATLAS. 



Editions : By Casaubon, Genev., 1597 ; by 
Schweighauser, Argentorati, 1801-1807 ; and by 
W. Dindorf, Lips., 1827. 3. A celebrated phy 
sician, founder of the medical sect of the Pneu 
matici, was born at Attalia in Cilicia, and prac- 
ticed at Rome about A.D. 60. 

ATHENAGORAS ('A&rjvayopaf), an Athenian phi- 
losopher, converted to the Christian religion in 
the second century of our era, is the author of 
two extant works, An Apology for Christians, 
addressed to the emperors M. Aurelius and his 
son Commodus, and a treatise in defence of the 
tenet of the resurrectioa Editions : By Fell, 
Oxon., 1682; Rechenberg, Lips^ 1684-85; De- 
chair, Oxon, 1706. 

ATHENAIS ('Adyvatf). Surnamed Philostor- 
yus, wife of Ariobarzanes II., king of Cappa- 
docia, and mother of Ariobarzanes III. 2. 
Daughter of Leontius, afterward named Eu- 
DOCIA. 

ATHENION ('A.6riviuv). 1. A Cilician, one of the 
commanders of the slaves in the second servile 
war in Sicily, maintained his ground for some 
time successfully, and defeated L. Licinius Lu- 
cullus, but was at length conquered and killed in 
B.C. 101 by the consul M'. Aquillius. [2. A 
comic poet of Athens, of whose plays only one 
fragment has been preserved; it is printed in 
Meineke's Fragmenta Comic. Grcec^ voL iL, p. 
* 165-6, edit, minor. 3. A painter, born at Mar- 
onea in Thrace. He was a pupil of Glaucion of 
Corinth, and gave promise of high excellence, 
but died young.] 

ATHENODORUS ('Adijvodupof). 1. Of Tarsus, a 
Stoic philosopher surnamed Cordylio, was the 
keeper of the library at Pergamus, and after- 
ward removed to Rome, where he lived with M. 
Cato, at whose house he died. 2. Of Tarsus, a 
Stoic philosopher, surnamed Cananites, from 
Cana in Cilicia, the birth-place of his father, 
whose name was Sandon. He was a pupil of 
Posidonius at Rhodes, and afterward taught at 
Apollonia in Epirus, where the young Octavius 
subsequently the Emperor Augustus) was one 
of his disciples. He accompanied the latter to 
Rome, and became one of his intimate friends 
and advisers. In his old age he returned to 
Tarsus, where he died at the age of eighty-two. 
He was the author of several works, which are 
not extant 3. A sculptor, the son and pupil of 
Agesander of Rhodes, whom he assisted in exe- 
cuting the group of Laocoon. Vid. AGESANDER. 

ATHESIS (now Adige or JEtsch), rises in the 
Rsetian Alps, receives the ATAGIS (now Jt!isach), 
flows through Upper Italy past Verona, and 
falls into the Adriatic by many mouths. 

ATHJIONE ('ABftovr/, also 'K6p.ovia and "A0//0- 
v ov : 'AOpovevf, fern. 'Adfiovif), an Attic demus 
belonging to the tribe Cecropis, afterward to the 
tribe Attalis. 

ATHOS (*A0uf, also 'Aduv : 'Adut-njf : now 
Haghion Oros, Monte Santo, L e., Holy Mountain), 
the mountainous peninsula, also called Acte, 
which projects from Chalcidice in Macedonia. 
At the extremity of the peninsula the mountain I 
rises abruptly from the sea to a height of 6349 j 
feet : ttere is no anchorage for ships at its base, ' 
and the voyage around it was so dreaded by ' 
mariners that Xerxes had a canal cut through 
the isthmus, which connects the peninsula with ' 
the main land, to afford a passage to his fleet 
124 



Vid. ACANTHUS. The isthmus is about one ana a 
half miles across ; and there are most distinct 
traces of the canal to be seen in the present 
day ; so that we must not imitate the skepticism 
of Juvenal (x^ 174), and of many modern writ- 
ers, who refused to believe that the canal was 
ever cut The peninsula contained several flour- 
ishing cities in antiquity, and is now studded 
with numerous monasteries, cloisters, and chapels, 
whence it derives its modern name. In these 
monasteries some valuable MSS. of ancient au- 
thors have been discovered. 

ATHRIBIB ('A.0pi6if), a city in the Delta of 
Egypt ; capital of the Nomos Athribltes. 

[ATHRULLA ("AdpovMa : now Jathrib or Me- 
dina), a city of Arabia Felix, conquered by 
^Elius Gallus.] 
ATIA, mother of AUGUSTUS. 
ATILIA or ATILLIA GENS, the principal mem- 
bers of which are given under their surnames, 
CALATINUS, REGULUS, and SEBRANUS. 

ATILICINUS, a Roman jurist, who probably 
lived about A.D. 60, is referred to in the Digest 
ATILIUS. 1. L, one of the earliest of the Ro- 
man jurists who gave public instruction in law, 
probably lived about B.C. 100. He wrote com- 
mentaries on the laws of the Twelve Tables. 2. 
M., one of the early Roman poets, wrote both 
tragedies and comedies, but apparently a greater 
number of the latter than of the former. 

ATINA (Atlnas, -atis : now Atina), a town of 
the Volsci in Latium, afterward a Roman colony. 
ATINTANES ("ArivTuvef), an Epirot people in 
Dlyria, on the borders of Macedonia : their coun- 
try, Atintania, was reckoned part of Macedonia. 
ATJLUS VARUS. Vid. VARUS. 
ATLANTICUM MARE. Vid. OCEANUS. 
ATLANTIS ('Arhavric, sc. r^aof), according to 
an ancient tradition, a great island west of the 
Pillars of Hercules in the Ocean, opposite Mount 
Atlas : it possessed a numerous population, and 
was adorned with every beauty ; its powerful 
Drinces invaded Africa and Europe, but were 
lefeated by the Athenians and their allies : its 
nhabitants afterward became wicked and im- 
Dious, and the island was in consequence swal- 
owed up in the ocean in a day and a night 
This legend is given by Plato in the Timceux 
and is said to have been related to Solon by the 
Egyptian priests. The Canary Islands, or the 
Azores, which perhaps were visited by the Phoe- 
nicians, may have given rise to the legend ; bul 
some modern writers regard it as indicative of a 
vague belief in antiquity in the existence of the 
western hemisphere. 'i . 

ATLAS ('ArAaf), son of lapetus and Clymene, 
and brother of Prometheus and Epimetheus. 
3e made war with the other Titans upon Jupi- 
;er (Zeus), and being conquered, was condemned 
o bear heaven on his head and hands : accord- 
ng to Homer, Atlas bears the long columns 
which keep asunder heaven and earth. The 
myth seems to have arisen from the idea that 
ofty mountains support the heavens. Later 
traditions distort the original idea still more, by 
making Atlas a man who was metamorphosed 
into a mountain. Thus Ovid (Met., iv, 626, 
seq.) relates that Perseus came to Atlas and 
asked for shelter, which was refused, where- 
upon Perseus, by means of the head of Medusa, 
chauged him into Mount Atlas, on which rested 



ATLAS MONS. 



ATROPATES. 



heaven with all its stars. Others go still fur- 
ther, and represent Atlas as a powerful king, 
who possessed great knowledge of the courses 
of the stars, and who was the first who taught 
men that heaven had the form of a globe. 
Hence the expression that heaven rested on his 
shoulders was regarded as a merely figurative 
mode of speaking. At first, the story of Atlas 
referred to one mountain only, which was be- 
lieved to exist on the extreme boundary of the 
earth ; but, as geographical knowledge extend- 
ed, the name of Atlas was transferred to other 
places, and thus we read of a Mauretanian, Ital- 
ian, Arcadian, and even of a Caucasian Atlas. 
The common opinion, however, was, that the 
heaven-bearing Atlas was in the northwest of 
Africa. See below. Atlas was the father of 
the Pleiades by Pleione or by Hesperis ; of the 
Hyades and Hesperides by ^Ethra ; and of (Eno- 
maus and Mala by Sterope. Dione and Calyp- 
so, Hyas and Hesperus, are likewise called his 
children. Atlantiades, a descendant of Atlas, es- 
pecially Mercury, his grandson by Maia (comp. 
Mercuri facunde nepos Atlantis, Hor., Carm., i., 
10), and Hermaphroditus, son of Mercury. At- 
lantias and Atlantis, a female descendant of At- 
las, especially the Pleiads and Hyads. 

ATLAS MONS ("Ar/taf : now Atlas), was the 
general name of the great mountain range 
which covers the surface of northern Africa, 
between the Mediterranean and Great Desert 
(now Sahara), on the north and south, and the 
Atlantic and the Lesser Syrtis on the west and 
east ; the mountain chains southeast of the 
Lesser Syrtis, though connected with the Atlas, 
do not properly belong to it, and were called 
by other names. The northern and southern 
ranges of this system were distinguished by the 
uames of ATLAS MINOR and ATLAS MAJOK, and 
a distinction was made between the three re- 
gions into which they divided the country. Vid. 
AFRICA, p. 28, a. 

ATOSSA ("Aroffaa), daughter of Cyrus, and wife 
successively of her brother Cambyses, of Smer- 
dia the Magian, and of Darius Hystaspis, over 
whom she possessed great influence. She bore 
Darius four sons, Xerxes, Masistes, Acliaemenes, 
and Hystaspes. 

ATRJJ or HATEA ("Arpat, ra "Arpa : 'AT/w?v6f, 
Atrenus: now Hadr, southwest of Mosul), a 
strongly-fortified city on a high mountain in Mes- 
opotamia, inhabited by people of the Arab race. 

SEMPRONICS, .ATRATINUS. 1. A-, consul B.C. 
497 and 491. 2. L, consul 444 and censor 
443. 3. C, consul 423, fought unsuccessfully 
against the Volsciuns, and was in consequence 
condemned to pay a heavy fine. 4. L., accused ] 
Marcus Caelius Kufus, whom Cicero defended, 
67 B.C. 

ATRAX ('Arpal : 'Arpa/ctof). 1. A town in 
Pelasgiotis in Thessaly, inhabited by the Per- ] 
rluebi, so called from the mythical Atrax, son of 
PeneuB and Bura, and father of Hippodamia and j 
CuMiis. [It was famed for its green marble, 
known by the name of Atracium Marmor. 
2> A small river of Pelasgiotis in Thessaly, a 
tributary of the PeneusJ 

ATREBATES, a people in Gallia Belgica, in the 
modern Artois, which is a corruption of their ; 
name. In Caesar's time (B.C. 67) they num- 
bered 15,000 warriors ; their capital was NEMK- 



TOCENNA. Part of them crossed over to Britain, 
where they dwelt in the upper valley of thb 
Thames, Oxfordshire and Berkshire. 

ATREUS ('Arpevf), son of Pelops and Hippo- 
damia, grandson of Tantalus, and brother of 
Thyestes and Nicippe. Vid. PELOPS. He was 
first married to Cleola, by whom he became the 
father of Plisthenes ; then to Ae'rope, the widow 
of his son Plistheues, who was the mother of 
Agamemnon, Menelaus, and Auaxibia, either by 
Phsthenes or by Atreus (vid. AGAMEMNON) ; and 
lastly to Pelopia, the daughter of his brother 
Thyestes. The tragic fate of the house of Tan 
talus afforded ample materials to the tragic 
poets of Greece, who relate the details in vari- 
ous ways. In consequence of the murder of 
their half-brother Chrysippus, Atreus and Th) 
estes were obliged to take to flight ; they were 
hospitably received at Mycenae; and, after the 
death of Eurystheus, Atreus became king of 
Mycence. Thyestes seduced Ae'rope, the wife 
of Atreus, and was, in consequence, banished by 
his brother : from his place of exile he sent 
Plisthenes, the son of Atreus, whom he had 
brought up as his own child, in order to slay 
Atreus ; but Plisthenes fell by the hands of 
Atreus, who did not know that he was his own 
son. In order to take revenge, Atreus, pretend- 
ing to be reconciled to Thyestes, recalled him 
to Mycenae, killed his two sons, and placed their 
flesh before their father at a banquet, who un- 
wittingly partook of the horrid meal. Thyestes 
fled with horror, and the gods cursed Atreus 
and his house. The kingdom of Atreus was 
now visited by famine, and the oracle advised 
Atreus to call back Thyestes. Atreus, who 
went out in search of him, came to King Thes- 
protus, and as he did not find him there, he mar- 
ried his third wife, Pelopia, the daughter of Thy- 
estes, whom Atreus believed to be a daughter 
of Thesprotus. Pelopia was at the time with 
child by her own father. This child, ^Egisthus, 
afterward slew Atreus, because the latter had 
commanded him to slay his own father Thy- 
estes. Vid. ^EGISTHUS. The treasury of Atreus 
and his sons at Mycenae, which is mentioned by 
Pausanias, is believed by some to exist still 
but the ruins which remain are above ground t 
whereas Pausanias speaks of the building an 
under ground. 

ATRIA. Vid. ADRIA. 

ATRIDES ('A-rpeidijc), a descendant of Atre**, 
especially Agamemnon and Menelaus. 

ATRSPATENE ('ATpOTrarrjvrj), or Media Atrojja- 
tia ('ArpoTrarta or -or l/Lrjdia), the northwestern 
part of Media, adjacv^t to Armenia, named after 
Atrophies, a native of the country, who, having 
been made its governor by Alexander, founded 
there a kingdom, which long remained inde- 
pendent alike of the Seleucidaa, the Parthians, 
and the Romans, but was at last subdued by the 
Parthians. 

ATROP!TES ('ArpoTrarjjf), a Persian satrap, 
fought at the battle of Gaugamela, B.C. 331, and 
after the death of Darius was made satrap of 
Media by Alexander. His daughter was mar- 
ried to Perdiccas in 324 ; and he received from 
his father-in-law, after Alexander's death, the 
province of the Greater Media. In the north- 
west of the country, called after him, Media 
Atropateue, he established an independent king- 
125 



ATROPOS. 



ATTICUS HERODES. 



dom, which continued to exist down to tbe time ' 
of the Emperor Augustus. 

AxaSpos. Vid. MOIEA 

ATT A, T. QCIXTIUS, a Roman comic poet, died 
B.C. 78. His surname Atta was given him ! 
from a defect in his feet, to which circumstance 
Horace probably alludes (En., ii., 1, 79). His \ 
plays were very popular, and were acted even ! 
in the time of Augustus. [The fragments of 
Atta are collected by Bothe, Poet. Scenic. Lot., \ 
vol. v., P. iL, p. 97-102; cf. Weichert, Poet. 
Lat. Reliquiae, p 345.] 

ATTAGIXUS ('ArrayZvof), son of Phrynon, a 
Theban, betrayed Thebes to Xerxes, B.C. 480. 
After the battle of Plateae (479) the other! 
Greeks required Attaginus to be delivered up 
to them, but he made his escape. 

ATTALIA ('ArraAeia, 'Arra/lewr^f or -arjfr). j 
1. A city of Lydia, formerly called Agroira j 
('Aypofcpa). 2. (Now Laara), a city on the ( 
coast of Pamphylia, near the mouth of the Riv- ( 
er Catarrhactes, founded by Attains II. Phila- 
delphus, and subdued by the Romans under P. 
Servilius Isauricus. 

ATTALUS ("Arra/lof). 1. A Macedonian, uncle 
of Cleopatra, whom Philip married in B.C. 337. 
At the nuptials of his niece, Attalus offered an 
insult to Alexander, and, on the accession of the 
latter, was put to death by his order in Asia 
Minor, whither Philip had previously sent him 
to secure the Greek ^cities to his cause. 2. Son 
of Androinenes the Stymphsean, and one of 
Alexander's officers. After the death of Alex- 
ander (B.C. 323), he served under Perdiccas, 
whose sister, Atalante, he had married ; and 
after the death of Perdiccas (821), he joined Al- 
cetas, the brother of Perdiccas ; but their united 
forces were defeated in Pisidia by Antigouus 
in 320. 3. Kings of Pergamus. (I.) Son of 
Attalus, a brother of Philetaerus, succeeded his 
cousin, Eumenes I., and reigned B.C. 241-197. 
He took part with the Romans against Philip 
and the Achseans. He was a wise and just 
prince, and was distinguished by liis patronage 
of literature. (II.) Surnamed Philadelphia, sec- 
ond son of Attalus I., succeeded his brother Eu- 
meues II., and reigned 159-138. Like his father, 
he was an ally of the Romans, and he also en- 
couraged the arts and sciences. (III.) Sur- 
named Philometor, son of Eumenes II., and 
Stratouice, succeeded his uncle Attalus IL, and 
reigned 138.-133. He is known to us chiefly for 
the extravagance of his conduct and the murder 
of his relations and friends. In his will he 
made the Romans his heirs ; but his kingdom 
was claimed by Aristonicus. Vid. AEISTONI- 
cus. 4. Roman emperor of the West, was 
raised to the throne by Alaric, but was deposed 
by the latter, after a reign of one year (AD. 
409, 410), on account of his acting without Ala- 
ric's advice. 5. *A Stoic philosopher in the reign 
of Tiberius, was one of the teachers -of the phi- 
losopher Seneca, who speaks of him in the 
highest terms. 

ATTEGUA, a town in Hispania Baetica, of un- 
certain site. 

ATTHIS or ATTIS ("Ar&f or "Arrif), daughter 
of Cranaus, from whom Attica was believed to 
have derived its name. Tbe two birds into 
which Philomele and her sister Procne were 
metamorphosed were likewise called Attis. 
126 



ATTICA (^ 'ATTIKJJ sc. yJi), a division of Greece, 
has the form of a triangle, two sides of which 
are washed by the ^Egean Sea, while the third 
is separated from Boaotia on the north by the 
mountains Cithaeron and Parnes. Megaris, 
which bounds it on the northwest, was formerly 
a part of Attica. In ancient times it was called 
Acte and Actice ('A/cn? and 'Aim/cr/), or the 
"coastland" (vid. ACTE), from which the later 
form Attica is said to have been derived ; but, 
according to traditions, it derived its name from 
Atthis, the daughter of the mythical king Cra- 
naus ; and it is not impossible that Alt-ica may 
contain the root Alt or Ath, which we find in 
Atthis and Athence. Attica is divided by many 
ancient writers into three districts. 1. The 
Highlands (ij diapaia, also 6petvr} '\TTIKIJ), the 
northeast of the country, containing the range 
of Parnes and extending south to the Promon- 
tory Cynosura ; the only level part of this dis- 
trict was the small plain of Marathon opening 
to the sea. 2. The Plain (^ Ttedidc,, TO irediov), 
the northwest of the country, included both the 
plain round Athens and the plain round Eleusis, 
and extended south to the Promontory Zoster. 
3. The Sea-coast District (TJ irapaMa), the south- 
ern part of the country, terminating in the Prom- 
ontory Sunium. Besides these three divisions 
we also read of a fourth. The Midland District 
(//cffoyam), still called Mesogia, an undulating 
plain in the middle of the country, bounded by 
Mount Pentelicus on the north, Mount Hymet- 
tus on the west, and the sea on the east. The 
soil of Attica is not very fertile; the greater 
part of it is not adapted for growing corn ; but it 
produces olives, figs, and grapes, especially the 
two former, in great perfection. The country 
is dry ; the chief river is the Cephisus, which 
rises in Parnes and flows through the Athenian 
plain. The abundance of wild flowers in the 
country made the honey of Mount Hymettus 
very celebrated in antiquity. Excellent marble 
was obtained from tbe quarries of Pentelicus, 
northeast of Athens, and a considerable supply 
of silver from the mines of Laurium, near Su- 
nium. The area of Attica, including the island 
of Salaniis, which belonged to it, contained be- 
tween seven hundred and eight hundred square 
miles; and its population in its flourishing pe- 
riod was probably about five hundred thousand, 
of which nearly four fifths were slaves. Attica 
is said to have been originally inhabited by Pe- 
lasgians. Its most ancient political division 
was into twelve independent states, attributed 
to CECKOPS, who, according to some legends, 
came from Egypt. Subsequently Ion, the grand- 
son of Hellen, divided the people into four tribes, 
Oeleontes, Hopletes, Argades and ^Efficores ; and 
Theseus, who united the twelve independent 
states of Attica into one political body, and 
made Athens the capital, again divided the na- 
tion into three classes, the Eupatridce, Geomori, 
and Demiurgi. Clisthenes (B.C. 510) abolished 
the old 'tribes and created ten new ones, accord- 
ing to a geographical division: these tribes 
were subdivided into one hundred and seventy- 
four demi or townships. (For details, vid. Diet, 
of Ant., art. TKIBUS). 

ATTICUS HERODES, TIBEKIUS CLAUDIUS, a cel- 
ebrated Greek rhetorician, born about A.D. 104, 
at Marathon in Attica. He taught rhetoric both 



ATTICUS. 



AUCHET^E. 



at Athens and at Rome, and his school was 
frequented by the most distinguished men of ! 
the age. The future emperors M. Aurelius and 
L. Verus were among his pupils, and Antoni- 
nus Pius raised him to the consulship in 143. 
He possessed immense wealth, a great part of 
which he spent in embellishing Athens. He 
died at the age of seventy-six, in 180. He 
wrote numerous works, none of which have 
come down to us, with the exception of an ora- 
tion, entitled Hepi xoKirdaq, the genuineness of 
which, however, is very doubtful It is printed 
in the collections of the Greek orators, and by 
Fiorillo, in Herodis Attici qua. supersunt, Lips., 
1801. ^ 

ATTICUS, T. POMPONIUS, a Roman eques, born 
at Rome B.C. 109. His proper name, after his 
adoption by Q. Caecilius, the brother of his moth- 
er, was Q. Caecilius Pomponiauus Atticus. His 
surname, Atticus, was given him on account 
of his long residence in Athens and his intimate 
acquaintance with the Greek language and lit- 
erature. He was educated along with L. Tor- 
quatus, the younger C. Marius, and M. Cicero. 
Soon after the breaking out of the civil war be- 
tween Marius and Sulla, he resolved to take no 
part in the contest, and accordingly removed to 
Athens. During the remainder of his life he 
kept aloof from all political affaire, and thus 
lived on the most intimate terms with the most 
distinguished men of all parties. He was equal- 
ly the friend of Caesar and Pompey, of Brutus 
and Cassius, of Antony and Augustus : but his 
most intimate friend was Cicero, whose cor- 
respondence with him, beginning in 68 and con- 
tinued down to Cicero's death, is one of the 
most valuable remains of antiquity. He pur- 
chased an estate at Buthrotum in Epirus, in 
which place, as well as at Athens and Rome, he 
spent the greater part of his time, engaged 
in literary pursuits and commercial undertak- 
ings. He died in 32, at the age of 77, of volun- 
tary starvation, when he found that he was at- 
tacked by an incurable illness. His wife Pilia 
to whom he was married in 56, when he was fifty- 
three years of age, bore him only one child, a 
daughter, Pomponia or Csecilia, whom Cicero 
sometimes calls Attica and Atticula. She was 
married in the life-time of her father to M. Vip- 
sauius Agrippa. The sister of Atticus, Pom- 
pon ia, was married to Q. Cicero, the brother of 
the orator. The life of Atticus by Cornelius 
Nepos is to be regarded rather as a panegyric 
upon an intimate friend, than, strictly speaking, 
a biography. In philosophy Atticus belonged 
to the Epicurean sect He was thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the whole circle of Greek and 
Roman literature. So high an opinion was en- 
tertained of his taste and critical acumen, that 
many of his friends, especially Cicero, were ac- 
customed to send him their works for revision 
and correction. None of his own writings have 
cuim; down to us. 

ATTILA ('Arr/yAaf or 'ArrtXaf, German Etzel, 
Hungarian Ethele\ king of the Huns, attained 
in A.D. 434, with his brother Bleda (in German 
Blodel), to the sovereignty of all the northern 
tribes between the frontier of Gaul and the fron- 
tier of China, and to the command of an army 
of at least five hundred thousand barbarians. 
He gradually concentrated upon himself the 



awe and fear of the whole ancient world, which 
ultimately expressed itself by affixing to his 
name the well-known epithet of " the Scourge 
of God." His career divides itself into two 
parts. The first (A.D. 445-450) consists of the 
ravage of the Eastern empire between the Eux- 
ine and the Adriatic and the negotiations with 
Theodosius II., which followed upon it. They 
were ended by a treaty, which ceded to Attila a 
large territory south of the Danube and an an- 
nual tribute. The second part of his career was 
the invasion of the Western empire (450-452) 
He crossed the Rhine at Strassburg, but was 
defeated at Chalons by Ae'tius, and Theodoric, 
king of the Visigoths, in 451. He then cross- 
ed the Alps, and took Aquileia in 452, after a 
siege of three months, but he did not attack 
Rome, in consequence, it is said, of his inter- 
view with Pope Leo the Great. He reerossed 
the Alps toward the end of the year, and died 
in 453, on the night of his marriage with a beau- 
tiful girl, variously named Hilda, Ildico, Mycolth, 
by the bursting of a blood-vessel. In person 
Attila was, like the Mongolian race in general, a 
short> thick-set man, of stately gait, with a large 
head, dark complexion, flat nose, thin beard, and 
bald with the exception of a few white hairs, his 
eyes small, but of great brilliancy and quickness 
ATTILIUS. Vid. ATILIUS. 
ATTIUS. Vid. Accics. 
ATTIUS or ATTUS NAVIUS. Vid. NAVIUS. 
ATTIUS TULLIUS. Vid. TULLIUS. 
[Anus CLAUSUS. Vid. APPIUS CLAUDIUS. J 
ATUJJIA ('A.Tovpid). Vid. ASSYBIA. 
ATURUS (now Adour), a river in Aquitania, 
rises in the Pyrenees, and flows through the ter- 
ritory of the T arbelli into the ocean. 

ATYMNIUS ('Arv/mof or "Art^vof). 1. Son of 
Jupiter (Zeus) and Cassiopea, a beautiful boy, 
beloved by Sarpedon. Others call him son of 
Phoenix. [2. Son of the Lycian king Amisoda- 
rus, came as an ally of the Trojans to the war, 
was slain by Nestor.] 

ATYS, ATTYS, ATTES, ATTIS, or ATTIN ("Artf, 
"A.TTVf, 'A.TTIJC, " ATTIC, or "Arrtv). 1. Son of 
Nana, and a beautiful shepherd of the Phrygian 
town Celaenae. He was beloved by Cybele, but 
as he proved unfaithful to her, he was thrown 
by her into a state of madness, in which he un- 
manned himself. Cybele thereupon changed him 
into a fir-tree, which henceforth became sacred 
j to her, and she commanded that, in future, her 
j priests should be eunuchs. Such is the accouut 
in Ovid (Fast., iv., 221), but his story is related 
: differently by other writers. Atys was worship 
ped in the temples of Cybele in common with 
! this goddess. His worship appears to have been 
I introduced into Greece at a comparatively late 
I period. It is probable that the mythus of Atys 
I represents the twofold character of nature, the 
i mule and female concentrated in one. 2. Son 
! of Manes, king of the Maeouians, from whose 
sou Lydus, his son and successor, the Mseoui- 
ans were afterward called Lydians. 3. A Latin 
chief, son of Alba, aud father of Capys, from 
whom the Atia Gens derived its origin, and from 
1 whom Augustus was believed to be descended on 
his mother's side. 4. Son of Croesus, slain by 
ADKASTUS. 

[AUCUKT^B (AvxuTai), a Scythian people at 
| the sources of the Hypauis (now og).\ 
127 



AUFIDENA. 



AUGTJST1NUS. 



(Aufidfinas, -&t\a : now Alfideno), a ' of Sp. Maelius in this year was appeased by Au- 
town iu Samnmm, on the River Sagrus. j guriuus, who is said to have gone over to the 

AUFIDICS. 1. CN., a learned historian, cele- pleba from the patricians, and to have been 
brated by Cicero for the equanimity with which chosen by the tribunes one of their body. Au- 
he bore blindness, was quaestor B.C. 119, tribu- gurinus lowered the price of corn in three mark- 
ous plebis 114, and finally praetor 108. 2 T., a fet days, fixing as the maximum an as for a mo- 
jurist, quaestor B.C. 86, and afterward proprietor dius. The people, in their gratitude, presented 
in Asia. 3. BASSUS. Vid. BASSUS. 4. LURCO. him with an ox having its horns gilt, and erect- 
Vid. LURCO. 5. ORESTES. Vid. ORESTES. | ed a statue to his honor outside the Porta Tri- 

AUFIDUS (now Ofanto), the principal river of gemiua, for which every body subscribed an ounce 
Apulia, rises in the Apennines, in the territory of brass. 

of the Hirpini in Samnium, flows at first with AUGUSTA, the name of several towns founded 
a rapid current (hence violens and acer, Hor., or colonked by Augustus. 1. A. ASTURICA, 
Carm., iii., 30, 10 ; Sat^ i , 1, 58), and then more | Vid. ASTURES. 2. A. EMERITA (now Merida), in 
slowly (stagna Aufida, Sil. ItaL, x, 171) into the Lusitania, on the Anas (now Guadiana), colo- 
Adriatic. Venusia, the birth-place of Horace, nized by Augustus with the veterans (emerit) 



was on the Aufidus. 

AUGARUS. Vld. ACBARUS. 

AUGE or AUGIA (A.vyi} or Avyeia), daughter of 
Aleus and Neaera, was a priestess of Athena 
(Minerva), and mother by Hercules of TELEPHUS 
She afterward married Teuthras, king of th 
Mysians. 

AUGEAS or AUGIAS (Avyeaj- or Aiyeta?), son 
of Phorbas or Helios (the Sun), and king of th 
Epgans in Elis. He had a herd of three thou 
sand oxen, whose stalls had not been cleanse 
for thirty years. It was one of the labors im 
posed upon Hercules by Eurystheus to cleanse 
these stalls in one day. As a reward the hen 
was to receive the tenth part of the oxen ; bu 
when he had accomplished his task by leading 
the rivers Alpheus and Peneus through the sta 
bles, Augeas refused to keep his promise. Her 
cules thereupon killed him and his sons, with 
the exception of Phyleus, who was placed on 
the throne of his father. Another tradition rep- 
resents Augeas as dying a natural death at an 
advanced age, and as receiving heroic honors 
from Oxylus. 

[AucEas 



), a Grecian comic poet of 
the middle comedy at Athens: of his plays 
only a few titles remain. For the Cyclic poet 
whose name is sometimes thus given, vid. A.GI- 



AS.1 



(Avyeiai), name of two cities men- 
tioned in the Iliad ; one was in Laconia, the 
other in Locris.] 

AUGILA (rd, Avyiha : now AujilaK), an oasis 
in the Great Desert of Africa, about three and 
a half degrees south of Gyrene, and ten days' 
journey west of the Oasis of Ammon, abound- 
ing in date palms, to gather the fruit of which 
a tribe of the Nasamones, called Augila? (A6- 
yifau), resorted to the Oasis, which at other 



times was uninhabited. 
AUGURIXUS, GENUCIUS. 



1. T, consul B.C. 451, 



and a member of the first decemvirate in the 



same year.- 
sul 445. 



-2. M-, brother of the preceding, con- 



AUGURINUS, MINUCIUS. 1. M, consul B.C. 
497 and 491. He took an active part in the de- 
fence of Coriolanus, who was brought to trial 
in 491, but was unable to obtain his acquittal. 
2. L., consul 458, carried on war against the 
/Equians, and was surrounded by the enemy on 
Mount Algidus, but was delivered by the dicta- 
tor Cincinnatus. 3. L., was appointed prefect 
>f the corn-market (prafectus annonae) 439, as 
<he people were suffering from grievous famine, 
by the assassination 



The 



ferment occasioned 
12S 



of the fifth and tenth legions, was a place of 
considerable importance. 3. A. FIRMA. Vid, 
ASTIGI. 4. A. PRETORIA (now Aosta [contract- 
ed from Augusta], a town of the Salassi in Up- 
per Italy, at the foot of the Graian and Pennine 
Alps, colonized by Augustus with soldiers of 
the praetorian cohorts. The modern town still 
contains many Roman remains, the most im- 
portant of which are the town gates and a tri- 
umphal arch. 5. A. RAURACORUM (now Augst), 
the capital of the Rauraci, colonized by Munatiua 
Plancus under Augustus, was on the left of the 
Rhine near the modern Basle : the ruins of a Ro- 
man amphitheatre are still to be seen. 6. A. Su- 
ESSONUM (now Soissons), the capital of the Sues- 
sones in Gallia Belgica, probably the Noviodu- 
nurn of Caesar. 7. A. TAURINORUM (now Turin), 
more anciently called Taurasia, the capital of 
the Taurini on the Po, was an important town 
in the time of Hannibal, and was colonized by 
Augustus. 8. A. TREVIROEUM. Vid. TREYIRL 
9. TRICASTIXORUM (now Aouste), the capital 
of the Tricastini in Gallia Narbonensis. 10, A. 
VINDKLICORUM (now Auffsburff), capital of Viu- 
delicia or Ra3tia Secunda on the Licus (now 
Lech), colonized by Drusus under Augustus, after 
the conquest of Raetia, about B.C. 14. 

AUGUSTINUS, AURELIUS, usually called ST. 
AUGUSTINE, the most illustrious of the Latin 
fathers, was born A.D. 354, at Tagaste, an in- 
land town in Numidia. His mother was a sin- 
cere Christian, who exerted herself in training 
up her son in the practice of piety, but for a long 
time without effect. He studied rhetoric at 
Carthage, where he embraced the Manichaean 
heresy, to which he adhered for nine years. 
He afterward became a teacher of rhetoric at 
Carthage, but in 383 he went to Italy, and in 
Milan was led by the preaching and conversa- 
ion of Ambrose to abandon his Manichaaan er- 
rors and embrace Christianity. He was bap- 
iized by Ambrose in 387, and then returned to 
Africa, where he passed the next three years 
n seclusion, devoting himself to religious ex- 
ercises. In 391 he was ordained a priest by 
Valerius, then bishop of Hippo, and in 395 he 
was consecrated bishop of Hippo. His history, 
rom the time of his elevation to the see of Hip- 
x>, is so closely implicated with the Donatistic 
md Pelagian controversy, that it would be irn- 
racticable to pursue its details within our lim- 
ts. He died at Hippo in 430, when the city 
was besieged by the Vandals. Of his numerous 
works the two most interesting are, 1. His Con- 
f essions, in thirteen books, written iu 397, con- 



AUGUSTOBONA. 



AUGUSTUS. 



tnining au account of bis early life- 2. DC Cuii- 
tate Dei, iu twenty-two books, commenced about 
413, and not finished before 426. The first ten 
books contain a refutation of the various sys- 
tems of false religion, the last twelve present a 
systematic view of the true religion. The best 
edition of the collected works of Augustine is 
the Benedictine, 11 vols. M, Paris, 1679-1700: 
[this valuable edition was reprinted at Paris, in 
II vols., imperial 8 vo., 1836-39. 

AUGUSTOBONA (now Troyes), afterward called 
Tricassce, the capital of the Trieasii or Tricasses, 
iu Gallia Lugdunensis. 

AUGUSTODUXUSC. Vid. BlBRACTE. 
AUGUSTONEMETUM. Vid. AfiVERNI. 

AUGUSTORITUM. Vid. LEMOVICES. 

AUGUSTULUS,ROMDLUS, last Roman emperor of 
the "West, was placed upon the throne by his fa- 
ther Orestes (A.D. 475), after the latter had de- 
posed the Emperor Jnlius Nepos. In 476 Ores- 
tes was defeated by Odoacer and put to death : 
Romulus Augustulus was allowed to live, but 
was deprived of the sovereignty. 

AUGUSTUS, the first Roman emperor, was born 
on the 23d of September, B.C. 63, and was the 
son of C. Octav us by Atia, a daughter of Ju- 
lia, the sister of C. Julius Caesar. His original 
uame was C. Octavius, and, after his adoption 
by his great-uncle, G. Julius Ccesar Octavianus, 
but for the sake of brevity we shall call him 
Augustus, though this was only a title given 
him by the senate and the people in B.C. 27, to 
express their veneration for him, Augustus 
lost his father at four years of age, but his edu- 
cation was conducted with great care by his 
grandmother Julia, and by his mother and step- 
father, L. Marcius Philippus, whom his mother 
married soon after his father's death. C. Julius 
Caesar, who had no male issue, also watched 
over his education with solicitude. He joined 
bis uncle in Spain in 45. in the campaign against 
the sons of Pompey, and in the course of the 
same year was sent by Caesar to Apollonia in 
niyricum, where some legions were stationed, 
that he might acquire a more thorough practical 
training in military affairs, and. at the same time, 
prosecute his studies. He was at Apellonia 
when the news reached him of his uncle's mur- 
der at Rome in March, 44, and he forthwith set 
out for Italy, accompanied by Agrippa and a few 
other friends. On landing near Brundisium at 
the beginning of April, he heard that Caesar had 
adopted him in his testament and made him his 
heir. He now assumed the name of Caesar, 
and was so saluted by the troops. On reaching 
Rome about the beginning of May, he demanded 
nothing but the private property which Caesar 
had left him, but declared that lie was resolved 
to avenge the murder of his benefactor. The 
state of parties at Rome was most perplexing ; 
and one can not but admire the extraordinary 
tact and prudence which Augustus displayed, 
and the skill with which a youth of scarcely 
twenty contrived to blind the most experienced 
statesmen in Rome, and eventually to carry all 
bU designs into effect Augustus had to con- 
tend against the republican party as well as 
against Antony ; for the latter foresaw that Au- 
gustus would stand in the way of his views, and 
had therefore attempted, though without suc- 
cess, to prevent Augustus from accepting the 
a 



inheritance which his uncle had left him. Au 
gustus, therefore, resolved to crush Antony first 
as the more dangerous of his two enemies, anc 
accordingly made overtures to the republicaL 
party. These were so well received, especialh 
when two legions went over to him, that the 
senate conferred upon him the title of praetor 
and gent him, with the two consuls of the year 
C. Vibius Pansa and A. Hirtius, to attack An- 
tony, who was besieging D. Brutus in Mutiun 
Antony was defeated and obliged to fly across 
the Alps; and the death of the two consult 
gave Augustus the command of all their troops 
The Senate now became alarmed, and determ- 
ined to prevent Augustus from acquiring fur- 
ther power. But he soon showed that he did 
not intend to become the senate's servant Sup 
ported by his troops, he marched upon Rome and 
demanded the consulship, which the terrifieo 
senate was o"bliged to give him. He was elect 
ed to the office along with Q. Pedius, and tht 
murderers of the dictator were outlawed. He 
now marched into the north of Italy, profess- 
edly against Antony, who had been joined by 
Lepidus, and who was descending from the Alps 
along with the latter at the head of seventeen 
legions. Augustus and Antony now became 
reconciled ; and it was agreed that the empire 
should be divided between Augustus, Antony, 
and Lepidus, under the title of triumviri rei 
publicce constituendte, and that this arraagement 
should last for the uext five years. They pub- 
lished a proscriptio, or list of all their enemies, 
whose lives were to be sacrificed and their 
property confiscated : upward of two thousand 
equities and three hundred senators were put to 
death. Among whom was Cicero. Soon after- 
ward Augustus and Antony crossed over to 
Greece, and defeated Brutus and Cassius at the 
dicisive battle of Philippi in 42, by which the 
hopes of the republican party were ruined. The 
triumvirs thereupon made a new division of the 
provinces. Lepidus obtained Africa, and Au- 
gustus returned to Italy to reward his veterans 
with the lands he had promised them. Here a 
new war awaited him (41), excited by Fulvia, 
the wife of Antony. She was supported by L 
Antonius, the consul and brother of the trium- 
vir, who threw himself into the fortified town of 
Perugia, which Augustus succeeded in taking 
in 40. Antony now made preparations for war, 
but the opportune death of Fulvia led to a rec- 
onciliation between the triumvirs, who con- 
cluded a peace at Brundisium. A new division 
of the provinces was again made: Augustus 
obtained all the parts of the empire west of the 
town of Scodra in Illyricum, and Antony the 
eastern provinces, while Italy was to belong to 
them in commoa Antony married Octavia, the 
sister of Augustus, in order to cement their al- 
liance. In 39 Augustus concluded a peece with 
Sextus Pompey, whose fleet gave him the com- 
mand of the sea, and enabled him to prevent 
corn from reaching Rome. But this peace was 
only transitory. As long as Pompey was inde- 
pendent, Augustus could not hope to obtain the 
dominion of the West, and he therefore eagerly 
availed himself of the pretext that Pompey al 
lowed piracy to go on in the Mediterranean for 
the purpose of declaring war against him. In 
36 the contest came to a final issue. The fleet 
129 



AUGUSTUS. 



AULON. 



of Augustus, under the command of Marcus 
Agrippa, gained a decisive victory over that of 
Pompey, who abandoned Sicily and fled to Asia. 
Lepidus, who had landed in Sicily to support Au- 
gustus, was impatient of the subordinate part 
which he had hitherto played, and claimed the 
island for himself; but he was easily subdued 
by Augustus, stripped of his power, and sent to 
Rome, where he resided for the remainder of 
oTs life, being allowed to retain the dignity of 
pontifex maximus. In 35 and 34 Augustus was 
engaged in war with the Illyrians and Dalma- 
tians. Meantime, Antony "had repudiated Oc- 
tavia, and had alienated the minds of the Ro- 
man people by his arbitrary and arrogant pro- 
ceedings in the East. Augustus found that the 
Romans were quite prepared to desert his rival, 
and accordingly, in 32, the senate declared war 
against Cleopatra, for Antony was looked upon 
only as her infatuated slave. The remainder 
of the year was occupied by preparations for 
war on both sides. In the spring of 81, Au- 
gustus passed over to Epirus, and in Septem- 
ber in the same year his fleet gained a bril- 
liant victory over Antony's near the promontory 
of Actium in Acarnania. In the following year 
(30) Augustus sailed to Egypt Antony and 
Cleopatra, who had escaped in safety from Ac- 
tium, put an end to their lives to avoid falling 
into the hands of the conqueror ; and Augustus 
now became the undisputed master of the Ro- 
man Avorld. He returned to Rome in 29, and 
after restoring order in all parts of the govern- 
ment, he proposed in the senate to lay down his 
powers, but pretended to be prevailed upon to 
remain at the head of affairs for ten years long- 
er. This plan was afterward repeated several 
times, and he apparently allowed himself to be 
always persuaded to retain his power either for 
ten or five years more. He declined all honors 
and distinctions which were calculated to re- 
mind the Romans of kingly power ; but he ac- 
cepted in 33 the imperium proconsulare and the 
tribunitia potestas for life, by which his inviola- 
bility was legally established, while by the impe- 
rium proconsulare he became the highest au- 
thority in all the Roman provinces. On the 
death of Lepidus in 12 he became pontifex max- 
imus ; but, though he had thus united in his own 
person all the great offices of state, yet he was 
too prudent to show to the Romans by any dis- 
play of authority that he was the sole master. 
He had no ministers, in our sense of the word ; 
but on state matters, which he did not choose to 
be discussed in public, he consulted his per- 
sonal friends, C. Cilnius Maecenas, M. Vipsanius 
Agrippa, M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, and 
Asinius Pollio. The people retained their re- 
publican privileges, though they were mere 
forms : they still met in their assemblies, and 
elected consuls and other magistrates, but only 
such persons were elected as had been propos- 
ed or recommended by the emperor. The al- 
most uninterrupted festivities, games, distribu- 
tions of corn, and the like, made the people for- 
get the substance of their republican freedom, 
and obey contentedly their new ruler. The 
wars of Augustus were not aggressive, but were 
chiefly undertaken to protect the frontiers of 
the Roman dominions. Most of them were car- 
ried on by his relations and friends, but he con- 
130 



ducted some of them in person. Thus, in 27. 
he attacked the warlike Cantabri and Astures 
in Spain, whose subjugation, however, was not 
completed till 19, by Agrippa. In 21 Augustus 
travelled through Sicily and Greece, and. spent 
the winter following at Samos. Next year 
(20) he went to Syria, where he received from 
Phraates, the Parthian monarch, the standards 
and prisoners which had been taken from Craa- 
sus and Antony. In 16 the Romans suffered' a 
defeat on the Lower Rhine by some German 
tribes ; whereupon Augustus went himself to 
Gaul, and spent four years there, to regulate 
the government of that province, and to make 
the necessary preparations for defending it 
against the Germans. In 9 he again went to 
Gaul, where he received German ambassadors, 
who sued for peace ; and from this time for- 
ward, he does not appear to have again taken 
any active part in the wars that were carried 
on. Those in Germany were the most formid- 
able, and lasted longer than the reign of Augus- 
tus. He died at Nola, on the 29th of August, 
A.D. 14, at the age of seventy-six. Augustus 
was first married, though only nominally, to 
Clodia, a daughter of Clodius and Fulvia. His 
second wife, Scribonia, bore him his only daugh- 
ter, Julia. His third wife was Livia Drusilla, 
the wife of Tiberius Nero. Augustus had at 
first fixed on M. Marcellus as his successor, the 
son of his sister Octavia, who was married to 
his daughter Julia. After his death Julia was 
married to Agrippa, and her two sons, Caiua 
and Lucius Caesar, were now destined by Au- 
gustus as his successors. On the death of these 
two youths, Augustus was persuaded to adopt 
Tiberius, the son of Livia, and to make him his 
colleague and successor. Vid. TIBERIUS. 

AULERCI, a powerful Gallic people dwelling 
between the Sequana (now Seine) and the Liger 
(now Loire), were divided into three great tribes. 
1. A. EBUROVICES, near the coast, on the left 
bank of the Seine, in the modern Normandy : 
their capital was Mediolanum, afterward called 
Eburovices (now JEvreux). 2. A. CENOMANI, 
southwest of the preceding, near the Liger; 
their capital was Subdinnum (now le Mans). At 
an early period some of the Cenomani crossed 
the Alps and settled in Upper Italy. 3. A. BRAN- 
NOVICES, east of the Ceuomani, near the ^Edui, 
whose clients they were. The Diablintes men- 
tioned by Caesar are said by Ptolemy to have 
been likewise a branch of the Aulerci. 

[AULESTES, a Tyrrhenian, an ally of ^Eneas, 
slain by Messapus.J 

AULIS (Ai/U'f), a harbor in Bceotia, on the Eu- 
ripus, where the Greek fleet assembled before 
sailing against.Troy : it had a temple of Artemis 
(Diana). 

AULON (AvAwv : At>Awvm7f). 1. A district 
and town on the borders of Elis and Messenia, 
with a temple of ^Esculapius, who hence had 
the surname Aulonius. 2. A town in Chalcid- 
ice in Macedonia, on the Strymonic Gulf. 3. 
(Now Melons), a fertile valley near Tarentum, 
celebrated for its wine (amicus AuLon fertili 
Baccho; Hor., Carm., il, 6, 18.) [4. REGIUS 
(AvAuv 6 /3aaihiKo<;), a valley of Syria, not far 
from Damascus. 5. The valley of the Jordan, 
extending from the Sea of Galilee, and includ- 
ing tba Dead Sea the southern part of it 



AULUS GELLIUS. 



M. AURELITJS ANTONINUS. 



IB the fertile plain of Jericho. 6. Cilicius, the 
strait between Cyprus and the coast of Cilicia.] 

[AULUS GELLIUS. Vid. GELLIUS.] 

AURANITIS (A-vpavlrif : now Hauran), a dis- 
trict south of Damascus and east of Iturasa and 
Batauaea, on the eastern side of the Jordan, be- 
longing either to Palestine or to Arabia. 

AUREA CHERSONESUS (TJ Xovaij Xspaovrjaof), 
';he name given by the late geographers to the 
Malay Peninsula, [or, as others maintain, to the 
southern part of PeouJ] They also mention an 
A urea Regio beyond the Ganges, which is sup- 
posed to be the country round Ava. 

AURELIA, the wife of C. Julius Caesar, by whom, 
she became the mother of C. Julius Caesar, the 
dictator, and of two daughters. She carefully 
watched over the education of her children, and 
always took a lively interest in the success of 
her son. She died in B.C. 54, while Caesar was 
in Gaul. 

AUBELIA GE.VS, plebeian, of which the most 
important members are given under their family 
names, GOTTA, ORESTES, and SCAURUS. 

AURELIA ORESTILLA, a beautiful but profligate 
woman, whom Catiline married. As Aurelia at 
first refused to marry him because he had a 
grown-up son by a former marriage, Catiline is 
said to have killed his own offspring in order to 
remove this impediment to their union. 

AURELIA VIA, the great coast road from Rome 
to Transalpine Gaul, at first extended no further 
than Pisa;, but was afterward continued along 
the coast to G-enua and Forum Julii in Gaul. 

AURELIANI. Vid. GENABUM. 

AURELIANUS, Roman emperor, A.D. 270-275, 
was born about A.D. 212, at Sirmium, in Pan- 
nouia. He entered the army as a common sol- 
dier, and by his extraordinary bravery was rais- 
ed to offices of trust and honor by Valerian and 
Claudius II. On the death of the latter, he was 
elected emperor by the legions at Sirmium. His 
reign presents a succession of brilliant exploits, 
which restored for a while their ancient lustre 
to the arms of Rome. He first defeated the 
Goths and Vandals, who had crossed the Dan- 
ube, and were ravaging Pannonia. He next 
gained a great victory over the Alemanni and 
other German tribes : but they succeeded, not- 
withstanding, in crossing the Alps. Near Pla- 
centia they defeated the Romans, but were 
eventually overcome by Aurelian in two deci- 
sive engagements in Umbria. After crushing 
a formidable conspiracy at Rome, Aurelian next 
turned his arms against Zenobia, queen of Pal- 
myra, whom he defeated, took prisoner, and 
carried with him to Rome. Vid, ZENOBIA. On 
his return he marched to Alexandria and put 
Firm us to death, who had assumed the title of 
emperor. He then proceeded to the West, 
where Gaul, Britain, and Spain were still in the 
hands of Tetricus, who had been declared em- 
peror a short time before the death of Gallicnus. 
Tetricus surrendered to Aurelian in a battle 
fought near Chalons. Vid. TKTRICUS. The em- 
peror now devoted his attention to domestic im- 
provements and reforms. Many works of public 
utility were commenced: the most important 
of all was the erection of a new line of strongly 
fortified walls, embracing a much more ample 
circuit than the old ones, which had long since 
fallen into ruin; but this vast plan waa not 



completed until the reign of Probus. After a 
short residence in the city, Aurelian visited the 
provinces on the Danube. He now entirely 
abandoned Dacia, which had been first con- 
quered by Trajan, and made the southern bunk 
of the Danube, as in the time of Augustus, the 
boundary of the empire. A large force was now 
collected in Thrace in preparation for an expe- 
dition against the Persians ; but while the em- 
peror was on the march between Heraclea and 
Byzantium, he was killed by some of his officers. 
They had been induced to conspire against him 
by a certain Mnestheus, the freedman of the em 
peror and his private secretary, who had betray 
ed his trust, and, fearful of punishment, had, by 
means of forged documents, organized the con- 
spiracy. 

AURELIANUS, C^ELIUS or C(ELIUS, a very cel- 
ebrated Latin physician, was a native of Nu- 
midia, and probably lived in the fourth century 
after Christ. Of bis writings we possess three 
books On Acute Diseases. " Celerum Passionum" 
(or " De Morbis Acutis"), and five books On 
Chronic Diseases, "Tardarum Passionum" (or 
" De Morbis Chronicis"). Edited by Amman, 
AmsteL, 1709. 

AURELIUS ANTONINUS, M., Roman emperor, 
A.D. 161-180, commonly called "the philoso- 
pher," was born at Rome on the 20th of April, 
A.D. 121. He was adopted by Antoninus Pius 
immediately after the latter had been himself 
adopted by Hadrian, received the title of Caesar, 
and married Faustina, the daughter of Pius 
(138). On the death of the latter in 161, he 
succeeded to the throne, but he admitted to an 
equal share of the sovereign power L. Ceionius 
Commodus, who had been adopted by Pias at 
the same time as Marcus himself. The two 
emperors henceforward bore respectively the 
names of M. Aurelius Antoninus and L. Aure- 
lius Verus. Soon after their accession Verus 
was dispatched to the East, and for four years 
(A.D. 162-165) carried on war with great suc- 
cess against Vologeses III., king of Parthia, 
over whom his lieutenants, especially Avidius 
Cassius, gained many victories. At the con- 
clusion of the war both emperors triumphed, 
and assumed the titles of Armeniacus, Parthicus 
Maximus, and Medicus. Meantime Italy was 
threatened by the numerous tribes dwelling 
along the northern limits of the empire, from 
the sources of the Danube to the Illyrian border. 
Both emperors set out to encounter the foe; 
and the contest with the northern nations was 
continued with varying success during the 
whole life of M. Aurelius. whose head-quarters 
were generally fixed in Paunonia. After the 
death of Verus in 169, Aurelius prosecuted the 
war against the Marcomanni with great suc- 
cess, and in consequence of his victories over 
them, he assumed in 172 the title of Germani- 
cus, which he also conferred upon his sou Com- 
modus. In 174 he gained a decisive victory 
over the Quadi, mainly through a violent storm, 
which threw the barbarians into confusion. 
This storm is said to have been owing to the 
prayers of a legion chiefly composed of Chris- 
tians. It has given rise to a famous contro- 
versy among the historians of Christianity upon 
what is commonly termed the Miracle of the 
Thundering Legion. The Marcomanni and the 
131 



AURELIUS VICTOR. 



AUTOLYCUS. 



other northern barbarians concluded a peace 
with Aurclius in 175, who forthwith set out for 
the East, where Avidius Cassius, urged on by 
Faustina, the unworthy wife of Aurelius, had 
risen iu rebellion and proclaimed himself em- 
peror. But before Aurelius reached the East, 
Cassius had been slain by his own officers. On 
his arrival in the East, Aurelius acted with the 
greatest clemency ; none of the accomplices of 
Cassius were put to death ; and to establish 
perfect confidence in all, he ordered the papers 
of Cassius to be destroyed without suffering 
them to be read. During this expedition, Faus- 
tina, who had accompanied her husband, died, 
according to some, by her own hands. Aure- 
lius returned to Rome toward the end of 176 ; 
but in 178 he set out again for Germany, where 
the Marcomanni and their confederates had 
again renewed the war. He gained several 
victories over them, but died, in the middle of 
the war, on March 17th, 180, in Pannonia, either 
at Vindobona (now Vienna) or at Sirmium, in 
the fifty-niuth year of his age and twentieth of 
his reign. The leading feature in the charac- 
ter of M. Aurelius was his devotion to philoso- 
phy and literature. When only twelve years 
old, he adopted the dress and practiced the aus- 
terities of the Stoics, and he continued through- 
out his life a warm adherent and a bright orna- 
ment of the Stoic philosophy. We still possess 
a work by M. Aurelius, written in the Greek 
language, and entitled To efr kavrov, or Medita- 
tions, in twelve books. It is a sort of common- 
place book, in which were registered from time 
to time the thoughts and feelings of the author 
upon moral and religious topics, without an at- 
tempt at order or arrangement. No remains of 
antiquity present a nobler view of philosophical 
heathenism. The best edition of the Meditations 
is by Gataker, Cantab., 1652, and Lond., 1697. 
The chief, and perhaps the only stain upon the 
memory of Aurelius is his two persecutions of 
the Christians; in the former of which, 166, the 
martyrdom of Polycarp occurred, and in the lat- 
ter, 177, that of Irenaeus. Aurelius was succeed- 
ed by his son Commodus. 

AURELIUS VICTOE. Vid. Victor. 

AUREOLUS, one of the Thirty Tyrants (A.D. 
260-267), who assumed the title of Augustus du- 
ring the feeble rule of Gallienus. Aureolus was 
proclaimed emperor by the legions of Illyria in 
'267, and made himself master of Northern Italy, 
but he was defeated and slain in battle in 268, 
by Claudius II., the successor of Gallienus. 

[AURINIA, a prophetess, held in great venera- 
tion by the Germans, spoken of in connection 
with Veleda by Tacitus. J 

AURORA. Vid. Eos. 

AURUNCL Vid. ITALIA. 

AURUNCULEIUS CoTTA. Vid. CoTTA. 

AUSA. Vid. AUSETAM. 

[AUSAR (A.vaap, now Serchio), a river of Etru- 
ria, which anciently joined the Arnus; but at 
present they both flow into the sea by different 
channels.] 

Ausci or Auscn, a powerful people in Aquita- 
nia who possessed the Latin franchise ; their cap- 
ital was called Climberrum or Elimberrum, also 
Augusta and Ausci (now Auch). 

ACSETANI, a Spanish people in the modem 
Catalonia : their capital was Ausa (now Vique). 
132 



AUSON (A.VOUV), son of Ulysses and Calypso or 
Circe, from whom the country of the Auruncans 
was believed to have been called Ausonia. 

AUSONES, AUSONIA. Vid. ITALIA. 

AUSONIUS, DECIMUS MAGNUS, a Roman poet, 
born at Burdigala (now Bourdcaux), about A.D 
310, taught grammar and rhetoric with such 
reputation at his native town that he was ap- 
pointed tutor of Gratian, son of the Emperor 
Valentinian, and was afterward raised to the 
highest honors of the state. He was appointed 
by Gratian praefectus of Latium, of Libya, and 
of Gaul, and in 379 was elevated to the consul- 
ship. After the death of Gratian in 383, he 
retired from public life, and ended his days in a 
country retreat near Bourdeaux, perhaps about 
890. It is most probable that lie was a Chris- 
tian and not a heathen. His extant works are, 
1. Epigrammatum Liber, a collection of one 
hundred and fifty epigrams. 2. Ephemeris, con- 
taining an account of the business and proceed- 
ings of a day. 3 Parentalia, a series of short 
poems, dedicated to the memory of deceased 
friends and relations, and commemorating theii 
virtues. 4. Professorex, notices of the Profes- 
sors of Bordeaux. 5. Epitaphia Heroum, epi- 
taphs on the heroes who fell in the Trojan war 
and a few others. 6. A metrical catalogue of 
the first twelve Caesars. 7. Tetrasticha, on the 
Caesars from Julius to Elagabalus. 8. Clara 
Urbes, the praises of fourteen illustrious cities. 
9. Ludus Septem Sapientum, the doctrines of 
the seven sages expounded by each in his own 
person. 10. Idyllia, a collection of twenty 
poems. 11. Eclogarium, short poems connected 
with the Calendar, etc. 12. JKpistolcs, twenty- 
five letters, some in verse and some in prose. 
1 3. Gratiarum Actio pro Consulate, in prose, ad- 
dressed to Gratian. 14. Periochce, short argu- 
ments to each book of the Iliad and Odyssey. 
15. Tres Prcefatiunculoe. Of these works the 
Idyls have attracted most notice, and of them the 
most pleasing is the Mosella, or a description of 
the River Moselle. Ausonius possesses skill in 
versification, but is destitute of all the higher at- 
tributes of a poet The best edition of his com- 
plete works is by Tollius, Amstel., 1671. 

AUSTER, called Notus (Norjf) by the Greeks, 
the south wind, or strictly the southwest wind, is 
personified as the god of the south wind, son of 
Astrasus and Eos (Aurora). It frequently brought 
with it fogs and rain ; but at certain seasons of 
the year it was a dry, sultry wind (hence called 
plumbeus Auster, Hor., Sat., ii., 6, 18), injurious 
both to man and to vegetation, the Sirocco of the 
modern Italians. 

AUTARIAT^E (AiiTapiurat), an Illyrian people 
in the Dalmatian mountains, extinct in Strabo'k 
time. 

AUTESIODOHUM, -URUM (now Auzerre), a town 
of the Senones in Gallia Lugdunensis. 

AUTESION (AvTeaiuv), son of Tisamenus, father 
of Theras and Argia, left Thebes at the command 
of an oracle, and joined the Dorians in Pelopon- 
nesus. 

AUTOCHTHONES (avroxOovcs'). Vid, ABORIGI- 
NES. 

AUTOLOLES, or -M (A.vTo?.6?iai) a Gaetulian tribe 
on the western coast of Africa, south of the Atlaa 
Mountains. 

AUTOLYCUS (Airo/n/cof). 1. Son of Mercury 



AUTOMALA. 

(Hermes) and Chione, father of Auticlea, and 
thus maternal grandfather of Ulysses. He lived 
on Mount Parnassus, and was renowned for his 
cunning and robberies. Ulysses, when staying 
with him on one occasion, was wounded by a 
boar 011 Parnassus, and it was by the scar of 
this wound that he was recognized by his aged 
nurse when he returned from Troy. 2. A Thes- 
saliar, son of De'imachus, one of the Argonauts, 
and the founder of Sinope. 3. A mathematician 
of Pitane in JSolis, lived about B.C. 340, and 
wrote two astronomical treatises, which are the 
most ancient existing specimens of the Greek 
mathematics. 1. On the Motion of the Sphere 
(Trepl Kivovfievrif a<j>aipaf). 2. On the risings and 
settings of the fixed stars (xepl. E-ITLTO^UV not 
6vaeuv). Edited by Dasypodius in his Sphceri- 
cce Doctrince Propositiones, Argent, 1572. 

AUTOMALA (ra AvTOftaZa), a fortified place on 
the Great Syrtis in Northern Africa. 

AUTOMEDON (\vTope6uv). 1. Son of Diores, 
the charioteer and companion of Achilles, and, 
after the death of the latter, the companion of 
his son Pyrrhus. Hence Automedon is the 
name of any skillful charioteer. (Cic., pro Hose. 
Am., 35; Juv., L, 61.) 2. Of Cyzicus, a Greek 
poet, twelve of whose epigrams are in the Greek 
Anthology, lived in the reign of Nerva, A.D. 
96-98. 

AUTOMOLI (AvrojUoAot), as a proper name, was 
applied to the Egyptian soldiers, who were said 
to have deserted from Psammetichus into ^Ethi- 
opia, where they founded the kingdom of MERGE. 

AUTONOE (\.i>Tovon). 1. Daughter of Cadmus 
and Harmouia, wife of Aristaeus, and mother 
of Actaeon. With her sister Agave, she tore 
Pentheus to pieces in their Bacchic fury: her 
tomb was shown in the territory of Megara. 
[2. A handmaid of Penelope, mentioned in the 
Odyssey.] ,. -. < 

AUTRIGONES, a people in Hispania Tarraco- 
nensis, between the ocean (Bay of Biscay) and 
the upper course of the Iberus : their chief town 
was FLAVIOBRIGA. 

AUTRONIUS P-iETUS. Vid. FOETUS. 

AUXESIA (A.i>i}oia\ the goddess who grants 
growth and prosperity to the fields, honored at 
Trcezen and Epidaurus, was another name for 
Proserpina (Persephone). Damia, who was 
honored along with Auxesia at Epidaurus and 
Trazen, was only another name for Ceres (De- 
meter.) 

AUXIMUM (Auximaa, -Stis : now Osimo), an 
important town of Picenum in Italy, and a Ro- 
man colony. 

AuxCicE or Ax- (Ai/tovfti) or 'Afw//?, and other 
forme : Av^ovfurai or 'A^u/urai, Ac. : now Ax- 
um, ruins southwest of Adowa), the capital of a 
powerful kingdom in ./Ethiopia, to the southwest 
of Meroe, in Habesh or Abyssinia, which either 
first arose or first became known to the Greeks 
and Romans in the early part of the second cen- 
tury of our era. It grew upon the decline of 
the kingdon of Meroe, and extended beyond the 
Straits of Bdb-el-Mandeb into Arabia. Being a 
mountainous region, watered by the numerous 
upper streams of the Astaboras and Astapus, 
and intersected by the caravan routes from the 
interior of Africa to the Red Sea and the Gulf 
of Bab-el-Maudeb, the country possessed great 
internal resources and a flourishing commerce. 



AVIENUS, RUFUS. 

AUZEA, or -IA, or AUDIA (now Sur-Guzlwi. 01 
Hamza, ruins), a city in the interior of Maure 
tania Csesariensis ; a Roman colony under Mar- 
cus Aurelius Antoninus. 

AVALITES (AicArn/f : now Zeilali), an emp<t- 
rium in Southern ^Ethiopia, on a bay of the 
Erythraean Sea, called Avalites Sinus ('A. /co/l- 
Trof ), probably the Grulf of Bab-el-Mandeb, or its 
innermost part, south of the Straits. A people, 
Avatitae, are also mentioned in these parts. 

AVARICUM. Vid. BlTCRIGES. 

AVELLA. Vid. ABELLA. 

AVENIO (now Avignon), a town of the Cavares, 
in Gallia Narbonensis, on the left bank of the 
Rhone. 

AVEXTICUM (now Avenckes), the chief town of 
the Helvetii, and subsequently a Roman colony 
with the name Pia flavia Constans Emerita, of 
which nuns are still to be seen in the modem 
town. 

AVENTINENSIS, GENUCius. 1. L., consul B.C. 
365, and again 362, was killed in battle against 
the Hernicans in the latter of these years, and 
his army routed. 2. C.v., consul 363. 

AVENTINUS, son of Hercules and the priestess 
Rhea. 

AVENTINUS MONS. Vid. ROMA. 

AVERNUS LACCS (ft "Aopvof ?.iuvT]: now Lago 
Averno), a lake close to the promontory which 
runs out into the sea between Cumae and Pu 
teoli. This lake fills the crater of an extiuct 
volcano : it is circular, about one and a half 
miles in circumference, is very deep, and is sur- 
rounded by high banks, which in antiquity were 
covered by a gloomy forest sacred to Hecate. 
From its waters mephitic vapors arose, which 
are said to have killed the birds that attempted 
to fly over it, from which circumstance its 
Greek name was supposed to be derived (from 
a, priv., and opvtf). The lake was celebrated 
in mythology on account of its connection with 
the lower world. On its banks dwelt the Cim- 
merians in constant darkness, and near it was 
the cave of the Cumaean Sibyl, through which 
^Eneas descended to the lower world. Agrippn, 
in the time of Augustus, cut down the forest 
which surrounded the lake, and connected tho 
latter with the Lucrine Lake ; he also caused 
a tunnel to be made from the lake to Cumaa, of 
which a considerable part remains, and is known 
under the title of Grotta di Sibylla. The Lu 
crine Lake was filled up by an eruption in 1530, 
so that Avernus is again a separate lake. 

AVIANUS, FLAVIUS, the author of forty-two 
./Esopic fables in Latin elegiac verse, which are 
of very little merit both as respects the matter 
and the style. The date of Avianus is uncer- 
tain ; he probably h'ved in the third or fourth 
century of the Christian era. Editions: By 
Cannegieter, AmsteL, 1731 ; by Nodell,.Amstel., 
1787 ; and by Lachmann, Berol, 1845. 

[Avioius CASSIUS. Vid. CASSIUS.] 

AVIKNUS, RCFUS FESTUS, a Latin poet toward 
the end of tho fourth century of the Christian 
era. His poems are chiefly descriptive, and are 
some of the best specimens of the poetry of 
that age. His works are, 1. Descriptio- Orbis 
Terra, also called Metaphrasis Pcriegeseos Dio- 
nysii, in 1394 hexameter lines, derived directly 
from the xepiqyijoif of Dionysius, and containing 
a succinct account of the most remarkable ob 
133 



AVIONES. 



BABYLON. 



jccts in the physical and political geography of 
the known world. 2. Ora Maritima, a fragment 
in 703 iambic trimeters, describing the shores 
of the Mediterranean from Marseilles to Cadiz. 
3. Aratea Phenomena and Aratea Prognostic^ 
both in hexameter verse, the first containing 
1325, the second 552 lines, being a paraphrase 
of the two works of Aratus. The poems are 
edited by Wernsdorf, in his Poetce Latini Alino- 
res, vol. v., pt iL, which, however, does not in- 
clude the Aratea : [reprinted, with the addition 
of the Aratea, by Lemaire, in the fifth volume of 
his Poetce Latini Minorca, Paris, 1824-26.] 

AVIONES, a people in the north of Germany, 
whose position is uncertain. 

AVITUS, ALPHIUS, a Latin poet under Augustus 
and Tiberius, the fragments of some of whose 
poems are preserved in the Anthologia Latina. 

AVITUS, GLUENTIUS. Vid. CLUENTIUS. 

AVITUS, M. M^ECILIUS, Emperor of the West, 
was raised to the throne by the assistance of 
Theodoric IL, king of the Visigoths, in A.D. 
455 ; but, after a year's reign, was deposed by 
Riciraer. 

[AXANTOS, another name of Uxantis (now 
Ouessant), on the northwestern coast of Gallia.] 

[AXELLODUNUM (now Brugh ?), a castle of the 
Brigautes in Britannia.] 

AXENUS. Vid. EUXINDS PONTUS. 

AXIA (now Castell cFAsso), a fortress in the 
territory of Tarquinii in Etruria. 

AXION ('A&'wv), son of Phegeus, brother of 
Temenus, along with whom he killed Alcmaeon. 

[Axiomcus ('A^iovtKOf), an Athenian poet of 
the middle comedy,' of whose plays only a few 
fragments have been preserved in Athenaeus : 
these are published collectively in Meineke's 
Fragmenta Comic. Grcec., voL ii., p. 769-72, edit, 
minor.] 

AXIOTHEA ('A&o0ea), a maiden of Phlius, who 
came to Athens, and, putting on male attire, was 
for some time a hearer of Plato, and afterward 
of Speusippus. 

Axius, Q^ an intimate friend of Cicero and 
Varro, one of the speakers in the third book of 
Varro's De Re Rustica. 

Axius ('Aftof : now Wardar or Vardhari), the 
chief river in Macedonia, rises in Mount Scar- 
dus, receives many affluents, of which the most 
important is the Erigon, and flows southeast 
through Macedonia into the Thermaic Gulf. As 
a river-god, Axius begot by Peribcea a Son, Pel- 
agon, the father of ASTEROP.SUS. 

AXONA (now Aisne), a. river in Gallia Belgica 
which falls into the Isara (now Oise). 

Axt?ME. Vid. AUXUME. 

[Axes ('Adf), capital of a small kingdom in 
Crete.] 

[AXVLUS (*Afu/lof), a Thracian prince, men- 
tioned in the Iliad, son of Teuthranus, slain by 
Diomedes.] 

AZAN ('Afav), son of Areas and the nymph 
Erato, brother of Aphidas and Elatus. The part 
of Arcadia which he received from his father 
was called Azania : it was on the borders of 
Elis. 

AZANI ('A&voi : 'Afcv'iTric.), a town of Phrygia, 
on the River Rhyndacus, and twenty miles south- 
west of Cotyaeium (now Kiutayah). The ruins of 
columns, capitals, and other architectural frag- 
ments are scattered over the ground. There 
134 



are also the remains of a splendid temple and 
of a theatre. This ancient site was discovered 
by Mr. KeppeL 

AZANIA or BARBARIA ('Afavta, EapCapia : now 
Ajari), the region on the eastern coast of Afri- 
ca, south of Aromata Promontorium (now Cape 
Onardafui), as far as Rhaptum Promontorium 
(now Cape Formosa /). 

AZENIA ('A$7i>/a : 'Aijvivf), a demus in the 
southwest of Attica, near Sunium, belonging to 
the tribe Hippothoontis. 

AZEUS ('AfetJf), son of Clymenus of Orchome- 
nos, brother of Erginus, Stratius, Arrhon, and 
Pyleus, father of Actor and grandfather of As- 
tyoohe. 

[AziRis ("Aftptf in Hdt., or "At/Uf in Call. : 
now Temmineh), a city of Marmarica in Africa, 
opposite to the island of Platea, and founded by 
the Theraeans.] 

AZORUS or AZORIUM ("A&pof, 'A&ptov : 'Au- 
pirrjc,, 'A&pidrqf, 'Afepevf), a town in the north 
of Thessaly, on the western slope of Olympus, 
formed, with Doliche and Pythium, the PerrhsB- 
bian Tripolis. 

AZOTUS ("Afiurof : 'Afurtof : now Ashdod or 
Ashdoud), a city of Palestine, near the sea-coast 
nine miles northeast of Ascalon. It was one 
of the free cities of the Philistines, which were 
included within the portion of the tribe of Judah. 

B. 

BABRIUS (DuSpiof), a Greek poet, probably in 
the tune of Augustus, turned the fables of ^Esop 
into verse, of which only a few fragments were 
known till within the last few years, when a 
manuscript containing one hundred and twenty- 
three fables was discovered on Mount Athos. 
Edited by Lachmann, Berol., 1845; by Orelli 
and Baiter, Turic,, 1845 : by -Lewis, Lond., 1847. 

BABYLON (BafoAwv : Ba6vAwviOf, fern. Bafiv- 
huvif : Babel in Old Testament : ruins at and 
around Hillah), one of the oldest and greatest 
cities of the ancient world, the capital of a great 
empire, was built on both sides of the River 
Euphrates, in about 32 28' north latitude Its 
foundation, and the establishment of a kingdom 
by Nimrod, with the city for a capital, are 
among the first recorded facts subsequent to 
the Deluge (Gen.,x., 9, 10; xi, 1-10). Secu- 
lar history ascribes its origin to Belus (L e., 
the god Baal), and its enlargement and decora- 
tion to Ninus, or his wife Semiramis ; or, accord 
ing to another tradition, the country was sub 
dued by Ninus, and the city was subsequently 
built by Semiramis, who made it the capital of 
the Assyrian empire. At all events, it is pretty 
clear that Babylon was subject to the Assyr- 
ian kings of Nineveh from a very early period ; 
and the time at which the governors of Babylon 
first succeeded in making themselves virtually 
independent, can not be determined with any 
certainty until we know more of the history 
of the early Assyrian dynasties. Compare NA- 
BONASSAR. The Babylonian empire begins with 
the reign of Nabopolassar, the father of Nebu 
chadnezzar, who, with the aid of the Median 
king Cyaxares, overthrew the Assyrian mon- 
archy, and destroyed Nineveh (B.C. 606), and 
soon afterward defended his kingdom against 
the aggressions (at first successful) of Necno 



BABYLON. 



BACCHIAD^E. 



king of Egypt, in the battle of Circesium, B.C. 
604. Under his son and successor, Nebuchad- 
nezzar (B.C. 604-562), the Babylouian empire 
reached its height, and extended from the Eu- 
phrates to Egypt, and from the mountains of 
Armenia to the deserts of Arabia. After his 
death it again declined, until it was overthrown 
by the capture of Babylon by the Medes and 
Persians under Cyrus (B.C. 538), who made the 
city one of the capitals of the Persian empire, 
the others being Susa and Ecbatana. Under 
his successors the city rapidly sank. Darius I. 
dismantled its fortifications, in consequence of a 
revolt of its inhabitants ; Xerxes carried off 
the golden statue of Belus, and the temple in 
which it stood became a ruin. After the death 
of Alexander, Babylon became a part of the 
Syrian kingdom of Seleucus Nicator, who con- 
tributed to its decline by the foundation of SE- 
LEUCIA on the Tigris, which soon eclipsed it 
At the commencement of our era, the greater 
part of the city was in ruins ; and at the pres- 
ent day, all its visible remains consist of mounds 
of earth, ruined masses of brick walls, and a 
few scattered fragments. Its very site has 
been turned into a dreary marsh by repeated in- 
undations from the river. The city of Babylon 
had reached the summit of its magnificence in 
the reign of Nebuchadnezzar. It formed a 
square, each side of which was one hundred 
and twenty stadia (twelve geographical miles) 
in length. The walls, of burned brick, were 
two hundred cubits high and fifty thick ; in 
them were two hundred and fifty towers and 
sixty bronze gates ; and they were surrounded 
by a deep ditch. The Euphrates, which divided 
the city into two equal parts, was embanked 
with walls of brick, the openings of which, at 
the ends of the transverse streets, were closed by 
gates of bronze. A bridge, built on piers of 
hewn stone, united the two quarters of the city ; 
and at each end of it stood a royal palace : these 
erections were ascribed to Serniramis. Of two 
other public buildings of the greatest celebrity, 
the one was the temple of Belus, rising to a 
great height, and consisting of eight stories, 
gradually diminishing in width, and ascended by 
a flight of steps, which womnd round the whole 
building on the outside ; in the uppermost story 
was the golden statue of Belus, with a golden 
altar and other treasures : this building also 
was ascribed to Semiramis. The other edifice 
referred to was the " hanging gardens" of 
Nebuchadnezzar, laid out upon terraces which 
were raised above one another on arches. The 
houses of the city were three or four stories in 
height, and the streets were straight, intersect- 
ing one another at right angles. The buildings 
were almost universally constructed of bricks, 
some burned, and some only sun-dried, cemented 
together with hot bitumen, and in some cases 
with mortar. The Babylonians were certainly a 
Semitic race; but the ruling class, to which the 
kings, and priests, and the men of learning be- 
longed, were the Chaldxans, whose origin and [ 
affinities are somewhat doubtful ; the most ! 
probable opinion, however, is that they were a ' 
tribe of invaders, who descended from the ' 
mountains on the borders of Armenia, and con- ! 
quered the Babylonians. The religion of the ' 
Chaldfflans was Sabaism, or the worship of the 



heavenly bodies, not purely so, but symbolized 
in the forms of idols, besides whom they had 
other divinities, representing the powers of na 
ture. The priests formed a caste, and culti- 
vated science, especially astronomy ; in which 
they knew the apparent motions of the sun, 
moon, and five of the planets, the calculation of 
eclipses of the moon, the division of the zodiac 
into twelve constellations, and of the year into 
twelve months, and the measurement of time by 
the sun-dial. They must also have had other in- 
struments for measuring time, such as the water- 
clock, for instance ; and it is highly probable 
that the definite methods of determining such 
quantities, which the Chaldaean astronomers in- 
vented, were the origin of the systems of 
weights and measures used by the Greeks and 
Romans. Their buildings prove their knowledge 
of mechanics ; and their remains, slight as they 
are, show considerable progress in the fine arts. 
The Babylonian government was an unlimited 
monarchy ; the king appears to have lived in 
almost total seclusion from his people, sur- 
rounded by his court ; and the provinces were 
administered by governors, like the Persian sa- 
traps, responsible only to the monarch, whose 
commands they obeyed or defied according to 
his strength or weakness. The position of the 
city on the lower course of the Euphrates, by 
which it was connected with the Persian Gulf, 
and at the meeting of natural routes between 
Eastern Asia and India on the one side, and 
Europe, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Arabia 
on the other, made it the seat of a flourish- 
ing commerce, and of immense wealth and lux- 
ury. The district around the city, bounded by 
the Tigris on the east, Mesopotamia on the 
north, the Arabian Desert ou the west, and ex 
tending to the head of the Persian Gulf on the 
south, was known in later times by the name of 
BABYLONIA (now Irak Arabi), sometimes also 
called Chaldsea. But compare CHALD^EA. This 
district was a plain, subject to continual inunda- 
tions from the Tigris and Euphrates, which 
were regulated by canals, the chief of which 
was the Naarmalcha, i. e., Royal River or Canal 
(norafibf /JacrZAetof, diupvg (3aai%iKtj, flumen re- 
gium), which extended from the Tigris at Se- 
leucia due west to the Euphrates, and was navi- 
gable. The country was fertile, but deficient 
in trees. 

BABYLON (Ba.6v2.uv : near Fostat or Old Cairo), 
a fortress in Lower Egypt, on the right bank of, 
the Nile, exactly opposite to the pyramids, and 
at the beginning of the canal which connected 
the Nile with the Red Sea. Its origin was as- 
cribed by tradition to a body of Babylonian de- 
serters. It first became an important place 
under the Romans. Augustus made it the sta- 
tion of one of the three Egyptian legions. 

BABYLONIA. Vid. BABYLON. 

BACCH^ (BuKxai), also called Mcenades and 
Thyiade*. 1. The female companions of Diony- 
sus or Bacchus in his wanderings through the 
East, are represented as crowned with vine 
leaves, clothed with fawn skins, and carrying in 
their hands the thyrsus (vid. Diet, of Ant^ -i. v.). 
2. Priestesses of Bacchus (Dionysus), who, by 
wine and other exciting causes, worked them- 
selves up to phrensy at the Dionysiac festivals. 

BACCHIAD^E (BaK^iudat), an Heraclid clan, de- 
'35 



BACCHIUM. 

rived their names from Bacchis, king of Corinth, 
and retained the supreme rule in that state, first 
under a monarchical form of government, and 
next as a close oligarchy, till their deposition by 
Cypselus, about B.C. C57. They were, for the 
most part, driven into banishment, and are said 
to have taken refuge in different parts of Greece 
and even Italy. 

[BACCHIUM (BuK^elov), an island in the ^Egean 
Sea, lying before the harbor of the city Phoca)a, 
beautifully adorned with temples and works of 
art, which were destroyed by the Romans under 
J5milius, B.C. 190.] 

BACCHIUS (Ba/c^eZof). 1. The author of a short 
musical treatise called elaayuyi} Texvrif uovaiKyf, 
printed by Meibomius, in the Antiques Nuaicce 
Auctores Septem, Arnst, 1652. 2. Of Tanagra in 
Boeotia, one of the earliest commentators on the 
writings of Hippocrates : his writings have per- 
ished. 3. Of Miletus, the author of a work on 
agriculture. 

BACCHUS. Vid. DIONYSUS. 

BACCHYLIDES (BaKXvMdrjf), one of the great ly- 
ric poets of Greece, born at lulis in Ceos, and ne- 
S*iew as well as fellow-townsman of Simonides. 
e flourished about B.C. 470, and lived a long 
time at the court of Hiero in Syracuse, together 
with Simonides and Pindar. He wrote in the 
Doric dialect Hymns, Paeans, Dithyrambs, <fec. ; 
but all his poems have perished, with the ex- 
ception of a few fragments, and two epigrams in 
the Greek Antho'ogy. The fragments have 
been published by iS'eue, Bacchylidis Cei Frag- 
menta, Berol., 1523, and by Bergk, Poetce Lyrici 
GrcEci, p. 820. 

BACENIS SILVA, a forest which separated the 
Suevi from the Cherusci, probably the western 
part of the Thuringian Forest. 

BACIS (BaKif), the name of several prophets, 
of whom the most celebrated was the Boeotian 
seer, who delivered his oracles in hexameter 
verse at Heleon in Bceotia. In later times there 
existed a collection of his oracles, similar to the 
Sibylline books at Rome. 

BACTRA or ZAEIASPA (rd Bu/crpa, TO. Zapiaona 
and j] ZapiuGTrrj : now Balkh), the capital of 
BACTRIA, appears to have been founded by the 
early Persian kings, but not to have been a con- 
siderable city till the time of Alexander, who 
settled in it his Greek mercenaries and his dis- 
abled Macedonian soldiers. It stood at the 
northern foot of the Mount Paropamisus (the 
Hindoo Koosli), on the River Bactrus (now Adir- 
siah or Dehas), about twenty-five miles south of 
its junction with the Oxus. It was the centre of 
a considerable traffic. The existing ruins, twenty 
miles in circuit, are all of the Mohammedan 
period. 

BACTRIA or -IANA (Battrpiavij : 'BuKTpoi, -101, 
tavoi : now Bokhara), a province of the Persian 
empire, bounded on the south by Mount Paropa- 
misus, which separated it from Ariana, gn the 
east by the northern branch of the same range, 
which divided it from the Sacae, on the northeast 
by the Oxus, which separated it from Sogdiana, 
and on the west by Margiana. It was inhab- 
ited by a rude and warlike people, who were 
Bubdued by Cyrus or his next successors. It 
was included in the conquests of Alexander, 
and formed a part of the kingdom of the Seleu- 
cidie until B.C. 255, when Theodotus, its gov- 
136 



BAGOAS. 

ernor, revolted from Antiochus II., and founded 
the Greek kingdom of Bactrin, which lasted 
till B.C. 184 or 125, when it was overthrown 
by the Parthians, with whom, during its whole 
duration, its kings were sometimes at war, and 
sometimes in alliance against Syria. This Greek 
kingdom extended beyond the limits of the 
province of Bactria, and included at least a 
part of Sogdiana. Bactria was watered by 
the Oxus aud its tributaries, and contained 
much fertile land; and much of the com- 
merce between Western Asia and India passed 
through it 

[BACTRUS (Ba/crpof), a river of Bactria. Vid. 
BACTRIA.] 

[BACUNTIUS (now Bosnuth), a river of Lower 
Pannonia, which empties into the Savus near 
Sirmium.] 

BADUHENN^E Lucus, a wood in "Western Fries 
land. 

B^EBIA GENS, plebeian, the most important 
members of which are given under their sur- 
names, DIVES, SULCA, TAMPHILUS. 

B^ECULA, a town in Hispania Tarraconensis, 
west of Castulo, in the neighborhood of silver 
mines. 

Vid. BELON.] 

(now Porto Barbate), a harbor on 
Junonis Promontorium, not far from Gades, in 
Hispania Baetica.] 

B^TERR^S (now Beziers) also called BITERREN- 
sis URBS, a town in Gallia Narbonensis, on the 
Obris, not far from Narbo, and a Roman colony : 
its neighborhood produced good wine. 

BAETICA. Vid. HISPANIA. 

B^ETIS (now Guadalquiver), a river in South- 
em Spain, formerly called TARTESSUS, and by the 
inhabitants CERTIS, rises in Hispania Tarraconen- 
sis, in the territory of the Oretani, flows south- 
west through Bretica, to which it gives its name, 
past the cities of Corbuda and Hispalis, and falle 
into the Atlantic Ocean by two mouths, north of 
Gades. 

[B^rruniA (Batrwpta), the northwestern part 
of Baetica, between the Anas and Monnt Ma- 
rianus.] 

BAGACUM (now Bavai), the chief town of the 
Nervii in Gallia Belglca : there are many Roman 
remains in the modern town. 

BAGAUD<E, a Gallic people, who revolted under 
Diocletian, and were with difficulty subdued by 
Maximian, A.D. 286. 

[BAGISTANUS MONS (rd 'Baylaravov opof), a 
mountain range in Media, southeast of Ecbat- 
ana, and made by the Greeks sacred to Jupi- 
ter : the region around was called Bagistana.. 
This mountain is now more correctly termed 
the " sacred rock of Behistun." According to 
the ancients, it had the figure of Semiramis cut 
upon it, with a Syrian inscription ; but Major 
Rawlinson has shown that the inscription on 
the rock was executed by order of Darius Hys- 
taspis.] 

BAGOAS (Baywaf), a eunuch, highly trusted 
and favored by Artaxerxes IIL (Ochus), whom 
he poisoned B.C. 338. He was put to death by 
Darius III. Codomannus, whom he had attempted 
likewise to poison, 336. The name Bagoas fre 
quently occurs in Persian history, and is some- 
times used by Latin writers as synonymous with 
a eunuch. 



BAGRADAS. 



BARBARI. 



BAGRADAS (^aypdSac, : now Mejerdah), a river 
of Northern Africa, falling into the Gulf of Car- 
thage near Utica. 

BALE (Baianus), a town in Campania, on a 
small bay west of Naples, and opposite Puteoli, 
was situated in a beautiful country, which 
abounded in warm mineral springs. The baths 
of Baiae were the most celebrated in Italy, and 
the town itself was the favorite watering-place 
of the Romans, who flocked thither in crowds 
for health and pleasure ; it was distinguished 
by licentiousness and immorality. The whole 
country was studded with the palaces of the 
Roman nobles and emperors, which covered 
the coast from Baias to Puteoli : many of these 
palaces were built out into the sea. (Hor., 
Carm., ii., 18, 20.) The site of ancient Baiae 
is now, for the most part, covered by the sea. 

[BALA.Y.EA, (Bahavaia : now Banias), a city of 
Syria, on the coast, north of Aradus, by Ste- 
phanus Byzantinus assigned to Phoenicia.] 

[BALBILLUS, made governor of Egypt by Nero, 
and wrote an account of that province.] 

BALBIXUS, D. GAELICS, was elected emperor 
by the senate along with M. Clodius Pupienus 
Maximus, after the murder of the two Gordians 
in Africa at the beginning of A.D. 238 ; but the 
new emperors were slain by the soldiers at 
Rome in June in the same year. 

BALBUS, M'. ACILIUS, the name of two con- 
suls, one in B.C. 150, and the other in 114. 

BALBUS, T. AMPIUS, tribune of the plebs B.C. 
63, was a supporter of Pompey, whom he join- 
ed in the civil war B.C. 49. He was pardoned 
by Caesar through the intercession of Cicero, 
who wrote to him .on the occasion (ad 



BALBDS, M. ATIUS, of Aricia, married Julia, 
the sister of Julius Caesar, who bore him a 
daughter, Atia, the mother of Augustus Caesar. 

BALBUS, L. CORNELIUS. 1. Of Gades, served 
under Q. Metellus and Pompey against Serto- 
rius in Spain, and received from Pompey the 
Roman citizenship. He accompanied Pompey 
on his return to Rome, B.C. 71, and was for aj 
long time one of his most intimate friends. At 
the same time he gained the friendship of Caesar, 
who placed great confidence in him. As the 
friend of Caesar and Pompey, he had numerous 
enemies, who accused him in 56 of having ille- 
gally assumed the Roman citizenship; he was 
defended by Cicero, whose speech has come 
down to us, and was acquitted. In the civil 
war, 49, Balbus did not take any open part 
against Pompey ; but he attached himself to | 
Caesar, and, in conjunction with Oppius, had 
the entire management of Caesar's affairs at 
Rome. After the death of Caesar (44) he was 
equally successful in gaining the favor of Octa- 
vianus, who raised him to the consulship in 40. 
Balbus wrote a diary (Epliemeris), which has 
not come down to us, of the most remarkable 
occurrences in Caesar's life. He took care that 
Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic war should 
be continued ; and we accordingly find the eighth 
book dedicated to him. 2. Nephew of the pre- 
ceding, received the Roman franchise along 
with his uncle. He served under Cassar in the 
civil war ; he was quaestor to Asiuius Pollio in 
Further Spain in B.C. 43, and while there add- 
ed to his native town, Gades, a suburb ; many 



years afterward he was proconsul of Africa, and 
triumphed over the Garamantes in 19. He 
built a magnificent theatre at Rome, which was 
dedicated in 13. 

BALBUS, LUCILIUS. 1. L., a jurist, and broth- 
er of the following. 2. Q., a Stoic philosopher, 
and a pupil of Panaetius, is introduced by Cicero 
as one of the speakers in his De Natura Deorum. 

BALBUS, OCTAVIUS, a contemporary of Cicero, 
bore a high character as a judex ; he was put 
to death by the triumvirs, B.C. 43. 

BALBUS, SP. THORIUS, tribune of the plebs 
about B.C. Ill, proposed an agrarian law. Vid. 
Did. of Ant^ art. LEX T?ORIA. 

BALEAB.ES (Ba/Ura/wdef, BaAtapufej), also call 
ed GYMNlsLfi (TvpiTjaiai) by the Greeks, two 
islands in the Mediterranean, off the coast of 
Spain, distinguished by the epithets Major and 
Minor, whence their modern names Majorca and 
Minorca. They were early known to the Car- 
thaginians, who established settlements there 
for th purposes of trade ; they afterward re- 
ceived colonies from Rhodes ; and their popula- 
tion was at a later time of a very mixed kind. 
Their iuhabitants, also called Baleares, were 
celebrated as slingers, and were employed as 
such in the armies of the Carthaginians and 
Romans. In consequence of their piracies they 
provoked the hostility of the Romans, and were 
finally subdued, B.C. 123, by Q. Metellus, who 
assumed, accordingly, the surname Balearicus. 

BALISTA, prefect of the praetorians under Va- 
lerian, whom he accompanied to the East. Aft- 
er the defeat and capttu-e of thaft emperor (A. 
D. 260), he rallied a body of Roman troops and 
defeated the Persians in Cilicia. His subse- 
quent career is obscure ; he is mentioned as 
one of the thirty tyrants, and was probably put 
to death, about 264, by Odenathus. 

[BALIUS (BuAtof), one of the horses of Achil- 
les, offspring of Zephyrus and the harpy Po- 
darge.] 

[BALSA and BALSA FELIX (now Tavira), a city 
of Lusitania. 

BAMBALIO, M. FULVIUS, father of Fulvia, the 
wife of M. Antonius, the triumvir, received the 
nickname of Bambalio, on account of a hesitancy 
in his speech. 

BAMBYCE. Vid. HIERAPOLIS. 

BANASA (now Mamora ? ruins), a city of Mau- 
retauia Tingitana, on the River Subur (now 
Sebou), near the western coast: a colony un- 
der Augustus, Valentia Banasa. 

BANDUSLE FONS (now Sambuco), a fountain in 
Apulia, six miles from Venusia. (Hor., Carm., 
iii, 13.) 

BANTIA (Bantinus: now Banzi or Vami), a 
town in Apulia, near Venusia, in a woody dis- 
trict (naltus Bantini, Hor. Cartn^ iii., 4, 15): 
[near this place Marcellus fell a victim to the 
well-laid plans of Hannibal] 

[BAPHYUAS (Ba(jn>paf), a river of Pieria, in 
Macedonia, empties into the Thermaic Gulf.] 

BARBANA (now Bojana), a river in Illyria, 
flows through the Palus Labeatis. 

BARBARI (Bupfiapoi), the name given by the 
Greeks to all foreigners whose language was 
not Greek, and who were therefore regarded by 
the Greeks as an inferior race. The Romans 
applied the name to all people who spoke neither 
Greek nor Latin. 

137 



BARBARIA. 



BASSUS. 



BARBARIA. Vid. AZANIA. 

[BARBARIUH PROMONTORIUM (no\* Cabo de JSs- 
picltel\ a promontory of Lusitania, just below 
the mouth of the Tagus.] 

BARBATIO, commander of the household troops 
under Gallus, whom he arrested by command of 
Coustantius, A.D. 354. In 355 he was made 
general of the infantry, and sent into Gaul to 
assist Julian against the Alemauui. He was 
put to death by Constantius in 359. 

BARBATUS, M. HORATIUS, consul B.C. 449 with 
"Valerius Publicola after the overthrow of the 
decemvirs. Vid. PUBLICOLA. 

BARLESULA, a city and river (now Guadiaro) 
in Hispauia Baatica, on the coast, north of Calpe.j 

BARBOSTHKNES, a mountain east of Sparta. 

BARBULA, iEMiuus. 1. Q^ consul B.C. 317, 
when he subdued Apulia, and consul again in 
311, when he fought against the Etruscans. 2. 
L., consul in 281, carried on war against the Ta- 
rentines, Samnites, and Sallentines. 3. M., consul 
in 230, carried on war against the Liguria/is. 

BARCA, the surname of HAMILCAR, the* father 
of Hannibal, is probably the same as the Hebrew 
Barak, which signifies lightning. His family 
was distinguished subsequently as the " Barciue 
family," and the democratical party, which sup- 
ported this family, as the " Barcine party." 

BAHCA or -E (Bap/c?? : BapKiTTjc, Bap/caZof, Bar- 
caeus). 1. (Now Merjeh, ruins), the second city 
of Cyrenaica, in northern Africa, one hundred 
stadia (ten geographical miles) from the sea, 
appears to have been at first a settlement of a 
Libyan tribejlthe Barcaei, but about B.C. 560 
was colonized by the Greek seceders from Cy- 
rene, and became so powerful as to make the 
western part of Cyrenaica virtually independent 
of the mother city. In B.C. 510 it was taken 
by the Persians, who removed most of its inhab- 
itants to Bactria, and under the Ptolemies its 
ruin was completed by the erection of its port 
into a new city, which was named PTOLEMAIS, 
and which took the place of Barca as one of the 
cities of the Cyrenaic Pentapolis. 2. A town in 
Bactria, peopled by the removed inhabitants of 
the Cyrenaic Barca. 

BARCINO (now Barcelona), & town of the Lale- 
tani, in Hispania Tarraconensis, afterward a 
Roman colony : the town was not large, but it 
possessed an excellent harbor. 

BARDANES. Vid. ARSACES XXL 

BARDYUS or BARDTLLIS (BupdvZif, Bup JvAAtf), 
an Illyrian chieftain, carried on frequent wars 
with the Macedonians, but was at length de- 
ieated and slain in battle by Philip, the father 
of Alexander the Great, B.C. 359. 

BAREA SORANUS, consul suffectus in A.D. 52 
under Claudius, and afterward proconsul of Asia, 
was a man of justice and integrity. He was 
accused of treason in the reign of Nero and wa 
condemed to death, together with his daughter 
Servilia. The chief witness against him was 
P. Egnatius Celer, a Stoic philosopher, and the 
teacher of Soranus. ( Vid. Juv., iii., 116.) 

BARGUBII, a people in the northeast of Spain, 
between the Pyrenees and the Iberus. 

[BARGYLIA or BARGYLL& (Bapyv^ia, rd ; Bap- 
yvAtar^f, BapyvfaijTiKof), a city of Caria, lying 
on the gulf, named from it, Bargylieticus Sinus, 
and named by the Carians Andanus (*A.vdavof) ; 
famed for a statue of Diana.] 
138 



BARIUM (Barinus : now Bari), g town in A pu- 
lia, on the Adriatic, a munioipium, and celebrated 
for its fisheries (Barium piscotum, Hor., Sat^ i, 
5, 97). 

BARSAEXTES (Baoaatvrrjf ) or BARZAENTUS (Bap- 
faevrof), satrap of the Arachoti and Draugse, 
took part in the murder of Darius III, and after- 
ward fled to India, where he was seized by the 
inhabitants and delivered up to Alexander, who 
put him to death. 

BARSINE (Bapo'ivy). 1. Daughter of Artaba- 
zus, and wife of Memnon the Rhodian, subse- 
quently married Alexander the Great, to whom 
she l>oro a son, Hercules. She and her son were 
put to death by Polysperchon in 309. 2. Also 
called STATIRA, elder daughter of Darius III, 
whom Alexander married at Susa, B.C. 324. 
Shortly after Alexander's death she was mur- 
dered by Roxana. 

[BARYGAZA (Bapvyafa, now Baroatgch), & city 
of India, on the eastern side of the River 
Nomad us, possessing an active and extensive 
land and sea trade with Bactria, Arabia, and 
Africa.] 

[BARZAENTES (Bapfcevrrif). Vid. BARSAENTES.] 

BASANITIS. Vid. BATAN^EA. 

BASILIA (now Basel or Bale), & town on the 
Rhine, in the neighborhood of which Valentinian 
built a fortress. [2. An island. Vid. ABALUS.] 

BASILINA, the mother of Julian the apostate, 
being the second wife of Julius Constantius, bro- 
ther of Constantine the Great. 

BASILIUS (Baaiheioc), commonly called Basil 
the Great, was born A.D. 329, at Caesarea. He 
studied at Antioch or Constantinople under Li- 
bauius, and subsequently continued his studies 
for four years (351-355) at Athens, chiefly under 
the sophists Himerius and Proseresius. Among 
his fellow-students were the Emperor Julian 
and Gregory Nazianzen, the latter of whom be- 
came his most intimate friend. After acquiring 
the greatest reputation as a student for bis 
knowledge of rhetoric, philosophy, and science, 
he returned to Caesarea, where he began to 
plead causes, but soon abandoned his profes- 
sion and devoted himself to a religious life. He 
now led an ascetic life for many years; he 
was elected Bishop of Caesarea in 370 in place 
of Eusebius; he died in 379. The best edition 
of his works is by Gamier, Paris, 1721-1730, 
3 vols. folio. 

BASILUS, L. MJNUCIUS, served under Cassar in 
Gaul, and commanded part of Cesar's fleet in 
the civil war. He was one of Cesar's assassins 
(B.C. 44), and in the following year was mur- 
dered by his own slaves. 

[BASSAMA, a city of Illyria, not far from Lis- 
sus.] 

BASSAREUS (Baaaapsvf), a surname of Bacchus 
(Dionysus), probably derived from /iaoaapif, a 
fox skin, worn by the god himself and the 
Maenads in Thrace. 

BASSUS, AUFIDIUS, an orator and historian 
under Augustus and Tiberius, wrote an account 
of the Roman wars in Germany, and a work 
upon Roman history of a more general character, 
which was continued in thirty -one books by the 
elder Pliny. 

BASSUS, Q. Cfflcnlus, a Roman eques, and an 
adherent of Pompey, fled to Tyre after the bat- 
tle of Pharsalia, B.C. 48. Shortly afterward he 



BASSUS, CJESIUS. 



BATTIAD^E. 



obtained possession of Tyre, and was joined by 
most of the troops of Sextus Caesar, the govern- 
or of Syria, who had been killed by his own sol- 
diers at the instigation of Bassus. He subse- 
quently settled down in Apamea, where he main- 
tained himself for three years (46-43) against 
C. Antistius Vetus, and afterward against Sta- 
tius Murcus and Marcius Crispus. On the ar- 
rival of Cassius in Syria in 43, the troops of 
Bassus went ;ver to Cassius. 

BASSUS, CJESIDS, a Roman lyric poet, and a 
friend of Persius, who addresses his sixth satire 
to him, was destroyed, -"along with his villa, in 
A.D. 79, by the eruption of Vesuvius which 
overwhelmed Herculaneum and Pompeii. 

BASSUS, SALEIUS, a Roman epic poet of con- 
siderable merit, contemporary with Vespasian. 

BASTARN.E or EASTERNS, a warlike German 
people, who migrated to the country near the 
mouth of the Danube. They are first mentioned 
in the wars of Philip and Perseus against the 
Romans, and at a later period they frequently 
devastated Thrace, and were engaged in wars 
with the Roman governors of the province of 
Macedonia. In B.C. 30 they were defeated by 
Marcus Crassus, and driven across the Danube ; 
and we find them, at a later time, partly settled 
between the Tyras (now Dniester) and Borys- 
thenes (now Dnieper], and partly at the mouth 
of the Danube, under the name of Peucini, from 
their inhabiting the island of Peuce, at the 
mouth of this river. 

[BASTI (now Baza), a city of the BASTITANI.] 

BASTITANI (also BASTETANI, BASTULI), a peo- 
ple in Hispauia Baetica. on the coast. 

[BATA (Bara, TU), a city and port of Sarmatia 
Asiatica. on the Euxiue, opposite Sinope.] 

BATAN^EA or BASANITIS (Qaravaia, Baaavlrif : 
in the Old Testament, Bashan, Basan), a district 
of Palestine, east of the Jordan, extending from 
the river Jabbok on the south to Mount Her- 
mon, in the Antilibanus chain, on the north. 
The s and T are mere dialectic varieties. 

BAT A vi or BATAVI (Lucan., i., 431), a Celtic 
people who abandoned their homes in conse- 
quence of civil dissensions before the time of 
Julius Caesar, and settled in the island formed 
by the Rhine, the Waal, and the Maas, which 
island was called after them, Insula Batavorum. 
They were for a long time allies of the Romans 
in their wars against the Germans, fcnd were of 
great service to the former by their excellent 
cavalry ; but at length, exasperated by the op- 
pressions of the Roman officers, thev rose in 
revolt under Claudius Civilis in A.D. 69, and 
were with great difficulty subdued. On their 
eubjugation they were treated by the Romans 
with mildness, and were exempt from taxation. 
Their country, which also extended beyond the 
island south of the Maas and the Waal, was 
called at a later time, BATAVIA. Their chief 
towns were Lugdunum (now Lcyden) and Ba- 
tavoduntm (now Wyk-Durstad?), between the 
Maas and the WaaL The Canine/ate* or Can- 
ninefatet were a branch of the Batavi, and 
dwelt in the west of the island. 

BATAVODURUM. Vid. BATAVL 

[BATEA (Bureta). 1. A Naiad, mother by (Eba- 
lus of Tyndareus, Hippocoon, and Icarion. 2. 
Daughter of Teucer, wife of Dardanus, mother 
of Ilus and Erich thoni us.] 



BATHVCLES (BaOvul.r/c), a celebrated artist ol 
Magnesia on the Mseander, constructed for the 
Lacedaemonians the colossal throne of the Amy- 
clasan Apollo. He probably flourished about the 
time of Solon, or a little later. 

BATHTLLUS. 1. Of Samos, a beautiful youth 
beloved by Anacreon. 2. Of Alexandrea. the 
freedman and favorite of Maecenas, brought to 
perfection, together with Py lades of Cilieia, the 
imitative dance or ballet called Pantomimus. 
Bathyllus excelled in comic, and Pylades in 
tragic personifications. 

[BATHYS POKTUS (Baft)f fapjv), the large deep 
harbor of Aulis, in which the Grecian fleet as- 
sembled before sailing to Troy.] 

BATN^E (Barvat : BarvaZof). 1. (Now Saruj), 
a city of Osroene in Mesopotamia, east of the 
Euphrates, and southwest of Edessa, at about 
equal distances ; founded by the Macedonians, 
and taken by Trajan ; celebrated for its an- 
nual fair of Indian and Syrian merchandise. 
2. (Now Dahal), a city of Cyrrhestice, in Syria, 
between Bercea and Hierapolis. 

BATO (Barwv). 1. The charioteer of Amphi- 
araus, was swallowed up by the earth along 
with AMPHIARAUS. 2. The name of two leaders 
of the Pannonians and Dalmatians in their in- 
surrection of the reign of Augustus, A.D. 6. 
Tiberius and Germanicus were both sent against 
them, and obtained some advantages over them, 
in consequence of which the Pannonians and 
Dalmatians concluded a peace with the Romans 
in A.D. 8. But the peace was of short dura- 
tion. The Dalmatian Bato put 'his namesake 
to death, and renewed the war. Tiberius now 
finally subdued Dalmatia ; Bato surrendered to 
him in A.D. 9, upon promise of pardon ; he ac- 
companied Tiberius to Italy, and his life was 
spared. 

BATTIAD.E (Ba-ma&u), kings of Gyrene dur- 
ing eight generations. 1. BATTUS I., of Thera, 
led a colony to Africa at the command of the 
Delphic oracle, and founded Gyrene about B.C. 
631. He was the first king of Cyreue ; his gov- 
ernment was gentle and just, and after his death 
in 599 he was worshipped as a hero. 2. ARCES- 
ILAUS L, son of No. 1, reigned B.C. 599-583. 
3. BATTUS II, surnamed "the Happy," eon 
of No. 2, reigned B.C. 583-560 ? In his reign 
Cyrene received a great number of colonists 
from various parts of Greece ; and in conse- 
quence of the increased strength of his king- 
dom, Battus was able to subdue the neighboring 
Libyan tribes, and to defeat Apries, king of 
Egypt (570), who had espoused the cause of the 
Libyans. 4. ARCESILAUS II., son of No. 3, sur- 
named " the Oppressive," reigned about B C. 
560-550. In consequence of dissensions be- 
tween himself and his brothers, the latter with- 
drew from Cyrene and founded Barca. He 
was strangled by his brother or friend Learchus. 
5. BATTUS IIL, or " the Lame," son of No. 
4, reigned about B.C. 560-530. In his time, 
Demonax, a Mantinean, gave a new constitu- 
tion to the city, whereby the royal power was 
reduced within very narrow limits. 6. ARCES- 
ILAUS IIL, son of No. 5, reigned about B.C. 
530-614, was driven from Cyreue in an attempt 
to recover the ancient royal privileges, but re- 
covered his kingdom with the aid of Samiau 
auxiliaries. He endeavored to strengthen him 
139 



BATTIADES. 



BELLEROPHON. 



self by making submission to Cambyses in 525 
He was, however, again obliged to leave Cy- 
ene ; he fled to Alazir, king of Barca, whose 
daughter he had married, and was there slain 
by the Barcaeans and some Cyrenaean exiles. 
7. BATTUS IV., probably son of No. 6, of 
whose life we have no accounts. 8. ARCESI- 
LAUS IV., probably son of No. 7, whose victory 
in the chariot-race at the Pythian games, B.C. 
466, is celebrated by Pindar in his fourth and 
fifth Pythian odes. At his death, about 450, a 
popular government was established. 

[BATTIADES, a patronymic of Callimachus, from 
his father BattusJ 

BATTUS (Barrof), a shepherd whom Mercury 
(Hermes) turned into a stone because he broke a 
promise which he made to the god. 

BATULUM, a town in Campania of uncertain 
site. 

BAUCIS. Vid. PHILEMON. 

BAULI (now Bacolo), a collection of villas rather 
than a town, between Misenum and Baiac, in 
Campania. 

[BAUTIS, BAUTES, or BAUTISUS, (now Hoangho), 
a river of Serica.] 

BAVIUS and M^vlus, two malevolent poe- 
tasters, who attacked the poetry of Virgil and 
Horace. 

BAZIRA or BEZIRA (Bd&pa : Ba&poi : now Ba- 
jour, northwest of Peshamtr), a city in the Pa- 
ropamisus, taken by Alexander on his march into 
India. 

BEBUYCES (Qiftpvueg). 1. A mythical people in 
Bithynia, said to be of Thracian origin, whose 
king, Amycus, was slain by Pollux (p. 90, b.) 
2. An ancient Iberian people on the coast of the 
Mediterranean, north and south of the Pyrenees : 
they possessed numerous herds of cattle. 

BEDRIACUM, a small place in Cisalpine Gaul, 
between Cremona and Verona, celebrated for the 
defeat both of Otho and of the Vitellian troops, 
A.D. 69. 

BELBINA (BeA&va : BeMivirrif). 1. (Now St. 
George cTArbori), an island in the ./Egaean Sea, 
off the south coast of Attica. 2. Vid. BELE- 
MttU. 

BELEMINA (Befepiva, now Belemia), also called 
Belmina and Belbina, a town in the northwest 
of Laconia, on the borders of Arcadia. The sur- 
rounding district was called Belminatis and Bel- 
binatis. 

BELESIS or BEL^SYS (Be/Uffif , BeAetrrf), a Chal- 
dean priest at Babylon, who is said, in conjunc- 
tion with Arbaces the Mede, to have overthrown 
the old Assyrian empire. Vid. ARBACES. Bele- 
sis afterward received the satrapy of Babylon 
from Arbaces. 

BELG.E, one of the three great people into 
which Caesar divides the population of Gaul. 
They were bounded on the north by the Rhine, 
on the west by the ocean, on the south by the 
Sequana (now Seine) and Matrona (now Marne), 
and on the east by the territory of the TrevirL 
They were of German origin, and had settled in 
the country, expelling or reducing to subjection 
the former inhabitants. They were the bravest 
of the inhabitants of Gaul, were subdued by 
Caesar after a courageous resistance, and were the 
first Gallic people who threw off the Roman do- 
minion. The Belgae were subdivided into the 
tribes of the NKavn, BELLOVACL, REMI, SUES- 



SIONES, MORINL, MENAPII, ADUATICI, and other* 
and the collective forces of the whole nation 
were more than a million. 

BELGICA. Vid. GALLIA. 

BELGIUM, the name generally applied to the 
territory of the BELLOVACI, and of the tribes de- 
pendent upon the latter, namely, the Atrebates, 
Ambiani, Velliocasses, Aulerci, and Caletl Bel- 
gium did not include the whole country inhab- 
ited by the Belgae, for we find the Nervii, Rcrni, 
Ac., expressly excluded from it (Caes., B. (?, v. 
24.) 

[BELGIUS or BOLGIUS (B6/lytOf), a leader of the 
Gauls, who invaded Macedonia and Illyria in 
B.C. 280. He defeated the Macedonians in a 
great battle, in which their king, Ptolemy Cerau- 
nus, was slain.] 

[BELIDES, patronymic of Palamedes, as de- 
scended from JBelus.] 

BELISARIUS, the greatest general of Justinian, 
was a native of Illyria, and of mean extraction 
In A.D. 534 he overthrew the Vandal kingdom 
in Africa, which had been established by Gen- 
seric about one hundred years previously, and 
took prisoner the Vandal king Gelimer, whom 
he led in triumph to Constantinople. In 535- 
540, Belisarius carried on war against the Goths 
in Italy, and conquered Sicily, but he was re- 
called by the jealousy of Justinian. In 541-544 
he again carried on war against the Goths in 
Italy, but was again recalled by Justinian, leav- 
ing his victories to be completed by his rival, 
Narses, in the complete overthrow of the Gothic 
kingdom, and the establishment of the exarchate 
of Ravenna The last victory of Belisarius was 
gained in repelling an inroad of the Bulgarians, 
559. In 563, he was accused of a conspiracy 
against the life of Justinian; according to a 
popular tradition, he was deprived of his pro- 
perty, his eyes were put out, and he wandered 
is a beggar through Constantinople; but ac- 
cording to the more authentic account, he was 
merely imprisoned for a year in his own palace, 
and then restored to his honors. He died in 
565. 

BELLER5PHON Or BELLER5FHONTE8 (BfvUf/30- 

<j>uv or Be/Uepo$6vr7f), son of the Corinthian 
dng Glaucus and Eurymede, and grandson of 
Sisyphus, was originally called Hipponous, and 
eceived the name Bellerophon from slaying the 
Corinthian Bellerus. To be purified from the 
murder he fled to Proetus, whose wife Antfia fell 
n love with the young hero; but as her offers 
were rejected by him, she accused him to her 
lusband of having made improper proposals to 
icr. Proetus, unwilling to If ill him with his 
own hands, sent him to his father-in-law, lo- 
mtes, king of Lycia, with a letter, in which the 
atter was requested to put the young man to 
death. lobates accordingly sent him to kill the 
monster Chimaera, thinking that he was sure 
o perish in the contest After obtaining pos- 
session of the winged horse, PEGASUS, Beller- 
ophon rose with him in the air, and killed the 
Dhimaera with his arrows. lobates, thus dis- 
appointed, sent Bellerophon against the Soly- 
mi, and next against the Amazons. In these 
contests he was also victorious; and on his re- 
turn to Lycia, being attacked by the bravest 
Lycians, whom lobates had placed in ambush 
for the purpose, Bellerophon slew them all. To- 



BELLERUS. 



BERENICE. 






bates, now seeing that it was hopeless to kill ' 
the hero, gave him his daughter (Philonoe, An- 
ticlea, or Cassandra) in marriage, and made him | 
his successor on the throne. Bellerophon be- ! 
came the father of Isander, Hippolochus, and ; 
Laodamla. At last Bellerophon drew upon him- 
self the hatred of the gods, and, consumed by 
grief, wandered lonely through the Aleian field, 
avoiding the paths of men. This is all that 
Homer says respecting Bellerophon'a later fate : 
some traditions related that he attempted to fly 
to heaven upon Pegasus, but that Jupiter (Zeus) 
sent a gad-fly to sting the horse, which threw 
off the rider upon the earth, who became lame 
or blind in consequence. (Horace, Carm^ iv., 
11, 26.) 

[BELLEEUS, a Corinthian. Via. BELLEEO- 
PHON.] 

BELLI, a Celtiberian people in Hispania Tar- 
raconensis. 

[BELLIENUS, L. 1. Uncle of Catiline, proprae- 
tor in Africa B.C. 104. 2. Originally a slave of 
Demetrius, was the occasion of an insurrection 
in Intenielium during the civil war between 
Caesar and Pompey.] 

BELLONA, the Roman goddess of war, was 
probably a Sabine divinity. She is frequently 
mentioned by the Roman poets as the compan- 
ion of Mars, or even as his sister or his wife, 
and is described as armed with a bloody scourge. 
(Virg., .JSk, viii, 703.) During the Samnite 
ware in B.C. 296, Appius Claudius .Caecus vowed 
a temple to her, which was erected in the Cam- 
pus Martius. Her priests, called Bellonarii, 
wounded their own arms or legs when they 
offered sacrifices to her. 

BELLOVACI, the most powerful of the Belgae, 
dwelt in the modern Beauvais, between the 
Seine, Oise, Somme, and Bresle. In Caesar's 
time they could bring one hundred thousand 
men into the field, but they were subdued by 
Caesar with the other Belgae. 

BELOX or B^LON (BeAtiv, BatAwv, near Bolo- 
nia, ruins), a sea-port town in Hispania Baetica, 
on a river of the same name, (now Barbate), the 
usual place for crossing over to Tingis in Mau- 
retania. 

BELUS (B^/lof),- son of Neptune (Poseidon) 
and Libya or Eurynome, twin brother of Age- 
nor, and father of JSgyptus and Danaus. He 
was believed to be the ancestral hero and na- 
tional divinity of several Eastern nations, from 
whom the legends about him were transplanted 
to Greece, and there became mixed up with 
Greek myths. 

BELUS (BJyAof : now Nahr Naman), a river of 
Phoenicia, rising at the foot of Mount Carmel, 
and falling into the sea close to the south of 
Ptolemais (now Acre), celebrated for the tradi- 
tion that its fine sand first led the Phoenicians 
to the invention of glass. 

BENACCS LACUS (now Logo di Garcia), a lake 
in the north of Italy (Galha Transpadana), out 
of which the Mincius flows. 

BENEVENTUM (now Benevento), a town in Sam- 
nium, on the Appia Via, at the junction of the 
two valleys through which the Sabatus and 
Calor flow, formerly called Maleventum on ac- 
count, it is said, of its bad air. It was one of 
the most ancient towns in Italy, having been 
founded, according to tradition, by Diomede. 



In the Samnite wars it was subdued by the Ro- 
mans, who sent a colony thither in B.C. 268, 
aad changed its name Maleventum into Bene 
ventum. It was colonized a second time by Au- 
gustus, and was hence called Colvnia Julia Coi- 
cordia Augusta Felix. The modern town has 
several Roman remains, among others a tri- 
umphal arch of Trajan. 

BEEECYNTIA (BsptKWTia), a surname of Cyb- 
ele, which she derived from Mount Berecyn- 
tus where she was worshipped. 

[BEEECYNTCS MONS (Bepewrof), a mount- 
ain in Phrygia, sacred to Cybele. Vid. the 
foregoing.] 

BEEENICE (BepeviKrj), a Macedonic form of 
Pherenlce (^epevucrj), i. e^ " Bringing Victory." 
1. First the wife of [Philip, son of Amyntas, a 
Macedonian officer], and afterward of Ptolemy 
L Soter, who fell in love with her when she 
came to Egypt in attendance on his bride Eu- 
rydice, Antipater's daughter. She was cele- 
brated for her beauty and virtue, and was the 
mother of Ptolemy II. Philadelphus. 2. Daugh 
ter of Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, and wife of An 
tiochus Theos, king of Syria, who divorced La 
odice in order to marry her, B.C. 249. On the 
death of Ptolemy, B.C. 247, Antiochus recalled 
Laodice, who, notwithstanding, caused him to 
be poisoned, and murdered Berenice and her 
son. 3. Daughter of Magas, king of Cyrene, 
and wife of Ptolemy III. Euergetes. She was 
put to death by her son Ptolemy IV. Pbilopator 
on his accession to the throne, 221. The fa- 
m'ous hair of Berenice, which she dedicated for 
her husband's safe return from his Syrian ex- 
pedition in the temple of Arsinoe at Zephyrium, 
was said to have become a constellation. It 
was celebrated by Callimachus in a poem, of 
which we have a translation by Catullus. 4. 
Otherwise called Cleopatra, daughter of Ptole- 
my VIIL Lathyrus, succeeded her father on the 
throne B.C. 81, and married Ptolemy X. (Alex- 
ander II.), but was murdered by her husband 
nineteen days after her marriage. 5. Daughter 
of Ptolemy XI. Auletes, and eldest sister of the 
famous Cleopatra, was placed on the throne by 
the Alexandrines when they drove out her fa- 
ther, B.C. 58. She afterward married Archelaus, 
but was put to death, with her husband, when 
Gabinius restored Auletes, 55. 6. Sister of Her- 
od the Great, married Aristobulus, who was put 
to death B.C. 6. She afterward went to Rome, 
where she spent the remainder of her life. She 
was the mother of Agrippa I. 7. Daughter of 
Agrippa I., married her uncle Herod, king of 
Chalcis, by whom she had two sons. After the 
death of Herod, A.D. 48, Berenice, then twenty 
years old, lived with her brother Agrippa II., not 
without suspicion of an incestuous commerce 
with him. She gained the love of Titus, who 
was only withheld from making her his wife by 
fear of offending the Romans by such a step. 
[8. Wife of Mithradates the Great, put to death 
by him with his other wives, to prevent their 
falling alive into the hands of the Romans.] 

BKUE.NICE (Bepevucr/ : BepeviKevf), the name 
of several cities of the period of the Ptolemies. 
1. Formerly Eziongeber (ruins near Akabah), in 
Arabia, at the head of the Sinus JSlanites, or 
eastern branch of the Red Sea. 2. In Upper 
Egypt (for so it was considered, though it lay 
141 



BERGISTANI. 



BIBACULUS. 



a little south of the parallel of Syene), on the 
coast of the Red Sea, on a gulf called Sinus 
Inimiiiuhw (uKudaprof xoATrof, now Foul Bay), 
where its ruins are still visible. It was named 
after the mother of Ptolemy IL Philadelphia, 
who built it, and made a road hence to Coptos, 
so that it became a chief emporium for the com- 
merce of Egypt with Arabia and India. Under 
the Romans it was the residence of a pnefectus. 
3. B. PANCHavsos (B. Ilu-yxpv f or ij KOTO, 
Sufiaf), on the Red Sea coast in ^Ethiopia, con- 
siderably south of the above. 4 B. EPIDIRES 
(B. M Aet/%), on the Promontory Dira, on the 
western side of the entrance to the Red Sea 
(now Straits of Bab-el- Mandeb). 5. (Now Ben 
Ghazi, ruins), in Cyrenaica, formerly HESPERIS 
('Eairepif), the fabled site of the Gardens of the 
Hesperides. It took its later name from the 
wife of Ptolemy IIL Euergetes, and was the 
westernmost of the five cities of the Libyan 
Pentapolis. There were other cities of the 
name. 

BERGISTANI, a people in the northeast of Spain, 
between the Iberus and the Pyrenees, whose 
capital was Bergium. 

[BERGIUM (now Bambcrg ?). 1. A place in the 
country of the Hermunduri, in Germania Magna. 
2. Vid. BERGISTANI.] 

BERGOMUM (Bergomas, -atis : now Bergamo), 
& town of the Orobii in Gallia Cisalpina. be- 
tween Comum and Brixia, afterward a muni- 
cipium. 

[BEEMIUS MONS (Bepjuov opof : now Xero Li- 
vadho), a mountain of Macedonia, a continuation 
of the great range of Olympus.] 

BEROE (Bepoij). 1. A Trojau woman, wife of 
Doryclus, one of the companions of ./Eneas, 
whose form Iris assumed when she persuaded 
the women to set fire to the ships of ^Eneas in 
Sicily. [2. The nurse of Semele, whose form 
Juuo (Hera) assumed for the purpose of per- 
suading Semele to request Jupiter to visit her 
in all his divine majesty. 3. One of the ocean 
nymphs.] 

BERO:A (Eepoia, also T&eppoia, Bepoj? : Eepoievf, 
Bepotatof). 1. (Now Verria), one of the most 
ancient towns of Macedonia, on one of the low- 
er ranges of Mount Bermius, and on the As- 
trseus, a tributary of the Haliacmon, southwest 
of Pella, and about twenty miles from the sea. 
2. (Now Beria), a town in the interior of 
Thrace, was under the later Roman empire, 
together with Philippopolis, one of the most 
important military posts. 3. (Now Aleppo or 
Haleb), a town in Syria near Antioch, enlarged 
by Seleucus Nicator, who gave ( it the Macedo- 
nian name of Bercea. It is called Helbon or 
Chclbon in Ezekiel (xxvii., 18), and Chalcp in 
the Byzantine writers, a name still retained in 
the modern Haleb, for which Europeans have 
substituted Aleppo. 

BEROSUS (Bripuaos, or Rripuooof), a priest of 
Belus at Babylon, lived in the reign of Antio- 
chus IL (B.C. 261-246), and wrote in Greek a 
history of Babylonia, in nine books (called Ba- 
GvhuviKu, and sometimes Xa/Wai'/ea or laropiat 
Xa/Wai/cat). It embraced the earh'est traditions 
about the human race, a description of Babylo- 
nia and its population, and a chronological list 
of its kings down to the time of the great Cyrus. 
Berosus says that he derived the materials for 
142 



his work from the archives in the temple of 
Belus. The work itself is lost, but considerable 
fragments of it are preserved in Josephus, 
Eusebius, Syucellus, and the Christian fathers . 
the best editions of the fragments are by Rich- 
ter, Lips., 1825, and in Didot's Fragmcnta Histor- 
icorum Gracorum, voL ii., Paris, 1 848. 

BERYTUS (BrjpvTof : BjjpvTiof : now Beirut, 
ruins), one of the oldest sea-ports of Phoenicia, 
stood on a promontory near the mouth of the 
River Magoras (now Nahr Beirut), half way be- 
tween Byblus and Sidon. It was destroyed by 
the Syrian king Try phon (B.C. 140), and restored 
by Agrippa under Augustus, who made it a col- 
ony. It afterward became a celebrated seat of 
learning. 

1! f.- \. Vid. ANTINOOPOLIS. 

BESSI, a fierce and powerful Thracian people, 
who dwelt along the whole of Mount HUMMUS as 
far as the Euxine. After the conquest of Mace 
donia by the Romans (B.C. 168), the Bessi were 
attacked by the hitter, and subdued after a se 
vere struggle. 

BESSUS (Br/aaof), satrap of Bactria under Da 
rius III., seized Darius soon after the battle of 
Arbela, B.C. 331. Pursued by Alexander in the 
following year, Bessus put Darius to death, and 
fled to Bactria, where he assumed the title of 
king. He was betrayed by two of his followers 
to Alexander, who put him to death. 

BESTIA, CALPURNIUS. 1. L., tribune of the 
plebs B.C. 121, and consul 111, when he carried 
on war against Jugurtha,, but, having received 
large bribes, he concluded a peace with the Nu 
midian. On his return to Rome, he was, in con- 
sequence, accused and condemned. 2. L., one of 
the Catilinarian conspirators, B.C. 63, was at 
the time tribune of the plebs designatus, and 
not actually tribune, as Sallust says. In 59 he 
was aedile, and in 57 was an unsuccessful candi- 
date for the praetorship, notwithstanding his bri- 
bery, for which offence he was brought to trial 
in the following year, and condemned, although 
he was defended by Cicero. 

BETASII, a people in Gallia Belgica, between 
the Tungri and Nervii, in the neighborhood of 
Beets in Brabant. 

[BEVUS (Bevoc), a river of 'Macedonia, an af 
fluent of the Erigon.] 

BEZIRA. Vid. BAZIRA. 

BIAXOR. 1. Also called Ocnus or Aucnus, 
son of Tiberis and Manto, is said to have built 
the town of Mantua, and to have called it after 
his mother. 2. A Bithynian, the author of 
twenty-one epigrams in the Greek Anthology, 
lived under Augustus and Tiberius. 

BiAs(Bzf.) 1. Son of Amythaon, and brother 
of the seer Melampus. He married Pero, 
daughter of Neleus, whom her father had re- 
fused to give to any one unless he brought him 
the oxen of Iphiclus. These Melampus obtained 
by his courage and skill, and so won the princess 
for his brother. Melampus also gained for Bias 
a third of the kingdom of Argos, in consequence 
of his curing the daughters of Prcetus and the 
other Argive women of their madness. 2. Of 
Priene in Ionia, one of the seven sages of Greece, 
flourished about B.C. 550. 

BiBActfi-us, M. FURIUS, a Roman poet, born 
at Cremona B.C. 103, wrote iambics, epigrams, 
and a poem on Caesar's Gaulish wars the open 



BIBRACTE. 



BITHYNIA. 



ing line in the latter pf-em is parodied by Horace ' 
(furius hibernas cana nive conspuet Alpes, Sat., ; 
ii., 5, 41). It is probable that Bibaculus also 
wrote a poem entitled jEthiopis, containing an 
account of the death of Memnon by Achilles, 
and that the turgidus Alpinus of Horace (Sat., | 
L, 10, 36) is no other than Bibaculus. The at- 
tacks of Horace against Bibaculus may probably | 
be owing to the fact that the poems of Bibaculus 
contained insults against the Caesars. (Tac., Ann., 
iv., 34.) 

BIBRACTE (now Auturi), the chief town of the 
.JSdui in Gallia Lugdunensis, afterward Augus- 
todunum. 

BIBEAX (now Bievre), a town of the Remi in 
Gallia Belgica, not far from the Aisne. 

BIBOLUS CALPURNIUS. 1. L., curule aedile B. 
C. 65, praetor 62, and consul 59, in each of which 
years he had C. Julius Caesar as his colleague. 
He was a stanch adherent of the aristocratical 
party, but was unable in his consulship to re- 
sist the powerful combination of Caesar, Pom- 
pey, and Crassus. After an ineffectual attempt 
fx> oppose Caesar's agrarian law, he withdrew 
from the popular assemblies altogether ; whence 
it was said in joke that it was the consulship 
of Julius and Caesar. In 51 Bibulus was pro- 
consul of Syria ; and in the civil war he com- 
manded Pompey's fleet in the Adriatic, and 
died (48) while holding this command off Cor- 
cyra. He married Porcia, the daughter of Cato 
Uticensis, by whom he had three sons, two of 
whom were murdered by the soldiers of Gabin- 
ius, in Egypt, 50. 2. L., son of No. 1, was a 
youth at his father's death, and was brought up 
by M. Brutus, who married his mother Porcia. 
He fought with Brutus at the battle of Philippi 
in 42, but he was afterward pardoned by Anto- 
ny, and was intrusted by the latter with im- 
portant commands. He died shortly before the 
battle of Actium. 

[BICUKDIUM (now Erfurt /), a city of the Che- 
rusci in Germany.] 

BIDIS (Bidlnus, Bidensis), a small town in Si- 
cily, west of Syracuse. 

BIGERRA (now Becerra ?), a town of the Ore- 
lani in Hispania Tarraconensis. 

BIGERRIONES or BiGERRi, a people in Aquita- 
nia, near the Pyrenees. 

BILBILIS (now Baubola), a town of the Celti- 
beri in Hispauia Tarraconensis, and a munici- 
pium with the surname Augusta, on the River 
Salo, also called Bilbilis (now Xalori), was the 
birth-place of the poet Martial, and was cele- 
brated for its manufactories in iron and gold. 

BILL^ECH (BtX^atof : now Filbas), a river of 
Bithynia, rising in the Hypii Montes, and falling 
into the Pontus Euxinus twenty stadia (two 
geographical miles) east of Tium. Some made 
it the boundary between Bithynia and Paphla- 
gonia. 

BINGIUM (now Bingen), a town on the Rhine, 
in Gallia Belgica. 

BION (Biuv). 1. Of Smyrna, a bucolic poet, 
flourished about B.C. 280, and spent the last 
years of his life in Sicily, where he was poison- 
ed. He was older than Moschus, who laments 
his untimely death, and calls himself the pupil 
of Bion. (Mosch., Id., iii.) The style of Biou 
is refined, and his versification fluent nnd ele- 
gant, but he is inferior to Theocritus in strength 



and depth of feeling. Editions, including Mos 
chus, by Jacobs, Gotha, 1795 ; Wakefield, Lon- 
don, 1795; and Manso, Leipzig, 1807. 2. Of 
Borysthenes, near the mouth of the Dnieper, 
flourished about B.C. 250. He was sold as a 
slave, when young, and received his liberty from 
his master, a rhetorician. He studied at Athens, 
and embraced the later Cyrenaic philosophy, 
as expounded by THEODORCS, the Atheist. He 
lived a considerable time at the court of Antig 
onus Gonatas, king of Macedonia. Bion was 
noted for his sharp sayings, whence Horace 
speaks of persons delighting Bioneis semnonibiis 
et sale nigro. (Epist., ii., 2, 60.) [3. Of Soli in 
Cilicia, author of a work on ^Ethiopia (A.Wio- 
7rt/ca), of which a few fragments remain ; he 
wrote also a treatise on agriculture. 4. A math 
ematician of Abdera, the first who maintained 
that there were certain regions where the night 
lasted six months, and the day the other six 
months of the year.] 

[BIRTHA (ruins at Biradsjik), a city of Osrho- 
ene, on the Euphrates.] 

[BISALT^E (BtuaArai). Vld. BISALTIA.] 

BISALTIA (Biaahria : Bi<7aAr^f), a district in 
Macedonia, on the western bank of the Stry- 
| moa The Bisaltae were Thracians, and at the 
! invasion of Greece by Xerxes (B.C. 480) they 
i were ruled by a Thracian prince, who was in- 
1 dependent of Macedonia ; but at the time of 
the Peloponnesian war we find them subject to 
Macedonia. 

[BISALTIS, female patronymic from Bisaltcs, i. 
e., THEOPHANE.] 

BISANTHE (Biauvdrj : Biaavdijvof : now Ro- 
dosto), subsequently Rhcedestum or Rhcedestus, a 
town in Thrace on the Propontis, with a good 
harbor, was founded by the Samians, and was 
in later times one of the great bulwarks of the 
neighboring Byzantium. 

BISTONES (BTTovf) a Thracian people be- 
tween Mount Rhodope and the ^Egean Sea, en 
the Lake BISTONIS, in the neighborhood of Ab- 
dera, through whose land Xerxes marched on 
his invasion of Greece (B.C. 480). From the 
worship of Bacchus (Dionysus) in Thrace the 
Bacchic women are called Bistoriides. (Hor., 
Carm., ii., 19, 20.) 

BITHYNIA (Bi&vvta : Biffovog), a district of Asia 
Minor, bounded on the west by Mysia, on the 
north by the Pontus Euxinus, on the east by 
Paphlagonia, and on the south by Phrygia Epic- 
tetus, was possessed at an early period by Thra- 
cian tribes from the neighborhood of the Stry- 
mon, called Thyni (Qvvoi) and Bithyui (Btdvvoi), 
of whom the former dwelt on the coast, the 
latter in the interior. The earlier inhabitants 
were the BEBRTCES, CAUCONES, and MYGDONES. 
and the northeastern part of the district was 
possessed by the MARIANDTNL The country 
was subdued by the Lydians, and afterward be- 
came a part of the Persian empire under Cyrus, 
and was governed by the satraps of Phrygia. 
During the decline of the Persian empire, the 
northern part of the country became independ- 
ent, under native princes called lirapxoi, who 
resisted Alexander and his successors, and es 
tablished a kingdom, which is usually considei 
ed to begin with Zipoates (about B.C. 287) or his 
sou Nicomedes I. (B.C. 278), and which lasted 
till the death of Nicomedes IIL (B.C. 74), who 
143 



BITHYNIUM. 



BODIOCASSES 



bequeathed his kingdom, to the Romans. By 
them it was first attached to the province of 
Asia, afterward to that -of Pontus, and, under 
Augustus, it was made a proconsular province. 
Several changes were made in its boundaries 
under the later emperors. It was a fertile 
country, intersected with wooded mountains, the 
highest of which was the Mysian Olympus, on 
its southern border. Ita chief rivers were the 
SAXGAB.IUS and the BILL&US. 

BITHYNIUM (BiOvviov), afterward CLAUDIOFO- 
Lis, an inland city of Bithynia, the birth-place of 
Hadrian's favorite Antinoiis. 

BITON (Biruv). 1. A mathematician, the au- 
thor of an extant work on Military Machines (na- 
Taaneval iro'kefUKuv dpyuvuv not Karane'XTiKuv), 
whose history is unknown. The iflork is printed 
in Vet. Mathem, Op., Paris, 1693, p. 105, seq. 
[2. A friend of Xenophon, who, with Euclides, 
showed him kindness, and relieved his wants at 
Ophrynium, on his return from Babylonia.] 

BITON and CLEOBIS (KAeo&f), sons of Cydippe, 
a priestess of Juno (Hera) at Argos. They were 
celebrated for their affection to their mother, 
whose chariot they once dragged during a fes- 
tival to the temple of Juno (Hera), a distance 
of forty-five stadia. The priestess prayed to 
the goddess to grant them what was best for 
mortals ; and during the night they both died 
while asleep in the temple. 

Bmjfrus, in inscriptions BETULTCS, king of 
the Arverni in Gaul, joined the Allobroges in 
their war against the Banians. Both the Ar- 
verni and Allobroges were defeated B.C. 121, at 
the confluence of the Rhone and the Isara, by 
Q. Fabius Maximus. Bituitus was subsequently 
taken prisoner and sent to Rome. 

BITUBIGES, a numerous and powerful Celtic 
people in Gallia Aquitanica, had in early times 
the supremacy over the other Celts in Gaul. 
(Liv., v, 34.) They were divided into, 1. Brr. 
CUBI, separated from the Carnutes and jEdui 
by the Liger, and bounded on the south by the 
Lemovices, in the country of the modern Bour- 
ges : their capital was AVAEICUM. 2. BIT. Vi- 
visci or UBISCI on the Garumna : their capital 

Was BURDIGALA. 

BLADUS, BLANDUS, or BLACDDS (B/lu-, BAuv-, 
B/law5of : BAavdj?j>6f : Blaudesius), a city of 
Phrygia, near the borders of Mysia and Lydia. 

BL^SUS, C. SEMPRONIUS, consul with Cn. Ser- 
vilius Caepio, B.C. 253, in the first Punic war. 
The two consuls sailed to the coast of Africa, 
and on their return were overtaken off Cape 
Palinurus by a tremendous storm, in which one 
hundred and fifty ships perished. 

BL^BSUS, JUNIUS, governor of Pannonia at the 
death of Augustus, A.D. 14, when the formid- 
able insurrection of the legions broke out in 
that province. He obtained the government of 
Africa in 21, where he gained a victory over 
Tacfarinas. Ou the fall of his uncle Sejanus in 
31, he was deprived of the priestly offices which 
he held, and in 36 put an end to his own life, to 
avoid falling by the hand of the executioner. 

BLANDA. 1. (Now Blanos), a town of the 
Lacetani in Hispania Tarraconensis. 2. (Now 
St. Biasio), a town in Lucania. 

[BLANDUSIA TONS. Vid. BANDUSIA.] 

BLASCON (now Erescou), a small island in the 
Qallicus Sinus, off the town of Agatha 
144 



BLASIO, M. HELVICS, praetor B.C. 197, defeated 
the Celtiberi in Spain, and took Illiturgi. 
[BLAUDUS (Bhafdos). Vid. BLADCS.] 

BLAVIA (now laye), a town of the Santoneb 
in Gallia Aquitauica, on the Garumna. 

BLEMYES (BAe/wef, BXc////Df), an ^Ethiopian 
people on the borders of Upper Egypt, to wliich 
their predatory incursions were very troublesome 
in the times of the Roman emperors. 

[BLENDIUM (now Santander ?), a port of the 
Cantabri in Hispania Tarraconensis.] 

BLEKA (Blerunus : now Bieda), a town in 
Etruria, on the Via Clodia, between Formn 
Clodii and Tuscania : there are many remains of 
the ancient town at Bieda. 

BLOSICS or BLOSSIUS, the name of a noble 
family in Campania. One of this family, C. 
Blosius of Cumae, was a philosopher, a disciple 
of Antipater of Tarsus, and a friend of Tiberius 
Gracchus. After the death of Gracchus (B.C. 
133) he fled to Aristonicus, king of Pergamus, 
and on the conquest of Aristonicus by the Ro- 
mans, Blosius put an end to his own life for fear 
of falling into the hands of the Romans. 

BOADICEA, queen of the Iceni in Britain, hav 
ing been shamefully treated by the Romans, 
who even ravished her two daughters, excited 
an insurrection of the Britons against their op- 
pressors during the absence of Suetonius Pau- 
linus, the Roman governor, on an expedition U> 
the island of Mona. She took the Roman colo- 
nies of Camalodunum, Londim'um, and other 
places, and slew nearly seventy thousand Ro- 
mans and their allies. She was at length de- 
feated with great loss by Suetonius Pauliuus, and 
put an end to her own fife, A.D. 61. 

BOM or BAVO (now Bua), an island on the 
coast of Dalmatia, used by the later Roman em- 
perors as a place of exile for state criminals.] 

BOAGEICS (Boayptof, now Terremotto), a river 
in Locris, also called MANES, flows past Thro- 
nium into the Sinus Maliacus. 

[BOBIUM (now Bobbio), a castrum of the Li- 
gurians, on the Trebia.] 

[BOCCHAR. 1. A brave king of the Mauri in 
Africa, a contemporary of Masinissa. 2. An 
officer of King Syphax, who fought against 
Masinissa.] 

BOCCHUS (Bo/c^of). 1. King of Mauretania, 
and father-in-law of Jugurtha, with whom at 
first he made war against the Romans, but 
whom he afterward delivered up to Sulla, the 
quaestor of Marius, B.C. 106. 2. Son of the 
preceding, reigned along with his brother Bo- 
gud over Mauretania. Bocchus and Bogud as- 
sisted Caasar in his war against the Pompeiaus 
in Africa, B.C. 46 : and in 45 Bogud joined 
Caesar in his war in Spain. After the murder 
of Caesar, Bocchus sided with Octaviauus, and 
Bogud with Antony. When Bogud was in 
Spain in 38, Bocchus usurped the sole govern- 
ment of Mauretania, in which he was confirmed 
by Octavianus. He died about 33, whereupon 
his kingdom .became a Roman province. Bogud 
had previously betaken himself to Antony, and 
was killed on the capture of Methone by Agrip- 
pa in 31. 

[BODEBIA (Bodspia elf^txn?, Ptol). Vid. Bo 
DOTKIA.] 

BODENCTJS or BODINCUS. Vid. PADUS. 

BODIOCASSES, a people in Gallia Lugdunen 



BODOTRIA. 



BOIL 



sis their capital was AUGUSTODURUM (now 



BODOTRIA or BODERIA ^ESTUARIUM (now Firth 
of Forth), an aestuary on the eastern coast of 
Scotland. 

[BODUOGNATUS, leader of the Nervii in Gallia, 
in the time of Julius Caesar.] 

B<E. (Botai : Boidnjf : now Valka), a town 
in the south of Laconica, near Cape Malea. 

[BCEATICUS Sixus, to the east, or, rather, the 
eastern part, of the Laconicus Sinus, so called 
from tho town of Bceae, and now Gulf of Vatka.] 

BCEBE (Bo/&7 : Botfctif), a town in Pelasgio- 
tis in Thessaly, on the western shore of the 
Lake BCGBEIS (Boi6rjif, now Bio), into which 
several rivers of Thessaly flow. 

BOEDEOMIUS (Boqdpoptof ), " the helper in dis- 
tress," a surname of Apollo at Athens, because 
he had assisted the Athenians. Vid. Diet, of 
Ant n art. BOEDEOMIA. 

[BCEO (Boiu), a Grecian poetess of Delphi, 
composed a hymn, of which Pausanias has pre- 
served a few lines.] 

BCEOTIA (Boiuria : Boiurof : part of Livadia), 
a district of Greece, bounded north by Opun- 
tian Locris, east by the Euboean Sea, south by 
Attica, Megaris, and the Corinthian Gulf, and 
west by Phocis. It is nearly surrounded by 
mountains, namely, Helicon and Parnassus on 
the west, Cithaeron and Parnes on the south, 
the Opuntian mountains on the north, and a 
range of mountains along the whole sea-coast 
on the east The country contains several 
fertile plains, of which the two most important 
were the valley of the Asopus in the south, the 
inhabitants of which were called Parasopii, and 
the valley of the Cephisus in the north (the 
upper part of which, however, belonged to Pho- 
ck), the inhabitants of which were called Epi- 
ccphisii. In the former valley the chief towns 
were THEB.*, TANAGEA, THESPL<E, and PLA- 
IM.X. ; in the latter the chief towns were OE- 
CHOMEJTUS, CH^ERONEA, CORONEA, LEBADEA, and 
HALIARTUS ; the latter valley included the Lake 
COPAIS. The surface of Boeotia is said to be 
one thousand and eighty square miles. The at- 
mosphere was damp and thick, to which cir- 
cumstance some of the ancients attributed the 
dullness of the Boeotian intellect, with which 
the Athenians frequently made merry ; but the 
deficiency of the Boeotians in this respect was 
more probably owing, as has been well re- 
marked, to the extraordinary fertility of their 
country, which probably depressed their intel- 
lectual and moral energies. In the earliest 
times Bceotia was inhabited by various tribes, 
the Aones (whence the country was called 
Aonia), Temmices, Hyantes, Thracians, Lele- 
ges, <tc. Orchomenus was inhabited by the 
powerful tribe of the Minyans, and Thebes by 
the Cadmeans, the reputed descendants of CAD- 
MUS. The Boeotians were an JDolian people, 
who originally occupied Arne in Thessaly, from 
which they were expelled by the Thessalians 
sixty years after the Trojan war, and migrated 
into the country called after them Boeotia, partly 
expelling and partly incorporating with them- 
selves the ancient inhabitants of the land. 
Boeotia was then divided into fourteen inde- 
pendent states, which formed a league, with 
Thebes at its head. The chief magistrates of 
10 



the confederacy were the Bceotarchs, elected 
annually, two by Thebes and one by each of 
the other states ; but as the number of states 
was different at different times, that of the 
Bceotarchs also varied. The government in 
most states was an aristocracy. Vid. Diet, of 
Ant., art BCEOTAECHES. 

BOETHIUS, whose full name was ANICIUS MAN- 
LIUS SEVEEINUS BOETHIUS, a Roman statesman 
and author, was born between A.D. 470 and 475. 
He was famous for his general learning, and es- 
pecially for his knowledge of Greek philosophy, 
which, according to a common account (though 
of doubtful authority), he studied under Proems 
at Athens. He was consul in 510, and was 
treated with great distinction by Theodoric the 
Great ; but having incurred the suspicions of 
the latter by advocating the cause of the Ital- 
ians against the oppressions of the Goths, he 
was put to death by Theodoric about 524. Du- 
ring his imprisonment he wrote his celebrated 
work De Consolatione Philosophice, in five books, 
which is composed alternately in prose and 
verse. The diction is pure and elegant, and 
the sentiments are noble and exalted, showing 
that the author had a real belief in prayer and 
Providence, though he makes no reference to 
Christianity. Boethius was the last Roman of 
any note who understood the language and 
studied the literature of Greece. He translated 
many of the works of the Greek philosophers, 
especially of Aristotle, and wrote commenta 
ries upon them, several of which have come 
down to us. He also wrote a commentary, in 
six books, upon the Topica of Cicero, which is 
also extant. In the ignorance of Greek writer* 
which prevailed from the sixth to the four 
teenth century, Boethius was looked upon as 
the head and type of all philosophers, as Au- 
gustin was of all theology, and Virgil of all lit- 
erature ; but after the introduction of the works 
of Aristotle into Europe in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, Boethius's fame gradually died away. 
The best edition of his collective works was 
printed at Basel, 15*70; the last edition of his 
De Consolatione is by Obbarius, Jenae, 1843. 

BOETHUS (Boi]66f). 1. A Stoic philosopher of 
uncertain date, wrote several works, from ono 
of which Cicero quotes. 2. A Peripatetic phi 
losopher, was a native of Sidon in Phoenicia, a 
disciple of Andronicus of Rhodes, and an in 
structor of the philosopher Strabo. He there 
fore flourished about B.C. 30. He wrote sev 
eral works, all of which are now lost [3. A 
native of Tarsus, who gained the favor of An 
tony by celebrating in verse the defeat of Brutus 
and Cassius at Philippi.] 

BCEUM (Boiov, Botof, Bolov : Boiurrjf), an an- 
cient town of the Dorian Tetrapolis. 

BOGUD. Vid. BOCCHUS, No. 2. 

Bon, one of the most powerful of the Celtic 
tribes, said to have dwelt originally in Gaul 
(Transalpina), but in what part of the country 
is uncertain. At an early time they migrated 
in two great swarms, one of which crossed the 
Alps and settled in the country between the Po 
and the Apennines ; the other crossed the Rhine 
and settled in the part of Germany called Boi- 
hemum (now Bohemia) after them, and between 
the Danube and the Tyrol. The Boii in Italy 
long carried on a fierce struggle with the Ro 
145 



BOIODURUM. 



BOREUS MONS. 



mans, but they were at length subdued by the 
consul P. Scipio in B.C. 191, and were subse- 
quently incorporated in the province of Oallia 
Cisalpina. Ihe Boii in Germany maintained 
their po\\ cr longer, but were at length subdued 
by the Marcomanni, and expelled from the coun- 
try. We find 32,000 Boil taking part in the 
Helvetian migration ; and after the defeat of 
the Helvetians (B.C. 68), Caesar allowed these 
Boii to dwell among the J2dui. 

[BoiODtRUJi, (now Innstadf), a town of Vin- 
delicia, at the junction of the JEnus (now Inn) 
and the Danube.] 

BOIORK. 1. A chieftain of the Boii, fought 
against the Romans in Cisalpine Gaul, B.C. 
194. [2. King of the Cimbri, fought against the 
Romans under Marius, and fell in battle near 
Verona, B.C. 1C1.] 

BOLA, BOL.E, or VOL.E (Bolanus), an ancient 
town of the jEqui, belonging to the Latin league, 
not mentioned in later times. 

BOLANUS, VETTIUS, governor of Britain in 
A.D. 69, is praised by Statius in the poem (Silv., 
v., 2) addressed to Crispinus, the son of Bo- 
lanus. 

BOLBE (BohSi): now Bcshelc), a lake in Mace- 
donia, empties itself by a short river into the 
Strymonic Gulf near Bromiscus and Aulon : the 
lake is now about twelve miles in length, and 
six or eight in breadth. There was a" town of 
the same name upon the lake. 

BOLBITINE (BohfilTlVTJ : BoWlTLVTjTTJf : HOW 

Rosetta), a city of Lower Egypt, near the mouth 
of a branch of the Nile (the westernmost but 
one), which was called the Bolbitine mouth (TO 
BoA6irivov arofid). 

[BOLERIUM PROMONTORICM, the southwest 
point of Britannia, now Lands End, in Corn- 
wall.] 

BOLINE (RoTuvi] : Bo/UvaZof), a town in Achaia, 
the inhabitants of which Augustus transplanted 
to Patrae. 

BOLISSUS (Bo/.t<r<Tof : BoXioatoe, now Volisso), 
a town on the western coast of Chios. 

BOMILCAR (Bo/u'A/cap, Boa/uA/eap). 1. Com- 
mander, with Hanno, of the Carthaginians 
against Agathocles, when the latter invaded 
Africa, B.C. 310. In 3G8 he attempted to seize 
the government of Carthage, but failed, and was 
crucified. 2. Commander of the Carthaginian 
supplies sent to Hannibal after the battle of 
Cannae, 216. He afterward attempted to re- 
lieve Syracuse when besieged by Marcellus, 
but was unable to accomplish any thing. 3. A 
Numidian, deep in the confidence of Jugurtha. 
When Jugurtha was at Rome, 109, Bomilcar 
effected for him the assassination of Massiva. 
In 107 he plotted against Jugurtha. 

BOMIUS MONS, (B(j/of and ol Bw//ot), the west- 
ern part of Mount (Eta in JEtolia, inhabited by 
the Bomienses 



BONA DEA, a Roman divinity, is described as 
the sister, wife, or daughter of Faunus, and was 
herself called fauna, Falua, or Oma. She was 
worshipped at Rome as a chaste and prophetic 
divinity; she revealed her oracles only to fe- 
males, as Faunus did only to males. Her festi- 
val was celebrated every year on the first of 
Jlay, in the house of the consul or praetor, as 
the sacrifices on that occasion were offered on 
behalf of the whole Roman people. The eo- 
146 



lemnities were conducted by the Vestals, and 
no male person was allowed to be in the house 
at one of the festivals. P. Clodius profaned the 
sacred ceremonies by entering the house of 
Caesar in the disguise of a woman, B.C. 62. 

BONIFACICS, a Roman general, governor of 
Africa under Valentinian III. Believing that 
the Empress Placidia meditated his destruction, 
he revolted against the emperor, and invited 
Genseric, king of the Vandals, to settle in Afri- 
ca. In 430 he was reconciled to Placidia, and 
attempted to drive the Vandals out of Africa, 
but without success. He quitted Africa in 431, 
and in 432 he died of a wound received in com- 
! bat with his rival Aetius. 

BONNA (now Bonn), a town on the left bank 
of the Rhine, in Lower Germany, and in the ter- 
ritory of the Ubii, was a strong fortress of the 
Romans and the regular quarters of a Roman 
legioa Here Drusus constructed a bridge 
across the Rhine. 

BONONIA (Bononiensis). 1. (Now Bologna), 
a town in Gallia Cispadana, originally called 
FELSINA, was in ancient times an Etruscan city, 
and the capital of northern Etruria. It after- 
ward fell into the hands of the Boii, but it waa 
colonized by the Romans on the conquest of the 
Boii, B.C. 191, and its name of Felsina was then 
changed into Bononia. It fell into decay in the 
civil wars, but it was enlarged and adorned by 
Augustus, 32. 2. (Now Boulogne), a town in the 
north of Gaul. Vid. GESORIACPS. 3. (Now Ba- 
nostor ?), a town of Pannonia, on the Danube. 

BONOSUS, a Spaniard by birth, served with dis- 
tinction under Aurelian, and usurped the imperi- 
al title in Gaul in the reign of Probus. He was 
defeated and slain by Probus, A.D. 280 or 281. 

BOOTES. Vid. ARCTURUS. 

BORBETOMAGUS (now Worms), also called VAN- 
GIONES, at a later time WORMATIA, a town of the 
Vangiones, on the left bank of the Rhine, in Up- 
per Germany. 

BSREAS (Bopeaf or Eopdf), the north wind, or, 
more strictly, the wind from the north-north- 
east, was, in mythology, a son of Astrseus and 
Eos, and brother of Hesperus, Zephyrus, and 
Notus. He dwelt in a cave of Mount Haemus. 
in Thrace. He carried off Orithyia, daughtei 
of Erechtheus, king of Attica, by whom he begot 
Zetes, Calais, and Cleopatra, wife of Phineus 
who are therefore called Boreadce. In 4he Per 
sian war, Boreas showed his friendly disposition 
toward the Athenians by destroying the ships 
of the barbarians. According to an Homeric 
tradition (H,, xx., 223), Boreas begot twelve 
horses by the mares of Erichthonius, which is 
commonly explained as a figurative mode of 
expressing the extraordinary swiftness of those 
horses. Boreas was worshipped at Athens, 
where a festival, Borea&ni, was celebrated in 
his honor. 

BORKITM (Bopeiov). 1. (Now Malin Head), the 
northern promontory of Hibernia (now Ireland). 
2. (Now Has Teyonas), a promontory on the 
western coast of Cyrenaica, forming the eastern 
headland of the Great Syrtis. 3. The northern 
extremity of the island of Taprobane (now 
Ceylon). 

BORKUS MONS (Bopeiov opof), & mountain in 
Arcadia, on the borders of Laconia, containing 
the sources of the rivers Alpheus and Eurotas, 



BOREUS PORTUS. 



BRANCHID^E. 



BOEECS FOETUS (Bopeiof Atpfv), & harbor in 
the island of Tenedos, at the mouth of a river of 
the same name. 

BOKSIPPA (TU Bopanrrca : Bopaimri}v6s : now 
Boursa), a city of Babylonia, on the western 
bank of the Euphrates, a little south of Babylon, 
celebrated for its manufactures of linen, and as 
the chief residence of the Chaldean astrologers. 
The Greeks held it sacred to Apollo and Diana 
(Artemis). 

BORYSTHEXES (BopvadevTjf : now Dnieper), af- 
terward DAXAPRIS, a river of European Sarma- 
tia, flows into the Euxine, but its sources were 
unknown to the ancients. Near its mouth, and 
at its junction with the Hypanis, lay the town 
BOEYSTHEXES or BoRYSTHEXis (now Kudak), 
also called OLBIA, OLBIOPOLIS, and MILETOPOLIS, 
a colony of Miletus, and the most important 
Greek city on th% north of the Euxine. (Eth- 
nic, Bopvodevirrjc, 'OAStOTro/UT^f.) 

BOSPORUS (BotTTropof), i. e., Ox-ford, the name 
of any straits among the Greeks, but especially 
applied to the two following: 1. THE THRACI- 
AX BOSPORUS, (now Channel of Constantinople), 
unites the Propontis, or Sea of Marmara, with 
the Euxine, or Black Sea. According to the 
legend, it was called Bosporus from lo, who 
crossed it in the form of a heifer. At the en- 
trance of the Bosporus were the celebrated 
SYMPLEGADES. Darius constructed a bridge 
across the Bosporus when he invaded Scythia. 
2. THE CIMMERIAN BOSPORUS (uow Straits of 
Kaffa) unites the Palus Maeotis, or Sea of Azof, 
with the Euxine or Black Sea. It formed, with 
the Tanais (now Don), the boundary between 
Asia and Europe, and it derived its name from 
the CIHMEBII, who were supposed to have dwelt 
in the neighborhood. On the European side of 
the Bosporus, the modern Crimea, the Milesians 
founded the town of Panticapaeum, also called 
Bosporus, and the inhabitants of Panticapaeum 
subsequently founded the town of Phanagoria 
on the Asiatic side of the Straits. These cities, 
being favora^pr situated for commerce, soon be- 
came places of considerable importance ; and a 
kingdom gradually arose, of which Panticapae- 
um was the capital, and which eventually in- 
cluded the whole of the Crimea. The first 
kings we read of were the Archaenactidae, who 
reigned forty-two years, from B.C. 480 to 438. 
They were succeeded by Spartacus I. and his 
descendants. Several of these kings were in 
close alliance with the Athenians, who obtained 
annually a large supply of corn from the Bos- 
porus. The hist of these kings was Pterisades, 
who, being hard pressed by the Scythians, vol- 
untarily ceded his dominions to Mithradates the 
Great On the death of Mithradates, his son 
Pharnaces was allowed by Pompey to succeed 
to the dominion of Bosporus ; and we subse- 
quently find a series of kings, who reigned in 
the country till a late period, under the protec- 
tion of the Roman emperors. 

BOSTAR (BuffTup, Buerrapof). 1. A Cartha- 
ginian general, who, with Hamilcar and Has- 
drubal, the son of Hanno, fought against M. 
Atilius Regulus, in Africa, B.C. 266, but was 
defeated, taken prisoner, and sent to Rome, 
where he is said to have perished in consequence 
of the barbarous treatment which he received 
fnun the sons of Regulus. 2. A Carthaginian 



general, under Hasdrubal, in Spain, set at lib- 
erty the Spanish hostages kept at Saguntum, 
hoping thereby to secure the affections of the 
Spaniards. 

BOSTRA (ra Boarpa, Old Testament Bozrah : 
BoaTijvof and -aZoj : now Busrah, ruins), a city 
of Arabia, in an Oasis of the Syrian Desert, a 
little more than ten degrees south of Damascus- 
It was enlarged and beautified by Trajan, who 
made it a colony. Under the later emperors it 
was the seat of an archbishopric. 

BOTTIA, BoTTIjEA, BoTTI^EIS (BoTTia, BoTTl- 

aia, BoTTiaug : Borrialof), a district in Macedo- 
nia, on the right bank of the River Axius, ex 
tended in the time of Thucydides to Pieria on 
the west. It contained the towns of Pella and 
Ichnae near the sea. The Bottisei were a Thra- 
cian people, who, being driven out of the coun- 
try by the Macedonians, settled in that part of 
the Macedonian Chalcidice, north of Olynthus, 
which was called Bottice (BOTTIKT/). 

BOTTICE. Vid. BOTTIA. 

[BOVENXA (now Cabrera}, a small island at 
the northern extremity of Sardinia.] 

BOVIAXUM (Bovianius : now Bojano), the chief 
town of the Pentri in Samnium, was taken by 
the Romans in the Samnite wars, and was col 
onized by Augustus with veterans. 

BOVILL.E (Bovillensis), an ancient town in 
Latium, at the foot of the Alban Mountain, on 
the Appian Way, about ten miles from Rome. 
Near it Clodius was killed by Milo (B.C. 52) ; 
and here was the sacrarium of the Julia gens. 

BEACARA AUGUSTA (now Braga), the chief 
town of the Callaici Bracarii, in Hispania Tar- 
raconensis : at Braga there are the ruins of an 
amphitheatre, aqueduct, <fec. 

BRACHMAN^E or -i (Bpax/tuvee), is a name used 
by the ancient geographers, sometimes for a 
caste of priests in India (the Brahmins), some- 
times, apparently, for all the people whose re- 
ligion was Brahminism, and sometimes for a 
particular tribe. 

BR'ACHODES or CAPUT VADA (Bpaxudnf uapa . 
now Ras Kapoudiah), a promontory on the coast 
of Byzacena, in Northern Africa, forming the 
northern headland of the Lesser Syrtis. 

BRACK YLLES or BEACHYLLAS (Bpa^vAAj/f, Bpa- 
XvMac), a Boeotian, supported the Macedonian 
interests in the reigns of Antigonus Doson and 
Philip V. At the battle of Cyuoscephalse, B.C. 
197, he commanded the Boeotian troops in Phil- 
ip's army, and was murdered in 196 at Thebes 
by the Roman party in that city. 

[BEADANUS (now Brandano), a river of Lu- 
cania, which falls iito the Sinus Tarentinus : it 
forms the boundary between Lucania and Apu- 
lia.] 

BRANCH!!!.*: (al Bpay^tdat : now Jeronda, 
ruins) afterward DIDYMA or -i (TO &i6vfta, ol 
Ai<5v/uo(), a place on the sea-coast of Ionia, a 
little south of Miletus, celebrated for its temple 
and oracle of Apollo, surnamed Didymeus (At- 
dvyufiif). This oracle, which the lonians held 
in the highest esteem, was said to have been 
founded by Bronchus, son of Apollo or Smicrus 
of Delphi, and a Milesian woman. The reputed 
1 descendants of this Branchus, the Branchiddo 
; (ol Bpay^Wat), were the hereditary ministers of 
j this oracle. Th e Y delivered up the treasures 
1 of the temple to Darius or Xerxes ; and, when 
147 



BRANCHUS. 



BRITANNIA. 



Xerxes returucd from Greece, the Branchidse, 
tearing the revenge of the Greeks, begged him 
to remove them to a distant part of his empire. 
They were accordingly settled in Bactria or 
Sogdiana, where their descendants are said to 
have been punished by the army of Alexander 
for the treason of their forefathers. The tem- 
ple, called Didymaeum, which was destroyed by 
Xerxes, was rebuilt, and its ruins contain some 
beautiful specimens of the Ionic order of archi- 
tecture. 

BRANCHUS (Bpdyxof). Vid. BRANCHIDA 

BRANNOVICES. Vid. AULERCI. 

[BRANODONUM (now Brancaster), a city of the 
Iceni or Simeni in Britannia Romana.] 

[BRANOGENIUM (now Worcester) or BRANONI- 
UM, a town of the Boduni in Britannia Romana.] 

BRASIDAS (Bpaaidaf), son of Tellis, the most 
distingushed Spartan in the first part of the Pel- 
oponnesian war. In B.C. 424, at the head of 
a small force, he effected a dexterous march 
through the hostile country of Thessaly, and 
joined Perdiccas of Macedonia, who had prom- 
ised co-operation against the Athenians. By 
Iiis military skill, and the confidence which his 
character inspired, he gained possession of 
many of the cities in Macedonia subject to 
Athens ; his greatest acquisition was Amphip- 
olis. In 422 he gained a brilliant victory over 
Cleon, who had been sent, with an Athenian 
force, to recover Amphipolis, but he was slain 
in the battle. He was buried within the city, 
and the inhabitants honored him as a hero by 
yearly sacrifices and by games. Vid. Diet, of 
Ant., art. BRASIDEIA. 

BRATUSPANT!UM (now Bratuspante, near Bre- 
teuil ), the chief town of the Bellovaci in Gallia 
Belgica. 

BRAURON (Bpavpuv : Bpavpuviof : now Vrao- 
na or Vrana), a demus in Attica, on the eastern 
coast, on the River Erasinus, with a celebrated 
temple of Diana (Artemis), who was hence 
called Brauronia, and in whose honor the fes- 
tival Brauronia was celebrated in this place. 
Vid. Diet, of Ant., s. v. 

BREGETIO (near Szdny, ruins, east of Co- 
morn), a Roman municipium in Lower Panno- 
nia on the Danube, where Valentinian I. died. 

BRENNUS. 1. The leader of the Senonian 
Gauls, who, in B.C. 890, crossed the Apennines, 
defeated the Romans at the Allia, and took 
Rome. After besieging the Capitol for six 
months, he quitted the city upon receiving one 
thousand pounds of gold as a ransom for the 
Capitol, and returned home safe with his booty. 
But it was subsequently related in the popular 
legends that Camillus and a Roman army ap- 
peared at the moment the gold was being 
weighed, that Brennus was defeated by Camil- 
lus, and that he himself and his whole army 
were slain to a man. 2. The chief leader of 
the Gauls who invaded Macedonia and Greece, 
B.C. 280, 279. In 280 Ptolemy Ceraunus was 
defeated by the Gauls under Belgius, and slain 
in battle ; and Brenuus in the following year 
penetrated into the south of Greece, but he was 
defeated near Delphi, most of his men were 
slain, and he himself put an end to his own life. 

BREUCI, a powerful people of Pannonia, near 
the confluence of the Savus and the Danube, 
took an active part in the insurrection of the 
148 



Pannonians and Dalmatians against the Ro 
mans, A.D. 6. 

BREUNI, a Raetian people, dwelt in the Tyrol 
near the Brenner. (Hor., Carm., iv., 14, 11.) 

BRIAREUS. Vid. ^EG^KON. 

BRIUINN-LE (BptKiwlat), a place in Sicily not 
far from Leontini. 

BRIGAXTES, the most powerful of the British 
tribes, inhabited the whole of the north of the 
island from the Abus (now Hwnber) to the Ro- 
man wall, with the exception of the southeast 
corner of Yorkshire, which was inhabited by the 
Parisii. The Brigantes consequently inhabited 
the greater part of Yorkshire, and the whole of 
Lancashire, Durham, Westmoreland, and Cum- 
berland. Their capital was EBORACUM. They 
were conquered by Petilius Cerealis in the reign 
of Vespasian. There was alro a tribe of Bri- 
gantes in the south of Ireland^ between the riv- 
ers Birgus (now Barrow) and Dabrona (now 
Blackwater), in the counties of Waterford and 
Tipperary. 

BRIGANTII, a tribe in Viudelicia, on the Lake 
BRIGANTINUS, noted for their robberies. 

BRIGANTINUS LACUS (now Bodensee or Lake 
of Constance), also called VENETUS and ACRO- 
NIUS, through which the Rhine flows, was in- 
habited by the Helvetii on the south, by the 
Raetii on the southeast, and by the Vindelici on 
the north. Near an island on it, probably Rei- 
chenau, Tiberius defeated the Yindelici in a 
naval engagement. 

BRIGANTIUM. 1. (Now Brianpon), a town of 
the Segusiani in Gaul, at the foot of the Cottian 
Alps. 2. (Now Corunna), a sea-port town of 
the Lucenses, in Gallecia in Spain, with a light- 
house, which is still used for the same purpose, 
having been repaired in 1791, and which is now 
called La Torre de Hercules. 3. (Now Bregenz\ 
a town of the Brigantini Vindeliei, on the Lake 
of Constance. 

BRILESSUS (BpiXriaaof), a mountain in Attica, 
northeast of Athens. 

BRIMO (Bpipu), " the angry or A terrifying," 
a surname of Hecate and Proserpina (Perseph- 
one.) 

BRINIATES, a people in Liguria, south of the 
Po, near the modern Brignolo. 

BRISEIS (Bpiarjif), daughter of Brises of Lyr- 
nessus, fell into the hands of Achilles, but was 
seized by Agamemnon. Hence arose the dire 
feud between the two heroes. Vid. ACHILLES. 
Her proper name was Hippodamaa. 

BRITANNIA (ff BperraviK^ or BpcraviKij, sc. 
vqaoc. , T) BpETTavia or Bperavta : Bperravot, Bpe 
ravoi, Britanni, Brittones), the island of England 
and Scotland, which was also called ALBION 
Miov, 'Ahoviuv, Insula Albionum). HIBERNIA 
or Ireland is usually spoken of as a separate 
island, but it is sometimes included under the gen- 
eral name of the INSULT BRITANNIOS Bpt-ra- 

al vfiaoi), which also comprehended the small- 
er islands around the coast of Great Britain. The 
etymology of the word Britannia is uncertain, 
but it is derived by most writers from the Celtic 
word brith or brit, " painted," with reference to 
the custom of the inhabitants of staining their 
bodies with a blue color : whatever may be the 
etymology of the word, it is certain that it was 
used by the inhabitants themselves, since in the 
Gaelic the inhabitants are called Brython, and 



BRITANNIA. 

Cheir language Brythoneg. The name Albion is 
probably derived from the white cliffs of the 
island [for the more correct derivation, vid. AL- 
BION] ; but writers who derived the names of 
all lands and people from a mythical ancestor, 
connected the name with one. Albion, the son 
of Neptune. The Britons were Celts, belong- 
ing to that branch of the race called Cymry, 
and were apparently the aboriginal inhabitants 
of the country. Their manners and customs 
were in general the same as the Gauls ; but, 
separated more than the Gauls from intercourse 
with civilized nations, they preserved the Celtic 
religion in a purer state than in Gaul, and hence 
Druidism, according to Ccesar, was transplanted 
from Gaul to Britain. The Britons also retained 
many of the barbarous Celtic customs, which 
the more civilized Gauls had laid aside. They 
painted their bodies with a blue color extracted 
from woad, in order to appear more terrible in 
battle, and they had wives in common. At a 
later time the Belgae crossed over from Gaul, and 
settled on the southern and eastern coasts, driv- 
ing the Britons into the interior of the island. 
It was not till a late period that the Greeks and 
Romans obtained any knowledge of Britain. In 
early times the Phoenicians visited the Scilly 
Islands and the coast of Cornwall for the pur- 
pose of obtaining tin ; but whatever knowledge 
they acquired of the country they jealously kept 
secret, and it only transpired that there were 
CASSITERIDES, or Tin Islands, in the northern 
parts of the ocean. The first certain know- 
ledge which the Greeks obtained of Britain was 
from the merchants of Massilia, /ibout the time 
of Alexander the Great, and especially from the 
voyages of PYTHEAS, who sailed round a great 
part of Britain. From this time it was gener- 
ally believed that the island was in the form of 
a triangle, an error wliich continued to prevail 
even at a later period. Another important mis- 
take, which likewise prevailed for a long time, 
was the position of Britain in relation to Gaul 
and Spam. As the northwestern coast of Spain 
was supposed to extend too far to the north, and 
the western coast of Gaul to run northeast, the 
lower part of Britain was believed to lie between 
Spain and Gaul. The Romans first became per- 
sonally acquainted with the island by Csesar'e 
invasion. He twice landed in Britain (B.C. 
55, 54), and though on the second occasion he 
conquered the greater part of the southeast 
of the island, yet he did not take permanent 
possession of any portion of the country, and 
nfter his departure the Britons continued as in- 
dependent as before. The Romans made no 
further attempts to conquer the island for nearly 
one hundred years. In the reign of Claudius 
(A.D. 43), they again landed in Britain, and per- 
manently subdued the country south of the 
Thames. They now began to extend their con- 
quests over the other parts of the island ; and the 
great victory (61) of Suetonius Paulinus over 
the Britons who had revolted under BOADICEA, 
etill further consolidatsd the Romai dominions. 
In the rvign of Vespasian, Petilius Ocrealis and 
Julius Frontinus made several successful expe- 
ditions against the SILURES and the BRIGANTES ; 
and the conquest of South Britain was at length 
finally completed by Agricola, who in seven 
campaigns (78-84) subdued the whole of the 



BRITANNIA. 

island as far north as the Frith of Forth and the 
Clyde, between which he erected a series of 
forts to protect the Roman dominions from the 
incursions of the barbarians in the north of 
Scotland. The Roman part of Britain was now 
called Britannia Romana, and the northern part, 
inhabited by the Caledonians, Britannia Barbara 
or Caledonia. The Romans, however, gave up 
the northern conquests of Agricola in the reign * 
of Hadrian, and made a rampart of turf from 
the ^Estuarium Ituna (now Solicay Frith) to the 
German Ocean, which formed the northern 
boundary of their dominions. In the reign of 
Antoninus Pius the Romans again extended their 
boundary as far as the conquests of Agricola, 
and erected a rampart connecting the Forth and 
the Clyde, the remains of which are now called 
Grimes Dike, Grime in the Celtic language sig- 
nifying great or powerful. The Caledonians 
afterward broke through this wall ; and in con- 
sequence of their repeated devastations of the 
Roman dominions, the Emperor Severus went 
to Britain in 208, in order to conduct the war 
against them in person. He died in the island 
at Eboracum (now York) in 211, after erecting 
a solid stone wall from the Solway to the mouth 
of the Tyne, a little north of the rampart of 
Hadrian. After the death of Severus, the Ro- 
mans relinquished forever all their conquests 
north of this wall. In 287 Carausius assumed 
the purple in Britain, and reigned as emperor, 
independent of Diocletian and Maximian, till 
his assassination by Allectus in 293. Allectue 
reigned three years, and Britain was recovered 
for the emperors in 296. Upon the resignation 
of the empire by Diocletian and Maximian (305), 
Britain fell to the share of Constantius, who 
died at Eboracum in 306, and his son Constau- 
tine assumed in the island the title of Cassar. 
Shortly afterward, the Caledonians, who now 
appear under the names of Picts and Scots, 
broke through the wall of Severus, and the 
Saxons ravaged the coasts of Britain ; and the 
declining power of the Roman empire was un- 
able to afford the province any effectual assist- 
ance. In the reign of Valentinian I, Theodo- 
sius, the father of the emperor of that name, 
defeated the Picts and Scots (367) ; but in the 
reign of Honorius, Constantine, who had been 
proclaimed emperor in Britain (407), withdrew 
all the Roman troops from the island, in order 
to make himself master of GauL The Britons 
were thus left exposed to the ravages of the 
Picts and Scots, and at length, in 447, they 
called in the assistance of the Saxons, who be- 
came the masters of Britain. The Roman do- 
minions of Britain formed a single province till 
the time of Severus, and were governed by a 
legatus of the emperor. Severus divided the 
country into two provinces, Britannia Superior 
and Inferior, of which the latter contained the 
earliest conquests of the Romans in the south 
of the island, and the former the later conquests 
in the north, the territories of the Silures, Bri 
gautes, Ac. Upon the new division of the prov 
inces in the reign of Diocletian, Britain was 
governed by a vicariits, subject to the prafectvs 
prattorio of Gaul, and was divided into four prov- 
inces: (1.) Britannia Prima, the country south 
of the Thames; (2.) Britannia Secunda, Wales; 
(3.) Maxima Catariensis, the country between 
149 



BRITANNICUS. 



BRUTUS. 



the Thames and the Humber ; (4.) Flavia Ccesar- 
iensit, the country between the Humber and the 
Roman walL Besides these, there was also a 
fifth province, Valentia, which existed for a short 
time, including the conquests of Theodosius be- 
yond the Roman walL 

BRITANNICUS, son of the Emperor Claudius 
and Messalina, was born A.D. 42. Agrippina, 
the second wife of Claudius, induced the em- 
peror to adopt her own son, and give him pre- 
cedence oyer Britannicus. This son, the Emper- 
or Nero, ascended the throne in 54, and caused 
Britannicus to be poisoned in the following year. 

[BRITOMARIS, a leader of the Galli Senones, 
who caused the Roman ambassadors to be put 
to death, and their bodies to be mangled with 
every possible indignity : this act brought upon 
him and his people the vengeance of the Ro- 
mans.] 

BRITOMARTIS (BptroftapTif, usually derived 
from Pptrvf, sweet or blessing, and //aprtf, a 
maiden), was a Cretan nymph, daughter of Jupi- 
ter (Zeus) and Carme, and beloved by Minos, who 
pursued her nine months, till at length she 
leaped into the sea and 'was changed by Diana 
(Artemis) into a goddess. She seems to have 
been originally a Cretan diviuity who presided 
over the sports of the chase ; on the introduc- 
tion of the worship of Diana (Artemis) into 
Crete she was naturally placed in some relation 
with the latter goddess ; and at length the two 
divinities became identified, and Britomartis is 
called in one legend the daughter of Latona (Le- 
to). At ^Egina Britomartis was worshipped un- 
der the name of Aphaea. 

[BRITONES. Via. BRITANNIA.] 

[BRIVATES PORTUS (now Say de Pinnebe ; ac- 
cording to D'Anville, Brest), a harbor of the 
Namnetes in Gallia Lugdunensis.] 

BRIXELLUM (Brixellanus : now Bregella or 
Brescella), a town on the right bank of the Po, in 
Gallia Cisalpina, where the Emperor Otho put 
himself to death, A.D. 69. 

BRIXIA (Brixianus : now Brescia), a town in 
Gallia Cisalpina, on the road from Comum to I 
Aquileia, through which the River Mella flowed 
(flaws quam molli percurrit flumine Mella, Ca- 
tolL, Ixvii., 33). It was probably founded by 
the Etruscans, was afterward a town of the 
Libui and then of the Cenomani, and finally 
became a Roman municipium with the rights of 
a colony, 

Bfiomius (Bpopiof), a surname of Bacchus 
(Dionysus), i. e., the noisy god, from the noise of 
the Bacchic revelries (from Bpe//). 

BRONTES. Vid. CYCLOPES. 

BRUCHIDM. Vid. ALEXANDREA. 

BRUCTERI, a people of Germany, dwelt on each 
side of the Amisia (now Ems), and extended 
south as far as the Luppia (now lAppe). The 
Bructeri joined the Batavi in their revolt against j 
the Romans in A.D. 69, and the prophetic virgin, ! 
VELEDA, who had so much influence among the | 
German tribes, was a native of their country. I 
A few years afterward the Bructeri were almost j 
annihilated by the Chamavi and AngrivariL 
(Tac., Germ., 33.) 

BRUNDUSIUM or BRUNDISIUM (BpsvTJjaiav, Bpev- 
reaiov : Brundusinus : now Brindisi), a town in ' 
Calabria, on a small bay of the Adriatic, form- 
ing an excellent harbor, to which the place owed 
150 



its importance, fhe Appia Via terminated at 
Brundisium, and it was the usual place of em- 
barkation for Greece and the East. It was an 
ancient town, and probably not of Greek origin, 
although its foundation is ascribed by some 
writers to the Cretans, and by others to Diome- 
des. It was at first governed by kiugs of its 
own, but was conquered and colonized by the 
Romans, B.C. 245. The poet Pacuvius was born 
at this town, and Virgil died here on his return 
from Greece, B.C. 19. 

IBRUTIDIUS NIGER. Vid. NIGER.] 
BRUTTIANUS LUSTRICUS. Vid. LUSTRICUS.] 
BRUTTIUS. 1. A Roman knight, for whom Ci- 
cero wrote a letter of introduction to M'. Acilius 
Glabrio, proconsul in Sicily in B.C. 46. 2. A 
philosopher, with whom M. Cicero the younger 
studied at Athens in B.C. 44.] 

[BRUTTIUS SURA. Vid. SUKA.] 

BRUTTIUM, BRUTTIUS, and BRUTTIORUM AGEK 
(Bperria: Bruttius), more usually called BRUT- 
TII, after the inhabitants, the southern extremi- 
ty of Italy, separated from Lucania by a line 
drawn from the mouth of the Laus to Thurii, 
and surrounded on the other three sides by the 
sea. It was the country called in ancient times 
CEnotria and Italia. The country is mountain- 
ous, as the Apennines run through it down to 
the Sicilian Straits ; it contained excellent pas- 
turage for cattle, and the valley produced good 
corn, olives, and fruit. The earliest inhabitants 
of the country were (Enotrians. Subsequently 
some Lucanians, who had revolted from their 
countrymen in Lucania, took possession of the 
country, and were hence called Bruttii or Bret- 
tii, which word is said to mean " rebels" in the 
language of the Lucanians. This people, how 
ever, inhabited only the interior of the land ; 
the coast was almost entirely in the possession of 
the Greek colonies. At the close of the second 
Punic war, in which the Bruttii had been the 
allies of Hannibal, they lost their independence, 
and were treated by the Romans with great se- 
verity. They were declared to be public slaves, 
and were employed as lictors and servants of the 
magistrates. 

BRUTUS, JUNIUS. 1. L., son of M. Junius and 
of Tarquinia, the sister of Tarquinius Superbus, 
His elder brother was murdered by Tarquinius, 
and Lucius escaped his brother's fate only by 
feigning idiocy, whence he received the sur- 
name of Brutus. After Lucretia had stabbed 
herself, Brutus roused the Romans to expel the 
Tarquins ; and upon the banishment of tLe lat- 
ter, he was elected first consul with Tarquinius 
Collatinus. He loved his country better than 
his children, and put to death his two sons, who 
had attempted to restore the Tarquins. He fell 
in battle the same year, fighting against Aruns, 
the son of Tarquinius. Brutus was the great 
hero in the legends about the expulsion of the 
Tarquins, but we have no means of determin- 
ing what part of the account is historical. 2. 
D., surnamed SC^EVA, magister equitnm to the 
dictator Q. Publilius Philo, B.C. 339, and consul 
in 325, when he fought against the Vestini. 
3. D., surnamed SC^EVA, consul 292, conquered 
the Faliscans. 4. M., tribune of the plebs 1 95, 
praetor 191, when he dedicated the temple of 
the Great Idaeau Mother, one of the ambassa- 
dors sent into Asia 189, and consul 178, when 



BRUTUS. 



BUCEHIALA. 



he eubdued the Istri. He was again one of the 
ambassadors sent into Asia in 171. 5. P., trib- 
une of the plebs 195, curule aedile 192, praetor 
190, propraetor in Further Spain 189. 6. D., 
Burnamed GALI^ECCS (CALLECUS) or CALLAICUS, 
consul 138, commanded in Further Spain, and 
conquered a great part of Lusitania, From his 
victory over the Gallaeci he obtained his sur- 
name. He was a patron of the poet L. Accius, 
and well versed in Greek and Roman literature. 
7. D., son of No. 6, consul 77, and husband 
of Sempronia, who carried on an intrigue with 
Catiline. 8. D., adopted by A. Postumius Al- 
binus, consul 99, and hence called Brutus Albi- 
nus. He served under Caesar in Gaul and in 
the civil war. He commanded Caesar's fleet at 
the siege of Massilia, 49, and was afterward 
placed over Further GauL On his return to 
Rome Brutus was promised the praetorship and 
the government of Cisalpine Gaul for 44. Nev- 
ertheless, he joined the conspiracy against Cae- 
sar. After the death of the latter (44) he went 
into Cisalpine Gaul, which he refused to sur- 
render to Antony, who had obtained this prov- 
ince from the people. Antony made war against 
him, and kept him besieged in Mutina, till the 
siege was raised in April, 43, by the consuls 
Hirtius and Pansa, and Octavianus. But Bru- 
tus only obtained a short respite. Antony was 
preparing to march against him from the north 
with a large army, and Octavianus, who had 
deserted the senate, was marching against him 
from the south. His only resource was flight, 
but he was betrayed by Camillus, a Gaulish 
chief, and was put to death by Antony, 43. 9. 
M., praetor 88, belonged to the party of Marius, 
and put an end to his own life in 82, that he 
might not fall into the hands of Pompey, who 
commanded Sulla's fleet 10. L., also called 
DAMASIPPUS, praetor 82, when the younger Ma- 
rius was blockaded at Praeneste, put to death 
at Rome by order of Marius several of the most 
eminent senators of the opposite party. 11. M., 
married Servilia, the half-sister of Cato of 
Utica. He was tribune of the plebs 83, and in 
77 he espoused the cause of Lepidus, and was 
placed in command of the forces in Cisalpine 
Gaul, where he was slain by command of Pom- 
pey. 12. M^ the so-called tyrannicide, son of 
No. 11 and Servilia. He lost his father when he 
was only eight years old, and was trained by his 
uncle Cato in the principles of the aristocratical 
party. Accordingly, on the breaking out of the 
civil war, 49, he joined Pompey, although he 
was the murderer of his father. After the bat- 
tle of Pharsalia, 48, he was not only pardoned 
by Caesar, but received from him the greatest 
marks of confidence and favor. Caesar made 
him governor of Cisalpine Gaul in 46, and prae- 
tor in 44, and also promised him the govern- 
ment of Macedonia. But, notwithstanding all 
the obligations he was under to Caesar, he was 
persuaded br Cassius to murder his benefactor 
under the delusive idea of again establishing the 
republic. Vid. < ' i.- \K. After the murder of 
Csesar Brutus spent a short time in Italy, and 
then took possession of the province of Mace- 
donia. He was joined by Cassius, who com- 
manded in Syria, and their united forces were 
opposed to those of Octavianus and Antony. 
Two battles were fought in the neighborhood 



1 of Philippi (42), in the former of which Brutus 

j was victorious, though Cassius was defeated. 

| but in the latter Brutus also was defeated and 

I put an end to his own life. Brutus's wife was 

I POKCIA, the daughter of Cato. Brutus was an 

1 ardent student of literature and philosophy, but 

he appears to have been deficient in judgment 

! and original power. He wrote several works, 

all of which have perished. He was a literary 

friend of Cicero, who dedicated to him his Tus- 

culance Disputationes, De Finibus, and Orator, 

and who has given the name of Brutus to his 

! dialogue on illustrious orators. 

BEYAXIS (Bpvagif), an Athenian statuary in 
stone and metal, lived B.C. 372-312, [one of 
the artists engaged in adorning the tomb of 
Mausolus with bas reliefs.] 

BEYGI or BEYGES (Bpvyoi, Bpiyef), a barbar- 
ous people in the north of Macedonia, probably 
of Illyrian or Thracian origin, who were still in 
Macedonia at the time of the Persian war. The 
Phrygians were believed by the ancients to have 
been a portion of this people, who emigrated to 
Asia in early times. Vid. PHEYGIA. 

[BaysiLE (Bpvaeai), a city of Laconia, south- 
west from Amyclas, on the Eurotas, contained 
a temple of Bacchus (Dionysus). It had been 
destroyed before the time of Pausanias.] 

[BUBAEES (Bovfidpr/f), son of Megabazus, sent 
as a special messenger to Macedonia, but al- 
lowed himself to be bribed to neglect his duty. 
In conjunction with Artachaees, Bubares super- 
intended the construction of the canal which 
Xerxes made across the isthmus of Athos. Vid. 
ATHOS.] 

BUBASSUS (Bv6aaao(), an ancient city of Caria, 
east of Cnidus, which gave name to the bay 
(Bubassius Sinus) and the peninsula (TI Xepao- 
vrjaoQ i] Bv6aaoijj) on which it stood. Ovid 
speaks of Bubasldes nurus (Met., ix., 643.) 

BUBASTIS (BovfiaoTif), daughter of Osiris and 
Isis, an Egyptian divinity, whom the Greeks 
identified with Diana (Artemis), since she was 
the goddess of the moon. The cat was sacred 
to her, and she was represented in the form of 
a cat, or of a female with the head of a cat 

BUBASTIS or -us (BovSaarif or -of ; Bovdaarl- 
TTjf : ruins at Tel Basta), the capital of the No- 
mos Bubastltes in Lower Egypt, stood on the 
eastern bank of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, 
and was the chief seat of the worship of Bubas- 
tis, whose annual festival was kept here. Un- 
der the Persians the city was dismantled, and 
lost much of its importance. 

BUBULCUS, C. JuNits, consul B.C. 317, a sec- 
ond time in 313, and a third time in 311 ; in the 
last of these years he carried on the war against 
the Samnites with great success. He was cen- 
sor in 309, and dictator in 302, when he defeat- 
ed the ^Equians; in his dictatorship he dedi- 
cated the temple of Safety which he had vowed 
in his third consulship. The wallo of this tem- 
ple were adorned with paintings by C. Fabius 
Pictor. 

BCcMpiiALA or -!A (BovKtyala or -uZeta : [now 
probably Mung, near] Jhelv.ni), a city on the Hy- 
daspes (now Jhelum), in Northern India (the 
Punjab), built by Alexander after his battle witb 
Porus, in memory of his favorite chai-ger Bu- 
cephalus, whom he buried here. It stood at 
the place where Alexander crossed the river 
151 



BUCEPHALUS. 



BUTES. 



tnd where General Gilbert crossed it (Februaiy 
1849) after the battle of Goojerat 

BUCEPHALUS (BovKe0a/,of),the celebrated horse 
of Alexander the Great, which Philip purchased 
for thirteen talents, and which no one was able 
to break in except the youthful Alexander. 
This horse carried Alexander through his Asi- 
atic campaigns, and died in India B.C. 327. 
Vid. BUCEPHALA. 

[BUCILIANUS, called BUCOLIANUS by Appian, 
one of the friends of Caesar who afterward con- 
spired against him : he was one of Caesar's mur- 
derers.] 

[BUCOLICUM OSTIUM, one of the mouths of the 
Nile, the same as the Phatneticum Ostium. 
Vid. NILUS.] 

[BuconoN (BovKO^iuv). 1. A son of Laome- 
don and the nymph Calybe. 2. A prince of Ar- 
cadia, son of Lycaon, grandson of Cypselus.l 

[BuconoN (BovKohiuv, if), a small city of Ar- 
cadia] 

BUDALIA, a town in Lower Pannonia, near Sir- 
mium, the birth-place of the Emperor Decius. 

BUDINI (Bovdlvoi), a Scytliian people, who 
dwelt north of the Sauromatae, in the steppes of 
Southern Russia. Herodotus (iv., 108) calls the 
nation yhavKov TE ical irvppdv, which some inter- 
pret "with blue eyes and red hair," and others 
"painted blue and red." [In their territory was 
a mountain called BUDINUS, near the sources of 
the Borysthenes.] 

BUDORON (Bovoopov), a fortress in Salamis, on 
a promontory of the same name, opposite Me- 
gara, 

BULIS (BotiAif) and SPEETHIAS (^TrepBirjf), two 
Spartans, voluntarily went to Xerxes and offer- 
ed themselves for punishment to atone for the 
murder of the heralds whom Darius had sent to 
Sparta; but they were dismissed uninjured by 
the king. 

Buus (Boi/lif : BotJ/ltof ), a town in Phocis, on 
the Corinthian Gulf, and on the borders of 
Bceotia. 

Bums (Bullinus, Bullio, -onis, Bulliensis), a 
town of Illyria, on the coast, south of Apollonia, 
capital of the Bulliones. 

BUPALUS and his brother ATHENIS, sculptors 
of Chios, lived about B.C. 500, and are said to 
have made caricatures of the poet Hipponax, 
which the poet requited by the bitterest satires. 

[BUPHAGIUM (Bovfydyiov), a small town of Ar- 
cadia, on the Buphagus, which flows between 
the territories of Megalopolis and Heraea.] 

[BUPHRAS (BovQpuf), a mountain in Messenia, 
uear Pylos. 

[BUPORTHMUS (Bovirop6fj.o<f), & mountain in Ar- 
golis, between Hermione and Trcezene: on it 
was a temple of Ceres and Proserpina, and one 
of Bacchus.] 

BupRA8iUM(Boi>7rpu(T40J> : -oievfj-aiuv, -ffidr/f), 
an ancient town in Eh's, mentioned in the Iliad, 
which had disappeared in the time of Strabo. 

BURA (Bovpa : Bovpaloc, Bovptoc : ruins near 
Kalavrytra), one of the twelve cities of Achaia, 
destroyed by an earthquake, together with He- 
lice, but subsequently rebuilt. 

BURDIGALA (Bovpoiyaha : now Bordeaux), the 
capital of the Bituriges Vivisci in Aquitania, on 
the left bank of the Garumna (now Garonne), 
was a place of great commercial importance, 
and at a later time one of the chief seats of lit- 
152 



erature and learning. It was the birth-place of 
the poet Ausonius. 

BUHGUNDIONES or BuRGUNDii, a powerful na- 
tion of Germany, dwelt originally between the 
Viadus (now Oder) and the Vistula, and were of 
the same race as the Vandals or Goths. They 
pretended, however, to be descendants of the 
Romans, whom Drusus and Tiberius had left in 
Germany as garrisons, but this descent was evi- 
dently iu vented by them to obtain more easi- 
ly from the Romans a settlement west of the 
Rhine. They were driven out of their original 
abodes between the Oder and the Vistula by 
the Gepidoe, and the greater part of them mi- 
grated west and settled in the country on the 
Main, where they carried on frequent wars with 
their neighbors the Alemanni. In the fifth cen- 
tury they settled west of the Alps in Gaul, 
where they founded the powerful kingdom of 
Burgundy. Their chief towns were Geneva 
and Lyons. 

BURII, a people of Germany, dwelt near the 
sources of the Viadus (now Oder) and Vistula, 
and joined the Marcomanui in their war against 
the Romans in the reign of Marcus Aurelius. 

BURROS, AFRANIUS, was appointed by Clau- 
dius praefectus praetorio A.D. 52, and, in con- 
junction with Seneca, conducted the education 
of Nero. He opposed Nero's tyrannical acts, 
and was at length poisoned by command of the 
emperor, 63. 

BURSA. Vid. PLANCUS. 

BURSAO (Bursaoeusis, Bursavolensis), n town 
of the Autrigonae in Hispania Tarraconensis. 

BUSIRIS (Bovaipis), king of Egypt, son of Nep- 
tune (Poseidon) and Lysianassa, is said to have 
sacrificed all foreigners that visited Egypt 
Hercules, on his arrival in Egypt, was likewise 
seized and led to the altar, but he broke his 
chains and slew Busiris. This myth seems to 
point out a time when the Egyptians were ac- 
customed to offer human sacrifices to their 
deities. 

BUSIRIS (Bovatpi<; : BovaipiTtjf). 1. (Now 
Abousir, ruins), the capital of the Nomos Busi- 
rites in Lower Egypt, stood just in the middle 
of the Delta, on the western bank of the Nile, 
and had a great temple of Isis, the remains of 
which are still standing. 2. (Now Abousir, near 
Jizeh), a small town a little northwest of 
Memphis. 

[BUTAS (Bovraf), a Greek poet of uncertain 
age, who wrote in elegiac verse an account of 
early Roman history. Some lines on the fabu- 
lous origin of the Lupercalia are preserved in 
Plutarch's Life of Romulus.] 

BUTEO, FABIUS. 1. N, consul B.C. 24*7, in 
the first Punic war, was employed in the siege 
of Drepanum. 2. M., consul 245, also in the 
first Punic war. In 216 he was appointed die 
tator to fill up the vacancies in the senate oc- 
casioned by the battle of Cannae. 3. Q., praetor 
181, with the province of Cisalpine Gaul. In 
179 he was one of the triumvirs for founding a 
Latin colony in the territory of the Pisani. 

BUTES (Bovrj?f). 1. Son of either Teleon, 01 
Pandion, or Amycus, and Zeuxippe. He was 
one of the Argonauts, and priest of Minerva 
(Athena) and of the Erechthean Neptune (Po- 
seidon). The Attic family of the Butadae or 
Eteobutadsa derived their origin from him ; and 



BUTHROTUM. 



CABILLONUM. 



in the Erechtheum on the Acropolis there was 
an altar dedicated to Butes. [2. An Argive, 
who went with Tlepolemus, son of Hercules, 
to Rhodes : when the latter sailed for Troy, 
he gave over the island to Butes. 3. Armor- 
bearer of Anchises, afterward given as a com- 
panion to lulus by his father ^Eneas. Apollo 
assumed his form to dissuade lulus from con- 
tinuing the fight 4. A Trojan companion of 
JEneas, slain by Camilla.] 

BUTHROTUX ( BovBpurov : Bov6puriof : now Bu- 
trinto), a town of Epirus, on a small peninsula 
opposite Corcyra, was a flourishing sea-port, and 
was colonized by the Romans. 

BUTO (Bovrw), an Egyptian divinity, worship- 
ped principally in the town of BUTO. She was 
the nurse of Horus and Bubastis, the children of 
Osiris and Isis, and she saved them from the 
persecutions of Typhon by concealing them in 
the floating island of Chemmis. The Greeks 
identified her with Leto, and represented her 
as the goddess of night The shrew-mouse, 
{jjivya^rf) and the hawk were sacred to her. 

BUTO (Bovru, BOVTIJ, or Bovrof : ~BovTotrri^ : 
now Baltim ? ruins), the chief city of the Nomos 
Chemmites in Lower Egypt, stood near the Se- 
bennytic branch of the Nile, on the Lake of 
Buto (EOVTIKJ) 7JifiVTi, also 2e6evwriK^), and was 
celebrated for its oracle of the goddess Buto, in 
honor of whom a festival was held at the city 
every year. 

BUXENTUJI (Buxentlnus, Buxentius: now Po- 
licastro), originally Pyxus (TLv^ovff), a town on 
the west coast of Lueania and on the River 
BUXENTIUS, was founded by Micythus, tyrant 
of Messana, B.C. 471, and was afterward a Ro- 
man colony. 

BYBLINI MONTES (ri Bvdhiva opn), the mount- 
ains whence the Nile is said to flow in the myth- 
ical geography of ^Eschylus (Prom., 811). 

BYBLIS (Bu6AZf), daughter of Miletus and Ido- 
thea, was in love with her brother Caunus, 
whom she pursued through various lands, till at 
length, worn out with sorrow, she was changed 
into a fountain. 

BYBLUS (Bt)6Aof : Bt?6Atof : now Jebeil), a very 
ancient city on the coast of Phoenicia, between 
Berytus and Tripolis, a little north of the River 
Adonis. It was the chief seat of the worship of 
Adonis. It was governed by a succession of 
petty princes, the last of whom was deposed by 
Pompey. 

BYLAZORA (BvZd&pa : now Bilias), a town in 
Pseonia, in Macedonia, on the River Astycus. 

BYRSA (Bvpaa), the citadel of CARTHAGO. 

BYZACIUM or BYZACENA REGIO (Bufu/ttov, Bv- 
Ca/cJf x&pa : southern part of Tunis), the south- 
ern portion of the Roman province of Africa. 
Vid. AFRICA, p. 28, b. 

BYZANTINI SCRIPTORES, the general name df 
the historians who have given an account of 
the Eastern or Byzantine empire from the time 
of Constantino the Great, A.D. 325, to the de- 
struction of the empire, 1453. They all wrote 
in Greek, and may be divided into different 
classes. 1. The historians whose collected 
Works form an uninterrupted history of the By- 
cantine empire, and whose writings are there- 
fore called Corpus Histories Byzantince. They 
are, (l.J ZONARAS, who begins with the creation 
of the world, and brings his history down to 



1188. (2.) NICEPHORUS ACOMINATUS, whose h 
tory extends from 1188 to 1206. (3.) NICEFHO- 
RUS GREGOBAS, whose history extends from 
1204 to 1331. (4.) LAONICUS CHALCONDYLES, 
whose history extends from 1297 to 1462 : his 
work is continued by an anonymous writer to 
1565. 2. The ehronographers, who give a brief 
chronological summary of universal history from 
the creation of the world to their own times. 
These writers are very numerous : the most 
important of them are GEORGIUS SYNCELLUS, 
THEOPHANES, NICEPHORUS, CEDRENUS, SIMEON 
METAPHRASTES, MICHAEL GLYCAS, the authors 
of the Chronicon Paschale, <fcc. 3. The writers 
who have treated of separate portions of Byzan- 
tine history, such as ZOSIMUS, PROCOPIUS, AGA- 
THIAS, ANNA COMNENA, <fcc. 4. The writers who 
have treated of the constitution, antiquities, 
fee., of the empire, such as LAURENTIUS LYDUS, 

CONSTANTINUS VI. PoRPHYROGENNETUS. A Col 

lection of the Byzantine writers was published 
at Paris by command of Louis XIV., in 36 vols. 
fol., 1645-1711. A reprint of this edition, with 
additions, was published at Venice, in 23 vols. 
fol., 1727-1733. A new edition of the Byzantine 
writers was commenced by Niebuhr, Bonn, 1828, 
8vo, and is still in course of publication. 

BYZANTIUM (Bv&vriov : Bv&vTiof, Byzantius : 
now Constantinople), a town on the Thracian 
Bosporus, founded by the Megarians, B.C. 658, 
is said to have derived its name from Byzas, 
the leader of the colony and the son of Neptune 
(Poseidon). It was situated on two hills, was 
forty stadia in circumference, and its acropolis 
stood on the site of the present seraglio. Its 
favorable position, commanding as it did the 
entrance to the Euxine, soon rendered it a place 
of great commercial importance. It was taken 
by Pausanias after the battle of Plataeae, B.C. 
479 ; and it was alternately in the possession 
of the Athenians and Lacedaemonians during 
the Peloponnesian* war. The Lacedzemonians 
were expelled from Byzantium by Thrasybulus 
in 390, and the city remained independent for 
some years. Afterward it became subject in 
succession to the Macedonians and the Romans. 
In the civil war between Pescennius Niger and 
Severus, it espoused the cause of the former : 
it was taken by Severus A.D. 196, after a siege 
of three years, and a considerable part of it de- 
stroyed. A new city was built by its side (330) 
by Constantine, who made it the capital of the 
empire, and changed its name into CONSTANTI- 
NOPOLIS. 

[BYZAS (Bvfaf), mythic founder of Byzanti- 
um, q. .] 

0. 

CAB!LIA or -is (Ka6aMa, KataAtf : Kafaheiif, 

fiaAtof), a small district of Asia Minor, be- 
tween Lycia and Pamphylia, with a town of the 
same name. 

CABASA or -us (KMaaof : Ka6aaiTi)f), the chief 
city of the Nomos Cabasites, in Lower Egypt 

CABILLONUM [or CABALLINUM (Kafia'kxivov : 
now I Chdlons-sur-Saone), % town of the JSdui, 
on the Arar (now Saone), in Gallia Lugdunen 
sis, was a place of some commercial activity 
when Csesar was in Gaul (B.C. 53). At a later 
time the Romans kept a small fleet here. 
153 



CABIRA. 



CADYTIS. 



CABIRA (rd KuGcipa : now Sivas), a place in 
Poutus, ou the borders of Armenia, near Mount 
Paryadres : a frequent residence of Mithradates, 
who was defeated here by Lucullus, B.C. 71. 
Potnpey made it a city, and named it Diospolis. 
Under Augustus it was called Sebaste. 

CAB!RI (Kufaipot), mystic diviuities who oc- 
cur in various parts of the ancient world. The 
meaning of their name, their character and na- 
ture, are quite uncertain. They were chiefly 
worshipped at Samothrace, Leranos, and Im- 
bros, and their mysteries at Samothrace were 
solemnized with great splendor. Vid, Diet, of 
Ant., art. CABEIRIA. They were also worship- 
ped at Thebes, Anthedon, Pergamus, and else- 
where. Most of the early writers appear to 
have regarded them as the children of Vulcan 
(Hephaestus), and as inferior divinities dwelling 
in Samothrace, Lemnos, and Imbros. Later 
writers identify them with Ceres (Demeter), 
Proserpina (Persephone), and Rhea, and regard 
their mysteries as solemnized in honor of one 
of these goddesses. Other writers identify the 
Cabiri with the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), 
and others, again, with the Roman penates ; but 
the latter notion seems to have arisen with those 
writers who traced every ancient Roman institu- 
tion to Troy, and thence to Samothrace. 

CABYLE (Ka&v^rj : Ka^vTujvof : now Golowitza), 
a town in the interior of Thrace, conquered by 
M. Lucullus, probably the Goloe of the Byzan- 
tine writers. 

CACUS, son of Vulcan, was a huge giant, who 
inhabited a cave on Mount Aventine, and plun- 
dered the surrounding country. When Her- 
cules came to Italy with the oxen which he had 
taken from Geryon in Spain, Cacus stole part 
of the cattle while the hero slept ; and, as he 
dragged the animals into his cave by their tails, 
it was impossible to discover their traces. But 
when the remaining oxen passed by the cave, 
those within began to belief, and were thus 
discovered, whereupon Cacus was shun by Her- 
cules. In honor of his victory, Hercules dedi- 
cated the ara maxima, which continued to exist 
ages afterward in Rome. 

CACYPARIS (Kanvirapie or KaKoirapif ; now 
Cassibili), a river in Sicily, south of Syracuse. 

CADENA (T& Kddijva), a strong city of Cappa- 
docia, the residence of the last king, Archelaiis. 

CADI (Ku6oi : Kaiijv.og : now Kodus), a city 
of Phrygia Epictetus, on the borders of Lydia. 

CADMEA. Vid. THEBJB. 

CADMUS (Kadpof). 1. Son of Agenor, king of 
Phoenicia, and of Telephassa, and brother of 
Europa. Another legend makes him a native 
of Thebes in Egypt. When Europa was car- 
ried off by Jupiter (Zeus) to Crete, Agenor sent 
Cadmus in search of his sister, enjoining him 
not to return without her. Unable to find her, 
Cadmus settled b Thrace, but, having consult- 
ed the oracle at Delphi, he was commanded by 
the god to follow a cow of a certain kind, and 
to build a town on the spot where the cow 
should sink down with fatigue. Cadmus found 
the cow in Phocis, and followed her into Bceotia, 
where she sank down> on the spot on which Cad- 
mus built Cadmea, afterward the citadel of 
Thebes. Intending to scrifice the cow to Mi- 
nerva (Athena), he sent some persons to the 
neighboring well of Mars (Ares) to fetch water. 
154 



; This well was guarded by a dragon, a son of 
, Mars (Ares), who killed the men sent by Cad- 
I mus. Thereupon Cadmus slew the dragon, 
' and, on the advice of Minerva (Atheua), sowed 
! the teeth of the monster, out of which armed 
I men grew up, called Sparti or the Sown, who 
I killed each other, with the exception of five, 
who were the ancestors of the Thebans. Mi- 
\ nerva (Athena) assigned to Cadmus the govern- 
ment of Thebes, and Jupiter (Zeus) gave him 
! Harmonia for his wife. The marriage solem- 
i nity was honored by the presence of all the 
j Olympian gods in the Cadmea. Cadmus gave 
to Harmonia the famous peplus and necklace 
I which he had received from Vulcan (Hephaes- 
tus) or from Europa, and he became by her the 
j father of Autonoe, Ino, Semele, Agave, and 
Polydorus. Subsequently Cadmus and Har- 
mouia quitted Thebes, and went to the Enche- 
liaus : this people chose Cadmus as their king, 
and with his assistance they conquered the 11- 
lyrians. After this Cadmus had another son, 
whom he called Illyrius. In the end, Cadmus 
and Harmonia were changed into serpents, and 
were removed by Jupiter (Zeus) to Elysium. 
Cadmus is said to have introduced into Greece, 
from Phoenicia or Egypt, an alphabet of sixteen 
letters, and to have been the first who worked 
the mines of Mount Pangaeon in Thrace. The 
story of Cadmus seems to suggest the immigra- 
tion of a Phoenician or Egyptian colony into 
Greece, by means of which the alphabet, the 
art of mining, and civilization, came into the 
country. But many modern writers deny the 
existence of any such Phoenician or Egyptian 
colony, and regard Cadmus as a Pelasgian di- 
vinity. 2. Of Miletus, a son of Pandion, tht- 
earliest Greek historian or logographer, liverl 
about B.C. 540. He wrote a work on the foun- 
dation of Miletus and the earliest history of 
Ionia generally, in four books, but the work ex- 
tant in antiquity under the latter name was con- 
sidered a forgery. 

CADMUS (Kud/aof). 1. (iTow Mount aba), a 
mountain in Caria, on the borders of Phrygia, 
containing the sources of the rivers Cadmus 
and Lycus. 2. A small river of Phrygia, flowing 
north into the Lycus. 

CADURCI, a people in Gallia Aquitanica, in the 
country now called Querci (a corruption of Ca- 
durci), were celebrated for their manufactories 01 
linen, coverlets, <fec. Their capital was DIVONA, 
afterward CIVITAS CADURCORUM, now Cahors, 
where are the remains of a Roman amphitheatre 
and of an aque